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H ISSUE #401 
L$A $2M 


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Internatimuif Edition 


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Bounce Your Signal Off a Star! 



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• • 



Standardize Your Microphones 



•• 



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Build a Portable 2m Quad 



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73 Reviews 

Kenwood TH-28A HT 

XPERTEK Digital 
Voice Malf 



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SIMPLE OPERATION 

Channel Operation - display can be set to 
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CH-HO 



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activates the correct duplex direction when 
the receiver frequency tuned is within die 
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Tone Scan - scans for, detects and his the 
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DTMF Redial- for quick and easy access to 
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User Friendly Keyboard - uncluttered, 
user-friendly design for ease of operation. 

ADVANCED FEATURES 

Power Saver - reduces the current drain 
to 35 mA (avg, Rx) for battery conservation 
and ex!ended operating time. 

Low Power Option - switch to I W output 
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40 Memory Channels - store all repeater 
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Memory Transfer - the contems of a 
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5 DTMF Auto Dial Memories - for quick 
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7 W Output Power - one of the highest 
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DURABLE CONSTRUCTION 

Die-cast Aluminum Rear Case - will with- 
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• High Sensitivity. 0, 1& pV for H dB SIMU) 

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• BIM60 (3 W, 700 mAh) batten pack, *al] charger, 
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THE TEAM 

PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green W2NSD/1 

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

David Cassidy NtGPH 

■ 

MANAGING EDITOR 
Hope Currier 

SENIOR/TECHNICAL EDITOR 
Charles Warrington WA1RZW 

EDnORIAL ASSOCIATES 
Sue Jewell 
Joyce Sawtelle 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Bill Brown WB3ELK 
Mike Bryce WB8VGE 
Joseph E. Carr K4IPV 
David Co whis WA1LBP 
Michael GeiefKBIUM 
Jim Gray W1XU/7 
Chuck Houghton WB61GP 
Amie Johnson NtBAC 
Dr. Marc Leavey WA3AJR 
Andy WacAllister WA52IB 
Joe MoelJ K0OV 
Carole Perry WB2MGP 
Jeffrey Sloman N1 EWO 

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Dan Harper 

ADVERTISING COORDINATOR 

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Jg Amateur 

Radio Today 



February 1994 
Issue #401 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 






10 VHF Meteor Scatter Propagation 

Bounce your signal beyond the horizon „ WB2WIK/6 

18 Using the World's Most Accurate Frequency Standard, Part 2 

Building a digital phase comparator. K9EUI 

26 Computer Control for Your Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) VFO 
Free yourself of the hassles of generating an accurate and stable 
sinusoidal signal — and moreL, „._.,. ....VE1ABC 



36 ASCM-to-Morse-Code Interface 

Let your keyboard do the work. ... 



44 Standardize Your 
Microphone 
Connectors 
A one-plug-fits-all 
solution you can easily 
build. WB9YBM 

46 Folding Three-Element 
2 Meter Quad 
Finds fox, folds, fits in 
trunk ..WX8G 



REVIEWS 



'---»"---*»««-"*¥¥ + --W*»»W--T+T«T--*#l'**'--l 



KD1JV 



ft 

Audit Bureau 

of Circulations 

Member 



Reprints: S3 00 per article. 

Back issues $4,00 each. 

Wr lie to 73 Amateur Radio Today, Reprints, 

70 Route 202N, Peterborough. NH QMSS. 

Printed In tiie U.S.A. by Quad 
Graphics, Thomaston, Georgia, 




DEPARTMENTS 



74 Above and Beyond 
81 Ad Index 
78 Ask Kaboom 
89 Barter V Buy 
62 Carr's Corner 
88 Dealer Directory 
17 Feedback index 
SO Ham Help 
68 Hams with Class 
65 Homing In 

6 Letters 

4 Never Say Die 
86 New Products 
72 Packet & Computers 
88 Propagation 
70 QRP 

8 QRX 

96 Random Output 

60 RTTY Loop 

80 73 International 

84 Special Events 
94 Uncle Wayne's 
Bookshelf 



Build this portable 2 meter quad . . . see page 46, 



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FEEDBACK! 

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here in our offices! How? 
Ju-M lake advantage of our 
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each article and column. 
We'd like you to rate what 
you read so that we can 
print what types of things 
you like best. And then we 
wilt draw one Feedback 
card each month for a free 
subscription to 73, 




52 The Kenwood TH-28A 
2 meter hand-held 
transceiver. ..WB2WIK/6 

56 TheXPERTEK 
D VMS/1 + 

Digital voice mail system 
for repeaters.. .WA4TEM 

On the coven Bounce your signal off a shooting start Learn all about VHF meteor scatter propagation . . . see page to. 
Star photo courtesy of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. Antenna photo courtesy of Rutland Arrays. 

Manuscripts Contributions in the form of manuscripts with drawings and/or photographs are welcome and will 
be considered for possible publication We can assume no responsibility for loss or damage to any materia I. 
Please enclose a stamped, self -addressed envelope with each submission Payment for the use of any unsolicit- 
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73 Amateur Radio Today (ISSN 1052-2522) is published month fy by Wayne Green Inc.. 70 Route 202 North. 
Peterborough NH 03456 Entire contents £-1993 by Wayne Green Inc, No part of this publication may be repro- 
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Contract: By casting your eyes upon this issue of 73. you have become obligated to invest in the future 
of ham radio. Introduce o youngster to our hobby and help amateur radio grow. 



Editorial Offices 

70 Route 202N 

Peterborough NH 03458 

phone: 603-924-0058 



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phone: 800-274^7373 



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phone 603-924-0058 






73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 3 



Number 1 on your Feedback card 



N 



EVER BAY DIB 



Wayne Green W2NSD/1 



Uncle Wayne's Caribbean 
Adventures 

The downside of the laplop comput- 
er is how easy it makes it lor people to 
write. People like me H for instance. Nat- 
urally I had my little Mac Power Book 
with me when I made my 11 -island 21- 
day Caribbean ham -music-diving 71st 
birthday celebration safari in Septem- 
ber. In between mini-ham tests, scuba 
diving, flying from island to island, and 
reading a pile of books I'd brought 
along. I somehow managed to write a 
blow by-blow travelogue o! the adven- 
ture. 

Any seasoned reader of my editori- 
als will not be surprised that it quickly 
assumed epic proportions. It started as 
a simple letter to my Aunt Kitty In Jofiet. 
but it grew legs. By the time I got the 
whole thing together it ran a Reader's 
Digest- sized 40 pages. Then I added a 
story from my 1992 visit to Dominica, 
where I almost got skewered by a 
thrashing diving ladder, Say, why not in- 
clude a hilarious story t did about my 
diving cruise on the Ocean Quest a 
couple years back? And a couple other 
Caribbean diving vacations? 

I somehow couldn't help myself from 
sending a letter to the dive operators on 
the islands I'd visited, telling them now 
to improve their product. I added that to 
the saga. And being into economic de- 
velopment here in New Hampshire, I 
saw lots of opportunities for the island 
leaders to a (tract more tourists and de- 
velop industries to pull their countries 
out of poverty. And most of them are 
deeply embedded in poverty, t added 
that to the saga too. I'll send the Setters 
to the leaders, knowing they probably 
won't bother to read them. 

Though these were malnfy scuba 
diving trips, and thus you. as a mono* 
interest person, totally dedicated to 
toy sing up what Shreds we have left o! 
what was once a glorious hobby proba- 
bly could care less about the adven- 
tures of frugal septuagenarian Uncle 
Wayne. Worse, the writing, according to 
my critics, is vintage Green. Pity. Weli, 
anyone who reads this pile will certainly 
know Uncle Wayne better. Maybe I 
should start billing myself as Grandpa 
Wayne. Gramps* Grumpy Gramps. 
Gimpy, grumpy G ramps, honoring my 
gimpy left knee. 

When I get finished with the saga it'll 




probably run 80*100 pages. It'll cost 
something to print, so I cant just give Ft 
away free. How about S5? Postpaid? 
For $10 I could include pictures, but 
finding a ham With a spare $10 bill is so 
unlikely that I didn't even con-sider that 
Maybe, instead of buying popcorn and 
a drink at the movies next time, you 
could spring for my Adventures? It's 
amusing stuff. 

But then you haven't bothered to 
send for my work of sheer (thin) genius, 
We the People Declare War On Our 
Lousy Government, wherein 1 present 
you with the keys to solving most of our 
more serious social, economic, political, 
and ecological problems. Oh. a few 
readers have read it and I appreciate 
their enthusiastic letters. HI feet even 
better in see some of them deciding to 
actually do something about cleaning 
up Congress, cutting crime, and im- 
proving our miserable school system. 
Politically I'm not ultra-right or ultra- 
left— maybe Tm ultra -center. No* I'm 
pragmaltc, wherever that fits. 

My enemies will love my Adven- 
tures. So will my friends— both of them< 
Everyone else wilt, as usual, sigh, turn 
Ihe page and forget all about il. Of 
course, if I can get you honked, i might 
be able to foist of! the 20 issues of my 
Declare War Update . reports These 
beauts run 16 pages each. One of 
these days Til edit em. toning down 
some of my perhaps too clearly ex- 
pressed frustration with Ihe political 
baloney here in New Hampshire, and 
print the reports as another book. 
There's a ton oi good ideas in em 
Check Uncle Wayne s Bookshelf and 
see if we've managed to list thfs stuff 
there. Then send money. Or call our 
800 number, 

OK, You Electronic Experts 

I've just heard from a second 73 
reader who says, "I don't care what 
some loony researcher has shown, I 
know that all this stuff about 60 Hz 
magnetic fields hurting people is bunk." 
I asked both if they'd read anything 
about the research. They hadn't, be- 
cause they knew it was baloney, so why 
waste their time? 

This reaction is one scientists should 
appreciate, because this same ap- 
proach is endemic in the scientific com- 
munity. It's dandy retribution when II 
happens to them. In the science busi- 



ness the deck is slacked against re- 
search in any new field, A scientist's 
success is measured by the number of 
papers published. The more papers, 
the easier it is to get research grants. 
But the scientific journals are reluctant 
to publish papers which challenge or- 
thodoxy, thus making sure that re- 
search projects are not challenging, 
The result is that today science has lost 
its spirit of adventure. 

In the past scientists have held on to 
their beliefs tenaciously, and only reluc- 
tantly accepted new ideas when there 
was no other refuge. Let me quote Max 
Planck, the pioneer in quantum physics: 
"A new scientific truth does not triumph 
by convincing its opponents and mak- 
ing them see the light, but rather be- 
cause its opponents eventually die and 
a new generation grows up thai is famil- 
iar with it." 

Quantum physics really shook up 
the scientific world. It answered some 
questions, but in the process it opened 
up many more that scientists are stilt 
struggling with. It's fun to read about all 
this. I've read several fascinating books 
recently on this subject I really should 
review them tor you and see if I can get 
you to read them. There's 7"ne Hoto- 
graphic Universe by Michael Talbot, 
and Parallel Universes by Fred Wolf. 

As usual, I digress. Well, there are 
so many interesting things to talk and 
write about that my taffcs and writing 
seem to mainly be a long series of di- 
gressions. Perhaps my recognizing in is 
has contributed to my cutting way back 
on the number of talks I've been giving 
at hamfests and conventions. About the 
only hamfest where IVe been speaking 
lately is at Dayton. I've been thinking of 
Stopping that loo. There are just too 
many exciting things to talk about and 
too little time, 

Electromedicine 

Now, un digressing, and getting hack 
to btc electromagnetics and bioelecri- 
city, 1 read a book while on my birthday 
Caribbean tour that I just have to tell 
you about. It's Cross Currents by 
Robert Becker. The subtitle is: "The 
perils of electropolution and the 
promise of electromedicine — a slarlling 
look at the effects of electromagnetic 
radiation on your health." This book 
really kept my highlighter busy. It was 
exciting to read. 



Not only will the research that has 
been done in this field fascinate you. it 
may well get you to thinking about set- 
ting up a little lab and investigating 
some areas wheie there's still a need 
for basic research — research which is 
within your ability to do. 

The more you read about life and 
the cells which make up life, the better 
you understand that life can be seen as 
fields within fields within fields. And this 
is helping to bring about a revolution in 
medicine. We know now that chemicals 
and surgery aren't the only possible 
ways of curing illnesses We know that 
the mind can influence the body, and 
that the body has a powerful innate 
self -healing system. So we're seeing a 
growing interest in "unscientific" ap- 
proaches such as acupuncture, place- 
bos, visualization, homeopathy, hypno- 
sis, healing, foods, herbs, meditation, 
and electromedicine. Are there more 
productive approaches to tackling ill- 
nesses such as diabetes. AIDS, chron- 
ic-fatigue syndrome. Alzheimer's, 
autism, and even cancer? Is it possible 
that a physicist who is an ex-ham really 
has a little simpte-to-make electrical 
gadget that can cure AIDS? HI tell you 
more about mat further on is this edito- 
rial He also has an electronic gadget 
that stops drug addiction in its tracks. 

Now. back to Becker's book. He 
starts out with the history of medicine, 
explaining how it has evolved. You're 
probably familiar with the story of how 
Lister discovered germs, how physi- 
cians refused to believe him r and con- 
tinued 10 kill most of their surgery pa- 
tients through infection tor many more 
years. Becker didn'l mention that, but it 
makes a good point. 

Scientists have found that our bod- 
ies work on an incredibly complex com- 
bination of both chemical and electric 
actions. So Becker got interested in 
how salamanders are able to regener- 
ate arms, legs, and tails. Maybe, if we 
understand how they do ft, we might be 
able to regrow human arms and legs. 
He discovered that very minule electri- 
cal currents controlled the regrowth 
phenomenon. Minute being billionths of 
an ampere' 

You II read about how he applied his 
new understanding to the regrowth of 
leg parts in rats, and in helping speed 
bone fracture healing. You're not going 
to like this, but researchers have found 
an amazing correlation between the 
voltage points on the body and the 
acupuncture points of ancient Chinese 
medicine. 

Becker traces the history of cancer 
research and the changing medical be- 
liefs about it. The newest research indi- 
cates there is an electronic biological 
control system involved. This would 
help explain spontaneous remissions, 
the placebo effect, and so on. 

Our Microcurrent Analog System 

Our body works much like a comput- 
er, using digital communications for all 
our senses— sight, hearing, taste, 
smefl. touch. But beneath that more re- 

Continued on page 85 



4 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



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Letters 



Number 2 on your Feedback card 



Randy Crase KB7UIT, Woodland 
WA Wayne, I just finished writfng out 
my check lo renew my 73 subscrip- 
tion, and also reading your editorial in 
the September '93 issue, Great job, 
Wayne. Actually, I have read many of 
your editorials in the two years IVe 
been licensed. One theme stays con- 
stant: I fully support your views on the 
ARRL and do not belong to the organs 
ration or subscribe to OST. In your 
last editorial you again brought up the 
fiasco of CW. You also stated that the 
ham population should circumvent the 
ARRL in proposed new rule changes 
to the FCC, How does one go about 
proposing rule changes? 

I am a No-Code Tech and, fike 
many, do not care to spend the time 
learning code at 13 wpm lo get a Gen- 
eral Class license. Supposedly, by ITU 
convention ail HF privileges are to be 
allowed upon passing a lest for CW. 
However, there is no requirement 
about speed. What I woutd tike to see 
is a 5 wpm requirement (or all license 
Classes, or elimination ol CW as a re- 
quirement, I Know that Ihe "live and 
die by CW" group will throw fits and 
keys at this proposal; that's OK. The 
majority of hams now are No -Code 
Techs, and the number is increasing. 
Most of these people are not "glorified 
appliance operators." I have talked to 
many very intelligent No-Code 
Techs — doctors, engineers, program- 
mers, etc. These people could pass 
just about any theory test you could 
loss them, yet they are still No-Code 
Techs. They do not upgrade because 
Ihey don't want to "waste the time" on 
an "ancient form ol communication." I 
have absolutely no problem with re- 
quiring a theory test for various class- 
es of licenses. 

If No-Code Techs are "glorified 
CBers* then more power to us. All I 
need do is turn on my VHF equipment 
and listen to very little garbage, or turn 
on HF to 14,313 or 40 meters and lis- 
ten to some of our "superiors" trash 
the band^ 

Wayne, keep on pushing the ARRL 
it's now time to get nd of the code re- 
quirement, or at least make it so easy 
that it's just a nuisance, 

Wetf. gee. t dunno . . . Wayne 

George M. Badger ML San Jose 
CA Wayne, you certainly are an EE 
(Eclectic Editorialist) if I ever saw one. 
And at my age I have seen more than 
four. Your October '93 editorial brought 
up a very good point: The majority of 
nam QSOs are very boring and very 
often pedantic. It seems that quite a 
few of the hams on the air are old. un- 
happy and definitely righl*of -center, 
Getting order has its rewards, one of 
which is that we alt have a larger cross 



From the Hamshack 



section of experiences to draw upon 
and therefore we should have more to 
talk about. Nope, it doesn't seem to 
work that way. I don't know why peo- 
ple are not excited about their lives 
and want to learn more about others' 
lives and therefore enrich their own* 
From my small outpost tn the world, 
the loudest compteiners are generally 
a small minority who are "control 
freaks" afraid of CHANGE! They go 
out and spend for targe signets so 
they can attempt to prevent others 
from having their own experiences. 
They are often accompanied by labels 
so they will be able to identify their 
own "tribe." Or is It diatribe? 

Wayne, you are correct. Life Is not 
a spectator sport. If you are not part ol 
the solution, you are definitely part of 
the problem. Anybody can sit back 
and point out how something may not 
work, but it takes a real person to 
stand up, join \n and make things hap- 
pen. Hey, tell them mis: "If you don'l 
(ike Hie news, go out and make your 
own," 

Thank you for the features on QRP. 
I am in the process of co-writing a 
book on QRP and equipment modifi- 
cations that should be out mid- 1994, 
I'm an ex-ham who has missed ham- 
ming and am in the process of retriev- 
ing my ticket. Solar QRP DX is my 
bag, 

Good grief, another troublemaker 
. . . Wayne 

Ed Eggert W3HIK P Fair Haven NJ 
Just a quick note to let you know how 
pleased ! am with the Packet Mac mo- 
dem out of your October 1992 issue. 
Dexter Francis of Sigma Associates is 
a delight to do business with. He was 
kind enough to answer all my ques- 
tions about the modem before I or- 
dered one. 

I had purchased a commercial TNC 
to use with my Mac and after three 
months of taxing back and forth I still 
could not get it work. Try as they 
could, they admitted that they did not 
have a Mac to test it with. 

The Packet Mac. along with Savant 
software, worked without a hitch. If 
you have a Mac. it's the only way to 
go. Now, if we can convince Dexter to 
design a regular modem with fax for 
the Mac we will have it made. 

Thanks for running the article, 

Harry M. Johnson NV7K, 

Kalispell MT t just finished reading 
the December 1993 "Never Say Die" 
and I feel I must write lo you. I've 
recently purchased some new items 
that I feel motivated to report on as 
per your request. I generally use boat- 
anchoMype equipment thai i acquire 
and then restore to working condition. 



but occasionally t feel Ihe time is right 
to purchase some type of new gear, 

I would like to review a new book I 
have purchased (new to me, that is): 
Solid State Design for the Radio Ama- 
teur by Hayward W7ZOI and DeMaw 
W1FB. It is published by the ARRL 
and the price is $12. I have an aca- 
demic background in the biological 
sciences and education and have a 
solid foundation in physics and math, 
but I need references when I want to 
build certain types of circuits. While 
building an oscillator, filter, etc.. it Is 
very nice to be able to look up a circuit 
and quickly determine component val- 
ues without having to do it by thai and 
error. I have sought out this type of 
reference work on many occasions 
and have really never found one to do 
the job. until this one. Some represen- 
tative chapter headings are: "Semi- 
conductors and the Amateur/ Basics 
of Transmitter Design," "Power Ampli- 
fiers and Matching Networks/ "Re- 
ceiver Design Bastes/ and *Tesf 
Equipment and Accessories." 

I live in a rather isolated area with 
respect to rel ail amateur radio dealers. 
I can order by phone or fax or USPS, 
but sometimes you just can't beat 
hands-on shopping, A few weeks ago, 
while visiting my uncle. YV7GBI. and 
his family, we had occasion to visit 
one of the Ham Radio Outlet retail 
stores. While browsing over the book 
shelves, 1 spotted Hayward and De- 
Maw's book and knew then and there 
that it was what f was looking for. I 
know it is not a new title, but I had not 
seen it before and It really meets a 
need for me, 

Another new item 1 would like to 
share is an ICOM IC-2iA 2 meter 
handie-talkie. We were looking for a 
very small, uncomplicated HT While 
at the same HRO store, we looked at 
and got the feel of all the mini HTs. 
The IC-2iA is definitely the smallest 
and has the fewest external controls. 
The neat part is that by using the few 
controls on the outside in various com- 
binations and permutations one can 
program onto the CPU all of the oper- 
ating parameters used by your aver- 
age 2 meter repeater user. Clock set- 
ting, power on and off times, CTCSS 
tones, DTMF automating, paging, and 
power levels can be preprogrammed 
In and then actuated with a few well* 
cnosen keystrokes (two or three in all 
cases). The radio has two levels of 
programming: the basic for everyday 
functions used most often, and an ad- 
vanced mode with the more complex 
levels of operation available. There Is 
even an Al mode in which ihe HT 
learns which functions you use most 
often and expands the programming 
to suit what It perceives as your 
needs. 

Wayne, no doubt about it, you are a 
windbag, but I guess I, and your other 
faithfui readers, wouldn't have it any 
other way. I do find 73 to be the most 
interesting of the "Big 3" not only be- 
cause of your editorials but also be- 
cause of the general content and the 



types of articles and regular columns 
that you include. Thanks for a good 
job and I won't worry about you be- 
coming complacent and resting on 
your laurels because of too much 
praise. 

Me a windbag? Harrumph 
. ■ , Wayne 

Tom Tobiassen NOBZ. Aurora 
CO Wayne, in response to your De- 
cember 1993 editorial, 1 would like to 
give you my rating of a ham product, 

I would rate my Kenwood TS-S0S 
HF transceiver as a "9.* t purchased 
this radio last spring and I've been 
very happy with it. I have always been 
interested In operating HF from the car 
while traveling and IVe dreamed of 
operating HF while on vacation. This 
radio has given me the opportunity to 
do both this past summer. While On 
vacation at Grand Teton National 
Park, Wyoming, in July, I operated 20, 
15 and 10 meter S3B while in the car 
chatting with folks all over the U.S. I 
operated 40 and 15 meter CW from 
the rented cabin using a dipote, chat- 
ting with other hams all around the 
world, I really enjoy this radio, 

Ed Maikranz KG5UN, Abilene TX 
Wayne, greetings from West Texas, I 
work as a firefighter-EMT here. I have 
been a ham sfnee 1988. I also spent 
eight years in the army as an HF HT- 
TY operator. 

I want to lell you about the two lat- 
est additions to my shack, The first 
was an ICOM IC-729 HF and 6 meter 
rig. This is a nice, compact, easy-to- 
use radio; not too complicated It has 
simple controls and comes with good 
instructions. I have been using it for a 
tittle over a year and am very pleased. 
It works great in all modes, Shortwave 
listening In AM sounds very nice, The 
noise blanker and preamp are both 
very effective. It handles RTTY, AM* 
TOR* FACTOR and packet with no 
problem. The radio works like a 
champ on 6 meters also, lis a good 
receiver for weak signals, and does a 
fine job with FM simple* and repeaters 
as wefL Ail it needs is transverter con- 
nections on it. 

A few weeks ago I picked up an 
MFJ 1278B muftimode data controller. 
This is a very versatile unit. On packet 
it works great and has a nice built-in 
mailbox. RTTY, CW and AMTOR are 
easy to use and do very well. 
PACTOR is a nice mode and this unit 
supports it very well I have copied 
color slow-scan pictures with good re- 
sults and also copied a lot of fax pic* 
tures with very good resutts* This was 
a good value tor my money. 

My radio interests are quite varied. 
I like chewing the rag on HF, mainly on 
17 meters. I enjoy all of the HF digital 
modes as well. I also enjoy weak- sig- 
nal VHF work, currently on 2 and 6 
meters. I have done a lot of meteor 
scatter work as well, and have made 
contacts on the RS satellites. I hope to 
get on the OSCAR birds soon, as well 
as doing UHF weak Signal wont. 



6 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



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ACCESSORIES 



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using me built-in microphone or external 
mic Use with almost any repeater COR 
module May aiso be used as a 
contest calter to play back one or more 
messages through your transmitter at 
the press of a switch. Used as a radio 
notepad , ii can record the audio output 
of a receiver - up to 20 sec. of any- 
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want to recall 
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Versatile dtmf controller with 1 
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used to control autopatch or other 
device kit $49, w&t $79 

COR-3 REPEATER CONTROLLER. 
Features adjustable tail and time-out 
tuners, solid-state relay, courtesy beep 
and local speaker amplifier kit $39 

CWID. Diode programmable any time 
in the field, adjustable tone, speed, and 

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COR-4. Complete COR and CWID all 
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Digital ic records up to 20 
seconds of your voice, 

using built-in or ext mic. Can record 
multiple id messages. Taif and time-out 
timers, courtesy beep, sol id -slate relay 
to key transmitter kil $99, w&t $149 

TD-2 DTMF DECODER/CON- 
TROLLER. 16 digits, toll-call restnct- 
or, programmable Can turn 5 functions 
on/off kit $79, wired & tested $139 

AP-3 AUTOPATCH. Use with above 
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AP-2 SIMPLEX ALTTOPATCH Timing 
Board Use with above for simplex 
operation using a transceiver kit $39 

TD-3 SUBAUDIBLE TONE DE- 
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any tone. Especially for repeaters, 
with remote control activate/deactivate 
provisions kit $29, wired & tested $59 

MQ-202 FSK DATA MODULATOR & 
DE-2G2 FSK DEMODULATOR- Run up 
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fm transmitter & receiver with full 
handshakes. Radio -I ink computers, 
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enable toil calls, reverse patch, ker- 
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Number 3 on your Feedback card 




Radio Operators Behind 
Bars 

Three young residents of the California 

Youth Authority's Camp Fenner recently re- 
ceived their amateur radio licenses after a 
long period of study. The idea was formulated 
by Parole Agent Bill Goff KI6DJ t with assis- 
tance from Teacher Ed Griffith KC6WCT. All 
three wards were first carefully screened for 
the proper levels of ability, motivation, and re* 
habitation. 

Organizers say ham radio teaches disci- 
pline, coope ration p and geography — not to 
mention electronics. For some youthful of- 
fenders, this is their first experience being co- 
operative or successful. The program is be- 
lieved to be the first of its kind. Anyone with 
experience using amateur radio to rehabili- 
tate young men should contact Ed Griffith 
KC6WCT. RQ. Box 30275, Stockton, CA 
95213-0275; (209) 825-9458. TNX KC6WCZ 

Wanted: Young Hams 

Once again, Carole Perry WB2MGP is 
looking for articulate, active amateur radio 
youngsters up to age 18 to be interviewed for 
possible participation in the Dayton 1994 
Youth Forum. This year's forum will be bigger 
and better than ever. Please contact Carole 
at P.O. Box 131646, Staten Island, NY 
10313-0006, or telephone her at (716) 983- 
1416- TNXWB2MGR 



Huge Cable 



A private venture with financial backing In 
the United States, Japan, and the Middle 
East, is planning to construct the world's 
longest under-sea fiber-optic cable, linking 
Europe, the Middle East, and Asia through 13 
landing points. The new cable will join exist- 
ing undersea links to open up broad band- 
width international multimedia services by 
1 996. 

The Fiberoptic Link Around the Globe 
(FLAG) will cover 18,000 miles, from Britain 
through the Mediterranean Sea and Indian 
Ocean to Japan. FLAG is expected to com- 
plete the first global high-capacity fiber-optic 
highway of great capacity. The link would 
support 600,000 conversations simultaneous- 
ly and support teleconferencing and enter- 
tainment video too. The huge cable would 
likely compete with satellites for business. 
TNX Electronic Engineering Times, Decem- 
bers, 1993. 

Semiconductors: A Girl's 
Best Friend? 



With financial backing from the White 
House. Russian and American scientists are 
beginning collaborations to develop new 
semiconductor technologies based on dia- 
mond films. The Clinton Administration has 
allocated fundfng to support the work of 20 
Russian scientists for a year, 

8 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 



Russian diamond technology first came to 
light in 1977. Reports were largely ignored in 
the U.S. but were pursued in Japan. Now the 
University of Missouri has established the in- 
ternational Diamond Research Institute 
where researchers will work with the Labora- 
tory of Diamond Film Crystallization at the In- 
stitute of Physical Chemistry in Moscow, 

A primary goal of the new institute is to de- 
velop reproducible n-type and p-type dia- 
mond films that are more rugged than silicon 
for a new generation of semiconductor de- 
vices. TNX Electronic Engineering Times, 
December 6 t 1993, 



Boyer Wants His HT Back 

According to newspaper accounts, Chris 
Boyer KC6UQG, who accessed a sheriffs 
department radio frequency to summon medi- 
cal help for an injured friend, now wants his 
portable radio back. Reportedly, Boyer first 
tried to get help via amateur radio, business 
band, and cellular phone, but to no avail. 

Boyer contends that he made a responsi- 
ble decision to use the Sheriff's frequency on- 
ly after exhausting all other communications 
options. His friend had been hurt in a moun- 
tain bike accident and was bleeding. Two 
weeks after the incident Boyer was called in- 
to a meeting with FCC and sheriff's depart- 
ment officials, where he surrendered his ra- 
dio. It is not clear whether the radio was actu- 
ally conff seated, or if it was volunteered in 
lieu of prosecution. TNX Westtink Report, No. 
662, November 26 t 1993; W5YI Report, issue 
#23 t December 1, 1993; The San Diego 
Union Tribune. 



Form 610 is New 

A totally new FCC Form 610 is on its way 
into ham radio as a resuft of a new computer 
at the Federal Communications Commission, 
The venerable old 610 will soon fade into his- 
tory as a resuft 

The new form is streamlined, u does away 
with all of the boxes previously contained in 
the administering VE's report. The report it- 
self has been relocated to the bottom front of 
the form, right above the VE certification 
area. The administering VE will now only 
need to indicate which one of six classes the 
applicant is qualified for. The sixth category is 
"Technician Plus" and its inclusion on the new 
form indicates the commission wants to care- 
fully track the popularity of this category. 

Sections to report current station location 
and change of station have been eliminated. 
The new 610 still has a Physician's Certifi- 
cate of Disability for those exempt from the 
code tests due to physical disability. This new 
form replaces the March 1992 version which 
carries a February 1995 expiration date, but 
whhch can no longer be used once the new 
form is in the hands of the public, TNX West- 
tink Report, No. 662 ', November 26, 1993; 
Newsline; W5Y1»VEC 



Hams Cool Under Fire 

Hams did more than iust talk at the scene 
of the recent wildfires in Southern California. 
They put their lives on the line staffing the 
DCS22 Mobile Communications Van at Pep- 
perdine University at the height of the fire 
threat. Hams also handled the fire hoses as 
flames assaulted the Malibu Sheriff's Station. 

After 108 hours of continuous operation, 
Scott KD6NEA dosed down the emergency 
operation by saying; *The cooperation of all 
amateurs in clearing the frequency for this 
net has been greatly appreciated. The fre- 
quency is now clear at 1800 hours/ F8 to all 
who pitched in. TNX Westtink Report No. 
662 w November 26, 1993. 

Cuba Incommunicado 

Third-party message privileges with Cu- 
ba — previous]y authorized— are no longer ap- 
proved. According to Rafael Estevez 
WA4ZZG of Hialea, Florida, when Hurricane 
Andrew demolished much of the public com- 
munications capability between Cuba and 
Florida, the Cubans resorted heavily to ama- 
teur radio. 

The pro-Castro Cuban American Radio 
Federation has taken a renewed position that 
Cuban amateurs should not communicate 
with the "enemy," meaning Florida amateurs 
of Cuban descent. Rafael says that Cuban 
amateurs are getting their licenses suspended 
from three mon!hs to a year for passing such 
innocent non -political health -and -welfare traf- 
fic as *. . . appealing for aspirin and insulin." 

CG2QQ advised Rafael on the air recently 
that the United States and Cuba no longer 
have a third-party agreement. Information is 
now moving in and out of Cuba with great dif- 
ficulty since AT&T's over~the~horizon commu- 
nication system was damaged by Andrew. 
TNX W5YI Report, Issue 23. December 7, 
1993. 

Power Stream 

Three men claim they have invented a bat- 
tery which is powered by a plentiful natural 
substance available at low cost— urine- Many 
scientists are highly skeptical of the inventors' 
claims, especially without an explanation of 
the battery's purported chemical reactions 
and construction. 

The urine battery's inventors, Nelson E + 
Camus, Edgar Aguayo, and Ismael Valle, are 
partners in an electronics company called Nel 
Nithiurn Electronics. They say their informa- 
tion is a secret they are not about to share. 

The men are looking for investors with $5 
million. They claim their home power plants 
will be cheaper and smaller than existing 
power sources, are environmentally sound, 
and will boost the economy. They estimate 
the cost to perpetually power an average 
home to be around $500. TNX Associated 
Press; San Maeto Times; and Palo Afto Ama- 
teur Radio Association PAARA Graphs, De- 
cember 1993. 




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VHF Meteor Scatter 

Propagation 

Bounce your signal beyond the horizon. 



by Steve Katz WB2WIK/6 



I'm writing this after returning home only 
hours ago from a little expedition to a lo- 
cal moLintaiutop to work the 1993 Perseids 
meteor shower, which was supposed to have 
"peaked" at OIOOZ on August 12. Wayne 
Overbeck N6NB (well-known for his VHF- 
UHF exploits, as well as for designing the 
popular "QuagP antenna) and 1 headed up to 
his new mountaintop VHF contesting site at 
6,800 feet above sea level in the Tehachapi 
Mountains, about 90 miles northwest of Los 
Angeles, to "work*' the shower on 50, 144, 
and 222 MHz. We had some success, but not 
as much as we had hoped for. 

The 1993 Perseids shower was hyped as 
the biggest news for astronomers, meteorol- 
ogists and VHFers alike since the return of 
Halley's comet. Like all meteor showers, 
this one occurs when bits of debris left by 
passing comets come close enough to our 
planet to be pulled in by the earth's gravita- 
tional field. Cyclic in nature, meteor show- 
ers recur every year at about the same time 
and there are many showers each year. But 
this one was supposed to be the "big one," 
with hundreds of meteors falling each hour. 
It should have had a major impact on VHF 
propagation and been a wonderful sight to 
behold, with "shooting stars" filling the sky. 

Well, as of today, the shower wasn't what 
it was hyped to be, and the number of mete- 
ors we worked and saw were not all that un- 
usual But maybe we missed the peak, and 
the 1993 Perseids may turn out to be all the 
wonderful things the astronomers said. Ei- 
ther way, it's still fresh in my mind that a lot 
of hams, newcomers and old-timers alike, 
don't seem to know much about meteor 
scatter, and that's the subject of this article. 

Working Meteor Scatter 

Meteor scatter propagation occurs when 
signals are reflected off the ionized trails 
which follow meteors as they enter our at- 
mosphere. In deep space, bodies traveling 
very fast don't generate any heat to speak of, 
since they encounter no friction in their trav- 
el. But meteors and other bodies entering 
our atmosphere generate considerable heat 
as the density of our atmosphere creates fric- 
tion to their travel. Since our atmosphere 
contains gasses prone to ionization and even 
ignition, the meteors literally "burn up" on 

10 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 



entry, and most are extinguished before they 
reach the surface of our planet. Occasional- 
ly, a larger meteor makes it all the way down 
to earth and plunges into the ground, ocean, 
or some other obstacle. When a meteor suc- 
cessful ly reaches the planet, it becomes 
known as a meteorite. 

The ionization of gasses behind the mete- 
or as it plunges towards earth is highly re- 
flective to radio frequency signals and al- 
lows brief reception of distant signals not 
normally workable on the VHF bands. Ran- 
dom meteors, not members of a known 
"shower," are workable frequently on 50 
MHz year-round, if well-equipped and 
trained operators are at both ends of the cir- 
cuit. The meteor scatter signals reflected by 
a random meteor path may only be present 
for a few seconds, and another meteor may 
not come along for a long while, Thus, to 
complete a contact (or QSO) via a random 
meteor requires considerable skill on the 
parts of both operators involved, since all in- 



formation must be exchanged in a very short 
period of time. Signals are typically weak 
and "peaky," and to successfully work ran- 
dom meteors, high power levels and high 
gain antennas are usually employed. At 
higher frequencies like 1 44 or 222 MHz, 
even greater skill and better equipment is re- 
quired because the signals tend to be even 
weaker (due to path loss, which is related to 
the number of wavelengths the signals must 
travel). At 432 MHz, meteor scatter work is 
rare indeed, although it has been performed. 

Think of the ionized trait left by a meteor 
as a reflector in the sky. Its shape is long and 
skinny, and it is literally a moving target. It 
would be impossible to "track" a meteor's 
path through the heavens, as these bodies are 
traveling much too fast to steer antennas at 
them as they travel. And their flight pattern 
is quite unpredictable. So, to work meteor 
scatter, most folks find it best to just aim an- 
tennas directly towards the station they are 
trying to contact, keep them fixed on the 




Photo A. Dr. Wayne Overbeck N6NB, who owns the moimtaintop operating site used for Per- 
seids 1993. He is leaning on a 50-foot tower erected during the ope ration {!); a 70-footer to go 
alongside this one is planned. 



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Photo B. "Antetmas-eye" view from the tneteor*scatier operating perch in the mountains at 
6.800 feet. The valley floor below the antennas is 3 ,000 feet lower, and the nearest obstacle 
of significant elevation is more than 200 miles away. 



horizon in that direction, and hope for the 
best. In this case, hoping for the best is es- 
seni tally wishing for a meteor to fall be- 
tween your location and the location of the 
station you arc trying to contact, and for that 
meteor to be low enough on the horizon that 
its ionized trait will be a useful reflector. It's 
actually quite a lot to hope for! 

But during a major meteor "shower," 
when meteors fall at a reasonably fast rate 
(60 per hour is not unusual), ihe probability 
of making contacts by using their reflective 
"tails" is dramatically increased, to the point 
where modestly-equipped stations with a 
small degree of training and skill mighi suc- 
cessfully complete a few contacts. What is 
really required? 

First, realize that meteor scatter {m.s.) sig- 
nals are weak and ''peaky" in nature. By 
"peaky" I mean they change in strength 
from literally zero to some workable level 
and then back to zero again in a very short 
time, ranging from less than a second to 
maybe a few seconds. A "zinger" (huge me- 
teor with a long "bum" time) might allow a 
"burst" that lasts several seconds, but when 
its gone, signals will typically fall back to 
zero again. For these reasons, only "weak 
signal" modes like SSB and CW have been 
used effectively for itls. propagation. Wide- 
band modes like FM are not successfully 
used, although if tried with a tremendous 
amount of power and antenna gain. I sup- 
pose it might be possible. But remember, 
signals are typically weak, and CW has a 20 
dB signal-to-noise ratio advantage over FM- 
and that's a whale of a lot. If FM could be 
used to make the grade at 1,500 watts output 
power, then just 15 watts would do it on 
CW. Normally, 15 watt stations are not suc- 
cessful in m,s. work. 



So, if you wani to expand your horizons 
on VHE stick with SSB or CW. (CW was 
once used almost exclusively for very long 
DX work on VHF-UHF, including meteor 
scatter, aurora, moonbounce, etc. But with 
higher antenna gains, receiver improvements 
and so forth, SSB is now quite effective and 
is often faster for making contacts.) 

Second, understand thai to have any real 
success in "over-thc-horizon" type VHF- 
UHF work, be it nxs. or normal tropospheric 
propagation, it pays to have a zero degree or 
below zero degree horizon in the direction 
you want to make contacts. If you put your 
eye at your antenna level and appear to be 
looking upwards, above level, at the sur- 
rounding terrain, you will not be terribly 
successful at making contacts in those direc- 
tions where you have this "positive hori- 
zon/* If you have a "negative horizon" in 
any direction that might be useful in making 
contacts, use that direction for your m.s. 
work. If your location is such that you have 
a '"positive horizon" all the way around you, 
it would be wise lo pack up the station and 
go hilltopping (portable from a mountain- 
top) instead. You 4 1 1 be much more success- 
ful than working from home. 

Third, because m.s. path losses are very 
high and signals are weak* it pays to run as 
much power as possible. Meteor scatter has 
been successfully worked with lower power 
(like 100 watts) but a kilowatt or more sun? 
helps. Keep feedline losses to a minimum 
and use antennas that have some real gain. 
Bui too much antenna gain can sometimes 
be a hindrance, because a tot of gain means 
a very narrowly-focused antenna system 
with a sharp front "lobe," and using such a 
system can make you miss ihe meteor trails 
you want to work. Probably 13-15 dB anten- 



na gain is the suggested range for most m.s. 
work, as it is sufficient to make contacts but 
not so much that an extremely sharp pattern 
will result. 

Fourth, and maybe most important, is op- 
erating procedure. Meteor scatter operators 
must be quickl A good "burn" might propa- 
gate signals for several seconds. If you oper- 
ate well and have lightning-fasi reflexes, 
you can complete an entire contact in that 
time. For a QSO to count, it is usually 
deemed that exchange of two pieces of in- 
formation is required. Many years ago, those 
two pieces of information were a callsign 
and signal report, Since meteor scatter sig- 
nals come and go rapidly and it is common 
to copy only portions of a transmission, an 
m.s. signal reporting system was established, 
using the letter i4 S" followed by a number 
which indicated how much of the other sta- 
tion's transmission you heard. For example* 
"S2" meant "I've heard your complete call- 
sign. Now send me something else." It did 
not mean the other station was indicating 
"32* on your receiver's S-meicr! 

Nowadays, with modern equipment, big 
amplifiers, high-gain antennas, low-loss 
feedHnes, mast-mounicd receiver preampli- 
fiers, digital signal processors, etc., I think 
the old "S" reporting system will be going 
away. Instead, it would be prudent for sta- 
tions to exchange callsigns and a grid loca- 
tor. Grid locators are alphanumeric codes 
used to indicate any station's location with 
some precision and are internationally rcc- 







JK 






Photo C The author atop N6NB s van, lo the 
rear of which is permanently mounted a 30- 
foot telescoping, rotating mast with a HAM- 
M rotor at the bottom. Portable antennas 
were simple: five elements on 50 MHz. and 
eight elements an 144 and 222 MHz. To min- 
imize ground influences, the lowest-frequen* 
cy antenna goes at the top, highest up. 



1 2 73 Amateur Radio Today • Feb ruary, 1 994 



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Photo D. The author, at the controls ofN6NB's contesting van, which contains KW stations 
for 3.5 through 432 MHz. and a gasoline generator to run it all Almost like home! 



ognizcd as a standard for VHF-UHF station 

location information. A four-digit code will 
indicate your location to within one degree 
of latitude and two degrees of longitude. Be- 
cause the earth is an oddly-shaped spheroid 
(sort of a round ball with a bulging middle)* 
these grids will change in area from point to 
point on the globe, Grids are not all the same 
size. They are smallest at the poles, and 
largest at the equator. But the system is bet- 
ter than nothing, and at least it's a standard. 
And the ARRL offers VUCC (VHF-UHF 
Century Club) awards for confirming con- 
tacts with numbers of grids (contact the 
League for more information) and the grid 
locator number is the standard exchange for 
mosi VHF-UHF contests now. Because the 
grids arc fairly large, knowing another sta- 
tion's grid won't help you much if he is 
close by. but the information is valuable 
when making distant contacts, say a few 
hundred miles or more away, for beam- 
heading directions. 

So, I propose (and 1 see many operators 
are already doing this) that instead of ex- 
changing meaningless "S" reports, we just 
exchange calbigns and grid numbers to 
complete meteor scatter contacts. I tike 
change, and I've been working meteor scat- 
ter since about 1966; if 1 can adapt, so can 
anybody. 

Making the Contact 

How does one make a meteor scatter con- 
tact? There are two ways: "Random," or un- 
scheduled QSOs, and "skeds," or scheduled 
QSOs. To make a random m,s. contact, 
somebody has to call CQ! A typical CQ for 
m,s. work would be something like this: 

CQ WB2W1K CQ WB2WIK CQ 
WB2WIK CQ WB2WIK CQ WB2WIK 

CQ WB2WIK CQ WB2WIK CQ 
WB2WIK CQ WB2WIK BREAK 

Note that this is quite different from an 
ordinary CQ* I've only used two "words": 
"CQ" and my caltsign, AH other information 



is extraneous and unnecessary- No reason to 
use words like, *This is ..." or *1n Los An- 
geles, California" or whatever. All that ex- 
tra information takes up valuable time and 
the point in meteor scatter work is to get just 
the information that is absolutely required 
across to the other party. If someone heard 
my CQ, he would likely hear just a little por- 
tion of it. Hopefully* he might hear both 
"CQ" and "WB2W1K/* and that's all he 
needs to know. If he were to answer me, 
he'd transmit something like this: 

WB2WIK W7HAH WB2W1K W7HAH 
WB2WIK W7HAH WB2WIK W7HAH 
WB2WIK W7HAH WB2W1K W7HAH 
WB2WIK W7HAH BREAK 

This is all he needed to say. It told me he 
was calling me, and it told me who he was. 
Nothing more is required. If 1 caught a mete- 
or during his transmission, I probably would 
have heard some portion of this transmis- 
sion. If I did, then I'd transmit: 

W7HAH DM04 W7HAH DM04 
W7HAH DM04W7HAH DM04 W7HAH 

DM04 W7HAH DM04 W7HAH DM04 
W7HAH DM04 BREAK 

This would tell Shep (W7HAH, who is in- 
deed a VHF "meteor jockey") that I heard 
him, and Vm giving him my grid square. 
You can't assume anyone is where you think 
they should be, and the grid square data is 
pretty important. For example, in my case, I 
have a 2-land callsign and lived in grid 
FN20 in New Jersey for 30-plus years. But 
I'm not there now! Also, although my li- 
cense reads "Chatsworth, CA T " which any- 
one can look up to see is in grid DM04, I 
might have been operating portable some- 
where else. The grid is important 

If Shep heard me, he'd probably respond: 

WB2WIK DN26 WB2W1K DN26 
WB2W1K DN26 . . . etc. 
or he might just respond with: 

QSL DN26 QSL DN26 QSL DN26 QSL 
DN26 QSL DN26 QSL DN26 QSL DN26 
. , . etc.. which would indicate he received 



my report and is now sending me his. 

My last transmission to him, assuming I 
heard the above, would be; 

QSL 73 QSL 73 QSL 73 QSL 73 ■ . . etc., 
which would indicate I received his report 
and am saying good-bye, 

You see, simply sending a report on mete- 
or scatter is absolutely no assurance that the 
other station heard it; thus, the "QSL"* or 
"Confirm" or something should also be ex- 
changed to indicate that the stations really 
heard each other and got everything they 
needed to make a complete QSO, 

In real life, especially in the absence of a 
major meteor shower, it is common for a 
complete QSO to take a very long time, be- 
cause each transmission as outlined might 
need to be made several times. Typical dura- 
lion of an m.s. transmission is 15 seconds. 
Tafkyotf, and you can say quite a lot In that 
1 5 seconds. 

Now, what about if you catch a real 
"zingcr" with a long '"bunt" and you hear the 
other station's entire exchange in one burst? 
Do you go into your 15-second routine? Not 
at all! If 1 had heard several successive sec- 
onds of W7HAH*s exchange and he stopped 
transmitting, Vd immediately reply with: 

QSL ALL 73 73 WB2WIK WB2WIK 
QRZ? BREAK 

or something like that. I could say all this in 
less than five seconds and maybe get it all 
across in one shot, and possibly even stir up 
another meteor contact in the process. The 
point is, "make hay while the sun shines/ 1 to 
use a worn-out phrase; that is, take advan- 
tage of the meteor for as long as possible 
and do not waste time with a lot of repeating 
what the other station has probably already 
copied. 

Often, especially for "skeds," or sched- 
uled contacts, transmissions are sequenced 
with station clocks set precisely to WWV, 
Each station takes a 15-second "turn" at 
transmitting, and who transmits first is pre- 
arranged. For example, say it is agreed that 
the station who is farther west will transmit 
the first and third 15 seconds of each 
minute, while the station farther east will 
transmit the second and fourth 15 seconds of 
each minute. Of course, both stations must 
have their clocks set to the second by WWV, 
and this should be checked just prior to the 
"sked" time to make sure the clocks are ac- 
curately set. The advantage of sequencing is 
to avoid stations transmitting at the same 
time, which makes it impossible for them to 
hear each other* 

How Far, and What Direction? 

How far can you expect to work with me- 
teor scatter? Much farther than with normal 
tropospheric propagation! Contacts to 1,500 
miles or so are possible, although most will 
be closer, in the range of 500 to 1 ,000 miles. 
Still, this is quite an improvement over what 
can normally be worked on VHE Sporadic- 
E skip, quite common on 50 MHz. often 
makes only "pockets** workable, and those 
"pockets" tend to be pretty far away. Very 
short "E-skip" usually lands at 500 miles or 



14 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



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more, and longer skip arrives from points 
out to 1*200-1.300 miles. ("Doubte-hop" E- 
skip occurs on 50 MHz, allowing double 
these distances to be covered; combinations 
of propagation also occur on 6 meters, 
which allows contacts of almost any dis- 
tance, but these are rare.) If you are trying to 
work as many grids or states as possible, re- 
lying on E-skip alone can be frustrating. For 
one thing, E-skip is most prevalent in the 
June-July timeframe (in the northern hemi- 
sphere) and much of the calendar is devoid 
of E-skip activity. For another, E-skip at fre- 
quencies higher than 50 MHz is rare, Tropo- 
spheric "dueling" can allow extended-range 
contacts at 144 t 222, 432 MHz and higher, 
but when the ducts occur, they are often 
quite narrow with regard to height and width 
and allow contacts only along a limited path. 

Meteor scatter can allow contacts in any 
direction, at a variety of distances, and is a 
flexible mode of propagation that is highly 
useful for filling in those vacant spots on 
your "Worked All Whatever" map, 

You will never forgei your first meteor 



scatter contact. I've made hundreds over al- 
most 30 years, and I still remember mine: It 
was with K8MMM in Ohio, when I lived in 
New Jersey, 1 was running 100 watts PEP 
output to a little five-element beam on 6 me- 
ters, and working Ohio seemed an impossi- 
ble feat at the time. The distance (500 miles) 
was too far for normal "trope," and too close 
for E-skip, The only way to do it was via 
meteor scatter. When I made this first m.s. 
contact, I felt like I invented this new mode. 
In fact, it had existed for many years and 
m.s. work was quite common even prior to 
I960. I just didn't know. But t know now, 
and now you know, too. 

Try it — you Ml like it. But please follow 
the guidelines for operating listed here. If 
you don't, your success will be limited and 
it is easy to become discouraged. If you 
know a local, highly successful "meteor 
jockey" (operator who works a lot of meteor 
scatter), ask him for advice, He should be 
able to guide you through your first few m,s, 
contacts. 

Oh t by the way: In our Pcrseids 1993 me- 



teor scatter expedition discussed in the 
opening paragraph and shown in the pho- 
tographs, we had at least some success. I 
made 32 scatter contacts on 50 MHz, and 
four on 144 MHz, in about four hours of op- 
erating time. Not too shabby, but not as 
good as we expected, 1 think we missed the 
peak propagation, which likely occurred af- 
ter we shut down and left the operating site. 
The best DX on 144 MHz was DM79 in 
Colorado, about 1,000 miles or so away. We 
completed QSOs with Indiana and else- 
where east of the Mississippi via meteor-en- 
hanced E-skip (on 50 MHz) and worked 
DO20 in Alberta, Canada, on 6 meter m.s. 
without skip. All this, using only small 
beam antennas (14-foot-long booms) at 
about 30 feet above ground. But we did run 
1,000 watts output on each band, and our 
location was 3,000 feet above the Mohave 
Desert floor* which extended in front of 
us for about 100 miles, so this was a great 
location! 

Good luck and let me know how you 
make out. 



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1 6 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 1 7 



Number 5 on your Feedback card 



Using the World's Most Accurate 
Frequency Standard, Part 2 



Building a digital ph 



comparator 



by Bob Roehrlg K9EUI 



(Editor's Note: This month's installment 

of this three -pan series includes the PC 
hoard layout and parts placement diagram 
for the circuits described in Part I . pub- 
lished last month. See Figure J, page 
22-23,} 

Part S oT this three-part scries described 
the construction of a receiver for 
WW VB to be used for calibrating your local 
frequency standard. If you don't have a good 
local standard, it's easy to build one that can 

■ 

provide 0.00 1 part per million accuracy* 
Such an oscillator will be described in the fi- 
nal article in this series. 

A standard with 0*001 ppm accuracy has a 
drift of less than one cycle in 20 minutes. 
Even an oscillator with 0*01 ppm accuracy, 
which I consider to be minimum for a decent 
standard* must be observed for at least two 
minutes to determine its drift rate. Clearly, 
this cannot be done by listening for an audi- 
ble beat note by ear The only way to check 
such a standard is visually. 

The simple method of comparison in- 
volves using a scope to compare the re- 
ceived signal against the local standard* This 
meihod was discussed in Part 1 , 

A far belter method of comparison uses a 
digital phase comparator* Just what is a 
phase comparator? Well* the usual forms of 
detection involve either rectification (to get 
audio from an IF stage in an AM or FM re- 
ceiver) or a mixer (in the case of a product 
detector for SSB or CW). The normal forms 
of detectors are fine for signals in the audio 
ranee, down as low* as we can hear, but what 



J 



about signals that are less than 1 Hz? 

The phase detector is used to compare 
two signals that are almost exactly on the 
same frequency. In a way, it is a form of 
mixer and it works down to fractions of a 
Hertz (DC actually). 

The digital comparator has many advan- 
tages over the scope method* It is a much 
smaller unit than a scope, requires much less 
power, and is quite easy to build, It also has 
the capability of feeding a chart recorder or 
a computer via an A-D converter. The disad- 
vantage in using the comparator is that your 
input signals must be much cleaner than for 
a scope. 

The basic circuit is nothing more than an 
edge-triggered set-reset flip-Hop. A simple 
version is shown in Figure 2. Each lime a 
positive-going wave edge is applied to either 
input A or B* that stage turns on. which 
turns the opposite stage ofK The two signals 
(A and B) shown in Figure 1 represent two 
signals that are on the same frequency but A 
is 90 degrees ahead of B. If these two sig- 
nals arc applied to the circuit shown in Fig- 
ure 2 r the output at point C will be that 
shown in the bottom line of Figure I. The 
output at E will be the DC average of the du- 
ty cycle of the signal at C. Since A leads B 
by 90 degrees, the resulting DC voltage at E 
will be about 1.25 volts. 

If the B waveform shifts to the right so it 
lags A by 270 degrees, then the voltage at C 
will be high 75 percent of the time so the av- 
erage at E will be 3.75 volts. So you can see 
that as B drifts, compared to A, the average 
DC output at E will vary between and 5 



volts, which represents a to 360 degree 
phase difference between the two wave- 
forms* 

If the DC voltage at E is used to control 
the frequency of the signal A oscillator* that 
oscillator will lock to oscillator B* This is a 
simple form of a phase-locked loop. 

Figure 3 shows the real phase detector 
system. Actually, there are two comparators 
in this unit. First* a 6 MHz crystal oscillator 
is divided down to 60 kHz with a pair of 
decade counters, IC4 and 5. This signal is 
fed into comparator IC6. The 60 kHz from 
the receiver is also fed into this comparator. 
The DC output from the comparator is fed 
back to Dl t which is a variable capacitance 
diode that adjusts the frequency of the 6 
MHz oscillator. In this way, the 6 MHz oscil- 
lator is phase- locked to the received signal 
and has the same accuracy as the WWVB 
signal 

1C2 and 3 divide the 6 MHz by 6 to gel 1 
MHz and again by 10 to get 100 kHz, Either 
one of these is fed into the second phase 
comparator, 1C7. The local oscillator to be 
checked is also fed into this comparator, In 
this w r ay we can compare our local 100 kHz 
or 1 MHz oscillator asainst WWVB. 

The only adjustment to be made is the 
coarse frequency adjustment, CI on the 6 
MHz oscillator* Connect the 60 kHz output 
of the WWVB receiver to J2 via coaxial ca- 
ble. Observe the TP1 signal with a scope. 
Adjust CI until an approximate 50 percent 
duty cycle waveform is observed. Discon- 
nect the receiver signal momentarily, then 
reconnect it. The 6 MHz oscillator should 



B 




Figure I. Comparator waveforms. 
18 73 Amateur Radio Today* February* 1994 



Figure Z Basic comparator circuit* 





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lock on in jusi a few seconds. If ihc meter is 
switched to 'INTERNAL." ii should read 
about half-scale. 

Even though the crystal oscillator is 
locked on frequency by the comparator, the 



board should be in a location where the tem- 
perature is fairly constant. To prevent the 
high-level 60 kHz signals from being picked 
up by the receiver input, the board should be 
mounted in a shielded enclosure. 



The meter can be switched to monitor ci- 
ther the 6 MHz oscillator lock voltage (IN* 
TERNAL) or the phase difference between 
the comparator and your local standard (EX- 
TERNAL). The same meter can also be 



] MHl 








« R3 

10 pF 10 Qk 



Dl ai 



C4 
47 



R4 
10 k 



H~lu 



IC2 



F 



IT 



lu In 



■fr +5 



!C3 



QXF 



fh /77 fh 



12 



lOOkMr G 





I 51 

r 



JT^ f 




n 14 



IC4 



50 p. A 
Ml 



fh fh fh 



-£-cio ( — , 



■O+S 



14 



12 1 



K 

o- 



+ 5 

J 



1C5 



fh fh fh 



\z 




B INTERNAL 




SZ^D 



C EXTERNAL 

HJ— 



LOCAL STANDARD . 

lOOkHl OR 1MH* R9 Eii 

D 1.5k 

— o — 




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FROM 

RCVR 




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Figure J. Digital phase comparator schematic* 




10 kHz 



100 kH2 



1 MHz 



10 MHZ 



100 



ElAPSEO TIME U) 



Figure 4, Phase measurement than. 



20 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 



& 



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22 73 Amateur Radio Today' February, 1994 



switched to be used as l he receiver S-meier. 

When making phase comparisons, re- 
member that one zero- to-full-scale travel of 
the meter (360 degrees! is a one-cycle drift. 
Figure 4 is a phase measurement chart to aid 



in determining ihe accuracy of your local 
standard. The phase difference, or compari- 
son frequency* is plotted against elapsed 
time to show the accuracy of your standard. 
For example, if a 1 MHz oscillator drifts one 



r 




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Figure 5. PC board partem and pans placement 




Fig in? 6. PC board pattern and parts placement 



cycle in 20 minutes. Ihe accuracy of that os- 
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this oscillator is used as a counter time base, 
your measurement of a 450 MHz. signal will 
be accurate to within 0,45 Hz! 



The best limes for signal comparison arc 
mid-morning to mid-afternoon and within 
several hours before and after midnight. 
During the period of an hour or so before 
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73 Amateur Radio Today • February. 1 994 23 




FOXHUNT HEADQUARTERS 



Locale hidden or unknown transmitter last. The Foxhound direction 
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*rth a wataeiafcie if you wish to transmit, go ahead, a ouit-m T R 
s*nch senses any transmitted RF and swlches riserf out ol circul while 
von lalk It doesn't get any easserthan ihis! Wo provide alt parts- except tor a lew leel of MZ inch 
PVC pipe abatable at any hardwar e store for a dollar or Iwo. Add our matching case set !or a 
compreto finished unit. Be the one with the answers, wm those transmitler hunts'and Hack down 

Ihose jammers, y ou \\ do i an with your Foxhound 

Add some run to your duo events by navmg a iransrnrter hunt' Foxhunting is a craze saeepng 
the nat en but many dubs are musing out on the action because they tack the expertise or bme to 
deretap their own fcuhum transmitter We set one ol our meet devious and sneaky engineers to 
the lash ol designing an easy to rxnM and use. yet highly capable Foxhunt transmrtter. A snazzy 
microprocessor controller has bolh presel and programmable transmission characteristics allowing 
you to easily set (he difficulty level from "beginner" to "know-it -aPP The SlyFox . FHT-1. is crystal 
controlled in the 2 meter band (crystal lor 1 46 52 included) with a power outpul of 5 waits that is 
adjustable by the conuoBer The transmitter is programmed to TD in CW of add our voice Option if 
you reatJy want to aggravate the troops - "Ha ha you cant find me r Join the tun, get nd of those 
stuffy old meetmgs and penes have a foxhunt' 

OF-1 Foxhound direction finder tot S59.95 CDF Malchinocase set tor DF 1 Si 2.95 

FHT-1 SryfOK Foxhunt transmitter tot ,5129,95 FHID-1 Voice (D option S3 9.95 

CFHT Heavy duly metal matching case se| tor FH T-1 „.■>.»„„ .,.„.♦..,>„»>■ $23.95 



TOUCH -TONE DECODER 



Grab Touch-Tone numbers nght off the air. phone Of tape. A simple hook-up to any radio 
speaker or phone fine s al that is requred to irstanthr- aeosher touch-tone phone numbers or 
codes A 2So dig* memory stores decoded numbers and keeps rts memory even ii the even! at 
power toss. An 8 digit LEO display attows you to scroll through the memory bank to examine 
numbers To make ii easy to pick cut number groups or codes, a 'dash" is inserted between sets 
or digits that were decoded more than 2 seconds apart. A "een!ral-oflice H qualrty crystal controlled 
decoder Is used allowing rapid arid reliable detection of numbers at up to 20 digits per second 1 
For a professbnaMy finished look, add our matching case set. Stan cracking those secret codes 
tomorrow with the Tone Grabber! 

TG-1 Tone Grabber kit S99.9S CTG Matching case set S12.95 

JG-iWT Futry assembled TG-1 and case ...... ,..„,.. TT ..„,., r $1*9L95 



TOUCH TONE REMOTE CONTROL 



Control virtually anything by Touch-Tone remote control The URC-t has 16 switched outputs. 4 
adjustable voltage outputs (20 mV steps To 5 VDC). two 1QK digital pots (for volume squelch. 
etc.) and 3 irniers adjusfabfe from to rnS to 4Q hours! Two level password control aflows secure 
control and rnufli-ievei access 5a digit LED display shows currentfy entered codes and a crystal 
controled touch-tone decoder provides ratable operation There's nothing else hke this umt. be in 
ccTTplete control of remote radios thermostats hrlTs homes or even ketones wth the UfiC-1 . 
Add our matching case set lor a handsome finish 

URC-1 Remote controf kit £129,95 CURC Matching case set 512,95 

UFIC-1 WT Fully assembled URC-1 and case ..... , .5189.95 



DIGITAL VOICE RECOROEH 



Chaiierbo* digital voce storage um mi record your message of up to 20 seconds Time is soft 
up into tour S second blocks mnich can be pferyed separately or cascaded for longer messages. 
An LED display shows message location and current mode for easy operation Nitty burn -in 
interfaces alow simple connecton to transmitters tor automatic keying when the PTT ts nitialty 
closed or after it is released You can even loop your rig's mike through the Chatterbox. For 
contest or tun use. (he C 3- 1 can drive an external speaker. Includes & built-in electret mike. For 
that finishing touch add our matching case set 

C B-1 V oice recorder M S59.95 CCS Match*™ case set 512.95 



FM SUBCARRlER DECODER 



Tap into the world ol commeicai*tree mussc and data that is carried over many standard FM 
broadcast radio stations Decoder hooks to the demodulator of FM radio and tunes the 50-100 
KHz SCA subcarrler band Many radios have a demod output, but if your radio doesn't, it's easy 
to locate. Of use our FR-1 FM receiver kit which ts a complete FM radio with a demod jack built-in 
These hidden" subcarrters carry fots of neat progfantming ■ from stock quotes lo news 10 music. 
m^roi*ioe^i$ierung~3ricomrne^ Hear whaiyotiNe been missmgwthifieSCA-1. 

SCA-1 Oecoderkrt _ 524,95 CSCA Matching case set S1Z.95 

FR-1 FM receiver krt $19.95 CRR Matching case for FFt-1 512,95 



SCANNER CONVERTER 



Tune in on the 800-950 MHi action using your existing scanner. Frequencies are converted with 
crystal referenced stabiKy to ihe 400-55-G MHz range. Instructions are even included on building 
high performance 900 MHz antennas Welt designed circuit features extensive filtering and 
oan wn i e ot oiK>Wbypass swtch Easy one hour assembly or available tuty assembled Add our 
matching case set for a pro'essjonal took 

SCN-1 Scanner convener krt $49.95 SCN Matching case set 512.95 

SCN-iVyT Assembled SCN 1 and case &B9.95 



STEREO PEAK MOID BARGRAPH 



Finally a dual LED bar graph with a peak hold display' Bar graph displays are neat and eye 
catching but their speed is their downfall ■ they just cant capture the peaks. Our tut is tike two 
uncs in one a last display to show me signal arid a tone, persistence display to capture peaks. 
sr-^r uruts 30 to* burnetii * tacto! Mvdt* I mttl : i^var fa pane A use. sWiog bi 
audo VU meters and Log for power dtsptays Dual ■ tor stereo! - 10 segment muti-cotored LED 
display lor snazzy, eye grabbing disptay and easily set ranges for virtually any signals, from 
voltmeters to audio VU meters to audio power amps lo SWR meters. Complete intrusions for 
easy hook-up lo most any device. Add our maiching case set tor a sharp looking unit 

PH-H Dual Linear bargraoh kit 539.95 PH- 15 Dual Log cargraph kit S39-95 

PH 16 Dual Semi- log barnraph krt,. S39.9S CPH Matelwg case sel 512.95 



SURROUND SO UND/REVERB 



Add concert hafl reaksm to your stereo TV or even 2-way radio? Easdy syfhesize a stereo effect 
from mono sources or nchty enliven regular muse Add a big -voice reverb lo your radio voice that 
others wit! envyf Our reverb/surround sound kit uses a Bucko! Brigade IC Device lor reliabfe solid- 
slate performance Adjustable reverb, delay and mi* controls lo customize your sound Easify 
connected to radios stereos CB's and TVs. Plenty of audio to drive a small speaker for stand- 
alone operation too Experiercnce Ihe fun and realism that surround sound provides ' without 
spendn9 hundreds' Add our case set for a neat, pro Jook 

RV-1 SurrourwJ Sounctftarefb W. 559.95 CRV Match mrj case set 512.95 

RV-1WT Assembled RV_1 and case 599.95 






£ 



SPEED RADAR 



New low-cost microwave : Dopplcr radar kit 'clocks' cars planes, boats, horses. 
bikes or any large moving object Operates at 2.6 GHz with up to MA mile 
range LED digital readout displays speed in miles per hour, tatometers per hour 
or leel per second 1 Earphone output alows lor fcstening to actuaf Doopter shA 
Uses two t-Dcoflee cans tor antenna j not inrJudeolandrunson 12 VDC Easy 
to buib— all microwave cirtuiry s PC stnpline. ABS pfestic case wrth speedy 
graphics tar a professional took. Avery uselut and FutFoMun krt. 
SG-7 Complete kit SG9.95 



FM RECEtVERS & TRANSMI 



Keep an ear on the beat repeater poke weather or just tune around These sensitive superfiet 
receivers are fun to build and use Tunes any 5 MHz portion of the band and have smooth 
varador turwg wrth AFC. dual converse*?, ceramic filtering, squelch and plenty of speaker 
vofume. Complete manual details how the rigs work and applications- iw FM transmitter has 5W 
RF out. crystal control 1146 52 included], pro-specs and daiamike inputs, Add our case sots for a 
nice finish 

FM Receiver km Sjusofytartd- fr^js^M rb^ [aj^. fr to l1&wj l fr-S20(22cmhi) _.._ S29.95 

CFH Matching case set SI 3-95 FT- 146 Two Meter ™ transmitter ta1___579,9S 




2D METER SSB/CW TRANSCEIVER 
DDS - DUAL VFO * BUILT-IN KEYER 



Imagine takmg Ihts cute little 20 Meter SSBi'ClrV rig on business trips or vacations, there's 
feature galore with this beauty ! A DDS (Owed Digital Synthesis) synthesizer tunes in 10 Hz 
steps, two VFO with memory and djgtaj RlT »iiji h^ dtspi^ Cmvcniert features ike a chat 
tot burton alows you to hop arouvj (he band and dual setectabte AGC aiows ujm i u i ta We 
operating Instant, one-touch WWV reception for quick band condition checks and 
mcropfocessor control wUh buiflnn Iambic CW keyer that has digital readout ol speed! Perky 
10 wait RF output (only 1 1/2 S units below irjrj waits) can bo turned down lor ORP Includes 
hand mike with handy Up/Down buttons for easy remote tuning. This rig's a joy to operate, 
with performance equal to units costing hundreds of dollars more and with some features not 

found on arty rig at any price! Covers the 20 M band 14 -14 5 MHz plus ft MHz WWV Our easy to toflow nstructens have you 

assemble Ihe k4 in s#nple "We-sued" sections that are tested as you buftd. assuring you ol a ng that works first time 

Experience the pleasure of saying the rig here s home-brew! Available ii ki or fcdy wved. 

SX-20 SSB/CW transceiver kit „ $349.95 SX-20WT Fulfy assembled SX-20 „ rf S429.95 




FANTASTIC FM TRANSCEIVERS SYNTHESlZED-NO CRVSTALS 



Ramsey breaks ihe price barrier on FM rigs! The FX is ideal for shack, portable or mobile The 
wide frequency coverage and programmable repeater splits makes the FX the perfect rig lor 
Amateur, CAP or MAPS appfecations Packeteers reaty appreciate the dedicated packet port, 
"TRUE'FM" signal and almost instant T A swrtchmg. High speed packet? ...No problem 
Tweke diode programmed channels 5W RF outpul, sensitrve dual conversion receiver and 
proven EASY assembly, Why pay more lor a used foreign rig when you can have one 
AMERICAN MADE (by you) for less Comes complete less case and speaker mike. Croer our 
matching case and knob set for that pro look 

FX-SOkine Meters, >„-Sl 49.95 FX-146k4(2M«ensK„_™ $149.95 

FX-223kitO 1/4 Meiers)... Si 49,95 FX-440ktt{l4MeiefSl 5169-96 




a 



2 MTR tt 220 BOOSTER AMP 



Here's a greal booster for any Z meter or 220 MHz hand -held unit. These power boosters 
deliver over 30 walls of output, af lowing you to hii Ihe repeater's full quieting while the low 
raise preamp remarkably improves reception. Ramsey Electronics has soft thousands of 2 
meter amp kits but new we offer completely vmm and tested 2 meter, as wei as 220 MHj 
unfls. Both have all the features of The higtvpriced boosters at a fraction ol the cost 
PA-iO 2 MTfl POWER BOOSTER (10 X power gam) 

Putty wired A tested ._..... SB9.9S 

PA-20 220 MHz POWER BOOSTER (B X power gain) 



Fully wired &. tested 



...LI! , 



«■■! * hi ■-* ■ ■ ■ 



■ B4*l h + J ""J- -- H h h- 



sag.95 



STEREO FM TRANSMITTED 



Run your own Stereo FM radio station? 

Transmits a stable signal in the BB-iDB 

MH2 FM broadcast band up to 1 mile. 

Detailed manual provides helpful into on 

FCC regs. antenna ideas and range to 

eapoct Latest design lealures ad|usiable 

line level mpuls. pre-cmphasis and 

crystal controlled subcenier. Connects lo 

any CO Of tape player, mike mwar or 

radio, includes free tuning loot too 1 For a 

pro look add our matching case set with on-ooard whip antenna 

FM-10A Stereo transmitter kit SM.9S CFMCase.whip am set.. $12.95 




FM WIRELESS MIKES 



Pick the unt that s nght lor you Alt uruis transmit a stable signal m 
the 8S-108 MHz FM band w to 3O0 except tor H^h power FfUMand 
PSrt Pfxinebug!halpjoupio1,2mde, 

FM-l Basic unrt ,...„ $5.95 

FM-2, as above out with added mike pre amp 57.95 

FM-4, tong range with very sensitive audio pickup ..S 14.95 
Pfi-1, Phone bug needs no battery, hooks t o phone lnno.$14.95 
MC-1. Micro size sensitive mika cartridge 

for FM-1 P 4 «?bc 



SPEECH SCRAMBLER 



Desaamble most scramble systems heard on your scanner radio 
or sei up your own scarnbJed communication system over the 
phone or radio. Latest 3rd generation (C Is used for fantastic 
audio quality - equivalent to over 30 op-amps and mixers' Crystal 
controlled for crystal ctear sound with a bu*-ln 2 watl audio amp 
for direct radio hook-up. For scramble systems, each user has a 
unit for tuft duplex operation. C om m u ni ca te in privacy with Ihe $$- 
70- Add our case set for a hoe professional finish. 

SS-70 Scrambler /descramblerkit , S29.9S 

CSSD matching case set S12.9S 

SS'70WT Assembled SS-70 and case sol 569,95 




aircraft 
receivffs 



Hear exciting aircraft 
communications— pick up 
planes up to 100 miles 
away 1 Receives 110-136 
MHz AM air band, smooth 
varacior tuning supcrhet with AGC. ceramic filter, adjustable squelch. 
excellent sensAwfy end Jots of speaker volume Rims on &V battery 
Great lor air shows or kist hangng around the aiport 1 Mew 30-page 
manual detafls P*a tatk. too Add case set for -pro" look 

AIM kit S24.95 

Matching case set, CAR , .„.„ si 2.95 



AM TRANS MtTTER 



High quality true AM broadcast band transmitter « 
desigried exactly lite me big c o rnm ercia i rigs Power of 
100 mW, legal range of up to 1/4 mile Accepts Irne 
level inputs fern tape and CD prayers and mike mixers, 
tunable 550-1750 KHz Complete manual explains 
circuitry, help wrth FCC f ogs and even antenna ideas 
Be your own Rush Limbaugh or Rick Dees with Ihe AM- 
t! Add our case set for a true station look, 

AM'l Transmitter kit _ , $24,95 

CAM Matching case set 512.95 



MICRO MIKE 



World's s ma I re st FM wireless mike. Smaller than a 
sugur cube - including battery and mike Two sets of 
SMT parts supplied in case you are clumsy! Terrific 
audio pick-up (pin drop at 5 ft) and transml range of 
300 I We indude the battery {watch style), electret 
mike and even a tuning tool! Be a James Bond and 
learn SMT too! 
FlvT-5 Micro mike kit 519.95 



CRYSTAL RADIO 



Relive ihe radio past with a crystal set like your 
grandfather bu* Uses genuine Catena crystaJ and 
catwhisker Several different types of radios are 
built, including, standard AM broadcast, shortwave 
and even WW II foxhole style To compare modem 
semiconductor detectors, we include a diode for 
comparison. No s ordering required and we even 
give antenna ideas Radio for tree get it now before 
Cimori taxes * 
CS-1 Crystat sal kit S19.95 




SHORTWAVE 
RECEIVER 



Faniaslic receiver that 
captures Ihe world 
w*i just a \T antenna 1 Can receive any 2 MHj podon 
from J-n MHi True supertter. has smooth varador 
lunmg AGC ftF jarv control plenty of speaker vohjme 
and runs on a 9V battery Fascrnalmd Scout school or 
club project, provides hours of fun tor even the most 
serious DXer For the car, consider our shortwave 
converter. Two switchable bands (In 3 21 MHi range), 
each 1 MHz wxje— tunable on your car radio dial. Add 
some nterest to your dnve home! 

Shortwave recewef M. SRI .. .$29,95 

Shortwave converter krt. SCI . , S27.95 

Watching case set for SFti. CSR 312,95 

Maichmgcaso set for SCI. CSC S12.95 



QRP TRANSMITTERS RECEIVERS LINEAR AMPLIFIERS 



30, 30. 40, 80M CW TRArNSMfTTERS 
Jv the Ka or. ORP* Tfieusaros o* ?«se p»> 
ngs tssvH been sou and ccrs of DX comacti 
^ave been made. Imagine wanting £a^em 

Eurcpe with a £30 trans .miller— lhars hsm 
rarTin a: its bcsl" thnsa CW ugs are iflear 
males lo the r«ewers at ngjhi. Thiy have two- 
positron vsn^iie crystal comwi (one rraputar 
ORP XTAL included i. one watt oubL-t and 
Du4-rr 5.-t«rvti swicft. Ru» On 1JVDC. Add 
our making case and kreo Set for a 
twidsoffto tAShed ijok 
Your chocc of bandsfSpecafy oara QRP- 

20. 30. 40. or 801 - ».».-$Z9,99< 

Malchmgcase 

knob set. CORP w 512.95 



20, 10. 40, BOM All Mode RECEIVERS 
Build your own mini ham station Sen- 
Srtrve afl-rnode AM CW $S3 receivers 
use direct conversion design with 
NEKE, IC as leatured in OSTand ARRL 
handbooks, Very sensitive varactor 
tuned over entire band Plenty ot speaker 
volume Runs on 9V battery Very EASY 
to build, lots of tun and educabonaF— 
ideal lor beginner or oW pro. New 30- 
page manual Add the case set for wefl- 
frtted professional took, 
(Speciry band. HR-2a HR-30, HR-40. 

HR-SOJ , , $29.95 

Orft, Matchtng case $12.95 



QAMP 

For a slick bttte QRP boost, use one of 
Ihe 20 Wart amplifiers Needs onfy 1/2-2 
watts of drive lor fuN output, linear for 
SS3. AM or CW operation, power 
MOSFETs for high etlieciency and 
multistage low pass filter lor a clean 
signal Buifl-tn T/R relay for automatic 
switching runs on 12-15 VDC at 2-4 
amps. Add our matching case set for a 
complete station look 

Your choice of bands S49.95 

SfjpOify bnhd- {QAMP-ad. 30. ^0. Bp) 

CQAMP Matching. case set S12.95 



ic ■' 



ORDERS CALL 1 -gQO-4 HOBBY KITS (446-2295) 

ITECrVORDEfl/INFO (716)924-4580 FAX {716*924-4555 

TERMS: Salnloction rjuarantB€<J Eiamme lor 10 ctay 5 M nod pleased relum m Oh^lnn] Form f&r rafund. 

I Add S3.9S tor shipping, handling undj infuninca. For foreign orrtrrs add ?□>"■ Far Mirfjire mm I COO 
{U.S. anlv) *»dd S5.Q0. Ortfer» under SZ0 add £3,00 WV reeld»nt« add ?% Sfilee tair 50 day pans 
warranty on kit part* l-yeof 03*14 S labor wnrranEy on wrrvd uniti 

RAMSEY ELECTRONICS, INC 793 CANNING PARKWAY VICTOR NY 145S4 



DRCLE 34 ON READER SEVlCE CARD 



2WAY RADIO 
SERVICE MOW (TOR 



C0NN3. the world's mosl popular 
fow-co&l service monitor. For shops 
big or small, Ihe COM -3 delivers 
advanced capabilities tor a fantastic 
prce — and our new lease program 
atows you to own a COM -3 for less 
than S3 00 a day Feafcres - Direct 
entry keyboard with programmable memory • Auo>o & iransmittef 
frequency counter ■ LED bar graph frequency/error deviation display 
• 0.1-10.0^0 |jV output revels * High recewo sensitivity, less than 5 
uV • 100 kHz lo 999,9995 MHi ■ Continuous frequency coverage » 
Transmit protecuon up to 100 walls* CTS lone encoder * 1 KHz and 
etiernaJ moduiatior 
COM 3 2 Way Radio Service Monitor £2995.00 




SYNTHESIZED SIGNAL 
GENERATOR 



Finafty, a tow-cost lab quality signal 

oenerai or— a true alternative to the 

S7.0QQ generators. The RSG-tO is a 

hard working, bul easy to uso 

generator ideal lor the lab as weU as 

for production test Lease * lor less 

than $300 a day Features • 100 

KHz to 999 MHz * 100 Hi resolution to 500 MHz. 200 Hz above* 

-130IO lOdBmompul range *0 1 dB outpul resobuon ■ AM and FM 

modulation • 20 programmable memories * Output selection ii «3*s, 

dfl d&m wcth instant conversion between units • RF outpul reverse 

power protected » LEO display of all parameters— no analog 

guesswork! 

HSG-10 Synthesized Signal Generator.,, $2495.00 




*&h 



SYNTHESIZED AUDJO 
GENERATOR 



m\ /^ DDS (Direct Oigdat Synthesis 
t / 1 / technotogy brings you a Terrific audio 
V w generator al a fantastic price? 
Generates from □. 0T Hz to 5& KHz 
wilh trve droil LEO display ol 
frequency Sine and square wave 
output adjustable 1 volt p-p Fre- 
quency selected by direct keyboard entry and with handy continuous 
tune turwig knob Crystal controlled accuracy ol to ppm and two 
m emorie s fcr rapid frequency charges Retire thai jury-rigged old 
r j et wato i and treat yoursef to the pleasure of using a new stale of 
theart SG-55D! 
SG-SSOKit SI 6995 „,SG-550WT assembled $229,95 



DIGITAL CODE 
SYNTHESIZER 



Generate all popular signaling 

codes used in paging, and two- — * " ^' * ' — * I I I II 

way radio Generate DTWF II F. 

UTS. WTS Single. 

tone remote, DPI 
GOLAY and NEC 
synthesizers with 0.1 Hz resolution 

and programmable duration, spacing and oulpulsing Both 600 ohm 
and TTL outputs for easy connection lo any RF generalor or service 
monitor. Gel in on the profitable- pager repair market with the COM-6 
universal synthesiser Fully assembled with 1 year warranty 
COM-6 Code Synthesizer S895.00 



ra?e DTMF. MF. 

e.Oogj seione f\ AAA 

l*»L POCSAG. — ' II 1/ | 

EC Twn audio v v V V 




MOTOR CONTROLLER 



Control ihe speed and cfreden d any motor. Use our 
5MD-f for those nice steppers you see surplus, and 

our M5C*1 for DC motors The stepper driver features 
variable speed, half step rotation, direciion and powoj 
down mode, can drive most any stepper motor. Our 
DC driver leatures pulse width modulation control 
aUowtig lull motor torque even al km speeds and can drive motors up 
to W VDC § 10 Amps! Add our case set for a professional assembly 

SMf>1 Stepper M $24.95 MSC -t DC motor fc i 524.95 

CSMO SMD-t case S12.9S CMSCMSC-1 case $12.95 



L C METER 



Mfid-ju-e ir.ct.-UQK from 10 uH lOmH and cspadlors Irom 2 pF*2uF 
wih high Accuracy by connecling the LC-1 to any digital mullirnoior. 
Two pushbuiton ranges for high resolution readings and we even 
give you calibration components lo assure proper accuracy ol your 
km Actwe filters and switching supp&es require crueal values, no one 
should be without an accurate LC meter. For a pro look, add our 
matching case set 
I_C1 LC meter kit S34.95 CLC case set SI 2.95 



MINI KITS 



Ramsey carries a complete Jmo of low cost easy lo build, easy to use 
Junctional kits that can be used alone or as building blocks in larger 
more complex designs Mini-kiis include audio amps, tone decoders. 
VOX switches, limers. audio alarms, noise makers and even 
dhoc too , lis! CaH tor our free catalogue 1 



PACKET RADIO 



Two new versens are available tor the Comrnodsre 64 (p~64A) or the 
IBM PC (P-13M) Easy assemOiy NO TUNING Induces FfiEE disk 

software. PC Board and Full Documeniatcn. Kit form 

P-64A S59.95 P-lGM S59.95 CASECPK.. S12,95 



ACTIVE ANTENNA 



Cramped for space? Get longwire performance w4h this desktop 
antenna Property designed urn has dual hf and VHP drouMry and 
butt-in whip antenna, as wei as external jack. RF gam control anrj 9V 
operation makes unt deat tof SWLs. travehng hams or scanner buffs 
who need hotter reception The matching case and knob set gives the 
unit a hundred dollar look! 
AA-7Kit S24.95 Matching case * knobset, CAA.S12.95 



cw KEYEfl 



Send perlecl CW Microprocessor <eyer features * programmable 
memories d up to 26 wonfc each tamfcc keymg dot-dash memory, 
vanarie speed trom 3-60 WPW adfustaMt Mfebra. teyraj to any ng 
and Uty RR proof EAftGM memory keeps me ssages up lo 1 00 years ■ 
you R go sient betore me *ey f Inctudes byiH-tfi touch padrJes or use 
your own. Easy assembly and matchug case set available tor a nee 
station look. 

CW^0uMicrokoyorkit.S69.95 CMK Matching case set. .S 12.95 
CvV"700WT Assembled CW-700and case...... S99.95 




Photo A, Rack-mounted prototypes: Top unit is the 60 kHz WWVB receiver, center mii is the 

phase campariroK and the bottom unit is a digital clock. 



nomenon called diurnal shift when the "E" 
layer comes and goes. No serious measure- 
ments should be made al [his time. At cer- 
tain distances from WWVB, the sky wave 
and ground-wave signals can cancel each 
other at this time, making the signal disap- 
pear Remember thai at 1 minutes past the 
hour the phase of the WWVB carrier is ad- 
vanced 45 degrees* and at 15 minutes past 
ihe hour ihe phase is relumed to its original 
value. 

The comparator could have been made 
simpler by just dividing both the 60 kHz re- 
ceived carrier and the local I MHz oscillator 
down to ihe common frequency of 10 kHz. 



However, the observation period for the 
same accuracy would be 100 times as long. 
For this reason the synthesizcr/PLL circuit 
using the 6 Mil/ oscillator was chosen. 

After observing the phase comparator in 
action, it will soon become apparent why the 
WWVB signal cannot toe used directly as a 
lime base for a counter You will notice the 
shon-tcrm jitter [hat would make frequency 
measurements unreliable. 

The third and final part of this scries 
dealing with using WWVB will detail 
the construction of a stable precision 1 
MHz crvsiai oscillator for use as a local 
standard 







Digital Phase Comparator 


Parts List 


(All resistors 1/4 watt) 








Oesig. 




Value 




Digt-Key # 


Rt„2 




820 ohms 






R3J6.17 




1O0k 






R4.5 P 10.11 P 12 




10k 






R6,8,9 1 l3 r 14 




1.5k 






R7 f 15 




220 ohms 






C1 




3-40 pF trimmer 




SG3008 


C2 




22 pF 




P4841 


C3. 10,11 




O.t jiF 




P4525 


C4,7,9 




47 uF 




P810 


C5,8 




470 pF 




P460S 


G6 




0.01 ijF 




P4513 


ICt 




74LS04 




OM74LS04N^ND 


IG2-5 




74LS90 




DM74LS90N-ND 


tC6,7 




74LS74 




DM74LS74N-ND 


IC sockets 




14-pin DIP 




AES914 


D1 




1N4001 






02 




tN914or1N4148 






Q1 




2N2222 or equiv. 






X1 




6 MHz parallel load 
32 pF XTAL 




X413 


A drifted and etched PC board for this project is available for $4.50 plus 


Si .50 S4H from FAR Circuits. 


ieN640 Field Ct.. 


Dundee fL 601 18, 







CIRCLE 34 ON READER SEVtCE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 25 



Number 6 on your Feedback card 



Computer Control for Your 
Direct Digital Synthesis 

VFO 

Free yourself of the hassles of generating an accurate 

an* stole sinusoida! sL^JSmcm 




by Victor MorinVEl ABC 



4<TT row!" 1 exclaimed as I began rcad- 
W ing John Welch NMZW's article 
"The Techno-Whizzy 1, Pan 1 " (page 8 in 
the December 1992 issue of 73 Amateur Ra- 
dio Today), N9JZW's anicle describes how 
to build a modular muliiband CW low pow- 
er (QRP) transmitter that uses a new Direct 
Digital Synthesis (DDS) chip. Why all the 
excitement? Read oni 

Over the years I have constructed a num- 
ber of home-built rigs (both receivers and 
transmitters) that have one thing in com- 
mon: a variable frequency oscillator (VFO). 
Most receivers need VFOs to generate a lo- 
cal oscillator (LO) signal and transmitters 
need them to be freed from crystal control 
of a single output frequency, 

The VFO designs that I used in these pro- 
jects were all lank^tuned with a combination 
of inductors (coils) and variable capacitors, 
either mechanical or varactor diodes. Those 
of you who have also gone this route know 
that there are certain inherent problems with 
this design: temperature drift, nonlinear tun- 
ing, difficulty in eliminating the mechanical 
backlash in the frequency-control element, 
frequency pulling when a load is placed on 



the VFO, and the list goes on . . . For me, at 
least, this type of VFO design has been a 
royal pain! 

I knew that there were alternatives* 
known as frequency synthesizers, to this tra- 
ditional VFO construction and my interest 
focused on two genera! types: phase-locked 
loop and direct digital synthesis. Looking 
over some phase-locked loop synthesizer 
designs convinced me that it would proba- 
bly be more of the same: LC tank circuits 
are used at very high frequencies and are 
varactor-controlled. Frequencies are regulat- 
ed using phase detectors, thus generating 
phase noise, etc. Please don't get me 
wrong — I'm not saying that phase-locked 
loop synthesizers should be avoided — Pm 
simply saying that for me they didn't seem 
to be the way to go. 

That left the direct digital synthesis ap- 
proach. [ read all t could on the topic and 
probably the best anicle I found is "A Di- 
rect Frequency Synthesizer" by Fred 
Williams in the April 1984 issue of QST, 
Surprised? This concept has been around 
for a long time! If you* re interested in the 
theory behind the direct digital synthesizer, 




Photo A, The DDS is the top board. The interface is on the bottom. 
26 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



I highly recommend Mr Williams' article, 
in which he provides DDS theory and de- 
scribes how to build a DDS using standard 
TTL IC chips* a read-only memory (ROM) 
and a digitaMo-analog convener (DAC). 

This is the exciting part. When I read the 
"Techno-Whizzy 1" article, 1 knew it was 
the answer to my dreams! You see, I had ac- 
tually begun building the Williams DDS and 
was contemplating building a ROM burner 
for it when Techno-Whizzy came on the 
scene— and there was a full kit available. 
No more chasing after parts; no more burn- 
ing bits into a ROM. I could get right down 
to business! I ordered the DDS right away, 
explaining to my wife that *it would be my 
Christmas present from mc to me." 

What's So Great About a DDS? 

A lot! Precise frequency control, frequen- 
cy stability, no phase noise, the ability to 
change frequency very rapidly (frequency 
hop), etc. What's the price you have to pay 
for all this? In a nutshell, you have to be 
able to provide the DDS with a digital (bina- 
ry) value that is proportional to the frequen- 
cy of the sinusoidal signal you want your 
DDS to generate. To me this meant comput- 
er control, although there are other means, 
as demonstrated in the Techno-Whizzy I ar- 
ticle where a diode matrix and switches are 
used. 

I own an IBM -compatible AT clone com- 
puter. While waiting for my DDS kit to be 
delivered in the mail, I decided to design 
and build a hardware interface that would 
control the DDS from my computer and, 
just as important, the software driver routine 
that would make the DDS perform as I 
wanted- 

The Design 

I decided to use the printer interface port 
of my IBM-compatible to control the inter- 
face and I chose tu use the simplest alterna- 
tive in order to maximize my chances of 
success. That's why I elected to use what is 
in fact a parallel port as a serial port! Why? 




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00 

2 



3D 
to 

a 

£ 

CD 



7-pin DIN Plug 



To 5 V Power Supply 






l>3 



Vcc 



10 uF/13 V 




'Scope trigger 



To 'Scope Trigger Input 



36-pin Centronics-type 
Printer Cable Panel Receptacle 



7-pin DIN Panel Receptacle 



v« 





OjOI 



14 



ry 



8 



*t 



n 
ft 



Vfl 

O 






I 



rr-v 



74LS 1 64 
8-bit Serial-in 

Parallel -out 
Shift Register 






u 



it 



Vcc 



001 



!_— 



^ 



10 




12 



17 



11 



10 



14 IS 



"1 



3 



rrt 



ftAl 



14 



Vcc 

Q 



% 



Vcc 
Q 



rT7 



74LS 1 64 
8 -bit Serial-in 

Parallel-out 
Shift Register 



la 



ii 



74LS374 

Tri-state Octal-D 

Flip Flop 



IV 



M 



is 



iz 



Voc 




0.01 



20 



10 



rr^i 



11 



17 



II 



M 



10 



II 



r 



0A1 



14 




Vcc 





s 



74LS164 

8-bit Serial -in 

Parallel-out 
Shift Register 



13 



ii 



74LS374 

Tri-atate Octal-D 

Flip Flop 



IV 



i* 



IS 



12 



& 



Vcc 




. 



6i S 



Vcc 
OjOI 

ii rri 




10 



/~r~7 



\i 



17 



11 



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to 



13 



74LS374 

Tri-state Octal-D 

Hip Flop 



» 



16 



15 



[2 



66666666 66666 666666 

o o 



44 46 



f\ iif iif isf iTfivf a^a^^f 2 ^! 2 *l , 4 3^wT^»T^iT^T^ 4 '[ 4 *T 



Load 



Serial Data 



Clock 



II 



660600000000000006 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



m 



19 



36 



m 



0JDI 



Vcc 



r~M 

14 




ft 



10, 12 



74LS14 
Schmitt Inverter 



u 




1 



25 X 2 Header to TW1 DDS 



r-t~? 



11 



is 



4 v» 




Photo B. The test jig. 



Photo G The from panel. 



Because 1 wanted lo ensure that most of the 

computer output lines would not be used in 
solely controlling the interface (I may want 
to simultaneously control other devices with 
the computer in the future). T knew that the 
serial approach would slow down communi- 
cations with the interface but I was willing 
to pay the price. 

The software design was more complex 



than the hardware. Here is what T wanted to 
be able to do: 

a) Enter a decimal frequency value in the 
computer keyboard and have the DDS gen- 
erate that particular frequency (0 Hz to 22 
MHz with 3 Hz resolution); 

b) Have the frequency go up or down by 
a particular increment whenever the opera- 
tor presses the up-arrow key or the down-ar- 



TWl DDS Control 

Key In frequency and press ENTER, or; 

■+• To Change Frequency Increment 

"+■ To Increase Frequency by Value of Frequency Increment 
n i n To Decrease Frequency by Value of Frequency Increment 
*** To Enter Scan Hode 

Hum Lock must always be ON, Caps Lock and Scroll Lock must always be OFF 
otherwise the program does not run properly. 

Press any key to continue. . . 






Figure 2. The instruction screen. 



^^= 



TWl DDS Control 

Encer Frequency in Hz: ? 

Current Frequency in Hz: 3,606,400 

Frequency Increment in Hs: 200 



Figure 3. The control screen. 






TWl DDS Control 
Enter Frequency in Hz^ 
Current Frequency in Hz: 6,240,000 



Frequency Increment in Hz: 



5,000 



Scaa Low Frequency in Hz: 5,000*000 
Scan High Frequency in Hz: 6,500,000 
Triangle (T) or Sawtooth IS) : T 
Press Any Key to Start Scan Mode, ■ ENTER - to Exit Scan Mode 






Figure 4. Scan mode for the DDS. 



row key: 

c) Scan a particular range of frequencies 
with the frequency increment determined by 
the operator; and scan in cither triangle 
mode (scan up to the highest specified fre- 
quency and then suddenly return lo the low- 
est specified frequency for another scan) or 
saw-toothed mode (scan up to the highest 
specified frequency and then, at the same 
frequency interval, return to the lowest 
specified frequency for another scan); 

d) Generate a trigger signal for an oscillo- 
scope at the beginning of each triangle 
mode sweep. 

Thus, i wanted it all — a VFO plus a 
sweep generator with trigger output. An in- 
strument that is accurate and stable, with its 
output variable from DC to approximately 
22 MHz. Yes, you can use the DDS to gen- 
erate audio frequencies. It's like having a 
very expensive lab-quality instrument at a 
very inexpensive price I 

The Hardware Interface 

Figure 1 is a schematic of the hardware 
interface. It is straightforward and based on 
the Williams design. As expected, the com- 
puter software has to do all the work in 
driving the interface. Here is how it works: 
The computer generates a 23-bit binary 
number {representative of the frequency) 
that is to be presented to the DDS, This 23- 
bit number is sent to the DDS interface 
through the printer interface port and printer 
cable, bit by bit in serial fashion, beginning 
with the most-significant bii T on the serial 
data line. While the serial data bit is stable* 
the computer strobes the dock signal line, 
which accepts and shifts each data bit into 
three cascaded 74LS164 serial-in parallel- 
out shift registers. This is done 23 limes, 
until all three shift registers have been load- 
ed. The load line is then strobed, which pre- 
sents the 23 bits, in parallel fashion, from 
the 74LS374 Tri -State Octal-D lip- flops to 
the DDS. The DDS then takes over and gen- 
erates ihe required frequency. Piece of cake 
(son of)! The trick is to generate the correct 
23-bit binary number, and this is where the 
software provides all ihe functionality. 



73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 29 



You will note that the load, serial data, 
and clock lines are "snapped up" through a 
74LSI4 Schmidt inverter to ensure thai the 
leading and trailing edges of the pulses are 
sharply defined and jitter-free. Because the 
serial data pulses arc inverted as a result, ihe 
software generates the Ts complement of 
ihe required 23-bit data word (every bit is 
"flipped" — Lc, a I becomes a and a be- 
comes a I ). 

The Software Driver Routine 

The only software-generating tool avail- 
able to me was Microsoft QBASIC so I 
didn't have much choice! I've annotated al- 
most every line of code tn the DDS. B AS 
program to give you an idea of what is go- 
ing on in case you'd like to change things 
and experiment, 

The mainline section of the routine begins 
with the usual housekeeping chores, after 
which the instruction screen is drawn (Fig- 
ure 2h An initial frequency is sent to I he 
DDS (I chose Hz but you can change this 
to any frequency you like). Figure 3 shows 
the lavout of the control screen. Two subrou- 
lines are used to generate the required 23-bit 
data word thai is sent to the DDS — Convert- 
ToBinary and Serin ITo Parallel. 

ConvertToBinary accepts a decimal fre- 
quency value and converts it to binary in Vs 
complement form (see above). It uses the 
age-old venerable "divide-by-lwo'* algo- 
rithm that vou mav have learned in school 
to convert from the decimal system to bina- 
ry notation, 

ScrialToParallel performs three chores: It 
scales the frequency value, calls ConvertTo- 
Binary. and pumps out the 23-bit data word 
to the DDS interface. Why scale the fre- 
quency value? Without going into a lot of 
technical details, the DDS will generate a 
frequency that depends not only on the 23- 
bit data word that is presented to it but also 
on its on-board clock frequency. The on- 
board clock chip that comes with the DDS 
kit has a frequency of 55 MHz, and what 
you have to do is scale the frequency value 
so that ihe DDS will generate the exact cor- 
responding frequency. 

Back to the mainline section of the rou- 
tine. The computer sits there and waits for 
you lo do one of a number of things: 

Press the *V* key. This selects the next 
frequency-increment value that is contained 
in the frequency increment table in round- 
robin fashion (i.e. you return to the first fre- 
quency increment after having gone past the 
last). The frequency-increment value deter- 
mines how much the frequency will jump 
when you press the up-arrow key, the down- 
arrow key* or while you are in scanning 
mode (see below). 

Enter a frequency and press the enter key. 
The DDS generates Lhe corresponding fre- 
quency. 

Scan mode (Figure 4), Enter a scan-low 
frequency, a scan-high frequency and deter- 
mine whether you want a saw-toothed scan 
or a triangle scan. The DDS generates fre- 
quencies beginning ai the scan-low frcquen- 



eyjumping by the frequency-increment val- 
ue (see above). When the scan-high fre- 
quency is reached, the DDS cither jumps 
back to the scan-low frequency (triangle 
mode) or proceeds downward, at the same 
rate, toward the scan-low frequency (saw- 
toothed mode). At the beginning of each tri- 
angle-mode cycle, a scope trigger signal is 
generated in case you'd like to trigger the 
sweep of your scope externally The whole 
thing happens over and over until you de- 
cide to exit scan mode. 

Press either the up-arrow key or the 
down-arrow key and the frequency will 
change upward or downward, depending on 
the key you pressed, by a value correspond- 



j7 <m * di i»J <n 4) m v w 



nun jl 

*| i| ■! i,l *| *| H H H 



74LS244 
OciaJ Buffer ■ Line Privet 



1 



IX IB 




Figure 5. DDS computer interface test jig. 



ing to frequency-increment Hold your fin- 
ger down on either key and the DDS will 



obooooooooooooooooooooo 

0O00O00O000000O0 



TW-1 
COMPUTER 

INTER FRCE 
by 

rflR CIRCUITS 




* 



000000000000000000000 
)Q000000O0O0000t &0Oi 



+5V GND 



♦ 




♦ 



GKD U7 



♦ 



Figure 6. PC board pattern and parts placement diagram. 



30 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



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73 Amateur Radio Today 



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73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 31 



I_ 




Photo D. The completed unit in its enclosure. 



scan up or down as long as the key is 
pressed. 

Construction 

I decided to build the prototype interface 
on a printed circuit board that is exactly the 
same size as the TW1 DDS, This would af- 
ford a couple of advantages: The DDS 



board could be mounted on top of the inter- 
face board or vice versa, and the 25 X 2 
headers could be made to line up exactly 
one on top of the other. I would simply wire 
one header to the other, ladder fashion and 
each wire perpendicular to the boards (Pho- 
to A), 
Because my skills at designing and build- 



ing two-sided printed circuit board are lim- 
ited ( non-ex tstent would be a better choice 
of words), I built a one -sided board where 
most of the signal lines would be intercon- 
nected using 30-gauge insulated wire. If you 
choose to go this route, be prepared for a lot 
of drilling and a lot of precise soldering! 
Perhaps a better way to go would be to use 
a drilled and etched PC board available for 
$6.50 plus 51 30 S&H from FAR Circuits, 
I8N640 Held Cu Dundee IL 601 18. 

If you decide to make your own board, 
first etch the printed circuit and drill alt the 
required holes. Install IC sockets! This will 
help you immensely if you have problems 
and have to iroubleshoot in the future* Inter- 
connect all the sisnal lines usins Figure I 
as a guide. Install the 0.01 bypass capacitors 
as weH as the 10 jiP electrolytic capacitor. 
Don't put. in the IC chips in their sockets 
yet! Check each and every interconnection 
with an ohmmeter looking for "opens" and 
pin-io-pin shorts. Only proceed to the next 
step once you are satisfied that the 
assembled printed circuit board checks out 
perfectly! 

Cheek-Out 

Temporarily connect the clock, serial da- 
ta, and load signal lines to pins I, 2„ and 3 

of the 36-pin Centronics-style printer cable 
panel receptacle. Temporarily connect a 
wire from pin 18 of the printer cable rccep- 



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CIFILCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



32 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



taclc to a suitable grounding point on the in- 
terface board. Plug the printer end of your 
printer cable (36-pin) into the receptacle 
leaving the other end (25-pin) unconnected 
from the parallel port of your computer. 
Check for the following continuity: pin 1 of 
the printer cable {25-pin end) with pin 3 of 
the 74LS14 chip* pin 2 of the printer cable 
(25-pin end) with pin 1 of the 74LSI4 chip, 
pin 3 of the printer cable (25-pin end) with 
pin 5 of the 74LS14 chip, pin 18 of the 
printer cable (25-pin end) with ground on 
the interface board. Don't proceed any fur- 
ther unless you are convinced thai the above 
checks out . 

Next, load the DDS.BAS program into 
your computer. Access the SerialTbParuHcl 
subroutine and disable the HoidFreq& = 
CLNG(CDBL(Freq&) * .3050398*) line by 
commenting it out with a single apostrophe 
at the beginning of the line. This disables 
scaling for the time being. Enable Ihc state- 
ment immediately after the line that you 
have just disabled (HoidFreq& = Freq&). 
To provide display of the 23-bit data word 
on your monitor screen, access the Convert- 
ToBinary subroutine and enable the follow- 
ing line: 

LOCATE 23, 1 : FOR i% = 22 to STEP - 
1 : PRINT Binary Value(i%);:NEXT i%. 

This causes the 23-bit word to be dis- 
played in binary at the bottom of the screen. 



Remember that this is the Vs complement 
of the number entered, however. 

You aie now going to check out your unit 
by using eight LEDs to ensure the correct 
bit pattern is being generated by the inter- 
face. (You could use 23 LEDs at once, if 
you like)* Build a test jig based on Figure 5. 
I used an 1C proto board because the test jig 
is only used once for check-out purposes 
(Photo B). Temporarily connect the eight 
test jig inputs to the eight least-si gnificant- 
bit outputs of the interface (outputs 32 to 46 
to inputs d7 to dO), 

Populate your printed circuit board with 
its ICs. Connect the computer printer cable 
to the parallel port on the primer. Provide 5 
volts to the interface board and the test jig. 
Run the DDS.BAS routine and key in a fre- 
quency of zero Hz. All eight LEDs on the 
test jig should be out. All the bits at the bot- 
tom of the screen should be Is, Now key in 
a frequency of 255 Hz. The inverse should 
happen and all eight LEDs should be lit, the 
eight least significant bits on the screen 
should all be 0s. 

Next, unsolder the eight test jig inputs 
and temporarily solder ihem lo outputs 16 to 
30 of the interface (30 to dO. 28 to dl, etc). 
Key in a frequency of 65,536 Hz. All eight 
LEDs should be lit. Key in a frequency of 
zero Hz. All eight LEDs should be out. En- 
ter other values to sec the generated bit pal- 



terns. 

Finally, disconnect the input leads to the 
test jig and re-connect the seven least signif- 
icant test-jig inputs to the seven most-sig- 
nificant-bit outputs of the interface (2 to d6, 
4 to d5, etc.) Leave d7 unconnected and ig- 
nore the left- most LED, Key in a frequency 
of zero Hz. All seven LEDs should be out. 
Key in a frequency of 8,388,607 Hz. All 
seven LEDs should be lit. You will notice 
that the bits displayed at the bottom of the 
screen always show the inverse of the bits 
represented by the LEDs, 

If things don't check out, the particular 
bit(s) that is (are) not functioning properly 
will give you a hint as to where the trouble 
might be on the interface. Use your analyti- 
cal skills to zero in and determine where the 
problem lies. Once everything is OK, dis- 
connect the test jig. 

Final Assembly 

I assume that you've constructed and 
checked out your TWl DDS board before 
proceeding to this point. Mount the DDS 
board on top of the interface board using 
half-inch threaded spacers (photo A). Solder 
the 23 signal tines (outputs 2 to 46) from the 
interface board to the DDS board and check 
the continuity of the 23 lines from one 
board to the other, Use 22 gauge hook-up 
wire to provide Ycc and ground to the DDS 




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Since 1987 




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CIRCLE 3*4 ON HEADER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 33 



board. Next, attach the combined units, us- 
ing two small-angle brackets* to a front pan- 
el My front panel holds a seven-pin DIN 
round receptacle, a 36~pin Centronics-type 
printer cable receptacle, and a BNC single- 
hole-mount chassis jack (Photo C). Solder 
the three signal wires leading from the 
printer cable receptacle to the interface 
board. I use the seven-pin DIN receptacle 
to provide power to the unit and to provide 
the scope trigger signal to the outside world. 
Solder the scope trigger line from pin 4 or 
the primer cable receptacle 10 an unused pin 
on the DIN receptacle. Connect the BNC 
jack to the DDS output with a short length 
of miniature 50 ohm cable. You may wish to 
build an enclosure for the unit in order to 
provide shielding. I built mine using dou- 
ble-sided printed-eircuit board (Photo D). 

Calibration 

Calibration? But there aren*t any trim- 
mer capacitors! Do you remember the scal- 
ing factor in the software routine that I 
mentioned earlier? Well, it's now time to 
"tweak" the scaling factor to your on-board 
DDS clock. Go back lo the DDS.BAS pro- 
gram and disable the program lines that 
you used for checkout purposes. Also re- 
move the single apostrophe in front of the 
following line: HoldFreq& = CLNG(CD- 
BLfFrcq&) * 3050398#). Now connect a 
frequency counter to the output of the 
DDS, connect the unit to a 5 vok power 
supply, connect the printer cable between 
your computer and the DDS, and fire ev- 
erything up. Begin by keying frequencies 
that are multiples of I MHz, and observe 
the values on the frequency counter, If you 
have an oscilloscope, you may also want to 
view the purity of your sinusoidal signaL 
Assuming there are no problems in your 
soldering and wiring job, you should get 
frequencies that are close to those being 
keyed in and that have a very high degree 



Parts Information 

A copy of the DDS.BAS driver routine software written in GBASlC can be downloaded 
free from the 73 BBS at {603} 924-9343. 
Tbe DDS VFO module kit is available from Bktronics, 12536 T.R, 77, Rndlay OH 45840; 

(419)422-8206. 

The receptacles, capacitors, \C chips and sockets for the computer interface are all avail- 
able from Digi-Key at (800) 344-4339. or from other major distributors. 

The eight LEDs used in the test jig can be any LEDs that you have in your funk box. 

The use of a manufactured computer cable is not mandatory— you can build your own 
cable using receptacles of your choice. 

Drilled and etched PC boards are available for S6.50 plus $1.50 S&H from FAR Circufts, 
18M640 Field Ct, Dundee IL 60118, 



of purity. Once you've gone up to 22 MHz 
and everything looks OK. play with the 
unit by entering oddball frequencies. The 
DDS should react accordingly and this 
should be reflected on your frequency 
counter 

The adjustment of the scaling factor 
should now be obvious. If your input fre- 
quency is consistently high compared to 
the frequency counter, reduce the scaling 
factor, and vice versa. By how much? 
I don't know. [ just did mine by trial and 
error until the frequency counter read 
dcad-on and then 1 built a direct conver- 
sion receiver using the DDS as the LO to 
zero- beat it ugainst WWV. I think the accu- 
racy of my unit is within 50 Hz. if not 
better 

Operation 

I tried to make operation of the unit as 
intuitive as possible and I hope that the 
instruction screen (Figure 2) is self-explana- 
tory. Those of you who are accustomed to 
Windows -based applications won't find 
this very fancy but. in my defense, all I 
can say is that the proof is in the puddin\ 
Speaking of Windows, you will find that the 
scanning process is slowed if the software 
is run in a Windows environment. If you 
want maximum scanning speed from your 



computer* run DDS.BAS in an MS-DOS 
environment. 

What Next? 

1 encourage those of you who are inter- 
ested in software design to combine forces 
with the hardware types, and vice versa. 
The software that I have developed is first- 
generation and I have placed it in the public 
domain. Play with it. Change it for the bet- 
ter! A machine-language routine to speed 
up the scanning process might be interest- 
ing. The hardware interface is nothing fan- 
cy. How about someone developing a true 
parallel interface, or using adder chips on 
the interface board again to speed up the 
scanning process? How about frequency 
hopping or spread-spectrum applications? 
The sky's the limit! 

As for me, I'm going to continue my 
quest for the Holy Grail: building an up- 
converting general-coverage HF receiver 
(with FM, of course) using the TWI DDS 
as one of the fundamental building blocks. 
Hmm ... I wonder If cheap HF crystals can 
be used at their third overtone to build a lad- 
der filter at approximately 45 MHz? The 
TWI DDS in scanning mode, heterodyned 
to VHF T will help me find out. I hope I have 
as much success with thai project as I did 
with this one. 



Bench notes from John Welch N9JZW, designer of the TW-1 DDS rig. 



Since I built the TW-K people have been 
asking me why I didn't make it computer- 
controllable. Frankly, I didn't want to. given 
my other plans for expansion. However. 
there fa a need, and this hoard fills it well, 

I buili ihe project on a PC board, which is 
shown in the adjacent photo. It went together 
smoothly, taking about an evening's work to 
assemble. There are a lot of jumpers, but 
ilicy arc plainly marked and should cause 
you liltlc Iroublc* Do socket all the chips, us 
I had one bad chip which kept mine from 
working the first time, A quick change took 
care of that, though, and it has worked since 
then, 

Be careful about soldering, and make sure 
you have the chips inserted the right way. 
The parallel port on an IBM PC isn't pro- 
tected, and it is possible to blow up a chip if 
you get some wires crossed, Just be sure to 
double-check your wiring, as the article 
says. 



The program will only work if you use a 
parallel port at address 3F8 (hex). The port 
on an old monochrome video board is not at 
this address, but for most computers this is 
LPT1 and should cause no problem. 

There is an easier and faster way to cali- 
brate the frequency. You'll need a calculator 
and a frequency counter that can handle 55 
MHz signals. Measure tfie frequency of your 
TW-l's oscillator (it's available on the 
jumper on ihe DDS VFO board). The "fudge 
factor" should be 1 6777216 / (your oscillator 
frequency in hertz). 

My oscillator runs at 55000230 Hz, so my 
value is 16777216 / 55000230 = 
0.3050390153. This should put you dead on 
frequency the first time you run the program. 

If you don* I have a frequency counter, 
don't worry — the 55 MHz oscillators are 
very accurate and stable, and you'll be no 
more than about 50 Hz away from where 
you think you are over almost all bands. 



There is an enhancement I'm working on 
for the TW-1 that will increase your upper 
range from 2L5 MHz to slightly over 30 
MHz. This will require a small change to the 
program, and another jumper to be added to 
this board. FAR Circuits is adding a pad on 
pin 4H of the header for this. 

When I get this board functional. HI aJso 
let you know what to jumper and what to 
change in the program. Til then, hope you 
have fun with your TW-1 Direct Digital 
Synthesized rig. 73 de N9JZW. 




34 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



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73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 35 



Number 7 on your Feedback card 



ASCII-to-Morse-Code Interface 



Let your keyboard do the work. 



Do you have a computer in your shack 
and only use it to log QSOs, send pack- 
ct or play games? This simple weekend pro- 
ject will allow you 10 send and receive 
Morse code with your computer as well It 
will not decode Morse code for you (thafs 
cheating!), but your fingers will never have 
to leave the keyboard. 

Packed Full of Features! 

The ASCII-to-Morse-code Interface (or 
A.MCX) will convert ASCII characters into 
Morse code at the speeds of 10, 13, 15, 17 or 
20 wpm, as selected from the keyboard. It 
has a 30-character input buffer, a message 
memory of 50 characters and it even has a 
built-in electronic keyer function so you can 
use your paddle instead of ihe keyboard, 
should you desire. 

Operation 

When first powered up, the A.M.CL gen- 
erates a short beep and outputs the message 
"***RECEIVE***" to your computer 
screen. It is now in the receive echo mode. 
Whatever you type on your keyboard will be 
echoed back to the screen. 

When you type the the character "+ ft the 
A.M.CL switches into the transmit mode 
and outputs the message "***TRANS- 
MIT***10 WPM***" to the screen. What 
you now type is echoed back to the screen 
and then convened into Morse code. The 
A.M.CL recognizes letters (upper or lower 
case), the numbers 0-9, and the punctuation 
marks: period, comma, dash, and question 
mark. Any character not in the Morse look* 
up table will simply be echoed 
back to the screen. The code 
speed is selected with the charac- 
ters #(10 wpm), S ( 1 3 wpm), % 
( 1 5 wpm), A { 1 7 wpm) and & (20 
wpm). The selected speed is out- 
puted to the screen as a message, 
i.e. "***|7 WPM***," The 
speed can be changed ai any time 
in the transmit mode. Typing "[" 
doubles the spacing between let- 
ters and words. Typing "]" re- 
turns the spacing to normal, This 
provides an easy way or slowing 
down ihe code speed when nec- 
essary because of QRM. The 
character *f* toggles the 
A.M.CL back into the receive 
mode. The ENTER key gener- 
ates a carriage return and line- 
feed response to the screen. The 
space key will generate the prop- 
er inter-word spacing. 

You may want to make a lem- 

36 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



by Steven Weber KD1 JV 

plate for your keyboard to label the function 
keys until you've got them down pat. 

The A.M.CL has a 30-character input 
buffer. The characters are echoed back to the 
screen as you type. If you are a good typist 
there is a possibility you will fill up the 
buffer. The A.M.CL will not allow you to 
overwrite the buffer. Your computer's bell 
will sound if the buffer is full, informing 
you to slop typing for a minute and lei the 
buffer send out some characters. It is best to 
type only a few words ahead and then pause 
for a few moments before continuing. 

Message Storage 

The A.M.CL can store a message of up to 
50 characters in length. Spaces count as 
characters. Typically you would use this to 
store a "CQ" message, but of course you can 
put whatever you want there. To store a 
message, type "V The message "TYPE 
MESSAGE 50 CHRS MAX" will then ap- 
pear on your screen. Now type in your mes- 
sage. Mistakes can be corrected by using the 
backspace key. If you enter in too many 
characters,, the message U **BUFFER 
FULL**" will appear on the screen and re- 
turn you back to the "type message" mes- 
sage. Enter a "!** as your last character. The 
A.M.CL will then respond with the message 
"** END OF MESSAGE**" to the screen 
and exit back to the receive mode. 

To output the message, enter "@." The 
A.M.CL will now output the message at the 
code speed currently selected. The charac- 
ters of the message are written back to the 
screen one at a time as they are sent. You 




Photo A. Under the hood of the A.M. C.L 



can send the message in cither the receive 
mode or the transmit mode and you will re- 
turn to the mode that you were in when the 
message output was selected. This allows 
you to send the CQ message while in the re- 
ceive mode and return there automatically to 
copy an answering call. Or you can use the 
message to send your name and QTH while 
in the transmit mode and then continue send- 
ing when the message is finished. 

The Electronic Keyer Function 

The electronic keyer is active at all times 
in the transmit mode. Its speed is the same as 
that currently selected from the keyboard. It 
has dot and dash memory, sensed at the end 
of the dot or dash and before the space. This 
makes for glitch-free operation. If both pad* 
dies are squeezed together at Lhe same time it 
will send a dot-dash string that starts with 
whatever made contact first, the dot or the 
dash. 

As an option you can add an N.O. push- 
button switch and five LEDs on your front 
panel. If you hold in the PB switch (which 1 
labeled "KYR SPD"), then turn the power 
on, you will now be in a stand-alone keyer 
mode. This allows you to use the keyer func- 
tion without having to turn on your computer 
first. 

The LEDs indicate the speed thai the key- 
er ts set to. Pushing the PB momentarily will 
advance the keyer speed. This function oper- 
ates only in the stand-alone keyer mode, but 
the LEDs will also indicate the speed that the 
A.M.CL is set to during normal keyboard 
operation. 

CPU port bit Pl.4 (pin 5) is set 
low in the stand-alone mode. You 
can add another LED (with a 330 
ohm scries resistor) to the front 
panel to indicate this mode if you 
want to. 

The Circuit 

The heart of the A.M.CL is an 
8031 microcontroller. The 8031 
has been an industry standard for 
some time now and is still used in 
many products. The 8031 is an 8- 
bit device that has a built-in serial 
port, 128 bytes of internal user 
RAM, 128 bytes of internal func- 
tion registers, two timers, a 
Boolean processor, 16 I/O ports, 
and can address up to 64K of pro- 
gram memory and 64 K of exter- 
nal RAM. The instruction set is 
designed so that the program code 
is very efficient. The program for 
this project is a little over 1.5K 



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Photo B. The completed project. 



byies long, much of which is the Morse 
look-up table and ASCII jump tabic. 

The 8031 multiplexes the lower eight ad- 
dress bits out on the data bus, A 74LS573 is 
used to latch this address information. A 
MAX 232 IC (or TPC232) is used to inter- 
face the RS-232 input and output to the 8031 
serial port. The MAX 232 has a built-in 
voltage doubler and inverter to generate the 
+ 10 and * 10 volts required by RS-232 ports. 
The CPU's clock is 1 1.0592 MHz, This fre- 
quency was chosen by the 8031 developers 
so that standard baud rates can be easily 
generated with the 803 1 's internal timers. 

The power supply, power control circuit, a 



piezo beeper, a number 
of LEDs and transmit- 
ter keying transistors 
complete the circuit. 
The keying circuit is 
designed for solid-state 
rigs. If you have a tube 
transmitter, try using 
an optoisolator to drive 
a high voltage power 
transistor, or add a re- 
lay to key your rig. 

The power supply 
for the A.M.C.L is on 
all the time. Power to 
the main circuits is 
turned on and off using 
a simple PNP transistor switch. When power 
is turned off, another PNP transistor is 
turned on to supply power to the RST pin of 
the CPU. This keeps the internal RAM alive 
so that your stored message doesn't have to 
be entered every time the unit is turned on. 
The capacitors C3 and C6 keep their associ- 
ated transistor turned on when Ihe power 
switch is thrown long enough to ensure 
proper power down, power up reset of the 
CPU. 

If you don't mind entering the message 
every time you turn the unit on, these pans 
can be eliminated and the AC line switched 
on and off. If you go this way, a 2,2 pp cap 



must be installed between +5 and pin 9 (re- 
set) on the CPU. 

Communicating to the Interface 

The serial port of the A.M.CI. is set to 
1200 baud, 8 bits, no parity and 2 stop bits 
(1200,8,1^,2) and it recognizes standard 
ASCII, To talk to the A.M.CI, you must 
have a communications program of one sort 
or another installed in your computer. The 
TELECOM program that came with my 
TANDY laptop works just fine. Other pro- 
grams such as PC TALK, PROCOM, and 
the like will also work, As long as you can 
make a direct connection to your serial 
comm port you will be alt set. By using one 
of these communications programs you can 
also save your QSOs as a file on disk or 
floppy. For those of you who don't already 
have a communications program, a public 
domain program that emulates a dumb ter- 
minal will be supplied along with the source 
code for this project. 

Construction 

There are three ways you can build this 
project: 

First, you can "prototype it" using the perf 
board and wire wrap method. 

Second, you can buy an SBC (Single 
Board Computer) kit from Suncoast Tech- 
nologies {see the Parts List). The kit comes 




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i Communications Receivers 

Portable Receivers 

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} Amateur HF Transceivers 

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• Amateur and SWL Antennas 

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40 73 Amateur Radio Today • February. 1 994 



with the basic computer pans, i.e. CPU, 
latch, RS232 chip, crystal, caps, sockets, and 
PC board. The PC board has enough room 
on it to mount the power supply and I/O 
pans. Also, as a bonus, you get a disk with 
id I the programs you need lo write your own 
803 1 programs. That is how this project was 
developed. 

Finally, you can use the PC board de- 
signed for this project. The boani is single- 
sided, making it possible lo home-brew 
should you desire. AH the pans can be found 
between JDR Microdeviccs and Radio 
Shack. 

Piea&c note that IC2 and IC3 have pin 1 
facing "down" and thai there are 16 wire 
jumpers on the board. Use #24 stranded wire 
to connect the various switches and jacks to 
the board, If possible, use 1/8 watt resistors 
as they will fit the board better than 1/4 watt. 



Sum 


mary of Keyboard Commands 


+ 


Go to transmit 


I 


Go to receive 


■ 


Enter message mode 


@ 


Transmit message 


# 


Set 10 wpm speed 


$ 


Set 1 3 wpm speed 


% 


Set 15 wpm speed 


A 


Set 17 wpm speed 


& 


Set 20 wpm speed 


I 


Doubles code spacing 


Resets to normal spacing 







Parts List 


* ici 


8031 


8-btl controller 


* IC2 


74LS573 


Octal bus latch 


1 IC3 


2764 


8K EPROM 


* IC4 


MAX232 or TPC232 


RS232 interface 


* IC5 


7805 

Heat sink for regulator 


SV-to-220 voltage regulator 


! Q1 


T1P42 


TO-220 PNP power transistor 


02.4 


2N3906 


PNP small signal transistor 


03 


2N3904 


NPN smalt signal transistor 


Dl-5 


1N4001 


1 amp rectifier diodes 


LED 1-9 


Red LED 




D6,7 


1N4148 


Small signal silicon diode 


* XTAL 


11.0592 MHz 


M lc roprocessor c lock c rystal 


C1 


1 ,000 uF/25V 


Aluminum electro cap 


02,012-19 


0,1 uF/5QV Mono ceramic cap 


C3 


47 uR25V 


Aluminum electro cap 


• C4,6 T 9£0 tO|iR25V 


Aluminum electro cap 


C5 


1 nF/25V 


Aluminum electro cap 


* 07,8 


4.7uF\25V 


Aluminum electro cap 


* C10 P 11 


22 pF 


Ceramic disk 


Rl T 6-9 


330ohrn1V8W 


Carbon film resistor 


R2 


1k1\8W 


Carbon film resistor 


R3-5 


10k1\8W 


Carbon film resistor 


S1,2 




DPDT toggle switch 


S3 


N.CL 


Push-button switch 


T1 


115V TO 12.6 VAC 300 mA 


Transformer (Radio Shack #273-1385) 


J1 


lU-inch 


Open circuit phone jack 


J2 


1V4-inch 


Open circuit stereo phone jack 


J3 


DBG 


9-pin female D jack 


M 


Power jack 




BP1 


Piezo beeper 


i Radio Shack #273-065) 


F1 


1V4A 


Fast blow fuse and holder 


* PC board: A drilled and etched PC board is available from the author at RO. Box 140 P Gorham, NH 03531 


for $11 ppd. 




Box 




Radio Shack #270-253 


(4J 


11 MB 41 Standoffs 


Radio Snack #276-195 


* Pari of Suncoast Technologies Kit #706910. $27 + 2.90 S+H. P.O. Box 5635, Spring Hill FL 346D6; 


TeL (904) 569-7599. 




JDR Microdevices. 2233 Samaritan Drive, San Jose GA 95124; Tel. (800) 538-5000 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1994 41 



The 7805 voltage regulator requires 
a small heal sink. 

As this is a digital device, it should 
be mounted in a mcial box and bypass 
caps added at all the input and out- 
put jacks, This keeps RF1 from your 
transmitter from getting into the 
A.M.C.I. and RFI from getting out of 
it. 1 built mine into a Radio Shack 
#270-253 box. 

If you add the speed-indicating 
LEDs it would be a good idea to mount 
them on a small strip of perf board. 

You can build in an AC supply like 1 
did or use one of the 9 VDC, 500 mA 
wall-mount plug-in type supplies that 
are so common today. Don't forget to 
jumper pins 4^ 6. and 8 together on ihc 
DB9 jack. If you don't, your computer 
will not recognize that there is a device 
connected to it I mounted the DB9 jack 
on the back of the box and used a 
shielded femalc-io-male DB9 extension 
cable between my computer and the 
A.M.CX 

The front panel artwork was created 
on my computer and copied onto 
Graphic Applique film, using a tech- 
nique described by Marion Kitchens 
K4GOK in the May 1993 issue of 73. 

If you don't need the sidetone you 
might want to add a switch to switch in 
or out the beeper. This way you can use 
the A.M.C.L as a code practice genera- 
tor. Just about anyone can send code to 
you using the keyboard, A good two- 
finger hunt-and-peck typist will have 
no problem even at 20 wpm. Or you 
can record the code on a tape recorder 
for practice later. 

Getting the Program Code 

One of the problems with building a 
computer project like this one is getting 
the program code, [t is not practical to 
publish the program code in the maga* 
zine, so you will just have to send away 
for it or download it with your modem 
from the 73 BBS (603-924-9343). 

A 3-1V2" disk with the assembly 
source code listing, INTEL HEX file, 
binary flic and the dumb terminal pro- 
gram called THE TERMINAL" is 
available from me for S3 postpaid (Box 
140, Gorham NH 03581). If you can't 
blast your own ROMs, I can also sup- 
ply a preprogrammed 27C64 EPROM 
along with the disk for $10. 

Last Words 

Since the only mode I work is CW. 
this project has been very handy. No 
longer do I use up reams of paper, and 
my fingers don't gel numb from having 
a death grip on the pencil I hope this 
project helps you to get more use out of 
your computer and enjoy CW more of- 
ten. So if you've never had anyone tell 
you "great fist — pleasure to copy," this 
project is perfect for you! Let's all help 
keep CW alive and well. 




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Figure 2. PC board foil patient and parts placement diagram* 



42 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



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B9402G88-3 



73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 43 



Number 8 on your Feedback card 



Standardize Your 
Microphone Connectors 

A one-plug-fits-ali solution you can easily build. 



by Klaus Spies WB9YBM 



My initial reason for standardizing the 
microphone connectors on all of my 
transceivers was to allow interchangeability 
of home-brew station accessories among my 
radios. It also occurred to me that, in the 
event of a microphone failure during emer- 
gency communications, being able to grab 



MIC SMUTCH 







CVft pTT"> 



Figure L Typical microphone switch in a CB 
transceiver. 



si 

MIC PTT 



*:<*i w u 



rrn> 



Figure 2. Microphone PTT switch for most 
ham transceivers. 



the nearest convenient microphone (and 
having it work right away) would also be a 
big advantage. 

A Look at Connectors 

Older radios in my shack had three-pin 

connectors, while the majority of more mod- 
em radios have four pins, with the fourth pin 
being unused. Standardizing to the more 
modern four-pin connector made I he most 
sense, since the older three-pin connectors 
are not commonly available. The four-pin 
connectors can be found at most pans stores, 
humfests. and the like. 

Having the fourth pin unused turned out 
to be a blessing in disguise. When requiring 
a signal from the squelch to trigger a tape 
recorder (for logging), or to enable the PTT 
of another transceiver in a link, it was very 
easy to build and install an interface circuit 
right inside of the radio (see page 27 of the 
December 1988 issue of 73). That signal 
could be conveniently brought out through 
pin four. 

A Look at Wiring 

Deciding beforehand on the wiring 



Si 

MIC PTT 



2N2222 




■ffiH> 



— 2 -EC35a3SZE> 



€2Z> 



«-g.r> 



U1B 

4Q69 



Figure 3, With a standard microphone switch, this circuit will interface to most CB 
transceivers. 

44 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



scheme is helpful In my case, the determin- 
ing factor was my HF rig; because it seems 
like the most complex rig in my shack, it 
was the transceiver 1 was least likely to open 
up and modify. Using pins one through three 
as ground, audio, and PTT, leaves pin four 
open for accessories, putting the least impor- 
tant function last. The order of the other 
three is not really important as long as 
there's consistency in the entire hamshuck. 

The only fly in the ointment is with con- 
verted CB transceivers. Even those that work 
with the microphone removed (some older 
ones do not) had microphone switches that 
were DPDT, one side toggling the PTT to 
ground, the other toggling some point in the 
transceiver between the microphone and the 
receiver circuit (Figure i shows the typical 
cxampie of this). By comparison, the stan- 
dard switching of amateur gear is a bit more 
straightforward (see Figure 2). 

Figure 3 shows how a CB can be made to 
operate with a typical ham microphone. If 
the"RCVR ENABLE* of Figure 1 (the N,C 
on Figure 3) is connected to anywhere but 
ground, connect pin 4 of Ul there, instead of 
ground (the same holds true for RCVR DIS- 
ABLE on Figure 1 and N.O. and pin I ! on 
Figure 3). 

Unused gates of the ICs should be con- 
nected to +12V or ground, as convenient, I 
installed the circuits 1 built right into my 
transceivers, as far as possible from the 
transmitters 7 final amplifier. This ensures 
good shielding of the circuits from the RF in 
the hamshack, and avoids the high RF in the 
rigs 1 PA. 









406* 


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ft 




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PIN 14 5 -1-12V 

PIM 7 = CHD "== 

OOTH I. c.o 




4069 



Figure 4. Unused gates should be connected 
to +721/ or ground. 




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Number 9 on your Feedback card 



Folding Three-Element 

2 Meter Quad 

Finds fox, folds, fits in trunk. 

by John E. Myers WX8G 



I've been interested in radio direction find- 
ing for about six years and I've always had 
good results with my home-brew five-ele- 
ment yagL Its shortcoming, however, was 
that it was loo big to fit into the trunk of our 
car, Td been reading about the quad vs. yagi 
debate (73 Magazine, January 1989: "Quads 
vs. Yagis for Fox Hunting"; by Joe Moell 
RE., K0OV) and had decided to try a quad. 
I knew lhat it would work well for radio di- 
rection finding, but it wouldn't fit in our car 
So, I figured that with a little extra effort, a 
folding quad would not be too difficult to 
build. 

The folding three-element quad is de- 
signed to work well across the entire 2 meter 
band, and has excellent gain and froni-io- 
back ratio, as well as good side rejection. It 
is also easily folded, and unfolds in a matter 
of seconds. Yes, I said seconds. The secret to 
the folding quad is a notch in the boom 
which the driven element drops into when 
unfolded. The driven element is mounted to 
the boom with a spring- loaded bolt (see Fig- 
ure 3) which holds it firmly in position. To 
fold the quad, you simply hold the boom 
with your hand while pushing up with your 
thumb. When the support for the driven ele- 
ment clears the notch, you simply fold it up. 
The elements are connected together with a 
tie rod which keeps them parallel to one an- 
other. In its folded position, the folding quad 
easily fits into the trunk of the average com- 
pact car, which makes it ideal for fox hunt- 




Phoio A, Pant NHIAK shows her pleasure 
with the folding quad. 



ing. You should have no trouble building 
this antenna in just a few evenings, for less 
than $20. 

Using the dimensions shown in Figures I 
and 2, I cut all the supports and the boom 
from a piece of construction-grade southern 
pine. The notch in the boom is very impor- 
tant. When not folded, the support for the 



driven element rests in this notch. I recom- 
mend cutting the support for the driven ele- 
ment, and finishing it first. Then, using it as 
a cutting guide, make the notch in the boom. 
The fit should be as close as possible, with- 
out being too tight when the quad is unfold- 
ed. After the pieces are cut and drilled, sand 
them smooth and finish them with at least 
two coats of varnish. 

The elements are made of 1/8" brazing 
rod. It is readily available, rigid, and easily 
bent — with the help of a propane torch. I 
used eight 36" lengths to complete this pro- 
ject (if brazing rod is too expensive or hard 
Lo find, try 12-gauge aluminum ground wire. 
It's cheaper and easier to work with, but not 
as rigid). To bend the brazing rod. clamp it 
into a vise, heat it until if s almost red hot (a 
propane torch will do fine), and bend it v-e- 
r-y gently, Take your time, practice on some 
scrap rod first, and remember: measure 
twice, bend once. 

Refer to Figure 2 for the dimensions of 
each element. 1 found it easiest to make my 
first bend before inserting the rod through 
the hole in the support. Since it takes a little 
more than two rods for each element, you'll 
need a union to join the rods to one another. 
I use a union thaL 1 made from some small- 
diameter copper tubing lhat I bought at my 
local auto parts store. With pipe cutters, I cut 
off a piece about an inch long and drilled it 
large enough to accept the brazing rod. To 

Continued on page 50 



- 11,5" 



11.5" 



[| J3/4 



25" 






u 



10 



I \o 0/ I 




9' 





5/8" 



A 


B 




Reflector 10-7/8' 


21-3/4" 




Driven element 


10-5/16' 


20-5/8" 


Director 9-13/16* 


19-5/8" 





Make each support about 7 inch longer than the B measurement. Make the 
holes large enough that the brazing rod fits snugly, and can be pushed 
through with just a liffle effort. 



Figure L The boom: Cut and drill as shown. 
46 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



Figure 2. Dimension table for the quad. 





fti~. .* 



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Folding Three-Element 2 meter Quad continued /mm page 46 



Bolt 




n— n 



Washer 



Spring 



Washer 



Nuts 





Tie Rod 



Boom 



*C 




11.5" 



11*5* 



25 11 



Figure 4, Top view of the folding quad. The spacing shown is 0. 15 
wavelength 



Figute 3. Close-up of the spring loaded bolt which makes up the pivot 
point of the quad. 






Elements 
Attach Here 

i 




Mounting 
Holes ^ 


o 

O O 

o 


O 

o 

o o 






1 ^ Bend 1 

Elements 

Attach Here 


Here 



Figure 5. He rod— this is made from a thin piece of wood. The only 

dimension that is important is the one listed, Its purpose is to tie Figure & Feed-point bracket. Mount $0-239 on the right side. Mount 

the elements together, and keep them in alignment, while folded and to the face of the bracket, using 6-32" x 3/8" holts, attached from 

unfolded. behind. Run jumpers from SO-239 to the elements (see text). 



join the rods, shine up the ends with steel 
wool. Insert the rods into the ends of the 
union and solder them in place. You can use 
a torch for this, but I've had better results 
with a high-wattage soldering gun. 

The construction of the driven element is 
just a little different from the others. First* 
remember not to close the loop on the driven 
element. Leave it open at the feed-point 
bracket. The feed-point bracket is pretty 
simple. I look a piece of scrap plastic (1.5" x 
4" x 3/16" thick), warmed it until it was 
pliable, and bent it at a 90-degree anele. 
Then I drilled as shown in Figure 5, mount- 
ed the SO-239* and mounted the assembly to 
the support, using screws. The driven ele- 
ment is attached lo the Feed-point bracket 
with nuts and bolts. 1 soldered electrical 
crimp-type ring connectors to the ends of the 
elements to make a cleaner connection. An- 
other way would be to bend ends into a loop 
bis enoueh to insert a bolt through. 

Insert the bolt through the center of the 
support, and, using a bit of RTV compound, 
or cpoxy, glue the bolt to the support. 

Now that the elements are finished, it's 
time to assemble the quad. First, using Fig- 
ure 4 as a guide, attach the elements to the 
boom, paying special attention to the spring 
and washer placement on the driven ele- 



ment. Next, attach the tie rod. This should 
comptetc the mechanical assembly of the 
folding quad. After the matching is done. 
and you're satisfied with the operation, ap- 
ply a bit of RTV 10 the end of all the bolts to 
keep the nuts from coming undone. 

1 had very little trouble matching the 
quad. I took all my measurements outdoors, 
using an HT and a VHF SWR meter. To 
match the quad. I simply varied the length of 
the jumper wires between the ends of the 
driven element and the SO-239 connector 
Once matched, the SWR was acceptable 
across the whole band 1 found that a differ- 
ence of only a half inch can be significant. 
The trick that worked best for me was to 
make the jumper about 4" long, then attach 
one end to the SO-239 and an alligator clip 
to the other end. I then attached the alligator 
clip to the element and. using trial and error, 
slid the clip back and forth along the ele- 
ment until I found the perfect match. When 
you find this point* measure the length of the 
element between the clip and the point 
where the element attaches to the feed- point 
bracket. Subtract this from the length of 
your jumper wire. The result will give you 
the length of your jumper wire between the 
mounting bracket and the SO-239. 

All done? Great! Now, insert the U-bolts 



through the boom, then insert the mast. Now 
you're ready for the next fox hunt. 

Field tests were encouraging, and wherev- 
er I go the folding quad generates a lot of 
questions. So far the quad has been used in 
enough hunts to tell me that I probably 
won't go back to a yagi anytime soon. 



Parts List 

1 Z x 4' x B A pine stud 
8 36" brazing rods 

1 foot copper tubing (see text) 

2 U bolts 

1 broom handle (mast) 

1 1 .5" x 4" piec9 of plastic for the feed point 

1 SO-239 (Radio Shack part #278-199) 

2 10-24x2.5" screws 

3 10-24 x 1.25* screws 

1 1/4x4-1/2" screw 
6 6-32 x 3/8" screws 

2 4x1/2" wood screws 
5 #10 washers 

2 1/4* washers 

5 1 0-24 nuts 

2 1/4x20 nuts 

1 spring (available at your local home center) 

2 6-32 nuts 

5 Ring terminals 



50 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 




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73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 51 



73 Review 



Number 10 on your F 



05 -d 



by Steve Katz WB2WIK/6 



The Kenwood TH-28A 



Kenwood Communications Corporation 
Amateur Radio Products Group 
2201 E. Dominguez Street 
Long Beach, CA 90801 -5745 
Telephone:(3TQ) 639-4200 
Price Class; $399 



2 meter hand-held transceiver. 



Kenwood has done it again by producing 
a tiny P lightweight and affordable VHF 
handheld that seems to do everything welL 
The TH-28A is a 5-1/8" x 2-1/8* x 1-3/8" {H 
x W x D) do-eve rything handie-talkie that 
weighs in at only 12 ounces, including its 
PB-13 standard nickel-cadmium battery 
pack. It contains some interesting features 
not previously available in "mini" HTs« 

For example, in addition to covering the 
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watts of transmitter power (using the normal- 
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TH-28A also receives the public service VHF 
band (136.000 to 173,995 MHz) FM as well 
as the VHF aviation band (118.000 to 
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these frequencies In memory or scanning 
through them, fust like a high-priced "scan- 
ner." In addition, it contains a "suboand" re- 
ceiver which tunes 438 000 to 449.995 MHz, 
thus covering the entire 70 cm amateur FM 
subband (for reception only). 

Unlike many earlier-generation HTs t the 
TH-28A can be charged during operation, 
as plugging in a battery-charging source 
does not disable the little rig. And it can be 
operated directly from a 13.8 VDC power 
source, including the optional PB-14 battery 
pack, or your automobile's cigar lighter, or a 
base-station power supply; and if operated 
at this higher voltage, the tiny radio pro- 
duces 5 watts power outputl 

Other interesting features include: 

•40 programmable memories, easily pro- 
grammed with very user-friendly instruc- 
tions, Once youVe done it the first time, you 
won't have to refer to the instruction manual 
again! 

■A well-written 63-page instruction manu- 
al to get you going. 

•Built-in DTMF tone pad and CTCSS "PL" 
tones (39 CTCSS tones total) are standard. 

•CTCSS ("PL 1 *) tones as well as TX/RX 
frequency offsets are all stored in each 
memory for quick and convenient QSY. 

•The transmitter can operate at any of 
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20 mW for line-of-sight work and extended 
battery life. 

•DTMF memories (10 total, storing 15 
digits each) allow full "autodial* operation lor 
telephone patching. 

•Programmable TX delay time to prevent 

52 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ February, 1 994 



TX unkeying during 
autopatch or control 
system dialing. 

•Dual-tone squelch 
system is standard in 
U.S. models, allowing 
DTSS "paging" with 
prearranged signals. 

DTMF (touch-tone) 
paging is also de- 
signed into the TH- 
28A, allowing pro- 
grammable paging 
codes to Identify the 
calling party. 

•Built-in 24~hour 
clock, accessible any- 
time you wish by 
pressing F+9 on the 
front-panet keypad. 

•To supplement the 




clock function, it also has a built-in electron- 
ic timer and alarm— you can literally use the 
HT as an alarm clock if you wish! 

•Crossband operation, transmitting on 
144-147.995 MHz while receiving on 438- 
449.995 MHz, is possible by pressing the 
F+BAIMD keys. 

•A large (3/16" alphanumeric) display 
which indicates RX frequency on receive 
and TX frequency on transmit, including a 
full-sized M 5" digit, with back illumination 
available by depressing the "LAMP" button, 
is easy to read day or night. 

■In the VFO mode, any frequency within 
its coverage range may be programmed di- 
rectly using the front panel keypad, (For ex- 
ample, to dial up y 146.520" MHz, you'd sim- 
ply push the "VFO" button, followed by 4-6- 
5-2-0 and you're there!) 

•Battery voltage ts monitored and dis- 
played every time you transmit, so charge 
state can be determined in advance of the 
unit "running out of gas," 

•With its Battery Saver function on (this is 
a default), battery life is incredibly long: The 
standard PB-13 seems to last more than 24 
hours (RX only) or eight hours of TX/RX in 
the "low* power mode (500 mW output) with 
50% duty cycle; it Easts about five hours in 
"high" power (2 watts output) with 50% duty 
cycle. This is long enough for almost any- 
body. The rig gives you sufficient warning 
that the battery is running down so you can 
switch to a charged spare. 

That's Not All 

Sound like enough features? There's 
more. The TH-28A's "on/off power switch is 
electronic, and is a recessed press-switch 
which is not easily depressed accidentally; 
but even if it were momentarily depressed, 
this would not turn the unit on, as the button 
must be depressed for more than one full 
second before it functions. This is a good 
feature — it saves the battery pack from in- 
advertent tum-ons. You can switch memory 
channels (in the "MR* 1 memory mode) or 
VFO channels (in the 'VFO" mode) using ei- 
ther the front-panel keypad or a continuous- 
fy rotatable switch mounted atop the unit. If 
you need to hear a station too weak to 
break the TH-28A's squelch setting, or one 
lacking the proper CTCSS tone if your unit 
is set in the PL RX mode, rather than ad- 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1994 53 



justing the squelch or reprogramming the rig 
you may simply press the "MONT button, 
which immediately breaks the receiver 
squelch and lets anything on frequency 
come pouring right through. Nice! 

The TH-28A's 16-digit front-pane t keypad 
may be a bit smalt, but the buttons are 
clearly labeled, and spaced adequately for 
my blundering touch, Possibly a man with 
really huge hands would have some difficul- 
ty, but he'd be the exception. The most-used 
controls, like "POWER," "MR," "VFO" and 
"VOL. 1 " are quite large and easy to handle 
for just about anyone. 

The rig's frequency steps are pro- 
grammable from 5 to 25 kHz/step. Every 
single memory (00-39, a total of 40 are 
standard) is capable of storing every piece 
of information that could possibly be need- 
ed, and alt will accommodate "odd splits* 
(i.e., TX/RX frequency offsets that are not 
standard). Even some higher-priced, much 
larger mobile rigs can't do that. Also, the 
MEM memory expansion option will fit the 
TH-28A to add 200 more memory channels 
to the unit, for a whopping 240 memories, I 
can't think of anyone who could possibly fill 
alt those up with anything useful, but it might 
be fun to try, 

ff you'd prefer to display information other 
than the memory channel frequencies, the 



TH-28A is capable of displaying anything up 
to six characters long for each memory 
channel. These notations can include the 
numerals 0-9 as well as the letters A~Z. So H 
if you'd rather remember your favorite local 
repeater as "BOZO" instead of 147.885 



"The TH-28A's 16-digit 

front-panel keypad 

may be a bit small, but 

the buttons are clearly 

labeled, and spaced 

adequately for my 

blundering touch. 



ft 



MHz, the rig can be programmed to display 
the name instead of the frequency, This 
function is addressed by one of the many 
"power up" commands; in this case, it's MR 
+ POWER that selects the alphanumeric 
menu. 

The TH-28A's scanning functions can be 
either time-operated or carrier-operated, 
and it's capable of scanning memories: 
memories excluding "locked out" ones; an 



Table 1. Performance Measurements vs. Specifications 
Kenwood TH-28A 2 Meter Hand-Held Transceiver 

Transmitter 

Output power with standard PS- 13 12 v 700 mAH battery pack: 
Specified Hkjh 2W Measured 2.6W 

Med N/A ?1W 

Low 0.5W 0.45W 

EL O02W 0.02W 



Receiver 

Sensitivity: 

Specified 



Less than 0,1 jiV squelch threshold 
Less than 0.18 ^V for 12 dB SJNAD 



0£ fiV @ 146.000 MHz 
0*3 \N © 146,000 MHz 



Other characteristics are unspecified, but we measured as follows: 



20 dB quieting sensitivity 



*DFQ" sensitivity (no discernible noise) 



Aircraft band performance: AM mode 
12dBSlNAD 



0.35 hV® 146.000 MHz 
0,35 jaV@ 138.000 MHz 
1.05 uV @ 173.995 MHz 
3.00 ^iV & 146.000 MHz 
3.25 fiV 9 138.000MHZ 
8.75 mV © 173.995 MHz 

1,80 mV @ 118.000 MHz 
0.45 uV @ 136.000 MHz 



Subband band performance: 433-450 MHz FM 

1 2 dB SINAD 1 .05 ^V © 438,000 MHz 

1.20 gV ©449.995 MHz 
Receiver limiting: Excellent. 50% AM modulation at 400 Hz modulation fate produces zero discernible 
demodulation, even down to squelch threshold. 
Adjacent channel rejection: 

For 1 dB desensitjzation 48 dB © 15 kHz, 146,01 5 MHz 

Out-of-band desense 114 dB @ 10 MHz, 156.000 MHz 

Notation: TH-28A RX "S" meter is a seven-segment LCD bargraph; segments 1, 2 and 3 illuminate in- 
dividually, but then segments four and five illuminate together and segments Six and seven illuminate 
together. Thus, the "seven-unit display* realty only displays five increments or incremental changes. 

General 

Frequency accuracy: Unspecified. Measured to be +800 Hz @ 146.000 MHz, The "offset" fs precise; 
thus any offset frequency is also +800 Hz. This is bound to vary a bit from unit to unit and will be 
affected by ambient temperature and age of the unit, 



entire band; a portion of an entire ban* a 1 
MHz range of your choice; a combination of 
the VFO and the last-used memory channel; 
a combination of the VFO and the CALL 
channel (more on this later); VFO + last 
memory used + CALL channel; and it's ca- 
pable of scanning either "'up" or "down" the 
band, with reversal of the direction driven by 
a single click of the tuning control Whew! 

The CALL channel, which would normally 
be your favorite one, is programmed using 
the M + CALL keys, and then recalled with a 
single touch of the CALL key thereafter. 
This allows you "instant QSY" to the CALL 
channel in memory, any time you wish, by 
pressing a singlB, large, front-panel key 

The unit's TX frequency offset is pro- 
grammed per the ARBL Band Plan for 2 
meters, and This is the normal default How- 
ever, the preprogrammed offset can be 
overridden with another "power up" function, 
in this case CALL + POWER. Any offset 
from to 99,9 MHz in 100 kHz increments 
may be selected manually and retained in 
memory for continuous use if you wish. 

As with most modern handie-talkies, the 
TH-28A comes equipped with a "LOCK* 
function {in this case, a slide switch) which 
turns off all controls except LAMP, MON! 
and PTT to prevent inadvertent reprogram- 
ming or GSY It also comes standard wfth an 
AOpowered "wall charger" (15 hours to fufly 
recharge a depleted battery pack), a belt 
clip (removable), carrying strap, flexible 
"rubber duckie" antenna, and a standard 
nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery pack. 

The antenna connector is a standard 
BNC receptacle (thank goodness— no 
weirdo plugs required), and even with the 
flexible antenna installed the overall height 
of the TH-28A comes to nine inches: Still a 
"pocket rocket* 4 to be sure. Optional acces- 
sories available (but not normally supplied 
with the radio) include: a speaker mike 
SMC-33 which features remote program- 
ming functions; the memory expansion unit 
ME-1 discussed earlier; a battery case BT-8 
to hold alkaline batteries; a 12 volt nickel- 
cadmium battery pack, PB-14, rated at 300 
mAH, which allows 5 watt operation (but not 
for long!); a clip microphone with earphone, 
EMC-1 ; a full-blown headset with VOX or 
PTT for transmit control, Model HMC-2; a 
base-stand rapid charger BC-15, which will 
recharge the NiCd battery packs in only one 
hour; a water-resistant bag WR~2 to alfow 
operation in the swamps(J); a choice of soft 
cases. SC-33 for the PB-13 standard bat- 
tery pack or SC-34 to accommodate the 
taller PB-14 pack; a filtered cigar lighter plug 
and cable, PG-3F; a fused power cord and 
connector for use with external 7,2 to 13.8 
VDC power supplies, Model PG-2W; and 
even a * swivel mount* for using the talkie as 
a mobile rig, Model BH-6. Good grief — no 
end of accessories for this little unit. 

Performance 

OK, OK already — how does the darned 
thing work? Like a charm! Its tiny speaker 
produces room-fifitng volume, although lack- 



54 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1 994 









ing great fidelity (an external speaker is a 
must for serious mobile work), and its inter- 
nal microphone brings on reports of "won- 
derluf and natural-sounding modulation 
from nearly everyone contacted. Once pro- 
grammed with active, local channels, the lit- 
tle radio is a real pleasure to use, I keep 
one memory programmed for the local 
NOAA weather station on 162.550 MHz 
(available in most parts of the country) and 
get my WX reports even before the local 
news stations. Around here, they even re- 
port local surfing conditions, real handy for 
those so inclined. I use another memory set 
to a CHP (highway patrol) frequency to lis- 
ten for reports of traffic accidents and routes 
best avoided until they're cleaned up. (Note: 
In some states it is a violation of local laws 
to have a receiver capable of monitoring po- 
lice frequencies in your car. These "scanner 
laws* are thankfully being abolished in some 
states that had them for years, but check to 
see if it's OK to use a scanning receiver in 
your area. If it's not and you're caught using 
one, the rig might be confiscated' Unbeliev- 
able, but ifs happened.) 

Most modern transceivers for VHF-FM 
(handhelds and mobiles alike) are highly 
sensitive, but not terribly selective against 
adjacent-channel or out-of-band interfer- 
ence. This is especially true of those rigs 
which have wide-coverage receivers that 
tune beyond the ham-band limits, like the 
TH-28A. This usually doesn't present a 
problem when the "talkie" is used with a 
less-than-zero gain "rubber duckie" anten- 
na, as received signals will never be all that 
strong, but it can be a pain when such re- 
ceivers are used with gam antenna systems 
on the car or at home. As such, I thought it 
would be important to make some bench 
tests on the TH-28A to determine just how 
much rejection it offers to adjacent chan- 
nels, distant channels, and out-of-band sig- 
nals. This data is reported, along with other 
measurements I made, in Table 1 ♦ 

All Things Considered 

It should be noted, and I've written this 
many times, that portable hand-held 
transceivers were intended to be used that 
way and not as permanent mobile or base 
stations. It is impossible to squeeze full- 
scale performance into a 1 5-cubic-inch ra- 
dio, especially considering that 4-1/2 cubic 
inches of that radio are consumed by the 
battery pack, and another 3-1/2 cubic inch- 
es are consumed by packaging (case and 
knobs). This leaves exactly 7 cubic inches 
for all the radio circuitry! To put this in per- 
spective, a pack of cigarettes has about the 
same volume (7 cubic inches). Consider 
that the HT's electronic "works" must all fit 
completely inside a pack of regular (not ex- 
tra long, or "100 mm") cigarettes. This in- 
cludes the frequency synthesizer; memory 
module; all receiver preamp, mixer and dis- 
criminator functions; all transmitter buffer, 
multiplier, driver and final amplifiers and 
heat sink; a powerful audio amplifier, speak- 
er and microphone; Interconnections; T/R 



switching; J/O ports; and controls. 1t f s quite a 
lot to jam into a pack of cigarettes, and 
doesn't leave much room for such frills as 
narrowband helical resonators in the receiv- 
er front end, muUipole crystal filters in the 
receiver IF, multiple receive conversion 

" . , It's hard to beat a 

"handle" for portable/field 

work, hikes in the woods, 

camping, biking, skiing, 

boating and similar 

temporary exercises, 

or carrying around at the 

local swap meet 



stages with "up conversion" to help reduce 
spurious responses and images, and so 
forth. 

The TH-2SA, like most small HTs, gets 
quite warm during extended transmission 
periods, running at its normal power level 
of 2 watts output. It gets bloody uncomfort- 
able when running 5 watts output, and 
makes me wonder how long it can really 
last at this power level without failure. HTs 
were not designed to support long "rag- 
chews," with stations transmitting for 10 
minutes at a time, nor were they designed 
to replace dedicated mobile units, If your 



primary use for a 2 meter rig is mobile 
operation, then by all means buy a mobile 
rig. If you want a base station rig for perma- 
nent home use, there are plenty on the 
market to choose from (base rigs are iden- 
tifiable by their built-in AC power supplies). 
But it's hard to beat a "handle" for 
portable/field work, hikes in the woods, 
camping, biking, skiing, boating and similar 
temporary exercises, or carrying around at 
the local swap meet And they make good 
temporary mobile rigs in a pinch. (I use an 
HT in rental cars when t travel out of town. 
With 2 watts and a u mag-mounr antenna, 
it's amazing what can be worked.) But just 
as magnetic-mount antennas are intended 
for temporary installations, so are handie- 
talkies. You cannot expect mobile rig or 
base station performance from a 12-ounce 
transceiver! If you do, you're bound to be 
disappointed. 

In ail, I love the TH-28A, No, it's not per- 
fect. I wish it had fewer high-tech features 
and more old-fashioned RF performance; 
but then, I wish the same of every HT I've 
used. I'd gladly trade 240 memories for 
some front-end filtering, and Td be willing to 
accept a portable that's 25% larger in trade 
for a triple-conversion receiver with a 1 6- 
pole IF filter. But Kenwood knows what 
they're doing and enjoys a huge worldwide 
market success. They're appealing to the 
largest cross section of users, and the TH- 
28 A has a tot of appeal. Not only that, but 
even my XYL (not a ham, not even close) 
thinks it's "cute." Can't ask for much more 
than that 



Choosing a Handheld 



If you're in the market for a handhheld, 
consider these factors: 

• All the modern "talkies" have good 
transmitters, ranging in output power from 
1-1/2 watts to about 7 watts. They sound 
good on the air. Power output has more to 
do with battery power available than any 
other factor, and most HTs will vary in out- 
put depending on the battery pack used. 
In general, the lower voltage but higher 
current packs will last much longer be- 
tween charges than the higher voltage, 
lower current packs will. The difference 
between 2 watts and S watts output is al- 
most inconsequential, so I'd almost al- 
ways recommend running lower power 
and using the highest-capacity (ampere- 
hour rating) pack available. The TH-28A 
comes standard with the PB-13 pack, rat- 
ed at 700 mAH, and Is an excellent com- 
promise between output power and oper- 
ating life. 

* The primary differences among the 
various HTs on the market can be found in 
their receiver performance, features, 
"standard" accessories, frequency cover- 
age, and ruggedness and reliability. The 
TH-28A's receive performance is very 
good, but the 'talkies" that cover only the 



2 meter ham band and have no extended 
range (frequency) coverage can be a bit 
better, since they are more optimized for 
the 4 MHz they cover. Unfortunately, this 
trade-off is technology-driven and we 
can't do much about ft without greatly in- 
creasing size, weight and price of the 
equipment. 

• I may be crazy, but to test the rugged- 
ness of the TH-28A I put it through a short 
series of environmental stress tests 
(which may void the warranty, so I don't 
recommend you do the same). I have ac- 
cess to mechanical shock and vibration 
testers, and also 85/85 environmental 
stress chambers (i.e., 85% relative humid- 
ity at 85 degrees C ambient temperature), 
at my work location. I subjected the TH* 
28A to shock and vibration as follows: 50g 
mechanical shock in all three axes with a 
10 mS shock pulse width; 50g vibration 
with rotating polarity; and 85/85 RH/temp 
testing for 24 hours. The HT worked OK 
after such stress testing, which is quite 
severe for consumer electronic equip- 
ment, but I had to let it cool down and dry 
off after the 85/85 test because it wouldn't 
power up at first. The TH-28A is a rugged 
piece of gear indeed! 



73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 55 



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were required, or the message length had to 
be kept short. Well, the folks at XPERTEK 
Electronics have changed all that with the new 
DVMS/1+ Digital Voice Mail System for re* 
peaters. 

This system stores digitized voice informa- 
tion on a computer's hard disk at a sysop-se- 
lectable rate, thus allowing a tremendous 
amount of recording time, limited only by the 
size of your hard disk. A hard drive with 20 
meg of free space can hold more than 30 min- 
utes of messages (that's minutes, not sec- 
onds!), which is more than enough to hold 
Westiink or a bunch of ID messages. With 
hard drive capacities now in the gigabyte 
range, it's hard to imagine not having enough 
room for all the ID messages anyone would 
ever want. 

Features include time and date voice read- 
out user-to-user voice mail, a genera! bulletin 
announcement system, a DTMF checker, a 



scheduler, a BBS system, and a signal check 
feature which lets users hear a short playback 
of their last transmission. Also provided are ro- 
tating ID capabilities and an access-codetess 
autopatch dialing system. 

In addition, the DVMS/1+ can interface with 
the popular RC series controllers from ACC, 
allowing the repeater controller to trigger vari- 
ous messages and respond to various com- 
mands from the voice mail system. 

The Hardware 

The XPERTEK system is composed of an 
interface card kit, a few connectors and ca- 
bles, software on 11 floppy disks, and a manu- 
al* It is not a complete system in itself. The us* 
er must supply the following; 

1. IBM-compatible computer (80286 CPU or 
higher is recommended) with at least a 20 
meg hard drive, 640K of RAM, an onboard re- 
al-time clock, and a 360K floppy drive. A serial 
port is required to interface with ACC con* 
trailers. A modem is needed as well if the BBS 
features of the DVMS/1 + are to be used. 

2, A Soundblaster (trademark of Creative 
Labs, Inc.) 8-bit audio I/O card. 

The DVMSH+ board serves as the interface 



between the PC and the repeater system. It 
has an on-board DTMF decoder, a multiport 
interface to the PC bus, four relays for various 
output functions, and some op amps and 
transfer gates for audio I/O interface. 

Although this is a kit, a complete schematic 
is not provided; only a partial schematic of the 
audio input stage is included in the manual. I 
found this to be such a great shortcoming dur- 
ing installation that I invested the time to trace 
out the schematic myself. XPERTEK would 
not provide a schematic. 

Construction and Installation 

Construction of the board is straightforward. 
The board is well-made and silk-screened. 
The manual provides guidance on which parts 
to install in which order It took me only a cou- 
ple of hours to complete the board, and it 
worked the first time. 

Installation was a bft more difficult. It took a 
few trips to Ihe repeater site and several calls 
to XPERTEK to get it right. Taking advantage 
of all the features of the DVMS/1 + requires 
making audio and logic connections to inputs 
and outputs of our RC-850 controller, connec- 
tions to the main and control receivers and the 




56 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



The XPERTEK DVSM/1+ digital voicg maii system. 



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transmitter, and connections to the Sound- 
blaster board and the computer's serial I/O 
card. 

The DVMSH+ manual attempts to tell you 
what each I/O pin connects to, but some of the 
descriptions are ambiguous, not really telling if 
the pin is an input or output. It was here that 
my traced-out schematic was invaluable. 1 
even found some non-fatal design errors on 
the PC board whicti XPERTEK said would be 
corrected in its next generation of boards. 

Software installation was quick and pain- 
free. Although there are 11 diskettes full of 
software to be loaded, the "Install" program 
makes it quick work. The software takes up 
about 10 meg of space on the hard drive. 

Operation 

All operations of the DVMS/1+ are prompt- 
ed by a pleasant female voice, which I under- 
stand belongs to a lady named Kathy from up- 
stale New York. She asks for user numbers 
and passwords, and even directs you when to 
talk. 

The voice mail system accommodates up to 
1,024 users, each with a unique user number 
and a user-configurable password. User ac- 
cess can be individually enabled and disabled 
for maximum control The system works fine, 
but takes many digits to operate. On our re- 
peater it takes at least eight digits just to tum 
on the voice mail system. Then the user must 
enter commands for the functions he wishes 
to activate. 

These lengthy codes are only needed for 
voice mail and bulletin functions. All other 



functions are lumped into what is called "Di- 
rect Access,* meaning that no lengthy access 
code or password is required. The sysop does 
have the option, however, to impose password 
protection on any function. 

One really nice sysop feature of this system 
is the ability to make the access and com- 
mand codes anything the sysop wants them to 
be. There are no preprogrammed prefixes that 
are cast \n concrete. The system comes with 
default codes for everything, but they are easi- 
ly changed. That's really nice. 

The general announcement system is avail- 
able to all users so that anyone can post an 
announcement for all to hear, 

The DTMF checker and time and date func- 
tions are standard fare on repeater controllers 
nowadays, but it's really nice when (he voice 
gives you the day of the week and the name 
of the month as well. There are several op- 
tions available to customize these readouts, 

A feature that has proven most popular on 
our repeater is the signal check feature. This 
allows users to replay a few seconds of their 
last transmission to hear the quality of their 
signat info the repeater. 

The scheduler makes it possible for the sys- 
tem to send control codes to itsetf and to the 
repeater controller at preset times, it adds ca- 
pabilities not available on the RC-850 sched- 
uler We can even use it to dial the telephone 
automatically and download data. 

The BBS system aflows limited control of 
the PC via modern, including reading directo- 
ries and file manipulations. All functions of the 
DVMS system can be accessed via the mo- 



dem. Messages and files can be uploaded via 
modem to avoid squelch tails and radio noise. 
You can even send commands to your re- 
peater controller via modem and the DVMS/1 + 
system. 

The access -code less autopatch dialer sys- 
tem enables the sysop to build a file of permit- 
ted telephone prefixes. Then when a user 
wants to make a call he simply dials the 
phone number desired. The DVMS/1+ checks 
the prefix. If acceptable, it sends the correct 
autopatch "ON" code and telephone number 
to the repeater controller, commencing the 
call, 

This system was harder to install than 
necessary due to difficulty with the manual 
and the Initial lack of a schematic. 

We experienced some crosstalk problems 
due to running various audio signals through 
the same mulliconductor cable supplied with 
the kit. but this was easily solved by running 
separate cables. 

When the computer first boots up, the 
DVMS/1+ holds the transmitter on the air until 
Its hardware initialization program is success- 
fully run. If it doesn't run successfully, your 
transmitter is locked on the air! 

The DTMF decoder on board the DVMS/1 + 
has different characteristics from the decoders 
in our RC-850, even when fed from the same 
audio source. Consequently, we had to do 
some audio level and frequency response tai- 
loring to get \\ to decode as well as the RC- 
850. 

This system will work with an old XT com- 
puter (80286 and above is recommended) , but 



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SH 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



CIRCLE 66 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



it will be too slow to be useful. We recently up- 
graded from a 286 1 2 MHz system which ex- 
hibited short (less than one second) delays, to 
a 33 MHz 386 SX system. Changing the moth- 
erboard did not make that big a difference. 
However, changing from a 20 meg 65 ms hard 
disk to a 50 meg 20 ms hard disk made a 
tremendous difference. Responses are now 
instantaneous, 

Do not add this system to your repeater un- 
less you have a way to remotely control power 
to the PC! This is an absolute must! 

Although a watchdog timer pulse train has 
been provided in the most recent software up- 
grade, implementation of the watchdog timer 
hardware is still left to the user, A future hard- 
ware release will no doubt incorporate a 
watchdog timer circuit, but al this time it is not 
avaiEable. 

XPERTEK is a garage-shop operation. Its 
proprietor, Andy Mill, onty wears his XPERTEK 
hat on nights and weekends. If you call, 
chances are you'll almost always get his an- 
swering machine or his "secretary." Funny, but 
he doesn't use a voice mail answering system! 

On the Plus Side 

There have been several software up- 
grades since we purchased the system which 
have virtually eliminated all software bugs, 
and have made some of the features easier to 
use. 

Despite initial misgivings about having a PC 
at a remote mountaintop site, we have gone 
through one cold winter, one lightning season, 
and one very hot summer with few PC-related 



problems. The only lightning -related PC dam- 
age has been to the modem, resulting from a 
direct hit which severely damaged much of the 
rest of the equipment. The DVMS/1+ was not 
affected. 

The DVM3/1+ creates a daily date-trme 
stamp log of all DTMF tones il decodes, which 
is more versatile in some ways than the same 

"These things have made our 

repeater the one to listen to in 

our area. Membership in our 

repeater club has jumped 

substantially since the 

system was added. " 

RC-850 function. It will store every digit it de- 
codes, not just the ones that activate func- 
tions, although it does also show which func- 
tions have been adivated. 

While I mentioned that telephone support 
was intermittent, t must also say that when 
you do make contact with Andy Mill, he'll go 
the extra mile to help work out problems. He 
has spent a great amount of time on the 
phone helping to get our system operational. 

If you want to customize some of the sys- 
tem's prompting messages, that is easily 
done, too. We have Jack Nicholson doing 
some of our prompts now! 

Conclusion 

The DVMS/1 + affords us (he capability of 
having a great variety of ID messages, sound 



effects, and humorous one-liners that pop up 
unexpectedly at the most opportune moments, 
all without worrying about how much memory 
is left. We have used the system for meetings, 
hamfests, and net announcements. Various 
users have posted "equipment for sale" and 
"equipment wanted" announcements. Local 
PC user's group and astronomy club mem- 
bers, who are atso hams, have posted their 
meeting announcements. We occasionally run 
an announcement inviting non-hams interest- 
ed in becoming hams to call a certain phone 
number for information on how to get into am- 
ateur radio, and we've received many calls 
from scanner listeners as a result. We have 
posted "Elmer bulletins to help new hams as 
welL Any repeater club member can post a 
bulletin without control op assistance. 

These things have made our repeater the 
one to listen to m our area. Membership in our 
repeater club has jumped substantially since 
the system was added. I believe that soon no 
advanced repeater will be without such a sys- 
tem — and this one is reasonably priced! 

A future software release will allow the 
scheduler to execute script files, which will al- 
low such things as middle-of-the-night auto- 
matic dial up and recording of West fink for us- 
er-requested playback at a future time. This 
software has been under development for 
some time and may be ready for release by 
the time this review is published. 

After working on and with the DVMS/1 + 
system for a year now T would I buy it again? In 
a heartbeat? I can't imagine our repeater with- 
out the capabilities this system affords. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* February 1994 59 




Rtty loop 



Number 12 on your Feedback card 



Marc I Leavey, M.D.. WA3AJR 
6 Jenny Lane 
Baltimore MD 21203 

Here in Baltimore it's cold, snowing, 
and not reafly a nice day to be outside. 
So, if it s nasty where you are too, why 
not look at some of the things you can 
do over a wami radio? Over Ihe recent 
past, I have been offering several 
disks of RTTY programs. Many of you 
have requested more information on 
these collections. This month, lets 
have a look at Disfc #4 of the "RTTY 
Loop* Software Collection. 

Before we delve into the programs, 
a word about shareware, freeware, 
public domain, and the like. Except lor 
the first term In that list, many such 
programs are free and in the public 
domain. This means that you may feet 
free to use them, or throw them away, 
or modify them, at your pleasure- 
Many ot the "free" programs carry a 
copyrighl notice, which means that 
you cannot claim authorship or nomi- 
nally incorporate them into a work 
which you then call your own, but at 
least the price is right 

Shareware Is a different story. 



Amateur Radio Teletype 



When you acquire a shareware pro- 
gram by downloading it from a bulletin 
board, getting it on a disk from a soft- 
ware vendor, or receiving it as part of 
the "RTTY Loop" Software Collection, 
you have not bought the program, You 
have obtained a copy to try out and, if 
you like it, you are requested to send 
the author the remuneration requested 
in the documentation. This honor sys- 
tem, "try before you buy" software, 
works quite well, and is the preferred 
system of distribution for many fine 
amateur radio products. 

Ail that aside, there are seven pro- 
grams in the current edition of Disk #4. 
They encompass a wide range of 
RTTY. DX, packet, and AMTOR capa- 
bilities. A brief synopsis of each pro- 
gram may help bring this into focus. 

DXER13^1P 

Written by WA6JOO to gain experi- 
ence in QuickBasic programming, DX* 
er is a versatile amateur radio pro- 
gram primarily of interest to the HF DX 
operator 

As he puts it, the DXer concen* 
trates several functions of interest to 
the serious DXer into one (hopefully) 



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CIRCLE 269 ON READER 

60 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



CARD 



easy-to-use program: 

•Bearing and distance from trans- 
mitter to receiver, Path ends may be 
selected by latitude-longitude, grid 
square, prefix, or by browsing through 
the data base 

•Sunrise and sunset limes for any 
location. 

•Maximum usable Frequency and 
frequency ot optimum traffic between 
any two locations. 

•A listing of all locations sharing a 
common terminator line (Gray Line). 

•Custom piinitng of bearing/dis- 
tance charts for any location, 

*A grid locator function using either 
six-digit or four-digit coordinate sys- 
tem. 

•A complete data base of all ARRL 
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The program is released for per- 
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the author is requested, if you feel it is 
of use to you + 

FAXFRQ-ZtP 

This is an informational file, with 
lists of HF frequencies of news and 
WE FAX stations monilored. tt was 
accurate when compiled, but this infor- 
mation is always changing. However, 
it's a good starting point for monitoring. 



PHS300-ZIP 

PHS, Version 3.00, is a host mode 
server program for the PK-232 written 
by Peter H. Heinrich HB9CW. It pro- 
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•Support of packet, AMTOR, RTTY 
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•User configurable conrvpoit colors 
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•Split-screen operation, 

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•Binary file transfer using YAPP 
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•Multi-channel operation (packet 
mode). 

•Heard Jist showing the path (pack- 
el mode). 

•NetfROM frames are decoded 
(packet mode). 

•Word-wrapping is available (pack- 
et mode). 

•Temporary exit to DOS. 

♦BuilNn message editor 

•Support for screens up to 00*60, 

♦16550A chip support with FIFO. 

The program *s free; the author re- 
quests only your comments on his 
work. This is a comprehensive pro- 



Ham help 



Number 13 on your Feedback card 



We are happy to provide Ham Help listings free on a space available basts. To make our 
pb easier and to ensure thai your fisting is correct, please type or print your request clear* 
fy. double spaced, on a full (8 1/2 m x tV) sheet ot paper. You may also upload a ftsttng as 
E-mail to Sysop lo the 73 BBS /Special Events Message Area #11. (2400 baud, 8 data 
bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (€03) 924-9343). Please indicate if it is for publication. Use upper- 
and tower-case tetters where appropriate. Also* print numbers cere fully — a 1. for example, 
can be misread as the letters 1 or i, or even the number 7. Specifically mention that your 
message is for the Ham Help Column. Please remember to acknowledge responses to 
your requests. Thank you for your cooperation. 



Where can J send to get an "Opera- 
tional Manual" for my HALLI- 
CRAFTERS Model SX99 Receiver? 
The manual is very important to my op- 
erating and maintaining mis equip- 
ment. Frank W. Arnold, 1215 Sullivan 
Ln. f fi82B r Sparks NV 89431. 

I am looking for info regarding the 
SBE (Sideband Engineers) Model 33 
80-15 meter transceiver; operation and 
service manuals, mike wiring dfagram, 
and modifications, Thanks I David Cot- 
burn AA 1FA, 130 Essex SL S. Hamil- 
ton MA 01982. Jet. (508) 468-2199, 
Ext 328; or packet © K1UGM. 

RADIO Lost or Stolen in the US 
Mail: A 2 meter ICOM Model IC-2SRA 
Transceiver; Serial #03304. Marked 
wfth call K1UXD. A well-marked priority 
package has not arrived at its intended 
destination, Reward for return. Thank 
you. Paul E Ketiy, 135 East Main SL t 
#V8. Weslborough MA 01581-2741 
USA. Tel. (50$) 896-3202. 

NEEDED: The schematic for a HAL- 
LICRAFTERS HT-32 transmitter, about 
1958 vintage, I'm anxious to get it back 
on the air. Al Smiley K8NOV, 9970 
Page fld.. Martette Ml 48453 



NEEDED: Information on schemat- 
ics, programming, and re-tuning 
of KENWOOD TK-801S down to 
440-450 MHz, A Esq looking for 6m 
SSB/FM and other VHF/UHF equip- 
ment and KENWOOD TR-751A acces- 
sories to Swap for computer parts and 
equipment. Thanks. Rob Betlvitte 
N1NTE. RO, Box 892. NorthbOTQ MA 
01532. 

I am a newly licensed Technician 
and am interested in obtaining informa- 
tion about usfng Repealers in my area, 
Ray Chase NiQFF w ML Peg Rd, 
Woodstock VT 05O91. Tel {802} 457* 
4084; FAX; (802) 457-4517, 

WANTED: Schematic and/or manu- 
al for PRECISION Apparatus Model E* 
2O0-C Signal/Marking Generator 
(copies ok); RCA Receiving Tube Man- 
ual (preferably late 60s-70's edition), 
Chet Smith WB2LUQ, R.D, #1 Box 30* 
Verona NY 13478, 

WANTED; Manual or copy of 
HP1707B HEWLETT PACKARD 75 
meg scope, I will pay copying fees els 
Mike N4BME. (804) 564*8821. 



gram, which has been ported to OS/2 
as well, and seems quite capable. 

PKTGOLD-ZIP 

PktGOLD is another multimode 
controller for AEA TNCs, This is a lest 
drive of InterHex Systems Design 
Corporations versatile control pro- 
gram. It enables control of packet. RT- 
TY. AMTOR, and other modes of the 
AEA series of controllers. 

The test drive is functional, but it 
comes with minimal documentation. It 
is free, and may be circulated at will. 
Full commercial versions of the pro- 
gram are available from the authors 
for $79.75 for the Enhanced version, 
and $59.95 for the Multimode version. 

PKTWINT1ZIP 

Written by Paul M. Hounslow. 
PktWin is a Windows-based con- 
troller for packet controllers. The 
controller is connected through the 
computer's com port, and modes 
and features configured via the pro- 
gram. 

With many of the switches set in an 
INI file, this is an economical, versatile 
program. No payment is requested by 
the author. 

TUWIN.ZIP 

Discussed fast June. TUWIN was 
written by Wayne E. Wright W5XO, 
and destgned as an accessory to the 
WriteCog Windows logging program to 



aflow Windows-based foggtng and HT- 
TY for contesting, as well as general 
operations, TUWIN works with old- 
style RTTY terminal units, like the HD- 
3030, MFJ-1229, or HAL ST-6. that do 
not do internal Baudot-to-ASCIi con- 
version. It thus should not be used 
with multimode controllers like the PK- 
232 or KAM. With a split-screen dis- 
play, text to be transmitted is entered 
into the lower window, received text is 
displayed in the upper window, 

The program uses the DTR and 
RTS lines on the serial port to indicate 
"transmit with the lines being keyed 



designed to reduce the overall "learn- 
ing curve" normally associated with 
this type of product. 

XPCOM was written originally for 
the MFJ-1278; however, it has also 
been structured to work with ihe AEA 
PK-232. Operation of the PK-232 has 
been optimized to use AEA's HOST 
mode. 

XPCOM offers the following fea- 
tures to simpfify operation for the user: 

■Pull-down menus, 

•Custom operation with the AEA 
PK-232 and MFJ-1278, 

•Dual-TNC support 



"Overall, this Is a neat, if bare-hones, 
approach to using an older terminal unit 
on RTTY, with a spiffy Windows display/ 



about 500 mSec before the first char- 
acter is sent, and continuing until 
about 500 m Sec after the last , 

Overall, this is a neat, if bare* 
bones, approach to using an older ter- 
minal unit on RTTY T with a spiffy Win- 
dows display. Again, this is a freebie! 

XPCOM 1, ZIP 

Gary Johnson KF7XP has his 
name on XPCOM. a program written 
to fill a void thai has existed in com- 
mercial software for digital communi- 
cations. The user interface has been 



•Mouse compatibility. 

•One-key brag file and text opera* 
Bon. 

•External interfacing to the user's 
favorite text editor. 

•Offers full packet, AMTOR, FEC, 
FACTOR, BAUDOT and CW modes. 

•Full use of the HOST mode for the 
AEA-PK232. 

•Simplified command structure for 
the MFJ-1278, 

•Multi-connect operation with XP 
Windows. 

•Intuitive on-Tine help system. 



•Quik-connect feature for packet, 

•Auto -route capable through brag 
text, 

•Real-time and background printer 
support, 

•Multiple ASCti file transfer in pack- 
et mode (AEA only), 

•Built-in logging, with AutoSearch. 

•Macro support, 

XPCOM is classic shareware, with 
the author requesting that if, after try- 
ing the program lor no more than 30 
days, you choose to use the program, 
you register it with him for the sum of 
$39, Still, this is quite a bargain. 

So t these are the programs in the 
"RTTY Loop" Software Collection, 
Disk #4, If you would like to obtain a 
list of programs included in these col- 
lections, send a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope to me at the above 
address, or Email on CompuServe 
(75036,2501), Delphi (MarcWA3AJR), 
or America Online (MarcWA3AJR). 
The collections themselves may be 
had by sending a 3.5" high density 
(1 ,44 Mb) disk, or equivalent capacity 
in smaller disks, for each collection; a 
stamped return mailer; and $2 for 
each disk to be filled, to the address at 
the top of this column. 

Next month we'll take a look at 
what some of you have had to say 
lately. Who knows, if you write today, it 
just might make it into the column be- 
fore summer! Stay warm, and see you 
next month. 



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1691 MHz Loop Yagi Antenna 

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Demonstration Disc {IBM-PC VGA compatible) 
of signals recorded from WX-SAT system. $3 

Shipping: FOB Concord, Mass. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 





SI 



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Post Office Box 1084, Dent. S 
Concord, Mass. 01742, U.S.A. 
Phone: (508)263-2145 
Fax: (508)263-7008 




BUY AMERICAN, BETTER PRICE AND QUALITY 



The SG2MC MF Transceiver is rype accepted for commerce and marine service 
made with traditional U,S. commerc^-il radio quality (and ol course rtcan be used 
on the ham bands also). While the Japanese radios have 2 final transistors that 
si rain lo put out tOQ watts on the low bands and only 75-&S walls on ten meters, 
t tin SG20G.Q has <t large transistors that loaf along at ISO watls on ALL the 
BANDS INCLUDING 10 METERS! Some ot (he SGSQOti laaluros are: 1} A 
control head rempfab-le (no special ki( necessary} up to 150/ away from the rig, 
perfect for automobiles and boals. Up to 8 heads can be uliii/od and used as 
intercoms also. 2\ The largest display of any MF transceiver. 3) 644 pre- 
programmed memones and 100 user programmable memories. A) operable from 
-50F H15C) to 1&5F (*fl5C| You want quality right? Here IS what EVERY 
SG20Q0 must endure before they're shipped from me factory: "*) They're factory 
aligned. £} EVERY SG2QO0 is keyed down at ftfl power (CW f 50 Walts) into an 
open antenna lor about 10 seconds, then connecied to a shofled antenna and 
keyed down for an additional 10 seconds. 3) EVERY SG20O0 is put in the 
-BURN-IN" rack and keyed down for 24 tours non-slop al fufl power CW. Don't try thai with the foreign radios. 4} EVERY SG20GG is 
Then le-checked tor at yncm and put w the TORTURE RACtC where they are keyed on and ofl every 10 seconds tor 24 rxwrs. 5) 
The 5G2D0G is men re-evatusted and as control functions are verified to ensue thai me microprocessor rs up to spec, then and 
ONtV THEN tS THE SG2QQQ ALLOWED TO LEAVE THE FACTORY. 

The bottom ine is price, you know how expensive commefciat rigs am normally, until DEC 3? we are seflng me SG2M0 BELOW 
DEALER COST at only Si ,585.00 each* That's a $400 00 savings' We guarantee me best price. 



The 5G230 SMART- TunER is the best HF autotuner ai any price, and to 
promote a product tftat is made in the USA, were olfenng <t at the guaranteed 
best price of only $449,0011 WHY THE SG2307 BECAUSE Wh<jn you lune an 
antenna at its base you are resonating the antenna, instead of lust matching me 
coax to the radio as wtlh other tuners such as the ATS0. etc The result YOUR 
SIGNAL GETS OUT MUCH BETTER. The Kenwood AT50. AT450 and other 
Similar tuners can only match 3:1 mismatches (YES only 3;1) so Tqrgel matching 
anything but a fairly decent antenna, The SG230 can match Irom 0.5 Ohm to 1Q 
Nlohm antennas (up lo a 200 l1 mismatch), so it can easily match random wires, 
diodes, rain- gutters, shopping carts, etc. The msull MORE POWER. 



Td order send check or money order with S8.50 lor shipping, along wih your shjppmg address, (sorry no US Post 
Otfc? Boxes, UPS will not deliver) and Telephone number v.. 

Joe Brancato 

THE HAM CONTACT 

PO Box 3624, Dept 73 
Long Beach, CA 90803 

CA Residents Add a 1/4% Sales Tax. Canacfan Reorients ptaaatetnd US. Mane* Order * Si7 TO tor sttoppmg. 

If y<HJ wish more information ptease serrd a SASE to the above address, for COO orders, call 
(310)433-5660, outside of CA Orders Only an (800}933-HAM4 and teavc a message. 





i 

Serving The LORD 
Since 1987 



CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 384 ON READER SEHVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 61 




14 on your Feedback card 



S CORNER 



Joseph 1 CarrKdlPV 

RO. Box 1099 

Falls Church VA 2204 1 

Some Miscellanea 

Every now and then I like to take a 
few potshots at those topics that read- 
er mall Indicate are of interest to you, 
but thai requires Jess than a whole col- 
umn's worth of discussion. This month 
we will take a look at a couple of cir- 
cuits that fall into that category. You 
mfgh! find them interesting. 

Before going on, however, let me 
reiterate that my printed circuit boards 
for the MAR-1 preamplifier are still 
available for $7. You can get them ei- 
ther from me directly (P.O.Box 1099. 
Falls Church VA 22041) or from FAR 
Circuits (18N640 Field Court. Dundee 
IL 601 18}. FAR makes boards for most 
73 projects, I also have some MAR-1 
chips left, which sell for $4.95 each, or 
alternatively, I'll send you both the 
MAR-1 and the printed circuit board, 
plus eElher 100 pF or 1,000 pF chip 
capacitors, for a total of $10. I'll keep 
the offer open while supplies last. 

Let s take a quick look at two differ- 
ent circuits; first, an active bridge am- 
plifier for Wheatstone bridges and dif- 
ferential output RF bridges; and sec- 
ond, an audio notch filter. 



Bridge Amplifier 

Many bridge and other measure- 
ment circuits have balanced or differ- 
ential outputs. That is. the output is 
not single-ended, which is a voltage 
measured with respect to ground, but 
is floating. A differential output has two 
floating lines, and the output voltage is 
proportional to the difference between 
the voltage appearing between each 
line and ground. 

Rgure i shows a circuit for an out- 
put meter that will serve as the output 
for such a bridge. Amplifier A1 is an 
operational amplifier connected in the 
DC differential amplifier confJgu ration. 
Provided that R1 = R2, and R3 = (R4 
+ R5) T the output of this circui! is; 

Vo=V2 - V1 (-M-) 

In the specific configuration shown 
in Rgure 1, the gain (R3/R1) is unity 
(1), so the circuit is relatively insensi- 
tive, By increasing R3. R4 and R5 by 
a factor of 10, you can get a gain of 
10, or increase the components by 
100 and the gain goes to 100. 

A signal output voltage is provided 
to the "rest of the world" through J 1 \r 
most cases, J1 will be an RCA phono 
jack or a BNC chassis-mounted *RP 
style connector. The alternate output 
is a zero center iGO \iA (up to 1 mA 




Photo A. Oscilloscope trace showing input and output of the notch fil- 
ter (49 dB attenuation). 



can be used) DC microammeter. Po- 
tentiometer R6 is a sensitivity control 
that permits adjusting the deflection of 
M1 without varying the bridge circuit 

Amplifier A2 Is a buffer amplifier to 
isolate the light emitting diodes, or 
LEDs (D1 and D2). that serve as a vi- 
sual output indicator. Two LEDs are 
selected that have approximately 
equal output levels. To select, connect 
both diodes such that each is in series 
with an 820 or 1 ,000 ohm resistor 
Connect them across a 12 volt DC 



power supply so that both are illumi- 
nated. If both diodes are approximate- 
ly the same brightness, then use 
them. Otherwise, swap out one of the 
diodes with others (LEDs can be 
bought In bulk) until a match fs found. 

When connected Into the bridge 
amplifier circuit, D1 and D2 are oppo- 
site in polarity. Diode D1 will light up 
when the output of A2 is positive, and 
D2 will light up when the output of A2 
is negative. When the voltage is zero, 
neither lamp is lit. As a result of this 



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A TNC is not needed! (but we do have an 
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Many ATV repeaters and individuals are retransmitting 
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it Is being done in your area on 70 CM - check page 461 
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RC. ELECTRONICS Tom (w&org) 

2522 Paxson Ln Arcadia CA 91007 Maryann (WB6Y5S) 



62 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



feature, the illumination will \el you 
know when the bridge supplying the 
input signal to A1 is in balance {V2 - 
Vi = 0), or in which direction tt is un- 
balanced, 

I've used this circuit on a number of 
Instruments and found that It works 
welL The illumination of the LEDs 
drops off smoothly until a pom! very 
close to null is reached. However 
don't even think about using it in sun- 
light. Under outdoor conditions you 
probably won't see the LEDs when 
they are fully lit (remember those mid- 
1970s calculators and digital watches 
with the LED readouts?). 

The active devices are operational 
amplifiers. I've used 741, 1458. CA- 
3140 and CA-3240 devices for this cir- 
cuit. The 1458 and OA-324Q devices 
are dual op amps, so only one is 
needed to accommodate both A1 and 
A2. 

The DC power supply connections 
are not shown, but each device needs 
V- and V+ DC power supplies {unless 
a dual op amp is used, in which case 
only one connection is needed for 
each V- and V+), 

Audio Notch Filter 

A notch filter is a band reject filter 
i.e. it rejects a narrow band of frequen- 
cies around the center frequency. Sev- 
eral uses are made of the notch filter. 
CW buffs sometimes build two types 
of filters, A high-Q band pass filler will 
pass onfy the 400 to 1,200 Hz signal 



V1 



GND °~ 
V2 °- 



R1 

10K 

y\AAA, 

R2 

10K 

yvwv 



R3 

10K 

yvwv 




3« 



R6 

Sensitivity 



t 




M1 

100 - - 100 MA 





Figune I. Bridge null voltmeter/amplifier. 



that you desire to copy. A notch filter, 
on the other hand, will reject the de- 
sign frequency, so it can be used to 
eliminate unwanted interfering signals. 
For example, you might design a 



bandpass filter to pass, say, BOO Hz 
(or whatever is comfortable for you), 
and a notch filter to take out 600 or 
1,000 Hz. Interfering signals could 
then be attenuated even further than 



the slope of the bandpass fitter indi- 
cates. 

Another use tor the notch filler is to 
reduce the 60 and 120 Hz hum in the 
output of audio amplifier circuits. You 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 63 



may find that long leads, noise from 
the power supply, or other defects 
cause an unwanted amount of hum in 
either your transmitter or receiver. I 
built an active notch filter lo eliminate 
the hum frequently heard in direct con- 
version receivers that are powered 
from the AC power mains. The notch 
fHter is placed in the signal line be- 
tween the output Of me detector/mixer 
of Ihe direcl conversion receiver and 
the input of the audio amplifier 

Rgure 2 shows the circuit for a sim- 
ple notch filler that is tunable. There 
are other designs, but they require du- 
et potentiometers or dual capacitors to 
tune them over even a small range of 
frequencies. 

The active devices are operational 
amplifiers. You can use any op amp 
that will work at the frequency range 
you need. For communications purpos- 
es (F less than 3,000 Hz}, a 741 is suf- 
ficient; a 1458 will suffice for boih A1 
and A2 because It is a dual op amp. 
For higher frequency ranges use CA- 
3140 or CA-3240, or any other device 
with a high gain bandwidth product. 

The input and feedback resistors 
are not too critical, but 2501c ohms to 
2.2 megoghms are recommended. 
What is necessary, however, is to 



make Rl = R2 and R3 = 



R1 



The notch frequency is found from: 



o - 



I 



2k jRaRbCaCb 



For a 60 Hz notch niter, good val- 
ues to start with are 124k ohm for Ra 
and Rb T 1,500 pF variable for Ca and 
1 uF forCb. Scale these values down- 
wards for higher frequencies, using 
the above equation as a guide. 

Photo A shows an oscilloscope pre- 



sentation of the input and output sig- 
nal from the filter at resonance (I.e. 
when the Input frequency is at the 
notch frequency) In the filter used for 
this test I used the 60 Hz version and 
the values described above. The Input 
signal (upper trace) was a 1 volt p-p, 
60 Hz signal from my function genera- 
tor, white the output signal (tower 
trace) was barely visible at the same 
scale on the oscilloscope vertical in- 
put, When the vertical input was ex- 
panded, it was shown that the notch 
filter produced an attenuation of 49 dB 
at the notch frequency, plus or minus 
the measurement error of my equip- 
ment. 

NiCd Battery Charging from DC 
Power Supplies 

A reader wrote to me and asked if it 
is possible to charge hand-held 
transceiver nickel-cadmium batteries 
from +6 or +12 volt DC bench power 
supplies. The answer is an unequivo- 
cal yes and no. If the DC power supply 
has a current llmiter control as well as 
a voftage output control, then yes; if 
not. then no * . . don't try it without 
special knowledge. The procedure is 
simple: 

1. With the current limiter all the 
way on (zero output current), and the 
voltage set lo about a third of the bat- 
tery terminal voltage, short-circuit the 
output ot the supply and then slowly 
increase the current to a level that is 
1/10 of the ampere-hour rating of the 
NiCd battery; La if you use 500 mAH 
batteries, then set the short -circuit out- 
put current of the supply to 50 mA 

2. Remove the short circuit, and in- 
crease the voltage output of the DC 
power supply to the exact potential of 
a fully charged battery (see instruc- 



v in 




Figure 2, Audio notch filter circuit. 



tions for the particular battery pack). 

3. Connect the battery to the sup- 
ply, being careful to observe polarity. 
Charge at 1/10 level for 14 hours. 

The battery can blow up if charged 
too rapidly, or if too high a voltage is 



used. That's why the current limiter 
and output voltage adjust controls are 
needed, I prefer to place the battery in 
a small wooden box to prevent "shrap- 
nel" in case the battery does blow up. 
Good luck and wortc safe. 



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Joe Moall RE. K0OV 
P.O. Box 2508 
Fulferton CA 92633 

Texas T-Hunters Trap Teen 
Thief 



"Every ham needs a basic under- 
standing of the principles of transmitter 
hunting." Tnafs what 1 tell ham dubs 
and convention forums in my talks on 
radio direction finding (RDF). Of 
course I hope that when I'm finished, 
everyone in the audience will want to 
try friendly RDF competitions (usually 
cailed foxhunts or T-hunts). These 
events add to the camaraderie of our 
hobby while teaching useful propaga- 
tion and electronics skills. 

Bui even if you never set out to find 
a radio fox r you will probabfy find RDF 
techniques useful in your future ham 
experiences. Perhaps you*!! want to 
join a chase team for a high altitude 
ham balloon launch, or find an annoy- 
ing source of interference, such as a 
noisy thermostat or cable TV leakage. 

Dallas DF Detectives 

When someone's transceiver Is 
Stolen or there is a stuck carrier on 
your local repeater input, you'll be 



Radio Direction Finding 

ahead of the game if you have already 
assembled and installed some mobile 
RDF gear, You will be even better off if 
you have accumulated some T-hunt 
experience. Tom Lewis AB5CK proved 
ttits a few months ago when he used 
his RDF skills to foil a young radio 
thief. 

AB5CK regularly goes T-hunting in 
the Dallas/Fort Worth area. "My friend 
Randy Hariin AA5WJ teaches music at 
a middle school,* says Tom. "He is ah 
so the owner and operator of a 2 meter 
repeater, which he likes to monitor with 
a dual-band handheld at work. One 
day the HT was stolen off his desktop. 
The taker apparently had little knowl- 
edge of ham radio and was unaware of 
how to change frequencies. Before 
long, there was a rash of profanity over 
Randy's repeater. He called me that 
evening. 

"We speculated that the unlicensed 
profane operator was the student/ 
thief," Tom continued, "and we 
guessed that he might make additional 
transmissions the following day after 
school. To speed up the process, I 
asked Randy who coutd have done it I 
got the names and addresses of his 
primary suspects, then centrally locat- 



ed myself In my car outfitted with T* 
hunting gear." 

Sure enough, the profane transmis- 
sions started again shortly after school 
let out. Tom quickly got a bearing. "Bin- 
go! From the bearing, ! knew it was 
probably one kid, so I drove straight to 
his apartment building. I drove around 
the property while he was cussing, and 
the RDF antenna just kept pointing 
right at one window. He was using a 
subdued voice so family members 
would not hear Ihe profanity.* 

Luckily. Tom was not spotted by his 
target as he circled the area. Once he 
was sure that he had the right resi- 
dence, he made a transmission saying 
that he was out front and that the radio 
must be returned. To our surprise, the 
thief complied," says AB5CK. "This 
eliminated the need to have the au- 
thorities search his home, We couldn't 
have been luckier!" 

So AASWJ's rig was quickly recov- 
ered. Tom left disciplinary action to the 
school, but he is sure that the incident 
was not treated ligmty, Of course, sto- 
ries such as this don't always have a 
happy ending, but it pays to be ready, 
Plan now. as there is no time to build 
your gear once a bootlegger or stuck 
carrier is on the air. 

An Improved Bug Buster 

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Figure 1. Measurements by KOOV of input RF levels for each of the 10 LEDs at 2 meters 
for both the CCB sniffer kit and the factory adjusted R20. The -29 dBm R20 threshold cor- 
responds to 8000 microvolts across 50 ohms. 



Figure 2* Measurements by KOOV of sensitivity versus frequency for 
the CCB and R20 at 146 MHz, The -36 dBm input level at HF and low 
VHF corresponds to 3500 microvolts across 50 ohms. 



tiers and a bar graph display. With an 
upgraded voltage regulator and en do- 
sure, the project cost about $70 to 
buRd 

Recently. Optoelectronics Engineer- 
ing Manager Bill Owen KD4HGT en- 
hanced the COB circuit, shrunk it to 
pager size, added amplitude modula- 
tion detection, and renamed it the R20 
AM Interceptor, shown in Photo A, 
With surface-mount technology and 
chip components, it has a dramatic im- 
provement in UHF and microwave 
sensitivity. 

An LM3915 logarithmic bar graph 
IC drives the display, so each succes- 
sive LED represents approximately a 2 
dB increase in signal strength (Figure 



1). This helps you guess your distance 
from the transmitter. If you don'i like 
the factory settings for zero and full- 
scale RF levels, you can modify them 
by tweaking two internal controls. 

Using the supplied non-resonant 
R20 antenna, my 1/2 watt 2 meter fox 
transmitter with 19" whip was detected 
(one LED) 140 feet away. AH 10 LEDs 
were on at 45 feet. On the other hand, 
a very low power transmitter (49 MHz 
cordless phone handset) did not light 
any LEDs on the R20 until it was 13 
inches away. 

With a f our -element 2 meter quad 
connected to the bare R2Q circuit 
beard, detection range of typical 1 watt 
foxes will be several hundred feet. Of 



course, as In the car commercials, 
your results may differ, depending on 
transmitter power, antenna, multipath. 
and effects o! other RF sources <n the 
area. 

As Figure 2 shows, the R20 is 
sEightly less sensitive than the CCB on 
the 2 meter and 125 cm bands, but It Is 
more sensitive elsewhere in the spec- 
trum, particularly at UHF and above. 
The R20 showed the normal leakage 
from my microwave oven (2400 MHz) 
at ha If -scale indication, compared to 
quarter-scale on the CCB. 

Coupling capacitors tr\ the CCB and 
R20 are selected to roll off response 
below 4 MHz. I OOtiJd not hear audio of 
a 50,000 watt AM station with it until I 



was a block away, The display read 
only half-scale when I was too feel 
from the towed So don't try to use the 
R20 to hunt signals on 160 through 40 
meters or in the AM broadcast band. 
This rolloff was designed in deliberate- 
ly, Without it, sniffed-out VHF signals 
would be QRMed by local AM broad- 
casters and covered by 60 Hz hum 
from nearby power wiring. 

Supply current drain is 25 mtl- 
liamperes with no LEDs on and 84 mA 
with all 10 lit. There are no indicators 
for power on or low battery. Specified 
life of the standard 9-volt battery is 
three hours minimum, but this is very 
conservative. I measured full sensftrvt- 
ty operation down to 6 1 volts, thanks 



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66 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 



to a low-dropout LM2931 regulator in- 
side. Besides, you can sniff out the T 
in less than three hours, right? 

The supplied whip antenna conve- 
niently telescopes down to fit entirely 
in the R2D case, but it is only 12 inch- 
es fong when extended. No external 
antenna jack or RF ground return con- 
nection is provided. That's fine for 
quick checks of your 2 meter handheld 
or for listening to the local airport tower 
as you sit in the terminal, but for bear- 
ings with your directional antenna, you 
will need to make some modifications. 

For serious T-hunt work, consider 
removing the 2 ,6" x 2.1" circuit board 
from Its plastic case and mounting it in- 
to a small metal box with a BNC or 
UHF connector for your RDF antenna, 
I suggest you choose a box big 
enough for two batteries and a selector 
switch. With a spare, you can qwckly 
recover from "battery death" in the 
middle of sniffing out the hidden X 

While the R20 does a good job of 
receiving nearby AM-mode aircraft 
band transmissions, KD4HGT of Opto- 
electronics warns against using it on 
your next flight. Even though it has no 
escalators to interfere with communica- 
tions or navigation systems, he says it 
Is illegal to operate it on a commercial 
aircraft, 

FM signals cannot be demodulated 
by the R20 under normal circum- 
stances, but they "quiet" the back- 
ground hiss. This phenomenon can 
help identify FM emitters. Occasionally, 



the audio of an FM transmitter is read- 
able if multipath (signal reflections 
from buildings, walls, etc.) causes two 
or more signal components to arrive at 
the R20 antenna at approximately 
equal levels but with time/phase differ- 
ences. 

If demodulating near-field FM sig- 
nals of unknown frequency is impor- 
tant to you, consider upgrading to the 
larger and more expensive ($359) Op- 
toelectronics R10 FM Communications 
Interceptor, 

The R20 has no volume control I 
found that earphone volume on 100 
percent modulated VHF AM signals is 
comfortable, but might be inadequate 
in places with nearby loud noise. In 
any case, you should have no problem 
figuring out whether the AM signal 
you're tracking is CB, aircraft, ELT, am- 
ateur, or something else. 

Unlike the CCB, the R20 is not sold 
in kit form. The suggested retail price 
for an assembled/tested unit is $119. It 
is available from the manufacturer and 
some ham radio dealers. For more in- 
formation, write Optoelectronics, 5821 
North East 14th Avenue, Fort Laud- 
erdale FL 33334 or phone (305) 771- 
2050. 

Computerized Display Update 

A lot of hams are also digital enthu- 
siasts, so It's no surprise that interest 
remains high in computerized systems 
for mobile RDF bearing taking and pro- 
cessing. Jerry Boyd WB8WFK recently 



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reported his progress in upgrading his 
setup, which was described In "Hom- 
ing In" for January and February 1993. 

Jerry uses a manually-rotated 2 me- 
ter beam with the mast angle (azimuth) 
and signal strength sensed, digitized, 
and plotted by a laptop computer. Re- 
cently, he replaced the analog poten- 
tiometer azimuth sensor with a 
Hewlett-Packard 10- bit shaft encoder. 
The encoder works great, much better 
than the analog pot" Jerry told me. '1 
got a James Millen gearbox, so I have 
the analog pot and the encoder on the 
same shaft" 

Much of Jerry's effort has been to- 
ward speeding up the system. As de- 
scribed last year, it took data for 25 
seconds, then pEotted 256 bearing 
points and calculated azimuth of the 
best bearing. 'The original 1f>per-sec- 
ond sample rate was not fast enough," 
WB8WFK says. "The data between 
points was real ragged. Now I have so 
many points that you can see the 
shape. Even on a noFsy signal that 
barely raises the S-meter, you can ac- 
tually see the shape of the lobe." 

WBSWFK's new laptop computer 
has a 386 CPU running 25 MHz with a 
VGA liquid crystal display, This allows 
him to eliminate the external Mioromint 
ZS board. Azimuth and signal strength 
data from the analog-to-digital convert- 
er unit now goes directly into the com- 
puter through the parallel port at much 
higher speed. 

Jerry's new plotting software is writ- 



ten in C language. u l have two new 
trigger modes to start data taking. I 
can trigger on antenna rotation or sig- 
nal strength. Usually, I wait for the car- 
rier to come on, then start spinning the 
antenna. When it detects motion, it 
starts acquiring data at 200 times per 
second, then automatically plots. 

'Also, I have an overplot mode, sim- 
ilar to a storage oscilloscope. If I start 
turning again, It takes data again with- 
out erasing the previous plot, so two 
plots are now visible, I can save data 
to disk, but only data from the most re- 
cent sweep, The software also pro- 
vides correction for vehicte heading. 
When you enter in the reading from my 
car compass, the software corrects the 
display to be relative to true north." 

Jerry is a regular participant in Albu- 
querque T-h lints, which begin at 9 a.m. 
on the first and third Saturdays of ev- 
ery month. The starting point is on the 
University of New Mexico campus and 
the frequency is 146.565 MHz simplex. 

WB8WFK would like to compare 
notes with others who are experiment- 
ing with computerized bearing displays 
for rotating VHF yagis and quads. You 
can write to him at his Callbook ad- 
dress. Of course 1 I'm eager to hear of 
your new RDF ideas and devices, too. 
Write to the address at the top of thfs 
column or send e-mail to 
JoeMoetl@cup-poJlaLcom (Internet) or 
75236,2165 (CompuServe). My packet 
address is K0OV@WB6YMH.#SO- 
CA.CA.USA.NOAM. 





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CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 67 



Number 16 on your Feedback card 



■ ■ wumoer id on your r&eo 

Hams with class 



Carole Perry WB2MGP 

Media Mentors. Inc. 

RO. Box t3164€ 

Staien Island NY f0313-OOO6 

Payload Packaging 

Twice a year my school district in 
Stolen Island, New York, has a profes- 
sional growih day for the teachers. 
Various workshops are offered for 
teachers to get enrichment and to ex- 
pand their expertise and teaching tech- 
niques. In November I was fortunate 
enough to get into one of the NASA 
workshops, along with 200 other 
teachers in the district. The NASA 
workshops were so popular that they 
had to run five o( them simultaneously. 

The seminar ran all day, and each 
NASA instructor covered a great deal 
of information. They each emphasised 
their own area of specialization, such 
as chemistry, physics, or aviation. You 
should have seen grown-up people 
who happen Id be teachers making pa- 
per airplanes and flying them around 
the room. At most NASA educational 
workshops tons of material is distrtout- 
ed. At the "paper airplane* session I 
got a wonderful activity book called 
Sky School. There are at least live 
lessons in this book that would be an 
excellent addition to the curriculum of 
a ham radio program. 

When I do a unit on space travel 
and communications with my sixth, 
seventh and eighth grade ham radio 
classes, I like to Include something 
new every term. There is a plethora of 



charts, maps, photos, books, and pam- 
phlets available from the NASA Teach- 
er Resource Centers across the coun- 
try. Some of the materials are free 
most of the others are inexpensive. 
I've included a very useful address for 
teachers a! the end of this column. 

Any instructor who uses SAREX 
lesson plans and activities in the class- 
room wili find the Tayload Packaging" 
lesson to be a terrific experience to 
add to your repertoire. The topic areas 
are: a. Prelection from vibration, accel- 
eration and deceleration; and b, Shock 
absorption. 

The materials required per student 
are one raw egg and one container 
wilh the following restrictions: no larger 
than 6' x 6" x 6*; must weigh at least 
one pound (total weight with egg). Oth- 
er materials include assorted packing 
materials, cups for the eggs, a trash 
can to dispose of the packaging, targe 
trash bags, triple beam balance (espe- 
cially if density calculations are used), 
a ruler for volume measurements, a 
stopwatch for drop times, and newspa- 
pers. 

Trie Lesson 

Pivotal question: Can an egg be 
packaged in a container so that it re- 
mains unharmed alter being dropped 
from a height of at least 30 feet? 

Background Information: Although 
shock absorption is an important part 
of aeronautical engineering, this activi- 
ty emphasizes creativity In design, A 
background discussion should solicit 




Photo A, The NASA enrichment lessons expose youngsters to career opportuni- 
ties and introduce them to new interest areas tor hobbies. 



the many commonplace uses of cush- 
ioning. Examples might include (he 
evolution of tires, padded rails on 
school buses, rides in amusement 
parks, baby car seat requirements, 
and food packaging. 

Suggestions: Prepare the class for 
this activity at least one day ahead of 
time. Suggest ideas for the variety of 
packaging materials students can try 
for packaging the egg, (You might want 
to add the restriction that no money be 
spent on this assignment). Provide 




Photo B. Ham radio classes love to do enrichment activities from the NASA educational programs, in this photo, students 
brainstorm tor the "Pay/dad Packaging" fesson. 

SB 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



newspapers to cover tables for the 
egg-drop. Be prepared for a mess 
when some of the eggs break. Stu- 
dents should package the eggs at 
home. Prepare a "cut away" package 
for display. 

Procedure 

1 . Assign the students to prepare a 
container with the above mentioned re- 
strictions, in which they have pack- 
aged a raw egg. Encourage students 
to package their eggs with materials 
they believe will prevent It from break- 
ing after being dropped from a mini- 
mum height of 30 feet. 

2. Have students bring in their box- 
es. Provide arrangements to verify size 
and weight. Provide labels for students 
to write their name on for the boxes. 

3. Have students complete handout, 
"Payload Package Drop." 

4. Go around the room and have 
each child describe what materials he 
or she used to package the egg. List 
the items on the board. Have the stu- 
dents predict which eggs wHl make it in 
five categories: a. Survival in good 
health; b. Living . . . but with cracked 
Skull; c. Unconscious, with brain dam- 
age; d. Total scramble; e* Missing in 
action, 

5. Drop the egg packages, one at a 
time, from a height of at least 30 feet 

6. Bring the "dropped" packages 
back into the classroom, where stu- 
dents open them. 

7. After everyone has checked their 
eggs, count up the number of eggs in 
each of the categories and. as a class, 
record the results, 

6. Discuss results of egg-drop activ- 
ity. Assess and rank-order the quality 
of materials for shock aosorbency. 
Highlight possible modifications in de- 
sign for packages with eggs that did 



not survive Interpret Ihe usefulness of 
shock absorbency to areas other than 
flight. 

Review of what the students will do: 
They witt discuss payload packaging. 
Students will design a "Blueprint" for 
the design 0/ a package for the raw 



Patterson Biggs. Aerospace Educa- 
tion Services Project, NASA Head- 
quarters, Code XEO Washington, D.C. 
20546; and Debi Dyer at Science In- 
structional Specialist, Virginia Beach 
City Public Schools. Virginia Beach, 
VA 23456. 



"Any instructor who uses SAREX lesson 
plans and activities in the classroom will find 
the 'Pay load Packaging' lesson to be a terrific 

experience to add to your repertoire. " 



egg, They will construct a container to 
protect a raw egg. They will record and 
discuss data and results. 

Follow-Up 

Here are some good suggestions 
for follow-up activities: 

1. Provide awards in various cate- 
gories—best decorated package, most 
colorful package, most unique pack- 
age, most lifcety to scramble, survival 
of the fittest, and messiest. 

2. Have ihe students drop the box- 
es with a homemade parachute, bal- 
loon, or other air-drag device. 

3. Package multiple eggs. 

4. Investigate existing designs in 
running shoes. 

Information Sources 

The Sky School instructors are 



NASA's Central Operation of Re- 
sources tor Educators is known as 
CORE. It was established for the inter- 
national and national distribution of 
NASA -produced educational materials 
in audio- visual format. Educational ma- 
terials include videotape programs, 
computer software . and slide and film- 
strip programs that chronicle NASA's 
state-of-the-art research and technolo- 
gy. To apply for the CORE catalog, 
contact: CORE Lorain Coynty JVS 
15181, Route 58, South Oberlin OH 
44074; phone: (216)774^1051 Ext 293 
or 294. 

For more information about how 1o 
get your school Involved with the 
SAREX (Shuttle Amateur Radio Exper- 
iment}, write to: Educational Activities 
Department. ARRL, 225 Main Street, 
NewingtonCT 06111. 



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CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 69 



Qrp 



Humber 1 7 on your Feedback card 



Michael Bryce WBBVGE 
2225 Mayflower NW 
Massiiion OH 44&4B 



The Argosy, Continued 

The original Argosy, the model 
525, was introduced in the summer 
of 1981, The basic rig went for $549. 
The 525 was discontinued in the 
summer of 1983 to coincide with the 
arrival of the Argosy II. the model 
5250, The base price for this rig was 
S599. The Argosy 1/ was discontirv 
ued early In 1988 at a price of S745. 
Many thanks for Tom Saliveiti of Ten- 
Tec for digging up those details from 
the Ten-Tec archives. 

The Argosy and the Argosy II have 
been in demand ever since they were 
introduced back in 1981. So, it's not 
surprising lo see hams making modi- 
fications to these rigs. 

In an issue of (the now defunct) 
Ham Radio magazine several years 
back, an article appeared on modify- 
ing the Argosy, For the life of me, I 
cannol locate the issue or identify the 
author of the work, 1 do know it was 
quite extensive and included a digilal 
readout lor the Argosy I. In fact, I've 
been told, some of the receiver modi- 
fications were included in the Argosy 



Low Power Operation 



11 by Ten*T©c, If my memory serves 
me. the modifications were rather 
heavy-duty. They were definitely not 
beginner mods you would make in an 
afternoon soldering session. If you 
know the name and call of the author, 
and the month and year of the article, 
how about dropping me a line? Id 
like lo tell others about this piece, 

RF Gain Control Mod 

One of the most common com- 
plaints about the Argosy is the lack of 
an RF gain control. The modification 
I'm describing requires you to do 
some soldering directly to the PC 
board of the Argosy. If you don't feel 
comfortable doing this, then don't! 
The modification is simple, requiring 
only a potentiometer, a diode, a re- 
sistor and a soldering iron. This RF 
gain control modification is by Ten- 
Tec from their QTC bulletin TN2-525. 

You'll need a dual concentric 10k 
potentiometer. Remove the audio 
gain potent romeler Connect the orig- 
inal audio control wires to the center 
potentiometer Refer to the schematic 
in Figure 1 . Connect the rear section 
of the potentiometer as shown. With 
that done, you now have a variable 
RF gain control and audio gain on 
the same potentiometer. But, youll 




Photo A. The two crystal fitters are dearly shown in the Argosy if. The 100 watt in* 
put PA is hidden under the shield. 



end up losing the power switch, You 
must then either Turn off Ihe power 
supply to Ihe Argosy or use the mag- 
netic cfrcuil breaker if you're working 
from a 12 volt battery supply. I don't 
know if Ihis modification will work 
with the Argosy II— I havenl tried iL 

To eliminate the dual pot for the 
above modification, wire in the noise 
blanker so it's on all the lime. This 
frees up the noise blanker switch. 
You can use the noise blanker switch 
to turn on the above circuit. A small 
VQk trimmer would repEace the panef- 
mognted potentiometer. You end up 



12V 



1N414S 



10K 



4 



> 



To Junction 
Of 09 and D10 
Cathodes On 
IF/AF Board 60785 



10K 



Figure 1. Schematic for the RFgain control modification to the Argosy. 



with a fixed attenuation pad of say 10 
to 20 dB- A hunk of perf board would 
hold the parts inside the rig. 

Dial Light Mod 

Another popular modif teat ion cen- 
ters on the dial light for the meter, In 
the Argosy II, you can turn off the 
LED display, but the meter light still 
remains On, The modification is Sim* 
pfe; You just rewire the meter light so 
it is controlled by the same switch as 
the display. So, when you turn off the 
display, the meter light goes out, too. 
This really saves the juice when 
working from a battery supply. 

More Goodies 

Since you can have your choice of 
crystal fillers with either model, some 
of you may not know that Ihe basic 
four-pole 2,5 kHz filter may be 
swapped oul for a narrower filter, an 
eight-pole with a 2,4 kHz bandpass. 
It's a Model 220 filter. Most of the 
crystal filters are stifl available from 
Ten -Tec. The same goes for instruc- 
tion manuals and most of the parts 
making up the Argosy series, 

Another little-known fact about the 
Argosy is its ability to drive an ampli- 



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70 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ February. 1 994 





Photo B. These two trimmer pots set the ALC for high power and tow power. 



Photo C. The meter tamp can be easily turned off with the LED display. 



fier. Granted, the SO waits of RF out- 
put won't drive your Heath kit SB200 
full blast, but you can make it work. 
Randy KD8JN drives his Heath am- 
plifier with an Argonaut 509. He won't 
say how much he gets out. though, 

Ten-Tec made a small PC board 
which would fix inside either Argosy. 
Tneir part number for this module is 
80853. This module would provide a 
delay break -in to control an external 
amplifier, It's a rare find, it you want- 
ed to, you could easily make your 
own control board to do the same 
function as the 80853 board. 

There are two more easy-to-do 
modifications for the Argosy II. They 
involve the setting of the ALC trim- 
mers. There are two trimmers on the 



80784 D board. One sets the high 
limit for the high power position white 
the other will control the low power 
position. If you're are a real QRP nut, 
then 5 watts output Is way too much 



my power supply is my battery bank, 
its nominal voltage is 12.5 volts , so I 
have the ALC set for high power at 
40 watts RF output. Higher output 
power is possible, but the ALC LEO 



'Like I said, You'll have to pry 
my cold dead fingers off of 
my Argosy II." 



power. By adjusting the ALC trimmer, 
you can have the power level you 
want and still have fuN ALC control. 
This is something the original Argosy 
did not provide. I have the ALC set 
for my QRP position at 2 watts. Since 



won't light when operating on the bat- 
tery supply, 

If you have a dead transmitter on 
an Argosy I, Y\\ put my money on a 
blown driver transistor on the RF/mix- 
er board #80784. Its Q3, the one 



with the small heat sink It seems if 
you switch from high to low power 
white transmitting, youll popQ3, 

If your Model 525 will not read for- 
ward RF power, check diodes D6. 
D7. and D8- Also check for continuity 
on L15. It has a tendency to become 
open. All these parts are located on 
the SVWlGw-pass filter board #80805. 

Even I ho ugh they are no longer 
made, both the Argosy t and Argosy 
II can still be heard on the ham 
bands. It's really rare not lo hear one 
during a QRP contest. At Dayton, it's 
very common to see a sign on some- 
one's back reading, Want to buy 
Argosy ! or IL Like I said, You'll have 
to pry my cold dead fingers off of my 
Argosy IL 



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Number 18 on your Feedback card 



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P.O. Box 636 
Franklin IN 46131 



Getting Started with TCP/IP, 
Part 5: AUTOEXEC.NOS 

[This column is Part 5 in a series on 
using amateur TCP/IP. In this series 
we are using KA9Q NOS in the form 
of JNOS (WG7J) version 1.07b or 
1.08c. The software is available in the 
"Packet & Computers" area of the 73 
BBS; (603) 924-9343, 300-2400 baud, 
8 data bits, no parity, one stop bit.} 

The primary configuration file 
for NOS is AUTOEXEC, NOS, Thts 
file functions much like DOS's 
AUTOEXEC.BAT Entries in it are exe- 
cuted as if typed in at the JNOS com- 
mand prompt. JNOS also offers a fa- 
cility to include other files in 
AUTOEXEC.NOS by reference. 

Some entries in AUTO 
EXECNOS are position-dependent — 
that is, certain statements must pre- 
cede them to get the expected result. 
For the most part, though, the order in 
which statements appear in the fiEe is 
arbitrary. In order to easily learn about 



Digital Amateur Radio 



the AUTOEXEC.NOS file, we'll divide it 
into logical sections. These sections 
are not enforced by JNOS — they are a 
convenience for us, 

Let's take a look at the conventions 
used in the AUTOEXEC.NOS lite. Be- 
low is a typical entry: 



isat 



yes 



# 286/336 ciock 



"isat" is the parameter that we are set- 
ting (this tells JNOS that you are using 
a 286 or better clock). Separated by an 
arbitrary white space — spaces or 
tabs— is. In this case, a binary switch. 
It is called "binary* because it is either 
on or off. Most JNOS commands that 
use binary switches accept a variety of 
values; y, yes, true, on, 1, set, enable 
(to turn a feature on); and n, no, false, 
off, 0, clear, disable (to turn one off). 
The ri # a precedes a comment. Whatev- 
er follows a # on the line will be ig- 
nored by JNOS as it processes the file. 

Creating a Working 
AUTOEXEC.NOS 

Let's start our look at the entries 
that are necessary to produce a work- 
ing JNOS station. These are the en- 



tries that create a basic configuration 
which will let you get your JNOS sta- 
tion on the air. 

DOMAIN 

The domain command sets or dis- 
plays parameters related to mapping 
between names (e.g.: nlewo.ampr. 
org) to numerical (e.g.; 44,48.70.21) 
addresses, and provides a way to add 
DNSs (Domain Name Servers) to your 
configuration. 

This translation service is very im- 
portant. To understand why, let's take 
a look at the two types of addressing. 
Numerical addressing is the '"native" 
way that TCP/IP determines how to 
find a device on a network. Here's 
how it works: Each numerical Internet 
address consists of four bytes. Each 
byte — eight bits of information — can 
have one of 256 values. When an in- 
ternet address is written it is usually 
done by writing the value of each byte 
(in decimal notation — that is base 10 
or "normal 11 ) separated by a dot (.), In- 
ternet addresses come in three class- 
es—A, B f and C, Class A addressing 
uses just the first byte to distinguish 
the network; the fasl three bytes are 
for the "host 1 ' or device version. This 
sort of addressing is used when there 
are few networks and lots of devices 
connected. Class B uses the first two 
bytes for the network, which balances 
the number of available network and 
device address. Class C (you guessed 



it!) uses the first three bytes for the 
network address, the last byte for de- 
vice addresses. 

The most common addressing 
class used in the amateur TCP/IP 
world is C. Amateur addresses always 
start with 44. This is the address for 
the domain AMPR.ORG; the name 
amp l org amps to the addresses that 
lie in the 44.xx.xx.xx address space. 
All amateur addresses assigned by IP 
coordinators are sent to a host at the 
University of California at San Diego 
called mirrorshades,ucsd,edu + This 
host acts as a router. This means that 
any time there is traffic anywhere On 
the Internet that starts with 44, it is 
sent to mirrorshades, which looks at 
the address and sends it on its way to 
the correct gateway. 

The second byte in an amateur In* 
ternet address points to a particular 
region of the world. For example, 
44. 48. xx. xx is somewhere in Indiana, 
because of the 48. The 48, in this 
case, is the Indiana subnet. How the 
next two bytes are used is up to the lo- 
cal IP coordination mechanism. Here 
in Indiana, we have regional subnets 
(yes, you can have subnets in sub- 
nets). I am located in subnet 70. This 
makes my first three bytes: 44.48.70; 
add 21 to this and you have my com- 
plete address: 44.48.70.21. 21 is the 
host (I also call this "device," since ft 
could be any sort of networked hard- 
ware) portion of the address- There 




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72 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



are up to 255 devices on the 70 sub- 
net. Why not 256? Because, by con- 
vention, hosts are never assigned 
addresses: these are reserved for 
networks. The address 44,0.0.0. (or 
example, addresses the traffic to the 
ampr network. 

OK, so now you have some idea of 
what the numerical address is and 
how to read it. What about the name 
stuff? Obviously the numerical ad- 
dress is not particularly user friendly. It 
is also absolute — thai is, always points 
to the same machine or device. 
Names get around both of these 
things. First, it Is a lot easier to re- 
member ntewo.amprorg than 
44.46.70.21. The first part is my call; 
the second is the name of the amateur 
Internet subnet. This formula works for 
mast amateurs on Internet — though 
some use SSIDs (Secondary Station 
Identifiers, e.g.: N1EWO-1) or other 
names. 

The other advantage of names is 
that where they map can change arbi- 
trarily. For example, a while ago. in 
this column, I reported on K9IU and its 
Internet*:— >ampmet gateway In the 
piece 1 specified K 91 Li's numeric (In- 
ternet) address. Because of mis, when 
the sysops of K91U had to make 
changes to their hardware confrgura- 
Con. which moved the gateway to a 
new Internet address, they had to do a 
bunch of fancy footwork. Had I instead 
Just told you about K9IU.AMPR.ORG, 



it would have been a simple matter for 
the sysops to tell mirrorshades that 
this name now mapped to the new ad- 
dress. 

So this domain stuff is pretty impor- 
tant Most of your domain name ser- 
vices will come from looking at a local 
file called DOMAIN.TXT— this tile con- 
tains names and their associated In- 
temet addresses. To do this name-to- 
address mapping, JNOS looks in the 
DOMAIN,TXT file and finds the entry 
that matches the name it is working 
with. This means opening the file, and 
parsing (reading and interpreting) it— a 
very (time-) costfy operation. A TCP/IP 
conversation involves lots of packets . 
each with a header that might require 
this translation. Because of this, set- 
ting up the domain services can have 
an effect on performance. 

The first setting well look at is the 
cache size. A cache is a space in 
memory which is sat aside to store 
some particular sort of memory ob- 
ject — in this case, a name* — >ad- 
dress mapping. When JNOS needs to 
make a translation it will first took in 
the cache (much faster than opening 
and reading a file) and use what it 
finds there. If you have recently com- 
municated with a station this informa- 
tion may reside in the cache and 
speed things up. Trie cache size is set 
with the command: 

domain cache size <n> 



where domain is the command, 
cache size is the subcommand, and 
<n> is the number of entries to be 
cached. The limit Is based on avail- 
able memory and the default is 5. You 
should set this parameter to a number 
large enough so that you usually don't 
have to open your DOMAIN. TXT file. 
You can tell if this Is happening by 
watching for disk activity when your 
station tries to resolves name. 

The next domain subcommand of 
interest is "translate." This subcom- 
mand determines if JNOS will try to 
convert numerical addresses to 
names whenever it displays them (in 
trace mode, for example), This can be 
a real CPU hog. so unless you really 
need it, turning it off is a good idea. To 
do this, the entry should be: 

domain translate off 

The last domain subcommand for 
the AUTOEXEC, NGS needs some ex- 
planation. It involves the use of a Do- 
main Name Server, or DNS. If you live 
within radio earshot of a real internet 
gateway this may be of use to you. A 
DNS is a machine that has a compre- 
hensive DQMAIN,TXT file. When you 
try to use a name that does not ap- 
pear in your own DOMAfN.TXT file, 
JNOS will contact a DNS that you 
have specified. If the DNS has the 
name you are looking for. JNOS will 
add it to your DOMAfN.TXT This is a 
great service It you can take advan- 



tage of It. The command looks like 
this; 

domain addserver<host> <time 
out> 

where domain is the command, 
addserver is the subcommand. 
<host> Is the host ID of the DNS. and 
ctimeout> is an optional timeout in 
seconds. 

You can control whether your sta- 
tion updates the local DOmain.TXT 
based on the DNS server response 
with: 

domain update <boolean> 

where 'domain" is the command, "up- 
date" is the subcommand, and 
"<boolean>* is on, off or one of the 
equivalents mentioned earlier. 

Finally, you can turn your own sta- 
tion into a DNS using the command: 

domain dnson 

where "domain" is the command, "dns* 
is the subcommand, and "on" enables 
the DNS server built into JNOS— the 
default is off + 

Next month we'll continue with 
AUTO EXEC. N OS, taking a look at in- 
terface configuration. (NOTE: A work- 
ing JNOS AUTOEXEC. NOS file is 
available on the 73 BBS in tfie 'Packet 
& Computers' file area. The fife is 
named: JNOSAUTOTXT.) 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* February. 1994 73 



Number 19 on your Feedback card 



Number la on your hi 

Above & beyond 

VHF and Above Operation 



C. L Houghton WBBfGP 
San Diego Microwave Group 
6345 Badger Lake Ave. 
San Diego CA 92119 

The winter weather and all of its ill 
effects should keep you indoors 
awhile, leaving you more time for in- 
house construction projects. Continu- 
ing along with that theme, this month I 
would like to cover a few little gems to 
keep you and your soldering iron busy. 
Let's consider construction of pream- 
plifiers for the low VHF range. This 
month Til cover component selection 
and parts substitution, and how to 
modify circuits accordingly. The prima- 
ry goal is to use components you have 
on hand. Consider a dual -gate MOS- 
FET preamp for 30 MHz. See Figure 1 
for the schematic details. 

The amplifier shown in Figure 1 can 
work well over the frequency range of 
10 to 50 MHz. The 40673 duahgate 
MOSFET is capable of higher frequen- 
cy operation; however, there are better 
devices today for those applications. If 
you want to build this circuit it will 
work; however, it is primarily used for 
component selection examples. With 
the schematic diagram (Figure 1) in 
mind P lets go shopping for parts. Don't 



go and purchase everything brand- 
new — a lot of retailers would appreci- 
ate that, but rather see what compo- 
nents you have on hand that can fill 
the bill to hold down costs and keep 
the project in a "hobby" realm. 

Use the design in Figure 1 as a 
guide. It need not be followed exactly; 
most component values can be varied 
about 10% without changing the circuit 
performance. You do not have to use 
the exact material specified for the res- 
onant elements (tuned circuits). 
Changing these components can be 
very cost-effective if you can use 
something you have on hand. 

Let's take a closer look at the reso- 
nant elements, the inductors and the 
capacitors that form this part of the cir- 
cuit. The inductors used in this circuit 
are two variable 2.1 microhenry {\i\-\) 
coils and two 25 uH inductors* What 
do we go shopping for in the coil de- 
partment? Two or three RFCs whose 
value is 25 u\H and two 2.1 jdH induc- 
tors for the resonant elements. The 25 
\xH RFCs role on the input is not very 
apparent This RFC provides a ground 
return for both the input tuned circuit to 
the ampfifier and a DC path for the de- 
tector diode to ground. See Figure 4. It 
also matches the diode's higher 



impedance. (Here is my chance to slip 
in some microwave activity), Thts 
preamplifier is normally used in WBFM 
applications for a diode detector in a 
microwave cavity. For 10 GHz d this is a 
section of waveguide, and for lower 
frequencies it could be a tin can called 
a polapiexer It's basically a tin can or 
waveguide whose size/opening is the 
right dimension for the frequency of 
use. For 10 GHz, a copper pipe 1" in 
diameter is about right. For 1296 MHz, 
a one -pound coffee can is perfect. The 
diode detector is placed 1/4 wave- 
length at frequency from the back of 
the can and at 90 degrees in reference 
to the diode orientation. There are sev- 
eral ways this same coupling can be 
done but this is the most inexpensive 
method. Such a detector diode has an 
impedance of about 200 to 400 ohms, 
and when coupled to a preamplifier it 
will deflver maximum when the amplifi- 
er input circuitry is matched to this 
same impedance range, hence the in- 
put circuitry. 

The output inductor (RFC) is used to 
separate RF and DC, It drives up DC 
power from the output coax and powers 
the amplifier for operation in a remote 
location from the main station equip- 
ment. The other two coils comprise the 
tuned circuit and are shown as variable 
coils. They can be fixed if we wish to 
make the capacitor (15 pF) variable. 
The circuit will work well either way with 
variable coils or variable capacitors. 
This is one of the cost-effective choices 
to make by using your "junk box.* 



What form can the inductor take to 
make the circuit work? As an example, 
take a toroid that is capable of working 
at 30 MHz. Look at Table 1 . Looking at 
toroid cores from Amidon Associates, 
a popular amateur parts supplier, we 
determine that a T-XX-6 or T-XX-12 
core is suitable. 

At this point the -6 (yeiiow core) is 
the most important ingredient. The 
table states that a -6 core is good for 
10 to 90 MHz use. A red core -2 could 
be used, but the frequency stated is 
not suitable; it's good from 1 to 14 
MHz max. Alternately, a -12 core 
(green and white) would work, but 
that's kind of overkill; put this idea in 
the "might use" category. A -6 (yeElowJ 
core would be an easier core to locate 
In the junk box as it is very popular, 
more so than a -1 2. In either case, let's 
use the -6 yeliow core and proceed to 
wind a 2.1 u.H inductor. 

The Amidon charts ilst the toroid 
cores by core size (the XX above) and 
type (-2 or -6 or -12, etc.). Amidon has 
published a numerical value called 
"AL H or hiH per 100 turns}. With this 
U AI_" value for a selected core Size we 
can compute the exact number of 
turns for our 2.1 pH inductor, Let's se- 
lect a T-25-6 core. By the way, the "25" 
of the part identification number refers 
to the size of the outer diameter of the 
core, in this case 1/4V In comparison, 
a T-37-X would be a core with a 0.37O" 
diameter. Now, looking at Table 1, the 
U AL" value for the T-25-6 core is 27 T 
That means that for 100 turns on a T- 




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CIRCLE 55 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



74 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1 994 



25-6 core the inductance would be 27 
pit (Note: We might not be abte to get 
100 turns on this size core, but this is a 
figure used for calculations only and 
not actual windlngj. To determine what 
2.1 uH would be, a littte math is need- 
eo\ 

Table 1 shows inductance if you 
were able to wind 100 turns on various 
type cores. On some smaller cores it is 
impossible to wind 100 turns so this 
number is imaginary but it is used in 
calculating the required inductance 
from that "AL* number. 

The formula to determine the turns 
required is as follows: turns = 100 
times the square root of the required 
nductance. A required inductance of 
2.1 \*H divided by an AL of 27 equals 
0.07777777. The square root of 



0.07777777 is 0.278886675, and that 
times 100 equals 27.388. So we need 
28 turns of wire on our T2S-6 core for 
an inductance of 2.1 ^R For this appli- 
cation, a wire size o( #28 to »30 gauge 
enameled wire woufd be used. Bene- 
fits from this selection are that the in- 
put and output toroidal coils would not 
couple between each other, minimizing 
a condition called talking or crosstalk. 
That's oscillation when the input of an 
amplifier finds the output. 

Toroid cores maintain the magnetic 
field within the core structure and mini- 
mize external fiefafs. You can verify 
resonance of your loroid and its capac- 
itor combination by using an instru- 
ment catted a grid -dip meter. Toriod 
cores are difficult to grid-dip without 
some external coupling added for test 



purposes, To grid-dip a toroid tuned 
circuit, put a turn or two on the core 
and make an external two-turn coii 
with a short section of wire. Couple the 
dip meter to the external temporary 
coil and you will read the actual toroid 
resonant frequency directly on the 
grid-dip meter. Adjust accordingly to 
meet your parameters. Add or remove 
turns or vary capacitance values to suit 
your requirements. Trying to do this 
without the link coil for testing is very 
difficult, See Figure 3 for this method 
of grid -dipping a toroid core. 

An alternate to the toroid coil would 
be a small 1/8* or so diameter slug- 
tuned coil form. This fomi could be tak- 
en from an old TV set IF amp circuit or 
similar circuitry from a junk PC board. 
Remove the coil form and any wind- 



Pi 



RF Input 
Zo = 200 




P2 




L2 
2.1u H 

mm 




L4 
2pH 



rprrL 



C5 
.01 

-II- 



25uH 



R4 
100 



CO 
.01 



Li 

25 a H 
(Optional) 



CO 



^mLm> ■■ * 



C7 

.01 



1 



.Optional) 



Figure 1. 30 MHz IF preamplifier schematic diagram. 



ings on the form. For aiF coil form 
(slug-tuned), 12 to 14 turns of #24 wire 
have worked well for me. You can ex- 
periment with the wire gauge and par- 
allel capacitor using the same old grid- 
dip meter for testing before placing the 
coil and required capacitor in the cir- 
cuit, I am trying to remember— I be- 
lieve that I used a 25 to 40 pF capaci- 
tor to resonate the circuit at 30 MHz, A 
factor in this case was that the coil 
form I used had a ground shield 
around the coil form and this affected 
the entire circuit Also, using a selec- 
tion from the junk box can lead to 
some uncertainly on what you have 
form* wise, but verification with the 
grid-dip meter will remove all doubt. 

Remember to measure everything 
so it will properly fit in the circuit. Also, 
placing shielding in close 
proximity to the coit form 
can detune the circuit; 
keep this in mind when 
placing shielding. If you 
do not use a shield cover 
(can), there could be sub- 
stantial coupling between 
input and output and oth- 
er shielding techniques 
need to be employed. 
Give different methods a 
try as not much is at risk 
here. The benefit from 
this construction Is cost 
because you are more 
likely to find junk coil 
forms than toroids. Check 
out stability and add 




— zo = so 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1994 75 




Figure 2. Drilled and etched PC hoards (or the 30 MHz iFpreamp are available for $4 plus $1.50 S&H per order from FAR 
Circuits, 1BN64Q Field Court, Dundee, tL 60t1S. 



shielding if needed to make the circuit 
an amplifier instead of an oscillator. 

Another consideration for the reso- 
nant circuit is to put a capacitor of 60% 
or so of total value in trie circuit and 
use a small- value variable to make fur- 
ther adjustments. This can be a real 
benefit towards expert mentation, I am 
not going to get inlo other considera- 
tions such as device substitution for 
the 40673 duaf-gate MOSFET 

The tuned circuits that are used in 
ttie input and output circuit can take 
many different forms and the results 
will be nearly the same. Some experi- 
ence can be beneficial but you aren't 
dealing with a high dollar amount so 
you can experiment and learn a ioj 
through what I call the "Edison Effect* 
That's the procedure used by the 
renowned inventor Thomas Edison 
who. through many failures, created 
devices of excellence. 

What I mean is that you should feel 
free to use a substitution component in 
different circuits and sea what the re- 
sults are. They might not all work well 
but I assure you that with a few tries 
success will be yours. If the design 
used fixed capacitors and toroid- 
wound inductors to a specific induc- 
tance, be assured thai the creator of 
this circuit used an impedance bridge. 



or Amidon's coil chart, to determine 
the number of turns required. In either 
case, ine exact component does not 
need to be used. Improvise something 
and try it out. What do you have to 
lose but time and a component you 
have on hand? Even if it does not work 
you have gained something from the 
school of hard knocks, Most of the 
lime a substituted component wiJI work 
and do it well. 

One other thing to remember is that 
any coil you wind will vary from a stock 
circuit. Using Amidon's chart tor the 
to raids they sell will result in a coil very 
near the inductance you desire. But, 
as with all things, it depends on how 
you distribute the wire turns on the 
core, Toroid cores wound for maximum 
efficiency have their wire spread or 
distributed over at least 80% of the 
core- 
Slug-Tuned Coil Forms 

You can replace toroid cores with 
s ma i [-diameter coll forms and fixed or 
adjustable capacitors and the results 
will be the same as long as coupling 
between the different coils is not great. 
Coils and capacitors can be preset be- 
fore mounting to a circuit by checking 
with a grid dip meter. This is actually 
an oscillator with an indicator and will 



indicate resonance in tuned circuits— a 
very handy instrument on the work 
bench, f have had several of them over 
the years and the grid- dipper I now 
use is a James Mill en solid-state unit. 
There are many different models and 
they all are quite good. I have even 
seen some in military surplus for under 
$50. 

Well, that's all I have to contribute 
on ihe selection of the components 
that seem to be most troublesome. 
The other components for capacitor 
values and resistor values need not be 
difficult and 10% or more tolerance 
components work out well. The only 
consideration here is in the capacitors 
that will carry RF; they should be se- 
lected from disc ceratntc or mica types 
for good low-loss capabilities. If the 
frequency of the amplifier is increased 
to. say. over a GHz, then chip capaci- 
tors would be a better choice. Stan- 
dard chip capacitors or surface-mount 
chip capacitors exhibit low inductance 
as they have no leads to hook them In- 
to a circuit. They are essentially lead- 
fess. 

As you increase frequency again, 
from higher in the GHz range to over 3 



GHz. special low- loss chip-type capac- 
itors need to be used. These capaci- 
tors are stilt chip-type capacitors bul 
are constructed out of special low* loss 
materials such as porcelain for a very 
high dielectric and low-loss character- 
istics at higher frequency microwave 
work, Each one of these levels in com- 
ponent parts represents a price in- 
crease for increased quality of the 
component. Disc capacitors are about 
a dime each, mica caps are 30 to 50 
cents each, surface- mount capacitors 
are about 50 cents each, and high- 
grade low-loss HP types for microwave 
run from 50 cents to a dollar each. Just 
as frequency increases, so does the 
price and quality. 

I hope I have given you some basic 
considerations for amplifier construc- 
tion and when and what parts to try 
and select. I heartily suggest starting a 
junk box of components from scrap PC 
boards and old TVs and radios and 
whatever components you happen to 
locate at flea markets and swap 
meets. 1 have resisted the urge to pick 
up only what I want when I am shop- 
ping for components and IF the pnce is 
right, I usually purchase far more that I 
will ever use, All these parts are stored 
away lor "that day" and then I don't 
have to run off shopping and can use 
the time constructing on the work 
bench. 

Mailbox 

Raymond Eisner of Littleton, Col- 
orado, writes, "Do you still have any of 
the 10 MHz frequency standards avail- 
able?" (Model T-424, rrom 73, August 
1992-) Well, I'm sorry to say. no, They 
were an item thai I picked up and 
when \ offered them I did not know that 
they would be so hot. I did pick up all 
that the locals did not and made them 
available, However, now they are 
gone. If I ever locate some more I will 
let everyone know. 

Arthur WtPXL is looking for a noise 
bridge for 144 MHz. He is trying to 
construct one. I saw a unit that was 
good to uHF in the RSG8 Hand&oofc 
and recommend the circuit to Arthur, I 
have never used a noise bridge as J 
am blessed with an HP-250 
impedance meter that I use for anten- 
na measurements, It is another way to 
verify antenna Impedance. The HP- 
250 was more sophisticated In that you 
could determine at exactly what fre- 
quency from 30 to 500 MHz the resis- 
tive and capacrtive components of the 
impedance product were. You could 



Toroid Coil With 
Two Turn Te*1 Unk 




Plug-In 
Coll 




Q 
CO 



hi 

I 




Hh 



/ 



2.1|i H 



Grid Dip Meier 



ISpF 



\ 



: 



/ 



] 



IH23 

Diode 






Coax 
Cable 



Z.lj/H 






Capacitor 
Part Of 
Diode Mount 
(Low Value) 



2 5uH 
RFC 



To Gate 
4067 3 
MOSFET 



15pF 



■±^ RFC DC Return For Detector Diode 
And High Impedance Match Network 
Of About 200 Ohms 



Figure 3. Method of grid-dipping toroid cores. 
76 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



Rgure 4, Microwave diode detectors matching circuit 



set an antenna to 50 ohms on the hatr- 
line. The long and short of St is that I 
have done just as well with a simple 
SWR bridge that was home-construct- 
ed. I guess it demonstrates just how 
well you want to match something or 
how accurate you need to be. The HP- 
250 worked great but, as with all large 
devices, it went out the door, replaced 
by something smalfer. If anyone can 
hefp further, contact Arthur at 6453 
31st Avenue North 1 St. Petersburg, 
Florida 33710. 

Thomas KD4UIX is interested in an 
ail-mode 2 meter radio at affordable 
prices. Well, Thomas, that is not the 
way most new radios are going today, 
it seems that the cry for more belfs and 
whistles is being met by most manu- 
facturers today and there is not an in- 
expensive 2 meter multErnode unit on 



the market . The most inexpensive rigs 
I have seen are priced near $700. Next 
month, in response to this letter, I plan 
to cover a conversion approach (or a 
microwave IF using a low-band SSB 
transceiver for obviously SSB genera- 
tion, covering modifications needed. 
Later I will detail a simple 2 meter con- 
verter to tie the package together. 
There are several possible rigs that 
can fill the bill for inexpensive SSB ra- 
dios such as the Radio Shack 10 me- 
ter SSB rig or other similar units. 

Well, that's it for this month. Next 
month I will expand on the conver- 
sion of SSB rigs for microwave 
SSB use. As always, I will be glad to 
answer questions about this and simi- 
lar subjects. Please send an SASE for 
a prompt response. 73 Chuck 
WB6IGP. 



Core 

Type 

T-20Q 

T-130 

T-50 

T-44 

T-37 

T-25 

T-16 



RED 
-2 
120 
110 
50 
57 
42 
34 
22 



Table 1- AL Values (jaH/100 Turns) 

MHz 
BLK GRN&WH R£D = 1 to 14 

-10 -12 



YEL 
-6 
105 
96 
40 
42 
30 
27 
19 



RED 

YEL = 3 to 21 

BLK =10 to 80 

GRN/WH = 50 to 200 



31 
33 
25 
19 
13 



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15 

13 

6 




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PCM40N 

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FM 4-5 WATTS = 3SW 

Linear 4^5 WATTS = 35W 

FM 4^5 WATTB - 60W 

FM 4-5 WATTS = 3SW 

Linear 1^2 OR 4-5W - tSW 

1/2 OR 4^SW = «W 

1ttOR4-SW = 35W 

1^0R4-5W = 3SW 

1/2 or 4-sw = eow 

3-4W ■ GOW 
3-4W^60W 

1/2W = 10W 
1/2W-10W 
1W = 1«W 
1W = 1«W 
1W*«JSW 
CW a 1 sw 
Cmw=«W 
1fiW = 1.£W 
1/2W = 1/2W 
1/2W-10W 
NO ' 1W = 1SW 

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YfcS - 1W = 16W 

NO aw = 36W 

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FM 

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Hybrid 
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T/fl $129 
tm 139 
T7R 175 
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73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 77 



Ask kab 



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Number 20 on your Feedback card 

M 



Micnaet J. Geier KB f UM 
&q 73 Magazine 
70 Route 202 North 
Peterborough NH 03458 

It Hertz So Good 



As t wrfte this, we are in the midst 
of the holiday season. For most peo- 
ple, visions of Thanksgiving turkeys 
and Christmas presents have filled 
the relaxed. Idle moments. For a 
techie like me t though, those mus- 
ings mingle with such delicacies as 
frequency counters and resonant cir- 
cuits. This month, lets take a look at 
frequency- related Issues. 

Count 'Em Up 

What's the difference between fre- 
quency counters? What makes a 
good one or a bad one? The most 
obvious difference is in the maximum 
frequency the unit can count. Is 
faster necessarily better? In this 
case, pretty much. At least up to a 
point, anyway. If you never use any- 
thing higher than 2 meters, you prob- 
ably don't need a 2 GHz counter, al- 
though it would pay to have one that 
goes to at feast 250 MHz. jus! in 
case you need to count a focal oscil- 
lator of something that goes above 
the band. But. there's more to a 
good counter than its frequency re- 
sponse. 



Your Tech Answer Man 

Exactly 

How precise is the counter? And 
how accurate is it? Those are not the 
same, If it tells you that your frequen- 
cy is 14.208758423 MHz, that's pretty 
darned precise! But. if it's off by 300 
Hz. that ain't very accurate. Con- 
versely, il it tells you that the frequen- 
cy is 14.2 MHz when it's really 
t4 + 2G8, that's quite accurate but not 
very precise. Generally, today's In- 
struments have more precision than 
accuracy, and it can be quite hard to 
look at all those lovefy numbers and 
riot believe Ihem. I see lots of coun- 
ters on the market which have eight 
or even 10 digits, but I doubt many of 
them have the basic accuracy to back 
Ihose numbers up. (By the way, that's 
true of some 3-1/2 and 4-1/2 digit 
DMMs. too.} To be sure, take a look 
at the specs and you should find 
some statement of basic accuracy, 
such as +/- 10 ppm or +/- 300 Hz al- 
ter warm-up. The Hz statement is 
pretty obvious, but what the heck is 
ppm? That refers to " parts per mil- 
lion/ in the case of a 
+/- 10 ppm counter, it means that, if 
your measured frequency is 14 MHz, 
the counter could be off by as much 
as 140 Hz in either direction, because 
ti can be off by 10 Hz for every million 
Hz you're counting. So. just multiply 
10 (the number of ppm) times the 
number of megahertz and you know 



what the true accuracy limits are. And 
even if the display shows digits right 
to the single Hz, those numbers may 
be lying if the accuracy isn'l high 
enough. Of course, you have no way 
to tell for sure, and many instruments 
pefform considerably better than their 
worst-ease specs. The morat here, 
though, is not to go tweaking your ra- 
dio down to the last Hz just because 
your counter says to, because it could 
be the counter that's wrong. 

Check. Please 

Is there a way to know when your 
counter is right or wrong? Some- 
times. Luckily, digital counters have 
no "slippage" of any kind between 
their reference oscillators and every- 
thing else. In other words, the 
counter's accuracy depends entirely 
on the reference's accuracy. If that 
reference happens to be at some 
multiple of 5 MHz, as many are, you 
can check it by listening Lo it with a 
shortwave receiver or HF rig. Just put 
the radio in AM mode and tune in 
WWV. Ideally, the counter's signal 
and WWV will zero-beat, meaning 
that your counter is dead on frequen- 
cy. In the real world, though, it never 
happens. If the oscillator's adjustable, 
you can set it right on frequency, en- 
suring, for a while at least, that your 
counts will be correct. If it's not ad- 
justable, try counting the beats. Once 
you know them, you can calculate the 
ppm of the counter. If you hear three 
beats per second, and you're tuned to 
10 MHz, then you know your counter 
is good to 0.3 ppm T which is pretty 
good! The receiver's stability, luektly, 
doesn't play a part because, In AM 



reception, the carrier (which is what 
you're beating against) is provided by 
the broadcast station (WWV). not the 
radio. By the way, this method works 
well for normal, home-type counters, 
but it isn't accurate enough for ex- 
tremely accurate laboratory counters, 
because me atmospheric fading and 
random changes in ihe length of the 
signal path cause even WWVs earn- 
er frequency to shift by tiny, random 
amounts. But we re talking pretty 
small shifts here. 

Ring Out! 

Resonance is a topic that seems 
to confuse many people. Articles at- 
tempting to explain it often resort to 
mathematical formulae and state- 
ments like "resonance occurs when 
the capacitive reactance exactly 
equals, and balances, the inductive 
reactance/' That's completely true, 
but it doesn't tell you 
a thing about whai resonance actually 
is. The phenomenon of resonance is 
at the very heart of radio communi- 
cation, so let's lake a look at il 

Boiling 

If youVe ever played with a 
"Stinky" (and who hasn'l?). you al- 
most certainly can remember stretch- 
ing it out and then flicking your end. 
The energy you imparted to it visibly 
deformed it in a moving wave down 
Ihe spring until it reached the other 
end. It looked pretty cool, right? But 
what happened then? If you had the 
other end held rigidly to, say, a chair, 
the wave came right back at you, 
right? To me, that was always the 
niftiest part. Actually it is exadiy the 






Subscribe to 73 Amateur Radio Today 

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78 73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



same phenomenon as a bouncing 
ball; the energy is reflected by the 
rigid boundary. 

The lime it takes tor the energy 
wave to make one compleie round 
trip ts caNed the period, and repre- 
sents one complete cyde. If you mea- 
sure that period in seconds, and then 
divide one by it. you'll get the fre- 
quency In cyctes per second h or Hz, 
of the round- trip time. So. if you get a 
period ol 0.8 seconds, your frequency 
is 1.25 Hz. And, in case you're won- 
dering, no matter how hard you Hick 
the spring, the frequency will be ex- 
act Ey the same. The wave will be big- 
ger but not faster, because the transit 
time Is not determined by the amount 
of energy thrown in. 

By What ( Then? 

The time it takes for ihe wave to 
traverse the spring is determined by 
the length of ihe spring, its tension 
and the slrtfness of the material from 
which it's made. Try stretching the 
string tighter: the wave's speed will 
increase. And. of course, if you short- 
en the spring, the energy has less 
distance to travel, so. even though its 
speed is not increased, it takes less 
time to make the trip. 

Let £r Rip 

Let's say you flick the spring, and 
then you Hick it again at exact ty the 
moment the reflected energy returns. 
What happens? The reflected energy. 



which is going to reflect ye! again to- 
wards the other end, adds to the new 
energy pulse, making it bigger, it you 
keep doing it. the wave will get abso- 
lutely huge. And that gentle readers, 
is resonance. 

Electrically Speaking 

In an electrical system, energy 
travels through a wire at approximate- 
ly the speed of light. That may seem 



effect on the electrons* speed. But, 
there are other factors. Specifically, 
there are capacitive and inductive re- 
actances. Notice I didn't mention re- 
sistance here; resistance makes the 
energy weaker by dissipating some of 
it as heal, but it doesn't slow it down. 
II it did, we could make delay lines 
and information storage devices out 
of resistors, and it would take mea- 
surably longer for energy to reach the 



"One very useful device in which 
ihe mechanical and electrical systems 

meet is the crystal. " 



awfully fast, but It really isn't when 
you want to make mil Irons or even bit- 
lions of round trips per second, But 
Ihe idea is the same— electrons have 
a fixed speed, and the length of the 
wire determines the transit lime. But, 
you may be asking, why does the en- 
ergy reflect back from the end of the 
wire at all? Well, the end of Ihe wire 
represents an impedance boundary in 
much the same way as the spring's 
end represents a mechanical one. 
There's no place else for the elec- 
trons' energy to go, so it comes back 
at 'chat 

Reactance 

Unlike in a mechanical system, 
though, the tension in the wire has no 



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other end of a 1 megohm resistor 
tfwi il would for it to traverse a 1k re- 
sistor It's a neat idea, bui il just 
doesn't work. 

By storing voftags charges in ca- 
pacitance and current in inductance, 
though, we can, Lndeed H control the 
speed of the energy. And its true, 
when the two kinds of reactance ex- 
actly equal each other in a parallel 
tuned circuit, they will cancel each 
other out. leaving only resistance, but 
with an overall slowdown of the ener- 
gy. The result is resonance at a fre- 
quency determined by the sizes of 
the capacitors and inductors. 

The Twain Meet 

One very useful device in which 



the mechanical and electrical sys- 
tems meet is the crystal. Crystals ac- 
tually do vibrate, but only very slight- 
ly. In doing so, though. Ihey excite 
their atoms to produce electrical en- 
ergy at the frequency of vibration, 
That frequency rs determined by the 
physical charade ri sties t such as the 
size and type of cui t of the crystal 
Because quartz (Ihe most commonly 
used crystal material) has a molecu- 
lar structure which Is very dimension* 
ally stable with respect to tempera- 
ture, the frequency doesn'i drill 
much. So, if we put a crystal in a cir- 
cuit which causes it to excile itself ai 
its resonant frequency, we've got one 
heck of a stable oscillator. In fact, 
without the stability of quart? crystals, 
electronics as we know it today 
wouldn't exist. 

Skyhooks 

Antennas are another resonant 
phenomenon. They're essentially the 
electrical equivalent of springs. The 
longer the wire, the more time it 
takes for the energy to make (he 
round trip and the lower the resonant 
frequency- And, it we excite the an- 
tenna with energy that is nor at ils 
resonanl frequency, the returning en- 
ergy will interfere with t and partially 
cancel. Ihe applied energy, resulting 
in an energy fig hi, We call that a "bad 
SWR!" 

See you alt next time. 73 de 
KB1UM. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 79 



Number 21 on your Feedback card 



m ^m Number zi on your Feeoaa 

73 INTERNATIONAL 



Amie Johnson N18AC 
43 Old Homestead Hwy 
N. Swanzey NH 0343 f 

Notes from FN42 

/ received a phone calf from 
Richard Sears KCdfBC this past 
week. He was looking for some infor- 
mation on Taiwan which 1 was not 
able to supply to him. but he is going 
to he there for some time, and he 
promised to send us some noteworthy 
information about the happenings on 
Taiwan white he is there, f hope that 
he has a chance to chat with our 
Hambassador to Taiwan, Tim Chen 
BV2A. 

tf any of you have decided to travel 
around this great world of ours in 
1994, you might want to read the let- 
ter from Nat VU2NTA in India and 
Hams 9M6HF in Malaysia. Nat is a 
tour guide and Malaysia has declared 
1994 the "Visit Malaysia Year. " Con- 
tact Wayne and teif him where you 
think he shoutd go on his wide travels 
this year and ask him to take you too. 
1 must admit that I keep telling him to 
take me along but he wants me to pay 
for it. f would think that he would want 
to pay my way just because I'm such 
great company but, of course, that's 
just my opinion. I do know that he and 
Sherry would love to become your 
tour directors. 

t was sure glad to hear from Harris 
Abduflah 9M6HF after a several-year 
"dry" period. 

That's enough from me for this 
month. As usual many great reports 
from other hams and your Hambas- 
sadors follow, if you hke what they are 
reporting to us t tet them know* if you 
want something else, tet them know! If 
you have some new information, let 
them know! They are only as good as 



those who provide them with informa- 
tion.— 73 ( Arnie NWAG. 

Roundup 

Egypt This is just another reminder 
that Egypt ts hosting TELECOM 94, 
25-29 April in Cairo, which will focus 
on the African region. Africa TELE- 
COM 94, which follows in the foot- 
steps of Africa TELECOM 90 In 
Harare, will continue the dialogue 
generated by those events. The Inter- 
national Telecommunications Union 
(ITU) will once again provide a plat- 
form for continued discussion and 
presentation of the latest concepts for 
the development of telecommunica- 
tions in the region. This event will 
bring together high-level personalities 
from the academic and industrial 
world and will thus be a unique oppor- 
tunity for all the countries to meet with 
partners with an interest in the devel- 
opment of telecommunications. 

The exhibitors will be displaying a 
range of advanced and high -quality 
items of telecommunications equip* 
ment and related services. The Fo- 
rum, a cornerstone of TELECOM, will 
bring together top government offi- 
cials and policy makers from around 
the world. This event is thus of vital 
importance from the point of view of 
broadening the participation of coun- 
tries in development activities. 

For further information, contact Mr 
Tom Dahl -Hansen, Executive Oi rector, 
or Ms. Suzan Hee-SooK Lee, Project 
Manager ETU H Place des Nations, 
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, Tel: 
+41 22 730 5811 or Fax: +41 22 730 
6444 of Telex: +412 000 UtT CH, or 
the Government of the Arab Republic 
of Egypt contact person: Mr Ismail 
Out, Chairman, Cairo International 
Conference Centre, Nasr Road, Nasr 
City, Cairo, Egypt, Tel: +202 263 



4637/16 Or Telefax: +202 263 46 40. 

India Letter from Nataraj v., 
VU2NTA: Greetings from India. I have 
always enjoyed reading your "73 In- 
ternational* column as it gives us an 
idea of what amateur radfo is doing in 
other countries. [Thanks. Natl— Amie) 
In India, amateur radio Is growing by 
leaps and bounds. From less than 
1,500 amateurs in 1979 to around 
7,500 in 1993. it has been a big 
growth. But most licenses exist on pa- 
per as many amateurs find it difficult 
to get a decent station on the air due 
to the high cost Involved. The cheap- 
est transceivers available to the Indi- 
an amateur is the FT-840, which costs 
around Rs. 45,000. i.e. about $1,500 
U.S. This works out to be an average 
family's income for two years. 

This has led to a huge effort In 
home-brewing, and many kits and 
ideas float around the popular bands 
in India — 40m (7-7.1 MHz) and 20m. 
In South India. AM and CW have be* 
come very popular for home-brewers 
on 40m and SSB for those on 20m. 

In spite ol all this, what has gained 
popularity all over the country is 2m 
FM activity, 144-146 MHz is allocated 
to amateurs in India and major cities 
are seeing a spurt not only in 2m ac- 
tivity but 2m repealers also. 

Bangalore, In |he south, was in 
1987 the first 2m repeater in India 
open to all amateurs, followed by a 
second repeater in 1990, Next to foi* 
low was Madras with two repeaters. 
One repeater in each city is installed 
such that DX on 2m FM is possible 
and the other one is for use within the 
city. A third city to have two repealers 
is Coimbatore in South India. Bom- 
bay, on the west coast, and Ko- 
daikanal. a hill resort in South India, 
have one repealer each. 

All this activity on 2m led to the 
starting of T-hunts (Fox Hunts, as they 
are known here). The first Fox Hunt in 
India was held on March 11, 1989. 
The Fox was Ganesh VU2TS, This 
hunt was won by Les VU2AK T Chan- 
dfu VU2RCR. and Bhat VU2IFX, in a 
time of 45 minutes. There have been 




Photo A: Part of the gathering at one of the Indian Fox Hunts. Photo by VU2NTA. 
80 73 Ama teur Radio Today • February, 1 994 



seven Fox Hunts so far, the last one 
on September 5. Prizes for winners 
have ranged from storage water 
heaters for the bathroom to wait 
clocks, wristwalches. Walkman-type 
audio cassette players, and certifi- 
cates lor all the part ici pants. All prizes 
have, so far, been sponsored by radio 
amateurs, Including fellowship and 
lunch after the conclusion of the hunt. 

The other cities that have had Fox 
Hunts are Madras and Coimbatore. 
Fox Hunts are the times when you 
find that all participants are crazy. 

All sorts of antennae can be found 
during the Hunt. Unlike in most coun- 
tries, hunts here have more partici- 
pants on motorcycles than in ears or 
station wagons. One will find three- to 
five-element yagis, quads, loop yagis, 
phased verticals, and the latest was a 
half-wave dipole with a corner reflec- 
tor on a 250 cc. motorcycle -side car 
combination by Poru VU2GGM, 

Bangalore was also the first city In 
India in 1986 to have a multiple hill* 
topping expedition on 2m. As many as 
six hilltops in South India were activat- 
ed. 

I win try to make further information 
available to all. If anybody has specif- 
ic questions, please drop me a line 
along with an SASE. 

I wish all a Merry Christmas and a 
happy, prosperous and peaceful 
1994. 73. Nat VU2NTA. (Nataraj V., 8, 
100 Ft Rd; BSK 3rd Stage. 2nd 
Phase; 7th Bfock; Bangalore 560085, 
India.} 

[Nat also wrote a letter to Wayne to 
discuss Wayne's travels. Following is 
that fetter and Wayne's response, — 
Amie} 

Dear Wayne, 

Over the years of reading 73 Mag- 
azine, I have found you travel around 
the world a lot along with your friends. 
How is it that you have not made a 
full-time tour to India? Is it that you 
could not find anyone to coordinate 
here For you or that you are not inter- 
ested? 

f have started a lour service for for- 
eign groups and escort them myself. 
The tours in South India are by luxury 
coaches and have twin sharing ac- 
commodation at the best available ho 
lets. For tours to North India, I do the 
ground handling but do not escort 
groups. 

South India is vastly different. Ev- 
ery temple, fort, and palace is differ- 
ent, as is the culture, traditions, cus- 
toms and life style in every village. 

Do let me know if you would be in- 
terested so lhat I can customize an 
itinerary for you. South India is per- 
haps the most enchanting spot tn In- 
dia. The south includes the states of 
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa. 
Kamataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and 
Laccadive Islands. 

Unlike your other trips, it is not pos- 
sible to get a reciprocal license to op- 
erate amateur radio but opportunities 
to meet radio amateurs and visit 
shacks will be arranged. 

I look forward to hearing from you. 

With warm regards, Nat VU2NTA. 

Continued on page 82 



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73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 81 



73 International 

Continued from page 60 

Nat - , . Been traveling — Caribbean 
islands, San Francisco, Munich, 
Beritn, New York, etc Vrn off to Hawaii 
this afternoon [26 Nov 93] for two 
weeks. Cofd fusion conference. 

South India, eh? Wail, dunno—i've 
done the New Delhi- Agra toil, com- 
plete with forts. What might be inter- 
esting to a ham group? I've taken 
ham tour groups to Europe and Asia 
(Japan-Korea-Taiwan-Hong Kong- 
China), but what would we have to of- 
fer them in Southern tndia? And how 
many do t need to round up tor Sherry 
and Itobe tour directors? Presumably 
costs are tow in India as compared to 
here, so what do you estimate for the 
cost of a 10-day tour? 

No chance for licenses, eh? We 
shouldn't bring our HTs? 

t organized a ham tour many years 
ago that included Lebanon. Syria, 
Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, tndia. Nepal, 
Burma, Thailand* Singapore, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand. New Caledonia, 
Fiji. Western Samoa, American 
Samoa, and Tahiti Great tour! That 
would be fun to do again, but t haven't 
got the time these days. Next month 
I'm starting stilt another magazine. So 
what can you do in to days in India? 

Best regards. Wayne. 

Israel The Israel Amaleur Radio 
Club invites ail radio amateurs and 
SWLs to participate in (ha Holyland 



DX Contest on the 2nd and 3rd of 
April 1994. 

The object of the contest is to con- 
lad as many different Israeli amateur 
radio stations on as many bands and 
from as many areas as possible. It be- 
gins at 1 BOO UTC on the 2nd and 
ends at 1800 UTC on the 3rd. Each 
station may be contacted on both CW 
and SSB on the same band, which 
makes it possible to make up to 12 
valid QSOs with the same station, 

For further Information contact 
Shalom Beftcher 4Z4UX IARC, PO 
Box 17600, Tel Aviv 61176, Israel 
(SASE please). [I wiff also try to get 
the entire rules on the 73 BBS in the 
"73 InternationaT area (12). 603-924- 
9343. 300*2400 bps, 8N1.—Amie] 

CANARY ISLANDS 
SPAIN 

Woodson Gannaway N5KVB/EA8 

Apartado 11 

35430 Sta Marie de Quia (GC) 

tsias Canarias 

Espana 

The NW Radio Club (our zone 
Guta, Gaidar, etc) is having its sec- 
ond annual Fox Hunt but they 
changed the name to "Treasure Hunt.* 
Fox Hunt might not have gone over 
too well here as the word w fox" in 
Spain has some questionable conno- 
tations. It's nice to see a little more 
activity up this way. And maybe the 
club on the next Island (Tenerife) will 
Start sending me some news. I hope 



so. News from mainland Spain has 
dried up for now it seems. Maybe 
somebody there will take the "hint" 

Most of you probably know that Eu- 
rope depends heavily on bus trans* 
portation even though the number of 
cars is increasing rapidly. On the con- 
tinent they also have trains, but we 
don't have any in the Canaries. The 
upshot of this is that I take the bus al- 
most everywhere. Over the years this 
has led to some interesting events 
and conclusions, like about the char- 
acter of different makes of busses. 

In 1987, the only ones on the Inter- 
city line up here were Pegaso (Pega- 
sus), old and tired, but still stout and 
willing. The terrain is mountainous 
and steep because the mountains are 
relatively recent and sharp-edged. 
Thai, plus frequent stops and starts, 
added to people with an impatient 
temperament, means thai missed 
shifts and loose steering can be inter- 
esting. We have some pretty good 
grades and one approaches the sec- 
ond highest bridge in Europe (105 
meters, 346 feet). Pve watched drivers 
playing the loose steering on those 
bridges in a strong gusty crosswind 
and keeping well within their lane, 
This is doing more than it seems be- 
cause everything is much closer and 
more critical in European driving than 
in ihe LLS. After six-plus years here I 
still have a tremendous admiration tor 
their skill. 

I also remember being in an old 



Pegaso grinding up the approach to 
the bridges, standing In the aisle {58 
seated, 30 standing) when it came 
time to downshift. No way; it just 
wouldn't go m, even wttfi repeated try- 
ing. Meantime, the bus had really 
slowed down, but the only gear it 
would go into was the original one 
(fourth, J think). So we caught fourth 
but at a really slow speed, and went 
on up, even picked up a little speed 1 1 
watched several of the older passen- 
gers exchange knowing glances. It 
wasn't the first time they'd seen that 
happen. Those busses are tough, and 
still running after who knows how 
many years and probably millions of 
miles, because they're still used as 
spares. 

Another time, we goi stopped on 
the same hi if — bad dies el fuel. It was 
just sprinkling rain, and I started talk* 
mg to the driver about the rain. He 
sard that with the older busses they 
had a lot of problems with the roofs 
leaking during the infrequent rain 
here. He said that at times he had to 
tell the people getting on and dosing 
their umbrellas as they did, to leave 
them open because the roof leaked 
so badly! 

This same driver saved my bacon 
one day. I had bought four heavy met- 
al industrial shelves to take home on 
the bus. As 1 struggled up to the bus 
stop, there was (he bus about to 
leave, across the very busy street. I'm 
pretty good at getting across busy Las 



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CIRCLE 299 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



82 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ February, 1 994 






Palmas sleets when l need to, bul 
not wilh a cumbersome load like that. 
But I looked up and there was Marco 
at the wheel, so I caJl. "Marco!" He 
looked up. *Wait for me.* And he set- 
tled back into the seat, ready to wait 
as long as it look me to get across. 
This would never happen on Ihe line 
that serves the south, the tourist part 
of the island. I*m sure glad J Jive in the 
north* 

Unlil next lime f 73. Woodson 

N5KVB/EA8, 

MALAYSIA 

Harris Abdullah 9M6HF 

PO Box 13329 

83837 Kota Ktnabatu 

Sabah 

Malaysia 

I operated a BBS station On 2m for 
a month last April with a high expecta- 
tion of getting others to try out this 
mode, but ! managed to gel only two 
amateurs interested. In the daytime, 
the BBS was on HF and downloading 
bulletins and mail from YB5Q2 BBS on 
20m, and in the evenings it was on 
2m. But it was fun, and the experience 
gained will be put to good use when a 
BBS runs full-time here in the future. 

The next project is the setting up of 
a PC cluster here. JH1ROJ/9M6RO 
has contributed the software and TNC 
(DRSJ-2). I will be operating the dus- 
ter and hopefully this new project will 
attract the o I hers to go into the packet 
mode. 



The 73 H ambas- 
sador from Hong 
Kong, Phil VS6CT, 
made a short visit 
here last April and 
was kept busy by 
the locaJ hams, Phil 
made several pre- 
sentations to vari- 
ous groups on his 
specialty- Maritime 
Distress and Safety 
Systems. 

VS6CT is always 

on 21 .227 MHz dai- 
ly from 2300 UTC. 
Sometimes he is 
joined by HL9KT, 
BV2FA, KA6V 
(Phil's QSL manag- 
er), WB2KXA (from 
New Jersey), and 
myself. HL9KT and 
myself have a regu- 
lar sked on 
14.195MHz at 0900 
UTC. tf any of you 
wtsh to join in, 
please do so when 
you hear our sig- 
nals. 

Two new operators, Din 9M6LS 
and Armstrong 9M6BZ. check in regu- 
larly with the W7PHO Family Hour 
Net on 14.226 MHz. So does Johnny 
9M6DB located in Mia Sarawak. 

JA9AG. a JARL Director fof the "9" 
call area in Japan, came twice: 







Photo B: Hambassador Phil Weaver VS6CT while visiting Hambassador Harm Abdullah 9M6HE 



November 1992 and February 1993. 
He operated 9M6/JA9AG at a place 
called Seaside Resort about 20 km 
from Kola Kinabatu. 

1994 has been declared "Visit 
Malaysia Year." Those who have not 
made their holiday plans yet may con- 



sider a visit here- Temporary operat- 
ing permits could be arranged if you 
desire to operate from here. Let me 
know via Packet Mail ® JI3ZAG in Os- 
aka, Japan, or drop me a line at my 
address . 

73 from Malaysia! 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 83 



Number 22 on your Feedback card 



Humoer *^£ on you 

Special events 



Ham Doings Around the World 



FEB 5 



CHARLESTON, SC The 21st annual 
Charleston Ha mtestf Computer Show will 
be hosted by the Charleston ARS at 
Chariestowne Landing Stale Park from 
8:30 AM-4 PM. Talk-in on 146.79- or 
145-25-. VE Exams at 12 noon - Tatk-in 
on 145.25- lo get tocalion. Walk-ins ortfy. 
For Exams, contact Ed KC400Z, ($03) 
671-4366; or Warren W4ZYZ. (803) 572- 
1164. Flea Market Contact; Jenny Myers 
WA4NGV> 2630 Dellwood Ave tl 
Charleston SC 29405-6614. 

FEB 13 

MANSFIELD, OH The Mansfield 
Mid* Winter HamiestfComputer Show will 
be held at the Richland County Fair- 
grounds beginning at 7 AM, Talk- in on 
146.34/.94 (W8WE), For tickets/Into 
contact Pat Akerman N8YOB. 63 N. Illi- 
nois Ave., Mansfield OH 44905, Tef, 
(419) 569-7133 after 4 PM EST. Send 
SASE with payments or Inquiries by 
mail. 

VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA The 
Burnaby ARC will host their annual Flea 
Market at the Westminster Armouries, 
6th St. at Queens, New Westminster 
BC Doors open for sellers at 0900 hrs; 
buyers 1000-1400 hrs. Talk in on 145.35 
(VE7HBY). or 442.85. For info, contact 
the dob net. Monday nights at 2000 fo- 
cal time on 145.35; or write Burnaby 
ARC, 6ox 72012, 4429 Ktngsway Burn- 
aby B.C. V5H4P9, Canada. 

FEB 19 

SALEM, OR The Salem and Oregon 
Coasl Emergency Repealer Assns. will 
CO- sponsor the 1994 HAM FAIR, begin- 
ning at 9 AM at the Polk County Fair- 
grounds. Talk-in on 146.26/86. For info 
write (with SASE) to Salem Repeater 
Assoc.. PC Box 784, Salem OR 97308. 

FEB 20 

BRIGHTON, CO The Aurora Repeatef 
Assn. will hofd its 12th annual Swapfest 
at the Adams County Fairgrounds at 
9755 Henderson Rd, Irom B:30 AM-2 
PM. Contact Judi WDOHNP (303) 450- 
6910, or Jan KA7TYU. (303} 699-1944; 



or write (with SASE) to Aurora Repeater 
Assn., PO Box 39666. Denver CO 

B0239 

CUYAHOGA FALLS, OH SL Vincent's 
Bingo Hail. 3479 State Rd., is the site for 
a HAMFEST being sponsored by the 
Cuyahoga Falls ARC. Contact (216) 
929-4267. Or Carol Hervol N8JLQ, 
11192 Cottmgham Circle NW. Uniontown 
OH 44685. Tel (216) 497-7047 

FEB 26 

BISMARCK, ND The Centra! Dakota 
ARC will hold its annual Hamfest at the 
Radisson Inn, 800 South Third St., from 
8 AM-4 PM. Tatk-in on 146.85/.25. VE 
Exams. Ham/Computer Swapmeet Get 
details from Tim N0SDB, (701) 663- 
6620; or Chris NQPOK (70 1) 663- 1324. 
JENSEN BEACH, FL The Stuart Out- 
door H amies!, sponsored by Martin 
County ARA 4 will be held at Langford 
Park, S.R. 707, at The Arch," from 0800 
UTC-1500 UTC. Talk-in on 147.060 
(+600 MHz). Packet Demo ARRL VE 
Exams begin at 9:30 AM (courtesy of Ft. 
Pierce ARC). Sign in at 9 AM. Contact 
MCARA. P.O. Box 1901, Stuart FL 
34995[ or Bob Hess KA3EDL, (407) 
546-4353. 

FEB 26-27 

CINCINNATI, OH The ARRL Great 
Lakes Div, Convention 1994 will be held 
at the Cincinnati Gardens Exhibition 
Center, 2250 Seymour Ave, Exhibits 
open at 8:30 AM Sat and Sun. Com- 
mercial vendors and Flea Marketeers 
are welcome. Convention Chairman: 
Stan Cohen WD8QDQ, 2301 Royal Oak 
Ct. t Cincinnati OH 45237; (513) 531* 
1011. Vendor Chairman; Joe Halpin 
W8JDU, 11615 Geneva Rd.. Cincinnati 
OH 45240; (513)851-1056. 

FEB 27 

DEARBORN, ML The Livonia ARC will 
hold its 24th annuat Swap'n Shop from 8 
AM-4 PM. a I the Dearborn Civic Center. 
Talk-in on 144.75/5.35 and 146.52 sim- 
plex. VE Exams will be given in the af- 
ternoon of the Swap. For mlo r send 4x9 



Listings are free of charge as space permits. Please sand us your Special Event 
two months in advance of the issue you want it to appear fa For example, if you 
want it to appear in the January issue, we should receive it by December 31. Pro- 
vide a dear, concise summary of the essential details about your Special Event 
Check Special Events Fife Area #t? on our BBS (603-924-9343). for listings that 
were too late to get into publication. 



SASE to Nell Coffin WA8GWL Livonia 
ARC, P.O. Box 21 ft, Livonia Ml 48151. 
Tef. (313) 427-3905, 

MARCH 5 

ABSECON. NJ The Shore Points ARC 
will sponsor its 12th annual hamfest, 
^Springiest *94", at Holy Spirit H.S.. Rte 
9, l/2-mi, south of Rte 30. Doors open 
at 9 AM (7 AM for sellers). Talk-in on 
146.385/985. Contact SPARC, P.O. Box 
142, AbseconNJ 08201, 
DENVILLE, NJ The annual North Jer- 
sey Hamfest, sponsored by Split 
RocWWest Morris, wili be held on Morris 
Ave. starting at 8 AM (sellers 6 AM). VE 
Exams at 9 AM sharp. Sign up by 9 AM. 
Talk-in on 146-9&5 and 223.86. Contact 
Bernie WB2YQK i P.O. Box 251, Flan- 
ders NJ 07836; (201) 584-4423, 

MARCH 6 

NORTHAMPTON, MA The Smith Voca- 
tional School on Rte. 9 has been 
choosen as the site for the 10lh Annual 
MTARA Amateur Radio Flea Market. 
This event will be presented by the Mt. 
Tom Amateur Repeater Assn. Inc, t start* 
ing al 9 AM (8 AM lor vendors). ARRL 
VE Exams at 10 AM. Vendor Reserva- 
tion Contaci: Jim K1MEA, (413) 527- 
3199 eves, before 2200 EST. VE Exam 
Registration: Jim WA1ZUH, (413) 245- 
3228; or & MTMBBS via packet. Ad- 
vanced registration strongly recom- 
mended. 



SPECIAL EVENT STATIONS 

FEB 12-13 

EUGENE, OR A CW QSO Party will be 
held by the Quarter Century Wireless 
Assoc, Inc. from 0000 UTC Sat.^2400 
UTC Sun. Frequencies: 30 kHz inside 
the CW bands. Regular call Signs will be 
used for all contacts. Send logs to Bob 
Reed WB2DIN, 597 Brewers Bridge Rd, t 
Jackson NJ 06527. For more info, con- 
tact Bill Miller K2GCE, Activities Manag* 
er t 217 Porterfield PI., Freeport NY 
11520. 



EVANSTON, WY The Uinta County 
ARC will operate MW7H 1S00Z-240OZ 
to celebrate the Chinese New Year. 
Phone 10X on 28.395. 24.945. 21.325. 
18.140. 14.245 For a certificate, send 
OSL with a 9x12 SASE to Vranish, PO. 
Box 2048, Evanston WY 82931 -2048, 

FEB 12-14 

CLAREMONT, NH The 1994 New 
Hampshire QSO Party, sponsored by 
the NH ARA, will take place on Feb. 
12ih from 1900 UTC-Q70G UTC; Feb. 
13th T from 1400 UTC-0200 UTC Feb. 
14th. Open to al! dasses. Techs w/o HF 
prrvitedges are invited to join on simplex 
above 50 MHz. Operating frequencies: 
CW— 1810. 3535, 7035, 14035, 21035, 
28035. SS&— 1875, 3935. 7235. 14280, 
213BO f 28320. 50115, 144205. FM— 
29.610. 52.540, 146.550. 223.500. 
446.000, 902,100, 1296.100. There will 
be a 75 meler phone linale Sun. on 
3950 +/- QRM. Logs must be post- 
marked by March 31, 1994. Contact 
Conrad Ekstrom WB1GXM. PO. Box 
1076, Claremont NH 03743-1076. 
Please send SASE, 

FEB 16-20 

MARQUETTE, Ml The Hiawatha ARA 
will operate NBGBA 17002 Feb. 18th- 
1700Z Feb. 201h. to honor the Up 200 
Sled Dog Championship. The Lower end 
of the 10, 15, 20 and 40 meter phone 
bands will be used. For a certificate, 
send a large SASE with 2 stamps to 
Richard Schwenke NBGBA, 21 Smith 
Lane, Marquette Ml 49855, 

FEB 19*20 

MOUNT VERNON, VA The Mount Ver- 
non ARC wiii operate Station N4BV dur- 
ing the hours Of 1600Z-2000Z on 19-20 
Feb*, to commemorate George Wash- 
ington's brrthday. Operalions will take 
place from George Wash ing Ion's home. 
Frequencies: The lower General 80m- 
15m subbands, and on the Novice 10m 
subband. For a certificate, send QSL 
with a 9x10 #10 SASE to Steve Schnei- 
der WB4EE A. 8602 Cushman Place, 
Alexandria VA 22308. 




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Never Say Die s: 



Continued from page 4 
centfy evofved system they've found a 
much more primitive analog communi- 
cations system which is still with us. 
This involves communications about 
damage to the body and operates on 
micro -currents, lis a fascinating detec- 
tive myslery, where Becker has dug out 
past research data which didn't make 
sense at the lime and put the puzzfe to- 
gether. 

Then he gets into how all life has 
evolved in (he Earth's magnetic field 
and how magnetic fields Influence every 
celt. The micropulsa lions in the Earth's 
magnetic field are strongest at 10 Hz, 
the frequency at which many of our 
brain functions occur. Becker shows 
how electromagnetic energy systems 
within the body control growth and heal- 
ing, regurate the level of activity of the 
brain, and produce vitaliy important bio- 
logical cycles by deriving timing infor- 
mation from the natural electromagnetic 
environment of the Earth, He shows that 
there is a relationship between the 
Earth's geomagnetic field and human 
behavior. Further, it's been shown that 
the conscious mind can control the level 
of activity in the body's DC control sys- 
tems. This helps with our understanding 
of how changes can be brought about 
by the use of visualization, hypnosis, 
meditation, biofeedback, suggestion, 
placebo, and religious experiences. 

Some yogis are good at this, but 
more research is needed before ihe rest 
of us will be able to use this enormous 
power. II the placebo effect could be 
bottled it would be worth billions. Place- 
bos have been shown to be able to 
work in 60% of clinical cases, so we're 
not talking chopped liver 

How do healers work? It isn't the 
placebo effect because they're able to 
be as successful with animals as peo- 
ple. So what then? And how can those 
super-diluted homeopathic remedies 
possibly work? Scientific orthodoxy says 
its impossible, so the scientists get all 
upset every time a double-btind re- 
search project shows success, Lfs im- 
possible, so they don't wan I to even 
know aboul it. They argue that there 
must be some fault in the research. But 
then other labs come along and report 
the same findings. 

We're dealing with extremely sensr- 
tive biological chemical and electromag- 
netic systems. For instance, a male 
moth sensing one single molecule of a 
female pheromone will fly toward her. 
This process involves the transfer of but 
a single electron! 



and magnetic fields to help bones 
mend. These same currents can cause 
cancer cells to have explosive growth. 
In 1880 a doctor reported that a patient 
with cancer of the lip and chin had been 
struck by lightning and his cancers dis- 
appeared within a few weeks, nor did 
they return during the following 10 
years. That treatment is a little rough, so 
perhaps its lime to see just what it does 
take. Becker reports on the recent re- 
search in Lhis field, showing that even at 
very low power, microwave energy can 
have a number of extremely undesirable 
effects. 

How about the Amazon Indians who 
treat snakebite by touching ft with a wire 
from the spark plug of an outboard mo- 
tor, giving it a low-current, high-voltage 
zap? This seems to inactivate the toxin. 
Otherwise- fatal bites are survivable with 
this technique. 

Becker shows how solar Hares affect 
the Earth's magnetic field and how this 
correlates with mental hospital admis- 
sions. He wonders if it is just a coinci- 
dence that past species extinctions co- 
incided with gravity field reversals. 

Then he gels into man-made fields 
and their effect on all life— including us. 
Doctors in Houston found that the chil- 
dren of falhers who'd been exposed to 
electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at work 
had an increased risk of having children 
with brain cancer before the age of Iwo, 
Exposure to microwaves and any other 
man-made electromagnetic fields (such 
as 60 Hz) produces stress, a decline in 
the immune system, and changes in the 
genetic system (none beneficial^ 



Zapping Drug Addictions 

A small voltage stimulation unit is 
popular for sports medicine and is even 
being used by jet-fighter pilots to pre- 
vent backache from their cramped cock- 
pits. Another has been amazingly suc- 
cessful in helping people cure drug 
habits— without withdrawal symptoms. 
Further, the people had a personality 
change from an addictive to a non- 
addictive type. 

Then there's the use of small volt- 



Can Our PL Tones Cause Genetic 
Changes? 

The body is quite capable of demod- 
ulating radio signals of any frequency 
and the biological effect is the same as 
those produced by low frequencies— 
just in case you haven't been concerned 
about what those handie-talkie PL tones 
may be doing to you, Becker quotes 
one of the leading researchers in this 
field. Ross Aoey K6UJ. 

There is a good reason to suspect 
that the virtual explosion of cancer in 
the last two decades may be due to 
EMFs, Since 1975 lymphoma, myelo- 
ma, and melanoma have increased by 
100%. breast cancer by 31%. testicular 
cancers by 97%. kidney cancer by 
142%, colon cancer by 63%, and so on. 
Is that enough 1o make someone think? 

Work is just Starting in the extremely 
low frequency (ELF) field. It turns out 
that the brain is extraordinarily sensitive 
to very low levels of ELF. The govern- 
ment has discounted the emerging re- 
search reports because they simply 
can't be true, 

We're using nuclear magnetic reso- 
nance (WMR) units in hundreds of hos- 
pitals, yel yeast ceils exposed to NMR 
multiply at twice their normal rate and 
their offspring are half as large as nor- 
mal? 

We know that ail substances are 
magnetic to some extent, because the 
spin of the electrons around the nucleus 
produces a magnetic field. Some people 
are so sensitive to magnetic fields that 



just being near a TV or computer termi- 
naf causes their skin to turn red and 
brings on flu-like symptoms. Are the rest 
of us totally immune? Mot bloody likely. 

The power companies, appliance 
manufacturers, broadcast stations, and 
the military have enormous vested inter- 
ests in the public not finding out aboul 
how thefr fields are affecting us. Scien- 
tists who have persisted in publicly rais- 
ing the issue of harmful effects from any 
portion of the magnetic spectrum ha we 
been discredited and their research 
grants taken away. Paul Brodeur's 
books on the subject have documented 
this, even citing how much some named 
scientists were paid by the power com- 
panies to testify on their behalf when 
questions were raised. It almost re- 
minds one of the tobacco and asbestos 
denials. 

I think you'll enjoy the book, lfs writ- 
ten so you won't have any problem un- 
derstanding it and it goes into a lot of 
fascinating detail I don t think you'll al- 
low any family member to use an elec- 
tric blanket again, and you may decide 
to move your linear amplifier across the 
room where it isn't as close to where 
you operate. 

Now do you see why 1 found this 
book so interesting and am trying to get 
you to read it? It will open a whole new 
world for you — starting you looking for 
more information and perhaps even get- 
ting you interested in doing some re- 
search yourself. 

Next I want to review a book by T 
Snnrvasan, an interesting chap I met re- 
cenity at a Subtle Energies Conference 
in Monterey. This is a collection of 28 
papers presented a I Ihe 1987 Energy 
Medicine Conference in Madras, India, 
I'm encouraging Srini to bring out a new 
edition, but with the material presented 
in a more reader- friendly form. Scientific 
papers are usually very difficult to fol- 
low, and it's a shame for this important 
material to be buried for the lack of a 
simple English translation. 

Then there's The Secret Life of 
Plants, by Tomkins and Bird, which rais- 
es a whole bunch more questions. And 
have you read Electromagnetic Man by 
Smith and Best yet? Tsk! Your rmnd enl 
much good to you if you don't give it da- 
la to work with, and that garbage on TV 
you've probably been wasting your time 
on doesn't count for much as data. We'll 
have a tot more lo talk about on the air if 
you've read some books. Then you 
won't have to depend on ignorance to 
guide you, like the two hams I cited, 

A Cure for AIDS? 

The way the Lambda homosexual 
ham club has been spitting in my face, 
so to speak, and apparently doing their 
best to hurt 73 ad sales, IVe had a short 
wrestling match with myself over this 
HIV virus thing. They're mad at me be- 
cause a militant opportunist in their 
group has latohed onto a flimsy pretext 
to bring what I consider a frivolous surt 
against the ARRL for refusing to run 
their ads in QST T and rm vigorously op- 
posed to bringing lawyers and lawsuits 
into ham doings. The last I heard, mag- 
azine publishers are permitted to refuse 



any ads for any reasons, stated or un- 
stated. 

Now, I'm not suggesting for one 
minute that all homosexuals are pe- 
dophiles, but we've had more than 
enough of them preying on young hams 
and the children of hams without open- 
ing the door further. Indeed, two very 
weli- known hams have been arrested 
and convicted of this. Well, enough of 
my grousing about child molestation. I'd 
probably shut up if Mike Kelly, the stri- 
dent voice of Lambda, would stop doing 
his best to give me free publicity for my 
opposition to his stupid lawsuits. 

Yes, I've said and written that I con- 
sider any ham scum who resorts to law- 
suits in our hobby. This is supposed to 
be a hobby, and it's supposed to be fun. 
When hams get so wrapped up in the 
hobby that they start lawsuits, their per- 
spective is awack. Kelly can unscum 
himself, at least to my satisfaction, by 
dropping the Lambda fawsuit against 
the ARRL and reimbursing the League 
for the money (our money, by the way- 
money that comes from our member- 
ship dues) that he's wasted for us with 
his push to get his homosexual ads in 
QS T and, of course, personal promotion 
for himself. 

Now. about AIDS which, if you've 
read much about it. is almost totally a 
homosexual problem. The good news is 
that there seems to be a simple cure for 
Ihe HIV virus. The even better news Is 
that we hams are in a wonderful posi- 
tion to help. I'm not sure why news of 
this incredible breakthrough hasn't been 
a cover feature on Time and 
Newsweek, but I expect it will be, once 
a lew journalists finally realize what's 
been just recently discovered. 

I've an advantage in this case be- 
cause of my interest in the research into 
Ihe effects of low level electromagnetic, 
radio, and electric fields on cells h and 
their connection to cancer and a wide 
variety of other illnesses. Then there's 
the amazing research which has been 
done by Robert Becker in Cross Cur- 
rents. He explains how currents in the 
microampere range can have powerful 
effects on cells. 

Having recent read Energy Medicine 
and Vibrational Medtcine, I was not sur- 
prised to read that some researchers at 
the Albert Einstein School of Medicine 
in New York have discovered thai a cur- 
rent of about 50 microamperes can alter 
the outer protein layers of the HIV virus 
and thus prevent its subsequent attach- 
ment lo receptor sftes. This was report- 
ed in Science News, March 1991, page 
207, Well, if you've done any reading at 
all in molecular biology, you know this is 
the breakthrough we need to start get- 
ting rid of HIV, 

In my review of Cross Currents J 
mentioned that Amazonian Indians have 
been able to detoxify deadly snake bites 
by zapping the bate with a wire from 
their outboard motor spark plug. The 
HIV vims can be similarty zapped and 
the equipment needed to do this is 
something any ham should be able to 
build. 

Further, if you've been paying alten- 
Continued on page 87 



73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1 994 85 



■ Numoer * j on j 

AfEIV products 



Number 23 on your Feedback card 



Compiled by Charles Warrington WA1RZW 

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switch over to a twin lever, there is a 
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All keyers are handcrafted, so they 
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The first commercially produced 
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Lightweight and portable, the unit mea- 
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The transceiver covers the 
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The kit is complete with all 
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The ARK 20 kit price is $269,95, For 
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All the latest changes in FCC ama- 
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the Technician Class {Cat. A28-01), and 
the new No-Code Technician Class 
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Each book covers all the 
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ranged to minimize flipping pages. 

These books are by Mr. Martin 
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A new tow-cost communications de- 
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repeater monitoring, and security and 

TRIPP LITE 

Tripp Lite has introduced a new 
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equipped with PCs and PC clones. 
The new Power Miser combination 
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The Power Miser is also a high- 
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The DC440 displays decoded Infor- 
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The price for the OC440 is S2S9. For 
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HAMBREW 

Hambrew, a new magazine devoted 
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Is now being pub* 
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theory sprinkled 
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FB ENTERPRISES 

FB Enterprises is now offering the 
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The updated maps show 2 meter re- 
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me back. They include autopatch infor- 
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The maps are 5*1/2" X 8-1/2* and 



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MICRO-OHM MEASUREMENTS 



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The Ohm Extender gives you the 



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86 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 



Never Say Die 

Continued from page 85 

tion to the news, you know that some 
German blood banks have been care- 
less ami allowed HIV virus to get into 
their supplies. Now we know how to 
easily and quickly cleanse any blood of 
the virus. 

A physicist friend of mine gave a 
lecture on this new procedure lo a 
group of doctors at a recent sympo- 
sium and they gave him a standing 
ovation. Bui I suspect the pharmaceuti- 
cal companies are going to be ex- 
tremely upset over this development 
There are no drugs involved. The drug 
companies have been investing mil- 
lions in search of a magic drug to 
counter HIV — and have gotten 
nowhere. It's probably fitting, in a way, 
that the solution to thts scourge can be 
cured by some electronic equipment 
which costs well under $100 to make. 
Simple stuff. 

The normal medical electronic in- 
dustry approach would be to put the 
simple circuits involved into an impres- 
sive box, add a bunch of meters, and 
charge $10,000, And it would be worth 
it. The tact is that there's nothing more 
required than parts you can get at 
almost any radio parts store 

What aboul side effects? There 
aren't any. As far as 1 can see. this ap- 
proach should be able to eliminate the 
HIV virus wrthin a few days for anyone 
infected with a simple and completely 
noninvasive treatment. Of course. 



since the equipment involved is not 
FDA approved, you canl make it and 
sell it to doctors. If they bought it, they 
wouldn't be allowed to use it. But you 
are allowed lo experiment with it, even 
on friends. And doctors are allowed to 
do research with it, as long as they've 
built the equipment themselves- Thus 
there is going to be one heck of a mar- 
ket for HeathkiHike kits For experi- 
menters and doctors. 

There are two pieces of equipment 
involved, One passes a microampere 
current through the vascular system, 
cleaning out Ihe HIV virus in the blood. 
The other generates a short and very 
powerful magnetic field to flush the 
virus out of the lymph glands, where it 
tends to hide, and into the vascular sys- 
tem, where it can then be eliminated. 

If you've done any homework on 
how cells work and the effects of mi- 
crocurrents on them, you'll understand 
the beauty of this approach — and why 
researchers have failed to discover it 
for so long. The labs, largely funded by 
pharmaceutical companies, have been 
looking for a chemical cure — one they 
can sell. There's been little funcfing for 
non traditional approaches. Indeed, the 
orthodox scientific community routinely 
suppresses research like this and does 
its best to cut off alt possible funding 
sources. In this case an it took was one 
non 'traditional physicist to see the im- 
plications of the Albert Einstein College 
discovery and develop the hardware 
needed. He used to be a ham r but got 
so involved with research that he let his 



license lapse. 

What happens is that when a small 
current flows through the vascular sys- 
tem it hits the HIV virus and causes it 
to lose its ability to make an en2yme 
crucial to *ts reproduction. Then the 
white cells can no longer dump togeth- 
er, and the virus Is terminated. Using 
this approach it will a (so be simple to 
quickly cleanse infected blood banks, 
thus preventing further HiV infections 
from transfusions. 

If there is any real 73 reader interest 
in this Ml consider printing the circuit di- 
agrams of the two simple units, along 
with detailed instructions on their use. 
If I get less than a thousand requests, I 
won't bother I certainty don't want to 
take up valuable space in 73 for non- 
ham -oriented construction articles thai 
not many readers want to read about. 
That wouldn't be fair to the other read- 
ers. Mind you, if I do print the construc- 
tion plans, I'm not making any medical 
claims. I don't need to have the FDA or 
any other government agents making 
my life miserable. Anything you build is 
completely between you and yourself. 
And anything you Ob with it is strictly 
experimental. Tm just a journalist re- 
porting what I've heard and read. 

Experimenters have shown that it 
takes about three weeks, using Ihe 
equipment a few minutes a day, for a 
complete HIV remission. 

Will we be seeing headlines about 
this? Eventually, but you read it here 
first. 

So what's next? How about a simple 



electronic approach to drug addictions? 
Any interest? No T probably not. I ex- 
pect I'll get the usual letters asking me 
to Stop writing about Stuff like this and 
stick to ham radio topics in a ham radio 
magazine. Like QST does. But yes, 
there is good reason lo believe that an- 
other fairly easily -omit piece of elec- 
tronic equipment could zap even the 
most vicious of drug habits. 

Religious fanatics may be upset with 
me over all this. fve talked with several 
on the air who are absolutely con- 
vinced that AIDS has been sen I as a 
curse by God as retribution for the ho- 
mosexual lifestyle. Unfortunately they 
haven't convinced me that their 
pipeline to God is any better than mine. 
And I wonder how much Kelly is con- 
sidering the rights of homophobes as 
he pursues his own demons and his 
personal quest for power via gay mili- 
tancy. 

It doesn't seem to have occurred to 
Kelly that anyone who is not stridently 
pushing for gay rights can be anything 
but a homophobe. Go back into the 
closet, Kelly, and shut the padded door 
behind you. 

Ordering Books and CDs 

{Editor's Note: Wayne often refer- 
ences books and CDs in his editorials. 
The books are often avaitabte from 
Uncfe Wayne's Bookshelf; the CDs 
from IMPS by Mail, Both can be 
ordered by telephoning (BOO) 234-8458 
or (603) 924-4 196, or by faxtng (603) 
924-8613.} 



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73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 87 



Amateur Software 

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display and operational fn our new 10,000 
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UNIVERSAL RADEO, 6830 Americana 
Pkwy,, Reynoldsburg (Columbus) OH 
43068. (814) 806-4267. 

PENNSYLVANIA 
Trevose 
Authorized factory sales and service . KEN- 
WOOD, ICOM, YAESU, featuring AMER^ 
ITRON, B£W, MFJ. HYGAIN. KLM, 
CUSHCRAFT. HUSTLER. KANTRONICS. 
VIBROPLEX, HEIL, CALLBOOK, ARRL 
Publications, and much more. HAMTRQN- 
ICS, INC., 4033 Brownsville Road, 
Trevose PA 19047, (215) 357-1400, FAX 
(215} 355-8958. Sales Order 1-600-426* 
2820* Circle Reader Service 293 for more in- 
formation. 



DEALERS: Yoyr cempany name and message can contan up to 50 words for as little as W2Q yearly (prepaid] , or 52 to in S i X 
months (p/epflidj. No mention of mail-order business please, Directory text and payment mi/sl reach us 60 days in advance of 
publication. For example, advertising for tJhe April '92 issuo must be in our hinds by February 1st. Mail lo 73 Amateur flar/io Today, 
70 Rte. 202 N. Peterborough, NH Q^SB. 

88 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



Propagation 



Number 25 on your Feedback card 



Jim Gray W1XU 
2 W Chateau Circle 
Payson AZ 85541 

This month is considered an "in-be- 
tween" month and exhibits some winter 
and some spring "conditions" on the HF 
bands. Although 1 994 will be a year of 
fewer sunspots than the past eight or 
nine years, it will stili permit excellent DX 
propagation on the days marked "G" on 
the calendar but, as usual, this will de- 
pend on \ he band you choose. Winter 
conditions of low noise and good night- 
time propagation on 80 and 160 meters 
will continue this month, but atmospheric 
noise will increase as the equinox in late 
March approaches. The poorest days for 
DX are fikeiy to be those surrounding the 
8th and 21st of the month. The best days 
for DX will likely be those marked with a 
"G" (Good) and "P (Fair), or trending be- 
tween F and G. On the Poor days keep 
an eye on other geophysical conditions, 
such as storms and high winds with 
much snow in the north and rain or sleet 
in the south. Geological disturbances are 
more fikeiy on or near the T" days, if 
they appear at all. Stations with better 
antennas and receivers are Eikely to fare 
better In times of low sunspot ac- 
tivity as the maximum useful fre- 
quencies also decline, and hours 
of good DX are shorter than ev- 
er. Some F2 openings may last 
for only an hour or so on the 10 
and 12 meter bands as the MUF 
rises above 28 MHz. Choose the 
ri G" days for your best opportuni- 
ties. Short skip will prevail on the 
days these bands are open. 

On the 15 and 17 meter 
bands, you may find DX opportu- 
nities quite good with afternoon 
(local time) hours being better 
than morning hours, and short 
skip should continue during most 
daylight hours, but the band will 
close around dark, 

The 20 meter band is always 
our most reliable DX band, and 
is even more so during times of 
low solar activity. Peak condi- 
tions occur shortly after sunrise, 
and again in the late afternoon, 
and should provide the best sig~ 
rials to distant locations. Short 
skip will prevail during daylight 
hours out to about 2,000 miles or 
so. North-south paths will open 
shortly after dark, as well, with 
excellent propagation on Good 
days. 

The 30 meter band exhibits 
some of the behavior of 20 and 
40 meters. You can work DX on 
many days around sunrise and 
sunset, with short skip prevailing 



Jim Gray W1XU 

during daylight hours. Although the band 
"dies" an hour or two after local sunset, 
these hours may be the very best for DX 
and grey-line propagation along the 
day/dark terminator. 

The 40 meter band tends to "peak" 
for DX toward Europe and Africa in the 
late afternoon and early evening, and to- 
ward the Pacific in the morning around 
sunrise. This band will stay open long 
after dark for short skip, which usually 
prevails during daylight hours. 

The SO meter band may be your best 
lower HF band for DX between sunset 
and sunrise, peaking around midnight 
(local time) and again around sunrise. 
Noise ievels should remain low until late 
in the month when springtime storms oc- 
cur more frequently. Short-skip condi- 
tions at night will open out to 2,000 miles 
or so. 

The 160 meter band will not be open 
during daytime, but will be very good af- 
ter dark, and DX ought to peak around 
midnight local time. Short skip at night 
during early evening hours will be quite 
good out to l t 500 miles or so- Look for 
DX also around, or just before, local 
sunrise, toward the west, south and 
other directions. 



EASTERN UNITED STATES TO: j 


UMi M 02 04 0B 03 10 12 1* IB It) 2" .22 


ALASKA 


15 












20 


3* 


15 








AGENT1NA 


33 




















15 


19 


AUSTRALIA 


30 










<0 


JO 






.■:•' 


20 
15 ' 


1 S 
11 


CANAL ZONE 


40 


40 










so 


15 


15 


15 


ENGLAND 


44 


40 


40 1 


to 


M 




30 


II 


15 


15 


23 




HAWAII 


2D 










4 


a 


:'■:; 






15 


15 


1HDIA 














20 


go 








•^ 


JAPAN 


IS 












20 


20 








MEXrCG 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


4C 


1 ■.' 


15 

\i 


It 


15 


15 


20 


PHILir^NES 




















.PUERTO nrco 


JO 


JO 


JO 


10 


JO 


JO 


in 


15 


15 


■5rt 


SOUTH AFRICA 


iiif, 


40 












15 


15 


23 






U S.-S.B. 




JO 












IE 


15 


33 






WE5TGQA5T 


15 


SO 


JO 


40 


JO 


o 


*GA 


2:;* 


IS 


15 


15 


15 


CENTRAL UNITED STATES TO: 


ALASKA 


33 








4 


40 


20 


2D 








20 ! 


ARGENTINA 


H 


40 


43 


40 












IS 


iS 


3BA 


AUSTRALIA 


15 










40 


£0 


EC 


20 




15 


15 


CANAL ZONE 


33 




40 


to 


43 




20 


IS 


15 


IS 


IS 


ENGLAND 


4) 


H 


H 


« 








U 


IS 


15 


30 




HAWAII 


20 


2D 






fid 


40 


20 


K 


» 


15 


ISA 


'■>: 


INDIA 
















2D 










JAPAN 


20 








40 


40 


20 


2D ' 








20 


MEXICO 


20 




IS 


JQ 


40 






20 


11 


15 


Tt 


16 


PHILIPPINES 


24 














20 


20 








PUERTO nica 


ZD 




43 


4C 


40 






20 


IS 


« 


IS 


IS 


SOUTH AFRICA 


2C 


40 


40 












II, 


1^ 


IS. 


20 


U ti S R 




40 


40 








- ; - 


-: 


20 






WESTERN UNITED STATES TO: 


ALASKA 


IS 


IS 


K) 






40 


40 


40 








20 


AHGENTINA 


20 


20 




10 


•m 












15. 


14 


AUSTRALIA 


15 


15 


23 








40 




20 


20 


30 


IS 


CANAL ZONE 


20 


» 




40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


■& 


IS 


15 


l: 


ENGLAND 






■-"J 


■".:: 










2CA 


Xfl 






HAWAII 


is 


ii' 


B 






+3 


+3 


U 








15 


INDIA 




Zt 


20 




















JAPAN 


It 


15 


2D 








40 


43 


40 






20 


MCKICQ 


a 


30 




40 


40 


40 


40 


-:. 








IS 


PHILIPPINES 


pftjfc 


23 
















20 






PUERTO RiCO 


23 


2D 




.■3 


i3 


..:j 


-t 


■IS 








IE 


SOUTH AFRICA 


20 


3D 














IS 


It 


is 


*L 


USSR 
















20 


30 


20 


20 


EAST COAST 


tg 


3D 


43 


JC 


40 


4C 


:■■- 


20A 


■E 


■= 


'5 


■■i 



A?N«xl tugfter rrequsney may arso Eh used. 



SUN 


MON 


FEBRUARY 1994 

TUE WED THU 


FRI 


SAT 






1 G-F 


2 G-F 


3 G-F 


4 G-F 


5 F 


6 F-P 


7 P 


8 P 


9 P 


10 F-G 


11 G-F 


12 F-P 


13 P 


14 P-F 


15 F 


16 F-G 


17 G 


IS G 


19 G-F 


20 F-P 


21 P 


22 P*F 


23 F-G 


24 G 


25 G-F 


26 F 


27 F-G 


28 G 













pn| Number 26 on \ 

Barter w buy 



Number 26 on your Feedback card 



Turn your old ham and computer gear into cash now. Sure, you can wait for a ham- 
test to try and dump it, but you know you'll get a far more realistic price if you have it out 
where 100,000 active ham potential buyers can see it than the few hundred local hams 
who come by a flea maricet table. Check your attic, garage, ceflar and closet shelves and 
gel cash tor your ham and computer gear before it's too old to sell. You know you're not 
going to use it again, so why leave it for your widow to throw out? That stuff isn't getting 
any younger! 

The 73 Flea Market, Barter 'n' Buy, costs you peanuts (almost)— comes to 35 cents a 
word for individual (noncommercial) ads and S1.00 a word for commerciaf ads. Donl 
plan on telling a long story. Use abbreviations, cram it in. But be honest. There are plenty 
of hams who love to fix things, so if it doesn't work, say so. 

Make your list, count the words, including your call, address and phone number. In- 
clude a check or your credit card number and expiration, if you 1 re placing a commercial 
ad 1 include an additional phone number, separate from your ad. 

This is a monthly magazine, not a daily newspaper so figure a couple months before 
the action starts; then be prepared. Ef you get too many calls, you priced it low. If you 
don't get many calls, too high. 

So gel busy. Blow the dust off, check everything out, make sure it still works right and 
maybe you can help make a ham sure it still works right and maybe you can help make a 
ham newcomer or retired old timer happy with that rig you're not using now. Or you might 
get busy on your computer and put together a list of small gear/parts to send to those in- 
terested? 

Send your ads and payment to the Barter n' Buy. Judy Walker, 70 Rt. 202N, Peter- 
borough NH 03458 and get set tor the phone calls. 



The deadline for the March classified 
ad section is January 6, 1 994. 

ALL ABOUT CRYSTAL SETS. Theory 
and construction of crystal set radios, 
$7.95 each, ppd USA. Send to: AL- 
LABOUT BOOKS, Dept. S, P.O. Box 
22366, San Diego CA 92 1 92. BNB200 

CUSTOM MADE-HAND TOOLED 
leather products with your initial name, 
call letters. Photo's & estimates avail- 
able. Key rings, wallets, belts, purses, 
hanging signs, specialty items. GREAT 
GIFT. LEATHER & WEST, 67 Causeway 
Rd, West Swanzey NH 03469. 
(603)352-6256. 9-4 pm. M-F EL 

BNB215 

SUPERFAST MORSE CODE SU- 
PEREASY, Subliminal cassette. $12, 
LEARN MORSE CODE IN 1 HOUR. 
Amazing supereasy technique, 
$12. Both $20. Moneyback guarantee. 
Free catalog: SASE. BAHR-T1. 150 
Greenfield. Bloomingdale IL 60108. 

BNB221 

VACUUM VARIABLES AND VACUUM 
RELAYS. Lowest prices. SASE for list, 
BOND, 221 Greencrest Marietta GA 
3006B-3825. BNB260 

QSL SAMPLES- 50 cents. SAMCARDS, 
48 Monte Carlo Dr., Pittsburgh PA 
15239. BNB275 

COLLINS 32V* 1 SERIAL #1 A.M. trans- 
mitter, mfg, appx 1946. Cash only offers 
solicited. A set of 6 professional color 
photos wilt be sent upon the receipt of 
$6. refundable. Contact Bob Travis Kea- 
gle, KB4NG2, 5929 Antilia Dr., Orlando 
FL 32809, Phone (407)351-5939. 
BNB280 

COMMODORE 64 REPAIR. Fast turn 
around. SOUTHERN TECHNOLOGIES 
AMATEUR RADIO, 10715 SW 190th 
Street #9 T Miami FL 33157. (305)238- 
3327, BNB295 

RADIO RUBBER STAMPS free 
brochure. REID ASSOCIATES, 6680 

Mellow Wood, West Bioomfieid MI 

48322. 61MS297 

KENWOOD AUTHORIZED REPAIR. Al- 
so ICON, Yaesu. GROTON ELEC^ 
TROMCS, Box 379 T Groton MA 01450, 
(508)448-3322, BNB310 



RCI-2950 OWNERS: New modification 
manual including Power increase. Clari ti- 
er modification. Modulation increase. Op- 
erating hints, and more. Parts included. 
Only $20.00 ppd in U.S. (Missouri resi- 
dents add $1.15 tax). SCOTT, P.O. Box 
510408, St. h Louis MO 63151-0408. 
(314)846-0252, Money Orders or C.O.D. 

BNB340 

KIT BUILDERS! Complete list of 155+ 
ktt vendors. #10 SASE + $3.00 USD to: 
RUTENBER ENGINEERING, 38045 
10th St. E #H75-AR r Palmdale CA 
93550. BNB365 

QSL CARDS — Standard and custom. 
Your ideas or ours. Excellent quality Foil 
stamping available. Many designs and 
type styles. Catalog and samples $1.00 
refundable. WILKINS, Dept. A, Box 787, 
Atascadero CA 93423. BNS370 

20 METER SUPERHET C.W. 
TRANSCEIVERS KIT, $49,95 plus $375 
shipping. Check/MO. 1994 Catalog for 2 
Stamps. DAN'S SMALL PARTS A KrTS, 
1935 South 3rd West #1 d Missoula MT 
59801. BNB335 

SERVICE MONITORS WANTED. Any 
late model test equipment. (408)241- 
7376 + BNB39G 

CHRISTIAN-THEME QSLs, "Let your 
light so shine before men...' 4 
JUST,..QSLs T 21645 E. 9 Mile Rd., St. 
Clair Shores Ml 48080. BNB395 

BROWNIES QSL CARDS SINCE 1939, 
Catalog & samples $1 (refundable with 
order). 3035 Lehigh Street, Altentown PA 
18103, BNB430 

HIGH QUALITY PERSONAL QSL's in- 
sure greater returns! Customize one of 
26 standard formats, or your own unique 
design. FREE info-packet (75 cent stamp 
appreciated). CHESTER QSL's, Dept. A, 
2 S. Commercial, Emporia KS 66801. 
{316)342-8792, FAX (316)342-4705. 

BNB434 

ICOM-781 RAFFLE; One hundred tick- 
ets ONLY at $100 a piece. Drawing to be 
held at 3pm on June 24 at the RC of JHS 
22 in NYC. Tickets/Quesiions-RC of JHS 
22, POB 1052, New York NY 10002. 
Phone (516)674-4072, FAX (516)674- 
9600. BNB455 



TOLL 
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CIRCLE 234 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




VIDEO SYSTEMS 

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The camera has been used in: ATV, Security 
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TRANSMITTER, 434MHz. 

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for technical 
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CIRCLE 30 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

73 Amateur Radio Today • February, 1 994 89 



^ackPack Solar? 

10 wail DesenSiorm panel is 
size of open 73 magazine, weighs 
lib, and delivers GOOmA for L2? 
charging or direct operation. Tough. 

Solid, with nti glass to break. So 

rugged Uncle Sam used this for 

spotter communications and portable 

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Ready to use. 3169. Add S5 S&H, Info Si, 




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CIRCLE 340 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CABLE T.V. CONVERTERS 

JerToltf*, Oak, Scientific Atlantic. Zenith, & 
many others. "New" MTS stereo add-on: 
mute & volume. Ideal for 400 & 450 owners. 



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CIRCLE 21 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



T ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD METER 



Reduce exposure to potentially harmful 
electromagnetic fields. AlphaLab's handheld TriFieid™ 
Meter measures AC electric fields, AC magnetic fields 
and radio/microwave power density. Find ground faults, 
AC current wires or measure high-field generators with 
the Magnetic setting (,2 - 100 milligauss, 60 Hz); identify 
poorly grounded or shielded equipment, high VOX or 
fluorescent light fields, distinguish hot vs. ground wires 
with Electric setting (.5 - 100 kV/m, 60 Hz); measure 
antenna radiation patterns, leaky microwave ovens, etc. 
on RF/microwave setting (50 MHz to 3 GHz, .01 to 1 
mW/cm 2 ), 

Electric and magnetic settings are omnidirectional, 
measuring full magnitude of fields without the need to 
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one-year warranty. 

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Call (801) 532-6604 for speedier service or free 
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Sell Your New & Used Gear In BARTER 'N' BUY 

Classified Ads Work! Call Judy Walker today. 1 -800-274-7373 



Personal Autopatch 



Make and receive 
telephone calls 
from your mobile or 
HT with your own 
personal autopatch. 
Connect to phone 
line and transceiver 
microphone, PTT, 
and speaker jacks. 

NEW! Mow with memory backup. 





■ Full duplex or simplex with courtesy beeps. 

• Programmable local and long distance codes. 
- Automatic CW identification. 

• Microprocessor controlled timeout protection. 

• Controlled by VOX or carrier detect. 

• Regenerated DTMF or pulse dialing. 

• Separate external remote control output. 

• 1.5"Hx4.6"Wx5.05"D shielded metal cabinet. 

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j-Coni 793 Canning Pkwy Victor, NY 14564 
(716) 924-0422 - Fax (716) 924-4555 



CIRCLE 39 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

90 73 Amateur Radio Today February, 1994 





ATTENTION ACC OWNERS! 

AM> ALL OTHER KEPKATKK CONTROLLER OWNERS! 




I'p^raik your re poller without replacing the controller! 
By lidding the DVMS/1+ to your repeater, you can more 
ihun double tliu number nf fissures, us well as siive it n 
completely new personality. MyouVe tired of being 
restricted u> the limited vocabulary of ROMEO & 
JULIET, and don' I warn in pay die &I&K) for a 2 minute 
PVR to match vour ACC controller, this one is lor you! 
The DVMS/I+ is a PC based ACC compatible DVR_ Just 
sonic of I he bene Ills are: 

• Creme a 1024 user voice trail system — fully prompted 
unci password protectable. 

• Add user recordable announcements — great for 
ha m test directions <fc Want ads. 

• Signal check ■ — Now you can actually hear hnw you're 
hilling I he repealer! 

• Use* a Sound lilavier card — Allows for hish quality 
voice recording und use of many ,voe 111 tf s and editors! 
(Built in BBS allows remoie upload/download! 

• Storage limited only by hard disk sb.e — (40 Meg 
yields 1/2 hour ul 12KH/, nue) 

• Real voice clock/ealeEidar/scheduler — (you don't need 
V3.I EPROM for your controller! Sorry if you already 
spent your Si 2,^0,,,} 

• Available in an easy assemble kil wiih a high quality PCB! 

The DVMS/I + as reviewed in the February 73 Magazine 
is available for S349 PPD/CQPI Mention the review and 
reeehe free UPS blue (2nd day I delivery I 

{716)434-3008 

XPERTEK ELECTRONICS 

P.O. BOX 768 

LOCKPORT, NEW YORK 14095 



INTERESTED IN PUBLIC SERVICE? Join REACT 
TODAY! For information write, KA3PDQ, do REACT 
P.O. Box 8797 r Alleotown PA 1 8105, BNB465 

QSL SAMPLES send $1 (refundable). Bud Smith, Box 
1948, Blaine WA 98231 . BNB475 

BEAM HEADINGS-YOUR QTH AND THEIRS $5.95. 
KB7HM, 4204 Fox Point Drive, Las Vegas NV 891 08, 

BNB505 

CRYSTALS: High quality for your VHF/UHF and SHF 
transverter projects, SASE. WA3IAC, 7148 Montague 
St., Philadelphia PA 19135. BNB515 

CDROM Ham Radio Callsign Database with hundreds 
of PC Compatible programs, radio mods, TCP/IP 
Usenet, Ham Radio Archives, FCC Rules & Regula- 
tions, current exam question pools, and Canadian Call 
Signs. Only $25.00. Includes shipping! Send check to: 
RONS CDROMS, 2348 Karen Dr., #6 n Santa CEara CA 
95050 or call (408)241-7376 with your Visa or MC. 

BNB540 

WANTED- Manual for old Hallicrafters SX99. Frank 
Arnold, 1215 Sullivan Lru 82B, Sparks NV 89431 . 

BNB555 

DACRON ROPE, WHY RISK ANTENNA SUPPORT 
FAILURES?? Mil Type, black, strong, high UV/stretch 
resistant 3/32": $.06/ft. t 3/16" (770 lb. test): $.11/ft., 
5/16": $.16/ft IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT DAVIS RF CO, 
24 HOUR ORDERS: (800)484-4002, CODE 1356, 

BNB557 

LEARN TO EARN COURSES: Electronics, robot, ra- 
dio, others. Free Catalog. AAA PRODUCTS, Rt 1 Box 
482-L, Rockdale TX 76567. BNB56Q 

WANTED-Plug in synthesizer for a Drake TR-33C. Don 
Nappo, P.O. Box 123, Stanton NJ 08885. BNB585 

DON'T BUY QSL CARDS UNTIL YOU SEE MY FREE 
SAMPLES. Also I specialize in custom cards and QSL 
business cards. Write or call for free samples and cus- 
tom card ordering information. LITTLE PRINT SHOP, 
Box 1160, Pflugervllle TX 78660. (512)990-1192, Mas- 
tercard and Visa now accepted. BNB595 

WANTED: Western Electric and other vintage audio 
equipment. (800)251-5454. BNB615 

DUPLEXER TUNING GUIDE. A complete booklet 
Showing step-by-step instructions on tuning all types of 
duplexers. Included is theory of operation, detailed dia- 
grams and much more. Send $9,95 plus $2,50 3&h to 
RGM PUBLICATIONS, 533 Main Street, Hillsboro NM 
88042. For faster service using a major credit card call 
(505)695-5333 and order today, 30 day money back 
guarantee, BNB635 

SATELLITE EQUIPMENT AT 40% TO 50% OFF. 
Drake, Toshiba, HTS. Gl, 25° LNS, $67.95; ,7 n Ku, 
$89.00. Call (800)851-6534 for wholesale price list. 
SATELLITE WAREHOUSE, TuCSOn AZ. Fax (602)624- 
1629. BNB640 

UNIVERSAL PROGRAMMERS Data \0, XELTEK, 
Logic Devices, Magic IO, EETools, Need hams, from 
$399,00, EPROM programmers from $117. Call for 
free catalog. (406)241-7376. BNB645 

MACRO SURFACE-MOUNT Breadboard 3" X 5" sam- 
ple kit as seen in 73 for 12/93. $4,00 ppd. Brad Thomp- 
son, NUtJ, 100 Powdermill Rd., BX-233, Acton MA 
01720, 8NB650 

VHF-UHF-SHF Large SASE. VHFer, P,0, Box 685, 
Holbrook AZ 86025, BNB660 

FOR SALE-Kenwood TS-440S/AT with CW fllter/mic. 
Orig. Box/manual $900.00; Cushcraft R5 vertical with 
box/manual $200,00; Cushcraft 224WB 4 element 220 
Yagi $40.00; Astron R3-35A power supply $110.00; 
MFJ-422BX keyer with bencher by-1 paddle $110.00; 
50 Ft. Belden 8267 (RG213U) wiih PL259 $30,00. All 
mint condition. Paul, N1HOL, 14 Summer St., Marble- 
head MA 01945. (617)631-2810. BNB665 

ELEGANT QSL CARDS AT LOW PRICES. Samples 
$1 (refundable with order). AACO, Dept. S42, 1639 
Fordham Way, Mountain View CA 94040, BNB670 



CONCENTRATOR SOLOR CELLS. High efficiency 
cells rated ai 20ma or 40ma 555rnv in direct sunlight 
will output up to several amps at dose to one volt per 
cell when used with magnifying lens and a good heat 
sink. Data sheet included S1 25 and $2 50 each. $5,00 
minimum SASE to: James Carter* P.O. Sox 23243 T 
San Jose CA 95193. (408)729-3131 , BNB695 

HAM RADIO REPAIR- Afl makes and models. Fast 
Professional Service. AFFORDABLE ELECTRONIC 
REPAIR, 7110 E. Thomas Rd^ Scottedale AZ 8525 J. 
(602)945-3908. BNB700 

9 1/2 INCH UTC WALL CLOCK- $26,50 ppd. 
GABAY TOOL CO., RO. Box 68. Necedah Wl 54646. 

BNB705 

ROSS $$$$ NEW FEBRUARY (ONLY) SAVE TIME 
AND MONEY HAVE MODEL NUMBER AND MANU- 
FACTURER READY WHEN YOU CALL OR WRITE. 
KENWOOD, TH-2BA, $310.00; TH-78A. $438.00: TM- 
241A. $348.50; TS-50S, $990.00; AEA. PK-232MBX, 
$31000; PK-BS. $128.50. ALINCO, D^BSOT, $391.00; 
YAESU. FT-530. $430,00; FT-24Q0H. $348-00 P FT- 
736R. $1700.00; ICOM, IC-72S. $1000.00; fC-737. 
$1305.00: ASTRON, RS-20A P $87.90, RS-35A. 
$140.00: MFJ, 81 5B, $62.50, 949E. $135,00; 259. 
S205-00. 1702B, $21 m ALL LIMITED TIME OF- 
FERS, OVER 9035 ham-related items in stock for im- 
mediate shipment. Mention ad. Prices cash. F.O B. 
Preston. HOURS TUESDAY-FRIDAY 9:00 TO 6:00, 
9:00-2:00 P.M. MONDAYS. CLOSED SATURDAY & 
SUNDAY. ROSS DISTRIBUTING COMPANY, 78 
SOUTH STATE, PRESTON ID B3263. (208)852-0830. 

BNB707 

GIANT SOLAR PANELS $44,00 EACH! Excellent 
Prices/Solar Equipment/Accessories, Free Informa- 
tion/Send Stamped Envelope, Catalog $3.00. To: 
QUAD ENERGY, P.O. Box 690073, Houston TX 
772S9. (7 1 3)893-0313, BNB7 1 5 

ELECTRON TUBES: All types and sizes. Transmitting, 
receiving, microwave . . . Large inventory = same day 
Shipping DAILY ELECTRONICS, 10914 NE 39th ST. 
Suite B-6. Vancouver, WA 98682. (800)346-6667 or 
(206)896-8856. BNB719 

MINIATURE POLICE RADAR TRANSMITTER One 
mile range, $41 assembled, S3 1. 00 kit, (219)439-1711, 
RO. Box B0096, Fort Wayne IN 4669B. BNB725 

NEW EQUIPMENT SPECIALS; ALINCO DJ-560T 
deluxe 2m/440 handholds, $297,95. BENCHER 1.5 
KW tow pass filters, $47.95. ZA-1A balurrs, $29.95. 
Best prices on a complete selection of keyers and 
keys. ASTRON RS-35M power supplies. $167.95. ALL 
ASTRON products competitively priced. PL-259 
silver/tellon connectors, $1,25 each or 10 for $10.00, 
Type N connectors, 52^75 each or 10 for $25-00. Cus- 
tom built BELDEN coa* cables to your specs. Call or 
write for catalog. R. C. KONTES, 465 Croft. Idaho 
Falls ID 83401 or (208)522-2839. BNB730 

ICOM WJ1AT DUAL BAND HT, AC Battery charger, 
DC power cord, factory mod for MARS/CAP $475. 
Keister Whitt Route 1. Box 25, Ringgold VA 24586, 
(804)822-7005. BNB745 

HAM RADIO REPAIR— Prompt service. ROBERT 
HALL ELECTRONICS, 1660 McKee ft6.< Suite A, San 
Jose CA 951 1 6. (408)729-8200. BNB751 

JOIN TAPR-TUCSON AMATEUR PACKET RADIO 
(non-profit developers of the TNG), Membership 
benefits Incfude: supporting the development of new 
communications technology, quarterly newsletter, low- 
priced software/shareware, 10% discount on 
kits and publications. $i5/year US and possessions, 
$l&year Canada and Mexico. $25 elsewhere. US 
funds. Visa/MC accepted. Bonus: Mention 73. 
receive TAPR Packet Radio General Info booklet 
(57 value)! PO. Box 12925. Tucson AZ 85732. 

BNB765 

SOLAR POWERED HAMS! The Sunswitch is a 
Charge controller to protect your batteries from over 
charge. Power MOSFETs are used, no relaysf Assem- 
bled tuned and tested. Now with Wall Mount Case. 
$55,00 plus $300 shipping. SUNLIGHT ENERGY 
SYSTEMS, 2225 Mayflower NW P Massillon OH 44647, 

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73 Amateur Radio Today* February. 1994 91 



Beam in the Briefcase? 

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EVERY ISSUE 
Of 73 

on microfiche! 

The entire run of 73 from October, 1960 
through last year is available. 

You can have access to the treasures of 
73 without several hundred pounds of 
bulky back issues. Our 24x fiche have 98 
pages each and will fit in a card file on 
your desk. 

We offer a battery operated hand held 
viewer for $75, and a desk model for 
$220. Libraries have these readers. 

The collection of over 600 microfiche, is 
available as an entire set, (no partial sets) 
for $265 pfus $5 for shipping CUSA). 
Annual updates available for $1 0. 

Your full satisfaction is guaranteed or 
your money back. Visa/MC accepted. 

BUCKMASTER 
PUBLISHING 

"Whitehall" 

Route 4, Box 1 630 
Mineral, VA 23117 

703-894-5777 

800-282-5628 



CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WANTED: HAM EQUIPMENT AND OTHER PROP- 
ERTY. The Radio Club of Junior High School 22 NYC, 
Inc, is not only the Big Apple's largest Ham club but al- 
so the nation's only full time, non-profit organization, 
working to get Ham Radio into schools around the 
country as a theme for teaching using our EDUCOM- 
Education Thru Communication-program. Send your 
radio to school. Your donated amateur or related prop- 
erty, which will be picked up or shipping arranged, 
means a tax deduction to the full extent of the law for 
you as we are an IRS 501 (c) (3) charity in our four- 
teenth year of service. Your help will ateo mean a 
whole new world of educational opportunity for children 
around the country. Radios you can write off, kids you 
can't. Start the new year off helping someone else and 
yourself. Please, write-phone-or FAX the WB2JKJ "22 
Crew p today: The RC of JHS 22, P.O. Box 1052 n New 
York NY 10002. Telephone (516)674-4072 or FAX 
(516)674-9600. Young people, nationwide, can get 
high on Ham Radio with your help. Meet us on the 
WB2JKJ CLASSROOM NET: 7.238 MHz, 1200-1330 
UTC and 2 1 .395 MHz. 1 400-2000 daily. BNB762 

AGGRESSIVE SALES REPRESENTATIVE seeking 
additional employment Would tike to sell amateur ra- 
dio equipment. (910)299-1298. SNB800 

R-390A COVER SET, New $55 each. Ballast tubes, 
$25. (ppd) PO Box 3541 , Toledo OH 436GB. BNB813 

FREE SHAREWARE AND HAM CATALOG for IBM or 
COCO. Morse code Computer interfaces $49.95. NEW 
TWO METER Mobile Antenna Switcher $42.95. DY- 
NAMIC ELECTRONICS, Box 896, Hartselle AL 35640. 
(205)773-2758. FAX-773-7295. 

BNB815 

SENSATIONAL NEW WAY TO LEARN CODE-Do 
Aerobics, Sing, Jog, or Drive while learning code! 
Now the secret is yours! Order THE RHYTHM OF 

THE CODE-Morse code music cassette today! $9.55 
ppd KAWA RECORDS RO, Box 319-S, Weymouth, 
MA 02188, The HIT of the 1993 Dayton Hamventionf 

BNB824 

DIGITAL SWR and POWER METER, Assemble, Kit, 

or Plans, with Alarm and Set Points. FREE informa- 
tion. RUPP ELECTRONICS, 5403 Westbreeze, Fort 

Wayne IN 46804, (219)432-3049. BNBB31 

FCC COMMERCIAL LICENSE PREPARATION 
RADIOTELEPHONE-RADIOTELEGRAPH. Latest 
home study fast easy audio video. Q & A pool disks, 
FREE details WPT PUBLICATIONS (800)800-7588. 

BNB840 

ELECTRONICS GRAB BAG! 500 pieces of new com- 
ponents; inductors, capacitors, diodes, resistors. $5.00 
postpaid, ALLTRONICS, 2300 Zanker Rd„ San Jose 
CA 95131. BNB855 

WANTED: COLLINS ANTIQUES, anything old from, 
speakers, receivers, transmitters, and all accessories, 
any condition. Top $$$ paid. Rick. (800)462-2972 any- 
time. BNB865 

RF ENGINEERS WANTED SGC, a world leader in HF 
SSB equipment is seeking experienced RF Engineers, 
Experience in transmitter and receiver design, A/D 
converters, digital voice processing, and low noise os- 
cillators is required. Preference to licensed amateurs. 
SGC, INC., PO Box 3526. Bellevue WA 98009. Princi- 
pals Only. BNB880 

FIBERGLASS: Solid rod, round tube, square tube, 
quad spreaders. Any quantity- SASE for list. MAX* 
GAIN SYSTEMS, 221 Greencrest, Marietta GA 30068- 
3825. BNB890 

SCHEMATIC DESIGN PROGRAM. Free brochure, 
write Dept. 7, SCHEME-ADDICT, 8622 West 44th 
Place, Wheat Ridge CO 80033. BNB905 

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS for 73, QST t etc. Club 
orders welcome. US orders deduct 20%. Free list. 
B-C-D ELECTRONICS, Box 20304, 858 Upper James 
St, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C 7M5. 

BNB910 

WANTED: BUY & SELL All types of Electron Tubes. 
Call (612)429-9397, Fax (612)429-0929. C & N 
ELECTRONICS, Harold Bramstedt, 6104 Egg Lake 
Road, Hugo MN 5503S. B N B9 1 5 



92 73 Amateur Radio Today * February, 1 994 



COMMODORE €4 HAM PROGRAMS-8 disk sides 
over 200 Ham programs $1&95J$,29 stamp gets un- 
usual software catalog of Utilities, Games, Adult and 
British Disks. HOME-SPUN SOFTWARE, Box 1064- 
BB. Estero FL 33928. BNB91 7 

INEXPENSIVE HAM RADIO EQUIPMENT. Send 
postage stamp for list, Jim Brady WA4QSO, 3037 Au- 
drey DR., Gastonia NC 28054. BN8927 

USED AND NEW AMATEUR RADIO, SWL S AND 
SCANNERS. We buy, sell, consign and trade used 
equipment. Thirty day warranty. Western Pennsylva- 
nias 1 newest Amateur Radio supplier. We also offer 
comptete repairs on most types of equipment- Call for 
quotes. FOR HAMS ONLY, INC, INFO (412)374^9744. 
ORDERS ONLY (600)854-0615. ROBB KE3EB 

BNB929 

RADIO REPAIR Amateur and commercial, profession- 
al work, Fred Fisher WF9Q, 6866 W. River Rd., South 
Whitley IN 46787. {21 9)723-4435. BNB930 

ALMOST FREE! Hundreds of pieces of surplus test 
equipment and thousands of components at deep dis- 
count prices. Send stamped self addressed envelope 
to ISA, 24801 Crown Royafe, Laguna Niguef CA 
92656 for curre nt fists of eq u ip ment B N B935 

SEIZED GOODS, radios, stereos, computers, and 
more by FBI, IRS 1 DEA, Available in your area now. 
Call (800)436-4363 Ext. 06223. BNB940 

FREE HAM GOSPEL TRACTS. SASE, N3FTT. 5133 
Gramercy, Clifton Heights PA 19018. BNB960 

QRP KITS & COMPONENTS only 2 stamps for cata- 
log. DAN'S SMALL PARTS & KITS, 1935 South 3rd 
West #1 T Missoula MT 59801. BNB964 

AMIGA, MACINTOSH, ATARI XLVXE/ST Amateur Ra- 
dio & Electronics PD/shareware software $4.00 per 
disk. Two stamp SASE brings catalog. Specify which 
computed KD-WARE, Box 1646, Orange Park FL 
32067-1646. BNB965 

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS for projects in 73, Ham 
Radio, QST, ARRL Handbook. List SASE. FAR CIR* 
CUITS S T8N640 Field Ct. H Dundee IL 60118, 

BNB966 

AZOEN SERV(CE by former factory technician. 
SOUTHERN TECHNOLOGIES AMATEUR RADIO, 
INC, 10715 SW 190 St. #9, Miami FL 33157. 
(305)238-3327. BNB979 

I BUY ELECTRON {VACUUM) TUBES Magnetrons, 
Klystrons^ Planar Triodes, etc ... Jeremy Madvin at the 
VACUUM TUBE EXCHANGE. (800}995-TUBE or fax 
at (800)995-6851. BNB987 

PICTURE QSL CARDS of your shack, etc., from your 
photo or black ink artwork. 500 $28,00, 1,000 $44,50. 
Also non-picture cards. Custom printed cards, send 
specifications for estimate. Send 2 stamps for illustrat- 
ed literature. Generous sample kit $2.00, half pound of 
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out that E35X is on 14.197 MHz. The DX Spots are an- 
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Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf 



20N102 Practical Digital Electronics Handbook to UiU Tiw- 
lev &4 Cutiian^ nine Ji£iu»l um e ear projects- Di£*ul ci rcifflv loe ie 
ejies. hisiaWcs ami utikix, trnvropntcccsorv meowy and input/output 
device* $l45i 

20N^03 Electronic Power Supply Handbook to hui J?. 
Siik fair Cover* many type* of supplies — balletic*, simple AC 
supplies. s»hch mode supplies and imfrtf^. SI 6-15 

20N104 Electronic Test Equipment Handbook for Sine \ftm- 
*r A cubit lo electronic (cm euuipmcni fur the tn^inccr. icwtmiciai, 
Mutkrtti jttd home enihuMasj SIS. 00 

20N105 Digital Logic Gates and Flip-Ftops fo ten R. Smrtuir 
A (Inn foundation in digital eJecironic* Treat* the topic* of £3»r* and 
flip-flop* ihurougfily ami from ihc bee in nine I1S.0O 

01 C60 Master Handbook of 1001 Practical Electronic 
Ci rcuits Tried and pro ven *olid *tate ci icuit * $ 1 9.95 

01P68 Pirate Radio Stations in Andre* iWr Tuning in to 
underground hrumkjsi*. $12,95 

0ITQ! Transmitter Hunting fri /mrp* M.*-// W n^«wi Curie* 
Radm directum undine stmpiificvi $19.95 

03R02 Rtty Today to /Arw totfruii* Modem funic to amateur 
nmltrtclci) pe $830 

0SEO3 Ftrst Book of Modem Electronics I mquc projects mat 
J7K money *a%ing. $12,95 

09022 The World Him Wet Directory a? *Ui Ifttfemati 
New -ml edition tnxroUuce* the special imcnrsi hum rjdin network* 
ami *hnw*. > m when and where you can lone them in S9.50 

09P33 Pirate Radio Directory to Getrnt* Zeiier Where in tunc in 
an secret cnicrtainmcni station*. $7,95 

1QFQ93 1993 International CSllbook The new iwi fmmn 
tiunal CallbooL lisis MHl.tMK)* licensed radio amateur* in the coi, nines 
outside Nonh America. In cuter* South America. Europe. Africa. 
A-*! j, mid ilie Pacific area levclusne of Hawaii ami ihc L/^ posses- 
sion,,!. $29.95 




100093 1993 North American Calf book The 1 99.* North American 
Callbook lisis the calk rume*. and address minimal wo fur ftlUJMh- li- 
censed radii} amateur* in all countries al Nonh America. $29.95 

05H24 Radio Handbook. 23rd Ed At Wittmm I Ort \\*SAt X4f) 
paces of ctcrtltiine yuu wanted \w know jIhjui r.iJiu evpnirnurticiiiiuri 
$39,95 

02B10 Heath Nostalgia to rrcrv JWur Ifff/* 134 pa^ illustrated 
history of ihc Heath Company. Includes iti.my fund memiirie^ Ciimnhuicd 
by long-time HeailiLit employee s. $930 



10DF92 1993 Call book Supplement An upd^ie to the I W2 
lincnvaimnjl and American callbooi^- $10.1X1 

12E7$ Basic Electronics Prtptirtdbx the Hweau of Smut 
PerMumtt Co%^fs me important aNpects of applied dectruaici and 
electron k> cornrnunicaiioo^ $ J 0,95 

I2E41 Second Level Basic Eleclronica Prepared hy the 
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treamvEU of the rrae advanced kvcK of applied elect raaicv $9.95 

01D45 The Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics. 5Eti Ed 
to /frifrt P. Turner and Stan ijihfUvu An eUun»iive l« ol abbre* 
v ucton^ and appendices packed with schenucic ijmtvil* and eon- 
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20N091 Most-Often-Needed Radio Diagrams and Servic- 
ing Information, 1926>1938. Volume One nmpdcJfr\ MS 
lUuman An ins jiiuMc reference hn aniivnc m^ohed in Vintage 
Rjtiio revkjejtHHj. $1 1.95 

20N096 How To Read Schematics (4th Ed.) M /A«u<4 £ 
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2t3N097 Radio Operator's World Atlas to Waft Stimum. 
WtiCP This ti a compact i5\lh detailed, and comprehend* c 
fewfcj jiI^ de>i^ned to be a coihianl dcrvL top companion li>r radio 
operators, $17.95 

20N020 Secrets ol RF Circuit Design to j»*epk J. Cart 
Wntten in clear non-technical lan^ua^e. co^erv eveTjthin^ irom 
amernia^io transiMors- $19,50 

30N109 73 Magazine Index 196^1990 

A complete index io e^ery ;iriEc1e puhli^hcJ in 7 Jf \ftiKn:t'n 

Ihruu^h I'MI RwL S I ?.00 IBM software Specify lypej $20,00 

20Nt10 Product Reviews Since 194S Contains an index to 
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06357 1993 Passpori lo World Band 
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time yrivk $ln.50 

03S11 Shortwave Receivers Past and 
Present edited by Fred J. (.httrnuut Guide in 
2WH dtorjw-jive receivers mamilac lured In the 
Ja^t 2li year*, Tlie Blue &?>ok ol shortwave radio 
value. $11.95 

07R25 Tha RTTY Listener to Fred Oxter* 
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eimipilo i*vuc% I thfimjih 25 **f ihc RTTY 
tjtfenrr tftirxl?iirt; C<inta(n> up^li>-daic- JianJ' 
iii-lind inform at inn on advanced RTTY and 
FAX rtiiiriitttring techfii(|ueK and frequencies 
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03C0S Shortwave Clandestine Conf=den- 
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dCH. i*thcf tinpuhiohvd inlnrmjiKm; spy, insur- 
££«in. freeidom Ti^hterv rehel. anarchm radm. 
seem radm. $1L50 

03M221 US Military Communications 
(Pawl 1) US Military ounmun nation channeU 
ml >h<m*jTe Covers freiiucncie^. hjckcnmnd 
on pomi in- pm nt frequencies for the Ftiiltp- 
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(Kc juv and more $1 2,95 

03M222 US Military Communications 
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gency ManaseiiKni Apency. Dtuster Commu- 
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9073 KC. $12.95 

03M223 US Military Communication! 
(Part 3} Complete t the *a.M overait rreojuency 
Ms* of L'S Milium xrr^Ko, front 8993 KC to 
27.944 KC.SI19S 

21 ^ /V ^ 



Q9S42 The Scanner Listener's Handbook 
to Ed^rard Srwmre N2BFF Get the most out of 
your scunner radio. $14.95 

HT66 Tune in on Telephone Calls by 
Tarn Knvitti K2AES Fcirm;uted as a trequency 
lisi willi deiiiiled descripiion of each service and 
its Ituation in RF jipectrum. $12,95 

0JK205 Guide to Radioteletype (R'l T Y) 
Stations to J, KlitixettjUzs Llpdaied honk 
pavers all RTTY stations from 3MHz-.%MHr, 
Press. MiEiiary. Com medial. Meteo. PTTs, em- 
hassies + arhj more. $12,95 

11 AS 10 Air Scan Guide to Aeronautical 
Communications (5th Ed.) to Tern AWnr/ 
K2AES Most eonipretiensj* e fiiide to moujior- 
in^ US jL-riHuuiii.-al communicatiitns. Covers ail 
Canadian bnd airpons and ^capbne hasev plu^ 
liMines u*r Central America, ihc Carthhean. 
Nonh Ail am it-, and the Pacific Terri lyrics. 
$14.95 

07A66 Aeronautical Communications 
Handbook fry Ruben £. £Va#jv E\hauHtive + 
schobrij treatment of shonvtaw aeronautical 
liMenin^ $19.95 

1tRF13Tlie *Top Secn»t M Registry of US 
Government Radio Frequencies (7tfi Ed.) 
at 7tHir tCnettel K2AFS Thi^ ■*n.-aimer directory 
h^s hevi^nc ihc standard reference sfur^e lor 
frequency and other importaia tnfomiaiiOfi relat- 
ing in the cummunicaikms of federal aeenciev 
$19,95 

I1F52 Ferrall's Confidential Frequency 
List. New Revised Edition *ompiteJ to 
.4 G HtitUxcy All fre\|ucnctc> from 4 MH/- 
2HMHV covettnj shtp. em hiss j . areo. Vulrnet. 
Inicrpo], n movers. Air Furce One/T»o. more. 

15A002 Scanner and Shortwave Answer 

BOOk to Bifb Crtne Mral frequently aiked 
que-aiorb hy hobo>i>L*. SIA,9f 



11SR9? national Directory Of Survival 
Radio Frequencies to Tom Kmitet K2AES 
Hundy and concise reference jtuide in high huer- 
esi coiiimunkuiions frequencies required by sur- 

viva! isis SM.9? 

HSM11 Scanner Modification Hand- 
book, Vol. 1 to Hitt Ctwk ptmvidav sirai^hi- 

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(he ajltfRtlina capahilitacs of VHF scunners. 
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11EE0G Guide to Embassy Espionage 
Communications to Tom Km mi K2AES 
Caudkl .tn J probing c^ ami nation of worldwide 
embassy audi latJctcdl cspitmace cotnniunica- 
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20r4094 A Flick of the Switcti. 1930-1950 
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07R26 World Wida Aeronautical Commu- 
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Iratfic Ci«A(m|. Airvrarti^Contpany Or*eraiion>. 
Aiiation Weather Bmadcasi^. Aemnauhcal 
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NASA Ri|!hc Support, Aero Terms & Abhre>ia- 
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11TB9 Scanner Modification Handbook 
Vol- Z to Hifl Crtei Here il is^ — a cnmpani<iin 
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S 17.95 

Q3RQ1 World Press Services Frequen- 
cies (RTTY} New 5th Ed A comprehensive 
manual cnveritif radioteletype news, monitne- 
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cyliMs $*v95 



04M54 GGTE Horse Tutor Itolu hej; inner io lixcm 
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over KM) wnrtto per mmuie. SunJ-ird tir Furnswonh 
m<Hic, Atlju.sw.hle lone frequency. Creole >our own 
drills, practice or jciU'il cxjiiis, Ea^jiu auifurm to 
ITC retiuirenicm^ 5 1/4™ llsippy lor IBM FX\ XT. AT. 
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04M55 Advanced Edition $29,95 

20N021 No Code Ham Radio Education Pack 
age Coinpuier sottwarc packjyc. Iikluik'v cuinpunri 
aided msirucEidii *oflwnnc (WM aHnparnhkl. 2CX> fK^c 
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2 ON C 22 Ham Operator Education Package 
Coni|Hiier HJliw^re QOtitim Ine ]HM uunpuiihlc disc* 
widi all qunlions for all iitensc classy, plus '"\lor*c 
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Larue Code Programs — (Available on 5 1M" 
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161*06. COM06 IBII/Commodora Tech No 
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124,95 



IBM97 Amafev Radio Part 97 Rules 
tk^L cnmptelc fC"C nues. 59.00 



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ARRL BOOKS 



AR1994 ARAL 1994 Handbook (71st Ed.) Fea* 
lurcv ^hktcJ DSP. improved treairoeni of Pi and Pi-L. 
all new ;il!-di£i{sLl-k)i:ic.pEiH litis more. $2S.UU 

ART 993 ARRL 1993 Handbook {7Gth Ed.) }9 
dttipicrii* featuring 2. 1 Of.) Libles. figures and duns. 
Comprehensive, ^ell : orjninnxcl and affordable $25.00 

AR1QEG-4 ARRL Operating Manual (4th Ed.) 
Inform j] ion on how uj make the he&i use of ynur sti- 
liun, inukuJitip: iaTcn%ing home computers. OSCAR. 
VHFdJHF.sili.lW 

AR0194 Antenna Compendium Vol. 1 MsiierialH 
m HrftiLulN. quads. Iwips, )^B. reduced size antennas, 
hilunv .Smith Churls anienna potari/aitoti. $10.00 

AR2545 Antenna Compendium Vol, 2 Covers 

verticals, vagk. quadiu muLrihund and broiidtmnd sys- 
lemii, antenna m; tea kin. $12.00 

AR4D17 Antenna Compendium Vol. 3 More *er- 
lii^iEs. ya^jSi £|Lii)ds, pfus Loops, arrays, motile, direc- 
lion finding, cum rolled currem^ coinpuinri/ed* instal- 
lation, o^tffcttd^ plus 40 new articles for beginner's; 10 
advanced, S14,«U 

AR262S Companion Software for Antenna 
Compendium VoL 2 5 EM MS-DOS flnppy. 

ARG48S WIFE'S Antenna Notebook fr> Wotjjj 
DfWtfsi' IVJF/f Gel life besl perfOrinLtncc nu( of unuh- 
irusive wire imteiirtLiN and venicals. Build tuners and. 
SWR bridge;;. 59,50 

AR034B QRP Notebook by Dmi$ DrMm WfFR 
Present eon^iruriion projects for The QRP operator. 

A R 41 41 W1 FBs Design Notebook hyDfn^De^ 
Mmt WIFH Filled wish simple praciieai projects, ihuc 
urn he bud I u^iiii! readily mailable eoniponetiis. :ind 
coitimon hand look S 10.00 

AR22Q0 Antenna Impedance Matching hy Wil- 
fred H. Canm Most co]]ipreficnsive book written on us- 
uif Siiinli Chum in -.olvin^j impedance Hutching pnAh 
lemv.$2IMM> 

AR0402 Solid State Design CiowL hasic- informa- 
tion. cirLLir) de*ijfn\ and applications; descriptions of 
recekerv iraiiMiiiuers. power supplies, and (est pu.Lrip- 

AR3193 Weather Satellite Handbook (4th Ed.) 

hy f)r, Hiitpti Talari WEHDQi Expanded and revised 
to reflect twlav's weudier-fax. satellite icfhnoltj^y, 
S2IUKI 



AR329D Companion Software for Weather 
Satellite Handbook 5 I AT MS-DOS Floppy, 
SIU.IM) 

AR3291 Now You're Talking! All You Need To 
Get Your First Ham Radio License (2nd Edi- 
tion) A complete study guide for ihc Technicaii and 
Novice written e^ant, Practical informal ton every be- 
ginner need* is urjfien clearly and % imply and in small 

&&*>,. $mm 

AR3292 Your Introduction to Morse Code: 
Practice Cassettes Kit includes two 9H minute 
cassetic tapes. Prepares you Uw the 5 WPM Morse code 
exam to earn your Novice license or inkl high-fmjuen- 
cy worldwide eoiuiTiunicatiuns privileges to voirr code- 
free Technician license, SI (MM) 

AR0437 ARRL Repeater Directory 1993-1994 

I9.0W14 listings with dijipeaiers. hand plaits. CTCSS 
(PLfTMn lone than, frequency cswrdinators, ARRL 
special seriiee ctubs. arid beacon listing from f4 MHk 

AR1033 The DXCC Companion M- Jim Keurman 
KRIS Spelts out in simple, strai^htforwjird terms wltal 
you need to be a successful DXer. H.flfl 

AH 1250 Log 8ook— Spiral S3.5U 

ARA34T Interference Handbook RFE sleuih"s ex- 
penence in solving intcrt'ercnee problems, SU.OO 

AR2 197 ARRL Data Book Valuable aid lo the RF 

design engineer, technician, radio iiinuLeur, and experi- 
menter. SU+O0 

AR2960 Transmission Line Transformers (2nd 
Ed.) hy Or Jtrry Seiiik WIFMt Patctical tSbtfgns 

and specific information on coiMruciion techniques 
and sources of material, ^2tLEKI 

AR0410 Yagi Antenna Design A Ham Rmiia st~ 
ries polished ^nd expanded by Dr. La^-son. S JS.tMJ 

AR2171 Hints and Kinks Ideas for setting up your 
geai forct^nlortable. eftlcieni operation. $S.tl(i 

AR31 69 Q RP Classics Cornpi kfa m of AR RL puh- 
liealioits on buildiiiji receivers, I runs mi tiers, irans- 

ceivers. !3ccessH.)ries, $12.00 

ARRL License Manuals Complete FCT question 
pools With answers. 



AR2375 Technician Class 
AR2383 General Class 
AR01G6 Advanced Class 
AR2391 Extra Class 



SWHJ 

SSXHS 
S1O0 



ANTENNAS 



£0N10a The Easy Wire Antenna Handbook by 

i)wt lM>rw?} K-fTWJ. Gi\es you ail of the needed di- 
mensions for a itfll nmjie of easy to hurld urnJ erect 
Sky wires ' S9.5H 

"E0A343 All About Cubical Quad Antennas hy 
WHiiion Off und Siimrt Cflwan "The Classic" on 
Quad design, theory, construe tioii. opennion, New 

feed and maccftint systems. New daia. %U&$ 

01A70 Practical Antenna Handbook hy 
Jtr\fftirJ r Qtrr |)f\i:iti, buiU h PJiodiiy. and install your 
own mitcnnas, $21.95 

UHF/VHF/PACKET\ 

01P22-2 The Packet Radio Handbook (2nd 
Ed.) hy JiHWfhtiti L Mtsyt) KR.lT'\..t\\c detniitive 
pintle to Li i mil cur paekci operation." Gwyn Reedy 
\Vt BEL Only $16^5 

20N013 U.S. Repeater Mapbook Av 8$&t 

(Martin The Guide for traveling radio Jimatenrs. 



10A342 All About Verttcle Antennas hy William 
Orr CoiLjprehensi^e coverage of amaleur comtnuttiea- 
tions. J1D.W 

10A345 Beam Antenna Handbook hy William 

Orr ami Siwtrt Oman Ewviiiiny ywu nee<l to know 
aliout beam design, eonstruction. and operation. St L95 

10A346 Simple, Low-Cost Wire Antennas For 
Radio Amateurs hy William Orr and Smart Ctman 

Ail New* Low-cosL mulrhhand Lintennas; inexpensive 
beams. "hivi.sibJc" aniennas fijf hams in "touith" facar 
itons! New data. ST LV5 



09V11 The Basic Guide to VHF/UHF Ham 
Radio hy Edward M. Nott Provides a ftrst Rite 

introduction to I he 2. ft nnd |*25 meter bands as 
well us 2&. i X and m-m. $fi.5tf 

03R02 RTTY Today hy /J^or tk^m MTiW 

Most comprehensive RTTY pjUh ewr publislvd, 
$K.5(I 



BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS 



02D42 Digital Novice fry Jim Gmbfrs Geared. 

to fiiuke you a Jiiore knowledgable panicipurit. 

05C25 Basic A,C. Circuits a siep-b>'Siep 

approach loi' the he^inninj: student- S-4,5(l 

20 NO 13 Technician Class License Manual: 
New Mo-Code hy GurAon \\t.si Tliis book COV- 

eiN everything you need to become a Techniciim 
Class Haiti. Every question atid answer on ifie $%* 
aminniiniih, is found in this one book. FCC Form 

nln application. $9,95 

2GmQ2 The Wonderful World of Ham 
Radio hy Richard Skotaik, KH-fLCS Simple, 

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fi*}\o. $7,95 



01AB7 Shortwave Listener's Antenna 
Handbook Primer antenna theory. $13<J9JS 

20 Ml 00 Electronics Build and Learn {2nd 

Ed J\ hy HA Faifttld Com nines theory and pcae* 
tice ,^o that you can "learn by doing," $12>54l 

20N099 Digital Electronics Projects for Be- 
ginners by Own Hislmp Contain* 12 digital 

electronics projects suitable for the beginner to 
build wilEi the minimum of equipment, $12.50 

AR2S71 WIFB's Help for New Hams hy 
Dtttif; DvMtm \\ IFH Ctjmplele for the newcomer. 

Pnl logetlier a slat km and ge* on the air, IID.OO 

AH2236 First Steps in Radio by Ehijig 
QeMw »7f/f Serie* of ysr articles %SM 



AR31Q5The Satellite Experimenters Hand- 
book, {2nd Ed.) by Martin Dm-idaff K2UBC 
bepanded and revised- Focusing on satelines buiji hy 
and for the international rudrtf amateur conununitv. 

AR2456 FCC Rule Book (9th Ed) A must for 

every active radio amateur. S9.00 

AR2030 Your Gateway to Packet Radio (2nd 
Ed.) Tells everything you need to know aboul rhis 
popular new mode, 5(1*00 

AR2103 Satellite Anthology The iaicst informa- 
tion on OSCARk y through \S as well as the RS saicl- 
Eiles, the use of digital modes, tracking antennas^ 
KLfDAK, microcompuier, and more! $5^00 

AR2083 Complete DXer (2nd Ed.} by Rob h,d- 
tr U'VA'AV Learn how [o hunt DX and obtain hard-|r> 
!;eiqSLcards r SI2.tM} 

CODE TAPES = 

73T05 "Genesis" S5.9S 

5 wpra — This hey inning tape, takes you through 

the 2ft letter, in numbers, and necessary punc- 
tuation^ compter witli practice uvery step of the 
wav. 

73T06 "The Stickler" $5.95 

(i+ wpm — This h the practice tape for those who sur- 
vived the- 5 w-pnt tape, and it's also the tape for the 
Novice an J Technician licen^,s. It is comprised of 
one jolid hour of code. Characters. Lire sei al 1 3 wpm 
and spaced at 5 wpm. 

WAYNE'S PICKS- 

SSS756 Warning! The Electricity Around 
You May Be Hazardous To Your Health in 
Ellen Sitxtirwtin An in valuable ^uide to the risks of 
electromagnetic fields, and steps you can Take to 
protect yourself am! your family, St J*0fl 

"We The People" Declare War! On Our 
Lousy Government, hy Wayne Green A "must 
read" for every ameriean taxpayer. Solutions 
to everv problem facing Our government today. 
U1S5 ' 



AR2065 ARRL Antenna Book The new I6ih Edi- 
tion representt the best and most highly regarded infor- 
mation on antenna fundamentals, transmission lines. 

de-si £it. and construct ion of wire antennas, SIOjQti 

AR289S Space Almanac by AnOwny R. Curtis 
KJKXK Receni news fre>m spaeii. $2IMH} 

AFI3293 Morse Code: The Essential Language 
by L feut Carmn Jr. WSDKl Expanded and. revised 
in iis 2nd edition. How to handle distress calls heard 
not only on the hjimhands but on iretritime and; aircraft 
frequencies. %M 

A R 41 14 Low Profile Amateur Radio For the 

Ham whej lives where antenna^ are frowned upon. 
Frotu hiding your antenna to operating wilh k>w pow- 
er. This bibik tells you how to eet on the air usin^ these 
techniques — and oihers — without calling attention lo 
>oursclf. $HJM* 



73T13 "Back Breaker" $5.»5 

1J+ wpm Code groups a^uin, at a brisk 1?+ 

wpm so you'll he really at en.se when you sit down 
in front of a iteely-eyed volunteer examiner who 
starts sending you plain hm^ua^e code at only 33 
per. 

73T20 hl Coufageous '* $5.95 

20+ vipm Congraiuhitions? Okay, ihc chnllen^e of 
code is svhiu s toiten you this far, *o dont quit 
now. On for die exira class license. We send ihe 

code faster than 20 per. 



EDB6751 Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden 
Curriculum Of Compulsory Schooling, by 
Jfthn OtUttt If you enjoyed "Decfare War", you'll en- 
joy this also. A Wayne Green reeom mended 

reading. OS.. 

73572 How to Teach School Real Good hy 
Dhii Guilford GchhJ refill;:. A true insist on tlve 

school system. What our teachers teach, how and 
why they teach. You will not tie Libte to put this one 
down. A Wayne Green recommended reudin^. Lim- 
ited Quantity, While supplies last. £10.1)0 



AR3878 Your VHF Companion Explore the 

fascinating activities on the VHF hands: FM and 
repeater packet, CW & SSB, Satellites, ATV, 

transmitter hunting and nuire. $X.I>II 



NEW STUFF ^= 

AR37&2 Your QRP Operating Companion Ho 
special ri^s or expensive equipment to enjoy the ex- 
riiertlenl and chullenjie oi low-power operating. $^.0(1 

AR3959YOUF Packet Companion Perfect for the 
packei newcomer. $8.1)0 

I Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf Order Form I 

I You may order by mail, telephone, or fax. All payments arc to be in 
US luuds. Allow 3 weeks for delivery. 

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- Telephone: (603) 924 4196 (800) 234-8458 
| FAX: (603) 924-8613 

LMail: Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf, 70 Route 202N, 
Peterborough, NH 03458 



Item 


Titfe 


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Price 


Total 






























































Shfpplna: All US-'Canada orders ado S6.00 sbioDina. U.S. SHIPPING 
orders shipped UPS. {Please provide s)ree5 adtfr-ess.'f 
I Alaska & Hawaii shaped via mail.) Airmail to Canada by jaji ■ 
actual weight UJAL 







Make checks payable to "Uncle Wayne's Bookshelf* 

Foreign Orders: Shipping crsarge-S by aclu^t weighl. Surface or Airmail 

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Name 
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City _ 



State 



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Q AE □ MC 
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UCheck/Money Order 



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Expiration Date 



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Number 27 on your Feedback card 

M OUTPUT 

David Cassidy N1GPH 



Enough! 

Polly Klaas was a beautiful 12- 
year-old girl. Last year, on October 1 , 
she was having a slumber party with 
a few of her friends. Her mother slept 
downstairs while the girls stayed up 
and discussed things of monumental 
importance to 12-year-old girls. A 
knife-wielding thug broke Into the 
house, tied up the girts* took Polly 
and left. 

Despite a monumental publicity 
and search effort by the citizens of 
Polly's home town, this beautiful little 
girl's body was found two months lat- 
er. The man who murdered her had 
been confronted by police twice dur- 
ing those two months, the first being 
less than two hours after the kidnap- 
ping. He has a record ot arrests and 
convictions for abductions and other 
violent crimes going back almost 20 
years. He has served time in prison 
tor these crimes, and yet he was free 
to walk the streets of California just 
like you and me. 

In the last two weeks, authorities 
in St. Louis have had to inform two 
sets of parents that their children 
won't be coming home — ever. They 
were both littie girts. One was 9 and 
the other was 1 0, 

If you live in a small, rural commu- 
nity, and you think this kind of 
heinous crime cant happen to you— 
think again. Ten days after Polly 
Klaas disappeared, Stephanie Crane 
was abducted from her small Idaho 
town — population 700. 

Are you mad yet? Have you had 
enough of this? Are you going to con- 
tinue to allow the scum of our society 
to get away with this? Are you going 
to continue to elect local, state and 
federal politicians who are afraid to 
make the hard choices of taking 
away the rights of convicted criminals 
in order to protect the rights and lives 
of the law-abiding? How many more 
beautiful 12-year-old girls are going 
to have to die horrible and lonely 
deaths before the people of America 
wake up and demand a criminal jus- 
tice system that deals with crime and 
the punishing of criminals? Over 500 
children were abducted las l year, and 
that's 500 more than we should toler- 
ate. Today, as you read this, another 
child is being taken — another child 
that we'll never find. I gotta' tell ya' 
folks, I am beside myself with anger 
over this. 1 can barely type these 
words. 1 have had enough, 

Amateur Radio Can Be Part of the 
Solution 

The common response to this type 
of situation is: "What can { possibly 
do?" Aside from electing people 
carefully and supporting spending for 
more cops, bigger prisons, longer 
sentences and abolishing the parole 

96 73 Amateur Radio Today* February, 1994 



system, what can the average person 
do? 

We may not feel like we have con- 
trol over courts, prisons and parole 
boards, but we can do something. 
We can say enough is enough. We 
can say that the next time a child 
turns up missing we wilt be prepared. 
Not prepared to help tomorrow or 
next week — we can be prepared to 
help right now. 

When a small plane crashes (or is 
only thought to have crashed), there 
are systems and volunteer organiza- 
tions in place to search for and come 
to the aid of the crash victims, As a 
Private Pilot I am thankful to always 
know that should the unthinkable 
happen, I won't be left to die on the 
craggy slopes of a windswept New 
Hampshire mountain because there 
wasn 1 t a system in place to come find 
me. Within hours of my late arrival 
there will be dozens of people and 
aircraft searching for me. 



set up to assist in finding children. 
How many days go by? How many 
nights? Will you ever see your child 
again? 

What would have happened to 
Polly Klaas if, within an hour of the 
local police department's call to an 
amateur radio search coordinator 
there were several dozen trained 
hams searching in an ever-widening 
pattern, alt coordinated with a net 
control station at the police depart- 
ment? What if another dozen teams 
were searching in automobiles, 
checking all available modes of es- 
cape out of the area, driving the 
roads and stopping at stores and gas 
stations and asking questions? What 
if the eyewitness's description of the 
kidnapper was transmitted via packet 
to the local search teams in sur- 
rounding communitites or neigh bor- 
ing states, not days but minutes after 
it was available? What if all of this 
happened within one hour of the ini- 
tial call to local police? 

It doesn't matter if the child is real- 
ly missing, or if he just went some- 
where without telling his parents. Ev- 
ery second of doubt is an eternity of 
anguish for parents who don't know 
where their child is. How would you 
feel ff you were the ham who could 



Over 500 children were abducted 

last year, and that's 500 more 

than we should tolerate. " 



Couldn't we do the same for the 
children of America, and isn't the am- 
ateur radio community ideally suited 
to form the core of such a system? 

Even with the best efforts of law 
enforcement, it can be several hours 
between the time a parent reports a 
missing child and when any kind of 
an organized search begins. Think 
about it It's six o'clock. You just got 
home from work, and your 12-year- 
old isn't there. He was supposed to 
be home after school t by three 
o'clock at the latest, You call your 
neighbors, and they haven't seen 
him. You calf his school friends, but 
none of them know where he is. You 
call the police, and they send some- 
one out to your house to ask some 
questions, while alerting their patrol 
officers of a possible missing child. 
You provide police with a description 
and a picture. While talking with the 
police officer, you remember the 
name of another of your child's 
friends. You call and he tells you that 
he saw your son get into a blue car 
driven by a tall man with a beard, 
This information is immediately trans- 
mitted to local law enforcement. 
What time is it now? How long has 
your child been missing? How far 
away could the kidnapper have trav- 
eled in that amount of time? 

Over the next few days, volunteer 
search teams are set up. Posters are 
distributed over an ever-widening 
area, The FBI gets involved, as do 
several of the national organizations 



transmit to net control "I found him. 
He's OK."? 

I'm not talking about a bunch of fat 
guys with HTs on their belts and a 
Rambo complex. I'm talking about an 
organization that sets up systems 
with the aid and backing of local and 
national law enforcement agencies 
before they are needed- I'm talking 
about a national organization, with 
state and local chapters, that continu- 
ously trains and prepares for the day 
when they have to — within 60 min- 
utes — mobilize to search for a miss- 
ing child with the same thoroughness 
of the Civil Air Patrol's search for a 
missing pilot. 

Amateur Radio Child Search 

I propose the founding of an orga- 
nization called Amateur Radio Child 
Search (ARCS). To assist in getting 
this started, Wayne Green has 
pledged the financial and logistical 
support of 73 and the entire Wayne 
Green, Incorporated organization. I 
am looking for amateur radio opera- 
tors in alt 50 states to assist in devel- 
oping this organization. I will listen 
to anyone and everyone who is will- 
ing to help {I'm not saying that 111 
take your advice, just that Til listen to 
it). I mean it. I would welcome the 
participation of the ARRL or any oth- 
er amateur radio company or group. 
This is above the petty squab blings 
of amateur radio (and amateur radio 
magazines). This is above your ani- 
mosity towards Wayne Green, me or 



73 magazine, I am looking for fund- 
ing avenues to aid in forming this 
national organization. If you have ex- 
perience in areas such as grant 
writing, your help would be most 
welcome, If you are already involved 
in search and rescue, whether pro- 
fessionally or as a volunteer, I'd like 
to hear from you. 

The plan is to have local groups in 
every state, all coordinated by a na- 
tional organization, to assist law en- 
forcement in the immediate search 
for missing children. If you're a 
paramilitary, soldier of fortune, cop 
wanna- be type of nut, please do me 
a favor and stay away. We 1 re not talk- 
ing about chasing bad guys, Alt we 
want to do is find missing kids. 

The state coordinators, all select- 
ed by the national office, will oversee 
the operation and training of their lo- 
cal team leaders. Team leaders, se- 
lected by state coordinators with the 
approval of the national office, will be 
responsible for the training of their lo- 
cal chapter, as well as building and 
maintaining relationships with local 
law enforcement agencies. Chapter 
members will be responsible for stay- 
ing current in their training and being 
available to assist in the search for a 
missing child within one hourot notifi- 
cation. Everyone involved in this or- 
ganization will be screened and reg- 
istered by the national office. 

Amateur radio desperately needs 
to justify its existence. We no longer 
advance the state of the art, we are 
not needed as a trained pool of quali- 
fied radio operators, and there ain't a 
whole helluva lot of international 
goodwill generated by the average 
DX contact How about if we decided 
that one of the reasons for our exis- 
tence should be to use our communi- 
cations skills and networks to come 
to the aid of missing children? There 
are well over 250.000 active amateur 
radio operators in this country. Could 
the combined efforts of a quarter mil- 
lion people, united for the single pur- 
pose of protecting the lives of our 
children, make a difference? Is there 
any more important use of our time 
and talents? 

I may be setting myself up for a 
big disapointment by announcing 
this before the logistics are worked 
out T but if there is one thing I have 
learned from Wayne Green in the 
last four years It's that the only way 
to get someting done is to just do 
it. Talking about it doesn't get it done. 
It will take several months to find out 
if starting an organization such as 
I've described is even possible. I'll 
be meeting with attorneys and 
accountants to set up the paperwork. 
I need the help of every interested 
person. If nothing else, send me your 
name, address and phone number so 
I can put you on the list for when your 
state and local chapter gets started. 
If you can do more, let me know that 
too. 

Inquiries should be sent to my at- 
tention at 73 Amateur Radio Today 
70 Route 202 N, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



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FT-41: 430-450 MHz FWTX 
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150 Memory Channels 
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AM "Aircraft" Receive 
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FNB-31 4 6V, 600 mAft Battery 
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FBA-14 6 AA Size Battery Case 
FTS-Zfi CTCSS Decode Unit 
NC-50 Dual Slot 1 -Hour Desk 

Charger 
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No other radio has 
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Omair is relative, isn't it? It could 
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And, it could mean ^reduced" which it 
doesn't! Nothing missing from the hot 
new FT-11 R ITT from Yaesu except bulk! 
YouYe going to wonder just how all the 
features of this full-function radio fit in. 
Until you remember Yaesu pioneered i 
2-way radio micro technology 

To see what this really means to you, 



check out all the new features. Like the 
alphanumeric display. This Yaesu HT 
first, lets you tag your favorite frequency 
by name, call sign or number. Or, the new 
"voltage stingy" battery It's an industry 
first for amateur radio. Smaller and com- 
pact, the 4.8V battery gives you 1,5 watts 
on IX And, if that's not enough, there's 
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You see it's not a small time 
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KENWOOD ELECTHOL 
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Ontario. Canada L5T 1S8 

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To get the most out of handheld 
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• Alphanumeric memory 

Alphanumeric data (max, 6 characters) 
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tn addition to standard DTSS and paging 
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• Dual-frequency receive 

In addition fo full-duplex cross-band 
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TH-2BA: 118-173.995 MHz, sub RX: 
438-449.995 MHz; TH-48A: 
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MHz; TH-78A: 118-173.995,438-449,995 
MHz. Transmit an Amateur bands only. 
(MARS/CAP modifiable, permits required). 

■ 2 . 5 W power with supplied battery pack 

5W with 12 VDC power source (PB-U, 
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The TH-78A has 50 memory channels 
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