Skip to main content

Full text of "The key to the land; what a city man did with a small farm"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



This "O-P B<x)k" Is an Authorized Reprint of the 
Original Edition, Produced by Microfilm-Xerography by 
University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1964 

•- ^ 







flKBwnro iHXim Kirsxat to moss of other lavguaobs, avd bspbciallt ths iroBTBB&xr ; 
imAiBZim MAsrr tkbms, wmcB, though now obsolbtb nr bztglavd, wbbb iobicbblt 


mznunoin, or thbib analogy to thosb of othbb nations: 

TO wBicirw^ mnzBD^ 




V ' • ' 













17 ~ 37^0 6"] -J 

^J y ., 










For ooaTaa^ent reference, and in order otherwise to increase the usefulness of this woric, 
many important improvements have been introduced in the form of the book. It will be found, 
for example, that all the quotations, corrections, and additions of the Supplement, have been 
incoiporated in the body of the work ; and that the arrangement of words, which was in some 
instances faulty, has been made more consistent; that many corrections have been made 
throughout; and that not a few additional forms and meanings of words have been given. But, 
in almost every case, except where the alteration is merely verbal, the new matter has been 
enclosed within brackets, to distinguish it from the work of Dr. Jamieson. 

Ko puns have been spared to make this edition of the Scottish Dictioxabt as correct and 
complete as possible; but, even with the utmost care and attention, in a work of such magnitude 
and diverrity, mistakes and omissions are unavoidable. In order to remedy these defects, the 
volumes will come under the eye of ripe and able scholars in all parts of the world, and lists 
of ecrrigenda and addenda will be collected as the work proceeds, which| when properly sifted 
and arranged, will form an interesting and valuable addition to the great work by Dr. Jamieson. 

To secure a result so important, every one #ho takes an interest in our Scottbh literature^ 
and in the success of the present undertaking, is respectfully invited to assist ; for» only by 

of effort, can completeness be obtained. The Publisher will reckon himself 
indebted to any readers who will take the trouble of pointing out errors of importance, 
or of transmitting to him such words as have been omitted, with the proper explanations. 

• • 

This edition contains Dr. Jamieson's original Prefaces, his Dissertation on the Origin of 
the Scottish Language, a List of the Books referred to, or quoted by the Author througliout 
lus DicnoNABT and Supplement, and the List of Origmal Subscribers. 

When nearly half of the first volume had passed through the press, Dr. Longmuir was com- 
pelled, by the state of his health, to withdraw in some measure from the supervision of the 
work. The Publisher was fortunate in securing the services of D. Donaldson, Esq., F.E.LS., 
Editor of ''The Troy Book" in the Early English Text Society's Series, whose extensive 
knowledge of Scottish literature, and experience as a student of Philology, specially qualify him 
for the work. 




, y 



LuMia Patib Gonn. 

Tin BoTAXi LiBEABTy WindflOT Caatle. 
Robert Brown, Eaq., Undarwood Fkrk, Paiil^. 
B. T. Hamilion-Bruoe, Em., Myrea Cattle, Fife. 
J. Olaland Bama, Eaq., Glaagow. 
Jamaa OaldwelL Eaq., Paialey. 
Thomaa Ooata, Esq., raialey. 
Jamaa Diekia, Eaq., Glasgow. 

Bar. Jamaa Dodda, D.D., Olaagow. 
William Gardner, Eaq., Paialey. 
J. Graham Ginraa, Esq*, Glaagow. 
J. Wyllie Guild, Em., Glaagow. 
Alex. B. M*Gnffor, Eaq., LLD., Gla«goi 
George Seton Yeitcli, Eaq., Paial^. 
Willum Wilaon, Eaq., Gla^ow. 


Tm Both Ldravt, WindMr Caatle. 
Bdward AdamMn, Eaq., M.D., Bye, Soaaex. 
Walter Alexander, Eaq., Glaagow. 
Major^neral A. Stewart Allan, Skene Lodge, 

B. Yana-Agnew, Eiq.. HP., per Meaaia. Edmonaton 

A Co., Edinbuign. 
Tliomaa Br(N>ke, Eaq., F.S.A., Hadderafield. 
John Brown, Eaq., Paialey. 
Robert Brown, Eaq., Underwood Park, Paia^y. 
Ihe Harqaeaa of Bate, K.T., LL.D., Ae. 
A. Donoombe CampbelL Esq., Kirkintilloch. 
D. C. B. Carriek-Bachanan, Esq., Dmmpellier, 

Ihe Cbidiolm, per Meaara. Edmonaton & Co., Edin- 

Jamea Copland, Eaq., F.S.A. Scot, Edinbargb. 
Thomaa Cborlton, Eaq., Solicitor, Mancheater. 
Jamaa Clark, Esq., Balaton, Pauley. 
Jolin Clark, Eaq., Gateaide, Paialey. 
Stewart Clark, Em^., KUnaide, Paialey. 
Wmiam Clark, Esq., New York. 
Archibald Coata, Eaq. . Woodaide, Paialey. 
Sir Peltf Coata, Knight, Auchendrane, Ayr. 
Thomaa Coata, Esq., Fergnalie, Paisley. 
Alexander O. Cowan, Esq., M.D., Edinburgh. 

xl'ortli Queen Street, Glaagow. 


JasMa Cowan, 

Robert Crawford, t!aq., Calside, Paialey.' 

Lord CnrriehilL Edinburgh. 

Walter Eaaton, Eaq., Exchange Square, Glaagow. 

Thomaa Falconer, Esc^., Judge of County Courts, 
Uak, Monmouthshue. 

]>• FSaher, Eaq., KelTinside, Glasgow. 

Jamaa Omner, Esq., Solicitor, Paialey. 

IfniUam Gardner, £sq., Paialey. 

Ifniliam Gemmill, Eiq., Writer, GUsgow. 

Robert Gibeon, Esq., Jane Street, Glasgow. 

The Bight Hon. the Earl of Glaagow. 

Bar. Alexander ThomMU Grant, Roaalyn, N.B. 

George Gray, Esq., Writer, Glasgow. . 

Robert Guy. Esq., Writer, Glasgow. 

George Guthrie, Esq., M.B., Bumtwood, Lichfield. 

Rer. Dunbar Stewart Halkett, M.A., Little Book- 
ham Beetory, Leatherhead. 

William Hohna, Esq., M.P. 

Bobert Bolt, Esq., Manchester. 

Mr. Hugh Hopkins, Glasgow. 

Bar. William A. Keith, Burham Vicarage, Bo- 

Walter Kincr, Esq., Paialey. 

Jamaa W. Knox, Esq., Writer, Glaagow. 

John Knox, Esq., Glaagow. 

Jamea Barr Lamb, Es^. . Paldey. 

John Logan, Em., Paialey. 

D. Lyell, Esq., Chalmera Crescent. Edinbuigh. 

Alexander M^Aliater, Esq., West India Dodc Bead, 

Jamea Macdonald, Esq., F.S.A. Scot , Buaaell Square, 

H. Bfacfarlane, Esq., Banker, Paialey. 
William S. Mackean, Esq., Paisley. 
Alexander Mackenzie, Esq., Writer, Paialey. 
Meaara. Macmillan & Co., Cambrid|^. 
James D. Marwick, Esq., LL.D., Town Clerk, 

James Muir, Esq. , West George Street, Glaagow. 
Bar. William M'lndoe, Paialey. 
John M'Innes, Esq., Writer, Paialey. 
John Millar, Esq., Paisley. 
John MoriMo, Esq., Stirllngs Boad, Glasgow. 
James Barclay Muxdoch, iSq., Glasgow. 
DaTid Murray, Esq., Writer, Glasgow. 
David Murray, Esq., ProTOst of Paidey. 
William Murray, Esq., Auchinean, Paisley. 
William Peterson, Esq., Publisher, Edinbuigh. 
B. W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq., LL.B., Cantab., B.A., 

F.S.A. Scot, &c. 
Hugh Penfold, Eiq., M.A., Buatington, Little- 

A. Buaaell Pollock, Esq., P^ley. 
John PoImu, Esq., Castle Levan, Gonrock. 
Messrs. BeeToa & Turner, London. 
William Beid, Jr., Esq., Writer, Paisley. 
DaTid S. Sample, Esq., Writer, Paisley. 
Hngh H. Smiley, Esq., Gallowhill, Paisley. 
John Guthrie Smith, Ksq., Mugdock Castle. 
John Stewart, Esq., Greenock. 
William Thonuon, Esq., Great King Street, Edin- 
Bobert ThomMu, Esq., Greenock. 
William Wotherapoon, Esq., Paisley. 
Alexander Young, Esq., Writer, Glasgow. 
The Bodleian Library, Oxford, per Ro?. H. O. Coxe. 
The Paisley PhiloMphical Institution. 
The Boston Public Library, U.S.A., per Measrs. S. 

Low & Co., London. 
The Library of Congress, Washington, U.S. A., per 

E. G. Allen, Esq., London. 
The Mitchell Library, GUsgow. 
The Library of the Faculty of Procurators, Glasgow, 
The Libraiy of the Univeraity of Aberdeen, per 

Meaan. D. Wyllie & Son. 




Job PlMMh BtSkj, Siq., Steaton Plaeo, BelgitiTe, 
■n. J. A T. Spenosr, BookMlloriy 

Hmr OuBpb«ll Bumermaiit Em., M.P. 
TkmM Beiih, Baq., W.a, Edinburgh, per Mewi 
Jolin Mm1m«ii and Son. Booluellen. Edinburs 


w...^ ■„-^,,„- ..»«. •^., Booluellen, Edinburgh. 
Mr. Jolin Bcook^ BookMUer, 171 Eglinion Street, 

Mtan. A. Brown A Co., BookBeQen, Aberdeen. 
Hk Ono^ the Pnke of Buoeleuch wad Queens- 

bnr, K.Om I>.O.L., ULD., Ao. 
G«om Sams, &q. of Wemyu Bay. 
Iha Mbai KoUa tho Marqneaa of Bute, K.T., 

I1I1.D., Ao. 
Mr. Dftvid Biyoa^ 129 Bochanan Street, Glasgow. 

Oolonal OampbeU of Blyihswood. 

Hm Bar. J. L. Oamok, <«Le Conduit Hede," 

OL X. H. Ofiadwjok-Heal^y, Ei^., Lincoln's Inn, 

Wa. Robettson Copland, Esq., C.E., Olaigow. 
Bob«t Crossman, Esq.^ Cheswiek House, Bewl, 

Akiander Dennistoun, Esq. of GolfhilL 
I>avid Donaldson. Esq., F.E.LS^ Paisley. 
IiOfd Dnng^aasi Jjonifim Castle, Lanark. 

WalAtf Eastoffi, Esq., Exchange Square, Glasgow, 
per Messrs. John Smith & Son, Booksellers. 

Bobert Henry EUiot, Esq., Clifton Park, Kelso, 
and Plsik Lane, London. Ttoo eoptet. 

Mr. Andrew EUiot, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. 

Ohailea De Flaadre, Esq., F.S.A., Edinburgh, 

r Messrs. John Madaren & Son. 
Forrester, Bookseller, Glasgow. 
Mr. Bobert Forrester, Bookseller, Glaigow. Three 

Wnaom F. Fox. Esq., 72 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 

Dniel f^raser, Esq., 17 Grosrenor Terrace, Kelvin- 

ride. Giaajgow, per Messrs. D. Btyoe A Son, 


William Galbraitli. Esq., 3 Blvthswood Square, 
Olaigow, per Mr. J. K. Mackinlay, Bookaeller, 

Jaaea Gardiner, Esq., Edinburgh, per Messrs. John 
MadarsnA Son. 

J. M. HaU, Esq. of Ejllean, Tavinloan, Argyllshire. 
X«T. Dr. Hutcluson, Afton Lodge, Bonnington, 

Edinboxgh, per Mr. Andrew Elliot, Edinburgh. 

Mr. Robert laett, Bookseller, Queen's Arcade, Glas- 
gow. ^ 

Bobert Jeffrey, Esq., Crosslee House, Renfrewshire, 
per MeauB. D. Robertson & Co.« Booksellers, 

T. W. Jowitt, Eiq., Rock RiM, Sheffield, per Mr. 
Thomaa Rodgers, Bookselle r , Sheffield. 

R. K. Hobna-Kenr, Esq., Undeibank House, Largs. 

F. de M. Leathes, Esq., 17 Tavistock Place, 

London, W.C. 
Mr. Robert Lindsay, Bookseller, Glas^w. 
John Lister, Esq.,' Shibden HalL Hahfaz. 
Messrs. E. i S. uvingatone. Boo k se l lers, Edinburgh. 

Rot. Dr. Longmuir, Aberdeen. 

Arehd. Macalpine, Esq., Mansfield Place, Paisley. 
A. S. M'Clelland, Esq., 4 Crown Gardens, Glasgow, 

per Messrs. John Smith & Son, Booksellers. 
James Mscdonald, Esq., F.S.A. Scot, 17 Russell 

Square^ London. 
John M. Mscdonald, Esq., Harley Street, London. 
Mr. John M'Dougal, Bookaeller, Paisley. 
Mr. James M'Geachy, Bookseller, Glasgow. 
P. C. Ma<»r0||or, Em. of Brediland. 
William lIuusEean, Esq-y ProTost of Paisley. 
John Maclaren, Esq., Edmburgh. 
R. McMillan, Esq., Dockyard, Dumbarton, per Mr. 

George T^uigfands, Bookseller, Dumbarton. 

J. T. Main, Esq., C.E., 149 West George Street, 

Robert Millar, Esq., Alloway Cottage, Ayr. 
RcT. James Moir, Free Church Manse, Maybole, 

per Messrs. W. Stephen A Co., Booksellers, Ayr. 
Major Monypenny of Pitmilly, St. Andrews, per 

Messrs. J. Cook St Son, Booksellers. • 
H. B. Muir, Esq., 192 Cromwell Boad, South 

Kensinkton, London. 
John Muir, Esq., Writer, Pkisley. 

The New Club, Edinburgh, per Mr. W. Green, 
Bookseller, Edinburgh. 

John Oakey, jr., Esq., Weatminster Bridge Road, 
London, a.E. 

The Right Hon. the Eari of Powis, Powis Csstle, 

Mr. William Pkiterson, Bookseller, Princes Street, 


Robert Ramsey, Esq., Kerland, Crosshill. 
HT Redpath, Esq. of Moi 
MacmiUan A Co., Cambridj 

Peter Redpath, Esq. of Montreal, per Messrs. 

Uan A Co., Cambridge. 
His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, K.G., 

D.C.L., Ac, Gordon Castle, per Messrs. John 

Maclaren A Son. 
Robert Ross, Esq., 18 Park Terrace, Glasgow, per 

Messrs. John Soiith A Son, Booksellers. 
William Rowat, Esq., Saint Margaret's, Paisley. 

James K. Shanks, Esq., 18 West Cumberland 
Street, Glasgow, per Mr. R. Izett, Bookseller, 
Queen's Arcade, Gla^^w. 

John Shiell, Esq., Solicitor, Dundee. 


X a SmilM, Xiq., Tlotoria Fhrit, Ttiaity, Xdin- 

8«iiiiel Smileiy Eiq.. LI1.D., Pambroka Gardeni, 

Ksntingtoiiy Lonoon. W. 
CbarlM Smith, Eaq.« M.D., Sheffieldt per Ifr. 

Thomaa Rodgen, Boolueller. 
Htim. John Smith & Soii| BookfleUon, GUugow. 

Htim. Henry Sotheran & Co., Bookiellen, London. 

Mr. Alexander Stenhonae, Unirenity Book Em- 
porium, Hillhead, Gla^w. 

William StoTenaon^ IS*Q*f ^ Berkelejr. Terrace, 
OlaigoWijMr Hr. R. uett, Bookaeller, Qneen'a 
Arcade, GUauo w. 

Hoirr Edward oartoea, Eaq., Eadworth Hall, near 

Bar. T. H. Tumbult, Leamahagow, per M 

Robertaon & Co., Bookaellera, OCugow. 

Meaara. Trttbner A Co., PubUahen, London. 


John Ure, Eaq., Caimdhu, per Meaara. ICaenevr A 
Bryden, BlDokaellera, Helenabttigh. 

Meaara. Walfoid Brothera, Bookaellera, London. 
W. L. Wataon, Eaq., London, per Meaara. John 

BCaolaren A Son. 
Meaara. Willing A Williamaon, Bookaellera, Toronto, 

Canada. Tvfo eopie$, 
CoUingwood Lindaay Wood, Eaq., Freeland, Bridse 

of Earn, Perthahire, per Meaara. R. A. & J. 

Hay, Bookaellera, Perth. 
Meaara. D. Wyllie A Son, Bookaellera to Her Majeaty, 



A. Aberoromby, Eaq., M.D., Cape Town, Cape of 

Good Hope, per Meaara. iMrter Brothera A 

Walton, Pttbliahera, Cape Town. 
Mr. Jamea A. Acock, ^>okaeller, Oxford. 
Colonel Alexander William Adair, Heatherton 

Ptok, Taonton. 
A. Mercer Adam, Eaq., MD., St Botolph'a, 

Boaton, Lincolnahire. 
0. G. Adama, Eaq., Maolmain, Burmah, per Meaara. 

Trilbner A Co., Publiahera, London. 
Mr. John Adam, Bookaeller, Aberdeen. Two copies. 
Mr. E. G. Allen, American Agency, 12 Taviatock 

Row. Co?ent Garden, London. 
Meaara. J. Anderaon A Son, Bookaellera, Dumfrica. 
nomaa Anderaon, Eaq., 172 St. Vincent Street, 

Glaagow, per Meaara. John Smith A Son, 

Meaara. Aaher A Co., Bookaellera, London. Two 

Rer. Edward Atkinaon, D.D., Maater of dare Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 
Rat. J. C. Atkinaon, Danby in Clereland, Yarm, 

Korth Yorkahire. 

William Auld, Eaq., 4 Paxk Terrace, Glaagow, per 

Meaara. John Smith A Son, Bookaellera. 

Mr. Jamea Bain, Bookaeller, Haymarket, London. 

otvtH copies, 
A. 8. Baird, Eaq., 26 Sardinia Terrace, Glaa^w. 
TIm^ Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh, 

Kennet, Alloa^ per Meaara. John Madaren A 

Son. Edinbniipb. 
Jamea Barr, Eaq., Hamilton DriTe, Glaagow, per 

Meaara. John Smith A Son, Bookaellera. 
BCaa Elisa Bell, Boro?ere, Alton, Hanta. 
Meaara. Bell A Bradfute, Bookaellera, Edinburgh. 
The Royal Library, Berlin, per Meaara. Aaher A 

Co., London. 
Major R Bethune^ Abbotaford Creacent, St. Andre wa, 

per Meaara. J. Cook A Son, Bookaellera. 
John Bett, Eaq., Rohallion, Bimam, Perthahire, per 

Meaara. R. A. A J. Hay, Bookaellera, Perth. 
Meaara. Btckera A Son, Publiahera, London. 
Meaara. Black A Johnaton, Bookaellera, Brechin. 
Jamea Blacklock, Eao., The Academy, Hamilton, per 

Mra. M Bowie, Bookaeller. 
Meaara. Wm. Blackwood A Sona, Publiahera, Edin- 


Meaara. Boyd A Bell, Bookaellera, Edinburgh. 
Henry Bradahaw, Eaq., King'a College, Cambridge. 

Robert Brodie, Eaq., 23 Belharen Terrace, Glaagow, 
per Meaara. John Smith A Son, Bookaellera. 

Meaara. A. Brown A Co., Bookaellera, Aberdeen. 
Three oopiea. 

Rot. Jamea Brown, D.D., Paialejr. 

Mr. Wm. Blown, Bookaeller, Princea Street, Edin- 

Alexander Bruce, Eaq., II Winton Terrace, 
Croaahill, Glaagow. 

Meaara. D. Bryce A Son, Bookaellera, Claagow. 

Rev. Donald C. Bryce, Blanae, Aberfoyle, per Meaara. 
Douglaa A Foulta, Bookaellera, Edinbuigh. 

Jamea Buchanan, Esq., Oawald Road, Edinburgh, 
per Meaara. Macniven A Wallace, Bookaellera. 

John Buchanan, Eaq., Whitby, Yorkahire. 

Mr. J. Bumpua, Bookaeller, Oxford Street, London. 

Sir Robert Burnett, Boot, of Leya, Crathea Caatle, 
Kincardineahire, per Meaara. A. & R. Milne, 
Bookaellera, Aberdeen. 

Mr. Alex. Burnett, Bookaeller, Montroae. 

Mra. G. M E. Campbell, 150 Camden Grove, 
North Peckham, London, S.E. 

Mr. Jamea Cant, Bookkuller, Dundee. 

D. M. Carrick, Eau., Bothwell Terrace, Hillhead, 
Glaagow, per Mr. J. N. Mackinlay, Glaagow. 

R. Chalmera, Eaq., 1 Claremont Terrace, Glaagow, 
per Mr. J. N. Mackinlay, Glaagow. 

John Henry Chamberlain, Eaq., Grange Houae, 
Coventry Road, Birmingham. 

The Chetham Library, Hunta Bank, Mancheater, per 
Mr. Richard Hanby, Blancheater. 

Georae T. Clark, Esq., Dowlaia Houae, Dowlaia, per 
Meaara. Sotheran A Co., Piccadilly, London. 

J. T. Clark, Esq., Keeper of the Advocatea' Library, 
Edinburgh, per BIr. W. Green, Bookaeller, Edin- 

Sir Edward Colebrooke, Bart., MP., of Crawford, 
. Abington Houae, Lanarkahire. 

Captain G. F. R. Colt of Gartsherrie, Coatbridge, per 
Meaara. D. Bryce A Son, Bookaellera, Glaagow. 

Mr. E. Colwell, Bookaeller, Hereford. 

Charlea Cook, Eaq., W.S., Edinburgh, per Meaara. 
John Maclaren A Son. 

Mr. J. P. Copland, 16 Princea Street, Edinburgh. 

Mr. J. E. ComiBh, Bookaeller, ALancheater. 

Jamea CoutU, Esq., S.S.C, 18 York Place, Edin- 
burgh, per Mr. John B. Fairgrieve, Bookaeller, 

Mr. Walter Cowan, Bookaeller, Glaagow. Two copies. 


Jofai JmbmOowiii, Biq.,R6gitfe8r 8trMi»I!dmlMiigli. 
a BL Oowpar-CdUi^ Siq., 2a Albftny, PiooadiUjr, 

IlOOdOllf w« 

Bdbtti OaL Bm. of Gorgie, Bdinboigh, per 

Mmbb. Jolin iUchxwk A Son. 
OokDil AUMl Gi^ Cure, Bmdgu Hall» Shifnal, 

Dl Oumr, Em. of Onigdnolde^ 25 Northumberland 

Binei, Bdinborghy per Measre. Seton d; lUo- 

kenm, BookeellerB» Sdinburgh. 
James W. Onsatter, Eaq., F.S.A. Soot., KirkwalL 

Meani. Darter Brothera & Walton, BookaeIler% 

O^petown, Cape of CKkmI Hope. Two copies, 
Mr. DiaTidaon, eare of Meiara. D. Campbell Si Son, 

StationerBi Glaiffow. 
Bar. L BaTioaon. M.A., Free Church Manae, St. 

Andrewa, per Meana. J. Cook A Son, BookaeUers. 
T. DiaTidaon, Bm., Boxbuxgh Place, Edinbiizgh, per 

Maaara. X. « S. lavin^^ne, Bookaellera, EcQn- 

BeiT. Bdward A. Dayman, Shillingiitone Beetoiy, 

Blandloid, Doraet 
Jamea Dewar, Baa., Glaagow, per Mr. H. Hopkina, 

Bodkaelkor, Guaffow. 
MaaaiB. Deighton, BeU, & Co., Bookaellera, Cam- 

facidge. TkmeeopUii. 
G. O. vkkf BaQ*f Bockhampton, Queenaland, per 

Mr. W. M. Diek, BookaeUer, Ajr. 
T. G. Diek^ Eaq.. 1 Claremont Terrace, Glasgow, per 

Mr. J. N. Markinlay, Glaagow. 
Mr. Joaeph Dodgaon, BookaeUer, Leeda. 
Jeaaph Don, Eaq., D.C.&, Edinburgh, per Mr. W. 

Chaen, BookaeU er , Edinburgh. 
Jamea Donaldaon, Eaq., LL.D., 20 Great King 

Binei, Xdinborgh, per Meaara. Seton •& Mae- 

kaniie, BookaeUera. 
W. A. Dooaldaon, Eac^., 8 Eton Terrace, Glaagow, per 

Meaara. John SnuUi A Son, BookaeUera. 
Bar. J. B. Dou|dier^, M.A., per Mr. J. N. Dunn, 

BookaeUer, xfottinffham. 
Meaara. Doogba A Foulia, BookaeUera, Edinburgh. 
Hia Grace the Archbiahop of DubUn, The PaUoe, 

John Don, Eaq., Bockrilla, Latchford, Warrington, 

per Mr. PereiTalPearae, BookaeUer, Warrington. 
Walter Duncan, Eaq., 9 Montgomerie Creaoent, 

KelTinaide, Glaagow, per Meaara. D. Bryoe & 

Boo* BookaeUera. 

BaiT. John Eerie, Swanawick Rectory, Bath. 

Ticarage, by Aahford, Kent. 
Mia. Edmonatone, Corraith, Symington, per Mr. W. 

M. Dick, BookaeUer, Avr. 
Mr. Andrew EUiot, BookaeUer. Edinburgh. 
Mr. AlexMidor Ewan, BookaeUer, Dundee. 

Thomaa Fairier, Eaq., Galaahiela, per Mr. Jamea 

Tyn, BookaeUer. 
A. Bobertaen Ferguaon, Eaq., Writer, NeUaton. 
Sir Jamea R. Fenniaaon, Bart., of SpitaJhaugh, 

WeatUnton, Peebleaahire. 
Mr. J. 8. Ferrier^ BookaeUer, Elgin. 
Mra. Fielden, Gnmaton Park, Tadcaater. 
John Findlater, Eaq., Pro?incial Bank, Belfaat, per 

Mr. A. F. Tait, BookaeUer, Belfaat. 

J. B. Fleming, Eaq., Beaoonafteld, KelWnaide, Glaa- 
gow, per ICeaara. D. Biyce & Son, BookaeUera. 

Mr. Jamea P. Foiraatar, BookaeUer, Glasgow. 

Mr. R Foneater, BookaeUer, Glaagow. Four eopiti. 

John Firaaer, Eaq., 10 Lord JNelaon Street, liverpooL 

Pbtiick Firaaer, £aq.. Dean of the Faculty of Adro- 
catea, 8 Moray Place, Edinburgh, per Mr. W. 
(heen, BookaeUer, Edinbuigh. 

Free Church Tndninff CoUege, Glagsow, per Thomaa 
Morriaon. Eaq., Si A., care of Meaara. D. Bryce & 
Son, Bookaellera, Glaiagow. 

Free Church CoUege Library, Glaagow. 

Forreat Frew, Eaq., Lyleaton, Cardroaa, Dumbar- 

Alexander Foote, Eao. of Roaehill, Brechin, j^r 
Meaara. Black &Johnaton, BookaeUera, Brecmn. 

Wm. Furaeaa, Eaq., 39 Cheater Street, Mancheater. 

Jamea Gait, Eaq., 217 Weat George Street, Glaagow, 

per Meaara. John Smith A Son, BookaeUera. 
J. Aeilaon Gardner, Eaq., Kethercommon Houae, 

R, Alex. Gardner, Eaq., Buchanan Street, Glaagow. 
Ifr. W. H. Gee, BookaeUer, Oxford. Ttpo eapiei. 
Mr. Jamea Gemmell, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. 
Mr. H. M. Gilbert, BookaeUer, Southampton. 2%ree 

The lught Hon. W. E. GUuiatone, M.P., Hawarden. 
Williiun Cunningham Glen, Eaq., Barriater-at-Law, 

4 Garden Court, Temple, London. 
John Gordon, Eaq. of Aikenhead, Cathcart, per 

Meaara. John Smith & Son, Bookaellera. 
Jamea M. Gow, Eaq., Union Bank of Scotland, 

Edinburgh, per Meaara. E. & S. LiTingatone, 

Thomaa Graham, Eaq., BID., Paialey. 
Meaara. R. Grant ds Son, BookaeUera, Edinburgh. 
K A. Stuart Grav, Eaq. of Gray and Kinfauna, 

per Meaara. John Maclaren & Son. 
Mr. w. Green, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. Six copiee. 
Wm. Groaaart, Eaq., Surgeon, Salaburgh, Holytown. 

Mr. Jamea Hadden, BookaeUer, Glaagow. 

Robert Hay, Eaq., Gowan Bank, Perth, per Meaara. 
R. A. & J. Hay, BookaeUera, Perth. 

BT^^ra. R. A. & J. Hay, BookaeUera, The Heraldic 
Stationery Office, Perth. Three copies. 

Rot. Andw. Henderaon, Caatlehead, Paialey. 

A. B. Henderaon, Eaq., A Victoria Creacent, Glaa- 
gow, per Meaara. John Smith & Son. 

Re?. J. Hillhouae, Elio, per Mr. Jamea Thin, 
BookaeUer, Edinburgh. 

Mr. F. Hockliffe, BookaeUer, Bedford. 

Thomaa Hodge, Eaq., CarriagehUl Drire, Paialey. 

Robert H. Houaton, Eaq., Finnart Street, Greenock. 

Rot. Hubert a. Holden, M.A., LL.D., Head Maater 
of Ipawich School, aometime Fellow of Trinity 
CoUege, Cambridge. 

Mr. A. Holden, BookaeUer, Church Street, LiverpooL 

Meaara. W. Si R. Holmea, Bookaellera, Glaagow. 

Meaara. Hope & Chapman, Bookaellera, York. 

H. A. Hopwood, Eao., 29 Union Road, New Town, 
Cambridge, per Air. W. H. Barrett, BookaeUer, 

HuU Subacription Library, per Mr. Henry Bolton, 
BookaeUer, HuU. 

Rot. Jamea Hutchcaon, Eaat Pariah, Greenock. 

Robert Hutchiaon. Eaq., Glaagow, per Mr. H. Hop- 
kina, BookaeUer. 



Hm Ioip«riti Vnlfwniij Uhnry, Stranburg, 

Qvmmjf par Mr. Karl TiUbiAery BookMller, 

A, Forbat Inrine, Em^. of Dram Caatle, AberdMn- 

•hin. p«r Mmki. JDougUa A Foulis, BookwUen, 

Mr. Robert urina, Bookaeller, Kibnarnocic 
Joaaph Irriag, Baq., Bantoiiy JOambartonahira. 

Bar. IVaaeia W. JaokaoD, llA., Bolton Parity 

Tkdoaater, Torkabira. 
Mr. Jamaa 0. Jaduon, Bookaeller, Perth. 
Andrew JameaoDy Eaa.« Ad?ocate, Ediubaigb, per 

Meaara. John Maolaren A Son. 
Sdw. 0. Jamea, Eao., Ogdenabarg, New York, U.S. A. 
Jamaa Jenkinai Eaq., Bf.D., G.B., Navinaton, 

Mannamaad, Plymouth. 
Thomaa John, Ba^.« Edinburgh, par Meaara. John 

Maelaian A Son. JSdinburgh. 
Mr. X. Johnaon, Bookaeller, Gambridfle. Two eopiu, 
Mr. Geo. Johnaton, at Meaara. T. Kelaon & Sona, 

PabUahara, Edinboitth. 
Joaaoh Jonea, Eaq.^ AbberleT Hall, Stouport, per 

Mr. J. E, Conuah, Mandieater. 

Hogh Karr, Xao^ 23 Bromley Street, London, E. 
Jod Karahaw, Eaq., Croaa Gatea, Audenahaw, near 

Maooheatar, per Mr. J. E. Corniah, Mancheater. 
Mr. Wm. Kldd/Bookaeller, Dundee. 
Ohaa. Kidaton, Eaq., Helenaburgh. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Kintora^ Keith Hall, 

LiTararia, Aberdeenahira (care of John Edmond, 

Baq.|S2 Adalphi, Aberdeen). 
Mr. 0. Klinekaieek, Libraira da Llnatituta da 

Pranoa, Paria. Two eopieM, 
Jaa. W. Knox, Ew}.^ Writer, Olaagow, per Mr. H. 

Hcmkina, Bookaeller, Glaagow. 
Mr. W. H. Kllhl, BookaeUer, 24 Niodar WaUStraaaa, 


Andrew Laidlay, Eaq., 68 Mount Street, Groaranor 

Square. Lraidon, W. 
Alexander ijaing, Eaq., Edinburgh, per Meaara. John 

Maebran A Son. . 
David Lang, Eaq., AdTOoate, Edinburgh, per Mr. 

W. Green, Bookaeller, Edinburgh. 
Pkofeaaor Laaria, Nairna Lodge, uuddingaton, per 

Maaan. S. ft S. Linngatona, Bookaellera, Ecun- 

« — »- 

Rot. Thomaa Leea, M.A., Wrea^ Vicarage, Carliale. 

The Library of the COTporation of the City of 

London, par Mr. W. H. OTerall, Librarian. 
Library of Pariiament, Ottawa, Canada, per Mr. E. 

G. Allen, London. 
Vf Publie Library, Woroeater, Maaa., ir.S.A., per 

Mr. S. G. AUen, London. 
John Wilaon Legge, Eaq., Sc, Aberdeen, per Mr. 

Jamea Murray, bookaeller. Aberdeen. 
'. "BL Lindaaj, Bookaeller, Gianrow. Four eopUs. 

na. J. B. Lippinoott A Co., Publiahen, London 

and New York. 

E. ft S. Livingatone, Bookaellera, Edinburgh. 
Captain W. Eliott I^khart of Borthwickbrae, per 

Meaara. John Madaren ft Son. 
John Longmuir, Eaq., Glaagow. 
Meaara. Sampaon Low ft Co., Publiahera, LondoA. 

"^niliam Lucaa, Eaq., Writer, Glaagow, per Mr. H. 

Hopkina, Bookaeller, Glaagow. 
Jaa. M*bonaId, Eao., LLD., 14 WeUinston Square, 

Ayr, per Mr. W. M. Dick, Bookaeller, Ayr. 


Mr. Jamea M'Gbaohy, Bookadler, Glasgow. 8ic 

William MH^illiyray, Eaq. , Bedford Park, Edinburgh, 

per Meaara. Douglaa ft Foulia, Bookaellera, Emn- 

A* M^Glaahan, Eaq., Edinburgh, per Meaara. John 

Maolaren ft Son. 
Alex. B. M^Gown, Eao., Aooouniant, Paialey. 
Mr. Hector M'Gregor, Bookaeller, Dundee. 
Jamea M'Hutcheon, Eaq., Barna Street, Ayr, per 

Mr. W. M. Dick, Bookaeller, Ayr. 
Jamea A. Mackean, Esq., Mary field, Paideir. 

C. Mackensie, Eaq., The ATonue, Greenhul, Edin- 

buT]^, par Meaara. Satan ft Mackensie, Book- 

R. H. MaoKeaaaek, R>q*f Newton' of Strathera, per 
Mr. J. S. Ferrier, Bookaeller,' Elp^in. 

Mr. John Mackenzie, Bookaeller, Edinburgh. 

Mr. J. M. Maeldnlay, Bookaeller, Glaaffow. 

Rot. Alex. Heriot Mackonochie, S. Alban'a Clergy 
Houae, Brooke Street, Holborn, London, E.C. 

Meaara. Jamaa M'Kelfia ft Sona, Bookaellera, 

Jamea MaoLehoaOp Eaq., Glaagow. 

Rot. Thomaa M'Lauchlan, LLD., Edinburgh, per 
Meaara. John Maolaren ft Son. 

D. T. Maday, Eaq., 3 Woodlanda Terrace, Glaagow, 

per Meaara. John Smith ft Son, Bookaellera. 

Meaara. Madachlan ft Stewart, Bookaellera, Edin- 

Meaara. John Maelaran ft Son, BookaaOarB, Edin- 

Meaara. Maemillan ft Co., Publiahera, Cambridge. 

Meaara. MacniTen ft Wallace, BookaeUera, Edinburgh. 

Andrew Maloch, Eao., Victoria Place, Stirling. 

W. C. Maughan, Esq*! Kilarden, RoaneaUi, per 

Meaara. Macneur ft nry den, BookaeUera, Helena- 

Grama Raid Mercer, Eaq. , Glen Tulchan, Perthahire, 

p«r Meaara. R. A. ft J. Hay, Bookaellera, Perth. 
Mr. Wm. B. MiUa, Bookaeller, feirriemuir. 
Mr. J. Moodie Miller, Bookaeller, Edinburgh. 

Two copiei. 
Meaara. A. ft R. Milne, BookaeUera, Aberdeen. 

Jamea WUliam MiteheU, Eaq., Botheaay Herald, Ijon 

CMBce, Edinburgh, per Meani. S. Drayton ft 

Sona, BookaeUera, Exeter. 
Meaara. R. J. MitcheU ft Sona, BookaeUera, 52 ft 36 

P»rii«ment Street^and 52 Buckingham Palace 

Road, London, S.W. 
John Moody, Eaq., Glaagow, per Mr. H. Hopkina, 

Bookaeller, Glaagow. 
Arthur D. Morice, £aq., AdFOcate, 34 Mariachal 

Street, Aberdeen. 
Miaa Janetta Moriaon, Fir Hall, by Nairn. 
Jamea Muir, Esq., 2 Belleyue Terrace, Edinburgh. 
R. D. Murdoch, Eaq., Fairfield Lodge, Ayr, per 

Meaara. W. Stephen ft Co., Bookaellera. 
Frank Murray, Esq., Edinburgh, per Meaara. John 

Madaren ft Son. 
Mr. Jamea Murray, BookaeUer, St. Nicholaa Street, 

Meaara. T. Murray ft Son, BookaeUera, Glaagow. 
Mr. Alex. Murray, BookaeUer, Aberdeen. 


Rtpftw, Siq., F.&A. Soot. Mttyfield, Both- 

Joka NiilMo, Etq., W.a, Xdinbaigh, per Meanrt. 

Jblui ICadMmi A Son. 
K«v AthMuwuB Olab. 96 Soifelk Straei, PaU Mall, 

londdBjpMrMeMiB. B. J. MitcheU & Sona, Book- 

nOan^ FMiaiiiaiit Steaat, London. 

naa Pablia Libwy. Now Badfoid, Maaa., U.S. A., 

par Mmki. Trttonar A Oa, London. 
Bw Hidiolaon. Eiq., Bf.D.» 906 Goldhank Boad, 

BL Aianoiaon. 

Bhaphaid'a Boab, London. 
B. Ninuno, Bm., jBdinbnigh, par Maiara. John 

John Manahip Konnan, Biq., M.A., J.P., and Dep.- 
Liaot., Daneonb^ Orawlar, Siuaax. per United 
; Univamty Clnb^ ral Mall (BaaiX London. 

(Ms'ft Mnmj, Bookaaflara, Edinburgh. 
(Mirar A Bajd, BookaaUen, Edinburgh. 
air Mm W. P. Orda, Bart, Anehnaba, Lochgilphead, 
Mr Maian. John Smith A Son, Booksellens 
Janiaa Onr, Sm. of Harnaalona, and 13 Bljthawood 

X Z^-''^^' 


^ Orr. Eiq., writer, ObMgow, par Mr. Hugh 
flopkina, Bookaallar, GUaa^. 
M&t. X. Owen. M.A, Dioeaaan Inapaetorof Schoola, 
Bnthin, Danbjghahira. 

tha Seoiiiah ProTident 
pw Meawa. MaoLaoh- 

I Plaricar A Co., PnUiahen, Oxford. 
Thomaa Pany, Eiq., Slaafonl, Linaolnahire. 
O. HaadaaTda Pattiaon, Em|., AdToeata, Edinbnigb, 

par Maaara. John Madaran A Son. 

iniliam Pimo. Eiq., Haiohlanda, Cuokfield, Suaaez. 
Tka Paabod^ Inatituta, Baltiaaoia, U.S.A., par Mr. 

X. O. Allan, London. 
O. J. PaarMO. Eaq., Adfocato, Edinboigh, per 

Haaara. John luclaran A Son. 
Tha Plfmonth^ Pnblio Libraiy, per Mr. Alex. 

Maana. Portaooa Brothen^ BookaaDen, Glaagow. 
Bar. Xdwmid J. Pnrbriak, Stonjhnrat College, near 

Ms. Barnard Qoariteh. Bookaallar. 15 Piccadilly. 
londOB, W. 

Bobart Bainia, Eiq., Xdinbvgh, per Meaira. John 

Madaran ft Son. 
IT. B. & Baliton, Si^, 8 Alfred Pboa, Bedford 

Sqoara^ London. 
Chatlaa Bampini, Eiq., Sheriff-Snbatitnte, Lerwick, 

par Maaara. Saton A Maekeniio, Bookaellera, 

J. Bankine, Baq., Adfocata, Xdinburgh, per Mr. 

Jamaa Thin. Bookaeller. 
HaniT Baara, &q., C.B., D.C.L., 62 Bntland Gate, 

Lond on , 8.W* 
Mama. Baerea A Turner, BookaaDen, London. 

^^ OfVfIt oopicf. 

Walter Bananaw, Esq., 6 Stone Bnildinga, Lincoln'a 

Inn. London, W.u. 
H. Bw Baddell, Eaq., WhiteHeld Houae, Bothboiy, 

Mr. Wm. C. Bigby, Wholeaale Bookaeller, 64 King 

William Street, Adehude, aA. 

Bobert Boberta, Baq., Qnaan'a Terraaa, Boaton, Lin- 

Meain. David Robertaonft Co., Bookaellera, Glasgow. 
Mr. George Bobertaon, Bodcaeller, Melbourne. 

Two eopicf . 
J. C. Roger, Eaq., Barriater«t-Law, London, per 

Meaara. John Maelaren A Son. 
Rot. William Boaa, Rotheeay, per Meaara. John 


Bar. E. K Baylee Saliabnry, B.D., Thundeialey 

Rectory. Ri^leigh, Pitwa, Eaaex. 
Geoige A. Scott, iSq., Paik Houae, Brechin, per 

Meaara. Black A Johnaton, Bookaellera. 
Mr. William Seaaiona, BookaeUer, York. 
Geo. Seton, Eaq., St Bennet'a, Edinburgh. 
Meaara. Seton A Maokenxie, Bookaellera, Edin- 

buigh. Tkrte eopie^ 
P. Shaw, Eaq., Edinburgh, per Meaara. John 

Madaren A Son. 
Mr. Robert a Shearer, Bookaeller, Stirling. 
Jamea A. Sidev, Eaq., M.D., Edinburgh, per Meaara. 

John Madaren A Son. 
Rer. Profeaaor Skeat, 2 Saliabury Yillaa, Cambridge. 
Rer. W. Skinner, Foreat Cottage, Chigwell Row, 

Meaara. John Smith A Son, Bookaellera, Glaagow. 

Mr. John Baa Smith, Bookaeller, Aberdeen. Ttoo 



Rer. IL C. Smith, GhMgow, per M< 
Madaren & Son. 

Sheriff Smith, Greenock, per. Mr. W. Green, Book- 
aeller, Edinburgh. 

John Snodgraaa, jun., Eaq., 6 Crown Gardena, Bill- 
head, Glaagow. 

Edward Solly, Eaq., F.R.S., F.aA., Park Houae, 
Sutton, Surrey. 

Meaara. HenzySotheran ACo., Bookaa l leri,Piocadilly, 
London. Six coptea. 

Station Library, Chatter Manxil, Lucknow, India. 

Mr. AlcKxander Stenhooae, Unireraity Book Em- 
porium, Hillhead, Glaagow. 

Meaara. W. Stephen, A Co., Bookaellera, Ayr. 

Mr. John Steven, BookaeUer, London. 

Meaara. SteTena A Haynea, PttbUahera, Bell Yard, 
Ten^la Bar, London. 

Mr. Thomaa G. Sterenaon, Bookaeller, Edinburgh. 

William Stevenaon, Eaq., Kew Terrace, Glaagow, 
I per Meaaifa. John Smith A Son, Bookaellera. 

Hon. H. C. Maxwell Stewart, Traquair, Innerleithen, 
per Meaara. John Maelaren A Son. 

Jaa. Stewart, junr., Eaq., Dalkeith Park, Dalkeith. 

Mr. E. W. Stibba, Bookaeller, London. Two copies. 

Walter George Stone, Eaq., Shutehayer, Walditch, 

Ifr. A F. Tait, Bookaeller, Belfaat. 

T. G. Taylor, Eaq., Edinburgh, per Meaara. John 

Madaren A Son. 
Meaara. W. Tbacker A Co., Bookaellera, Newgate 

Street, London. 
Mr. Jamea Thin, BookaaDer, Edinburgh. Thrtt 

John Thomaon, Eaq., 12 Amtaton Place, Edinburgh. 
Rer. Alexander Thomaon. Haddington, per Mr. 

Andrew Elliot, Bookaeller, Edinburgh. 
Ber. John Tinkler, M.A., Arkengarth-dale Vicarage, 

near Richmond, Yorka. 
W. L. Todd. Eaq., AdTocate, Edinburgh, per Mr. 

Jamea Thin, Bookaeller. 


Mr. Jo'nii Trail, BookMll«r, Fraierburgh. 
M«Mn. IMbner A Co., Publiaharty London. 

Mevn. R. Tnllii A Go., Edinbnigh. Two eootea. 
Mr. A. Twietmerer^ Bookseller, Leipsiff, per Men 

Lengstaff, Ehranberg, A PolUk,eO Ki 

Streely London, E.O. 

ling William 

Profaeior C. R. Uhger, Chriaiiania, Norwi^. 
Edwmid Yiloa, Esq., Oodaall Wood, WolTeriiampion. 

W. W. Waddell, Eiq., H.M.I., St. CaUierine'a 
PlaoOy Edinbnzgh. 

Mr. Robert Walker, Bookseller, Aberdeen. 

Mr. H. W. Wallia, Bookseller, Sidney Street, Cam- 

Watkinaon Library, Harford, Conn., U.S. A., per Mr. 
S. O. Allen. London. 

John Wataon, £aq., 2 Oswald Road, Edinboifch. 

Thomas Watson, Esq., CO West Recent Street, 
Glasgow, per Messrs. John Smith A Soi^ 
Bo ok s el l e rs. 

Walter Watson, Baq., M.D., Mid Calder, per Blessrs. 
'John Madaren A Son. 

Messrs. Watson, Fecguson A Co., Booksellers, Bris- 
bane, Qneendand, per Messrs. Gowans A Grey, 

Alezand^ Whamond^ Esq.^ School Hoose, Mother- 
well, per Mrs. M. Bowie, BookseQer, Hamilton. 

Joseph Whitaker, Esq., F.aA., Editor of Th€ 

nook$elUrf London. 
Mr. Thomas Widdison, Bookseller, Fargate, Sheffield. 
Mr. Robert Wilde, Bookseller, Birmingham. 
Messrs. Willing A Williamson, BookseUers, Toronto, 

J. Peitigrew Wilson, Esq., Adrooate, Edinburgh, 

per Messrs. John Maolaren A Son. 
Thomas Wilion, Esq., Edinboigh, per Messrs. John 

Maolaren A Son. 
Thomas Wilion, Esq., Mayes Road, Wood Green, 

London, N., per Mr. George Rirers, Bookseller, 

Qoeen's Heaa Passage, Paternoster Row, Lon- 
William Wilson, Esq. , Hyde HUl, Berwick-on-Tweed . 
Messrs. Withers A Fowler, Booksellers, Leicester. 
John Mnir Wood, Esq. , 4*2 Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 
Messrs. D. WvUie A Son, Booksellers to Her 

Majesty, Aberdeen. Two copiet. 
Wellesley GoUcm, Wellesley, Mass., U.S.A. per 

Messrs. H. Sotheran A Co., PiccadiUy, London. 
The Western Clab, Glasgow, per Messrs. John Smitli 


Ysle College, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. per Mr. 

E. G. Allen, London. 
Rer. F. F. YottUff, Glasgow, per Mr. H. Hopkins, 

Bookseller, (nasgow. 

*«* A LUi of UiM Suluenben, wUh tiic^ addUiom and aUerationa a$ may he required^ wift be pMidud when 

ike work U eomfieUd, 

AH ■ 


or IBB 



















Vol. L 

-QoM ▼<)■ a ttiip6 ptrentom 


-Aatiqaam ezqniriis matrgm. .V no. 


■ • 

l^rmteb t& tkt StniberBitQ {IteBB ; 






X « 


OAWINE DOUGLAS, Bishop of Dumkbld. 

lIMicaiiMo/ the Original^EdUian.1 






THIS wore; 














l^Didieaibm o/th$ Siqfplemini.'] 




In the work which I have the honour of presenting to Your Majesty, I have 
easerted myself to the utmost to explain, elucidate^ and trace to its sources, that ancient and 
eneigeCic language which was spoken by Your Majesty's Illustrious Ancestors for so many 
ages^ and in which not only the Deeds of their Councilsi but the Acts of the Parliaments they 
lidd, were recorded, and still exist as the standing law of no inconsiderable portion of the British 

To whom could I with such propriety dedicate the continuation of my Philological labours, 
as to that Distinguished Personage who, many years ago, so condescendingly accepted of the 
fiiBt-fmits ; especially when He has been pleased, in the most gracious manner, not only to 
express His approbation of these, but to grant me permission to bring my later increase to the 
steps of his Throne t 

Although this condescension had not laid me under the strongest ties,— or were it possible 
that I could be so far lost to a sense of gratitude as to forget Your Majesty's singular goodness 
CO another oocasion« — ^Your Royal Orace and Munificence, in devising instituting, and endowing 
m Society for the Encouragement of Literature, of which Society I have unexpectedly received 
the hmour of being elected an Associate, would naturally suggest that I could not with equal 
ftopnttj look to any other, for a favourable acceptance of the fruits of my labour for so many 
jcus» as to EBm to whom the Britbh Empire looks up, not only as its Gracious Sovereign, 
but as the Munificent Patron of its Literature. 

That the Supreme Buler of the Universe may in His mercy long spare Your Majesty 
for a blessmg to this extensive Empire, is, 

May it please Your Majesty, 
The ardent desire of 
YouB Majesty's most faithful Subject, 

And devoted Servant, 


MdMurgK, Ifay 20, 1825, 



[7b ih€ Original WorL] 

I^MB affect to despise all etymological researches, because of their uncertainty. 
But many other branches of science are equally liable to this objection. Was it a 
.dear proof of the wisdom conferred on our common parent, that he gave names to 
all the inferior creatures, according to their peculiar natures ? And may we not 
discern a considerable vestige of his primeval state, in the propriety of many of 
the names imposed on things, even in modem languages ? An inquiry into the 
reasons of these is not, therefore, a matter of mere unprofitable curiosity. It is 
no contemptible mean of investigating the operations of our intellectual powers. 

The structure of language is, indeed, one important branch of that philosophy 
which 80 nearly interests man, — ^the philosophy of his own mind; — ^a branch 
which, although less attended to than many others, and often more obscured than 
elucidated by system, extends its influence through all nations ; is, practically at 
least, as well known to the peasant as to the prince, to the savage as to the man 
of letters ; in the most lively manner, in many instances, delineates the objects 
with which we are conversant, exhibiting to others a faithful copy of the im- 
pressions which these make on our own minds ; forcibly illustrates, as far as the 
oblique signification of words are concerned, the singular associations of our ideas ; 
appears, by its striking analogies, as a grand link among the various individuals 
of the same species, how remote soever from each other as to situation; frequently 
affords a proof of the near aflSnity of particular nations ; and, by the general 
diffusion of certain primitive terms, or by certain rules of formation universally 
adopted, assigns a common origin to mankind, although scattered **on the face of 
the whole eartf 

Since the union of the kingdoms, how beneficial soever this event has been in 
other respects, the language of Scotland has been subjected to peculiar disadvan- 
tages. No longer written in public deeds, or spoken in those assemblies which fix 
the standard of national taste, its influence has gradually declined, notwithstanding 
the occasional efforts of the Muse to rescue it from total oblivion. 


This dedine may be traced still further back The union of the crowns, 

although an event highly honourable to Scotland, joon had an un&vourable in- 
fluence on the ancient language of the country. She still indeed retained her 
Hftt^APftl independence, but the removal of the court seems to have been viewed as 
an aigument for closer approximation in language to those who lived within its 
veige. From this time forward, as living authors in general avoided the peculiari- 
ties ci their native tongue, topographers seem to have reckoned it necessary to 
alter the diction even of the venerable dead. In thus accommodating oiur ancient 
national works to the growing servility of their times, they have in many in- 
stances totally lost the sense of the original writers. 

In this manner, even the classical writings of our ancestors have been gradually 
n^lected. The alterations occasionally made by editors, although sufficient to 
disfigure them, were not carried so far as to keep pace with the ideal refinement 
of their contemporaries. 

It is surprising that no one has ever attempted to rescue the language of the 
country from oblivion by compiling a Dictionary of it. Had this been done a 
century ago, it would most probably have been the means of preserving many of 
our literary productions, which it is to be feared are now lost, as well as the mean- 
ing ci many terms now Idt to conjectura — ^TUl of late, even those who pretended 
to write Glossaries to the Scottish books which they published, generally explained 
the terms which almost every reader understood, and quite overlooked those that 
vrexe more ancient and obscure. The Glossary to Douglas's Virgil formed the 
only exception to this observation. 

Within these few years, a taste for Scottish literature has revived both in Scot- 
land and England. Hence the want of an Etymological Dictionary has been felt 
more than ever; and it may well be supposed, that all who possess a genuine taste 
for the literary productions of their country, must feel disposed to encourage a 
irork which is necessary, not merely for illustrating their beauties, but in many 
instances even for rendering them intelligible. The use of such a work is not 
confined to our edited books, but may, in a great measure, prove a key to our 
ancient MSS. It must facilitate the progress of those, whose studies or employ- 
ments lay them under the necessity of investigating the records of antiquity, and 
who, especially in their earlier years, are apt to be disgusted at their professions, 
fiom the frequent occurrence of terms at the meaning of which they can only guess. 
It is undeniable, indeed, that from the strange neglect of our vernacular lan- 
guage, the signification of some of our law terms is already lost ; and that the 
meaning of otihers, on the interpretation of which not only piivate property, but 
poblic justice depends, is so doubtful, as to leave room for sdmost endless litigation. 
£ven these invaluable remains of antiquity, which record the valiant deeds of 
oar ancestors, delineate their manners, or exhibit their zeal for religion, excite 
* little interest in our time, because they are in a great measure unintelligible. 
Those who possess old libraries, that have been handed down, perhaps through 




many generations, must be convinced of the necessity of a work of this kind ; 
because the books which were perfectly familiar to their fathers, and which com- 
mimicated instruction to their minds, or kindled up the flame of patriotism in 
their breasts, are now nearly as completely locked up to them, as if they were 
written in a foreign tongue. 

Such a work is necessary for preserving, from being totally lost, many ancient 
and emphatic terms, which now occur only in the conversation of the sage of the 
the hamlet, or are occasionally mentioned by him as those which he has heard his 
&thers use. It may also serve to mark the difference between words which may 
be called classical, and others merely colloquial ; and between both of these, as fsLr 
as they are proper, and such as belong to a still lower class, being mere corrup- 
tions, cant terms, or puerilities. 

Many ancient customs, otherwise unknown or involved in obscurity, come also 
to be explained or illustrated, from the use of those words which necessarily refer 
to them. The importance of any thing pertaining to the manners of a nation, as 
constituting one of the principal branches of its history, needs not to be mentioned; 
and, as the knowledge of ancient manners removes the obscurity of language, 
by a reciprocal operation, ancient language often affords the best elucidation of 

Such a Dictionary, if properly conducted, should not only throw light on the 
ancient customs of Scotland, but point out their analogy to those of other Nor- 
thern nations. So striking indeed is the coincidence of manners, even in a variety 
of more minute instances, between our ancestors and the inhabitants of Scandinavia, 
as marked by the great similarity or absolute sameness of terms, that it must 
necessarily suggest to every impartial inquirer, that the connexion between them 
has been much closer than is generally supposed. 

Language, it is universally admitted, forms one of the best criterions of the 
orig^ of a nation; especially where there is a deficiency of historical evidence. 
Our country must ever regret the want, or the destruction, of written records. 
But an accurate and comparative examination of our vernacular language may, 
undoubtedly, in part repair the loss ; as well as throw considerable light on the 
front traces which history affords, with respect to the origin of those, who for many 
centuries have been distinguished from the Celtic race, as speaking the Scottish 

I do not hesitate to call that the Scottish Language^ which has generally been 
considered in no other light than as merely on a level with the different provin- 
cial dialects of the English. Without entering at present into the origin of the 
former, I am bold to affirm, that it has as just a claim to the designation of a 
peculiar language as most of the other languages of Europe. From the view here 
given of it to the public, in the form of an Etymological Dictionary, it will 
appear that it is not more nearly allied to the English, than the Belgic is to the 
German, the Danish to the Swedish, or the Portuguese to the Spanish. Call it a 


dialect^ if you will : a dialect of the Anglo-Saxon it cannot be ; for, from the 
Diasertatioa prefixed to the Dictionary, it must appear to the unprejudiced reader, 
that there is no good reason for supposing that it was ever imported from the 
aouthem part of our island 

How fiur the work i»x>posed possesses the requisites mentioned above, the pub- 
lic must judge. I shall only say, that I have still kept these things in view, as 
nece^uy recommendations of a work of this kind. Particularly, as far as my 
opportunities led me, I have paid attention to the more ancient terms used in our 
laws ; without unnecessarily encumbering the work with many words of Latin 
origin^ as to the meaning and derivation of which there can be no difficulty. 

Many of our nation, not only in the higher, but even in the middle ranks of 
life, now a£kct to despise all the terms or phrases peculiar to their country, as 
gross Tulgarism& This chfldish fastidiousness is unknown not only to intel^ent 
fbreigneiB, but to the learned in South Britain. Well assured that the peasantry 
are the living depositaries of the ancient language of every country, they regard 
their phraseology nearly in the same light in which they would view that of a 
foreign pe(^le. 

A learned and elegant* writer of our own country seems to r^ret that the lan- 
guage of Soodand has been so much neglected. '' If the two nations,'^ he says, 
** had continued distinct, each might have retained idioms and forms of speech 
peculiar to itself; and these, rendered &shionable by the example of a court, and 
supported by the authority of writers of reputation, might have been considered 
in the same light with the varieties occasioned by the different dialects in the 
Greek tongue; might have been considered as beauties; and, in many cases, might 
have been used promiscuously by the authors of both nations. But, by the acces- 
sion, the English naturally became the sole judges and lawgivers in language, and 
iqected, as solecisms, every form of speech to which their ear was not accustomed.'' 
Bobertson's Hist, of Scotland, B. viil ad fin. 

Our best writers have felt the disagreeable consequences of the national servility. 
No man, educated in Scotland, can entirely divest himself of its peculiar idioms. 
Even the learned writer quoted above, Hume, and many others, who have justly 
aoquired celebrity in other respects, have not escaped censure, because they have 
heeta found guilty of using national barbarisms. 

In o(msequence of the late publication of a variety of curious works of Scottish 
antiquity, and of some modem works of genius in this language, the English literati 
are now convinced, that a more extensive acquaintance with it is necessary for un- 
derstanding many terms in theb own ancient writings, which have formerly been 
conmion to both countries, but have become obsolete in South Britain. 

Even before the revival of a taste for Scottish antiquities, the great Lexicographer 
of England, although not partial to our country, expressed his wish for the preser- 
vation of its language. Boswell gives the following account of what Dr. Johnson 
said to him on this subject. '' October 19, (1769) ^he advised me to complete 



nxfACSL ix 

a diotionaxy of words peculiar to Scotland, of whicli I shewed him a specimen; 
' Sir, (said he,) Ray has made a collection of north-country words. By collecting 
those of your country, you will do a useful thing towards the history of the lan- 
guaga'" Life of Dr. Johnson, iL 86 — 87. Lend, edit, 1804. 

It must be evident to every person of ordinary reflection, that a native of any 
country, or one at least who has long resided in it^ can alone be qualified to com- 
pose a Dictionaiy of its language. There is a copiousness in the Scottish, of which 
the native of another kingdom can scarcely form an idea. Although I have spent 
my time in this quarter of the island, and devoted no inconsiderable attrition to 
this subject, I find it necessary to acknowledge, that I have met with a variety 
of words and phrases, which, although in common use, I find it extremely difficult 
to explain. 

On every word, or particular sense of a word, I endeavour to give the oldest 
printed or MS. authoritie& I have had the best opportunities of doing so, not 
oidy from the kindness of my Hterary friends, but from the access I have had, in 
consequence of the liberality of the Faculty of Advocates, to their valuable Library, 
which contains a variety of Scottish books and MSS. not to be found elsewhere. 
I am not so &stidious, however, as to reject every word that cannot be supported 
by written authority. Li this case, many of oiur most ancient and expressive terms 
would be for ever buried. Having resided for many years in the county of Angus, 
where the Old Scottish is spoken with as great purity as any where in North 
Britain, I collected a vast number of words imknown in the Southern and Western 
dialects of Scotland. Many of these I found to be classical terms in the languages 
of Iceland, Sweden, and Denmark. I have also endeavoured, as far as I could, to 
collect the terms belonging to the different provinces of Scotland. It could not 
be expected that literary men would use such diligence, in preparing the way for 
a Scottish Dictionaiy, as was used with a view to the publication of the Vocabu^ 
lario deUa Cfrusca ; when books were composed, containing such words as had for- 
merly occurred only in conversation, for the express purpose of supplying the com- 
pflers of that celebrated work with written authorities. I have therefore been 
obliged to give these words, as I found them, on the authority of the nation at 
large, or of particular provinces. This, I humbly apprehend, is fully as good au- 
thority as that of a variety of later writers, whose works have scarcely had any 
other claim to the attention of their countrymen, than as they tended to preserve 
the vernacular tongue. If the first compilers of Dictionaries had rejected all the 
terms which they did not find written, many that now pass for classical would 
never have appeared in print to this day. 

This work is not professedly a Dictionary of old English words. But such as 
occur in Scottish worlds, or seem to have been common to both nations, are ex- 
plained, as well as those that are peculiar to the North; while, their sense is 
iUustrated by references to the most ancient English writers, or to Vocabularies of 
Ftovincial terms. Notwithstanding the length of time that I have been habitu- 

ated to JBBea i ches of this kind, I do not, by reason of my local situation, think 
, rnjadf qualified to give a complete Dictionary of all the old words used by English 
wnters, or of those that belong to different Provinces of England I h&ve endea- 
▼oared to compress the work as much as I could, without injuring it ; yet, from 
the great Tariety of terms, either peculiar to the Scottish, or common to it with 
the Kngjish, had I pretended to give a complete view of all the ancient and pro- 
▼iDcial words of both languages, it must have far exceeded any reasonable bounds. 
Tlia words explained, where it could be done with any degree of certainty, are ex- 
hibited in their relation to those which are aUied to them, whether in the ancient 
or- in the modem dialects of the Gothic, in the Latin, or in the languages derived 
from itb The correspondence of others with similar words occurring in the Welsh, 
Aimorican, Gaelic, or Irish, is also pointed out. I have occasionally, although 
sparingly, made etymological references to the Greek, and even to some of the 
oriental languages. 

I have been engaged in this work, often asa relaxation from professional labours, 
or studies of greater importance, for nearly twenty years. During this period, it 
lias almost imperceptibly swelled far beyond any idea I had ori^^nally formed with 
zmpeet to its size. 

When I first engaged in this investigation, it was not with the remotest idea of 
poblicatbn. Even after proposals had been made to me on this head, I designed 
. to keep the work on a small scale, and had therefore, in my notes in general, 
merely mttitioned the name of the author who uses any word in a particular sense, 
widuNit xeferrtog to the place. It was afterwards suggested, that the work would 
be leas useful, if it did not contain authorities for the different significations ; and 
leas aeoeptable to the public, as they would have no criterion for judging whether 
the sense of the writers referred to had been rightly understood or not. Fully 
oonvinced of the justness of this remark, I subjected myself to the drudgery of 
going over the same ground a second, and in various instances, a third time. 
After aU my labour, I have not been able to recover some passages to which I had 
^fttmariy referred ; and have, therefore, been obliged merely to mention the name 

I have often quoted books, which neither have acquired nor have any claim to 
oefefarity; and given extracts, which in themselves scarcely merit quotation. But, 
from ihb plan adopted, I was under the necessity of doing so, or of leaving many 
words without any authority whatsoever. 

I may have frequently erred with respect to provincial terms, — ^in giving those as 
audi which are perhaps pretty generally used, or in assigning to one county or dis- 
trict what more properly belongs to another. The following rule has been generally 
observed : — The county or district is referred to in which, according to personal 
knowledge, or the best of my information, any term is used ; while, in many in- 
atances, the reference is not meant to be understood exclusively. 
.There is reason to fear that I may also have often erred even as to the sense. 


VBSrAGI. ul 

Hub can haidlj oocaaion surprise, when it is stated, that words to which I was a 
stranger have heen often ezphuned to me in a variety of ways, and some of these 
directly opposed to each other; and that many which are commonly used are 
interpreted very differently, according to the peculiar ideas which are attached to 
them from the humour or &ncy of individuals, and in consequence of that inde- 
finite character which marks terms only or principally oral 

I present this work, therefore, to the public, fully convinced that it has many 
of the imperfections, which must necessarily attend a first attempt of this kind« 
At the same time, I flatter myself that these will be viewed with a candid eye ; 
and am assured that I shall meet with the greatest share of indulgence from those, 
who, from literary habits of a similar description, have learned the difficulty and 
labour mseparable from such multifiirious investigation, in which the mind derives 
neither support nor animation from unity, but every distinct word appears as a 
new subject ^ 

In case another edition of this work should ever be called for, I will reckon 
myself peculiarly indebted to any of my readers, who will take the trouble of point- 
ing out any material errors into which I have fallen, or of transmitting to me such 
andent national terms as may have been omitted, with the proper explanations. 

To all who have encouraged this work, some of them indeed in the most liberal 
manner, I owe a tribute of gratitude. My friends, who, in the progress of it, have 
&voured me with their advice, or assisted me by their communications, will be 
pleased to accept of my sincere acknowledgments. Some of the latter stand so 
high in the lists of Uterary fame, that their names, if mentioned, would do honour 
to the work. But, lest I should subject myself to the charge of ostentation, or 
seem to seek a veil for covering my own defects, or wound the delicacy of any to 
whom I have thus been indebted, I shall rest in this general testimony of my 
sense of obligatioit 

[JMMMryft. IftV.] 


Sbvsnteen years have elapsed since the publication of the Etymolooical Dic* 
TIOKABT of the SoomsH Lakguage. That nothing might be withheld from the 
public, that could tend to render the work more complete, I then subjoined, as 
Additions, all the information which I had received before it was finished. Subse- 
quently^ with the same view, words which had been overlooked, or were formerly 

xii raiFAGK. 

unknown to mOi with * further illustrations or additional significations of those 
already printed, were £rom time to time incorporated with the original work, that 
an enlaxged editi<Hi might be in readiness, if it should be called for. 

Snoh, howerer, has been the excitement of national interest in r^;ard to our 
andent language, that, £rom the mass of information kindly communicated to me, 
it appeared that the DicnoNABT, if reprinted with all this new matter, would 
appear as almost entirely a different work; and thus render the first edition, 
ahhough it had risen to double its price, of comparatiydy little yalue to the 

. Many of my firiends, I know, blame me, on different grounds, for having 
deviated &om my original plan. It would indeed have saved a great deal of 
labour,— of labour of the most unpleasant kind, which can only be compared with 
that of taking down every stone of an edifice, when it has been well nigh finished, 
and of then replacing them all in a different form. But the original work having 
been of such extent and unavoidable expense, that I could not have hazarded the 
publication of it without being previously assured of the sale of as many copies 
aa would indemnify me ; as I had been most kindly encouraged, not only by per- 
sonal fijends, but by the liberality of the public, even when, from a veiy singular 
Hterazy opposition, I had nearly renounced all hopes of success ; it appeared to me 
that I was under a tie of honour to those to whom I felt so much indebted, to 
famish them with all my additional information. Without making and printing 
two works totally distinct fix>m each other, this could have been done in no way 
bat according to the plan which has been adopted. To prevent the necessity of 
consulting three alphabets, all that was formerly given under the title of " Addi- 
tions and Gorrections,^ has been embodied in the volumes now published. From 
the disperai<m of the work in various countries, and the contingencies connected 
with this circumstance, it was judged most expedient that the Edition of the 
SuFPUQOENT should be fuUy a foiui^h smaller than that of the original work. 

When terms were entered into for the publication of this work, it was calcula- 
ted that it would not exceed the size of one of the preceding volumes. Had it 
been foreseen that it would extend to two, it most probably would have seemed 
prefisrable to have incorporated the whole into one work. 

These volumes owe no inconsiderable part of their value to the rich and ample 
atores which have been opened, shield the publication of the preceding ones, in 
ocmsequence of the munificent plan .adopted by His Majesty's Government, for the 
publication of all the Public Records of Scotland ; the greatest part of which had 
not previously seen the light, and were in a great measure unknown. For a copy 
of these, as the volumes have been successively printed under the eye of one con- 



YBEFAOX. ziii 

fessedly so well qualified for the task, Thomas Thomson, Esq., Advocate, Deputy- 
Begister, I am bound to acknowledge my obligation to the liberality of the 
Honourable Commissioners, to whom the charge of this great national work was 

Am the revival of a taste for the ancient language of our country has, since the 
appearance of the former volumes of this work, been remarkably displayed in 
many works of imagination, some of them of the highest character in this line 
of writing, I have availed myself of the vast variety of national or provincial words 
abounding in them, with which I was formerly unacquainted, and of many additional 
senses or illustrations of the words contained in the Dictiona&t. 

Perhaps I may be permitted to say^ without the charge of undue self-commen- 
dation, that in consequence of a more accurate examination of etymons formerly 
g^ven» and of the consultation of many works which I had not then seen, I have 
been enabled to correct various errors into which I had fallen, and to set some 
things in a clearer point of view. Conscious I am that, without a blind attach- 
ment to any system as to the origin of our language, I have endeavoured to trace 
every word to what appeared its most probable source. 

The south and west of Scotland have contributed largely to this work ; especi- 
ally the districts of Roxburgh, Ettrick Forest, and Clydesdale. The generality of 
the local terms supplied from the former, are obviously of Scandinavian origin ; 
which may easily be accounted for by the vicinity of the Danish kingdom of 
Northumbria. A considerable number of those, peculiar to the counties of Lanark 
and Dumfries, manifest their affinity to the Welsh; as these counties lay within the 
boundaries, or on the border, of the ancient kingdom of Stratclyde. The words be- 
longing to Ayrshire and Galloway generally exhibit relation to the Irish, or wbat 
in Scotland is called the Gaelic. 

I have, to the utmost of my power, availed myself of the antiquarian lore of one 
who has justly acquired an imrivalled degree of literary celebrity. I need scarcely 
mention the name of Sir Walter Scott, Baronet. I owe much to the works ac- 
knowledged by him, and to others, which the general voice of the public ascribes 
to him, as the only living person who is deemed capable of writing them. On 
every application, however much occupied by his own literary engagements, he 
has manifested the greatest promptitude in forwarding mine. 

I cannot deny myself the pleasure of mentioning the deep interest that has still 
been taken in my investigations, by one who, although he has filled the highest 
offices under his Sovereign, has retained all his original amenity of manners and 
native benevolence ; and who, amidst the irksome labours of diplomacy, has sought 

klT fBKFlCK 

wlaTation in philological reaeardL To the Right Honourable Sir Bobert Liston, 
G«C.B.^ while I mast ever feel the warmest gratitude for the moat unequivocal 
pvoofii of personal friendship, I am also bound to acknowledge my obligations for 
many terms, and additional senses and illustrations, contained in this work. 

To the unwearied attention of my very learned friend, Thomas Thomson, Esq., 
I haTS been indebted for many unconunon words and curious extracts, which would 
not otherwise have met the eye of the puUia 

To ICqor-Gaieral Hutton, the son of the celebrated mathematician, who has 
moothed the asperities of a military life by his attachment to Kterature, the public 
IB indebted for the great variety of antiquated words from the Registers of the 
city of Aberdeen* Diunngthe labour of several years spent in investigating these 
ancient records, with a view to a very interesting work of his own in relation to 
our ancient history, anxious at the same time to render the Scottish Dictionary 
as complete as possible, he has most obligingly noted down all the words, or varie- 
ties of orthography, that he thought might be useful to me. Those who have the 
pleasure of being acquainted with the General, will have no doubt as to his ac- 
coiBoy. It is only to be regretted that, in some instances, the quotations have 
been so short as to leave the sense of the term indeterminate. 

From John Stuart, Esq., Professor of Greek in the Marischal CoUege of Aber- 
deen, who is well known for his acuteness and learning, I have received many 
valuable communications, especially in regard to local terms. Similar aid was 
ghren me by two distinguished scholars. Professors Scott and Glennie, who are now 
beyond the reach of my unprofitable praise. Mr. James Melvin, of the Grammar 
Sdiool of the same ancient seat of learning, has been at great pains, not only in 
sappijing me with northern provincial words, which I should not otherwise have 
met with, but in pointing out many additional senses which had been overlooked. 
Such, even in an early stage of life, are his acquirements as a scholar, that, I have 
no doubt, he will soon be better known to the public. 

The words from Moray, Nairn, &a, have been chiefly frimished by the volun- 
tary kindness of the Reverend Mr. Leslie of Darkland, James Hoy, Esq., Gordon 
Oastle, and John Barclay, Esq., Cauldcots, who has engaged con amore in investi- 
gating the relation between the Scottish and the other northern languages. To 
Dr. James Kennedy, of Glasgow, author of ''Glenochel, a Descriptive Poem,'' I owe 
many of the terms belonging to the counties of Perth and Kinross. Those pecu- 
fiar to Fife were chiefly furnished by my late worthy and dear friend, theBeverend 
Dr. Black of Dunfermline ; than whom I knew no individual who was better ac- 
quainted with the peculiarities of our vernacular language. 



C« Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq., has from time to time communicated to me, -from 
lus &T0urite sources of intelligence, a variety of singular passages; such especially 
as zegarded the andent superstitions of our country. My store of Roxburghshire 
words would have been far more limited, had I not been most liberally supplied by 
the unwearied assiduity of Thomas Wilkie, Esq., surgeon, Inverleithen, formerly 
in the service of the Honourable East India Company, James Fair, Esq., Langlee, 
and the Messrs. Shortreeds of JedburgL While the works of the Ettrick Bard 
have furnished many antiquated terms, in the explanation of which he has kindly 
assisted me; &r many others, belonging to that pastoral district, I have been 
indebted to his nephew, Mr. Bobert Hogg, who is not only well acquainted with 
the popular language, but possesses the power of explaining it with discriminating 

My acquaintance with the dialect of Dumfriesshire is chiefly derived from the 
friendly contributions of J. Mayne, Esq., of the Star Office, London, author of The 
SiUer Oun, &a, of John Thorbum, Esq., S.S.C. and Mr. A. Crichton, Edinburgh. 
My list of Ayrshire and Renfrewshire words would have appeared to greater dis- 
advantage, had it not been much increased by the spontaneous and unceasing ex- 
ertions of Mr. Joseph Archibald, a native of the former county, who, although he 
has not enjoyed the same literary advantages with many of my coadjutors, yields 
to none of them in zeal for the preservation and elucidation of our native tongue. 

The Beverend Charles Thomson, now of North-Shields, Northumberland, has, 
ever since the publication of the former part of my work, been engaged in collec- 
ting additional words or senses, especially in the district of Upper Clydesdale; and 
has, in other respects, done much to assist me in my multi&rious labour. I would 
have to charge myself with ingratitude did I omit to acknowledge how much I 
owe to €^rge R Kinloch, Esq., Edinburgh, for his friendly exertions in adding 
to my list of Clydesdale and also of Kincardineshire words ; and, indeed, in libe- 
rally communicating all that he had collected for supplying the defects of my 
Dictionary. I have much pleasure in announcing that he is engaged in making a 
ooUection of our Scottish Proverbs, which, I have reason to believe, will be &t 
more copious and correct than any one that has hitherto been published. 


Both in this and in the original work. In what regards the nomenclature of 
plants, animals, and minerals, I have drawn largely on the well-known goodness 
and accurate information of my friend Patrick Neill, Esq., F.R.S.E., Secretary to 
the Wemerian Society. 

I have to regret that the interesting list of ancient words still occasionally used 
in Shetland, which has been communicated by a very intelligent correspondent, 
Lawrence Edmonston, Esq., Baltasound, came to hand so late that I could avail 


myself of these only in the latter part of the alphabet I beg leave to return my 
thanks, in thk public manner, to the Reverend Bobert Trail, Hector of Ballintoy, 
County of Antrim, Ireland, for the great trouble he has taken in collecting and 
transmitting to me many words which I had overlooked in the works quoted in 
the preceding volumes, and in other books which I had not time to consult pre- 
vious to puUication. I must, however, take the liberty to say that, although 
the kindness of my literary firiends might seem to have superseded the necessity 
of a oonsidemUe portion of personal labour, I have in every instance, when it has 
been in my power, examined the quotations myself, that they might be given with 
as much accuracy as possible. 

To my fiiend W. Hamper, Esq. of filrmingham — ^who, even while involved in 
business and burdened with the mimicipal cares inseparable from the functions of 
the supreme magistrate of so extensive a community, has found time to indulge in 
antiquarian researches — ^I feel much indebted, for his useful communications in 
regard to provincial English synonymes and antiquated words. 

But did I attempt to particularize all the obligations I have been laid under in 
the prosecution (ji this work, both by friends and by strangers (by persons, indeed, 
in veiy di£forent ranks in society), I might seem to write a Memoir rather than a 
Fieboe. I cannot, however, omit taking notice oi the kindness of John Spottis- 
woode, Esq. of Spottiswoode, who, from his wish to contribute all in his power for 
my infonnation, was so good as to bring with him from London a smgular manu- 
script of his learned ancestor, so well known as the author of ''An Account of all 
the Beligious Houses that were in Scotland at the time of the Reformation*'' The 
M& referred to is entitled "An Historical Dictionary of the Laws of Scotland." 
I have made various extracts from this work. But, although it discovers great 
diligence and erudition, in consequence of its being chiefly confined to legal matters, 
and continued only through part of the third letter of the alphabet, the supply it 
aflforded was fiur more limited than I had previously expected. I am not less 
bound to acknowledge my debt of gratitude to the venerable Professor Jardine, 
and the other learned Curators of the Hunterian Museum in my respected Alma 
Mater, the University of Glasgow. For many years had I been in quest of that 
very rare book, the Promptarium Parvulorum of Father Fraunces, and did not 
discover, till I had made considerable progress in printing this Supplement, that 
there was a copy in that invaluable Museum. My application for the use of this 
hifou was most liberally complied with ; and I have only to regret that I did not 
see it at an earlier stage. I have, however, as &r as possible, endeavoured to 
enrich this work with all that seemed conducive to elucidation or illustration ; 
although at the expense of giving up a variety of terms, as old English, which 
had been formerly deemed peculiar to the northern part of our island. 


PEEFACfi. Xvii 

To my learned and amiable friend. Archdeacon Nares, the public is undoubtedly 
much indebted for his Glossaiy, a work which contains a great deal of curious 
information not to be found any where else. It would have been highly gratifying 
to nie bad a larger portion of his intelligence regarded the peculiar phraseology or 
manners of Scotland. Owing to peculiar circumstances^ I have not had all the 
benefit that might have been derived from this valuable accession to our ancient 
literature, nor which I yet hope to have. 

In regard to many provincial words common to the north of England and south 
of Scotland, as well as antiquated terms of a more general description, I have been 
anticipated by my worthy fnend and colleague, the Reverend H. J. Todd, in the 
large and useful additions he has made to Dr. Johnson's English Dictionary. He 
has, with great propriety, paid far more attention to the etymology of the langUcige 
than his celebrated precursor had done ; and it affords me pleasure to find that he 
and I so irequently concur in our ideas as to the origin of particular words. 

Although my friend John T. Brockett, Esq. of Newcastle, furnished me as early 
as possible with a copy of his '' Glossary of North Country Words, from an origi- 
nal MS. in the Library of J. G. Lambton, Esq., M.P., with considerable Additions," 
3rety it did not and could not reach me, till this work was nearly concluded. From 
the use I have made of this ingenious and amusing publication, it may well be 
supposed that I would have referred to it much oftener had it been in my power. 

Edinburgh, May SO, 1825. 


V I 



[ft Origmti SdiiUm.^ 

Th» Dak* of AnylL 

TW Dak* of AtEoQ. 

Tha Ifaiqais of AtMroorn. 

l^Moamt Arbathnot. 

Lovd AihbiirtoB. 

Ztfvd Aimtdalo. 

BigM Hoe. Lori AdTDcato for Seoflaod. 

^nniam Adam, Saq., Attomoj Oonoral to ILR.H. iho 

Fkinoo of Walaa. 
lioBt J. O. Aldor, 8lh Bagt Inf., BengaL 
B«r. A. Aliaoo, npabondary of Sarnm. 
Kr. Jobs AUaiit Pkndike^ 

A]ko,Baq.» 19KorthQmberiaiidStrMl»Slnukl» 

. Bm.» of InehynL 
Aadanoo, Eaq.» Banker, Edinlnugh. 
Bavid AadMoon, Sao., of St Germaiiia. 
Kr. Joha Aadanoo, Bookaellor, Edinbuzgh. Sob eqpkt, 
■ I ■ I ■ I I ^ M arohanty Do. 

William Aitethnoi Baq., Sacivfeary of Board of T^oatoao. 

Tfca Daka of Bueclanch. 

Ika Sari of BridgBwaAor. 

iMd diiaf Baron of Rngland. 

Lord Otiaf Baron of SooUand. 

KgbtHon. 8ir Joaa^ Baaka, Bart, K.& 

Kr. Baortar, Bookaauar, London. Tkne c 

Mafttbaw Baillia, ILD., London. 

WiDiam BaiUia^ Eoq. , Coronet 4th Ckvaliy, Bengid. 

Banr. Qeotsa Baird, D.D., Principal UniT. Edinlnugh. 

Kr. S. Bilfoar, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. Six eopkt, 

Kr. Ballantjne. St John'a Straal, Edinbozgh. 

Dr. Bmdaj, Edinboxgh. 

Kr. W. Bajn^ Bookaeller, London. Two copiet, 

John Barker, Boq., Bfiddle Temple, Lond^m. 

Qeofga Ball, Em., Snmon, Edinburgh. 

. Bali and Bndfatab Bookaelleia, Edinbnni^ ^«B 

Kr. Joaepk BeQ, Bodkaeller, London. 2W eepiei; 

Kr. Aadraw BUek, da, Edinbozgh, Two eopiet. 

Bar. Diand Bbek, Donf eimline. 

Kr. Tliomaa Blackwood, Merchant, Edinboigh. 

Ki^ m^lliam Blackwood, Bookseller, Edinbw|^ Three 


Aiarandar Blafa^ Jmr., Eaq., London. 

* laha Bonar, Ek|., Solicitor of Excise. 
Andrew Bonar, Eaq., Banker, Edinbozgh. 
Alawandar Bonar, Eaa.. da 
Alarander Boawdl, of Anchinleck, Esq. 

* Sav. Jonathan Boncher, Vicar of Epsom. 

* Sav. John Brand, M.A., Secretary to the 

Antjqnariea, Lond. 
Msasn Biaah A Beid, Booksellezs, GU^w. 8U copies. 
Jaasm Bkown, Esq., St Albans, Harta. 

* Qeotga Brown, Esq., Board of Excise. 
Mr. Walter Brown, Merchant, Edinbargh. 

Mr. Alex. Brown, Bookaeller, Aberdeen. Two coptee, 
Jaasm Bmca Eaq., Excise, Edinboigh. 
Mr. Oeofge Bronton, Merchant, Edmbozgh. 
PMridc firdon, Esq., Lsnnel House, ComhilL 
Jaasm Bacban, Eaq., W.S. 

* Mr. John Btiffhanan, Merohant, Glasffow. 
Mr. P. O. Bochanan, Bookseller, Edinburgh. 
Bobert Burii% Esq., Merchant, Glasgow. 
John Bomaida^ Esq., Merchant, Glasgow. 

The Arohbiahop of Canterbury. 

The Earl of Carlisle. 

Lord Viaoonnt Cathcart. 

Lord Frederick Campbell. 

Lord Cawdor. 

Lord Craig. 


Sir Geoige Clerk of Pennycuick, Bart 

* Sir Jamm Colquhoun, of Lose, Bart. 

Sir Wm. Angnstna Caninghame, of Livingstone, Bart. 

Hon. Mr. C. Clifford. 

Benjamin Bond Cabbdl, Esq., Lesson Green, Lond. 

Messrs. Caddell A Davies, Booksellers, Lond. Four copUi. 

Mr. G. CaldweU, Bookseller, Paisley. Two copies. 

Alexander Campbell, Esq. 

John CampbelL tertina, Esq., W.S. 

Alex. CampbeU, Eaq., Lieut Bengal hd, Tvco copien, 

Adam Lawaon oe Caidonnel, of Cnarleton, Est^. 

Mr. Jamm Carpenter, Bookaeller, London. Su eopien. 

David Cathcart, Esq., Advocate. 

Mr. Cawthom, Bookseller, London. Three copies, 

R. Hodshon Cky, Esq., Judge Admiral, Scotland. 

George Chahnera, Esq., Board of Trade. 

Messrs. Chapman A Lang, Bookaellera, Glasgow. 

Mim Charlea, York PUce, Edinburgh. 

Georse Cheape, of Wallfield, Eaq. 

Mr. Cheyne^ Bookaeller, Edinbu^. 

Rev. Hi^ Cholmondeley, Dean of Chester. 

Mr. Christie^ Bookseller, Lond. 

GM»t. R. Cburke, Bengal Cavalrv. 

J. CSarke^ Esq., Lieut Bengal lof. 

Rev. T. Clarke, Prebendary of Hereford. 

James Clarke^ Esq., Dublin. 

MnL Cleghom, KeiJeith. 

John Clerk, of Eldin, Esq. 

John Clerk, Esq., Advocate. 

Messrs Clerk A Sons, Booksellers, London. Two copies. 

John Cochrane, Eeq., Merchant, Glascow. 

David Cockbum, Esq., Civil Service, Madras. Six copitJi, 

Mr. W. Coke, Bookseller, Leith. Jlkree copies, 

Messrs. A. Constable A Co., Booksellers, Edinburgh. 

Tweive copies. 
Rev. Edward Copleeton, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxfonl. 
John Coventry, of Devonshaw, Esq. 
Alex. Cowan, Esq., Valleyfield. 
John Craig, Esq., Glasgow. 
John Crawford, Esq. 

W. CrMch, Eaq., Bookseller, Edinburgh. Twelve copies. 
Rev. Dr. Cririe^ Dalton. 
Alexander Cunningham, Esq., Edinburgh. 

* Dr. Currie, LiverpooL 

Messrs. Cuthell A Martin, BookaeUers, London. Sfx 

Lady DougUw, Bothwell Castle. 
The Earl of Dartmouth. 



Dm BmImp of DroBMm. 

Ii»d D — ' 


_^t Hon. Robwt DnndH Suutdan, ot MalriQa. 

Bi^t Hod. WiUiun Dnndu. 

Boo. B. P. Boiral Dnimmond, Droranond CuUe. 

•Owidaa^F - 

BMiTDKvidm. ^. 

John Md^ Bm., M.^., 

Ur. Thonu Dieku^Bo 

Joba DOloB, bq., Writor, Edinbotgli. 

JaBM Dobii, Etq., CimiM Court, Load. 

■ Hnrnphnj Douldioii, Em. 

John Sva^dMii. Em].. W.S. 

Fnua Doooe, Eiq., Lond. 

Hobort Don^u Eiq. 

John Doodu, Bu., Ob^w. 

B«T. Hr. Dow, Hetfavo. 

BaiUaj Dnuninond, Baq., Load. 

lit. AnhJbaldDBncHi, Writar, Ediubiuvli. 
Hmkis. J. * a. Danom, BookMllan, Qimgvw, 


Cwliebu-, NaibtOD. 
larohan^ QUigow. 
iugiiioar, OUipnr. 

Dr. H. OMteboM, Lood, F.K.8. Mid S.A. 
liMtrOBlanal Oenid, Ad]. Unanl. C.T., 1 
Bar. C Oanrd. Bnmptoa. 
Hr. HaDnOib, Hareunt, DnnfanDlitM. 
JiBMO Oibfa^ Anirtut Surgsmt, B«n8>l. 
Jamoi Gibaon, Eaq., W.S. 
Ardubald Gibwii, bq., Edinburgh. 
'linOibMM, B*q., H«Kt -' "--•- 
:. John BorthwHk Oil 
dnatanao, CUontte. 
OoUrnu Gilehrut, Eaq., Stamford. 
Biohard Oillaapia, Bag., Glaagow. Tito eofiet. 
John UiUiao, LL.D., Loud. 
Adam Gilliaa, Eaq.. Adrocata. 
Joaaph OillioiL Eaq., Edinbargfa. 
Uaoi W. GiAar, Sangal Inf. 
Joaaph Oordon, Eaq., of KintndweU. 
jMBaa P. OttdooTEM-. W.S. 

■ - ■ ■ PiBby, Eaq., oiM of tba C 

tf Exciaa, Edinboigh. 

, loo 

John Iraham, Eaq., ol 

Bobart OrahMt, Eaq., <rf WbitahiD. 
Chariaa Omnt, Eaq., M.P. 

Onnt, Eaq., CovoDtrjr. 

^^r**™ Janao Gian^ of Hia BxaaUeney'a 
HadiBa. T^iKcopta. 


Lori Bt^inrtona. 

Sit AmEibald BdmonttoiM^ of Dnnbvath, Bart. 

Hr. T. Bgarton, Bookaaller, London. Famr eopin. 

Jol» BUar, Eaq., Bqiatar Offioa. 

Goon* Ellia, Baq., SnnninduU, BaAi. 

JohnTm^Eoq., Portland nuie. 

J. P. bakinaL of Mar. bq. 

WmiaB baking Eaq., Advooata. 

Hr. B. H. B*aa% BbbkaaUar, Load. Tllrtt coptet. 

Oataig* Sjn, Biq., Ifndhiuit, Hanta. 

C C. PaithftiL Kq., Uant. 4th Bengal N. bif. 
Ut. nnldar, Boduallar, Land. Tkrte eopk*. 
Cbarlaa Parinaoa, Eaq., CitU Sarrioc^ Bengal. 
Bw h ar t VMgnaon, nongar, of B«itli, Eaq. 
Hr. John nunr, Swanaton. 
-AnUbatd PMchar, Eaq., Adrocata 
B«>. John Fboaiaii Cdiington. 
Ur. fkrar Bookadler. Lond. 
IMwi^ fbr' - - 

\ Etq., one of the Commiai 

bq., 8«irv. G«ti. of Crown Landa. 

j^^-^ ■■ ■ - ■ 

H^or Bengal Ltf . 7W eopin. 

ehn fotdna, bq.. 
A. Dingwall Fotdjca, Enginaer, Bengal. Tteo topirt. 
Dkvid FortM^ Eaq., Ounbarland Street, Lomt. 



lb]or.GaDana Hwikeniiel 

Cuf^ WttM, A.D.C., BaugaL 

A lwra nd w Tumk, SecraUiy to the Highland Sooioty □ 

na Dnke of Gordon. 


Lord Gtenberria. 7Sm (djhm. 

Ganaral Ittd Gage. 

Bi|^t Hon. ThonuM Gr«nvillc. 


John & Oalt, Baq., Lond. 

GT««nlaw, E«]., W.S. 

illian Griffith, Marcbant, Edinbnr^ 
Guild, Eaq., WHtw, Bdinbnr^ 

.,^ri«L Eaq., CitU Sarricai BennL T<m eouitt. 

Utmn. Gntbrie ft Tait, Bsokaellera, E<nnbargb. rAr» 

Hr. Almiader Gnthria, Baokaallnr, Edinborgb. 

The Eari «t Haddington. 

Lord Holland. 

Lord Archibald Hamilton. 

Hon. William Herbert, Temple, Lond. 

Sir Charlea Halkett, of Pitfirrane, Bart. 

Sir Juu* Hall, of Dao^av, Bart. 

Henry Hailam, Eaq., Inner Temple, Lond. 

Bobert Bauulfam, Emj., Advocate, PnL L*w of Kature 

and Nationa, Unir. Edinbnrgh. 
Ur. D. Handraida, Edinbor^ 
* Mr. Adun Harper, Uerchant, Edinbur^ 
Hr. T. Hart, Merchant Laitb. 
Jamea Baworth, M.D., Linooln'a Inn FieMa, Lou<I. 
Bichard Heber. Eeq. , of Hodnet Hall, Saktp. 
B«T. H. Henidi, Stirling. 

Mr. P. Hilt, Bookeetler, Edinburgh. Sit eopiu. 
Mr. Tbomaa Hill, Bookaaller, Perth. Tim mpif. 
Tbomaa Hill, Eiq., Qneeohitha. 
Henry Hoblwiw^ Eeq., Temple, Lond. 
Ur. Hookbam, Bookaellar, Lond. 7W coi-iet. 
Pnncia Homer, Eaq., M.P., Lond. 
Bichard Hotchii, Eiq., W.a. 
Bar. William Howley. 
George Home, of Fsxton, Esq. 
Jamoa Hont, Eaq., Dnnfennline. 
. * Charie* Hunter, of Bumiide, Eea. 
AleiUnder G. Hunter, younger, of Blackocaa, I'lvi. 
Sobort Hunter, Ew]., of Lona, Shetland. 
Lieot. Hunter, IQtb Bagt. Bengal Inf. 
lieat-GenenU Rnaaey. 
Gilbart Hutcheaon, Eaq^Advocate. 
Lieut .Colonel Hntton, Woolwich. 


S«r. Crrfl Jaokaon, D.D.» D«mi of Chrbt Church, 

Dmb and Chapter of Chriat Chareh. 
Bar. WiUiam Jaakaon, D.D., fiag. Prof, of Greek, and 

OuMMi of Ckrial Chvreh, Oxford. 
John JamaMM. Eao., AUoa. 
Bohitt Jamiaaon, Eiq., aanr., W.S. 

IboaMa JamaaoB, Eeq.* Leith. 

Hauy Jaidiaa, am|.» of the Exchaquer. 

Ghriatqpha Ula^ Esq., Load. . Five copies. 

Ut. Bdward Jafanr, BookaaUar, Lond. Three copie; 

BobMtH. Ii^lii^ Kiq., Land. 

Qflbart lanai^ of Slow, Eki. 

Cipt JohaaloM^ A.D.C. BaagaL 

Mr. Alaiandar Johnaton, Oilmeiton. 

Maana. Jordan k Uaxwall, BookaaUera, Lond. Two 

Alaiandar Inrina^ E*q*f Advocata, Froletaor of Civil 

Law, Umr. Edinfanrgh. -*" ^ 

Wmiam trvint^ Baq., Marehant, Okagow. 

Lord KinaainL 

Akxaadar Kailh, of RaTdatoo, Eki. 

Mr. RobarlKamp^ Edinhnrgh. 

William Kanii^ En., Tampla, Lond. 

J. Ear, Lmi. 8th.B(^ N. L Bengal 

WiDiam Karr, Eiq., Secretary Genend Poat Cffioe, 

Edinhnrgh. »i 

Charlaa Karr, J£aq., Abbolmla. ^l 

Bobtft Karr, Ei^, Berwickahira. i 
Oaarga Kimiaar, Eiq., Banker, Edinfaorsh. 
Band Kinnear, Eiq., Banker, Edinburgh. 

John Kinnear, Eeq., Ghngow. *| 

JaBMa Knox, En., GhMgow. n 

Mr. John Knox, Maiehaatk Glasgow. ii 

Lady London and MoinL 
EM of Lewi and Malrilla. 
Genanl Viaooont Lake. 
Thn Biahop of London. 

Laekiqgton, Allan, A Co., Bookaellen^ London. 


A Lainft Eaq., M.P. 4^ 

OOhart Lainft Eiq? 
Mr. WiDiam Lain^ Bookaallar, Edinboigh. Six copies. 
lianl-Cohmal Lake, Ao., Ao., BenjmL 
Giptain Bobart Latter, 8th Bagt N. J. Bengal. 
Mr. Lawria^ BookaaDer, Edinburgh. 

B. Lindny, Eeq., Olaigow. A 

Mr. Lindaoll, BookaeUar, Wimpola Street, Lond. Two 

r. En., Hackner, Lond. 
Longman k Co., Bookaellera, Lond. Six copies, 
Adam Timgmora^ Eeq., Bxcheqner, Edinboigh. ( 
Bidiard LowndaiL En., Bed Don Square, Ix»nd. 
* Andrew LnnuMun, fen. '/ 

J. K. Lomlay, Cbpt. Sthir. L BennL -{ 

Jaama T^imadfn, Eeq., Coronet K. Cavaliy, 

Library, Society of the Writera to the Signet 

Highland Sode^ of Scotland. 

'" SpecolatiTa Society, Edinbargh. 

London LMtitution. 

High School of Edinbargh. 

AlE»a Sabeoription Society. 

Cnpar Fife do. 

Edmbnigh da 

Forfar do. 

Glaaffow dow 

Halifax, Nova Sootia do. 

Kirkcaldjr do.. 

Liyerpool do. 

New York do. 

Paialey do. 

Perth do. 

Stirling'a^^ . _ . do. Glaagow. 

Mr. O. liomadan, Bookaeller, Ghngow. 
Gaofga LyalL Eeq., of Kinneff. 
Bar. Otsnd Lydl, Gareatona. 
Library, Univern^ of Edinboigh. 

Dob of Ghnffow. 

— Do. of Si. Andrewa, 

Mariaehal CoDage^ Aberdeen. ' 

— — King'a Collm, do. 

Ma^alaneCoOegeb Oxford. 

Oriel CoDage^ do. 

— *— ^ Braaen Note College, do. 
-»— Faeolty of AdTOcatca. 
■■ Boyal College of niysiciaaa, Edinbargh. 

Gnrt^ Excheqner, Scotland, 

Hon. Boaid of Tnateee. 


Lord Minto, GoTemor-Genend of Bengal. 

Lord Jamea Manny. 

* Lord Methven. 

Hon. William Ramaay Maale, of Panmare. 

Sir Geoige Mackenzie, of Cotdl, Bart. 

Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie, of Delvin, Bart. 

Sir Patrick Murray, of Auchtert^, Bart., M.P. 

lieut. -Colonel Kenneth Mackenzie. 

B. Maean, Colonel Command. Bengal Cavaliy.* 

Lieut. -Colonel Macauley, Madiaa Inf. Two copies^ 

K. Macauley, Eiq., Amiatant Surgeon, Bengal Inf. 

Three copies. 
K. Macauhiy, Eeq., Asaiatant Suigeon, Madraa Inf. 
Hugh M*Corqnodale, Esq., Liverpool. 
Wifliam Maodowall, of Garthland, Esq., M.P. 
Bfr. Maogowan, Bookseller, Glaumw. 
J. MHlieopr, Lieut-Colonel 4th Ragt Cavalry, Bengal. 
Bar. Dr. J. Maclntyie, Olenorehy. 
Mr. Jamea Madntyre, Merchant, Edinburgh. 
John Mackenzie, ot Applecroes, Esq. 
CdUu Mackenzie^ Esq., one of the Principal Clerks of 


* John Mackenzie, Esq., Secretary Highland Society, 

Kenneth Mackenzie, Esq., Basin£[-hall Street, Lond. 
John Mackenzie, Esq., Upper Guildford Street, Lond. 
Alexander Mackenzie, Esq., Mincing Lane, Lond. 
Archibald Mackinlajr, Esql, Merchant, Edinburgh. 
BoT. Thomas Macknight, Edinbuigh. 
John Macleod, Senior, Esq., Newcastle. 
Bd"»""^ Malone, Esq.« Eaat Q. Anne Street, Lond. 

A. C. Maitland, of CUfton Hall, Esq. 

Capt Heniy Manley, 8th Regt Native Inf., Bengal. 
Meesia. Mannera and Miller, Booksellers, Edinbuigh. 

Six copies. 
Jamea Manafield, of Midmar, Esq. 
William Marsden, Esq., Admiralty. 
G. B. Martin, Esq., Lieut 8th Regt N. Inf., Bengal. 

B. Mmtin, Esq., Civil Service, Bengal Two copies. 
Rev. J. Maaon, New York. 

Jamea Masterton, of Braco, Esq. 

Meesrs. BCatthews and Leigh, Bookaellers, Lond. Th-ee 

Patrick Maxton, Em., Banker, Edinburgh. 
Jamea Maxwell, of Brideland, Eso. 
Mr. J. Mawman, Bookaeller, Louu. Six copies. 
Jamea Blayne, of Powis, Esq. 
John Mayne, Esq., Carey Street, Lond. 
Capt. Menziea, B. M., Bengal 
Dr. Meyer, Winchester Street, Lond. 
Mr. WilUam Miller, Bookseller, Lond. Four copies. 
Andrew Mitchell, Esq., Writer, Glasgow. 
John Monteath, Esq., Glasgow. 
Homy Monteith, Esq., Glasgow. 
Stewart Moodie, Esa., Advocate. 
John Shank More, Lsq., Advocate. 
Mr. W. Morison, Bookseller, Perth. Two copies. 


Mr. WUliam Moriaon, Merchant^ Edinlrargh. 

Oapi. MorriMm, A.D.C., Bengal. 

Maaan. MandaU ft Co^, Bookaallan» EdinbuglL 8ix 

PliMok Mnmy, of Simprira, Eaq^ 

WiUiam Murray, Eaq., Oarden Court, Temple, Lond. 

Mr. John Murray, Bookaeller, London. Six ecpk», 

Lord Newtra. 

Hon. Fraderiok North. 

Sir Jamaa Kaamyth, Bart 

Bar. Robert NarMi of the Britiah Muaenm. 

8. Nation. Eaq., Lieut ath Native Regt, Bengal 

Maaan. O. ft J. Niool, BookaeUera to Hia Majeaty. 

Mr. David Niven, Bookaeller, Olaaoow. ThrtB copiei, 
Meaanu Nomjiville ft Fell, BookaeUera, Lond. 

Mr. Nnnn, BookaeUer, L<md. Two co/Met. 

Sir Walter Ogilvifl^ of Inveroarity, Bart 

Mr. Oohtarlony. 

Adam Qgilvy, of Brankaome, En. 

Mr. John Ogle, Bookaeller, EdinDurgfa. Six copie$, 

Mr. B. Qgle^ BookaeUer, Lond. Three copies. 

Mr. M. (Mi, BookaeUer, Qlaagow. Tun eopieM. 

Meaanu (Hii^iant and Brown, BookacUeri, Edinbnxgh. 

O. Onnerod, Eaq., M.A1, Boaaendale. 
Jamea OawaldTdr ShieUiaU, Eaq. 
B. A. Oawal^ Eaq. 
Liant John Owen, 8th Bagt Native Lif., BengaL 

Count Pnrgatall, Viennn. 

Lord Polkenunet 

Hiomaa Parice^ Eaq., Hampatead. 

Mr. John Pari^, BookaeUer, Edinbnigh. Tteo eopie$, 

* Mr. Oeoige Paton, of the Cuatoma, Edinburgh. 

Andrew Paton, Eaq., Old Gravel Lane, Lond. 

W. Pattle, Eiq., Coronet lat Native Cavalry, BengaL 

Robert PMnllo, of Bonffie, Eiq. 

Mr. T. Pavne^ BookaeUer, Lond. Six copies, 

Meaanu Fkyne and Mackinlay, BookaeUera, London. 

l%rot cnieSm 

R. Popper, Aaq., Lieut lat Native Cavalry, BengaL 
Jamaa reny, A Merton, Eao. 
Lania Hnyea Petit, Eiq., 9 rfew Square, Linooln'a Lm, 

John Delafield Phelpa, Em|., 11 New Square, do., do. 
John Pinkerton, Ewj., Loiul. 

Meaanu J. A R. Priestley, BookaeUera, Lond. Two copies, 
Mr. Qeoige Prieatly, BookaeUer, Lond. 
Jamaa Pnogle, of Whitebank, E^. 
John Prin^^ Eaq., one of the Principal Clerka of Seasion. 
lient Joui Lb Purvei, Bengal Inf. 

* The Duke of Roxburgh. Two copies, 


The Biahop of Rocheater. 

Sir JameaM. RiddeU, Bart 

Sir John Buchanan RiddeU, Bart 

Mr. Jamea Bae, Writer, Edinburgh. 

Rev. Matthew Bmine, D.D., Chapter Houae, Lond. 

Jonnthan Raine, Eaq., M.P., Bedford Bow, Lond. • 

* WiUiam RAmaay, of Bamton, Eiq. 
David R*maay, oi Craigleith, Eaq. 
Steg^en Raid, Eaq., 4th Cavalry, BengaL 

Mr. WUliam Raid, BookaeUer, Leith. Three copies. 
John Rennie, Eaq., 27 Stamford Street, Blackfrian^ 

Mr. Raynokl*, BookaeUer, Lond. 
John Rtehardaon, Eaq., Back Court, Temple, LontL 
Alexander RiddeU, Eaq., Lond. 
* J. Ritaon, Eaq., Lond. 

Maaan. Rivington, BookaeUera, Lond. Three copies, 
M. C. Roberta, Eaq., Lieut Bengal Cavalry. 

R. Robertaon, Eaq., Aaaiatant Snigaon, Bengal Two 

*Dr. John Robinaon, Prof. Nat PhU., Univ. Edinburgh. 
Adam RoUand, Eaq., Advocate. 
Heroulea Roaa, of Boaaie, Eaq. 
Mr. R Boaa, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. Two copies. 
Rev. Dr. Routh, Preaident Magdalene College, Oxford. 

Ruaael Eaq.^vil Service^ Bengal 
George Ruaael, Eaq., W.& 
Mnjor Rntherford, of Edgentooe. 

The Duke of Someraet 

The Marehioneaa of Stafibrd. Two copies. 

The Marquia of Stafford. 

The Eari of SeUurk. 

Earl Spencer. 

The Earl of Stair. 

Lord Seaforth. 

Hon. Wortley Stuart 

* Lady Strange. 

Sir John SineUir, of Ulbater, Bart 

Sir Alexander Seatoo, Knight 

Major SaUdeld, Deputy Qr. Mr. Gen., Bengal. 

Rev. Biahop Sandford, Edinburgh. 

* David Scott, of Dunninald, E^. M.P. 

John Corae Soott, of Sinton, Eaq. Three copies. 
Walter Soott, Eaq., one of the Principal Uerka of 

Hu^ Scott, of Harden, Eaq. 

WiUiam Scott, Eaq., GivUServioe, Bengal Two copies. 
David Soott Eaq., da, da, da 

Scott M.D., Fifeahin. 

Aroliibald Seton, Eaq., Civil Service, Bengal Two copies. 

Meaan. J. ft J. Crymgaoor, BookaeUera, Olaagow. 

C. K. Sharpe, younger, of floddam, Eaq. 

Lieut E H. Simpaon, Bengal Inf. 

Mr. Jamea Simaon, BookaeUer, Edinburgh. Three copies, 

OeoT^ Skene, of Skene, Eaq. 

Archibald Smith, of JordanhiU, Eaq. 

Rev. WUliam Smith, Bower, Caithneaa. 

Mr. John Smith, BookaeUer, Glaagow. Two copies, 

H. Smyd, Eaq., lat Cavalry, Ben^. 

Miaa Maria Solly, Walthamatow. 

John SomerviUe, Eaq., London. 

Mark Sprott Eaq., London. 

Mr. J. SteiU, BookaeUer, Glaagow. 

Robert Stein, of Kilbagie, Eaq. 

John Stenhouae, younser, of Fodd, Eaq. 

* Robert Stewart, of Binny, Eaq., 
WiUiam Stewart Eaq., Perth. 

J. D. Stewart, Comet lat Cavalry, Bengal. 

Mra. Moray Stirling, of Abercaimey. 

Rev. John Stonard, Kent 

Jamea Stormont of Lednathie, Eao. 

J. Clark Stoughton, Eaq., Wymonoham, Norfolk. 

Jamea Strange, Eaq., Madraa. 

Dngald Stuart Eaq., Prof. Moral PhiL, Univ. Edinburgli. 

Dr. Chariea Stuart Edinburgh. 

John Stuart of Allanton, Eai]. 

W. Swxnton, Eaq., Lieut Slat Bengal Inf. 

Jamea Sword, Eaq., Aimfield, Glaagow. 

Robert Sym, Eaq., W.a 

Mr. W. D. Symonda, BookaeUer, Lond. Six copies. 

John Tawae, Eaq., Writer, Edinbursh. 

John Taylor, Eaq., Exchequer, Ecliuburgh. 

Mr. Chariea Taylor, London Library. 

Mr. Robert Tavlor, younger, Dunfermline. 

Thomaa TeUord, Eitq., Shrewabury. 

WiUiam Tennent Enq., Belfast 

Thomaa Thomson, Esq., Advocate. Two ctqnes. 

Dr. Thomaa Thomson, Edinburgh. 

Rev. Jamea Thomaon, Girvan. 

Mr. Thomson, BookAcUer, Edinburgh. Two copies. 

William Thorbum, Eiu;., Leith. 

Robert Thornton, Esq., M.P. 



mook. Em., Ctmj Btntit, Loud, 
r. HMfy J. Todd. M.A., Junes's Street^ Wattniiiiitar. 
Ii<«t>.«Coloatl linUiiMn Toiim, 1st Gavalry, BengkL 
^ I>r.TkBiL 

T. TkimMl, Sm» liMt 8Ui Native Brat. BengftL 
Tnni«wTftlTT,Tfri, Tml TTh^t-t '-^ Two copies. 

IiMA.-ColoMl Vaadslenz: Ban9d, 

▼«iior. Hood ft SliArptb BookoeDow, Loud. 


WaQaot^ Em., Banker, Bdinliaxi^ 
John Watooo, Writer, Edinlmigli. 
WatMo, £iiq., liadraa. 
Anhibald Watooo, lit Begt Cavalry, BeogaL 


AWvandor WatMn, Bengal Inf. Two eopko. 
HviPk Wanender, £aq., W.S. 

~ Uoocge Welah, let Gavaliy, Beng^ 

te, D.D., Reg. IM. of Heb., Ganon of 
cC C^iiat Ckmoh, Oxford. 
Mr. J. WbiliL BboksoDer, Fleet Street Six eopieo, 
WUta^ Siq., Cnlorendi. 

J. White k Co., BookaeUerib Beaton, N.B. 
Ber. Walter Whiter, Lend. 
Mr. W. Whyte, Bookseller, Bdinburgfa. 
Hugh Wilbraham, Eeq.. Stratton Straet^ Lond. 
Meeenu Williama k Smith, BookaeUera, Lond. Abi 

lir. Jamee Williamaon, Merchant, Edinbnxgh. 

JohnWilaon, Eeq., Oxford. 

Qeone Wilaon, Em., Linooln'a Inn, Lond. 

Mr. John Wilaon, gtadent, Univ. Glaagow. 

Mr. Alevander Wilaon, Sookaeller, Glaagow. Three 

o opuem t 
Jamee Wood, Em., Leghorn. 
Mr. John Wood, Merchant, Dalkeith. 
H. Wooldaworth, Esq., GUsgow. 
William Wright, M.D., F.R.iS.E. 
Charlea WiUiam Wynne, Esq., M.P., Lond. 

William Yatea, Eo^ 4th Gavalxy, BengaL 
John Yoaiu^ £iq.,Trof. of Greek, Univ., Glasgow. 
Rev. Dr. Young, Hackney. 
Alexander Young, of Hayfield, Eiq. 

R. Yoong, ath Regt Native Inf., BengaL Two 









It is an opinion, which has been pretty generally received, and perhaps ahnost 
taken for granted, that the language spoken in the Lowlands of Scotland is 
merely a corrupt dialect of the English, or at least of the Anglo-Saxon. Those 
who have adopted this idea have assigned, some one era, some another, for the in- 
troduction of this language from the South ; each preferring that which seemed to 
haye the most plausible claim, without entertaining a single doubt as to the 
solidity of the hypothesis, which rendered it necessarjr to fix such an era. Having 
long adhered to tins hypothesis, without any particular investigation, it is probable 
that I might never have thought of calling it in question, had I not heard it posi- 
tively asserted, by a learned foreigner, that we had not received our language from 
the English ; that there were many words in the mouths of the vulgar in Scotland, 

I which had never passed through the channel of the Anglo-Saxon, or been spoken 

in England, although still used in the languages of the North of Europe ; that 
the Scottish was not to be viewed as a daughter of the Anglo-Saxon, but as, 
in common with the latter, derived from the ancient Gothic ; and that, while we 
had to regret the want of authentic records, an accurate and extensive investigation 

I of the language of our country might throw considerable light on her ancient his- 

1 toiy, particularly as to the origin of her first inhabitants. 

This assertion seemed to merit a &ir investigation. On this I entered, pre- 
possessed ^ih an opinion directly the reverse of that which I now embrace as the 


mosfc tenable. I am far from saying that it is attended with no difficulties. These 
I mean to submit to the public, in all the force which thej appear to have ; while, 
at the same time, I shall exhibit a variety of considerations, which, if they amount 
not to full proof, seem to afford as much as can well be expected, on a subject 
neoeesarily involTed in such obscurity, from the distance of time, and from the 
deficiency of historical testimony. 

—The learned CSomden, Father Innes, and some other respectable writers, have 
"Viewed the Picts as Welsh ; and have argued, in consequence, that their language 
must have been a dialect of the Celtic. I will not contend about the name of this 
people ; although there is sufficient evidence that it was written corruptly by the 
Bomana What particularly demands our attention, is the origin of the people 
themselves ; and also their language, whether it was Gothic or Celtic. 

It would serve no good purpose, to enter into any disquisition as to the supposed 
time of their arrival in this country. As this dissertation is intended merely in 
sabserviency to the following work, it will be enough, if it appear that there is 
good reason to view them as a Gothic race. 

L HiSTOBiGAJi EviDEKCE. — The testimony of venerable Bede has been univer- 
sally respected, except in as &r as his credulity might be viewed as influenced by 
ecclesiastical attachment. It has been supposed, indeed, that many of the legendary 
stories now found in his history, were not written by him ; as, in a variety of 
instances, although they appear in the Anglo-Saxon translation, they are want- 
ing in the original. Being the earliest historian of this island, he must have been 
best qualified to give a just account of the Picts ; and, although we should suppose 
him to have been under ecclesiastical influence in matters of religion, he could have 
no end to serve in giving a fidse account of the origin of this people. Yet, on this 
subject^ even the testimony of Bede has been treated as imworthy of regard ; be- 
cause it is directly eversive of system. 

He says — ^ Cum plurimam insulae partem, incipientes ab austro, possedissent 
[Brittones], contigit gentem Pictorum de Scythia, ut perhibent, longis navibus non 
multis oceanum ingressam,'' &a Lib. L 1. ** When they [the Britons], beginning 
at the South, had made themselves masters of the greatest part of the island, it 
happened that the nation of the Picts, coming into the ocean from Scythia, as it 
is reported, in a few long ships," &c. After giving an account of their landing in 
Ireland, and of their being advised by the Scots of that country to steer towards 
Britain, he adds — " Itaque petentes Britanniam Picti, habitare per septentrionales 
insulae partes coeperunt : nam austrina Brittones occupaverunt ;'* Ibid. " The 
Picts accordingly sailing over into Britain, began to inhabit the northern parts of it, 
for the Britons were possessed of the southern. 

There is not the slightest reason to doubt that, by the Britons, he means the 
Welsh ; as tlus is the name by which he designs this people. It is well known, 
that Scandinavia had been called Scythia by Jomandes, two centuries before Bede's 


time. De Orig. Get. p. 595 — 597. Is it said that Bade lived too long after the 
settlement of the Picts, to know any thing certain as to their origin ? It is suffi- 
cient to lepljy that he undoubtedly gives the received belief of his time, which 
had been transmitted finom preceding ages, and which no writer, for nearly nine 
hundred years after him,, ever ventured to controvert. If Bede could not know 
whence the Picts came, it can hardly be supposed that we should have superior 
means of informatioiL 

Bede was certainly well acquainted with the Britons, or Welsh. Now, although 
it should be supposed that he had been misinformed as to the origin of the Picts, 
his assertion amounts to a full proof that they were quite a different people from 
the former. For had they been Welsh, or indeed Celts of any description, the 
similarity of language could not have entirely escaped his observatioiL If an 
intelligent Highlander can at this day, after a national separation of nearly 
fourteen hundred years, make himself understood by an Irishman, it is totally 
inconceivable that the language of the Picts, if British, should have so &r lost its 
original character in a &r shorter period. 

An attempt has lately been made, by a learned writer, to set aside this testi- 
mony of Bede, who, it is admitted, " was contemporary with the Pictish govern- 
ment'' '' He speaks,'' it is said, *' doubtfully of the Picts, as the second people, 
who came into this island, from Scythia ; first to Ireland ; and thence to North- 
Britain. But though Bede states all this, rather as what he had heard, than as 
what he knew^ his authority has deluded many writers, who did not inquire 
whether what he had said modestly could possibly be true." Caledonia, p. 199, N. 

But why is it said that Bede speaks douhtfuUy, or, as it is afterwards somewhat 
softened, modestly ^ of the Picts ? There can be no other reason for this assertion, 
than that he uses the phrase, ut perhibent. He therefore states all this, rather 
as what he had heard, than as what he knew. Doubtless, he could not know it, 
but by some kind of rdaiion. For, although ** contemporary with the Pictish 
government," it has never been supposed that he could have ocular demonstration 
as to the landing of this people. Is it meant to be objected that Bede does not 
quote his authorities, or that he refers only to traditionary testimony ? In a 
matter of this kind, would it be surprising that he could have referred to nothing 
else ? Viewing it in this light, there is not the least evidence that it was not the 
general belief. Had it been merely the report of some, opposed by a different 
account of the origin of this people, he would in all probability have said, — ut 
nonnulli perhibent. Had he known any argument against this account, one, for 
example, from the diversity of language, would he not naturally have stated thisi 

But must perhibent necessarily be restricted to mere report ? Has it never been 
used to denote historical narration ? Or, as it occurs in the language of Bede, 
may it not rather be viewed as respecting the more circumstantial account which 
follows, concerning the size and number of the ships, — (ut perhibent, longis navibus 
non multis,) than as respecting what precedes, in regard to the migration of the 



Picts fiom Scytlua? It is a singular drcumstaiioe, that Bede uses the very same 
vbA with respect to the chie& of the Anglo-Saxons. ** Duces fuisse perhibeniur 
eorom primi duo fratres Hengist et Hoisa.'' lib. L c. 15. Could Bede be in any 
doubt, whether these were the leaders of his ancestors, little more than 200 years 
before his own time ? 

- If, however, Bede wrote doubtfully ^ how could hia authority ^* delude many 
writers ? * If he indeed mentions this only as a modest opinion, as a matter of 
mero heanay, as a thing about which he was himself in hesitcUion; whence is it, 
that none of these '' many writers,'' during nearly ten centuries, ever adverted to 
this till now ? Were they all, without exception, so very prone to delusion ? This 
18 undoubtedly the conclusion wo are left to deduce. They were so blind as to 
mistake mere dovhl for authority ; and therefore '' they did not inquire whether 
what he had said modestly could possibly be true.'' Here the secret breaks out. 
Bede must necessarily be viewed as writing doubtfully, because he could not pos- 
sibly be writing the truth. For, although neither Bede nor hia followers did 
inqutre, ** we now know, from more accurate examination, that the Picts were cer- 
tainly Galedonians; that the Caledonians were Britons; and that the Britons were 
Gauls : it is the topography of North-Britain, during the second and first cen- 
turies, as it contains a thousand &cts, which solves all these doubts, and settles all 
oontroveisy about the lineage of the Picts.'' Caled. ut sup. 

Although Bede knew somewhat about the names of places in North-Britain, we, 
in the nineteenth century, can form a far more certain judgment : and so powerful 
18 this single aigument from topography, as to invalidate all other evidence arising 
finom direct historical testimony. 

Nranius, who wrote about the year 858, informs us, that " the Picts came and 
oocoiaed the islands called Orkneys, and afterwards, from the adjacent islands 
desolated many laige regions, and took possession of those on the left, Le., the 
north, coast (sinistrali plaga) of Britain, where they remain even to this day." 
" There/' he adds, *' they held the third part of Britain, and hold it even until 
now." Cap. 6. ap. Gale, L 99. 

Mr. Pinkerton has made a remark, the force of which cannot easily be set aside, 
that both Nennius and his coadjutor Samuel " were Welch,'' and that, " therefore, 
their testimony is conclusive tlmt the Piks were not Welch, for they speak of the 
Piks, while the Pildsh name was in full power." Enquiry, II. 161. 

That the Picts were not Welsh, appears also from the testimony of Gildas, an 
earlier British writer, who calls them a trcuismarine nation, who came ab aquilone, 
fiom the north. Ap. Gale, L 1. 

The Saxon Chronicle, which seems to have been begun about the year 1000, per- 
fectly concurs with these testimonies. The account given of the Picts is so simi- 
lar to that of Bede, that it would almost seem to have been copied from his history. 
It is more minute in one point ; as it says that they came, ex australi parte 
Scythiae, ** from the south of Scythia." 

OP THE BcarnsH lanqitaoe. 5 

The northern origin of the Plots seems to have been admitted by Roman writers. 
I shall not urge the well-known testimony of Tacitus, with respect to the striking 
resemblance of the Caledonians to the Germans ; for, notwithstanding the partial- 
ity of former ages for this ancient writer, as an accurate investigator and faithful 
historian, we are now told, that *' Tacittis talked about the origin of the Cale- 
donians and Germans, like a man who was not very skilful in such investigations ; 
and who preferred dedamatum to inquiry." Caled. p. 202, N. 

The testimony of Claudian, who was coeval with the Emperor Valentinian L, 
deserves our attertion. 

-KadoiniBlk Saxone fdio^ 

Omdet. Inealuit Pidomm wngnine Thule. 

€(oodaU, in bis Introduction to. Fordun, observes on thb passage, that although 
the Romans slew the Saxons in the Orkneys, it does not follow that they were 
either the inhabitants of the Orkneys, or of Britain. But one consequence is un- 
avoidable, — ^that even in this early period the Saxons were acquainted with the 
Orkneya Hence, also, it seems highly probable, that they were in a state of 
confederacy with the Picts, as being a kindred race. 

Stillingfleet's reasoning, concerning the testimony of Eiunenius, is very strong. 
*' In his Panegyrick,'' says the Bishop, '' he takes notice of the different state of 
the Britons, when Caesar subdued them, from what they were in Constantius his 
time. 'Then,' saith he, 'they were a rude, half-naked people, and so easily 
vanquished; but now the Britons were exercised by the arms of the Picts and the 
IiisL' Nothing can be plainer, than that Eimienius here distinguishes the Picts 
from the Britons, and supposes them to be enemies to each other. Neither can 
we reasonably think this a name then taken up to distinguish the barbarous 
Britons from the Provincial. For that distinction had now been of a very long 
standing ; and if it had been applied to that purpose, we should have met with it 
in Tacitus, or Dio, or Herodian, or Zozimus, who speak of the Extra-provincial 
Brilains, under no other name but of Britains" Orig. Britann. p. 241. 

It has indeed been said, that ** the Picts of the third century — ^appeared to 
Roman eyes under new aspects, and to the Roman understanding under more for- 
midable shape&'' Caled. p. 215. By the reference to B. I c. 6, the author seems 
to respect " their pecuUar seclusion from the Roman provincials on the south of 
the walk f p. 191. But this gives no sort of satisfaction to the mind, as a reason 
for a new designation. Were they not formerly txtra-provincialy as much as in 
the time of Eumenius ? Did they assume a warlike aspect formerly unobserved ? 
Was not their character, in this respect, abundantly well known to Agricola? The 
idea of Stillingfleet) that the ancient Caledonians, although of Gothic origin, 
were about this time joined by a new colony from the continent, is at least worthy 
of mature consideration. Y. Orig. p. 246. 


Ammianus Marcellinus having said, Pictos Saxonasque, et Soottoa et Attaoottos, 
BritannoB aerumnis vexasse oontinuis ; Goodall observes, that ** it cannot be in- 
Ibrred that the Saxons were Soots or Picts, because these are spoken of as 
d]£forent nationa" But finom the classification observed bj Marcellinus, Pictos 
SaxanoBque^ he seems to have viewed these as only different names given to con- 
tigaous and kindred nations. 

I might refer to the general persuasion of Northern writers, that the Picts were 
OothSb Yidalinus, in his work, De Linguae Septentrionalis AppeUatione, Donsk 
Tunga^ affixed to Gunnlaug. Saga, has cited Torfiieus, Ser. Beg. Dan. p. 200 — ^203 ; 
pQotoppidan, Gest. Dan. T. 2, a 2, pp. 226, 227 ; Schoning, Norveg. Beg. EQst ; 
Toi&eus, Hist. Norv. T. 3, p. 525 ; Bun. Jonas, Element. Ling. Septent. ; 
Bossaeua, Vit. Arii Poljhist a 3, &a V. Gunnlaug. Sag. p. 263. 

But I shall not urge this as an aigiiment ; as it maj be said that these writers 
were all too late to know with certainty the origin of the Plots. While, however, 
we are assured that the Scandinavians were early acquainted with the northern 
parts of our island, and made frequent descents on them, it must appear singular 
indeed, had we reason to believe tiiat they were universally mistaken with respect 
to the origin of the inhabitant& Had they spoken a dialect of the Celtic, it would 
have afforded sufficient evidence that there was no* national affinity with their 

Nor would it be less remarkable, if almost all our own ancient writers had been 
groasly mistaken as to the origin of a people, who make so distinguished a figure 
in our history, and who so long occupied by &r the greatest part of Scotland. 
The general persuasion of the old English writers was the same with theirs. 

Bat the Iramed gentleman, formerly referred to, views every species of evidence 
as of no weight whatsoever, when opposed to that of a topographical kind, arising 
from the names of places in the first and second centuries ; especially as these are 
iband in the work of Ptolemy the Geographer. It was my original intention in 
this preliminary dissertation, to throw together, as briefly as possible, the various 
ciieomstances which indicate the Gothic origin of our ancestors, without entering 
into the wide field of controversy. But however impleasant this task, especially 
with a gentleman whose abilities and indefiitigable industry I am bound to ac- 
knowledge, and who, whatever may be hia mistakes, deserves well of his country 
ftr the pains he has taken to elucidate her ancient history ; yet, I find it in- 
dispensably necessary to investigate the grounds on which he proceeds, as other- 
wise any thing here exhibited, under the notion of argument, might be viewed as 
ahneady invalidated. 

In order to erect or support hia argument, that the Picts were Britons, or the 
same people with the Welsh, and that no language was spoken in Scotland, before 
the introduction of what is called the Scoto-Saxon, save the Celtic ; the learned 
writer finds it necessary to assume certain daJta of a singular description. He 
either takes for granted, or flatters himself that he has proved, that, till a late 


period there were none but Celts in Germany ; that the Roman historians are not 
worthy of credit, in as &r as they insinuate any thing opposed to this hypothesis ; 
that the Goths were different fit>m the Scjrthians ; that the Belgic was merely a 
dialect of ihe Celtic ; and that the stone monuments to be found in Britain were 
all constructed by Celts. 

He assumes, that there were none but Celts in Germany, till a late period. 
He does not, indeed, fix the time of the first migration of the Groths into that 
country ; but seems to think that it was scarcely prior to the Christian era. For,~ 
as far as I can perceive, the only proof which he appeals to, is that of there being 
" only two tongues (except the Greek) heard on the western side of the Euxine, 
the Getic and the Sarmatic," when Ovid was banished to Tomi by Augustus. 
6at» l)ecause there was a body of Goths at this time residing on the Euxine, it 
cannot amount to a proof that none of this race had previously settled in Germany, 
or in the northern countries. The Suem^ who certainly were not Celts, were in- 
habitants of Germany in the time of Julius Caesar, possessing the country now 
called Mecklenburg, and some neighbouring districts. The Cirnhri extended to the 
Baltia By many, indeed, they have been viewed as Celta But the writers of 
the Universal History, whom Mr. Chalmers often quotes with respect, observe on 
this head — " The learned Grotius, and after him Sheringham, and most of the 
northern writers, maintain, with arguments which have not yet been confuted^ that 
the Cimbrians, Getes, and Goths were one and the same nation ; that Scandinavia 
was first peopled by them, and that from thence they sent colonies into the islands 
of the Baltic, the Chersonesus, and the adjacent places, yet destitute of in- 
habitants." YoL XIX. 254. 

A very able and learned writer, who has paid particular attention to the subject, 
contends that ** the Cimbri, who, in conjunction with the Teutones, invaded Italy, 
and were defeated by Marius,'' were Goths. '' The country," he says, *' whence 
they proceeded, their close alliance with a Gothic tribe, and the description given 
of them by the Greek and Latin historians, who appear to have considered them 
of .the same race with the Teutones, clearly prove them to have been of German 
origin. (Flut in Mario ; Livy, Epit. L. 68 ; Percy's Preface to Mallet's North. 
Antiq. p. 38 ; Mallet, Vol I. 32.) To these considerations it may be added, that 
the name of their leader, BoiioriXf is evidently of Gothic structure ; and that 
Tacitus, who, in his description of Germany, particularly and expressly marks the 
few tribes who appeared not to be Germans, is entirely silent respecting the Celtic 
origin of the Cimbri ; and in his account points out no difference between them 
and the other inhabitants. Tacit Germ. 37." Edin« Rev. for July, 1803, p. 367, 

The Suiones have never been viewed as Celts, but generally acknowledged as 
the more immediate ancestors of the Swedes, although some say of the Danes. 
The Sitones, also a Scandinavian nation, were settled in these northern regions 
before the time of Tacitus. Caesar testifies that the Teutones and Cimbri, before 


Ilia tone, patrum nostrcrum memaria, after harassing all Gaul, had attempted to 
enter into the territories of the Belgae. GalL Lib. iL a 4. 

But ivhen ancient writers insinuate any thing unfavourable to our author's 
hypotheos^ he refuses to give them credit. We have seen with what fi^edom 
Tactfcos 18 treated on another point. Here he meets with the same treatment, 
although in good company. '' When J. Caesar and Tacitus speak of Celtic 
qolonies proceeding from Gaul into Germany, they only confound those recent 
ooloniea with the ancient people, who appear to have been unknown to those cele- 
bsated writera Strabo, who was not well informed with regard to Western 
Europe, acquaints us, indeed, that the Daci ab antiquo, of old, lived towards Ger- 
many^ around the fountains of the Danube. VoL I. 446. If his notion of 
antiquity extended to the age of Herodotus, we might learn from the fioither of 
Idstoiy that the Danube had its sfMrings among the Celtae.'' Caled. p. 15, N. 

fiespectaUe as the testimony of Herodotus is, it cannot, in this instance, be pre- 
ftnoed to that of Strabo; for it is evident that he knew very Uttle of the Celts, and 
this only by report. The accurate and intelligent Rennell does not lay much 
stress on the passage referred ta " Our author,'' he says, ** had heard of the 
Geltaa^ who lived beyond the columns of Hercules, and bordered on the Cynesiae 
orCynetae, the most remote of all the nations who inhabited the western parts 
of Europe. — ^Who the latter were intended for, we know not." Geog. Syst. of 
Herod pi 41, 42. 

IF the andent inhabitants of Germany were unknoum to Caesar and Tacitus, 
with what consistency is it said, only in the page immediately preceding, where 
the writer speaks of Mascou's work on the ancient Germans, that '* the Gothic 
people,** whom he " considers as the first settlers of his country,— obviously 
came in on the Celtic aborigines ; as we learn from J. Caesar and Tacitus f " 
Galed. p. 14, N. Could these celebrated writers acknowledge the Celts as abori- 
gineB» although " the ancient people " who inhabited Germany, *' appear to have 
been unknown to" them ? 

He also takes it for granted, that the Goths were a different people from the 

'^Eveiy inquiiy,'' he observes, *' tends to demonstrate that the tribes who 
originally came into Europe by the Hellespont, were remarkably different, in their 
persons, thdr manners, and their language, fix>m those people who in after ages 
migrated from Asia, by the more devious course, around the northern extremities 
of the Euzine, and its kindred lake. This striking variety must for ever evince 
the difference between the Gothic and the Scythian hordes, however they may have 
been confounded by the inaccuracy of some writers, or by the design of others." 
Bad. p. 12. 

This assertion seems to have at least the merit of novelty. It is probably 
hasarded by our author, because he wishes it to appear that the Goths did not 
enter Europe so early as he finds the Scythians did ; and also, that the former were 

f . 



. never so powerful a race as to be able to people a great part of Europe. But we 
need not spend time on it ; as this passage contains all the proof that is exhibited. 
I shall onlj add, that» according to Rennell, the Scjrthia of Herodotus answers 
generally to the TTkraine, — " its first river on the west being the Danube/' Geog. 
Syst p. SO. Our author admits, that, during the fifth century before our common 
era» the Goths " inhabited the western shores of the Euxine, on the south of the 
Danube.'' Galed. p. 12, 18. He places them so nearly on the same spot with 
Herodotus, that he cannot easily prove that those whom he calls Goths, were 
not the same people whom " the father of history " calls Scythians. 

The accurate Reviewer, formerly quoted, has shewn that, according to Diodorus 
Siculus, the Scythians settled beyond the Tanais, on the Borders of Thrace, before 
the time of Sesostris, who, it is supposed, flourished about 1400 A.C. Hence he 
considers the opinion, independently of its direct evidence, that " 500 A.C., they 
had advanced to the western extremity of Gaul, as by no means absurd or impro- 
bable." Edin. Bev. ta sup. p. 358. 

He afterwards shews, that Strabo (Lib. viL p. 295, Causab.) " evidently con- 
siders the Getae as a Scythian tribe ; " adding, '' Pliny says, * From the Borys- 
thenes, over the whole adjoining country, all are Scythian nations, different tribes 
of whom dwell near its banks : in one part the Oetae, whom the Bomans call the 
JDaci.' Hist Nat. Lib. iv. a 12. Zamolxis is mentioned by Herodotus, Help. 
p. 289 ; and by Strabo [ut supj] as worshipped by the Getae ; and the authors of 
the EtymoL Mag., and Suidas, (in voc. Zamolxis) imderstand the Getae of Hero- 
dotus, whom they quote, to be Scythians. '^ Ibid. p. 359. 

Perhaps the strangest foundation of Mr. C.'s theory, is his opinion with respect 
to the lang^uage of the Belgae. He is well aware, that, if it appear from ancient 
history that their speech was Grothic, hia whole &bric must fall to the groimd ; 
because it is undeniable that Bel^c colonies were settled in Britain before the in- 
vasion by Julius Caesar. To me, the existence of the Belgae in Britain, when it 
was first visited by the Bomans, had always appeared an irrefragable proof that 
the Gothic language was very early spoken, if not in the northern, at least in the 
southern, parts of our island; and of itself a strong presumption that it was pretty 
generally extended along the eastern coast. But our author boldly cuts the 
Ghirdian knot ; finding it easier, doubtless, to do so than to loose it. 

•* The British Belgae," he says, " were of a Celtic lineage." " This inquiry, 

with regard both to the lineage and colonization of the Belgae in Britain, has 

arisen by inference, rather than by direct information, fix>m J. Caesar, when he 

speaks of the Belgae as occupying one third of Gaul, and as using a different 

tongue fit>m the other Gauls. De BeL Gal. L L c. 1. Yet, from the intimations 

of Livy and Strabo, Pliny and Lucan, we may infer that J. Caesar meant dialect ^ 

when he spoke of language. He ought to be allowed to explain his own meaning 

by his context. He afterwards says, * that the Belgae were chiefly descended 

fiK>m the Germans ; and, passing the Rhine, in ancient times, seized the nearest 




oonntiy of the Gauls.' Ibid. lib. iL a 4. But Germanj, as we have seen, was 
possessed bjr the Celtaa, in ancient iimes^ kc Caled. p. 16. N. 

It IS evident that the learned writer, notwithstanding the force of historical evi- 
dence to the eontraxy, is extremely unwilling to admit any distinct migration of 
the Belgae to Britun. For he adds — ''It is even probable, that the Belgae of Kent 
(Cantab J may have obtained finom their neighbours the Belgae of Gaul, their Gaelic 
lOune; and even derived such a tincture from their intercourse, both in their 
qMech and in their habits, as to appear to the undistinguishing eyes of strangers, 
to be ^a daub^iU descent.*! 

It is asserted that Caesar gives no direct ir^armaiion as to the Belgae using a 
di£forent tongue from the other Gauls. He does not, indeed, give any information 
of this kind. For, although he uses the common name for the country into which 
the Belgae had forced their way, calling it ChLllia, he expressly distinguishes them 
from the Gauls. With respect to the difference of the language of this different 
people, he gives the most direct information. So little ground is there for the 
most remote idea that he meant only a peculiar dialect, that he uses all those dis- 
tinguishing modes of eiq^ression, which could be deemed necessary for characterizing 
a di£Eerent race. He marks this difference, not merely in language, but in customs 
and lawa '' Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt." lib. Lai. 
After the lapse of many centuries, every traveller observes the strong attachment 
of the Celts, not only to their language, but to their customs ; and can it be sup- 
posed that they were so thoroughly changed by residing a few centuries in Belgium, 
although surrounded by kindred tribes? C&iesar does not speak like a man who 
was only throwing out a vague opinion. For he elsewhere informs us, that in 
consequence of particular inquiry, which he personally made at the deputies of the 
Bhemi, who of the Belgae were most contiguous to Gaul, " he found that the 
greatest part of the Belgae were sprung from the Germans, and that they had 
anciently crossed the Khine, and taken up their abode there because of the fertility 
of the country, and expelled the Gauls who inhabited these places.'' lib. iL c. 4. 

Is it not evident fix>m this language, that not only Caesar considered the Gauls as 
a difEerent race from the Germans, but that these deputies also were fully persuaded 
of the same thing ? Had they known, or even suspected, that the inhabitants of 
Germany were originally the same people with the Gauls, would they not naturally 
have said that they had sprung from the Gauh ofOermany^ and not from those of 
Qallia? Does not the term artos properly refer to the people or kindred, and not 
to any former place of residence ? 

If a single doubt can remain with respect to the certainty of the migration of 
the Belgae to Britain, after it had been possessed by the Celts, it must be removed 
by attending to what the same historian says in another place. ** The interior part 
6[ Britain is inhabited by those who, according to tradition, were the aborigines ; 
ihe maritime parts, by those who, for the sake of war and spoil, passed over from 
Belgia, who are almost all denominated from these States from which they had 


their origin ; and who began to cultivate the lands which they had conquered. 
The number of men is infinite/' Sec lib. ▼. a 12. 

An attempt is made to avoid the force of Gaesar's testimony concerning the 
origin of the Belgae from the Germans, when it is said, ** But Germany, as we 
have seen, was possessed by the Celtae in ancient times.'' This, however, is fidrly 
to beg the question. Mr. Chahners may persuade himself that he has seen this ; 
but, to others, the proof must appear extremely deficient. Although Gaesar asserts 
that the Belgae difiered icom the Celts in language, customs, and laws ; yet we 
must believe that he meant nothing more than that there was some slight difier- 
ence in dialect. Although he asserts that they were mostly sprung fi:x>m the 
Germans, we must believe that by them he either meant Gauls, or was not ac- 
quainted with his subject. The reader may take his choice ; for, in the course of 
two pages, both these assertions are made. 

The Reamed gentleman seems, indeed, to have overlooked an historical &ct of 
the greatest importance in this inquiry, which has been statedrin the clearest light 
by a well-informed writer, to whom I have had occasion to refer more than once. 
Iliis respects the application of the name Cdts, as used by ancient historiana 

''The Greek authors appear to use KcXrunp and r«xar«4a, and the corresponding names 
of the inhabitants, as strictly synonymous : they apply them sometimes to Gaul in 
general ; at other times the context proves that they are used in their original 
sense. But Belgic Gfaul and its inhabitants are most fi:^uently denoted by the 
words KffXricif and K<Xr«c The Belgae appear to have attracted most of the attention 
of these historians ; and their description of them is so uniform and accurate, that 
no doubt can be entertained that they mean the Belgic Gauls, although they call them 
KtXnu. Strabo, speaking of the inhabitants of Britain, says, 'The men are taller 
than the Gauls {tu^KmXtw)^ and their hair less yellow.' Lib. iv. p. 194, 200. In his 
description of Germany, 'Immediately beyond the Rhine, to the east of the Celts, 
the Germans live, differing little fix>m the Celtic race (nw KcXrucot), in their savageness, 
tallness, and yellowness of hair ; and with respect to features, customs, and modes 
of life, very like the Gauls (rmn KcXrvvt), whom we have already described : wherefore 
it is our opinion, that the Romans have given them very properly the name Oer- 
mani, implying the common origin of the Gauls {rmxarmr) and them.' Lib. vii. 
p. 290. The faithfulness and exact information of this author are well known ; 
we may, therefore, consider hi? description of the Gauls as accurate ; but it will 
apply only to the German or Belgic Gauls. Yellow or red hair distinguished a 
German tribe. There was no resemblance between the Celts and Germans. Dio- 
dorus Siculus gives a very particular description of Gaul {vaUraui, KcXm^) ; and it is 
evident that these terms are frequently employed, when he is speaking of that 
part which Caesar, from whom he has taken his description, says was inhabited by 
the Belgae. He also expressly says, — * The Gauls (r«x«nw) are tall, fair skinned, 
and naturally yellow haired.' Lib. v. p. 212. Polybius, our author asserts, de- 
scribes the Gauls who pillaged Rome under Brennus, as Celts : he certainly calls 


them Celts (rflXMM, %txrm) ; but his enumeration and description of their different 
tribes pat it beyond a doubt that they were German Gauls. He particularly 
names and describes the Yeneti, Semnones, and BoiL Lib. iL p. 42, Edit. Bas. 
1S49. We have the express testimony of Strabo, that the first were German 
Gaols, lib. iy, p. 194; and the others are enumerated by Tacitus among the tribes 
of Germany ; Tacit Germ, a 38, 39. It may be objected, that Polybius mentions 
the Gauls as coming from a country veiy remote firom any assigned to them by 
Tacitus and Strabo. But, in the time of the first historian, the Romans were 
entirely ignorant of Germany, and knew very little of Transalpine Gaul, and 
therefore could not mention the names or situation of the countiy whence the 
inyaders originally came. Polybius says, they proceeded into Italy from the ad- 
jcnning territoiy on the north : this would be directly on their route from Germany : 
and as they had mcst probably occupied it for some time, Polybius, both from this 
oocamstance and his want of information, would consider it as their original or 
permanent residence. Longolius, in his edition of Taciti Germama^ shews that the 
appellations, Semnones and Boii, are evidently derived firom the Gothic, and par- 
tkulazly applicable to the situation and manners of those tribea Tacit. Germ, 
edit. LongoL a 38, 89. . F^usanias calls both the Celtic and Belgic inhabitants 
of Gaul, FoUm and KaXrm ; but as his authority is less important, and his descrip- 
tions.not so full and definite, we shall only refer to him. Pausanias, Lib. i p. 16, 
62, 66 ; lib. z. p. 644, &a Edit. Sylbur. Hanov. 1613. 

** It is still more evident that the terms Gallia and Galli are fi:^uently employed 
by the Latin authors, when their observations and descriptions are applicable only 
to Belgic Gaul and its inhabitants. We need not illustrate this point by the 
examination of any particular passages, as it is generally admitted, and easily 
im>ved'' Edin. Bev. ut sup. pp. 366, 367. 

But the assumptions of the learned writer, which we have considered, are merely 
preparatoiy to the ehfmological evidence fix>m Topography, which he views as 
an irrefineigable proof oi his hypothesia We shall first advert to what is said in 
Older to shew that the Belgae were Celts. 

'* The topography of the five Belgic tribes of Southern Britain,** he observes, 
** has been accurately viewed by a competent surveyor, [Whitaker, Genuine Hist, 
of Britons, pp. 83 — 145.] and the names of their waters, of their head-lands, and 
of their towns, have bmn found, by his inquisitive inspection, to be only signifi- 
cant in the Celtic tongue.** Caled. p. 16. 

Gandour requires that it should be admitted, that the Celtic dialects seem to 
excel the Gothic in expressive names of a topographical kind. The Celts have 
undoubtedly discovered greater warmth of fSmcy, and a more natural vein for 
poetical description, than the Gothic or Teutonic bibes. Their nomenclatures are, 
as it were, pictures of the countries which they inhabit. But at the same time, 
their explanations must be viewed with reserve, not only because of the vivid 
character of their imagination, but on account of the extreme ductility of their 

or 1!HB fiOOmSH LANQXTAQE. 18 

language, which, from the great changes which it admits in a state of construction, 
has a far more ample range than any of the Gothic dialects. Hence, an ingenious 
Gelt, without the appearance of much violence, could derive almost any word from 
his mother-tongue. Our author has very properly referred to Bullet's Diction- 
naire, in proof of ** the great variety of the Geltic tongue ; ** Caled. p. 221. For, 
any one who consults that work, must see what uncertain ground he treads on 
in the pursuit of Geltic etymons. 

The learned gentleman asserts, that the names in the five Belgic provinces of 
South Britain are "only significant in the Geltic tongue.'' I dare not pretend to 
say that I can give the true meaning of any of them in another language ; be- 
cause there is little more than conjecture on either side. But if it can be proved, 
that they may have a ognification in the Gothic or Teutonic, as well as in the 
Geltio— and one at least frdly as probable — ^this argument must appear incon- 

''The Belgic Cantos^ in Kent," he says, ''derived their significant name from 
the districts which they inhabited ; being the British Caint, signifying the open 
country.'' This observation he applies, and it must apply equally well, to " the 
Cantae in North Britain ; " p. 17. By the way, it may be observed, that this is 
a description of which our author seems peculiarly fond ; although it is of a veiy 
general nature. For, as he says, p. 201, that the Picts received from the British 
provincials the descriptive appellation of PeithtVf which " denoted the people of 
the open country;'' in the very same page, explaining Venta, the name of a totm, 
he derives it from " British gwent, which, in composition, is went, signifying tfie 
open country." This also shews the flexibility of the language ; as the same word 
may be either caint, gwent, or went. But might not the Cantae receive their 
name fit>m Alem. and Germ, hant, an extremity, a comer ; maigo, extremitas, 
angulus? Does not this more particularly describe the situation ? Schilter, I 
find, va Kant, has made the same observation which had occurred to me. He 
refers to Gaesar, who indeed describes Kent, as if he had viewed the name as de- 
scriptive of its situation ; Gujus unum latus est contra GaUiam : hujus latens alter 
angulua—^iBk ad Gantium. BelL GralL lib. v. 13. It is also fiu: more descriptive, 
than Brit, gwent, of the situation of the Cantae in North Britain, who iohabited 
the East of Ross-shire ; and whose country, as our author observes, p. 66, " ran 
out eastward into the namm paint " now called Tarbet-ness. There is at least 
one river in Kent, the name of which is not British. This is the Medway, A.-S. 
Medtoaege, Le. the river which runs through the middle of the country, or holds the 
mid way. It is probable that this was the Belg. name, which the A. -Saxons re- 
tained, because the Welsh call Maidstone, Caer Medwag, le., the city on Medway. 
y. Gamden. The term Waeg or way appears indeed in the name given to it in 
the Itinerary of Antonine, Vagniacas. 

Mr. Ghalmers derives the name of the Thames finom Brit. Taw, Tarn, &c., " sig- 
nifying what expands or spreads, or what is calm." This river, which is one of 


the boundaries of Kent^ lias also been explained as significant in a QoHl dialect^ 
by a writer wbo bad no interest in tbe present question. " There are two riyers 
m England,'' be says, *'of which the one is veiy rapid, and is called Tif-ur, whence 
at f|^ praeoeps ire : the other Temsa^ which is almost stagnate, whence at temsa.*' 
He expbuns eg tems-a, paululum moveor. G. Andr. p. 237. 

In Kent, according to Antonine's Itineraiy, three towns have Dur as the initial 
ajQable ; Duravemum, Durolenum, and Durobrivi, or, as Camden says, more cor- 
nodj, Durobnvae. Dur, it has been said, in British and Irish, signifies, water ; 
Gsled. p. 17, N. But the idea is too general and indefinite, to have given rise to 
so many names as, in different counties, exhibit this as a component term ; as 
BataTO<{tf«t«m, a Belgic town, now Durstede, &a Schilter has observed, that, in 
oompoaition, it signifies a door or mouth, ostium. Now, although the word occurs 
in Celtic compositions, it seems originally Teutonic. The primary idea is janua, a 
ifoor, which sense it still retains in almost all the dialects of this language. Brit. 
dor baa tbe same meaning. But the Tout, term is &r more general 

Tbe Regni of Sussex were another Belgic tribe. Baxter says, that Ptolemy 
wrote Regni for Bend; and derives the name firom C. B. rheng, quivis longus ordo, 
as fying along the coast. He admits that Belg. renc has the same meaning, ordo, 
series ; also flexus, flexib viarum, &a ; Eilian. It has therefore at least an equal 
daim with the BritisL The only city mentioned by Ptolemy in this district is 
Ncuiomague. Magus, according to Wachter, is a Celtic word signifying a field, 
also a colony or town in a field. It firequently occurs in the composition of con- 
tinental names, en being used for the Latin termination lis. But, although magus 
should be originally Celtic, the name seems to have been formed by a Teutonic 
people, nauio being evidently Tout, nteuw, new. C. B. newydd is synon., but more 
lemota This name is the veiy same with the ancient one of Nimeguen^ Tout. 
Nieuwmegen. This is Noviomagus, Le. the new colony or town. 

The proper Belgae possessed at least part of Somersetshire, besides Hampshire 
and Wilt^iire. Bath was the Badiza, or, as Baxter reads, the Badixa of 
Stepbanus. This the British call Caer hadon. But it is evident, that the name 
IB not Brit, but Belg. Germ. Franc. Belg. bad, A.-S. baeth, Alem. jxid, balneum; 
Alem. Frana had^n, Germ, bad-^n, A.-S. baethr-an, lavare. Ptolemy mentions 
VuUa aestuarium, which, Camden says, is now called JSud-mouth. Now Goth. 
M signifies the mouth of a river. Thus Uzdla would seem exactly to correspond 
to the modem name ; q. os-euel, the mouth of the Euel. To this day, Oyse in 
Shetland, where the Celtic never entered, signifies " an inlet of the sea f Brand's 
Descr. p. 70. 

As the names of many of the Belgic towns end in Dun or Dinum, Mr. Chalmers 
attempts to shew that the Belgae must have been Celts, because ** Dunum and 
Binum are the latinized form of Dun, and Din, which, in the British and Irish, 
as wdl as in the ancient Gothic, signify a fortified place ;" Caled. p. 17, N. But, 
if dun has this signification in the ancient Gothic, the argument proves nothing. 



From what he has stated, the presumption is that it was originally a Goth, and 
not a Celt. term. For, as he says, that " Dunum is the name of the chief town 
of the Caud in Ireland, which is asserted to be a Belgic tribe f it is questionable 
if any of the other towns, having this termination, were Celtic. Landinum and 
Camdodunum were Belgic towns, being situated in the territories of the Tiino- 
Tantes. Mdridunum, according to Baxter, who reads Margidunum^ is from Tout. 
maergr, marl, which is copiously found in the neighbourhood, and dun^ town. He 
says that, in the modem British, mer signifies medulla. But in the old Brit the 
term for marl is the same with that now used in EnglisL It may be added, that 
Gerin. duUf as signifying civitas, urbs, is only the term, properly signifying an 
indosure, locus septus, used in a secondaiy sense. It is derived firom <yn-en, sepire. 
V. Wachter, vo. Dun. 

It has been asserted, that '' there is a radical di£brenoe in the formation of the 
Celtic and Gothic names, which furnishes the most decisive test for discriminating 
the one language ftom, the other in topographic disquisitions ; and even in the 
construction of the two tongues : such vocables as are pr^ixed in the formation 
of the British and Gaelic names, are constantly affixed in the composition of the 
Gothic, the Saxon, and English names. — ^Those tests are so decisive, as to give 
the means of discriminating the Celtic from the Saxon or Gothic names, when the 
form of the vocables compounded are nearly the same.'' Caled. p. 49 1. Without 
disputing the propriety of this position, it is suflScient to observe that, if this be 
JO decisive a test^ although the names of places terminating in Dan, Dunum^ &c., 
are elsewhere (p. 17.) claimed as Celtic, it must be evident that the daim is un- 
just. Landinum^ Vindonum, MUsidunum, Camdodunum, Rigadunum, Mari- 
cliiniim, &a, must all be Gothic names. 

It is a strong assertion, which the feamed writer has made, that ** the topogra- 
phy of Scotland, during the first two centuries of our common era contains not 

a particle of Gothicism f p. 231. **The Camabii, Damnii, and Cantae, of Scotland 
are granted to have been Belgic tribes ;" Ibid. pp. 16, 17, N. The Camabii, or, 
with greater approximation to the orthography of Ptolemy, Camabii, have been 
supposed to receive their name from the three great promontories which they 
possessed in Caithness, Noss-Head, Duncansby-Head, and the Dunnet-Head. 
For com, in Brit, is said to signify a promontory. But the name might be derived, 
in the same sense, from Belg. koer, specula, a watch-tower, and nebbe, a promon- 
tory ; q. the people who looked attentively from the promontories^ Or, if it 
should be Camabii, it may be firom O. GotL kar, a man, whence Su.-G. karl, A.-S. 
ceorl, id. Y. Karl, Ihre, and Yerel. Ind. This most probably gives us the origin 
of a number of names beginning with Car, which Mr. Pinkerton has mentioned, 
without adverting to the use of the term in Gothic (Enquiry, I. 226.) ; as the 
Coreni and Camonacae of Scotland, the Carini of ancient Germany, the Carbilesi 
and Carbiletae of Thrace, the Cami, ko. &a The latter part of the word may be 
firom Nabaei or Navaia, the river Navem. Virvedr-um, Duncansby-head, may 
be composed of IsL ver, ora; and vedr, tempestas, q. the stormy coast. 



OoooeRung Berubium, Noss-liead, it has been aaid, that '* the word Bery would 
■eem to have been a common appellation to such places, as Dungisbaj Head, at those 
times [when Ptolemj wrote]. At this day a similar promontory in the island of 
Walk in Orkney, is termed the Bery. The word is dearly of Norwegian deriva- 
tion. It signifies a place of observation ; or a prindpol station for discovering 
the approach of an enemy by sea, when at a great distance.'' P. Ganisbay, Statist. 
Aoa viiL 163. By mistake, however, the writer applies the name Berubium to 
Ddngisbay Head. He says, that " there is not a place throughout the parish, 
whose name indicates the least affinity to '' the Gaelic. Tarvedr-um may be from 
taer-a, atterere, and tedr, tempestas ; the promontory where the storm rends or 
letBTi ships. 

We have already adverted to the meaning of the name Cantae. In the 
tenitory of this tribe was the Vara Aestuarium^ or Murray Frith, into which runs 
the liver Beaulie, andently called Farar. Id. vara, voer in Genit. i;arar, signifies 
ca^ portus, a harbour, ubi appellant naves ; G. Andr. p. 247. Loxa, the name 
given fay Ptolemy to the Murray Frith, may be allied to IsL loha^ a small harbour, 
porta parva ; YereL These etymons have at least as much probability as those of 
Baxter; who deduces Varar fix>m G. B. guHir ar isc, maris coUum, the neck of the 
sea^ and Loxa fcom ad osc, supercilium aquae, the brow of the water. Mr 
•CShalmers says, that the latter '* obvioudy derived its name— — firom the British 
Llw^ with a foreign termination, signifying an inlet of the sea, or collection of 
water;" p. 66, N. But the Goth, dialects exhibit this word with &r greater 
variety oi use ; Su.-G. A.-S. Alem. log, laga, a lake ; Id log, laug, lug, a sea, a 
ocDeotion of waters ; Su.-G. loeg-a, profluente unda vd mare se proluere; Id log- 
aet, fluvium vel aquam tranare ; Alem. louche, coUectio aquarum, &a, kc 

He thinks that the Catini, whose name is retained in Caithness, " probably de- 
rived their appdlation fix>m the British name of the weapon, the Cat, or Catai, 
wherewith they fought,'' q. clubmen ; p. 67. But the CoJteia was a weapon of 
iheandent Crermans. If the testimony of Virgil merits regard, it belonged not 
to a Cdtic but to a Teutonic people. 

Tmdomeo riia •oliti toiqa«ra mMm. ifin. liK TiL 

For this reason, the CaJteia was also called Teutona. Hence Aelfiric in his A.-S. 
6L says. Clava vel Catda, vel Teutona, annes cynnes gesceot, Le., '' a javeline of 
the same kind." Servius informs us, that spears were called Cateiae in the 
Teutonic language. Wachter says ; '* It is properly a javelin, denominated firom 
iaU-en, Le., because of its being thrown,^ 

This etymon pretty clearly indicates that they were Belgae. They might per- 
haps be the same people with the Catti, a German nation mentioned by Tacitus. 
Their name, according to Wachter, signifies warlike, fix)m the Celt, word cat, war. 

In the specimens which our author has given of the names of Promontories, 


Biyers, &a, in North Britain, it is granted that many are undoubtedly Celtia It 
IS not, howerer, a satisfitctoiy proof of the British origin of the Plots, that many 
British names are yet retained in the oountry which they possessed For, while 
it is said that the Scoto-Saxon afterwanls prevailed over the Gaelic, it is admitted 
that the Celtic names of places, whether British or Gaelic, still kept their 
ground. It is also well known, that in various parts of England, where the de* 
scendants of the Anglo-Saxons have resided for upwards of thirteen centuries, the 
names of some rivers and mountains are still BritisL Lhuyd even goes so fiir as 
to assert that the names of different rivers are neither Welsh nor Armorican, but of 
Irish or Gaelic origin : whence he infers, that those who now speak the Irish 
language, possessed the southern parts of Britain before the Welsh, and that the 
latter were only a secondary colony from GauL Now, if this be the case as to the 
Welsh, who have possessed that countiy for nearly two thousand years, might 
not the same thing happen in the northern part of the island ? V. Lhuyd's Lett 
to the Welsh, Transl, pp. 12, 17. 

The very same process passes before our own eyes. Do not the British settlers 
in America very generally retain the Indian names of rivers, bays, mountains, 
villages, &c. May it therefore be justly inferred, a thousand years hence, that 
the British were an Indian people ? 

The author of Caledonia observes, p. 221, — '* In the subsequent progress of the 
Gothic tribes over Europe, wherever they occupied countries which had been 
previously occupied by the Celts, the Gothic intruders not only adopted the names 
of the rivers, mountains, and other places, that the more lively genius of the Celts 
had imposed, fin>m a more energetic a]id descriptive speech ; but, the Gothic col- 
onists borrowed many terms from the more opulent language of their Celtic pre- 
decessors. — ^The Saxons, who settled in Britain, were prompted, by the poverty of 
their speech, to follow the example of their Gothic &thers.'' 

Is not this sufficient to invalidate the aigument in favour of the British origin 
of the Picts ? K Goths, it is natural to suppose that, like the rest of their 
brethren,, they would retain the Celtic names. 

This assertion, however, must not be carried too &r. For, notwithstanding the 
concession frequently made by Schilter and Wachter, that words retained in 
Germany, to which they could not assign a Gothic origin, are Celtic ; other learn- 
ed writers have viewed the matter in a different light. Leibnitz concludes, from 
Boxhom's Brit. Diet, that the Welsh have borrowed a great deal from the 
German. Oper. YoL lY. P. I. Hist, p. 193. The truth seems to be, as Ihre 
candidly acknowledges, that some of the most ancient and primitive terms, 
common to the Gothic and Celtic dialects, are so nearly allied, that it is impossible 
to determine with certainty to which of them they have originally belonged. 

Many of the words, indeed, which the learned writer has selected as exclusively 
British, appear in the GotL dialects. Cove^ it is said, signifies a creek, from C. B. 
oof, a hollow trunk, a cavity, a belly. But A.-S. co/e, IsL and Germ, kqfe, seem to 


give the proper sexiBe ; spelunca^ a care. CoM-harbour« (Si. Tigeans, P. For&rs.) 
IB mentiiffied as confirming the other sense. But its proper name is East-haven. 
The cove$ in its Yicinitj are not creeks, but caves. Kyle, p. 34, a strait, is not 
oonfioed to Celt. V. Diet, in* vo. Heugh, p. 85, a height on the sea-coast, is traced 
to C. R tidl,high, kc But the term isstricdj Goth. Y. Diet The words hav- 
ing pofi, a harbour; in their composition, are veiy oddly claimed as C. B. Forth, 
it said, p. 86, N., is merely C. R porlh, a haven, being " the great haven of 
Edinbuigh.'' Far more accurately might it be deduced from IsL Jiord, Su.-G. 
Jiaerd, a firUu But more probably the fiith took the name of the river, a name 
which it bears &r above Stirling. There is no necessity that Ram, as signifying 
a pointy in a variety of names (p. 86,) should be traced to ram, high, or in C. B. 
what projects. Su.-G. and Germ, ram will answer fully as well ; era, margo ; 
terminus. Rin, Rynd, Rhind, denoting a point, may be all traced to IsL rind-a 
protrodo, whence rirhdrung, protrusio ; or may be the same with Alem. rin, ter- 
nanus^ limes, finis, fin>m rin-^n, separare. Ross, a promontory, p. 37, may be 
allied to Tout, raetse, rootse, rapes, petra, sive mens praeruptus ; Franc, raz, id. 
Although C. R trwyn signifies a nose, a snout, and Corn, tron, a nose, a promon- 
taiy, tiu7 BeemoriginaUy the same mfch M. triona, rostrum porrectum. 

Among the Rivers, &c, p. 37, the first mentioned are White Adder and Black 
Adder, the term being traced to C. B. aweddur, running water. But although 
written^ in some of the Statist. Accounts, Whittocler and Whittoter, the vulgar 
pronunciation is merely given. In four instances, where the first of these deno- 
minations is explained, it is resolved, as all the South of Scotland knows it ought 
to be, into White water. Allen, Alwen, JSlmn, and Aln, p. 38, are claimed as of 
SMt. Qiigin. Alem. eUende denotes impetus, firom dUen, festinare. Sw. elf, how- 
ever, signifies a river ; in its inflected form, elfwen or elven. Hence, as has been 
supposed, the Etb in Germany, Lat. AJb-is. Air is traced to C. B. air, brightness, 
or aer, violence. Ld. aer, corresponds to the latter, furious ; aerast, to rage, a.eT-a, 
to raise to fiuy. Avon, a river, may be allied to Su.-G. aa, water in general, 
a river, which assumes the inflected form of aan. Y. Budbeck. Atlant., IL 52. 
^Btxnnocbum does not appear to be a dimin. firom GaeL ban, as in p. 39, but a 
Goth, name : Y. Bannock in Diet. BeUo (C. R bellaw, a tumultuous raging 
stream) ; laL heiOra, to* be driven with noise, and aa, water. The name Bran (O. 
Gael a stream, C. B. what rises over, p. 39, may originate firom its lucidity ; 
Germ, hramd, dear, bright. 

• The rivers which have the name Colder, are derived firom Brit, caleddur, the 
hard water, or ceVrdwr, Ir. coUUdur, the woody water, p. 40. The latter is most 
natural ; because, when this name was given, it must be supposed that the coimtry 
was almost one wood, IsL haelda signifies an impure spring of water, or living 
water in putrid and marshy ground; Y. G. Andr. The Dean (p. 41) might 
properly enough be traced to Germ, dien-en, humiliare, as it is a veiy flat stream, 
that creeps along through Strathmore ; as den, a small dale, seems to acknowledge 


the same origin, q. locus depressus. Dan and Doan^ derived firom C. B. down, Ir. 
dan, dark, dus^, or dautn, deep, may be firom Goth, cfcm-a, strepere, to make a 
noise. Eden (deduced firom C. B. eddain, a gliding stream, p. 43), might be 
traced to A.*S. ea, water, a river, and den, a vale. The veiy prevalent name of 
£Jk, notwithstanding its evident affinity to O. GauL esc, wysc, C. B. toysg, la ecuc, 
uisg, water, a stream, a river, cannot reasonably disclaim all Goth, affinity. For 
IsL WCL98 is the genitive of wcUtn, water, G. Andr., pp. 248, 249, the form of which 
is retained in Germ, vxxeser, aqua, fluvius. Wachter observes that Belg. esch 
or €uch denotes a stream. This he indeed views as formed fix)m Celt. isca. 
But this is at least very doubtfiil ; for this good reason, that the Goth, dialects 
retain the obvious origin of the name for water, as well as the primary idea, in vos, 
perfusio aquae, &c. Y. Diet. vo. Weeze, v. For, as the learned Hyde says, the 
reason why water has received this name, is plainly because it ouseth out. Hence 
he ezpL Oxford, q. ause-fart, either the ford, or the castle on the water. Even 
the designation Car-leon-ur-usc, Le. the city of the Legion on the river, is not ez- 
dusively Celt For Wormius, in like manner, thus explains Dan. as or ois ; Ostium 
fluminis : vel sinum maris notat. ; Monum. Dan., pp. 195, 196. The Kunic letter 
Of or Oya, is thus defined ; Sinus maris promontoriis acutioribus ezcurrentibus, 
nautis infestis ; vel etiam ostium maris portum navibus praebens. Literat. Bun. 
a zvi., p. 87 : y. also Jun. GL Goth., p. 22. To this day, IsL aros signifies the 
mouth of the river ; Y ereL 

Nothing can be inferred firom Ey, in Eymouth, &c., p. 44. For it is unquestion- 
ably Goth. IS it appears in Celt, in the forms of aw, ew, ea, ey, a river, we find 
Su.-G. a, Su.-G. IsL aa, A.-S. ea, pL aea, Alem. aha, id. Germ, ache, elementimi 
aquae, Moes*G. aquha, id. ; Y. Ihre, vo. Aa, anmis. Garry (derived fix)m C. B. 
garw, Lr. garbh, what is rough, a torrent), may be resolved into A.-S. gare, gearw, 
ezpeditus, and ea, aqua, q. the rapid stream, S., the yare stream. Lyne (C. B. 
what is in motion, what flows, p. 46), may be aUied to IsL lin-ur, Germ, lind, 
mild, gentle. Lunan is tauced to Celt, lun, Ian, lyn, what flows, water, a lake, a 
pooL IsL hn, stagnum, lacuna. Now, it is admitted that ** the Liinan in Angus, 
firom its tranquil flow, settles into a number of small pools." There is no necessity 
for deriving Lid, which indeed seems the proper name of the river vulgurly called 
Lidddl or Lidddl, fin>m C. B. Hid, ** a violent efiusion, a gush ;" or ** O. Gaulish 
Ud, hasty, rapid, p. 47. It may be traced to Teut. lijd, transitus, lyd-en, to 
glide ; to Alem. Ud, liquor ; to IsL lid, a bending ; lidra, to hasten, to pass with 
flight ; or to A.-S. hlid, hlyd, tumult, noise, like Lid in Devonshire, whence Lid- 
ford, A.-S. hly da-ford, which Somner thinks denominated fix)m its noisy motion. 
Nid is derived fix>m C. B. nidd, neth, *'a stream that forms whirls or turns," p. 47. 
A.-S. niihe is used in a similar sense ; nithe one, genibus flexis, with hent knees, 
firom nith-an, deorsimi. Nethy and Nethan are said to be diminutives of the C. B. 
word. But Nethan is probably fix>m A.-S. neothan^ downwards, q. what descends ; 
and Nethy may be q. neoth-ea, the wat^ which descends, or the stream that is 


lower in respect of some other. On Orr in Fife, and Orr^ Urr^ in Galloway, Mn 
O. nfiuB to C. R or, cold, iryr, signifying a brisk flow, Basque ura^ water, a river, 
pi 48. StL-O. UT denotes stormy weather ; Alem. ter, a river, because by inunda- 
tion it lays waste like a wild beast ; LsL orra, Martis impetus. Paolt in several 
compound words, is referred to C. B. poollt Arm. poull^ GaeL poU^ a ditch, a pool ; 
and it is said that A.-S. pel is from the C. B., this word being " in all the dialects 
of the Celtic, but not in any of the pure Gothic dialects ;'' p. 48. But Teut. ^pod 
iBpahis^ lacuna, stagnum ; Su.-G. pod, IsL pod-a, and Genu, pjul, id. Tay and 
Tiviat are both derived from C. B. to, taw, ''what spreads or expands ; also tran- 
quiL" IsL teig-^a also signifies to extend. G. Andr. deduces Tif^, the name of 
a very rapid river, from tyfa, praeceps pedare ; Germ, tav-en, diffluere, to flow 
abroad. Tweed, " C. B. tuedd, signifies what is on a side, or border ; the bor- 
der or limit of a country ; '' p. 49. This etymon is pretty consonant to modem 
ideas. But when the name was imposed, Tweed did not suggest the idea of a 
harder any more than Tay, &a Allied perhaps to Isl. thwadtte, twaette, to wash, 
from twaa, id., as a river is said to wash a country. A.-S. twaede signifies double, 
and may denote something in reference to the river. This name being given to it 
in Annandale, we cannot well suppose it to originate from the junction of the 
Temat, and what is called Tweed: although these rivers are so nearly of a size, 
that one might be at a loss to say which of the names should predominate. Tyne, 
* *C. R tain, a river, or running water, ** IsL tyn-a, to collect, q, the gather- 
ing of waters. Hence perhaps Teut. tyne, lacus. 

Yarrow, p. SO, to which the same origin with Garry is ascribed, may have been 
formed from gearw, as above ; or from ge, the A.-S. prefix, and arewa, an arrow, 
as denoting, its rapidity. According to Wachter, Germ, arf, id., is used in this 
figurative sense. For he says that Arabo, a river which joins the Danube, has its 
name finom arf, an arrow, because of its rapid motion. Ythan, the Ituna of 
Bichazd, is deduced ** firom Brit, eddain, or ethain, which signifies gliding,"' as 
being ** a slow running stream. " Might it not be traced to A.-S. yth, unda, ythian, 
to flow? 

Among the names of Miscellaneous Districts, appears Dal, as signifying a flat 
field, or meadow, fix>m Brit dol, Ir. dal, id., p. 53. But this term appears in all 
the Goth, dialects, for a valley; Moes-G. dalei, A.-S. dad, Su.-G. Belg. dal, Isl. 
dal^tr, Alem. tal, tuol, &c. Besides, this is the precise sense of C. B. ddl, as given 
by Lhuyd, vallis ; and Ir. dal has no affinity, as explained by Obrien. For it sig- 
nifies a share, a portion, evidently the same with Teut. ded, Su.-G. del, &c. 
Nothing can be inferred from the names including Eagles or Ecdes, which our 
author derives fix>m Brit, eglwys, Ir. eaglais^ &c., a church. For they are merely 
the corruptions of the Latin name imposed by the monks. Thus the proper 
writing, of one of the names mentioned, is not £bc/e9-Magirdle, but Ecclesia- 
Magirdle. Nothing is done unless it can be proved that the Gr. word tKK\vui was 
borrowed firom the Celtic, li Fordun, Kincardines, and Forden, Perths. be pro- 


perly derived firom Brit, ford^ a passage, a road, the Goth, would have an equal 
daim ; A.-S.yarcf, a ford^yore, iter, Su.-Q.ybcre, viae &cilita& 

iiayfi6, Aberd. is traced to C. B. rhann, Ir. rann, rain, <'a portion, a division, 
a division of lands among brothers ;" p. 56. IsL ren, signifies the margin or border 
of a field, whence rend, ager limitatus ) YereL 

Here I shall onlj add that the learned writer goes so far as to assert that the 
very " name of the Belgae was derived from the Celtic, and not a Teutonic, origin." 
** The root,'' he adds, ** is the Celtic Bd, signifying tumult, havoc, war ; Bda, to 
wrangle, to war ; Bdac, trouble, molestation ; Bdawg, apt to be ravaging ; Bdg, 
an overwhelming, or bursting out; Belgiad, one that outruns, a ravager, a Belgian ; 
Bdgws, the ravagers, the Belgae ;" p. 17. 

This, although it were true, would prove nothing as to the origin of the Belgae. 
For we might reasonably enough suppose that the name had been given them by 
the neighbouring Celts, who had suffered so much from thein, as they invaded and 
took possession of part of their territories. But as our author commends the 
Glossaries of Schilter and Wachter as elaborate, p. 16, N. (b), as he justly acknow- 
ledges the writers to be '* vastly learned,'' p. 12, their sentiments merit some re- 
gard. Schilter says : " That the name of the Belgae is German, certainly hence 
appears, that this people were of a German origin, and having crossed the Bhine, 
vanquished the Gauls in these lands which they occupied." He then cites the 
passage from Caesar, formerly considered, adding — ** This migration took place be- 
fore the irruption of the Cunbri and Teutones, which was A. Ill, before Christ ; 
because Caesar says that this was, Patrum memoria nostrum, but the other must 
have been long before, because he uses the term antiquittis.'* He derives the 
name from Alem. belg-en, to be enraged, a term used by Notker, and still in 
Alsace and Belgium. Thus Bdgae is explained as equivalent to indignahundi et 

Wachter seems to give the same etymon, vo. Balgen. He observes that ancient 
writers everywhere mark the wrathful disposition of the Belgae ; and particularly 
Josephus, Antiq. L. xix., a 1. BelL Jud., c. 16, when he calls the Germans ''men 
naturally irascible," and ascribes to them " friry more vehement than that of wild 

n. — But besides the evidence arising from histoiy, it certainly is no inconsider- 
able proof that the northern parts of Scotland were immediately peopled from the 
North of Europe by a Gothic race, that otherwise no satisfactory account can be 
given of the introduction of the Vulgar Lanquaqe. 

It has been generally supposed that the Saxon language was introduced into 
Scotla^nd in the reign of Malcolm Canmore by his good queen and her retinue ; or 
partly by means of the intercourse which prevailed between the inhabitants of 
Scotland, and those of Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham, 
which were held by the kings of Scotland as fiefe of the crown of England. An 


Rngliiih writer, notless distinguiahed for his amiable disposition and candour 
ihtti far the cultivation of his mind, has objected to this hypothesis with great 
force of argument. 

** Thie conjecture/' he says, "does not seem to be perfectly satisfactory; nor are 
the causes in themselyes sufficient to have wholly changed the langtiage of the 
countiy. If, at the present moment, the Celtic language prevailed over the whole 
of Scotland, instead of being confined to the Highlands, such a testimony would 
compel us to admit, either that the Saxons and Danes had been prevented by some 
unaccountable cause from attempting to form a settlement on the northern shores 
cf this island ; or that their attempts had been rendered abortive by the superior 
braveiy and skill of the inhabitants. But, as the same Teutonic dialects are found 
to form the basis of the language, both in England and in the Lowlands of Scot- 
landy Mr. Hume has been induced, and apparently with great reason, to infer, from 
this aimiliariiy of speech, a similar series of successive invasions ; although this 
success is not recorded by the historians of Scotland. 

''If this conclusion be admitted, it is evidently unnecessary to refer us to the 
much later period of Malcolm's reign ; or to seek in his marriage with an English 
princess, in his distributions of lands among his followers, or in the policy which 
induced him to change his place of residence, for the establishment of a language 
which the Saxons and Danes could not fail of bringing with tLem ; and which, if 
it had not been thus introduced, the inhabitants of the plains would probably have 
rejected as obstinately as those of the mountaina" Ellis's Spec. Anc. Eng. Poet, 
i 226, kc 

To suppose, indeed, that a few foreign adherents of a court, received as refugees, 
could change the language of a country, is to form the idea of something which 
would appear in history as a fact completely insulated. Whether the same elegant 
writer be right or not in his opinion, that William the Conqueror did not think of 
eradicating the Saxon language, his reasoning, abstractly viewed, is certainly 
just '' William must have known that the Franks who conquered Gaul, and his 
own ancestors who subdued Neustria, had not been able to substitute the Teutonic 
for the Bomance language, in their dominions ; that the measure was not at all 
necessazy to the estabHdiment of their power ; and that such an attempt is, in 
all cases, no less impracticable than absurd, because the patient indocility of the 
multitude must ultimately triumph over the caprice of their armed preceptors.'' 
Ibid., pp. 38, 39. 

It is undeniable, indeed, that the Norman-French, although it had every advan- 
tage, and retained its ascendancy at court for several ages, was at length even 
there borne down by the Saxon, which had still been spoken by the vulgar. The 
Bomans, although they conquered the South-Britains, civilized them in a consider- 
able degree, and introduced the knowledge of arts among them, seem scarcely to 
have made any impression on their language. The Goths, who subdued the 
Bomans, and seated themselves in Italy, were in their turn subdued by the very 

OF iHi aoomsH lanquaos. 28 

people to whom they gave laws, as reoeiving their language from them. For it is 
well known that, although a variety of Gothic words are retained in the Italian, 
bj &r the greatest proportion is Roman. 

Gan it be supposed, then, without directly contradicting universal experience, 
that a few Saxons, who were not conquerors but refugees, could give language to 
the nation that afforded them protection 1 Has any change similar to this taken 
place among the Welsh, who are viewed as the same people with the Picts, not- 
withstanding their intercourse with the English during several centuries, since the 
cessation of national hostilities 1 Have the Celts of Ireland renounced their Ian- 
guage in compliment to the English of the Pale, as they have been called, who, in 
proportion, were certainly far more numerous than the Saxons belonging to the 
court of Ganmore ? Few nations have been more tenacious of the customs and 
language of their ancestors than the Celtic inhabitants of Scotland. We know 
how little progress has been made for more than half a century past in diffusing 
the English tongue through the Highlands ; although not only the arm of power 
has been employed to dissolve the feudal attachments, but the aid of learning and 
religion has been called in. ,The young are indeed taught to read English, but 
often they read without understanding, and stUl prefer speaking Gaelic. 

Had the Saxon found its way into Scotland in the manner supposed, it would 
necessarily have been superinduced on the Gaelia This has always been the case, 
where one language prevailed over another, unless the people who spoke the ori- 
ginal language were either completely or nearly exterminated. TUxua was the 
Norman gradually incorporated with the Saxon, as the Franldsh had been with 
the Latinized Celtic of France. But the number of Gaelic words to be found in 
what is called the Broad Scots, bears a very small proportion to the body of the 

It is well known, that in many places on the borders of the Highlands, where, 
according to the hypothesis controverted, the one language should appear as it 
were melting into the other, they are kept totally distinct This is particularly 
remarked in the account of the parish of Dowally in Perthshire. '' It is a curious 
fitct, that the hills of King's Seat and Craigy Bams, which form the lower boun- 
dary of DowaUy, have been for centuries the separating barrier of these languages. 
In the first house below them, the English is, and has been spoken ; and the 
Gaelic, in the first house (not above a mile distant) above them.'' Statist. Aca, 
XX. 490. In some instances arivulet forms as effectual aboundary in this respect, 
as if an ocean intervened. 

Malcolm Canmore, according to the testimony of Simeon of Durham and Bromp- 
ton, in his incursions into England, carried so many captives with him, that they 
were afterwards seen not only in every village, but in every house. Had this been 
UteraUy the case, his army must have borne some resemblance to that of Xerxes. 
But, although this had been literally the case, would captiveisi or slaves overpower 
the language of their masters ? Is it not admitted, at any rate, that after the 


death of Malcolm they '' were driven away by the ustial enmity of the Gaelic 
pecple^ that ''the Celtic inhabitants would not submit to** the authority 
of Duncan, till he had agreed never again to introduce Normans or English into 
their countiy ; that *' this jealousy of strangers continued under Donal Bane ;'' 
and that it '' occasioned insurrections under William the Lyon V Caled, p. 498. 

It IB evident that some Saxon Barons, with their followers, received lands in 
Scotland during some of the succeeding reigns. But, a few individuals could not 
^produce greater effects in Scotland, than all the power of the Norman Barons in 
England, It seems also undeniable, that the foreigners of distinction who settled 
m Scotland, particularly in the reign of David L, were mostly Normans, and there- 
fixre could not introduce the Sazoa According to Lesley, Hist. Scot., Lib. vi., p. 
201, this was the case even in the time of Canmore. 

It is veiy questionable, if, even during the reign of Edward the Confessor, French 
was not the language principally spoken at court. It has been asserted, indeed, 
that during this reign '* the Anglo-Saxon had ceased to be cultivated." V. Ellis's 
Spea, i 89. Camden has said that Edward the Confessor ** resided long in France, 
and IB chaiged by historianjs of his time to have returned from thence wholly 
^rendiified.'' Remains, p. 210. 

It has been supposed that this unparalleled change was partly owing to occa- 
sional intercourse with the northern counties of England, which were subjected to 
the. Scottish crown. But this intercourse was by &r too limited to have any in- 
fluence in completely changing a language. It would be more natural to invert 
the idea and to suppose that the inhabitants of these countries had received the 
peculiar terms, which they retain in common with the vulgar of Scotland, from the 
raodenoe of the Scots among them, while the heir-apparent of our crown was 
Prince of Cumberland. 

It IB certain that Domesday-hook, a work compiled by order of William the 
Conqueror, from an actual survey of the whole of England, does not include any 
of ibjd counties lying to the North of the Humber ; which is a proof that, in that 
age ; these counties were considered as belonging to Scotland. 

Hardyng acknowledges that all the country to the North of the Humber once 
pertained to Scotland. *'He made the bye ways throughout Britain, and he 
fiyunded the archflamynes, at London one for Logres, another at Torke for Albanye, 
that nowe is Scotlande ; for that time from Humber north that was that tyme 
Scotland ; and the thyrd at Carleon in Wales, for al Wales.'' Chron. Bubr. of c. 
33, FoL 29, a. 

This indeed refers to a period long prior to the Christian era ; and the account 
IS evidently fribulous. But I mention it, because it is here admitted by the Chron- 
icler, hostile as he was to the independence of Scotland, as a circumstance which 
could not be denied, that in former times the country to the North of the Humber. 
was viewed as a part of Scotland. 




But there is still a more natural account of the great similarity of language 
between Scotland and the North of England. To me it appears that Mr. Pinker- 
ton has proved, firom undoubted testimony, that the Picts had possession of the 
North of England for more than a century before Ida founded the kingdom 
of Beznicia ; and that, although for a time they were subjected to the power of 
the Angles, they afterwards regained their authority in this quarter. Y. Enquixy, 
L 321—336. 

It may be viewed as a confirmation of this account, that, in the North of 

England, tk is often changed into d. " In the N.,'* says Lambe, '' th is fi:^- 

quently changed into d ; as, for fcUher, we ssLj/ctder ; for girth, gird ; for Both- 
bury, a town in Northumberland, Jtodbury ; for Lothian, Loudon" Notes to the 
Battle of Floddon, p. 80. 

This is a distinguishing characteristic of the dialect of Angus, which was un- 
doubtedly a part of the Pictish territoiy. For hcUth, both, they still say baid ; for 
ghoUth, injury, shaid ; for maith, a maggot, maid, ftc. Now, it is well known that 
this is a peculiarity of the ancient Scandinavian. The Icelanders, at this day, 
jHTonounoe the (& as if it were d; they often, indeed, write d, where th occurs in 
A.-S. and in the German dialects. 

It has also been supposed that the Flemings, a considerable number of whom 
occasionally settled in Scotland, contributed to the change of language. But, from 
all the evidence that we have of a Flemish colonization, the effect is evidently by 
{Sat too great for the cause. Whatever influence, as tradesmen, they might be 
supposed to have in towns, it must have been very inconsiderable in the interior 
parts of the country. As it is said that—*' Aberdeenshire was particularly dis- 
tinguished in early times for considerable colonies of Flemings," it has been 
inferred that " we may thus perceive the true source to which may be traced up 
the Teutonic dialect of Aberdeenshire, that is even now called the Broad Buchan" 
CSaled., pw 603, 604. But it will appear from the following Dictionary, that many 
of these words are not Teutonic, but Scandinavian. At any rate, the &ct is un- 
deniable, that many of the terms common in S., and especially in the North, are 
not to be found in any Anglo-Saxon, Flemish, or Teutonic Lexicon, but occur in 
those of Iceland, Sweden, or Denmark. Were there only a few of this description, 
it might be supposed that they had found their way into our language by com- 
mercial intercourse, or by some straggling settlers. But their number is such, 
that they cannot be ascribed to any adventitious cause. 

Here I might refer the reader to the following words, under one letter only : 

Bar, Bargane, v. and s., Barrat, Bathe, Bauchle, Beik, Beild, v. and s., Beinh, 

Bene, a., Beugh, Bike, Bilbie, BUlie, Bismar, Blait, Blout, Bludder, Boden, 

Boldin, Boo, Boun, Bracken, Bi\Jide, v. and s.. Brag, Braith, Brash, Break, v,, 

Bree, s. 2, Brent, a., Breth, Brim, Broche, Brod, v. and s.. Brogue, Broukit, Buller, 

«• and s., Burde. I might also refer to Dordermeat, Emmis, Gleg, Ithand, (eident), 

Stanners, and to a thousand of the same description. 





Here I might also mention the remarkable analogies of idea, displayed in very 
inngnlar figures or modes of expression, common to our language with those of 
the North of Europe, even where the words themselves are radically different. 
Many of these occur in this work, which canqot reasonably be considered as merely 
casual, or as proceeding from any intercourse in later ages; but, in connexion with 
other evidence, may well be viewed as indications of national affinity. I may 
refer to the artides, Loun's Piece, and Pogkshakings, as examples of this coin- 

Que thing very remarkable is, that, among the vulgar, the names of herbs in the 
North of S. are either the same with those still used in Sweden and other northern 
countries^ or nearly allied. The same observation applies, pretty generally through 
&, to the names of quadrupeds, of birds, of insects, and of fishes. 

The circumstance of the Scottish langtiage bearing so strikLag a resemblance to | 

the English in its fonn, which has been undoubtedly borrowed from the French, ! 

and particularly in its becoming indedinable, has been urged as a powerful proof 
that we borrowed our language from oiur southern neighbours. But Mr. Ellis 
has manifested his judgment, not less than his candour, in the solution of this 
apparent difficulty. He shews that, *' at the era assigned for the introduction of 
A.-Sazon into Scotland, as indeed it had not been previously mingled with 
Norman, although it had, the Saxon refugees would never have wished to intro- 
duce into that country which afforded them an asylum, a language which they 
must have conadered as the badge of their slavery.'' He also shews that, as the 
*' influx of French words did not begin to produce a sensible change in the 
language of England till the beginning, or perhaps the middle, of the thirteenth 
century, its importation into Scotland ought to be capable of being distinctly 
traced ; and that^ as the improvements of the common language would pass by 
alow gradations from the original into the provincial idiom, the composition of the 
Knglifth hards would be clearly distinguished by superiority of elegance.'' He 
denies, however, that this is the case, quoting the el^;iac sonnet on the death of 
Alexander TTL, as superior to any English composition of that early period. 

Upon the whole, he is disposed to conclude, that " our language was separately 
formed in the two countries, and that it has owed its identity to its being con- 
structed of similar materials, by similar gradations, and by nations in the same 
state of society." He thinks that the Scots borrowed the French idioms and 
phrases, like the English, from the Norman Bomance, *' the most widely diffused 
and most cultivated language, excepting the Italian, of civilised Europe." He 
also ascribes a considerable influence to the early and close union between the 
French and Scots, justly observing, that any improvements borrowed from the 
former would not be retarded in Scotland, as they were in England, by a different 
language being spoken in the country from that which was spoken at court ; be- 
cause "the dialect of the Scottish kings was the same with that of their subjects." 
Spea L 226—233. 



As it is evident that the language oould not Iiave been imported into Scotland 
by the Saxon refugees with its French idioms, it is equally clear that these were 
not borrowed from the English. For, in this case, the language of Scotland must, 
in its improyements» still have been at least a century behind that of England. 
Although this had been verified by fitct, it would scarcely have been credible that ' 
our &thers had been indebted to the English for these improvements. The two 
nations were generally in a state of hostility ; and it is never during war that 
nations borrow from each other refinements in language, unless a few military 
terms can be viewed in this light. Too few of our early writers resided long 
enough in England, to have made any material change on the language of their 
country when they returned. Besides, we have a great variety of French terms 
and idioms, that have been early introduced into oiur language, which do not seem 
to have been ever known in England. 

Here, also, a circumstance ought to be called into account, which seems to have 
been hitherto overlooked on this subject. Many fiunilies are mentioned by our 
historians as having come out of France and settled in Scotland, at different periods. 
It appears, indeed, that many &milies of French or Norman extraction had come 
into Scotland during the reign of Malcolm Canmore. Sub haec etiam tempera 
(says Lesley), Freser, Sanchir, Monteth, Montgomery, Campbell, Brise, Betoun, 
Tailyefer, Bothuell, ingens denique nobilium numerus, ex Gallia venit. — De Reb. 
Scot, lib. vL p. 201. It is natural to suppose that these would introduce many 
French terms and idioms ; and, as Mr. Ellis observes, the same language having 
been spoken at the court and in the countiy, there would be no resistance to them. 

Here, perhaps, it may be proper to take notice of another objection to the 
derivation of our language from Scandinavia. This is its great affinity to the 
A.-Saxon. But this is of no weight. For, although it appears that a variety of 
terms were used in the Scandinavian dialects, which had not passed into the A.- ' 
Saxon and other Germ, dialects, the structure of both was so much the same, that 
ancient writers speak of them as one language in the time of Ethelred the son of 
Edgar. Bla aetate eadem fuit lingua Anglica, Norwegica et Danica; mutatio 
autem &cta est, occupata per Wilhelmum Nothimi Anglia. Gunnlaug. Sag. p. 
87. y. Peringskiold, Moniment, UpsaL, p. 182. Seren. De Yet. Sueo-Goth. 
cum Anglis Usu., pp. 14, 15. 

Some have affected to view the celebrated Odin as a fabulous character. The 
more intelligent northern writers, indeed, acknowledge that he, to whom great 
antiquity is ascribed, and who was worshipped as a god, must be viewed in this 
light. Tet they admit the existence of a later Odin, who led the Scandinavians 
towards the shores of the Baltic. While it is a presumption in favour of the 
existence of such a person, it is a further proof that, in an early age, the Saxons 
and Scandinavians were viewed as the same people; that both Bede and the 
northern writers trace the lineage of Hengist and Horsa, the chiefs who conquered 
England, to Odin. Peringskiold has given the genealogy of Hengist as the twelfth 






from Odiiif which he collected firom ihe most ancient documents, partly printed and 
partly in MS. Bede acknowledges the same descent^ Hist, Lib. xv. , although he 
shortens the line by several generationa 

ni. — ^The Scandinavian origin of the Plots is illustrated by the histoiy of the 
Qbkket Tblandq. We have seen that, according to some ancient accounts, they 
fint took possession of these. That they were, in succeeding ages, inhabited by 
Plots, IS acknowledged on all hands. 

Wallace published an authentic Diploma concerning the succession of the Earls 
of Qrimey> digested A. 1403, not only from the relation of their ^'fitythfull ante- 
cesBoro and progenitors,'' but fix>m books, writings, and chronicles, both in the 
Latin and in the Norwegian language ; and attested by the Bishop, cleigy, and 
all the principal people of these islands. In this they inform Eric, King of Nor- 
way, thiat^ when the Scandinavians took possession of these islands, (which was in 
the ninth century,) they were inhabited by two nations, the Peti and PapS; and 
*' that the country was not then called Orkney, but the land of the Pets, as yet 
i^ipeaiB firom the name given to the sea that divides Orkney firom Scotland, which 
k called the Petland Sea.'' Y. Wallace's Account, p. 129. This, indeed, is still 
called, in the Icelandic histories, Petland Fiord. 

There is not the least ground to doubt that the Picts are here designed Pett^ 
This is the name given by Scandinavian writers to the Picts. Saxo Grammaticus, 
who flourished in the twelfth century, calls Scotland Petia: Lib. ix. p. 154. It 
has been conjectured, with great probability, that the Pap^, or Papae, were Irish 
priests, who, speaking a different language firom the Pets, were viewed by the 
Norwegian settlers as constituting a different nation, although acting only in a 
religious character. For^ it. appears fix>m Anus Erode, that some of these Papae 
had found their way to Iceland, before it was discovered by the Norwegians. 

It has been said, indeed, that '^ there is reason to believe that the Orkney 
Talands were planted, during early ages, by the posterity of the same people who 
settled Western Europe," ie. by Celts ; Caled., p. 261. The only proof offered 
for this idea is, '* that Druid remains and stone monuments exist, and that celts 
and flint arrow-heads have been found in the Orkney Islands ; while none of 
these have ever been discovered in the Shetland Islands." '' This," it is added, 
'^evinces that the Celtic people, who colonized South and North Britain, also 
peEnetrated into the Orkney, but not into the Shetland, Islands; and this fact also 
aAotM, that those several antiquities owe their origin to the Celts, who early 
colonized the Orkney Islands alone, and not to the Scandinavians, who equally 
colonized both the Orkney and the Shetland Islands ;" Ibid. 

Whether vrhsi is here asserted as to ^* Druid remains, &a," be true, I do not 
presently inquire. Let it suffice to observe, that such is the mode of reasoning 
adopted by the learned gentleman, as plainly to show how much he is here ^'*4 ' 
loss for argument. This is, indeed, a complete specimen of what is called/ ^^qq. 


ing in a circle. The existence of some monuments in Orkney, contrasted with the 
\vant of them in Shetland, evinces that '' the first settlers in Orkney were Celts, 
and oho shews that these stone monuments were Celtic.'' 

It is admitted, that ** scarcely any of the names of places in Orkney or Shetland 
aie Celtia'' " They are all,'' it is said, ''Teutonic, in the Scandinavian form ;" Ibid. 
Now, this is a very strong fact. We may, indeed, lay aside the limitation. For 
the most competent judges have not found any. If the Picts, who inhabited 
the Orkney Islands, were Celts, whence is it that not a single vestige of their lan- 
guage remains ? To this query, which so naturally arises on the subject, it is by 
no means a saiis&ctoiy ajoswer, that, " owing probably to some physical cause, the 
original people seem to have disappeared, in some period of a prior date to our 
era." What could possibly give birth to so strange a conjecture ? It is the soli- 
tary testimony of one writer, who Uved in an age in which nothing could have 
heesa written that was not true, because it would not have been received had it 
been fidse. " During the intdligent age of Solinus, those islands were supposed 
to be uninhabited, and to be ' only the haunt of seals, and ores, and sea-mew's 
dang;'" Ibid 

Are we then to view this as the physical cause of the disappearance of the 
original people? Were these Celts so harassed by "seals and ores, and sea-mews," 
that they forsook their abodes, and sought a place of repose on the continent? Or 
did these troublesome animals, in &ct, swallow up the wretched inhabitants of 

But can this dream of Solinus be seriously mentioned ? Or can it be received 
in an " intelligent age ?" Ere this be the case, some cause, whether physical or 
moral, which has at least some degree of plausibility, must be assigned for the 
supposed disappearance of a people, who had been so regularly settled as to have 
stone monuments and buildings, and so well versed in the art of war as to be 
acquainted with the use of cdts. But it is evident that Solinus was very ill in- 
formed concerning the Orkney Islands; as he says they were only three in number. 
And in what he asserts as to their being iminhabited (vacant homine), he gives 
not the remotest hint that the qontraiy had ever been the case ; but seems indeed 
to consider them as uninhabitable ; Lib. 25. 

Since, then, the accoimt given by Solinus is so directly contrary to all proba- 
bility, to what purpose grasp at it ? The reason is obvious. The great topogra- 
phical test of the genealogy of nations is here pointed directly against the learned 
writer. He must either part with this, or devote all the Celts of Orkney to 
destruction. It is only by some such supposition as that which he makes, that 
any reason can be given why the names of places in Orkney are all Teutonic. As 
the stone buildings must necessarily be ascribed to Celts, whence comes it that 
there is not one topographical vestige of this race in Orkney, while the names 
imposed by the British in Scotland remained long after the people were lost ? It 
18 supposed that the " original people " totally disappeared in some unaccountable 


manner, and, of ooune, that their possessions were, for centuries perhaps, unin- 

But that no aigument may be founded on the Teutonic names in Orkney, we 
4m infonned, that " the topography of Orkney, Shetland, and Cathness, is com- 
pletely di&rent fiom the Siucon topography of Scotland, which does not exhibit 
one Scandinavian name that is distinct from the Northumbrian Dano-Saxbn;'' that 
''of the Scandinavian names in Orkney, and in Cathness, the great body terminates, 
according to the Gothic construction, in Buster, signifying a dwelling-place ; in 
Ster, denoting a station or settlement ; and in Seter, a seat or settling-place. But 
there is not a single instance of the Buster, the Ster, or Seter, in the topography 
<if proper Scotland.'' Galed., p. 489. 

Three terms are here mentioned, which do not occur, as fur as I know, to the 
south of Gaithne8& They are most probably Norwegian; although, perhaps, it may 
be doubted if they are to be accounted among the most ancient Scandinavian 
tenna. O. Andreae is referred to ; but I can find none of these terms in his Lexi- 
con. Nor does it appear that they are common in Orkney. Brand mentions 
Kebutor in Shetland, p. 110. But a variety of other terminations common to 
Orkney and Shetland, and to Scotland, are quite overlooked by the author of 
Caledoma — as Dale, Ness, Wick, Head, Tan, Bye, so common in the South of S., 
and Burgh. Y. Brand, and Statist. Aca Bow, which is undeniably Scandinavian, 
18 the name given in Orkney to the principal house ona &rm, or on an estate. 
That this was not unknown in Scotland, appears from what is said in Diet. vo. Boo. 

IV. — A pretty certain test of the affinities of nations is their Abghitectube. A 
variety of circular buildings in Scotland, and in the Orkney Islands, are traditionally 
ascribed to the Ficts. They are found in different parts of the country, and are 
of two kinds. One of these is above ground, the other almost entirely under it. 
The first includes their circular spires and castles, — as the spires of Abemethy and 
Brechin, and the casUee of Glenbeg in Inverness-shire. . Y. Gordon's Itin., p. 166. 
Their subterranean buildings, or those which are nearly so, externally exhibiting 
the appearance of a tumulus or mound, are still more numerous. Many of these 
are described by Pennant, in his Tour, and by the writers of the Statistical 

These are almost universally ascribed to the Picts, whether appearing in the 
Lowlands, in the Highlands, or in the Islands of Orkney. In some instances, 
however, they are called Danish or Norwegian. Even this variation in the voice 
of tradition may perhaps be viewed as a proof of the general conviction, which from 
tune immemorial has prevailed in this country, that the Picts were originally a 
Scandinavian people. 

They are by far most numerous in those places where we are certain that the 
Scandinavians had a permanent abode, as in Sutherland and Caithness, on the 
coaat of Boss-shire, <m the mainland, and in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In 



Sutherland, there are three in the P. of Kildonan, Statist. Ace, iil 410; mx in the 
P. of Far, Ibid. p. 543 ; almost everywhere in the P. of Bogart, Ibid. p. 567. There 
18 a cham of Pictish buildings on each side of Loch Brura, P. of Cljne, Ibid. x. 304. 
In CSaithness, P. of Olrick, there are six or seven. Ibid. ziL 163 ; a number in Wick, 
and " throughout the country in general,'' Ibid x. 32 ; in Dunnet, Ac 

The names of these buildings claim peculiar attention. It would appear that 
ihej are all Gotiiic. In the Orkneys they are called Burghs or Brughs. This 
word cannot reasonably be claimed as Celtic. Nor is it confined to the islands. It 
is given to one of these stractures in Caithness, called the Bourg of Dunbeth. 
Pennant's Tour, 1769, p. 195. There is an evident afiinity between this name and 
that imposed on a fortification in Angus, which tradition calls a Pictish camp. Y. 
Diet va Bbugh. As the Burians in the South of S. are generally viewed as 
Pictish, although the term may be rendered burying-places, it is not improbable 
that some of them were erections of the same kind with the Burghs. Y. Diet. vo. 


They are denominated Picts* houses. Now, as the Picts certainly had names for 
their fortresses in their own language, had this been Celtic, it is most natural to 
think that, in some instances, these names would have been preserved, as well as 
the Celtic designations of rivers, mountains, &a, ascribed to this people. 

They are also called Duns. This term is mentioned as equivalent to the other 
two. ** There is a range of watch-houses, and many remains of burghs, duns, or 
Picts' houses.'' P. Northmaven, Orkney, Statist. Ace., xiL 365. Another name 
18 also given to them by the vulgar. Y. Diet. vo. Howie, Castle-Howie. 

Even in those places where Gaelic is now spoken, they seem to have a Grothic 
designation. The valley in which Castle Troddan, Chalamine, &c., have been 
erected, is called Glen-beg. The final syllable does not seem Gaelic. It is pro- 
bably corrupted from Goth, bygg-a, to build, bj/gd, pagus ; q. the glen of the 
buildings or Jumses. The Pictish castle in the P. of Loth, Sutherland, is in Uke 
manner called Lothrheg, q. the building situated on the river Loth. The significa- 
tion little cannot well apply here. For what sense could be made of the little Loth ? 
They are indeed in one place called Uags. ** In Glenloch,'' says Mr. Pope, ''are three 

[Pictish buildings], called by the country people UagsJ* Pennant's Tour. 

1769, Append, p. 338. This may be from Gaell uaigh, '* a den, grave, cave;" Shaw, 
In the P. of Tiiff, they have the synonymous designation of Weems or caves. But 
these are obviously names imposed by the ignorant people, because they knew 
neither the use nor the origin of these buildings. 

I am informed, that in Invemess^shire the \foundations of various houses have 
been discovered of a round form, with spots of cultivated ground surrounding 
them ; and that when the Highlanders are asked to whom they belonged, they 
say that they were the houses of the Drinnvch or Tinnnich, i.e., of the labourers, 
a name which they gave to the Picts. By t&e way, it may be observed that this 
implies, that, according to the tradition of th^ coimtry, the Picts were cultivators 


of tlie floil, while the Celts led a wandering life. This seems to oonfirmi the sense 
gnren of the name Crutthneou^h, imposed by the Irish on the PictSi q. eaters of 

It has always appeared to me a powerful proof of the Grothic origin of the Plots, 
that ihej had left their names to structures apparently unknown to the Celtic in- 
habitants of Britain. But of late this argument has been pointed the other way. 
Mr. King, a writer of considerable celebrity, contends that all these are Celtic 
nionmnents. The proof he gives is the existence of some buildings of a similar 
land in Cornwall and South Wales. 

It appears, however, that the remains of what are accounted similar buildings 
in South-Britain are very scanty. " There are still some vestiges" he says, " to 
ascertain the &ct. For in the parish of Morvah, in Cornwall, are the remains of 
a most remarkable structure, called Castle Chun, that, as it appears to me, can- 
not well be considered in any other light than as one of the first sort of veiy rude 
imitations of the mode of building round castles, according to hints given by the 
Fhenicians, and before the Britains learned the use of cement. It bears considerable 
rosemUanoe to the Duns, near Grianan Hill in Scotland, and in the Isle of Hay. 

''It consisted of a strong wall of stones without cement, surroimding a large 
oval area» and having the interior space evidently divided into several separate 
divisions, ranging roimd the inside, leaving an open oval space in the centre. It 
was even much laiger than the two great Duns just referred to in Scotland ; the 
area being 125 feet by 110 ; and it was moreover surrounded on the outside by 
a large, deep ditch, over which was. a zigzag narrow passage on a bank of earth, 
with a strong rude uncemented wall on each side. 

^ From the laigeness of the area within, it seems exceedingly probable, that 
(niulst the surrounding walled divisions served for stores) the more interior oval 
qpace was for habitation, like that in'a Dun, supplied with floors of timber, supported 
by posts near the middle, but yet lUtving still a smaller open area in the centre of 
alL . \ 

''Dr. Borlase conceived that this, with some other hillfortresses, which are con- 
tinued in a chain in sight of each otlier, must have been Danish" Munim. Antiq., 
SL 204, 205. T 

But this fort, from the description given of it, appears to difier considerably from 
those call Pictish. It more nearly tumbles the hill-forts, such as Finhaven, and 
that called 17^ Laws in the P. of M^nifieth, both in Forfarshire. Almost the only 
difference is, that, from whatever cajuse, they retain indubitable marks of vitrifica- 
tion. In the latter, the vestiges of a variety of small buildings, between the inner 
and outer wall, are perfectly distinct^. 

It is no iiux>nsiderable argument against Mr. King's hypothesis that Dr. Borlase, 
who was thoroughly acquainted with Ithe Welsh Antiquities, saw no reason to think 
that these buildings were British. 



BemdeB, it would be natural to conclude that, if the Plots were originally what 
are now called Welsh, and had learned this mode of building from their ancestors 
in South Britain, such remains would be &r more generallj diffused in that part 
of the island. It is evident, indeed, that these structures were unknown to the 
Britons in the time of Julius Cassar. In the description of their civitates, there 
is not a hint of anything that has the least resemblance. Nor are they mentioned 
by succeeding Roman writers. 

The learned writer, probably aware of this important objection, brings forward 
a veiy strange hypothesis, apparently with the design of setting it aside. He 
thinks that the Picts, who penetrated as fitr as London, while Theodosius was in 
Britain, saw the British fortresses, and on their return imitated them. Munim. 
Antiq., iii. 187. But this theory is loaded with difficulties. Although it were 
certain that the Picts had penetrated as far as London, there is no evidence that 
th^ ever were in Cornwall or South Wales. Besides, although they had seen 
such buildings, the South Britons, long before this time having been completely 
brought into a provincial state by the Romans, must necessarily have become 
acquainted with a style of architecture &r superior to that of the subterranean 
description. We certainly know that it was because they were enervated by 
luxury that they became so easy a prey to the Picts and Scots. Now, if the Picts 
were so prone to imitate their enemies — a rare thing, especially among savage 
nations — ^would they not have preferred that superior mode of architecture, which 
they must have observed wherever they went ? Did they need to go to London 
to learn the art of building dry stone walls, when for more than two centuries be- 
fore this so many Roman castella had been erected on their own frontiers ? 

If it should be supposed, as this theory is evidently untenable, that the ancient 
Celts brought this mode of building into Scotland with them, whence is it that 
the Irish Celts of this country universally ascribe these forts to a race of people 
different from themselves ? As they were undoubtedly of the same stock with 
the Welsh, and seem in common with them to have had their first settlement in 
South Britain, how did the Irish Celts completely lose this simple mode of archi- 
tecture 1 Did they retain the Abera and the Duns, &c., the names of rivers and 
mountains, which had been imposed by the Picts, because their language was 
radically the same, and yet perceive no vestiges of national affinity whatsoever in 
the very mode of defending themselves from their enemies, from wild beasts, or 
from the rage of the elements ? He who can suppose that the Celts of Scotland 
would thus renounce all claim to the architecture of their ancestors, ascribes to 
them a degree of modesty, in this instance, unexampled in any other. 

Ifr. King admits that one example of this mode of building has been described 
as existing near Drontheim in Norway. It may be observed that the name is the 
same as in Orkney. It is called Sua\aburgh. . He reasons as if this were the only 
one known in the North of Europe, and makes a very odd supposition, although 
consistent with the former, that the Danes imitated this mode of building in con- 


sequence of their incumons into Scotland. V. Munim., iiL 1 07, 1 08. But another 
lias been described by Dalberg in his Suecia, called the castle of Ytnsburg, which 
is situated in Westr^thia. V. Barry's Orkn., p. 97. It is probable that there 
ue many others in these northern regions unknown to us, either because they 
ha^e not been particularly described, or because we are not sufficiently versant in 
Northern topography. What are called Danish forts in the Western Islands, 
bear a strong resemblance to these Pictish buildings. Y. Statist. Aca, (P. Barvas, 
Lewis,) zix. 270, 271. 

It is wdl known that there are round towers in Ireland, resembling those at 
Brechin and Abemethy, and that some intelligent writers ascribe them to the 
Danes, although Sir James Ware claims the honour of them to his own coimtiy- 
men, Antiq., i. 129. The Danes-Baths, as another kind of building is denominated 
m Ireland, are evidently the same with the Picts' houses. Their description ex- 
actly corresponds ; Ibid., i 137, 138. These Ware acknowledges to be Danish, 
although his editor, Harris, differs from him, because Rath is an Irish word. Dr. 
Ledwich, who contends for the Danish origin of these forts, expresses his 'Vender 
at Mr. Harris, who inconsiderately argues for the Celtic original of these forts, 
and that solely from their Irish appellation, Rath, which, though it figuratively 
imports a fortoess, primarily signified security.'' He adds — '^ In my opinion it is 
doubtfiil whether JRaih is not a Teutonic word; for, we find in (xermany JunkerroAt, 
hamefrraht, Raht-yorwM, &c., applied to artificial mounts and places of defence 
as in Ireland.'' Antiq. of Ireland, p. 185. Perhaps his idea is confirmed by the 
use of A.-S. vmuth. Although it primarily signifies a wreath, or anything plaited, 
it has been transferred to a fortification ; sustentaculum, munimen. Burh turathum 
werian: Urbem munimine defendere; Caed., p. 43. 21. Lye. Most probably it 
was first applied to those simple indosures made for defence, by means of wattles 
or wicker-work. 

It may be added, that to this day the houses of the Icelanders, the most un- 
mingled colony of the Goths, retain a striking resemblance of the Pictish buildings. 
They are in a great measure tmder ground, so as externally to assume somewhat 
of the appearance of hillocks or tumuli. 

The author of Caledonia frequently refers to *'the erudite Edward King," 
praising him as " a profound antiquary." ** After investigating," he says, ** the 
stone monuments, the ancient castles, and the barbarous manners of North Britain, 
ha gives it as his judgment * that the Picts were descended from the aboriginal 
Britqps ; ' *" Caled., p. 233. 

But the learned gentleman has not mentioned, that one of the grounds on which 
Mr. Sang rests his judgment is, that ''the Pictish buildings, or those so called, re- 
semble the British remains in Cornwall and South Wales." It is singular that, 
while both lay down the same general principle as a powerful argument in proof 
of the Celtic origin of the Picts, the one should attempt to prove that these 


straoturas are Celtic, and the other strenuotisly contend that they are Scandi- 
navian, and that the Picts had no hand in their erection. 

The chief reason assigned for the latter hypothesis is, that '' those Buigs, or 
strengths, only exist in the countries where the Scandinavian people erected 
settlements,'' being '' only seen in the Orkney and Shetland Islands, in Cathness, 
on the coast of Sutherland, and in the Hebrides, with a few on the west coasts of 
Ross and Inverness ; ^ Caled, p. 342. 

But in a work of such extent, and comprising so many different objects, it is not 
surprising that the various parts should not be always consonant to each other. 
The author has in one place referred to the subterraneous buildings in the parish 
of liff, as of the same kind with those existing in Orkney; to a work of the same 
kind in Alyth parish ; to several subterraneous works in the parish of Bendothy, 
expressly called Pictish huildings, Statist. Ace., xix. 359 ; to a considerable number 
of these in the parish of Eildrummy, Aberd. '^ Similar buildings,'' he adds, ''have 
been discovered in several farta of Kircudbright Stewartry ; " Caled., p. 97, N. 
None of these places are within the limits assigned for the Scandinavian settle- 

Several others might have been mentioned. Some in the neighbourhood of 
Perth have been described. Y. Pennant's Tour, iii. Append., p. 453. In the 
parish of Stonykirk, Wigton, are some remains of Druid temples and Pictish 
castles ; Statist. Aca, ii 56. Edwin's hall, parish of Dunse, Berwicks., corre- 
sponds to the accoimt given of the Castles in Glenbeg. " It is supposed to have 
been a Pictish building ; " Ibid, iv. 389, 390. The Round-abouts in the parish of 
Castletown, Roxburghs., ** are conunonly called Picts Works ; " Ibid., xvi. 64. 
It appears, then, with what propriety it is said, that ** the recent appellation of 
Pictish castles, or Picts houses, has only been given to those in Orkney and Shet- 
land, in Cathness, and in Sutherland." Caled., p. 343. 

Mr. Chalmers has given such an account of the remains of one of these forts, in 
the parish of Castletown, as plainly to shew that it corresponds to those which he 
elsewhere caUs Scandinavian. ** There are two of those forts near Herdshouse, 
two on the &rm of Shaws, one on Toflholm, one on Foulshiels, one on Cocklaw, 
one on Blackburn, and one on Shortbuttrees. When the ruins of this fort were 
lately removed, there was found, on the South side of it, a place which was ten 
feet wide and twenty feet long, and was paved with flat stones, and inclosed by 
the same sort of stones that were set on edge ; and there was discovered, within 
this indosure, what seems to intimate its culinary use, ashes and burnt sticka" 
Caled., p. 94. 

It is also urged, that " not one of these strengths bears any appellation from 
the Pictish, or British language ; " and that they " have no similarity to any of 
the strengths—of the genuine Picts, or British tribes in North Britain ; " Ibid., p. 
343, 344. But, as all the force of these arguments lies in what logicians call a 
petitio principii, no particular reply is requisite. 


It IB said that many of these edifices, " in the Orkney and Shetland Islands, 
and in Oathness, haye been erroneously called Pictish castles, Pictish towers, and 
Fiots houses, fix>m a fabulous stoiy that attributes to Kenneth Macalpin the 
impdicy of driving many of the Picts into the northern extremity of our island ; 
niiance they fled to the Orkney and Shetland Isles.'' But it has been seen that 
these designations are not confined to the districts mentioned. Besides, to sup- 
pose sudi a mode of denomination is entirely opposite to the analogy of tradition. 
For it is almost universally found, that the works of an early age, instead of being 
given to the more ancient people, to whom they really belong, are ascribed to those 
of a later age, who have made some considerable figure in the coimtry. Thus, in 
many places in Scotland, camps, undoubtedly Roman, are vulgarly attributed to 
the Danes. Nor is it at all a natural supposition, that, in those very places said to 
have been occupied by Scandinavian settlers, their descendants should be so 
extremely modest as to give away the merit of these structures, which they con- 
tinue to view with wonder and veneration, from their own ancestors to an earlier 
noe, with whom they are supposed to have been in a state of constant hostility, 
and whom they either expelled or subdued. 

The idea that these designations originated firom ** the fabulous story " of the 
FScts heing driven to the northern extremity of our island, has no better foimda- 
tibn than what has been already considered. The general opinion was entirely 
diflGbrent fiom this. For it was ^'asserted by ignorance, and believed by credulity, 
that Kenneth made so bad an use of the power, which he had adroitly acquired, as 
to destroy tAe whole Picti^ people in the wantonness of his cruelty ;'' Caled, p. 

I shall only add, that it is not ea^ to avert the force of Mr. King's argument 
against these being viewed as Danish works. They are to be seen in parts of the 
ooontiy into which the Danes never penetrated. He refers to that called Black 
CcuUe, in the parish of Moulin, in that division of Perthshire called Athol; Munim. 
liL 199. In the Statist. Ace. it is said : — ** The vestiges of small circular build- 
ings, supposed to have been Pictish forts, are to be seen in different parts of the 
parish." P. Moulin, v. 70. Mr. King, after Pennant, also mentions one on the 
hill of Drummin, opposite to Taymouth ; another, within view of that, above the 
diuich of Fortingal; a third, opposite to Alt-^mhuic, in the neighbourhood of Killin; 
a fborth, under the house of Cashly ; a fifth, about half a mile west, &c., &c. Y. 
Pennant's Tour, 1772, p. 50 — 53. " Most of these,'' says Mr. King, "lie in Glen 
Lion: and they shew how numerous these kind of structures were in what was 
onoe the Picts coxmtiy/' 

It has also been asserted that "the same Celtic people, who colonized South and 
North &itain, penetrated into Orkney, but not into the Shetland Islands" The 
reason for this assertion is, " that no stone monuments '' nor " fiiint arrow heads ** 
have ''ever been discovered in the Shetland Islandsi ; " Caled, p. 261, N. 

But obelisks, or standing stones, are found even in the Shetland Islands, into 




6ii OaUttiMi Etolioh: 

Britiih Eiymon^ Calbd. 

«l DidMt; 

foimmikf iMginning of taniiilt 

7. Diwt, 

fon of GiraiB \ 

8. Gntnadi, or 

9. QMltnim; 

IOl Tliloig, ton of 

M nizdioiUidij or 

U. Drwt, 

•oo of Mimaitv or 

yrtais ooaToying tho idoft of 

gwrckmwyd, of an Aident temper ; 
gwnhtkMf an ardent leap; 
fwHkmaidg an oppoaing leap. 

^otMrotis one that prowla aboat 

TmUonie EtymoM* 

laLfoliiMiimliidaiyfarioaaa; Ba.'O.galm^ 

8a.-0. a i rt fgjg y^ proeapiai or ite eognate 
tffrfil^BoUey and lilk. like. GernL oifeltdk, 
adbloy q. ocMolielk, from aUU^ father, 
and lidb» like, limilia. 

IiL doo, a Toiy ancient Ooth. partide, 
■ignifying, in compoaitiony ikilfaly ezoel- 
knli worth/f like Or. cv; and Qerm. 
dnidf daring^ Alem. droei^ a atrong or 
toaTO man, yir poteni, f ortia. Y. 
DnialyNo. L 

8ii.-G. om^KMT-a perdere, (inTorted)^ q« 
the deataoyer ; or gdr, military inatra- 
aanta, and oaii roond aboatg q. anr- 
loonded with armour. 

8iL-G. gardf Alem. garUf a guard, and 
8n.-0. %aU, night, or nog^ enough, or 
fnaegdf neighbourhood; q. a night- 
guard, a auiBoient guard, or one at 

12, QaIam,or 


15. Bridei, ftradie treaeheroua, 6ra<f, treaoh- 

paihapa rather Bmde eiy. 
or Brudi; Br wd * u s, 
Adomnan, Vit. Oo- 
himh. 1, ii. o. 17. Bed. 
1, ilLai. 

Son of ICailoon, Ifotleiom, Maelgvm, a common 

MmUkkon, name, implying the origin of 

Su.-G. gadUf aonua, fom, robuatua, q. loud- 

▼• Tdoro, No. 9. 
8iL-0. ffiiu^ dark, and locyo, anare ; q. 

inaidioua ; ormoerd-a, to kill, to murder, 

and (oflfo, q. preparing murderoua anaret. 
▼. Dmat, No; 1. 
IiL ffMifs month, and aei-<^ to eat, q. t»- 

laoooa mouth. Many Qerm. namea are 

eompounded with mund, id. 
A.-CL moN, homo, and «ati^ Hh, faoilii ; q. 

a nian of an eaiy temper. 
Id. gaU, fd, and anM, noxa, odium ; q. 

hannghateedlike galL Or, gaU^ Titium, 

and OM^ aine, q. without defect 
Id. ol-o, nginare^ and eyfe, ezunae; q. 

fiKttened with apoiL Or Y. Elpin, No. 

Id. 6nddi, eminebat, YereL; 6m((-a, to 

extend, and 8u.-0. «, law, q. one who 

extendi the law, who pubUahea it 
Su.-0. hrwdf a bride, and e, lawful, q. bom 

of wedlodE, aa oppoaed to baatardy. 

Or 6r9d<i, aagitta, and ey, insula, q. the 

arrow of the island. 
Id. mev, puella, loekunp leductio, q. the' 

aeduoer of Tirgina ; or, made, apeech, 

and k um m a, to know, q. eloquent 
8tt*-G. Moda, tribute, S» fnail, and ibmm-o, 

to eome, q. one employed for lifting the 
» royal taxeat 



PSdUh Nam€9n 

K. Ctefftaaleli, ton of 
PlHMitlnh^ or 

Bri&tik EigmM^ Oalxd. 

Ifw KMtay tiM nepliair of 
Tfriii mora commoiitj 


A.-CL dom, JndgmoBty and ele^ oToiyooa, q. 

appointed m m Judge in the kingdom. 

Or, from naek, Tiotnoe ; q. a judge who 

Appacentij eorr. of NteUmg No. S. 
Gecm. wtr6-Mi| ire, q. tiie walker; or 
wtr6-efi, ambire, iHienee wtfh-m, a pro- 

16w <SBeoeh9 or 

— - OmioA, cyneff, a iorwaid penon. 

U. ftiy, fei]>-ay jaoere, q. one who ihrowi, 

eaeta, oralinge. 
8a.-G. Kn, kind, and oek^ to increaee, q. 

hanng n muneroua oflbpring. Y. No. 


^17. Oamard, eon of 


-gwmaHkf marniline alrength ; 

]& Sddei, the eon of Wid. 
Vk lUore; I * 
90l Tidoigan, ) 

eon of Xnfret ; 

Genn. leul, Alem. Mj aooorae, and rtnn, 
tomnoy q. haTing the eonnd of a tor- 
mfc. Or Mg eelebria» and rwi»-ci», to 
walk, q. like Qanga Rolf, funone for 
walking. Lui oocora in thii eenae^ in a 
gr ea t many Alem. and Tent, namea. 
Y. Wachter, Kilian, Ac Or, Alem. M^ 
and hnm, pnroiy caatua, q. the duwte. 

8u.-G. gtaern^ cupidoa, and ori, Belg. aarctt, 
natora, indolee ; q. of an eageri or per- 
h^e,. of a ooTetona disposition. 

Id. eeui-c^ 8w. vid-a^ to hunt, q. the 
honter. Or the same name with that of 
Odin, Ffd-«r, G. Andr. Le. foriooa. 
8w. waed, a pledge. 

8u.-G. /mi-a, alere, q. one who feeda 
otherBy the nooiiaher. 

Y. Noei 13 and 17. 


SL Gartnait, eon of 

dy mw d i ^ of the weaned ooodL 

S9L Bkidei, Bredei, eon of 
BiH; or BiU, Bay, 
ham, p. Ill, 112. 

M. Taran, Thann; 

SS. Biidei,Bonof 

M. Nedkton, eon of 

Bdi, a common 

lorofi, thnnder. 

U. Ml, Alem. en, negatiTe pertide, and 

frid, peaoe, q. without peace. Perhapa 

the eame with An^firid, glorioaa pax ; 

Waohter, to. JVid. Or &om 8a.-G. tn, 

inlaniiTe, (Y. ^no, Ihre) and ^hMi-o, to 

eat, q. to deatroy. 
Y. No. 14. 
8a. -G. dan, din, noise, and ml, danghter. 

Or dojn, stupid, and wald, power, q. under 

the power of stupor. 
Y. Dmat, No. L 
Y. No. 13. 
I, 6t0ieoiii«, 8a.-G. hiUig, equal ; IsL ftylo, an axe, hU^, 

a whirlwind. 
laL torunnin, expugnatu diffidlis : ttoron, 

andacia, boldness. 
Y. No.13. 
Sa.-G. doers, latuus, or IsL dyr,. cams, 

and <{ta, peUex ; q. infatuated, or be- 

loTod, by a concubine. 
Y. Nosi 3 and 25. 



PSetUh Notma. 
S7. Xtpin; 

98b Ungoiy CTiMMMly mh of 

Uigoui or Verguii; 

99. Bridoiy ton of Uigoit. 
dO. CSi|iod,aoDof 

SL S^^, mh of BridoL 
St. Dntty aon of Taloigin. 
8S. TdoKgan, mm of Ungufl. 
8i. Gnaiily MB of 


Zifyfium, Caled. Tmtonie Etj/tncna. 

tyUif ilio tame m Kng. fff. Tlds equallj appUet to A.-CL 8il-G 

iJom. o^f naaui| diamoo. ^K m 
BeandiiiATian proper name. Wocnu 
Monom. p. IM; abo ^(/um»» Goim* 
'laag* 8. p. 99. 8a.-0. iviis amicuiy q. 
* fkiand of tho fiuriot. A.-S. «0yii aigni-^ 

SiL-O. ttn^v young, and tffii^ denoting man* 

aer or qnalityy aa rehi-iffu, right-eeui. 

Omtif^^ oapeie, and tat, amor, q. deeir- 

ooa of lore. 

gorekeatf great adiievament: or Alem. iir, beginning, gut, guae. Germ. 

payTf in eompoeitaoa wffr^ a giof. Tent yuyM, a riTer. Or Sn.-0. 

WBvy, a robber, and tmi ; Wargm, aa 
•zfle, Salie Law. Moea^. woir, A.-8. 
WMr, Sa.-0. MCMT, laL etr, a man ; and 
^Mff-r, Tentna rigidna; q. the man of 

0¥fruid, a eommon name. 

T. Ko. 13 and 98. 

8q.-0. ibyn, a lamilj, and oed, poiaemion, q. 
of a wealthj or noble race. 

8a. -O. fcned, enraged, with the eommon 
termination ig. Or mer, U. eer, w, 
and iltigH^, moUii, q. a aoft or inactiye 

cytwoylf oonspienona ; 

ioHu, oath-breaking ; or iwHXa, 


98. Oonitantin, OiuuiaiH ; a name appearing among the re- 

gnli of 8trathcla jd ; 
98. Ungnii aon of Urgoia. t 
87* Diect, and Taloigan, ion 

ofWthod; Wihail, aame aa the omnmon 

name lihdf afgnifying, knit- 

88. Uoen, Ufen ; the well-known name of Owak^ 

aignifying, apt to aerre. 

88. Wred, Fendeeh, aon of like Wndech^ Ko. 90 ; 


4a Bied; 

BargoU, or Bargod, a name men- 
tioned in the Welah Triada. 

Md, Wad, treacheiy; Iradog, 

T. Koai 97 and 13. 

T. Noai 1 and 9. 

T. Koai 9 and 98. 

Id. kiam, aoitiu, and wd, daughter, q. 

akilfol in deatmction; or 8a.-0. Jbomi, 
- poosum, and IsL out, ale, powerful in 

8tt*-0. Tor, the god 2%or, and lavg, law. 

Thoriaug, a eommon Id. name, 
apparently borrowed &om the Bomana. 


Id. ft, negatiTe, and ihoU, tolero, q. im* 

Id. u, Su.-0. 0, negatife, and Id. fael^ 
8u.-0. wain, beautiful, q. not hand* 
aome. Oiooen, an adverBaiy. 

Su.-O. wrtd, A. -8. wraeth, iratua; Belg. 
tnneed, anaterua. Or V. Ko. 30. 

Germ, bar, bare, naked, and got, good ; or 
8u.-G. herg-oed, one who defenda hia 
poaiearioni, from herg-a, Hatg-a, to de- 
fend, and od, oed, property. 

8u.-G. braadsj raih, audden, quick ; 
hratda, rage; or bred, latua, broad, a 
teim eommon to all the Korthem 



Tlie preceding lisfc indudes those names only, of Pictish kings, which are 
nckoned wdl wananted by histoiy. There is a previous list, also containedin the 
Cbionioon Pictomm, which has not the same authority. But although there may 
not be sufficient evidence that such kings existed, the list is so far valuable, as it 
tmismits to us what were accounted genuine Pictish names. Here I shall there- 
fore give the whole list of kings, with similar names from the Landnamabok, that 
Toelandic record which refers to the middle of the ninth century, adding such 
names as stall remain in Angus, or in other counties, which resemble them or seem 
to have been originally the sama A, added to the word, denotes Angus. Where 
tlie name given in the middle column is from any other authority than the 
Landnamabok, it is marked. 

1* Chraddiia;- 

SL Oivoniy pioo. Knkni ; 

a lidaidi; 

Am Vortnini \ 

0w llodaid; 


a fiTaid; 

9L CM«ol,— Chidaeh ; 
Kl Deobeoan. 
U. OUiiMta; 
VL Ckndld; 
18L Gwftgoftich } 

14. Wnigeti; 
U B^odi; 

IfiL GdU^crGili^; 
17. niana; 

15. Ifixlaoi. 
la. IMkil; 

SOl Xfannlodi wm of Arooii ; 
tL DwMid; 

hL Ijoaidnamab. 

SSb Baoioteno, or 
teoUiorof Din; 

S4. uMonbosli or OomlNuA. 

9ft. GHTfoni. 

9S. Deoar TftToit ; 

ST. Uiat 

n. Boa; 

i9. Qtnaily or Oamaird ; 

ao. Taia; 

Si. Biatli; 

32. '^poignamat 

Seottith Namti. 


Gani-r, GotL 


K^, A. 

CMal^ A. 

AiBadk, A. 



CkMii v. Pink. Enq. iL 288 ; 

Broddi, Brodd-r; Bmthu, Worm, Brodio^ A. 

jkoo. nu xse. 
Ojda^Gydias Gadd^ & B. 

Thonrinny Thorama ; Thoron, a Sir. Tom, A. 

nama, Tkatf to. Tot. 


Xirik-r, genit J^tOm 

Blig, Blaka; 

Oamna, a Danish ganaral. 
Hilt. OOL. 

y. H. Boat 



Dogharty, 8.B. 

Dognid ; alio Dalgiiy, 

Doir, A. [De^M, A. 

Darriy p. 374. Diri, p. 149. 
Boa, 7th King of Danmark ; 

Braid-r, Bmli-r. 

Dawar; Daar, alio Daar, A 

Bna, A. 
Wair, A. 



8S. Oiiral^ (Ulio-hina ;) 

81 Wndeeh YmUi^ or Vkkia; 
«ipL tiM %okiUf M in OM 
Ohron. H ii mad&nd Albui, 

95. Ghurnat di uber, Oanuii-diTM^ 
. in anoihar Ohitm. 

88. Tlaloio, Tilon. 
87* Dniaty ■on of Brp ; 

88. Talon^ ion of Amjlo ; 
88. Noeiony ton of Moxbet ; 
48. QalMD, Gaka, with Aloph ; 

ItL Landnamah. 

m oommon Dan. nam*. T. Pink, nl 

Scatiiik Noma. 

SxpL 1^ ndk, from Ooth. Germ, di^ 
tiiOi and «&er, nota abandantiao; 
Pink., Ibid. 

Throai-r ; Drnata, Worm. Hon., p. 977. 

Kan^ton, A. 
Gaallandt ; Alol, aama aa Olof, Ok^ Callom, A. 

60l Ckotnaiohy aon of Domnaoh ; 
89L Ganalg aon of Wid, Taid, 

60l Btadei, aon of BOi ; 
8L DarOi; 

81 Oangoa^aonof Taria; 

?a OuianL 

71* Oaaftaniiny Cnaatain ; 

or Vadi; 

Wailh, Wada ; Pod. A. 

Bteklia ; Bailia. A. 
Doraly Worm. Hon., p. 191 aignifjing^ 

darotad to IiW. 
Thoriang; Angnai A. 

78. Bnd; 

CooaUniina, oocr. Gbva- 
Mni waa tha propar 
aama of P. Adamaon, 
Abp. of 81 Andrawii in 
Ja. YL'a vaign. 


Among other Piciiah names the following occur in our history. 

PietUh Namei. 

Bfeandy Pink. Enq., L 811, alao laL Oadmondr ann Branda, filiua Brandi, 

Kriabii-aaga ; 
BdIgo,Fink.L 810; 
Pblaich, Ibid., 806 ; 
BIkeal Ibid., 806 ; 
Panlen, Ibid., 448 ; 
Baitan, Ibid. 
Moiratbaeh, Ibid. 

Thana, (rariding at Meigia, A. 841) Pink., L 461. 
Oahi a Pietiah name ; 
Pannach, Ibid. 

Padma, Poidon., L 189. Pink., L 801. Phiachan, Ibid. 310. 
MaioeEoa, Ibid., 441 

Noma in Angui. 

Boag^Boog; Boik. 

Panion, prbn. Ftnien. 

Bealon ; Beaitia. 

Mmdodi; Moxdia. 




Mnckaraie, Pife. 

The following names, which are most probably Pictish, have great affinity to 
those of Iceland and Denmark. They almost all belong to the vicinity of Forfar, 
or to the parish of BrechiiL 


NInmiii Angui. ItL and Dan. Namei. 

i fiiinoB. JomndarHraii, Joniiidr filiiu, Eriitiii-ngay p. U^ Jomnd-ry Ar. 

Wrodi^ pw 78. 
Ktttb; K«ttel, Thonteint iniL Kziiini-iaga. 118. 

Mv; HiAid Mantan, Mam filial, Ibid., 122. 

WMimwiii ; flMmnnd, Ibid., 124. 

lT€i7; Iwvt, lUd., 126. 

IKnaid, pran. Dorai ; Thorrard, Ibid. A. 961. 

Aamm; Omiiid-r, Ibid. A.96L 

llMKbani ; Ilunbtoni, Le. the bear of tbe god Thor. 

Brtan; Yatm, Wonn. Hon., p. 191. Aiten, Ibid., 316. 8a.-0. AHwinf amaaina, 

Hue, TO. AH, amor. 
KaOl; Kiald, Worm. Mod., p. 184. 

Sarin ; Harald, Ibid., 186. Heriolf-r, Tiandnam. paaa. 

Ofebom ; Oabam, Kriatni-aaga, p. 188. Oabioni, p. 195. 

Ukam, pion. Tom; Tame, Ibid. 

BIdddl; Bodl, Ibid., 196. 

BM» ; . Sati, Ibid., 240. 

Dnk ; bui^ perbapa enona- Take, Ibid., 196. 
. amij, writtan Gbofc 

Iifia; Y&, and Sbi, Ibid., 286. 

BoOl; Biola^ Landnamab., p. 22. BoUi, Ibid., 839. 

UD; Dalla^ Ibid., 266. 

Inkiid, proa. Sriand; . -Ariand, Woim. Mbn., p. 468. BHand^ tbe luune of an Earl of Qrlrn^, a 

Nonragiaa, A. 1126. Jdhnafc. Aniiq. 0. Soaod., p. 244. 
Oook ; Oank-r, Landnam., p. 366. 

Maaaa ; if^gtiw^ % oommon laL and Dan. name, pron. Ifaima, Orkney. 

Qrabbo ; Gmbbe, Worm. Hon. Addii., p. 16. 

; Haoon, Ibid., 498. 

.; elwirbera Benwick; BanTaag, Ibid., 603. RannTeig, Landnam., p. 99. 
l^iia; DeriTed perhi^ &om the name of the god T^, aa Tom from Thor, and 

R^bod firam Woden. 
BttH; Bete, Wonn. Hon. Addit, p. 10. 

Hobbe ; Ubbe, Ibid., 14. 

Bevie ; Bai, Johnat Antiq. 0. Scand., pp. 76, 77. 

Gbnr, Ker ; Kari, Ibid., 110, fto. (Kara, Ar. Frode.) 

Bwofd; Simnd, Sigurd, Nonreg. name in Sutherland, A. 1096. Ibid., 261. 

OMAhk ; Dnfthak-r, Landnam., 13, 16, fta 

; Dogfua, Ibid., 140. 

; Buna, Ibid., 19. 

IMMy, (Aberd.) Oddnj, Ibid. , 263. 

flkaa ; Bkagi, Skeggi, Ibid., 263, 254 ; from Aatgg^ hair. 

8lol; Stoti, Ibid., 72, 8& 

Beiai, Ibid., 60, 170. 
Lodinhofd (ahaggy head), nrid., 284. 
IiL Grim-r ^aoTenia), Ibid., 39. 
; Ahrek-r, Ibid., 274. Ahreo-r, 76. A.-S. Aelfric, Aekio. 

CMlie ; laL Kolla, Ibid., p. 36. 

Hapbom ; Hallbioin, Ibid., paaa. 

Binie; Biama, Biarni, 277, 346. 

Ikkafa; Dalkr, Ibid. 

Hood ; And-or, (rich) Ar. Frode, 13, 75. Odda, Kriatnia, 124. Aod, Pictiah name, 

Pink. Enq., L 311. 
Amoi; Amald, ftode, 70. 

Mair; Manr, Ibid., 64, 66. 





J$L and Dan. NamM. 

Ifann, Tvlgulj MAnnie; 

Mtfii, Ibid., 90, 3L 


Staimii Ibid., 63. 


Teii-r, Ibid. 




Godrod-r, Ibid. GudnMid-r, Gkidzid-r, Tiiindnain. Gaater, Worm. Hon., 611 


Halfdaae, Ibid. Haldan-r, H«r?ftrftr, S. 


' Hrollang-r, Ar. IVode, 76. 


Helgi, Ibid. 


Heidrek-r, Hexrarar, 8. 


Hentein, Ar. Frode, S7. 



Onn-r, Herwar, S. 


8w§yii, Ibid. 


Hallatein, Ibid. 


Grim-r (Mreroi), Ibid. 


Skiria, • man'i name, Johnat Antiq. 0. Scand., p. 3. 


Kngge, Worm. Bion., 164. 


Sburdi, Landnam., 64. 


Krabba, a Danish name. 


Sylfa, Worm. Hon., 123. 

It 18 most probable that the following names should be viewed as belonging to. 
the same dasa Ciaik, (Su.-G. hraJca^ a crow) ; Lounie, Dundarg, Mikie, Gorthie, 
Fitchit, Don, Gall, Daes, Linn or Lind, Low, (Su.-G. loga^ flamma) ; Deuchar, 
Bmich, Bawd, Boath, Darg, Dargie, Bean, Strang, Cudbert, Couttie, Coutts, 
Shand, Cobb, Neave, Tarbat, Storrier, Candie, Duguid, Broakie, Proffit, Eaton, 
Fands, GroU, Eettins, Porris, Pressok, Myers, Byers, Neish, Towns, Hillocks, Hear- 
se!, (Sm-G. haer, exercitus, and saell, socius, a companion in war&re) ; Glendaj, 
Meams, Kermach, Leys, Dormont, Crockat, Leech, Emslie, Mug, Livy, Geekie, 
Legge, Craw, Stool, Machir, Goold, Herd, Lumgair, Laird, Rind, Annate Elshet, 
I^Btt^ Pet, Stark, Sturrock, Mamie, Grig, Bough, Doeg, pron. Doug^ Cossar, Pros- 
8er, Torbet, Logie, &a, &c. 

YL — ^The analogy of ancient CtrsTOMS also affords a powerful test of the affinity 
of nations, I need scarcely mention the almost inviolable attachment manifested 
to these, when transmitted from time inunemorial, especially if connected with re- 
ligion, or upheld by superstition* 

The Celtic inhabitants of this country observed one of their principal feasts on 
Hallow-eve, which is still called SamhHn. Y. Shannach. But there is no 
memorial of any festival at the time of the winter solstice. The names which they 
have given to Christmas, Com. Nadeltg, Arm. Nadelek, GaeL Nollig, Fr. NbeX 
Nimd, are all evidently formed from Lat. Natal-is, Le. dies natalis ChristL Li 
Com. it is sometimes more fuUy expressed, Dei ; Naddig, literally, GocCs hirthrday. 
In Lr. it is called Breath-la, Breithrla ; but tl is means nothing more than birth- 

Thus it appears, that the Celts have not^ lili e the Goths, transferred the name 
of any heathen feast to Christmas ; which nearly amoimts to a proof, that they 


provioasly celebrated none at this season. The matter is^ indeed, more directly in- 
Terted between the Goths and the Celts. The former, observing their principal 
feast in honour of the Sun, at the winter solstice, transferred the name of it to the 
daj on which it is supposed our Saviour was bom ; and adopted the Christian de- 
signation, such as Christianit7 then appeared, of Korsa-maessa, or Bood-day, for 
the day celebrated in commemoration of the pretended Invention of the Cross. 
On the other hand, the Celts, continuing to observe their great annual festival, also 
cdginally in honour of the Sun, in the beginning of May, retained the pagan de- 
signation of Beltane, with most of its rites, while they adopted the Christian name 
of the day observed in commemoration of the birth of our Saviour. This difference 
is observable in our own country to this very day. In those counties, of which 
the Ficts were the permanent inhabitants, especially beyond Tay, Yule and Rood- 
day ore the designations still used : while Bdtane is unknown, and Christmas 
scaioely mentioned. But in those belonging to the Celtic territories, or border- 
ing on it^ particularly in the West of Scotland, Yuh and Boad^y are seldom or 
never mentioned. 

• Hub of itself affords no contemptible proof that the Picts were a Gothic nation, 
and that they still exist in those districts which were possessed by their ances^ 
tore ; especiaUy, when viewed in connexion with the great sunilarity between the 
lites still retained in the North of Scotland, and those formerly common through- 
oat the Scandinavian regions, in the celebration of Yule. The analogy must forci- 
Uy strike any impartial reader, who will take the trouble to consult this article 
in the DicnoyART. Had the Picts been exterminated, or even the greatest part 
of them destroyed, and their country occupied by Celts, it is improbable that 
the latter would have adopted the Gothic designation of Yule ; and quite incon- 
ceivable, that they would have totally dropped the term Bdtane, used to denote 
the most celebrated feast of their forefathers. Why should this be the only term 
used in those places formerly under the Celtic dominion, and totally unknown in 
Angus, Meams, and other counties, which their language, after the subjugation of 
the Ficts, is supposed to have overrun ? Did they borrow the term Yule from 
a few straggling Saxons ? This is contrary to all analogy. Did the Saxons them- 
selvee adopt the name given by their Norman conquerers to Christmas ? Gehol 
was indeed used in A.-Saxon, as a designation for this day ; but rarely, as it was 
properly the name of a month, or rather of part of two months. The proper and 
ecclesiastical designation was Mid-winter-daeg, Mid- winter-day. Had any name 
been borrowed, it would have been that most appropriated to religious use. This 
name, at any rate, must have been introduced with the other. But we have not 
a vestige of it in Scotland. The name Yule is, indeed, still used in England. But 
it is in the northern counties, which were possessed by a people originally the 
same with those who inhabited the lowlands of Scotland. 

Here I might refer to another singular custom, formerly existing among our 
ancestors, that of punishing female culprits by drowning. We observe some ves- 


tigeB of tliis among the Anglo-Saxons. Although it preyailed in Scotland, I can 
find no evidence ti^t it uras practised hj the Celts. It is undoubtedly of German 
or Gothic origin. Y. Prr and Gallows^ Diet 

• * 

yn. — ^A variety of other considerations might be mentioned, which, although 
they do not singly amount to proof, yet merit attention, as viewed in connection 
with what has been already stated. 

As so great a part of the eastern coast, of what is now called England, was so 
early peopled by the Beloae, it is hardly conceivable, that neither so enterprising 
a people, nor any of their kindred tribes, should ever think of extending their 
descents a little &rther eastward. For, that the Belgae, and the inhabitants of 
the countries bordering on tiie Baltic, had a common origin, there seems to be 
little reason to doubt. The Dutch assert that their progenitors were Scandina- 
vians, who, about a century before the common era, left Jutland and the neigh- 
bouring territories in quest of new habitations. V. Beknopte Historic van't 
Yaderland, L 3, 4. The Saxons must be viewed as a branch from the same stock. 
For they also proceeded from modem Jutland and its vicinity. Now, there is 
nothing repugnant to reason in supposing that some of these tribes should pass 
over directly to the coast of Scotland opposite to them, even before the Christian 
era. For Mr. Whitaker admits that the Saxons, whom he strangely makes a 
Gaulic people, in the second century applied themselves to navigation, and soon 
became formidable to the Romans. Hist. Manch. B. L c. 12. Before they could 
become formidable to so powerful a people, they must have been at least so well 
acquainted with navigation as to account it no great enterprise to cross from the 
shores of the Baltic over to Scotland, especially if they took the islands of Shet- 
land and Orkney in their way. 

As we have seen that, according to Ptolemy, there were, in his time, different 
tribes of Belgae settled on the northern extremity of our country, the most 
natural idea undoubtedly is, that they came directly from the continent. For had 
these Belgae crossed the English Channel, according to the common progress of 
barbarous nations, it is scarcely supposeable that this island would have been 
settled to its utmost extremity so early as the age of Agricola. 

There is eveiy reason to believe that the Belgic tribes in Caledonia, described 
by Ptolemy, were Picts. For as the Belgae, Picts, and Saxons, seem to have had 
a common origin, it is not worth while to differ about names. These frequently 
arise from causes so trivial, that their origin becomes totally inscrutable to suc- 
ceeding ages. The Angles, though only one tribe, have accidentally given their 
name to the country which they invaded, and to all the descendants of the 
Saxons and Belgae, who were far more numerous. 

It is imiversally admitted, that there is a certain National Character of an 
external kind, which distinguishes one people from another. This is often so 
strong, that those who have travelled through various countries, or have accurately 


maiked the diYeraities of this character, will scarcelj be deceived even as to a 
straggling individual Tacitus long ago remarked the striking resemblance 
between the Germans and Caledonians. Every stranger, at this day, observes 
the great difference of features and complexion between the Highlanders and the 
Lowlanders. No intelligent person in England is in danger of confounding the 
WeUh with the posterity of the Saxons. Now, if the Lowland Scots be not a 
Gothic race, but in fitct the descendants of the andent British, they must be sup- 
posed to retain some national resemblance of the WelsL But, will any impartial 
observer venture to assert that, in feature, complexion, or form, there is any such 
similarity^ as to induce the slightest apprehension that they have been originally 
the same people? 



ABBBDKBir, (Ragisten of th« Coandl of) H8. in the 

ArohiTos of the City. 
Aoooant of tlio Depredations oommitted on tlie Clan 

Giunpbell and tJieir Followers, daring the years 

1686 and 1686. From an original ICS., 4to, Edin., 

Aeta Dominomm Anditomm, in ParL D. Jaoobi 

Tertai R«na Sooiomm. FoL, Edin., non hactenos 

Aeta Donunonun Condlii, Regnante Jacobo Tertio, 

Beg. Scotomm, FoL, Edin., non edit 
Aetis and Gonstituttounis of the Realme of Scotland, 

FoL, Sdin.. 1666, (commonlj called the Blaek 

Aeta of Sederunt, Fol., Edin., 1740, &c. 
Acta of the Generall Assemblies of the Church of 

Scotland, from A. 1638 to 1649, 12mo, 1682. 
Adam's Roman Antiquities, 8to. Edin., 1792. 
Addidotm (An) of Soottis Comiklis and Deidis, 4to, 

edited bj Iliomaa Thomson, Esq., Deputy Re- 
sister, Ae. 
Aelfrici (Abbatis) Olossarium, ad calcem Dictionarii 

Somneii, FoL, Oxon., 1660. 
Aeliani Sophistao Yaria Hiitoria. 2 toIs., 8to, Lugd. 

Bat. 1701. 
Ancmtural Snrreys of the different Counties of 

Scotland, 8to, Edin., Y. T. 
Agrippa's (Cornelius). Yanitie of Sciences, 4to, Lon- 
don, 1660. 
Ainsworth's Annotations upon the Five Bookes of 

M oses , FoL, Lond., 1627. 
Alexandri ab Alezandro Genislium Dierum Libri 

Se^ 8to, Hanofiae, 1610. 
Allan's (Rob.) Dictionary of the Ancient Lsnguage 

of Scotland, No. I., 4to, Edin., 1807. 

Itieri Diaonario ItaUano, 2 toIs., 4to, Lond., 1727. 

Amea'sl^^pognwhical Antiquities, edited by Herbert, 

3 ToIs., 4to, Lond., 1785. 
Anderson's Collections, Relating to the History of 

Mary, Queen of Scotland, 4 yoIs.. 4to, Edin. , 1727. 
Anderson's (David) Poems, English and Scotch, 

limo, Aberd., 1813. 
Anderson's Poets of Great Britain, 14 toIs. , 8to^. Y. 
Annals of the Parish of Dalmailing, 12mo, Edin., 

Annand's (William. Minister at Edinbuigh,) Myste- 

lium Pietatia or ICysterie of Godlinesse, small 8to, 

Lond., 167L 
Antiquaries of Scotland (Transactions of the Society 

of), 4to, Edin., 1792. 
Antiquaij (Tho), 3 rols.. 12mo, Edin., 1816. 
Apdlogeticakl Relation of the Sufferings of the faith- 

full Ministers, &c. of the Church of Scotland, (by 

Brown of WamphraT,) 12mo. 1665. 
Archers, Poems on the Royal Company of, 12mo, 

Edin.. 1726. 

Arii Fkod (f«l Polyhystor.) Schedae, 4to, Skalholt 

Arnold's Qermaa Dictionary, 2 toIs., 8to, Leipsic, 

Amot's Hist of Edinburgh, 4to, Edin., 1779, 
Amot's Criminal Trials, 4to, Edin., 1785. 
Arthur, (Historie of the moost noble and worthy 

Prince kinge) sometyme king of great Brytane, 

now called llnglande, &c., FoL, printed prior to 

A. 1598. 
Ascanius, or the Young AdTentuier, 12mo, Stirling, 

Aubrey's Miscellanies, 2nd Edit., 8to, Lond., 1721. 
— — — » Letters and laves of Eminent men, from 

the Bodleian Library and Ashmolean Museum, 3 

Tols., 8to, Lond., 1813. 


Baddam's Memoirs of the Royal Society, 10 toIs. 

8to, Lond., Y. T. 
Baden, Dansk-Latinsk Ordbog, 8to, Kiobenhavn, 

Bailey's English Diaionary, 8to. Edin., 1800. 
Baillie's (Principal) Letters ana Journals, 2 toIi., 

8to, Edin., 1775. 
Bald's General Yiew of the Coal Trade of Scotland, 

8to, Edin., 1808. 
Bale's Image of both Churches, 8to. Imprynted at 

London, by Richarde Jogge. 
Balfour's (Sir Andrew) Letters written to a Friend. 

containing excellent and judicious Directions and 

Advices for TtaTelling through France and Italy, 

8to, Edin., 1700. 
— — (Sir James) Practicks, or System of the 

more ancient Law of Scotland, FoL, Edin., 1754. 
Ballad Book, 12mo, Edin., 1823. Not printed for 

Balnaues's (Heniy) Confession of Faith, 8to, Edin., 

Banier's Mythology and Fables of the Ancients, 4 

ToU., 8vo, LonoT, 1739. 
Bannatyne MS. 15G8. AdTOcates' Library, Edin. 
Bannatyne's (Richard) Journal of the TVansiictions 

in Scotland during the contest between the ad- 
herents of BCary and those of her son, 1570-1573, 

8to, Edin., 1806. 
Barbour's Bruce, (written A. 1875) edited by Pin- 

kerton, 3 Yoh., 8to, Lend., 1790, corrected from 

FoL MS. by John Ramsay, 1489, Advocates* 

Library, Edin. 

^Andro Hart's Edition, 8to, Edin., 1620. 

8ro, Edit, Edin., 1670. 

4to, Edit, Edin., dated 1758. 

BWU, .KRUW., .Kf«UU., «M>«««* AIWW. 

Baretti's Account of the Manners and Customs in 

Italy, 2 Tols., 8to, Lond., 1768. 
Barnes' (Juliana) Book of Hawking, Ac, FoL, Lond., 

14(6, Reprint, 18ia 



BiR«ir« Alwmd&, or Quadrapla DietionAm. FoL, 

fiMnr^b kiitoiy of tho Orknoy Ldandi, 4to^ Bdin., 

Itorthnlnmi do Omuu Coniomptao o Dftoia odhuo 

fwrnirao Moriia, 4fco, HafouM, 1689. 
Bhdmo'o Hiotoiy of tho Jews, FoL. Load., 1700. 
BMnndjiio'o BiUe, FoL, Edia., 1576. 
Bition Uppon Barthalomo, hia Booko do Ph^rio- 

titilMia Boram. FoL. Loud., 1582. 
Bixtefi OloMoriam Antiquitatom Briiaanieaitim, 

8fo^ Loud.. 1733. 
Baotkio'o (W.) EntortotQing and InafcroetiTO Tales, 

ItBao^ Aboid., 1813. 
Baoiitioi of SooUaadf 5 Tola., 8to, Sdin., 1805-8. 
Bidao Opora, oara Smith, FoL, Cantab., 1722. 
Baknopte Hiatoiio nm't Yadorland, 4 Deal. Harlin- 

BreTiariam Romanam anb oiajori forma, Aa, FoL, 
Panrhiaiia, 1519. 


.▼OB IffiSL Mojw'a 

of Jamea YL Adr. 

BaDaodan'a Historio and Croniklia of Scotland, FoL, 

SdiB., 1536. 
^ Translation of the Firat Fife Books of 

tho Boman Hiatoiy of Titoa Livioa, 4to, Bdin., 

Ball'i (Robert) Diotionaiy of the Law of Scothmd, 2 
., 8to, Bdin., 1807, 1808. 

Baloo'a Herodotus. 4 toIs., 8to, Lond., 179L 



Anglo-Saxonicom, 8to, 

Bsnen*^ (Booichier, Lord) Translation of Sir John 

IMasart'a Chronicles, 2 toIs.^ 4to, Lond., 1812. 
Bingham'a Originea Eocleaiaaticae, 10 rola., 8ro, 

Biml'a Diaioj from 1532 to 1605,— Dalj^'b Frag- 

BkNmVa Andent Tenures, Sro^ Lond. 

— - Olosaoeraphia, or Dictionary of Hard Words, 

9if€L Lond., 1674^ 
Bdbbin*a (Tim) Works, including a Olossaiy of Lan- 

oaahiva woids, 12au», 1793 
Boeharti Geographia Sacn, 4to, Francof, 1681. 
— -» Hieroaoicon, sire De Animalibua Sacrae 

Soifaiaiaa, FoL, Lond., 1663. 
Boethn (Hector), Sootorum Hiatoria, FoL, Bad. 

Aaosna., 1526. 
Boriaae*a Antiqnitiea of the County of Cornwall, 

FoL, Oxf., 1754. 
Borthwi^a Remarks on British Antiquitr, 8to, 

Bdin., 1776. 
Bower^a Historr of the UniTersity of Bdinburgh, 2 

▼ols., 8>T0u Bdin., 1817. 
Boxhomii Qnginom Qallicarum Liber ; et Antiqoae 

Tingfiao Britannicae Lexicon, 4to, AmsteL, 1654. 
Bofd*s (Zacharie) Garden of Zion ; wherein the life 

nd death of fpMj '^^ wicked men in Scriptures 

are to bo seene, ao., 8to. Printed at Glasgow by 

George Anderson, 1644. 

■ Balme of Gilead pmpared for the 

Sidw, 12mo, Bdin,, 1629. 

Last Battell of the Souls, 2 toU. 

8vo^ Bdin., 1629. 
Boawoll*a Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, 8to, 

Lond., 1785. 
Bourne's AnHfuUaUt Vulgcuru, with Brand's Popn 

lar Antiquities, 8to, Kewcastie, 1777. 
Brand'a Inscription of Orkney, Zetland, d»., 8ro, 

Bdin., 1701. 
Popukr Antiquitiee, by BIlis» 2 toIs., 4to, 

IuMkL, 1813. 

Britton, edited by Winffate, 8to, Lond., 1640. 

of North Countnr 
horn an original MS. in the Library of J. G. 

Brockett's Glossary of North Country Words in use, 

Lambton, Esq., H.P., with considerable Addi- 
tions ; 8ro, Kewc-upon-Tyne, 1826. 
Bruce's (Hichael) Lecturea and Sermona, Good News 

in EtU Times, Aa, 4to, 1708. 
— — — ^ Soul Confirmation, a Sermon, 4to, 

Brooe's (Robert) Sermons Tpon the Sacrament uf the 

Lord'a Supper, 8to, Edin., 1590. 
^-^— ^^— EloTon Sermons, 8to, Edin., 1591. 
Bninne's (Robert of) Tnuislation of Peter Langtof t's 

Chroniae (made in the reign of Edw. III.); 2 toIs., 

8to, Oxf^ 1725. 
Brydson's Summary View of Heraldry, 8vo, Lond. , 

Buchan'a Domestic Medidne, 8to, Lond., 1786. 
Bnchanani (G.) Hiitoria Rerum Scoticarum, 8to, 

Bdin., 1727. 
Budianan*a History, 2 toIs.. 8to, Edin., 1762. 
Admonitioun direct to the Trew Lordis, 

8to^ StriTiling, 1571. 

D etection of the Doin^ of Marie 

Qoene of Soottia, Sro, Sanctandrois, 1572, also 

Lond. Edit, about the same time. 

y. Lane) TraTob in the Western Heb- 
rides, 8to, London, 1793. 
Bullet, Memoires siir la Langue Celtique, 3 tom., 

FoL, Besangon, 1754. 
Bomess's (John) Poema and Tales, 12mo, Montrose, 

Bumet'i History of hia own Times, 6 toIs., 12mo, 

Bums*s Works, 4 toIs., 8to, liTerpool, 1800. 
Burt's Letters. Y. L^tUn. 
Busbeqnii Legatio Turcica, 18mo, Lugd. Bat, 1633. 


Gaesaris Commentaria, eum Notis Davisii, 4to, Can- 
tab., 1727. 

Calderwood'a True History of the Church of Scot- 
land, FoL, 1678. 

Callander's Ancient Scotish Poems, 8to, Edin., 1782. 

^IfS. Notes on Ihre's Glossariam, Ad- 

▼ocates' Library, Edin. 

Camdeni Britannia, 8to, AmsteL, 1617. 

Camden's Remaina concerning Britain, 8vo, Lond., 

Campbell, or the Scottish Probationer, 3 vols., 12mo, 
Edin.. 1819. 

Campbell's Journey through Parts of North Britain, 
2 Tob., 4to, Lond., 1802. 

Cange (Du) Glossarium ad Seriptores Mediae et la- 
fimae Latinitatis, 6 tom., FoL, Paris, 1733. 

Cant'a History of Perth, 2 toIs., Svo, Perth, 1774. 

Cardonnel's Numismata Sootiae, 4to, Edin., 178G. 

Carpentier, Glossarium Novum, seu Supplementum 
ad Du Cange, 4 tom. , FoL, Paris, 1760. 

Carr's (Sir John) Caledonian Sketches, or a Tour 
through ScoUand in 1807, 4to, Lond., 1807. 

Casalius (Joan. Baptist^ De Profanis et Sacris Ve- 
tttribus Ritibus, 4to, Francof., 1681. 

Casanbonnii (Isaac), CV>mmentariusad Persii Satiras, 
8to^ Lond., 1647. 

CaseneuTo Lea Grigines Fran^oise, FoL, Paris, 1694. 


Ottxio&'e GhrcMiiGlM of EnffUnd, Fol., WeitmiiiMtn. 

Oepade, Hiitoira Naturall« daa OeUoto, 4to, Paria^ 

L'aa zii da U Republi^uo. 
ChalnMn's Life of Raddinuoiy 8to, Lond., 1794. 

' " of Mary Queaa of SootUndy 2 ToLky 

Dalrymple^ (Sir D.) SpeoiiiMii of a Soottiah Oloa- 
% printod, Init not publiahed. 

-(Sir David, Lord Hailaa) Annala of 


CSalodonia. 4to, Loud., 1807. 

^Edition of Sir David Lyndaay'a Poetical 

Worka, 3 Tola., 8vo, Lond., 1806. 
Chartulariain Dunfermeliny FoL, MS. Libr. Fae. 

Chartiikriam Aberbrothok. MS. Adv. Lib. 
— — — Aberdon., MB. ibid. 
Chattertoii*8 Poema, (pabliahed aa Rowley'a,) 8yo, 

Lond., 1777. 
Chanoer^i Worka, by Speght, FoL, Lond., 1602. 

^Uny^a Sdition, FoL, Lond., 1721, 

-^ ^TTnrhitt'a Edition, 5 Tola., 8vo, 

Lond., 1775» witn Gloaaaiy. 
Ghronide (A Short) of the reign of Jamea II., 4to. 

T. Addieiounif Ac 
Ohwehyard'a Worthinea of Walea, 8ro, Lond., 1776. 
Clan-Albin, a National Tale, 4 Tob., 12mo, Edin., 

Clarke'a TraTeb in Rnaaia, Tartazy, Aa , 2 Tola. , 4to, 

Lond., 1811, 
Cleland*8 Collection of Poema, 8to, 1607. 
Cloud of Witneiaea, 4to, Olaag., 1720. 
ClnTerii Qermania Antiqua, oontracta Opera Buno- 

nia. 4to, OnellerbTti, 1664. 
Cook a Simple Straina, or Homeapnn Laya, 12mo, 

Aberd., 1810. 
C6lTil*a Mock Poem, 2 parte, 8to, Lond., 1681. 
Complaynt of Scotland, written in 1548, 8to, Edin., 

1 Al ; quoted Cbmpl. 8. 
Cooper'a Tlieaannia Lmguae Bomanae et Britannicae, 

FoL, Lond., 1578. 
Cope (Sir John) Beport of the Proceedinga, Ac, on 

hia Trial, 4to, Lond., 1749. 
Conpatrick of Baymondaholm, a Weatland Tale, 2 

Tola., 12mo, Lond., 1822. 
CotgraTe'a fVench-Engliah Dictionary, FoL, Lond., 

Come of Conformitie, 4to, 1622. 

CoTarrubiaa (Sebaatian de), Teaoro de la Lengna Caa- 

tellana. FoL, Madrid, 1674 
Cowera Law Dictionary, FoL, Lond., 1708. 
Cragii Joa Feudale. Fol., Edin., 1732. 
Cranti'a Hiatoiy of Oreenland, 2 Tola., 8to., Lond., 

Cimnfnrd'a (Thomaa) Hiatoiy of the UniTerrity of 

Edinburgh from 1580 to 1646, 8to, Edin., 1808. 
Creech'a Idylliuma of Theocritua, 8to, Lond., 1684. 
Creiohton'a (Cajjt. John) Memoira of, 12mo, 1731. 
Cromek'a Bemama of Nithadale and Galloway Song, 

8to, Lond.^ 1810. 

Behquea of Bobert Bnma, 8to, Lond., 1808. 

Cromerty'a (Earl of) Hirtorical Account of the Con- 

apiraciea by the £arla of Oowiy, and Bobert Logan 

of Beatalng, Bto, Edin., 1713. 
Vindication of Bobert the Third, King of 

Scotland, from the Imputation of Baatardy, ibid. 
Crookahank'a Hiatoiy of the Sufferings of the (^urch 

of SootUnd, 2 Tola., 8to, Edin., 1751. 
Colloden Papera, 4to, Lond., 1815. 


Delrymple'a (Sir Jamea) CoUectiona oonoeming the 
Scottuh Hiatoiy, 8to, Edin., 1705. 

Scotland, 2 Tola., 4to, kdin., 1776. 

-Ancient Sootttih Pbema, 12mo, Edin., 

1770 ; ouoted in Dictionaiy by the name of Bai*- 
iialyn« Poetiu. 

-Specimen of Godly and Spiritual Sanga, 

8to, Edin., 1765. 
Dalton (BeginaldX 8 Tola., 8to, Edin., 1823. 
Dalyell'a Fngmenta of Scotiah Hiatoiy, 4to, Edin., 

Dangeroua Secieta, 2 Tola., 12mo, Lond., 1815. 
D*Any, Dictionaire Franooii-Flaman, 4to, Amit., 

Danidaono— Ane Brief Commendatioun of Tpricht- 
nea, in reapeot of the aurenea of the aame, to idl 
that walk m it, amplifyit chiefly be that notabill 
document of Goddia michtie protectioun, in pre- 
aeruing hia maitt Tpricht aeruand and feruent 
Mesaenger of Chriatia Euangell, Johne Knoz. Set 
furth in IngUa meter be M. Johne Dauidaone, Be- 
gent in S. Leonaida College. 

Qnhaininto is addit in the «ul ane achort diMOon of 
the Brtaitla quha het cms to deploir the deith of this ez* 
csUent sarasAd of Gk>d. Impnntit at SaDctaodrois bs 
Bobert Lekpraoik, Anno 167S. 

DaTiea'a (Bot. Edw.) Celtio Beaearchea, 8to, Lond., 

DaTiea, Antiquae Linguae Britannicae Dictionarium, 

FoL, Lond., 1632. 
Defoe'a Journey throug:h Scotland, Sto^ Lond., 1729. 
Deapauterii Grammaticae Inatitutionia, lib. VII., 

12mo, Edin., 1666. 
Diallog betuix ane Clerk and ane Courteour, 8vo, 

AdT. Lib., cor. iUulo. 
DiMipline (Buika of) ; in Dunlop'i Collection. 
DiadpUne, a noTol, 3 toIil, 8to, Edin., 1814. 
DomeadaT Book, 3 Tola., FoL, Lond., 1786-1816. 
Douce'a (Franda, Eaq.) lUuatrationa of Shakapeare, 

and of Ancient Mannera, 2 Tola., 8to, Lond., 1807. 
Donglaa'a (Gawin, Biahop of Dunkeld) Yirgil'a 

Aeneia, FoL, EcQn., 1710, finiahed bT the author, 

A. 1513. It ia compared, in aeTeral plaoea, with 

two MSS. in the Libracy of the UniTeraity of 

Douglaa'a (Alex.) Poema, chiefly in the Scottish 

Dialect, 12mo, Cupar-Fife, 1806. 
Duncan'a (Dr.) Young South Country WeaTor, 12mo. 
Dundaa'a Abridgement of the Acta of the General 

Aaaembliea of the Church of Scotland, 12mo, Edin. , 

D— — ae Younger of Amiatoun (Speech for) if he 

ahould be impeach't of H T ^n for what 

he aaid and did about the Pretender'a Medal, 8vn, 

Lond., 1711. 
Dunlop'a Collection of Confeaaiona of Faith, 2 Tola., 

8to, Edin., 1722. 
Durham'a Commentary on the BeTelation, 4to, 

Glaag., 1739. 
Expoaition of the X Commandmenta, 4to, 

Lond., 1675. 

Dying Man'a Testament, or a Treatise con- 

cerning Scandal, 12mo, GUsg., 1740. 
Durward (Quentin), 3 Tola., 8vo, Edin., 1823. 

Booardua de Origine Germanonun, Ac, 4to, Goettin- 

gae, 1750. 
Edda lalandoruro, per Snorronem Sturlae, Beaenin, 

4to, HaTniae, 1665. 


Uda SMmoadUr Hinu Frodm, 4lo, Haf niao, 1787. 

XafMroffth** OttOe RMlareiit, 8fo, Lond., 180G. 

Umoaafeoa's Yiaw ol the Aneient and Present State 
€l ^bm Zetland IilMidi, 2 toU., 8ro, Sdin.. 1809. 
Biir (Sir), 8ir Oiaham, and Sir Gray-Steel, (History 
of) ; mai an imperfeet printed copy in 8ro. In 
■OHM faifincmi, I hare qaoted from a modem MS. 
oopy in ^ poMaw'on dfWaiter Soott, Esq. 

FoL, Lond., 1562. 

XUk'a Specimens of the early English Poets, 3 toIs., 

SfO^Iiond., 1808w 
BMydopaedia BritanniciL 4tOy 18 vols., 1797. 
Sntafl (IheX or the Lairds of Qrippy, 3 vols., 12mo, 

Xdin^ 1S22. 
Spiattaof a Ohriakian Brother, 8to, A. 1824. 
BnUne's Inelitiite of the Law of Scotland, FoL, 


PriDflipIeo of the Law of SooUand, 8to, 

Sasehii Pkaepaiakio Efangelica, Or. et Lat., Fol. 
- - - ■' Kirks of Christ in Scotland to their 

in Sdinboigh, 8to, 1624. 

FsnB(ne)of GMe, or. The Fairies, a Scottish Dra- 

■ matio PlHrtond, 8^ Bdin., 1806. 

Fea*s QnefiBoes of Orkney ancl Shetland, 8fo, Edin., 


IWgoson'i (DaTid) Collection of Scottish Prorerbs, 
pnnted about 1688^ reprinted Edin., 1785. 

Fenie'a Histoiy of the Town and Parish of Dam- 

f T iB ^iiiMfc^ Stou Edin., 1816. 
Festi (PdmpeO Ve Yerbomm Significatione, Libri zz. 

an. Audoftt LaUmMLm^uae, dx.^ FoL, S. Gkrras., 

Fends and Conflicts among the Clans (Hist of) 12mo, 


FSttlay^ Historical and Romantic Ballads, chiefly an- 
eient, 8 irola.. 8to, Edin., 1808. 

Fishennan's (A) Letter to the prc^rietors and occa- 
pien of Salmon Fii^eries in Solway, and Rivers 
eommnnicatlng therewith, A. 1804, written by Mr. 
Bidiaid Ofaham cMf Annan. 

Fladi niyrict Catalogns Testinm Veritatis, 2 torn., 
4to. Logdnn., 1607. 

Flemnig's FnUUling of the Scripture, FoL, Lond., 

(BjB.) To a Recosant. 

DiacoTirie of the AdTorsarie his Dot- 

tMO Ae. 

Of the Lawfon Minuten, Sto., 1614. 

V.BL— Thase two sie rabjoined to the CNifenoe. 

Snbnlna, a Dialogue, 4to, Aberd., 1627. 

Defence of the Lawful! Biinisters of Re- 

fofmed Churches, 4to, Middelburg, 1614. 

* ' Re • 

Commentarie upon the RoTelation, 4to, 

IGddelbnig, 1614. 
Forbes*s Dominie Depos'd. Y. Poems in the Buchan 

Fofdnn ^oannis de) Scotidironicon, cnra Goodall, 2 

▼dsb, FoLj, Edin., 1769. 
FonntainhalTs Decisions of the Lords of Council and 

Bsarion^ 2 irola., FoL, Edin., 1769. 

French's (Richard) Northern Memoirs, calculated for 
tiie Meridian of Scotland, — writ in the year 1668, 
8to, Lond., 1604. 

Froissart'a Chronicles. Y. Bemert. 


Oale et Fell Remm Anglicarum Scriptores, 3 toU., 
FoL, 1684, et 1691. 

Gale's Court of the Gentiles, 2 toIs., 4to, Ozon., 

Galloway's (Cooper, Bp. of) Dikaiolojirie, in reply to 
Hume of Godscroft, 4to, Lond., 1614. 

^bert) Poems, 12mo, Glaag., 1788. 

Garden's (Alezander) Theatre of the Scottish Kings, 
4to, ear. tUulo, 

Gamett's Obserrations on a Tour through the High- 
lands, Ac, 2 ToIs., 4to, Lond., 1800. 

Gawan and Gologras; written about 1460, printed 
Edin., 1608 ; Sir Gawan and Sir Galaron of Gallo- 
way ; supposed to be written about 1440. Both 
are in Pinkerton's Scotish Poems Reprinted. 

Gellii (Auli) Noctes Atticae, 8to, Colon., 1633. 

GenuunfSt.) Y. Hay. 

Gibaon« Chronicon Sazonicnm, 4to, Ozon., 1692. 

GlanriUe'a Saddncismns Triumphatus, 8to, Lond., 

Glenfergns. 3 toIs., 12mo, Edin., 1820. 

Glouce^ers (Robert of) Chronicle, 2 toIb., 8fo, Ozf., 
1724, quoted as R. Cfkme. It is supposed that this 
work was oompleted, A. 1280. Y. Ellis's Spec, I. 

Godwin's life of Chaucer, 4 toIs., 8fo, Lond., 1804. 

Gordon's Itinersrium Septentrionale, FoL, Lond., 

Gower's Confossio Amantis, FoL, Lond., 1632. 

Grant's Thou^ts on the Origin and Descent of the 
GaeL, 8to, Sdin., 1814. 

(BIrs.) Poems on Yarious Subjects, 8to, 

Edin., 1803. 

Essays on the Superstitions of the 

HiffhUmders of Scotland, 2 vols., 12mo, Lond., 1811. 

Gray's (Lieut. C.) Poems and Songs, 8ro, Edin., 1814. 
Gn^rie's Bpitooptu PiMnoncm, or a DtscoFerie of an 

ancient custom in the Church of Sarum, making an 

anni?ersarie Bishop among the Choristers, 4to, 

Lond., 1649. 
Grose's Antiquitiee of Scotland, 2 Foh., FoL, Lond., 


MUit&ry Antiquities, 2 toIs., 4to, Lond., 


Prorindal Glossary, 8ro, Lond., 1790. 

Clasrieal Dictionary of the Yulgar Tongue, 

8to, Lond., 1796. 
Grotto Sang; Tel Ethnica Teterum Borealinm My- 

GudmundiAndreaeLeziconIslandicum,4to, Havniae, 

Gnnnlaugi (Sagan af) Ormstungu oc Skalld-Rafni, 

4to, Hafniae, 1776. 
Guthrie's Trial, 8vo, Glasgow, 1766. 
Gutherius de Jure Manium, 12mo, Lipsioe, 1671. 
Guthr/s (Henry, Bp. of Dunkeld) Memoirs of the 

Aflaira of Scotland, 12mo, Glasg., 1747. 
(William) Sermons on Mark viii. 27-38, 4to, 

Printed 1709. 

Haldorsonii Lezicon Islando-Latino-Danicum, cura 
Raskii, 2 torn., 4to, Hstu., 1814. 



HAinilioiui'f (Abp. of SL Andrew's) Oatechiame, and 
Tr0«liMon'*Ui8SattinSacnunentu,"4to. Prentit 
tft Sanct Androofy A. 1662 ; ■ometimes improperly 
qooled as 166L whioh is the year mentioued in 

Hamilton's (Jhone) Fadle Traiotise. 12mo, Lovan, 

(William) Lifa of Sir William Wallace, 

Ofo, Olawowy 1723. 

Hardyng*s (JHon) Chronicle^ Grafton's Edition, 4to, 
Lond., 1643. 

Harmer's Obserrattons on Tarioos Passages of Scrip- 
tore. 4 To]s.» 8to^ Lend., 1808. 

Harris's Toyages and TiaTels, 2 toIs., FoL, Lond., 

Har'st Big (The) and Fanner's Ha*« Two Poems, 
12mo, rain., 1801. 

Hay^ Scotia Sacra, MS. Fol. Ady. Lib. 

(Alas.) Thmslation of St Germain's Royal 

Physician, 24mo, Edin., 1689. 

(John Allan), Esq., Bridal of CaolchAim, and 

other Poems^ 8¥o, Lond., 1822. 
Heiulrick's View of the Island of Arran, 8vo, Edin., 

Heart of Wd Lothian— 43econd Series of Tales of my 

Landlord, 4 rols., 12mo, Edin., 1818. 
Haim's Krins^ sits Historia Begum Xonr^corum, 

a Snovrio SturUe Filio, 3 torn., Fol., Havniae, 

1777. When the page is qnoted, Peringskiold's 

Edit, 2 Tols., 1697. is referred to. 
Hendeiaon's (Dr.) Iceland, or the Journal of a Resid- 
ence in that Island. 2 toIs., Svo, rain., 1818. 
Henry's (Dr. Bobert) History of Great Britain, 12 

▼ols., 8to, Lend., 1808. 
Herd's Collection of Ancient and Modem Scottish 

Bonn, Heroic Ballads, Ac., 2 v'ols., 12mo, Edin., 

Heiodiani Historiamm libr. viii., Fol., Paris, 1681. 
Herodoti Hslicamassensis Historia, Gr. et Lat, 9 

torn., 12mo, Glsss., 1761. 
Hibbert's (Dr. S.) l)escription of the Shetland Is- 

hnds, 4to, Edin., 1822. 
TTiAa«; Lingnamm Yeterum Septentrionalium The- 

■aoms, 2 rols.^ FoL, Ozon., 1705. 
— InstitntionesGrammaticae Anglo-Sazonicae, 

4to, Oxon., 1689. 
HieronTmi OpenL 9 torn., Fol., BasU, 1637. 
Higdeirs(Banalpn)Polycronioon, FoL, Westminstre, 

psghiMiil Socie^ fTranaactions of), 3 toIs., 8yo, 

— Beport of the Committee of, 5 

▼ols., 8ro, Edin., v. Y. 
Historiae Anffustae Smptores Sex, cum Xotis Sal- 

masii et J. Casaaboni, Fol., Par., 1620. 
Histoire Pitoyable da Prince Ersstus, 8ro, Lyons, 

Historie and Life of King James the Sext, 8vo, 

Edin., 1804. 
Hocdere's Poems. 4to, Lond., 1796. 
Hogg's Scottish Pastoral, Poems, Songs, &o.f 8vo, 


Mountain Bard, 12mo, Edin., 1807. 

of Bodsbeck, and other Tales, 2 

▼ols., 12mo. Edin., 1818. 

Jacobite Belies of Scotland, 8fo, Edin., 1819. 

Winter ETening Tales, 2 toIs., 12mo, Edin., 


HolUnd'sHottlate(written about 1450) in Pinkerton's 

Scotish Poems Reprinted, corrected from the 

Bannatyne MS. 
Hollinshed's Historie of Scotland, FoL, Lond., 1677. 
Hope's Minor Practicks, 8vo, Edin., 1734. 
Howie's Biop[raphia Scoticana, 8ro, Glasgow, 1781. 
Hudson's Hutorie of Judith, 4to, Lond., 1611. 
Huloeti (Richardi) Abcodarium Anglico Latinum, 

FoL. Lend., 1662. 
Humes (of Godscroft) Historjr of the Houses of 

Douglas and Angus, FoL, ram., 1644. 
Hume's History of England, with Continuation, 16 

Tola., 8vo, Lond.. 1803. 
(Sir Patrick) Karratire of Occurrences in 

the Expedition of the Earl of Aigyle in 1686, 4to, 

Perils of yUxL 3 Tols., 12mo, Lond., 1822. 
(John, liUiesieaf,) Poems on different sub- 

jeots^ 12mo, Hawick, 1806. 

Lond., 1809. 
Hutcheson's Exposition' of the Gospel according to 

John, FoL, Edin., 1657. 
Hutchinson's Yiew of Northumberland, Ac, 2 toU., 

4to, Kewc, 177a 

L J. 

Ihre Glossarinm Snio-Gothicum, 2 tom., FoL, Upsal, 

Ihre Lexicon Lapponicum, 4to, Holmiae, 1780. 
Ingram's (WilUam) Poems, in the English and Scot- 
tish Dialects, 12mo, Aberd., 1812. 
Innes's Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of 

Scotland, 2 toIs., 8vo, Lond., 1729. 
Inrentories (Collection of) and other Records of the 

Royal Wardrobe and Jewelhouae, 1488—1606, 4to, 

Edm., 1815. Edited by Thomas Thomson, Esq., 

Depu^ Register. 
Isidori (His|Mdensis Episcopi) Originum, Libri xx. 

Fol., S. Gerrls., 1602. 
Idands Landnamobok, Liber Originum Islandiae, 

4to, Hafniae, 1774. 
Jacob's New Law Dictionarjr, FoL, Lond., 1756. 
James's (King) Daemonologie and other Works, FoL, 

Lond., 1616. 
Jamieson's (Robert) Popular Ballads and Songs, 2 

vols., 8ro, Edm. 1806. 
John o' Amho', a Tale, 8fo. Montrose, 1818. By 

George Beattie, writer in Montrose. 
Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, 2 

Tols., 4to, Lond., 1785. 
Johnstone, Antiquitates Celto-Soandicae et Oelto- 

Kormannicae, 2 vols., 4to, Hafniae, 1786. 
, Lodbrokar-Quida, or, The Death-Song of 

Lodbroc, 8to. 1782. 
Jonae (Runolph.) Dictionariolum Islandicum, 4to, 

Oxon., 1688. 
Jonae (Amgrime) Specimen Islandiae Historicum, 

4to, Amst, 1643. 
Jonson's (Ben.) Works, 2 vols., FoL, Lond. 
Jomandes de Origine Actuque Getarum, FoL, Basil, 

Journal from London to Portsmouth, printed with - 

Poems in the Buchan Dialect. 
Junii Etjrmologicum Anglicanum, FoL, Oxon., 1743. 
»— - Gothicum Glossarium, 4to, AmsteL, 1084. 
Juslen Fennid Lexici Tontamen, 4to, Stockholm, 



Kathleen (St..) or the Rock of Dunnismoyle, 4 vols., 

12mo, Lend., 1820. 
Keith's History of the Affairs of Church and State 

in ScoUand, FoL, Edin., 1734. 


Kmbr, Aiitiqpitetot SeleetM SeptanlrioiialMi Sto, 

HaaoT.i 1730. 
K«^ GollMtioa of Sooiidi FtoTorU, 8to, Lond., 

KasMdy't (Abbot of Oromguel) Compendina T^o- 

tino oooioniio to tho Scriptum, Ste., 4io, 1668. 
KMiMdy'e (Dr. Junei) C^lenochel, a DeMriptive 

Kmnr** Gonoiml English Dictionaiy, 8voy Lond., 

Kflkai EWnolo^ooB Teutonicao Linguae, 8to, III- 
trol., 163^ 4to, oanate HaMolto, Ibid., 1777. 

Kiuni Mnniino&to Antiqaay 3 toU., VoL, Lond., 
1799^ atOm 

KnoK'a Hiatorio of tho Beformatioan, Ac., FoL, 
SdisLy 17S3y oompared with two M8S. penea 

Edit. Loud., 1644. 

aiTo Hiatoria Religionia Chriatianae in 

falandfam Introdactao, 8rOf Hafniae, 1773. 

Laoonba^ IXotioniiaiio do 'Vieiiz Langaga Fhmooiai 

2 took . 8fo^ Fteia, 1766, 1767. 
Laiak'a (W.) Anawer to the SooU Pteabjterian Elo- 
. caaooa.4to. 
XM^a (Ifr. D., Edin.,) Seleci Bemaina of Aneient 

Ftwolar PoetiT of Scotland; (including Sou/ 

CbOyaor, The Tale of CoUodbU Sow, &o.,) 4to, 

Edin.. 1822. 
(Alex.) Thiatle of Scotland, a Selection of 

AadMii Ballada, 8yo, Abeid., 1823. 
lABbaidi Archaionomia, aive be pAacia Anidoram 
Lagibna^^lou Lond., 1668. 

WheloGi, FoL, Cantab., 1644. 

iMBbe'a Hiatorr of the Battell of Floddon, 12mo, 

Laaantaftioiin of Lady Scotland Cbj P. R.), 8to, 

SaaotMulioia, 1572. 
lAw'a Memorialla, or, the Memorable Thinga that 

iriloai within thia laland of Britain from 1638 to 

1684; Edited from the MS. by 0. Kirfcpatrick 

fiharpe, Eaq., 4to, Edin., 1818. 
Lidwidi*a AntiquiUea of Inland, 4to, Dublin, 1790. 
Lnbniti OMn. Cura Dutena, 6 tom., 4to, QeneT., 

Lalaad'a OoDectanea, 6 Tola., 8VO9 Lond., 1770. 
Lafooz, Dictionnaire Comique, Ac., 2 tom., 8vo, 

PaiBpelune. 1786. 
Ladaeaa de Origine, Moribna et Beboa Qeatia Sco- 

toram, 4to, Bomae, 1676. 
Laal^a Title of Suooeaaion to the Croun of Eng- 

had. 8to, 1684. 
Letlan from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland 

to hta Friend in London, 2 Tola., 8to, 1754; 

Written about 1730. Theae are generally quoted 

•a (Gapt) Bort'a Lettera. 
Uk^yd'a Aichaeologia Britannica, FoL, Oxf., 1707. 
Latter to the Scota and Iriah, translated by 

Mr. Maloolme, Edin., 1739. 
I^e Dictionarium .Saxonioo et Oothico-Latinum, 2 

torn., FoL, Lond., 1772. 
li^itfoot'a Flora Scotica, 2 Tola., 8to, Lond., 1792. 
Li^to and Shadows of Scottish Life, 8to, Edin. , 1822. 
lindenbrogi Codex Legum Antiquarum, cum Oloa* 

■ario, FoL. Francof., 1613. 
lomdaay'a (Sir Datid) Warkis, 4to, Edin., 1592. 
Squyer Meldmm, 4to, Ibid., 1594. 

Lindsay's ^Pitaoottie) Hiatory of ScoUand, FoL, 

^^^MMBaa# A ^b 9 ^m%0^ 

Cronidea of Scotland, 8to, 

Edm., 1814.— N.B. The Edin. Edit, in 12mo, of 
1768 la idao occasionally quoted. 

Lyndaay (Margaret) The Triala of, 8to, Edin., 1823. 

Lmnaei Flora Suecica, 8to, Stockholm, 1755. 

■■■ Faunae Suecicae, Pars Prima, 8to, Lips., 


Loocenii Hiatoria Suecana, 4to, Fhmcof., 1676. 

Antiquitates Sueo-Gothicae, Ibid. 

dae Legea ProTindalea et CiTilea, 8to, 

Lond., Scan., 1675. 
Loccenij Lexicon Juria Sueo-€k>thicae, 12mo, Hoi- 

miae, 1674 
Loekhjtft'a (of Gamwath) Memoira of Scotland, 8to, 

Lond., 1714. 
Low's Fauna OreadentU, or the Natural History, &c, 

of Orhner and Shetlan<L 4to, Edin., 1813. 
Ludan's Worlui^ translated by Franklin, 4 toIs., 8to, 

Lond., 1781. 
Lundii Notae in Lexicon Verelii, FoL, Upsal., 1691. 
Lntheri BiUia Oermanica, FoL, Bremen, 1686. 


ie'a (Dr.) life of John Knox, 2 Tola., 8to, Edin., 

ife of Andrew Melrille, 2 toIs., 8to, 

Edin., 1813. 
M'Donald'a Gaelic and English Vocabulary, 8to, 

Edin., 1741, 
Maefarlane'a MSS. — ^The Ancient Chartulariea of 

Scotland, tranacribed at the expence of W. Mac- 

farlane.of Macfarlane, 11 Tola., foL, MS. AdT. 

Maefarlan'a Alphabetical Vocabulary, Gaelic and 

English, 8to, Edin., 1796. 
M'Leod'a Voyage of the Aloeate to China, 8to, Lond., 

Macneill'a Poetical Works, 2toU., 12mo,Lond., 1801. 
MacNioora Bemarka on Dr. Johnaon'a Journey to 

the Hebrides, 8to, Lond., 1779. 
Macpherson's (Darid) Geographical Illuatrationa of 

Scottish Hiatory, 4to, Lond., 1796. 
Macpheraon's (John) Critical Dissertations on the 

Ancient Caledonians, 8to, Dublin, 1768. 
Macrobii Saturnalia, 8to, Lugd., 1660. 
Mactaggart's Scotti^ GalloTidian Encyclopedia, 8to, 

Lond., 1824. 
M'Ward*s Earnest Contendinga for the Faith, 12mo, 

Maflarine, Edinburgh, Constable and Co., Edin., 

BUckwood'a, ibid. V.T. 

MaitUnd's Histonr of Edinburgh, FoL, Edin., 1753. 
Majoris Historia Britanniae, 4to, Paris, 1521. 
Mallet'a NorUiem Antiquities, 2 toIs., 8to, Lond., 


Malleua Maleficarum, 2 tom., 4to, Lugd., 1669. 
Mannering (Guy), or the Astrologer, 3 toIb., 12mo, 
Edin., 1815. 

Bomana Historiquea, Tradnita, Ac. Guy 

Mannering, Paris, 1822. 

Manwood'a Treatiae and Discourse of the Lawes of 
the Forrest. 4to, Lond., 1598. 

Many*s(Peter)Truth'sTraTels.— Pennecuik'sScottish 
Poems, 4to, p. 85-115. Thero is another poem, by 
the same author, entitled his Obliaatym given in to 
King James VI. Ibid., p. 16-19. In the Edin. 
Monthly Magaane and Keviews for Sept. 1810, we 


hmf an «xinel from The CnmicU of Uu Hw* of 
aUim^ compyUii m mder.Be Jomri KAMnroiouir, 
•IJM, Pbtie Kahtb. It oontaioB forty stanxas, 
Moh ooniistiiiff of eight lines. It forme pert of 
what ia calledfV Blue Bo<^ of Seton, in the poeeea- 
doa of W. Hay, Eeq. of Dnimmelyier. 

Marioreybanka, Annala of Scotland from the year 
1514 to the year 1601, 8vo, Edin., 1814. 

Xairiage, 3 rola, 12mo, Edin., 1818. 

Manhidl^a Eoonomy of Yorkshire, 2 Tola., 8fo, 

ajUMm ■ 1 ■ 9w* 

■ M of Oloceator, 2 Tola., 8to, 

CHoo., 1789. ^ . « , 

■ ofUMMiddleCountiea,2ToIa., 

ato, London, 1790. . « ^ 

ICartin'a Deioription of the Western Islanda of Soot- 
land. 8fOw Lcmd., 1716. 

„ y^ace to St. Kilda, 8ro, Lond., 1763 ; 

alao let Edit, Lond., 1698. 

Martina's Beliqoiae Diri Andreae, or the State of the 
Vaneiable and Primeual See of St. Andrews, 4to, 
Si. Andr., 1797. 

ICaaaey'a Orid'a Faati, 8ro, Lond., 1757. 

Ifiaaainger'a Works, 1^ Oifford, 4 toIs., 8vo, Lond., 

MajLwell'a (Bp. of Rosa) Burden of Issachar, 4to, 1646. 
(of Arklana) Select Transactions of the 

Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agricul- 

tnia in Scotland, 8vo, Edin., 1743. 

Pfcaetical Bee Master, 12mo, 

Mayneli Glasgow, a Poem, 12mo, Lond., 1803. 

Siller Oon, a Poem, 12mo. 

Meagher^a Popish Mass celebrated by Heathen 
^Meats. 8to, Limerick, 1771. 
MelTil'a (Sir James) Memoires, FoL, Lond., 1683. 
MellTill's (Mr. James) Memoirs, entitled Historic of 

ttia Life of J. M. MS.,Fol. ^, ^ . ,^^, 
Menage Diotionaire Etymologique, FoL, Pans, 1694. 
|f^>g8Mi»^ on Les Bons Mots, &c., de M. Menage, 

4 torn., 12mo, Paris, 1729. 
MeKorina Caledonioa, from Dee. to March, 1661, 

M^amighami Florilegiom Insulae Sanctoram, FoL, 

Meaton^a Poetical Worka, 12mo, Edin., 1767. 
|f^^i»i>u« Inferodactoiy Lecturea to the New Te:*ta- 

ment, 12mo, Edin., 1779. _ , ^^^^ 

Milne*a Description of Melrose, 12mo, Kelso, 1782. 
ICnot's Poems (written about 1352), 8vo, Lond., 

Minahea'a Guide to the Tongues, FoL, Lond., 1627. 
Mlnndi Felicis Octavius, 8to, Lugd. Bat, 1672. 
Mbnipennie^a Abridgement or Summarie of the Scots 

Ohvonides, Edin., 1633, 8vo. , , ^ _,^ 

Monro's (Col. Robert) Expedition with the Worthy 

SooU Beghnent (called MacKeye*s Regiment), &e, , 

FoL, Lond., 16w. . , «r 
(Dean of the Isles) Description of the Wes- 
tern Isles of ScoUand, called Hebrides, 12mo, 

Edin., 1774. 
Mcmtfaocon L'Antiquittf Ezpliqntf, avec Supplement, 

15 torn., FoL, Paris, 1722-1757. ^ .^ 

Mora's (Sir William, of Rowallane) True Crucifixe 

for True CathoUckes, 8vo, Edin., 1629. 
Morgan's (Lady) Florence Macarthy, an Irish Tale, 

4 irola., 12mo, Load., 1818. 
Moriaon's Dictionary of Decisiona, Supplement to, 

VoL L— IV., 4to, Edin., 1824. 

Morriaon'a Poems, chiefly in the Soottiah Dialect, 

8?o, Montrose, 1790. 
Moryson's(Fynes^ Itinerary, FoL, Lond., 1617. 
Mortaye'a TraTela, 3 vols., FoL, Lond., 1723 and 

Msfltiyal College of Physiciana, Edin., FoL ; about 
the ase of Robert Bruce. ««« .. .* 

Murraj^rof Glendook) Lawa and AcU of Pariiament, 

M2!i''a!Si«e?by H. Adam«>n, in Ganfa Hiatory 
of Perth. 

Narea'(Aichdeacon)GloBBary, or CoUection of Wojda, 

PluMea, Names, and Allusiona to Customa, rror 

Torba, Ac., 4to., Lond., 1822. 
NeUl's (5p.) List of Fishes found in the FnUi of Forth, 

and Rivers and Lakes near Edinburgh, with Ke- 

marka, 8vo, Edin., 1810. 
2 Account of British Horticulture drawn up 

for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, 4to, Edin., 1817. 
- Tour through some of the Islanda of 

Orkney and Shetland, 8to, Edin., 1806. 
Nicors (Alexander) Poems, Nature without Art, 

12mo, Edin., 1739. ^ . ..^ « ^x- i. tv- 

(Rev. J.) Poems chiefly in the Scottish Dia- 
lect, 2 vols., 12mo, Edin., 1805. 

Nicolaon's (Bp.) Scottish Hutoncal Library, 8ro, 
Lond., 1702. ^ ^^. ,_^ 

Nigel (The Fortunes of), 3 vols., Edin., ITOZ. 

Nimmo's Histoiy of Stirlingshire. 8vo, Edin^ 1777. 

Northern Antiquities (lUustrations of), from Uie 
Earlier Teutonic and Scandinavian Romancea, «o, 
Edin., 1814. 


O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, 4to, Paris, 1768. 
OgUvy and Nairn's Trial, 8vo, Edin., 1765. 
O'HaUoran's General History of Lrehmd, 2 vols., 4to, 

Lond., 1778. « . ^ • i- 

Olai Msgni HUtoria, De Gentium SeotentnonaUum 

Tariia conditionibus, &c.. FoL, Basfl, 1M7. 
OUvii (Magni) Specimen Lexici Runici, Fol., Hav- 

niae. 1650. , . -i^ 

Oram's (William, Town-Clerk of Old Aberdeen) De- 
scription of the Chanonry, Cathedr^ and Ri^s 
Coltoge of Old Abenleen in the years 1724 and 1725, 
12mo, Aberd., 1791. 
Orkney (Rentals of.) Y. Pettrkin. , 

Orkneyinga Saga, sive Histona Orcadensium, 4to, 

Hafniae, 1780. «... tv • 

Oiosii (Paoli) Adversus Paganos Histonarum Idbn 

Septem, 8vo, Colon., 1682. 
Ortus Vocabulorum Alphabetico Ordine, Ac, coiu 

vemacule lingue Anglicaiie expositiono, 8vo, Lond. , 

Wynkyn de Worde, [k. 1518. J , -^ao 

Ovidii Opera, Cnippingii, 3 torn., AmstoL, 1683. 
Oaell's RabelaU, 12mo, Lond., 1750. 


Palbtf, Travels through the Southern Plovincea of the 
Russian Empire, &c., 2 vols., 4to, Lond., 1802. 

Palioe of Honour, be M. Gawine Dowglaa, Bischoo 
of Dunkeld, 4to, Edin., 1579, also in Pinkertona 
S. Poems, Reprinted. , , , _ 

Palsgraue, Ledaircisaement de la Langue Fran^oyse, 

Lond., FoL, 1530. 
Pardovan's Collection. V. Stevcart. 
Patrick (St.), a Novel, 3 vols., 12mo^ Edin., 1819. 


Fitlaa'a ▲ooooiil ol tht Lite Sxpedidoaii in Soot- 

kndy f. Dalgrell'a Fkvgments. 
FiddM's (Ales.) MMantme^nnoPf WeaT«r and Warpers' 

AmbUdL ISmo, Ola^r.* 1B14. 
Fadflik*a (Awz.) Two Propketioal Sermona, entitled, 

ThM Lordi trumpei BtmiHit^ oh Alarm to SeoUand^ 

Ae.4to. m^thontdaleorplaoa. 

1Mb. ▼. IPoflbcr. 

BftlWlier, Dietionnaira de In iMigne Bretonne, FoL, 

Fainaafa Tour in SooUand, 1709 and 1772, 3 rola., 


^onr in Walea, 1773, Sto, Dublin, 1779. 

Zooloor— of Birda, 2 rola., Sto, 

-^ of Fiahea, 8to, Cheater, 

WaninKton, 1776. 


FnuMeoik'a Deaeription el Twaeddale, and Soottiah 
Foama, 4to, 1716. 

Deacripition of Tweeddale, with Notfla, 
8fo, Lailh. 1816. 


Alaz.) Hiatorieal Aooonnt of the Blue 

Blanket, llhno. iSdin., 1722. 
Panroaa'a (Ueweuin) Jooinal, 4 Tohu, 12mo, Lend., 

Berej^a Baliqnea of AndenI Engliah Poetry, 3 vola., 

IftDOL DnUin, 1766. 
Farinnidoldi Monnmanln Uplandica» FoL, Stock- 
holm, 1710. 
FMar^a Latteii to hia Kinaiolk; 3 Tola., 8to, Edin., 

Fataridn*aRenta]aof the Ancient Earldom andBiahop- 

liek of Orimejr, 8to^ Edin., 1820. 
Fatrio'a Hiatoiy of the CSatholick Church, Fol., 

Hague, 1662. 
Pottioottt Talea, 8 Tob.. 8ns Bdm., 1823. 
Peiii Theaanma Anecaotorum, aen Yeterum Menu- 

mentoram, 6Tola., FoL, Aug. YindeL, 1721—1728. 
Phiffipo' New Worid of Woida, edited by Kexaey, 

FoL, Lond., 1706. 
Philonia Judaai Op«ns FoL, Colon. AUobrog., 1613. 
PSdan'a (Ebeneaer) Poema and Epiatlea, mostly in 

the Soottiah Dialoct, with a Oloaaaxy, 8ro, Pkualey, 


M acellaneoua Poems, Songs, 

Ae.9 2Tola.,12mo, Edin., 1813. To diatinguish this 

from the praoeding. it ia ijnoted aa YoL L or U. 

without the date of the editimn. 
Pfnkeiton'a Enquiiy into the Hiatoiy of Scotland, 2 

vobu, SfO^Lond., 1789. 

. HiatoKT of Sooiland, 2 Tola., 4to, Lond., 


Select Soottiah Ballade. 2 Tola., 8vo, 

Ancient Soottiah Poema, 2 Tola., 8to, 

Iiood., 1786^ quoted in Dicr. by the name of 
Jfatllfliui Poema. 

ScottiBh Poema Reprinted, 3 Tola., 8to, 

1792; quoted 8, P. K ot Bepr. 

E aay on Medals, 2 Tola. , 8to, Lond. , 1 789. 
Piper (The) of Peeblea, e Tale, bj e WeaTcr in Kirxy- 

■Buir, 12mo, Dundee, 1793. 
Pitaeottie. Y. ~ ~ 

Plnjer^a CThe) Soouige lyf H. L ; i. e., (if I recollect 
right,) Hu|^ Innea, who waa a Minister to a oon- 
psgation m the people called Cameronians, in the 
Calton of Glassow. It waa printed about 1757. 

Plinii Hiatoria Mundi, 4 Tola., 16mo, Lugd., 1661. 

PkNighman'a (Piers) Yision, 4to, [ascribed to Rob. de 
Langland, mid auppoaed to husTe been written be- 

tween A. 1384 and 1390.] Edit 1560 U generaUy 

quoted ; aometimea that of 1561. 
Ploughman*a (Pierce the) Crede, FoL, Lond., 1814. 
Poema, chieflT in the Broad Buchan Dialect, Ajaz'a 

Speech to uie Grecian Knabba, Ulyasea*a Anawer, 

&c., 12mo. Edin., 1785. 
P««j E«gluh. scotch, «.d Utin. 8,o. FWd^. 

Poetical Muaeum. 12mo, Hawick, 1784. 

Polidore Yeigile a Notable Woorke, (Abridgement 

of) by Thomaa Langley, 8to, Lond., 1546. 
Pontoppidan'a Katund Hiatoiy of Norway, fol., 

Lond., 1755. 
Porteoua of Noblenee, 4to, Edin., 1508. AdT. Lib. 
Potter's Archaelogia Oraeca, 2 toIs., 8to, Lond., 

Priests of Peblis, (written before 1491) in Pinkerton's 

8. Poems Reprinted. 
Pxocopius de Rebus Gk>thicorum, Persarum, et Yan- 

dalorum, FoL, BaaU, 1531. 
Pkomptorium Paruulorum aiue Clericorum, (also en- 
titled, Promptorius Puerorum, and PTomptuarium 
Paruulorum, FoL, Lond., ap. Ric. I^rnson, 1499. 
Ths sathor of this vtnr scarce book was Richard 
nsoncas, a presdiinff or Black Frier. Heame informa 
OS, that in the beginnuig of a copy of this book, that was 
lent to him, he foand wntten, in an old hand, toe follow- 
fnj^ note: Nomen Compilatoris istius libri est Frater 
Rtcardos Frances* inter qnatnor parietes pro Christo 
Indnsos, V. Heame's Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 624, 625 ; 
and Trrwhltt's Chancer, il 636. 
Pme*a Arohaeologia Comu-Britannica, or Cornish 

Vocabuhurjr, 4to, Sherborne, 1790. 
Piyce'a Archaeolma Comu-Britannica. or Cornish 
Oranmiar, and (^miBh-£nglish Yocabulary, 4to., 
Sherborne, 1790. 
Ptolemaei Geographia, FoL, Basil, 1552. 

Queries* DiTine Fandee, 4to, Lond., 1833. 

Ray'a Philoaophical Lettera, 8to. Lond., 1718. 

Cdlection of Engliah Worda, 12mo, Lond., 
Ramsay'a ETergreen, 2 Tola., 12mo, Edin., 1724. 

Poema, 2 Tola., 8to, Lond., 1800. 

Tea-Table Miscellany, 2 Tola., 12mo, Edin. 


Scota ProTerba, 12mo, Edin.. 1776. 

Ramua, Commentariea of the Ciuill Warrea of 

Fraunoe, 3 toU., 4to, Lond., 1574. 
Raatell'a Collection of Stotutea, 4to, Lond., 1559. 
Ezpoaition of Terma of the Lawe, 8ro, 

Lond., 1579. 
Rauf Coilyear. Y. Laina\ &c. 
Receipta in Cookety, (Collection of) 12mo, Edin. 
Regiam Majestatem, The Auld Lawes and Constitu 

tions of Scotland, FoL, Edin., 1609. 
The same in Latin, FoL, Edin., 1609. 
Reid's Scots Oardner, 4to, Edin., 1683. 
Relph*s Poems, chiefly in the Cumberland Dtalect, 

12mo, Carlisle, 1797. 
Rennel's Geographical System of Herodotus, 4to, 

Lond., 1800. 
Richards' English and Welsh Dictionary, 2 Toh., 

12mo, Lond., 1798. 
Ritson's Scotish Songs, 2 Toh., 12mo, Lend., 1794. 
Ancient [English] Songs from the time of K. 

Henry 111., 8to, Lond., 1790. 


Biteoti's PieoM of AneMnt PopulAr Poetnr« 8to. 
" ., 179L 

•Anotent Sn^^iih MetrioAl RomanoM, 3 Tob., 

8fo, Lond.. 1802, quoted as B, M. Bom. or R, 
-Robin Hood, 2 rols., 8fo, Lond.. 1795. 

Bobeiti' TraaiiM of Witchcraft, 4to, Loni., 1616. 
Bobertaon's Histoiy of Charica v., 4 vola., 8to, 

Lond., 1772. 
■ (W.) Index to Reoorda of Chartera, 4to, 

Xdin., 1798. 
Rob Roy, in Three Tolnmea, 12mo, Edin.. 1818. 

. (Trialaof the Bona of) 12mo, Edin., 1818. 

Rolloeke'a Lecturea upon the First and Second 

Epiatiea of Pkol to the Theaaaloniana, 4to, Edin., 


«pon the Epistle of Paul to 


4to, Lond., 1603. 

upon the HJatory of the Paa- 

aion, Sbe,, 8fo, Edin^ 1616. 
Rommant de la Rose, FoL, Ptoia, 1531. 

Oloaaaiie de, 12iiio, ibiiL, 1735. 

Ronan'a (St.) WeU, 3 foIs.. 12mo, Edin., 1824. 
Roquefort, Qloaaaiie de la Langue Romane, avec 

Sof^plementj 3 torn., 8to, Paris, 1808, 1820. 
Roaini Antiqaitatea Romanae, 4to, Anist., 1686. 
Roas'a Helenore, or The Fortunate Shepherdess, 8to, 

Aberd., 1768, First Edit, also Aberd., 1789, Third 

Rothelan, Romance of the English Hiatoriea, 3 vols. 

12nio. Edin., 1824. 
Rudbeckii Atlantica, 2 Tola., FoL, Upsal., 1680. 
Ruddiman'a Introduction to Anderson's Diplomata, 

12mo^ Edin., 1773. 
Roickbie's Way-side Cottager, consisting of Pieces 

in Prose and Verse, 12mo, Hawick, 1807. 
Russel'a Conveyancing, 8vo, Edin., 1788. 
Rutherford's Religious Letters, 8ro, Glasgow, 1765. 
Rymbefl^ sive Annalea Veternm Islandorum, &c, 

4to, HaTuiae, 1780. 
Rymeri Foedera, 20 torn., foL, 170A-1735, 

SadlerVi (Sir Ralph) State Papera and Letters, 2 vols. 

4to, Edin., 1809. 
Saker's Karbonus, 2 Pktfta, 4to, Lond., 1580. 
Savage's History of Germany, 8to, Lond., 1702. 
Sazonia Orammatiei Hist Danica., Fol., Franc, 1576. 
Saxon (The) and the Gael, or the Northern Metro- 
polis, 4 vols., 12mo, Lond., 1814. 
Scacohi Myiothecinm, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sa- 

cfo-Profanorum, Fol., Hag., Com., 1725. 
Schedii ^liae) De Dis Germanis Syngrammata, 8vo, 

AmateL, 1648. 
Schilteri Thesaurus Antiquitatum Teutonicarum, 3 

torn., Fol., Uloiae, 1728. 
Sohotti (Caspar) Physica Curiosa, sive Blirabilia 

Naturae et Artis, 4to, HerbipoU, 1697. 
Sootish Poems of the Sixteenth Century, 2 vols., 

12mo, Edin., 1801. 
Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, 8vo, Lond., 1719. 
Scot's (Reginald) Discovery of Witchcraft, 4to, Lond., 

Scott's (of Scotstarvet) Staggering State of the Scots 

Stateamen, 12mo, Edin., 1754. 

(of Satchels) True Histoiy of the name of 

Scot, 4to, Edin., 1776. 

(Andrew) Poems, 12mo, Edin., 1805, and 

Scott, (Sir W.) Lady of the Lake, 4to, Edin., 18ia 
■ Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, S 
vols., 8vo, 2d Edit, Edin., 1803. 

— Lay of the Last Minstrel, 8vo, Edin.^ 


Kelso, 1811. 

Border Exploits, 12mo, Hawick, 1812. 

Second Sisht (Tieatise on the) 12mo, Edin., 1764. 
Seldeni Fleta, seu Commentariua Juria Anglicani, 

4to, Lond., 1685. 
Senecae Opera, 8vo, Amstel., 1634. 
Serenius, English and Swedish Dictionary, 4to, 

Nykoping, 1757. 
De Veternm Sueo-Gothorum cum Anglii 

Usu et Commercio, 4to, Hambuig, 1734. 
Servii Notae in Virnlium, FoL, Venet, 1514. 
Sewel's English and Dutch Dictionaiy, 4to, Amst, 

Shakspeare (Reed's), 21 vols., 8vo, Lond., 1803. 
Shaw's Gaelic and English Dictionary, 2 vols., 4to. 

Lond., 1780. 
Sherwood's (Robert) Dictionary, English and French, 

Fol.. Lond., 1650. 
Shield's (Alex.) Notes and Heads of a Prefsce and 

Lecture preached in 1688, 4to, printed 1709. 
■ Faithful Contendwgs (of the Select 

Societies) displayed, 8vo, GUsg., 1780. 
Shirrefs' Puenis, 8vo, Edin., 1790. 
Sibbaldi Phalainologia Nova, 8vo, Lond., 1773. 

Scotia lUustrata, Fol^ Edin., 1684. 

Sibbald*s (Sir R.) History of Fife and Kinzoas, 8vo, 

Cupar-Fife, 1803. 
(James) Chronicle of Scottish Poetry, 

(quoted Chnm. 8. P. ) with Glossary, (quoted QL 

SM.), 4 vols., 8vo, Edin., 1802. 
Sigeberti Gemblacensis Chronicon, ab anno 381, ad 

1113, 4to, Paria, 1513. 
Sinclair's (Sir John) Statistical Account of Scotland, 

21 vols., 8vo, Edm., 1791^1799. 

Observations on the Scottish Dialect, 8vo, 

Lond., 1782. 

(George)Satan's Invisible World Discovered, 

12mo, Glasgow, 1769. 
— Miscellaneous Observations on 

Hydrostaticks, 4to, Edin., 1672. 
Sinclair's (John) Simple Lays, 12mo, Perth, 1818. 
Symson's (A. of Dalkeith) Chriates Testament un- 
folded, 8vo, Edin., (Raban) 1620. 

(of Kirkinner) Luge Description of Gal- 
loway, 8vo, Edin., 1823. 
Skene'a Lawes and Actes of Parliament, Fol.. Edin.. 

De Yerborum Significatione, FoL, Edin., 

Skinner, Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae, FoL, 

Lond., 1671. 
(Rev. J.) Miscelliuieous Collection of Fa- 

gitive Pieces of Poetry, 8vo, Edin., 1809. 
Smith's Gaelic Antiquities, 4to, Edin., 1780. 

Life of St Columba, 8vo, Edin., 1798. 

Smugglers (The), a Tale descriptive of the Sea-coaat 

Manners of Scotland, 3 vols., 12mo, Edin., 1819. 
Society Contending!. V. StuehU, 
Solini Historia, 8vo, Liigd., IbQO. 
Somervilles (The 3f eiuorie of), a Histoiy of the Ba- 
ronial House of Somerville, 2 vols., 8vo, Edin., 

Spaewife (The), a Tale of the Scotish Chroniclea, 3 
. vols., 12mo, Edin., 1823. 
Spalding's History of the Troubles in Scotland from. 

1624 to 1645, 12mo, 2 vols., Aberd., 1792. 



%— fcinii mitoria Saom atquo KocleiiMUo, FoL, 

flpMBhim R^U (li^a Kongt-Skugg-SioX M. Dml 

«lLa.,4lo,8oroe, 1768. 
H p Jm a mii OlotMuriam Aioludologioaiaf Fol., Loud., 

Bpmmm^B (Kdmimd) Works^ by ReT. H. L Todd, 8 

iroli», iro. Load. ^806. 

• woilu bj Hughes, 6 Tob., ISmoy 

fltpottmroode't HUtorioal Dietioiiaiy of the Iawb of 

Bentland. MS. in the poeaesaiun of John SpottU- 

voode^ Xiq. of Spottiewoode, [ooniriating of U^ 

■h eet e folio, but continued only to Col. 1 
■ fDr. Jimea), Bishop of Oolffher in 

Inland, Breefe Memoriall of the Life and Death 

dL 410, Sdin., 18U, from MS. in the Aochinloek 

flMtowood'a HiatoiT of the Ohnrch of Scotland, FoL , 

Loud., 1865. 
ftain (Lord), Listitations of the Law of Scotland, 

IbL, Sdin., 1769. 
atapleton'a (nbouw) Tranalation of Bede's History 

off tlie Ohurch of Snglande, ito, Antwerp, 1685. 
BleaB-Boat (The), 12mo, Edin., 1822. 
Blehelin'a Tnditioiia of the Jewa, 2 Tola., 8to, Lond., 

Btephani (Robe) Dietionarinm Latino-gallionm, FoL, 

fltewaitii (of FaidoYan) CoHeotiona concerning the 

Wonhip, Ae., of the Church of Scotland, ito, 

Bliwavfa SUmenti of Gaelic Orammar, 8fo, Edin., 

— (Ool. DaTid) Sketchea <^ the Character, 

MannAiB, and Pkeaent State of the Highlanders of 
BootlMid, 8 Tola., 8to, Edin., 1822. 

Abridgment of the Scota Acts, 12mo, 

Sdin.. 1707. 
BtaKngneei's Originea Britannicae, FoL, Lond., 

BIndui daTis Linguae Sanctae, 8to, Lipsiao, 1753. 
8lratt*a Gliff4kimma Angd-Leod, or Sporta and 

PiMtimea of the People of England, ito, Lond., 

Stavtt'a Heria itn^el-cyiMiati, or Compleat "View ol 

the Manners, Customs. Anns, Habits, Ac. of the 

Inhabitanta oi England, 2 toIs., ito, Lond., 177i. 
Steait (MMjOt A Historical Drama, 8to, Lond., 1801. 
fltnkeiey^a Medallic History of Carausius, 2 toIs., 

4to, Lend., 1757. 

uy View of the Feudal Law^ 8to, Edin., 1710. 
flneloniua ODranquillua, enra OracTii, AmsteL, 1897. 

T)mM Annales, enra Brotier, i tom., ito, Edin., 

Tbiaa of mj Landlord, i Tola. . 12mo, Edin. 
; • Second Series, V. HeaH of 

TwmahiU'a Si^dier'a Return, with other Poems, 

19mo» P^aley, 1807. 
Vsnaa'a (William) Poems, chiefly in the Scottish 

Bialeet|12mo, iBdin., 180i. 
IW^cr^a (William) ScoU Poema, 8to, Edin., 1787. 
Dsnnant'a Anster Fair, with other Poems, 12mo, 

Sdin., 181i. 

Cardinal Beaton, 8to, Edin., 1823. 
Tartnlliani Opeim, FoL, Paris, 1818. 

Thorn's (of Gk>Yan) Works, 12mo, Olasg., 1799. 

■ (Walter) Uistory of Aberdeen, 2 Tola., 12mo, 

Aberd., 1811. 
Thorkelin's (Grime J.) Fragments of English and 

Iriah History, ito, London, 1788. 
Thwaitea, Heptateuchus, Aa, Anglo-Saxonice, 8to^ 

Ozon., 1898. 
T^ndale'e Obedyence of a Chrysten man, ito, Lond., 

wiAoui date, 
TjM» Refutation of ane Ansuer made be Schir 

Johne Knox, 8to, Paris, 1573. 
^frwhitt's Glossary. V. Chaucer. 
I^ler'a Poetical Remains of James the First, 8to, 

Edin., 1783. 
Toland's History of the Druids, with Xotes Critical, 

Philological, and Explanatoiy, by R. Huddleston, 

8to, Montrose, 181i. 
Toland'a Nazarenus, 8to, Lond., 1718. 
Tooke (Home) DiTersions of Purley, VoL L and XL, 

ito, Lond., V. Y. 
Torfaei Orcades, FoL, Hafniae, 1897. 
Toomay, or Alaster of Kempencaim, 12mo, Edin., 

Trsgedie (Ane), in forme of ane Diallog betuix Ho* 

nour, Gude Fame, and the Author, 8vo, Edin., 

Crain'a (Jceeph) Poetical ReTeries, 12mo, Glasg., 


I Strains of the Bfountain Muse, 8to, 

Edin., 181i. 
TrcTOttX (Dictionnaire UniverBel IVan9ois ci Latin 

de), 7 tom., FoL, Paris, 1752. 
Tristrem (Sir), by Thomas of Ercildoune, called the 

Rhymer, edited by Walter Scott, Esq., 8to, Edin., 

180i ; supposed to haTO been written about 1250. 
Tioil's (Von) Letters on Iceland, 8to, Dublin, 1780. 
Tnmbull's (GaTin) Poetical Essays, 8to, Glasg., 

Toaser^s Fito Hundred Points of good Huabandry, 

ito, Lond., 1810. 


Ulphilae Quatnor ETan^jeliorum Yersio Gothica, 

cum Vers. Anglo-Sazonica, ito, AmsteL, 188i. 
UniTersal (Ancient) History, 21 toIs., 8to, Lond., 


Ure's History of Ruthezglen and East Kilbride, 8to, 
GUsg., 1793. 

Urquhart's (Sir Thomas) Translation of the First and 
Second Books of the Works of Mr. Francis Ra* 
belaia. Doctor in Physicke, 8to, Lond., 1653. 

^Tracts, 12mo, Edin., 177i. 

Usserii Brittannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitatea, 
ito, Dublin, 1639. 

TaUancey'a Prospectus of the Language of the An- 
cient trish^ ito, DubL, 1802. 

Vaus (Joannis, Artium Bonarum Profess. Aberdon.) 
Rnoimentorum Gnunmatioes, Ac. ito, Paris, 1522. 

Vegetius de Re Militaxi, 12mo, Lugd. Bat, 16ii. 

dien et F 
tom., ito, Lyons, 1707. 

Veneroni Dictionaire Italian et Fran9ois, ^., 2 

Thierry, Dictionaire Francois-Latin, par Jean le 
Fk«ra, FoL, Pkris, 1573. 

Verelii Index Linme Veteris S<7^tho-Scandicae aiTe 

Gothicae, FoL, UpsaL, 1691. 

Notae in Herrarar Saga, FoL, UpsaL, 1871. 

~ Manuductio ad Runographiam Scandicam 

Antiquam, FoL, Upral., 1875. 
Ventenn'a Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 

8to. Lond., 1873. 
Vidalmi, De Linguae Septentrionalis Appellatione, 

Domk IVinoo, Commentatio, ito, Hafniae, 1775. 
Vitringa in Jesaiam, 2 toIs, FoL, Basil, 1732. 



Waehtoii OlotMrinm Gwrnameom, QtoIm,, WaL, Lips., 

Wftlker^a (Dr^ Ebmits on Natona Histoiy and Runl 
Xoonomv, 8to, Sdin., 1808. 

(Pteick) Remarkable PaaMiges of the Life 
and Death of theee three famous Worthies, Mr. 
John Semple, lir. John Welwood, Mr. Biohard 
Oaaeron, kc, l2mo, Edin., 1727. 

' Remarkable Passages in the Life 
of Mr. Ales'. Peden, Edin., 1727. 

Wallaoe'i life, by Blind Huriy, 3 toIs., 12mo, 
Perth, 1790, corrected from the MS. of 1489, 
Adrocate's Libraiy. Bl. Harrj wrote, according 
to some, A. 1446; according to others, in 1470. 

8to, Bdin., 1648. 

12mo, Edin., 1673. 

4to, Sdin., 1768. This Edition, I am 

assuied, as well as that of Bmee^ was printed A. 
1714 or 1716, bv R. Vroebaim, His Majesty's 
Printer ; bnt, as ne enfpiged in the Rebellion, they 
were not paUished. Having been sii£fored to lie 
firom that time in e bookseller's warehouse, both 
were published A. 1768, with false dates. 

Wallace i Account of the Islands of Orkney, 8ro, 
Load., 1700. 

Wa^le/a Wonders of the Little World, 4to, Lend., 

Ware's Antiquities of Ireland, by Hairis, 8 toIs., 

FoL, Dublin, 1762. 
Warton's History of English Poetry, 3 toIs., 4to, 

Iiond., 1774. 
Watson's (R.J Historical Collections of Ecclesiastical 

AfSum in Scotland^yo, Lond., 1667. 
— — — - (James) Choice Collection of comic and 

serious Poems. 8to, Edin., 1706. 

Whitaker's History of ICanchester, 2 vols., 8vo^ 
Load., 1773. 

Genuine BQstory of the Britons 

Weber^s ICeteicai Romances of the Thirteenth, Four- 
teenth, andFifteenth Centuries, 3 vols., 8vo, Edin., 

F loddon Field, 8vo, Edin., 1808. 

Wedderbnmi (David) Yocabula cum aliii nonnullis 
Lattnae Linguae Subsidiis, 8vo, Edin., 1673. 

Weataoreland Dialect, in four Familiar Dialogues, 
with Olossaiy, Lond., 1802. 

8vo, Lond., 1773. 
Widirs Translation of the New Testament (mad* 

about 1370), Y. Lewis's Hist. p. 6) ; FoL, Lond.» 

Undiflfs Wicket, or a learned end godly Treatise on 

the Sacrament. Set forth aoconOng to an ancient 

printed copie, 4to, Oxford, 1612. 
Widegren, Suenskt och Engelskt Lexicon, 4to, Stodc* 

holm, 1788. 
Wilson's (George) Collection of Masonic Songs and 

Entertaining Anecdotes, 12mo, Edin., 1788. 
• (John) View of the Agriculture of Renfrew- 

shire, 8vo, Paiiley, 1812. 

(Alexander) Poems, 8vo, Paisley, 1790 ; 

1 with an Account of his Life and Writingi, 12mo, 
: Paisley, 1816. He was the author of that eleaant 
\ #ork, the American Ornithology, in 9 vdsu, fMio. 
Wisheart's Theohgia, 2 vols., 8vo, Edin., 1716. 
Wylie (Sir Andrew), 3 voh., Edin., 1821. 
Wyntown's (Androw of) Cronyldl of Scotland, wiii- 
ten between 1420 and 1^4 ; edited by Mr. D. 
MacpherK>n, 2 vols., 8vo, Lond., 1795. 
Wodrow's History of the Sufferings ojf the Church of 

Scotland, 2 vols., FoL, Edin., 1721. 
Wolffl Danskog Engelisk Ord-Bog, 4to. Lond., 1779. 
Wolm Curae PhUologicae et CriUcae m Nov. Test, 

6 tom., 4to, Hamb., 1733. 
Womui ((M.) Fasti Dantci, FoL, Hafniae, 1643. 
; Literatum Runica, FoL, ibid.^ 1651. 

-. MonumentorumDanicorum Libri Sex, 

FoL, 1643. 

Museum, FoL, AmsteL, 1666. 

Writer's (The) Clerk, or the Humours of the SooU 
' tish Metropolis, 3 vols., 12mo, Lond., 1826. 


Tork-shire Ale, (Praise of), Tork-shire Dialogue^ 
. with CUvis, 8vo, York, 1697. 
Young's (Arthur) Tour in IreUmd, 2 vols. 8vo^ Lond. ^ 


An Explanation of the Contractions wed in this Work 

A. Bar. Aii||;1ia Borealis, North of England. 

JA*. Adjective. • 

Aio. Adverb. 

Akm. Alemannic language. 

Ans. Ancient, or Anciently. 

Ang. County or dialect of Ajicts. 

Afm. Aimorican, or language (S Bretagne. 

A^S. Anglo-Saxon language. 

Bsh. Belgic language. 

A*A Combio-Britannic, or Wekh lan- 




Used occasionally for Chaucer. 


Census. Complaynt of Scotland. 
Coiy* Conjunction. 

Contracted, or Contraction, 

Cornish, or language of Cornwall. 

Corrupted, or Corruption. 


Danish Langu^e. 
Dmo. Derivative, or Derivation. 
Dim, 4r Diminutive. 




E* English language. 

Ed^ EdiL EdSion. 

Erratum, or Errata. 

Explain, explained. 


Finnish, language of Finland. 








French language. 

Frankish, Theotisc, or Tudesque 

Frisian dialect of the Belgic. 

Gaelic of the Hij^ands of Scot- 

Oennan language. 

OL, Glo$9. Glossary. 

GoA. Gothic. 

Chr. Greek language. 

HA. Hebrew language. 

JKap. Spanish language. 

Impfr. Imperative. 

It. Irish laneuaee. I 

IsL Islandic ^r Icelandic) language, j 

Ital. Italian language. { 

JuH. Sometimes for Junius. 

Latin language. 


L. B. Barbarous Latin. 
Metaph. Metaphor, MetaphoricaL 
Moei'G. Moeso-Gothic, as preserved in 

Ulphilas' Version of the Gospels. 




Oricnev. . 




pavim pr, 
— pa, 


Persian language. 


Precopensian dialect of the Gothic. 



Pronoun ; abo, Pnmounce, Pronun- 
Prav. Proverb. 
Q^ q. Quasi. 
Qu, Quenr. 

a. V. Quod vide. 

jR. Gloue. Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester. 
Rudd. Ruddiman's Glossary to Douglas's 

S. After Islandic quotations, denotes 

S. Scottish, Scotland ; also, still used 

in Scotland* 
S. A. Scotia Australis, South of Scotland. 
S. B. Scotia Borealis, North of Scotland ; 

also. Northern Scots. 
S. 0. Scotia Occidentalis, West of Scot- 
s. Substantive. 

Son^G. Suio-Gothic, or ancient language of 

Sw. Swedish language, (modem). 

SytuSytum. Synonym, or synonyinous. 
T. Tomus; sometimes Title. 

Term. Termination. 
Tweed. Tweeddale. 
V. Vide, see; also. Volume. 

V. Verb. 

V. a. Verb active, 

r. impere. Verb impersonal. 
V. It. Verb neuter. 

vo. Voce. 

Wackt. Sometimes for Wachter. 


* The Mteriilc signifies that the word to which it is prefixed, besides the common meaning in English, is 
I in B diflTerent sense in Scotlsnd. i 

The contractions of some other names will be learned from the List of 
Editions of Books and MSS. quoted. ) 


or TEM 



This letter, in our language, has f oor di£Ferent 

walL U is often 
also c€ndd. In the 
when an inverted 
a'l it is meant to 
/ u cat off| accord- 
of Scotknd. But 
use* W is some- 
wiiten, as ato for 

1. A broad, as in E. all^ 
added, as in eaU written 
tenninatiqn of a word, 
oomma is* subjoined, as 
intimate that tne double 
ing to the pronunciation 
this is merely of modem 
times used for U by old 

2. Af in laif maif tak^ Scottish, as in loit^pastf 

8. ^, in bme^ alane^ matie, S. like hanejfaney 
E. The monosyllables have, cenerallj, al- 
though not always, a final € quiescent. 

4. J, in dadj daddie^ and some other words, S* 
as in rwd^ pret. reoJy, E. 

A is used in many words instead of o in E. ; 
as ofM^ bone^ long, sang^ stone. These we 
write ofM^ bane^ lang^ sati^, $Um€. For the 
Scots pres erv e neariy the same orthomphy 
with tne Anglo-Saxons, which the English 
have left; as the words last mentioned cor- 

• respond to the A.-S. an^ ban^ ^9f ^ang^ 
9Um. In some of the northern counties, as 
in Anffus and Meams, the sound of ee or ei 
prevaib, instead of a^ in various words of 
this formation. They pronounce €tn, Mn, 
atem, after the manner of the Gtermans, who 
use these terms in the same sense. 

Mr. Macpherson has attempted to fix a standard 
for the pronunciation of words in which this 
letter is found, marking the a with an oblique 
stroke above it, when it should be sounded 
OS or at. But any attempt of this kind must 
fafl. For it is probable that, in the course 
of centuries, there has been a considerable 
change in tiie pronunciation of this letter. 

In some instances, the rule does not apj^ly 
in our own time. Although the prep, sig- 
nifjring tram^ is generally pronouncea /nie, 
vet fra is also used in some parts of Scot- 
land. Na is most generally pronounced as 
written. It is probable that ^ to go, was 
fttmerlv pronounced in the same manner, 
although now ga$ ; because the part, retains 
this sound. Ma^ more, although now pro- 
nounced like mcnff in the reign of Mary 
must have had the broad sound. For Skene 
writes fnoo. The phrase one or tnaa f re* 
quently occurs ; De Verb. Sign. vo. Eneya. 
Where o occurs in modem E. we frequently 
use au; as atUd^ bauld^fauULj instead of o^, 
bold, fold. 

A is sometimes prefixed to words, both in S. 
and O. E., where it makes no alteration of 
the sense ; as obadt^ delay, which has pre- 
cisely the same meaning with bade. This 
seems to have been borrowed or derived 
from the A.-S., in which language abidan 
and bidan are perfectly synon., both simply 
signifying to remain, to tarry. But in some 
or the ancient Gothic dialects, it was used as 
an intensive particle. Thus it is still used in 
Isl., as a/al^ impetus, from jfalta^ cadere. 
Naudf without tne prefix, signifies evil; 
anaudy great evil. O. Andr. Lex. p. 4. 

Ihre has made the same observation with re* 
spect to this letter in Su.-0., giving alik as 
an example, which he renders, valde similis. 
It occurs in many A. S* words, in which 
there seems to be no augmentation. Wach- 
ter, however, mentions abaer^an^ denudare, 
as a proof of its intensive power ; Proleg. 
sect. V. I am inclined to tnink, that some 
traces of this may yet be found in the 
English language. One would almost sup* 
pose that adown were more forcible than the 
simple term down; and that it bad bceu 



otWimUjt neftnt to express a oontinuation 
ia falliii^ descending, or in being carried 
downwarasy or a prolongation of the act. 

A oocnn oocasionallj as a terminative particle ; 
as ia otfy^ alliance. By the Anelo-Saxons 
h was nsea as a termination both to adjec- 
tiTea and substantives. 

A sometimes s^iiies on ; as aside, on side, a- 
frmfim on the gmfe. In this sense are Isl. 
a ma Sn.-0. aa nsed. The verjr instance 
gifen bjr G. Andr. is a grufu^ cemu^ proni. 
Ad Hgfia a grufu, id est, in f aciem et pectus 
ac ▼en tr em prostratus cubare. Johnson 
thinks that a, in the composition of such 
English words as asidt^afoot^ asleep^ is some- 
times contracted from aL But there is no 
leason for the suppodtion. These terms are 
plainljr equiTalent to on footj on tide, on 
sissp. Tnus on Add is used in same sense 
with modem ofiM : 

JUm Air iwiit MftT of mony 0B« 
8ehi> VMt M/cOkf to guthsr Hooiii. 

MmUUmd Fomu, pi 190L 

A is nsedy bf^^'^ oldest writers, in the sense 
of onss. The signification is more forcible 
than that of a m E. when placed before 
noons in the singular number. For it de- 
notes, not merely one^ where there may be- 
manr, or one, in particular ; but one^ ex- 
dosively of others, in tlie same sense in 
which OS n vulgarly used. 

▲ tfwebm qaMam. Uf 

a « rmr, for to «t 
Etc Mttit that ho hid thar Mt :— 
il i^dU; Ui nettb for to te. 
Ho nw ; aad thar woU Ung daelt bo. 

m^atir, ibL 9S7. US. 

L a, ^mm night.'' 

Ht Ua bthold, and latd irno to UbimII, 
Hfr to BMrwailL <ialia likia it to teU, 
Haft m p«toB, M worthinaa of band, 
Awn to itop tha powar of Inglaod. 

HWMf^ T. 963. MS. 

Thn^ ain^ wlmna it ia prinlad in Forth Edit. 

Bot hfa Mni atrragtb mjeht nocbt again pai ba. 

Bot hia • atrragth Mfeht nocbt again tktnm ba. 

no Bkowa Bobart 
A Byadum feTorjd and Eriya twa, 
OrGdaww. Atbola. and Mara war tha. 

Wynlown, fiiL IL 173. 

It ia aomrtimai imph>porly writton ea. 

** Dor anppiae Chriat bo ea thing in himaelfo ; yit 
tha hatlar gnp thon havo of him, thou art the aurer of 
hiapraoiiaa.'* Hmea'a Sorm. on tho Sacr. Sign. D, 


fl oma timna theygava it ea namo and aometimea 
vthar." /5i(I.E.6.b. 

Thii^ aa wa laam from Ihra, ia a 8q.-G. idiom. A, 
ha aaya^ in ptnribva Saio Qothiao partibua, Dalekarlia, 
Wa ati obothnia, Oothlandiaqaa unitatii nota oat ; nt a 

Ae k now written, in this signification, in place 
of Af which seems, as Uius us^, to nave 
had anciently the same pronunciation. Al- 
though ae and ane botii signif}' one, they 
differ considerably in their application. Ae 
denotes an object viewed smgly, and as 
alone; bs, ^Ae swallow disna mak a sim« 
mer.'' Ane marks a distinction often where 
there is a number ; as, '^ I saw three men 
(m the road ; ane o* them turned awa* to the 
right hand.** 

A is often used, in vulgar language, as an 
abbreviation of hae^ i. e. have, the aspirate 
being suppressed ; as A done^ ^have .aonc,** 

Ana f pak in wordis wonder cronao, 

A dcm witb ane miachanoa. Old Song. 

For tbey were a' Jaat like to eat their thumb. 
That he wi' ber «ie fkr ben i hoald a come. 

itoM'a Hdtnon^ First Edit. p. 11. 

^ A in the Teutonick tongue signifieth water ; 
and this is the reason the names of so many 
of these vsles end in A, to shew they are 
neces of land surrounded with water.** MS. 
plication of some Norish Words used in 
:n. and Shetl. [Rather ey, island.] 

AAIRVHOUS, 8. ''The place of meeting 
appointed by the Foud Oenerall, or Chief 
Oovemour, Shetl.** MS. Expl. of Norish 
Words, ut sup. 

Thia wa oo^ht certainly to tnoa to lal. €nf, ctf, 
bacnlna nnnciatorina quo oommonitaa ad judicium 
oonTOoahator. Henoa, aifarthma, judicium hoc modo 
oonTOcatnm. Tlia tenn primarily aignifiea an arrow ; 
and it would aeam that thia waa tho aignal ancientl)!^ 
ampkjyad. 8u.-0. hudb^ waa need in tho aamo 
aanaa. Thia ia oonfiimed by the Sn.-0. term heraur, 
taaaatm ad boUnm avoeana, Sn.^. kturoer, aignum 
nantiatorium ; which Ihre deducea from haer, an army, 
and ofr, amr, an arrow; thia» marked with certain 
aigna» being need by tha ancienta for aaaembling the 
mnltitnda. It wmud appear that tlie arrow, having 
bean need primarily in war, had been retained — the 
name at leaat — ^in calling the people to the place ap- 
pointad for judicial deciaiona. V. Crodrtaiuch and 
Frms CsocB. Thna aairvAoiia denotea tha Aoaae ap- 

• - ^ loif judgment. 

AARy s» The alder, a tree, S. O. Y. Anx. 

AARON'S-BEARD, #. The dwarf-shrub 
called St. John's Wort, Hypericum per- 
foratum, Linn. Roxb. 

Tha name ia the aame in Sweden, JohannU-oert. 
Linn. Flor. Suec. N^ 680. It ia ain^ular that the 
aame auperititioua idea ahould prevail m Sweden, aa 
in 8., in naard to ita anti-magical influence. Linn. 
infotma ua that it ia called Faija dtemomttm, and Light- 
foot givea a aimilar account. "Tha auperatitioua in 
Scotland carrv thia olant about with thorn aa a charm 
againat tha dire enecta of witchcraft and enchant- 
ment. They alao cure, or fancy they cure their ropy 
milk, which they auppooe to be under aome malig- 





luuil iiiflmmc<s by pattiiig this Kerb into it, and 
milkii^ afresh apon it. Flor. Seotic. i. 417. 

ABACK, ABAKy adv. 1. Away, aloof, at a 
distance, S. 

O would tbt 7 itay ahaek fra« ooiurts, 
Aa' plaaaa tiieiiiMU wi' oountim sports, 
It wad for or'kT aoe be better. 

Abaeke io aa obsolete E. word, which was used in 
regard to space. Johns, derives it from hack, A.-S. 
btiM is indcied the origin, but in a peculiar fonn, as 
liATing the preposition prefixed ; on Caee, also on boec' 
ihtg^ a tnga, pone, retrorsum, '*at his back, behind 
backward y' oomner. It is formed like aright^ from 
A.-S. ois rUU : awaff, from onweg, kc, V. Awa* wi*. 

IsL mbaJt, ateigo. 

2. Behind, in relation to place, S. 

ns third, that gsed a wee a-baek. 
Was in the nsblon shining. 

Fa* gay that day. 

~ ilL 

And qahen thay by war nmnyng, thsro hors they sters. 

And tnmis agaae moontineat at commsndis, 

To prsif there hors, with jaoillingis in there handis : 

8yae went mbak in sounder sne fer space, 

uksBS at uther lynnyng with an race. 

Do^. Virga, 147, 8. 

3. Back ; naed in relation to time past, Angus. 

Bght days aback a post came free hiuiMlI, 
Speeriag for too, and wondring unco sair, 
Inal ye had Dioken tryst in sic affsir. 

iKoff*j HsftfMNv, p. 87. 

Tyrwhitl eaOa this word, as used by Chaucer, in the 
same sense, Sax. But on 6a«c is the A.-S. phrase 
co r re epon ding to refromtm, • being often subetituted 
for A.-S. and O. E. en. In this sense Moee-G. Avkai 
and ibuhma are need, and IsL a abak, retronum ; 0. 

ABAD, Abade, Adaid, t. Delay, abiding, 
tarrying ; the same with Bad^ bade. 

Blacbop Synckr, with out langar abaid. 
Met thaim at Olammyss, syne fourth with thaira he ratiL 

WaUaeg, riL 1032. MS. 

The fMler of haainnis Porlwaicf al the sate. 
With his byg hand sehot the schip furth hir went, 
net swyfter than the south wynd on scho sprent ; 
Or as ane ftoand arrow to land glade, 
And in the depe porte enterit biU abode, 

L e. without deUy. Datig. VvrgU, 185. 42. 

Abaid oocnn, ibid. 152, 38. A.-S. ahUi<Ln, mm- 

ABAID, fart pa. Waited, expected. 

This Sidl be oner tryumphe now lang abaid. 
To ss thy awin son on this hers tre Uid. 

AnyL Fiiyft^ 861, 29. 

A. Sw abad, ezpectatus. The Utter is the very word 
used by VirgiL 

To ABAY, Abaw. v. o. To astonish. Aluiyd^ 
parL pa. astonished. 

*' Teild TOW. nsdame," on hicht esn Sehir Lust say ; 
A woorde soio cold not speik scho wm so abayd. 

K. Hart, L 48. 

MsnT BMn of his kynde sauh him so abatted. 
For him the! fanht with mynde, & oft so was he saae<l. 

it Brunnt, p. 210. 

Chaaoer usee ahawed in the eame sense. Abaw has 
been Tiewed aa having a common origin with ahayt. 
But the former, as l^rwhitt has observed, is certainly 

from IV. tAah'ir; the ohrase, MonU m*etbakjf d^ fa 
merveiUe, being thus usea in the original Rom. Rob« ; 
where Chauoer uses abawed, Abajf is undoubtedly the 
word, slightly altered. 

To ABAYS, V. a. To abash, to confound ; 
Fr, a&M«-tV, id. 

Abavtpd of that sycht thai ware. 
Bot nad thai knawyn the cans all. 
That gerris swvik Eclippis fall, 

cot have had abaysyng. 

Wpnitpwn, viji. 87. 74. 

sttld aouci 

ABAITMENT, t. Diversion, sport. 

For qnha sa Itst sere gladsom saniJs lere, 
Ful mony mery abaUwttnti§ fulowia hersb 

J)tmg. Virpl, 126. 85. 

Radd. says, ''f. from aftoff, because they abate the 
weaiiiiess and uneaeineee we are under by our serious 
oocupations; for which cause they are also called 
divmoma, because they divert our cares and anxieties.** 
I^^ however, has observed on this word, that Arm. 
tbaia is ludeie, and thai Indus ; concluding that this 
is the origin ; Jun. Etym. Angl. He is certainly right. 
For the term i^pears in n variety of forms. Besides 
these two Arm. words. Bullet mentions tbad, pleasure, 
diversion ; and tbater, which he renders badin ; aa in- 
deed most probably F. bad\n, and badimage, may be 
traoed to this source. O. Fr. ^udir is rendered recre- 
are^ rtlawart, laetari, terme populaire, qui signifie se 
rejonir ; alBO^ tresaillir do joie, voiuptati indHlgert, 

Le jour 8*eiit dmudi; belle est la mating 
lA, Sdaine est levi, qui abat la roas«e. 

Quyot de I^atUiuiL 

O. Fr. cftaiMli^ hilaris ; Aaudise, humour gaie ; 
ebamditaemeiU, joie, rejouissance. The foUowinff words 
are atiU in uae ; ebat, diversion, recreation, ana ebattf- 
flwni, id. the very word in queetion; passe temps, 
recreatio animi. Diet, de Trev. 

ABANDOUN. In abandoun, adv. at random. 

' He-bad thaim gang to bvkker syne 
The Scottis est t a abemdoun ; 
Thai gerd thaim cum apon thaim doun ; 
For mycht thai ger tbaim brek any. 
To haiir thaim at thair wiU thoucht thai. 

Barbtmr, xU. 885. Ma 

One mifl^t suppose that the second and third lines 
should have the following punctuation : 

The Scottis est ; tn abtuuhun 

Thai gerd thaim cum apon thaim doun : 

They caused them to oome upon their enemies at full 
apeed. In edition 1620 it is thus expressed, 

The Scottish oast in a fwuioun. 

Ai abamtomm ia also used. 

Bot sone eftrs that pryme wes past, 
Ths Scottis men dang on sa fast, 
And schot on thaim ai abandoun. 
As ilk man war a campioun, 
That all thair fsyis tuk the flycht 

Barbour, xv. 50. MS. 

All tha alsua of the Town 
Ischyd to fecht at aJbandoum. 

HyalowH, ix. 8, 24. 

The phrase, as thus used, conveys tlie idea of great 
violence. Fr. Mettrt tout a C abandon, to put every 
thing in disorder, to leave all to be pillaged. Mettre 
an forest eis abandon, to Uy the forest open, to make 
it common to all men. Cotgr. Abandon is used in 
Rom. de U Roee, to sijB^nif^, at discretion. Its most 
common modem meaning is, at large, at random, at 

Some suppose that this term is composed of these 
three Fr. words, d, ban, and don-ner, q. to give up to 




iiilKdMoBi tiiat ^ to •»(»• any Uubji^ to the dii- 
cntioo of tilt pablio. Du Uangs doriTM it from d and 
i i»rf «i , q. IM pottta in haniinni, tqI in bandnm miaaa, 
L iL pmeiipta; Acmdimi bting ased, L. B. f or banmtm, 
Bnl Waehtor'a oonjeotora it mora probaUfl than either. 
Ha d«iTBa Fr. abamlmmer front the old Qothio word 
land a alaadard. Thia lenn aeema to have been uaed 
hj tha Longobaidi ; aa Moea-G. htmdwa denotea a sign* 
Kar. H ^ Oe/MUmkmtU imbaiulmm; The traitor 
fare thaaa a aign ; whidi teem, aa haa been obaerved, 
eonid aaaily be tranaferred to a militaiy sign or atan- 
daid. Bt hno atiam, aaya Waohter; referri [wteat 
diotto QaUiea ^abamdotmer, emancipara ae alioni ; et 
qnaai anb TasUnm ejoa ae tradere» ai oomponatnr a 
mmd at dmmtr ; vn. BmA V. Spelm. to. Btutda, 
tha wotd haa oome to aurnif y free will, that ia, 


aoaowllB g to tha original idea* Ibe'wiU or pleaaure of 
thai MiaoB nnder whoee atandard another enliaterl 
hiaaalf . Thia idea ia retained by Chaoo. in the nae of 
tha woid ftaadon. 

Qnta leoa hath iaigens, and grate priae ; 
Vor bothe the wiae UXkB and oawiae 
Wert wholly to her hamdon brooght, 
8»waa with yktia had ihe wrooffht. 

Rom. lUm, t. 116SL 

la tha original it k il am ftoMlaa. T. Bandovvx. 

To ABANDON, v. a. 1. To bring nnder 
absolote vestriciion* 

OflajH Qohea it wald him Uk, 
Ba wmt tH! haatyag with hii menye. 
And awa the hnd ifHiawmytf he, 
Ibat dniat aaaa wane to do his wilL 

BartoHT. ir. 801. 

Hanea ^AtmdotM ia need aa aignSfyinft *' brought into 
■nbjeetioa to the will of anothery 

iMmMfeiHl will he aoaht be to bema that ia bonie. 

Or ha be rtrmyBitwitb atnath, yone atone for to schore, 

Ifonj ladia ml be kriarit, and ]il& forionie. 


L n. ha will nerar ciTa allegianoe to any ohieftain bom 
of wonaa. Fr. Ahamdm m tt aa UberU^ H m rtndrt 
mrf; gnltiiBcagn Ubartatem aoam alio^jna potontiae. 

Ilia naad in tha aama amae by Bellenden. 

azhortit hia lolkia to aaaailye feiralie thair 
ft to peneneir in lenient battel, that it may 
ba diaanaait ba the day, qnhiddir the Soottia aall aban' 
dmm tha Piditia, or the Pichtia the Soottia.** Cron. 
Bl l€t o. 10. Utnmi Sooti Pietia— Jtyea eawnl datuH 

die. Booth. 

S* To kt kxMo, to give pennisrion to act at 

The haidy Bnio» ana oat tAtmdowmMt, 
MX thowmnd he rtwUjt be foroe and wit, 
Wpon the Soottia his men for to rwkew ; 
Smwyt thai war with gad iperis enow. 

WaUae^ z. 817, Ma 

ft, AhmdomeTp to gi^a over, to laa^a at random. 

3« To dcstroj, to cat oCF. 

Qahfln WaUaoe eaw qahen thir god men was gayn, 
LordiiL ha mid, qnhal now ia yonr cooaaiU f 
Tva ehovm thar la, tha best I rede ws waill, 
Tandyr the King uds est abmutonand^ 
Hayr Bnoa and Bsik in yon battaill to stand. 

IFatfacf , z. 860. MS. 

The meaning i% that King Edward waa deatroying the 
Soottiah army nnder Th^ SUwaH, Thia ia only an 
obliqna aenaa of the tonn aa last explained : destruc- 
tion, whether of perMma or tliinga, beinff the natural 
eonasqnsnce of their being given np to Uie will of an 
aKaaoeratad aoldierv. 

4. EfFectually to prevent ; uearly in the sense 
of deter. 

*'To dant their attempUtia, and to ahatndoun thajrm 
in tymea oumyng that thay aall noeht inuaid France, 
nor thia thy realme with aa bludy incursionis aa thay 
did afora. Charlie of France be (lelinerit mynd of hia 
nobtllis (lesyris to be confiderat with the,*'^. Bel- 
lend. Cron. B. 10^ o. 2. 

Thia oorresponda with Horum temeritati at obuie- 
tor, Ac. of Boece. 

Thia use of the term has some msemhlanoe of the L. 
B. phraae, Dan ut aboMdoiwm. 

ABANDONLYy adv. At random, without 
regard to danger. 

He tuk the strenth magre tbar fayis will ; 
Abandonljf ia baigaa baid thar stilL 

Wallaee, It. 870, IfS. 

AhandomUw Csmbell agayne thaim baid. 
Fast Tpon Arias that waa bathe depe and braid. 

Ibid, TiL 863. US. 

ABARR ANDy part. pr. Departing from, E. 


•« Heir aall ▼oar grace ▼ndentand how inuxolatly the 
faith of Criat hea been obaeruit be yoora progenitouris, 
nanir o&irroacf fra aicker religion and pieto.'* BellenU. 
Cnm. Conel. 

ABASrr, parL pa. Confounded, abashed. 

Aboue all Ttheris Dares in that stede 
Thame to behald abtuit woz gretomly. 

Doi^. VirgSL^ 141, 13. V. Abats. . 

ABATIS, «• Accident ; something that sur- 
prises one, as being unexpected. 

And therswith kest I doon myn eye ageyne, 

Quhara as I saw walkyng under the toore. 
Full secrately, new cnmyn nir to pleyne. 

The fidrest or the frescheat young floure 
That sver I mw. methoucht, before that honre. 

For which sooayne aboie^ anon astert 

Tha Uoda of all my body to my hert. 

Kim^9 Qiutir, iL 21. 

Perfaapa from Fr. aUa<-tr, a fall, or wind-fall ; or 
abbaUrt, to daunt, to oTorthrow ; or rather from ahet-ir, 
hebetem, atupidum xedders ; abei-i, hebea ; atupefac- 
tion being often the oonaequenoe of an unexpected 
erent. It may deaerve notice^ howoTor, that IsL 
Afd-o, Sn.-0. bmd-a, aignify, aocidere ; and bud, casus 

ABATE, $. << Event, adventure.** GI. Sib. 

For quhieh sodayae abate anon astert 
The Diode of all my body ia my hert. 

K, Quair, Chron. S, Potity, L 19. 

It oertainly aignifiea casting down; O. Fr. abttt, 
I'aotion d*abbattre ; Roquefort. 

ToABAW. V.Abat. 
ABBEIITy 9. Dress, apparel. 

This nycht, befoir the dewing deir. 
Methocht Saact Francis did to me appelr, 
With ana religious abbeit in his hand, 
And said. In Uiia go deith the my aervsnd. 
Refiue the world, for thou mon be a freir. 

Bannaijfns Poems, p. 25. 

Thia ia evidently a corruption of Aa6i^, the A being 
thrown away ; in the aame manner aa in Arm. a/n/f, 
abffia, and abUua are need in the aenae of habitus, 

ABB [5] 


▲ fBMl tfun wild 1m tak of tiM monk* that bars the oovimum, 
Bli flUto bt fan fondM. hit ordrt UU alio doaiM. 

it Mnmn§. ^ ITS. 

ABBACY, .Abb AST, s. *^ An abbey ; abatia, 
Jjoiw Latiiu'' Sir J. Siaclair, p. 111. 

** And atfeoor that tluur ba n* Tniooia nor annoxa- 
tfamnia maid in ^ymo %o earn to Biachoprikia, Abbtueu^ 
mot Pnroraia of ony benafioa." Acta Ja. in. 1471. o. 

54. Bdk isee. 

ABBET-LAIRD, s, A ludicrous and cant 
term for a bankrupt, for one at least who 
finds it necessary to take the benefit of the 
gbih of the confines of Holynnxlhoose as a 
protection from his creditors, Loth. 

It aaama to ba of conaidarabla antiquity. 

Wbaa brokoi, fraa care 

Tha fbola an tat fraa, 
Wban' wa mak thtm IturtU 

iW llba ^Mm, dnotk aha. 

GMfe £ami, ifmf « CUL iL SS. 

ABBISy 9.pL Surplices, white linen vest- 
ments worn by priests. 

**Itam, ana ehaaabill of paipoar Tolvot, with the 
■tofla and fannowne oiphia ; twa abbU ; twa ameittia 
of Bartano elayth ; dornik to be toueUia, nnachapin ; 
ana bolt ; twaooiporallia.'* ColL Inyentoriea, A. 1542; 

L. B» alftoL id. from lAt. aJbu$, white ; denominated 
fkom the ocMOor. Dn Gange remarka, that alba§ ge^ 
rmrtt and mm M oXbU^ or earn albaii, were phraaea ap- 
plied to the dergy, when they proceeded to perform 
eoeleaiaatical fonotiona; and that henoe O. rr. otiM 
was eqnivalant to ordinaius. 

ABBOT, «• Ptobably for dress, habU. 

**I1iair was ana herald aent in England — ^with the 
king of Sootlandia ordonr of the garter ; to witt, ana 
tMoi maid according to the ordour, with ane gairter 
of gold aett with pretioua atonea, and all other onia- 
mantia according to the ordonr.*' Pittaoottie'a Cron. 

ABBOT of YNRESSOUN.asort of histrionic 
character, anciently used in Scotland; but 
afterwards prohibited by Act of Parliament. 

** It ia atatnte and ordanit that in all tymea cnmminff, 
■a manar of perM>an be choain Robtri aude, nor LyiUl 
J0kn€f Abbot of Vnre$»oun^ Quenis of Maii, nor vther- 
wyaa^ nonther in Buzgh nor to landwart, in ony tyme 
toenm. And gif on^ Proneat, BaiUiea, coonaall, and 
oommviitia^ chaaia aie ane Peraonage, — ^within Buzgh, 
tha eheaaria of ate aall tyne thair f rwiome for the apace 
of tjnm yairia, and Ttherwyaa aalbe iranist at the 
Qnenia grace will, and the acceptar of aiclyke office 
aalba baniat forth of the Realme. And |^ ony aic 
panoonia — ^baia choain ontwith Burgh, and vthera 
landwart townia, the eheaaria aall pay to our aouerane 
I^dy, X. pondia, and thair oerMunia put in waird, 
thair to ramane during the Qnenia gvace pleaoure." 
Aeta Marie, 1658, c 40. Edit. 1566. 

The particular reaaon of thia prohibition ia not 
mentioned. It doea not appear to have been the effect 
of the Pkoteatant doctrine. For aa yet the Refoima- 
tkm waa atrenuonaly oppoaed by the court. It waa 
moat probably owing to the diaorden carried on, both 
in town and conntiy, under the pretence of innocent 
raereation. The foUowins aentence of the Act of 
Fariiament implica aomethmg of thia nature. *'Gtf 
*'ony wmnon or vthera about aimmer treia [perhaiia 
*'May-polea] aingand, makia ptrtwrbotkmn to the 

"Qnenia lieffia in the paaaago throw Burrowia and 
"vthera lanawart townia, the women partmrbalomim 
**Ua akafrie of mon^, or vtherwyae, aalbe takin, 
"handellit, and put vpone the Cnkatulia of euerie 
" Burgh, or towna." V. ScAntn and CucK-aruLS. 

"One other day tho aame IVeir maid ane other aar- 
mone of tho Abboie UnreasMme, unto whom, and quhaiv 
lawia he oompairit Pkalatia of that age ; for thai waa 
anbdowit to na lawia, na mair than waa the Abboie 
Unrmuone,'' Knox*a ffiat. p. 16. 

There ia aa alluaion to the aame apoit in Seot*a 
Ptoem on May. 

Abbotia by rewll, and lordia but ressone. 
Sic eenyeoris tymis ounreill this lessone, 

Vpoun thair vvca war lang to waik ; 
Qnbala falaatt, fiDilnes and tresaone, 

Haa rang tlvyU onra thia fodiak. 

Aof, Ewr^Ormn, IL 187. M& 

Hera, while the poet inainnatea that auch gamea had 
formeriy been cuatomary in the besinning of May, he 
beentifmly alludea to the diaorderea atate of aociety in 
hia own time ; deelarinff that the aeaaon allotted for the 
gamea did not auffice for thoae who really acted the 
part of Abbota 6y, i. e. t»ffamtl Rule, and Lorda wUkmU 
Raaaon ; aa they greatly awenotiUd, or exceeded the 

pfoper time. There would be a great waikSng or 
tion, did othera wait till they had finiahed tiieir vyct^ 
QT part in the play. Perhapa, indeed, he uaea vyoe in 
the aame manner m which he haa uaed 6^, aa ci^blo 
of a double aenae, and aignifying that thetra waa truly 
a vidomM part. V. Ouewull. 

A aimitar character waa well known in England. In 
an old memoir of ahewa and ceremoniea exhibited at 
Chriatmaa, in the roign of Henry VH. in the piUace of 
Weatminater, A 1480, it ia aaid ; "Thia Chriatmaa I 
aaw no diaguyainga, and but ri^t few playa. But 
there waa an Abbot of Miorule, that made much aport, 
and did right weU hia office.'* Warton'a Hiat. £ng. 
Poetry, i. 239. At Cambridge^ thia character waa 
called Imperator, or Emperor. One of the Maatera of 
Arte waa placed over the juniora every Chriatmaa, for 
the regulation of thair gamea and diveraiona during thia 
aeaaon of feativity. This Latin comediea and tracediea, 
aa well aa ahewa and dialoguea^ were to be under hia 
aathoritv and direction. Hia power continued for 
twelve oava ; and it waa renewed on Candlffmaa day. 
In the colleg^ of Oxford they had a temporary officer 
of the aame kind, who waa called Frmcep$ NdiaiU 
dua, ChrUtmaa Frmee, or Lord ofMitruU. 

It aeema uncertain whether our anceatora borrowed 
their il66ol of CTa-reoMm immediately from the Engliah, 
or from the French. For the latter alao had tibeir 
Abbd de Lkme, or Abbot of Jow, Abbao Laetiiiae— 
Du Cange. V. Warton'a Hiat. B. Poet. iL 378, 381. 

Polyoore Virgil aaya, that ao early aa the year 1170, 
it waa the cuatom ot the Engliah nation to celebrato 
their Chriatmaa with playa, maaquea, and tiie moat 
magnificent apectaclea ; together with gamea at dice 
and dancing; Thia practice, he adda, waa not conform- 
able to the usage of moat other nationa, who permitted 
theae diveraiona, not at Chriatmaa, but a few daya before 
Lent, at the time of Shrove-tide. Hiat. Angl. lib. xiii. 
foL 21 1. ap. Warton, iii. 307. The aame writer obaervea, 
that the Cnristmaa Prince, or Lord of Miarule, ia almoa% 
peculiar to the Engliah. " The Chriatenmaaae lordea, '* 
ne adda * that be commonly made at the nativitie of 
the Lonle, to whom all the household and famiUe, with 
the maater himself, must be obedient, began of the 
equalitie, that the aervauntea had with their maatera 
in Satumua feastes, that were called Saturnalia ; where- 
in the aervauntea have like authoritie with their maa- 
tera, duryng the tyme of the aaid feaatea." V. Pol. 
Virg. de Rer. Inventor. Translat. B. 6. eh. 2. 

iMt notwithatandinff the teatimony of thia respect- 
able writer, theae revela aeemed to nave prevailed aa 




«m1j Ib f^sDot. For w Umn horn Beletni, who 
• wi ri i fc td in tiM chiireli of Amiena, A 1182, thai the 
Ami ^FwoU was obaerrwl in hii ttmo; and that, dur- 
iilg tkM nMoa, there were eome chnrcheti in which it 
WM eaetoiBMy for even the Biahope end Archbiehopt 
to eejfe m eporti^ in the moneeteriea, with their un- 
detfiBfl^ end deneen themaelvee ao far aa to pUy at 
the beU. De Dirin. Offic. cap. 120. The letten of 
Falar of O^ii^ Cardinal Legi^ in France, A. 1108, 
ere etiD extent s ia which he oommende Odo, Biahop 
el Feria^ end ell the deigy of hia church, utterly to 
aboliah Ike FtoM ^ FoSU, which provaUed in the 
eharoh of Fteie aa in other churchea. 

Hm ilMel ^ Umtaiam or MUruU, end the B&^ 
Biakop, eo weU known both in England end in France, 
ehhoa^ differantcherectera, were elected in the aame 
wenner, end for the aame ludicroua purpoeea. We 
httve eean tliet» in e Inter period, an election of thia 
kind took piece at en nniveraity. But the cuatom had 
been Jmimwietehr borrowed from the Cathedrala^and 
lloneeteriee. lor, in theee, the younger deray (cleri- 
enli) Bw^eed theinaelrfie in thia manner. So atrong 
wae the etterhment to thie kind of diveraion, that not- 
withatewKng the prohibition of the Cardinal Legate, 
etraedy i^ e ii e d to^ it etill continued in France. For 
we find it mterdieted Iqr the Council of P^uia, A. 121% 
■id aftocwerde by other oonncib. Nor need we won- 
der, that Fopeeend Cooncile inteipooed their anthoril^, 
ee the numie wdate and hia attendanta introduced the 
Of the church into their aporta, in auch a 
ea eauet have directly tended to turn the whole 

of the Bojf Bishop aeema to hare 
laced in aubeerriency to tne Festival of the 
/ew e whg ap poi n t e d in oonunemoration of the alaugfa- 
tar of the oiUraa of Bethlehem. It had been fan- 
cied, that a proceeaion, in which boya (thoee belonging 
to tiie dMor) were tiie principal actora, would Eb a 
hwtij re p w i ee n ta t icn of the unoffending character of 
tiioee who had fallen Tietima to the cruel jealouay of 
Herod. It would appear, that, in the introduction 
of tkie lite^ notiiiiKg waa meant that might have an 
ineii y on e or immoral tendency ; if ao much may be 
oaid m favonr of a practice^ which, while it admitted 
diildran to the performance of the offioee of the church, 
not only tandea to bring theee into contempt, but ne- 
eeoaari^ nuide way lor the groeaeat abuaee. 

"Ike fc ta fep at CAoriatenmi," aaya Orogorie, *'wea 
^oeea kpr hie fBllow-ehildren upon St. Nicholae daie. 
Upon tkiB daie rather than anie other, becaiia it ia ain- 
gidarlT noted ef tkie Biehop (aa St. Paul aaid of hia 
Timotnie) that he had known the acripturea of a 
ehilde^ nd led a life mtietisrime ah ipms meunabUU 
i nekoatrn w^" The reeaon ia yet mora properly and ex- 
praaafy eat down in the Endiah FeetiTal.— <* We rede 
while ko lay in hia cradel, be faated Wedneeday and 
IHday ; tiioee dayee he would aouke but onea of the 
day, and ther wyth held him pleeed, thue he lyued all 
hie ^ in v eatii e e with thia childea name. And thera- 
fore ehiUdran don him werahip before all other aainta," 
fte. libw FeetiTale, fol. W. 

**lVQni tkie daie till Innocente daie at night (it 
leeted longw at the firat) the Ejnscopus Puerorum waa 
to bear the neme, and hold up the atate of a Bishop, 
anawerakly habited with a croaier, or peatoral ataff m 
hie kaad, and a miter upon hia heed, and iuch an one 

ked, ee wae — (aaith one) — verie much richer 

Mel Biahope indeed.*' «* The leet of hia fel- 

fraea tte aame time beeing, were to take upon 

tlie a^rle end oonnterfaict of Prebenda, viekling 
Biahop (oreb ea if it were) canonical obedi- 

And kick what eenrice the verie Biahop himself 
with hie Been and Prebende (had they been to offici- 
ate) waa to have perfonned, the Maaa excepted, the 
waa don by the Choriater Bishop, and hia 

Canona upon the eve and the hoUolaie.** Epiaoopua 
Puerorum, p. llff, 116. 

It ia aaid that he also received rente, duties, &c., 
during the time of hie office ; that he held a kind of 
viattauon ; and that, if he died during the continu- 
ance of hia dignity, "hia exaequiee were aolemnized 
with an anawerable glorioua pomp and aadneaa." Ibid. 

Thoee who wiah to have a particular account of the 
ritual obaerved on thia occaaion, will find it in the 
work cited above. It ia now time to return to the con- 
aideration of the FtaM of FooU; which, however 
neariy it reeembled the ceremonjjr of the Boy Bishop, 
and although confounded with it by the Council of 
Basil, waa, aa Gregorie haa remarkea (p. 110, 120), a 
different inatitution. 

Thia feetivity waa called the Liberty of December, 
aa being obaerved towarda the cloee of that month. 
Beletua, formerly mentioned, aa well aa Polydore Vir- 

Eil, tracea it bacK to the time of heathenism. "Thia 
berty," he aaya, ** ia called that of December, because 
it waa in former timee cuatomaiy among the heathen, 
that in thia month both male and female bond-aervanta, 
aa well aa ahepherda, had a kind of liberty granted to 
them, and enjoyed a sort of equality with their masters, 
being admitted to the same feetivitiea, after the har- 
veet waa gathered in." . Some of the customs obeerveil 
at thia time pUunhr declare a heathen origin. From 
the decreee of the Council of Rome, A. 1445, we leam 
that in the Ludi Fatuorum, the actors appeared larru' 
tis/adebms, with maaka ; and thia ia assigned aa one 
reaaon of their being prohibited. We ahall have oc- 
caaion to attend more particulariy to thia custom, under 
the article Otsab, q. ▼. 

It has been seen that the Act of Parliament makes 
mention of "women or uthers sinpand," so as to "make 
perturbatioun to the Quenis liegis.** Thia aeema more 
immediately connected with the character of the Quenis 
^ May, It ia probable, however, that a custom of 
thia kmd had beoi attached to the festivities of the 
mock abbot. For the Theolodcal Faculty of Paria, in 
a circular letter aent to the Bianopa of France, A. 1444, 
complained that the prieata and clergy themaelvea, 
having created a Bishop^ Archbishop, or Pope qfFoofs, 
during the continuance of his office, " went about 
masked, with monstrous aapecta, or disguised in the 
i4>pearance of women, of liona, or of players, danced, 
and in their dancing sung indecent songs,** in choro 
cantilenaa inhoneetaa cantabant. Thia waa not all. 
" They eat fat vianda near the home of the altar, hard 
by the peraon who waa celebrating Maaa ; they played 
at dice, (taxillorum), in the aame place ; they incensed 
with atinkinff amoke from the leather of old aolea ; 
they ran and danced through the whole church," &c. 
Du Cange, vo. Kaimdo/e, p. 1660. 

Thua, althooffh the grounda on which our Parlia- 
ment proceedea in passing this act are not particu- 
lariy pointed out, we may conclude from analogy, that 
the abusee which had prevailed in our own country in 
the celebration of these sports, had been such as to 
merit the attention of the legislature. 

The following account is given of the election of a 
Lord ^Misrule, among the vulgar in England ; and of 
the abuses committed on this occasion. 

" First of all, the wilde heada of the pariah, flocking 
togither, chuae them a graund captaine of mischiefe, 
whom they innoble with the title of Lord of Misrule ; 
and him they crowne with great solemnity, and adopt 
for their king. Thia king annoynted chooeeth forth 
twentie, fourty, threescore, or an hundred, like to him- 
self, to waite upon his brdly majesty, and to guanle 
his noUe person. Then every one of theee men ne in- 
veeteth with his liveriee of greene, yellow, or some 
other light wanton colour, and, as though they were 
not gawdv ynough, they bedecke themselves with 
ocMffee, nbbons and Uc^ hanged all over with gold 





liagat^ pMtuMis ttooM and otker Jewels. Thii done, 
wjf tie aboate either legg^ twentie or fonrtie bellee, 
wita riche haadkerchiefee m their handee, and some- 
timca laide acroeae OTer their ahonldera and neckes. 
Thna all thingei aet in order, then hare they their 
hobby hones, their dragons, and other antickes, to- 
gether with tiieir bandie pipers, and thundring drum- 
■MCB, to strike the devili dannce with all. Then 
march this heathen oompany towards the church, their 
mnun pypin^t their dnunmen thundring, their 
MUSS migling^ their handkerchiefes flattering 
abonte their headca like madde men, their hobbie 
hones and other monaten skirmishing amongst the 
throDff: and in this sorts they go to the chorch 
thongn the minister be at prayer or preaching; 
dftgn^yg and ainging with such a confused noise 
that no man oan aear hia own voyce : and thus these 
toirestiial fnrica spend the sabbath day. Then they 
have oartaine papers, wherein is painted some ba- 
belsria or other of imagerie worke, and these they 
eall mj Lord of Misrule's badoes or cognizances. 
These thsy ^ve to evei^r one that will give them 
money to maintain them in this their heathenish de- 
▼ikie; and who wfll not ahow himself buxome to 
them and fliTe them money, they shall be mocked 
and floated ahamefully ; yea, and many times car- 
ried npon a cowlstaife, and dived over heade and 
aana m water, or otherwise most horribly abused." 
8tabs, Aaatomie U Abuaes, 1505. V. Godwin's lafe 
€l Oiancar. L 161—163. 

A B G» an alphabetical arrangement of duties 
payable to government on goods imported 
or exported. 

*' Beaerveand alvjris to his maiestie the grit custumes 
of all goidis alsweiU inbrooht as carvit furth ;— ^uhilk 
onatome aalbe tane of the saidis guidis conforms to the 
ptftioolar A B C99^ doun anent the saidis customes 
oa the kyrdis anditouria of his hienes chekker.'* Acts 
Ja. VL ISCrr, Bd. 1814, iv. 162. 

ABE, $. Dimin. of Ebenezer, pron. q. JS%/. 

ABEE. To Ui abeej to let alone^ to bear 
withy not to meddle with, S. 

Ha'd yonr tongoe, mithsr, aad let that a bee, 
fbr his eild sad my eild con never sgree : 
Thsrll never sgree, and that will be aeen ; 
For Be is fouscora, aad rm but flfteen. 

Jtiimm's & San^, L 176, 177. 

' '*0. E. a5fe, Chanosr Spsffht," Gl. Lyndsay. This 
wmd, however, is not in Spegnt's 01. ; nor have I ob- 
asrvad that it ia naed by Cnaucer in any similar sense. 
Lei • ke is merely a corr. of E. kl be, used precisely in 
the same manner, 


Abee, nsed in the same sense as be. 

To Let Abee, to let alone, S. V. To Lat 

LBTr-ABEE, nsed as a nonn, in the sense of for- 
bearance, or connivance. Let-^Ufee for let" 
abeej one act of forbearance meeting another, 
mutual forbearance. There maunbe let^abee 
for let^abeef there most be a kind of com- 
position in the exercise of mutual forbear- 
anoe, S. 

"Mim Brenda ia right,** said CUud Halero; "I am 
for lei'O-be/or Ui-aUfe, as the boys say ; and never fash 
about a warrant of liberation.** The Pirate, iii. 227. 
V. BAXKSf *a Baboaik, and Bvoanis. 

Let ABEEy far less, not to mention. 

«* He oooldaa sit, Ui abee stand," S. 

ABEECHy Abeioh, adv. Aloof, ^ut a shy 
Stance ; ** chiefly nsed in the West of S. 
Stand abeighf keep aloof. 

When thou sn' I were young sad skelgh. 

An' sUble-meals at fain were draigh, 

How tliott wad prance, an' niore, an' ikreigh, 

Towii'f bodies ran, an' stood abeigk. 

An' ca't thee mad. 
Bwm§, iU. 142. V. Bksi^O. 

Thia-may be viewed aa a oorr. of abak ; unless we 
should suppose, from the form of the word, that it is 
more immediately allied to Alem. bah, Qerm. bach, the 
back. Isl. a bui, however, is used in a sense pretty 
much allied, as oorresponding to abroad, a/eid, Jieima 
ehal heei/eiia, enn hmmd a bue ; The horM must be fat- 
tened at home, the dog afield ; f oria, vel rure, Hava- 
maaL G. Andr. p. 40. 

The oldest example I have met with of the use of 
this word is in an allagorical song composed in tlie 
reign of Queen Anne. 

Whene'er her tail pUy'd whLik, 

Or when her look new skeigh. 
It's then the wiie aiud man 

Was Urtbe to stsnd abeigh, 

AM Qroff Mare, JaeobUe Rdiee, L 69. 

An' now the glomin oomin on 
Th&lsMSS tunied skeigh, man ; 

They aid themaels amanff the com, 
To keep the lads abeigk^ man. 

Damdmm^e Seatone, L 90. 

A remark has been made <m the etymology here 
given, that certainly baa a just claim to the reader*s 

*'It ia rather aingular that, at the word Abelgh, the 
oommon Kngliah expressi<m of 'standing at bay* shonhl 
not have occ u rred either to Mr. Boucher or Dr. Jamie- 
son. The English phrase is fully exemplified bv John- 
son, and derived from the French aboie, which, aa it 
seems to have been oriffinally a hunting term, and our 
terms of the chaoe are chiefly borrowed from the French, 
is probably right. If so, uie Scottish abeigh is only a 
corruption of the English at bay,** Bntish Critic, 
April 1806b p. 401. 

This, doubtless, points to the true ori^n of the term. 
I do not suppose, nowever, that abeigh is corr. from E. 
at bay, but that, like manv other terms in our Ian- 
age, it had been originally borrowed from the Fr. 
e Fr. word appears in a variety of forms, not merely 
aboie and abbote, but abai, abay, abbaie, abbay, and 
abbe, all denoting the barking of a d^. Ours most 
nearly approachea to the Fr. phrase, Tenir en aboU, 
Isire lai^piir, Roquefort ; Teiur en abbay, to hold at 
bay, Cotgr. 

ABEFOISy adv. Formerly, before. 

— '^All and aindrie the landis, teyml-schawes, and 
vtheria abone apecifeit,— quhilkis wer ahe/oir vnite, 
creat, and incorporat in ane haill and frie tennendrie, 
callit the tennendrie of Dunfedling." Acts Ja. VI. 
1609, Ed. 1814, p. 457. 

This tenn frequently occurs in the same sense, MSS. 
Aberd. Reg. ; also in Pitscottie, Edit. 1814 ; aa in p. 
29, a bf/oir. 

ABEISy Abies, orf/>. In comparison with, 
in Fife. <<This b black a6eM tliat;"— 





^London is a big town abUs Edinburgh,** 
Biiit inLoih. 

TUi auqr b« m oorr. of albeU, In thk can the re- 
•ohitaon wmOd bo^ ••^Oeil the en* be bUek, ths other 
fii Mi« to;**— «'il(M( Edinboigh be UlK^ London 
■mieMin it." Bnt I hentate m to this etymon. V. 
Bn^ l»«p, end Albotr. 

ABER AND, porf. pr. Going astnj, E. d^ 

*' Ak eone aa the Sexonii hed oonqneet Britane on 
lUi manner, tfaaj Tut the onrnt ritia of Piguiii. aber' 
muti fin the Cnstin laitib, ft makand odontionn to 
jdolia, aa thagr wer inatitate in thair firat enonna.'* 
BtOand. Ckon. B TiiL o. 19. 

To ABHOR, V. a. To fill with horror. 

It waia olAer thee tUl hair led, 
The Miklae blode that he did ichad. 

IfMbay'a HWUf^ UML pi 79l 

ABIDDIN, part. pa. Waited for. 

*«& Aqgoatine Tiyttia, hoo that Pehttina tte hae- 
letike rm oondemnit in the Ooncile of Pilwwtina be 
iindiie faiachopii, hot nt the laat qohen he vaa eon- 
daaanit be Innooentina biichop of Rome, he aajia that 
nn luder indgaraent ancht to be aXnddbn.^ Kiool 
BuM^ P. Ill, a. 

To ABY, V. a. To suffer for. 

O wieohit nan I O ftill of tgnoranoe I 
AU tty plamttee thow mil ri^t deir e^. 

Smiiqf9Bm$t Bam n a ii fne PomM, pi 188. 

Lord Hailea lendera it 6iiy. Hot, althooch I aee no 
ottmr otiipn than A.-S. ^-aa, emere^ the £. verb doee 
not esplam it, vnleaa it be uMd in a highly metapbo- 
liaal aanae. It ia certainly the aame word which oo- 
ons in Chano. under the different fonna of aheoge^ 
«kyi^ Me^ rendered by ^rrwhitt aa abore. 

Por if thon do, thoa ahalt it dear odie. 

CaUm. raaMM/a iVpL Vk 1S81S. 



Bnt I waa dowe, and for no thynge 
lie lyite not to Mse dbeye 
And that I nowe ftiU aora etaie. 

OmiT. ilai. p. m b. 

in an older work. 

8e it amy betid^ the! mile dara oft^ 
If y that thai hiae, my men in priaon lie. 

Km A'winf, p> IM. 

i. n. mtna^ my propevty. 

to be need neariy in the aenae of Let. iae. 
plaoe where Virgil naea Mnda, Dovs^ trana- 

Oye wrachit pepylt gaa he cry, 
Wnh email pane lUl ders ye san ad|f 
nUa wilftd IBM, and with year blade ezprm 
The wrangia tf do aacrilege redres. 

^^ Ftryfl;iS8,4L 

Filanmve ezpL tiie term in thia manner: "I o^; 
I foienynke^ or am pnniaalied for n thynge.** B. iii. 


ABUi, adj. Able. 

Be wea in Ida Thowthede 
A Ciyra^ aweCe, plesand chyld ; — 
▲t all poynt formTd in faaaown ; 
AhUs efgad condityowne. 

WrU9mi^ YiL e. 344. 

Johnaon derivee thie from Pt. habSU, Let. habU-U. 
Bnt there are Tarioaa terma to wliich it may more pro- 
nerlj U traced ; C. B. a6i; Belg. abd, id. Mr. 
Ifaepheraon liaa mentioned laL and Sa.-0. c^^. 

atrength. To thia may be added laL hM-4g, Sa.jO. 
ftoetf -a, poaae, yalere ; taettf, potentin. Mr. Chalmera 
in hie QL refera to A-S. oM; whence, heaeya, E. oMe. 
Bnt there ia no A-S. adj. of tliia aignification. The a. 
bal indeed aignifiea atrength, alao craft, wiadom. 

ABIL, adv. Perhaps. V. Able. 
ABYLL, adj. Liable, apt. 

Fr. hiMle^ fit, apt. 

ABILYEMENTIS, Abeilyemextis, t. pi. 
1. Dress. 

Sir Thomaa Urqnhart npproachea very near to the 
ancient form of the word. 

''In theae ao handaome clothea, and ahUUamenU ao 
rich, think not that either one or other of either aeze 
did waate any time at all ; for the maaten of the 
wardrobee haa all their raimente and apparel ao readv 
for erery morning; and the chamber-ladiea ao well 
' akilled, that in a trice thev would be dreaaed, and 
compleatly in their clothea nom head to foot." Ra- 
belaM, B. i. p. 247. 

2. Accoutrement| apparatus of what kind 


That certain lordia— ger mak or get achippia, 
bnaehia, 4 Tther gret pynk botia, witht nettia, ft al 
abUjftmmiiB ganing tharfor for flaching.** Acta Ja. 
m. 1471, Ed. 1814, p. 100. 

— **Artilyearia ft poldir, with Tthir abeilMemaUU 
of weire,** ftc Ibid. 1479, p. 126. 

ABITISy t. pi. Obits, service for the dead. 

Thay tyrit God with tryfiUis tome tfentalia. 
And daiait him with [thair] daylie dargda, 
With owklie Abiiis, to augment thair rentaUa, 
M antand mort-mamlingia, mizt with monye leia. 

SooU, Bannaipnt Foema, pi 107. 

Lat. obU»M$, death ; need in the dark agea for the 
ofBoe of the ohnrch performed for the dead. Annivrr* 
aoTMim, diea obiiua quotannia reenrrena, officinm Eccle- 
aiaaticnm. Dn Cange. 

ABTiACH, t. 1. **A dwarf; an expression of 
contempt,'' OI. Shirr. S. B. Oael, abhachj id. 

Up the kirkyard he faat did Jee, 

I wat he waa na hooly : 
An' a' the oModb glowr'd to aee 
A bonny kind o' tolyie 
Atweiih them twa. 

CkrutmoM Baring, Ed. 1805. 

The author altered thia to ienyie§ (V. Ed. 1800) ; 
haa n Tory different aignification. 

2. The remains of any animal that has become 
the prey of a dog, fox, polecat, &c. Aberd. 

S. A particle, a fragment ; used in a general 
sense, Meams. 

Hue might be auppoeed to reeemble laL q/Cvy, any 
thing auperflttona, Vaju ofia/gi, left. 

ABLE, Abus, Ablins, adv. Perhaps, perad- 

Bet thay that has ane conidence large, 
And'thinkii thay haue aa mair ado. 
Bet only preiching to luke to. 
And that bat j>emmcl(fftiL 
Anii in four ouUda, and oMe ma. 



ABR « 

FwduBM tlirattflM or thai cum thair, 
CM wdt M wdU that Hook wUl fair. 

DitdL CUrk and Courteour, ]i. l€i 

Ika maa maj Mms %m a stot. 
That eaanot oomit hia kuuicb. 

Ctofy ami iSbw, at. 78. 

ilMiM it ttfll iited, S. 

Tft lat jou gM. gin the upaared, wbatll ya give dm, 
r?* tmimi laid, that I mOI tak you with me. 

Jlo§^s SeUtufn^ pw lOi. 

But naia to ipeak, and spare to ipaed ; 

Shell mUitu listen to my tow : 
Should she refose. 111 lay my dead 

lb her twa eea aae honnie otae. 

Bum$9 It. 299. 

A. Bor. TeabU'tea, aooording to Bay» from A.^ 
OeabU potena. (a word I cannot find in any lexicon.) 
Pkooide reoMe-aeo aonat ad verbum Poteat ita ae 

• ABLE, adj. 1. Fit, proper. 

''Alan* in oonaideratiottn that hia hienea oouaigDe 
and oonnaaloiir fmraaid ia oy and apperand air to vm- 
qnhill Jamea «rU of Mortonn hia gudschir, and thairby 
BMuat obU to a n eeede to hiin, hia landia, h<monri8 and 
dignitiea» Hia maiaatio thairfoir it maist willing that 
hm hruik tha aamyn^'* fto. Acta Ja. VL 1^, Ed. 
1814, p. 202. 

AbU ia hare aaad ae aynon. with Babel, q. ▼. 

S. Liable, in danger of. 

—"The laid Johnna (Acheaoun) — ^ia able to decay, 
and hia landia will be oompriaitb And oar aaid sonerane 
kid, Ao. haTin|[ pietia of the aaid Johnne^ qnha ia able 
to wnJL," i e. liable to min, "for na deid not oocaaioun 
aoounittit be him, bot rather for leruice,*' to. Acta 
Ja. VL 1087, Ed. 1814, p. 405. 

— ''Findinff your aelf able to dxoTne, ye wald preia 
na to the boit.'* Bannatyne'a Tnuu. p. 150. 
' Woolda ye knowe if a judgement be comminff on 
a cnatore^ I will tell yon ; if i finde the knane abep- 
iBg and anorting in mnrther, adnlterie and wicked- 
aeaeek I wUl lay, Thoa art able, to cet a black wak- 
oina.^ Bollock on 1 Thee. p. 237. V. Abtli. 

ABLEEZE, adv. In a blaze^ S. 

** Hm rarj bnahea on the ither aide were abletze with 
Ifca flaahaa ol the Whig guna.'* Bride of Lammermoor, 
ii. M7. 

ABLINS, adv. Y. Able. 

A-BOIL, adv. To come orbinlf to begin to 

MXhla without any other preparation, ia pat into a 
pol on the fira^ and by the time it comet a-bou, ia trana- 
bnnad into a coagulation, or jelly, of a conaitlcrable 
degfae of thickaeHb** Agr. Sonr. Kincard. p. 432. 

A-BOOT, adv. To boot, the odds paid in a 
bai^n or exchange, Roxb. 

ABORDAGE, 9. Apparently, the act of 
boarding a ship. 

"The maater farther gettia of the ahip takin be him 
and the oomnanie, the beat cabill and anchor for hia 

ab^rdage,*' Sea Lawia, Balfour'a Pract. p. &ftO. 
Wr, abcTd-€r% to board* 

ABOUT-SPEICH, $. Circumlocution. 

Byeht 10 by aftpll^J0f£eA often tymet 
AMaemblabill woruit we oompTle our rymee. 

Dwg. Vwg. 10. L 12. 

ABO WYNEy Abonb, ABOW^pnp. 1. Above, 
as signifying higher in place ; aboon, S. Gi. 
Yorks. Westmorel. 

Ahowne the towne, apon the toiithpaft tld, 
Thar WaUaoe waU and gad Lnndy abid. 

WaUaum, vliL 748. Ma 
Gbown ia need in thia aenae in O. E. 

Bot in the yere alter, otomm Orimeby 
Bft thei gan arjrue thoin^ tonde prieuely. 
nkorgh fiJa Bdiike, that tham thider hasted. 

R. BnuMM^pw 42. 

He alio writee abouen and abowen, pb 82. 

2. Superior to, S. 

Be qnhat he dots, that iwa fowlly 
Fleva thos fur hia oowardy ; 
Bath him and his wencnsyt he, 
And geRiahis fayis ofotc^yM M. 

BoiioMr, Is. M. M& 

8a knychtlyk apon athir sid, 

Oil&uia and takand rowtis rold. 

That pryme wes passyt, or men mycht le, 

Quha mast at thar <m0 mycht be, 

Barbow, sr. 86L H& 

L e. who they were that had moat the anperionty 

What part soonest aftone should be. 

SdU. 1820. p. 277. 

A.-S. Abufim, id. Jonins thinka that A-S. b^ram ia 
from be ^fam, which he derives from w/Vr, aaper, as 
bitman ia from be iaNaa. Alem. i{/^ id. woold have 
been a more natural etymon for tf/an, 

Sa.-G. OA ia a particle added to woida, which often 
denotes motion towaida a place. V. Owb. 

8. Over. 

'•Tnllna rana xxzii yeria in grete ^ore abome the 
Bomania.** BeUenden'a T. Liv. p. 67. 

ABRAIDIT, par^. adj. A term appHed by 
carpenters to the surface of a racstone^ used 
for sharping their tools, when it nas become 
too smooth for the porpose^ Roxb. 

O. IV. abradant, wearing away ; Lat. abrad-ere^ to 
acrape or ahave o£ 

To ABBEDE, v. a. To publish, to spread 
abroad, 01. Sibb. A.-S. aSraed-an^ propalare. 

To ABREDE, v. n. To start, to fl j to a side. 

Aad thars I foonde aftir that Diomede 
Beoeivit had that lady brycht of hewe, 
Troilus nere out of his witte abrede, 

HenfymmeU Test Creeeide, Chron. S. P. L 158. 

Chaucer abraide^ id. fUL Breida, to apread.] V. 
BaADB, V. 1. 

ABREED, adv. In breadth. S. 01. Bums. 
ABREID, adv. Abroad, at large. 

The story of Achilles stont 

With gold wes browderd thair abreid, 

BmrePe Enir. Queen, Wntton'e CM. it 9l 

Thia may be derived from A.*S. abred-an, eztendere. 
The laL however afforda a far more natural derivation. 
In thia language, braut signifies ixnuI^ way ; which O. 
Andr. derives from br^L fnmgo, because in making a 
road, it waa neoessaiy to break down wooda and remove 
other obetaclea. A braut, or brautu, corresponds to E. 
abroad. Thus At gantfa a braut^ fara a braut, rida 
bndt, abire» discerlere. Exiles were anciently deaigned 
bramtur-gaungumenn, q. men who went abroad. Dan. 
borte^ bort. The vulgar S. phrase ia aimilar. Of 





iMwho ffitilordttlil»or tOMOAM jiutioab it it Mid, 
** H« luM tMM «fc« rMMi;'' or «* cfuKe.** 

""IlM MokMj got cArMcf in the ooontry, that wlien- 
IC on co t 't B«vo WM fond oat, the estate of Knock- 

■Boek alMMila be lost end won.** Antiqueiy, ii 245. 

AyuU m etiU «ed in thie eenee in Ettr. F^r. 

S. Aaonder; m, amooff children at play, 
** Hand your l^;^ aireia till I creep thioagh,*' 

tfco p hiaee^ /b'li oftntid^ fellen down eeonder, 
iftnMBl^ni diletare^ abroi^de eztendebet. 

ABSOLVITOB, Absolvitoub, Absol- 
yiTUB, «• A forensic temii used in two 
diffeient ways. 1« Absohritur ab instantia. 
f'One 18 said to be absolved /iir>m thsinr- 
ttamee^ when there is some defect or infor- 
mality in die proceedings; for thereby that 
iuiaiiM is ended nntil new citation.** Spottis- 
woode's Law Diet. MS. 

8. Abwhihir from As claim. '^When a per- 
son is freed by sentence of a judge from 
any debt or demand, he is said to have ob- 
tained o&ioMCair from the porsuer^s elaimJ* 

"^DeelerietlieluunreoienentreiBoneeof redncttoun 
hdon ■pecefeit relerenti^^xoept in the epeeiall heidie 
thatrof ebone written qohaitfra odeottfJCour is geven.** 
Aeli Ja. VL lfi07» Ed. 1816^ D. 130. 
"Ha ddfl^ or hie eafety and protection paid alio to 
vA 8000 merka, — by whoee meana he had got an 
liior, aa wae alledged, from theoe claima» long 
K m pgeaence of a foil oommittee.** Speldins, 

Ev id e ntlj r from the nee of the 8d pen. ting, of the 
Lat^ verb m tkia deed ;— il6io/v»(icr. 

ABSTACLE, «. Obstacle. 

** Att tfaia tiyme^ aome of the Kingia aerwantia that . 
eane ont with him, maid abiiacle and debaitt." Pit- 

ABSTINENCE, s. A tmce, cessation of arms. 

**ll wae the 97 of September, aome days before the 
azpirivg of tha Ahdmmoe^ that the Noblemen did 
meal (aa waa appointed) to oonsolt upon the meana of 
a paftet peaoe.'^ Spotewood'a Hiat. p. 283. 

Xb B» AhtHmmiiaf id. Ab annia oeaaatio. Gall, olim 
aiiffaiiiw. ▲▼one aocord4 at aoconlona que U aouff- 
iBBce^ on r Ahu^mmu de gnene, aoit eloign^. Rymer, 
T.iLOOO. V.DnCange. 

ABSTRAKLOUS^ adj. Cross-temper^, 

PtehMM a mianomer of efttfiv j ^grawa, like mlgar E. 

AB-THANEy Abthane. V. Thane. 
ABUFIN, prep. Above. 

**Tha aaid Robert abbot aaU content the aaid Wil- 
liam the aaid aome of zr mareia of malia of the landia 
afcjAi writin," Ao. Act. Dom. And. A. 147S, p. 59. 

Thie nearly reeemblea the A.-S. form of the prep. 
•(•lAui. V. AaowTiri. 

ABULTErr, Abultied, Abilteit, parL 
pa. 1. Drest, apparelled. 

With the Ueaand torche of day, 
AhudueU in hk lemand freacfae anay, 
Puth ef hia paUoe riaU iachit PA^Mj; 

Doug. Viiyil, 8M, 8S. 

S. Equipped for the field. 

''And they that ar neir hand the Bordowria ar 
oidanit to hane gnde hooahaldia and weiU ahilueit men, 
M efleiria.*' Acta Ja. IL 1455^ o. 81. Edit. IS&i. 
abmljfied, Skene, c. 68. 

Fr. BabUkr, to ctothe. 

ABUUEMENT, s. Dress, habit, S. 

"He deapited hia company, and took pnrpoae to 
hnmble hiaiaelf, and come in a vile ahuUiemeni to the 
Kinfr snd aak pardon for the high offence that he hail 
committed.** »taoottie, p. 45. 

It ia moet commonly need in the plural nnmber, and 
aignifiee dreaa in seneral. 

"Thay anld faaeria war genvn to imitatioan of Crint 
in poaerti ; — ^nocht arraying thaym with gdld, aylner, 
nor pracioaa abulfemeiUU. Bellend. Cron. B. xiii. c. 
11. Veateqne procioeo; Booth; V. alao Qnon. Attach. 
e. SI. 

Although thia ia plainly from Fr. kahUimeni, Skinner 
jnclinea to riew it aa cormpted from oAetf if Ameate, and 
connected with embeUUk, 

To ABUSE, V. a. To disuse, to give up tlie 
practice of any thing. 

"At [That] the fntbal and golf be abHsk in tym 
cnnunyng, 4 the bvtttia maid up, ft achutinff umI after 
the tenor of the act <rf narlyament.'* ParL Ja. III. A. 
1471, Ed. 18K P- 100. Ahimi ia anUtitated for the 
phraae "not to be nait ** in the act referred to, Ja. II. 
A. 1457, o. 71. Ed. 1088. "Nocht uayt," Ed. 1814. 

p. 48. V. VT88IS. 

Lb & <AmtM^ non nti. V. Dn Cange. 

Abusioun, Abusion» 9. 1. Abuse. Fr. 

"Henfore onre aouerane lord, willing— to aeclnde 
and pnt away all aic abM9hmi$^ ewill yaia, ft eztor- 
aioona pnt on hia peple — ^haa, be antorite of thia par- 
liament ordniit to be aeeait and left the taking of the 
aaidia Cawpia in all ^ymea tocnm." Acta Ja. IV. 1480, 
Ed. 1814, p. 222. 

2. Deceit, imposition practised on another. 

"The mighty God, aeeing the a^M^ion of the King, 
tamed the matter ao that he waa taken and ao9n after 
ahamefuUy jnatified." Pitaoottie'a Hiat. Edin. 176S, 
p. 257. 

His prelrtea momblit absolntioan. 
And many other lake abtuioun. 
The Blip haa done innent. 

iViBW tsa CnU. p. 189. 

AC| Ec, eonj. But, and. 

lUitrem, for iothe to aay, 

Y wold the Uteigode: 
ile T the wraied ncTer day. — 
Ae thei Idi wende to dye. 

Thine erand T achal aay. 

air Triatrtm, p. 119 ; iar>. 

Barbour naee ee for cmd^ or aUo, 

The and King, njpon thia miner, 
Oomlort thaim that war him ner ; 
And nudd thaim gamyn ee solace. 

X7U Bmes, iit 465, MS. 

R. Qlono. naea oc in the aame manner. 





At Londone 1m was ibon^ oe aa eldora brother ther 

WM« OutNU pi. 468. 

A.-S. ofe, eae, lloes-O. auk, Alem. auh, Sa.-G. ocA, 
•eft, Belg. ooft^id. This leeini the imuer. of the «. 
agnizing to add, A.-S. eae-an^ Moes-G. auk-an^ ko. 
L&. ae oorreaponda. [laL old oc, modem eg, old.] 

ACCEDENS, «• A term used in reference 
to rent in money. 

— -**0f the fint aeetdau that eumis in the Den 
I] ol gildia handis.** Abeid. Reg. V. zvi. p. 025. 


L. K AcekknOa is ezpt aa equivalent to escaeta, or 
E. etekeai ; Dn Gange. I hesitate, however, whether 
it shoiild not be traced to Lat. accedertt to oome to, as 
dsnotiag the fint sum that the Dean should get into 
his hanSa. Thus the phrase is pleonastic. 

ACCEDENT, «• An aocessbn, or casualty. 

«* About thk time the earl of Stirling departed this 
tils at London, who for all his court ana accetUnis left 
no great estate nor meana free behind him.** Spakling^ 
i 217. V. AociDBin. 

To ACCLAMEy v. a. To lay claim to^ to 
demand as one*s right. 

''That qnha thatperaew e s not within the said space, 
tiiay, tfaair airis, exeeutonns, or sssicnayis, sail neuer 
be haid to penew the aamin — ^notwithstanding quhat- 
suBsner inrisdictionn, pnnilegeis, lawis or constitu- 
tM?""««t quhilkis the saiois perMmnis, or ony of thame 
had, hes, or may pretend, or aeelame, as grantit bo our 
said sonerane Lady,** ko. Acts Maiy 1663. £d. 1814, 

p. 637. 

**The Commissioner's O.— protested that the laid 
set— is oontraiiv to the peipetuall customs, and never 
€Kekmed befoir." Aetata L Ed. 1814, V. 282. 

Aeclamifi, claimed, occurs frequently in Aberd. Beg. 

L. B» aeelam'are^ idem quod Clamart, vendicare, as- 
Bsrere. Aodamerquelque chose. AeclamavUiptMjVLT^ 
bflitNlitario haa snpradictss terras. Sim. Duneun. V. 

ACCOMIEy AccuMiEy «. A species of mixed 
metal, S. 

The term is used b^ that miserable writer, Soot of 
aatchell, when describmg the leliques of the celebrated 
Michael Scot. 

His writing pen did seem to me to be 
Of hardsn'a metsl, like tteil. or aecHmie. 

Hid. ^amg o/Seot, p. 34. 

AOCUH IE PEKy «• A metallic pencil employed 
for writing on tablets, S. 

ACCORD, V. ft. As aecordsf an elliptical 
phrase, commonly used in our legal aeeds, 
sometimes fully expressed thus, as accords of 
ImOf L e. as is agreeable, or conformable to 


in some respect corresponds with the phrase 
ms ^eiris. But the latter has a more extended signifi- 
oation, being used to denote any thing proportional, 
ooiiTenient, fitting; becoming, &c. as well as confor- 
mitir. A* f/ein of law never occurs, although an aC' 
cords ia frequently need in this form in deeds and ju- 

^ ACCOUNT, s. Jo lay one's account with, 
to assure one's self of, to make up one's mind 

to^ anything, S. This, according to Dr. 
Beattie, is a Scotticism. 

''I counssl yo« to Isjf your aecotnU wUh suffering.'* 
Walker's P^doi, p. 66. 

ACE, «• !• The smallest division of any 
thin^ Orkn. 

S. A single particle, ibid. 

IsL dsSf unitas in tessera sen talis; anonas; G. 
Andr., VsrsL, Haldonon. 

ACE, t. Ashes, S. V. As, Ass. 

To ACHERSPYRE, v. n. To sprout, to gei^ 

This tsni ia used concerning barley, when in tlie 
state of being made into malt. It has been generally 
understood ss applicable to the barlev, when it shoots 
at both ends, fiut as the word is still commonly used 
in Scotland, I am informed by those who should be 
bsst acquainted with it» that the barley is eaid to aek- 
srspgrs not when it ahoots at both ends, but when it 
shoots at the higher extremity of the grain, from which 
the stalk iprmn up ; ss it is the ackerapyrt that forma 
the stalk. Wlien tiie seed germinates at the lower 
end, from which the root spnngs, it is said to come, 
V. com. In the operation of malting; the bMiey in- 
variably obsenres the natural course. It shoots first 
at the lower end, a considerable time before it aeher' 
svyres. Ere thu take place, the roots are eometimes 
about aa inch in length. As soon as the aehtrttptfte 
appears, the malt is reckoned fit for the kiln. The 
inaltsten do not wish the stalk-germ to appear even 
above the point of the seed, lest it should be too much 
weakened. Hence the following complaint against 
those who had been careless in thu respect : 

" They let it oAermyrt, and shute out all the thrift 
and snbstaaos at baith the ends, c^uhero it sould eomt 
at ane end ondy." Chalmerlaa Air, ch. 26. 

From the mode of expression here used, the term, 
which prooeily denotes one germination only, has been 
nndentooa as including bou ; especially as aehenipy' 
ring is the laat of the two. For the grain, when al- 
IotoI to mekenpgre to any considerable degree, in- 
deed ^'shntss oat all the timft and substance at baith 
enda,** because it hss formerly come at tiie lower end. 
I strongly suspect indeed that the word eomf, as used 
by Skene, is to be understood at least in the general 
Bsnss of spruigmg. 

Skinner supposes that the word is compounded of 
A.-S. aecer, ooni, and £. spire, a sharp point. As A.-S. 
oedUr signifies sn ear of com, (spies, Xye), the word 
mav have been formed from this, or Su. G. aaJbar corn, 
ana spira, which denotes the projection of any thing 
that la kNBff and slender. Douglas uses tekeria for ears 
of com. Di the Lyfe of St. Werbui^ge, tpm occurs in 
the sense of twig or branch. Warton*s Hist. P. II.* 
183. AdxrprU, a potatoe with roota at both ends ; 
Lancaah. GL A. Bor. V. Echbr. 

Dr. Johns, quotes Mortimer, ss using aerospirf in 
the same sense with the S. word ; also acraspireU as a 
participle. Thia he derives from Gr. oxpot, summus, 
the hiniest, and ovttpa, spira. But ovtipa denotes a 
roundel or circle, a coil of ropes, &c. and does not, like 
Goth, spvra, refer to a sharp point. Acro»pire seems 
to have been lately imported into the £. language. 
It waa unknown to Minsheu, although mentioned in 
Kersey's edition of Phillim. 

It may be added that O. E. spyer signifies to shoot 
out in an ear, as a blade of com. ** I uptfer, as come 
dothe when it begynneth to waxe rype. Je espie. 
This wheate tpmrHk fayre, God saue it.*' Palssr. B. 
ui. F. 36^ a. 


I Ml 


AORBBSPTBSy «• The germtnation of malt at 
that and of the cnun from which the stalk 
giowi^ S« V • the v» 

AGVaU adj. Noble. Y. Athil. 

To AGK, V. a. To enact Y. Act, v. 

ACB[AD£NT, «. EzpL ^ A sixrittious liquor 
rBtemblinir mm,*' Ayn. ; apparently the 
ccn. ol£ine foreign\]e8igna£^ beginning 
with il jfuo. / 

ACSXR-DALE, adf. Diyided into single 
aerea, or small- portions.^ 

**H*— ocdan hii •ffiura in GiUoMrtoiiiM, bom 

wUoli lands 1m reload m miieh benefite — m he did 

of ok iMun 
land (axomt the Dram and Ckittcm, duely 

froBi any other of 

baRoniM, — l^cujK all of it in 
the Dram and Oatten, duely 
pijed)b became of ihe neer nei^bonrhead of toe 
ioaia of EdinbnndL'* llemorie m the Somenrilla, i 

% an aora^ and daeJ-ai^ to divide. T. 
TKKrm^ V. ae n ee 3. 

AOLITfi, AcKLTTi^ adv. Awiy, to one 
iid^ Boxb.; synon. Agee^ S. 

U. km aupdfiaa derantai^ and A.^ hikkeiugam 
lia. Bin perfaape the word it merdy a oornip- 
q. •ifltptH ▼. OLST'Db obliqae. 

AOORNIE, 9. Apparentlr, a drinking vessel 
with ears or handles ; pernapa the same with 

"/IfM^ a aUrer eap^ with ailTer <wor»i« and horn 
noona and tranohen/* Depced. on the Clan Camp- 

fir. oeam^ homedt haTing bona. 

ACQUAINT^ part. adj. Acquainted, pro- 
noonoed as if aequent^ S. aequant^ S. B. 

J% oeoaia in the metrical vernon of the Ptelma need 

Then alio moft entifely ait 
AefnakU with all my waya. Piul azzix. & 

* **He ia weel aemmU wi' a' the amngglert, thieves, 
and banditti aboat Edinbnii^'* Heart M. Loth. ii. 

ACQUART» AiKWERT, adj. 1. Averted, 
turned from. . 

9. Croas^ pervene, S. 

Dido aofsatt ay. qnhil he his tab tsM 
Wvth aepuui lafco can toward him beheld, 
BouTng vrnqnhile b& sns now here now thare, 
Wyu syeht TnstabiU wancruid oner si qahare : 
Am sU snrurit thir wordis gsa ftiith brsda. 

Jhy0. Ftfytf, 112. 26i 

The woid hers aasd by Tiqpl is oseniMt. Acjuari 
m atill aasd in this sense, 8. ss is atikwarU in E., and 
baa besB derived from A.-S. aewtrd^ aversus, per- 

ACQUATE^ prei. Acquitted. 

**— Doe find and decbur, that the aaid noUe Erie 

. Alexander Erie of Lavin^worthily oeqHoie himself of 

the grsat plaoe and tnist was pott Tpon him to be go- 

nenU of tiiair aimles.** AcU Cha. L Ed. 1814, V. 


To ACQUEIS, «. a. To acquire. 

No swsgina his n^iaff 
Mioht mitigats or meis : 
Bio bednssi sad nednaM. 
Throw Uad, hs dU eefiM<f . 

Bmnt9Pa§, Waimn'M CM. U. 19. 

Fonned from Fr. aeqt»U^ oegwlse^ part. lAt. arquimtut^ 

To ACQUIEf , V. a. 1. To quiet, to bring 
to a state of tranquillity. 

** Becans thair hes bene fprnt abosioone of justice in 
the northt partia, — the pepdl ar almaist gane wilde, — 
it is thaiefor statut — for the aicqukUing of the peptU 
be jnstioe that thair be in tyme to cum Jnsticis aiul 
soheriiBs depot in thai partis,'* ^. Acta Ja. IV. 1503, 
Ed. 1814, p. 249. 

2. To secure. 

"In the caoss perMwit be Cnthbert Menyets of 
Achinsell sganis Kobert Henyeis of the Ennoch — to 
werrsnd, acqukU and defend, to the said Cuthbert k 
his aixis the Isndis of Achinsell," fto. Act^ Dom. 
Gone. A. 1489, p. 1^ 

Lb B. cKjintiet-are^ qnietom esa seoorom rsdders, from 
oaiflfiis. Ft. aegfMilerwM Utre, "to quiet a peeoe of 
land, to rid it from suits, trouble, and oontroverBie, by 
rsoovering; or delivering; it from such as usurped it ; 
to oleers the title thereof." Cotgr. 

To ACQUTTE, v. a. This has been under- 
stood as siffnifjring to revenge. But it is 
veiy doubtnil. 

" He ezhortit his men to bane cursge, set sayd tl 
dredour (gif Uumt had ooy) rsmsmbring the gret spreit 
and manneid of thair eldaris, that thay may ac</wi> 
thair deith ; and thocht thay fancht with ynf ortunat 
chance of battel, that thay be nocht vnreuengit of 
thair ennymes," Bellend. Cron. B. 6b c. 13. 

IngentMque spiritus anitae virtntis rsoordati resu- 
merent ; oanereati|ue ns^ si forntan aduersante Marte 
moriendum forst, malfi ooenmberBnt. Boeth. 

It is not the death of ancestors that waa to be aven- 
ged, but their own death, if they ahonld fall in battle. 

ACRE, $. *" An old sort of duel fought by 
single combatants, Englbh and Scotch, be- 
tween the frontiers of their kingdom, with 
sword and lance.** CoweFs Law Diet. 

In the Annab of Barton, A. 1237, we find a com- 
plaint, that in the diocese of Carlisle, even the abbots 
and priors, when challenged by any belonging to the 
kingdom of Scotland, were wont Acram committere 
inter foiea ntrinsqne rf«ni. 

Cowel conjectures that, "as this judicial sort of 
dneUing was called eamp^fighi^ and the combatanta 
ckampionif from the open field that was the stage of 
tryal, aeetr among the Saxona being the same vrith 
campus the borderers on Scotland, who best retain«<l 
the Saxon dialect, caUed anch Camp-fyht, Acrt-Jight, 
and sometimes simply >4ere.'* 

It doss not appear, however, that there is sny affi- 
nity between Lat. eamp-KS as denoting a plain, and A.- 
S. camp^ oertamen, oellnm. The monkish writer* 
miriit indeed think that they were originally the same, 
ana thus substitute Acra^ denoting a plain or level 
field, for camp^ aa if the latter had been originally 

I have met with no other proof of thia use of the 
term. It corresponds in so Cm-, however, with that of 
VA. and Su.-G. hdlmr^ which literally signifies a river- 
~ ; but, aa being the place generally chosen for 




ringb eombftt^ «m lienoe naed to denote the (>Uoe ol 
pombat t Caimpiu, in oironlnm bAoaliB inolntiM, quem 
Mi dewribeMnt in oertomen nnguUro detoenmri, 
lortt 9jdBd9, ^nod in more positum eimt voteribuB, in- 
jmIcm ejumodi dnallii eUgere, nt ifliiAVO omnis eUben- 
di wm prwdnderetur. Ihre, to. iMme. Henoe Aitf m- 
gmgth dMoenfUi ad cntainen. 

ACBE-BRAID, 9. The breadth of an acre^ S. 

Wtd fliiUls loo DM, Phillif fond pomaM 
Stx mon-ttaid o' liehest puture gms. 

Fiaben*s FomM, 1788, p. 104. 

ACBER, «• A veiy small proprietor, S* A. 

*' £64,087 : 7 : 8 belongt to leiser commonon, includ- 
ing tlMMo aatJl propriatoiB known by the provincial 
name el aereren [ll aeren\ portionen, ana feoark" 
Agr. Snnr. Boxb. p. 15. 

To ACRES* AccRBSCEy v. n. 1. To increase, 
to gather strength. 

▲y the ttmpest did aertg. 
And na was Ivldo to ^w ke 
Bot lather to be nuur. 

Bm9F$PUg. Watmm's CoiLiLtL 

Fr. Aeer9U4fe^ id. aeeroUi, inereaae. Lai. aocreaoere. 

8. This term n still nsed in our law, as ex()ress- 
ing that one species of right or claim flows 
from, and naturally falls to be added to, its 

*'^eer6M0— denotee the aoeeeaion of one part, to the 
prop e tty of ano t h er part ; aa, when a penon diapones 
the nr u p e rty of anjr aabject, whatever ngfat afterwards 
befalls to hmi or hia hmn, tteertteea to the purchaaer, 
aaif it had been in hia penon when he disponed." 
Spottiswoode's Law Diet. MS. 

To ACT, AcK, «• a. To require byjudicial 
authority ; nearly the same with K enaei, 
with this difference, that there is a transition 
from the deed to the person whom it regards ; 
an old forensic term, S. 

**8eiag I am actU in the boikis of the said commit- 
tee not to depatrt aif the towne without licence— I am 
henviUe damnefied," Ac. Acta Chn. L Ed. 18K V. 

*'That Thomaa Kenedy of Bamny be adtU to con- 
Isnt A pa^ to the saidia William ft llairioune the soume 
of twea^ 11 for oertane merehandias ft lent ailuer 
anchi to the said vmdbnile Schir Patrik be the said 
thomaa. " Act Dom. Gone. A. 1491, p. 221. 

"Hm said Bobert grantit, in presena of the lordis, 
that he haid caosit the said Adam to be atkU in the 
offioialis bok for the sonme of j« meikia," fto. Act. 
Dom. Gono. A. 1493^ p. 8ia 

ACTENTIKLY, adv. Authentically. 

— "The first gift— was maid be vmqhuile our sone- 
vane lord — ^in the tendir and nonage of the said vm- 
qnhile onr soneiane lord, and waa thareftir renokit ; 
— and na new gift, oonfirmacioun, nor infeftment ae^ 
UmiiUff gevin agane sene the said rsuocacioun.** Act. 
Dom. Gone. A. 1478, p. 31. 

ACTION SERMON, the designation com- 
monly riven in S. to the sermon which pre- 
cedes the celebration of the ordinance of the 

This haa bean generaUy viewed aa referring to the 
acikm of symbolically sating the body and blood of 
the Saviour. By some, however, it haa been supposeil 
that it may have been borrowea from the Fr. pnrase 
for thankagivinff, Action de ffraees. The following dny 
in 8. is oommomy called the Tkanksgwmg Dajf* 

ACTIOUN9 «. Affairs, business, interest. 

" Yit sa far aa pertenia to onr oefioam. consider that 
onr ennymea are to fecht aganis ws, qnhome we neuir 
oflendit with ininris." Bellend. Gion. B. 6, c 17. 
Qood ad rtm noatram nuucime attinet. Booth. 

ACTON, t. A leathern jacket, strongly stuffed, 
anciently worn under a ooat of mail. 

Our hiatorian Lesly describes it as made of leather. 
Lorica hamia ferreia conserta muniebantnr, banc tn- 
nieae oeriaoeae non minua finnae, quam elesanti (noetri 
^eton dicunt) auperinduerunt. De Orig. Mor. et Qeat. 
Scot. Lib. i. p. 63. According to Gaaeneuve, the 
ononeioii waa andentlv n doublet atnffed with cotton, 
well preased and auilted, which militaiy men wore 
under their ooata of mail ; and, in Utter timea under 
their cuirasses, for more effectually resisting the stroke 
of n sword or lance. Groee says that it waa "com- 
poeed of many folds of linen, atuffed with cotton, 
wool, or hair quilted, and oommonly covered with 
Isather made of buck or doe akin.** Hilit. Antiq. ii. 

"It ia statute, that induring the time of weir, that 
ilk buck landed man haneand ten punda in gudes and 
■nir, saU bane for his bodie, and for defence of the 
Bedme. ane aufficient iieton, ane basnet^ and ane 
gloue of plate, with ane apeare and sword. Quha hes 
not ane Acton and basnet; he sail haue ane gude 
habiigeon, and ane gude im Jak for hia bodie ; and 
ane im knnpiakay, ami glouea of plate." 1. Stat. Bob. 
L ch. 26. 

Fr. HoqneUm; O. Fr. amqueionf kameton; Genu. 
kodbeie; L. K Akekm, acUm. Mntthew Paria calla it 
AleaUo, Caseneuve contends that its proper name is 
oleolo^ which he whimsically supposes to be fonned of 
Arab, al and cdo cotton ; addinff^ that ctuqudan 
anciently aignified cotton, for which ne quotee various 
anthorities, Du Cange indinea to denve the terih 
fnmi C. B. octmim, given by Boxhom, as signifying, 
lorica dupla, duplodea. But the most probable deri- 
vation is thnt of M. Huet, mentioned Diet, de Trev. 
He views Fr. hoqueian aa a diminutive from Ae^ue and 
hoMguCf which occur in Monatrelet. Cea grands clercs 
h sea rougea huaueo, ffuque, he supposee, waa used 
for htehe^ which denoted n piece of female dress. 
The word, he adds, ia Flemiah. Belg. Awyib ia an old 
kind of cloak, which in former times waa worn by 
women. Most probably, however, the word waa not 
restricted to female dress. For Kilian renders kuyeke 
toga, pallium ; q. d, kocdJbe, ab hoeden, i. e. n tuendo, 
sicut toga a tegendo. Whnt favours this etymon 
from kuffcix, ia that Fr. komteion is defined by 
Cotgr. "n shoit coat, cassock or jacket without 
sleevee, and most in faahion among the oountiy 
people:** — Cblobion, aagum. Diet, de Trev. In the 
X Vth century, aocording to Lobineau, hoequet signified 
cotte d'armea. Thus, huffk denoting a cloak or mantle ; 
ita diminutives Kofiuei and HoqueUm may have been 
primarily uaed to signify the jaclcet or short coat worn 
by peasants, and, in a secondary sense, a stuffed jacket 
for the purpoee of defence. The phraseology used by 
French writers shews thnt the hwjneton was properiy 
n piece of conunon dress. For Cotgr. caUa "n 
aouldier's cassock, or honeman*8 ooat-armour,** hoqne- 
ton de guerre., 

ACTUAL, adj. An actual mtnisUry some- 
times an actual man; a phrase, still used by 




the Tolgary to denote one who is ordained to 
the office of the ministrv, as distingnished 
from one who is merdy licensed to preach; 

**TIm Biriiop bath preteDted aa adual miniiter, Mr 
Oaoifi HcBiy, lit and qualified for the charge, now 
iMii^ aoooiduig to the Act of Parliament, 

it, fallen into 
hk fittid, jmrt d^veAtto.** Wodiow's Hist. i. 181. 
<). fo octe; L. B» oetai^ officinm^ miniaterinm; Dn 

I lad thia term haa the sanction of Piuiiament. 
'*ne dsaae of the said chi^toare, with samony of 
as salhi^pin to be aaaeoibled, sal! prooeid and 
the personn qnhome his maiestie pleaaed to no- 
and recommend to their electionn ; he alwayia 
bsinf an aelmaU uUmiUr-vt the kirk, and sail elect 
■ana vther then ana aeinal mmiaterio be so nominat 
and reeomeadit be hia maiestye as said ia." Acta. Ja. 
▼L 1617, Sd. 1814, p. 029. 
Hera wa haTo a eei^ dTtUn witfaoat any disyiise. 

ADAM'S WINE, a cant phrase for water as 
a hereniffe, onr first father beine supposed to 
haWb^ nothing more powerfat's. 

'**8oiaetaka a mntchkin of porter to their dinner, 
bat I aloksn my drowth wi* AdamU wine,'* Sir A. 
W^isb i 107. 

ADDEB-BEADy $. The stone supposed to be 
formed hj adders, Nithsdale. 

Te BUMn deete-biittoB't wi* twa adder-beadt, 
Wl' aaehrlstened fiogeri maon plait down the brseda. 
JlaaaMW il^2*«ia<f Ah^, p. UL V. Bkad. 

Addsk-Stamx. 9» The same with Adder-iead^ 

**11m ifaaa amnlsta or omamenta are, in the Low- 
leads el Scotland, called Adder'ttanes, and by the 
Welsh OUkU tia Drotdh^ or Dmid-glaas, which ia in 

Irish €fUbi€ man Druidke, gUtine in this laaffna^ sig- 
aihring glass, tho' obsolete now in the Welsh dialect, 
aaa nrseerred onW in thia Oleini na Droedk, — ^The 
two mat kinds [of monoments of the worship of the 
Draids^ of ^ass, and of earth bak*d extremely hard], 
ware onamenta or ma^cal gems, as were also thoee 
el ehiystal and agat, either perfectly spherical or in 
thetauaofa lentiL" ToUnd*s Hist, of the Dmids, 
LstlXf le. 

**The ▼SIT same story is told of the Adder-tianes fin 
the l4»wlaada of Scothuid] which Pliny reUtesof the 
Draid's Eol without the omission of one sinsie circom- 
^ Tbid. Notes, p. 273. 

ADDETTIT^ part. pa. Indebted. 

^-*— I that was by enuy and haitient 
Of mjae awns pepQ with thars hale assent 
Kmuit inm my sceptre and my ryngy 
Asa wee tkUeiiU for my misdoing ' 
Unto onr onntri to bane solbrit pane. 

Dou^. VvrfO, 861. 7. 

LiL I owed it^ dabaeram, Vtig. Fr. endeM^ id. 

^ ADDLE, adj. Foul ; applied to liauid sub- 
stances; ^Bn addle dub,^ a filthy pool, Clydes. 

ADE, Adie, s. Abbreviations of Adam^ and 
pion. Yedisf South of S. 

•*Ad€ Bea.~il<le Graham." Acta 1585. m. 391. 
Jn. ^ilie BeU, 392. 

** Weel,'' one' she, ''my life, my AdU, 
Ibath o^blsss Ure in thy woids ! " 

A. aeott§ FoetM. 1811, p. 173. 

ADEW, gone, departed, fled. 

And like ss that the wyld wolf in his lage, 
Knawaad his recent fait and grete outrage. 
Qohen that he has sum yonng grete oxin slane. 
Or than wenyit the nolthird on the plane, 
Tofors }^ fais with wapinnis him persew, 
Anone is he to the hie moot adew^ 
And hid him selfe Ail fer ont of the way. 

Dong, VWgU, 3M, 87. 

Ueed as an ac{f. in an obliqne sense, from IV. a^Uttu 
which sometimee approachee pretty near to thia. 
Adku est aussi nn terme de oommandement, de cha- 
grin, on de refus, lorsqu'on chasse, on congMie qnelqu' 
nn. Apage le. Diet de Trev. 

ADE Wy part. pa. Done* 

On Kertyngaym a straik chosyn he hais 
In the bymes, that polyst was fall brycht ; 
The ponyeand heil toe pUttys persit rycht, 
Throttch the body stekit him bat mkew ; 
Derffly to dede that chyftane was adew ; 
Baithe man and horss at that strsk he bar down. 

WaUoM, viL 1199. MS. 

It has been sug^ted, that Kerigngagm ahoold be 
read Kercyngaym m MS.; the name A the person 
being Creesingham. 

This is not, like the preoedinff, a fignratiTe nse of 
Fr. adieu ; but from A.-S. ocfoo, ulcere, adtm, toUere ; 
Ood thaoMn ado to keora agnum lande ; God thenceforth 
took away their own land. Oroe. iii. 5. ap. Lye. 

ADHANTARE, s. One who haunt<i a place. 

•'Vaigaria, aitt<Mfarii of aillhonasis,** Ac. Ah. Reg. 

ADHEILLy $. That district in S. now called 
Athol. This is the old orthography* 

Twate wefle 

That thar the erle wee of ^<tt«ai. 

Mmrhamr, It. 02. 

The same in MS. In WaUaoe it is AdeU. AcconU 
ing to Gamett, **Adh ai^inifiea happinees or plea- 
anre, and oil great (as Blatr a plain clear of woods), 
so that Blatr-adh-oU^*' the name of the fine valley 
extending from Blair Castle to Dnnkeld, "probably 
means the great pleasant plain ; which is rery deecrip- 
tive of it." Toor, XL 44. 

ADIENCEL To aU adience^ to make room; 
as, to give a wall adimee^ not to confine it 
in its extent, Fife. It is viewed as synon. 
with S* scouth. L. 'R.adjene-iae is used for 
adjaeenttae^ appendices. 

Dedit— dictaa Yillae intus et extos, ft totins tenitorii 
aisanciamm {eaeemenU), adjendarum ft ^rtinenciamm 
ejnadem; Dn Cange. Fr. adjanC'er signifies to set 
fitly, to match duly, to pnt handsomely together. 

ADILLy Addle, t. 1. Foul and putrid 

As on the sitaris, bimand fhll of senoe. 
The sacrifice scho offerit, in hir present, 
Ane grisly thing to tell, scho gan behaid 
In bUk adill the hallowit waiter cald 
Chaagit in the ^tare, fiirth yet wynis gnde 
Anone retnmit into laithlie blude. 

Doug. VirgU, 115, 51. 

Laticeo mgrteeert saeroa. Virg. 

2. The urine of black cattle, Benfrcws. 

Hence, To addle, v. a. to water the roota of plants 
with the urine of cattle, ibid. 

E. addle occnrs onlv aa an adj., "ori|pnally applie«l 
to fgga,** says Dr. Johnson, ''and signifying such aa 




wodvM BOthiBg.*' He cUrivw it from A.-S. adO, a 
fli n Miu Bat A.-S. adi hM alio the mom of Ubom, 
ttthy fOTO ; Tent adei, filth, mire. The sum word, 
among tha Oiteogotha, and in other parts of Sweden, 
dcBota the nrine of cattle. Ihre obeenrea, that C. B. 
midaU iignifiee /(Meet: and, aooordins to Daviee, C. B. 
kadi h marridiu, ]iatrie. 811.-O. adl-a, mejere. 

ADIOBNALE, Adjournal, Acte of, «. 
The dengnatioii given to the record of a 
aentenoe passed in a criminal cause; a for- 
ensic term, S« 

-^'^Hm Midie perMMiis to bring with thame and pro- 
dnee befor my laid lord Qouemour and thre estatia of 
pariiament the pretendit aete rf Adiomale, aentence, 
and prooee of lorfaltoar,— deoemand that the said 
Jheoe I^vd^OUunmie had oommittit art and part of 
the eonefling and noeht reneling of the eonipirationne 
and imeginetioone in the distractionne of Vmquhile our 
■oeiiane lordia maitt nobiU peieoune of gnde mynd, 
qvhem God aisolye, be mieoane [poiaon], ema^nate 
and oonepirit be vrnqnlme Jonet Lady Olammia his 
moder," to. AcU Mary 1641L Ed. 18l4 p. 420. 

Sooietimes the term occnn by itaelf. 

— '* A* at mair lenth ie contenit in the saidprooeet, 
•d i er aafe, deerete^ convietk- and dome of loirfaltour 
fonrmid." IbkL p. 577. 

It seems alio naed as equvalent to renter. 

'^Ordanis lettrae to be direct chaigemg all sic per- 
soBis as ar or salbe fond in registeris or tuUoriaU, 
stendend denonoeit rebellis, and at the home — ^io com- 
peir perMmalie,** Ac Acta Ja. VL 1500. p. 525. 

Ike books in which theee jaiticiary records are 
eontMned are called the Books 0/ Adjournal. Whether 
the term originated from the power of the conrt to 
«c{Fo«ni from time to time, I cannot pretend to deter- 

To ADIOBNIS, V. a. To cite, to summon. 

**TbM had adiamUi him tharfor aa inaufficient atuf.** 
Abatd. Rmt. A. 1545^ t. 20. IV. acf>'oHm-«r, L. B. 

ADIST, prtp. On this side. 

**! wish yon waa neither adid her, nor ayont her." 
8. Pror. *' Spoken to them who jeer you with some 
wmnan that you haTO an aversion to.** KeUy, p. 399. 

It BBight seem allied to Germ. di$», hoc, with a pre- 
ized, as eqnivalent to on; thna aignifying; en thU 

It ia pron. adied, Ayra., and ia differently expl., 
aa aicniiyiQg; on that aide; being oppoaed to anntut, 
whi^ ia rendered, on thia aide, and applied to the 
object that ia nearest. It indeed aeema merely A-8. 
en ne aisit lg , in Ticinia, prope ad. Bed. ▼. 12, from ficoA, 
■ear, nigh ; formed like E. tttide, from on fide, &c. 

This word ia not only pron. adisi, but cUhiai Dumfr. 


ADMINICLE, $. (Collateral pioof. 

— ''(^nhilkia writtia being— maliciousUe obaenrit, 
gif thai be falaa, qohtll procea of tyme, deceiaa of 
partiaa, wittneaaia, and writtaria, tak away aU €idmi' 
nide§ of improbatioun,** kc Acta J. Vl. 1598, 
Id. 1814, p; 184. 

**WlieQ it ia to be proved l^ the teetimony of 
witneaaea, the muraner ought, in the general caae, to 
pcodnoeaomeaamiiiie£8 in writins, i. e. aome coUateral 
deed rsferring to that which waa loet, in order to found 
the aetioo,'' Sc Ersk. Inst. B. iv. tit. 1, sec. 55. 

Vt, adrnkUade, help^ aid, support. 

Admihaclb, S. 

— *' Having no rdation to any adminaeU haldand few 

of the aaid Arohbiahope of GUagow," &o. Acta Cha. 
L Ed. 1814, voL V. 151. 

The term, ae here used, might appear to aignify 
Moperty, auoh aa a pendicle of land, aa it ia aakl to 

ADHonoULATEy parL pa. Supported, set 


*'I remit you— particulariy to theae two defences 
of aa extrajudicial confeaaion, and the promiae of life 
given to me thereupon by the chancellor; — ^upon the 
verity whereof I am content to die, and ready to lay 
down my life ; and hope your charity will be auch to 
me^ a dying man, aa not to miatniat me therein, eaiie- 
dally aince it ia ao notorioualy adminiculaU by an act 
of aeoret council, and yet denied upon oath by tht* 
principal officera of State preaent m council at the 
making of the aaid act.*' Crookahank'a Htat. i. 381. 

Lat. adiiiiaictt/-ari, to prop, to aupport. 

To ADNULL, v. a. To abrogate, to annul. 

''That our aoverane lord, with aviae of hia tlire 
eetatia,willadRii//aUaicthmgia.'* Acta Ja. IV. 1488, 
Ed. 1814, p. 222. 

— "All nia blunt boultia and pithlea artelyerie ar 
eehot, to infirm and adnuU hia awm cauae rather than 
to atrenthe the aamin." K. Winyet*a Queat. Keith, 
App. p. 222: 

Lat. adnnU-are, from ad and null-ue, 

ADOISy Adoes, AddoiSi 9.pL 1. Business, 



It ia frequently uaed in thia aenae, Aberd. Beg. MS. 

"Thai wer directit be hia Maieatie to retume witli- 
in thia realme ffor oertane hia Maieatiea apeciall adoin 
within the aame." Acta Ja. VI. 1592; Ed. 1814, p. 

" Tliey directit Capitane Wauchop with hia band to- 
ward AoBrdiene, be aea, to Adame Gordoun, lieuten- 
nent in the north for the queene, to aupplie him in his 
addoU." Hiat. Jamea the Sext, p. 168 *. 

Thie ie merely the pL of E. ado; which, aa far aa I 
have obearred, occurs, in that language, only in the 
aiiyilar. In S. it ia acaroely ever need except in pi. 

ut, Johna. baa aaid that thia ia formed *' from the v. 
Ie da, with a before it. aa the Fr. qffaire from a and 
Aure:'* But Mr. Todd haa juatly remarked that the 
origin ia A-S. ocfo-o faoere. 

8. It is very commonly nsed as denoting diiR* 
cnlties, uke EL ado ; as, ** I had my ain 
adoe9^ i.e. peculiar difficulties, S. 

To ADOENEy v. a. To worship, to adore. 

" Bot vtteriy thia command forlnddia to mak ymagis 
to that effedc, that thai auld be adomit ft wirachippit 
aa goddia, or with ony godly honour, the quhilk een- 
tence ie ezpremit be thir wordia; Hon adorabis ea 
meqme eoie$ ; Thow aall nocht adome thame nor wirschip 
thame aa goddia." Arbp. Hamiltoun*a Catechiame, 
FoL 23, b. 

ADOW. Naething adow^ worth little or no- 
thin|^ Roxb. 

From the v. Dow, to be able, A.-S. dug^an^ prodeaee. 

ADRADy parL adj. Afraid, UpP- Clydes. 

A.-S. odroetl-an, timere. 

ADRAD, pari. pa. Afraid, GL Sibb/ 

Chancer, adradp adradde^ A.-S. adraed'Ont tiniei^. 




ADRED, adfh Downright, from Fr. adraitf 
Qt dfoUf and this from LAt direetus, Rudd. 

ADREICHyoJo. Behind, at a distance. To 
follow acbrriehf to follow at a considerable 
distance^ 8. B. 

**ThB Bon hm ilMidit o dntek hm it, he heria ay 
IhtlMttw." BtUond. Dwer. Alb. o. 6. Bemotianme, 

oiling quoting theM wordi, «!• 
IkoofliiritlMmt any rsfersiioa : 

« 1W Kii^t DoogfaUr, wbieh/tki ligh, 
Vor port abailM dnw bcr mirigh." 

Thigr oeenr in Qower^i Conf . ]PoL 70. It ii evidently 
the Mffle word, ezplAined bySkinner, Pne mero meta 
' ' M 4. eon eu e utu enbdiudt.' He eironeoiisly deriTee it 
from A.-OW drjf-aiK oiiinl^-iM, pelleie. V. l>aiiCH» 

ADRETD, conj. Lest 

— — — And the for feb J awet 
OfhirlengifB; bot than Mioiie laid adus 
Ltat then m MIm, beheld theme Yonder lo. 
Tit etodle neehi oeir mekm adrtid thov weiie» 
For I peneoe the helflinn in ene fkrie. 

ytOieeqfBommr, iiL sL e& 

Mr. Pinkertoa in his OL renden work in the two 
Moeee of gei worm end ciiref. AdrtSd ia nndonbtedly 
the jmnerel of A.-S. adraed-an^ timere, need ea • 
wof* Meed it need in theaemeeenee, S. B. V. Rbsd, 
9m end oeiy. 

ADRESLY,ad«. With good address. 

Of fiet pepQ the mnltitiide 
On flU aid, that theie br atad, 
CnwBM n rty t heOr hia ainie» 
Hie ^oite, end nia meneie. 
Am he hym hewyt adndjf. 
And hia eomt teocht te TeitiUNuIy, 
Ae he leaaedyd e Lord to be 
Of h^ atete end of reewti. 

fTynlaian, is. 87, 817. 

To ADTEliFT aaainatf v. n. To disobey, 
Aberd. Reg. Y. Attemptat. 

To ADVERT, 9. a. To avert. 

Ikm my ainnaa Mfatif thy face. 

~ iSl4CML,p.llS. 

ADVERTENCE, Aduertance, 9. 1. Ret- 

Ihe Um k faite Peria» that ten I wammd. 
And eUhb adtmUmee that in hia oomt dwellia. 

Rcof^Coilyeat^ a J. b. 

S. Adhexents, abettors, advisen. 

** In the bender end of the qohilk oounaell they blewe 
€«l on Sehir Williem of Crechtonn, end Schir George 
cf Oreehtonn, end tlier acfoerfence.** Short Chron. of 
JawILn. at. 

Kr. mu9eH4r9 to giTo ednoe* 

To ADVISE, V. a. To Advise a Cause^ or 
I^oeess^ to deliberate so as to give judg- 
ment on it; a forensic phrase* S. 

— '** And deerrit the eatetia to aduiae the process, end to 
yononnoe tneir aentence of ytrliement thairintill ec- 
onHing to the eeidieprobetionxe end their oonaciencia." 
AoteJn. YL 16e3» Ed. 1814, p. 9. 

** And de^yrit the eeidie eeteitia of perliement to ad' 
mbe the depoeitionie of the aeidia witneaaie end vtberia 
fnbetkmiai end to pronnnoe their eentenoe," &c. Ibid. 

L. R advie^eare doee not aeem to hnTo been need 
setiToly, merely eignifying^ ooneulere, deliberere. 

To BE Adutbit with. To be ready to give 
jadCTient, in consequence of deliberate in- 

— >"The hein wreittie end probetionte being red, eene 
k ooneidderit be the eeidie neiU eeteitie of perliement, 

nd they theinvicA being ryiplie aduyeU^ — findie, do* 
oeraie,** Ao. Ibid. p. 11. 

To ADVOCATE, V. n. To plead ; sometimes 
used actively, S., as (o advocate a cause; Lat. 

" For men eeldom advoeaie egeinat Seten'a work end 
ain in themeeWee, but egeinat Ood'e work in tliem- 
eelTee." Buth. Lett. P. u. ep. 2. 

ADVOUTRIE, Advoutby, s. Adultery. 

"She elleo proenred bjrm to be devoroed from hie 
leefnl wif^ nppon e cherging of hymeelf, that he bed 
liTed in frequent adwmtry, epeciaily with one I^dy 
Bereee." Andereon'e ColL, Iv. P. 1, p. 101. O. Fr. 
adwoMUrerie^ advomiire^ Ao. V. Avoutibzs. 

To ADURNE, v. a. To adore ; the same with 

"Qif ye deny Chrietie bnmenitie, be reeeoon of the 
ineepenble eoignnctionn theirof with hie divinitie, to be 
adtamU; ye er elredy eonfondit by the ezemple of 
the thre kugie qnhe adumit him in the crib^ iad be 
ezemple of ntherie eieo in the EvengeL*' N. Winyet'e 
Qneetionie, Keith'e Hiet. App. p. sSi. 


At length when dendnc tnm'd adwang, 
Qoo' ennty, Heine, ye'U gie'a e aeng. 

IT. BMtttt'e TofM, p. 11. 

Thie ehonid hnve been printed a dwang, literally e 
toil or lebonr, L e. tireeome from long oontinuence. 

y. DWANO. 

AE, adj.^ s. 1. One, S. 

Ah, dieooer^d life ! Ae der givea Joy, 
Hm nioK onr heerta menn oleed. 

JUmea^e Poeeu, i. 180. Y. the tetter A. 

2. Used with superlatives in an intensive 
sense, S. 

He'e gane, he'a gane I he'a tarn na torn, 
Hm ee beet fellow e'er wea bom I 

Bmrm^e MUgg on Ceg^ Hendereen^ iiL 426. 

" Come to my bend, thon leng taper apeerment — ^the 
helf o* thy Tirtne bee never been kent. Thou ert the 
CM eejtealt thing e hizzie fond o* deffin cen eew in the 
hem o' her emock.** Bleckw. Meg. Avg. 1820, p. 61.^. 

It bee been jnetly obeerved to me by e bterery 
friend, tiiet thie nae of the S. word reeemblee thet of 
Let. «n«f • 

Jnatiaaiana unue 
Qoi ftdt in Tencria. Ktry. JRn, iL 428. 

Ae-beast-tbee, s. a sunngle-tree by which 
only one horse draws in ploughing^ Orkn. 

Ae-fub, adj. Having all the soil turned over 
bv the plough in one direction, Clydes. Sel- 

Ae-fub^land, s. Ground which admits of 
being plooghed only in one direction be- 




eaiue of its steepness, in which only one 
fwrrcw can be drawn, as the plough always 
letums without entering the soil, Selkirks^ 

Ab-fubtBRAE, a synon. phrase, ibid. 

Ax-haun't, adj. Single-handed, S. O. 

**Tk«j wadnft be a itffr o' ffripping ye like • gled, 
they're no eae at-hamtir Samt Patnck, i. 220. q. 
haTing "mm haad.** 

AE-POlHTiT-GAiBSSy 8. Sedge-grass, a species 
of careXy Liuiarks.; i.e. single-pointed grass. 

The reeeon why thie tribe of plants is denominated 
At^poimiU Oair$$t if becanae the points of its blades are 
•harper and muoh mors stiff than those of rich suocnlent 

AE, adj. Only, S. 

Thou kitt'd mj Ikther, thon rile Southron, 

And thon kul'd mT btethren three, 
Whilk brak the heait o' ray m sister, 

I lof'd ss ths light o' my ee. 

Tomg MoKwM, JaeobiU Reiiet, ii. 8S. 

*' His imhf Bister dying with grief for her father, and 
three btotheit slain.** Ibid. N. p. 273. 
y. the letter A. 

AEy adv. Always, E. ojfe. 

•*0 but oe I thinke that dtie must be glorious !". Z. 
Bo|d*s Lsst Batt. p. 807. 

Johns, mentions A.-S. atea, Gr. act. But he might 
hare referred to some synon. tenns which have a nearer 
rseemblanoe ; Isl. ae, semper ; Su.-G. oe, nota univer- 
salitatis, Oie-M, omni tempore ; eaeyum, evHg aetemus ; 
IsL a^e, Alem. etta, Belg. eewee, ss well as lat. aetr-u m, 
soonlnm ; Moee-O. otav aetemum. 

ASR,8. Oar. 

'*Na man sail buy herrings or any fish, quhilk is 
brocht in the shippe to the towne, before the ship 
far on dry Und, and pat forth an tur,** Stat. Gild. ch. 
S. s. 1. v. Aou 

AFALD, Afauld, Aefauld, adj. 1. 
HonesV^prighty without duplicity. 

Tharsfors, my derest &der, I the prey. 
Do si sic doatis of seapitioan swsy ; 
Olf ony sic thochtis restis in thy mynd. 
And tnistis wele Enee infitld end kynd. 

Dott^, Virga, 471, 89. 

''It is anisit and asDe speidfuU, that the said conn- 
BsU now chosin in this present Parliament be sworae 
in the Kingis presence s his thre Estatis, to gif his 
hienes a trew and aftUd oounsall in all maters con- 
oeming his Maiestie and his Bealme." Acts Ja. IV. 
1480^. 28. Edit. 1666. 

" We faithfuUie and eolemnelie swear and promeis, 
to tak a trew atfauld and phun pairt with His Ma- 
jestie and amangis onre selfis, for diverting of the 
appearsnd danger threatned to the said religion, and 
His Majesties estate and standing depending thair- 
noon.** Band of Maintenance, CoU. of^Conf. u. 109, 

.2. It is used to denote the unity of the di\ine 
essence in a Trinity of persons. 

The tn/amU Ood in TieayU 
Br^ wi hey till his mekiU blis ; 
Quhsr slwsyis lestsnd liking U. 

Barbemr, zx. SlSw MB, ' 

A/aid Godhede, ay lestfaig but diserepanoe. 
In penonii thre. eqnale or sae mbstuice. 
On the Icsl with hunyl hsrt and milde. 

Douf. Vw^ U, S7. 

The tenn is still oonmonly need in the first sense, 
and pronoonoed as if written aefald, S. From a one, 
uid/ald fold. v. the letter A. This composition, 
in the same senses is oommon in the northern 
languages; Moes-O. ainfalih^ simplex. Matt. 6, 22. 
Isl. ti$^auld; Sw. etifaUia, A.-S. tu^eaid, Alem. and 
Franc einfaUa^ tmfaiwA^ Qerm. eta/o/i; Belg. 
eenvowiig, {wmm, a fold) ; q. having onlv one fold. 
The fonnation of Lai. •hi^ex differs, aa denying the 
existence of any fold, nne pika. V. AxxrALD. 

** Jamee Erll of Mortoon— maid fayth and gaif his 
ayth — that he sonU gif his atifiudd, leill, and trew 
connssU in all thingis soold happin to be proponit in 
counsale." Acta jl VI. 1679, Ed. 1814, p. 121. 

It is also written A^faU and ^auld. 

"That the eaid Williame sail tak au^aU, trew, and 
plane part with him and his foiraaidis in all and sindre 
bs and thair aetionis, qnarreUis,** kc. Acta Ja. VI. 
1602, Ed. 1814, p. 624. 

— '* Wee, and ererie ane of ns s a i l tak trew, ejfauld, 
plane and npricht pairt with him, to the defence and 
• mantenance of hia quarrell,** 4c. Bond to Bothwell, 
1667, Keith'a Hist. p. 381. 

AFAST, adj. 

I wrot him back, that ye yeed aff frae me, 
Wr time enooch at heme in time to be ; 
And in gneed heal, and seem'd as ssir sgant 
To hesr the neifs, snd fsiriy'd ss a/ast. 
This took him by the stammsck very sair, Ac. 

itoff^s Hd^ufrt, p. 84. 

This cannot signify, wondered aa fast ; i. e. wondered 
aa much as the other did. In first edit, it is, ** fairiy*d 
ossa/osf.'* It a|mean, that this is a phrase used in 
the higher parte of Angus, the literal meanins of which 
the author himself did not understand ; ana therefore 
tiiat he hesiteted aa to the mode of writing it. There 
can be little reaaon to donbt that a$ qfoid is the proper 
mode ; or that it is radically the same with A.-S. oeMr- 
/a^s(, juris, legis, religionis tenax, religioeus, L^e, vo. 
FattA ; from neto, jus, lex, and /oesf, firmns. The idea 
seems borrowed from one who is under the influence of 
religious terror ; as oomsj^onding with the preceding 
term oj^osf, or sghast, not unprobably deduced from a 
[perhape raUier A.-S. on], and fjad spectrum, q. ter« 
nfied uke one who haa seen a spectre. The idea might 
seem more fully enireesed, dici we suppose that A.-S. 
cgw, 000, terror, whenee E. otof, had constituted the 
first syllable. But I have met with no example of fof • 
/aest. In this ease, the literal aignification would be, 
" fixed,** or rivetted with awe. 

Afaldlt, adv. Honestly, uprightly. 

"The faderis, for fere of the Tarqninis, intertenit 
the pepill with continual benefactis and ^dis, to mak 
thame stand the mair ii/alctfy at thair opinioun.** Bet* 
lend. T. lar. p. 137. 

To AFYANDy v. a. To attempt, to endea- 
vouFy to try. 

Warlv thai raid, and BeM thar horsA in aynd. 
For thai trowide weyll Sotheron wald ofj/amd 
With haill power at anys on thaim to iiett : 
Bot Wallace kest thair power for to lett 

frof^oce, ▼. 874. Ma Perth Edit id. 

But in Edit. 1648, it is changed to offtnd, A.-S. o/amf. 
laa, tentare, to proire or make trial; Somn. R. of 
Bmnne usee ftemat in the same sense ; immediately 
from A.-S.y<iJiJ-kni, id. 

AFF, adv. 1. (Mf. 




•■t tUakaa, Ma. Uttt rn b* wt V'mii, 

itei^j i Mw gwi , pi. 81. 

Ai to thk partic^ the 8. oomtpondi with nott of 
tbo Kocthon dkloete ; Mom-O., Su.^., •aAhLu/, 
Aim. aib Dob* 4^f Belg. i|^, id. G. Andr. and Jim. 
toifo it from Gr. avob whieli, before • word bagimung 
withananirAta^isA^'. Ihre obaenrea from PriiciannB, 
ttwt ksk Oia Lftt. V WM mad f or oA, m in tho laws of 
tboTwtlToTikblM. 8oi Palter filiom ter TOBimi doit, 
il^Mtrt libor attod. 

4fai ike ibiaf, limatie, S. B. 01. Shiir., pariiapa 
tnm tha idaa of a Joint balngdiiloeated. 

J^f9r on. It ia daairad 8iai ona ahoold be either 
^ vrrnk^ that ha ahoold determine one way or ano- 
nar : aa in marehandiaa, tiiat* he ahoold either atrike 
tha hamin, or entirely^ break it off. Af and en. 
Thoaa wiio lodn on tha aama iloor are aaid to be i^ 
narfen. A aicK paiaon ii alw aaid to be q^ wni en aa 
ha waa» whan there ia no diacemible differanoe in hia 
MtnatiOB. Sa.<0. of oek on ia naed in a different 
aanaa^ aa denoting an nnaeitled atate, nltrocttroqae, 

S« AJ^ ami on as he was, situation. 

TUa naa of the phraae, however, doea not aeem onite 
aaannta. It appean to be more atrictly Mplioable to 
a iaatoating atate, aa periu^ intimating that there ia 
■opannanent ohange^ notwithatanding the oocaaional 
Tanatiooa of the diMaaa. 

3. It is equiyalent to K. unsteady, vadllatingy 
as regarding oondac^ S. 

TUa adr. ia alw naed with the addition of abtmL 
Afomd en oftonl, pretty mneh about ; aa, " Affand 
an nftenf twenty," La. twenty or thereabout, S. 

AFF» prep* From, oCF, as denoting lineage, 

"^I ooold ahow ye lettera frae hia father, that 
tha third of Olenatraa, to my father," Ao. Bob Boy, 

Aft ANif 8 FIT, weakly, or nnfit for any work ; 
as, **I noTer saw mm sae sair of his jii 
[foot] as now,** S. 

AFFCAST, i. A casUway. 

**in tha minde, in the hart and oonadenoe of him 
tiut hea aa amorad and oppreaaed hia faith, it will oft 
tiaaea ooma to paa in hia awin judgement, hanin^ hia 
eiaa 8zt on him aelf onlie ; that he will thinke bun to 
ha a reprobate^ to be ana ^feati^ and nener aMe to re- 
eoner merne." Bmoe'a Senn. on the Sacr. 1690. 

AFFCO&IE, ». 1. The termination of any 
business, the reception one meets with ; as, 
^I had an ill aCFcome," I came off with an 
ill grace, I was not well received. 

2. It is also sometimes used in the sense of 
escMM; S. Sn.-0. 4/^biii«f, reditus; from 
o^of, and komm-a^ to come. 

**I hoop wellhae agude o^eofMe."— "I'm for the 
pod onoome,— a fear for the qfivme.** Tennant'a Card. 
Bwiton,p. Ida. 

3. An evasive excuse, or something foreign 
to the subject of discourse; hedging; as, 
«« Tha^s a puir a/com^'* S. 

AFFECTIOUN, s. Relationship^ oonsan- 
guini^ ; or aflSnity. 

"That na peraone offetit to peaa rpoun aaayiaaia — 
aalbe repellit quhan thai attene to the partie aduenar 
in the lyke or nerrar greia of that aame aort of affec- 
lioim." Acta Ja. VI. 1067, Ed. 1814, p. 44. 

L. R AfftetuB^ filii, conaanguinei, uxor, nepotea, Ac. 
CaHUUu dixit Ammianua Maroellinua. V. tin Cange. 
The nae of the term ia evidently metaphorical, from 
that tendemeaa of affection whicn ought to aubaiat be- 
tween thoaa who are nearly related. 

Afpeibino, adv. In relation or proportion; as, 
*' It*s no sae ill affeiring to,** said of any 
work done by a person who could not have 
been expected to do it so well, Ettr. For. V. 
Afferis, Effeirs, «• 

AtT-FA'INS, 8. pi. Scraps, castings, S. 

««Her kiat waa weU made up wi' i^/o'nw." H. 
Blyd'a Contract. 
What haa fallen off. Sw. ^faiUti, to fall off. 

AFFERD, paH. pa. Afraid« 

There ia na drede that tail mak ts aJSntlL 

Dw0. VirgO, SO, 17. 

. Chancer, uftrtd, aferde, A.-S. a/atnd^ id. The wonl 
ia atin uaed by the vulgar in E. 

AFFERIS, Effeibs, V. finptfr*. 1. Becomes, 
belongs to, is proper or expedient. 

The kynnrk yham I nccht to have, 
Bot gyff it fall off rycht to om : 
And nrff Ood wiU that it M be, 
I laU all fiely in aU thing 
Held it, aa it <^«rw toldng ; 
Or aa myn eldiu fonmch me 
Haki it in fteyast rewate. 

Bmhfmr, L ISS. MS. 

In tha aama aanaa thia term frequently ooeurs in our 

**It ii aene apeidfuU, that reetitutioon be maid of 
▼ictnallia, that paaaia to Berwyk, Roxburgh, and Ing- 
hmd Tndar aio pania, aa <^etK«." Acta Ja. IV. 1439. c. 
67. Edit. 1S66. V. ABULTsrr. 

2. It is sometimes nsed as signifying what is 
proportional to, S. 

"That the diet be deaerted againat all Reaetten, 
they tdcing the Tui^ and auch aa will not,— that 
theae be put under caution under mat auma ^tir- 
vM to tiieir condition and rank, ana quality of their 
enmea» to appear before the Juaticea at particular 
dieta.** Act Omncil, ISSS. ap. Wodrow, ii. 318. 

Rudd. thiidLa that it may be derived from Fr. a/- 
/btrv, buaineaat work. But it ia evidently from O. Fr. 
afieri^ an imperaonal v. naed prectaely m aenae first. 
v. Cotffr. AfieHa^ conviendra ; n* qjfieri, ne oonvient 
naa; u aoaa qfieri^ U vona oonvient. Rom. da la 
koaeb The author of the GL to this old book aaya, 
that the term ia atill uaed in Handera. **Jjferir, 
vieux mot. Appartenir. On a dit, Ce qui lui a/Urt, 
pour dire, Ce qm lui oonvient." Diet. Trev. It needs 
acaroely be added, that the Fr. v. haa evidently been 
derived from Lat. qfaro, from cmI and/ero. Accord* 
ia now frequently naed in the aame aenae in law^leeds. 
y. Erraa, v. 

AFFECTUOUS, adj. Affectionate. 

**Weancht to lufe our aelf and aa our nichtbour, 
ana ^tctmetuM A trew lufe vnfenyetly." Abp. 






Cifcediiimii, IMl, FoL 80.. K V. 

AFFERy Afbob, Effeib, ErrEBM, §. 1. 
ConditioDi state. 

OBb« tiM King Ml hid the iperiiig, 
Hyi chun to Qm gvd King tauld h*. 
And ha nid, ha WMl bl jt^ M 
Hp broth jr, aad m Uw i(^ 
OfftluiteBiitr^Aiidof thArww. ' 

...Felt tymM in Aoiify <^er« for divdo 
Tks partis tmj thaj, gu ocht war nede. 

S. Warlike pxeparation, equipment for war. 

Tb Sebortwode Sehawe in halit tbai maid thaim bova, 
Cbtiyt ft ttrtnth, <rahftr UuU thar lo^nrng maid : 
In gvd ailtr ft qabul thar lUll ha baid. 

VolCoM, It. 614. Ma ^etr, Bdit 1M8L 

Ml Pktrik, with zx thouaiid, bat latt, 
IMbr Duibar a stalwart acge he lett. — 
Thai tald Wallace off Pkteikis gret ^«r. 
Thai aaid. Fonath, and je mycht htm our eet. 


egayae rrcht aone he mycht aocht get. 
^ WMcM, vUL IM. Ma 

8* Appearance, show. 

And ejiie to Seone in by nJd he, . 
And WIS maid king bat huiger let, 
And in the kiagis stole WIS set : 
Am in that tyme wee the maner. 
Bol off thair noble gret afevt 
Thar sCTHifiej, na thair realty 
Te sail hsr na thing now for me. 

jMiNir, iL lama 

periinp tho aamo 10010, aa reatricted to military 
m tho following paasago : 

ffameet on borm in to thair armoar der, 
To seik Wallace thai went all forth in feyr; 
A tlionsand men weill gamest for the wer. 
Tswait the wode, ircht awfoll in aftr, 

WtJkM, iT. fiSS. Ma 

4. Demeanoor, deportment. 

That fte answered with fayr ^feir^ 
And said, ** Sehir, mereie for tout mycht I 
Thaa man I bow and anowis beir, 
Beoaos I am aae baneist wycht" 

Mmmimf MaitUm, iiaiiland Foem§, p. 207. 

lUs word •aema to haTo no affinity with the pre- 
ceding ▼., and aa little with Fr. afavrt^ busineee. It 
ia to all appoaranoe radically the same with Fair^ fert^ 
q. V. 

AFFOATEy g. A mode of disposing of, an 
outlet ; applied to merchandize ; an affgaU 
for ffood$, Loth.; perhaps rather afgetf q. to 
git of. 

AFFHAND, used as an a J/. 1. Plain, honest, 
blonti^ven to free speaking, S.; aJUn-Aand^ 
Ang. From 0^ and Aaiu/. 

Thia word ia also used adTorbially in the same aenae 
with B. qfkamit without premeditation. 
Wer^ my case, ye'd clear it ap af-hand. 

iUmsa/s Ploesu; IL IM. 
—Ah I Symie, rattling chiels ne'er stand- 
. Te deck, and sprsad the grossest lies a#^iuf. 


5. Forthwith, without delay, Loth. 

— Xrs they flinch they wOXafhand 

• r SB gae their ways. ne Mar^H Rig, ^ 10$. 

AFFLUFS, AiT loof, adv. 1. Without Uook, 
off hand. To repeat anything o^u/ir, is to 
deliver it merely trom memory, without hav- 
bg a book in one*ii hand« S. 

S. Extempore, without premeditation, S. 

How snackly conld he gi'e a fed rsprooC 
rsB wf a canty tale h?d tell a/ !«// 

itosMa y 's/\wiws, IL 11. 
Whene'er I shoot wi' my air gnn, 
Tlaay ^fle^^f. DavidmCt Sttmiu, p. 183. 

3. Forthwith, immediately, out of hand. 

**Saa I waa oa'd in to the paeeence, and sent awa 
tlfi^t^ tae apoer ye ont, an* bnng ye tae apeak tae the 
mekkfolL.^ Saint Pkitrick, L76. 

AFFOSDELL, adj. Alive, yet remaming. 

.In tha MS. history of the Arbathnot family, writ- 
tatf IB Latin on iho one page, with aa Engliah tranala- 
lioBoa the oppoaito page, ttio word oocnrs thrioe thna : 

IVmlmmejnaaliijamobl. '*0f bia brother sum ar 

emnt^ alii etiam tupenuni, dead, utheris jrit ajfardeU. '* 

El liberoB alioa qoonun '*0f qnhaia poaterity 

tawsB pootari ant non ««• aither nana ^fameU^ or ar 

^emml, ant ignorantur. nnknawin.** 

Qoanim r*f"""^ una "Of qnhaia poateritie 

CUB poataria mtpemmL enm yit ar qfarailL** 

This aeema nearly akin to the S. phraae, to (he fort. 
Whether the termination dtU be allied to A.-S.(laW. aa 
a^gnifyinc in part, ia uncertain. The term moot close- 
ly rseemMee the Bnchan word FordaU^ "stock not 
OThanated ** V. Fobdil, adj. 

AFFPUT, g. Delay, or pretence for delaying, 
S. AjfiiuUingf Delaying^ trifling dUatoi}-, 
putting of, S. 

AFFRAY, g. Fear, tenor. 

Btonayit sa grstly than thai war, 
Tluow ths foros off that lyrst assay. 

That thai war in till grst tkfrav. 

Chaneer, id. Fr. ^fre^ ^froff*, a fright ; andently of 
Qothio origin. 

Affboitlie, adv. Affrightedly, Radd. 

Fr. V^royer, to frighten. 

To AFFRONT, v. a. To disgrace, to put to 
shame, S. 

Affront, g. Disgrace, shame, S. 

"Thia eenae," Dr. Johnaon remarka, "is rather 
paoBliar to the Soottiah dialect." The only example 
be BTeo of it ta from a Scottish writer. 

" Antonius attacked the piratee of Crete, and, by his 
toogreatpresnmption, waa defeated ; upon the aense of 
whioi tifmU he died of grief." Arbtuknoi on Coiiu. . 

Affronted, part. adj. Having done any thing 
that exposes one to shame, S. 

AiTRONTLESS, adj. Not susceptible of disgrace 
or shame, Aberd. 

AFFSET, 8. 1. Dismission, the act of patting 
away, S. Moes-G. aftatjanf amovere. 

2. An excuse, a pretence, S. 




Bil wwlil wiuM Infftr niing bt. 
Vflr «ID ik V^flt do M tnm with me. 

AFFSIDi;«. The further side of any object^ 
8. Siu-O.o/Ulfty aeorsum; from a/ off, and 

AFFTAK, a. A pace of wagy^hness, tending 
to ezpoae one to ridicole, Fife. 

AmAMiHp a. The habit or act of taking off^ or 
aipoaing othefs to ridica|e, ibid. 

AFLAUOHT, oA. L]rin|; flat. Roxb. a. on 
Jkmifki;h€ak the same origin withyZaucAt in 

AFLOCHT, Aflought, jNifi. jM. Agiuted, 
in a flattery 8. 

** AI tint daj and luelit bygane my mynd and body 
k M^Delt; qpooally aen I hard tlur innooent men as 
efnany itemaBtit.** BeUend. Cron. B. ix. ch. 29. 
VaDa qiuea datar, Boath. V. Fldcbt. 

AFOSE-FIT^ A'FOBB-Frr» ocfv. Indtscrimin- 
ataljy all without exception, Upp. Cljdes. ; 
<^ €ul 6§/€r$ Hnt/coL 

AFORO ATN, pr^. Opposite to. 


Aarfiovr, s?L 656u MS. 

Hub magr ba boaa A.-S. ^er over, and peati, ogem^ 
; or» bj an ioTanion ol S11.-G. geiU^wert gen or 

aeai; ai^ii^jiag eoBt^^ and o/wer trana. Or it may 
Mvo tha aama ocigin with Fobsaxuit, q. ▼., alao Forb- 

AFOBNENS, pr^. Opposite to. 

Ika aaitiPi thai on Twed-mowth made,— 
Sat awya a ^— w Benrjke, 
Wai tntfd ta ba castya down. 

H>RlMra, TiL Sk 899. 

y . FOBS-AmST. 

AFBIST.ocfc. On tmstyor in a state of delay. 
Y. FusTi V. 

AFTEN,«ir. Of ten, S. 

Ihaa whflB bnU flakes of toAw hare ded the green, 
Afttm I have joaag sportiTe gilpies leen. 
The wudng ha' wita oMikle pleesiire row, 
im paattfirir pith it did nawieldy grow. 

Biamm/9 Poewu, L 822. 

Igpa navB A.-S. o^ itamm, aa the origin of E. uift, 

AFTER ANE, adv. Alike, in the same man- 
ner, in one form, S. i.e. after one. Belg. hy 
am is naed in the same sense. 

.. JL' my time that'i Tet bygaae, 
flha'a Sri my lot maJst tJUr erne, 

Cod^9 aimpU Siraifu, p. 09. 

AFTERCAST, «. Conseqnenoe, effect, what 
may enaoe; as, '*He dorst na do't for fear o' 
the a/Urcaa,*' Roxb. 

AFTER-CLAP, «. Evil consequence. GI. 

AFTERCOMEf «• Consequence, what eatnes 
a/Ea-, South of S. 

'*And how are ye to atand the tufUreomet There 
will ba a black reckoning with yon aoma day.'* 
Brownie of Bodsbeck, ii. 9. 

"Ifeareha it mined for thia world,— an' for the 
q / fe r o w w^, I dare hardly Tenture to think about it." 
Ibid. ii. 48. 

Ajteboummer, s. a successor. 

— "That he and all hie tuftaxummen may bmik the 
aaman, aa a pledge and taiken of our good-will anil 
kindneaa forhietrewworthineaa." Letter Ja. V. 1542, 
Niabet'a Hermldry, i. 97. 

AFTERGAIT, adj. 1. Applied to what is 
seemly or fitting; as, 7%a^s Bomtthing 
afiergaitf that is somewhat as it ou^ht to be, 
or after the proper manner, Lana]£. 

2. Tolerable, moderate, what does not exceed ; 
as, ^Fm iU o* the toothache; but I never 
mind sae lang as it*s ony way aftergait ava," 

It ieapolied to the weather; aa "111 be then, if the 
day's oo^t afiergaii^** ibid. From the prep, q/ler, 
and gaU, way, q. **not o«t of the ordinary way." 

To AFTER-OAKO, V. n. To follow. 

With great hamstrem they thrimled thro' the thrang. 
And gae a nod to her to nJUrgang^ 

Kim 9 Mtleiufret p. 88. 

It would appear that thia v, ia uaed in the higher 
parte of Angua. A.-S. a^fiergan^ anbaeqni. 

AFTERHEND, adv. Afterwards. V. Ef- - 

AFTERINOS, Aft'bins, s. pL 1. The last 
milk taken from a cow, S. Lancash. 
DerbTsh. id. A.-S. asfter, post. Alem. 
afterinf posteriora ; Schilter. 

Btaaa atill ataode hawkie, he her neck does claw, 
1IU ahall fria her the massy t^rins draw. 

Morisim*9 FomMt p. 185. 

2. The remainder, in a more general sense ; as, 
^ the affrina o' a feast," East of Fife. 

3. Consequences, Ayrs. 

"I bare bean tha more atrict in aetttng down theee 
eircnmatantiala, because in the bloody afUring9 of that 
meetin|^ they ware altogether loat eight of." R. Gil- 
haiae, ui. 88. 

AFTERSUPPER, s. The interval between 
supper and the time of going to rest, Lanarks. 


AFTERWALD, s. That division of a farm 
which is called outfield in other parts of Scot- 
land, Caithn. 

—**The outfield land (provinciallyayi;cnM»2tl)." Agr. 
Sunr. of Caithn. p. 87. 

Gan thia have any afl^ity to the A.-S. phrase, arftfr 
tham weoltle, aacua aylram ; q. ground taken in from 

AFWARD, adv. Off, away from, Renfr. 




▲ 01 

TMi an looCkt Mraorrowiag brewta, 
Waal aad can Nt m^Bmrd whiidiig. 

A. WUmH*9 Potmi. 17V0, p. IM. 


AQAISf ad». At another time; used bde* 
. finitely. 

**11iit wi& Imtb jo^ 9gak^ y joong immahackle.'* 
Bm. IMtoo, i. 19e. 
'"Ben's iBiiket lor jci — ^fifteen sugar pippiu. — 
talw Maio of the npest» and greet sboat nu gifts 
and gel anolher ; he was a leash hwl and a leaL'* 
w. Mag. Ifagr 1820^ p. 160. 

AGAYNEy AoAMX^ prq[>. Against 

The kync of FHiwiis that tyme Jhoa 
J^ayiM aym gadiyd hyi est anon. 

W^ntoum, tUL 48, 10. 

With ttir MSM grots Hereoles itode he. 

Don^. ViryO, Ml. 2S. 
O. Z.agm, 

J#m that ible of Westaez hii nome sn batsjle. 
* A Glouc p. 24a 

A.-8. pwMy agm, €mgeam, Sa.-0. ffen, igm, IsL gegn, 
gm^ Goran, gegem^ id. lir. Tooke "hdieves it to he a 
past partMsiple, deriTod from the same verb, from which 
eomes the ooUatoral Dntoh TOfh jegaun, to meeti reit- 
OMifrcr, tooppooo." 

Agam ia still vsed in this sense in Tarious oonnties 

"Dsacoa Clank, tho white-iron smith, saya that the 
govomment folk are sair agtme him for having been 
OBt twice." WaTeriejr, iii. 219. 

To AOAIN-CALL, v. a. 1. To revoke. 

*'A»d that the said Robert sail nocht roToke nor 
agaim-eatt the said proooratonr quhill it be Tsit k haf e 
sinet." Aot. Dom. Gone. A. 1480, p. 70. 

S. To oppoee, to gainsay ; so as to put in a 
legd bar in ooort to the execution ot a sen* 
tence i synon* with False, v. 

*'That thedonogeTin in theschirref ooort of Dram- 

weilsgeTin k tmi aaain catUt, — ^Thedome 
SUsit and againt eauU — ^was weUe geWn," 
Pui. Ja. m. A. 1460, Acts Ed. 18U, p. Si. 

AOAIKOALLINQ, «• Recall, revocation. Beg. 

** Wit ym w, of our spectale grace, to have respitt, 
s npe rsedeit, and dela7it--Edward Sinclare of Strome, 
Ac llbr art A part of tne oonvocation A gadering of our 
lieges in arrayit battel agains nmq* Ahnne Erie of 
rathnttis, — to endnrs but ony rerocatioan, obstacle, 
impediment, or agaimeatlimg qvhatsumever." Bany*s 
Oilcnej. App. p. 481, 482. 

AOADr-GEYiN, «• Restoration. 

**ABdalssto sole ane instrument of resi^acioone 
aad o^ofts ^riit of the foresaid landis A annuale, of the 
qohilkis lettres the selis wer distroyit,'* &c. Act. Dom. 
dooo. A. 1481, p. 228. 

To AoANE-SAT, V. o. To recall ; ** Revoke 
and agang-^ayr Aberd. Reg. A. 1538| v. 

A-OAIRY. To Go Aoairt, to leave one's 
service before the term-day, Orkney. 

The origin ii very donbtfuL It can scarcely be 
traoed to A.-8. geart^ gtara^ gearo, olxm, quondam, 
"ia time past» iaionner time,'* (Somner) ; because this 

pvoperlv to denote time oonsiderablv remote, or 
long past. I hesitate as to its relation to A.-S. aaeara 
paratos ; although it might be suppooed that the phrase 
signified, to go <m as prtpared tor doiuff so, as is vul- 
gMly said, **with bag and baggage." Isl. gfrra sig- 
nifies homo vanus et absurdus. 

AOAir, adv. On the way or road. 

A stienth thar was on the wsttir off Cre, 

With fai a roch, rycht stalwart wrocht off tre ; 

Agmii befor mycht no man to it wvn. 

But the eouMnt off thaim that duelt within. 

On the bak ikl a roch and wsttir was, 

A strait entri forsuth it was to pass. 

Waitaet, tL 802. MS. 

Thia haa hitherto been printed as two words, a gaU ; 
but it ia one in MS.; trom a in the sense ol en, and 
gaU way. A.-S. and IA. gaia, V. Gait. 

AOAITy adv. Astir, S. B. q. on the gait or 
road, asy ** Ye're air agait the day.** 

AoArrwABDy Aoaitwaird, adv. 1. On the 
mad ; used in a literal sense. 

<*The Eries of Ergyle and Athole wes that same day 
ci^allioatrti to return to thair awindwellingis.** Bel- 
haTen MS. Moyse's Mem. Ja. VI. fol. 7. 

*'The haiU tounsmen of Edin'. past on fute agait- 
iMinl that day.'* Ibid. foL 41. 

"The kMrd of Mortoun had put the Regent'a Grace 
a gaiiward.** Bannatyne'a Trans, p. 170. 

2. In a direction towards; referring to tlie 

"Eftir he had be thir meanis, and mony utheris, 
brocht wa agaUward to his intent, he partlie extorted, 
and partlie obtenit oure promeis to tak him to oure 
husband." Q. Mary'a Instructionis, Keith's Hist. p. 

A -GATES, adv. Everywhere, literally all 
wag»9 S. 

" Ye maun ken I was at the shim's the day ; for, 
— ^I gang about a*gaie» like the troubled spirit. An- 
tiquary, ii. 128. v . Aloait. 

AOATISi adv. In one way, uniformly. 

Ane off them is Artrologi, 
Qohar clerkys, that ar witty, 
MaT knaw ooiyonctions off planetls. 
And quhethir that thar conns thaim aettia 
- In toft wgiB| or in angry ; 
And off the newyn alihalyly 
How that the dispositioon 
8uld apon thingis wjrk her doon, 
On legumes, or on cUmatis, 
That wyrkys nocht ay auhar agaiu, 
Bot sum qohar less, ana sum quhar mar, 
Eftyr, as ihair bemys strekyt ar, 
Otmr all ewyn, or on wry. 

Barifour, It. 702. MS. 

This passage, having been misunderstood, hss been 
rendered in Ed. 1820 : 

That all where worketh not aUgaites : 

whereas the meaning is, "that worketh not every 
where in one tsay." From a one, Bndgalis, which may 
be either the plur. or the gen. of A.-S. gai, gaia. \ . 

AOEEy A-JEE, adv. 1. To one side, S.; 
from a on, and jeVy to move, also to turn or 




BtkuDM Ui hdtt iadtid, aad gaes right tmtg, 
W$k tibbcB-kiioti tt Us biM bouMt lug ; 
Wkllk pmf Ito h» vwn ft tlMraght «kM 

Vm I<owii§ ditt^ wl bsM itfMf 
^ ^" " Hood 

VtnUdhaUk Pitt And Hood bub, 



.And Ctefl Wngr. and s' hia fry ; 
Ht k«it Ui mnda wort giido, maa. 

JL Mltowa/t Pomiu, p. 906. 

9VlMilaffi^ tolookaBid«; OL Torka. V. Ju, ▼. 

9. A-jar, a litde open, 8. 

BilwaiiljtaiLt» iHmb to oobm to oowt me. 

M hack- jott ba o^m /• 
QyM 19 tha baek-atyk and kt naobody loa, 
iuid oona aa yt wort na tayn to na. 

) Bmm$t !▼• 66. 

8. It 11 lomedmes amiiied to the mind, as ex- 
pragsive of aome OBgree of derangement, S. 

-Em team waa aw«a ogee; but ha waa a braw 
lor a' that** Talaa of My Landloid, ir. 161. 

To AOIiNT, V. a. To manage, whether in a 
court of law, or by interest, &c^ S. ; from 

**Tha DniM waa oarafnlly aolicited to ageiU thia 
wiulity bnainaai, and haa promiaad to do hia ondea- 
. wmu." BailUa^Ce. 

'*Thir oomplaiiita wera atronaiy agitated before thia 
ooMBtHaa, wnaraof the lord of Balmerinoch — waa pre- 
aMhBt>--<i^fiilirfalaobjthoiaurdofCraigievar.'* Spald- 
• tqg^i 108. 

To AOOBEOE, Aoobeadob, v. o. To 
'aggrmvate^ to increage, to enhance* 

<^diai« ya .agarege our iniuria be reifl^mg of oer- 
r nwninioum, wo Tnderrtand ye ar na 

• uia fim our 
laaehfiill Jngeia to geif deciauMi of ony iniuria or richtia 
partaning to ws or our lictfia.'' BeUend. Cron. B. xiii. 
«i 17. MBeaggemtU, Booth. 

**lho Aaaonbly hereby dodarea that preabyteriea 
hav« • latitoda and liber^ to aggreadgt the cenaorea 
aboto apociiiod, aooording to the de g r eea and circom- 
•taaoaa of the ofleooea/^ela of Aaaem. 1646, p. 312. 

''Thanlora to tnnaactao with Ood, whilat I foreaee 
tub a thioA wera only to aggrtgt my oondemnation." 
Chithno'a l&I, ^ 243. 

Kr. oggr^g^r^ mL orideBtly from Lat. aggrtg-artt to 
to gather together. 

To AOOSISE, V. a. To affright, to fill with 

With lyrt iafenale in myne abMsoe also 

I mU the fcOow, aad firm the eaki dede 

B«yf fhan my mambiya thyi aanl, in enery itade. 

My goiat adf be jnwiut the to aggrise, 

Ihoa tal, VBWoarthy wieht, apoon thyi wiae 

Be puyrt wele. 

Dmtg. VirgO, 118» 17. 

Thia word ia nMoly allied to S. graute, to ahudder. 
Agriigf m need by Cnaaeer: aisnifiea botii to ahudder, 
aad to make to ahndder. In tne laat aenae, it ia aaid ; 

l4MdJafli» I coade have told yon (quod thia frere) 
BwlcJie pebea, that your hertca might agriae. 

Sompn. JWvl. T. 72S1. 

A.-8. agr g t am hocrera. V. Grtb. 

AOIE, #• An abbreir. of the name Agnes^ S. 

AOLEE» Aglet, adv. Aside, in a wrong 
S. O. used in a moral sense. 

We haana manm like erael man ; 
Yet tho' ha'a paakier fbr than we, 
Whatnek I ha gaagi aa aft agUe, 

Pukm's FotMi, L 67. V. Olst. 

AOLEY, A-OLT, ado. Off the right line, 
obliquely, wrong, S« 

But. mooaie, thou ait no thy lane, 
la provioff fomight may bo vain : 
Iha beat laid aenemoa o miqa an' men 
Gaog aft a^vjf . 

BMrM,ttL14a. V.OtBT. 

AONAT, Agnate, Agnet, $. The nearest 
relation by- the f ather^s side. 

"It ia— ordanit aaent the breif of tutorie— that he 
that ia nerraat agnei, aad of zjct jreiria of age, fulfilling 
the laif of the poyntia of the breif, aalbe lanchfuU tu- 
tour, anppoia the childe that happyma to be in tutoiy 
haif aae yong brother or aiater," cc. Part Ja. III. A. 
1474, Acta KL 1814, p. 106, 107. Agnai, Ed. 1566. 

*' George Douglaa'a brother waa oojgnoaced neareat 
agnate.** Chalmera'a Life of Mary, i. 276. 

Vnm lat. agnai^i, kindred by the father'a aide. 
Hence moot probably Fr. ain^ anciently oira^ eldeat, 
flnt bom ; although Menage deriTea it from anie natu*. 
Fr. aiMieeeei Nonn. abmeeaehe, primogeniture, aeem 
menly oorr. from Lat. agnaUa, relatio^hip by the fa- 
ther ; aa it waa this that gave the birthright. 

AOREATION, $. Agreement, Fr. 

" The government of aU companeia in theee king- 
domea can have no referenoe to a popular agreaiiom 
of all the ▼ndertakera." Acta Cha. L Ed. 1614, vol. 

AOREEANCE, s. Agreement, Aberd. 

" The committee of eatatea of parliament travail be- 
tween them for ooreeoaee, but no aettling." Spalding, 

" Haddo aeeka PMce, friendly ; but no agreeanee at 
home nor abroad.*^ Ibid. ii. 66. 

AGRUFE, adv. Flat or groToUing. V. 

AOWET, the name anciently civen to the 
hill on which the castle of Edinouigh stands. 

Such, at leaat, ia the account ffiven by John Hardyng. 
Speaking of Ebranke, king oiBritain, he aaya ; 

He made also the nuvdea cactell itrong. 
That men nowe caUetii the castel of Edenbnrgh, 
That on a rock atandeth frill bye out of throng. 
On mount Agtoet^ wher men may we out through 
Full many a toune, cattel and borough. 
In the ihire about. It ia ao bye in syght. 
Who wiU it Male, ha ahaU not find it Ugh t 

cguoik FoL as. b. 

perhape ia a corr. of the name which ia aaid to 
have been impoeed on thia hiU, in the ]anguM;e of the 
ancient Britona ; MjmgdAgned, mount Agned, whence 
it ia pretended the f ortreaa waa called CaMh ntgnvd 
Agned ; Amot*a Edinburgh, p. 3. H. Boeoe calla the 
town itaelf Agneda, Hiat. FoL 12, 56. 

"C. B. agen aignifiee a olift, ageniad a rifting, and 
agenedig deft. Tnua, Caeieih Mgnyd Agnet might be 
equivalent to *'the caatle of the rifted mount." 

AHECHIEy inUrj. An exclamation nttercd 
in Indicrous contempt. Loth. V. Hecii, 

AHIN, adv. Behind, Aberd, 






M jmI' gMd OMplB' «p tJUm, 

An' fltoppit alM and Mootf. _ 

cbdir« am^ ammm. ^ m. 
AHIND, Ahimt, prep. Behind, S. 

1. Behind, in respect of placeu S. MnL Comb, 

BM flu did AjAX ft' this time t 

H« itacr'd nft' ibi SigeiaTt IdD, 

Bat pUpt oAtia tlw dyke. 

A.-a AlMfais fioet ; Moee-O. JUmIoim, Atnclar. ShaU 
w rappoae that there ia any affinity with laL Antna, 

S. Late, after, in regard to time, S. 

3. Applied to what remaina^ or is left, S. 

It Mema that lad haa atown your heart awa\ 
And ye are foUowing on, wi' what'a akind. 

Ro$^s ffdenort, p. S8. 

4. Denoting want of sucoess in anj attempt 
or protect; as» ^*Ye*ve fa'n akind (ahint) 
there» L e. yon are disappointed in jour 
ezpectationa^ S. 

5. Enressive of error or mistake in one^s sup- 
position in regard to anything^ S. 

6. Marking equality as to. retaliation, when it 
is used with a negative prefixed. ^ I shan- 
na be akmt wT you,** I shall be even with 
you, I shall be revenged on you, S. 

In the two laat aeniea, it haa nearly the power of an 

To Comb nr Ahint one, v. n. To take the 
advantage of one, S. 

*• Had MTittie'a folk hehaTed like honeat men»" he 
aud, ''he wad hae liked ill to hae eemc in akiiU them 
and o«tt afore them, tlua gate." Bob Boy, iii. 265. 

To Oct on Ahint one, to get the advantage 
of one in a baigain,'to take him in, S. 

I know not if the phraae may allude to • atratagem 
often praetiaed in • atate of hoatility, when an enemy 
waa wont to make aiiother hia priaoner by leaping on 

hoteeback behind him, and forcibly holding hit hauda. 

AHOMEL, adv. Turned upside down ; ap- 
plied to a vessel whose bottom b upwaros, 

From a for on, and QukemiUt q. ▼. 

AICH, $. Echo ; pron. as i^C in Or. nxpr vox. 

Thia ia the only term naed in An^ to denote the 
rapersnaaion of aonnd. In the Gothic dialecta, Echo 
haa had no common appellation. It ia evident that our 
forefathera hare originally oonaidered it aa aomething 
anpematnraL For it haa received a variety of penonu 
deeianationa. In A.-S. it ia called Wmdm-maere, or the 
woodland nymph ; matM not being confined to the 
night-mare, but need aa a generic tenn. The NorUi- 
em nationa give it the name of Dwerga-mal^ or the 
apeech of the Fairiea, Pigmiea, or Jhvieks, (for our 
word Draich acknowledgea the aame oricin) which 
were anpooaed to inhabit the rocka. The Celtic nationa 
teem to nave entertained a aimilar idea. For echo in 
QaeL ia Madalmk, Le. "the lone aoo of the lock." 

AY, adv. Stilly to this time ; as, ^' He*s ay 
livin*,** he is still alive, S. 

My mither^a ay glowrin' o'er me. Old Song, 

To AICH, V. n. To echo, Cljdes. 

The Untie'a blithe on the aowden whin. 

An' the gowdapink on toe spray ; 
But blither ftf was the mannald*! sang, 

Aiehan tram bank to braeu 

Marmaiden </ Clyde. Edin. Mag. Mag, 1820. 

AICHER (gutt.) B. A head of oats or bar- 
ley, Orkn. V. EcHEB and Echebspyre. 

AYCHT, s. An oath. Aberd. Reg. A. 1548, 
V. 20. V. Athb. 

A mere perverrion in orthography. 

AICHUS, HAICHUS, (gutt) *. A heavy 
fall, which causes one to respire strongly, 
Meams ; apparently from Hech, Heoh, v. 

AIDLE-HOLE, «. A hole into which the 
urine of cattle is allowed to run from their 
stables or byrea^ Ayrs. V. Adilt^, Addle. 

*' By the general mode of treatment, a hole ia dug at 
the outaide of the ftyre, which might contain from two 
to three hundred gallona, and ia termed the akUe-koU,^* 
Agr. Surv. Ayra. 

AID-MAJOR, «. Apparently equivalent to 
E. adjuJUifU. 

"That particularly it may be granted ua, to choose 
the laird of Carloupa, and the laird of Keraland, or 
Earlatonn, be admitted for aid-mafor" Society Con- 
tendings p. 386. 

AYIIN, «• A term applied to a beast of the 
herd of one year old; also to a child; 
Buchan. Pron. as E. aye. 

AYER, 8. An itinerant court. 

"Tharlordia ilkman be himaelf ia in ane amercia- 
ment — aio aa efferia to be taken in the aaid Juatia 
ager,'* Act Audit. A. U7S, p. 57. 

AIERIS» 9. pL Heirs, successors in inheri- 

"Robert Charteris of Aymisfelde proteetit that the 
delay — anent^ the landia of Drumgrey auld tume him 
to na preiudice tuichinge his poaaeaaioun, nor to liis 
aieris anent the richt and poaaeaaioun of the aamyn." 
Act. Dom. Cone A. 1472; p. 42. 

AIFER| $. A term used by old people in 
Ettr. For. to denote the exhalations which 
arise from the ground in a warm sunny 
day; now almost obsolete: StariU-o^Btobie 
and Summer-eoutBy synon. 

Tout, alvervff proeatigis, deluaionea ; ludua, luaua ; 
from alv-en, larvam agere ; ludere ; formed from cUf, 
eUre (E. e{^, incubua, faunua. lal. a^r, hot, fierce, 

AIGARSi B. Grain dried very much in a 
pot, for being ground in a quern or hand- 
mill, S. B. 

^ Ulphilaa usee Moea-G. akran to denote grain of any 
kind. Aa in S. all grain waa anciently ground iu tliia 




w§f I tiM woidf origiiudly appliad to gnin in g«i«nl, 
■i^t aft ItnffUi, wh«& new modM of ^pMmtion were 
liteQdttoed, M rMtrictod in ite meaning; ae denoting 
that onlgr whieh waa preparad after the old fonn. 
Alfu^meai u meal made of grain dried in thia manner; 
aM aiffa r hrom ^ a aort of pottage made of this meaL 
▼• Bbmi. Sa.4}. ofar, laL akur, corn, aeflea, Due ; 
A.-8. aicifr, adifr/ Gmn. ofkr, Alem. oAir, apioa; 
Fhma. «MKAar, fraetua antnmnalea, iPodbarA^, fer- 
talia. Some have derived these worda from Moes-G. 
. fldfca/ Alem. oneA-eii; Belff. ced^Hsn, &e., angers, aa 
diaotiag the incieaae of the SeM ; others, from ek, eg, 
• «^ aciis^ becanae of the graUi beincr sharp-pointed. 
PMtapa Moea-O. air§, a fieUi, inav rmtner be viewed as 
the ongin i especially aa Sa.-G. aixr denotes both the 
Md itaelf andTita prodnee. 


ToAIOH, V. a. To owe, to be indebted. 
Aightmd, owing. S. B. 

8a.4}. oiv-a» id. lag mom htm&m ma mydhrf ; 
Tntam illi debeo;' Ihre. IsL eig-a. Bat as the 
primaiy asnse of tbeee verba is, to posssss, we may 
view OURS aa also allied to Moea-O. aig-an^ A.-S. ag-oM 
habav^ posaidere. Thus a transition has been inade* 
bon the idea of aetnal possession, to that of a right to 
pooBsas : and tiie term, which primarily signifies what 
one katf ia tnnaferred to what ne oughi to have. Gr. 

to have a common origin. 

AIOHINS, •• vL What is owin^ to one ; 

eqieciallj nsea as denoting dement. When 

one threatens to correct a child, it is a com- 

• mon expression, ^ TU gie you your atghiuJ* 

fld, in form, elooel^ oorresponda to Moea-O. 
posssMio. Aagia, m O. Fr. signifies debts; 

To AIOHT, Eght, v. o. 1. To owe, to be 
indebted. Aberd. 

S. To own^to be the owner of, ibid.; synon. 
hL V. 



AIOLETy s. A tagged point 

Vh €$guUeiiet q. d. aculeata. It is also explained a 
Jewel IB ooe'a cap. GL Sibb. 

AIQRE^adj. Sour. Fr. 

** WiBS^ — ^when it hath not only becom aigrt, hot so 
soMsn also^ aa it can neither be coonted wine nor serve 
lor vinwer, mny then not only be condemned as repro- 
bats^ bill even lustly bee cast out as not only improfit- 
. able but also noysome and pestilent.*' Forbes's Dis- 
eovHj of Perrers Deceit^ p. 7. 

AuXBT, AiKXS, adj* Of or belonging to oak ; 
oaken^ S. 

**ThaS ane man of honour be send to tiie said king 
of Denmark — with letters snpplicatouris — for — ^bring- 
ing heme of aikin tymmer, quhilk is laitlie inhibite to 
be aanld to the inhabitantis and liegis of this realme,** 
*e. AolB Utry 1563, Ed. 1814, p. M5. 

Aa said kist made o' wands,— 
WV aiken woody bonds. 

And that may ha'd yoor tocher. 

Maggi^t Todur, Htr^M CoO. iL 78. 

IhroQgk atfem wnd an' birken shew 
The winsome echoes rang. 
Marmfidem </ agde, idin. Mag, Mag 1820. 

AIE» Atk, s. The oak, S. 

Bot yone with oouerithedis by and by. 
With duile crownia of the Strang aik tre. 
Ball beild and fonnd to thv honour, quod he, 
Nofflentam date, and Qabios the toon. 

Ikmg. Virga. 19S. 1. 

nnr. oKt, Dong. Viiv.» ISO, 18.; A.-S. ae, aee; Alem. 
tik^ tkke; Stt.-G. tk; IsL eik; Germ. eieAc; Belg. 
eafcf, id. 

AIKER, s. The motion^ break, or movement 
made by a fish in the water, when swimming 
fast, Roxb. ; synon. swaw. 
IsL kuk'-at continue agitare. 

AIEERIT, cuf/. (pron. ^otileH). Eared; weU 
aiierii, having full ears; applied to grain. 
Tweedd. V. Aioabs. 

AIKIE GUINEAS, a. The name given by 
children to small flat [pieces of] shells, 
bleached by the sea, Meams. 

AIEIT, pret. Owed, AbenL Reg. MS. 

AIKRAW9 ». The Lichen scrobicalatus. 
Linn. This is only a provincial name con- 
fined to die South of S. V. Staneraw. 

"L. Scrobiculatus. — Pitted warty Lichen, with 
hroed glaucous leaves ; Anglis. AUaraw ; Scotis aus- 
tralihoa.'* Lightfoot, p. 850, 851. 

AIESNAO, s. V. Snag. 

AYLE, s. 1. A projection from the body of a 
church ; one of the wings of the transept. 

2. An inclosed and covered burial place, ad- 
joining to a church, though not forming 
part of it, S. It has received this designa- 
tion as being originally one of the wings^ or 
a projection. 

*' Donald was buried in the laird of Drum's at2e, with 


poaitUm, A.-S. heaU, Sn.^. and E. KalL 

AILICEEY, s. The bridegroom's man, he 
who attends on the bridegroomi or is em- 
ployed as his precunor, at a wedding. 

On Friday next a bridal stsnds 

At the Kirktowa.— 
I trow well hae a merry day. 
And rm to be the Alikag. 

Tkt Fam^t Md\ st 61, 68. 

"The bride i^points her two bride-maids, and the 
bridegroom two male attendants, termed ex officio 
AU€Mg$,** — "The victor's meed of honour [in ridins 
the broose] is a pair of gloves, and the privilege of 
kissing the bride, who is now led home by tne oUebagMf 
. her maids having previously decorated the breast of 
their coata with a* red ribbon, the badge of office.'* 
Edin. Mag. Nov. 1818, p. 412. 

It appears that the same term originally denoted a 
footman* or lacquey. V. Allakbt. 

Thia ia the only word usod in Ane., although in 
other parte of 8. he who holds this place ia called i/te 




TUt wocd it most Mobablv Tery andent ; as eom- 
fwuwtod of 8a.4}. e, Oenn. cm^ A.-S. ocioe, mArriaA 
•ad Sw. lodbajfy Ckm. lakeif • nuiner, explained oy 
Waohler, oiiXBor, aenma a pedilMia ; from 8u.*0. lad^a; 
Genn. laek-tm^ fedb-cn, onnwe. Thia name might be 
yrmj pioperiiy given ; aa he to whom it belonga not 
only aenrea the bridegroom, but ia generally aent to 
■ e el and bring home the bride. Wachter obaenrea, 
that the word lak haa been diffiiaed, bpr the Gotha, 
throngh I^canoe and Spain, to which Italy may be 
addef' For henoe fV. laequajf; Hiap. lacayo; Ital. 
heeki; Eng. laeqmeif, Thev. lak and mcba aro traced, 
both l^ Wachter and Ihre, to Gr. Xo^a term applied to 
the faeti wv^ mu Xa(, maniboa pediboaaae ; and by 
the former, viewed aa related to £. Ug^ ou.-G. laegg, 
UL Itifg-Tt and ItaL laeecu 

AnJN, «• Sickness, ailment, S. 

AILSIE»«. The contraction of the female 
name Aluan ; as, ^ Ailsie Gourlay,** Bride 
Lam. ii. 232. 

AINCE, adv. Once» S. V. Anis. 

AiKCiK, adv. 1. Once^ Ettr. For. 

2. Used as eqoivalent to 1^. fairly; as» ^He*ll 
ride very weel, gin he were ainein to the 
road,** Lb.^ fairly set a-goin^ ibid. 

Ajnst, adv. Used for Aince^ S. 

Sem^ghrea al tmad aa a Sw. provincial phraae aig* 
■ifyil^^ nnavioe. 

AIN, adj. Own. Y. Awnr. 
ATND, End, §. Breath. 

WHh grtt payne thiddir thai hfan bnmcht ; 
He WM ta ttad, that he ne mocht 

Hyi tumd hot with gret payors draw ; 
Na apak hot giff it war waiU Uw. 

Barhtmr, iv. IM. Ma 

TUa tayand wfth richt hand haa acho hynt 
The hara^ and cntUi in tua or that acho atynt, 
And tbara with all the natuimla hate out qnent, 
JUid with aae pull of aynd the lyfe out went. 

Any. Virgil, 124, 6S. 

O. K. mtdt breath. It alao aignifiee vehement f my. 

Seynt Bdwatd the yonga martir waa k}iig of Engelonde : 
Yoi^ y maiteiid he wia thonr trecherie and onae, 

MS, Lrou ^SainU, OL JL Jirunne, ta «o. 

Ltolyn had daaptte of Edwarde'a aondcL 

Bot waned alao tite on him with nyth k onde, 

JL Bnmnt, p. 287. 

" with the ntmoet maUce and vehemence ;" Gl. Heame 
adda, "It ia a French word, aignifjring a wave which 
floea with foroe." Bat it ia meroly a metaph. nae of 
the word primarily aignifying broath, apirit. lal. 
mkie, encf; Sa.<0. ande; A.-S. eiuf. O. Andr. derivee 
the bL word from Heb. rOH, anahh, auapiravit, gemnit, 

Us. p. 12. 

A. Bor. yeme, the hfeath ; y being prefixed, like 
A.«o. gt» 

To AYND, AiKBEy Eakd, v. n. To breathe 

1. To draw in and throw ont the air by the 

** For aae familiar example, Sparai, ergo vivU, aa I 
wild any, he aimUtt ergo he linea." Reaeoning betoix 
OomgneQ and J. Knox, E. it. a. 

i. To expire, without inclading the idea of in- 
spiration ; to breathe upon. 

*' Efter hia reanrroctiottn — ^he eandU on thame and 
aaad : — ^Beaaane ye the haly apreit.*' Abp. Hamiltoun'a 
CMech. FoL 133, b. 

3. To blow upon, as denoting the action of the 

** Qif thay fynd thair ej|gia aifndU or twichit be men, 
thay leif thaym, and layia eggia in ane othir pUce.*' 
Bellend. Deacr. Alb. ch. xi. Ejua anhelitu et afllata 
vel leviter imbata, Boeth. 

Hence aymimg, breathing; and affndmg ilede, a 

The denk nieht ia almaiat rollit away, 
And the fein orient wil that I withdraw ; 
I Mle the eamdmg of hia honii blew. 

Doug, VirgO, 162, S4. 

lliare may be aane ane throU, or aundiitg giede. 
Of terribii Pluto fader of hal and dede. 

/Mtf,22r,^L Spiracnla, Viig. 

Id. amd-^ Sa.-0. amd-aa, reapiraro. Ihn viewa the 
verb aa formed from the noun ; and it ia evident that 
the latter ia much mora frequently uaed with ua than 
the fonner. 8n.<0. emd-tu often aignifiee to die. 
Henoe are formed laL €uuilat exapirare, and Su.-G. 
aendaigJtl. V. Ixlakje. 

AINLIEy adj. Familiar, not estranged ; Sel- 

kirks.; given as synon. with InnerTy. 

Thia w^At aeem to be radicallv the aame with 
Sn.*0. wentig, familiar. But, aa auilie ia viewed aa 
^ynon. with imierlg, which aignifiee affectionate, I 
woold prefer laL eMaeg'T, ainoema, ingenuua ; if it be 
not merely from aim, our own, and lie, q. attached to 
what ia viewed aa one'a own. 

AINS, adv. Once. V. Anis. 
AINSELL, Own self, used as a «. S. 

*' Tliey are wonderf u' eurpriaed, no doubt, to eee no 
erowd gathering binna a wheen o* the town baime that 
had come ont to look at their auuelle.** Beg.' Dalton, 
i. 103. . 

AYNDLESSE| adj. Breathless, out of breath. 

Quhile to qohlla fra. 

Thai cUmo into the crykys aua, 
Qnhile baltf the crag thai clumbyn had ; 
And thar a place thai fand aa brad 
That thai mycht ayt on aaerly. 
And thai war kandUi and wery : 
And thair abed thair agnd to ta. 

Bartotir, x. 009. ICS. 

But in edit. 1020, inatead of handles it ia ayndleete, 
which ia undoubtedly the true reading, for the aenae 
requirea it, aa well aa the connexion with the follow- 
ing line. The effect of climbing up a ateep rock, that 
on which the caatle of Edinburah atanda, ia here ex- 
preeaed. It mav be obaerved, that there are varioua 
evidencee that the edit. 1620 waa printed from a M8. 
different from that written by Bameay, and now in the 
Adv. Library. 

AY QUHAIR, adv. Wheresoever. 

" Bot all the gudia aw ^hair they be fundin, to pay 
tho aaid yield, after the taxatioun, baith of Clerxia, 
Baronia, and Buxgeeeea.** Act Ja. L, 1424, e. II, Ed. 

Thia ought to be written aa one word, being merelv 
A.-S. akwar, ubicunque, " in any place, whereeoever ; 
Somner. It ia alao written aeghwaer, Gan thia be 
from a, aa, aemper, and Amir, hwaer, nbi f 





AIB, Atb» A% Aju^ ocb. 1. Before, for- 

In Bieci JhoBilnim, dkgmt can h» fair 
nn tkk VMMUi lb» mSUL I iwik of a^. 

f»fa6^ iT.TOi. MB. 

«— 1W dUtod, M I nd* or, 
AaAtnUi VMit» Mlmtvi war. 

ioriDiir, lU. 88ft. Ma 

YhtM WM aat IdddtMNM iMlun f or to MiM, 
Ai thtf IMM YtUr banuMtfTf bad b«no. 

AM^k Ktrpil, 68, «. 

Ol R en^ bilon^ R 01ow.» R Bnmne. 
S« Eerlj. F«ry otr, Terjr early in the morning, 
S. Air€r and oirctl are lued aa the comp. 

It it a oommtwi prawiir **Am air winter*! • Mir 


Qfna tluM b«iia of Ttrya 


AlBRESSy •• The state of being early, S. as 
^ the oimeaB if tki crop/* or harvest. 

Of tbia MMft In than iMtfayng 
The InsU* oyrid to mak kaipyng ;^ 
** Coma I flm^ come I lato, 
«* I frnd AnwH at tha ^to.** 

Vyiiams TiU. 88^ 148. 

na r raw , mHj in the motning. 

I ifUt of my bad, and mfcht not If. 
Bot gui ma Uta^ ajna In my vedia orBsaii : 
And tat a waa mn m o vr ow or tyma of mcaaia 
I bint ana aerlplnraL and my p«n furib tuka ; 
BanofTtrva tiia twalt baka. 

Doug. Vir^a. 404, 84. 

abootthotiniaof pmyaroraayingmatf.** A.-S. 
On oar morpiw, primomann. Bod, ft, 9. Moea^. air ; 
A-8. oar; Aleni. tr; Bolg, eer; R are, ante, priua. 
MoeiQ, oir. and Id. nor, our, alao aignify tempua 
■ntntfamm. Ulph. Mn a»- Oia dcMu, Mark. 16, 2. 
vdde nma^ or in 8. JWI olr in the day : Jouiua con- 
leelniee that Moaa-O. oirhad been formed, and had 
W MW ii ed ito meaning from Or. inp, dilucolum, tompua 
matntinnm ; ao that it mi^t originally aignify the nrat 
Mit of the natnral day, and be i3torwarda extended to 
ilwola any portion Jt time preceding another ; 01. 
Qolh. Bnt there la no ooeaaion for haTing reoourae to 
Iha Or. for the loot Sn.^. or aignifiea the beginning 
laitivm, prindpiam ; whieh ia a radical idea. 

Pkindpinm ant aoTl, qonm nihil asaet 

Fofa^po, Sir, 8. 

lhme.9 AlaoLf and Oenn. ar, although now only 
aaad in oo m| io ei tion, baa predaely the aame meaning ; 
an la wrhUd, naago primitiTa, urojiefi, proavi, wrmehe, 
piinomnun, eanaa originia. It ia often need aa aymm. 
with Oetni. aoTg before. 

Aia^adj. Early, S. 

**Toa woa*d na hae kent Cat to mak o* her, nnleaa it 
bad beaa a gyr-cailen, or to aet her vp amon* a com 
oir bear to fley awa the mieka.** Jonnial fitmi Lon- 
doa, 1^ 2. Le. "early barley,** that which ia aown ao 
aai|y m the aaaaon aa to be aoon ripe. 

AIR, 8. Expl. **hair| used for a thing of no 

Vk9% for fkfonr, feir, or feid. 
Of ilebe nor pur to apaik siud ipair. 
For lave to hianaa boi no beid. 
Nor lycbtlab lawlinaa ana air, 
Bnt pnttk all paraonia in oompair. 

Bamiaiiign4 PoemB, p. 192. 

Lord HaOea baa moat probably giTen the proper 
of the word. But it maydeaerve to be mentioned. 

that U. oar deuuiea the amallaat object imaginable. 
Primitivvm mi iiM l iH ima ia ^U^ et to mroiuor aigniflcanai 
O. Andr. 

AIBy AiBBy Atii» An, a. An oar. 

A bnndrath abippia, that mtbar bur and ayr. 
To toaa thair gnid. In bawyn waa lyand thar. 

WaUoM, TiL 1068. M& 

Than aeUpprt thai, for owtyn mar. 
Bom want till ater, and anm till or. 
And rowyt be the Ue of /!«/. 

^Moiir, ilL 876L Ma 

O. R ore, RiiMm'a A M. Bom. A-S. and Alem. 
art; laL oar; Dan. aart; Sa.*0. ara^ id. Some de« 
rive thia term from Stt.-0. ar-a, to plough ; aa Bailing 
ia often metaphorically called, ploughing the watora. 

*'11»a tfde of the aea betwixt thia yle and Jyra ia ao 
Tiolent, that it ia not poaaiUe to paaae it, either by 
aayle or offre^ except at oertane timea." Deacriptioun 
of the Kingdome of Scotlande. 

Thia ia atill the pronunciation of the north of S. It 
ooonra in a Ptot. applied to one who baa too many 
@» or who engagea in a variety of buaiueaa 

at once: 

baa o'er many airo i* the water.** 

AIR) Aire, Atb, 8. An heir. 

And qnban it to the king waa taald 
Off Ingbmd, how thai achup till haold 
Tbat caatalL ha wm all angry ; 
And callyt hia aona till hym in hy. 
The eldaat, and aperand ai/r^ 
A jonttf^ bechelar, and atark, and fayr, 
Senir Edunard callyt off CanutMorams. 

Barbowr, It. 71. MS. 

Bot Brace waa knawfai wayll a^ off this k^irik. 
For ha had rycht, we call no man him lik. 

Waltaee, ii. 856. MS. 

Hence aj 



' Anent the ayr&ship of mooabil ffudia, that the airU 
of Barronia, gentilmen, and frehaldera aall haue. It ia 
atatuto and ordanit, that the aaidia <UrU aall haue the 
beat of ilka thing, and after the atatute of the Burrow 
Uwia." Acta Ja. HI. 1474, c. 66. edit. 1566. 

Moaa-O. aihi; laL and Su.-G. arf; Alem. erhe, ervt; 
A-S. fjrf; Belg. oor; Lat. haet'^ The Su.-G. word 
primarily aignifiea, terra, arv^um; and, in a aecondajy 
aenae, the gooda of the aoil, fundua una cum asdificiia, 
et ^uicquid terrm adhaeret ; Due. Thua it baa been 
oiigmaUy applied to landed property, deaoending by 
inheritance ; aa the term Keriiage, which, incur laws, la 
atill oppoaed to moveable property, extends not only 
to the land itaelf, but to all that adheree to the aoil. 

Sw. ttrfskap exactly ooxreaponda with our term. 

AIRy AiREy Ayr, 8. An itinerant conrt of 
JQStice, £. Eyre. 

nat gud man drad or Wallace sold be tana ; 
For Suthronn ar Ml auteille euir ilk man. 
A gret dyttay for Scottia thai ordand than ; 
Be tba lawdayia in l>nnd4 sat ana Ayr. 
Than Wallaoa wald na langer aoiomo thar. 

WaUaee, L 275. MS. 

" About thia time the King went to the aouth land 
to the Airot and held juatice m Jedburgh." Pitaoottie, 
p. 135. 

The Jndgea of anch oourta are L. R aometimea called 
JtuiUiarU iihuramieo. Kogor of Hoveden writea, A. 
1176, that Henry IL of Eng^d appointed tree Jua- 
titiarioa itinerantea. They are alao called Juatitiarii 
errantea ; Pet. Bleeenaia, Ep. 95 ; aometimea Juatitiarii 
itineria, aainTrivet'aChron. A 1260, Juatitiariua itineria 
de Corona. By Knyghton, A. 1353, they are deaigned, 
Juatitiarii auper la Eyre. V. Du Canffs. In the lavra 
of Rob. IIL of Scotland, it ia ordained, that the Lorda, 

▲ IB 



hftWng oourti of Yegility, •iMmld hold, twioe a your, 
ttinon JiutitiMrii, e. dO, n. 

8k«M doriTM this bom tier, which iiidead it the 
iMi word used in our old laws, and translated Atrt, 
Skinner prefeis Fr. erre, a way. It would appear that 
wo have horrowed the tenn from the English ; and 
that th^ had it immediately from the Fr. For we 
find it in use snunu; them nom the time of the Con- 
qiiest. Pnr oeo qne la commen fine et ameroement de 
toat Is ooontae en sire detnulieeM pnr faux Jqgementi, 
fte. WilL L ca. 19. BastelL FoL 238» b. 

AIR, 3» A veij small quantity, Orkn. 

has every appearance of beins a very ancient 
Goth. term. Ondm. Andr. gives IsL dr, aar, as an 
Id. or Qoth. primitive, conveying the very same idea. 
Minntissimum ^nid, et re inpiar significans ; — atomon, 
et nnitatem, senei prindpinm. — Aar insnper vocsmus 
atomoo in radiis solaribus, per fenestram dcnius illa- 
bentes. Lsz. p. 15. Pnlvis minntissimus, atomus in 
rsdiis solarihns ; Hsldorson. Principium renim ante 
ersationem. Ar var aida, iha edn var; Principium 
ant, oom nihil- adhuc esset prodnctnm. Edda, YereL 
Ind. It has been supposed that the Gr. term ipx^ has 
had a common origin. 

To AiB, V. fi. To taste, Orkn. 

Apparently to tske ''a very small quantity,** from 
the «, ei^lained above. 

AIB| 8. A sand-bank, Orkn* Shell. 

*'T1iev have also some Nwish words which they 
oommonlv nse^ which we understood not, till they were 
explained ; such as Air^ which signifies a sand-bank.'* 
Brsnd's Zetland, p^ 70. 

**Air, a bank of sand.** MS. Explication of some 
Rbrish words. 

Perhaps the most proper definition is, an open sea- 
bssch. " Most of the extensive beaches on tbe coast 
are oaOed air$; as Stmar-air, WkaU-aiTf Bom-air,** 
Bdmottston*8 ZetL L 140. 

The powsr thou dott covet 
O'er tempest end wave. 
Shall be thuM^ thou prand maiden. 
By bssch end by cave ;— 
By stsck, snd by skerry, by noap, end by voe. 
By air, snd by wick, sad bv hslver snd gio, 
And by every wild ihoie which the northeni winds know. 
And the northern tidss Uts. 

Th$ Pinie, iL 141 

U. syrs^ ora campi vel ripae plana et sabulosa. G. 
Andr. p^ 60. Ei/ri, ora iharitima. Alias Ejfri est 
sahnlsm, Le. jfross sand or grsveL Verel. lad. This 
word, in Su.-G., bjr a chjui^ of the diphthong, assumes 
the fopn of aer; signifying glarea, locus scnipulosus, 
wheiiK,^ in oompoeition sfraofr. our §lanner$, Oer also 
signifies campus, planities sabulosa, circa ripsm. V. 

To AISCH (pron. q. AirtBh\ v. n. To take 
aim, to throw or let fly any missile weapon 
with a desisn to hit a particular object, 
Bozb. Aberdeens. It is not at all confined 
to shooting with a bow. 

"Shoot sgain,— and O see to airch a wee better this 

DM." Brownie of Bodsbeck, i. 155. 

I csn scarcely think that this is oorr. from Ahri or 
Akik^ id. It mav have been borrowed from the use 
of the «, Arcker^ E. a bowman. 

AiBCH, AbiCH, «. An aim, AbenL Soxb. 
Abcheb, «• A marksman, AbenL 

AIRCH» AiBon, (gntt), adv. Scarcely, 

scantly» as, ^That meat's aireh dune,** i.e. 

it is not dressed, (whether boiled or roasted), 

sufficiently, Loth. 

A.^ soriC mrhlke, remisse. V. Ajboh and EaoB. 

AISEL, «. 1. An old name for a flute ; pro- 
perly applied to a pipe made from a reed, 
Sdk. Liddes. 

This micht seem to be a oorr. of atr-hole, a name 
which might be given to the instrument, from its struc- 
tura, by wose who knew no other name. 

2. Transferred to musical tones of whatever 
kind, Box. 

His beetle bmn his wttd aird to tune. 

And tsna on Uie wynds with sns siryiionie croon. 

mat iff. TcUm, iL S03L 

To AIRGH, r. n. To hesitate^ to be re- 
luctant, S. 

*'I oMUl at keuiUyng withe him in that thrawart 
haas^ty moode.** Wint. Ev. Tales, ii. 41. V. Eboh, 
AaoH, V. 

AIRGH, <u/y. Expl. " hollow ;*• and used 
when anything is wanting to make up the 
level, Ettr. For. 

Perhaps it properly means *' scarcely sufficient" for 
any purpose. V. Ergh, scsnty. 

AIRISB,adj. ChiUy,S. 

To AiBN, V. €u To smooth, to dress with an 
iron ; airrCd^ ironed, «. 

Now the ssft msid — 
Bscks use, I trow, her wsnt o' reit> 
But dinks her out in a' her best. 
Wi' wsel ainCd mutch, sn* Uitle desn. 
To wsit ths hour o' twaU at e'en. 

Piekm*9 Poemt, i. 79. 

AiBNB, 3. pL Fetters, S. Y. Ibne. 

AIRTy Art, Abth, Aibth, «. 1. Quarter of 
the heaven, point of the compass. 

Msistres of woddis, beis to us hsppy and kynd, 
Releif our lanff tranell, quhst eaer thow be. 
And under qunst ari of the heuin so his. 
Or at quhst eoisi of the wsrld finaly 
BsU we srrius, thow teich us by and by. 

LoHff, Virpt, 2S» 82. 

, In this osnss we commonly say, ** What airCs the 
wind in? ** i.e. From what pomt does it blow ? Airt 
is the jmneral pronunciation in the west of S., airf4 
in the Esstem counties. 

2. It is used, by a slight deflection from what 
may be accounted its primanr sense, to de- 
note a particular quarter of the earth, or 
one place as distinguished from anotlier. 

Thus, in the pssssge alresdy quoted, "coiil of the 
warld," or eartn, is distinguished from **art of the 
heuin." It often occurs in this sense. 

WsUsce snsttsrd, laid, Westermsr we will. 
Our kyne sr slayns, and thst me likis Ul ; 
And othir worthi mony in thst art ; 
WiU OodI Isiife, we ssU us wreke en part • 

Watlae$, LSOO. MS. 


[M] AIR 


TM^ te tfM lytl* ^MBteaM that w« Ud, 
8m Iba I M the Id ftiirt M ttnig^tiyrtftd, 
Mttiraw tbow jn. in did or aii, 
Willi tbi^ ay IMH y«t nn I iMw put 

Ihrnrnld bAvt MM, ]um1 thon bUld«ii in yoM «tr<; 
Qikflfc vln yoa Itttanlia oonniMnjr ooiiYwnt 
— Ipiirpotatt«T«tmhAT«diieltinthAt«fl 

FtMm^Mommr, UL ft 88, N. 

L Used in a genenl senae^ like E. hand, ride, 

''H an I hasf don* and said, to this parpoM, wen 
yal^ to do-^I would desire it ae mv nMrcy to do it 
a^un, and mj it again, and that with eonie more edge 
and fsrvoor, in the foraigfat of all that hath followed 
of aomw and rmroach Emn all olriJU." M'Waid's 
OMit«ndfny> p. 21g. 

On €9erf €ari is sometimer iised in the eame esnse in 
wldoh we 8ay» •» eveiy Aojid; or on aU Mcfen 

Thalr is within an He inolnmit on athir pert, 
Tb bieke the stonne, and wallis on euerymrt, 
mihin the wattir. In ane bosom gait. 

I^. KwydL 19, 7. 
'lUa Donald giUhersd a oomoany of miscliieToos 
" Kmmen^ and invaded the ICing in every €uik, 
he oauMb with great oniel^.'* Piteoottie^ 

«* We espeet good news from that aiiiA.** B^MUie'a 

BaidvBg is the only B. writer, who^ aafar aa I have 
ab ee i - ved y neee thie word. Nor ie it unlikely that he 
i M in ed tt from the Soots, daring his residence among 
them. Ibr it aeema very doabtf id, whether we ought 
* aa lay moc<e stress on his naing this term, as a prooiof 
Hb bsiqgold &, than on hie teetimony with reraeet to 
tiia maiiy vooehers he oretended to have fonnd m this 
OjMBtiy, of ita being au alonff dependent on the &ig- 
liali orowB. But let us hear John himaelf : 

This Gelsad then rode fiDrthe, with his route, 
Aiensry way be made a knyeht for to departed 
To tyme tbei ware al ieueruly gone out, 
ikndnone with hym ; so eche one had theyr pert : 
iknd gif eny met enother at any oriel^ 
Rjs rale was so^ be should his felowe teU 
BbsdusBtures, what so that hym befelL 

Ckr9»ieU, F. 80l K 

Iha iiognlar ortiwaraphy of the tenn mi^t of itself 
indnoa aanspieion, uat the use of it was an innovation. 

Tbia woia has been flenersll^ derived from Ir. and 
OaaL crird^ quarter, rarninal pomt» a coast ; aa on otrd 
tkait^ from tlie Esatem quarter. Thus, Sir J. Sinclair 
saya i *'lba vecb €ari is probably derived bom the 
Onelie atrd^ a coast or qutfter. Hence the Scote also 
say. What arit Ux What quarter does lAe wind Mow 
frim #"* Obse r v. p. 26. Ardut being the name given 
in Lat. to the two famous constellations called the 
laon^ near the North Pole^ which is designed Paiua 
^ffvaHnu^-thie mis^t seem to be the origin of our worcU 
Hub bsi^g also that quarter to whidi the eye of the 
aatRmomer or traveller is directed, it miaht be sup- 
Bosad that this at lensth gave name to au the rest. 
It ni^t eeem to confirm the conjecture^ that C. B. 
mrA jgpiliee a bear (IJbnyd) ; and to complete the 
theoey, it might also be suppoMied that the Provincial 
Britona b o rr o w ed this designation from the Romans. 

The GoihicL however, preeente claims neari v equaL 
Genn. mi^ piaoe; die 4 orCe cderaegenden dee Erd' 
he dem^ the ionr remona or parte of the earth. Wart 
alao baa the sense 01 locM/ teorfi^ teerfs, versus locum. 
Waohter derivee oH; ae signifying towarde^ from lerrf «, 
whidi baa the eame sense. VereL renders IsL vari, 
venue pl>fly orbis % NordaO'Varit venus Septen- 
trionem. Belg. eordf, a place or quarter. Tbeee are 
all evidently allied to Moea^. wairike, versus; nt. 

ientem venus ; in . connection with 

Junius mentions A.-8. esilMeani; meti-weafd; 
Goth. OL 

The IbL em^kiys another word in the sense of dMh 
or quarter, which can acaroely be thought to have any 
affinity, unless it should be supposed that r has been 
eoftened down in pronunciation. This is aef , OU, plnr. 
aUer; aUha aetter^ octo plagae ; < rader oetf, to the 
eoath ; i nordri aeU, towards the North. 

To AIRT, Abt, v. a. 1. To direct; to mark 
oat a certain course ; used with respect to 
the wind, as blowing from a particular 
quarter, S. 

" niat as to what course ehiiw or boats would take 
to proceed up the river, would, in hie opinion, depend 
upon the mode by uiiich their progreee was actuated, 
either by pulling, rowing, or sailing, and as the wind 
wae airted.** State, Fraser of Fraserfield, 1805, p. 192. 

2. To give direction, or instmction, in order to 
find out a certain person or place, or any 
other object It properly respects the act of 
pointing ont the course one ought to hold, S. 

'* To art one to any thing; to direct or point out any 
thing to one." Sir J. Sinclair, p. 26. 

As the verb is not used by our ancient writers, it 
has certainly been formed from the noun. Art occurs 
aa a V. in O. E. ; and nudbt at first view be considered 
as the.same wiUi this. 0nt it is quite different, both 
aa to meaning and origin. 

— - My poore purs and peynes stronge 
Have guild me speke, es I spoken bavei 
^ Neede bath no lawe, as that the Clerkes trete : 
And thus to crave artith me my neede. 

ffoceleve, p. 68, 6S. 

When I was yoonr, at eigfateene yeare of age, 
lAsty and light, dfesiroos of plesannoe. 
Approaching on full sadde end ripe courage, 
Looe oried me to do my obseruance. 
To Ua estate, and done him obeiiannoe, 
Commaondiiiff me the Gout of Lone to see, 
Alite beside the mount of Gfthaiee. 

Ckaaeer, Ofurt i^Love, I 46L 

^rrwhitt renders the word, eons^rotii, which indeed 
seems to be ita natural meaning in all the three pas- 
SMKs quoted ; from Lat. arcto, id. To tbeee we may 
m£a another in proee. 

*'In France toe people saltan but little meat, except 
their bacon, and thereforo would buy little salt ; but 

St they be artyd (compelled) to buy more salt than 
ey would." Fortescue on Monarchy, ch. 10. V. 
Ellu, Spec. E. P. i. 3U. 

Ah, gentle lady, a«rf my way 
Across this langBome, lanely moor; 

For he wha's dearest to my heart 
Now waits me en the western shore. 

Poeme, p. 147. 

He erted Golly down the brse. 
An' bade hmi scour the flatii 

JDavidsm's Seamne, p. 61. 

3. To direct as to duty. 

'* I perceive that our vile affectiona— cling too heavily 
to me m tbia hour of trying sorrow, to permit me to 
keep sight of my ain duty, or to airi you to yours.'* 
Heart H. Loth. li. 185—6. 

*' After this discovery of a poaeibility to be saved, 
there ia a work of deeire quickened in the eouL — But 
sometimes this desire is airted amiss, whilst it goeth 
out thus, ' What shall I do that I may work the works 
of God?'" Outhrie's Trial, p. 89. 

4. To AiBT on, V. a. To urge forward, point- 
ing out the proper course^ Galloway. 




Jp tiM ilMp tht herd, wi' ftkin' ■huka, 
TtoWM IIm frvDimit fowe ; and now uid tbes 
iMf M tht tir'd tUw with •< Am^oicw, a, « /" 

5« To AiBT auL To discoTer after diliflent 
March ; asy '^ I airiit him oti^;** I found him 
after long aeekin^ Roxb. 

Amtm it used in the fame mom by old PlabgimY«^ 
1b. iii F. ISS; K '*! oH^ I oonatraTiie [Fr.] Je ooa- 
fllniiM:— I niAjebe w otnctorfihAt I thkll Mfayne to do 

AIBT and PART. Y.Abt. 

AIB-YESTERDAY, «. The day bef oro yea- 
terday, Banffs. V. Hebe-Yesterdat. 

Aib-Yestbeeic, 8. The night before last, 
Ghdloway* V. as above. 

AISLAIR^adj. PoUshed, S. 

'* A nMOD oaa noeht how mm eain dWatr'withoat 
difootioaii of his lowiU." Abp. Hamiltoim'i Gfeto- 
ohiona^ FoL 5^ a. 

AiBLAS-BANKy «• A reddish-oolonred bank, 
with projectiiu^ rocks in a perpendicular 
form, as resembling ashlar-work, Koxb. 

ATSltfENT, Atbtament, ». Used in the same 
sense with £• muementf as denoting assis- 
tance aooommodation. 

**Kaiio of thorn nil fireelio gine^ or for anio prioe 
■on, or tranaport^ or caria bowes, arrowaa, or anie 
kind of amioar^ or hOrM, or other oinHenlU to the 
oommoD oneiiiiea of oar Beahno." 2. Stat. Roh. I. 
TH. 8. 0. SS. Fr. aUemaU^ oommodimi, Dick Trer. 

AIT, Oat or Oaten; for it may be viewed 
eiUier as a a. in a state of construction, or 

I the ilk Yimiiildlb that in the small ait rede 
Toned mr sang, syne fra the woddii yede, 
And Mkus about taoeht to be obeysand, 
Ihoelit he war gredy, to the biaey nasbiuid, 
Ane thankftdl werk made for the plowman's art, 
Bot BOW the horrible steme dedii of Bfarte. 

lkm§. Virga, 18, 9a 

Am^ 8*pL OatSy S. 

The ooms are good in Blalnshee ; 

Where aiU are fine, and said bv Idnd, 

. That ifye search all thofoagn 

Means, Bochan, Mar, nana better are 

Than Leader Baughs Jind Yarrow. 

^Uon*9 a, SgngB, iL 181, 188 

A.-8. aia, aiet id. Hqfire ia the word used, in the 
aamo aenae^ in the Oenn. and Scandinavian dialecta. 
Ona might abnoat snppoee, that aa this grain oooati- 
ttttad n prind^ part of the/oAcI of oar ancestors, it 
had hence reoeivea ita name. For IsL tU siniifies the 
not of eating, and the pi. aete, food in ganeru, pabola, 
pnada, O. Andr. A.-S. aet haa the aamo meaning ; 
odnliom, 1^0. It haa the diphthong, indeed, wherna 
mUi aTSoa, u without it. Bat thia ia not material ; 
aa aand oe are oommonly interchanged in A.-S. 

Wild aiUf bearded oat-grass, S. Avena fatua, 

Iho beard of thia plants I am informed, ia ezqni- 
■itaiy aenaibia to moistara ; and hygromaten are often 

^^^^BB^^va sa^s^^^wA ^^a a va 

AiTBK| adj. Oaten, 8. 

Fmi plaving on the aHea reed 

And sneplierili him attending, 
Do hem reaoii their flocks to feed, 

The hills and haoghs commending. 

JUUom'9 & Sim^, iL 180L 

ATT, 8. A custom, a habit ; especially used 
of a bad one, Meams. 

laL aedet aedi, indoles, moa. 

ATTEN, 8. A partridge, Selkirks. 

As the term kom or Aon, denoting either a oook or 
hen, ia the final syllable of the name of thia bird in va- 
riooa langnagea, (as Teat, feldihttn, Belg. roepkoeM, 
Sa.-0. rappkan), AUem may be ^. oK-Aeji, or the fowl 
that feeds among oata. This bird haa an A.-S. name 
with n aimilar termination ; erwe-kemme^ perdrix, a par- 
tridflo, Somner. Sa.-G. aaker-J^oena, id. q. nn acre, or 

Ait-Fable, «• « One of the compartments of 
a cake of oat-bread, S. 

Twa pints o' weel-boOt solid aowins, 
Wi* whanks o* gads tui'/nuie oowins,'- 
Wad scarce hae ser't the wretch. 

A, WOtoiCt Pcems, 1790, p. M. V. Farlb. 

AiTSEEDy 8. 1. The act of sowing oats, S. 

" niat the Sesaioon and College of Juataoe aalbe^pn 
— ^vpoan the first day of Noaember yeirlie, and sail sitt 
— <iahill the first dav of Merche mxt thairefter ; and 
that the haill monetn of Merche aalbe vacance for the 
otteMef." AcU Jn. VL 1587, Ed. 1814, p. 447. V. 

2. The season appropriated for sowing oats, S. 

•* Qohan did that happen ? " •'Daring the oUteetL" 

AJTHy Atthe, *• Oath, V. Athe. 

ATTBT, or AIFTLAND, «. That kind of land 
called mfieldf which is made to cany oats a 
second time after barley, and has received 
no dung^ Aug. Perhaps from A.-S. aeft^ 

AITH-HENNES, 8. pL seems to signify /i^afA- 
Atffis, as being bred on the heath* 

'*Nn man aall aeU or boy any Marefowles, 

Blaekoocka, AUh-kennet, Termiflanea, — [or] any sic 
kinds of fowles oonunonlie vsed to be chased with 
Hawks, Tnder the peine of ano bander poanda to be 
incurred, alswell be the bayor ^s the seller.'* Ja. VI. 
Part 16. c. 83. Skene'a Pec. Crimee, tit. 3. c 3. 

AITLIFF CRAP, 8. In the old husbandry, 
the crop after bear or barley, Ayrs. 

This haa been derived from Ait, oata, and Lift, to 
plow, q. T. It is, howeyer, written Oat-ieave by Max- 
welL V. Bsah-Lkavi. 

AIVER, 8. A he-goat, after he has been 

g sided. Till then he is denominated a buek» 

Thia ia aridently from a common origin with Hdmm^ 
id. q. ▼• 

AIVERIE, adj. Veiy hungiy, Rozb. i a term 
nearly obsolete. Y. Yevebt. 

▲ IX 

[80] ALB 

AIZMAN, «. 1. A hewer of wood| SatherL 

S. One wbo etmes an ax€ as his weapon in 

** Thai CTtiy irfnnaai that luM nowthir tpen nor bow 
nl htU a taiga of trea or lader,** dtc FarL Ja. HI. 
1481. Sd. 1814, n. ISS; axmoM, Ed. 1666. 

••Xliii lalid of Balnamoooo was captaino of tha aix* 
•MHb hk wMa baodk tho hail! hope of TiGtorie atood 
thaidi^.'* BtoooltM'a don. p. 106. 

AIX-lXEy 8. An azletree, 8. 

**ItaBL twa graaa eolTeriuia of found, monntit npoon 
Ihair amia» qvhoOlia and ahtrtikf oaniiait with me, 
haviqg thro ^ynuner wadgU." CoU. InTontoriea, A. 
lMObp^.168. V.Ax-Tbxb. 


AIZLE, •• A hot ember. Y. Eizel. 

AKTNy 0dj. Oaken, iii^.tymmer, oaken 
timber; Aberd. Beg. A. 1538. V. Aiken. 

^— BHif with wedgtU he 
atada aeUdaad ana ftrarMqaaie atifm tm _ 

J9m^ Virgil, 226, 27. 

ALAIOH. adv. Below, in respect of situation, 
not 80 high as some other place referred to^ 
• SeDdifcs.; from on and laigh^ low. 

ALAia^9.pL ADqrs. ^ 

flortmoa and Werfc that wai without the tonn, 
Thai brak and hrjat and pat to coafiuioan : 
alaii^ be Uwbow tnat was thar, 
and tpflt. thai wald ao IMt ipar. 

Wtilaee, iL 2L MS. 

ALAJE^ WaDaoe, tiTu 1407. Y. Lak. 
ALAEANEE, intery. Alas, Ayrs. 


iwda that e'er the meedowi taw ; 
/— ia Bohin one awa'f 

Fiekm's Pocaw, 1788, p. 20l 

Tha ani part of tha word ia eridently E. alael, alas. 
Tha aaooad leaemhlea 8a.<0. «^ oh ! and naa eerily. 

ALAOnST, 9. Suspicion. Y. Allaoust. 

ALAMOMn, 8. The stonn-finch, a fowl, 

^'Tha alom-flnch ffroaUaria pelagka, Linn. Syat.) 
0mt alaaieart^ ia rm frequently aeen in the fritlis and 
aoaBda."* Bimy'a Orkney, p. 802. 

Tha naaM aiiiiina of ItaL extract, from aHa a wing, 
and mtmit, q. the bird that atiU mounU, or keepa on 
to wiB|^ agreeing to a well-known attribute of tl 

^'Ibr trial aake chopped atraw haa been filing orer, 
which they woold stand on with expanded wings; 
hnl were narer obeerred to settle on, or swim in the 
water." P^nn. ZooL p. 663, 664. V. Assilao, the 
aaaa of this bird m St. Kilda. 

B. AUumotH, ae in Neill'a Toor, p. 197. It is pron. 
q. fllaaiMlis or olcuNoofie. It may be frran ItaL a/a a 
win^ and aiele motion, q. "erer moving ;** or, if a 
OooL origin be preferred, it might be dedooed from 
oOi OBuia, and Mela oocorrere, q. "meeting one every 

ALANE» Allans, adj. Alone. 

Hys DooehtjT saeeede sail in his sted. 
Aid hald hys herytsge hyr glome , 

fTyn^oiPiS ym. 4. 82S. 

Thia, aa Mr. Maopherson haa obaanred, ia aqnivalent 
to Acr lone, ia modem S. 

Qnhat wane ys is thar nans. 

That eoir is worth hot he allantt 

Bunoutp XT. 414. mo» 

*' CoBunonlie, ^f ' a man sleepis in ainne^ and rysia 
not in time, ane sinne will draw on another : for tliere 
ia nener a ain.<Ae alane: but ay the mair greate and 
heinooa that the sinne be, it hes the greater and war 
ainnes foUowing on it." Bnioe'a Serm. on the Sacra- 
ment, 1680. Sign. O. 8. b. 

Alem. alatR; Germ. aUria; Belg. attea^; Sn.-0. 
oUtHO, adv. alone. The word, however * varied in 
form, is evidently from all and ain, em, een, one ; q. 
entirely one, one and no more. Wachter has justly 
observed, that in the ancient dialects, the same word 
denotea one and alone, without any difference. Thus 
in Qloea. Karon., einer occurs in the sense of ipiim^ 
etacrs for eola, and etn^m aolum. We may add, that 
Moea-G. aias signifiee both unus and solus. 

ALANEBLIE. Y. Allaneblt. 
ALANO, Alakgs, prep. Alongst, S. 

ffeheim^ tUanffeike haekbane^ — he struck me on the 
backbone. It conveys the idea of a longitudinal stroke, 
or one affiseting a considerable portion of the object 
that ia struck. 

SU.-G. laange, id. 

ALiASTEB, Alisteb, s. A common abbrevia- 
tion of the name Alexander, especially in the 
countries bordering on the Highland!, S. 

**Alider Sandieeon," ftc Spalding, i. 188. 
AUuier an' a'a coming.— Jdco6ite J&tot, L 161. 

ALABEFT. Y. Labetf. 
ALABS; AlareyeL 

— ^Vapoars bote richt frssche and wefll ybet : 
Duke of odour, of flnonr maiit fhigrant. 
The silner droppii on daaeis dUtUlant : 
Qnhilk verdonr oranches ooir the alan yet, 
with smoky senoe the mystis reflectsnt. 

FaHaqf Hommr, FnL St 2. edit 1679. 

Thia may aicnify, the yei or gate overspread with 
the branchee o? the alder; or the gate made' of thia 
tree: A.-S. air; Su.-G. al; Alem. elbra, id. ; Su.*G. 
akw, of or belonging to the alder-tree. I suspect, 
however, that it ia not theaZcfer, but the elder that is 
meant For as the elder or bore-tree ia still by the 
euperstitious supposed to defend from witchcraft, it 
was formerly a common custom to plant it in gardens. 
In many it la preeenred to this day. It ia probable, 
therefore, that tiie allusion is to this tree ; and that for 
greater security, the trunk of it mi^t be used for sup- 
porting Uie garden-flmte, if this itself was not also 
made of the wood. Belg. holler, id. I dare not assert, 
however, that alare may not here signify common or 
general, q. the gate which opened into the whole garden. 
In this case, it would be tne same with aUarie, q. v. 

ALAYOLEE, adv. At random. Y. Alla- 


ALAWE, adv. Y. Lawb. 

There sawe I drenie him, new out of hant. 

The fare tigers AiU of felony, — 
The elymbare gayte, the elk for albkuirge, 

KiHffs Quoir, o^ v. st & 

▲ LB [31] 

**Whal th« OMMiiiig of the qniOity t apf — ed hjf 
mWatir m lib I ouuiofc find out. The oulUmr of this 
anioud ii dark gray ;" Tjrtlor. AlAUutrwe Menu to 
ilgniff tha axaiciaa of the eroM-bow. Uaa the ex* 
praawoo rafar to the eloee of the elk, or the arrows 
ol a kmr kindt m ^oaa shot from the ero«»-6oip, 
aanployad fay ita ponaera for killing itt V. Aw- 


ALBUIST, Mm;. Though, albeit, Ang. 

— Bhoft sj Bs aato oar glen, 
flsiilrlBg a hanhip, came yon anko men ; 
An' oar aia lads, atbuisi I aayt myaell. 
Bat gaidad them right cankardly and snelL 

JbM'a IMmPfv, Fint Edit pi 82. 

Iliia aaaaaa the aanae with EL aibeU, or fonned like it 
Irona M, Ma often need for be, and U. Piece is meraly 
the iwrr-yw abbreriatioa of allnuei, V. Puox, and 

ALCOMTE, s. Latten, a kind of mixed 
metal still naed for spoons. 

M, alahyaay; oceaaiJa tpoane, apoooa made of al* 
oymy, S* Bor* 

Ttcm tibaaa TUto hla dialmar went he syne, 
Aboat fall achoUeria amayia Im hawbrek fyne, 
Of bondat male, and ahynand ryehaly 
Of fjaaaC gold and fmhutg aleomjfe. 

Deay. Fivyii; 40S, i8L 

It haa laoaiTad thia iiaaae, aa being the result of a 
ekewUeal prepaiatioo, V. LATTOuy. 

ALD, Ald^ Auld, adj. 1. Old, 8. Yorks. 

Bot aa I Arnd Phylip the oMa 

Waa the Bmparoara, that take 

f^fiat G^yatyndoma, aa aayia oora bake. 

WpUowm, w. 9l XL 

farik of the ^jm of thk ilk haaaid au^, 
ame fiadia iadUa, and atrf iaaachokillia caold, 
Dmme Drom hia atarna aaa grialy bard hyngia. 

Doiy. VirgU, 106, S9. 

Aid is aaed fay R. Bnmne in the aame aense. 
A.-& aald; Alsaa., Frane., Qerm. and Preoop. all, 

Mr. Todka dariTaa E.eld,cld, from A.-S. yid-an, Ud- 
fm, to raaaaia, to atay, to oontinae^ to laat, &c. Divera. 
Furlay, H. IM; 190. The r. ia alao written aeld-tan, 
II woaid saam, however, that the etymon ought to be 
iaTOited. Alem. tUi-em oorreaponda to A.-S. eaiti-tan, 
and mmifiea oi'ofDNflore; aa if formed from the idea of 
age orloM Ufa. fte primitiTe aenae of Alem. ait ia 
aratoa, adolta% denoting a peraon grown-np, or come 
to matnrity s bsuig meraly tne part peat of al-en^ to 
^mr, araaoara. v. Wachter in to. Thia is undoubt- 
edly the same with IsL al-a, to nurae, alao to fatten ; 

enntrira^ aaginara. Henoe VereL derivea olcf-r proles, 
Ubari, and Moea-O. aide, generation etas. 

S. Of ten Qsed as characterising what is deemed 
quite nnreasonahle or absard; always as 
expressive of the greatest contempt, S. 

Aa **Hsn'a an aalil wark about naething;** — 

**^Plaaae to draw off your party towards Oartartan — 

grant no leave of ' 
yoor tr eopiara — ' B^va'a auid ordering and oounter-or- 

Too will pleaae grant no 

abaence to any of 

daring.' muttered Oarachattachin between hia teeth. 
BobSogr, til. 1S3. 

** AM ie do,** a great foao or pother. Thia phraae 
ooenn in an B. fonn» *' So thera waa M todo about 
fanaoming the bridegrooau" Waverley, L 279. V. To 
Glux TBI Cvsmi. 

AuLD 8AIB8. The renewing of old party 
qoarrels or contentions^ is calfed " the ripping 
up o' auU 9air9^ Le. old 8oreS| S« 

ALDA Yyocfv. In continuation. 

I caat ma noeht aldsy to gloiaa in gloir, 
Or to laagar Isgandia that arproUzt 

CoekMie 3m, v. S13. 

Taat. aUe-dage, qnotidia ; ii 

ALDERMAN, $. The term formerly used to 
denote a mayor in the Scottish boroughs. 


^Touching the election of officiarea in burrowee, aa 
aidermem, baiUiea, and other officiaree, becanae of mat 
contention yeirly for the ofauaing of the aamen, throw 
multitude and clamour of .commounea, aiiaple per- 
aonee : it ia thought expedient, that na ofllciaree nor 
ooonoel be continued aner the kingia lawee of bur- 
rowee, farther then ana yeir." Acta Ja. III. 1160, c. 
29. Skene. 

**The election of aldermen, (afterwards called pro- 
vosts, and baiUies,) is formally wrested from the peo- 
ple of the burahs, upon pretence of avoiding annual 
damonia.'* Pmkerton's Hist. Scotland, i. 271. 

It oocnn in the lists of those called Lonls Auditors, 
A. 1469. 

** For the Cooamissara Walter Stewart Aklemum of 
8trivelin---Bobert Maobrara Alderman of Dnunfres.** 
Act Audit, p. 9. 

—"At [That] lettras be wiitin to the Alderman ft 
balyeis of Perth to distrenye him thairfor." Act. 
Audit. A. 1471, p. 21. 

** The maffistrate styled provost in some burghs, waa 
denominatea alderman at Air, so b^te aa 1507. Sootat. 
CU." Pink. Hiat. ii. 411, N. 

The term eo^cfonaoa waa, in the timee of the Anglo- 
Saxona, used in a very extensive sense ; denoting ** a 
prince^ a primate, a noble-man, a duke, an eane, a 
petty vioe-roy;" Somner. After the Norman conquest, 
AUermaHnuB eivUaiis, aive burgi, aeema to have been 
equivalent to Mayor or Provoel, Thera waa alao the 
JJdermanntu Htmdredi, the alderman of the Humlrrd 
or* Wt^ffeniaie, apparently correaponding with the 
modem uae of the term in E., aa denoting the aliier' 
man of a ward, V. Spelman in vo. The Provod of 
Edinbunrh aeema to be mentioned for the first time, A. 
1482. Finkerton, ut aup. p. 311. 

ALEDE» 9. Rule* leh alede^ each rule. 

FUteoa yare ha gaa ham fade. 

Sir Rohand the trewa ; 
Ha Uuffht him ich aUde 
Of ich maner of giawa. 

Amt IVtalrcw, pc 22L 
A.-S. alaed-an ducera, to lead. 

To ALEOE, V. a. expl. <' To absolve from 
allegiance.'' Fr. alUg-er* 

All hla llflgia of alkyn grata, 

Conditiownya, statia, and qnalitala, 
Lerit. and lawit aUjfii ha 

Wgntown, ix; 90. 67. 

ALENTII, ado. The same with Eug. length 
conjoined with/ar. 

1. To came alenthy to arrive at maturity, S. B. 

2. Togaefar aUnth^ to go great lengths, ibid. 

3. To be far alerUh, to be far advanced, to make 
great progress or improvement, ibid. 

▲ LS 

[82] ALI 


M1W knndnth mH Brouise. eontMiMid nine Mora 

boQii, floottu wntler met, ie rAnit to ^^"[J™„!f 

• frnSittwttitietanniailferoii.'' Bellbiir*! Pnet. p. 87. 

TU wwd ie printed, ee if it raf erred to the name of 
n oboe wlieiioe the meeeore hed heen denominated. 
Bstitany be fttsm Fr. d la rmide, i.e. in oompaie, ae 
i.^..g neMorad bj bnlk : nnleee we ehell eappoee en 

WroriB octhognHP»y *«f ^^i''"*"* f' ^*^ff^ ^^ 
mmmdrOrtMmZ^t. DoHmn^Aurtikmmm, le mentioned. 

Diet. Tkvr. to. ronneati. 

ALBUIN» adj. - Eleven. ^ 

•^QeJien ye hef Toil aocht the Terite, ye eel fynd 
ttnl it ie tbe felee blnde that diaeendit of Sergestea 
and Sngcetee (Hensiat) qnhilk rar tua Sazona that 
oam TiSt aUutm thonaand Sazona fra thair auen cun- 
tn, to anpport and enpple the kyng of Grit Bertanye. 
qnhilk ie noa calUt In^^and, qvha yaa qppreet be crael 
ooa ▼Mvie.'* CompLSootp. 1S5. , 

^It » aen the l^e of Hierome aUum hoondreth 
' ttrattie aaz yeria.* Kennedy, Commendator of Croe- 

"C^!;ik^eearaely be obeenred, that the vwela are 
fcaqvent^ intecehanged ; or, that m old writing « la 
* ireqnenUy vaedwhera we employ e. 

ALG AIT, Aloatb, Aloatis^ «fo. 1. Every 

O Latyne nepfl, fbieoifi I waM atai«, 
And 10 had nene fw bettir. wele I wate, 
TwkUam the eommooa wele and metKie Me. 

Itoeyi Ftiyrf, 872, 8a 

S. At an events, by all means. 

Um grant mtUl his wietchit Infe 

Tkk lattir rewaid, len attoaiis re inrl fle 

Tynrhitt eridently msatakee the eenae of thia worf, 
Mwed by Chanoer, when he rendere it alwayt. He 
qootee the following peaeagea in enpport of thia eenae. 

My loid ia hard to me and dangerow, 
j^ Bin office is ftal laborioea ; 
And therf oie by eztoitlon Ileva, 
fkneoth I take all that men wol me yera. 
Algtdet by sMghto or by ▼ioleooa 

IGaanoted in Okee. ae if 7031 : te. I acquire my ana- 
tnimoe^ erert way, whether it be by fraud «r by force. 

Thia eiaetly oorreeponda to the firet eenae. 
I damned thee, thon most aipaU be ded : 

^ *^ -^ »»* "^ '-aSSL'^T. wift 

If the uoor fellow, in conaeqneooe of beiny condemned, 
iMihiehMd, he would certainly from that tune for- 
wild alm>ri be dead ; aa after auch a loea it la not 
likelv that he would come ahre anun. Butwould 
Saaoar be eharoeable with eo ridiculoua a ^ruiam? 
Thia aeeme imther to corree^nd to the aecond aenae, 
than to the iirat ; q.d. ••Itieadonecauae with thee; 
thon moat at an erenteioee thy life." The expreaaion 
ntenlly meene aU wnya, from oil and ffoU, way, q.r. 
Heanie explaina it pioperiy aa need m thie aenae ; 

«• lb London he wild ellc fete." 

B. Bwnne ; •• to Londwi ha would (go) by aU meana.** 

/TWAT.TC, Alhalely, odv. WhoUy, en- 

Hie wny Mat raparalUt I bat fiOe, 

Doeyi VirgO^ 119, 89L 

From aU and AaO, hak, wholes q. v. 

ALYA, Allia, Ai-lta, #• 1. Alliance. 

SextA ftill aone Schyr Johne [MenteCh] gert dycht 
Off hys awn kyn, and off o/ys was bom, 
To this tresoon he gut thaim all be snonu 

The name . JfeafefJk, however, ie enpplied from edi- 
tiona. Fr. aUk^ id. The word, aa need in thU pea- 
■age in Wallace, eeema property to denote alliance by 


'*He [Dariualhed of atrangearia that Tar hie frendia, 
and of nia ol^yo, te the nummer of thre hundretht 
thonaand men !" CompL S. p. 121. It haa been jnat- 
ly obeerved, that "ue Saxon termination a ia fre- 
quently given to a word of Latin origin, which the 
English haa received through the medium of the Sax- 
on?' ee adagia, an adage, o^aia, agony. See GL 
Compl. S. The aame oboerration ia applicable to aome 
Lat woida immediately borrowed from the Fr. 

2. An ally. 

"Our aaid aoveraine Lorde bee bene diverae timea 
mooved be hie deareat brother, couainft and aUia, 
the King of Denmart^ and hie Bmbaaaadourea, m hia 
name, eent in thie raahne; that the aaid Morning gift 
might be maid gude, to the Qneenee Hieneaae, and 
ahe entied in naU poeecaainn thereof, to her awin 
pioper nae." Aoto Ja. VL IMS. e. 191. Murray. 

3. It is sometimes nsed as a plnnl nonn, signi- 
fying allies. 

''Incontinent aU hia oOia and friendia machit to 
hanea." Bellend. Cron. K ti. o. 1. 

ALIAY,«. Alliance. 

*' M«re oure the aaidia ambaziatonria aall haue com- 
miaaioune— to renew the haly o/idy, lig, and coi^de- 
radoone maid betuix the realmea of France and Scot- 
Und. lik aa haa beneobeemit and kepit.'* Acto Ja. IV. 
1488, Ed. 1814, p. 7m. AUyv^, Bd. 1588, foL 79, b. 

ALYASDf paH. pr. Keeping close together. 

Thar levff thai laaeht, and peat, but delay, 


To Stirlyng com, and wald aocht thar abyd ; 

To ae the north ftiith than can he ryd. 

Wattace, iz. 196a. HSb 

i.e. right fairiy keeping in a compact body. Fr. 
aUi-er, to join, to knit, to confederate; jungere, 
oonjungere, aociare. Diet. T^rer. 

To ALYCHT, r. a. To enlighten. 

llie nixt day foDowiag, with hb hunp bricbt 
Aa Phebua aid the ground or erth tdieki-^ 
Fall euill at eia qnhen Dido on thia kynd 

A.-S. o^a^-nn, iUuminare; ofyAlmieae, iUnmtnatio. 

ALIENARE, s. A stranger. 

Oyf that thou aekia ana a/ienofv ▼uknaw. 
To be thy maieh or thy gud aoae-la-law— 

H«. «. ijta -, taU., «d««.*5^ ^ 3^ 

Lat ofien-M. 

To ALIEy V. a. To cherish, to nnrse, to pettle, 


Vnm M. of-a alere, gignere, parere, paeoere ; in 
pret. tl; whence dde foetaa, item peetwa, aaginatoo, 
aim nataa, aaginatua; O. Andr. p. 8. He viewa thia 




M aUM to Heb. ir, folad fcetot. There een be no 
doabt of itiftffiiiity to Lat. al^rt, TbeOoth. r. ■eeme 
to point oat the oriffin of M^ S. e&ltN, feuel, q. whet 
■onriehee flane. For Ihre givee eooendere ae the 
priipery eenae of 8a.-0. al^ of which gignere end 
" -* ne viewed ae eeoondary eeneee. Ulphilae 

ttmr for the " fatted calf." 

ALIEy •• 1. The abbreviation of a man's name. 
AcU 1585, uL 393. 

2. Of the female name AUsan; sometimes writ- 
ten EKe^ S. 

ALIMENT, $. A foien^c term denoting the 
fund of maintenauoe which the Uw allows to 
certain persons, S. 

*' In thia case the aliment waa appointed to. continne 
till the majority or marriage of tne daaghten, which 
ever ehonld first happen.*" £,M. 

To Aliment^ v. o. To give a legal support to 
another, S. 


FM«nt8 and children are reciprocally bound to o/t- 
mtM each other. In like manner, liferenters are bound 
to aUmeiU the heiri, and orediton their imprisoned 
debtors, when they are unable to support theniselves.'* 
BeU's Law Diet. L 25. 

ALISON, s. A shoemaker's awl,Shetl. V. 

ALIST. To eame alUt^ to recover from faint- 
ness or decay ; applied both to animals and 
v^tables. The expression is used with re- 
spect to one recovering from a swoon, S. Bor. 

I bads you sneak, but ys aae answer mads ; . 
And syns in oaste I lifted op your head : 
But ns?er a sinaels of life was there ; 
And I was Jest ths nsist thing to despair. 
But well's my heart that ys ars corns alitL 

RMf9 HtUmart, p. IS. 

bL olM denotee the dawn of day.dilnculum jam 
inTalena, O. Andr. ; finom a, oorrespooding to oa, 
and Uo^ light. Whether there be any affinity, is 
uncertain. A word, originally denoting the return 
of day, might without a violent transition be used to 
denote the reyiTal of decayed objects. 

Tliia may be merely the A.-S. part pa. alyted^ libe- 
n^us, from o^rt-on hberare, redimere ; q. freed from 
laintneas or decay, rsstored to a better state. 

ALTTE^mfo. A little. 

Tit will ths Dsith ofyte withdraw his dait. 

All that Wis in my memoriaU, 

I sail dscUir with trew vnfenysit hsit. 

LpidMa^t WwrkiB, 159S, p. 210. 

It is alao used in 0.*E. V. Airt, e. and Lire 
ALLy vnUirj* Ah, alas. 

AU my hart, %j this is my eang, Ac 
AU my Lous, Isife, mee not, sc. 

Poems, J69k CmL p. ISO, 906. 

PkobaUy it has been written with the large w, ow, 
which in MSS. can scarcely be distingnishsd from 
double i 

ALL AT ALL, adv. On the whole; Chancer, id. 

Aae herd of hertis is more strong ai olf, 
Hsvand ans lion sganie the hoandie fours, 

Than herd of Uonis snrayit in bsttall, 
Hsvand ans hsrt to be tbair Bovsmoure. 

JMfendL Prvtumt, crii. Sdit ISSL 

And thi schsrps fygnrats sang ViiKillans, 
Bo wisely wrocht vythoutyne wordin vans. 
My wansrin^ wit, my canning fsUll at otf. 
My mynd misty, thsr may not mys ans falL 

Ikm^. Kiiyi & SI 

ALL AORUGOUS, adj. Grim, gliastly, S. B. 

** She looked aae aUaffrugotu that a body wou'dna 
hae car*d to meddle wi* her." Journal tnm London, 
p. 7. 

.This might be formed from ail or Moee-O. a/fa, and 
^nums^ q. all ghastly. In the Weet of S. malagruytM* 
la uaed in the aame sense, q.r. 

ALLAGUST, s. 1. Suspicion. 

"Fan they saw us a* in a bourach, they had some 
aUagu9i that some miahanter had befaln us.** Journal 
from London, p. S. 

2. Disgust, Gl. Shirr. 

Qtt. a. all agoBi t or, ae Fr. g^ti, gout, ia uaed meta- 
phoricslly in the sense of existimatio, judicium, it may 
OS from the phrase a le gotui, has a taste or smack of 

To ALLAYA, v. a. To ally. 

** Than throcht that srit benefice that ve hef schanen 
to them of ther free vil A ritht ane ffuide mvnde, thai 
ril ailaga them vitht you, quhilk ssl cause ferme and 
peqMtual pace to be betuiz Rome and Bamnete." 
OompL & p. 166. Fr. aUi-er. id. 

ALLAKEYt s. An attending servant, a 

^"Deponia the da^ libelled he saw George Craig- 
ingelt ana Walter Cruikschank allalty standing in the 
ymrd with drawin swonlis." Acta Ja. VL 1600, Ed. 
1814» p. 211, 212. 

** And saw at that tyme the erle of Ck>wrie enter in 
at the yet with tua drawin swordis, ane in ilk hand : 
and ane alkJceg put aae steill bonnet on hie heid." Ibid, 
p. 2X2. 

ALLANERLY, Alakerlie, adj. Sole; 

"Baseband thy Hienee thairfore to be sa fanorable, 
that this berar James our secund and oUaneHy soniie 
may haTo tarse to Imf vnder thy faith A justyce. — 
And thus we deevre to be obeeruat to this ours allan- 
cr/y Sonne." BeUend. Cron. .B. zvi, c 15. Qui uhhm 
— enperstes est. Boeth. 

"Camillns, after that he had loist his atantrlk son 
in batall of Veoe, callit all his oousingis and dere 
frsindia, — and demandit thame quhat Uiay wald do 
concerning his defence agania the tribunia of pepil." 
BeUend. T. Liv. p. 447. 

"That ane aianerig seeing to be takin at the said 
prindpale chymmes sail stand and be eulficient easing 
for aU and sindry the landis,** Ac Acts Ja. V. 1540, 
Ed. 1814» p. 379. 


Only, S. 

——"The precius germe of your nobilite, bringis 
nocht furtht, alanierljf, branchis ande tendir leyuia of 
▼ertu : hot aa reil it bringis furtht salutiifere « boil- 
sum fmte of honour.*' Compl. S. p. 1. 

"Deforcement in poyndiiis, ana Uie pleyes of the 
Crowne, perteinee to the Ring's court aUantrlk.** 
Reg. Maj. B. 4. c. 27. Tit. 

" It pertaina to Ood allenarlh to know the inward 
thottghU and hearta of men." Pitecottie, p. 66. 





T^imgm^emM Mttiiorof the Ol. to CbmpL & Mya. 

* *' and 

alwirfy.* But Hm woid is oomp. of <rft 
•MPi wiljr. <!•▼.. ThM, Mtoordingly. Ii«i •» t 
MB rnDg^mfStj wntfem M two woidi ; m m tlM lollov- 

Ita njlt tluit IBA teUppIs tfiaa fOA 
Pk«Hyt tiiat trm tht toon to U : 
Bot fir that thar WM Vrynt bot UM, 
▲ad tiM ongjnoiir thuin WW Uno ; 
• Hot bofbrmontioon Buld I 
Bot off a Mhip att amtrlif. 

TUi k pcintod Mooidiiig to tho Bia 

ALL ANYS» adv. Together, in a state of 

mid, TbA, tlial or gnd SeottiiiMB. 
Will Mklv N*y ; wtrjtA Ihoa m\j ken; 
Had thai bona md,4d tmjfs wo had bejn ; 
Ba naoa botr ua coatiBr now ia m jn. 


^llla^iM wo bad boon. 

AUmmfi noma litonlly to ngnify* oB ^ ono; from 
A.-& OMik tho ganit. ol on, imiia. 

ALLARTtSt Alleris. Common, uniTenal, 
an old genit. uwd adjectively. 

Tba kvdla nwo aamnt thara-til, 
lad opiaoyt w&i thain oOoru will, 
Tbal iMlla aold tha SoottU prys, 
^m^lhutbaimoQYbaaamynwya. . 

ITynlowii, vUL H 178. 

Una aifBwo thai anIaUya wona i^Uim: 
And oyn to tha aamyn fonath thai aaaant hala ; 
That an It nycbUt Naton, thair a2fem maiflMk 
•Thai oond aoahft trata but antant of tha tamponla. 

batandol <#ib aa in Ed. Pink, it ia ^litw in MS. 

**TluHr allaria maiatria" ia literally, tbo m iatio m of 

•D. ttauk A.-& oUera, genit. plor. of all, 

J Glooa. Kanm. aXkra, oOm, omninm; Balg. 

r id. 

JAr. or ol^ k wad in Old E. with moiw pro- 

priaty tfaaa aOoHi^ and in the aame aonao. II k aaid 

ol Brio Godwin, that bo 

— Lat miyta of bar olra heaadyi» a made a raolbl dam ; 
LoL ho oMmod thorn an to bo baheodod. R. (Umw. p. 

— -> To bo bot mambtra, and I abooa al. 
And illh I am yoor atffnladi, I am your tulakdM. 

F. PlotyAaMHH FoL 111. a. 

** Ai I am tho head of yon all, I am yonr 
haoltt^ or tho oonroo ol your proiqperity.'^ V. Aludl 

ALLA-YOLIEy ALLEYOLns, adj. Oiddr, 
volatile. ** An aUe'W>Ue chield, a Tcdatue 
fellow^ S. y. the following word. 

ALLA-Y OLIE, Allb-yolie, ado. At nun- 

Ana Ihlth parfemit with lyne folk, 
And mooy vain word tdia-volit; 
Thy pmyer k not half m bolie, 
Hdoaa-lnrdana. aa it mmif. 

nOoiat, jf. IIL 

•*l mko it qnito aOevoiie,'' S. I apoko it at nm. 
. dooL tt k oomotimea written entirely in tho IV. 

Thk again ineraaaed the nombera of tho people in 
■ at tho meetingi : and warm peraona ooming in 
them^ projecta were apoko of A /« woiee^ and 

pat npon ooanea they at firat had noTiewof^ 
nor de^gn to oomo to." Wodxow*a Hkt. vL 41. 

On ike «of«^, 0. E. id. 

What we a^eak on the voieu begina to wotk ; 

We hare laid n good foundation. 

*'A literal trmnalation of the Fteneh phraao d to 
ffoi^ whieh aignifiea ai ramdam, or ineonaiderote/tf.'* 
Notob BCaaainger, IIL 181. 

ALLARy Alleb, #. The alder, a tree^ S. 

'*In thk atratnm many roota of larae treea are to be 
feond, principally aUar (alder) and birch." P. Long- 
foffgpm, rortha. Statkt. Aoo. six. 657. 

To ALLEGE, v. n. To advise, to coanael. 

**Sam aUtgii (howbeit rictory auccedlt) toaaaoilye 
aooht tho chance of fortoon ony forthir." Bellend. 
Gron. Bw tL o. 19. Suaderent^ Booth. 

L. Bw aUeg-art^ mandatia inatmere. 

To ALLEGE, v. a. To confirm. 

**Appiiia began to ngo— aayand — beeana ho wald 
aodit €1^0!^ the law oonoemiiig lent money, he wea 
impediment that na anny auld be raait be auctorite of 
thoaenate." Bellend. T. Lit. p. 146. Jna non dixiaaet, 

Lb Bw aXUQ<a^ ligara. 


— "The lotdk ordank bothe the |»artija to bane let- 
trea to anmmond witnea to pmfe aic aliegiance aa thai 
achew before the krdia.** Act. Audit. A 1474, p. 34. 
**Tho purauer pleadit that the former aiiegiance 
aneht ana aowld do rapeUit," Ac Barrow Court, 
1501, Melvillo'a Life, i. 257. 

ALLEIN, adj. Alone, S. B. Germ. id. V. 

To ALLEMAND, v. a. To conduct in a 
formal and courtly style, Ayrs. 

" H e p raa e n t ed her hk hand, and aUemanded her 
along in a manner that ahonld not haTO been aeen in 
any atreet out of a king'a court, and far lem on tho 
Lord'a day.** Ann. of the Par. p. 306. 

ItaL a Is mono, by the hana ; or IV. a Is iiwilii, 
readily, nimbly, actively. AUer d la mom, £tra d'one 
^galite do rang^ Eoc^uef ort. 

ALL&MENy adj. Common, universal. 

A baatard shall cum fro a forest. 
Not in Yngland bonie shall ha be, 

And ha shal wrn the gre for tho best, 
AUe «M9» ledar of Bretan shal ha be. 

Tmt TkomoM, Jamiesom't Popul. BaU. iL 88. 

That thk k the aenae i^peara from what f oUowa : 

TnHf to wrrka he shalbe bonne. 
• Andoakdarof Brstanashalhebe. 

Lo. oniYonal leader. 

Thk mode of expreaaion k common in Su.-0. Al 
mma rttsoia kaer ; Regni communk quereU ; Chron. 
Rhythm, p. 181. Ther hyllade honom aUe i maen;. 
There all oave him homage ; ibid. p. 262, ap. Ihro to. 
Men, pubucna. A-S. maeite, Alem. meen, communia. 
Tent. aUe man, omnk homo, al^hemeyn^ univeraua. 

ALLER, adv. Wholly, entirely, altogether. 

In thk maner aasentTt war 
The Baroonk as I said tow ar. 
And throuch thar a^£er nale assent, 
Messingeris tiU hym thai sent. 
That was than in the haly land. 
On Baraoanyi wamyand. 

Bortour, 1. 187» Ma 




This It muAf Attarit, alUrit, VMd Adverbiallv, 
witlMNit tlM nnnoriftwury and anooiAloui hm of tM 
larminatiom i§, borrowed from the genii, eing., end 
•Axed to the jdnr. in the lame mm. Alder frequentlv 
ooooiB in R. Bninne't Chron.; ae alder beai^ beet of ell, 
fllri!er nea^ next of elL 

AUir m here need nearly in the lame manner ae in 
other Northern langoagee. "To the superUtiTe," 
•aja Sewel in hie Belg. Orammar, **ia often prefixed 
mlkr or €dkrt the more to heighten ita inperUtive 
aenae ; ae ttUtr-'VeraUmdigM, the meet underatabdinff of 
an ; " p. 81. To the lame poipose Kilian. Atter, Qm- 
nioBB. SvpermtsYie polchra praeponitur, eommone 
•Lpufieationem adaoget haec dictio; ot allerbestet alter* 
M^fMU^ aUermeeaie, Omninm optimue, minimua, 
«>«tVjtw Oenn« atterhoehMte^ the moat High; aller* 
gdAHuU^ the moet learned. 8w. aldra ia alM naed 
ae a note of the euperlative ; ae, dot aldramkrade tU» 
vaoQ^ the eecn r e e t way ^ iiea aUbrMkonade fkka^ the 
moat beantifal giil ; widegren. Alter hale ia a oleon- 
aam ; ae hale or wkoU neoMearily inclodee the idea of 
oiL V. Ai.i.Ami8. 

ALLEBIS, 9. pi '< Allies, confederates," 
Bndd. Bat I have observed no passa^ in 
Doog. Virgil that can authorise this explana- 
tion** Peraaps the learned glossarist mis* 
look the sense of the following: 

Let Latyna pepiUdttiBg by to le, 

How myne allane with swerde, in thare prcMna, 

I eaU rBoean and end our allerU oflenoa. 

, P. 4011. 

Tliia Bndd. mi^t view ae aignifyinff "the offence 

giTeii, or i^jniy done^ to onr alliee. But it on- 

doobftedly meana, **onr general offence, the ininiy 

done toofl/** commaiM^ ym» The in^niooa editor 

Pdema of Jamee I. haa fallen mto the 

ol thePdema 

miatake^ when exphuning the following paaiage : 

I win that 0%d Hope eeniand to the be, 
Tem aUerii tkeade, to let the to main. 

**Toar aDj, aaeoeiite, or oonfederate.** N. V. Al- 

ALLeBISH, adj. Chilly, rather cold ; as, 
''an aUerish morning; sjmon. '^a inell 
morning,'' Teviotd. 

This ia nndoabtedly the aame with Elrischi, q. t. 
TIm aenae ff^en above ia nearly allied to that manLcd 
ae a. **8any, anatere,*' ae regarding the temper. 

ALLEYIN9 parL pa. Allowed, admitted. 

In haly kgendia have I hard allevin. 

Ma aenctie of biichoppis, nor ft«irit, be sic serin ; 

Of faU Ciw freiiia that has bene Sanctis I reid. 

Ba n na ip ne Poems, p. 2S. 

Mr. Pinkerton explaina thia ae above, MaitL P. p. 536, 
and it ia oertainly the eenee. The origin ie A.-o. o^- 
«% eoBoedere, pennittere. 
8a.-0. l^w^ pennittere, Moee-0. Iaulh4an (in ve- 

AiiLIA. y. Alta. 

ALLTNS, adv. 1. Altogether, thoroughly. 

Aaa they boskyt to the bynke, beirnis of the best ; 
The kinf crounit with gold ; 
Dnkisdeir to behold; 
AUpne the banient bold 
Qladdit his gest 

Oawan and OoL i. IS. • 

Mr. Pinkerton interrcMiatiTely explaina thia alwaye. 
Bat it aeena to aignify altogether, thoroughly ; Su.-0. 

alMmqU^ attaengU^ A.*S. allinpa, eaOenga^ Moee-O. 
ailitt mL onuiinob pronna. V. ua% L 82. 

2. This is nsed as signifying, more willingly, 
rather, Selkirks. 

ALLISTEB, adj. Sane, in fall possession of 
one's mental faculties. ^ He's no alliaier^ 
he is not in his right mind, Teviotd. 
Thia ought eeem allied to Alibt, q. t. 

ALLKYN, Alkyn, ocf;. All kind of. 

Thtiy etill eav, aw kf/n kind, S. Bor. A.-S. ealUcjfH, 
OBuigenne, all kind. V. Kiy. 

To ALLOCATE, v. a. To fix the propor- 
tions due by each landholder, in an augmen- 
tation of a minister's stipend, S. Syuon. to 

_««Xhtt tithee, which are yet in the handa of the 
lay-titular, fall, in the eeoona plaoe, to be allocaied" 
Erakine'a Inat. B. u. t. 10^ eec. 51. 

ALL OUT, adv. In a great degree, beyond 

Alhce I vinin, to mekQl, and that is syn» 
To mekil aU out sa croel ponjssiiig 
Has thoa sniTerit eertis tm sic ane thing. 

Doug. Virgil, 805, 49. 

Bodd. rendere thie /kf/y. But thia doee not properly 
expreee the meaning, ae appears from the following 

Aad with that word assembKt thaL 
Thai war to few all otU, perny, 
With tic a gret roat for to fycht. 

Barbomr, xr. 1I6L MS. 

Sixty men agatnat f oar thoneand, were/a/Zy too few. 

len that Schyr Jhon Wallace weyll wndirstod. 


away, he said, tharolT as now no mar ; 
Yhe did Aill rycht ; it was for onr weyUar. 
Wyser tai weyr jeuaUoui than I, 
Fadyr in anness ye ar to me for thL 

Wallaee, ▼. SSL M& 

All a¥t, q. onme extra, every thing oIm exdnded ; 
nearly the eame in eenae ae uUerljf, 

ALLOVER, prep* Over and above. 

** Item — ^two thouaand seven hundred and fiftie-fonr 
merka : which makes hie emolument above twentie* 
fonr thonaand marks a yeare, by and atlover hie heri- 
table jttrisdictioii.'* Culloden Pap. p. 335. 

To ALLOW, r. a. 1. To approve of, 
generally with the prep, of subjoined. 

— " Man alhwee of man, because he seee some sood 
qualities in him, which qualities he never gaue him, 
forOod gaue him them. But when God allowee ^ 
num, he allowee not for any good thins he eeee in him, 
to mono him to attow of him, but all the allowing of 
Qod ia of free grace.** Bollock on 1 Thee. p. 55. 

Tliia eense must be also viewed aa old E., though 
not mentioned by Johnson. ' He indeed quotes 1 Thes, 
ii. 4. aa sn illustration of the sense *' to grant license 
to, to permit," while it obviously signifies to approve. 
** Bnt aa we were allowed of God to be put m trust 
with the apspol, even eo we speak, not aa pleasing 
men, bnt Uod, which trieth our hearte.** There can 
be no doubt that le^ota^uiayA^a atrictly aignifies, **we 
were approved of," 

2. To praise, to commend. 




tlib afaMblt luMl Mdlt Imt tpMbft, 
>i tfct htfjgytf ky BMikilL 

flioiM ia tlM nma mom. Tliis word 
■— ibdiitriy foniMd fromi IV. o/toMcr, 

to ipprort; wyek Mcnaae d«riTM Crom Lot. olbnid-o. 

Bat &I0 trat ongm b owtMaly to bo MMght ia the 

AllowakoBi c Approbation. 

**TlMPt k adiflorHMobotwono the aAMOBNee of oMii* 
o thoj olknr of bmb, and God when he ollowei of 
. — am mUtm&mee of r» mm not for ttny grace waa 
80 it ia the a i kw ai f et of God hinaiaelf o that 
■Mot to that ofioo." BoUock on 1 Thea. 

To ALLOWSS, V. m.^ To looae^ to release 
iroui* -"^ 

"'nooOeiafiatopaM and nOMSit the amatmenti" 
4a. Ahefd. Rao. A. 1541, V. 17. 

ALLPUIST, Afiest, AnsoSy eonj. AI- 

«^no thiid 


an aold, wiaen'd, haaro oolonred 
at nae gr ea t tinael apieH we had 
Journal nom London, p. 2. Per- 

ALLRYNy adj. Constantly progressive. 

fW in tUi wwU, that li m wirde. 
b nana detanavnat that Mil 
laaw thia^ that ar to lUl, 
Bol OodTaat ia of mairt poweeti, 
laMTwrt tin hia BuieitA, 
War to naw, in his prMdenoe, 
Off «Ayn tfiM the nowenoe. 

Jbr^onr, L 1S4. MS. 

Wsom a0 and A.*S. rkm an, to flow, to ran. 


ftoth oar denehi to anuahe the davit, 
And hed the ainnthit of an atrane berii, 
I wald at Tool be hooait and staid. 

MmUkmd Pmmt, pi 112. 

Pjpobably from A.-9. old^ old, and Urynd^ gentoitio, 
afipn <Mi, gi^eio ; perhi^ the aame aa ifnsCnme, q. ▼. 
For cMs aad bmria, read eiettr and 6evtr. 

ALLTHOCHTE, eonj. Although. 

The sennys lieht Is naaer ths wen. traist me, 
Attikoektt the bak hia bvkht bearaes dotth fle. 

ICr. Tooko derirea BL tkomgk from A.-S. th^f-ian. 
Ilil^aa, to allow. Bnt there ia not the aasie evidence 
ken^ aa with r sa p e e t to aomo other oonjnnctiona il- 
knlnted b]r tliia aente and ingcaitona writer. It. cer- 
tainly ia no inoonaideiabie objection to thia hypotheais, 
that It ia not aiuorted by analogy, in the other North- 
ena langwagBa. in A.-8. lAeoA aignifiea thought Alem. 
IftoeA, JaL O.-Sw. tha, id. I ahaU not aigne from 
Moea-O. tkamk in ikamhjahei, which Jun. riewa aa 
with i k^ mgk ; becraae this seems doubtful. In 
-B. ikak waa written about 1264. V. Peroy's Re- 
S; 10. In Sir Tristrem, thei occurs, which 

to A.-S. thtah, V. Thki. 
of fAool, in our oldest MSS. we generally 
§md tkoekl^ mUMU. Tliia mijg^t aeem allied to hi 

Andr. ia per 

Lex. p. 206. 

probable that our term ia merely A.-S. 

ikohk, Uom-O. lAdU-o, oogitabat; or the part. pa. of 


iAocff quamYia; which, aooording to G. 
■yneop. for UU oi, from tho licet, etai ; 
Batitiemoraproliable that our term ia 

the T. fkom whioh & ihM ia deriTod ; m, in latter 
timea, ptoaUUd, aoeepi, fto. have been formed. ReeolTO 
oftAodU; and it literaUy aignifiea, "aU being thonaht 
fdt" or **taken into aooount ;** which ia the very idea 
meant to be expressed by the use of the conjunction. 
Indeed, it ia often written ail ihoehi, 

AU ihoehi he, as aas centile sum tyme vary, 
Fal perfytelie he wiitis sere mysteris felL — 
AU OseM oar fkith nedenane snthorisiBg 
Of Qentills bakis, nor by sic hetbin vpsrkis, 
Yit Vligia wiitis aiony lost daosis conding. 

Doug, VirgU, FnL 159, 10, 16. 

The synon. in Germ, exhibita aome analogy, Daehta 
being tho imperf. and part. pa. of dmk-en; doch^ 
although, may have been formed from the same verb. 
V. Ttoor. 

ALLUTERLIE, Aluttebly, adv. Wholly, 

An thoeht that women broeht tharos to fitly, 
Ytt bait thay not wsmen altUteHg. 

Doug, riryil, 279, 92. 

lyrwhitt derivea uUerlg from Fr, mtUrio. But it 
ia evidently from A.-S. mUr, utUr^ exterior, (from «l 
oztn;) 8a.4>. yttre, fttreHg, id. 

ALL-WEILDAND, adj. All-governing. 

lliea said he thos, AW'WeiUUmd Ood resawe 
My petows spreit and sawle amaog the law : 
lb earnsiU M I mav nooht thnsdefend. 

WaUiuM, ii. 173. MS. 

Aooording to Wachter, aOwtUi and aUwailig are 
Teiy ancient oomponnda, although now obaolete; 
aomotimet imlied to God, aa expreesive of hia om» 
nipotenoe, and aometiniea to prinoee, to denote the 
araatnsaa of their power ; Franc, almuaii, omnipotent. 
He derivee the woni from off and wali-^n posse. Isl. 
atf-eold-nr, id. Our term cornea immediately from A.< 

ALMAINy s. The German language. 

— **A Aonch printer, of the beat renowned thia 
day^hfM oflersd — to come in Scotland— and to print 
whatever work he ahoold be commanded, in eo much 
that there ehoold not be a book printed in French or 
ifisMua, but once in the year it should be gotten of 
him." Pet. AaaemUv 167< Melville*a life, u 464. 

O. F^. illeaiaa, AUeman^ the Gennan language ; 

ALMANIE WHISTLE; a flageolet of a veiy 
small size, used by children. Aberd. 

The name intimatee, that whiatlee of thia kind had 
been originaUy imported into Scotland from Oermany; 
and that they had been eariy imported, before this 
country waa known by that designation, which has 
been adopted, or rather revived, in later timea. It is 
singular, that to thia day the most of our toya are 
brought from the Low Countries bonlering on Gennany . 

The Alamaimit according to Wachter, were a mixed 
race of Gennana and Gaula ; from which circumatance 
they received their name ; not q. all men^ omnea 
hominea, but from o/i, d^ alius, auenna, q. homines 
perogrini, strangera. The Jfareo-monMi havinff left 
tho country lying between the Danube and the Rhine, 
and gone into Bohemia, a few uneettled Gauls entered 
into their former territories. They were soon after 
joined by many Germans, and formed between them 
what was called the Allamannic nation. They were 
long conaiderBd aa diatinct from the Germane. But at 
length thia monml race save their name to the 
country, hence called Lb B. Alemaimia; Fr. AUemagne ; 
O. B. Ahmame; S. illmfljiie. V. CeUar. Geogr. i. 386, 




This k eftlkd* by Sir TIk»im UrquhMt, the AUman 

*«He iMtfiMd to pUy spon tlio Lute, the Virgimda, 
Om Hwih the iHrtnaii //iite with nine holes, the Viol, 
and the Sackbttt.'' 1^»niL BabeUis, a i. p. 103, 
FkUi ^Alemanf Rab. 

In another Dlaoe, he renden it more strictly ae- 
€Ordin|( to the langoage of his country. The passage 
ooeon m a strange incoherent compound of nonsense, 
by which he means to expose iJie obscurities of judicial 

— *'The masters of the chamber of accompts, or 
members of that committee, did not fullv agree ainoncpt 
themaelTCS in lyfi^ng up the number of Atmanie toAw- 
tftt^ whereof were framed these spectacles for princes, 
which haTe been lately printed at Antwerp.'^ Ibid. 


Thai this was formerly the name commonly given, 
ta 8., to Oennany» appears from the language of Ni- 
■iane Winyet. 

— '«Fbw of the Proteetaatis at this present in Al- 
lemamk and ntheris enntreis, denyis the rycht use and 
pnetise of the Lordis Supper to be csllit ane taeryice 
Qg MaUom. Abp. Keith\ Hist. App. pi 231. 

ALMARK, #• A beast accustomed to break 
fences, Shetl. 

8«.-0. wtaHt denotea a territory, also a plain, a pas- 
tars ; and maerke finis, limes, a boundary. I cannot 
eoajeetnrs the origin of the initial syllable ; unless the 
tsnn be riewed as elliptical, q. a beast that overleape 

ALMASERy Almoseir, s. An almoner, or 
dispenser of alms* 

Hmo cam in the maister Almaaer, 
▲as homelty-Jonislty jnfller. 

IhMlar, Mainland Poemt, pc 94. 

Ottdt Hopi remains euer among jone tort, 
A flas^mmsteaU with monv mow and sport, 



FaiiM (/ Botumr, m, eO. 

IV. tuUmomUer; Tent-'offmoeMenisr, id. The word, 
immediately formed kom Almou$f q. v. 

ALMERIEy Almobie,«. Anciently a place 
where alms were deposited^or distributed. 
In later times it has been used to denote a 
press or cupboard, where utensils for house- 
Keeping are laid up; pron. as E. ambry. 

Go dois ths borde ; and tak awa the chyre, 
And lok in aU into yon o/jnotml 

Dmtbar, MaiUand Poem§, pc 73. 

— Ay Us e wss on the abnene. 

'* Kerertheles^ ia osrtain cases, the wife sould be 
aaawerable, that ia, mf the thing stoUen is found and 
apprehended within ner keyes, quhilk she hes in her 
onre and keipjng, as within her spense, her arke or 
atmerie ; and gif the thins stoUen be found within her 
keyes : she as consentand with her husband, saU be 
ealoable, aad punished." Quon. Attach, c. 12. s. 7. 
A.-0. aimtrige^ rspositorium, scrinium, abacus ; O. Fr. 

The tena aho/ery was applied by our forefathers to 
iadosureo appropriated for a rariety of purposes for 
family use. We read of *'a met almery, aplaoe for 
holding meat ; *'a weechale almery,** for holcling ves- 
•db of a larger siae ; Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1480, p. 131 ; 
**a oop almery,** a cupboard ; Ibid, p. 08 ; **a wayr 
alBMry," probably for containing ysaru or articles of 
▼arioas kinds ; Ibid, p. 131. 

O. X. mtmtrjf, ^^Ahmery to put meate in, nnes ai- 
moirsi/* PMignMifL Bw iii, f. 17. In O. Fr. awiuu're. 
He also writes the & word oataftryc, F. 18. 

ALMONS» Almonis, «. Alms. 

*'Oif the defender, beaad an ecdesiasticaU persoun, 
hald the land or tenement of the kirk in name of frc 
o/moiM^ albeit the pe rse wa r be aae temporall persoun ; 
the same plea and actionn aacht and sould be decydit 
befoir the ecdesiasticaU court.'* Balfour *s Prsct. p. 28. 

"All men havand landis gerin to thame in name 
of 6^ almomU be the King, ar bond to mak him 
homage.*' Ibid. p. 241. 

He seems still to write the word in this form ; O. fV. 
oWmosNtf, id. 

In 8. proa, amnes ; A. Bor. id. Bay's Lett p. 322. 

ALMOUS» Almows, #• Alms, S. 

Hs wes a man of o/smmv grete, • 

Bath of monA, and ormele. 

nki nycht in priwati 

Hs wald wyte ths neosMytA 

Of ail, that neds had ners him by. 

Wpntown, tL 2. 67. 

Wjfie, Le. make himself acquainted with, know. 

"In thir wordia almychty God ezpresly promissis 
sufficient welth A fonth of warldly geir to aU thame. 

qahilk for hia sake blythly giffis aimout to the puir 
peple." Abp. Hamiltona's Catechisms, 1551, fol. 64 a. 

The sUly Frier behuifit to fleech 
For atwuma that he aasia. 

iSlpee. Cfodijf BaUad*, pc 31 

Chaacer, almum; A.-S. o/met, aimeam; 8w. a/. 
moso, id. Lat. tUtmatffmOf Or. 'cVcir/iofft^if, mercy. 

Uader this term I may take notice of a curious fsct, 
in relation to begging, which perhaps has been gene- 
rally oreriooked. So late as the reign of James VI. li- 
censes had been granted, by the several universities, to 
some poor students— to go through the country beg- 
^jinj^ m the same manner as the poor ttholnr*^ belong- 
ug to the Church of Rome, do to this day in Ireland. 

Among those designated "ydill and Strang beg- 
garia" are reckoned—** all vagaboundis soollaris of Uie 
vniuersiteis of Sanctandroia, Glasgow, and Abinlene, 
not UceneU be the rector and Dene of facultie of the 
▼niuerutie to auk a/mons.*' Acts Ja. VL 1574^ Ed. 
1814» p. 87. 

// were alnu or aicmoHS, naed to denote what one de- 
serves, but in a bad sense ; as, ** It wou*d be an aumoiui 
to gie him a weel-payed skin," it would be agood or 
meritorious act ; a phrase very frsc|uently used, S. 

** Thoee who leave so good a kirk, U were but afms 
to hang them." Scotland's Glory and her Shame, 
Aberd. 1805, p. 44. 

Almousser, 8, Almoner* 

— '*It hes plessit the kingis maiestie ffor the flude, 
trew, and proffitable seruice done to him be his belouit 
maistir Petir Young, his hienes preceptor and maister 
o/motisffr, and that in the educatioune of his hienes 
vertewonslie in lettrea during his minoritie, to haue 
conf ermit certane inf eftmentia,^ quhilkis the said maister 
Petir hes obtenit of certane few landis of the abbacie 
of Aberbrothok,** Ac. Acts Ja. VI. 1581, Ed. 1814, p. 

ALMOWR, s. Almoner. 

*' James Spottiswood was commanded to stay with 
the queene, and attend her Ma*** as her Almowr," 
Mem. of Dr. Spottiswood, p. 3. 

ALOFT, adv. Eauivalent to ti/^ as referring 
to a state of warfare. 

** There were then soma robbers o^ in the high- 
laadsi of whom they made the brait to pass, that they 




imld .«oiM dowB tad tMtet Um wayi.** Otttluy't 

To ALOUS, 9. a. To ideaae^ Aberd. Beg- 
MS. Y. Allows. 

ALOW, pnp. Below. It is also used as an 
adr. in tbe same sense, Ettr. For. 

GhMM« mmm oImw m aa ad^. in th« mom oI low. 

A-LOW| adv. On fire» in a blaang state, S. 

** 8tt do^m aiid warm jr«i nnoe tlM ftioks Are a4M9.'' 
ttt Pimteb L 103. . 

To Oaho A-low, to take fire, or to be set on 
firs, S. 

''naftdiMrMtiiuiiMMirtM' HHaliart ia aen to ^cm^ 
m4m9 thia M aawd day, if wfT dinqa atq^ it." Tannant'a 
Oaid. Baaton, p. Hi. 

ALO WEB, ALOwnt, adv. AH orar. 

**ABa vthar of blaw aatino paamantit ahwer with 
■old ft aihrar, laich nokit with hodiaa and ayda alam. ** 
OdO. LiTantoriaa, A ISIS, p. 221. It firaqiiaBtly oo- 

''Ana athar pair of enuunoaia aatina paamantit dU 
ovb'with hnia pamantia of ailnr and gohL" Ih. p. 

ALPI^ «• An elephant. 

That made hir bom bio and blaa. 
That m waa white ao olfMe boa ; 
SalhthMiieyd ha to his iMn 
Priaoana hir awithe anon. 
Ltgmd SL Maieritu, US, (NL ComfL pi SSI 

Aipm Son ia ivoty. A-S. tip, y/jp, alaphaa ; radioaDy 

with Hab. fffM, aluph^ boa. 

ftfl ai|d aeha iljppTa.hyr meaabria 

ALQUHABE, All quhabe, adv. Hwerj 

'The huge haU hare and thars 
Wai Smt Adl of Grekis oner olmAofv. 

- pii;S8,tL 


Iha Qoana INdOk aioellent in bewt^ 
Tb teipBl eonunis with ane ttn mcaya 
Of fawtj Tonagkerii waUdnfr hir aboa^ 
like to the goddas Diane irtth hir root, 
Itodhuv the Sade of ^wrote on the bra. 
Or vnder the topiMS of hir hOl CynC/b'o, 
Lidand ring daacb, qaham foUowie oner all qukrnn 
' njmplus flokand here and tham 


mnat bo aabatitatad for Djfmhof in TU 

Iha Dowrias in thajr dayii, dnehtye nlpiAara^ 
Afddbahlthe honorable in habiUtiooia» 
Weddit that wk>wk wicht, worthye of ware^ 

With rant and with richea. 


Ln. ^avary where 



ol Via 


bfrnTo," 01 
oUaadmiAare, where ; Mbea-0. and Sa.-0. Awar, 
h mat r, Fhuio. and Alam. amor, Germ, war^ Belff. 
Tha wofd ia formed liko Alcm. toetnmerU^ 
n aanaa^ nbiqne, omni Iooo» from eooe all, and 
plaoa. Wachter tiiinka tluit naarl, loona, ia 
n dariTBtiTa from %uar, nbi, by the addition 
which manner doriratiTee are frequently 
One wonld almoat anapeet, howoTer, tliat 
«Mir,'had ori^jinally^ been a ncran aignifying 
DoBg^ naaa it aa if it atill were ao; by pre- 
tha piap. ever, orer; omeir ail qmkart, q. orer 
plaoa. It may pcrhapa deaarra to be man- 

tionad, thnt Moaa^. kwar aaama neariy alUed to 
kw arbam ire, n t. denoting motion to waraa n place ; 
and Sa.-G. AiMw/-i9a» raraiti, abiro, axpreaaing dianga 
ol place. 

ALBY, adj. For its different senses, Y. El- 



Thy toor, and fortrea laine and laag^ 
Thy Bychboua dob ezceLL 
And for thy walUa, thik and Strang, 
Thow Jostlie beirs the bea— 
Thy work to Inik on ii delylte. 
So dein, so soand, so evin. 
Ihy o/fMM is a merrell grsit, 
Uprsiehlog to the hevin. 

JfaOtoMf /VwM#, p. 2SS. 

Thia apparently aisnifiea n wntch-tower, or the 
higheat part of a caaua. The paaaaga forma part of 
the deecription of tha ancient caatle of Lethingtoun. 
Sa.-G. hall or hold aignifiesn tower, from haBa to 
defend ; thence hallare^ which, aa oooorrinff in Chron. 
Bhythm., ia rendered by Ihre, praeeioiam : tha 
watchmen are deeignod Mttartna. Ben, Teat, rcyn, 
a^nifiea termination. Thus it mny here signify tha 
highest point or pinnnolo. Lr. rin ia aynon., denoting 

ALSy eonj. As. 

Thva WaOaee ferd alt tm m a lyoon. 

WaUaa, iL U& Ma 

Bowar thna veoocda tha langnaga of n rery aimpla 
and laoooio charter of K. Atheutana, which moat 
hare giran fully aa ^ood aecnritv for the property 
diapoaad, aa the multiplied tantologiee ol a modem 

I kyng Adalstane 

Gifffs hers to Paolan 

Oddsmand I^Mw ii 

AU goda and o^ffiir, 

Aa avir thai myn war : 

And thaito witnee Maid my wyC 

Fordun Seoliehrom, U ziJL e. 61. 

Tha phraaaology ia nndonbtadly modemiaed. In R. 
Glouc. it occurs in the sense of oa. 

^Jlfwaa generally employed in the first part of n 
oompariaon, aa appears from the anthoritiee already 
quoted. Mr. Tooke haa giran another from Douglaa. 

Glidis away vnder the fomy seis, 

illt swift ss ganye or fedderit arrow fleis. 

FttvO, 828, 4S. 

**AU,^ says thia acuta writer, '*in our old Eng^iah 
ia a oontnurtion of Al, and e§ or om: and thia Al, 
(which in comparisons used to be reiy properly em* 
ployad before the firat es or «; but waa not employed 
Defore the aecond) we now, in modem English sup* 
.** — **A9 is an article ; and (however and when- 

erer used in English) meana the aame aa Ii, or That, 
or Which, In the German, where it atill evkUnilu re- 
taina ita original aignification and uae (aa so alM doee) 
it ia written, Et,** Hence he reeolvee the quotation 
from Virgil in thia manner : *' She ffUdes away (with) 
o// <Aa< swiftness (with) which feathered arrows fly.'* 
Divers. Purley, i. 274>*277. 

This is extremely ingenious, and it must be acknow- 
led^ped that the reeolution of the passage corresponds 
to its meaning. But it doee not apfiear that aU ia 
formed from ni and oa. Thia auppoeition is contrary 
to the analogy of the language. It might be traced to 
A.*S. €allt$, omnino^ omnimodia, Ljre ; penitua, plan* 
ari^, fully, abaolutely, perfectly ; Somn. This is used 
in conjunction with noa, so ; Na eallet iwa, non ita 
penitua, not wholly or altogether ao. Aa we have seen 

▲ L8 



IhaM AUer, oOttHa, otteHs, iM th« gn. plur. of cai; oO, 
•ouMi ; €aUe$f omiiin<v Menu to be menly the gen. 
•iBf. ttwd edterbudly. Moee-Q. aUU ham the Mme 
■enie. Thu the peeaege mii^t be reeolired i 
AUegdher swift at gmnya, ko, 

Bot I ntfer deriving it from A.-S. eall and iMa» ao. 
Hun €o« MM is naed in oomperieoD ; eail §wa ^ tern 
■•p^ I^e^ aU ^; and eaU moa myoe/e«, tentideBi. 
Tke latter aeMU to be the Teiy phraae which ao eom- 
mmdj oooQia in oar old Uwa. v. Alsmsklb. 

Oerai. aU ia naed aa a particle ezprBaaire of oom- 
paiiaoBy aU wk, tanqoam; towal tU*, tarn qiiam. 
Waohter obaerrea that thia ia the aame with (ienn. 
mUOf 8ie» ita; and formed from it per apooopen. Of 
the latter he girea the following aooount : Ortnm a 

ci io^ 810, at; et praefixo aHLawiA. rarma 

ALS| Al8b» adv^ Alao^ in the same mimier. 

I can qU tan how otbyr twa 
Fmtia that waila aaeaawyt war 
Wfth ffttf man, and bat war.- 

Tktrhmar^ xvL IPS. MSL 

llj fliithftiU fiMlyr dispitlUljr thai alaw. 
My brothir alt, and god man mony aaa. 

WoUaet^ U. 198» MS. 

'* Aado aim the pndent dne Peraolea, qoha hed the 
fooaniing of the oomont veil of Athenaa zzxri yetria» 
jH in hia aige of Ix yeizia^ he left the gloriaa atait of 
Athapaa^ Ajpaat to ramane in ane litil ▼Hlafle quhar he 
aet hia lalioit^ to keip nolt and aeheip.'* UmpL S. pw 

Thia ia evidently an abbraT. of A.-9. eoH aiaa, id. 
Tka ewadk Aa eolt two to tham othrum ; Than aaid he 
nlaa to the aeoond, hiatt. zzi. SO. Add alnoa oefnoo, 
ilaBi, etiam. Aooording to the learned author of Even 
Urtfttrm^ **the Qennan aa and the iCnglUh m (thoa|^ 
in one langOMO it ia called an Adwerh or Cot^pimeliom ; 
and in the other, an ArikU or Fronoum), are yet both 
ol tham deriTed from the Oothio article ao, ao; and 
have in both langnagea retained the original mtianing. 
ipii. /I or TKolT p. 274." 

Bnt acme oifllcnltiea oeear hera^ which, aa they 
ooold acaroely eacape the penetrating ejre of thia 
writer, he oa^t at leaat to hare mentioned. What 
good r aaao n can be aaaigned for deriTing Germ, and E. 

aa tnm M oaeO. aeu m, aianifyiog U or tkai^ rather 
tliaa from two and mee, iwo puticlea need in the 

MbeaO., and at the rery aame period of ita ex- 
la^ praoiaely in the aenae of the (lerm. and E. 
i? if oar modem particlea moat be traced to 
Moea-0. ao, aa^ it might ne aappoaed that the latter 
wwa oaed, in the langnage of Ulphilaa, in the aenae of 
the former. Bat there ia not the leaat eridence of thia. 
It mnat at any rate be aappoaed, if thia be the proper 
origin of oar ao, that the Qotha had formed their 
partiolaa^ bearing the aame meaning, from their article. 
bat how can it oe accounted for, that, in an age in 
which both wen eonally in nae, then ahould be each 
a dilbranoe in form 7 Sa mnat have been nnneoeamrily 
tnnaformed into mta; and ao^ perliapa, atill more 
varied, by i^pearing aa awe. If, however, then be no 
ofinity between theae particlea and the demonatntive 
artiole or prononn, in Moea-O. ; how can it naaonaMy 
he an pp oaed that the Qerm. and E. would form their 
ao from the Moea-O. article, rather than from one of 
two worda formed to their hand in that language, and 
hearing the very aenae they widied to ezpreaa? Wen 
they mider a neoaaaity of doing that, which the 
Moaao-Qotha did not find it neceaaary to do for them- 
oaivea? Or had the Qotha ao far deviated from a 
ftmdamental principle in grammar, well-known to the 
Oermana and Enguah, that the latter apurned their 
aporioaa adverba, and proceeded de novo on the proper 
graend? It muat be evident that oar anthMr can 

irt, with atill laea propriety, that B. ao ia derived 
from the Moea-O. ao, ao ; when it ia recollected that 
A.«S. twa ocean timea innumerable, aa aisnifying ajr, 
ito. It appean nnqueationable, indeed, uiat E. ao ia 
derived from Moea-O. aioo, throu^ the medium of tlio 
A.«S. particle perfectly oorreaponding both in form 
and aenae. Ine deacent may indeed be traced. 
Moea-O. and A.-S. atoa ia ntained in our old writinga ; 
aometimea appearing aa wo. It waa gradually aof tenetl 
into ta; ana m mon modem writinga into iae^ 8. E. 
#0 if nothing elae than Moea-O. and A. -8. awo, with to 
thrown out, and a, aa in a thonaand tnatanoea, changed 
into o. V. Sua, Alsua. 

ALSAME, adv. Altogether. 

• And ban fbl oft at burdia by aad by, 
Tha heraa war wonnt togyduer tit afasMtf, 
Qohen brvtait waa, after tha graa, the nunc. 

/kwf. rityil, 811, K 

From A.*S. aUf eaO, all, and aam^, together. 

Altamm ia uaed in the aame aenae ; and frequently 
oooun in MS. Royal CoU. Phya. Edin. 

Alem. olaawien, aimuL MUimo aimmam attm, Otirid, 
iv. 9, 36. Hence aUamaitom, congngan. 

ALSHINDER, s. Alexanders, Smymium 
olcuatnmi, -Linn., S. 

Dear ma ! there's no an aUktnder I meat. 
Thera's no a whinny buah that tripa my kg, 
Thara't no t talloch that I aet mv foot on, 


But wooa remambranca frae her 

IkmaU amd Fiom, p. 82. 

ALSMEKLE, adv. As mach. 

"That aU men Secularia of the Realme be weill 
purvait of the aaid hamee and wapinnia, — vnder the 
painia foUowand, that ia to aay, of ilk sentilman, — 
at the thride default x. pund, and aUmetS ale of tymee 
aa he defaitia efterwart." Acta Ja. I. 1425. c. 67. 
Edit. 1566. V. Als, coi^. 

ALSONE, adv. As soon. 

And aUone aa the day waa clear. 

Thai that with in tha caatell war 

Had armyt thaim, and maid thaim bona. 

Barbour, xv. ISL MS. 

It aeema to be property alt aonc^ from aU oonj. q. v. 
and A.-S. aono, aoon. 

ALSSAFER, adv. In aa far; Aberd. Seg. 


ALSIJA, adv. Also. 

And tha trail begouth to ma 
Burgeana, and brycht blomya altua, 

Barbour, v. la MS. 

Than Vanua knawing hir apech of fanyait mynd. 
To that affect, icho mvcht tha Troiaae kyna 
And waria to cum Atrta of Italy altua. 
Withheld, and kepa from boundia of Lybia, 

Anawared and aaicL 

Doug. Virga, 106, 84. . 

A.-S. aliwa, id. V. Alb, ado, 

ALSWYTH, oJr. Forthwith. 

Bot a lady off that country, 
That waa till him in ner deirro 

Off cmynage, waa wondir biyth 
Off his arywyng ; aUwvth 
Sped hyr til ntm, in fml gret hy. 
With fourty man in cnmpany. 

Barbour, v. 136. MS. V. Swim. 

ALUNTy ado. In a blazing state, Boxb. 




To Sbt AitUMT, V. a. 1. To pat in a blaie» 

t. Ifbtaph. to Idndle, to make to blaie, S. 

P« if thtT niM tht texM bicher,. 
TktyH miaUmi that soMMMtui' ftrt, 
Wkilk Oka mmIob halpt to btet, 
▲■', wlMi ilbarns, thtyll «t a liMt 

' 8WMl M^f HUUct Ml our MMll ^wU 

Wr rhyBt, an' Futo'i dUMMt. 

il. ABB<r« Poim«^ 1811, p. 8L V. Lost. 

ALWAIESy Alwatis, Jcmj. 1. Although ; 
aotwithstandingy however. 

*« Jteofit Ifakdowild ww'm inyadit, that it wm 
MOMnr to luB to ^ battal to Makbeth." BeUand. 
OoB. k siL o. 1. 
**T1m kind and naaer of thia diaeate ia conoeiled, 
it iMnr ba gatharsd of tha panult rena of the 
-" Bnioa'a Semi. 1501. Sign. B. foL 1. It ia 
dUktmgk in tha Eng. ad. 1617. 
laaMMMtianta, with all thair powar, wonld 
hsvo oppoaad tl^ [tha coronation of Charles II.I othera 
praloogad it aa long aa they ware able. Alwa^f^ 
WmhiTU God, H ia thia day oalafaratad with great jov 
and ooslMitnant to all honaat-haarted men here.^' 
BaiOaa'a Lett. ii. 967. It alio frequently oocora in 
aputa wood'a Hial. 

Thia mmj be Tiowed aa a Fr. idiom, as it resembles 
imdm/ria^ whieh literally signifiea aU (tme», but is used 
in the aanaa of tUtkottgh, It seema oueationable, 
hewofn , if thia be not merely a kind of translation 
of tho mora aaeiant term tdgaiei, iriiich, aa has been 
in a aanaa nearly allied, ai joying at alt 


S. SometiiiieB it if naed as if it were a mere 
espletiTe^ withoat any definite meaning. 

•* UradbOstek ha balaoit (gif hia armjr faocht with per. 
aaoOTUil ooaalanoa) to haua Tictory oe sum chance of 
IftftifflTr. AhfMjfk he set down his tentia at Dnpline nocht 
ftir fin tha water of Bma." BeUand. Cron. B. xr. c. 2. 

UTedbllAtte ia tha tianalation of m^tefiwn in Booth. 
Bnft there ia no tsnn in the original corresponding with 

AMAILLEy i. Enamel. 

Abent hir neck, qohite ss the fyre osmmOc, 

A gadaUe ehyne of small orfersrye 
<|Bkaie by thers hana a ruby, without CsiUe, 

Uka to ana heft schapin verily, 
That, as a sperk of lows so wantonly 

Ssinjt Umyog upon hir quhite tbirote. 

Xtn/s QMOtr, iL SA. 

**Whila aa tha tmsmei prodnced by meana of the 
ira.** Tyttar conjeetnrea that "the two last words 
hanro been enonaooaly tranecribed," and that "the 
Offiginal probably is, Quhite aa the fayre anamaill, or 
snamrff BntFr. emaUi» naed in the same sense ; 
also Don. onmI, Belg. maUe, emaU, Junius, to. 
JSmmsf, refers to Tent, maelen, piugere, A..S. mael, 
tiMfO I and aeema to think that the root ia Moes-O. 
■Mf^m^ eeribars. "The fyre amaUU^"*- ia an ex. 
prsesioo hi^y proper. It corresponds to the Lat. 
nsmrt CMOMfvm; cncaawliM, enamelled, q. bumt-in, 
wnwght with firs. It is, howerer, fayrt anmaiile ; 
gy^ff fZ S. p L 21 

AmmeO, id. O. £ " Ammett for plde smythes [Fr.1 
snwaef/* heooa "ammellyng, TFr.] esmailleure r 
Vahmtmm, K iii. f. 17. The v. also occurs. " I am* 

ineff aa a golda amyth dothe his worke :— Your broche 
is Tuy wall oflMltel.'* Ibid. F. 144, a. 

Am ALTBTTi part pa. Enamelled. 

**Itsm aaz dnama of buttonia quhairof thair ia 
. mmalffeU witii quheit and raid thrie duzane and tha 
nther thrie dusana amaiueii with quhite and blak." 
Inrantoriesb A. 1579, p. HS. 

AMAISTy adv. Almoet, S. ; ameoit^ West- 

Bke ys wss bora, her fiite wss past and gaae, 
And she aaiawl forgot by Uka ane. 

Ro§^s iMMorf , pc 196. 

A..S. taimaeH; Belg. almeedf id. 

AMANOi Amanqis, prep. 1. Among. 

This prerogatywe than 
The Soottis tn the Peychtis wsa ; 
And wss kepyd welle alwayis 
Awumff the nychtis ia thue dayis. 

ITyatown, iv. 19. ¥k 

The lave, that levyt la that enntre, 

Banyst fht tbame a gentyl-man, 

That dueUand amaM^jfe thanw wes than. 

iryntowa, IL a 82L 

if auiNf^, S. Weatmorel. 

Thia, as has been rery justly observed concerning 
the E. word, is from the idea of mixture ; A..S. meng^ 
an^ ^.aMN^-an, Su.4>. mamg^ Isl. meng-a^ miscere. 
But Wachter derives Germ, mokg-tn to mix, from 
maimgd multitude ; to which corresponds Isl. mtngti 
tnrba, ooUuvies hominum, O. Andr. It may therefore 
be supposed that among meana, in the crowd. The idea 
of ita formatiou from maemg-a miscere, might seem to 
be supported by analogy ; 8u.4>. ibland, among, being 
formed in the same manner from bland-a to mix. it 
ia to be obeerved, however, that btand signifies a crowd, 
aa wdU aa Isl. menge. Ihre accordingly resolves iblami, 
inter, by in turba ; from i prep, denotmg m, and bUirni, 
mixtnra, turba. In like manner, Gael, measg, among, 
ia evidently from measg-am to mix, to mingle, v. 

2. It geems used adverbially as signifyingy at 
intervals, occasionally. 

It wes gret cnnnandnes to kep 
bar takm in tlU sic a tkrsng ; 

TTiar ^ , 

And wyth sic wawis ; for ay ttmana, 
The wawys reft thair sycht off land. 

Aw«picr, iU. 714. Ma 

AMANG HANDS, in the meantime, S. O. 

"My father— put a* past me that he could, and had 
ha not deet amang hands, — Fm sure I canna think 
what would hae coma o' me and my first wife.'* The 
Entail, i. 284. 

A.-S. gemamg tham has the same meaning, interea, 
"in the mean time," Somner. 

AMANISSi prep. Among, for amangia. 

"Tharfor ilk soytour of the said dome, and thar 
lordia ilkman be him self, is in ane amerciament of the 
court of parliament; — and in ane vnlav of the said 
ayer for tbaim ; and in ane vnlau of the parliament 
omanitM thaim al, sic as efferis of lav.*' Act. Audit. 
A. 1476, p. 57. 

AIMBASSATE, Ambassiat, «. 1. Tliis term 
is not synon. with embassy, as denoting the 
message sent; nor does it properly signify 
the persons employed, viewed individually: 
but It respects the same persons considered 

▲ MB 

Ibaa tht aMtba§tiai^ that wm raturnii agant, 
ff^MA DiooMdM d»U EihollAM, 
Bm bad do aehaw the oredenoo that their hrocht, 
FMPQHoiiri alhaJa than anawere, Caland Docht 

In thia Mute it ia naed in 0. E. 

Tbt h i a g a tban faoa anto that hye iitmhatmiU 
IW nna jillaa and foMa enonghe to apende ; 
And bad tiMm mim thair lordea, in whole veiiate, 
Hia Jattais ao^ wnfcha he then to hym seiMla. 

Bwrdwnaiu dnm. FoL 74. b. 
Ft. CMMUMMlf, mL 



S* I find it used in one instance for a single 

"It waa eoodndit to aend twn aindry amboaaatonria. 
— ^Abs of thaim to paa to the oonfiderat kyngia of 
Soottia and Pychtia. — The aecund amhamjA to paa to 
Btina eraituM ol Franoe.** Bellend. Cron. B. viL c. 

Tliia tefm has by many learned writen been tncecl 
to a lemoto age. reatua haa obaenred, that with En- 
nina omha t^e^ in the Ganlic language, denotea a aer- 
▼ant. From Cnaar, BelL GaU. e. 14, it appeara that it 
waa a name given by the Gaula to the retainen or 
dienta ofgraat men. Thia term haa paaaed through 
•Imoat an tha Goth, dialecta ; Moea-G. andbahis, 
miniater, whence omibaMijtM, miniatrare ; A.-S. ambiht, 
tmbeki, ym6eA<, miniater; Alem. ambaht; ampahti, 
QiL Moaa. laL ambai, atHbot^ id. It haa been deduced 
from am or amb, eircnm, and bUt-^n, pnecipere, one 
who raeeiTM the oommanda of another ; from AJem. 
mdi bach, post teignm ; from anUf and acht-eit, q. ctr- 
eomagera, one who ia oonatantlv engaged aa acting for 
hia anpenor. That the iint ayUable aisnillea circum ia 
higfalT probable^ becaaae it appeara both aa amlnhi and 
vmbiki m A.-d. ; and although ancf ia uaed in Moea-G., 
nomthaatmetnraof thewora, it would aeem that 6aAf, 
or bakii, m the aeoond ayUable. But whatever be the 
fonnatioB of this word, it ia anppoaed to have origi- 
nated the modem term. It ia mdeed very probablo 
that L. Bw a m bas e ia, found in the Salic law aa aignify- 
ina honooimhle servioe, waa formed from Alem. ani' 
bMi id., and thsnoe 

AMBAXAT, •• The same with Ambassate, 

— " Bzoaptaad — ^the aociouna pertening to my lordia, 
and peraoma that auld paaa in our aouerane lordia lega- 
eiolm A mmbaxaL'* Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1491, p. 200. 

AMBRYy #• A press in which the provision 
for the daily use of a family in the country 
is locked up^ S* ^'A word,** says Johns, 
''still used in the northern counties, and in 
Scotland.** Y. AuiERiEy Aumrie, and 


'They btaks down beds, boaida, ambrUs, and other 
timber work, and made fire of the aamen.'* Spalding's 

AMBUnOUNy 9. Ambition. 

'•Coasidsrwein quhat ye ar, for ye ar — ^to fecht for 
na ambmtiotm nor auarice, hot allanerly be oonatant 
▼irtaw." BeOend. Cnm. B. v. o. 3. 

To AMEISEy Amese, Ameyss, r. a. To miti- 
gate, to appease. 

Bot othyr kmlia, that war him by 
Awmttgt the King ia to narty. 

Bafbanr, zvL 1S4. MS. 
Ls. in part aaauaged hia indignation. In edit. 1620, 

HaasMsanf, Ac 

-Ha meaaaga aend 
T}fl Arwyngna. than the Kyng,— 
Fur tn amem all ware and aterfe. 

Wpmtoum^ ▼. Z, 49. 

has no oonnexion with Tr, ammoi-iV, oohibere, 
vaprimore, to which Rndd. indinea to trace it. Mr. 
Maophenon mantiona C. B. mcMw, aoft. Thia Ihnr 
eooaidera as deriTsd from Su.-0. moa-o, to wann ; 
moan §ig foet Mem^ ante focum pandiculari. But 
tho origin nndoubtedW is Gorm. maa§'€n moderari, 
tampcKrare^ mitigara ; Franc. fN<»-an, id. Oerm. maeMm- 
faen, is BOW most generaUy naed. Wachter tract* 
theae terms to Germ, nuui, Alem. mes, modus. Th«* 
o. MeU, q. t. is used in the same sense with AmeiM, 

AMEITTISi s. pL Ameit denotes the amicij 
^the first or undermost part of a priest's 
habit, over which he wears the alb.** 

**Item ane chesabill, — ^twa abbia, twa ameitih of 
Bartane cUyth," Ac. CoU. InTentoriea, A. 1542, p. 

Tr, amkif L. B. amid-ua, primum ex aex indumentia, 
episcopo et preabYteria oommunibua ; Arnktus, Alba, 
Cingttlum, 8toIa» tlanipulua, et Planeta. Du Cange. 

A MEL, $. Enamel. 

** Her colour outvied the lily and the damaak roee ; 
and the awiei of her eye, when ahe amiled, it waa im- 
|M)aaible to look ateadfaatly on." Winter Ev. Talea, 
li. 8. V. Amaii.i.k. 

AMENE, adj. Pleasant. 

For to bahald it waa ana fflore to ae 
The atabiUyt wyndya, and the calmyt ae, 
The aoft aesaoun, the flmiament serene, 
The lonne illnminate are, and ftrth amaie. 

Douff. Virga, 400, 1 

Lat. atmoei^iii, id. 

AM EBAND, adj. Green, verdant. 

I walkit forth about the feUdia tyte, 
Qnhilkia tho rapleniat stude ful of delyte, 
With herbis, oomea, cattel and fhite trei», 
Plente of store, biniUa and besy beix. 
In aswmN^ media fleand est and w<»t 

Dtmg. r»fyiZ, 449, 1& 

From the colour of the emerald, Fr. emeraud. 
It ia conjectured that thia haa been written Amer- 
aud ; u and n being often miataken for each other. 

To AMERCIAT, v. a. To fine, to amerce. 

— "To cauae becallit ahaenta, to vnlaw mndamerrmf 
tranagreaaouria,** Ac. Acta Cha. L £d. 1814, V. 502. 
Lat. part. amereitU'Ut. 

AMERISy AuMERS, #./>/. Embers. 

The assis depa, miimand with mony cry, 
Doun did thay cast, and scra^iuis out attains 
The bete osimt, and the biniiUit banya. 

Dottg. Vir^ S68, 27. 

Lurid and Uack, hia giant steed 
Soowl'd like a thunder<cIoud ; 
Blae aa the lerin glanst his mane ; 
Hia een like aumers glow'd. 

Jami€mm*0 PopuL BalL I 24& 

Thia, I apprehend, ia the nron. of Moray. A.-*S. 
aemyria, Belg. amerm, Su.-G. marja ; lal. eimyrwc, 
farilla ; which a<mie derive from timur tenuia funiua, 
Dan. em, jem, f avilla. 

AMYD WART, prep. In or toward the midst 





-Ht than wllh awy tbonimd cm by, 
Aad mlB mmifdwmri la bb troM grvto, 
fW kim amjtt, talda hM Us 

Doiy. Ftpy^ 187, 2S. 

AMTRALEy Autrau^ «• An admiral. 

Of rkftWM thid tak wp ■& of vir»- 
Aad ilw* tk« itMfrab of thrt iol. 

IV, — l i ra l ; Bdg. aMwriiarf; ItaL awwiraylto^ L. E. 
cdMmfiM. Kilian rofon to AxtJx ttmmir, lez, impe- 
nlor } mora proporfy, omIt, * prinoo^ a kmL Hence, 
il it Mid, amoQg the Saneene and Toiks, Uie satrap of 
a flityt or pMfeot of a pnmiice, had the title of AnUra 
aad AwUhmL Aoooraiag ta'Du Oaage, he who had 
the onmrnand of a teet was alao^ among the Sanusens, 
CiDed AmbraL Adnurolku^iM mentioned by Matt. 
Plvio, as a SanMwn designation, A. 1272. According 
to 1^. Bitson, the original Arshie is a«Mcr ai omroA, 
•r prinoo of the princes s GL E. Met. Rom. 

the learned Londius (in his Not. ad LL. West- 

Qolh.) TiewB it as a word of Oothie origin ; and as 
focmed of a, the mark of the dative^ mir, mtor^ the se% 
andfll an ; q. toti mari pr«feci>ua. V. Seren. Addend. 

To AMFT, V. a. To admit 

Qohat win ye mar r tills tkiM mail^ wai, 
That WansM sold on to the lyona pas. 

WtJlaei, zL 83S. Ma 

^aiK my asUi«; gif so ths ftitis gvdii. 

ItosviTtfyil, IM, ML 

AlQTANy #• A fool or mad person, male or 
female; one yielding to excess of anger, 

CL Bw amutk denotss a faihire. 

AlQTEy #• An wnament which Popish 
-canons or priests wear on their arms, wnen 
thflj say mass. 

^"Sanwaad S omUeswith panites therto of the 
aamestoff." Hay's Sootia Saera, MS. p. 180. 
O. K. amtm, amke, amkif id. V. Amxittis. 

rai of quaking spangls hrydit ss gold, 
" Bueomof 

AMMELYT, part. pa. Enamelled. 

m side hawbrakis forgU ftotk of p!at«, 
nmt flawksrtis and kg hamas ftats hate. 
With latit sowpyl sUosr weQ 

Dmig, Wtpil, 290, 96u 

Wt. mmM-€r; L. Bw nm ay far i ; Belg. emaUer'tm; 
Jkn. amdet'ert id. V. AmkiUM 

To AMMONYSS. v. a. To admonish, to 
ooonsely to exhort. 

Aad qnhsa Sehvr AyoMr hss 
Sssnd haly bedea. 

^rt ye wiU him wes ftdl way. 

ns moocht nocht aaunonyat cway. 
That ony Air him wald tons again. 

Barfour, riiL Sia. MS. 

Le. ** admonish ao^ or in aneh a manner." He also 
for admonishing. V. Movisttxo. 

AMOBEmiS, «. p2. Emeralds. 

**BessaTit fva the eril of Murray ane cordonn of 
hoanet^ with peirli% rabeis, and amortidU ; the nom- 
ber of mbeis ar nyme, and of greit peirlis zlii, and of 
e— swidia nyne." CoIL InTontories, A. 1579, p. 278. 

AMOBETTISi «. pL Loveknots, garlands. 

And on hir bode a ehaplst firesch of hewa. 
Of plomyt partit rsas^ and qahito^ sad bkwe : 

Foigit of schap like to 

Kimitt qiudt, iL 27. 2S. 
Not ydad in tOk was ha. 

But an In flooria and Soniettis, 
T painted aU with osiofvMM. 

GUnofr, RoDB. Rose. 

Fr. amonrettM, lovo-tricka, dalliancea, Cotgr. 

To AMOVE, Amow, v. a. To move with 
anger, to vex, to excite. 

Tlie Kyng WiUame naTerthalas 
Heyly amowU thar-at 

And ttwde this gud man hale uayne 
In Ciwoiir of hya awyne ehapyluyna. 

MVnIowiS vil. & 278. 

For thoncht our fiiyis haf makill mycht. 
Thai have the wrang and snocodry ; 
And oowatyss of senyowry 
Awio»jf§ thaim, for owtyn mor. 

Barbamr, ziL 209. MS. 

Amom is used in O. E. ¥r. amonv-olr, id. 

AMOUR, s. Love. 

hate amouri* the aubtell qnant ffra 
Wayatia and oonanmia march, banis and lire. 

IkNV^ VwgU, 102, Z, 

Inm wmNfr, I^at. amor. 

AMPLEFEYST, ». 1. A sulky humour, 
Loth. Roxb. ; a term applied both to man 
and beast. A horse issaid to tak thgample^ 
fetfBt^ when he becomes restive, or kicks with 
violence. It is sometimes pronounced urttnp/e- 


2. A fit of spleen ; as, ^ He's ta'en up an 
amplefeyst at me," Boxb. 

3. Unnecessar}' talk ; as, ^^ We canna be 

fash'd wr a' his amplef$}f9ts^ ibid. 

Here, I snspeot, it properlv includes the idea of snch 
langnage as la expreaaiTe of a tnmbleaome or diaoon- 
tenied diapoaition. 

If wimpirfeiui ahoold be conaidered aa the original 
fonn, we mi^t trace the term to lal. wambiU^ abdo- 
men, andyyi^ ilataa, peditua, from/jrs-a, pedera. 

AMPLIACIOUN, 9. Enlargement. 

" He tube poipoia to apend all the monle and richea, 

Sottin be thia aventore, in ampfioctoica of the Hona of 
npiter.'' Bellend. T. Lir. p. 01. 
Fr. an^plkUion^ id. 

AMPTMAN, 9. The governor of a fort. 

— ** Before mir departing, I took an atteatation, from 
the Amptnian oi the caatle, of the good order and dis- 
cipline that was kept by na there. ''^ Monro*a Exped. 
P. ii. p. 9, 10. 

Dan. wnbt-mand, aeneachall, caatellan, constable, 
keeper of a castle, from ambd^ an office, employment, 
or charge ; Swed. aembeUman^ a civil officer ; Teat. 
oinpl-nian, otnaian, praefeetoa, praetor. Kilian. 

AMRY, 9. A sort of cupboard. V. Aumkib. 
AMSCHACH, 9. A misfortune, S. B. 

Bat there is nae need. 

To sickan an aaiMae4 that we drive oor head. 
As lang'a we're aaa akair'd frae the spinning o t 

iSra^, IUm^b ffelenon, p. 135. 

Ir. and OaeL aiuhogk^ adveraity, miaecy. 



[43] AKA 

AMSHACE, i. <« Noose, fastening,** Ol. 

Thk MOM th« lABM with Ham-^koM^ q.T. 

To AMUFF, V. a. To move, to excite. 

"ThAtiuiinaiitakoD huulein tymetocnm toamtf/* 
or nuik weir aganis other ynder lul IM^rno that maj 
folowa be ooiuee of oommoan Uwe.** Part Ja. I. A. 
1494^ Aoti Ed. 1814, p. 1. V. Amotb. 

AN. Ik ak, adv. Y. Ik. 
To AN, V. a. 

Wilt ve what Mitrem wan, 

MicM godo J wold l|im an; 
Tour owheo aoster him bare. 

Sir TriMrem^ p. 42. it 6S. 

T take that me Gode an. 

Itid. pw 144. 

**To ow^ what God owea me, Le. meana to tend 
BM ;** OL I i^rehend that the y. properly ai^fies, 
to appropriate, to allot aa one'a own ; not aa imme- 
diattty allied to A.-S. ttg-am, Sa.*0. a^-a poasidere ; 
bat to tgm'O, jpropnnm facere, Genn. eniff a-e a, eigm^ a, 
id. from S11.-O. egen. Germ, eigen, propriua, one*! own; 
aa A.-8. oyn-ioii, agn-igean^ poeaidere, are formed from 
agm proprioa, a deriTatire from ag-an, whence E. otrf . 
naa aa, to which the modem oum corresponda, ia re- 
lifted to og-oM, only in the third decree. 

It iomnii, however, to be alao nsea improperly in the 
of oiM, or am mdebied io. 

Aa y the rove and an, 
AJad tbon haat lenred me. - 


AN| Akd, eonj. . 1. If. 

We ar to fer fht hame to fley. 
Thaifor lat ilk man worthi be. 
Toae ar gadryngis of this oonntr^ ; 
And thai mH fley, I trow, lychly. 
And men assaile thaim manlyly. 

Bofbomr, ziv. S82. Ma 

Laf ayn thy Bychtbonria, aod wirk tharae na mrickt. 
Willing at tboa and thay may haae the sicht 
Of henynnys blys, and tyist thame nocht therfra ; 
For MM toon do, ticluf dow nocht ane atra. 

Dong. Virga, S6, 64. 

And thow my oonnaal wrocht had in al thing, 
fal wdcam had thoa bene ay to that King. 

AiMto I/M&, p. 44. 

Ami la generally need for \f tfaroogfaont this Poem. 

At thir woidls gnd Wallace brynt aa fyr ; 
Oar haiatelr he annieni him in ire. 
Thow Uid, he laid, the mith full oft has beyn, 
Thar amd I baid, qahar thou durst nocht be sej-n, 
Contrar enemys, na mar. for Scotlandis r^cht,* 
Than dar the Howlat qanen that the day is biycht ; 
That taill fall meit thow has Uold be thi sell. 
Tb Ihi deiyr thow sail me nocht oomprlL 

WaUaet, z. 14e. Ma 

There kanel bidden, where thoa dnnt not be seen. 

Edit. 164& pi 269. 

It moat be obeenred, that if and here aignify (/", it 
moat be viewed aa in immediate connexion with these 

That tarn ftiU meit, &c. 

In thia caae, Wallace, instead of abaolntely asaerting, 
only makea a auppoaition that he i^ipcnred where 
Stewmit durst not anew his face ; and on the ground of 
thia anppoaition aDpliea Stewart'a tale ooBceming the 
Howlat to himaell. If this be not the connexion, 
whioh ia at beat doubtful, aaii ia here used in a ainsular 
aanaa. It might, in thia case, signify, truly, indeed ; 
analogooa to laL endo, quidem, G. Andr. p. 01. 


It ia f reqnently naed bv Cliauoer in the aense of /. 
VayB woloe I do you ndrthe, and I wiste how. 

Ondmbmrg 1*. ▼. 74a 

For and I shuUe rekeae erery Tloe, 
Which that she hath, ywis I war to nioa. 

wd. T. low. 

An, aa far aa I haTO obeenred, aopean to be the more 
modem orthography, borrowed from vulgar pronun* 

'* If and An, apoila many a good charter." S. 
Phyv. Kelly, p. 200. 

Dr. Johnaon haa obeenred, that "on is aometimea, in 
old anthora, a contraction of wnd if;** quoting, as a 
proof^ tfaa following paaaage from Shakeapeare : 
I I He most speak truth. 
An they will take it, so ; if not, he's pUin. 

But thia oonjecture haa not the alightest foundation. 
8a.-0. aen ia uaed in the aame aense with our an. 
Particula couditionalia, aaya Hire, literarum dementia 
•t sono referena GrsBCorum cav, ai. He adda, that it ia 
now ahnoat obaolete, although it occurs very frequently 
in the ancient lawa of the Ootha. A?» fae/oghert n 
poena tranailierit ; " an the fe fie,** 8. Leg. Westg. 

Mr. Tooke derivea an from A.-S. an-an dare ; aa 
aynon. to if, gif, from gif-an, id. Somner indeed ren- 
tiers Aa aa equivalent to do vel dano, 1 give or grant ; 
ouoting thia ioatance from a testamentary deed in 
A.-S., altiiough without mentioning the place, jEreM 
thai ic an minum kUtforde, Ac. irimum ({uod ipse 
donavi Domino meo. Lye translates An, indulgeat, 
larffiatur, Cedm. 41, 4. Aa and aeema to be the oM 
ortho^iraphy of thia word, Mr. Tooke might probably 
view it aa nom the aame origin with am, used in ita 
common oenae^ ef ; which he derivea from An-an-ad, 
dare congeriem. But aa Su.-G. atn has not only the 
aignification of st, but alao of eC, in the old lawa of the 
Gotha ; and aa lal. tnd haa the aame meaning ; it doea 
not appear probable that the A. -Saxons wouM need to 
dap two worda together, in order to form a conjunction 
that waa every moment in their moutha. 

2. An 18 sometimes used as equivalent to 


" Get enemiea the mastery over Christ aa they will, 
he will ay be up again upon them all, on they hail 
awom't." W. Guthrie'a Serm. p. 11. 

ANAy Anat, «• A river-island| a holm ; 
pron. q. awncy Roxb. 

' Tho Ana, or island, oppoaite to the library [KelsoL 
many feet under water, as was also tho pier-head. 
Not a veatige could be aeen of Wooden Ana. — We re- 
gret to obaerve that the Mill Ami, which ia so beaati- 
ful an ornament to this place, — is materially injured, 
and one of ita fineat treea overthrown." Caledonian 
Mereury, Jan. 29, 1820. 

"Deponea, that tho nolt never pastured on the 
Anay ; and that when they did ly down, it waa alwaya 
on the atonea at the head of the Anay ; and that when 
the cattle came into the water-channel at the head of 
Wooden Anay, there was no grass ffrowinc, unless 
what sprung up among the stones.*' rroof. Walker ol 
Easter Wooden, 1756. p. 1, 2. 

The termination would certainly indicate a Goth, 
origin ; lal. ey, A.-S. tage, Su.-G. oe, denoting an 
ialand; which Ihre tracea to Heb. ^ €«, id. Thia 
word forma the termination of these well-known deaig- 
nationa, the Suderry^, the Norder^jy^s i.e. the aouthem 
iaUnda, the northern islanda; anfl of moat of the 
names of the islanda of Orkney, as it appears even in 
their general denomination. But the initial syllable 
bean more resemblance to the Celtic, and may be 
viewed aa originally the aame with C.-B. awon. Gad. 
amhain, pron. avaia, a river, retained as the name of 





MTwil limi in Biitalii. Oonld we nippoM the woid 
fSM of A Gdt. aiidCk>tli. wofd, it womd baq. iliooii- 
«|^ M liTir-iibiid. Sil-O. oen, bowerer, denOtet an 
iibMd ■ttadied to the oootiiieiit ; insalA, oontinenti 
mUbmi Loeeea. Lex. Jur. Suio-Qoth. p. 22. 
Mai^ I urn infotiiieil, ie in Tweeddele vied in the 

To ANALIE, V* a. To dispone^ to alienate ; 
a jvidical term. 

**FMete Bey not amdk tlieir Uuide, without the 
KaMfboowiinnetion.'* Reg. Mej. B. u. c. 23. Tit. 

*'The hvebead may not ano'ie the heretage, or Unde 
perteiaing to hie wife.** quon. Attach. cTlo. 

In bolh plaeee aUmare le the tenn need in the Let. 
eopy. In the first peaiage, although atialie oocun in 
the TStleL dinone la the tenn used in the chapter. 
lUa ta Mao die caaiL Ihid. o. 20. The word ia eri- 
diBlly lonied from the Lat. t. by transpoeition. 

Akausb, c One who alienates goocb, bjr 
tnuitpoftiiig diem to another country. 

-^~**The King'a land and reahne ia subject to weir* 

tee; and therefoie sould not be made poore by anaiien 

4 osI|mb of gndee and geir transported fuith of the 

r I Stat. Bob. L o. 2S. I 1. AUemOoru, Let. 


To ANABIE, V. a. To call over names, to 

-In the abbey of Hezhame 
AB than kXk thai gert aaoiiM ; 
i[nA in-ta an than est thai fiuid 
Of men anuyd hot twa thowsande. 

WrUomi, yUL la 104. 

ANASLEBy adv. Only; the same with 

**Thnt aae licht ezoellent prince Johne duke of 

and Uuchful sone of 

^■hile Alei^. duke of Albany, — is the secund persoune 
of ikm walme, A anelie airto his said umquhile/adcr." 
AotsJkV. 1516^ n. 283. V. Anbrlt. 

To ANARME, Ankabbie, v. a. To arm. 

**Ilk burgee banand fyftie pundis in sudis, salbe 
hmB ■■amiB, ae a Gentilman aucht to be.^ ActsJa. 
L Itfi. ei 137. edit. 1566. 

ANCHOR-STOCK, s. Properly a loaf 
made of lye ; the same with Anker-Stock. 

*'Ofee of the ifaat demonstrations of the approach of 

in Bdinbugfa was the annual appeanuice of 
tahlsa of mekor-tioekB at the head of the Old 

doee. These tMchoT'-Moekt, the only 
of bcead made from rye that I have ever ob- 
ofeed for sale in the city, were exhibited in 
ormy ruMj of siae and price, from a halfpenny to a 
Mr-emrn.'^ BLwkw. Mi^g. Dec. 1821, p. 601. 

ANCIETYy Anoietie, s. Antiquity. 

*'The Clerk Register did move before your Lop*. — 
1. The mmckhi of Ids place. — Answer 1. For the ancietU 
of his pbos^** &0. Acts Ch. H. Ed. 18K vii- App. 6S. 

OL R. amiU^ ancient. V. Ausrciim. 

ANCLETH» Hancleth, s. Ankle, GI. 

.AND, Mm;. If. V.An. 

AND A', Ah* a\ adv. Used in a sense dif- 
foent from that in which it occurs in EL, as 

ezphiined by Dr. Johnson* In S* it seems 
pronerly to signify, not every thing^ but ** in 
addition to what has been abeady men- 
;" also, •< besides.'* 

The rsd, red rote Is dawning and a', 
^-The white haw-bioom drops ninnie a$C a*. 
— r the howe-howms o' Nitoadala my love Uvea an' a*. 

JUm. NWU. Song, p. 110, 111, 112. 

¥orAm[a\ V. SrV. 

And all waa anciently need in the same eense. 

'* Item ane daith of estate— with thre pandis and 
the taiU aad a/2 froinyeit with thxeid of gold." CoU. 
Inventoriee, A. 1561, p. 133. 

ANDERMESS, s. V. Andtr's-Day. 

ANDTR'S-DAY, Androis-Mess, Ander- 
MESS» s. The day dedicated to St. Andrew, 
the Patron Saint of Scotland, the 30th of 

^I me went this Andift't day, 
Ffsst on my way making my moae, 

In a mery momynff of May, 
Be Huntley BanijEiB my self alone. 

Tnu TkamMf Jamiemm** Pop, BaiL iL 11. 

'•Aaent salmond fiahing for the wateria of Forth, 
Teth and Tay, and their mines, — that they may be- 

a at Andeniem ae waa done befoir.'* Acta Cha. I. 
I8K ynL V. 275. 

"The hain dergio— laitlie grantit — the eowme of 
2800 Lib. to be payit be thame to hie Grace at the fint 
of Mideomer last bipaat, and the sowme of 2300 Lib, 
at the feist of Sanet Amdro niztocnm. — ^The saidis pre- 
latia hes instanUie avanait to my said Lord Govemour 
— ^thair partia of the said Androit'MegM'Terme, tooid- 
dsr with the rest of the last Midsomer-Tenne awana be 
thame." Sed*. Coonc A. 1547, Keith's Hist. App. p. 

The name of Andirtmes$ Market ia atiU given to a fair 
held at thie sesson, at Perth. 

iSatataiufrMmes occurs in the same sense. 

"The lordis assignis to DnngaU M'Dowalo of Mac- 
eantonne — to profe that he hai pait to the Abbot of 
Kebo zij chalder, iiij bolle of mele ft here, ft iiij bolle 
of qnhete for the teindia of M'karitone, of the termes 
of SaimlUMdrotmeB and Candilmee laat past.'* Act. 
Dom. Cone. A. 1480^ p. 76. 

Mors strictly it denotee the night preceding St. 
Andrew's day, Aberd. Perths. **AtuUrm€s^ Andirtmett, 
or the vigiU of ^Sanct Androu." Aberd. Reg. 

Andrimess-Ewik, 8. The vigil of St. An- 
drew, the evening before St. Andrew's day. 

"He Mkit at the sheriff till superced quhill the 
zxviij day of Novembr, quhilk ia Setterda, forrow An- 
drimesg ewim next to cum," fto. Chart. Aberbroth. 
F. 141. 

ANDLETi «• A very small ring, a mail. 

"iliMUefo or males the pound weight — Is. 6d." 
Bates, A. 1070, p. 2. Fr. anneUi. 



PkodnoentiB et qnadraginta monilibns dictis ami' 
|0C»« deanratis ad usum domine regine xxxvi e." Corn- 
pot. Tho. Cranstoun, A. 1438. 

The meaning of andloei§ is in so far fixed by moniii- 
baa; but it ie uncertain whether we are to understand 
thia ae denoting necklaces, or omamenta in general. 
The latter seems the preferable aeme, because of the 
number mentioned — two hundred and fortv. Did not 
tiie same objection lie against the idea of rings, this 






nlghl b« Tkfwtd M oorr. from O. Tr, amki, bMii«, 
M, aimiiiaw/ Roquefort, SuppL: or hm ibere 
too ■lighteit probability that braoelets had boea 
wo Bi^ MTO traced the term to A.-d. A4ifid^ 
md fie Mni q. Aomf-^odb^ or looka for the 

ANDREW, (The SU a designation occasion- 
alljr fpven to the Scottish cold coin which is 
move pioperly called the £yon» 

**'lbm SL Andrew of Robert n. weighs generally 
18 gr, that of Robert m. 00 gr. the 8i, Andrew or 
lioB of Jamea II. 48 gr. This oontinaed the only de- 
▼ice till Jamea m. intzodooed the unioom holding the 
•hiald.'' Oeidoanel'a Nomism. Pref. p. 28. 

ANE» adj. One. 

11m Kiagle off /fvA<iy 
Come to whyr Edaiuurd haUly, 
And thar mauedyn gaa him ma ; 
Bot giff it war one or twa. 

Smrbomr, ztL 804. Ma 

** Aa the aSjinea in the ■acramentt are not alwayia ane; 
aa the wma m baith, are not of ane number : For in 
haptiime^ wee hane bnt oae element, into thia eacra- 
■■nt wee bane twa elemental" Brace's Serm. on the 
aacnmsnt^ IMO. Sum. F. 2. h. 

Moea-Q. ola ; A.-0. an, one; ane. Sn.-0. an ; mod. 
SiL-O. c»/ Akm., Geim., and IsL ein; Belg. eea; 



AifE» ofiici^ signifying one, bnt with less em- 

ICr. M a cplierion Jnatly obaenrea, that this it proper- 
If the lame with the adjeotiTe. *'In Wyntown'a 
tDM^'* ha adds, " it was rarely used before a word be- 
' I with a consonant, but afterwards it wa^ pat 
an aonna indifferently. V. Douglaa and other 
writaiB.** Barboar, who preceded Wyntown, 
il o e csa inn al l y before a word beginning with a 
1^ althoagn imroly. 

In tin Us Inge a fox he saw. 
Thai fast on am salmoand gaa gnaw, 

JMeMr, jdz. M4. M& 

To ANE^ V. n. To agree, to accord. 

Bvi bapayde bym to t4 the Kyng 
And mifi for b^i rawnsownyng 
Fte to nrf that tyme hym tyle 

flehjppyt and wytUyle ta his wyUflL 

WfiUown, iiL 8. 42. 

id. SensQ forensi est conoordare, con- 
I akk a ema g a , pacisd. Wachter. This seems to 
ba menly aa oblique sense of ein-en, statuere, synon. 
with 8«.-0. en-a, nxmiter sibi aliquid proponere. IsL 
skfiy, naio ; 8a.<0. eniq. Germ, einig^ conoors. I need 
aoane^ obaerrsb that all theee eridently refer to if ne, 
M, one, aa thair origin. 

ANEABIL^ 8. An unmarried woman. 

*'Bol gif 1m hea mony sonnes, called MuHeraii 
ftkai i§, gotten andproereai vpon ane concubine^ or as 
we eomwSenHe sag, vpon ane ANEABIL or eingUl 
— ma% whom he mariee Iherqfter, ae hie laufuU wtfe) 
he asay not for anie licht cause, without consent of his 
Wrsb gina to the said after-borne sonne, anie parte of 
hia haretMs^ albeit he be weill willing to doe the 
aamiaa.'' Beg. Maj. B. ii. o. 19. s. 8. 

AneMe is an old F^. word, aignifying; kabUe^ a^ 
ahla. ^ The Soots, aooordin^ to Menage, have formed 
from it the forsenio term tnkabUie, to denote a man 
who la not married. Cost un rienx mot qui se trouve 
aottTont dana lea rieillea Chartes. Apiue^ idontMs, 
Diet. T^vr. Thia may be the origin of AneaUl am sig- 

^ _ a woman who^ being single, ia not legally dis- 
qualified, or rendered ui\/U lor bSng 

ANEDING, 8. Breathing. 

On athir half thai wsr sa stad. 
roe ths ryeht grot heyt that thai had. 
For Ibchtyn, and for aonnys het. 
That all thair fleacho of swats wes wete. 
And sic a stew raisa oat off thalm then. 
Off a»ad»i^ bath off hom and mea, 
And off powdyr ; that aic myrknea 
In till the ayr abowyne thahn wes. 
That it w«a wondre for to se. 

Barbomr, zL ei& MSL 

This word is printed aa if it were two, edit. Pink. 
But it ia one word in MS. Thua it has been read by 
early editors, and understood in the sense given 
abova. For in edit. 1820, it ia renderod 6reaM«»^, 
p. 828. V. Atkd, a. 

ANEFALD, adj* Honest, acting a faithful 

And fsrtharmare, Amata the fare Qaene, 
Qtthilk at al tymea thine ane fold ueynd has bene, 
wyth hir awne hand doia steroe lygsand law, 
And for effray hir aelfe has brocht of daw. 

Deng, Vir^a, 48Sl 18l 

FUMieeima^ Virg. Hero it ia printed, aa if the two 
syllables formed separate words. 

This is evidentljr the same with qfald,^ with this dif • 
fsrenee only, that in the compoaition of it a, as signify- 
ing one, is used ; and hero ane, in the same sense. 

ANEISTy Aniest, Anist, prep.' Next to, 
Ayrs. Roxb.; used alao as an adv. V. 

Tbe auld wife anieal the Are— 
She died for lack of aniahing. 

Jierd^e CoU. iL 18. 

'* Off I acta for the gray stone aniai the town-cleugh. ** 
BLwkw. Mag. Nov. 1820, p. 201. 

ANELIE, adv. Only. 

'*Wee are ccmjoined, and fsstned vp with ane 

bee the moyan (sayia bee) of ane spirite ; not 
bee ane carnal band, or bee ane groese oonjunction ; 

but emette be the band of the halie spirite.'* Bruoe*s 
Serm. on the Sacrament, 1800. Sign. I. 3. b. 

ANELIE, adj. Sole^ only. 

— ** Johne duke of Albany — is — aneiie air to his — 
vmquhile fader." Acta Ja. V. 1516, V. U. 283. A.-S. 
onelic^ unicus. 

ANELYD, pari. pa. Aspired; literally, 
panted for. 

Eftyr all this Maziniiane 
Agajme ths Empyrs wald have tane ; 
And for that caas in-tyl gret atryfe 
He lede a lang tyme of hya lyfe 
Wyth Constantynys Sonnys thre, 
That anelyd to that Ryawt^. 

ITyniovii, V. la 480. V. Alao viii. 88. 231. 

Mr. Macpherson has rightly rendered thia "aspired ;** 
although without ^ving the etymon. Sibb. explaina 
anelgd, incited, excited ; from A. -S. anael-an, incitare. 
But the origin of the word, as used by Wyntown, ia 
Fir. anhel^er, ** to aspire unto with great endeavour ;** 
Cotgr. Lat. anhel'O; L. B. and-o, 

ANE MAE. V. At ane mae wi*t. 

ANENS, Anenst, Anent, prep. Over 
agains^ opposite to, S. 





Bd aa MBM or M 


IFimlbiiii, It. 19. ISi 

TlMrfbr iMr €rt btti BMT ab«id 

Av«CNir. zU. 61S. MS. 

Wllk that tM Khip did apaddy aprocha, 
V^ plaaaadlT aaOlM vpoa tlia daip « 
Aad'atoa did alaek fir aaUUa, and gan to craip 
Tofvafd tha laad «imii< qnkav thai I lar. 

Lgmdm^9 WurkU, 1602, p. 256. 

Amad^ id. lanwafc OL Some doriTo tliia from Or. 
flMfb, o p poa iU i m , Skiimtr pnimn A. -8. fiaaii, near. 
Tbe Or. word, aa wdl aa oon, together with Moea-O. 
midft Akm. auids Sil-O. ami, aiK<a, oontra, aecm all 
to elaim * '*«*"^"*«* origia. But I anapeet that anem 
r. iraa A.-S. cmgmmp ex adveno. V. Forb« 

oaeaai; in one paaaage^ in the aame 

— ttenTa D. and Utif , that'a Dnur, 
Aad, ilglit mrntnti him, a dog ■aaniiig Er; 
Thara'a Dwigy ir . JAa illfiAMitjC. 

ANENT, Akemti8| |>np. 1. Concerning, 
•boiity in lelatbn to. 

^Amad Hoe^taDia that are fondat of Afanooa deidia, 
throwthekiqgiatohe vphaldin to pore folk and aeik, 
to be vy^t be tbe ChanoeUar, aa thay haue bene in 

mi^^jsr*^*^" -^ •^*- ^ »***• «• 

. 'MMHlie Heretiokia and ioOardia, that ilk BiahoiM 
mXi far in^nyra to the Inqniaitiottn of Hereaie, quhair 
mn aie beia fiuMlin, and al thay be puniait aa Law of 
kaoe kixk raqnyria.** Ibid. o. 31. 

**Awad the petitioiin maid anetU the debtia oon- 
InMjIed be 1^ mnehe men of Weir in thia cnntre, the 
aaada oooootdit^ that the Ki^g and Qaein aall caua re- 
atoir all that qnhllk hmpenia to be found ffBvin and 
l^aiAed to tbe tanpB Lieaetenent and hie Captanea, 
and ntherie olBciana^ for the nnriachment, auatenta- 
tioa, and maintonanee of the aaid. Frenchemen, or 
tfmt aphHk beia fooad anchi be the Lieutenent for aer- 
vioe of hie Majeety, that may appeir be writ, or con- 
faiBMMn of uyrtiea.'' Knox'a Hiat p. 230. 

Perbaipa fiiia ia merely an oblique aenae of the tenn 
whi^ Mg**^^^ oppomU la. It might oriffinate from 
the mode of atating aooooata, 1^ marking the aom dne 
eerro^iiiaaaC the name of the debtor; or rather from 
the manner in which it waa cuatomaiy to anawer peti« 
tioM^ by marld^g the replv to each partieular clanae, 
diraetiy oppoaito to the cLuiae itaeli, on the margin. 
Hanoe tim term mig^t be tranaferred to whataoever 
dira^^ r a f e n e d to any peraon orbuaineaa. 

Wi^ vaae aaenlw m the aenae of with, according to. 
** AmaUk men thia thing ia impoaaible ; bat anenUa 
GodaIlethiQgiabenpoaaible;**Mat. xix. 

.** AmmB the malea and proffitia of the landia of La- 
theda within the barony of Kynelward, — the lordia of 
oooaaledeenittia,'*ftc. Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1488, p. 03. 

Thia ia aoftoned from AneMU9, 

S« Opposed to^ as denoting a trial of vigour in 
boouy motion, Aberd. 

her foot 
D, Antkrmm'M Poems, p. 71. 

8. In a stale of opposition to, in reasoning, 


hcada, wi' philosophic wit, 
ejMNlaaaald wife ait f iW. p. 73. 

To ANERD» Amnsre. Y. Aithebd. 
ANERDANCE, «. Retainers, adherents. 

**The erie of Bnehan— on the ta part, and William 
erie of Erole on the tother part, for thaim aelf, thar 
partij ft anairlaNCi^ — aaaonrit ilkain vther qnhil the 
^prat day of May next tocnm.** Act. Dom. Cone. A. 
1478, p. 21. v. AiTHSBDAirDS. 

ANERLY» Antrlt, adv. Onty, alone, 

strange wtrageoiua conge ha had, 
Qnheo he aa itoutly, him aUane, 
For litill atrenth off ard, has tana 
To facht with twa honder and ma I 
Thar with ha to tha ford gan ga. 

And thai, apon tha totbyr party. 
That aaw him atand thar onyny, 
Thringand in till tha watt jr rad. 
For off him litiU doat thai had ; 
And raid till hkax, in foU gret by. 

Barbom', ▼!. 138L 1C& 

In edit. 1S20 it ia rendered aUaturlie, the latter being 
more ooounonly need and better nnderstood, when thia 
edit, waa pnbhahed. 

Ne wald I not alao that I aiild be 

Oaoa or occadoon of tie dole, quod ha. 

To thy maiat reuthfuU modar, traist, and kynd, 

Qnlulk aneriio of hir maist tandir mjud. 

From al tha vthir matronna of oar rout. 

Has foUowit tha hir louit chUd about, 

Na for thy aaik reftiait not tha aau 

And gaif na foroa of Acettaa data. 

Jkmg, Vvrya, 282. 47. 

From A.-S. anre, tantom, only. Thia may be a 
derivatiTe fran on need in the aenae of ooluo, alone. 
Henoe Lye giToa on and anre aa equally aiffnifying, 
tantum, to. An, Ante ia alao nearly allied to the 
Alem. adj. ain^, etiMni, aolua, aola. But I am much 
inclined to think that, although aomewhat altered, it 
ia the aame with Su.-6. tnhvar, lal. «tn Aoor, quiaque ; 
eapecially aa thia ia a rery ancient word. Ulphilaa 
naea iMinhvaria in the aenae of quUibet; hence the 
phraae, Atnhvarfan^ ho kanduno anaiang jands ; 
unicuique Tel aingulia illorum manua imponena ; laying 
hia hanida on everg ome of them, Luk. it. 40. It con- 
firma thia hypotheaia, that A.-S. anra gehwplc aisnifiea 
unw¥pii»qu€, every one. Mat. zxri. 22. Thia, altnough 
obWoualy the origin of aUaneHg, aeema to hare been 
entirely OTerlpoked. It ia merely q. tM alone, or 

Amerlt, AxRBLnSi adj. Single, solitary, only. 

*'Yit for all that, thair wald nane of thame cum 
to Pariiament, to further thair deayre with ana anerlU 
vote.** Buchanan'a Admon. to Trew Lordia, p. 19. 

It oocura in Finkerton*a Edit, of The Bruce. 

And qohan tha King Robert, that waa 
Wyaa in bis deid ana antrly. 
Saw hi« men sa rycht donchtelj 
The path apon thiiir fayis ta; 
And saw hu fayia defend thaim sa ; 
Than gart he all the Ineherg 
That war in till his company, 
Off Arghile, and the Hit alsna. 
Spakl uaim in gret h j to the bra. 

Sartour, xriiL 439. 

But it muat be read, aa in MS., auerig, 

ANERY, a term occurring in a rhyme of chil- 
dren, used for deciding the right of beginning 
a game. Loth. 

if Nafy, twMary, tickary, aeYen, 
Aliby, crackiby, tan or eleven ; 




TwMdluB, twodlum, tfrenty-one. 

maebm, Mag. Aag, 1821, p. 86L 

Tint. r{fe ngnifiM nil«b order, aeries. Amerp may 
be q. tm^r^ one or first in order ; twa^rjie, eeoond in 
Older. TwleMmmtA,'S.iwaedddum,indwAoMytittihuM, 

Akk8| adv. Once. Y. Anis, Ants. 


Ahe8 SBRAin>. Entirely on purpose, with a 
lole design in regard to the object mentioned; 
as to' ga4j to eamef to tend ones errand, a 
yeiy common phraseology, S. ; and equiva- 
lent to the obsolete expression, far the nanys 
or nonce. 


"'My vnole ICr. Andro^ Ac. end I keiring that Mr. 
Qooige Bnehenen wee week, end hii hiatorie under the 
nraae, peet ower to Edinr. ojuief carend to visit him 
and tie the wnrk." J. MelviUe'e Dieiy, Life of Mel- 

Ptehe^ originally en A. -8. phrase, anet aerend, lite- 
raDy, uuvs, ra soh nuntii, of one messsffe ; €Mes being 
theganitiTe of an^ nnns, alao solos. V. End's ibeand. 

ANETH^pr^p. Beneath, S. 

As he came down by Merriemsa, 

And in by the benty line. 
Hmts hss M ssnisd a deer lying, 

Ammik a buan of llnj^f. 

MuutnUif Border, L 77. . 

Than lat ahe down aneth a birken shade, 
Tliat spraad aboon her, and hang o'er her head : 
Cowthy and wann, and gowany the green. 
Had it, butead of night, the day time been. 

AMf's /Tetenorv, p. 92, 

A.-S. MoMon, SiL-O. ned^ laL nedon, Belg. nc- 
iloi, id. The tenninatioii on properly denotea mo- 
tion from a place ; Ihre^ vo. An, p. 87. 

ANEUCH, adv. Enough, S. 

Qohat eir acho thocht, acho wist it war in Tane. 

Bot tbai wari^ atmick, 

Ihmbar, MaiUand PoemSf p. 80. 

It apj^eara that the aynon. term 0. E. waa anciently 
proo. with a gnttural aound. 

Whan thai had so robbed, that tham thoubt tiMwA, 
Thai went ageyn to achip, k aaile vp drooh. 

JL Brunme, p. SO. 

TUa also appears firomA.-S.0«fi^,iKtioA, satis. Mr. 
Tooke TiewB tne A.-S. adr. as the part. pa. {Oenoged), 
of A.-8. Cftnoffan, mnltipUcare. Divers. Port p. 472, 
478. Faring it ia more natural to derive it from 
Moea-O. jdfioA» mnlti, many. 

Anew, plur. of Aneuch, e. Enow. 

On kneia he Cracht, lelle In^iamen ho elew. 
Till hym thar aoeht may fecntara than anew, 

ITaMaot, L 824, Ma V. Enbuce. 

ANEW, Aktau, adv. and prep. Below, be- 
neath, Aberd. From A.-S. on and neoA^ as 
E. aufojf from on^oaeg. Y. Aketh. 

ANEWIS, ».pl 

A chapeDet with mony freach antwit 
Sche had upon hir heae, and with this hong 
A mantill on hir achnldiiea large and Inng. 

Kutg^t Quiur, V. 9. 

Mr. Tytler renders this ''boddins flowera.'* Bnt I 
have met with no cognate term; unleaa it be a metaph. 
vso' of IV. anneau, a ring ; a . a chaplet oompoeea of 
▼arioas rings of flowers in full blossom. 

To ANOEB, V. n. To become angry, S. 

ibora mnger at a plea. 
An' just ss wnd ss wnd can be. 
How eaay can tlie bariay-brae, 

Oement the qoairaL Sums, iii. 116w 

To Angler, v. a. To vex, to grieve; although 
not impMng the idea of heat of temper or 
wrath, S. 


'The Lord keep ts from angering hia spirit ; if thou 
er him he will anfler thee. — ^Therefore anger not the 
spfrit of Jesns." Unlock on 1 Thes. p. 805. 

"I forffive yon, Norman, and wiU soon be out of the 
way, no lonser to aiif^ yon with the sight of me.'* 
limits and Sisdows, p. 84. 

IsL ongT'-a, dolors affioere. V. ANom. Thus the 
Scottish language aeema to retain the original aenac. 
AyoKRsuM, oc^'. Provoking, vezatioua, S. 

ANOELL HEDE, «. The hooked or barbed 
head of an arrow, 

A bow be heir waa bvs and weyll beaeyn, 
And arrooaa ala, bath lang and scharpe with all, 
No man waa thar that Wallace bow mycht dralL 
Ryeht atark he waa, and into aouir gor, 
Banldly [hel achott amaiur thai men of war. 
Ane nngm kedt to the hnlcia ha drew. 
And at a achoyt tlie fbnuast aone ha slen. 

WaUmce, iv. 564. 1C& 

A.-S., Dan., and Germ, angel^ a hook, an angle ; 
Tent, anghd, Belg. angd, as denoting a sting, seems 
to be merely the same word, uaed in a different and 
perhaps mora orimnal sense ; as, angel der bgen, the 
sting of bees. iGlian mentions 'Teut. anghel-en, as an 
old word signihring to sting. Hence the E. term to 
ofiple^ to fish. Wachter denves our theme from ank-tn 
to fix, whence oalKr, an anchor. 

IsL avnguUf hamns, uncus ; O. Ahdr. p. 20. 

ANOIR, e. Griefy vexation. 

Thara-wyth thai tyl tlie Kyng ar gana. 
And in-to enrapeny wyth thame Eum tane 
The IVanUa men m thara helpy^, 
And knelyd all foora be-for the Kyng, 
And tald, qwhat ese of pea mycht rys. 
And how that angrpe mony wya 
In-til all tyme mycht rya of wera. 

Wyniawn, iz. 9. 104. 

ICr. Kacpherson derives thia from Gr. «f>i(K. Thia, 
indeed, ia mentioned by Suidas and Phavorinus, as 
aicnifying grief. But it ia more immediately allied to 
laL angr, dolor, moeror, G. Andr. Su.-G. and lal. 
angrot dolore afiBcerob to vex ; which Hire deducee from 
8u.-G. aang<t, fMnemere, arctare. Moea-G. angvu^ 
Alem. engi. Germ, and Belg. eng, aa well aa C.-B. jj:^;, 
all correapond to Lat. ang^ntiu*^ and convey the idea 
of etraitneaa and difficulty. To theae may be added 
Gr. «/x«f. V. Ihra^ v. Aanga, 

ANOLE-BERRY, $. A fleshy excrescence, 
resembling a veiy large hautboj strawberry, 
often found growing on the feet of sheep, 
cattle, &C., S. 

ANOUS-BORE, e. Y. Auwis-Bore. 

" Ane grene buiat paintit on the lid, quhairin ia ae- 
vin angus dagie of aindrie sortis ; twa twme buistia 
out-witii the aame," &c. Inventoriea, A. 1578, p. 210. 

Aa the articlee here mentioned are moaUy tova, 
dagie may denote what are now in Edinburgh called 
die*, i. e. toys. V. Du. As to the meaning of the 



▲ HK 

«o^iQiiMd with tldia X can form no retsooabto 

To ANHERD, Akerd, Amnebe, Enhebde» 
v. «• To conaenty to adhere. 

^— - Ib Aigyto WW a Batowb 
Thai liad a grat affectjoim 
Tb tkta Stwait the yhyiur Robeid ; 

And all kyi wfl WW tu enhenU 

Tb tha Seottia mtBiiyiparty. 

Vfyiilow% ▼ill. ». 164. 

Than WMfdU to ow BobOl tp boU, qalitB h jm nedto, 
TbalfcroBiiit King» in fur, 
Witk all thttr stTMg powair, 
And BMsy wight warTtr 
Worthy in w«dia. \ 

vMPaw 0110 OmL il oL 

J i iJU wl lianilo Ilk n^aa licht tkuorablx, 
And hald joor ptoa bvt oatbir noyia or cry. 

JVBO MMMfifil. and aaif coinfiBt thantoi 

'* 8cho gat finalia ana aaBtenoa agHiia King Danad 
Id tmntrt to hir aa hia lawchfnl lady and wyffe." 
Btlland. Cnm. B. xr. o. 16. 

Una kaa bean traced to O.Fr. akerd-re id. Bat 
wilfaoat tlia inMrtion of a letter, it may be viewed aa 
dhriirady fay a lUght tnuispoaition, from A.-S. ankraedt 
— rawf, ooiiatan% conoooi nnanimii ; which aeema to 
bo oompoaed of on, one^ and roeii, cooniel, q. of one 
■dad. At can acaroely be imnginrd that Sa.-0. €»- 
kamU^ obatinaoy, €nhaerdi§f obatinate. are allied ; aa 
being ioKmed fim Aoerd^ dnnu. 

ANHERDANDEy Anhebden, «. A re- 
tatneTi an adherent. 

-***Tliat Jamea of Lawthiew aone and appeiande 
air to Aloxf . of Lawthrew of that ilk aalbe harmlees ft 
leatideH of tiiaime^ thair fireindia, partij and ankers 
damdUf and aU that thai may lett, in lua peiaonia and 
godia Dot aa law Will after the forme of the act of Pkr« 
Banoit.'' Act. Andit. A. 1478^ p. 71. 

••That Jbhna M'OiUe aaU be harmelea of the eaid 
WiOiBDio and hia emherdetu hot aa Uw wilL" Act. 
Dom. GoBO. A. 1480^ p. M. 

ANn>9/>r6f. Agreed. Y. Ane, v. 

ANIE, «. A little one, Kinross. ; a diminntiye 
finuki S. afi«y one ; if not immediately from 
Av-S. Qimg nllns, qnisqoam. 

ANIEST, adv. or prep. On this side of, 
Ayra. Y. Adist. 

ANTNG, 9. Agreement, concord. 

Antloehvf kyog 


rifmitwm, !▼. la Tit 

ANIMOSiriE. 8. Firmness of mind. 

••Thair touea, beeydia St. Johnatoon, ar TnwaUit, 
which ia to be aaefyred to thair anhnosUie and hardi- 
nam, Ibdng aU their encconria and help in the valiencie 
of their bodiea.** Pitecottie's Ccon. Introd. xxiv. 

?^. OfiMRMiltf, "firmnewe, coumge, mettell, boldnesse, 
riiolAtioBt hardineeee^** Cotgr.; L. B. amimatU-iu, 
animi propoattom; animi vehementia; Da 

Wyth the Romanii made a»J(JV- 



••— Vtiuda Lmidi^ Boich, Anting, aamyn,** Ac. 
Aeti Ja. VL 1612» p. 481. V. Boicu. 

ANIS, Aktb, Ainb, adv. 1. Once. 

And thocht he nakit wu and vode of gere, 
Ka woond nor wappin mycht hym ohm affeieu 

Dong. Vtrga, 887» SOl 

•' Yee bane fai Jvde 8, that faith ia oina giaen to the 
lainti : aim giaen : that ia, conatantly giaen, neaer to 
bee changed, nor Ttteriye tane fra thame.'* Braoe*e 
Seim. on the Sacr. 1590. Gblgn. T. 4, a. 

Mr. KacpherMm eayi, but withoat the least reaeon, 
that thia ia a " contr. of one 9jfi»" It ia merely the 
genitiTO of on one, A.-S. oaei^ aleo rendered temd; 
q. actio onioa temporia, Pron. aa ataee, or yiaoe, S. 
ecNse, 8.*B. 

Aktb aleo ocean aa the gen. of Ascv. 

Bers yoor myndie eqaalCi •• al «mf». 
Am conunoon fkeyndu to the lialiani*. 

Dang, Virfpl, 467. 15. 
i.e. aaall oftme. 

It ie alao commonly need aa a j§;en. in the aenae of, 
belonsing to one ; ant* hand, one? hand, S. 

"lie got yeaiiy payment of aboat 600 merka for 
teaching an anpiofitable leaaon when he pleased, iMta 
in the week or anu in the month, aa he liked beat.'* 
Spalding'a Troab. i. 190. 

Thoreaby mentiona tanee, once, aa an E. provincial 
term ; Bay'a Lett. p. 326. 

2. I have met with one instance of the nse of 
this word in a sense that cannot easily be 

"^jiei^ Loid, mak an end of truble ; Lord, I co- 
mend my apreit, aaall and bodie, and all into thy ban- 

fiuinatyne'a Trana. p. 425. 

^ I aee nothing exactly anaiu^aa in the Tarioaa senaea 

gaTon of S. Once. It would aeem to convey the idea of 

the fatare Tiewed indefinitdy ; q. at aome tuie or other. 

ANIS, Annis, 9. pi. Asses. 

So mony oiiw and mnlia 

Within thla land was nsTir bard nor sene. 

JkuMMtfyiM Foemi, p. 4SL 

The word, howeyer, ia here need metaph. aa in moat 
other langoagea. It alao occara in the literal aenae. 

The main f^oentia the oanii^ 
And hir awin Kyad aboris. 

aeaU, GftnM. SL P.Wl 147. 

8a.-0. afna, Id. enM^ IV. osm. Or. er-or, Lat. cmia- 
iM, id. 

ANKEBLT, adv. UnwilUngly, Selkirks. 

Teat. eR^^Aer, exaction from engk-em^ angoatare, ooarc- 

ANEER-SAIDELL, Hakkbbsaidle, 9. A 
hermit, an anchorite. 

Throw power I chaige th4 of the paip, 
TI10W neyther flima, gowl, glowma oor galp, 
lyka anher-sauUil, lyke ansell sip, 
like owla nor aliische elfe. 

FkOotua, at 124. Pink. S, F, JUpr. Ui. 46. 

ye hermiii and MankentntUi*, 
That takis yoor peiuuica at vour tables, 
And sitis noct meit rsstoratiTs,-- 
The blest abane we sail beseik 
* You to dslyrir oat of your DOT. 

Dunbar, Ckron. & P, L 286. 

Thia aeema to be merely a corrupt aae of A.-S. 
anetT'SeUe, which properly aignifiea an anchorite'a 
cell or aeat, a hermitage ; Somn. Qerm. einsklter de- 
notea a hermit, from sia alone, and wiler, a aettler ; 
qoi aedem aaam in aolitadine fixit, Wachter. Not 
only doee A..S. aneer aignify a hermit, and O. R. anhr, 
(Chaucer, Bom. Boee^ 6348), but Alem. einckoraner. 

▲ HK 

[49] AVV 

d & amkif, OofB. odbsr, and Ir. amgkairt ; all fimn 
I«ft» attaehirtia, Or. «»«x<'Ff*^i C>w omix^^^*'* to 

In thk MDM McArtf it iited by Palagr. *'It k a 
kaida relyoyoii to be an anehre^ for they be shytte up 
withininkUea, and can go no farther." F. 400^ b. fite 
Mnden it by IV. anere. 

Sdth ia axorka. term. **AiangseiUe ia a long wain- 
■ool bench to ait on." Oar. DUL "A bench like a 
aettee. North." Qroee. It reeembles the <f«if of the 
Noorth of 8. Groee afterward* describee the Lang* 
9adU or eeftfp, aa bein^ '*a lon^ fonn, with a back and 

; nanally placed in the chimney-corner of a fann« 

." Thiade 

leacription ia nearly the aame with that 
giren of oar niatic aettee. V. Dbis. 

ANEERSTOCE; «• a lai^ loaf, of a long 
form. The name is extended to a wheaten 
loafi bat properly belongs to one made of 
lya, GL It has been suDposed to be so called, 
q. ^ an anchorite*s stock, or supply for some 
length of tune;** or, more probably, ^ from 
some fancied resemblance to the stock of an 
.anchor.'' GLSibb. 

ANLAS, •• ^A kind of knife or dacffer 
nsnally worn at the girdle;'' Tyrwhitt. 
This is the pro])er sense of the word, and 
that in which it is used by Chaucer. 

At wtem thtf waa ha lord and lira. 
Fol often time he wag knight of the ahire. 
An €mtAte$, and a glpciera all of ailk, 
Heag at hiiginiel, wnite aa monra milk. 

Bnt wo find it elaewhere naed in a different aenae. 

Hia hone in fjme aandel waa trapped to the hale. 

An^ In hia cheveroa Mfome, 

atoda aa an unioome, 

Ala aharp aa a thome-, 

A« QminM of ataltL 

mt Oamem and Sir OoL fL A. 
Hera the tatm aignifiea a dagger or aharp uHke fixed 
in the iorapari of the defenaire armour of a horae'a 
head. Bullet rendera it petU eouieau^ deriving it from 
am dbninntiTeL and Aim. lae, taequein, to atrike. Thia 
woid ia found in Franc, aneiaz, analeztj adlnmbare, 
Tal adlatermle telnm; which haa been derived from tez, 
latoa, ad latua, juxta. C. B. anqUu aignifiea a dagger. 
Ameiaeet aocordmg to Watta, ia the aame weapon which 
Ir. ia oaUed $knm. The word ia frequently uaed by 
Ifott. Faria; He deflnea it; Genua cultelli, quod 
▼nlgariter AnelaeivM dicitur; p. 274. Lorica erat 
indntua, geetana ^nejiaciam ad lumbare ; p. 277. 

ANMAILLE, 8. Enamel. Y. Amaille. 

ANN, 9. A half-year^s salary le^Iy due to 
^* heirs of a minister, in addition to what 
due expressly according to the period of 
incumbency, S. 

*'If the incumbent aunrive Whitaunday, then ahall 
belong to them for their incumbency, the half of that 
year'a atipend or benefice, and for the Anm the other 
half." Acta Cha. H. 1072, c. 13. 

?^. anmaie, id. L. B. atuuUa denoted the aalary of a 
yeari or half-^rear, after the death of the incumbent, 
appropriated m aome churchea, for neoeeaary repaira^ 
in others for other puipoaea. V. Du Cange. 

It ia p"g"l*> that Anna or anno ahould occur in 
lIoea-0. for atiprad. "Be content with your wagea,** 
LdM ill. 14. Juniua aaye that the term ia evidently de- 

rived from Lat. onnoiia. But he haa not adverted to 
the form, annoM, which ia in the dative or ablative 

IbL aniMi aignifiea, metera, opua ruationm faoera ; 
amm^ oura ruatica, arationea, aatifloeai fcanicaeaao^ mea- 
aia ; VereL Ind. 

Amvet, «• The same with Ann. 

** And the proffittia of thair benefioea, with the fructea 
apeoialie on the grund, with the annet thareftir to per- 
tene to thame, and thair ezecutouria, alaweill abbottia, 
prioria, aa aU vther kirkmen." Aota Ja. VL 1571, 
Ed. 1814, p. 63. 

To ANNECT, v. a. To annex ; part. pa. 
annextf Lat. anneet^. 

"Our aaid aouerane lord — hea vneit, annext, ereat, 
and incorporate, & be thir preaentia creatia, vneittia, 
iMNedftf & inoorporatia all and aindrie the foinaidia 
eriedome,'* Ac. Acta Ja. VI. 1581, Ed. 1814, p. 258. 

ANNEILL, «• Most probably the old name 
for indigo. 

**AnneiU of Barbaric for litotera, the pound weight 
thereof— zviii e." Ratea, A. 1811, p. 1. Called eno- 
neooaly anceU, Ratea, A. 1870. 

Indigofera Anilin one of the planta cultivated ; AnU 
being the apecific^ or rather tne trivial, name of the 

ANNEBDAILL, s. The district now de- 
nominated Annandale. 

waa manie complaintea maid of him to the 
govemour and mamatratea, and in apeciall vpoun the 
men of AnnerdaiU?* Pitacottie'e Cron. p. 2. 

The name waa etiU more anciently caUed AmaatUr- 
dale, V. Blacpheraon'a Geog. Illuatr. 

ANNEXIS AND CONNEXIS. a le^ phrase, 
occurring in old deeds, as denotmg every 
thing in any way connected with possession 
of the right or property referred to. 

'* The landia, lordachxp^ and baronie of Annendale, 
with the toure and f ortalicee tharof , aduocationia and 
donationia of kirkia, there annexia and eonuexis, and 
aU there pertinentia," Ac. Acta Ja. V. 1540^ Ed. 1814, 
p. 381. 

The phraee, in the Lat. of the law, aeema to have 
been, annexU et coanezif . 

ANNEXUM, 8. An appendage ; synon. with 
S. Pendicle. 

"—He damia the eamyn [landia] to pertone to him 
be the forfanltour of Jolme Kamaay, aa a pendicle and 
ajmemm of the lordachip of Bothuile.*' Act. Dom. 
Cone. A. 1402; p. 271. 

Lat. annex-us, appended, conjoined ; Fr. annexe, an 
annexation, or thing annexed. 

ANNIVERSARY, s. A distribution an- 
noally made to the clergy of any religious 
foundation, in times of Popery. 

**We have ffiven~aU annirermtye and daiU-eilver 
whataoever, which formerly pertained to any chap* 
lainriea, prebendariea,*' kc. Chart. Aberd. V. Daill- 


L. B. anntverearimn, diatribntio ex anniveraarii fan- 
datione clericia facienda ; Du Cange. 

ANNUALL, Annueli^ e. The quit-rent or 
feuHiuttf that is payable to a superior every 

. G 



▲ KT 

TMT. for poiMsaon or for the privilesB of 
MQdiiig oa a certain piece of grouna; a 
fonosic temis S* 

'^'^Hm dmplainn, fto. will oontribato uid pav the 
part of Hbm «p<nw» for the nit of thair anmuUli and 


Havatta onjiiMilf ia endentiy different from **the 
wmitt of tlia Imnu.** i.«. the rent paid for poaseesion of 
the booae itMlf^ aa diatin^piiahM from that dae for 
the mnand oa fHiieh it ataiida. Thia ia alao denomi- 
■atodtta . | 

Obound Ahnuall. \ 

**ItHii, tta ground annuaU appeiria ay to he payit, 
faha area big the groun^" Ibid. p. 490. 

ABirtTELLAB, «• The superior who recmves 
the a tm uaU or duty for ground let out for 

^'Hm grooiid annnall i^»peiria ay to pay, kc,, and 
lulyaiiig thairof that the amnuellar may recoffnoace 
' tha gnmnd." Ibid. 

IsL ammoHa, Ft. oaimd^ y^rly* ^* Top Aitkusll. 

ANONDER, Akoneb, prq>. Under, S. B., 
Ftfe. AmmdiTt 8. A. 

Anid deeket Lawrle fetcht a wyUia round. 
And duBffiA a lamb ammer Navy's care. 

Jtoa^s HeUnon, p. 14 

He prnad aa* he read, an' ha flat tb«m to bed ; 
Ibea the bible anwuier hit ann took he ; 
Aa' voaad aa* roand the miU-honae he gaed, 
Ta try if this teixible tight he oould see. 

JTc^s MomUain Bard, p. 19. 

Ttot. cmdft id. Thia term, however, aeema retained 
CroaiA.-& ft n ai< | pi% intra. fm-'Undor edoma; Intra 
toeta; Cwidin m. tfo* It aeema literally to aignify 

To ANORNE,' v. a. To adorn. 

Wythia this place, in al plesoor and thryft 
Are hale the pissanos qahUUs in inst battel! 
aiane in dsfenco of there kynd contri fel ; 
— And ttay qnhilk by there craftia or science fyne, 
9aad by tnaie snbtei knawlege and ingyne, 
Than Im IDamyayt and anamU clere. 

Doug, VtrgO, 188, Si. 

Fviiapaoofr. froaa L. B. inom^re, omare ; need by 
0. B. id. *'I dJieame, I beantyae or make more 
to the mre. — ^When a woman ia anoumed 

with lydie appnrayie, it setteth oat her beanty double 
aa Bodie aa It ia." Pdagr. B. iu. 1 149, b. Heren- 
d«a it by Rr. /e aome, 


**'Dtmd Deana believed thia, and many such ghoatly 
eaeoontiari and vietoriea, on the faith of the Anoar$, or 
awdliaiiea of the banished propheta.** Heart MidL 

Ol Ft. fl w e e sr, Jvge, aibitra ; Roquefort. 

ANSE, Anze, ENSEy amj. Eke, otherwise. 

It can aoaictjy be auppoaed that this ia a corr. of 
B. ilie. Z reoolieet no inatanoe of I heme chansed, in 
CQBBBODi nee^ into a. It ia itaore probably alued to 
8«.-0. aimorsi, id. As E. e(fe, A.-S. eilis, Su.4}. 
mofet^ Dan. eBa% are all from the old Goth, e/^ other ; 
8a.<0. ammaro, Genn. and Belg. amUro, else, are de- 

rived fimn Sa.-0. cuifiaii, oailrv, Moea-O. oalAar, 
Alem. iMcier, laL lumar, alao aignif ying alins, other. 

ANSENYE, «• A sign ; also^ a company of 
soldiers. Y. Enseintie. 


— **Foir Copland, settertoun, anslereorp.** AotaJa. 
VL A. 1612. V. BoiCB. 

To ANSWIR (Ansur) of, v. n. To pay, 
on a claim being made, or in correspondence 
. with one's demands. 

*'Lettrea were direct to answir the new bischope of 
St. Androia— o/all the fructeaof the aaid bischopnck." 
Bannat^'s Trans, p. 304. 

"Thai oidane him to be anawrii of his penaionn." 
Aberd. Reg. 

•< To be payit k muurU thairfor yeirUe,'* Ac. Ibid. 
A. 1541. 

Bonowed from the use of L. R rtapondera, pnea- 
tare^ aolvere. 

ANTEPEND, Antipend, «• A veil or screen 
for covering the front of an altar in somt* 
Popudi churches, which is hung up oa festi- 
val days. 

"Urn, ana atdepead of blak velvot, broderrit with 
aae ixomfga of our Lady ^iotie npoun the samyue. 
Item, ane frontall of the samyn wark. Item, ane bak 
of ane altar of the samyne with the cmcyfix broderrit 
thaunpoun.** CoU. Inventoriea, A. 1542, p. 58. 

"Item, the vaiU with the towea, a vaiU for the 
round loft, and for our Lady. Item, oourtaina 2 red 
and green, for the high altare. Item, the covering of 
the aacrament house with ane antipmd for the Lady's 
altar, of blew and yellow broig satm. Item, ane anii- 
pend for the sacrament house, with a domick towle to 
the aame." Inventory of Veatmenta, A. 1559. Hay's 
Sootia Sacra, p. 1S9. 

L. B. oal^pcNif-lMm, id. V. Pnni. 

To ANTEB, V. n. 1. To adventure, S. B. 

But then 

How muiar'd ye a fleldwsid sae your lane f 

Jtoa^a Hdmore, p. 81. 

2. To chance. 

But tho' it skonld anUr the weather to bide, 
With beetles we're set to the drubbing o't 
And then fhte our fingers to gnidge an the hide. 
With the wearisome wsrk of the rubbing o't 

Song, Roa^a Hden/ore, p. 135. 

"We cou'd na set a chiel to ahaw ua the sate al- 
poiat we had kreish'd his lief wi' a shillin ; bat ov ffuid 
luck we anUr*d browlies upo' the rod.'* Journal m>ni 
London, p. 6. 

3. It occurs in the form of a part., as signify- 
ing occasional, single, rare. Ane anirin ane^ 
one of a kind met with singly and occasion- 
ally, or seldom, S. 

Gou'd feckless creature, Man, be wise, 
The summer o' his life to prize. 
In winter he might fend fu* banld. 
His eild unkend to nippin cauld. 
Tet thi^ alas I are anirin folk, 
That lade their scape wi' winter stock. 

Ferguaaon^a Poema, iL 81. 

It ia certainly the same with Ausitbb, q.v. 

It aeema to admit of doubt, whether this term, as 
need by the vulgar, be not rather allied to Isl. Su.-G. 
andra, vagari, whenoe Dan. vandrt, Ital. aiwlare, id. 





Antkbo^T| «. A misfortune, a mischance, 
S* B. TtchMy from anter^ aunterf adven- 
toie^ and eot^ a throw ; q. a throw at ran- 

Up In Wr Ibot lookf the raid kaff forfaini, 
Aiid aaji, Te will kud-foitmi'd m, my bdni ; 
Wn» fous a SeUwud, dm frta ftmk at hanM, 
Will eon* the mlirvail ysll hae to blame. 

iloM't JMenofV^ p. SL 

ANTETEWME, « ^^Antetime, antiphone, 
response;** LordHailes. 

PkolestaBdla taUs the freiiii aald anteiewme, 
Beddie naaaTaiii, hot to reader aocht ; 

80 lairdie apliftia meania lelflng ouir thr rewme. 
And tat fjcht crabit anhen thay craYe tuame ocht 

AuuuU^itt Poem§, IM. at p. Vk 

ANTICAILs 9. An antique^ anything that 
is a remainder of antiqui^* 

**TlMy do find aonietimes leverall precioiia atonea, 
MaM-oatt^ aooM vncatt ; and if you be cnrioua to en- 
qnira^ 70a will find people that make a trade to aell 
ouch thingi amongrt other oMUeaUK** Sir A. Balfour's 

Lettenb P* 179* 

"^Wben ibttj are digging into old rains, lor atUi" 

. caiU, (as thsty are oontiniiaUy doing in severall places), 

ttay leave off when they come to the Terra Ftryiiae." 

Ibid.> 128. 

ItaL onHeMfUa^ *'all manner of antiquitiea, or old 

monnments ; AltierL 

ANTYCESSOB, Antecessowr» Ante- 
CESTBEy «• Ancestor, predecessor. 

Cor An te ee m owrU, that we sold of reide, 
And hall in mynde thar nobtUe worthi deld. 
We lat ouslide, throw weiray sleathfalnes, 
And caatla ws euir till nthir besynea. 

Wallaee, L L 1C& 

*'Biierie man is oblist to deffend the gudis, here- 
tagia and poeseesions that his anteeestres and forbearis 
hea left to them ; for as Tacidides hes said in his sycond 
beak, qnod he^ it is mair dishonour til ane penon to 
^yne the ^yn|[ that his anUeuires and forbearis hea 
oonquflist be gnte lanboua, nor it is dishonour quhen he 
failyea in the conqnessinjg of ane thing that he mtendit 
tyl lUMie conqoeait fra his mortal enemy e." CompL S. 
p. 291. 

Lat. onfMesiory one that goes before ; formed as pre- 
dbeeaaor, and oomaponding in signification. Hence E. 
oaeetfor, thnm|^ the medium ofFr. ancedre. 

ANnCK, s. A foolish, ridiculous fn>IiC| S. 
In E. it denotes the person who acts as a 

ANUNDEB, prq). Under. V. Akokder. 

APATN| pari, peu Provided, furnished. 

Fbr thi, UU that tbair capitane 

War eoweryt off his mekiU ill. 

Thai thoacnt to wend anm streDthls till 

For folk for owtyn capitane, 

Bot thai the bettir be apavn, 

8aU aocht be aU sa gudin deid, 

As thai a Locd had thaim to leid. 

Barbour, iz. 64. Ma 
This word is left by Mr. Pinkerton as not under- 
•tood. But the sense given above agrees very well 
with the oonnexion, aiM the word ma^ have been 
fbnned from F^. aopan-^, id., which primarily signi- 
fies, having received a portion or child's iMurt ; appan- 
tr^ to give a yonnger son his portion ; L. B. apan-are. 

Henoo ^^amaahtm^ appanage, the portion given to a 
ytmnger ehilcL IV. paia or Lat. pcm-U is evidently 
the original word. For, as Du Cange justly observes, 
apoMore is merely to make such provision for the Junior 
menben of a family, that they may have the means of 
proeoring bi«ad. 

In Edi\ 1020, it is inpotii^. But this, as itoppoaes 
the MS., is at war with common sense. 

APATN, adv. 1. Beluctantlj, unwillingly : 
aometinies dbtinctly, apayn. 

And thoueht sum be off sic bounttf, 
Qohen thsi the lord and bis menye 

Seya fley, yeit aall thai Sey aiKiyit , 
For all men fleis the deid QT^htfiiyne, 

Bttrbourf iz. 89. MA, 

te. **They wiU fly, however reluctantly, because att 
- men eageriy desire life." The play upon the verb/qf 
gives an obscurity to the passage. 

2. Hardly, scarcely. 

The haill oooaaill thus demyt thaim amang ; 
The tonn to aege thaim thocht it was to lang. 
And ttocht apavn to wyn it be no slycht. 

iralloM, riiL Ma Ma 

Although the language is warped, it moet probably 
signifies, "that Uiey could hardljf win it by any 

Fr. a peine, "scarcely, hardly, not without much 
ado;** Ootgr. 

3. It seems improperly used for in ease. 

To gyff battaill the loidis couth nocht oonaent. 
Leas Wallace war off Scotland crownyt King. 
Thar coaaaill land it war a peraloua thing : 
For thocht thai wan, thai wan bot as thai war ; 
And gyff thai tynt, thai loasyt lofland for euinuar, 
A pawn war put in to the Soottii nand. 

WaUaee, viiL e». Ha 

In tout \i wert put, Ac, in eome copies. A papn, how- 
ever, may signify as toon as. This is another sense of 
Fr. apeiae; Praiq*. aussi tot, ulfi, statbn a!que. Diet. 

4. Under pain, at the risk of. 

With a bsnld apreit gud Wallace blent about, 
A preyst he askvt, for God that deit on tr& 
King Eduaard thui commandvt hit clerg^. 
And said, I cham, apa^ off loss of lywe. 
Nana be aa baula von tyrand for to achrywe : 
He haa roag lang in oontrar my hienaoe. 

WaUaee, zL 1S13. M&L 

In editions, it is on payn, Fr. a peine is also used 
in this sense. V. also Watt. vi. 658, and viu. 1261. 

APARASTEVR, adj. Applicable, congruous 

** I will nevir foraett the sude mrte that Mr. A. 
your Iordschip*s brotner taulclme of ane nobill man of 
Padoa, it cnmmis sa oft to my memorie : and indeid 
it is aparaeievr to this purpose we have in hand." 
Lett. Logan of Bestahriff, Acts Ja. VL 1609, p. 421. 
Aparaaimr, Cromarty's Ace*, p. 103. 

Allied perhapa to O. Fr. apparoidre, to appear; 
oparciasaiil, apparent. 

APARTE, 9. One part. 

— '* That the said convent of Culross wee oompellit 
ft ooakkit to mak the said aasedatione — be force k 
dfed, ft tiiat aparte of the said convent wee takin ft 
preeonit, quhill thai grantit to the aaid asaedatione.** 
Act. Audit. A. UM, p. 202. 

Often written as one word, like twaparie, two thirds. 

To APEN, V. a. To oi)en, S. 





To APERDONEy v. a. To pardon. Y. 

A FEB SEy ^ an eztraordinaiy or incompar- 
able person; like the letter A hy ilt»tlf^ 
which has the first place in the alp£abet of 
almost all languages.; Rudd. 

M^M NMrnd YireO, o^ UtfaM po«tb prince, 
QaoC iBcyiM, aadfliidabfeloqiwiioe ; — 
LmlHiM, udD lUnM, mymnir and A per m, 
Ifaistar M nalsterii, tWu loan and tprinsiaid well, 
wide qoliare oner ell ringie thyne heomly oell. 

Any. FwyO, ^ IL 

'BmuyaoDm nees Hm mna mode of expreeeion. 

Olbir CVeeeide, the floor end A per m 
Of TMo 1^ Orooe, how weie thoo fortanetei 
VoeheoHe in fllth el thy feminity 
And be wtth fleshly Init eo toecuUtof 

ttttamaU f^ Crtmdt^ ▼. 78. 

lanins has oheerrod that thie metaphor nearly i^i- 
Ptoaohea to that need bj the Divine Bein^ to expreae 
■ii afaaolnio perfeotioii, when he aa^ ** i am Alphn 
and Omm," tter. i. S. Bat there la no propriety in 
tha reman. For the lofoe of the one metaphor lice in 
tha vaa of A By fta^/ of the other, in ita oeing oon* 
ne ol a d with (hmngeL^ aa denoting Him, who ia not only 
tha FEiat^ bat tha Laat. He ooaervee, with more jns- 
tioa^ tliftt thie mode of ezpreeaion waa not onasaal 
among tha Romana. For Martial calla Codma, Alpha 
jwrnfif e mm , ia. thaprinoeof paupera ; lib. ii. ep. 57. 

APERS&LAIL Apibsmabt, adj. Crabbed, 
iD-hnmonrea ; 9nelli calsehte, S. sjmon. 

Get ffL (echo said) for achame be na oowart ; 
Xy bald in wed thow bes ane wjifes hart, 
Init for a plesand aicbt was sa mhmaid I 
Than all in anger Tpon my fait I start 
■ And for Mr wwdis war sa a p ir t wtari. 
Uato the nimpbe I maid a bnstaoQfl braid. 

FtaUmqfHomimr, iiL 71. p^ 63. edit. U79. 

Apmwmar Jono, that with net Ynreet 
nhm eommeris enL are, and ae, quod he, 
Ban tome Ur mind bettir wise, and with me 
Ibatsr the Bomanis lordes of all ardlye gere. 

Ihmg, Vir^ 81, 8S. 

Bndd. eoi^iootarea that it may be from Lat. asper ; 
aaoChem from Yt. €upre. Bat it aeema rather from 
* A«8. qfoTg qfre, rendered both by Somner and Lye, 
bitter, ahacp ; or rather laL apmr, id. (aaper, acria, aa 
apmrll^flde^ acre frigoa, O. Andr.) and A.-S. muarte, 
90.-0. smiofta, Dan. mid Belg. tmerte^ pain, metaph. 
applied to the mind. Apenmari aeema to be tha pre- 
fonbU orthography. 

APEBT, adj. 

9 bold, free. 

And with thair soeidis, at the last. 
Thai raachyt amang tbaim hardely. 
For thai off Lone, ftill manlely, 
Gret and apeii deiena gaa ma. 

Bofbtmr, x. 7S, MS. 

II ooeon in R. Bnmne^ p. 74. 

mniam allei^pnt hia ost redy he dyght 

F^. ^Pj^ expert, ready, prompt, active^ nimble, 
OoCgr. The origin of thia word, I aaapect, ia Lat. 
appomi-^ pnpmndt appar-o, 

APERT. In opeii^ adv. Eyidentl/y openljr. 

And mony a kayoht, and mony a lady, 
yUk, u» mri lyoht ewill eher. 

Barhowr, xiz. S17, 1I& 

IV. apai^ app^ OfMBf oridenti in which aenae 
Ghanoar oaea the term ; il aper% it is evident ; aperte, 
openly. Appar^r^ to appear, ia avidently the inrnie- 
diata origin of the adj., from Lat aj»par-eo. 

Apbbtlt» adv. Brisklji readilj. 

Bot this gade Erie, noeht forthi, 
Tha sage tuk foil apertljf : 
And pressyt the folk that thar in waa 
Swa, that nocht ane the yet durst pass. 

AMnhwr, X. ai5, MSL V. Afbbt, «(/. 

APEBTy Appebt» adj. Open, avowed, mani- 

— *'Li mare eqtperi takin of traiate and hartlineea in 
time oommyng, echo haa, be the avyae of the aaida 
thre eatatee, oommittit to the aaid Sir Alexander'a 
hoping oar aaid aoveryna Lord the King, hxr derraat 
aoo, anto the time of hia a^." Agreement between 
the Q. Dowager and the liTugstona, A. 1438. Pinlcer- 
ton'e Hiat. Scot. i. 514. 

The word here eeema allied to Lat. aj^xrt-Mt, open. 
It oorreaponda to the Ft, impera. ▼. H appert, it ia ap- 
parent, it ia manif eet. 

A PERTHEy Apertb, odfo. Openly, avowedly. 

"The aaid William Boyde band, ft obliat, ft awotv* 
that in tyme tocnm he aaU nocht entermet with tiie 
landia nor gndia pertening to the aaid abbot ft con- 
aent — ^nor aaU nocht rex nor truUe thaim nor thair 
aeroandia in tsrme to earn be him aelf nor nane Ttheris 
tliat he may let in prere nor in a perthe, but fraade or 
ffile, in the pesabfe broakin ft ioyaing of tliair eaid 
tandia." Act. Dom. Oono. A. 1479, p. 46. 

Li another place the phraseology ia — "bathe in 
priua ft aperU, lUd. A. 1488, p. 121. 

Thia oaght OTidently to be one word. Bat in the 
MSS. wlienoe theae acta are printed, worda are often 
diTided in a aimilar manner, aa omr lard for auerlord, a 
bone for odors; above. Act. Dom. Cone. p. 70, ftc. The 
phraae tn prem nor in tq^erihe, certainly aignifiea " in 
priyate or openly;" F^. priv4 privily, apert open. 
Aperthe^ indeed, mora immediately reaemblea lAt. 
apertd, openly. 

APIEST, Apiece, «ofiy. Although. Y. All- 


APILL RENYEIS, «. pL A string or neck- 
lace of beads. 

8a mony ana Kittle, drest op with goldin chenyes, 
Sa few witty, that weil can fkbillis fenyie, 
With tunll TtnfeU ay shawand hir goldin chene, 
Of Satnanis semyo ; sore sic an nnsaol menyie 
Within tiiis land was nevir liard nor sene. 

Dmiter, BaniuUffno JPoemt, p, 4S. 

Q. a rain or bridle of beada, formed like t^ppUo, 
Lora Hailea obaervea, that aa "the Fr. phrase, pomme 
iTambref meana an amber bead in ahape and colour like 
an apple, whence E. pomofider, it ia reaaonable to anp- 
poee thi^ either by analog, or by imitation, apd, 
apple, had the same aenae wSh oa." Note, p. 237, 238. 
rwhapa it ia a confirmation of thia idea, toat, in oar 
Torsion of the Book of ProYorbe, we read of " applea of 
gold." Wachter and Ihre have obeenred that the 
golden globe, impresaed with the figare of the croaa, and 
presented to the emperora on the day of their corona- 
tion, ia called Oerm. rtkhoapftl^ Sa.-0. riksaple, lite- 
rally, "the apple of the empire or kingdom." Thia 
the ^yxanttne writers caUed fufXoif ; and he who bore it 
before the emperor waa deaigned fuiXo^opot, or the 
appte-^earer. V. Applsbikois. 



▲ PP 

APLAOE, adv. Conveying the idea that one 
is praentias opposed to that of^his being 
absent ; as, "^Hers better awa nor aplaee, 
L&. it is better that he should be absent 
than present. Gljrdes. softened probably 
bom It. mplacef in any particular place. 


CrooiMt thil svn ertln^ 

BttocM fhis MUM, and ths aii^t, 
LMk tht baUyU. 

Air fViMrMH p. 4a 

**Ai onec littnUy, one pip," OL Heurne, (QL R. 
Olone.), lenden it "ri^t, oompleat;** Ritaon, oom- 
pMa^ perfect. The latter obaenrea, that the etymology 
eaimof be aaoertained. 

WhoB the kyng ef T§n Hnh thai aiht 
Wodda he waa for ^raththe apUhi, 
In bond he hent a aperat 

K^tig if iSn, Biimm'9 S. Ram. L f^. 

80 laele the tunement aplihit • 
fko the morwe to the nifat. 

A.-S. pWU, perionliim, pWU^an, pericnlo objicere 
mt t» perhape originaUy applied to the danger to 
iHiich pereona ezpoeed thconaelvea in battle^ or in 
■ini^e oombat. 

APON| Apoun, prq>. Upon. 

And gyir that ye win noieht do ana, 
Na fwylk a itate tq/on yow ta. 
All hale my land fall youria be. 
And lat me ta the itate on mflu 

' - r. L 491 1C& 

Oonctantsrin orpam thia wya 
Tlfi Bona eome, aa I yhow dewyi, 
And there in4o the Lepyr f elle. 
And hdyd was, aa yhe herd me telle. 

Wpuiown, ▼. 10. S7& 

Ane fteehe mantOl it war thy kynd to wer, 
A Seotta thiwtta wndyr thi belt to ber, 
Bonoh fowlyngia amm thi harlot fete. 

'^^ fFattaee. L 81A. na 

fiag Bohia tat heieh apaum hia eharau 

SiL-O. ^, ane. qTiaiiaedin theaameaenae. Upp^ 
frequently oocnn in that langium which nearly oor- 
Nraonda to the vulgar pron. M the preP' in thia ooun- 

Sf. A% howerer, A.-S. i^a aisninea above, and 
oe»^. nfar, hi^r ; it ia very probable, m Mr. Tooke 
■rapoeea, (DiTen. PurL p. 451,) that we are to trace 
thmprap.toanoldnomiaignifyin^A^*; eapeciallyaa 
i|^ naa the form of the comparatiTe. 

APOBTi Apobte, «. Deportment, carriage. 

Be wertooBi aport$, USr haTin^ 
Beiemyl he couth a mychty Kmg. 

WpnieSm, Iz. 21 7S. 

Thli la merely 7^. n^yiporiiued met^h. from cqvpoff- 
cr» to carry ; moi Let. ocf andiwrfo. 

To AFFAIR* V. a. To injury to impair. 

*'Boi in Setovnia bona were aa mony commodioua 
oppoKtoniteia Ant hir puipoia, thnt how aa euerhir sod 
name wer thairby appoint, acho muat nedii ga thither 
•gane." Deteetioun Q. Manr, S. Edit. 1672. Sign. 
K V. a. Appe^rtd, tog. Edit. 1571. 

flor oar atate it aptirts, without any raion, 
Htfllealle oar hebea grate diaheriteM^ 

It ia a lin, and eke a gret folia 

Tb apeirm any man. or him defame. _ 

dUwMr, Ocmi, T. 8149. 

Fr. trnpir-fr id. V. Pabi, v. 

APFARALE, Appabtle, Apparaill, t. 
Equipage, furniture for war, preparations 
for a sieee, whether for attack or defence ; 

Jhone Grab, a FUmifn^. alahad he. 
That wee of aa net antettA 
Till oidaae, and auk apparaiU, 
Per to defoad, and tiU asMdU 
Gaatell of wer, or than cit£, 
That nana aleyar mycht fundyn be. 

Sarbtmr, zviL 241, MS. 

Bemya ale of mekill mycht. 

With him to that aaaege had he, 
And gert hia aehippia, by the m, 
Bring achot and other apparaiU, 
And gret wamyaone of wictaiU. 

Fr. appear^ proTiaion, famitnre,* ia alao need to de- 
note pireparationa for war. Toat oet appartU etoit 
oootre lea Arabea. AUame; Diet Trer. 

To AFFARDONE, Apeedone, r. a. To 
forgivCi to pardon. 

'* Ye man appardone me oif I aay that ve ar rather 
bllndit than thay.** Kiool Bume, F. 111. b. 

'*My ahepe heare my voice, Ac. And therefore if 
that any mmtitode Tnder the title of the kirk, wiU ob- 
trude, Tnto ya, any doctrine neceeaar to be belened to 
oar aaluation, and bringeth not for the aame the ex- 
pree worde of Jeena Chriat, or hia MK)atlee, Ac. men 
muat aperdone me, althogh I acknowledse it not to be 
the kirk of God." Knox, Beeaoning with Croeragnell, 

To AFFELL, v. a. To challenge. 

"There were many Southland men that appelled 
other in barrace, to ^t before the king to the dead, 
for certain crimee of leee majeaty." Pitacottie, p. 834. 
Edit. 1768. , , ^ 

The word, aa here need, obriooaly mdndee the aenee 
of L. B. appell-are, aocuaare ; app^um, in jna vocatio, 
aoenaatio. Fr. oppe2-er, to aocnae, to impe«ch. 

To AFFELL, v. n. To cease to rain, Ayrs. 

Thia aeema to differ merely in the aoand given to 
the vowela from Ufpil, q.v. 

AFFEN FURTH, the free air ; q. an open 
exposure^ Cljdes. 

"The laaaie and I bore her to the appen fwrih, an* 
had hardly won to the lone, whan down cam the wea- 
rifon milkhouae.*' Edin. Mag. Dec. 1818^ p. 603. 

AFFEBANDEy Appbaband, adj. Appar- 
ent. Aperand^ Aberd. Reg. A. 1521. 

ApPEBAin>Ey nsed as a «. for apparent, heir. 

" Mr. Thomaa Hammiltonn apperande of Preiatia- 
field,'* Ac. Acte Ja. VL 1592, £d. 1814, p. £64. 

" There waa killed—of chief men— the laird of Olen- 
caddel, elder ; 'M*Don^ appearand of Rara,** Ac. 
Spalding, iL 271. 

Apperanlie, adv. Apparently. 

"And qnhan ve ar glad to know, qnhat ye aonld 
impong, apperanUe that aould be na newingia to yoo." 
Bffliaoning betoiz Groaragaell and J. Knox, D. ii. a. 





Jhk it ft wwd oonrnvnioatod to meb m nted in old 
of tho Sottth of 8., although tho mMning io loot 
«* I boohl ay lovo aa ilpifeMif.'* 

«• Ho hidil Ua wiDMDM Mary 
▲ tna-kow and 

APFILLIS^ 9. pi 

teoadam aa tgnUUi lay la hdp ; 
Bol thoo, goda uwdy lyaa fp, and naa mair alaapa. 
. A beimL FoemM 16th GmiMry, p. 106L 

B^dMid *'applaa'*i]i/OL Bat ao it aoema ai^gn- 
kr that ooch o motaphor ahoold be introduoed with- 
o«t thoalightoatgronnd fkom tho tozt» atrango aa theao 
JbflMi aio ; I aoapoot that tho writer oaea thia word, 
toswoid roj^tioii, borrowing it from Fr. ofipikir^ *'to 
baapa^ or pdo^ togethori** Cokgr. 

To APPIN, «. a. To open, S. O. OL Sonr. 
. Ajm. 

A3fnN,adj. Open^S. 

'*Tbar ia one oirb oaUit helytropiom, tho qohilk tho 
▼ikiiria oallio aoiu^o ; it hea tho leyilia ojopm aa laage 
•0 wm oonno ia in oar homiapere, and it okaaa the 
layoiB oahaa tho aoono paaaia ^ndir oar oriaDa.** 

■• tfoMa, id. Tho other Northern lanffaagoa pro> 
the o. On thia word Lye refers to lai. ofmo, o^, 
MB. Hire doriYOO it from Su.-0. iipp» often aaed 
in tho aanao of opening ; mt wo aay , to dredfc ig». In 
Bko manner. Wachter derirea Germ, ofen, id. from 
«l^ 1^; adding that A.-S. jfppe aignifiea apertaa. 

AFFLERINOIE, «• Southemwoodt S. Ar- 
temisia abrotonum^ Linn. 

?^. mfUi, otroo|^ and amrotmet aoathemwood, from 
JaJL mk ro fo nm m f id. I know not if thia haa any oon- 
nanon with ApiU rmpeU, (|. t. 

^'Tho window— looked mto a amal! gaideot rank 
vitli mg t p U rim gf^ and other fragrant hena.** Sir A. 
Vy&L k 44. 

** Wonldyon like aome alipa of avpUrmf/ff^ or tanqri 
ortl^yma?'^ Fettiooat Talea, i. 240. 

To APPLEIS, V. a. To satisfy, to content, 

Of maaiwete Diane fitft thereby 

The altera eith for tyl appUU Tprtandii, 
Oft Ad of aacryfrea aad ut offerandia. 

Jkmg. VwpO, M, SS. 

Olf then weld enm to herynit bllMy 
Ibyaelf i9!pbw with lobirrait. 

AnMuUjnia Fotrng, p. ISa 

Ibaa thaaUt thai the Qoeyn for her tnwaiU, 
Off hyr anaoer the King oiDw/etfif waa. 

WaiUut, Tiii. 1480, Ma 

One wonld onppooe that there had been an old Fr. 
vart^ of tho form of Applahre, whonoo thia had been 

APPLY»«. Plight, condition. 

Unto the town then they both yaed. 
When that the knight had left hia atsed ; 

They feond him in a good ajtplw, 

^ ' ' ' ' eadnimby. 

Both bay, aad eoia, aad bread 

Tbia midit aeem allied to Dan. pie^-er, to nee» to be 

or to tend, to take oare of ; Sa.-0. pUg* 
«% Be|g.|ifa^-€% id. Bot it ia rather from Fr. V. 

APPLY A BLE, adj. Pliant in temper. 

^ gintffl hi aU hia [bir n gaatia, and ilff^MiMf,— 
That aU that aaw hir aaw thay loTit hir aa their lyf^ 

CUM6M aw't. ses. 

— "He^ forhimaelfo and the remanent of tho jpre- 
latea» being preaent, ao ane of the three eetatia ofthe 
aaid parliament, diaaaaaentit therto dmplicUer: bot 
tmomU thaim therto^ unto tho tyme that ane pnnrin* 
cud Cooneol might be had of all the clersy of thia 
raahn.** Koith'a Hiat. p. 37. 

Thia ia an error, for opponii, oppoeed, aa in Acta of 
Pfcri. V. U. 415, Edin. 1814. 

To APPOBT, 9. n. To bring, to conduce ; 
Fr. apparP^r^ id. 

**0f thia oppoeition, woo may gather eaailie, qohat 
tho raoarraction and glorification appcrU to the 
bodie. Shortly, bee thame we eee, tnat the bodie 
ia onoly apoiled of corraption, ahame, infinnitie,- 
natorafitie, and mortalitio.^' Brooo'a Seim. on tho 
Saer. 1600. Sign. M. 3. a. 

APPOSrr, part. pa. Disposed, willing; 
Aberd. Reg. A. 1560, Y. 24. Lat apposU- 
utp apt, fit. 

To APPREUE, Apprieye, v. a. To approve. 

flo that Aeut my MaeTmne that appmu 
Be not eibrd, Jktnt, na thing the greae. 

DoMg. Firyi/, 14L 3S. 
F^. approu9-€r. 

To APPRISE, V. a. To approve ; nsed as 
signifying a preference. 

''Thia laat opinioan waa €qppnsiL^ BoUend. Chm. 
B. Ti. a 19. 

Hano aententiam ▼elati altera jwliereai, oontracta 
mnltitodo aoquata. Booth. 

O. IV. aprtl-ier, oprw-Mr, oralaer, eatimer, Roqoo- 
^fort; Lat. apprtt-iare, 

ApPBisiTy part pa. Valued, prized. 

'* Among all hie memoriall workie ane thins waa 
maiat app^uU, that— he waa aett na lea to defend pece, 
than to defend hie realmo.** Bellenden'a T. Id v. p. 

ApPBisiKOy «• Esteem, value. 

*'The Bomana, — ^war gretely inibunmit, that na 
workie war done be thamo woorthy to have apprmng, '* 
Ibid. p. 294. 

APPROCHEAND, parf. /Ml. Proximate, in 
the vicinitj. 

*'Kow wee tho pepill and power of Rome aa atraag; 
— ^that it wee eqnale, in glore of annee, to ony town 
approekeandJ* Bellend. T. LiTioa, p. 17. CaOibet/- 
ailtmannn civitatam, Lat. 

To APPROPRE, Appropib, V. a. To appro- 

— '*To praif that Andro Lokart of the Bar appro^ 
vrt§ and oocapiia thre akir. of land, — ^wtth the mare to 
hie Tae,** Ao. Act. Audit. A. 1489, p. 140. Appropir^ 
Aberd. Reg. A. 1638. 

Tr. apprppr'ier, id. 

APPUY, *. Support. 

'*What mnift or of whom ahall ahe bare, being 
foraaken of her own and (dd frienda ? *' Lett. Lething- 
ton, Koith'a Hiat p. 233. 



▲ BA 

IV. id. "ft itoy, ImttrMM, prop^ rett, or thing to 
MMoai" OoCgr. 

To APUNOT, Appunct, v. n. To settle. 

••It it t^jmneiU k aooonUt betwiz WiUiam Coloile— 
4 Eobart Chuteric-^thAt the taid WiUiam and Bo- 
bcrt mQ oony«|yne k mat one the mome ef ter Sanct- 
aadroM day mzt to cam,** 4o. Act. Dom. Cone A. 
1488» p. 08. Appmeili^ Acta Ja. m. 148ft, Ed. 1814, 
p. 170. 

^ L. B. tipjnmehiare, notione nonnihil direna dip Pa- 
ciad, QOBveniie^ Ptetnm articulia lea punctU diatino- 

Appukctuament, «• A convention or agree- 
ment with specification of certain terms. 

•'Batiilia and appreoia the contract and appunetuo' 
•MNl naide betalx,Archibalde Donglaa TlieaaQrer — 
and Jiamea Aehiaoone goldamyth maiater cnnyeoor, 
luifthiny the attyking 4 prentinf of money, gold, and 
ahier, m all puncti§ k articlia enir the fonn and ten- 
ewMur of the aaid contract.'* Acta Ja. V. 1526» Ed. 
1814. o. 310. 

•' Jeluine Ballenrvne aecretaie to the Erie of Anguss 
, — fttf in oertane omria in writing, quhUkia concemit 
grace and appunduament,** lb. p. 324. 

L. B. t^ppmHdMometU'UM, nactum tcI oonventnm 

■"""*■*' --*•—«- nve oapitulia oistinctnm ; Du Cange. 

and do aenrioe nae and wont.** MS. Begiater 
dated lft38. Statiat. Aoo. ziii. 63ft, N. 

and carriagBb" ia a phraae atiU oommonly 

To APPUBOHASE, v. a. To obtain, to 

••The aaid Jamea Hamilton being advertiaed by hia 
eame, Biahop Jamea Kennedy, of the king'a good mind 
and moor towarda him, which he appurcha§ed by hia 
Boyeo, ahewing to him,** Ac. Pitacottie, Ed. 17SS, p. 

AB, Abb, acfe. Formerly ; also, early. Y . 


To AB, Abb, Ebe, v. a. To ear, to plough, 
to tilL 

Oner al the bonndla of il ttMmta 

Hia fee flokkis pastniit to and fra ; 

Floe bowis of ky unto hit hame reparit. 

Ami with ana hnndreth plewis the land he arii. 

Dtmg. Virga, 22S. 34. 

The folk Annncane and of Ratoly 
Thii groond aawit fUl Tnthriftely, 
inth aehaip plewis and ateill sokkis sere 
Ibay hard lOma hixatiA for tin €f«. 

iMI.378L 18. 
Moea^. ar-ioii, Sil-O. aer^ia, laL er-id, A-S. er- 
ka^ Akm. ert'm^ Germ, tr-en^ Lat. ar<irt, Gr. 
f^Vf id. Hire viewa Heb. ^^ aretz, aa the foun- 

Uba; whidi, he aayi, ia preaerved in Gr. tpa, and 8. 

ARAOE, Abbage, Abtaoe, Auabaoe, 
AYEBAGEt «• Servitude due hy tenants, in 
men and horses, to their landlords. This 
cnstom is not entirely abolished in some 
parts of S. 

**Arafe, Ttherwaiea ilMri^--«gnifiea aerrioe, 
qnhilk the tennent ancht to hia master, be horae, or 
oarnage of hone.** Skene, Verb. Sign, in vo. 

••TlMr ia nay thing on the lanberaria of the grond to 
bwtht and land hot arrof^ earoffe, taxationis, violent 
•poljre, and al Tthyr aortia of adueraite, quhilk is on- 
marafolly ezaeont daly." Oompl. S. p. 192. 

— '*11ikt he ahonid pay a rent of 20l. naual mony of 
tha raalm ; 4 doien pooltrie, with all aryage and car- 

Thia woid haa been obaoored by a variety of derivn- 
tSona. Skene tracea it to L. B. averia^ •'qnhilk aigni- 
fiea ana beaBt.** According to Spelm. the Northam- 
bciaaa eaU a hone **aver^ or afar,** vo. Ajfra. 8. 
over, eaaer, q. t. Ihre derivea averia from 0. Fr. 
•ere^ sow oevvre; work ; aa the word proqperiy sig- 
nifiea a baaat for labour. He oboervea that avoir, 
ia F^. anciently denoted poaaeeaiona, wealth, vo. 
H^iwtsr, Bbewhere, (vo. Kof, auU,) he aaya that, in 
Soania^ Af^wera denotea the work done by peaaanta to 
the hmd of the viUage ; which they alao call ga tii 

The anthon of Diet. Trev., taking a different plan 
from IhrBb derive the old Fr. word avoir, opea, divitiae, 
from aoeria, Ce mot en ce sena eat vena de avera, ou 
aoeria, mot de la basse latinit^ qu*on a dit de toutee 
aortea de biena, et aur-toat de meubles, dea chevanx, 
et de beatiaax qni aervent an labonrage. They add, 
that the Spaniaraa use averiaa in the same senae. 

Skane^ althongh not the best etymologiat in the 
world, aeema to adopt the moet natonJ jplan of deriva.- 
tioB hen. The term haa been derived, indeed, from 
the r,Ar, ore, to tUL " Arage," it haa been aaid, "ia 
a aervitnde of men and horses /or Ullagt, imposed on 
tenanta hj kndhoMers." It haa been reckoned im. 
pcobahli^ that thia word should owe ita origin to L. B. 
woeria^ **m it ia often oppoaed to earagt, a servitude 
in carta and horaeo for carrying in the landholder'a 
com at harvest home, and conveying home hia hay, 
coala, ftc" GL CompL S. It la certain, however, 
that in L. B. ani^ttm never occurs, but avtragtum fre> 
qnentlT ; and it can be eaaily supposed, that average 
■Mg^t be ehanged into arage or arrage; but the r«- 
▼erae would by no meana be a natural transition. 
Beaidea the oldeat orthography of the term ia oaarofve. 

**IIm i statnte and oidamt,— that all landia, rentis, 
ei iatu m ia, borrow maillia, fermes, martia, muttoun. 
poltrie, amaragt, oariage, and vther dewteia, that war 
m the handle oi his PrcMgenitouris and Father, quhome 
God aaaoly ie» the day of hia deceis ; notwithstanding 
quhatsomear aasignatioun or gift be maid thairvpone 
under the |^t aeill, prouie aeill, or vthers, be al- 
luterlie eaaait and annullit : swa that the haill pro- 
fitia and tentia thairof may cum to our aouerane Loid.** 
Ja. IV. A. 1480. c. 24. Edit. 1568. 

It may be added, that the money paid for being 
freed from the burden of arage waa called averpentty 
in the B. lawa. **Averpenny, boo est, quietum ease 
(to be quit) de diversia denariia, pro averagio Do- 
mini Begia ptaatall] ;— id est, a vocturia regiia, quae a 
tenentiboa Begi praeatantur. Tributum, quod prae- 
atatur pro immunitate carroperae, aeu vecturae. Du 
Cange, vo. Averpeny, 

Kor ia there any evidence that "arage ia op- 

red to caro^** They are generally conjoined m 
but rather, by a pleonasm common in our Ian- 
suagc^ aa tenna, if not aynonymoua, at least of simi- 
lar meaniog. Carrioffe may have been added, to shew 
that the aervice required waa extended to the use of 
cara, carta, waggons, and other implements of thi« 
kind, aa well aa of horsea and cattle. For Skene aeemn 
rightly to nnderstand arage, aa denoting service^ "be 
horae, or carriage of horse." But when it ia recollected 
that, in former times, aa in some parts of S. still, the 
greatest part of eariage waa on the backs of horses ; it 
will appear probable, that it was afterwards found 
neeeaaaiT to add this term, aa denoting a right to the 
use of au anch vehicles as were employed for this pur- 
poee, especially when these became more common. 
The phrase, cum auaragiia H caragiii, ia quoted by 
Skene, aa occurring in an Indenture executed at Perth, 



▲ ftO 

A. 1S71» betwixt RolMrt St«WMt» Eurl of Menteitfa, 
and Tiaben CooateM of Fif«^ resigning tlie Earldom of 
fifi iato tlio Ki^g||« hands, in favour of the aaid Earl. 

B|f Dn Cbagih TJeuiagbum m randered, Tectura cum 
eerra^ qwun qiiia domino pneatare dsbet; nostria 
dhorkipe. A% howeTer, thia word ia not reatricted to 
OMnriege bj meana of cara, waina, fte. it aeama at timea 
in oor old lawa to haire denoted the work of men em- 
fllojed as poftera. Henoe one of the '*articlea to he 
aqwrrad tj aeeret inqniaition, and poniahed be the 
laar, 1% "of allowanoe made k giTen to the Bailliea 
eC Mm boigh (in ikeir c fm piu ) and not payed to the 
MHTt te corlooa and doing of other labonra.'* Chal- 
■Mriaa Air. oTb. a. 42.< 

Hun eotra ap onda to the aeeoont giren in our 8ta- 
tMoa. "On other eatatea. it ia the duty of aervanta 
to MRT oat and apread the dung for manuring the 
yraprielor''a land in the aeed time, which frequently 
ntvferaa with hia own wock of the aame kind. It la 
alao tto duty of llie tenanta to fetch from the neig^h- 
booring aeajpcarta all the coal wanted for the propne- 
tor^ nao. The tenanta are alao bound to go a certain 
■nmbar of erranda, aometimea with their carta and 
bnraiM. aometimea n-foot; a certain number of long 
afnBd% and n certain number of abort onea, are re- 
qvrad to be performed. A long errand ia what re- 
mdiea mora tlmn one day. Thia ia called Carriage" 
r. DoaakhaOj Votlar, L 433. 

A9 9t € uUum n explained b^ Spelm. with auch latitude 
aa to Jacnada all that ia signified by the S. phraae arage 
mtd cmriage* Opoa^ adliceti quod averiiB, e^uia, bobus, 
planatria, cmnibtu, ant Ragi perfidtur ratione praedii 
ant atttar, alterive domino. 

Ihra aappoaea, with oonaiderable probability, that 
ht/kTp among the Germane, formerly aignified a horae ; 
ae St. Stephen'a day, called Hafer^w^kt^ waa otherwiae 
in the aame acnee det groi9e PferdMag^ 

h o ia e day. He alao thinks, that oata, 
^ in 8w. called Aoeilalaoni, Le. horae-com, waa 
for tim aaoM reiaon deaigned kafrt-hom^ and oompen- 
diooaly kqfre; to. Sqfira, 

I afcall only add, thaL althouffh it aeema to me moet 
prabable^ thit mrage ia deriTad nom averia, a beast for 
wofk» it ia not at aU unlikely that the origin of thia ia 
0. 1^. eare^ woik ; eapecially aa Spelm. inf orma us, 
that aoooidmg to llie customs of Domesday, avera was 
the work eC one day, iHiich the king's tenants gare to 
the TiMOunt. The tetm itverci, as denoting work, 
mdf^ TOiy naturalljT be transfeired to a beast used 
for labonr, aa we aiOl aay in 8., a wark-beiuL V. 

AEATNEy parL ftu Arrayed. 

IMr thame mydlit ssmin went €trayn§ 
The Tthir Tteyaaia and folkis Italisne. 

Ikmg. Virg. 470^ SI. 

O. W. arroffi^ id. 

To ABAS, Abbace, v. o. 1. To snatch, or 
phick away hj force. 

Alysawndyr than tbs Bsauay 

Qert lay hym down for-owtyn kta ; 

And en his hehna his iute he Mte, 

And wyth gret atrynth owt can artu 

TIm trownwwn, that thsra steksnd was. 

fTynloem, riiL 8S. 127. 
That notabOl spoos fVirth of hir lugeing place 
The mane aessoua all annonr did arraee; 
Xy tralsCy swerd fra Tnder my hede awat 
Stan seho, and in the place biocbt Menday, 

Jkmg, VirgU, 182. 2S. 

It ia aometimea need bjr Doug, for tmovertt and at 
otiier timee for diripere, m the originaL 

Ft. AmieA-«r, to tear, to pull by yiolence ; to pull 
1^ by the roota^ from Let. tradie-^ 

2. To raise up. 

Before thasM al maist grsdas Ekiess 
His handls two^ ss the the ountame was, 
Towart the heuia nn vplyft and arraee; 
And syne the chyla Asomeus did enbraoe. 

Doiy. Firpil, 46S. 2a 

This senae ii ao dtllennt from the former, that one 
would think it wera pnt for arraiae^ q. to taiae up. 

ABBY, «• The Sea-gaiiflower, Orkn. 

'*The 8ea-gilliilower, or Thrift, (atatice armaria), 
well known in Oricney 1^ the name of Arby, covers 
the ahorea. Formeriy ita thick tubeioua roots, sliced 
and boiled with milk, wera highly prized in Orftuiev aa 
a remedy in pnlmmiary consumption.*' Neill's l&ur, 
p. 58,50. V. also WaUace's Orkn. p. 67. 

ABB Y-BOOT, «. The root of the sea-pink, 
or Statice armeria, Orkney. 

ABBBOATH PIPPIN, the name of an 
apple, S. Y. OsLm I^pin. 

ABCH» Aboh» .Aiboh, Eboh, (gutt.) adj. 
1. Ayene, reluctant; often including the 
idea of timidity as the cause of reluctance^ 

The pepQ hale gnntis that thay wsts 
Quhat lortoaa idiawia. and in qohate estate 
Oor matteris staadis ; but thay are arch to tchaw, 
Qnhisperaad amangis thame, tnay stand sic aw. 
Bot caos him gif tasme libem to opeik, 
Do way his bust, thst thair bretth may oat hrsik, 
I mens of him, be quhais vnhappy wenie. 
And fraward thewia, now d«do on the erde 
8a mony chief chiftanii snd dukis lyis ; 
ForMMth I sail say f^irth all myne anise. 

Any. VirgO. 874. 24. 

2. Apprehensiye^ filled with anxiety, S. 

Oehottt Itisafearfyi'nichtl 

8ie saw I ne'er before ; 
And feaiAi' will it be to me, 

I'm trek, or a* be o'er. 
• /(SSMCiOfi't PopuL BaXL L 888L 

Chancer uaae eria for weary, indolent. 

And of that dede be not «ribe. 
But olle sithes hsant that werke. 

Bow^ILy. 486S. 

In the cioyiate languagea, thia word ia need to ex* 

Esaa both uactioo and fear ; the former, most pro- 
bly, aa nrnr j eed in g, or euppoeed to proceed, from the 
latter, ana among wariike nationa accounted a atrong 
indication of it. Sometimea, howeyer, the word yariea 
ita form a littie, aa need in these different senses. 
A.-8. eory, deaidioaua^ iners, slothful, sluggish ; earA, 
(iElfric. Oram.) fngax, timorous, and ready to run 
away for fear ; Somn. It is also used in the same 
aanae with eary. laL ar^^iir, reformidana; argr^ 
piger, deaee, Q. Andr. p. 16, arg^ Carm., Lodbrog, 
at. 2SS. 8u»-G. org, ignavua ; oarg^ intrepidua. Lap- 
pon. argtt timid ; orgH^ fearfully ; argo, timeo ; Leem. 
Voeaiua lefera thia word to Or. o/yy-ot for a<^if-ot, from 
a priT. and c^yor opua. 

It ia well known, that aa among the ancient Gotha 
the higheat praiae waa that of warlike glory, in- 
activity in military exereiaea waa a great reproach. 
One of thia deecription waa called argwr^ or in L. B. 
arga. According to an ancient onunanoe, Thraell 
aj ihegar ktfmir, enn argur aUdrt; a thraU or alave 
waa to be avenged only late, but an cargwr never; 
Oretla. e. 13. apw Hire. It came to be uaed, in heat 
of temper, aa a term of reproach, apparently of the 
aame meaning with poftroon or couKini in modem 

▲ BO 


▲ BS 

hitflWMW. 8i ink Man Araam per fvxorem cUun*- 
v«n» te Leg. hoagfhud. lib. 1. Tit. 5. ; Du Cange. 
And in Hioee a^ee, m which the moet eiudtecl virtue 
was himTeiy, thia mmt have been a moet ignominioua 
d eaign a t ion. He who rabmitted to the impntatioti, or 
who waa eveo aubjeeted to it» waa viewed in the aame 
light with one in our timea, who haa been legally de- 
olarad infamowa. Hence we find one commander aay- 
ing to another; Memento^ Dox Fredulfe, quod me 
inertem at inntilem dixeria, et vnlgari verbo, argti, 
vocavvria. PanL Diaoon. Lib. 6. c. 24. IthaaaUo 
been explained by Boheriua, Spelman, &e. aa sienifying, 
in theae kwa, a cuckold who tamely bore hia diagrace. 
V. Ebob, a. 

To Abch, Aboh, 9. fi. To hesitate, to be re- 
luctant, S. Y« Eboh, r. 

Archnes^ ABOHNSse, «. L Beluctance, 

*' IC Myi ho. oar brethren, after what we have writ 
to them and you, lay not to heart the reformation of 
tiiair kirk, we are exonered, and muat regret their 
«ixAiieM (baekwaidneaa) to improve each an oppor- 
tonity." Wodrow'a Hiat I xxxii 

2. Obliquelj, used for niegardliness, q. relac- 
tance to part with anything. 

For AfdkfMM, to had in a grote. 
He had no will to fie a bote. 

Li§ end Bf, at, Androi$, p. 333. 

ARCHIE, 9. The abbreviation of Archi- 
bald, 8. 
**Ar€kk Home," Acto 158fi^ iii. 391. 

ARCHIEDENE, 9. Archdeacon : Lat. arcbi- 

** Hia hienea, Ac oonfennia the lettree of dimiaaionn, 
waignationn, and oueigiving maid be vmquhill George 
•rvMeileiM principaU St Sanctandroia,** Ac. Acta Ja. 
VL 1087. &L 1814. p. fiOa. 

(eh hard), «• The return, which one, who 
has been treated in an inn or tavenii some- 
times reckons himself bound in honour to 
make to the company. When he calls for 
his bottle, he is said to give them his archi- 
lagh, Loth. South of S. 

''I propoee that thb good little gentleman, that 
aeema aair fonrfou^^ien, aa I may eav, in thia tuilyie, 
ahall aend for a tarn o' brandy, and I II pay for another, 
hy way of onrAtlbiM; and then well birl our bawbees a* 
round aboat» hlie brethren." Rob Roy, iii. 25. 

It haa been conjectored, that thia (Uke many other 
uovarbial or provincial designationa) haa origiiiateil 
from lome good fellow of the name of Archibald Locfi^ 
who would never leave hia company while he had rea- 
aon to rackon himself a debtor to them, or without 
giving them aomething in return. But tlie term does 
not imply the idea of a full equivalent. 

I am indebted, however, to a liteniy friend for sug- 
gesting; that it ia from Belg. ker again, and cK^HT.Teut. 
gkdofgh^ ahot, share, club ; q. a return of entertain- 
ment, a aecond club aa repaying the former. V. Law- 
lif , Lauch. 

€^, aa it has been a common custom, from time im- 
memorial, for the hoet to give a gratuitous bottle or 
glaaa to a party to whom he reckona himaelf much in- 

2lebted, the term may be q. ketrt^gtlack^ the master or 
landloid's dub or shot. 

ABCHPSEISTRIE, Archiprestrie, 9. 1. 
A dignity in collegiate churches during the 
time of popeiy. 

**Orantit— with oooaent of vmouhill Creoroe erie of 
Dumber, — vndonbtit oatrone of the said turekpreistrle 
and coUedge kirk of Dnmbar,*' Ac Acta Cha. L liSd. 
1814, V. 613. 

Here the archpriest waa under the dean, and supe- 
rior to eight prebendariea. L. B. arehifyre^pieri deinde 
dicti, qni hodie J/ecanU mrolfa, archiiUaoonia subjccti ; 

2. Used as sjmon* with vicarage. 

— ''The denria of Dunbar, including the penonage 
and vicarage of the parochin of Quliittengem ; the or- 
eA^preafrie or vicarage of Dunbar, including all the kirk- 
laadiaand toyndia vseit k wont of all ancf haill the pa> 
tochin of Dunbar." Acto Ja. VL 1606, Ed. 1814, p. 

Dunbar waa a collMiato churDh, consisting of a dean, 
an arekprieM, and ei^teen canona. It was Tounded by 
Patrick, Eari of Maioh, A. 1342. In Bacimont*s Roll, 
it waa rated in this ratio ; Decanatua de Dunbar, £13. 
6. Archiepreabyteraa, £8. Ac. V. Chalmers's Caled. ii. 

^lia areh-prieat, it appears, was next in rank to the 
dean, and anperior to alT the canona. 

Fr. areke-pretire, a head-priest. L. B. archiprtihjfUr. 
In a more eariy period, the arch-priesta, in a cathedral 
church, acted aa vicars to the bishop. They m'ere after- 
warda the aame with rural deana. V. Du Cange. 

AB£S, 9» An heir. 

*' The said Oawin denyit that he wes are to his said 
flrantschir," Ac Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1494, p. 368. 

To AREIK, Arrbik, v. a. To reach, to ex- 

Thay elriche brethir, with thair luku thmwin, 
Thocht nocht avalit, there standing haue we knawia ; 
An horribil sorto, wyth mony canmchol beik, 
And hedis semand to the heuin arreik, 

Ikmg, KtVytf, 91. 19. V. Maw, r. 

A.-S. artfce-an^ aasequi, to get, to attain, to reach, to 
take ; Somn. V. Rbik. 

AREIK, adv. Back. 

Bot wist oar wyfis that ye war heir, 
Thay wokL mak all tliis town on steir. 
Thaufoir we reid yow rin artir 
In dreid ye be miaoarvit 

Umimg, S. P. R it 211. 

Fr. arriere, backward ; Lat. a retr9. To rin areir^ 
to decline, synon. with misoarry. 

ASEIRD, adj. Rendered in Gl. ^'destruction, 

Thocht heuin and eird suld n artird. 
Thy word aaU stent! feat and perfyte. 

Poemt 1^'tMo ifixteenik Ceniurg, p^ 64. 

It ia evidently the same with Areir, q. v. To ^ 
areir, is merely to go backward, meUph. to go to dis- 

To AREIST, Arreist, r. a. To atop, to 
stay ; Fr. arest-er id. Dowf. Mrg. 

Areist, 9. But areiet, forthwith, without de* 


▲ ftS 



Md Jipltar ; aid IC«rainr. M mm§i^ 
Diwril to obij Ui grata teMt bdiMt 

ABE MOBBOWi early in the iiMMiuiig. Y. 
An, ado. 

7o ABEND, «. II. To fear; a term applied 
to a lione^ iHien he throws back his tore- 
party and stands on his hinder legsi^ Fife. 

TIm eraiM of th» bloitar, 
Wl' tht ilM« of wiip't Udit, 


Holaiig«B'bofiun'd,tei MS. Poem. 

O. IV. mrHm$t Iwckyanl ; Roqiwf. toi. Arrere ; or 
isi^iw tiy lon^cv Im i«iiiS| fram reiiei, ibid. 

ABENT, «. Contraction for annua/ renL 


■hoold paT thatont pairi of his yeaiiie 
nnl^ abwMU to burgh m landward.— OnUnit that tho 
orJrviii; or lyf rant shall bears ano oquall and 
hording with the saadis rentis, trade, and 
" ActoCha.LEd. 1814. V. 311. 

ABEBy «. An heir ; artrUj heirs. 

"Iks loida—doorstia— aU ft halo the saidis landis 
«l Mskle Amsfle— to be broikit ft joisit be the said Henri 
ft hit artrU Jm fxAj m he did before the making ol 
. tfM Midia eridoBtis.'^ AoL Audit. A. 1488, p. 126. 

— '^Iliat the Uttd of Vehfltrs ft his arerii snld wer- 
land him tiio tak of the saidis landis for all the dais of 
kia HC oftir tha forme of his lettresof tak maid thar- 
i^pooa." Ibid. p. 187. 

Appanntly oorr. from I^ B. haandUar'im^ id. 


Anharponr made a lay, 

That THstrem orvsotMil he ; 
Iks hsrpour gede owar, 

—'•Who better osa lat ssb"— 

Air IWitovBi, p. 84» St 61. 

••OitieiadU'' GL Perhi^ rather, deridtd: from 
Iait» 9rrid»^ tam, to huuAi at, or arruio. 
Afmtm is need b^ R. Bninne in the sense of per* 

Tit our lUMsmigsft for Oesooyn wars st Rome, 

fbws lonlei ftille fim, to here the nape's dome, 
Thsr fbue at Rome war to artmm toe pape. 
The light foffto declsie, ft for tha parties so achape, 
Ho whom the ri|^t sold be of Qascoya eaer ft ay. 

Gftroikp. 814. 

ABETTYT, jwrf. pa. Accused, brought into 

And god SehTr Dawj off Brechyn 
Wes off this deid ofvttyf ma^ 

Anntoair, ids. SOL IB. 

La. his traasoQ aainst King Robert. Edit 1820, 
mrrwdad. But bj this change, as in a great Tariety of 
nataaoes aven in this early edit., the meaning is loot. 

Tha tsrm ia from L. B. rtet-are^ rH-artt rtU-are^ 
rtp aacplained b^ Dn Cange, aocosare, in jus 
; also, mors strictly, ream ad reeUm faciendum 
nere. ^rrctelf decrimina aliqao ; Fortescue, de 
Lht. AagL OL 88. It is not quite unknown in our law. 

^Gif ana Bum is ekaHemaed le doe rkhi for ana 
lisajMiMH, and oetained be his challensers within 
ku]^ ausd offers ane pledge for him : gifhe is taken 
ks tune of day, his ohallengers sail convoy him to the 
konae qiihars ha sayes his pledge is." Burrow Lawes, 
«. 80l s. 1. In the Lat. copy it is, Si quis fuerit irre' 
Utme da aliqno malefaeto, ftc. In the margin, Al. 
■ ■a cfaftii ^ L tocatur in jus, ut redum faciat, le So rkhi. 

These barbario terms seem sometimes to include tha 
of connetioii, and subjection to punishment, or to 
make the amende hononMe, Perhaps the word is used 
in this sense bv Barbour. Du Cange views arreiare as 
the oriffin of fr. arrtter, to arraet. 

8u.«d. rael. Jus, not only denotes compensation, but 
fraquently, capital punishment; hence, afraettat to 
behead, and raeita, to judge, also to punish capitaily ; 
Germ, riehien, to punish, to take vengeance. Ihre re« 
marks the raeemblance between the sense of the Su.*0. 
terms, and Vr.jueikier, L. B. jiuUekure, V. Justify. 


"King WyUyam sal pay ane hundredth thousand 
poundis striueling for his redemption, the tane half to 
DO payit with argent content, iuid for sickir payment 
of this othir half, he sal geif Cumber, Huntingtoun 
and Northumbirland vnder ane rauersioun, oy and quhil 
the residew of his rsnsoun war payit to the kyng of 
Ingland." Bellend. .Chron. b. ziii. o. 5. Fkrtem unam 
pra£aentemf Booth. Fr. argent compiant^ id. 

To ABGH. V. Eroh, v. 

ARQJE, «. Assertion in a dispute, side of a 

question which one takes. He is said to 

keep hU ain argis^ who^ whatever be said 

to the contrary, still repeats what he has 

formcriy asserted, S. Bor.; synon. with 

keeping one*s ain threap. 

This word might st first view seem to be oorr. 
formed from the E. t. argwe. But Su.-0. ierga is 
used in the same senss^ semper eadem obgannire, ut 
Solent anicuUa irats ; Jhrs. IsL toiy-r, keen contan* 

To ABOLE-BABGLE, v. n. To contend, to 
bandy backwards and forwards, S. Aurgle- 
barginj Loth.; Argie-^argis^ Fife. 

Bat 'tis a daffin to debate. 
And aurgii^^argin with our ikte. 

JUuneai^e Pioewu, L 885. 

Tbis maybe referred to tha same fountain as tha last 
word. Besides the terms mentioned, we may add Isl. 
arg^ enraged; jarga, to contend. In Ol. Ramsay, 
however, eaqgle-bargin is given as synon. If this be 
well authorised, the term may properly signify io 
haggle in a bargain. 

"She told me she wadna want the meal till Monday, 
and ni stand to it.'* * Dinna gang to argle^targlt wi' 
me,' said tha miller in a rsge." Petticoat Tales, i. 

••Waal, weel," said the laird, *'dinna lat us arg^* 
bargol about it ; entail your own pr op e rty as ye will, 
mine shall be on the second son." Ilia Entail, i. 63. 

It may be added, that Gael. iorgktiU, iarguU, denotes 
strife, a tumult, a quarreL 

Abool-Basoolous, adj. Quarrelsome, con- 
tentious about trifles, Ayrs. 

"No doubt his argot-bargoloue disposition was an 

inheritance accumulated with his 


conquest of 


wealth from the mannerless Yankies." The Provost, 
p. 194. 

To ABGONE, Argowne, Argwe, Aroew, 
V. a. 1. To argue, to contend by argu- 

Than asid the Merie, Myne erronr T confes ; 
This fruatir lave all ta bot vsnite ; 



▲ RL 

BUad IgBoniiM BM ndf do hwdlDMi 
Tb «rypfM to agAiit ut vsriU. 

2. To oensore^ to reprehend, to chide with. 

Tkuk knew thai weflk thai It wai ha in playna, 
Ba horn and waida, that anownd thain b^or. 

IFaOMi^ Ir. a. Ma 

Aaa Mywiuif thaim, at thai fwantl throoeh tha 
Tha atarfcaat maa that HesyfrT^ than knw. 
And ala ha had off Irchly worilis jnaw. 

Araw m oaad in the aame aoiaa hf WjbIowb and 

Aa hi onra matara wa prooeda, 
flam BMUi may tail this bok to reda, 
Ball call the aatov to laklei, 

NM TOO, Bor yft tha KjBg Xo^yae bttt la^ 
lluit woat waa for to layng in pleaaiid paoi^ 
I wyl tunpew of thya maoar and offanoa. 
Fonoith I wata tha wilftd Tiolonca 
Of Tunms al thai grata wark brocht abovt 

IV. ovyif-rr, Lat. oiyM-o* 

ABOOSEEN, «. The kmprqr, according to 
old people^ Ayn.; q. having die een or eyes 
of ^fyut. 

AROUESYN, «. The lieutenant of a ^aUej; 
he who has tiie £ovemmeut and keeping of 
the slaTOS committed to him. 

**Sono ^ter thair amnrall at Ifanee$ [Kanti;] thair 
flrit 8ahe waa anajg, and a gloriooa painted Ladia waa 
Moehl in to be kioait, and amongeat ntheria waa pre- 
aoBted to one of the Soottia men then chainrad. He 
gantOlie -aaid, TrMe me nci ; ntcke an idolk k ocatr- 
sU; mid tkauf Ctrl will not tuieheit. The FalnMie, and 
^ ^ryuem, with two Oificiera, haTins the cheif 
diairge of all aoche matten, aaid, Thow mM kandie tf . 
And 80 th^ TiolenUie thniiat it to hia faioe, and pat it 
betwix hia nanda, who aeing the extremitie, tnke the 
idoOop and advyaitUe luiking about, he caiat it in tha 
varer, and aaid, Lat our Ladit now mve kineff; teke 
<i tMchi aneuehe^ ht hir Inmt to mcyme, Efter that waa 
DO Soottia man nzgit with that idolatrie/* Knox, p. 
83. MS. i. id. Ar^uUer, MS. ii. and London edit. 

I have giTen thia jpaaaage fully, not only aa enter- 
taining^ bat aa ahewinff the integrity and undaunted 
Slrit of our Scottiah Reformera, eren in the de^i of 
yeiaity, when in the atate of galley-alavea. Knox 
does not mention the name of thia penon. But the 
•tofy haa atrong traita of reaemblance to himaelf. 

Ft, aryontm^ id. Satellea remigibna r^gendia ae 
enatodiendia propoaitua. Diet. Trev. 

Allied to thia la A. Bor. •'arffOMiet, ahipa ;** Oroae. 
Thia aetaia to be a rery ancient word. There haa 
ttobably been an O. Fr. term, aijpifyinff a ahip^ near- 
Ij of the aame form with that atill uaea in the l^orth 
of S. For L. B. argU oocun in the aame aenae. It ia 
iiaad by Ore^. Tunm. Argi§ hand modica mereibna 
referta per Cgerim vehebatur. It had occumd to me 
that the name had probably originated from the cele- 
brated Argo, the ahip^ of the i4r|^naata, in which Jaaon 
Bailed to gat poaa eeri on of the golden fleece. And I 
find that thia very idea ia thrown out by Du Cance. 
Tlie word may have been introduced into Tnneo oy 
the inhabitante of MarMillea, who, it ia weU known, 
wen a Greek colony. 

^ARGUMENT, s. A piece of English, 
dictated to boys at school^ to be turned mto 
Latin ; the sobject of a versioni AbercL 

To ABOUMENT, v. a. To prove, to shew. 

*'lVeath it ia, the kirii teatifeia to the oongr«^tion 
k oertifiia, quhilk ia autentik acripture, quhilk ia 
Boeht: qohilk argwneniU nocht that the acripture 
takia anthoritie of the kirk.** Kennedy, Croaraguell, 
p. 109. 

ABIT, preL Tilled, eared. V. An, Abb, v. 

ABK. MEAir>ABK, 8. A lai^ chest for 
holding meal for a family on a farm, S. 

** A' the meal-gimela i' the country wadna atand it, 
tot abee the wee bit meal-ark o' Chapelhope.** Brow- 
nie of Bodabeck, i. 12. 

ABK, «. A lai^ chesL especially for hold- 
ing com or meal ; S. Lancash. 

—Ana ark, ana almnr, and laidills twa— 

Bannatjfne Poewu, 169. at 4. 
Behind tha ark that hads your meal 
Yell Snd twa itanding corkit welL 

Jtamm/§ Poont, iL 027. 

no word ia alao need in old deeda, for that kind of 
box uaed in lake^ ponda, Ac. for catching eeto. Thia 
ia called an eet-art, 

A.-S. arte, tree, a coffer, a cheat; Atom, area; 
Sa.-0. orifc; Lat. area. In John, zii. 6. where we 
lead, *'Ho had the bag,** the word aria ia uaed by 
Ulphilaa, aa denoting a cheat or caaket for containing 
money. Gael, arc, id. 

Abk of a mill| «• The place in i:vhich the 
centre wheel runs, S. 

ABE-BEEN, a. The bone called the os 
pubiSf S. B. 

To ABLE, V. a. 1. To give an earnest of 
any kind, S. 

2. To give a piece of money for confirming a 
bargaini S. 

3. To pnt a piece of money into the hand of a 
seller, at entering upon a bargain, as a 
security that he shall not sell to another, 
while he retains this money, S. 

**The achireffe auld eacheit all ffudea, quhilkia ar 
foreatalled, coft, or arled be forestallen, and in-biinff 
the twa pirt thereof to the Kingia vae, and the thriu 
part to hxmaelfe." Skene. Verb. Sign. R. 1. a. 

Aa arled ia diitinguiahed from c^, the meaning 
would aeem to be, tmit the gooda may be eacheated, 
although not actually purchaaed by a foreataller, if 
the vender be in terma with him, or ao engaged that 
he muat give him the refuaal of the commodity. . 

L. B. arrhart, arrfaia aponaam dare; Du CauAe. 
Subarrart waa uaed in the aame aenae. Si quia oe- 
ponaaverit uzorem, vel aubarraverit.— Julian Fon- 
tif . Deer. Salmaa. Not. in JuL Capitol. 254. Fr. 
arrher, arrtr, to give an eameat. Diet. Trev. Arri, 
"beapoken, or for which eameat haa been given,** 
Cotgr. V. the «. 

ABLES, Erlis, Arlis, Ablis-penkie, 
AiRLE-PENKY, «• 1. An eamest, of what- 
ever kind ; a pledge of f nil possession. 


AftL [60] 

TUt WM bol «rlfi for to t«U 
Of inlbviwiM, thAl oftyp toU. ^^, ^ ^, 

ITyni^iiiS tUL 87. 31. 

OfUigiidBwfliootoriudLoidAlioM ^ , 
BMlorii tho BMrito with gnwt in «<u of riow. 

Tht kMitfoti ft tilst of the •wetnes that is in 

«f tto joy whilk is in tho lif a euerUtting. 

«Mil ii the only arfiv-pcimy of that full and 

fWp qnhilk nnll ud bodia in that life ahall 

Aad the arlk-pennie (m yee knaw) mann be e 

the oowme, and ibf the natoie of the rest of the 

,** Brace** SennL on the Sacxament, 1590. Sign, 

&i.a.k • \ 

B«e tak* thia gqwd, and never want 
iMMrii to nr y)m orink and rant ; 
And tidfl iaViran arU-pennp 
Ve what I afterward design ye. 

• "* ii. 561. 

no wmd wrU§ m still need, in this genend sense, in 
wkar eoBter sati on. 8. 

^Tkf hari may be biyth for wordly thingM, because 
thon art an earthlie bodie. A king may rejoyce in a 
"^^ ^ -BSb fte. but if they be not taine out of God*8 
,m oriemnmiM </^heanenly and spirituall be- 

_,_ ^ Hie qiiiite of Christ shall not rejoice in thee.** 

BoUsek OB I Thes. p. 300, 301. 

«<Ptal aaiesin another place, that the spirit ia given 
thse m an arUmemny of thy saluation.— Thou loees 
the mrkipmmk if thon make him sad.** Ibid. p. 317. 

S. A piece of money given for confirming 
a bargain, S. This is evidently a more 
leiliicted use of the term ; althoogh that 
in which it generally occors, in its simple 
states in onr eld writings. 

**ABd that thay diligentlie inquyre, gif ony maner 
ef n tT"*^* gefis otUm or money on ony manor of fische, 
^mI ffii pM*«« to the mercat^ to the effect, that the 
samin may 1m sanld upone ane hiear price.** Acts Ja. 
IV. 1540. e. 78w edit. 1566. 

Mj^ buying and selling 'is effectuallie and per- 

it tm eompleit, after that the contractors are agreid 

' tiM prioe ;— quhen the arlU (or OodC§ pennie) 

i be the buyer, to the seller, and is accepted be 

^ Beg. Maj. b. iii. c. 10. e. 2. 4. 

M^iihsB CM^M are given and taken ; gif the buyer 
wiD pMse fra the contract, he may doe the samine 
irith tiMoU ef his ark$r Ihid.%.%. 

Bslh orieB and arUs-jtenny are used in this sense, A. 
B^. The latter is de&ied by Phillipe, **a word used 
IB aoHM Dtfts of England, for earnest-money given to 

i. A piece of money, put into the hands of a 
sdkr, when one besins to cheapen any 
commodity ; as a plecbe that the seller shall 
nbl strike a bargain with another, while he 
retains the arU* in his hand, S. 

Ike wmd m need in this sense, moet commonly in 
fain or public markete, e^ecially in buying and sell- 
imm h nt »» or cattle. Where a multitude are assem- 
ySdy ^i» plan is adopted for preventing the interfer- 
' eaee of o&ers, who might incline to purchase, while 
the Vnyer and seller were on terms. The oeneral 
ntt iadeed, is, that no other interferes, while he 
knows thai the vender retains the. arUs ; but waito 
tiD he see whether the bargain be concluded or broken 

eft V.the». 

Thie wmd ie evidently derived from Let. arrhabo, 
which the B wn ^» f abbreviated into arrha. It de- 


Boled an eameet or pledge in genend. It was very 
often need to signify the earnest, which a man gave 
to the woman iniom he espoused, for the confirma- 
tioo of the contract between them. This, as we 
leem from Pliny, was a ring of iron. For the an- 
eiont Romans were long prohibited to wear rings of 
any other metal. Hist. L. 33. c. 2. In the middle 
Mee, the term seems to have been principally used 
in this sense. V. Du Cange, v. Arra. 

The term was employed with respect to contraets-of 
eny kind. When a bargain was made^ an earnest 
(arrka. or arrhabc) was mven. But this, it has been 
said, was not to confirm, but to prove the obligation. 
V. Adama' Rom. Antiq. p. 236. 

The eostom of giving aWex, for oonfirmmg a bargain, 
has pravailed pzetty generally among the Gothic na- 
liowL It is still preserved in Sweden. That money 
k called /ric<f.«dB//tM(;r, which, after the purchase of 
honsee, is given to the Magistrates, as an earnest of 
Mcnre possession; Christopuer, ap. Ihre, vo. FruL 
The term/rkf seems here to signify privilege, secuntv. 
Loboenins says, that whatever one has bought, if the 
boriEain be confirmed by an earnest (arra), it cannot 
be dissolved ; Suec. Leg. Civ. p. 60. Other Swedish 
writers give a diffeient account of this matter. It is 
said, in one of their Uws, " If the vender has chanrad 
his mind, let him restore the double of that which he 
hss noeived, and repay the earnest ;" Jus Bircens, c. 6. 
In our own country, a servant who has been hired, and 
has leceived arles, is supposed to have a right to break 
the engagement, if the earnest be returned withm 
twenty-four hours. This, however, may have no uUi«r 
miction than that of custom. .,...'■ 

Anltts Qellius has been understood as if he hsd 
Tiewed arrhabc **as a Samnite word." But his 
hmgnage cannot by any means bear this construction. 
Cum tantus, inquit, arra6p penes Samnites Populi 
Romani eeset : Airabonem dixit DC obsides^ et id 
malnit quam piffnMS dicere, quoniam vis hujus vocabuli 
in ea sententia gravior acriorque est. Sed nunc arrabo 
in eordidis verbis haberi cceptus, so multo rectius 
videtur arra ; quanquam arram quoque veteree s»i)e 
dizemnt Noct. Attic. Lib. 17. c. 2. Ed. Colon. 1533. 
In this chapter he gives some quotations, which he had 
noted down in the course of reading, from the first 
book of the Annals of Q. Claudius ; for the purpose of 
marking the singular words employed by that historian, 
or the peculiar senses in which he had used thoee that 
were eommon. Among these he mentions arrhabo. 
"When the Samnites, ho says, were in possession^ of 
so great an arrabo ol," or "from the Romans. — 
Theee are the words of Claudius, and all that Gellius' 
qnotes from him. Then follows his own remark on 
ttiie use of the term. " He has called the six hundred 
hoctagee an arrabo^ chooeing rather to do so, than to 
nae the word pignut; because the force of this term 
(snabo) in that connexion, is much greater. But now 
men begin to view it as rather a low word, Ac. 

It is evident that neither CUudius, nor Gellius, gives 
the meet distant hint as to arrhabo beine of Samnite 
origin. Both refer to that disgraceful amement 
wluch the Romans, under the consulate of T. Vetu- 
ritts and Sp. Poethumius, after their army, hsd been 
indoeed near the Caudine Forks, made with the 
Samnites, when they delivered up six hundred knights 
as hoetages. Liv. Hist. Lib. 9. c. 5. They assert that 
the Samn*^*^ were in poesession of an arrabo, not 
literally however, but more substantially, when they 
had so many honourable hostages. ... 

The Romans, it would appear, borrowed this 

term immediately from the Greeks, who used op^M^wir 

in the same sense. They also probably borrowed 

from the Greeks the custom of giving a ring as a 
' spousal pledge. This custom prevailed among the 

lAtter Greeks at least. For Hesychius gives the de- 




ri^ilJMi of tjffufimnmicm, to KU9opfiM, tPCpfUL Mid wtpUh* 
imr% whieh wort different kinds of rin£^ commonly 

f^TOB M pledgee. . V. CeeMibon. Not. m CapitoUn. 
87. 80 doee ie the connexion between die Or. 
terai end Heb. pSD^, tuhon^ thet we can eceroely view 
it ■• tiM effeet of mere eooident. ■ This is the word 
need to denote tlie pledge given bv Judah to Temar, 
in token of kie detennination to fulfil hie engagement 
to keri Qen. zzzriii. 17, IS, 20. It mav aleo be ob- 
■ er r ed, tkat the firrt thing she asked in pledge was his 
■gnet. The word ie from 1^)^, arab, negotiatua eet, 
qmondit^ fide Jvssit^ fidem interposuit. 

AHm ie a dimiantive from Lat. arra, formed, as in 
many other caeesi by adding the termination /<, q. ▼. 
F^. orrei^ ^'^^ ^ acknowledgee the same origin; 
M well ■• 8a.-0. .emesi; Dan. trnitit C. B. em, ernes, 
Ir. aJme^A, althongh rather more varied. Shaw in- 
deed mentaone larfais as a GaeL word, aignifjfin^, an 
eemeet penny. But it eeema Tery donbuul if it be 
not a b oti o ne d term ; as there appears no veetige of 
it in Ir., nnleei nvicae-oim, to lend or borrow, be 

In 8w. an earnest is also called fauiepening, from 
fuula, to eonfirm, and pening, (whence our penny); 
and Chtd^pmmff, m in Beg. Maj. Oo(t$ penny. It re- 
-* I tkie name, according to Loocemus, either be- 
the money given was viewed as a kind of reli- 

gions pledge of the folfilment of the baigain, or sp- 

' I for the nee of the poor. Antiq. Su.-0. 

p. 117. The last is the only reason given oy Ihre, 


and the moot probable one. In the same sense he 
thinks that A.-& Qftdgyfd^ was used, an offering to 
Qod, money devoted to pioue uses ; Qerm. OoIUm geld, 
Vr. demkr 3« Djkm, L.R denariuM DeL V. DuCange. 
In 8a.-0. this earnest was also denominated lUhkop, 
Udkop^ (ami pignns emptionis, Due ;) Oenn. lUhop, 
lernkw if; from Ud^ sicera, strong drink ; Moes-O. Uithu^ 
M. and AeiL emptio ; o. the drink taken at making a 
bargain. This term, Ihre says, properly denotee we 
money allotted for compotation between the buyer 
and eeUsr. We find it need in a passage formerly 
mmted. When it is required, that he who chimgee 
Sia nund aa to a bargain, should " reoay the earnest," 
the nhrase is, ({mmUs UihkopU; Jus. Bircens. ubi. sup. 
In S. it is stul very common, eepecially amons the 
lower olssses, for the buyer and seller to drinl to- 
Mthar on their bai]^ain ; or, as they express it, to the 
mek of their baissm. Nay, such a firm hold do im- 
proper fiuat ni n s take of the mind, that to this day many 
cannot even make a bargain without drinking; and 
wonld aearoely aoconnt the proffer serious, or ue bar- 
gain valid, that were made otherwise. 

ARLIGH^ Arlitch, adj. Sore, fretted, pain* 
tvlf S. D. Periiaps from Su.-G. oiy, iratus, 
orya, Inedeie. It mar be derived, indeed, 
from aerVf cicatrix, whence aerrady vulne- 
imtns; Dan. arrig^ grievous, troablesome. 

y. arr. 

ARLY,acfo. Earlj. 

— He wmbetUnksad him, at the b#t; 
la till his hsft na wndercstt, 
That the Kiitg osd in customs ay 
fbr to rym oity ilk dar. 
And pass weill fStf fta his menye. 

Sut^ouT, V. 664. BIS. 

IsL florCa, Bsane^ Q. Andr. p. 14. But this is rather 
fnm A.-& mHUce^ id. 

ARMYN9 Abmtko, «• Armour, arms. 

Bsnrik wes teas, sad staffjrt tyn. 
With BMn, sad wittaiU of amym. 

BtuUm', ZTiL S64. MS. 

Fouiteae hundyrs bale mrmynyiM 

Of the gyft of hU tord the Kyngis— 

He browcht WytUown, Ix. €1 XL 

ARMING, 9. Ermine* L. B. armtti-ea, id. 

"Item ane pair of wyd slevis of armmg flvpand bak- 
ward with the bordour of the same.'* GoU. Invento- 
ries, A. 1561, p. 128. 

ARMLESS, adj. Unarmed, destitute of war- 
like weapons. 

"The Oldtown people— came all running— with 
Bome few muskete and hagbutte, others with a ruety 
sword, others with an hcMlless spear. The laird ii 
Craigievar took up all both good and bad, and divided 
them among his own eanmeu soldiers." Spalding*a 
Troubles, i. 100, 161. 

ARMONY, 9. Harmony. 

Diik bene my moss with dokmms drmony. 

Domg. Virg,'VnL 88. 61 

ARMOSIE, adj. 

*' Ane lanff lows gowne of blak armosie taffette with 
a pasment of gold about it.*' Inventories, A. 1678| p. 

Fr. armomn itself signifiee taffeta. It is defined in 
Diet. Trev. as a soeciee of taffeta which comee from 
Italy and Lyons. Huet says that armoitfta is for ormoi* 
SMI, because it came originally from the isle of Ormitf. 

This, then, eeems to be the same with *' Ormaite 
tafiatis." Chalm. Mary. V. Orkaibk. 

ARN, 9. The alder; a tree. S., pron. in some 
counties, q. arin. 

Heb. pH, aran^ is the name given to the wild ash 
tree with broad leavee ; Lat. wm-ua, Fr. erene. 

** Feam is evidently derived from the am or alder 
tree, in Gaelic FearnnJ" P. Feam, Roes. Statist Aoct. 
iv. 288. 

"The only remedy which I have found effectual in • 
this disorder is, an infusion of am or alder*bark in 
milk." Prise Essays, HighL Soc. S. U. 216. 

C. R £/eni, gwemen^ Arm. vera, guem; Genn. 
erlen-baum ; Fr. aic/fi« ; Lat. oIiims. It seems the samo 
tree which in the Weet of S. is also called etkr and 

ARN, V. 9ub9t. Are ; the third pers. plur. 

Thus to wode am thai went, the wlonksst in wedes ; 
Both the Kyng and the Qnene : 
And all the douchti by dene. 

Sir Oawan and Sir Oct, L 1. 

Women mm bone to thraldom and penance. 

Chameer^ Man ^Imof T. 4706. 

A«-S. ar^n^ sunt. 

ARNOT, 9. Ley Hea] Amotj a stone lying 
in the field, A bero. q. earthrknot t 

ARNOT, 9. The shrimp, a fish ; Aberd. 

ARNS, 9. pL The beards of com, S. B. 
sjrnon. avnu. Franc, am^ id. 

ARNUT, Lousy Arnot, 9. Earth-nut 
(whence corr.) or pig-nat ; Buniam bolbo- 
castanom, or flezaosum, Linn. 

"TaU Oat-Orass, Anglis, Steine$ AmuU or Earth- 
Knts, Scotis." Li^^tfoot, p. 103. 

" Had this husbandry been general in the dear veara, 
the poor had not been redu^ to the necessity of 


[a] ART 


, / MTU rt , id. A. Bor. B^ ** iVarmiil, Mrthnttti** 
Thoiwby. Bay's Lett, p^ w9. Tmit oerdiioaC, id. 

ABOYNT l/Ui^ O. K Shakespear. For a 
ooojectnre as to the originy Y. Bunt, v. 

ABONy t. The plant caJIed Wakerobin, or 
CiickooVpuit» Anim macalatmiii Linn. 
Teriotd. Sw. AroMH>ertf icL 

Enors; Aberd. Beg. 

At a distance, so as to 


ABOUME» adv. 
make way. 



air Tridrm, ^ lU. 
Iftltb or rmthor rmm loeai ; «» mm. 

ABB| #• A scar. Podt<ifT«» the marks left 
bj the small-poz, S^ also, Lancaah. Sa.-G. 
osrr, Id. air, ar^ A. Bor. arr, id. 

ToABBAGK V . Abas. 

ABBAN-AEE, t. The srockled diver, Mbt- 
gu$ $uUaiu»9 Bninnich. Jr. Loss. Donbar- 
tons. Statist. Ace. zriL 251. 

ARRANGE, t. Arrangement. 

**Im tlM first this ammffe to be maid at lenthe aa- 
•Mnade to tba king of Inglandis fiist writiingis, and 
aD Ttlisria in sehort aad brail, kc Acts Mary 1642, 
Id. 1814^ p. 41^ 

ARRAYED^ varL adj. A term applied to a 
mare when m season, Fife. 

Iliia Booma marsly tbo E. term used in a peculiar 

ARRAS, Abbess, ». The angnlar edge of a 
alone, log, or bc»un. Loth. 

•* Tbo Tsbbtti ol that window would hae look't better, 
gfai tho mason bad ta'en aff the arrcw.** "Thai jambs 
wonid faaTO been as handsome, and would hae been 
aslsr for the bairns, if the arre^ had been tane aff," 
L%. if tho sharp edge had been hewed ofiL 

ARRED, adj. Scarred, having the marks of 
a wound or sore, S. Dan. arred^ id. Hence 
poet-amd, marked bj the small-nox; 
00.-0. hoppatrigy id. variolis notatam habens 
iuimjjBopp being used, bj transposition, for 
pek; Pan. top-arred. 
U. MfT-tt dcatrioes fsoere^ vulnera infligere ; VereL 

ARREIR, adv. Backward. To tyn arreir^ 
laptdly to take a retrograde course. 

Thsa did my poipoee ty* arrvtr. 
The qnhilk war Unginm till declafr. 

XlfMlMy'f Cnspltynit 

Id. ly. omitrtt Lat. a retro. 

ARRONDELL, : The swallow, a bird. 

The itrramCsB, so swifk of lligfat, 
Down on lihe lend ficht Uw<fid Uoht, 
8s toss he was opprest 

AwsTt Pi^ WoCioii's CMIL iL e2L 

IV. atoiMEk, AorsMMIe, Atroadette; from Lai 

ARROW* adj. Averse, lelactant, Aberd.; 
the same with Abch, Aboh, Ac 

—An' rogues o' Jswi, they srs nse orrois, 
Wi^tricks fti' sly. 

Dl ilfMbnoa't /Vmsm^ p. 11& 

TARSE, 9. The bottom, or hinder part, of 
anj thing ; as, a sodb-arse, the bottom of a 
sack, S. 

Abse-Bubd of a cart, the board which goes 
behind and shots it in, S. 

ARSECOCELE, $. A hot pimple on the 
face or anj part of the body, S. B. 

The word seems to have been originallir oonfined to 
pimples on the hips. These majy have been thus de- 
noDunated, because of their rismg in the form of a 
oockle or small sheU ; in the same manner as pimides 
on the fsce are bT Chauosr called uhdku whiU, 
Teat. aen4deffHef taoercalus in sno, Kilian. 

ARSE'-YERSE', t. A sort of spell osed to 

Srevent the hoose from fire, or as an anti* 
ote to Arsanj from which the term is sop- 
posed to be derived, Teviotd. 

Most probably borxowod from England. 

ARSEENE,s. A qoaiL 

Uponn the Mod that I saw, as the sanzare tsoe. 
With grene swmoos on hede. Sir Oswsne the I>mke ; 
TIm itfsems that our man ay piichand in plane. 
Corrector of Kirkine was depit the Ciakt, 

MmUaiB, L 17. 

But the passage has been very inaocnrately tran* 
scribed. It is thus in Bann. MS. 

Upon the sand ytt 1 8aw,ss CAewMrsrvtaoe, 

With grene awmons on hede. Sir Oawane the Drake ; 

The ArMene that oarsMm ay prichand, kc. 

ilisfNOfis might be read awfmomt. Oumum is one 
word, i.e. over-man or arbiter, which oorresponds to 
the office assisned to the CUtik in the following line. 

A.-S. oerscAcji, ootumix, Aelfric* Gloss, abo erae» 
htfm, Psa. cir. 3S. from erte and Acna, q. gallina 

ARSELINS, adv. Backwards, Clydes. S. B. 
Also osed as an adj. 

Thwk lindr to stand up began to trr ; 
But— he fell arulinM back upon his bum. 

itosf 't Mdtnort, p. 43L V. Dird. 

Belff. aenelen^ to flo backwards; aerdeiinsft reoeding ; 
aer9dmek$t (Kilian) backwards. 

Abseliks Coup, the act of falling backwards 
on the hams, Rozb. 

ARSOUN,s. Bottocks. [Saddle-bow— Skeat] 

With that the Kins come hastily, 
And, iatiU hys maiancoly. 
With a trounsoun intill hu neve 
To Schyr Colyne sie dosche he geve. 
That he d jnnyt on his attoun. 

Bsfteur, ztL 127. Edit 179a 

ART, Abd. This termination of many words, 
denoting a particolar habit or affection, is 
analogous to Isl. and Oerm. art, Belg. aari, 






natoret disposition; bb'E. drunkard^ ba$tard; 
Fr. babiUardf a statterer ; S. bombard^ bum- 
bart^ a dn»6^ Uunkarif of a stabbwn dispo- 
sttioo ; hatiardf hastj, passionate. 

ART and JURE. 

*«TluiitaIl bwroiiM and frshaldMrk, tUt arof nib- 
■taniw, mi tlieir ddast MNuii* and Airis to Um iciilii 
fra thai M anoht or nyno ydiis of «^ and till nmaiie 
at the fnuniiMr aeiiua, qnhill thai be ooiii|MBtentlie 
iDQBditto and hano perfita Lalyna ; and thareftir to re- 
thro yeria at the iculia of Art and Jure, ana that 

thai Buy nana knawlege and Tudentanding of the 
lawia.** Acta Ja. IV. iM Sd. 181i» p. 238. 

Ihia phiaae evidently le ap ecta the philoaophical 
nlwna and jnriipnide&oe. Art, however, may include 
maunatiau atnoiea ; aa the phraae, FaeuUiu Ariittm^ 
mchidea grammar, rhetoiie, and phtloaophy. V. Du 
Ottifa^ TO. Ar$, Jwre ia evid«Blly from Lai. ^'ai#-rit. 

ART and PART. Aocessorjr to, S. 

The phraM ia thna defined by the Jndieiona Erakine. 
> **Onemay be siulty of a crime, not only by perpetrat- 
ing i^ bat bv being aooeaaoiy tOb or abetting it ; which 
ia called in tlie Roman law, ope H amtiUo, and in oon, 
wii mid pari, Bj arl ia luaeritood, the mandate, in- 
■tigatinn, or advioe^ that may have been given towarda 
eommittmg the dime ; part ezpreaMa the ahare that 
one takea to himaelf in it, 1^ the aid or aasiitance 
which he givea the criminal in the oommimion of it»*' 
Inatitnte, B. iv. T. 4. a. 10. 

Wyntown aeema to be the oUeat writer who oaea 
thia phiaae. 

Sehyr WOliame Batat gvt for-tU 
Hyi Chapelaae in hva du^aQ 
Donwas cnriTd wytn bok and beU 
Of that nrynnyn. or ony art 
The ByRliape of Abbyrdene alsoa 
He gort eosiyd denwas all tha 
Tbii [othirl oe €ui or sari, or twfke. 
Qert Wya that tyma thia Erie Fatryka. 

Owfkt^ aa denoting frand, or perhapa merely oontriv- 
attML aeema to be aoded aa eiqiletive of art, 

''Qnhen he (Oodowyne) hard the nobiUia lament 
the daith of Alamde the Kinsia brothir, he eit ane 
peoa of brade, St aaid, God git that breid werjr me, 
gif ovir I wea othir art or jpar< of Alamdia ilaach- 
tar t and incontinent he feu down weryit on the 
bnid. Belland. Cron. B. xiL c 8. Ita me auperi 
pane hoc atrangnlenL inonit, at wie auikore Alanidua 
vanano necatna eat x Boetn. 

**Bot gif the other man alledgea that beta arte and 
parte of that thift, and will prone that, conforme to 
the law of the land ; he quha ia challenged, aall defend 
himaalfe be battell, gif he be ane f rie man. *' Beg. Maj. 
B. iv. e. 14. a. 4. — ^Dicat qnod iate ar<fm et partem 
habnit i Lat. copy. 

aciance^ of the art and norl of the cmd act which waa 
done to hia father." Ktwsottie, p. 05. 

Partaker ia aometimea anbatitnted for part. 

**Qii hia maiater or anatenar of thia thief or renar 
fafoaia to do the aamin, [i.e. to deliver him np] : he 
aalbo haldin airt A partaker of his enill deidis, and 
aalba aoeoait thairfoir, aa the principall theif or reifar." 
Acta Ja. v. 1515. e. 8. Ed. 1566. 

The phiaae ia aometimea partly explained by a 
plaonawn immediately following. 

**The committer of the alanchter, blond or inva- 
iion, in maaer foraaaid; or being ahip part^ red or 

coanaell thereof, aall bo condemned.** Ja. VL FarL 
14. c 210. A. 1504. Mnrray* 

In the London edit, of Bachanan'a Detection, tlie 
phr aae. Act and Part oooaia twice in the indictmenta. 
[Thia ia one proof among many, that thia translation 
waa made by an Englishman.] Arte ia anbatitnted in 
the Scottiah editb of the following year. 

Thia phiaae, aa Enkine aaya, expreaaea what ia 
called in the Roman law, epe ei consiiio. It most be 
observed, however, that the langnage ia inverted. 
Whence the expreaaion originated, cannot be well con- 
jectured. It cannot reasonably be supposed that the 
word art ham any relation to the v. Airt, to direct. 
For besides that this verb doe^ not appear to be an- 
cient, it woald in thia caae be admitted, that thoae 
who need the Lat. phraae formerly quoted, artem et 
partem, misunderstood the proper sense of S. art. The 
phraseology does not seem to have been used, even in 
the middfe agea. The onlv aimilar expression I have 
met with ia Sw. rood oeh daad. Ttena na^om med 
road oeh daad, to aaaist one with advice and mtereat ; 
Wid^gr. Lax. Le. rvcf and deed, 

ARTAILYE, a. Artilleiy ; applied to offen- 
sive weapons of whatever kind, before the 
introduction of fire-arms. 

The Sotheron man maid grat defens that tid. 
With artaiige, that fellottoa waa to bid. 
With awblaster, gayn ve, and stanye Cut, 
And hand gnnnya rycht brymly out thai 

v. Abtuxixd. 

M^aOaoi; viL 904. MS. 

ARTALLIEy Abtailub, s. Artilleiy. 

"He— canaed maaaonea — ^big ane great atranth, cal- 
led the outward blokhoua, and eamisched the same 
with artallie, ponder, and bnllettia/' Pitacottie's Cron. 
p. 310. 

"Or they cam to the craiga of Corstorphine, they 
heard the artoOfieaohott on both aidea." Ibid. p. 325. 

ARTATION, s. Excitement, instigation. 

"Attonr hia (Macbeth's) wyfe impaeient of lang 
tary (aa all women ar) speciaUy qnhara thay ar deainia 
of ony pnrpoe, gaif hym srat artation to peraew the 
thrid weird, that echo micht be ane queue, calland him 
oftymea febyl, cowart, A nocht desirus of honouris, 
sen he dnrst not aaaailye the thyng with manheid A 
enrage qnhilk ia offerit to hym be Muinolenoe of for- 
toun.** Bellend. Cron. R xii. c. 3. Inatigabat — ^in- 
citat ; Booth. L. B. ortolio, from ario need for orefo, 
etre, to constrain. 

— "And to geif thame artaOoune to Invaid hia hie- 
nea, that thai mychte deceme quhether it ware maire 
ganand to fecht with him or deaist tharfra." Acta Ja. 
y. 1628, Ed. 1814, p. 327. 

ARTY, AiRTiE, adj. Artfnl, dextrous, in- 
genious, Aberd. Loth. 

Teutb aerdighf ingenioan^ solera, axgntua ; Dan. or- 
tiff. id. Isl. artug-r, artificioaua. 

ARTHURYS HUFE. The name given by 
Douglas to the constellation Arcturus. 

Of auary ataraa tha twynkling notis ha. 
That in tha ttil haain moue cours wa aa, 
Arthurpt ht^e, and ffvadee bataiknyng rmne, 
Bjma Watling etnte, the ifome and tha Okake wane. 


In giving it this name, the translator evidently al* 
Indea to that famous buildinff which in later timea haa 
been called Artkur^e Oon. It appears from Juvenal, 
that, among the Romana in hia time, Aretwue was 




M A pvoptr BMB% firaai tluil of Hm €0mI«1- 

TUi. Umb, b«iv tiie oruan of tiie iimm Aiihnr, 
M «nd anooff tho LAtina, Douglas, wlioa ho 

wilk thk atar, nakaa a tnoaition to that celebrated 
Bkitiah prinoa wht^ at leaat in writingi of ronaaee, 
boto the Bamo aamo ; at onoo a oomplimont to At- 
tiMV. aad to hia omi oonntiy. By a poetical liberty, 
wbicb bo ebima a right to oae eren aa a tranalator, be 
fhroa tho Btitiab prinoe a plaee in the heaTeaa, along 
with Jnlina and other heroea of antianit^. He giTea 
bim idao a JUj^or aocdbim there; in auuaion, aa would 
Maa^ to that fine remnant of antiquity, which abont 
thia tiDM began to be wcribed to Arthnr. V. Uoif. 

ABTILLIED^ parCpa. ProYided with ar- 

**Ho waa ao weliarfiainf and manned thai they 
anal not moll wiib him." Pitaoottie, p. 124. Fir. 
frtff flr, to fnmiah with ordnance. 

ABTOWy Art thou ; used inteirogativelj* 

ITaatnw ao mynde of Inib, oohare b thy auke I 
Or mitm aeke, or amyt witn jeloosyel 

[m^« «iiMr. tt. m 

grtow, beLunyf 
r«aBMM oJMf Otrnpin, «, m. K, M, MUfm, 

lb Urn I fj^ ftiU haidlly, 
parte of S. 

U. eifni id. The Torb and pron. are often con- 
leinad in 8. in ooOoqnial language^ aa in Gorm. and 

ARYALy Akyh^uppeb, b. The 
giyen to the snpper or entertainment after 
a faneral, in the western parts of Boxb. 

AfinU^ a fmieraL Arvill Supper, a feast 
made at f anerab. North. Orose. 

''Ik the North thia [the fnneral] feaat ia caned an 
~ V mrvU-mtpfer; and the loaree that are eome- 
diatribntea among the poor, arvol-AreadL** 
Donce'a IIlaatratiooa» u. 203. 

The laaiaed writer coi^ecturee that arval ia deriTod 
fnm mmt loot Teat, term that indicated a funeral pile 
OB whidi tho body was bomed in times of Pagaaiam ; 
aa Id. oeHB aignifiea the inaide of an oven. At armU 
m nndonbtedly the aame with Sa.-0. arfod, ailioer> 
■raaiv oooTiTiom fonebre^ atque nbi oemebator luere- 
4itaa^ calebimtam; Dire, to. Atrf, p. 106. It haa 
•fidanti^ originated from the circnmatanoe of thia 
antailaiiiinent being given by one who entered on the 
poaaeaaioa of an inlheritance ; from arf hereditaa, and 
mH oonviT i nm, primarily thedeeignation of the berenge 
w^iach we call Me. 

Under Aartmoi (to. Aar, annua, p. 57), Ihre re- 

that foneral ritea were obeenreo, in the time of 

on the day of interment, afterwarda on the 

WK&k daT. then on the thirtieth, and at length, if it 

Mreeaoio to the hein, after a year had expired ; 

and that on thia occarion, the relatione of the deoeeaed 

diridod the inheritance among them. It waa nniTer- 

aally nnderatood, indeed, that no hair had a right to 

take poaeeeaion of hia inheritance, before giving the 

1 P M rf or fnneral f eaet. 

Ibre alao dbeenree, that the ritee of the thirtieth day 
were caDod traeUugundf Le. literally, three decadea, 
aad maamodMmoif from maanaif a monUi, and wmI time. 
Ab the latter term ia obriously analogooa to O. E. 
mmtkU mind (Sn..-0. maamuU-moisQei}, perhape in the 
oomapondent term Traetbiffund we haTe aomething 
tha* may throw light on oar TrttUai. May it not 
intimate^ that the UUrtjf maaaee, indicated by thia 
tenn, were aaid on thirty aucoeaaiTe daya te rm i n ati n g 

with the wumih'9 mUtd^ or foneral feaat celebrated 
thirty daya after death T 

The term arval may haTe been left in the north of 
B. by the Dance (who write it arfw^j. For although 
A-S. yrf denotee an inheritance, I tee no Tcetige of 
the oompoeite word in thia language. Id. erfe ia aynon. 
with arval; Parentalia; ttd drtkkkt trjl^ conTiTando 
parentare defunctia ; O. Andr. p. 15, 16. 

Wormiua giTce a particalar accoont of the Arjfueoel^ 
'* a aolemn feaat, which kings and noblee celebrated in 
bonoar of a deceased parent, when they succeeded to 
the kingdom or inheritance. For," he adds, "it was 
not permitted to any one to succeed to the deceased, 
unices he first received the nobles and hia friends to a 
feast of this description. One thin^ principally attend- 
ed to on thia occaaion, waa that, m honour of the de- 
fnnet, the heir taking the lead, vast bowls were drunk, 
and hia auccessor bmmd himself bv a tow to perform 
eome memorable achievement.'* Monom. Danic p. 
96b 37. 

AS, ccnjn Than, S. 

"Better be sanaie [aonaie] a» aoon op;** S. Pxov. 
"That ia, better good fortune, than great induatry;** 
Kelly, pw 65. 

"ks in Scotch," he aubjoina, "in compariaon an* 
awera to than in English.** N. 

I have only obeenred another proof of this anoma- 
looa uae of the partide ; "Better be dead cu out of the 
fsahion $** Feignaon'a S. Prov. p. 0. 

Nor ia far more frequently need in thia aenae. 

AS| Aas^ A88E| Alse, «• Ashes ; pL AssU, 

Bemember that thou art betas, 
Aod sail in at rstuni sgane. 

Jhimbar, Bamnatjfnt Ppcsw, p. 87, 

EfUr aU was fdlin in powderand in at, 
▲ad the grete hete of ilsmbii qaeochit was, 
The rdiquii and the drery ameris syne 
Ihay sloluiit, and gan weschin with saeit wyae. 

ikny. KtiyO, 170, 62. 

ye canld acnt of "noy, and ftamhis bajth. 

And eitreme end of cnntr6 folkis, here I 

Drawis yon to witnes.— — JhUL 5S, 85. 

"I sd speik to the Lord, quhou be it I am hot 
paldir ande osm. It is viytin in the 17 cheptour of 
Bccleeiaaticua, Omnef komme» terra H einis, ai men ar 
eird and oImt.** CompL 8. p. 238. 

Am, S. In some coontiee pron. aits/ A. Bor. oas, 
Moee-iG^. omo, Alem. atea. Germ, and Bdg. aacAf, 
Sa.-0. and laTr^dta. Some trace theee terma to Or. 
•tOf polvia ; othera to Heb. |0M aetk, igni$; athet be* 
ing the eubatance to which a body is reduced by^re. 

Asshole, 6. The place for receiving the ashes 
under the grate* Isl. auagrua; Sw. askt^ 
grafj q. the grave for the ashes. 

ASC£NSEy 8. Ascent ; Lat. etseens^, 

tlus Isope pivisop] ii humilitie. 

Right Uw 

Pomu Ittk CenL y, 114. 

ASCHET, 9. A hirce flat plate on which 
meat is broaght to the table, S. Fr. asnetUf 
** a trencher-plate," Gotg. 

It is most probable that Fr. attriHU is of Goth, orisin, 
and that it had been introduced by the Franka. For 
Ifel. aak-r and Su.-0. ank, denote a veeeel. Thua Id. 
teniu Oik ia expl.; Vasculum in quo bntyrum asserva- 
tnr, Verd. It ia tranalated bv Sw. 6yMa, a pail. 
Ihro rendera asit pyzia ; giving Mod. Sax. aachtr as 




To ASCBIVE, AsoBiUBy Abobyye, «• a. 
1. To ascribe. 

**AIWt thii word Iw oommoii to both, yot moat 
wmriy H ia aacriued to the bodies of tbe godly.** 
BdSoek OQ 1 Th«. p. 200. 

S. To reckoiii to account. 

— *' Hii loirMid fuder intromiaMOim ealbe tucryfrii 
kk paymont and aatiafactioun of hia principall aoamea 
pio tanto.** A«ta Ja. VL 1021, EiL 181i» p. 000. 

BamM^yna writea tUkrjfve, Trana. p. 239. 

F^. adicHr% "to anroll, rogiatar, aoooantk lodum 

otiMia;" Ootgr. 

ASEEy t. The angle contained between the 
beam and the handle, on the binder aide of 
a plough, Orkn^ synon. Nick. 

hSL a» afgnfflw a beam ; trmba, alao pertica. EejMt' 
bi^ ia q. B. eye, "tbe eye of the beam." In Dan. 
tbia woQld be ooa-efe^ inlaL aas-iiuya. 

AflBHOLE, 9. 1. The place for receiFing the 
aahesy Ac. Y. under Aa, Ass, &c. 

S. A round excavation in the ground out of 
doors, into which the ashes are carried from 
the hearth ; Meams. 

ASHIEPATTLE, «. A neglected child, 

Id. jMtfi aignifiea paeralna ; Haldoraon. Aa atha ia 
mam^ what if the tenn denote a ekUd allowed to lie 
aaong atkut 8UUa or liffgia i cuiku, to ait or lie among 
tiio aAea^ waa a phraae naed by the ancient Ootha, ex- 
maiive of great contempt. Ask^, uaed aa a amgle 
iieaignatinn, bad a aimilar meaning, qni cineribua op- 
pedn; Ihn* Tbia kind of phnaeology eridently 
Offigiiiitted from their bayinff ao low an eatimate of an 
VBwariike life, or peaceful oeath. V. Stras-Dxatb. 

ASHTPET, adj. Employed in the lowest 
kitchen woric, Ayn. 

**Wliao I reached Mra. Damaak'a honae, ahe waa 
flooa to bed, and nobodv to let me in, dripping wet as 
1 waa, bat an eukffpei laaaie that helpa her for a aer- 
" Steamboat, p. 250. V. AasiBPn. 

ASH-EETS, s. pL The name given to the 
aeed-yessels of the ash, S.; also Ashen^key. 

**The flold ia aheUed down when yon command, aa 
iMt aa I naTO aeen the ash4xif§ fall in a f roaty morning 
in October.** Talee of my Landknd, L 141. 

Beid writea it Xyf#. '* The aevecal wayea of increaa- 
i*g tbam are^ firat by aeeds, kyes, kemeUa, nnii, 
ateoea.** Scota Gardener, p. 55. 

'*The Adi, only raiaed by the aeed, called theiiaAeii. 
Aqr.** B. Haddington, Forest Trees, p. 12. 

*'It ia raiaed from the icy, as the ash,"ftc. lb. p. Ifi. 

dUffer-inm, the keys or seeds of an aeh-tree, Kent ; 
Oroaa ; q. Ilo they derive their namea from eiUver, a 

ASHLAB, adj. Hewn and polished, applied 
to stones, S. 

'*I)r. Onild goea on moat malicioosly, and canaea 
oaat down the stately wall standing within the bishop's 
cl oae^ eorioosly builded with hewn stone, and — brake 
down the osAfar work about the turrets, &c." SpakUno. 

ii. m. *^* 

Johna. gJTea thia, althoogh withoat any example, aa 
SB B. wora, but escpL it in a aenae qnite diiferent from 
that In wUeh it ia uaed in 8.| '*Freeatonea as they 

out of the quany, of different lengths, breadtha, 
and thickni ^ 

Vt, ai$tdk, a ahin^ q. amootbod Uke a ahingle? 

ASIDE^ s. One side. leh aside^ every side. 

Swfche meting nas aerer made, 
With sorwe, en ich ande. 

Sir mdrtm, p. 17. 

AnatojpMia to the modem phrase Uka side; only that 
o, signifying one, ia conjoined to the noun. 

AaiDB, prq}. Beside, at the side of another, 

She op*t the door, the let him in, 
He eoist sside his dreepin' plaidie ; 
^ Blaw your wsrrt, ye rain an' win*, 
** Sines, llsggie, now I'm in luide ye.** 

TanmakOrs FO€wu, p, 163. 

It aeema fenned q. on side, like E. aioay. 

ASIL, AbiIt-Tooth, s. The name given to 
the grinders, or dentea fiwlareSf those at the 
extremity of the jaw, Roxb. Assal-Tootk, 

Thia muat be radically the aame with Su.-0. oaaef. 
For ooBeUamd denotea a grinder, dena molaris; Dire. 
He riews the word as a aerivatiye from oxe boe, tau- 
xus ; addinff thia Query, la it becauae they meet nearly 
raaamble the teetn of oxenf He ^vee A. Bor. axeh 
ioolk as ajmon. But Groae writee it assle-4ootk, Ihre 
also mennons Isl. iaek^l, id. According to the ortho- 
^phy of O. Andr. this is jaxL He derivee it from 
jadlt which denotee a failure of the teeth ; althoug:h 
the idea is directly the reverse. Perhape the origin is 
IsLf'odt-a continue agitare. 

Tnis would suggest the same idea with the Lat. de- 
signation moiari»t as nsferring to the constant action 
01 a miln. It may be observed, however, that in the 
Moes-Q. version of Mark ix. 42. cutUu quaimut is used 
in rendering Xi^m fttfXurot, a mill-stone; *Srhence,** says 
Junius, '*I conclude that the Goths, with whom omUh 
denotes an aaa, called a miU-stone tutUu quaimu$ in imi- 
tation of the Greeka, by whom the upper mill-stone 
waa denominated orot, i.e. the aaa." Uoth. Gl. Were 
we certain that thia idea were well-founded, asaai 
would, according the uae of the term in the oldeat 
Goth, dialect, be equivalent to mo/ortf, or grindtr, 

ASTS]&y8.'pL Asses. 

**Thatr bora ar litill mair than cuvyaif.** Bellend. 
Deecr. Alb. c. 15. Fr. cum<, Lat. an»-iu^ id. 

ASK, A WSK, 9. Eft, newt ; a kind of lizard, 
S. caker^ Lancash. 

Be-west Bertane b lyand 
All the landvs of Iruuide : 
That is ane wnde of nobyl ayre, 
. Of fyrth, and felde, and flowryt fityrs s 
There nskyn best of wenym may 
Lywe, or leAt stoore a day ; 
As ojff, or eddyre. tade, or pade, 
Sttppos that thai oa thiddyr hade. 

Wynioum, L IS. 61 

— Seho wanderit, and yeld by to an elriche welL 

Scho met thar, aa I wene, 

Ane a$k rydand on a snaill. 

And cryit, ** Onrtane fallow halll !" 

Pink, S. P. Rejrr. iii 14L also Bann, Ha 

Awtk ia used improperly aa a tranalation of Lat, 
vk. in a cnrioua passage m Fordun*s Sootichron. 




fai ths eni, Iwniii UIm » pat :— 

§md COB with mt fa b] 



I a MMnl idM UDODg the Tiilnr, that 
I M k the MP we read of in Scriptare 
Tfaie Bolioaiiiiiet have arieen from the 

ihlence of the aaiiieii and has veiy probably 

eoBtrihnted to the iM^red opuuon of the newt being 

A. Bor. atUr; GenL. MeeU, eUtex; Fnuc. tdehaa, 
igUtkm; A-& mlkexe^ Belg. egdiise, haagdiste, lal. 
dAiL Sb.'O. orffa» Fir. cwM&de, id. Waehter deriyes 
the Germ, terai from ^ eg^ omm and iffg-tn, gignere ; 
f . p w d aeed from an eg^ 

AS^ «. The stake to which a oow is boand, 
bjr a lope or chain, in the cow-hoose, Caithn. 

U. a§, pcrtica} Sa.'O. maa, tignam, trabe. 

^ To ASK, «• o. To proclaim two persons in 
thejparish choich, in order to marriage; to 
publish the bans^ Aberd. Loth.; synon. Cry. 

lUi may be mwed at an oblique nee of the v. aa 
wed ia the kqgnage emploved m the formulary of 
Chmraii ni ^^g*— ^, ID NgMrd to the aolenmization of 
marriage ; aa a oartifieato moat be produoed bearing 
tiiiaS tim baaa hava been thiioe oaketL 


[neljTi asqninti on one side, S. Atlanta E. 

**Yw5mt the oeoond aott^ I comprehend al motions, 

of oar whole life, whereby we 

ao Istl^ and oo tueUni from that perfect 
dn^, qahiOc we tMfftt to God and to our neignbo 






Sign. N. 5. 2. 

Ut Omi earrhen teke the hint. 

Bead what th^r mu in bte'a dark print, 

And kt them nenr look acU»ii< 


JL tfaOowa^s Poem», p. lOSL 

and Lemon, all derive E. danip 

from Be^. elaaoiU^ a aerpent ; without obaerv- 
log tfyiS tiie Tory word ia meaerved in Sw. alant, id. 
bam §Bmit latoa. Thus OMOtU ia literally, io one tide* 

ASKOY, mb. Asqnin^ obliquely, Sarkcud- 

This haa the aaam Ibnntain with K aebew; Dan. 
tkimt9, 8b. -G. aktft 9^^?^ ^'^ ^^ inaeparable par- 
tida ifa^ afta^ denoting cuajunotion. 

ASLETi. Sarta in asleyf are horses belong- 
ing ta different persons, lent from one to 
another^ till each person's land be ploughed; 

ASPATTy adv. In flood, Clydes. 

r the adifc In a stoinid, wi* rairan' aoond, 
Agmii the liTsr rate. 

^dgde^ Xditk. Mag. Mag 1820. 

ASPECT, g. The serpent called the asp, or 

Ihair WW tiie Viper, and th' ilMMf. 
With the avpent ChaUdflnct, 
qohoia s&nk is Mt afar. 

Bwr^ePiig. Waieim'e ObIL IL SL 

Tr, oipk, id. 

ASPERANS, adj. Lofty, eleyated, pompous ; 
applied to diction. 

I yow baaek, off Your banauolenoe, 

Qvha will aocht low, lak nccht my eloquenoe. 

It ii Weill knawia I am a bural man i 

For her b takl aa godly aa I can. 

My aprayt feUa na termys a^penuu. 

WaUaee, iL 14IB^ 

In Perth edit, aepriance. But here it ia given aa in 
MS. IV. ttptrcmi, Lat. ofpirwu^ part. 

ASPERT, adj. Harsh, cruel. 

Ihoorii thy besynyng hafh bene ratrograde, 
Be Roward oppoajrt quhare till anert, 

thai turn, and Inke on tne dert. 


Kinffe Quair, ▼. 19. 
the term ia probably from iV. 

Ofprv^ Lat. tuper, id. 

ASPYNE, a. Apparently meant to denote a 

-^— Thegynour 
Hyt in the atpyne with a itana. 
And the man that thaiin war gaaa 
Sum dad, asm doaayt, coma doon wynland. 

Barbour, xriL 719. HSb 

The writer having aaid that their boata were well 
/eetmgi, thianughtaeemtonsnifyoneof thefaateninga; 
laL Mtpa, Sn.-0. ha^)et SnuL keepe, A.-S. haepee^ 
unena, aera i a bar, a bolt, a hook, £. hasp; which 
Waehter traoae to keb-^n, tenere. Tl&e term, however, 
ahouM perhane rather be underatood of one of the 
boata rnerraa ta For Tent, hupmghe, and ettpinck^ 
aiffttify cymba, a email boat or yawl ; and Sw. taping^ 
along boat. 

To ASPASE, 9. a. To aspire ; Aberd. Beg. 
ASPOSrr, paH. pa. Disposed. 

" Evin oapeiil pefaonee,** i.e. ill-diepoe e d, prone to 
miaohief. iUbaiL R^. A. 1S6S, V. 26. 
Thia tenn ia quite anomalona. 

ASPRE,a<;y. Sharp. 

Sagittaiina with his ofprv bow. 

By the ilk tyng weryt6 je may know 

1^ changing oouiaa oahilk miudfl gret daference, 

And lawyaa had lost toair colouris of plesence. 

fKoUoM, iv. 6i Ma V. AarsBT. 


Oompleyna abck yhe worth! men of war, 
Complayna for hym that waa your a$prttpert 
And to the dede feQ Sothron yeit he dicht : 
Ooraplayna for him your treunpha had to bar. 

WaUaee^ iL 83a MR 

I find nothing; in the Goth, dialecte, allied to amrt ; 
unleaa it be auppoaed that thia waa a apear made of 
poplar, from A.-0. oapf, id. Thia paaaage may perhana 
receive a gleam of lignt from L. R cupar, cuparif, uoi 
lanoeae tenentur; I^ Canffe. It muat be admitted, 
however, that Ifany the BtGnatrel alao uaea the phrase 
ntprt bow, v. ASFU. Thia would indicate, that the 
tenn rather raapecta the quality of the instrument. 

To ASS, 9. a. To ask. 

mercy, lord, at thy gentrice I oar. 

Menrgmme, Lgon and Moue, at 31. 




rillT IWr Uhalilt to ilMeh 

Spic QoHif Sanf$^ p. ML 
0«rm« «(MA-<iit Fnnd. «ite-oii| id. 

ASS» t. ABhes. y. As. 

To ASSAILTIE, v. a. To attack, to assail. 

A Ml bjkkyr Om iBgUimiMi bano, 


AstaSwiid Mjr with mony cruel 

irattMw, zL lOS. M& 

Fh oiMifl-tr, id. Menm wildly derives this fcom 
Lftt. tf/huFt, Bat it ie eviaentlT m>m L. B. adutU'ire, 
iutal-vtf iBTiden^ AggredL In yU adsaUref TilUin 
tubcUtn/ L^ SaIio. pMt. V. DuCange. 

ASSAYISi s. Assize, oonventioii. 

In tirii tyimwad tka fiut 
i^CayM tin tlM AMapis thu put, 
Am aelEyd thasM, how thai hkd dwne. 

ITyiilMM. TJIL & 15& 

ASSAL-TEETHy $. pL The grinders. V. 

ASSASSINAT, «• An assassin; an iftiproper 
use of the Fr. word denoting the act of 

— '^Hazton of lUthiUet,— m was aUedged, was one 
of Hm amin u iati of Bishop Sharp." Law's Memori- 

ASSEDAT, prti. Gave in lease. 

*«Haa«aedblhiBfiaehiiujL*'Ae. Aberd.B^A. 1545, 
V. 1». 

ASSEDATION. t. 1. A lease, a term still 
oommonlj used in our legal deeds, S. 

**Aam tak and a twe daUo un is not sufficient, qnhilk 
waotia the jeiilie dntie qnhilk soold be payit thair- 
lou; or the date or witnessis." Balfoar^ Fnct, p. 

aoo. . 

S. The act of letting in lease. 

CMg (do Fend.) nses L. B. auedaiio for a lease. 
Garpentier ezpL attidaiio, annnae penaionis assignatio. 

«'Qif any BaiUie in the asBedaiioH of the Kine's 
rants, is ane partaker thereof.— Oif there be ane siide 
n m edati i M f and vpt^ung of the common gude of the 

bnrgh i A; gif faithfal compt be made tfierof to the 
oommnaity d the bni^'* Chalmerlan Air. c. S9. a. 
S7. 45. 

It. B. aas0ef-ani^ tugid-erB, emisnm describere, taxare, 
imponera^ peraeqnars : talliam, aire impositom vec- 
ti^pil Tel tribtttom com aeqnalitate singulis viritim 
taxare; Dn Cange. IV. OMeoir, id. Skinner derives 
Ame datkm from ad and sedei. 

To ASSEGE, 9. a. To besiege. 

Hjm-etlf thars than dwelUnd, 
Ljaoolns hys est was aȤeoearuie, 

Wpni^um, liL 9. 7S. 

. Fr. a«fiM-€r; L. B. oMMf-Mfv, obsidere. ^MMfiavmifi/ 
castnim Montiastlids. Murat. T. S. ooL 434; Du 
Cange. Fkom Lat. ad and sm/co. 

AsSBOE, s. Siege. 

The atmge than [thai] lealyd swne. 

Wyntowi, TiL 9. 87. 

To ASSEMBLE, r. fi. To join in battle. 

^ Wyth ab few folk, as thai wan. 
On thane MaoNMfrf U than. 

Bot at the aasembl vBff hs wes than 
la-tU ths mowth smrkyn wyth a spsrs, 
<^hUl it wp in the haniys ran. 

ITyiiloinH fill. 88. S6L * 

— By Oariiame atswaWyrf thai : 
Hmts was hard fychtyag, I barde say. 

Fr. as&emU-er^ from Stt.-0. aam/-a. Germ. mmUn, 
Belg. tamet-en^ id. Theae Terba are formed from Su.- 
O. and Germ, aam, a prefix denoting association ami 
conjunction, Moea-O. munan, in composition mtmot 
una, cum ; A.-S. and IsL sum. Lat. Hmul, Or. cw, avfi, 
94Ukf have been viewed as cognate particles. From 
mxm Ihre derives aoms conoors, and mtmja, unio ; al- 
thon^ it is not improbable that the fint of these may 
have been the radical word. 

AsBEMBLB, 9, Engagement, battle. 

T%an baths the fyrst rowtis ryckt than 
At that unemW waacnst war. 

WrUomn. viil. 4a 190. 

ASSENYHE, s. The word of war. 

And quhen the King his folk has aene 

Bcgyn to fails ; for propyr tens, 

Hyi OMenyAtf gan he cry. 

And in the stoor sa harayly 

He mechyt, that all the aemble tchuk. 

Bofhtmr, a 87& M& 

Thia word ia conr. from Enssntu, q.v. 

ASSIE, adj. Abonnding with ashes, Loth. 

V • ^A0y ASS. 

ASSIEPET, s. A dirty little creatoie ; sjrnou. 
with Skodgii^ Roxb.; q. on^ that* is con* 
stantlj soiled with (u$ or ashes, like a pet 
that lies about the ingU-side. V. Ashtpet 


To ASSIG, r. n. 

One is aaid to '* a$tig him ane auffident nychtbour,** 
Aberd. B<^. MS. 

Thia ia nrobably an error for Auign, If not, it may 
bo from O. Fr. as$e(f-ier faire asseoir, poeer, placer, 
Roquef. ; q. "set down beside him.'* 

ASSILAGy 8. The stormy petrel, a bird; 
Procellaria Pelagica, Linn. 

" The €t$$ilag is as larae as a linnet. — It comes about 
the twenty second of March, without any regard to 
winda." Martin's St. Kilda, p. 63. 

*' It preaagea bad weather, and cantiona the seamen 
of the approach of a tempest, bv collecting under the 
stems ot the ships ; it braves the utmost f uiy of the 
storm." Penn. ZooL d. 553, 554. 

'*The seamen call theee birds Jfoiher Care^M 
cAielms." Sibbald's Fife. n. HI. N. 

The term has perfaape a Gael, origin, from eascal, Ir. 
etuKtd^ a storm, and some other word, forming the 
termination, as aeke danger, or aiffhe stout, vafiant ; 
q. braving the storm. Several of its names have a 
similar reference ; Germ. tiorm-Jinck, Sw. tiarm'-wadef 
vogel, Lat. proediaria, Ac. 

ASSILTRIE,8. Axle-tree. 

Out cf the say Eons lift up his held. 
1 mens the hone, whilk orawis at device 
The lasnlifie and goldin chair of price. 

Of Titan 

Fal, Hon. Prtl 4. Asnlirt, Vitg, 165, 48. 

Fr. a$»eid^ ItaL auSUj id. 

To ASSING, r. a. To assign. 




•iOihflk daj tM amktg for tba teaoilkMo,'* kc 
Abiri. E« A 16M^ Y. 121 

To ASSTTH, AasrrrOf Stxth, Sithe, 
V. a. To make a oonipensatioo» to satisfy. 

lUs «. b sliU oommoBlT mad in our oooiti of Uw, 
M <lwio4ii^ ■atirfifftion for an ii^iiiy dons to any 

^%f tliM[ bo oomiet of lio traqpoa^ that thay bo 
foiial^ aad find borrowia till aamiih the King and the 
■Biiio^wmpliBnand " ,Aeti Ja. i. o. 7. A iSl. Edit. 
IMS. Am^iUk,^ 

Tba BywhoprylDe of Donkcldyn nmo 
fiaQ vaoand, mm ilia Ftpt gave that 
TIltiiisJhonBoot Ftaheitgat, 
Amglkyd in nunpait than wet ha 

y" ITyiiiMoa, Tfi. a 869. 

Dou^ in hia Vugil, niea ayiCA in tho 
hot I uaTO omitted to mark the jplaoe. 

**Ttt tho Kyng waa nocht f^mihU with bia joatice, 
hoi with mair ri|;oux« poniat Mocdak to the dei th, be- 
eanao ho waa alfaat to the aayd IXniald, k participant 
with hym in hia tnaaoo." BeUend. Cran. B. iz. o. 

4«Aaftle,la«iidentiytheoIdeattann; fSrom which 
mmjik haa afterwarda been formed in oar ooorta of 
kw^ wMeh ia not yet qnite obaolete. 

deriToa the word -from Lat. ad and A-S. 
Bat the origp la Sa.-G. and laL mt^U'-a 
I and in a paaaivo aenae^ reoonciliari. 8aHi 
eeA hotUt ia a common phraae in the Gothic 
I dwiotii^ an action for which a fine ia paid, 
boa ta gea are given. This oonrenionda to what 
ia Bin tin fl in the atatnte qnotea above, being 
'^^wuaAedL and finding ftorrotetf (or anretiea) till aaayth 
the Kin&^ Ac The 80.-O. phraM in 8. would li- 
JmOy Se, «'8yth in main and bote;" Le. aatiafy 
Ijmqg n certain aom aa reparation. V. Smz 
andsArs. Ihre^ nnder SaeUa^ mentiona aariih and 
atiifaaiffif, aa oc^gnatea; although by nuatake he 
eaOa them K woraa. Aseeih and cmmCA are indeed 
■aad by O. B. writera in the aenae of aatiafaction. 
Y. ^bm «. Ihra xefera to A.-S. aett-on, aa having the 
aanaa ol oomponera. But Somner eiplaina thia Lat. 
term only by t he a e E. worda, " to make, to oompoae, 
to daviae^ to write." Germ, aete-oi, indeed, aignifiea, 
ininiidtiaa deponere; tiek mil iemand aefzeii, reoon- 
aiUavi com aliquo. Tina ia given by Waehter aa only 
n flgniativo aenae of aetea, ponere. Although Due 
haaitatBa aa to the orinn of the Sn.-G. wonl, thia 
analogy rendera it hi^y probable, that aoeMo, con- 
eiliara ia in like manner merely the v. metfo, nonere, 
naed agontively, like Lat» eompomere, Ir. and GaeL 
abo aigniflea, to make atonenBcnt. 


Compensation^ satisfaction, atonement for 
an offence. A$sythment is still used in our 
courts of law. 

And qohea that lettyr the Kyng had Moe, 
Wyth-owtTn dowt ha was ryeht tene, 
And thowcht ftall ast^ to ti, 
And veagaanoe of the Brwis alUaiL 

iryNlMoa, vilL 1& 106L 

"Gil ana man rjrdand, alayea ana man behinde him, 
with the bender fait of hia norae ; na auifihmeni aaU 
be given for hia afamchter, hot the fonrt feit of the 
hoTM, qnha with hia hielea did atraik the man, or the 
floort uLrt of the price of the horae." Beg. Mag. B. 
iv. e. M. a. 8L 

''The frair Oanndite (qohilk wee brocht aa we bane 
writtin)^ King Edward to put hia victory in verata 
tanoin thia feild, k oommandit be King Eobert 

in tkkemmU of hia ranaoon to write aa ho saw." Bel- 
land. Gron. B. xiv. e. 11. 

Te bmalitea, with icarlat bat and gowne, 
Tour Uudia boirt na nth can ■atbflai 

4Me. Ood/y BaOadM, pi L 

Thia aeema to refer to the anathema nronoanced by 
the Pope^ hia legate, or any of the oaroinala ; or to a 
papal interdict. 

' thna aneeth ia need by WicUf. ** And Pilat wiUynge 
to make asetth to the puplo lefte to hem Barabaa and 
bitooke to hem Jheaua betun with aoorgia to be cruoi* 
fied ;'*' Marie XV. ^«i^ in another Ma 

SiL'O. aoctfi; reconciliation, or the fine paid in ocder 
to procure it. V . the v. and Savcbt. 

To ASSOILYIE, v. a. 1. To acqait, to free 
fnim a charge or prosecution; a forensic 
term much used in our courts of law. 

" The malefactoor astoUified at the inatance of the 
partie, may be accuaed by the King." Reg. Maj. R iv. 
e. 28. Tit. 

The apothecary Patrick Hepburn hia eon being pur- 
aued aa aucceaaor tUulo iueraiivo, for a debt of hia 
father'a upon that ^und ; and though the Right of 
Landa granted to him by hia father waa before the 
debt» yet it waa revocable^ and under reveraion to the 
father upon a Roae noble, when he contracted the debt 

The Lorda tumriljfifd from the paaaiva title foreaaid ; 
but reaerved reduction. 

IHriekm*9 PeeUkmi^ No. 184. 

2. To absolve from an ecclesiastical censure ; 
as from excommunication. 

Sio thingia done, Kyng Johne and hia realme wee 
' fra aU oenauria led agania thaym." BeUend. 
Cron. B. xiii. c 10. Joannea ezcommnnicatione wluttui 
eat, et Angiiae regnum ab interdicto levatnm ; Boeth. 

The Arehebyschape of Thork that yhere^ 
Be antoryte and poweie 
Of the Pape, atmjdjfd then 
;wndyr our &t 


our &yng, and hb lawd men. 

But the Byichapyi and the deigy 
Thit he leit in cunyng ly, 
AU hot of Saynct Anoiewys Be 
The Byschape WUkme^— 

Wfniowm^ vfi. a 159. 

A9oUt ofptZen, 090%^ in G. E. denote the abaolution 
given by a pricnt. 

"He amiML al thya folc, tho he had all thya y told." 
R. Olouc. p. 173. In a later MS. it ia aaoikde. 

To be cnrsed in consistory, she coonteth not a beane. 
For she copeth the comissary, and coteth his Clarices, 
She is assoytai as sone as her sslfe lyketh. 

i*. PUmffhmam, FoL la b. 

i.e. aha givea a cope aa a bribe to the commissary, and 
fumiahea coata to tne clerkaof the Biahop'a court, that 
aha may be abaolved from the aentence of excommnni- 
V. CoweL 

3. To pronounce absolution from sin, in con- 
sequence of confession. 

"Quhairfor, O dmatin man k woman, according to 
the doctrine, ordinationn and command of Ood and 
haljr kirk, cum to confeaaioon, aeik for ane lauchful 
minister, ouhilk may pronunoe the wordia of abeolu- 
tioun to the and aUJye the fra thi synnia, and ken 
that he occupiea the place of Ood, thainor bow doune 
thi self to mak thi confesaioun to him." Abp. Hamil* 
toun'a Catechiame, FoL 155. a. 

Thia tenn occurs in a ^aaaage which deaervee to be 
transcribed, not only as giving a jnat picture of the re- 
lazed morality of the Church of Rome, but aa affording 




A proof of Hm freedom end iererity with which die 
WM Umpooned by eurly poetical writers in EogUnd. 
M well M in other oountriee. Money is penonified 
onder the oAme of Mede or Reward. 

Than oanie ther a oonfatsor. copid aa a Frier, 
To Made the mayd, he mellud thea wordaa, 
And sayd fliU aoftiy, in ahrift at it were ; 
nioaffh lewd men k lemed men had lien by the bothe 
And nlaenee had yfooied the, all this fifty wjmter, 
I ahal €Uio^ the mvselfe, for a seme of whete ; 
And alM be thv beaman, and beare wel thy m eeia g e 
Amonseet knigntes k clerks, oonacience to tane. 
Then fiede for hn mtsdedes to that man kneled. 
And ahrooe her of her ahroudnes, ahamelea I trow 
Told him a tale, and toke him a noble 
For to be her bedman, and her broker also. 
Than he aamwUd her aone, and lithen he sayde ; 
We hane a windowin-working. wil aet fa ral hish ; 
Wddeet thon ehse the ffable, k graue therin thinanie, 
8eker ihoolde thy aonle oe, heauen to hanei 

P. i%}«0^nall'a riMm, FoL 13. a. K 

Have the word denotea nbeolution from gnilt, where 
ao censnre waa in force, bat an connected with anri- 
enlar confeeaion. The phraae, iobe him a noble, meana 
§fiw or reached to him a piece of money of thia de- 
■jmation. A«-S. ietaec-oii, tradere, committere. Our 
old writera use beieaeh, betaughi^ in n aimilar 

4. To absolve from guilt one departed, bj 
flaying masfles for the soul ; acooitling to the 
faith of the Romish church. 

Thai halff had hym to Dvnfernlyne, 
And him ademply eidyt ayne 
In a Ihyr tomb, in till the qaer. 
Byiehappya and PieUtia, that thar war, 
AMfiiueU Um. oohen the eerwioe 
Waa done aa thai oonth beet dewisa. 

JterftoHT, n. 889. 1I& 

Thii ia aometlmea repseaented aa the aot of God, in 
oonaaqnenoe of the mayera of men. 

••The hain thre Batatia of the Bealme aittand in 
plana Puriiament, — ^hea renokit all alienatioania, ale- 
wmSL of landii and of poeaeaaiounia, aa of mottabla 
andia, that war in lua Fathera poeaeaaioon, quhame 
Qod oiaoMe^ the tyme of hia deoeia, geuin and maid 
withoot the aniae and conaent- of the thre Eatatia." 
Acta Ja. n. 1437. 0. 8. edit. 1666. 

5. Used improperly, in rektion to the response 
of an oracle ; apparently in the sense of 
ruobring what is doubtful. 

Bot than the King, thochtftill and all pendoe 

Of aio montteria, pax to aeik beline 

Hia fMler Fannos oratonre and ensnare 

QohOk conth the fatiafor to com declare ; 

And gan requiring respontioum alaoa 

In the ichaw Tnder hie Albunea. — 

Thidder haU the pepiU of Italia, 

And aU the land eik of Enotria, 

There dontsom aiking.tnrtii for ansnere 

And there petielouu gettia auoUytt here. 

ikny. VifyO, 907. 49L 

It occnrB in a aimilar aenae in O. E. ** I oaeoyfo a 
barde qneatsron, [Fr.] Je eoola.— Jaeoyfe me my quea- 
tyon. Mid I ahall syne the a payre of hoeen : Soiila ma 
diemiinde,'* ftc Klagr. R ui. f. 154, a. "He hath 

ff% forthe a qneetyon whiche no man can tuaoffle him*: 
a icy PKODoa4 vne qneetion que nnl icy ne penal aa- 
■ooldra.^ Ibid. f. 327» b. 

The word ia evidently oorr. from Let a&eo/v-«re, 
which waa not only need aa a forenaio term, but in the 
dark agea bore that Terv aenae in which it oocura in 
the oaaaage ouoted from Barbour. Ah§olvere D^tmelo§, 
eat oicere colleotam mortuorum ; AUolve^ Domine, ani- 
moa fidelium defnnctorum. Saoerdotee andito paroch- 
ianoram anoram obitu, atatim ahaolvcuU eoa com Peal- 

mia pro defunctta, et Collecta i Odo Epiac Paria. in 
Praecept. Svnodal. 1 7» Du Canffe. O. Fr. aAeovitf-re ia 
thua definea ; £ reia vioUtae ruinonia et pietatia pro 
nihilo habitae eximere ; aUonUt abeolutue ; Le Frere. 
But it eeema to have been immediately derived from 
the Let. litnisjr. Of thia the following paeeage affonla 
a proo^ aa weU aa a farther illnetration of aenae 3. 

'*Thia power and anctoritie [to forgone aynnie] the 
preiat, aa the miniater of Chriat vaia i ezicutte qnhen 
ne pronunda the wordia of abeolutioun, aayand thua : 
Mgo abtoluo U a peecatia tuU, In nomine pettria, H /Ui, 
ti apiriiua aaneiL Amen, I aaaoiljfe the fra thi ajmnia. 
In the name of the father, the eonne, and the halv 
apreit. Amen." Abn. Hamiltoon'a Catechiame, FoL 
161. b. 

6. Also used improperljTy as ugnifying to un- 

*' Of thee mav bee put out a riddle, What ia it which 
hauing three feete, walketh with one foote into its 
hand ? I ahall aaaoUe it ; It ia an olde man going with 
a Btaffe." Z. Bovd, Laat Batt. p. 529. 

Aaaoil^ abmriuUf deoharg^, abeooa, diapenai; GL 

To ASSONYIE, Essontie, v. a. 1. To offer 
an excuse for absence from a court of law. 

'* Oif ane man ia eMonyiecf at the fourt day, be reaaon 
of aeiknea or bed evill, or being beyond Forth : he eall 
have reapit, or ane continuation of fourtie dayee.'* 
Stat. K. WilL c 26. a. 1. 

2. Actually to excuse ; the excuse offered being 

*'He cannot be eaaonviei^ bot be theae lawfull 
eaaonviea.** Qnon. Attach, c. 57. a. 5. 

" For quhateoever will eteoayje any partie, a^ainat 
the aojrte of any man, — ^it behouee the eeeonyier to 
name hia awin name."— Baron Gourta, c 40. a. 2. 

Aa need by Barbour, it ia neariy equivalent to oe- 

I wald blythly that thow war thair, 
Bot at I nocht reprowyt war. 
On this manor weile wyric thou may ; 
Ihow eall tak Feirand my palfrav. 
And for thair b na horaa in thia land 
Swa swycht, na yeit sa weill at hand. 

Tak him as off thine awyne hewid. 
As I had ffevyn thairto na reid. 
And rjrff nys yhemar oucht gruchyi 
Lok that thow tak hym msgre his. 

Swa eall I weiU aaatmwU be. 

Bttrhimr^ iL 186i HSw 

3. To decline the combat, to shrink from an 

Wallace preyit in tharfor to set rameid. 
With a gud sper the Bruce was serwyt but baid ; 
With gret inwy to WaUaoe fast he raid : 
And he till him aaaonytU nocht for thL 
The Brace him myssyt aa Wallace naasyt by. 

Woibca, z. 86& MS. 

i.e. althonsfa Bruce waa ao weU armed, Wallace did 
not practicalTy excuse himself from fiffhtinf. 

R. Olouc. uaee aaoyntd for excused. i£ioin€, a legal 
ezcuae, Chancer, Persone'a T. v. 150 ; eaaonye^ Oower. 

He myght make non eaaonye, 

Conf, Am, FoL 17. b. 
F^. eafoyii-«r, exxm-ier, " to ezcuae one from appear- 
ing in court, or from going to the wars, by oatn that 
he ia impotent, insufficient, aick or otherwiae necee- 
aarily employed ;" Cotgr. 

It can ecarcely be aoubted that thia word haa had 
a Gothic origin. Aa Su.-0. aoa-o. /oer•eol•-<^ and 

▲ 88 



tipdir to rtooneiU, to ozpLdai tiM 

km JodgiMBt in whatovtr way. Moat* 

ii itill BMrar in mow. For it meanii to 

JwHiy. Oamu^foda worth hamdugti^ wisdom \m juti- 
M t Lake viL S5. Jnnins in hii Ooth. GIom., refon 
to wn/fiin, Mod, M probably tha root Tha idaa ia 
aot VBUitwmL For wbat ia Jnstifieatioii, but a dada- 
that one ia good or ripitaooa in a lajgal aanaa : 
ia it to laooBcila, to appaaia ; bat, ooniim Tel 
raddare f Tha darivation may, bowarar, ba 
Tbo adj. may ba from tha Tarb. V. Es- 
■0011% au • , / 

ASSOPAT, jMNi. iMi. At an encL put to rest, 
hidaaide. N 

tiiat it ^raa not intandad aa ana Jnatifi- 
of iSbm ban^ior tbay did ioEwgina tbat all of 

Wt: oiaiiiirv ''to lay aalaap; to qniat; to aup- 

ASSURAKCE, $. 1. ^To take astutanee of 
an enaniT ; to iabmit, or do homage, under 
the ooomtion of ]«otection«'* 01. UompL 

"Son af jrom ramaniain yonra aoan booaia on tba 
lo^ia manniB ammrtmee. — ^Aa anna as tha Inj[lia men 
dnymia that ya haaa £ylyat to tham, than thai repota 

rtal anamiaa far mair nor thai repata 
that Taa nanyr osmtriL" CompL S. 


oni ai 

oaad naariy in tha aama 
x^. iidam dara. C*aat on Tieaz mot 
itrafoia poor tuturanee, fto. V. Diet, 
ritara oariTO it from a ts ec mrar t^ from 
q. landra sor. V. L; B. ilafeciiftire^ 

«S. ''Thia irofd of old was the same with Law- 
* bo n m$ 9 now." Spottiswoode's MS. Diet 

A8T^ pftL V. Asked. 

lb ICaiit : Hiaam aona ha past, 

And aawmaa of tilTar fra him (u^— 

la benowiac whila ha ooma bak. 

X^nmI 4k A. ilfluiraM^ Pocsw 1«4 Gnu. p. 828L 

To ASTABILy «. a. To cahn, to compose, 

mymUa marii and aaUMit ha. 

promn nat in time eunminff. 

DDMitr Vvrg. M. V. 

a Ar. mMf^, to aataUish, to sattla. 

ASTAIJT, farL pa. Decked, or set out. 

Hli ban ha tyit to ana tra trsnly that tyda; 
Ama hjat to ase hia hall 
nat waa oateia with pall : 
Waffl wroght was tha wall, 
And pajant with piida. 

Oawan wad Oct. I ^ 

Wt. uMtr, to display, to ahaw. 

To ASTABT, Astebt, v. n. 1. To start, to 
II7 hastily. 

Itia aaad aa a v. ik in O. E. *'I oaenfc^ I ahonna 
er an o y da frem a thyng. — ^I can nat adarie from him. 
— I wleK^ I aacapa.^ Palagr. B. iii. f . IH «- 

For onhilk aodayna abata anon ojferf 
Iha alnda of aU my body to my hart 

rtN^a tiMir, iL 21. 

2. To Start aside from, to avoid. 

Oiff ya a goddBMa ba, and that ya lUca 
To do ma payna, I may it not oatert 


Hara it ia naad in an actiTO aanaa. Qann. iian^n^ to 
atart np^ O. Taut atoeri-an, to fly. 

ASTEEB, adv. 1. In confusion, in a bustling 
slalet, q. en «fu>, S. 

My mianr aha'i a ■'^•m^g wife, 
Hada a tha hooaa aateer, 

Ramm'9 A Sm^i, I 45. 

2. Used as equivalent to abroad, out of doors; 
as, ^'Te're air a$teer the daj,^ you are early 
abroad to-day, S. 

To ASTEIB, V. a. To rouse, to excite, to 

My plaaoma prikb my paina ay to proooka ; 
My aolaoa, torow aobolng to atUir, 

K, Henr^i TnL Poemt I6ik CmL pi 962. 

A.-S. oa^-ion, asuatara. 

ASTENT, t. Valuation. 

— "That Danid Halyday and hia modar aal bruk 
and joym tha z a. worth of land of aid atteni of Dal- 
makd for tha tannea oontenit in the lettra of aaaada- 
cioB,** ke. Act Audit. A. 1479, p. 89. 

Hera wa ofaaanra thefiratataga m tha tranaition from 
Jbrtmf to Simi. V. Stbmt, a. 1. 

ASTERNE, adj. Austere, severe ; having a 
harsh look, Koxb. Doug. Virg. 

ASTIT, ASTET, Ajbtid, adv. 1. Rather ; as» 
offjf beUer^ rather better ; a»tU tmu, rather 
was; ^I would a$tU rin the kintryy** I 

» would rather banish myself; Lanarks.» 
Ayrs., Dumfr. 

AMH m randarad ^'rather," andreaolTadby '*inataad 
o' that.** GL Snrr. Am., p. 689, 691. But it aaama 
a oorr. and obliqtta naa ot aU tyt, m aoon aa, 
ig naad for rather, Salkirks. V. Trra, Ttt, 
It ia waU known that tha primary aanaa of B. 
roCAfr is " mora aariy," in raapact of preparation. 

2. A$tH as well as» Roxb. 
ASTRE, 0. A star, Fr. 

—The gUsteriag oMrm bri^t, 
Qnhilk all tiia night ware daara, 
Ofltaaked with a greater light, 
Na laogar dois appeartu 

Stmt, Cknm. iSL P.iiL 886. 

ASTREES. t. The beam of a plough, Orkn. ; 
perhaps from IsL aa and tri lignum. Y. 

* To ASTRICT, V. a. To bind legally; a 
. forensic term. 

— ^'Kana aalba haldin nor mtrietU to mak fordar 
payment of thair pairtia ot tha aaid tazationn." Acta 
Ja. VL 168S» Ed. 1814, p. 426. 

AsTBiKKiT, part pa. Bound, engaged. 

***That Valariua waa but ana private man in tha 
tiflM that thia aith waa maid, andi, ba that raaaoon, 
thay anoht nocht to ba athikkit to him.*' Balland. T. 
liT. fwSSS. 




ASWAIPyOcfe. ABlant, Ettr. For. 

TMt wwd ■eeBM to daim kindred with 8tt.«Q. Mwegha 
▼igui. or A-8. «iM|i-an, mmo/miii, Teirere. It is 
fnoMd on tiM mom prindple with the £. phnie^ **to 

ASVnM,adv. Afloat 

^Thb nldiMS daeping careleMly in the bottom of 
tho ahip npoB heather, were all o-fiotm, through the 
water that eama in at the holes and leaks of the ship, 
to their grsat amasement.'' Spalding; i. 00. 

AT.cotg. That. 

And aahea Feraadis modTr herd 
Bow hjr sone in the batalll ftod. 
And at he swa wes diBoomfyt ; 
8eho raayt the ill tpyiTt ala tjt : 
And aakjrt qahy he gabrt had 
(Mr the aasasr that he hyr mad f 

JMoiir, if. 288. Ha 

It ia bmpmMj need by Barbour in the same sense. 

Aad te the wofee ia eolrj plaoe said bide, 

Ai he was ded, out throuch the kad so wide, 

In p tes snu s ay seho wepyt wndyr slycht ; 

Bel gadsiT BMytis echo graithit him at hir mycht 

And so belel ia to that aammjm tid, 

Qahlll tethinnar a< Wallas worthit wycht 

Wallaee, iL 282. 288. MS. 
Ihai dowtyd at hys ssnyhoony 
Bald thane abawadowa halyly. 

Wyniawn, iL 0. 88. 

It IB aooMthnea used 1^ the Bishop of Dunkeld. V. 
Iain. It also oocnrs in our old acts of Parliament. 
Y. AmoiT. pr^ Lrstab, to. 

It haa been obserred in a note prefixed to the 
OL to WaDaoeb Perth edit., that a< u to be consid- 
ered aa a eootractaon for thai, '*which the writer 
of the MS. had made use of for Us own oonyenien- 
er*" Bsl thia la a mistake. For it is the same with 
MMBu oL Jttt iroer ai kan vUkom; I believe that he 
wHl cone. In IsL ad is sometimes used ; and also oL 
TMrmmrim ai ; andiyemnt quod ; they were informed 
that ; KiistBia. p. 62. Sw. oi; id. Bo aest du, at wi 
maage friftoa dem iwar; Who art thou, that we may 
giro an answer; John i. 22. Sn.-G. ait, a cohJ. corree- 
pondingtoLalW. lag wUl aUtugorlkei; lindine 
that yoQ do this ; Ihre. 

Nor was it quite unknown to O. E. writers. Of 
NebodiadnesBr, Gower says : 

•— — Ljka sn oxs his mete 
Of Basse he shall porcbaco sad ete, 

SO at the water of the heuen 
ith wasihsn l^ym by tymss ssuen. 

Ootsf. ilsi. FoL 28. b. 

A%pron. That^ which. 

^I^rdiacis, now may ye ae. 

That yone folk alL throw tatelt^. 
Sehapis thaim to do with slycht. 
That at thai drede to do with mycht 

Barbour, IL S28i KS. 

I drsde that his grst waasalage, 
Andhis trawaiU. may bring till end 

That at BMB qahile fUl litm wend. 

AM^Mcr, vL 21 MS. 
— -Ckadyus send Wespssyane 
^prtiit that Kyng to ieeht or tiete, 
Bwa that for luwe, or than for thiete. 
Of fBts he said pay at hs awcht 

Wpnt^um, V. a 89. 

Thdrmaa that day had hi the merket bene: 
On WaUaoe knew this cairftiU cass so keiM. 
Hii mastjr wptrjt, qahat Uthingu at he saw. 

Wallaee, U. 29^ VS. 

Thia 18 undoubtedly the meaning of at tA<tt,R. Brunne, 
f» 74. although expL by Heame, a9 mang at, adeo ut 
fersitan reponendum si^ al tkaL 

WilUam alia apart his oata rady he dygbt 
J t tAot thai mot tynd, to suard alls thai yede. 

This mode of expressing the pnm, seems to have 
been borrowed from the aimilar use ol the eot^. 

* AT, pr^pi Uaed as signifying, in full pos- 
session of, especially in relation to the mmd, 

S. v. HiMSELL. 

AT ALL, adv. "Altogether,*' Rudd. per- 
hiqps^ at best, at any rate. 

— Thiseharpe tygnrate sang VirgUisDe, 
8o wiaaly wimcht rithontyna word in Tana. 
My waoerina wit, my cunniog fabiU at alL 
My m jnd nusty, ther may not mya ane fall 

Ikrag. FwyO, a 84. 

AT ANE MAE WIT, at the last push; q. 
about to make one attempt mon as the last ; 
Ettr. For. 

*' Here's the chap that began the fray,** said Tam ; 
*'ye may speer at him. He rather looks aa he were 
at aae oiac taTt.'* Perila of Men, L 810. 

**Am to the stonn, I can tell vou my sheep are just 
ai ane «ae laTt. I am waur tnan ony o' my neigh- 
boura, aa I lie higher on the hilla." Bbckw. Mag. 
Mar. 1823, p. 313. 

ATANIS, Attanis, Atants, Atonis, adv. 
At once ; S. tU ainze. 

Thaito also ha skit and gaif ts than 
Gentil bora, and pillotia, and lodisman : 
Haa auppleit va with rowaria and marinaris. 
And armour plants ataiUs for al oar feria. 

J>oyg. VirgO, 84. 4. 

Schir Wawine, wourthy in wail. 

Half ana apaa at ane apail, 

Quhara Ua hamaa waa hail. 

He hawit ottoiiif. 

Osiaoii ONiKML UL 28. 

AT A' WILL, a vulgar phrase, signifying to 
the utmost that one could wish, S. 

ATCHESON, Atchison, a. A billon coin 
or rather copper washed with silver, struck 
in the rei^ of James VI., of the value of 
eiffht pennies Scots, or two thirds of an Eng- 
lish penny. 

"lahottkl think that theee oIcAmoim approached the 
neareat to the black ooin of Jamee m. which we have 
mentioned before ; for the firat whitish oolour, which 
disooTors itself in these atehUont, seems to indicate 
that they are mixed with a little eilver, or laid over 
with that metal" Rndd. Intiod. to Andenon's 
IKplonL p. 137. 

/•They wiU ken by an AtehUom, if the priest will 
take an offering ;" Ramsay'a S. Prov. p. 72. 

^."i^ ^^^^'ff^ w » Scotch ooyne worth fower Bodlee s" 
OL Yorka. 

^1. Kicolaon writee Ateheton, and enoneonsly sap- 
poeee this ooin to be the same aa that kind of bbu:k 
money coined by Jamee IIL Scot. Hiat Lib. p. 314. 
Bnt It wouM aopear that Rudd., when adverting to 
the miatake of Kicolaon, falls into another still greater. 
For he aays, ** It is incredible, that a coin, which waa 
m ralne tiie fourth p«rt of a penny, in the time of 
Jamee III., ahonld thereafter rise to eight entira 
paaniesb that is, thirty-two times the value ;" Ibid. 




BbI tlM Meanto Rndd. hM not obMnred, that the 
ptoay nmtioDad In Aeti Ja. in. o. 9., to which four 
of tMe oopptr coiiu are reckoned equal* !■ a sUver 
iy» although perhaoe of inferior qvality. For then 
ol reckoning Dj pennies Scots, as referring to 
. had not been introduced. The Aiekemm^ 
was on^ aqual to eigiht of theea copper 


Thtaeoin reoeiTsd its denomination from one AtktB' 
iMp an Knrijshman, or, as his name was pron. in S., 
Mikemm, He was asmy-master of*the Mmt at Edin- 
hnrii, in the hM^nning of the reignof James VI. Mr. 
Ffauurton eaUsTthe ooin iilifctsjon, Easay on Medals, 
H. ^ 111. But It was always pron. as above. This 
ooin bora the roral anna crowned. Jacobus D. 6. R. 
800. B. OppifC/Edinb.; A leaved thistle crowned. 
Y. Gaidomid,Siuoa Coins ; Plate t Fig. 21. 

AT ITEN, in the eyeniug; Saturdajf at ^en^ 

^ Ayi^ Sir, he's at hams, but he's no in the house : 
he's ay oat on Satniday oi e'en." Guy Blannering, ii. 


'Boloome, I am losing my Saturday ol e'en. " Ibid. 

ATHABIST, Honlate Si. 10. Y. Githabist. 
ATHEy AiTH»'«. Oath ; plur. aihU. 

— AD the Lonlii that thsr war 

Tb-tkir tws wardsayi oihia swsr, 


Qiff thsnn hapnyt wsnunri to be. 

^vrooiir, n. X40i Mm 

He swore the gret rniik bodoly, 
Thst he sold held slle klelj: 
That he had ssid in-to that qohOe, 
But any csst of tend orsyle. 

Ir^ilown, Iz. 20. 8S. 

** Wo lemsmber qnhat oMit we have maid to our 
eomoun-welthe.— Knox's Hist p. 164. 

Moss-O. oAA, Preoop. cM, A.-S. oM, IsL atd^ Su..G. 
§i^ Don. Belg. eed; Alem. Germ, citi, id. V. Ed; Ihie. 

Bslg. mi has been tnMsed to HeU rT9| eetia a sworn 

testimony ; *t]^9 sad^ a witness, especially one under oath. 

ATHES, t. The adder, Clydes. 
AthbbtBILL, t. The dragon-flj, Gljrdes. 

Athbbt, or Natteb-cap, 9. The name giTen 
to the dragon^jy Fife. 

ATHEBy eanj. Either. 

••This kind of totmentquhilk Icall a Uind tonnent, 
at l ar it is intended in ane hig^ degree, or then it ia 
romitted thai they may suffer it." truce's Eleven 
Serm. 1091. Sign. Z. 2. a. 

A* THE TEEK, acaroelj, with difficultj, 
''CaiiToa liftthatr A. ^li^ii iheteerr 

This is sffidently n cosr. of the words oil thai ewer, 
^AUthai tuer^** [Fr.] tout tsnque^ or tout quanque : 
Msgr. F. 466^ a. 

ATHILy Athill, Hathiix^ adj. Noble, 

The Mp Mat to his place, in hia pontificale. 
The ititkU Emprour annoa njcht him neir. 
KiiMB end PstrearUa, kend with Cardynnallia all, 
Adi&eaait thame to that deaa, and Dnkia ao deir. 


It also occurs in the form of md^ oML 

Tliairfore thai eoonaaU the Fape to wryte on this wya. 

To the mekii Empronr, soneraae in aale. 


Thair waa the ^gfll ao pym, gratteat on ground la, 

AtkiU Emproora our aO, aKnl awf^ in erd. 

But in both places it is oCAafl in Bannatyne MS. 

It ia also used aa a substantive ; sometimes sspira* 
ted hathUl^ katkd, phir. MatMes; elsewhera without 
the aspirate^ aehiUeB, plur. for mihiUet, 

Hia name sad his nobOlay wea noght for to nyte : 
Thair wea na kmtkiU aa hdch, be half ana ftite hicht 

OawtM and (ML UL 2a 
' With baith Ua haadia in haiat that haltane couth hew, 
Oart stanya hop of the AoMitt that haltane war hold. 

Thna that AcflUI in high withholdea that hende. 

~ Gaioaii 8iu< &> Oo/. ii. 28. 

*' Hathai in Ugh." vary noble peraon. 
The birdaa in the bowea. 
That on the goott glowea. 
Thai akryke m the akowea. 
That AaMalea may here. 


All thna thir mekittm hi ball heilie remanit. 
With aU walthiaat wiaa, and wirachip to waia 

MmUtUe, m, 17. oihiUeB, MS. 

The letter < haa been mistaken for e, from the areat 
aimilaritY of their form in the Bann. and other MSS. 
It ia, indeed, often impossible for the eye to diaoem 
any diffarenoe. 

Mr. PSnkerton inquires if ncAiff means high ? He haa 
nearly hit on the aignification ; but haa not adverted 
either to the orisin, or to the true orthography, which 
miriit have led him to the other. 

This word, whether nssd aa an adj. or «. ia evidently 
the same with A.-S. oMei^ nobilia. Hence the desig- 
nation, Aeikdmift a yonth of the blood royal, aa ISdgar 
AthtUng; and the phrase mentioned by Verstegan, 
aHheibaiim man, a man ndUy boni, also^ a gentleman 
by birth. Lord Hailea haa jnatly observed Siat "the 
An^o-Sazons, aa well aa other nations, formerly used 
the word AdikeUHgt to denote men of the noble claas, 
although it may by de ai e ca have been appropriated to 
the sons of the n^ral mmily." Annala, 1. 7. That it 
waa at length appropriated in this msnner, seems 
pretty clear. Qtomga adhdimg is equivalent to, regiua 
juvenis, Bed. iL 12 ; iii. 21. 

Su.-0. add also signiftes nobilis, as well as praed- 
puns, praestana. Inre derives it from aedel^ ede/, 
which, equally with its ally octt, in the ancient dialecta 
of the Gothic, denoted kindred, aa did also C. R eddyl. 
He founds this derivation on the following circum- 
stance ^-^diat thoss who were not noble, or free, were 
not considered ss having any pedigree ; just as slaves, 
among the Bomana, were supposed to propagate, not 
for themselves, but for their masters. As (£>th. and 
C. B. tdd corresponds to Lat. gens, oognatio; it is 
thought to confirm this derivation, that Fr. OtntU* 
hommt, E. OtndemoM, consonant to Aethd, adeU have 
their origin from Lat. yena^ geniUiB, Hisp. hidalgo^ a 
gentieman, haa been rendered q. hpo de tdgo, Le. tiie 
son of some one. But Camden observes with more 
probability, when speaking of JStheling; "Hence also 
the Spaniards, which descended from the German* 
Goths, may aoem to have borrowed their Idalguio, bv 
which word they aignify their noblest gentlemen. ' 
Bemains, i^amei^ vo.* bkdberi, Acooming to an 
author quoted by Hire, among the Goths in the middle 
agea, Aeden, as aynoo. with goitUu^ was often used to 
denote a nobleman or gentleman. 

Loccenius thinks that this term may owe its origin, 
either to add, odmi, proper or hereditary possession ; 
or to aUd, ai, kinid, generation ; Antiq. Suio-Qoth. 




Waehter dvriTW Oerni* tuM from cwfte, father. For 
whal^ my he^ is nobility, bat iUustrioiu anoeitryT 
HffBoep he obeerreii emoiig the R4miaiie, thoee were 
Moonnted noble whoee forSfathen had diacharaed the 
higher offioee of the state. Thus, they were iMeigiied 
pmhru, uidptUrieiL 

Id. amdiSmg^ rex, and awditrng-wr, eptiinatiim onus, 
•re evidently from the same souroe. Theee, however, 
O. Andr. deriree from awlr, richee ; awigti^ to become 
rieh; arndgwr^ rich, anciently homdnr, also htid, 
Henoe^ he sajrs, a king is called audtiita, from the 
nbondanoe ol hk richee, a oopia opnm et census ; Lex. 

Sn.'O. adSmg, jnTenis nobilia, c o rre s ponds to A.-S. 
tieihdktg,€adlmg; L. R adeiing^ut; as tneee are synon. 
with L. Bw donuctOntt eUio, abndflnd from imcigtus, and 
8b.-0. /imcier, Le. young lord. Only, the terms alliod 
to tu^/eUng were not eo much reetricted in any dialect 
aain A.-S. 

Varioos theories have been given as to the formation 
of the term oHheUng or adtHnp, Spelman savs that tlie 
An^^o-tSaxona used the termination Ung to denote pro- 
gemg, or as signifying yoMnger, It has been aUo sup- 
Dooedt that Img^ m Siis compo s ition, has the sense of 
Ihmmo^ q. tiie Image of a noble person. To both these, 
Lord Bailee prefers the hypotheeis of Papebrocl^ Vit. 
8. Kaig. that *' tmg is the mark of the adjective in the 
Northern langnagee ; as Nortimg, borealis, oaiiing, on- 
entaUs." •*Adei,*' he adds, **is the noun, and Ung the 
adjective. Hence Edgar Aedeiiitg, is Edsar the nohU, 
TImts are many examplee of this in modem English. 
Thus, from the noon Atre, merces, is formed the ad- 
jective hirding, mercenarius.** Annals, nbi sup. 

The Isanied writer is undoubtedly mistaken, in 
mying that tbtg is the mark of the adjective in the 
Northern languages. For it is indeed the mark of 
a peculiar daas of substantives. When this termi- 
nation is affixed to a n. #., it forms a perMmal de- 
signation, expreesinff the subject denoted by the noon, 
at far as it is applicawe to a person. Thus the Anglo- 
Saxons called a husbandman eoriKlmg, becanse of 
hie labour in the earth; an oppreesor mdiing, from 
nid fotoe; one who reoeived wages hyrOng^ from Ayr, 
nsrosa. Theverytenn,mentionrabyLordHaileeasan 
example, is jwoperiy a substantive used adjectively. 
This termination aUo converts an adjective into a sub- 
•taative^ poeseesing the quality which the adjective 
aignifies ; as Gkurm. firtrndlmg, a stranger, from/macf, 
strange ; JmngUng, a youth, homjung, young. 

Somner denies that ling denotes offiipring or descent. 
Waehter adopta the opposite hjrpothMis, and gives a 
variety of proofs. But there seems to be no satisfac- 
tonr etymology of the word ae used in this sense. 
While some deduce it from img, imago, and others 
tnm C. R tfioi, effigiee ; W^achter traoee it to laMgen, 
tangere, beca u s e a man's oflsprin^ are so near to him, 
that they may be compared to objecte which are in a 
atate of contact. This etymology, however, is greatly 

It deee rve s observation, that there is no evidence of 
occurring in this sense in Stt.-0. The inhabitants 
of the East are denominated ceaterhtmniH^r, and 
omlerU g ia eastern. lug, denotinc a son, is m Su.-G. 
the termination which marks descent. This Ihre 
views ss allied to C. R engi, to bring forth, to be bom. 
Thejpr^wr origin of this termination meet probably is 
8u.-G. unge^ ^ten written mq, ^9^* young. Thus 
Ihre says, that AdHrng is juvenis nobiljs ; as Oerm. ing 
is juvenis, and, in patronymics, equivalent to son. 
Fran this terminatitm, ae used by the Germans, the 
desoendanta of Charleroacne were called CaroliitgL In 
tiie same manner were the terms Mfrovingi^ Attingi, 
kc formed. There can be no doubt that ing is the 
proper termination in aethfting, as the radical term is 
ottAeL Shall we suppose that Hug is merely this ter- 
mination, occasionally a little altered, for making the 

sound more liquid; especially as the letter i. In the 
Gothic dialecte, is, as Waehter obeervea, a very ancient 
note of derivation and diminution T 

I shall only add, that ths Anglo-Saxons formed their 
patronymics by the use of the termination ing. Thus 
they said, Oonrad CeoUteaid'ing, i.e. Conrsd the son 
of Ceolwald ; Ceddwald Cuth-wg, CeolwakI, the son 
of Cuth ; Cuth Cuthwm-mg, Cuth the son of Cuthwin. 
V. Camden's Remains, Sumamee, p. 132. William 
of Malmeeburjr observee, that the son of Eadgar was 
called Madganng ; and the son of Edmund, Eiitnunditfa. 
Hickee has given various instances of the same kinif; 
as Pmddmg, the son of Putta; Brgning, the son of 
Bryna, Ac. Dissert. Ep. ap. Waehter, ro. Ing, V. 
Udal Laxim. 

ATHILL, Hathill^ s. A prince, a noble- 
man, an illustrioQS personage. Y. the adj, 

ATHIR, Athtb, protu 1. Either, whichso- 

Tlie jnstyng thus-gate endyt is. 
And aikgr psrt went bame wyth prin 

ITynlMeii, vUL 88. 2. 

2. Mutual, reciprocal. 

" Oftymes gret felidteis cumis be contentioun of un« 
happy parteis invading othir with athir injnriee, as 
happmnit at this tyme oe this haisty debait rising be- 
tuix Duk Mordo and his sonnis.'* Bellend. Cron. B. 
xvi. c 20. 

Athib Uthib, one another, each other. 

How that Eneas wyth bye fader met. 

And athir vthir wyth f^yndly wourdis gret 

Domg, Virga, IB»,\ R^. 

Mony a wyeht and worthl man, 

As athir spon othjfr than. 

War duschyt dede, doun to the ground. 

Sarbaar, xvL 164. Ma 

With strookes sors, aythtr on other bet 

Hardgn^M Chr. FoL 88, s. 

A.-S. aegther^ uterque. We find a phrsse somewhat 
similar in Oros. 2, 3. Htora aegther oiheme iffiUoh ; 
Eorum uterque slterum occidebat. V. Either. 

Skinner views the A.-S. word ae compounded of aee, 
etiam, and thaer, postea. What analogy of significa- 
tion is here, I cannot perceive. It is written more 
fully oeghwaHhtr. As kwaether signifies nter, E. wht* 
thitr, and ths term is used to distinguish difiersnt ob- 
jects ; may it not have been formw from Aioa, ^ui, 
who, and thaer the article in the genitive ; as equiva- 
lent to vfhkh of these, or iff the — ^things mentioned im- 
mediately after? V. Eithbb, Or. 

3. Used in the sense of other. 

«' In this battel was slane Walter Bryde. Eobert 
Cumyn, with mony other gentyl men and oommonis.** 
Bellend. Cron. R xv. c. 8. 

A-S. amthoTf authre, alter, another. 

ATHOL BROSE, honey mixed with aqua- 
vitae ; used, in the Highlands, as a specific 
for a cold, S. Meal is sometimes substituted 
for honej. 

— **The Captain swallowed his morning draught of 
AthoU Broee, and departed.** Heart Midloth. iv. 235. 

ATIIORT, prep. 1. Through, S., athwart, E. 

*' This coming out to light, posts went forth athori 
the whole oounUy, with an information written by Mr. 
Archibald Johnston ; for to him the prior inf ormationa, 





htdk tnm ooort and oClMrwEji» ofl aftor midaiglit, tm 
— rniMmicatwL" Bullia't Lett. L 32. V. Thomoue, 


ATHOBT, adv. Abroad, far and wide. 

**TImm fOM a ip—oh aikorit in Hm naiM of tlie 
Ddte of LiMioa, diMnadiiig tlie King from war with 
w." BoOlio't Uli. i. 83. 

ATHOUT,pf^. and adv. Without* life. 
ATHRAW, ^. Awiy ; AyiSn Damf r. 

UhuiHiH vovarauk— O bed tKraa oo toah, 
IndnotoUrttMt. Magmas SUUr Chtn. ^ 90l 

Wnm o, or niliir A.-& ois and UnHCMia, tocqiiara. 

ATICAST, «. A sillj, helpless, odd sort of 
penoo; bhetL 

. U. mAa§i wgnHiiia inaoltatio^ obtraetatio^ aammrnn 
momma Shall m tcaoa tho term to thia aooica, aa 
dinoling an objoot of ridieala or oontampt ? 

ATIB, EiLTiBy 0. Oor% blood, mixed with 
matter coming from a wonnd. 

or Ui B ddpa tiM flowand binda and ofM- 
Ha woacha away aU Fith tha aalt watir. 

llMiy. FtryL Sa 45. 


r, natter, oettor, Alam., eiiir^ laL, and 
attcr. Sn.'O. ctter, vananwm. But Belf. cyfer 
ilpdllm Dn% aaniaa. It aaama to be generally aomittad 
hgr philol^giata, that Alem. ctt-en, toonrn, ia the root ; 
baeanaa the moat of poiaonooa anbatanoea are of a hot 
and bnrning quality. Henoe Sa.-0. eUenuuala, nrtica 
anna^ or bnniiBg nettk. AUer atiU aignilif pvmlent 
maMar, Tinoolnan. 

ATO9 ^>^* ^ twain. 

lb the itiflm ha fade, 
And avwi Ola nna Mhara. 

» Tndnm, p. St at 48L 

A.-8. en Iwn, in dno. 

ATOMIE, t. A skeleton, S.; evidently corr. 

fiuiii d i fl ft wity. 

**llany folk hear aennon, yea, many aennona ; but 
tiMj are like tiioee poor foUc that died by the dyke 
aide not long ainee m aome of yonr remembranoea : 
whmi tlnva waa a kind of famine ; — ^the more they did 
aa^ tlmv grew like otomiefor akeletona." Senn. affixed 
toSoe. Ccmtandingi, p. 111. 

ATOHB, t. 

lie aehipBMB, with gret appaniU, 
Ooma wfth thair aebippiA till assaiil ; 
With top eaatall wainyet weill. 
Off wScht men annyt m to iteilL 
Ihair belli wp apon thair mast 

ley, and ' 
And pmmyt with that 

wp apoi 
Diawyn weill ney, and featnyt fast, 

IWut the wall : hot toe gynoiir 


Hyt In the aspyna with a sUne.- 

Auhour, lYiL 717. Bia 

Baily aditora haro taken the liberty of aobetituting 
wmtnimrt. Bat grH aiour aeema aynon. with arei ap^ 
pmvai, T«r. 711. O.Fr. aiour, attire. Stgnifioit 
antnloia toot ee qui aenroit k omer et k parer one 


Omatna, mondoa mnliebria ; Diet 

ATOUB, Attoube, prq>. 1. Over, S. 

Waflaee la tjr gert set aU baistely, 

firynt wp the kyrk, and all that was tharin ; 

iAIonr the roeh the laifT ran with gret dyn. 

Ifr-alfacf, viL 1068. MS. 

S* Across* 8. 

Bebo tttk him wp with ootvn wordis mo^ 
. And on a oaar wnlikly thai him east : 
A tour the wattir led him with giet woo, 
Till hyr awn hoiiM with ontyn coy hoa 

WtULct, iL 968L M& 

3. Bejondy as to time ; exceeding. 

"Oif— the King poaaeeae the landa perteining to the 
manalayer, in reapect of the minority of the oyerlord, 
nHonr the apace <n ana year and a day ; and happin to 
gine and dispone the landa aa eacheit, to any man ; he, 
to quhom they are given, aall poaaesee them, aa lang 
aa the man-alayer liTea." Quon. Att. o. 18. a. 4. 

4. Exceeding, in number. 

— ^- Thai wars twenty Aill thowsand* 
That ooBM in Scotland of Inglis msn : 
And noacht a^arf aucht tbowsand then 
Of Soottismen to-ayddvr syne 
Agayne thame gsodryd at Roslyne; 

KVNtoMm, TiU. ISl 284. 

Skinner derivea thia from F^. A towr, en iour, more 
commonly a Fenifmr, eircnm. But according to Diet. 
Trev., aUntour ia now obeolete, and inatead of it auiour 
ia need aa a prep, in the same aenae. It aeema doubt- 
fnl, however, wnether it ia not immediately of Ooth. 
origin. We might suppoee it comp. of 9u.-0. ol, de- 
notmg motion towarda a place, and o/tetr over ; or per- 
hapa, notwithatanding the change of the vowel, uom 
A.-S. via and ofer. 

OTer and 

Br AND Attoub, prep. 
above, S. 

"There came warrant from about 29 earia and lords, 
bf ami attonr barona, burgeaaea, Ac, aignifying through 
aU Scotland to thir covenantera tho g^at danger they 
were in for religion." Spalding^ i. 108. 

'*Both Aberaeena were— ordained to fnmiah out 
fbff and aUomr the footmen — ) the fnznitnre of aix rick- 
nuaten," *o. Ibid. i. 280. 

5. In spite of; as, ^FlI do tbis aUour ye,** i.e. 
in spite of all resistance on yonr part, 


ATOUB, Attoub, adv. 1. Moreover. 

**AUour, the King shall remain in thv government 
and keepings tiU he come to perfect age.** Pitacottie, 
p. 13. 

AiUmr, bshald to athir Decios, 

Aod staodymt far of toa that bait Drnsus. 

Xkay. FtVyO. 196i 11. 

In the aame aenae dy amd atUmr often occura in our 

2. Oat from, or at an indefinitie distance from 
the person speaking, or the object spoken of. 

Bot gif my power not snftcient be. 

Or (p^ yneoch, quhy suld I drede or spare 

To parches help forsolth aiUmr alquhars t 

A»M0L Ktrpa, 217. 1. 

ifftoar aiquhare ia meant to give the aenae of a#- 
giMim. In thia aenae it ia atill need. To stand at- 
iour, ia to keep off; to go aOaurf to remove to aome 
distance, S. 

ATRYy Attrie, adj. 1. Purulent, contain- 
ing matter ; applied to a sore that is can- 
kered. S. 



**TUUad«i)f th« dMBMi, M 

■ ya may gkthw oat o( 

. — , , I byl«,— Ana aOrit kind 

c( bfl^ (tiyking o«t in nuny haadcs or in Dutny plukaa : 
for N tha BAtura o( Um mud aigniliath." Bnioe'i 
BteViB 8«nn. 7oL 1, k ^lii w landorad maUtiic, in 
a* Bog. edit 

■i un. 

it cMmptadi tD Sik-O. ttttrMd, nkn n 
n. Jbtr, 

Sa Stonif uriiu* 

Black kaliy mrti, abcut ao Inch batwatn, 
tfa na hM- otn pUi biaaath k«r aco. 

Bai^t BtUmtrt. f. K. 
An' ball boadaa'd op wi' wrath, 

Wl' a(ry baa ba ty-d 
Iba IMan aboca, an' a' tba baifca 
Ttet Mdn'd M did ly 

AhH tha ooai«. 

AwM i> Oa AKkoa iXobi^ p. L 
^ll«ni^ tan% onial, tnariinft iU-natarad i Oloa- 
oart. Qnaa'a Ptdt. OL 

TUi Mif^t Mem non alliad te Lat o/cr, glocoiy ; 
■ten*, nging. But parhapa it ii manly a mataph. 
aae of the tana ai naed in aanaa flnt ; la we apeak of 

8. Peerigh, fretful ; an atru wtmAUn, a fret- 
ful misgrown child ; Cuthn. 

ATBTS, t.;>^ 

b a aatiio en the ehaap of ftubioDa, written jwr- 
h»^ towaida tha middia of tha aeventaenth oentiuy, 
WW have a eBiiaa* liat of articlaa of female dieaa. 

Mr lady, ai *be la a woman, 

la Mfa a halpar to aoda maa. — 

nr aha lannta a tbonmad toya, 

Tkat baaaa, and bdd, aad aU daaboya ; 

Aa aeaib, ahaBbcoa^ toA Bad itap, 

FUrdlan^bo^i aad powdarii^ 1 

TuldlacMtlaya [ooiUyifJ paarilag iftifi, 
Alrjf, Tarilmla, paiiwJn : 

Waitm-t CtlLi-ta. 
I which aeama to haTa any reaem- 
au*, a French hoed ; Chanc eOaur, 

y. AiwTv** 
ATRYST, : Appointment, as»gncdon. 

Hew ba aall lak ma vitb ana tn* otrytf of ana ntber. 
Otmiar, UaiUaiii Petmu, f. 48. 
Sama aa Tanr, q.T. 

ATTAMI£, «. Skeleton, S. 

Abhteviatcd fnm Fr. aaotomir, which not only de- 
■otaa diaaartinn, hot the aali)ect; "a rarriMii cut 

To ATTEICHE, v. a. To attach; LL. 

— "QuUIk onlinar Jagea, ke. aalhaTe power to at- 
M(A( ijtd amiit tba paraoai* tranagraaonri* of the 
aaid aotia." Acta Ja. VL IBSl, Ed. 1814, p. 23«. 

ATTEILLE, Atteal, t. This apecies of 
dnck seems to be the wigton, being distin- 
guished from the teal. 

Dr. BdmonitoDa ia fnlly of thia opinion, — "Ana* 
Farina (Lin. Snt.], A-teal, Foehard, Onat-baadad 
Wuaon." ZetL ii. 359. 

Be *iawa the TVoJ aa the Ana* Qoeninadula. 

Aeoording to Mr. Low, it ia different from both the 
viMO and tb« teaL Speekinif of the latter, ba aayi: — 

*' Beaidaa thia I have aeen another bird of the teal- 
kind hare called Atteai, It ia fouad in our loeha in 
nt nnmban in winter ( ii Tenp amall, brown or 
y abora, and a yellowiib belly ; but I hare not 
been able to prooDra ipecimena of it, ao aa to diatin- 
gniah it proparly." Fauna Orcadenaia, p. 149. 

" 'niey diacharge any penona quhataomever, with- 
in tbia realme in any wyae to aell or buy any — 
Termiranta, wyld Dukoa, TtSIa, AUeUUt, Oold- 
iuga, Hortyma, Scbidderema, Skaildraik, Hairoo, 
Batter, or any aik 'voda of lowllaa, oommonly need 
to be cbaaed with Halkaa, ander die paine ol ana 
handraUi poaad* to be inenrred abwell by the bayor 
aa tha aBUar." Acta Ja. VI. 1600. c S3. Miuray. 

"Leat Sapt-WidgeooaoriKCaiUiS: wild dnckia 4." 
Dyat Bnik of tha Kmgia bona at Falkland, Edin. Uag. 

The nana ia atill retained in Shetland. "There ia a 
tarn apeciee called the Stoek-dack, and amatler apeeiea 
called tealea and aUUet." P. DimraMueaa, Statiat. 
Aoo. TiL IM. 

Dr Bany laiinn miatakan, therefore, when, apeak- 
ing of the Teal, be aaya, that of thia the " AtUal ia 
parfa^a only a rariety." Hiat. Orkney, p. 300. He 
■nakaa tha wuaoa a di&rent bird ; ibid. p. 301. 

Sir R. Sibb, inquiiM^ if the Anat einta. Or Sumntr 
TVoj; bawhatoarforefathencalledtbe^fmi:/ Prodr. 
p. 2. UK S. 31. Bat Pennant aiupecU that Um binl, 
called tha Sammer Teal, ia meraly tha female of tha 
TeaL ZoeL u. 607. 

Tha taal, aooording to Pennant, ia cattad " CimbrU, 
Atteling-Aiid," ibid. 606. In laL the tardni mannna 
ia danominatad TialUr ; Q. Andr- 

ATTELED, pnt. Aimed. Sir Gawon and 

Sir Oal. iL 26. V. Ettle. 
ATTEMFTAT, «. A vicked and injarious 


Yit nocht aadat by thir aUtm^talit they brak 

It wonld ^>paar that thia term ia never naad in 
tadeflnita a aignificatiaa aa that ot B- eMtnpt. 
■a alwaya to include the idea of aomethins. if n 
Jlj-rilu ■ ■■ ■ ' ^ ■ 

morally evil, at laaat phyaiially ao, aa ii 

freqniBtly oooon in our Acta, in relation to the mil's 
an the Border. 

— "Toananer — Bar — nocht eaiiatand peraooaly — at 
data ot Trewii haldin ba the aaid wardane for refor- 
matianna ot aUemplatu to be maid A icaaaait for mo- 
toala obaaraalioane of pace k trewia laitlyoontractit," 
Ae. AeU Ja. V. ISSS, Ed. 1814, p. 303. 

It ia not with alUmpliilU that the phnae, (e tt Maid. 


[W]. ATW 

•odiMi Gall, ol* 

i«fc<apt.Rymtr,To.Ljft.3d4; DaCiiige. Thepro- 

*nr. «ltailalwM0liia»lMinas; Diet. Trev. 

.R - 

ATTEMPnNO, «• Perpetration, commis- 
■on, with {/subjoined, used in m bad sense ; 
sjmoD. with AUemptai. 

**THdndri« wikit penonis— oeiMU not oommonlie 
ia- lluttr praato i«T<Mig8 to hoeh and aUy ozin and 
hiwiai and to kvid ont bair men and yagabonndii to 
tha aitwmpUma al aio fonl and achamafnll enonniteia." 
AeftaJkTVL 1581, BdLlSiVp. 217. 

Hon than a Am aMaoftpiOr endeavour ia obrionaly 

To ATTENE, V. II. To be related to. 

— '*1bai uMmU to tlia paitie defendar— in ab netr 
«r aafiar dMNiaof that aam aort of affeetioan." Acts 
Ja. TL 1M7, App. Bd. ISK p. 44. V. ArFicnonir. 

Wr. / «llaiir i^ " to be linkad, or joyned in oon- 
laagBiiiitia with ;" Oo^. 

ATTENTLO; adv. Attentively. 

**PlNi|iag 1^ aoliilia— to oonaider aUemtiie, and 

nam. oor lonnar eanaaia to prooaid of na hat- 

^ aedit' 

NBl^ nor intaot to mora diabolical aeditioiuu*' K.Win 
yalfa Qaaat. Kaith'a Hiat. App. 226. 

ATTENTIK, adj. Authentic; AbenL Beg. 
A. 1548^ Y. SO. - 

ATTEB-CAP,Attiboof,#. 1. A spider, S. 

Tha piatliag nrat aiaftcfaai with tha Mniia, 

Fhi with Apollo phkjia, I wot not how ; 

Tha mUA rco m Miaanra'i oflioa luis. 

Ihna ba tfat gnlfii that garris Montgomria gnidge. 

That MydaiL not Mecaenas, is our jndrfe. 

Jfan^paicfy, IfS. Cknm. & P. iiL 605w 

S. An ill-natnred penon ; one of a virulent or 
malignant diqposition, S. 

Nasttnabw wiitrfp , id. Comb. aUereeb, a api- 
daf^a wabb A.-S. aiter capptp Aalfir. Qiier-coppa^ 
annaa; avidantty from aUer, ▼anannm, and copp^ 
aalix ; raeatviag ita danoaaination partly from its form, 
and paitlj from ita diaraeter ; q. a cap of venom. In 
Aaimo'a Oloaa. wa find JUonde naeddre, i.6. a flying 
addar» /pwwim aa qrnon. with aUer eoppe. For the word 
mdder m maraly aUer, atUerp ▼anenum, naed aa a da- 
lifnafr* lor Uuit apadea of aarpant. Hence the aame 
tHmiaaxplainadl^Soaui. <uliierandjwy«m. In laL 
tha aaaaa of a aarpant ia fwmed in the aame manner aa 
thai of a apidar in A.-S. Thia ia eitT'Crm, a poiaonons 
worm. It doaa not appear that in A.-S. aeiter was 
laad ia compoa i tion with leyrmtf, worm. We find, 
howawraT t a ^vnon. deaignation for a aerpent in old E. 
wbiA hm lean oranooked by both Skinner and 
Jaaina. Thia ia wylil wonii«. 

I aa te aanna, 4 the m, and the sonde alter, 
And where that byides k beastes makes they yeden ; 
ITyU wprmcs ia woodss, k wondartol fowles 
Wyth fiekad fiithan» and of feU ooloon. 

P. PUmgHman, FoL S8. a. 

U tiia apitliat wyU wero not reckoned aofficient to 
dataiiiilHa the asnae^ it woaM be confirmed b^ tha 
aJNamatanea of their being mentioned aa inhabitanta 
al weedlea. Bat tha writer af terwarda alludee to the 
B oa iuua qaality al theee worma: — 

■^WUd wonu In woods by winters yow grenith. 
And amkath hem wefaiyghe meke k milde for defante, 

' t nem somer, that b hir soneraya ioysi 

FoL 78, a. 

Tha idea la, that tha oold of winter, and want of 
food have audi an affect aYon on aaipenta aa nearly to 
ehanffe thdr nature. 

Although warm ba hero used in thia aenae, aa weU 
aa in laL, in eonnexion with a word expreaaiTO of 
equality, it may ba obaerved that MooaH}. toaarm 
ammly aignifiea a aerpent. Aigaf itvU valdufni 
tmiam ^faro waanne, I have given you power to tread 
upon aarpenta, Luke z. 9. 8tt.-0. and Dan. arm 
baa tha same aignification. A.-S. wurm aometimea 
occura in thia aenae. At other timee it baa ai^ epitliet 
conjoined, aa fah wrm^ the yariegated worm, w^frm" 
thriwMdf tha oouTolVent worm. 

It appean that tha term in aoma parte of S. atill 
lataina thia aaaaa. 

*'AboTa tha aouth entrance of the ancient pariah 
ehnrch ^ Linton, in Boxbur^^;faahire, ia a rude piece of 
acnlpture, raprseentinff a knight, with a falcon on hie 
arm, enooontaring with hia Uuoce, in full career, a aort 
of numater, which the common people call a worm, or 
anake.** Minatroby Border, ii. N. p. 08, 09. V. alao 
p. 101. 

ATTIBy «. Proud flesh| or punilent matter 
about a sore, AbercL; evidently the same 
with Atib, used by Oawin Douglas, q. y. 

ATTIVILTS, $. Arable ground lying one 
year lea, Shetl. 

Tha latter part of thia word aeema originaUy tha 
aama with Atil and Awat, q. ▼., need to denote the 
aaeond erop altar laa^ But the origin aeema vary 

ATTOUR, pwrp. V. Atoub. 

ATWA, adv. In two, Clydes. 

ATWEELj At WELL, adv. Trulyi assuredly, 
S. oorr. from / wot weel^'ue. I wot welL 

I mind It well enoogh, and well I mar. 
At w§U I daae'd wr yoa on your birth day. 

Jtoff*« Aknof«, p. 21. 

•*Aiweei 1 would fain taU him." Antiq. iii. 214. 
It ia aomatimaa abbroyiated to 'TweeL 

ATW£EN,/mp. Between, S. V. Atweesu. 
ATWEESH, jpr^. 1. Betwixt. 

— > As Ctf as I ween, 
Theyll nae be angry they are left alane. 
Atwak themselves they best can ease their pain ; 
LDvers have ay some clatter o' their ain. 

Skirrtfi^ Ftitrnt, pi SSL 

Mr. Tooka obearraa that E. betwixt "ia the imper- 
ative fte, and tha Gothie [i.a. Moea-O.] twoe, or two." 
Divera. Parley, i. p. 405. 

TVeos ia tha aocua. of two, twai. But tha terminationa 
of tha A.-S. aynonyma, betweohs, beiweox, betwux, be» 
twjfx, have no relation to tviegen, two, in ita state of de- 
elenaion. Wachter riawa Germ, zwiseftea, between, aa 
formed from wwi, two^ by the intervention of scA«, a 
pmrtide need in derivation. Thua, he eaya, from kutt. 
en, to oover, kuitcMe, vehiculum, ia formed, Ac. V. 
Prolog, sect. e. Thia idea mi^t seem to have aoma 
coUatend aupport from Franc. tui$e, entuuehan, Belg. 
ttuehen, between. 

S. Denoting the possession of any quality, or 
relation to any particular state, in a middling 
way ; Aberd. Atween is used in the same 
sense: Ahnen th4 iwa; id. as, *' How are 



▲ UO 

ye tiie cbij t ^ ^ Only aiween th$ twa,^ i.e. 
only 10 8o in respect of healthy S. These 
.are often conjoined; Ba^Atweeshandatween^ 
10 to^ Aberd 

AU| mierf. 1. Used like Aa E. as expressive 
Of surprise, S. Dan. auj oh ; expressive of 
^ pain« 

2. As augmenting the force of an affirmation 
or negation ; as, Au aye, O yes ; Au na^O 
no; Aberd. In the counties towards the 
south, or ott is used, 

AVA'y adv. !• Of all ; as denoting arrange- 
ment or place* in connexion with Jint or 

Hb cnit, tkb Btaekmiths, lint ava. 
Lad tiM procMiJon, tw« ukI twa. 

MsLfft^^ Sitter (Tun. p. 23L 

2. At all. 

Sht iidtlMr kent ipinniiig nor carding^ 
Nor bfowing nor boking ova*. 

Sm§t Motife Eelenort, p. 145. 
Goer, fxam qfott, 

AVAIL, Avals, $. 1. Worth, value. 

*'Tluit aU pacuniall paineo of offenders sal be taken 
vp in flokl and silner at the avail of the money qnhen 
tM scms were made," Ac Acts Ja. VL o. 70. 

*' To pfoif the avaU of oertane huUatis, poulder, and 
ninds [ukesq&wagis [wedges] of irne.'* Aberd. Reg. 

2. Means, property. 

"^ Order lor Garrisons in the Border, and that the 
Sheriff! tax and return mens tuMiU for bearing the 
charge." Stewart's Abridgm. S. Acts, p. 102. 

AVAILL, «• Abasement, humiliation. 

Ths Ubonr hist, snd leil •enrioe ; 
The Isag avaitt on hmnil wyte, 
. And the IjtUl rewards agane, 
Tot to cons t dder is ane pane. 

DiMter, MaUUmd Foemt, p. 116. 

This term is used to denote the homiliation neces- 
sary in serving and in expecting fayours at court. 
F^« aval-eTp avatt-er, to faU down, to be brought low ; 
aaal, down ; perhaps from Lat. ab alto, Ital. aval^re, 
to senre, seems nearly to express the idea contained in 

AVAILLOUR, 9. Value. 

^-''Baxtsris, Brousteris, &c. sail retain na mair 
within thair awin housis, to the use and susteiitatioun 
of thair familiee, than the availlourot iiii. d. for all the 
test sonld be oommoun to aU personnis that lykis to 
buy." Balfour's Pract. p. 65. 

fV. flofenr. v. Valovk. 

AVALy i. The same with Avil, Durofr. V. 

To AUALE, V. fi. To descend. 

Ihare was na ■trenth of raflyeant men to wale, 
Nor kfgs Sndii on yet thst mycHt auale. 

An^. Ftry< 160. 44. V. Ataill. 

0. E. id. **lauale ss the water dothe whan itgoeth 
downe wardee or ebbeth. [fV.] Jauale. The water 
aMoidh uMoe.— It is awaiumg water, let vs departe." 
Fklsgr. Kiii. F. 156, n. 

AVALOUByf. Avail. 

" That the saidis p r ece pti s be— of sis grete strenthe, 
avaloHTt and effecte, as thai wars directo to Jhone 
abbot of PssUy, now keper of the privay sole." Acta 
Kary 1542, Ed. 1814, p. 424. 

To auale; V. n. To watch. 

" He declairis planelie, that the cure of the miver- 
sal kirk apperteois to hiin, and that he is put ss in the 

Tatehe, to analk oner the hail kirk.*' Niool Bume, 
F. 89, a. 
A.-S. ai0aeoe-€M, rigilars. 

To AVANCE, V. a. To advance; Fr. 


"The saidis prelatis— <i«aiMd to my said Lord- 
GoTemour — ^thair partis of the said Androis-Messe 
Terme." Sed<. Oounc A. 1547, Keith, App. p. 65. 

AvAKOEMENT, «. Advancement, Fr. 

— " Ho— is dalie fanrdynnit k chargit with the aons^- 
maU of greit sowmes of monie to his hienes,*' Ac 
Acta Ja. Vt 15M» Ed. 1814, p. 78. 

AYAND, part pr. Owing; v being used 
for 19, and vice versa. 

" Safere as sal be fnndin avand of the saide tochire, 
— ^the said Robert sail—- pay the samyn," Ac. Act. 
Dom. Cone. A. 1488» p. 83. 

AUANTi AwANT, #• Boast, vaunt. 

Axjt men of the deti Aumnca 
Wyth grete auatU fomoith than hard I ta. 
Of this cnntre Schir Daidanos ybore. 
Throw out the m aocht fer and ferthennore. 

Doug. Vvrgil, 211 80. 

Skinner mentiona a conjecture^ which has consider* 
able probability ; that this word has had ito orisin 
from Fr. avani, before ; ss denoting the conduct of a 
man who prrfer% his own works to those of another. 
It would seem, indeed, that there had been an old Fr. 
verb of this form, ss Chauoer writes avauni tor boast. 
Oower dose the same. 

Whereof to make myn tnaitni 
It is to resson sooorasat 

Oa^f, Awi, F. 21. s. h. 
He there also speaks of 

The ryoe celled avamUanc$f 

i.e. boastings in like manner designed aoauiifry. 

AVANTAGE, $. A certain right according 
to the old laws of France. \l Eyaktaoe. 

AYANT0UKBIER3, 8. pL Forerunners of 
an anny, perhaps what are now called 
picquet guards. 

"The avatUcurrien of the English boast were dome 
in sight, whileet the Soots were some at rappf r, and 
others gone to rest.** Hume's Hist. Doug. p. 89. 

Tr. avani^ourtur; from avant, before, and eourir, to 

AUCHAN, AcHAN| 8. A species of pear, S. 

"The Atiehan sometimes reoeires the epithet of 
areM or red: it is an excellent pear, said to be of Scot* 
tish origin.^ NeiU*8 Hortic. Edin. Encycl. No. 113. 

Achan, Reid's Scots Gard'ner. V. Longubvills. 

Whether this-derivation has been borrowed from the 
name of a plaoe cannot now be determined. 

AUCHINDORASi s. A large thorn-tree^ at 
the end of a house ; Fife. 


AUCHLET, «. A meMora of mealy 

**0ldOEMdk 1>?*Mnlf ham often boodii otAmt^tA 
■fM lutiMW tiM amekiet, m «<Miir» iHiien iwiuJly oon- 
teiDM two pounds mora than tibo pnMot otono dooo." 
Gri«L M«reiii7» 1 Nor. 1819. 

Wnm mukt, oisht» and (o<, A.-8. kUi^ won; liko S. 
JHti,fyrk^ hamfurd fourtii, and M At two pecks 
to tiM tteno^ tlM amekUtt mskiBg allowMioe for tko dif - 
flHinoo of woi^t is differant eoontios, w noraly tho 
ImII of tiio/r^ ortl» o^ !•< or portion of a boU. 

AUCHLIT9 «• Two stones weighty or a peck 
meMme, bring half of the Kirkcudbright bu- 
shel; Galloway. 

To AUCHT. V. a. I. To own, to be the 
owner <rf| AbenL V. Aioh, and Aioht. 

2. To owe^ to be indebted to ; used in a literal 



"Tbo oittoll and gadio that onmiato tlio fadrand 
■wkat of tlio bnrdi of Edinbmgh, amekt na cnatmno 
totiioSoliirifof ]£Unbiu|^; bot tho Froveat aa Schi- 
lif of tlio boigh of Sdinboii^ ohcM and aonld have 
timooatomo of all tho laid cattail and gudiacitmand to 
tha martat.'' A. 1487. Balfonr'a Pnct. p. M. 

Hara tiia Torb ia evidently mod in two different 
awMB. Intiiafiratof theaa, itmoatfreqnantlyoocua 
aa a paHiciplis nadUandL -■ 

AUCHT» Awcht, pret. of Aw. 1. Possessed. 

The banace of SeoUand at the lart 
Aaeembl ja thame, aad tkad jt Oast 
Ti ehes a K jag than land to etere. 
That of aaneeetry enminjrn were 
Of Kjagik that oMdU that reawti, 

rjeht than kyng to be ! 

Wynittmik, viiL 1 9. 

UkoaadhithiaaaBaabgrlLBninno, p. 128. 

In Ua eaitend yere Steoea that the load aa*4 
Maid eeho died hen, hir soole to God betaaht 

Li 8n.-0. tfioin ara three aynon. Torba, oorreapond- 

otf to ovr iMf» migk^ and omekL Theee ara ae^ aaak'-a^ 
mH att-€H whkh not only aignifiea poaeidere, but debera. 
iTon har mm aUa; Ita sa-gerabat nt dcbebat; Loooon. 
Lax. Jar. 8n.-0. 

S. Owed, was indebted. 

— — > Vor law or than for thrste. 
Of lion ha eakl pay at he mueki. 

iryMwiMi y« 8L 99« 

It alao oeean in thia aonse^ R^ Bnmne^ p. 247. 

The dettei that mea them anA/, ther etedee k ther woayag. 
Were taiedft bitauht to the eacbeto of the kyi^ 

AuCHT, V. imp. Oughty should. 

Ameki tiioa yit thaa Mf this welfare aad joy. 
. And la tic pereU aeik throw the aey to Troy I 

Dtmg. VvrgO, Ua 8S. 

Thia is originally tho/»ref. of Aw, q. ▼. It is some- 
need in a diffe 

lorent f onn. 

Wefll mtektu th4 to store aad aiagaille. 

PaMf ^Mamom', i^rU. st. 10. 

Lou It baoomea theo welL 

Amekim h naed in a similsr sense. 

Wele flHcAlm eklsiia eieaiplee tb to atcre 

TH Ue eorage, a! honoar tu eiuew, 

<^hea we eoaaider quhat woonchip thereof grew. 

It seens to be fkoaa A.-S. aJUom^ tho third p. plur. 
prat of A.-8. Ag^n. 

AxjCBtf #• Possession, property. 

And I thar statatls and aere Uwla thayai taneht, 
Aaalgnand flkane prepir hoasee and aadUL 

i>n^ FtrpO; 7S. A 
Hera tho word atriotly denolaa that property which 
ia defined by law» aa oxdnsiTeir onrs own; oorre- 
sponding to^ Jnra domoaqna daiam. Virg. lib. 8. 
▼• 188. 

Aae erOl wyfe is the werrt tmeAi^ 

That ony maa can haif; 
For he may aevir ait in aaneht, 

Oalen he be hir aklaif. 

JteuMtf yae Foem$, pi 176. at 8. 

Thia phraae, the weni mmeki, containa an obviooa ra* 
ferenoe, in tho way of oontn^MMition, to that well 
hnown in onr old lawa, tke bui auehi, aa denoting tho 
moat valnabla thing of one kind that any man poa- 

en n* * 

aikn, pecnliana ac 
reapective yerba. 

The term is still oonunonly nsed, nearl v in the same 
manner. J haif mi a bawbet in aw mg avcal, S. I have 
no money in my poeaeeaion. 

A.-S. add, id. Moea^. a% 
propria poesBaeio ; both from 
o^-aa and aig-an. 

Bad AuoHTy a bad property, applied to an 
obstinate ill-conditionecf child, o. 

BoNNT . Auoht, a phrase applied to a person^ 
contemptuously, S. B. 

Ay aontie, sin ye heat the hmmgtmghii 
lie tnie, ehe had of warid'a gear a ftaogfat ; 
Bat what waa that to peace uid aanght at hamcL 
And whilk ia warae, to kirk and market ahame ? 

itoaf^s Bdgmart, p. 8S. 

AuchT| forL pa. Owed. 

'* Anont tho fee miehi to tiio said Patrik« that the 
reeaayonr pay him aa moklo aa ia awing him." Act. 
Dom. Cono. 2L 1472; p. 18. 

ATJCHT, adj. Eight ; S. 

And thai for grat apecyalti 

Bade wyth hym forthwart ^on way 

Hrm til Berwyk til cooway 

Wyth awhi hoadyre aperu aad mi. 

irynlewn, iz. A 87. 

Awhie, id. 0. E. 

The dale waa a thonwmd k foai eeoie k auhte. 

JL Bnmn4, p. 84. 

Moea-O. ahiau^ A.-S. coJUo, Gonn. ahi, Belg. aehi^ 
Isl. 80.-0. aUa^ OaaL oehi, id. 

To thia word wo mnst» in all probability, rafer a 
paesago in one of Dunbar's poems, left by Mr. Pinkerton 
sa not nnderatood. It is raipoesiblo, indeed, to under- 
stand it, aa it appean in the poem. 

Kirkmen so halie ar and gnde. 
That on their conacienoe rowne aad rade 
May ton tmeht opin aad ane wane ; 
<2ttmlk to oonsidder ia ane pane. 

Jiaiimd Foemif p. 118. 

The first lino is oyidently the language of ironv. 
Amehi cannot be meant in the aense of oay ihintf, K. 
amghi ; for it is not used in this senee by our ohl 
writers. Opin can aa little eignify open ; for then the 
naaeage would be without meaning. It must certainly 
be yiewed sa an error of aomo transcriber for otuen. 
Making thia supposition, the sense is obyious. The 
ooDscienoe of a cnurchmian, in that age of darkneaa, 
waa ao round, or perhaps rornne, large, end so rtide, of 
such hard materials, that eiijhi ooEtn, with a miiR, might 
turn on it. A carriage, ciuled a wain, drawn by six 
or eight oxen, is still much in use in tho Northern 
parts of 8. 


AUG [»] 


AUOHTAND, AuOHTENy €u{f. The eighth. 

Tkt pfokmc of Um oMolUaiMlf bak 
Ib-Io thii obaptor now 3^ Inkaw 

WftUowm^ tUL JtM6r. 

Unto btt fenli tli« itmehteH buln 

Bilth liiUowiohip ud ftnaooTB, qiiha liit Ink*. 

liMif . KtryO, IS. 48L 

This does aol oorrapond to the oidiiuJ rnimben 
«nd in Moe»-Q. and A.-S., oJUuda and eoAtoolAa. 
B«t BCr. MMphenon refen to Itl. aiOiumU^ id. 8a. -G. 
«ltti^ !■ tibo oighth part of any ^"^ 

AUCHTIOEN, AucHTiKiN, t. The eighth 
Mit of a barreL or the half firkin ; a term 
formerly used Aberd. 

Wnm cnmAI aii^tli, and km or Mm, tha Tent, termi- 
nation Mierally UMid in the names of vmatUMf aa km- 

AUCTABY, «• Incr^iae, augmentation. 

"David BCaokaw^mortifiad 1200 merka, for main- 
twianca of 8 bonaia ; beside the like sam, an larfgd 
Mtetafv to the library. " Craofurd'a Univ. Edin. p. 

Lai. amclmti'Wmf adTantagOp OTerplus. 

AUCTENIY, a<(/. Authentic. 

**OBraaid aoaerane lord — gaif commande to the said 
maistsni Jamea Fonlia— to geif ont the aueternhf copy 
of tiie aaidia domes of forfaTtoar.** Acts Ja. V; 15£k 
Id. 1814, pw 861. 

AUDIE, $. <' A careless or stupid fellow;** GL 
Sunr. Nairn. 

This, althoo^ merely a proTincial term, seems of 
g re at antiqiiiW ; and is most probably allied to IsL 
arnif 8a.-0. oa, eet^ Teat, ood, tacilia ; q. a man of an 
oasT diapositifl% one who may be toxned any way. 
Kifian renders ood, Tacausy inanis, Tanns. llie IsL 
tsrm is freonently need in a eomposite form ; as and- 
tnUf ersdofos, easy to Iroio or beliere; audginHittr, 
haSoM deoeptn ; cuMtteiuf icr, essily known, Ac It is 
' ladioaUy the same with A.-S. adh, eaih, easy, a eUh, 

To A VE Y. V. n. 

*' And our sooerane lord will eanss his aduocatis to 
be preesnt the said day to arey for his interess in the 
Mid matter." Aot. Dom. Cone. A. 1492, p. 249. 

Parbapo allied to Fr. advoyer, an OTerseer, an advo- 
oale ; or rather to L. B. avoi-<trt, actionem intendere, 
morere ; Oarpentier. 

AYENAND, adj. Elegant in person and 

Han Sohir Gaoaae the say» grcte of degre, 
And Sckir Lsaoelot da Lake, withoutin lesing. 
And anmoMil Sehir Ewin thai ordanit : that thre 
To the sohore ehiftana chaigit fra the aynff. 

%iv w^hfww www ^^v^w# na^ av# 

— Be was Thonag. and owiuuul, 
And ta all kndla rycht pleaand. 

IflfMlowM, tL la ISL 

F^. a d v mamt , avmtwU, handsome ; alao, oonrteoos. 

AVENTURE, $. V. Aunter. 1. ChanoB, 
accident. In aU aveniouris and eaiss^ in 
eveiy case that may happen. 

** It is thocht expedient that onre — sonirane lord, — 
■old annex to his crone, for the honorabill support of 
hia estate dale, in all avtntourU and caiss, tiaith in 

weir and paioe, aio landia and lordaehipia aa ar now 
preeentlie m his handia that ar nocht annext of befor." 
Aeta Ja. V. IMO, Ed. 1814, p. 860. 

2. ^ Aventurt^ — a mischance causing the death 
of a man ; as where a person b suddenly 
killed by any accident*** Spottiswoode's MS. 

Ik Avemture. adv. Lest, perchance. 

'*The meddnaiia inhibit thir displeeooria to be 
aohawin to the Kvng ; m aventurt he tok aio malan- 
coly thairthrow, that it mycht haisty him to hia deith/* 
BeUend. Cron. B. 11, o. 4. Ne forsitan. Booth. Fr. 
• roamlarc, cTaveatarc^ perohanoe. 

AVER, AviR, AiVER, 9. 1. A horse used 
for labour, a cart-horse, S. 

"Thia man wyl not obey my chargia, quhill he be 
riddin with ane moUet biyayL Nodithela, I sail gar 
hym draw lik an avit in ane eart." BeUend. Cron. 
B. xii. o. 8. 

2. An old horse, one that is worn out with 
labour, S. This, although now the common 
signification, is evidently improper; as ap- 
pears from the epithet auUL being frequently 

Snppoif I war ane aid yaid oeer, 
Sehott Airth oorclenchis to squlshe the devir,— 
I waU at Yonl be hooslt and Mtald. 

Yet afl a ragged eowte's been known 

To mak a noble aiver : 
80, ye maT doaoely fill a throne. 

For a* their diah-ma-ela?er. 


"An inch of a nag ia worth a apan of an avtr,*^ 
Bamsay'a S. Prov. p. 14. • 
L. B. t^feri, ofrt^ jnmenta Tel cavalli ooloniei, — 

3ni agricultnrae idonei : nnde forte qoaevis bona 
^aria dicta sunt ; qnae .vox tradncta ad negotia, 
Oallis afairta, Averiai, averUf e^ui, boTOi^ jnmenta, 
oveo, oeteraqne animalia, qnae agncoltnrae ineervinnt. 
Dn Oanflo. Hence, aa would aeem, O. E. auare waa 
naed to aenote richee. 

The maister of ther pedaile, that kirkes brak and brent,— 
In sailk felonie gadied grcte anere; 

R, Bnmm, p. 124. 

v. Akaoi. 

8. This name is given, in Sutherland, to a 
gelded goat. 

"Horsee, of the beet kind, draw from L.4 to L.S 
Sterling ; — fpmtM with kid, fie. ; yeU goata, from Ss. to 
4s.; aven, i.e. gelded he-goata, from os. 6d. to 6s. 6d." 
P. Kildonan, Statist. Aoc. iii. 408. 


Ateril, s. 


hippit, ngly ttverU, 
With hnrfcland Danes ay howkand throu thy hide. 

Jhmbar, Effergreen, iL 67. it. 18. 

Bamaay renders this " senseless feUow," aa if it were 
kaveril, nom haver, q. ▼. Had Dunbar heard his lan- 
soage explained in this manner, he would undoubtedly 
have returned the glees to the critic with full intereet. 
From the rest of the deecription, it is evident that 
thia ia a diminutive from aver, a beast for labour. 
The first epithet, conjoined with averil, refers to a 
horse whoee hinder quarters are become lank from hard 



▲ UL 


*'l!nih powar to— Tptek tli« toUii, enttoiiMti. pryn- 
tfi!L m mrm§ MfreMhwr, gadgnag nbrw/* fto. Aeti 
CS. L U. 1814, V. 027. 
■fUTalaol^ otrluipt, to " money pmblo for tibo 
ilqf «f ooti into the li«rbour of Cromarty ; from 
, For cnAieiMtf 00* Mama to be immediately 

Armaim, «• live stock, as inclading hones, 
cattle^ Ac / — y 

-Caalenlatkm <firnat moMy and Tietiiala will year- 
ly ftuniah and anatain their BCajeetiea house and averk. ** 
X IMS, KiBith'aHiat. p. 321. 

Hara H ■*▼ immediateW refer to the ezpenae of the 
v. AviB, aanaa 2; etymon. 


bk ^bm moBoth of AvyrifU §jw 
Neit eftyr the battayle of Dnplyne, 
f^ BehTT Andrsw of Mnmwe wes tane, 
' an Ilia moiybi heme had gana. 

Bet ha was takyn a-poo caa, 
Theldya to na maa yhit he 
Qahiil he wee hrowcht ia-til proMod 
To the Kyvg Edwanl of Tngtond, 

IKyiilMM, vUL 27. a. 

AYERIN, Ayeren, Aiyerix, $. Cload- 
beny^ or knootbeny, S. mbus chamsmorus, 
jAMOLi eaten as a desert in the North of 8. 

She wlna to fbot, and iwaTering mak« to gang, 
And qpiea a spot of avtreiu enTuuig. 

JKosra HUeaofV, p. 28. 

**HMMa let them bend their oonrse to Lochnachat, 
-^piehinf np here and there a plant of the nibna 
ulieinaeiiicwni, (the oMfon or Hishland cidKrac), and 
if ita fruit be ripe, they wOl find it very refreahing." 
P. Clniiik Ptotha. Statut. Aoc. is. 237. . 

Ita GaaL naaaa ia alao written Oirah. Averin^ perfaapa 
tnm Qenn. oteiv wild, and ea , which may anciently 
hKwm T^"^^^ a berry in general, aa in Stt.-Q. it now 
that of the juniper. 

AYEBTITi |Nirf • jMu Overtomed* 

'— >**Hia bona to be aa averiU^ that of it sail remane 
aamemorie." Bellend. T. Ijt. p. 334. Dtnu, Lat 
f^. eMfi4r, Lat. everf •€re^ to overthrow. 

AUFAULD, adj. Honest V. Ar ald. 

AUGHDIDTY, Auchimuty, (gutt.) adl 

Meatiy paltry ; as, on auchimuty body^ Loth. 

Thia nay be a Toatiije of the A.-S. word, which 

. might be left in Lothian, woe-mod, " pusiUanimia, 

faint-hearted, oowardlie ;** Somner. from toae, wtae, or 

*wac«^ debjla, langpidoa, and mod, mena : Belg. wetmoe- 

AUOHT| «• 0/ aughtj of consequence, of 
importance, Ayrs. 

• '*Tba reat of the vear waa merely a ouiet ancoeoaion 
of small inddenta, though they were all severally, no 
donht, of amghi eomewhere.** Ann. of the Par. p. 200. 

AuOHTAKDy part. pr. Owing. 

— **Thal the debtia twghland be our armie^ar 
■f op e tii a au^tand be offictaria and Boldiottris,** kc, 
Aeta Cha. L Ed. 1814, V. 3*7. 

AYII^ $• The second crop after lea or grass ; 
Galloway. Y. Awat. 

AVILLOUS, adj. Contemptible, debased. 

In aviUoMf Italia, 

To oompt how ys eooTerss, 

I ug for ▼Ulanle, 

Your Yycis to rsherm. 

AsoM, Cftnm. SL /MIL 147. 
F^. avUi, kt in oontemptionem addnetoa. Diet. Trev. 
From avtfir, TilMoere. 

AUISE,#. Advice. 

Heifc, I sal aehaw myne amite, quod ha. 

JMmg. Virgil, 881. 63. 

So thay oahilkii are desyrit peace and test, 
And for toe oommoan wele taocht it was best, 
To nuk end of the baigane on this wyse, 
Ar altarit balely in ane vthir augte, 


The king at hla osyt sent messengen thre. 
Chanoar, a»i$, id. F^. avi$, ooonael, advioe. 

AVYSE, AwiSEy 0. Manner, fashion. 

Apoon his stiyngis plarit he mon^r ane spring ; 
Layes and rymes apoon toe best awiae, 
And euemiare his manere snd his ^ae 
Was for to sing, blasoon, and discriae 
Men and stedis, knichthede, were, and striue. 

JMmg. YirgU, 806L 8. 

"He oommandit be general proclamationia al fen- 
aabyl men to be reddy in thayr beet avyse to reaist 
thair ennymia." Bellend. Cron. FoL 8. a. 

From A.-S. wifa, wiie, Alem. mmm, «Misa, Belg. 
wijmt mode, manner ; a being prefixed, which ia com* 

To AVISE, 9. n. To deliberate. 

*'Oawine Archbiahop of Glaagow— apponit thaim 
therto, unto the tyme that ane provincial oounael 
might be had — to arvif and condud therupon.*' A. 
1542, Keith's Hiat. p. 37. 

Fr. am-^r, to oonaider, to adyise of. 

AuiSMENT| #• Advice, counsel. 

••The kins sail mak him anauer with aidmMnt of his 
oonnaaU." Part Ja. L A. 1424, Acta Ed. 1814, p. 4. 
Fr. afteemeal, L. B. omtamtnl'Um, id. 

AUISION, «. Vision. 

—To Uie Goddes of Tildenies, es is rsit, 
Qnhilk Hamadrisdes halt, I woorschip maid,— 
Baseiking this auiaUmn worth bappT, 
And the orakil prosperite sold signify. 

ik»tg. YvrgO, 68. 18. 
Chauoer, id. 

AWKWART, AuKWART, prep. Athwart, 

As he glaid by, awkwari he couth hyra ta, 
The and amon in sondyr gart he ga. 

wJUace, iiL 176. MS. 
Ane othir awkwari a large straik tnk tbar, 
Abown the kne, the beyne in sondir schar. 

Ibid. iL 109. Ma 

WaOas was glad, and hynt it sons In hand. 
And with the soerd OMmart he him gawe 
Wndyr the hat, his crags in sondir dnwe. 

Ibid L 402. M3. 

AULD, #. Age. 

"Mairouir, ane euil toung, apesially of ane euil 
giflhi counaeUour, fala prechour or techar, may kendil 
the hartis of men and women to heresie and vthir 
aynnis, and thairin to remaine fra the tyme of thair 
youthede, to the tyme of thair oaM, aa mekil euil may 




Ml fru MM wil toung." Abp. Haiiiiltoiin't 
wMiiinii^ 1061. FoL 60ft. 
A.-8. mUL MBseta^ Moet-G. aldi^ aetaa. V. Eild. 

•I ft,T 

AuLD, od/. Old. v. Ald. 

AULD-AUNTIE, s. The aunt of one's 
father or mother, Clydes. 

AuLD-UNGLBy #• The nncle of one's father 
or mother, Ibid. . 

AhbgmA Unele and AwU an not of A.-S. origin. 
H i aaa woroa art fbnnad after the idom of that langua^pe. 
▼• Auu^-Fathbr. Tent, omd-oom oorretponcia with 
AfM-trnde, com being tlie aame with S. Eme, BIam. 

AULD-FABRAN, adj. Sagacious, S. 

people, ri^ht mUd-famm^ wiU be laith 
lb thwvt a nation, wha with eeee can draw 
Up flka ahdoe thef have, and drown them a*. 

JUmMa/t PoeHw, i 66, 

fbr thiie'b ajr aomething bm auU'/arram, 
8ae alid» bm nnoonatrain'd, and daiin, 
In flka aamnk we have teen yet, 
UmI little better here baa been jret 

" ■ iLM. 

**TeVa Q'or omU/arrtM to bo fley'd for boglee." 
Bamany'b S. Pkov. p. 84. . 

Am applied to ohildren, it denotea thnt they have 
laacitv and diaeretion beyond their yeara. 

A. Aar. OMf/orand^ id. Aw^tirrandf grave and 
■ober^ OL Totka. Ray aeema to view farawd aa ex- 
BuiBBifa of n particnlar bumoor, rendering A. Bor. 
J^pMi^^Siiwnd^ "in a fighting humour.** Becauae 
fmwtd flMM denoted a traveller, Lord Bailee randera 
mMfmnmd literally, on ML traveller, but figuratively, 
npenoii**a4a9:porf«nia<tfe;** Annala,ii282. It haa 
alio been been enL, *'beeeemin^ beooming, behav- 
iitf ;** from 8w. fata, need in the aenae of agere; 
' **Kniiaa, To behave ilL" But it oorreaponda better 
witii Faro, azperiri. Henoe icvfoHAvm /arm, eloquent, 
baa* in loqneiMlo peritua ; lagfaurem, akiUed in law, 
Jnria peritns ; /mfarenkei, experience ; Ihre. lal. ordi 
farhm, facnndin praeatana, OL Trygguaa. S. c. 89. 
Balgi agrvaarem, having exMrience, akilful; Germ. 
ybren» e^/bAm, asqierin. All theee wotda exhilMt 
aafy m aaeondaiy aenae of far-a^ far-em, ire, profiaieci. 
Tbia aaeondaiy *dea^ of experience, attached to the 
T. pranarily atgnifying to go, n very natural; aa it 
it ganenUy aappoeed, that thoee who have travelled 
far, if they haw enriched tbemaelvee in no other re- 
ipeo^ have at leaat brought home with them a oon- 
ndanibie atoek of experience. 

AULD-FATHER, s. Grandfather ; a term 
used hj some in the West of S. 

A.-A. oaid/kuder, Teut. otid^vader, id. ; avua, Kilian. 
—Dan. otdeoader, n great grandfather. V. Eld-faokr. 

AULI>-HEADIT| adj. Shrewdy sagacious, 
Clydes. Lang-headit^ sjnon. 

AULD LANOSYNEy a veiy expressive 
phrase, referring to days that are long past, 
8. V. under Stke. 

AULD-MOlTDy adj. Sagacious in discourse ; 
sometimes implying the idea of craft; S. 


And o'er awM eiga'd, I reed, is for us a*. 

Biomft Helemore, p. 88. 

Jnlil and meM^ month. Several proper namee, of 
n similar formation denoting mental quaHtiee, occur 
in Willeram; aa />nMfiiiain^ varum oe, FrklemuMi, 
paoifioom oa, ffelidmumd, atrenuum oa. Jnnii Oba. ad 
Wilkr. p. 6. ap. Wachter. 

AULD SOOCH. v. under Sough, #• 

AULD THIEF, one of the designations given 
to the devil. 

*' TMr faoea were by thia time fluahed with ahame aa 
waU aa fear, that they ahould be thua cufied about by 
lAc oaU lAi^, aa they styled him.** Porila of Men, iii. 

AULD THREEP, a superstition, Dumfn V. 
Threpe, #• 

AULD-WARLD, adj. Antique, antiquated, 

Tliey tett me, Geordle, he bad tic a gift. 
That acaroe a atamie blinkit frne the lift, 
• But he won'd aome auld world name for*t find, 
Ai fut him keep it Ikeshly in hi« mind.* 

ForguMmnCt FoemM, iL 8. 


"To 'wanke the aald gear into the new,* ia a poim- 
lar and expreaaive phraae for watching until twelve 
o'clock announoea the new year, when people are ready 
at their neighbonn' bouaea with hei-piutt, and buttered 
cakee, eageriy waiting to be JlrtU-fuot, aa it ia termecl, 
and to ragale the family yet in bed. Much care ia 
taken that the peraona who enter be what are called 
ootuiefdk, for on the admiaaion of the fiiat-foot de- 
penda the proeperity or trouble of the year. " Cromek*a 
Nithadale Song, p. 46. 

AULIN. Seouti^aulin^ Dirty Aulin^ tlie 
Arctic Gull. Orkn. Loth. 

"An Arctic OuU flew near the boat. Thia ia the 
apeeiee that peraec u tea and puiauea tlie loaaer kinda, 
tul they mute through fear, when it catchea their ex- 
crement ere they reach the water : the boatmen, on 
that aoeonnt, alyled it the dirtg Aulm," Pennant'a 
Tour in 8. 1788. p. 78. 

He apeaka of the paaaage at Queenaf any. 

v. SoouTiAUUN, A Skattbird. 


measurer of cloth. 

Apparently, a legal 

— "Oanfeimea ane gift — to the aaidia proveet — of 
Edinboi]^ of making 3 thame overaearia of all warkia 
and viaitouria, aeirehearia, aulttager^i, and aealleria 
[aealera] of all cloath, atemming, atuffea and atokkingia 
maid in the aaid bursh." AcU Ja. VI. 1621, Ed. 1814, 

t668. From Fr. auTnage, measuring with an ell ; aulne, 
B. oln-«, anelL 

AULTRAGES, Aulterage, *. pi. The 
• emoluments arising from tlic offenngs made 

at an altar, or from the rents appointed for 

the support of it. 

— " That— A nnui tiee, AHUragr$, Obite and other 
dutiea pertaining to prieata, be employed to the aame 
nae, and to the upholding of achoou in the placea 
where they lie." SpotawoM, p. 100. See alao p. 209. 
L. B. QUaragiMm, alteraghtn^ obventio altaria; Pu 

AUMERIL, $. 1. One who has. little under- 
standing or method in his conduct, Sclkirks. 





t. Often ^plied to a mongrel dog ; perhaps 
from having no aieady power of instinct. 
Ibid . • 

AUBfERS,«.piL Embers. V. Ambris. 
AUMOUS^ AuMis, #. AnalmSiS. V. Al- 

' MOOS. 

AUNCIETIE, i. I. Antiqaity; time past 
long ago.. ^__^y \ 

^*«Nq phM tlMreor Ndbt withhaldiii, foriifeit or 
fMBiMH^ Miffing the cattdlii and fortressM that of all 
■■■efatfi hm mm aecMtomet to be fortif eit and gar- 
dik.** Bannatgnie'a Jownal, p. S52. 

S. Priority in respect of age. 

**Tba klagis maiertie, Ae. ▼nduratanding the debait 
betwix tiie bnrrowia of Fvth, Dundee, ana Strineling, 
aMBi tiie ordering of thane in thair awin places ac- 
eoiding to the oiuidiefie of the laidis bttnowia,~or- 
dai^ae. Aeti Ja. VL 107«i Ed. 1814, p. 174. 

AnHtnHt^f^ SS7v which pointi oat the origin, Fr. 

AUMRIE, AwMKiEy 9. 1. A krge press or 
' dipboaid where food, and utensils for hoose- 
loBeiHng^ are laid up, S. 

- ''Olininjt Mill great eaei^soQntry tMmrk drag- 
mA ont of Hi nook — ^the laird again atared mightily, 
and WM heard to ejaookte, *Hegh, ainl'" Heart 

Thia ia gmenUy Tieved m peculiar to our oonntiy. 
Dr. Johns. Mppoe ca that it ia corr. from Almonry. It 
aeeoM aiofe immediately allied to Fr. aumoirt^ expl. 
bjrCbtgr. *'aoapboard; ambrie; alms-tab." Skinner 
nawi ue F^. term m qrnon. with amurirt; tracing it 
. to Lat. orm aHa m. Bat tmmoirt appears to claim mors 

aflntiy with oMmemeri^ the place in monMteries where 
ahM were deposited. In 

d. R. aKdiTy denoted "the 
plaM where tne arms, plate^ vasBelr, and erery thing 
MJrwging to hooaekeepin^ were kepL*' Jacob con- 
jectaiealiat ''the Jmtry at Westminster is so called, 
formeriy Mt apart for that ose.'* Bat this 
sssBS to bars been merely a more lax um of the term. 
The aame writer theMfore property enoagh corrects 
himasif ; adding *'0r rather tbe Aumontry^ from the 
Latin EUemotmmaHa ; an hoaM belonging to an abbey, 
in which the oiaritiM were laid ap for the poor." Al- 
ttMmgh it oocors m olaiari in Gelt, and C. K, and amri 
m Ir.9 thia most be aaeribed to the introduction of the 
tsnn from the Lat. by eariy Christiaa teachers. 

Ol F^. • ameii ne r i g , office elanstral d'one abbaye ; 
doat la titolairs doit avoir aoin de fairs les aomdnea 
aaxpaaTfMs Boqneibrt. 

2. MuekU aumirie^ a figurative expression 
applied to a bi^, stupid, or senseless person ; 
Meams. The. idea seems borrowed irom an 
empty press. V. Aucerib. 

To AUNTEB, Awmttb, v. o. To hazard, to 
put into the power of accident. 

^At the but thair traiseiknd thai. 

That tm the mekUl moes thaim haid. 
That wee ewa hidwoo« fer to wsid. 
That owi^yr thaim thaito dnnt nana ; 
Bot tUl thair est egayne ar gane. 

BaftoMf*, six. 7S1. MS. 

Awviimr, Pink. edit. Thia Terb freqaently occurs 
. in O. B. It is used by Chancer and Gower. 

Thcogh enery grace aboats hym sterte. 
He well not ones stere his fote, 
So that by leaion leie he mote, 
That woU not aiuilcr for to wynnei 

Oimf. Am, FoL S4. bu eoL S. 

Here it ia naed in a neat, aense. 

Bat it abo oocon m an active yerh. 

"I tLwuUr^ I put a thyng in daanger or adnentare, 
nV.I Je adoentors. Itianatbesttoaimlerit. Palagr. 
k in, f. 155^ 156. 

Fh AvaUur^er, risqner, mettre an hasard; Diet. 
Trev. v. AnTsa, v. 

AuNTBBy s. Adventure. 

Thus to fbreit they fore. 
Thee sterae Knights on store, 
la the tyme of Arthof 
*^^*# aawfcr betide. 

Bir (Tswon and Sir €faL iL 29.' 

He sende the qaene ys dogtsr wonl, woehe ia aiUre$ were. 

i.e. what were hia adventarea. Bob. Olooc p. 35. 

A. Bor. anaumtrimt, if m be ; perhapa from an, if, 
and aunirUu, corr. from atuUert, which, according to 
Bay, is abo naed in the seoM of, peradventore. In the 
same aense, ta tumier is nsed by Qower. 

Mya hsrt is envyoos with sll ; 
And ener I am adradde of gyle. 
In tamUr if with any wyle 
They myght her innocence enchannte. 

Gm^. Awk F. SO. a. c. 1. 

AwUeroMt. ndrmturwiM, OL Bibb. Fr. avenUtre^ 
tmenturt, abbreviated to oarafre. 

Palsgrave j^vm B. iiva<er m correaponding to Fr. 
aduentvre, B. iii. f. 18. 

AuNTEBENSy oJv. Perchance, peradventure ; 


Aumten, peradventore, or in etrnt; North." Oroee. 

To AVO YD o/y r. a. To remove from. 

**To avoyd thame ^ oar palace with thair guanl 
and assistan, the king promiaed to keep as that night 
in sare goard, and that oat oompalaion no should cause 
us in Parliament approve all thatr conspiracies. " Lett. 
Q. Alary, Keith'a Hist p. S32. 

Fr. vM-fr to void, to evacnate. 

To A YOKE, V. a. To call away, to keep o«. 

"All were admitted to every consultation there- 
anent ; yet the abaence from the weightieat consulta- 
tiona of prime noblemen and barons, and all ministers 
but two, was not much remarked, nor their presence 
sought, if their negligence, or ado*s, or miscontent, did 
avoke them." BaiUie'a LeU. i. 183. 

Lat. avoe-^ id. 

AVOW, AvowB, a. 1. Vow. 

•»— With wovdis angural, 
Bftir there snaying oerymonis diainal, 
Vnto the fluoe anooe forth eteppis he, 
And of the stremys crop ane litfl we 
The wattir liftia up into his handle ; 
Fnl gretomlie the goddie, quhare he standis, 
Beeekand tU atUnd tU his piaier. 
The beuinnye chargeing with fele auawyu lere. 

Jkmy. Viryil, 274. 19. 

Chancer, id. Doug, abo usm the verb in the same 

Fr. avoM^r now signifiM to confess ; although roost 
probably it formerly denoted vowing. 

2. Discoveiy, declaration; in mod. language, 

At kirk and market when we meet, 
We'U dare make nae avouit, 

▲ TO 





-"• HUM, bowmea nj nymi 
■•rt>nw, how dow my dow P* 

if Mu^fvliy ^dnler. iL M. 

To AVOW, r. a. To de\'ote by a tow. 

-TbB m a vowU jdi preirtn, qnhilkis war namit 
Aifiik to be popetoaly dedicate to Man.** BeUend. T. 
liv. p. 40. 

To Avow, r. n. To vow. 

**T^i]hi»-«ttoaTO awwk to Ing twa tempillu, in the 
haomup of twa goddii, namit Pdnea and Dredonre." 
Bdknd. T. Liv. p. 40. 

AVOUTERIE, Advouterib, s. Adulteiy, 

I havv not oheenred this word in any of onr S. worka. 
Bot it ia Hied hy 0. R. writen. 

Of the herte fod out jnrel thoo^taa, man-aleyngia, 

J— tt 

0. F^. amminet mL 

Matt XT. 

AUSEATE, AwBEATBy adj. Golden. 

L. B. oairBcrf-iiff. 

AmfcMii ana rank trs Inrfcii a coldin bench, 
With anTMte leoia, and flezibiJ twittis teach. 

LoM^ Virga, 167. 42. 

AUSKESBIE, 9. A acoop^ Shetl. 

Oea-to* ia the Sw. word by which Serenina rendera 
M^teaop: "Hanatnim, a backet» scoop^ or pomp.** 
Id. oiiMy alao oirafiir, OMfr, hanatnim. vel situla. Dan. 
ome, id. alao oemhar; ^'a wooden bowl, a acoop;'* 
W<diL The origin ia dn.-0. oei-a, alao Am-o, haunre. 
Id. aaia-a» Ban. oeB-tr^ to draw. Both O. Andr. and 
Urn remark the affini^ of the Qoth. to the Lat. v. in 
the pret. hofuL The aame oonneetioa appeara be- 
tween the «. kaiutr-mm and am^, Kar, whence the 
' laat jpart of auB herrie, in Sn.-0. aienifiea vaa. Thus 
the fiteral aenae of aus-kerrU ia "a cuawing TesseL** 

AUSTERN, AsTERNE, Astrek, adj. 1. 
Having an austere look ; as, ** Whow I but 
he's an cRMfem-Iooking falloVr,** Roxb. V. 

2. Having a frightful or ghastly appearance. 

Aihrm ia often applied to the look of a dying perMm, 

AIJ8TIE, adj. << Austere, hanh.** 

The Wolf this law. and carpand come him till 
With ginaad teetn, and angty austie luke, 
Said to the Lamb, Thoa catyre wrechit thing, 
How dnnt thou be ao bald to fVle this brake, 
Qahair I iiUd drink, with thy lowU slaTering ? 

Htmrfmnu, Jkmmaipmg Poemg, p. lid. 

Lord HaileB and othen have viewed this aa a corr. 
of €uuien. A.-S. ctiiffe is tmoiip, from oti, Teut. oest, 
m knot» properly in wood. If we had any evidence 
that oitge nad been used metaphorically, aa we use 
kmoUif, or knoUed, applied to the brow, to express a 
soUen or severe look, we might supooae this the origin. 
Bot aa ampere has been corr. in aifferent ways, this 

ly be only one variety. V. AwnxsNC 

AUSTROUS, adj. Frightful, ghastly, Upp 

droich at the 
B^t on a bink o' staae. 
And a dowie sbeeii frae nia atuimu een 
Oae Ucht to the diunal wane. 
MmnmaideH ^fayde, Mdin, M<Hf. May 1820. 

AUTENTTFE, otf;. Authentic 

I rtid noeht this story OMUmiyfe^ 
I did tt leir at ana flaU anld wvf e. 

^AUTHOR, «• 1. Ancestor, predecessor; 
frequently used in tlib sense in our old 

—"The foortie schiUingland of Rispottaflo^haldin 
be the said Jamea Mainrdl or his auAarii^* Ac. Acta 
Ja. VI. 1009, Ed. 18U, p. 444. 

L. B. amdmrt anfor. AuUret dieti— qni vel generis vol 
opnm, et honomm parentea aliia fuera. V. 8innond. 
ad Sidon. Da Cange. 

Ihawnotoboervedthatitianaed in thia aense in E. 

2. One who legally transfers property to 
another ; a forensic term, S. 

" He, who thna. transmita a feudal ririit in his life- 
time, ia called the diaponer, or muiAor, Ersk. Inst. 
B. u. i. 8, see. I. 

• 3. An informer, Aberd. ; sjnon. with Lat. 
auetor^ a reporter or teller. 

AUWIS-BORE, #. The circular vacuity left 
in a pannel or piece of wood, in consequence 
of a Knot coming out of it, S. B. 

According to vnlgar tradition, thia orifice haa been 
made by the fairies. 

It haa, however, been soggested to me b]jr a literary 
friend, that, aa an orifice w thia kind ia, in the pro- 
vince of Moray, denominated an e(f^re, the term 
atneU'bore may have been originaUv the same. This 
is highly proMble. As ae(feM or alff$ is the genitive 
of A-S. ae(f or aff, tunoU-bort mav have onginally 
been a{fe8 or (Uvu-bor, and gradually softened down 
into the modem pronunciation, from of being sonnded 
aa a Umg, and/ or v aa w. V. Elf-Borx. 

AUX-BIT, a. A nick, in the form of the 
letter V, cut out of the hinder part of a 
sheep's ear, Ayrs. Bach4ntj synon. Clydes. 

It haa been supposed, that thia may be q. axe-bU. 
Bnt I would prefer Moes-O. auks an ox, aa periiape 
the term waa transferred from the herd to the flocK ; 
or ansa tiie ear, and IsL bU, mortns, bil-a mordere, 
alaoaecare, to cut. 

To AW, Awe, v. a. To owe. 

I mak yow wysa, I ew to mak na band, 

Ala fra I am m thii rvgioaa to ryn^, 

Loid off myn awne, as eayr was pnnoe or king: 

MWace, viii. & 1I& 

i.e. I am under no obligation. 

'* That nane — tak vpone thame to be coUectouria to 
the Sege of Rome, of na hiear nor greter taxatioun of 
Bischoprikis, Abbaseis, Pryoreis, Pronestreis, na vther 
beneficia, that atc« taxatioun, bot as the vse and cos- 
tume of auld taxatioun hea bene of befoir, as is contenit 
in the Prouinciallis buik, or the auld taxatioun of Bagi- 
mont.** Acts Ja. IIL 1471. c. M. edit. 1566. 

*'The second command is of the lufe, quhilk we me 
tiU our nychbour." Abp. Hamiltoun's Catechisme, 
16S1. Fol. 38. a. 

laL aa, aiie, debeo, debuit ; A.-S. ag, ahU, Su.-G. a. 
The word appears in its earlieat form in Moes-0. oik, 
habeo, (imperf. aUU-a), which aeems to have been used 
only in the primary aense of possession. V. AioH, 





Aw •ometimes ocean as the third pen. sing. 
of tho v^ signif jiDg^ owed, ooght. 

• xUm naa rait dooii^ tiid todaaljre h» mw. 

At to bvB ijchl dede had Um twa^pjt kmII ; 
4yB nid to tliA(m, He hM 

tM Pitjrit At 

iroOMi, u. 960. Ma AiMST.asL 

DovdM niei it ia the nme wnae. Viig. 361. 81. 
H«f« m pnMol w improperiy used for the pMt. 
II ii alio iir^gahtfly naed for the aeoond perk nng. 
Tkam_ mm this Dog [of] quhilk tho tenoo !■ gone. 

To AuoBT, AwcHT, AuQOT, V. o. To owe. 

ICadtB, ho nid, and Toriti wmr tei 

Ibol JO BM Inffyt. I mxhi joa Ins agorn. 

WotfoM, vUL 1404. Ma 

Tbb god wjf nid, Hava ya na draid* 
Ye mU pay at ya tmekL 

PtoWw lo IW Hoy, at It 

Lo. that whioh ye owe. 
** We vamamber quhat aythe we have maid to oar 
BMmB-walth% and how tibe dewtio we cuieki to the 

wmpellia ua to cry oat.** Knox's Hiat. p. 164. 
"Ha iold tham roundly, that they were amghtim 
WM the ledeniptioa of their libertiaa, eatatea, raligioay 
andlawa." BuUie'i Lett. i. 232. 
Tliia ▼. ia eridentLy from the prat, of Aw. 

AW, aaed for All ; S. 

And he haa now takia. last of ow, «. 
Tbb gantiU Stobo and Qaintane 8chatr» 
or qvhome aU wiehtia hes pitia. 

D$ik qfikt MakkarU, Banmaipne 
PiOtMMf p. 77* 

It ia, (7aufe gantiU Stobo, Ac Edin. edit. 1006. 

He writhia and anforeia to withdraw 

The adialt in broldn, and the hada wM aw, 

Any. VtrgO, 42S. 19. 
Le. withaL 


AWA, adv* 1. Away. The general pron. in 
S^ used by Doug^ as woiim appear, metri 

— — The ilk aoRow, the sam vn sward bailh toa, . 
And the self hoara rajcht hair tana as awn, 

DoMg. VwfU, 184. 4. 

Thia rnetaph. nae of tiie word» in relation to death, 
ia Twyoommon among the Talgar ; S. 
H m naed by Dunbar without regard to the rhyme. 

Go clob the barda ; and tak owa the chyia. 

MmMead Fomu, p. 17a 

S. In a gwoon, S. 

'*My doehtar waa lang owo', but whan ahe oam 
i^pUBy ahe tanld ua, that aae aune aa I enterit the 
^nmi, a' the Inra atoppit chowin* their cud, an' gi*ed a 
dowf and eenaome enma." Edin. Mag. Deo. 1616, p. 


8. Used in speaking of a deceased relation, S. 

There ia a peeoliar and lovely delicacy in thia na- 
tiooal idiom. ^ When one cannot avoid a reference to 
the departed, inatead of mentioning the name, or speci- 
fying the pwtioular tie, or it were meant to prevent 
any nnnaceasarir excitement of feeling either in the 
apeaker or in tae hearer, or aa if nammg the person 
were a kind of profanation of the hallowed ailence of 
the tomb^ or aa if the moet diatant alluaion were more 
than enough, — ^it ia uanal to apeak of them thai*$ awa ; 
tiia nluralbeing moat commonly used, aa if the be- 
lovea object were removed to a still more r espe c tful 
diatanoa^ than by a mora familiar uae of the aingular. 

AwA* f THE Head, deranged, beside one's 
self, Roxb. ; synon. By himstU or KenelL 

AWAY. This word seems to have been oc- 
casionally used as a Terb. 

— ^ Men on ilk sid gadryt he ; 
I trow n M . thai mycht be ; 
And sand thaim for to stop the way, 
Qnhar the gud bahowyt a*mJ[*^ 

i.e. by which the gooda mnat pass. 

Qnhar the gud King behowyt io gay. 

Edit Pink. 

The aame ezprasaion oocura, Barbour, xi 161. MS. 

And in a plane fald, be the wav, 
Miar ha thoucht ned behowyd awag 
'nie Inglis men. aif that thai wald 
Throw the park to the caatoU hald. 
He gert men mony pottis ma. 
Off a ftite braid round ; and ail tha 
War dap wp till a mannys kne ; 
8a thyk, that thai mycht liknyt be 
Till a wax cayma, that beis maia. 

In edit. Pink., it ia to gag; in edit. 1620, have wag. 
v. alao V. 285.— xiv. 106. 

A-S. aweg, away, may be viewed aa the.imperat. of 
awaeg^-am, to take away, or awegg-an, to depart. I 
snapecti however, that the verb haa been formed from 
the noun ; aa the original oompoaition evidently is a 
privative, and weg, way. Now, the noun wfg being 
the root, it ia moetnatural to auppoae that the primary 
compound waa the noun with the prep, prefixea. 

AWAY-DRAWING, s. The act of drawing 
off| or turning aside ; applied to a stream of 

" In the aotioune— agania Robert Cochrane of that 
nke for the awagdratring ai the watter callit the Kert 
te tiie mylne of Johneatoune," Ao. Act. Dom. Cone. 
A. 1403» p. 3ia 


Thia dwna, and tha Awagmentia 
Oottsawyd fUl in there inteutia, 
Owt of the Kyrk this Kyng gert pa< 
AU, hot thai, that sworne than was 
Til that Assyse : and thai gert ha 
Stratly and wella kepyd bel 

MValoam, vUL a 113. * 

"Unleaa thia be oorr. for amytmeniia^ (conaultationa) 
I know nothing of it.** Oloaa. Wynt. But there ia no 
neoeaaity for auppoaing a corruption. The idea of pre- 
parationa or preuminariea coireaponds full v better than 
that of conamtationa. For the Assise had not entered 
on their deliberationa. They had been only aelected 
and awom. Thus the origin wiU be O. Fr. avog-er, to 

Sut in train, to aettle preliminariea. Vieux mot. 
[ettre en bon vote, en bon chemin. Dict.*Trev. 

AWAY-PUTTING, s. The complete ' re- 
moval of any thing, of that especially which 
is ofiFensive or noxious. 

— "Dinersa actis A constitutiones hea bene maid 
— towart the diatruction and awagpuUmg of the aaidis 
cnivis and yairia,** Ac Acta Ja. VI. 1579, Ed. 1614, 
p. 147. 

A WAY-TAKER, #. The person who re- 
movcsy or carries away. 

— "Oif thay gndia caryit can not be apprehendit, 
the awagtakar smd hauar tliair of furth of the realme 

▲ WA 



pagr ab oMkill m the Taloore of thay gadia— to 
oar mMnoo Udy.'* Acta Mary, 1555, Ed. 1814, p. 

AWAY-TAKEN, jMir<.pa. Carried off. 

''Iiiiprimia, tlior was robbed A awap iaten violently 
be fbe ronuuned penooa — ^the number of nyntio four 
UbouiJng oxen,** io. Acti Cha. IL 1681, vu. 163. 

AWAY-TAEINO, $. Removal, or the act 
of carrying off. 

**Qii ano— takle ane utber man'a puree, and the 
awa»4akimff — ^be proyin, — ^the avail, qnantitie, and 
nombffo of the money beau'I therein, ancht and lould 
bt raferrit to the aith of the awner thereof." A. 1554, 
Balfoor'a Pnct p. 382. 

"For the wnn^wia awaytaJtiiig k withhaldinff fra 
tiia aaidia tennantia of Howatetoune," ke. Act. Dom. 
Oooe. A. 1492, p. 240. 

AWAIL, AwAiLL, #• Advantage saperi- 

Our mekm it b to proffer thaim battaill 
Apoa a plajtte feilo, bot we haiff ram awaili. 

WailacB, Til. 1138. 

To AWAILL, AwAiLTE, v. n. To avaiL 

We find both in one passage. 

— - Tin swylk thowleuiei he yeid. 
As the ooorM askis off yowtheid ; 
And wmquhiU into rybbaldaiU : 
And that may mony tyme awatiL 
For knawlage off mony itatis 
May <iahile awailge fuU mony gatis. 

BofUmr, L 387. 338. MS. 

Thta k veiy loose morality. But Barbour wished to 
make some apology for Doug^ whom he here char- 

To AWAIL, AwAL) V. a. 1. To let fall. 

And alaone as the day wee eler, 
nai that with in the casteU wer 
Had armyt thaim, and maid thaim boun. 
And some thsir brig moetl^ doun. 
And ischit in tin grct plente. 

Airfoicr, XT. 134. Ma 
La. kt fall their drawbridge. 

S. To descend ; used in a neut. sense. 

The swete wapour thus fra the ground mourn ; 
The humyU breyth doun fra the hewyn awaiit. 
In eoery meide, bathe fryth, forreat and dailL 

WaiUue, Tiii USd. Ma 

Hiai saw thars fsis nere cummand, 
Owte-ours a bra downs awalaud, 
riuX delt ware in bataUis twa : 
The Psrey had the mast of tha. 

Wpntffym, ix. & IIL 

** Bswns." aooording to Mr. Macpherson, " riding or 
gallopinff down the hul, as if tumbling. Fr. aval'-er to 
go^ or fail, down. Belg. vaiUn, to fall, rash." But 
the meaning is merely, deseetiding, as in the last ex* 
tract ; from Fr. avtU-er, which not only signifiee to let 
fall, but to descend. AvtU'€r, v. act. AlMusser. — Les 
bateaux anof-eiU quand ils descendeht suivant lo ooun 
de la riviere. Diet. Trev. Tout, qf-vall-^n, decidere. 

3. To fall backward, or tumble down hill, 
Boxb., Clydes. Gl. Sibb. 

I am at a loes, however, whether we should suppose, 
that the term has come to us through the medium of 
the F^. It is more probable, that the French have 
themselvea received it from the Franks ; as it is com* 
moo to the Qoth. langUMes. Teut. itf-vcdUfn^ decidere ; 
V-*a^ casus. Sw. €/iul qfai^ lapsus, whence (nfal(h 

dropt death occasioned by the fall of anything on a 

AwALD, AwALT, part* adj. In a supine state, 
lyinff on the back, S. AufaU sheepf one tliat 
has fallen down, so as not to be able to re- 
cover itself. It especially denotes one that 
lies on its back, Roxb. 

Synon. with this is A. Bor. owerweli, "a sheep 
which gets laid on his back in a hollow,** Grose ; from 
etoer over, and weft, q. v. 

To Die Awald, to die in a supine state. Ibid. 

"Shera are most apt to die awald, when it grows 
warm afEsr a shower, — ^tiU they are shorn. They lie 
down, roll on their backs, to relieve the itching there, 
and if the ground happen to be level or hollow, — ^they 
are often unable to get up, and soon sk^Lon, swell, and 
die.** Etaays, Highl Soc. iii. 447. 

To Fa' Awalt, to fall over without the power 
of getting- up again ; originally applied to a 
sheep, hence to a person who is intoxicated. 

Hence also the phrase, to rod awalUU 

AWAL, Awald, $. A term applied to a 
field lying the second year without being 
ploughed ; lea of the second year, that has 
not been sowed with artificial grasses, Loth. 

"There are four breaks of the outfield in tillage. 
The first out of ley. — ^The second what they caU AwaUl, 
where the produce will not exceed two boUs or two 


e pnx 

an acre." Maxwell's SoL Trans, p. 214. 

**Awalt the second crop from grass.** Surv. 
App. p. 46. 

Awald, adj* Belonging to the second crop 
after lea, S« 

AwALL Aits, the second crop of oats after 
grass, Meams. V • Awat. 

Awald-Crap, #• The second crop after lea« 
Ayrs. Aewally Clydes. AvUy Galloway, 
Awat^ more commonly Awards Angus. V. 
AwABD Crap. 

Awal-Infield, #• ''The second crop after 
bear.** Surv. Banffs. App. p. 47. 

Awal-Land, #. Ground under a second crop, 

'"*Tis very proper that atoo^^iiMf be ploughed the 
second time before the departure of wmter frosts.** 
Surv. Banfis. App. p. 38. 

AWALD, adj. An awald sheepf one that has 
fallen backward. Loth. V. Awail, v. 

AWALT SHEEP, one that has fallen back- 
ward, or downhill, and cannot recover itself ; 
GL Sibb. y. Awail. 

To AWANCE, V. a. To advance. 

Bot gud senrioe he dide him with plesanoe, 
As in that place was worthi to atoanee, 

WaUaci, L SOS. Ma 
Fr. ncofic-cr. 




ToAWAMT, «.a. Toboftst. 

OdMft Mdb MMml joa of foor wlkUtiMti 
T« thai ddlytii ftllMM in vvUmis d0d« ? 

Any. FtiyiZ, /M. M, 8ft. 

AWARD-CRAP, «• ^E^pl- ''« crop of com 
after •ererml others in succession,** Berw. 

TUiv Ibou^ difitrsDtl/ writtai, U nnquMtiooAbl^ 
the noM with ^wbIiI. Bat a singnUr etymon, u 
ffff—^'U^ OB tho TMiety which the orthography exhibits. 

*'8Bdi aoooeiaiw eropa^olwhite com are very em- 
phatioally tmnedt in the promcial dialect* oioord or 
mmkmamcropt.'* Agr. Sunr. Berw. p. 204. 

A.WART, oifv. A sheep is said to Ke aufartj 
when it has fallen on its back in such a. 
aitoation that it cannot rise again; Roxb. 
Awali aynon. q. t. 

A-WASTLE, prq>. To the westward of; 
apparentlj naed figui^tively, as signifying 
remoTed to a great distance, Ettr. For. 

''Tba tread of honea was again heard. 'The warld 
ba a Mwsrto aa !' cried old Pate ; ' wha's that now? I 
think f oak win be eaten np wi' fonk,'" fto. Perilaof 
Urn. L St. 

AW AT, #• Oroand j>Ioughed after the first 
crop from lea* The crop produced is called 
the Awai<rcp ; Ang. 

One mi^i snpoea that this were from A.-S. ci/et/, 
poatosb Im. ^^ai, depastos (Verel.) <^. what had 
Men paatnra kmd, were it not that this ia not the 
flnl orop after grass. ShaU we, therefore, rather refer 
H to 8a.-6. awai, also qfaif deficiens, as being inferior 
to the first erop^ instead of awai, avil is used in 
OaDoway* ommm, dydes. This, for the same reason, 
■Mj be traced to Tent, o^-m/ diminutio. According 
to the latter etaMMi, both awai and awU are rad. the 
aasM witk AwJit explained above. 

AWAWARD,«. Vanguard. 

His men be gut thsim wela aray. 
Tbe mwmu mi^ had the Erie Thomas ; 
And the rwwsid Schyr SdananUs was. 

BorftoMT, ziT. SO. 1I& 
F^. Avaai-^mde, 


WIBame of Spent perdt a bbwowne 
And throw tare firald of Awb^nhowru 
And the Aetown throw the thryd ply 
And the arew ia the body, 
<)Bhin of that dyat thart deyd be lay. 

W^nitnm, yUL 81 22. 

''The haabeigeon.** aaya Grose, *^waB a coat com- 
poasd either of plate or chain mail without sleeree." 
^Tha hamberk waa a complete covering; of mail from 
head to foot. Itconaistedof ahoodiomed toa jacket 
with aleevea, breechea, stockiiua and ahoee of double 
ohain maO, to which were addea nundets of the same 
eun ati uc ii on. Some of theee hauberks opened before 
lika a modem coat» others were cloeed kke a shirt." 
Ant Annonr, MiL Hist. ii. 845, 246. 

Haabeneona in 8. aeem to haye been generally of 
ohain mail. Hence the Pror. mentioned by Skene ; 
*' lla^y mailyiea makee ane hanbergioun." 

Dr. Johnaon defines kabergecm, "armour to corer 
ti» neck and breaat.'' Now, this definition, although 
it doee not i^p^ to tiia habergeon aa naed in later 

ainy to exhibit the orimnal deeign 
of this aimoar. For hauberk, whence IhaftefyeoM ia 
nndoubtedly Franc, kalsbem, Isl. haUbiorg, Tout, hait' 
berah, a little changed. Thie ia renderod bv Ihre, 
collare ehalTbenm, q. a steel collar ; oomp. of mU the 
neck, and berg-a to defend. Hence L. B. kaitberga, 
Vr. hamberi, a coat of mail ; kaubergean, a smaU coat 
of maiL Kilian givee rmgMaraeyhe aa synon., q. a 
ring for the throat. 

llie Gcftha, in the aame manner, denominnted greavee 
btumberga, defancea for the legs, (bain, cms.) Isl. 
ntfbwrg is that part of the helmet which protecta the 
noee. Parhapait should be newbiarg; madjingerbcrg 
ia a ooforinjE for the finjsers, made of metal, used by 
apmnen. v. Hire, to. Berpa, 

In L. B. this waa aometmies denominated hamber" 
gdluM and kabergellus, 

"Thia hambergtU,** aays Beckwith, "waa a coat 
compoeed of scTeral folds of coarse linen, or hempen 
doth ; in the midst of some of which waa placed a sort 
of net-work* of smaU ringleta of iron } about a Quarter 
of an inch diameter, intorwoven very artificiallv to- 
gether ^—«nd in others, of thin iron square plates, 
about an iudi from side to side, with a hole m the 
midat of each, the edges laid one over another, quilted 
throogh the doth wiUi small packthread, and bedded 
in paper coTcred with wooL Parte of two sucb Aaufter- 
geom» are now in the Editor's possession, either of which 
would be anflident to defena the body of a man from 
the stroke or point of a eword or lance, if not from a 
musket-ban, and yet so i>liable aa to admit the person 
wearing them to use aU his limbs, and move his joints 
without the kaat interraption.** Blount's Anc. Ten. 

Beckwith adds; "That kind of armour— made of 
links, united together in chain-work, was called by the 
andenta ' ikmiala eeifit.' *' Ibid. 

AWBLASTER, s. 1. A cross-bowman. 

Thia evidendv the meaning of the term awbUuter; 
left by Mr. PinL for explanation. 

The god Stewsrt off Scotland then 
Send for liiM frandis, and bis men, 
QahiU hi had with liim but archerU, 
And but bnrdowis, and auMaderU, 
T handle men, wrcht and worthi, 
That bar annya of awnoestry. 

AwtoMT, XTiL 286. M& 

AtUoiUrt and AfbkuU are used in the same eense, 

B. com oner nere, the csstelle to asple, 
lluit saah an atUcuUn, a qaardle lete he flie, 
k smote him ia the schank.^ 

JC Bnmmt, p. 205u 

So net peer of thoike load k of Ftanee be nome 
Mjd hym in to Engelood of kuTgtes k of tquyers, 
Spermen anote k bowmen, k af so aarUoMiu, 
net them thogte ia Engelond so mncbe folc nenere na.i. 

Mob. Ohm, p. 87S. 

In another MS. it ia obUaMret, 

2. A crossbow. 

The Sotberon men maid grst defens that tid. 
With artdlye, that felloone was to bid, 
With ewUoifer, gsyiiTe, sad stanys fast. 
And head gnanys rycut brymly out tbd cast 

Wailaee, tU 991 BfS. 

Fr. orbeieMier, L. B. areubalUla, arbalitia, m croea- 
bowman. When the term ia applied to the bow itself, 
it is improperly. For the wont ought to be awblaste, 
from Fr. ar6a&«te. Bullet mentions aa Celtic words, 
albra», m warlike engine for throwing etonee ; and 
a&nuwr, atbrgtiwr, the person who wrought this 
engine. But they are meet probably oorr. uom the 




AW-BUMD, Aw-BUN*, parL adj. Not at 
Uber^ to act as one would wish ; restricted 
by aoDie superior ; Boxb. 

I heritnto wKether m ihoiild rww thii m f onned 
firom file «. Awe-hand^ or m oompounded of Awe, and 
ftmd^ Tinetoi^ K. AohimI. 


Hilt b laf pwMMmr, littis and delitw, 
TliAl hM me light, and lalt logh in a lakn. 
AI tiM wdth of tiM world, that atoey wites. 
With the wilde wwmla that worche mo wimka. 

air OmotM and Sir GiiL i 17. 

PociiMM MiB, toiiiieiit» A.-S. ace, oeee, dolor; q. 
Thai m^trwtg^ (of whieh yon have ocoUr demonstra- 
tkMi,) laya the blamo on worldly woalth. 


1. A band for tying black cattle to the stake ; 
consisting of a rope on one side, and a piece 
of wood of the shape of a ham^ladej or 
half of a horse's ooltary on the other. It is 
Dsed to keep in order the more unruly aui- 
malsy or to prevent them from throwing 
thetr heads from one side of the stake to the 
other; Loth. Lanarks. To Aw-band, v.o. 
To bind, in this manner. Lanarks. 

2. A check, a restraint 

'*Tit qshAi ho waa h^ui|[ thia caatel with maiat 
diUgano^ tho thoaia tnk aie fair, dredand that tho aaid 
oastol raid bo an moftoiMl aeania thame, that thai oon- 
■pirii agania him.'* BaDoDa. Gron. B. zii. o. 15. 

3. Used in a nx>ral senses to denote what in- 
spires respect and reverence, what curbs and 
cnedcsy or prevents a man from doing things 
in which he might otheirwise indulge him- 
self , S. 

"Tho ^^*a*<l looka of thia lady proYod aach an 
awAamd on tho giddy voong man, that thoy nover onco 
opwiod thoir mowtha." Tho plaoa not marked. 

Tho fizit iOBOO ought certainly to be viewed aa the 
and would aeem to point to Dan. aag^ a 

yoke, aa tho origin, q. "the band by which the yoke 
M faatoned.** 

Poriiajpa it morita obaorration, that laL hdhand aig- 
nifiea a band of le a th er need for confining the ainewa of 
tibo hama ; Vincolom nanroa poplitia adatringens ; from 
iSfd. peUia, cntia. oorinm ; Haldonon. 

liua ia given ^y Bail^ and Johns, aa if it were an 
E. wordy compoaed of owe and hamd. Tho former 
mdon it **n chock VL^oa ;'* the latter <*a check." 

Bot no ozampio of ita oae ia given ; nor ia it men- 
tioned by HooMt, Phillipa, Skinner, or Cotgrave. 


Metfem la aorwe lay. 
For thl waU Yaonde mmtde. 

air tiriitrem, p. 181. 

i am under a noceaaity of differing from my friend 
tho Toy ingeniona editor, who viewa thia aa sifmifying 
Mpoon, and aeema to think that it ia allied to S. teeedl 
a speeiio of ■ickweaa to which women in childbed «re 
moat rabject. It certainly aignifiea, to be in a state 
approachmg to insanity; A.-S. motd'-an, awoed'-an. 

AWEEL,acfo. Well, S. 

**Ame^ a your hoooor thinks I am safo— tho stor\: 
-Jostthia.*^ 0«y Mannoringi ii. S40. 

To AWENT, V. a. To cool or refresh by ex- 
posing to the air. 

Thai Smd the King syttand allane, 
that off hys bassyaet lias tane, 
TUl awmi him, for ho was hate. 

JKir0OiM% ri* SOS, MH. 

In edit. 1020^ p. 112, it ia rendeiod. 

To tdbt th$ tMt, for ho was hsat 

It occurs also B. zii. 143. A.-S. awp^dnrioH, v«n- 
; from wind, vontos. 

AWERTY, AuBBxr/orfJ. Cautious, expe- 
• rienced. 

With Urn wes Philip the Mowbray, 
And Ingrsa the Umfkawill perfay, 
That wes both wras and ownn^y, 
And foil of gret oiewalry. 

Borieiir, \L ilS. 3ia 

The King Robert, that wss 

Wis* in his deid and oiwrf « , 
Saw his men sa ryeht dottcotely 
The path apon thair Cnyii ta. 

Bcarhtmr, zviiL 4a». M& 

In Pink. edit, it la amerly, which man tho seus«. 
It is nsed by B. Branno, p. 260. 

The rsspotts wars rsdy, that Philip did thara beie, 
A knyi^t fUla amerip gaf tham this ansuere. 

I^. oaerti; wanad, advertiaed. 

AWFALL, adj. Honest, upright. V. Afalu. 

AWFULL. AwFU*, adj. 1. Implymg the 
idea of what is very great, or excessive; used 
always in a had sense, S. 

The aw/nU ehorie is of sne othir strind, 
Thoocht he be home to rilest serritode. 

Thair may na mtrios sink into his mind. 
To help his neind or nichtbour with Us gad 

Bdiend, Crm. Pioh. c?L KL 1S21. 

2. An awfil day^ a severe reproof, Peebles. 

A' WHERE, adv. Evetywhexe, S. A'wf^e^f. 
Ettr. For. 

This ia tho same with the classical tenn Alquhakc. 

AWIN, AwTN, AwNEy adj. Own, proper, S. 

awntf 61. Yorks. id. 

This ia tho common pron. of the aoath of S., in other 
porta, oifi. 

And mony ma, that laag had beyne onrthrawin, 
Wallace toaim pot rychtwisly to thair aiotn. 

WaUae$, vii. 942. MH. 

The god thai tak, ss it hsd beyn thair aicyii. 

WaOaee, ix. 1192. 

It ia oftso nsed, strictly in tho aense ci proper, with 
tho artido prefixed. 

"Tho honour, anthority and dignitie of hia saidia 
three Eataitea sail stand, and continew in the awin 
integritio, according to the ancient, and lovabill cnstom 
by-gane, without ony alteration or diminution.*' Acta 
Ja. VL Pori. 8. c ISO. Murray. 

And our at* ladi, although I say't mywll. 
But guided thrm right cankanlly and snell. 

Jtosf^s Heienort, p. 69. 

Mosa-Q. €tigin, oiAn; according to Jun., Oothia 
eat propriui; item, peonliaria at propria posscssio : 

▲ WI 



OIL Golli. A.-S. MM, Q«niL d^Aea, Belg. eygkem, 
Ba,4if» ijfeMi id. all nom their rMpeetiTe vwlit which 
* dUooU right or property. 

B«i JooaoB puts this term ia the month of one of 
«M inhsbitsats of Sherwood fbrest 

This hovia I thirt groaadi t this iloek is sll mliia aviM. 

AWINOIS, #*/>!: Arretn, debts. ^Dettia, 
awmgUf oomptis,** Ac. Aberd. Beg. A. 
1551, V. 21. 

AWISE, $. Manner, whion. V. Avyse. 

AWISE» AwTSBEy oc/;. Pradent, considerate, 

. Abthsihsld 

A kfd thst IS saste wsi, sod dehooer, 

flsaotsin, sod off as fsvr alfer, 
flabljth, and ab aa weiu boudaBd. 
Aad {a batafll aa atyth to stand, 
Bwa wjM, and lycht awa mriatf 
nat thai had gTBt 


Jktrtotur, riii. S8S. Ma 

' Kizt aebairp MfuttMtug, war and awjftte, 
▼Ho the held haa haUt vp on hie 
Batth airow and ana, etland at the mark. 

Jhm^. VirgU, 144 41. 

Fh MPif^ pr«deB% eantost cooaidemtiia ; Diet. Trer. 
The editors ofaoerrs^ that this word is formed from the 
Qotii. «i»-«iii»* A.-S. wi^m^ with ad (rather a) prefixed. 

AWISELY, adv. Pmdentlj, circumspectly. 

tehen thia wet laid thai law command 
Thar Cayla lidand. nar at the hand, 
Aiajit rjeht owMy . 
WiutaU todo chewalry. 

AUMOU, Hewmok, 9. A helmet, OL Sibb. 

AWISS, «• ^ Tua barrell of awisB^ ane Sprnis 
stane of hempt." Also at0e#, Aberd. jSeg. 
A. 1560, V. 24. Pot-ashes T 

AWrmNS, Used in conjonction with the 
pron. fMt himf her^ ftc as denoting what is 
without the privacy of the person referred to, 

BpkotL with 8. B. omnUim$, id. ; on heing aof tened 
into a» as in awaff, from A.-S. on waeg ; nnleaa we 
■ np poee a to he horrow e d from the Goth, of the middle 
1^ Iflw A.-S. awUa demons aiag iniqoitaa. V. Ihre, 
letter A. 

Wo Baj either new the pran. as in the datiye, q. 
to me^ ac ; or the conjonot phraae as equivalent to 
tiie sblntiTe ahaolnte. 

AWEIB. «. To ding to awHr, to dash to 
pieces, to break to atoms, Aberd. ; perhaps 
uom E. oehre* 

AW^#. Alom, S. 

To AwM, V. a. To dress [skinsl with alnm, 
S. ^Awm*i leather,** white leather, S. 

AWMOnS,«. AIms,S. 


AwMOU8-Di8H, 9. The wooden dish in which 
mendicants receive their a/fiM, when given 
in meat, S. ' Bums. 

AWMOUSi #• A cap, or cowl ; a covering 
for the head. 

rn aye some to yon for mjr awmous as nanal, — 
and whilei I wad he fain o* a piokle aneeahin." An- 

aeema to be the readings in MS., of the word 
printed owbioim, Hoolnta^ i. 17. 

Upova the sand yit I law, aa thasanrare tana, 
With grana awinout on hada, Sir Oawana the JhtJte. 

The poet alludaa to the beautiful green feathera on 
the heads of aome apeciaa of ducka, and perhapa to 
aome badge of office anciently wont by the treasurer 
of Scotland. L. B. ohnueia, 0. Fr. aamifaae, from 
Genu. WMfeg , id. S. muteh, q. ▼. If it ahould be read 
awmoM^ it may refer to m helmet. V. Avuost, 

AWNAR, 8. A proprietori an owner. 

For all the snynia otanarM 
Said, Sailia how the folia fairia I 

CoikMit iSbw, F. 1. ▼. 2D1. 

^wnoH^ Aberd. Re^. A. 1538, V. 16. 
A.-S. ogn-jon, aeffn-mn, oAn-Mfn, poaaidere. 

AWNER, a. An owner. 

"All thny thnt fyndia ony tynt geir, gold, syluer, 
or ony rther thyno, and kniawia or mny knkw with 
diligent apering quhay nwe the aame tynt geir, and 
wyfnocht raatore it, ft gyf it agane to the trew awner, 
thay ar theiffia.A braikia thia command.** Abp. HamiU 
- tonn'a Gatechiame, 1651, FoL 60, b. 

AYTSIEjadj. Bearded, S. 

Let hnaky wheat the hangha adorn. 
And aiti sat up their awnie horn — 

Burnt, ilL IS. V. next word. 

AWNS, #. pL Beards of com. 

Dr. Johnaon givea the word aiwa a place; but it 
aeema to be rather a provincial term. It waa viewed 
aa aneh bv Say. Bar awu, the bearda of barley; 
Aug. Pertha. 

Moea-O. ^eAojmb, ebatt, Su.-0. affn. Or. cx^^Ot axi^> 
id. Alem. agma not only ainifiea chaffy but ia 
rendered featuca, n ahoot or atidk. Wachter viewa 
aegg, m aharp point, as the root of the Northern terms. 

For emptv hosk, for aunu an' beard, 
Ta, like tiaa goats, may be rerer'd : 
The only thing wi* yon thera'a IncK o' 
la hnih o' atraa for makin mock o*. 

Limt and MarU, A, SeoiCt Poewu, p. 140. 

'*AwnM, the bearda of wheat or barley." Ray'a CoU 
Mct. p. 5. 

Thia word, I find, ia alio used in the singular. 

** Bear ia all they have, and wonderment it ia to me 
Uiat they ever aee an own of it.** The Pirate, ii. 28. 

AwNED, AwNiT| cart adj. Furnished with 

beards ; applied to grain, S. 

** — Grey owned oata — ^were moat in uae in the me- 
mory of Old people.** Agr. Surv. Dumfr. p. 198. V. 

AwKT, €ufj. Bearded, S. 

In shaginr wave, the awntt grain 
Had whitaa'd owre the hfll an' plafaL 

Piekm*M Awaw, 1788. p. 141 

AWONT| part. adj. Accustomed to. 

"Towart the contravening of the ordinana in forth- 
putting of the tennentia of the said rowme awont the 
oocupacioun of the said land,** q. '*wont to occupy.** 
Abeid. Reg. A. 1563, V. 25. 

A.-0. 0IPIM-MIJI, aaaueacare. 



AWORTH, adc. « Worthily," l>tlcr. 

H« nukitli J0T« and ooofoit thiit hm quitlt 
Of tbdra ttiiMkir warldis tpp«titii, 
Aad M fli0Ofi4 he Ukith hM penaaoe, 
Aad of Ui Twtew nutid it samiMioflL 

Ptobaps allied to A.-S. aw^riA-ioii, glorificare. If 
■0^ it Bay figiiify that he gloned in hii tnfferingi. 

AWOVrr, pret. Avowed. 

'^Thoj BO sooner awovU and vtterit thair diaobe- 
dlonoo to his maiestie, hot thairwith alao professinff 
deadlie fead and hatrent to hia laid tniatie oonnuul- 
lonr. hia death wea ana of the cheif hnttia of thair 
orailt and malioe." Aota Ja. VL ie08» Ed. 1814, p. 

AWOnNDERrr,tMirf.tHi. Surprised, strack 
with wonder. 

Tke eldtnr hvatarit and hU kepaiii than, 
Gbppaad than loflb end thar nandis ilk man, 
flan awomideni nn the sternes beheld 
Wot honadie qaeit it eemyt the lift ryfle wald. 

To AWOW, V. n. To vow. 

«<The king awowed^ that he schonld nevir be relaxit 
out of the caatle of Edinboigfa, if he might keip him in 
li." FitMOttie'a Cron. p. 195. 

«« Ifade a singolar tow/' Ed. 1728. 

AWOW, interj. Equivalent to alas, S. B. ; 
dso to Eufhaw. 

Bat to do at I did, alai, and awow. 

To bosk vp a rock at the cheek of the low, 

flaye that I had but little wit in my now. 

JtM^i Mtoek and Wte Pidde Tm. 

Ptehapa q. ah wow. V. Wow and Vow. 

AWP, Whaup, #. Curlew ; a bird, S. GI. 
Sibb. y. QuHAip. 

AWBANOOUS, adl Felonious ; ^ Awran- 
gau9 awaytaking; Aberd. Keg. Cent. 16. 


Kaldcn meigrete. 
Went the dragoon fro ; 
Sche aeiae a wel fouler thing 
Bitten in awro; 
He hadde honden on hia knee, 
And ei» on eneiich to ; 
Mirt ther nener lother thing 
Opon erth go^ 

Legend SL MargnU, Ma 

V. Oloaa. CompL p. 309. at. 4. 

The language of tnia poem haa more of the E. than 
S. dialect. Kit I qnote the paaaage to auggeat that 
moat prc^bly it ahould be a tero, i.e. a comer, aa 
qrnon. with an Atht, at. 1. 

Maiden mergrete tho 
Loked hir buide : 
And aeiae a lothlich dragoon 
Oat of an him glide. 

8ii.-0. WTO, anguloa. 

AWS, Awes of a mill-wheel, t. pi. The 
buckets or projections on the rim wliich 
receive the snock of the water as it falls, S. 

"The water falla upon the aweM, or feathera of the 
tirl, at an inclination of between 40 and 45 degreea.** 
P. Unat, Shetland, Sutiat. Aoc. ▼. 191. 

CW thia have any connexion with 8n.-G. a. Germ. 
oeA, water! or with Moeo-O. ako apica, Mark W. 28? 

AWS of a WindmOly the sails or shafts on 
which the wind acts, Aberd. 

AWSK,«. Newt, eft. Y.Ask. 

AWSOME, Awesome, tuiff. 1. Appalling, 
awful, causing terror, S. 

*' A airiit of hia croaa ia moreaieaoNM than the weight 
of it." Ruth. Lett. P. L ep. 203. 

*'It would have been utterly impoaaible for Sir 
Arthur Wardour or hia daughter to have found hia 
way along theae ahelvee without the guidance and 
anooonttement of the bcogar, who had Men there be* 
Ion in C^ tidea, thougn never, he acknowledged, in 
ao awoome a ni^t aa thia.** Antiquary, i. 167, TS8. 

** Sie iU-acraped toqguee aa thae Highland carlinea 
<— aie a w oowi o langnage aa that I ne*er heard out o' a 
human thrapple." Sob Boy, iii. 73. 

2. Exciting terror, as supposed to possess 
preternatural power ; Soutn of S. 

In thia aanae the term ia applied to one Wilkin, who 
waa viewed aa a warlock. 

«Wilkin*a deecendanta are atiU known; and the 
poorer aort of them have often their great predeoeaaor 
mentioned to them aa a term of reproach, whom they 
themaelvea allow to have bean an aioBaome bodp. 
Hogg'a Mountain Bard, p. 116. , 

**i>uring theae exclamationa* the awetiome din re- 
aoubded muckle piair." Blackw. Mag. Nov. 20^ 1820^ 
p. 148. 

3. Expressive of terror, S. 

'* To be aura he did gie an aweoome glance up at the 
anld caatia— and there waa aome apae-wark gMd on." 
Guy Mannering, i 185. 

AWSTRENE, adj. Stem, austere. 

Thia awtlftnt neif aniweiit angiriy ; 
For thy crampinji thow aalt baith crake and oowre. 
Mmrpaonef Bannaijfne Poems, pi 132. 

Thia ia undoubtedly the aame with aoienu, Dous. 
Virg^ oonr. either from Lat. oajferaa, or A.-S. jfym, id. 

AWTAYTSE, adj. Haughty. 

All ha mad of Inglii men, 
lliat waa dyapytwowa and awtatme then. 

Wrdtnon, ?iii 17. 24. 

AWTE, s. 1. The direction in which a stone, a 
piece of wood, &c. splits ; the grain, Aberd. 

**AwU, the line in a atone where it naturaUy may 
be aplit by the atrokee of the hammer, or where the 
block in the cjuarry may be aeparated from the diff.*' 
QL Surv. Nairn and Moray. 

2. Used, but it is supposed improperly, for a 
flaw in a stone, ibia. 

AWTER, 9. Altar. 

He myidyd thair sretly but war. 
That gave na gyrlin to the awter: 

Barbouir, IL 44. MS. 

i.e. Who did not conaider the altar aa a aanctuary. 
Chaucer, id. O. Fr. aolier, id. Diet. Trev. Lat. 

To AX, V. a. To ask, S. Rudd. 

The kyng XtXXo bryns ther aftor Hengint bi fore hym aoae. 
And atcked at erica & baraea, wat were mid hvm to done 

A OUmc y, 141. 





Li MWliMr MS. it it ooMrft. 

«• Wkil ttqnift Um kjaflt b jm caw wolda. 

**Tb«twilT« thAl w«m with him axiden him to 

. •nomMthspanUA.'* Wiolil, Mark iv. 
CkaaMr, ia, A.-8. dU-lan, ax-km, 

AXIS, AoKSTSv «• />2. Aches, pdns. 

Bol tk« htgiB nya ecu •»] tonnflnt t 
• T» ■!■• hir Mit. and fblowe I na mjreht ; 
IM day WM tamyt into nycht 

Kin/* Quair, iL 48. 

nderiiiir it ague ; OI. 
lein SootlAiid 

ilMi^ &L Oikn. 

If «r» troabl«d with an agiixih ditt«mpar, 
£iv can the Japet.'' Wallace? Orkn. p. 66. 

Ha mmoiiia, that to an inf uaioa of baoktoom and 
hmnm^ which th^ nae aa a core, they give the 

H had baen lonneriy naed in the tame senae in B. 
fbr FkhgraTo mantiona "afine^ axes,** aa oomapond- 
ii^to tt.fyemre; B. iii. F. 17. Elaewhere he oaea it 
aa if it had de n o t ed f cTer in general. 

*'Thia odBM hath made hym ao weake that hia iMgea 
wyU nat bean hym : Cea flenraa lont tant affoyuy,'* 
Ac Ibid. F. 162, b. 

<«iliBefitiUsi^ee the a^e, North.** Oioae. 

In the fonner aenae, evidently from A.-S. oece, 
dolor ; in the latter, either from thia, or tgfwa, hor- 
ror, Moea-O. «|7^ terror, whence Seren. derivee E. 

AXTREE, #. Axle-tx^ S. 

A.-S. eax^ ex; Alem. oAm, Qerm. ach$e, id. Per- 
hapa the radical word ia IiL db-o, to drive a chariot or 
dray ; O. Andr. 

"Item on the heid of the qohite toure crmig [Dum- 
bertane] ane moyen of found, — ^montit upoon ane stok 
with ouhnllia and aitrt bat ime work.'* CoU. In- 
ventonea, A. 1580, p. 900. 

AYONT, prep. Beyond, S. 

A ban ran in the lai^, affonl there lay 
As many feeding on the other brM. 

RomfaEtietwrt, p. 47. 

A.-S. geomd, oltra, with a prefixed ; or on, aa aJUld, 
originally 0»JUUL V. Youxd. 


To BAA, V. n. 1. To ciyas a calf, Ettr. For. 

**I had acaroelv oeaaed haalng aa a calf, when I 
fomd myaelf a jMantifnl capercailye, winging the 

ohmd.'* Pecila of Men, iii. 4fS. 

2. To bkat as a sheep, Ajm. 

**ZBohariah Smylie'a black ram — ^they had laid in 
Myiie'a bed. and keepit frae baaing with a gnde fother- 
mm d kail-oladea, and a donte aoaken in milk.** R. 
OabaiM^ ii. 818. 

Baa, «• The cry of a calf, Ettr. For. 

'^ When I ooold do nothing farther than give a faint 
Im^ they thoo^t that the beet aport of aU." Perila, 
■I M|i. V. Bab. 

BAA, #• A rock of a particular description, 

**BBa ia n rook o fer fl o w n by the aea, bnt which may 
be m&m at kw water.** Edmonaton'a Zetl. i. 140. 

Kqrw. hoe, **a bottom, or bank in the sea, on which 
the wmvea break ;" HaUager. 

BAACH, adj. Ungrateful to the taste. Y. 

BAB^ «. 1. A nosegajt or bunch of flowers, 

Iher^ amang the bdb§ o' gowaas, 
Wi^my Piggie I lat down. 

Pi€km'$ Poems, 1788, pi 87. 

I— p«*d bar a poeie o' gowani. 
An'^bld them in haU at her feet 

iMILp.lS8. V. B0B,ld. 

2. A tassel, or a knot of ribbons, or the loose 
ends cit such a knot, Fife; whence the com- 
pound terms, Lug-bab^ Wooer-babj q. y. 

3. Applied to a cockade, S. 

"They had aeen— Caddie— in ane o* Serjeant Both- 
well*8 laced wai8tcoata» and a cockit hat with a bait of 
bine ribfaanda at it." Talee of my Landloid, iii. 228. 

To BAB, V. ft. 1. To play backward and for- 
ward loosely, S. synon. with E. Bob. 

2. To dance, Fife. 

Hence^ Bab at Oke bowder, or, Bab wC ike bowsUr, a 
very old Scottish dance, now ilmoet out of use ; for* 
meny the laat dance at weddings and merry-makings. 

To BAB, o. a. To close, to shut, Ajrrs. 

The Are was rak'd. the door was barr'd, 

Aslesp the (kmily. 
Bioept poor Odin, oowv loon, 

He coa'd na* ftoo an e e. 

Tram's Poeiieal Jteveriet,^ 100. 

To BABBIS, V. a. 1. To scoff, to gibe, Ayrs. 
2. To browbeat, ibid. 

Fkom the same origin with Bob, a tannt, q. v. 

BABY, 8. The abbreviation of the name Bar- 
baroj S. 

BABIEI, Bawbte, #. A copper coin equal to 
a halfpenny English. S. 


'As to hir fals accnsatioan of spoilye, we did remit 
ns to the conscience of Mr. Robert Ricnartsoon Maister 
of the Conye Hons, quha from our handia reoeaveil 
Gold, Silver, and Mettall, alaweiU cnnyeit aa nncun- 
yeit ; so that with us thare did not remane the valow 
of a Babit.** Knox's Hist. p. 151. Baurbee, Lond. 
Ed. 161. 




AoooNnUng to Sir Jaiiim Balfour, babee* were intro- 
dvMd in IM rtign of Jadim V. ; Rudd. Intr. to And. 
IXplom. p^ 148. Tho rwlut of the batobie wm not uni- 
ionnly tM mmm. Sir Jamet Balfour says that, at tho 
tiflM rtforreit to^ it was "worth three pennies.** In 
the reign of James VI. it was rained at six : and this 
oontuuied its standard raluation in the succeedins 
while it was customary to oonnt by Scottish 
The British halfpenny is still vulgarly called 


Aa this eoin bore the bust of James VI. when young, 
• tome hare imagined that it received its desisnatioii, 
as ezhibiting the fiflnre of a babjf or child. But this 
is a mere mncjr. Tor the name, as well the coin, 
existed before ms reign. We must therefore rest satis- 
fied with Mr. Pinkerton*s derivation. *« The bUlon 
ooin," he says, " worth six pennies Scotish, and called 
hoBpitee^ from the firrt questionable shape in which it 
•Bpearsd, beinff of what the French call bat^tiUim, or 
tne worst kina of billon, was now (in the reign of 
James VL) straefc in copper, and tonned, by the 
Sffff^tfh proiinneiation, teicoee.*' Essay on MiM^ft l* ^ 

*'Ans great auantitie— of the tuelf pennie peceis, 
te6d< ft aald plakis is found now to be decayit and 
waiitiqg^ previa penonis frustrating his nuuestie of his 
rieht and profit^— in the vnlawing, tranaportins, brek- 
iag downeaad fjming of thefoimamit kyndia ofaUayit 
moii^,''fte. ActeJa. VI. 1584, Ed. 1814, p. 311. 

This is the earliest act I have met with in which the 
tsna ooenn : and it is evident that the term was not 
originally applied to coins of mere copper, but of silver 
mixed with oopper, *' Previe personis vnlawed^* this, by 
rafnaiQg togiive it currency. 

A enrious traditional fancy, in regard to the origin 
of this teim* is still current in Fife. 

V When om of the infant kings of Scotland," it is 
said, '*of great expectation, was shewn to the public, 
for the preasrration of order the price of admission was 
in proportion to the rank of the visitant. The eyes of 
the snperior dam we being feasted, their retainers and 
the mobility were admitted at the rate of six penniee 
ea ch , Hentoe^'* it ie added, " this piece of money being 
the price of seeing the ro^ Babk^ it received the 
name of BMt^ lengthened m pronunciation into Baw^ 


Bawbee-bow, «. A halfpeiuiy-roIl» S. 

**Aa for the letters at the poet.mistress*s, as they 
en' her, they may bide in her shop-window, wi* the 
snaps and tetpftee-reteiy till Beltane, or I loose them.** 
St^Bonan, L 94. 

B^IE-PICKLE, B. The small grain, which 
lies in the bosom of a lai^r one, at the top 
of a stalk of oats. S. 

IVom iUie, a child, an infant, and o*cI7«, or putkfe, 
a grain. V. Picklx. I need scarcely say tliat this 
deeignatjcwi, as it is perfectly descriptive, contains a 
very beautiful allusion. 

BABTYMy s. Bantism. ** Baptym and ma- 
. te^gt^ AbercL Keg. ; corr. from Fr. 6a/>- 

BACCALAWREATT, s. The degree of a 
bachelor in a university. 

^ — "And als giving of degriee of Baccalatnreait, 
Boentiat, and doctorat, to theee that ar worthie and 
capable of the saidis degriee." Acto Cha. I. Ed. 1814, 

Tlie designatite of Ifatter ^ ArUn said to be snb- 
•titntsd for this. 


At any of our Universitiee, the studente, after 
four years study, take the dearee of Bachelor, or aa it 
ie eommoiily termed Master of Arts.** Spottiswoode's 
Ma Hist. bict. vo. Bachelor. 

L. B. baceaUurUU-ue id. from baeeaiar4ut, a baehe- 
lor; a term said to have been borrowed by the nni- 
versitiea from the military service of thoee who were 
too poor to appear as bannerets, or to bring as many 
~ I into the field as oould APpow under their own 
r, or who^ l^ reason of their youth, oould not 
the rank of bannerete. Various etjrmons ha\'e 
been given. Some derive it from baeca tattrta, bache- 
lon being hopeful like a laurel in the berry.; others 
from bacSi-u9, a rod, becauae in their progrees to this 
honoiir they had subjected themselves to the rod. If 
this was the origin, however, the reeemblance wae 

BACHELAH, s. A bachelor in arte. 

" The Baehelan met in the chamber above the schole 
of Humantie, both the one and the other being then 
laraer." Crawf. Hist. Univ. Edin. p. 29. 

This name, it is probable, waa directly borrowed 
from the Baocalarii or BatMiarUf who conatitated 
one of the four orders into which the theological fa- 
culty of Paris was divided, Mayidri, Licentiaii, Bac- 
eaiarii Formaii, and Baccalarii Curaoree. As the For- 
maH had ^ne through their theological coursee, and 
might aapire to promotion, the Caroarts were theo- 
logical candidates of the first class, who were admitted 
to explain the Bible on/y; the Senteneeo of Lombanl 
being reserved for divines of a higher degree. V. Du 

BACHILLE, 8. A small spot of arable 
pround, Fife ; synon. with PendieUf which 
IS now more commonly used. 

"ISOO. — One James Hendersone — perished in Lev^n^ 
water, hj taking the water on horsebscke, when the 
eea was m above the ordinar foonle, a littel beneath 
John Straehan*s bachiiU ther.'* Lajnont*s Diary, p. 

O. fV. baehie denoted aa much ground as twenty 
oxen oould labour in one hour ; Roquefort. 

To BACHLE, v. a. To distort, to vilify. V. 

Bachuinb, /)orf. or. Shambling; Leg. Bp. 
St Androis. Y. Bauchle, Bachle, r. 

BACHLEIT, part. pa. 

'* Item, that thair salbe na oppin morcat wait of ouy 
of the saides craftee, or wark pertenyng to thame of 
the crafte, wpoun the hie streites, nor in crames wpoii 
burdee, nor bachleii nor shawin in hand for to sell,— 
witiiin this buigfae hot alenarlie in the mercat day," 
SeiU of Cans, Edin'. 2 May, 1483. 

The term, aa thus used, might eeem to denote some 
particular inode of ezpoeing to sale. 

Fir. baecol-er signifies "to lift or heave often up aiui 
downe;'* Cotgr. 

BACHRAM, 8. A bachram o* diri^ an ad- 
hesive spot of filth ; what has dropped from 
a cow on a hard 8|M>t of ground ; Dumfr. 

Gael. (nocAor, cow-dung. V. Clushan. 

BACK, 8. An instrument for toasting bread 
above the fire. It resembles a girdle in 
form ; but it is much thicker, and made of 
pot-metal. S. Germ. Belg. hack^iij to 




Ktariy allMd fa Totka. hack-titme; "a atoiM or ixon 

Baoxbbxad, «• A knetding-trongh. Belg. 
back, id. 

BACK, s. A large Tat used for cooling 
Kqiioca^ Aberd. Ang. This word has the 
same significatioDj Warwicks* 

**Tbe dataclers we Imnrai in tlie immediata vi- 
afauty af tha town af .Forfu*.— ^x the former practice, 
tha worta, aftar-bmg boiled, and run into a tub or 
hmek m ilia imdar floor of tha brewery, were pumped 
» to tiia bialieal floor,"* fte. Caled. Mercury, Dec. 

u, wia. ^ . ^ 

'*Tbat tliay had alao at work tan waah-Mci», 
aadi ooDtainhig fxom 10^000 to 15,000 gaUona. That 
tha tedb waia about 120 inchea deep." SUta, LeaUe 
«f Pdwia, fte. 1805. p. 105, 150. 

Bdg. hak, » trou^ Test, hadt, linter, abacua— 
.; pwmk by KHiaB aa aynoo. with Irodk, £. 

BACE[, Baokimo, «• A hodj of followers 
or fapporters. 

•«Tbaraaftar Mr. Fym want npb with a number at 

kk back to tha hi^faar hooaa ; and did accuae Thomaa 

" Btelaf StmffiMdTXocd laauteaaBt of Ireland, of hi^b 

tiuainn j and required kia paraon to be arreated ml 

Srobaitkm mii^t ba heard; ao Mr. Tpn and hia back 

wmnmoTadr" Bailfia^alatt. i. 2ll 
nom A.-S. hoe, hmee, 8n.-0. bak, tergum. V. 


Jl iMa Aaeft^ a provarbial pkraM for a arnaU par^. 

**Tha moat part had ratamad home well aatiafiad ; 
and tboaa that ware otherwiae minded, would have 
jtaid with a «Mi hadt; but the first thing the aup- 
plioanta heard, waa » prodamation— ordaining the aer- 
Hea^ook to ba pcaetiaed at Edinburgh,'* fto. Outhry'a 

BACK, «. A wooden trough for canying 
f iiel» Boxb. ; the same with Backet, q. v. 

**AftariiaROwly aacaping breaking my shina over a 
iBif hadt and » aalting tu^— I opened a cra^ half-de- 
aayad door, oonataructad, not of j^ank, but of wicker," 
Ieo. B<^ Boy, ill. 15. 

To BACK (a letter), v. a. To write the 
direction ; more flenerally applied merely to 
the iw^npal penormaiice. An ^iUrbackU 

■ letter;** one with the direction ill written, 


• BACK, *. 1. The hack of my hand to you^ 
I will have nothing to do with yoa ; spoken 
to one whose oonaoct or opinions are disa- 
greeable to OS, S. 

S. The haek is said to be vp^ or Met up^ as ex- 
pressive of rage or passion ; as, 

«*Hia haA waa ajp in a mooMnt," or, "aha Hi up 
bar ftodk." It ia alao afN^ied to one who excitea an- 
other to laga; aa, *'I tmnk 1 $et up her badi in a 

•^aal, NaDy, atnoa my back at «p, ya tail tak down 
thapietttre^ or akatchini^ or whatever it ia,— and ahame 
wi'ittha ooooaitad craw that they are." St. Bonan, 

• L55. 

I need aoamly aay that it aridantly refara to an 

animaL and aepeeially to a oat, that raiaea ita apino, 
and bnatlea ud tha hair, in token of defianoe, or when 
about to attack ita adyeraary. 

BACK, «• Lodicroosly or contemptaonsly ap- 

1>iied to one who has changed his mode of 
iving, espedallj if for the letter ; as, '< He's 
the back o* an anid farmer,** i^ he was once 
a farmer; Aberd. 

Back and Fore, backwards and forwards* S. 

Back at the Wa'. One's back is said to be 
at the wa\ when one is in an unfortunate 
state, in whatever respect, as, 

1. When one's temporal affairs are in a state 
of derangement; as including the idea of 
the neglect with which one is treated by the 

SenenJity of those who appeared as friends 
uring prosperity, S. 

2. Denoting a state of exile, submitted to from 
circumstances of danger; or of exclusion 
from the enjoyment of what are viewed as 
one's proper rights, S. 

O wae be 'mang ye, Soathrons, ye traitor loons a', 
Ye hand him aye down, whase oadft at the wa*. 

LamaU, L. MaxwM, Jacobite Bdice, ii. SI 

O send Lewie Gordon hame, 
And the lad I darena name t 
Tho* hia tedfc te al<A< wa', 
Here's to him that's far awa*. 

UwU OordoH, ibid. U. 81. 

3. Sometimes applied to one who ia under the 
necessity of absconding^ in order to avoid the 
rigour of law, S. 

Thna it waa aaid of any one, who had been emgaged 
in the rebellion A. 1745, although remaining in the 
oonntry, aa long aa he waa in a atata of hiding, that 
hia back waa at the ton*. 

It has been aomwaed, that the phraaa may reapect 
one engaged in fight, who ia rednced to anch extremity 
that he has no meana of aelf -defence or reaistanoe, but 
by aatting hia back to a wall, that he may not be at- 
tacked from behind. But the Umguage, aa naed in S., 
rather precladea the idea of further reeistanoe, aa de- 
noting that he, to whom it ia applied, ia overpowered 
by diuator. 

Backdand, Bakbavd, 8. A bond or obliga- 
tion, in which B. engages that A. shall re- 
ceive no injury at law m consequence of a 
disposition, or any similar deed, which A. 
has made in favours of B.; a bond that 
virtually nullifies a former one, which has 
been entered into to serve a special purpose, 

"Mr. Alexander Jboneatoune producit the dispo- 
sitionne abone mentionate, q'*' was cancellate :— 4md 
the proveat producit the bakband, q^ was alao cancel- 
led.'* AcU Cha. L Ed. 1S14, V. 283. 

Baok-birn, s. a load borne on the back« a 
backburtheth S. B. 

dead, come also sn' be kind to me. 
An' free this sad baek-bim of sorrow free. 

^Ross's JTeeenofv, First Ed. p. IS. V. Bntai. 




Baok-bh^ «• A nicki in the form of the 
letter Y^ cut oat ot the baek-part of a 
ihe^*8 etr» Cljrdes. AwMip id. q. ▼• 

Baok-Oast, «• 1. a relapse into trouble ; or 
•omethinff that retards the patient's re- 
coverjTy S* 

S. A misfortune; something which as it were 
tkrawB one back from a state of prosperity 
into adversity, S. 

••Th&fU gat a haek-ead o' lus bamt jtit, that think 
■OBraekMo' tha ereatiiN» and na little o* the Creator.*' 
Tklea of my lAodlocd. ii. 201. 

Back-€A8T» adj^ Retrospective. 

Wbea eprfaig hodt forth la fwael dwiirVi, 
Whea enauner oomei v^f*^ ^ Sow'ia, 

Or entama k&id, from Ottm' bora, 

. Iter greteftil boiuity poan ; 
Or beeraed wiater cane his hnm — 
rn oA» Uadly tUak oa yoa ; 

Aadoa aar ieppy days ead aighte, 

With pleeetas w*-«"^ viev. 

IWaaaAOTe /Vaae, pi 96^ 97. 

Baokoaw, f. The same as baekoiif S. Only 
the ktter is formed by means of Uie v. eastj 
the other by that of caw, q. v. 

Baok-comb, Baok-Comino» «• Betum, S. 

'^Tha fnwvnar oaaaad qaaiter tha ttywn of Abar- 
dedn, ana ooaunaadad tha provoet and baiUiee to aea 
tha laina done^ to tha affwt kBowledga might b« hatl^ 
Inw tha anny ahoold ba laataiaad at their (ocib coiaiay. ** 
SpaMina L 1S7. 

^aiuoadb-ceaie^aaiiafovtBnate retain, S.; aphraee 
vaad whan any nnlacky aoeident bee happen e d to a 
who baa been from hoeM. 

To Baok-oome, r. n. To return. 

**If it baopaned Montroee to be ofatooma in battle 
bafoia that aay, that tiiey were then to be free of their 
panto la ftadboMMV to him." Ibid. ii. 258. 

Back*doob-tbot, «• The dianhoea, S. The 
reas(m of the designation is obvious; as 
one affected in this manner has occasion to 
make many visits to the baek-doari Fy-gae- 
hy^ synon. 

Baokdraught, <• 1. The act of inspiration 
vrith the breath ; as^ ^ He was whaslin like 
a bhstit stirk i* the backdramlU,'' Fife. 

S. The convulsive inspuration of a child in the 
whooping-cough, during a fit of the disease, 

**IIlad non dimimnlandam, pertaaam aaaviorem aepe 
mt^"**^* hnjoa apeciem qaaadam aroeeeere, que a 
MMtratibaa tv^o nancopatar lAc Bmckiraught^ V^ 
tDMii, a pahnombae amiaBa» raiaaa reroearetar." Sim- 
aoaDasamad. p. 263. 

Back-drawer, «. An apostate, one who re- 
cedes from hb former profession or course. 

^**Tha aoni hath no pleaeare in them that draw 
baok. bat eball lead foiih each hateMrawen, and tar- 
Bara-aaida, with the woffken of taiqaity.*' M*Ward'e 
Oontendingife p. 89. 

Bagk-end o* Hairst, the latter part of har- 
vest| o. 

Baok-end o* the Tear, the ktter part of 
the year, S. V. Fore-end. 

Baok^bioh «• An eUipsis of the preceding 
phrase, S. 

— "The imoked llitch which aooompaniee this, — 

•pes is qnite equal to tnat you liked 
BO wall when yon did us the honour to stop a day or 

two last haick-emd/' Blackw. Mag. Oct 1820, p. 3. 

"The hedges wiU do— I dipped them wi* myaiti 
hands last 6adk-end^ and at your suggestion, Margaret.'* 
M. Lyndsay, p. 871. 

Baok-fa', <• The side-sluice or outlet of a 
mill-dam, near the breast of the water-wheel, 
and through which the water runs when the 
mill is «e^ <v when the water is turned ofiF 
the wheel ; Roxb. 

Back-fear, «. An object of terror from be- 

— " Ha needed not to dread no hoickfiar in Scotland, 
as he was wont to do.** Pitsoottie, Ed. 1728^ p. 105. 
V. Backchalis. 

Back-friend, «• One who seconds or sup- 
ports another, an abettor. 

"The people of God that's faithful to the cause, has 
ay a gooa bacL^rimd. — ^A number of buttery-mouth'd 
knaTes said they would take upon them to owne us 
with friendship. — ^We were never ill beguiled till theee 
buttei^*moutlrd knavee £0t up. — Yet weU*s our day 
for th]% we have a good oack-friend that will gar our 
.canee stand right again." Mich. Bmce's Lecturse, Ac. 
*p. 00^ SI. 

The word is used in E., but in a sense directly op- 
poaita^ for "an enemy in secret," Johns. 

8. Used metaph. to denote a place of strength 
behind an army. 

"He reeolved to take him to a defensiTe warre, 
with the spade and the shovell, putting his anny 
within workee, having the supply of such a AodE- 
/rieiMf as Nurenberg was, to aupply him with men, 
meate and ammunition," Ae. Monro's Ezped. P. ti. 
p. 140. 

Bagkfu*, «• As much as can be carried on 
the back, S. 

"Tanmiy charged me to bring a ha/cifu* o' peats wi' 
me," said he, "but I think TU no gang near the peat- 

stack tha day." Blackw. Mag. Bfar. 1S23» p. 317. 

Baekfti' •» here used, is scarcely a proper tenn, ae 
the badL does not contain, but cany the burden. 

Backoain, Backoa'en, pari. adj. From the 
adv. baek^ and the v. gae^ to go. 

1. Becedinff ; a baekgain tide, the tide in the 
state of ebbing, S. 

2. Declining in health ; as, a baekgain bairns a 
child in a decaying state, S. 

3. Declining in worldly circumstances; as, a 
baekgain famify, a family that is not 
thriving in temporal concemsi but, on the 
contrary, going to decay, S. 





Aom tUtlhty un, M bow Um not 
0^ lie A room wm ovwitent : 
Tte hiefcf'fn tMiAnt fell aniiit, 

BAOKOAiNy «• A decline, a consomption, S. 

BACKOANBy part. oA'. Hi-grown; ^as a 
haeh-gang gAt, an iltgrown child," S« 

BiAOKOAn «• 1. An entrjr to a houae^ oonrt» 
cr area, frombdund^S. 

"ttt town of AlMidMn fearing that this oommittde 
dboaU 1m liolden in their town ooming back frae 
Tteil^ begui to make prepaimtiooi * for their own 

I. lot. 
S. A road or way that leads behind, S. 

3. Used in regard to conduct ; Yetakay had^ 
gaU$f jaa never act openly, yon still nse 
circnitoas or shofBing modes ; S. 

4» It alto signifies a coarse directly immoral^ S. 


Baok-half, <• The worst half of any thing. 
To b$ warn to th$ baek-halfi to be nearly 
worn out, Lanaiks/ 

** A metaph. ao p poeed to be b or row e d from a knife, 
or odier edged tool* that, hf long nee and being 
fraqpieally ahaipened, ie woni nearly to tiw hack. 

To Back-hap, v. n. To draw back from an 
agreement, to resile; Aberd. 

Firam haek^ and hoMp to torn to the right ; nnleae 
hap be here need as signifying to hop. 

Baok-<jab, «• 1. A sly, ill-natured objection, 
cr opposition, Aberd. 

S. An artful eyasion, ibid. 

BAOKiif*-TnBF, 8. A turf laid on a low 
oottage-fire at bedtime as a haek^ for keeping 
ft aHve till morning; or one placed against 
the hudj in putting on a new turf-fire, for 
supporting tne side-turfs ; • Teyiotd. 

Backuns, adv. Backwards ; as, to gae baek-- 
Bnij to go with the face turned opposite to 
the conne one takes; S. A.-S. baeelinp^ 
IbL baekUngiBf Su.-0. baeklaengeif id. V. 
the termination Lnco. 

Baoklins, «. Backward, S. 

High, high had PhoBboe clmn the lift. 

And rMch'd his northeni tour. 
And aedUiiu frae the baU to shift, 

Hie blaiiBg oonrwrs oonr. 

Ji» SeoU^t /VfMJ, pc S4. 

Back-look, «• 1. Retrospectiye view ; used 
nteruiy, o. 

S. A reyiew ; denoting the act of the mind, S. 

**Tb» baek4oak, and foresiffht, and firm penwaaion 
ol mind, that, as cormpt eloen have been a plague 

vnto thie ehnroh, so there would be more, oonatrained 
me (at the Berolntion) with aome worthy ohriatiana 
who Bigned with me, who are honeeUy gone oif the 
•tage, to preaent to the Preebytery of linlithgow ex- 
eq^ona againat all such; and to protest that none 
guilty of our national defections should be admitted to • 
that saersd office, without their particular publick 
acknowledgment of the same before the congregation 
where they were ordained ; which has been a great 
aatiafaetion to me ever since.** Walker's Remark. 
Passages, p. 03. 

"Alter a serious baek'look of all theee forty-eight 
years," ke. Walker's Peden, p. 71. 

Backmak, Bakhan, «. A follower in war, 
flometimes equivalent to £. Henehman^ S. A. 

Sen hunger now gois up and down. 

And na gnd for the jakmen, 
The lairds and ladyes rrde of the toun. 

For feir of hnngerie htJcmm, 

MaiikHuTM Potms, IL 189. 

"I haa mysel and my three billiee ; — ^but an Char- 
lie come, hbn as gude aa some three, an' his baekman*9 
nae bean-swaup neither." Perils of Men, L 88. 

Back-owre, adv. Behind ; q. a considerable 
way back, often in relation to objects more 
at nand, S. 

Back-Rape, s. The band which goes over 
the back of a horse in the plough, to prevent 
the theeU or traces from f alung to the ground, 

Back-rent, a. A mode of appointing the rent- 
of a f arm, by which the tenant was always 
three terms in arrear, Berw. 

"Entering at Whitaunday,— the rent for the first 
half year of occupancy did not become due till Candle- 
maa twelve month, or twenty months in whole, after 
entcy ; and all future paymente were due half-yearly 
thereafter, at the terms of Lammas and Candlemas. — 
This mode of payment was technically called back-^rtnit 
aa the rent was always considerably m arrsar." Agr. 
Snrr. Berw. p. 140. 

Back8» <• pL The boards that are outermost 
in a tree when sawed, S. B. 

Back-set, a. Y. Set. 

Backset, <• 1. A check, any thing that pre- 
vents growth or vegetation, S. 

** Thou|^ they should not incline to eat all the weeds, 
eren thoee they leave, cannot, after such a baehiH and 
discouragement, come to seed so late in the season." 
Mazweirs Set Trans, p. 82. 

2. Whatsoever causes a relapse, or throws one 
lack in any course, S. 

*'It may be well known to you from Scripture, that 
the people of Qod have got many baekteU one after 
another ; but the Lord has waited for their extremity, 
which he will make his opportunity." Wodrow*s Hist. 

In sense it is neariy allied to Teut. oeMer^l, re- 
mora, aehUrMt'enf poetponere, remoimri, literally, to 
put back. 




Back8BT| part* • pa. Wearied, 

Backset^ «. A sab-lease, in which the pos- 
session IS restored to those who were primarily 
interested in it, or to some of them, on cer- 
. tain conditions. 

"TIm Mri of MMriMliall--ffot for himaalf a fiflemi 

. JMi* took fno the king of ttie ciutoma of Abenleen 

and BMiffs— BfaruehAll,— baving got this Uok, mU 

tlM Mmo OQttomi in baekmi, to fome well-affectod 

kurgeMM of Abwdeen." Spalding, i. 334. ExpL 

Firam oauek^ adv. and mi, a leaaa^ or the t. aei; to 

Baouidb, 9. This term in S. does not merely 
signify the court or area behind a house, but 
is extended to a garden, Boxb. 

TIm word a« thus mad has hurt the delicate feelings 

of maqj a faitidioui South Briton, and oerhape bem 

viewed ae a proof the indelicacy of the Scotch. Bat, 

rianm teneetii, amid ; it is a flood E. word, estpl. by 

. Johna. *'the jnud or ground behind a houae.*' 

!• PL baektidea is used, in Meams, as denoting 
all the ground between a town on tlie sea- 
coast and the sea. 

S. The more private entrances into a town by 
the back of it, Ayrs. 

" It wae told that the provoet had privately returned 
fron V^ihton Gettle by the Gallowi-knowee to the 
' ' " R. Oilhain, ii. 173. 

Backspano, «• A trick| or legal quirk, by 
which one takes the advantage of another, 
after the latter had supposed eveiy thing in 
a bargain or settlement to be finally ad- 
jnstedy from back and spang, to spring. 

BaOKSPABE, «• Baekspare of breeches, tlie 
cleft, S. V. Spabe, f . 

Baok-spauld, 9. The hinder part of the 
shoulder, S. 

'*I did feel a rhenmatiie in my (ocA^paiiltf yestreen." 
The Pirate^ i. 178. V. Spavld. 

To Baokspeib, V. a. 1. To inquire into a re- 
port or relation, by tracing it as far back as 

2. To cross-question, to examine a witness 
with 7i^ retrospective view to his former 
evidence, S. from baek^ retro, and sp€ir. 
V. Spebe. 

— " Whilk maid me, being then mickle occupied fti 

Cblict about the kirk's effeuet to be greatly suepectecl 
the king^ and hak tpeirU be all meanei : hot it wea 
hard to find whilk wee neuer thought.*' MelviUe's 
Diary, Life of A. Melville, u. 41, N. 

Baokspeabeb, s. a cross-examinator, S. 

Tho' he can iweer from aide to aide. 
And lye. I think he cannot hide. 
He has Men aaveral timea afironted 
9y alia baek-spearen, and accounted 
An empty rogue. 

atfauMTa P^twu, PL lot 

BACKSPBENTt 9. 1. The back-bone, S. from 
baekf and spreni, a spring; in allusion to 
the elastic power of the spme. 

**An toult woratle a la' wi' I, tou aal kenn what 
chaunce too heae ; for I haa found the baek$prenU o* 
the maist part of a' the wooera ahe haa.** Hogg'a 
Wint. Tklea, L 272. 

2. The designation given to the spring of a reel 
for wincung yam, which rises as the reel 
goes round, and gives a check in falling, to 
direct the person employed in reeling to dis- 
tinguish the quantity by the regulated knots, 
84 q. haekrspring, because its elasticity 
brings it back to its original position. 

3. The spring or catch which falls down, and 
enters the lock of a chest, S. 

4. The spring in the back of a clasp-knife, S. 

Backtack, Backtake, 9. A deed by which 
a wadsetter, instead of himself possessing 
the lands which he has in wadset, gives a 
lease of them to the reverser, to continue in 
force till they are redeemed, on condition of 
the payment of the interest of the wadset 
sum as rent^ LiL.S. 

** Where landa are afiected with wadaeta, oomprya- 
inga, aaaignmenta, or baettakeM, that the aame may be 
firat compted in the burdena of the delinquenta aetata. " 
Acta Cha. L Ed. ISU, VI. 204. 

Thia ia alao called a baek-tack duetff, 

"Whether — ^liferentera — who haa aet their liferent 
landa for ane hack tack cfN€<y— are— lyable to the out- 
reik of horM aooording to their proportion of rent.** 
Ibid. p. 235. 

Back-tbead, 9. Retrogression. 

" Beginning at the groaa popenr of the aervice-book 
and book of canona, he hatn followed the hack-trtatl 
of our defection, till he hath reformed the very firat 
and amalleat novationa which entered in thia church. 
—Thia ha/ek-trtad leadeth yet farther to the prelacy iu 
England, ** fto. Manifeato of the Scota anny, A. 1S40. 

Back-tbees, 9. pL The joists in a cot-house, 
&C. Kozb. 

Back-wateb, 9. The water in a mill-race, 
which is gorged up by ice, or bv the swelling 
of the nver below, so that it cannot get 
away from the mill, S. It is called TaU-^ 
wateTf when it is in that state that it can 
easily get away. 

Backwiddie, Backwoodie, 9. The chain 
which goes along the crook of a cart-saddle, 
fastened at the ends to the trams or shafts, 
S. B.; a. the wit/iy that crosses the back; 
synon. Kiowiddie, q. v. 

**Baekwaodi€f The band over the cart-saddle 
by which the shafts are supported, made 
originally of plaited withes [or ml/lies']; 




Suit. Nairn. 

it is an iron chain*** Gl. 


*— "Minfai gKf% him oomuall to rami* hit awrn 
m^l^ oonnddamiig 1m waa alkjad [dlied] with m 
uif c€ Scioihiid, and m h«idit with him, that ha 
Mm BOl to faar no hackchaiuot thameaahahad Tont 
todow" Fitaoottia'a Cron. p. 8S1. 

TUa rafafa to aalbfiiidaa azpeditioii into Franco by 
Hm kinff of Eni^d. Shbold wa Tiew it aa an tmU, 
for Ba i k f JBJmt aa intimating that thera waa no dan^r 
of Ua baing titttd hack from Franoa, by an inonnion 
«f«haSoota»aainfonnar timaaf In Ed. 1728— ** He 
Mododaottodraadno5ael;/eorinSootland.'' P.106. 

BACKE;«. The bat Y. Bak. 

BACKET. «. 1. A Bouaro wooden troogh, 
ii^lier tnaHow, used for carrying coals, or 
ashe^ S. ; alaoi Coalrbacket^ AuB-baeket^ S. 

S. Used to denote a troogh for canying lime 
and mortar to masons^ Fife, Loth. 

«*ISaBia wink hao I alaapit thia halo niriit» what 
wT aaaWng todbeto and maaon'a anld duda, rva had a 
irtniadtnis^to't.'* TonnanVa Oard. Beaton, p. 154. 
TImj ara danoandnatad liaie4roii^A« a f ew linea oaf ore, 

and flMrtar trought^ p. 141. 

& A small tron^ of wood, of an oblong form, 
with a sloping lid, (resembling the roof of a 
lioiise)| fastened by leathern oands, kept at 
the side of the fire for presenrine salt dry. 
It is generally called the tautrhaScet^ S« 

Thm aaama a dimin. from Tent, hack linter, alrena, 
■aotiai Balg. ftaA atiooA. Fir. teeonee, aamalland 
ahaUowtehT /^ 

Backet-stane, «• A stone at the side of a 
kitchen-fire, on which the McnUrbacket rests. 

At li^th It leacht the fladM floiMu 

Tha leak by ehaaoo was thick an thiang, 
Bat aoBMthinff gut the fiidto ring, 
bar hint tne' 

tedM jfCHie it hang. 

Dh^« Ponu^ pi VXL 

BACKINOS, :pl Refuse of wool or flax, 
or what im left after dressing it, S. Sw. 
hakia tbut to dress flax. 

**Tlio waft waa ehiefly ap«n by old women, and that 
only from tedfcia^ or naiUt aa they were not able to 
CMd tha WOOL** SUtiat. Aeo. (Aberdeen) xiz. 207. 

In tha mannlactnra of flasL it ia properijr the tow, 
that ia thrown oiT by a aecond hackling, wUch b de- 
nominated hacikmg9, Thia ia aometimea made into aail- 
oMi, after being beaten in a mill and carded. 

Arthnr Tonng naea thia word, apparently aa a po> 
onliar ooa^ giTinc it in Italica, when apeaking of the 
oonntr of Armas n. 

"llio foo^ atone, after heckling, will produce 8 lb. 
flax for ooana linen ; and41b. of dreaaed tow, and aoma 
lor todboM." Tonr in Ireland, i. 141. 

It aaama to be naed by the Sootch-Iriah. 

BAD BREAD. To be in bad bread. 1. To 
be in necessitous circumstancesi in regard to 
the means of sustenance, S. 

2. To be in a state of danger, S. 
BADE, preL of Bide, q. t. 

BADE» Baid, s. 1. Delay, tarrying. Bat 
badef without delay, Le, immediately. 

He atmlk tha lynt bui baid In the blaaoane. . 
Qahill hoim and man bathe flat the wattir ooone. 

Wallam, v. 987, Ma 

WUhimir^htud. Ibid. Til. 818, M& 

Thna aaid the Kyng; and lUonent bui bade 
Vato hit wordis thn wvae aosuere made. 

Ikntg. Ktryil, SIS, 48. 

Alt aoae aa teho beheld Eneas dething. 
And eik the bed bekend, ane qohile weping, 
Btade mosing in her mynd, and f yne but bade 
Fel in the b^ and thir bst wordis said. 

iWdL122,66. V. BiD& 

2. Place of residence, abode. 01. Sibb. 

BADDERLOCE, Badderlocks, <• A spe- 
cies of eatable fucus, S. B. Fucus esculen- 
tus, Linn. 

"The fiaherwomen go to the rocka, at low tide, and 
gather fncna eaculentiu, badderioek" P. Nigg, Aberd. 
Statiat. Aoc vii. 207. 

"EaUble Fucna» Anglia. Badderloeke, Sootia.** 
Li^tf oot, p. 938. 

It ia also called Heneware. In antnmn thia apeciea 
of aen-weed ia eaten both by men and cattle, m the 
north of a 

BADDOCK, e. The fry of the coalfish, or 
Oadus carbonarius, Linn. Aberd. 

" There are great rarietiea of gray fish, called aeatha, 
podlera (jpodlieal and baddoeke, which fHPpenr to be of 
one apeciea. " Aberd. Statiat. Ace. xvi. 551. 

Tha term i^rpean to be of OaeL origin. For bodaeh' 
ruadk ia ezpL " a cod-fiah," Shaw ; i.e. the red bodach. 
Hence it would aeem that bodaeh ia the generic name 
of all fiahaa of the Aeeellue daaa. 

BADDORDS, e. pL This term seems to sig- 
nify low railleiy, or what is vulgarly called 
batkere, S. 

*' Te may be 8town*t awa' tn/e side some lad, 
*' That's fasn asleep at wanking of the fka'd.** 
Tb nae sic thing, and ye're bat scant of grace, 
Tb teU lie taiMpnff till a bodie's (!sc6L 

Jtoss's Mdenorei ^ 67. 

I aeaioaly think it can be viewed aa the aame with 
Bedeword, q. ▼. 

Thia ia a word of no authority. Dr. Beattie, who 
reriaed the proof aheeta of the aecond edition of Ross's 
Helenore, makea thia remark on it. ''The atranga 
word— ^odddreft, [aa it waa originally printed] which I 
nerer met with before^ ia a corruption of bad worde^ 
and ahonld therefore be apeUed baddorde,^ 

BADGE, 9. A large ill-shaped burden, Sel- 
kirks. Hence perhaps A. Bor. ^ badger, a 
. huckster,'* Grose; because he carries a pack 
or load. 

laL bagge, baggi, onna, aareina. 

To BADGER, v. a. To bait ; as, ^Badger the . 
loon,^ a common expression when the herdy 
or any younker, is reckoned worthy of cor- 
rection; Fife. 

Badoer-reeshil, 8. A severe blow, Fife; 
borrowed, it is supposed, from the hunting 




of the badgetf or from the old game of Beat* 
thb-Badobb, q. V. y. Beissil. 

Umb Wl Im fmn wi' han^j breialMlL 

And Itkl oq Hab a kM^vr-rvuAt^ IfSiSum. 

BADOIE, «• Cognisance, armorial bearing. 

' Li a nmn in Hm oastle ef Edi&bargh, in which 
JftOMt VL wit bom, vndar th« anna ia thia inaorip- 

Lord J«Mi Cbryit that crownit was with thome, 
rmw n tht Hith quhais Badgie heir ia borna, 
- And nnd hir wone raoccnione to raigne still 
Uag in this realme, if that it be thy wUL 
Ala grant, Loid« qvhat ever of hir inooeid 
Ba to thy gloiie. honer, and praia. Bo beied. 

It ■Hiwni to ba tha aama with Bauffie, which 0. 
Dongiaa naea ia tranalating Uunffne, V. Bauou. 

BADLYNO^tf. ^ Low acoundrel.** Pink. 

A wrech to vara a nobill acarlet goon. 
A badfynf. tairjmg panillit wele with aable ;« 
. It nay wda trnia, mt it acoofdia aoogfat. 

FimhtrUm'9 &P. Repr. iiL 18S.. 

A.-S. BneiHmg lignifiea '*a delicate fellow, a tender- 
ling, one thai lieth mneh in bed/' Somn. Thia muat 
thoralMra ba rather l e an ed to Franc. baMdeliHfft caaa- 
rina, a oottafery from bodeif a cottage. 

BAD-MONEY, QALD-jiONCry «. The pUnt 
Gtentian, Boxh. 


Thow bairaat wit oairaet with fkntaayia: 

— Sehaw now thy achame, achaw now thy badti^tiie, 

Schaw now thy eiidiia rapnife of rathoryia. 

Puiiee i^Moncur, L 1. 

Thia word, which Mr. Pink, haa left for expUnation, 
ia parhapa a ooir. of Ft. badmaye, badmene, triflea, 
ail^ atnff ; from bmdim a fool, badUier, to trifle. C. B. 
kiwdtfyn, homma da neant; Bullet. The aenae of 

perfectly well with the rmt of tha 


Bodoek aria marina magna nigricana. Sibb. Scot, 
p. 82. 

BADBANS, Bathrons, $. A name for a 
cat S. 

Bnt Barfra aa be tha hack the ather hint 

AcnfyaofM^ ^wtpwcn, L 6% 

BalAfana far nief of acoarched memben, 

Doth feU a faflng, and maawing, 

Whila aaonkeya an the chaauatc chewing. 

QdrnTt Meek Poem, P. i. p 6«. 

To BAE, V. n. To bleat, to ciy as a sheep, 

^Iha ginunera bleat and bae-^ 
And the lambfcina anawar mae. 

TarrfWoo. MenTMCoU. IL lOL 

Bae, 9. The ioand emitted in bleating, a 
bleat, S» Baa,E. 

And qvhen the lada aaw thee ao like a loan. 
They Mckart thee with mony a Aa# and bleit 

£vergnen, iL S8, at 90l 
Hamoniaaa Boak gladdena erery grove. 
While bleating lambkiaa from their parenta rove. 
And o'er the plain the anxious mothara stray, 
CalUag their tender cara with hoaraer bae, 

Jtmua/t Poemt, L SOQL 

Aooording to Ballot, bee, in tha language of 
aigniflea bleating. He viewa it aa a word formed from 
tM aoond. Fir. bee, id. 

I mw Ma herd yeatraen gawn owra the bne ; 
Wi' heartfelt grief I heanl their moomnd btie, 

Pidbtm'e PoemM, 1788, p. SI. 

BAFF, 9. ** Shot.** Oiven as a word used in 
the North of S. OL Antiquary. 

To BAFF, V. a. To beat, to strike, Y . Befk, 
Baff, Beff, 9. I. A blow, a stroke, S. B. 

the hollin aoaplea, that were aae anell, 
Hia back they loondert, mail for mell ; 
MeU for mell, and baf for baf, 
Tin hia hide flew about hia liiga lUca caff. 

/maiefoa^aA^rM/. Ballade, IL 882L 

EmjL m QL " a heavy atroke." 

Te've aet anld Scotia on her lega. 
Lang had aha lyen, with b^e and flaga 
Bambai'd and dixiieL 
Dr, BeaiH^e Addreet, itoaa'a Melenare, vL 

2« A jog with the elbow, S. B. 

Fir. b^fe, a atroke ; Sn.-0. barfw^ laL bif-a, to 
move or ahake, bi/an oonaimion. 

BAFFLE, 9. A trifle, a thing of no value, 
Orfau Sotheri. 

'*Ha oontenta himaelf with deponing. That the 
Geoealocical Aoooont of the Family of Carrick, in hia 
formar oapoaition, waa a bc{/U of ao little importance, 
that ha took no care of it^ and auppoaea it to be loaf* 

"But thia 6q#Ee, aa he ia pleaaed to term it, had 
alwaya been oarafuUy preaerved for more than a cen- 
tuy and a half," Ac Appeal, H. of Loida, W. Ri. 
chan, Eaq. of Rapneaa, Ac. v. Thomaa Traill, Eaq. Ac. 
A. 1806. 

Parhapa a dimin. from Teat, b^e nuflaa, bef-en, 
nngari, nngaa effutire.. It may, however, be allied to 
laL teto-tar, nngae babalomm, from 6a6^ to prate, 
Dan. ftaftf-«r ; eeneciallv aa the lattora b, f, and n, are 
Inqnantly interchanged. Thua Germ. bcMUn id. alao 
aMnmaa the form oipaepel-n, V. Ladwig. 

8. .Used in Angus, to denote what is either 

nonsensical or incredible ; as, ^ That 9 mere 


In thia aenaa it Teiy nearly reaemblei the Teat, term 
aa aignifying ftayae^ For it ia viewed aa aynon. with 

BAFFLE, 9. A portfolio, Meams ; synon. 

BAO. pret^v. Built; from Big^ bigg^ but 
without authority. 

My daddie bag hia housie weel. 
By dint o' head and dint o' heel. 
By dint o* ann and dint o' ateel, Ac. 

/Bco6»li it<f icff, i. 58L 

To BAO, V. a. To cram the belly, to distend 
it by much eating, S. 

Thia la naed in a aenae nearljr allied in E. bat aa a 
neater V. Hence A. Bor. **baggtHg4ime, baiting-time ;*' 

It deaenrea obaervation, that the aame tenn in Teut. 
which lignifiea a akin, and hence a bag, denotea the 





BAO9 «. A qniyer. 

TlMtt bow aad Afly frM bim Im kdit, 
Aad fl«d M fem M fin 

IkM aist tUI da¥. 

^n* qiliTM'ol arrowt, which wit oftan mad* of th* 

■kia ol • hoMt" CbUandor. N. 
Bui. Adj^ohoAih, a ■cobbord. 

BAO, «. l.lS^yioe^ or jm one the hag^ to 
giTB one the slin; to deceiTo one whose ex- 
pectations have oeen raised as to any thing, 
either hj a total disappointnient, or by giv- 
ing something far beiow what he expected, 

S. To jilt in lovoi Lanarks. 

Bag, Baqoaoe, «. Terms of disrespect or re- 
pmiensiony applied to a child, Aberd. 

Tout haigK pnor. /VreMteiR»plitmdicitiir; Kilian. 
& lmggai9% ckoiotes • worthlMO woman. 

BAQ and BAOOAOE, a hackneyed phrase 

Hk iiAradMod by Dr. Johns. «■ iURiifyiii^ *'tho 
foods thai an to bo oanriod awajr." But thia defi- 
Bitiondooo not folly ooaTqrtho moaning. Itproperiy 

^'tho whob movooUo nroperty that any one 
in tiio placo from whioi tno removal ii made, 
ai Will ao the implemente need for eontain ing them, 
and for oonveying them away.** Aibathnot ia the oolv 
anHiotity qooted for thii phnte. Bat it will be found, 
I ^"^"^^ thai Dr. J<dms., from hie friendship for 
Aibathnot, has MmietimeB, merely on hie aathoritv, 
■motioned tenns and phraiee whioh ara properly 

**npoii the laat day of November, general Leslv 
nlanied, 6a^ md ftaooao^ from IreUnd to Edinburgh.^* 

Spolding; iL so. 

••Thie anny, foot and hone, Highlend and Low- 
hmdnMOt and Irish regiment, was estimate, bag and 
hogifag^ to be abont 0000 men." Spalding, ii. 183. 

fi lanot improbable that the phraseology has been 
borrowe d from the military life, from the custom of 
soldiem canying their whole stock of goods in their 
knapoacka. xo this origin there mi^t seem to be an 
aUnaion in the old soQg, 

Boy nail ifayyi^ on her back. 

BAOATT» Baooett, s. The female of the 
Iwnp or sea-owl, a fish, S. 

**LBmpiia alter, quibaadam Piacia Qibbosns dictua. 
I take it to be the aame which oar fishers call the 
Hoah-Padlo or Bagaiv; they say it is the female of 
theiormer.'* Sibb. Ftfe, p. 128. 

">The fish oaaght here are^ ood, whitiog^ floonder. 


baagetp^ aand-eel, crabe, and lobsters. 
DvMct, Fife, SUtist Aoc. ziL 521. 

Tha name of kmJi seems allied to the Germ, name 
givmi it by Schonevelde aeeAoeat/ which i^pears to be 
the aame with Teat Aesae, felia, q. aea^»t. By the 
QieenUmdofa they an called JfipmU or CaiJUh. 
Pennant'a ZooL iii. 103, lOL 

BAOENIN, s. The name given to that in- 
delicate toying which is common between 
' joongpeople ^ different sexes on the harvest 

Ptabably of Fr. origin ; as allied to hageHawt-er to 
triiK to tiqr. to dally with. 

BAOOIEy 9. A large minnow, Clydes., South 
of S. Sometimes a bag^mennon ; apparently 
from the rotundity of its shape, q. Sagged. 

BAGGIE, i. The belly, S. O. Gl. Burns. 
From its being hogged ct crammed with 
food ; or as allied to Teut balgk^ venter. 

BAGGIER, 8. A casket. 

"A hoQfjier oontening xiii ringis, via. ane with a 
tablet sapheir, a oonnterfute diament, a poyntit small 
diament, k other ten of small valew." Inventories, 

A. 1578, p. 285. , . , * , 

Fr. baguier, petit coffre on ^ram oil on ferre les 
bagnea et lee pierreriee. Areuia. Diet. Trev. 

BAGGIT, adj. 1. HaviM a big belly ; gene- 
rally appliea to a beast, o. 

2. Pr^nant. 

*'SicUke that na man ala ane haggU hynd, nor yit 
thaircalflSa." Bellend. Chron. F. 61. Ceruam foetam. 

Bagoit, 9. 1. A contemptuous term for a 
child, Eoxb. Y. Nbtfow, v. 

2. An insignificant little person ; often used as 
equivalent to ** pestilent creature,'* ibid, 
synon. Shurf. 

3. Applied to a feeble sheep, ibid. 

'*And what's to come o* the poor bits o' plotting 
baggiU a' winter, ia mair nor I can telL'* Brownie of 
Bodabeck, i. 224. 

Ferfaape from the idea of frequent eating, aa allied 
to baggmg-time, the north of E., V. Bao, v. a. Tent. 
balgk, paer ; O. Fr. baguette^ babioU, GL Boquef ort. 

Baoofi, Baoft Hobss, s. A stallion. 

Than lichery, that Uthly coras, 
Beraod lyk a bamt kortB, 
And Idilneas did him leid. 

JhtnboTt Bannatjfn^ Poewu, p. 29. 

Berandt making a noiae like a atallion. V. Brat, v. 

To BAGHASH, v. a. To abuse with the 
tongue, to give opprobrious language to one, 
Perths., Fife. 

Bat waes me ! aaldom that's the case, 
Whan roothless whip-men, scant o' grace, 
Baghask an' baan them to their fiice,— 
A?^iwear they ne'er war worth their pUce, 
When ffdfd an' auld. ^ ^ ^ 

2%a OUiTorw, Duft Poems, p. 84. 

Chane. naea the ▼. bagge aa aignif ying to diadain, and 
bagginglg for acomfaUy; aUied perhape to Alem. 
bcSg-en jactare ; tferbaging Jactantia. Oar term might 
be traced to laL bage jactara, bag-a nocere, baag-ur 
proterraa. Or it might aeem to be formed from Ital. 
fci^io a whore, or 6<v«ct<^< a buUy. Batlaaapect 
that it haa a more aimple origin ; aa denotmg each 
an aboae of one'a good name, aa might be compared 
to the haahmg or mincing of meat to be pat into the 
bag in which a haggia ia made. 

BAGLIN, 9. A puny child with a laige 
belly, a misgrown cliild; synon. Wam/liu; 

Thia aeema merely a dimin. from the a. r. to Bag, to 




BAO-RAPEy «• A rope of straw or heath, 
doable the size of the cro»-rope8 used in 
fastening the thatch of a roof. This is 
kindud to the cross ropes, then tied to what 
is called the panHrape^ and fastened with 
wooden pins to the easing or top of the wall 
on the enter side ; Ang. IsL bagg€^ f ascis T 

BAOBEL, 9. I. A child ; Dnmfr. 

8ii.-0. hange^ |Nier ; waU'baige^ paer qui gregem cus- 
todit» a h«rd-boy. V. Baich. 

2. A minnow, Ettr. For. 

*' BiiBciilty in ittteiung— « pis ! baiting a hook for a 
Ao0iW/— a itickkbaok l-« peiSi!'' Perils of Men, 
iiL SS2. 

8. A small person with a bi^ belly ; probably 
as resembling the shape oi a minnow, Roxb. 

4. Applied to all other animals that have big 
bellies, and are not otherwise well grown, 
ibid. V. Baooit, «. 

BaOBBL| adj. Expressing the ideas of diminu- 
tiveness and of corpuTenqr conjoined ; as, 
^He^i a iagrel body, i.e. one who although 
pony is yeiy plump, Meams. 

QodL hagge, Muvina ; bagur, gibbomu, q. bunching 

BAOBIE,». Trash. 

When I think on this wtfld's pdf. 
And hov Uttls I hss o*t to mysslf ; 

I sish whtn I look on my thrasdbsra oost ; 
Ana shsms fit* ths gesr snd the bagrie ot 

BenTt ColL iL 19. 

BAOS» «. pL The entrails, Ettr. For. ; pro- 
bably from the use to which some of tnem 
are implied in Scottish cookery, as iMggU-^Hig. 

BAO WAME, 8. A sill v fellow, Ettr. For. q. 
one who knows only how to baa or cram 
his belly. 

BAT, <• A term applied to the sound caused 
by the notes of birds. 

And forthsnnon, to blssin this nsw dsy, 
Qnhaj micht discryue the binlia blioful hay t 
Belyns on wing the biuy Isrk vps^nuig. 
To salute the briebt morow with hir sang. 

Doug. VirgU, 462, & V. sl«o 408, 17. 

Radd. has orerlooked iJiis word. It can have no 
proper oonnezion with 6ae, bleating. Yet I have ob- 
■arved no word more nearly allied. 

BAICH, Baichie, s. A child. The term 
< rather betokens contempt. 

Hie erooked csmschoch croyl, nnchriMten, they curse ; 
Thej bad that batch should not be but 
The Okncors. Ofa?el, snd the Gut, 
And sU tne pisgues tnst flnt were out 

Into PsndoTs s purse. 
PdwxrfB Flgting, IVaUim'M VolL P. UL 11 

SakhU in stiU used in this sense, Perths. It wss 
fonnorW used in Clydes. but is now nearly obsolete. 
It maj M allied to OaeL Uagh, love, aflectioii, or C. B. 
backgem^ a boy. But it seems to have greater affinity 

to Tout, bagk, id. Puer, per oontemntum dicitur, 
Kilian. Qerm. balf, an infant ; wtehset batge, a sup- 
posititiotts child. Verel. ozplains Isl. baelg-mord, as 
denoting tho murder of a eniUl in the womb of its 
mother, the destniotaon of tho foetus in the uterus. 
V. Wachtbb. 

To BAICHIE, V. a. To cough, S. B. 

BAYCHT, adi. Both, Aberd. Beg. A. 1525. 
A perverted orthography, which, however, 
pretty nearly resembles Moes-G. bagotli^ id. 
V. Bathe. 

BAID» pret. of Bid€f to suffer, S* V. Bide, 

BAYED, pari. adj. Bent, or giving way in 
the middle, Aberd. 

Isl. beig-a flectero, pret. beigde ; beigia, vile quid ut 
recurvnm ; G. Andr. 

BAIQIS, s. pL Knapsacks. 

Leslie to cam f^m Isnis to yon he fyrit, 
Schsnrp from you vent to the Isuis for neid ; 
As he vss vyse the rther plsnelte tkyrit ; 
Osr psint thair toioM, to GeAene hstst vith 

iV. Bam€*9 Adwumiiiim. 

O. Fr. baghe^ a bag for carrying what is necessary oii 
a joumoy ; or bague, equivalent to E. baggage. 

To BAIGLE, V. ft. 1. To walk or run with 
short steps; applied to the motions of a 
child, Ettr. For. 

2. To walk slowly as if much fatigued, Ettr. 

IsL baekl'-a^ luxare, q. to walk ss if one's limbs wero 

dislocated : or bagguU, onus equi clitellarii. Uteri ad. 

" >«i>3 

9(Eggi-a convolvere, voiucan, vei uipeiii- 

mento esse, Haidorson. Or, shall we view it as, by a 

Ssnsum, q. a biurden danslingliy the side of a horse, 
. Andr. ; baggl-a convolvere, volutari, vol impedi- 

change of w into 6, originally the same with S. WaigU, 
Tent, waegd-tn vacillare, motitaref 

BA*INO, 8. A match at football, S. B. 

Hss ne*er in s' thii coontrs' been, 

8ie •houderiog snd sic fs'ing. 
As hsppen*d but few ouks uiiKviie, 

Here st the Christmss Baling. 

Skinnn^t MuceUaneous Poetrg, p. 12a 

I need scarcely say that this is merely the S. pnr 
nunciation of baitiHg, from ba* a baU. 

BAIKBRED, 8. A kneading-trough, S. B., 

*«Twa baikbrethlis," Aberd. Res. A. 153S, V. 16. 
A.-S. bac-an piusere, and bmi tabiua. 

BAIEEN, 8. 1. ^'A baa-en of skins," or 
'* hides,** is a burden of skins, Ettr. For. It 
is not used of any other burden. 

Isl. baakn is rendered by G. Andr. moles, also onu*. 

8. A sort of flap; as, *^the fell with tlit; 
baidenj* ibid. 

BAIKIE, Bakie, 8. 1. The stake to whicli 
an ox or cow is bound in the stall ; Ang. 

This term occurs in S. Prov. ; ** Better hand looi«, 
nor bound to an ill bakitJ** Ferguson, p. S. 




It has bMik toppoaAd by loiiia of m j friendi in the 
mmHh of 8. that I navo mitUken or mbo misinformed 
M to tho T"***"*"* of this word, becaate they under* 
•tMid it difieran^. Bat I have made particular en- 
mufy, nd am aaanied that it is used in no other sense 
m Aagna. It haa the same signification in Fife. 

t. A piece .of carved wood, about eighteen 
inclieB lon^, with a hole in each end of it, 
through mich a\ope passes to fix it to the 
stakebelow. It has a corresponding piece 
of rope at top, which, after the baikU is round 
the neck of the cow, is likewise tied round 
the stake, Loth. South of S. 

3. The stake of a tether, S. B. 

**If tba stake, pronndallv termed a hailae^ be not 
nnoved freqnentlj, the cattle tread down a great pro- 
portion of the grass.** Agr. Snrv. Aberd. p. 355. 

BAIKIEytf. 1« A square vessel made of wood, 
for carnring coals to the fire ; S* backet^ 

I know not, if this can have any affinity to laL 
HeH, a Teasel or onpb oi-baekit a cup of beer. What 
originally signified a vessel for the use of drinking^ 
m^t afterwarda be need with greater latitude. 

i. A square wooden trough for holding pro- 
vender for cows, horses, &c.; as, ^the cow's 
baikU,'' ^the hone's baikUr Lanarks. 

3« A wooden vessel, of a square form, in which 
dishes are washed, Lanarks. 

BAnEnEFU*, <• The fill of a wooden trough, 

— **I trast and hope, that the English high-priest 
tmnii ahall himself be cast into the mire, or choket 
wi* tho slonrs of hia own bakitfu*9 of abominations, 
wherawith he would orerwhehn and buy the Evangel. " 

R. Qilhaiaa, ii. lOL 

BAIKIN, #. Apparently a corruption of 
SaUadUn, as denoting a canopy carried 
over tb^ host in Popish countries. 

'*Hoae for my lords pontifical and 2 corporalls ; 1 
gnat stole with 2 tnnides of white damas, with 2 
showea of death of gold. Item a 6aiitui of men broig 
satin with S other baikm$.** Inventory of vestmenU 
at Aberdeen, A. 1559. Hay's Scotia Sacra, p. 189. 
y. Baitdktn and Bawdsktn. 

BAIKINS, 9. fl A beatings a drubbing, 
Ettr. F<v. 

Id. Mb-jdr, levi ininria afficer^ hecHng^ moleatatio; 
8o.-0. bok^ oontunoere, oomminuere. 

BAjQKLET, Becklet, «. 1. An under waist- 
coat, or flannel shirt worn next the skin, 
sometimespronouncedftai^fef; Dumfr.Roxb. 

This is supposed to be oorr. from back-chui, q. *'a 
doth" or ** Oatii for the back,** A.-S. bate, back, and 
'timif adont. 

8. A piece of linen, sometimes of woollen 
diesSy formerly worn above the shirt of a 
• veij young chQd, Twedd. 
Id. hotg^ &sdbas involvers. 

BAIKS, ». pL *" Ane pair of baikt of woU 
wyis ;" a balance belonging to wool-weights ; 
Abeid. Reg. A 1538, VV 16. V. Bauk, 

BAIL, Baile, Batle, Ball, Bele, Belle, 
»• 1. A flame, or blaze of whatever kind, 
or for what purpose soever. 

And pyk, and ter, alii haiff thai tane ; 
And lynt, and herdis, and bryntstaae ; 
And dry treyia that weill wdd biin ; 
And mellyt athlr othir in : 
And gret fagaltUs tharoff thd maid, 
Gvnwt with ime bandia braid. 
Tne lagaldis weill mycht mesoryt be 
Till a grat townyaqoantit^. 
The fiualdis brynnand in a baU, 
With Uiair cran thoucht till awaUl ; 
And giff the Sow come to the wall 
To Lu it brynnand on hyr UXL 

Barbomr, zvil SISl MS. 

Bailt, edit. 1820, p. Ui. Thia is evidentiy meant. 
For the rhyme requires that the word be Bounded as 
%aUL To¥m^ is here subetituted from MS. for iowrys ; 
edit. 1820, twmea, Le. the size or weight of a tun. 

The A.-S. term, baei-blyat^ muat undoubtedly be 
viewed aa the origin of A. Bor. beU'Mth, which Ray 
givea aa a synonym under Lilly-low^ explaining it, ''a 
oomfortable bUse." For the etymon of LUlg-hw, V. 
Low, «. 

2. A bonfire. 

Ther folo me a ferde of Ibndes of helle. 
niey hurle me unkendeley, thai hanue me in bight 
la ItfiB, and in brymaton, I bran as a belie. 

Sir Cktwan emd OaL I IS. 

I can scaroely think that the alluaion ia to a funeral 
In the samo aense are we to understand that passage : 

When they had beirit lyk baitit bullis. 
And brane-wode brynt in baiiU. 

Chr. Kirk, st 23L 

Mr. Tjrtler hita the general sense, expUining in baiU 
aa equivalent to "inflame;" though it seems unmediately 
to mean bonfires. V. Beix, «• 

3. A fire kindled as a signal. 

"It ia Bene speidfull, that thair be ooist maid at the 
ebt passage, betnix Roxbursh A Berwyk. And that 
it be walkit at certane fuirdxa, the quhilkia gif mister 
be, aiJl mak taikningis be bailU biming A fyre. — Ane 
bail ia warning of thair cumming," Ac. Acta Ja. II. 
1455. c 53. e£t. 1566. 

^The taikynnyns. or the te2« of tm 

Bais trm tlie Kinges acnip Tpbimand Bcnire. 

Dauff, Virgil, 47. 90. 

4. Metaph. for the flames of love, or perhaps 
for those irregular desires that do not de- 
senre this name. 

At Invia Uw a qohyle I thenk to leit,— 
Of manage to mell. with mowthis meit. 
In secret pUce, quhair we ma not be sene, 
And so with buds biythlv my bailie beit : 
yowth, be gUid in to thy flowris grene. 

Henryetme, Bannatyn/e Poema, p. 1S2. 

It ought to be observed, however, that the same 
expression oocurs in O. E. where balye denotes sor- 

Her, he seyde, oomyth my lemman swete, 
Sche mygfate ma of my balge bete, 
Yef that lady wold. , „..«.«« 

UWal, BiUotCe K.M.R.I 81Z 

'•• • : 


[101] BAI 

A. -8. teef, 8II.-0. baal^ denote a faneral pile ; A.*S. 
kulfyr^ tlie fire of ft funetmlpile ; baei-biyie, the flame 
or Umm of a fmieral pile. But IiL barU tigoifiee, not 
only rogm, but flamma Tehemena, a ■tronff fire in 
fHMnl ; and baei-tLjo burn. Odin i« called Baleihtr^ 
rofi aaotor, which O. Andr. ooneiden ea et^iiivalent to 
Aimimtm moderaiar. If Odin, as this writer aaeerte, 
M the eanie with Japiter ; this character nwat be 
parallel to that of JnpiUr TonoM. V. next word. 

BATLE-FTRE, »• 1. A bonfire. 

Than thai gaxt tak that woman brycht and icheyne, 
Aeena jt hir aar of reaatt in that caM : 
VeyD bjIh icho anoar, that icho knew nocht Wallaa 
Than Kitlar aaid, We wait weyle It was he, 
And hot then telL in bayU/yrt sail thoa de. 

iroOoee, hr. 718. M& 

Thia ia the Teiy phraae in Stt.-G., need to denote 
capital poniahment bj burning. / haale brenma, 
■opplioii ^enns eat in noatria legiboa occurrena ; quo 
Mmi vHncibaa flammia oombnrendi dedebantur ; Qm. 

Hanoe, l^ a change of the letters of the aame organa, 
our btmifre and B. 6of^re, which Skinner wildly de- 
riwm mm Lat. 6oftiM^ or Fr. 6on, o. d. bonna, vel bene 
onunataa, ignia ; Fr.hon/en, A. •S.6a«/;/yre originally 
daooted the fire with which the dead were onrnt; 
htnoa it gradnally came to aignify any great fire or 
blase. As MoeaA. balw-jan aignines to torment, Lnk. 
mri. 2S. ; the Scripture still exhibiting the sufferings 
of tiie eternal state under the idea of fire ; Junius con- 
Jaetorss, with great probability, that there had been 
soma word in Moeab. corresponding to A.-S. bael^ 
rogns, inoeodiiim. Bael/fpre is the rery woitl used by 
CaedmoB, in exnreesing the command of God to Abra* 
hmi to present nis son as a burnt offering. The same 
writer says, that Nebuchadnezsar caat the three child- 
TCB in teeWyae. 

It is erident that the custom of burning the dead 
aaoiently preYailed among the Northern nationa, as 
wall as the Greeks and Romans. The author of 
Takings Saga, published by Snorro Sturleeon in his 
Hinoty of ua Kin^ of Norway, aacribea the intro- 
dnotion of this practice to Odin, after hia aettlement in 
Am North. Bat he tiows it as borrowed from the 
Asiatics. "Odin,''ho savs, "enforced theee laws in 
hia own dominions, whicn were formeriy obsenred a- 
wmmtt the inhabitants of Asia. He enjoined that all 
the CMsd should be burnt, and that their goods should 
be hroni^t to the funeral pile with them ; promising 
thai all the goods, thus bmnt with them, snould ao- 
oompany tham to Walhalla, and that there they ahould 
enjoy what belonged to them on earth. He onlered 
thai the aahes should be thrown into the sea, or be 
buried in the earth ; but that men, remarkable for their 
dignity and virtue, should have monuments erected in 
■ssmorr of tham ; and that those, who were distin- 
gnishecl l»y say great action, should have gravestones, 
called SataoBtema.** Yngl. Sag. c. 8. 

Sturleeon speaks of two distinct ases. '* The first, ** 
he says, "was called Bruna-aulla (the age of funeral 
piles), ia which it was customaiy to bum all the dead, 
and to erect monumenta over them, called £aui4uteiHa, 
Bat after Freyus was buried at Upeal, many of the 
mat men had graves aa well aa monumenta. From 
tha time, however, that Danua Mikillati, the great 
knig of the Danea, cauaed a tomb to be made for nim, 
aadgave ordera that he ahould be buried with all the 
TP"g»« of royalty, with all hia anna, and with a sreat 
part of hia nchea, many of hia posterity foUowea hia 
axamplOi Hence, the age of Gravea (HauffM-olld) had 
ha origin in Denmark. Bpt the age of Funeral pilea 
oontiBued long among the Swedea and Normana." 
Pl«f . to Hist. p. 2. 

Aooording to the chronolorar prefixed to'Sturieson's 
history, Ftayus waa bom A. o5 -Defors Christ. He ia 

said to have beed one of those appotntsd by Odin to 
preside over the saorifioea, and in latter timea accoun- 
ted a god. Yn^nga Sag. c 4. Danua Mikillati waa 
bora A.D. 170. 

The aame diatinction seems to have been commoQ 
among the Norwegians in ancient times. Henoe we 
find one Atbiorn, in an address to Haoon the Good, 
on occasion of a general convention of the peotile, 
dividing the time ^ut into the age of Funeral Piles, 
and that of Graves. Saga Hakonar, c 17. 

Of Nanna, the wife of Balder, it is said, Var Aoa 
harm a baiU ok degU i tUdi; Edda Saemund. "She 
waa borne to the funeral pile, and caat into the fire." 

It thua appeara, that the aame term, which waa lat- 
terly need to denote a bonfire^ waa in an eariy age ap- 
pliea to a funeral pile. Hence lal. hdJ, ia renderad by 
Haldorson. struea lignorum, rogua, pyra; and Dan. 
haal^ "a i)on-fire, a pile of wood to imm dead oar- 
caeee ;>* Wolff. 

It ia a fact not generally known, that the inhuman 
custom, which prevaila in ftindoatan, of burning wives 
with their huabanda, waa common among the Northern 
nations. Not only did it exist amons the Thraciana, 
the Heruli, amona the inhabitanta of Poland and of 
Pruaaia, during tneir heathen atate, but alao amons 
the Scandinavians. Siffrida was unwilling to live with 
Eric, King of Sweden, oecause the law of that country 
required, that if a wife survived her husband, she 
should be entombed with him. Now she knew that he 
could not live ten years longer ; because, in his combat 
with Styrbiorn, he had vowetl that he would not sak 
to live more than ten years from that time, if he gained 
tha victory ; Oddo, Vit. Olai Trygguaaon. It appears, 
. however, that widows were not burnt alive : but that, 
according to the custom of the country, they previously 
pot themselves to death. The fouowin^ reason is 
assimed for the introduction of thia homd law. It 
was believed, that their nuptial felicity would thus be 
continued after death in walhalla, which waa their 
heaven. V. Bartholin, de Cauais Contempt. Mortia. 

8. Any large fire, Ayrs. 

"A large fire, whether it be in a house or in tha 
fields, in Ayrshire, is still denominated a 6a/e— or 
Baalfirt/* Agr. Surv. Ayrs. p. 164. 

BAILCH, 9. Rosa's Helenore. Y. Belch. 
BAILLE^ 9. A mistresS| a sweetheart. 

And other quhlll he thocht on hia diMaf ff. 

How that hya men was brocht to conftuioan. 

Throw hia last luff he had in Sayiict Jhomttoan. 

Than wald he think to liff and lat our ttyde : 

Bot that thocht lang in hya mynd ravcht nocht byd. 

He taald Kerie off nis new lusty bailie^ 

Syne askit hym off his trew bout oonaaiU. 

IFatffMe, V. 617. MSL 

fV. Mle, id. It doea not, however, appear quite 
certain, that haUU may not here be a metaphoricu uao 
of the word aignifying a blase ; ae in modem timea a 
lover apeaka of YdMjIame, 

BAILLESS, Belless, «. Bellows. 

"In the smidday— tua pair of baiUetm.** laven* 
tories, A. 166«, p. 168. 

'* Item, ane pair of beUett."* Ibid. p. 160. 

Thia is more correct than the modem term 6e/<oiosef, 
vulgariy used, S. 


"Tuelf roeee of diamantis, and tuelf ruby baSieu 
eett in gold emailled with quheit, blew an blak." In- 
ventoriee, A. 1570^ p* 303. V. Balas, and BaiXAa 




BATTJJE, Baiue, Bailyie, 1. A nuigis- 
tnile» who b tecood in nnk in a royal burgh, 
S« tjrnoQ* with mtUmun^ £• 

Tk«lr mHm MM tht fhMdMl &fl jtit 
Of Schlrafls, PtoMBtis, and of Hat/ymn 

Lktdm^M Warku, IfiOl pi IML 

S. The Baron's depaty in a burgh of barony ; 
called baran-Muif S» 

**I find no TOTtifM cf tmj muutnlM which hare 
hMB JBTwted with th« powen of tho burgh, except the 
biufiff of bonmT ; who^ in fonner timea, before the 
bModitory Jnrieaiotioni were taken awaj, had an ex- 
taMiro Jnnadietion both in criminal and civil eaeee. 
Wo have etiU a barmi'-baiUe, who is nominated by the 
lovd of tho manor. Bat the power of life and death ia 
■ot BOW attached to any barony. He can, within the 
bovnda ol hia Jnriadietion, enforce the payment of 
TCBti to any amoont, and decide in disputes about 
money affun, provided the mm do not exceed L.2 
. Slerimg. Tho debtor^! aoods may bo distrained for 
nijTBiont^ and, if not anmeient, he may be imprisoned 
lor ooo month. Ho can. for amaU offences, fine to the 

amoont of 90a., and pnt dolinaiientB into the stocks in 
ia tho day-time for tao space of thrse boors.'* P. Fal- 
Urk, StnrL Satiat Aco. xiz. 88. 
Ari^ in 0. B. denotes gofonmiant. 

Sir Jen ef Wanene he is dief JnstiM, 

Fergr kapaa Galwayae 
TUw two bad Mjf of this hMides tuaye. 

JL Bn m fU t p. S80i 

ia ondantly from Vr. baitte, an officer, a 
; L. & bm H m m t. As ftq^aa and ftatf-ns, 

a Jndgo or pnetor, it baa been snppoaed that 
and firifii are to bo traced to thia origin. V. 
Diet Trar. to. BaOIL 

Tho learned Btakino baa givon a different view of 
tho origin of thia damnation. Having remarked that 
** a p rec ept of aaiaine'nB *' a command, by the aupjerior 
who gnnta the charter, to hia bailie, to give aeisin or 
pasaaaioa of tho onbjeet disponed to the vassal of 
Ua attonmy, by the Mivenr of tho propfNr aymbola." 
ha adda: •*BtSlk ia derived from the ¥t. baiUer. to 
doKvor, becanae it ia tho bailie who ddivera the jpos- 
at tiw anperior^a oommand.** Inat. B. ii T. 3, 


**Tbo lord Homing aaing the pinoo win, past out 
at a onyot part of tho n ea t h e r 6ai««e, and beand fuU 
00% gat ano boit neir hand, and paat in Axgyle." 
Banna^riM'* Tranaact p. 123. 

Thia toRn ia oxpL "the poatem |pte^ or aaUyport,** 
K. Biid. Bat l»y looking to the article Balte, which 
ia manly tho aamo word under a different orthopaphy, 
it win mpoar that thia cannot be the aiffoification. A 
litsniy mend ramarka» that "the ditcEea, separating 
tlw pontnanla of Bonb-head, in the Moray Fnth, from 
tho iBiid, over which waa the only paaaage by draw- 
baidgM into the lort, an atin called the i?rMapA-&it(/ies." 

It la evident that tho Aolyc muat be understood aa 
withiB tho oaatlcv from the more oarticular account 
givmi of it in the followiitt extract from "The Inven- 
toiT of tho Munitioon and Inaicht Oeir in the Caatela 
of Dunbertane, 1580." 

**Itam in the neddar baD of the neddir baUffie one 
great jrirnell, qnhilk wiU contene aextene chalder 
violoaiJ^ with tno bodie of ane feild cairt for powder 
and bollett. Item m the over hall of the neddir bailjfie 
man myln with aU hir gansing geir. Item in the 
of deia of the over hall of tho neddir bailyle 

twn atand beddia.— Item in the gimell of the neddir 
baUifk thro boUia malt. Item in the wyne aellar ane 

punaion of wyne with aez feriottia of great aalt with 
oertane p^ttM and turvea." P. 301,802. 

C. B. beiU denotea an outlet ; oImh a court before a 
bonae. Tout, tolie, oonaeptom, vallum, aeptum. 


The extent of a bailie's jurisdiction. 

" And do hereby grant full power and commiaaion to 
the aheriff-principm of Air ana hia^lepnties, the Bailie- 
Depute of the BaiUarjf of Cuningham, and commanding 
officers of the foreee, — to meet upon the pUce, and to 
enquire into the said violence." Wodrow, ii. 236. 

2. Sometimes the extent of the jurisdiction of 
a SheriCF. 

*'Tliat ilk schirof of the realme oould gar wapin- 
schawing be maid fours tymea ilk yeir, in ala mony 
plaoee aa war apeidfuU within hia BaUiierie," Acta 
Ja. I. 1425. c 97. edit. 1666. 

BAYNEI» Bake, adj. 1. Ready, prepared; 

Scho ansuerad Um rycht raonably agayne. 
And said, I sail to voor tamice be ba^ne. 
With all pleuaoe, m honest caass hsill. 
And I tnst yhe wald nocht aet till assaUI, 
For yoor wotschipo, to do me djshonour. 

fTatfoM, V. 681 lis. 

Sam, edit 1048. 

ys doors pspiU descend fh>m Dardamu, 
The ilkegroond, trm qnham the lint stok came 
Of yoor lynnsgBf with blyith bosum the lame 
Sail yon r ms am, thidder returayng agane 
To seek yoor sold amder mak you mmm. 

DmV. Vifga, m 82. 
Qnhaa I bid stiyk, to ssniko be thow bane, 

Wailace, iz. 18L MS. 

Tbair tan ane man to the holt. 

And wow rif he was f sne t 
He brankit like sne colt ; 

For wowaad he was bane. 

/oaMMm's Pkgmfar Ba2L L 843. 

"Bound, nadT,''QL 

In thia aenao the word oconra in Twaine and Oawin. 

Thai sogbt ovsrsl him to hsTO slayn 
To vangs thair lorda war thai fUl bavn, 

V. 7ML JtUeon^e k M. R. I Z3. 

2. Alert|.liTely» active. 

A. Bor. ftoin ia evidently uaed in a aense nearly allied. 
"Very bain about one, officioua, ready to help;" 
Thoreaby, Ray'a Lett. p. 322. 

The renk nikit in the aaill, rials and gent, 

That wondir widy was wrosht, with woorschip snd wele, 

The bems basely and bane olankit hym abouL 

OawanandOoL L S. 

Ane Duergb bmvdit about, besily and bane. 
Small birois on brochs, be ane brigh fyra. 

i.o. A dwarf diligentlv and deverly turned a apit. 
In both theao placea, nowever, the word ia uaeil ad- 
verbially ; aa in the following paaaage : 

Be that his men the tothir twa hatl alayne ; 
Thar bona thai tuk, and graithit tbaim full 6ayne 
Out oif the tonne, for dyner baid thai nayne. 

WaUa€e, v. 788. US. 

Budd., vo. Banc; aaya; "Perhapa for 6oim, metri 
canaa." But the word retaina ita proper form, aa welt 
aa^ ita original aignification. bL oeui-a, expedire, 
alicujua negotium vol iter promovere ; Landnam. Gl. 
But although not changed from bomn^ it ia undoubtedly 

allied to it ; ae originatinff from Su.-G. 6o, anciently 
6ii-a, pre^iarare, of which t3i< 
boon, V. B■^'B. 

of which we jMrl. ia 6ofii, whence our 




Batklt, ado. BeadOjr, cheerfully. 

in Soollls w« ar tha fai thii place b bov, 
At jovr wrnimanil all kmmUii we aall l»ow. 

WmliMt, zL 090. Ma 

BAYNE, ''ForU^ a kind of fur," Rudd. 

Tlio boiyH hriagla fa h&i Mth the broan and the blak, 
Vyand beeely M|fiM» bme, baner and byce. 

Dmg, Virgil^ SSS. bi 18. 

It Biwini Taiy doabtfnl, homvrw^ if thia be not merely 
the pluraae onoted above under tiie adj., without the 
001^. q. toecy mid ftayiie. 

BAINIE, adj. Having large bones, S. O. 

Hm btawala, hamU^ ploeghmao chieL 
. Briofi hard owrehip, wi* itmtly wheel, 
Hm atrang Mnhaauiier. 

Bwm», UL Ml 

BAIB, Babe, <• A-boar. 

** He (Alexander Ddotat the kirk of Sanct Androa 
with oertaae landia namit the Bahrink^ becauae ane 
Mr that did jtret iniiiria to the pepyU waa aUne in the 
■aid fetUL" fiellend. Chron. B. zu. c. 15. Apriciinua 
db i^prv immenaae magnitadinia ; Booth. 

Hm mdwtUr he had thair, at that ned, 
FoU ftOl that war donehty of deid ; 
And baivwaya that war baald as bar, 

Btu^our, iL as. M& 

Pad toakit kuii, and iat ewyne in tty, 
Snitanit war be BaaaBis fonemanoe I 

Dmtg, Virga, 801. 88. 

What Bellenden ealla the BainriHk is by Wyntown 
dennminated the Boryf mjA. V. Raik, «. Not race, 
aa the tarai ia explained GL Wynt. For thia doea not 
o o w e ap o u d to royib. Mr. Maq^thenon baa given the 
true aenae ni the tana elaewhere, "oonrM, range ;** 
from Sa.<-0. rata, ooraitare ; reha, raeka, to roam. 

A.-S. bar, Genn. haer. Lit. werr-eB, id. 

Aa oar anoeaton called the boar bare, by a curioua 
invenion the bear ia aniTetaally denominnted b^ the 
▼vlgav a botu\ 8. Shall we view thia aa a vestige of 
the ancient Kocthem nronnndation t Stt.-G. biom, Isl. 
tern, onna. Due ooeervea, that the inhabitanta of 
the North alooe retain the final n in thia word. 

BAIRDy «• 1. A poet or bard; in our old laws 
contemptuously applied to those strolling 
rhymers who were wont to oppress the lieges. 

— **That sik aa makea themaelvea Folea and ar 
BainU$f or uthera aik like nmnera aboul, being ap- 
nrahended, be pat in the Kingis waird or ironea, sa 
lang aa thaj have ony godea of thair awin to live on." 
Acta Jn. VI. 1570. c 74. 

G. B. tertO, bardd^ Gad. and Ir. bard, id.; Ir. 6ar- 
dag a aatirt^ a Mog; Ann. bardd, a oomedian, Lat. 
bard^uSf a poet among the Britona or Gaula. Genn. 
(or ia a provino. term for a aong ; bar-en, cantare, a 
general term. Waehter derivea it from baer-en, at- 
teUere. Bat mora nrobably it has been left by the 
Ganla, or borrowed from then. 

¥nm thia word, or B. bard, adimin. has been formed 
by later writers, bardie; bat without any sanction 
mm aatiqaity. 

8. This term has been also expL ^* Bailer, lam- 

lUs ton cott now retaining bak. 
IVowaad some great reward to tax ; 
Bot lOgUs men are not so daft, 
But they peroeaTed his clocked craft. 
They knew him for a sembling baird. 
Whom to they wald give no rewarde. 
L$g, Bp. 3L Amdr. Poemt VUk Cent pc 33S. 

I doabt maoh if the paaaage afforda proof that thia 
ia the meaninff. He eeema rather to oe deaigned a 
dissembling baud, beoanseb like strolling minstnia, he 
opprsaaed toe ooontiy under falae pratenoea. 

To BAIRD, V. a. To caparison. V. Babd. 
BAIRDINO, »• Scolding, invective. 

"Johne Knox of hia nrs^piant ingyne and aoeuo- 
tomit craft of rayling ana ba%nling, attribatia to mc a 
new atyle, calling me Proaitomrfor the PapitUe.** N. 
Winyet'a Qaeat. Keith, App. p. 821. 

I am at a loaa to know wiiether thia word may have 
been formed from Baird, a poet, aa thoae who assomecl 
thia name wen latterly daaaed with maiUerful begtjam, 
who by force or abaaive langnage acquired their ans- 
tsnsnon ; or from the aame aonroe with Bakdach, q. v. 
The term^ however, may be only a vitiated ortbomphy 
of 6eanfifi0, from the B. v. lo btard^ *«to take by the 
' oeara. 

To BAIRGE, v.n. ]. To walk with a jerk 
or spring upwards, Ettr. For. 

2. To strut, Aberd.; corr. perhaps from Fr. 
berc'^r^ ben^er^ to rock, to swing ; or from 
berg-eTf to wag up and down. l%ut. berseli-' 
gii, properare, accderare* 

Baibge, s. An affected bobbing walk, Ettr. 

BAIRLYG, ocfy. Bare-legged. Aberd. Reg. 
A. 1538, V. 16. 

BAIRMAN, 8* 1. A bankrupt, who gives up 
all his goods to his creditors ; synon. with 
Dyvour^ Skene ; Ind. Reg. Maj. 

*'He qoha aould be made BavrmoH, aaU awero in 
court, that he hea na gudea nor gere, attonr fine 
achillinga and ane plak. And that he sail nocbt rotene 
to him self, of all hia wonning^ and ^fite fra that 
day, in anie time comings bot twa penmea for hia meat 
and daith : and he sail gine ilk third pennie for pay- 
ment of hU debt.'* Stat. William, e. 17. f 1. 

Apparently from bare, q. bonia nudatua ; although 
Skene says that, according to Alciatua, one of thia 
deacriptioa waa obliged to ait naked on "ane canld 
atane ; '* vo.- Dyvour. Bare, S. and old B., ia used 
far poor; aa in Genn. '6ar. 

2. This designation occurs in one of our old 
acts, where it does not seem necessarily to 
signify a bankrupt, but merely one who has 
no property of his own. 

"Sindrie wikit peraonia, movit in dispyte agania 
thair nychbonria, ceissis not commonlie in thair pri- 
w^ revenge to hoch and slay oxin and horses in the 
pleuch, byn, and vthirwayis, and to hund out bair 
men and vagaboundia to the attempting of sic fouU and 
achamefull enonniteia," Ac Acta Ja. VL 1581. Ed. 
1814, p. 817. 

BAIRN, Babnb, «. 1. A child ; not only de- 
noting one in a state of childhood, but often 
one advanced in life ; as implying relation 
to a parent ; S. 

— -Na Inst to BfTe lannre selk I, — 
Bot for an threw deevre fto leet here, 
Ttaraos slaochtsr ana deith with me to here. 




Ab gliU tytUngU TBlo niT ehikl ud kmM^ 
AHMBf tbt folKli Uw and nkiiggii deraa. 

DMiyL V^tvyils 887. Ul 
**BamU (Mil 8mmI Ftal) oImj your fattier and 
Motliar in all pointiai for thta ia Goda ocMnmand " 
Atew HamfltoiuPa Catachianm, 1561. FoL 44. K 
AooemauiO. B. 

nalamawasboniBBrthlam, Out with hit Modt thai tana 
Al Ihal liaa in fUth. k foiowe hia feloww tachiag. 

P. Piat^kmoMf F. Ml a. 

nUar ha want way, to aa hir ac hir ten. 

it BrMMM^pi no. 

Moi«-0. ham, Alem. Gann. id. from batr-an, farre, 
giipan^ proerenra ; A.-S. team. V. Bbrk. 

S. Conjoined with the adj. jfooc^ denoting one 
in a state of due tnbjectioni of whatever 
age or rank, S. 

— ** Thm Lord Gordon^— fa^ the peranaaion of hia uncle 
the eafl «f Argrlo— anheenbed tiie oorenant^ and be- 
aama a ^eeii 6mni.'* Spdiding, L 290. 

"Thia praarhing waa pleaaantly heard, and he 
aateaoiad a oood teiim, however he waa before.'* lb. 

p. see. 

A vify rBape c t a bla oorraapondent remarka that the 
8L phraae ia aaed in a aenae aomewhat aimilar to that 
of ttie It. egpraarion, wi don a^ani, 


Baibk kob Birth. A common pleonasm, 

. used in a nmUive form, as, ^ She has neither 

bairn nor Sirth to mind." denoting that a 

woman is totally free of the cares of a young 

family, S. 

To Past wf BAnur. To miscarry, S. 

**Thm jeir after, the qneine fohrted wiih baimef hot 
■ana know by qnhat meane.^' Pitaooitie'a Croo. 

Baibkbbid, <• 1. The state of childhood. 

**Itoai, twa lytin amall eulpina of oold, maid to 
fnano Magdalene qnhane echo waa ana oarne. Item, 

baaatng and laver, aidyk maid for hir in hir bane 
ktid^ the tana of aget, the uther of jeape, eett in gold, 
withano lytiU flaoone of exiatallyne of the aamyne 
GolL Inventoriee, A. IM^ p. 83. 

S. Childishness, 

4)Bhan adir IbOda doia flattir and feayi, 
ADaoat I oaa hot baUaUia biaif ; 
mobaimheid biddia my brydiU ranya; 
Kieam of thocht doia ma nuacheif. 

Baibnie, 8. A little child, S. 


**That the aaid Sprott'a wife having given an egg to 
her babriiief that came oat of the pannefl'a honae, there 
did atrike out a lumne abont the bisneaa of a gooae-egg, 
thai oontinned on tbe baime whue it died, and waa 
oecaaioned by hir enchanted egg.** Law'a Memor. 

Baibnie of the ETe. The pupil of the eye, 

A beaatifiil metaphor, ezpreaatve of the inatinctiva 
walchfttlneaa oonatimtly employed for ita preaervation, 
like that ol a tender mother towarda the child of her 

Baibn's-baibk, s. a grandchild, Aberd. 

A.^ beanta beam, pronepoa; Sn.-O. tema-tem, 
frandchild ; Dan. tenia tem; laL tema boem, id. 

BAIRNLE88, od;. Childless, without progeny, S. 

A.^. beamleoM, Dan. terndtfei^ id. 

Batrni&-Bed, s. ''The matrix. Similar 
phrases in common use are, ealfs'^^edf Iambi 
W** OL Compl. S. 

** I aan mncnart, that ia gude for the aoilbcatione of 
ane vomana teyniM bed,** Comol. S. 104. Bnt the 
author of the Gfoaa. thinka it ahoald be bed, " Baymi$ 
bed," he aaya, ''may poaaibly have been need to denote 
eAOd-terf.— In the legend of St Margrete, ehUde-hed 
oociira in thia aenae, if it be not an error of the oopyiat." 
The following ia the paaaage referred to. 

There ich flnde a wiif. 
That lifter is of bam, 

Y com tber alao lona, 
Aa ever ani am : 

Zif it be anblisted, 

Y eroke it fot or arm ; 
Other the wiif her aelaen 
Of e4tZ(ieA«f U forfun. 

€fL PL 811. 

i.e. She dice in conaeqnenoe of child-bearing. Thia 
oeema to be merely an improper nae of A -3* dtd'had^ 
infancy. In A.-S. the matrix ia caUed eUd-bama, that 
ia, the covering of the child. 

Baibnlt, adj. Childish, having the manners 
of a child ; S. 

With anch bimra thoughts they throng in through the port. 
Thinking the play of fortune baimdg sport ; 
And as proud peacocks with their plumes do prank, 
Alongat the bndge they merche in iMttUe rank. 

Muaet l%fmL p. 116. 

8w. tema^, id. 

"Sone eftir, the i>rinoea ratamit fra thair inaolent 
and bameiie contencionn to the camp.** Bellend. T. 
Liv. p. 100. JuvenUi, Lat. 

Baibnliness, <• Childishness. S. 

*' In veritie it ia great bameline$ to be aa haatelie 
aedncit and begylit, eepeciallie in ane mater of aa greit 
importance : and the Apoetle doith admonia wa to be 
barnei in malice, hot nocht in wit." J. Tyrie*a Befu- 
tation, pref . 8. 

Baibns' Baboain. 1. A bargain that may 
be easily broken ; as, ^^ I mak nae baimtt^ 
bargainB^ I make no pactions like those of 
children, S. 

2. A mutual engagement to overlook, and 
exercise forbeiuunce as to, all tiiat has 
passed, especially if of an unpleasant descrip- 
tion, Fife ; synon. with the phrase, Zef-il&^e 
for LetrAbee. 

Baibn'&-pak, «. A small pan of tinned iron, 
for dressing, or hastily warming, a child's 
meat, S. 

BAiBN'fr-PABT OF Geab. That part of a 
f athec's personal estate to which his children 
are entitled to succeed, and of which he can- 
not deprive them by any testament, or other 
gratuitous deed to take effect after his death ; 
a forensic phrase, S.; synon. Legitim and 
Portion NdturaL 




''TIm haimipafi ii their UffUhm or portion natunl, 
M otllod, beeaoM it iowi from tho natttnl obligation 
«f pnrenti to provide for their children, Ac. The 
hainu paH—u onhr competent ea to the f ether*! meena, 
and ia not extended to the mother or grandfather i 
aor ia it extended to any bat lawful children. Neither 
ia H extended to all children, but only to thoee who 
are not fbriafamiliated; and it carriea a third of the 
dtfenet'a free' moveablea, debte being deduced, if hia 
wife aorriTed, and a half if there waa no relict." Stair'a 
Inatit. p. 628. . 

8w. oarmtuuf, the patrimony of ohildien, from bam 
tadaaift ' 

BAIBN0-PLAT, »• The sport of children, S. 

**Kay, Terily I waa a child before : all bygonea are 
bat hmuiu^ptap : I would I could begin to be a Chria- 
tiao in aad eameat.'' Ruth. Lett. P. i. ep. 06. 

"Mr. Wodrow, oat of hia ignorance, and want of 
experience, writea of Buffering, and embracing of the 
bloody rope^ aa if it were batnU'play, But now there 

ia ffnmnd — ^to conclude from what they hare done and 
let! undone theee manv yean bysone, and from the 
bieatli tiMy ^eak and write wi& (if they ^t not 

another apirit), that the greater part, both of miniatera 
and piofcaeon, give but the old price, and find no 
hetmt in Prelacy, nor yet a aufficient ffround to atate 
their anfferinn npon, on thia aide of black Popery, aa 
lomi aa they nave either aonl or conacience to mort- 
ga^Q^ in the canae ; and if theae would not do^ to tell 
all out of the ground." Walker'a Bemark. Piwtigea, 
p^ ISl. 

In thia tmcharitabla Mntence, heant, I auppoae, 
ahoold be hatui, Le. bonea ; according to the uae of the 
phraae, wed in £. writing to make no bone§ q^a thing; 
to make no aeruple aboot it ; a metaph. apparently bor- 
rowed from a dog that deroun alL 

BAmNTTMEy Babke-teme, S. 1. Bfood of 
ehildren, all the children of one mother; 
S. A. Bor. 

Haill t BiMdt mot thpu be 
For thy teriM Um€, 

IToyfate UL 7. M& 

And Oh t how wen I thooffht if a' 

Was wair'd, as well I might, 
Whils wi' my bonny 6atm^iiie I 

fleemod a' his heart's delight 
Lmdp Jane, Jamumm'M Popular BaU, IL 8L 

Ihae bonis baimHme, Heav'n has lent, 

ecill hi|^er may they been ye 
In bliss, nil fiite some day Is sent 
for ever to release ye 

Wna care that day. 


R. Brunne naea team by itaelf^ p. 20. 

After Bdbalde com Ethelbert Us earn, 
AdslwoUe's brother, of I^brihte's team, 

A.^ (eom-leam, liberorum aobolia procreatio; 
Scotia, aava Lve, bearnihne, posterity; from A.-S. 
beam child, ana learn oflbpring. 

2. The coarse of time during which a woman 
has bom children, Meams. 

Thia aense proceeda on the idea that time ia properiy 
the final pliable, inatead of A.-S. team, 

Baibns-woman, tf. A child^s maid, a dry 
narse: S. 

"The only aerraht — ^that he could not get rid of, 
Ofwing to her age and infirmities, waa Maudjje Bob- 
bie^ whob in her youth, waa bainU'Woman to hia eon." 
The Entail, L 2. 

BAIS, adj. Having a deep or hoarse sound; 
E. base* 

Hie bate trumpet with ane bludy soon 
The signs of batel blew ouer all the toaa. 

Dooff, VirgO, WL 90. 

Bttccina rauca, ViigiL literally it aignifiea low, F^. 

Her noee teat, her browes bye. 

Oower, Cat^, Am, P. 17. a. 

BAISDLIE, adv. In a state of stupefaction 
or confusion. 

Amaisdlie and baiedlie, 
Ucht biiwUie they ran. 
BureTe Pilff., Waieon'e CM. IL SO. V. Bazaa 

BAISE, 8. Haste, expedition, S. B. Su.-G. 
bas^ citato gradu ire, currere, Ihre. 

To BAISE, V. a. To persuade, to coax, 

This has been derivetl from Fr. baie-er to kiss ; q. to 
wheedle by endearments. It may, however, have a 
common origin with Bazid, <|. v. aa aignifying to 
stupify one by constant soh'citation ; or rmer be 
viewed aa the same with Germ, baiz-en, irritare^ inati- 
. gare, impellere ad agendum, consilio, aut adhortatione; 

BAISED, parL pa. Confused, at a loss what 
to do, S. y. Bazed. 

To BAISS, V. a. To sew slightly ; S. 

Thia ia merelv a corr. of E. baete, from Yr. baetir, to 
make long stitcnes. 

1. Properly, to stitch two pieces of cloth to- 

Sther, that they may be kept straight in 
e sewings S. 

2. To sew with long stitches, to sew in a coarse 
and careless manner, S.; synon. Scob, Loth. 

Baiss, 8. The act of stitching two pieces 
of cloth together, -previous to their oeing 
rightly sew^ S. 

Baissikg-thbeads, Basing-thbeads, 8. pL 
The threads used in stitching before sewing, 

To BAISS, V. a. To beat, to drub, Loth. 

Baissing, 8. A drubbings Selkirks. 

8u.-0. bae^ caedere, ferire. 

BAISS, Baise, adj. 1. Sad, sorrowful, Ettr. 

2. Ashamed, ib. Bai8*t signifies extremely 
averse, Clydes. V. Baist, pari. pa. 


But quhan yer Maigeatye jinkyt fra me in the 
banz, ana left me in the darknesse, I was baiee to kum 

Main wi* sikkan ane ancere [answer]. *' Hogg's Winter 
Alea, u. 41. 

Fir. bae, baeee, humble, dejected. Fria. &a€f-eit 

To BAIST, V. a. To defeat, to overcome, S. 






iPMd kM tbo MOM of E. bade, to beat, 
it M Johni. doei, from Fr. 6a«- 

V I woald tnoa it dirocUv to UL 6fy«^a, bauU^ 

kL cMd«% forirs ; from SiL-d. 6(M-a, id. 

Hut fii pm. Aeof^ 8. ▲. whioh would toem, indeed, 
to bo tho proper orthography ; aa the word ia given by 
A Oilebrated writer of our oountiy. 

'Oowage^ oomradel Up thv heart, Billy, we will 
■01 bo Aaottaf at thia bon^ for I hare got one trick, ex 
AeelnAee." Uiqvhait'a BabeUia, p. 29. 

BAiBTy #• 1. One who is struck by otbersi 
eqwdaUy in tbe sports of children ; S.B. 

Tb« Id. phnMO baa conaiderable analogy ; Beria oe 
hegtia^ lamltter tractaro ; VereL 

S. One who is overcome^ S. 

BAISTy poff. jMi. Apprehension, afraid; as, 
^ Wei^t no for that I should na be sae baUt,*' 

SvidMlty allied to BinoiAziD/ V. Bazbd. 
Baibtik, $• A drubbing, S. from E. and S. 

BArTyt. A Boat. V. Bat. 

To BAIT, 9. a. To steep skins in a ley made 
of hens^ or pigeons* dung, for the purpose 
of ledocing them to a proper softness, that 
they may be thoroughly cleansed before they 
are pat into the tan or bark, S. After be- 

. inff thns baiitd, they are scraped with a 
knife called a grainer. 

Bait, t. The ley in which skins are put, S. 

8a.-0. fal-a fermeoto maoeran ; beta hudar, ooria 
pnpaiwro lenneotando^ i.e. to baii Aidet, S. Tout, beet- 
ea Mjlflnivt propararo ooria, (whence bed^waieTf aqua 
-~ ^ ^,j^ ^j^ 6ett-eiit fomentta foria applicatia 
; Uerm. ftetto-en, '*to ateep^ to infuse, to 
j" Lndwig. Ihro is inclined to consider Moes- 
O. htkU, IsaTon, aa the sonroe of the other terms. 

BAITy Bed^ i. The grain of wood or stone, 

IdaftciL | f i — » fa> ft mrpT a n a ta 

To BATT, V. n. 1. To feed, to pasture ; 

S. In an active sense, to give food to. 

T he King, and bis msnye, 
lb W m tek bm y all enmmyn ar. 
thai war, 

lyeht jt sU that 
lb bead thar hons, that war wary. 
Aad Iloaglas, and his cnmpaay, 
Btmhd atoaa bsiid thsim ner. 

B0tbimr. xiii. 689. 691. &IS. 

Dr. JohnaoB strangely derives the o. Bait from abaU ; 
wiMnaa it ia oridentiy from A.-S. bat-an^ inescare. 
Bat gttVf wo have tho word in a more original form 
ia IsL 6eJI-4i, to drive cattle to pasture, pastum agere 
peeo^ O. Aiidr. : whence btU^ feeding; pasture ; AroM- 
dbtkt the baitinc of a horM. 

'Bf tbo way, I majy observe, that Johnson also er- 
iQBOoaaly duives Bad^ to set dogs on, from Fr. bait-rt ; 
wbflo ms word is retained in the ver^ same sense in 
IiL 6etf-a, ineitare^ ad 6eif-a Awidciiia, mstigare canea. 

To BATICHILy v. a. To beat soundly, 
Boxb.; apparently a dimin. from A.-S. btair 
an^ to beat* 

BAnU^adj. Both. V. Bathe. 

BAITH-FATT, $. A bathing vat. 

**Tlie thrid aonne Johne Stewart was Erie of Marr, 
and was alane in the Ganogait in ane baUhfait,'* Bel* 
lend. Cron. B. xii. o. 6. 

A.-S. baetk thermae, and/ae< vaa. 

BAITTENDT, part. pr. Thriving; as, 
^ That's a fine baittenin* baimi" i. e. a thriv- 
ing child; Menteith. 

Moat wobably the same with E. batten, to fatten ; 
which, Johna. obeerves, is of doubtful origin. The 
root may be Tent bat-en, baet-en, prodesse, Isl. baet-a, 
reparare ; whence 6ala-a, melioreaoere, to grow better. 

Baittub, adj. 1. Rich with grass, affording 
excellent pasturage ; Etirick Forest. 

Tbia aeema merely a derivative from the preceding 
T. Id. beit signifying nssture, baUtie, q. beittle, mav 
havo been formed by &, a note of derivation, v. 
Waebter, Fkoleg: Sect. 6. 

It M also pion. Bettle* 

It pwperiy denotea that aort of paatnre where the 
grav 18 snort and close. 

"We torn pasture to tillage,^and heather into 
green sward, and the poor yarpha, aa the benighted 
creatures here call their peat-bogs, into baittte grass* 
bmd." The Pizmte, iii. 182. 

Tbooaands of steids atood on the hill. 

Of sable trappingi vaine ^ 
And rDond on Ettnck's batttle haoghs 

Qrsw no kin kind of graioe. 

MogfM Mountain Bard, pL 124. 

2. The term in Dumfr. ts applied to lea, that 
has a thick sward of fine sweet grass. This 
is called a bettle bit. 

ShaU wo view thia aa traduced from a common origin 
with IsL beit pasouum, beiti pastum aoere pecus, aa 
a|>plied to fftass fit for pasture ? It is Dsriiaps the same 
with what Bp. Douglaa denominates BattiU-gere, q. v., 

BAIVEE, s. A species of whiting. 

** KwmXhu aigentei coloris, squamosus, Whitingo 
mi^S our fiahers caU it the Baivee." Sibbald, Fife, 
ISS. Gadna Herlangus, 2. linn. 

BAIVEN J AR, 9. A tatterdemallion, a raga- 
mnflBny Upp. Clydes. 

Tbis is undoubtedly a word left in this district since 
the time of the Strathclyde kingdom ; C. B. bawyn, a 
dirigTi mean fellow ; from bam, durty, mean. Ba, dirt, 
M given aa tho root ; Oweo. 

BATVIEy s. A large collection ; applied to 
a numerous family, to a covey of partridges, 
Ac Ettr. For. 

BAK, Bagke, Bakie-bibd, s. The bat, S. 

Vp Boii the bak with hir peUt leddren flicht, 
lbs Itfkis diaosndis ttom the ikyis hicht 

Jknv. yirgO, 449. 87. 
lbs eoonyB llcht is nauer the wen, tnist me, 
AUthochU the teJfc his bricht beames doith fle. 


VespeitiliOk Vixg. Douglaa baa a aimilar allusion 




Dor to hAM mj lioht mkbt not indart, 
Hair Bor Um bricht aona mAV the bakki$ mi 

**T1m storico tiaot the lieron aftmr hit kinde, and the 
lapwing, and tba bake,** Lev. xi. 19. Baaiandyna'a 

Tba modam name In S. ta baekk-bM. Sa.-Q, naU- 
haeka, naUbata^ id. from naU nigbti and backa, Dan. 
^Ctii bakke^ from (^/tm oTening. Aa thia animal ia in 
B. danominalad tlia rearmou^e^ one might auppooe, 
from the wpparent analogy, that backe were to be under- 
■lood in the aenae of retro. But the bat aeems to be 
oaUed in A-S. krere-mus, from hrer^n, agitare ; aa 
•qoiTaknt to another of ita nnmea, JHUer-moutxe, 

Saeke ia vaed by Hnloet, in his Aboedariom, A. 
1562. '*il^idbeorJ?fremoN«ewhichfliethinthedarke." 

BAK, s. Onbak^ behind. 

— ««Tba Bobill Fabia, indnait baith on 6al; and 
afore,— war al alane." Bellend. T. LiT. p. 186. 
A.-S. on baeCf retro^ retroranm ; whence E. aback, 

BAKE, $• A small cake, a biscuit| S. 

Hera'a erying oat for bakes and gilla. 

Amu, iiLSfi. 

IVom A-& bac^Mf Sq.-G. bat-a, kc to bake. 

* To BAKE, V. a. This term is rather re- 
stricted to' the act of kneading, which is dis- 
tinffoished from what is called ySrin^ bread, 

A.-S. tee-on, 8a..O. bak^ei, hnve the aame aignifica- 
tion; pinaere. 

In tnie ooeration of preparing bread, when thia is 
peilonned oy different perw>na, he who kneada ia 
oaUed the Bakeler, Aberd. 

In Ansua, it ia not reckoned hapity for two penona 
to bake oread together. I have heard no reaaon aa* 
aigned for thia anpentition. 

BAKiNO-CASEy $• A kneadine*trough. The 
Baeh4nwtf 'in Aberd. Bake-bread^ is the 
board on which the dough is kneaded in the 

BAKOABD, $. A xear-guard. 

The Me Malcom he bad byd with the itaffl. 
To firiow thaim, a bakaard for to be. 

WaUaee, ix. 1742. UB. 


Tbow het broken conditioon, thow ben not done richt, 
Thow hecht no bakheir to bring, hot anerly we ; 
Thairto I tuik thy band, as thow was trew knicht 

Rauf CoUffear, D. ij. a. 
If properW one word, it mnat aignify a lupporter, a 
aeoond ; aa if compounded of A.-S. bate back, and her 
hird, or ktra aenrant. But I mther think that it ahould 
be to bring ma bak keir, i.e. "no backing heie,"or 

LEy s. The black headed gull, Lams 

marinusy Linn. Orkn. and Shetland. 

BAKIli. $. The name given to one kind of 

"When bronsht to n proper conaistence, a woman, 
oo each aide of tne line, kneada or bakee thia paste, into 
m a we a , of the ahape and size of peats, and spreada them 
in rows, on the grasa. — From the manner of the opera- 
tion, theae peato are called Bakies,*' Dr. Walker, 
Priae Eaaaya, UighL Soc. S. u. 121. 

B AKIE, $. A stake. V. Bauue. 

BAEIN-LOTCH. s. Some sort of bread* 
most probably of an enticing quality. 

For there was nowther lad nor loon 
M icht eat a bakm4oiek. 

Amyreeii, IL ISO. tt IL 

Tent, ioek-ea^ to entioab lock^ue^ n 

BAK-LANDy $. A house or building lying 
back from the street, S. 

"Anent the acdonne for the nocht auatenyng & 
vphalding of the bak land — k, tennement of the said 
vmquhile Alexanderia, liand in the bnrgh of Edin- 
buih on the northt half of the kingia gate ; — and for 
the nurt, dampoage ft acath anstenit oe the aaid Johne 
h Jonet in the dovnf ailing of the aaid bak-iamd^** ftc 
Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1490, p. 140. 

A honae facing the atreet ia called tkfordaind^ S. V. 

BAKSYD, $. The back part of a house, 
Aberd. Reg. MS. 

" Badsmde^ the back yard of a honae where the poul- 
try are kept. Weat'* Oroae. V. Bacxsidb. 

BAKSTEB, Baxsteb, 9. A baker, S. 

**BaktierSt quha baikea bread to be aauld, aould 
make qnhite bread, and weU baiken, oonforme to the 
oooanetnde and approbation of honeat men of the borgh, 
aa the time saU aenre." Burrow Lawea, c. 67. BaxaUr^ 

" Syne there were prop«r atewarda, cunning baxiere, 
excellent oooka and potingara, with confectiona and 
drum for their deaerta." Pitscottie, p. 147, quoted 
by Knnant, aa "Sir David Lindsay of the Mount.'* 
Tour in S. 1760^ p. 12Q, 121. V. BBOwaruu 

BAKMAN, «. Follower, a retainer. 

Sen hanger now sols up and down. 
And na rod for the jalunen ; 
The lairds and Isd^res ryde of the toun. 
For Uit of hungene baimen, 

MaUUmd Poema, p. ISO. 

From Sodb; behind. The term baekmen ia need, but 
in a different aenae, in aome of the aea porta of Angus, 
to denote thoee porters who cany ooua ashore uom 
the lighters on their backs, V. Back. 

BAL| Ball^ the initial syllable of a great 
many names of places in Scotland. 

It ia generally nnderltood aa aignifying the place, or 
town, from Jr. and GaeL baiU, ball, id. But it ia weU 
known, that the rowels are often chanoed, while the 
word is radically the aame. Now, the su.-G. and IsL 
bol baa the very same meaning; domicilium, aedea, 
villa ; Ihre. Notwithstanding tho change of the rowel, 
the Gothic appears to have the preferable claim. For 
ball in Jr. and Gael, aeema to be an insulated term, not 
connected with any other, admitting of no derivation, 
and itself harina no derivatives. But Su.-G. and Isl. 
bol is from bo, mmi, bu-a, Moes-G. bau-an, to dwell ; 
and haa a great many cognates ; as bo, bod. Me, a house, 
or in a compound state, hybyle, nyltyle, tihtflt, id.; 6o 
an inhabitant, bokarl, a peasant, botag, society, Ac. 
Aa the Goths could not in such circumstances be sup- 
posed to borrow from the Irish or Highlanders of Scot* 
land; it may be supposed that the Irish borrowed their 
term from the colony of Firbolg, or Belgae, who in an 
early period settled in Ireland. 

BALA-PAT, s. <' A pot in a farm-house for 




the OM of the family during harvest, ex* 
doHTe of the veapen^ pot ;" Allan's Diet. 

PlHluips alUad to GmL baU, a pUoe, » retidenoe ; or 
ItL 8a*<0. M pnodioBii tUU^ domtciliiiiii ; q. the 

BALAS9 $• A sort of precious stones, ac- 
eofding to Urrjp hnrngnt from Bala»$ia in 

H orgoldfai iMift tad rich «tyT% 
h fritwiN oo«cUt with pMriis quhiU 
Jlad p«li Mm; Im^TVS m Um frrei 

Km(f§ QmosV, IL S7. 

Ko nahiTt ia lade, ao labt tkh of prioe^ 
HMh lielMd thta, aor tBMraad ao granft, 
ArietTarkM, at thiag to my dtuioe, 

Ctaacar, Qwirt pfLom^ t, SO. 
f^. Wolf^ a aoft of baolaid mby . 
**ApneioaaaUMMb IV. tett;" hligiave. 

BAL AX, $. A halchet» Abecd. 

A.-8. bUU, UL Va> S11.-O. H bUa, Mcaris» an axe ; 
moporij 000 of alitfgeaiae; ooeli ao that vied for fellinj^ 
mm , VoroL, howerar. landen IiL Myaae, securis 
■a|or ad tmaoanda ligaa; and Ihro derives S11.-O. 
Ao^fBMi finm MM ingen% and ysDA ■ecoria. 

BALBEiS,$.pL Halfpoioe. 

The ilibMrfittii aa itabQ Sm ; 
The hjia voiaea nttia aa baibeU, 

Mnifim3 Fioma, p». iSl V. Babik 

BALD, Bauld^ adj. 1. Bold, intrepid, S. 

Hwrj Uan Kjag of Ini^Mid- 
then UnUane cald. 



a slmrt rnaa aad a te/ld. 

H>RteiMH TiL & 19a 

Fcir nab or bardoaa amTit wale at rycht, 
Qaha hai thnalo ndd J tatf nmU Imt M. 

iSi^ Vyrgil, 130. -47. 

Thia idiom, aooonUnc to which the adj. has the 
iadaABtta article prefijuo* witiiOQt the sabsl, which 
has bean prsriooslj meatteed, is stOl mnch used, 
sapadany 8. B. 

Xlds is the proper and original ssnss of the word. 
Bat it k Tulgarly vsed in sevwal obliqae senses. 

S. Irascible; of a fieiy temper, S. 

▼snas lowsrt the TMsae sfala take tent. 

anais qohsm aU Ml of mataleat 
Sataiaas dead 

doachter Jaao^ that AiU AoU is 
Tlowsrt the psrtye sdaerHfe behsldis. 

Dmi0. VirgU, 847. 4. 

As there is no epithet in the ori^final, hold may per- 
hi^ signify haagnty, imperious, m which sense it is 

Thea JeaaT smiTd ; ssid, TonVs bagoil'd, 

I csaaa naer thee : 
Mymiaiiy teali^ she woa*d mt icsald ; 


it. Nioot$ BoemB^ pL SI V. Bardach. 

'*Tlia third waa—aa6aMraaoayefetercap.'' Joanial 
ftook r^oodon,. p. 2. 

8» ^Elieeny biting^** expressive of the state of 
the atmosphere, S. 

— Aad Boiass, wT his blarts see hauld^ 
Wm thrsafaiiv a' oar kye to kUL 

Am. Taif yomr atUd cloak ahmt jftm. 
The Undd kesa-mtlng foroe of Boreas by 
Tbs Uasfiiag soathfei blantad.— 

Jkmd» H '» 3Mton§, p. 17& 

4. Pongent to the tasle» or keenly affecting the 
organ of smelling^ S. 

In this ssnse BMUtard, horsa-nMlish, fto. are said to 

5. Certain, assnred. 

Hie bevar holr ssid to this berly berne, 
lUs brtif thow ssll obey lone, be thou bald. 

Mmrjftoma^ Bamnaipns Po€wu, pc 13S. 
The word oooors ia the same sense, in Ywaine and 

This ilk kaMt, that be ye 5aMt, 
Wee lord siMl keper of that bald. 

Ver. 1S8L RUatm't Meir. Bam, ▼. 1. 

6. It is also Qsed, in a very obliqae sense, as 
signifying^ bright. 


'A bald moon, qaoth Benny Qaak, another pint 
qnoth Lesley;" S. Fror. ''spoken when peoole en- 
ooorage themselTes to stay a fittle longer in the ale- 
hoose, becaase th^ hare moon-light." Kelly, p. 53. 

A-S. bald, beaki, Alem. Sa.-0. Germ, baltl, Isl. 
baJd'Ur, ItaL bald^-a, bold ; O. Fr. baulde, impudent, 
insolent, trop bardie en paroles, QL Bom. Rose. 
Ihre derives Sa.-0. bald from baeU-a, yalere^ which 
has been viewed as the origin of E. oMe, q. ee baelle, 
poesam. Bald^ aa vsed in the sense of asiurtd^ is a 
Qenn. idiom : bald, oonfisns, et oonfidenter ; Ql. Lips. 
baldo, fidncisliter; GL Bozhon, bakUihho, confidenter ; 
Belg. 6oMl tprekm, earn fidada et animoeitate loqui ; 

IsL bttllTf bald'Wr, sti a nuu s, ferox, is viewed as the 
same with BaUdr, Balldmr, the name given to Odin, 
one of the deities of the ancient Goths ; Kristnis. GL 
G. Andr. derives tiia latter from Baal or Belua, which 
nsnifies a friend, a bird, or husband. He refers to the 
Pheniciaa or Hebrew. As the Celtic nations had their 
Bel or Bdut^ it is not nnlikdv that the Goths might 
bring with them, from the fast, the same object of 
idolatrous worship. 

Several of the names of Gothic deities have been 
brought into use as adjectivea. Thua Od-r, the Isl. 
name of Odin, signifies also furious, (S. tpod,) like a 
furious SibyL The rsason of this application of the 
tenn, as assigned by G. Andr. is, that the Sibyl 
poured forth verses, under the pretended inspiration of 
Odr, the Apollo of the Goths. 

It seems uncertain, whether Frea, the wife of Odin, 
and the Venus of the North, received this name from 
her beauty ; or whether, because of her celebrity in 
this respect, her name came afterwards to be used 
adjectivaly ; as Gemu/rey signifies pulcher, amabilis, 
beautiful, lovely. 

To Bald, o. a. To imbolden. 

Than schsaw sad doloar, mydlit bayth oner ana, 
BaldtM the pepil Arekadt euer ilkane 
To the beqmaa agaaia thara iaemyes. 

Itoiiy. Ftrya, 880, 2S. 

This veib k formed from the adj. 

BALDERRY, «. Female handed orchis, a 
plant, S. Orcliis macolata, Linn. <^ Female 
Landed orchis^ AngUs. Balderry, Scotis/' 
Ligfatfoot, p. 517. 

Tlus name is also given to the Orchis latifolia. The 
word is pron. Bawdiy ; and it has been suppooed that 
it may have originated from the tenn Bawilry ; as the 
plant is vulgany believed to have an aphrodisiacal 
virtue, and in eome counties receives a gross designa- 
tion from the fonn of the bnlbe of the root. By cnil- 
dren in Tjuisrks. the root is commonly designed. The 
Laird and Ladg, 





A ikMi ft MonMr, ft tlcaM, 


Pkobftbly bald, tm vaod Vy itMlf , k aqviTalent to^ a 
Ml ptnoo. lU. ilriMt dflnotcft obaoeDO Ungnige or 
aoBdnots O. Aiidr. to. Sired, p. 228. 

BALEENi s. The designation given, by tbe 
Scottish whale-fishers, and by fishers in 
general, to the whalebone of commerce. 

QuAsdam [bftlaniae] oomma lamiiiM in ore hftbeant, 
fpUM lUMitift nofttris dicimtar, Whales wiik haUfn ; quod 
Mum Angli WhaUbone tt Mnt, nottri baleen vocaiit. 
Bibb. PhiOainologuK Pnef . 

II kaa been jmLy laid, that wbaUboue it a vary in- 
•oeiixata denommataon ; and that in E. there is no ap- 
propriate tenn, eaniralent to the /oneM of the Fr. 

rr, balenet, " mall-bones ; whall-bone bodies [bod* 
dioe] ; French bodies ;** Coter. V. Ballant Boddick. 
Bslg. balm^ whalebone, whJefins ; SeweL Both these, 
like IV. oalemet the name of the whale, are obviously 
from the Lat. tenn. I have obsenred no similar 
desiflnation in any of the Goth, dialects ; notwithstand- 
ing ttie great Tariety of names given to the whale, 
aocording to the parttcolar species, and the long ac- 
qnaintanoe of the tk»th. nations with whale-fishing. 

BAL(K)NE PIPPIN, a species of apple, S. 

*'T1m SalgoM pimnn, so named from tiie seat of 
Sir James Suttie in £ast Lothian, much resembles the 
goldeo pippin, and to all its excelleneies adds the ad- 
Tsntage w larger sise.** Neill's Horticalt. Edin. En- 
eyoL p. 200. 


''The hills and beath ground being ridged, appear 
to have been under cultivation at some former period, 
. at least that partial kind of it called balk amd burral, 
which consisted of one ridge very much raised by the 
plough, and a bsnen space of nearly the same extent, 
altenately." P. Turriff Abeid. Statist. Ace zviii. 

V» Balk, V. Book, 2. The onl^jr word that resem- 
blsa Bwrrai, is IsL attmrd^ar, divisio agromm inter 
▼ioinos per restim fiuta ; VeieL q. by transposition, 
bardal; from al a thongs and perfaapa ovr, bffrd, a vil- 
lage, afield. 

BALDERDASH, «. Foolish and noisy talk, 
poored oat with great fluency, S. 

. This word is also E. and derived by Dr. Johnson, 
tnm A.-S. bald boUL and daalL I mention it merely 
to waggBit, that pernaps it is allied to Isl. buUdur, 
■nsuRonum blateratio vel stultorum balbuties, O. 
Andr. p. 42. 

BALEN. V.Paum. 
BALYE, $. 

"The Lord Fleming, who commanded the castle [of 
Dunbarton,] hesring the tumult, fled to the neather 
Balfft, (so they call the part hy which they descend to 
the river) and escaped m a little boat.** Spotswood, 
p. 252. 

Probably from Fr. b(UUe», a term used by Froissart, 
as signifyug barricadoes. Bailies de» miirt, the cur- 
tains ; Diet. Trev. It seems doubtful, indeed, whether 
this be meant of the Bayle, '* a space on the outside of 
the diteh commonly surrounded by strong palisades, 
and sometimes by a low embattled wall ; '" or the 6a/- 
Inmi, or bailev. Of these there were two^ the inner 
and outer. They were property areas, separated from 

eaeh other * \V7 a atrong ejibattled wall and towered 

oontained the honscs and 
>n, the chapel, stables and 

gate." The inner oonmonly oontained the houses and 
mmeka for the garrison, the chapel, i " 
Ome*s MiUtaiy Antiq. i. 2, 3. 

BALL| $• Bustle^ disturbance^ Aberd. 

IsL bamL bod, molestation ii0Jca» dolor s O. Andr. p. 

BALL, s. A parcel, used in the sense of E. 

" Accordingly draw a bill of loadings which is of a 
common stile, bearing; that such a baU or cofier— is 

embarked this — day ^i the which ball is consignable 

at London to Mr. , merchant," Ac Sir A. Bal- 

four's Letters, p. 99. 

Fr. baOe, *' a packe, as of merchandise ;" Cotgr. 
Tout, bal fascia. 

BALLANDIS, «• pL A balance for weigh- 

"Ane pair of ballandis weyth wychtis pertainyns 
tharto of the gryt bynd, A ane wthir pair of the small 
bynd with the weichtis."- Aberd. Reg. A. 1535, V. 16. 

"Item ane pair of ballandis of bn« to wey poulder.*' 
Inventories, A. 1556, p. 172. 

BALLANT, s. A ballad; the general pro- 
nunciation among the vulgar throughout S. 

*<Bot they [the smugglers] stick to it, that the^^ll 
be streekit, and hae an auld wife when they're dying 
to rhyme ower prayers, and ballarUs, and charms, as 
they ca* them, rather than they'll hae a minister to' 
oome and pray wi' them — ^that's an auld threep o 
thein.** Guy Hannerimr. iii. 110. V. Fbrx-bbsd. 

ing, lu. 
'* An' it were about Bobin Hood, or some o' David 
Lindsay's ballanU, ane wad ken better what to say to 
it." Monastery, i. 150. 

BALLANT-BODDICE, $. Boddice made 
of leatheri anciently worn by ladies in S. 
Fr. balenea, *' whalebone bodies, French 
bodies.** — Cotgr. The term is still used by 
old people, S. B. 

BALLAT, Balliecl Ruby BaUai, a species 
of ruby. 

"Item ane blak hatt with ane hin^ contenand ane 
greit ruby ballai with thre periis, pnce XL crownis of 
wecht." Coll. of Inventones, A. 1516, p. 25. In MS. 
it miffht be reail balae, 

BaUieeia occurs in the same sense. 

•«Tttelf roses of diamantis and taelf ruby balliesU 
sett in gold anamalit with quheit blew and blak." 
Ibid. p. 267. 

The same with Balaa, Cotgr. defines rubis balaw, 
"a rubie ballais ; a kind of pale, or peach-coloured, 
mbie." L. B. baktee-iu, carbuncnlus. LapU balagims, 
defined hj Albertus Ma^us, Cremma coloris rubei, 
lucida vafde et snbstontiae transparentis. He adds, 
Dicitur esse femina carbunculi ; Du Cange. 

BALL-CLAY, Pell-clay, «. Very ad- 
hesive clay, S. O. 

"If steril and adhesive, it is sometimes termed 
strong as ball-etay,** Agr. Surv. Ayn. p. 4. V. Fbll 

BALLY-COG, «. A milk-pail| Banffs. synon. 
Dan. balk denotes a tub ; Stt.-Q. ba^ oupa, obba ; 




Lmt 8az* Md Ms. haloid. Be\g.baatte, •^mtoh.m 
bwlwl;'* 8cw«L Tha addition of coy mart b»oiod< 

BALLINOABy Ballinqere, «. A kind of 

A i«ff I'lifwr otf iBghnd, that wm tlu^ 
FiMt out off TiT, and oom to Whitbe far. 
To London lood, and tauld off all this caoo^ 
rat bjac Morton vowyt had WaUaoo. 

YTnltMik Iz. U61 

In MS. haw«v«r» Wh^ ooonn for IF%tf6f . 

Kov li It bot aao frith in tht toy flnde ; 
Aa» fido fnaiUdr for ochip and bttUimgen. 

Doug. vSrgO, W. & 

In an old MS. bdonginff to the Hondd'a Office, qnotod 
hf Dn Cbnge^ it ia aaid ; L'Amiral doit avoir radminia- 
tntaon de tons Taiaoeaiiz npjpartenana it la guerre^ 
oonoM Burgea, Gal^ea, HorquM, BaUtnjtn^ et antrea. 
Walaini^iam mentiona them under the aame name; 
and nounart^ who writea haUanigen^ toL iii. e. 41. 

BALLIONy $. 1. A knapsack, SeUdrks. 

S. A tinker^s box. in wbich his ntensib are 
carried ; or anybox that may be carried on 
one^s back ; ibid V. Ballownis. 

BALLION» 9. The designation given to a 
veapeTy' who is not attached to any particu- 
lar oand or ridge, but who acts as a supemom- 
craij; adjoining. himself to those on one 
lidge who have fallen behind the reapers 
on anotheTi and, after these have made up 
their lee-way, joining those who are next 
deficient in progress. The term is common 
in Linlithg. 

BALLOCH, Bellocr, $. A narrow pass, 

**Tho a eoaaa to the mnir ia by narrow paaaea caOed 
MbdU" P. Gargnnnock, Stat. Ace. zvui. 94. 

^'Tho road I came leads from Glen Fheagen, hjr n 
Mbdh^ or deep opening through the mountaina, mto 
the head of Glan Fraiye." Bkckw. Mag. Maroh 1819, 
pw 069» 

QnaL kofadk, id. 

BALLOP, $. The old name for the flap in 
the fcMPepart of the breeches, which ts but- 
toned np, S. In E. formerly called the cocf- 


it aeoma aUied to Lancaah. haOnKkt. teaticnk. 


^'Maiatarfidl strubling h atreiking the aaidia, Ac. 
with MJownif nnder aylenoe of nycht.'* AbenL Beg. 

- IV. haXUm iigniilae a fardel, or amaU pack ; 'L. B. 
Mlpii-««^ id«. 

BALOW. L A lullaby, S. 

*«1ho editor of Select Scottish Ballada pietenda, that 
m a qnarto mannacript in hispossession — there are two 
Mowei^ aa they are there atiled, the first. The balow, 
AUoM^ the second. Palmer^* Bahw; this last» he says, 
is that commonly caUed Lad^ Bothwell'a Lament.*' 
Bitaon'a Essav on S. Son^ p. cix. N. 

•• WeU ia that sonl which God in mercie exereiseth 
daylie with one crosse or other, not anffering it to be 

rooked and lulled with Sathan's Mimora in the oradle of 
aeoaritie.** Z. Boyd*a L. Battell, p. 806. 

2. A term used by a nurse, when lulling her 

B&hw, my babe, ly stil and sletps I 
It grietss ms sair to see thee welpe. 

L, A. BotkwetTt LemeiU, 

It ia sappooed to be part of an old ¥r. lullaby. Baa, 
k hup ; or aa the S. term ia aometimea pronounced, 
halUUaw, a. hat. Id le loup; "Ue atill, there ia the 
wolf,** or *' the wolf ia commg.*' 

I find thia written aomewhat diflerently, as the name 
of an old S. tune. " FoUowis ane sang of the birth of 
Christ, with the tune of Baw/tt /a 2aw.** Godly Ballatea, 
quoted by Bitson ut aup. p. Ivi. 

To BALTER, o. a. To dance. 

— ^His cottsing Oopyn CnU — 
Led the dance and began ; 
Play us Jolp UwunaMe ; 
Sum trottit Tnu and Trwaui 
^am haUmiThtBatM, 

CoUeOU A»w, P. L ▼. 802. 

Corr. perhaps from 0. Ft. haladeur, or L. B. balaiar, 
a dancer. 

BAM, $• A sham, a quiz, S. 

«-"The laird, whooe humUe eflbrta at iocularity 
were chiefiy confined to what waa then called bileg and 
hami, aince denominated Aooxei and quisBeM, had the fair- 
est poasible subject of wit in the unsuspecting Dominie. " 
Guy Mannering, i. 41. 

This is a cant term. " Bam» Aiocular impoaition, 
the aame aa a humbug." Groae'a Claaa. Diet. 

BAMLINGy adj* A banding chield, an awk- 
wardly-made, clumsy fellow, Boxb. 

BAMULLO, BoMiTLLO, Bomulloch. To 
make one lauch Bamulto, to make one change 
one*8 mirth into sorrow ; to make one cry. 
~rii car you lauehf aing^ or dancet Bamullo^ 
(for aU the modes of expression are used), is 
a threatening used by parents or nurses, 
when their children are troublesome or un- 
seaaonablv gay, especially when they cannot 
be lulled to sleep; Ang. Ferths. It is 
pron. as with an a m Aug., with an o Perths. 

It is aaid to be comp. of two Celtic worda. C. B. 
hw iis terror, or that which causes it. The children in 
Prance, if we ma^ belieTe^Bullet'a information, cry 
horn, when they wiah to affiight their comradea ; the 
▼ery sound used in S. with a similar design, pron. hu, 
like Gr. v. Ir. and GaeL mala, mmUach, primarily an 
eye-brow, ia used to denote knotted or gloomv brows. 
Hence ho-muUaeh is equivalent to " the gri'ly ghost, 
the spectre with the dark e^e-browa." To make one 
"sing or dance ho^maUo,** la thua to introduce the 
frightful ghost aa hia minstrol. It ia aaid that the 
Jiallaehs, a branch of the clan Macgreeor, had their 
name from their appearance, aa exprMsed by the word 
explained above. The hij^landers, indeed, according 
to my information, call any man JUaUoeh, who has 
gloomy brows. 

The ghost referred to above, according to the ac- 
count communicated 6:t>m Scotland to Mr. Aubrey, 
was of the female sender. 

*' But whether this man aaw any more than Braumk 
and Meg MuUaeh, I am not very aure. — Meg Mnilaek, 
[r, Muttach] and Brownie, — are two j^oets, which (as 
it ia constantly reported) of old haunted a family in 




flinllwpej of tbo nimo of OrmiL They maMned at 
fint p. the fint] in the likencM of a young uus ; tha 
Mooodof ayoungUd." MiaoelUniaa, p. 212. 

^ To Ban^ BiNiTy V. n. 1. Often applied in 
tif tlthoogh improperly, to those irreverent 
eickunations which many use in conversa- 
tion, as distinguished from cursing. 

Ka'ar anna nor hatm, I yon Implora, 
Li nalthar Am nor paanon. 

S. Used to denote that kind of imprecation 
in which the name of God is not introduced, 

9oq1 &' tht ooof t tliat I ahoold ten / 
Wa ndnn ban in Tain. 

Oodifi iSbnjrft Ami'iM, p. ISi. 

8. Even where there is no direct imprecation, 
applied to that unhallowed mode of nega- 
tion, used by many, in which the devil's 
name^orsome equivalent term, is introduced 
as giving greater force to the language, S. 

•"Wo ar Panl'a biahopia, Six, Chriat*a biahopia ; ha*d 
OS aa wo ara." 'The d—l kaid ailla yon,' lepliad 
Janaa, 'bot that ya would all ba alika; ya cannot 
abida ooy to ba abona yon.' " Sir,'* aaid tha miniatar, 
•^doamten.** M'Oria'a Lifa of Knoz, iL 299. 


Bat oohan my bilUa and my banehit was all gelit, 
I wald na laafar bair on bnrdil, bot braid ap my held. 

ihaioor, MaiUand Poems, p. 67. 

TliiB tarm aaama to maan daada of aattlamant, or 
flaoDar daada; aa wa now apaak of bank-noiegt from 
ItaL mmeo a bank. Wa laam from Ihra, that Stt.-0. 
hamkekap aignifiaa tha buying or aalling of patrimonial 
^ooda batwa an huaband and wifa. Tnataad of banchiB, 
m adit. 1S06 it ia btmcUei, whioh ia atill mora nnin- 

BANCKEL To beate a banckey apparently to 
beat what in S. is called a ruff, or roll. 

'^Tha drommar-major, acoompaniad with tha raat of 
1^ dmmmara of tha regimant, bainff oommandad, heaU 
a hamdts in haad of tha r^gimant.'' Monro'a Eb^mL 

P. s; P.S3. 

SiL-O. teni-a polaara, a fraqnantativa from fton-o, 

BANCOURIS, «•/>/. 

Btaid bordia and banUi. oorbeld with haneomii of gold, 

dad oor with graaa dathii. 

^onloli, iiL a Ma 
Thia aaama to aionify oovara of gold. It may ba a 
oofT. of Tant handcwtre, tapaatry ; alao, tha covaring 
of a atool or banch, anbaalbi atngulum, Kilian. Fr. 
hamqHkr, '*a banch-cloth, or a oupat for a fonna or 
banch;" Ootgr. 

BAND, B. Bond, obligation; S. 

Iliare may na hamd be maid la fanu, 
Than thalean maka than will thare tann. 

WynUnm, is. 85. 77. 
To mak Uund, to ooma nndar obligation, to awaar 

lUa and aooier with WaQaoa bonnd to ryd. 
And Kobart Bold qnhilk weld no Ungar bide 
Vmlir thriUam of legia of logbmd, 
Ho that fdn alng ha had neoir maid band, 

ffatfaef, ilL 54. Ma 

— " Ha that fmkU hcmd, or ia awom man to ony 
nthar man, bot allanarlia to tha king, aall ba puniaht 
tothadaith." Anld Uwia, BaUonr'a iVact p. 683. 

Bandbb, 9. A person engaged to one or more 
in a bond or covenant. 

Montroaa, and ao many of tha banders aa happanad 
to ba at homa at that timab w«ra citad to appaar,'* 
Qnthiy'a MaoL p. 90. 

BAND of a kitty the top or sammit of a ridge. 

Himaelf aeeendis tha hie band of tha hill. 
By wentis itrate, and pasmga acharp and wiL 

/>oiy. Virpl, SSa 4. 

/a^nas Vixg. 

Qann* 5ami, anmmitaa. ClnTarina aaya ; Exoal* 
aanun ramm anaunitataa dicimnB pmnen, at aingnlari 
nnmaroptn. Germ. Antiq. Lib. i. p. 197. Thia word 
aaama to ba of Celtic origin ; aa conaonant topea, Gael. 
bfn, Fkom pen Wachtar thinka that tha Latioa formad 
peniaiM, penninwt, and apetuunut; whanoa tha Apennme 
moaafatwf. V. Wachtar, to. P^n, 

'•Waal, weal," qno' Robin, "kaap tha band iff iMe 
m a' tha way." Blackw. Mag. Mar. 1823, p. 317. 

C. B. batU a height, from Km, higii, lof^, or 5aja 
praminanca. GaaL Aeoan, a mountain. 

BAND, «. 

"Ok Boldiar waa furniahad with twa aarka, ooat, 
braaka, hoaa, and bonnet, bands and ahoona^ a awofd 
and mnakat," &o. Spalding, ii. 150. 

Tliia miflht aaem to denote nackclotha in general, » 
aanaa in wnich the E. word waa need, although now 
raatrictad in ita application to an official appandam of 
tha neckcloth. It haa, however, been angffeated to 
ma, that it may denote thoaa bands or atrapa^ leather^ 
which aoldierB naed fonneriy to wear above their 
gartera. Thia ia undoubtedly confirmed by the phnaa, 
^^honiaa [hoaa?] and bandis.** Abaid. Rag. A. 1538» 
V. 16. 

BAND, «• A hinge ; as, the bands of a door ; 
its hinges, S; a restricted sense of the 
Gk>thic term bandy ligamen. 

BAND, 9. The rope or tie by which black 
cattle are fastened to thestakci S. 

ToBAND(TAKE),Toanite; a phrase borrowed 
from architecture. 

"Lord, maka them oomer-atonaa in Jerusalem, and 
giyo them^race, in their yonth, to iabe^band with tho 


(Smar.atone.'' Ruth. Lett F. iii. ap. 20. 

BANDKYN, s. A venr precious kind of 
clothy the warp of which is thread of gold, 
and the woof silk, adorned with raised 

For tha banket mony rich claith of paU 
Waa iprod, and mony a bandktm woonderiy wroeht 

J)tm^ yitgO, 83. 16b 

Rndd. auTCKMea, that "thia ahonld be baudktfn or 
bamdekm, a lund of fine or flittering ailk, which ia 
mentioned, Stet. Henr. VUl." £it kandetjuin-us 
occnra in L. B. as weU as batdakin-us^ Dedit huio 
aooleaiaa duoa pannoa da Bandequuio optimos; Nov. 
Gall. Christ, ap. Du Canga. Tha tenn oa/!(Jaiia-iic or 
baldekin-ms, occurs vary frequently. Dominua Rex 
vaate deaurate facto de pretioaiasimo^oUdUno— aadena. 
Matt. Paris. A. 1247. According to Dn Canga, it ia 
80 caUed, beca u se it waa brou^t from Baldac ; Quocl 
Baldaioo, sen Baby lone in Peraide, in ocoidentalas Pro* 
Tineiaa dafarratur. V. Bawdkkyn. 




BANDLESS, adj. Altogether abandoned to 
wickednesfly pron. batCUatf Cijrdes. q. withoat 
tondlt or bonds. 

Bahdlessue^ adv. Begaidlesslyy ibid. 

Bahdlc8SNE88^ t. The state of abandonment 
* to widLedness, ibid. 

BANDOUNE^ Bandowk, s. Command, or- 

Akifrt tiM laod of Rom Im rotn, 
lad an bbMT'd At hi* tejufown, 
Wrim Htm Um KorUi to Suitmn siKMra. 

MaUU ^fMrnritm, Rt 7. £veryreem, L 81. 

m Kcnm Kbk he eomo with outrn mmr, 
Tkt Condi tfaaa of SootUnd meit hym thar. 
fUl Mtailly he chAi|it thaim in bandomne, 
A« IImv ov land, tUfhaU of hym the toun. 

ITAttMf, L 68. Ma 

/« 8«kfoit— nay aifpiiify* anthoritatiToly, •• if ho 
had ■etwJhr heen their aororoisn. It ia uied in the 
■una ■aoat O. & V. Babbat. 

Tha phriao aeema atrictly to denote the orden iaaued 
from vnder a Tietoriona atandaid ; from Germ, band, 
manUnm. FaoL Diaoonna, apeaking of a atandard, 
aajya. qncd boMdum appellant ; Do Qeit. Longobard. 
a. aOt. y . Abavdox. 

Bahdoi71IIiT» adv. Firmly, courageously. 

WaUaoa ahaidMT hand thair chawabr. 

ITattaaf, ▼. 881. Ma 

WaDaoa, echo aald, yha war elaypt mj luff, 
Me tUak ye aald do aom thing for my talk. 

TMstand thamr year raaooar for to alak ; 

Ibid, m. VM. UB. 

BANDSMAN, s. A binder of sheaves in 
lianres^ Galloway; synon. Bandster. 

**A food deal of dexterity ia reqniaite to perfonn 
thia pait of the work well, and aa the bandsmen are 
oflan taken indiacriminately from the common labour- 
«n» it M for the moat part done in a manner aoaloTenly, 
aa ia had harveata, to occaaion much loaa and tronble, 
whiek mi^t otherwiae be prevented.** Agr. Sonr. 

BAND-STANE, «. A stone that goes through 
on both sides of a wall ; thus ^nominated, 
becaose it binds the rest together, S. 

**T1tt<a doaaand of bandilanU ft thxe bud of pendia,'* 
ta. Abetd. Sag. A. 1638, ▼. 16. 

*'I am amaiat perraaded ita the j^iaiat of a atane- 
m aao B aee aiocan band-§lan€ 9 aa he'a laid !" Taiea of 
my Landloid, i. 79. 

BANDSTERy Baksteb, s. One who binds 
aheaves after the reapers on the harvest field, 
8. Ai^. Qerm. band, vinculum. 

At haf^ at tte ahearing naa yooakeri are jeaiing. 
The bmntttn ate nmkleSil, lyut, and grey. 

Miisom'M a, Son^ a & 

BAND-STBINO, $. 1. A string going ac- 
cross the breast for tying in an ornamental 
way, 8. 

^ ''He aawa woel-fia'ared anld gentleman atanding by 
kia bedaideb in the moonlidlit, in a queer-faahioned 
dreaa, wi* BMmya bntton and a band^rmg aboat it" 
Aatiqnaiy, i 908. 

2. The designation civen to a species of con- 
fection, of a long shape^ 8. 

BANDWIN, Banwin, s. As many reapers 
as may be served by one bandster ; formerly 
eight, now, in Lothian at least, generally six. 

"The harveat atrength ia diatribated into banda, oon<* 
aiating each of aix reapere, provincially called akearerv, 
with a binder, or banMer, which aquad ia mpTincially 
termed a ban-win,** Agr. Sonr. Berw. p. 226. 

Perhapa from A.-8. Msnd, vinculum, and win, labor. 
I have, however, heard it derived from band, the de- 
nomination given to aU the reapera oo a field, and win, 
to dry by expoaing to the air. 

It la otherwiae expl. in Dnmfr. " A field of ahearere 
in a bandwin" ia a phraae which indudea aeveral 
partiea of reapera, each party having a bandster at- 
tached to it. They begin bv cutting an angle off the 
field, which leavea the ridgea of different lenfftha. 
Then one party begina bv itaelf with the two ahort- 
eat ridgea, the aecond witn the two next, and ao on in 
proportion to the number of partiea. When thoae of 
the firat diviaion have cut down their land, they return 
to take up what ia called a new land ; and in thia man- 
ner aU the partiea keep at aeparate diatancea from each 
other, till the field be nniahed. Thia mode ia preferred 
by aome, aa jproducinff more equal exertion, and a 
greater quantity of wonc in the aame time. 

Baitdwin Rio. A ridge so broad that it may 
contain a band of reapers called a i^tn. 

"On dry turnip aoila, either upon laying down to 
graaa, or when plouffhed from ley for oata, the ridgea 
are commonly 90 net broad, called bandwin ridgea, 
and quite fiat." Agr. Surv. Berw. p. 132; 133. 

BANDY, $. The Stickleback, Aberd. ; abbrev. 
perhaps from another name of this fish, Ban- 


BANE, s. Bone, S. 

That peetilena geit mony banps 
la kyrk-yardia be laid at anye. 

Wyalowa, ix. SS. 61 

•«It ia m to take out of the fleah that ia bred in the 
bane;" Ferguaon'a S. Prov. p. 20. 

A.-S. ban, Alem. 6ejii, Beltf. been, 

** It doea na cum fra the bane," a proverbial phraae 
applied to a confeeaion that doea not aeem aincere. ' It 
ia probably borrowed from meat, that ia not aufficiently 
roMted or boiled, which doea not eaaily aeparate from 
the bone. 

A' FRAE THE Bake. V. Bein, «. Bono. 

Bane, adj. Of or belonging to bone, S. ; as, 
a bane caimbf a comb macle of bone, as dis- 
tinguished from one made of horn. 

**Item, a bane coffre, ft in it a grete core of gold, 
with four precioua atania, and a chenye of gold.** CoU. 
Inventoriea, A. 1488, p. la 

Bane-dry, adj. Thoroughly dry, Clydes. ; a. 

as dry as bones exposed to sun and wind. 

It seems to include the idea of the feeling 

of hardness that clothes have when thorough- 

• ly dried. 

Bane-Dyke, $. A beast is said to be gam to 




iki ban&^ykif when reduced to akin and Inmet 

Fiiiuupi q. good for aoUiiiig but to tnvel to the d^ht 
* whort the oonet of doad hones lie. 

Banb-orease^ «. The oiiy substance produced 
froQi bansBf which are bruised and stewed on 
a slow fire, S. 

Bavb-idlb, oc^*. Totally unoccupied, Lanarks. 

da there bo an aUusion to one who htm sot nothing 
before him at n meal but • bone that he naa already 

BANE. Kino of Bane. 

*'Qiihatr they demr thy Graice to put at th^ 
tampondl lorda and uqpa, becana thay deepyee thair 
▼itiooa lyil^ qohat eUa intend thei but onlie thy 
deithe, aa thou mayest eaailie peraaye, auppoii thay 
onUonr thair fala intent and mynd, with the pereute of 
Hereaie f For quhen thy Barounis ar put doun, quhat 
art thon hot the Kimg o/ Hone, and thane of neoeaaitie 
man bo guidit be thame, and than no dout, quhair a 
blind man ia guyde, mon be a fall in the myre. Sey- 
tonn'a Lett, to Ja. V. Knoz'a Hist. p. 10. This is the 
woid in both MSS. In Lond. edit. p. 20, itis *'What 
art thou but the King of Land, and not of men,*' &c. 

If the latter be meant aa a translation of the phrase, 
it ia erroneoua. Ita proper sense has indeed been mis- 
understood, 'ereo so earlv as the time of Sir David 
Lyndaay. For, when exnorting Jamea V. to attend 
to the interest of his subjects, and to secure the love 
of his barons, he thus e xp res s es himself. 

Lat justioe mixit with merde thame amend. 
Haae thow thair hartis, thow hen aneuch to spend : 
And be tiie contrair. taow ait bot king of bane, 
Tn time thy hefaris nartfs bin from the gone. 

WarS*, 1608, pL 107. 

L'e. '*The hearts of thy lords,** or "nobles.** The 
moaning of the phrase uipears from what the learned 
Mr. Stmtt baa said, when speaking of the King qf 
OkriaUmu, Lord^Mitrule, ftc. 

"Tho dignified persona above-mentioned were, I 
pnanme^ upon an equal footing with the KIKO of 
the BKAlil whoae reign oonmienced on the Vigil oi 
the Epiphany, or upon the day itself. We read that 
aone ome back 'it waa a common Christmas gambol 
in both our universitieo, and continued at the com- 
mencement of the last century, to be usual in other 
plaoea, to give the name of king or c^ueen to that per- 
aoo whose extraordinary good luck it was to hit upon 
that part of a divided etk% which waa honoured above 
the others by having a bean in it.' Bourne's Antiq. 
Vulg. chap. xvii. I wiU not pretend to say in ancient 
times, for the title is by no means of recent date, that 
the election of thia monarch depended entirely upon 
the decision of fortune ; the woros of an old kalendar 
belonging to the Bomiah chureh seem to favour a con- 
trary opinion ; they are to this effect : On the fifth of 
January, the viaU ^ tiki JCpipkang, the Kiagt of the 
iXeiM are created (JiegtM Fabii ertantur); and on the 
sixth the feast of the kings shall be held, and also 
of the queen; and let the banqueting be continued 
for many days. At court, in the eighth year of Ed- 
ward the ^urd, this majestic title was conferred upon 
one of the king's minstrels, as we find by an entrv m a 
eomputus so dated, which states that aixty shulings 
were given by the king; upon the day of the Kniphany, 
to Began the trumpeter and his associates, tlie court 
minstrels, in ^ name of the Kitta qf the Bean, in 
nomine Begia de FaboL'* Sports and Pastimes, p. 255, 

Morsain, however, gives another reason for the de- 
nomination. Aa this election referred to the three 

wise men, or kings of the East, aa the Chureh of Borne 
haa eonatdersd them; the person elected, he says, 
*'waa called King of the Bean, having his name from 
the lot ;" Deprav. ReUg. p. 143. Bran<l seems to adont 
this idea ; rsterring alao^ m confirmation of it to the ob- 
servation made in the ancient calendar already quoted ; 
Beges FabU ertatUttr. This, however, he remlers dif- 
ferently ; *' Kil^p are created by Beana," as if beans 
had been uaed aa lota oo thia occasion. V. Brand's 
Pop. Antiq. Oboerv. on eh. 17. 

Sometimea a denarius, or ailver penny, was baked in 

I. The 
of finding it was the same. 

the twelfth-cake, inatead of a bean. 


A similar custom prevails in the South of S. We 
find an ri^""i*" to it m the following linea : 

To spae thair fortune, 'mapg the deu^ 

TIm imekiefifdin's put in : 
Hie Mooss ilk aae eats fast eneogfa, 

like onis hungrie glutton. 

B£9, y. yieoTs Poetnt, L S8. 

''This is a favourite custom. A smaU lump of 
dough, from which the (New-year] cakes have been 
taken, is reserved ; and m it a amall coin, usuaUy a 
farthing, is put. The dough is then rolled thin, aiul 
cut into smiul round oeone*, which, when fired, aru 
handed round the company. Not a moment must Iih 
lost in eating them ; it being of vast importance to g«;t 
the scone with tiie hidden treasure, as it is believe«l, 
that happy person shall fint taste the sweets of matri- 
moniid fehcity.'* Ibid. N. 

The bean seems to have been used merely as a speciejt 
of lot. Whence tins use of it was borrowed by tlio 
western nationa of Europe, it ia impossible to sav. I 
can find no proof that it was one of the eortet employed 
by the Romans. The Greeks, however, anciently gave • 
their baUots by means of the bean. The xikvtM, or 
beana, "were of two sorts, white and black ; tlie white 
were whole, and were made use of to absolve ; the black 
were bored through, and' were the inatrumenta of con- 
demnation.** Potter'a Antiq. i. 110. 

It waa customary with the Romans, in their StUvr- 
tuilia, as Alexander ab Alexandre has observed, "to 
divide kingdoms amonff persons who were equal in rank, 
whOk dnrinff the reat 3 the day, acted as soverei^is, 
assuming the purple of the magistrate.*' Gen. Dies, 
lib. ii. c. m. It is not improbable, that, on the empire 
becoming Christian, those who endeavoured to make 
proselytM to the new religion by carnal policy, substi- 
tuted the allusion to " the kings of the east " as an excuoe 
for retaining the sovereign of the Satamaiia, 

In addition to what is said as to the farthing hnked 
in the new-year cakes, it may be obaervetl, that tlie 
custom of putting a ring into uie bride's cake at a wed- 
ding, still common in S., may have been borrowed from 

Grose mentions another custom, A. Bor. in which the 
bean is used in a similar manner, and which, notwith- 
standing the variation as to cireumstances, mav b« 
viewed as having the same origin. "Scaddiug of Feat. 
A custom in the North of M>iling the common grey 
peas in the shells, and eating them with butter and 
aalt. A betm, shell ami all, is put into one of the pea- 
pods ; whosoever gets this bean is to be first married." 

BANE, adj. Ready, prepared. 

Thidder retnrninflr Agane 

To Mik your auld moder max yoa bane. . 

Ih*ug. VirgU, 70. L SI 

"Perhaps for boun, metri gratia;" Rudd. Tent. 
hfint, however, signifies via aperta, and hanen den weeh, 
viam planam reduere, Su.-G. ban-a, viam munire. As 
this is the venion of 

-Autiquam exjuiriU niatrem, 

mat jfoM bane may be equivalent to search out the 





4ifMl wmj. . Or w« mtst 
dtfMtty to U. bebm. 


it periupa ttill more 
tIfmiflhL from fteiJi-a 

BANE-FYER, s. Bonfire, S. 

**Oiir torwBiiM Lord— «▼« power to all ■chirBffet 
■ ear ehe and teeke too pvmoomt paMing in pil- 

flnmaaa to ooy Kiikea, Ghapallea, Welles, Crooes, or 

, aik ttlMr momimenti of idolatrie : aa alawa the laper- 

alitioqa obaerreria of the festival dayes of the Sanctes, 

■mntimea named their Patrones, qnhair there ia nn 

mibUcke Fatrea and Mereattea, aetteris ont of Bame* 

jiftrtt aingara of Carralee^ within and aAxmt kirkes, 

. tad ii mk Tthen aapentitioiia and Papistical rites." 

Asta Jn. VI. 1581. e. 104. Mninj. V. Bail, Batlk- 

Vnder Batlb-Fim; It haa been aaid that, from this 
wofd, "by a change of the letten of the same organs, 
wuhiam$J&€, end E. ftoMfre^** may hare been formed. 
Soomer, however, I find, after eacplaininff A.-S. bad, 
hatirffr, "a grMt fire idierein dead oodiea were 
borned," adds, "a ftoneiCre: ao called nrom bnming the 
dcadaNbooea in it." 

BANE-PBICEXE, %. The stickle-back, 
OlTdes. v. Banstigklb. 

BANNEOUBE, Baneoub, %. A standaid- 

Tben bat mar bad the ndbiD Kli^ 
Qjnt fka Us AoiMeiir his benir. 

JMMir, flL 688, lia 

He bad the Amnsoiw be a aid 
Bet bia banners^ and WTth It Ud. 

WjpUomk^ ix. S7. 8661. 

BANEBEBy : A standard-bearer; more 
properij^ one who exhibits his particular 
standard in the field. 

Go tlte^ ViAuMm, to the lamtrtriM^ 
or the Tolscanis, and thama that staadartis beris. 

DMyt. KtfyO, 87% 47. 

h^ aMiwfjpfft if theoolyword in the original, it seems 
wieafftain whether Bp» JDooglaa meana to diatingoish 
>awH»i'fa fkom those who steMliiyttf 6erw ; or uaea the 
laal aiprsssion merely aa a pleonasm. Certain it is, 
ttat the term properly denotea a penon of each di^ty, 
ttat he had a rignt to i^vpear in the field with his fol- 
fighting under Ilia own atandard. BaiideT'httr, 
beriH dynaata, aatrapea : bandophoms, i.e. 

• r • •• • • W^*%^ Mm_ 

indan aive praeapoi aimu ; Kilian. Thus, 
il does not merely ai^iii^ ''the lord of a standard," 
bnt *'of n principal atandard." Wachter obeenree 
thal^ aoooiduig to aome writers, hammier^herr sifliifies a 
ehieftain who carriea the badge of a duke or leader ; 
and* according to other^ n baran invested with a mili- 
tary atandanf within his own territory. Ihre quotes 
the following paasaoe, aa illnatrating thia term, from 
Gluroii. Bhy&m. p. Iff7. 

^«» JUhIi Me TfgAt wtaamgeJUr 
AfHwriiaga, Or^hn ocA usnerhenn. 
Genaani vero adhoc phin habueie 
DnoBon, Comitam et veziliiferanua. 

Ha obaerves^ that here he ia called a Banerhare^ 
wfaa l^e kiaflB and dukes, had hia own standard. 

The name Bamurtt, 8. coir. BanrtnU, marks a dis- 
•*»*4V^"*^ aa to dignity, in the person to whom it wee 
given. Aa 6aner-Ae!sr, htmertr^ aimply denotee the 
maatsr of n atandard ; the tenn ftcMumf, being a dim- 
famtive, and implying inferiority, intimatea that he on 
whom it waa confeiTed, alth<Ni^ he appeared under 
hii own standard, had one^infenor to the other. The 
Banneret waa always created on the field, the royal 
Btandaid being displayed. V. Spehnan, vo. BoMTeUtu. 

According to the & lawa, a baron waa superior to a 
banneret. For he waa acaroely acoountea a baron, 
save Spelman, who had not more than thirteen feudal 
aoldiers under him. But only ten were required of a 
banneret. In Scotland, however, the banrente was 
more honourable than the baron. For the barona were 
only represented in Parliament bv oommissioneri ; but 
the banrentee were wameil by the king's special pre- 
cept to give perM>nal attendance, in the same manner 
aa the temporal lords and dignitaries of the church. 
V. Baitrbntk. Skene menti<Mis another proof of this 
superiority. The Banrentee had ** power or nriviledge 
graunted to them be the King, to rayse and uft vp aue 
Baner, with ane companie of men of weir, either bone- 
men, or fute-men, quhilk is nocht lesum to ony Earle 
or BiuTOune, without the Kingis speciall licence, asked 
and obtained to that efiect." De Verb. Sign. vo. 

The reason of the difference, aa to the degree of dig- 
nity attached to the rank of Bamktrtt in the two king- 
dome, may have been, that a greater number of knights 
of this deecription had been created by the kings of 
England, than by those of Scotland. Ais might per- 
haps be accounted for, from their f^reater intercourse 
with the continent, where the spirit of chivalry so 
much prsvailed in all its forms. 

It must be observed, however, that Qroee gives a 
different account of the number of vassals requisite 
to give a title to the rank of banneret. He quotes 
fatfier Daniel aa mentioning two regulations respecting 
this. According to the one^ it waa necessary to brincr 
into the field, " twenty-five men at arms, each attended 
by two hoiaemen, in aU amountinff to seventy-five 
men ;" accordiuf^ to the other, "at toast fifty men at 
arma accompamed aa before, making together one 
hundred and fifty men.** Milit. Hist. i. 180. 

BANERMANyS. Standard-bearer. 

His Banerman Wsllsoe slew in that place, 
And sone td ground the baner doon he race. 

ITotfaef, z. ed9. Ma 

"At laat quhen he wee cnmyng to Spajr, ft fand his 
ennimes of greter power than he mycht resist, he espyit 
his hcMier man for fetr of enimes trunbland, ft not pass- 
and so pertlie forwart as he desyrit. Incontinent he 
pullit the baner fra him, ft gaif it to Schir Alexander 
Carron, quhilk gat mony nche landis for the samyn 
office. Bot his name wee tumit efter to Skiymgeour.*' 
Bellend. Cron. B. zii. c 11. Signifero expavente; 

This tenn, entirely different from hanertr, seems 
properly to denote one who bears the standard of an- 
other. Su.-G. haneritman, vexiUifer. 8aneU 01^ war 
banersman ; Saint Olave waa standard-bearer. Hist. 
S. 01. p. 78. Ihre, vo. Bamer, 

BANES-BRAKIN, «. A bloody quarrel, the 
breaking of bones, S. 

That I bae at hane§ hrakin been 
My skin ean sha' the marks ; 

I diana tell you idle tales. 
See to my bloody sariEs. 

,p. 98. 

BANFF. This good town, for what reason I 
cannot divine, seems to have been viewed 
rather in a contemptible li^ht. Hence a 
variety of proverbs nave origmated. 

"Gae to Bar^, and buy bend-leather ; " West of S. 
*'Gang to Baftk and bittle," or beeUe «* beans.** 
"Gang to Banjf^iid bind bickers,** Loth. All these 
Buggeat the idea of useless travel, or idle labour. 




To BANG, V. n. To change place wiA im- 
petoontv ; as to bang up^ to start from one's 
seat or oed : He bamd to the doart he went 
hastily to the door. S. 

Don lMrk«d, and the ladi frM.liuid 
Mtm^dto thdr braeki like drift 


^Bljtldj wtid I bang oat o'er tho brae^ 
And itfliia o'er bums as light aa oiiy lae. 

AJtz hmi$fd VIS whaM taige waa ahnght 
Ib MToa nid o' hide; 

Poem» m the Bwekmn IHaUti^ pi. L 

Tho Torb hamg^ tn E. aignifiea to boat ; U. 6«if^a 
id. Dr. Johnaon, howoYor, who ia often very iiiiLai>pv 
in kii etymooa, deriyea it from Bolg. vm^/eii, which 
M only a derirative, oorr. in ita form. - laL hamu-a ia 
ttaalf doriTod from hean-a. pulaare, percntere ; whence 
alao S11.-O. hatJoa, id. and oaengel, a ataff, a cndgeL 

IIm Teris *> bora oaed, ia mora immediately allied 
to S11.-Q. baang, tnmnlt, violence, which Dire indeed 
tnuMa to laL btutg^eL, perontere. For atnmnltaaggeata 
the idea, both of WK^enoe, and of ra|»idity in operation. 

To Bang ouiy v. a. To draw out hastily, S. 

Than ni tef^ oitf my beoBar dish. 
And atap it f on of meaL 

Smg, JUm^M AWenerr, pi 14S. 

To Bang, r. a. 1. To beat, to overoonie, to 
oTerpower, Loth. Boxb. Dumf r. This seems 
meruy an obliqae sense of the E. v. as sig- 
nifying to beaty to maal. 

S. To snrpassy in whatever way; as, ''It ban^e 
a' prenv i^* it eoes beyond every thing; in 
allnsion to what nas been printed, although 
nsed figuratively, Boxb. 

Of a' tiM haMs o' the thrang 

Nana waa aae tris aa NellV : 
P«i ony roee her cbeeka did MNf , 

Her laoki wera like a Ulyl 

Lavidsotk'M Setuenu^ p. 119. 

''The Loid — ^keep me from aic peril again ; lor thia 
banai a* I e'er met wi', finae the tawa of that gloomin' 
aold thief Buchanan, to the laat gliff I got wi' the 
Tillaan Bothwell, whan he drave to m in at my rwy 
■eeiet chamber." St. Johnatoon, iii. 140. 

To Bang aff or of, v. a. 1. To let off with 
violence, to let fly, S. 

'*Tw» nnlvoky red-coata— joat oot a gliak o* hia hon« 
our aa he gaed into the wood, and muuimI of a gon at 
him.** WaTeriey, iii. 238. 

2m To throw with violence, Aberd. 

Bang, s. 1. An action expressive of haste ; 
as, He came with a bang^ S. In a bang^ 
snddenly; in a huff, Aberd. 

He granta to tak me» gin I wad work for't ; 
Ola aae I did, that I end nag aling, 
And lyna be married wito him in a bang. 

JEtom^M Bdenon, p. SS, 70. 

8. A great number, a crowd, S. 

a bang; 
lb diink bedeen. 

IUm»af» Pioemg, I SISL 
^— My boding thought 
A bang of fmn lato my breast has brought. 

"■■■|LMw I 

Of eutomen ihe had a bam 
ForlainU and souten a' did gang, 

Bang, adj. 1. Vehement, violent; as* ^*a bang 
fire; ** a strong fire» one that bums fiercely; 

Id. btrng-oit, beDoino mora tnanltare. 

2. Agile, and at the same time powerful; as 
^'aioii^chield;'' ibid. 

To Bang, r. n. A term used in salmon- 
fishinc^ as signifying that the fishers push off 
with their boats at random, without liaving 
seen any fish in the channel ; Aberd. 

'* Being aaked, whether idien tiiey are deprived of 
aij^t, and can onlv fiah by banging, they do not catch 
fewer fiah than when they have eight? deponea, that 
they do ao, and that if they wanted ai^ta, thev would 
want their beat friend." SUte, Lealie of I\>wia, ISa^, 
p. 102. V. Shot, », 

BANOEISTEB, Bakgsteb, Bakoi8ter,«.— 
1. A violent and disorderly person, who re- 
gards ho law but his own will. 

For gif thia aait of iuatioe nU not atand. 
Then everfe wicked man, at his awin hand. 
Sail him revenge aa he iall think it best. 
Ilk bangeitter, and Ummer, of this land 
With Me brydUaaUrquham thai pku moletti 

MaiOand Ptoemg, ^im. 

Adien I ttSr Rekdale vp and doun. 
Where my pair friends do dwell ; 

The b a t ^Un wUl ding them doon. 
And will them aair eompelL 

MiudnUg Border, I 22S. 

I heeitate if thia ahoold be viewed aa a different 
aenae ; although the term ia explained by the editor, 
** the prevailing party.*' 

2. A victor, Ettr. For. 

3. A braggart, a bully, S. 

Bnt we have e'en seen shargart gather strength* 
That seven yeara hare sitten in the Set, 
And yet have bangaien on their boddom set. 

itoii^s Mdmortt p. 89. 

4. A loose woman, Clydes. 

Thia word mi^t aeem analogona to Su.-0. baang* 
t^grig, oontumacioua, from bang tnmultua, and Mgr, 
feroz. Bat it ia formed, I auapect, rather by the ter- 
minntion tier, q. v. From the more primitive v. Isl. 
fton-o, to strike, alao to kiU, aome nouna have been 
formed, which are allied in aignification ; aa banaidrgd, 
agon, wrestUng; playing for a priae, banamadr, per- 
cnsaor, anctor caeuia, a atriker, one who oommita alai^h<* 

To Banoi8TER-8Wipe» v. n. To cozen, to 
deceive by artful means, Boxb. 

From Bangeieier, q. v. and A.-S. eteipe. Teal ewee^, 
llagellnm, acatica ; a . by a audden atroke aa of a whip. 
F^m the meaning ot the firat term, however, the wora 
aaema originally to have included the idea ot violence, 
aa weU aa that of rapidity of motion. 

Banoi^ adj. HufEsh, pettish, irritable, 

Bano-bape, «. A rope with a noose, used by 
thieves in carrying off com or hay, Clydes, 
From bang as denoting violence and expedition. 




BureBOMSy adj. Qnarrelaom^ AbenL 

rid tiMir hair, knim main'd thoir buiet, 
baan'd th* baugmfme bllUflt. 

Okii<Ma« Ai'iiv, Edit 1806. 

Ib •dil 1800» it ii AewmM; and in GL Uiuame. 
Bst I w yiome iMmt tha proper tenn. 

Bako*thb-beoo^b, «• 1. A strong staff, a 
powerful kent^ or rung^ Bozb. 

TIm VM ol this term tiiggMti the r. (anf^-o, to beat, 
M fkm origiii of Tent. 6«i«?A«i^ benffei, Su.-0. baengel, 
IMml a itrong ttaff or stick, m being the imtniment 
wed nMT heetinir 

2. Himioroiislj transferred to a constable, 

Hut deaignation fie given to a beadle in Derbyihire ; 

Bahgstbie, «• Strength of hand, violence to 
aoodier in his person or property. 

— >**PnM»ea wrangeooalie intrustng thenuelvei in 
the rownes and poaBeasiones of ntheris, be hanggtrie 
and fofoo^ being altogidder nnresponsal themselves, 
~^*«^«" their noesession theieof.'* Acts Ja. VI. 
ISM, e. 217. Ed. Hairay. 

Tlua term k evidently derived from bangMer, 

BANQNUE, s. Bustle about something 
tiiviaL much ado about nothbg^ Selkirks. 

lUi 18 wffittsn aa neariv m poasible aooording to the 
pTMinnriatitm. ue having die soiind of ti purum. There 
aesma to be eveiy reason to view it as of Fr. origin. 
OoUpmvn givea aphrase which has great similarity ; 77 
Mi mm nea/; "He is a veir novioe ; he is very ignor- 
antfe inezpert» raw," &o. A novice in any profession 
MMraUy makes more bustle than progress ; or as a 
Soota peasant would emphatically express it, "There 
fia mora whistling than red land." 

BANGRELy •• An fll-natured, ungovernable 
woman, Ettr. For. 

Vonned like OoMfpreit Hant/rd^ Ac. from the v. to 
Bamg^ aa denoting violence. 

BANTELi s. A slovenly idle fellow, Roxb. 

TsntL haigkdt mstieas; et homo stnpidns. Sa.-6. 
hatmgilt hoininem stnpidnm designat. 

BANTEL, $. A bundle ; used in a contemp- 
taons way» 17pp. Clydes.; Tullyat, synon. 

C & kamgaw, bound t(M»ther, compacted ; or Isl. 
I— p«, protnberantia ; q. mat swells oat. 

BANIS. Mantillis of Banis. 

That James Dory sail restcMre — ane hnndreth bog 

skinnia— thre maniUliMtif banif, price ix lb. thre 

I species, / 
to have been a kind of mantle. 

ensehinsis,'' ^* Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1401, p. 190. 
L. B. OMea, vestis species, A. 1367 ; Du Cange. This 

BANKEBy s. A bench-cloth or carpet. 

** Bmtken of verdore the doaen peecca— xl. s. " Ratee, 
A 1611. 

Tliia seems to be the same with Bastkukb, q. v. 

Verdmre seems to siniify flowered. Fr. ouvrage de 
f«niM^"floarishtworiL.'^ Ootgr. 

BANKER, s. One who buys com sold by 
aoctioni Ettr. For. 

BAmuvo-OROPy s. The com bought or sold 
by auction, Niths. 

Fkr. hanauier is synon* with hammU and bannier, sig- 
nif jing what is common, what every one may vse^ as 
paying for it. V. Cotgr. 


Hie King to aouper to set, serred in ball. 
Under a siller of silke, dsyntly dight ; 
With si worshipp, ana wele, mewith the walle ; 
Briddes branden, and brad, in banken bright. 

Sir OawoM and Sir Oal. iL 1. 

This, I apprehend, ahonld be on bankert. It is moet 
nobably the same word with Ai»coiiri«, q. v. V. also 

BANKROUT, «. Abankrapt. 

" In Latine, Cedere. bonii, quhilk ia moat oommonly 
vsed amongst merchandes, to make Bank-rout, Bank- 
rupt, or Bankrompue ; b ecaose the doer thereof, as it 
were, breakis his bank, stall or seate, quhair he vsed 
his trafficque of before.'* Skene, Verb. Sign. vo. X^- 
our, Duvour, 

Fr. oanqMroui, Ital. bancoroUo, Tent, banekroie, id. 
This word was borrowed from the Italians. As they 
formeriy did business in a public place, and had coffers 
in which they counted their money, when any of the 
merchanta found his affairs in disorder, and returned 
not to the place of business, it was said that his banco, 
or coffer was rolto, broken, from Lat. ruptus; Diet. 

BANKSETy adj. Full of little eminences 
and acclivities, Aberd. 

"Where the land ia flat, the expense of labour ia 
much less on the same extent of land, that [r. than] 
when the sround has a considerable acclivity, or is 
rouflh ; ana in the provincial dialect of this county, 
batUtsei.** Agr. Surv. Aberd. p. 624. 


"Anent tho— breking of the said maister Walteris 
chawmer, and takin out of the samvn of a conter, t^^a 
fedder beddia, — a pair of ffustiane blankatis, a bankure, 
four cuscliing]8,"ac. Act. Dom. Ck>no. A. 1403, p. 315. 

This seems to denote the covering of a seat, stcol, or 
bench. Fr. banquier, "a bench-cloth, a carpet for a 
form or bench, *^ Cotgr. L. B. banquer-tum, idem 
quod baneale ; which is thus defined ; Subsellii stra- 
mlum, tapes, quo scsmnum, sen banetu instemitur ; 
Du Cange. Teut. bcutek-were, tapea. 

BANNA, Banno, $. What is elsewhere 
called a Bannock^ Roxb. 

Banna-back, «. The piece of wood placed at 
a fire on the hearth, before which bannocks 
are put to be toasted, after they have been 
taken from the girdle, Ettr. For. 

From Banna, and Rack, a wooden frame. 

BANNAG, s. A white trout, a sea-trout, 

Thia word is incorporated into the English spoken 
in that district. Gael, ban, white ; banag, any thing 

BANNATE, Bannbt, s. Double BannaU. 

" That Lucas Broiss sail restore to Andrew Gude- 
fallow — a double bannate, price vj a. viii. d., and 
oertane gudis of houshald.'* Act. Dom. Cone. A 1400, 
p. 167. 




Hut mmv periiApt dgniiy » haimeioitiUeli, FV. bonntt 
de/er^ oaUra a wall-cap. The price Menit to oorre- 
mnd; and DoMtM was fonneriy ued in this aeiiae, S. 
*^DoiMu callad haraet plates, or yron doubles,** 
Bales, A. 1611. Bannei is still the pronunciation of 
hmmei inmost counties of S. 

NuiKiT BANNET, the square cap worn by the 
deigjr of the Ronpsh Church. 

*^In short qnhill thairefter— no biachopes, frieris, 
p rs istis ^ ohannones, dunt — weir nuikii banneiii$, nother 
dust thimrpnt on surplices nor oouUis." Pitacottie*s 

C^«ll. p. 02}. V. BONNST. 

BANNET-FIRE, «. A punishment inflicted 
bj boysy on one of their play-fellows who 
does any thing against the rules of the game 
in which they are engaged. 

Two files are formed by his oomjuuiions standing 
faoo to face, the intervening space beinf merely suffi- ' 
deot for allowing him to pass. Through this narrow 
pssssga he is oolifled to walk slowly, with his face 
Dsnt down to his anees ; and, as he passes, the boys 
beat him on the back with their bonnttii, Fife. 

This seems to be an imitation of the militaiy punish- 
mant of running the ffanielop, 

BANNET-FLUKE, «• The same fish which 
is in An£us called Bannoeh'Jluke ; from its 
snpposea resemblance to the broad round 
baimii formerly worn by males in Scotland, 

BANNISTER, s. BannUter of a stair, pro- 
perly the rails of a stair, but firequently 
naea for the hand-rail only, S. 

Moat nrdbably oorr. from E. baUider or haituter, a 
snull cuumn or ptlaster, as those are of which the rail 
of a stair is made. 

BANNOCK, BoNNOCK, «. 1. A sort of cake. 
The bannock is howeyer in S. more properly 
disringnished from the cake ; as the dough, 
of which the former is made, is more wet 
when it b baked. It ts also toasted on a 
aifdle; whereas cakes are generally toasted 
nefore the fire, after haying been laid for 
sometime on a airdle, or on a gridiron, S. 
A. Bor. Bannoeky as described by Ray, ^ is 
an oatcake kneaded with water only, and 
baked in the embers.** 

Tha latter definition corresponds to the explanation 
fiTan of the term by Nimmo. 

'*T1iia brook [Bannock-bum] is said to have derived 
Hb name from a custom, of old much practised in Scot- 
laadt via. that of tossting their bread under ashes ; the 
Okkes so prepared were called bannocks, and sundiy 
nBna hanng been early erected upon that stream to 
g^ind the grain, of which that bread is composed, gave 
use to the name.** Hist, of Stirlingshire, p. 441, 442. 

Thir cur eofMs that aallls cure sone 

And thretty ram about ana pak. 

With bair blew bonnattia and hobbeld acbone. 

And heir bonnokit with thsme thay tak. 

Bannatipu Poems, pL 17L ft 4i 

And thsra will be laog-koil and pottage. 
And bamnocks of barley meaL 

MtUsosCs & Somfft, I 70S, 909. 

It maT bo observed that this is still the most general 
use of the word, bear-batmoeks, Le. bannockb made of 
barley-meal, S. 

Also that bannocks ars genenJly made of barley- 
meal, and cakes of oat-meaL 

2. The denomination given to one of the du- 
ties exacted at a mill^ in consequence of 
thirlage, S. 

** Bannock, a small quantity of meal due to the ser- 
vants of a mill b^ these grinding their corns or thirioil 
thereto^ ordinarily termed in Charters of mills the 
sequels." Spottiswoode's MS. Law Diet. 

**The sequeLs — pass by the name of knaveship,— 
and of bannock, and lock, or gowpcn,** Ersk. Inst. B. 
ii. T. 0. see. 10. 

Ir. ^Maaa, a cake, Uinyd, boimiMg, a cake or baa- 
nock, Obrien ; OaeL bonnaeh, 

Bannock-eyen, «. The same with Ftutrim- 
even^ or Shroye-Tuesday, AbenL 

This must have been denominated from the prora- 
tion of some cake or bannock for the festivities of this 
evening ; as Pancakes, Fritters, &c. are used at this 
season m England. V. Brand's Popular Antiq. L 71, 

Bannock-fluke, «• The name given to what 
IB said to be the genuine turbot ; that com- 
monly so called being halibut, S. 

"The fish on this part of the coast, ars cod, 
skifte^ mackerel, hoUybot, here called turbot, sea- 
dog^ some turbot, called bannaii/htke, and had- 
docka." P. St. Vigeans, Forfars. Statist. Aoo. zit. 
117, N. 

It is most probably denominated from its flat form. 

"The fish commonly cauj^t on the coast of the 
Meams, are — ^turbot (called here rodden-fluke, and 
bannock-Jiukei,** ko. Agr. Surv. Kincaid. p. 415. V. 

Bannock-hite, «. Corpulency, induced by 
eating plentifully. 

When he, who retains a oood appetite, complains of 
want of health, especially of anytiung that might indi- 
cate a dropsical habit, it is sometimes sarcastically said, 
that he seems to have the bannock'hive, S. from bannock 
and hive, swelling, 

How great's my Joy 1 its inre beyond compare ! 
To see you Iook sae hale, aae plump an' square. 
However ithen at the sea may thrive, 
Ye'va been nae etranger to the bannock hive, 

Morisom*s Poems, p. 177, 178. V. Hivi, 9, 

Bannook-stick, «• A wooden instrument for 
rolling out bannocks* S. 

A baasie, and a bannoek^ick : 
There's gear enough to make ye sick. 

Moffs^s JaeobUe ROics, L 11& 

BANHENTE, s. Banneret. 

In the tyme of Arthur, as trew men me tald. 
The king tumit on aoe tyde towart Tuskaue. 
With banrentis, baronui, and hernifl fall bald. 
Biggest of bane and blade, bred in Britane, 

Oawan and OoL L 1. 

••An Bischopis, Abbottis, Pryonris, Dnkis, Erlis, 
Lordis of Parliament, and Banrmtis, the quhilkis the 
King will be ressauit and summound to Counsall and 
Paruament be his speciall precept." Acts Ja. I. A. 
1427, o. 112. Edit. loea. V. Banbreb. 

BANSEL| $. Synon. with Hcuisel; often 




^gnif vinff^ like tbe Istter, what is given for 
good loc^ Pertht. 

Tb« origiii I CMiaol «opJ6oiai% tinlwi it be <|. hatid* 
mai, Um laal ol a bond or ttgntummt, am onginally 
deooCiBg the fini jpeit cf mviimiiI for any thu^ porw 
dieied ; or like eeTia kamd&eC 

A.-S. 6ai«4mi mpplioifear pelwa^ onn^ or feii, pre- 
etliob and #(K-<M| dare t q. to give what is eolidtod. 

BANSnCELE, «. The three-epined sticlde- 
bacl^afiBh, S-Orioiej; in some parts of S. 

**Tlie three epined etkirlelieffik, {wuiterotteua aeui^ 
otai^ Lfak 4yat.yp which we dietinyiiim hy the name of 
ianirtfWg, M lowid in every emali running brook or 
look ttat hae any oonmiinieatioa with any piece of 
fneh water." Bwry's Orknev, p. 380. 

IVom WiUoaghby it #oahi ivpear, that the name 
loMfidUtf ia neea in eooM parte of A. 

PiMkno from A.-S. kuM» peniiciee, (S11.-G. hamt) 
uA t/tm^ acolewi^ ae mppoeea togive a noziooa eting. 

BAPy t. 1. A thick cake baked in the oven, 
generally with yeast; whether it be made of 
oafmeal, barley-mea^ flower of wheat, or a 
niztniei S* 

There wffl be good kracrd-Bilk kebbncks. 
And eoweoL ud fJHalMk and ^jm; 

8. A foDy a small loaf of wheaten bread, of an 
obliMig form, S. 

The eoogie lem does ifa wl' harte 

On n^ioh they dine sad nak repait, 
Or laaf aad ale. 

As Ar'jf ity, it n. 
M] giigii no! ii^ joa loQger in the king's hiffhway, 
but Ukm yoa back again to Lncky Thomsoiro Inn, 
where yoa may share with me^ in idea, the oomf orts of 
e hvngiy stomach, hap» and batter, fto. I had do- 
moUshed at least one 6«y^ila0lMrolL'' Blackw. Mag. 
Ang. 1821, p. 4U 

Baffbr, «• A Tnlgar, hidicroas designation 
for a baker; from one species of bread 
made by him, AbenL Y. Bap. 

BAPTEM, $. Baptism ; Fr. hapUme. 

** A]f he gulf the saerameot of hapUm to Temanus, 
A maid bin arcbbischop of Pichtis." Bellend. Cron. 

BAB, Mm An infant's flannel waistcoat, Moray. 
Y. Babbie, synon. 

BAB, «• To play ai bar^ a species of game 
anciently used in S. 

''That aa indneUare within burgh paxchem na oat 
Imdachip aa maist«archip to landwwd, to rout, na rid, 
nor Wbr al bar, or ony Tthir way in the oppresstoim of 
his nyi&boiir.'' AcU Ja. IV. i&l, Edit. 1814, p. 227. 

It sesms doobtfol whether thie may not denote the 
essecise of throwing a ter of iron, as a trial of strength, 
Vk^fmUbtA the laag-batBls, &c "Cssting of the bar 
m freqnently meotioned by the romance writers as one 
part of an hero's edncation; aadapoetof the sixteenth 
csntwy thinks it highly oommeooable for kings and 
prinoee^ by way of exerciecL to throw *the stone, the 
tom^ or the pinmmet* Heniy the Eighth, after his 

to the tiirone, aoeording to HaU and Holing. 
shed, retained *the easting of the barre, among his 
fsToorito amusements. The sledge-hammer was also 
vsed for the same pupoee as the bar and the stone ; 
and, among the msticsi if Barclay be correct, an axle- 
tree.** Stnitt'e Sporte aad Pastiroee, p. 60. 

I heeitate, bowerer, whether this may not rsfer to 
another sport, stiU known among yoong people in S. 
by the name of iSimme r a , "There is a mstic game," 
says Strutt, "called Bate or bara, and in eome places, 
^«6ar«. — ^The soccess of this pastime depends 

upon the smlity of the candidates, and their skill in 
running. The first mention of this sport that I have 
met witii, occurs in the Procliunationa— eariy in the 
reign of Edward the Third, where it is epdcen of as a 
childish amusement, and prohibited to be played in the 
aTonuee of the palace at Westminster, during the 
sessions of Parliament, because of the interruption it 
occssioned to the members and others, in passing toand 
fro as their businees rsquired. 

"The nerfonnaaoe of thie psstime rsquires two 
nartiee ote^ual number, each of them having a bate or 
Xame, as it is usuaUy called, to themselvee, at the dis- 
tance of about twentjr or thirty vards. The players 
then on either eide taking hold of hands, extenci them- 
selves in length, and opposite to each other, as far ae 
their convemoitly can, always remembering that one 
of them must touch the base. When anv one of them 
quite the hand of hia fellow and runs mto the field, 
which is called fffing the chase, he is immediately 
followed by one of hia opponeote ; he antn is followed 
Vy a second from the former side, and ne by a second 
opponent; aad eo on alternately, until as many are 
out as choose to run, every one pursuing the man he 
first followed, aad no other ; ana if he overtake him 
near enough to touch him, his party claims one towud 
their gsme^ and both return nome. They then run 
forth anin and again in like manner, until the number 
is completed that decidee the victory ; this number is 
optional, and I am told rarely exceeds twenty. — In. 
Essex they play this game with the addition of two 
prisons, which ars stakes driven into the ground, 
parallel with the home boundaries, and about thirty 
yards from them ; and every person who is touched on 
either side in the chase, is sent to one or other of theee 
prisons, where he must remain till the conclusion of 
the game, if not delivered oreviously by one of his 
associates, aad this can only be accomplished by touch- 
inffhim,** ko. Ibid. p. 63. 

This gsme had in ancient times in E. been simply 
denominated bart, or, as in our Act, playing at bars. 
The statute of Edw. in. referred to above is thus ex- 
pressed s Nul enfaunt ne aatres Juer a barrts, ne a 
aatres jues nient conveneblee come a oustre chaperon 
dee gents, ne a mettre mayn en eux, Ac Bot. FarL 
aa e. Edw. IIL MS. HarL 7068. 

Bahbar, 9. A barbarian. 

'* Ah, Britain I— if thou, and thy houses, and in- 
habitants, would not be drowned m thy own blood 
shed by theee barbart and burriers, let the bleeding 
of thy soul be eeen V7 bim.** M'Ward's Contend- 
ings, p. 340. 

BAR, s. The grain in E. called barley, S. B. 
Bar^mealj meal made of thia grain; har^ 
bread, bar-bannoeht &c. In other parts of 
S., bear, bear^meaL 

Moes-O. bar, hordeum. Qoth. bar, fructus quicun- 
que, (Seren.) ; Heb. l2^ bar, grain of every kind for 

BAR, «. BoAB. y. Baib. 




To BAB. 

It ooonn in a fooliih Xitiog: 

*-— Tkk tent, uid pnat Mm vontls 
IntUl thii bUl, with wffl tUm «tUl to face, 
QnbilUi §r ttooht ikar, to dor on ftir (hi bownlii, 
Bot kalt, bot f«al«, niAy baal] aymU thjOnoe. 

Amniiftu Pioemg, p. 2D1. at 87. 

Lord HmIm gives this panage m not understood. 
And, indeed, I can offer oiily a ooniecture as to the 
mnaning, wluoh is so much disgniaed by a silly jingle 
and Tiolent alliteration. The writer, addressing Q. 
Mary, desires her to imprint in her mind the wonU of 
this poem,' with a design to hare them still in her eye ; 
aa they are not such as miaht cause her to startle, and 
bar on/ar/ra bourdU, or aeep her at a distance from 
Jesting or sport ; but on the contrary, true, honest, 
and soieh as might be profitable to her Majesty. The 
aUnsion seems to be to an.object that frightens a horse, 
and makes him start aside. V. Skab. Bar may be 
need in the sense of Ft. barrer^ E. bar, to keep one at 
a distance ; as is done by bolt% or by barriers erected 
for this Tory purpose. 

BABBAB, Barbour, adj. Bari>aroii8; savage. 

Tha first word is used by Bellenden in his Cron. 
^oit. ; Fr. barbare. GaeL borb^ id. 

"Albeit the sa^ingis be barbomr, and oommoon, the 
ryoht TnderBtanduff of the samyn semis mekle for men 
vnlaainit, lyke as we wrung ledis mony in thir dayis 
in grst erronris." Kennedy, of Grossraguell, Compend. 
Tnotine^ p. 60. 

BABBEB, s. The barber of any thing, is a 
phrase used by the yulgar to denote the best, 
or what is excellent in its kind; S. 

IsL baer it an adj. expressing abundance, and mark- 
ing quiditj ; iufbaer, praestans. Su.-G. bat'ti, baer-a^ 
But the origin is quite obsours. 


Tbm seems to be the diseess, whidi the Yr. call (ar- 
tel^ thus ezpL by Cotgr. : ^'Pushes, or little bladders, 
under the tMgues of horses and caltell, the which they 
kill if they be not speedily cured. Barbe$ aux veaux, 
Tha barbies ; a white excrsseenoa which, like the pip 
in ehickingi, mwes under the tongues of calres, and 
hinders them nom sucking." 

Ths Botch snd fts Bm^tt. 

PohparfM FtjfUmgt p. la V. Cuna. 

BABBLYT, paH. pa. Barbed. 

And with wapnys, that seharply schsr. 
Sum in the ford thai bekwart bar : 
And sum, with srmys barblpi brsid, 
8a ^et msrtyidome on thsun hss maid, 
That thai gsn draw te wmrd the place. 

^ ■ ?ia 67. Ma 

ilrmys barbl^ braid signifies, arms weU barbed. 
Fkk barMi, id. JTsdU ftorftdt^ a barbed arrow. 

BABBOUB'S ENYF, the denomination 
which would seem to have been anciently 
given to a razor. 

— '* A pars of cardis price zzx d. a oaiss with thrs 
barbourit kn^|Ut twa psrs of barbonris syssouris 
[soissars], a kame, a mTrrour [mirror], price x s." 
Act. Dom. Cone. A. 1492, p. 282. 

In this passage we hare a curious trait of ancient 
manners. We could scarcely hare expected, that in 
Sootiand mon than three eentnrics ago^ especially in 
the north to which tiiis act refers, any one, still less 
an ordinary squire, would have been so wsU accommo- 
dated with an apparatus for dressing. 

ToBABBULYIE, v. a. To disorder, to 

— Efery thing Mppsrit twse 
To my ft ar ftalifiwi brain. 
GWrrMoiMf iShi^ St I7t Bvergreim, IL 100. 

Lat. vers, imrbaimm caput. 

" Youth is abusit and oorraptit : the author and his 
warkis schamefnllie blottit and barbuly^/^^-lL, Char- 
teris, Pref. to Lyndsa/s Warkis, 1S92. A. 5. a. 

Fr. barbouilU^ confusedly jumbled or huddled to- 
gether. This is probably from Arm. barboell, comp. 
of bar without, and poel/L in composition boeU^ stop. 

This word is stOl used in Perths. and Menteith, in 
the ssme sense. 

Barbultie, $. Perpleadly, qoandaij, Bozb. 

" I— etude— awutheryng what it ayysit me neiate to 
doo in thilka 6ati6u/ye.'^ Hogg's Winter TUes» ii. 41. ' 

To BABD, Baibd» v. a. To caparison, to 
adorn with trappings: Bardiif Bairdit^ pret. 
and part pa. O. K id. 

His horn wsstetnfil lUl brsTelie. 

Lpidta^M Sfwir* Mddrum, T. Babois. 

Bakdin, s. Trappings for horsey the same 
with BardyngtBj onty in singular. 

"Item,— thair, oertane aald hames with foir geir 
and bak fleir, with part of anid splentis, and bardUi to 
hoffs." Liventories, A. ISeSb p. 170. 

Babdiness, $. Petulant forwaidnessy pert- 
ness and irascibilityi as manifested in con- 
▼ersatioUi S. 

BABDACH, Babdt, adj. 1. « Stout, fear- 
less, positive.** 

Thns AiniaeA is defined, OL Ross, a B. 

But a' thing grew Usek sad eery like,— 
And tho' she was rl^t bmrdaek on day-light, 
She wss ss fly'd ss ony hsrs at night 

Bom^M Mdemon, pi SS, 
She nerer minds her, but tells on her tale. 
Right baokl snd tentocA, likely-like and hsa 

Ibid, p.SL 
And held and bardaek the gnde-wife 

Sas dsrf couth wield her gnde biown spear ; 
To feeht for her country sad gode-man, 
Could Scotswomsn own a woman*i fosr f 

/ssMswaV B^pidmrBatt, IL 17& 
It is rsndered •^lonrard,'* OL 

2. It is undoubtedly the same word that in the 

South and West of S. is pron. bardy ; and 

signifies that the penon» to whom it is ap- 

pued, is not only irascible and contentious, 

»ut uncivil and pertinacious in managing a 

disDute. This term is generally appropriated 

to female petulance. 

A maid of senss bs sure to wale. 
Who times her words with essy cars : — 

Bat than the pert sad tenly dame, 
Whose wonu ma swiftly void of lease, 

A stranger she to wit and shsme. 
And slwajs snrs to giTS oflence. 

A OaUowa}^» Foems^ p. 201 

It sometimes expresses ths bittemeM of a cur. 
I wss a tervfjf tyk and banld. 

ITataM's CoU. L «a 

It can scarcely be doubted that this word is nearly 
allied to IsL barda, pugnasc, bardagi, 8n.-G. bardaffa^ 
piaelium, from Aoer-io, to fight ; pret. kard^t* For it 





fti^iii tk« origbal ld«ft» irith thiidillmiieeoiily, thai 
what prinuuily respactod the hAikU is now tnuufemd 
to ths tongae, a meiaber not leit nnmly. If I mistake 
WB^ it fii stOl oooasicMiall y applied in its primary sense 
to a dog. m denotinff that he is stannoh in fight. This 
fii BBobably implied m the line above qootod ; especially 
as oanljf is ooigoined with btuUd* Henosb 

Babdilt, adv. 1. Boldljy with intEepidity. 

hey, hmdUp, m 



IWy, hardUp, and hsidihTf 

faCd home or foreign roe ; 
Thovgh often forfooghten. 

gnid^ the Mow. 

i. Pertljr; 8. Y. Babdach. 
Basdie, f. A gelded cat ; Ang. 
Babdis, t. pL Trappings. 

Oaer al.fte plsais hrsTii the sUmpend stedis, 
¥nX fslyaara in than Mmiw and weraly wadis, 
Aponn thaie stnte bom brydillis bnaikaad fast 

Limg. VnpO, 88S. 84. 

Fhalarae^ VirgO. See the deecriptioB of a banied 
hone in Oroae's MiHt. Antiq. i. lO^i 104. ^ He derives 
hatrdtd from Fr. hard^ oorerad. 

Bat aa banH§ is hers oonjoined with toartip wedU, 
or wailike dress, it is most probable that it originally 
d—o tod tha pikes or spears fixed in their trappinin. 
For Ooth. bindt 0. Tent, bofde, Qerm. 6aff, is a p(3e- 
as; Henoa those QothiL who gave their name to 
Lombardy» were called ':£ojiyo6anli, not from wear- 
ing long h€tund$, bat long pole-axes or spears. 
(XrfMosn. Anti^. Saio-Ck>th. p. 120); and the en- 
syn of their kingdom was a lion erected on a lance. 
Smoo. alM\ the origin of hatberd^ Fr. kallebard^ 
iram, kaU, a haU» and hard, a battle-ax; because 
snob axss were wont to be carried on poles, by those 
who goarded the haU or palace of a prince. A ves- 
tige of this ancient badge of dignity still exists in onr 
rml boroagh% in the processions of the Magistrates, 
WBOB battle axes an carried before them oy their 

The wofd, in what we reckon its secondary sense, 
ooeors in various langnaaes : Tout, barde fnmjpeerden, 
nhalerait, F^. hard€$. Lb B. ftonl-a, ephippium, Du 
Guifle. Tent. 6anler-«is phalerare, phalens omare, 

BABDTVOiSy 8. pL Trappings of hones. 

**At kMt ha oomyng of Welchemen ft Comwal, sa 
ho^ nois rais be reird ft sowne of bellis that hang on 
thair bardifngU, that the ennymes war afllrayt, and 
finely mt to flycht.** BeUend. Cron. Fol. 25. b. This 
is ovioently off the same signification with Bardu, 

Babdish, a<^'. Rude, insolent in language. 

'The rest of that day, and much also of posterior 
noBSt were mispent with the altercation of that 
banU§h man Kr. D. Bogleish, and the yoong constable 
of Dondee." BaUlie's Lett. i. 311. 

This seems the same with bardie; unless we should 
snpDoae it to be formed from bard, S. baird, a min- 
stnL During the time that the feudal system was in 
full power, the bard was a person of great consequence 
with the chieftain, whose wariike deeds he celebrated, 
and transmf ttod to suooeeding generations, lliis order 
of men beina admitted to such familiarity in great 
h o n ses, wonla retain their petulant manners, even after 
their oonsequenoe was gone. 

BARD'S CROFT, the designation given to 
a piece of land, on the property of a chief- 


tain, heieditarilv appropriated to the Bard 
of tne f amily, S. 

"Flora was so much beloved by them, that when 
Mac-Murrogfa composed a song in which he enumer- 
ated all the principal beauties m the district, and inti- 
mated her superiority by concluding, that *the faireat 
apple hung on the higheet bough,' he received, in 
donatives uom the individuals of the clan, more seed- 
barley than would have sowed his Highland Pamaesus, 
the oartTM Onfi, aa it was called, ten times over.** 
Waverley, i. 823, 324. 

BARE2, adj» Lean ; S. evidently an oblique 
sense of A.-S. hare^ baer^ nndns, q. having 
the bones naked. 

BAREFIT, Babefoot, adj. Barefooted, S. 

The lasses, skelpin bar^, thiang, 
In iilks sn' icsrlete gutter. 

Bmrtu, HL 8L 

Much as our southern neishbonn have supposed 
our females to be attached to tne bare foot, oi^ certain 
occasions the view of this is very unacceptable to 

*' Upon an expedition, they much reffarded omens. 
— If a woman bar^aoi crossed the road before them, 
they seized her, and fetched blood from her forehead." 
Shaw's Moray, p. 232. 

One might have supposed that the/oof, aa the party 
immediately offending; should rather have been the 
immediate subject of punishment. But some peculiar 
anti-magical rnult has still been attributed, by super- 
stition, to ''drawing blude aboon the breath.** It is 
in this wav alone, tmit one can expect to counteract a 
witoh. The brow is the plsoe always aimed at. 

Babefoot-bboth, Babefit-kail, «. Broth 
made with a little butter, without any meat 
having been boiled in i^ Aberd.; also de- 
nominated Mualin^Bailj Lentrin'taily and 
more literally Fleshl^^^mlj S. 

" The more economical way of using bear or barley, 
is, when it is ground in a b«rley mill, and boiled as pot 
bariey, either with a little butter, and a few vegetables, 
(in which case it ia provinetallv called bartfoot broth), 
or with a bit of meat, where wis can be had, or with 
milk, when it is called milk broth.*' Agr. Surv. of 
Abeid. p. 518. 

I was mosin in my mind, — 
On hair-mould bannoclcs fed an' bart-Jbot kaU, 

TaipU^9 SooU Poem$, p. 3. 

may y% blew the reamin ale, — 


I slab up my barefU hcoL 

r<mr Norland WiUie. Ibid pi 173. 

Evidently from the idea of a bare foot, as expressive 
of poverty. V. Musux Kail, and Lkntrystb. 

To BAROANE, o. n. To fight, to contend. 

Wallace, be said, it prochys ner the nycht, 
Wald thow to morn, qohen that the day is lycht, 
Ornyn of belL mdt me at this cbapell. 
Be Dimypaas I wald haiff your couhmIL 
Wallace said. Nay. or that ilk tyme be went, 
War all the men nyn till [the] orient, 
In*till a will with Edunard, quha had suom. 
We sail baraan be IX houris to mom. 

WaUaee, x. 618. Ha 

So.-O. baer-ia, biargK-ti, ferire, pugnare. ffwar mm 
biarghtM um Patea dag ; Qui verliera dederit die Pas- 
chatos. Leg. Westgoth. Ihre^ vo. Baeria, 




TUt T. nteiiM nearij all the foroe of iti primMy 

Hm Iml im yonder har, with the brown heir, 
Bfdby they cnll her, fofyaiiu teofh and aeir, 
Thai Lindy thera and by hiM pronuaa bide^ 

itoai'a Hclmefv, pi 100. 

Lo. ''ooQtandaatraniioiialy,'' 

BaboanE| $. 1. Fight, battle, skirmish. 

And mony tymya iache thai wald. 
And terpone at the barraiaa hald ; 
And wound thair fkyia oft and ahL 

BarUmr, It. OS. MS. 

Ha, Ingaiiw Und, battel thou ▼« portendis, 
Qnod my father Anchinea, for as, well kend ie, 
Horaaia ar draasit for the bargeme fele ayia 
Wen and debeit thyr ateidia aignlfyia. 

ihug. riftpo, soi as. 

8a.-0. bctrdaga, hL bardagi, praelium. V. the Terb. 

2. Bargain is- used as denoting contention, or 
controyersy, S. B. 

nine at their ftorpatn we the lada mann leave, 
TUl of the aqoira aome ahoit aoooant we give. 

Jtota'e ilUmon^ p. 98. 

8. In the following passage it denotes struggle, 

A band of Kettrin hamphia'd all oar braes, 
Oa'd aff our gneeda at twelve hoars of the day ; 
Nor had we mangfata to tnra again the prey. 
flair Aoiystn made oar herda to tain again. 
Bat what needs mair I all was bat wark in rain. 

itoas'e MtUmm, p. 90. 

Baboaneb, $. A fighter, a bully. 

Than Tr$ eom on with atart and attyfe ; 
Hie hand waa av npoan hia Icnyfe, 

He branoeiat lyke a beir. 
Boetaria, brag^pria, and barffoneris, 
Bftir Urn paaait into paizii, 

AH iwdin in fdr of weir. . 
Jhmbar, BanttaljpM Poems, p. 28. at. 1 

Ln. after Tre^ here pereonified. 

Baboanyko, $. Fighting. 

Thia Baeea, wyth hyddaona barganyng. 
In Itale thrawart pepill aaU doon thring. 

Doug, VvgU, SI. 0. 

He thocht weiU he waa worth na aeyle. 

That mycht of nana anoyia feyle ; 
And ala fbr till eacheve gret thin^. 
And hard trawalya, and baroanyingit. 
That anld ger hia wioa dowblyt be. 

Beurbimr, L 80S. Ma 

Worda of thia form are eyidently verbal nouna, re> 
aembling the gemnd in Lat., aa eonUng, beginnutg, Ac 

SiL-O. bardagamad-nr, praeliator, ia equivalent; q. 
• figfataig man, one given to barganyng, 

BAB-OHAIST, 8. << Bar-gutaU a ghost, all 
in white, with large saucer eyes, commonly 
appearing near gates or stiles ; there called 
Ian* Yorks. Derived from iar and ^Aeia^;" 

I give thia Torka. term, aa occnrring in the follow- 

^'He uideratood Greek, Latin, and Hebrew; and 
therefore, aoeordin^ to — hia brother Wilfrid, needed 
not to oare for ghatat or bar^ghaid, devil or dobbie." 
Bob Boy, u. 24. 

B ARHE YD, adj. Bare-headed ; Aberd. Keg. 
A. 1535. 

To BARK, V. a. 1. To strip a tree of its 

hofk^ especially for the purpose of tanning, 

S. BarkUf parL pa* 

*' Sowtera aonld be ohallenged, that they bark lether, 
and makea ahoone otherwniee than the law permittee : 
that ia to aav, of lether onhere the home and the eare 
are of ane like lenth. They make ahoone, buitee, and 
other graith, before the lether ia barked.** Chalmerlan 
Air, o. 22. 

^Twa battia of fcirifcil bhanit ladder.— 

BamnatgmM Pomu, p. 180. at 9. 
Le. two bite or pieoea. 

Sn.-0. ftorifc-a, id. barha hmdar, to tan hidee. Tan- 
ning ia thna denominated, becanae the bark of treee i« 
the great article uaed in thia operation. 

2. To tan leather. 

" Hell glonr at an anld waiid bari^ aik-anaff aa if it 
were a queex-madam in fnll bearing." Bob Boy, ii. 

Babk-potis, 9.pL Tan-pits. ^Theyairdis 
and bdfipoHi. Aberd. Keg. 

To BARKEN, v. n. To dot, to become hard ; 
used with respect to any substance that hath 
been in a liquid state, as blood or mire, S. 

The part ooenra aa to both in Douglaa. 

— He vmonhile aftar the cart waa rent, 

With barmyt blude, and powder. 

yygO, 48l 8. 

Bndd. derivee thia from bark^ "which eloatha th«i 
tree, and ia generally vexy hard." I cannot aubatitate 
anything better. 

^* The beat wa^'a to let the blood bark^ on the cut 
— ^that aavea pkuatera, hinney.*' Ouy Kannering, ii. 

Babkeb, «. A tanner. 

"Ka Stttar, Tanner, or Barker, may bay hydia of 
mair price, bat aio aa bee the homia and the earia of 
eqnall lenth." Balfoor'a Pract p. 74. 

VtL barker, a tanner, from bcark-tr, to tan. 

Babkino and Fleeing, a phrase used con- 
cerning one who spends his property in a 
prodigal way, and is believed to be on the 
eve of bankruptcy ; S. 

It haa been eoppoeed that thia containa an allnaion 
ta the barking of dogs, and the Jiighi of birda, in con* 
aeqnence of the alann given. It would be fully aa 
natural to view it in ruerence to treea oaating their 
bark, and to ita being carried away by the wiml. It 
may be obeerved, however, that, acoordinff to Ihre, in 
eome parte of Sweden, the v. baik-a, aignifiee to fly, to 
run quickly ; vo. Bark, cortex. 

** *0, the landa of Milnwood !~the bonny landa of 
Milnwood, that have been in the name of Morton for 
twa hundred yeara !' exclaimed hia uncle ; ' they are 
barking and deeing, outfield and infield, hangfa and 
holme t'" Talea of my Landloid, ii. 187. 

" * Half the country once belonged to my anceaton, 
and now the laat furrowa of it aeem to be flying.' 
' Fleeing !' aaid the writer, ' they are barking andjfrt- 
jna baith.' '* St. Ronan, i. 236. 

Thia phraae ia expreaaMl in a fuller manner in Fife : 
He^t hunting and hawkin'j, but keUl mnm be barking and 
Jleeing, It haa been aaid in explanation, that the Ian- 
guace being evidently meant to ex|)reae the contraat 
prouuced by extravagance, it may intimate, that the 
prodigal aa it were takea the place of hia AoviMif and 





JMNHM. I do nol^ howertr, sm how tho tarm haMnf 
can bo ftpolMd to him ; as he would most probably wiui 
Id/b8 witkoat making any wmm. 

BAKEJT, pari. pa. 1. Clotted, hardened^ 

t. The face is said to be ^iarkU wT dirt,** 
wlien it is jerj dirty, encnisted with dirt, S. 

A. Bor. **barkU,dut,ko, haidenedon hair;*' Grose. 

He ffiTis the same etymon that Rodd. has given. 
f Halaoffsoo rsnders IsL boHk^ entem indaers, men- 
tioning Dan. hdUaederMM its synonyms, i,e. **to clothe, 

OOrOr OTSr* 

B^iOT^parLpa. Stripped of the bark, S. 
BASL A-BREIEIS, Barley-bracks, 9. pL 

A fune gsnendlv played hy yoong people in a com- 

rpd. Henoe csfied Barkt-bracht about the siacLt^ 
BL One stack is fixed on ss the duU or goal ; and 
one penon Is appointed to catch the rest of the com- 
V^TiJ^^ ''^ <^^ ^iiom the dnle. He does not leave 
it^ tin thev ars all out of his siffht. Then he sets 
olT to catcu them. Any one^ wno is taken, cannot 
m oat again with his fonner associates, being ac- 
coontsd a prisoner ; bat is obliged to assist his captor 
la nwisning the rest. When au are taken, the game 
Is nnished ; and he, who was first taken, is bound to 
ael as catcher in the next game. This innocent sport 
nsBS to be almost entirely forgotten in the Soatn of 
8. It is ahn falling into desnetude in the North. 

In Hay v^ itammoiinlHi and ^ ftf^*»^f ^ 
In gudyngb grene to p^y lyk lammii ;— 
8am ryanis at foiia6mfcu lyk rammis, 
8am roond abowt the •tandandpilleris* 
Aott, Ml Maif, JkmiuUytu MSC V. Ever-grMO, IL 
188L Chion. a P. iiL 108. 

Fsrimpa firam ftorlqf and hrtt^ q. hreakmg of the 
purU^; bec ans s^ after a certain time allowed for 
sellliin], preliminaries, on a cry being given, it is the 
boriness of one to catch as many prisoners as he can. 
Bid wo snppose it to be allied to burlaw, this game 
might be viewed aa originally meant as a aportive re- 
nressotation of the pnnishment of thoee who broke 
vie laws of the boon. Analogons to this were the 
plays of the Boy-bishop, the Abbot of Unreason, 
Boba-Hnde, Robbers, Ac. 

This game was well known in England. It is men- 
tioned Dj W. Browne in his Britannia'a Pastorals, 
pnblished about 1614. 

At dooie ezpeetiag him his mother sate, 
Womlring ner boy woold itav from her 10 late ; 
fkamlng ibr him onto herMlfe ezcoMe : 
And Willi soch thoachta sladly herself abuses : 
As that her tonne, uiee day grew olde and weake. 
Stalde with the naidss to sonne at bariibreake. 

Book L Song 8. p. 76. 

It is mentioned by Massinger, and mnch later by 

**Lst them frsely feasts aing, dance, have imppet- 
playsi hobbj-horess, tabers, crowds, and bagpipes, — 
play at ball and barUifbroieB,** Anatomy m. Melan- 
ekmr^ ap. Stnitt» Sports and Pastimes, Introd. xviii. 

Tnis sport» like that of the Boy-bishop, as managed 
in Bngland, most have had a very baa inflaence on 
the yooni^ mind, as direotlv tending to expoee the aw- 
fol dootnne of the eternal atate to ridicule. One of 
the compartments of the sround was called hell, V. 
Haes^er, o. L 104, 106. Note. 

WhflS if this ffune has had a Fr. origin, and thns a 
Tr. name? O. Fr. barali signifies bamers ; Barriers, 
barrioade* palitsade ; Boquetort. Bracqut^ " the name 

of a field neere Paris, wherein the sdKrilers of the 
University nee to sollace themselves. Rabelais;** 

BARLA-FUMMIL, Barlafumblb. 1. '<An 
excbunation for a truce by one who was 
fallen down in a wrestling or play.** 

Ihoch he wes wight, he wes nocht wyiss 

With sic ianglenrs to jummil. 
For fra his thowme thay dang ane ski jss, 

QnhUl he.ervit BarlafummU I 

Ckr. Kirk. St 16. 

2. It is also used, perhaps improperly, for a fall. 

When coach-men drinks, and horses stumble. 
It's hard to miss a borkhfumbU, 


Rndd. derives this word from barlt or barla, in the 
of parky, and fummU, need in Aberd. for 
i^ammU, a fall or trip ; vo. Fumler, But the rest 
of this poem is not in the Abeqd. dialect. This de- 
rivation is therefore contrary to analogy. Callen- 
der, giving the same origin to barla, seeks that of 

fummU in Su.-G. favda, to stretch the hands hither 
and thither, as one does when groping in the dark. 
What affinity this has to a parlev, I cannot discern. 
Hie whole term might be viewed ss Fr. ; q. Parlrz, 

Jfoi melez, ** Let ns have a trace, and Uend our faith," 
i.e. grant mutual security. This, however, is still 
mere conjecture. 

BARLEY, 9. A term used in the games of 
children, when a truce b demanded ; S. 

I have been sometimes inclined to think, that this 
exclamation might originallv have a reference to Bur» 
law, byriaw, q. v. Qerm. bauerlag, as if the person 
' daiinea the benefit of the laws known by this designa- 
tion. But perhape it is more natural to view the wonl 
as originating frmn IV. Parlez, whence E. Parley, 

BARLEY-BOX, 9. A small hox of a cylin- 
drical fomiy made as a toy for children^ S. 

It may have received its name as having been for- 
meriy used l»y farmers for carrying samples of barley 
or other grain to market. 

This is called Barrel-box, Aberd. ; whence it has 
been viewed as signifying a box like a barreL 

BARLEY-BREE, 9. The essence or juice 
of barley^ whether fermented or distilled, S. 

When neebors anger at a plea. 
And Just as wud as wud can be. 
How easy can the barley •bree 

Gement the quarrel ! 
It's aje the cheapest lawyer's fee, 
To taste the barreL 
Bume'e Worke, ilL 18. V. BBn, Ban!. 

Barley brolh is said by Johns, to be " a low word 
sometimes used for strong beer.** He gives it on the 
authority of Shakespear, 

BARLEY-CORN, s. A species of grain, 

*' It is commonly sown with mixed corns, and some- 
times with what we call barley<om** — '* Barley oate, 
— so called from the meal being similar in taste to that 
of barley," N. Surv. Banffs. App. p. 61. 

BARLEY-FEVER, 9. Sickness occasioned 
by drunkenness, S. O. 

BARLEY-MEN. V. Burlaw. 




BARLEY-SICK, adj. Intoxicated, tick from 
the immoderate use of the barUy^nte^ S. O. 

If Jolmlt iM nM btuiqf-Mk, 

I doabl ball eUw mj tkin ; 
rU tak a wn Mt DApockia, 

Balora that I gM In. Song, Wm Wi/bekie, 

BABLET-eicxmESS, $. Intoxication, S. O. 

BARLICHOOD, $. A fit of obstinacy, or 
violent ill humour, S. 

iBStcad tlieii of lang daTi of iweet delyte, 
At day ba dumb, and a the rett hell n vte : 
And maT be. in nia barliekoodi^ ne*er stick 
To lend nla loving wife a loonderins lick. 

Jtamm/t Foem$, U. 79l 

In OL Bams, the tenn is ezpL as if the penrene 
himMiiir» expreaeed by it^ were oocaaioned by the uae 
of boHew or malt, when rednoed to n boTenge ; *' n fit 
of dmnken angry paasion.'* I find6ar2iefii«Mliiaedas 

— Hame the bnaband comei just roarin' fti' ; 
Nor ean the pleaae him in hu barliemocd; 
He oooka hie nandand gi's his wife a thnd. 

Maruon't Poemi, p. 151. 

I hsTS sometimes been disposed to view the firrt 
part of Hm term as fonned from A.-S. bera onus, and 
fie similis, q. resembling a bear, savage, bnitaL 

BoHqf'hood is the prononcistion of the southern 
ooontiesi aa of Boxb. It ia d e fined, " bad humour in 
ooosequenoe of intemperate drinking.** 

when e'er they take their barUy-hooda, 
And heat of fancy ftret their bludee : 
Their vera Idnn and queens ther take. 
And kiU thsmjust for kiUinflTi mke. 

X SodtM Poems, p. 61. 

BABLINO, 8. Expl. a firepole. 

''AoriiRatorfirapolssthiehnndreth— zx. L** Bates 
A. 1611, p. 2. 

BABM» $. Yeast, S. A.-S. bearm, id. 

I msAtioii this word, mejrely to take notioe of • very 
emphatic 8. prorerb. Put oui yewr barm where you 
foot In jfour cue ; io. shew the effects of yoar ill-humour 
where you OMt with the offisnoe. It ie sddreseed to 
thosi^ who beiny displessed at the conduct of one per- 
son, fsssnrs their anger for others who have given no 

To Babi^ V. fi. To fret, to fume, to rise 
gradually into a rage, Ettr. For. 

Bridtnily from the operation of barm, 


There deyde Schyre Jhdae than the Mowbray : 

And Alysawndyrs the Brwt wes tane. 

Bet the Ballrof his nt U gane 

On a fanne Aor» wytn leggTB bare : 

8wa Ml, that he ethehapTd thars. 

TIm Ufe, that ware noucnt tane in hand. 

Tied, qwnare thai mycht fynd warrand. 

ITyalown, viiL 26. 987. 


Q. if a hofse used to cany barm (veet), or a small 
sorry honor* OL Wynt. ** Probably a horse for 
osnyimr out dung to the field ;~Tuinrly, a muck 
horsey Tent, barme, faez, sanies ;" Gl. Sibb. 

But the jphrase is still ussd in Angus, where a barme 
korm signifies a horse without a saddle ; *' to ride a 
barms hone," to ride without a saddle. This sense 
agrees with the rest of ths deecription. As an armed 
oompany came on Edward Baliol, and thoee that were 
with hmi at Annan, unexpectedly at the dawn of the 
day, they had not time to dress themselves. Baliol 
aooordin^ fled, not only with his legs bare, but with- 

out waitinff to get his borM eaddlod. This also corres* 
ponds to uie language used by Fordun. Eadwanlus 
in fugam est oonTersus et fugatus super nmpUefm 

Siuum, eormlan freno et eeUOf una tiUa caligatus, 
teraf(|ue nudatua. Scotichron. L. xiii. c. 25. The 
only diiTereooe is, that Fordun mentions only one leg 
as bare, and that in tiM idea of mmpiex equna he in- 
cludes the eireumstanoe of a bridle, ss well ss a saddle, 
being wanting. 

Tne etymon ia not so clesr ss the signification ; but 
most probably it is a deriTative from Su.-0. Germ. 
bar, nudus ; especially ss the conunon epithet for a 
horse without a eaddle is bare-baekU ; 8. 

I find that the explanation given above exactly 
agreee with the cireumstanoes stated by Hume of (Soda- 
croft, and conclude that the word muet formerly have 
been used in the same aenae in the South of S. 

— "He eecaped very narrowly, beins halfe iiake«l 
(not having leiaure to put on his deaths) and riding 
upon a 6anNe horse mundlfd, and unlbridUtl, till he 
came to Oarlile.*' Hiat. Doug. p. 65. 

BARMINOy %. Interest arising from money, 

" Mv father, in hia teetament, ordained me to hae 
a hundred a year out of the barmimij o' hia lying mo- 
ney." The Aitail, i. 109. 

Apparently in allusion to the rising of a mass in the 

*BABMY, adj. 1. VolatUe, giddy; a 
metaph. sense. 

Hope puts that haist into your held, 

Qululk boylii your barmy brain ; 
Howbeit l^lis hast cnms holy speid. 

Fair bechts wiU mak ftUis lain. 

CAerrit ami Atef, St 92. 

2. Passionate, choleric ^ A barmy quean," a 
passionate woman ; S* 

Babht-bhaiiced, (uf;. The same with Barmy, 
sense 1. 

** A wheen oorfc-headed barmtf'braxned gowks ! that 
winna let puir folk sae muckle ss die in quiet,** kc, 
St. Ronan, iii. 164. 

BARMKYN, Bermktn, «. 1. The ramimrt 
or oatennost fortification of a castle* 

Fehew him self lap rudly fra the hycht, 
Thronch all the fyr can on the barmkyn lycht 
With a gnd saerd Wallace strak off his hed. 

WaUaee, viii. 1067. 

Rodd. derives it^ in his Addenda, from Norm. Fr. 
ftar&yain, F^. barbacane ; ItaL barbkano, Htsp. bar- 
baeafUL, propugnaculum antemnrale. Bullet deduces 
barbaeama from Celt, bar, before, and bach, an incloaure, 
backa to incloee. If not a corr. of barbycan, it may Iw 
from Tent, barm, bearm, berm, a mound or rampart ; 
and perha^ kin, a mark of diminution. 

**iarmUtim wall, barbacane, a bulwark or watch- 
tower, or fortification to a city or castle ; used espe- 
cially aa a fence to the gates or walls ; in which sense 
barmJL'im amounts to the same with what is otherwise 
called antemnrale, promurale, mums exterior or outer 
wall.** Spottiswoode's M8. Law Diet, in vo. 

2. ** It is also used for an aperture in the walls 
of a tower or fortalice, through which to fire 
with muskets on the enemy* Ibid. 

He refers to Durie's Dec. Ramsay v. L. Conheath, 
Dec. IS. 1630. 
£. BarbaeaH is used in both senses. V. JcAnson. 




BABNAOEy «• 1. Barons or noblemeni ool- 
ketiTely newecL 

■drandt LtngKhaaUs bad noir bagone hyH w«r 
Apoo OtkoM. fen awftUl In •ff«r. — 
In ^rnt that M bad MmbUt hk tefftuM?, 
And Mfd tell wfim Sootiand atnda in ate eace, 
Ha tboeht till bym to mak it pUyn oonuoaoai 

O Ibdflr, ioflr tba tor TMana hanmge^ 


^ Mik aguM qnbat naid myMbanoe bafaUia, 
lb Ihij or nioba witb tban broUn wallia. 
. . AMiL Ftf^il, 814 4& 

S. A mnitaiY company; indnding both chief- 
tains and followers. 

Albala tba aoriMV* flokUa totb attaoia, 

Lift voda tba toim, and atrantb wytb waiaty wants. 

IkmglaB, aa Jonina baa obaenrod, oaaa tbia tenn for 
■iilitia» a^^nion, pbalaagea, and tonnae in the original. 
Thm aaino laaraed writer aaya, tbat Douglaa aeema to 
hiKW viowod tbia word aa derived from Mme, aoboleo, 
pnlea ; an wbora Viigil oaea prolee^ we find bamage in 

Dean betbig war tbe &0nMM of Arebadia 

Jkmff, Vifffa, SSI. 4S. 

O. IV.' bamage^ id. Vienz mot Fhmooia, qni aigni- 
Aoit la Oraada, lea Seimenra, lea Gontila-hommea qui 
eompoaent U ooar do Prince. Amlkit Palatini^ Pro* 
cffw^ IfctUm; Bioi. Trmr. V. Babkb. 


Oor loHMf land baa beyn oar aet with war* 
Wttb Saionia bind tbat dola wa maldll dor : 
flfaffn our eldri8| diatroyit oor rjrchtwyaa Und, 
Waiatjt oor raaim olf gold and otbir god. 

WtOlaee, is. SOS. MS. 

In edit. 1S48^ and in poatorior editiona, barren ia the 
wQid vaed. Bat th« SfinBtrel woold baidl^ pay 
poorncomplimeottobiaoonntiy. In MS. it la mini 
wUeb oaaBB to mean naihet from tens a ebild. 

Li Genn., nonna are aomatimae fonned from verba, 
and abetnMta from anbataativea, by tba tennination at; 
aamoMrf; aumtbt from moii, moon; kdmiU, ooontry, 
from Aei»» bome ; aeirol, an oniament^ from tieir^A, to 
adon. utii ia alao a tennination very mnch in uae, 
denoting quality, oondition ; and oocreaponding with 
A.-& kSd^ inatead of which hood ia need m modem E., 
and hM^ kede, in S. and Bdg. Bartmi therefore aeema 
eqvtvaknt to bamkHd, bakiKeidf q. v. "Onr bamat 
land*" tba land of oor nativity. 

BABN^DOOR FOWL, a dunghill fowU S. 

'^'Never had there been anch alangbtering of capona, 
and fat jjeeee^ and barn-door/awts/' Bride of Lammer* 
T, ii. S85. 


agayne to the Kinff ga wa ; 
a the moriL with bta taml, 
kiUbia panaanient. 

BARN£. s. The same with bamage. 

Nowa - - 

That on 

r.ii. 5a Ma 

O. ?r. bamez^ "the nobility, or barona^** Ck>tgr. 

BARNEYS. Achfld. V. Baibx. 
Babnbaioe, Babnaoe, s. Childhood. 

— -"Nevir tn my barneaige intendlt I to sik proud 
arroganoe aa to be aachiamatik, nor yettoaik obatinat 
wilfnlnea aa to be an heretik." N. Winyet*a Queationa, 
Keitb'a Hiat. App. p. SSI. 

** Now in thaur 6oni<v<; " Abeid. Beg. 

BARNE, s. 

OfEoUunoiOi bteatia bauand na drade, 
Tba aulye apred bb brada boaom on brwle, 
Ztpkiprui confortabUl inapiratioan 
For tyU raaaaue law In hu borne adouiu 

Jhug. VwgO, 400. 26. 

TUa word, which ia overiooked by Budd. ahould, I 
anapect, be barme, boeom or laj^ aa avnon. with bomtm, 
V. 94. In thia aenae it ia need m Lyoeana Diaoonua. 

That oon held yn bya terma 
A mavde ydepte yn bya anne, 
Aa brynit aa bloaaa on brara. 

RUmn'i E.M,KiL 26. 
It oocnra alao in Chaucer. 

Moea-O., Sa.-0., Alem., Dan., barm; A.-S. barm^, 
ftaorm, id. Hence Su.-0. barmhertig^ miaericon; 
C!banoer, barme-doih, an apron. 

BARNEHEID. s. Childhood ; also, childish- 
ness. V. nnder Baibn. 

BARNY, s. Abbreviation of the name Bar- 
naby or Barnabas; *^Bamy Kayci" Acts 
1585| iii. 392. Sometimes nemy; ^Bemt/ 
Cowpar,*" p. 393. 

BARNMAN, BABNSHAiCy s. One whose pro- 
vince it is more peculiarly to labour in the 
ftum, S. 

"A fonnnaa, of ordinaiy abilitiea, commonly 
threahed about two boUa (one quarter) of wheat in a 
day, which [it] waa indeed neoeaaaiy to do» in order to 
gam wagea equal to a day-labourer." Agr. Surv, M. 

Babns-bbeakino, s. 1. Any mischievous or 
injurious action ; in allusion to the act of 
breaking up a bam for carrying off corn. 


"There ia blood on your hand, and your clothea an: 
torn. What bama^treaking have vou been at? You 
have been drunk, Bichard, and fighting.'* Nigel, i. 

2. <* Idle frolic ;" GL Antiquary, S. 

BARNYARD, Babnyaibd, s. A court, or 
inclosurBi adjoining the bam^ in which grain 
or straw is stacked, S. 

** The carte or aled drawen by bora or aome other 
beaat, draweth it to the banie, or to the bamuainL** 
Beaaoning^ CroeragueU and J. Knox, Prol. ij, b. V. 

BARNYARD BEAUTY, a phrase commonly 
used to denote a buxom girl, who may ap- 
pear handsome in the eyes of the vulgar, S. 

BARRAGE, Babb^vs, Babbes, Babbowis, s. 
1. A barrier, an outwork at the gate of a 

The IhgUa iacbeyd to ma daliate 
To thaira bamu, and Caucbt faat ; 
Bot thai war drevyn in at the last 

HVnloim, yiiL 31. 185. 

2. An inclosure made of felled trees, for the 
defence of armed men. 

' Off bewyn temyr in baiat ha gert thaim tak 
Byllya off ayk, and a atark btumu mak. 




At a fejr fimmt. Cut In th* fomt sfd. 
A ftiU «t ftruith, qahtf Uud pnrpost to bid ; 
BtoUyt thaim Cut till trab that growuid waa, 
Thai thai mycht weyll in fra the btuTu paH, 
And to wdlf graithit, an athir lid about, 
8jn eom MEayn, qnhoi thai taw thaim in doat 

HUtMik is. 828L MS. Bmmee^r.m. 

3. Bonndsy or lists for combatants. 

Wo pingrl not for ipedo na ooun to ryn, 

Bo« wadBbait mhl thii terrvf within. 

With WMpinnii kone and with onr biniist brandia 

Doug. Yiirfil, 445. 25. 

**H6 (Maobeth) deniait ana aobteU alicht to bring aH 
myidoaria and brokin men to hia jnatioe» k aouatit 
qriidiy hia U^gia with large mone^ to appele the thenia 
(qnhiDua oppreat thame maiat) in harrat agania ane 
nrefizit dav. .^id qnhen thir thenia war enterit in 
tarraa (qnhare thai anld hana foachtin agania thair 
aiohtboiuia) thay war all takin be annit men and 
• bangit onjebatia aooordiog inatljr to thair dementia." 
Baltend, Otob. b. xii o. 4. Ad aingniare provocaverit 
iTtT^"«*"i piMko faro deoemendnm. — Un in forum 
deacandiaaent, fto. Boeth. 

Wnk. fnta gallahdia for feOd gemis enfon; 
&iannit knyohtb at Uatia with acheikl awl apeir, 
lb fteht in lamurii barth on ftita and hon. 

aeoU^ BamuUifm PoemM^ 20a at 28. 

Wa atin apeak of *'aooekina6amiee^'*inaUaaion 
to a cock-pi£ S. 

Bndd. and other Oloaaariata have conjoined thia 
woid with IV. harrtre^ baniare^ aa if they were the 
aama. Bnt^ althoiuh from a common root, they are 
diffnwnt worda. Barrtu ia O. Fr. barrea, palaeatra, 
TbieRy ; Deoonio palaeatrica, Diet. Trev. ; the pL of 
hanrtt a ataka. Coter., however, definea barrts, ** the 
mar^apiaoaoalledMrrieri.'' L. B. 6orrtif ia uaed to 
denote tna barricadoea employed for the defence of 
lowna and eaatlea, in the aame aenaa in which bams 
ooonn in Wallace. 

. — Bamu^ gaadete Qoiiitea, 
fkagimiia, in manibna aont tame deniqiie nostril 

€M, BnL PkSUfp. U & i^ Da Cange. 

BARRAS-DOREy 9. A door made of bar9 
of woodt alU^e dbtant from each other; 

BARRAT9 9. 1. HostSe intercoursey battle. 

In Ii^liannen, allaoa, qnU sold wa traw, 
Onr WMthy kyn haa payned on thia wyas f 
8I0 laolle be lieht ia fitm allow : 
Me think wa anld in tarral mak thaim bow 
At cor powar, and ao wa do feill sjaa 

'^ WmOaM, ii. 237. M3. 

fii editiooai barroet* 

It la need in the aenae of hoatility, O. E. 

8ona thai leiaed atrif, brent the kynae'a tonnes, 
k hia caatlM tok, held tham in ther bandoan.— 
In alia thb bartUe the kyiige and Sir Symon 
TEUa a lokyng tham aette, of the prinoe suM it be dou. 

JL Bnmmt, p. 216. 

It ia not improbable that Barratia, aa need by the 
Qotha in the aenae of praelinm, ia the very wonl 
^Hiich tha later Roman writei* refer to aa employed 
hf tha barbMiana to denote the terrific ahouta made 
hf tham when they rmdied to battle. Thna Ammi- 
anna Marcellinna apeaka: — Pro teirifico fremitu, 
qnam barbari dieont BarriUm; Lib. 26. e. 7. Et 
'B ^pftMii qnidem Tooe nndiqno Martia ooncinentea, k 
minora aolita ad majorem protoUi, qnam Gentilitate 
appellant Barriimm. Barbari vero majomm landea 
Ximoribaa atridebant inconditia, interqne varioa aer* 
ii»y >f« diaaoni atrepitua levioria praelia tentabantnr. 

lib. 31. o. 7. 
La. Enterad into a oqgniianoe. 

2. Contention* of whatever kind. 

It, that je call the bliat bead that bindia ao ikut, 
la hair of blia, and baleOil, and greit barrai wirk ! 

DuwSar. JmaiiUuid Akii. n. 46. 

Tliare n' ia barti, nother atrife, 
N* ia there no death, aa ever life. 

Xmitf </Cbefal^ iWta 4Me. L 86. 

8. Orief 9 vexation, trouble. 

And other bemya, for temif. blakynnit thair ble : 
Braithly bnndin in baill, thair breistia war bkiit 

OswBM oNif OoL iv. at 11. 

Dnnbar, deacribing the alSBOta of dnmkenneaa, aaya : 

Qohilk brewa richt meikle barrti to thy bryd. 

JPwvyreaa, ii. 67. at* 18. 

Becanae the wonl brewt ia here need, although evi- 
dantly in a metaphorical aenae, Ramaay, with anrpriaing 
inadvertence, rendera bamt "a aort of liquor." 

Su.-G. laL baraUOt praeliam. Ihre denvea thia from 
beter-ia, pugnaza, combined with aeija^ atte, which, 
he aava, among other aonaea, haa that of contendere ; 
▼o. Baeria. The ItaL retaina baraUa^ m the aame 
aanae^ aa a remnant of the Ctothio. 

BARRATRIES, «. A species of simony ; or, 
as defined bjr Erskine, ^ the crimo of clerg} - 
men who went abroad to purchase benefices 
from the see of Rome with money.** Inst. 
B. 4. T. 4. § 30. 

"Gif ony — makia Barratries fra it be kend with 
anfficient k gade document, that he ynderhr the atatute 
maid afiane thame that hea money out of the realme. 
And that thia atatute be not aUanerlia extendit to 
thame that doia barrairie in tymea to come, bnt ala to 
thame outwith the Realme now, that beia connict of 
barrairU:* Ja. L 1427. c 119. edit. 1566. 

Tha peraon ohaigaable with thia crime waa called 

"And ala the king forbiddia, that ony of hia liegia 
aend ony esmanaia till ony barraiourt^ that ia now 
ontwith the Realme, or gif tiiama help or fauoure, in 
qnhat degre that aner tmty attene to, quhil thay com 
hame in the Realme^ vnder tha pane of tha braking 
of tha Act of Parliament.'* ihid. 

Brddna mantiona L. B. baratria aa denoting the 
crime of exchanging jnatice for money ; and derivea it 
from ItaL bar^Uart to trock or barter. Hia origin 
aeema laUier O. ¥t. barat^ deceit^ Aomt-er to cheat, 
baraUur, a daoeivar; Arm. borate barad^ fraua, pro- 
duotio ; baroiert proditur. 


Barrbl-fevebs, 9*pL A term used, by the 
▼nicar, to denote the disorder pnxiucKsd in 
the body by immoderate drinking, S. Tlie 
Dntch have a similar designation ; kelder- 
koarUf the oellar^igae. 

BARRIE, 9. 1. A kind of half-petticoat, or 
swaddling cloth of flannel, in which the legs 
of an infant are wrapped for defending them 
from the cold, S.; perhaps from A.-S.Sn.-0. 
bar^ nadus, because it goes next to the body. 

I have not met with thia word in print, except in a 
aarcaatical aong, where it aeema rather to aigmf y tlie 
undermoat dreaa of a grown up female, 

— ^Dinna be lang ; 
For pettiooat'a looae, and barrie't alitten. 
And a'a gaen wrang, and a'a gane wrang. 





S. A wonuui's pettiooati Ayn. GL Picken. 

BABRrrCHFir,aJ> Hanh, stern; unfed- 
ini^ crnd ; a strong expression, AbercL 

Q. Aomtf/WI^ from Barriai, Kottile inteieoane, ooo- 
Imlioiit oompoonded like IiL barraiit§a!m»r, and bar* 
dagt^lAr, hmh n^^nifying po^pax, dispoMd to qturrel 
or Bffkt, SoBM mi^t pruer Tiewing it q. boarraet^milt 
from Btmraeit liofei for oomb«tanti. 

To BARBO W, V. o. To borrow, S. O. 

**! tUak Fte tefTMrina Tam'o daffin ere he haa done 
wfl a' hlmioU.'' Beg. Dalton, ill. ISa 

BABRO WMAN, $. One who carries stones, 
ftiortar, Ac. to masons, when building, on a 

**I win ghre jroo to know that old maaoos are the 
best b arrv w mem ,*' Perile of Man, ii 826. 
TUa alliidei to the oommon proverb : 
**Am anld maaon will mak a gade terretoman,'* S. 

— -Ow hinda atreadx 
Blaiid metunorphoMd into barrowmen, 
CUrt with fUr aprooa red with lime and Miid. 
Tumtmft Card, BtaUm, p. ISa 

BABBOWSTEEL, %. A term used in re- 
gard to equal bo-operation. When man and 
wife draw well together, each is said to keep 
ftfkuQC her am oanvweieelf Boxb. 

Aa A.<43. $ldi aignifjea manabrinin, a handle, O. E. 
id. ;— tiio phraae may have been originally applied to 
the beoriiig, by difEarent perwma, of a load on a 6amw. 

BABBOW-TBAM, e. 1. The limb of a 
liaiid4)aRow, S. 

S. ^ Jocniariy applied to a raw-boned** per- 

TIL thoeht thy bnumis be like twa barrow trammis^ 
MiBd thA, man. 

L^adm^t Worki, Chalm. Ed. iL in, V. Team. 

BABS^ e. A grate, Boxb. ; q. ribs of iron. 

Bab-stane, e. One of the upright stones 
which supports a grate, Boxb.; so called 
because tne bare or ribs of the grate are 
fastened into them ; syuon. Catstane. 

BABSK» adj. Harsh, huskj; Allan. V. 

BABTANE, e. Great Britain. 

Than wiAd earn reath within yow rest 
fte eaik of hir, feirett and best. 
In Marians ijb hir tyme bfSeB- 

—An fSba elaith in France and Bartane 
Wald net bo to hir lege gartaae. 

IkmnaiyKe Poewts, 147. st 7. 

Lord Bailee ondentaiida Bretagne aa meant; hot 
ttdaii written BaHamifet q. ▼• Hie mistake ia evident 
from aootiier peeeage m the same poem, at. 10. 

WottUe King Arthour and Oawane, 
And mony a oawld heme of Bartane, 
Ar deid, and in the weiris ar slane. 
Sen I cowld weild a speir. 

Thia ia merely a oorr. of Britain, in the aame man* 
nar aa the name of the castle, anciently called Dnnbri* 
afterwards changed to Durabertanef Dambar* 

Um, I ahall not enter into any diaoiuoion on the origin 
of the name Briiaia, Aa the Greeks called it Ibcrairuiy, 
Boohart Tiewa the term aa derived from two Pncenician 
or Svriao worda Baraih'-anae^ the land of Tin. Qeo* 
graoh. 84o. P. ii. Lib. i. o. 39. Qen. Vallancey givea it 
aa Ir. Bruii-taa, having the same meaning, ftef . to 
Proepeotua, Ixvii. 

Bartanye, Bertanye, e. Brittanj. 

*'Qahen Swetooioa had dantit the De of Man in 
thia manor, he waa aduertvst that France was rebellit. 
And thairfore to peacyfy thia tmbyll he puUyt vp aalia 
and arrynit in Bartaaffe,** Bellend. Cron. B. iv. e. 4. 

''Sooe efter hie coronation he past in Bartanye, k 
left behvnd hym hiv gnd fader Dioneth with ane legion 
of pepyl to gooeme Britane." Ibid. B. vii. o. 12. 
Armoncam Provinciam, Booth. 

Bertaaari»f and Bertemeru, denote the inhabitanta of 

"Fynaly he dantit the Bertonar