Skip to main content

Full text of "A Report on the Geology of Louisiana"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

f * 







1900, 1901, 1902 

GILBERT D. HARRIS, Geologist-in-Charge 
ARTHUR C. VEATCH, Assistant Geologist 


JOV. A. A. PACHECO, Assistant Geologist 


WM. C. STUBBS, Director 


Tht Nfc.W V'.- 


LonisiAKA stIte uifltfERsn*y 


Louisiana Stale Board of Agriculliire and Immigration. 


GOVERNOR W. W, HEARD. President. 
WILLIAM GARIG. Vice-Prewdent Board of Supervisors. 
J. G. LEE, CotamiBsioner of Agricclluie and Imm illation. 
THOMAS D. BOYD, President Stale fniveraily. 
WILLLUI C. STL'BBS, Diteclor State ExperimeTit Stations. 

JOHN.DVMOND. Belair, U. judRc KMII.E ROST, St. Rose, La. 

A. V. EASTMAN, Uke Charles, La. CHAS. SCIU'LER, Keachie. La. 
E. T. SELLERS. Walnnl Lane, La. H. P, McCLRNDON. Amite Cily, Lt 
Slalioa Staff. 

WM. C. STUBBS, PH.D.. Director. 

R, E. BLOUIN, H.5.. Assistant Director and Chemist, Audubon Park, 
New Orleans, La. 

D. N. BARROW. B.S.. Assistant Director, Calhoun. La. 

W. R. DODSON. A.B., S.B., Assistant Director, Baton Rouge, La. 

M.BIRD, M.S., Chemist, Calhoun, La. 

P. L. HUTCHINSOX, B.S.. Chemist, Audnbon Park, New Orleans, La. 

T. W, YorNG, JR.. B.S., -Assistant Chemist, Andnboo Park, New 
Orleans, La. 

C. E, COATES, PH.D., Chemist, Baton Rouge, La. 

R. GLENK, Ph.G., B.S., Chemist. Audubon Park, New Orleans, La. 

J. F. HARP, B.S., Assistant Chemist, Calhoun, I.a. 

Prof. G, D. HARRl.S, PH.B.. Geologist In charge of Geological Survey, 
Andnbon Park, New Orleans, La. 

A. C. VEATCH, Assistant Geologist, Aadubon Park, New Orleans, La. 

J. PACHECO, Assistant Geologist. Audubon Park, New Orleana, La, 

H. A. MORGAN, B.S.A.. Entomolugist, Baton Kouge. I.a. 

F. H. BURNETTE. Horticulturist, Baton Rouge, La. 

W. H. DALRYMPLE, M.R.C.V.S., Veterinarian. Baton Ronge, I.a. 

GEO, CHIQUELIN, (Grad, Audubon Sug. Sch.), Sugar Maker. Audnbon 
Park, New Orleans, La, 

WM. D. CLAYTON, M.S,, Farm Mgr., .\udubon Park, New Orleans, La. 

JAS. CLAYTON, Farm Mgr., Baton Rouge, La. 

T. J. WATSON. Farm Mgr., Calhoun, La. 

E. j'. WATSON, Horticulturist, Calhoun, La, 

A. N. HUME. Dairyman and Poultryman, Calhoun, La. 

J, K, McHUGH, Secretary and Stenographer, .A.adubon Park, New 
Orleans, La. 

H. SKOLFIELD, Treasurer, Baton Rouge, La. 

The Bulletins and Reports will be sent free of charge to all farmers by 
applying to Commissioner of Agriculture and Immigration, Baton Rouge, 


o the Director of the Station, Audubon Park, New Orleans, 



Prefatory Remarks 

No. I 



G. D. Harris 

No. a 


A. C. VeaTCH 

No. 3 




No. 4 

A. C. Veatcb 

No. 5 


G. D. Habris 

No. 6 

G. D. Harris akd J. Pachkco 

No. 7 

R. A. Harris (of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survej-) 

No. 8 

G. U. Hakkis 



Office of Experiment Stations, 

Louisiana Stats Univbksity and A, and M. College, [ 

Baton Rouge, La.. Mar., igos. ) 

To His Excellency W. W. Heard, Governor 0/ Louisiana, and 
Presidenl of Board of Agriculture : 

Sir: Arrangements have been made with Prof. G. D. Harris, 
Pb.B., of Cornell University, for the continuation of the Geo- 
logical Survey of this State. He has had the assistance of Mr. 
J. Pacheco and Mr. A. C. Veatch. The limited amount of appro- 
priation has prevented the employment of these gentlemen contin- 
uously. Accordingly, they havegiven three monthsof each year 
to the energetic prosecution of the work in the field, and have 
prepared for the press the notes made in the field during their 
official services elsewhere. 

Since our last report a wonderful interest has been created in 
the geology of Louisiana by virtue of the discovery of oil in this 
State and in Texas. Again, the question of obtaining artesian 
water is being discussed by nearly every locality in the Slate, 
and the location of the true water-bearing strata underlying this 
State has been a special study by the survey. Since the dis- 
covery of the strata of sand and gravel underlying Southwest 
Louisiana, and the horing of hundreds of wells which are irri- 
gating thousands of acres of rice, every other section of the State 
has been deeply interested in finding out the character of the 
subterranean strata and the possibility of obtaining water. This 
subject is fully treated in the accompanying pages. 

The numerous gushers at Beaumont, Texas, have excited per- 
sons in all parts of the State to action. Many wells have been 
bored in various parts of the State, and numerous companies 
have been formed for exploiting the State's wealth in this great 
fuel and illuminant. 

Some few efforts have been successful ; many have failed. In 
this report will be found a full discussion of the oil conditions of 
this State, and it is hoped that the facts given will deter com- 
panies from expending large sums of money in the vain hope of 

Letters of Transmission v 

obtaining oils ia unfavorable localities where the so-called oil 
experts have pronounced an abundance of this greasy fluid, A 
knowledge of the geology of a section is often of valuable aid in 
determining where not to bore. 

The demand for the geological reports of the State is now 
enormously large. There is a constant stream of immigrants 
coming to this State, some seeking homes, some fields for invest- 
ment, and others looking ouly to speculation. All want the 
latest developments in regard to soils, minerals, waters, etc. 

To meet the existing demands for this information, a sum suf- 
ficiently large to permit a continuous and vigorous prosecution 
of this work, should be made by the next legislature. It will 
be, perhaps, the most profitable investment that the State could 
make, and I earnestly recommend to your Excellency such an 

Louisiana has 45,000 square miles of various geological hori- 
zons. She has wonderful resources that await only accurate 
knowledge of them to be developed into active wealth. 

For the special papers included in this report see contents on 
the preceding page. 

t Respectfully submitted. WM. C. STUBBS, Director. 

I. Wm. C. Stcbbs, Director Stats Sxphrimknt 
Stations, Baton Rouge, La. 
Sir ; I transmit herewith onr report of 1902 on the geology 
Louisiana. It represents the combined labors of myself and 
uue assistant for tbree field seasons (1900, 1901, 1902) of about 
three months each. Most respectfully submitted, 


Office of Louisiana Geological Survey. ) 




By glancing at the table of "Contents" given a few pages 
before, it will be apparent that this work is practically a contin- 
uation of Part III of our report of 1899; for it cousistsof special 
papers by various authors dealing with topics of interest and 
importance in the development of the geology of the State, 

Lack of funds has prevented us from a further prosecution of 
topographic work ; the same cause has prevented the proper col- 
lection of oil-well records, records of value almost beyond calcu- 
lation both to the stratigrapher and practical oil man, but when 
once lost, lost forever : the same cause has prevented the contin- 
uous recording of the behavior of deep-well waters throughout 
the past year, records too, that would give decided information 
regarding the future of deep water supplies throughout the 
State. No time nor means have been at hand for the continua- 
tion of paleontological studies bearing upon the upper Eocene 
and later formations. Too much stress cannot be laid on this 
point, for of all States, Louisiana is the one whose stratigraphy 
is to be worked out mainly by extensive paleontological investi- 
gations. Louisiana is in the very axis of the Mississippi Kmbay- 
ment region. Its formations have suffered frequent, extensive 
and local orogeuic movements. Erosion, too. has played havoc 
with its fresh-water, marsh, and sea deposits whenever they have 
been raised above tide. 

The southern portion of the State especially is extremely 
difficult to interpret, for over the irregular beds below, lies a 
smooth, regularly Gulf-ward sloping deposit giving an air of such 
simplicity of structure that layman and geologist alike have 
often held absolutely erroneous ideas regarding the stratigraphy 
of the whole region. It is then with extreme regret that we 
know of records being but partially kept, and then lost, from 
wells that should and would be of great value to all humanity if 
properly studied by competent paleontologists. We are fre- 
quently told that " the company that put the well down has the 
record complete." We examine it and find not the important 
things (fossils) preserved, but bottles full of clean washed sands 
and chunks of clay and sometimes pebbles, materials that may 
be encountered in almost any CenoJtoic formation 

It is sincerely to be hoped that now while records can be bad, 
that the State Legislature will make liberal appropriations for 
their collection, interpretation, and correlation with the surface 
geology of the State as now being worked out by the Geological 


No. I 









Explanation of map 

Close of Ihe CrctaceouB 

Orogenic movements and their resnlts . . , 
" ' sondition of Cietaceous rocka i 



Midway Stage .... 

Conditions of depoutiun 

Northern limit 

Type section 

Localities in Louisiana 

Lignitic Stage 

-Conditions of deposition 

Type sectioa 

West of the Embayment axis 

Lower Claiborne 

Condition of deposition 

Type section 


West of Embayment axis 

Cocksfield Beds 

Condition of deposition 

Type section 

Jackson Stage 

Conditions of deposition 

Northern limits 

Section along the K. C. P. & G. R. R 

East of Embayment axis 

West of Embayment axis 


Vicksburg Stage 

Conditions of deposition 

t Distribution in Louisiana 
Typically developed in Hisaissippi 
Great development in Georgia 
Grand Galf Stage 
Frio snb-stage 
Condition of deposition 
Stratigraphy along the Ouachita 
Well sections 

Well Records 


Lafayette Stage 

Occurrence in Louisiana 


Port Hudson Stage 

Origin of the (irairie region in southem Louisiana 

Ixess of Louisiana 

Allovinm and recent staore deposits 

Mud lumps 


Plate I. Geological map of the central portion of the Mississippi 

Bmbayment 5 

II. Relief model with north and south section showing the 

stratigraphy of the State 7 

III. Upland piney woods flats, near Winnfield "marble** quarry, 

Louisiana 20 

IV. Sections showing the relative elevation A.T. of Jackson out- 
crops in Arkansas and Louisiana 21 

V. Vicksburg beds, Mint spring bayou Vicksburg, Miss 27 

VI. Bluff at Grand Gulf, Miss 28 

VII. Loess at Vicksburg, Miss 37 

VIII. Lake Charles, viewed from West Lake 36 

IX. Grand Chenier, where the Mermentau river breaks through 

the ridge 36 

X. Mud lump, Cubitt's island, mouth of the Mississippi 38 

Fig. I. The geological column 6 

2. Section across the Mississippi Embayment, from east to west 8 

3. Section along the K. C. P. and G. R. R., three-quarters mile 

south of Florien, La 21 

4. Cut showing Jackson clays with channel filled with Orange 

Sand 24 

5. Cut showing extreme uncomformity of clay and sand beds 

at about the contact between the Eocene and Oligocene 

series 30 

6. Formation of ** Orange Sand ** 33 

7. Section along the 111. Cent. R. R., Manchac-Jackson 35 

L 1^ 


Louisiana is situated in the lower Mississippi valley. The 
great river that winds its way through this valley, from the 
mouth of the Ohio, is Sowing through a shallow, broad trough 
of comparatively modern origin. Not long ago, as time is 
reckoned in geology, southern Georgia and Alabama, nearly 
all of Mississippi, western Tennessee, southeast Missouri, the 
southeast half of Arkansas, all of Louisiana and southeast Texas, 
were covered with a northern extension of the Gulf of Mexico. 
This extension, especially the central portion, passing northward 
to Itliuois, may be well termed the Mississippi Embayment. 

It will be seen at once that whatever is said of the geology of 
Louisiana can be applied fairly well to a considerable portion of 
the Embayment area. We therefore take this opportunity of 
bringing together diverse observations by various authors relat- 
ing to the whole area, in order that certain misapprehensions 
may be corrected, and that the geology of Louisiana may be seen 
in its true relationship to that of the surrounding states. 

We need not go farther back or lower down in the geological 
series than the upper Cretaceous, in order to review the events that 
bave been most important in Embayment Geology, at least so far 
as the State of Louisiana is concerned. 

It may be noted here in passing that we are dealing exclu- 
sively with comparatively young or recent deposits when studying 
thegeologyof thisregion. The whole geological column (Fig, i)is 
liere inserted to show more clearly the meaning of this statement. 


THE Map 

The map herewith given, (PI. I), shows the central or axial 
portion of this Embayment area. The different colors represent 
different geological formations laid down at different limes as will 
t>e explained farther on. The extent of these* formations north- 
l^tvard represents fairly well the northern limit of the old bay or 


!'; Ni:.W YORK 

! ■:,..,/..; LIBRARY 

A-r-." S. L-"N'.")X AND 
II. ! Lr, fO.jNDAUONt. 


The Geology op the Mississippi Embayment 

sinus in which they were deposited ; although doubtless small 
inlets, bays and tidal channels passed far beyond the holders as 
above indicated. During several different stages, there were, 
without doubt, many islands of varying size extending from 
southern Louisiana through the northern part of the State and 
^^ eastern Texas. 

^^P Close op thb Cretaceous Eka 

^^f OrogenU movement and their results. — The close of the Cre- 
taceous era was marked in this particular region by orogenic 
movements of no small magnitude. Cretaceous deposits were 
lifted above sea level in Tennessee and Mississippi and to the 
west in southern Arkansas, while in northeast Arkansas and 
farther northward the Cretaceous beds were lowered some dis- 
tance below the Eocene tides. The point of no movement on 
the Tertiary- Paleozoic border line is, as we have stated before, 
DOt far southeast of Rockport, Ark., (Geol. Surv. Ark. Ann'l. 
Rept. 1892. Vol. 2, p. 184). 
^^B In Louisiana, however, we have reason to believe that the rais- 
^^Kng and depression of the Cretaceous beds was of a much more 
^^BKoIent nature, that folds and faults were numerous and on a large 
^^Bnale, and that a great irregularity of surface features character- 
^^Bzed the newly formed rocks. * 

^^F Present condition of Cretaceous rocks in the Embayment region. — 
We are not prepared to say just how much of the great disturb- 
ance these Cretaceous rocks show, was effected in Cretaceous 
time or just at its close. But we can scarcely conceive of small 
k Wid slender, more or less isolated domes or peaks of Cretaceous 
■ nftterial being commenced and completely formed after thick 
ds of Eocene deposits had been laid down on the Cretaceous Soor. 
The present condition of aflairs for perhaps 1000 ft. beneath 
Jie surface in Louisiana, is shown on an exaggerated scale along 
^e north-south section line across the State, Plate II. The Cre- 
is outcrops have been discussed at length in our Report of 
'7899. Additional details may be found in Special Paper No. 2 
ximpanying this report styled " The Salines of North Louisi- 
ana, " by Mr. Veatch. 


e remarks apply equally well to southeast Texas. 

8 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

Fig. 2 is a generalized section farther uorth. 
and in an east-west direction, extending from 
Bolivar, Tennessee, to Cabot, Arkansas. The 
Cretaceous, having been identified at both extrem- 
ities, doubtless continues beneath the Embay- 
ment area as suggested by the diagram. 

Erosion. — To what extent this whole region 
was eroded between the close of the Cretaceous 
and the beginning of the Tertiary we are not pre- 
pared to say. That the lowest Eocene beds have 
a totally different fauna from the Cretaceous and 
often lie uncomformably upon the latter, we have 
already shown in Bulletins of American Paleon- 
tology, No. 4. 

In Louisiana, at the Winnfield "Marble 
Quarry," the fossiliferous lower Claiborne beds c 
lie somewhat tilted upou the flanks of the Cre- j 
taceous uplifts. The exact relation of the other > 
Cretaceous beds to the surrounding Eocene is e 
not well shown. In Texas, however, Lignitic j 
beds are represented as surrounding theCreta- - 
ceous outliers. The Salines in the vicinity of H 
Sabinetown come up through the Lignitic 

The Bayon Chicot limestone is surrounded 
by Quaternary deposits, and likewise the Saline 
elevations along the coast. 

Midway Stags 
Conditions of deposition. — The depression that 
had been slowly going on throughout the northern 
portion of the Embayment area during later Cre- 
taceous times was continued, and seemingly 
reached its lowest stage in the earliest Tertiary. 
That area represented on the map between the 

f The Geology of the Mississippi Embaymbnt 9 

Cretaceous outcrops of Arkansas and Mississippi constituted one 
broad arm of the Gulf, dotted here and there, over what is now 
known as Louisiana and southern Texas, by small Cretaceous 
islands and shoals. 

Northern limits. — In this period it would seem that the waters 
of the Gulf extended considerably farther to the north than they 
did during the period that had just come to a close. We have 
already called attention to the fact that not far from Little Rock, 
Arkansas, there is a point at which the Cretaceous and Midway 
deposits are on about the same level ; southward the Cretaceous 
rocks expand in a V-shaped area to the west and extend bypso- 
metrically far above the Eocene border, while to the north of 
Little Rock the Eocene Midway beds cover the Cretaceous and 
lap over onto the Paleozoic formations. 

Of the extension of these rocks in southeast Missouri we know 
little, Worthen has recorded the occurrences of lower Eocene 
deposits in Pulaski county, Illinois, and has identified from them 
a CucuUaa and Turritella. He also notes a bed of lignite at Cal- 
edonia. (Vol. 1., Geol. Surv. 111. 1866, p. 44-46.) Loughridge 
has described at length the lower Eocene beds of western Ken- 
tucky in his volume on the Jackson Purchase Region. The fossils 
he mentions from near Paducah are not very satisfactory for 
determining to which division of the Eocene they ought to be 
referred. In Tennessee, however, we have studied in detail 
several fine Eocene exposures and have no doubt as to their 
stratigraphic position. {See Bull. Am. Pal. No. 4). Knowing, 
then, the behavior of the lower Eocene beds in Texas, Arkansas, 
Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama, we are inclined to correlate 
the larger part of the Kentucky, Illinois and Missouri Eocene 
with the lowest or Midway stage. The pieripheral, or what Dall 
has called the perisottal nature of these sediments in southern 
Illinois is evident from Worthen's description. 

Type section. — It is in Alabama and Texas where the Midway 
beds are best exposed. They show generally at base bluish, 
micaceous clays, or clayey sands, and occasionally light, yellowish 
limestone ledges. These with the arenaceous layers above aggre- 
gate 100 feet. But one of the most noticeable beds is the lime- 
stone numbered 19 in Smith and Johnson's Pine- Barren section, 

m by. 


lo Gbological Sdrvry of Louisiana 

Bull. 43, U. S. Geol. Surv., 1887. This is usually replete with 
TurntelltE and contains oftentimes Enclimalaceras ulricHi. It is 
seemingly this bed that has a thickness of 40 feet in the vicinity 
of Tehtiacana, Texas, whereas in Arkansas it scarcely ever 
exceeds twelve or fourteen feet. Following these limestone 
layers are usually beds of dark, or nearly black, selenitic clays, 
approximately too feet in thickness, though on the southeast 
margin of the Mississippi Embaymenl region, viz., at Fort 
Gaines. Ga., the conditions of deposition aud the character of the 
deposits were totally different from those that obtained nearer 
the axis of the Embay ment. In fact, a warm, clear water, o£E-shore 
condition prevailed, producing coralline life and limestone 

Localities in Louisiana. — Such few little outcroppings of these 
as we have been able to find, namely at Rocky Springs Church 
and near King's salt works, indicate a near shore, shallow water 
condition, as might be expected from ibis location. Ostrta cren- 
ulimarginata forms practically the mass of the calcareous bed 
we have described from the Rocky Springs Church locality. 

These small outcroppings are due of course, to local upheavals 
of a thousand feet or more. The beds of Midway age in Louisi- 
ana are mainly concealed by from looo to 3000 feet of subse- 
quent deposition. 

Fossils in Louisiana. — We have already shown on Plate 52 of 
our Report of 1899, all of the known, well preserved Midway 
species from Louisiana. The molluscan fauna of this stage, 
however, is known to embrace over 140 species from this Embay 
ment region alone. These have been described and illustrated 
in Bu!l. of Am. Pal. No. 4. pp. 154, Pis. 1-15. 

A large number of strikingly similar forms, evidently of prac- 
tically the same Eocene horizon, have been described by Dr. C. 
A. While in Vol. 7. Arch. do. Mus. du Rio Jan. 1880, from the 
vicinity of Maria Famiha. 

We especially call attention to such forms as Harpa dechordata 
Calyptrapkorus chelonites. Fasdolaria acutispira. Nautilus sower- 
byanus, Gryphaa trachyopktera , Cucullaa hartii, Cardita morgan- 
Many of these are improperly named generically. The 

Harpa" is a Pseudoliva : the "Fasdolaria" is s.Maszalina; 


The Ghologv of thk Mississippi Embayment 

^^bnd the "JViiu/i/uj" is probably Endimaioceras \ but the specimens 
^^mnd figures bear out our remarks regardiog the very close rela- 
^^ tioDship of the Brazilian and Mississippi Embayment Midway 
species. Upon the whole, the Midway fauna is one of a moder- 
ately warm sea. It bears no relation whatever to the Cretaceous 
fauna just below it, but contaius many types that endured even 
specifically throughout the Eocene and generically throughout 
the whole Tertiary. 

■ The Lignitic Stags 

I Conditions oj deposition. — During the latter part of the Midway 
age and throughout the lower Eocene ages the Embayment area 
was rapidly contracting, beiug filled in from the north by abun- 
dant clayey and sandy deposits. Norlh uf theLouisiana-Arkan- 
I sas boundary line there is little indication of diverse conditions of 
I deposition during the whole of lower and middle Eocene times. 
Dicotyledonous trees were abundant over the low islands and 
shores ; palms and reeds occupied the swamps. The waters of the 
lagoons and swamps were brackish or fresh. Shells of the genera 
Unio and Vivipara have been found in these beds by the writer 
3.3 miles north of El Dorado, Ark, (Ann. Rept. G. Surv. Ark., 
1892. Vol, n, p. 140). 

Such a continuous sameuess in the conditions of deposition in 
beds of the axial region, of the Lignitic, Claiborne and Cocksfield 
stages renders all hopes of accurate differentiation of these stages 
in Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, as well as in cer- 
tain locations in northern Louisiana and Mississippi quite out of 
the question. Fossil plants have uot thus far proven an unerr- 
ing guide for stratigraphic work in this region. 

In going north from Ruston along the Railroad toward Chau- 
tauqua several unimportant sandy cuts are seen at varying inter- 
vals. But just before reachiug Chautauqua station a deep cut 
exposes ferruginous, brittle, reddish layers, sand beds, and at 
the base of the cut, black, lignitic, sandy clays. Still farther to 
the north, ferruginous shelly red rock is very abundant in places. 
From such indurated layers we obtained a fair lower Claiborne 
iatina. These ferruginous rocks appear in abundance along the 

GHOtOGicAL Survey of Lodkiana 

railway for at least two miles. Out in the coantry in various 
directions these beds are well developed ; in fact they have been, 
doubtless, more or less instrumental in preserving the bold topog- 
raphy seen along the line of their local strike, from north of 
Chautauqua to Arcadia. Fossils have been collected from the 
Arcadia district by several geologists, 

I am inclined to believe the lower Claiborne beds are rather 
thin in this region and that here and there Lignitic clays and 
sands come to the surface. Witness the lignitic clays between 
Dnbach's mill and Middle Fork. The first deep cut going north 
from Dnbach's, a distance of about two miles, shows at base lo 
to 15 feet of bluish black, sandy, lignitic clays and above. 15 to 
30 feet of light colored and red blotched sands, pebbles, and sil- 
icified wood. Another deep cut about two raites south of Middle 
Fork shows 20 feet of dark lignitic clay with fine sandy partings 
and occasional flat claystone concretions. Above, are 5 feet of 
mottled clays and sands ; and on top is a bed of red clayey sand. 
The flow of water at Dubach's mill is seemingly from these upper 
Lignitic sands. Owing however to the entire lack of fossils in 
these beds this correlation is mainly a conjecture. 

Nowhere are these beds exhibited to better advantage in the 
upper Embayment area than along the Ouachita river in Arkan- 
sas. Such outcrops as occur above Camden have been referred 
to the Lignitic stage, while those below are doubtless the repre- 
sentatives of the lower Claiborne and Cocksfield beds of Louis- 
iana, The materials composing these beds are mainly sand and 
day, often very irregularly bedded and of various hues. A sec- 
tion at the old mine of the Camden Coal company is as follows, 
(N. E, J^. S. 12, iiS., i8W.)i 

Arenaceous material not well exposed. 

Light pink clay 6 feet. 

White sand 6 feet. 

Bluish clay 8 feet. 

Lignite 6 feet. 

Sand as a rule predominates. It is sometimes of a lighter 
color, more or less clayey, finely laminated, with thin yellow 
layers or streaks ; at other times it is blackish from carbonaceous 
matter and with very thin, pure, white sand, partings. 


The Geology ok the Mississippi Embaymknt 13 

North of the Arkansas and west of the Mississippi there is, 
to our present knowledge, no definite information to be had 

^rding the distribution or characters of these beds, 
pin Kentucky. Mr, I-oiighridge has studied the Eocene with 
ire and has referred some fossiliferous beds to the Lignite. 
ir knowledge of the distribution of the various Eocene 
faunas in the Embayment area, and from the characteristics of 
the rock containing them, we are inclined to put the fossils 
enumerated by Loughridge in the Midway. He sent his fossils 
to Heilprin, then in the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, who furnished the following identifications. 
^_ Numla (probably N. ovuld), 

^h Leda prolexla, 

^H Leda coslala,f 

^* Afysia ungulina, 

Turritella morloni. 
See Geol. Surv. viz. Jackson Purchase Region, 1888, p. 45. 

tThe LaGrange group as restricted by Loughridge probably 
longs to a lower or mid-Eocene stage. 
We are not prepared to share Hilgard's opinion as to the 
obable occurrence of the " Flat wood Clays" in the Memphis 
boring. When we bear in miud the distance between Memphis 
and the continuation of some at least of the Flatwood clays iu 
Tennessee where they are of the Midway stage ; and when we 
bear iu mind the depth at which Jackson fossils are found in the 
Helena wells, and their position at Forrest City, Ark,, it seems 
far more probable that the lower 135 feet of the Memphis section 
are of middle or upper Eocene horizon. 

The section shown on p. 8 is so constructed as to convey our 
present ideas regarding the stratigraphy of the area under dis- 

The east central part of the section represents the profile of the 
Memphis well as given by Hilgard, (H. E. Doc. 48 Cong, isl 
Sess,, VoL 19, 1883-84, Miss. Riv. Comm. Rept., App'x. N., p. 

The profile about Forrest City is after Call ; Ark, Geol. Surv., 
I, Vol. II, p. 217, while the western portion about Cabot is 
nm personal observation of the author. See Ark. Geol, Surv., 



Ann'l. Rept. 1892, Vol. 2 pp. 11, 12, 25. This, it will be observed 
is practically a transverse section of the Mississippi Embaymeat 
in Lat. 35° N. According to a letter received under dale of Apr- 
3, 1902, the elevation of the mouth of the Memphis well No. 2 
is approximately 288 feet Cairo datum, i. e. about 267 feet above 
tide. According to Hilgard's interpretation of the material 
passed through, the section is as follows: 

Coarse aand with gravel . 

Orange colored sand 

Orange sand, gravelly 

Orange colored ealid. lower part 
cemcDtcd into a conglonierate 

Whitisb clay 

Coarse, jellowisb sand 

Whitiah clay 

Northern iignitic 

Lagrange group 

Gritty ctay, yellowish pauing 

into bluiiah gray 

Gray sand 

47 to 55 Variegated with peb- 


55.9 to 60.6 Small, clear, roundec 

60.6 to 63 Clear, mixed with 
chert and jasper 

63 to 93.9 Sharp and rounded 

I Clear white, yellow 
and bluck 

93.9 to 99.8 Variegated 

99-8 t£ 


168.5 to 375. 

Clear, small, rounded 
Rounded and sharp 
Clear, some white and 

Very small, clear, 

Clear and round 
Fine and clear 

In Mississippi the Lignitic Eocene has not been defined with 
any greater degree of accuracy than in Arkansas. We are at 
present unable to state what portions of the northern part of 
Hilgard's "Northern lignitic " should be referred to the I,ig- 
nitic proper, the lower Claiborne or the Cocksfield h 

rred to the I,i g- | 
;ld beds. ^M 

The Geology of the Mississippi Embaymbnt 15 

Type section. — Alabama, and Louisiana in pari, seem to have 
«n sufficiently far away from the apex of the Kmbayment to 
' be occupied generally by salt water from the Gulf. The type 
section of the Lignitic stage is the Alabama section. The sub- 
divisions with their respective thicknesses as given in Bull. No. 
^43, U. S. G.S., are: 
' I Hatchetigbee. 175 feet, 

Lignitic J ^°"'*^ '''"^' '^'''^S f^et, 
Uignitic g^,^^ j.^.g^ j^^ j^^^^ 

I Nanafalia, 200 feet. 
The typical Nanafalia beds are first met with in passing down 
the Tombigbee below Naheola, at Nanafalia bluff. But between 
these two localities the gradual transition from the darker Mid- 
way clays to the sandier Lignitic clays is noticeable. The sec- 
tion at Nauafalia Bluff is thus given by Smith and Johnson 
(op. cit.): 

1. Greensand marl, highly fossiltferous, containing chiefiy 
Gryph^ thirsm, but holding also Turritelia morloni Qoa., Flab- 
elium, and a few other fossils. This marl makes a tolerably firm 
rock, with a line of indurated, projecting bowlder like masses 12 
or 18 inches thick, of nearly similar material along the whole 
lengthof the bluff and near the middle of the beds about 20 feet. 

2. Dark blue, almost black laminated clay, devoid of fossils, 
but passing below gradually into a bluish marl 3 to 4 feet. 

Bluish, greensaud marl, with a few shells in the upper 3 or 4 
feet, but more highly fossiliferous below. This bed contaius a 
great variety of beautifully preserved and easily detached fossils. 
The fojsils can be collected only during very low stages of the 
water 8 to 10 feet. 

In going down the river below Nanafalia, a characteristic fea- 
ture of the outcrop is the number of enormous concretions exhib- 
ited. These show clearly that the general dip is in a southerly 
direction, though rever.'ie dips and unconformities are noticeable. 
Dark lignitic and grayish sands, more or less indurated, prevail 
for a number of miles. At Tuscohoma landing an extensive out- 
crop occurs : then again beds appear near the mouth of Bashi 
creek. Woods bluff, however, is the best section along this part 
of the river. It shows : 

i6 Gbologica.1, Sukvey of Louisiana 

I. Soil, ifinii Willi pebbles at base 40 feet 

i. Black clay, about 8 feet 

3. Line of concretions 4 incbes 

4. FoBsiliferous reddish and variegated clay 3-6 feet 

5. Black clay 10 feet 

6. Reddisb fossiliferous sand 3 feet 

7. Fine gray fossiliferous sand 5 feet 

8. Concretions witb large Oslrea var sylvarupis 3 feet 

Water level. 

At Coffeeville a lower Claiborne deposit occurs, but several 
miles below at Hatchetigbee bluflf uppermost Ligiiitic outcrops 
again. For perhaps 20 feet above water level, finely laminated 
dark clays predominate. Towards the lower end of the exposure 
or cliff there is an upstream dip which brings to day two or three 
layers of Venericardia planicosia often with valves united, almost 
as perfect as the shells strewn along the shores of modern seas. 
From 10 to 20 feet above water level one finds concretions, and, 
adhering to their lower surfaces are not a few well preserved 
shells. Ledges of light colored material, (buhrstoue?), occur here 
and there for 20 feet upwards but brownish clays predominate. 
High up in the latter one finds the most and best fossils. 

Along the Alabama, south from the famous Matthew's landing 
outcrops of Midway clays, beds of dark sandy and lignitic clays 
give place to the Nanafalia marls at Gullette's landing, replete 
with Ostrea ihirsa. The best collecting ground does not appear, 
however, until Yellow bluff is reached, Gregg's landing some 
miles below is, perhaps, the best lower Lignitic exposure in the 
State for collecting purposes. Further downstream Bell's land- 
ing is seen on the left bank of the river. It is the last good 
exhibit of lower Lignitic beds on the Alabama. Four miles above 
Hamilton Bluff, as the river sweeps westward before its final 
southern deflection through the "' Buhrstone " at Hamilton bluff, 
there is a low outcrop of Wood's bluff marls on the southern bank 
of the river. 

Thenext good exposures of Lignitic beds occur at Ft. GaJuesoa 
the Chattahoochee river. Just below the long wooden bridge at 
this place the following section is found : 


Thb Geology of the Mississippi Embaym 

Red aandy clay and gravel (Pleistocene) aS 
Lignitic clay » 

3. FuBsiliferous sandstone ledge, Oilrca cotnpressirostra 3 

4. Blue clay 5 

5. Alternating hard and soft layers , 20 

^^ 6. Fossil if etoua hard marl (seen in branch) 3 

^^Lg. Bluish sandy clay 30 

^^Bl Sandy clay vith concretions, O.lhisit 20 

^HT Midway lintestune, 

^^r Farther east in Georgia we have discovered a Woods bluff 
^^Qlfignitic outcrop iu a cut otie mile east of Roberts'station. Shell 
^r^ragments are seeu in the blue marly sand Cor perhaps 200 yards. 
They are in some places 10 feet above the bed of the railroad. 
This is an extremely interesting outcrop, for it is by far the most 
easterly outcrop known of the Gulf Lignitic stage. This was dis- 
covered Dec. 25, 1901, by Mr. Pacheco and the writer. 

West of the Embayment axis. — In Texas the Lignitic beds arc 
well exposed along the Sabine as described in full in Mr. Veatch's 
Special Paper No. 3. Brazos river furnishes excellent outcrops 
of these beds, but, so far as known, no animal remains have been 
obtained from them. Calvert cliff, Robertson county, is a fine 
exposure. To the west or southwest it would seem that the Lig- 
nitic stage was poorly represented, at least at the surface. 

In our report of 1899 we described the Lignitic outcrops in 
N. W. Louisiana, including those about Many, Marthasville, 
Coushatta, Mansfield and perhaps Shreveport. The majority of 
the fossil remains were figured in that report. 

»Lowsti Claiborne 
Conditions of deposition. — We have already remarked that in 
the upper Embayment area conditions were quite similar from 
the beginning to the end of the Eocene. Toward the southern 
and broader portion of the area the sea was clearer and more 
suitable to animal life during the lower Claiborne age than it had 
been during the Lignitic. The Lignitic beds of east Georgia and 
west Texas were generally covered by Lower Claiborne deposits, 
while in Alabama and east Texas broad expanses of the latter 
are found, exceeded only by the still more-centrally located beds 
^^in the States of Mississippi and Louisiana. 

i8 Gbologicai, Survey of Louisiana 

Everything would seem to point, then, to a slight lowering^ 
the southern Etnbayment sea bottom during Lower Claiborne 


Type secHoH. — In Mississippi, and especially in Alabama, the 
Lower Claiborne deposits have been divided in two groups. 
according to lilhological characters. Smith and Johnson (Bull, 
U. S. G. S., No. 43). describe the lower portion under the name 
of " Buhrstone " and the upper under the naraeof " Claiborne," 
The Buhrstone they find developed to a thickness of at least 
300 feet in centra! Alabama, though it is probably at least 100 
feet thicker. It ' ' consists of aluininious and silicious materials 
partly glauconitic, and in places interstratified with thin beds of 
greensand. The chief varieties of these rocks in the order of 
their relative abundance are the following : 

" I. Gray, aluminous sandstone, often glauconitic, with 
numerous galls or concretions of pure whitish clay, and traversed 
throughout with streaks of yellowish hydrated oxide of iron. 

" 2. Indurated, white clay, forming a rock, which is, how- 
ever, quite light and easily broken t 'P * 

"3. Hard, coarse-grained glauconitic sandstone * 

"4. Hard, yellowish, silicious, or alumiuious sandBtoj 
streaked with a darker shade of yellow. 

"5. A white silicious rock, almost quartzite." 

At Hamilton Biuff on the Alabama, a fine expanse of thefl 
called Buhrstone is seen. But Smith has measured a more exti 
sive section near McCarthy's ferry on the Tombigbee. 

The upper division of what we have styled the lower ( 
borne, is typically exposed at Lisbon and at the base of the bluff 
at Claiborne on the Alabama. It is, according to Smith and 
Johnson's measurements, about 120 feet in thickness, and con- 
sist, of clays of various colors, with a varying amount of cal- 
careous matter. 

The easternmost outcrops that can be regarded as belonging 
in any way to the Embaymeut area is one just discovered by the 
writer in central Georgia on the Van Buren place, about 10 miles 
east of Macon, Georgia. The Lower Clailx)rne character of the 
Shell bluff exposure on the Savannah we recognized while col- 

The Geology of the Mississippi Embayment 19 

lecting there as early as 1896; but it deserves only a mention 
here, since it belongs more properly with the Carolina province 
of this stage than to that of the Embayment now under consid- 

Throughout central Mississippi, northwest Louisiana, and 
southeastern Texas this stage is splendidly developed. The 
silicious Bubrstone character is not seen to any considerable 
extent west of the Mississippi. Sands, clajs. marls and white, 
bowlder-lilce limestones, constitute the majority of the material 
in this section of the country. 

Louisiana. — The Louisiana outcrops have been described at 
length in our report of 1899 ; little need be said here concerning 
them. One or two additional points, however, may be men- 
tioned. They refer to the eastward extension of these beds 
along the Ouachita river. In the U, S. Engineer's ofBce at 
Vicksbuig are preserved samples of the material obtained from 
numerous borings made along the river for the purpose of deter- 
mining the sites for the proposed dams and locks along this 
channel of commerce. 

The borings that most interested us were those obtained from 
Rock Row shoals, about 13 miles above Monroe. The mouth of 
the boring is placed at 41.56 feet above mean Gulf level (H. E. 
D. No. 448, 57lh Cong., I Sess., 1S92. Find Report on Survey 
of Ouachita and Black Rivers, Arkansas and Louisiana, p. 131). 
At 17.29 A. T. very stiff clay, full of green sand, become darker 
upon exposure, is encountered. From here to the bottom of the 
well, — 115.49. A. T. blue clays with shells, sand and rocklike, 
thin, hard layers were encountered. Well preserved, small 
shells, Ringicuia and Turratellix. were observed in the clay and 
greensand at about tide level. Other shells, Macira, Leda. 
Spharella. and Tellina. were observed in the specimens obtained 
from lower depths. One of the common Texas Lower Claiborne 
Pleurotomas was noted at a depth of about 135 feet. We have 
no hesitation in assigning the whole, from a depth of 124 A. T., 
to 157 feet below tide level to the Lower Claiborne Eocene. 

At Monroe the various well sections near the river furnish 
Lower Claiborne fossils in abundance. Dislortio seplemdenlata 
V. planicosia, TurrileUa, and PUurotomie of the Texas Lower 

ao Gbological Suhvev of Luuisiana 

Claiborne fauna occur at depths of from 90 feet downwards (i. e. 
from 10 to 15 feet below tide). During the year 1900, Dr. 
Stubbs sent the writer a suiall paper box full of shells that he 
collected out of a well as it was being bored here. The species 
are: Trigonarca pulchra, Verieracardia planicosta, Nucula mag- 
nifica, Corbulas^., Turritella \^x . nasutaf Distortio septemden- 
laia, Pseudoliva vetusla. Nassa lexatia, Latirui moorei, Natica 
arala, Levifusus Irabealus, Terebra kouslonia, Calyplraphorus 
velalus, Margiiiella eoristrUtoides . l^o!utili(Aes peirosus. Solarium 
alvealum, PUurotoma nodocarinala, Clavililhes humerosus. Veatch 
found an outcrop of this formation as described in his report on 
the Ouachita, in the bed of the river about on the section tine 
between Sections 2 and 11, 3 E. 16 N. 

These facts show clearly that although this formation is 
masked by later deposits in the region between Winnfield, Ver- 
non and Ruston on the west and the Ouachita River on the east, 
it does extend in full force eastward to, and doubtless under- 
neath the great alluvial plains of the Mississippi. 

Weil of ike Embaymenl axis. — By far the most systematic and 
extensive work done so far on the Lower Claiborne of Texas was 
that carried on under the former Geological Survey of the State. 
The publication by Kennedy in the Proceedings of the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences for 1895, and the accompany- 
ing blue-print MS. map show with a fair degree of approxima- 
tion the Lower Claiborne area in east Texas, though local and 
more minute investigations by Veatch have brought to light 
many minor points of error in Kennedy's work. 

ThePaleontology of the Lower Claiborne of Texas was report- 
ed upon in full to the Texas survey by the present writer, but 
the survey was discontinued before the work was published. It 
included nearly 400 type written pages and 30 large 8vo. plates. 
Some of the new species were described, however, in 1895, (Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila,, 1895, pp. 45-88. pls. MX). 

A recent publication by the U. S. Survey gives an attempt at 
correlating the Louisiana and Texas, though little new informa- 
tion is brought forward. See Bull. 184, pp. 40-48. 




.. »c,r, r.jT •• 


- ■.S^f»v:« 


5"! ■■■"■$M.^-:- 






PUBi.; ■ : 1-:'ARY 

EUvaHmi in Feet A. T. 

EUvatum in Feet A. T. 














• litl' ,< 
. ■ m'' I 































• "■;-\-\Vv: 





AKT- ' . 

1..^ » ■».* 

The Geology of the Mississippi Embaym 
CocKSFiKLD Beds 

^P Condition of deposition — We have already described 
the lagoon or swamp-like condilion of the upper 
portion of the Embaj'ment area during the lower 
portion of Eocene times. White the Cocksiield beds 
were being laid down, these conditions evidently 
prevailed over regions farther south, even central 
Louisiana and Mississippi. The result is, that 
over the marine Lower Claiborne beds of Louisiana 
come lignitic sands and clays, having a thickness of 
perhaps four or five hundred feet where well devel- 

Type section. — These beds are well exposed along 
the cuts in the K. C. P. &G. R. R. between Florien 
and Christie's switch (Fig. 3) as well as the type 
locality on Red river, i. e. Cocksfield ferry, between 
St. Maurice and Montgomery. Perhaps the best 
place for observing them in deep cuts aud extensive 
outcrops is along the Iron Mountain R. R. just 
southward from Columbia, Caldwell parish. Plate 
VI, opposite page 80 of our Report of 1899, shows 
one of these deep railroad cuts. The extensive sand 
beds exposed along the V. S. & P. R. R. east of 
Ruston we refer to this horizon. Likewise the 
lignite-bearing sands and clays on the Ouachita in 
Arkansas in southern Bradley, western Ashley and 
eastern Union counties ; though this is necessarily 
more or less of a conjecture since the leaves, practi- 
cally the only fossils contaiued, have not been 
carefully studied aud differentiated from the flora 
of the Lignitic proper. 

In Mississippi these beds presumably occupy the 
area between the silicious Claiborne area of Caroll 
and Atala counties and the Jackson to the south- 
west. They seem to represent the upper Claiborne 
of east Mississippi and Alabama. West of the 
Sabine these beds are represented by the lower por- 
tion of the ' ' Yegua clays ' ' of the Texas nomencla- 
See special Report No. 3. 


33 Grological Sur>'vt op I^inSIAKA 

Jackson Stage 

CtrnJiiimts of depositian. — Daring this age the depress io n a! 
the axis of the Embayment area bad more than kept pace with 
the fiUiog ia by sedimentation, so that a large ^eet of salt 
water spread northward as far as Crowley's Ridge, Arkansas, 
and presumably farther. 

Nartkem limil. — At the time of writing my report on the 
Tertiary of Arkansas (1^2). I felt strongly inclined to refer the 
fossUiferous beds at White binff on the Arkansas rirer to the 
Jackson ; yet, they had always been referred to the Claiborne 
and there seemed not enough positive evidence in favor of the 
Jackson affinities to entirely warrant the change. Since then 
some of the new, or supposedly new. species from Vtliite blnS 
have been fonnd in abnndance at Jackson, Mississippi, and at 
well developed Jackson beds throngbont Louisiana and east 
Texas. The Red bluff beds upstream a few miles from White 
blnff seem to be of the same horizon : and although I have not 
visited Crowley's ridge personally, I fee! quite confident from 
Call's description of the beds and associated fossils, together 
with his correlations, that all should lie placed in one and the 
sime group. Accordingly the map of the Embayment area as 
herewith published shows the Jackson for the first lime with its 
most probable northern distribution. Here again we would refer 
the reader to our generalized section across the Mississippi val- 
ley, from Memphis to Cabot, Fig. 3. p. 8, The moderate 
southward slope of the Jackson outcrops throughout the Embay- 
ment area is shown by the series of sections herewith given. 
Plate iV. 

It should be mentioned in this place that we have had access 
to Hilgard's type specimens from lielena and Choctaw bar* and 

* Ukls-'<a iBoring No. i> r Deiitalium (rery nearly unooth, bat inth 

traces of longitudinal ttriatioa) : yoJiitHilhes ftlrostts (fragments^; 

Corbuta untiUsiana. Corbula sp.; Phos hilli vai.; Psfudotiva ifluila ; 

FUurotoma dtnticula: Adaon : Satica. 
Choctaw Bar (Boring No. i): Venericardia pianieoita ; Dentalutm {ta at 

Helena) ; Caduius : PUuroloma : Actaon, TurriUlla (very sm«11, nni- 

carinate at base), Phos hUli, 

(Boring No. 2) : Phot hUli (Ubelled " Suainmm " and " Fusmt mag- 

Ths Ghology of the Mississippi Embavment 23 

have found that his specific determinations of moUuscan fossils 
is not of the most sactisfactory kind. The species are the same 
in general as at White bluff, Arkansas ; hence, as shown above, 
of Jackson age. (See Hilgard's report : H. E. D., 48 Cong, ist 
Sess., 1883-84. vol. 19, Appendix N, pp. 479-497), We believe 
there is no other place in the country where the Jackson beds 
are so well exposed or so well developed as along the Ouachita 
river, and we have been to considerable pains to secure full 
information regarding this region. The stratigraphy of the 
Jackson beds above Danville has been worked out by Mr. Veatch. 
(See Special report No. 4). 

At Danville and a few miles to the south, these beds are finely 
developed, showing a proven thickness of So feet above an 
approximate mean river level, and a probable thickness of 150 
feet above the same datum plane. Vicksburg beds appear back 
of Enterprise, P. O., at a height of 231 feet A. T., while Jack- 
son fossils were traced in the same vicinity to a height of ii6* 
feet, A. T. 

About 3 miles south of Danville, and nearly as far from the 
river, there is an eminence capped with Grand Gulf sandstone 
at an elevation of 203* feet A. T. The Vicksburg marls and 
calcareous bowlders are exposed in the stream valleys nearby at 
an elevation of 130 to 143 feet A. T. These beds, therefore, 
show a southern dip of about 50 feet per mile, and we are 

noeotlalus"); Natica (email); Pleuraloma in/am; Levifeius Irabea- 

lus; Caneellaria ; Corbu/a small, probably wailestana ; Turritella 

develattdia; Venfricardia rolunda ; Volutililhes petroius ; Adaon : 

Calyplraphorus velaius (tip of, labelled " Nassa (ancrlhla "J. 

Boring No. 4 ) : Tumtella (small, sharply bi-carinate) ; Phos hitti ; 

OlU'a cf. gracilis hca \ Natica ( small ) ; Ventrieardia pan<a ; Cortuia 


(Borinfc No. j) : Pseudotiva velusfa; Natiea, (small) f^euroloma 

lUnlicula: ycnuritardia planicosia : 7»mVrf/a, (tipbi-cariuate); Vol- 

utililhes pelroius : Corbula wailniana ; jieiiron. 
Lake Pbovidekce (Boring No. 3): Leda multiliiteata (radial marking on 

aotirior ooly); Leda ; depth IJ5 feet. I'cnericardia platticosla aud I'. 

rotunda; depth, 137 feet. 
•These elevatioris were detenniiied by mnniiig a spirit level line to these 
various points from !i. M. B. Ouachita River Survey, in lot N. W. of Dan- 
\-ille, P. O. Top of gas pipe given as 24 S 3*3 meters C. D, 



^^m iacliaed to beliere that the Jackson beds share this dip with the 

^^V higher or Vicksbnrg beds. 

^M Section ahng tke K. C. P. and G. R. ^.—Another section of 

^H the Jackson, studied more thoroughly this jeor 

^H ■ than heretofore is that along the railway just racn- 

^H mL S tioned, in western Louisiana. Abont i}^ mile 

^H ^1 M north of Christie's switch. Jackson beds appear 

^* ^B capped, as were the Cocksfield beds, by the so- 

called Orange Sand. They consist here of light 
colored clays, and contain traces of fossils. Votuti- 
lilhis pelrosus and Nassa are the most abnndaot 

South of the switch one-half mile, a more exteo- 

tVp^in H sive exposure of fossiliferous Jackson clays is 
xll^ * fonnd. The upper surface shows extreme irregn- 
J, ['■: S larities of erosion before the deposition of the 
5^-*- ^ superincumbent Quaternary material. 

The cnt passed through about one-third mile 

u before reaching an old saw-mill site is remarkable 

»■ in many ways. The erosion that washed ont the 

£ great channels in the upper surface of the Jackson 

p clays, left sometimes very steep and over-hanging 

I banks ; so sleep, in fact, that after the lower part 

of one channel had been filled with sand and gravel, 

the upper part of the over-hanging bank pressed 

down upon the refilled material. At first sight it 

seems as though the gravel actually passes beneath 

the clays, but this is doubtless not so. The gravel 

has been re-channeled and re-fiUed in places with 

coarser gravel and sand. See Fig. 4. 

In the cut at the old mill there occur first, finely 
laminated clayey sands. In the middle of theexpos- 
nre there are very lignitic clays. These give way 
in the southern part of the cut to dark clays which 
turn reddish ou exposure. About 300 yards to the 
south there appears a high hill on the right or 
southwest where but 60 feel above the track Grand 
Gulf sandstone crops out very conspicuously. 

Thb Geology of thk Mississippi Embaymhnt 


£ast of Ike Embaymenl a.xis. — In Mississippi the Jackson beds 
are well developed as the aame Jackson would naturally imply, 
but they thin out rapidly eastward and are represented in the 
Claiborne section by only a few feet of marly limestone, the 
base of the so-calted "White Limestone." We have personally 
collected from these beds at Claiborne Afiira millmgtoni and a 
few other such characteristic species. 

West of the Embaymenl axis. — In Texas, in fact iu all regions 
west of the Red river, the members of this survey have discov- 
ered and traced the course of the Jackson. While employed by 
the Texas survey, the writer received a few samples of gray 
sandstone from a "cutting on the Houston E. & W. Tex, R, R. 
4 miles north of Corrigan, Polk Co.;" but no casts were pre- 
served of shells other than might well belong to Claiborne 
species and the beds were therefore classed under that heading. 
During the past winter the vicinity was studied by Mr. Veatch 
and a number of fairly distinct casts were shipped to the writer, 
then at Calhoun, La. The Jackson aspect of these fossils was 
at once evident, and Mr. Veatch informs us that the stratigraphy 
is in harmony with this conclusion. The large Kulgur-like Levi- 
fusus iramieri and Mazsalina var. cwew/. in considerable abun- 
dance, speak clearly of the age of the material enclosing them. 

While at Sour take, Texas, the writer found among the debris 
washed out from near the bottom of a 1500 foot well a fine Jack- 
son fauna, preserved evidently in a blue selenitic marl. The well 
referred to is located just back of the P. O. close by one of but 
900 feet in depth. Along with such fossils as Volutilithes petroius, 
Venericardia rotunda, and fragments of Pecten and Pinna, we 
observed Atveinui minutus Euckeilodon creno-carinata , CotbuUt 
wailesiana, and several undescribed Jackson species. 

The important bearing of these facts on the stratigraphy of 
this portion of the state when considered in connection with the 
flowing well but four miles distant, down to a depth of 1915 with 
no indications of lower Tertiary beds or fanna,is at once apparent. 
This point will be referred to later on- 

26 Geological Sorvky of Louisiana 


Conditions of deposition. — The great geographic changes that 
took place betweeu Eoceneand Oligoceae times in the Mississippi 
Erabayment are dearly shown on the accompanying map. 
(Plate I.) There was no longer a narrow bay extending from 
the Gulf of Mexico northwards towards, perhaps even to, the 
mouth of the Ohio. There was only a gentle curve in that 
direction as the map clearly shows. There would seem to be 
moreover, no doubt as to the former continuity of Oligocene 
beds from where they are represented in Louisiana across the 
Mississippi valley to the more extensive outcrops in Mississippi. 
What at this periodbecameof the turbid waters of the Mississippi 
river it is difficult to imagine. 

Dislribitiion in Louisiana. — The \'icksburg beds of Louisiana 
are confined to the region about Rosefield P. O, . or more defi- 
nitely, from a point about yi niile west of Enterprise P. O. on 
the Ouachita, to perhaps 5 miles southwest of Rosefield. Just 
south of Rosefield the hills are capped by tirand Gulf material, 
but the steep and deep valleys on all sides show Vicksburg 
marls, limestone boulders, and often Vicksburg fossils. Some 
locations have been already specified in out Report of 1899. 
Heretofore, however, the Vicksburg fossils of Louisiana have 
come apparently from one and the same horizon. Bluish or 
yellowish marls, with light colored limestone boulders of various 
size usually indicate the propinquity of good collecting grounds. 
Now we are able to state that there are at least two fossil -bearing 
horizons between 40 and 50 feet apart. They are both seen in 
the vicinity of Sones store southeast of Rosefield P. O. Ins 
hollow south of his house about yi mile, there is a seam of blB- 
ish clay literally packed with small bivalve shells of one species, 
viz : Corbuia alia Con. The usual Vicksburg fossiliferous bed 
i; seen a few yards southeast of the same house, in narrow, dec^, 
storm-carved channels. In several places hereabouts b seam of 
"coal" is found, occupying a stratigraphic position abontequiv 
alent to the Corbuia bed, though presumably just a little below 
It as is seen below in the Vicksburg section. To the southeast 






Thk Ghology of the Mississippi Embaymhnt 

of RoseSeld, some four or five miles, fossils are reported in the 
deep ravines that occur just below the Grand Gulf sandstone 

Typically developed in Mississippi. — One of the best develop- 
ments and earliest studied sections of this formation is at Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi. The military road leading north from the 
town is flanked landwards by an abrupt slope, showing in places 
thick, light-colored, limestone layers, at others, light marls. Mint 
spring bayou at the entrance of the U. S. cemetery exposes 
along its course an excellent section. The photograph herewith 
reproduced, (Plate \')*, shows a rather heavy bedded limestone 
above, with very fossiliferous clays beneath. Still higher, at 
Mint spring, other clays are found, likewise replete with another 
group of tnoUuscan species, mostly Areas, These strata come 
under No. 5 of Hilgard's section given below : 

No. s. — .Alternating strata, i lo 6 feel thick, of limestone and marl, con- 
taining tlie Viclisburg fossils, und some brands of non-effervcicent, gray 
Mnd and clay : 60 to 65 feet thick. 

No. 4. — Black, lif^iitic clay, and gray aand, vith Ostrea giganUa, Car- 
bula alia, Nalica mississippuHSU., Cytherea sabrina, Madrepora tttis.: 
5 feet. 

No. 3. — Gray or black lignitic claya or sand, with iron pyritea ; exuding 
^ts and sulphuretted hydrogen : 35 feet. 

No. 2.— Solid limestone lignite, with whitish cleavage planes : 3 feet. 
■White limestone of the Jackson group. 

I- The dip of the strata here is quite slight, perhaps on an aver- 
scarcely 10 feet to the mile in a southerly direction. 
The whole thickness would seem to scarcely exceed 100 feet 
at Ibis type locality. 

Farther east, in southern Alabama, the Orbiloides bearing 
Vicksburg beds are given a thickness of 140 feet by Smith and 

Great development in Georgia. — In Georgia they cover a vast 
portion of the State as pointed out by the writer in 1895.! Their 

• Borrowed from Bull. Amer, Paleont. No. ij- 
tSee .American Geology, Vol. 18, p. 136, 1896. 
gee also Bull. Am. Pal. No. 15, p. 67 et seq., 1901, 




northern boundary passes northeastward from near Ft. Gaines, 
Ga., to near Macon. They simply mask ail Cretaceous and Eocene 
deposits in this portion of the State. Their thickness, however, 
can not at present be estimated with anything tike a fair degree 
of accuracy. 

Grand Gulf Stage 


Frio sub-stage. — If we adopt the Texan nomenclature for 
upper, green, calcareous clays of the Grand Gulf beds, the 
whole stage would be thus divided, i , Grand Gulf beds proper ; 
light colored sands, clays and sandstone layers at base. 3, 
Frio clays : light greenish clays, sand and light calcareous marls 
replete with white concretions of very irregular forms of various 
si«s. Occasional typical " Red river clay" beds are reported 
from the Frio horizon. 

Both the usual phases of this stage are splendidly developed 
along the K. C. P. & G. R. R. from^ Christie's switch to five 
miles south of Leesville. The sandstone ledges are fully exposed 
about Harrisonburg and Sicily Island. 

CondiHoH of deposition. — From Alabama to near Rosefield, 
Louisiana, the northern shoreline of the Grand Gulf sea seems 
(o have agreed in direction fairly well with that of Vicksburg 
time. But farther west, doubtless the Vicksburg shore tine 
took an abrupt southerly bend, whereas the Grand Gulf's con- 
tinued in its general west -south- west direction. Certainly great 
origraphic changes took place between the time when the Vicks- 
burg beds were deposited and the beginning of Grand Gulf 
deposition. The Vicksburg beds show an off-shore, clear-water 
condition for the most part : the Grand Gulf, the reverse ; being 
we tielieve. in many places deposited in shallow fresh water 
basins. The astounding dearth of fossil remains, remuked 
upon by Hilgard and others so often and with snch empliasis is, 
it seems to ns, accounted for mainly by the fact that the cal- 
careous concretions so abundant in many portions of the Prio 
cla$^. are not derived from the tests of mollusca as wis formerly 
supposed, bnt have been extracted from fresh waters by certain 
kinds of water vegetation.* 

■ Joar«a1 of G«alosT, voL 9. 509 aod 506 ; 1901 : C. 



1 ,"i,. foWOATIOlO. 

The Geology op the Mississippi Em 


Stratigraphy along the Ouachita. — Three miles south of Dan- 
ville at Rock Hill, as has already been stated, the base of the 
Grand Gulf sandstone layers is 203 feet A. T. The fossiliferous 
Vicksburg beds in little ravines close by are from 60 to 70 feet 
below the sandstone layers, the intervening space is covered. 
Yet in the Harriaburg road perhaps two miles farther south, 
thick sand beds were observed beneath the indurated ledges. 
These we would naturally place in the Grand Gulf stage. Ten 
miles southeast of Rock Hill, at Catahoula shoals, borings made 
by the U. S. Engineers indicate the presence of hard Grand Gulf 
layers to a depth of i2g feet A. T. In this direction therefore, 
nearly due southeast, the dip is about 31 feet per mile. If, 
however, we take the approximate elevation of the lower beds 
of the Grand Gulf just across the river from Colfax as no feet, 
and note the distances and directions from each of these points 
and solve graphically for direction and amount of dip, we find 
the true dip to be south 26° east at the rate of 34 feet per mile. 
This is interesting as proving with fair certainty that the basal 
sandstones of this formation do not extend much below water 
level at Slafiord's landing. In other words, Bceuf river joins 
the Ouachita along the northern outcropping of the bottom hard 
ledges of the Grand Gulf sandstone. Rather strong local dips 
aie to be seen in the sandstone ledges in the bluff at Harrison- 
burg. If, however, they do not affect the general dip as dis- 
cussed above, the more or less arenaceous and indurated layers 
of the Grand Gulf, have a vertical range of about 250 feet and 
the total thickness where the basal sands are included is uo less 
than 300 feet. The Frio clays, if present at all in this region, 
must be some distance to the south of the outcropptngs of the 
harder Grand Gulf beds, and hence are covered by the recent 

Fossils. — In the southwest quarter of section 7. 10 N., 5 E., 
the gray sandstones and clays of the Grand Gulf alternate, near 
the summit of several eminences in this vicinity, with light 
sea-green finely laminated clays. These clays upon exposure 
become almost pure white, and hence the name of the locality. 
Chalk hills. We were fortunate to secure from these lighter 
clays not only a good quantity of well-preserved, dicotyledonous 

Gbological Survey of Lodisiana 

leaves, but also several casts of one or two species 
of Unto and Anadon. We arc con6dent that if 
time and means for the work were at hand, a most 
interesting chapter could be written on the proofs 
of the freshwater origin of a large share of the 
Grand Gulf sands and Frio clays, A careful study 
of the microscopic features of all these rocks is 
what is now most needed in order to bring out in 
more detail their condition of deposition. How- 
ever, the mollusks and the leaves will soon be pub- 
lished, though the manuscript could not be pre- 
pared in time for the present report. 

At the forks of the quarry switch east of Christie's 

(K. C. P. & G. R. R.).we fonndasection (Fig. 5). 

showing cross-bedded sands with chunks and bells 

oi of brittle clay and more or less Lignitic clay. The 

m unconformity shown by the various layers is most 

ti remarkable. A few fragmentary casts of small 

'^ bivalves were found in a shelly layer perhaps half 

g way from the forks of the switch aforementioned to 

o the old quarry. These were found mainly on the 

J northwest side of the track near a highway cross- 

'^ iug. Just to the southwest is a cut showing flow- 

and-plunge structure in semi-indurated sands. 

Stratigraphically and Uthologically these remains 

might well be of Grand Gulf age. But when we 

cousider that the base of the so-called Grand Gulf 

in Texas contains casts of Jackson fossils, we are 

inclined to think that these few bivalves are the 

last survivors of the Jackson age. 

Well sec/ions. — From rock specimens seen at 
Moresi Brothers' foundry in Jeanerette, and from 
what could be seen of the well being sunk at Aase- 
la-Butte with the Moresi outfit, we are warranted 
in stating that from 800 to 1500 feet in depth the 
drill was continually in Grand Gulf and Frio 
material. The same light clays, often of a green- 
ish hue, and sands predominated, that 1 

that caa-^^^ 

The Geology of the Mississippi Embayment 

■^^^■tof^Ja sartace outcroppings from Leesville to Hornbeck. 
fSUfflftH^'r we have never seen at a surface outcrop the sticky 
red eotnpact clay that is said to have been passed through 
in the well between the depth of 1415 to 1450 feet. Yet Mr. 
Hill, who had general oversight of the work, informs us that a 
simitar red bed was passed through under similar circum- 
stances in a well 15 miles south of Alice. Texas. Again, in a 
letter recently forwarded to the .Survey, mention is incidentally 
made of the surface outcropping of a red clay bed in the vicinity 
of Leesville, La, Also, in the Spring Hill well, at a depth of 
several hundred feet (exact depth not given), a precisely similar 
formation was encountered. 

The so-called Spring Hill well is located about 9 miles in a 
southeast direction from Oberlin, La. Besides the interesting 
feature just mentioned, this well, according to Mr. J. T.Jackson 
(driller), at a depth of about 1450 passed through a very hard 
ledge of light sandstone. The auger employed certainly 
showed hard usage. At a depth of about 1500 feet, the drill- 
ings being washed up at the time of our visit (in early March), 
consisted of clear quartz sand with greenish flakes of clay. No 
shells had been found in any of the washings. According to 
the same driller an abundance of gravel was found at a depth of 
iioo feet. This, if not an error, would imply a dip of at least 
40 feet to the mile for these Lafayette beds or the upper surface 
of the Grand Gnlf from their exposures southwest of Alexandria, 
southward to this well. 

There is a strong probability that the well styled " Southern 
No. i" reached a Grand Gulf horizon at 2600 feet. The wells 
in the same general vicinity, 1'. e. a mile or so north or south of 
Evangeline, seem to show the same uppermost fannal phase as 
was obtained at similar depths (1500-1800 ft.), in the deep well 
at Galveston. Again the material obtained from a depth of 
3600 feet has a decidedly fresh-water, river mud appearance. 

I do not think the Watkins well southeast of Lake Charles, 
2400 deep, reaches the Grand Gulf. However, in Texas, Terti- 
ary beds have certainly been found in a well at Sour Lake, as 
described above ; even near Spindletop the evidence of Grand 
Gulf Tertiary in some of the wells is quite satisfactory. 

Gkujogicai, Sitkvbt of Locbiaiu 

Tbe Tresdamy well, down 1S50 tett, liar. ii. ig<», sfacnred 
pxTcl and recent appearing forma dotni to thai depth. A well 
afaocn ooe-fotnth oitle to the east, temporarilr afaandoned (at a 
depth ot Z015 feet), h owe v er, showed mottled aMrls and green- 
ish sandy days tefaable with little doobt to the Gtand 



^H^ nu 


Wen rearris. — No marine Xeocene Totiaiy, so Car as WC 
aware, comes to the sorface in LooisiaBa or Tezaa. Their 
tioD in the sofastmctnre of Louisiana can best be underwood by 
examining the sectioned model. Plate II. of this report. They 
have been completely blanketed by more recent deposits. Our 
knowledge regarding them is scanty, owing to tbe lack of inter- 
est that drillers manifest in keeping fossil specimens from each 
rell pnt down. 

Tbe Crowley well, near Erangeline, is interesting frooi the 
fact that a depth of approximately 3000 feet many specimens of 
Rangia jpkmami were fonnd, along with fragments of Mytilus 
aDd Ostrea. E*rairc Mamon well, abont 2200 feet deep, shows the 
e Rangta jokmtani along with the Galveston well variety of 
R. cujumta. These show fairly co&clnsivdy that a western con- 
struction of the Pascagonla Miocene beds are here encountered. 
' ' Southern No. 2 ' ' shows at i Soo feet the same oppermost Ter- 
tiary aspect of fossil remains that was fonnd in tbe Galveston 
well at a similar depth. The Watkins well near Lake Charles 
seems to reach at 2400 feet approximately the same borixon that 
is fonnd cast of Jcnning's at a depth of less than tHoo feet. 



Laf&vbttb Stags 

Oeemrremte in Lattisimna. — Tbe disconnected areas of gnvV 

material in the Embayment region north of the OUgocene oDt- 
crops. belong perhapis to several different geological ages ; hot 
sonlh of the same outcrops these coarse materials t 

The Geology of the Mississippi Esibavment 


stitute one extensive, unbroken formation, though varying 
greatly in kinds of material and doubtless considerably in actual 
time of deposition. 

It has been my belief for several years that whenever the 
shingle of an old shore has been preserved, there will be found 
"Orange sand," be the age of such littoral beds Mesozoic or 
Cenozoic : that, if the shore line is pushed out at intervals, by 
the raising of the land or the depression of the sea, then erosion 
sets in with renewed vigor and carries the greater part, or all it 
may be, of the old littoral deposits to lower localities, often into 
the sea. If the relative level of land and sea remains for a long 
time practically unaltered, then the sea may transform a gently 

sloping, elevated sea-bottom plane to a shore of wave-formed 
cliffs with bat moderate depth in the bordering waters. Such 
action would often account for the occurrence of gravel located 
on plateaux, with beds of the next older stage, consisting of 
firmer materials, lying unconformably below. 

A graphic representation of the ideas we would express is 
given herewith in Fig. 6, Coarse littoral material, oraugesand, 
we will say, is deposited in the first place on an irregular surface 
of older rocks. The coarser material has been deposited near the 
shore, the finer farther seaward. This material is subsequently 


derated and appears at X. Erosion aod wave action set ta aod 
tfae result is that part of the X materia) is traospoirted and forms 
X\ Some remains at X as plateau gravel. These processes 
may be repeated many times and the resnlt wiH be that when 
the country inland has been dissected even modeiately . the grave) 
will appear (a) as the capping of plateaux, or (b) as gravel 
traitu along the water courses either of to-day. or those of periods 
subsequent to the primal elevation of the region above sea level. 

We refer the reader to oar Report of t&99 for an account of 
the gravel beds north of the Grand Gulf outcrops in lA>aisiana. 
Those in Arkansas are discussed in several volumes of iheannoal 
reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey, especially vtd. 2 of 
the years i&SS. t&&g, and 1S92. Special interest in this report 
centers in the Lafayette beds to the south of the Grand Golf otit- 
crops, inasmuch as from these outcrops southward they are con- 
tinaoos, and play an important r61e in the economics of south- 
west Louisiana. 

At Harrisburg these beds are over 150 feel A. T. ; uearNeame, 
over 375 feet A. T. At Sulphur, in southwest Louisiana, they 
extend to a depth of over 400 feet below tide ; just east of Mor- 
gan City, over 500 feet below the same datum plane. East of 
the Mississippi river their behavior is well shown in the accom- 
panying section. Fig. 7. 

For want of carefully kept records and samples, and lack of 
organic remains, the depth to which the so-called Lafayette beds 
extend can not be gis-en with accuracy. The light bluish clay 
and sand layers penetrated between depths of 500 and 3500 feet 
and containing few and from miocene to recent organic remains, ' 
seem to be most probably the seaward representations of the 
coarse gravelly material as it Sanks the Grand Gulf or Frio beds 
farther north. Such gravels, then, may be properly discussed 
under the bead of upper ' ' Tertiary deposits. ' ' whereas the gravel 
encountered in the wells is most certainly Quaternary, * 

The drawing of hard and fast limes separating the so-called 

'The fact that this littoral material, of identical appearance, (nsnany 
r ef erred to bj oae Dsmel. belongs to so manydiSerent ages, renders itsdis- 
GOisioD. in ■ report chronoloKically arranged, necessarily somewhat awk- 

somewliat awk- g 



Ghological Sdbvkv of LonsiANA 

Lafayette sands and Rravels from the " basal Port Hudson gravels 
and sands" is to our way of thinking unnecessary and illogical. 
There was a period after the last coarse material in this region 
had been laid down, when the whole of the area represented on 
the maps as Port [ludson or younger, constituted one broad 
expanse of marsh land and extensive shallow lakes, in which 
clayey materials were deposited to depths of 50-150 feet. But 
more of these later on. ^_ 


Port Hudson Stage 
Origiti of prairie region in southern Louisiana.— The drilling 
of a vast number oF shallow wells in the southern part of the 
State has been the means of solving the origin of this whole 
portion of the country. The auger brings up rotten wood, land 
shells, fresh-water shells aud brackish -water shells. The shells 
are identical with those met with in the clayey beds now form- 
ing in the various lakes towards the southern margin of the State. 
In comparatively recent times, all the Port Hudson area referred 
to above, has been, first here than there occupied by shallow 
lakes containing a brackish water fauna. The rdle that Rangia 
ameala has played in the formation of this part of the country 
is noteworthy. Around Jennings, for example, no one would 
suspect that in sinking a well less than 100 feet in depth, beds 
of the brackish -water species Rongia cuneala, are apt to be met 
with in layers from i to 5 or more feet thick. Precisely what 
these old conditions of affairs were like may be seen at a glance 
by visiting the borders of any of the large lakes in southern 
Louisiana, Pontchartran for example. The partial shutting off 
of the Gulf waters from these extensive flats was doubtless accom- 
plished by wave action and possibly by a slight coastal rising : 
principally, however, by the action of the waves throwing up 
sand reefs, especially during great storms. Plate VIII shows one 
of the many remnants of more extensive lakes in this part of the 
State, in which the animal life and conditions of deposition we 
havedescribed above can be studied to advantage. Plate IX shows 
one of the many long, parallel, storm-wave-formed ridges of 


The Geology of the Mississippi Embaymb 


southern Louisiana. Tbe sea marsh to the right extends out to 
the present Gulf coast where more modern ridges are forming. 
To the left the Mermentau river is seen skirting the northern 
border of the ridge (Grand Chenier) for some distance, prepara- 
tory to breaking through and winding its way to the Gulf. 

In passing from the Gulf coast inland, one encounters, first a 
beach with often a trace of a ridge, then a stretch of swamp or 
marsh with lakes and meandering bayous, then a second and 
third and even a fourth or fifth ridge separated by swamps or 
lakes according to the season and tide. But still farther north 
the marshes become low lands and gradually assume the very 
low. level stretches that rise, though almost insensibly, north- 
ward and constitute the broad treeless stretches so characteristic 
of the prairie region of southern Louisiana. 

In this portion of the State we see no sharp line of demarcation 
between the Port Hudson beds and the recent alluvium and coast 
deposits. That the earlier part of Port Hudson time was char- 
acterized by a low or sunken condition of the lower portion of 
the Embayment area is not to he questioned. The thickness of 
tbe beds along the Mississippi and other large rivers and also in 
tbe well sections, prove a long continuance of sunken or sinking 
surface conditions. The lack of certainty in the delimitation 
of the lower plane of this so-called formation has already been 
referred to. 

Loess. — We are inclined to consider the loam of the Bayou 
Macon hills, the Icess-like material on the southeastern Hank of 
the Grand Gulf hill of Sicily Island, the bluff lands about Marks- 
ville, Opelousas and from there continuously southward to New 
Iberia as similar in origin and age to the bluf! land on the east 
of the Mississippi from the Mississippi State line southward to 
Baton Rouge. All seem to be the southern representative of the 
typical kess so well shown about Grand Gulf and Vicksburg 
l^irther up tbe Mississippi. (See Plate VII). 

' Alluvium and Recent Shore Deposits 

A gradual rise of the land surface in the Embayment region 
caused the Fort Hudson and Icess beds along the river channels 

Gkological Survky of Lodisiana 

»1 elevatio^!^^ 


to soon stand out in bold relief ; for with increased 1 
went increased erosion. The swamp Jands of west St. Landry 
and Calcasieu, Acadia and Lafayette parishes were drained. 
But lakes and swamps are in evidence along the Gulf border till 
this day. The very recent deposits in these low lands as well 
as the material of the so-called * ' river bottoms ' ' constitute prac- 
tically the last geological formation of the State. 

Mud lumps. — So much has been written regarding the mud 
lumps at the mouth of the Mississippi, that any further account 
may seem almost superfluous. Yet after a visit to the region 
between South and Southeast pass, we are convinced that the 
origin of these peculiar objects as usually stated is erroneous. 

Descriptions and figures of the mud lumps have heretofore 
given the impression that the material constituting the "lumps " 
is ejected volcano-wise out of a crater-like orifice that continually 
boils and bubbles with escaping gas. Along with the water and 
gas comes blue mud. This mud flows down outside of the vent, 
lava-like, and finally builds up a mud cone from 5 to 15 feet high. 

We saw many places where water and gas were flowing out : 
the gas especially came off in considerable quantities, but in no 
case was the water carrying with it any noticeable amount of 
material wherewith to build a " lump" . There is a gEisspring 
bubbling up in the flat, surfwashed clays in the foreground of 
our photograph, (Plate X). but no water is running away from 
the crater, at least, none to speak of, less than a pint an hoar. 

The "lump" shown constitutes Cubit's Island. It may be 
reached by going down North-east pass to Bayou Balize, thence 
out Redfish bayou into Redfish bay. This is the most south- 
easterly of the large lumps. It is just south of Caney spit. 
Height about ia-15 feet according to stage of water. The con- 
stituent material is blue clay, evidently deposited as thin hori- 
zontal layers. It has been raised up into an anticline with dips 
north and south. Upon long exposure the material becomes 
brownish and strikingly like ihe banks of the neighboring passes. 

To the southwest and northwest are several small tumps 
scarcely over 3 feet in height. Others are still just a little 
beneath the water level as the breakers clearly show. 

On a second island farther westward another spring was seen 

TH!" N!:W YORKf 

r:. ■- .Is'.- .'.s. 


Thk Geology of the Mississippi Embaymknt 



bubbling gas continually. A streak of iron oxide marked the 
trace of all overflow water. The temperature of the latter was 
72" Fh. while the water alongside was 63° Fh. the strike of the 
beds on this island was in general N. W.-S. E. though a consid- 
erable variation in matters of dip were observed. 

"John Landus " island is quite extensive, several hundred 
yards wide and perhaps a mile long. Its beds show a N.-S. 
strike. The temperature of a fine gas-water spring was 663^ "Fh . , 
the air at the same time was 58^° Fh. and the Gulf close by 55° 

We bad no time for visiting the lumps on S-W pass but heard 
of some excellent ones in that direction. In case the weather is 
not seriously bad, the geologist will find it to his financial advan- 
tage to go by boat to Port Eads and from there row or sail east 
to Redfish bay, and west to Southwest pass. The lighthouse 
keeper at the last mentioned locality can give shelter and infor- 
mation ; while at the former locality, east of Port Eads, there 
arc no traces of shelter, no chance to obtain food or water. 

We are still in doubt as to the exact cause of the upheavals of 
these mud masses near the mouth of the Mississippi, but that 
they rise up in domes or anticlines and preserve their regular 
bedding is proven by their present structure. So far as we 
observed none were formed as volcano-like mud cones. 

Gas presumably has something to do with these upheavals ; 
then, too, it appears to us that the difference in specific gravity 
in different portions of such a great mass of ooze as is here con- 
tinually building out into the Gulf, may be respon-sible for some 
of the sinking, moving, re-adjusting and upheaving in certain 

No. II 







Field Work 48 

Method of mapping 48 

Method of testing the brines 48 

Resnm^ of Previous Geological Work 49 

Forshey 49 

Robertson 49 

Hilgard 49 

Hopkins 50 

I^rch 50 

Vaughn 50 

Harris and Veatch 50 

T I. — Detailed Descriptions of the Several Salt Works 

Drake's Sai^t Works 51 

Location and Topography 51 

Location 51 

Streams 51 

Licks east of Saline bayou 51 

A good mill site 52 

Licks west of Saline bayou 52 

History of operations 53 

Indian 53 

Early white operations 55 

War operations 58 

Geology 59 

Surrounding country 59 

Cretaceous 60 

Old tertiary 60 

Gravel 60 

Conclusions 61 

Hydrometer tests of the brine 61 

Analyses of brine 63 

Prick's Salt Works 64 

Location and Topography 64 

Location 64 

Topography • 64 

Licks 64 

Streams 65 


History of operations 65 

Early operations 65 

War operations 66 

Geology 67 

I^imestone outcrop 67 

Well sections 68 

Vertebrate remains 68 

Conclusions 68 

Hydrometer tests 69 

Analysis of brine 69 

Rayburn's Sai*t Works 71 

Location and Topography 71 

Location : 71 

General features 71 

History of Operations 72 

Early operations 72 

War operations 72 

Geology 73 

Hilgard*s well section 73 

Cretaceous outcrops 73 

Cretaceous fossils 74 

Other outcrops 74 

Vertebrate remains 74 

Conclusions 74 

Hydrometer tests 75 

Analysis of brine 75 

King's Salt Works 76 

Location and Topography 76 

Location , 76 

Valley of Bayou Castor 76 

The licks 76 

History of Operations 77 

Indian 77 

Early white operations 77 

War operations 77 

Geology 78 

Cretaceous 78 

Cretaceous from Neal's well 78 

Midway Eocene 79 

Surrounding country 79 

Vertebrate remains 79 

Asphaltum 79 

Tests and analysis of brine 79 


Location and Topography 81 

Location 8i 

Topography 8i 

The islands or hills 82 

The licks 82 

History of operations 83 

Indian 83 

Early white operations 83 

War operations 84 

Operations since the war 86 

Geology * 86 

Cretaceous 86 

The wells 87 

Vertebrate remains 87 

Surrounding country 88 

Conclusions 89 

Analyses of brine 89 

Othbr Saunbs 90 

Salt works near the Sabine river % 90 

Negreet salt works 90 

Other works 90 

Catahoula Salt Springs 91 

Early French accounts 91 

Later references 91 

Salines near Dugdemona Bayou 92 

Castor salt springs 92 

Cedar lick 92 

PART II. — General Considerations 93 

Economic Conditions 93 

Relative Value of North Louisiana Brines 93 

Table I. — Analyses of Brines of the United States 94 

Table II.— Analyses of Total Solids Brines of the U. S 95 

Geological Considerations 96 

Resum^ 96 

Dome structure 96 

Relation to Surrounding Regions 97 

Similar domes in Louisiana and Texas 97 

Time of formation of domes 99 

Lines of weakness 100 


Plate XI. Drake*s Salt Works, Lower Lick, showing old salt well, salt 

kettles and optn lick through the trees 51 

XI L Artesian Well, Drake's Salt Works, La 57 

XIII. Old Salt Kettles, Rayburn's Salt Works, La. . 71 

XIV. Row of old boilers nsed for evaporating salt, Raybam*8 

Salt Works, La 72 

XV. King's Well.King's Salt Works, La. Locality from which 

Cretaceous was first reported in Louisiana 76 

XVI. Tadpole Lake, Bistineau Salt Works, La. 81 

XVII. Potter's Pond, Bistineau Salt Works, La., showing old 

^salt wells 88 

XVIII. ^Iap of Drake's Salt Works, La 100 

XIX. Map of Price's Salt Works, La loo 

XX. Map of Raybum's Salt Works, La 100 

XXI. Map of King's Salt Works, La 100 

XXII. Map of Bistineau Salt Works, La luo 

XXIII. Map of Domes of Louisiana and Texas 100 

Pig. 8. Sketch Map showing Salines of north Louisiana 47 

9. Partially ideal section of Drake's Salt Works 61 

The following report is intended to contain a complete account 
of what is known of the salt springs and wells that were for- 
merly worked in northern Louisiana. The accompanying sketch 
map (Fig. 8) shows the location and relative position of the 
different groups of springs and wells and also the areas of which 
detailed sketch maps were made. 



Geologicai. Sdhvbv of LoniSIANA 
Field Work 


In March, 1899, the writer in making a reconnaissance of 
northern Louisiana passed through King's and Rayburn's Salt 
Works in Bienville parish. At Rayburn's an area of about a 
square mile was mapped and a beautifully preserved Upper Cre- 
taceous fauna found. At King's, Ostrea pulaskensis, a Midway 
Eocene species, was found in the old dump heaps. 

In the latter part of December, 1899, and in January. 1900, 
Bistineau. Drake's, Price's and King's Salt Workswere mapped 
and tests made of the brines. 

Method of mapping. — The sketch maps of the different salines 
were prepared almost wholly by pacing. All section, quarter 
and half section lines were followed and in most cases new lines 
run- at the eight mile points. In regions of great detail, as in 
the sail well groups, lines were run east and west and north and 
south every thirty-second of a mile and the wells located from 
known points on these lines. The whole was checked by known 
land corners and by meandering the main roads. An open sight. 
3,''3-inch compass was used. Relative levels were obtained with 
a Locke hand level. 

Method of testing the brines. — The samples of brine were 
obtained from near the bottom of the old wells by means of a 
small pitcher pump, such as is commonly used on driven wells 
in the river bottoms, with a number of short joints of pipe so 
that the total length of the pipe could be regulated at will. An 
examination of the licks made this method seem preferable to 
sinking a number of new wells. Many of the old wells are still 
open — the timber, generally sap-pine, with which they were 
walled, haviug been preserved by the salt^and it was believed 
that if samples of brine could be obtained from near the bottom 
of the open wells they would represent the normal strength of 
the briues, and that a number of such samples from wells overs 
wide area would give a truer idea of the quality of the brines 
than a sample from a new well sunk at random. 

Samples thus obtained were tested with a Brix Saccharometer 
(the only form of hydrometer which could be readily obtained), 
graduated to one-fifth of a degree, A number of the s 
obtained were analyzed by Mr. Maurice Bird. 

Thk Salines of North Louisiana 49 

Rbsum^ of Previous Ghological Work • 
fJvrshey. — As early as 1850 Forshey, lecturing on the Geology 
of Louisiana, made the following general statement regarding 
the north Louisiana salt springs : " A saline bed seems to under- 
lie the tertiary bed generally." f 

Robertson. — During 1864 and 1865 J. B. Robertson was engaged 
in geological examinations of northern Louisiana under the 
direction of Gov. Henry Allen, In his official report [headvances 
the theory that these salines are merely the " beds of ancient 
lakes." He records that at King's Salt Works there are aoo feet 
of fossiliferous Cretaceom litnestone,\ Whether Robertson really 
recognized a Cretaceous fauna or whether he merely made a 
happy guess we cannot tell at this time. It should, however, 
be mentioned that it was at this very locality, and in the dump 
heap of the deep well referred to, that the author found fossilifer- 
ous Cretaceous limestone last year. 

Hilgard. — In 1869 Hilgard made his now classical reconnais- 
sance of northern Louisiana. ' From fossils found in the Big lick 
at King's Salt Works and lithological characters he concluded 
that the material shown at the various salines and at the Winn- 
field Marble Quarry was Cretaceous. From the relative geo- 
graphical position of the different outcrops he came to the con- 
clusion that there was in Louisiana a Cretaceous ridge or back- 
bone extending N.N.W. and S.S.E.g He thought that at the 

• Thanks arc due ta Mr. Wm. Beer. librariBli of Howard .Memorial Library. 
New OrleaDB, for many courtesies exlended while working in the excellent 
collectioi) nbich hB;; been brought together through his efforts. 

t IiOuisiana : Geology and Hydrography (Abstract of Lecture) by Caleb 
G. Korshcy, DeBow's Review, vol. 8, p. 495. 1850 ; also DeBow's Industrial 
Resources of the Southern aud Western States, New Orleans, iSjj, vol. 1, 
p. 4j6. 

; Memorial and Explorations of the Hon. J. B, Robertson in relation to 
the Agriculture. Mineral and Manufacturing Resources of the State ; with 
the Report of the Joint Committee. Doc. jd Bes. id Leg, I-a. , Rept. No. aj. 
1867. .^iBO separate. New Orleans, 1867, 30 p. 

I Ibid., p. 13. Also The Vast Resources of Louisiana by J. B. Robertson, De 
Bow's Review, vol. i (Revived Series) pp. 276, 1866 ; and Doc. id Sei., ad 
Leg. La.. Rept. Bureau of Immigration, p. 24, 1S67. 

^ Geol. Recon, of La., Am. Jour. Sci. id serieg, voL 4S, 1869, p. 343; 
Suppl. and Final Rept. of a Geol. Recon. of La., N. O., 1(^73, p. 43 and 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

s marked II^^H 

beginnitig of the Tertiary this axis of elevation was u 
namber of disconnected islands in the Tertiary sea and that they 
were finally covered with deposits of the yonuger formations.* 
The brine was derived from the upper part of the Cretaceous. 

Hopkins. — Hopkins' ideas of the relation of the Cretaceons and 
the overlying beds is given in his figure, republished in the 
report of the survey for 1899, page 33, It is regretted that this 
figure throws no light on his idea of the origin of the Cretaceous 
"islands"; whether they are butte-like masses formed by 
erosion or are local anticlines. 

Lerch. — This author held that about the close of the Creta- 
ceous time extraordinary disturbances took place which resulted 
in the formatiou of limestone peaks and mountain chains of con- 
siderable extent. One of these lines of disturbance was along 
the line of the supposed backbone of Louisiana and the various 
Cretaceous outcrops represent the partially buried peaks of this 
chain. He diltered from Hilgard in supposing that the saline 
deposits were laid down in early "Eocene rather than late Cre- 
taceous time.t Lerch added to the proof of the Cretaceous age 
of these outcrops by ^xx^x-a^Exogyracostataax Rayburn's.Jwhere 
Hilgard had reported uo fossils. 

Vatighan. — Vaughan differed very markedly from Lerch. He 
concluded that no folding or faulting was represented in the north 
Louisiana Cretaceous outcrops ; that they were butle-like masses, 
formed by erosion in the land interval which separated the 
deposits of the Cretaceous and Eocene and had since becB 
covered by the younger deposits. § 

Harris and Vealch. — The work of this survey in the season of 
1898-99 seemed to show very clearly that the " Cretaceous back- 
bone of Louisiana" was a myth; that in the case of the 
Winnfield and Coochie Brake outcrops, folding had occurred at 

•Geol. History of the Gulf of Mexico, Am. Jour. Sci., 3d s 
■ 393- 

. vol. », 

tA Preliininary Report upon the Hills of Louisiana South of the V. S. ft 

P. R.R., Bnll. La. Eipt. Station, Geol. and .^gr. part a. 1893, pp. 72-73. 
t Bull. La. Eitpt, Sta,, Geol. and Agr. Part I, 1893, p. ij. - 
^ Brief Contributiou to the Geology and Paleontology of Northvrestetll 

Louisiana by T. Wyland Vaoghan, Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur. No. 141, 1S96, pp. 

13. M- 

: :'.■•/ VGf^K 


I • 

■ 1 ■ ■ ', ■ • '. ' 


• :., I." ', X AMD 


■. ^., t'-^ .■ ..'^ATlCNS- 


Thh Salinhs of North Louisiana 

right angles to the supposed backbone or in a northeast and 
southwest direction ; that at two localities at least, a part of the 
movement had occurred since the deposition of the Lower 
Claiborne Eocene ; and that, in the case of the Five Islands, 
orogeuic movements had takbn place in the early Pleistocene, t 
The operations this season have further proved the above 

iSJlT I. 




^H Location and Topography 

^^^ L-oealioH. — Drake's Salt Works is located on Saline bayou 
[pillion t the middle of township 12 north, range 5 west.* In point 
of size the old works here are second only to Bistineau. 

Streams. —SaXmt bayou here occupies a flat bottomed valley 
from 150 feet to half a mile broad, bordered by gently undulat- 
ing sandy hills, covered with long-leaf pine. The bottom is 
heavily wooded with gum and oak, with occasional cypress 
swamps, except where the brines approach the surface and give 
rise to barren " licks " fringed with a short, stunted growth of 
white thorn, hawthorn and other dwarf trees. 

Each of the side streams which enter the main valley has a 
little flat bottomed valley of its own. a miniature of the larger 
one. Molladoe branch on the west side and Cole branch on the 
east are the principal tributary streams in the region of the 

Licks east of Saline bayou. — East of Saline bayou there are 
three principal "licks:" Upper lick, Jack's lick and Lower 
lick. Upper lick, which from the number of old wells seems 

\ See Rept. Geol. Sars. La. for iSy9. pp. 51-63. ;tS9. 

* See map. Plale XVIIl. Mr. Ed, Weeks has very kindly pointed out the 
tocationi o( Ibe following corners : [he N. W.,the S. W. and theS. E. corners 
of the N. W. % of the S. E. % of Sec, 21. Known corners are shown by 
circles at intersection of land lines. 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

to have been the main site of salt operations, is situated near the 
old mill dam. It is a somewhat circular area inclosed by low pine 
hills on all sides except that occupied by Saline bayou. An old 
channel or slough passes around the lick, which, though dry in 
low water, is filled in moderate sta'ges of the bayou and on the 
eastern side of the lick expands into a shallow lake, where there 
are many old wells. When the bayou is high the whole lick is 
under water and to prevent the influx of flood waters, a number 
of the wells were surrounded with levees of earth. Near the 
old mill dam is the artesian well (Plate XII). 

The little branch, which empties iuto the southwestern part 
of the lake, flows from a small open lick known as Jack's lick. 

Between the Upper and the Lower licks is a sandy ridge 35 
to 40 feet high. The Lower lick extends for about a quarter of 
a mile northeast and southwest, along the base of the steep hills, 
which bound on the southeastern side the great flat, somewhat 
circular area in which all the licks are situated. 

A good mill site. — At the point where the escarpment south of 
Lower lick reaches the bayou, the creek valley is very narrow. 
Limestone is exposed in Rock bluff and in all probability under- 
lies the Lower lick hills. A dam built here would have rock at 
either eud if indeed the limestone under the bayou does not 
approach near enough the surface to furnish a good foundation 
for the whole length. A dam 15 to so feet high could easily be 
constructed and the amount of water commonly in the bayou 
seems to warrant the construction of a fair sized mill. Saline 
bayou has never yet run dry and it will be seen from the map, 
Plate XVIII, that the construction of a dam 15 feet high at this 
point would produce a very good sized mill pond which cotild be 
drawn on in case of need. 

Licks west of Saline bayou. — Directly west of Rock bluff is 
Smith's lick. It is situated in a steep-sided little valley. North 
of this and south of the great bend in Molladoe branch is Big 
lick. This is an open sand plain with a few scattered wellB. 
Across the ridge which separates Big lick from the main bot- 
tom is Little lick. 


The Salines OF North Lodisiana 

History of Operations 

■ Indian. — It was here (at the Little lick), according to the 
old settlers, that the Indiaus made most of their salt, and 
this statement is fully proved by the large accumulations of 
pot-shreds. The pottery seems to have been made ou the spot, 
for scattered through the piles of broken pols are specimens 
of Oiirea faUiformis. a fossil oyster which does not occur in silu 
at this place but is found in great abundance on the hills three 
or four miles to the west, and examination of the fragments 
shows that these shells were ground or partly pulverized snd 
mixed with clay in making this pottery. This conclusion is 
strengthened by the statement of Du Pratz given below, page 54. 
Pottery is also found in the Upper lick on each side of the 
slough at the ford on the road leading to the Lower lick. 

The earliest reference to salt in this region which we have 
seen is in the Journal of M. de Bienville.* On Mar. 22, 1700, he 
writes : " Four and a half leagues to the west from the Tensas 
we found some Ouachitas, with several pirogues partly loaded 
with salt." On Mar. 29. 1700, he left the village of the Oua- 
chitas for that of the Natchitoches and after crossing Red river 
he records meeting "six Natchitoches who were going to the 
Coroas to sell salt." In his later writings there are several other 
references to the salt trading expeditions of the Natchitoches. 

A little later Daniel Coxet reports a location on the River 
Natcbitock, a hundred miles from the mouth, where the Indians 

•Quoted in Sieur de Bienville by Grace King, New York, i8gi, pp. 100- 
101. The account in the Journal of M. de la Harpe, written in 1713 is sub- 
stantially the same (Journal Historique de t,' Etablissemi^nt des Fran^xis 
a Is Louiaiane, Nouvelle-Orl^ana et Paris, iSj(, p. 31^ also: Translation, 
from Am. Phil. Society MSS. in Historical Collectioos of La. by B. F, 
French, vol. iii, 1851, p. 18). 

\ A descriptioa of tbe Hnglieb province of Caroliaa, by the Spainards 
called Florida and hy the French La Louisiane, and also of the ^cat and 
faiDons River Meschacebe, or Mlssislpi, and the five vast navigable lakes 
of fresh waler and the parts adjacent. Together with an account of the 
commodities of the growth and productions of the said province. And a 
preface containing some considerations of the consequences of the French 
tnakiug settlements (here. By Daniel Cone. Second edition, London, 
1726, pp. lo-ii, (Quoted infull, Geol. Sorv. La. Rcpl. for 1895, pp. ii-ii.) 


Geological So RVKV op Louisiana 




make salt for themselves and for trade with the neighboring 
nations. This account seems to have been founded on the 
reports of Indian guides, for Coxe does not appear to have trav- 
eled in Louisiana, although an expedition sent out by him 
seems to have entered the mouth of the Mississippi and pro- 
ceeded as far as the English Turn. 

The account of M, La Page DuPratz.*who was for some years 
a resident of the country is more complete. He describes the 
operation of making pottery as follows : "I shall add, that 
pretty near the Natchiloches we find banks of muscle-shells, such 
as those of which Cockle Islandf is formed. The neighboring 
nation affirms that according to their old tradition, the sea form- 
erly came up to this place. The women of the nation go and 
gather these shells, and make a powder of them, which they 
mix with the earth, of which they make their pottery or earth- 
enware. However, I would uot advise the use of these shells 
indifferently for this purpose, because Ihey are naturally apt to 
crack in fire; I have therefore reason to think that those found 
at the Natchitoches have acquired their good cjuality only by the 
discharge of their salts, from continuing for so many ages out of 
the sea.": 

The following description, by the same author, seems to refer 
to the springs at the site of Drake's salt works : '■ On the north 
side (of the Riviere Rouge or Riviere des Natchitoches) and 
pretty near the Natchitoches, there is, as is said, a .spring of 
water very salt, running only four leagues. This spring, as it 

• Historic lie la l.ouisiaue, Conteiiant la D^couverle Ac ce vasle Pays ; sa 
Description geojjraphiqiie ; un Voyage dans les Terres ; 1' Historic 
Naturelle ; lea Mnsnrs, Cofltumes and Religion des Naturels, avec lenrs 
Origines ; deux Voyages dans le Nord du nouveau Mexique, dont un jus 
qu' it la Mer du Sud ; ornde de deuj Cartes et de 40 Planches en Taille 
douce, 3 vols., Paris, 1758. 

Also : Tbe History of Louisiana or of the Weatera Parts of Virgiuia and 
Carolina; containing a description of the Countries that li 
of the River Missisipi ; witli an Account of the Setlli 
Soil, Climate and Productions by M. UPage DuPratz 
French}, Loudon, a vols., 1763. 

fin MissisNippi Sound. 

{Ibid. Paris ed. vol. 1, pp. 163-164. London Trans., vol 

TheSalises of North Louisiana 55 

comes out of the earth, forms a little river, which during the 
heats, leaves some salt on the banks."* 

Early white operations. — The exact date when the white man 
first made use of these springs is uncertain. It would be 
expected from the nearness of the post of Natchitoches that these 
springrs would have been used soon after the establishment of 
the post, but Du Pratz says nothing of its use although he 
speaks of the " French trucking coppers " to the springs near 
Catahoula lake.f 

One of the first accounts of the work of white man at this 
wint was given by John Sibley in a letter to Gen. Dearborn 
iated Natchitoches, Apr. 10, 1805. | Not having personally vis- 
Bed the works he makes a slight mistake as to the geographical 
ication of the salt springs. He says; "About twelve miles 
lorth o£ Natchitoches, oa the northeast side of the river, there 
■b a large lake called Lac Nois\ ; the bayou of it communicates 
D the Rigula de Bondieu, opposite Natchitock, which is boata- 
[ ble ihe greater part of the year. Near the lake are the salt 
works, from which all the salt that is used in the district is 
made ; and which is made with so much ease, that two old men, 
both of them cripples, with ten or twelve old pots and kettles, 
z for several years past made an abundant supply of salt for 
III e whole district; they inform me they made six bushels per 
I have not been at the place, but have a bottle of the 

t'*Ibid. Pkris ed., vol. i. p. jgS, Lond. trans., vol. i, pp. !76-jj7. 
«il'>id. Paris ed,, vol. i,pp 307-308; Londoo trans., vol. i, p. 783. See 

t Louisiana: An Account of Ihe Red River and Country Adjacent bv 
John Sibley. American Register, vol. 4, pp, 49-67. .\m. State Papers (vol. 
4) Indian .Affairs, vol, 1, pp. 715-773, Wash , iM3a. 

Tliese two tcco lints arc almost identical, diHerinn only in the spelling of 
two or three words and in the substitution of periods in the first tor semi- 
colons in the second. The account [|Uoted is from .\a\. Register. An 
extract taken verbatim front Sibley is given in Judtce Fran^ois-Xavier Mar- 
tin's History of I.a., N. O. 1837. vol. i.p. lii, and in the reprint N. O. t88i, 
p. ig, Sctmuel Brown in The Western Guzetter or EmiKrant's Directorj-, 
Auburn. N. Y., 1S17, p. iii has made use of the same source of information. 

I Spelled Lac Moirin Am. State Papers, Lac Noiz in Brown and Lac Noir 
HUartiii's. The latter is evidently correct. Black lake and Saline lake 
re clearly been conf usert. 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

water brougbt to me which I found nearly saturated, The salt 
is good. I have never had better bacon than I make with it. I 
am informed there are twelve saline springs now open, and by 
digging for them, for aught any one kuows, twelve hundred 
might be opened. A few months ago Captain Burnet, of the 
Mississippi territory, coming to this place by the Washita,* came 
by the salt works, and purchased the right of one of the old 
men he found there, and has lately sent up a boat, with some 
large kettles and some negroes, under the direction of his son ; 
and expects when they get all in order, to be able to make thirty 
or forty bushels a day. Captain Burnet is of the opinion that 
he shall be able to supply the Mississippi territory, and the set- 
tlements on the Mississippi, from Point Coupee, upwards, lower 
than they can get it from New Orleans and bring it up." 

Maj. Amos Stoddard in his Sketches of Louisiana, published 
in 1S12, states that only three wells had beeu sunk, from which 
" seven laborers produce two hundred and forty barrels of salt 
per month at an expense of one hundred aud forty dollars." 
He supposed that a hundred wells of equal value might be 

Darby in 1816 states that the salt works are situated on the 
land of Mr. Postlewaite on Saline bayou about 25 miles by road 
from Natchitoches ; nearly "upon the 32° N. lat. and on the 92° 
52' W. long. " t 

" Here ", he adds, "the water is drawn from wells perforated 
in a sandy bottom similar to the beeches of a river. ' ' || Salt from 
Ibis locality was at this time transported as far as Natchez and 
New Orleans. The price received for the salt sold to the inhab- 
itants of the Natchitoches and Rapides settlements was from one 
to twodollars per barrel. § He marks " Postlewail'sSalt Works" 

•Given O'ai/iingloi 

that Washita was corr 

t Sketches, Historical and Descripti' 
Stoddard, Pbila., iHii. p. jo. 

\ A Geog, Desc. of the State of La., eti 
pp. ag and 21 1. 

I Ibid., p. 36. 

gThe Emigrant's Guide to the Western and Southwestern States and 
Territories, etc., hy William Darby, Phila., 181S. p. Jk,. 

Stale Papers. It would seem more probable 
uf Lonisiana. By Maj, Amos 
by William Darby, Pbila., 1816. 

* ' V/ VORKi 

>^^T':". LFNOX AND 

Toe Salines ok North Louisia 


on bis map * and it is therefore so marked on a number of maps 
of the United Stales, published about this time, which copied 
Darby's Louisiana. 

George Graham, Commissioner of the General Land Office, in 
1824 reported two salt springs north of Red River as follows ; 
One in la N., 5 W. ; the other in 13 N., 4 W. He gives the 
following claimanls lo salt springs on Saline bayou in tbe county 
of Natchitgckes : John Burntt, Benj. Goodwin, Alexander BailHe. 
heirs of James Morrison, Samuel Coburn, Pierre Rosseau. f 

The local demand so increased that in the early forties Mr. 
Reuben Drake, who was then in possession of the lick and whose 
name has since remained attached to it, attempted to obtain a 
stronger brine by deep boring. Eight wells were bored. One, 
situated near the mill-dam was pushed to a depth of loii feet, t 
The others appear to have been only from one hundred to two 
hundred feet deep. In each artesian brine was found. In the 
deep well uear tbe mill dam the pressure was sufficient to lift 
the water into a tank 35 feet above the opening of the pipe. 

Tbe flow at this time was from eighteen to twenty gallons per 
minate. § As the brine was much weaker than that obtained 
from the shallow wells it was uol used to any extent. At present 
the large lo-iuch pipe projects only about a foot and a half above 
the ground (Plate XII) and the rate of flow has decreased owing 
toa partially successful attempt to plug the well. 

About the time the wells were drilled a dam was thrown across 
the main bayou and a saw mill and a grist mill erected. Drake's 
furnace, which is now represented by a mound about 200 feet 
long, was near the eastern end of the dam. Tbe water power 
developed at the grist mill was used to run the pump which drew 
water from the well in Little lick, on the west side of the bayou. 
Drake's ditch, the Irencb in which the wooden pipe was laid, can 

* A Map nf tbe State of Louisiaua with part oF the Mississippi Territory 
from Actual Survey by Wni. Datby. Pliila., (8i6. 

t Report oF the Commissioner oF tbe General Land OFBce In relation to 
Ldd Mines snd Salt Springs, i8th Cong. 1st Sess. House Ex. Doc, vol. 6, 
Xo. 138, p. 14, 1.S14. 

1 Hilgard, Final Rept. Geol. Recon. of La. N. O. 1373. p.iji ; The Salines 
of Ijoaisiana, Mineral Resources of the U. S. for iSUi, p. 556. 

8 Ibid., p. 556. 


Geologicai, Survhv of Louisiana 

be readily traced through the woods from the bayou, near the 
proposed site of the railroad bridge, to theveryedge of the Little 
lick. Drake dug shallow wells in nearly all of the licks and the 
wells from which the strongest brine can now be obtained are 
nearly all old Drake wells. 

The property passed into the possession of Mr. J. C. Weeks 
who commenced to make sail about i>'54. He used two wells, 
one in Little lick (Plate XI) and the other in Upper lick. Dur- 
ing the salt season he made from 30 to 40 bushels a day. * In 
1859 the saw mill was destroyed by fire. 

IVar operations. — Before the war nearly all the salt used in the 
middle Southern States was imported. At the outbreak of the 
war this source of supply was partially cut off and as the efficiency 
of the federal blockade increased salt commenced to l>ecome 
scarce. People came for salt from distant points in the slate and 
as the war went on people from Mississippi, Alabama and Arkansas 
joined the crowds. With the advance of the federal troops from 
New Orleans to Alexandria many of the sugar plantations were 
abandoned and the great sugar kettles together with the negroes 
belonging to the plantations were taken to north Louisiana to 
make salt. Drake's received its share of these refugees. Those 
who occupied the land east of the bayou paid Mr. Weeks a nom- 
inal rent, varying with different individuals and different loca- 
tions ; those who occupied sites in Sec. 20 did so as squatters, for 
that section was then reserved by the general government for Its 
salt springs. 

Slaughter and Weeks had a very large establishment on the 
hill between Little and Big licks. They had six evaporating 
pans, three about 30 feet long and S feel across composed of a 
number of square pans bolted together, and three halves of steam- 
boat boilers. These were mounted on rude foundations of 
ferruginous sandstone. Brine for these furnaces was obtained 
from Drake's old triple well in Little lick, just south of the 
road. It was lifted 25 feet to the furnaces by a horse power 
pump. Brine was also obtained from a couple of small wells 
just west of the furnace on Molladoe branch. 

• Slatciuent of his son, Mr. Ed. Weeks. 1 am iiniebted to Mr. WetXt for 
inucb inforuialion oti tlie operalious here ilunng the war. 


Thh Salines of North Louisiana 


The same firm also made salt in the Lower lick. They 
used biine from one of Drake's old wells, marked with a star on 
Plate XVIII and shown iu Plate XI, This well furnished the 
strongest brine that the writer was able to find at Drake's, and 
Mr. E, T. Weeks states that it has always been considered the 
Strongest well. The output of this firm is reported to have 
averaged about loo bushels per day. 

In December, 1S63, Mr. Cobb Manlove of Vicksburg, on 
behalf of the Confederate government, contracted with Mr. J. 
C, Weeks for all the salt be could produce at the rate of $10.00 
per bushel, at the works ; a contract which Mr. Weeks had rea- 
son to regret for soon his neighbors were selling all the salt they 
conld make at from Sia.oo to S15.00 per bushel. 

From the number of wells and old kettles on the southern 
part of the Upper lick it would seem that this was one of the 
principal foci of the war operations. Smith was the principal 
salt-maker at the lick which still bears his name. 

At the close of the war work soon stopped. Salt could not be 
produced here, by the primitive methods employed, at a cost 
that would allow it to compete with the salt made on a large 
scale by improved methods elsewhere. Soon only a few of the 
families in the neighborhood resorted here yearly and finally 
even these ceased to come. 

r Geology 

Surrounding country. — This salt lick is surrounded by deposits 
belonging to the Lower Claiborne Eocene. Three or four miles 
to the west are numerous little black land prairies covered with 
Oslrca fakiformis and O. Johnsoni. var. It was from this locality 
that the Indians probably obtained the shells found in the accu- 
mulation of pot-shreds on Little Lick. Five miles to the south- 
east. Lower Claiborne fossils are found near the 24th mile board 
on the Sparta- Montgomery road in ferruginous concretions. 
Near Saunder's Church, about six miles southeast, there is a 
little prairie with Anomia, Plicatula filamentosa. PseudoHva 
vetusia and Osirea falci/ormis. Eight miles to tbe northwest, 
beyond Dugdemona bayou, on the road to Gansville there is an 
lltcrop of Lower Claiborne. 

Gsoijogicai. Sor\-et of Louisiana 

Cretauous. — The most important, and almost the only expos- 
ure, on the area Qader consideration ts at Rock blcff. Here 
there is an ootcrop of ^er. granular, sandy limestone contain- 
ing very imperfect plant impressions, occasional veins of calcite 
and nodnies of pyrites. Lithologicallj' it is identical with the 
Coochie Brake limestone. The exposure is about 50 feet long and 
shows 15 feet of stone- The dip isabont 45^. S. iS" W. The 
peculiar escarpment on the south side of the lick and the 
extreme narrowness of the creek valley at this point seem to 
owe their origin to this bed of limestone. 

In the licks only a few of the shallow wells have struck rock. 
In nearly all. the brine was obtained in sand. The exceptions 
include several wells near the southeastern corner of Upper 
lick. Here the old dump heaps show specimens of dark, almost 
black, slightly crystalline limestone filled with veins of calcite. 
Large fragments of limestone are found in the damp heaps of 
the wells in the little lick 00 the upper part of Cole branch. 
These are in some ways similar to the concretions found in the 
basal Eocene and they may prove to be of that age. 

The artesian well is said to have passed through solid limestone 
for its whole depth. loi i feet, and Hilgard reports that a few of 
the fragments taken from the hole which were to be seen at the 
time of his visit were almost identical with the "rotten lime- 
stone" of Alabama and Mississippi, or upper Cretaceous. The 
brine from this well has a temperature of 75° F. and the gas 
which escapes with it will support a flame half an inch in diam- 
eter and six inches high. 

Old Tertiary.— On Molladoe branch, just above the two north' 
emmost wells, is a small outcrop of grey, laminated sandy clay 
dipping about 10" N. W. This has the general appearance of 
the lower Eocene beds but in the absence of fossils its exact age 
is uncertain. In the material thrown out from the wells, at this 
point, are fragments of grey leaf limestone of the same general 
appearance as that occurring in the Lignitic Eocene farther 

Gravel. — Many of the old dump heaps show quantities of 
white and variously colored chert and quartz pebbles. These 
are particularly common at Big lick and along the S 

; Molladoe, j^^H 

The Salines of North LorisiANA 


^^B Cvndusions. — Though the data here presented is in itself not 
^^Konclusive, yet when taken ia connection with the facts gained 
^^Jrom nearby known Cretaceous outcrops there can be little doubt 
as to the nature of the phenomena shown here. A line connect- 
ing the principal well groups would form an irregular oval with 
its major axis northeast and southwest. This peculiar distribu- 
tion of the wells taken in connection with the two observable 
dips [one at Rock bluff and the other on the Molladoe (see map 
Plate XVIII)]. the abundance of limestone near the surface in 
the easternmost lick, the topographic features of the hills bound 
iug the Lower lick, all seem to indicate that there is here a dis- 
■KCted dome. This is graphically shown in Fig. 9, which repre- 


A-B. Plate W. 


nts a partially ideal section along the 1 
e shows the location of the wells i 
outcrop of the upper portions of the Cretaceous limestone — only 
s few of the wells seem to approach the rock. Lerch has pub- 
lished a section of this locality in which the Cretaceous limestone 
is represented as horizontal, with the Eocene and other material 
resting uneonformably upou it.* 

Hydrometer tests of brine. — Brines from many of the wells were 
tested on the spot with a Brix Saccharometer. graduated to one- 
fifth of a degree. These results, when compared with the anal- 
yses, will give something of the relative strength of the brine 
on different parts of the lick. 

). 71, Bull. La. Expt. Slation, Geol. anJ K^r., Part II. 1893. 

Geological Survey of Lodisiana 

its iltii 

?, i 










i«!^ji ^i - ^n..?Il^ 




1 i |Vs°a'5,s,VaVs 



i-^l !rn5d^.?^5l? 




-"| = -?- = 2«"- 



The Salines of North Louisiana. 63 

Well S. E. aide of I'pper lick in opening of hollow leading to Jaclc's 


Well on extreme northern poinl of Jack's Island, Cpper lick. 
Well between 2 and 3, l"pper lick, 
E»9t side of L'pper lick. 
Jack lick, 
Lower lick south side, old Drake well- This is the same a* No III 

in the table of brine analyses. 
Upper lick, southwest side, well just west of for), suirounded by 

embankment same as No, IV in tbe table of brine analyses 
Upper lick, southwest side. Leveed well in middle of bayou at ford. 
Artesian well. 

Little tick, well jnst east of Goldonna road. 
Liltte lick, old Drake well south of Natchitoches road. Same as No. 

I in table of brine analyses. 
Well on Molladoe branch just west of Slaughter and Week's furnace. 
Big lick, sonthern part. 
Smith lick. S^ime as No. 
Smith lick. 
Smith lick. 
Smith lick. 
Smith lick. 
nalyses of brine. — Hilgard collected brine from the artesian 
and has published the following analysis ; 

Analysis of B'ine/rom Artesian WtU 


Chloride of Sodium ^ 

Chloride of Magnesium 

Carbonate and sulphate of calcium. . 

n the table of brine a 

Total amount ot solids in brine about two per cent. 

tnples collected by this survey have been analyzed by Mr, 
hurice Bird with the following results : 

Analyses of Rrines prom Drake's Salt works 

r (M. 

rice Bird 




■ 05s 

Sodium chloride 
Calcium chloHde 


Other solid matter 


3- 55 





Little tick, vest ndc. old Drake «elL* 

Smith'* bck. 

L^wer lick, old Dnke wcU. 

Cpftei Ikk, iMitb nde, in •loogb. 


Location and Topography 

Location — Price's Salt Works is sis mites northeast of Drake's, 
in Sec. 25 and 30. 13 N.. 4 and 5 W.. neat tbeedge of Dngdemona 
bottoms. In point of importance, as shown bj the ntimber of 
old wells and mined ftirnaces, it ranks fourth in the north Loois- 
iana salines. 

Topography. — The wells and open lick spaces are arranged tn 
a circle abont the base of a hill, known as Lick Hill, which 
rises 96 feet abore them. Lick fiill is completely separated from 
the sarrounding hill land masses. South and west 
the hills are high and the country broken, on the north 
lower and cut by the f^rly broad valley of Cypress bayou. 
On ibe east, a ridge, broken in three places by stream chan- 
nels, separates the tick from Dndgemooa bottoms or swamp <see 
Plate XIX). This ridge is highest in its central portions where 
it reaches an altitude of 53 feet. The general shape of the 
Lick Hill is welt shown on Plate XIX but several of the minor 
topographical features are bnt imperfectly represented, notably 
the several stnk-hole like depressions which are scattered over 
the bill. The most pronounced one is shown on the map just 
south of the apex of the hitl. It is about 75 feet in diameter 
and 15 feet deep. Other sink holes, in the field, hax'e been 
almost obliterated by plowing. 

Licks. — The licks are scattered around the base of Lick Hill 
and are separated from each other by growths of lowland trees. 

• .\ckiiowledg meats are dne to Mr, T. Pelerson fur the location of the 
land comers shown on the niap of Price's, Uilgard (Salines o£ L^ni 
Min. Res. for 1^1. p. 556) has given this locality as Seo. 33, township A 
north, range 17 west, which is very clearly in error. 

The Salines OF North Louisiana 


They are level, entirely devoid of vegetation but lx)rdered by 
stunted trees. The soil is a light grey, silty clay with some 
pyrites and calcareous concretions. Nearly all the wells are sit- 
uated in or near the borders of the licks although some are now 
in the surrounding woods. The locations and shape of the licks 
are so well shown on the map that a detailed description of each 

Streams. — Double branch, which enters Lick valley at Smith's 
lick, flows northward and joins a little branch from the west. 
The united streams under the name of Black bayou, after turn- 
ing eastward, flow through Big lick into Cypress bayou. For- 
merly Black bayou flowed along Boggy slough but during the 
war the tick was much cut up with wagons and shortly after- 
wards, taking advantage of an old road, the stream cut across to 
Cypress bayou. During periods of extreme high water in Dug- 
demona t>ayou. Big lick is covered to a depth of from two to 
three feet. 

The southern part of the lick is drained by Powder Spring 
branch. Springs are common along the ridge separating the 
lick from the bottoms. 

PHisTOEV OP Operations 
Early operations. — No accumulations of pottery, similar to 
those found at Drake's were found here and if the Indians came 
to make salt it was only at rare intervals and in a desultory 

The first printed recognition of the locality that we have seen ig 
on Tanner's Map of Louisiana * where it is marked "Salt Lick." 

In 1824 George Graham, in his report on the salt springs 
of northern Louisiana gives its location as "" Township No. 13, 
Range No. 4 West.'t 

The exact date of the first attempts at salt making here is not 
known. Mr. John Walker moved to this part of the country in 
1859 and found old wells on the tick. 

•Map of LoniBiana by H. S. Tanner. Pbila.. jS?o, 

t Report of the Commiasioner of the General Land 0£Bce io Relation to 
L,eBd Mine* and Salt Springs by (ieorge Graham, i^h Cong., lat Sew. 
e E». Doc, vol. 6, No. ij8, pp. 14-15. 1824. 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

rs a period^^l 


IS^ar Optra/ions.— This lick shared with the others a 
intense activity during the war. The first to make salt at this 
time were George Christian and Conrad Stark. Their wells 
were situated in the upper part of what was afterwards known 
as Smith Lick. 

Mr. George Price of Ruston, La., has kindly furnished the 
following account of his father's operations here: "In Sep- 
tember 1861, Col, George Richard Price, J. W. McHeury and 
John Sholars began Ihe work of salt making at what Js now 
known as Price's Salt Works. They dug a number of wells 
before they found water of sufficient strength and quality to 
begin operatious. They bought old sugar kettles from the 
sugar farms above Alexandria, La., with a capacity of from 500 
to 3000 gallons each. They first put up a large furnace on the 
order of the old sugar furnaces in lower Louisiana, consisting of 
10 kettles with the largest kettle at the mouth of the furnace 
and ranging smaller back to the chimney. The water was 
pumped up by home-made pumps with tubing of long pine poles 
bored out by hand. These pumps were erected in wells dug in 
a circle and connected by levers attached to a zigzag wheel, 
which was attached to a main shaft in the center like the shaft 
wheel of an old fashioned horse-gin. This was turned by horse 
power. The water was conveyed to a large tank or vat at the 
furnace by troughs dug out of split pine saplings of about six 
inches iu diameter. This cold water was turned into the first 
seven large kettles and boiled to a strong brine, then dipped up 
by hand and poured into a settling vat and from there emptied 
into the three upper or smaller kettles for graining and boiled 
down to salt. When the market was dull this salt was scooped 
up and put into draining vats to dry, and when well drained and 
dry was stored in a salt house but when the demand was great it 
was frequently sold from the draining vat at from $3. 00 to Sio.oo 
per bushel of 60 pounds. The price varied with the demand and 
I have seen fifty wagons waiting their turn. After this my 
father became the owner and operator of this part of the works 
and formed a partnership with a Mr. J. H. Mays in another 
furnace also located near, and a Httle east of the old furnace. 
This furnace consisted of smaller kettles and of an old boiler 

Tbh Salines of North Louisiana 


split by band into halves and was operated as the other except 
that the water was pumped by hand. The first furnace made 
from 40 to roo bushels per day, depending on the amount of 
water available, the second about 40 bushels. The water tested 
about one bushel of salt to eight of water and would hardly 
float an egg. My father also established a furnace in Rayburn's 
Salt Lick in 1S63. There the water was much stronger, one to 
six instead of one to eight. The water was plentiful and inex- 

On tbe first point of hills northeast of Price's are the ruins of 
McHenry's furnace and south are Yawger's. Others who made 
salt in considerable quantities and who continued work for the 
greater part of the war were : Thos. Smith and W. T. Kidd al 
Smith's lick, Durbin and Tilly on the east side, and Payburn 
between Smith and Price. Besides these there were great num- 
bers who came and stayed but a short time and for one reason 
or another moved on. Tilly and Smith are reported to have 
produced about 35 bushels of salt daily. Three or four hundred 
bushels would then seem to be a very liberal estimate of the 
daily output of Price's in its best days. 

No rent was paid for the privilege of making salt as the land 
was at that time government property. 

The last attempt to make salt on any considerable scale was 
made by a man by the name of Bynum. In 1869 he purchased 
from Mr. Ed. Weeks 15 of the old kettles which had been used at 
Drake's and for a short time he made salt at the site of the old 
Smith furnace. About the same lime Barnum and McCarty 
made salt at the old Tilly furnace. 

No deep wells have been attempted here, all are open wells 
^ftom 8 to 15 feet. 

^t Geology 

Limestone outcrop. — The hard, light grey, granular, sandy, 
leaf-beariug limestone which is exposed at Drake's i.s also exposed 
here, though the single exposure is by no means so satisfactory. 
This small outcrop is on the south side of the high knoll in the 
ridge which separates the lick from Dugdemona bottoms, at the 
point where Boggy slough (old Black bayou) makes a little bluS. 

6S Gbological Survey of Louisiana ^^^| 

All the pieces seem to be out of place and some were clearly dU>^^^| 
connected masses, so the direction of dip could not be determined 
accurately. It seemed, however, to be 4 or 5 degrees, a little 
south of east. About 150 yards, a little south of west of this 
outcrop, the dump heaps of two of the old Tilly wells show frag- 
ments of limestone of exactly the same character. In the 
dump heap of one of the wells in the eastern part of Deer 
lick fragments of dark blue limestone were found. The sink 
holes on Lick Hill indicate a bed of soluble material beneath, ' ' 
probably limestone. 

Well sections. — Two shallow holes were made in the lick with 
a " well punch," an instrument very much like a small post-hole 
digger. In one, on Smith's lick, quicksand was reached at a 
depth of 3 feet and became so troublesome at 7 feet that the hole 
was abandoned. A second hole was sunk on Tilly lick near the 
well in which limestone was found. It showed the following 
section : 

U'ell Section Tilly Lick 

A. Light sandy clay 26 

B. Yellow clay mottled with red 5 ' 

C. Very dark blue clay 3 ' 

Hilgard reports the find of vivianite in some of the old dump 


Verlebrale remains. — "Big bones" are reported from a well 
just west of Payburn's furnace at a depth of 8-10 feet. Hop- 
kins states that mastodon bones have been found here.f 

Conclusions. — This lick seems, like the other important salines 
of northern Louisiana, tobe a Cretaceous outcrop, but the evidence 
at hand is hardly conclusive. A line connecting Price's and 
Drake's is parallel to the Coochie brake — Winufield anticlinal, 
and seems to represent a second line of weakness. It may be 
that these two points represent points of maximum elevation 
along a fold extending between these salines, but any positive 
evidence that such is the case is at present lacking. An outcrop 

■Supplementary and Fiaal Rept. cjf Geol. Recon. of La., N. O., 1873, p, 
31, Mineral Resources of the United Slates for i88», La. Salines, p. 556. ajJ 
fid Rept. Geol.Sur. La., lS7[, p. 6. mIB 

Thb Salines OF North Louisiana 


of limestone is reported, though a search failed to confirm the 
report, in the pine woods south of Yankee Spring church, mid- 
way between Price's and Drake's. 

Hydrometer tests. — Htlgard reports* the brine here stronger 
than at either King's or Rayburn's ; a conclusion that we were 
unable to verify. The following are the results of the tests of 
the different wells : 

The wells on Tilty and Durbin's licks are nearly all filled and 
no tests could be made of the brine. Brine pumped from a 
depth of four feet in the bole sunk on Smith's lick tested 3.7" 
Brix, at a temperature of 50° F. The brine obtained from the 
bote sunk near the Tilly furnace was very muddy. It tested 
10.7°, but this extremely high test is believed to have been due 
to the large amount of suspended silt in the water. It tasted 
weaker than the water from the big well. Smith's lick which 
tested only 5.7°. 

Analysis 0/ brine. — Mr. Maurice Bird has made the following 
analysis of the brine from well number 3 in the following table : 

Anafysis 0/ Brine, Price's Salt Worts 

(Maurice Bird) 

Sodium chloride 

Calcium chloride 

Ma(;uesium chloride 


Other solid matter 

*SapI. and Final Kept. N. O., 1873, p. jt. 

Gbological Survey op Lodisiana. 

3 I 




ou< to SUtJ 


^M I i^ 

■sir's I :?h 

~ 8 » 

The Salines of North Looisiana 

Location and Topography 

Location. — Hilgard" and Lerchf have both given the location 
oi this saline as Sec. 34, 15 N., 5 W The writer has carefully 
examined the deeds in the possession of Mr. A. G. Whitlow, the 
present owner of the place, in which the land is described as Sec, 
31. 15 N., 5 W. It is in Bienville parish about eight miles from 
Bienville, the present terminus of the Louisiana and Northwest 

General /ealures. — The main lick is a flat, circular, slightly 
swampy area of 40 or 50 acres (see Plate XX). H is surrounded 
by gently sloping hUls which, on two sides, at a distance of half 

mile reach an altitude of sixty feet. As in the other licks, the 
■n space in which the wells are situated is fringed with a few 
;unted hawthorn, thorn and other dwarf trees which increase in 
ntunber and pass into the surrounding forest of oak, hickory, 
gum and short-leaved pine. 

Around the edge of the valley are numerous circular mounds 
about sixty feet in diameter and from three to four feet high. 
They are of the same general type as those seen in southern 
Louisiana and on the upland flats of Caddo and Bo.ssier parishes. 

The southern end of the lick is quite swampy and during heavy 
rains is flooded to a depth of two or three feet. The valley is 
drained by Foust's creek. 

Many of the old kettles and boilers are still in place. Plate 
XIV shows a portion of the row of boilers on the western side of 
the lick. Something of the barren appearance of the lick can be 

*Supl. and Final Rept. p. 19. In the report on the Salines of LouiBiaiia, 
Mi1g*rd has given tlie locality hb Sec. 34. township 15 north, range 17 west. 
PrJce'e is given as 17 west. King's as zo west and Bistioeau as ij west. 
Htlgaid has evidently used a map of Louisiana in which the .\rkansBS 
range numbera were given at the top of the map and has takeu these as the 
true range numbers of the Lunisiana township!^. This has resulted in an 
ir of pins IJ in the numbers, as the meridian used in the land division 
jf-Arkansos was the 5Ih Principal Meridian and in Louisiana [west of the 

iaip[d river] the Louisiana Meridian. 
ItBnIl, La. Bxpt. Station ; Geol. and Agr., Part 11, p. 71, 1893. 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

gained from the foreground of this picture. Some half do! 
old halves of steamboat boilers show on the old furnaces in the 
midst of a clump of bushes and trees which have sprung up since 
the war. In the background may be seen the trees on the far- 
ther side of the licit. 

On other parts of the lick large sugar kettles brought from 
southern Louisiana and peculiar rough sugar-loaf shaped kettles, 
cast at Alexandria in 1863, are common. Plate XIII shows a 
group near the central part of the lick. 

History of Operations 
Early operations. — No trace of Indian operations have ttad 
been found on this lick. On account of its inland position h 
not until the early forties that salt was made here regularly. 
About that time Mr. Fousl, the owner of the land, commenced 
on a modest scale. 

War operalions. — This work was continued until the civil war, 
when the restrictions imposed on the importation of salt by the 
federal blockade caused salt to have a very greatly enhanced 
value. The fame of Rayburn's lick spread, and in 1S62 men 
came from far and wide, bringing with them gangs of negroes, 
to make salt. Shelters were hastily built, the valley was dotted 
with wells from 15 to 20 feet deep, which were protected from 
the water of occasional freshets by low levees. The natural 
mounds were utilized for furnace sites and near the central part 
of the valley, where these mounds were not found, artificial ones 
were made. Large iron kettles from four to seven feel in diam- 
eter were mounted on rude foundatious made of ferruginous 
sandstone. Large boilers were obtained, split in half and wooden 
bulkheads inserted 10 the ends. These were mounted on similar 
foundations of sandstone. (See PlateXIV.) Inthe latter part of 
1863, a large number of small, thick, sugar-loaf shaped kettles 
were cast at Alexandria for use at this place. One of these which 
has been patched, is shown bottom side up in the foreground of 
Plate XIII. 

A rent of 2% bits (37>4 cents) per bushel was charged for the 
privilege of making the salt and for the wood consumed. The 
receipts of the owner of the land at this rate are said to have 




«T(m, I.SNn» AND 


^^H Tub Salines OF North Loi'Isiana 73 

f amounted to $375.00 per day. This would give a daily production 

of about one thousand bushels. Mr. Sampson Rayburn, who 
married the widow Whitlow, a daughter of Mr. Foust, was 
placed in charge and collected the rent. It was in this way that 
the lick became known as Raybura's. 

Al the close of the war the works were almost entirely 
abandoned. Occasionally a small amount of salt was made for 
the neighborhood and Mr. G. C. Whitlow made salt here as late 
as 1877. 

t Geology 
Hilgard's Welt Seclion. — Hilgard has published the following 
nion of a well in the southeastern part of this lick : 
Well Section Naylii-rn- s Salt Works 
(Hilgard I- 
Whitish mud of the lick, with ferrnginous spots and 
at its base frequently bearing balls of calcite. ... 6 feet 
Silicious gravel often cemented into a conglomerate 
by crystallized cakite 6-7 ' ' 
Greyish or while crystalline limestone, horizontally 
banded, fragile, often covered with 5-6 inches 
crystallized aggregates of calcite.on a dark banded 
base of the same 6 " 
^. Dense, banded gypsum, pure , a " 

The old dump heaps about the wells show large quantities of 

variously colored quartz and chert gravels. Fragments of dark 

grey and yellow fissured crystalline limestone and of white or 

bluiith'White gypseous limestone are quite abundant in some of 

^^Hthe old dumps. 

^^H Crttaaoui outcrops. — On the little kuoU east of the lick (see 
^^^pnap, Plate XX) the soil is very black and waxy, with numbers of 
^^^^'Crypkaa vesicularis, a few Exogyra costaia. and pieces of selenite 
Kattered over the surface. In the little guUeys is exposed a very 
fiae grained, white, chalk-like limestone containing a well pre- 
E^^rrved Upper Cretaceous fauna. Limestone containing poorly 
^^^^F* Sopl. and Final Rept. of Gtol. ReC'-n. 1S73, p. y>. ■ 


Gbolocical Survkv of Louisiana 

preserved fossils is to be seen about half a mile north of the old 
works (Plate XX). Near this one or two wells have been dng but 
their brine does not appear to have been used to any considerable 

Crelaceous fossils. — The following is a list of the species 
lected at this locality (mainly Stanton's identifications) 

Exogyra coslata 
Gryphtea veiiailaris 
Ostrea plumosa 
Ostrea larva 
Pecten burling (onensis 
Spondylm, sp, 
Neithea quinquecostata 
Crassatella z'adosa 
Inoceratnus barabitta ? 

Legumen ptanulalum 
Linearia melastriala 

Aveltana bullata 
Hamulus onyx 
Denialium ct. ripleyam 
lianilites anceps 


Most of these have been figured and described by Prof. Harris 
in the report of this survey for 1899, pp. 292-297, Plates 49, 50 
and 51. 

Other outcrops. — The hills surrounding the liclc are composed 
entirely of grey sand containing a few iron concretions and ft 
plowed field between the two Cretaceous outcrops shows this 
sand very well. To the southwest the sand gradually becomes 
more and more clayey until it is replaced by a stiff yellow clay 
mottled with red. In the iron concretions found in this clay 
were casts of Venericardia and a few imperfectly preserved 

\'ertebrate remains. — Hopkins reports mastodon bones from 
this locality." 

Conclusions. — From the paleontological evidence furnished by 
the fossils the while chalk-like limestone belongs to the upper- 
most division of the Upper Cretaceous. Il is lithologically quite 
different from beds of the same horizon in the surrounding states. 
Nothing concerning the exact relation of the gypseous limestone, 
found in the wells, to the fossiliferous limestone found in the 
hillsides could be learned beyond the fact that the former is 
clearly stratigraphically below the latter. Although no dips 

"Second .^11. Rept. Geol. Sorv. La. 


The Salines OF North Loitisiana 


could be determined, there can be little doubt Ibat if they could 
be observed they would represent either a dotne or auticliae. 

Hydrometer tests. — Hydrometer tests reveal the fact that the 
brine here is stronger than at Price's. The best brine tested is 
however not so strong as that found at Drake's. 

Hydrometer Tests : 
( Readings i 

Rayburn's Salt Works 
I degrees Brix) 



















Water a little dark, 
probably due to de- 
caying vegetable 



















All these wells are near the center of the lick and represents 
the strongest brine that the writer was able to find. 

Analysis of brine. — Water from well No. 3 shows the follow- 
ing analysts: 

Analysis of Bri'i€ : Paybiim's Siill Worts 
(Maurice Bird) 

Sodiom chloride 4.60 

Sodium sulphate , .oaa 

Calciiim sulphate 333 

Magnesium sulphate 039 

Alumina. 061 

Other solid matter, partly in suspension o^ 

Geological Subvev of Louisiana 

Location and Topography 

Location. — This old salt works is 14 miles due west of R&y- 
burn's, in the low lands bordering Bayou Castor, a tributary of 
Black Lake bayou. It is half a mile from the line of the newly 
constructed Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad, and ranks fifth in 
size in the salines of Louisiana. 

Valley of Bayou Caslor. — The valley of Bayou Castor is of a 
type common in north Louisiana, a broad, flat-bottomed valley, 
seemingly out of proportion to- the size of the stream occupying 
it, with steep bills on the south and sloping bills on the north. 
These valleys seem to owe their present shape more to a chaage 
in the position of the base level, which has caused the streams to 
deposit silt in their vallej-s. than to base-leveling action. 

At this point the bottom land is about 160 feetf above the sea. 
It is low. somewhat swampy and is moderately heavily timbered. 
Scattered about over it are little irregular mounds, 2 to 3 feet 
high and 50 feet or more in diameter, which are very similar to 
the mounds which occur in places over Louisiana, Texas and 

The licks. ^Here and there are open spaces or spaces spa rcely 
timbered. These are generally covered with swamp palm ettiB 
but in places are entirely bare. These are the " lick spots.*' 
Opeu lick, the only lick south of Bayou Castor, is entirely 
ered with palmetto. No wells were sunk here- The mun 

rcely I 


•The writer is indebted to Mr. U. P. Wardlaw, the owner of the lick tOt 

the location of the northwest corner of Sec. 35 and (or the southeast eonm 
of the S. \V. X of lli= N. W. % of Sec. 35, 

f The level of the deepest part of Castor Bayou at the point n here it ia 
crossed by the Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad, according to infarmttfos 
furnished by Col. G, Knoble, the chief engineer of the road, is 15a feet. 
On the railroad maps the 160 foot contour passes along the edge of Uk 
level land bordering the creek. There is but a slight correction for theM 
levels : The elevation of the lop of the U. S. E. bench mark at Sible y fa 
191.8 feet. The elevation at the same point ii 



lie railroad elevatnm^^^H 

Thk Salinbs of North Louisiana 77 

of salt operations, Big lick, is just north of the bayou. It is 
almost entirely covered with water after a heavy rain. Scattered 
around on the Hitle elevatioas at the edge of the lick are the 
ruined furnaces. Upper lick, northeast of Big lick, is almost 
entirely covered wilh scrub palmetto. Several old wells are still 
to beseen here. (See Plate XXI.) 

About 500 yards uorthwest of the main lick and near the 
Sparta- Coush a tta road is a little lick which contains King's well. 
(Plate XV.) About 200 yards west of King's well is a salt spring, 
which furnishes a very weak brine. 

History of Operations 
Indian. — A few pot shreds and arrow-heads are found on the 
ridge between Bayou Castor and Open lick and seem to indicate 
a temporary Indian campsite. From the dearth of pot-shreds 
and also from the distance to the best brine we judge that the 
Indians came here occasionally more to hunt the animals which 
frequented the lick than to make salt. 

Early while operations. — Salt operations were begun here by 
Mr. King about the same time that work was commenced at 
Rayburn's. He dug a shallow well and striking rock drilled in 
it to a depth of 136 feet, according to Hilgard.* The water rose 
to within two feet of the surface. Here he built his salt house 
■nd every year, after the crops were harvested, the negroes were 
brought to the salt house and the year's supply of salt made. 
Neighbors brought their negroes and availed themselves of the 

War operations. — This salt works shared with the others a 
period of great activity during the war. Numerous wells, from 
'o to ID feet deep +. were sunk in Big lick and large kettles and 
lialves of boilers were mounted on rnde foundations of sandstone 
"^ar the wells. I have been unable to get any information 
'^gaiding the daily production of the works during the period of 
K^'eatest activity. 

* Supl. and Final Report of Geol. Reoon, o( L*., 1873, p. 19. 
t Sutemeotof Mr. H. P, Wardlaw, grandson of Mr. King. 

Geological Survby of Lolisiana 


Cretaceous. — This locality is of decided historical interest as it 

s here that the Cretaceous was first definitely recognized in 
Louisiana. We have already referred (p. 49) to Robertson's 
report of fossiliferous Cretaceous limestone from King'sin 1867. 
Hilgard was, however, the first to bring forward proof that the 
Cretaceous occurred here. He found in several of the old dump 
heaps at Big lick a ' ' soft gray calcareous mass containing very 
perfect specimens of Graphyaa pikheri and Hxogyra coslata," 
ll has already been shown*, from specimens collected by the 
writer from one of the old dump heaps in Big Lick in 1899, that 
G. pitcheri is in reality O. pulaskensis. a typical Midway Eocene 
oyster but the finding of a number of Cretaceous fossils the past 
year around King's well makes it seem probable that Hilgard 
was correct in his identification of ll. eostala and that a few- 
wells in Big Lick pass through the Midway into the Cretaceous. 
He stales that specimens of Janira were reported to have beeL 
found in digging a well near King's old well. Here crystalline 
limestone is reported at a depth of 5 feet and continued 30 feet 
to the bottom of the well. 

When the water was removed from the part of the King well 
now open (the salt water was prevented from filling it by the 
height of the old pipe tube) a number of fragments of grey fossil- 
iferous limestone were obtained froui the sides of the well. 

The following species have been identified : 

Exogyra coUala Grypkira vfsicularis var, 

Lima pdagica Turritella trilira 

Anomia Liopislha prolfxla f 

Cretaceous from Neal's well. — Half a mile northeast of King's 
well at the point where the Sparta-Coushatta road crosses the 
railroad , a well dug by T. W. Neal showed the foUowiog section 

Well See/ion Neat's Store. 

A. Yellow sandy clay mottled with white. 

a few white quartz pebbles 

B. Very dark grey, sandy, laminated clay w 

larva, Oslrea sp. , 


•La. Geol. Sui 

I, pp. 63-64. 

Uowiogsect i on ; J 


5 Salines OF North Louisiana 

^H[ 7he water obtained from this welt is quite braclcish. 
^P The material from Neal's well is the first representative, which 
has been found in Lonisiaua, of the beds of dark colored sands 
and clays which characterize the upper beds of the Upper Cre- 
taceous in Arkansas and Texas. All the otJier fossiliferous 
Cretaceous deposits in Louisiana, though pronouncedly the upper- 
most Cretaceous from the character of the fossils, are lithologi- 
cally more like the lower beds of the Upper Cretaceous. 

Midway Eocene. — Thus far fossils of this stage have been found 
only in one old dump heap near the center of Big lick. An out- 
crop of limestone is reported in the bed of one of the old bends 
of Bayou Castor, a little west of north of the center of the south- 
west quarter of Sec. 35. This place was covered with water at 
the time of the writer's visit and hence could not be examined. 
Uilgard reports an outcrop of soft, fossiliferous, aluminous lime- 
stone, similar to the " rotten limestone " of Mississippi, in the 
bed of Bayou Castor and probably refers to this outcrop. 

Surrounding Country. — The hills to the south are covered with 
masses of ferruginous conglomerate. To the northward are high 
sand bills (Vaugbau's Sparta Sands.) 

Vertebrate remains. — ^Mr. H. P. Wardlaw, grandson of Mr. 
Ring, states that the horns of some large animal, together with 
a number of large bones, were dug from one of the wells in the 
southwestern part of Big lick. He describes it as being hollow, 
a true horn {corttua cava) rather than a tusk. 

Robertson evidently referred to this find when he said : "I 
saw taken from one of these lacustrine basins the horn of an 
esttincl animal, which horn measured thirteen inches in diameter 
and, though fractured, was yet over three feet in length and still 
retained the horny laminations and odor,"* 

Asphallutn. — Robertson reports aspbaltum from this localilyf 
but thus far his report remains unverified. 

Tests and analysis of brine- — All the old wells in Big lick were 
so filled with sediment that it was impossible lo obtain samples 
of the brine. Two shallow holes were sunk with a "well- 

•Mcmorial and Explomtioiia of the Hon. J. B. Robertson, N. O., 
1867. p. u. 
tlbid.,pp, 15-16. Also DeBow's Review, vol a, p. S77, i366. 

8o Geological Survsv op Louisiana 

punch ' ' io the Urge group of wells ; the first, 4 feet deep, 
passed through white sand mottled with yellow. This hole 
filled during the night with quicksand, and the water obtained 
tested 1.2° Brix at 56''F, The second was jji feet deep and 
passed through one foot of white sand contaiuing small iron 
concretions and 6)i feet of dark colored clay. Brine tested 6.5° 
at 55°F., but neither of these can be regarded as a fair test. 

In the old King well the water was pumped out of the open 
part of the well and the old wooden pump tubing found intact. 
The water rose to within a foot and a half of the top of the lube, 
and by inserting a section of iron pipe attached to a small pitcher 
pump brine was readily obtained from the old well. The first 
water pumped was very black from decayed vegetable matter, 
and tested as high as 14.7° Brix, but in a short time it became 
quite clear and tested 13.4° (S. G. 1.0544). Water was pumped 
from the well for more than an hour and at the end of that time 
it still tested 13.4.° which probably represents the true strength 
of the brine. 

A sample of brine from this well has furnished the following 
analysis ^^H 

.■inalysis 0/ Brine, King's Salt Ifirris ^^^| 

( Maurice Bird. | 

Pet «ni, 

Sodiam chloride 6.940 

Calcium salpbale 010 

Calcium chloride 15a 

Magnesium chloride 135 

Alumina 1^ 

Othersolidfi 065 

The slight amount of gypsum contained in the water is prob- 
ably responsible for the "crusts of limy matter " which are 
reported to have been formed on the sides and bottom of the 
kettles and which made it necessary to "chip them out ' 

The Salines of North Louisiana 

Location and Topography 

Location. — An examination of Ftg. 8 and Plate XXII will show 
Bistineau Salt Works occupying a portion of the old bottom of 
the Lake Bistineau in the southwestern corner of T. i8 N., R. 
lo W. The old wells are in portions of sections 25. ;6, 35 and 
36.* It is the largest of the old salt works in northern Lonisiana. 

Topography. — It seems quite impossible to reconcile the 
present topography of the region and the shape of the shore 
line of Lake Bistineau as given on the maps of the General 
Land Office and we are forced to the conclusion that only a few 
points ou the lake were actually located, enough probably to give 
a crude idea of the general shape and extent of the lake, and 
that the details were supplied by the fertile brain of the surveyor 
in his office. 

On these maps the northern end of the lake is represented as 
about a mile above the works (see Fig. 8, which is based on the 
Land Office maps). The head of the lake is now a number of 
miles below the works. Lake Bistineau is one of a series of 
lakes formed along Red river valley by the elevation of the bed 
and banks of the river by deposits of silt during the raft period 
and the consequent choking of the outlets of the tributary 
stream valleys.]; At the time of the government land survey, 
in the early thirties, the lake had reached and probably passed 
its maximum size. After the removal of the raft the river was 
confined to the main channel by the closure of the outlet bayous 
and it commenced to erode the sediment deposited during the 
raft period. As this erosion progressed the tributary streams 
commenced to remove the silt deposited in their outlets and so 

•This locfllion is based on lines run from the northeast and northwest 

■s of the S. E. X of the S. W. }i of Sec. a6 ; corners established by 

r. Jack Stewart, a surveyor and a land owner, to whom I am indebted for 

ind for the major part of the information given under the 

f ei the war operations. 

K^dgin of lakes of Uiis type is discussed at length In a report on the 
; Area, pp. 158, 163, 167-69, 172, Geol. Survey of La., Rept. 


Gbologicai. Survey of Locisiana 

lower the level of the lakes. In this way Sodo lake has been 
almost destroyed and the areas of all the lakes along Red river, 
owing their origin to these causes, have been very materially 
lessened. Lake Bistineau has shared in this general lowering of 
levels and may be expected to decrease. In the region about the 
wells the lake is now only represented by Bayou Dauchite. 

The islands or hills. — Skirting the edge of the pine hills and at 
a distance of several hundred yards from them and in the old 
lake bottom are a number of elevated island-tike areas which 
rise ten to fifteen feet above the surrounding bottoms, At the 
time when the lake covered the whole tick these were islands and 
duriug the war a number of them received names : Stansberry 
island, Coon island, Frenchman island, and Salt island (see 

The licks. — The saline nature of the soil seems to have pre- 
vented the growth of trees before the existence of Lake Bis- 
tineau for there are none of the old tree stumps here, remnants 
of the pre-lake forest, which are found in other parts of the old 
lake. During the lake period the waters probably leached the 
salt from the upper layers of earth, for since the removal of the 
water by the partial drainage of the lake, trees have been able to 
grow. As late as the war the whole of the otd lake bottom, 
in the region of the map. was bare — a great white plain of sandy 
silt^ — aud one could look from one group of wetls to another. 
Now it is bare only in the vicinity of the old well groups where 
wells have shown that brine exists nearest the surface. Else- 
where there is a growth of gnarled dwarf trees ; thorn, hawthorn, 
" elbow bush " and "button bush" with here and there a few 
cypress. In places the growth is so dense that it is difficult to 
force one's way through on foot and quite impossibleon horseback. 

The wells are arranged very nearly in a circle about three- 
quarters of a mile in diameter (see Plate XXII); commencing in 
the old bed of Crane lake on the east side of Salt island they 
follow Tadpole slough around to the head of Stansberry island : 
the eastern side of the circle is completed by the large group of 
wells known as Potter's pond. New Orleans and the group east 
of Bayou Dauchite near the ford. 

Probably the largest collection of wells is at Potter's jxind. 

Thk Salines of North Louisiana 


i map and Plate XVII.) Other a ot able groups are at Tadpole 
Lke, the head of Salt island, Crane lake. New Orleans (between 
potter's pond and the bayou ) and, on the eastern side of the 
Inyou. ' 

History of Operations 

Indian. — This locality being well removed from Red river did 

not come under the direct observation of the early French 

explorers and there are not the references to it that there are to 

places nearer the early routes of travel.* 

Evidences of Indian occupation are found on the south and 
east of Potter's pond, which owes its name to the accumulations 
of pot shreds about it. This pottery lacks the shells found in 
that made at Drake's. Ou the northern end of Salt island there 
are quantities of flint chips and partly perfected arrowheads. 
The material for the arrowheads was derived from the gravel 
beds which cover the hills bordering the bottoms and which 
underlie the lick at a depth of 3 or 4 feet. 

Early while operations. —la 1846, B. M. Thompson and W. C. 

Howard carried samples of brine from Potter's pond to their 

homes and boiled it to test its strength.! The quantity made 

evidently did not satisfy them for it was not until some years 

later that salt was made here in any considerable quantities; 

. about 1S50 the Hodges brothers made a little. 

I The people of this region received their supplies from the Red 

' river settlements by boats which came up Lake Bistineau and 

Bayou Dauchite. At this time the old town of Minden marked 

the head of navigation. The year of 1855 is remembered by all 

the old people as a year of extreme drouth ; the lake was so 

low that no boats could come up from Red river and the salt 

supply ran so low that the whole neighborhood resorted to the 

well known lick to make salt. Common iron wash kettles, of 

which every family had one or more, were used in boiling the 

* DuPratz in speukiog of the brine springs at Drake's saya that in the 
conntry whence this spring takes its rise there ere several springs of salt 
(HiBt. de la Louisiane, etc.. par M. Le Page DuPratz, Paris, 1758, 
I Ml. I. p. 37S.) 

f Interview with Mr. Thompson. 

84 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

brine. W. G. Gillcoatt seems to have been one of the target 
salt makers that year. With the resumption of navigation salt 
making at this place, if not entirely, ceased. 

U'ar operations. — The supply of salt was again cut off a few 
years later by the federal blockade, but this affected a much 
wider area than that affected by the low water in Lake Bisti- 
neau. People came from Texas. Arkansas and Mississippi, and 
in i86a, 1863 and 1864 it is estimated that there were from 1000 
to I5CH3 people engaged in salt making at this point. 

The land, being a portion of a lake bottom, was still held by 
the general government, so there was no rent to pay. Many 
slave owners and overseers who had fled with their negroes from 
regions occupied by union forces came here and made sail. John 
Colatgn, an Irishman, with a large number of negroes supposed 
to come from Mis.sissippi, made salt in large quantities at 
Potter's pond. 

One of the principal salt makers at Tadpole lake was Stans- 
berry, who made salt under contract with the Confederate gov- 
ernment. His house and the houses of his laborers were on the 
island, which bears bis name. His two principal wells, now 
known as the Government Wells, are situated north of Tadpole 
slough on either side of the section line (Plates XVI and XXII). 
They are the largest wells at the head of Tadpole slough. One 
surrounded by a levee and situated on slightly higher ground is 
known as the High well. It is circular and about 20 feet in 

One of the most interesting things to the geologist studying 
the historical side of these old works is the appearance of a 
Frenchman by the name of Thomassy at this place the latter 
part of 1862 or the spring of 1863. He leveled a large area OD 
Tadpole slough, dug a large well and laid of! the gronnd for a 
series of basins in which to make salt by solar evaporation. He 
started a house on the southern end of what is known as French- 
man island, but being a man of somewhat fastidious tastes was 
regarded with disfavor by the local people. It is reported that 
he employed a man to accompany him to cui all the roots and fill 
all the holes on the road leading to the works so that the buggy 

• It \% shown by a eUr on Plate XXII. 


Thb Salines OF North Louisiana 


would run easily and smoothly and so that he would not be 
roughly shaken. The people regarded this as quite unnecessary 
and came to the conclusion that his whole scheme was visionary. 
Wben he had finished leveling the ground and had it laid out 
with stakes ready for excavation, a party of men from Arkansas 
arrived at the works. They looked over the ground and con- 
cluded that Tfaomassy had too much ground for one man and 
that the land he had leveled would make a very good place to 
sink wells. They immediately began to dig wells and when 
Thomassy protested told him that if he didn't " dry up and 
leave the country they would put him up a tree at the end of a 
rope." This was a lime of war when might was right and the 
victory went to the stronger. Thomassy left, saying that he 
would make complaint to President Davis. It seems quite prob- 
able that this was M. Raymond Thomassy, author of Geologic 
Pratique de la Louisiane, one of whose pet schemes was the 
making of salt by solar evaporation.* 

A number of the old stakes and a portion of the leveled space 
are still to be seen just east of the Frenchman's well. 

At Bistineau. as at the other old works, platforms were built 
around the wells and the brine, after being elevated to the level 
of the platforms with homemade wooden pumps, was conveyed 
tf) the furnaces by troughs supported on forked poles. A num- 
ber of these old supports may be seen in the foreground of Plate 
XVI. Old sugar kettles. wash kettles and steamboat boilers were 
used for evaporating pans and "grainers." High water pre- 

* In 1S55 in a para^jraph in DeBow's Review (vol. l3. p. 5j3) he speaks 
of some new improvements in tbe making of salt whicb be intro- 
duced In Italy in i!ii48. In 1859 he addressed a memorial to the several leg- 
islatures npon the subject of the promotion of salt manufacture in the 
South on a new process invented by himself. (DeBow's Review, vol. 16. 
p. 119). In 186; he wrole on " The New Salt Manufacture of the Con - 
fedt^rate Ststes" (DeBow, vol. 31, pp. .141-446), This article contains a 
copy of a " Prospectus of a Joint Company for Sea Salt Jlanafacture, on an 
Improved and Patent Plan, under the Superintendence of Mr. Raymond 
Ttomassy." It seems quite probable that Thomassy intended to employ 
his method at Bistineau and that the action of Ihe .\rkansa9 men caused 
I.ouiiiana to lose the benefit of a very valuable aud possible hij^bly bene- 
ficial experiment. 


GBOL.OGICAL Survey of Louisiana 

vented coDtiauous operalious, the work generally commencing in 
June and continuing until about Christmas. 

The price of salt, which was from a dollar to a dollar and a 
half a sack just before the war, rose to ten dollars per bushel 
just before the fall of Vicksburg. There seems to be no way of 
even approximating the amount of salt made here between 1862 
and 1S65. 

Operatiom since the war.~kx the close of the war, operations 
on a large scale ceased. A few families in the neighborhood 
still continued to resoit to the place aud to make salt during the 
summer months. One old negro. "Old Dan Bryan, " continued 
work until bis death in 1892. He seems to have worked up 
quite a little salt trade in the neighborhood. He made most of 
his salt from^n old well in the upper part of Crane lake, which 
is known as Old Dan Bryan's well. (It is represented by a star 
on the map, Plate XXII.) After Bryan's death no one made salt 
here till the summer of 1897 when Austin Blackshear and Wil- 
lougbby Bacon, both colored, made a few bushels. 

In 1883 the commissioners appointed by Webster Parish to 
make collections to represent the parish at the New Orleans ( 
ton Exposition bored a hole on the upper end of Salt island,^ 
little southwest of Old Bryan's well. 

About 1890 George Cutting, with two assistants, under direc-' 
tion of New Orleans parties, drilled two wells on the hill north 
of Tadpole lake in search of rock salt. A third hole was started 
but the drill broke and it was abandoned. 

isa ro . 




here \ 

Cretaceous. — On the northern edge of Stansberry island there 
is an outcrop of yellow marl or very soft limestone. It extends 
almost to the government wells and contains numbers of large 
Gryphaa veiicularis and Exogyra cosiala. both typical Upper 
Cretaceous species. A number of fragineuts of white, highly 
crystalline, fossiliferous limestone were found here, evidently 
taken from the wells. This limestone is Uthologically very 
much like the highly crystalline limestone at Winnfield and con- 
tains the fauna found in the soft, ctaalk-like limestone at Ray- 

The Salines of North Louisiana 



^^H The following species have been obtained at this locality : 
^^H Gryphaa vesiailaris Pecten quinquenarivs 

^^^k Exogyra coslala Peclen simpiicus 

^^K. Lima CuevUiea 

^^f These specimens were obtained in the shallow water shown on 
the left side of Plate XVII. 

Robertson makes the following statement regarding limestone 
Bt this place ; " There is near Lake Bislineau, in close proxim- 
ity to the salt works, an immense bed of dolomite, or magnesium 
limestone. " The writer was unable to verify this statement. 

The wells. — Nearly all the wells dug here were quite shallow, 
seldom exceeding a depth of ten feet, Mr, Jack Stewart reports 
that along Tadpole slongh and in Crane lake they commonly 
passed through 4 feet of dark colored vegetable muck or peat-like 
clay and then white sand and gravel containing brine. There 
is sufficient hydrostatic pressure to cause water to flow from a 
Dumber of the old wells ; as at the Frenchman's well and a num- 
ber of wells at the head of Salt island. Inftammable gas escapes 
from the Frenchman's well ; from the wells at the head of Salt 
island ; and from a well near the government well at the head of 
Tadpole slough, 

It is reported that during the war a deep well was bored near 
the mouth of Hodgescreek. This well at a depth of about 125 feet 
struck a rock which they could not penetrate. The precise loca- 
tion of this well could not be learned but from its approximate 
location it would indicate the westward component of the dip at 
this point to be not less than 9" nor more than 20°. 

The well drilled in 1883 on the northern edge of Salt island, 
just west of Bryan's well, showed the following section : 

Well Section Sail Island, Bislineau Sail tt'oris 

rA. White sand, with fresh water 10 feet 
B. Black clay not passed through 35 " 
Vertebrate remains. — In the Frenchman's well several vertebrae, 
tbe leg bones and a portion of the tusk of some large animal, prob- 
ably a mastodon, were found at a depth of about 15 feet. This 
well is hence known as the Elephant well. 

Geological Sorvbv of Louisiana 

The surrounding country. — The hills for about half a mile west 
of the old works are covered with water woru gravel. Scattered 
through the gravel beds are large masses of quartzite. showing 
little or no erosion. It seems hardly probable that they have 
been transported for any very great distance, Masses weighing 
two or three hundred pounds were seen but attempts to locate 
the parent ledge proved futile. 

Weak brine is found much to the north of the old works. It is 
reported near the bridge over Honey bayou on the Mindeu-Doy- 
line road (S. E. %, S. 15. T. 18 N.. R, 10 W.). A well dug at 
the old sawmill on Dr. T. J. Tabor's place, half a mile west of 
the Honey bayou bridge and near the V. S. and P. R. R, track, 
showed at a depth of 30 feet, a bed of shells, mostly gastropods. 
Below this was a black clay. At a depth of 36 feet a hard sub- 
stance was struck which the well-diggers were unable to penetrate 
and the well was abandoned. This welt was dug some years ago 
and none of the shells could be obtained. East of this, on the 
land of Mr. Harvill, S. W. J^.' of S. W. %. Sec, 13, T. iSN., R, 
10 W., a few specimens of Gryphcea vesicvlaris have been picked 
up iu an old field. No outcrop could be found and the proximity 
of a nutober of old graves makes it seem probable that the shells 
had been carried there from the outcrop at the old salt works to 
decorate the graves. 

West of the gravel belt the laud rises to a low flat upland 
covered with little mounds. These upland flats seem to belong 
to the Port Hudson deposits.* Toward Fillmore there is a bit of 
rolling Eocene upland. The ferruginous concretions, on this 
area, contain a few casts of Eocene fossils, whether Lower Clai- 
borne or Lignitic has not yet been satisfactorily proved. 

About two and a half miles .south of the old works in the N. 
E. ,'4 of Sec. 7. T. 17 N., R. 9 W. Lerch obtained fos.sils from 
a well. Vanghan reports the following Lower Claiborne species 
from this locality : t 

Pkurotoma gabbi Ancilla ancillops 

Pappiliiia dumosavar .trapaguara Phos scalatus 
Pkaiium globosum Corbiilaaldricki\&x .smithvillensu 

• For a more deUiled discussion of the Upland flats see Rept. Geol. Surv. 
La.. 1899. pp. 189-19S. 
tBuU. V. S. Geol. Surv.. No. m. 1896, pp. 38-48. 

The Salinbs of North Louisiana 89 

Lower Claiborne fossils occur in considerable numbers in the 
ricinity of Mt, Lebanon. 

Concluiions. — The arrangement of the wells here is extremely 
like that at Drake's. On the whole it suggests an eroded dome 
with the welis following the outcrop of the brine bearing hori- 
zon. The ideal .section at Drake's would then in a general way 
represent the condition at Bistineau. The fossils obtained fur- 
nish conclusive evidence as to the age of the deposit. 

Analyses of brine. — Hilgard reports that a sample of salt 
received by him during the war from this locality was quite fine, 
and of 8 greyish tint. On treatment with water about 5 per 
cent of insoluble matter, chiefly earth, remained. The salt 
solution contained : 


AiialysisoJ Bislineau SaiC 
(Hilgard 1861) 

Chlorideof sodium (bj difference) 99<68 

Chloride of calcium o. 17 

Ctaloridc of magiiesiDtn 

Salphateof calcium o.oj 


It is regretted that a series of hydrometer tests was not made 
here, but at the time of the examination of these works the nec- 
essary apparatus was not at hand. The brine at Tadpole lake 
and along Tadpole slough seems to have been rather weak. 
Samples collected at points indicated by stars on Plate XXII gave 
the following results : 

Brine Analyses: BisTiNBAt' SaltWosks 
(Manrioe Bird) 





Sodintn chloride 

Calcium chloride 




Ghological Survey of Louisiana 


Salt Works Near Sabinh Rivsr 

Negreet Sail Works. — About half a mile above the moulh of 
Sayou Negreet, in the S. W. % of Sec. 24, T. 5 N.. R. 13 W.. 
salt was made on a small scale during the war. The brine here 
issues from the ground in the form of springs. The best ones 
are in the bed of the bayou. The brine was obtained by sink- 
ing hollow cypress logs, of such a length that their top pro- 
jected above the surface of the bayou, vertically over the 
springs. The brine was then pumped up with homemade 
wooden pumps and carried by troughs to the kettles on the 
bank. The only trace of the old works now visible is a single 
well on the south bank of the bayou. The brine here issues 
from Lower Claiborne marl. 

Other works. — Near Stone Coal bluff on the Sabine river ia 
Sec. 33, T. 6 N., R. 13 \V., is a small open lick showing prob- 
ably half a dozen oM wells and several old furnace sites. No 
outcrops were seen but the surrounding country is upper Lignitic 

Another small saline, which was worked during the war. is 
reported in Sec. 2, T. 6 N., R. 14 W.. about half a mile from the 
river. It is described as a treeless space covered with white sand. 
The operations here were not so extensive as those near Stone 
Coal bluff. 

Hilgard reports that salt and soda were made by Governor 
Allen from water obtained from pits dug in the Sabine bottoms 
two miles below Myrick's ferry*. 

Sibley speaks of a saline which the inhabitants of Bayou Pierre 
resorted to, situated between Bayou Pierre and the Sabine river. 
The exact location of this saline is not known. f 

" Supi. aud Final Rept. of a Geol. Recoi 
'873. p. li. See also Robertson Memorial 

t Am. Register, vol. 4. p. 58, also. 
1, p. 728, Wash., 1S33. 

The Saunhs of North Louisiana 

CATAHorLA Salt Springs 

Early French accounts. — Du Pratz has given a very iuteresting, 
though somewhat inaccurate account of these salt springs. He 
says ;* " After we have gone up the Black river (Riviere Noire) 
almost thirty leaguesf, we find on the left a brook of salt water, 
which conies from the west. In going up this brook about two 
leagues we meet with a lake of salt water, which may be two 
leagues in length by one in breadth. A league higher up to the 
north, we meet another lake of salt water, almost as long and 
broad as the former. 

"This water, doubtless, passes through some masses of salt ; 
it has the taste of salt without the bitterness of sea water. The 
Jttdiani come a great way off to this place, to hunt in the winter, 
and make salt. Before the French trucked coppers with them, 
they made upon the spot pots of earth for this operation ; and 
they returned home loaded with salt and dry provisions." 

Later references.— Sib\ey\ and Sloddard|| have both mentioned 
an excellent brine spring on Catahoula lake. Darby speaks of 
salt springs on the ' ' Ouachitla and Dugdomoni. ' ' which are equal 
to those on the Saline. § This may refer to this locality. 

So far as is known these springs were not utilized to any con- 
siderable extent during the war and it is inferred ihat the brine 
here is weaker than the brines farther west. 

Hopkins, who examined the region in 1871, found numerous 
weak brine springs issuing from beds he considered of Port Hud- 
son age. He was inclined to regard them as of very doubtful 

* Kistoire de la Loaisiane, etc., par M. Le Page DaPratz, Paris 1 758, vol. 
'. PP- 307-3°8 ; Lon. trans., 1763, toI. i, p. 183. An extract from this work 
entitled a Geographical Description of Louisiana Translated from M. Le 
Page I>uPratz appeared in Gentlemen's Magazine, Jannary 1763. pp. 165-367. 

\ Hnnter and Dunbar give tbe distance from Red river to the mouth of 
Little river as ii leagne.i [Am. State Papers (vol. 1), Indian Affairs, vol, i, 
p. 73J.I ITie maps of the Ouachita river survey (U. S. E. under direction 
of Haj. J. H. Willard, 1896) gives the same distance as 91 miles. 

t Am. State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. 1. p. 717, Wash. . 1832 ; Am. Reg- 
r vol. 4, p. 56, His spelling is " Acatahola." 

(Sketcbes of Louisiana, Pbila., 1812, p. 400. Speaks of " Ocatahoula 

Emigrant's Guide, New York, 1818, p. 89. 

Geologicai, Survbv of Lodisiana 


ystals, fivi^^H 
surface, ^^^| 

economic value. He reported a. stratum of salt cry 
eights of au inch thick and eighteen feet from the 
Capt. L. D. Cortey's well.* 

Salines Near Dugdemona Bavoc 
Castor sail springs. — This saltue is located on Castor bayou 
about four miles above the mouth of the Dugdemona. Old set- 
tlers on the Ouachita river state that people who attempted to 
make sail here abandoned it after a time and went to Drake's 
and Price's and Rayburn's. Dr. A. R. K''-patrick gives the 
following account of them in 1852 :t " SaU springs of the very 
best quality are here, in the western part of the parish on the 
west side of Castor bayou, four miles from the fork. The water 
boils up in the springs, and where it has spread over the ground, 
the whole surface is covered with crystals. Mr. Fowler settled 
here as early as 1804, and has made salt in a poor way up to this 
time. The early settlers were constantly in the habit of resort- 
ing here to make their yearly supplies of salt, when it was sell- 
ing at $1.50 per bushel. Some years ago a well was dug here in 
a low place in the glade, and the water gushed up over the 
mouth, and is running that way yet." 

Cedar //ri.— Cedar lick is situated about two miles south of 
Winnfield on a branch of Cedar creek, a little to the east of 
the Winnfield-Colfax road. The open space is covered with a 
growth of scrub palmetto. Both Kilpatrickf and Hilgard § have 
mentioned this locality. Its waters .seem never to have been 
used to any considerable extent for making salt. 

•Third An. Rept. Geol. Siirv. of La., 1872, p. 178. 

♦ The Parish of Catahoula liy Dr. A. R. Kilpatiick, De Bow's Review. 
ffol. 13, 185J, pp. »68-j69. 
JDeBow's Review, vol. 11, 1851, p. 169. 
JSupl. aud Final Rept,, N. O., 1S73, p. 33. 

Ths Salines c 



Rhlativk Valob of thb Nokth Louisiana Brines 

The two tables here presented enable one to compare the 
strength and purity of the Louisiana brines with the brines from 
a number of important localities in this country where salt is 
made on a large scale with profit. It will be seen that iu point 
of strength and purity the Bistineau brine outranks the brine 
from the Ohio valley region in Ohio and the Kanawha district in 
West Virginia. The King's brine, while slightly behind these 
in the amount of sodium chloride it contains, is considerably 
superior to them in purity ; there being about 7 per cent of 
impurities in the solid contents of the King's brine compared to 
ao-30 per cent in the Ohio and West Virginia brines. Results 
from the other old works are not so favorable, the analyses fall- 
ing well behind those from any brine spring, in this country, 
nbicb has thus far proved of commercial importance as a source 
of salt. 

So far as our information goes Bistineau and King's are there- 
fore the only ones of the north Louisiana salines which at pres- 
ent furnish brines which could be used pro6tably for making 
salt. On the important question of how much brine either of 
these localities could be expected to supply daily there is no 
exact information at present. At Bistineau only shallow wells 
have been sunk and the brine, which in some cases is under 
pressure enough to flow over the top of the well, comes in from 
the bottom and sides, At King's the brine from King's old 
well rises to within two feet of the surface and a hand pump 
seems to have very little effect on its level. The Bistineau saline 
is liable to overflow and would have to be protected by a levee or 
pipes so laid to the producing wells that, in times of high-water, 
they could be pumped from the hill-land. The position of these 
salines with reference to the railroads, now existing in the state, 
shown on the maps accompanying this report. Bayou 

Gboijogicai. Suhvby of Louisiana 



i.l i 8 t 

|l|l|blb^llii^^llllL 1 

£<S<S<j<o||l«5^|||||l = 
S^lSl^="illl7j2illllll » 









1 1 ll? ?5f 1 

tf d - d d d d d d 

' 1 










c d 3 d d d d d d d c 





d 6 d 




MIsllllsBlill;?? ?l 


' 1 




«• ri -i rt d d d d □ J -■-■-□ d d d 






^llllllllHililllisI ! 











^^M Thb Salines OF North Louisiana 95 ^^H 


t/kSLK II.— Analyses op Total Solids in BRiuBa of the United 







9" .36 

S3. 33 

79- '3 




3! 30 







1. 14 


a. 64 






3 73 






Manistee. Mich 

Biatinean Salt Works, I^ 

Rajbnm's Salt Works. U 

Drake's Salt Worka, La. 

Saginaw. Mich 

Pomeroy. Ohio . . 

Great Salt Uke, Utah 


•Per cent of tolal tolldi. 

Daachite mieht furnish water transiDortatioD for the Bistineau ^^H 

oroduct oart of the vear but could harcjlv be deuended UDon. ^^M 

Salt (rom UiHtinpau auri Kiiips would have to mpet the com- ^^H 

petition of the salt made from the rock sail brines of Grand ^\ 

Saline, Texas, and Belte Isie, Louisiana, and the ground rock salt 

from the Avery island mines as well as salt which may be made ^ 

«t other ot the hive Islands or the rerentlv discovered salt heris ^^H 

at Anse la Buite, St. Martin's parish, La., and Damon's Mound. ^^M 

Brazoria Co. Texas. The Solotnan Cilv. Kansas, works have ^^M 

been able to continue operations thoue'h surrounded bv works ^^M 

tisini^ rocJt salt brine and the West \ irpinia and Ohio salt works ^^H 

have increased in size notwithstanding the nearness of the ^^H 

stronger New York and Michigan brmes. Perhaps similar care- ^^H 

ful manaeemeut would meet with the same hapov results in ttiis ^^| 



Geological Survey of Louisiana 

' While the known brines at Rayburn's, Drake's and ' 
can bardly be regarded as commercially valuable it is not at all 
impossible that salt or brine may be found iu these places in 
quantity and quality to render its exploitation profitable nor is it 
improbable that stronger brines will be found at Bistineau and 
King's. The extreme similarity of the geological structure of 
these domes in northern Louisiana to the domes which contain 
salt, sulphur and oil farther south makes us feel that deep holes 
at these places are more likely to yield profitable returns than 
similar holes any place else in the northern part of the state. 



It has been shown that the principal brine springs in northern 
Louisiana are to be regarded as Cretaceous outcrops. At Ray- 
burn's, Bistineau and King's fossils characteristic of the upper 
beds of the Upper Cretaceous have been found.* At Rayburn's 
beds of gypsum and a porous, banded, crystalline limestone, 
similar to that found at Winnfield and Bayou Chicot occurs 
beneath the highly fossiliferous Cretaceous limestone. While 
proof is lacking of the Cretaceous age of the hard leaf-bearing. 
sandy, pyritic limestone which occurs at Coochie brake and 
Price's, and which at Drake's seems to be associated with a large 
bed of soft chalk-like limestone, the facts thus far collected 
indicate it rather strongly. 

Dome siructure . — The dome structure of these and other north 
Louisiana Cretaceous outcrops, notably Winnfield and Coochie 
brake, is attested by a number of facts ; no one of which is 
entirely conclusive but which, when taken together, have a 
cumulative value : 

(i) — All the dips, which have thus far been observed support 
this conception of their structure. At both Winnfield and 
Coochie brake it is possible to obtain enough dip observations to 

" Apparently tlic equivalent of Hill mul VHUglm 
sias and of the Ripley CrelaceouB of Mississippi, 

's Webberville bed^^l 

Thk Salines of Nobth Louisiana 



show clearly the major part of a dome. The dip observations at 
Drake's and Price's, while not conclusive, add their mile to the 
general evidence. 

(2) — The presence of islands of Cretaceous limestone sur- 
roanded by upper Eocene deposit is itself indicative either of 
domes or butte-like erosion remnants. 

(3) — The evidence furnished by the deep wells of the region 
is meagre but, so far as it goes, it is conclusive. At Shreveport 
a well over 1000 f-^et deep showed no Midway or Cretaceous lime- 
stone, A well at Natchitoches, 600 feet deep, did not pass 
through the Lignitic, and the well at Colfax, over 1,000 feet 
deep, does not appear to have reached the Cretaceous, 

(4) — The arrangement of the wells on the old salines, either 
ina single group as at Rayburn's, suggesting the top of a dome, 
or in a circle as at Bistiueau, Drake's and Price's, suggesting an 
eroded dome with the wells following approximately the outcrop 
of the brine bearing strata, corroborates this idea. 

The Lick hill at Price's will furnish further evidence if it 
is proved that it is composed of limestone as the sink holes upon 
it seem to indicate. 


TO Surrounding Regions 

Similar domes in Louisiana and Texas. — The accompanying 
map. Plate XXIIL shows the location of points in Louisiana and 
Texas where strikingly similar phenomena have been observed. 

At Bayou Chicot there are two small outcrops of banded crys- 
talline limestone very similar to the Winnfield limestone. 
These outcrops show extravagant dips and are surrounded by 
beds of upper Grand Gulf age. 

The Five Islands were discussed at length in a former report* 
and it was shown that at Belle Isle there is a distinct dome. At 
C6te Carline and Grand C6te there are highly elevated, partially 
eroded dome-like masses of rock salt, surrounded on all sides by 
deposits of recent age at least a thousand feet thick. At Petite 
Anse the limit of the flexibility of the salt was reached and a 
fault block resulted. The contour of the salt and its relation to 

pp. »io-s6a. 


: a &ult asim 


the surrounding country suggests tfaat this may be a 
ciated with a dome. This explanation seems more in accordance 
with the structure at similar localities where the data is more 
complete. Moreover a fractured, steep-sided dome is more 
probable than the needle-shaped fault block which the fault 
block theory, without modification, would necessitate. 

Recent borings at Anse la Butte, St. Martin's parish, La., have 
revealed large beds of rock-salt at a deplb of 391 feet. The well 
sections here are very similar lo those at Belle Isle ; and have 
furthermore shown the galena crystals of the upper Belle Isle 
section. Deep wells nearby have failed to find the salt layer aod 
we are inclined to regard the structure here as very similar to 
that at Belle Isle. 

Numerous drill holes have established the sharp dome shape, 
of the Sulphur City and Beaumont deposits, and we feel that the 
quaquaversal nature of the structure at those places is established. 
The oil bearing rock at Beaumont is a pure,*^ porous, banded, 
crystalline limestone apparently identical with the Wioufield 

Big Hill, High Island and Damon's Mound are the Texas rep- 
resentatives of the Five Islands, of which Ihey are the topographic 
counterparts. Damon's Mound furnishesa very suggestive mass 
of data : it is a rounded hill mass, about two miles in diameter, 
with a maximum elevation of about 75 feet above the plain at its 
base. Its rounded topographic aspect seems to be due to the 
manleling of an eroded dome with Lafayette sand and gravel, 
and Port Hudson loam. On the eastern side of the mound, and 
50 feet above the plain, is an outcropof banded, white and grey, 
porous, crystalline limestone. The outcrop is at present covered 
with the water of a pond but judging from the reports of red- 
dents, who worked in the limestone when it was quarried for 
lime-burning, and from the record of the Daraon Mound Oil 
Company's well, east of this outcrop, the limestone dips awttf 
from the bill at a considerable angle. West of this outcrop, and 

■.\n exaniinaticn of the oil-bearing rock {toiii a depth of 1015 feet 10 
Higgins Oil Company's well No. 2 by Dr. A.C.Gill reveaU less than I percent 
of material other than CaCOj. This material is for the most part gypsum 
with H little silica. A qualitative test lor majrtiesium showed only a tmce. 

The Salines OF North Louisiana 


so stratigraphically below it, the Herndon well has stibwn : * 
(i) 171 feet of sand aud clays of uncertain age, probably com- 
paratively recent, containing shells of the generaf Pkysa.Amnicola, 
Ptanorbii and a few fragments of Gnathodon ; (2) 379 feet of 
gypsum and anhydrite ; (3) 30 feet of porous gypseous material 
containing sulphur. (Water from this layer is charged with 
H,S and SO, and rises to within 70 feet of the surface.) {4) soft 
anhydrite 8 feet ; (5) 600 feet of salt with anhydrite layers from 
830 to 900 feet and from 1 160 to 1 180. Wells on the western 
side of the mound show over a thousand feet of material which 
cannot be regarded as older than late Tertiary. 

This section combines in a very remarkable way the salt of the 
Five Islands, the porous sulphur bearing gypsum of Sulphur 
City and the porous limestone of Beaumont, Bayou Chicot. 
Winn&eld, and Rayburn's, and does much to strengthen the 
evidence of the slratigraphic unity of these domes. 

In northeastern Texas there are three Cretaceous islands which 
seem to be in every way the counterparts of those in northern 
Louisiana. At two of these the same fauna shown in the north 
Louisiana salines has been found. 

The extreme similarity of the geological structure of these 
different localities is evident and we feel that the evidence thus 
far collected points very strongly to a common geological age 
and that we are justified in referring them all to the Cretaceous. 

Time of Jorniaiion of the domes- — Whatever the, forces, or the 
causes of the forces, which produced these peculiar quaquaver- 
sals, the absence of Midway deposits from all save King's and 
the Many dome indicates that at the beginning of the Eocene 
they were either islands in the Tertiary sea or that they were so 
slightly submerged that the vaneer of deposits they received was 
readily eroded in the following periods. 

The movement thus begun in the Cretaceous seems to have 
continued intermittently to the present time. On Belle Isle a 
bed containing shells common in the gulf to-day is inclined at 

•This section will be give 
BnlletiD by Dr. C. W. Hayet 

f These gastropods are regarded by Harris 
mou in the Erie canal to-day. 

I detail in a forthcoming I', S. Surrey 

i identical with species ci 


loo Geological Survey of Louisiana 

an angle of 23*. The outcrop at Winnfield shows evidence oF 
movement after the deposition of the Lower Claiborne Eocene. 

All the domes in the southern part of Louisiana and Texas, 
save one near Sour lake f where Harris has just found Jackson 
fossils at a depth of 1500 feet while a nearby well does not 
pass through the late Tertiary at a depth of 3000), either main- 
tained their island like character till the late Pliocene or ha\'e 
been so subjected to erosion that all trace of deposits of pre- 
Pliocene age are lacking. 

Standing at different heights, differently protected by the sedi- 
ments of succeeding periods and varying in the rate of their 
elevation, the diflerenl domes naturally show all degrees of dissec- 
tion. The low lying dome at Beaumont shows sign of relatively 
little erosion while the more elevated ones at Damon's and the 
. Five Islands have been very considerably eroded. The denuda- 
tion on the western three of the Five Islands seems to have been 
particularly great. At Drake's and Bistineau erosion has pro- 
gressed to such an extent that the topographic aspect of the 
domes has been entirely destroyed, 

Lines of weakneis. — Whether these domes have any connection 
one with another or v.helber they are entirely independent 
remains to be proven. Certain lines of weakness have been estab- 
lished and these have a northeast- southwest axis. The Coochie 
brake-Winnfield outcrops are points of maximum elevation on 
an anticlinal: At Coochie brake there is evidence of faulting 
in addition to folding. There is some evidence of a low anti- 
clinal developing, at present, across the Angelina and Sabine 
rivers (see article on the Sabine river) with an axis very nearly 
parallel to this axis and more or less parallel to the line of the 
Balcoues faulting. What connections other of the domes may 
have with each other is purely conjectural. (See Plate XXIII.) 

Gboumiicai. ScavBV of Louisiaha, Rsro 





,. . I'- 


CZ3 S ED [33 


^^^^^^^^Vl ^^^^^^^^^^L^H^^^^^^^H 









^^^^H am Ml. 





RSaon T.IM >t»;i>irR>q 1 


h i 

A-" -•. L- N X AND 

No. Ill 








Geography and Physiography 107 

Geography 107 

Cartography 107 

Early maps of the Sabine river 107 

Darby (18 12-1813) 107 

Eaton (1837) 108 

l-nited States-Texas Boundary Survey (1840-1841) 108. 

Public Land Surveys ( 1830-1879) 109 

Leavenworth ( 1872-1873) 109 

Polhemus (1878) no 

Construction of map accompan3ring this report no 

Description iii 

The river in 

The bluffs in 

The shoals 112 

Distances along the river 112 

Physiography 114 

The shoals 114 

Description 114 

McClanahan shoals 115 

Goodwin's shoals 115 

Theories of origin 116 

The Narrows 119 

•Manner of formation 119 


Introduction 120 

Eocene 120 

Lignitic 120 

Preliminary remarks 1 20 

Outcrops from Logansport to Hamilton 121 

Outcrops from Hamilton to Sabinetown 122 

Foster well 125 

Chireno well 126 

Lower Claiborne 1 27 

Preliminary remarks 127 

Low creek beds 1 27 

Outcrops from Bayou Negreet to Columbus 129 

Columbus 130 

Cocksfield Ferry Beds 130 

Preliminary remarks 130 

Outcrops 131 

Jackson '. 131 


Preliminary remarks 131 

Outcrops 131 

Oligocene 132 

Grand Gulf 132 

Preliminary remarks 132 

Outcrops from 36 to Snell's landing 133 

Bluffs near Snell's landing 134 

Hattan's ferry to Burr's ferry 135 

Frio Clays 135 

Preliminary remarks 135 

Outcrop near Burr's ferry 136 

Bluff at mouth of Boggy branch 136 

New Columbia 136 

Outcrops below New Columbia 137 

Pliocene and Recent 137 

I^afayette and Port Hudson 137 

Preliminary remarks 137 

Outcrops from Logansport to Stark's ferry 138 

Outcrops from Stark's ferry to Sabine lake 139 

General Considerations 140 

Relation of Sabine river section to other sections 140 


Plate XXIV. Goodwin's Shoals, near Columbus, La., looking 

down the river 112 

XXV. Shoals at Stone Coal Bluff 114 

XXVI. Upper part of Goodwin's Shoals, near Colum- 
bus, La 116 

XXVII. Lower Lignitic Eocene, Hamilton Bluff, Texas 120 

XXVIII. Lower Lignitic Eocene, Pendleton Bluff, Texas. . . 124 

XXIX. Upper Lignitic Eocene, Sabinetown Bluff, Texas. . 126 

XXX. Jackson Eocene near Robinson's Ferry 131 

XXXI. Grand Gulf Oligocene near Anthony's Ferry 133 

XXXII. Sheet I, Map of the Sabine River 143 

XXXIII. Sheet II, Map of the Sabine River 143 

XXXIV. Sheet III, Map of the Sabine River 143 

XXXV. Sheet IV, Map of the Sabine River 143 

XXXVI. Sheet V, Map of the Sabine River 143 

XXXVII. Geological Section along Sabine River. ... 148 

Fig. 10. Sketch map of Shoals at Stone Coal Bluff 114 

11. Comparative Cross-Sections of the Sabine River at 

Stone Coal Bluff ! 115 

12. Sketch map of McClanahan Shoals 115 

13. Sketch map of Goodwin's Shoals, Columbus, La.. 116 



Early maps of the Sabine river. — The information in our pos- 
session at present wilt hardly justify an attempt at a detailed 
cartographical history of the Sabine river. The probable date 
of its first appearance on the maps of the early Spanish aiid- 
French cartographers, its various vicissitudes at their hands and 
at the hands of other continental cartographers and all that 
interests a student of the cartographical lore and history of a 
river it is hoped will some day form a part of a general discus- 
sion on the cartography of Louisiana, 

After the period when the river was represented as a mere, 
more or less, wavy line in a position which gradually became 
more and more nearly a correct approximation, came definite 
attempts to locate the river and delineate its meanderings. 

Darby {iSti-iStj). — We owe our first correct idea of the gen- 
eral shape and location of the river to William Darby, In 1812 
and 1S13 he ran a traverse line from Fort Claiborne at Natchi- 
toches to the Sabine river, thence down ihe river to its mouth, 
thence along the shore of the gulf and up Calcasieu river to 
about the position of Lake Charles,* On his map of Louisianaf 
there is apparently no attempt made to show the shape of any of 
the bends of the river, it being represented merely by the con- 

*N(iteB in Regard to my Survey of Saliine river Hist. Mag, [Dawson's) 
vol. IJ, p. ?!?. 1S67. 

t A map of the Slate of Louisiana uith part of the Mississippi Territorv 
from Actual Survey by Wm. Darby, Philn, 1S16. The location of hii Ime 
from Natchitoches to the Sabine river is sbowa on this map. This map 
together vWa most of (he articles referreti to in Ibis paper will )« foand in 
the Howard Memorial Library at New Orleans. Thunks are due lo Mr. 
Beer, the librariaii, for many courtesies. 


Ghologicai, Survey of Louisiana 

. which m^r^f 

ventional wavy line. This inip is Ihe source from v 
compilers drew their information for many years. 

Eaton (^rSj^).— The growing importance of the river as the 
boundary between the United States and Texas; the requests 
of the people along the river to the government to open the river 
to navigation by the removal of the raft and the question of the 
cheapest route for supplies lo Camp Sabine caused the war depart- 
ment to direct Maj. W. G. Belknap to examine the river and if 
possible remove the raft.* He reports the raft removed and the 
, river open to navigation in 1838 and transmits with his reportf 
a map of the river from Sabine pass to Sabiuetown by Lieut. J, 
H. Eaton, I This map shows the shape of the bends in the river 
with considerable exactness. 

United States-Texas Boundary Survey {1S40-1841). — The 
mapll which accompanies the report^ of this survey seems to be 
Eaton's map with a number of additions and corrections. No 
attempt to meander the river appears to have been made and the 
map seems to have been constructed by plotting Eaton's survey 
on the longitude and latitude net obtained by their observations, 
together with what corrections and additions they could make to 
the detail of the older map by sketching from the deck of their 

* This rati seems to have been situated between Belgrade and the nioutb 
of Bayou Anacoco. 

f ObatructioDi iu Sabine river : 15th Cong, id Ses, House Ex. Doc. vol. 
to. No. 365, 1S38. 

t Sketch of tbe Sabine River, Lake and Pass from Camp Sabine lo tbe 
Gulf, a Distance of 300 miles by Lieut. J. H. Raton. 3d U. S. Infantry. 
Scale 4 miles lo an inch ; 25th Cong,, id Ses.. House Ei. Doc., vol. 10, No, 
365. 1838. 

I Map of the Sabine river from its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico in the 
sea to Logan's ferry in Latitude Jl° 58' 14" north showing Ihe Bound- 
ary between tbe United States and the Republic of Texas between said 
points, as marked and laid down by Survey in 1840 under the direction of 
the Commissioners appointed for that purpose under the first Article of the 
Conveutiou signed at Washington Apr. 15, 1S38. Surveyed in 1S40 by 
(on the part of the United Stales] J. D. Graham. Major. U. S. Topog. Eng.; 
Thomas J. Lee, First Lieut., U, S. Topog, Eng.; George G, Meade, C. E.; 
(on the part of Texas) P. J. Pillans, Eng.; D. C. Wilber, Sur.; A. A. Gray. 
Assl. Eng. Drawn by Lieut. T.J. Lee, 1B42, 

g 37tb Cong, sd Sess. House. Ek, Doc., vol. i, 78 pp.; ; 
Sen. Ex. Doc., vol. 3. No. 199, with map. 184 

I.; also 17th Cong, J 



1 Geology of thh Sabinb River 109 

steamboat. This map compares very favorably with the results 
of the Polhemus survey and remaiDS to this day the most accur- 
ate map of the river published. The compilers of the maps of 
the state have without exception overlooked this source of 
^^ information. 

^^U Pud/iY /and surveys {iSjo-iSjp). — The work of the surveyors 
^Bof the U. 5. Land ofHce in the townships along the Sabine river 
^^fllBve given us a series of maps of the river of varying degrees of 
^B.accuracy. In the early thirties a few townships about the base 
^B^ne and a few below I^gan^port were completed and in the suc- 
^l^ceeding years the townships between were filled in. The part 
of the river between Anacoco aud the Narrows was not sur- 
veyed till 1879, and it was the following year before the maps 
appeared. Locketl's map,* published io 1873. is for the most 
part based on these surveys, and therefore shows no detail what- 
ever between Anacoco and the Narrows. Hardee's mapt (1895) 
appears to have been hastily drawn and no attempt was made, 
along the Sabine river, to carefully plot even the land office maps 
which would have given a much better result than he has 
obtained. He has followed Lockett in the incorrect location of 
Nix's ferry, and has incorrectly located Eave's Plantation 
(which is the same as Nix's ferry] and Hanly's Point. 

Leavenworth {/S^z-rS^j). — In 1872-1873 F. P. Leavenworth, 
Asst. U. S. E., made a reconnaissance of the river beginning at 
Belzoria, Texas. His map,| plotted on a scale of an inch to two 

'The Lonisiana State University Topographical Map of Lonisiana. show- 
ing the Characteristic Features of the Surface of tbe State in symbols and 
and colors, compiled from the latest and niost authcnlic sources with many 
additions and corrections from actual reconnaissance by 5. }I. Lockett. 
Scale I in. — lo mi. New York. |!S73. 

f Hardee's New Geographical. Historical and Statistical Official Map of 
Lonisiana Embracing Portions of Arkansas. Alalffima. Mississippi end 
Texftsfrom Recent Government, Slate. Parish, Railroad and Privnte Sur- 
veys and Personal Investigations and Officially Compiled under authority 
from the Stale Legislature by William J. Ifardee, Civil Engineer. Scale i 
in.— 6mi. Chicago. A. D. 1B95. 

t A map of Ihe Sabine river from its mouth to Belzoria, Texas, by P. P. 
Leavenworth. Scale lin.— imi. Oct. i, 1872, to Apr, 5, 1873. MSS. in arch- 
ives of the War Department. I .eaven worth's report will be found in An. 
Bept. Chief of Eng,, [873. p. 68i~68j ; also 43d Cong. ist. Sns., Honse Ex. 
Doc., vol. 1, p. 6S1-68J, 1874. 

no Geological Survhv of Louisiana 

luiles appear to have been compiled iii part from the land 
maps, and was evidently not considered sufficiently tnwtwortl 
for in a few years a second survey was ordered. ^ 

Polhemiis (/J/J). — This survey extended to Hamilton, Texas, 
and though of a reconnaissance nature, made with a Gurley 
transit and stadia, was done with so much topographic skill 
and fidelity to detail that it is an extremely satisfactory map. 
This map* has unfortunately never been published, and it is 
through the courtesy of the Chief of Engineers that Mr. Pacheco, 
of this survey, was allowed to make tracings of it as well as the 
preceediug map, 

ConilritctioH of map accompanying this report. — In the construc- 
tion of this map the latitude observations of the United States- 
Texas Boundary Commission have been assumed as correct. The 
longitude correction has been found by comparing the longitude 
of Mound A, Sabine pass with the location of the same point 
the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Cbarl No. 203. 


Longitude Mound A Sabine Pass 

By calculation U. S, C. S, Chart 203 

By observation, U.S. — Tex. Boundary Survey.. 

Correction 49" 

A check on this longitude correction is found by comparing 
the longitude of the state line as found by calculation from the 
maps oi the boundary survey and the longitude of the Arkansas- 
Texas line as determined by the Survey at Texarkana.j 

Longitude Louisiana- Texas Meridional Boundary 
By observation U. S. Coast Survey at Texarkana..94'* 02' 34.1*' 
By calculation U, S, — Texas Boundary Survey map 94° oa* iS " 

• A niHp of tlic SabiHr river from East Hamilton to Sebiii« Lak«^ l 
«bect<>. Scale \:%(xxi, by J. H. follxrinas. SepL 19 10 Dec, 8, 1879, 
IB srchives of the War DevArtmeDt. Polhemus" report will bo fgiuid J] 
An. Rcpl. CWef of Enjc- for i.SSo, vol. 3, i.p, 1195-1199. 1881 
Cong., 3d Sess., Hou»c Ei. Doc., vol. 4, pp. 111)5-1199. :S8i. 


Ghography and Gkologv of the Sabine River hi 

Upon the longitude and latitude net thus obtained the Polhemus 
irvey from Sabine lake to Hamilton and the Leavenworth sur- 
vey from Hamilton to the state line have been projected. Sabine 
lalce and Mtnndings have been added from Baton's map and 
Sabine pass and the coast line from Chart No, 203 U- S. Coast 
Geodetic survey and from Browulee's 1899 survey.* 


Tke river. — From Logansport the Sabine river flows in a gen- 
eral southeasterly direction half the distance to the sea, it then 
flows southwest and finally enters the gulf, by way of Sabine 
lalce and Sabine pass, at a point a trifle feast of south of the point 
where it enters Louisiana. The river is for the most part a 
rather swift stream flowing in a narrow sinuous channel, with 
one sharp bend following another in quick succession, a sandbar 
on one side and a rapidly caving bank on the other. Sometime^ 
there are long stretches of slow moving water with gently slop- 
ing banks on either side covered with overhanging trees. The 
most pronounced of these reaches are; near Logansport, just 
below Myrick's ferry, below Hamilton, Pendleton and Robinson's 
ferry. Above Myrick's ferry the river is between 80 and loo 
feet wide, and tall trees falling sometimes reach from bank to 
bank. In the reaches a width of perhaps 150 feet is attained but 
the average width down to Belgrade is about too feet. From Bel- 
grade to the Narrows the average width is perhaps 200 feel with an 
extreme width in a few places of 400 feet or more. At the 
Narrows the river is contracted to half the width above. Below 
the Narrows it widens to 300 feet and attains a width of 500 feet 
at Orange and a 1000 feet near Sabiue lake. The height of the 
river banks is 30 feet about Logansport and decreases gradually 
tg a few feet at the Narrows and almost nothing at Sabine lake. 
The bottom land varies from two to six miles iu width. 

The bluffs. — Here and there the river strikes the hills bordering 
the valley forming bluffs which, in the upper part of the region 
under discussion, are often over a 1 00 feet high. These bluffs 
appear to be of two types ; 

•An. Rept. Chief of EnR. for 1899 (opp. p. i36i), 1890. 

S !iectioii 

112 Ghological Strvky of Louisiana 

(O Hill bluffs. Bluffs formed by the denudation of rolling 
hill land areas. The eroded land surface shows in cross seclioii 
and the crests of these bluffs are therefore generally serri 
They are generally high and are composed for the most 
Eocene and OHgocene material. 

(2) Flat-topped bluffs. — Low bluffs with flat tops bnl 
higher than the surrounding bottom lands. In height they are 
"bluffs" only by courtesy but in the lower river they are 
sharply separated from the surrounding bottom land by their 
covering of pine and, though but a few feel high, are rather 
marked topographic features. These bluffs are composed of bright 
colored sauds or clayey sands, often coutaining some gravel, 
which appear to grade laterally into material not sharply sepa 
rated from the recent river silt. In the upper river these bluffs 
often show near low water line a few feet of old Tertiary clay. 
A number of these have been represented on the map by a single 
4ine of hachures and make the valley of the river appear narrower 
than it really is. 

The shoals. — In a number of places between Logansport and 
Burr's ferry a rocky ledge or a ledge of very hard clay passes 
partly across the river, near low water tine, confining the river 
-to half its normal width aud causing a considerable acceleration 
of the current. When these ledges pass entirely across the river, 
as they do in several places, a rapids is formed. The two 
pronounced of these rapids are McClanahaa Shoals at the 
of Bayou Negreet and Goodwins Shoals at Colnmbus (see 
XXIV. XXVI aud XXXIII aud Figs, tz and 13). 

Distances along theriver. — On the distance from Logansport to 
the sea there is considerable variation in published accounts. 
B racken ridge * (Darby's estimate) states it as 400 miles; 
Overton t estimates it at 600 miles ; Williams \ at 400 and each 
succeeding estimate has made it less. Among the people along 
the river there is a tendency to overestimate the distance. 
Logansport estimates run from 500-900 miles and as Ear 
as Burr's ferry an estimate of 300 miles was heard. 

• View* oi La. p. 53. Pitl9.;i8i4. 

\ STth CoDK- ^l Sess. \\aa.M En. Doc. No. 51, vol. 1. p. 64, (84*. 

I An. Rept. o( SUte Kng. for 1848. p. 11, >f. O. tSjS. 

: river. ' 
o mj^^J 

Geography and Geoixkjy of the Sabine River 113 

The following table is based upon measurements made on Pol- 
hemus' map from Sabine lake to Hamilton and on Leavenworth's 
map from Hamilton to Logansport. 

Table of Distances along Sabine River* 


End of Jetties 0.0 

West Pass, Sabine river 25.3 

Adams bayou 31. i 

Orange 36.3 

S. P. R. R. bridge 47.3 

Lower end of Narrows 48.2 

Niblett*s bluff 51.C 

Fruit's bluff * 53.3 

Morgan's bluff 54.4 

Head of Narrows 65. i 

K. C. P. & G. R. R. bridge 66.4 

Mill bluff (Deweyville) 70.7 

Sudduth's bluff 83.0 

Nix's ferry 97.0 

Salem ferry 1 10.6 

Whitman's ferry 1 17.0 

Belgrade 121. i 

Upper Belgrade 122.0 

Stark's ferry 132.7 

Clark's warehouse 156. i 

Droddy landing 159.8 

Knight's landing 162. i 

New Columbia 168.2 

Burr's ferry 183 o 

Hattan's ferry 198.2 

Schnell's landing 203.3 

Anthony's ferry 204.9 

Robinson's ferry 214.5 

Columbus 224. 1 

Sabinetown 232.3 

Pendleton 238.2 

Carter's ferry 244.0 


Geological Surve 

' Louisiana 

Moraa's landing 250.6 

Chambers' ferry 356,3 

Hamilloo 360.7 

Myrick's ferry 281.2 

Logansport 3*5-0 


hit* r»^ I 

The Shoals 
Description. — Perhaps the most interesting physiographic fWr 
ture of the river, in this region, is the shoals or rapids. Here in 
a fiat bottomed, silted up valley, two to five miles wide, in a 
region which has long been considered one in which a rather 
rapid subsidence is taking place, we find a meandering river 
superimposed on ledges of the country rock with resulting Bboals 
sod rapids that extend along its course for a distance of sixty 
miles (see Plate XXXIII). 

In only two cases, at Sabineto^rn and 
Columbus, are these ledges associated 
with high bluffs, generally they appear 
near water level under a bank of light 
colored sands or silty clays of about the 
same height as the ordinary banks of the 
river. The prevailing type is well shows 
at Stone Coal " bluff," of which a sketch 
map is shown in Fig. 10. The term bloB 
is a misnomer, for the bank here is but 
a few feet higher than the ordinary banks. 
It is composed of gray sands and clays 
similar to those which occur in all the high 
banks along the river. The relation of 
the ledge, which in this case is of lignite, 
to the bed and banks of the river is shown 
in Figs. loand 11. The comparative croas- 
F sections give a good idea of the river at the 
■; shoals and just above. One would expect 
from the depth of the water on the crest of 
the shoal, about three-fourths of a foot at ' 




*• i 



low water, something more of a surface disturbance tbau is 

shown in Plate XXIV which was taken when the water was about 

two feel above its lowest stage. 
Substitute in 

this description 

a hard lignitic 

clay with calcar- 
eous concretions 

for lignite and 

you have the 

shoals at the 

mouth of La 

Nana bayou and 


Below Antho- 
ny's ferry the 

ledges are of 

Grand Gulf 


McOanakan skoals.- — One of the worst shoals on the river is 
shown in Fig, 12. It is about a quarter of 
a iniie long and in low water is quiet dan- 
gerous for even small boats, as the writer 
has reason to remember. The ledges are of 
hard Lower Claiborne limestone and one 
passes almost across the river just above the 
mouth of Low's creek, where Polhemus 
reported 6 inches of water when the river 
above showed a depth of 1 8 feet. The island 
just below, near the mouth of Bayou Ne- 
greet, is composed of coarse ferruginous 

Goodwin's shoals. — Near Columbus is per- 
haps the most extensive shoals on the river. 
The first of the Columbus series is about 
p half a mile above the village ; the second 
. shows just above the old ferry (see Fig. 13). 
Below the ferry a series of rocky islands 


extcDd along the river for a qaarteT of a mile. These combine 
with the rocky shelves of hard bine Lovrer Claiborne clay on 
the shore to produce the rapids kno^^-n as Goodvrin's shoals. 
Plate XXIV shows a view of Ihe lower rapids looking down the 
river from about half way tip the side of the Columbus blnfi. 
Plate XXVI is a nearer view of the upper crest. 

No accnrate levels have ever been 
obtained at any of these rapids but 
conservative estimate would make the 
fall at Goodwin's from 4 to 5 feet in a 


of a 

s of origin. — The natnre of 
the material which covers many of 
these ledges and which lies uncon- 
formably on the older material in the 
high bluffs as well as in the bottoms 
suggests a possible origin for these 
rapids but the complexity of these 
bottom deposits and the difficulty of 
arriving at any satisfactory conclu- 
sions regarding them makes ns hesi- 
tate about entirely accepting it. Beds 
of sand, often brightly colored and 
sometimes containingcbert and quartz 
pebbles, cover many of these ledges 
and'mosl of the higher bluffs. In the 
bottoms the deposits are very nearly 
of the same height as the surround- 
ing flat lands ; they appear to pass 
both horiiontally and vertically into 
broMTi silty clays mottled with red, 
i, such clays as one would naturally re- 
gard as of recent river origin : if they 
be not of recent origin, the recent 
river deposits are restricted to the sand bars and to a veneer of 
sediment deposited in flood time and the most of the valley deposits 
are to be regarded as the valley equivalents of the upper part of 
the coastal section. In other words here i: 


valley which^^H 






Gkogbaphv and Gbologv op the Sabinh River it? 

company wilh all the valleys of the coastal region, received a cer- 
tain amount of sediment during the last general subsidence of 
the coastal plain. The deposits were more or less irregular and 
on re-elevation the river naturally sought the lowest place in the 
valley. This new channel did not entirely coincide wilh the old 
and the river in cutting out its channel found itself super- 
imposed on projecting ledges of older clays which had resisted 
erosion in the former period. The common height of the ledges 
and frequency with which they are exposed by the river sug- 
gests something of an old base level in which case the river is to 
be regarded as having now reached and passed that base level. 

While such a hypothesis covers some of the facts observed it 
leaves some entirely unexplained. It does not explain why the 
largest rapids should be at Columbus except by accident. These 
rapids can hardly be regarded as the limit of the wearing back 
of the rapids for in such a case the ledges on the lower part of 
the river should stand higher above the level of the water than 
those above Columbus and such is not the case. 

Such a theory requires that the other valleys of the same 
region should show analogous phenomena. The rapids at Alex- 
andria on Red river and Catahoula shoals on the Ouachita while 
evidencing rather recent topographic changes at those localities 
can hardly be regarded as entirely analogous. The Angelina- 
Neches river system seems to offer more iu common, and to be 
a good stream on which to check our results from the Sabine. 
Observations on this river from the headwaters to the gulf seem 
to justify the conclusion that the Sabine did receive considerable 
silt during the Lafayette and Port Hudson submergences, and 
that the pine-clad, flat-topped, low-lying, red sand bluffs repre- 
sent the erosion fragments of this or these depositions. The 
bulk of the information collected on the Angelina-Neches is, 
however, much in favor of a theory of crustal distortion to 
account for these rapids. 

Apropos a theory of orogenic movement, unmodified, to 
account for these rapids the following facts may be regarded as 
significant : The largest rapids on the Sabine occur at a point 
where the dip changes abruptly from southwest to southeast ; a 
line connecting this point, the Many dome and the point of 

iiS Geological Subvhy of Louisiana 

maximum erosion on the Angelioa river is parallel to the known 
axis of the Winnfield Coochie brake disturbance, and is more or 
less parallel to the line of the Balcoues fanltiug. They suggest 
that there is here a low anticlinal which at the Sabine river is 
dipping with the axis of the fold. Such a theory would explain 
the distribution of the shoals up and down the river from the 
principal shoals or rapids. 

As has been suggested the Angelina river throws some light 
on this question. The evidence here is purely topographical, 
but is of a much more pronounced character than that on the 
Sabine. Near the headwaters of the river, at a point about due 
east of Rusk, in Cherokee county, the banks of the Angelina 
are from 8 to lo feet high. They rapidly decrease in height to 
a point six or seven miles above the H. E. & W. T. R. R. bridge 
where they are almost at water level. Many outlet sloughs leave 
the river and it has all the aspects of a stream at or below its base 
level. Just below the railroad bridge the river divides into many 
branches ; narrow, tortuous, tree choked channels, which wan- 
der aimlessly through a great swamp and finally unite, several 
miles below, to form a low banked river. The banks now grad- 
ually increase in height and low, flat-topped bluffs, four to six 
feet high, composed of brightly colored sands, appear at inter- 
vals. Between the mouth of Ayrish bayou and old Bevilporl 
the banks of the river are from 15 to 20 feet high, and the 
appearance of these bottom lands perched high above the river 
is iu marked contrast to the flat swamp land at water level in the 
river valley above. The current iu this portion of the river is 
quite swift and seems to reach its maximum velocity in the great 
southward loop two or three miles above Lewis ferry. From 
Bevilport to the gulf the banks of the river gradually decrease 
in height. 

There appears then to be on the Angelina an area in which 
the river is engaged in rapidly wearing out its channel with a 
ponded area al>ove, and this fact tends to corroborate the evi- 
dence offered by the Sabine of slight folding in this region. 
Whatever the cause, both the Sabine and the Angelina are now 
actively engaged in eroding their channels and have auythiog 
but the appearance of rivers in a region which is now subsiding. 

Geography and Geology of thk Sabine River 119 
Tbb Narrows 
Manner of formation. — Twenty miles above Orange the river 
enters what is known as ihe Narrows (see Plate XXXV). It is 
a narrow sinuous passage half the normal width of the river and 
seventeen miles long. To the east, is the old river obstructed 
with a raft several miles in length. 

There can be little doubt but that the Narrows were formed, 
as suggested by Leavenworth, by the enlargement of a number 
of sloughs by water backed up by this raft. Such an action would 
be entirely analogous to the known action ofthe " great " raft in 
Red river and to the action of a raft in the upper part of the Sabine 
of which we have a historical account. In 1813 Darby found a 
raft between Belgrade and Stark's ferry of which he gives the 
following account : * "A few miles below the Alibama villages, 
the Sabine is encumbered with a raft of timber of a mile and a 
half in length. When the waters are high, an outlet from the 
right bank, leaving the river at the higher extremity of the raft, 
conducts into a small creek that enters the river below. " This 
raft was removed by the war department in i%y} \ but reformed 
y>efore 1840 near Belgrade where the United States- Texas bound- 
ary survey found a raft two miles in length. \ A raft then 
Jormed just above Stark's ferry and in the early sixties succeeded 
in forcing the river to cut a narrow channel eleven miles long. § 
Of the probable date of the formation of the Narrows we know 
little. This feature is not shown oa Darby's map and no men- 
tion is made of it in his description. Whether it did not exist or 
"whether he merely failed to observe it we do not know. The 
Uarrows were formed at the time of Eaton's survey but the time 
that had elapsed since Darby's visit was quite suSicieut for its 

•AGeog. Des, of the State of La., etc, by Wm. Darby, Phila,, 1816. p. %■>,. 

(faSlli Cong. 2d Sess., Honse Ex. Doc., vol. 10. No. 365. 1838. 
Lfaytli Cong. 3d Sess.. House Ex. Doc., vol. i. No. 51, p. 66, 1843. 
L ^Polbemiu jjives the following account of Ibis place : "' Jaat above 
Btark's fertj- the ■ Raft ' begins. It 19 that portion of the river some eleven 
tniles va extent, formed about fifteen years ugo bj the opening up of a 
bftyou or slough and its gradual enlargement as the original channel (or Old 
le choked with drift. " 

120 Geological Stjrvet ofLoutsiana 



In Louisiana the lowest beds which have been recognized 

along the Sabine river are Lignitic Eocene. The succession of 

formations from the Lignitic to the Upper Oligocene is fairly 

complete. The Miocene has not yet been recognized and the 

exposures other than Eocene and Oligocene are of uncertain age, 

probably ranging from Pliocene to recent. 

The following table gives the succession of formations and their 
probable thickness iu this section : 

f Recent Alluvium 

Recent to Pliocene - Port Hudson 

( Lafayette 


1 Grand Gulf looo 

f Jackson 500 

■c:„-„. 1 Cocksfield Ferry Beds 450 

^•^^"^ 1 Lower Claiborne 550 

L Lignitic 1000-)- 



Preliminary remarks. — From Logan sport to Hamilton theout- 

crops are for the most part .small and rather unsatisfactory. No 
fossils were fonnd in this part of the river and the two dips 
observed were on small outcrops and were contradictory. It is 
hence impossible to determine the exact slratigraphic relation of 
these outcrops to those occurring farther down the river and 
beyond the fact that these beds seem to be lower Lignitic and to 
lie below the Nanafalia or Gregg's landing beds at Pendleton 
nothing definite can be slated regarding them. 

From Hamilton to the last outcrop of Lignitic near Sabinetown 
the exposures are much more numerous and satisfactory. Fos- 
sils occur well developed at two localities and it is possible to 
obtain enough reliable dip observations to learn something of the 
relative stratigraphic positions of the different outcrops. The 
general section of the river shown on Plate XXXVII begins at the 
Rock bluff above Chamber's ferry, the first good outcrop below 

^m Geography and Geology of the Sahinh River 121 

Hamilton. A comparison of the dip observations will show that 
the dip from here to Bayou Negreet is about S. 26" W., 1:60, 
and I have used ibis dip except where very pronounced local 
evidence indicated that it should be slightly modified. 

Outcrops from Logansport to Hamillon. — At Loganspoit 3 to 4 
feet of dark sandy clays, with limestone concretions, overlaid with 
light colored, ironstained sandy clay is exposed in a small bluff 
near the railroad bridge. 

A few feet of lignitic clays are exposed near water level, 
beneath beds of light colored sands, at a number of points between 
Logansport and Hart's bluff, \\z : at 1,2 and 4 Plate XXXII. 

Hart's bluff at its upper end has an extreme height of about 
60 feet above low water. Here the face of the bluff is much com- 
plicated with land slips and shows little besides a covering of 
light grey and yellow sandy clays containing rounded ferrugin- 
ous gravel, and apparently identical with the bottom deposits 
into which they grade on the northern side of the bluff. At the 

I lower end of the bluff the following section is shown : 
Sedion at Mart's Bluff 
Feet In. 
^. White and yellow sand 28 o 
S. Many colored chert and quartz pebbles with 
^ rolled pieces of petrified wood o 6 

3. Lignite of good quality o 9 

4. Finally laminated drab colored clay with lighter 

I sand partings 1 o 

^^B- Sand o 6 

^^B. Same as 4 containing at base, layer of light 

^^[ brown clay stone concretions 3 o 

7- Finally stratified fine white sand i o 

8- Same as No. 4 11 o 

Water level. 

At 5, on the Louisiana side, there is a ledge of grey, con- 
'^retionary. leaf-bearing limestoue exposed at water level. A 
1*aarter of a mile below, a few limestone bowlders outcrop on 

5 Texas side. 

123 Geological Survey OF Louisiana 

At 7, slightly below the DeSoto- Sabine parish line, a bed 
lignite 3 feet thick is shown at water level. This is covered 
15 feel of bottom deposits. Dip here is N. 7o''W.. 1:100, 

Stdion lit Myrick's Ferry 

1. Unstratified grey and yellow saudy clay, red above. 

A few pebbles occur at the base and the clay weathers 
into pinnacles. This is the same as the material 
which caps Hart's bluff 22 

2. Very dark colored clay 3 

3. Grey sand 

4. Finely laminated dark clay with large calcareous con' 


The lower layers show a slight eastward dip, 1:100. 

A few feet of lignilic clay show at water level at 10 on the 
Texas side of the river. By river two miles below this there 
is a bluS on the Texas side about 1 10 feet high. 


1. Unexposed to top of bluff 50 

2, Finely laminated dark lignitic clays with occasional con- 

cretions 60 

Apparent fault near the middle of the bluff is due to a land- 

Just above the town of Hamilton is a bluff 60 feet high. It 
shows 30 feet of dark laminated Hgnitic clays (see Plate XXVII). 

Outcrops from Hamilton io Sabinetown. — About a mile and a 
half below Hamilton a line of high hills almost reach the rivei. 
No section is exposed, but large calcareous concretions show 
on the hillside. 

At 12, a bluff about forty feet high shows a few feet of dark 
laminated clay with large calcareous concretions. The upper 
part of the bluff is grey and yellow sandy clay with small 
ferruginous gravel, apparently the same as the material in the 
banks of the river. 





Ghograpuy and Geology of the Sadink River 123 

Seelioit above Chamber's Ferry 

(No, 13, Plate XXXIII) 


1 . Unexposed 70 

a. Grey and light yellow slightly cross-bedded sand with 

J large leaf-bearing calcareous concretion 56 

^B Above Moran's landing there is a long line of bluffs slightly 
^nick from the water's edge. At 14 a little waterfall exposes 
tlie following section : 

Section al 14 


1. Light yellow sand with fine clay partings 10 

2. Blue laminated sandy clay with Venericardia plantcosta, 

Anomia, sp S 

3. Covered to water level ao 

Fossiliferous clay is exposed on a little point half a mile above 

Moran's and dip calculations show that it is the same as 2 of 
the above section. The ground was frozen so hard (February, 
1900) that it was impossible to obtain any of these fossils in a 
condition in which they could be identified. 

Ledges of lignitic clay appear at water level half a mile above 
Carter's old ferry and just below the mouth of LaN ana bayou. 
There is the usual covering of sands and gravel. 

A low pine clad blu5 at 15 shows the following section : 

k Section al i^ 
. Slightly stratified white and yellow sand 20 

2. Yellow sand with chert and quartz pebbles and rolled 

pieces of siHcified wood 2 

3. Dark blue to dirty yellow laminated sandy ciay with 

calcareous concretions 4 

Water level. 
At Carter's ferry there is a small bluff showing about 15 feet 
of dark blue laminated nnfossiliferous sandy clay. A ledge of 
limestone bowlders extends almost across the river just above 
the ferry. Below the ferry a 6-inch bed of lignite appears cap- 
ping the clay. A second bed of calcareous concretions, strati- 
graphically about 30 feet above the first appears a few hundred 

124 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

yards below the ferry. At the lignite bed the dip is S. 25° W. 
1:50 but decreases to 1:70 at the second concretion bed. ^^^^| 

Section near Mouth of Bayou falivon ^^^^H 

Feet In. ^^^H 

Sands o ^^^^| 

3. Lignite 9 ^^H 

3. Covered 15 o ^^^^| 

4. Lignite - 2 o 

5. Dark blue laminated clay 7 o 

This outcrop shows a dip of 1:70 along the river which here 

flows southwest. The river bends southeast and the dip is still 
apparent though somewhat less. At Pendleton the bluff shows 
a slight westward dip. A connection of these various elements 
indicates a dip west of south of about 1:60. 

The sections at Pine bluff and Pendleton were described at 
length in the report of this survey for 1899 and the fauna fig- 
ured and described. The outcrop is regarded by Harris as about 
the horizon of the Nauafalia aud Greggs' landing beds of the 
Alabama section. 

A thin ledge of lignitic clay at 16 shows a decided westward dip. 

In the bend above Stone Coal bluff a 'few feet of dark colored, 
laminated, sandy clay with small calcareous concretions shows 
beneath the usual covering of light colored sands and sandy 
clays with pebbles in the basal layers. This outcrop shows a dip 
a little west of south of 1:60. 

A quarter below this outcrop the lignite ledge shows a dip of 
S. 30° W., 1:45. This lignite bed is about 3 feet thick and 
extends across the river forming a small shoals. About 200 
yards south of this bed a second lignite bed shows a dip of about 
S. 45° W. 1:25. This bed exhibits a little distortion and several 
small folds make the exact determination of dip difhcult. Dip 
observations seem to show that these lignite beds are the strati- 
graphic equivalents of the beds at the mouth of Patroon bayou. 

Section at High Stuff 


1. Unexposed. Shows on surface chert and quartz gravel 

and large masses of conglomerate 25 

2. Laminated, drab to chocolate colored clays 20 


'•V YORK] 


A-.TCH, l-'N^X AND 


Geography and Geology of the Sabine Riv; 


3. Unexposed 25 

4, Crossbedded yellow sand with thin layers of white clay 

and lines of clay pebbles, the main lines of stratifica- 
tion corresponding to the general dip of the strata. In 
places the sands form large masses of ferruginous 

1 sandstone 44 

5. Irregularly bedded, dark-colored, lignitic, micaceous 
sandy clay containing large calcareous concretions . . 27 
Dip about S. 15° W., i;50. 
About three-quarters of a. mile above Sabiuetown a ledge on 
the Louisiana side juts half way across the river. It shows 3 
feet of greensand marl identical with the fossiliferons bed at 
Sabinetown. It is capped with grey calcareous concretions and 
the whole covered with pebble conglomerate. The concretions 
are exposed also on the Texas side, showing that the tertiary 
clay here forms the bed of the river. 

The section at Sabinetown has been described in the report 
for 1899, page 67. Plate XXIX was taken from the west end of 
the bluff and shows the fos.siliferous layers of this section. The 
best collecting is in this part of the outcrop and the fossils, as 
stated before, indicate a Woods bluff Lignite horizon. The river 
lere is filled with rock masses which produce a small shoals. 

At 18, the last outcrop of undoubted Lignitic material was seen. 
Here four feet of the fossiliferons greensand of the Sabiuetown 
bltiff section is exposed. It is overlaid with brown and choco- 
late colored laminated clay. The dip appears to be east i :5o. 
The next outcrops below are the Low creek greensand beds. 
Foster well. — Five and a half miles about due east of Stone Coal 
bluff Mr. D.'M. Foster of Lake Charles is sinking a well in search 
of oil. In this well a 5-foot bed of lignite has been struck at 200 
f*et, above which there were clays and dark colored greensand 
Oiarls to within 50 feet of the surface. Fossil shells were again 
^ticonntered at 493 feet. This well is in a creek bottom but little 
al>ove the level of the river bottoms and a dip of S. 20° W. 1:60. 
*^l»ich seems to be the usual dip of this region, would lead 
^s to expect the lignite at that depth. The upper marl would 
"C in the position of the Pendleton beds and the lower one some- 



what about the Shackelford bluff horizon. Beds of lignite out- 
crop in the creek branches southeast of Stone Coal bluff and tend 
to confirm the dip observations. 

This occurrence is interesting for it seems to indicate that east 
of the Sabine river, the Lower Claiborne beds overlap the L,igni- 
tic beds shown in Sabinetown bluff. This is further confirmed 
by the fact that at Many the Sabinetown beds seem to be lacking. 

Chireno well.—\a Texas the well recently drilled by the Mam- 
moth Oil, Mineral and Laud Co. near Chireno furni.shes a section 
which gives some idea of Ihe development of this stage west of 
the Sabine river. This well is about three miles south of the 
Lower Claiborne-Ltgnitic line of parting. 

IVell Section, Chireno. A'arogdoches Co.. Texas 

I. o no Red fossiliferous marl containing Osttea fatci- 
/ormis, Anomia ephippioides in upper por- 
tions. Uelow changes to blue grey ^^^| 

3. iio-itz "Oil sand." This outcrops to the north at ^^^H 

the base of the Lower Claiborne ^^^^ 

3. 112-382 Blue to grey fossiliferous marl 270 

4- 382-1162 White quicksand. Strong flow of artesian 

water 80 

5, 462-468 Dark grey liguitic clay 8 

6. 468-477 Lignite 

7- 4775 '5 White quicksand 

8. 515-522 Lignite 

9. 522-562 Grey-blue sand, with very small shell frag- 

ments. Layer of pyrites 3 inches thick at 

10. 562-632 Blue micaceous sand. Fragments of shells 

reported but sample shows only glittering 
particles of mica 

1 1 . 632-636 Hard fossiliferous greensand 

12. 636-676 Dark green saud 

13. 676-736 Soft, dark grey lignitic clay 

i\. 736-826 Chocolate to yellow laminated clay 

15, 826-836 Indurated grey sand 

16. 836-840 White clay 



Gbography and Geology of the Sabine River 127 

17. 840-865 Grey sand with a Ultle oil 25 

18. 865-873 Hard saud 8 

19. 873-R77 Hard rock not passed through 

LowRR Claiborne 

preliminary remarks. — The Lower Claiborne extends from 
Bayou Negreet to Colnmbus and probably slightly beyond. It 
shows in its development the Texan phase of the Lower Claiborne 
faana. The dips are pronouncedly west of south about the 
montli of Bayou Negreet and agree almost exactly with the 
Lignitic dips obtained above. Near Goodwin's shoals the dip 
changes abruptly to east of south. This change in dip occurring 
as it does in the middle of a formation is possibly due to orogenic 
movements which are also responsible for the shoals ou this 

The paleontology of these beds will be discussed by Prof, Harris 
in 3 forthcoming bulletin on the Lower Claiborne stage. 

I^w creek beds. — The peculiar l>eds described from Low'screek, 
near Sabinetown, in 1 899 and referred provisionally to the Ligni- 
tic show a ranch better development on the Sabine near the 
mouth of Low's creek at stations 19 and 20. The beds here fur- 
nish a much more complete fauna, especially at the Negreet 
outcrop, and Harris is inclined to regard the material as having 
R decided Lower Claiborne aspect. Directly above it is a well 
marked Lower Claiborne fauna and the position of these beds at 
or near the line of parting between the Lower Claiborne and 
Ugnitic is fully proven. 

Section at /(i. 

Feet In. 

Gray sand 5 

Grey and yellow unstiatiSed clay containing fer- 
ruginous gravel. Beds i and 2 lie unconform- 
ably on those below 25 o 

Dark green limestone filled with large grains of 
gre«nsand. Characterized by great numbers of 
Peden comuus and crustacean remains 5 o 

Fossiliferous ctolitic greensand with occasional spots 
of green clay, weathering red 7 o 

GsOLOGiCAL Survey of Louisiaita 



5. Ledge of green limestone containing small rounded 

greensand grains. Weathers red .... 

6. Fossiliferous green clay with much greensand... 10 o 
The fossils are al! small and rather poorly preserved. Dip S. 

50" W. 1 :6o. 

Just above the month of Bayou Negreet a low ledge is exposed 
under a bed of grey and yellow sands and clays. Here twenty- 
five feet of the same material seen in foregoing section is exposed. 

StHion at Mouth 0/ Bayou Negreet 


1. Light grey and yellow sandj- clay with gravel at base. 

Extends over whole outcrop 

2. Darlc greenish brown clay with greensand grains. 

Abont tour feet from base is a harder portion of the 
bed forming a little terrace 

3. Very fossiliferous iudurated green marl weathering 

brown. Contains among other shells Ostrea falci- 

4. Hard limestone with many large Venericardia planicosta 

5. Covered, (Mouth of Bayou Negreet) 

6. Laminated, chocolate colored clay 

7. Hard, grey limestone with imperfect shells and bowlders 

of the underlying material. Coutains Ostrtafalcifgrmis. 
Similar in every respect to Lower Claiborne outcrop 
described in 1899 from Low's creek. Shows large 
masses of coral 

8. Same material as section at 19, described above, bot 

here containing a greater percentage of clay. This 
outcrop has more of the appearance of normal green 
sand marl. It weathers into six distinct shelves 
because of difference of hardness in difFerent portions 

of the bed 35 

Layer 7 of this section crosses the river at right angles giving 

rise to a very marked shoals. The river flows against the 

inclined edges of the strata. Dip from a long exposure, S. zo* 

W. 1:25- 

In the middle of the river opposite the mouth of Bayou Negreet 

there is a rocky island, 7 feet high, made of ferruginous conglo- 

IGhograpbv and Geology of thk Sabine River 129 
■cerate. The conglomerate shows casts of Ventricardia piani- 
Usla, Volulililhes and Unto. 

Outcrops from Bayou Negteel to Columbus. — At so, 3 miles 
above Columbus, is a bluff greatly complicated with landslips. 
Ten feet of irregularly stratified yellow sand with irregular clay 
partings is here overlaid with a layer of laminated dark brown 
clay having a maximum thickness of 20 feet. Capping the bluff is 
the usual fine grey and yellow sand, here 15 feet thick. 

Along the east and west reach above Columbus, on the Texas 
bank, there are a number of outcrops of very fossiliferous Lower 
Claiborne. At 21 a long shelf, leu feet high, shows the fol- 
^^1 lowing section : 

^^H Seelioii at it 

^H Feet 

^^f I. Grey and yellow sands aud clays 15 

^V 3, Very dark grey fossiliferous laminated clay with lines 

^H of concretions. Contains a characteristic Lower 

^* Claiborne fauna. Among other forms Belosepia 

ungula. Turrelella nasula var. houstoftia, Clavilitkes 

pfnrosei, CoTtttdina armigera (small) 9 

3. Covered 3 

4. Very fossiliferous greeosand. Many fossils silicified. . 2 

5. Finely laminated bluish grey sandy clay with traces of 

vegetable matter 6 

Dip here seems to be due south. 

A quarter of a mile below this outcrop, at 22, the following 
section is shown : 


1. Unexposed to top of bank 14 

2. Pebble conglomerate 2 

3. Laminated, dark brown clay and yellow sand, contain- 

ing fossils irregularly through the whole mass. 

Anomia ephippoides is very common 23 

Dip a little west of south. 

The best collecting iu the Lower Claiborne occurs at 23, two 
miles by river, above Columbus. 

Geological Survey of Louisiana 

Section a! !j 

Feet H™ 

I. Grey and yellow sandy clay with small ferruginoui 
gravel. Clayey portions weather into little pin- 
nacles 20 o 

3. Bluish grey laminated clay with sand partings and 
occasional patches of sand. Marked ledge of 
concretions in upper part of bed i r o 

3. Dark green shell limestone weathering red. Con- 

tains many specimens of Area rhomboidella o 6 

4. Same as 2 but much more fos.s i lifer on s 4 o 

Dip southwest. 

The lower layer is filled with a great variety of beautifully 
preserved Lower Claiborne forms. 

Columbus, — The bluff at Columbus is much complicated with 
landslips and it is impossible to get a very satisfactory section. 
The following is from the best exposures : 

Settion at Calutnbui 


Fine grey sand, tinged with yellow 8 

Pebble conglomerate 3 

Drab clay with small concretions 4 

Ledge of fossil iferous dark grey limestone with Plicatula 
filamentosa, Pectunculus idoneus. Area, rhomboidella. . r 

Light green, laminated, fossiliferous clay 20 

Light green, laminated, fossiliferous clay with large 
numbers of Ostreajohnsoni, var. and O . falciformis . . 4 

Ledge of calcareous concretions i 

Same as 5 3 

Bluff so complicated with landslips that dip observations are 
unsatisfactory ; dip seem to be south, a little east. 
Small outcrop of fossiliferous Lower Claiborne at 24. 
At 25 is a high bank used for a log-slide. Here a ledge of 
greensand 2 feet thick, appears at water level and extends half 
across the river. It is covered with the usual grey and yelloTp, 
sands and clays. Dip S. E. 1:50. 

CocKSFiBLD Ferry Beds 

Preliminary remarks. — The Cocksfield ferry beds are well 

developed in the vicinity of the Sabine river and show the typi- 








cal, unfossiliferous, Hgnilic clays, with large calcareous concre- 
tions, which characterize them. Beds of this series are the 
litbological counterparts of the beds of the lower Lignitic and 
occupy a position between the fossiliferous Lower Claiborne and 
Jackson beds. 

Oulcrops. — The first bluff i>elow Columbus shows the foUow- 
I ing section : 

Serlion al if< 


T, Fine white sand ao 

3. Dark grey to blue sandy clay with fine sand partings 
and occasional beds of yellow sand, in many places a 
foot thick. Contains many poor plant impressions 

and a few calcareous concretions 28 

Dip S. 20° E. i:3o. 

A quarter of a mile south of the above outcrop, at Lawhorn's 
bluff, 26 feet of laminated sandy clay, containing many large 
calcareous concretions, is exposed. A bed of impure lignite, a 
foot thick, occurs about three feet above low water level. Dip 
S. E. 1:70. 

Three shelves of dark colored clay appear near water level 
between Lawhorn's bluff and Robinson's terry at 27, 28 and 29. 
Al 28 the bed is 6 feet thick and has the usual covering of light 
colored sauds. 


Preliminary remarks. — It was a delightful surprise to find a 
most typical Jackson fauna just below Robinson's ferry. The 
considerable thickness of the Jacksou beds here indicated that 
careful search would reveal Jackson in Texas, and recent work 
has shown Jackson fossils near Caddel P. O. in clayey marls and 
in the white sandstones directly above them. The area there 
occupied by the Jackson outcrop is rather considerable. Large 
bones (perhaps Zeuglodon) are reported in the Jackson area east 
of the Sabine on Canty creek. 

Outcrops. — About three-fourths of a mile below Robinson's 
ferry, at 30, there is an outcrop of 5 feet of blue fossiliferous 


Ghological Survey of Louisiana 

clay on the Texas side of the river {see Plate XXXl. Itshows at 
this stage of the river two large concretions of hard white fossU- 
ifcrous limestone. The outcrop yielded a rather extensive Jack- 
son fauna including Umbrella planulala and many large Capulus 

At 31. a shelf of the same fossiliferous clay shows on the 
Louisiana side. The fossils here are not so well preserved. Dip 
S. 20° E, 

Between this outcrop and the outcrop of the Grand Gulf near 
Anthony's ferry, ledges of Tertiary clays show at 32, 33, 34 and 
35. At 34 a few fossils are exposed. 
Section at 3 J 

1. Dark grey and brown mottled sandy clay ("buckshot 


2. White and yellow pebbly sand 

Blue clay weathering brown 

Irregularly bedded, laminated, slate colored clay and 

yellow sand 3 

5. Laminated chocolate -colored clay with occasional thin 

seams of yellow sand and small calcareous concretions 8 

The layers 3, 4 and 5 show a southward dip of 1:35. Xear 

the northern end of the exposure is a small fault with a throw of 

about 6 feet. 



Grand Gclf 

Prrliminary remarks. — For stratigraphical purposes, and notil 
fossils are found which will render the beds su^reptJble of 
division, it would seem well to include uuder this term the 
' portion of Hilgard's Grand Gulf or that pottioti which 
ntains sandstone beds. These form a stratigrapbic unit 
dily distinguished from the thick beds of green cftlc&reous 
clays which overlie them and which are now known to be Chat- 
tahoochee Olieoceiie. 

Xo animal remains, sa\-e a few I'nios. have yet been found in 
the Grand Gulf sand-nones. Kennedy reports an Eocene fauna 
from the hatt of the series and on these fossils conelates the 



". 1. \ I 

1:.. -^ • 

I - ', .V A NO 


Gkography and Geology of the Sabine River 133 

beds for several hundred feet above the outcrop with the Lower 
Claiborne. These fossils, which prove to be Jackson, can hardly 
be said to prove the age of the beds above them and considering 
the overlap of the Grand Gulf beds on the Jackson, as shown in 
Louisiana, it is not surprising to find Jackson fossils in the sand- 
stones a few feet above the Jackson clays. Considering the 
evidence at hand there seems to be no reason for regarding the 
Grand Gulf sandstones of Texas as different from the Grand 
Gulf sandstones of Louisiana and Mississippi. The finding of a 
Chattahoochee fauna in the green clays adds to the characters in 
common between these beds and the same beds across the Mis- 

The Grand Gulf sandstones extend along the Sabine from 
A.nthotiy's ferry to near Burr's ferry. The southeastward dip 
observed in the Cocksfield ferry beds and the Jackson continues 
to a point below Rattan's ferry with a tendency to show an 
increased dip. Near Burr's ferry the dip becomes much less 
being 1:300. 

Outcrops from j6 to SnelPs landing. — A shelf of soft, fine, grey 
sandstone with a slight amount of calcareous matter is exposed 
on the Louisiana side at 36. Plate XXXI shows this exposure 
and also shows the way in which these shelves of older material 
appear under the ordinary bottom bank. 

At 37, a much larger shelf occurs near low water level. It 
extends well across the river producing a decided acceleration of 
the current. The section is : 




Yellow and brown silty sand to top of bank 8 

White to grey sand with faint traces of stratification. 

Contains pebbles at base 10 

Hard, fine-grained quartzitic sandstone 2 

Greyish-blue, jointed sandy clay becoming lighter and 

more sandy abo\e 15 

Soft, white, fine-grained sandstone. ... 8 

Coarse-grained quartiiilic sandstone 3 

Grey to drab, jointed sandy clay 3 

Dip S. E. 1:50. 

Geologicai. Scevhy of LomsiANA 

E Texas sidfWl 

At Anthony's ferry a smalt flat-topped bluff on the 
shows no rock. On the Louisiana side, a little below, 4 feet of 
fine-grained Grand Gulf sandstone shows near water level. 

Just above Snell's landing, a flat-topped bluff 35 feet high 
shows at its base 8 feet of blue sandy clay. 

Blitffi near SnelPs landing. — At Snell's landing high bluSs 
appear on the Texas side and extend for two miles down the 

Section at SiteiCs Landing 

r. Pine white sand with pebbles at base 25 

2. Covered 

3. Coarse, indurated white sand, capped with a layer 

of sandstone about a foot thick 

Water level. 

Dip. S. E. 1:25. 

A mile below this exposure there is a good exposure at 38, 

Section aijS 


1. Unexposed to top of bluff 40 

2. Yellow sand, containing bowlders of buff colored, 

laminated, leaf-bearing clay 35 

3. Coarse, white, cross-bedded, rather qnartzitic sand- 

stone, mottled with yellow 6 

4. Greenish -yellow sandy clay 20 

5. Unexposed 10 

Water level. 

Bed 2 shows a phenomena almost identical with that shown in 
the K. C. P. & G. R. R. cut near Shreveport, where the beds 
are presumably of lower Eoceneage. Five hundred yards below 
this section, at 39, this bed is much more fully developed. Here 
the bed is covered with a regularly bedded, laminated, brown 
to slate-colored clay, three feet thick, with abundant plant 

This line of bluffs extends along the river half way to the 
mouth of Bayou Toro. The quartzitic sandstone increases in 
thickness, reaching a maximum of 10 feet near the lower end. 
This sandstone layer indicates that the line of bluffs are about 
on the line of strike and hence the dip is S. E. 





Gkogkapbv and Gkologv of the Sabinb Rivhk 


Hailan' s ferry to Burr's ferry. — Near Hattan's ferry on the 
Louisiana side the following section is shown : 
Sfdion Hatlan'f Ferry 
(East Bank) 


1. Drab, iron-staiued clay crumbling into small irregular 
pieces ( "Buckshot clay "} 17 

2. Fine white saud with many small pebbles. . 3 

3. Blue clay weathering yellow {Grand Gulf) 5 

A flat-topped bluff on the west side of the river at 40. shows 

a ledge of green jointed clay about five feet thick. The great 
southward dip. 1 -.2^. exposes about 30 feet of this bed. 

Sandstone ledges cause several shoals in the river below this 
outcrop but afford no good exposures. At 41 a ledge of fine 
grained, porous sandstone shows a slight southward dip 1:300. 

At 42, a range of high hills, rising over a hundred feet above 
the river, approach the river on the Texas side. One hill-point 
just reaches the river and a ledge of sandstone near the 
water line. Forty feet above water level a ledge of sandstone 
3$ feet thick outcrop in the hillside : in many places forming a 
protruding ledge and giving rise to a number of small waterfalls 
where little streams from the hills flow over it. 

About a mile above Burr's ferry, at 43, there is a small out- 
crop of soft white .sandstone. This is covered with the usual 
pebble-bearing sands and pinnacled clays. 

Fkio Clavs 

Preliminary remarks. — Overlying the sandstones of the Grand 
Gulf, in western Louisiana and eastern Texas, are thick beds of 
green calcareous clay, which produce a stiff, heavy soil, often 
black and prairie like. These black and mulatto lands extend 
along the K, C. P. & G. R. R. from Pickering to Neame and 
include many prairies, as Anacoco prairie and the prairies about 
Hardshell. Aloug the Sabine river these clays extend from 
Burr's ferry to Droddy's landing and westward, in Texas, they 
extend in a belt five to fifteen miles broad across Newton and 
Jasper counties to the Neches river, where they are very finely 
developed sections at Town bluff and the bluff ten miles below. 



The Towo bluff ssction is the most complete that has come 
under the notice of the writer. 

Fossils collected near Burkville are regarded by Harris as rep- 
resenting a brackish water phase of the Chattahoochee Oligocene. 
It is impossible from our present observation to say how far from 
the base of the green clays these fossils occur (it is probably over 
a hundred feet) and how much, if any, of the upper portions of 
the Grand Gulf proper belong to this stage. On the map and in 
our consideration of the Sabine river section we have made the 
last hard sandstone layer in the Grand Gulf the dividing line. 
This is of course purely arbitrary. 

These beds seem to be very nearly equivalent to Kennedy's 
Frio clays. His description however seems to partially indicate 
that he regards these clays as occupying a position beneath the 
upper saudstones. If this be the correct interpretation of his 
meaning we would suggest the name Burki'ilU beds ior this stage. 

Oulcrofi near Burr' s ferry . — A small outcrop of the greenish- 
yellow clays of this stage occurs at the water's edge a quarter of 
a mile from Burr's ferry. 

Bluff at movth of Boggy branch. — Bluff just below the mouth 
of Boggy brauch shows the following section : 

Section Boggy Branch Bluff. 


1. Stiff black soil i 

2. Fine white sand 37 

3. I,ight yellow, sticky clay, containing large irregular 

white calcareous concretions. Weathers jnto a 
stiff black clay 26 

4. Covered to water level 17 

The blackland soil which caps this bluff is an erosion fragment 

of a much thicker bed which shows in the hills west of this 
exposure. This is a continuation of the blackland belt in which 
fossils occur at Burkville. 

New Columbia. — Shelf of clay exposed just below the ferry 
shows the following section : 


Section New Columbia, Texat 


Yellow saady loam mottled with grey 7 

Fine wbite and yellow sand containing gravel in the 

basal portion 13 

3. Light brown, slick-looking clay, streaked with white. 

I Contains small calcareous concretions 2 

■ Water level. 

P The flat-topped bluS on which New Columbia is situated con- 
tinues down the river half a mile. Near its lower end a ledge of 
green calcareous clay, two feet thick, is exposed near water 

Outcrops below New Columbia. — The first exposure of Frio 
clays below New Columbia is at the log-slide at Knight's landing. 

Section A'niglil's Landing. 


1. Browu sandy silt, stained with red and yellow 7 

2. Stratified white sand with gravel at base 17 

3. Green saudy clay 10 

Two feel of green sandy clay is exposed at base of low pineclad 

bluff on the Louisiana side between Droddy's landing and Bear- 
I lien's ferry. 


^" cm 

Lafayette and Port HrosoN 
Preliminary remarks. — Along the river, as on the hill lands on 
either side, the Miocene and much of the Pliocene appear to 
have no surface outcrops, the mantel of Lafayette, gravel extend- 
ing without an erosion break to the Oligocene beds. All the 
bluffs from the last exposure of the Frio clays to the gulf show 
nothing but the gravels, sands and loams noticed as forming the 
upper parts of the precedinR sections. The relation of the beds 
the tops of the bluffs to those in the liottoius and these in tnru 
the other !«ittom deposits is a most perplexing problem. 
In the upper part of the river the sands and gravels Ijesides 
capping the bluffs appear to underlie the whole bottoms. The 
section commonly shows grave! at the base, sand in the center 
and grey 01' brown pinnacled clays at the top but the section is 

138 Geological Sorvht of Louisiana 

not invariable. These beds of sands and gravel appear in banks 
along the river no higher than the ordinary bottom banks and 
pass horizontally into beds of grey and brown clay which one 
would naturally regard as recent river deposits. The brown 
clay sometimes shows cypress stumps, 15 feet below the present 
bank level (at 44 and other places along the river). On the 
whole, in the upper part of the river, the amount of material 
which may be regarded as recent river deposit appears to be very 
small and to be confined to the sandbars and the very 
thin veneer of alluvium deposited over the bottom plain in times 
of flood. The plaiu seem to be one formed by the Otling of a val- 
ley with sediment and not by base leveling. The river is now 
engaged in cutting out the material which was deposited in the 
valley and should in time produce the terraces of which the flat- 
topped bluffs are a suggestion. 

In the river below the mouth of Anacoco bayou the sands and 
gravels appear only in the low, flat-lopped bluffs which touch the 
river at intervals. The size of the gravel in these bluffs and the 
percentage of sand grows less as we approach the gulf and red 
and yellow sandy loams replace them. 

With regard to the relative age of the beds which cap the high 
bluffs, the beds which occupy the river bottoms and the ones 
which form the bluffs of the lower river we do not feel com- 
petent to judge. Bnl there can be little doubt that the bottom 
deposits and the material which forms the bluffs of the lower 
river represent the riverward development of the deposits which 
form the upper portions of the coastal plain in southern Louis- 
iana and Texas. The gravels and sands and clays of the high 
bluffs, which in lithological characters are identical with those 
of lower levels, may have been laid down at the same time or the 
lower deposits may represent a redeposition of the upper deposits. 
These deposits, as a whole, are identical with those which have 
been regarded as Lafayette and Port Hudson in other parts of 
the country. 

Outcrops from Loganspori to Stark's ferry. — Much of the male- 
rial belonging to this series has been described in the upper parts 
of the sections given above but a few localities remain to be 


Geography and Geology of the Sabine River 139 

At 3 there is a clean bank that shows a section which may be 
regarded as typical of this portion of the river. It shows iS 
feet of light colored sands and clays. One portion of the bed, 
near the center of the bank, contains enough lime to partially 
cement the sands and clays. 

The top of Hart's bluff, which is 6a feet above low water level 
shows II feet oE light grey and yellow sands which lie uncon- 
formably on the Lignilic Eocene clays. This bed contains num- 
"bers of small rounded ferruginous concretions and is much 
stained with oxides of iron. On the north side of the bluff these 
teds pass into the bank deposits. 

About a mile below Myrick's ferry (Plate XXXII) is a very 
instructive section. Here white and yellow .sands grade laterally 
into grey and yellow pinnacled clays similar to the beds which cap 
tile bluff at Myrick's ferry and these in turn grade into brown 
HBstratified buckshot clays of the river bank. 

Seventeen feet of stratified while and grey sands with pebbles 
'1 the basal layers and overlaid by 8 feet of yellow sandy loam, 
cutcrop at 35. This bank is in no sense a bluff, being merely the 
ordinary river bank. 

The river banks between Anacoco and Stark's ferry are from 
6 to 10 feet high, and are composed of greyish brown loamy 

Stark' s ferry to Sabine lake. — At Stark's ferry the type of 
" bluffs " common on the lower river is well shown. The top of 
the bluS is very near the level of the surrounding country for 
matiy miles, and the riverward exposure shows the following 
section r 

Section Slark's Ferry 

1- Mottled, yellow, brick red and grey sandy clay showing 
irregular lines of stratification and containing occa- 
sional pebbles 12 

'■ Coarse cross-bedded, white sand with quartz and chert 

pebbles to water level 7 

Gravel shows on both sides of the river within a quarter of a 
^0 bluSs occur between Stark's and Belgrade at points indi- 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

1-] and 2o1II^H 

cated on Plate XXXIV. They are respectively 27 a 

high and are covered with old field pine, and composed of Orange 


Sectioti Upper Belgrade 


1. Fine yellow sand growing darker and finer till in its 

upper portions it is a brick red loam 10 

2. Coarse, cross-bedded white sand with numerous pebbles 18 
At Whitman's ferry the only addition to the section above is 

the presence at the very base of the bluff of two feet of light 
grey clay. Height of bluff 21 feet. 

Small bluff on the Texas side about two-thirds way from 
Salem to Nix's ferry shows no new features. 

Nix's ferry bluff, 15 feet high, exposes light grey sandy 
clay stained with iron and containing numerous ferruginous 
gravel about the size of shot. The sandy clay weathers into 
sharp pinnacles, the iron gravel giving it agranular appearance. 

Sudduth's bluff is 12 feet highand is composed of fine, strati- 
fied, white, yellow and red sand. The upper five feet, save for a 
leached layer at the surface, is brick red, No pebbles were seen. 

Five low bluffs were noticed between Sudduth's and the low 
bluff at Deweyville. At two of them small erratic pebbles were 

The bluffs at Morgan's, Fruit's, Niblett's and Orangg 
extremely similar and show no additional features. 

Relation op Sabine River Section to Other Sections 
The section along this river agrees, in general, rather closely 
with the Alabama and Mississippi sections. It differs from them 
mainly in (1) the great development of the thick beds of unfos- 
siliferous lignitic clay near the base of the Lignite ; (a) the 
development of the unfossiliferous clays which lie between 
the fossiliferous Lower Claiborne and Jackson beds : (3) in the 
absence of the Claiborne sand ; (4) in the absence of the Vicks- 
burg limestone. The Claiborne sand seems to be a very local 
development about Claiborne landing. Alabama, and its absence 
is not surprising. Irregular continental warping has caused the 

les were 

Gbography and Geology of the Sabine River 141 

Grand Gulf shore line to overlap the Vicksburg from Little 
river in Louisiana, westward and hence the Vicksburg stage is 
not exposed. 

The differences, on the whole, are not nearly so great as 
the early work of the Texas survey seemed to indicate and enough 
information is now at hand to enable us to correlate the East 
Texas horizons more exactly. The following table gives a graphic 
representation of the equivalence of Kennedy's Texas section 
published in the proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy : * 

*The Eocene Tertiary of Texas east of the Brazos by William Kennedy, 
Proc. Phila., Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 47, p. 92, 1895. 

C0RRBI.AT10N Tapi«b 

Kennedy's Texas Section 

■ S 


Frio clays 

Fayette sands 

Y^gua clays 

Marine Beds 


Frio clays 
( Chattahoochee) 

Grand Gulf 



Lower Claiborne 

Woods Bluff 

Basal Lignitic 







sabine; river 



In five sheets 

Scale: 1:375000 

5 10 15 



Geographic Positions, — United States-Texas Boundary Survey 
1840-1841 : Maj. J. G. Graham, U. S, Topog. Eng.; Lieut. 
Thos. J. Lee, U. S. Topog. Eng.; U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey ; Chart No. 203 ; Texas- Ark. boundary line at Tex- 
arkana, Edwin Smith, E. D. Preston. 

Hydrography, — Sabine Lake, Lieut. J. H. Eaton, U. S. A., 1837 \ 
Sabine Lake to Hamilton, J. H. Polhemus, Asst. U: S. E., 
1878 ;. Hamilton to Lat. 32° north, F. P. Leavenworth, 
Asst. U. S. E., 1873 ; Coast and Sabine Pass, Chart No. 203 
U. S. Coast Survey ; Sabine Pass and Jetties, J. L.Brownlee, 
Asst. U. S. E., 1899. 

Topography and Geology , — A. C Veatch 1900. 

Drawing. — ^A. C. Veatch 1901. 

Gbolooical Survey of I^ouxsiana, RKPomr, 1903. Platk XXXII. 

\ \ 


. . k\ 




A^T'.-t^. I f N'JX AND 




ObolOgicai. SuBvay or I^uib»hi 

r, 1491. Pi.«TB XXXIV. 

r^pi.- TJt"V/ YORK 


^^- ■ r. I « N'-.X ANP 

, iva. Flats XXXV. 

, . . , . f ■ ' ' M < i.» \ p V 

.^1- -. l.fN''X AND 

»:. t.-.-. ro.NDATlONt. 

Gbolooxcal Survbt op Louisiana, Report. 1903. Platb XXXVI. 

»)• 4j' 

CoHUfaji H 







»f sy 

*r 45' 

9- Grey -blue sand, somewhat fossiliferous . ,, 40 

la Blue micaceous sand .... 70 

1 1. Hard fossiliferous greensand 4 

12. Dark greensand 40 

13. Soft, dark grey lignitic clay 60 

14. Chocolate to yellow laminated clay 90 

15. Indurated grey sand 10 

16. White clay 4 

17. Grey sand with a little oil 25 

18. Hard sand 8 

FosTBR Wei,!, 

1 . Fossiliferous greensand marl 

2. Lignite 5 

3 Fossiliferous greensand marl 

GsoLoaicAL SuRVBV OP LoaisiAZfA, Kbport, 1902. 

Platb XXXVII. 

« ■ ■ 

'.V ^' 

•' V V 
n i \ I 


TiLDtN fc;-; 

No. IV 






Intmdnction 153 

I Physiography 153 

General DcBCription 153 

Islands 154 

Classes of IsJaods in Flood PlBin Rirers 154 

Cut-off islands 154 

Saudbar islands 135 

Islands due to inclosure by distributary channels. . , 155 

Landslip islands 155 

Sicily island 156 

\ Stkatigraphy 158 

General Statement 158 

Eocene. 159 

Lower Claiborne 159 

Preliminary remarks ,,,.... 159 

Outcrops from Monroe to Lapiniere landing. . . , 159 

LejMni^re landing 160 

Cockafield 160 

Preliminary remarks 160 

Roftcb landing 161 

Blnffatthe month of Belle CAte bayou i6r 

Castor landing 163 

Lone Grave bluff 16a 

Columbia 163 

Home landing 163 

Stock landing 163 

Exposures below Stock landing 163 

^Jackson 164 

Preliminary remarks 164 

Gibson landing and vicinity 164 

Grendvtew bluff and Bunker bill 165 

Wyanl bluff 166 

Danville 167 

Carter landing 167 

Oligocene 167 

Vicksburg 167 

Grand Gulf 167 

Preliminary remarks 167 

Cash blnff 168 

Pliocene and Recent 169 

Bank Exposures 169 

General characters of the deposits 169 

Sections 169 

ExpoBUTes \viay from Ibe River 170 

Caue bill 170 

' Appbndix 171 

Notes on Indian Mounds and Village Sites between Monroe 

and Uarrisonbarg i^t 


Plate XXXVIII. Map of the Ouachita River from Monroe to Colum. 

bia 172 

XXXIX. Map of the Ouachita River from Columbia to Har- 
risonburg 172 

Fig. 14. Section of Bunker hill, showing formation of land- 
ship islands 156 

15. H>*pothetical Stream Curves of Antecedent Drain- 
age, Sicily Island, La 157 




During the extreme low water of the Ouachita river in the 
fall of 1899, when exceptional opportunities were afforded for 
examining the banks and bluffs, the writer made a caaoe trip 
from Monroe toHarrisonburg. Nothing was known regarding the 
geology between Monroe and Columbia save the section of Lone 
Grave bluff given by Hopkins ;* little was known of the river 
bluff sections at Columbia and it was hoped that something defi- 
nite might be learned regarding thestratigraphic relationships of 
the known Jackson outcrops below this point. 

In addition to information of stratigraphic interest, notes 
were collected regarding the origin of a series of peculiar lentic- 
ular islands which occur at intervals along the river between 
these points: and regarding the origin of Catahoula shoals and 
Sicily island, near Harrisonburg. 

When possible the Indian mounds and camp-sites along the 
river were examined and notes regarding these will be found 
in the appendix. 


1 Between Monroe and Harrisonburg the Ouachita flows along 
he base of the bluffs which border, on the western side, the 
t»road, recent plain of the Mississippi. It is true, the bot- 
tom lands along the Ouachita and Boeuf, are separated from 
those of the Mississippi, Tensas and Bayou Macon by the low, 
Qat, fairly broad ridge known as the Bayou Macon hills but the 
>nalerial composing these hills, underlies the bottoms at no 
great depth and is to be regarded as belonging to compara- 
tively recent valley deposits. 

An. Rept. La. Geol. Surv.,p, S5, 1870. 


Geological Sukvey of Louislana 

The river is from 800-1000 feet wide in ordinary stages of the 
water, with batiks from 35-45 feet high. On the whole it seems 
to be slightly above its base level : (i.) its slope curve, both high 
and low water, changes very rapidly between Monroe and HarrJ- 
souburg ; (2) when compared with other streams of the same 
regiou its development of ox-bow bends, cui-offs and cut-off 
lakes is quite imperfect. Still it partakes much of the habitat of 
a meandering river in a flood plain as shown by the accompany- 
ing map. Plates XXXVIII and XXXIX, where the shading rep- 
resents the ground occupied by the river but a short while ago. 
This indicates in a very graphic manner the tendency of a river 
to cut on the outside of its bends and deposit on the inside and 
shows in a slight degree the development of cut-off lakes. 

The same map shows, in part, one of the anomalies of the river. 
After it had once entered the plain of the Mississippi, the river 
would hardly be expected to re-enter the hills, yet it does so just 
above Harrisonburg. Here it passes through a gap in the Grand 
Gulf sandstone, one of the most resistant formations in the state, 
and cuts off, between itself and the Mississippi plain, an islam 
of rocky hill land. 

Classes of Islands in Flood Plain Rivbks 
A meandering river, at or near its base level, may ; 
islands of the following types ; 

1. Cut-off islands. 

2. Sand bar islands. 

3. Islands due to inclosure by distributary channels. 

4. Landslip islands. 
These are all shown along the Ouachita, although the f 

three are not well developed and little need be said regarding 
them as the causes which govern their formation are so well 
understood that the words themselves, at least in the first two 
cases, have become almost self-explanatory. 

Cut-off islands. — A river meandering in a flood plain forms 
great ox-bow bends which in time cut through at the neck form- 
ing islands between the new and old channels. No sacb islands 


■ Gbolcxsv along the Ouachita 155 

■re shown on the map, but there are several which were islands 
St no very distant date as : at Blankston ; west of St. Albans 
laodiog : north of Minden Hall* landing; east of Pritchard 
landing, and a most peculiarly shaped one near Hogau's landing. 

Sa^d bar islands, — The second class may be formed : (i) by the 
production of areas of dead water, due to the deflection of the 
current by different curves of the banks, or to the disturbing 
influence of an inflowing stream ; (2) by the checking of the 
current by obstructions — wrecks, snags and planters, giving 
rise to the " tow-heads " of the Mississippi. This form is not 
conspicuously developed along the Ouachita. Bars are more or 
less common but they are nearly all side bars and not island bars. 

Islands due to inclosure by distributary channels. — A few bayous 
leave the river and, wandering through the bottoms connect 
with other bayous to the eastward forming islands of greater or 
less extent. 

Landslip islands. — The last type of island is perhaps the most 
interesting to a geologist working on tbe Ouachita ; first, 
becauseof their singularity, and second, because they are respon- 
sible (or a number of outcrops of old Tertiary material which 

herwise would not be exposed, and while such outcrops are 
rly out of place they cannot be very greatly removed from 
the place of origin and they afford valuable data ou the areal 
distribution of some of the formations. 

These islands were noticed at intervals between Monroe and 
Colombia. They are long, narrow, reaching an extreme height 
of seven feet, and composed of old Tertiary clays often inclined 
at a high angle. In the island just across from Roselawn land- 
ing the dip is almost vertical, exposing one stratum, more resis- 
tant than the others, as a backbone down the center. The 
islands are generally near the western bank of the river but 
near Lapinicre t landing a number of smaller islands occur near 
the eastern bank. It was on one of this series that a well pre- 
served Lower Claiborne fauna was found (see below, page 160), 

•So spelled on sheet Xo. 19 of the Ouachita River Survey, 1896. 
Locally it was given nie as Alindenhole. 

t Given Lapile and La Ptne on Sheets 34 and 35 and LaPiniere aa Index 
Sheet No. 3 of the Ouachita River Survey. La Pine is clearly a corruption 
1 of the old form Lapiiiiire which refers to a rabbit watren and not to pines. 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

Below Columbia, near the bluffs, a number of these islands 
are developed and at Bunker hill their relation to the main 

bluff is well shown (Fig. 14). 

Judging from the amount of displacement indicated by some 
of these landslip islands, and from the considerable distance of 
some of them from the present hill land, it is inferred that at 
the time of their formation the river systems of this region were 
at a lower level than the Ouachita is today. 

This creeping of the Tertiary clays is developed to a remark- 
able degree north of Many, La., where it produces quite an 
effect ou the minor topography of the country. There, these 
landslip ridges are variously regarded as fortifications, old treas- 
ure holes and the like. 

Of the Tertiary formations of this region the Grand Gulf has 
been most successful in resisting erosion ; the bard sandstones 
which form the base of this formation hold up the topography 
and are responsible for the escarpment which marks its northern 
limit from central Texas to eastern Mississippi. Even the Miss- 
issippi, or its ancestor not far removed, has experienced difficulty 
in cutting out the deposits of this age and we find that the 
valley is considerably contracted where this formation formerly 
crossed it (see Plate I). Ou the western side a great spur pro- 
jects into the valley, of which the point, separated from the main 
hiU mass by the Ouachita, is now known as " Sicily Island." 

Gbouxsy along thb Ouachita 157 

' Tilt: Oaactaits, where it passes through the hills, has a valley 
'about a mile and a half wide at its tiarrowest place, just above 
Catahoula shoals. The length of this defile or gorge, if so 
broad and so short a cut may be called by such a term, is roughly 
five miles and for a mJle and a half of this distance the river flows 
over rock , * 

The topography of the surrounding country and the general 
aspect of the gorge indicate that the Ouachita here flows over a 
low lying divide between two antecedent valleys — valleys of trib- 
utary streams at a time when the land stood higher and the 
Ouachita, or itsanceslors, flowed totheeast of Sicily island. There 
are several reasons for believing that the Mississippi valley, not very 
long since, stood at a height at least 240 feel f above its present 
level. lu such a case the gradients of all the tributary streams 
would be very greatly increased and a point, situated as this 


peninsula of Grand Gulf, would suffer greatly from erosion. 
It is believed that the completion of the formation of a low lying 
divide was affected during this period, and that, in the period 
..of subsidence which followed, enough material was deposited in 
I the valleys to entirely bury the old divide. No hindrance was 
now offered to the passage of the Ouachita through the com- 
bined old valleys and it has evidently, since, cut from side to side 
and slightly enlarged the channel thus afforded. Now that this 
part of the country is experiencing a slight uplift, as evidenced 
by the tendency of many of the streams occupying flat bottomed 
valleys in northern Louisiana to cut down into the underlying 

■ An. Kept, Chief of Enn- for 1890, Cross SectiociB of the Ouachita river 
at Catahoula shoals by J. M. Marshall. Asst. V. S. E., p. 1967. 

t Depth «f the Quaternary deposits at Lake Provideoce. HilKard and 
Hopkins. Rept. on Borings between Memphis and Vieksburg, 48th Cong. 
IttSess., House l-.x. noc., vol. is, 1884, p, 481. 


Geological Sokvby of Louisiana 

beds and develop liltle rapids, the Ouachita has also cut out its 
channel slightly and found itself superimposed on the old divide. 
(See Fig. 15.) 

While such a theory of the origin of Sicily island is, to a con- 
siderable degree, hypothetical it is believed that it will at least 
prove a suggestive working hypothesis. Indeed so far as the 
formation of the island is concerned, in the absence of fault 
structure this would seem to be the most normal explanation ; 
supported as it is, not only by the data furnished by the Missis- 
sippi, but by the silted condition of all the stream valleys of 
northern Louisiana. (See topographic map of Many township. 
Plate IV. Geol. Surv. of La. Rept.for 1899.) 

It may be that the old divide is more deeply buried and that 
the shoals have been formed in a way similar to those at Alex- 
andria by the choking of the river by rafts, and the con.sequent 
enforced passage of the river over a low lying point of Grand 
Gulf sandstone.* 

In this same connection it may be well to state that a line con- 
necting the rapids at Alexandria with Catahoula shoals is very 
nearly parallel with the Winnfield-Coochie brake anticlinal, and 
the anticlinal now developing across the Sabiue and Angelina 
rivers. While an origin by local crnstal distortion is not impossi- 
ble any evidence that such a thing is taking place is, at present, 



The succession of strata along the Ouachita, from Monroeto 
Harrisonburg may be summarised as follows : 
1 Alluvium 
Pliocene and Recent - Port Hudson 
\ Lafayette? 

o"«»™ ]?Sl^' 

1 Jackson 

Eocene -j Cocksdeld 

f Lower Claiborni 

•See Geol. Surv. La. Repl. for 1899. pp. 160, iSi. 

Geology along thh Ouacaita 



Preliminary remarks. — Lerch reported Lower Claiborne fossils 
1 a well at Monroe at a depth of 185 feet.* These specimens 
had fortunately been preserved at Baton Rouge, but when exam- 
ined the material was so strikingly like that found at SmithviUe, 
Texas, both in fauna and lithological characters, that Harris 
was inclined to doubt the correctness of the locality label. f 
The fact that no fossils had been found east of a line connect- 
ing Winnfield and Ruston, and that the territory seemed to be 
Cocksfield tended to confirm this doubt. The operations of the 
field season of the fall of 1899 solved this question by the find- 
ing of a number of fossiliferous Lower Claiborne outcrops along 
the Ouachita between Monroe and Logtown. One just above 
Lapini^re landing furnished such an abundance of beautifully 
preserved forms, showing a typical development of the Texan 
. phase of the Lower Claiborne, that it left no doubt of the cor- 
I lectness of the Monroe label. 

The outcrops are all small, are exposed only at low water and 
furnished no satisfactory dip observations. 

The paleontology of the beds is to be discussed by Prof Har- 
ris in a forthcoming Bulletin of American Paleontology. 

Outcrops from Monroe to Lapiniire landing. — On the west 
bank about a mile below the Woodworth Lumber Co. mill and 
near the line between sections 2 and 11, T. 17 N. R, 3 E.. a 
landslip island shows a few feet of Tertiary clay containing 
greensand and a ledge of calcareous concretions. 

At Myatt, the Lower Claiborne clays are exposed beneath the 

Kual succession of material shown in the banks: — The section 
o yards below the ferry is : 


Section at Myatt P. O. 


Pine sandy silt, tinged with red 20 

Dark brownish-blue buckshot ctay 

Yellow and grey clayey sand with pebbles scattered irre- 

■Bull. La. Exp. Station Geol. and Agr. part I 
f Geo]. Sun-ej- of La. for 1899, p. 83. 

i6o Geological Survey of Louisiana 

gularly through the upper part, — some of fine grey 

sandstone as large as a man's hat 7 

4. Finely laminated dark brown to drab clay with sand 

partings 15 

6. Very dark colored clay with some greensand and large 
ferruginous concretions, some weighing several hun- 
dred pounds. Contains a few indistinct casts 4 

Opposite Roselawn landing there is a landslip island, larger 
but similar, otherwise, to the first outcrop described above. 
The claystone concretions here are quite fossiliferous. 

Lapini^re landing. — Near the east bank and just above Lapin- 
i^re landing there is a small island of dark colored laminated 
sandy clay exposed at water level. The clay is extremely fossil- 
iferous^and it might be said of it, as of the Monroe material, that 
so far as the fauna and lithological characters are concerned it 
might just as well have come from SmithviUe, Texas, as from the 
Ouachita river. Among the forms here which indicate the hor- 
izon are : Ostrea faki/ormis, Pyrula penila. Beloiepia ungula, 
PUurotomapagodiformis, and an abundanceofPleurolomoid forms. 

Below this outcrop and on the same side of the river there are 
a number of little islets of uonfossiliterous, micaceous, ferrugi- 
nous sandstone, which is about 6 inches thick and shows a great 
variety of dips. 

On the west bank — nearly opposite this and about 100 yards 
above I.,ipiniere landing — a ledge of ferruginous sandstone 6 
inches thick and dipping S. 10° E. is exposed at water level. 
Nearer the landing the Tertiary clays extend to within 8 feet 
of the top of the bank. They are overlaid by 2 feet of gravel 
and the usual buckshot clay with a covering of recent alluvium. 

Ju5l above Loglown. is a landslip island exposing grey sandy 
clay similar to that shown at Lapiniere landing. The clay extends 
7 feet above the present water level and is capped with a ledge of 
ferruginous conglomerate. 


Preliminary remarks. — This stage is more completely and typi- 
cally developed in this section than any other place in the state 
and this has lead to the suggestion, to V'aughan, that he substi- 

■ Geology along thb Ouachita i6i 

Bote CaldweU for Cocksfield. Outcrops of this stage extend from 
'Roach landing, the first bluff below Monroe, to Stock landing, 
where Jackson fossils appear at the top of the bluff. 

No dip observations were obtained which could be relied upon, 
but it is believed that in this section this formation has a thick- 
ness of at least 500 feel. 

Roach landing. — The outcrop near Logtown is of doubtful age; 
it may be that no fossils were found there because of the small- 
ness of the outcrop, but at Roach landing the outcrop is large 
enough to make us feel reasonably sure that the material is to be 
regarded as Cocksfield. 

Section Roach Landing Bluff 

r. Light grey to yellow silty sand with a few quartz peb- 
bles 56 

2. Yellow, sandy clay with a thin capping of ferruginous 

sandstone 2 

3. Light grey, stratified, sandy clay r8 

4 . Dark grey clay 5 

5. White to yellow clayey sand capped with iron-stained 

r layer 2 inches thick 10 

W. Covered to water level 3 

Bluff at the mouth of Belle CSIe Aa_i'o«. —Continuing down the 

river, the next bluff is just below Ihemoulhof Belle C6te bayou, 

near the Ouachita-Caldwell parish line. 

Section at Mouth 0/ Belle C6le Bayou 

Feet In. 

Covered 20 o 

While to yellow, irregularly stratified sand 17 o 

Ferruginous sandstone occupying line of uncon- 
formity between 2 and 4 o 3 

Laminated, while to brown, fine clayey sand. Sur- 
face covered with lemon-yellow scales 8 o 

Ferruginous concretions with much pyrites and a 

few faint plant impressions o 6 

Dark brown, lignitic clayey sand 2 o 

Dark drab clayey sand showing bedding planes in 

upper portions 14 o 

i62 Geological Sukvey of Louisiana ^^H 

8. Finely laminated, dark drab clayey sand contain- ' 

ing some vegetable matter 1 8 o 

Water level. 
Castor landing. — Two exposures are afforded here, oue just 
above the landing and another about a third of a mile below. 
At the lower one, a point, evidently foimed of a number of 
landslip masses, juts well out into the river. It is composed of 
irregularly bedded black clay with sand partings, and calcareous 
concretions exhibiting a cone in cone structure. 

Section at Castor Landing 

I . Weathered surface layers 3 

3. Light grey to drab clay with sand partings i 

3- Coarse cross-bedded sand 3 

4. Alternate beds of laminated, leaf-bearing, drab colored 

clay with sand partings and coarse cross-bedded sands. S 

5. Coarse white and yellow sand with occasional thin lens 

shaped masses of clay ro 

6. Lamina of drab colored clay separated by thicker sand 

partings i 

7. Coarse cross-bedded white sand 3 

8. Laminated, chocolate colored clay with white sand part- 

ings and poor plant impressions 3 

9. Very dark clay breaking ofT in large irregular fragments. 3 

10. Very irregularly bedded, yellow and white sand, here 

and there darkened with carbonaceous matter ao 

Lone Grave bluff. — On both Locketl's and Hardee's maps 
Lone Grave bluff is placed about 3 miles too far to the south. 
As seen from the river it shows four ridges — the northernmost 
one being the highest and having on its summit the grave from 
which the bluff received its name. In order down the river, the 
crests are 150, 135, lao and no feet at low water. 

Section at Lane Grave Bluff 


1. Rather coarse red to while sand 10 

2. Laminated light brown clay with sand partings, theclay 

containing faint plant impressions 120 

3. Laminated lignitic clay with fine white sand partings . . 20 




About a quarter of a mile below this section irregularly bedded 
vhite sand with irregular layers of brown clay appear beneath 
the black clay. 

Co/«mi(ii.— The railroad sections here have been described in 
the report of this survey for 1S99, pp. 80-81. Two miles above 
Columbia near old Ferry landing the following section is shown : 

Section at Old Ferry Landing 

1 1. White and yellow fairly coarse sand shomng only a 
I slight trace of bedding and containing a few con- 
cretions 65 

3. Light brown, laminated sandy clay with plant impres- 
sions 20 

Very dark colored clay containing lignitic material and, 

near the top, good leaf impressions 30 

Home landing. — The small bluff just above the creek at Home 
landing shows 5 feet of light brown laminated clay, about 15 
feet above water level, similar to that seen at Columbia, 

Slock landing. — The high bluff at the mouth of Boggy bayou 

t furnishes a very good section of this formation and also shows 
the contact between it and the Jackson. 


Section at Stati /.anding 

partly covered with vege- 


Fossiliferous Jackson 1 

tation 20 

Drab to yellow sandy clay 20 

Faintly laminated light yellow and browa clay with 

faint leaf impressions 3 

Massive grey sandy clay 8 

Brown stratified joint clay with selenite crystals 7 

Dark colored sandy clay containing much lignilic mat- 

ter . 

Brown to yellow unstratified sand 12 

Dark brown clay with slight greeuish tinge. Surface 

covered with small selenite crystals 6 

Exposures below Stock landing.— -B&ds of this stage appear at 
the base of the Gibson landing section and at Grandview blufl 
and Bunker hill ; see these sections given below. 

Geological Survey of Louisiana 


Preliminary remarks. — It was from fossils collected in this 
region that the Eocene was first definitely recognized in Louis- 
iana.* It has also furnished the type specimens of Basilosaurus 
{Zeuglodon) celoides\ Cardium nicoUeli,X and Haminea grandis.% 

The Jackson is now known to extend along the Ouachita from 
Stock landing to Carter landing (the present site of Enterprise 
P. O.). The beds are extremely fossiliterous and the outcrops 
well exposed, and we regard it as the best Jackson section yet 

Tiie fossiliterous Jackson bed which caps the bluff at Stock 
landing was traced around the hills and connected with the out- 
crop at Gibson landing and this iu turn with Grandview bluff. 
This proved the lignitic clays at the base of Bunker hill (see 
section giveu below) to be the equivalent of the beds below the 
Jacksou at Stock landing and established a dip of about 50 feet 
per mile in that direction. Calculations from this dip observation 
indicate the thickness of this formation iu this section to be 500- 
550 feet. Straligraphically the outcrops at Stock lauding, Gib- 
son landing, Grandview bluff and Bunker hill are to be regarded 
as lower Jackson ; that at Wyaut bluff as middle and those at 
Danville and Carter as upper. 

Gibson landing and vicinity. — The fossiliferous layer capping 
the bluff at Stock landing cau he readily traced around the hill to 
the valley of a small creek between the two landings. The col- 
lecting iu this valley is extremely good. 

Seeiion along road at Gibson Landing 
^^^__^^^_ Feet 

I. Stiff, yellow, calcareous clay contain- 
ing only a few poor impressions of 

oysters 75 

Shell marl weathering into a black 
waxy soil 25 


•Conrad. Jour. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci.,TOl. 7, 1834, p. uo. 
t Harlaa. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. , vol. 4, New Series, 1S33, 
tConisd. Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. for 1841, p. 33. 
(Aldrich. Geo). Surv. Ala., Bull. No. 1, 1886, pp. 35-36, PI, III, 


Gkologv along the Ouachita 165 

3. Doubtful. Irregular masses of shell 
matter are here scattered through a 
grey or drab clay but whether the 

I TransHion shells are really in situ or represent 
masses which have slipped from 
the bed above could not be deter- 
mined 20 

4. Massive, calcareous grey or drab clay 
without fossils 16 

I Cockifield 5. Laminated drab clay 3 

6. Yellow to drab massive sandy clay ... 13 
^ 7. Unexposed to water level 55 

Section of Bluff BHow Gibson Landing 


1 . Fine yellow sand with well preserved 

-^ shells, to top of bluff 20 

~Z, ~ 2- Slightly stratified calcareous drab to 

dirty grey clay without fossils. ... 20 
3. Irregularly laminated drab clay with 
poor plant impressions ; becomes 

lighter and more sandy above 18 

r Coeksjidd 4. Irregularly bedded drab sandy silt 

containing lignitized wood 15 

5. Dark drab, laminated sandy clay mot- 
tled with yellow and containing 
large iron stained calcareous con- 
cretions 20 

6. Covered-talus and landslips to water 
level 35 

Grandview bluff and Bunker hill. — These are perhaps the best 
known bluffs along the river and are particularly noteworthy to 
the paleontologist and collector because of the extremely large 
and well preserved Haminea grandis which occur here with other 
well preserved forms. , 

i66 Gbolqgical Sdrvey of LoUISIAIfA ^^^H 

Section al Ginndview Bluff ^^^^| 

1. Blue clay containing faint casts and 

occasional solid shells. Weathers 
fadison '°'° ^ very stiff yellow clay loo 

2. Grey to yellow sandy marl with some 

greensand and large calcareous con- 

""i"" *o 

3. Dark brown, laminated clay mottled ^^H 
Transition with yellow, contains numerous ^^H 

selenite crystals ^^^| 

4. Massive dark grey or greenish -grey, ^^H 

finesaudy clay mottled with yellow. ^^^| 

Cocksfield Coatainsnumerouspiecesof lignitic ^^^ 
material and large grey calcareous 
concretions 33 

Al Bunker hill there is only a small exposure along the river 
and it is greatly complicated with landslips. It shows very clearly 
the niauner of formation of the Tertiary ridge-islands between 
Monroe and Columbia (see p. 156). Near the top of the bluff is a 
layer of large Veneficardia planicosta. 

At Bunker hill landing the lower layers of the Grandview 
bluff section become even blacker and have in places the aspect 
of an impure bed of lignite. 

lVya?il bluff* — This locality was visited in the spring of iSggf 
but on account of the high stage of the water only a small por- 
tion of the outcrop was seen. At low water, beds are exposed 
which afford better collecting than the outcrops at Grandview 
and Bunker hill. The material here showsnumbers of tbelarge 
Vetiericardia planicosta which are common in the upper Bunker 
hill section and none of the V. altkostala which are so abundant 
in the lower bed at that place. 

Section al U'yant Bluff 

I. Thin, alternate layers of brown clay and very fine 
grained grey to yellow sand, which are quite similar 
to the material in the upper part of Bunker hill 35 

• Given Myatt landiajt on Sheet No. 3a, Oaachitu River Survey, 1896. 
+ GeoI. Sorv. I^, Rept. tor 1899, p. qj. 

GkOLOGY along the O0ACHITA 


Blue clay with pockets of shells ; weathers first to a 

brown or dark drab clay and finally to yellow 42 

At Neathery woodyard there is a small outcrop of fossilifer- 
ous blue clay with large calcareous concretions. 

Danvii/e.—The blnfl on the Caldwell- Catahoula parish line is 
quite fossiliferous. 

Section at Danville Landing 


1. Covered to top of hill 70 

2. Light yellow, quite fossiliferous clay, containing large 

selenite crystals and large concretions 20 

3. Fossiliferous blue clay weathering dark brown to yellow. 

The shells are scattered through the whole mass and 

occasionally occur in thin beds with light brown sand 30 

The fossiliferous beds in layer j show a very great dip, S. E., 

i;6. The upper layers, however, do not appear to have such an 

extravagant dip and the great dip in the lower bed is probably 

dne to landslips. 

Carter landing. — Just above Carter landing is a small landslip 
island which exposes at low water a fossiliferous blue clay with 
a well marked Jackson fauna. 


^PNo beds of this age outcrop on the river but they are exposed 
in the hills a short distance from it. These outcrops are dis- 
cu.ssed by Prof. Harris in special report No. i (q. v.). 

Grand Gulf 
Preliminary remarks. — Between the Jackson outcrop at Carter 
landing and the first outcrop of Grand Gulf, at the mouth of 
the Boeuf river, the river does not touch the hill lands and there 
are no exposures of the older formations. The material at Cash 
bluff, at the mouth of the Boeuf, is typical Grand Gulf but how 
much it is above the base of that formation it would be difficult 
to say. At Catahoula shoals the recent boring of the U. S. 
^.Engineers does not appear to have reached the Vicksburg at a 


Geological Survey op Lovisi&ka 

depth of 197.5 feet.* This boring, with the height of the 
hills at Harrisonburg, indicates that the formation has a thick- 
ness somewhat greater than 300 feet. 

Cask bluff. — The upper end of Sicily island, just below the 
mouth of the Boeuf shows a three-ridged bluff, the central ridge 
being the highest. The section of this is as follows : 

Section at Cash Bluff 


1. Unexposed to top of the hill. The hillside is covered 

with chert and quartz pebbles 20 

2. Yellow clay and sand ; la 

3. Very dark colored clay a 

4. Fine grey to yellow sand 11 

5. Hard sandstone a 

6. Brown to dark drab clay 7 

7. Yellow clay with thin plates of iron 8 

8. Brown clay 5 

9. Grey sandstone (has been quarried to some extent ) . . . 11 
10. Obscured by talus but from the fragmentary exposures 

it seems to be a slightly sandy, yellow clay with bands 

of brown cla\' about a foot thick 13 

Dark brown clay 4 

Indurated, cross-bedded fine grained sand 6 

Green and brown clay 6 

Dark brown clay ; not sharply separated from 15 5 

Green clay 6 

Covered 10 

Fine grained white sandstone 3 

Layer 17 here shows a dip west of south. 
The bluff, near Catahoula shoals, is about 60 feet high and 
shows several ledges of sandstone. 

"Final Report on the Survey of Ouachita and Black riVer, Arkansas and 
Louiaiana. 57tb Cong.. 1st Sess. Houie Ex. Doc., No, 448, p. 1^, 1903. 

Geology along thk Ouachita 169 


Bane Exposures 

General characferistics of Ihe deposits. — The following general- 
ized section of the bank deposits indicates the succession and 
laracteristics of the bank deposits in this portion of the river ; 

^Stneralised Seetian 0/ the OuacMila Bank Deposits Between Monroe and 
Ha rrison burg 


IX. colored silty clay commonly reddish 5-15 
^. Buckshot clay; black to dark reddish brown com- 
monly stratified and with white calcareous concre- 
tions, sometimes with fragments of wood and fresh 
I water gastropods ich-ao 
9. White and yellow sand, above Colnmbia commonly 
containing chert and quartz pebbles 15-25 

The gravel bearing sands, exposed in the banks from Monroe 
*<3 Loglown, are quite similar to the material in the nearby 
X,afayette gravel train, but whether it is continuous with that 
deposit or represents a redeposition of material of that age can- 
**ot be proven by the information now in our possession. The 
gravel is commonly rather small but one large quartzite bowlder, 
■*veighing about 125 pounds, was seen near Myatt P. O. 

On the whole, these lower deposits are quite similar to the 
beds exposed in the Bayou Macon hills and seem to indicate that 
the material which may be regarded as recent alluvium is of no 
considerable thickness in this section. 

Sections. — The following sections at particular localities may 
illustrate the general section given above ; 

Section at Brooks Landing 


Light colored, sandy silt 7 

Dark reddish brown to dark dirty yellow buckshot clay, 

containing numerous white calcareous concretions,. 16 
Medium white sand, containing in basal portions numer- 
ous small chert and quartz pebbles 21 

lyo Geologicai, Survey of Louisiana 

Section Above SUIar Landing 

1. Light red sandy silt 15 

2. Dark reddish buckshot clay 10 

3. White and yellow sand becoming clayey near the top. . 20 

Sfction Near Saivmill Landing 


1. Light red silty clay 13 

2. Buckshot clay, black below, dark red above, stratifica- 

tion well marked jj^ 

3. Red sandy silt W^L 

Exposures Away From the Rivhr 
Cane hill. — Cane hill is a small, low-lying, isolated hill-mass 
about two miles east of Call landing, on the line between Sec. 16 
and 21, T.114 N., R. 4 E. It is about a quarter of a mile long, 
north and south, and a hundred yards broad. Its two highest 
points are respectively 22 and 24 feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding bottom land. The surface soil is a somewhat sandy, 
mottled yellow and grey clay, containing a few chert and quartz 
pebbles and is quite different from the surroundiug soil. A well 
on the side of the hill, 15 feet deep, passed through mottled grey 
and while clay and stopped in water-bearing while sand. The 
material shown in the well and on the surface suggests the lower 
beds of the bank section and the hill seems quite analagous to 
the Bayou Macon hills. This is reported to be theonty hill land 
between Bayou Lafourche and the Ouachita. 



Myait P. O. — There is a shell-heap at this point between the 
store and Bayou Cheniere au Tondre. 

Another shell heap occurs just across the bend of the river, 
near Lapiniere landing. Here I found fragments of pottery and 
bones, among which was a human jaw bone. Large finds of 
bones are reported just after the flood of 1882 when this place 
was uncovered. 

Minden Hall landing. — At Minden Hall landing there is a 
small mound about 3 feet high and 50 feet in diameter. On the 
ground around it there are numerous pot-shreds and mussel shells 
and a nearby road-cut exposes a number of bones. 

Hogan landing. — Two mounds near the river, about a quarter 
of a mile above the store. One is directly on the edge of the 
bank though well removed from the river by a large bar. 
This has been cut into by the river on one side and by the 
road on the other aud its symmetry somewhat destroyed. It 
is a truncated pyramid mound about 15 feet high and 100 by 50 
feet on the top, and with a slope of about 30 feet. The second 
mound is about 225 feet from the first and is 14 feet high. It 
is rudely circular with a flat top 75 feet in diameter and a base 
1 75. Both mounds have been used as graveyards; one for whites 
and the other for negroes. 

Wyant bluff. — The top of this bluff was evidently used for an 
lodiao camp-site. The ground is covered with unios and frag- 
ments of pottery, and where a section is afforded by a landslip, 
animal bones and pottery are found mixed with the recent shells. 

Pierce landing. — Low mound about a quarter of a mile from 
the river. The soil is very black and fragments of pottery and 
bones are reported to have been plowed up. Several whole 
pots are also reported from this place. 

Cottingham landing.— Mound 3 feet high and 40 feet in diam- 
eter exposed in cross section on the bank of the river. No 
relics are reported. 

172 Geological Survey of Looisiana 

Sec. 21, T. It N. R, 5 E. — Small mound on Horseshoe lake 
about 6 feet high. 

Carter landing. — About half a mile below Carter landing is an 
old Indian camp-site ; the ground is covered with uuios, stones, 
fragments of pottery and partially shaped implements. 

Oak Grove landing.-^hX. this place a narrow ridge of grey 
loam follows the river northeast. The ridge is about 6 feet above 
the surrounding laud and has once been cultivated. Just beyond 
this old field, and a little over a quarter of a mile from the river, is 
a more marked aud regular elevation than the other elevations 
along the ridge. It is about 50 feet in diameter and 3 feet high 
and on the surrounding laud — in material rooted up by the 
hogs — pottery and mussel shells are common. 

Big lake. — Half to three-quarters of a mile northwest of I. M. 
Davis lauding is a group of mounds on Big lake. A sketch map 
of this group was made but it has since been found that they 
are shown ou Sheet No. 34, Ouachita River Survey, 1896, to 
which the reader is referred. The writer saw only three mounds 
though five are represented ou this map. The first two mounds, 
seen in following the road from Davis landing, are rudely rectan- 
gular aud beloug to the truncated pyramid type; one is 13 
feet high and 15 by 50 across the top and has a slope of 25 feet, 
the other is 5 feet high, 38 by 38 feet across the top, with a slope 
of 20 feet. The side of one bears S. 27° W. and of the other S. 
36° W. The uorthermost is ova^J-i feet high, 38 by 45 feet on 
top, with a slope of 15 feet. Its major axis extends S. 36° W. 

Pritchard landing .—GxaMii oi mounds below mouth of Gaston's 
creek contains three large truncated pyramid mounds and eleven 
smaller rounded oval mounds. The mounds occupy a slightly 
elevated piece of grouud, and two are on the very edge of the 
second bank. The largest is 36 feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding ground and is 150 by 60 feet across the top. The 
second, northwest of the first aud aloug the edge of the bank, is 
30 feet high. Between these two large mounds is a circular 
embankment 75 feet in diameter. The third large mound, situ- 
ated south of west of the other two, is 25 feet high. Between 
the second aud third, forming an irregular arc of a circle, are 
seven small mounds. The location and general character of 
this group is given on Sheet No. 36 Ouachita River Survey, 1896. 

CaoLoaiCAi, ScBVBT OF Loci 





. \ 

. 1 


Fl. iM .- ■ i\ I.. { 

THr I, " 


AST- '■■. ■ ^ ■". 




'Mif)d«n Hail 






Or«navi«w »'"*g|/?ip'— =^ 

S«inii*r '^"H^^^^v 


Cmtamus a£^ jfA 



BterthTy Woody* rd 
«^^ Cotting l»«TT» 

Bmyom Dam "^SSt 










I M. Oavw 

Staflofd PL 



^uia Sho«ia.l 




Compiled from Map« of the Ouachita River Survey. 

It-VC- NVVv' yopk 


No. V 







PRBSBNT Conditions, With Suggestions 177 

Need of Accurate Maps 177 

Maps for geological purposes 177 

Detailed maps 177 

The ordinary land surveys 178 

Instruments 178 

The ordinary compass 178 

The railroad comp>a8S 178 

The transit 180 

FiBU) Work 182 

Establishment of Meridian Lines 182 

Prefatory remarks 182 

Other azimuth lines 182 

Arcadia 184 

Ruston 184 

Vernon 185 

Bastrop 185 

Rayville 185 

Winnsboro 186 

New Iberia 187 

Franklin 187 

Opelousas 187 

Houma 188 

St. Martinsville 188 

Lake Charles '. 189 

Covington 189 

Cameron 189 

Abbeville 190 

I^afayettc 190 

Thibodaux 190 

Plate XL. 


1 6. 





Location of Meridian Lines 192 

Location of Meridian Lines 194 

Railroad compass 179 

Telescopic sights 180 

Transit 181 

Tachymeter 183 




Maps for geological purposes. — In our previous report we have 
sxplained at some length the benefits to be derived from well 
constructed topographic maps. The immigrant, the traveler, 
seeking health, enjoyment or wealth ; the student of geography, 
botany, geology or entomology ; the' teacher of natural science 
in or out of the state, even the inhabitant himself if he would 
visit other parishes than bis oxvn. knowingly and economically : 
each and all must have access to well constructed topographic 
maps, or lose much time in atmoyiug aud useless inquiry. To 
anything like refined geologic work, topographic maps are indis- 
pensable. This was early recognized by the U. S, Geological 
Survey, and hence a large share of the annual appropriation made 
by Congress for survey work goes to the topographic division. 
We have recognized the fact, as have other slate surveys, that the 
cheapest, best and most expedient method of obtaining such maps 
is by cooperation with the National Survey. The conditions of 
cooperation we have already stated in our report of 1899. When 
such maps shall have been prepared, the areal geologist and 
strati grapher, as well as the mapf>er of soils, can proceed advan- 
tageously with their respective work. We already know in a 
general way the dislribtition of the main geological formation of 
the stale. To go farther in areal work without better maps is a 
■waste of energy and public funds. 

Doubtless the present Legislature will provide ample means 
for a good beginning in the construction of maps on the usual 
scale, viz. ; about one inch to the mile. The U. S. Geological 
Survey will furnish an equal amount and hence geological work 
can be resumed and carried on advantageously. 

Detailed maps. — There will always be areas of special interest 
lieie and there that will require geological maps of far greater 

178 Gbological Sorvhy of Louisiana. 

detail tlian the ordinary one inch to the mile map. These the 
state survey can construct for itself, usin^ as starting points the 
triangulation stations and bench marks established by the Nat- 
ional Survey. 

Thh Ordinary Land Surveys 

The geologist isoften under great obligation to a local or parish 

surveyor who has prepared maps of a limited area or who is able 

to show the position of township, section or^quarter lines and 

Unfortunately for the representation of such an area on a finished 
geological map, the exact beariugsof the liuesare unkuown, since 
only crude approxii nations can be obtained by the compass 
methods now geuerally in vogue. Different surveys give natur- 
ally different sizes and shapes to the .sections composing a town- 
ship. This we may perhaps admit is of no serious consequence 
to reconnaissance geological work, such as has been done in the 
state heretofore. But let the geologist work up ever so faithfully 
the details of .several adjacent townships, basing his own measure- 
ments on distance and direction from quarter-quarter or section 
corners and finally attempt to map his area on any given projec- 
tion, for example the polyconic, and then see what a vast number 
of uncertainties arise. We speak with feeling and experience 
on this subject. 


The ordinary compass. — Little need here be said regarding the 
manipulation of this instrument and the results obtained, the 
matter having been spoken of at some length in our previous 
report. As an amusing instance in modern "business " methods, 
however, we cannot forbear giving our recent experience in one 
of the largest instrument factories in this country. Having 
admitted the inadequacy of the common compass for anything 
but the merest reconnaissance work, the salesman, with a know- 
ing glance said; " I know all that, but then they sel/woU in 
some places. ' ' 

Railroad compass. — We have been greatly pleased with the 
performance of a very cheap instrument of the type shown by 

Improvbmsnts in Louisiana Cartography 


Fig- 16,'" It has in addition to the asuat needle a graduated 
limb reading by a vernier to single minutes. We have proved 
by experience that with beginners the 3 angles of a 
: will "close" within from i' to 5', on an 
average ; and, with more experience and more 
readings of each angle, the average error can be 
brought below 1'. The particular instrument we 
happened to have was by Queen & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, though other makers list something c 

long distances are to be sighted, the telescopic attachment shown 

* This and the following two figi 
Qneen & Co.. of Philadelphia. I'a. 

e kindly loaneil for this work by 

Geological SuRVHV of Louisia 

i carried by 

by Fig. 17 comes very couveuieut. This, 
Dearly all dealers in surveying iustruments. 

The possession by this compass of a horizontal limb with ver- 
nier reading to minutes gives it a manifold superiority over the 
common "plain" or "vernier" compass. 

When cheapness, lightness and efficiency are concerned it is 
difficult to see how a better instrument could be constructed for 
ordinary country service. 

Transit. — The railroad compass fails 
in but one respect from fulfilling the 
requirements of the land surveyor : U 
determines angles or relative directions, 
but is no better than the plain compass 
fordeterminingabsolute direction. The 
true direction of one line is assumed or 
approximately determined by readings 
of the compass needle, then the rest are 
determined relatively to it. The transit, 
however, with a vertical as well as a 
horizontal limb can be used to advantage 
to determine absolute direction so far as 
the earth's axis and meridians are con- 
I cerned. See Fig. 18. 

A light transit, of moderate cost, with 
vertical and horizontal limb, a fair knowl- 
edge of spherical trigonometry, a table 
of refraction and a Nautical Almanac 
should be included in the equipment of 
every land surveyor. The appearanceof 
aa instrument of this kind is given herewith. To be sure, if the 
surveyor cares to keep in adjustment a solar attachment and 
does not mind the extra expense, he can solve instrumentally 
the problem of meridian determination with facility and dis- 
patch. But the calculations required without the attachment 
can scarcely be called tedious or long, especially after a Uttle 
practice, (See any manual of surveying or even a good cata- 
logue of surveying instruments.) 

Geological Survbv of Louisiana 


Establishment of Meridian Lines 

Prefatory remarks. — Little need here be added to our remarks 
on the same subject three years ago. The main object of the 
work is quite obvious, viz.: to have a substantially marked line, 
one at least in each parish, that may serve as a reference 
meridian for determining magnetic declination. In carrying out 
this work, no attempts have been made at refined, geodetic work. 
It is scarcely ever possible to secure an open stretch in public 
grounds over a few hundred feet in extent. Such short dis- 
tances are not condusive to a refined class of work, but still, 
they are more convenient for ordinary compass sighting and no 
error need be made in establishing the line, sufficient to affect 
the readings of any or even magnetometer. 

Our own method of procedure has been explained heretofore. 

A large bull's-eye lantern with a moderately fine grating or 
even a few slim, straight brads before il, so placed that near elon- 
gation Polaris' azimuth position can be recorded in reference to 
slot or brad i, 2 or 3, etc., is quite satisfactory for a target. The 
spacings of the target at a given distance from the transit repre- 
sent a certain number of seconds of arc. A number of read- 
ings extending from, say 20 minutes before to 20 minutes after 
elongation can be made with the telescope upright and reversed. 
These can all be quickly reduced to elongation, the same as when 
a series of micrometer readings have been made. 

The instrument we have used for all the work during the past 
three seasons is one of Buff and Berger's Tachymeters "No. ig." 
It is shown on page 183 (Fig. 19). 

Other azimuth lines. — A large amount of refined geodetic 
work has been done along the Mississippi, Red, Ouachita and 
other rivers and bayous. The surveyor living in the vicinity of 
triaiigulatiou stations along the Mississippi can obtain informa- 
tion regarding direction or azimuth from such stations to other 
known points by writing to the Superintendent of the Coast & 
Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. Information regarding 
stations on other rivers and boyous can be had by writing to 
U. S. Engineer's Office at St. Louis, Mo. 

■84 Gkological Survey of Louisiana 


I'lale XT.. Fig. 

General location. — Court yard, east of the Court House ; also I 
one marker 70.9 feet south of the south track of the V. S. & ] 
P. R. R. 

MonumenU, — Old and very hard concrete posts sunk nearly] 
fiush with the ground into a mass of fresh concrete. 

N is only 55.2 feet east of the northeast comer of the Court I 
House. S' is 207 feet farther south, near the road. N' is 58.9 ] 
feet north of N and 83.1 feet northeast of the northeast corner 
of the Court House. It is close to the northern limits of the 
public grounds. N" is approximately 715 feet farther north, 
or 70.9 feet south of the south rail of the V. S. & P. R. R. 

Marks. — One-half inch holes, filled with lead pings. 



Plate XL. Fig. : 

General location. — Across the yards of the State Industrial 
college; west of the main building; about 106 feet east of the 
west boundary fence. 

Momtments. — S consists of a small, long steel rod inserted in 
a concrete mass, large and round at base, but cast about one foot 
square above ground. This is seven feet from the wire fence 
bounding the yard on the south ; 104,9 ^^^t from the southwest 
corner of the yard. S' is a similar rod inserted in concrete. This 
concrete is contained in a five-inch sewer pipe, which in turn is 
sunk nearly flush with ground into a mass of concrete. This 
marker is 313 feet north of marker S ; 249.45 f^^l from the S. 
W. corner of the Industrial college and 309.8 feet south of N ; 
N is just south of a cinder path ; 174 feel from the southwest 
corner of the college ; 253.7 f^^^ south of N'. It is similar to , 
S' but with 12-inch .sewer pipe in concrete. 

N' is but 215 feel from the north yard fence ; 106.7 f^et from I 
the corner of college yard : similar to N and S'. 

The western end of the college is directed north 23° SJ^i" east.l 

Marks — Long pins in concrete. 

Improvements in Louit 




r Plate XL, Fig. 3, 

General location. — Across Court House yard in front of Court 
House and extending across the Monroe road 100 yards into an 
open field. 

Monuments. — Ferruginous sandstone blocks varying in weight 
from 40 to 150 pounds ; set in finely broken and fiuely pounded 
brick and rock debris. 

S' is 47,2 feet from the S. W. corner of the Court House and 
65 feet from the N. W. corner : it is 95 feet south and 14 feet 
west of a large red oak in the Court House yard. 

S is across a highway, by the corner of a fence, 11.5 feet 
from a pin oak and 140.33 feet south of S'. 

N is just across the Monroe road, about where once was an 
old fence, and 194.3 ^^^t from the N. W. corner of the Court 

X' is 306 feet north of N, just south of a picket fence. 

Marks. — One-half inch holes sunk in the rocks. 


Plate XL. Fig. 4. 
General location. — Across the public school grounds, just back 
of the school house, and extending south into a woods of second 

growth pines. 

Monuments. — Cement filled sewer pipes sunk into Ihe ground 
nearly flush and secured by a mass of concrete. 

S is just south of an opening made for a new street in woods, N 
is on the southern border of the school grounds, 422. 45 north of S. 

N' is near the northern limits of the yard. 

Rain prevented accurate measurements to nearby objects and 
from N to N'. The diagram is only approximately to scale. 

Marks.— 'Sio\.% north and south in end of ^4-incli by 6-inch 
bolts sunk into cement inside of sewer pipe. 

Plate XL, Fig. 5- 
General location. — Across the Court House square between 
Court House and jail, and extending northward across the V. 
S, & P, R. R. track 400 feet into the woods. 


i86 Ghological Sdrvey of Louisiana ^^M 

fifonumenls. — Six-inch by 30-inch sewer pipes filled with 
cement and sunk into a. mass ol concrete. 

S is 18. 1 feet north of the south yard fence. N is 221,4 f^^t 
farther nortli, but 2.4 feet south of the north yard fence; 79.2 
feet from the Court House ; 91.38 feet from the jail. 

N' is outside of the yard, 55.19 feet to the north of N and 
near the limit of the railroad property, or 72.3 feet south of the 
middle of the south rail of the V. S. & P. R. R. N" is in a 
swanipy woods 473.1 feet north of N'. 

Afarks.~—PL north and south slot in the end of >^-inch by 6-inch 
bolts sunk into cement in center of tile 'flush with surface of 

The V. S. & P. R. R, here has au average azimuth of about 
95° ' '' 35 - J' is intended to be straight, but the rails swing to 
aud fro considerably, as seen through a telescope. ^^^1 


Plate XL, Fig. 6. 

General location. — Across the Court House yard, passing 
between the jail and Court House, missing the latter by only six 
feet ; continued in the unfenced, somewhat wooded, pasture 
land to the north. 

Monuments. — S is a large uncut Grand Gulf sandstone post 
{about 1 50 lbs.), sunken in the ground nearly flush with the sur- 
face and secured by a mass of concrete. This is within about 
three feel of the south yard fence. 

S' is 293.45 fss' farther north, very close to the north fence. 
It is similar to S. N is a sewer pipe filled with concrete and 
sunk nearly flush with the ground iu a mass of concrete. It is 
233.84 feet north of S', N' is similar to Sand S'; 321.05 feet north 
of N ; to the northwest, 18.5 feet is a large gum, to the north a 
water^oak 37 feet away, and to the northeast, 37 feet, is a locust. 
The middle of the bridge over the bayou close by is on the line. 

Marks. — One-half inch holes drilled into the sandstone ; or, 
in the case of N', the usual iron rod just projecting from the cen- 
ter of the concrete within the sewer pipe. 

Improvements in Louisiana Cartograph 



^H Plate XLI. Fig. i 

^^T General locathii. — On Avery's island (Petite Anse), N, just 
outside of yard, south of gate on path leading to salt mine ; S, 
just north of a small stream bed surrounded by small forest 
trees, in pasture lands, also golf links. 

1 Monuments. — Solid concrete blocks, from iji to 2-foot cubes. 
Marks. — Small copper rods sunk in about Sush with the upper 
BUrface of the concrete. 

Plate XU, Fig. 1. 
General iocalion. — In a pasture, just across the Teche, opposite 
the wharves. Both N and S are within about five feet of the 
fence surrounding the pasture. S is 160 feet east of the bank 
of the tiayou. 

» Monuments. — Two sandstone posts sunk in the ground about 
three feet and projecting four and eight inches. 
Marks. — Holes filled with lead plugs. After drilling the hole 
in N, it was found that there was another old hole in the end of 
the post, filled with debris. Care should be taken to sight 
towards the new. or western hole containing the lead ; as here- 

Itofore described. 
I Plate XLI, Fig. 3. 

[ General location. — Public cemetery, about one-half mile east 
of the Court House. N is 17.3 feet from the northern fence ; 
and 131. 6 feel is the distance from the place where the meridian 
line passes through the northern fence, to the northwest corner 
^^ of the cemetery. The line passes 23 feet east of a large oak tree. 
^^k'U is 315.65 feet from N and is but 14.25 feet north of the south 
^^Bfence. S is just on the south side of the fence on the opposite 
^H^Hdeof the road. The line crosses the southern cemetery fence 
182.5 ^*fi^ from the southwest corner. 
Monuments. — N and M are marked by marble slabs or posts 

Geological Sorvhy of Lodisiana 

6x8x30 inches, set upright i 

and about 30 inches deep 

firmly packed until the whole mass was even 

of the ground. S is a syenite post. shorter but li 

also set in concrete. 

Afarks. — Drilled holes filled with lead plugs. 

a hole 24 to 30 inches in diamel 

1 which concrete was poured and 

e mass was even with the surface 

rger and heavi 



Plale XLl. Fig, 

General location .—On Catholic Church grounds, south of pres- 
ent cemetery, though on lands that will eventually be used for 
cemetery purposes; between Goode and Grinage streets; with 
measurements as given in Fig. 4. 

Monuments. — Marble posts 6x6 inches square by 2>^ to 3 feet 
long, set on and in a mass of concrete 2 !-i feet square above, or 
flush with surface, and ij^ to 2 feet square at base. 

Marks. — N and S are marked by short copper rods inserted 
vertically in the marble posts and firmly leaded in. On M 
a sunken line indicates the place where the meridian passes. 

ses. ^^H 


Plate XLl, 

General location. — In front of the Catholic Churcfa. M is i 
feel west of the statue directly in front of the church, N i 
155.7 f^st farther north and 34?^ feet from Main St., S is 256 
feet south of M and 9.8 feet from east fence and 51 feet from 
middle of Port St. 

Monuments. — Masses of concrete between i]-^ and 3-foot cube 
sunk even with the surface of the ground, and containing (S and 
N), marble slabs 7x12x14 inches let into the soft concrete edge- 
wise till their upper surfaces remained flush with the upper sur- 
face of the concrete and of the ground. M is a 5x5x30 incb 
marble post set in concrete. 

Marks. — Holes with lead plugs. 

Improvements in Louisiana Cartography 189 


Plate XLI, Fij;. 6. 

General location. — On thegroundsof the Lake Charles College, N 
is just south of the northern boundary fence ; M is about half way 
between the college and the janitor's lodge, by a young China 
tree just south of an east-west open ditch ; S is just north of 
the south fence. 

Monuments. — Marble posts about 4x4x30 or ^6 inches imbedded 
vertically in a solid mass of concrete about 30 inches cube and 
rising but slightly above the surface of the ground. 

Marks. — In each post a hole was drilled, in the center of which 
a small copper nail was placed, and filled with lead. 


Plate Xl.I, Fir. 7. 

General location. — On land of Judge Jas.L. Thompson. about ^ 
mile northward of the cemetery, uear the first slight angle or 
deflection to the westward of the Holmesville road; the old 
Massy Baker grant. 

Monuments. — N is a marble post 6x8x30 inches, set in concrete 
and projecting two or three inches above the surface of the 
ground. About 7 feet due north is a granite marker 5x12x13 
inches likewise set in concrete. These are near the edge of a 
thin pine woods, or on the east edge of an old rice field. A wire 
fence passes between the two. 

S is of marble and similarly set, 1203 feet south of N. The 
granite marker is 6.2 feet to the south. These as indicated in 
the diagram are close to the Holmesville road just over the fence. 

This meridian line if extended 648.5 feet south from S iuter- 

scts the northeastern boundary line of the Collins tract, 2960.3 
set from the north corner of the same. 

Marks. — Small holes drilled in the tops of the monuments and 


Plate XLI. Fig. 8. 
General location. — Across the garden and lands of Dr. Isaac 
msel, west of his residence, passing about 7 feet west of his 

I90 Gkological Survey of Xodisiana 

office. The south end is perhaps 150 yards N. E. of the Court 

Monuments. — Marble posts about 4x5x30 inches set in oyster- 
shell concrete. S is 10 feet from road fence ; a. 9 feet frotu Boia 
d'arc hedge ; 32.7 feet from S. E. corner of office ; 26.5 feet 
from S. W. corner of office ; 2q. 16 feet to S'. S' is 7.02 feet to 
S. W. corner of office ; ag. 16 feet north of S. N is 773. .'52 feet 
north of S. N' is 2.8 feet north of a fence or 779.81 feet north 
of S. The markers S' and N' are set in concrete but are only 
18 inches in length. 

Marks. — Small '^'-inch holes sunk in top of monuments, ^^H 


General location . — In front of Court House ; N near north side 

of grounds, S near south side. Length, 161.54 f*^'- At S, 

azimuth to Methodist Church spire, 178" 31"; to S. W. corner 

of Court House. 241° 45" (distance 86 feet), 

Monumenis. — Two brick piers about 1 \i by \% feet coming 

up nearly flush with the surface of the ground and capped with 

Portland cement. 
Markers. — Iron bolts projecting but little or none above the 

cemeutcap, with linesunken in same. 

Stone posts were set in the Court House yard ; but it was 
discovered that local attraction caused serious trouble with the 
needle ; hence these monuments must be taken up and placed 
in the new Industrial School grounds as soon as the arrange- 
ment of the buildings can be determined. 


Marble posts set in concrete : S on north slope of levee, north 

side of LaFourche bayou ; one-fourth mile west of swingbridge ; 

S' is just north of the road fence ; N is about 600 feet north of 

S' and just south of pasture fence ; N' is just north of same 



Fig. I. — Arcadia Meridian line 

' 2. — Ruston Meridian line 

3. — Vernon Meridian line 

4. — Bastrop Meridian line 

5. — Rayville Meridian line 

6. — Winnsboro Meridian line 

7. — General form of monument used in 1 900-1 901 
8. — General form of monument used in 1902 



Fig. I. — Avery's Island Meridian line 

a. — Franklin Meridian line 

3. — Opelousas Meridian line 

4. — Houma Meridian line 

5. — St. Martinsville Meridian line 

6. — Lake Charles Meridian line 

7. — Covington Meridian line 

8. — Cameron Meridian line 


A?T-ft. L^N-..x AND 


Ai-T.-r.. U'. h'X AND 

No. VI 






Introductory Remarks 203 

Bearing of Stratigraphy on Subterranean Water Supply. . . . 203 

Topographic Features of Louisiana 207 

Geologic Formations and their Water Supplies 208 

Pre-Lafyette 208 

Cretaceous 208 

Stratigraphy 208 

Drake's well 208 

King's Well 208 

Lignitic Eocene 208 

Stratigraphy 208 

Shreveport Ice Factory well 209 

Minden 209 

Allenbridge, AUentown 209 

Benton, Bolinger 209 

Ruston 209 

Dubach's well 209 

Natchitoches Normal School well 209 

Colfax well 210 

Monroe 211 

General conclusions 212 

Lower Claiborne Eocene 212 

Cocksfield Eocene 212 

Alexandria 212 

General remarks 213 

Jackson Eocene 213 

Grand Gulf Oligoccne 213 

Springs 213 

Catahoula Shoals 214 

General remarks 214 

Lafayette and more recent deposits 215 

Amount and Occurrence of Waters 215 

Importance to southern Louisiana 215 

Pressure head above tide 215 

Two important water bearing horizons 217 

Datails of Plans of Investigation and Results 218 

Bench marks — Elevations 218 

Well Sectioas East of Ihe MiBsiuippi 319 

Introductory remarks 319 

Ship Island, Ouaranlinc Station well . 3io 

Ship Island, Light House well aio 

Mississippi City, C. Cleineoshaw's well aao 

MisdsBippi City, C. P. Ellia- well aao 

Mississippi City, Court House well aio 

Pass Christian Ocean City, Genera) section 331 

Bay, St. Louis ; jji 

Lake Catherine aai 

New OrleaiiB. Class A, deeper wells 1100-1400 feet 33i 

New Orleaus, Class B, shallower welU 311 

Lake City, Boiinabel well 333 

Mandeville, Dessome's well at flower garden 333 

Mandevllle, Dessome's well at residence. 133 

Msndeville, Mrs. Jno. Hawkins' well 333 

Mandeville, C. H. Jackson's well aaj 

Mandeville, Dr. Paine's well 333 

Mandeville, Ribiiva well 333 

Mandeville. shallow wells 133 

Mandeville Junction, R. R. well 333 

Cbinchuba Deaf Institute 314 

Pearl River Junction 334 

Covinglon , Maison Blanche well 124 

Covington. Dunimet's well 334 

Covington, Jno. Dutch's jaj 

Covington, Mrs. Flower's place, shallow wells X3$ 

Covington, Court House yard well aaj 

Dixon Academy well aaj 

Claiborne, 1 mile east of Covington 335 

Abita Springs. Simons hotel well,. . 336 

Abita Springs, Anbert's hotel well 336 

Abita Springs, Labat's hotel well aj6 

Abita Springs, Schmid's well by depot .... 136 

Hernandez place, two miles noilti of C<vington 326 

Hernandez place, two and one-half miles north Covin gtoa 337 

Fredrick and Singletry's still, well at 337 

Mammoth Springs, near Fraiiklititon .... 337 

Pontchaloula, Town w«ll aaj 

Pontchatoula, G. H. BeiK el's well 337 

Hammund, Ice factory well aay 

Hammond. Merritt Miller's well aaS 

Hammond. Morrison well aaS 

Hammond, Diirker well 338 

Hammond, one-lialf mile south of, Eastman's well 338 

Hammond, one and one-half mile foulh of.. 
Hammond, two miles south southwest o 

it o( a^ 

Iiree miles sontb sontliweit of aaS 

Hammond, Oil well aiS 

Hammond. Puahee's well 339 

Natalbaav, Natalban; Lumber Co. well 339 

Baton Rouge. Water works well 329 

Baton Ronge. abont five miles ea»l of. 339 

Baker, one-fourlh mi!e south of Station 230 

Baker, driven welU 330 

Baker, bored wells 330 

Zachary 330 

Bayou Sara 330 

Well Sections West of the Hiiassippt 330 

Thibodaux 130 

Glencoe 230 

Morgan City, station east of 330 

Mark^iville 230 

Delta - 330 

Bastrop Z3I 

Lake Providence well No. 3 231 

Lake Providence well 131 

Jeanerette. Moresi'a bam well 333 

Jeanerette, Moresi's foundry well 333 

Jeanerette, Ice factory well 233 

Jeanerette, three mites sonth of, Kilgore plantation 113 

New IberiH. Ice works well 233 

Lafa>ette Water works well 233 

Lafayette Compress and Storage Co. 'a well 333 

Opelousas 333 

Washington 333 

Abbeville Court House 334 

Abbeville, niue miles west of 334 

Rayne, Chapius' well -,,... 234 

Rayne, Bippolite Richards well 234 

^Crowley, railroad well 334 

Ctowley, Ice factory well 334 

■Ctowley, IS miles northeast of 235 

Crowley, three miles east of 335 

Gueydan, three miles soatbwesl of 135 

Gueydan. aiic miles east of 335 

Oriza. one mile southwest of 235 

Oriza, two miles southwest of 235 

OrixB, two miles south southwest 335 

Jennings 335 

Jennings, three miles east southeast of 336 

Jennings, nine miles south southwest of. 336 

Lake Arthur, one one-half miles north of 338 

Lake Arthur, five miles north of 338 

She]) Beach 


Welsh, one-half mile east of 

Welsh, three-fourths mile east of 

Welsh, two miles southeast of , 

Welsh, nine miles north northwest of 

Welsh, one and one-half miles east sontheast of 

Kinder, one mile north of 

Kinder, Tillotson's well 

China, McBiraey 

Oberlin , .. 

Lake Charles, one mile north of 

Lake Charles, Keiser machine shop well 

Lake Charles, Judge Miller's well 

West Lake, Perkins and Miller Lambcr Co. well. . 
West Lake, three miles northwest of , . 

Soar Lake, Tex 

a Deep wells 141 

Variation of Height of Water 

How determined 

Results , , 

Table of variation, Hsmmil's well, Jennings 

Table of variation, I^wson's well, Jennings 

Table of variation. Bower well, Welsh 

Table of variation, Hawkeye Rice Mill well, Fenton.. . 
Representfllive Mews on the Subject o( Well Variation 

Covington, by Mr. Wallbellick 

Opelousas, by Mr. Little 

Gneydan, by Mr. Goeydan 

Lake Arthur, by Mr. Camp 

Crowley, by Mr, Mann 

Jennings, by Mr. Ritter 

Welsh, by Messrs. Field and Bower 

Fenton. by Mr. Mills 

China, by Mr. McBirney 

Lake .Arthur, by Mr, Eastman 

Detailed Study of Effect of Pumping at Memphis 

Analyses of Artesian Waters of Southern Loniaiajia 351 



Plate XLII. Rittcr Brothers' Well Rig at Work ; Drilling 236 

XLIII. Brechner's Rig ; Testing a well 238 

Fig. 20. Theoretical Artesian Well 204 

21. Deep well water conditions of sonthern Louisiana 205 

22. Experimental illustration of curved hydraulic gra- 

dient 206 

23. Dumpy level 219 

24. Record of tests, Memphis, Tenn 248 

25. Effect of pumping, Memphis, Tenn 249 


The outsider will doubtless be at a loss to know how it is that 
Louisiana, a state in the basin and near the mouth of the great 
Mississippi; a state where precipitation is from 35 to 67 in. 
annually ; a state with thousands of miles of internal water- 
ways ; should be in any way troubled for an adequate supply of 
water at any time in any year. He must reflect, however, that 
things are not always as they seem at first sight. There are 
high, sandy hill regions, both east and west of the Mississippi. 
that, although receiving a large amount of precipitation, lose it 
quickly by downward percolation. Then, too. in the great 
coastal clay regions, where water is absorbed but slowly by the 
underlying beds, and where streams seem in no hurry to carry 
oS any excess moisture, an enormously large demand has 
recently been made upon the water supply by the thousands of 
acres of rice fields that require an actual, prolonged inundation 
if the crop is to be made a complete success. The alluvial lands 
have an ample supply of water, but it is scarcely ever potable. 

There is, then, scarcely a region of any size in the state, that 
is not vitally interested in a greater or better water supply. 
Naturally the people have turned their attention to exploiting 
the subterranean waters. Some have succeeded in obtaining a 
fair quantity and good quality of water that would flow freely, 
in other words, they have obtained good artesian wells. Others 
after expensive operations have found neither an adequate sup- 
ply nor a desirable quality. 

The reasons for success or the reverse are usually not difficult 
to see where once the mode of occurrence of the underground 
waters is well understood. 


It is easy to conceive of a circular basin occupied by forma- 
tions of different degrees of permeability, all sloping toward the 





center, forming a veritable basin on a large scale. Snch an ideal 
basin is shown by Fig. lo. It would seem that if precipitation 
took place in this basin and if ^ is a pervJoos layer or formation, 
whereas ,4 and C are impervious, the water falling on B would 
sink in and gradually collect in the center of the basin. Finally 
if more water was added at B, it would eventually fill bed S so 
that in the middle of the 
basin the water would have 
a considerable "head" and 
a hole being drilled at the 
locality marked "well," 
would immediately fill with 
water and overflow. This 
is the idirai artesian well. 
Whether or not all these 
conditions are ever fulfilled 
we are not at present prepared to say. Certainly none of the 
"deep ■ or flowing weils in Louisiana belong to this type. 

So far as the underground water supplies of this state are 
concerned, they may best be understood by studying Fig. ai. 
The hills sloping southward from the Grand Gulf outcrops are 
composed of sands, gravel and some clay. This is the region 
where there is an average annual rainfall of nearly 55 in. 
that must be looked upon as catching the great amount of water 
that is drawn upon so heavily by the wells in the rice fields 
farther south. 

There are here at least 1400 square miles that serve as a 
catchment area for this subterranean supply. To be sure, 
doubtless not one-fifth of the total amount of precipitation ever 
finds its way into underground passages ; for the many important 
tributaries of the Calcasieu and Merraentau speak emphatically 
of the quantities of water that quit this country by overland 
passages. Regarding this section, however, we do not care at 
present to go into details. We simply wish to use it as typical 
in explaining the way underground waters occur in Louisiana. 
In this particular case the overlying impervious layer is the Port 
Hudson clay, whose origin and history we have already described 
in Special Report No. I. The pervious layer is the mixed 




= i:V 


sands, clays and giavels of the later Tertiary and early Quarter- 
nary periods, often included under tlie Dame of ' 'Orange sand ' ' 
or "Lafayette formation." The im- 
pervious layers below are the Miocene 
sandy clays and the Frio and Grand 
Gulf beds still lower. 

Notice that the water at Oberlin 
stands in the deep wells at about 60 ft. 
above the ocean level ; at Kinder, 26; 
at Jennings about 19.7, at Camp's 
we!). 2 miles north of Lake Arthur, 8; ""' 
and around Lake Arthur, Shell Beach, 
etc., it overflows pipes elevated a few c 
feet above tide. The water, then, m 
does not exist in the underlying beds ^ 
as a great level pond, but its upper Sr 
surface rises up approximately with 2.^ 
the slope of the country. The exact S 5 
distance from the surface of the soil to ^ w 
the surface of the water depends Sg 
largely on local topography. co 

This sloping condition of the upper ■< "^ 
surface of the underlying waters is ? ^ 
easily accounted for by assuming a ^ o 
leakage into the Gulf from these beds. g.u 
a leakage slow to be sure, but suffi- 3 
cient to prevent the waters rising in 
these welts to their hydrostatic head, '' 
I. e. the height of their source- The 
friction of the water along through 
these sands and gravels is very great. 
There is therefore no tendency to 
rise to any considerable height above 
sea level, even as far south as Lake 
Arthur. An interesting and instruc- 
tive illustration of a principle closely 
allied to the one here involved is given 
by Professor Davis in the Report of 
\ the Geological Survey of New South 

2o6 GBOI.OGICA.L Survey op Louisiana 

Wales Mineral Resources, 1901, p. 457. The figure he gives is 
herewith reproduced (Fig. 22). " The pipe was filled with sand, 
coarse shot, and marbles in consecutive order, to represent beds of 
decreasing porosity. Three vertical glass tubes were luted into 
holes in the lead pipe, tapping respectively the parts of the pipe 
filled with sand, shot and marbles. The lower end of the pipe was 
loosely stopped with a brick to keep the materials in their places. 
Water was then poured into the upper end of the pipe until the 
latter was filled, and as the water escaped through the lower 
end more was poured in to keep the pipe full. The water 

ascended the three vertical glass tubes, and remained stationary 
at a certain height in each." If the pipe is small and long, 
even though nothing be placed within it, the friction of the 
water along its sides will be sufficient to cause a decided decline 
in the surfaces of the separate vertical tubes very much as 
shown in the above figure, though the upward curve in the 
hydraulic gradient will no longer be noticeable. 

These statements we believe will suffice to show the intimate 
relationship between the subterranean water supplyand the way 
the underlying formations occur in a given region. Any 
rational prediction, therefore, of the occurrence of artesian, or 
deep well water, must necessarily be based on a thorough knowl- 
edge of the stratigraphy of the region concerned, Plate II, of 
Special Report No. I, gives a very general idea of the strati- 




','gjaphy of the State of Louisiana. It will suffice to show the 
lutility of expecting the same underground water conditions, 
say at Ruston, as are met with at Alexandria or Opelousas or 
farther south. 

The deep well supply at Ruston is doubtless from the upper 
Lignitic beds; at Alexandria, from the Cocltsfield beds; at 
Opelousas and to the south, from the Lafayette beds. The first 
are represented ou Plate II by coarse diagonal lining ; the sec- 
ond by very fine diagonal ruling ; the third by black spots on a 
vbite back ground. 

Topographic Features of Louisiana 
Intimately associated with the stratigraphy of a region and its 
bearing on the occurrence of underground waters is the subject 
of topography, or the surface features of the land. Louisiana 
is highest in its Grand Gulf territory, i. e. its northwest central 
portion. Hills rise to the height of about 450 A. T. and consid- 
erable tracts are above the 400 ft. contour. From here north- 
ward the land scarcely attains the same elevation until the Pale- 
ozoic mountains of Arkansas are reached. Moreover, the Red 
and Ouachita rivers have degraded broad areas along their res 
pective courses, reducing the general level of this higher portion 
of the stale to perhaps less than 200 ft. A. T. In general, the 
slate and the territory adjoining it on all sides is low, and com- 
paratively speaking, of low relief. It may be interesting to noie 
that as nearly as we can calculate from present data there are in 
Louisiana : 

Sq. miles. 

Above the 400 ft. contour 375 

' 300 '■ " 2360 

" 9240 

" 17500 

" 27250 

" 45000 

Geological Survey of Louisiana 



Slratigrapky . — A glance at the sectioned model, Plate II, will 
suffice to show the way in which the Cretaceous beds lie in north- 
ern Louisiana. In some places the folds or peaks actually come 
to the surface. But they are, as may be inferred from statements 
made above, but little lower than the Cretaceous outcrops in 
southwest ceutral Arkansas. Moreover, they have suffered con- 
siderable folding and dislocation, facts which also tend to diminish 
the probability of any general artesian flow from these rocks. 

Well at Drake' s sail works,- — It will be seen from Special Reprort 
No. II, pp. 57,60, that the famous old well at Drake's salt works 
is still flowing, though feebly. About ui ft. is the height of 
its mouth above tide, though, as will be seen by consulting the 
reference, it has flowed to a height of 150 A, T. The depth of 
the well has been variously estimated from loio to iioo ft. It 
seems to have passes through soft limestone the whole distance. 
The Cretaceous age of those beds has been satisfactorily estab- 
lished. This we believe must be the well referred to by Darton * 
as at " Winnfield," La. for he gives 1100 ft. as its depth, 8 in. 
as the size, temperature as 70° ; and with gas. Veatch, however, 
gives size as 10 in ; temperature 75°. 

Well at King's salt works. — This, according to Veatch is 136 
ft. deep. The water rises to within 2 ft. of the surface and 
stands about 161 ft. A. T. See Special Report No. II, p, 77. 

LiGNiTic Eocene 

Stratigraphy.— This formation crops out mainly north of a line 

drawn from Natchitoches to Sabinetown, and between the 

Red and Sabine rivers. Yet we suspect it is not far beneath the 

surface in that portion of the state west of Monroe and north of 

• Water Supply and Irrigation Papers. U. S. G. S. No. 57, 190a, p. 50. 

Sdbtkrranbam Waters of Louisiana 


E V. S. & P. R. R., see Plate II, where the heavy black bars on 
[white background indicate in a general way the position of the 
Lignitic beds. 

Shrevepori Ice Factory well. — This well as described in oui for- 
mer report (1899) reaches a water-bearing stratum 10 ft. thick 
at a depth of 961 ft. The level to which the water rises can- 
not be far from igo ft. A. T. The proximity of the Cretaceous 
rocks is seemingly indicated by the saltiness of the water. We 
are somewhat surprised at the temperature recorded, (. e. 83". 
being nearly 10° above the temperature given for Drake's well. 
Considerable quantities of gas come up with the water, loc, cit. 

V lD( 

[ Minden. — We have never visited the locality of the deep well 
•t Mioden. Darton. in his paper already referred to, gives as 
itsdepth 1000 ft. ; and remarks, "No flow." We have thus 
far been unable to obtain more precise information concerning it. 

Aldenbridge , AlUniown. — Wells 400 ft. deep. Darton. 

Benton, BoHnger. — Well 500 ft. deep. Darton. 

.ffMj/iJW.— This well although located in a Cocksfield or Lower 
Claiborne area, presumably draws its supply of water from the 
npper arenaceous beds of the Lignitic. The mouth of the well 
is not far from 300 ft. A. T. The pipe is 8 ins. for the first 200 
ft. ; 6 in. for the lower 250 ft., making a total depth of 450 ft. 
The pumps are so connected that it is impracticable to state how 
the water level stands, but we understood from the engineer of 
the water-works that it was perhaps but 200 A. T. It is evi- 
dently fine water, and is obtained at the rate of 100,000 gal. 
per day. 

Duback's well. — This is a small well at the engine house of the 
inbach Lumber Co. Depth 296 ft. This formerly flowed 4 

5 ft. above the surface of the ground, though it does so no 
more. Seemingly of good quality and when pumped furnishes 
all the water required by the Company. The well is about on a 
level with the R. R. station. Thus far, however, we have failed 
to obtain exact levels along the R. R. passing through this place. 

Natchitoches Normal School. — The mouth of this well is approx- 
imately 130 ft. A. T. According to Pres. Caldwell, its section 
down to 504 ft. is as follows : 

210 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

"The first 34 ft. penetrated, consisted of red a.nd cfaocolate 
clays without sand or grit ; next 18 in. of soft sandstone, 
i ron -stained : moderate flow of water at 38 ft. verj' salt, derived 
from bed of grey sand, and risiug over night to within 14 in. 
of surface: alternate beds of blue-grey and red-grey sandstone, 
and blue clay with occasional bits of pyrites and brown lignite, 
down to 96 ft. ; at this depth a bed of very fine, nearly pure 
white sand, about 12 ft. thick, from which there was » 
strong flow of water not distinctly salt (the upper stream had 
been cased off) ; then chocolate clay, blue clay and thin bed of 
sand to 134 ft. At this depth, a solid bed of iron pyrites 10 
ft. 8 in. thick, that took over three weeks to gel through 
and wore out every style and make of drill in stock ; then 1 2 ft. 
of very coarse rounded sand, nearly white ; ihen 4 ft. more of 
pyrites ; then alternate clay and sand, with one or two thin beds 
of slaty lignite, down to 462 ft. where there was a bed of shells 
and gravel and a 14-in, bed of lignite ; then one unvarying 
bed of blue clay to the point where the work was abandoned. 
504 ft." 

Below 476 ft., the foreman of the Andrews Well Company, 
who sunk the well, gives the following log : 

Greenish, brittle clay with shells to 

Clay with shells lo ^ ] 

Bowlder - to 

Cla; (no shells), rock, fine sand to 

The Times -Democrat in referring to this well says, (Pd 
1900) : — '■ After several months of disheartening trials, tht 
artesian well at the Normal school has been finished. A good 
stream of water was struck at depth of 726 ft., but it is very 
salty, and perhaps can only be utilized for bathing and fire pur- 

The upper beds of the Uguitic here encountered at a depth of 
not greater than 200 ft would furnish a fair supply of water. Good 
springs from this same geological horizon are common to the 
north of the village in the hilly region. A detailed discussion of 
this area can be found in our Report of 1899, p. 141, el seq. 
Col/ax. — The information we have regarding the well at this 



^^ Subterranean Waters in Louisiana 211 

locality is rather indefinite, but still, it suffices to show where, 
stratigraphicatly, the water is located. 

I Mr, Cameron furnished us the following section : 
I. Soil, sand, gravel, clay with shells , .10 150 
3. Gypsnw, with small spiral shells 
3. Gas: 11(1 water at 660 
4. Sail -n-aler ami j-as at noo 

" Water carries 20 grains of salt per gallon. Water and gas 
have been flowing for the past two years." 

Darton gives the following data regarding this well : 

I Depth 1 103 ft. 
I Diameter , aj^ in. 
f Flow 42eal. 
t Heighl of water 65 ft. 
I Temperature 61'" 
f The local upheavals in this vicinity {Rept. 1899. p. 61) doubt- 
less are responsible for the seeming thinness of the Cocksfield, 
Jackson and Lower Claiborne beds. It is more than likely that 
the water is coming from a Lignitic horizon similar to that from 
which water is obtained in the deep well at the Natchitoches 
Normal school. 

flfonroe. — Although there seems to be a considerable develop- 
ment of Cocksfield beds along the V. S. & P. R. R. from Monroe 
to Ruston. and although the fossiliferous beds penetrated in the 
Monroe wells a hundred feet or more below the surface yield 
Lower Claiborne species, I am of the opinion that the supply of 
water at the Ice Works comes from the upper bedsof the Lignitic. 
The wells hereabout are sunk 400+ ft. deep, and find an abund- 
ant water supply. When piped np it is said to rise 40 ft. above 
the level of the ground, /. <r. 1 10 ft. A. T. f for the level of the 
ground here is 7a t ft-) North of Monroe, from >jto i}i 
mile there are three similar wells. One in the garden of Mr. T. 
M. Parker has attached a vertical pipe about 20 ft. in height. 
The water, when stopped from leaking below would readily over- 
flow at the top of this pipe, showing a head of at least 100 ft.A.T, 
The town has had elaborate analyses made of the artesian 
waters obtained from the water-works wells, in the eastern part 
^^^ the town, but they were mislaid and inaccessible at the time 

212 Geological Suhvhv of Louisiana 

of our visit to the place. It is said the water possessed various 
bad ingredients that rendered it unfit for general household uses. 
This is nol strange when we consider the proximity of this 
region to the axis of the ?^mbayment described at length in 
Special Report No. i, a region during Eocene times replete with 
marsh- vegetation. 

General conclusion, — We see no prospect for large flowing wells 
from the Lignitic area of the state. The water obtained by 
boring in these beds will be found of poor quality for the most 
part west of Red river, where marine shells occur imbedded in 
the sands and clays. These are the lower Ugnitic beds. Higher 
up, near the Lignitic-Lower Claiborne contact, sands bearing 
pure water are often found ; springs are also quite numerous at 
the base of local elevations. The Lower Claiborne being com- 
paratively thin over the area so designated on the map, there 
are frequently good prospects of pumping if not flowing wells in 
the less elevated areas covered by the Lower Claiborne deposits. 

Lower Claiborne Eockne 
We do not see how any considerable quantity of artesian or 
deep well water can be obtained from these beds. Nearly every- 
where they contain a large amount of organic matter and the 
waters issuing from tbem are generally impotable. Where deep 
well water is sought in the Lower Claiborne di.stricts, an attempt 
should be made to penetrate below into the upper Lignitic beds. 

CocKSFiELD Eocene 

Alexandria. — Very satisfactory results have been obtained at 

this locality so far as quantity and quality of deep well water is 

concerned. A section of the water-works well sunk in 1892 

furnished us, at the place, in 1901 is as follows : 


I, Soil. Ihen yellowish clay. to 300 

I. Green tlays (evidenlly Grand Gulf)., .to. 

3. Black, brittle clay (Jacltfioni to 

4. Rock lo 533J< ' 

5. Clay ( Cockfield ) to 

6. Water bearing sand 8 ft. thick, pure crystalline. 

This well is said to have been started with a 6-m. pipe and 
finished with a 2,(^in, The surface of the ground is about 77 



Waters of Louisu 


it. A. T. Water level is reported as 12 ft. higher, or 89 A. T. 

A third well put down in 1894 to a depth of 815 ft. is said to 
contain a lo-ia. casing down to 210 ft.; an 8-in. to 612 ft.; 4-in. 
10815 ^t- Runs perhaps 70 gal. per minute and can be pumped 
to the extent of 500 gal. per minute. 

Darton in his paper already referred to gives the following 
regarding these wells : 

Depth Siie Gals. Height Temperature 

^735 ft. [o-in.-6-in. 276J^ +4 

630 ft. 4 wells 85° ± 

General remarks. — We know of no other place in the state 
where these beds are properly located and drilled into, so that 
general conclusions, regarding this water-bearing horizon can 
scarcely be drawn at present. Yet the probabilities are that the 
larger part of the Jackson area, where not over 150 ft. A. T. , can 
profitably draw from the Cocksfield beds below to good advan- 
tage for their supplies of pure water. Flowing wells cannot be 
hoped for, however, except in regions less than 80 ft. A. T. 
The fact that the Colfax well did not produce water at this hori- 
zon is probably due to the local disturbances that brought up 
the Cretaceous beds across the river as described by Johnson. 
(See p. 61, Rept. 1899.) Again, Colfax is about 22 ft. higher 
than Alexandria and hence probably the same water if encoun- 
tered would not rise to the surface ; and it may have been over- 
looked entirely. 

Jackson Eocknh 

So far as we are aware, these beds contain uo desirable under- 
ground waters. Those who live on the Jackson outcrops cannot 
depend on finding good water at shallow depths. In case they 
are south of the Cocksfield- Jackson division line, (see Plate 1 of 
this report, or Geological map of Rept, 1899), and are not over 
150 ft. A. T., there is hope for a good supply of deep well 
water at a depth less than 800 ft. 

Grand Gulf Oligochnh 
Springs. —The alternating layers of pure sands and 

.ve much to do with the phei 

I pervious 
inally large number of 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

pure springs that issue in the Grand Gulf hills of Louisiana. 
The distribution of these springs is co-extensive with the out- 
crops of the formation. See the maps just referred to above. 

Catahoula Shoals — We have already referred to this locality 
in our Special Rejiort No. i. The section given by the U, S. 
Engineers as the record of the test well put down at this place 
is as follows : 

Boring No. 4, Catahoula Shoals, La. 

(77.0 miles above mouih of Black river. Elevation of chan- 
nel 7.88 M.C.D,) 

3-in. pipe. Flow 60 gals, per minute, 11 ft. A. T. 
Peel A.T. 

11.06 Sandy mnd 

10.07 Sandy, clay ami gravel. 
7.78 Gravel. 

-4.69 Grey sand. 

-19.19 Blue-brown, sandy clay. 

-41.44 Blue-xrey rock. 

-43.87 Very hard bine-grey clay or soft rock. 

-65.1a- Soft blue-grey rock. 

-75.16 Blue sandy clay. 
-138.61 Grey rock. 
-138.94 Blue sandy cluy. 

-J47.01 Fine grey sand. From this sand water flowed, 60 gal. permicitle. 
—186.45 Fine grey saud. From lliis sand water flowed, 60 gal. per minute. 
General remarks. — This we believe is the only instance in 
Louisiana where the lower Grand Gulf beds have been tested 
with regard to their water-beatiug properties. Across the Miss- 
issippi, however, the successful wells in Port Gibson are probably 
deriving Iheir water from this horizon. We would expect that 
the "oil well " being sunk on Sicily island would encounter this 
water-bearing horizon at a depth of perhaps 300 ft- though il 
doubtless would scarcely overflow and make a true artesian well 
in that locality. From Harrisonburg, southwest, along the 
northern shore of Catahoula lake and even to Alexandria, water 
should be found in this stratum at a depth scarcely over 300 
ft. It would probably not flow above the surface of the ground, 
unless in exceptionally low places. 

.■ation of chan- 


liKANB&K Waters of Louisiana 


Amount and Occubrknce of Waters 

' fmfiorfattee to Southern Louisiana. — The amount of water 
derived from other fortnatioDS in Louisiana is extremely insig- 
nificant when compared to the yield of these beds. In our intro- 
ductory remarks to this Special Report, we took this horizon as 
showing most clearly the occurrence of under-ground waters in 
Louisiana- From the phenomena of precipitation in the region 
of Lafayette outcrops, in the central portion of the state, to the 
out-flowing of copious streams from deep-drilled holes not far 
from the Gulf border, there is nothing unnatural, or peculiar 
to be observed . The water is at all times simply seeking its 
lowest level in accordance with the law of gravity. 

Pressure head above tide. — We have shown in our opening 
statements how the water exists beneath a bed of Port Hudson 
clay in a state of hydrostatic pressure, how the upper surface 
slopes from 60 or more ft. above tide in the higher planes in 
the north, to perhaps 6 ft. above tide along the Gulf coast. 
It might have been mentioned there, too, that there is a consid- 
erable irregularity in the upper surface of this underlying water 
in an east-west direction. Because water in one well stands say 
at 15 A. T. it is no sure sign that it will stand at exactly the 
same level in a well from 500 yards to a mile away in any direc- 
tioi) of the compass. Doubtless if the water were under simple 
static pressure, in course of time it would assume in the var- 
ious wells the same level, but give this water even a slight 
flow, from leakage Gulfwards or from vigorous pumping over 
large artas to the south, and then the different resistance thedif- 
ferent portions of the waters meet in their passage southward 
through beds of sand and gravel of various dimensions and 
states of consolidation, shows clearly in the varying height to 
which water will rise in different wells. Attention should be 
called to the fact that there is not. beneath the Port Hudson beds 
in southern Louisiana, the homogeneity of structure that is 
usually represented in sections of this region. The driller 
^Itnows well that the outlying clays are from 60 to 150 ft. in 


Geological Survey of Louisiana 

thickness, sometimes solid, sometimes with sand-beds at various 
horizons and of varying thickness. The water-bearing beds 
were, until 1902. usually spoken of as blue sands, owing to the 
fact, doubtless, that only the tine material is brought to the sur- 
face by the rotary process of sinking these wells so much in 
vogue in southern Louisiana. It is now recognized that the 
best producing wells have their strainers in coarse gravel. This, 
owing to the lack of continuity of any of these beds, leads to 
the sinking of wells in localities, often in close proximity, to 
quite different depths. 

Some general statements, however, can be made regarding the 
height to which these underground waters may be expected to 
rise, when once they have been met with in the coarse, gravelly 
material. So far as the Lake Arthur-Smithville section is con- 
cerned (see Fig. zi), little more need here be said — but attention 
should be called to the fact that, although the prairie region of 
St. Landry parish is somewhat more elevated than the lands on 
the same latitude to the west, there is not a corresponding rise 
in the hydraulic surface that might at first thought be expected. 
For example, at Opelousas, although the data relating to this 
point are not as definite as we would like, the surface of the 
deep well waters seems to be but about 25 ft. A. T. While 
due west between Kinder and Oberlin the surface is about 45 ft. 
A. T, At Lafayette and Rayne the surface of the deep welt 
water is about 23 ft. A. T.; at Webster and Lake Charles it is 35. 

On the opposite side of the Mississippi at Pearl river the sur- 
face of underground water, in wells from 300 to 600 ft. deep, 
rises to 54 ft. A. T.: al Covington, 40 ft.; at Baton Rouge about 
30-35 ft. In general, then, it may be said that there is a ten- 
dency for the subterranean waters along the same line of lati- 
tude to descend somewhat in approaching the Embayment axis, 
or to rise in the opposite direction. 

On the east side of the Mississippi there is of course the same 
rise of the surface of subterranean waters to the north that we 
have described along the Lake Arthur-Smithville section. For 
example, water in the wells at Covington stands at an average 
height of about 40 ft. A. T.. but 3 miles north on the Hernaadez 
place, the height is no less than 60 ft. At Baton Rouge the 



surface in question is scarcely over 35 fl.: at Baker il is over 90 
ft. A. T. 

The general conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing discus- 
sion, regarding the upper surface of the Lafayette water, is then 
the following : Towards the south and towards the Embayment 
axis there is a marked decline in the subterranean water surface 
and there is a much more rapid slope Gulfward east of the Mis- 
sissippi than there is to the west. 

Two importanl water-bearing horizons. — East of the Mississippi 
two or more fairly distinct water-bearing hortzons are found. 
The first and lowest is reached at depths ranging from 400 to 
700 ft, according to position and local topography. This includes 
wells at Scranlon, Mississippi City. Biloxi, Ship island, Bay St. 
IvOUis. Pearl river, Mandeville Junction, Covington, Hammond, 
New Orleans, Lake City, Baton Rouge and Baker. The second 
is reached at depths ranging from 150I0 700 ft. according to local 
surface features as well as geographic position, and includes such 
wells as those about Lake Catherine, Mandeville and Manchac. 

There is still a third of less importance and lowest of all, that 
is met with in 1200 to 1400 ft. wells in the City of New Orleans, 
This has been correlated with the Ship island-Covinglon horizon, 
but the character of the water and the force with which il flows 
indicate in our miud a deeper source and higher head than the 
Covington wells possess. The Bonnabel well (Lake City well) 
900 ft. deep is quite probably of the same horizon as the 600-700 
ft. wells in New Orleans. That Lakes Maurepas and Pontchar- 
train lie in a shallow synclinal trough we have had occasion to 
note on several occasions. 

On the west side of the Mississippi alluvium, nearly all sub- 
terranean water is being obtained from the upper of these two 
horizons. It is this horizon alone that we have used in the gen- 
eral deductions stated above. 

We are not aware that wells have yet been sunk, in search (or 
water, to a sufficient depth, say along the Southern Pacific terri- 
tory, to reach the lower lying horizon. At the Crowley Ice fac- 
tory one was put down to the depth of 600 ft., but this can 
scarcely be regarded as deep enough to penetrate the lower stra- 
tum. The well was not reported as a success. In fact it was 

2i8 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

said that the casing was withdrawn and the screen placed at Ae 
usual depth of about 180 ft. 

It must not be understood that we believe there are. in all of 
southern Louisiana, two very distinct or sharply defined water- 
bearing horizons. As we have remarked before, there is not the 
regtilarity of structure in these late Tertiary or early Quaternary 
beds that one would suppose from a study of the usual geological 
sections of the region. In some districts sands prevail at the 
same depths that finer material, even clay, occurs in wells close 
by. The above statements are, however, in a general way true. 

In the vicinity of Lake Charles there is not the usual supply 
from the aoo ft. horizon, but water-bear ing sands are found at 
about 500 ft. 

Details of Plans of Investigation and Results 

Bench marks — Elevations. — In continuing our work on tli« 
underground waters of this state we secured at the outset as much 
information as possible regarding elevations of stations along 
the railroads and bench marks of the U. S. Survey along the 
principal rivers. By means of these bench marks, or points of 
known elevation, the relative heights of the water as it appears 
in nearby wells can readily be determined. This is, naturally, 
by the use of .some kind of a spirit level with an accompanying 
rod. We ran in all over 100 miles of such lines for this special 
purpoie. Extreme accuracy in such work is, of course, quite 
out of the question ; for nothing is to be gained by attempting 
"precise" leveling from points whose actual height is perhaps 
not known to the nearest foot, as for example the height of 
the various railroad stations. Again the daily variation of the 
water in the wells is in some instances considerable. I'or our 
work we found a light, small, dumpy level precisely the thing. 
Its construction is such that it rarely gets out of adjustment. 
It is so light that it is not a load in itself. This we find an 
important item, for the geologist if alone or with but one attend- 
ant is always loaded with his necessary pariphlnalia. The char- 
acter of work that can be done rapidly with this instrument is 
such as to recommend it for all common and reconnaissance work. 
After an experience of over 2 years with this instrument, we can 


state that a mile can be run twice within . lo ft. to .01 ft. of the 
same without fail. This we kuow from many miles of duplicate 
tnd tie lines. The geueral form of our iustrumeut is shown by 

. 33, though of course the ordinary tripod was substituted in 
^]dace of the metal trivet.* 

Well Sections East of 1 

; Mississippi 

Introductory remarks. — It is entirely out of the (juestion lo 
' sttempt to enumerate but a few among the many deep wells that 
have been put dowu in the southern part of Louisiana. As a 
rule the records kept are scanty in the extreme ; the object 
sought is water and little attention is paid to what the formations 
are, which are encountered before water is reached. In some 
instances, however, a few fossils have been saved by neighbor- 
ing inhabitants and in others, the materials thrown out can be 
examined, at leisure if the well is of recent date. Exact data 
relating to depth, however, can scarcely be obtained in this way. 

Our personal investigations have extended from Mobile, Ala- 
bama to Sour Lake, Texas, though in the territory outside of 
Louisiana, a comparatively small amount of time has been spent. 

cnliooeii io case of ttie Railroad compass, various firms sell 
of this general Rrade and character. Ours, however, Ihe one 

catalogued by KeufFel and Esser, (1 J? Fulton St., New York City). 

including tripod, box, adjusting pins, etc. complete. 

230 Geological Survey of Louisiana 

Skip Island, Quarantine Station well. — Depth. 730 ft. 
Section by Dr. P. C. Kallock : 

Soil Feet 

White Sand to 45 

Soft cIht and mud to aoo 

Hard blue clay to 300 

While sand to 305 

Blue clay lo 565 

Sandstone lo S^SjJ I 

Blue day to 73i M I 

Wuler-bearing sand to 730 

Klevation : moutfa of well perhaps 10 ft. A. T. 

Ship Island Light House well. — Depth, 750 ft. 

Section by Dr. Murdock ; 


Sand 350 

Yellow cl»7 350 

Blackish mud 400 

Fine sand with shells 450 

Blue clay 700 

Water-bearing sand 750 

Elevation : mouth of well perhaps 10 ft. A.T.; flows vigiu- 
ously at that height. ^^^H 

Mississippi City, C. Clemenshaw's well. — Depth. 915 ft. ^^^| 
Statement of Mr. Clemenshaw : 

" Passed through no hard rock, no quicksand, but clay and blue 
sand, the latter often highly micaceous. A 60-gal. flow was obtaiiied 
at 600 ft.; at 935, a aoo-gal. per minute flow was obtained," 
Elevation : mouth of well about 18 ft. A. T. 

Mississippi City. C. P. Ellis' itf//.— Depth, 850 ft.; 3-i! 
flows 80 gal. per minute. 
Elevation: topof well. 55 ft. A. T. 

Mississippi City. Court House well. — 2}4-ia. pipe, reduced to 

in. Runs 20 gal. per minute, 38 ft. above the surface of 
the ground. 
Elevation : top of well perhaps 50 ft. A. T. 



his Chrisfian to Ocean City, general section. 

Section as given by Archie Dixon, driller of Pass Christian : 

Sand and clay to 415 

Lifibt gtfv fine sand to 500 

Ciay to 600 

Water-bedHng snnd ,. . Aa. 685 

Vfiay St. /.OKW.— Darton, iu Irrigation Papers. U. S. G. S. No. 
57, gives the following data for the region ; "Many wells. 
Temperature of deeper. 78°. Depth, 400-700 ft.; size 4^ 
-2 in.; yield per minute. 100-105 gal,; flowirg." 

m.iLaie Catherine, — Artesian well observed. No further data. 

fj^eai Orleans, Class A, deeper, isoa-i^oo. — Young Men's Gym- 
nasium Building. Depth. 1356 ft.; natural flow, 40 gal. 
per minute, forced 125 : gas escapes S30 cubic ft. in 24 
hours ; specific gravity, 1.016. 

Pta. i 





Chloride sodinm lliS-9 

Chloride calciam 138,3 

Chloride raagnesiuni 75.7 .... 

Chloride amtnonia 1.3 

Chloride potash trace 

Carbonate calcium 86.8 .... 

Oxides of Fe, and Al 4.7 

PbospliBte trace 

Analysis by Ordway and Kirchoff. 

A well of similar depth and saline character we under- 
stand has been sunk for the Southern Athletic Club. 
Elevation : perhaps 15 ft. A. T. 
ffew Orleans, Class B. shallower wells. — These include the 600- 
750 ft. wells bored at frequent intervals over the city. 
One of the earliest wells of this class sunk in New 
Orleans was in the Neutral Ground on Canal Street, 
between Carondelet and Baronne Streets, in the year 1854. 
A colored section of this well, as originally kept by A. G. 
Blanchard. C. E. of New Orleans, is inserted opposite p. 
148 of the "Biennial Report of the Board of Health, to 

Gkological Survey of Louisiana 

the Genera! Assembly of tbe State of Louisiana, 1890-91, 
Baton Rouge, 1892." From this it will be observed that 
the strata penetrated to a depth of 630 ft. consist of light 
yellowish and bluish sands and clay, with some light 
greenish layers and occasional shell sands. 

One of the most recent wells of this class is that at the 
Marine Hospital, Audubon Park. This is 765 ft. deep. 
The first 600 ft. are reported as sand, silt and clay beds, a 
bed of yellowish sand perhaps 40 ft. thick was encoun- 
tered some distance below and continued to 705 ft. From 
there on. for 60 ft., the material consists of white sand. 
The water rises to within about 3 ft. of the surface at 
present. This 6-in. well is capable of furnishing 300 gal. 
per minute. The water is classed as excellent for washing 
purposes, requiring but half the soap the river water does; 
it is aUo excellent for boiler use ; impotable. 

The fiow from this shallower class of wells has always 
been weak ; and the large number of such wells has still 
further weakened the flow. There is a tendency now, 
when more water is required, to seek the lower level. 
This is excellent for bathing purposes, containing as the 
above analysis shows, a large amount of common salt. 

On p. 154 of the Report of the Board of Health, referred 
to above, will be found analyses of six so called "d* 
well waters " of New Orleans. 


Lake Cily, Bonnabel well. — Depth stated by Bonnal>el to be 
ft.; according to information given by the president of 
Artesian Well Co., N. C, it is 900 ft. in depth. Said to 
have arisen 60 ft. above lake level ; now flows out readily 
at 8 ft. A. T., thongh apparently with no great f< 
temperature according to Bonnabel, 78°. 
Section as given by Mr. Bonnabel: 

" Pivc'iiTch leasing to 600 ft. deep, hitting rock ; tbree-incb c«nltS 

to 70C> ft. ; then one and one-half-incb casing to i: 
■' CojDpacl tertURioous conglomerate, 60 ft. thick pa«scd through 
alxiul 700 (t. liowu. Then a black, bard clay was encoanl 
giving way to bluish sand : water in pale bluish sand." 


Anatvsis by Jos. Albrecht : 
\ ' In I gBl. 

Cbloride of todium »7.74 gr. 

Sodmm carbonate 34-39 " 

Potassiani carbonate 4.49 " 

Silica carbonate 1.69 " 

Organic matter free of nitrogen 0.46 ' ' 

Carbonic acid combined as bi-carbonate 13-33 " 

Total 8j. 10 gr. 

I MandevilU* Dessome's well at flower garden. — Depth, 217 ft.; 

pipe, 2-in.; flow. zS.igal. per minute. March, 1901 ; 26 

gal. per niinute, March, 1902 ; temperature, 6<j}^°. 

For analyses given below. 
Elevation : of pipe, 9 ft. A. T.; pressure head, i^jA ft. A, T. 
MandevilU. Dessome's well at residence. — Depth, 220 ft.; pipe 

with i-in stop cock ; temperature, 71°. 
Mandeville. Mrs. pio. Hawkins' -well. — Pipe, a-in. reduced to 

1.% \ flow, 40 gal. per minute, 1902 ; temperature, 68>i°. 
Elevation : of flow, 7.35 ft. A. T. 
MandevilU, C. H.Jackson's well. — Depth, 136 ft.; 1.5 in. reduced 

to I in.; flow, .97 gal, per miuute. 
Elevation : of flow, 13.8 ft. A. T. 
MandevilU, Dr. Paine's veil. — Flow, open 2-in. pipe ; io?J gal. 

per minute ; with reduction to i in.; ioj4 gal. per minute ; 

with inch pipe and stopcock attached, 9- to gal, per 

MandevilU. Ribava.' swell. — Depth, 247 ft.; flow from 1 J^-in. pipe, 

12 gal. per minute, 1901 ; with stop-cock in place and 

open 9.2 gal. per minute; temperature, 71°, February, 

1902. Elevation : of ground 3.42, flow, 4.90 ft. A. T. 
MandevilU, shallow wells. — Several, 90 ft. deep ; flow about 4 ft. 

MandevilU Junction. R. R. well. — Depth, 598 ft.; flows freely 27 

ft. above ground. Exact height A. T, not deleimined. 

•We did not have time to watch a tide gauge over a period ot more than 
two days, hence all these lieights are subject to a slight modification. 
According to our " " " mark, the top of the rail before the station is 6.S0 
ft. A.T. 


224 Gbologica.1. Survey op Louisiana ^^M 

Chuicktiba Deaf Imtitute. — Oepth, yi^ ft.; pipe z-in.; 9oi^^l 
reduce to a J-3-in- pipe and hence with low pressure, very 
small; pressure head 7''3 ft.; temperature 72.° 
Elevation : of ground, 19 ft,, A. T.; pressure head, 28 ft. A.T.; 
a well 4 miles to the northwest of here, 800 ft. deep is 
said to have a similar pressure. 
Pearl River Junction, TveHa/ho/el.—Tiepth, 350 ft.; pipe zJ-^-ib.; 
flow through reduced pipe, and one-half in. stop-cock 72 
gal. per minute ; said to flow go gal. per minute from 2j4- 
in pipe. 
Elevation : station 31 ft. A. T.; pressure head 54 ft. A. T. 
Coving/on, Maison Blanche well. — Flow from 2-in. pipe reduced 
to I in. April, 1901, 20.4 gal. per minute ; March, 1902, 
23;^ gal. per minute ; temperature T2%°. 
Elevation : ground, 31.5 ft.; top of basin, 33.6 ft. A. T.; flow 
about 35}^ ft. A. T. 
N. B. These elevations about Covington are all referred 

to the top of the rails in front of the R. R. station. 

This we have called 32.5 ft. A. T. from our series of 

levels running from L. Pontchartrain to Covington 

along the highway. 
Covington. Dummei's well. — On HolmesviUe road, record by 
Robert Wallbillick. Flow 21 gal, per minute ; 2 ft. 
above the ground. 

Tbickneb. ft. Depth, ft. 

White cluy 15 15 

Yellow clay. ..'. 6 ai 

White clay 35 56 

Coarae while sand 15 Si 

Fine gravel 13 93 

CoarM white sand 6 99 

Coarse white sand and gravel. ... 14 113 

Coarse yellow sand and gravel. . . 6 119 

Coarse yellow sand 8 137 

Gravel 10 137 

Red clay i 138 

Gravel 10 148 

Red clay a 150 

Gravel 10 160 

Red sand and gravel 30 180 


or Louisiana 

i. ft. Depth, ft, 


TbkkneSE. ft. 

Red sand 38 250 

Coarse^ravel 15 275 

Coarse white sand. 4 379 

White clay 18 197 

Blue clay 183 480 

Water-bearing sanct, bluish 

and greenish ( fine) 7 487 

Blue clay 7 r 558 

Grey tand 6 564 

Fine blue and greeuiab sand 8 571 

^Covington, Jtto. Dutch's well. — Flow ao gal. per minute; tem- 
perature 74" : on Ihe 17th April, 1901. 
Elevation: of ground, 33.7 ft. A. T.; of pipe, 35 6 ft. A. T. 

r Covington, Mrs. f-lower's place, shallow wells. — Records by Mr, 
Wallbillick : 

No. I. 

Wbitesand to 


Blueclav to 


SlieUs mixed with bine clay to 


Fine white sand to 


Coarse white sand to 

(Pumping slratnm.) 

(300 ft. from No. 1.) 

Whiteclay to 


Shells mixed with black clay to 


Dark clav to 


I Covington, Court House yard well. — Flow aj-j gal. per min- 
ute ; teiuperature 73° ; April. 1901. 
Elevation : ground, 32 ft. A. T.; pipe, 35.6 ft. A. T. 
* Dixon Academy well. — Pipe aj^-in.; Sow 25 gal. per minute. 
Elevation : 26.7 ft. A. T. 

Uiibome, i mile E. of Covington, Lyon's well, — Depth, 630 ft.; 
pipe 2-in.; flow 30 gal. per minute; temperature 73°; 
April, 1901. 
Elevation: 26.6 ft. A. T. 

226 Geological Survby of Louisiana 

.4i(Va Springs. Simons hotel well. — Pipe i^-in.: two elbows an^ 

one 2-fl. horizontal pipe with How of 12 gal. per minute ; 

flowed 1 1 gal. per minute in April, 1901 ; temperature at 

the same date 72". 
Elevation ; of ground, 38,3 ft. A, T.; top of basin 41.7 ft. 

A. T,; top of pipe, 43.6 ft. A. T. 

N. B. Top of rail at station is the local bench mark to 
which the levels at Abita Springs are referred. A line 
of levels run from Covington, gave us for this station 
38.3 ft. A. T. 

Abila Springs, Auberl's hotel well. — Depth, 585 ft. ; pipe i J4 -in. ; 
flow 12.7 gal. per minute, January, 1901 ; original Sow 
said to be 25 gal. per minute; variation probably due to 
friction in about 60 ft. of piping with five right angles. 
See Table of analyses given below. 
Elevation : of ground, 35. 8 ft. A.T. ; faucet, 38,3 ft. A.T. ; 
pressure head over 50 ft. A.T. ; said to have beea 78 ft, 
A.T. at first. 

Abila Springs, Labal's hotel well. — Flow from faucet 37.1 gals, 
per minute. This is the best well that we observed in 
this vicinity. Its exact depth was not given, but it does 
not diSer much from the ordinary 600 ft. wells of this 
Elevation : of ground, 41,5 ft. A.T. ; of faucet. 45.3 ft, A.T. 

AMta Springs. Sekmid's well, by depot. — Flow from i J^-in. pipe, 
but through a ;4-in. faucet, 4 gal. per minute. 
Elevation : of ground. 35,6 ft. A.T. ; of faucet. 36.6 ft. A.T. 

Hernandez place. 2 miles N. of Covington, well by house. — Depth. 
610ft.: pipe2j4-in,; flow from t-in. pipe January, 1901, 
38.5 gal. per minute ; appears to have great pressure. 
Flowed 60 gal. per minute in April, 1901 ; temperature at 
the same time 73°. 
See Table of analyses, given below. 
Elevation : of ground, 46.1 ft. A.T. ; of top of basin, 47. 3 ft. 
A.T. ; of pipe. 48.5 ft. A.T. 


wff€mandex place, well by bam, 2j4 miles N. of Covington. — Depth 
P about the same as well just mentioned, pipe aj-i-in. ; flow 

■ as measured roughly in January. 1901, 35.3 gal. per min- 
I ute ; as measured more accurately in March. 1901, 54.3 
F gal. per minute. 

Elevation : of ground , 47 4 ft. A.T. ; of pipe. 53 ft. A.T.: 
pressure head considerably over 60 ft. A.T. 
Fredrick and SingUtry' s still, well at. — Exact location is S. W. 
U, K. W. ]%. Sect. 31. 5 S. 10 E. Depth, 560 ft. ; pipe 
about-2 in. ; flow 18 gal. per minute, with several leaks ; 
true flow probably considerably more. 
Sections as given by Mr. E. P. Siugletry i 


Sand and clay . . . .for 100 

Quicksand for I30 

Red clay for 170 

Pipe clay for 160 

Blue sBDd for 10 

For analysis, see table given below, 
Elevation :'of ground. 75 ft. A. T. ; of pipe, where water flow 
was measured, 78 ft. A.T. 
Mammolh Springs near Franklinton. — We have not visited this 
locality but Mr. E. S. Ferguson of New Orleans says that 
the spring is about 26S ft. A.T. and flows out as a cool 
large branch. 
Ponlchaloula. To'.vn well. — Depth, not obtained ; flow. 2\~i gal. 
per minute; temperature 71°. 
For analysis, see table given below. 
Elevation : of flow. 33 ± ft. A. T. 
Ponickatoula. G. H. Beigel, — Depth, 232 ft- ; flow 4^^ gal. per 
I minute ; temperature 71". 

1 For analysis, see table given below. 

Elevation : of flow about 31 ft, A.T. 
Hammond, Ice Factory itW/.— Depth, 340 ft.: pipe z-in.; flow 15 
gal. per minute at a height of about 50 ft. A.T. ; tempera- 
ture 72°. 
BlevRtion : of Hammond given by 111. Cent. Engineer ofiice 

228 Gkological Suhvhy of Louisiana 

N.B. DO spirit leveling was done about Hammond and 
heights of flows were estimated from the lengths of pipe 
above the generally level surface. 

Hammond, Merrill MilUr's well. — Depth, 265 ft. ; pipe 2 in. ; 
reduced to i/^-in. ; flow a8J^ gal. per minute ; tempera- 
ture 71°. 
Klevation : of flow about 44 ft. A.T. ; pressure head about 
56.6 ft. A. T. 

Hammond Morrison well. — Pipe 2-in.; flow zogal. per minute. 
Elevation : of flow, 46 ft. A, T. ; pressure head about 51.7 ft. 

Hammond, Darker well. — Depth, 297 ft. ; flow 24 gal. per min- 
ute ; pressure 4 lbs. per sq. in. ; pipe 2-in. reduced to 

Elevation : of flow, about 44 ft. A. T. 

Hatnmond, i \-- miles S. of Eastman' s well. — Depth, jog ft. ; pipe 
2-in, : flow 30 gal. per minute ; pressure is 5.5 lbs. to sq. 
in. = 12.65 f^- '' temperature 72°. 

Hammond, ij^ milei S. 0/ L. J. Way' swell. — Depth, 140 ft.; 
3 gal. per minute, temperature 69°. 

Hammond, ^ miles S. S. W. of. Dr. Hermann' s well. — Impossible 
to obtain accurate data except pressure ; pressure 8.5 lbs. 
per sq, in. = 19.5 ft. 

Hammond. s miles S.S.W. of, IV./. tVilinol'swell.— Depth, 370 + 
ft.; pipe 2-in. reduced to i-in,; flow said to be 40 gal. per 
minute ; pressure 2 ft. above ground is 7.7 lbs. persq. in. ; 
with some small leaks in pipes flows at 14 ft. above 
ground. Would doubtless flow about 20 ft. aboveground. 

Hammond, Oitwell, samples examined Feb. 20, 1902. — 
Section preserved in glass jars show : 


Clays 45-55 

Sands and gravel 85-iao 

Yellow loam I73 

Water-bearing sand 294 

Coarse sand j68 

Coarse sand and gravel 475 

The same, more sandy 500-513 

5 fl. bed of bard blue day at about 570 

" Pepper and salt " sands SF*^ J 

Subterranean Waters of Louisiana 229 

mmand, Pushee's well. — Depth, 325 ft. ; flow, March, 1901, 
through a ij4-in, pipe, 14}^ gal. per minute; i>^-in. 
pipe, i^% gal. ; April, 1901, through a ^-in, pipe, 4,^ 
gal.: K-in. pipe, 14^4 gal. ; i^.i-in. pipe, i5j^ gal. 

I'atalbany, }i mile IV. of Station, Natalbany Lumber Co. well. — 
I Depth, unknown: pipe i^^-in. ; flow, 2 gal, per minute. 
This well, 3 miles north of Hammond, marks the uorthern 
limit of the proven artesian territory of this section. 
|Hbfi Rouge, Waterworks, 2 wells. — Old well put down in 1892 ; 
depth 758 ft. : water rises to within 6 ft. of surface, i. e. 
approximately 30 ft. A. T, Capacity estimated at 500,000 
I gal. daily ; cost $4,000. 
{ Analysis by B. B. Ross ili92 shows in one gallon : 
. Graias. 

I Total solid matter 14.3175 
t Mineral matter 13.1597 
Organic and volatile matter J-1578 

Silica 1-3413 

PotMti aaji 

Soda 5.9939 

Lime 5009 

Magnesia 2939 

Oxide* of l-eand Al 5056 

Phosphoric acid 0,1196 

Sulpharic acid 1.8B19 

Chlorine 4655 

Oxygen, oxidizing organic matter 04338 

Nitrogen, albnminoid ammonia oOBrjfi 

Nitrogen as free ammonia 00519 

Nitrogen as nitrates 00193 

Sulphuric acid and chlorine combined as : 

PotaBEtum sulphate 4171 

Sodium sulphate 3.0033 

Sodium chloride 7494 

This well has an 8-in. pipe for 386 ft.: 6 in, pipe for 
304 ft.; 4j4-inch pipe for 68 ft. New well starts with 10- 
in. pipe and is 6 in. the rest of the way down ; flows at 
surface about 35 - ft, A. T, The two wells are said to be 
capable of furnishing 1 ,000,000 gal. daily, 
n Rtmge, about j miles east of. — The comparative height of 
this well and the two at Baton Rouge cannot be now given 


Geological Survhv of Louisiana 

for want of an accurate spirit-level line connecting the 
two localities. It is surprising, however, in view of the 
low head at the Baton Rouge wells, to see this one flowing 
from an inch pipe with so much vigor. 

Baker, ^ miie S. of station, well al old mill. — Depth, 850 ft.; a-in. 
pipe ; has flowed freely 16 ft. above present faucet. It 
furnishes now, large quantities of water. 
Elevation : pressure head, about 100 ft. A. T. (Baker station 
given by Gannett as 82 ft. A. T.) 

Baker. — Driven wells, 150 ft. deep, furnish fair water. 

Baker. — Bored wells, 25 to 40 ft., deep yield very impure water. 

Zackary.- — Wells here, some as deep as zoo ft , have to be pumped. 
Most of the water used is from shallow bored wells. 

Bayou Sara. — Well just S. E. of R. R. station, 240 ft, deep; 
passed through gravel at 100 ft.. It is pumped. Darton 
gives the following data from one well at this place : 
Depth, 736 ft.; pipe 4-in.; yield 347 gal.; height of water 
[above mouth of well?] +2 ft.; temperature 63°. For 
another he gives simply depth 450 ft, and "height " +1 ft. 

Wells West of the Mississippi 

Tkibodaux. Ice Factory well. — Depth, 227 ft.; passed through 

moderately fine bluish sand all the way down ; water 

impotable on account of various salts ; stands 13 ft. 

below the surface ; used for condensing. 
Glencoe. — Clendenin gives a section of an artesian well at this 

place furnished by Dr. Simmons. It reaches coarse 

sand and gravel and water at 612 ft. 
Morgan City, station east of. — Said to have passed through very 

coarse gravel, heavy bed, at 500 ft. 
Marksville. — Darton gives a well at this place a depth of 800 ft. 

with no further comment. 
Delta. — Darton mentions a t200 ft. well at this place, with " no 


Sdbtkrranran Waters of I^ufsiANA 

Elevation : Bench mark on pine tree about one-fourth mile 
north of the R. R. station reads 114.60 ft. C. D. With 
this as a starting point, levels were run to Campbell House 
well, .'. top of curbing 132.8 C. D.; depth to water 66.5 
ft.; hence height of water, 66.3 ft. C. D. = about 45.4 
ft- A. T. 

Height of planking over Court House well, 133.66 C. 
D. ; depth to water 67,1 ft.; hence, 66.56 = height of 
water C. D. or 45.6a ft. = height of water in C. H. well 
above tide. 

Lake Providmce well No. j. — The most interesting well section 
of this region is the one described by E. W. Hilgard iu 
House Executive Documents, ist session 48th Congress, 
vol. 19, 1S83, page 494. No mention, however, is made 
of encountering water-bearing strata : 
Allavium : 
N on -calcareous clayey silt with abundant vegetable mat- 
ter, not lignitized 0-56 

Port Hudson : 

Coarse sand with gravel and grains of lignite. A clay 

streak occurs at 82.5-S1.6 S6-'°9 

Upper Claiborne (Tertiary) : 
Whitish greensaud marl. Du washing and settling the 
greensand falls to the bottom, the red 8and occu- 
pies the middle and the ciilcareous debris lies on top, 137-133 
Green sand marl like the last with calcareous concre- 
tions containing shell fragments 133-135 

Concretions from marl bed with shell fragments. 145-150 

Blnish clay with lignite grains 158-160 

Fine sand of a clay color, with greensand 166-176 

Bluish clayey silt with lignite grains ... 176-181 

From what has already been said in the early part of 
this report, it is quite safe to say that water might be 
found in the Cocksfield beds below the Jackson (which 
Hilgard has called "Upper Claiborne") at a depth of per- 
haps not over 1000 ft. The grave question is as to the 
character of such water in the very midst of the old 
Mississippi Em bay men t. 
^^,ake Providence. —VJeU sunk March-April, 1901 ; log kept by 

233 Geological Survey of Louisiana ^^H 

Mr. Jno, L. Kennedy; depth, 112 ft,; water rises T^^ 
within about 15 ft. of the surface, though shows fluctua- 
tions with river ; section 93 ft. is as follows : 

Feet ^^_ 

Black, blue, red loam 10 ^^^| 

Fine sand iq ^^^^| 

Coarse, water-bearing sand 34 ^^^H 

"Concrete" 38 ^^H 

Water- bearing sand 77 ^^^^| 

" Concrete " 79 ^^^^| 

Sand 85 ^^H 

"Concrete" 86 

Water sand 93 

"Abandoned at 112 ft.; the water being found most loo 
ferruginous for all round purposes." 

Jeaneretle, Moresi's barnyard well. — Depth, 140 ft.: pipe, I'^-in.; 
flow, Feb. 16, 1901, 7>"i gal. perminute ; temperature, 70°. 
See Table of Analyses given below (page 251.) 
Elevation: of station 18 ft. A.T.; well 13.2 below station, 

hence, flow is about 5 ft. A. T. ^^_ 

Jeaneretle, Moresi' $ foundry well. — Depth, 700 ft. ^^^| 

Section given as follows : ^^^| 

Clay 40 ^H 

Sand and gravel to 300 ^^^H 

Blue and gray clay shells and red water. , .to 660 ^^^H 

Gravel to... 700 1 

See Table of Analyses given below (page 251.) 
Elevation : 5.5 ft. below R. R. station; water stands witbin 5 
or 6 ft. of the surface ; hence, water is about 8 ft. A. T, 
Jeanerelie, Ice Factory well. — Pipe 8-in. Clendenin gives this 
well section as follows : 


Red clay to 15 

Mottled clay and sand to 95 

Organic bed. . , , to 

Sand and gravel to 

Yellow day to , 

Elevation ; flow from base of;cap, 7,69 ft. below r 
tiou or about 10.5 ft. A. T. 


taneretle, j miles S. of, Kilgore plantation. — Section as follows : 

CUj So 

Gr»vel to 86 

Clay, fall of shells to J36 

IKek' Iberia, Ice-works wells. — We had no opportunity of fiiidiiig 
out the exact size and depth of these wells. They flow, 
al first, at a height of S.4 ft. below the R. R. station or 
about 13 ft. A. T-i but the water is rather chalybeate and 
soon clogs up the pipes. 

Darlon gives as depth of a New Iberia well, 600 ft. 
New wells have beeu put in at the water-works, but 
those cognizant with facts of drilling were not present at 
the time of our visit. 

'^/ayelte water-works wells. — We have here an instance of lack 
of care in leaving the wells accessible for cleaning. The 
first gave out because it became clogged, probably with 
sand. Hence a second well was drilled very close to the 
first and it proved a success. We were told that the new 
well was 240 ft. in depth and had an 8-in casing. 
Elevation 1 of station, 48 ft.; of water in well. 27 ft. + A. T. 

TLa/ajietle Compress and Storage Co's well. — Depth, 125 ft.; water 
surface, 25 ft. below surface of ground. 

behusas, — Several wells ; depth about 135 ft.; gravel struck at 
about 90 ft.; water rises to within 35 or 40 ft. of surface, 
i.e. lo+ft. A. T. 

Washington. — Section given : 

Quicksand to 18 

Gravel to 1 94 

Blevation : water rises to within 11 ft. of surface or about 
30 + ft. A. T. 

2,U Ghqlogical Sukvey Of Louisiana 

Abbeville Court House well.—WeW about i63-j ft. A. T. 
section : 


Clay to t5 

Fine sand to. 80 

Clay to 8a 

Hard layers of clay altemating with sand. to 139 

Coarse white sand with white pebbles . . . .to 160 

Reddish clay and " rock" to Mo 

The upper bed here aloue furnishes water; exact height 
of the latter could not be told, certainly it lacks several 
feet of overflowing. 

Abbeville, 9 miles west of. — On Mr, Jno. Waltham's place W. 

>5, S. E. %, Sect. 32, 12 S,, 3 E.. are several wells. 

The land is here about 10 ft. A. T., aud the general well 

section according to Mr. Moresi is about as follows 


Clay to 30 

Gray sand to 40 

Clay to 45 

White sharp sand and gravel to 75 and deepei 

Even at this low level the water does not overflow. 
Rayne, Chapius' well. — Depth, 210 ft. with lo-ft. strainer ; water 

stands 16 ft. below surface. 
Elevation : of station, according to Gannett, 41 ft. A. T., well 

about 2 ft. below, hence, water in well about 23 ft. A. T. 
Rayne. Hippolite Richard's rcf//.— This is 3 miles E. N. E. of 

Rayne. Depth, 200 ft.; water stands within 17.5 ft. 

of surface. 
Elevation; of surface of water in well about 22.5 ft. A. T., 

based on spirit-level line run from Rayne to mouth of well. 

CrowUy, Railroad well. —Xie^ih, 173 ft. Water usually rises to 
within 5 or 6 ft. of surface. 
Elevation : of water, about 2+ ft. A. T. 

Crowley, Ice Factory well. — Depth, 600 ; unsatisfactory ; pipe w 
drawn to the usual 170-180 ft. depth. 


Subterranean Waters ov Louisiana 335 

^rowley, 15 miles N. E. of, at Long Point. — One Sin. and 
tbree 6-iB. wells. Water at 180 ft. ; rises to within 26 
ft. of the surface. 

'^Crtrwley, j miles E. of. — Two wells pass through logs at depth of 
168 and 202 ft. respectively In the first, beneath the 
168 ft. log, 7 ft. of water-bearing sand was encountered; 
water rising to within 7 ft. of surface, 

fGtejiJan.j miles S IV. of. Wilkinson' swell. — Depth, 190ft. ; pipe, 
8-iii. ; flow, 8 -I- gal. per minute : temperature, 73°. 
filevation : of flow. 6.9 ft. A. T. Determine by spirit-level 
line from Gueydan ; B. M. on station, according to South- 
ern Pacific R. R,. 9.07 ft. A. T. 


Gueydan. 6 or ■^ miles E. of. Donnelly plac 
6-in. wells. Water said to rise a ii 

Two 8-in. and two 
the surface. 

Oriza, i mile S. W. of,fno. Wendling's well. — Pipe, 6-in ; flow, 
i.2_ft. above surface; 20 gal, per minute. 
Elevation : of Oriza (S. P. R. R.) 24 ft. A. T. By spirit-level 
line, top of well is 11.4 ft. A. T. 

Oriaa, i miles S. W. of, D. f. Seanlin's well.— 

Elevation : surface of water, 12.3 ft. A. T. : line from Oriza. 

Orixa, 2 miles S. S. W. of, F. Seanlin's well.' — 
Elevation : surface of water, 12 ft. A. T., leveled from Oriza. 

Jennings. — The number of deep wells about Jennings is very 
large. It is entirely out of the question to enumerate even 
one-tenth of them here, 

Mr. Carey gave us the following statement regarding 
his first three wells ; 
0-115 ft,— Clay, with shells at about 50 ft., with vegetable matter, 

115-160 ft.— Quicksand above, gravelly below. 
160-180 ft.— Bluish sandy gravel. 
180-930 ft.— Sandy clay. 
360 ft.— C.ravel. 
The shells spoken of so frequently by drillers in this 
region consist mainly of Rangia cuneata, a brackish water 

236 Geological Survey of Louisiana ^^H 

form already spoken of in Special Report No. I. As^^^^ 
rule, we believe these shells are encountered in greatest 
number about 90 ft. below the surface. 
Elevations at which the water stands varies much in pumping 
season, but perhaps as an average the height of the water 
in the wells down the track three-fourth mile E. of the 
station may be taken. March, 1901, the water stood 6 ft. 
8^ in. below the flume of this well March. 1902, it stood 
7 ft. iij^ in. below the same datum point. No spirit 
leveling was done here, but we believe that from the R, 
R. track and station elevation, an estimate of 19 ft. A.T. 
would be about right for the surface of the water. 

Jennings, j miles E. S. E. of. — Welt being put down Feb. fl^^H 
1900, by Mr. Brechner showed : ^^^H 

ReddiA. rellow and gray mottled c^lay y> ^^^^H 

Becoming leas tenacious with fragments of fossils, ^^^^^| 

Ratigia, Htlix, Balanvs. to 90 ^^^^^| 

Blue KBnd ; for depths not delenuiued ^^^H 

Jennings, p miles S. S. W. oj. — The region about Jennings being 
perhaps about centrally located in the region of deep wells 
for rice culture, a few words of explanation of the methods 
here used in sinking the same may not be out of place. 

On Mar. 3, 1902, I saw a well 211 ft. in depth practi- 
cally completed in one day. Plate XLIf shows Ihe"rig" 
in operation. The well was about 9 miles S, S, W. or 2 
Y> miles N. W. of Lake Arthur. 

The process in brief was as follows : 

A long pit, perhaps 10 ft. wide by 20 long, was dug or 
scraped for a temporary reservoir. This was divided into 
two compartments, connected, however, in one or two 

The derrick erected and engine placed, a 3-in. pipe with 
a broad arrow-head bit attached to one end is hoisted up 
by rope and drum, and the water hose of equal size is 
attached to the upper end. Uy a simple device, this pipe 
is rotated by power from the engiue while water is pumped 
from the pit just described through the hose, down the 



pipe into the ground. A; 
disengaged by ihe bit is 1 
surface by the jet. Whe 
sunk into tlie ground ne 

the pipe descends, the matter 
,-ashed out and brought to the 
1 the pipe, say 13 ft. long, is 
irly its whole length, another 

section from 12 to 20 ft. long is attached and the rotating 
and pumping continued till it too is sunk almost to the sur- 
face of the ground. And so the 3- in. pipe is put down till 
by the appearance of the sand, or the feeling of the pipe 
when rotated, there isan indication that the water-bearing 
sand is reached. 

Mention should be made here of the care .ihown in one 
of the compartments of the pit or pool referred to above, 
to see that plenty of earth or clay is mixed with the water 
;ust before it is pumped through the hose into the pipe. 
The pres.sure from Ihe engine pumps is sufficient to force 
this muddy water into the sandy layers and cause them 
to stand firmly and not cave as they would be sure to do 
if only clear water was used. It usually occupies the 
attention of one man to keep the ingoing waters well stirred 
up and turbid. The other compartment of the pit con- 
tains that portion of the water that has just come out 
from the well, hence contains the drillings, if such they 
may be called, derived from the well. The same water as 
it flows into the first compartment is again used after 
being properly roiled or mixed with soil. 

Having attained the desired depth, the 3-in. pipe is 
removed, section by section, and the 6in.. loin., or 12- 
in. casing is hoisted up and sunk into the hole made by 
the 3-in. pipe and its arrow-head bit. The hole is often 
nearly 14 in. in diameter. 

The first one, two, or three sections of this large pipe 
or "casing" are perforated and form the strainer near 
the bottom of the completed well. If the strainer is to be 
three lengths long, say 60 ft., care is taken to insert in the 
casing three lengths of 3-in. pipe and to fill the space 
between this inner and the outside pipe so that it cannot 
fill with earthy matter while descending. Length after 
length of casing is screwed on and lowered until the 


desired amount is sunk into the ground. In case it does 
not descend readily of its own accord, resort is had to ^^^ 
rotating the casing by machinery precisely as the 3-ill^^^H 
pipe was rotated in the beginning. The lower margin O^^^H 
the casing is cut like saw teeth, so, that it answers iaiily^^^^ 
well as a drill or auger. The upper end of the 3-in. 
pipe within, carries a conical sleeve, so that it can be 
caught readily by the thread end of other lengths that are 
lowered afterwards and coupled up with the three lengths 
already spoken of as being in the strainer part of the cas- 
ing. The shavings can now be jetted out. the interior 
pipe withdrawn, and the well " pumped " to withdraw all 
the muddy impurities forced down while drilling as well 
as fine sand that might eventually fill up the strainer. 

This well was put down to 231 ft. primarily, but the 
casing was lowered to 2 1 1 ft. only, for fear of the clogging 
effect of the fine sands below the 215 ft. mark. ^^^_ 

The section here observed was as follows : ^^^^| 

Soil and sub-soil 3 ft. ^^^H 

Yellow clay 3 ft. ^^^H 

Tough cluys, bluish So ft. ^^^^^M 

Sands and gravel 125 ft. ^^^^^H 

Fiue sanda 6 ft.-h ^^^H 

Flakes of shelly matter at a depth of 200 ft. were not 
uncommon. They seem to belong to Mactra. Rotten 
* wood. Rangia, and Unio occur at depths of 90 to 100 ft. 
in wells hereabouts. Plate XLITI shows bow, after the 
well is cleared of shavings, the fine sand is pumped out 
and the well made to yield its greatest supply, before being 
paid for by the owner of the place. In other words, the 
well is being "tested." 

Lake Arthur, 1% miles N. IV. 0/. — This reference is to R. E, 

Camps' well, S. E. ,'<. Sect 8. n S.. 3 W., Depth. 215.7 

ft ; water-bearing sand, 40 ft. thick. 

Elevation : top of pipe, 17.5 ft, A. T. as determined by spirit 

leveling from Lake Arthur. Water surface, 8 ft. A. T. 

Late Arthur, _^ miles N. of. — Three wells in a row. 

Elevation: lop of pipe, 16.5 + ft. A. T. (Lake Airthur). j 
water in well about 7.5 ft. A. T. Feb, ; 










1$%^// Beach. — We were not able to call at this place, but know 
that there are several flowing wells here. Ou the opposite 
side of Lake Arthur wells are said to flow fully 5 ft. A. T. 
Wthk, E. L. Brown's well, center 0/ Sect. jo. 
Section : 

Clay to 65 ft. 

Sand groning coarser Ijelow to. . . . 130 ft. 

Elevation : water stood 6.82 ft. below top of rail in front of 
station, Feb. 26, 1901 = about 25,18 ft. A. T. 
I Welsh, y'2 mile E. of. Cooper's well. 
Section : 

Clay to,... go ft. 

Coarse sand, clay, sand and finally blue sand 

at a dcptb of 140-145 ft. 

|H'*r/i>i, yi mile E. of station, Field's well. 
Section : 

Clay to go ft. 

Sand, coarse below to 164 ft. 

Elevation : of water, Feb. 26, 1901, 25.38 ft, A. T., i. e. 6.62 
ft. below station. 
I Welsh, 2 miles S. E. of, north well. Abbott's place. 

Elevation r water surface. Feb. 26, 1901, 7.08 ft. below R. R. 
station or about 24.9 ft. A. T. 
\Welsk, 9 miles N. N. W. of. 
Section : 

CUy to 190ft. 

Sand to 235 ft. 

Welsh, r% miles. Herald's well. — Perhaps ij4 miles E. S. E. of 
the station. 

Elevation : Water stood, Feb. 26. rgoi, 6. 9 ft. below station, 
or about 25 ft. A. T. 
Kinder, i miUN. of, McRill's well. — Depth, 150 + ft. 

Elevation : of Kinder, 49.3 ft, A. T.; water surface, 27,1 ft, 
A.T,, Mar. 8, 1902. 
^Kinder. Tillotson's well. — Depth, 13S ft.; depth to water from 
top of pipe, 21 ft. 10 iu.; temperature, 68°. 
Elevation ; of water, Mar. 7, 1902, 25.4 ft. A, T, 

Z40 Gbological Survey of Louisiana ^^^| 

China, McBimey's wells. — A number of wells in this vicini^it I 
ranging in depth from 140 to 175 ft. and in size from 6 in. 
to 8 in., in which water rises lo within 14 to 23 ft. of sur- 
face depending on local topography. 
Oberlin. — Mr. Dennis Moore says that the R, R. tank well is 
190 ft. iu depth, and that water rises to within 10 ft. of 
the surface, or about 60 ft. A. T. 

We are inclined to think that in general the water level 
would be somewhat lower than this. No hopes can be 
entertained of obtaining a flowing well at these compara- 
tively shallow depths. 
Lake Charles, i mile N. of. — ^The Bradley and Ramsay Lumber 
Co. well, about 500 ft. deep, has the greatest flow of any 
well we have measured in the state, 210 gal. per minute ; 
pipe 6-in. 
See analyses given below. 
Elevation : 10.5 ft. A. T. (Based on tide gauge reading at 
Lake Charles, by G. D. H.) 
Lake Charles. Reiser's Machine Shop well. 
Section : 

Sand to.... 96 ft. 

Red sand with pebbles to loi ft. 

Grey sand and clay alternating to . . . 100 ft. 

Water with irony taste. See analysis given below. 
Elevation : of well about 13 ft. A. T.; known to flow to 17! 
A, T, and said to have flowed to 27 ft. A. T. 
Lake Charles, Judge Miller's well. — Pressure of 5.25 pounds ^ 
sq. ia.; flows 12 gal. per minute. 
Elevation: of present flow, 12 72 ft. A. T.; would flowj 
24.79 ft. A. T. 
West Lake, Perkins and Miller Lumber Co.'s well.—Vipe, 4-in, 
Elevation : Flows 10 ft. A. T. aud would doubtless flow 16- 
or more A. T. 
iVesl Lake, j miles N. W. u/:— Pipe, 8-in. 
Section : 

Hard clay met between 150 and 350 ft. 

Sbells .at 300 tt. 

Gravel at 360 ft. 

This is a very stroag flowing well. 

Subterranean Waters of Louisiana 241 

m. — Well reported as 540 ft. deep, with a Bow of 33 gal, per 

Sour Lake, Texas. / miles E. S. E. ^.^Depth, 1915 ft. ; pipe, 
4-in. : flow, 90 gal. per minute ; temperature, 84°. 

This well is said to have passed through a sticky green 
clay and encountered a rock bed on which the pipe is now 
standing. The water comes from just beneath the rock. 
The washings from the bottom of the well are light 
greenish sands with fine fragments of shells. The whole 
reminds us of Miocene Tertiary, though specimens are 
too fragmentary for sure identification. 

The temperature of the water from some of the wells at 
Sour Lake is said to be over 100°. 

Variation of Hhight of Water in Deep Wblls 

How determined. — Mr. Pacheco was in the field in S, W. Louisi- 
ana during the months of February, March, April and May, 1901. 
and February and March, 1902, keeping a record of Ihe variation 
in the height of the water in the deep wells of that region, pre- 
vious to the pumping season. Of the results obtained, only those 
concerning a few of the wells observed need be given , as they are 
fairly uniform for the whole region in question. 

The measurements were taken by means of a weighted tape 
line graduated to inches and fractions thereof, and the tables 
appended give distances from the lop of the pipe down to the 
water level. " 

Results. — As will be seen by the records appended, the water 
in these wells rose in the pipes until about the last part of April, 
1901, when it reached its maximum observed elevation. From 
that time on, and coincident with the opening of the pumping 
season, it began to subside, at first slowly and more or lessirreg- 
larly and then faster and more steadily as more and more wells 
began to be pumped, until it dropped below the pumps and no 
further measurements were possible. 

The influence of pumping on the height oi the water in the 
wells is well shown in thecaseof both Hammil'sand Lawson's 
wells at Jennings. The former is situated about 2% miles south 



Gbologicai. Survey of Lodisiana 

of the R. R. station and tbe latter i mile H. by the R. R. tn 
Although pumping had not begun in the neighborhood of those 
wells until the middle part of May, they began to decline at about 
the same time as the rest, although not so abruptly. 

The lasting effect of the intense and steady pumping, com- 
bined no doubt with the excessive dryness of several months pre- 
ceeding, is accountable for the low stage of the water of these 
wells even as late as February and March of 1902, just about a 
year after the first observations were made ; uone of these wells 
having yet reached the same height as at the corresponding date 
of the previous year. 


ON OF Height ok 


N Hammil's 


2 a MILBS 


H OF STxriOM, 








Feb. ii. 



Apr. 29- . «.m. 



Apr. ao. 





7 , 


30. a 








9 a.m. 


May .. .p 











J p.m. 


5' , 




5 p.m. 



'■ } p.m. 1 







10. 25 
















10 a.m. 









Water dropped be] 

ow pomp. 1 



Variation of Height of Water in Lawson*s Wbi,i„ i Mii<e East 

OF Station, Jennings, La. 

Apr. 21. 





1 In. 

10 a.m. 


May 2 . 

10 a.m. 



6 p.m. 


4.12 , 


3 p.m. 


1 7.25 


8 a.m. 



3:30 p.m. 



6 p.m. 



6 p.m. 


















7 a.m. 





: 3.5 


a. m. 





1 2.87 








4.75 1 




9 a.m. -4p.m. 





8 a.m. 


5.8 ' 

Feb. 22. 



2 p.m. 






6 p.m. 












Mav I. 

9 a.m. 


6.12 j 




II a.m. 



Mar. II. 




8 a.m. 





9- 125 

Wei^h, Bower's Wei^i, 

Fenton, La., Hawkeye Rice Mill 



Mar. 31 . 
May 5. 








Feb. 26 



May 12. 


Mar. 21 







Apr. 20 















. ' 8 a.m. 






10 a.m. 






II a.m. 






12 m. 






May 3 






















1-75 i 



































' In. 



Mar. 7 . 






Geological Survey of Louisiana 


Rkfbesentative Views on the Subject of 
Well Variation 

Last season, (1901), was one of unusual dryness in Louisi- 
ana, and especially during the months of May and June and con- 
sequently nearly al! wells were pumped most vigorously in order 
to furnish a sufEcient supply of water for irrigation purposes. 
The following communications have a special bearing on the sub- 
ject for the season of 1901 ; 

Covington, La. — Mr. Robert Wallbillick. Covington, Ls'., writes 
under date of Oct, 1, 1901, regarding the behavior of wells near 
Covington as follows : " I have not noticed any decrease in the 
flow of wells during the last few summer months, /'. e. the deep 

Opelousas. — Letter of L. E. Little, Opelousas, La.. October, 
1901 , states that the four deep wells in the vicinity of Opelousas 
are from 135 to 155 ft. in depth ; that the water rises to within 
35 to 45 ft. of the surface ; and that the wells furnished the 
usual amount of water during the dry season of 1901. 

Gueydan. — ]. P. Gueydan quoted, October, 1901. "There 
are at present about 50 wells in Vermillion parish, most of which 
are located near Gueydan. During the summer 1901 they gave 
entire satisfaction, furnishing an abundant supply of water and 
were lowered only 2 or 3 ft. A deep well for water should be 
bored until the stratumof gravel is reached, (about 170 ft. here), 
and theu as many more feet as the length of the strainer that is 
to be put in the well, usually about 50 to 60 ft. This would 
bring the well down to a depth of about 230 ft. Should the 
strainer be in sand instead of grave!, (we call them here "cheap 
wells "), the well would be checked after using one season. Ten 
or twelve inch casting is now very popular. It has been demon- 
strated that a larger and better quality yield is obtained from well 
water than from bayou water. The supply equalled the demand 
where one 8-in. well was used to irrigate 160 acres. Pumping 
began in the later part of May and ended only in September. 
But steady consecutive pumping was not necessary during the 
whole time. Salt water did not appear in the wells, but the 
bayou Queue Tortue water was salty for ten days. It is expected 
that ab:>ut 100 wells will be sunk here in 1902 .' ' 



£.11^ Arikur. — Letter of R. E. Camp, Lake Arthur. States 
that well levels were apparently lowered about 8 ft. by the 
pamps during 1901 ; no salt water appeared ; one S-in. well irri- 
gated 100 to 150 acres. 

Crowley. — Letter of Oct. 1, 1901, from G. S. Mann, Crowley, 
La. Reports that wells from 180-210 ft. deep were lowered dur- 
ing the summer ; that the supply was not at all times equal to 
the demand. Pumping lasted from June 15 to Sept. 15. No 
salt water appeared. The capacity of wells has been overesti- 
mated. An 8-in. well would water 50 or 60 acres. Wells 300 
ft. deep were not lowered during the summer. There is a super- 
iority of one well over another. 

Jennings. — Letter of October, 1901, by J. F. Riiter, Jennings, 
La. states that the surface of the water waslowered from 8-12 
ft. during the busiest pumping season ; that the extreme limits 
of pumping was from May 15 to Sept 15 ; that the supply fully 
satisfied the demand : that salt water appeared " no more than 
usual ;" that many wells will be put down in iqoa. 

W^/sA.— Letter from C. M. Field, Welsh, La. states that from 
May 3loMay24, the water level inthewelldropped from 7 ft. yiu. 
to 8 ft. below his datum point ; from June 6 to June 16, the drop 
continued, being from 10 ft. to 12 ft. 8 in. when it passed below 
his pump and hence could not be directly measured. He esti- 
tnates it stood from 5 to 4 ft. below his pUmp. About Sept. 25 
it again appeared in the pipe 12 ft. 8 in. below his datum 

liVM.— Letter from Mr. Bower, Welsh, La. states that the 
surface of the water in his well was 4 ft. i ^^ in. on May 3, that 
the surface gradually lowered during the earlier part of the 
month, standing at 4 ft. 4 in. on the 18th ; the latter part of the 
month showed a much more rapid lowering, so that May 30 the 
surface stood at 5 ft. 9 in. below his datum point. 

/vrn/u«.— Letter of Oct. 13, 1901. By Q.J. Mills, Fenton, 
La.: " The water level had gone down about 8 in, before we 
commenced pumping, May 26. In a very few days after we 
began to pump the water went below the pump and we had to 
prime it. But after the pump was primed, we got as much water 
as before. We irrigated 300 acres with one lo-in. well, and 


Geological Sdrvhy of Louisiana 


we are now threshing the crop, which is making a yield of 14 1 
per acre. We could not measure the water in our well during 
the summer after it went below the discharge pipe, but from 
reports from other wells we think 8 or 10 ft. is about the true 
lowering of the water level." 

0/k«. ^Letter of Mar. 15, 1902, by Bert McBirney, China, 
La,: "During the first two or three weeks of our pumping the 
water lowered about five ft. and stood at about the same level 
during the rest of the season . The water would rise two or three 
ft. if we stopped pumping for a few days. But upon pumping, 
again, the water would lower again to the extent mentioned 
above. The water now stands about 15 ft. below the surface, 
the same as it did last year. The extent to which the water 
lowered last year depended greatly on the well ; the wells that 
were put down far into the ground and had good coarse screens 
were affected but very little. The wells I described above are the 
average wells of the vicinity." 

Lake Cfiar!fs.— halter of Oct. 10, 1901, by A. V. Eastman, 
Lake Charles, La.: " During the drouth last summer the water 
in the deep wells was from 6 to 12 ft. lower than during the 
winter and spring ; and it is a fact that after we had a very 
heavy rain in July the water rose again to the same extent, and 
it is now considerably higher than during the drouth." 

In Mr. S. L. Carey's remarks before the Rice grower's Con- 
vention, at Lake Charles, Feb. 14, 1901, he said; " After try- 
ing 500 wells, 300 new, during the past season, which has broken 
all records for drouth and heat, we can claim success and victory 
for irrigation by wells. 

"Rainfall has been short nearly 20 inches each for the past 
two years, and May and June, which for 30 years have averaged 
6 in. each, May. A. D,, 1901, gave us only 0.35 of an in., and 
June barely one in. Is it any wonder the water level fell 10 to 
12 ft., necessitating that much lowering of the pumps. But the 
water was there in full supply. This made a change of pump 
necessary to submerge for priming. But notwithstanding all 
the difficulties success was assured." 

subtkbkanean waters of louisiana 247 

^Dbtailbd Study op Effbct of Pumping at Memphis 

tf r. Pacheco has been able to note the general effect of pump- 
ing in wells at considerable distances from each other as noted 
above. That the wells lowered greatly by the season's pumping 
is likewise manifest from the above communication. But we 
our own disposition the management of wells, 
,nd feet apart, so as lo watch with care the eilect 
ar as regards the water level of one and all the 

have not had at 
say a few thous; 
of pumping so i 

The Report o: 
byjno. Lundif, I 

the Water Works System of Memphis. Tenn. 
98, contains interesting facts on this subject that 
may be of interest to well men in general. He says, (p. i6): 

'■ I( all pumping were slopped, anJ auificienl time allowed to elapse, the 
water would rise in the wells to its staticlev-el. If the underground supply 
were a free reservoir of water under constant head, the time elapsing before 
the static bead was reached in the wells when pumping was stopped would 
l>e very short and simply dependent on the resistance encountered to flow 
in the well tubes and the (luanlily required to fill them, together with the 
pomp well. As obstruction increased by the water requiring to filter throngb 
the sand in seeking the well;, the time required to reach a static condition 
would be greater. 

" Thus, the ejilent of area drained by the wells is indicated by shutting 
down the pumps and noting the rate at which the water rises in seeking its 
static level. Were Ihc underground and well conditions known accurately, 
the area drained could be calculated from this rate of rise : and on the other 
tiand, if the area drained could be determined by another method. CUe gen- 
eral niidergroand and well frictions would become determinate. 

■' 11 has been possible to adapt both methods of investigation in the case 
of the wells at Memphis. First, by shutting down the pumps at the sta- 
tion, which was done on the morning of Mar. 6. 189S, at midnight, and 
iiig the levels at close intervals of time of the water as it rose in the sta- 
tion staudpipe connected with the pumping well. The result of this test 
~ «haHni in Fig. J4. froni which it will be noted that the water rose to a 
ot Oarty'^tL over where it stood when pumping was stopped, with 
rkable rapidity, after which it rose more slowly, showing that at first 
was forced up through the wells under the action of considerable 
pressure, indicating a correspondingly high head in the immediate vicinity 
of (he wells ; after whicli, it was evident that the water had lo percolate 
from a greater distance through the sand under the influence of a more and 
more distant head. The curve of rise indicates first an inerita effect due 
to starling the water in motion, then a rapid rise due to the head in the 
u! the wells, and then a gradual diminishing flow. 

^_ tion St. 

of ri 

! of the water under similar conditions observed at the 

Gbological Sdrvey of Louisiana 

ion Oct. 15. 1S91, before the lo-ia. welU were 

s al9c 

pumping s 
Bfaown on Pi^. 24. 

"A comparison of these two curves indicates that the head in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the wells was jfreater at the time of the test in 1891 than at 
the time of the recent test, and also that the slope of the artesian water 
surface was greater in 1891 than now. This may be accounted for partially 
by the fact that there are nuw many more wells in operation in Memphis 
than then, and a correspondingly greater draft is being inaile on tlie water 

borne by thearteaion sand atratum, which results in a lowering of the gen- 
eral head of the arterian hydraulic surface. 

To obtain the slope of the artesian hydraulic surface in the vicinity of 
Memphis, recourse was had to measurements on wells not connected iHth 
the waterworks system, by having the pumping stopped from such wells 
and giving the water sufficient lime to rise to approximately its static level. 
Pumping was of course going on from the waterworks wells during these 

"Fig. 35 shows the static level so observed" of various outlying wells 
while the level of the water in the waterworks wells remained at the level 
shown. The level of the water in the waterworks wells is shown over the 
origin of the diagram, and the levels of the outlying wells at their respec- 
live distances from the nearest operative well of the waterworks syalem. 
A curve traced through these points sho^^■s remarkable untfottnity and 


1 Ihe water slope towards the area drained by the waterworks 


■■ The fart is proven that at a diatance of from fiv« 
from aoy of the wjterworks wells the level of the arte 

K hundred fee 

■■' — =-^- 

— ^^ 


3 llll- 


3 ■ — — — ar>o™inD»iope of Artoolan HyOi-amie Surfaca 
M tiMr Merr^cn.. WBter>yorl,» »alla. Mar. leSB 

1 1 

n to such an extent as might jnUify the sinking of tli« additional welts. 
"II will be noted that the elevation ot the water in the wella gauged 
1 those of the waterworks system correaponds to the level to 


Geological Survey op Louisiana 

which the water rapidly rose on making the test at the pumping station 
already referred to, and the slope of the water plane from that point back, 
corresponds as to distance to the rising level in the station standpipe 
during the test plotted on time intervals. Prom these two curves interest- 
ing results may be deduced mathematically as to resistance to flow in the 
water bearing stratum. Por purposes of this report however, the evidence 
is conclusive as to the abundance of the supply and also as to its per- 






























00 00 «4 

ti l> O 





4; V 08 


Sa * 
aa '-^ 

O 00 













CO -S 

(0 ^ 

4^ 00 

t a 

S — — o c 
;> c/3 c« u 


vO Q 

• • 








2^ s? <;? 

• • • 
•-• o -^ 

o o 













• • 

« O 



O lO 

^ NO* 




























»0 O 

• • 

o ^ 

c o 



o o 


4) M 

§ 8 


o o 


2- % 
6 o 





























? 2 S 

• • • 

o o « 


lO 00 « 

o o o 



S * J 




o o 























• • 

lO «o 









»« »« 












•^ «4 


• • 














f^ ^H 











»^ 4-* 4-t 

















ed o 

*^ ^ 





















(A (fl 

o o 



(0 00 

8 u 

O 4/ 

en > 

3 8 


• ^ 3 4> T 

= • ? 5 -? 
« £ fc 2 fu 

^ -tiii £ 4> g 



O V r\ /^ rt 







No. VII 


By R. a. Harris, Ph. D. 
(U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey) 



The tides in the Gulf of Mexico are remarkable for the size of 
their diurnal constituents. lu fact, along the Gulf coast from 
western Florida to Yucatan, the diurnal wave is so much larger 
than the semidiurnal, that at most places only one high water 
and one low water occur duringa lunar day, especially when the 
declinationof the moon is considerable. Thesemidaily waveisdue 
chiefly to two causes : the disturbance produced by the tidal forces 
acting upon the waters of the Gulf and the disturbance produced 
by the Atlantic Ocean acting through the Straits of Florida. 
Because of its smalluess, the semidaily portion of the tide will 
not be further noticed iu this paper. The diurnal portion of the 
tide is due to a stationary wave found in the canal-like basin 
composed of the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the con- 
necting basin. The open end of this canal is marked by the 
Windward Islands. The rise and fall of the Atlantic Ocean in 
this vicinity produces the stationary wave just mentioned and 
this wave accounts for the fact that diurnal high or low water 
is nearly simultaneous over the Gulf of Mexico. Of course the 
tide at places situated upon those comparatively small bodies of 
water which communicate with the Gulf, occurs somewhat later. 
For instance, the time required for the tide wave to traverse Miss- 
issippi Sound and Lake Borgne as far as the east end of the Rig- 
olets is about five hours,— judging by the depths of the water and 
noting the probable delaying eSecls at Cat Island Channel and 
Grand Island Pass. According to the Coast Survey Tide Tables, 
it is diurnal high water in that portion of the Gulf which lies 
between Mobile Bay and the mouth of the Mississippi River about 
four hours before the moou passes over the meridian of this 
locality, her declination being nearly extreme north. Near the 
times of extreme southern declination, the lower transit of the 
moon should be used in place of the upper. We should there- 
fore expect high water at the entrance to the Rigolets to occur 
at about one hour after the time when the moon crosses the merid- 


Ghological Survby of Louisiana 


ian, the declination being near a maximum. The consideri-" 
tion of conserving and losing wave energy leads one to infer 
that the amount of rise and fall should be increased along the 
shelving border to the deep portion of the Gnlf. but afterwards 
diminished in bodies connected with the Gulf by passes. Accord- 
ing to the Coast Survey Tide Tables, the range of the diurnal 
wave at Port Eads. near deep water, is 1.7 feet : at Cat Island 
Light it is 2.0, and at Bitoxi, 2,2 feet. By the time the tide 
reaches the entrance to the Rigolets the range should be consider- 
ably less than the range at Biloxi or Cat Island Light. 

Let us now attempt to infer the tidal movements in the Rig- 
olets and Lake Pontchar train. The length of this lake is 40 
Statute miles and the area about 603 square miles. The average 
depth is about 10 feet. Two passes, remarkable for their depth, 
connect the lake with LakeBorgne. Thefirst isthe Rigolets eight 
and three-quarters miles long and whose smallest cross section 
is about 1,500 X 30 = 45,000 square feet. Fort Pike Light is 
near the west end of this pass aud a railroad crosses near the 
east end. Off Fort Pike Light the depth is 95 feet. The second 
is Chef Menteur Pass, seven miles long and having a minimum 
cross section of about 640 x 30 = 19.200 square feet. Its great- 
est depth is 90 feet. The average depth from shore to shore of 
either pass is abont 30 feet. Depths like these show the eroding 
or scouring effect of tidal streams. 

Assuming the range attide at the east end of the Rigolets to 
be a foot or more, it can be shown that true wave motion cannot 
exist in this rather short pass because too large a portion of the 
water particles have paths or orbits extending beyond its ends. 
In true wave motion, the water particles flow half of the time 
uphill and half of the time downhill. In this short pass they 
must flow down hill most of the time ; moreover, the flow may be 
regarded as steady during a limited time. If there were no 
resistance in the pass. Torricelli's theorem would apply and the 
velocity at the smallest cross section would be 

V = y/TglJ^C^ = 8.02i,S ■v/j-.-f.,. 
feet per second, where i.. i,, denote height displacements for the 
portions of Lakes Borgue and Poutchartrain near the ends of the 
pass reckoned from mean water level. On account of resistance, 

Thb Tidbs in the Rigolrts 
e velocity is. for a pass of nniform cross section approximately 

V = 8.0215 *^f.-r„v'r+o.oo7s6s -^f"^^- 

The coeflEcient 0.007565 is an empirical number deduced by 
Eytelwein from experiments made by several parties on 
the Bow of streams. [For long streams the 1 under the 
radical sign can be neglected and then the formula becomes 

1 f = 92^ v' mean depth". «lope of »urricl] 

■ For the Rjgolets 

I V = 8.0215 v'f.-f,. 

and for Chef Menteur pass 


: 2.35^t.~L 

V = 2.50 »/f,-f,.. 

•These two velocities weighted according to the cross sections 
of the passes give 
V = 2-32 %/f^^.. 
As an approximation to the truth, we may assume the 
velocity curve to be a simple sine or cosine curve. We then 
have for the tidal volume entering or leaving through both 
^^L 2.32 X maximum v'f-f^X - X 64,200 X 44,714 cubic feet. 
^^B|4,7i4 is the number of seconds in a half lunar day. Upon per- 
^^■brming the indicated multiplications, this expression becomes 
^^■1,240,000,000 X maximum \^(,~[„ cubic feet. 
^^m This volume divided by the area of the lake gives 0.252 x 
^^ maximum v'f.-f.. as the amplitude of the tide in the lake. Con- 
sequently thisamplitude is about one-fourth of the amplitude out- 
side. The angle whose cosine is this ratio is about 75*. and so 
slack water in the passes and high water inside occur about 5 
lunar hours after the lime of high water outside or in the passes. 
This shows that f„ is very small at the time of outside high water, 
and justifies the statement just made about the amplitudes. 
When the outside range is 1.5 feet, the range inside .should be 
about 0,4 foot. The maximum velocity in the Rigolets computed 
by the above formula is 1.9 feet per second, and in Chef Menteur 
pass, 2.1 feet. 

If Lake Pontchartraiu were several or many times deeper than 
I it actually is, there would then be no sensible wave motion ; that 

Geological Sukvby of Lodisiana 



is, the surface would remain practically level rising and falli 
accordiug as the water were flowing inward or outward through 
the passes. In this assumed case high or low water in the lake 
would occur, according to a computation just made, 5 hours, or 
nearly one-fourth of a tidal period, later than high or low outside 
or in the passes. lu a shallow body of water, if suiEcienlly 
extended, wave motion will be produced ; a wave will be gener- 
ated at the end of this lake near the passes. The inflowing 
water loses its motion because of the sudden widening aud shoal- 
ing. The entering volume aud the inertia of the waters of the 
lake produces a slope in the surface of the lake near the passes, — ■ 
the slope, for a large lake aud very small pass, attaining a 
maximum value at nearly the lime of high water outside. At 
this time the waters of the near or east end of the lake are being 
most accelerated. According to the theory of wave motion, the 
water particles in the near end of the lake will attain their max- 
imum velocity one quarter of a tidal period later, and it will then 
be high water. This indicates that for the east end of Lake Pont- 
chartrain high water should occur when the flood current ceases 
in the passes or about 5 hours after high water just outside or in 
the passes. In a similar way the generation of the low-water phase 
may be considered. To find the time of high water at any other 
part of the lake, assumed to be shallow, or rather, propagative, we 
must add to the eastern end time the time of transmission to the 
point in question. Consequently the tides at the western end of 
the lake should be about three hours later than at the eastern end. 
and S hours later than outside or in the passes. This delay may 
be slightly diminished because the lake is perhaps not altogether 
propagative. On account of the small portion of the tidal period 
required for a free wave to traverse the lake, the range all over 
must be almost the same, viz. 0.4 foot when the range at the 
outer entrances to the passes is 1.5 feet. 

On Jan. 29, 30, 1901, tides and currents in the Rigolets were 
observed for 24 consecutive hours by Professor G, D, Harris and 
Mr, J, Pacheco. The former made observations at Fort Pike 
Light, near the inner end of the pass, and the latter at the rail- 
road drawbridge near the outer end. The time used was 90th 
meridian, which is practically local time. The moon reached 





' , 

















s — 

1 — . 










_ .^ 

— •- 





' — 1 


■ — 



■ — 








26o Geological Sorvby of Louisiana 

her greatest north declination on Jan. 30. The times of 
transit are : Jan. 29. 7 hrs. 4S roins., tower ; 20 hrs. 16 mins., 
upper. Jan. 30, 8 hrs. 44 mins., lower ; 21 hrs., 13 mins., upper. 

By means of the accompanying plotting of the observations, 
we see that high water throughout the Rigolets and maximum 
westward flow, occur 2 or 3 hours after the time of the moon's 
upper transit. The velocities of the flood, or west-going stream, 
are written above the axis, and the ebb below. They are 
expressed in feet per second. At the west end, there were mod- 
erate W. S. W. breezes ou the evening of the 29th ; stiff west- 
erly breeze at 7 A. M. of the 30th ; heavy N. W. wind most of 
the time from 10 A. m, to 9 p. M, At the east end there were 
light W. S. W. breezes on the evening of the 29th ; breezes 
S, W. on the 30th until 10 A. m.; 10:30 strong N. W. gale last- 
ing until 3:30 V. M.; wind died out at 7:30 P. m. 

As neither station is situated where the cross section is a mini- 
mum, we should, for this reason, expect the observed velocities 
to be less than those given by the formula. At Fort Pike Light, 
however, the observed velocity is probably greater than the 
average velocity for the cross secliou there, because of the 
sharpness of the point around which the current moves. 

It will be noticed that the inferred times of the tides in the 
passes do not excactly agree with the observed times ; for, infer- 
ence makes the tides on days of extreme declination follow the 
moon by approximately one hour whereas these observations indi- 
cate an interval of two or three hours. About 40 minutes of this 
discrepancy is explained by the fact that diurnal tides are behind 
their average position with respect to the moon in the winter 
and summer seasons, but as much ahead in the fall and spring. 
The remainder of the discrepancy is probably largely due to dis- 
turbances caused by the winds. 

As might have been expected, the diagram shows that the tide 
at Fort Pike Light is but little later than the tide at the draw- 
bridge, and not 5 hours or so later, as we have inferred the tide 
in the eastern part of the lake to be. 







Introductory Remarks 265 

Field Work 265 

WBI.1; Sbctions 265 

New Orleans 265 

Breanz Bridge, Anse-La-Butte 266 

Sicily Island 268 

Bayou Cheniere 268 

Jennings 268 

Crowley and Prairie Mamou 268 

Jennings Gusher 269 

Spring Hill 270 

Lake Charles 270 

Sulphur Mines 272 

Beaumont, Tex 272 

Sour Lake, Tex 273 



Plate XIJV. 
Fig. 27. 

Anse-La-Butte 267 

Stratigraphy of the Jennings Oil Field ... 269 


Field Work 

Our field season in Louisiana closed before Mar. 15, 1902, and, 
owing to the rapid developments in the state along the oil line 
since that time, no comprehensive report on the present situation 
can here be given. 

Certain sections were then obtained, and the horizon of certain 
oil-bearing sands were then determined. Data of this kind will 
be as valuable to-day or in the future as at any time in the past. 
Such facts only are herewith offered ; they relate mainly to the 
question of the horizon of the oil-bearing sands. 

New Orleans 

We are under the impression that the gas indications in shal- 
low test holes like the Algiers gas well has led to the supposition 
that oil may exist in paying quantities not far from the surface 
somewhere about New Orleans. It will be noted that gas was 
encountered in the deepest wells in New Orleans City, (see prev- 
ious Report.) 

The so-called gas well at Algiers gave the following log : 


Yellow and dark clayey loam at 5 

Blackish clay at.... 11,15,18 

Dark clay at 22,27 

Light loamy clay at 30,33 

Dark loamy clay at. . . . 38,40,43,47 

Dark clay at ... . 50 

Dark sandy clay with gas and shells, Area peciinata. .at 55 

Dark sandy clay at ... 59,61,63,67,68 

Yellowish black sandy clay at . . . . 72 

Sand, dark and slightly yellowish and clay at 73 

Yellowish clayey sand at. . . . 80,85,89 

a66 Gbouxjical Sdkvbt of Looisiaha 

There is little doubt, bnt that the gas bere prodaced is piu 
local and should ia no way be taken as indication of oil. 


Section of first well sunk : * 

Thickacts Depth 

No. I. Gravelaad sand loo ft. . . .too ft. 

t. Limestone 5 105 

3. Oil-bcsriug daj witb bands of lignite 140 ....145 

4. Soft limtstode 4 ....349 ^1 

5. Oil-bearing clay and grsTcl 33 281 ^^^| 

G. Sa!t water, ir>ck sail doutjtfal S ....a89 H^| 

7. Oil-bearing c lav and gravel 64 35} ^^^H 

S. Oil and water-bearing gravel 11 364 ^^^ 

9. HaidKreen clay 33 397 \ 

10. Water-bearing sand 68 ... 4S5 

11. Hard green clay aa 507 

The oil is evidently flowing out here on top of the upper 

Grand Gulf or Frio clays. The salt is presumably dissolved 
from a source nearby and is transported by the underground 
waters. Oil act nally comes to the surface of the ground iu some 
places. Gas has been escaping here for years. An illustration 
of the same is given on Plate XI of our Report of 1899. 

Since our last report was written, two new well have been put 
down iu the vicinity of Anse-la-Butte. One is on the summit 
of the little rise of ground at this place. It is shown on Plate 
XLIV. It has been described at length by Caracristi, who gave 
a figure of the beds it is supposed to have penetrated.! 

He strangely enough gives the Grand Gulf a position above 
the " Lafayette Drift." Both oiland gas are represented as hav- I 
ing their origin well down in the Cretaceous formation. 

However improperly the diSerent formations may be named 

* Section as furnished by Judge Blackman. 1900. 
Caracristi gives in addition : 

N'o. 10 Water-bearing sand S8 ft. to 48: 

II Hard green clay ai " 511 

I J Sand and mack 13 " 5*. 

t Report by Dr. C. F. Z. Caracristi on the Holdings of the Anse-hi- Butte, 
(Ledanois). Qil and Mineral Co., Limited, 1891. 


I ' 



<- ^ 

. • 4 • .' 



Oil in Louisiana 267 

in his report, doubtless the log of the well, if taken from sam- 
ples, or from the driller's notes is a contribution to science. 

It reads : 

1. Yellow clay o to 37 ft. 

2. Fine aand. . . 37 to 40 

3. Sand, gravel 40 to 50 

4. Sand, coarse 50 to 100 

5. Gravel, fine 100 to 150 

6. Sand, gravel 150 to 200 

7. Sand, coarse 200 to 225 

8. Rock 225 to 226 

9. Oil-bearing sand 226 to 228 

la Rock. 228 to 235 

11. Gravel 235 to 237 

12. Rock 237 to 240 

13. Sand 240 to 242 

14. Gravel 242 to 260 

15. Rock gravel 260 to 265 

16. Oil-bearing sand 265 to 268 

17. GraveL 268 to 285 

18. Sandstone 285 to 290 

19. Hard-pan 290 to 320 

20. Sand-gravel 320 to 350 

21. Gravel 350 to 354 

22. Sand 354 to 364 

23. Shale, blue 364 to 390 

24. Salt 391 to 570 

25. Rock-flint 570 to 576 

26. Gravel 576 to 578 

27. Salt 578 to 790 

28. Sand and gravel 790 to 801 

29. Cap rock 801 to 801^ 

Gas and petroleum. 

What may be called the third well at Anse-la-Butte was drilled 
early in 1902 about ^ miles southwest of the one shown in Plate 
XLIV. On Mar. 12th it had attained a depth of nearly 1500 ft. 
and the drill had scarcely gone 3 ft. in 24 hours. The material 
seemed to be very cherty. Between 1415 and 1450 ft. was 
found the red clay bed described in Special Report No. i. 

Prom the specimens at the Moresi foundry in Jeanerette and 
other specimens seen at the well it is quite safe to say that 
Grand Gulf material was passed through from 800 to 1,500 ft* 
The section bears more resemblance to the old Lucas well than 


Geologicax Survey of Louisiana 


to the newer, deeper well reported upon by Caracristi. It is 
very evident that orogenic movements were very active here 
some pre -Quaternary time. 

Sicily Island 

Boring was going on about 4 miles west of Florence in early 
1902. We saw no special indications of oil at that place when 
passing by to our work on the Ouachita. The general geolog- 
ical section across the state shown by the relief map, Plate II, 
gives a proper idea of the beds that this well would probably 
penetrate if continued to a sufficient depth. 
Bayou Chknikrk 

This locality is but two or three miles south of a station by 
the same uame on the V. S. & P. R. R., nine miles west of 
Monroe, Ouachita parish. We saw no indications favorable to 
the discovery of oil in this vicinity. The first circular by the 
company embodied facts regarding oil in its property, evidently 
taken from information regarding wells in the southern part of 
the state. The total difference in geological structure between 
the two regions is at once apparent upon examining the geolog- 
ical mapof the state or the north-south sectioned model, Plate II. 

This has proven, so far, the most interesting and important 
oil district in the state. One of the wells that might have 
showed perhaps the most geology, if samples had only been care- 
fully saved and recorded, was the Southern No. I. located just 
west of Bayou Cannes, opposite the mouth of Bayou Plaquemine 
Brulee. It attained the depth of 2600 ft., and it is evident from 
the material taken out. that the usual bluish sands were passed 
through in the lower part of the boring though the basal beds 
seem to have a peculiar mottled appearance, reminding one of 
river deposits, or deposits of shallow fresh water ponds. We 
believe these lowest beds may be correlated with the Grand Gulf 

Crowley and Prairie Mamou 

These are nearly three miles south of the well just described 
and are located on the Anthony Cochran tract, not far west of 



■ly I 

Oil in Louisiana 


ie Bayou Caones. Neither of these wells were being drilled or 
Ppumped at the time of our visit : no statements, regarding the 

formations passed through, were 

obtained. But both wells 

showed clearly that towards, 
^^^and at the bottom, Pascagoula 
^^B Miocene beds have been encount- 
^^K ered. Gnathodon or Rangia 
^^m jehnsoni was in evidence at both 
^B wells. The Prairie Mamou well 
^f was credited with a depth of 

nearly 2+00 ft. while the Crowley 

well was supposed to be about 

2200 ft. deep. 

This, the first important welt 
in the region, from an economic 
standpoint, is located on the frag- 
mentary section 46. 9 S. , 2 W, , 
about one-half mile west of the 
wells just described. It is cred- 
ited with a depth of 1820 ft. and 
certainly shows every evidence 
of yielding oil in abundance. , 
The fossil specimens saved by , 
various individuals, who were ■ 
on the field during the time of i 
drilling, indicate that the wells \ 
down about to the Pascagoula 

It is useless to attempt any des- 
cription of the local conditions 
in this region. Work is pro- 
gressing at such a pace that those 
on the ground only can properly 
follow it. One thing, however, 
that seems very diHerent here, 
he fieaumont region is that 


Gbologicai. Survey of I^uisiana 

the position of the oil is in the Miocene sands. The geological ' 
position of the oil is here quite evident for there are fossils to 
prove it. At Beaumont, thus far, no fossils have been obtained 
to prove beyond a doubt just where the oil belongs, though the 
evidence is all pointing towards Cretaceous origin. The original 
position, or the beds producing the Jennings oil, is probably not 
the Miocene sands and clays in which the oil is now found. The 
stratigraphic conditions of this particular region, as they seem 
to be to us, are shown by Fig, 27. This, however, till more 
facts are obtained, must be regarded as mainly conjecture, i. e., 
that portion of the section below the depths of the deepest 

Spring Hill 

Mr. J. T.Jackson, the driller of this well, states that he found 
gravel in abundance to a depth of 1200 ft. He mentions a light 
sandstone at a depth of about 1450 ft., some 14 ft. thick, that 
wore the bit out in a most rapid and astonishing way. Below, 
about 1500 ft., the material brought up is a fine, sharp, quartz 
sand with green clay ilakes. We saw no reasons for supposing 
oil would be found in this locality. 

Lake Charles 

Sect. 16, 10 S., 8 W., commenced Nov. 

Watkins well. No. 
20, 1901 : completed Feb, 
samples : 

Log from the company's 
Thick nesB Depth 

o, I, Soil, brown loam 

J. Clay, liRht. red blotched 

3. Fine white sand 

4. Light gray clay, shell fragments 

5. Light gray sand, fine 

6. Bluisb gray clay 5.7 93.8 

7. Coarse light sand 

8. Slightly brown loamy clay 69.0 167.0 

9. Same as No, 7 

10. Light grey clay and sand, few shells frag< 

melitB(2 in. gravel at 176-S) -... . 

11, Sand, fine, coarse sad with gravel 145.1 

II. Same as S ... 

13. Same as 7 and 9 81.7 6^9,7 

14. Light loamy, sliRlitly brownish clay 34. a 713.9 

Oil in Louisiana 271 

Thickness Depth 

15. Gray sand 30.2 744. i 

16. Slightly greenish gray clay 84.4 828.5 

J 7. Fine, slightly brownish sand 85.3 91 1.8 

x8. Grayish and greenish clay 104.5 1016.3 

19. Sand and hard clay 76.8 1093. i 

ao. Dark greenish clay 34.1 1 127.2 

21. Light sand 58.1 1185.3 

22. Greenish loam 30.6 1215.9 

23. Very fine sand 50.0 1 265.9 

24. Gray green loam i97-4 1463.3 

25. Light gray sand 9.5 1472.8 

26. Greenish gray clay . 38.0 1510.8 

27. Coarse sand 40.0 1550.8 

28. Gray clay 3.0 1553-8 

29. Fine gray sand 18.2 1572.0 

30. Gray clay 112. i 1684. i 

31. Gray loamy sand 8.0 1692. i 

32. Light sandy clay 22.7 1714.8 

33. Gray sand, little clay 1 18.3 1833. i 

34. Light clayey sand 8.0 184 r. i 

35. Light loamy clay 3.5 1844.6 

36. Light loamy sand 9.0 1853.6 

37. Olive clay 18.5 1872.1 

38. Fine bluish sand 21.0 1893.1 

39. Fine gray sand 39.1 1932. 2 

40. Light olive sandy clay 8.0 1940.2 

41. Rather coarse gray sand 97.6 2037.8 

42. Light olive clay 60.0 2097.8 

43. Fine gray sand 12.0 2109.8 

44. Fine gray sand, but more clayey 34.6 2144.4 

45. Gray sand, ferruginous 5.0 2149.4 

46. Gray sand, clayey, saline 5.0 2154.4 

47. Same as 45 8.0 2 162.4 

48. Same as 45, but more clayey, not saline 37.7 2200.1 

49. Coarse clean sand 73.1 2273.2 

50. Gray clayey sand 18.5 2291.7 

51. Fine gray sand 39.0 2330.7 

52. Fine gray clayey sand 7.8 2338.5 

53. Fine light gray clayey sand to 2406.9 

We have observed no shell fragments about this well that 

would indicate anything lower than the upper Tertiary ; not 
even the Miocene Gnathodon has been found. Shell fragments 
consist mainly of small Madrce and the recent Gnathodon or 

Hoo Hoo Park well 

Gkologicai. Survey op Louisiana 

put down to a depth of 1800 ft. and 

Sulphur Mi 
We have already devoted cousiderable space to the description 
of these mines in southwestern Louisiana ; see report of 1899 
for figures, plates and descriptions. We present herewith a sec- 
tion taken from samples at the works in 1900 



lo. I. Dirt and sand 15 

2. Clay and send 175 

3. Quicksand 181-190 

4. Gravel aj- 60 

5. Broken rock and Hmestone 40 

6. "Pepper and salt" sandi with snlphnr 

crystals 10 

7. The same, more sulphur 3 

8. Fine, whitish, hlack-specked sandy layers 

with grains of solpbur 3 

9. Sulphur and gypsum 3 

10. Same as No. 8 3 

11. Sulphur and gypsum 3 

la. Soft, sandy clay and sulphnr 6 

13. Light gray, fine material and sulphur 6 

14. The same, more coarsely crystalline 4 

15. Same as No. la, 3 

16. Coarse, dark gray gypsnm and crystalline 

snlphnr 3 

17. Same as No, 11 10 

18. Nearly pure snlphnr with some gjpsum aa 

19. Crystalline sulphur and gypsum. , . ■ S 

20. Whitish soft clay ? 4 

ai. Sulphur and some gypsum 14 

33. Same as No. 30 3 

33. Sulphur and gypsum 7 


4ii>-45o + 




Bbadmont, Tbxas 

In spite of the many and varied opinions to the contrary, s 
see no reason whatsoever for abandoning our position regardlsj 
the origin of the oil at Beaumont. Historically the follow 
two statements are of interest now, both having been madesi 
afier the discovery of oil in great quantities in Texas. 

New Orleans Picayune, Mar. 27, 1901. Communication 
G. D. Harris : 

Oil in LoDtsiANA 


" The scsnty evidence at haml would Iherefore indicate that the guBher 
ia situated on top of a Cretaceous anticline or fold, and tliat tbe prcasure it 
(rom gas so commonly eucountered in Btructurea of this type. That tbe 
supply of oil is conaiderable, cannot well be doubted, but that it will con- 
tinue to 'guah* long is very doubtful." 

Times-Democrat, May 39, 1901. Com muni cation by R. T. 

" The well-driller may experiment with safetj in the Beaumont Gelds 
withoat fear of structural complications, with a reasonable assurance that 
oil is apt to be found anywhere within tbe rcKion of the coast plain above 
the oil -impregnated aaiids, Tbe oil slionld be found at .lecreasing depths 
at the rate of aboni seven to ten feet per mile along the line drawn from 
Beaumont to Oil City, in Southern Nacogdoches county. The pressure and 
qaantity will both likewise decrease away from Beaumont along this line. " 

Now, ill June, 1902, we doubt whether there is a driller in the 
Beaumont field who is not convinced of the truth of our predic- 
tion of a year ago. Mr. Hill of the Guffy Co. remarked that 
•• without doubt Spindle Top is an upheaval. The apex of the 
dome has been found, in which naturally gas is found in large 
quantities. The dip, away from this center or ridge is something 
like 125 ft. to every 500. " Again, from the position of the 
Treadway well, being sunk in March, 1902, and the statements 
there made that they were in hopes to find oil at 2500 ft., "' if tbe 
dip remained constant, " it is evident that the conditions of this 
buried short anticline or dome are now well understood. The 
Treadway well, at the time of our visit, was down 1850 ft. and 
showed the uppermost Tertiary, or the Galveston well type of 
Rangia cuneata. at that depth. The well one-quarter mile east, 
still deeper, showed mottled marls, and materials that we feel 
almost certain should be correlated with tbe upper Grand Gulf 

The slight fold that shows upon the surface runs K. 60° E. by 
S. 60° W. This we think is produced, to some extent, at least, 
by the upheaval below. 

Sour Lake 

We have already mentioned the important bearing tbe facts 

obtained from this region have on the general subject of the 

stratigraphy of S. E. Texas (see Special Report No. i.) The 


274 Geological Sdrvbv of Louisiana 

finding of a good Jackson fauna in one well at 1500 ft., the hot 
water, the logs of nearby wells showing little resemblance to 
each other, and the deep well (1915 ft.) about 4 miles S. E. of 
the village, perhaps down to the Grand Gulf, all tend to make 
the geologist sceptical of finding oil in large quantities over any 
great extent of country. 

The problem of how to find oil in this portion of the country 
is indeed a difficult one, for as we have heretofore remarked, 
again and again, the true structure of the Tertiary and Cre- 
taceous formations is masked by almost level and even bedded 
Pleistocene deposits. Mr. Putnam has kindly furnished the fol- 
lowing log of the well of Atlantic and Pacific Oil Co,, the first 
' ' gusher " at Sour Lake : 

Thickness Depth 

Ft. In. Fl. Id. 

:. Sand and iraces of oil 47 47 

1. Blue clay 6 5 j 

3. Sand and traces of oil.... 77 130 

4. Blue clay 36 186 

5. Gravel, limestone and pyrites of iron 2 1S8 

6. Bine clay, sandstone and pyrites of iron ,. 16 ro 314 

7. Blue clay, hard on top, softer as drill pene- 

trated 31 i46 

8. Sand , a 148 

9. Bine clay and K<'ave1, slight trace of oil. . . 45 393 

10, Mud ("Gumbo") 44 337 

11. Rock, apparently boulder, sbowing trace 

of oil I 338 

19. Blueclay 10 34S 

13. Clay and hard shale ao 368 

14. Blue clay 4 37a 

15. Blue clay, with i ft. rock at 383-384, con- 

aiderable gas, slight show of oil 13 3 386 

16. Rock, bard limestone 5 391 

17. Mad ("Gumbo") gas and oil traces 7 39B 

18. Blue mud 33 431 

19. Clay and hard mud 54 ^ 485 

ao. Sandstone 3 488 

31. Limestone 2 490 

32. Blue clay 3 493 

33. Mud ( " Gumbo" ) and gravel 34 517 

14. Blue clay, resembling shale 35 10 561 

25. Blueclay, slight gas and trace of oil 15 577 

Oil in Louisiana 275 

Thickness Depth 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

26. Bine clay » resembling soapstone, strong gas 

pressure and good flow of oil 52 2 630 

27. Hard clay, resembling soapstone,very strong 

gas pressure and heavy flow of oil 5 635 

28. Clay, resembling shale 5 640 

At this point (640 ft.) struck oil sand 

29. Oil sand not passed through 42 682 

Drilling ceased at 682 because of strong gas pressure and heavy 
flow of oil. Drew drill pipe, during which operation oil gushed 
through notery. just 20 ft., then 100 ft. high. Eight in. casing 
set at 642 ft. * 


Abbeville 190, 194 (Plate XLI), 234 

Abbott's well 239 

AbiU Springs 226, 251 

Alabama .- 9, 15, 16, 18, 21, 25, 27. 140 

Albrecbt, Jos 223 

Aldenbridge 209 

Alexandria 117, 158, 207, 212, 214 

Algiers. 265 

Allentown 209 

Alluvium (and Recent Shore Deposits) 5 (PI. I), 8 (Fig. 2), 35 (Fig. 7), 

37-38. 120. 138, 158 

Amite City 35, (Fig. 7) 

Analyses — see Waters ; Brine tests of 

Andrews Well Co 210 

Angelina 118 

Angelina-Neches 117 

Anse-la-Butte 30. 95. 98, 100 (Plate XXIII). 266-268 

Anthony's ferry 113, 133, 133 (Plate XXXI), 145. 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Anticline 68, 100, 117, 118, 158, 273 

Arcadia 12, 184 

Archieology 53-55, 65. 77, 83, 91, 153 

Arkansas 5 (Plate I), 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 20 (Plate IV), 21, 22, 23 

Artesian water, principles of 203-207 

Artesian wells, 57 (Plate XII), 57, 60, 61, (Fig. 9) 87, 203-252, 204 (Fi^j;. 

20) 205 (Fig. 21) 

Asphaltum 79 

Aaoert Hotel well 226, 251 

Avery Island ( Petite Anse), 95, 97, 100 (Plate XXIII), 187, 194 (Plate XLI) 

Baker 216,217, 230 

Bastrop 185. 192 (Plate XL), 231 

Baton- Rouge 37, 216, 217, 229 

Bayer A. A 251 

Bayon Cheniere 268 

Bayon Chicot limestone 8, 96, 99, 100 (Plate XXIII) 

Bayou Macon hills 153, 169 

Bayon Negreet 127, 128, 146, 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Bayon Sara 230 

Bay St. Louis 221 

Beaumont, Tex 31, 32, 98, 99, 100 (Plate XXIII), 270, 272-273 

Beer, Wm 49, 107 

Beigel, G. H., well 227, 252 

Belgrade, Tex : iii, 113, 140 

Belle Cdte bayou, mouth of section 161 

Belle Isle 95, 97, 98, 99, 100 (Plate XXUI) 

Belle's Idg. substage 15 

Bench marks 218 





Bienville, Mde 53 

Big lake 172 

Bird, Maurice 4«, 63, 69, 75, 80, 89 

Bistiueau. Lake 8l 

Bistineau Salt Works, 48, 3i (Plate XVI). 8;^. 88 (Plate XVII) 93. 

94. 95. 96. 97. 'oo, 100 (Plate XVIH) 
■ ■ 91 

Blacktiian, Judge 

Blankstoii 155 

Blalfs, types nf, on Sabiae river 11 i-i 11 

Bonnabcl, Mr., well 3i3 

Bonudury Survey, U. S,-Tei 108-109, "Oi "9, '43 

Bower, Mr., well 143,145 

Braillty RaniBey Lumber Co. Well 240,151 

Brazil. Mnrie Fariilha 10 

Breaux Rridjce 266-368 

Brechuer, Mr 236, 238 (Plate XLIII) 

Brines, Relutive value of Nortb Louisiana 93. 9° 

Brioes, tests of 61,63,69,70,75,79-80,89,94-55 

Brook's Idg , , ... 169 

Brown, K. L,, well 239 

Brown . Samuel , 55 

Brownlec, J. L "I, 143 

Buff & Berger 182, 183 (Fig, 19) 

Buhrstoiie 18 

Banker Hill blnff T56, 156 (Fig. 14) 164. "65 

Burkville, Tex 156 

Burr's ferry 113. 133, 136 

Caldwell, Prea 209-210 

Call. K. E 13.22 

Cameron, R. S 211 

Cameron, Lb 189, 194 (Plate XLI) 

Camp, R. E, well 205, 205 (Fig. 21), 238, 245 

Camp sites, Indian 171-172 

Csne Hill .... 170 

Canicrisli. C. F. Z , 266, 26S 

Carey, S. L. ... 23s, 246 

Carter terry 113, 123, 147. 148 (Plate XXXVIl) 

Carter Idg 164. 167, 172 

Cartography 107-III, 173-194 

Cash bluff, section 168 

Castor Idg , section 163 

Castor Salt SpriiiRs 93 

Catahoula lake 114 

Catahoula Salt Springs 91 

Catahoula shoals 30 [Plate IV), 29, 117, 153, iS7, I37 (Fig.»5).2i4 

Cedar lick 92 

ChnlkHilis 39 

Chamber's ferry 114, 133 

Chapius' well 234 

Chatlaboochee lao, 144 

Chautauqua II 

Chenier. Grand 3J 

Chickasawayan, see J-ignilic 

Indbx 279 

China 205, 240, 246 

Chinchuba Deaf Institute well 224 

Chireno, Tex. well 126, 147-148, 148 ( Plate XXXVII) 

Christie*s switch 21 , 24, 28, 30 

Claiborne Sand 18, 140 

Claiborne, Lower, 5, (Plate I), 8, 8 (Fig. 2) 11, 17-20, 51, 59, 88, 90, 100, 
115, 116, 120, 126, 127-130, 140, 141, 144 (Plate XXXIII), 148, 

(Plate XXXVII), 155, 158, 159-160, 209, 211, 212 

Claiborne, Lyon's well , 225 

Clayton see Midway 

Clendenin, W. W 230 

Clenienshaw, C 220 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 1 10, 1 1 1 , 143, 1S2 

Cocksfield beds, 5 (Plate 1), 21-22, 120, 130-131, 141, i44(Plate XXXIII), 

148 (Plate XXXVII), 158^ 159, 160-163, 207, 209, 212, 231 

Colfax 29, 97, 210-21 1, 213 

Columbia 21 , 1 63 

Columbus 113, 114, 115, 116, 127, 130, 146, 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Compass 17S-180 

Cooper's well 239 

Contents, general table of iii 

Table of, Geography and Geology of the Sabine 103-104 

Table of, Geology along the Ouachita 149- 5 1 

Table of, Improvements in La. Cartography 175 

Table of. Oil in Louisiana 263 

Tabic of. Salines of North Louisiana 43-45 

Table of. Subterranean Waters of Louisiana i97-'99 

Table of, Tertiary Geology of the Mississippi Embayment 3 

Coochie brake 50. 68, 96 100, 118 

Coochie brake — Winnfield anticlinal 50, 68, 100, 1 18, 158 

Corley, Capt. L. D 92 

Coroas (Indians) 53 

Correlation table 141 

C6teCarline 97, ico (Plate XXIII) 

Cottingham Idg 171 

Covington 189, 194 (Plate XLI), 216, 217, 224-225 (wells), 244, 251 

Coxe, Daniel 53 

Cretaceous. 5 (Plate I), 6 (Fig. i). 7-S, 8 (Fig. 2), 9,49,50, 60, 61 (Fig. 
9), 73. 74, 76 (Plate XV). 78, 81 (Plate XVI) 86-S7, q6-ioo, 100 

( Plate XX, XXII ), 208, 213 a66, 270, 273, 274 

Cretaceous domes 7,7 (Plate II). 50,61 (Fig. 9). 74-75. 96 

97-100, 100 (Plate XXIII), 208, 273 

Cretaceous anticline 49. 68, 273 

Cretaceous backbone 49. 50 

Crowley 217, 234, 235, 745, 268-269 

Cubit's island 38, 38 ( Plate X) 

Cut-off islands 154-1 55 

Dall 9 

Damon's Mound, Tex 95, 98-99, 100 (Plate XXIII) 

Danville Idg 21 (Plate IV), 23, 29, 167 (section) 

Darby, \Vm 56, 107, 1 10, 1 19 

Darton 208,211,213,221,230 

Davis, Prof ." 205 

Davis, C. A 28 

Delta 230 



Dessonie's wells 2?3, J51 

Distances along Sabine river 113-114 

Dixon Academy nell 125 

Domes ... 7, 50, 61 (Fig. 9), 74-75, 96, 97-100, ioo(Plate XXIII). 308, 373 

Donnelly well 235 

Drake. RubeD 57 

Drake'sSalt Works. 48.5I-A(, si(PlateXI), 57 lPlateSlI),6i (Fig.9), 

94. 95. 96. 97. 100, 100 IPlale XVIII). ao8 

Dubach's mill ta. 109 

Dugdeniona Bayou, Salines near 9a 

DuPrati, M, LaPage 53, 54, SS. S3. 9' 

Dummet's well 314-225 

Dumpy level 319 

DuTker well 838 

Dutch, Jiio. well 125 

Eaton, J. H loS. 119, 143 

HasCman 'swell ( Hammond) 228 

Eaatman, A, V 246 

EmliBj-menl. Geologv of the Mississippi 1-40, 5 (Plate I), 8iFig. 2) 

Enterprise 20 (Plate IV), 23, 26, 164 

Eocene .5 (Plate I), 6 (Fig. 1), 8-35,30 (Fig. s), 50, 59, 79,99, 

120-132, 141, 158, 159-167, 208-213 
Evangeline i' . ja 

Fayelte sands I41 

Fenton 143. 345 

Field, CM 339 (well), 145 

Figures, list of .,.4, 46, 105, 15a. 176, 301, 164 

Five Islands 51, 97, 98, 100, 100 iPlate XXIII) 

Flatwood clays . . . 13 

Florence a68 

Flower's, Mrs., wells, 135 

Forshey, C. G 49 

Fossils, Invertebrate. Brackish water 36, 338, 371, 373 

Chattahoochee 136 

Cretaceous SO, 73, 74. 78, S6, f 7, 88 

Eocene. J33 

Freah water K, '9, 99, 133 

Grand Gulf. 39. 1 ^ 

Jackson 22, 23, 25, 132, 164, 165 

Lignitic 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, to 

Lower Claiborne 19, so, 53, 59. 8B, 127, 138, T39, 130, 160 

Midway 10,11,48,78 

Miocene (Pascagoula) 3a, -69 

Pliocene to Recent 36, 99, ajS, 271. 375 

Vicksbiirg 26,37 

Fossils : plants. Cretaceous 60, 67 

Cockslield 163 

Grand Gulf 39 

Lignitic 133 

Fossils, vertebrate 68. 74, 79, 87. 131 

Foster, n. M. well 125-116, 148, 14H ( Plate XXXVII) 

Indbx 281 

Franklin 187, 194 (Plate XU) 

Fredrick and Singletry's still, well 227, 251 

French, B. F 53 

Frio clays, 5 (Plate I), 28, 29, 120, I35-I37» 141. ^44 (Plate XXXIV) 

148 (Plate XXXVII), 205, 266, 273 

Galena 98 

Gannett, H 2x0 

Gas 60, 87, 208, 209, 211, 265, 266, 267 

Gibson Idg, section 164 

Glencoe 230 

Geological column. The 6 (Fig. i) 

Geological formations, see under Cretaceous^ Lignitic Midway ^ etc. 

Geological Survey, U. S 177 

Geography and geology of the Sabine river 101-173 

Georgia 10, 16, 17, 18, 27 

Goodwin's shoals, 112, 112 (Plate XXIV), 115-116, 116 (Fig. 13), 116 

(Plate XXVI). 127 

Graham, George 57, 65 

Grand Chenier 36 (Plate IX), 37 

Grande C6te 97, 100 (Plate XXIII) 

Grand Gulf, 5 (Plate I), 24, 27, 28 (Plate VI), 28-32. 35 (Fig. 7), 97, 115, 
120, 132-135, 141, 144 (Plate XXXIII), 148 (Plate XXXVII), 154, 
156, 157, 158, 167-168, 205, 205, (Fig. 21), 212, 213-24', , 266, 267, 

268, 273, 274 

Grand Gulf, Mississippi 28 (Plate VI) 

Grand View Bluff 164,166 

Gueydan 235, 244 

Gueydan, J. P 244 

Hamilton, Tex iir, 114, 120, 120 (Plate XXVII), 122 

HammiPs well 24 1 , 242 

Hammond 35 (Fig. 7), 217, 227-229, 251-252 

Hardee, W. J , map 109 

Harpe, M. de la 53 

Harris, G. I) 50, 272 

Improvements in Louisiana Cartography 173-194 

Letter of Transmission v 

Oil in Louisiana 261-275 

Subterranean Waters of Louisiana 195-252 

Tertiary Geology of the Mississippi Enibayment 1-40 

Harris, R. A. , Tides in the Rigolets 253-261 

Harrison burgh 28, 34, 153 

Hart's bluff section 121, 139, 147, 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Hatchetigbee sub-stage 15,16 

Hattan's ferry 135 

Hawkeye Rice Mill well 243 

Hawkins, Mrs. Jno., well 223 

Hayes, C. \V 99 

Heilprin 13 

Hermann, Dr. , well 228 

Hernandez, wells 216, 226. 227 

High bluff 124 

Hilgard, E. \V., 13, 14, 22. 27. 28, 49, 50, 60, 63, 69, 71, 73, 77, 89, 90, 

92, 132. 231 
Hill, R. T 273 



Hogan's Idg «5S. W . 

Hopkins. Dr. F V SO. 68. 7^, 153 

Houma 188, 194 (Plate XU) 

Hunter and Dunbar , . 91 

Hydraulic gradient. aoj, 205, (Fig, 3i), ao6, 106 (Fig. la) 

Illinois 9 

Illinuis Central R. R..* section along 35 

Illustrations, fists of 4, 46, 103, 153, 176, 301, 164 

Inclosure islands 155 

Improvements in La. Cartography 1 73-193 

Indians 53-55. 65. 77. 8.1. 91. «53. 17'-17= 

Invertebrate l-'ossils, see Fosstts 

Islands, clashes of .154, 156 

Jackson, s (Plate I ), 8 {Fig. s), ao(Plale IV), 22-25, 24 n'ig. 4). 35( Fig. 
7). i3'-"3». 13" (Plate XXX), 140, 141, 146. 144 (Kate XXXllI), 

148 (Plate 37), 158, 164-167,218, 213. 331. "74 
Jackson, O. H., well 223 

.. 20, i3»-:33. 136, 141 

i--y. ". 13 

.21, 24, j8, 30, 113, 135 

jeanerette . ... 

Johnson, I.. C it, 

Johnson, Smith and, 9, 15, ll 

KallDck, Dr. P. C, well 1* 

Kennedy, J. L i\. 

Kennedy, W. , 


K. C. P. & G. R. R., sections along. . 

Keuffel & Esser 

Eilgorc Plantation, well 233 

Kllpatrick, Dr. A, R 93 

Kinder 305, 316, 939 

King, Grace 53 

King's Salt Works 10, 48, 49,69. 76-80, 76 ( Plate XV) 93, 94, 95 

96, 97, 99, 100 (Plate XXI) io8 
Knoble, Col. G 76 

Labat's Hotel well >a6 

La Grange group 13 

Lafayette...s(prate I) 31,32-36.35 (Fig, 7I 98, 117, lao. 137. 13S, 158. 

169, J05, 205,lFig. 31). =07. 3iS-ii7. a66 

Lafayette, La 190, 194 (Plate XLI) 216. 233 

Lake Arthur 205. 205 {Fig. 21}, 216. 238 

Lake Artliur— Smith ville section , ,205 (Fig. 21), 216, 345 

Lake Calheiinc 317, 221 

Lake Charles 3r, 189, 194 (Plate XLI), 216, ai8. 240 246, 351, 270-273 

Lake City ■ 217, 322 

Lake Manrepaa , 217 

Lake Pontchartrain , 36,217 

Lake Prtnideuce ao {Plate IV) 23, 231-232 

Land Office maps Si, 109. 179 

Landslip islands. . 155. 160 

Lapinidre Idg. 155, 160 

Indbx 283 

Lawhorn's bluif 131, 146, 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Law8on*s well 241, 243 

Leavenworth, F. P 109, 119, 143 

Leesville 34 

Lerch, Dr. 50t 7ii I59 

Lignite 121, 122, 124, 210 

Lignitic, 5 (Plate I), 8 (Fig. 2), 11-17, 90, 120-127, 114 (Plate XXV), 

I20 (Plate XXVII), 124 (Plate XXVIII), 126 (Plate XXIX), 140, 141, 

207, 208-212 

Lignitic, Northern 14 

Little, L. E - 244 

Logansport 11 1, 114, 120, 121 

Lockett, S. H.' map 109 

Loess 8 (Fig. 2) 14, 37 

View of, at Vicksburg (Plate VII), opp. p. 37 

Loughridge 9 13 

Low Creek 127, 148 (Plate XXXVII ) 

Lower Claiborne, see Claiborne^ Lower, 

Lone Grave bluff 153, 162 

Lundif , Jno 247 

Mammoth Springs 227 

Manchac 217 

Mandeville wells . . .217, 223, 251 

Mandeville Junction 217, 223 

Mann, G. S., well 245 

Many 99, 100 (Plate XXIII), 156 

Maps, need of 177 

Maison Blanche well 224 

Marksxdlle 37, 230 

Martin, Judge F. M 55 

Mastodon 68, 74, 87 

McBirney, Bert 240 (wells), 246 

McClanahan shoals 112, 115, 115 (Fig. 12) 

McRilTs well 239 

Memphis, Tenn 8 (Fig. 2), 14, 247-250 

Meriaian lines 182-194, 192 (Plate XL), 194 (Plate XLI) 

Abbeville 190 

Arcadia 184 

Bastrop 185 

Cameron 189 

Covington 189 

Franklin 187 

Houma 188 

Lafayette ... 190 

Lake Charles 189 

New Iberia 187 

Opelousas 187 

Rayville 185 

Ruston 184 

St. Martinsville 188 

Thibodaux 1 90 

Vernon 185 

Winnsboro 186 

Mermentau River 37, 204 

Middle Fork 12 



. .5 (Plate I), S (Fig. J). 8-11. 48. 79. 99 


Milla. O. J 

Miller, Jadge B. D 240, a< 

Miller, Merritt i: 

Minden 83, x 

Minden Hall Idg 155, i; 

Miiidenhole %e£ Minden Hall 

Miocene, Pascagoula 31, 110, 137, 105, 341, 169, 369 (Pig. 37), 1; 

Miasissippi . . 5 (Plate I}, 9, 11, 17, iS, 19, ai, aa, aj, aj, 37, 37, 140, 330, as 

MisBissippi City a3 

Missouri 9, ] 

Monroe 19, 155, 159, ai 

Moore. Dennis aj 

Moresi Bros 30, 333, 334, 351, 3( 

Morgan City 34, il 

Morrison well . as 

Mt LebuDon ( 

Mounds, natural ., 71, 77, f 

Mounds. Indian 171-Ii 

MudJunips 38, 38 ( Plate X 

Murdock, Dr a: 

Myatt. P. 159 (section), i; 

Myrick's ferry 90, in, 114, 113, ij 


Narrows, The (Sabine river) 

Natalbany aio 

Natchitoches 97, 308 

Natchitoches (Indians) 53i 54 

Nalchilock (river) . ., 5* 

Neai, T. W 78 

Ncatne 34. '35 

Negreet Salt Worka 90 

Neocene 6 (Pig. i). 33 

New Columbia, Te^t 113, 136-137 

New Iberia 37, 1S7, 194 [Plate XLI>, 233 

New Orleans 317, 331-132, 3^5 

Nix's ferry 109, 113 

Northern Lignitic 14 

Oak Grove Idg. , 17a 

Oberlin 31, 205, 305 {Fig, 35). 316, 340 

Oil in Louisiana 361-375 

Oil wells 314, 238, 367-375 

Old Ferry Idg section 163 

Oligocenes (Plate I). 6 (Fig. i). 36-33, 30 (Fig. 5). 120, 133-137, 133 

(Plate XXXIl. 141, 148 (Plate XXXVU), 158, 167-168. aiJ-iM, 3i 

See also Fiio, Grand Gulf, yitisbitrg. 

Opelousas 37, 137, 194 (Plate XLI), 307. 116,313. >44 

Orange Sand, 8 {Fig. a), 14, 34 {Fig. 4), 30 (Fig. 5), 33 (Fig. 6), 137-140, aos 

See also Lafayette. 
Oriza . 

19, 3- 


7.96-100, II7-IIM. 157, 158, 

33. 39, 91, 117, 149-173. 173 (Plates XXXVIII- 
xxxix; - 

Indbx 285 

Pacheco, J 17,241,242-243,247 

Paine, Dr., well 223 

Parker, T. M 221 

Pascagoala Miocene 32, 269, 269 (Fig. 27) 

Pass Christian 211 

Pearl river 217 

Pearl River Junction well 224 

Pendleton. Tex. in, 113, 124, 124 (Plate XXVIII), 147,148 (Plate XXXVIl) 

Perkins and Miller Lumber Co 240 

Peterson, T 64 

Petite Anse (Avery Island), 95. 97, ioo(Plate XXIII). 187, 194 (Plate XI.I) 

Petroleum 266, 267, 272, 273, 274, 275 

Physiography Iii-ii2,*ii4-ii9, 153-158, 207 

Pickering 135 

Pierce Idg 171 

Plants, fossil, see Fossils. 

Plates, lists of 4, 46, 105, 152, 176, 201, 264 

Pleistocene 5 (Plate I), 6 (Fig. i) 

Pliocene, Recent and 5 (Plate I), 120, 137-140, 158, 169-170 

Polhemus, J. H 110,143 

Pontchartrain, Lake 36, 217 

Pontchatoula 35 (Fig. 7), 227, 252 

Port Hudson, 5 (Plate I), 35 (Fig. 7), 36, 36-37, 9^ 9^, 117. » 20, 137, 138 

158, 204, 205 (Fig. 21), 215 

Postlewaite (Postlewaite's Salt Works) 56 

Prairie Mamou 32, 268-269 

Pre-Laf ayette 208 

Price, George 66 

Price's Salt Works 48, 64-70, 96, 97, 100 (Plate XIX) 

Pritchard Idg 172 

Pumping, Effect of 244-250 

Pushee's well 229 

Quarantine station (Ship island) 220 

Quaternary 6 (Fig. i ), 24, 34, 208 

Queen City Ixids . . 141 

Queen & Co 1 79 

. * 

Rafts 81-82, 119, 158 

Railroad compass 178-179, 1 79 ( Fig. 16) 

Rayburn's Salt Works, 48, 50, 69, 71 (Plate XIII), 71-75, 72 (Plate XIV), 

96, 97, 100 (Plate XX) 

Raybum, Sampson 73 

Rayne 216, 234 

Rayville 185, 192 ( Plate XL) 

Recent 6 (Fig. i), 120, 137, 138 

Recent, See under Alluvium. 

Recent shore deposits, Alluvium and 5 (Plate I), 37-39 

Red river 117,119,207 

Reiser's machine shop well 240, 251 

Ribava's well 223 

Richard. Hippolite, well 234 

Rigolets, Tides in 253-261 

Ritter, J. F 245 



River bank exposures— Ouachila 

Roach Idg bluff, sectiou loi 

Robinson's ferry Ill, 113, iji, 131 (Plate XXX) 

Robertson, J, B 49. 79 

Rocky Springs Church 10 

Rosefield a6, 17. 38 

RoBclawn Idg 15s. 160 

Ruston II, ao, 1S4. 192, (Plate XL, 207, 209 

Sabine river '7. 9U, 100, 101-173 

Map of ... 100 (Plate XXXII-XXXVII) 

Relatiou of, sectioti of, to other aeclions 140-141 

Sabinetown, Tex,. 108. 113, uo, 115, ia6 (Plate XXIX), 146.148 

(Plate XXXVI I) 

St. Martinsville 1B8, 194 (Plate XU) 

Salines 8, 4i->oi 

Salines of North, La , . . . 54-iot 

Sketch map of ( Fig. 8) . 47 

Salt, Rock 96. 97, 266, 367 

Snlt water 344 

Salt wells 51-96,61 (Fig. 9), acfi, 109, 210, an 

Salt WorVa-See Bistineau, Drake's, fling's. Pnce's.Raybnrv's. 

Sandbar islands , 155 

Sawmill Idg, aection ........ 170 

Scanlin. D.J I3S ; F- '35 

Schmcid'H well . . «6 

Sections— J'M under Cretaceous, Ligniiic, etc., and in Louisiana, 
under platf names. 

Catniien Coal Co., Ark la 

Chireno, Texas, well ,,.. ia6, 147-148, 14S (Plate XXXVIl) " 

Choctaw liar, Ark 20 (PUte IV), aa 

Crowley's Ridge. Ark 8 (Fig. 2). ai (Plate I\*) 

Ft. Gaines, Ga 17 

Greenville, Miss ao ( Plate IV) 

Helena, Ark 20(P!»telV|, aa 

Long Prairie ao (Plate IV) 

Memphis. Tenn.. well section 14 

Monticello ao (Plate IV) 

Nanafalia bluff. Ala 15 

Smithville. Tex. I59 

VicksburR. Mias 37 

White bluff. Ala ao (Plate IV ) 

Woods blnff, Ala l£ 

Section across Mississippi embayiiient. 8 (Fig. 3] 

Section alonj; 111. Cen. R, R., Manchac to Jackson 35 ( Fig. 7) 

Section, geological, of Louisiana 7 (Plate II) 

Shell Beach aoj, »5 (Fig. ai), 139 

Ship island z3o 

Shoals, Alexandria 117 

Catahoula 29, 153. 157 (Kig. 15) 

Goodwin's iia (Plate XXIV) 

McClanahan 115, 115 (Fig. a) 

Sabineriver.iia, 113 (Plate XXIV), 114-IJ8, I14, (Fig- 10), 115, 

{Fig. 10-ia), 116 (Fig. 13) 

Stone coal bins' 

Theories of origin 1 16-I18 

Indbx 287 

Shrevcport 97, 134. 209 

Sibley, John 55. 9°. 9^ 

Sibley, I^ 76 

Sicily island, 28, 37, 153-158, 157 (Fig. 15), 168, 214, 268 

Siller Idg section ... 1 70 

Simons Hotel well 226 

Smith and Johnson 9, 15, 18 

Smitbville, Lake Arthur — , section 205 (Fig. 21 ), 216, 245 

Sneirsldg 113, 133, 134. i45, 148 (Plate XXXVII) 

Sour Lake, Tex 25, 31, 100, 241, 273-275 

Springs 54, 55. 65. 90. 9'. 92, 210, 213 

Spring Hill 31 , 270 

SUrk's ferry 113, 138, 139 

Stewart, Jack 81 

Stock Idg section 163 

Stoddard, Amos 56,91 

Stone coal bluff 90, 114 (Fig. 10), 1 14-11 5, 114 (Plate XXV), 124, 147 

Stnbbs. Dr. W. C 20 

Letter of transmission IV-V 

Subterranean Waters of Louisiana 795-252 

Sulphur 99, 272 

Sulphur City 34. 98, 99, 100 (Plate XXIII 272 

Surveying 177, 184 

Sy ncline 217 

Tabor, Dr. T. J 88 

Tachymeter 182, 183 (Fig. 19) 

Tanner, H. S 65 

Tennessee. 5 (Plate I), 9, 11, 13, 14, 22, 247 

Tertiary 6 (Fig. i), 49, 50, 60, 61 (Fig. 9) 

Tertiar>' Deposits of the Mississippi Embayment 5 ( Plate I) 

Texas 8, 9, 10, 17, 19, 20, 21,' 25, 31, 101-173,219. 241. 272, 275 

Tbibodaux 190, 194 (Plate XLI), 230 

Thomassy, M. Raymond 84-85 

Tides in the Rigolets 253-261 

Tillotson*s well 239 

Topogfraphic features of Louisiana 207 

Transit iHo, 181 (Fig. 18) 

Upheavals 7, 96-100, 117-118, 157, 158, 211, 213 

U. S. — Texas Boundary Survey 108-109, i ^^\ ' i9» I43 

Vaughan, T. W 50, 160 

Variation of wells 241-250 

Veatch, A. C. .* 50 

Geography and Geology of the Sabine river 100-149 

Notes on the Geology along the Ouachita 149-173 

Salines of North Louisiana 41-100 

Vernon 185, 192 (Plate XL) 

Vertebrate Fossils, see Fossils. 

Vickburg, Miss., view of Loess at (Plate VII), opp. p. 37 

Vicksburg 23, 26-28, 28, 35 (Fig. 7), 140, 158, 167 


288 Indbx 

Wallbillich, Robert 224, 225, 244 

Walker, John 65 

Waltham, Jno., well 234 

Wardlaw, H. P 76, 77, 79 

Washington '. 233 

Water-mill 52, 57 

Water, Potable, Analyses of 221, 223, 229 

Water, Subterranean of Louisiana 195-252 

Watkin*8 well i 270-271 

Way, h. J., well 228 

Webster 216 

Weeks, E. T 58, 59 

Weeks, J. C 58 

Well Sections, East of the Mississippi 219-230 

W^est of the Mississippi 230-241 

Wells, artesian, see Artesian wells, 

Welsh 239, 243, 245 

Wendling, Jno., well 235 

West lake 240 

White, Dr. C. A 10 

White limestone 25 

Whitlow, A. G 67 

Wilkinson's well : . 235 

Willard, Maj. J. H 91 

Wilraot, W. J 228 

Winnfield-Coochie brake anticlinal 50, 68, 100, 118, 158 

Winnfield marble quarry 8, 49, 50, 68, 96, 98, 99, icx>, ao8 

Winnsboro 186, 192 (Plate XL) 

Woods Bluif substage 15, 17, 125, 126 (Plate XXIX) 141 

Wyant Bluff, section •. 166-171 

Yegua clays 21, 141 

Zachary 230 

Zenglodon 131, 164