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England and Wales: 



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BriUla high favour*!! of indulfent hesrent 

Nfttore^s anointed empress of the deep i 

The tiur^e of merchants who can purefaase crowns* 

Of 6aUi9 lilies this eternal blast 

This terror of Armadas I 

This small isle wide realm'd monarchs eye with awe. 

1¥hich says to their ambition's foaming waves, 

*• Thns far nor farther I" 

Thb sacred isle. 
Cat from the continent, that world of slaves; 
This temple boilt by heaven's peculiar oar* 
In a reee^ from the contagions world. 
With ocean ponr'd aroand it for its gnard* 
And dedicated long to liberty. 
That health, that strength, that bloom of oivil life I 



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OUFFOLK is bounded on the north by Norfolk^ on the east by 
the German Ocean, on the south by Essex^ from which it is di- 
vided by the river Stonr, and on the west by Cambridgeshire. 
On Mr. Hodskinson's map of this county may be measured an 
oblong of almost nnindented form, forty-seven miles long by 
twenty-seven broad. The land stretching beyond it in the north- 
east and north-west parts will more than compensate the deficiency 
in other qoartera. This form indicates a surface of 1269 square 
miles, or 812,160 acres. In Templeman's Survey, he makes it 
only 1236 square miles ; but Mr. Arthur Young is of opinion that 
the superficial contents of SnfiS>lk may be computed at about 
800,000 acres. 

Division a^d population.— Its two grand divisions are, 
the franchise or liberty of Bury St. Edmund's, and the body of the 
county, or guildable land, each of which furnishes a distinct grand 
jury for the county assizes. These are subdivided into twenty-one 
hundreds, comprehending 523 parishes. The hundreds^ according 
to the return made in 1801, are as follow : 

Vol. XIV. B HUN- 

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In order to obtain an accurate knowledge of the population of8«f- 
folk, Mr. Arthur Young took the trouble, in 1796, to mite to all the 
rectors and vicars in the county, requesting the births and buiala 
from their registers for the twenty preceding years, witii an ennme- 
ration of the hooses and people. To above four hundred' letters, he 
received two hundred and sixty answers. These enabled him to 


* The last ten hundred are incorporated. 

t lit the original here is an error ; it is entered 1086, bot by turning to tha 
'deUil it appears to be ^986. 

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8DFF0LK. '9 

CNranaTory satiifiMtory table which afforded fhe following general 


From 1776 to 1785 From 1786 to 1795. 

Births^ 29,684 33,011 

Deaths, 22,800 20,259 

ExceflBofBiithSy 6,884 12,752 

Firmn this comparison the natoral inference is, that the popula- 
tion of the eonnty mnst either haye much increased, or that a con- 
siderable emigration from it is constantly going forward. Both 
Aese positions may, we think, safely be assumed as fiu^ts. 

Cum ATS. — The climate of Suffolk is unquestionably one of the 
driest in the kingdom ; but the frosts are severe, and the north- 
east winds in spring are sharp and prevalent. Upon the whole, 
however, the climate of this county must be reckoned &voiable ; 
and it cannot but be extremely salubrious, to judge from the mor- 
tality which, upon an average often years, appears to have been 
to the existing population as one to fifty-four, while the number of 
births was as one to thirty. 

Soil.— It may be asserted that not a county in the kingdom 
contains a greater diversity of soil, or more clearly discriminated 
than Suffolk. A strong loam on' a clay-marl bottom, predominates 
through the greatest parts, extending from the south-western 
extremity at Wratting Park to North Cove near Beccles. Its 
northon boundary stretches from Dalham by Barrow, Little 
Saxham near Bury, Rongham, Pakenham, Ixworth, Honing- 
ton, Knattishal, and then in a line near the Waveney to Bec- 
eles and North Cove ; but every where leaving a slope and vale 
of rich friable loam of various breadths, along the side of the 
river. It then turns southward, to Wrentham, Wangford, BUth- 
ford, Helton, Bramfield, Yoxford, Saxmundham, Campsey Ash^ 
Woodbridge, Cnlpho, Bramford, Hadleigh, and following the high 
lands on the west side of the Bret, to the Stour, is thence bounded 
by the latter river to its source, leaving idl along it a very rich tract 
of slope and vale. It mnst not be supposed that in so large an ex- 

B 2 tent 

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tent t]iere is no vartation; bat it may be obsenred at a general rate; 
that wherever there are rivers in this space, the slopes descending 
to the vales through which they ran, and the bottoms themselves 
are of a superior quality, being in general composed of rich friable 
loams ; and this holds even with regard to many inconsiderable 
streams which fall into the larger rivers. The claef part of this 
district wonld commonly, but improperly, be denominated clay, 
for, upon analysis, the soil has been found to be much more im- 
prcgnated with sand than its texture wonld seem to indicate. 
Lying as it does upon a retentive clay-marl bottom, it may, from, 
its wetness, be properly termed strong or clayey loam. This dis« 
trict of rich loam is much less clearly discriminated. It compre- 
hends the space left by the preceding district between the rivera 
Stour and Orwell, and a tract of coast a few miles in breadth be« 
twcen the latter and the Deben. It is composed of a vein of fri- 
able, putrid, vegetable mould, more inclined to sand than clay, 
and of extraordinary fertility. The best is about Walton, Trim- 
toy, and Felixtow, where, for depth and richness, much of it can 
scarcely be exceeded by any soils found in other parts of the 
county, and would rank high among the best in England. In the 
line from Ipswich to Hadleigh, it varies considerably, in many 
places approaching sand, and in many places being much strong- 
er. The general complexion, however, of the whole of Samford 
Hundred is that of good loam. 

Considering only the real quatity of the soil, the whole of the 
maritime district of this county, with the exception just mentioned, 
must be pronounced sandy ; towards the north much inclining to 
loamy sands, and in others to sandy loams ; but so broken, di- 
vided, and mixed with undoubted sands, that one term must be 
applied in a general view to the whole. This district, Mr. Arthur 
Young looks upon as one of the best cultivated in England, and 
it is also one of the most profitable. Few districts in the county, 
if any, abound with more wealthy farmers, or contain a greater 
proportion of occupying proprietors, possessing from one hundred 
to three and four hundred pounds a year. The inferior stratum of 

' thin 

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iius di^ct varies considerably, but in general consists of sand,' 
chalk, or crag, and in some parts of marl and loam. The crag is a: 
singnlar mixture of cockle and other shells, foond in great masses 
in >ariou8 parts of the county, from Dunwich, quite to the Or- 
well, and even across that river to Wolverston park. It is both^ 
red and white, but generally of the former color, aad the shells so 
broken as to resemble sand. There are pits to be seen, fi'om which' 
great quantities of it have been taken to the depth of fifteen and 
twenty feet, for improving heaths ; but on lands long in tillage; 
the use is discontinued, as it is found to make the sands blow* 

The western sand district comprehends the whole north-western' 
angle of the county, except the comer to the left of aline drawn 
from Brandon to the conflux of the rivers Ouse and Lark. It con- 
tains few spots of such rich sands as are found on the coast, but' 
abounds with warrens and poor sheep-walks. Parts of this tract, 
however, partake of the character of loamy sand; for instance, the 
whole angle to the right of a line from Barrow to Honington, in 
which no blowing or even very light sand is found. A more striking^ 
exception, though of smaller extent, is found at Mildenhall, in an 
open field of arable land, dry, yet highly fertile and friable, without 
being loose. The under stratum throughout almost all the district, 
is a more or less perfect chalk, at various depths ; and, according to 
the ^eminent agricultural writer already quoted, it may be received' 
as a rule that, excepting the low vales contiguous to rivers, the' 
whole of this part of the county is proper for sainfoin. 

The fen district is confined to the comer cut off from the preced-' 
ing. Its sarftice, to the depth of from one foot to six, is the 
common peat bog. In some places it is black, and solid enough 
to yield a considerable quantity of ashes ia burning ; but in others 
more loose, puffy, reddish, and consequently of inferior quality.' 
The under stratum is geiierally a white clay or marl. Part of these' 
fens is under water, though subject to a tax for drainage, which has^ 
becQ attempted, but failed. In Burnt Fen, however, a late act of 
yiarliament for improving the banks, has been put in execution 

b3 with 

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6 80FrOLK. 

ivith such success, that 14,000 seres sn cosqpktsly < 
under cultiyation.* 

RiVers.— Suffolk is a well watered county ; its bouBdaries to 
the south and nmrth are rivers nayigable to a considerable Mght» 
and it is every where intersected with streams, which, if the prao* 
tice of irrigation were more genovlly adopted, would be produfltm 
of incalculable benefit 

The Stour rises pn the west side of the county, on the bordeia 
of Cambridgeshire, and first running southward to Haverhill, then 
taks an eastern direction, and forms throughout its whole ooone 
the boundary between Suffolk and Essex* It passes by SudUtary, 
and after being joined by the Bret, and other smaDer streasss, re* 
ceives the tide at Manningtree. Here increasing consideiaMy in 
breadth. It presents a beautiful object at high-water to the fio^ sesA 
and grounds of Mistly Thorn, the effect of which, however, is < 
siderably diminished by its muddy channel and -oontractod i 
during the ebb. It meets the Orwell from Ipswich, and their 
united waters, having formed the port of Harwich, discharga 
themselvci mto the German Ocean, between that town and Lsad- 
guard Fort, 

The Gipping has its source in the centre of the county nesr 
Stowmarket. Running in a south-east direction, it wallers Ipo* 
wich, and assuming below that town the name of the Orwell, pro« 
ceeds to meel the Stour opposite to Hsrwich. The banks of this 
river are in general picturesque, especially when it becooMS an 
estuary below Ipswich, to which place it is navigaUe for ahips of 
considerable burden. The banks there rise into pleasing eleva- 
tions, beautifully fringe4 with wood, and adorned with seveisl 
fine seats. 

The Deben, which has its source nesr Debenham, ti^es a 
south-eastern direction, and passing by Woodbridge fidls into tlio 
German Ocean, a few miles to the north of the two preceding 


* To«itg*s Oen. View of the AgricaltiiTe of Soffollr, p. 6. 

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Tlie Aid riacB iMur Frandiogham, and raiw aoatli-easi to Aid* 
k>roQgb> wliere having approach^ to within a very snail distance 
of the sea, it sudd^y takes a southeni diirectioa, and dischdurges 
itself bdow Orfurd into the German Ocean. 

7he Blythe has its source near Saxfield^ in the hundred of 
Hoxne, whenoe ranmng eaat-iK^rth-ea^t to Halesworth^ it then 
proceeds almost dne east to Blythhorgh and Southwold, where it 
lalk into the sea. 

The Larke rises in the south-Tcatem part of the county^ passes 
Bmy and Mildenhall, and joins the Greait Ouse not &r from the 

The Waveney and little Onse have abeady been mentioned in 
treating ^ Norfolk. The formeor, after ronning fifty nules to- 
guards the sea in an eastern direction, and approaching its very 
shores, is opposed by a risiiig ground, which gives it an abrupt 
direction almost due north. This leads it to the river Yar; and 
though its waters are suiBcient to give name to a harbour of ita 
own, it merely aarists as a secondary river in denning and en- 
lai|;ii^ the harbour of Yarmouth. The meadows through which 
it passes with an even and gentle course, are supposed to be 
amnnj]; the richest in England. Hither numerous herds of starved 
cattle from the highlands of Scotland find their way, and soon 
growing iaty continue their journey to supply the markets of the 

itOADa AjfO CANAI.S. — The roads in every part of this county 
are e:ieellent» the improvements made in them of late years being 
almost ittconoeivahle : in m<wt directions, indeed, the traveller finds 
eross oneae^nal to tnmpike*roads. 

. The only canal in Sulfolk, which will be noticed in another 
place, runs firom Ipswich to StowmariLet 

Wooi»a«-<-The woods of Sufiblk scarcely deserve mentioning. 
'Xhe strmi^ loams formeriy contained considerable quantities of 
large oak ; but these have here, as in eyery other part of the king- 

B 4 dom, 

* Gilpin's Tour through Cambridge, Norfolk^ Suffolk, &c. 

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dom, boen nmch kuened, and the tncoeiBioB that is coming oa 
bMfs no proportion to the growth that preceded. In general 
planting la undertaken more with a new to ornament than profit. 

Wastes.— Though SofiA must be reckoned among the earliest 
enckMed cf the Eng^h oounties, very \Bfge tracts yet want the 
benefit of this first and greatest of all improyements. Some mo- 
dern tnclosnres have been made by act of p«t4iament» but the ex- 
amples are not well followed, though the success has been great. 

The wastes of this county are calculated by Mr. Young,* firom 
all the infi>nnalion which he could obtain^ Snda carefiil comparison 
of yarioDs data, to amount to nearly, if not quite 100,000 acres, or 
an eighth of the whole, comprehended under the terms sheep- 
walk, common, warren, &c. " None of ^Mse,'* adds the writer just 
mentioned, " are strictly speaking absolutely waste, if by that 
term is understood land yidding nothing. T include all lands un« 
cnhiTsted, which would admit of a yery great improyement, not 
always profitable to the tenant, who may, on a small capital, make 
a great interest per cent, by a warren, for instance, but in every 
case to the public Many &rmas think sheep-walks necessary 
for their flocks, which is very questionable. They arenudonbtedly 
useful; and if they were converted into com, the number of sheep 
kept upon a &rm might in a few cases decline; but good grass 
adapted to the soil would be abundantly more productive for the 
flock. Whoever has viewed the immense wastes that fill almost 
the whole country from Newmarket to Tbetford, and to Gastrop 
Gate, and which are found between Woodbridge and Orford, and 
thence one way to Saxmundham, not to mention the numerous 
heaths that are scattered every where, must be convinced that their 
improvement for grass would enable the county to carry many 
thousands of sheep more than it does at present.'' 

The following recent inclosures, with the yesr in whidi they 
were made, and the quantity of land brought into ctilUvatibn, are 
mentioned by Mr. Young.f 


* Young's View of th« Agricoltiire of Saffolk, p. 16S. 
t Ibid. 38--44. 

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CmMyW«stoa .... 1777 - - - 1260 acres 

Baniiiigiiam 1798 ... 560 

Pak^eld and GUleham - 1798 ... 330 
WoUington .... 1 1799 ... 860 

Barton Mills .... . . . gOQ 

Tuddenbam .... ... 1500 

PaopfiRTT.^^The state of property in this county may be consi* 
dered beneficial in its division. The largest estate is supposed 
not to exceeed 8,dO(H. a year; there are three or four others 
which rise above 5,0001. and about thirty others of 3,0001. and 
upwards. Below this standard there are many of ail sizes : bat a 
circumstance which strongly indicates the prosperity of this por- 
tion of the kingdom, is the great number of yeomen, or formers 
occupying their own lands, of a value rising from 1001. to 4001. 
a year. These, as Mr. Young emphatically remarks, are '' a 
inost vduable set of men, who having the means, and the most 
powerfol inducements to good husbandry, carry agriculture to a 
high degree of perfection.'' 

The great mass of the county is freehold property; but copy- 
holds are numerous, and some of them extensive. The farms in 
Suffolk musty in a general light, be reckoned large ; and to this 
eiieumstanee chiefly may be attributed the good husbandry so 
commonly fionnd in the county. In the district of strong wet 
loun there are many small fiums from 201. to 1001. a year; but 
these are intermixed with others rising from 1501. to 3001. and 
even higher. In the sand districts they are much larger, from 3001. 
to 800L or 9001. Here owing not a little to these large occupa- 
tiens in the hands of a wealthy tenantry, agriculture is carried to 
great perfection. 

The usual terms fer leases are seven, fourteen, and twenty-ont 
years. Few counties have been more improved by the latter than 
Bttflblk. By means of such leases, whole tracts in the sandy dis- 
tricts have been converted from warren and sheep-walks into pro- 
dnctive indosnres. They have caused large tracts to be hollow- 
drained; and occasioned an improved i^oitivation in almost evevy 

. respect. 

Digitized by 


10 svirMx. 

respect, vlMrfr it depended •« ike cxpe a di tw w ^tkagm wmm them 
ere laid est by frnnen nmUe w uMriUiog ti^ mfce saefa CKer* 

Mr. Yomig* giret the following ectimate «r the total iwtel of 
theeonnty, foand^dnpontliediTiaioaof it aeoordiiigtetlioaoil: 

30,000 acres^ fens, at 46 • 6»00Q|. 

46,666} rich loam^ at 18s 41^,0001. 

156,666} sand» at 12s 93,9901. 

113,333^ do. at 6s 33,9 

453,333| strong loam, at l6s 362,6 

800,000 S36,€ML 

BviLi>iNa«-~OB a muney of the hoildiaga ia gaoend of due 
county, the neglect of elegance and cosvenienee in tkoae of genr 
tlemen of a certain property , aa well aa in fcra^'Uaaoi, 
&il to atrike the obeenrer. The latter, indeed, are 
proved within the laat twenty or thirty yeai% hat even at ) 
they are too often huiH of lalh and plaiatcr, which deca]^ag in a 
ahort tune, eanie repaiia to he ao heavy a dednctmi Aon tho Mh 
ceipta of an eatatcf 

Though aome individuals have BMst landahly diatingninhed 
themaelves by building neat and coBBfortahle cottagaa for the 1^ 
boring poor, the amall profit which the rent alforda, haapreroBted 
this practice from being fteqaeBt. The coltagea of Snfblk in ge> 
neral are bad habitations) deficient in contrivance for wanntb and 
convenience, the state of repair bad, and the want of gardena tap 
common. The general rent of them ia firom two to thfae ponndi^ 
with or without a small garden. 

State of the Poon. — The amount of money levied in this 
county in 1803, for the maintenance of the poor, was 149,6461. 


* General View of tbo Agricnlmre of Soffolk, p. fO. 

f The eilenC to which thk evil operates in the eattera part of the kingdom 
is leaccely credible. Mr. Youig inforau «•» that oa one ctfate of aboiA 
1,5001, m year, the repaiit amoanted in eleren yean to above 4,000L 

Digitized by 


WiBgftI the isto ^t4B. lOidinthe fonaA. TIm Mrtnngabr oir-; 
eoauKUiiee rdatiiig to the po<Nr in Suifelk, ib the mooqHnrfttion of. 
varioQB lumdreds for erectiag and mp^^ortiag hoiwesof industry*. 
The local iBconvenieace and distzesg arising frpm the -niunber oC* 
poor» and the expenee of maintaining them^ occasioned many dis*. 
tricts in the connty to apply to parliament for the power of incor- 
ponitingtliemBelTes, and of legohting the employment^ and main- 
tenance of the poor hy certain rules not authorized by the existisig 
poor laws. Several acts of parliament accordingly passed, incor-. 
porating those districts^ wh«re the poor have since been governed 
and supported aocordiog to the power given by snch acts. The 
result of an actual esamination of these institutions by T. Rog- 
gles, Esq. is given by Mr, Young in the following terms :* 

** In the incorporated hundreds, the houses of industry strike. 
one in a diflerent light from the cottages of the poor. They are 
all built in as dry, healthy, and pleasant situations, as the vjcir 
nity afi)rds; The offices, sudi as the kitchen, brewhanse, bake-, 
house, buttery, laundry, larder, cellars, are all large, convenient^ 
and k^qpt extremely neat ; the work-rooms are large and well aired;, 
and the sexes are kept apart, both in hours of work and lecreatiiML 
The dormitories are alsolaige, airy, and conveniently di^sed;. 
separate rooms for children of each sex, adults and aged. The« 
married hare each a separate apartment to themselves ; mothers 
with narse cUldren are also by themsdves. The infirmaries are 
large, conv«niettt, liry, and comfortable; none without fire- 
places. All the houses have a proper room for the necessary dis- 
pensary ; and niost of them a surgeon's room besides. The hails 
in all are large, oonvenient, well ventilated with two or more fire- 
places, and calculated, with respect to room, for tiie reception of 
fall as amny as the other convenieaces of the house can contain. . 

** The chapels are aU sufficiently large, neat, and p)ain ; several 

of them rather tending to giindeur and elegance. There were 

two houses which had no chapeb : one of them made use of a room 

ample enough for the congregation, properly fitted up, and kept 


'• General View of the AgricaltsM of 8iilfolk, p. £51. 

Digitized by 


12 BVtTOUL. 

very neat ; tiie other attended the perbh choreh. The apartiiiait» 
far the governor were in all the honees laiye and conveniently 
diflposed. In one or two these apartments ware ratiier more spa- 
oioaa and elegant than necenary. There are also eonrenient store- 
houses and warriionses lor keeping ^he maairfMtnres of the house, 
the raw matertaUi> clothing, &c. for the nae joi the inhahttants. 

^' The land belonging to the honses, and the gardens in parti- 
enlar are calcalated for producing a sofficient quantity of vegeta- 
Me diety so necessary to the health, as well as agreeable to the 
palate of the inhabitants. 

" In general the appearance of all the houses of industry in the 
approach to them, somewhat resembles what we may suppose of 
the hospitable lai^ mansions of our ancestors in those times when 
the gentry of the country spent their rents among their neighbors, 

** The interior of these houses must occasion a most agreeable 
surprise to all those who have not before seen poverty but in its 
miserable - cottage, or more miseraUe work-house. Their neat* 
ness, whidi had so pleasing an eSidct on the eye, was the atose 
also that the other senses were not di^;nsted by that constant at^ 
tendant on collected filth and foul air, a noisome stench, as delete* 
rions to human life, as it is in general nauseating to those who 
accidentally breathe such an atmosphere. 

" The practice of freqn«it white-washing, does much toward 
preserving the air of these houses sweet and wholesome; but the 
constant attention of those who perform the offices of the house is 
absolutely necessary ; and even that is insufficient, unless the halls, 
working rooms, and dormitories, have the external air admitted 
through the windows, whenever it can be done with safety to the 
inhabitants with respect to catching cold. The neatness and 
cleanliness which prevailed in their halls at the hour of refection, 
were also laudably observable; most of these houses of industry 
being visited at the hours of breakfast, dinner, or supper." 

Mr. Rnggles, who fomished the preceding observations on the 
houses of industry, proceeds to examine three imjKfftant queiP 

}. Have 

Digitized by 


I. Qcve these institatiofiis amended the morals of the poor? 

%■ Have they tended to diminish the burthen of expense to soci- 
ety attending their relief and maintenance ? 

3. Haye they increased, or do they tend to decrease thechance 
of human life P 

The two first ^estions he answ^s unequivocally in the affirma- 
tire, supporting his opinion by fiicts; and with regard to Uie 
third, he says :^' That it is not on experience determined in 
their &vor also, arises from the difficulty of requiring every infor-^ . 
mation necessary to its inrestigation ; and from the inability of the 
writer to apply with precision, and certainty of proot such fiicts as 
he had obtained, lie still believes that this point will, whenever 
it Alls under the pen of a more acctbrate inquirer and able political 
arithmetician, conduce also to the recommendation of district incor- 
porated houses of industry, as tending to increase the chance of 
life and population." 

It appears from the list in the office of the clerk of the peace for 
the county, that those admirable institutions, benefit clubs, flou* 
rish considerably in Suffolk. The number of these clubs amount 
to 219, containing 7709 members. 

Agriculture. — It is no smdil praise for the fiirmers of this 
county to assert, that they are little, if at all, behind their north- 
em neighbors in the improved cultivation of their lands ; and in- 
deed several beneficial practices are to be observed among the 
former to which the latter are still strangers. To point out these 
peculiarities, will be one of the principal objects of this article. 

Though the dairy district of Suffi)lk is extensive, and the num- 
ber of sheep grelit, yet the arable part of the county is by far the most 
considerable. One of the greatest improvements in the manage- 
ment of arable lands, particulariy if they be of a strong wet nature, 
was, till very lately, confined to this county. It consists in avoid- 
ing ail, or nearly all,. spring plowings. Enlightened cultivators 
hare extended this system to autumnal sowings : they scarify and 
scuffle, rake, clear, and bum, till the surface is fine enough for the 
drill to work, and then leave it till rain comes for drilling. This 


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pnetice not odjobrntoaMiy ^Hkdlmto wUehiheinMriris 
'etfcmti fcj.tte metliod fcnnerly ponmed, l«t by kaTing a firm 
bottom for the roots of wheat, it Iim precluded ttie cohibmmi malady 
'of root-fidlen crope.'* " Tkia general r^eelkm ef tillage by the 
plough, whenever circwmitancea permit, I ooaaider/' aays Mr. 
Tovng,* " as one of tiie greatest, if not the greatest improvement 
in modem hosbaadry. It baa changed the hoe of the greatest 
part of this eonnty, and will change the &ee of others as frst as 
'it is intarodnced with sidU and intdligenoe.'' In consefaenee of 
the adoption of this system, drilling has become yery general, 
especially vpon day land; and i^peara likely to spread to every 
part of the county. Dibbttng is also very common. 

The management of the arable land, and the conrses of crops^ 
diSsr essentially, in the fonr distinct soils of whioh Sofiblk cbn- 
sista. In the strong soils, the more general coarse indndes sum- 
mer fidlow as the common preparation hr the rotation of com- 
prodncta, on the principle that when once given, the fiurmer will 
be enabled to omit it at the second retmm, and even at tiie third 
also, by means of clover, tares, pease; &c. This prindple governs 
many variaUoos, bat where snfScient manure can be procured, the 
best course is as follows: I. Falfew. 3. Wheat 3. Beans. 4. 
Barley. 5. Clover. 6. Wheat. 

On the rich loam and sand, the rotation called tiie Norfolk hus- 
bandry is very generally introduced. It is this : 1. Turnips. 2. 
Barley, 3. Clover, 4. Wheat. 

On the sand districts, the management difiers according to the 
badness of the soil, but it is uniform in one feature, that tumipa 
are every where the preparation for both com and grass. After 
them barley is generally sown, and grass seeds succeed, but witl^ 
variations. In Samford Hundred, where the fiurmers are excel- 
lent managers, their course is: I. Turnips. 2. Barley. 3. Tre- 
foil and ray-grass. 4. Peas dibbled. 5. Barley. 

In the fenny part of the county, the method generally pursued, 
is to sow cole-seed on one plowing, after paring and homing, 

* Graeral View of the Agricnltars of Sufiblk, p. 70. 

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-WBTfiaJL 15 

tkim M« twke m ttooeMon; inOt the hst of thefee tiiey Uy 
down with imy^inM and clover far six or seven years^ then pore 
obi hatL, tad |^epeot Hie same htuAMOidry. 

The erops eommonly cultivated in Suffolk are : wheat, horley. 
oala, rye, beam, P^>m> hndL-wheat ; which, on the very poorest 
sands, is more common than in nmny other parts of England, and 
toforsnehsoSsavery vdnablecrop; tares; cole-seed, one of th» 
prtteipal pvodnetionB of the fen-district, and which, as food for 
sheep, exceeds tamips both in r^;ard to fottening and milk; tor- 
nips, clover, trefoil, white clover, and sainfoin. 

TlMdops not commonly cnltivated consist of hops, cabbage% 
eaiitols, luoerae, chicory, potatoes, and hemp. 

The onHivalion of hops, inlrodaced into England in the reigm 
of Henry VIIL seems to hare been early attended to in this 
oovnty. Bnllm, who wrote his Suhoarke of Defence in the 
middle of the sixteenlii centnry, mentions their growing at Bru- 
siard, war Fhmilingham, and in many other places. The same 
writer, in Ms G&vemmeni of Health, observes, that " though 
there eometh many good hops from beyond sea, yet it is known 
ttsKt the goodly stilles and fruitful grounds of England do bring 
forth nnto man's use, as good hops as groweth in any place in 
this world, as hy proof I know in many places in the countie 
of SaflbttLe, whereas they brew their beere with the hops that 
groweth upon their own grounds.'' Fh>m the manner in which 
Toaser, who was a Snflblk farmer about the same time, mentions 
ihem, and the frequent directions which he gives respecting their 
management, it may be inferred, that almost every person who 
had a proper spot, cultivated some at least for his own use. This 
. crop, however, is very little cultivated at present in Suffi>lk, except 
at Stowmarket, and in its neighborhood, where there are about 

In Vegnrd to cabbages, Mr. Young observes, that the heavy 

yartof Snfiblk is Hie only district in England, where, to hisknow- 

« ledge, tb«r culture is established among many common formers. 

/ |t Is, iMhr^ver, of lato years considerably declined, from the idea 

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1« fttTfOUL 

UmttlibplaBlexIttwto tiM gnmnd, n opaioa whidi tkrt < 
fcrale^ agricoJtiirtit thinks feanded on ill mnuigement. 

Tb€ enltiration of cmrrois in Ute Sftodling*, or district witiiia 
the line iomed bj Woodliridgc, flnnmnwdham^ and Oribrd, bvt 
extending to Leiston, is one of the most inteiesting ohjects in the 
agrieohore of Britain. From Norden's Snrreyors' Dialogne, it 
appears that carrots were commonly coltivated in this district two 
eentories ago ; a fact which demonstrates how long soch practicea 
may be confined to the aame spot^ and how mnch time is repaired 
to extend them. For many years they were chiefly raised for the 
London market; hot other parts of the kingdom haTing rivalled 
Snfiblk in this anpply, they are now principally caltiTated as ibod 
for drao^ horses. It has been feand by long experience, that 
this food keeps those animals in mnch finer condition, and enables 
them to go throogh all the work of the season better than com and 
hay. For horses that are ridden &st» they are not equally proper. 
They are also foaad to be of the greatest nse for fattening bul- 
locks, and feeding cows, sheep, and swine. The expense of an 
acre is aboat eight guineas, and the value firom twelve to fifteen. 

The merit of introducing chieory into the husbandry of England, 
belongs to Mr. Young, a native and inhabitant of this county. 

The tract in which hemp is chiefly found, extends from Eye to 
Beccles, and is about ten miles in breadth. It is cultivated both 
by farmers and cottagers, though it is very rare to see more than 
five or six acres in the bands of one person. This is an article of 
considerable importance, on account of the employment afforded 
by the various operations which it requires. In the ab9ve-menti«- 
oned district, indeed, the poor are entirely supported by this ma* 
nubcture. The Suffolk hemp is superior in strength and quality 
to that of Russia; the cloths woven from it are of various degrees 
of fineness and breadth, from lOd. a yard, half ell wide, to 4s. and 
4s. 6d. ell wide. It also makes very good huckaback for fk^wels, 
and common table-cloths. The low-priced hempa are a general 
wear for servants, husbandmen, and laboring manufoctuvers ; those 
from 18d. to 3s. a yard, for ftrmera and tradesmen; while the 


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Mmt sorb tnm dft. 6d. to 38. 6d. are preferred by many gentle^ 
men hr strength and warmih to other linen. 

Saflron was formerly cultivated to a considerable extent in Snf- 
iblk. This oriental plant was first grown in England in the reign 
tf Edward III. and was much nsed by our ancestors. In 1366; 
no less than eighteen poimdsof saffiron were consumed in the house* 
hoM of Margaret, Countess of Norfolk, at Framlingham Castle, in 
fins cototy. It long continued to be a considerable article of cook- 
ery, as well as medicine ; but from the revolution in manners and 
tehions, its use has greatly decreased. It was chiefly raised m 
Norlbflt,' Snjfelk, Essex, and Cambridgeshire, though now its cal« 
tare is confined chiefly to the last Several pieces of land in this 
eonnty are still named from it : at Fomham St. Genevieve, is a 
piece called tiie Safiit»n Yard ; another at Great Thurlow, the 
Saflron Ground; and a piece of glebe land near Finningham 
Church-yard, is denominated the Saffi-on Pans, or Panes, probably 
firom the slips or beds in which the plants were set. 

Among the manures employed by the SuflToIk farmers, the spe<* 
eies called crag may be noted as peculiar to this county. It is 
composed of dry powdered shells, and formerly produced a very 
great improvement in that part of the maritime district called the 
Sandlings, south of Woodbridge, Orfbrd, and Saxmundham, by 
being spread on the black ling heaths with which that whole tract 
was formerly covered. Its efiect, however, like that of lime, has 
often been found to decline on repeating the application. 
' Irrigation, one of the greatest improvements in modem agricul- 
ture, is very little practised in Suffolk, where large tracts of poor 
and unproductive arable land are to be seen in almost every parish, 
at least in the vicinity of every stream, below the level in which 
water might be made to flow. Some spirited individuals, indeed, 
have within these few years, sent for men from other counties, 
where* the practice is understood, to irrigate their meadows; and 
it is sincerely to be wished that their example may be generally 

If Suffolk has not acquired such high reputation for its live stock 
^ Vol, XIV, C as 

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as some «di^ counties, this mnst be ascribed rather lo Uie vaft^ 
of attention in the breeders, than to the want of a capability o( 
improvement in the animals themselTes. The cows have long 
been celebrated for the abundance of Ihoir milk, which^ consi* 
^ering their size, and the quantity of food, hi exeoedn the 
produce of any other race in the island. Though the peculiar 
breed of this county is spread all oyer it, yet a tract of twenty milea 
by twelve, is more especially the seal of the dairiea. Thin space 
is comprehended within a line druwn from the parish of Codden- 
bam to Ashbocking, Otley, Charlsfield, Letheringham, HatchesUMi/ 
Parham, Framiingham, Cransford, Bruisyard, Badingham, SibtoB/ 
Peveningham, Cookly, Linstead, Metfield, Wethersdale, Fres^ 
singfield, Wingfield, Hoxne, Brome,' Thrandeston, Gislingham, 
f inningham, Westrop, Wyverston, Gippmg, Stonham, Greeting* 
^d again to Coddenham. The cows of Suffolk are universally 
polled, as the fiinners sell all the calves that would have home, 
reserving only such aa have none for stock. The size is small^ 
few rising, when fattened, to fifty stone, at fourteen pounds each. 
7he characteristics of this breed are : — a clean throat, with little 
dewlap; a thin clean snake head; thin legs; a very large car- 
ease; a rib tolerably springing from the centre of the back, but 
Irith a. heavy belly; back-bone ridged; chine, thin and hollow; 
Join narrow ; udder large, loose, and creased when empty ; milk* 
jreins remarkably large, and rising in knotted pufi to the eye ; 
a general luibit of leanness ; hip-bones high and ill-covered, and 
scarcely any part of the carcase so formed, and covered as t« 
please the eye accustomed to &t beasts of the finer breeds. It is 
nevertheless remariced, Uiat many of them fiitten remarkably well, 
imd their flesh is of a fine quality. . The best milkers are in gene- 
pl, red, brindled, or of a yellowish cream color. The quantity of 
milk yielded by one of these cows is from five to eight gallons a 
|iay. Some years since cabbages were universally cultivated as 
a|i article of food for cows, far superior to hay, but this practice, 
as elsewhere observed, is now on the decline. Another peculiarity ) 

in the Sttfiblk management, is that of tying up these animals in ' 

the i 

Digitized by 


81TFF0LK*. 19 

the diAis, wiDioiit liome, shed, or roof, to eover them. A rough 
manger is formed irith rails and stakes ; the cows are tied to posts, 
about three feet from each other, and hare at their heads a screen 
of frggots. Litter is regnlariy giTcn, and the daog piled up be- 
hind. For cows before calving this is found better than suffering 
them to range at will ; the shelter of the hedge and dung keeping 
them sufficiently warm without any cover. 

' The quantity of butter computed to be sent from Sufiblk to 
London annually, is about 40,000 firkins. 

In those parts of the county where the cattle do not consume 
an the turnips, it is a common practice to buy black cattle at hm 
from north country drovers for the purpose. Some of these are 
Irish, otiiers Welch, but the greater part Scotch, of different 
breeds. These, after being frittened, generally continue their 
journey to supply the markets of the metropolis. 

- The Norfolk, or, as it might with greater propriety be denomi- 
nated, the Su£folk breed of sheep, since the most celebrated flocks 
are found about Bury, is difiused over almost every part of the 
county. For the quality of the mutton, as long as cool weather 
lasts; for tallow; for fritting at an early age; for the fineness of 
the wool, which is the third in price in England ; for endurance of 
hard driving ; for hardiness and success as nurses, this race is 
deservedly esteemed. These excellencies are however counter- 
balanced by their voiacity, a want of tendency to fritten, resultiog 
from an ill-formed carcase, and a restless and unquiet disposition ; 
a texture of flesh that will not keep in hot weather so long as that of 
South Down sheep, and a loose ragged habit of wool. In conse- 
quence of these bad qualities, the breed has been nearly changed 
in the last twenty-five years, tiie South Down now being every 
where prevalent. This new race was unquestionably introduced 
by Arthur Young, Esq. a hid not depending upon any present 
assertion respecting what was done many years ago, but published 
at the time in the Aimals of Agricukure, They afterwards 
passed into Norfolk^ in consequence of Mr. Young's recommenda- 
lion of them to the late Earlof Orford; and thus to the exertions 

G3 of 

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of this gentleman wa« o^ing the estabUduneal •f a hnti of abecp 
thrmighoQt two ooonties, to tlie benefit of soYanl tlioaMiiida 9f 
fonners, and to the advantage of their landiorda, fr^m that riaci 
^f rent which haa since taken place. 

In regard to the namber of aheep in the whole county. Mi. 
Yoang calcuktea, that the sand districts have one sheep to twf 
acres ; the rich and strong loams, one to fonr acres, and the fen 
district one to six acres. According to these proportiona the 
asmber will be : 

Sand 270,000 acres aheep 135,000 

Loam 500,000 100,000 

Fen 30,000 5,000 


Soffolk is not leto celebrated for ita breed of horses, than for it| 
eowa. They are found in the. highest perfection in the maritime 
district extending to Woodbridge, Debenham, Ey^ and Lowe^ 
stoff : but the prime of this breed were some yeaia since to be met 
with upon the Saadlings, south of Woodbridge and Orford. 
About half a century ago a considerable spirit of breeding and of 
drawing team against team, prevailed among the iarmera of that 
country^ one of whom is moitioned by Mr. Yoang aa haidqg 
drawn fifteen horses for 1500 guineas. The hoiaea of thia oU 
breed were in some respects the reverse of handsome, of a aorrel 
color, very low in the fore-end, with a large ill-ahapen head,, 
slouching ears, a great carcase, short lege and short back. Their 
power of drawing was very great ; but they could trot no more 
than a cow. Of late years, by aiming at coach^horses, the 
breeders have produced a more handsome, light and active ani- 
mal, which, if fiuriy compared with the great black horse of tha 
midland counties, will, it is presumed by competent judges, beat 
the latter in usefid draft, that of the cart and plough. 

Another peculiarity, besides the feeding of hones on carroti^ 

may be noticed iu the mode of treating these animals in Suflblk. 

This i$, that in the eastern diitricta they are never permitted to. 

9 « remain 

Digitized by 


ftiTFFOLi. a 

t#mia6 in Ihe MAk tt nigbt; being turned otit into a yard well 
Uttered with atraw, tbA supplied with plenty of good sweet oat or 
harley straw to eat, bat never clover or hay. With this treat* 
ttent, a horse never has swelled legs, and seldom any other iil- 
meat: he is kept in as fine condition, and will bold his work seve- 
ral years longer than one confined in tlie stable. 

Of the hogs of Sofiblk it may be observed, that the short white 
breed of the cow district has great merit. These animals are welt 
made, with thick, short noses, small bone, and light ofials, btti 
are notqaite so prolific as some worse made breeds. 

With ponliry this county is extremely well supplied, and espe* 
eially with turkies, for which it is almost as celebrated as Norfolk. 

Great quantities of pigeons are reared in the numerous pigeon- 
houses, in the opeh field part of the county, bordering on Cam« 

Bees are very little attended to in general ; though in the neigh • 
borhood of uncultivated lands they would probably admit of a con- 
siderable increase. 

Sofiblk tMmtains many rabbit-warrens, especially in the western 
sand district One of them, near Brandon, is estimated to return 
above 40,000 rabbits in a year. Of late years, hoireyer, consider** 
Me tracts occupied by them have been plowed up, and converted 
into arable and pasture land. 

Among the implements of agriculture peculiar to Suffolk, or 
invented and first employed in this county, may be reckoned, the 
Suffolk swing plough ; the horse-rake for clearing spring-corn 
bubbles; the new drill-plough invented by Mr. Henry Balding, 
of Mendham, who was ten years in bringing it to perfection, at a 
considerable expense ; threshing mills on the improved construc- 
tioii of Mr. Asbey, of Blithborough ; and the extirpator, or scalp- 
plough, a machine for destroying weeds, and clearing plowed 
lands for seed, invented by Mr. Hay ward, of Stoke Ash. A gen* 
tleraan of this county has also contrived a moveable stage for 
building the upper parts of stacks of hay or corn, and which may 
b« equally trett appti^ to other useful purposes. 

C3 To 

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. To agricttltonJ soeietieB, which in other (Mrts of the kingdom 
have heen prodacti?e of great and exten«iye henefit, Suffolk in 
perhaps less indebted than any other county. The only institutioa 
of this kind, is the Melford Society^ which meets alternately at 
Bury and Melford. On its first establishment, some of the mem- 
bers read memoirs of experiments, which appeared in the Annals 
of Agricnkure ; but for some years this has been dropped. A few 
premiums were offered, but never claimed, for which reason they 
have likewise been discontinued. 

Commerce and MANurACTUREs. — The commerce and mann- 
&cturesof Sufiblk are inconsiderable in comparison with those of 
many other counties of England ; and even those are, from Tariona 
causes, upon the decline. 

The imports are the same as in all the other maritime counties : 
and com and malt are the principal exports. Lowestoff is cele*. 
brated for its herring fishery, which was formerly more produc- 
tive than at present; and of which farther notice will be taken in 
treating of that town. 

The principal &bric of the county was, till lately, the spinning 
and combing of wool, which extended throughout the greatest part 
of Suffolk, with the exception of the district in which the mann- 
fikcture of hemp is exclusively carried on. In the year 1784, the 
woollen fabric was estimated by Mr. Cakes, of Bury, to employ 
37,600 men, women and children, whose earnings amounted, upon 
an average, to 150,0001. per annum. The Norwich manufacture 
alone employed nearly half of the above number. At present this 
fabric is far from being so flourishing in this county, having been 
chiefly transferred to Yorkshire. 

At Sudbury there is a manufju^tiure of says, and also a small silk 
manufactory- ; and some calimancoes are still made at Lavenham. 

General History — Suffolk, so called from the Saxon ap- 
pellation Sud/olk, or southern people, in contradistinction to the 
Nord/olk, or northern people, constituted, at the time of the in- 
vasion of the Romans, part of the district belonging to the tribe, 
whom those conquerors denominated Iceni, or Cenomanni. Their 
t history 

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Ufliol^ h$B already been g^ven in preceding Tolnmes of tlus work^. 
Tn the Roman division of the island, it was comprehended in th« 
proyince of Flayia Caesariensis, 

When the Romans, after a possession of four centuries, aban- 
doned Britain to its fiite, and the Saxons, on the invitation of its 
pusillanimous iohabitants, had made themselves complete masters 
of the country, Suffolk, constituted with Norfolk and Cambridge^ 
shire, <me of the seven petty kingdoms, into which these new 
masters parcelled out the island. It was denominated East An- 
glia. To this state the German Ocean formed a natural barrier on 
the east and north-east ; the Stour divided it from the kingdom 
of the East Saxons, or Essex, on the south ; and on the west and 
north-west it bordered upon Mercia. The boundary on this side 
has not been accurately ascertained ; but it is the general opinion, 
that the stupendous effi)rt of human labor, known by the name of 
the Devil's Ditch, on Newmarket Heath, was formed as a line of 
demarcation and mutual defence. This opinion is encouraged by 
the account of Abbo Floriacensis, who says, that " on the west 
part is a ditch and mound like a lofty wall/' By subsequent mo- 
nastic writers it has been termed St. Edmund's Ditch ; and many 
antiquaries and historians have adopted this appellation. 

F^m the various and contradictory statements of ancient writers, 
the precise period of the establishment of the monarchy of the East- 
Angles by Uffii, cannot be fixed with certainty ; but we shall not 
probably be far from the truth, if we assume the year dSO of the 
Christian era as the date of that event. Ufia, after a long reign, 
died in 578, and was succeeded by Titil, whose history is involved 
in the darkest obscurity. His death is supposed to have happened 
in 592, when his son, Redwald, inherited the kingdom,>andwaa 
the first East- Anglian monarch who embraced Christianity ; but 
the influence of his queen occasioned his relapse into the doctrines 
of paganism. His son, Eorpwald, who ascended the throne in 
#24, also professed the Christian religion, though the greater part 

C4 of 

. ^ See VcO- II. p. S. Vol. VIT. p. 3«5 j and Vol. Xh. Norfolk, p. 7. 

Digitized by 


94 BVTWU* 

of his tiibjecU glill continued in the radeot itafto of i4ohtry« 
After a short reign of six years^ he was hssdy murdered by Uio 
hand of a relation. The honor of giving Christianity a pemanenl 
footing in East-Anglia was reserved Ibr Sighreeht, or Sigehert. 
the successor of £orpwald« Thb prince wan the son hy a ibnner 
marriage of Redwald's second qneen ; and inding that the popa« 
larity which his amiable qualities and acoonplishments obtained 
for him, had excited the jealousy of his step«&ther« be retired to 
France. There he became a proficient in the literature of the ago* 
and a zealous professor of the Christian &ith. From this volan* 
tary exile Sigebert was recalled on the death of his half-brother^ 
for the purpose of being placed on the vacant throne. He t^rooght 
over with him Felix, a learned and pious Bargundian priest, whom 
he appointed bishop of Dunwich, In consequence of the inde&» 
tigable exertions of this prelate^ and the judicious assistanfe of 
the sovereign, the latter soon had the satisfiMTtion of wito^ssiaf 
the general conversion of his subjects to the Christian &itb. To 
this monarch the town of Bury was indebted for the germ of the 
ecclesiastical distinction to which it afterwards attained : ibr here 
Sigebert founded a monastery, and bailt a church, which he dedi* 
cated to the Blessed Virgin, After a reign of seven yenrs, mo- 
tives of mistaken piety impelled this prince to resign the carea of 
a crown to his kinsman Egric, and to become a monk in hia own 
convent The royal recluse was not destined long to enjoy the 
pleasures of retirement Penda, king of Mercia, having turned 
his arms against the East-Angles, Sigebert was prevailed npoa 
to quit his monastery, and to assuind the command of their army. 
His attempt to oppose the invader proved unsuccessful, both him^ 
self apd Egric being slain in 644. The crown now devolved to 
Anna, the nephew of Redwa}d, a prince distinguished for wisdom 
and valor, Notwithstanding these qualities, he was unable to 
cope with the superior power of Penda ; and after an unequal con- 
test of ten yeun, he bravely fell with his son Firminus, in a^ 
obstinate battle fought at BuUchamp, near Dunwich, in 665, 
The remains of the two princes wer^ interred at piithburgh, but 


Digitized by 



ii ft#rPM<P feBM»iedl»the<HwyclMgch<lBiJry> TheaaaittMtt 
aflonkd to Penda by EtMrod, the nnaatenl brotber of Amu^ 
now pravured bis eleyatioo to the throne of Ea8^Anglk» which 
continaod ta be governed by its oiwn princes tHI OA» khig of 
M^i^ia, Aoid the year 793, basely aMawinated Ethetbtft, nod 
seized his. kingdom. RsTsged by eontending annies, the conn* 
try was eonverted into a soene of bhM^dshed and desolation, bat In 
628 it was obliged to anbmit to tho pveponderating power elf 
Egbert, king of the West^Sazons. That monarch, instead of 
incmrpooting East*Anglia with his own doaunions, snAred it to 
lesMin as m tributary state under its own sovereigns, the last of 
whom was the mliNtanate Edmnnd, dignified after his desA 
with the titles of Saint and Mar^. - 

The snbaeqnent history of Sofiblk having heen alnady related 
In that of Norfolk.* it will h^ suiicient to remark, that among 
other districts laid waste by Sweyne, king of DenmariL, on hi$ 
invasion of England* this county suffisred most severely from his 
ravages ; neither towns nor churches being spared^ unless redeemed 
by the inhabitants with large sums of money : but to compensate 
In some measure for this treatment, Canute^ his son and sue* 
cesstf;, shewed it particular kindness. 

When William the Conqueror had by his sword made good his 
claim to the English crown, and confiscated the estates of the 
Saxon nobility and gentry throughout the kingdom, in order to 
reward the valor or fidelity of his principal officers, the covnty of 
Snffdk was parcelled out among them in the following manner : 

To Hi%h do Abrineis, Earl of Chester, his sister's 

son, he gave .•-•-*, ••-•32 manors 
To Robert, Earl of Morton and Cornwall ^ « - 10 
To Odo of Champagne, Earl of Albemarle and 

Holdernease r-i-i.--.i-»»^^-14 
To William Warren, Earl ot Surrey r • ^ • - IS 
^Bndode Rye, steward of his household * . . U) 


« 9pt Seaotip> Vol. 3p:. {Norfolk, p. fi, &«• 

Digitized by 


36 annou* 

ToWi]liamM8lel,IoidorEyeiii«Uieo«iit]r - - SU 
To Robert de Todenei, a noble Nomuui - • • . 4 

To Robert de Sliflbrd % 

To AlbericdeVere^Eait of Oxford 9 

To Jeflfery de MagnaTil, or Maaderifl .... 96 
To Richard de Tonebmge, or de Claro • • . • 96 

To Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk 117 

To Ralph de linien ----------11 

To Hugh de Grentmaiiiiell ....... 1 

To Peter de Valoines 6 

To Ralph Bainaid .-17 

To Swene de Essex .......•--.9 

To Roger de Aabervil -.•^•^-•♦•H 
To Robert Bloimd, or Blnnt *- 13 

At the same time Ralph Waher« or Gaadw/ was by the cos* 
^eror oonstitated earl« or chief governor of this oonnty, aa well 
as Norfolk ; bat this nobleman having conspired against the king« 
mB obliged to fpdt the conntry, upon vhieh his titles were con- 
ferred on Roger Bigod. 

In the reign of Henry II. about the year 1173, Robert, Earl 
of Leicester, having taken part with Henry, the eldest son of 
that monarch, whose ambition, inflamed by the king of FVanee^ 
tempted him to aspire to the throne of his frther, invaded this 
eonnty with an army of Flemings, and was joined by Hogh Bigod, 
earl of Norfolk. This force overran nearly the whole eonnty ; bnt 
being met near Bnry, by the royal troops, nnder the lord chief jus-^ 
tice, they were rented with great slaughter, and the earl himself 
taken prisoner. By these two armies Saflfolk was at this time 
miserably laid waste, especially in the neighboriiood of the place' 
where the battle was fought: 

During the first war between the barons and king John, Hngh 

de Boves, a French knight, not less remaikable for his valor, 

than for his arrogance, promised to bring over a strong army td 

the assistance of the latter. In consideration of this intended 

• See Beaotiei, VqI. XL Korfolk, p. eo. 

Digitized by 


ivnoii|c* 9t. 

Mnrice, be obtained oUhe king adourter, gnntiBg Urn the ooim-. 
ties of Norfolk and Snfiblk, from which he designed, as it was 
rqK>ited, to expel the inhabitants, and to re-people them with 
foreigners. With this view he assembled a formidable army at 
Calais. These troops, with their wives and children, being 
there embari^ed with an intent to land at Dover, were overtaken 
by so violent a tempest, and Hugh himself, and all his followers, 
perished, Matthew Paris computes the total number of lives 
lost on this occasion at 40,000. The king was thus disap-i 
pMUted of the expected succour; but the inhabitants of SuffoUt; 
were not a lijktle rejoiped at their escape from this destruction 
intended thcn^. Bat though the county was saved by this provi- 
dential interference from the rapacity of the king's confederates;, 
it was destined to suffer severely from the allies of the barons ; 
for Louis, the dauphio of France, in conjunction with the nobles 
who were in arms against John, made incursions into this county, 
and having ravaged the towns and villages, reduced it into com-^ 
plete subjection to themselves. 

In the rebellion excited by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw against 
Richard IL the populace of this county, headed by John Wraw, 
and John Ball, two seditions priests, took a conspicuous share. 
Assembling in vast numbers, they committed the greatest enor* 
mities, putting to death the chief justice of England, the Earl of 
Suffolk, and other distinguished persons, till they were routed 
with great slaughter, and finally dispersed by the bishop of Nor« 

In the fifteenth year of Henry VII. one Patrick, an Augustine 
friar of this county, having a scholar, named Ralph Wilford, the. 
son of a shoemaker, instructed him to assume the character of 
the earl of Warwick, nephew to Edward IV. and Richard III. at 
that time confined in the Tower, whence the impostor pretended to 
have escaped by the aid of the friar. This story gained credit 
from many people, as soon as it was divulged, which encouraged 
the friar to assert its authenticity from the pulpit. The king, 
^ing soon informed of these transactions, paused both master avd 


Digitized by 


S8 tfefMt& 

mAoUrte be ijppnkfllldAd} Ike litter ihttiuugi^ Akdlke fittf 
evndemiied le perpetual imprnomnent.* 

It dees not appear that Soffelk had any aliare in Ketf a i^belllen; 
in the reign of Edward VL thoagh the leat of that inanrreciioik 
ima in the aeighborii^ eonoty of Morfeik. 

On EdvanPa deoeaae, the Inbabtteata of fihdiblk, thongh aa ain- 
cere Protertanta aa any part of the nation, tealonaly anpported 
the title of hia aiater Mary, against the pretensions of Lady Jane 
Grey's adherents. When the ipmcess repaired on this oceasion 
from Norfolk to Framlingfaam Castle in this eonnty, the nobilitj^ 
and gentry resorted to her, ofiering their senrices to Yindicate her 
r^htful eiaim to the crown, on condition that they might enjo]^ 
Iheir religion as establiahed in the reign of her predecessor. Mary 
assured them thnt no alteration ahonM be made in that point by 
lier consent, and still less by her authority; hot no sooner waM 
she firmly seated on the throne, than the people of Snfiblk fonnd 
themsehres as mnch the Tictims of the misguided system of tfaitf 
princess as the rest of their fellow-snbjects. They tentored to 
Yemonstrate with her mi^jesty, and hnmbiy entreated her to be 
mindfiil of her promise to them, but were answered, contrary to 
their expectation, that '* it was not the place of members to go- 
Tern the head, nor snbjeds Iheir prince, as they shduM hereafter 
know.'' The threat oonTeyed in the conclnding words was fill- 
illed in the rigorous perseevtion to which many of the inhabitants 
of this county fell a aacrifice. 

In 1578, the nobility and gentry of Sofiblk magnificently enter- 
tiined Queen Eli2abeth in her progress ; for thongh they had but 
short notice a^ her intended risit, they prepared so well fi>r it» 
that on her entering tiie coonfy, she was received by two hundred 
young gentlemen dad in white v^lret, three hundred of the graver 
matt in black, and 1500 attendants on horseback, under the ctm^ 
duct of the hlgh^berifi^ Sir William Spring. When her majesty, 
highly pleased with her entertainment, left the cotaity on her 
seturo, she was attended to tiie confines by the Kke eseort 

PvriQg the eivH war between Charles L and the parlmment, 

* V«g«i Britania^j Vol V. p. 17^ 

Digitized by 



Ihia was OM of t)i9#0 ^ofuymthat ««Qdal«d fer IIm niist^^ 
^1fmQ^9» 9f\^9 lMet» mA veve pkiMl vnier the eommaiid of 
the Earl of Manchester, Sir Edward Barker, Sir John Petty, 
Mid other loyal gentlemen of this county, endeaT(»«d» it is tme^ 
tp raift^ a force to aecore it for tiie king; hot Cromwell sorprixed^ 
and reduoed them to obedience. 

f l^ \7SSt, nhen England waa mvidred in a war with France^ 
1^1^ Hollands mi America, the principal inhabitaata of Sitf> 
f^lk, at a valeting held at StewmadEet, agreed to ofea a sob* 
i|CiCipM<^ i"^ <M^^ to n^ ^ *°">< aaflkientto bnild a aoronty* 
iiWgVt#l|i|l» tabo prawntedta goYcnunent. Notwithatanding 
t)ie acri and effivta that were employed to forward thia design, it 
appcpured at the condoBion oi the- year that no more than 90,000L 
ha4 W^ snlwcribed. A geneial peace following very soon after- 
irard^, the phn was dvi^iped^ and conaeqaently the anbacribers^ 
wer^ iiot callod npoa for the anma for which they had pledged' 

ifoNOiliiUL HiBTORY.-^-P^eTionsly to the Norman conqnest^ 
a^4 ^ nettdy two centmriea afterwards, the honors of Siiflblk 
and Norfolk were united in one person. The firmer neTcr con- 
ferred a separate title tUl the 11th Edward III. when, on the 
decease of. Thomas Hantagenet de Brotfaerton, withont issne, 
BjOBsmr^ son of Robert de U&rd, steward of the royal house* 
hold, by Cicdy de Yaloines, waa cheated earl of SuflS>lk, and had 
aii anmiijty of 9QL perannum granted him sub lumnne et hon&re 
emmtii^ Ha was much employed by his soTereign in important 
aftirs of atate till his death, in the 43d year of the same reigi^ 
when ho left Us honor and possessions to his son 

WiixiAM DB Upford^ who waji snatched away by sadden 
4eatii> aahia four aona had been before him. Ascending the steps 
to tho.hguse.of lords to represent to them what the commons, in* 
pariiament. assembled, considered of tho greatest imp<»tanee fop 
the weUaie of the realm, he foil down and expired, leaving hia 
pOBS c s Di ons to Sir William de Eresby, Roger Lord- Scales, and 
Henqr Lord Forrera of Ocoby, tho itsno of hia three sisters. 


Digitized by 


9^ aufvou^ 

The tiOetliBs hecame extiaet in this tumiy, mi by teMfit favr 
yean, when king Richard IL in the ninth year of hia leign he* 
atowed it on 

Michael oe la Pole, whom he had hefere made i^h^ ffftW iy 
and keeper of the great aeal, aaaigning him at the aaaw tine a 
gruit of 1000 maika per annum to he paid oat of hia eschefmr. 
Of thia nohleman Walaingham obaerYea, that heing the aon of n 
merchant^ and hroaght np in the mercantile line hinmcH he wan 
better Teiaed in commercial mattera than in a&in of atate. Hia 
&ther waa William de la Pole, mayor of Kingaton-vpon-Hnll, who 
had the dignity of a banneret conferred upon him aa part of hia re* 
ward fer lending Edward III. large avow of money, witbovt which 
he coold not have proaecnted hia deaignaagaanat France. Thefcing 
alao promiaed to pay him lOOOL a year on the raaofery of hia 
righta in that country. Of hia aon, the earl of Sniblk, Caaiden 
ndda, that wanting a aund capable of bearing aoch a flow of proa* 
perity, be waa guilty of some miademeanor, lor which teaaon ha 
waa forced to ^t tiie court, and died in exile at Faria. Hia 
large estate waa coniiacated, aothalaamall portion only dc acan J ed 
to hia aon and heir. 

Michael de la Pole, who, baTing married Catharine, daugh- 
ter of Hugh, earl of Staflbrd, had certain manon settled upon him 
and hia wife, in the lifetime of hia lather, fer their better aopporl 
Thoae he enjoyed, with the addition of 50L per annum granted 
upon his petition by the king, and the title of a knight, till ^e 
death of Richard I. Soon after the eleration of hia aucceaaor, to 
which de la Pole materiaUy contributed, he preaented aatatesMnt 
of hb case in a petition to parliament, and with the aaaent of the 
peers waa made capable of inheriting all the landa and lordahtpa of 
hia ancestors, and allowed to enjoy the title and honor of eari of 
Soffi>lk to him and his heirs. He died of a flux in 1416» at tta 
aiege of Harflenr in Rrance. 

Michael de la Pole, aon and heir of the preoeding, Ml within 
a month after his fether's deeeaae, at thegloriona battle of Agin- 
court, and finmiahed oar inioiitable bard with the subject of thoae 

Digitized by 


{MlMto tkim, in wkioh Oe duke of Exeter, uncle to the kingt 
duttiki tbe deatii of his olm brother the dske of York :-« 

Snfiblk fint died : and York, all haggled OTcr 
Comet to him, where in gore he laj huteep'd* 
And tikes lum by the beard, kisses the gaahetf 
Sliatbloodilj did yawu open his face. 
And oiee alo«d— «* Tairj, dear oonsin Siiflblk I 
Mj soal shall keep thine eompao y to heaven i 
Tsury, sweet son], for mine, then fly abreast ; 
Ah in this glorious and well fooghten fields 
We kept together in our chivalry !" — 
80 did he torn, and over Sofiblk's neck 
He tfaiew hb wounded arm and kissed his lipi ; 
And so espoQs'd to death, with blood be sealed 
A tcftMBont of noble-ending lovi^ 

WiLUAM 0& LA PoLB, brother to the gallant earl, sneceed€4 
him in his honors and possessions. He was a brave and skilful 
officer, and being left in France after the death of Henry V. he 
tendered such eminent services in preserving the conquests then^ 
that he was rewarded with the dignity of marquis, and various 
additional privileges and emoluments* In the 2^ of Henry VI. 
he was sent over to France, apparently to settle the terms of a 
trace, which had then been b^;un, but in reality to procure a 
soitable match for the king. The princess selected to be the 
partner of his throne, was Margaret of Anjoo, daughter of R^* 
nier, titular king of Sicily. The treaty of marriage having been 
soon brought to a conclusion by Suffolk, he was sent as the king's 
proxy to espouse the princess, and conduct her to England. Ho 
enjoyed ever afterwards a high degree of finvor with the queen, 
through whose means he was made lord chamberlain, lord high 
admiral of England, and raised to the dignity of duke of Suffi>Uu 
This nobleman is accused of having been concerned with the car- 
dinal of Winchester, in the assassination of the good duke of 
Gloucester; and after the death of the cardinal, governed every 
thing with uncontrolled sway. Hi« conduct soon excited the jea* 


Digitized by 


iMW ^n l«»^ kad; libr wln^ kmrtrntam woentemdia tke 
«#ll^j|pi«l« elpvreli 4/ Wii^ifeUy » tU» eontj. Hk sob aad heir, 

i//lff9 Dr^ t4 Fotje, Juirfi^ Muricd Elinbetk, tialcr !• Ei* 
wftf<4 IV. tmi UielMMMfB •T JMfifiia mi 4ake coafimed to his 
ar^ htn hein, §U wm mmA is finwr wilk tint aonidi, aad 
#IM iMif« fAM^kifU of WdliagCHil caitie hy Hovy YIL Ai 
km itaMt f A 1 401 , bM cUmI warn, 

ionp, fffhif, in kw tMu^» lifi^tine had been ereOed eari of 
iAnf'^h, Micce«d«i bin in bte hooon ofMlbUL He w latde 
bM^d n«irt«iiiiit of Irehiid by Richard IIL who, after the death of 
hU Mm^ faoMd bim to be inroclaimed heir apparent to tiie erowd 
•f Hn^hni, ftm\ng by the daogbtera of fab eider brother Edward. 
B«ing MO eminent a branch of the Yoric iamily, it b not surprising 
that he should be decidedly hostile to the pretensions of Henry 
AmUp of Riohmond ; on whose accession to the crown, he fled to 
his stMtnr^ the doehcss of Burgundy, and entered eirly into tiie. 
project formed in behalf of the impostor Simnel. Am commander- 
llhchlef of the force destined for its accomplishment, he fell, with 
4000 of his followers, at the battle of Stoke-npon-Trent, in 1487. 

KDMtNt), his next brother, succoMed him ; and being a matt 
of an enterprising «nd coungeous ^irit, was employed by the 
king In virlous commissions at home and abroad. Being, how- 
^veTi so ntirly rrlsted to the crown^ by his mother and brother, 
whoso heir ho wM| king Henry VIIL conceived a strong jealonsy 
df him» AS a dangwous rital. He therefore ordered him to be 
svfursd imd imprisoned In the Tower: till at length, previously 
tn his axpeditlon against Prance, ftaring lest the people shonld, 
during his absence, itlsaat his victim, and make him king, he 


Digitized by 



refiotred to remove this Dobleman ontof his vay. lie was nccord- 
ingV beheaded in the Tower, leaving an only daughter, who 
emhniced the monastic life : and thus this honor again became 
extinct, bat was soon afterwards revived in another &mily, in 
the person of 

Charles Baa^idok, son of Sir Thomas Brandon, who having 
been a firm adherent to Henry, duke of Richmond, was, on his 
accession to the throne, made a knight of the garter and mar- 
shal of the court of common-pleas. Charles, his son and heir, 
was endowed by nature with eminent qualities both of body and 
mind ; and for his services in the campaign against France, was 
invested by Henry VIII. with the dignity of viscount Lisle and 
dnke of Snffolk. This nobleman won the heart of the king's sis- 
ter, the princess Mary, who was married to Louis Xll. of France ; 
and alter her short-lived uniov with that monarch, became her hus- 
band. On the dissolution of the greater monasteries, he obtained 
a considerable share of their possessions. In the 36th of Henry 
VIII. he was appointed general of the army that was sent into 
France, and took Bouli^gne; and dying the year following, was 
interred in St George's chapel, at Windsor Castle. By Catha- 
rine, daughter of Lord Willoughby de Eresby, he left two sons. 

Henry, who succeeded him in his honors and estate, and 
Charles, both of them in their minority. These youths being at the 
house of the bishop of Lincoln, at Bugden, in Huntingdonshire, 
Were seized with the sweating sickness, which was then making 
great ravages^ and died on the same day, July 14, 1551, without 

Hemry Grey, marquis of Dorset, having married Frances, 
eldest daughter of Charles Brandon, and the princess Mary, sister 
to Henry VIII. was now created dnke of Suffolk, Oct. 11, 1551. 
By this union he had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Jane, 
being married to Guildford, lord Dudley, fourth son of the duke 
of Northumberland, was, through his artifices, appointed by the 
will of king Edward VI. his sqccessor, to the prejudice of his sis- 
ters Mary and Elizabeth. The former halving 40on .overcome all 

Vol. XIV. D opposi* 

Digitized by 


9% fflfffOUL 

oppowtira, tiie ilMsted LmIj Jane Grej nftredl for tlie smbitMiif 
•r her friai^; her infer, her kathuid, aad iMTKlf, king mD 
iiwftiil to the UmL Tlie title w aot rerrred for awy yean, 

THdiAS HowAED, MeA mm of Hmmbm, duke of NoHbft, 
fcy lus aeeoiMl wHe, Margaret, die ter aad hetreM of Thomaa 
Lnri Airiiey, of WaMen, and h>pd higii ddnedlor of Boglaiid, 
wao, IB tlie first of JaflMs I. created earl of SaftllL TUsnoUe- 
■aa, daring the reign of qneen Elixabeth, had greatly diatin* 
gn i ahcd hnaelf as a naval officer, eifeeially in the 

irith the Spanish annadn in 1MB. HealM 
a si|nadron destined to attack the Spanish pfarle fleet in 
1M$; and was adndnd of the third sqnadroo of the fleet which 
sailed against Cafo in 1507. On his rstvn he was created a 
harott, hy the title of Lord Howard, of Walden, and afterwards 
iofesled with the earldon of SdMk, as related shore. He died 
in 1^36. In his fiunily the honors have ever since reouuned, tfie 
present peer, John Howard, heing the fifteenth earl of Soffblk. 

EcctEBiAwncAL HiSTOET — TV christian religion, which had 
gained a ssnll fiioting in the kingdoHi of the Bast- Angles, in the 
reignr'of Kedwdd and Erpenwald, was notestahUshed in that 
eonntry till Sigebert was invested with the govemniflnt Red- 
waid, while viceroy of Kent onder king Ethelberty was converted 
to Christianity and baptized ; h«t snoceeding hb fitther Titol in 
the kingdom of the East-Angles, he was posnaded hy his wife 
to. retnm to his fimner idoktry ; yet that he night not seem 
wholly to renounce Christianity, he erected in the same temple an 
altar Ibr the service of Christ, and another for sacrifices to idols, 
which, as Bede infimns ns, were standing in his time. Thos 
christiaiifty was banisiied from his kingdom during his reign. 
The qneen, however, who had thns excluded the true rdigion, 
was the means of iU estaMbhment in the sequd. Being the 
widow of a nobleman, by whom she had a son named Sigebert, 
she intmdnced hhn at the oonrt pi Redwald. By Redwald she 
had two sons, Seynhere and Erpenwald, who bdng bought np 


Digitized by 



wiih Sigebert^ were so &r supassed by him boCh in penon and 
behayior, that Redivald took nndmage at the youth, and banished 
him into Vtuaoe, where he eontinned dnring the- remainder of Red- 
Waldo's reign, and that of Erpenwald, who succeed^ him, because 
Reynhere had been killed in a battle with Ethelired, king of 
NcMthnmberland, fought near the river Idle, in Nottinghamshire. 

Erpenwald haying been convinced by Edwin, king of Northum- 
berland, while residing as an exile at his Other's court, of the 
truth of Christianity^ had embraced that religion; and on his 
accession to the throne, he openly professed it, hoping that his 
subjects would follow his example ; but, contrary to his expecta- 
tations, they were so dissatisfied, that a conspiracy was formed 
against his life, and he fell by the hand of an assassin named 
Richebert, leaving no issue. The East-Angles being now des- 
titute of an heir to the throne, and considering none so well qua- 
lified to fill it as Sigebert, whom Redwald's groundless jealousy 
had driven out of the kingdom, made him an offer of the crown. 
This prince, in his exile, had spent his time in study, and been 
fully instructed in the feitfa of Christ, which he had professed for 
many years prior to this invitation. Having accepted it, he re- 
turned to his native country, and resolving to introduce into his 
dominions that religion to which he had himself become a convert, 
he took with him a Burgundian ecclesiastic, named Felix, a man 
eminent fer his piety, with whom he had contncted an intimacy, 
to preach the gospel to his subjects. 

FeHx, on his arrival in England, was constituted bishop of 
East-Anglia, and fixed his seat at Dunwich in this county.* On 
his death in 647, he was buried in his church of Dunwich ; but 
' his body was afterwards removed to Soham, where he had his seat 
for some time, and interred in the monastery there, which was 
not long afterwards demolished by the Danes. Capgrave informs 
US, that some centuries later, in Canute's reign. Abbot Ethel- 
stail^ having with great pains discovered his bones, removed them 
to his abbey at Ramsey. 

I> 2 Thomas, 

• Se« BeoKtki, Vol. XI. Norfolk, p 16. 

Digitized by 


9i wmmnjL 

nomas, fcis deicMi, BucoeeM Ugi» $aJi mtiblkwed liy 

Bregiitui, iikewue called Bom^ace. 

Bi$a, or Sato, mm vest ooBMonlei to Ail Me in 609. b 
eoDieiyaeiioe ef Ins mfiniiliei» ht dinied Hie piovuee tnle l«e 
biiliopricke, the fleet of eoe ef wkkh leBBtiaed at Denwieh; eai 
the other mus fixed at North EladnM, in Norfolk. He ma pra- 
noitat the conncil of Hertford in 073^ aad died the aaae year. 

J^tta, or JEeca, tueoeeded hiai m the aee of Dunwieh* He 
governed it ahout two yean, and then with Bedwin, biahep if 
North Elmham, embraced the BMoaalac life in the ahbey ef St. 
Osyth> in Eaaex. 

EascuipkuM, or Astulftu, waa the next hiahap* How long ha 
enjoyed the epiacopal dignity doea not appear; bat it ia eo^|e»- 
inred to have been not nrach leaa than fifty ytiMa, an no nwntioo 
ia found of his aaeoeaaor 

Eadrid, or Edrid, till 731, when Bede ooodnded hia hiatory. 
He was present at the ooiineil of Cioveaho, held in 767, and anhi^ 
scribed canons by the name of Hearde^u Episeopmi DmmmB 
censis.^ He was succeeded by 

Cuthwin, or Guthwm ; after whom 
' Albert, or AWrith, obtained this see; and wnafoUowed by 

Eglqf, called also Algar, who had far hiaaneeenor 

Hardred, or Meardred, whom Malmabnry caila Emdrwd. Of 
this prelate. Bishop Godwin aays : *' Thn ia he, perfaapa, wha is 
mentioned in the synod called in the year 747, by Cuthbert, areh- 
bishop of Canterbury, and sobaeribed it by ^e name of Hardolf :'^ 
but Whartonf hsTing better compnted the time of the awating of 
that synod, judges that Edied, above aientioned, must hare baan 
bishop of Dunwichat that time; and hia opinion ap psar a to be-the 
'safest to follow. 

Alsinus, or Al/unus, succeeded Hardred ; and after him came 

Titefertns, or Ted/rid, also called WUfriik. He waa bishop 
of Dnnwich when Oflh, king of Mereia, made Litchfield anareh- 


• Spclm. CgndL Angl p« 94t. t Am^^ Satrit, Vol h p^ 404i 

Digitized by 


0I7FFOUL 87 

Wsboprick, which was about the year 787^ and waa present at the 
^Qods of Beaeonfield in 798 ; of Clovesho in 803 ; and of Cell- 
euth in 813 * 

Wiremundus, or Wermund, was the next bishop: He died 
in 870^ about the same time with Humbert^ bishop of North Elm* 
ham, whose successor, Wybred, agldn united that see with Dun- 
wich» and fixed the episcopal seat at the former place. 


eal goyemmeiit of this county is vested in the bishop of Norwich, 
assisted by two archdeacon#, those of Sudbury and Suffolk. A 
few parishes, however, are not subject to his jurisdiction. These 
are, Hadleigh, Monks lUeigh and Moulton, which are peculiars 
to the archbishop of Canterbury ; and Freckenham, with Isleham, 
in Cambridgeshire, is a peculiar to the bishop of Rochester. The 
diocesan had but one archdeacon till 1126, when Richard, arch* 
deacon of the whole county, being elevated to an episcopal see in 
France, Eborar4» or Everard, then bishop of Norwich, divided 
Suffolk into two archdeaconries ; making the western part of it, 
together with such parishes in Cambridgeshire as belonged to his 
diocese, subject to the archdeacon of Sudbury, and the eastern 
portion to the archdeacon of Suffolk. The former is subdivided 
into eight deaneries : Sudbury, Stow, Thingo, Clare, Fordham, 
in Cambridgeshire ; Hartesmexe, Blackbonm, and Thedwestry ; 
and the latter into fourteen, which are, Ipswich, Bosmere, Clay- 
don, Hoxne, Southelmham, Wangford, Lothingland, Dunwich^ 
Orford, Loss, Wilford, Carlford, Colneis, andSamford. 
' The high'sheriff for the time being is at the head of the civil 
goveniment of the county, which, in this respect, is divided into 
the Gsldable and Franchises. In the former, the issues and for- 
feitures are paid to the king : in the latter to the lords of the 
liberties. The geldable hundreds are, Saraford, Bosmere and 
Chiydon, Stow, Hartesmere, Hoxne, Blything, Wangford, and 
the two half hundreds of Mutford and Lothingland. For these the 

D 3 sessions 

* Spehn. ConciL Ani^L p. 318, 3^5, 3^S. 

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seMions are held at Beccles and Ipswicb ; that is, aft Becclea, for 
Wangford, Blything, Motford, and LothinglaUd ; and at Ipswich, 
for the remaiDder. The franchises are three in nmnber. 

1. The Franchise or lihoty of St. Ethelred^ formerly belonged 
to the prior and convent^ and now to the dean and chapter of Ely, 
contains the hundreds of Carlford, Colneis, Wilford, Plomesgate, 
Loes, and Thredling, for which the sessions are held at Wood- 
hridge. The pri<tf and convent possessed thb liberty in the 
time of Edward the Confessor ; and when they were changcid in 
1541, into a dean and chapter, it was reputed to be of the yearly 
value of 201. 

2. The Franchise, or lib^ty of St Edmund, given to the 
abbey of Bury by king Edward the Confessor, comprehends the 
hundreds of Cosford, Baberg, Risbridge, Laddbrd, Blackboum, 
Thedwestry, Thingo, and the half hundred of Ixning; for which 
the sessions are held at Bury. 

3. The duke of Norfolk's liberty, granted by letters-patent of 
king Edward IV. dated 7th December, 1468, of returning writs, 
having a coroner, and receiving all fines and amercements within 
his manors of Bungay, Kelsale, Cariton, Peasenhall, the three 
Stonhams, Dennington, Bnindish, the four llketsais, and Crat- 

There -is but one assize for the whole county ; but at every 
assize two grand juries are appointed, one for the geldable, and 
the other for the liberty of Bury Si. Edmund's. Suffolk and Nor- 
folk had formerly but one high-sheriff; but since 1576, a distinct 
officer has been nominated for each of these counties. 

Suffolk pays twenty parts of the land-tax, and furnishes 960 
men for the national militia. It returns sixteen members to the 
imperial parliament : two for the county, and two for each of the 
towns of Aldborough, Dunwich, Eye, Ipswich, Orford, Sudbury^ 
and St Edmund's Bury. 


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The hundred of Lackford is divided by the Oiwe fVom the 
connty of Camlvidge on the west; by the Uttle Oiise from 
Noifeik on the north; and is bounded on the east and south by 
the hundreds of BlaGkboura^ Thingo, and Risbridge. The 
western half of this district consists ahnost entirely of*mai«h 
and moor land, and the western of sand. The surface of the 
ifetts from one foot to six, is the common peat of bogs, with 
an under-stntum of white clay or marl. It is partly under 
water, though subject to a tax for the drainage, which has 
fruled ; but in Bunit Fen, the westernmost extremity of the county 
bordering on the Ouse, fourteen thousand acres have been com«> 
pletely drained, and brought into cultivation. Mr. Young ob-^ 
serves, that there are few instances of such sudden improvement as 
have been made in this tract. Forty years ago five hundred acres 
were here let for one guinea a year; but in 1772, an act was ob<i 
tained for a separate drainage, and one shilling and six-pence an 
acre levied* for the expense of embankments^ mills, and other 
requisites. In 1777, the bank broke, and most of the proprietors 
were ruined. In 1782, owihg to the success of the maehine de- 
nominated the bear, in cleansing the bottoms of rivers, and other 
circumstances, various persons began to purchase in this neglect- 
ed district The banks were better made, mills were erected; 
and the success was very great. Lots and estates were at this 
time sold for sums scarcely exceeding their present annual rent^ 
To these improvements paring and burning have very much con* 

MiLDENHALL, IS the principal town in this hundred. It is a 
large pleasant, well-built place, constitutes alialf hundred of itself, 
and has a weekly market on Fridays, well supplied with fish, wild 
fowl, and ail other provisions. Towards the fens, which extend 
eastward to Cambridgeshire, are* sevoal large streets, called by 

D4 th^ 

.tDigitized by 



the inhabitaiiU roua, as West-row, Beck-row« HolyweB-row. 
which of themselves are as large as ordinary villages. The sitna« 
tion of Mildenhall npoB the river Larke^ whieh is navigable fnr 
haiges, has considerably added to the trade and enlargement of 
Hie town. According to the enumeratioii of 1801, it contains 906 
houses, and 2283 inhabitants. 

The Ghareh is a large handsome straetore, with a rich roof 
of carved wood worit. It consists of a spacious nave, two side 
ailes, a. proportionate chancel, a neat golhic porch, and a tower 
120 ISa high. It contains many monnmento for the fcmily of 
tiie Norths. To the nivth of it stands the noble mansion of 
Sa Thomas Charles Bunbory, Bart one of the representativea 
in this county ia parliament It was formerly the residence 
of his great uncle. Sir Thomaa Hanmer, who waa speaker of 
the house of commons in Queen Anne's reign, and died in 1746« 
Contiguous to his house he had a very fine bowling-green ; and 
was one of the last gentlemen of any foahioa in this county 
who amused themselves with that divemon. To the pn^Mietor 
of this mansion belongs also one manor of this town, which 
was given by Edward the Confessor to the abbey of Bury, that the 
religious might eat wheaten instead of barley bread. After the 
dissolution, it was granted in the fourth and fifth of Phil^ aad 
Mary, to Thomas Reeve and Christopher Bdlet The an^eul 
mansion of the Norths is of the time of Elisabeth, or early in 
the reign of James I. It contains many numerous i^iartments^ 
and a gallery the whole length of the front ; but the rooms i« 
general are of small dimensions. 

We are informed by Ho)inshed, that on the 17th of May, IWf^ 
this town suffered severely from fire, which, in two honn, destroy** 
ed thirty-seven dwelling houses, besides barns, stables, and other 

Mildenhall has furnished London with two lord-mayors; Henry 
Barton, who held that honorable office in 1428 ; and William 
Gregory in 1461. It has a considerable yearly fiiir« vduch be- 
gins otttliedMi (tf September, and lasts four days. 


Digitized by 


avxfouu 41- 

BRANDOHy % tova iMA fbimerly kid a weekly market, ninr- 
diflODHtiiiiied, is agreeably siknaled on the little Ouae, and cen- 
taiaa 201 koiuea, and 1148 inbabitantB. The riTer^ which ia 
nMfigable torn Lynn to Thetibrd, has a bridge oTer it at thia 
]»lafie ; and a mile lower down a feiry for conreying goods to and- 
fram the lale of Ely. The town is well bnilt; and its church is a 
good stmctore. In the neighbonrhood are some extensive rabbit*, 
warrens^ which largely contribute to Ae supply of the London 
One of these wamna alone is said to famish forty thou-' 
I rabbits in a year. 

•At this plane is n manalMloty of gan^^flints^ the refuse of 
idttehf thrown together at the end of the .town, forms heaps of 
ansh diaensionB, thala stranger cannot forbear wwdering whence 
they could hsfe been collected. 

This town ga?e name to the iUostrious fondly of the Brandons, 
dukes of Sidfolk, and afterwards conferred the title of baron on 
Charles Gerard, who, for his seal in the service of Charies I. 
waa crea t ed by that monarch lord Gerard of Brandon ; and ad* 
vnnced by hia eon Charles to the d^;nity of earl of Macclesfield. 
On the extinction oi his fomily. Queen Anne, in 1711, created 
th» duke of Hamilton n peer of England, by the title of baron 
Dntton, and duke of Brandon, which is still enjoyed by his de- 

Simon Eyre, who waa lord-mayor of London in 1445, was a 
nalive ef Bnmdon. At his own expense he erected Leadenhall 
for a granary for the metropolis, with a handsome chapel on the 
east aide of the square, over the pordi of which he placed thia 
inacription: Desira D<mim extJiamt me—'* The right hand 
of the Lord hath exalted me.'' He left mweover dOOO mari^s, a 
nvy^ksge sum in those days, for diaritable purposes^ and dying 
in 1409, was interred in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, Lom- 

Bi«Bdon haa tiiree annmd foirs, on 14th of February, llth of 
June, and llth of November. 

DownSAtt, alsocaUed Sandy Jhumkam, a vOkge seated oa 

^ the 

Digitized by 


42 8U170LX« 

the little Ovse/ it reaaikable for an iBnndatioii of Mnd, wUehj 
in 1668, threatened to oyerwheim the whole place. The circuB- 
■tanoea of this phmomenott, unparalleled perfaapa in England, 
are detaQed in a letttf written hy Thomaa Wright, Etq. who was 
reaident apon the apot» and a coiwidenble aufoer.hy the eSocU 
of thia extraordinary viaitation. He etatea, that he foand some 
dii&cnlty in tracing thoae wonderful tanda to their origin, but at 
last diacofered it to be at Lakenheath, about five nilea to the 
aouth-weat of Downham, where iome large aand-hilb, having 
their mahce broken by a tempeatuoua aouth-weat wind, were blown 
upon some neighboring ground, which being of the tame nature, 
and having sfonitonly a thin coat of graaa, which waa aoon rotted 
by the other tand that lay over it, joined the Lakenheath sand, 
increased its maaa, and accompanied it in its strange progress. 
At its first eruption, the sand is supposed to have covered not 
more than eight or ten acrea : but before it had proceeded four 
iniles, it had increased to. such a degree, as to cover above a thou-* 
sand. AU the oppoaition that it experienced between Lskenheath 
and Dowhham, was from one farm-house, which the owner en- 
deavored to secure by building bulwarks against it ; but perceiving 
that this would not answer his purpose, he changed hia plan, and 
instead of attempting to prevent its advance, he allowed it a free 
passage, and thus got rid of it in the space of four or five years. 
When this sand-flood reached Downham, it continued tea or 
twelve years in the skirts of the village, without doing any consi* 
derable damage, owing, as Mr, Wright imaginea, to the circnm* 
stance of its current being then down hill, and therefore sheltered 
from those winds which gave it motion. Having once passed the 
valley, it went above a mile up hill in two n^>nths; and in the 
same year overran more than two hundred aeres of v«ry good oom« 
land. On entering the body of the village, it buried and destroyed 
several houses , and the inhabitants of the others preserved them 
at a greater expense than they were wortL With great exertions 
Mr. Wright gave some check to the progress of the flood, though 
for four or five years his success was doubtfuL It had gained 


Digitized by 


strFFoUL 49 

lofall-tteaTeBves, so that there nw no otter acoefst to 
ills home hut OTer two iralb eight or 'nine height^ and a 
«mall groTe in front of it was encompassed, and almost honed in 
-saihd : nay, at one time it had filled his yard, and was Mown np 
almost to the eaves of his ont^honses. At the other end it had 
broken down his garden- wall, and ohstmeted all passage that way. 
For lour or iive years Mr. Wright stopped it as well as he could 
with fnrze^hedges set upon one another, as fut as they were le- 
Telied by the sand. By tlus experiment he nised banks near 
twenty ym:ds high, and hronght the sand into the compass of 
eight or ten acfes; then by laying npon it some hundred loads of 
earth and dung in one year, he reduced it again to firm land : on 
which he cleared all hia waUs ; and with the assistance of his 
neighbors carting away fifteen hundred loads in one month, he 
•cut a passage to his house through the main body of the sand* 
The little Ouse, on which Downham is sealed, was for the space 
of three miles so choaked, that ayesselwith two loads weight,. 
Ibund as much difficulty to pass as it had done before with 
ten ; and had not this rirer interposed and checked the pro- 
gress of the inundation into Norfolk, great part of that county 
ted probably been ruined. According to the proportion of the 
in<7ease of the sand in the five miles oy^ which it travelled, 
which was from ten acres to 1500 or 3000, it would hate been 
swdled to a quantity truly prodigious, in a progress over ton 
miles more of the like soil. The cause of this flood Mr. Wright 
ascribed to the violence of the sonth-west wind passing over the ' 
level of the fens without any check, and to the sandiness of the 
soil ; the levity of which, as he believed, gave occasion to the 
story of actions formerly brought in Norfolk, for ground blown out 
of the possession of the owners : but he observes, that in this re- 
spect the county of Sufiblk was more friendly, as he had possessed 
It great quantity of this wandering land without interruption.* 


•Phil. Train. No. XVII. 

Jh» ftUtboTs of Mtgna Britannia, (Vol. V. p. «19) and of several snbse- 


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4i •vrroM^ 

Evmton, a omII vilfaig^ wm kmedj of mnm aole, lor ttw 
oottion of certain joBiieeo of tlie poaee, «1n>^ whoa Um kiag'f 
«DflimiMionen appointed to apprelMad» try aadpoaidi tiM riotooa 
iahabitants of Bury in ld37, for tke oatngoooonwitted by them 
against the abbot and conTeat of tbaitown, ooly iadiotad tbem 
ioft atrnpana, boldly prooeeded agamt tbenn as Moaa, oa ^riiidi 
tbey ivere brought to trial, aad aiaeteen ■uiarad death. 

EWedoB gaTO the title of nacoant to adnural KeppeL To the 
right of the Tillage in £A»€daa-Aii/(, the acat of the eari of Albe- 
marle, whoae attention to bodable and aaefiil pnmita eatitlca 
him to not leaa reapeet than hia rank* This nobleman has here 
taken into hia own haada a ftna of 4000 acrea ; " he ptomiaea/' 
m Mr. Yoaag obaervea, " la be avery acti?e aad experimental 
ftrmer : and nill, by iaqiroving and plantiag* change the froe of the 
deaertwhidi annouada hiu/'* He baa btrodaoed the ayaiem qf 
driU^haabandry on a large acale apoa hia frrm, coaaiatiag diieHy 
of a blowing nnd: and by a trial of a floek of 900 Norfolk aheey, 
againat the aaaM aamber of Sovth Downs, baa eatahliahed ti^ 
decided anperiority of the latter. 

The amnor of EaEavBLL waa held of the king m capUe, aa of 
hia honor of Boulogne, by Jtalph of Roaoealre, and hia deacend- 
anU; and in the first of Edward II. by Robert de Todenbaai^ aad 
Eve hia wife. Beaidea the parochial church* there waa at the 
aerth end of the pariah a ehi4>el dedicated to St lAwrenoe ; and ia 
oneof theae waa a chaaatry of the yearly rahe of 9L 4a. 6d. 

ExNiif o, or IxNiNG, ia a village about a mile from Newmar* 
ket, in the oeatre of a email portaoa of Sniblk, joined only by the 
high road to the reat of the cooaty, and otherwiae aarroanded by 
Cambridgeahtre, to which^ in the reign of Edward I. it gave the 

^aeot works, crroneoatly usert, on the aotliority of Holiofthcd, that in Octo- 
ber i$6a, twentjr-flerea lUhei of prodigioot slse, the smallett measuring twentj 
feet in length, were uken near the bridge of this Tillage. The Downhaa 
spoken of by Hulinsbed| u Downham-market^ eleven aiiles from Lyna, ia 
* Agricnltare of Suffolk, p. 403. 

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tuivou. 45 

MwefaluiflnuiaraA. Kkby, in bu StaMk Ti»TeUer> Miyv. 
Ikit this pfaMMi. 'witii Neai9iket» is leckMied ift the hundnd of 
Stow ;«4wi the geMralmelhod which makes this dolaehed di»- 
liiol part of the hundred of Lackford it here adopted* 

This viUageispkaBBiitly situated ia a soisU vale, witiia nyalef 
tanning thiwvgh the middt of it» and well shaded with fine peplsia^ 
ffodaeing an agretaWe eontrast to the aonoUmy of the sonoandr 
ing eanntiy* -whiehin genoral presents one «nilomi» naked pkia. 
The chnreh is a good and spaoiaas building, witha lofty fpaa» 
tower, -whioh eommandsa very eacteosife piespeet, and is seen aft 
'wgrswkdfistanoe. IntiMehanoel, veiy nesrtheeonHnnniontahle, 
iaasfnsreallartonheioaetothe waUL Itia ofaeoarsesortof 
gfeyvnihlei sad was formerly adorned with bvssses, which have 
heen torn away. Neither tradition nor any memorial has pr^^ 
nerved the name of the pe»on for whom it was erected. In the 
window oyer the ahar remain afew panes of painted plass; some 
of them with mvtilsted figores. Ooe of these without head, has a 
foMen wand, which profaaUy formed part of a crosier« A largo 
qnadiangular hridL mansion heve, was foimeily the seat of the 
fihepherds, irha possessed a good estate in this ooonty, hot waa 
aald hy the late lady Irwin, the heiroisof that fomily. Oneaide 
of the town of NewmariEst is situated ia tiie paiish of Eiming, as 
Is also part of tiie heath so celehrated iniheannab ofraetng* 

Exning waa formerly of greater note than it is at presoift. E 
waa the hifth-plaoe of fitheldred, daughter of king Anna, whom 
tiie pope canonized for a virgin, thou^ she was married to two 
hnshanda. Here also Ralph Waher, esrl of the EaaUAngka, plan- 
ned his conspirsey against William the Coaqnsrsr, with Roger d^ . 
Britolio, esrlof Herefotd, Wahheof, earl of Northumberland, and 
some other persons of high rank. Their design to kill William, 
or to drive him out of the realm, was^ howofer, soon quashed, 
partly by the desertion of earl Waltheof, and some of the diief 
oonfederates, and partly by the vigilance of the king's friends, 


* SoMoXk TrsTslicr, second Edit p. IST. 

Digitized by 


46 8VVFOU. 

the Biih<^ of VfonMer and Bayenx. Ralph, finding hit aitmi^ 
tton hopeless^ fled fiist'into France, and then to DoimariL, leaT« 
ing his po88eMaona> and those of his adherents, to the mercy of 
their adTersaries. 

IcKUNGHABf, foar uiles eastward of Mildenhall, on the north 
of the Laik, has two parishes, and two parish churches, St» 
James and AU Saints. In the latter, within the rails of the con* 
mnnion taUe and about tiie chancel, is a considerable qoaatity of 
Roman bricks, or 'tiles, which were boim time since ploughed jaf 
in a neighboring AM, and placed here for their preservatioii. 
They are of difierent shapes, slightly traced with the figures of 
animals, flowers^ human fitces, &c ; some few of them are Titri- 
fied. This place is supposed by some to have been the an* 
dent Roman station, CoM^refontam, or, according to Honley; 
CombarHum Here, at any rate, says the author of a Tour 
through England, ascribed to the pen of Samuel Richardson, 
are vestiges of a settlement, which seems to have extended half 
a mile in length, at asmall distance from the river. On the west 
side of the ruins is a square encampment, which appears to have 
contained about twenty-five acres, and is now called Kentfieldi, 
said to be a corruption of Campfield. The vallum is visible all 
round it, except where the moorish ground has brought it to decay. 
Coins and fibulc have been found here, eapeeiaUy in a pion|^ed 
field half a mile north-west of the town, and also in the moors, 
when dug for the purpose of being fenced and drained. Many 
years since an ancient leaden cistern, oontaing sixteen gaUens, 
and ornamented as with hoops, was likewise disoovsred by a 
ploughman, who struck his share against tiia edge of it. Wen^ 
ward of the camp, upon Warren-hill, are three faoge banrowi, 
each encompassed by a ditch. 

One of these parishes gave birth to John Michell, lord-mayor 
of London, 3d Henry VI. 

Newmarket, the most considerable part of which is situate 
9 ed 

Digitized by 


SlTFFOLlt. 47 

^ Suflfolk^ Itts already been described in tietting of Cam* 
hridgesbire, to which the reader is here referred.* 

TheTford, is in a similar predicament with the preceding 
phoe. The whole, or at least by &r the greater part of this once 
celebrated town, seems to hare been originally on the Snffi»lk side 
of the Little Ouse, where in the reign of Edward III. were situated 
thirteen ont of the twenty parishes which it then comprehended. 
There is still one parish, St Mary^s, with abont thirty honses ih 
Snfiblk, but in regard to ecclesiastical matters, nnder the jmisdic- 
tion of the archdeacon of Norwich.f 


This district is bounded on the east by the Hundred of Thed- 
westry ; on the south by Baberg and Risbridge; on the west by 
Risbridge and Lackford ; and on the north by Lackford and Black- 

In this hundred is situated the metropolis of the western diri- 
sion of the county, 


This town stands on the west side of the met Bourne^ or 
Lark. It has a channingly enclosed country on the south and 
south- west> and on the north and north-west champaign fields ex* 
tending into Noilblk; while on the east the country is partly 
4^n and partly enclosed. Bury is so pleasantly situated, con^ 
mands such extensive Tiews, a<id the air is so salubrious, tha^ 
it has been denominated the M ontpellier of England. The want 

* SeeBeautifs, Vol. IL p. 159. 

t For • deicription of TlMtford, sec BeaatiM, Vol. XL Norfolk, p. e«l 
— J.50. 

. Of 

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of woiid, however, is justly deemed a greal detractioii from tke 
beaaty of the cottDtry immediately suirounding the town; and 
the air here, though acknowledged to be entremely wholes^ma 
for persons of robust constitationsy is considered too jihazp for 
those who eiyoy bat adelicate state of health, and especiaUy in^ 
dif idoals afflicted with palmonary complaints. 

Being situated on a rising gremnd and sandy soil^ the streets of 
this place are always extremely clean. Most of them are pated 
with pebbles, one only. Abbey-gate street, having a foot-way qq 
each side of flag-stones ; but in Idll an act of parliament waa.ol^ 
tained, for the purpose of extending to the whole town the adTsn- 
tages of paving, lighting, and watching. Including the suburbs, 
it is about a mile and a quarts broad, from east to west; and 
about one and an half in length, from south to north. It is di- 
vided into two parishes, and according to the enumeration of 
1811, it contained 7938 inhabitants. 

Bm^ is governed by a recorder and twelve capital bnigessei^ 
one of whom is annually chosen alderman, and acts as chief ma- 
gistrate. Six others are assistant justices, and one holds the of- 
fice of coroner. The remainder of the body corporate cottsiBts 
of twenty-four common-council men, and these thirty-six persons 
only, return two members as representatives for the town in the 
parliament of the United Kingdom. 

Bury dates back its origin to a very remote period ; but the 
most inteDigent aiid inquintive antiquaries diiflfer much in their 
opinions respecting the precise time in which the site of tU* 
town began to be inhabited. Some writers, among whom are 
Camden,* .Batteley, and Gale have siqpposed that it was the Ro», 
man station, denomittatfl;d VUla FauHmn, but the want of cir*> 
cnmstances to coiroboraie thi» ccnjectnre, has led others, appa^ 
rently with great justice, to questimi its probaMity.f It seems, 


* Camdva was at fint mcKiMd to fix the Yilla Fanttiai, at Cbeiterford .id 
Eaoex, but afterwards detemikied in favor of thh place. 
f Salmon fnpposed Maiden^ in Enes, to be this ViUa Fauttial; Hortley 

Digitized by 


SUFfOLX. 49 

koweter^ to be goi^iiDy tgreed» tint prerioady to Ha reoeivui^ 
ittpiteseiit appellation, this place was called by the Saxons Bco- 
deric^S'-warth, tbat is to say, the seat, maosion, w residence of 
Beoderic ;* but how long it boie that name, is another point on 
which writers are at Yariance. 

Sigbriht, or Sigbert, fifth monarch of the East Angles, having 
embraced the Christian fiuth in France, whith^ he had been ba- 
nished by his half brother and predecessor Eipenwald, founded 
here about the year 638, a Christian' church and monastery, which 
IS we are informed by Dngdale was denominated, the monastery of 
St Mary at Beodericworth. 

We are told by Abbo, a learned monk of the monastery of 
Flenry, in Firance,t that the town obtained this i^ppellation from 
having been the property of a distingnished person named Beo- 
deric, who at his death bequeathed it to king Edmund, the mar- 
tyr. This aceount. is confirmed by documents stiU preserved in 
thearchiTCB of Buy. 

Edmnnd, firom whom this place derives its present name and 

fixed it St Donmow, and Reyuoidi places it at Woolpit. The latter mentioni 
in support of his opmioo, the namber of Roman coins which ate frequently 
laand at that place; whereas no soch memonab have CTer-been discorered at 

• A primed paper entitled, KUtt etmeemhig fiary St, ^dmwnd't m m«i. Sufi 
fOt, extrmcUd iiiof tkeBi^ HraavraMe tkt Emrl af OMford^t Likrmry, b^ 
Mr, WmtUif, hegins thas : *' In rtrj ancient tiroes one Beodric was owner 
•f the ground, where the ahbej and toim of Bory St. fidmand's was after* 
wards bailt ; from which the Beoderic, village (then tmj smaM) was called 
Beodrices>worde, i. e. Beodrid Villa : and his demesne lands» were the 
fields adjacent to the town of Bory, which appertained alterward to the of- 
fice (as I reoMmber) of the Celerar. Upon the foundation of the aMmastery 
1>y K. Cnat* the old uaoMcaaM to he soon oat of use, and the place to be 
called Bargh/' 

t He was inrited to England by Oswald, archbishop of Yoiic, who placed 

Urn in the SMQasteiy «( Ramsey. Retoming to his native ooantry, he was 

enathrongh the body with a lance, while endesfouring to snppren a violent 

dispuMin the conit of a Booaslery in the sooth of Fitaoce. 

Vol XIY. E its 

Digitized by 


no ftiiffoiJi. 

lt» eiMfify, ^odeeeded hik nncle Oft, Uaf «f the EM Ai^|h», 
In 656. Of the nat hittory of tiiis monuoh verj littte indeed is 
luown. The ev«»t8 ef his life, «s reeorded by the monkish 
■writers, aie either a tissue of fiotious, or at least so distorted by 
lheni> that it is impoBsible to distragoish troth ftom felsdiood. 
Abho FKffiffdeneis vas his first biographer. Coming about 98ft 
nn a visit to St. Danstan, archbishop of Canterbury, he ander« 
took to inrite the life of the saint from the nsnatiYe given frofii 
niemory by that prelate, who had heard the circumstanoe related 
toking AtheUtan by a very oM man, that had been one of Ed- 
mund's officers.* The particulars of Edmund's life, pre?ioi^ 
to his elevation to the throne, are reeorded by Galfridos de Fonti- 
•'bDS,t and the relations of tiioe writers fbrm the groilndowoik of 
tfab histories of all sneeeeding Uographers. 

Aeoording to these then, Edmnnd was the son of AlkmMid, a 
ttexon prince, disttnguished for vabr, wisdom, andj^iety. Vo* 
ing upon a pilgrimage at Rome, while petformmghis devotions^ 
the Sim was observed to shine with uncommon brilliance on his 
breast. This was hailed as a happy omen by a prophetess; she 
promised Alkmund a eon, whose tune shoatd extend over the whde 
world. The prinoe returned home, and the same yesr his queen 
Siware made him a joyM fether. In Nuremberg, his capital, Ed- 
mund is said to have been bom in the year 841 . t Offii at this time 


^lliit little work, which b tud in an cxtnet qsoted in the C$Ueei. Buriemt. 
to have been written in the 7th jear of Sthelred, it entitled, ViU etFmtih 
Sett Edwawdi ptr AbboMm FhrUeetuem Mmaehvw%, It b preierved among 
the MSS. in the Cotton librmry, and it a very creditable tpecisMn of the li- 
terature of the age. 

t In a little work De FuetUiaSmeH EdrnmiSi, rappoted to haTO been writ- 
ten aboot 1150. The public library at Cambridge posseues a MS, copy of 
thii perCormanoe. 

I Some writen, both ancient and modem, have e jip t emed their doobti te- 
fpecting thii aeconnt of Sdmond't parentage. Abbo merely obienrei that 
hs sprang from rayal aacetton^ and a nohla fiunily of aacieot Saionf. 


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twajed the teeptre «f .II19 East Aiigiei> aad luvdng no ckydra^ 
he resolyed to make a pilgrimage to Jeruaaleiii^ there to anppli- 
cato the blesaing of an heir. Oa his way to the Holy Land ho 
fiaited hia kiasman AUunuad^ and waa captivated by the engafing 
mBXOieantg and amiable qnalities of the youthful Edmand. On hia 
departure^ ho preaented to the prince a valuable ring^ as a pledge 
of attachment and regard. Ofia, having perlbrmed at Jerusalem 
the rdigioua exercises which were the object of his pilgrimagOj 
waa taken ill on his return, and feeling his dissolution approaelk- 
ing, he eonvAed hia conocil, to whom be eameetly recommended 
hia young relation as his successor. A(|er the celebration of the 
fttncnl rites, Offit's nohlea hastened to Saxony, and in oomplianoe 
with the royal mandate, acqnainted Edmund with the dying wiahes 
of their master. Alkmund, with the iqpprobation of his assenu- 
bled bishops and nobles, gave his concurrence to this arrange* 
men^ and Edmund, taking leave of his parents, amidst their tears 
and blessings set sail for his new dominions. No sooner did he 
reschthe shore, than he threw himself on his knees to thank hea- 
Ten for past mercies, and to implore its future protection. Five 
springs of fresh water immediately burst from the dry uid sandy 
soil ; on which spot he afterwards built, in commemoration of this 
event, the town of Hunstanton. 

Edmund did not assume the regal dignity immediately on his 
arrival^ but i^nt the following year in studious retirement at Attle- 
borough. " It might now be expected,'' observes tbe historian of 
Bury,* ** that under such circumstances, his counsellors should 
direct his young mind to anticipate the cares of royalty ; to exa* 
mine the laws of the state he was about to govern ; and to make 
hinmelf adjoainted with tbe customs, manners, and interests of 
the people whose happiness was shortly to be intrusted to him.'* 

Neither b tbe itory concemmg Offa mentioned by Abbo, though both 
ib«w dfcomitancei are ciplicitly ttated, or alludtd to by »U monoitio 
• Yates' Hitt of Bury, p. 29. 

E2 The 

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The geninB of the nge, however^ gave a very difierent tnrfl to 
Edmund's stndieM: he employed the period of his seclusioti in 
committing the psalter to memory.* From this retirement he wtm 
drawn, to be invested frith the insignia of sovereignty, and was 
erowned at Bary.f by Humbert, bishop of Hnlm, on the 2dth 
December 855, having then completed the 15th year of his age. 

Edmund's biographers, having how seated him on tlie throne, 
proceed to record his virtues as a sovereign in a strain of the most 
pompous panegyric. No &cts, however, are adduced to justiff 
these lavish encomiums. The truth seems to be, that Edmund's 
years, and his natural disposition were such, as to enable tha 
monks and ecclesiastics (from which class of persons he derived all 
his posthumous celebrity) to govern him with ease. Pi^ty, can- 
dor, gentleness, and humility, formed the disttnguishing features 
of his character, and the possession of these insured to him the 
reputation of all other good qualities. However they might have 
befitted a cowl, they were certainly not calculated to support the 
dignity of a crown, in the disastrous times in which Edmund 

The commencement of his misfortunes, is enveloped in the 
aame obscurity as the other events of his life. Most of our an- 

* Tbe book wed on this occasion, was said to have been preserved at the 
abbej at Bury with religtoos Teneratton. A very cnrioas ancient psalter* 
still to be seen in tbe library of St. Jameses cbnrch, is thoaght bj some an- 
tiquaries to be this very book. YaUt* Hitt, p. 50. 

t From tbe uncert ain orthography of ancient writers, different places 
haire been mentioned as the scene of this ceremony, Camden is of opinion 
that it was performed at Borne, in Lincolnshire : Matthew of Westminster 
says *« at the royal town called Bares," and Galfridus de Footibus expressly . 
tells us, that " Edmund was consecrated and anointed king at Barnm, a royal 
town» the boundary of Essex and Suffolk, situated upon the Sture.*' This 
evidently denotes the village of Bares ; but as nothing, either in history. Or 
its present appearance, can justify this spot in claiming the distinction of a 
royal town, we are inclined to follow those authorities which fix the solem* 
nity of Edmund's coronation at Bury, a place which previously held an emi- 
nent rank in the kingdom. 

. f cient 

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•iot aiuttlutB Slid general historians ascribe the invasion of the 
Duies» irho about this period began to make descents on the coasts 
of this island, and who at length depmed Bdninnd of his king-* 
dam mad his life, to the following cirenmstanoea. 

liodbrog, king of Denmark, was very ibnd of hawking ; and 
•ae day, while enjoying that sport, his fiivonrite bird happened 
to ftll into the sea. The monarch, anxious to save the hawk, 
leaped into the first boat that presented itself, and put off to his 
aaswtaiiee. A saddai storm arose^ and carried him, after encoun«* 
lering imDunent dangws, np the mouth of the Yare, as far as 
ReedhHi in Norfolk. The inhabitants of the country, having 
dsMQiTeved the stranger, conducted him to Edmund, who then 
kflfi Ua eomt at Caistor, only ten miles distant The king re^ 
eemd hin with great kindness and respect, entertained him in a 
Maimer snitaUe to hm rank, and directed Bern, his own fidconer, 
to aeoempany his guest, whenever he chose to take his fiLvourite 
divenion« The skill and soecess of the royal visitor in hawking, 
eidted Edmund's admiration, and inflamed Bern with such jea* 
loosy, that one day, when they were sporting together in the 
woods, he seized the opportunity, murdered him and buried the 
body. Lodinrog^B absence for three days occasioned considerable 
alani« His favorite greyhound was observed to come home for 
food, &wning upon the king and his courtiers whenever he was 
compelled to visit them, and to retire as soon as he had satisfied 
kis wants. On the fourth day he was followed by some of them, 
whom he conducted to the murdered body of his master. Edmnnd 
iastitttted an inquiry into the affair, when, frpm the ferocity of 
the dog to Bern, and other circumstances, the murderer was dis- 
covered, and condemned by the king to be turned adrift albiie, 
writhont ofurs or sails, in the same boat which brought Lodbrog to 
East Anglia, This boat was wafted in safety to the Danish 
coast, where it was known to be the same in which Lodbrog left 
the eountry. Bern was seized, carried to Inguar and Hubba, the 
aons of the king, and questioned by them concerning their father. 
Th^ TiUain replied, that Lodbrog had been cast upon the shore of 
' £3 England, 

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U •Of»OU« 

Eaglancl, and there pot to death by EdBimd't eomttaiid. Is-i 
flamed ifith rage, the aom reaolyed on revenge, and. apeedil|r 
raised an army of 20,000 men to invade his domimoni.* 

This armament, whieh is atdd to have sailed friwi Denmark in 
866, is reported by some historians to have been driTenby con- 
tary winds to Berwick-upon-Tweed. After committing the gireai- 
est cruellies in this part of the coontry, the Danes again embatfeed, 
but aeem each socceeding apring to have renewed their desoents. 
In 869 these nrthless barbarians proceeded southward from Yoik« 
aUre, in a torrent which destroyed every Tent^ of civillatflMm. lo 
670 they appear to haTe reached East Anglia» where Inguar gain* 
od possession of Thetferd, king Edmund's capitaL The iattar 
collected his forces and marched to oppose the invadera. The hoa* 
tile armies met near Thetford, and afto* an engagement maintMned 
for a whole day, with the most detemdned ooniage and gieii 
slanghter on both sides, victory remained undecided. The fiom 
king, to use the language of the monkish writers, was so «&• 
tremdy alieeted by the death of so many martyrs, who had dwd 
their bkod in defence of the Christian fiiith, and the miseraUe 
«nd of so many unconverted infidels, that he retired in the night 
to Eglesdene. Hither he was soon IbUowed by an embassy from 
Inguar, who was aoon aAier the battle joined by hisbrother Hubba^ 
with ten thonsaiid finesh troops. The Danish chieftain prbpoifted^ 
that he adiould become his vassal, and divide with htm his %tem» 
aures and dominions. Bishop Hombeit earnestly recommended 
his compliance with this imperious command; but Edmiind re- 
turned lor answer, that he would never submit to a pagan. At 
the same time, out of tenderness for his subjects he resolved to 
make no farther resistance, and accordingly surrendered without 
a struggle to the superior force seat against him by Inguar and 

* Turner, in hit HItfofy ff tfta AmghSaxotu, (Vol. II. p. 107.) enters mto 
»n examiastioa of this story respecting Lodbrog, and the result of his re- 
searches ettftbli&hes the fictitious character of this narrative of the cause of 
the Danisl) invasion. 


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BiiMm 9tW#9mC^!>>^?<i^^ t^i^ temi of the c<»9«emib 
li# W«l hotnd t^& tn;c^ hiabody mm pi6m4 will) urown, and hia. 
li^ad cii4 «fl^ aiid tkamn oonten^tnoudy ibIo the tkidLest part of 
a smghbooriiig wood. Hia faithfo^friepd, bUbop Humbert^ avit 
§Bm^ at tiie sane time witii bia royal nuiater. 

TheDaBfl^ baKing entirely laid waate this part of the ooantry, 
M^pmeaM ia^Mat of acenea l^^ter calcnhled to. gratify tbeii: 
lfv» of plnndfoc. Be^aaedfinNllth^ teiror their preaenceiiiapiredL 
thu EfMt Mli^ rWW^by affectjon to their kle apTerei^ 
ap^ipblad to pory the laat d^iiaea to hia.ramaiiia. The body iraa 
Boaft jjppaiwtaA §ad oa|Mr^ed to Hoaue^ bat the head eould no 
iriMfebiȣ)fiff4. Hia fci^bfid anbjecta thep diyided themselvea intp 
avMdlf^rtipa^ ^expippn^tbea^acAntwpo^ Uereaooie of then^ 
buiBg aepamted from their oonyanioiia^ cried out^ " Where are 
yM?" The hea^ hmediaUly r^ed " Here! here! h«e*'f 
ipdif W are toid by Lydgate, 

Weycr ceaied of al that longe day» 
So for to crye tyt they kam when he laje. 

If their aatpnifthment waa excited by this obliging infbrma- 
tiion ao auracaloiudy conveyed^ it waa not likely to be abated by 
vhal loUowed. On coming to the spot whence the voice pro* 
ca a ded , they fcand a volf, holding the head between hia fore-feet 
The animal politely delivered up hia charge^ which, the moment 
it came in contact with the body^ returned ao exactly to its former 
place, that the jnnctnre waa not visible except when closely exa- 
nuned. The wolf remained a harmleas spectator of the scene, and 
la w» are iaiormed by all the ancient historians, alter gravely at* 
toiding the faaeral at Hoxne, peaceably retired to hia native 
wooda. Thia happened about forty days after the death of the 

Theae legendary tales might perhaps be deemed too frivolous for 
wrtioe; bat, being intimately connected with the prosperity of 
Bvy» aad indaediaaeparably interwoven with the history of that 

£ 4 place. 

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M nvrPOVL 

fitxe, they could not with propriety be omitted in thie aeeoiiiit 
'Hie arms of the town still commemorate the bmte protector of the 
royal martyr's head, which also famished ancient artists with a fii- 
▼brite subject for the exercise of their talents.* 

For thirty-three years the body of tiie king, boried in the eaith^ 
lay neglected in the obscure chapel of Hoxne. At length tli« 
interference of ecclesiastics, who in those days irexe ttapMe of 
guiding the public feeling as they pleased, and perhaps also that 
reverence which unfortunate royalty seldom faila to inspire, oeca- 
sioned the circulation of reports, that various miracles had beeA 
performed at Edmund's grave. All ranks now concurred to les* 
tify their respect for his memory ; a large church wais constnMled 
of wood at BeodHcsworth, and thither the body, found p^ect aiid 
uncorrupted, and with the head re-united to it, was removed in 
903.t Some ecclesiastics immediately devoted themselves to the 


* Several examples of this kind are given in the ei^ravingi to Yates* His- 
tory. Two fine specimens of painted glass, conunemorating this monarch, 
are in possession of Sir Thomas Gery Collam, Bart, of Bory. One exhibits a 
a bust of him crowned, and inscribed in black letter. Set, Ed. The other re- 
presents the wolf holding the head between his paws. Underneath are also 
in black letter the words, Heer, heer, heer, and abore is this inscriptim^ !» $»> 
bUem fidclium. These eridently ancient performances are in fine preserva- 
tion : the colon are uncommonly brilliant, and the designs remarkable for 
deaniets and precision* 

t The incorruption of the body was attested by a female devotee named 
Oswina, who declared, that she had long lived in seclusion near the town ; 
that for several preceding years she had annually, cut the hair and pared the 
nails of the saint, and had preserved these sacred relics with religious vene- 
ration. A list of six other witnesses of this fact is given In Ireland's Collec- 
tanea, (Vol. I. p. tt9.)^Among these, was Leoftanns, a nobleman, who arro- 
gantly ordering the tomb to be opened, that he might have ocular deroonstn- 
tion, his re4oest was complied with ; and we are told, that " he saw the body 
•f ' the saint uncorrupted, but being immediately seised by a demon, he mi* 
•erably expired." That curiosity which was so severely punished in a layman, 
appears however to have been no crime in an ecclesiastic ; for we are in- 
Ibrmed that Iheodred, bishop of the diocese, " having performed a devo- 

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I lUe midtir die proftectioB of tiie royal saint aiad martyr; 
their muaber increased!, and abeat 9S5, tliey irere ineorporated 
into a college of prieaU, either by king Athelatan^ or fay Beode- 
rie, cbief lord of the town. The inhabitanta, perceiving the ad* 
Tnntagea likely to accme to themaelvea from the increaaing cele« 
lirity 4!^ St Edmnnd's relics, chose him for their titular sidnt, and 
began to call the place after his name. The monks neglected no 
oppoiinnity of blaaoning the extraordinBry miiacles perfermed by 
the agency of tbe sacred body, tiie fione of which procoiod the 
eonTent nmnerooa obhtiOBa and beneliMtions. 

King AtiialBlaa appeara to hare been the fiM rsyal beneftctor; 
Besides other donations, he presented to the chnrch of St. Ed* 
muid, a copy oC the ETangeBsta, a gift of sodi valne in those 
days, that the donor ojflfered it npon the altar |>fornR0dioinilsiio 
SIMS, larthebeneitofhiasonL Bat more. snbstsntialftiTors were 
bestowed upon this eslaUishment by Edmnnd, son of Edward liw 
BMer, who may indeed be considered as hsTing laid the fonnda^ 
lioB of ita lotore wealth and splendor. He gsTO the monks a 
jarisdiction over die whole town, and one mile ronnd it, confiiming 
thisaadotber privileges by a royal grant or charter in d4K^. Thia 
exaofle was imitated by sncceeding sovereigns, and other persona 
of distittetion, durongh whose liberality many csmidapable manoia 
In the netghborbood of Bury were soon addedto the possessions 
of the monastery. 

Aboat tbia time commenced the disputes between the secnlars or 
estabUshed clergy of the country, and the monks or regnlsrs. 
Tbe latter, by tbe appearance of superior sanctity, contrived to 
rendsr themselves highly popular; and 1^ their artificea at length 

tiooil fait for three days, apened tbe coi&o, foand tbe body perfect, washed 
i^ arrayed it with new Testments. and replaced it in its reteptacle." Ic was' 
by the command of this prelate that some thieres, taken in tbe attempt te 
plnder the chntch of St Edmund, were execnted. The ii|]ah», it was 
grran oat, were ap^irehended by Ibe aaairtsnoe of the taint, who miraculeiMly 
deprived them of die power of moring from the ladders, and tbe parta of ^e 
bniJdmg where they happened to bci, till they were diacoTcred and secured^ 

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HtfommM the tmm ^ tbeir most valniUfr cstrtjhtoftntiy 
*ne inecMffiog &m# wd wealth of tbe cosveat «f St Edmund 
\imA not encsped 4b» notice of the nooks, who gainoA ot^ thi^ 
biskop of the diooeaei aad in 999 procw^d ^« q»pqiivtiiie|it ^f 
AilwiD, oae of their wiunber, to be the s^uerdi^ ^ the body of 
the 8iial» wHh wbioh the secular prieets ^ere pronoiiJi^ iom 
tr^ihy to be eslrueted, ^ on ee^oont of their hi^Xt^p^ imd irr9? 

Swi^n* king of Denmark^ bi^vii»s inTi^^ E«glp^4 wk l4i4 
iraste the whole of flotft^Ajiglie* burnt fl;i4 ^imwieittd Qury |j^ 
IOIO2 bet pp^aeoely to this, Ai}vio, fBoiM lest hN> sirred charge 
should sefir vmXV %nd iliW^ frop the liMi^es^ conv^yod it tf 
IjmAoOi Bore it -yeviMied three jears, 4mu% whif h wamberleaf 
«hRleleswepefer{(ifMdbyit»opi9|»t^ Th#hW^«9fLonAwK> 
•beer? higihe rich offierii^ thpfl woKe psesept^ ^ the ehcine .of 
the eaiiit, is said to Ii«?e^49ffieeive4» veheM^i 4{»iire.V> teJto tbf 
castod^ of ii into hie o^«» hepde; and wffifc wi^ thiree aeeist«|j^ 
to M»o¥e )l privatelj ftftOi the liMlo chipreh of S(L Gregory^ J|^ 
whkh it h»i been piaoed< In thb fittenpt, how^Tor, he kM 
eompleteiy (oiled by the good s^t^ who had no inclination to go 
with him; nothet h»o ehwev^niai^^ ^fret '' as agreejthiU 
of stone,'' wd his body ae im^noiweaUe! ''.as a mountaiii/' 1aj\ 
Aflwin arriifed, when the niartyr qnietly fnfisr^ huneelf to ^ 
remoTed to his Ibrmer residence. 

Sw^ having gained nndi^atoJ poeseasion of this part of the 
irisndk ^ 1014 levied a general and he^vy contribution otn hi|^ 
new anbjeots. From this tax the monks claimed m exemption 
ftff their poseesiions, and dented Ailwin to remonstrate in theif 
behalf with the king. His mission, however, procured no relief. 
Sweyn's sudden death happening very soon afterwards, it wan 
represented as a punishment inflicted by the angry saint Being 
jiprronttded one evening, we are told, by his nobles and officers, 
he idl a^ on^ce excliomed : '' I am strnck by St Edmund !'' and 
thongh the hand which inflicted the wound was not seen^ he Ian* 
goished only till tho next morning, and then expired in tomen«s 
9 rf 

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The raport of tfak ttiracialoiii inteipositioii wk» higUy »4vMte^ 
gMiis to tbe ooDTent ; the people a^Nieed ea themaelvee e vohm- 
tery tax of four-peace fo every oanieate of Imd iathe dieiwii^ 
ivhieh they eimd to the hcnor of the eaiat and aiaftyr^ •• as 
ackoowiedgmeat of their gratitade aad devotion. 

Caaate^ the ooa and ta e co we r of Sw^a ie «id to have betR 
aa taniied by the Yeageeaoe of EdaMuri^ thel to aapiate hia la- 
ther's eriiaee, aad pn^itiato the angty ieanl^ ha took the meaa* 
ateiy of Biury aader hie eopadel pretaatimi* Sach araa the aa* 
candeacy wUeh the lagalani had gahted qw the auad ef thii 
MHiardi, that Ailwia, iriio ia 1080 waa oeaeeeratad bishop ef 
Halm* aivaiM hiofeelf of il to eject the aeealar elergry 
this coBveaty aed to aapply their phaea witii twelve I 
i^oaka, wheal, with Uviaa their pnor, ha reaioved hither from Aa 
aKHiiMtery at Hals. At theaaiM time he exaa^tadthe eoareaitf 
aad aU within ita jariadklioa, ftam epiaoopal aathteity^ which 
was to be exereiaed by the abbot only, aad fcnr mmmm wara 
ereet(»d to fix..lfith aeoaiaey the booadary of hiajivialietioa. 
The following year the bishop laid the feoadatioa of a magai£» 
aeui eharehy the expenaea of which were defrayed by the Tokui* 
tary tax upon land ahoTe-meationed^ and by the oontributioaa of 

Theae piaeeedinga of Ailwin were not only tatifred by Caavto, 
bat he iaaaed a royal eharter, eoninning M former grants and 
privilegea to the abbot and convent^ and conferring several new 
ones. Of these^ the most important was the right of reaerving 
for their own use that proportion of the tax called Dan^geld, 
levied iqion the iahabitanto of the town. These gifts were settled 
oa the abbey with a fearfal curse^ oa each as shoald molest the 
monks in the poaaeaaion of them ; and the charter^ aigned by the 


* ThoQgh aott of oor hUtoriaiu nearly correspond in their e^ant of 
Sweyn's deeth« yet one of tbeoi« Williem of Malmsbory^ obtenreti ^h«| 
the canie of it was nnceitain ; end Batteley iiaa attempted in bii motk 
to retcae the memory of Sweyn from what be terrn^ tfat calamaiet of the 

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long, ^een^ nni archlwiSiops^ was attested by tUrty-twd mklLtt^ 

prelate and abbots. 

- In 10d2^ tbe mw charch being' finished,* was eonsecrated* hf 

Athelnorh, archbishop of Canlerbury. The body of the royal 

martyr was deposited in a splendid shrine, sriomed with jeweb 

and costly ornaments ; and Cannte himself repairing hillMr to 

perfonn his devotions, ofoed his erown at the tomb of the saiiit 

The mistaken piety of sncceeding monarchs augmented th^ 

fame, the iaqwrtance, and the wealth of the abbey of Bury ; hot 

to none was it more indebted than to Edward the Confessor. 

This monarch granted to the abbot and convent the town of Mil- 

denhall, with its prodnoe and inhabitants, the royalties of eight 

hundreds, together with the half hvndred of Thingoe, and also 

those of all the yiUages sitaated in those eight hmkbeds and' 

a half which they previonsly possessed.t He likewise conferred 

the privilege of coining at a mint established within the pvwciBer 

of the monastery. Edward' often pud his devotions in person sit 

the shrine of -Uie royal martyr, and so great was his veneratis* 

for him, that he wasaeeostomed to perform the last nule of tim 

joumey on foot like a common pilgrim. 


* It ftppean that tiie third church trat dther entirely, or chiefly coxutrdct- 
ed of wood. 

t The oceaiton of this princelj gift is thas idatsd in the Cpiket. Bsritois. 
In the first jear of his reign the kiog came to Bttry on St Edmund's dajf ; and 
next morning seeing the joong monks eating barley-bread^ enquired of the 
abbot why tliose young men of his kinsmaUj as he called St. Edmund, were 
not better fed.' " Because," replied the abbot, our possessions are too weak, 
to maintain them with stronger food."—" Ask what you will,** said the king, 
'* and I will give it you, that they may be better provided for, and better 
enabled to perferm the senriee of God." The abboV having consulted with 
his monks, asked of the king tbe manor of Mildenhall, with its appnrte* 
nances, and the jurisdiction of the eight hundreds and a half, with all the 
royalties, afterwurds called the Franchise. The king observed, that his 
request was indiscreet^ because the grant of these liberties would inTolTe him 
and bis successors in continual trouble ; that he would willingly have granted 
him three or fbur manors; nevertheless, out of respect to hit ki&iman^ hs 
Would grant the'tequest, however indiscreet* 

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The eataUiBhmeDt had now tttatnednncb' wealth and splendor, 
that the monks resolved to proTide a stiU more magnificent recep'* 
lade for the body of their saint than any in which it had hitherto 
kcea deposited. The church bnilt by Ailwin was demolished, and 
another was ereeted of hewn atone, nader the auspices of abbc^ 
BaUwin. The materials for this stmeture were brought by the 
permisaion of king WiUiam the Conqueror, free of expense from 
the 4piames of Bamack, in Northamptonshire; and it was in ^ 
skate of syfficioit forwardness to receive the sacred remains in 
IQ96. Thia waa the last removal, as the church now erected 
^ eiist till the period of the dissolution. 

It could not be doubted, were no record left to attest its magnt* 
&Knee, tiiat ^m plan, execution, and embeOishments of this 
atructure, corresponded with the prmeely revenues of the esta- 
Uiahiaent to which it bdonged. Leiand, who saw it in all its 
glory, in .(peaking (rf thia town, describes it in the following 
tanas :— A city more neatty seated the sun never saw, so curi- 
ously 'doth it hang upon a gentle descent, with a little river on 
the east aide ; nor a nmnaatery more noble, whether one considers 
its endowments, largeness, or unparalleled magnificence. One 
night even think the monastery alone a city ; so many gates it 
has, some whereof are brass : so many towers and a church, than 
"which nothing can be more magnificent ; aa appendages to which 
there are three more of admirable beauty and workmanship in the 
aane chnich-yanL^' 

The abbey church, or church of St. Edmund, was 505 feet in 
length, the transept 212, and the west front 240. This last had 
two large side ehapeb, St Faith's and St Catharine's, one on the 
nortli-weat, and the ether on the south-west, and at each end an 
octagon tower thirty feet each way * The shrine of the saint 
waa preserved in a semicircular chapel at the east end ; and on the 
north aide of the choir was that of St. Mary, eighty feet long, and 
forty^two broad; and St Mary in cryptis was 100 feet in length, 


« Part of this front, with one of the igwen, is itiU ttandiaa* •■ will be 
noticed hereafter. 

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62 ccrFPOUL 

eigkty in breadth and ciqiported by Iweuty-four piHm. Be* 
•idefi the dooke, there was a high west tower over the middle aiaie, 
and tiie vhole ikbrie Im supposed to have been eqnal in aome !«• 
apecta in grandeur to 8t Peter's at Rosie. As to its height, no 
data are left to enaSk os to form an <^inion.* 

The (d>bey was governed by sn abbot, who had several great 
officers under him» as a prior, sub-prior, sacrist, and others ; antf 
in its most prosperous state there were eighty monks, fifteen chap« 
kins, and one hundred and eleven servants, attending witlnn ili 
walls. It had three grand gates for entrance ; and its lofty walla 
enclosed three other churches, besides the abbey church, several 
chapels, the cloisters, and offices of every kind. 

Among other privileges conferred on this abbey, we find that 
Edward the Confessor granted to abbot Baldwyn the liberty af 
coinage, which was confirmed by William the Conqueror. Ste- 
phen, in his seventeenth year, gave authority for two additional 
mints to be set q> in Bury« Stow inlbrms us, that there was oaa 
in the town in king John's time. Edward I. and IL also had 
mints at Bury ; and some of their pennies coined here are yet 

The abbot of Bury enjoyed all the spiritnal and temporal privi- 
leges of the mitred abbots ; and in addition to them, some very 
important exclusive immunities. Of the latter kind, was the ex* 
emption from the ecclesiastical authority of the dioceaan, ao that 
none but the Roman pontiff, or his legate, could exercise any 
spiritual power within the limits of the ahbof s jurisdiction. Thir 
privilege often involved him in violent disputes. As early aa 
the reign of William the Conqueror, we find the abbot Biddwia 
engaged in a controversy on this subject with Herfeatus, bishop of 


* A very cnriont model of this chnrcb wa$ to be seen some yean ego at 
Mr. Tillot*!, OD tbe AngeUhill. It was ten feet long, five wide, aiid of pro* 
portional height, and bad 380 windowt, and 300 niches, adorned with 
iniagesj and other Gothic figures. The model of the shrine was ornamented 
with images, and crowns, and gilt, as in its original state. The twelve cha- 
pels bekmgiog to this magnificent edifice were also represented. 

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IMte, jA» hA idtoMiiMd Us inteni^ii of remimng the see to 
Btfy. Tlie .iM>oii^ uhrmed at this tlire&tened inTasion of the 
j^riTileges of his oonvent, applied to the lung, and hy his adviee, 
repaired to Rome, where pope Alexander II. not only confirmed its 
fermer immiuities and exemptions, hy a hull dated at the Lateran, 
&Lh Calend. Noremh. A.D. 1071. htit also presented him with a 
porphyry altar f>r his "chnteh, with tiiis extraordinary privilege, 
tinft if an the rest of the kingdom were under excommunicatiott, 
fliiass teight he there celehrated, unless expressly and hy name 
prohibited hy his boHness. These fovors only served to redouble 
the bishop's exertions to carry his point, and he resolved to try 
what the seductive eloquence of gold would effect ; while the 
monks, on &e ether hand, had recourse to s^ more persuasive 
vsenns. The issue of Ihis afiair is thus related hy archdeacoB 
Herman, who himself bore a part in the transaction. ** The bishop 
Tiding one day, and conversing on the injuries which he medi- 
Med against the monastery, was stmdc upon the eyes by a branch, 
and a violent and painful suffusion of blood occasioned immediate 
blindness; St. Edmvmd thus avenging himself, and punishing the 
temerity of the invaders of his rights. The prelate long remained 
cotirely blind, and could obtain no reliefl Coming in one mom* 
ing and commiserating his condition, I said to him : " My lord 
Bishop, your endeavora are useless, no coilirium will avail ; you 
should seek the fitvor of God and St Edmund. Hasten to abbot 
Baldwin, that his prayers to God and the saint may provide an 
efficacious medicine! This counsel, at first despised, was at 
length assented to. I, Herman undertook the embassy, and exe- 
cuted it on the same day, the festival of St Simon and St Jude. 
The abbot henignantly granted the request ; and the feeble bishop 
came to the monastery, being graciously received by the abbot, 
and admonished to reflect, that as offences against God and St 
Ednnmd were diminished, the medicine to be applied would more 
certainly aUeviate his sufferings. They proceeded into the church, 
'Where, in the presence of the elder brethren, and certain peers of 
the realm, Hugo de Montfort, Roger Bigod, JUchard, the son of 


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Gilbert^ &C. the bishop declared the cause of hia mirfntaie} 
recites the injoriea he had conceived against this holy place ; «oii* 
fesses himself culpable ; condemns his advisers under an anathema ; 
and binds himself by a vow to reject such counsels. He then ad* 
vances with sighs and tears to the foot of the altar; places on it 
the pastoral staff; prostrates himself before God and St. Edmund; 
performs his devotions, and receives absolution from the abbot and 
brethren. Then having made trial of the abbot's medicine, and 
as I saw, by the application of cauteries and colliriums, assisted 
by the prayers of the brethren, in a short time he returned per*' 
fectly healed : only a small obscurity remained in the pupil of one 
eye as a memorial of his andacity/'* 

A few years afterwards, however, this prelate, forgetful of hia 
professions, renewed the contest, which was not terminated till 
the king convoked a council at Winchester, in which the subject 
was fuUy discussed, and the claims of the abbot admitted by that 
august assembly. William at the same time granted a charter^ 
confirming all those of his predeceasors, and subscribed by him- 
self, his queen, his three sons, two archbishops, thirteen bishops^ 
and twenty abbots and nobles. 

In 1345, a contention not less violent, commenced on the same 
account, between the abbot, and William Bateman, bishop of 
Norwich, who claimed a right of subjecting the convent to ecdesi- 
astical visitation. King Edward III. by letters-patent, deter- 
mined in favor of the abbey, and commanded the bishop to desist 
/rom his attempt to violate its privileges. The prelate^ however, 
disregarded this mandate, and excommunicated the messenger 
who served it upon him. The abbot now had recourse to the law ; 
a jury returned a verdict iu his iavor, and sentenced the bishop to 
pay thirty talents, or 10,0001, the penalty attached to his of- 
fence by the charter of Hardicanute. In subsequent proceedings 
this judgment was affirmed ; but though the bishop's temporalitieB 
were decreed to be held in the king's hands tiU tlie fine should be 


« HegUtr^ Hub. MkeU Burini, p. SSa. 

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faUj «|d m iay mm appoiated to Mixe his body« lie fooiid i 
iiT delay till the ftSMt of September, 1347, when the erdibishof 
tmnmoned a conneil at St. Paul'a to decide the nwUer, and a oeiii- 
promise was oondnded between the contendiiig parties. The 
bishop engaged not to molest the monastery in the ei^ynent ef 
its priTil^gea, and on this condition was restored to his eoclesiat* 
Ileal avftority and temporalities 

The abbot of Bury was a spiri^al parliamentary baron; ho 
iield ^rnods in his own chapter-hoose, and appointed the pi^ 
roehial eleigy of the town. His tempocal wcie not less impor- 
tant than hiB eceleaiastical preregativea. He p es aessod the pow* 
cr of trytQg and determining by bis highnrteward all canses 
within the franchise or liberty, which extended, as we haTO 
seen, over eight hnndreds and a half: and in the town, and 
a mile roand, he had the anthority of chief magistrate, and 
of tnflictii^ aq^ital ponishment No officer of the king oonld« 
withoat his pemussion, hold a oonrt, or ezecnte any office in 
Bory. As lord of the town, he claimed the right of vf^ 
pointing the alderman, though it was afterwards agreed that the 
other burgesses composing the corporation should enjoy the privi* 
l^ of electing that i^ker. Before he entered apon his functions 
however, he wan expeoled to receive the abbofs confirmation, and 
to take the following oath : — " Ye achall awere that ye schall here 
yow tiewly and fiuthfnlly in the office of the aldermanscipe of this 
town of Bury, ayens the abbot and the cbrent of this place and all 
hermynistris: ye schall here, kepe, and maintaine pees to yowre 
powere, and ye achall nor thing appn^re nor accroche that longyth 
to the aaid abbot and covent, nor take upon the thyngis that long 
on to the office of the baylisoipp -of the sayd town: also that ye 
shall not procure, be yow, nor be noon other, priryly nor openly, 
any thyng unlawfid, that might 1m harme or damage on to the 
se^ abbot and oofent, nor snffinmd to be done ; but that ye schall 
be redy to meynteyn and defende them and there mynistris ynaft 
^rygbta and customs that of dew long on to them, inasmncho 

Vol. XIV. F . aa 

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M» ye may leyMlj do. Thees aityeles, and poyntia ye sKaf 
4>lmerve and kepe the tym tiiat ye stand in thw office. So hel^ 
yoa God and all his seynts and by this boke/'* 

This sopreve aathority exercised over the town by the abbot, 
waa a cause of frequent dissention between him and the inhabit- 
ants, which sometimes terminated in the moKt violent outrages 
The most remarkable of these disputes occcnrred in 1327, whea 
the townsmen, headed by their ahleman and chief burgesses, 
and having collected 20,000 persons from the neighboring 
towns and villages, made an attack upon the monastery and 
its possessions, and threatened the total destruction of the esta- 
Jiiishment. Having demolished the gates, doors, and windows, and ' 
heaten and wounded the monks and servants, they broke open 
the chests and co&rs, ont of which they took great quantities of 
rich plate, books, vestments, and other valaaUes, besides fire hun- 
dred pounds in ready money, and three thousand florins. They 
also carried away three charters of Canute, four of Hardkanute, 
one of Edward the Confessor, two of Henry I. three of Henry III. 
twelve papal bulls, with several deeds, writt0n obligations and ac* 
knowledgments for money due to the convent Great part of the 
jnonastery was reduced to ashes, and many of the manors and 
granges belonging to it in Bury and its vicinity, ahared the same 
£iite. The abbot being at this time in London, the rioters seized 
and confined Peter Clopton, the prior, and about twenty of the 
monks, whom they afterwards compelled, in the name of the whole 
chapter of the convent, to execute, under the capitular seal, a 
4eed, constituting the burgesses a guild or corporation. They 
also forced them to sign an obligation for the payment of ten thou- 
sand pounds to certain of the townsmen, to discharge them from 
all debts due to the monastery, and to engage not to proceed against 
them at kw for any damage done to the monastery. The king 
being informed of these transactions, a military force was sent to 
suppress the disturbance. The alderman and twenty-four of the bur- 

* Yutei't Hitt, of Bury f p. 94. copied from a ledger-book of the abbey 

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r note ia|MM0B6d ; tkir^ carte f«U <if the rioten were tekeii 
priflonen to Nonridi; ttineteeii of the moit notorioiis offendeft 
.were ex«cated, aad one mm praned to death, becaose he refoaed 
•to poi himaelf apon his trial. Thirty-two parochial clergymea 
-were convicted as abettors. The enquiries that arose oat of this 
ai&ir occapied near five jears^ the final decision being given bj 
hmg Bdward III. in eauncii .in 1332. The justices connnissioned 
rlaisvestii^Fate the.anmnit of the damages sustained by the abbey, 
. had estimatejd them at the enonaoas som of 140,0001. but at the 
king's request the aU^t remitted to the oflfenders 1S3,383I. 6s. 8d, 
and at length Ibrgave them the reautinder, on condition of their fu* 
tare good bdmvier. AUthedeeds and charters taken from the mo- . 
•nsatery were to be restored; all the instrmnenta aad obligations 
tobtained by feree, were declared anil and void, and were to bede« 
livered up to the abbot Fox states, that Berion, the aldennan^ 
Herling, thirty-two priesto, thirteen Jiromen, and 138 other per- 
sons of the town, were outlawed; and that some of these, to re- 
venge the abbof s breach of promise, surprised him at the manor 
of Chevington. Having bound aad shaved him, they conveyed 
hhn to London, aad thaice over the sea into Brabant, where they 
kept him a prisoner. He was at length rescued >y his friends^ 
who had discovered the place of his confiniBaient. . 

The monastery of St Edmnnd's Bury remained 619 years in the 
possession of the Benadietme monks, and during that time was 
• governed by thirty-three abbots. Its regular revenues consiiBting 
' of fifty-two knighf s fees and three-quarters, together with the 
royalties of the eight hukbreds and a half, were valued at the 
^sedation by the commissioners at 233^1. 16s. The income of the 
abbey must, however, have been most ntaterially under-rated; 
aad besides this, the monks possessed many sources of revenne 
which could never be accurately ascertained. An intelligent writer 
of the last century calculates that all the possessions and perqni- 
qutes of this abbey would at that time (1726) be worth not less 
than 200,0001. per annum : and from the astonishing increase in 
the value of landed property and agricultural produce, since that 

F2 pv>«^ 

Digitized by 


feffiod,ftiaiQr«ifelyJbaafiiiiied tkiA «t Hut MMat Ifa^r i 
jridd a yearly iawme of at least dimblc the 'akife amoant. 

When Hevy VIII. feioWod to lepknwh Jws edbaartad JLtmmf, 
jby seiaiiig the ywetaoaa of the monaatie oftaUnhnenlB, the 
abhey tfBury nas iapluded in the geneial doitractioa. Soom la- 
aieetaal ilniggjes veve made by the ahhat aad-caaTeat^ to awett 
the impendk^ blum. In 1686, they aettted apoa oeerelaiy 
CMOMvan and faia iob, aa aaanity ef ten iioanda, pagrdMe o«A 4rf Iha 
jMtB <tf the nanBr of Haikwe, kk EmtoL Bat oeHlHr Ihk peir* 
aion, nor the fiiU aoknoviadgaieBi «f the klag's aa pie BK. eoeia* 
aiaatical aotharity, avaikd them any thing. On fike 4th of 
Noraaiber ISM, the ahhot and has hralhren, ime aampoUed aa 
anisaader the aMmaattfy and all its peaaeniaas to his nmfesty ; 
aaddriren iron their splendid muMion and anqde ra^enaas, to 
sahsistiyon a gosnty stipend. 

The oAo&dfopoit «f theeeaunissioaersappoinledtofiBSttya 
ahhey at the 4liawki«ion, states tint they lonnd hare " a ckha 
ahryne which iraa very oamhsaaBS to d e fae o . We have taken/^ 
they ooatiaae, '^ in the seyd aMaastery in golde and mkrer 0060 
Msrirffw and aho?e, besyds as well a riche eiaaae with a awi a ids , 
as ako dyyeia and aandiy stones of great yaloe; aad yet we hata 
left the churehe, ahhott, aad oonvent^ 'very well fiwnashed wUh 
plate of syWer naaessiry lor Ae same'^.*' 

In another icpait signed '' ^hn Ap Riee/' and dated <« inm 
Borie, 6th Not. 1589/' he says: '' As tonohing the convent we 
eotdd geate little or no eonpiaints anonge theym, although wa 
did nse HMMshe diligens ia oare enaw in aoion ; aad therly with 
aome other argnments gathered of their exsaiinaoions fonnerly, 
I believe and aappose they had eooledered and compacted ha-^ 
loare onre comyng, that they shoulde disclose nothynge ; and 
yet it is confessed and proTed, that there was here such ireqaenoo 
«f w^imen eemyn, and reasserting to this monosterie, as to no 
plaoe more. Amongeat the reliqaes we fonnde moehe Tanilio 


* liS.OotaMi. Lib. 

Digitized by 



Bcewtft tested vMial; 
ike FwyBr of St EdnwA't nftylls, St. ThoMM of Caat^v 
' and k»Wito»-; aad divevs akidb far tlie bead-isohe, 
k of tbo lioli# CroM able to make a bbfe eiOMe; of otfaor. 
ittlifaoa Ibi i^we, aad oeitaiao olhor saycwt kioiia uaages; fer 
amdii^ of veeda gfowiag ia oom vHhonok otiMr/'* 

In toneliing vpon tka tnponrtilioiMi'piaoliMay and flogrant impi6a»» 
tana oaariodoftaitUa mowiattry> we nnat not omit to mw^n 
the aingvlai MMmonji of the ptooMaioii of tlio ivUto bnlL Thm 
aacnatof tko aamat^wy^ aaotfUn aa Iwfattlio haida near tin to«« 
Htfnr anAatttt oailod Hikritei, ia»»and thin eondKtim, tliaitili% 
tenant. shonU f vofide % n>lti>a b«U» wlMiMver a. nMtton of tank, or 
a^ oUwa ahanMTOHH^ qntr of demotion, or in CBBeogmiiee of a viiw» 
to nako tka oUalion&of tiio wlute bttU, aa they vera dailoil^^ 
atthaotrine of^ Bdomnd. Qn thia aecaaion» the anunafcadotnedb 
nitk phMnatnAfaiiandti, inm btoagkl to the aontk^afea at tiio! 
IP, and kdak«i Cainiak-.g«tei GoiMbd!, and Akkey-gate 
, to* tke ipwat: nod gate, tke ladjjK aU tko wkA knefMng 
doaoi to kii%.aiid tke moakn'and people Ibnninf aiUannmia ca» 
▼ntcada Beaatk^ inaeMea ended; tko anioni ivaa^oondaoted; 
bnA tOr kia jmlxu^ «kile tko Iki^ aq^ied toStt BdHiiuid*a2 
akme to mak» ker oklationa^ as a.eertniD eonaefuflnne ol wtneli, 
akawaaaoan to beoome ameAw. Aa f<k«ign lnUrn^ denronaiof 
kanfl^ mijkt kave fiM|qd.H.kQMwenient to iipnlaUlkeiiiiupaiaon, 
to aaaiat at tkeae coremoniee, tkey were certain to prove equally 
efficadoaa if peiibnned by proxy. In a deed, a copy of wkich ia 
giren ky Hnnkins^f Jokn Swaffham, sacrist of tke monastery of 

Fd St 

• MS. Cotton. Lib. 

t William Haukios, a acbool-miuter of H«dleigb» i^ 4bU eosiitj^ wb» . 
in bis C^oUti vria, a very scarce book, printed at Cambrids« in l^dtt* Ims 
given a bamonrai accoant of tbe cciemooieft of the procoMioi^ in jnot iaeIcK 
nelXatiDivefM. He obaervea« that not n ccatnry had tbcn e]api«4» aiitce* 
Ib^ pcoccMions ceased, and the traditioB of tbam waa itiU gfiotnify prevaleat* 
In hii- work, he b«» iatioducad tbrte leaiti, tbatcwiaiiMthi csadilMD aboi* 

Digitized by 



St Edmund's Bury, certiieB all Chrittian people, that oti tlie M 
June 1474,thiee religious persons, whom he names, of the eity of 
Crhent, came and offered, as had been aecustomed of old time, at the 
shrine of the blessed King, Virgin, and Martyr, St. Bdmnnd, in the 
presence ofseTenl reputable people, and of the said martyr, one* 
vhiteboll, for the aeconplishment of the longing of a certain noMe* 
lady (tii reUvatnen desiderii cnjusdam n<^Ui9 ixmkMt.) 

Before the dissolution. Bury contained an tnHnrior motiastic 
establishment of Grey Friars, or Franciscans. About 12M or 6 
some brethren of this order came to the town during a Taoancy in 
the abbacy, and having procured a situation in the north part of - 
Bury, began to perfenn religious exerttses. The monks, indig- 
Qant at this intrasion, and finding remonstrance of no elect, de- 
moliafaed the buildings and expelled the friars, who ap[rfied to the 
eonrtof Rome for redress : when Pope Alexander IV. reproved the 
monks, and ordered the friars to be put in possession of an esisfte 
in llie west part of Bury. The monks still continued firm intlMir 
resistance to this encroaohment on their privileges; so that king 
Henry IIL who with many of his nobility had espoused the caase ' 
of the Franciscans, was obliged to send down lus chief justice to • 
Bury, and to establish them by firoe. Upon this, they lost no time* 
in o(mstructii^ suitable religious edifices. The pope soon after ' 
dying, the monks renewed their qiplieation to his successor; and 
seconding it with an argument whi^ seldom fiiiled of petuuading 


specified. To one of tbem, dated $8th April, 15? 3; is appetided the'scal of 
the monastery, of which he has giren a neat engraTing. On one side it re- 
presented St. Edmnnd, with his crown and sceptre, seated under a gothic ca- 
Bopjp, with A bishop standing on each side, and this legend, aominb btipa- 
TTS ssosT Hio Kiz poKTiFicitvs : on the rererse, in the tipper part, ap- 
pears the siHne king tied to a tree, transfixed with numeroas arrows, while se- ' 
▼era! persons, armed with bows on either side are taking aim at his body. 
In the lower part, he is kneeling, and a man has just cut ofl^ his head cToaeto 
which sits its brote protector. The legend is: siohtk sacasrvK cap 'ti 
SAWOTi ftSMVK nt BBois ST MA It tiR ts. Au engTHTiog of the same ^ral ii al*' 
fo ginniif YatesV History of Borj. 

Digitized by 


8VFF0LK. Ti 

Hie pafil oomit, Uriiaii IV. revoked tbe bulb of hn predecessor, 
coauatAaded the firian; to denolish their buildings, and on pain 
of exconunanicaiion, to leave Bury within one month. The friara 
had not oonrage to withstand thia iajanction ; bat pnbUcly re* 
Boiuioing all right and title to their estate in the town, the abbot 
and eonrent aaaigned them part of the monastic possessions iai 
B ahhorw eil, where they, ereoled some handsome educes. The 
site of this religions establishment is still caHed the FHary. 

At the reformation there were in Bnry, five hospitals, St. Sa* 
vior's 9i North-gate, St Peter's at Risby-gHtfe, St John's at 
SnM^iSf^, St Slephea's and St Nicholas' at East-gate; one 
eoUege, called Jeans coflege, in College street, conaisting of a 
warden, and aix asaoctates, and the following chapels, whose 
namea and situations are yet known, though the buildings have* 
loDg been demoliBhed : St. Mary's, at East-gate bridge, another 
at West-gate, asd a third at Risby-gatfe; St Michael's, in the 
iDfirmary; St Andrew's, in the cemetery of the monks; St« 
John's, in the hill ; and St John's ad fontem; St Annexe in cryp* 
tis; St Theaiaa'% near St Savior^s; St Lawrence'a, in the 
oMut yard ; St Gyles's, near the nave of the church ; St Petro- 
aiifs, within the South-gate; St Botolph's, within Sonthgate- 
street; St Edmund's, or Round chapel in the church-yard; and 
St Dema's, beaidea th^ Hermitage, at West-gate, and thirteen 
other chapeb, the sites of which are unknown, on accoant of tiio' 
mMiy alterations made in the town since that time, by fire aad 
other aceidenta. Thus it must have contained upwards of forty' 
churrhea and chapela, most of which were amply endowed, and to« 
gether aiorded subsistence and employment ta forty or fifty ec* 
dcaiastics, under adeacon and archdeacon. 

During the prosperity of the abbey, it comprehended within ita ' 
pnciaeta, beaides the conventual ehureh, three oth^, St Mar* 
gaxet's, St Mary's, and St Jamea's. The former has kmg ceased ' 
to be ap^priated to religions purposes, and b now used as the 
towa-halL The othera are the churchea of the two parishes into 
vhieh Bury is divided. 

F 4 St. MilRT's. 

Digitized by v 



St. Mart's ivm fint erected in 1005. It began to be r e bttflt iir 
ito present state in 14d4, and was finUhed abeot the year 1489. 
This stractore is 139 feet long, exdosive of the chaaoel, and i7< 
in breadth; the chancel is 74 feel by 68. It is dindsd intothNO 
aisles, sepanled hma each other by two rows of slender and de- 
gantcolnnms. Theroof of thenave^ constmeted in France, aai 
f «t together after it was bronghit to England, is admiied for im 
lightness and elegance. The finely carted fignre oC angdsi snp- 
povtii^ the principaLi of the roof, fortanaitely, fran their height^ 
escaped the iiiry of the pnritanical zealots of the seventeenlb 
century. The north porch of this choich, on which is inscribed^ 
oraie pr^ ammuUms JokomU Notymgkam, et IsabiUe tMsem 
mia, and particularly the cul de lampe, is of curious workaan*' 

Previonsly to the reformation^ St Maiy's was mnch disti»* 
gnished fer its nninsroua altars,* images, and pictuies. AVthn 
dissolution of the Abbey, this church, a» well an St Janiea'a ' 
included in the general system el plunder, boti of timm. 1 
ntripped of plate and other <^Haments» then Taked at about 4801; 
Both likewise c(mtaine4 nuaefons inacriptiins, and efigies in 
brass; but these, as we learn from the town books, were, in 1644, 
torn off by the church- wardens^ and sold fer tkeiff private emekb*^ 
ment : so tbat the monvments of the highest aniiipiity m these 
chnrches are much defeoed. 

'On the north side of the eemmnnion table in St Mary^schnr^ 
was femeily n plain altar monument for Mary Tudor, third daugh^ 
ter of king Henry Y II. This princess, who honoured the town of 
£iicy with her especial fevor and protectioB, had by her beanty 
and accomplishments, won the heart of the Duke of Sofidk, one 
of the most distinguished characters at the oonrt of Henry VIII. 
The shining qualities of tbe duke, had prodnced a rse^racal at» 
tachnMiit on the part of the prinoess ; but policy, and the etifostte 


• Part of one of these, suppoied t« be onr lady't altar, m itill to bs tcna 
agtiiut the looth wftU. 

Digitized by 


ff M«lli^ iNiblis tbev taw, MiA itt 1«M, #oiri^ 
t94taMriiMlf«ry,t0 tfa^arauol theageiaadiafcmlMia; 
«f Femoe. To thai cwmlty die mm SMordiiigfy mi^^ willi • 
■WftnififfiBt letiiHM; and a* tha tonnaHieBto Md in ceWhwrtaa 
•f the BHumgs^ 11k &d^ of Sii£fiklk aignaKied bim 
kit eompelitora, ftr dexterifejr^ gaUaotay, and raiov. Tkia u»^ 
aaiaak vaioft was not of loag dnnkioB; m the daalli ^ Hm 
FMnth monarch, tiM dakewaaaaDt to eandiMl^tha pmcM^baak to 
Gonaftry, lAmm aoon aftar bar anmd^ ahe, hildl7» 
her hand on. tbo oi^oet.of her fiiat offwiioo. nib 
t^ng adWaathatpa, uitha»aowity, iBl(l63i«a»iFal^ 
i in the gioat chnrch of tho moaaaterj^ on the dlsaolntianp^ 
fli iriMehi Imst vmaneweM removed hither. Her tondiiiraBeim- 
plo and unadorned ; it was for some time soppoaed to be only a 
cenotaph^ bat <m opening it in 1731, a covering of lead, evi* 
denUj incloaing a human body, was found, with this inscription 
on the breast: Mary, Queen of France, ld33. Notwithstanding 
this discovery, the tomb continued without any external memorial, 
of thfrHMikiif -the person. depoMted beieatii it, till 17^ wiis». 
Ik; Symanda^ of B«ry« had it iqmiaed aft hia own expenae, and 
a BMiUe taUet inserted, with an inscription, recording the partis 
enlars stated above. 

In the middle of the chancel, lies interred John Reeve, who be- 
came abbot of Bury in 1511, and was obliged to surrender the 
dihey to the king, in N<¥vemher l^&S, on which, an aoaoity «^ 
6W maskn waatwnigBed htat Ite satiied ta a laige house;, at the 
aovth-west comer of Crown stveet, whicl^ has midergene leas afw 
toatiGn than any oUier, of that age, in the town, and where in 
1706, his arms were still to be seen in one of the windows. Cha- 
grin and vexation probably shortened his life, as he died here on 
the 31st of March* following. His grave was« onginaUy, qo- 
icred witb a very laige fla^ atone, of madde, embeHished with 
4ha anmof the abbey, impidiag thoae of hia haufy, and ako 
his pM%<aitnfe in pontificals : but it was broken to make room 
6r a new one, to cover a Mr. Sutton, who was buried in the 
9 same 

Digitized by 


t4 nvwwQVK. 

i giMe.* Ob the old stone, as we are infomed hy. Weereiy 
> a lAtia inscription to the following effect:—- '' Here lie the 
bonei ef . the man, whom Bnry fomerly owved its lord and abbot; 
hie name John, bom at MeUbrd in Snffolk, his fiuttHy and &ther 
called Beere. t He was intrepid, pradent, learned, and a&ble, np« 
right> and a lorer of his vow, and his reiigioii i^ who, when he 
had seen the dlst of the reign <tf Henry VIII. died the Slst of 
March following. May God spare his soul ! 1540/' 

At the east end of the south-aisle, a well exeeated altar nona'* 
■ent, for John Baret, who died in 1643, exhibits a striking proof 
of the skill of some of our ancient artists, in the durability oi the 
red and black substances, with which the letters, engraven in. 
difeent parts, were filled . up. Over the monument is a wooden> 


* " Abbot Reeve'fi grave-stone of grey marble, whkh formerly bad bit full 
effigy inbrsM, with a mitre on hit head, and a crosier in his hand, with fonr 
coatB of armi at the comers of the stone, which it Urge, and irerj noble, and 
DO doubt, provided by the good abbot some yean before hit death, was, not 
leng before I was at Bury in March tf 45-^6, taken up from the mididle of the 
cbaac^l in St Matjr's church, at Bory, wbsrt it had rerted sver aineetbt d»» 
solntion, to make room for the grave^one of ooe Sutton, the parser of a tbip» 
and the abbot't moved out of the church, and laid by the entrance into the^ 
aoutii perch, in the chnrcb>yard of the said church. ThitI saw, with no small 
degree ot indignation, when 1 was at Bury with the late Sir James Bur- 
fonghs, walking with him about the precincts of the abbey, and into the two 
noble ehefcket of Bury. The lanaties of 1643, only stole the brass of the 
grave-stone, but let the booea remain in qniet pnsaniioa of tiwif rightfal Imi« 
hitation." {CoU*$ MSS. Vol. XXVIL p. 198.> 

t Weever writes Kemis, but this it evidently erroneoos. 

t In John Ap Bice's report concerning the misrule of Bury Abbey, at 
the time of the dittolotion, it the following character of him .— " At for the 
abbot,' we finde nothing to suspect as touching hys livyng, but it was detected 
that he laye moche forth in hys granges ; Hbat be delited moche in playing at 
clice and cardes, and therem spent moche money, and in bnyldlng for hie 
I^atore. He did not preaehe openly. Also that be ceovecfeed divers fitnnea. 
into copieholdet, wherof pooremeo doth complayne. Alto he teemeth to be 
addicted to the meyuteyning of such luperstiiiou cereraoniea aa bathe bea 
wed beretofor." 

Digitized by 



mBBg^'^flkiiied inth his motta, in the old English chsaracter, • 
^ Gnoe me gtfyern!'' the initiiJB of his name, and other painted 
embelUshmeats, the oolois of which remain ihsh and mfaded, • 
after the lap^ of thj«e centuries and a half. 

intiiia clmrchy on the south side of the chancel^ beneath the 
lest arch, iowaids the east» is; a laige ahar moanraent, covering, 
the remains of Sir Thomas Dmry, who was privy-connsellor to 
Henry Vn. and VIII. and is supposed to have died about the. year 
W33. This is erroneously attributed, by Weerer, to Roger 
DruTf, who died in 1472^ and Agnes his wife, in 1445. Ail thai. 
is Mt «f any inscriptiDn, on Sir Robert's monument is this dis* 
tich on the wooden palisades. * 

Sacb u je be tome time ware wee, 
Socbe as wee are, sacbe schall je be. 

Opposite to thk monument, is that of Sir Williain Caremr, who- 
dKedin IdOl, and his wife, in IS26. She was first cousin to Sir- 
Robert Dmry, juat mentioned. Both these tombs are sarronnded 
with WiOoden.railiBg, having the effigies upon them, and the tro-i 
pfaiesever head. The stone which covers John Finers, const!-- 
tuted arch-deacon of Sudbury in 1497, has a brass plate, with his 
effigy upon it, and an inscription in monkish Latin. In the vestry 
«t the east end of the south aisle, are the figures of John, com- 
flsonly called Jankyn Smith, a celebrated beneOactor of Bury,* 
and bis wife, engraven in brass^ on a flat stone, on a corner of 
whidi was lately to be seen an escutcheon of his arms. 

Joseph Weld, esq. Serjeant at law, recorder, and at the time of 
his death, one of the representatives of this town in parliament, 
is inlenred in the crypt, at the east end of the chancel ; a spot, 


• He wai an inhabitant of tbjs town in the reign of Edward IV. and gai« 
lands in Bury, Barton« Kongbaro, Hepwortb, and oiber places, since im* 
proved to tfae yearly valae of SOOI. for celebrating his anniversary, and the 
oveiplosfor the benefit of the inhabitants. His portrait on board is still pre- 
ienncd in an upper room at the Guildhall. An inscription on the frane/ 
with*the datei 1473, records his bensfaction. 

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^.i4ifM't<b«ch WMorignnllykBHakMllheyctf IMO^bf 

h^m kk faiUfilM of goiag m a pUgrnnge to Ife tkrimt «f fit 
•^ •! C»Mfiiittt»f ia 8p«M» ud m MsplkaM vMi Ihdr !•> 
p., tmaiU llua chv^ ia Imht of thai SMit aft 
Bary. Tha pwMiiiii M iaii Mi i , Ifcoagii fcr ■faa wri ia igp^ma 
aaillaiahad UM Iha wfcfaiioa, wfcaafciagBdwdlYLgwMilt 
ta aiMf laid ii a« «a laaiB fcoi tfca fcliawmy iainifliw awa Ifci 
WMi 4tMr, ia Iba iaiiiiar «r tllabaiUi^9^N- 

Oar flwft nobia Sorereign Lord« 
Mirir4 iIm VI. by tlM gtMe 
afOotff fcytiffof Bagltttd^ Fraoca, 
aad Iralan^i Ogftaaw of iba Faitb* 
aa4 (n Eartb o( Uia Gbaiaba of . 
Kii|lindi and alio of Maad^ tba 
•uprvma had, of liU godly devotion 
gava 10 Ilia flulihliig of thii cborcba 
act. and aUo iit. yarlyo, 
fbt tha maynCananca of a fta 
granMio lohola within thii 
Town, at tba humble tuila of 
John Kjrrc and Xtopber Peyton. 
t.N^t. Long ly(b and bljMa to 
uur K^*ng 


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TUi drndh, uin i tia oltd ^ fm nifc me, is aHae Golhie Imild*- 
iagf ttid^e trefi eni k pntionkily tveakitiftil. The windoiro are 
Inge, BMumMB and kanisoiiie, aad wefe 'onginaMy adoraed with 
{Mdaled gUuM^ some remains of wl»oli| yet left in lliose on tha 
•BrUi mie, wt exaciHed in aoeli a mAner as to m^^e ns llie mora 
4eepfy Kgret the ii t y n i es they have reoeived. The length of St. 
Jamea'achHrcli ial37faek» Hshteaddi,e9; andlhe ehattcdisM 
fcgl 8» V S7tot d wehea. 

Against the wal on' the aaalh atide^aretwo degant monnments 
iaiisWBd wilii kmm tailing, one of them to the Rt. fionble. James 
Baifnolii, choef ibaron of this oorat «f Excbequer, iHio (tied ia 
1788, in hiBd8dy«ar;snd1iie other to Mary his wife. Hetsre- 
fsaaMdod dillmg tn hia rahea of jnstioe ; on each side is a 
woeyiBg 6gwe, aad Airrt his eoat of arms, witii other embellish- 
asenlB. Sis chaiaeter is rc e o r fe d in a iMin inscription of con- 
aMembie lehgth «B the pedeiAd: 

The €HUROH*CrAm, which thongh thiity feet distant from this 
mMce, aanrea as a stee p le to it, is considered to be one of the no- 
Mestapsoiflwasof wtatisdonominatodSaxonarehitectore, in this 
kiagiooi. Kilty aa^,* that ''thd arches of this tower are all 
ismmI, oC a Saxon fenii, aad seem to he mncfh older than Henry 
tha Third's tiara/' Some are of opinion, that it was erected in 
#ie«eign of WtJffiam ihe Conqneror, at the same time tiiat the ab- 
hey-dmndi was first bnilt'Of aloiR, when Albold, a man of rank, 
aada ptiest, is said to hare made by permissiob of abbot Baldwin, 
alofiier of na smaH sizcf It stands opposite to the west end of 
tha abbey church ; to which it served as a magnificent portal, ft 
is 80 feet in height, of a qnadrangnlar figure, and remarkable fer 
Hia ainple piaianess and solidity of its construction. The stone 
«C whish it is hailt, dbonndswiih small shells, that in their natm«l i 
alata are exiremely hritie and perishable. These in theii* 
had hava acqaired such hsidness, as to resist the injurie s 


t DeicripUoii of Bar; St. Edmund't, p. 69. 

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78 SIHPFOLft. 

of teren centuries, eTen when pertly hid beie by the enaAUag 
away of the softer gritly particles of the stone. A chapel of Jesus 
was originally intended to k«ve occupied the space hetweea St. 
James's chorch, and this tower. 

. On the west side of the Charch*gate^ near the fewidaliaii; are 
two curious basso relievos in sloae. That «■ the left> repments 
■anlrind in their Allen state, under the dominion of Satan, by the 
figures of our first parents with a serpent twined round then, and 
the Devil in the back ground insulting Adam. The other em- 
blematic of the deliverance of man from his bondage, exhibits 
God the Father with fiowiug hair, and a long parted beanl, 
sitting triumphantly within a circle, surrounded by cherubim. 
This piece of sculpture which appears to be of considerable aati^ 
^ity, is in good preservation, except that the principal figure has 
lost the right hand. The capitals of some of the pillaia in the in- 
terior of this gateway, likewise exhibit grotes^e figures, which 
appear to have fcdrmed part of the original building. 

Time has lately made considerable impression upon thisyen^ 
rable edifice. Wide fissurea are conspienons in various parts, ea* 
pecially on the side next the church-yard; and on the other it m 
said to be twelve inches out of the perpendicular. In consequence 
c^ these appearances, the modern belfiry has been taken down; 
the bells with all the wood-work, have been removed from the in- 
terior, and the clock from the outside, for the puipose of repairs. 
Unless means be speedily adopted to jmsenre this relic of tho 
chaster style of ancient architecture, it seems highly probable 
that the safety of the inhabitants will soon require its total deoKK 

The two church-yards, which in &ct form but one, are kept in 

• excellent order: an alley of lofty poplars runs diagonally across 

them, and makes a very pleasant promenade. Nearly ia.the 

^centre is a small pbt of ground inclosed with high iron railing. 

And planted with trees of different kinds. In this place is the 

receptacle provided by the late James Spink, esq. banker of 

|ury, for himself and his family. The spot where he lies in« 

€ tared 

Digitized by 


ftVFFOLR. 79 

' teneiih marked by a plain marble tablet^ with this inscriptions 
».«To the memory of John Spink, esq. who died Oct. 2i, 1794, 

' aged 65 years, this tablet is inscribed by his executors, n<^ to re- 
cord firtnes which have raised a lasting monument in the hearts 
of those who knew him, but to inform the stranger that under tins 

. humble stone the constant and unwearied friend of human nature 

- IB distress, lies buried, not forgotten/' 

WilUn the same inclosore, is a plain upright stone, terminating 

' in a pyramid, with the figure of the cross canred upon it, and 
underneath the following inscription : '' Here lies interred the 

' body of Mary Haselton, a young maiden of this town, bom of 
Soman Catholic parents, and yirtuously brought up; who being 
in the ad of prayer repeating her vespers, was instantaneously 
killed by a flash of lightning, Aug. 16. 1785, aged nine years." 

The remains of the west end of 9t. Edmund's church, which 
bound the church-yard on one side, at present exhibit a singular 
and motley spectacle. One of the octagon towers which formerly 
terminated either end, is still standing, and has been converted 
ioio a sttMe. Three arches, once the entrances, to the three 
aisles, have been filled op with modem buildings, and converted 
into as many neat houses, while the intermediate ragged por* 
tious of the original massive wall, which is supposed to have been 
' once &ced with marble, has braved the ravages of not much less 
than three centuries. The antiquary will probably be dispoiied to 
regret this pro&nation of these venerable relics. A lady of Bury, 
actuated by this sentiment, was some time since desirous of pur- , 
chasing these ruins for the purpose of demolishing the modem 
erections, and restoring them to their former state; but probably 
her antiquarian zeal was damped by the magnitude of the sacrifice, 
which the completion of her wishes would have required. 
■ In the path-way, between the two churches, an atrocious at- 
tempt was made, in 1721, by Arundel Coke, esq. barrister, with 
the assistance of one Woodboume, a hired assassin, to murder his 
brother-in-law, Edward Crisp, esq. in the hope of possessing his 
property. Ha' had invited him* his wife and family to supper, 


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and at nighty on pr«teiee of going to see a mtaal SnmA, 1m M 

him into the clmreh-yard, whepe on a gi? ea signal^ Woodboome 

nuhed upon Mr. Criap, and out hk head and iaoe in a tariUo 

mui»ner, with a hodgiag-biU. Leaving him -on the gnmnd for 

dead. Coke returned to the company as if nothing had happmied. 

Mr. Cri«p, howeTer, was not killed^ and on reoeveiiag htnaelf, 

mnatered sufficient strength to oiawi hack to the house of this kl- 

huaan relative, wfaoe kis i^pearanoe> m erueily ninngioA and 

covered with Mood, excited the ntmost honw and maaaeiaenti, aad 

confounded the author of the harharous deed. It was not long 

before he was discovered^ and with his accomplice brctaght to 

trial, on the statute for dsfiwiBg and Aamembering, eaUed the 

Coventry Act. Mr. €ri^ having survived this outrage. Coke 

wassogooda lawyer, and so hardened a viiiain^as to hopetoaave 

himself hy pleading that he imtended not to defooe, bat to kQI. 

TUs justificatioQ, little inferior in atrocity to the crime itself, 

imtod him nothing, and seaienee of death was passed upon ham, 

and the partner ef iiia gnilt Shenly heUae the ^^y i^pmtad 

for liis execution, the nnhi^py coavict requoBted «f the h%|L 

sheriff for the county. Sir Jattper CMwm, that if he thought thmv 

were no hopes of pardon, he might snier early in the morning, to 

afoid the crowd likely to be coUeeled hy each a q^ectack. His 

desire was complied with. Whether it were on aocoant of the 

(great ooncomrae expected to attend on this oooasien, or that a 

resoae was apprehended, an extraordinary gmurd was provided, aa 

appears from the charge t>f two giuneas for that service aamiig 

the expenoes*. 

In the church-yard stands Cloptoa's hoepital, a haadsouM hriek 

baiUing, with pn^eetaag wings, founded and endowed in liaO, 

agreeably to the will of the kte Pdey Cle|itoa, M.D.f as an 

* Callam't HawiCed, p. 163. 

t This g^tleman, in whom the name became extinct, was descended from 

^ yottnger branch of a family formeriy of considerable note in this county. 

The elder resided for a consideraA>]e time at Kentwell-Ha)l, near Helfbrd, and 

^«be SIhtraad for tome time been seated at Ljstoo, in Bneir Ibont two liilea 


Digitized by 




isylmii for six poor meii^ and as maay women, three of either aex 
fmt of each parish. They must be widowers and widows, upwards 
of sixty years of age, who have been housekeepers, paid scot and 
lot, and received no parochial relief. The front exhibits th^ arms 
of the founder: a lAtin inscription below records the object of this 
institution, and underneath, in very large letters, are th^se words : 


On the same side of the church-yard with the hospital, is a 
neat new building, the residence of John Benja£ield, esq. This 
house might perhaps have passed unnoticed, had it not been for a 
violation not merely of decency, but of what we have beai taught 
to regard as sacred^ which has lately been committed by its pro- 
prietor. I allude to the inclosure of a comer of the church-yard 
in the front of this mansion. And for what purpose has this peace* 
ful sanctuary of the dead been invaded P for what purpose have 
their hones been disturbed, and perhaps the only remaining memo* 
rials of their existence been swept from the face of the earth P 
Why, forsooth, that a shrubbery might conceal the house from the 
gaze of inquisitive eyes, or hide from the view of its owner th« 
numerous mementos of perishable humanity. This appropriation 
of part of the public property, for such in every point of view 
must a church-yard be considered, was, I am told, permitted by 
the corporation. If this information be correct, as there is every 
reason to believe, I know not which to admire most, the impu* 
dence of the demand, or the indecorum of the concession. 

On the opposite side of the church-yard stands the shire hall, 
or sessions house, where the assizes for the county are held. It 
is a building of modem erection, on the site of the ancient churck 
of St Margaret, and contains two convenient courts, in which 
criminal and civil causes are tried at the same time. The old 
building, together with a piece of ground, was given by Thomas 
Badby, the same I presume, who, in 1560, purchased the site of 
the abbey, and other estates, granted in the same year, by 'queen 
. Vol. XIV. G Elizabeth. 

»ff. Ttiat estate the doctor, ^ho died a bachelor, left to his oaly sister, m«r- 
ricd to Edwatd Crispe, esq. of Bafj. 

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Elizabeth, to John E3rre) to be applied to the present pvrpose, 
and the profits arising from them to be employed for the benefit of 
the inhabitants. 

The Ahheyrgate, one of the principal ornaments of Bory, war 
the grand entrance to the monastery, and opened into the great 
court-yard, in front of the abbot's palace. It is the only relio 
now left to attest the former magnificence of this establishment. 
8ach is the excellence of its materials and workmanship, that it 
is still in a state of mnch more perfect preservation than might be 
expected from the number of years which it has stood exposed to 
the ravages of the elements, without roof and, without repairs. 
Upon the destruction of the original entrance to the abbey, in the 
violent assault of the townsmen in 1327, this gate was erected 
npon a plan, combining elegance with utility. Its form approadies 
a square, being forty-one feet by fifty, and sixtyHwo in height 
The architecture is of the best period of the gothic style. The 
embellishments, arranged with taste, and executed with precision, 
are mnch more numerous than in edifices of an earlier date, but 
not in such profusion as in the later and more florid style. 

The west front, next the town, is divided into two horizontal 
compartments, by an ornamented band, and perpendicularly into 
three, consisting of a centre, and twoturriated projecting wings. 
The whole is superbly ornamented with devices, and niches for 
statues; the heads or groined work, forming the canopies to these 
niches, are elegant; and the pilasters of those in the centre and 
in both wings, terminate in well-wrought pinnacles. The spandrils 
of the arch, above the gate-way, are adorned with two quatrefoil 
bosses or medallions; and over them, near the top of the building, 
are two others, each representing two interlaced triangles. Most 
«f these embellishments are in excellent preservation. 

The pillars of the gate-way are composed of clustered cylinders ; 
the capitals are simple, and chiefly the Gothic wreath. The 
counter-arch of the entrance is surmounted by an undulated arch 
yr pediment, springing from the external capitals. Below the 
embattled band, which divides the building horizontally, is a ca- 


Digitized by 



Tetto moulding, amamented with severai figrnres, most of which 
are defaced; bat a lion, a dragon, and a bull worried by dogs, 
may rtill be distinguished* The figure of the bull is eleven inches 
in length. 

In the wall and arch is a groove for the reception of a portcullis. 
In the south-west and ntHih-west angles were circular stur-cases, 
one of which is yet so perfect, that it is possible, with care^ to ascend 
to the platform which runs round the top of the building; and has 
five embrasures at either end^ and seven on each side. These stair* 
csaes were originally surmounted by octagon towers, fourteen feet 
high; but one of these having been blown down at the beginning of 
last century, the other was soon afterwards demolished. The area is 
aneqnally divided by a stone partition. Its arch was furnished 
with brass gates, the hinges of which yet remain. The entrances 
to the staircases are in the interior division of the area, so that, if 
an enemy had foreed the portcullis, and obtained possession of the 
anti-gateway, the defendants would still have commanded the ac- 
cess to the upper part of the fortress, whence they might have 
greatly annoyed the assailants. All these precautions, as well as 
the want of windows next the town, indicate the anxiety of the 
flKmks to prevent a repetition of those outrages which occasioned 
the necessity of erecting this edifice. The eastern or interior 
division forms a cube of about twenty-eight feet. Its walls are de- 
corated with light and elegant tracery, and with the arms of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, Thomas de Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, and 
Holland, duke of Exeter. Over this division, a space of nearly 
equal dimensions appears to have been a room. Vestiges of its 
roof, floor, and fire-place, are still evident. The north and south 
sides have each two small windows. In the east end is a grand 
window, overlooking the abbey-grounds, and adorned with tracery 
of peculiar richness and elegance. This side of the abbey-gate is 
extremely phiin and simple, its only embellishments being three 
niches on each side, corresponding with those in the projecting 
wings of the west front: but the principal object which claims 

G 2 attention 

Digitized by 


84 BtJtroLt. 

attention here, is the beaatiful arch, the symmetry and elegant 
proportions of which are truly worthy of admiration. 

This gate opens into the abbey-grounds, still surronnded with 
the ancient lofty wall, and containing some massive detached (rag- 
ments of the magnificent edifices, which once occupied part of their 
site. In the garden, incladed within this precinct, specimens of 
various pieces of antiquity have at different times been discovered; 

It is known that in the conventual church were interred many 
persons of high distinctipn, among the rest, Alan Fergannt, efffl 
of Richmond; Thomas de Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, half brother 
to king Etlwardll.; Thomas Beaufort, duke of Exeter, uncle to 
king Henry V. ; Mary, widow of Louis XII. of France, and sister 
to Henry VIII. whose remains were afterwards removed to St. 
Mary's church; sir William Elmham, sir William Spenser, sir 
William Tresil, knights. Many inhabitants of the monastery, re- 
markable for their learning and piety, were also buried here; but 
of these none was more celebrated than John lidgate, whose po^ 
tical talents gained him the universal admiration of his coniem* , 

In 1772, some labourers being employed in breaking op a paii 
of the ruins of this church, discovered a leaden coffin, which had 
been inclosed in an oak case, then quite decayed. It contained 
an embalmed body, as firesh and entire as at the time of interment, 
surrounded by a kind of pickle, and the fiice covered wi& a cere- 
cloth. The features, the nails of the fingers and toes, and the 
hair, which was brown, with some mixture of grey, appeared as 
perfect as eVer. A surgeon hearing of this discovery, went to 
examine the body, and made an incision on the breast; the flesh 
cut as firm as that of a living subject, and there was even an ap- 
pearance of blood. The skull was sawed in pieces, and the brain, 
though waisAed, was inclosed in its proper membrane. At this 
time the corpse was not in the least offensive; but on being ex* 
posed to the air, it soon became putrid. The labourers, for the 
sake of the lead^ removed the body firom its receptacle^ and threw 


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it among the rubbisL It was soon found, bat by what means we 
•re not informed, that the corpse which had been treated with socfa 
indecency, was the remains of Thomas Beaufort, son of John of 
Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by his third duchess, lady Catharine 
Swinford, grandson of king Edward III. half-brotl^^r to Henry IV, 
by whom he was created duke of Exeter, knight of the garter, 
admiral and governor of Calais, and lord high chancellor of £ng«* 
land. At the battle ef Aginconrt he led the rear-guard of the 
English army; afterwards bravely defended Harfleur against the 
French; was guardian to Henry VI. and dying at East Greenwich, 
on the 1st of January, 1427, was, in compliance with his will, 
interred in the ^bey church of Bury St. Edmund's, near his 
duchess, at the entrance of the chap^ of our lady, close to the 
wall on the north side of the choir. On this discovery, the mangw 
led remains were enclosed iu a strong oak coffin, and buried at the 
loot of the large north-east pillar, which formerly assisted t^ 
support the beUry. 

In the qiring of 1783, on breaking up some foundations ia 
the north wall of St Edmund's church, near the chapter-house, 
were found lour antiqiie heads, cut out of single blocks of free* 
stone, and somewhat larger than the natural proportion. On ti&e 
subject of these heads, Mx. Yates* quotes the various opinions of 
antiquaries, who he says have viewed them, but how any person 
with his eyes open, could take them for " Roman divinities,'' or 
ibr " the decorations of some temple, the ruins of which, might 
afterwards be en^loyed in constructing the church ;" it is scarcely 
possible to conceive. Nothing can be more evident, even from 
the inspection of the engraving given in his own work, than that 
tvo of these were representations of St Edmund's head, 'aocom« 
paaied by the leg of its brute protector. It is more than probable^ 
that the oHiGt two, though without that striking appendage, were 
nide memorials of the same subject. 

In February 1560, queen Elizabclth, by letters patent under the 
i;reat seal, granted to John Eyre, esq. in consideration of the sum 

G3 ql 

• fii9Uo(Bni7,p.0.. 

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of 4121. 198. 4d. paid by hira, all the site, circuit, and precinct of 
the late monastery of Bury St Edmunds, then recently dissoWed^ 
besides other premises and lands in the neighbourhood^ formerly 
belonging to the abbot and conyent They afterwards passed 
into the hands af various purchasers, till in 1720, they were con« 
Teyed for the snm of 28001. to the use of major Richardson Pack. 
That gentleman soon afterwards assigned the premises to air 
Jermyn Davers, in whose fiunily they continued till it became 
extinct a few years since, by the death of sir Charles Davers, bart 

The GuUdhall, gives name to the street in which it stands. Ita 
appearance certainly does not bespeak a public edifice. The 
ancient porch of flint, brick, and stone, are totally incongraous 
with the modem alterations in the body of the building ; to which 
pointed windows, and an embattled parapet, would have given 
^consistency. In the chamber ovw the entrance, the archives of 
the town are kept under three keys, which are in the custody of 
the recorder, the town-clerk, and the alderman for the time beiiig. 
Here the town sessions are held, corporation members chosen, and 
other business of a similar nature transacted. 

Bury seems very early to have enjoyed the benefit of a firee^ 
school; for abbot Sampson in lld8, erected a school-house, and 
settled a stipend on the master, who was required to give gra^ 
tuitous instruction to forty poor boys. This building stood 
near the present shire-house, and the street received from it the 
name of School-hallrstreet, which it still retains. The Free Gram^ 
mar^ckool, founded by king Edward VI. seems tp have been but 
a revival of the former ancient institution. Its original situation 
was in East-gate-street, but that being found inconvenient, a new 
school-house was erected in North-gate-street, by public contri«« 
bution. The bust of the founder stands over the door, in the 
firont of the building. There are forty scholars on the foundation, 
and it is free for all the sons of towps-people, or inhabitants. Tha 
number of pupils of the latter class amounts to about eighty. This 
seminary is superintended by an upper and under master, and adn 
joining to the school is a handiBome house for the former. The 


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8I7Ff6uc. W 

freamA baud masto' is tlie Rer. Dr. Malfcin, well known to t]i« 
iilerary worlds l»y seTenl pnblicakioiis of considerable merit. 

Tbis town also contains tbree cbarity schools. In one of tbese 
lotty boys, and in the two others, fifty girls, are clothed and in« 
structed in the English language. Besides collections and ocoa« 
sional gifts, tiiere is a settled fond of 701. per annum towards de- 
fraying the expenses of these establishments. In additioii to 
these institutions, a sdiool on the plan of Mr. Lancaster was 
opened in S^iiember 1811, in College street, and about 200 poor 
boys were admitted into it 

The Theatre, was built in 1780, on the site of the old market 
cross, from a design by Mr. Robert Adam, and is a beautiful spe^* 
cimen <^ his taste and architectural skill. It is of white inrick, 
bat the ornamental parts are of free-stone.- As it stands detached 
from other buildings, the elegance of its construction may be con* 
tempkted to great advantage. George, the second earl of 
Bristol, gave 500L towards Uie erection of this theatre, and 4Q0L 
towards the finishing of the shambles, which stand in the same 
square, opposite to that edifice, and are built of free-slone. 

On the Bog Hill, or Beast Market, stands the common Bride^ 
veU, Ibrmerly a Jewish synagogue, which in old writings is 
called Moyse Hall. Its dimensions are tiiirty-six feet, by twenty- 
seven. " The walls are of great solidity, fiioed with stone, and the 
whole is bnilt upon aiches. The cironlar windows bespeak the 
high antiquity of this structure, which is cotyejctured to be of not 
much lator date than the conquest, soon after which, the Jewn 
settted in thb place. As all their synagogues were ordered to 
be destroyed, during the reign of Edward III; it cannot but be 
esteemed the greater rarity. 

At the upper side of the maik^ are the WoolHaiU, where 
great quantities of wool used to be annually d^KMited, when that 
article was the principal source of employment of the poorer in-- 
habitants of Bury, and its vicinity. 

in Chnrdi-gate street, is a meeting house hr the Diflsenters, 

G4 and 

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89 sorroLE* 

toA in Whiting street another for Independento. The Quakenr 
have a neat place of worship in the Long Brakeland. 

At the south side of the open place, knoim hj the name of the 
Angel Hill, stand the Astembfy Roams, a newly erected edifice 
of simple exterior. The hall room is well proportioned, serenty* 
six feet in length, forty-five in breadth, and twenty-nine feet 
high. Adjoining to it is an apartment used as a card and sopper- 
foom, thirty-seven feet by twenty-four; and the building likewise 
contains a subscription news-room. The three balls held aimu- 
ally, during the great fiedr in October, are in general attended by 
greeX numbers of persons of the first rank and fiuahion, as are also 
the four or fire winter balls; but trades-people, however respeot- 
able and c^nlent, are rigorously excluded. It has been univer- 
sally remarked, that there is not perhaps a town in the kingdom 
where the pride of birth, even though conjoined with poverty, is so 
tenaciously and so ridiculously suintained as at Bury. 

The Suffolk PubHc Library , formed by the union of two libra- 
ries, the one'institnted in 1790, and the other in 17d6, is situated in 
Abbey-gate street It is not confined to the class which com« 
monly constitutes the stock of a circuhiting library, but embraces 
many works of first-rate importance and utility. The nuiid>er of 
subscribers is about one hundred and fifty, and the sum expended 
annually in new publications, amounts to about 120). 

The Angel Inn, one of the most conspicuous buildings in the 
town, stands on the west side of the Angel HilL The vaults un- 
derneath it are supposed fixMU their construction to have farmerty 
belonged to the abbey, and appear to have once had a subtena* 
neons communication with that establishment. This inn was 
given, with some small tenements and pieces of ground, by Wil- 
liam Tassell, esq. partly towards the maintenance of the ministers, 
aad partly for the repair of the churches, and the ease of the in* 

At the end of Southgate street, a mile hom the centre of the 

town, is situated the new Gaol, which, to use the words af the be- 

6 nevolent 

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MtDlcni Mr. ^ield, ^ does himoiir to the comity^ and is sttperior 
to most in this kingdom ; vkether we consider its constraction to 
•nswer the three great puqioses of secority, health and morals, or 
tin liberality of the nu^istrates in proyiding every comforl 
which can attend imprisonment'^* This gaol which haaaneaft 
stone front, wrought in mstio, was completed in 1806. The 
baildittgs are inclosed by a boundary wall, twenty feet high, of 
an iiregnlar octagon form, the diameter being two hundred and 
mnety-two feet Four of the sides are one hundred and ninety- 
two feet each, and the other feur seventy feet and a half. The 
entrance is tiie tonkey's lodge, im the leadihit of whieh exeon- 
lions are perfermed. The keq>er's \umae, also an irregular 
octagon building, is situated in the centre of the prison, raised 
mx steps above the level of the other buildings, and so placed that 
all the court-yards as well as the entrance to the gaol are under 
constant inspection. The prison consbtsof feur wings sixty-nine 
feet by thirty-two ; three of these are divided by a partition wall 
along the centre, and the fenrth is parted into three divisions; by 
which means the different classes of prisoners are cut off from all 
communication with each otiier. The chapel is in the centre of 
the keeper's house, up one pair of stairs ; stone galleries lead 
to it from the several wings, and it is partitioned off, sothat eaeh 
class is separated the same as in the prison. 

The Hauge of Correetkm, nearly adjoining to the gaol, has by 
recent regnlatiotts, been in some measure consolidated with that 
establishment. It is bounded by a separate wall, inclosing aboat 
an acre of ground, and tha prison stands in the centre. This n« 
square building, having the keeper's house in front, and contains 
two divisicms, which, with the nine in the gaol, make eleven in 
all. These are appropriated according to the following arrange- 
ment: 1, and 2. Male debtors. 3. King's evidence, and ocsa- 
sionaOy other prisoners. 4. Convicted of misdemeanors, d. Trans<r 
ports and convicted of atrocious felonies. 6. For trial for atnH 

• GtnUeman'i Magi Dec 1805, p. 1091. 

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cious felonies. 7. For trisl for smdl offences. B. Female debtonu 
9. Female felons for trial. 10. Females convicted of misdemea^ 
nors. 11. Females convicted of felonies. 

The mies and regulations for tiie government of these prisons 
are truly excellent The earnings of the prisoners employed hy 
the county are thus divided: two^ilfths to the county, one-fifth 
to the govenior, and two*fifUis to the prisoner, one to be paid 
weekly, and the remainder on discharge. Their occupations are 
grinding com, for which there are two mills, and ginning wool* 
The keeper of the gaol and house of correction has a salary of 
three hundred pounds per annum, besides penjutsites and fees, * 
and they have a chaplain and a surgeon^ with a yearly salary of 
sixty pounds each. 

Within the bounds of Bury, a very elegant seat was built in 
1773, from a plan of Mr. Adam, by John Symonds» LL. D. pro- 
fessor of modern history and languages, in the universi^ of Cam« 
bridge, who gave it the appellation of St. Edmund's HUl, from 
the beautiful eminence on which it stands. Few spots in 8ttffi>lk» 
obsetves Mr. Gough,t command so extensive and pleasing « 

A little to the southward of the town, a brick edifice, with tvo 
sdaU detailed buildings has been erected since the commencement 
of the present war, as a magazine for arms and ammunition.. The 
necessity of such an establishment at Bury, where no tnK^s are 
stationed, and where no apprehension certainly need be enter* 
tained of any sadden surprise, may justly be questioned. The 
truth seems to be, that the corporation of Bury wanted a place for 
•ne of their number, and in humble imitation of another assembly^ 


* It would be an injostice to a deserring indiTidual, not to qaoto the cks* 
tacter given of the preaent keeperi Mr. John Orridge, by Mr. Nield, w^ 
lays : " in the appointment of a gaoler, I consider the county particokrly 
IbrtQoate in their choice of Mr. Orridge ; who, to great abilitieii unites fir»» 
netaand humanity in the discharge of bis impoxtaat trosf 

t Camden, Vol. IL 16jU 

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iiewiuneiided this Hieasiire^ tfaa lie slight be gratified with the 
wnecore office of store-keeper. 

The toirn had five gates till aboait forty yean ago, when they 
^ircre aU taken down by order of the corporation, to affi>rd a nuHre 
conveHient passage for carriages; and at each of these gates tiiere 
was formerly either «tt hospital or some religions foundation, or 
both, as at Eas^ South, and Risby gates. Beyond the North gate, 
on the east side, and eontiguous to the Thetford road, are the 
mins of St. Saviour's Hospitid, the most celebrated in Bnry, and 
which must bare been a very extensive boilding, if, as we are told, 
the pailiiment assonbled here in 1446. The entrsnce seems to 
haye been originally adorned with a stately portal; the space for 
the entrance, with the fragments of a large window above it, yet 
temain. Psrt of the wall which sunronnded the hospital and its 
i^pnrlenaaees, is also still standing. 

The arches in the east wall of the monastery, described by 
Gtose,* as well as the East gate itself, are now demolished. 
These arches were of considerable antiquity, being evidently 
as old as tiie wall itself, which was erected before 1221, by 
abbot Sampson, to inclose a piece of ground which he had pur- 
'dmsed theve for a vineyard. The use of them was to serve as a 
water-courae, and perhaps to form an occasional foot-bridge, by 
means of planks laid from one projecting buttress to another, there 
bong an arched passage left between them and the wall, to the 
west of which was another bridge for foot-passaigers. Not for 
from the east gate stood St. Nicholas' hoqpital, some remains of 
which, such as the original entrance, and one window at present 
itted up on the north side, are yet to be seen. The edifice itself 
p eonv^ted into a foim-house; and at a small distatice to the 
stands the old ehi^, fiwmerly belonging to the hospital, an 
extensive boilding, having seven buttresses on each side, but not 
ronarkable either for beauty or elegance, now transformed into a 
Ibam and stsUe. On the north side of the road, between East- 

•in% VoI.V.p.66. 

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firidgc ttd tins hospital^ a few fragments of cddirall mark tiie«t# 
of that of St Stephen. 

Jttst without the South gate was the hospital of St. Petroailku 
Thoogh this stnictare has Jong been demolished, the chapel which 
belonged to it is still pretty entire; its east window, of beantifiii 
tracery, was to be seen in 1810, hut is now walled up. This 
onoe sacred edifice is at present applied to the purposes of a malU 
house. The hospital stood on the south side of this chi^, and 
from its site appears to have been an extensive building ; part of 
the walls, now serving for fences, yet remain. A small piece of 
ground between the hospital and chapel, was probably the ceme* 
tery of the establishment, many human bones having been dug ugf 

At the West-gate formerly stood Our Lady's chi^l, of whidi 
there are no visible remains. An hermitage contiguous to it is 
now transformed into a cow-house. 

Close to Risby*gate was formerly a chantry, called Stone Chiqpel^ 
the neatly cemented flint^stone walls of which excite admiration. 
It is now the Cock public-house. At a small distance from this 
spot is an octangular ston^, which once served as the pedestal of 
a cross. Tradition reports, that about the year 1671, the cavity 
at the top, in which the cross waserected, being filled with water, 
the country-people who resorted to Bury-market, then held with- 
out Bisby*gate, because the small-pox raged in the town, wero 
accustomed to wash their money, lest it should convey the iafec* 
tion to the neighbouring villages. 

At the time of the Reformation there was also in Bury a reli- 
gious establishment, called Jesus College, which probably gaT# 
name to College-street, in which it was sitnated. It was founded 
by king Edward IV. in the 21st year of his reign, and consisted 
of a warden, and six associates or priests. This building is now 
converted into a work-house. 

The Vine-fields, eastward ^ Bury, command a charming view 
of the town, and particularly of the church-gate, the abbey-gate, 
and grounds. This spot derives its name from the vineyard be- 

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hmgiug to tke Mtej, wUch wm ntaaAad oa tbit dbdivity. II 
W10 porchmsed «boiit tiie ead of the 13lh ceabnry, by Robert d» 
Gnvele, B«criit of the convent, m we are infonaed, *' for tW 
•olnce of iiiTmlidBy and of hb friends/' and waa by bun ineloaed 
with a atone wall. The Tesligea of the parterrea may still bo 
traced here* 

Bury, although seated on two rivers, cannot boast of ito com* 
mnnications by water. The river Laike baa indeed been rendered 
navigable to within a mile of the town, bvt the iiUiabitonto deriye 
little benefil from it, in proportionto what they night receive from 
ito extaunon. AUliopes of thb sie however extiagmished, by the 
axeibitant demands of ^e corporation for permission to carry it 
uito their jnrisdiction. A few years since, a project was formed 
fer constmcting another narigable canal from Bury to If anning- 
Iree, in Essex. The intended line was surveyed by Mr. Rennie ; 
and, Bickiding a tonnel of two miles, whidk would have been r»- 
quked, near Bradfield^ the expence was estinmted at seventy 
thewsMid pounds. The plan met with the general approbation of 
the inhabitanto of Bury, and the coantry through which the canal 
would have passed, as they were satisfied respecting theimpoftont 
advantages to be derived from ito execution. This, however, was 
tnstrated by the eflbrts of peraens cooneotod with the Larke na- 


* A late writer on the cHouite of Great Britaio« coutends that it has beeo 
gradually growing colder and less farorable for the production of those fn\l$ 
which require a genial sun. This hypothesis be supports, hy the fact, Chat 
wme centuries ago the vineyards, belonging chiefly to abbejs and reiigioas 
eMablishaents, were highly floorishiag^ and yielded abundance of wme, with 
which tl:e pious fathers of those times felt no repugnance to solace tbemselTcs. 
At present we know that nothing of the kind exists in the country, the climate 
•f which is not considered sufficiently warm to mature the fruit for the purpose 
of making wine. It might perhaps be imagined, that our ancestors possessed 
some method of training and managing the Tine, which has been lost in the 
lapse of ages, did not the prodigious progress since made in every branch of 
science, and agriculture among the rest, forbid such an idea. The more 
probable conjecture is, that the people of former times were contented with a 
bsfoiage wbish modem refiucmeot in luxuries would reject with disdain. 

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ligation, whose intorestg would have been matfriiilly affected if 
auch an undertaking. They found means to gain over the dake 
of Grafton and the earl of Bristol, who had at first been disposed 
to patronize the project, and also to obtain the support of a ma- 
jority of the corporate body ; so that any attempt to eoaateiact 
such a formidable opposition, could only have been attoided with 
fraitless expence and ultimate disi^pointment. 

King James I. in the fourth year of his reign, granted this 
town a charter of incorporation. Two years afterwards he gave 
the reversion of the houses, tythes, and glebes, called the Almo- 
ner's Bams, and of the fairs and markets of the town in fe^-fiurm^ 
the reversion of the gaol, with the office of gaoler belonging to tha 
liberty of Bury ; and alsa the tidl-house now the maiket-croas^ 
in present poasession. In tiie twdfth year of his reign, the same 
monarch was fother pleased to give the churches, with the bell% 
libraries, and other appurtenances, also the recUnries, oblationa^ 
and profits of the same churohes, not formerly granted ; and much 
enhurged the liberties of the corporation for the better government 
of the town. At the same time he confirmed to the feoflfees of 
Bury^ all lands and possessions given by former benefitctors. 

The donations in lands, houses, and money, for public and 
charitable purposes, are very considerable in this town. A few 
have already been mentioned^ but the remainder are by fiir too 
numerous to be here particularized. 

Bury has three annual fairs, the first on the Tuesday, and two 
fisUowing days in Easter week ; the second for three days before 
and three days ailer the feast of St Matthew, September 21 ; and 
the third on the 2d of December,* for two or three days. The 
alderman for the time being, who is lord of the fairs, has a right 
to prolong them at pleasure. The second, which is the principal, 
and probably the most ancient, usually continues three weeks. 
The charter for it was granted to the abbot in 1272, by king 
Henry III : and it was formerly one of the most celebrated marts 
in the kingdom. It was then held, as it is still, on the extensive 
space called the AngeUhill, where difierent rows of booths were 


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mnigaed to the mannfactnren of Norwich^ Ipswich, Colchester, 
lj>nd»ii, and other towns, and even to some foreigners, especially 
the Dutch. • On this occasion Bury was the resort of persons of 
the highest distinction, for whom the abbot kept an open table ; 
>irhile those of inferior rank were entertained in the refectory by the 
«nonks. We are told that the widowed queen of France, sister to 
Henry VIII. came every year from her residence at Westhorp, 
inth her noble consort, the duke of Sufiblk, to attend this fiur, 
^here she had a magnificent tent for the reception of the numerous 
people of rank who resorted thither to pay their respects to her,^ 
«ad a band of music for their diversion. This fair, in regard to 
the business transacted at it, has been on the decline for half a 
century past, and become rather a place of jhshionable resort than 
a temporary msrt, as most of the merchandise and goods now 
brought hither, are articles of luxury and fancy. 

Bury has two weekly markete on Wednesday and Saturday. 
They are both abundantly supplied with provisions of every kind : 
but the first is &r the most considerable. 

The annals of Bury record the visite of many royal and noble 
personages, drawn thither by motives of piety, or by the hme and 
splendor of iU monastic establishment. Besides these circum- 
stances of local interest, the town and its immediate vicinity have 
been the theatre of important national evente. 

It has already been observed, that Bury was frequently honored 
with the presence of king Edward the Confessor, who was perhaps 
the most eminent of the benefactors of the convent, and some of 
the fruits of whose liberality are still enjoyed by this town. 

In 1 132, Henry I. returning to England after his interview at 
Chartres with Pope Innocent III. was overtaken by a violent 
tempest. Considering' it as a judgment of Providence for his sins. 
he made in the hour of danger, a solemn vow to amend liis life, in 
pursuance of which, aA soon as he had landed, he repaired to Bury 
to perform his devotions at the shrine of St. Edmund. 

Soon after the treaty concluded by kiug Stephen, with Henry, 
Moa of the empress Maud, by whi^h the latter was acknowledged 


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Jiis uueetSBOT, Stephen's son^ Eiwtace came to Bury, and Je« 
manded of the abbey and convent considerable snpplies of money 
and provisions, to enable him to assert his claim to the tbrone. 
On the refusal of the abbot to comply -with this requisition, the 
prince ordered the granaries of the monastery to be plundered, and 
many <^ the farms belonging to it to be ravaged and burned.* lu 
the midst of these violent proceedings, he was seized with a fever, 
and expired at Bury on St. Lawrence's day 1153, in the eighteenth 
year of his age. 

During the unnatural contest in vrliich Henry II. was engaged 
with his sons, instigated by their mother, and aided by the king 
of France, a considerable army was assembled at Bury, by Richard 
de Lucy, lord chief justice ; Humphrey de Bohun, high consta- 
ble ; Reginald^ earl of Cornwall, and other noblemen, to support 
the cause of their rightlnl sovereign. Robert de Beaumont, earl 
of Leicester, the general of the rebellious princes, having landed 
with a large body of Flemings at Walton in this county, proceeded 
to Framlingham Castle, where he was received by Hugh Bigod, 
earl of Norfolk, who had espoused the same cause. Here he was 
joined by a reinfi>roement of foreign troops ; and liter ravaging 
•tiie adjacent country, he set out for Leicestershire with his Fle-^ 
mings, who, as we are told by an old writer, thought England 
their own ; for when they came into any large plain, where they 
I rested, taking one another by the hand, and leading a dance^ 
they would sing in their native language : 

Hop, hop, Wilkioe, hop Wilkise, 
England is mine and thine. 

Their mirth, however, was soon converted into mourning; for 
on their way they w^re met by the royal army at Fomham St. 
Genoveve, irhere, on the 27th of October, 1173, a bloody engage* 


m A few years since an ancient leaden seal, supposed to have been hidden 
doring these troubles, was dog np under the pavement of the principal aisle 
of St. Edmund's church. It is conjectured fo liave been the gveat teal of 
;Rsniilph earl of Chester, a lealons opponent of Stepheiu 

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BMt tank pbce, and teminaled in their totil Mm^ T^ thou- 
wnd of their number^ according to tome wnters, were kilkjl ; but 
others assert, that five thoasand were slain, and the same nnmber . 
taken prisoners. Among the last, were the earl of Leicester and 
his countess, with many other persons of distinction. In this 
engagement, the sacred standard of St. Edmund was borne belbra 
the royal army, wUch now made Bury its head quarters* 

After this victory the royal general marched against the earl of 
Norfolk, who withdrew to Fhmoe ; but returning soon afterwards 
with an army of Flemings, he took the city of Korwieh, which ha 
plundered and burned. The king, who was in Normandy, being 
informed of these proceedings, hastened back to England, and 
assembling his troops on all sides, ordered their rendezTona at 
Bury. With this army Henry marched to chastise the earl ; and 
hsring demolidied his castles at Ipswich and Walton, advanced 
Awards his other places of strength at Rramlingfaam and Bnngay ; 
bnt the earl, finding that any farther oppontion would be unavail- 
ing, submitted to the king, and thua terminated this disgraceful 

In tlus reign the ^ews, who had established themselves, among 
other places, in this town, when they first came into England 
under William the Conqueror, were very nnmeriMB at Bury, where 
they had a regular place for divine worahip, denominated the syna- 
Hjsgne of Moses. In 1179, having, as it is said, murdered a boy of 
this town, named S44iert» in derision of Christ's crucifixion, and com- 
mitted the like ofienoes in other parts of England, they were ba- 
nished the kingdom; but they probably found means to make their 
peace in some places: for it appears that about ten .years afterwards, 
in the second year of the reign of Richard L they had, by their 
excessive usury, rendered thems^ves so odious to the nation, thai 
the people rose with one accord to destroy them. Among the 
rest, many of those who inhabited Bury were surprised and put to 
death; and sueh as escaped by the assistance of the abbot Samp- 
aon, were expelled Uie town, and never permitted to return. 
King Ridiard L previoualy to his departi^ for tha Holy iMni, 
VoJL XIY. H paid 

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' paid a datotiMul Tint to the convent ttdftluiae of St. Ednmid^ 
when the abbot requested pemiMion to aeeompimy him in his tn« 
tended expedition, as the bithop of Norwich had already obtained 
leave to attend the king; but it was not deemed expedient that 
the abbot iriionld be absent at the same time, and his petition was 
conseqoei^y rejected. On the retwn of that monarch from Pales- 
tine, he offered up the rich staadaid of Isaac, king of Cypras, at. 
the shrine of St Edmand. 

To Bury bebngs, if not in a superior, at lea^t in an efoal da* 
giee with Rnnimede, the honor of that celebiated ehaiter, by 
which the rights and liberties of Englishmen are secured. It is 
not generally known, perhaps, that the foundation of Magna 
Charta, is a charter of Henry I. whidt had lallen into oblivion 
as early as the time of king John. A copy of it having lallen into 
the hands of Stephen Laagton, archbishop of Canteihary, was by 
|iim communicated to the principal noUea of the kuigdom, a 
meeting of whom was con v^ed at Bury to deliberate on the snljeet 
Upon this occasion, each of the persons present went to the high 
altar of the church of St Edmund, in which ^e assembly waa 
"^ held, and there swore, that if tjie king should refuse to abolish the 
arbitrary Norman laws, and restore those toaoted by Edward the 
Cpi^essor, they would make war upon him until he complied. 
The king, on his return from Poitou in 1314, met his barons at 
Buy* and with the utmost solemnity confimied 4iiis celebrated 
deed.; binding himadf by a public oath to regulate his admini- 
stiatiott by the grand principles whidi it established. 

Henry III. paid several visits to Bury. In the y^ar 1373, ha 
l^etd a parliamei|t here, and by its advice proceeded to Norwich to 
punbh th^ authors of a violent insurrection against the pricH'WBd. 
monks of that city. Having accomplished the olijeet of his jour- 
ney, he returned to this town, where he was seized with the difr> 
order, which soon afterwards terminated his reign and life. 

In 1396, Edward I. held a parliament at Bury, for the purpose 
of demanding an aid of the clergy and people. The former, how* 
ever, fortifit^ with a papal constitution, rinsed to ooBtribute any 


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flUfFOLK. 90 

lUflg; tfed eottiittttiiig im is lUi deleraiuittioii, the king seizad 
.•U tlie reTCBQM of the chiar^ and ameiig the reel» oonfitcated 
the geedg of the ebbet and coiiv«Etof this place, together with til 
Aeir inMion» and the boroagh of Bory. Theoe diapatea laated 
sptraida of two yeara^ till the clorgy were at ^ngtJk compelled to 
aabnut^ and to grant the king a subsidy of one fifteenth, or, ae- 
cei^diBg to aomeacoouta, one tenth, of their goods and rents. 

In tilie reign of Edward II. his queen Isabella, being dissatisfied 
with the condoet of the Speneeis, who were then the faronrites of 
that imbecae monarch, obtained the assistanee of the prince cf 
Hainanlt, and landed witii a force of S,700 men, famished by him 
at Orwell haTen ; on which she marched to this town, where she 
eontiniiod aaaM time to refresh her troops, and collect her adhe^ 
rents. It is scaraely necessary to add, that the consequence of 
this Bieasure was the deposition of the misguided monarch. 

Edward III. and his grandson ftichard II. also Tisited Bury, 
and paid their adoratiMi at the ahrine of St Edmund. Daring 
the mgn of the latter, Bory experienced the mischievous efieets 
of that spirit. of rebellion which pervaded various parts of the 
kingdom, bk 1381, soon after the insnrrection of the Kentish 
mm under Wat Tyler, the people of Norfolk and Suffolk rose in 
great numbera, and under the conduct of Jack Straw, committed 
eseessive devaatatioas. Plroeeeding in a body of not less than 
00,000 men to Cavendish; tiiey there plundered and burned the 
4o«se of Sir J^Ande Cavendish, the lord chiefjuatioe, whom they 
seized and carried to Bury ; here they struck off his head, and 
placed it on the pillory.^ They then attacked the monastery. 
Sir John Cambridge, the prior, endeavored to escape by flight, 
but being taken and executed near Mtldenhall, his head was set 
np near that of the lord chief-justice. Sir John Lakenhythe, the 
keeper of the barony, shared the same &te. The insoigents then 
H 2 plundered 

• The mob ara supposed to have beea tl^e more exasperated agaiosl Sir 
lohs, because it wubis soo wbo dispatched WatTjler is Smithfield* 

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-plundered the abbey, earryiag off jewels to a connderaUe umanA, 
and doing much mischief to the buildingB. They were, howeTCf, 
soon dispersed by Henry Spencer, the martial bishop of Nor- 
vich\ who meeting them at Barton Mills, with ayery inferior 
Ibrce, gave them so severe a check, that they were glad to retam 
to their homes. 

In 1433, Henry VI. then only 13 years old, celebrated ChrisW 
mas at the monastery of Bury, where he resided till the St^ 
George's day following. Previously to his departure, the king, 
the duke of Gloucester, and several of his noble attendants, were 
solemnly admitted members of the community. 

In 1446 a parliament was held in this town, at which thai mo- 
narch presided in person. This parliament was convened under 
the influence of Cardinal de Beanlbrt^ the inveterate enemy of 
Humphry, duke of Gloucester, the king's uncle, and the popular 
and beloved regent of England ; and there is but too much reason 
to believe, that the real purpose of this meeting was, to a^rd aa 
opportunity for his destruction. Hume observes, that it assem* 
bled, not at London, which was supposed to be too well affected to 
the duke, but at St Edmund's Bury, where his enemies expected 
him to be entirely at their mercy. Their plan was but too sucoess- 
fiil ; on the second day of the sessi<ms he was arrested, all his 
servants were taken from him, and his retinue sent to different pri* 
sons. Preparationii were made for bringing him to a public trial ; 
but his enemies, dreading the effisct of the innocence and virtues 


* Thii prelsts wu bred to the profeision of sms, tad highly diatingtiished 
himMfIt' in Italy, to the w«r» of Pope Adrito, a native of England, with the 
^dulce of Milan. The popet to reward his services, conferred on him the 
bistiopric of Norwich, in 157D. HaTiiig, under a Gommission from Pope 
Urban VI. but against the will of the king, raised an armjr, and landed in 
the Netherlands, to chastise the schbmatics of that coontry; be was deprived, 
for two years, of his temporalities» to which he was^ however, restored in 
1585 hy the partiament, on accoant of his emiaeot services in suppressing this 

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of the good duke, as he was emphatically'styled, had recourse to 
A more oertaia method of riddiag themselves of him than by im« 
peachment. The morning after his apprehension, the dnke was 
{build lifeless in his bed, and though an apoplexy was de- 
clared to have been the cause of his death, yet all impartial per- 
sons aseribed it to violence. Pitts relates, that he was smothered 
with bolsters, and a traditional opinion prevails, that this atro- 
city was perpetrated in an apartment of St. Savior's hospital, then 
an appendage to the monastery, by William de la Pole, marquis 
of Suffolk. This event happened on the2«3d, or 24th of February. - 
The duke's body was oowveyed to St. Alban's and there interred.* 

Another pariiament met at Bury in 1448 ; and in 1486, the town 
was honored with the presence of Henry VII. in his progress 
through Norfolk and Suffolk. 

In 1526, an alarming insurrection of the people of Lavenham, 
Uadleigh, Sudbury, and the adjacent country, was quelled by the 
dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, who met for that purpose at Bury, 
whither many of the ringleaders were brought, and appeared be- 
fore those noblemen in their shirts, and with halters about their 
necks, when they received the royal pardon. 

On the death of Edward VI. in 1553, John Dudley, duke of 
Northumberland, having procured lady Jane Grey to be declared 
the heir to the crown, to tiie exclusion of the princesses Mary 
and Elizabeth, daughters of Henry VIII. marched with an army 
into Suffolk, to suppress any attempt that niight be made to op- 
pose his plans, and made Bury the rendezvous of his troops. 
Here he waited for reinforcements; Mary was meanwhile pro- 
claimed queen by the council, who ordered the dnke to return to 
Cambridge. On the way he was deserted by most of his men, 
and thus terminated this ill-judged enterprize. 

Dnrii^ the reign of the fonatical Mary, Bury witnessed several 
of those horrible scenes, which then disgraced various parts of 

H 3 thf 

• See Beautiei, Vol. VH. p. 88. 

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the kiBgdom. James Abbes was bere burned for a beretie en Ibe 
2cl Angnst 1555; Roger Clarke* of Mendlesfaaniy in 1656; and 
Boger Bernard, Adam Forster, and Robert Lawson, on tbe 9Mk 
June, the same year. In like manner, Jobn Co<^e, Robert M iles» 
Ale '.ander Lane, and James Asbley, saffered for tbe same eanse, 
sbortly before tbe queen's last illness ; and Pbilip Homphiey, 
and John and Henry David, brothera, were bere brought to tbo 
stake only a fortnight attterkw to Mary's death. 

Queen Elizabeth, in her journey through NoiMk and Suiolk* 
in 1578, paid a visit to this town, where she arriyed on tbe 7tk 
of August, as appears from (he register of St. James's parish in 

Daring the reign of her sueeessor, this town was visited by u 
most destructive calamity. This event is thus recorded by Stow, 
'< In the year 1606, April 11, being Monday, the quarter-sessions 
was held at St Edmund's Bury, and by negligence, an out malt* 
house was set on fire ; from whence, in a most strange and sudden 
manner, through fierce winds, tbe 6n came to the ferihest side of 
the town, and as it went left some streets and houses safe and un- 
touched. The flame Jew clean over many houses, and did great 
spoil to many fair buildings iarthest ofif; and ceased not till it had 
consumed one hundred and sixty dwdling bonses, besides others; 
and in damage of wares and household stuff to the full value of 
sixty thousand pounds." To this accident, however terrible and 
distressful in itself are probably owing the present beauty and re- 
gularity of the streets, most of which are now seen inteisecting 
each otiier at right angles. King James, who was a great bene- 
ftetor to the town, contributed vast quantities of timber toward re- 
building it 

The next reign was marked by a visitation still more drsudftd 
than the preceding. In 1636, the plague raged here with such 
violence, and so depopulated the town, that the grass grew in the 
streets. Four handled femilies lay sick of that distemper at the 
same time, and were maintained at the public charge^ which is 
said to have amounted to 2001. a week. 


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• III tke ITlh cefttory, wkeii the exanpfe of our W6ik, thongk 
\eu&ai, laam I. htA excited the popvkur seal againsl the imgi- 
m^cnme^ wHehenft, Bury whihiled some iiUMiiai8grao€6il in** 
tfta^eea of the effect of this penecvtiiig egmi. In 1644 o«a 
Matthew Hopkins of ManmnglTee in Essex, who styled himself 
Witch-finder general^ and had twenty shillings allowed him for 
every town he visited, was with some others commissioned hy 
parliament in 1644, and the two following years, to perfiurm a cir- 
cnit for the discovery of witches. By virtue of this commission^ 
they went finom place to place, through many parts of Essex, 
Snfblk, Norfolk, and Huntingdonshire, and caused sixteen per- 
sons to he hanged at Yarmouth, forty at Bury, and others in diflfer* 
eat partsof the country, to the amount of sixty persoiui. It is to 
this circumstance that Butler allndea in hia Hudihraa, when he 
makes his hero say: 

Hm not this present parli«iiienl» 
A ledger to the devil sent. 
Folly empowered to treet aboot 
ymdiog revolted witefaes oat ? 
And kas he not within one year, 
Haag'd Aree score of them in a shire ? 

Fart II. CaalD 3. 

Among the victims, sacrificed hy tins wretch, and la9 a^podalea, 
were doubilesa Mr. Lawes, an innocent, aged clergyman, of Branr^ 
detton, a cooper and his wife, and fifteen other women, who were 
all condemned and executed at one time at Bury. 

Hopkins used many arts to ^tort confession from suspected 
persona, and when these feiled, he had recourse to swimming them, 
whidi was done hy tyingtheif thuodbs and great toes together,and 
then thvewiDgtliem into the water. Ifthey floated they were gtilty 
oCtheeritte of witchcraft, but their sinking waa a proof of their iuf 
Boeenoe, This method he pursued, till some gentlemen, indigo 
nant at his barbarity, tied hia .own thumbs and toes, aa be had 

H4 «»eii 

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104 KUFfOtlL 

been accpitomed to tie those of other penona, tnd irhen put fa« 
to the water, he himeelf swam, as mahy had done beidre hiok 
By this expedient the oonntry was soon cleared of him^ and this 
aireumstaaee also is aUuded to by Hadibras, who^ qiaakiBg of 
Hopkins^ says: 

Who after^ pMv«d bimMlf a witch. 
And made a rod for hit own breech. 

In this town also occurred about the year 1660, the ladicrona 
cjrenmstance adverted to by Butler^ in the following lines : 

Bid not a certain tadj whip 

Of late her hasbaod*i own iordahip ^ 

And thoogh a grandee of the heoMr ^ 

Claw'd him with Amdameotal blows; 

Ty'd him stark naked to a bed-poit« 

And fiogg*d his hide as if sh'bad rid post. 

Fart II, Canto L 

The erime, for which the nnfortunato nobleman received thia 
discipline from his tormagant spouse, was, his having shewn an 
inclination to forsake the cause of Cromwell. This treatment, 
however, made him so sensible of his halt, that he humbly ssked 
pardon, and promised to behave better in future ; and for this sa« 
lutary exercise of her influence^ the lady had thanks given her in 
open court. 

Bury witnessed anoHier execution for witehcraft^ on the 17tfi 
March, 1664, when two poor widows^ whose only guilt probably 
consisted, either in the deformity of their bodies, or the weakness 
of their understandings, were tried before that learned and upright 
judge. Sir Matthew Hale, and sentenced to die. This extraordinary 
trial was published, as an appeal to the world, by Sir Matthew, 
who, so for from being satisfied with the evidence, was extremely 
doubtful concerning it, and jNrooeeded with such extreme caution, 
that he forbore to sum it up, leaving the matter to the jury, with 
a prayer to God, to direct their hearts in so important an aft 

Digitized by 


gVtVOVL 100 

Tto-tUMjr and toim of Bury, haTe produced many men ditliii* 
gttldied fotleamiag and piety. Anoi^ these may be mentioned, 

Jami 0£ NonvoLD, ^ho being ednealed here, irai at length 
diooen abbot; and ^ent to Rome to be eoatened in that dignity 
by the pope. He irrote mnch on other eabjects, but was princi^ 
pally oenoerned in the great contForeny between Robert Grostesl^ 
*aad Pope Innocent lY. None of hie ^writinga are now ex.tant» 
but his Anmais of England. He died, and was interred in his 
monastery^ in 1280. 

John Eyersdbn, a monk, Mteelledin the belles lettres, and 
ivas eonaidered a good poet and orator, and a luthM historian. 
He wrote soTeial things which acquired eonaiderahle celebrity, 

RooEn, snmamed the Compntiat, was remarkable for his mo- 
nastic virtaes, and extraordinary learning. In his more advanced 
age he was chosai prior, after which, he wrote An Exptmtwncf 
aU tl^ difficult w^rdsthrongh the Bible; Cmnments onthe Gos* 
pdi, and other works. He flourished about 1960. 

BorroN of Buet, was a native of this town, and a monk in 
the monastery here. ' He trarelied over almost all England, to 
inspect the libraries, and compiled an alphabetical catalogue of 
all the books which they contained. To render the work the more 
complete, he gave a conciae account of each author's life, and 
the opiniona of the most learned men of his time respecting his 
writings, noting in what place and library, each book was to 
befouuL He also wrote the following woiks: Of the original 
Pragreis mnd Sneeeti of Religumt Orders, and other Monastic 
ealqffairs; A Catalogue of Eccletia$tical writers ; The Mir- ^ 
ror of Canoentuali, and State of his own Monastery, besideB 
other books. He flourished in 1410. 

EiiiniNi) BnoMFiciJ), was a man of such erudition, that le- 
land is of opinion, that in this respect, none of the monks of 
tfiis monastery ever surpassed him. He is said to have gone 
Jhioogh his studies in England, and then to have repaired to 
j^me, where he displayed such abilities, that he was chosen pro- 

Digitii^ed by 


Ml svnm*. 

f, and styled by tlie doctm there^'^Coiuii Faktine of the 9iu<r 
?enity. He waa appointed bishop of UuiAtM by-tlie pope, ii| 
1989 ; and dying in ld91« was istttied in hisoim oatkediaL 

Of all the inhabitaHia of thia BMOaat^, nooe waa peifaapa 
more cdebrated ia hia tiiae, than Jobn Lyimate, called, the 
jmnIb afBmry, net aa Cibber eoBJeetorea, beeanae he waa analiTe 
of tUatewn, for he waa bon about the year 1380, a* the Tillage 
of L^dgate in tUa oonnty. Having atndied at an English uni« 
Tersity, he trayelled into France and Italy, where he AOfniied n 
eompeteot knowledge of thelangnage of thoee eountrtes, and on hia 
retns, opened asdieol in London. At what tiaie he retired to the 
cemrentattBnry, ianncertain, aa iaakathepenedof hia death; 
though it is known that he was living in 1446« He is charae* 
tenzed by Pitto, aa an ekgant poet, a penaaaiTe Aetorieian, an 
expert awtJuMnatieian, an aevte philooephcr, and a MenUe ^ 
Tuie. Gonaidering the age in which he lived, Lydgale waa really 
a good poet ; hia kngnage ia inaeh leaa obsolete than Chaneer'a^ 
and his Tersificatien for more httmonioiis. Among an ineiedible 
nnnber of poema and translations, a caftalogne of which maj be 
ftnnd in Tanner, he was the anther of the following pieoea: 

The lifo and Mar^om of St Edmnnd, king of the East 

The Lifo of St Fremnnd, eonain to St Edmund. 

APoem, coneeraing the Banner and Standard of St EdnMiiid. 

A Balkd Royal of Iwrocation to St Edmend, at the instenee 
of king Henry VI. 

Lydgate also tsanskted into verse^ Boecaeeio's Latin work m 
ten books, entitled De Caribui Vir^rum et FamkManm Bhu^ 
irimau It was firom the French venien, by Lawence^ an ecd^ 

* Strutt, in his Royml and Ecclesiastical Antiquities, has given a plate, re- 
presenting William Curtis, abbot of Bury, presenting to king Henry VI. a 
book translated out of Latin by John Lydgite, a monk there, containing the 
life of Edmnndi king of the East Angles, which Hemy receive^ mied oa 
his throne. 

Digitized by 


SWfOLX. 109 

Miti^ Oil Ljrdgttte'0 poen, vhkli ^miitB of only une iKMks^ 
VM eompoMd. In the eailiett editMii» printed in London, -mUk^ 
•at dme, H b tiiw entitled: The TragedUi gmthered iy «Mki 
Bodkas, tf MC& prmces a feU /ram theyr HUaes tknmgl Ae 
mmimUUtk vf fbrtrnm; mmee ik^ creation ^ Adam vmHi Aft 
Hme, 4rc« Traoiiaied mta Engluk, hy Johm I^fdgaie, maaki 
of Bury. 

Wm to«b in tiie ahWy chorcb, destroyed with many othen ni 
the diwdntion^ it MidtohnTehadthiainaeriptiim: 

H$ttmm9mdo, mpaiit tapanteft 
fik 0att L^dgM tnmolatiii urna. 
Qui liiit ^ondam oelebrit Britanns 
Fama Poeais. 

nhfeh hat been thnt quaintly rendered: 

Dead in the world jet living in ihe aly^ 
Intombed in thia ora doth Ljdgate licj 
In former timet fam'd for hu poetry. 
All over England. 

RlCBAis VB AmeBnvTLE, better known by thenaAe ^ Do 
Bary, froBB tUt hit nalivoplaet, waa bom in 1281, and ednccted a* 
the aniTeiaity of Ox&nL On finjahlag hia studies, he enteced 
into the o<der of Bonedietinet, and beeane tolor to the prinee of 
Walea^ aHefwwds king Edward III. On hit pupil's acceasion to 
the throne, he waa tet appointed cefierer, aftebwards treasurer of 
tihe wardrobe, ar d w fc acon of Northaiiptott, prebendary of Linoob, 
Sonun^ and Iidiliel4 keeper of the priry seal, dean of Wells, and 
lastly, was prosMtod to the see of Dnrham. He likewtae hdd the 
oAcea of lord higk-ehaacellor and treasurer ; and discharged two 
important embassies s* the comt of Franee. Learned himself^ he 
wu a paikron of learning, and eoivesponded with some of the 
9ealcsi geniuses of the age^ particnlaily with the celebrated Pe-- 
tmck The pnUie library whidi he fcnnded at Oxford, tm the 
aptt where now stands Trinity College, waa a noble instance of 
9 his 

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» • • 
» • • 

106 SOYFOtK. 

Uft muaifieenoe. This establishment continiled- tid the g^itMl 
dinoiution of the monasteries by Henry YIII. when the books 
were dispersed into different repositories. This prelate likewise 
wrote a book, entitled Ph^biblos, for the r^gidation of his libra* 
ry ; and a M.S. copy of j this performance is still preserred in that 
Cottottian ooUection. He died at the manor of Auckland, April 
24, 1345, and was inteired at Durham. 

Stephen Gardiner, who is said to have been thehataralson 
of Richard Woodvill, brother to Elisabeth, the qneen of Edward 
IV. was bom at Bnry in 1483, and educated at Trinity-hall, Cam* 
bridge. On leaving the nniyersity, he was taken into the fiunily 
of Cardinal W<Aaej, by whom he was recommended to Henry VIIl. 
and from this time he rose with rapid steps to the first dignities 
both in the church and state. His talents were confessedly great; 
and it cannot be denied that he exerted them with zeal in pn>r 
moting the views of his benefactor. He had a considerable share 
in effecting the king's^ divorce from Catharine of Anragon ; ha 
assisted him in throwing off the papal yoke ; he himself abjured 
the pope's supremacy ; and wrote a book in behalf of the king, 
entitled : J}e vera et falsa obedientia. For these services he was 
dievaled to the see of Winchester ; but opposing the Reformation 
in the succeeding reign, he was thrown into prison, where he 
eontinTOd several yeara, t^l Queen Mary, on her accession to the 
throne, not onlj released him, and restored him to his bishopridL, 
but also invested him with ihe office of lord high*ohancenor. 
Being now in foct entrusted with the chief direction of a&irs," 
he employed his power in some cases for the most salutary ends ; 
ami in others abused it to the most pemictbus purposes. Hedrew 
up the marriage articles between QUeen Mary and Philip II. of 
Spain, with the strictest regard to the interests of England. He 
opposed, but in vain, the coming of Cardimil Pole into the king- 
dom. He preserved inviolate the privileges of the university^ 
of Cambridge, of which he was chancellor, and defeated every 
acheme for. extending the royal prerogative beyond its due limits.-' 
It must be acknowledged, however, tb«t he had a principal sharp 
6 U 

Digitized by 


SVTFOLX. 109 1 

in TMondling ilie English wa&ti to the see of Rome ; and what 
JteHxed a miieh finder 8taia.u|M>tt faia memory^ that he was deeply 
implicated in the crael peraecntion carried on against the Protes- 
tants ; ihongh his guiH in this respect is fiur from being so great 
as 18 commonly imagined^ Bonner, bishop of London, having 
been the chief aathor of Ihoae barbarities. Preriously to his death 
which happened on NoTcmber 13, 1565, he is said to have mani- 
Seated the deepest remorse for this part of his conduct, and to have 
frequency exclaimed: Errwmi cum Petro, $ed noh fievi cum 
Petiro, Besides the book above metttioaed, he wrote a retraction 
•f that wwfc, seyeral sermons^ and other treatises; and is sup- 
posed .to have been the author of ne nec€$$ary Doctrine and 
ErudUkm of a CArif ftofi, a piece commonly ascribed to Henry 

WiLUAM Claogbtt, an eminent divine of the seventeenth 
century, was bom in this town in 1646, and educated at Cam- 
l^^e. His first station in the church was that of minister in 
this his native . place; and he died in March, 1686, lecturer of 
9t. Michael Baasiahaw, London, and chi4>lain in ordinary to hia 
mi||eaty. He .was author of a great number of theological tracts : 
and fimr volumes of s^mons published after his death. 

Nicholas, brother of this divine, was also bom at Bury in 
1654, and educated at Cambridge, where he took his d^ee of 
D.D; 17M. He was preacher of 8t Mary's in this town, and 
rector of Hitdmm. He died in 1727. His son, Nicholas, became 
bislM^ of Exeter. . 

iomr Battblt, D. D. was bom at Bury in 1647, and edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He became chaplain to 
archbishop Sancroft, who gave him the rectory of Adisham, in 
Kenty and the archdeaconry of Canterbury. He was the autiior 
of a brief account in lAtin of the Antiquities of St Edmund's 
Bury^ and died in 1706. 

Babuow was, in the ninth of Edward I. the lordship and estate 
of the countess of Gloucester ; but afterwards became the property 
#f ffaitholomew lord Badlesmere, who, espousing the cause of the 


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110 nvnovL 

earl of LftBcasler, and tlia odwr diaooatentedlMrais 
Edward II. was taken prisoner at B eran gM bri^ in Yatkahiie, 
and hanged at Blean near CanierWry, in 132d. Hia eatatobeing , 
conaeqnently Ibrfeited, waa giTen by the king to hia fivrorite, 
Hngb de Spenaer, who eigoyed it till the aoeoaaion of Edwaid IIL 
when it was restored to Giles lord Bndleanwre, son of te Ibmer 
proprietor. His son, Bartholonew, died possessed of it in the 19th . 
of Edward III. leaving hisfsnr aislera hb heiia. On the division 
of his estates among them, this manor fell to Ae lot of Margaret^ 
wife of John de Jibetot Bobert, their aon, died, aeiied of thk 
manor ferty-sixth of Edward III. lenting three danghtem bin 
heirs, bnt to which of them it caaM we an not infcmed. The 
rains of the seat belonging to theae femiliea, alittle to the sooth- 
ward of the ehorch, beapeak it to have been anoblo s l ni c iur e. In 
the church is the monnment of sir Clement Higham, Ae kit Ro- 
man Catholic speaker of the hoose of commona in the time of 
Queen Mary. '' Her^ Iso,'' obaerroa Mr. Ckmgfa,* '« the tnm^ 
pike road from Bury to Newmarkets is nnfertanately for therepooe 
of some brave warriors, earned thiongh a tunnlos or barrow, in 
which hunan bones may at any time with very litdo tnmble bo 

The Rev. Dr. Philip Frnocis, the translatar of Hoiaee, waa lec- 
tor of this parish. The late rector, the Rev. George Ashby, waa 
an indnstrions antiqnaiy, and poaMasod conaiderable ooUectioai, 
principally relative to this county. On his death in 1806, they 
were disposed of by Mr. Deck, a bookseller at Bary, and are now 
distribnted in varioos hands. 

FoENHAM All Saints, is the lordship of sir Thomaa Rook- 
wood Gage, Bart ont of ianda in this parish, Penelope, ooon* 
tesa Rivers, gave a rent dmige of eight poonda per annum, 
,^mt a sermon againat popery might be preached fenr limea n 
year at Bury. This lady had the siogalar ferfame to many 
in auocession thiee genttmnen who had been her suitors at the 
timet, but had children only by her second husband, sir 


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Min G«gf» tf FSrfe, in Ssmk. She left iiie estate of Hengrave 
l9 her eeeoad iion^ Edwaid. In this pviih is. the maniion of 

Near this village a balde is said to hare been fought by Edward, 
mm of king Alfred^ vith Ethelwald, his nncle's son, over whom 
be gained a eaniplete Tietory. 

Pawbtbd, in Donesday-book Halbstbd, k situated between 
ijbnt and four mflea sonth-west of Bniy. The bounds of this 
paijsh pass timmgh the north and south doors of the church of the 
adjacent village of Howton, so that the perambidating cavalcada 
ffooeedathnragh thai eiiftee in ila course. On the bounds to the 
south-west stood sone yeais stnoe a majestic tree, ealled the gospel 
oak, beneatti which the clergynMA used to stop in the annual per- 
ambulations, and repeat some prayer proper for the occasion. The 
parish is estoaatad in Domesday-book to contain thirteen caru- 
ca^s, or laeo acres, but the real quantity is dOOO. 

Wo learn from Domesday-hook timt a church existed at Haw- 
pled at the period of the oompibtion, but of tiie time in which 
the preasnt t^mrch was built, there are no authentic records; the 
arohitoctue, ho^psver, bespeaks it to have been erected in the 
beginning of the aixteenth century. It is constructed of free-stone 
and ffinits, bfoken into smooth fiices, which, by the contrast of 
their ccIoib, produce a veiy good elfect. The porches, buttresses, 
SBd cfinbattlod parapoto, aie, in general, the most labored parts, 
the tinto not only being mixed with the free-stone, but beanti- 
tiftlly inlaid in a variety of patterns. Of this inlaying, the lower 
piurt of the steefde exhibits specimens of conriderable elegance, in 
mnllelSy quatrefiiib, interlaced triangles, &c. The walls, for 
idbont two' foot above tiie ground, are of fr«e-stone, and project all 
loand in the manner of a buttress, like those of Windsor Castle, 
a circumstance unusual in a country church. The steeple is square, 
and sixty-three feet high* The chancel is of a different age, and 
inferior style, its walls being composed of rough flinta, plastered 
over. TUl the year 1780, the roof of this edifice was of thatch, 
which was then exchanged for tiles. 


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The diareli eonsbto of a body or nave, only fifty^gkt leet hag, 
tventy-nine mde, and about thirty-six to the kigfaert point oT 
the Toof^ the braees and principak of whieh are canred ; aad of 
the latter^ every other ia aapported by an angel. These angels, 
ftowerer, have been deprived of their heada and wingsw This 
■Mitibtion ivas probably performed by order of Mr. William Dow-^ 
sing^ of Btratlbrd, in this ooonty, who made his circuit for tho 
purpose of efiectiag this puritanical reformatiim in the years 1643 
and 1644, deaboying such images and inscriptions in churches aa 
were; deemed superstitious^ to the extreme regret of the antiquary 
and lover of the arts. On the upper edge of the' font are still to 
be seen the remains of the frste&inga by which the cover was lor* 
merly locked down for fear of sorcery.^ 

The chancel ia thirty-three feet and a half by eighteen, and 
twenty-four feet high. The ceiling is covered and plaistered, 
and divided into compartmoits by mouldings of wood, adorned 
with antique heads and foliage. All the windows have been hand- 
MBiely painted; several coats of arms of the Dmrys and Cloptona 
still remain^ aa alaa some headless figures of saints and angekk 
The deatniction ol the faces of superstitious images was often a 
sacrifice thai satisfied Cromwell's ecclesiastical visitors. The 
chmckand chancel are divided by a wooden screen of Gotide 
w<Nrk* On this screen, denominated the rood loft, stiD hanigs a 
selio of Roman Catholic times. Thia ia one of the small bidls 
which are supposed to have been rung at particular parts of divine 
service, aa at the consecration and elevation of thai host, whence 
they are called tacring, that ia, oonsecrating bella, to rouse the 
attention of such of the congregation whose situation would not 
permit them well to see what was transacting at the high altar. 
These bells are now very rurdy seen } and the antiior of the His- 

*Tiie constitution of Edmmid» in 1$36> enjoins— Foniei btfUnuJa tuh 
werra eUnui tentantur propter tortikgia. How long this custom continued w« 
ctnnot determine ; bat a lock wai bought for tbe font in Brockdiih chorcl^ 
Korfolk, so lete as 15S3. 

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SVfFOLK. 113 

iory of Bawsted expranes hie sarprize that this shonld haTo- 
escaped all the refsrmations which the church has experienced. 
In the steeple are three belh^ on the smallest of which is this 
iaacription, in the old English character : 

Etemis annis rejtonet campana Joamm, 

Of the sepulchral monnments contained in this church, some of 
the most remarkable shall be briefly noticed. 

Witliin an arched recess in the middle of the north wall of the 
chancel, and nearly level with the pavemeoti lies a cross-legged 
figure of stone. The late sir James Bnirough, in the Appendix 
to Magna Britasmia* asserts, that it is for one of the family 
of Fitz-Eustace, who were lords of this place, in the reigns of 
Henry III. and Edward I. and there can be no doubt that it is 
coeval with the chancel, which is of that age. It^is a handsome 
monument, the arch being elegantly sculptured with foliage, and 
a Gothic turret rising firom the head and feet, eonnected by a bat* 
tl«nent at top. 

Not less ancient probably than the preceding, is a flat slab of 
Sussex marble, seven feet long, on which no vestige of an in- 
seription remains. Sir John CuUum conjectures it to have been 
for an ecclesiastic, and observes, that stones of this shape wera 
freqaently the lids of coffins sank no lower than theivown depth ia 
the earth. 

In the middle of the church towards the east is another flat slab 
of Sussex marble, which, by its escotcheons in brus, appears to 
cover the remains of Roger Drury, esq. who died in 1500. 

On a flat stone close to the steps leading to the communion 
table is t|ie portrait of a lady in brass^ in a head-dress of the &- 
shioa of Hanry the Seventh's reign» triangular at t^, withlong 
depaadiag lappets. Ather girdle are aoapended her bag or puna, 
and also her beada. FVom the escutcheons on the stone, it appears 
to commemorate Ursula, fourth daughter of Sir Robert Drury^ 
who married Giles, son of Sir Giles Allington. 

Vol. XIV. I Oa 

• V»l. V. p. 340. 

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114' SUFFOLK. 

Od the top of an altar-monument of Sussex marble, in the touA- 
eaiit corner of the church, is (he portrait in brass of a knight in 
armour betw(*rn his two wives, about two feet high. His hair is 
clipped short; his whiskers and parted beard are long; his ar- 
mour is flourished with some difierent metal, with large protube- 
rances at the shoulders ; at his ueck and wrists are similar narrow 
rufis or ruffles; and his toes are very broad. The ladies are ha- 
biteil both alike, though one of them died forty years before her 
husband ; and the other survived him, as is represented by her 
eyes being open whilst those of the other are closed.* 

The following epitaph, in the black-letter character, on a brass 
plate, may, by comparison, serve to ascertain the date of similar 
figures that have lost their inscriptions : 

Here lyeth clothed now in earth, Syr Wjllm Drnry, knygbt, 

Soch one ai wbylest he lyyed here, was loved of erery wyght ; 

Such temperance he did retayne, rach prudent cortesy. 

Such noble mynde, with ja»tice joynd, such lyberality ; 

As fame itself shall sound for me, the glory of his name. 

Much better than this metall mute, can ay pronounce the same. 

The IcYenih of frosty Janyver, the yerc of Christ, I fynd, 

A thousand fyve hundred fyfty seven, his vital tbryd ontwin'd 

Who yet doth ly ve, and shall do styll, in hearts of them yt knew hyn, 

Ood graant the alyppei of such a ttok, in vertaes to ensne liim.t 


• On this impropriety Sir John Cullum makes the following observationi 
illustrative of the fashions of those days. " Tbe liairhad now (1557) been 
dressed for some time In a much less forced and unnatural fashion, parted in 
the middle, and gracing each temple. The cap, now become of a moderate 
ttse, had assumed a not melegant curve in firont, and was embellished with 
a fillet ; th^ mantle or upper garment haa roand hanging sleeves reaching to 
the ground ; the ruSs at the neck and wrists are the same as the man's ; as are 
also the broad toes and protuberances at the shoulders. The beads had quit- 
ted tbe girdle, and given place to the Bible, which hung by a ribbon almost 
as low as the feet" 

f The family of the Drary*s, which long fionrished at this place, produced 
many penons distinguished in their tine, hat the noet celebrated, was Sit 


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00ITOLK. 115 

Beneath the two ladies, are figures of seventeen children, with 
their names. 

In the chancel, is a fine marble bust of Sir William Dmry, in 
armour. He was elected one of the knights of the shire in 1585, 
and in ld6d, was killed in a duel in France. His corpse was 
brought to England, and interred here. 

In the south-east comer of the chancel, is a mural monument 
lo tbe memory of the lady, of whom Dr. Donne says. 

Her pore and eloquent blood 
Spoke in her cheeks, and so distinctly wrought. 
That one might almost say her body thooght. 

It consists of a basement about 3 feet high, on which, under an 
ornamental arch, lies the figure of a young female, as large as 
life, with her head reclining on her left hand. Her mantle is 
drawn close about her neck, and edged with a small ruff; her 

12 hair 

William Dniiy, tbe grandson of him (or whom the aboye epitaph was 
composed; of whom Foller observes, that as his name, in tbe Saxon lan- 
guage, signi6es a pearl, so he might fitly be compared to one for precious- 
ness, being hardy, innocent, and valiant. His youth be passed in the French 
wart, hb matnrer years in Scotland, and his old age in Ireland. In tbe mi- 
nority of king James I. when the French had gained possessicm of Edinburgh 
castle he was knight marshail of Berwick, and being sent by queen Elisa^ 
beth to reduce the castle, be ably fulfilled that commission, and in a few days, 
restored it to the rightful owner. In 1575^ he was appointed lord president of 
tbe province of Monster in Ireland, and proceeding thiiher with a competent 
iince, eieeoted impartial justice in spite of all opposition. When he entered ' 
•pon his tiStce, the earl of Desmond disputed h» right to interfere in regard' 
to the county of Kerry, pretending, that it was a palatinate belonging to 
himself, and exempt from English jurisdictioa. Mot terrified by the menaces 
of the earl. Sir William entered Kany to enforce the authority of his so« 
vereign, and returned in safety, with no more than 150 men, through 700 
of Desmond's adherenu, who sought to surprise him. In 1578 he was ftworn 
lord justice of Ireland, and was proceeding to reduce Desmond, when be 
was aeiied with a mortal distemper, which put an end to bis Ufe the same' 

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hair, is dressed in many smi^i apd short corU, vitboiit qfi|i or ^her 
covering. Above is an emblematical female personage^ surEoun4ed 
with a glory, and scattering flowers on the fgnre below : g^ each 
side of the basement sits a greyhound, the cognizance of the £^ 
mily . This is a very pleasing monument of painted alabaster, a^^ 
well executed. The long Latin inscription, on a Uaqk marble ta* 
hlet, is supposed to be from the pen of Bx. Donne. 

The lady to whose memcfy this monument was etected, wff 
Elizabeth, the younger, and only surviving daughter, of Sir Ro* 
bert Drury. She died in 1610, at the eady age of 15. Tradition 
reports, that her death was the eonse^uence of a box on the ear, 
given her by her &tlier. This absurd story, is supposed to have 
originated from her being represented, both on her monument, 
and in a picture of her, still extant, reclining her head on one 
hand. Another tradition relating to her is, that she was destined 
for the wife of prince Henry, eldest son of James I. She was 
certainly a great heiress, and their ages were not unsuitable, but 
it may reasonably be doubted, whether there is more truth in thiv 
story than in the other. So much is certain, that Dr. Donne de- 
termined to celebrate the anniversary of her death, in an elegy, 
as long as he lived ; but we have nothing beyond the second an- 
niversary. The truth seems to be, that his panegyric was so 
profusely lavished in two essays, a» to be qaile exhausted. Some 
of the lines have been noticed in the forty-first nuoihev ef the 
Spectator, where they are erroneously said to relate to DonneV 
mistress, instead of the departed daughter of his friend. 

Opposite to the monument of this young kdy, is a noble murat 
monument in honour of her father. Sir Robert Drury. It con- 
sists of a basement, on which is a sarcophagus of black marble, 
beneath a double arch^ supported by Corinthian pillars. Ov^ 
the arch, in a marble firame, is a most spirited bust in armour, a» 
large as life, representing Sir Robert; who before he was out of 
mourning for his father, attended the earl of Essex to the unsuc-> 
sessful siege of Rohan, in 1691, where he was knighted at the 
early age of 16. The Latin epitaph, recording his merits, is as- 

6 eribed 

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ntnoLM. 117 

«ri1i8d tD Ihe pen of Dr. &oane, who was bo HbdnUly patronised 
by faim, flMi to whom he aaftigtted aputmeattf in hit maiuion ill 
Driity Lane. This monunent w&s executed^ at the oxpence 
of Sir Roberf £1 widow, by Nicholao Stone^ who had given 
io ine a i^ecittiea of his abilities^ in the tomb of her father 
and motiier, in Redgrave church. On two small pannels in the 
bttMOlent^ are mmptions in Latin and SngKsh, on Dorothy^ ano- 
ther daughter of Sir Robert^ who died at the age of fonr yeara. 
The ktter is aa follows: 

Sbe little^ promis'd nncfh, 
TootooQ entitie; 
Sbe onlj dreamt fbe liv'd 
And then she d^*'de. 

A large moral monument, contigaous to that of Elizabeth Dmry, 
consists^ like the last, of a sarcophagns on a basement, over which 
IB a lofty entablature, supported by two square (luted pillars, of 
the Ionic order, and surmounted by a large escutcheon, of the arms 
«nd crest. The whole is made of a white, hard plaster, painted 
of a dark grey color, and ornamented with gilding and flowers. 
It is the work of an Italian ; for, by the accounts of the steward 
of Hawsted Hall, it appears, that in 1675, three sums of 51'. 
were advanced '* to the Italian, on account of the monument/' 
It is a heavy peribimance. A tablet over the sarcophagus, hao 
an inscriptioB in goU lettoEB,-iB honor of Sir Thomaa Gul* 

13 Yariooib 

^ Tliit gentlf iDUi^ wbo purcbtted the manor of Hawsted, which has ever 
•toee CDBtmned in his descendants, belonjjged to a family long seated in the 
eevaty. Being a joanger son, be was pat to bosiness in London, and be^ 
«aMi«avery snceessfol draper to Oracechnrch street. He married a daugh- 
ter af Uf« Niebolas Crispe,-who died in the prime of life, leaving bim tbo 
iifher of a nnneroiis oflbpring. lit. Callan was one of the sberift of Lon^ 
4ltm in 1646, and in August 1647, was, with the lord-mayor and seTeial 


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Varioiu other monamento of the Colliiiii hmlj are to be femrf 
in this churchy aad among the rest, one in memory of Aiine^ 
daughter of John lord Berkley, of Stratton, and wife of Sir Dad* 
ley Galium, Bart, who died in 1709, in her 44th year. 

Of the rectors of this parish, may be mentioned Joseph Hall, 
A. M. who was presented to it, in 1601, by Sir Robert Drary. He 
was afterwards bishop of Exeter and Norwich, and wdl known 
for his learned and pious writings, as well as for his snffmnga. 
The last rector was Sir John CuUum, M. A. fellow of Catharine 
Hall, Cambridge, who was presented to the living by his &ther* 
It was this gentleman, who wrote and published the History and 
Antiquities of Hawsted, in which he gives the following account 
of himself:—" He was horn 21 June 1733, and educated at Bury 
School, whence he went to Catharine Hall, Cambridge, of which; 
after having taken the degrees of batchelor, and master of arts, 
he was elected fellow, 7 Dec. 1759. In March, 1774, he became 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries ; in December that year. 
Was instituted to the living of Great Thurlow, in this county ; in 
March 1775, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society; and in 


ethers, committed to the Tower for high treaBon, that is, for having been coa* 
eerned i» some commotions in the city in favor of the king. In 1656 he 
made hts purchase in this place, to which he retired from the hurry of busi- 
ness and pubfic life. Very soon after the Rettonition he was created a baronet; 
which mark of royal favor, Uigetber with the cause of his former inpriMmaient, 
night have been expected to secure him from all apprehension of danger : bat 
whether it were that he had temporised a little during some period of the in- 
terregnum, or that money was to be squeezed from the opulent by every possi- 
ble contrivance/ he received a pardon under the great seal, dated l7Jnly,166t, 
for all treasons «nd rebellions, with all their concomiumt enormities, bj him 
committed, before the S9tb of the preceding December. From this general 
pardon were excepted some crimes, as burglaries, perjoriea, forgeries, and 
aeveral others^ among which is mentioned witchcraft. He died 6 April 16^« 
at the advanced age of 78. In a street in London which still bears his name, 
he possessed considerable property^ and just escaped witaetaiDg itt destiactiom 
by the dreadful conflagration in 1666^ 

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thu year, 1784^ is innocently, at least, amusing bimself, in com^ 
piling the history, such as it is, of his native place/' 

Hawsted was given, during the reign of Edward the Confessop 
to the abbot and convent of Bury, and was involved in the onor- 
■loaa grant of that monarch to the monastery, of the royalties of 
all the villages in eight and a half contiguous hundreds. Lands 
were afterwards granted in this parish, by the abbot, to different 
persons ; and in process of time, a family took its name from the 
place. In the reign of king Stephen, we find, that Ralph de 
Halstede, and Roger his brother, afforded the abbot an opportunity 
of canryii^a point of great consequence against the crown. The 
story is thus rehited, in the manuscript catalogue of the lands, 
liberties, &c. belonging to the abbey of St Edmund at Bury, de- 
scribed by Tanner.* William Martell, the king's sewer, attended 
by many prelates, barons, and others ; and sitting in his seat of 
justice in the bishop's garden, at Norwich ; two courtiers, Jordan 
de Boflseville, and Richard de Waldan, produced a young man^ 
named Herbert, who was ready to prove to the court> that he 
served Robert Pitz-Gilbert in the army, when the king led his 
forces against Bedford, at that time in possession of his enemies ; 
attdthat Robert, and Adam de Homingsherth, had discourse with 
Ralph de Halstede, and Roger, his brother, (who had come pri* 
vately out of the town, and changed their horses, shields, and 
saddles,) 'about betraying and murdering the king. They there* 
iote demanded, in the king's name, that the cause might be heard, 
and justice done. Upon this, Ording the abbot, who was pre- 
sent, stood up and hmrangned the court, informing them, that the 
accused brothers were within the liberty of St. Edmund, and 
therefore amenable only to him. This privilege was discussed at 
lai^; and the abbot established his claim, by the determination 
•f the court, and confirmation of the king. 

The earliest ^incipal lords of the village, specified as such in 
the records, are the fomily of Eustace, or Fitz-fustace. It be- 

1 4 longed 

•KotMonatt. 506. 

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Imiged afterwards to the Cloptona, by wIhwi it was sold, ar nAa 
exchanged, in ld04, to the Dniry fiunily, for the manors of He»> 
sted and Blomstons, in this county, and one thousand marka. Sir 
Robart, the last male heir of this distinguished house, left tiuraa 
sisters, to one of whom, married to Sir William Wray, the^estate 
at Hawsted deyolved. By the widow of this lady's only sor- 
Tiving son. Sir Christopher, it was disposed of, in 1656, to Tho- 
mas Callum esq. for 17,697L on which the interest of the Dnnyi 
ceased here, after a continuance of 190 years. In the descendants 
of that gentleman, who was afterwards created a baronet, this 
n&anor has continued ever since, the present losd being Sir Tbo« 
mas Gery Cullum, bark of Bury St. Bdmund's. 

Hawsted House, or Place, is supposed to have been rebuilt, or 
at least, thoroughly repaired, by Sir William Drury, in Ike mgii 
of queen Elizabeth. It is situated on an eminence and the 
whole fotnted a quadrangle, 202 by 211 feet within : bat part of 
it has been taken down, not from decay, but because it had be* 
eome useless. This mansion afibrded no bad specimen of the 
akiU of former artists, in regard to durability. The walb were 
chiefly built of timber and plaster; the latter, in the fronts being 
thickly stuck with fragments of glass, which made a brilliant ap- 
pearance in the sun-shine, and even by moon-ligbt Much t>f It 
still remains, and appears to have been little injured by more than 
two centuries. It might be worth while, to attempt to recover 
the receipt for making this excellent composition ; all tiiat we 
know respecting it at present is, that it contains a conaiderabla 
quantity of hair, and was made of csarse sand, aboundiiig witk 
stones almost as large as horse-beans. The house itself contains 
nothing remarkable. It formed a quadrangle, inclosing an area 58 
feet square, and was detached from the other buildings by a wide 
moat, surrounded by a terrace, and besides the i^Mrtments found 
in the houses of gentlemen of the present day, it had its smoldBg- 
room, 8^-room, and chapeL Contiguous to one of tiie cham** 
bers was a wainscoted closet about seven feet square, fitted up, as 
it is conjectnred, for the last lady Dmry. It was probably de- 

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tigntti, at fint, l&r aa omlDrj, tad fion Hm panncb iMTiag beei 
iwiiitnid intb TBriottt aodenew^ eaUenfty and anttoa, it iraa 
c«|M tli€ painted doMit These fHuatiBga, wlikli are weU exa- 
seated, have been reiMrred Id a sanll apartaeai in Hardwick 
Heine, near Bary, which is likewise the property of the Callnai 

On the porehei are ttill extant, in etone, the arma of Dnny» 
«nd thaee of Staflbrd of Gialloa, to wbtch hmiHy belonged the 
Uy of Sir Williani Drury, who ncoeeded ta Uie aetata oa the 
teth of hie graadfiitiier, in 16A7. Between theae povehee alaada 
« atone figure Off Hercnlee,* aa it waa denominated, holding in one 
liandra elabacaoae Uie ahe^der% the other reating on one hip. 
Tim Igore fameily diecharged, by the nataral paaaage, into a 
«anred -atone baaon, a continual ttream of water, aupplied by 
leaden pipes front a pond at the i^tanoe of near half a mile. 
From the date preaerred on the pedestal, this was probably one ef 
the embeUishmenta beatowed open thia place, againat the Tiait 
with which it waa honored by qneen Elizabeth in her progreaa, 
in l<S78.t She rode in the morning from Sir William Cordell'a, at 
Melford, and dined with one of the Drorya, at Lawahail HaH, 
abovtfive milea from Hawsted.^ In the erening she came to 


• It ba»becn loggwted, tbtt tfab vnoMtb figere, notwithttnidiiif itt ap- 
psUalioii, »i^ be dengDadl ai rapfcfaat amel j a wiM ntBt or twrsfv, at it 
liM no attfihote of Hercalet bat the dob, aod alJ tbe Umbi are covered with 
Hatk hair. It bears a great reieadilaoce to tbe arnt of the extinet noble 
family of Berkeley^ of Strattoo, and tboae of Lord Wodebooie. Bcmbrt 
4tLhagio,juU come oat of the woods, with an oaken plant in hit band, ovcf* 
grown with most and Itj, was one of the personages tbat addressed qaeen 
EUnbetbatber famoos entertainment at Kenilworth Castle. CuUtm's Baw 
tUi, p. 131. 

f ** JIbdera timet," observes Sir John Callam, «' wmrfd scarcely deirisa 
each a piece of tcolptore at an amoting tpectacle for a virgia prtncest."— 
Tbe figue in qaettiao, baa hitely been fciHlered lets offsotive to the ejft of 

iTbisnsitisthQi recorded in tbe register of that parish, under the ycsar 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hawstod, and the apartme&t which she oeeapied ever after ra» 
taiaed her name. Tradition reports, that she droppisd a silver* 
handled fva into the moat. It was probably on this oocasiott^ 
that her majesty bestowed the honor of knighthood on the master 
<tf this mansion. 

In this parish is also a good mansion, called Hawsted Farm, 
the residence of Christopher Metcalf, Esq. It was almost rehailt 
in 1783, by that gentleman, of the white brick made at Woolpit. 

Hardwick House, ih the property of the Cullnm iunily, the 
estate upon which it stands being indissoluUy united to their 
manor of Hawsted. It is situated upon the very line that divides 
the open and woodland country, and commands a pleasing view of 
Bnry and its neighboarhood, above which it is considerably ele^ 
▼ated. This estate appears to have been given, by king ftephen, 
to the abbey of Bury, and continued in the hands of the monka 
till the dissolutton. Tradition reports, that it was the abbot's 
dairy, and that the principal mansion was his occasional resi^ 
dence. No part of the present building, however, is of any oon« 
aiderable antiquity, except a spacious chimney, under ground ; so 
that no idea can now be formed, of what its ancient grandeur may 
have been. It was purchased, in 1610, by Sir Robert Drury, 
and in the following year, annexed for ever to the manor of Haw- 

Sir John Cullum* mentions a singular custom, which, within 
a few yean, he saw twice practised in the garden of Hardwick 
House, namely, tiiat of drawing a child through a cleft tree. 
'* For this purpose/' says that gentleman, " a young ash was 
each time selected, and split longitudinally about five feet. The 
fissure was kept open by my gardener, while the friends of the 


15*78: " It !• to be remembered that the queeo's highnesse, m her progresse, 
riding from Melford to Bury, 5o Aag. Tegineque>S!0 aimoqne d'ni predicto, 
dined at LawshaU Hall, to Che great rejoicing of the said parivb and county 
* Histk and Antiq. of Bawited, p, tS3. 

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«UU^ haTing fint stripped him naked, passed bim twice tfarougli 
it^ always head foremost. As soon as the open^oA was per- 
fttmed^ the woaaded tree was bound up with packthread ; and as 
the bark healed, the child was to recover. The first of these 
young patients was to be cured of the rickets, the second of a 
ruptore. About the former I had no opportunity of making en- 
quiry, but I frequently saw the father of the latter, who assured 
me, that his child, without any other assistance, gradually 
mended, and at last grew perfectly welL* 
. Hard wick Heath has for some years been fiunousfor one of the 
finest flocks of sheqi in the county, though consisting of no more 
than dOO. They are homed, and have black faces and legs« 
This was one of the three flodu, in the environs of Bury, that 
Ibimerly belonged to the abbot 

Sir Robert Dnry, who died in 1615, founded an alms-honse at 
Haidwick, for six poor unmarried women, with a yearly revenue 
of 61, each; two of them to be taken from the town of Bury, one 
frem HawBled, one from Whepsted, one from Brockley, and one 
from Ghadburgh and Reed, alternately. 

. HsNeRAYB, belonged in the reign of Edward I. to Edmund do 
Hsngrave, a celebrated lawyer; and in 1375, to Thomas Hethe. 
In 1 Richard III. the manor was granted to Henry Lord Grey, of 
Codttoure, but afterwards devolved to the crown, of which it was 
purchased, in the . reign of Henry VIII. by Sir Thomas Kitson, 
who built the fine old haU, and made it the family seat. He was 
SQooeeded by his son Thomas, who dying in 1602, the estate de- 

* Dr. Bodate* in bis antiquitieB of Cornwall, mentioiia a timiUr cuttom prac- 
tiaad in that part of the island. There i», he mjs, in the parish of Marden, a 
stone with a bole in it, 14 inches in diameter, tfaroogh which he was informed, 
by an intelligent neighboring farmer, many persons had crept, for pains in their 
backs and limbs ; and that fanciful parents, at ceitain times of the year, 
are accnstomed to draw their children tbroagli, to core them of the rickets. 
It is not a little cnrioos, that the eastern and western extremities of the king- 
dom* should coincide in this siognlar oufym$ the spirit of wbicb seems to bo 
deduced from the remotest antiqaity. 

Digitized by 


134 svypou. 

ToUeA, by inanta||e> to Themu IM Dtfcy, wiidM stfeoilj 
danghter married Sir John Gage^ of Fiiie, SuMes, and tiMweoji* 
Teyed Hengrave to a new fiunily. la July l<i63; Bdmvd 
Gage, Esq. of Uiia place waa created a baronet; he bad five «f vea^ 
and died in 1707^ aged 90^ and fimn him the title aad fropevly 
have been tranamitted to Sir Thottiaa, the preaent potaesaor. 

Hengrave Hail is an admirable eisample of the fine old maii» 
aiona with which this country abonnda. The dale ^ its ef«ctioB 
ia fixed by the following inscription in three compartiMBta^ cut la 
the stone^ on the outside of the ciirioua oriel window over the en- 

DROIT-^AMNO D^vi iiccccc TEicfisiifO ocTATo. This iaacrip*- 

tion rwa round a fillet bisneath ike bow iHndoir^ and the aeoond 

division of it is under the royal anna. This laanaioti aiMaaH 

oniqne speoimen of ancient doaneitic arohitectnre. The whole ia 

of brick and alone, '^ the gateway/' obaervea Mr. Goog^i^ ia <€ 

sach singular beanty, and in slwh high pMwnrvatiaii, that pei^ 

hapaa more elegant specimen of the alfehiteMaie of thai age call 

scarcely be seen/'* It waa onee^ more extensive than at prfesent> 

several idterationa having been made> and some parts at the north, 

and north-east angle taken away in 1775. The buiUiag, which 

ia stiti large, incloses a qoadrangalar eowt, and the ^^tnents 

^fen into a gallery, the windows of which overiook this cdurCi 

They formerly oontained a qoantity of stained glass, and the 

bay-window in the hall, still retaina sesK fine specimens, eon« 

sistittg of varioua amwrial bearings. This window is albo very 

ipkadid for its glazing, muUions, ftm-traoery, pendant and span- 

drik, all of which nearly resemble the highly florid example in 

Henry VUth'a ehapeL Theform of the tnnreta wk each side of the 

entrance, and at the comers of the building, as also of the two 

small tnrreted columns at the door, bear a striking resemblance 

to Moorish minarets, or the cupolas of Indian edifices.f 


• GoQgb't OtBden, Vol. II. p. tSS. 

tInBrittoB't JrchUtehiMlAMUptliUi me two -ntm of tbii fiat old bhhi» 

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flTfVOW. 19ft 

So«Ke ymm m^, this auMisioii was die ikbode of % tuAerbood 
•f expatrii^ nuns, of Bnngeti, to wh^ tiio owner of Hongrave, 
vlio w himaolf .of tho Ronan Catholic pereu«9ioo, liberaUy af- 
fn^od an Mf luio. During their reBidoioe here, they lort, hy 
death, their avfierior^ a linaJ deiwendani of the great Sir Thor 
maiM Move. When the d^ecee in ftiTor of emignuits was isaaed in 
FxaAce^ they availed theraadves qf the penoMsiaa to retom to 
iheir owa ocmatiy. A domeatie eha^el, fitted mp in oae of the 
angles of the building, and provided with an organ, still renaina 
il^Vi) ia tibe state ia whieK they kft it. 

Very aetr the Hall, stands a onall chnrch, whii^ is diaftiit^ 
faished hy one of the ancient ronnd towers, thai; seem to be pe- 
oidiar to this portion of the kkigdoBi. No use appears to have 
heea made of this edifiee for many years, the rectory having bees 
coittolidatipd wkh Flempton, Of the moauments within it, the 
principal are those of the Kitson's, John Boaehier, earl of Bath» 
who mtmed into the fiunily; his son, John Lord Fitzwarre8» 
Thomas son of earl Riirers, aad severid of the Gages. 

There is a fine marble tomb, in memory of Sir Thomas Kitson, 
the foaod^ ef Qeiignive Hajl, .with effigies of himself and one of 
bis wives; b«t it is ratter singular, that in the inscription a 
blai^ is left for the name and parentage of his first wife. This 
gentleman, who came irom the obscure village of Yealland, in 
Lancashire, having obtained immense wealth by commercial spe- 
culations in the cloth-trade, received the honour of knighthood. 
lie parchased the manor oi Hengravo firom the crown, and possess- 
ed several other estates in Soffolk, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and 
the city of London, for which he served the office of sheriff. He 
was afterwards appointed by the duke of Norfolk, steward of the 
franchise of Bury St Edmund's, and died Sep. 13. 1540, age4 


lioa, oae repressnting iIm whole of the south front, »nd Ihe other the central 
eoapartmeDt, with th« enlrtnce, end also s a'<'U"4'PlA° ^ ^* building pre* 
'vieof to the aiteretieut msde in 1775. 

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HoRNiNGSHERTH, commonly called HoRRivraB, ionnerly 
had two parish churches, distinguished hy the names of Hor- 
ningsherth Magna, and Ptfva : hut the latter is quite demolished, 
the parishes haring heen eoosolidated in 1548. They formerly 
belonged to the abbey of Bury. Little Homingsherth Hall, was 
one of the pleasure-houses of the abbot, where, above a century 
after the dissolution, his arms, together with those of Edmund 
the Confessor, were to be seen carved and painted in the great 

IcKWORTH formerly belonged to the abbey of Bury, by tha 
gift of Theodred, bishop of London. The whole parish is now 
converted into a pariL, in which stands the seat of the noble fa* 
mily of Hervey, who acquired this estate by marriage with thai 
of Drury. John Hervey, was in 1703 created, by queen Anne* 
a peer of the realm, by the title of baron Hervey of Idcwcnrth,* 
and in 1714, was invested by George I. with the more honorable 
title of earl of Bristol. Frederic Wifliam, who succeeded his la^ 
ther in 1803, is the present, and fifth earl. 

Ickworthpark may vie with any in the kingdom, being deven 
miles in circumference, and containing 1800 acres. The old man- 
sion of the noble proprietor is not remarkable ; but not far from it 


* " As for titles of h<Nior," stys Sumh, Dodiess of Marlboroagb, " I never 
was concerned in making any peer bat ene, and that was, my lord Hervey/ 
the present earl of Briiitol. I bad made a promise to Sir Thomas Felton» 
-when the queen firtt came to the crown, that if her majesty should ever make 
any new lords, I would certainly use my interest, that Mr. Uervey should bo 
one. And accordingly, though I was retired into the country, under the most 
sensible affliction for the death of my only son, yet when the queen had re- 
solved to roake'foor peers, I had such a regard to my word, that I wrote to 
Lord Marlborough and Lord Godolphin, that if they did not endeavor to get 
Mr. Hervey made a peer, I neither would nor could shew my face any more." 

In the Cmrt of Great Britain, this nobleman is characterited, as " a great 
sportMnan, and a lover of horse-malcbes and plays. Ue always made a good 
figure in the Jloube of Gommons, is aealous for the laws and liberties of the- 
people ; a handsome man m his person, fair complesioo, middle stalore." 

Digitized by 



standi a new bailding, planned upon a Tery extenBire scale^ by 
the late earl, who was also Inshop of Derry, for the purpose of 
depositing in it the various works of art which he had collected, 
daring a long residence in the classic regions of Italy. It was in« 
tended to be composed of a circular building in the centre, con- 
nected with the wings by a colonnade on each side. The accom* 
plishment oi this plan was frustrated, however, by the circum* 
stance of the earl's collections felling into the hands of the French 
in 17d8, on which occasion he was himself confined by the repub- 
licans in the castle of Milan. This event seems to have occasbned 
the earl to abandon his design of returning to England, and he con* 
tinaed to reside in Italy, till his death, in 1803. With a caprice 
for which many members of his family have been remarkable,* ha 
is said to have left to strangers all his personal property, includ* 
ing such collections as he had made in the last years of his life. 
Various encumbrances prevented his successor from completing his 
&ther'8 plan, and he even seriously deliberated on the propriety 
of pulling down the shell of this new building, and selling the ma- 
terials ; but these, it was found on ei^uunination, would scarcely 
reimburse the expense of their removal. From the immense sum 
that would be required to finish this structure, it is not improbable 
that the hand of time will be suffsred to reduce it to a ruin. 

This edifice, which fronts the south, and stands a little to the 
west of the old mansion, is built of what is denominated Roman 
bride, and was begun about the year 1795. The centre, which 
IS nearly circular, is 140 feet high ; the cupola that crowns it is 
90 feet in its largest diameter, and 80 in the smallest It is 
adorned with a series of Ionic columns, between the windows of 
the lower apartments, and Corintiiian pillars between those of the 
principal floor. Over the windows of the latter are basso relievos, 
representing subfects taken from the Iliad. Above the entrance is 
seen Alexander presenting to his father the celebrated ' horse Bu- 
eephalns, whom he alone could subdue, and on cither side a scene 
from the Olympic games. All these are are at present covered 
with boards, to protect them from the inclemency of the weather 
f and 

Digitized by 


I2ft mpFouc 

wtatcm iDJmy. Orer the wfaidowf of the tint ftoiy is aaeCber 
•et of biMo relief 08 nnoovered, conewtiog of the foUowiBg eob* 
jecii from the Odyseey >— Penelope weaviog^— Mentor and To- 
lemachns proceedings in quest of Ulyeeee—The sacriiice— Pene- 
lope dreaming of her haahaad's retmn^-Mercury perraading Oa» 
lypm to release Ulyaaea— ^His ahipwreck — Ulyssea aayed Inm 
the wiedc by Leoeothoe— The harpiea— •Peneli^ cairying the 
how of Ulyvaea to the suiton-— The hero deatroytng Uiem~PeBe- 
lope recognizing her huaband—MeroBry oondaetiag the ghosts of 
the sttitora to Styx.~Ulyflaea oondading a treaty with the chaed 
of Ithaca. 

The interior of this edifiee exhibits a mere aheU witii a kind 
of open wooden staircaae to aaeend to the roof^ which oommanda 
a beanUfal and esitanaive view of the adjacent coontry^ The en- 
pola ia crowned with a circnlar railing, within which the rhta» 
neya rise in a single stack, in anch a manner as not to be Tisihle 
on the oatside of the building. The intended drawing and ^aing 
room, the only apartments bonnded by an interior wall» are eadi 
dO feet in length, hot from the nattnre of the bnilding, of aneqnal 

The wings, and the galleries connecting them with the edifice 
in the centre, have been mn np to the height of only three orfonr 
feet. The left wing was deaigned fer an assembly room, and that 
en the right, to contain a gallery of statnea on the gronnd-floor, 
and of pictures above ; and in both, provision has been made fer 
a circakir reservoir fer water. The length of each colonnade and 
wing is (K> yards, and that of the whole bailding, from one extre- 
mity to the other, 600 feet. 

The designs for tins edifice, were famished by ItaUaa artists^ 
and sent ever from Italy, and the constmcliett of no maeh ef it 
as has been erected, was saperintended by Mr. Sandys. The scnlp- 
tares are the workaMmahip of two brothers, named Carvalho, also 
nativea of Italy, and are modelled after the celebrated deaigns of 
flaxman. The total expense already iaconred amonnla to near 


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ftiiniii BMNMJ nas diMoveved at Ickworth. 

' R18BV UTemmkMe for notUig bat tiie form of thd steeple e# 

ita.clM0ch, wtteh kebig io«iid,.ia eenjectared to be of Duiiiil' 


Saxham Magna, belonged, with the advowson of the church, 
to Bury abbey, and wm gnoited^ 33 Henry Vlli. to Bir Richard 
Long and his wife, ft bielonged, for several descents, to the 
family of Eidied, one of ivhom, John, mentioned below, built the 
house, long known by the name of Nutmeg Hall, in the reign of 
James L In 1^1, his son. Revet Eldred, was created a baronet. 
In this fomily the estate continued, till about 1750, when it was 
purchased by Hutohinson Jtee, Esq. who greatly improved and 
embellished his domains. The old house was accidentally burned 
down in 1779, and a new one erected north-west of it, from a plan 
of Mr. Adam. This is now the residence and property of Tho« 
mas'Mills, Esq. 

At the upper end of the chancel on the soutfaHstde is a bust 
as large as life, of painted (rtctte, aot badly eB«e»ted, and un- 
denieath this inscription : 

Memorift Mcnim, 
John Eldred. 
Hew Bsckiogbam m Mbrf^ was bit fim being ; in Babilon he ipent aoms 
put 9i bit tiina; and tlitt rait«f bit tarUfly pSgriinage bee tpeot In London 
tnd WM alderauuKMf that faiMiBt dltio. 
Hit Age 


His Death ^^^^'^ 
Tb« Holy Land so called I have seene. 
And in the land of Babilon have beene ; 
Bat in yt. land where gioriont saints doe live. 
My sonl doth crave of Christ a roome to give ; 
And there with holy angells halilajabs sing 
With joyfol toyce to God our heavenly king. 
Noc^Milent bntia tbse O Lord. 

Under ths bust is a raised aoMnent> withaUaclK jM4e; m 
Vol. XIV. K tha 

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the top, rtry nettly lAlaid, in hoM, m tha fifim of » min i 
two feet long, ^ith a ni£^ and furred gown, ivell OBgnTon ; wMi tlu» 
arms of Eldred, Rerett, city of LoiidoB, East India, Turkey, and 
Bossia companies. At bis ieet, on three kaas plates is the fel*: 
lowing inscriptioii: 

CorriciiliiiB vitB p«iegr^ meicmdo ptngi, 
JEgjptfom atqiic Anbet, Sjfwqse viient i. 
Eximis rednci et merita catere oornmb 
Natl, diYitis, pereime nomen. 
J^eliz graodanu morior ; longitsima qnamrb 
Sit yite YU-^terminos lepiilcbnjili. 

Might all ny tfsveb mc exeum 
For being dcade and lying here ; 
Or if my riches well to lue 
For life to death might me endeare ; 
I had mj fate or quite outgone. 
Or porehas'd death's compaiiion. 
Bst riehet can no ransom buy, 
Nor tratrells paase Uie deatiay. 


Revettas Eldred, Arm. filios et heres mestisnoras 

Defancti hoc monamentum posoit Septembrii 7o. Aoi Domini ItSL 

Of the voyage of this trayeller to Tripoli in Syria, and his joqr- 
ney thence to Babylon in 15S3, an account is giten in Hacklnyfs 
Collection.* It was his son RoYett Eldred, who was created a ba- 
ronet, as mentioned above, and who seems to have thonght that he 
conld not do too much for tbe memory of his &ther in the mona« 
mental way. He nUurried Anne Blackwell, and died without 
issue. On a board suspended in the church, reciting the chari« 


• Vol. II. p. S68— In the Arch^oUgia, Vol. XV. is an tngraTing of a pot» 
trait of an old man» with a raf, a ahoi t beard, and wlifokers, supposed to ro- 
preaent this gentleauni. The original was broogfat, with two other curious old 
paiotiogf, U9Vki)lifUh the seat of ths EldndiMuly in Ewei. 

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ties left to ilM fsuk, wlhift inseriptioii :— '^ By UAy Aim El* 
drad, June 6th, 1671, lOOL" 

At Saxbam Pakta ims foranriy the seAt of the kaSty of Lu- 
eae, «id aftervuds <^ that of Crofts. The latter long floafished 
here in high r^nte; aeyeral indiTidnak hehmging to it receitod 
the honor of knighthood ; and one <tf them. Sir Thomas Crofts,' 
was, 36 Elizabeth, highniheriff of this county. His grandson, 
William, haying been brought np from his youth at court, was 
appointed captain itt the guard to Henrietta, queen of Charlea 
I. gentleman of the horse to the duke of York, and gentleman of 
the bed-chamber to Charles II. He wa4 a great sofierer by his 
adherence to the Stuart £unily, whose confidence he ei^oyed, and 
was at length sent ambassador to Poland, in which capacity his ser- 
vices were so highly yalned, that Charles II. during his exile at 
Bmsaels, advanced him to the dignity of a peer of the realm, 
by the title of Lord Crofts of Saxhanu Dying in 1677 without 
male issue, the title became extinct. In the chancel of the church 
is an elegant altar monument of marble to the memory of this no- 
bleman ; and ahother close beside it for his lady, who died in 
•1672. He is represented in a recnmbent posture, in his robes» 
with a fiowing wig in the &shion of the times ; and the lady is 
seen upon her monument in the same attitude. Several, other 
individuals of that fiunily ale interred in this part of the church, 
where they had also a vault, which has lately been walled up. The 
east window contains various coats of arms of the family in painted 
glass , but a considerable quantity put up hy the &ther of Colondl 
Rushbrodk« has been removed by him to Rushbrook-Hall. Thi^ 
diurch is remarkable for one of those round towers, ascribed to the 
Danes, fifty-six feet high, and fifty-nine in circumfiurence. The 
upper part of this tower is embattled, and beautifully ornamented 
with window frames. The mansion-house, to which lord Crofts 
had added a grand. apartment for the reception of Charles II.- was 
of brid^ and probd>ly built in the reign of Henry MI. It was 
pttQed down in 1771, when it appeared as sound as at its first 
erection. The painted-glass in the church was removed thither 

K« from 

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4tem iSdseiitce. The eMts w sUil t«stM it .Rkliflid CMk%. 
Esq. of Herling, Norfolk. 

The ikuMTflf WvtP8TEiDi;te«9d {Mrtof llwtMMitioM 4/the 
aUeyafBary; ndLafterthftdnMlMidavwiagkiAleilSlAHeity 
VIIL to 6ir WiUiHi Dhicy. H fau meo p«i*d iMi^ miimi 
and iftiiow the proporty •fUi^oi CUcM HsbommI^ wii4 
I St FlniostMhhall^ is this parislk It it ui old kreg^kat 
Wldfag, io the ityle of mniy etf the wcoiKl-nte nuMUoos of this. 
-cdvaAy, end has heen rep^iied aod modernized bjr tbo 

.The ohneh eft thie pkee fanaerlf hod a i^iie ifOB the tleeple^ 
.which w.Uewn down by the high vind «t Olii^r GronnrcU'i- 
death; m mialwthat of Dalhain in the handled el BiMdge. 


This bmdied it beanded 00 the ettt hy the hvndreda of Baheif , 
Tfaiiigoe, flod Locklbid; on the weA by Caabtidgeihite; en the 
^oiith by the mer Stoar which porta it fimai Eawx; and on Ihh 
noiA by LsoklML It eontaiaa two aMriut-towno^ Chxe and 

Clabb^ lenacrly a plaee of conKiderable note, is seated on ^ 
Stoar, and eontaiaa aboat dOO hoases, and 2e00 inhabitanU. It 
hasa weeUy market on FHdaya, and two annnal frirs, onEastar* 
Toflsday, and Jnly 26. The houses aie in geacrai mean, and the 
-streets broad, bat ai^^aved. On the north side of it stnds an 
nncieni hoaae, whieh atliacts attention, from its ornaments oon> 
•ieting ehisfly ef araiorial bearings and foliage, bnt so dcfrced 
with whitewash, that it is impossible exactly to ascertain the 
Hgnres. The front of a hoase near the market, exhiUts, in basso 
aelievo, the figure of a swan listened to a tree, with agold diai&. 
4ionieiactis doabtless intended to be commemorated by this piece 
^f antlqaity, which has recently been renewed and beaotified. 

€f the once edebraSed castle of Clare, on the sooth side of the 


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i|0( iliM<yr i» gis^94ei>r la ««(y of tlie fj^^al inaii«ipii> ia the kiiig- 
dopi. Tto site ^ the nf )^le ft^^c^op, whi^h may be distinctly 
tac^, fCMJbHW ebovi^ t>r^9|iy fkcres^ ovee surrounded by v«ler, 
«id #?iifed into »n outer imd inner bnyley, the latter daij erer 
bdofttl wiHi viJl. Od jtbe auinmit of a steep hill, itboat one 
bniAied f^ lagh, 0f no gveal^ circttip»ferefiee at Ibe bttse, and |iro- 
baUy .of artificial ^of Uen, at^nda fk frogsoieut of the keep, vhioh, 
befcreihe nseaf fiiie-arsDs^ mjevat ba¥e been a pboe of gimt itreogth. 
A nnnrov palb !ViP^Uf^ ro^ Hm^ bill leads to HAu lelk of 
antifsily, wbidi, ouTKoimde4 mik yerdnre, fpnaa a pictnres^e 
otf eot It «ppean to b^ve b^^ of a circular form frithin ; but 
tke eiclm«r w$a a polygon, with bottreases at tbo aagka : tbere 
am Ibree of iJkeafi bjattressea in the part yet remainjbDg; A frag- 
mfi^ of tbe waU, built, lijk/^ the ke^, wHh a cf mpqaiAon of mortar * 
and flints, nins down the bill idoAg tb9 north aide of the area of 
the castle ; and a small portion is still standing on the opposile 
«de. Sacb is upw all tbst n^iisJiPB to attest tbt ^istonee of tte 
SMgl^ifiec^ cafitie df d^r^ 

S^poding the first foamdntion of this oastle, we find nothing 
a«tbentie. Seated ctt the fro»ti« of the kingdom of the East* 
Angles, pai fi^ae to the borders of that' of Essex, the most pro« 
baUe c^jjecluTje is, that it was erected during the beptarchy. 
No moRtiim, howerer, is mad^ of it in history till near two centn- 
ries sfter tjie vi^on of the petty sorereignlies in the person of 
Egbert. At libis time, and during the reigns of Canute, Hardi. 
caattke, and Edward, Aluric, a» eeri, tbe son of Withgar, was im 
possession of it, and in the begumiiig of the tooth century fo«nd« 
ed in the castle the cjbvch of BU Jolm the Baptist, in «!hich "ho 
placed seven prd)ends. At the peiidd of the Norman con^neat, 
Clare was one of the nbiety'^five lordships in this county assigned 
by William to lua kinsman Richard Fitz-Gilbert, to whose assist-» 
anoe he was materially indebted for his victory at Hastings. 
From this place he was sometimes denominated Richard de Clar^ 
though he more usually went by the name of Tonebruge, from 

1L3 his 

Digitized by 


134 BfTFFOLK. 

bit retidenee in thtt toim now called Tnnftridge. He left Ms 
Engltsh estatee to his ion Gilbert, who likewiie made Tonebroge 
his Mftt; and wko by a deed bearing date 1090, tested at the 
cattle called Clare^ gave to the Monks of Bec^ in Normandy, the 
church of St John Baptist aboTe-mentioned, with the prebends 
belonging to it, to be disposed of to their sole and proper benefit^ 
as often as they should happen to be void. This nobleman was 
created earl of Pembroke by king Stephen ; and on his deafli in 
the fourteenth year of that king's reign, was succeeded by his 
son the- celebrated Richard Strongbow, the first English adven- 
turer who wont to Ireland for the purpose of redncing that coun- 
try. Dying wifliout male issue in the new possessions which he 
had acquired by the sword, his estates in England derolTed to his 
uncle Richard, who is thought to have been the first of the fiunily 
dignified with the title of Earl of Clare. By him the moito of 
the castle here were translated to the church of St. ^uguttine at 

The fourth in descent from this Richard was Gilbert, sumamed 
the Red, who having obtained a divorce from his first wife, Alice 
de March, daughter of Guy, earl of Angonleme, married Joan of 
Acres, daughter of king Edward I. By this princess, who sur- 
vived him, he had his son and successor, Gilbert, who dying with- 
out male issue, the honour of Clare became extinct, but his estate 
was divided among his three sisters. One of these ladies, Eliza- 
beth, married to John de Burgh, son andkeir to the earl of Ulster 
in Ireland, is more particularly memorable for having rebuilt and 
endowed University-Hall, in Cambridge^ and given it the name 
of dare-Hali, which it stm retains.* 

The honour of Chire now lay dormant finr some years, during 
which John de Hausted held the castle for his life. On his de- 
cease, Lionel, thmi son of king Edward III. being then lieutenant 
of Ireland, was, in the thirty-sixth year of that king's reign, cre- 
ated duke of Clarence. He married Elizabeth, only daughter of 
William de Burgh, eari of Ulster, who died tto years afterwards, 

• See Beautiei, Vol. p. 36, 

Digitized by 


St7JF70LK. i9& 

taiTiif Urn one daughter, Philippay -who was his sole heir. By 
iMrnitfriige to Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, the lordship of 
Clare was carried into his &mily. His son, on coming of age ia 
14l05» foond the castle in good repair, and amply stocked with rich 
finitare: hot on his death, without issue, in the eighth year of 
Heary YL it deiTolTed on Richard duke of York. On the accession 
of his son Edward to the throne, these possessions hecame vested, 
and remained in the crown during his reign, and those of his sue* 
cesson. By act of parliament, 11 Henry YII. they were con- 
toned to the king, and so continued till 6 Edward YI. when 
they were granted, with other estates in Essex and Suffolk^ to 
Sir John Cheefce, hut were resumed by tiie crown in the first 
year of Queen Mary's reign. The castle and lordship of Clare 
afterwards came into the possessiim of Sir Gerrase Elwes, of Stoke 
College, Bart in whose heirs they still remain. 

After the death of Lionel, son of Edward III. the honor ot 
dare, or Clarenoe, lay dormant till 13 Henry lY. when Tho* 
mas, second son of that king, having previously been consti- 
tuted high-sleward, and admiral of England^ lieutenant of Ire- 
land, and captain of Calais, was created duke of Clarence. He 
served with great distinction in the English army in France 
under his brother king Henry Y. but at length besieging Beau'^ 
fart, and hearing that the Dauphin was adyancing, he marched 
with a small party to meet him, and fell in the engagement, leav- 
ing no legitimate issue, on which the title again became dormant 
it was once more revived by Edward lY. soon after his corona- 
tion, in &vor of his next brother George. He was the same year 
' constituted lieutenant of Ireland ; and for the better support of his 
dignity, obtained a grant of the estates of the earl of Northum- 
berland, forfeited by his attainder. Notwithstanding these favors, 
he joined the party tof NeviUe, earl of Warwick, who^ on account 
of some pique against Edward, undertook to seat Henry YI. again 
upon the throne ; and who, to bind the duke of Clarence still more 
firmly to his eaxm, gave him his eldest daughter in marriage. 
Of a disposition that seema to have been naturally perfidious, he 

K4 9oon 

Digitized by 


i * 


SM>a aluuidoned Warvick^ and retomiqf Id Ut WoUmt^ i|f|iM«l 
him to defeat the «iil mi Barnet He 'was aIm one af tii^aewlM 
init to death ihe youag priace Edward, soa ef {t^ary VI. ant 
Jieir to the CFown ia ihe LaacaatriaB Uae. Th^ lung, hamMi^ 
coDceiyii^ aome jeaku^ of his brother, ooofiaed himia tW ToirfV> 
where, an it was genendiy beiieTedj h^ was dffpwied in a WU sf 
Malmsey wine. By the earl of Warwick'^ daogbler, ha kift .a 
son, Edwardy who, in her right, became aari of Warwick ; ba|t hii 
&ther being attainted 4a the next parliament af^er his death, the 
title became a thiid time extinct. The dukedom bavipg thus 
escheated to the kiag, he aiade the herald, properly belangui|^ 
to it, a king at anns» and gave him the appallatioa of CUarapoiepx^ 
His office is to marshal and .amnge the funerals of the baconat^ 
and all gentry bebw that rank, on the soath ind# of the Treaty 
whence he is sometimes called Surr(nf^ in contradistinctioB tt 

The honor of Clare was not revived till 22 Jam^s I. when Sir 
John HoUis, of Houghton, in Nottinghamshire, who hai^ bsea 
previously created lord Houghton, was alevated la the dignity 
of earl of Clare. In 1688, John, his great grandson, sac? 
ceeded to the earldom. He married Margaret, third dai^ph- 
ter of Henry Cavendish, di^e of Newcastle ; and on the death 
of his father-in-ilaw without male issue, he was, in ppnsidor^ioa 
of his services in contributing to seat William III. on the throne^ 
created by him marquis of Chure and duke of Newcastle. Ha was 
accounted the richest English peer of his time; but having no 
male issue, he left the bulk of his landed possessions to Thoam* 
HoUis Pelham, son of his youngest aster Grace, whom king 
George I. successively invested with the titles borne by his ande; 
which again became extinct with that fiunily daring the saoQeed* 
ing reign. At length in 1789, his present miyesty, George ill. 
conferred the dukedom of Clarence oa his third son, prince WUt 
liam Henry. 

Near the rains of the castle stands Clare^riory, fonnerly a 
monastery of canons regular pf St. Augustine, founded in J84& 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

SITFrOLX. 137 

hy TtiAwd dr Glares eart of Qtonoester, fiQiii irlmn ieBnaaieS 
dw Horlimm» ckHs of Bfarch, aai l&e royal konae <if York, aa 
18 vefeled In the peAgToe af Jgaa of A€re8^ daaghter of Edward 
I. and infe of Gilbert do Chate, earl &( Gloucester, ia a poeai iav 
waMA ia Votwr'a nwend HoaaaMnte.* Tkh hoaae being an 
aiim priory, and a cell to dhe abbey of Bee, araa orada indigeaovv 
by kiag Bkiiaad IL in Hie nineteenlh year of faia raign^ and by 
Uai gwen aa a eeH to fit Peter's bX Weatminater. Richttd de 
Vibre, earl of fiertfosd, gave to tfaia iwuae <8ie henaitage of 8tan^ 
dflne^ that divine aerriae angbi be there ealebrated for him sad 
tna. TUa, aiid aevenl other donaliona and iOidowmenta^ by mri- 
•at bencfiuxliiay vere oonfinied hy the archbish^ of Canterbary 
9mi te pope. It vaa granted ai Henry VIII. to Richard 
Rrieadl; and a part of the bnildinga haa nearly ever since thtt 
time been aeoD^ied aa a dwdling. They have been recently 
rqiaiied; bat retain, with the name, afl the appearance of their 
original deatbation. The priory was lately the property of Wii* 
liaa Shrive, esq. who had it finm the Barkers, to whom it haa 

In thediareh belonging to this priory, which is now converted 
intoaimm, was buried Joan of Acres. .She was theaecoad daagh« 
ler of king Edward I. by queen Eleanor, and was born, in the first 
yeiu' of her fidiier's reign, in the Holy Land, at Ptolemaifi, more 
eoBulionly called Acres, and celebrated in modem history by the 
name of Acre. She waa married at the age of eighteen to Gilbert 
de Clare, eari of Gloucester; after whose death she gave her hand 
to Balj^ de M onthermer, who had been servant to the earl. She 
died in iier aumor of Clare in May 10, 1305, in the first year of 


* The origoAl of this piace is preserved on a roll of parchment in the old 
EogUsh character^ with the followiog title :-*" This dialogebetwix a secalar 
askyng and a frere answering at the grave of dame^ohan of Acris, shewith 
the lineal descent of the lordis of the honoore of Clare from the tyme 
of tlie fnndation of the freeris in the same hononre, the yere of oar Lord 
MCCXLVia unto the first of May, the yere MCCCCLX." To the Englisb 
foH iranneied another of the same aa Latin. 

Digitized by 



Edwari n. wii», villi motl of tlMBnglithBoUlily, tttmMher 
teenL Uae mm tbo nterred the body of Bdwaid^ her ddert 
iMi, by Ralph de M anthcnKr, who, ganiag the fe?erof Ihekiog, 
vas created eul ef CHooeeHer tnd Hertfud. 

liMwlp dvke el Claienoe, and eari of Ulaler ia Irriaad, tfaiid 
ton ef kiBg Bdvaid III. waa Ukewiae haried in the chaaeel oC the 
ehiureh hdonging to thia prioty» together with Ua fini wile Eli* 
aabelh, daughter aad heireaa of WiUiam de Bargfa, earl eC Ulater. 
She died in 1303. Not kmg aftervaida he BaiTied Violenta, 
daughter of John Gaieazxo, duke of Milan, with whos he reeei?ed 
a large portion. Hia naptyJa were oelehrated at Milan with 
extraordinary pomp. 8iow gitea the MIowing aeeonnt of the 
entertainaienta on thia oceaMon :— '' In the month of April lionell, 
dttfce of Clarence, with a choaen eompany of Engliah iiohility« 
went towania MelbiDea, there to marry Violenta, the danghtcr d 
Galeacins, the seeond of that name, duke oiT Milan, at whoae 
airital sneh ahandanoe of trea«tire was ia a most bonnteoas man* 
ner spent in making most snmptaoos feasts, setting forth stately 
nights, and honoring with rare gifts ahoTe two hundred Engliah- 
men. who aceompanied his son-in*law, as it seemed to snrpasse 
the greateeaae of the most wealthie princea; for in the banqaet 
whereat Phmcis Petrarch was present wmang the ehiefeat gnests^ 
there were above Uiirtie couiaes of serrice at the taUe, and betwixt 
e? ery eoorae as many presents of wondrous price intenntxed, all 
which John CSaleacias, chiefe of the chosen youth, bringing to 
the table, did ofler unto Lionell. There were in one only ooarse 
aetenty goodly horses, adorned with silk and silver fiirnitiii<^ 
and ia the other silver veaaels, fidcons, hoonda, armour far horses, 
costly coats of mayle, breast-plates glittering of massie Steele, 
helmets and corselets, ded^ed with costly crestes, apparell distinct 
with costly jewels, souldier's girdles, and lastly, certain gemmes, 
by curious art set in gold, and of purple and clotli of gold for 
men's ^parel in great abnudance. Such was the sumptuousnesse 
of this banquet, that the meats or fiagmedts which were brought 
finom the table would have aofictently served ten thousand men. 


Digitized by 




^ B«l iMl lo&g aiUr, lioBdl, tiTiBg vilk hk new wife, wU^ 
after the mamwr of Ilk owm eonitry, as ferfettng or Ml J 
itm efaaiige of ayre, adiBcted hiiaaelf oTer mutk lo 
^^wtings. Spent and ce—nmed with a itagcriag •wfcwg— e^ he ^M 
at Alba P^Napeia, ealM also LmgtnnU, m the ayvqaiaate eT 
Montaemt, in Piednonl^ oa the ligil of St Lake the ETaagelia^ 
A. D. 1368, 10 the 42d yeave of hia fethcr'a leigae.'' 

CaaMte, in hia Aimab of Ifebad, rebtct thai lieaeO waa hvned 
iathecityefPlLTia, haidbySt Aagnainw the deaor ; hat thai 
his henea were fenMired, hvoaght to KngkaJ, aad ivtcmd a a»» 
eond tune in the conTentnal chorch of Aagnstine Fiiani at Clara. 
Phili^a, lionel'a only daoghter by hia first wife, was OMiTied, 
as haa been before ohaenred, to Edoinad Mortinier, earl of M arch» 
by whoBB die had a son, Roger. Anne, daoghter of the latter, aMfw 
Tying Riehaid of Cambridge, transfened the right to the crown 

The paiiah ehnreh, an ancient and beantifal stmctore, wkh a 
sqoare tower, is at preaent the principal omanwat of Clare. Fmm 
its staldy appearance, there is erery reason to pxesaoM that it was 
erected at the cost of the lords, who allowed the townspeople the 
use of it. The Imt is of stone, and from ita Ibrm and decor a - 
tions, is evidently of the same age as the cfaaroh. Among other 
penons of note intored here, is Edmnnd, son of the above men 
taoned Roger Mortimer, eail of Jfarch, and nest heir to, the 
crown after the death of king Richard IL The chorch oantaiaa 
but one monnment of a knight, said to be one of the Cavendish 

The second maiket-town m thb handred ia Haveehux, or, aa 
it is written in old records, HmoerhmU and Haverel Ita market, 
which is small and inconsiderable, is held weekly on Wedaeoday ; 
and it haa two annnal fiurs on the I2th May and 26th Aagnst 
In 1801 it contained IdO booses, and 1104 inhabitanta, of whom 
487 were retomed as employed in trade and in the mannfartnre 
of ebecb, cottons, and fiistians. The principal steeet is wide : 
but the booses are mean. The chorch is a large ancient stfoc- 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ime, and there aie two miwtMig Imnm8» mi « <H»tit9 mimtt, 
Ihe town, which w» fmaeriy of miieb gM^.eUfml^; the i 
of anther ohorch and of a cattle beiDg aliU viitUe. Tii^aootfc 
and of tlie mab stncft ia partly m SdUk, aad|>avttjr in Smcx. 

Thaaaoonof DeBeoiog and HaverhiH, Mov^^ 4 Haory IV. 
p^ Levd Staftrd, and to Hamphrey, diAe of BaeUa^^iam S6 
Henry VI. In 1 Sichaid III. Henry lonl Grey> of C^daoore, bad 
a gta&t of the maaoia of Havcrbltt and Hendkaan. Thu diurch 
was inptopriated to the pricry of Caslleacre, in Noffclk ; aad 
the neotory aadadvowaonof the yieaiage, weneg^nated, 99 Heary 
¥in. to Thootts, load Cromweil. 

Haverhill waa the birth-|dace of Dr. SAiuJaL Wa»d, a oele^ 
kalod divne of the 17th oeatory, and naatar of Biimy CoU^pe, 
Cattbradge, whoae fitther waaaiuiistarof ihia plaoe, a«i liae baried 
m the ebaneel of the chnroh. He acconpanied Biahly jCarllw, 
Dean Hall, and Dr. Davenant, to the synod ai DlQrt» Awt impn* 
aoaaient and ill usage, daring the <inHd>ka uadar Chailaa L ooca- 
atoned his death in 164d. 

The rilagea worthy of notice in this handled ax^ : — 

BARii&RDiaTON, commonly pronounced Babnoon, which bo- 
longed to Thomas de Woodstock, earl of Backin^am and daka 
of Gloocester, sixth son of King Edward III, and wais oae of 4ho 
astates with which he endowed the college of Fleshyj in Emm, 
•a ita foandation 16 Richavd II. This place gave name to a k^ 
mOj, the Tarions branches of which have had seats at Kediagtoa^ 
firightwell, and Wyverston in this county. 

Cowling, or Cooling was the estate of William Long Espee, 
aasl of Salisbury and Samerset, natacal son to King Henry II. by 
4he hk Rosamond. In thu parish is a handsome mansion, tho 
cesidence of ■ ■ ■ Dickens, Esq. 

Dalham, the lordship and demesne of Waiter de Norwich, a 
parliamentary baron in tlie reign of Edward II. passed, together 
with his other eatales, on the death of his great grandson, to 
WiUtam de Ufford, earl of Suffidk. It afterwards came into the 
teiily of the EatotefiUes, and at length became by pnrehaso the 
6 property 

Digitized by 



fmjpferty cf the AiBeckfiunily^irliich wm/m 1782, elervtod to tke 
hoMmiB of btfunmetege, «id hat r^larly resided at the mansion 
bere, ealied Datham-HalL This mansioo was built about the year 
1705 by Dr. Patrick, bishop of Ely. The offices below are arohed» 
^»d al top, a BoUe gallery twenty-four feet wide, moa quite 
through the buflding. 

Od the top of the stieqtle of Dalham ehnrdi is this inscription: 
^ Keep my sabbaths,'' — " Reference my sanctuary/' 

DxFDBN, a sflsall village of about thirty houses, is remaikaUv 
eidy as the birth place of Dr. ANtHONT Spabbow, bishop of 
Harwich, whose £rther, a wealthy man, then resided here. Hewas 
educated Sit QnelBB's eeUege, Caod)ridge, where he became a fel* 
low, and so ek>Btinned till the commencement of tiie civil wan 
under Charles L when that society waa auppreased for its byalty. 
8oon after the Eteatoratien of Charles IL he was successively ap- 
p^nted archdeacon of Sudbury, president of Queen's College^ 
bish«9 of Exeter, and at length translated to the see of Norwich, 
which he enjoyed about eight years, and died in 16^ 
I HUKDON, waa 9 Edward I. the lordship and estate of Gilherl 

I de Clare, eaii of Gloucesler,' and aftorwaida of liond, dnke of 

ChreBOOf from whom it deocdided to the royal kwse of York. 
The manor, or nyuted manor of Hundon, with tte paHu called 
Great Auk, Eatry Park, and Broxley FaiEk, was granted, 3 Ed- 
ward YI,. to Sir John Cbtke, aa pari of the poaaeaaions of the 
soBeg^ of Stoke Ckre. 

In 1687, between two and three hundred Saxon coins were dis* 
covered by the sexton, while digging a grave in the church'>yard 
of thia village. They were all of nearly the aame size and 
weight, " ahoal the iBgneas of our groat,'' say the anthois of the 
Mmgma BHl«iiiita, and e^ivalent to the Roman denarii, but 
scarcely two could be found with the same inscription. This va- 
riety might arise from the numerous mints in different places of 
the kingdom, with distinct mastera to each, who had power to 
put what stamps they pleased upon their owa coin, 
{a a baiUing at^M^ed to the church ia a nohie pyiamid of 


Digitized by 


142 SOFFOllL 

matUe^ erected to the memory of Arethiua, wife of Jamee Ver« 
Don^ esq. and daughter of lord Clifford, heir apparent of Richard, 
earl of Burlington. She was mother of the late earl of Shipbrooke, 
and died in 1728. 

Kedington, or, as it ia written in Domesday-book, Keditune,' 
now corruptly called Ketton, was, at the time that aurey war 
taken, the estate of Ralph Baynard. His grandson, William, 
having forfeited his honour and estates, the principal of which* 
was Baynard's Castle, London, by joining in a oonspiiacy against 
Henry L lost his barony, which being seized by that king, wa» 
given by him to Robert, a yomger son of Richard Fitz-Gilbert/ 
progenitor of the most ancient family of Ite earis of Clare. It 
was, in later times; the property of the Bamardistons, a family 
which produced many persons of eminence, and resided at the 
fine mansion of Kedington-HaU.* In 1663, Sir Thomas Bar- 
nardiston, of this place, kiiight, was created a baronet; bnt the 
title is now extinct. 

In the church of this place are monnments for several of the 
Bamardistons ; and the windows did, if they do not still, exhibit 
varioiis memorials of that ftmily. In the sonlli window, for ex* 
ample^ was represented a Bamardiston, with seven sons behind 
him, and his wife with the same number of daughters ; and at a 
little distance is a tomb for Sir Thomas Bamardiston, and Uliza- 
zabeth his wife, by whom that window was built. ' On 4he nortii 


* Sir Nathaoiel Bamardiston, of this place, loight of the shire for Soffblk/ 
was a man of exemplary piety and Tirtoe, and a firm friend to the liberties of 
bis eoantry. He died in 1653. In the leign of Qaeen Aime, t«ro baronets 
of this family. Sir Samuel and Sir Thomas BaroardiHoo, sal at the: same tima 
io the Houie of Commoni . 

This family is also remarkable for baling given rise to the appellation of 
Rcundfuad, during the civil commotions under Charles I. ** The London 
apprentices/' says Rapin, " wore the hair of the head cut round ; and the 
queen, observing oat of a window, Samuel Bamardiston among them, cried 
out t ' See what a handsome mmd head is there !' Hence came this name* 
wififili was first publicly used by Captaui Hyde. 

Digitized by 




tide #f Die choBdi iko is a hiiriboMP momwrnatH, witk the pv« 
trutove of aaotlier Sir ThomiB Bmardktoii, uA Bliz•bfltt^ Jus 
hdy, wbo died in tke begtimiiig of the sixteeBth ceakory. 

The celebrated arehhiihop TiUotson was Buniater of thta plaeo 
at the time of the Cooynoiiwealth. 

LidoaTb ivia granted by William the Conqneror to Re3raold 
aaas Nase, a ffallant aoMier, who receiTed hia aimuuBe drom hav- 
ing loot his nose when attending that iMMiarch in hia wara. Going 
afterwanb on a jutgrimage to Jennalai^ he gave thia loidahip to 
the abbey of Bnry St. Edmnnd'a. 

lidga^ 18 BMOMrahle for having glYta birth and naae to John 
Lidgate, a Benedictine monk of Bury, of great oelehrity aaoag 
his contemporaries for his learning and poetic talenta. 

'' Here/' says Kirby, '' was a mount moated round near tho 
churchy on which remain the raina of a castle/'* Scarcely any 
vestiges even of the foandations are now left : bnt the aMMta are 
stiU to be seen. The inhabitaMs nsnally call it king Joha'a 
castle; and its mins are to this day dug np to repair the roads in 
its dirty neighbourhood. 

Stok£ juxia Clare is so denoa^nated to distinguish it from 
Stoke juxta Neyland^ in the adjoining hundred. Thii place is re- 
mariutble for the monastery of the Benedictine order, tranalaled 
hither from the castle of Clare by Richard de Tooebnige, who at 
the same time gave to it themamw and a littlo wood calltsd Stoke 
Ho. About 14l5j Edmund Mortimer^ earl of March obtabed the 
king's permission to change thia institution into a collegiate 
church, consisting of a dean and secular canons. This exchange 
was duly ratified by pope John XXIII. and Martin V. At the 
dissolution it was valued at 324L 4s. Id. per anaun, and granted 
to Sir John Cheke and Waller Mildmay, from whom it paaaed to 
the fiunily of Trigg. It then became the property of Sir Gervase 
Elwes, who was created a baronet July 22, 1600, and died ia 

Sir Gervase, says Mr. Topham, in his highly hiteresting and 

• Suffolk TravtUtfi fecwid edit. p. «dl. 

Digitized by 


144 6VI90iK« 

iiiitfiiaih^ life •( tka lAto Jobs Elwe», esq. '' wm i T«y Ustrlky 
gMaeMii, thAt hft^ iBV0l v«d IIS te a* Uiey iWMdi 00 all the ««*»^ 
he received sad left behind hfas/' On hb death, hb gtwidwtt 
and sttoeesser^ '' Sir Henrey^ fovnd himself nodHndyiy poflsesaed 
of some thonaande a year, but reilly witJi an ilioofli^ of elie hea* 
d<ed pounds per aimiifli. He declared On his arriYal at tiielhrnlly 
aeai at SUAm, that he would uever leave it till he had euticely 
deared the paternal estate^ and he lived to do that, aad to lealiao 
above one hundred thousand peonds in addition*" At hia death 
the estate at Stoke devolved to his nephew the bfte John Ehfrn, 
eaf . froii whsin it desoended to the present poaseasor, J. H. T. 
9hres, esq.* 

• In the aniuili of aTtrice, there is toot a more celebrated Dsoie than that of 
Etwes. The accamuiation ef money waa flie only paniM and employoiettl 
of Hie long Hie of Sir Rervey^ who, tboagh given owet in lit yoatl^ftr • 
liotuniayiian, attained to the age of upvafda of eigbty ye«e. 1>» aifioid the 
exfMMS Q^ee#pafiy« be doomed htnatlf, ftr above ns^ yeaie» totbeitrietefft 
aoiitiide« aearcely hnew the indalgeace of ire and candle* and resided in % 
mansion where tlie wind entered at every broken casement, and the rain 
descended throngh the roof. His household consisted of one man and two 
maids ; and sach was the systematic economy which gOTcmed his whole «!»• 
blishment, that tttt aonnfld etpendftnne of Sir fierrey^ though worth at leait 
ase,00(ik amMMcd to IIOL " Among tfte fbw acqnaintttees be b«d/'s»pa 
lir. Tapham, wai ali oeenskxml dnb al bit own mHago of SMke^ and there 
wore membera oC it two baroneti besides himself, S» Cordweii Virebiai» and 
Sir John Barnardiston. However rich they were, the reckoning was alwaya 
an object of their investigation. As they were one day settling this difficult 
point, an odd fellow, who was a member, called oot to a friend who was 
passing : ** For heaven's sake step up stain and assist the poor! Here are 
three baronets, worth a million of moneys qnarvainng abenC a ftHUng !** 
On iba death of Sir Hervey hi if6$p bo by in stale, web as it wai^ aS 
Stpke } and some of bia tenanta observed with more bomoar than deo«^cy« 
that it was well be could not see it. His immenae property derotved to bk 
nephew, John Maggot, who, by his will, was ordered to assume the name 
and arms of Elwes. 

Mr. Elwes, whose mother had been left a widow by a rich brewer, trith a 
fortune of one hundred Aonsand poondsy and starved benelf todeatb, proved 
himM^f a worthy heir to her and Sir Hervey. On hii firrt coming to Stoke 


Digitized by 



At Gkbat THUitLOir was onoe a small hospital or free chapel 
of the yearly Talae of 31. which was yranted by Edward IV. to 

«fter his uncle't de«di« he begao* it b trae, to keep fox-hoandt ; end bit 
stable of banters at that time was laid to be the best in the kingdom. This 
was the oalj hutaoce in the whole life of Mr. Elwes of his sacrificing money 
te pleasnre ; bat even here everj thing, was conducted in ao frugal a man* 
ner, that the whole of bu establishment, banttraan> dog*, and hor>ef> did 
not cost hun three hundred pounds a year. After a rendence of near fourteen 
yens at SUtk€, be was chosen to represent Berkshire in parliament, on which 
occasion he removed to his seat at Msrcham in that coaoty. He now relioquish- 
ed the keeping of horses and dog»; apd no man could be more attentive to his 
senatorial duties than Mr. Elwes while he continued to lit in the House of 
Commons. On his retirement from public life, to avoid the expense of a con* 
tested election, he was desirous of visiting his seat at Stoke, where he had 
not been ibr some jeart. When be reached this place, once the seat of more 
active scenes, of somewhat resembling hospitality, and where hu fox-hounds 
had diffused something like vivacity around, he remarked that " he had 
Ibmierlj expended a great deal of money very foolishly, but that a man 
grows wiser in time.'' 

Of the way of living of this accomplished miter duriug thii his last real* 
deooe at Stoke» the ibllowing account is given by his biographer i-^ 

" The rooms at his seat at Stoke» that were now much out of repair, and 
weuhi have all fallen in, but tor his son, John Elwes, Esq. who had resided 
tberei he thought too expensively famished, as worse things might have done. 
If a window was broken, there was to be no repair, but that of a little brown 
paper, or piecmg in a bit of broken glas^ which had at length been done so 
frequently, and in so manjf shapes, that it would have pussled a mathema* 
lician to say what figure they described. To save fire, he would walk about 
the remains of an old green-house, or sit with a servant in the kitchen. I>ui> 
log the harvest he would amuse himself with going into the fields to glean the 
com on the gronnds of his own tenants ; and they used tojeave a little more 
than oomnon. to please the old gentleman, who was as eager after it as any 
pauper in the parish. In the advance of the season, his morning employment 
was to pick np any stray chips, bones^ and other thmgs to cany to the fire, in 
his.pocket ; and he was one day surprised by a neighboring gentleman in the 
act of pulling down a crow's nest for that purpose. On the gentleoMn woa- 
dering why he gave himself this trouble. ** Oh, Sir 1" replied old Elwea^ 
'*'a'n really a shame that these creatures should do so. Do but see what 
waste tbey make ! Tbey don't care bow extravagant they are." 
Vm^XlV. L "As 

Digitized by 


146 suvrohK. 

the Maison Ae Diev, now part of King's College^ Cambridge. 
The hall^ with the lordafaipi formeily belonged to tin WaMe- 


" As no gletffl of fkronrite pMston, or any rty of amttsenent, broke throogli 
this gloom of penaiy, his intattable desire of saTing was now become aniform 
mid sjstematie. He used still to ride abont the country on one of the worn* 
oat mares, bat then, he rode her very economically, on the soft turf adjohi« ' 
fing the road, withoat putting himself to the ex pence of shoes, as he obaerved» 
' the tnrf was so pleasant to a hone's foot.' When any gentleman called to 
pay him a ▼isi^ and the boy wbo attended in the stable, was pioibse eoongb 
to pnt a little hay before the horse, old Elwes woold slily steal back, and 
take it carefully away* 

" That very strong appetite, which Mr. Elwes had in some measnre ie» 
itrained, during the long sitting of parliament, he now indnlged most vonu 
cioosly, and on every thing he conld find. To save, as he tbooglit, the ex* 
pence of going to a butcher, he woold have a whole sheep killed, and so eat 
mutton to the end of the chapter. When he occasionally bad his jf.wtr drawn, 
though sometimes horse loads of small fish were taken, not one wonM he suf- 
fer to be thrown in again ; (br he observed, ' he should never see Aem again*' 
Game, in the last state of putrefaction, and meat, that walked about hit 
plate, would he contmae to eat^ fadier than have new things killed, before 
the old pfOTision was finished. With this diet^ the charnel-house of suste- 
nance, hii dress kept pace, equally In the last stage of disaolution. Some- 
times he would walk about in a tattered brown-coloured, and sometimes in a 
red and white woollen cap, like -m prisoner confined Ibr debt. His shoes ha 
never would suffer to be cleaned, lest they should be worn out the soonetl 
When any friends, wbo might occasionally be with him, were absent, he 
would carefully put out his own fire, walk to the house of a neighbor, and 
thus make one fire serve for both. But still, with all this self-denial, this pe- 
nuiy of life, to which the inhabitant of an afans-boose is not doomed, ttill 
did he think himself profuse, and frequently say, ' be must be a Httle more 
eaieM of his property.' 

" The scene of mortification at which Mr. Elwes had- now airivech was all 
but a denial of the oommon necessaries of life; and indeed It might have ad- 
mittad a doobt« wbetfier, if his manors, his fish-ponds, and some grounds 
in bis own hands had not fhmished a subsistence, where he bad not any thing 
actually to buy, he would not rather have starved than have bought any Aing. 
He one day, during this period, diaed upon the remaiBiag part of a moor* 


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ggmrm, and allermdB to Bif Cordd Firebrace, Bart By Ui« 
htler they were sold to James Vcrnoiif Esq. irbofte de^cadaut 
BOW haft his leat here. 

In the contiguous p&risli of Little TauRLOw is a noble old 
mansioD, long the residence of the family of Soame. The cliordi 
^ntains a handsoBie mmiumeni, in mctm^ry of Sir SkplRii 8o&mti^ 
iuyt, wlbo had heen liMrd major of LoDdoo. He built tht fuinify 
residesoe during the leign of qaecn EUzabetli ; lie alao founded 
liem a free-school and an alms-bouse^ aod died la 1619* 


This hundred is diTided from Essex on the south hy the Stonr| 
911 the west it is boundcJ by Uie same rivcr^ and tlie hundred of 
Rbbridge; on the nortl* hy the hundreds of Thingo and Thed- 
westrj; and on the east by those of Cosford aod Samford. Tht 
principal place in the hundred of Babergh la, 

Sudbury^ a borough and market town of hi^h antiquity, and 
fmce of much greater importance tlinn at present^ situated on 
the Stour, which is na? igable for barges to this place, and over 
which there is a well built stone bridge. It compreUends three 
parishes^ now incorporated, with tJie same number of large, hand* 
L2 som^ 

\A, wBich bad been broach t out of the riTer l>j a rat ; and at nnotber ifQ 
tlie undigested part of a piUr which a largi^r one bad iwal lowed, but had 
notfiniabedy and wbicb were taken in thi^ »iaie in a nef. At the (imc (lilt 
laat circamstanee bappenedj he djscorered a itringe kind o{ s^tibnictrotfj tib- 
•enring: ' Aje I thii was killing two biidf with one itune ! Tq the room uf 
all comment let it be remarked tbfil at Ihif time Mr. Elwes wa* perhnpi 
]rorth near eight handred thoQiand pounds*" 

Tbb eitraordinarj nun <Bed Noveiiiber tftli 1789| at his scat at Marcbom, 
■fal Berkature^ hafring bjwill bequetthcd all bit r«a) atid perscnul eslate^ to 
theTalae <yf balf a million sterling, to his two natural »oiih Getirge nitd John 
£|wfi| Iba latter of whom U the preient propnttor of Stoke. 

Digitized by 


i4S nvTFKiix. 

some eharches, St Gregory^s; St. Peter^s, and All Saints, SM 
lioiues, and 3283 inhabitants. It is a corporate town, governed 
by a mayor, six aldermen, and twenty-fonr capital bargessest 
Ever since 1559 it has returned two members to parliament, 
elected by the whole body of freemen, abont 720 in number ; and 
it gives the title of baron, to the duke of Grafton. It has a 
weekly market on Sliturday, and two annual fairs, on March 12th 
and July lOlh. 

Sudbury was anciently denominated Southhurgh, hi oontradia^ 
tinction to Norwich, then called Northburgh, It was one of^the 
first places at which king Edward III. settled the Flemings whom 
he invited to this country, to instruct his subjects in the woollen 
manufacture, of which they wore before wholly ignorant. The 
various branches of this manu&cture continued to flourish, here 
for some centuries, and afforded subsistence to a great number of 
the inhabitants of this town, who were chiefly employed in the 
weaving of says, burying crape, and ship's flags: but Sudbury, 
like many other places in this county, possessing scarcely any 
.remains of its former trade, which has fixed its seat in other dia* 
tricts of the kingdom, is consequently on the decline. 

Simon de Sudbury, who was archbishop of Canterbury in 1375, 
and beheaded by the populace in Wat Tyler's insuirection, was a 
native of this town : his family name was Theobald. He built 
the upper end of St Gregory's church, and on the spot where his 
fisither's house stood, he founded and endowed a college, which at 
the suppression, was of the yearly value of 122L .18a. Leland 
says, that the same prelate, in conjunction with John de Chertsey, 
founded here a priory of the order of St. Augustine, though Weevil 
ascribes it to Baldwin de Shimplingand Mabel his wife, who were 
both interred in the chancel of the priory church. This priory bad 
a revenue, valued at the dissolution at222L 18a. dd. per annuhr; 
and part of the building, converted into a private habitation, is still 
standing. In the reign of John, Amicia, countess of Clare, 
founded in this town an hospital, dedicatedtoJesua Christ and the 
Virgin Mary ; and a church, or chapel, in its neighborhood, dedi* 


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oted to SL Bartfaolomew, was givtn to the abbey of Westmia-. 
•ter, by Wnlfirie, master of the mint to king Henry II. npea 
vhich a priory of Beaedictine monks^ subordinate to thai abbey> 
was settled there, Thi» priory, of vhich Kirby has given a pnnt» 
vas pulled down in 1779. 

The body of Simon of Sudbury, archbishop of Canterbury^ 
was interred in St Gregory's church in this town, *' where/' says 
the author ci a Tour through Great Britain/ published in 1748, 
^ his head is still showu. It was not long since entire, covered 
with the flesh and skin, dried by art ; tlie month wide o^ea, occa- 
sioned by convulsions, through the hard d<fath hi; died, having suf- 
fered eight blows, before his head was cut oC Mr. Gough say^ 
that it ia still shewn, the skin tanned, and the ears entire. f U i« 
deposited under a marble stone, four yards long and two broad, iu 
the chapel, or the partpf the church, which was built by himself; 
the monument erected in honor of him, in the cathedral of Can; 
terbnry, being only a cenotaph.^ An inscription in the window of 
the chapel, near his tomb, recorded his foundation in these words ; 

Orate pro Domino Simone Tliepold, alias Sudbnfy,qui istam 
capeUam fundavit Anno Domini 1385, m commemoratione om- 
nium animarum. Dedicate dot. Consecrat, 

. Sudbury has still a manufacture of says; and also a small silk 
manufactory, established some years ago by the London mercers, 
on account of the deamess of labour in Spitalfields. The town 
gives name to one of the two archdeacoQs of this county. 

Sudbury was the birth place of Thomas Gainsborough, one of 
the most eminent English painters of the 18th century. He was 
born in 1727, and at a very early age, manifested a remark- 
able propensity for the art in which he was destined so highly to 
excel. He was sent, while yet very young, for instruction to 
London, where he first practised the modelling of figures of ani- 
mals, in which he attained great excellence. He drew, under the 

L 3 direction 

* Vol. L p. SS. t Camden II. 164, i See Bcautief . Vol. YIH. p. ^t^ 

Digitized by 





direction of GraTelol, the ornamentB for Honbraken's lietds^ and 
painted small landscapes for sale. At length he undertook por^ 
traits, and after a residence for some years at Ipswich and Bath, 
be finally fixed his residence in the metropolis, in 1774. His ex« 
tellence in a short time engaged the notice of his majesty, of 
%vhom, as well as of most of the branches of his family, he exe- 
ented admired portraits. No other patronage was necessary to 
taise him to the first rank in his profession, in regard to bnsiness 
and emolument In other respects, Gainsborough possessed all 
ihe characters of original genius. His talents for music were ex- 
traordinary, and with very little knowledge of books, he wrote 
letters in a style, which might have been taken for a close imita- 
tion of the manner of Sterne. Hu conversation was sprightly 
And humorous, and his heart was ever alive to friendly and ge- 
tierons emotions. He died at his house in Pall Mall, August 3, 
|788, and was interred in the church-yard at Kew. 

Ckiinsborough had a brother, a dissenting minister at Henley 
iipon Thames, who possessed as strong a genius for mechanics, as 
lie had for painting. At his death, he left all his models of ma- 
chines, engines, dials, and other curiosities to the painter, by 
^hom tiiey were presented to one of his earliest patrons the well 
known Philip Thicknesse. A sun-dial, of ingenious contrivance, 
^as given by that gentleman to the British museum. Few men 
were more highly respected than this worthy divine, who was not 
teas etaiinent for benevolence, simplicity, and integrity, than for 
<genins. It has abo been stated, that an elder brother than ei« 
ther of these, who continued to reside at Sudbury, was scarcely 
inferior to them for proficiency in the arts. 

William Enfield was also bom at Sudbury, in 1741. 
After receiving his education among the protestant dissent^ 
itn at Daventry, the congregation at Liverpool made choice 
p{ -him for their minister, when he was no more than 22 years of 
iage. Here he published two volumes of Sermons, and also a col- 
lection of Hymns and Family Prayers, In 1770 he was ap- 
pointed tutor and lecturer in the belles lettrcs at Warrington Aca» 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


4c»^y«atttiutMnvluchbefilkdlwtoBey«ffBwitiigeii«rtl ap-, 
probation^and vnireahed diligeiice. He vai the oompUer of man^r 
useful booka, among the moat popular ni wkich may be ranke^ 
the Speaker, compoaed of piecea ix recitatioo firom the beat Eiig<» ' 
liaik aathon. The Preacher* $ Directory; the EngUih Preacher^ 
a coUectioa of aeraona hy the most celebrated diviaea ; Biogra^ 
fkical Serwums, on the principal charaden of the Old and New 
Tealaaeoty and naay aingle sermona on particular oecaaiona^ 
were also the prodacftioaa of bia pen. He tikewiie publiahed in 
gaarto^ InHihUes of Natural PhUoiopky, and hadUie degree of 
LL. D. oonfened on bim daring bia reaidcnce al Ufarrington. 
Some time after the diBsolotion of the academy at that plaoa, be 
WBB, in 1785y choeen pastor of the Octagon meeting-boose, at 
Norwich, the daties of which chaige he fulfilled till his death, oq 
the 3rd Norember, 1797. Besides bia literary labors already ena- 
merated, he execnted the ardoooa tuk of abridging Brucker'i 
flistary of PkUoiopky, which appeared in 1791, in two volnmea 
quarto. He contributed Isrgely to the Biographical Dictionary^ 
pnUishad undeir tbe superintendence of Dr. Aikin. The very 
numerous list of anbscribera to bia posthumous Semumf, in 3 Tols. 
8to. attest tbe general estimation b wbidi this amiable, el^anty 
and jnaily admired writer, waa held. 

Li^vENjKAM, commonly called Lanham, formeriy a market town, 
but now much decs^ed, ia sealed on an bill of ea^ ascent, at tha 
foot of wbioh nma tbe river Breton, or Bret. It containa 331 
bopsea, and 1776 inhabitants. 

Tbia place waa once &mooa for ita manufSEictnre of blue cloths. 
For the better regulation of tbia manu&cture, and employing and 
piOfiding for the poor, three guilds, or companies, of St. Peter^ 
the Hcdy Trinity, and Coipoa Chriafti, were establiabed. On 
the decUfte of .tbia nmnufectpre, Layenbain atiU retained a consi- 
dnable lilapliBg trade for ma)ung serges, shalloons, says, stafi^, 
and ginning fine yam for London, which became very flourish* 
ing from tbe erection of a wool-ball, which being commodionsl^ 
fritittled^ finr tbe liadera of tbe adjacent parts of the county, waa 

L 4 ^^^^ 

Digitized by 



mnch frequented. Of all these mannfactares/ Lavenham noir 
has nothings but the sphining of woonen yarn^ and the making' 
of calimancoes. A considerable manuiiMtttr« of hempen cloth, 
has, however, of late years, been established in this town. It is 
governed by six capital burgesses, who are chosen for life, and 
appoint the inferior officers. It has a free-school, a bridewell 
part of which is appropriated to the purposes of a workhouse, and 
a spacious market-place, with a stone cross in the centre, hot the 
market has long been disused. It has an annual lair, on Shrore 
Tuesday, for hones ; and another, on the 10th of October, whtck 
lasts four days, for butter and cheese. 

The church, standing on the hill, at the west end of the town, 
is not only the principal ornament of Lavenham, but is ac- 
eounted the most beautiful fabric, in its kind, in this county. 
It is chiefly built of free-stone, the rest being of curious flint- 
work; its total length is 156 feet, and its breadth 68. The 
steeple, admirable both for its strength and beauty, is 141 feel 
high, and 42 in diameter, and has six bells. 

That some of the De Veres, earls of Oxford, and the Springs, 
who were opulent clothiers in this town, were the principal found- 
ers of this church, is evident, from their arms being put up in 
80 many parts of the building : but we have no certain accoun 
by which of them, or at what period it was erected. We are in- 
formed, that *' in the time of one Thomas Spring, a rich dothi^, 
this church was old and decayed, whereupon he gave two hundred 
pounds towards the repairs, and fats posterity, joining with the 
earls of Oxford, the posterity of his daughter finished it"* Wee- 
ver telk us, that Thomas Spring, sumamed the rich clothier, 
died in 1510, and was buried under a monument, on the north side 
of the chancel; and that he built both the south and north cha- 
pels on each side of the chancel; but he must be mistaken in 
this circumstance^ as appears from two legends, inscribed near 
the top of these chapeb. That on tlie north side is. Orate jir9 
m^TThonuB Springe, ArrrSg. et Alideuxoris, efui iiui iskim 

' eapeUem 


Digitized by 


uvmnx. m 

^epeUamJUrifeeenmi, Anmo JDm. mJUnko CCCCC \ 

^hUo. And Uwi on tliettorth: SmtmisBrmeki «t EUMaiei^ 

mstoris ejus qui isttm capettmmJUri fecerunt From dm finlnC 

these iMcriptioni, it is evidesd, thsl Weever't scoosiii is ciiwhomb, 

in regsi^ to the time when tiiis part of tlie bniMing wis erected, 

and from tbe latter, respeetiiig tlie penon by wImnb it was IbadU 

ed. • Of tbe mensment whidi lie mentioas^ not the smslfnt 

traces are now to be found, in the Tsstry, indeed, thsie mm aa 

bid tomb^ with this inseriplion: Orde p aSs Thomm Sprgmge 

qui'koc vegtihnhtmfieri fecit, m vtia taa tt Margartte uxor. c& 

A. D. mtaimo CCCCLXXXVI. et p de^—MargarHe oh^ 

d}e MTss-'A. D. mimmo CCCCLXXXIF. quor'Sabz^icia 

De. Amen. Hence it appears, that this Thomas Spring hnOt the 

▼estry, and it is highly probable, that he, in eonjanction with 

acme of the earls of Oxford, who welne then lords of the honor of 

XaTenham, began to erect this elegant stmctore, and that it was 

iiiiished by their descendants. This conjeetare u strengtiiened, 

ly the different qnarterings of the arms npon the hnilding. Upon 

the steeple are the arms of De Vere, quartered with tiiose of Ne- 

▼il, Howard, and Montague ;* also those of Monthermer, earl of 

Gloucester and Hertford, the episcopal arms of Canterirary and 

liondon ; and on the top of it, twenty-six coats with the arms af 

the Spring only. 

The porch is an elegant piece of architecture, rery highly en* 
Inched, . and in it are six shidds, all within garters, widi the arms 

' e It cAii acncely i4mk of a dooU, Umc tbete were tlie arvt of John de 
-Vere, IStb carl of Ozlbrd, wiw was high cliaaibcrlaiA sml •daarml of Eng- 
iaad, is the reign of Edward IV. , and died in 1 513. He aarried Margaret* 
daoghter of Richard Nerfl, earl of Salisbnty, and as he was heir apparent to 
both the title and estate of his father, had a right of quartering the arms of his 
mother, who was daughter of 3ir John How«fd,Qncle to the first dokeofNoiw 
ioHc of that name; as well as those of his wife*s mother, who was the dangb- 
jter of Thomas Montagne, Iborth earl of Salisbnry. These arms are not within, 
MjgnttT, and it is known that the noUemaa in question was not a Imigbt of 
^his order. 

Digitized by 


•f tke De Veres, impaled and qoarteMd willi tbose of onyaf 
ike most nobk iuMaies io the kiagdon. Tbey are adforned willi 
Wan, which were the avpportets of the aim of the De Vera% 
and upon one of them aie the letters I. O. probably int^ded Ibf 
tke initiab of Mm, the fcnrteenih earl of Oxford, wl^ was a 
kaight «f the garter, and nanried the daaghter of Thomas Howt 
avd, dake of NorMlk. Ho ia coiueetared to have erected thia 
ponh, ond died in 1529. 

In the interior, the roof is admirably carved, and the two pewf 
bdoogtng to the earls of Oxford, and the Springs, though no^ 
aomewhat decayed, were highly finished pieces of Gothic work in 
wood. The windows are nnmeroos, and some of them are stiU 
embellished with punted glass, representing the arms of the De 
Veres and others. 

On the left hand side of the altar is a monument of alabaster, 
and marUe painted and gilded, erected to the memory of the 
Bey. Henry Copinger, rector of Layenham. In an arched re- 
cess between two Corinthian oolonbis, which support a cornice, 
eormoonted with the arms of the family, are represented, in alto 
•relievo,the reverend divine and bis wife, facing each other, in the 
attitude «f prayer, both in black, with white ruSb round their 
iiecks. On either side, upon a pedestal, stands an angel at falj 
length, with a scroll in his hand; one bearing these words; 
DiiecH accipite corcuam vtf 4C-^and on the other, Mortui veniie 
^dJudicmm. Under the principal figures are three compart- 
ments. In the middle are seen their children, all habited in black 
' and kneding before an altar, eight sons, two and two on one side ; 
and foor daughters, singly, on the other. The first of the for- 
mer is represented cross^garlered down the leg, in the fiuihio|i at*- 
Inded to, by Shakspeare, in the fifth act of las Twelfth Night 
In the pannel on the left, is this inscription : 

Sacrum memorie 
Henrici Copingeri antiquissima CopiE^ronim familia id sgro hoc Sdlbl* 
eiesii oriasdi, bojai ecclem quadcagtQta ^ ^uin^ue smioi pastoria pad* 


Digitized by 



Aflba nvito opttne ttcranti hea invito topeiatet i 

Aaians iiiairitii|» pioli fceemidtts {wtar» 

Sancti pivt pMtor gregb* 

Qvi atDMi 4exCi« codicis dociiit ncrib 

K«c voce qoMii Tito magis; 

Qui larga abunde pavit indigot manu, 

Securof annoniB domi : 

Bic plenas annu pleoior Deo jacet, 

SecniB polo grtgtm trafaea% 

liataa jaod ; Md fingaa ^nm vivo decw 

Vitam paraTit mortuo. 

The iuBcription on tbe riglit hand side is aa follows :— 

** This monument was erected at the sole cost of Mrs. Anne 
C<^inger, in memory of her dear hnahand^ the reverend, learned, 
and godly divine, Mr. Heniy Copinger, (fourth son of Henry 
Copinger, of Buxhall, in tUs eountie, Esq. by Agnes his wife, 
daughter to Sir Thomas Jermine, of Rushhrooke-Hall, Knt) the 
painful and vigilant rector of this church by tiie apace of forty-five 
years; prebendarie of the metropolitan church of St. Peter in 
York; lord of this town, and patron of the church of Bnxhall 
aforesaid, who married Anne, daughter of Henry Fisher, of Linne 
in Norfolk, Gent. By her he had eight sons and four daughters ; 
and after he had lived godly seventy-two years, died peaceably 
Ttlsl Dec. Anno 1622.'* 

Underneath all is this inscription : Justorum Memaria hene^ 

Of the divine to whom this monument was erected. Dr. Fuller 
relates the following anecdote: Dr. Reynolds, who held the 
living of Lavenham, having gone over to the church of Rome, 
the Earl of Oxford, the patron, presented Mr. Copinger, but on 
condition that he should pay no tithes for his park, which com- 
preh^ed almost half the land in the parish. Mr. Copinger told 
his lordshipi that he would rather return the presentation, than by 
isnch a sinful gratitude betray the rights of the church. This anw 

9 Bwer 

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•Iff MVtnaOL 

swerso affected the earl, that he replied :'' I scorn that my estcti 

ihoald swell with church goods:" His heir, however, actuated 

by leas liberal sentiments^ contested the rector's right to the 

tithes ; and it cost Mr. Copinger 160(M. to recover that right, and 

leave the qniet possession of it to his succesaora. 

In the north able is a small mural monument, upon which are 

represented a man and woman engraved on hnsa, kneeling before 

a table, and three sons and three daughters behind them. From 

the month of the mauL proceeds a label, on which are these words : 

In numus tua$ dUe cammendo spifitum mewm. Underneath ia 

ibis inscription, -which, like that of the ld>el, is in the old English 


Contynnan prayw tboe lynet in braiie « 

Of AUaine Dister here, 
A clothier vertoous while he wts 
In LaTcnham many a yeare. 
For as in Ijefe he lored best 
The poore to clothe and feede, 

SowithtberfcheaDdaUtfa»f«st % 

He n^ghbottUe agreed ; 
• And did appt^nte before he dyed, 
A special! yearlie rent> 
Whiche shoulde be erery Whitsontide 
Amonge the poorest spent 

£l obiU Anno Dni 1554. 

Whatever may have been the nature of this bene&ction men- 
tioned in the preceding inscription, it ia now lost, and no peraoii 
can give any account of it. 

In the chancel there is a very old grave«stone, which formerly 
had a Saxon inscription, at present completely defoced« Kirby 
says,* that in the church-yard, on the tomb of one John Wiles, a 
batchelor, who died in 1694, is this odd jingling epitaph: 

Qaod fait esse qood est, quod non fait esse qaod esse 
Esse qaod est non esse, qood est non erit esse. 


• Historical Account of TweWe Prints of Monaiteries, Ace. ia the.cooat^ 

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^' There areoKveral BobstftiitU chanttei bd^Qging to tlim town. 
The inliabituito woe mtny yean since enebled to purchase aa 
estate of 80L per annam for repairing the ahns-honaes^ and sap^ 
porting the poor placed in them. In 1G96, Edward Cohnan, Esq. 
of Famiral's-Inn, beqneathed 9001. for the education of the chil* 
dben here; and anch additions were made to thissom by the dona« 
iioDS of .others, as purchased a eonraiient dwelling-hoase and 
school -room, and an annuity of thirty pounds for a master* Mn 
Coleman likwise left dOOL to he laid out in land, and the rent to. h« 
Applied towards binding onl one poor hoy yearly from Mildea^ 
Brent lUeigh, or IjiTenham. 

Lavenham was one of Hie two hundred and twenty-one lord* 
ships in Sufiblk given by William the Conqueror to Robert Malel^ 
who.foifeited his possessions by joining Robert, the eldest son of 
the Conqueror, on which, in. 2 Henry L that king conferred it 
on Aubrey de.Vere, in whose posterity it remained tall alienated 
hy Edward, Earl of Oxford, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth^ 
to Paul d'Ewes, Esq. Robert de Vere, in 18 Edward I. obtained n 
eharter for a yearly hu in this town; and 3 Edward III. Ro* 
bert> his son and heir, procured anoth^, authorizing his to* 
nsnts at > this place to pass toll-free throughout all England; 
which grant was confirmed by Queen Elizabeth in the twenty- 
screnth year of her reign. The lordship is at present vested in 
Richard Moore, Esq. of Melford. 

Among the customs peculiar to this place, it may be remarked 
that the tenants of the manor, and other inhabitants, have always 
been exempt from serving at any court held for this hamlet ; and 
that the tenure called JBorosf A English is still to be met with 

Lavenham was the birth-place of Richard de Lanham, a 
divine of considerable eminence and great learning, who was be- 
headed with Archbishop Sudbury by the foUowera of .Wat Tyler in 

Thomas Sprung, commonly called the rtc& clothUr, if not 

horn in this town, at least acquired his wealth by the trade of it 

6 FVom 

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WilUam Spring, Esq. of Pakeoham, w^, m, 1641, i t — t o i l ft 
baronet by Cbarles I. 

Sir THOMA4 CooKB» liatd-mayar of Lnadon is 14S9, via 
th0 aoo of BiDiiert Caoke, <tf LaTenbaa. He waa anaigied 
mite Eiwar4 IV. fi« laadtng amiey to tbe booae of Laacaa* 
tar; b«i thoai^ be eacaped tbrangb tbe iatagrity af tbe jadfa 
ani jury, witb Ua life, be waa bearily ined and bag iapn* 
aHiedL Hia daagbtar, Mildred, aiarried Wiliiaai Cecil, Lord 
Barkigb, loid-treaaiirer of Ea^^and, wbo bad a large Ibrtoae wilk 
ber. His descendants, to wbom also be boqacatbed a cbnaiderable 
ydrimmy, bwlt Gadaa Hall, near Biunirad, in Eaaex, wbere tbey 
flewiahad fu several sneoeaaioaa. 

N&YLiMD ia seated en tbe Bflftb baafcef tbe Stonr, overwbiob 
it bM * large brick bridge of m» arob leading into Eaaex. Frott 
ita km aitnatiaa it ia a d by e e l to aeoaaioBal iaandationa. Tbe 
yaalkn maaoftrtnge, wbieb vaa once isery flourisbkiig in tbistowa, 
ia redneed to a law ebb, only saaie yuv being now made f&t 
die maan fi ic ta r e of crape aad baa ibaacon at Norwich. It baa a 
■ean weekly market cm Fridays ; and a &ir yearly on ^e 2d of 
Oetohar. Aecordiag to tbe ennmeration of 18(M, it contaiBed 
147 booaes, and 881 inbabitaats. 

Thediarcb, wtib iU vgm ateeple standing in tbe middle of tbe 
town, ia its principal ornament. It contains nothing remarkable^ 
«i:cepi a km ancient HMMinments for persons formerly eminent in 
tbe clothing trade. One Abel, a cloth worker, we are informed,* 
bnilt tbe handsome porch of this diureh, in the wall of which 
be baa a fim»al monnment, and ify signify bis name, as also to 
make up his coat-armour, the letter A and the picture of a bell are 
cast upon tbe monument. 

Tbe manor of Neyland was one of those given to Hubert de 
Bur^g^ 1^ Henry III. when be created him Earl of Kent; but 
falling into disgrace with that king, he was obliged to part with 
aevecal of bis caatlea and lands to aeeuie the quiet enjoyment of 


* Magna BHtmmw, VoL V. p. 179* 

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the raft, h 18 Bdwaxd UL H belongei ta Lord Semp, «f 

. This town gave a tide of hoporto Sir Richard We«loii« wm aai 
.hair af Sir Jeronne Westoa, ofRaxwell^ in Essen, who hMo^ 
Aeen ea^U^ed in yariona embassies^ and discharged seveni offiosa 
of trait with great integrity In the reign of James I. and his crm- 
*ce8Bar, was by the latler advanced to the peerage by the title af 
Lord Weston of Neyland. Being soon afterwards eonstitatedlopd- 
iiaasuwr ef EagfamdA and appointed a knight of the garter, he 
•was ia 8 Charles I. created Earl of P^rtkmd; and both these 
honora were ei^yed for some aneeessioiis by hia descendaati. 

The other plaoea in this hnndred worthy of notice are as fol- 

Acton, formerly criled Aketon, a smafl Tillage atanfing on 
•tihe westom side of the road fimn Sndbnry to Lavenham. In 9 
Edward L the manor af thia pari^ waa the possessionof Bobert 
'de Bners; bat it was afterwards given by King Edward IV; to 
Henry Lord Bonchier, for his fidthfdl services to the York hauif. 
In this parish was anciently a ehaantry of the annnal valae of 
€7L 28. 8 d. 

Acia» Place waa formerly the aeat of the Daniels, and sold 
ty them to Robert Jennens, Es^. who began to rebaild this ma&- 
.lion, wluch, thongh a ine stractmre, waa never completely finish- 
ad. Hia son, William Jennens, Esq. died in 1791, at the 
age of 93, or as some say 100, with the rqnitation of being tile 
richest anbject in the kingdom. On hia decease the fine topestry 
waa torn from 4ie walls, and sold,, with the fornitore and other 
moveaUea. This noble mansion having since that time been in- 
habited only by an old man and woman, now presents adeplorabie 
spectacle of dilapidation ; and the approach to it cannot be traced 
: bat by the colour and height of the grass which has grown ever 
the graveL The interior still exhibits some vestige of ite fttmer 
splendor. The hall is adorned with alto relievos ; and the ceiling 
• with an admirable painting of a subject firom the heathen mytho- 
-b^» At each comer is also a figure of one of its fitbled divinitiea. 


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At the end, and on c^ch Bide, are paintings of frnit and aidmalBT hf 
Snyders : and circular recesses contain six busts of admirable 
isorkmanship. In tbe pannels over the fire-places, in different 
apartments, are portraits of the late proprietor and his parentu^; 
and the library, contains a beaatiful fruit piece by Snyders. A 
carious specimen of the female industry of formter days still exists 
here in what is denominated the Pinnt-Roam, the whole of which 
is hung with needle-work in blue and white, the iumiture of tbe 
bed and chairs being of the same. The adjoining apartment i0 
called the Silk-Room, from the elegant painted silk with which it 
is famished. Here is yet shewn as a curiosity a small bed, the 
Idmitore of which is said to be lined with the shirts of King Wil- 
liam III. who was god-father to the late owner of this mansion. 
The offices forip wings on each side of the house, and give the 
whole an air of grandeur, which the more strongly excites regret 
at its present neglected condition. The gai'den has fared even 
worse than the building, for it has been plowed up, and is now 
cultivated as a field. 

BoxFORD, ^Ye miles from Sudbury, is situated in a fertile and 
highly cultivated valley, between two brooks, which unite a little 
below it The parish contains ninety-nine houses, and 636 inha- 
bitants. The town^ consisting qf several streets, carries on a 
considerable trade in malt; and has a manufactory for dressing 
sheep and deer skins* Here are two yearly fairs, on Easter- 
Mouday, and December 21. 

The church is a spacious building, ninety-fiv^ feet long, and 

. fifty-two broad, and has a spire steeple. The porch on the south 

side is of stone ; over the entrance are seven niches, with a number 

of inscriptions now nearly obliterated. The town contains also 

a free grammar-school, founded by Queen Elizabeth. 

About a mile south-east of this village, situated in the parish^ 
of Boxford, Stoke, and Ossington, is Peyton Hall, granted by 
William the Conqueror to Robert Malet, the progenitor of tlie 
ancient family of Peyton, by which it was long possessed ; and 


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aerly die reiidence of die Bennett %ul^, InlAewn fiuraHlioiina 
BoxsTBAD «lMi, .9 fidfraid L Ihn mmt «al eitato «f 4he 
ibbe^ ef Bury, fcnt ira aAerwwris giateil^ hy wkat bmmui «e 
ice not infomed, to JUheit Ourlealoa, ndio iitaa^ eteintedl lif 
ilie fioit parlinmevt of Edinurd IV. It iPa« given, mtk iome odMr 
mnnois, toAiclnrd 0nke of Glonoeeter^ biotlMr of thnt monaNh. 
Jt 4ras afterweidi t)ie leat of the Pookye. S^his eAeieat mfsobt 
iijan fiaiifye(Nrend itidf inio tiie «orei»i-flouMimg faraneliee 
hete, at Colaiabine Hnll inSkmwmtksi, nnd «t findley^ in the 
.knndred of Bonnere. 

BraBS, or Buebs, an inconeidenfale nillage etaahal oniltt 
AoniE, in tiie plaoe mbm, .nocoidingr te ^GaMndos de fontiiMn, 
«St £dnandwafl<arown«ElUilgofti>e£«iiUAnglen. Ovmnwnn 
ibr cmcijii^ inA ^tfaone itfho f«reuiciiiMd4oiplnne die ooene of. 
Jdat ^sremony at Bniy, bKveabMdyfaeHintaieL ItbanalUr 
fmthf 4m JBoiy Tfcnnday . 

Tlie neat chnrch and Bfite steeple wen bnaerly great oma- 
jnenti to thia yiUvge; 1738 tie .spire «aa eaten fine by 
iightauig, end iNwned doma to the stei^le, vhieii was inicIi da- 
maged. Vke Ml-teaies wen Ufccwiae eonsnaied, awl the belli 
-Holfed, laatMttb on fte nMth aide of this olnieh lies 4beerose- 
legged fignie of a knight, whom tradition reports to have been 
named Comard, and to fanire aoU a i|nn in the paaah eatted Com 
■flU, for A»nr-|Mnee, in the time of Henry lU. Mere are likewise 
the moDnments of theBnera, who took their nanieaiirom this ^aoe, 
BirABdiew, who died i» 1860; aadkaaaonRebert^ theMlewing 
fear. Seveni indit idnnb of the Walgrave £yni)y are also interred 
jn this ehnrchf an: Sir Richard Walgrave, Knt who died in 
14m, and Joanna, his wifis, in 1406, to the inaeription on whose 
4aab iandded--'' He Oat pcaya ibr oUmdi labom liMrhiBttelf/'^ 
Air Biehard Walgaan^ Knt and Jeama, hiawife, fhedMghtir 
of Sir Thomaa Mondchensy^ Knt. who died, tfaefcimer in 14M, 
and IheklterinlifiD/JUhrttd WalgMne^ and If ebel his ^ife. 
Vol. XIV. M who 

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mhoiktAia ld06; and Sir WiIIhub WalgATe, Knt. and Mai^ 

Wfaevor giving an acoomit oi- the antiqmty of the Walgrates^ 
infemw us, tbat they were a rich femily in Northampftbnahircf, 
before the conqneat, at which time John WalgrarTe, resident th^re, 
waa iU repreacntative. One Walgrave, a German, who came 
over to England with William I. meting wHh him, proposed, 
that if he wonld give him hia only daughter and heir in fuat* 
riage, he would proeore a grant, from the Conqueror, to enaofe 
to him the quiet enjoyment of all hia lands and poaaesaiotts, • The 
English Walgrave, accepting the proposal of hia Gerklan nam^ 
sake, the latter obtained a grant from William, under hia own 
Aand and seal, confirming to him, and hia posterity, aH his lands; 
which grant, in the F^rench language, was in the hands of the 
loida of thia manor in 1612. This fiunily of WalgraVe, or Wal- 
degiave, reaided, lor many, generations, at Snudlbridge, in this 
parish, now almost entirely demolished; but afterwards renMMred^ 
into the county of Essex. 

A legacy of SOOOL waa left» by William Martin, Esq. of Lii^ 
coin's Inn Fields, London, in the handa of certain ttuateea, that 
out of the interest^ among other thinga, the sum of 401. might 
be annually paid to the vicar of thia pariah, and hia auccessot* 
for ever. 

BasNT Illbioh, a village and manor, belonging to the ances- 
tors of Sir Henry Shelton, who procured, of King Henry IIL, 
the grant of a maiket for it, long aince discontinued. His poste* 
rity flourished here for many yean, but the property waa after- 
wards aold to the fiunily of Cohnan. Dr. Colman, of Trinity 
college, Cambri4g<^ built a fine parochial libnuy, at the end of 
,the chancel, and well furnished it with books ; and Edward Col- 
man, Esq. erected and endowed n neat alms-house, for six poor 
people: but the last of that frmily, transferred the estate to Ua 
kinsman, Edward Goat, Eaq. 

Cavendibb, ia situated on the Stour, between Long Melibrd 


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ttid dure, and is remarkable for giving name to one of ihe mest 
illostrioiis homes in Great Britain. A younger foraach of the* 
Gernons, a family of considerable note in Norfolk and Essex, 
being seated in this Tillage, of which they- were lords, assamed 
the surname of de Cayendish, and produced seyeral indiyiduak of 
great enunence. Among these, were 

Sir John Cavsndi0h« who was bom in this plaee, and in 46 
Edward III. was made chief justice of the King's Bench, which^ 
office he filled with great reputation till d Richard II., when the 
people of this county, instigated by the example of Jax;k Straw 
and Wat Tyler, rose in r^bdlion, under John Raw, a priest, and 
Robert Westbroom. The chi^ justice falUng into the hands of 
tiie rahUe, who were exasperated at the intelligence of the death 
of. Wat Tyler, by the hand of his aon, iims dragged to Bu- 
ry, and thoe his head being struck off, was set upon ihe 
piUwy at the market cross. His remains were interred in the 
chancel of the church of this place. He had two wives, by 
whom he left issue, two sons and a daughter. It was his younger 
son, John, one of the esquires of the body to Richard II. that 
dispatched Waft Tyler, in SmithfieUI, for which serrice he was 
knighted, on the spot, by the king, who also settled a pension of 
401. on him and his heirs for erer. 

Sir William Caten'dish, having in the reign of Edward VI. 
and Mary, held various important offices at court, obtained a coft- 
sidfifable portion of the possessions of the dissolved monasteries, 
and thus Imdthe foundation of the snbse^eut splendid fortune of 
his house. His son^ WtHiam, was created, by James I., Baron 
Cavendish, of Hardwicke, and earl of Devonsbire, and was the 
ancestor of the present ducal house of that name ; and from ano- 
ther branch of the same family, descended the Cavendishes^ 
didies of Newcastle. 

The church ai Cavendish, a handsome structure, wi^ a square 
tower, is sud to have been built by one of the abbots of Bury. 

M2 U 

• Sec BttuUes, Vol. X, 175. 

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In tkis ftimh, dost a lyiile onUhe road'to dare, U aa «lq;«al 
Mat, built by — • HaHtfta, E«q. baakar, af li^ndoa. wkiab aai»* 
ipandsan exteoiive and baiatiM jinispeet 

Cbiltqn, vaa fumeily the reaid^nee of the ^Euaily of Craae, 
qf atbifih 3ir Joha Ciane, Knt was croaled a baronel ia 1687. 
This family, and conseqoently the title, is aov extinot Tlie eatalf 

vas pnrobasad by Golding, Esq. of Mew Hovae, ia the {«- 

riah of Posliagford, in whose fiunily it now oontianes, beiag: the 
BfQporty of Cfeorge Golding, Esq. qf Thoiriagtan HsU, ia 4o 
hondred of Blithbiirgh. 

The ehapel of this place has long been converted, into a 
^hatched cottage. The oater waPs, bniH with flint and vag-stoae^ 
the door and a window on the north aide, two smaD wiadowa at 
t^ east end. «nd one in the sonth fronts aie afanoat tilie aaly rOf 
piins ot the original edifioe. 

CocKn«LD, CoxsnBU), or Cookvibld, oonaiati of the Mb* 
aors of Cockfield Hall, whieh probably Ibnned part of the ptN 
aessiMie of Bary ijbbey; bat Sir William flpsing, knt. dW 
seised of it 42 EUaabeth; The other ia Earl's Ball, ao afM 
faun its ancient proprietors, the Teres, Earleof Qarftrd* In tint 
ftmily it eontinaed, till John, earl of Qxibrd, takiag part with tlif 
honse of Lancaster, against Edward lY. focfcited his VM^ 
whidi were seized by that aionarch, and givea tp fau bMher 
Kichard, dake of Glonoeater. In a few yean, howeTer, he m 
scatored to his honors and possessions, by Henry VII. nhoja ^ 
assisted in wresting the crown from tiie same Eichard; iffA 4#y 
were enjoyed by his suocessoia, ti|l the death of Aabrey d^ Vfns, 
the last earl of that frmily, about the year 1710. Qoth ttunir 
manoiB are at present Tested in Uchard )looi[e, E«^ of 11^ 

Edwardston was fonnerly a village of considei^alfe najt^« <# 
account of the l^rds who formerly resided there. |a tbe tin|e of 
Wiliiam the CoiujaOTor, it belonged to Herbert ie M(o9^ Caayjf^ 
or Montechensy. Of this fiftmily, Guarin, or Waryn, was so 
wealthy, that h^ waa called the EngUah Crmans, and« according 


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«» CH&ntol, dM wortk tw6 hunAred tlkkUmidf iMri;^ Tke brd*. 
sliip, M l€tagtk, deto«ttded, Ij iMrriag«, to the Walgraves^ vbo 
iofd it, aboat the year 1596, to John Brand, a clothier of Box- 
ferd. It then became vested in the fiunily of Brand, and has 
since pasted through several hands. 

At this plaoe was once a religious house, a cell to the monas- 
tery at Abingdon, near Oxford : but the monks were removed 
about the year 1160^ to the priory of Colne, in Essex, which ob» 
tidned therkq)i«pri8CiOft of the gretft tithes of this parish. It is 
flow ^e eMafft of the Bishdp of Ely, to whose see it was annexed, 
in exchange for some Valuable liiianors, by queett Elizabeth, in 

Gi.SM8Foni>, was one of the manors possessed by Odo, Earl of 
Champagne, when Domesday survey was taken; though the church 
ef Ely had pesa c s ni ons hove, as early as the time of Edward the 
Coiifeswr. SMie reflta are paid out of Ihe lordship to that see, 
and the inKabifatftii t^ exempted from servii&g on juries elsewhere 
than at £ly. Glemsford is a very extensive parish; it has a 
yearly &ir, on June 24; and the manor, at present, belongs to 
Bichard Moore, Esq. 

ttBueua, » large and very pleasant village, nearly a mile in 
leagfli, tMk v^eh cireumstance it is called Long Melford, con- 
tainaupn^iurdsof 450 houses, and 2200 itihabitaDto. It is situated 
near the Stouf, andf has a yearly &ir on Whit-Tuesday. 

The church, standing on a rising ground, at the north end of 
this village, is a beautiful specimen of the architecture of the 
fiAeeBth century, about «>)80 feet in length, exclusive of the 
Mhool-heose at tte end. T4ie amaU sipare tower is of mora 
modern MetibH iSitn the body of this stmctare. It con- 
tiittft ittbttttttfetfts M individuals belotiging to various feoiliea, 
wliich formerly Nourished at this place. 

At the upper end of the north aisle, is an altar monument, to 
the BMinocy of William Clopton, Esq. son of Sir Thomas Clop^ 
tai^ wfaosafiguMinarttoorlioiuponit He died in 1446. On 
the front of Ae vktimmeiA is a bnms plato,. with a. lectin epitaph, 
in old English characters, wbich shews, that however the virtues 

M3 of 

Digitized by 


19$ ftUFFOU. 

ef the subject/ miglit entitle bim to the love of mankiiui, when. 
•liTe, the muses did not much befriend him alter his death.* , , 


* It is to this gentlemao, that a writ, issued by the court of chivalry, re- 
Imtes. This curioos docament, which shews with what formality a£airs of ho^ 
nor were fertuerly adjusted, ii preserved among the Harleian MSS. (Ko. 1178/ 
and thus entitled in the catalogue, " A writ, in French, of John, D«kt of 
Bedford, constable ef England, requiring John, Duke of NorldUi, and mai^ 
ahal of Eoi^and, to bring William Clopton, of Siifiblk, Esq. to answer in the 
court qI cbivalrie, to Robert Eland, o( the county of Lincoln^ £m}. wbo 
charged the said William Ck>ptpn with putting his seal of arms to a false and 
forged deed.' It is as follows : 

" Johan Filz, frerjc et ancle au roys, due de Bedford et d'Anjoy, cohte de 
Richmond, et d« Kendal, et connestable d'Angletcrre, a notre trescher'cou- 
tin Johan, duo de Norfolk, marseha] d'Aogleterre, sal us. Nona voi^a man* 
dona et •chargeons, que vous fates arrester et renir detmnt nous^ o« notra lieV 
tenant a Wes^ounster, a la quinsime de saint Hillar. prqcbiMn v^nai^, WtiJiam 
Clopton, de contc de Suff. Esquire, pour adonques reapondra devant nqm^^ on 
Dotre lieutenant, en la cour de chivalerie, a Robert Eland^ Esquire, ^e conte 
de Nicholl,(Lincoln) dece que le dit Robert ad unqnes lui surmettra par voie, 
d*arroes» touchant ce qu*ii faoxment et enoontre honest^ et geniileu^ d'armes, 
a mis et appos^ le seal de sea armes a un faux et forge fait, auz domsfei da 
dit Robert de Cib. «t plus, a ce qu'il dit. Remandanu par decant kioiu an 
dit jour oa ioest notre mandement, tiwt se que vous en aves fait^. Bono^ ' 
aoaba le seal de notre office le 93 jour de.Novembre, Pan du regne 4u notr^ 
senior le roy Henry sisime depuis |^ conquest d'Angleterre septiesm^." 

Whether the court came to any decision apon this serious charge, or whe* 
ther any combat ensued, does not appear : but probably neltheri for we soon 
after find the parties engaging in another court, and with arms very different 
from those of chivalry. In Easter term, 8 Henry VL Williab Clopton, and 
William Ga]yon> Esquires, brought an action lo the King's Bench, ogaiott 
Roger Beroardtston,of K^dyngtop, in the C4»0|tty of 9a^olk» geptihfiani and 
Robert Eland, of Ratbeby, in the county of Linpolii, gentiltoan, nod Eliva- 
bethi his wife, for havmg caused to be pohliahed at Kedyngton and Melford, 
two deeds, by virtue of which* the Stiid Robeft and Eliaabeth, claimed the 
manor and advowson of Haustede, to the disturbing of the said William and 
William, in the possession of the same, to the damage of m1. The afibir was 
not determined in this court, bat referred to arbitraton, by whose award th<| 
charge of forgery wis retorted and established agajast Elan^, 

Digitized by 


" Vnkt. an. ^t$t mamiiiitot'of §»ej "mubie, lAthia aa ftsi^/ on 
the north side of the oooiiniiDioii table, are interred Johp Clop* 
Um, BOA of the ^rec^ding, aad hia wife Alioe Darcy. At their 
heads are atiU remaining their portraHa, kneeling, painted small 
in freaco, with the arms of their families on their dress. He was 
sheriff of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, 30 Henry VI. and 
not long h^re his death, ' contributed to the repair, or perhaps 
rebuilding, of the beaptiful ehapel, at the east end of the church, 
now used for a school, as appears from the follo¥fing inscription, 
in old £ii^li#h characters, on the battlements : 
• '' Pray for ti^e sowle of John Hill,, and for the sowle of John' 
Clopton> Esqwyre, and pray for thei sowle of Ry chard Loveday, 
Boteler with John Ch>pton, of whoS godis this chajpperii em* 
baytyUd,*hy his execotors. Pray for the sowlisof William' Cldp- 
ton, Esqwyere, and Margery his wifis, land for all their parentis, 
and chyldren. And for the sowle of Alice Clopton, and for John 
Clopton, and for all lus chyldren, and for all the sowlis that the 
said John is houude to pray ibr; wh^ch deed this chappel new re* 
pare, A» lyni Mi>CCCC«IAXXXVL" 

On.tiie right of the altar, is the splendid monument of Sir Wil* 
liam CordelL Three Corinthian columns support the canopy, an* 
dor which reclines the figure of the knight, in wliHe marble. In 
the recesses, at the back, are four female figures, representing the 
cardinal virtues. A long inscription in Latin verse, records the 
honors md character of Sir William, who .was an eminent law. 
yer. Speaker of the House of Commons, a member of queen 
Mvy's Privy Council, Master of the RoiUs, and founded the hoa* 
pitsl at Melford. 

, On the outside of the pew, formerly belonging to the Marty ns, 
aiip.many grotesque heads, carved in oak, and some ancient stones 
in thefloor^ at the east end of the church, cover the remains of 
various members of that family. 

The font has a cover, curiously carved, with a pinnacle and a 

cross on the top; and on the spot whence it was removed to itn 

M 4 present 

Digitized by 


Ahi0og§^ irithahbd^qfWiapiMiik 

The north window nlUl eontma wm pniBled glia% 
fnres^ and Lslia inicr^'on^ bnt nu j of tho pnai 
|Mrto<^theM,kaebMihioko^» andcouwnoMi ia Nf o Aio od li 
9i|f Ij Ihoir plaoe. 

Vwy neariy udj^MMg to the eh«cby>ri» tliaAi t>» Hm|iiii4 
apbimhriekboiUiog, beioiedwitlia waU. Ow the ealMMa* 
i» inscribed* ThU Hospital was^kmidedk^ SkrWUIimm CmdeUi 
knt. 1573. It is endewed finr a wardettj twelve poor ana, wu^ 
two WQMen, old and decayed henae-keepera of MeMud; and for 
want of peraons of thatdeeeriptton in this Tiilage^ they are tkefr 
to be tsken from Shimpiing^ ia this haadred. 

Ohtthe east aideof Mdfoi^GreA, isilfe^oniHo»,eaQy, 
apsdoas^ brick haiUiiig> in the style of the i^ of EUsaheM^ 
with Uror amall^ r eap d toweia in the front It was foiaieiiy- one ei 
lhie.cpnntiy seatSi or pleasure-hoases^ beloagiag to the abheeef 
Bory, and aftar the dissolatienef that moaaaterf> thiamaaop,^la» 
gether with the advowaon of the churah^ waagmited te^ Sir WiUaaM 
CcrdeU» 37 Hoarf VHI. To this giMt, Qnees Mary, in the 
fim year of her reign, added the leads of the hoq^ital of Si Sift* 
wioar, without the north gate at Bury, irtiioh Sir WiUiaBi aft*i^ 
wasdaaetded on the hospital eracted'by- him at lfeMiid& l^iag- 
withoat issae» his estates devol?ed on Ma* sister, tbe wile e# 
Richard AUiagton> Baq. and by the nuariageof their e^ child> 
Jfary, were conveyed to Sff John Savage, whose son was raised: 
to.the peerage, hy the title of Viseonnt Cokhester^. Jofaa, hi» 
son, was advanced to the dignity of Earl Ilivecs. Melf«rd Hal)^ 
belonged' to-Mary, widow of the third earl, darii^ thi» civil war» 
in the reign of €hariea I. whea, aa FnUer inlbrma na, it was- the- 
Irat frnits of phinderiog in Bi^laad« The loss of the^ noble pro*! 
prietor, in plate, money, costly hangings, and other rich famftua^ 
here, and at her otlier seat, at Sk Osyth, in Esaex, is estimated 
by contemporary' wHtera, at the immense anm of 100,^9QL Att 
this time^ Helford Hall lay under a ^rtgage^ to Sir John Cor- 

J Digitized by 


ea ttvMkiw •! Ml* iMMi ia ifert 

I Off 8ir Hmv^ nnWy wbc 
A IMe ttt tlM Mrth of tt» okMbi. ip tfo oM oulriMi of 

tetfwhioh Aoy, fvoini* 
ftifr MM va^oMEly ilBloiliJ> m tbm% bflo HMord^oT ikm hsfw 

In 48 Ifonry BL WUKu* de Uop^ 
aftdtWiignMlM^ 8irn». 
MMfured ^e nanor of SiirtvteB^ by Mirying CMhoruM^ 
4bi«liter»«BiliriMiiii^o#Willb«MTl4e,oii BMI^ wWJM; 48 
IK Bat U0 dwMWidkaili oontiiMeil f» temk, till Sir 
»GiirlHilAmi»«ri[y*ngirt«r> anrio4 lo fiKr SioHii*! 
4*Bawa Thi^oifyilngiyto^SWlk w1iodie4i« M81, imo'tW 
#ilror Sir Thomui Bumf, Bmet Sooo ifto» tiii Mvohitlofl^ tlio 
iMoBgodtoSirTfaoiiiaoRolMiioon; Imt hit gnukboD, ottl^ 
BBStnry,ooU>ilrtoioini^KMn^ irtiooirdMMAdiMi Kicii* 
Bof^irliie piWi«»pooiwio>. 
AttiMMMtiieiid oftlw^^tomitvaB old oob^ oilM JM^^fbrdt 
Bbcr, i*whi w« 1— y tfaf itiinwon of tJNi li>aily of Mtrtfii. tlo- 
gcrMaityti, ■wr.ooi of ImMum Martyn.of Mo l ibri ,waKlont 
Miyor of London, in 1567. His descendant, Roger.Mur^^ of tU» 
pim^ in»oi««fesd ft^loMMti in- 161)7. Tlie bndljr i» exUaety 
i m mw Hw rasidmies of — -*4ipoMiag» Ea^ 

seMNd BNMiiaffiM'irsvo'dog np' hoffo in m 
^ni?et*pH; and in a fann-ysid, on Cranmer Green, b thiifarislbi 

luuttoiBi ^MuHhas^aanod; UoeaMiMit IbnMrljrbeiongod 
te.HacMoirfU'of at Fttsn now oommoldir ddMSti Aagnsline'n 
nieMjarintfJF; «0 whsu irviir given, n4tk HoAoigib by Bridn 
msA^ iUkn: ^nfieoA of tisiex, bel^ lio mwthed t4> repel tkoin^ 
mmmm oi tte Ikam and^M ivllM' bn^of Uddfei^ ^98U 


Digitized by 


it i» a peenlnA' of-tiM^ibrdihikhop('8, ifh!^iM.9bif§!tntk4r(amr 
^fcofcii^ bitt the mmw belonggio th» d^ <»i rhf to, 
' £fTOK9jturiraNBYtATfjD^orSTOKBNEYtuaii>»iB ao itmemiintrf 
to dirtingntsh it from Stoke Clare/ Stoke Ifiawidi. -Hmivts- 
formerly a monastery of. apme teldbrily Moire th^ «>QN|aeft; Mi^ 
%e m4et with litUe, or nothing ef it afterwank «The ohnieh^ 
with its m^eetic iftteeple, is a nehle.slniGftiiPe ;. the lalSa'^ abovl 
100 feet high* may be seep as iar off as Hsmidi,^ a.^diatanoe oi 
twenty miles; vhile the high grounda, in i the vieiBifty of Ijiia 
place; also command, a prospect of .thai; faarboar< Neylaod,' 
though oontauung a mupb greater. number .^fbiNisei ia<biit a eha* 
pel of ease to the chuvch of Stokes '.> • ' - . ' 

.\n the church of t^ik place are.sev^ haadaonemema- 
qisa«» for the Howards. la the saath phrt> between the high al- 
tar and ehpir, is interred Catheriiie, fiiat wife o£ Jeha /Upward^ 
duke of Norfolk, who fell at the battle ef 9dmnat.iiiL'wapput 
•f thecanie of Richard IIL Her menament ia afssloiief with 
this inscription : . 

^* Voder thia stone is baried the body .of the right hoaoiaMa 
woman, and ladle, some time wife aato the right high and ■dghfty 
priaoe. Lord John Howard, Dttke of Netfeike ; aod oMther aala 
the right noble and pnissant prince, LtwdThattaa Hi^w»d,,Dake 
alsfliof Norfelke. Which ladie depaAad this present life^ Am*; 
Dom. 1452/' 

In this church is also buried Mars^uret^ the seoend wife of tha 
same duke, and daughter of Sir John Chedworth» vho, after hia 
decease, mamed John Norreys, £sf. aaddied about the ^th year 
<tf Henry VII. 

Giffbrd*$ Hall, in this parish, is the aeat and pfoperty ef Wtk 
Ham MannOick, Esq. in whohe femily the estate has been vested 
ever since the time of Henry VI. It was then parahased by Phi-^ 
lip Mannock, who, as appears by the femily pedigree, had pre* 
viottsly resided at the neighbouring village pf Stc^.in the 
ehtffch of which are some andent inscripUoas rslatiTe to ^UMnt 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


<0ut; thetalnaieekbya Wu g»leiray, wiiL io hate bewi bailt 
kUie b«ginBuig «r tkemgn of Henry YUL by Pteter Gtfiiri » 
dMtaHiclitMN&of AnMBoileA. Tlmi^b its«lyksftend«itly itf. 
Asipenoi, mndLthe maamom inB probably tKen erected, H doee 
not eeem likely tfast it sbould bave betn nised by a Giffatd, if It 
was then in the po Mc w i on of tbe Mennecks. The whole is of 
hncky the moaldiiigs of the windows, doors, and other omanentsi, 
betq^ of the sanpe ^wteriaL Offosile to thia entrance, are some 
remsitts of an <M chapel.'* 

Tefdnmg £bi!C aiifiKeatly heleag^ to a ^n»tty of that nave. 
^iQiam deTendrii^, had agiaat of a market and iair, at StoLe 
by Neylaai, 31 Edward I, Abei^ the year 14^1, Sir WiUiaat 
TfaHJfriagc left Alice, his daughter and.h^ir, who married Sir 
John Howsrd, Knt the itfua^diateaaeest^ r of the dukes of Nor- 
Iblk. Aom that ftipfy it devolred to the Loida Windsor^ and 
after .the retonatimi, became the seat of thai of WiUiaaM. Sir 
John WiiliMBs, Knt. and Ipni-mayor of London, in 1736, buiU a 
fine seat herCy which, by pivpchase, became the property of Sir 
William Bowley, one of the Uatfis of the admiralty* Joshua, hia 
sen, ^Yo many proofs of conra^^ and eondaet in the naval ser- 
viee;for jrUcfa he was created a baronet, in 1786. On bis deaths 
m 1790, Tendring HaU became.the properly of hia son and sue- 
. cemor. Sir WilMam Rowley, the present baronet, 

Sim WiixiAV Ca¥EL, draper, and lord-mayM* oi Loadpn, in 
1503, and aaeeator of the noUe £unily of Essex, was a native 
flf Sti^. Of tUa gentteman, oar historiaas relatesome extraor* 
dinsfy anecdotea. It is said, that ,ailer a splendid entertaaamen^ 
which he gare to Henry Yll. he concluded the whole with a 
fie, iato which lie threw a nnmbcr of bonis, given by that king, 
fffmney borrowred of him. On another occasion, to shew hia a£> 


•A«OBtb>waet ^rlew of iSbk cttMrsy, was ctcfaad hj I>r.Bebeit|, is 1779. 
i» ffOmg of it is UIlcwim gifro, m Bnttoo't Afcbitectsnl Aati^iiities, Pvt 

Digitized by 



r Imiidb^di of pouMb, an4 fbttk H, 16 tlM U^r's hi^ 
ui A gfaas of wiiia No^lwitetiuidiiig Idi hytitf, lie triv mn 
lirrcifaHy fleecei by Ad snorkiow Heiiiy ; Iral cMHtired to m«» 
triete fdi^ iftdn, l^isdintrj «l MHMite, t# Aal he dwt 


Tlli» hmif^ n boinM ctt AeadntR, fcjr tli« hancb^^f fta- 
Mr^.aM Ottrfbrd; «ffe tiie ^M:, By Mow; im lli« Bottii^ feylHliidk* 
iMA; and ob IIi^ waBt^ bf TUkigoe. It cootstes iMr maiAM 

AmItoh, anei^tly tte tovMip df tile dbhdt o# Baiy. ihto 
Attillj' ef Calthorpe, whklr leeg redded il An^fotf Hall, be* 
Mke esliftel, in the fertieil ef 0hp Hettry CMmtf^, IL B. iHto 
tpAg^ in 1 W8, defiiiMi all hie eatilea «e ttMf Aile htfyatKMM^ 
Uf, BaitMtfa, %ili of Sir Henry Goagjb, of BdgbieloB, War- 
w^AiMx^, on cofidMieii thai Idv noj^hew iheiiM aMtttte tftay Mf^ 
aaiee ef GaMfaoiye, lAieh iftm aeoofdiagiy eiMiplied wMl; Mi 
ia 17M« he waa elevated to Oe peerage, by the title of Baiea 
Calthoipe, ef Caltheipe, in the eonaty rf flofft&t. Bia* a^toeid 
80B, ^hoaooceededhiadderbrether^ia IWt, ia4ep#etfeiff pi^ 
pfielar ef Aaipfaa. 

The pait of Ampi<m HaM, afld. that ef liytefttMae, bdotfgteg: 
te Malfaaaiel Lee Actetf, Esq. join; andtiie eniftera, aajH^tiie ia* 
^ieaa Mr. Yevag^ tHfh a hannony, Very aavaual^ laiide a ae^ 
ble aerpeatiae river tiveagh both, and built a hfirge hlndaaaib 
hndgfeever it, attheiif jeistexpeflee, by n^hfidir iheaua tiMy oinau 
^beatedthdrgMiaaii> io'adi^titeeetb«^ MrLeiti 

CMtterpe'a park^ the water forma a bend againat the dope of a 


.» IW a ftrtber aeedcmt of ^ Wflllaai Cape1> a&d Ui aestieadintii tea 
Beauties Vd. VII, a9d. 

Digitized by 


•VflOLK. 173 

Waod/ tvbich litt a wwj ioU« eibct, tnd " npoallie wliol«,^ con- 
timet the aadMr jufti neiAimiei^ " thin rmr^ considering it i« 
Ibnaed 4Kit of a trU&iiig rtrean, is one of the finest waters I hare 
seen, in the gronnds of any private genlleman. Mr. Lee (the fa- 
tiier of the fresent proprietor) has a shrohbery, of about twenl^ 
acres, cnt ont of his park, that is laid out in a very just tute. . 
Hie iraler and scoop in it, are particiidarly beavtiful ; tiM irst 
winds through a thidc planted wood, with a very hold shove; in 
seine places wide, in ethers so narrow, thsl the oyerhaoging 
traes join tiieir branches, and even darken the seene, which has 
a charming eifect The haaki are every where uneven; lint 
wild and rough, and covered with hnshes and shrubs ; thenafine 
^gf^en lawn, in gentle swells, wiHi scattered trees and shrubs, fe 
the hanks of the water, and seats, disposed with great judgment; 
and atihe temination of tiie water, the abruptness, and ill eftet 
of that eifeumstance is taken off, by finishing with a dry scoop, 
which is aaasing beantilul ; the bed of the river is continued fiw 
seme distance, along a skiing lawn ; with banks on each side, 
phf ted and managed with great taste ; nor did I conceive that 
weeping willows, could any where, hut hanging over water, havf 
been attended with so beantUhl an elfeot, as they have on the 
steeps of these slopes.'^ 

At Ampton is a cemfiirtahle alms-house, fiv poor, unmarried 
women, fattb and endowed in pursuance of the will of Mrs. Do- 
rothy Oallborpe, a maiden lady, of the fiunily of the present no- 
Ue pioptietor of Anq[»ton. Her henefadion is commemorated n 
the following inseripliott, on the front of Ae edifice : 


Hoipitiqm bpo fandwit 
Vir^o in virgiuiiQi tolaneor 

Contiguous to the building is a walled garden, over the en- 
trance to which is inscribed : 7am voluptati quam sahtu 


JDigitized by 


174 nvnoht. 

ThestoMs lady, in consideration of* her onee bsrin^ MttddS ti 
Biiry>left> by her will, to thai town; the ram 6fM(N. the intereit 
of whioii, was to be employed in binding out poor boy^ apprentices^* 
This snm^ however, fell short, ^notai losses in her estate, and bad 
debts owing to it; beside which, it is to be presomed, that she 
directed her charity at Ampton to be fir*t provided for. 

Bavton, eidled Great BarUm, to distingaish' it from Little 
Barton/ or Btrton Mills^ id the hundred of Lacklbrd, was for- 
merly the lordship of the abbot of Bory. Part of the poases- 
sions of that monastery, known by the name of Ot-pastbi^,- and 
containing one hundred acres, was granted, 31 Henry Ylll. to 
Sir Thomas Kitaon. It was afterwards the Mate V>f the and^M 
family of the Cottons, who resided at NectOn Hall, in this pa- 
rish. The manor, and a considerable estate, devolved to' Sir 
Thomas Hanmer, Bart, by his marriage with thfedaaghter, and 
heiress, of Thomas Folkes, Esq. and at his death, be6ame the 
property of his nephew, the Rev: Sir William Bnnbury; Bart 
who laid out the gardens, and impn>v^ .the grounds with great 
taste. His son. Sit Thomas Charles Bnnbary, the present pro^ 
prietor of Barton, who has represented tho county of Snfibik, in 
nine parliaments, built tiie fine large room, which loAns part of 
this mansion. 

Bradpield Combust, calld also BkBHT, or Burnt Brad- 
HELD,' probably received its spmame from the destruction of 
Bradfield Hall, in 1327. This mansion then belonged to the 
convent of Bury, &nd was burned to the ground, at the time of 
the violent attack made by the townsmen of that place on the 
abbey and its possessions. 

Bradfield is remaricable for being the birth-place and residence 
of a man, to whom the community at Urge owes greater obliga- 
tions than, perhaps, to any other living character. His indefati- 
gable exertions for the promotion of agriculture, the main source 
of the prosperity of a state, will entitle the name of Arthur 
YouNO to the veneration of the genuine philanthropist, even 
among remote posterity. The manor and estate of Bradfield 


Digitized by 


•UFffOLK* I7j^ 

J^UT, At Best ^ this ^ffontleiiiaii, waspurcbiuMdi^ ly one of hit 
MicesUmi, in 1690^ oi Sir Thomift Jomyn, of Riuhbcook. It 
■tandt apoa a range of .high land, which niw through the whole 
couvty. Two 8qMJlll>rooks« rifling in this .pa^h, take contrary 
directions ; one passing to Bury, and proceediag to the sea ai 
Lynn; thie other nuaiing to Lavenham, and fiiUing into the 
ocQsa, at HMwif^i Notwtthitendiag the ele^alioa of this spot; 
timber herethrives extremely well; and hating: been sonilHd^ttflly 
^Mired for many years, Mr. Yoiuig's small poperty is beaalifallf 
wooded with many ine Ireei. . In 1735, his &ther, . the lale Dr. 
Yoqng» Ibmed an avenue of limes, which are now remaikkbly 
beaotifiil ; and the present possessor has planted above forty then- 
sand larqb, and other tiees» as nurses to oaks^ sown thirty years 
ago ; so that it is likely to continue well wooded, for many yean 
to come. In some of his publicatipns, Mr. Young has eiplained 
the great advantage resulting bcm such plantation^ and espe* 
cially from the more beautiful trees of an estate. H« has also 
done something in the way of decoration, by water and shnib-^ 
heries, and much impvsved the old mansion, wbich contains a 
copious and ^valuable libraiy. Reduced, after a lile of nacommon 
acUvity, to a state of total blindness, the father of iaaproved British 
agriculture, still devotes his time, with the aid of an amanuensis, to 
the iUnstration of his fiivourite pursuit, with which, the uninif 
paired fiteulties of a vigorous mind, are still iocesaantly engaged, 
.He is conseq[uenlly, at present, without any £ftrm| but the fields 
of his estate,, whei^ in his own hands, were the sci^ne of a great 
variety of experiments, the result of which have either been laid 
before the public, in his Anmals of Agriculture, oi: are reserved 
lor a work, on which he has been occupied for many years. 

In the neighbourhood of Bradfield Combust, are two other Brad- 
fields, diftingaished by the additions of St, Clare and St, George. 
The church of the latter stands in so elevated a situation, that 
from the steeple, though <mly .66 feet high, may be seen sixty 
churches in the circumference, which embraces part of Essex, Noi- 
jblk, and Cambridgeshire. 

6 At 

Digitized by 


At SMVftSTtMW it Ae «aaft «f fiJwi Anilir, JBi|. «Ut 

tboatlSW, mctad tht JmiM» wUeliJs t gaU 0M,4urf «» 
iinnded it viftk iiaidbniie flwMimii. AiNnittbt tuw.tuM4ht 
Bar. Bkhttd Bbaafey, MPtoref IbtyaMi, Imlit liiie^^iie ^ *r 
kcstf^nttDB^at m the mwty. 

FoBiiBAii Ar. Gbmovitb, « ruiifrdWi ibrtiietyh>Jii#fa» 
iMf gained tVm m 1173, Ay BdbiM 4« Locy* cImT jvstm «r 
SaslMi4, «t'«lM iMid erthe Muy ^Mtury H; •verAe EmI^ 
Lsiowtflr, the gwwrej of Ike feveigB tveopd -enf h^jFed ^ iiM«e- 
belioiw seM. Neftr Aynm flooM, ibestebL viHes Ami •ery, 
e«liieMiidteTlielleH[,are8liM U keeenAefiMee^tlieiriB- 
lcraieiit TlMie aro naiDeMai t— rt i, er beifefwe, deMMMMlet 
tl» Seres HilKlRMB the BWiWef the tegeet^wder whiehitie 
eesjediired thiA the ^enmnden were lateorad. 

Ai this ybce is the eee*^ BirChaiies-Keirt^ «lioeeMher, 
OMwEskiiNLp Ee^aavnedtheaMBeeflbmt, ui^xMipliiMe 
viththe^U of kkaatiRid §<nadf«ilher, end mm qwted^ fcm w c t 

The eharehiof thiefemhwMeiilaaeM»11M» 
In, eeoweaed l^ihe uMdrertMMe of e ana who ^mm i 

At FoRiiHAif St. Martin, eenetawdi one «til 4o he eeea im 
e Bieedew, abopeta^nartarof amileeoiiliioftheehQMh. latMa 
pariah ia the pleaaaait aeotof 4he reoter, ^ Rev. Dr. Old. 

HBsaBrr, or HsiwasTT, waa iumaij the brdahip ef the al^ 
hot of Bury, h>y the gift ef Eari VMketel, and granted, M lieaiy 
Vltl. to Theaaaa Baooa, Eaq. ¥raai the B aae aa nho rended here 
§nm the reigia of Heory U. to thai of-Charlea I.4t jpaaaedthroagk 
▼arioQs haa^a, to Thomae Leheop, Eef. irhoee deaoandaat^ the 
preaeDtpM^prietor^'haaaaiaBaiott here. The dmreb, a handaeoM 
etroctarej wiiB erected by the Baoona; and ia it eereral ef thai fi^ 
aiily are inlefred. 

In the chanoel of Great LiTBaifSBB ehnrch ia intaired the 

Bev. William Martin, lather of «he mil known antiqaaiy, kdme$i 

Tom Martin, of Palgrave. He died in 1981,.«ged 71> a|id a i 


Digitized by 



was erected to his memory^ and that of his hsAily, by hia 
mm, then the only survivor. 

The benefices of Gfeat and Little liyermere are consolidated, 
and aie ia the gift of Nathaniel Lee Acton, Esq. who is also the 
lord of the manor. 

Pakenham is remarkable for having contained the seats of two 
fitmiliesy elevated in the seventeenth century t0:.<the honour of 
baronetcy, but both now extinct. The one was that of the 
Springs, descended fi?om Thomas Spring, the rich clothier of 
Lavenhara, and the other that of the Ashfields, who resided at 
Netiier Hall, in this parish. John Ashfield was the first high 
sheriff of Suffolk, separated from Norfolk, 17 Elizabeth; and was 
the ancestor of Sir John Ashfield, of Nether Hall, Knt. created a 
baronet in 1626. 

RovQHAH was given to the abbey of Bury, by Earl Ulf ketel, 
and gianted, 34 Henry VII. to Sir Arthur Drury, in whose family 
it continued till 1640. ^ 

Kaugham Hall, formerly part of the estate of the Drurys, is 
now the property of Roger Kedington, Esq. In this parish is 
also the manor of Eldo, otherwise Old Hall, or Oldhaugh, as it 
is ityled in the most ancient records. It was a grange of the .ab- 
bot of Bury, was granted by Henry YIII. with other large pos- 
sessions to the Jermyns, and now belongs to M. T. Cocksedge, 
Esq. At the north-east comer of Rougham church, is an ancient 
monum^t of Sir Roger Drury and his lady, the daughter and sole 
heiress of Sir Robert Naunton. They are interred beneath a flat 
stone, adorned with their figures in brass, about four feet high, 
and this inscription in black letter:— 

Hlc jacet Dnt Kogus Drary miles qui obiit. .... die Mens. • • • 
Anno I>oinmi MoCCCCo et Margeria Ux' ej' qae obiit iiij die 
Mens Septeb* Anno Domini MoCCCCYo quorara aiab*, &c. 

This is supposed to be the most ancient monument of the 
JDrurys that can be ascertained. Its preservation, as of many 
4»ther8, is owing to a pew baling been built over it. If pews, as 

Vol. XIV. ^• Weevsr 

Digitized by 


178 BVTttfLK. 

Weever complains, hide many monuments of the dead, tfiey can* 
not be denied the merit of having saved some from destruction. 

On the north side of the chancel is a mmral monument, to the 
memory of Sir Robert Drary and his lady, the youngest daugh- 
ter of Sir William Drury of Hawsted. From the inscriptioti it 
a^j[)ear8 that she died in 1621 . The date of hib death at the age 
of 82, is left incomplete, thus 162. . . . 

Two singular ptirchases, which tend to IHtiStratd the manners oi 
the higher classes, betweeli two and three hundred y^ears sigo, are 
recorded to have been made by a lady of that ikodly. By" inden- 
ture, dated 10 Henry VIIL Sir William Wftldegmve, Rnight, Sold 
to Mai^garet Drory, of Rongham, widow, the wardship of Edmund 
Wrest, to be married with Dorothy Dmry, her daughter. By an- 
other indenture of the like date, it appears, that the same lady 
bought of Robert Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter and Egremont, the 
wardship of Elizabeth Day, one tj( the daughters and heirs of Ro- 
bert Day, late of Sterstone, Norfolk, deceased, whom she married 
to her second son, Francis. 

RnsHHROOK, the manor of i^ich Ibrmeiiy belonged to the ab* 
bey of Bury, has been remarkable since the dissolution for the 
family of Jermyns, * who resided at Rushbrook Hall, and pro- 
duced many persons of considerable eminence. Sir Thomas Jer- 
myn was privy counsellorand comptroller of the honseholdto Charles 
I. and his second son, Henry, was master of the horse, and eham- 
beriain to the queen. The exertions of the latter in behalf of the 
king dmring the civil war, were rewarded with a peerage; and in 
1644, he was created Lord Jermyn of St. Edmundsbury. When 
Charles had fallen into the hands of his enemies, this nobleman 
attended the queen, to whom he is even said to have been pri- 

* We find that iboat the saiddle of the 16th ccntory, Edmond Jermyn, 
Eiq. gave an annui^ of 40L per aoa«iii« out of the manor efTotlHey, in 
Liuoolntbiie, for the relief of the poor of Bory. At Eoshbrook Hall there ia 
a good portrait of this gentleman, in a strail-waifted doublet, and a roond 
bonnet, adorned with ftowert and jewels, dated A* D. 15^ i «tafiff turn 50. 
His benefaction it recorded on the painting. 

Digitized by 


gOFPOUL 179 

nifelytHiViiA totiie oMyfawt, tiulirat«iivloyedby ChvlM II. 
^Aob^p kit eicik in wiow emb«iiiefl> in ivhich he aoqmtted 
UoMdf M mndi to the t«ti8(aeti<m of fail BiMtar» tluft in 1660, 
be was elevated to the dignity of Earl of St. Alban'e^ and ap- 
pointed Lord ChMkheriain of Hie king's hovaehold. He died 
wiJiioal iteiie, and the earldom, being limited to him, became ex- 
tMMt Hia title of Losd Jennyn dfiMended to/Themaa, the eldest 
^9: •f his brother; and Henry, the second son« was created 
Itemi of Dofer by Jiunsa 11. but cfied in 1708, without issne. 
TV* Amily oonelnded inheira geneiaU the eldest of whom ear- 
ned this seat and estate to the family of DaverB, by marriage 
jfiHk Robert only son of Sir Robert Davera of Rongham, who, 
in 4682, was created a baronet The tiU^ became extinct on the 
deeea#e of Sir Chsriea Qavera, Bart in 1806, when the estate da- 
V5|lf ed to Robert Rnsfafaroek, Esq. whose family was once in pQS« 
s jo ss ji on of this place, fam which it darivea its niime. 
. Bn^skbroffkffoU is an^ble tpaciooa mansion, moated round, with 
% plainfim^ to the north, and two winga ronniag to the sonth, 
and forming three sides of a aqnare. The park belonging to it is 
t^ exteouve. 

This place witnesaod sopie of the festivities occasioned by 
Qaeeii Elizabelh's visit tn the county in 1678, when, aa we are 
told,'' Sir Robert Jermyn of Roeshroke, feasted the French em- 
iMISflon twa;i^veral times, with which charges and coartesie they 
stood marvellpudiy contented." 

J^ the <;huroh jb^ several mitnnip^ts of the Jermy ns^ 
. At W£i»S£TiiAlc, as WjS are infinwied by Camden, were for- 
medy f^^o^d gi^eat qoantitiea of potsherds, and plattera of R4>- 
n»ii.m»ni4a9toe, some of which had in8<;riptions; also ashes, 
bones of she^ and oxen, many horns, a sacrificing knife, urns, 
^ qtl|ier relics. H^re also Sir Richard Gipps, in 1701, met 
with the head oi a R^ian spear, a sacrificiog knife, Tessels, 
toins, bridu, and paterae, one of which was inscribed amisi m*. 

N3 That 

* C«U«ct. Boriev. 

Digitized by 



That geutleman, descended from an ancient and respectable h^ 
mily in this county, and well versed in its antiquities, resided here. 
He died in the manor-honse, in 1706, and was buried in the church 
without an epiti^h. 

WooLViT is a considerable village on the road between Bury 
and Stow Market, the parish containing 108 houses, and 096 in-' 
habitants. After the dissolution, the manor, advowson of tha 
roctory, a warren, and other lands, in Elmswell and Wo<4pit, wera- 
graiited to Sir Robert Gardinw, as parcel of the posscssioas of 
Bury Abbey. The lordship of the manor now bekmga to J<>sliua 
Grigby, Esq. of Drinkstone. -' 

At this place is made a very white kind of brick, e^utl n 
bdauty to stone; hence denominated Woolpit brick, of which 
most of the mansions recently erected in this county are built* * 

The church is a fine Gothic stmcture, but has a mea» spive. 
The north porch is highly decorated, and has a room above it 
Over the entrance are five niches, with ornamental finials. A pe- 
culiarity which I have not elsewhere observed, is a nid»e in each- 
of the two buttresses, at the comer of the diancel. 

In a close near tlie east end of the church, is a spring, wfaicb 
is still called our Lady's spring. Tradition reports, that the 
church formerly contained a shrine to the Virgin Mary, to whiclr 
pilgrims resorted, and that there was a chapel near the spring ; but 
no vestiges of it are now left. The spring is qoadrangidar, and 
bricked, and supplies a large moat with very dear water. 

From Camden's derivation of Woolpit, and the synonymous 
British Odium, Dr. Gale is inclined to place SUinnagus here ra- 
ther than at Thetford, because the numbers agree better, and also 
on account of certain large and deep ditches, which he conjectures 
to be Roman remains. Woolpit is certainly an ancient pkce ; Ro^ 
man coins are frequently discovered there ; the distances seem to^ 
answer, and other circumstances of names to concur. 


Digitized by 


tftJTFOLX. ' ISl 


On tlie north Uie bnndred of Bladcboiirn is separated from Nor- 
'- folk by the river Case ; on the east it is bounded by the hundred 
«f Hartismere; on the south by Stow, Thedwestry, and Thingoe, 
mud on the west by Lackibrd. 

IxiroRTH, the only market town in this hundred, is but a 
'mean place, containing 133 houses, and 827 inhabitants. Its 
' inaiket is on Friday, and it has two fahv, on May-day, and the 
' 18th of Oetober. At this place was formerly a priory of canons 
regular of St Augustine, founded about the year 1100, by Gil- 
bert de Blnnd, or Blount, in a pleasant valley near the river 
•Thety and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It received many b&- 
inefaetioM, being valued at its suppres&iou at 2801. 98. 5d. ac- 
cording to Speed; but, as Dugdale says, at 1681. 19s. 7d. From 
' a Bonnmeatal inscription in the church, on the north side of tb^ 
alter, it appears that the possessions of this house were granted 
by Henry VIII. to Ridiard Codington, and Elizabeth bis wife, in 
exchange for the manor of Nonesuch, in Surry. Qn the spot where 
the priory stood, a neat mansion was built by the Norton family, 
to whom it for some time belonged. 
The other places worthy of notice in this hundred are : 
AsHFiELD, an obscure village, but remarkable for being the 
- birth-place of the late Lord Thurlow, and his brother, the late 
'Bishop of Durham. Their father the Rev. Thomas Thurlow, 
▼iear of this pariah, married Miss Elizabeth Smith, whose fa^ 
fflily had long resided here, at a seat called the Lee, and died 
in 1762. Edward, their eldest son, was born in 1735. He was 
educated under the auspices of his parent, and at a proper ogc 
.removed to Caius College, Cambridge, but did not obtain a de- 
gree. On leaving the University, he entered himself of the In-i 
ncr Temple, was called to the bar, and remained unemployed, 

N 3 'and 

Digitized by 


182 sovrou. 

and onknown, imiil his abilities were eaUed into aetimi in tha 
Douglas cause.* He now attained to snch professional distinc- 
tion^ that he was lypointed solicttor-gonoral in 1770, attorney- 
general the following year, and lord-high chancellor in 1778; on 
which occasion he was elevated to the peerage, by the titk of 
Baron Tbnrlow of Ashfield. In April 1789, be resigaod the 
seals, which were again deliTored to him in DeceiBber» the samo 
year. In J 786 he obtained the lucrative appointaent of t^ar ol 
the Exchequer, and was afterwards created Baron Tbnrtew of 
Thurlow. But the most remarkable period of his life was the epooh 
of his mi^esty's illness, in 1788 andl789. His integrity then ahoiio 
conspicuous; and his speeches on the v^pency qnestion, will«i9* 
main a record of nnshaken reetitode. That declaration whkli 
may be said to have electrified the House of Peers;—" WI191 
I forsake my king in the hour of his distress, may my God kr^ 
sake me l*' is worthy of being engraven upon Us t<wib. 1^ 
1793, disapproving the course adopted by the ministry of that 
day, he again resigned his high oiBoe, and passed the nenaindtr 
of his life in dignified retirement The talents of Lord Thuriow* 
even out of the line of his profession, were so «plendi4> thai Or. 
Johnson himself appears to have been afraid of him. '' I w^uld 
prepare myself," said the great lexicographer, '' for no man ipi 
England but Lord Thurlow. When I am about to meet him I 
should wish to know a day before." f His lordship, who waii ne« 
ver married, died at Brighton, Septemb^ 12, 1806. 

His next brother Thomas, who embraced the eleri^ pmfesmn^ 
was elevated to the see of Rochester in 1779, translated in 1787, 
to that of Durham, 'and died in 1791. He loarried Anne, dajBgb* 


* On thifl occasion he wu coonsel for Mr. Dpnglas, and received a chal- 
lenge from Hr. Andrew Stoart* who had been one of the guardians of the 
Puke of Hamilton. The meeting took place in Kensington Gardens, and hii 
antagonist remarkedj that Mr.Tbarlow advanced, i|nd stood 19 tq him like ^ 

t Qosweirs U(e of Jphoson, VoL ly. p. S4S, 

Digitized by 



ler of William Beer« Esq. of Lymington^ in the- county of South- 
ampton, and his eldest son^ Edward^ succeeded^ on his uncle's 
demise, to the harony of Thurlow. 

Barbwell, is said to have given name to the family of Berd- 
welle, who resided here as early as the time of William the Con- 
qneror: and Sir William Berdwell, a celebrated soldier^ whose 
efiigies in painted glass still remains in the north window of the 
church, died seised of this manor in 1434. 

Barnhah consists of two parishes, St. Martin's and St Gre- 
gory's, and formerly had two parish churches : but that of St* 
Martin has long been in ruins. Near Bamham and between this 
place, Euston, Rushford, and Thetford, is a row often or eleven 
tumuli, which, according to the conjecture of Mr. Bloomfield, the 
historian of Norfolk, mark the scene of the sanguinaiy engage- 
ment between king Edmund and the Danes in 870. 

At CuLFORB, formerly the demesne of the abbey of Bury, is 
the chief country residence of Marquis Comwallis, the widow of 
one of whose ancestors married Sir Nathaniel Bacon, half-brother 
to Sir Francis. It is a neat comfortable house, agreeably situated 
in a park. It was built in 1591 by Sir Nicholas Bacon, the first 
baronet of England, eldest son of the lord-keeper, and half-bro- 
ther to the lord-chanc^lor ; and was given by him, with an estate 
of lOOOl. per annum, to his seventh son Nathaniel. This gentle- 
man was created knight of the Bath at the coronation of Charles I. 
and married Jane Meautys, widow of Sir William Comwallis, by 
whom he had a son, ^ho died withoul issue, and a daughter, mar- 
ried first to Sir Thomas Meautys, and afterwards to Sir HarbotUe 
Grimston, Bart. Sir Nathaniel was an eminent painter ; and some 
specimens of his art still exist at Gorhambury. 

The small neat church of Culford was built by Sir Stephen Fox, 
whose daughter was the wife of the third Lord Comwallis. Within 
it IS buried Sir Nathaniel Bacon, whose monument is adorned 
with a very good marble bust of him, and an epitaph, which in- 
forms us that he was well skilled in the history of plants, and the 
art of delineating them with his pencil. His lady is also interred 

N 4 here. 

Digitized by 


184 saiFOUu 

faere^ irith an inscription, giving her a high character, as hsTiof^' 
supported and saved from ruin two ancient families into which she 
had been married.* 

Elmswell. The church of this village, which has a ver^^ 
handsome tower, stands on an eminence, commanding a truly de- 
lightful prospect It contains an elegant mural monument for Sir 
Robert Gardiner, Knt. who, as appears from the inscription, was 
chief justice in Ireland eighteen years, during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and died February 12, 1619, aged eighty years. The 
monument is in very good preservation ; the figure of Sir Robert, 
nearly as large as life, and well executed, is in a recumbent pos- 
ture, and his son is represented as kneeling at his feet The 
remains of the pedestal of a stone cross, which appears to have 
been curiously carved, are still to be seen in the church-yard ; 
adjoining to which are alms-houses^ built and endowed by the 
above-mentioned Sir Robert Gardiner, for six poor widows. 

At this place was one of the country seats belonging to the 
abbot of Bury. 

EusTON, a village, pleasantly situated on the Lesser Onse, 
was formerly the lordship of a family of that name. It after- 
wards descended to the family of Pattishall, and from them to Sir 
Henry Bennet, who, for his adherence to the house of Stuart, 
was appointed secretary of state by Charles II. and created 
Lord Arlington, Viscount Thetford, and Earl of Arlington. He 
built Euston Hall ; and *left an only daughter, Isabella, married 
to Henry Fitzroy, one of the natural children of King Charles II. 
by the Duchess of Cleveland, who was created by his father Earl 
of Euston and Duke of Grafton, and was the ancestor of the pre- 
sent noble proprietor of Euston. 

Euston Hall is a large commodious mansion built of red brick, 
and destitute of superfluous decorations eitlier within or without. 
Tlie bed-chambers are on the ground floor ; and tlie principal 
apartments above^ according to the ancient fashion, derived from 
the old castles, which were so constructed for securit}\ The 


• Cough's Camden, II. 163. 

Digitized by 



"htfaae is Borroimded by trees of nneoramon growfh, and of the 
most healthy and luxuriant appearance: near it glides the riTer 
Ooae^ over which is thrown a neat and substantial wooden bridge. 
The scenery about this mansion combines the most delightful 
assemblage of rural objects, and is justly celebrated by the author 
4yf the Farmet^i Boy : 

Vfhtit noble Grafton spreads hit rich domaim 
Round Eutton's water'd vale and sloping plains ; 
WIit:rc woods and groves in solemn grandeur rise. 

' The estate of Enston is of very considerable extent ; its cir- 
cumference being between thirty and forty miles, and embracing 
a great number of villages and hamlets. 

On an eleyated situation in the park stands the Temple. This 
elegant structure, designed for a banqueting-house, was built by 
the celebrated Kent, under the au^ices of the late Duke of Graf- 
ton, who laid the first stone himself in 1746. It is in the Gre- 
cian style of architecture, and consists of an upper and lower 
apartment ; forming a pleasing object from many points of yiew in 
the neighborhood of Eustoa, and commanding an extensive pros- 

Fakenham Wood, near Euston Hall, is perhaps the largest in 
the county, and covers 314 acres. The late Duke of Grafton was 
a very able and successful agriculturist. Including his park of 
14d0 acres, he kept in his own hands upwards of 3200 acres. 

FaRenham, a small village)' situated in a pleasant valley, wa- 
tered by a branch of the Ouse, is the property of the Duke of 
Grafton, and furnished the scenes of several of the pieces of Ro- 
bert Bloomfield. In this village, nearly opposite to the church, 
is a cottage, in which the poet's mother was bom. A moated 


* A view of Boston Hall, and another of the Temple in the park, are 
gite« in ^ortr 9ud Crefg'i illutirative Vkw$ rf tht Wwkt of Robert filoiW 
jitld. t. 

Digitized by 


186 sQvrou. 

•ioB fomerly destroyed liy, fixe : 

Tho BiMt raoMMii*, the dwelling ii no mort ! 

Itt Dmme deootes itf meUncholy fal1« 

For TilUge clilldreii ctU the spot Bnrat Hall. 

Near the inner margin of the moat still exist several decayed 
trees^ the remains of a circle of elms^ that, according to the poet, 
once completely surroonded the mansion. This he describes as 
the residence of one of the characters introduced into the tale of 
the Broken CrutA, and has probably taken up his ideas of the 
ancient hospitality of the place from some tradition carrot in the 
neighborhood ; 

— — » his kitchen smoke 

Thai from the tow'ring rookery ap%rard broke. 

Of joyful import to the poor hard by 

8tiea»'4 a glad sign of hospitaJi^.* 

HoNiNQTON will in future be celebrated as the birth-place of 
Robert Bloomfieid, one of the simplest and most captivating of 
our pastoral poets. A cottage near the church was purchased as 
a bam by his grandfiither, and has been gradually improving into 
a neat and comfortable dwelling. It was formerly covered with 
thatch ; but a new roof being necessary at a time when straw could 
scarcely be procured, the poet, to whom it had devolved, with 
great reluctance covered it with tiles, as he lamented the loss of 
its original simplicity. During the harvest of 1782 or 1783, the 
village of Honington suffered severely by fire : four or five double 
tenemented cottages, the parsonage and out-houses, a fiurm-house, 
and all its appurtenances, were reduced to ashes in little more 
than half an hour. This cottage was immediately in the line of 
the flames, and after being on fire several times, was saved al- 

* Two views of Fakenhan will be foond in the work mentioned in the pre« 
ceding note. 

Digitized by 


9fmotM. 187 

Mr. Austin, of Sqpitton, mud bit men. Tlit poeC't miliar tfMtt 
kept m telmol at ihe eottage, and fled ftov the diHietring aeeno 
iHto llie fieMi» lonRmnded Vy n graop of her isftuii Bcho|ftn> in 
fiiU penmnottihat her dwelling had heemne a prey to the flama. 
Contrary to her esqpectation, howerer, die finiahed her cateer 
nnder ita friendly roof; and was buried on the last day of 180^ 
close to the west end of the chareh, near her firat hnabaad, who 
diiedofthesmall-poaL.* Aatene was erected to her meaMxry by the 
late Dnke of Grafton, and iqion it la an inacrqption written by the 
Bo¥. R. FeUawea. earate of Mteyihani. 


* BkomieldL alUr alladiiig to tbc fiunily diilieas occaaioned bj tbii di^ 
etae^ noticat hit {Murem'i deatb^ «nd the aeneral liorror ubich thU contaaioy 

fiesv'n rMtDr*d then sU, 

And deitia'd <nm of ripet ^ourt to fall* 

Midiiight beheld the dose uf all his paia^ 

Hb gmwt was clot'd when midnight came again ; 

Ko bell was heard to uM, — no funeral pray'r^— 

Ho kindred bow'd«— no wife> no children there i 

Hi horrid aalnre coaid hMpire a dread, 

that eat the beoda of cisfeem like a thread. 

The hamble chttBeh4ow'r hi|^ seem'd to shew« 

lilaaiin'd hy the treasbling light below ; , 

The solemn night-breese struck each shiv'riog cheek| 

Beligiooa rcYereace forbade to speak : 

The starting sexton bis short sorrow chid. 

When the earth mnimnr'd on the coffin lid ; 

And AUling bones, and sighs of holj dread. 

Sounded a leqoicm to the silent dead* 


Widi Ibii poem, written in £iTor of vaccine inocnhuion. Dr. Jenner was 
f» well ple«ed, thai he presented iu aathoi with a durable memorial of his 

JPoraaeataamoirof thelile ofthepoet, and farther particulars respect- 
ing his faiaily, the reader is referred to the Ulnstration of his Works already 
4Mted. 9 

Digitized by 


18t BnnuL 

At Lanoham is tke wftfc of Sir Patrick Bkke, wIkm frdMr 
WM oraated a bannrt in 1772. 

At Little LiterMerb, or Livermor£> is an elegant, seat 
Vnilt by Mr. Coke, by whom it was left to the Dnke of Grafton, 
who Isr some time resided there. It next became the jnoperty of 
Biftist Lee» Esq. who considerably improved the house, snr- 
roonded it with a large paik, and made it his seat. This gentle- 
man's fortune was augmented by a prize of 30,0001. in the lottery. 
His son, Nathaniel Lee Acton, Esq. is the present proprietor. 
The grounds are flat, but well .wooded, and adorned, wilih aJne 
artificial piece of water, akeady described in treating of Ampton 
in the hundred of Thedwestry. 

At Norton, near the south-western extremity of this hundred, 
Henry VIIL is said to hare been induced, by a credulous kind of 
avarice, to dig for gold. • He was disappointed in his search, the 
Testiges of which were still visible a few years ago. 

Sapibton, a pleasant village, is worthy - of notice only for 
having been the place where Robert Bfc>omfield commenced his 
career as the Farmer^s B&y, a situation winch introduced him to 
an acquaintance with those employments which he has delineated 
with such felicity and coirectness. 

The church, like many others in this county, is covered with 
thatch, from which circumstance it has more than once been nearly 
unroofed by the pilfering of the jackdaws. In the church-yard lie 
)>uried Mr. Austin, the kinsman and master of Giles, (the Far^ 
mer^s Boy) Mrs. Austin, and nine of her infimt children. The 
manor belongs to the Duke of Grafton. 

At Stowlangtoft resided Sir Simonds D'Ewes, one of the 
most learned and indefatigable antiquarians of. the sevententh 
century.''^ Part of his mansion-house, called Stow Hall, was pulled 


* The MS. Jottrnal of the life of this gentleman, by himself. In the Britieh 
Uuseum, ^) eontaini some ftxy cnrioos particultn, that tend to throw light 
on 4 part of English history, and many anecdotes not generally known. 


Digitized by 



^nn 9ermk years ago ; bnt the lemmM, in 1782, nceived great 
additiiMud .iofioveoiiHits fitw ila pmeni poaaetflor* Sir Walter 


Sir'Sincndf hsviog minnCed down most of tbe facts that be records soon after 
tbej bappened* bU namtiTe carries witb it a degree of antbenticitj, to wbicb 
aodern. bistury oanoot Jaj clain. It extends to ^erj minvte particolars, in 
libichlie intenreaves jeveral matters relatire to his fHends, tbe public afiairs 
mi thlB nation, and of Eorope in genenJ. It reacbes'from bis birtb in Becnn* 
bcr l^Of, to Mxy IfiM,- ending abraptly.(«) 

InAe HarieiBn library (t> is "tbe lineal descent abd pedigree of tbe «ii> 
meat lamily of S«es, or Bes Swei^ sonetiue lords of tbe dition of Keisel in 
the dotchic of Onelderland, wbicb familie, by tbe recesse of Adrian P*£we% 
tbe true beere tbereof, into England, in tbe reign of Henry VI U. is now 
eeated at Stow Langtoft in the coonty of Saflblk, by tbe English eontractiona 
enly of tbe name of Des Ewes into D'Ewes," written by the hand of Sir Si« 
nsonds; and another in Latin, illamiDated with the arms beantifnlly painted. 
Adrian D'Ewes died in London of the sweating sickness in 1551, leavmg 
4bar sons, Gerard, or Chniet, James, Peter, and Andrew. Tbe portraitures 
ef Adrian, and bis wife, Alice Ravenscfoft, were, in tbe window of St. Mi* 
cbael Bassisbaw oburcb in London, engrared by Wcever, whh a Latin in- 

- Gerard, or Gkrret, was the stationer who Irred at the sign of the Swan in 
St. Panl's Chureb-yard, Irom 1569 to 1584, whose rebus was a house with 
two men in a garret casting tfrai at dice. ({) He purcbaaed tbe manor of 
^idnes^ in Upmtnster, Essex, and died In J 591, leaving Paul, bis son and 
iRir, ''One of tbe six clerks in Chancery, who sold Gaines, and bought Stow 
Hall, at Stnwlangtoft. Tbe figure in armor of Gerardi in brass, on bis grave* 
stone, in tbe chapel at Gaines, is delineated with tbe Latin inscription In 
Weefcr's Funeral Monuments : ($) and we are (old in tbe octavo History of 
Essex,' (I) that this monument remained in Uproinster chapel at tbe time ef 
its being taken douru and rebuilt by Sir James Esdiule. 


(*) To this are added his will fai English, written by himself, dated March 
a8k 16f6 $ a translation of his will from English into Latin, dated Septem- 
her 19, 16S9 ; and another will drawn up by himselt in Latin* dated July 31, 
t6^U ^th an imperfect transcript of it. 

(t) No. 581, f. 934. 

(t) Ames, StO. Camden's Bematns, art. Bebta. 

ii) p. 653. (D VoL IV. 386. 

Digitized by 



BmUsmi, irho adieiilcd it fimni hw fMm, Ok ThaamB, Lor4« 
mfkjmt of liQttdbii n ITU, hf iAmk tbe iilM>le pamh mt pw* 
diMed in 1760. 


8fif Simondi wtt te wn •£ Vua\ D*S«tt bj hit wife SimUmi, dsogUfli 
and tole bcirattirf Bkhltfi} SMModtj Jitq. of Coidn, a fettmlet of Cluiidr 
•lock* in tbo oounty of Donet;, whore h» iroa bom Doeember 1$, i60S. Ilo 
«M odaeolid ia tbe fcbool ot At Bdmuid's Bofy ; oad ot the age of n&v 
teen ww admitted a fellow-oonuBonot of St Jofaii't College, Cembridfo. A$ 
eighteen bo bcfMi to eoHoct matoriali Ibr a ooncet and cooifleto biatoty of 
dfoat Brbain* in wbieb be ipent tbirtoon jroan ; and the awpucwpt nmaonf 
of bit life» abew bit attontteo lo p wwrfo tbo binoiy of bit awn^hnor TSti^ 
naliirally recommendod him to Ibonotioo of Sif IU>beti Gotten and Mr. M- 
den^twoof tbogtoatoiticbolinof tbatage. Tbeesampleoftbefonaerirat 
IbUowed bty bis friend in the care with which be digeited the great eollecliooa 
aiade by bin, and now preNTved in the British Muieaoi. His literary ea- 
fBgonents> however, did not interfere with hit public wnrices. He waa 
Aigjb ibariff of Suflblk in HS9 i m tbe long partiaoMnt the IblkHring year bo 
Has elected a hn^gm for Sndboiy ; and in Jnly ]#41« cseatad abaionet 

On the breaking oatof the dvil war he adhered to the popnlar «d^ and 
took the solemn leagoe and corenant in 1643 ; but this did not preennt^bia 
being tnmedont of tbe parlianient house by tbe army in 1648. Ftom that time 
heeeoms to hava^ven bimaelf up entirely to tbe prosecution of his studies and 
literary dedgni, ** tfaoee greater labors," as be calls them, conceiriog himself 
not to be bom Ibr biaMelf alone, aoo(|rding to tbe ^d saying so iuniliar to 
•him r Melnu mmri fmnn liU aieare. He coUatod and traascribod several an- 
eient records and moounent|» partionlaily tbe Bkek Book tf lA« fieohd|Ker. 
wbieb he bad tfaoogbls of poblifbing, and hie transcript of which remab^ in 
the British Mosenni. A. copy was left by Bir William Degdale to the 4sh- 
Sioleaa Museam, and was printed by Heame, in two ▼olnmeai at Oxlbrd, 17t9, 
lh>m a transcript given bint by tf r. Gravei^ of JIickleton> and the Tariops 
readings and notes of D'£wes at the end, marked with his .initial, all the 
while professing not to have oonsolted tbe original in the Eicheqner. He 
compltmenU dir Simonds with tbe epithet I'n tifif reMtt miiiliwfmai^ Tbd in- 
dastrioosWeever acknowledges himself mnch beholden to bim. («) All dial 
Sir Simonds paWished m- lus lilb, was a speech deltveved in paiUamen^ on the 


(*) Fan. Mon. p. S08| 397, 660,718, te 

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HCTPlFOiK. 191 

The chuith^ irfaich is a Imnd^otiie Mfldfaig^i ililidt withm a 

dcmbl^trenctred' camp ; and in a 4e1d- dbout Haifa mile fHm h^ 

wait foaad, in 1764, a pot Int! of Roman eoina of the loHrvr empire, 

^ In a fiurm called Red Castle, in the adjoining parish of Pakttiham^ 

a fine tesselated pavement iras disoorered. 


antkioity of CiiDbrf6g6» which be meited agaiart OdM, in-ra Mcid«rtil 
^elMrteia Acf'HMM oT Cmmii«i0 in 164i9»> m krjiinf coktidiet ; an ooomiod, 
whta-wa dioaM.I»w iisiaaUjfr«ipsoltd te «w«k««ial l|ie iBfiMa^ 

. htUlm fHSI^ ^l>^ ^ ctaUM|ng« aboat 4ia«t. The Brief Diaoonne'cgo- 
oening tbe power of Pariiaiiicntin eases of Judicature, 1640, is still in dis- 
pute between D'Ewes apd Selden. 

Sat Sinumds died April 18, 1650, m bis 48di year, and was sacceeded ia 
bis estate and titles by hil son Witloogbbj* to wbom his Aitber's Jowiiab of 
PMameatwen dedieattod, on their paMlcalion by Us eoodn, Faal BP£wes, 
Biiirer«»«IM]eTemple^oDaolflwai8Mnd'a bKotbtr, Biehard. He^waabn- 

: nadmtbOiOtavbof^nrl^lfeigMtaBdXifbgriafwi^aasiitbatu 
lb«ali a aobla nsoaamwme bb DMmery, (^) hot this is contiadicted by Mr. 
Goo^^lCcflid* II. p» 161^) wfao says, that there is no memorial of him extant 
aa the chorch, and that the register of the time has not been presenred. He 
caaaed arms and inscriptions to be annealed in glass, and pat into d» windows 
of Stow Hall, to shew the descent and matches of hie fiuaiiy. (t) He married, 
lets, Anne, daaghter of Sir William Clopton, of Kmitsrell» Kat. Inbis will^n 

> IdSStp ke wea. net dBletftined wbeia 10 be buried, bol left it to be where bis 
wife determined herself to be intetred. He also left a Latin epitaph for 

. botfa^ with cUreetions that it should be inscribed on abrass plate, to be placed 
apon their tomb. Their imae was six sons, and several daughters. To 
these in soccefsipn. Sir Sioionds beqneathed hts, '* pretious librarie/' his 
coins, aotographs, &c. with an injanction to keep tbem all together, under the 
penalty of forfeiting ISOOI. with the ^library, ^« to his wife, or other sar- 
viving children, and so to bis brother Richard ; sabject to tbe express condi- 
tion of letting it be free of access to all lovers of learning. From his de- 

* Keadams it was probably pmchsaed by- the earl of QxiDrd. Tbe piccares at 
Stow Hall, bereft to hit son Adrian, or to his owobrotbef and sister. 


(•) Suffolk TraT. second edit p^ t56. 

t These are preserved in Harl. BUSS. StS. f. 141* 

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192 fUF^OUL 

At Troston 18 Troiion Hall, the aeat of Capbl hsjortfEmi^ 
a gentleman well known in the literary world. It is one of those 
nansions of a former age whi<A give an idea oi comfort, and hos- 
pitality rather than of cold magnificence. It contains a copioiw 
library, and the proprietor has been at considerable pains to mako 
eyery i^ipendage consistent with his own pecnliar taste. To this 
end, he has inscribed almost every tree in his garden and its vi- 
cinity, either to names of classic celebrity, to snch as are en-* 
deared by the ties of kindred and friendship, or are veneimUe 
ibr the snperimr virtnes of the pemons.who hove them. Thss.we 
find Homer, Demosl^enes, Cicero, Miltoai, and many othan; a 
large elm is denominated the Evelyn elm, after ihe celebrated 
antiquary and planter; and to commemorate a visit to Troston 
Hall, of the great philanthropist Howard, in 1786, a lanrel was 
planted, and now bears his name. Bred to the bar, and still oc- 
casionally exercisii^ his professional talents at the quarter ses- 
sions and assizes for the county, Mr. Uoft heM reisKeSy .in Ihc^ 
more pleasing porsuit of the belles ktbts, and especially poo^ 
try ; astronomy also constitutes one of his fitvoorite recreatiotiB. 
His works have been chiefly on legal and political subjects. He 
is not only an author himself, but has proved on various occasions,, 
the warm patron of literary talents in otheni;andto him $ke pub- 
lic are in a great measure mdebted, iar the introdastion of the 
Farmer's Bay to their notice. 

Before this estate devolved to the family of the pretfent p a ss ei 
sor, it belonged to that of Maddocks. It was purchased in T68D, 
by Robert Maddocks, Esq. of whose father is related the follow- 
ing anecdote, which exhibits a remarkable instance of the Anctn- 

AnM»ngtb« DQiMcoas tnmcnptimBde by or for him, sod preserved in tha 
Harleian Library, are the following relating to this ooanty : 

The original register of Bary Abbey, entitled Cn/iU for the Pitaneer'a 

Another register of the saote house, entitled Werictmtt* 

Collections for ihe County of Suffolk.* . . 

• Bibl. Topog. No. XV, Pref, 

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ttiou of ftaily greataess. He in Mdd to liave been descended 
frm the Mtddoekei of Wale8» who fiNrmeiiy poBsessed the so- 
TereigBty^of thai prineipality ^ but tbe same combinatioiiB of 
erents which dqurivod them of a en>wn, reduced him to extreme 
diatresB. Though he codd boast of a regal ancestry* he was ac^ 
taally obliged, at tbe age of thirteen, to traverse the distance be* 
tween Wales and London, on foot, friendless and alone, in search 
of empbyment On his arrival in town, having heard that Cheap- 
aide was the most likdy place to obtain what he wanted, he re^ 
paired thith^, and after some time, observed a merchant soil his 
shoe in crossing the street Pull of ardour for any circumstance 
that might give rise to employment, he availed himself of this« 
and immediately ran and cleaned the shoe. The merchant, struck 
with the boy's attention, enquired into his sitoation, and having 
heard his story, took him into his service. After some time, ho 
was employed in the ooanting'^honse ; and in the sequel, became 
a partner in the firm> and acquired a considerable fortune.* 

At TrostoD was bom, in 1713, Edward Capbl,^ the maternal 
unde of Mr, lioft, a writer distinguished by his commentaries on - 
Shafcspeaie, and by his beaattful edition of the works of that im- 
mortal dramatistf in 10 vokimes 8vo. on which, as hesays in the 
dedieatioBy he had bestowed the attention of twenty years. In 
his iatrodndioB, Mr. Capel annouaoed his intention of publishing 
a further work on the various readings of Shakspeare, with com* 
mentaries and remarks. He was proceeding in perfect security 
with this plan, when a host of literary dramatists, with Stepliens 
at their head, adopted his ideas, and using greater expedition in 
their researches, laid the jMioadsed treasures prematurely before 
the public. This unexpected stroke nearly staggered the critic, 
when OB the very eve of the completion of his labours : and though 
they had occupied nearly forty years of his life, he had not the . 
satisfaction of seeing the result of them in print He died ou the 

Vol. XIV. 24th 

^Illttttrfttionft of Bloonfield^ p. 46, 47. where likewise is » view of Trostoa 

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2ith Juiiiary, 1781, and it vas not till ITSdythat Us iVbtef mmi 
Various Readings of Shakspeare, madd ita appeaMace, in thoM: 
qoarto volumea. Mr. Capel was also the e^tor of a yolooie of 
ancient poems intituled Prolusioiis, and altered AfUhonp €md 
Cleopatra as acted at Drury liSne in 1758. He held the office of 
deputy inspector of plays^ to which is attached a salary of 990L 
per annum. 

West Stow Hall, in the parish of the same name, a spaoioim 
brick mansion, formerly surrounded a quadrangular court, was 
moat^, and welt adapted, by its intwior axraogwient, to hann 
mal customs and festivities. Its builder is unknown, but from th# 
armorial bearings on the porcb^ it is presumed to have been eraob* 
ed about the beginning of the 16th century, Ti0 ams are tkoae 
of the princess Mary> the wife of Charles Brandan, Duke of Suf- 
folk. The building is now much reduced in siae, and used as m 
iana-house. The embattled pediaient% diamondnihaped tracery, 
and finidi statues, are chiefly entitled to> notioe, as curious aad 
nnusnal appendages in buildings of thn order. In this maoMn, 
a laige collection of armour was Ibnneriiy.pveaerTed.^ 

.From a mural monument in the chwrch of WeM .Stow; its^ 
peais, that the manor, in the time of Edward III. belimged to tlia 
fiunily of the Crofts. It aflttwanls. ftanedpart ol the Tast pos- 
sessions of the abbey of Bury, after tho diteJiffion of wluchi^ it 
passed through the hands of the.KitBon8, Baeona, Frageniy and 
Fowkes, and is at present vested in Matqnis CormraHiik 


* Hartismere is bounded on th^ west, by Bla<^kbonm ; on the 
north, by the river Waveney, which parts it from Norfolk; on the 


* An etching of West-Stow HmU, ii given m Britton't Architectural An* 



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tut by the hundred of Hoziie ; sad on the south, hy the hnn- 
dreds of Boemere and Claydon, and Stow. 

In tiie year 1779, this hundred was incorporated with those of 
Hoxne and Thredlin^, but no house of industry has been erected, 
as it was found impossible at the time, to raise 16,0<XH. the sum 
required for putting the act of pailiament into execution. Se- 
Teral parishes hare, in consequence, built workhouses for their 
own poor; and this plan is considered by many, to be equally, if 
not more beneficial, than if they had erected a house of industry, 
as they were impowered to*do. 

Haitismere*contains one borough. Eye; and another market- 
town, Botesdale. 

Eys, situated on the eastern border of the hundred, is almost 
sarrounded by a small rivulet, whence it is said to derive its 
name, which signifies the island. Abbo Floriabensis describes 
the town as situated in his time, in the midst of a marsh ; tmd 
farther relates, that the river had formerly been navigieible to it 
fipsm Cromer, though then only to Burston, twelve miles from' 
Eye. In corroboration of this account, small rudders, iron rings. 
Slid other tackle belonging to ships, are said to have been from' 
tone to time discov^ed in the neighboring fidds. It contains 
390 houses, and 1734 inhabitants, whose principal manufiictnre is 
that of bone fcice. This town was incorporated by King John, 
and has two baillfis; ten princtpdl burgesses, and twenty-four com- 
mon council-men, with a recorder and town-clerk. It sends two 
members to parliament, in the interest of Marquis Comwallis, 
to whom the greatest part of the town belongs, and who receives 
from it the tide of baron : the number of voters is about 200, 
the right of election being in the corporation, and the inhabitants 
payii^ scot and lot The market is on Saturdays, and the hie 
on Whit-Monday. 

The streets of Eye are narrow, and the houses, in general, 
mean; but the church is a large handsome structure. On tiie 
east side of the town appear the ruins of a Benedictine monas- 
tery, founded by Robert Malet, on whom William the Conqueror 

O 2 conferred 

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conferred tlie fordship of Eye, irith all its a^endage*. Witb 
the assent of that monarch he built this convent^ and gave to it 
the church of St. Peter, in Eye, with other churches, lands, ii« 
berties, and franchises. Its possessions were greatly increased 
by subsequent benefactors. In 1138, Stephen confirmed them to 
the monks, with a grievous curse on all who should violate their 
property and privileges.* Among other possessions, these monks 
had the site of the episcopal see at Dnnwich, till swallowed np 
by the ocean ; and brought from that place St Felix's book of the 
gospeb, which Leland saw written in great Lombard letters, of 
high antiquity, by which, under the name of the Red Book of 
Eye, the coounun people were accustomed to swear. 

This house was originally a cell to the abbey of Bemay, ui 
Normandy, so that neither the prior, nor any monk, could be 
placed here without the consent of the superior of that monas- 
tery. Nor could the founder, or his heirs and succesaors, patrais 
of this house, upon the death of the prior, interfere with its pos* 
sessions during the vacancy ; but in token of their dominion, they 
used to place a porter at the gate, to be maintained out of the 
revenues of the house, and who, at the instalment of the next 
prior, received five shillings to buy an ox. Richasd U. released 
it from foreign dependance, and at the dissolution, when the aa* 
nual revenues of this monastery were valued at 16IL 2s. 3jd. its 
possessions were granted to Chsrles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. 

At this place was also a castle, anciently belonging to Robert 
Malet, whose father accompanied William the Conqueror to Eng- 
land, and on whom, as mentioned above, that monarch bestowed 
the honor of Eye, comprising 120 manors, or the greatest part of 
them. This baron held the oifice of great chamberlain of Eng* 
laud under Henry I. and was a great benefactor to the town ; but 
being an abettor of Robert, that king's elder brother, in his at- 
tempt upon the crown, his estate was confiscated, and himself ba- 
nished the realm. This honor was then conferred on Stephen, 


* Siepheu^ charter is preserred in Selden*! work sn Tilfaes^ ch«p« 11* 

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Earl of Boalog^e, who afterwards ascended the English throne ; 
he left it to his natural son, who dying without heirs, it reverted 
to the crown. It was given by Richard I. to Henry, Earl of 
Brabant and Lorraine, but was again in the king's hands, 9 Ed- 
ward I. and ao continued till 4 Edward III. who granted it to his 
brother John, Earl of Cornwall ; and on his death without issue, 
the lordship and honor of Eye were given, by the same king, to 
Robert de Uflbrd, whom he had created Earl of Suffolk. With 
the death of his son William, the family became extinct, and this 
honor once more returned to the crown ; after which it was con* 
feired on the De la Poles, Eark of Suffolk, with whom it re* 
nudned for some time. The honor and manor of Eye, are now 
▼ested in Marquis Comwallis. 

Id 1781, some labourers digging in a field near this place, dis* 
oovereda leaden box, containing several hundred Roman coins and 
medahs aD of the purest gold, well executed and in high preser* 
▼atiM, chiefly of the emperors Arcadius and Honorius. They 
were worth about eleven shillings each, and near them was (bund 
a quantity of human bones. 

BoTSSDALE, an abbreviation of Botulph's Dale, is a market 
town, bat ill built and small, containing only 61 houses, and 56-5 
inhabitants. It receives its name from a chapel dedicated to St. 
Botttlph, the pother church of which is Redgrave, about two 
miles distant. This chapel having been for many years disused, 
has by means of the subscriptions of the inhabitants and the 
neighbouring gentry, been substantially repaired, and fitted up 
for divine service ; besides which a provision has been made for a 
salary to the master of the free grammar school, for a sermon and 
prayers on Sundays. This school was fi>unded about the year 
1676, by Sir Nicholas Bacon, and is irith the dwelling house at 
the west end of the chapel. The master and usher are to be 
elected from Benet College, Cambridge, where Sir Nicholas was 
educated. He also bequeathed 20L a year to that college, for six 
•ch^lars out of this school, to whom likewise. Archbishop 'fm-, 

3 niaoa 

Digitized by 



nison it said to haye left by will six pounds annnairy. A new 
Bridewell has recently been erected here. 

Botesdale has a market on Thursday; a yearly iair on Holf ' 

Thursday ; but whieli, according to the charter of Henry III. by ' 

whom it was granted, ought to be held on the eve and day of St. 
Botulph, that is, on the 17th and 18th of May ; and a statute fair, 
three weeks after Michaelmas. 

The villages worthy of notice in this hundred are, 
Broome, where is a fine old mansion, which has long beeM 
the seat of the noble family of Gornwaliis, a fiunily not less il- 
lustrious for merit and talents, than for rank. Its founder was * 
Thomas Comwallis, who served the office of sheriff of Lon- ' 
don in 1378. In the reign of Henry VIII. Jphn ComwalUs was 
knighted for his valQur and conduct at the sic^e of Morlaix, in 
Britanny, and ^pointed steward of the household to Prince Ed-* 
ward, afterwards Edward VI. His son. Sir Thomas, being high 
sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in the last year of that king's 
reign, raised a considerable force in behalf of the claim of his 
sister Mary; who, in gratitude for his assistance in placing 
her upon the throne, nominated him a member of her privy 
council, treasurer of Calais, and comptroller of her household: 
His grandson Frederic, was created a baronet in 1627. He 
distiqguished himself by his adherence to the royal canse, at* 
tended king Charles in all his military operations, and at the bat- 
tle of jDopredy bridge, in particular, he rescued Lord Wilmot^ who 
had felleu into the hands of the enemy under Sir William Waller. 
He accompanied Carles II. in his exile, and that king, after his 
lestoration, in reward of his services not only (^pointed him tr^ 
surer of his household, comptroller, and privy counsellor, but 
created him, in 1661, a peer of the realm, by the title of Lord 
Comwallis, of Eye. His grandson, Charies, third Lord Com- 
wallis, was first lord of the admiralty, and Lord Lieutenant of 
Suffolk, under William III. To him succeeded his son Charles^ 
the fourth lord, joint post-master genend, and pay-masler general 
sf the army, in the reign of Geoi^ge I. He ha4 a numerous fa- 

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oily, aiMtg^Kom yrete Claries, the fifth kurd; Eiwtrd^ who 
cfmhraced the mifitaiy'profeisioii, and was in 1762, appointed go-^ 
vemer of Gfbntltar; and Frederic, ^constituted in 1750 bishop of 
Litchfield and Coventry, and translated in 176B, to the archie- 
piscopai see of Canterbury. Charles, the fifth lord, having been 
piiviously a]^pomted constable of the Tower of London, lord liea- 
tenant, andcastos rotulomoi of the Tower Hamlets, was in 1753; 
treated Viscount Broome, and Earl Coruwa]lis,in addition to his lor* 
mer title. Of the issue of thb nobleman were Chwles, the second 
earl ; James, the present'bishop of Litchfield and Coventry ; and 
William, an admiral, and distinguished ornament of the British 
navy. Cliarles the second earl, was, in consideration of his splen«» 
dM services as a soldier and a statesman, advanced in 17d3, 
to the dignity of Marquis Cornwaliis. His eminent talents caused 
kirn to be selected for various appointments of great difficulty, and 
Hie highest importance. He crushed the rebellion in Ireland, ne« 
godated the peace of Amiens, and having been a second time inr 
vested with the office of governor-general of the British posses- 
sions in the East Indies, he died in 16Q5, at Gauzepoor, in the 
province of Benares, and was succeeded by his only son Charles; 
the present marquis, who is also colonel of the East Sufiblk mi* 

Btowne Hall is said to have been erected by Sir Thomas Co^n« 
wallis, whose portrait hangs in the dining-room there, setat 74, 
1590. This mansion, built of brick, with curiously ornament* 
ed chimnies, still retains its stately appearance, and though very 
seldom visited by the noble proprietor, is in tolerable repair. The 
great hall, or dining room, exhibits a perfect specimen of old Eng- 
lish grandeur. It is very lofty, wainscoted with oak to the 
height of about ten feet, without ceiling, the timbers of the roof 
hetng finished like those of churches. A large window, embel- 
lished with the various arms of the family in painted glass, occu- 
pies one end, and at the- opposite end, over the entrance into the 
room, is a gallery. 'Below this gallery is the butler's pantry, se^ 
parated fiK>m the room, and having a flight of stairs on each side. 
4 Above 

Digitized by 


200 ■ovrouL 

Above the WMOscot am ivhole length portmtt lyf QiHai Mujr 
and her conaort Philip of Spain^ James I. OliTer Cromwell, Sir 
Bfephen Fox and his lady. Lord Burleigh, and the late Dnko of 
Grafiou ; and over the gallery is a whole length of a lady m a 
riding dress, attended by several Italian greyhounds, and her 
horse in the back-groond, said to rq>resent Anne of DeuMlk, 
queen of James I. On the staircase leading from the hall to Hie 
present dining-room, are portraits of Qneen Elisabeth, and Maiy 
of Scotland, Sir Thomas More and his wife. Lady Bacon, and 
three children, and a distant view of the old hall at Colford. The 
present dining-room contains nine fiunily portraits, naiked with 
the names and ages of the perscms whom they represent; besides 
which, there are several others in different apartments, as wdl ae 
Bumerons paintings of varioos degrees of merit, all more or less 
injured by damp. The most snmptaoos remains of the fermer 
splendor of this mansion are in the ehapel, which is on the 
gronnd^floor, and the bay-window of which looks upon the lawn. 
The seats are famished with cushions of silk ; that for the mi« 
nister is of rich purple velvet, embroidered with gold, and maik« 
ed with the date 1550. The body of the chapel is separated 
from the part appropriated for the servants, by a finely carved 
Gothic screen, and is hung with tapestry, representii^ varioua 
scenes ia the life of our Saviour. The Rev. Mr. Broome, chap« 
lain to the grand&ther of the present Marqnis, was the last cler- 
gyman that.officiated herc^Several of the ont-offices of Ihin 
stately mansion, are now the residence of cottagers. 

In the chancel of the church at Broome, are seyeral monuments 
for various members of the 6||iily of Comwallis. Sir John, who 
died at Ashridge, in the conpty of Buckingham, in 1544, is in- 
terred beneath a marble to|nb four feet high, upon which Hcs his 
figure tu armour, with a white staff in his hand, and a greyhonnd 
at his feet Beside him is the effigy of Mary his wife, with s 
hound at her feet also. Near this monument is another, on 
the north side of the ohancel, for Sir Thomas Comwallis, Knt* 
pqd ^^^ ^ ^if^# W^^ ^^ur effigi^. In th^ aude adjoining i§ 


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ttthM, Ibt HeuyCMminJIis, Bm|« who is repreieated itt armour, 
kMoliBgr* witlioatdate^aiidthkiiiftenptioii: 

I entred only that I should go out^ 

He that is born, most 6je, there is no doobt 

Mendlssham, formerly a market-tdwn, situated in a de^ 
Biiry soil, near the source of the river Deben, contains 179 houses, 
and 1051 inhabitants* The place itself is mean, bnt the church 
Is a handsome structure. It was given by King William Rufus, 
to the abbot and convent of Battel, in Sussex, who bad the im« 
propriation and advowson of the vicarage till the dissolution* 
M endlesham has a yearly fiur on the 21 at of September. 

Towards the conclusion of the 17th century, an ancient silver 
crown, weighing about sixty ounces, and conjectured to have be- 
longed to one of the kings of the East Angles, was found at this 
place. A gold concave ring, with an inscription in the Sclavo- 
nian, or Runic character, was dso plowed up here in 1758. 
Camden supposes Mendlesl|am to have been the residence of Dag* 
obert, one of the kings of the Heptarchy. 

Palgravs. In the porch of the ehurch of this village, is in< 
terred with others of his fiunily, the celebrated antiquary, Tho- 
mas Martin, better known by the fiimiliar appellation of hone$i 
Tom Ufartm of Palgraoe* 

This lordship anciently belonged to the abbey of Bury, and in 
the west part of the parish, was a chapel of St John Baptist, 
subordinate to that establishment, where five secular priests re^ 
sided and said mass daily. 

Redgiuvb, was one of the lordships given to the abbey of 
Bury, by UUketel, Earl of the East Angles, who fell in 1016, at 
the battie of Assendun, in Enex, with Canute the Dane. Alter 
t)be dissolution it was granted by Henry VIII. in the last year of 
his reign, to Thomas Darcy, from whom it soon came into the cele- 
brated fiunily of Bacons. Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord-keep^ to 
Qmeei^ Elizabeth, made it his seat; and his descendant. Sir Ni- 

» See Beauties, VoU 1^1. Norfolk, p. 9^0. 

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7n 9awwouL 

duAam, ims etmtod by Kiag Jtrnw I. the pi^mkr BttvBet of 
England, June 22, 1611. By one of his sucoeMora this estate Wt0 
sold, toward the conclusion of the 17th, or the beginning of the 
18th century, to Sir John Holt, lord chief justice of the King's 
Bench, in whose family it continued till it became by marriage the 
property of Admiral Wilson, the present possessor. 

Redgrave Hall was built of stone by Sampson, abbot of Bnfy, 
in 1211, and was one of the villas belonging to the prelates of that 
monastery. The house was rebuilt about 1770, by the latetlbw- 
land Holt, Esq. who also embellished the park at an expen(% of 
SO^OOOl. in such a manner as to render this one of the inost beau- 
tiful spots in the county. The mansion is a spacious handsome 
structure, built of Woolpit brick, and the centre, which projects, 
is adorned with a pediment supported by four Ionic columns. Tli'e 
park is charmingly wooded, and is adorned with a fine piece of 
water in front of the house. " In the evidence-room here,*' says 
Sir John Cullum, " are preserved many very valuable manu- 
scripts *." 

The church at Redgrave was a few years since adorned with a 
neat steeple of white brick, and likewise new paved, and orna- 
mented within, chiefly at the expence of the late Rowland Holt, 
Esq. It contains some monuments, which for beauty of marble 
and sculpture, are scarcely exceeded by any in the kingdom. Iti 
tlie Tight aisle, is a black table monument, upon which are the 
recumbent effigies, in white marble, of Sir Nicholas Bacon, the 
elder brother of Lord Verulanl a:nd his lady, executed by Nicholas 
Stone, at the expence of 2001. with this inscription ; — '' Nicholas 
Bacon and Anne his wife. She di^d in her 68th year. Sept 19, 
< 1616." At the west end of the church are several mural tablets 
for other individuals of this family. 

In the chancel is interred that excellent judge. Sir John Holt, 
whose monument is said to have cost 15001. He is represented 
in white marble, sitting in a chair, in his judicial robes, with the 


« Cullum's Hawtted, p. 238. 

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igwta tK >«rtafc% mA Meggy €» uilhi mi^ oHml T«o 

iki^ 1 ^^^^ ^^^ ilrnrr ■■ilir whirh kn ■■ iMtod V»> 

4atMtf^ \ft the MliBliii, JMinifliw, 6m the p« 
littlfiAIk* Bailey: 

CoBttliarii pcrpetni; 
liberlads ac Legun Anglkanim 
AMertans, Vuidicis, CmtodU 
Yigilia, Acfis «t Intiepidi. 

Die Ifaftis Vto 1709« labUUis eit 

ez Ocnlis nostris. 
Katvs 30 Decembrisy Anno 1640. 

AMmg-tiie menorabilia of Redgnve H may be obaeired, thai 
IlioaiaaWolaey , afterwards tiie &bmhi8 carduial and archbialiop of 
York, wae institiitod to this rectory, Jmie 8, 1«M)6, on the preaenta- 
iMtfthe aliiratand eonvent of Bory. 

Rs&i^YdFi^LD is remarkable only <for a monastery of Bene* 
dkliBe mmSy founded there in 1130, by Manaaties, Earl of 
Gtnmos and Emma bis wife, and endowed by them with the 
Btaor of tys parish. At the dissokition this house was Talned 
M 671. €a. lid. and was granted 28 Henry VIII. to Edmnnd Bed- 

Of^k buMmg there are still eonstderaUe remains; part of it 
asv caQed the HM is a fiurm boose, and the ehapel fonns the 
pviA cJinrch. The manor is the property of Alexander Adair, 

Thwaite was the residence of the fiunily of Reeve, of which Sir 


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<jl«orge Reeve, aUas Wright, Knt. waa ereated a baronet in 1661. 
This family is now extinct. 

Westhorp belonged, wben Domenday Survey waa taken to 
Gilbert de Blond, and William de Ellingham, or Elmham had the 
grant of a market and &ir here, in 1371. Sir William de Elmham, 
Knt. died poaaeaaed of this manor, in 1403, and it was the pro- 
perty of William de la Pole, when he was beheaded in 1448. It 
was afterwards granted to Charlea Brandon, Dnke of Soflblk, bro- 
ther-in-law to King Henry VIII. who, with his royal consort, re« 
sided here at the noble mansion of Westhorp Hall, which is now 

The cloister, the chapel, with its painted windows, and the 
original fumitore, were kept up till about half a century ago, 
when it was entirely palled down. During its demolition, it waa 
visited by the late Mr. Thomas Martin, who, in a note left 
among his papers, says : — '* I went to see the dismal ruins of 
Westhorp Hall, formerly the seat of Charles Brandon, Duke of 
Suffolk; The workmen are now pulling it down as fast as may be, 
in a very careless and injudicious manner. The coping-bricks, 
battlements, and many other ornamental pieces, are made of 
earth, and burnt hard, and are freah as when first built: they 
might, with care, have been taken down whole; but all the fine 
chimnies and ornaments were pulled down with ropes, and crushed 
to pieces, in a most shameful manner. There was a monstrous 
figure of Hercules sitting cross-legged with his club, and a lion 
beside him, but all shattered to pieces ; and the painted glass is 
likely to share the same fate. The timber is fresh and sound, 
and the building, which was very lofty, stood as erect as when first 
built It is a pity,'' he adds, with a feeling of justly excited in-* 
dignation, " that care is not taken to preserve some few of our' an- 
cient fabrics ; to demolish every piece i^old architecture is quit^ 


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Tlu; himdred of Stow is bounded on the north by Hartismei^^ . 
on the west by Blackboum and Thedwestry^ and on the south and 
east by Cosford, and Bosmere and Glaydon. The only maik^ 
town in this hundred is, 

Stow-mark£T^ situated nearly in the centre of the county, 
at the junction of the three rivulets, which form the rirer Gip* 
ping. In 1801, it contained 273 houses, and 1761 inhabitants^ 
who hadinoreased in 1811, to 2006 souls, inhabiting 401 houses. 
The market on Thursday is well supplied ; and its fiurs are on . 
the Frfday in Whitsun-week, June 29 ; and a lamb*fair on the let 
of August 

Stow-market is a thriving town, and contains many good and 
even handsome houses, especially about the market-place. The 
church is a spacious and beautiful building, with a square tower, 
surmounted by a steeple 120 feet high, which, though of wood, 
has a light and elegant appearance. It contains a peal of right 
bells, and a good organ. In this churdi are interred several in* 
dividuals of the fiunily of the Tyrrels, of Gipping HaU, in tUa 
handred. Here is also a monument for Dr. Young, once vicar of 
this place, and tutor to the immortal Milton. The oontignoua 
parish of Stow-upland, which has neither church nor chapel, is 
now consolidated with Stow-market, but they have still distinct 
officera for each parish. 

The connty meetings are chiefly held in this town; and here is , 
a manufacture of sacking, ropes, twine, and hempen, which baa , 
succeeded that of stnfib and bombazines. Being well situated for 
the berley*trade, the market of this town is much frequented by 
the frrmers, for a considerable distance round, and consequently 
mach business is done here in the malting line, in which there are 
from fifteen to twenty houses. 

A principal source of the prosperity of Stow-maiket, is the na- 

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Tigable canal from this place to Ipswich^ opened in 1793. It ia 
sixteen miles in length, and has fifteen locks, each sixty feel 
long, and fourteen wide; three* built with timber, and twelye 
with brick and stone. The total expence incurred in Ihis under- 
lakng was 26,8801. The charges for the conveyance of goods 
upon it are one penny per ton per mile, from Stow to Ipswich, 
and half as much from the latter town to Stow-market. Som^ 
idea may be formed of the beneficial effects of thia navigalHNi^ 
firom th^ statement, that soon after its completion it had redaeed 
the price of land-carriage more than one*half, and the carriage only 
1^KMl ooals foiff shillings per chaldron, and consequently raised the 
rest of land considerably. Independently of its utility, this 
caaal 4b a great ornament to the town: from the bason thei^ 
is an agreeable wrik, about a mile in length, along the tow^ 
ing-path, winding chiefly through hop-plantations, of which 
there are about 160 acres in this neighbourhood. 

An old mansion-^use, called Abbot's Hall, together with the 
manor of 6low-4narket> was given by King Henry II. to the dbbey 
of St Osyth, in Essex; but was granted, 38 Henry VIII. as pari 
of the possession of that monastery to Thomas Darcie. 

The house 'of industry for the hundred of Stow, stands ^ir'aa 
eminence, about a mile frt>m the town, it has rather the appear- 
ance of a gentlemaif's seat, than of a receptltcle forpmipers. It 
warerected at an expence of more than 12,0001. and opened in 
1781. . 

BuxHALL, near Stow-market, is remarkable as the bitth^placer' 
of Sir William Coppinger, Lord Mayor of London, in 151^. At 
his death be bequeathed half of his large property to charflable 
uses^ and the other half to his relations, ^ho lougflotirished in this 
place. This fiunily was so fiimous for hospitality, that ** to live 
like the Copptngers*' became a proverbiid expression. 

Close to the church stands the elegant house of th6 R^v. fienry 
Hill, rector of the parish, and also lord of the manor of Buxhall, 
whose singular and successful practice of diilling wheat in rows, 


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it the dlrtMiee •f «%hft«eii jnebis, seoaft to deMnre tlie attemti«ft 
«l tbe agrkdlarut *. 

• FM^nmgk Hall,, io the parish of Ghreat Fbboiimgh, was 
boflt in ITdfit, by the present proprietor, and l<Nfd of the msnor^ 
Roger Peltiward^ Esq. under the direction of Mr. Franeis Ssadys. 
Thie elegant mansion is constmotdd <tf Weolpit-brick. In the 
centre of the front is a projecting bow, adorned with a pediment^ 
aapported by four eolnflgtns UkewisoLof brick, fonned in' moulds^ 
made expnnsly for .this pnrpoaek The jiodseetands in on& of the 
mootdelightfttl ntaatiifns in the c^mtj* The perk; oenprebead-i 
i|ig,aboat 2<M>acveSi. g^iitfy slopes from th0nianelon> into avaki 
ley» whicb neerly forms a 'Cirele ftom west to aoath. Thronghr 
ibfi greater pait rf this vaUey, a river rising in tiie pariah* of 
BsttlepideD, winds its eonibe to ioin the Gripping, below Bfeew* 
BiaAet Bey4i:id the river, the park jBgain rises to the norths 
t»A is skirted by a wood. It is diveniied by clumps of very 
fine timber. An enybeivered walk, winding behind the hall, on 
t}ie sammit of the hill, leads to the cburoh, whioh emtaios se« 
vsral handssme «i<vlumentB of the Wollastoiti femity, fomieKly tilw 
proprietors of Finborongh, and pHrtieularly otie to the menory of 
WUliun WoUaslon, the author of the Religion' of Nature De-' 
Gneaied, who resided, and is interred here. He was bom in^ 
1656, at Coton Clanfond, in Stafi%>rdshiro, and died in 1724. 

Gippm* is a hasdet iridch derives its name from ita ritoa^ 
tmi near the^ source of one of these flfiriags, that form the river 
Giving. It is chiefly remarkable as the seat of the ancient 
equestrian lamily of Tyrrel, whose lesidsBce, C&ppmjg Hall, ia 
now held by Sir John Shelly, Bart as aifHurtiiig nnuiBtou. 

Haughlet was in ancient times a maricet^town, out of the rmm 
of which Stow seems to have risen. We find thatd Edward IV. 
William Uo«on, of Stow, wisa finedibr lying in wait near the tawn* 
sf Hanghley, sad buying cUdMiis, eggs, and the like; and in 

31 Henry 

• Sm Ymut^t Vim ^fihs Sufclk^ p. 369. 

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909 SOfFOUL 

31 Henry VIII. tke botchen of the femer pitce were amereel- 
3s. 4d. becaase they sold meat oat of the maiket on a markeW' 
day, contrary to the custom of this manor. In the following 
year the amercement was donhled, bat the market has long been 
disused. The village has a &ir yearly, on Angnst 15, being the 
Assumption of the Virgin Mary, to whom the ehorch is dedi- 

Near the church are the remains of a Tery strong castle, which 
is conjectured to have been a Saxon structure. Kirby takes it for 
gnmted, that it was the same building which went by the name of 
Hageneth Castle, which was in the custody of Ralf de Broc, and 
was demolished in 1173, by the Flemings, under Robert, Earl of 
Leicester;, who committed great derastations in this county. It 
afterwards belonged to the de Uffimds, Earb of SdMk, the last of 
whom died possessed of it, 43 Edward III. as did WUliam de 
la PoK who enjoyed the same title, 28 Henry VI. The figure of 
this castle approaches to a square, fortified with a deep dtteh, 
or moal; and except on the north side, a proportiondlile nmparl^ 
still entire. Toward the north, upon a high artificial litll> of 
steep ascent, and also surrounded with a deep moat, stood the 
keep, or strong tower, the foundation of which now tvmailiing 
is. very thick, and iqiparently circukr. On the west side is a 
pretty large space, in form resembling an obloiig square^ thst- 
seeoM to have been an out-work of the castle, the east side of 
which abuts upon the moat before-mentioned, and is somewhat' 
irregular. The north and west sides 4ue rectangular, and enoom* 
passed with a smaller moat, as was perhaps the south side, though 
there is now no appearance of it The ground occupied, or 
inclosed, by all these works, exceeds seren acres. 

The manor and park of Haughley were the estate of Charier 
Brandon, Dukeof SnflUk, from whom they came by purchase, or 
exchange to the crown, and were afterwards granted to Sir Johi^' 
Sulyard, of Wetherden. The manor is very extensive, and the 
lord formerly possessed a jurisdiction of Oyer and Terminer, try- 
ing all causes in his own court;, of which instances may be found 
9 so 

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go late as 11 ElizabeOi. Tkui at a court held, 15 Edward IV. 
the lands, tenements, &c of John Bnxton, of Stow, were sdzed 
becaose he had vexed one William Tomer, by the writ of our lord 
the king, contrary to the ancient custom of the manor, that no 
tenant should prosecute another tenant^ in any court except this* 
At another court in the same year, it was ordered, that the ahhot 
of Hales, in Gloucestershire, to whom the parishes of Haughley 
and Shelland were impropriated, should erect a new pair of gal- 
lows, in Lnberlow field, in Haughley, under a penalty of f<Nrty 
shillings ; and in the 8th year of the same reign,William Baxteyn 
held certain lands by the service of finding a ladder for the lord's 
gallows *• 

Haughley Park was lately the residence of G. W. Jemingham, 
Esq, eldest son of Sir W. Jemingham, Bart who married Fran^e^ 
daughter and co-heiress of the late E. Sulyard, Esq. but the public 
fvpen state, that in October 1811, this manor, ^tending over 
2442 acres, d2 dwelling-houses, and 98 messuages, with the spa- 
cious mansion-house and offices, and a park and land containing 
about 396 acres, were sold for 27,8401. exclusive of timber. 

Newton was one of the estates belonging to Margaret, Conn- 
tess of Salisbury, at her death, 33 Henry VIII. This lady was 
the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, brother to Edwarf 
IV. by Isabel, the daughter of Richard Neville, the celebrated^ 
Earl of Warwick and Salisbury. She married Richard Pole, Lord 
Montague, whom she survived, and upon her petition to Henry 
Vn. obtained the possessions of her grandfather, and the title 
of Countess of Salisbury. It was probably her proximity in 
blood to the royal house of York, that gave umbrage to the jea- 
lous tyranny of Henry VIII. who caused her to be accused of a 
traitorous correspondence with the Marquis of Exeter, her son 
Cardinal Pole and others. She was accordingly attainted of high 
treason ; and in the 70th year of her age, beheaded in the Tower 
ff London, with circumstances of great cruelty.. She- had been 

Vol. Xiy. P C04- 

Kirby'i Soffolk Tnv. ad Edit p. 188— 190. 

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410 . surroLK. 

eoDdemned, as was not unusual in that reign^ Without trials and! 
when she was brought to the scaffold^ refused to lay her hesid on 
the blocks in obedience to a sentence^ the justice of which she 
would never recognize. She told the executioner, therefore, 
that, if he would have her head, he must win it the best way 
he could, and ran abont the scaffold, while he pursued her, aiming 
many fruitless blows at her neck before he was able to put an end 
to her life. Newton Hall, with her other estates, passed however 
to her son Henry Pole, Lord Montague. 

Onehouse was in the time of Edward III. the estate of 
Bartholomew Burghersh, who died seized of it in the 43d year 
of that king. He was one of the twelve noblemen, to whose' care 
the Prince of Wales was committed at the battle of Cressy. On 
the site of the old hall, encompassed with a moat, in which he is 
supposed to have resided, a form-house has been built. The 
g^ndeur and solitary situation of the ancient fabric probably 
gave name to the parish, the greater part of which, two centuries 
ago, was a wood, except a narrow strip declining to the south- 
east, near that distinguished mansion, seated on a rising ground, 
that gently sloped into a valley, with a rivulet, winding through 
it. About two hundred yards to the north of the moat, stands the 
church, which is small, and has a font of unhewn stone. It ap- 
pears to have been a Saxon building ; but a part of the north wall 
only, extending about ten yards from the tower, which is circular, 
is all that remains of the original structnre. 

Not less than one-fiflh of the lands belonging to this parish at 
present, consists of woods and groves, finely planted with timber ; 
and even part of the rectorial glebe, adjoining to the parsonage* 
house, is a wood of ten or twelve acres. 

At Wetheeden was situated WetJierden Hall, the seat of the 
ancient and respectable family of the Sulyards, which, to judge 
from its ruins, must have been a large and noble building. It 
remained their residence till the reign of Queen Mary, who, to 
reward the £delity of Sir John Sulyard, the first that took up 
arms and levied men for her service against the sapporters of Lady 


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Jane Orey^ made a grant to hint of the numor and paik of Hangh- 
ley, on wkich he erected a mansion there« His son, Edward, 
«dhering to the religion of bis ancestors, suffisred mnch dnring the 
next reign for recuitoncy, notwithstanding the nnimpeached Ibyalty 
of his sentiments and conduet The fidelity of Sir Edward, the 
grandson of the latter, to the cause of Charles I. brought on him 
the imprisonment of his person, and the sequestration of two- 
thirds of his estate, daring Cromwell's usurpation: but when 
Charles II. recovered his tlirone, he was restored to his posses- 
sions and his liberty. His descendants continued at Wetherden 
for several succeeding generations. 

In this village is a very oeat church, the porch of which, and a 
latge aisle continued from it to the chancel, were built by Sir John 
Snlyard, who, in the pedigree of that dunily, is called a judge 
only ; but in the Baronetage of England, is said to have lieen 
lord chief jnstiee of England. A grant of free-warren here, was, 
I Richard III. confirmed to him and to Ann his wife, who was the 
daughter of John Andrews of Bailham in thi» county by Elizabeth 
Seratton, and lineal descendant of Humphrey Bohun, Eari of He- 
reford and Essex, and of his countess Elizabeth, daughter of King 
Edward I. Round the porch of this church, and along the chan- 
cel, are finely carved the arms and quarlerings of the fiunily of Sulf* 
yardto the period when th^ aisle W9« builU - 


Cotferd is bounded on the west by the hundred of Babergb ; 
on the south by the same and Samford; on the east by 9nmford, 
and Bosmere and Claydon ; ai\d on the north by Stow and Thin- 
goe. It contains seventeen parishes, and one market-town. 

Hadlbigb, a considerable place, situated on the north-aide of 
the river Breton, contains 467 houses, and 2486 inhabitants. It 
formerly enjoy^ the privileges of a corporatioAj and was go?emed 

• P2 by 

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by a mayor, aldennea^ and commoii council; bat a quo warratU^ 
being brought against them, they surrenderedi their chsrter daring 
the reign of James IL and no other has since been gmntedi • Tba 
town had also two weekly markets, bat now only one on Monday. 
Its fairs are on the Tuesday in WJbitsun-week, and the lOth of 
October. The woollen trade, which once flourished in this town, 
is reduced to the spinning of ysm for the manu&ctores of Nor- 

The principal ornament of Hadleigb is the chorcb, wluch stands 
in the middle of the town, and is a handsome structure, with a 
spire steeple, A very handsome altar-piece was erected in the 
chancel by Dr. Wilkins, one of the late rectors; and both the 
church and parsonage-house were greatly improYod and beautified 
by his successor, the Rev. Dr. Tanner. But the church of Had- 
leigh is principally noted as the burial place of Gntbram,. or Gdw 
mo, the Danish chieftain, whe being defeated by king Alfred, 
consented to embrace Christianity, and had the goyemment of the 
country of the Easl^ Angles assigned to hinu Here he reigned 
tweWe years, and dying in 889, waaintenred In this church; but 
it may be remarked, that the tomb shewn for his does not bear the 
appearance of such antiquity. Mr. Gough obserres that there is 
only a long arch, with a bouquet on its point, in the south waU, 
of much later date. Befote the rectory-house stands a yenerabts 
brick gate, with two hexangular towers, built with the bouse by 
William Pykcnham, dean of Stoke College, and rector of this 
place about 1490. 

Twelye alms-houses for decayed housekeepers, were also found- 
ed here by him in 1497, and haye a small chapel for their use. 
A Bunday school has been established in this town, and is sup- 
ported by Yoluntfffy subscriptions. 

Hidleigh is remarkable for the mart3rrdom of Dr. Rowland 
Taylor, who was rector of this churdi, and suffered in the san- 
guinary persecution mider Queen Mary, for his adherence to the 
doctrines of the Reformatjum. He was burned February 9/ \S6i, 

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•«ii the comflion in tbis parish, uftaally, thougli improperly, called 
Aldfaam Commoti. On the place of his execution was erected a 
tflone, with this mis-speU inscription : 

Anno 1555. 
Br. Taylor for defendiDg what was god. 
In this place shed his blod. 

BiLDESTON, a small town, meanly built, coirtuns 115 houses, 
and 741 inhabitants. It was once noted foi its manuiacture of blue 
cloth and blankets, which are now dwindled a^ay to the spinning^ 
of yam. This place had formerly a market; and has now two 
fairs, on Ash-Wednesday and Ascension-day^ 

The church, a good building, stands upon a hill on the west 
side of the town ; and besides it, there was formerly a chapel 
dedicated to St. Leonard, in which there was a chauutry called 
Erdington's chauntry, where, long after the Reformation, divine 
serrice used often to be performed, on account of the distance of 
the church from the town. 

At this place is a neat cottage^ the seat of Richard Wilson, 

Brettenhah is supposed by some antiquaries, arguing both 
from the sound and signification of the name, to be the Coiubre- 
tonium of Antoninus ; and the vestiges of a camp a quarter of a 
mile to the south-west of the place seem to confirm the conjecture. 
Others, however, as we have seen, place this station at Ickling** 
ham, near Mildenhall, in the hundred of Lackford. The fieunily 
of the Wenyeves resided at this place almost two centuries; and a 
gentleman of that name still inhabits a good house here, surrounded 
with a park. - 

At Chelsworth, on a rising ground near the church, are the 
remains of the foundation of a stone buildings which appears to 
have been very capadous, and surrounded by the river Bret 
Near them is a field called the Park, and a small wood denominated 
the Paik Wood; from wluch circumstances the edifice is supposed 
to have been the residence jof Hsome persons of consequence. The 


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manor formerly belonged to the family of Howard^ the ancetfton 
of the Dukes of Norfolk, and afterwards to that of the Veres, 
Earls of Oxfoid. In 1737, it became, by purdiase, the property 
of Robert Pockltugton, Esq. who erected here a handsome man- 
sion, now occupied by Sir Roger Pocklington, Bart. 

Elm SETT. The church of this village, pleasantly situated on a 
hill, is built of flints, and covered with slate. The interior is 
particularly neat and clean. On a mural monument in the chancel 
is a kneeling figure of a man with a book open before him, his 
arms above, and underneath this inscription : 

" Here lyeth the body of £dward Sherland, of Gray's Inn, 
Esquire, descended from the ancient family of the Sho-lands^ in 
the isle of Sheppy, in KjsnX, who lived hfs whole life a single 
man^ and died in this p^ish the I3th of May, 16P9. 

" Tombes have no ose aniess it be to showe 

The due respect which friend to friend doth owe ; 

TSs not a maosolean monument, 

Or hireling epitaph, that can prevent 

The flux of fame : a painted sepulclise 

Is but a rotten trostleaae ti easurer, 

And a fair gate built to Oblivion. 

But he whose life, vliose ev'ry action, 

Like well wtpoglit stones and p^raniidcs, erecte 

A monument to honour and respecte, 

As this man's did—he needs no odier herse. 

Yet littth but dtte> having both tombe and verse." 

Near the north side of the church stands the house, formeily the 
parsonage, now much decayed, but once snnrounded by a moat^ 
On the descent of the opposite hill is a droppiug,weU> which 
deserves the ini^pection of the curious. 

Elffisett is remarkable as the native place of John Boyss, ap 
eminent scholar and divine, who was bom here in 1560. His ^ 
ther, himself a great proficient in tiie Greek and Hebrew languages* 
was first curate, and afterwards rector, of this pariah. The son» 
who is said to have manifested such a precocity of talents, that by 


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the time be had attamed his fifth year, he could read the Hebrew 
Bible, was edacaled at St. John's College^ Cambridge. Here he 
u^oired the reputation of being the first Greek scholar of his time, 
and was chosen Greek lecturer. He used to deliver his lectares at 
four o'clock in the moniiug in his own chamber ; and so numerous 
was the attendance, that it ^as said, '* there used to be as manj^ 
candles lighted in St John's at that early hour, as the bell which 
then rang, gave toils." He once designed to apply himself to the 
study of physic, with a view of making it his profession ; but being 
troubled with a weakness frequently incident to persons of a deli- 
cate constitution, thdt of believing themselves to be afiiicted with 
every disease of which they read, he turned his attention entirely 
to divinity. On the death of his fether, he succeeded him in the 
rectory. When King James I. ordered the new version of the 
Bible to be made, Mr. Boyse was chosen one of the Cambridge 
translators, and executed not only his own share, which was part 
of the i\pocr}'pha, but likewise that of one of his colleagues. He 
was also appointed one of the committee of six to revise the whole, 
each member of which, wliile engaged in the task, was paid by the 
Stationers' Company thirty shillings per week. After this he 
assisted Sir Henry Savile in translating the works of Chrysostom,* 
ibr which laborious task he received only a copy of the book. The 
highest preferment which this indefatigable divine obtained, was 
a prebend in the cathedral of Ely, given him by Bishop Andrews. 
He died January 14, 1643. 

Kerset is mem<H^le only for a Priory of Benedictine monks, 
according to some writers, or as others say, of Augustine Canons, 
dedicated to St. Mary and St. Anthony. It was granted by King 
Henry VI. to King's College, Cambridge. 

P 4 Kettip* 

* Sir Henry expended two thoai&nd pounds in printing one thoiuand 
copies of this publication ; and so entirely was bis attention engaged daring 
the progress of the work, that his lad^, thinking herself neglected, one day 
•aid to him : *< I wish 1 were a book too, and then you would respect me » 
liule more."—" Madam," replied a person present, <* yon should than be an 
almanack, that he might change yon every vear." 

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216 BOFPOLt, 

Kettil^arston. In 23 Henry VI. this manor was granted, 
togethei* with that ofNedding, to William de la Pole, Marquis of 
Suffolk, to hold by the service of carrying a golden sceptre with 
a dove on the top, upon the coronation day of the king's heirs and 
successors ]; and a sceptre of ivory with a gold dove on the head, 
upon the day of tiie coronation of the then queen, and all suc- 
cessive queens of England. 

The Waldegraves are said to have had their seat at the Hall 
here, which afterwards descended to the Lemans, and from them 
to the Beaohcrofts, to which family it still belongs. 

In the parish of Semer is situated the holhse of industry for the 
hundred of Cosford, which was incorporated in 1779. This struc- 
ture was erected 'the following year. The average number of 
paupers is 180; and their principal employment spinning yam 
for Norwich. The original debt contracted by this hundred was 
8,0001. which has been paid off, and the poor's rates have been 
reducfed to three-eighths. 

Wattisham is worthy of notice for the singular tenure by 
which the manor is held, that is, by the serjeantry of jumping, 
belching, and f~t— -g before the king, as appears by the memo* 
randum in the exchequer of the 21st Edward I. 

Whatfield, or Wheatfield, *' is chiefly remarkable,*' says 
the Suffi)lk Thtyeller, *' for growing the most excellent seed 
wheat ;" from which circumstance its name may perhaps be de- 

Here, in 1788, died the Rev. Thomas Harmer, minister of 
a congregation of dissenters, a man distinguished for his attain- 
ments in Oriental literature, his antiquarian knowledge, and his 
unaffected piety. He was bpm at Norwich in 1715. The most 
important and valuable of his publications was entitled : Ohserva' 
tions an divers Passages m Scripture, in four fols, 8vo. 


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The hundreds of Bosmere and Claydon, incorporated in 1765> 
mte bounded by the liberty of Ipswich and the haudred of Sam^ 
ford on the south ; ^u the east by Thredling and Loes ; on the 
north by Hartismere ; and on the west by Stow and Cosford. 
The only market-town in this hundred is 

N££DHAM Market, containing 247 houses, and 1348 inha- 
bitants. It was formerly a place of considerable trade from its 
woollen manuftictures, bat these are now dwindled to nothing. 
The town, however, is tolerably well built^ it has a weekly 
mariiLet on Wednesday; and a considerable fair yearly on th^ 
28th of October, and two following days. The church, a mean 
building, with a wooden belfry, is a chapel of ease to Barking. 
The authors of the Magna Britannia * assert, that Needham 
became so much decayed, that its poverty grew proverbial. A% 
present, however, it is not much behind any market-town in the 
county for improvement. The Stowmarket canal passes by the 
place, and has greatly augmented its com trade. 

Near the town is a lake of thirty or forty acres, called Bosmere, 
which ^ives name to the hundred. The Gipping passes through 
it, and is said to be of great depth, and to abound in fish. 

At BARN0AM is the house of industry for the incorporated hun- 
dreds of Bosmere and Claydon, erected in 1766, at an expense of 
10,OOOL The number of parishes incorporated is thirty-five, and 
the yearly assessment 25611. The principal employment of the 
^ ^lpoor in this house, whose average number amounts to about 200, 
is spinning for the manufiicturers of Norwich, 

In the chancel of the church, says the St^aik Traveller, there 
is a noble monument for one of the Southwells. Here also is in« 
tenred Helena, wife of Edward Bacon, Esq. of Shrubland Hall, 
t&ird son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper, with an inscription, 

vhich records a remarkable instance of fecundity : 

? Vol. V. p» too. 

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Hdena FUia ufdca et Hmres Thome Litle de Bray m Com»* 
taiu Berk. Armig. vixit aimoi 37 ea Vita kUegritaie^ Animique 
immunitaie «/ Uxor, Maier et Arnica inter primat kabereiurm 
Hac tamen post partum XIX. Ftliarwn et XIIL FUiarum, 
amorum plus [minus 82 expiravit. Anno Redemptioms 1646» 
Juffi 24. ^ 

At Battisford was formerly a hospita. of St John of Jem* 
niem, of the yearly value of 531. lOs. which^ at the dissolution^ 
was granted, 35 Henry VIII, to Sir Richard Gresham. His son. 
Sir Thomas, the celebrated founder of the Royal Exchange ia 
London, had the frame of that edifice constructed here upon thtt 
Tye, a common of about 200 acres ; and most of the timber em- 
ployed in the vork was the growth of his estate at this place.* 

Baylham became, about the year 1450^ the property of John 
Andrews, whose daughter, Elizabeth, having married Thomaa 
Windsor, Esq. it devolved to their son, Sir Andrews Windsor, of 
Stanwell, afterwards elevated to the peerage by the title of Lord 

Bramford is remarkable for an uncommon tenure attached to 
its manor. The tenants hold of the lord by a lease of twenty-one 
years, renewed from time to time upon a fine; and in case of 
death or alienation, the new tenant is admitted to the remainder 
of the term, so that the lord derives a greater profit from the lands 
than the tenants. Bramford Hall, the seat of the late Nathaniel 
Acton, Esq. commanding a delightful view, has lately been re- 
duced to a farm-house. 

At Bricet a priory was founded in the time of Herbert Lo* 
singa, bi8h<^ of Norwich, by Radulfus Fitzbrian, and Emma^ 
his wife. It was dedicated to St Leonard, and endowed by them 
with lands and tithes ; and, among the rest, the tithes of Smith* 
ficrld, in London. AlmericPeche, a descendant of the founder, eon- 
firmed all the gifts of his ancestor, and obtained permission 6[ 
Walter, then bishop of Norwich, to have a chantry in his chapel 


• Co1e*s MSS. in the British MuBenm. The tawiog-pits renwin to thb 
day, adds that writer. 

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«jt Brieeft, upon o6iidiii<m that the chapkia ahoidd^ impm:iis mq'^ 
cftfjimcltff Etangekis, swear to pay all the oblations he receWed 
IB the chapel to the iiother«4)harch> and not to admit any parish*, 
iooer to either sacrament, unless in immediate danger of death ^ 
and that Almeric faimselC in token of his submission to the mothw* 
ckrnh, should repair to it with his family on the five holidays of 
ChnsUnas, Easter, Whitsunday, the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin, and St Leonard's Day. This house hanug been made a 
oeU to Nobiliac in Fhince, was suppressed 6 Henry VJ. as an . 
afien priory ; on which its revenues were granted to the pi;oYost 
aiMl fellows of King's College, Cambridge, who are lords of the 

In the parish of Coddenbam stood Skruhiand Hall, where 
Edward, third son of the lord keeper Bacon, became seated by 
ids marriage with the heiress of Little. One of his descendants, 
Nicholas Bacon, erected a new mansion in a Yery pleasant park, 
which contains, the finest Spanish chesnut-trees in the county. 
This edifice haring been pulled down, a new one was built in its 
stead, and is now the residence of Sir William Middleton, who 
was created a baronet in 1804, and is major-commandant of the 
Bosmere and Claydon volunteers. It commands an extensive 
prospect along the .Norwich road. Here is also a manor called the 
Vicarage, becauae it is vested in the vicar for the time being. 
The vicaiage-house, the residence o( the Rev. John Longe, the 
present incnmbent, is embeBished with several admirable painU 
ings by Gainsborough. 

Cre£Tiv6 ia a name possesesd in common by three contiguous 
parishes in this hundred, and a fourth in that of Stow, distin-i^ 
gushed by the additions of All Saints, St Olave's, St. Mary, 
and St. Peter. The church of Creeting All Saints is a very an- 
ient bmlding ; thai of St Olave was standing in 1532, when John 
Pinkeney ord^ered his body to be interred in the chancel ; but it 
has long been, deniplisbed, for which reason the two reetories were 
eons<didated about the year 1711. 

The QMiior of Gratinges in Creeting St Olave was given by 


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920 SDffdLK. 

Robert Earl of ttorton in Normandy, and of Cornwall, in Engw 
land, in the time of William the Conqueror, to the abbey of 
Grestein in Normandy, which afterwarda erected a priory here. 
This the abbot and conrent sold in 1347, by the king's lioenoe, to 
fiir Edmond de la Pole, by the name of the manors of Mikelfield 
and Creeting. The nUmor and adrowson ai Creeting All Sainta 
were vested for a considerable time in the respectable fiunily 
of Bridgeman, by whose heirs they were sold, together with 
•their otiier estates in these two parishes, to Philip Champiea 
Crespig^, Esq. 

The churches of Creeting St. Mary, and of Creeting All Saints, 
stood yery near together upon an eminence, from which they 
might be seen at a considerable distance, and were commonly 
called Creeting Two Churches ; but one of them was not long 
since pulled down, and was found to have no foundation, the 
ground having merely been levelled, and then built npon. St 
Mary was, in ancient times, generally styled the priory of CreeU 
ing, and was a cell to the abbey of Bemay in Noitaandy ; but; 
t>n the suppression of those foreign houses, was made part of the 
endowment of Eton College, to the provost and fellows of which 
it now belongs. 

At Crowfibld, a hamlet of Coddenham, is Crawfieid Hmii 
which formerly belonged to the family of Woodhouse, and de- 
scended through several hands to the present proprietor. Sir 
William Middleton, Bart who is also lord of the manor. The 
Hall is at present occupied by B. Stead, Esq. 

Helmingham, has been for many years the seal of the very an- 
cient and noble family of Talmache, or Tollemache. In Domesday- 
book, Toelmag, as the name was then written, is said to possess 
lands, kc. Hugh Talmache subscribed the charter without date, 
made about the reign of Stephen, to the abbess of Godstow in Ox- 
fordshire. The fiimily was at first seated at Bentley, in the hondred 
of Samford. In 35 Edward I. we find that the manor of Bently was 
held of the orown by Hugh de Talmache> a chief baron, who four 
years afterwards had a summons to attend the king in Us expiedi- 


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littfitoS^otlaiidL Uonel TalmacheliaTiiig married the koress of the 
HdminghuBB of Helminghum^ acquired that inheritancey and made 
thia place hit rmdence. His grandson^ lionel^ was high-iheri^T 
•f Norfolk and Saffolk 4 Henry VIII; and the grandson of the 
latter, of the same name, was high-sheriff of Suffolk in the 34tii 
Eliadbelh, who conferred on him the honor of knighthood. His 
SOB, lionel, was created a baronet on the first inalitntion of that 
dignity. May 32, 1611. Sir. Liond, great grandson of the fini 
baronet, on the death of his mother^ the daughter and heiress of 
the Earl of Dysart, succeeded by ihe law of Scotland to the 
honoia of that house. He for many years represented the oountf 
•f Snfiift IB parliament^ till the act of union in 1708 declared 
ham n peer of Great Britain. He was abo lord-|if«len«nt^ can- 
tos rotdenim, and Tice-admiraliof Snftlk. The fourth in su^ces^ 
aion fiN« him is WUbmham* the present Eaii of Pysart, high«^ 
steward of Ipswich. • 

Hdatkmkam Hail is a quadrangular stmctore, with • 
court yard in the centre, bail) ab(mt the time of Henry 
VIII. of red brick, which a few years since wps coTered witt 
a white composition. It contains a few fine paintings; a good 
library, chieQy of early printed books, in excellent oonditism; 
and a considerable collection of ancirat armour. The house,, com- 
pletely surrounded by a moat filled with water, is approached by 
two 4iMr4ffidges, which still continue to be drawn up every night 
The meaty as well as the bason in the park, is finequented^by great 
numbers of wild fowl of different q^ies, which are almost tame» 
from the eneonragemeut given them by the express orders of the 
noble proprietor. The. park, comprehending 400 acres, contains 
aome of the finest oak-trees in this part of the kingdom,, many of 
which are of great age. It is well atodbed with deer, the number 
being seldom .less than 700 : among these are a few stags, or 
ted deer, which are remaricably large. 

The church, embosomed in wood, stands by the side of the 
paik, and, with a cottage, kihabited by a person who takes care 
af the vault and splendid monuments of the ToUemaehe fomily, 


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fbrms a beautiful and pictnresqae object Here^ among other 
gaUant wanidrs, is interred the Beir of the family, who fell be* 
fere Valenciennes in July, 1793. A monument by Ndldk^aui 
has recently been erected to the memory of the lady of the present 

Heminoston. This manor seems to have been held by the 
same kind of tenure as that of Wattisbam, iu the hondred of Cos-- 
lord, already mentioned. Camden's account of this place is as 
ibllows : — '' Here Baldwin le Petteur (observe the name) held 
lands by serjeantry, for which he was obliged every Chrisfmas^ 
day^ to perform before our Lord the King of Englaud/one salius, 
one suffiatus, and one bumbulns; or, as it Is read in another 
flaee, he held by a takus, a suffiahu, and a pettus ; that is 
^if I apfirdiend it right) he was to dance, make a noise with 
his cheeks, and let af— t. Such was the pliain jolly mirth of those 

Nettlested belonged to the Eark oif Richmond and Brittany, 
firom the time of the Norman conquest to 17 Henry II. when that 
family became extinct By a q>ecial charter, dated May 1,1241, 
this, with other estates, was given by Henry III. to Peter deSa* 
voy, the queen's uncle, who dying without heirs, left it to that 
princess. It was soon afterwards granted to Robert de Tibetot^ 
in consideration of his adherence to the king against his re-, 
> bellious barons, and was transmitted by him to his descendants, 
on the fiulmre of whom, 46 Edwaid III, this estate belonged for 
some time, to the family of Despenser. About 1450, it became 
l^e property of Roger Wentworth, ancestor of Thomas Went- 
worth, who, in the reign of Henry VIIl. was admilited to sit is 
parliament, as a peer, by virtue of his writ of summons. His sos 
Thomas was governor of Calais, when that place was surprised 
and taken by the French, to the extreme mortification of Qnees 
Mary, who caused htm to be solemnly condemned of high treason, 
thongh linheard, and a prisoner in France. Though the repre- 
• santatives of this fiunily lutd assumed the title of lords, it does not 

* Gottgh'i CamdcB, 11. IfS. 

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BtFPOLK. 223 

appear that they were elevated to the dignity^ till James I. in the 
eighth year of his reign^ created Thomas Wentworth^ Lord Went- 
worthf of Nettlestead^ to which honour hia successor added the 
earldom of Cleveland. By this nobleman, the estate of Nettlestead 
was sold to William Lodge, citizen of London; and it has since 
passed through yarions hands. 

At Offton, upon a chalk hill, once stood an ancient castle, 
which tradition ascribes to Offii, king of Mercia, after he had 
slain Etheldred, King of the East Angles, and seized his domi^ 
liions. Firom the same monarch, the village also is said to have de* 
rived its name. The castle is so completely demolished, that not 
a vestige of it remains. 

The advowson of the church of Ofiton, aad thirty acres of land 
there, belonged to the prior and convent of Thetford, and were 
granted, S2 Henry YIII. as part of their posacsmons to Thomas, 
Duke of Norfolk. 

The learned and pious Dr. Andrews, Bishop of Ely, left 400(H. 
to purchase an estate ibr the benefit of poor men and boys, clergy- 
men's widows and prisoners. The trustees in whom it was vested 
for the purpose^ accordingly bought lands in this and the neighbour- 
ing pariah of Elmsett, in the hundred of Coafoid. 
. Stovbaii is a name belonging in common to three viUagea 
in this, hundred, distinguished by the additions of Aspdy Earl, 
aad Porta. Stonham Earl, is so called, because it was anciently 
the lordship of Thomas Brotherton, Earl of Norfelk, and afterwards 
of William Ufford, who married his grandnlaughter. In 1 Ed- 
ward III. the Duke of Norfolk had a grant of a market and &ir 
here; and all the three parishes still form part of what is called 
that dslbe's liberty. 

.la the parish of Stonham Aspal> thus called from the family 
of Aspale, or Haqpde, is Bromghion Hail, the ancient seat of a 
branch of the Wiogfields, to which a manor of the same name is 
attached. The last possessor, the Rev. John Wingfield, died 
withoBt issue in 1730^ as died his brother Thomas, in 1763, who 
was the last heir male of the fiuaily. la the churoh-^^ard is a 


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824 niJTTouu 

beantiffd monnment, to the memory pf Antbony WingfieM^ Esq. 
His effigy in alabaster, much injured by time, is represented ina 
recumbent posture, grasping a serpent. 

At Earl Slonham is DeerbolU, the ancient seat of the Driver 
family, Drhose only heir married the late Richard Moore, Esq. of 
Kentwell Hall, near Long Melford, and enjoyed this property as 
her dourer. 

Stonham Parva is sometimes called Stonham Jemingham, from 
the ancient family of Jemingham, who were lords here for many 
years. In this parish is the old mansion of the family of Bloom- 
field, now the property of Charles Bloomfield, Esq. 


This hmdred Is sqparaled by the Stout from Essex on tii# 
south; on the west it borders on the hundreds of Babezgh and Gos- 
turd; on the east it is bounded bythe liberty of Ipswid^, and the 
river Orwell, wUeh divides it from the hundred of Colneis ; and oft 
the north by Bosmere and Claydon. 

The prineipal villages in this hundred are :— 

Arwerton, formerly the seat of the Bacons, a eelefarated fi^ 
mily, who, in 1345, proeored the grant of a market and fiur here. 
About 1577, the estate was purchased of 8ir Drue Dmry, by Sir 
Philip Parker, Knt whose descendant, of the same name, was in 
1661, created a baronet It is now the property of Charles Ber- 
ners, Esq. of Wolverston. 

ArtDertcm Hall, is situated on a point of htnd at thte junction of 
the Orwell and Stonr, commanding a fine view of those rtvers. 
Neither the house nor offices are remarkable either for beauty or 
antiquity; and Grose telb us, that when his drawing was made, 
they were so thoroughly in ruins, as to be iir^arable. The gale 
of this mansion has attracted considerable notice, not for the 
beauty, but singularity of its form. From the whimsical taste 
of its constmotion, it was probably erected about the time' of 
Elizabeth, or James I. a period when architeetore seems to have 

6 been 

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keen aft its loweit el^b ; the bmldingm 4>f Ihoie day* being neitber 
Gieeiaii nor Ck>thic, bnt an nnnatond and diseordaat jnmble «f 

. At Bommn, in the farmh of Bentley^ mm a small priory of 
Black Caaona, founded by one of the aoeeatiHrB of the Dukes of 
Norfolk, and dedicated to the Viiig^ Mary. It was suppressed by 
thafizat boll of Clement VII. and granted to CwdinalWolsey^ when 
its r^tennes vera valued at 431. ISs. 8id. 

East B^roholt, is a considerable Tillage^ the church of 
which ia united with the rectory of the contiguous parish of 
Bianthanu It is said to hare formerly been a flourishing place, 
from the cloth manu&cturai carried on there, and a market-town. 
The xhufch, towards die erection of which Turious legacies 
were kit early in the sixteenth century, is a good structure; and 
awny parts of it are of rery elegant workmanship ; but the build* 
ittg of the steeple, towards which other legacies were given about 
the same timei has not yet been undertaken. The bells, fiv^ iii 
nnmber, are fixed in a died in the church*yard. 

Southward of the church is a neat mansion, built by Thomas 
Chaplin, Esq. which, together with the manor and advowson, de- 
vslved» by amriage, to the family of Hankey. The residences of 
the rector, tte Rev. Dr. Rhudde, Peter Godfrey, Esq. Mrs. Ro- 
bots, and Golding Constable, Esq. give this place an appearance 
fcr superior to that of most vUlages. 

FansTON, was anciently vested in a fiuniiy who took their 
name from it, and to whom the estate belonged, till about the 
tisie of Henry VIIL when it devolved to the Latymers. The pre- 
aeat proprietor is Charles Bemers, Esq. of Woolverston. 

Not &r from the bank of the Orwell stands PresOm Tavper, a 
strong quadrangular brick building, not more than about ten 
ftet by twelve ; with a polygonal turret at each angle. It is six 
stories high, and contains as many rooms one above another, com- 
^amieatiiig. by a winding staircase, which, on the exterior, forms 
the principal hce of the edifice, haTing three sides, and nume« 
rovs windows. The best apartment appears to have been on the 

Vol. XIV. Q -fifth 

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fifth Blory ; it is higber than an^ of the othen, and ms probaUy- 
hwig ip^ith tapestry, aa the amall nails yet left in the .WDod aeena 
to indicate. The top is formed by a number of open arches, and 
each of the small turrets, at the angles, terminates in a pinnaide. 
The windows are square ; and, except in the principal apartmenty 
very smalL In this building there is but one fire-place, which is 
on the gionnd-floor, and even that seems to be of recent con- 
atmction, and to have no chimney; whence it is probable, that 
this place was rather an occasional pleasure-retreat, or watch- 
tower, than designed for the purpose of permanent habitatioB. 
Excepting a farm-house^ at the distance of a few yards, no tiaee 
of any building appears near the Tower. '' Aa there is among^ 
the records of the manor,'' says the Suffolk TraoeUer *, " a 
▼ery exact and particular account of the manor-hooae, and aU 
the ont-buildinga and offices to it, in Henry the Seventh's time^ 
an4 no mention is there made of the Tower, it is pretty oertam it- 
was not then built; so that it is reasonable to sappose it to hare 
been the work of the Latymers. From the smallneaa ot the win^ 
dows in all the other rooms, it looks as if they were built cUclly 
for the support of the nppemost nnnn, which, having laige win* 
dows on three sides of it, seems to have been eontrived by soma 
whimsical man, for taking rather a better view of the river Orwell^ 
than can be had on the ndghbouriag hilL'* 

HxNTXBSHAM was, for a great length of time, the deneaae 
of the Timperleys. In the chai^cel <^the parish-dmrch are aeve* 
ral monuments of this &mily, and ei^»ecially a tomb of blue mar* 
hie, on which is the portraiture in brass, of a man in complete ar- 
mour, and a woman with a hound at herfeet» and this inscription ia 

" Here lyeth the venerable man John Timpcrley, Esq. heir aad 
Lord of Hystlesham, and Maigaret his wile, which John died 
An- 1400." 

HoLBROOX. This lordship was formerly the properly of tke 


* Second Edition, page 64 

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fciEHy of Clendie; and a jiidg« Monging to it is iotened^in th« 
alNirdi^ ifUli tiiiB lAflcriptioii : 

Id obitiim ColendisBiiBi Sviq. Teaiporit 
MiBiSqumm Jndicb Joluniiis CleuclM 
%udbiit XIX. Die Aogvati Aqdo Silvalu^i 

Ecoe jacet lubter Teoerandos marmore jadex 
Ternm terra petit^ palaere corpus inest . 
Ast anima ad soperos sanctiq. palatia cieU 
* Peitur et atemt riiiit in arce Dei. 

In tlie same place is also interred Margery^ ink of Thomaa 
Cleachoy Etk^ eldest son of the jndge^ and daughter of John Bar- 
ker, Bsq. of Ipswicii^ irho died in 161917. 

' SnATFOiiD^ near the sonthem limit of the county, on the road 
ftMu Ooleheater to Ipswich, has a handsome chnrch, on whose 
water-table is inlaid in capitals this inscription^ most of it overw 
gfown with moss :— 

'' Rraye for the mM» of Edward Mors, and Alys hys wyf. 

altey towlys anno domini 1490/' 

Afcont a quarter of a mile south-west of this place, on the hank 
of the Stoor, is a camp, where some antiquarians fix the much 
disputed Roman station Ad Antam. The opinions on this sub- 
jeet are thus summed up by the late Mr. Gough, and his con- 
dttsion seems to be perfectly satisfactory : — '* Ad Ansam seems 
to be tiie most undetermined station of any in the county (Es* 
•CK in which it was placed by yarious writers). Mr. Burton de* 
elines fixing it, and only tells us that Mr. Talbot in some copies 
set it at Catawade Bridge, where the Stour makes an island. One 
would think he had read it ad Insulam ; snd thereabouts, or at 
Stratford, Dr. Stukdey places it, as does Richard of Cirencester, 
changing its name to Ad StuHum amnem. Mr. Horsley, by the 
fifteen miles between Cambretonium and Ad Ansam, is induced to 
carry the last to Mersey island, where are great remains of the 

QS Romans. 

Digitized by 


4MB •ufiOU« 

Bfomns* Aft^nmrdi rappotiiKf the militiry. vay« tp h$,Y^ nil 
•t Colchester, and ooincided lor four or five OMlei, he curieett 
to Caelerford, called in Dr. Stakeley^s map, Chetterfurd and 
Cammhm: bat nnfrrtnoa^ely the. Doctor nustook Eaaterted^or 
KeWedon, for Caaterferd, elae we had had a Konaa station beyond 
controTersy. Mr. Horsley, in his table,page44B» makes the road 
take a course, perfectly answerable to his friend Ward's idea of a 
An»a, a corve: carrying it by Witham,- Maldon, Famfaridg^ 
Chelmslli^, Leiton, to London, which is in the fonn of an in* 
yerted z. If we allow Camalodunnm to be Colchester, A4 Am^^ 
smm is to be sooght for on the Suffi>lk edge of the county, and 
then Richard of Cirencester's Ad Siurwm has the fairest daim^ 
^apposing Ampt to be another word fyt the flexnre of that 


» « 

In the parish of Tattingstone is the house pf industry 
for the hundred of Samford, incorporated in 1765. The nuinber 
of parishes is twenty-five ; and the sun originally borrowed was 
SSUHOa. This edifice was erected in 1766, and the average nuoAer 
of poor annually admitted into it is 260. They ue principally 
employed in spinning for Norwich. The rates were settled at 
3s. 8d. in the pound annually, and remain the same* 

At Wher8T£ad is Wherstead Lodge, the mansion of Sur 
Robert Harland, whose father, a distinguishBd naval officer, was 
.created a baronet in 1771, by the title of Sir Robert Harland of 
jSproughton, where he had at that time a seat which has since 
been pulled down. In the same year be saOed as commander in 
jchief of his majesty's fleet to the East Indies; in 1778^ waa second 
.in command to Admiral Keppel; in 1782, he was appointed one 
of the Iwds of the admiralty ; and died in 1784. 

WooLVBRSTON Hall, iu the parish ofWoolverston, the ele- 
gant mansion of Charles Bemera, Esq. stands in 9^ most delight- 
ful sittta,tion, on the west bank of the Orwell* The house is built 
of Woolpit brick : the centre of the principal front adorned with 

a pediment 

•' '^ » Goagh'« Camden, 11. 136. 

Digitized by 



% fMmM , mtffmtbit by fcur ioye«din«iB, ii eMineeled witb 
die wfng^ on «Mh M& by «l cokniuUte. The kow front next Ikd 
titer eoBUtafeHdV tlieiiiest ^easing Yiews of the wster and the op- 
poMte shore of Nietaii^ thiongh the Ireeo^ whieh embdliBh the 

. The ittteiior oftbii edifice coiteepondfl ivith ite exterior. The 
sperlaienle Me titled up with greet taete ; tiiey contain some good 
]^e6ires, and the Ceilidge are beantifiiHy painted. The std^lea, 
which are an ornamental bnilding^ stand detached from the house 
on the spot eeenpied by the old mansion. The present Hall wai 
erecM in 1776^- by tiie late William Bemers, Esq. proprietor of 
tfie stately street in'tiondon^ cdled after his name. 

At some distance froin^thd house, in the patk, an interesting 
monnment of filial affection presents a pleasing object^ that is 
seen to a considerable distance, in passing op and down the river. 
This is a square obelisk of free-slone, ninety-six feet high, with 
an saeent in the interior lo llie top, which is surmounted by a 
gM^, encircled with raye. The base is encMnpassed with iron 
WStiag. On one side of it is this inscription : 



GolieJmi Bemen, Armig : 

Patris optimi 


iMVie ntttoldt, 

hiriie oMiricdiB ettmiH 


CaioKas BfRSCTt 


On t&e contrary side, next to the river, is the following : 
. Qnlielnms Bemen 

Jul. 10, A. P. 1709. 


Septemb.l8. 1783. 

Q3 The 

Digitized by 


m^ torrouk 

Thepaik^t pmeni contains tbont 400 acrMtkiliriditlMal* 
ditioos intended to be.made to it» will comprehend 900. It it 
well stocked wi^ beantifiil spotted deer, and abounds with game 
of every kind, which the proprietor is particulaily . ansioos to pto* 

This estale, eariy in the last century, belbnged to a Mr. Tyion, 
who became a bankrupt in 1780, when John Ward, Es^ of Haek» 
ney claimed it in right of a mortgage, which he had npon it. The 
matter was brought before the Court of Chancery, and for upwards 
of half a century the cause remained undecided. At length, afconl 
1773, the property was ordered to be sold, and was purdifsedhj 
the ftther of tlio present proprietor |br U^OOM^ 


Tho liberties of Ipswich include not only that town and Ha 
aubuiba, but also the hamleta of Stoke HaU, Broofc'a Hall» 
Wikes Uflbrd, and Wikes Bbh >p« forming a district more t|HHl 
four miles in extent from east to west, and about the same tnm 
north to south. They are bounded on the north by the hundred 
of Bosmere and Claydon; on the west by the same hundred and 
Samford ; on the south by Samford and Colneis; and on the east 
by Carlfori 

Besides these precincts on l|md, the borough of Ipswich has alu 
ways claimed as an appendage a jurisdiction over the whole eK«r 
tent of the Orwell, from the town to a pfaice called the PoUahead, 
upon the sand, known by the name of the Andrews, in the high 
sea» beyond the diffii of Walton and Felixstow. The limits of 
these liberties fmd jurisdiction, both by land a^d water, haTO 
been mqre than once ascertained by cpmmiaaions mointed for tho 

. Ipswich, generally considered as the capital of the county, in 
bappily situated on the side of a hill. With a southern aspec^ 
declining by imi ^asy descent to the Orwell^ %h^ aoil being 


Digitized by 


siTFFau. 2S1 

mai^ eng, or gmTd, it extreaely bcaUiy. Tbe hiUi, which 
me »boTe the town, to the north jtnd eas^ not only shelter it 
from bkak and indement winds, but eontain springs that fomiah 
it with an inexhanstible supply of excellent water. To the 
latter eiroamstance it is probaUy owing that Ipswidi hm sof* 
fared much leaa from fire than nuist other towns. According to 
the emnaeration of 1801, it comprehended 1934 houses, and 
10,M3 inhalMtanta, whoae nnmb^ had increased in 1811, to 
19,469, saMslasiTe of persons betonging to the amy and nayy^ 

This town has fire annnal fiors, on Hay 4, and 18, July ^ 
Angnal 9St, and- September 26, and gives the title of ¥isoo«nt te 
the Dnke of Qiafton. 

Ipswich derires its nam^ from ita sitaation at the place where 
the river Gippen, or Gipping, discharges itsdf into the OrwelL 
It is written in Domesday Gyppnmk, Gj^ppetwa, Oyppewi" 
tut, and Gjfppewk, which mode of spelling was gradually 
ehaoged into Yfpt^iwifcke and Iptwuk, The town strictly 
ifeaking, that is, within the gales, was not at great extent It 
was suironnded with a ditdi aad rampart, which was broken 
dawn by the Danes, when they xpiilaged the town twice in the 
ifaoe of ten years, in 901 and 1000. This fortification waaaf* 
lurwards senewed and repaired, in the fifth year of King John. 
Tb% town had formerly four gates, caUed frem thev situ»^ 
tion, after the four, principal pointa of the confess; and from 
these gates were named the four leets or wards, into which 
the plaee was divided. We likewise read of a fifth, caHed the 
Lme^iate, which stood en the bank of the Orwell« at the spot 
where enee was e ferd thsough that river. Though the rampart 
has, in many placsa, been broken through, and in others en« 
tirely leveiDed, oomideable remains of it still exist These 
may easily he traced from the Bowling Green Garden, or Grey 
Friar's Walk, to St Matthew's SU^et ; and from Bnll-gate to 
Northgate Street, and thus to th^ end of Cross Keys Street, it is 
abnatentire. * From these remains it is apparent, that the whole of 
the |iarisbee of St Anatin, St Clement, and St Sitfeiij witii gr^ 

q4 part 

Digitized by 


partof IhMeof St. Mvgtfeitoid SI. MitOmr, wen MliaeiiiM 
within the gates, Aooordiiigl j» in oM writijigB, they were dewh 
BsijBated the eahnrhe of Ipimch, 

Before, and for many yeaia after, the Nonaan eeafneet^ Ipa* 
wieh waaln the aane conditian ae aO other boioQgha that weia 
in the danesoe of the crown. For aeme time anterior te the 
Domeeday enrvey, it appeara to have been rapidly deciinM^. ''. la 
the time of King Edward/' (the Coafeseor) aaya thai < 
'' there were 538 bttrgeases who paid caslom to the/duag^. 
they had Arty acrea of land. Bat now there are 110 
who pay 4metom, and 100 poor burgeaiea, who oan pay na marp 
than one penny a head to the king's geld, Thita upon the '^hirfa 
they haTe forty acres of land, and 338 faoases noW etfqrty, and 
which in the time of King Edwajpd, ao^tted tq the king'^ geW« 
Soger, the Ties-earl, kt the whole lar 401. afterwarda he apoU 
Hot haye that reat, and abated aaxl^f shillinga of it, a# that it 
now pays 371. and the ead always hath the third paif W^ are 
farther informed ty the aame aaeieat record, that darii^ th^ 
reign of Edward the Conlesser» his qaeen £dith, the daagbter 
of Eaii Goodwia, had two thirds of this borongh, and Ead 
Gnert, the sixtb aim of the same nobleman poeeeesed the ropai|i. 
ingthird^ The foeen had a grange to which beloaged^fonr eai«» 
cates of land, aad the earl another, valaed at one kandrel ihU^ 
lings, besides the third penny of the borongh. 

The first charter obtained by this town, waagrantedby Kiag John 
In the first year of his reign, and confiBredon the inhabilanta m^ 
|M>rtant privil^es, some of wW^di strikingly illustrate the eppreih 
sions under which the mass of the people must in those eady i^;ea 
have groanedt By this charter, the king granted to the bnrgesso^, 
the borough of Ipswich with all ita f^pnrteaances, liberties kit. 
to be held of him and his heirs, by the paynmnt of the usual annual 
farm of 3dl. and one hundred shillingB-more at the excheqiien 
He exempted them from the pay^ient of all taxea, vnder the d^« 
pominations o^ tkoU, leitage, staUage, passage, paiUageg and 
all other coKtbms throughout his land aad aeirpartSf — a pnTilnflpe 
9 9m 

Digitized by 


ii 4 *e |«}t «f tfaft kiBg4oa» Ot cftj of LeaiM «ii txMpML 
ThmtAa friiilegw gmted to tlw j^ple «r Ipmrki hj Itt 
iliiitiT iMfe«iMfew>-«ThKl liM7 whmSA hnt^ ftiTiimtf 
gIM aad 1i»BM il l^bm 0Wft~TJM BO peiM Am^ 

iuMMNifcttMireoBMiil^ «rtolM«if ttdo^rfimtkniby 
tlliefBigfci IwM Unir loiidi^ ttrf rmt«r liieif jwl 
Moeror tWy ticM.owmg^TlM ««:r «InmU iwH 
«lMirlndii»iiyAlte Wimgli, tMotding io the cwtom of tto 
hra^ «f ipowicli~Tli«i none of tliem dioold Ibe tool or 
■MNOi bH oeeoidtogto tiio low of liio Ave boroogb~TlHft 
tte^Bi^ ok«M tM boaHi^ onifiMireoMMiiottt of thoBoio 
kvM seif* OT tho lwwii« 

Ebf Steaidl. kitfae IM year of bb feign, fer eortun ol^ 
§mm rtiwlttirf bjibe bnkgenM of Ipowich, fcvtof vhot n«. 
IttO ^M m 0ot HBonneOf oeiwi Ike Doiuugli into oio own imdo 
mJ kept U till fcio mneteotttlfyear; wlen betngpleoBediriditbo 
flrriee petfcnMd by iono ebipo tnm Iitewkh in Inn oxpeMlon 
•piitt Seottssd^ Iw m-graated tbe boMmgb and Ho libertieo to 
tk Mngoveo, n»d confirmed the chnrteto of hfap r e d eeenmo John 
■dHenry HI. by nwitiier doled «t Bonridt, Jone S3, ItMl, bnl 
htfadAed^tke town onflMently by tnieing the omranl rent frott 
M* 9t ooEty nmrbif^ to-OOL ns it hot orof stnee oontinood. 

Akoot the IStb of Edwnrd III. the bnrgessee of Ipewich were 
• second thuo depnoed of their ebarter on the filloiving occasion. 
At tbe Mwi'Tini^ wknA were bdd by a jndge named S ha iferd , aomo 
mflM, whooe sUondaiioe was neeearary, ^ovght that hia lord* 


•tUi ttpitMioik is sBp^oMd t^ugniff Ibe priocipal awn of die towii# aii4 
nab M fcdw the cofrmn^ n ii ea ie Bt hy tfw cfaMlwwaramtlMeoDditMoiie«»- 
catockai of a fi^ and Uwfol man proporlj to nUcd. It abooldbo obsecved 
Aatpefsom in aMftt«il0!y or is d<»c«n«, had not tbe free benefit of tbe law ; 
br thej leceiTed justice from their Icrdt, and were jadged bjr them in mott 
cattti The cliildren of snob people could not be their hein -, for they held 
their lands snd K*>ods st the will of their lord, and were not tore to eujojr 
tikmlapgff tfaaa be pleased. 

Digitized by 



■hip staid too long at 4ti)iier« Ose of thinlii a fiolie, toA ki« 
M^vpoQ the b«Mli^ aad euned anotlier to mako jproolamatioM^ 
jreqoiring WiUiam Shaifiurd to oomeiftto^wtaiidaaTehiaiaeh; 
«iid aa he did not 'lypear diieetod be &a»iL The jadg^ 
who ]ma a moioae nan, ao highly leaentod the joke, thit becaM# 
the magiatiafaardbaed to apptehend the mSkm, hepmvailedi^Mi 
tim king to seize the Ittertiea of the bonmgh^ the govaimieKt of 
which waa accoidiogly.ooimiiitted to iho aheriff of NocioyK: sail 
Suffolk; hot before the espiration of a year ii«|yeai8 to hav# 
been exercised by the baiUflk as usual. 

Next to the chartor of Kiw John, that gaa^ted by Honry VL 
in his 24th,year was nost benefidaL By thia inotnmeBl, he ia« 
eorporated the town by the style ci the bnrgbsses of Ipswidu 
He aothoiized them annnaliy to elect two burgesses as hailiAf^ at 
the accostomed time and place, to hold that offee Ibr one ^ole 
year. He giantedto the faailift, aiidlbnrsnehother bwgcsses«« 
the bailifis should appoint fiom among the twdve portmen^ th^ 
office of justice of the peace within the town, together with all 
fines, forfeitiires, and amercemeoto arising from that office, and. 
the assize of bread, wine, and al& He appointed anoh one of 
the bailiffii, as should be chosen by the burgessea at the tiin« 
of election, to be escheator, and exprsaaly graatod the adam^ 
ralty and cleriuhip of the market^ thou|^.the baiiiflb had alwayn 
exerciaed theae last offices by the custom of the town. 

Though no notice was taken of this chartaw of Henry VI. in 
thatof Edward, his successor, yet the letter gsanted att the pfi- 
vileges mentioned in it, with these alterations and additions :-«^ 
He incorporated the town by the name of the batlifi, burgesses, 
and commonalty, of the town of Ipswich; he confined the elec-% 
tion of bailiA expressly to the 8th of Septomber, in the Gnildi 
hall, to senre for one year ; and he expressly exempted the hm^ 
gesses from serving on juries. 

The most interesting charter granted by succeeding monavchs^ 
for the insurance of these priyileges, was that of Charles II. wbo 
in his 17th year^ confirmed the high steward, the twelve perU 

Digitized by 


wnouL 98ft 

, «Bd die tfeenlHmfr •harf ettn8tfMi% the murdw, ni 
iamtolstkix ibetme.hmif^hy ibm nimet, anddmctod^.tlMl 
^OB tbedevth errelBoval of any of the povtMM, or tw«ity«iMir« 
the vmcfney vh^d he filled up 1^ the rest of the^e retjpeelm 
bodieg. Though the hurgenes, toward the ooneleaion of the . 
MmeTagn/siufeiidered tiieir charter aMd.ieceiTed another^ by 
-which the^ naaiber of chief coastaWei iraa. redvced to eighteei^ 
5et» aa neither the canreiider waa enielled^ aor any ja4sieeat ea* 
teved opon vMoid, the eficera vho had aeted aiuler the Imier 
duurter recomed their fonetieDa^ on the proclamation of Josmb ir. 
in October 1688; and from them the present p«rtmen^ and twen- 
tf4ow men are regolarly deriTed. 

The principal officers ia the eoipomtion at present are, two bai- 
lifi, » high Btewardj a recorder^ tirelre portmen, of whom fonr 
aie jaatices of the peace, a town dark, twenty-lbar chief eonsta- 
Ues, two of whom aie coroBara, and the twclte senior head-bo- 
tovgha, a treasurer, and two dmmberlains to collect the revennes 
of the town. The corporation haYO also fifteen liyery serranta, 
cennsting of five musicians^ fonr seijeanta at mace, two beadles, 
^ common crier, a water-bailift a gaoler, and a bridewell-keeper. 

Fnm the preceding particalara it will appear, that the privi- 
leges oi the eorpwralion of Ipswich are very extensive. The 
bailifii paas fines and i^eoveries, hear and determine causes, both 
criminal and civil, arising in the town, and even crown cases pre- 
ferably to any of his mi^esty's courts at Westminster. They ap- 
point the^usrize ol bread, beer, &c. No freeman can be obliged 
to serve on janes oat of the town, or bear any officea fiir the 
king, sherifi for the county excepted. Neither are they com- 
pdlcd to pay any tolls or duties in any other ports of the king- 
dom, having estaUished this point in a trial with the city of 
liondon, respecting duties demanded for the vessek of freemen in 
the river Thames. They are entitled to all waife, estrays, and 
goods cast on shore Within their admiralty jurisdiction, which ex- 
tends down the river, al<»g the coast ni Essex beyond Harwich 
tfoew^jjr, and beyond Laoguard Fort 01^ theotber* Bythesolemn 


Digitized by 


^aiirioB iB their frvte, of an uiq«iHU«A Iribeft In 14 B*» 
Mtd UL «t Ipmch, they hiii fsontaMd to tlim tke odntestaA 
right ^f ttMag cQttMMatiM^r.goodbieiiteiiBgtbo port of Hw* 
moh, wUdi ms 4o»eniiiiiod to bekmg solely to the lnHift tat 
tegeooeo of tUo towi. 

. tponMli hoioOBttiN^MfltUni to porikaoat oiaeo tlio MCb yeilr 
of SoBry VI. The rfflit of olootioiiio-iii Iho Mlift, poHaea, 
ooMMm oouaeUmeB, oad froomoii at lttrg«; not rOeoiTiiig otai*. 
Tb^iramberof Totem U between MX Mriiefoabsiidreli, auitti* 
ittomiag ofieen are the twolNdUft .• 

^The torn books of this borough ptt9nr6 die fbtlowbg oorioiit i 
4Qnu> tospediog the wnga paid at diiferent periodt to iti r epi eie n talhrw ; 
140& John Snitbi and WilUam WathereM, 5 aaffet each. 
1060. William Wonop, and John JEUfer, l9d. par day aaeh. 
146S. Wiliiatt Wonop, and John Lopbam; the formar ta have 90d. • d«j 

at York ; at any nearer place lOd,, at London ltd. i and Xopbanv 

18d. a day every where. 
14d9. JohnTimperley, jiinr. and.John Alfray, of Hendley ; Timpailej, at 

Od. a day. Alfrajr •erred in caoiideration of hi^ bong made a free 

1472. William Wonop. and John WaUwotth ; Wonop at 5a. • «ecl^ oad 

if pailiament be adjoiirBed» to have la. per day ; Wallwoi«h» 3a. Od* 

per week. 
1477. James Hobart« and John Timperley, at ids. Od* or two mares eack. 
1485. Thomas Baldry^ and John Wallworth; Baldry at is. a day; Wall- 

worth at Is. 
1494. John Fastolf, and Ed. Booking at 11. 6s: 8d. each, if at Weabnintter; 

if futher off, to be osdered by the OreatCoart 
NB. The Great CoQit ordered to Fastolf, 41; toBoekiB^aL 
1509. William Spencer, and Thomas HalL Spencer to have dOs, 

N.B. He had 6s. 8d.more. 
1 559. Thomas Seckford, jtfnr. £sq» and Robert Barker. Barker had 3lL 4s« 
159S. Robert Barker, and Zach. Lock, Esq. Lock , 61. 
16fO. Robert Snelling, jWilliam Cage, Gent SOl. each. 
1040. John GvrdoD^ William Cage» Esq. N.B, 18 C«r« 1. (iML) Cage 

Digitized by 


awtel tMm viudi bMr« aot raieveA 1»y iSre, artiiillmf M> 
rowandimgiiar; and eonu^qmHj do sot «ftke MMk ttf flMkiig: 
^^f^umoti M. if Ihqr nm in. lighl tineai Ilr^lltti mb^ tliftev jre- 
Wtfked tini Ipiwich whoUy eMfad the calamitiair to ivUeh Mtoy 
other phow lieif iri^jcset^dariof tkeomldiflseantMoiriiidioM- 
viiJIied the kii^pdMi^fAoii.t Ae middle of the eefeateeMh oenluiy. 
4itheeoniei«ef nanyof the itreetB oM yet to he eeen'ttte re- 
Duaoeof eariov oarred inagee, i«d greet BOtehen of the faovee 
eie adoraed^ aome ^ thea to pioteiiiMi, in a aiarilte maAaer. 
The town contKaavany good b«l[fin|pi, and in advantage irinch 
it poaaeaaes inahigh degree IB) that most of these, even.ittttte heart 
efthephce^haTe conTenientgardens adjoining, which render them 
not only nK«« agreeahle, bat the town itatf more airy and aaln* 

In Domea&y Book the foOowing chnrchea are mentioned as 
standing in Ipswich and its liberties, in the time of William the 
Conqueror: — the Holy Trinity, St. Austin, St Michael, St. 
Mary, St Botdph, (or Whitton church) St Lanience, St Pe- 
ter, 8t Stephei|» aad.Tkirlweaton»: Of theaa th^ three fcmer 
ar^dcoioUshed and not; reboilt They w«e probably deatitoyed 
by the tempest recorded by Stowe, who informs ns in his Atmals, 
that <» the night of New Year's Day 1287, as well through the 
yehemenceof the wind an the noleneeof theaea, nmny chorches 
were overthrown and destroyed, not only at Yarmontii, Dnnwich, 
and Ipswich, hot also in divera other places in England. 

At a later period this town is said to have contained twenty one 
parish churches. At present there are but twelve : Sit. CUment^ 
St. Helen, St. Laurence Si. Margaret, St. Mary ai Eiw^, 
St. Mwy ol £49, St. Mary at Stoke, ^t. Mary at Tower, 

Sti Matthew, 

bad loot snd Dec. 5. 1645, Ciirdon bad lOOl. and Cage 501. more, 
bandes ibe lOOl. formerly granted. 
1600. JohnWrigbt, Gilbert Linfield; 6OI. wu ordered for Tfrigbt, SO]. 
for Linfield, 

Digitized by 


9W sWfotx. 

St, MMhew, Si. NkMoi, St Peter, tud 8h Ikepkm; hek is 
•MitiM to tbeie, the liberty of the borougph contains the chwdiep 
•f ThwHretton, Wkitton, and Weaterfield. 

St. C/bnort'telnirch, waaeariy and wMIy impropriated to tlie 
priory of St Peler, vithoat any vicaragpe lieiiig created ; and ibr 
tiu» reaooa, wben the laat eatimate iraa made, it waa not Talned 
in the king's books. In 7 Edward VI. this hnpropriation waa 
giasted to William Webb, and WiHiam Breton, bat this ohnreh is 
now eonoolidated with St Helenas, 

la St CleaMnf B ohnreh is interred Thomas BUrad • who a»» 
eoDfonied CaTendish in his circamttangitioB of the globe^ wilk 

Ha tfaat twfdft ye world aboo^ 
Seetb God's woaderi^ and God's worki^ 
ThofflvEldred tnTolodye world aboat; 

And went out of Plimooth je fd of July 

1586. and arrived in Plimoutha^gain the 
9th of September 1588. 

In this pariah iathehaodet of Wyfcea, given by King Riek* 
•rd to John Oxsoferd^ bishop of Norwich^f and ibr iriiieh. tiie 


* Id April laOf. Craren Did, Eh|. eibibited to Ae Antiqauian Society, three 
cuioos old paintings from OtiTers* the seat of the Eldred lisiaily« m Fsaei^ 
the first of which represented a terrestrial globCf marked with the eqoinoctialL 
tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, America, Ace. with the following iMcriptioa: 
*' Thomas Eldred went out of Plimmootbe 1586, Joly td and sailed abovt 
the whole globe, and arrived againe In Plimmoatfae the 9 of September 
1588. What can seeme great to him that hath seeoe the whole world, and 
the wandMs works therein, save the BCaker of it, and the world abore V* 

QnagBip ia his Biagrapkkal HiHory, (vol. I. p. 848.) speaking of CaveiH 
dish the circnmnaTigator, obsenres in a note, " Dr. Dncarel has a coriooa 
drawing, by Vertoe, from an original painting of Cap. Thomas £idred» who 
Multd round the globe in thesiiteenthcentory. 

t At an earlier period Dean of Sanim; author of an History of Xogland 
down to hit own time, and one of the foonden of Itini^ Frioiy, Ipswi^ 

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%>m W9M allmred fo ddaet torn dM lee-flottveMtlie twiof lOL 

pcr-ionHDi, irluehithad beeo aieeiufcoiiied to pay to that jpreUle* 

The htanlet and maiior^ trhidi from tlus oircanulaiiGe feodved the 

l^pdhtion of W^fkes Biih^, belongvd to the biahopi of Nor* 

meh» till in li^, it waa given by act of parliament to Henry 

¥111. who granted it in 154d to Sir John Jermie, Knt. Whilst 

in the p oo t oos ion of the bishopB^ they HBedllreqnei^y to reside at 

their hoose, sitoated on the sooth aide «f the road leading frmn 

BiAofs* Hill towards Naeton, where is now a sqaare field with a 

bfiekrkilo, whieh appears to have been lormerly sononnded with 

a moat. The dinrch of Wykes is sometimes mentioned in old 

wnXingB, bol it is not known where it stood^ and it might possi* 

hly be no more than a chapel for the use of the bislu^ and his 

fimiily. In this parish is also eomprehended part of the hamlet of 

Wykes Ufford, so called from the Earls of Sttffi>lk of that name, 

to whom it was anciently granted. The Willonghbys afterwards 

possened it by descent from Charles Brandon, Dnke of Suffolk. 

In the time of Qneen Elizabeth it was held by Sir John Brewes, 

then by Sir Edmund Withipol, and has ever since gone with the 

Christcharch estate, being now vested hi the Rev« Dr. Fonne- 


Beyond St ClementVstreet, and between the two hamlets, 
stood St. James's Chapel, now wholly demolished. It is probable 
thU it belonged to St. James's hospital, between whieh and the 
kpiotts house of St Mary Magdalen, some conneicion is conjec« 
tared to have existed. The .latter is said to have stood somewhere 
opposite to St Helen's chnrch, and when it was dissolved, its 
revennes were annexed 9 Henry VIII. to the rectory of St He- 
len's, and with them probably those of St James's hospital ; iar 
the incnmhent of that parish was oititled to some portion of the 
tithes arising from the hmds in the hamlet of Wykes Bishop ; and 
for this portion a composition was constantly paid by the rector of 
8t Clement before the consolidation of the two churches. 

St, Helenas, although formerly impropriated to the hospital of 
St James or St Mary Magdalen, has been instituted into a reo« 


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tity wm wiKe the ■efcnutiwi, i» a ieid 
CMw€U UaU, BOW aJkd €M BM, on the mMi oftlM loii 
hMiSmg to KwgfftTC, stiMd tke dnidi of St, JdMi fiiiplwti, ia 
OoldwoU, of which llMte ara BO remaino. it waa inpropriated to 
Trinity iwMNry, aad gnatod with that hoaoe to Sir Thoiaai Pope. 
la this piriih alw^ at the ooath-weft ooner of Rooenaiy-laiM^ 
Biook-atnet» waa fonaeriy a chapel dedioated to St. Ednand a 
FMmtney** aad inpropiiatod to St Peter's priory ; bat beiag^ 
like St. Helea'B, in tiie patroBnge of the Biihop of Norwieh^ they 
were hoth giTon to the Mme iaoHBhoBt tiU they wwe aailid. 

S^ Lamrmu ia nad in Po n oiday^ to hare poa wie d twelvo 
•oeo of land. TUaehareh waa giToa to Trinity priory, to whiah 
H waa iaqpropriated; bat aa there had fcr many yeare bem no 
prndial tithea behmging to it, thefe waa no gruit of the impro- 
priaiion at the diaeolation. The preient edifice was b^an by J^ 
Bottold» who died in 1431^ and was interred here, with thia in* 
•criptioB, which, aa Weaver mferma as^f was discovered on re- 
aMffiagapew in this ehnroh : 

Subjacet hoc lapide Jahn BoltoU wit probos ipse, 

Ittiu eodetm prtmoi inceptor Aiit ttte# 

Cnjut animM, Donuiie, miierere tv bone Chriite. 

OUit IfCCCCXXXL Litem Dominicalii 6. 

The chaacel was bailt by John Baldwyn, diaper, who died in 
1449, and iiia name is in the stone^work nnder the east window, 
now plastered over. About that time several legacies were left 
towards the erection of the steeple. 

In ldl4» Edward Daandy, then one of the represoitatives of 
this borongh in pariiament, feonded a chauntry in this churdi. 
ibr asocahr priest to officiate at the altar of St. Thomaai, in behalf 


* ThU Saint Edmond ivas Archbishop of Caaterbmyj aad being weary of 
Ae pope's exactions in England, became a volunury exile, and died in 
1140, with the repntation of & saint, at Fontiniac in France, from which 
place tfie additioa t» his nanO was » compt deri?ation. 
^f P.750. 

Digitized by 


BvnovL Ml 

«f Miwnlf oiA kte Mlatio«i» wMm; whom ke redcotted Thonis 
WohHTf, Ami 1>6aiii oC Lbieolii, asd hk panttto, Robert m< Jtae 
WolHTf , AeecMeiL To tiiio priait aad Lk ftoceenMNro lie gtve his 
iMme in ^Iub fuiah for his residence ; and hie laiide in Sprongh- 
ton^ Stake, «n& Abeobeme, for a mainteiuuiee. This Mr. Dsah- 
dy vas ome oC the sMst respectable men of tiie town in his thne ; 
ail liis daagbteis mamed gentlemen of good fortvne: and the 
wife of lord-ieqier Baoon was the itsne of one of tiiem. 

The jRer. Richard Canning, M • A. a gentleman of dbtingofshed 
charaeter nod dbilities, editor of the second edition of Kirby's 8nf- 
fcik Trardier, and compiler of the accomit of tiie Ipswich chsr 
ritica, was forty years minister of the church of St Lavuice, and 

St. Margmrefs was impropriate to the priory of tfie Holy 
Trinity. IVinity church, after which this boose is supposed to 
bsf e been luuned, stood near St. Margaret's chorch-yard, and is 
SMBtioned is Domesday as being endowed with twenty-six acres 
of bod in the time of the Conqueror. The priory was founded, 
ssd cUeiiy endowed before the year 1177, by Norman Gastrode» 
Ar Bkck Cuions of the order of St. Austin, and the founder be* 
came one of Ha first inhabitanti. King Henry II. granted the 
frior and eonrent a fair on Holyrood Day, September 14, to oon^ 
tiaae three days. Not long after the foundation of the monastery, 
tte ^ureh and offices were consumed by fire ; but they were re* 
bailt by John of Oxford, bishop of Norwich, on which Richard I. 
gtTcthe patronage of the priory to him and his saocess^Ms. The 
gnut of the fiur was afterwards confirmed by king John, who 
m^eorer granted to the priory all the lands and rents " formerly be- 
bnging'' to tiie churches of St Michael and Si Saviour in Ipswich. 
hom this expression it may be inferred, that both these churches 
tcre even then dils^idated : at present their site is unknown ; 
bst a TSgne tradition reports that the latter stood behind St Mary 
Ebas; and that the finmer, which is said in Domesday to have 
possessed eight acres of hnd, was situated near the church of St 
Niehoias. At the suppression 26 Henry VIII. the possessions of 

Vol. XIV. R Trinity 

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Trinity priory were Yalaed at 881. 6s. 9d. pet almite, and id tit» 
36th year of the same reign were .granted to Sir Thomas Pope. 
The strong foundation of the steeple of Trinity church ivas, about 
fifty yean ago, undermined and blown up with gunpowder. 
. St. Margaret's is not mentioned in Domesday, whence it is na- 
tural to infer that it was not then in existence; but as the churdi 
of the Holy Trinity was appropriated to the use of the prior and 
convent, this edifice was most probably erected for the parisb- 
loners. The principal porch has two handsome carved niches in 
front. It is ornamented on the west side by the head of a moaic, 
from whose mouth the water«spout descends ; and on the east sid^ 
that of a^ nun answers the same purpose. They are fiur superior in 
execution to the carving generally seen in such situations. 

From the journal of William Dowsing, the principal of the par-^ 
liamentary visitors appointed in 1643 to inspect and de&ce the 
churches of this county, it Kgfeun that at St Margaret's they 
took down the twelve apostles in stone, and ordered between 
twenty and thirty pictures to be destroyed. 

In this parish, on the site of Trinity priory, a spacious brick 
mansion, called Christ Church, was erected, aitd surrounded with 
a pale, by Sir Edmund Withipol, whose only child was married 
to Leicester, Lord Viscount Hereford. His successor sold the 
estate to Claude Fonnereau, Esq. in whose descendant, the Rev. 
Dr. Fonnerean it, is at present vested. That gentleman, with a 
liberality not very common, allows firee access to this park, which 
is a most agreeable' promenade, to the inhabitants of the town« 
Here is still to be seen a bowling-green, which was formerly a 
necessary appendage to a gentleman's mansion. The sur&ce of 
the park, though not of great extent^ is pleasingly diversified. 
It is stocked with some of the most beautiful deer in the kingdom* 
of a fine white colour, spotted with black, which still £uther con« 
tribute to the variety of the scene. 

St. Mary at Elms, is one of the four churches dedicated to 
that saint now standing in Ipswich, though in Domesday book 
oply onp is meutioned^ which is conjectured to be St Mary at 


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To««. St Mary tX Elms proiiably socceeded the dilapidated 
Aatfk ef Si. Sanonr, and is thought to have he^ huilt on the 
aile eCthal edifice. It iras given to Trinity priory hy Alan, the 
aoB of Edgar Akto, and his son, Richard ; but there aeeme to 
kave been no gtant of the impropriation since the dissolution of 
that monastery. 

Opposile to t&e ehnreh of St. Mary at Ela» is an alms-house 
§ur twdre poor women, ereeted about fifty years ago, in pnrsu- 
aneeof the will of Bfrs. Ann Smyth, who left dOOOl. for this chap 
fftaUe purpose. 

Si, Mituy at Km^ was impropriated to the priory of St. Peter : 
and all the tithes belonging to it were granted, 7 Edward VI. to 
W^ and Breton. The church must have been baiit since 1448, 
when Richard Gowty was a consid^able b^ie&ctor to it; for by 
tis will made in that year, he ordered hts body to be interred in 
the ehnrch-yardof St. Mary *at the Kay;. and gave Calyon stone 
ibr the whole new churofa, which was to be erected in that church* 

In this parish, northward of the church, was a house of Black 

fnxn, Dominicaas, commonly called Preachers, who settled here 

in tiie latter end of the reign of Henry III. The extensive site 

sC tilts convent was granted, 33 Henry VIII. to William Sabyn, 

but afterwards pnrchased by the corporation, with the design of 

limmding in it a hospital for the relief and maintenance of aged 

perBons and children, for the curing of the sick poor, and for the 

CBployment of the vicious and idle. It was confirmed to them 

by charter in 1572, by the appeUatioo of Chrisfs Hospital, and 

VIS at first s^ported by annual subBcriptiona ; but afterwards the 

corpotation made an order, that every freeman, on being admitted 

to his fieedom^ should pay a certain sum towards its support. 

Pkrt of this edi6ce is now occupied as a hospital for poor boys, 
JBWhidi thay are maintained, clothed, and educated. Their num- 
ber in 1689, as Kirby informs us,* was only twelve ; but about 
the middle of lastt century there were sometimes double that num- 

R^ ber, 

♦ Hilt Ace. of TwelrtPrintt, p. a. 

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$44 1»CFF0U. 

Ber, in consequenee of a donataon of MH. per Bimnm left Ky ike 
will of Nicholas Philips, Esq. a portman of this towa, *' towards 
the learning and teaching poor children, providing books^ ink, 
paper, and oonvenient apparel, binding them out appreatioes^ 
and for the providing of flax, hemp, wool, or snch other need- 
ful things, as well for the setting such poor chil^hvn to wwk as 
Ibr the help of them ; and also for the providing beddfeg conve- 
nient and necessary for such children, and also a convenient hooae 
for snch children to be taught in.'' Before this gift there does 
not appear to have been any regular school here, so that Mr. 
Philips may be considered as ito founder. Several legacies have 
been left to it since his donation, particularly oneof 34M. in 1T46, 
by his daughter, the relict of Sir Robert Kenp, Bart The 
number of boys now maintained here is not more than twelve, and 
they are chiefly employed in spinning wool, till they are old enough 
to be bound apprentices. 

Another portion of the monastery was still within these few 
years used as a Hall, in which the Quarter Sessions for the ^a- 
wich division were held ; and a Bridetceii for offenders within tha 
limits of the corporation. Here is also a spacioas room, now the 
town library, the keys of which are k^t by the bailifi and the 
master of the grammar-school, and oat of which every freeman 
has a right to toke any of the books on giving a proper receipt. 

The cloisters are still standing entire : and in the spacious refecs 
tory oil the south side is now held the Free Grammar SckooL 
It was not kept here till the time of James L though the town had 
a grammar-school as early as 1477, when it was under the direc- 
tion of the Bishop of Norwich. In 1482, Richafd Felai^, who 
had been eight times bailiff, and twice member of parliament for 
Ipswich, gave tlie produce of some lands and houses to this insti- 
tution, and also a house for the master's residence; but these 
possessions were alienated, 20 Henry VIII. at the request of 
Cardinal Wolsey, and given to his new college in this town. His 
short-lived institution was evidently the cause of the charter af- 
terwards granted by King Henry for the present foundation. This 
6 charter 

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ohfurter ms renewed imd confirmed by Queen ]^lizabeth, who au- 
thorised the corporatioa to deduct anunally from the fee-farm 
payable by this borough, the sum of 24L 68. 8d. for the master's 
aalary, and 141. 6s. 8d. for that of the usher, to which some ad* 
ditions have since been made. The nomination oi both is nested 
in the corporation, which is empowered to make such rules as it 
may think fit for the regulation and goTemmenl of the school. 
In 1598, Mr. William Smart, one of the portmen of Ipswich, 
conyeyed a farm at Wiyerstone, then of the clear yearly value of 
19L to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, for the maintenance of one 
fellow and two scholars from this school, who are to be caUed 
after his name. In 1601, Mr. Ralph Scrivener, who married Mr. 
Smart's widow, at her request settled on the same college an 
annuity of 211. for the erection of four new scholarships, to be 
filled out of the free-grammar school at Ip^ich. 

Another considerable part of the buildings once belonging to the 
monastery of the Black Friars, is now occupied by the poor on 
Tooley's foundation. This benevolent institution, established in 
1551 by Mr, Henry Tooley, a portman of Ipswich, and confirmed 
1^ a charter of Philip and Mary, was originally intended for the 
relief of ten poor persons only, who were unfeignedly lame by 
reason of the king's wars, or otherwise, or such as could not pro« 
cure a subsistence. The donor directed, that in case the estate 
should prove adequate to the maintenance of a greater number 
of persons, the baili^Es or wardens should be authorised to procure 
houses for the reception of more, in proportion to the yearly 
income, but not exceeding fifty. This part of his will has nut 
always been punctually observed^ near eighty persons having re- 
ceived benefit from this charity at one time ; but the inconveni- 
ence thence arising has since been redressed by the diminution of 
the number permitted to partake of it. Shortly before Mr. Too- 
ley's death, the annual income of the estate was no more than 
one hundred marks : but Kirby informs us,* that it was between 
three and four hundred pounds per annum in the middle of last 

R 3 century, 

* Hitt Ace. of Twelfe PrmU, p. 1 1. 

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240 8UFFOUL 

centmy, since which time its value iniitt have been matmally 

On the -qaay^ which boiden the Orwell, stands the CtM/OM* 
House of this port, a commodioos brick bniMing, in an nnfire- 
qaented apartment contiguous to which is still preserved th« 
ducking-stool, a venerable relic of ancient customs. In the cbam* 
berlain's book are various entries of money paid to porters lor 
taking down the dookeing stole, and assisting in the operation 
for cooling, by its means, the inflammable passions of some of 
the female inhabitants of Ipswich. 

A mali-kihi on the quay, formerly known by the name of the 
•A^ngel,'[was, in ancient times, a house of Cistertian monks. From 
^e remains it appears to have been about 81 feet by 21. ' 

St, Mary at Stoke was given, as we are informed in the 
Domesday survey, by King Edgar to the prior and convent of 
Ely. This grant, made about 970, was executed with great 
A)lemnity, as appears from the words of the deed itself: Ego 
, Eadgarus, &c. Basilevs — turn dam in angulo, sed palam, sub 
dio subscripsi ; and it was attested by his queen, St Dunstan« 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and many of the principal officers and 
nobles. The gift included the hamlet, which takes in part of the 
parish of Sproughton, together with the advowson of the rectory 
and the manor of Stoke Hall, or, as it is at present called. Stoke 
Park. . It is now vested in the dean and chapter of Ely. 

In this parish is the manor of Godlesford, now denominated 
Gusford Hall, which, with its appurtenances in Godlesford, 
Belsted Parva and Wherstead, was granted, 32 Henry VIII. to 
Sir John Ravensworth, as parcel of the possessions of tjie priory 
of Canon's Leigh, Devonshire. In a perambulation in 26 Edward 
III. this house is described as belonging to Robert Andrews, 
whose fomily seems to have been long settled here ; for fn 13 
Heury VIII. it is denominated " the gate some-time of old 
Robert Andrews, now of Sir Andrews Windsor," who took his 
Chrisriian name from that family, and was afterwards created Lord 

9 Ih 

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In Stoke parish was fermeriy a miracnlous rood near the plac^, 
which from this circumstance received the name of Golden Rood 

St Mary ai Tower was given by Norman, the son of Ead* 
noth, to Trinity priory. The tower of this church was formerly 
adorned with a handsome spire ; and Mr. William Edgar, of Ips- 
widi, kft by willdOOl. towards erecting am^her ; but owing to 
none misanderstanding among the persons entrusted with the 
management of this business, the money was thrown into>chan<» 
eery, and the object of the testator was never carried into exe- 

In this chnrch the confraternity of Corpus Christi Gild, insti- 
tuted about 1325, used to deposit the tabernacle in which the 
host was carried, and in which their money and other 'valuables 
were kept. It has been suggested,* that a hollow place in the 
north wall of the vestry, guarded by a door of extraordinary 
strength, now removed, might have been made for the reception 
of this tabernacle. 

In Upper Brook-street in this parish, is the house of the Arch« 
deacon of Suffolk, sometimes called the Archdeacon's Place; or 
Palace, The original edifice, of which the outer wall and gates 
seem to have formed a part, was erected in 1471] by William 
Pykenham, Archdeacon of Snfiblk, and principal official, or 
Chancellor of Norwich, the initials of whose name are still upon 
the gate-way. 

St. Matthev/s has always been termed a rectory, and the in* 
cumbent is instituted into it as such; but the great tithes, for« 
merly impropriated to St. Peter's priory, were granted, 7 Ed- 
ward VI. to Webb and Breton, and now belong to the fiemiily of 
Fonneieau. The crown did not obtain the advowson by the dissoi- 
lutiott of the priory, having always presented anterior to that 

This parish once contained four churches or chapels, long- since 
demolished or disused: these were. All Saints, St George's, 

R4 St. 

• SufoJk TravtXUr^ f d edit p. 49. 

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1MB sofvauL 

9t Mildred's, and St Mary's. Tlie site of All HaiitU cauMtflow 
be asc^rtaiQed ; bat ao much is known, that it was ooaaolidated 
with St Matthew's before 1383, when Thomas Moonie was ikiati* 
tated into that chuidi with the chapel of All Saints annexed. 

St George's Chapd was used for divine service so late as tkm 
middle of the sixteenth century, when Mr, Bilneyi who softrod 
«uu*tyrdom> was there apprehended ius he was preaching in favop 
of the Reformation. Considerable remains of this edifiee are yet 
left, but it is n#w oonverled into a bam. Northward of St 
George's chapel stood Ipswioh castle, cm the hills which stiU re*> 
tain the name of Custle Hills, though the fortress was entirely 
demolished by Henry U. in 1176, after the defi^qn of Roger 
Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. 

St Mildred's church, once parochial and impropriated to St 
Peter's priory, is one of the most ancient buildings in Ipswich* 
Part of it has been converted into a Town-Hall, under which are 
three rooms now used as warehouses. Contiguous to the hall is ^ 
spacious council-chamber, below which were the kitchens foimerlj 
used at the feasts of the merchant's aud other guilds, now occupied 
as workshops, and supposed to have been rebuilt, or thoroughly 
repaired, on the restoratipn of Charles !!• We are informed by 
Grose,* that some years ago a piece of the plastering in the mid- 
dle of the front of this edifice near the top fell down, and discovered 
a stone, on which were quartered the arms of England and FVaooe^ 
much defaced by time. A board of the same shape, with a paint* 
lag pf the arriis, was put over it at the private expence of one of 
the portmem The writer just quoted says, that the brick building 
at the end of the hall, in the upper part of which the records, of 
the coiporntion are kept, appears to have been erected about the 
year 1448. The prior and ponvent of the Holy Trinity in 1398, 
granted to the burgesses of Ipswich a piece of ground in the pa- 
rish of 8t Mildred, 24 feet long, and )8 wide, the north end 
abutting on the Combill. On this ground, aa we are told, the 


Digitized by 



yresenl edifice was erected ; and there us an order made at a great 
court, 96 Henry VI. that all the profits of eaeheator and justice 
of the peace should be applied towards the expense of the building 
at the end of the hall of pleas. If this information be correct^ the 
si ru c liir e in question must be one of the oldest brick hnildings in 
the kingdom^ as the date assigned to its erection is^earlier by 
wame years than the period usually considered asthe »ra of the 
Sntroduction of that material, 

St Mary's Chapel, commonly called our Lady of Grace, is said 
to ha:¥e stood at the north-west comer of the kne without the 
wesUgate, which to this xlay goes by the name of Lady^Lane, 
opposite to the George Ian. This chapel was very famous for an 
iou^e of the Blessed Virgin, which, in Catholic times, had nn* 
meroos visitors, and to which, in old wills, many pilgrimages 
were ordered to be made. In the third part of the homily against 
peril of idolatry, this image is mentioned, together with our Lady 
of Wabingham, and our Lady of Wibdon, by the style of Our 
Lady of Ipswich. It was to this chapel that Cardinal Wolsey 
ordered a yearly procession to be made by the dean of his college 
on September the 8th, being the Catholic festival of the nativity 
of the Virgin Mary, the titular saint of Ipswich. This venerated 
image, however, shared the iate of other relics of superstition of 
the same kind> being conveyed to London, and there publidiy 
burned* The site of the chapel is now covered with buildings. 

The alms-houses in Lsdy-lane were erected by Mr. Daundy, 
who by his will, bearing date 1515, gave wood to each of his 
^Ims-hoQses '' beside our lady of Grace.'' The lands assigned 
by the founder for the support of these houses, were probably ap- 
plied at the Reformation to other nses ; for, though the buildings 
i^nnain, their income is lost 

la St Matthew's church-yard, beneath an altar monument^ lie 
the remains of the hte Lord Chedworth, with the following in- 
teription : 


Digitized by 


S60 &uf roue, 



WAS BORN AUGUST 22^ 1754— DIED OCTOBER 29, 1804. 














His lordship's grandfather, John Howe, Esq. was elevated to 
the peerage in 1741. The eldest son of thn gentleman married 
a Soffolk lady, the daughter of Sir P. P. Long, Bart, and dying, 
as well as his next brother, idthont children, the title devolved 
to the issne of the third son, the Rev. Mr. Howe, by the daughter 
of Thomas White, Esq. of Tattingstone Place, near Ipswich. This 
lady, after the death of her husband, fixed her residence at Ips- 
wich, and thus laid the foundation of her son's partiality to this 
town. He was designed for the profession of the law, which he 
relinquished on his accession to the tiUe, by the decease of his 
nnde in 1781. For many years he officiated as a magistrate, 
and as chairman of the quarter-sessions held at Ipswich, in which 
capacities he displayed great legal information and judgment. 
His strong predilection for the drama led to that acquaintance 
with the performers on the Ipsvich stage, from whioh many 
of them derived by his will no inconsiderable advantage. His 
lordship died unmarried^ and was boried, by his express desire; 


Digitized by 


SUFFOLK, tftl 

ift tke nne ▼wdt in wliieh his mother had been interred His 
ht^ property lie beq^ientlied, with the eieeptien of • rery 
to penoDB not at all related to him. The total 
»imi of the legneies left by his will waa 183^0001. Thiatest». 
^ispcmidkNLof his Ibrtnne^ thoogh opposed by bis rria- 
tbes on the plea of insanity^ was afterwards established by the 
legal tziboiial to which it was r^erred«* 

The church of St. Nicki^a$ was impropriated to St Peter's 

friory, on the disaolotioo of which the impropriation was granted 

Id Webb and Breton. It is not mentioned in Domesday, and 

■dg^ prebably have been erected to supply the place of the 

dilapidated ehorch of St. Michael, which is said in that reeord to 

bare bad eight acres of land, and is conjectured to have stood not 

Iv from the spot oceopied by this edifice. It has even been sog- 

gcsled thai, it was hnilt npon the same site, and with some of the 

old materials ; a supposition that receives some oobmr of proba- 

bifity fnm. a stone at the west end of the sooth aiale, on which is 

a rade lepcesentation of St. Michael enconntering the dragon. Of 

a acigbboring stone, exhibiting the figure of aboar, it woaid be 

very difficahto give any saiis&ctory accoont; an inscription, 

almost obliterated above the animal, is thought to have been-*- 

is Deikaiume EecUtie Omnium Sanetarmm. Here the parlia- 

Tisitofs in 1648 broke down silt pictures, and took up 


In this parish, on the south nde of the passage leading from 
fit Nidiola8*-street to the chinrch-yard, stands the bouse in which 
tradition reports that Cardinal Wolsey was bom. The front bss 
been n^aih, hot the hack and ont^houses, says Mr. Gongh, have 
— iki!i of antiquity. The Cardinal's fiither, in his will, bequeathed 
€a. 8d. to the high altar of St. Nichohs, and forty shillings to 
the painting of the archangel there. 

Westward of the church of St Nicholas, and on the bank of 
fhe Gipping, stood a couTent of Franciscan Grey Friars Minors, 


* His estates in Gloocesteribire were bxougbt to the bamner in 1811^ and 
disposed 0/ tor the soia of S68|635}. 

Digitized by 


us BflffOtlL 

fbtnded in the reiga of Edwavd L by Lord TibMIi, of N^tfe* 
steady wbo, with maoy of hiit faiAily^ wm buried i& the chwdh 
belongiBg to this home* A mall portion of this edifice, ooBtnia* 
iog some of the lower range of windows, and part of the extenor 
wall, are yet to be aeen in a gardener's ground which now ooe«? 
pies ita site. 

Another convent of White Friars Carmelitea stood partly itt 
this parish, and partly in that of St Lawrence. It .was founded 
liMut the year 1279, by Sir Thoaas LondhasK, and other bene* 
fcetors ; and at the dissolution was granted to John Eger. It 
was of considerable extent, reaching firosi St. Nicholss'-street to 
St StephenVlaoe. Part of it was standing in the eariy part of 
the laat century, and wneA as a gaol for the eonoty before the 
latter agreed with the corporation fer the common use of thok 
gaol by the west-gate**' Of this house, which pfoduood-uaBj 
pavons eminent for their learning, no remains are now lelt 

Sl Peier^s had, as appears from Domesday book, large poa* 
sessions in the time of Edward the Confessor. It was afterwards 
impropriated to the priory of St. Peter and St Pant, which stood 
eontiguons to the church -yard, and was founded in the reign of 
Henry II. by Thomas Lacy, and Alice^ his wife, far Black Ca- 
nons of the order of St Augustine. This house was siqipressed ia 
1527, by Cardinal Wolsey, who, wiUing to bestow some mariu 
of regard on the place of his nativity, as weil as desirous of 
erecting there a lasting monument of his greatness, resolved to 
build and endow a college and grammar-school, to serve as a 
nursery for his new coll^pe at Oxford. For this purpose, being 
then in the meridian of his prosperity, he obtained bulk from the 


* St. Matthew's, or the West-gate, of which Giose hat giren a view in his 
Antiquities, (V. 7f ,} now demolished, served, while standingi for a gaol. 
It was erected on the site of an older gate in the time of Henry VI. at the 
volonurj expence of John de Caldwell, bailiff and portman. The lower 
part, to the height of fifteen feet, is described as having been of stone, and 
the apper of brick, lo tliat it wis one of the earliest bnildingi. erected wiMi 
that material. 

Digitized by 



iV0lbrltoi^pM«ftiiiii^ udkttertpiiliBtfrMillMkiBgiNrtkt 
stoandeBtaleolUieprMiytfSt Pei8raadSt.Fva, where, ia 
Ike aOlkBcttryVIIL be foaoded^ college, dedioOed to the li». 
Bor of tiie B l cMcd Virgin, coosistiiig of a dea&» twelve eecehr 
eight docks, mad eight dorieter% together with agrem- 
l: aad forite &ilher eiidownieiit he piecued pert of the 
of the late noiiesteriee of ^Soape, Oodnaeh, Wike» 
Hsihedejr, Tiptre^ RonftbonHigh, FeUxtow, BraoMhiD, BlyO- 
biB^ aad Mosyoy. Thefirvtetone wee hid with greet wdev-" 
■i^ kf the Bishop of lincola, oa whieh oecasiea a graad proeee- 
eaaa wss naiie throagh the towa from ike eoUege to the ehordi el 
Oar ladj. But this aoUe feaadation was scarcely completed 
fcefaetbe disgiaee of the Caxdind, whea, in 23 Heary VIU. this 
with its site, coataiaiag by estiamtioa six aeres» was 
ta TTbwiw AlTorde; aad ia9 James L to Richaid Per- 
civalmid Edaraad Dofidd. 

No part of this college aow reamias except the gate, which 
stttds djjoiaiBy to the eMt side of St Peter's chardnyaid, the 
net hatiag beea lang deaiolished to the Tcry fimndatioos. In 
the secead aditioa of Mirh^s Smfblk Trmeiier, pablished fai 
1764^ we are iafinwied that the first stoae was act loag before 
iNmd ia two piwcca, worthed np ia a oommoa wall ia Woalform's- 
hm, with a I^ilia iaacription* to this afleet: '' la the year of 


^ ItiM «vtd«nt tbaz this iotcnptioo, w gt^tn by Gongh, if incortectl^ 

.ct .• ti 


regni Henrici, 

Octavi regis 

ABgli» XX menut 

▼cro Junii XV, 


p Jobnm epni Lioeni. 

H« add*, tbsa ^^® '^^ coDtaioiBg it is now fi^td in a tnaft-bome, for* 
neAj • room of the college. 

Digitized by 


SM wrFouu 

Cliriift l&id, and tbe SMi of Reorj VIII. king of Enghad, rt 
the Idth of Jane^ kid by John bishop of lino^/' This wak 
John Longland^ who likewise laid the first stone of Wobey's col<» 
lege at Oxford. 

This gate, with the exception of a square stone tablet, on whicfa 
are carred the arms of King Henry YIII. is entirely of brick, 
worked into niches, wreathed pinnacles and chimnies, flowers^ 
and other deeorations, according to the fashion of tfiat time. It 
is supposed to have been the great or chief gate ; for as the Car- 
dinal, by setting the king's arms over a coQege of his own foan- 
dation, meant to flatter that monarch, it is not probable that he 
•would put t(iem oyer any other than the principal entrance.* ff 
this conjecture be correct, the specimen but ill agrees with the 
character given of the college by the writer of Wolsey's seeiwt 
history, who says^ that it was a snmptnous building : and indeed 
the cardinal himself, in an exhortatory Latin preface to liUy'a 
Grammar, then lately pnblishecl, styles it " no ways ineleganf 
This is the more remarkable, as at that period architects were 
extremely attentive to, and expended great sums in the consthic^ 
tlon of gate*houses, which they generally made superior in mag-^ 
niflcenoe to the other parts of the edifice; and this was partieu* 
tarly observable in all the buildings erected by this ostentations 
prelatcf This gate now leads to a private house, in the apari^ 
nents of which are some coats of arms, 

• From wbat Fuller laji on tho subject, it is ovideot that Wolsey was 
guilty of a great breach of deoorum in regard to the placing of these arma* 
** King Henry/' says that writer, " took just offence, that the Cardinal set 
his own arms above the King's on the gate-hoase at the entrance into the 
College. This was no verbal, bat a real Ego et Rex maa, excosable by na 
plea in manners or grammar, except only by that which is rather fault than 
Sgore, a harsh downright hyUerMis ; but to humble the Cardinal's pride, 
some one afterwards set up on a window a painted mastiff-dfig gnawing the 
blade-bone of a shoulder of mutton, to mind the Cardioal of his extrac- 
tion, it being utterly improbable, as some have fimcied, that that picture was 
placed there by the Cardinal's own appointment, to be to him a monitor of 
httmility."— fai/er'j Ckwrck Histoiy, 

t Or</9e*t Antiq. V. 79. 

Digitized by 



«< At Peter'%'' Mt*Afit JiNOMl <if Ikmi*;/ the partianen^ 
Tisitor '' was in the porch, the crown of thorns, the sponge and 
nails, and the Trinity,, in stone,. and the rails were tiiere, all 
which I ordered to break in pieces/' A curious font, however; 
of great antiquity, stiU remains in this chnrch. 

In St. Peter's parish stood the mansion granted in the reign of 
Edward YI« to the Bishop of Norwich, by the appellation of Lord 
Curson's House. It was afterwards called tiie King's Hospital, 
haying been applied to that purpose for seamen during the Dutch 
wan. The strong and stately brick porch belonging to this edi- 
fice was demolished in 1760; it was subsequently known as the 
El^hant and Castle, and is now a malt-kiln. By a statute enacted 
26 Menry VIII. Ipswich was appointed for the seat of a snffiragan 
bishop ; and the common notion is, that this house was intended 
for his residence. .Thomas Manning, prior of Butley, conse- 
crated by Archbishop Cranmer in 1525, was the first and last 
suffragan bishop of Ipswich, after irhose decease, as it is sup- 
posed, this mansion was granted to the Bishop of Norwich. 

In the suburbs beyond the river stood the church of St» Austin^ 
near the green of the same name. It is often called a chapel ; 
but in the time of the Conqueror it possessed eleven acres of land, 
and procurations were paid for it by the prior of St. Peter's, so 
that it was parochial, and probably impropriated to that priory. 
It was. in use in 1482, All the houses and land on the south side 
of the Orwell, at present forming part of St Peter's parish, are 
supposed to have once belonged to that of SL Austin* Not fut 
from this church, and probably opposite to it, stood St. Leonard's 
Hospital, now a farm-house belonging to Christ's Hospital in 
this town. 

St, Stepken*s is a rectory, the presentation to which devolved, 
with the ChrisUchurch estate, to the family of Fonnereau. 

In Brook-street, in this parish, was a mansion belonging to 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Snifolk, on the spot where now stands 
the (iQach and Horses /mi. Some remains of an older building 


Digitized by 


986 SfTFFOLK. 

may ttiU be traced on the walls Imuag tke back part of ike pre- 
sent house. 

The Tamkard pubUc'h(mte, next door to the Ck)ach and H<Nrse0^ 
formed part of the residence of Sir Anthony Wtngfield, knight of 
the garter^ vice-chamberlain, privy-eoansellor, and one of the 
execntors of Henry VIII. Some carious remains of the decoras- 
tions of this ancient edifice still exist, particolarly in a room oa 
the ground-floor, the oak wainscot of which, curiously canred ia 
festoons of flowers formerly giH, is now painted blue and white. 
Here the arms of Wingfield are yet to be seen; the ceiling is of 
groined work ; and orer the &e-place is a basso-relievo in plas- 
ter, colored, which uninterrupted ttiditioa referred till a few years 
^ce to the battle of Boewm-th. This interpretation is adopted 
by Mr. Gough, who describes it as exhibiting *' Leicester-town 
in one comer; several warriom in the middle ; Sir Charles Wil* 
Gam Brandon, who is supposed to have lived here, father to 
Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, and standard-hearer to th# 
Earl of Richmond, lies dead by his horse, and on the other side 
the standard: at a distance seems to be the earl, with the crowD 
placed on his head by Sir William Stanley ; m another is Lei* 
oester-abbey, the abbot coming out of the porch to compliment the 
earl/'* A correspondent of the Gentleman's Magazine has, how- 
ever, given a much more plausible construction, and asserted, that 
this curious relic delineates the Judgment of Paris, and its coa- 
sequences, in five compartment8.t In this explanation he seem& 
to be borne out by an actual inspection of the piece. 


* G*mgK'$ Camden, XL 165* This writer seems to have heen led into tho 
common notion, by the idea that the house in question was the residence of 
Ihe Brandons. Under the same erroneous impression be adds, that Lady 
Jane Grej (who was grand-daaghter to Charles Brandoa Duke of Suflblk,) 
was bom here. Ipswich has no claim to the honor of being the birth-place 
of that celebrated but unfortunate female, who came into the world at her 
lather's seat at Bradgate, in Leicestershire. See Beuuties, IX. 396. 

f ** In the first, says the writer, he appean seated, habited in bis Phrygian 
tobe and bonnet, amusing himself with his lute, when ths three goddesses 


Digitized by 



Anollier part of the mansion of the Wingfields haying sneces- 
ttTely served as « popish ehi^pel for Judge Wilton^ in the reign of 
James II. ; and a dancing-school has since been converted into a 
J%eaire» Ipswich enjoys the honour of having first witnessed 
and acknowledged the inimitable powers of David Garrick, who, 
under the assumed name of Lyddal, is said to have made his first 
dramatic essay on this stage about 1739, in Dunstal's company 
ftom London, in the part of Dick, in the L^g Valet. 

Besides the churches already mentioned, Ipswich had formerly 
one dedicated to St. Gregory, and impropriated to Woodbridge 
priory : but nothing fiurther is known concerning it. Mention is 
also made of the church of Osterbolt, as being antiquated so early 
as 21 Edward III. It is conjectured to have stood near the east- 
gate, and to have derived its appellation firom that circumstance ; 
and as St. Clement's is not named in Domesday, it might pro- 
bably have been erected instead of this dilapidated church of 

Ipswich has a spacious Market-place, in the centre of which 
is a handsome cross, with commodious shambles, first built by 
Mr. Edmund Danndy, though the vulgar notion ascribes their 
erectiim to Cardinal Wolsey. They were rebuilt, or at least tbo- 

VOL.XIV. S roughly 

present themfslves. The aest toena ii his adjodgoieot of the priies, whea 
Jaoo, ss qncen of Heavea, leads the way, followed hy Venas disclofiog all 
her charms, and Pallas with the Gorgon's head and iEgis. Paris, won by the 
attractions of the goddess of love» and her assistant son, who hovers above in 
the air, decrees to her the prise which be hoidi in his hand. We next view 
him armed cap-a>pi6, reclining perhaps at the foot of the statue of bis pa- 
troMM^ meditating hk conqnest, his lance lying beside him, and his horse 
standing saddled and bridled. The reclining warrior and the horse are the 
only figures in the piece that could possibly suggest the idea of the battle of 
Boaworth : twit the latter might with as much propHety have been taken foe 
the Trojan horse, as for that of Richard III. or Paris for that king. Below, 
in the left comer, we see Paris and one of his friends, with horses, preparing 
to carry off Helen ; and ,in the distance they appear offering up their vows 
in the temple of Venus, or perhaps solemnitin^ their nuptials while the horse 
or hofsei are waiting without'^-^Oest. Hi^. 1796. 

/ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


mvgUy repaired, about the year 1600, atace wUeii tine iu»tliing 
of oonaeqaeace has been doae to tbem. On ike Coin-UU, in tlie 
market-piace, abo stood a rotiinday origiiiaily intended for a aar- 
ket-houae ; bnt bnviog long been a mere nuiaance, it waa taken 
down in 1611, when a plan waa proposed lor ereetiag a handp 
aome Com-Excfaange on ita site. 

In 1810, five gentlemen of this town, with a pnfalic qpirit and 
liberality which do them honour, at their joint expenoe nndertocA: 
the erection of a New Market, which was completely finiahed in 
Nb?eadber, 1811. It occupies nearly an acre of ground, and is 
contiguous to the old Butter-market, an inooaunodiona and nar- 
row street^ where the principal market had uaually been held. 
It IB composed of an outer and inner quadrangle ; round each 
runa a range of buildings, supported by i^ne columns, which 
a£^rd shelter and accommodation to persons frequenting the mar^ 
ket» who pay a small annual or weekly rent In tiie centre of 
the interior quadrangle is a fountain, the pedestal of which is 
sunnounted with a pyramid of Portland stone, fomtng an obelisk 
about twenty feet in height. On each side of the pftjfwtnl » 
bason is cut in the solid stone, and snqpplied with water from a 
lion's head above. By these means, the water which be£we ran 
waste through the town, is now made to contribute to the conve- 
nience and ornament of the market The whole undertaking has 
cost the proprietors about 10,000L It waa executed from the 
designs, and under the immediate direction of Mr. William Brown^ 
architect, of Ipswich, to whose professional talents it is highly 
creditable. Adjoining is an enclosed cattle market, (an arrange- 
ment truly desirable in every populous town,) likewise the work 
of the same proprietors. The market-^ys are Tuesday and 
Thunday for small meat ; Wednesday and Friday for fish ; and 
Saturday far all kinds of provisions. 

In the Comtif Gaol *' the gentlemen of SuflTolk,'' says Mr. 
Nield, " have erected here, as well as at Bury, a striking monu- 
ment of their humane attention to the health of the wretched, and 
the morals of the prisoner. The boundary-wall of tbis edifice 

Digitized by 


svriouu 96d 

iadaaai about an acre and a half of gromul, and in twenty feet 
kigh. In front is the turnkey's lodge with a lead roo^ on which 
^Kecntions take place. From the lodge an avenne ninety-eight 
feet long leads to the keeper's-honae^ in the centre of th^ 
friaan, from which the aeveral court-yards are completely in- 
ape c tod, Tlie prison consists of four wings, to which are attached 
H wa o na airy courts about 75 feet by 45, and three smaller, about 
4A feet aquare, in one of which is the engine»house, as a provi- 
sion against fire. The chapel is up one pair of stairs in the 
gaoler's house, and is surmounted -by a turret top with an alarum 
bell; and here, as weU as in the prison, its inmates, both debtors 
aad felons, are kept separate, according to their reactive classes 
and aexea. The county has not hitherto provided employment ; 
bnt sueh prisoners as can procure it from without, are allowed to 
fooehre the whole of their earnings. The gaoler has a salary of 
20H. per annum, with coak and candles for his own use ; there 
is also a chaplain, who is paid 501. a year; and a surgeon is al- 
lowed CM. for his attendance on this prison and the^ House of 

The House of Correction stands in an airy situation near the 
Borongfa Gaol, and is surrounded by a boundary- wall seventeen 
feet high. It contains three eonrt-yards, each 50 feet by 30, and 
has a diapel in the keeper's house. 

The Toum and Borough Gaol is situated in St. Matthew's- 
atreet.. The keeper's house fronts the street ; and behind it is 
the debtora' court-yard, 90 feet by 27, with^a gravel- walk. At 
the west-/end of the building is a neat little chapel, which has a 
r^;nlar chaplain, with a salary of 301. The prisoners here eroph>y 
theoiselTes in spinning, making garters, cutting skewers, and 
such like occupations, and receive the full amount of their earn- 
ings. Debtors are confined here upon writs of capias issuing out 
of the Court of Small Pleas, held for the town and borough every 
fortnight on a Monday. No debtor in execution had ever reaped 
any benefit torn the Lords' Act till December 30, 1805 when 

S2 Ma 

Digitized by 


360 StfFOLK. 

Mr. Pulham, solicitor of Woodbridge, obtained the sixpenoeft far 
them at bis own expence. 

To the public buildings already enumerated^ must be added, a 
chapel for the l/ntlanaiw in St. Nicholas-street, which is adorned 
about the pulpit with some elegant carving; another for the Anc- 
haptiits at Stoke ; an Assembfy^Room, in Tavem-streety of good 
dimensions, but neither very elegant in its appearance, nor well 
attended : and a handsome stone Bridge connecting the town 
with its suhurb. Stoke Haodet 

Among the benevolent institutions of thb town are Ihree cha- 
rity schools, in two of which are seventy boys, and in the third, 
forty girb. Besides these, it has a school on the plan of Mr. Lan* 
caster, opened July 8, 181 1, with 200 boys. 

An excellent charity for the relief and support of the widows 
and orphans of poor clergymen in the county, was begun here in 
1704, by the voluntary subscriptions of a few gentlemen of Ips- 
wich and Woodbridge, and their vicinity ; an institution which 
has since been eminently successful in effecting the laudable pur- 
pose for which it was designed. 

A small distance firom tbe town, on the Woodbridge road, ex- 
tensive Barracks have been within these few years erected for 
infontry and cavalry. They are citable of accommodating ten or 
twelve thousand men ; and to the troops lying here, Ipswich owes 
no small portion of its recent improvement and present flourish* 
ing condition. A little beyond the barracks is the Race-course, 
forming part of an extensive common, which, being the property 
of the corporation, was sold in 1811 to several private indivi- 
duals ; so that the sports of the turf will probably soon be sup- 
^planted by more beneficial pursuits. 

This town was formerly famous for its manufactures of broad 

cloth, and the best canvas for sail-cloth, called Ipswich Dtmhle. 

While those manufactures continued to flourish, it had several 

companies of traders incorporated by charter, as clothiers, mer- 

chant-taylors, merchant-adventurers, and others. About the midr 

die of the seventeenth century the wpollen trade began to decline 


Digitized by 


BVWfOUu 961 

kr^ tad gxitelly dwindled en«irdycway. Its Iom vu so w- 
Tcrdy fdt tat a long tune, that Ipswich acquired the character of 
letog " a %omu vMout people/' Favoviably seated for oommer* 
dal gperolatkma, it has at leagth recoTered this shock, and is 
DOW rapidly increasing in eonseifiieace and population. Its prin* 
cipal traffic at present is in malting and com, the exportation of 
which hy aeais fimlitated by the cstoary of the Orwell, naTigaUe 
tut light Tessek iqp to the town itself* while those of greater 
iNuden are oHiged to bring-to at Downham Beach, three or four 
flsiles lover down. This port is almost dry a| ebb; bat the it^ 
taming tide, generally rising about twelve foet^ converts it into 
a ■aynifeent sheet of water. Here are two yards employed in 
sh^ailding ; and though the number of vessels belonging to 
Ipswich is said to have declined from the decrease of the coal* 
tode, yet mme than dO,000 chaldron are annually imported into 

Vesseb fitted np for the accommodation of passengers, like the 
Oavesend boats at London, sail every tide from Ipswich to Har* 
wicb, and baek again ; an excursion that is rendered truly de* 
l^hfinl, by the heaaty of the surrounding scenery. The OrweU^ 
wbicb, tor its extent^ may be pronounced one of the finest sali- 
rireri in the kingdom, is bordered on either side almost the whole 
W9y With gently rising hills, enriched with gentlemen's seats, 
rillsges with their ehorches, woods, noble avenues, parks stodced 
with deer, extending to the water's edge; and, in a word, almost 
eroy object that can give variety to a landscape. In the passagf^ 
from Ipswich, the Tiew is terminated m front by the main ocean ; 
on the right with a prospect of Harwich, and the high coast of 
Essex; OQ the left with Languard Fort, and the high land of 
Walton, and FeliiLtow cUfls behind it On the return to Ipswich, 
the scene closes with a view of that town, which appears to great 
aJTuihige, aec^^iyunodating itself in a sort of half*moon to the 
mdingofthe river. 

PariMig the reign of Queen Mary, Ipswich witnessed some o(f 
lli0^ craelties wbicl> have attached indelible disgrace to Uie me- 

S3 mory 

Digitized by 


SftI mfwrouu 

imyry of that priacett. On tke dirt of Angiurt 1M5, tUkmi 
Samad^ minister of Barfold in this ooanty, and on tbe IMi o. 
February following^ Anne Potien, a brewer*» irfile, and Joaa ' 

Tninchfield, a ahoe-amker's wife^ were bnnit in this town fiir ^ 

their adherence to the Protestant iaith« ^ 

Among the eminent persons to whom Ipswioh has given birth, ^ 

the first place indispntably belonga][to i 

TR0M48 WoLSET, who, by means of distingQiBhed abilities^ 
and a fortunate concurrence of circnmatances, raised hims^frolii ^ 

BO obscure situation to the highest oJSkes in the church and sMe. ^ 

He was bom in 1471 ; but we meet with nothing to oountenanee 
the common report that his fiither was a butcher. Firom tho par- « 

ticuiars respecting Mr. Danndy, given in a preceding page, it i 

even appears that Wolsey was wefl allied ; and it seems very pro- i 

hMe that his parents were not in such mean circumstance as Ua j 

enemies have taught the world to believe. Be this as it may, he .] 

received his edncatton at H&e grammar-schod of his native town, t 

and at Magdalen College, Oxford. Having embraced the ecole- j 

Biastleal profession, he was presented in l^KN) to liie rectory of 
Lymington, by Henry Grey, Marqfuis of Dorset, whose three 
Botts were under his tuition. Probably through the recommends- , 

tion of this nobleman, he was sent by Henry VII. on a mission to 
the Emperor Maximilian, and acquitted himself so much to the 
Batisfaction of the king, that on his return he was rewarded with 
tiie deanery of Lincoln, and a prebend in that cathedral. His 
Introduction to the court of Henry YIII. he owed to Fox, bidiop 
of Winchester, whom he soon supplanted in his master's fevonr, 
by which he rapidly rose to the station of sole and absolute mini- 
ster. He successively became bishop of Toumay in Flanders, 
which city the king had just taken, a cardinal, bishop of Win* 
Chester, archbishop of York, and lord high-chancellor of Eng- 
land, The revenues derived from all his places is said to have 
equalled those of the sovereign; and he expended them in a man* 
ner not less magnificent. Among his retinue, composed of 800 {>er« 
sons, were many gentlemen, knights, and even individiials of nobfe 


Digitized by 


kMu He hiilttlw fdaee of HMqptim-CeQrt; wA Yofk-ptoee» 
IB LDDdoQ, irkioh sAcnraMb rMeived the name of WbitehaU; 
and tlie foimdatioii of Cbrkt Clmrdi College, Oxford, aod of hk 
aeihge «t Ipsvich, attest his endeavM* for the pioviotioa of 
leaning. Naturally aaibitiaua, Wolaey was not satisfied with the 
lisiiBrH wUdi he had ohteined, bat aspired to the p^pal tiaia. 
DisappeiDted. in his hopes by the emperer Charles V. who had 
fraauaed to support him^ Wolsey rerenged himself by promoting 
the divmne of his master from Catharine of Amgon, amit to his 
imperial majesty. This afiair, however, proved the oceasion of 
tte eaidiMd's downftL The obstacles to the aoeomplishment ot 
^Henry^s wishes being too poweriiil for even Wolsey to remove so 
s p e ed i l y ss the king desbed, he inearred Henry's dispteasoro. 
and being at the sasM time nndermined by his enemies, he was 
anddealy stripped of all his employments, banished from the cwat, 
and apprehended lor high treason. Having reached Leicester on 
his way from York to London, death intei^sed on the SOth of 
Movember 1580, and saved him fr«m fcrther hnmiliations*. 
' Ralph Bbownmo, sen of a merchant of Ipswich, was bora 
ttere in 1693, and edncafted at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. 
Mitt obtaining varioos preferments in the ehnrdi, he was, in 
1641, nominated snecessor to Dr. HsU in the see of Eneter. 
On the ceaunencesMnt of the civil war he was deprived of all bin 
prefcrments, and led a retired iile, till, in 1657, he was chosen 
preacher at the Temple, and died in 1659 in London. Notwith- 
standing his immoveable principles of loyalty. Dr. Brownrig is 
said to have been consnlted on a subject of considerable import* 
anee by Cromwell, and to have returned, this answer : ** My lord, 
the best advice I can give you, is. Render unto Caesar the things 
that are Cesar's, and unto God the things that are God's."-* 
His life was published in octavo, in 1660; and there are two 
folio volumes of his Sermons, sixty-five in number, published in 
1661 and 1664, with his p<Hrtrait pr^xed. 
BwiAMUf Lany, youngest son of John Lany, Es^ of Crat- 


* See Beauti€$, IX. 344. 


Digitized by 


^64 tVFPOUL 

^Id in this eoonty, irw born at Ipswieh towirds tilt ooodnaiaa 
of the sixteenth century. He wai sneoemTdy bishop of PcAiihi 
borough^ Lincoln, and Ely, and died in 1674.* 

Clara Reeve, a lady who holds an honorable rank anong tha 
female writers of the last oentary, was the eldest daughter of the 
Rev. William Reeve, many years minisler of St Nichdas' ehnrdi 
in thia town, and sister to the late vice-admiral Reeve. She 
commenced her literary career in 1772, with a translation from 
the Latin of that fine old romance Barclay^i Argems, Her 
next publication, in 1777, was 7^ Oid BngHikBwrm, a story 
which acquired considerable popularity. This was succeeded by 
various other performance«, which, as it has justly been observed, 
discover her to have cultivated nsefiil knowledge with consider* 
aUe success ; and to have applied that knowledge less frivoloosly 
than is iirequently the case with female authors. She died at 
Ipswich December 3, 1807, in an advanced age. 

Sarah Trimmer, whose numerous works for the religious 
instruction and education of young people, and the poor, will be 
a durable monument in honour of her memory, was also a native 
of Ipswich. She was the only daughter of Joshua Kirby, Ebi|. 
designer in perspective to their mljesties; married Mn Jamea 
Trimmer, of Oid Brentford, whom she survived; and expired in 
-her chair while perusing the letters of a deceased firiend, Decem* 
her 15, 1810, in her 70th year.f 


is bounded on the east by the hundreds of Loes and Wilferd ; 
on the south by Colneis ; on the west by Boemere and Claydon, and 
the Liberty of Ipswich ; and on the north, where it terminates in 
a very narrow point, it borders partly on Bosmere and Claydon, 
and partly on Loes. This hundred contains no market town. 


* See Beauties, Vol. XI. Northamptonshire, p. 15, and VoL IX. p. 6t5, 
f Such readers as wish to see a complete list of her immerout Workf> «rf 
reicrred to the G«nthium*9 Magasinef VoL LXXXI. p. 86* 

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8VF90U. Mft 

Alefa Jitenly of tlMt Bame ivIuckllonrMlMd U^ 
«f fidmcd Llo thrt of CiMurlM L aad to whidi beloiig«d Thmm 
SecftJqidy Ea^ the gretft benefretor <tf the MeigbboriBg town of 
WooArUge. Tlie last of tfais fiuuly nairied Ooiothy^ duigkte 
of Sir HoDvy Vortk, and settled the estate apoo her. At her 
dealh m 1673, ihe beqoeathed it to Seekferd Cage, the heir- 
^eMrai ef the SeckfiMrd imily» by whom it was seU to the At- 


BMiGorwEU. abdat the auddle ot the setoiteeDth eeatary be* 
castt the ^opcrty of tlie fuaily of Baniardiston. la 1063 Sir 
8mmd Baniardistoii, Kat. ef this place, was created a baronet 
Be lebaih the HaU at a eoaaiderable expease, aad eatailed the 
I his hein male; bat these fiuliog, it deyohred to the fe» 
, and the title is extiaet 
The Halt at GRDNDiOBvaoa, now the property of B. G. Dil» 
Saghaai, Esq. was iMmerly the resideooe of the ftmily of Blois. 
C3Hdes Bbis, Esq. of this place was created a baroael in 1668, 
md raaored hence to Cockfield Hall, Yoxlbrd, where his sac* 
cewMS have erer ainoe continued. 

The 8tec|ile of the obarcfa of Groadisbargfa baring fidlen down 
skat the time of die H^Mnation, it r^aained witiiont any till 
aesr the suddle of last centory, when a rery handsome one was 
meted by the cxecvtmrs of Mr. Bobert Thing, who left an estate 
Id k soldier that purpose. 

OmcT was fi>r a long series of years the demesne of the Lords 

Akigayenn J. A sobstantial old mansion here was formerly the 

aesl of the GoBMkcAd fiunily. In the church is a monoment for 

iokfi Gonioldy who died in 1698, with an inscription, recording 

tht lie was descended from the right ancient and worthy families 

^ NiOBtoa and Wingfieid of Letheringhsm ; that he was gentle* 

SBB-Bsker to Queen Elizabeth and King James, and afterwards 

paOeaoiSk of the pciTy-cbsmber to King Charles I. ; and that 

Winifred, his wrife, wara grand-danghter ei Sir Richard Poole, 

Md the Lady Margaret^ CQuntess of Salisbury, dai^bter of 


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tM iirrfotx. 

George Duke ef Clareiiee, Kroiher of King Bdtraid IV. Tins 
limily tuflered to aeTerely during the domeelic troubles in the 
reign of Charlee L that Lionel, with whom it became extinct, and 
who was rector of this pariah, was obliged to sell the eatale. 

Platford was the seat of the ancient fcnily of Felton. Ed« 
nrand FelloD, who married a daughter of Robert GlOTard of Cod- 
denham in this county, was the 4ther of Sir Thoums PeHon, 
chief justice of Chester under Edward III. and Richard II. His 
younger son, John, applied r himself to commerce with such sue* 
oess, that he was styled, by way of eminence, lA« Ckapman. 
lohn, grandson of the latter, acquired the lordship and estate of 
Shotley, by his union with Joan, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Thomas M osel, Knt of that place, and was succeeded by his 
grandson Robiert, who marrying the heiress of Sir Thomas Samp- 
son of Playford, added this lordship, with other manors and estates 
in the neighborhood, to his former possessions. His descendant, 
Robert, was invested with the order of the Bath at the corsnatien 
cf King James I. ; and Henry, his successor, was created a ba- 
ronet in 1621. On the death of the two grandsons of the first 
baronet without mal^ issue, the title became extinct, and the 
estate devolved to the first Eari of Bristol of the Hervey fhraily, 
in right of his countess, the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas, 
the elder of the brothers. 

Playfbrd church is said to have been built by one of the Fel- 
tons, who is interred in it. 

RusHMERE is conjectured by some to have been the place 
where Ulfketd, eari of the East- Angles, -^gaged the Danes, who 
had invaded this country in 1010; though others, with a greater 
appearance of probability, are inclined to consider Nacton in Col- 
neis, as the scene of that conflict, for reasons which wiU be men* 
tioned in treating of that place. 

At WiTNESHAM was the ancient mansion of Bartholomew 
Burghersh, one of the first knights of the garter, or, as they are 
styled. Founders of that order. The site of this house may still 
be traced by the moat which surrounded it ; and a roa4> oomiptl j 


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ttiwJf liin^im. 
Here — ■ faiidj m fcM i c i ap t i dteJkateJI t» St Thwutt, ^ tfct 

ms Ikt imlel Vfm, whick «MhHK«i iladf uHo tiit 



CofaiOB is lonaded on tlie enst by tbe river Deben, which 8«^« 
ntos it firom the himdred of Wilford ; on th« south by the Gennnn 
Ocean ; on.the west by the Orwell nnd the Liberty of Ipswich ; 
nnd on the north by CarHbrd. 

The most remftrknUe places in this hundred are : 

Feuxtow, a small village, agreeably situated at the mouth 
of Ihe Deben. It is conjectured to have derived its name from 
Felix, the Borgundian, the first bishop of Ounwich, who might 
probably have landed here on liis first arrival in this country, 
FVom the many little mitred images that have been discovered at 
Pelixtow, and are supposed to have been made in honor of him, 
he is thought to have resided for some time at this place, previ- 
4>usly to his removal to Dunwich. 

At Levinoton is an alms-house for six poor persons of that 
parish and of Nacton, founded and endowed pursuant to the will 
of Sir Robert Hitchan^ who was a native of this place« The 
steeple of the church, now consolidated with Nacton, was also 
built by him, as appears from his arms, and ihe date upon it 

Close to Levin gton stood Stratton church or chisel, the ruins 
of which, overgrown with trees and bushes, were to be seen some 
years since, in the middle of a field, thence denominated Chapel- 
field. Here was formerly a lazar-house also, endowed with a 
laoiety of the tithes of Stratton. 


• Suffolk TraveHer, wcond edit. p. 94b 

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In a iarmer'B yard at Levington was dogthe first crag 0t aliA 
tliat has been found so uaefiil for the improvement of land* This 
kind of manure^ thoogh long employed in the west of England, 
was not used in Suffolk till the discoTery of its eficacy was aoci* 
dentally made by one Edwards, about the year 1718. This man 
covering a field with dung from his yard, and wanting a load or two 
to complete his wcA, took some of the soil that had lun near the 
dung, though it appeared to him to be no better than sand* To 
his surprize he observed, that the land on which it was spread 
proved more productive than the rest; on which he was enooa« 
raged to apply more of this crag the next year, and with such sue* 
cess, that others were induced to follow his example. 

Nacton was the manor and estate of the Fastolb frota 1380, 
till it devolved by marriage to the Brokes. This fiunily is de* 
scended from Sir Richard Broke, lord chief baron in the reign of 
Henry VIIL Robert Broke, of Nacton, was created a baronet 
in 1661 ; but the patent was made out in such a way, that on 
his death, without male iteue, his nephew, who had married his 
daughter and heiress, could not succeed to the title. The pre- 
sent possessor of the estate is P. V. Broke, Esq. a captain in the 
royal navy, who has a handsome mansion here. 

The celebrated Admiral Vernon; the captor of Porto Beflo, fixed 
his residence in this parish. His nephew, to whom he left the 
mass of his fortune after his death, rebuilt the house, and sur- 
rounded it with a park, to which, from the beautiful river that it 
borders upon, he gave the name of Orwell Park, This gentleman 
did still fiirther honw to the river, for on his being created a peer of 
Ireland in 1762, he took his title bom it as Baron Orwell. In 
1776 he was created Viscount Orwell ; and Earl of Sliipbrooke in 
the following year : but on his death in 1783 the title became 
extinct The estate is now the property of his nephew, John 
Vernon, Esq. 

At Nacton is the house of industry for the incorporated hun- 
dreds of Carlferd and Colneis, erected in 1767, at an expence of 


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4flOtiL and first iahalHtdl in tbe IbUowing year. The poor aw 
cwployrA in apinniiig wool and making sacks. 

4n Ibis parish^ near the road from Ipawioh to Trinley^ is a 
flaoe esHcd the Seven Hiils, firon a nomber of elentions, which 
hnie all the appearance of barrows, thengh there fure more than 
^e naaie kaptin. Hence it has been plansibly conjectured that 
H wan near this spot, and not at Riishnere, that Eari UUketd 
tsgaged the Bsnea in 1010. 

North of the boonds of Naeton, and between theai and tiie 

liberty of Ipewich, is attract of land now become extra-parochiaL 

Part of this, cotttignoos to the Orwell, belonged to a little priory 

of Aqgostine Friars called Alnesbome pri<»y, on the site of which 

a €ttm-hovae has been erected, while a bam occnpies that of its . 

chmdi or ehapeL In 1452 it was united to Woodbridge priory. 

In a deed among the writings of the latter, it is termed a manor, 

wan let, 32 Henry VIII. by the prior to a citizen of Ipswich, by 

the style of Mmerihm de Ahieiborm H Purnds: and in the de- 

•cription of a few fields held of this manor, they are said to lie in 

the hamlet of Alnesbome, in the parish of HaDowtree. This 

district appears, fimn ancient records, to hsTo contained three 

darches, besides the chapel of Alnesbome priory; Hallowtree, 

or, as it is sometimes written, Halgehetiv, St PetronOle, and 

Bixley: hot there in no certain acconnt where any of them stood. 

At TuntLEY St. Mastin is Grtmrfone Hali, formerly the 

sesl of Thoman Calrendish, the second Englishman that dream* 

Btrigated the globe. This gentleman, at his own expence, fitted 

est thtee small vesaela of 120, 60, and 40 tons, manned by 123 

SMO and boys, fiur the pnrpose of annoying the Spaniards in 

fteir American posseasions. Sailing from Plymouth in July 

IS86, he panaed ^tluroagh the Straits of Magdlan, and entered 

tte South Seaa^ where he plundered several towns on the coasts 

«f Cb'Ii and Pera« and took many valuable prizes, especially 

tb Santa AnnJB^ a large Acapolco ship, richly laden with specie 

tt/^^chandize. He then returned home by way of the Cape 

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of Ck>od Hope, and iwched Ptymath SifteBbcr 19, 1586, im 
years aad fifty days after his d^artaie.* 

The success of this voyage encouraged CaTendish to make a 
second aUempt with a stronger force ; and in Augvsty 1591, ho 
sailed from Plymoatfa with five ships on a similar expediiioB: 
but having passed the Struts of Magellan in May 1592, he was 
parted from his fleet in the 9ight, and never heard of after* 

Two ilexes, said to have been planted by this navigator, are 
still standing at Grimstone Hall. This mansion became by pur- 
chase the property of John Barker, Esq. who was created a ba- 
ronet in 1621 ; but the fajaily is now extinct. 

Of AUiston church, consolidated with Trimley, no remains ate 
BOW to be seen ; bat from the great number ei human bones and 


* Ia H§dfhiif^9 CoUuiim 'v an aocoant of thii ezpsditipn, cndtlecl, 
^ The Admirable and Profpexoai Voyage of the WortbipfiU Matter Themta 
Candisb, of Trimley, io the County of Suliblk; Esquire, Written by Master 
Francis Pretty, lately of Ey in Suffolk, a gentleman employed in the same 
action. To which is there added certain rare and special Notes relating to 
this Voyage, written by Master Thomas Fuller, of fpswich, who was master 
of the Desire." The Desire was the lai;geit of the three vasseb, comsnndeii 
by Cavendish hivselt 

t Lambard, (Diet, p, 124) arguing in (avor of Ihe opinioa that there were 
formerly men of most extraordinary stature, relates tbe follewing anecdote 
of this navigator : — " Since the beginning of the reign of Queen Elisabeth, 
there were found in Suffolk, over against Harwich in Essex, by a gentleman 
called Cavendish, the bones of a man, whereof the skull was able to contain 
£ve pecks, and one of his teeth is as big as a roan*s fist, and weigheth ten 
Qonees. These tMXies had sometimes bodies not of beasts bat of men, ^r the 
difference is maoiftsL" 

That bones of prodigious tixe have been discovered in this neighborhood is 
very probable ; for I have myself seen in tlie possession af Roger Peitiward, 
Esq. of Finberough Hall, near Stowmarket, a petrified elephant's tooth, found 
in the cliffs on tbe coast of the adjoining parish of Walton : but to suppose 
that such relics as Lambard describes, could have belonged to human bodies^ 
would require a greater share of credulity than people at the present day ar« 
disposed to exercise. 

Digitized by 


0«7Vf OIX 971 

ittf; up aboni 1730, in potting down the pott* of a cart- 
Mce> it the iK8i end of Allialoii.atreet» it ia ptdUle tiial it 
■sghiitaBd IkeK oppoMie ta the park of Grimatone HalL ^ 

The ckiapek of TuiULET St. Maby atenda ia the aaoM ehurdi- 
^aid wilk thai of tike preceding paridL The ateeple now hanga ia 
nana, aaAheiag oTenfaadowed by a laxoriant tree, fonaa a pio- 
tnewpie object Thia chareh waa probably baih by Thonaa de 
Brotkertaa, ton of Edward I. wlraae anaa are alill to be aaen or er 

Wavtoh, a neat and reautilnUy pleaaaat Tillage, eoataiiyi^ 

■any gted lienaea^ ^vaa Imaerly aplace of eoaaidenMe aote even 

tdaie the Norman Con^peat At the eaat ead of tiie Tillage ia 

■CailBd Hub ehmpeb, the tower of wluch ia aearly denoliahed; 

if one of the aide wka nathiag ia left bat the wall to the height 

; a loot from the giooad. That part of the ediice, how* 

r^ whieh ia atkU aaed, ia kept ia good r^air. 

Aboat a aule from the HKHrth of the rif er Debea, aad two fiom 

Orwdl Hsren, apan a high diffia Felixtow, which, till of late 

ycMi, waa idwaya ledumed to be in the manor of Wahon. atood 

WaHon Castle. Tradition reports it to have been one of the Ibr- 

^ erected by Coaatantiae the Great, when he withdrew his 

; from the froaftaer towna in the east of Britain, and baik 

frrts aad caadea to aapply the want of them. The anther of the 

MMk Trareller aaya:* " There caa be ao donbt bat Waltoa 

Oartkwaaa BAomn fatification, aa i^^peara from the great Tariety 

if Romui ome, nnga, ooias, &c. that have been found then. The 

iMm/' it m added^ " that have lately beea taken np here, are of 

tte Viopasian and Autonine fianilies, of Severaa, aad hia aae- 

€mon, ta Goadian the Tliifd, and from GaUienoa down to Arca- 

dfaa aad Honorina. It ia certain that the caatle had tiie privilege 

§t eointag momtiy, iur aereral diea hare been fiMmd for that pur- 


Here, aa Holinahed informa na, the Eari of Leioeater landed 
aith hia Flemings in 1173, and waa received by HughBigod, 


• Stcoad edit. p. 90. 

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37t SOFFOUt. 

Earl of Norfolk, then lord of tJie manor and castle of WaKon ; 
and in 1176 Henry If. canaed all such castles as had been k^t 
against him during that rebellion, and Walton among the rest* to 
be overthrown and razed to the ground ; and this was so effec- 
tually done, that to prevent its ever being rebuilt, the stones woe 
carried into all parts of Felixstow, Walton, and Trimley, and foot- 
paths were paved with them on both sides of the road. 

The state of this ruin about the year 1722, is given in the fol- 
lowing letter read in that year before the Antiquarian Society, 
and preserved on their minutes. " Some distance east of this town« 
(Walton) are the ruins of a Roman wall, situate on the ridge of 
a cliff next the sea, between LAUguard Fort and Woodbridge Ri- 
ver, or Bawdsey Haven ; it is 100 yards long, five feet high above 
ground, twelve broad at each end, turned with an angle ; it is 
composed of pebble and Roman bricks in three courses, all round 
footsteps of buildings, and several large pieoes of wall cast down 
npon the strand by the sea undermining the cliff, all which have 
Roman brick* At low water-mark very much of the like is visible 
at some distance in the sea. There are two entire ptUara with 
balls ; the cliff is 100 feet high/' 

T)ie measures given in the Suffolk TraveUer differ from those 
stated by Dr. Knight. '' Part of the foundation of the west side 
of it^'' says that work, '' is still to be seen, being 187 yards in 
length, and nine feet thick ; it is called by the country people 
the stone works. How much longer it was we cannot judge, pari 
of the south end being washed away ; and the sea, which is daily 
gaining npon this coast, having swallowed up the rains.' Such 
was the condition of it about the year 1740, but since then the 
waves have washed away the remainder of the foundation.'^* 

Grose informs us, that in 1706, when the view of this places 
given in his AfUupuiiei,'\ was drawn, the remains of Walton 
Castle were visible only at near low water, tlie sea having grained 
so considerably on this coast as to wash away the cliff on which 
it stood; though, as he saya^, a gentleman living at the time he 

• Suffolk Traveller, td tdit p. €9. f VoL VUl. p, 1«7* 

Digitized by 



tlie roias tb hate ilood ai letsl fifky# yards 
vUuB tlw CLtrauty of tke cliff. No vestige of this edifice is 
HfV to lie seesL 

iUwot s qaaiter of a loile north of Pelixstow High-street^ and 
aft the sane distaiiee eastward from Walton boimds, in the parish 
of Fefizstow^ are rery considerable ruins of sn ancient and mag- 
idficeBt hmldiag^ known hy the appellation of Old HalL It was 
pxohaUy erected soon after the demolition of the castie for the 
msnor-hoose, and was the place where king Edward III. resided 
iir snne time at his manor of Walton previously to his expedition 
into nanee. Here, by an Iiupeximus, dated in the 12th year 
of his reign, or 1339, he confirmed the charters granted to the 
coiporatiffli of Ipswidi* 

In this parish was fiNnmerly a priory dedicated to St Felix, the 

first bidiop of the Esst-An^es, but no remains of the original 

•I ntct ure are now to be seen. The Bigods, Earls of Noriblk, were 

the fimnders and great bene&ctors to this house, as appears from 

a fif^gment of a record without date, preserved in the srchives of 

the Tower of London. The monks were called Monks of RochesT 

tcr, because Roger Bigod, the first founder, gave it about the 

year 110^ as n cell to the convent of that city. He endowed it 

with the maiior of Felixstow priory, taken out of his manor of 

WshoB, and with the churches of Walton and Pelixstow. It is 

csn/eetored, that soon after the destruction of the castle, this 

priory was removed to a field near the north side of Walton cfaArch, 

where some miiui are still visible. Its site, with the great tithes 

of Walton and Feliztow, and the advowson of the vicarages, was 

given at the Pissolntion to Cardinal Woisey, 26 Henry VII L but 

sAerwaids granted, 19 Elizabeth, to Thomas Sedcford. 

LAJf&DAWLD Port stands upon a point of land which forms the 

^Mi^-eamt comer of the county, at the mouth of the Orwell, and 

jmf the pppesunuMae of an island at high water. Camden, who 

inole hebre tlie first Ibrt was erected, says, that '* the shore is 

niy well €iefeaded by a vast ridge, called Langeraton, which, for 

nioiit two iQile**. lies all along out of the sea, not without grea^ 

VpuXlV. T danger 

Digitized by 



^ngc»im4 terror to mariners. 'Tis however of use to the fiaher- 
men for drying of their fish, and does in a manner fence the spacioos 
harhour of Orwell." 

The first fort most have heen built at the eommeneement of the 
reign of Charles I. ; for it appeltrs (torn the register of the bishop 
of Norwich, tlutt the chapel was consecrate hy that prelate u 
lying within his jorisdiction On the 7di of September, 1688. ' It 
had four bastions, the King's, the Queen's, Warwick's, and Hoi* 
land's, with fifteen very large guns upon each, and stood a little to 
the north of the present fort, on the spot* whieh is now the borial 
place for the garrison. Near this spot the Dutch, in 16^, landed 
three thousand men at the foot of Felixstow cliff, and marching 
under cover of some sand-hills towards the fort^ lodged them- 
selves within musket-shot on two sides of it After an hoar's 
incessant firing with their small arms, they were put to flight 
by the discharge of two or three small guns in a little gaHiot 
among the shingle, which Scattered the pebbles araong^them. 

The old fort being demolished, the present was erected in its 
fttead in 1718. The soil being nnfavorable for the work, the 
foundations Were not laid without considerable labour and great 
expense. It completely commands the entrance of the harbour, 
which, though between two and three milefr over at high water, 
is too shallow to admit the paj^sage of ships, except by a narrow 
and deep channel 6n the Sufiblk side. A detachment of two com- 
panies, from either the garrison of Ipswich ot Woodbridge, is ge* 
berally on duty here. 

The entrance into the fort is by a draw*bridge. Over the gate- 
way is the chapel, which has lately been converted into a barrack- 
room, so that divine service is now performed either under this gate- 
way, or in the open "air. On the right hand is a handsome brick 
building, containing the apartments of the governor and lieute- 
nai^t-govemor ; and fiusing the gate another large edifiee for the 
iloldiers. Fresh Water is conveyed by subterraneous pipes from 
Walton, a distance of about thr^ miles. The present governor is 
lieutenant-genertd lister^ appointed in 1801, with a salary of 
' 3651. 

Digitized by 



XSL per aniuuiL Tlie UeateoaiiUgoyenior, Alexander Mur, Esq. 
wi» kw held the iHoaJtion sUice 1806, receWet 1821. lOe. a year. 

Tradition afElrms, that the outlet of the Stour and Orwell was 
ameoUy on the north side of Languard Fort» through Walton 
aunhea, ami that the place catted the Fleets was part of this ori- 
giaal channel. WhooTer ohservdt the soil and titnation of Lan« 
ger Coanmon and marshes, will readily acknowledge, that they 
mnst bare been furiacrly corered by the sea; and at what time 
Ihey woe gained from it eannot now be aaeeitidaied : bat tint it 
was ata fery" innote peiiod is demonstrated by the court-rolls of 
the maiKKT id Walton, which make frequent mention of Linger 
Ceamion in FeIix8to>w, upwards of two hundred years beftNre any 
Art was built there. From the similariiy of sound. Bishop Gib* 
sm, the kamed ediUHrof Camdra, was led to suppose that langer 
wm a oaniraciion of I^mgnard ; but from the antiquity of Langer 
Uraynott, it appears that the truth is the rererpe of this, and that 
Uagmd m a comiptidn of Langer. 

Aboat duree niiles from the fort is Fdixstow Cottage, now the 
property of Sir Snrauel Bmdebell Fludyer, Bart It was Ibr- 
■eriy bbt a fisherman's hut, which the taste of the eceentiie 
Hkifip Thiflknease, then lieafeaant-goT«nM>r of Laagnard Fort^ 
converted into a chnmiing retreat This place has been described 
St considerable lengih by Mrs. Thicknesse in her Memoirs; but 
great altersHonn hare been made both within and without sinee 
tbe period to which her account refers : in parHcular the arch, 
which ahe meDlioius as being formed of huge stones in fnmt of the 
cottsge, has been removed; by which means a most extensive 
auine prospect in opened from the terrace that winds rouhd the 
idge of die diflfon wrhidi it stands. 


WiUbidis boanded on the south and east by the Germaa Ocean} 
^ the ncntb by the hundreds of Plomesgate and Loes; and on 

T 2 the 

Digitized by 



the west by tbe lifer Deben, which separates it from Colneis» 
It has DO market-town ; and the most remarkable villages in it 

Aldbrton, situated about two miles from the sea. Accord- 
ing to Kirby, its church was dedicated to St. Bartholomew : but 
Ecton has it St. Andrew. This edifice is now in rains; but 
whether it owes its shattered appearance to the depredations of 
lime, and the neglect of seasonable repairs^ or to some violent 
tempest, does not occur in any of the writers who have described 
this county : and Grose informs ns,* that in his time the inhsr 
bitants of the village oould not give any satbfactory informatioD 
on that head, which at least proves it to have been long in its 
present state. Neither the builder, nor the time of its erection, is 
known. It is a very conspicuous object at sea. 

BoYTON. This manor and advowson belonged, till the Dis- 
solution, to Butley Priory.' They were afterwards vested in 
the family of Warner, the last of whom, Mrs. Mary Warner, de- 
vised th^m, together with an estate of about 400L a year, to trus- 
tees, to be applied to charitable uses : a small portion to the 
relief of the poor of Parham ; another to the endowment of a school 
at Stradbrook ; 'the principal part to the foundation and mainly 
nance of an alms-house at this place; and the overplus for tho 
relief of insolvent debtors in the county. In pursuance of this 
will, an alms-house, called after the name of the foundress, was 
erected in 1743, at Boy ton, for six poor men, and the same 
number of women, who receive a weekly allowance in money and 
clothing, and who are to attend diviue service every day at ths 
church, which stands very near the house, and the reader of 
which is allowed 401. per annum out of the charity. , 

HoLLESLEY, not fsf from the mouth of Orford river, gives 
name to a bay, which has of late years begun to be frequented by 
his majesty's ships of war. In this bay two pieces of cannon of a 
very singular construction were picked up by some sweepers for 
anchors, in August 1804. They are about eleven feet in length, 


* AntiquUia, V. 15. 

Digitized by 


soFiOLX. 977 

He toe tmineheB «l the noak, and three «kihe oUmt extraie, 
k the numer of m rifle. The gust, from their make, must have 
fceen loaded at tlie buM^end, and a breech then fixed in and wedged, 
Oe eyes wkidi kefi the wedge being qnite perfect. No touch- 
hole can be discovered on the barrel, it is therefore probable that 
it was contained in the breech. They were first formed with a 
band or tobe of hammered iron, and thin hoops, about three 
inches wide, were [driven on and welded into a solid body. They 
went with swivels on a carnage, and have a long tail in the sh^ie 
of a pomp handle. When first discovered they were literally. oe» 
mented togeUier, and were with difficulty parted.* 

hovDBAM, a hamlet of Petiistree, was anciently the seat of a 
fradly who took their name fromit This estate afterwards be- 
came the property of Sir Henry Wood. The Hall, surrounded 
withn park, was rebuilt in an elegant manner by Charles Wood, 
Es^ and, hmving passed through several hands, is now the pro- 
perty and residence of Jacob Whitbread, Esq. 

At MfLTOH, a small neat village about a mile from Wood- 
faiidg^ on the road to Saxmundham, were formerly held the 
Qasiter SesaionB for the Liberty of St Etheldred, till they were 
remsved to Woodbridge in the beginning of the reign of Queen 

Here is the House of Industry for the hundreds of Loea 
and Wilfard, ineocporated in 1765. This edifice is ou a more 
extended and expensive scale than most of the other establish- 
■eati of the kind in the county. The dining-hall and dqrmlto- 
ries are very spacaooa and neat; the governor's apartments large 
sad coovenient. There are also apartments appropriated to the 
aseofthesor^geon^ who, as well as the school-master, resides in 
the house. Crood rooms are provided for the boys and girls' 
schools ; and there are likewise apartments fitted up a^ penitentiary 
Hgiags Ibr lelraetory persons, and those who may be guilty of 
ofinees reqnirins ^oUtary restraint The original debt incurred 

Ta by 

# These c u i i oos specimens of Ihe ancient mode of fabricsdng cannon are 
Kw to be seen at tbe ihop-door of a tradesman at Ipswich. 

Digitized by 


278 «irPFOLk. 

by these hnntlreds "was 9,2001. whicb has sinee-'lieeii iffcr^as^ ftf 
10,0501. The maximam of the poors*' rates/ at th^fime of tWf 
incorporation, was not more than fifteen pence in the pound -an- 
nnally, and continues the same. The nitrnW of po6r itt'.Ai^ 
house genendiy amounts to about 240, irho are chiefly enploy««l 
in mann&ctures of linen and woollen, the first prineipalty'fof* 
their own use. The children ar^ also instructed ill diAireiit 
trades, such as making clothes, shoes, &e. ' 

Ramsholt, on the banks of the rfyer I>^b6n, is iremarldAble 
for the ruins of a largtf ancient building called Peyton HaU, which 
is conjectured to'faave been the seat of th6 Ufib^ds, Earls of Sof* 
iblk. In 1135, Reginald de Peyton was lord of the manors of 
Peyton Hall, in Boxford, and Ramsholt; and' in 58 ^Henr^ ilf . 
Robert de Uffbrd, a younger son of John de Peyton, of Peyton 
Hall, assuming his name firom the lordship of Uflbrd, where he 
then resided, was appointed lord justice of Ir^nd, and becime 
the founder of a distinguished family. 

Ufforb, a place of no note at present, but formerly of some 
eminence, as giving name to the illustrioas family of th^ U]ffi>rd^, 
Earls of Suffolk, and containing one of their mansions; which 
was situated about two furlongs to the north of the church, on 
the spot where now stands a farm-house appropriated to charita- 
ble uscfr in Framlingfaam. The possessions of this family were 
▼ery extensive, and at one time embraced the castles of Orfordj 
Eye, Framlingham, Bungay, Mettingham; and'Hau^hly. 

K«ar the ruins of a chapel in this parish called Sogenkde Cha- 
pel, is a piece of ground in the form of a rectangular parallelo- 
gram, containing about an acre and an half, surrounded by a 
pioat. Here tradition reports a castle to have once stood; but 
we have no account of any ruins being discovered there to ooim* 
tenance tCe coi\jecture; 

The church, which is a small, but handsome structure, con« 
tains monuments for some of the Woods, of Loudham. Weever 
observes, that in his time the people had a tradition, that sevoral, 
if not aDj the Vthrdu, Earb of Suffolk^ were interred in it; but 


Digitized by 


tVlffOUE. (.S99 

Aim of the fattily of l4ah». mh^ bad be«o giwl beii^lMlon la 
Ab diwdi^ Umw .aMA«». and Ihe figurev «/ Umb»> i^e carved in 
■Hjr piita o£.tkt w#o4*WMfc mi ceiling. The interior cf this 
ji i iidMc KM .t»cie UgUy4eniMiieiited» bsi suffered vittck fiom 
the pontiAinl Vandsfe of Ihe 17th centiiry. In the jouml of 
Ihoiririloi^ anointed to. destroy .what they vere f leaaed to can- 
sUer aa^ iyiJM l hiau s relka ia .thiii <Miily» Ihay say, ** We hroke 
tUrty fietaresi.and gave directioBs lo take dovn titirty-aeven 
and £Miy ebenihans to be taken down of weod» and the 
I to bb levelled; and vre took op six inscriptioDm in brass.'' 
Hiis «as in Jannary 1648, and it appears, thai in Hay foUowiag, 
Ifa^soBtapcnoa to seo^^if their ciders had been obeyed; h^t 
the cfanrdiipardens denied him admission. In the month of An- 
gnst, thereleie, they vetnn&ed in. person to complete the wcik of 
destnclion. ''We faiok^'^ says the journal, '' twelye chembims 
en the roof of the chancel, and nigh an hundred Jesns's and Ma- 
nw in capital letters, aad the steps we levelled. And we broke 
de«nthooegaaH»sea, aad gate them to tiie poor. In the ehorcb, 
than waa on tfie voo< above an hnndred Jesaa's and Marias^ in great 
espitf leltera, and a crosier .staff to break down in glaae^ and 
above tmoly atsis on the roof. There is a glorioas cover over 
tbeia^ like a pope's .trij^ crown, with a pelican on the tc^* 
picking its breoat, all gilt over witii gold." This cover to the 
fat is still in being, obaervea the author of the Suffolk Travel- 
kr, thoog^ mneh impwred by length of time. Had the pelican 
oB the top been a dove, it' would doubtless have shared a harder 
Me, Bnt as those men, though provoked and put out of temper 
if thechnrch-wardensy* coidd not prevail on tfaemaelves to de- 
stroy so pretty a thing, even notwithstanding its resemhUnce to 
the pope's <ax»vm^ it is a pity the panshiimers do not think it 
dT4 ivorth 

Th e ▼ifitors complatn bitterly in tlieir Jouns] of cbe old cliarch-wardein» 
ibr not obeying their orden; and of the new onei, ibr making them wait 
twotafs before they wosld deliTet the key of the chorch, as well ai for 
abiibg» aad cbergM^a them withrifliog and pulliog down the lacred edifice* 

Digitized by 


5280 SUFTOLR. 

worth while to rofMur it; for though it be bnl a toy in itself, iib 
now become venerable by its antiquty, and ie, perio^, the oaly 
thing left^ that gives any notion of the nagntteenoe of the U& 
Ibrdn.* Mr. Goagh describee this corions reltc of antiqaity, ss b^ 
ing elaborately executed^ and rising pyramidally to the very root 

The Rev. Richard Lovekin, rector of this parish 57 years, was 
an extraordinary instance of longevity. The mandate of his ia- 
ductioD bears date Jane 2d 1621, and he was bnried September 
63d, 1678, in the one hundred and eleventh year of his age. This 
venerable divine is said to have perfanaed all the duties of hb 
function to the last, and to have preached the finnday before hia 
death. During the civil commotions under Charles L he was 
plundered of every thing he possessed, except one silver spoon* 
which he hid in his sleeve. 

Roger Ottley, a native of Ufford„and brought up to the bnai-' 
ness of a grocer, in Loudon, was lord*mayor of that city m 

WicKHAM Market retains its addition, in order to distangnish 
it from two other Wickhams in this county. It was femeily 
a place of much greater importance than at present, and had not 
only a market, which has long been disused, but also a shii»-faaU» 
where the quarter-sessions were. held; which edifice was resMT* 
ed by order of the lord of the manor, and with the materiala a 
fiurm-house, called the Old Hall, was built at Letheringhanu The 
spiritual courts for the archdeaconry of Suffidk are still held 
here. The church is situated on a hill ; the spire steeple, thoagh 
not above seventy feet high, is a sea»marfc, and conunands as or* 
tensive a prospect as any in the county ; for in a clear day the 
spectator may discern from it no fewer than fifty churches. The 
aisle, or chapel on the south<4ude, was built by Walter FuHwra, 
of Wickham, who was there interred in 1489. 

The rectories of Wickham, Pettistree, and Bing, all in this 
hundred, were bequeathed, in 1718, by Mr. John Pemberton, for* 
meriy of Ipswicli, to charitable uses. He directed that, out of 

. tfce 

* SoiTolk Trmr. td. Edit p. 116, 

Digitized by 


stnpfoUL 881 

Ik leraivei, VL per aoMm Bhodd be g;iTea to the widowi aad 
evpbaM of decewed dergynen, wilhin fifteen milee of Ipewieh; 
iml Ihi ifiindfr, after dttcharging tULes, repeira, and all other 
oal-gomga» he gave to the charity achoob of Grey-eoal hoy% 
aad Blao-eoatgiila m the last aeiitioBed town. 


Loea ia honnded on tiie east, hy the hundred oi Plomeagate; on 
tin aa«th» hy Willbrd; on the west by Carlford, Boamore and 
Ciaydon^ and Thredling; and on the north, by Hoxne. It oon- 
teina the two maifcet-towna of Frunlingham and Woodbridge; 

Framuhoham is a pariah <tf large extent^ at the northern ex- 
trenuty of die hundred, comprebendhig upwards of 5000 aerea of 
rich araUeand paatnreland, with 388 houaea, and 1864 inhabit- 
aata. The town is of high antiquity, its name being composed 
of the Saxon woids frtwMmg and ham, which impliea the 
hahitetion of strangers. It is pleasantly situated on an eminence, 
near the soniee of the riTer Ore,, which rising from the hills to 
die north of the town, ftJls into a mere, or lake, covering several 
acrea, and then, passing through the town, proceeds southward 
to. Orfcrd. The marfcet-plaee k very spacious, and forms nearly 
an equilateral triangle, in the centre of which stood an ancient 
maricet-croaa, which has lately been taken .down* The houaes 
on the north-side of the BMrket-hill, are built on the site of the 
hall behmging to a guild, or fraternity, incorporated in the agea 
of popery, by the name of the Guild of the Blessed Viigin Mary. 
The market is held on Saturdays, and there are two yearly &irs, 
on Monday and the two following days in Whitsun-week, and on 
the 29th of September. 

The Ckmrck is a large stately structure, built of black flint, 
with a steeple 96 feet high, containing a clock, chimes, and eight 
bella. The body of thia church is 64 feet long, dO wide, and 
44 high: and the chancel is 61 feet in length, 68i in width, com- 


Digitized by 


prehen4uig tbe side dsles/ and 39 in height. ' the tBoi 9t ibe 
iiave is of 09k, ewiously -canred, and supported by ^gjkt <icla- 
gonal piUara, four in a row, besides fimr demy one« lately painted 
tft imitation of white marble, and veined. The interior is well 
paved and pewed, and oontains a good organ, erected in 1706. 
The body of the church is supposed to have been built by the 
Mowbrays, Dnkes of Norfolk ; but the chancel is of later date,, 
being the woric of the Howards^ their' sneeessors : and its two 
aisles having been erected for the burial places of those familiee, 
«ra stUI naintamed by the lords of the manora of FreoalinghaiD^ 
•€egge8hAll, and Debenh^m, out of the revenue of thelf estate^ 
Ibrmerly belonging to^ thoae dukes. 

Sinreral persons of high distiocticHL are interred in thin ehnreh. 
In the nerth aisle of the chancd is a nfagnificent tni^ of black 
•mnd white marble, on ?vhieh lie the iiguces of tie Eail of Smney 
and his conatess^ with the pdms of their hands oonjldned; the 
-fdrmer in his robes of stat^ over armour, biti without n c<»o&elt» 
which, as he was beheaded, is placed on the toinh by fain side; 
the latter in sable, with a coronet at'her hea4» and ^having their 
crests at their feet. The heads of these ^res met on donUe 
eashienn, curiously wrought and gilt At a titlld distance ftma 
the east and west ends of the pedestal, are represented the two 
sons and three danghters of tibe noble pair, afl- kneeling, the sonn 
habited as their &ther, and the danghters in robes 4if state over 
mourning, like their mother. This monnmenl is eopionsiy en- 
riched with trophy*work> admirably well cut in rdievo, likewise 
painted and gilt, having on the south aide the followmg inscrip- 
tion in gold letters : 



Digitized by 


•« imo^DOifiin 1614. • 

Ob ibe %e«lBide of tlik iastriptioii ai^ the »nn of HoUlffd, 
vith fatt ^sflrtttiBgbi iritiuii »garlet^ lad alidTlitliem aa earl's co- 
miet; oatkecasd* thetMi «f Va« Aitkin a ebaplet of lanrel 

Rir tiie aaiflteaante and i^^ of tliia vMomiieat, Uie Earl of 
VoUip^kairi diteeted the aannal paynieiit 4f ibity sIdWiigB, by 
the hospital which he Mmded at Gmnidch. 

This Eari of SUKrey vaa aon of Thomas/ second dake of Nor- 
Mk,hs Bliaheth^ daaghler of Edward Slaflbrd, Duke «f Bad> 
laghaan^- Ja 34- Henry VIII. he aoeompanied the army, com- 
.aiaadod by his lather, as lieutenant-general, which entered Scot- 
lead and bomed seTcrsl TiUages. Two years afterwards he was 
J»ld*aianhal*of the English troops, in the expedition against 
.1ls«fegae> in Pnuice, and after the redaction of the place, was 
JkppMatadrtha.'kiag'8 lieutenant, and eaptain*general of ail hh 
amy H that- eeiuitry. This BoUeman> sa^s Dugdale, was the 
aMSt learned among the nobility, and the most noble among the 
teamed, betag Abo a person very gracious with the people, ex- 
pat 4a i^e fliftlilaiy art, and esteemed it for ' puUic goremment. 
Vkm» ^irtaes, aMtfais' popalarity, however, proved his ruin by 
«xcitiaef the jealdasy of the King. Treason was therefore al- 
ladged against hiffli and- on this surmise he was committed, with 
bis ftth^, ti» the ton^ ^f London, the otie by water, and the 
athet by landT, each ignorant of ^e other^s apprehension, on the 
12th of Decemb^, In the last year of Henry YIII. On the I5th 
of tiie ibllowiag- month the earl was arraigned at Gnildhail, London; 
'where the pi^aeipal aceasation brought against him was, that he 
bad asBomed the arms of Edward the Confessor, which, as it was 
aHedged, belonged to the king and heir apparent alone, but the 
bearing of which he jiutified by the opinron of the heralds. The 


Digitized by 


984 SOFfOiib 

first witness that appeared against kim was Sir Ridutfil Soath* 
well, whodedared, that he koew oertain thingt of the earl whieb 
affected his fidelity to the king. The earl» upon this, ▼ehemently 
affirmed hioiself to be a trve man, desiring to be tried by justice, 
or permitted to fight in his shirt with Southwell. Another wit- 
ness was brought forward, who pretended, that in a disconrse 
with the eart the latter used such high words that '' abraying an- 
swer was retuned,'' to which this gallant and high spirited no- 
bleman made no other reply than, that ** he left it to the jury to 
judge whether it were probable that this man should use sueh ex- 
pressions to the Eari of Surrey, and he not strike him again.*' 
Though nothing like proof, even of the firiTolous all^gatioas 
against him, was produced, yet such was the jealousy which the 
tyrannical Henry entertained of this nobleman, that folly deter- 
mined on his death, he caused him to be found guilty by a com- 
mon jury, and beheaded on Tower Hill four days afterwards, 
which was but nine days before the death of the king himself 
His remains were, at first, interred in the chapel of the Tower, 
but in the reign of James I. were removed hither by his second 
son, Henry, Eari of Northampton. He left issue by his countcM, 
who survived, two sons, Thomas, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, 
who fell like his fother, by the hand of the executioner, under 
Elizabeth, on account of Mary, queen of Scots; and the above- 
mentioned Earl of Northampton; and three daughters, Jane^ 
Margaret, and Catharine, the care and education of whom he 
comndttedto their aunt, the duchess dowager of Ridimond and So- 
merset The lady Jane was afterwards married to Charies, Eari 
of Westmoreland; the lady Margaret, to Henry, Lord Scrope, of 
Bolton; and the lady Catherine, to Henry, Lord Berkeley; and 
the countess their mother gave her hand to Francis Stoyning, Esq. 
about the conclusion of the reign of Edward VI. 

A little to the eastward of this monument is a small tomb of 
freestone, adorned with seven fluted pilasters of the Ionic oidiv, 
with a niche in the wall, having also two pilasters of the same or- 
der, erected for Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, Duke of 


Digitized by 


•DTfOLX. 9M 

VicMk, Vy Uft aeeori idle, the liidy Htfgtte^ 

■M, Loid Avdky^ Baron of WaUeik 8he died in lier iniaMy, 

aaiHia pnMble lliaft liie niehe ma Ibnneiiy oeeopied by liar 

SliU brtker eaalvard tiiere ia a ^aciona moanflMBl el free- 
enzidied with the iaiagea of two of the dneheatea of tha 
Thoaaa, Duke of Nodblk, lying in their Ml 
propertionB, with dneal ooionela on their heada, in lehea of alale^ 
having a Tacaney capaUe of adautlang another to be plaead be- 
tween thenb The head of one rerta on a horie eondtant^ with a 
hartat layer at herfeel, made lor Che Lady Mary, daoghtcr and 
heir of Henry Fitx-Alan, Earl of Amndel, the firrt wife. The 
head of the other repeeea on a tiger cellared and chained, with a 
wtTem at her feet; thia waa fw thednke'a aeeond wife, the Lady 
Haigarel, daughter and heir of Thomaa, Lord Andley, Baron of 
Walden, Lord ChanceDor of England. Theae ladiea were bath 
widowa, and their eoata of arma are round the Unmh, in ao«e 
pkcgawngle, and in oftheta impaled with thoae of Howard, be- 
tneen thirteen fluted oolomna of the Corinthian order. At the 
fear angiea are aa many lions seyant, aiqpporting the anna of 

Southward from the kat ia another apacioua tonb of freeatone, 

oeeled fer Henry Fitzroy, the natural ton of King Henry VIIL 

The length of thia tomb ia nine feet two inchea, it ia five feet 

vide, and fott' feet nine inches high. On the top, which b now 

plain, but wluch ia anppoaed to have been formerly adorned with 

digiea, are four email imagea atanding erect at the comora, each 

aqpporting a trophy of the paiaion. The lower part of the four 

sides is adorned with aixteen fluted pihatora of the Ionic order, 

aad between them are the dake'a own arma inqwled and difler- 

eatly quartered with thoae of Howarl In email pannda aboTO 

these are rep rn a cnted , in basso reliero, several of the moat re* 

■aiUileeTenta in the Old and New Testament, with Curiatidaa 

between them. 

The aiother af Henry Pitzroy was Lady Elizabeth Talboyse, 


Digitized by 


tM nvnoiK. 

widow of -Sir GiAert Talboyse, and daoghter of Sir John Blast, 
a iMly, who is dotcribed as being e(}iially diatrngniiihed for heaaty 
of person,, and intellectual acconiplishnients. He was bon 
at Blackamor, in Essex, in the tenth year of Henry's- reigs. 
At tiie a|^e of six yean, the king appointad hki a Knight of the 
Garter, and created him Eiorl of Nottingham, Dnke of RMh 
mend and Somerset, Lieitenant General beyond Trent, Warden* 
general of the borders of Seotlandy and sdon afterwards admirsi 
of Engliiid« Not satisfied with conferring these honors, Henry; 
in the 2^' year of his reign, gare him this important pest of lord 
Uentenant of Ireland, but on' aeoount of his tender age, Sir WiU 
liam Skeffyngton was appointed hia depnty; Tlis yoiith madi 
Henry Howard, Earl of Sorry, his companion in his studies in 
England and France, and so strong was the friendship which Ihe^ 
in consciqaenee contracted for each other, that he married Lady 
Mary, the earl's sister, but their nuptials were notbonsonuBitod', 
fer the dnke, to^tbe great grief of the king, died at St. James's 
in 15M, aged about 17 years, and was interred ' here. He was a 
youth of great promise, aikd possessed superior endownlents, both 
corporeal and mental. 

On the south side of the altar is a stately tomb of free-stone, 
nine feet long, six wide, and five high, with the effigies of Tho- 
mas Howard, second duke of Norfolk, and one of his duchesses, 
who was either his first wife, the Lady Ann^, one of the dangh* 
ters of King Ed^rard lY. or the second, tlie daughter of Edward 
SlafiK>rd, Duke of Buckingham. They are represented at lull 
length, in their robes of state, with coronets upon their heada 
The sides and ends of tbis monument are adorh^ wi^ eighteen 
4M>tomns of the Composite order, and the Ibiercbhnnniations are 
iburleen niches, containing figures of the apostles and erangeliatsiy 
finely exeooted in alto relieve. 'At each of the four angles ia a 
atrong detached pillar, on the top of which rest the arma of 
Howard within the Garter, supported by a lion seyant on the 
comer of the tomb. The helmet and crest are on the north lAde 
of the monument, upon an iron fiwtened in the wall, on the south 


Digitized by 


timouL an 

fiTAe ckncd •ftr Ike akHr, Ttav k m c«H Ibr llii 
b«Me it kcMiMtaei Unlike My kn« ttfiMiBMii 
K Aikc^ am^ wife, Ike MttMT ol HeuT, £hI «f 8«ny{ 
^tke iatm, dlertte «tluiiacr of ker fetb«r vk* korelkt 
ki^^ afas» p^ m Haak fwiter ki Ike pliM wkeie k«r «mi 
lAoay kave ken nagvA is kk coftt Tke tanaftitti of Iken 
anas wms ew «f tke ckiigvB aDe^ged, «s w« kife aeei^ rngtw* 
kis aoB, Ike Evl of Soiry, at kis oondemaatioBu 

Tke BoUeMOi to vkoM seawiy tkia nomuMMt wtt omted, 
was tke SOS of Tkonus HovanI, Doke of Noilolk» wko cwaimdl^ 
edike Biigliak amy ia tke nemorakle faatUe of FlodAw iM4 
wkcre tke Scotck were totally defeated, and tkek kiag hiaaelf 
flkiB. HUaotkerwasEiixaketk, da«gkt«raadkarea»ofSirF^ 
deric Tiiaey, Knt. aad widow of Hvoykry Bo«rckier« Lotd Ber* 
His serriceB, botk in Ike cabinet and tke fields were too 
\ to be hest particalamed. He was comnander-ia-ckief 
of aereral snecessfol expeditions against the F^ncb and Scots ; 
and was twice appotaled to tbe important affioe of lord liontenant 
«f Ireland. He was one of tbe pecaona selected to acoonpany tk« 
King of France to Ni^e^ when tbey met the P^o and E^tpmr 
of Gemany^ fot tbe paipoae of conferring together on th^ 9ab- 
jeet of tbe king's divorce; and some yean aiUrwarda be was again 
sent as ambassador to the French court. Notwitbitanding the 
signal services wbicb be bad rendered to fah soveraign in 
these various capacities^ and tbe approved fidelity ^hich be 
bad invariably manifested, Henry VIII. shortly before his 
death, snfiered himself to be persuaded that the duke and 
bis mm bad conspired to wrest the gavemment from bis hands, 
and ordered them botk to be apprehended: the one, says Sir 
Walter Raldgfa, whose desorvings he knew not how to value, 
having never omitted any thing that concerned bis own^ honour 
<Nrthe king's service; tbe other never having committed any 
thing worthy of bis displeasure-— the one exceedingly valiant and 
advised ^ the other no less letaied, and of excelleat hepes. The 
6 duke 

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288 SCrFOLK. 

duke WouU hare shared the frte of Eib gallant ton, a warmft 
having been sent to the Toiler for his execution, but he waa pro* 
Tidentially preeenred by the king's death, which happened the 
very next day. It was not thought proper to stain the com- 
BMneement of a new reign with the blood of one of the greatest 
noblemen in the kingdom, who being thus rescued from undeserved 
destruction, retired to Kenninghall, in Norfolk, where he died, ia 

Southward of the preceding, is the monument of Sir Robert 
Hitcham, consisting of a table of black marble, supported at 
the c<»iierB by four angels of white marble, with gilt hair and 
wings, each having one knee on the ground. Under the centre 
of the table is an urn, and at the west end, on an upright stona 
of Uack marble, is this insinription^ in gold letters :— 















Immediately 9ver the door of the chancel, is a neat mural monu** 

ment of dark grey marble, by the celebrated Roubillac, to the me«» 

9 moiy 

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tUFffOUL 98t 

( n this divch ire boI roBukiMe «Uwr 
f, or the persons wkoatkey conmemonile, «■• 
ve except tint of Mr. Robert Hmwes, wlio is iD* 
a phw grey stone in tiie sonth aisle of tlie clmncel. 
of tlie lordslup of Frunlingham, to Pembrokn 
Celcge, OiMfcriily . He eonpiled tlie greater part of the Hislovj 
of FVunlingkaM, pdUisked by the lite Mr. Robert Loder of Wood- 
bridge, ind iIbo that of the other towns ind parishes in the hun- 
dred of I^ies, A nnnnsGript copy of his work wis presented by 
the anthor to Pembroke College, which gave him a luge siWtt 
cnp ind cover, adorned with the anns of the college, not siys tha 
Latin inscHptioa upon it, is an adequate reward of his merits, bu| 
IS a memorial of their grateful acceptance of his favour. 

In that part of the town^ situated on the west side of the rirer, 
are two Alwu4um$es, built of brick. One of these was founded ia 
10S4, in parsnince of the will of Sir Robert Hitchitn, for twelva 
of the poorest persons in Framlingham, to each of whom he al« 
lotted two shillings a week, and forty shillings a year for a gowa 
and firing. The weekly allowance has lately been augmented ta 
four shillings, and each person receives an additional chaldron 
and a quarter of coals. The habit is a blue coat, with the anna 
of Hiteham, in colours worn on the left shoulder. They arc \m 
attend prayers morning and evening at church; and therefora 
Sir Robert left 201. a year to a clergyman to perform this duty« 
and 51. for the clerk and -sexton. 

The other alms-house was founded by one Thomas Mills, who 
was originally a tailor, and afterwards followed the occupation of 
a wheelwright, at Framlihgham, where he became a preacher 
among the Baptists, and married a lady, who possessed con* 
sideraUe property, and died before him. This property he left 
at his death, in 1703, to trustees^ who, in pursuance of his will 
erected this alms-house for eight poor persons, who are allowed 
half Ik crown a week, besides an outward garneat, and thirty 
Vot. XIV. U ahiUingi 

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^hiUin^ a year each, for firiii^. Two of the apartmentiy hoirf 
ever, were built by William Mayhew, servant to Mr. Milla, ^1^ 
his own expence^ These eight persons enjoy the benefactioa 
for life, unless turned out by the trustees, for any misda' 

In the garden of the house, in Framlingham, in which is de- 
posited the chest, containing the evidences belonging to tlur 
estates of Mr. Mills, ia a small building, covered with lead,, and 
a vault below, in which he, and his old servant Mayhew, are 
interred. Upon the tomb ia a Mack marble slab, with this u^ 
scription : 

'* Here lyeth interred y«. body of Thomas Mills, late of 
Framlingham, in the county of Suffolk, who departed this lile, 
January the 13th, Anno Dom. 1703, in the Eightieth Year of his 

" Who gave an Almes-house and other large gifts to the town 
^f Framlingham, and to six other towns, where his estate lay." 

The other gifts here mentioned consist of donations of bread, 
and the other towns are Ufford, Pettistree, Wickham, Dalling-boo, 
Parham, and Dennington. 

Framlingham has a Free-School, founded also by Sir Robert 
Hijtcham, with a salary of forty pounds a year to the master, to in- 
struct forty of the poorest children of this town in reading, writings 
and arithmetic, and ten pounds each, to bind them out apprentieeSr 
Within these few years a substantial new brick school-house has 
been erected adjoining to, and forming the north-wing of the alms- 
house, founded by the same gentleman : the former, situated in the 
market-place having been taken down for the accommodation of the 

The most remarkable feature, and the principal ornament of 
Framlingham, arc the ruins of its ancient and msjestic CasHe^ 
Though nothing of this venerable structure is still standing 
but the outer wall ; yet, a» it has been justly observed, it still 
looks more like a castle than the ruins of one. Its form is cir- 
cvlar^ or rather an irregubr curve, approaching to a circle, the 


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tslfe foty-lMar feet higk, and oglit tluck. Tbey are fbnked 
witJt thirleeo aqure towers, Iburieea feet higbcr than tbe raai^ 
parta; and tlicse^ togelber with the hattlements, are still re* 
■ftining in solBcient perfection to give a tolerable idea of the 
wIh^ The |irincipal gate-way, and entrance into the castle> 
is on the sooth aide ; over it are the arms of Howard, Brotherton, 
Warren, Mowbray, Segrave, and Brews, or Breos of Crower in 
WaJes, <piartered in one escutcheon, with lions for snpporters, 
and above, a lion passant, resting npon a helmet. These anno* 
rial besrings are well cot in stone, and like the outer walls of 
the gate^way, are in good preservation. The western out-works, 
and east postern, are mere ruins in comparison with the exterior 
wails of the casUe itself; yet enough of them remains to enable 
the antiquary to discover, with very little trouble, their con* 
stmctaonand extents 

Within the walls, which comprehend an area of one acre, 
dne rood, and eleven perches, not a room, and scarcely a vestigo 
of one, remains. So complete is the demolition of all the sump- 
taons apartments which the castle must have contained in tho 
days of its splendour, that, though many thousand loads of rub- 
bish have recently been removed, not a single foundation has 
been discovered in a state of preservation, sufficient to ascertain 
the interior arrangement Even the cellars, the dungeons, and 
sobterraneons passages, of which tradition has preserved the me- 
mory of no inconsiderable number, appear to have undergone 
the same fete with the buildings on the snrfece, since the whole 
appeared upon excavation to be one uniform mass of building 
yiaterials, without order or design. The mortises that received 
the timbers of the floors, the marks of ancient roofe, the windows 
find fere-places, still indeed prove the former existence of nu- 
merous apartments ; but except the situation of the chapel, whicli 
o»y be easily known from its east window yet remaining, all is 
bbried in complete confusion. Out of the rubbish of former mag- 
Bifipence ha^ been erected a work-house, and a kind of alms- 

U 2 house 

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iHKiBe for the reception of a certain number of paii^eni ; to tfiat 
the very spot which was once the residence of royalty, is new 
the abode of poverty and he^less age. .Tiie contrast between the 
former and the present occupants of this once mapuficent pile is 
too striking not to ^igage the attention of the moralist, aad ta 
lead him to reflect, if not with pain, at least with humility^ on the 
fickleness of all human grandeur. 

For want of other evidence respecting the internal arrangemeBl 
of this structure, we must refer to such descriptioBs of it as am 
still extant, though these indeed are very brief. Camden ob* 
serves, that Framlingham is a very beautiful castle, fortified with 
a rampire, a ditch, and a wall of great thickness, with thirteea 
towors : within it has very convenient lodgings. Dr. 8am{K 
son, who, in 1663, wrote a brief history of this castle*, says: 
*' It was inwardly furnished with buildings v«y commodions aad 
necessary, able to receive and entertain many. In the first oaurt 
was a deep well of excellent workmanship, composed with carved 
pillars, which supported a leaden roof; and though out of repahr, 
was in being in 1651. In the same court was also a neat clmpel* 
now wholly demolished (1657), and transported into the high* 
ways. There m&e in the building divers arms, some of stone, 
some in wood, to be seen anno 1651, as of Bigod, Brothevton, 
8^rave, and Mowbray; andunder a window largdy carved and 
painted, were quarterly the arms of St Edward, King and Con- 
fessor, and those of Brotherton under a chapean, turned np er« 
mine, supported by two white lions; for the bearing whereof 
Thomas, Earl of Surrey, the son of Thomas, seeond Bake of 
Norfolk of that name, lost his head in the dSth year ol Henry 
VIII. Also on the hall-gate, &irly cut in stone, were the arms 
of Brotherton impaling Bourchier, quartered with Lovaynci, siqi* 
ported by a lion and an eagle. There were likewise an old door 
and a great iron ring, garnished with ducal coronets." Loder, 
the last historian of Framlingham, after mentkming the well, in 

* Inserted in telan^i ColUctanctt Vol. If I. 8vo. 1774w 

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817FFOLK. 295 

the «0rd» of Dr. Sampson *, gives the following^ addttional pir- 
Ikilftn, derived from Leverl&nd'ft nrul other manuscripts: " A 
^O^ tiood tn the name court, artjfiining tbe east watch-tower, 
wliliik im llie mgn i>f King Henry VllI, was hung with cloth of 
inifta, of tlie Ubtory of Christ'jj ]*as;sion^ and a lamp of the 
▼ahie of seT«ii shillings was usudty burned before the altar there. 
Th» hail, irhich was coYered with lead, was situated on the other 

taidr of the court, toward l!ie west wn tcli-tower, and between the 
laD and tlic chapt^l, fronting the great castle-g^te, was a large 
<i:hMi^r with seFeral rooms, and cloister nnder it, which waa 
^nflod ikwii In the year 1 700, Tim room is said to have been 
kia^ with tapestry, wroa^^lit with the story of Hercules, which 
ti bfflicTrd to lie the same that now ornaments the seat of Lord 
Bii>4irooke, mt Aitdlcy End* Out of the castle were three pas- 
SN(ci; one A postern, with an iron gate on the east side, over a 
pirate bridge^ leading into the park, the remains of which are 
now itaoding ; another on the west aide leading to a dungeon, 
and ISorth on to the Mere ; and another, which was the grand one, 
Bod which id litill used^ on the f»outhcrn Bide towards the town.'' 

FmmJing^hain Castle wa^ straiigly fortified both by nature, and 
11^ being tfferiually dt fended on the west side by the Mere, 
idl'«li the others liy two hroad and very deep ditches, that com- 
mnairaled- wit^ it. To these means of security were added vari- 
fttm offt'-worka, of whicli some reuiains may yet be traced, espe« 
tnlly tho0e of tlie Barl/tcati, a Ktron;^ fortification, which stood 
MwtTrii thi two ditcher, a;id nerved to flank the grand draw- 
tridgis. Thi^, t<»0ether witti a strong niachicolated and embattled 

U 3 gate 

* Dr. Stmpum wa4 prc&dier «t Fninliiigliam sereral yean dnriog the civil 
cnmisotiooi nod err Cbarlei L Durm^ hia rotidence there he pabliihed bi» 
ccgrc ct edltioo of the leamecl theses of Mr. lliQinas TatliCt, intittded Methfh 
dfti DivhtM G^ati^* He collecrted Eti&tertals form Uiitory of NoDconformity« 
prftt pan of whteh l« itiierttsd In Calamy't AhridgmtHt of Baxter't Life and 
Tmum Afterwunia TclmquVihlng the eeclcsiasiical for the medical profenion^ 
ia which be look bia doctor's degree, Ite travelled for some years, sddthea 
settled in London* wrkere he died m 1705^ 

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gate and jportcuUiB, the grooves of ivhich are still to be sem 
formed a sufficient defence against all the modes of attack em- 
ployed before the invention of fire-arms. The barbican, it is vrell 
known, constituted the first member, or advanced guard of the 
fortress to which it belonged. Dr. Sampson, whose work has Al- 
ready been quoted, must therefore have been led into an error, 
when he says, that- the walls of this castle were flanked with 
thirteen towers, two of which were watch-towers, or barbicansj 
corruptly called by the common people, barganys. It is evi- 
dent that the work between the two ditches, which he describes 
as '' an half moon of stone, about a man's height, standing in 
1657/' was no other than the barbican, the foundations of which 
may yet be discovered to the right of the bridge ; but it is more 
than probable, that the perseveriog industry of a gardener, who 
rents part of the land, situated between the outer and inner ditch, 
will soon destroy every vestige of this venerable relic. 

On the north side of the castle was, in ancient times, an exten- 
sive and well wooded park, into which there was an entr^ce from 
the castle by the east postern, and in which, as we are info^me^^ 
were *' arbours, pleasant walks, and trees planted for profit and 
ddight *" This park has been long divided into several rich 
and fertile farms, the rents of which are, in compliance with the 
will of Sir Robert Hitcham, applied to the support of the alms- 
houses founded by him, and the surplus to other chaiitable n^es. 

The origin of this castle is lost in obscurity. It is conjectured 
to have been first built in the time of the heptarchy, by some of 
the first Saxon kings of the East Angles, and is generally as- 
cribed to Redwald, who began his reign in 593; but upon no 
better ground^ than that Rendlesham, where this prince is said 


* Evelyn* in his Discourse on Foreft-trees, observes, that tlie county of 
Suffolk, and die fwrish of Framlingham in particular, was famous for pro- 
ducing the tallest and largest oak-trees, perhaps in the world ; and Miller, in 
hu Dictionary, informs us that the oak, which afforded the beams of the 
Boyal Sovereign, grew at Framlingham. Its diameter was four feet nin^ 
isehes^ and it yielded foai besmi^ each forty four feet in length. 

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%>%Kfe vended^ bas fen<nred this castle id all the ehanget of its 
fropnctofs. Hitlier his onfortDDate succesaor^ St Edmond the 
King and martyr, fled, in 870, from the iuvading Danes, and wat 
besieged by them. Being hard pressed, and having no hopes of 
saccoor, he endeavonred to escape, bat was overtaken in his 
flighty and put to death by his enemies ; on which Framlingbam, 
with the rest of his kingdom, fell into the hands of the conquerors. 
Abont fifty years afterwards it was recovered by the Saxons, and 
in their ponession it remained till the total subjection of England 
by Caaate. After the Norman conquest, this caittle was con« 
sidered of so arach importance, that it was retained by the first 
two monarchs ; hot was granted by Henry I. to Roger Bigod» 
to be held of the king m capite. His grandson Hugh, was by 
King St^hen, created Earl of Norfolk, because he attested that 
Henry had on his death-bed, declared his nephew Stephen his 
sttccessor, in preference to his daughter Maud. By tbiis nobleman 
Framlingham Castle was either rebuilt, or much repaired, having 
been dismantled in 1176, by order of Henry II. because the earl 
had &TOttred the pretensions of his rebellious son. The king^ 
nevertheless, restored his possessions on condition, that on the 
frilore of heirs to the family of Bigod, they should revert to the 
Crown: a cirenmstance which actually took place in the third 
year of Edward IL when that family became extinct. The king, 
upon this, appointed John de Botetourt, governor of Framlingham 
Cssde ; bot be, having been a confederate of the Earl of War- 
wick, in the destruction of Piers de Gaveston, the favourite of 
Edward, was displaced by the latter, who now conferred all the 
possessions lately belonging to the Bigods, on his half brother 
Thomas de Brotherton, whom he at the same time created Earl of 
Norfolk, and Marshal of England. By him this castle was re* 
paired, as i^ppears from his arms set up in various parts of the 
building; and he procured the king's licence for a fiur at Fram* 
lingham, and a charter of free-warren for all his demesne lands at 
this place. He died in the 12th of Edward III. and in the same 
year hia aoD* a ninor, fcUowod him .to the grave, leaving.his 

04 two 

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twe sisters his co-heirs. Alice^ the younger, married Edward 
de Montacute^ and to Joan their only daughter and heir, the 
manor and castle of Framlingham descended', 36 Edward III. on 
the decease of Mary, the second wife of Thomas de Brotherton, 
who enjoyed them for her life. Joan de Montacute gave her hand 
to William de Ufibrd, afterwards Earl of Suffolk, who, surviving 
her, continued to hold this estate during his life, as tenant hy 
the courtesy of England, ; and on his death it descended to Mar- 
garet, the other daughter of Thomas de Brotherton. This lady's 
first husband was John Lord Segrave, after whose decease she 
was married to Sir Walter Manny. By Lord Segrave she had 
only one daughter, who became the wife of John Lord Mow- 
bray ; and their son Thomas was, on the death of his matemai 
grand-mother, the heir to all her possessions, and Framlingham 
among the rest. This Tliomas Mowbray was created by King 
Richard IL earl of Nottingham, and earl marshal, and was the 
{principal instrument, by whose means that monarch got rid of his 
iincle, the duke of Gloucester, and the earl of ArundeL For 
these acceptable services he was advanced to the dignity of Dnke 
of Norfolk, but Richard, in rewarding villainy, little thought that 
he was paving the way to his own ruin. It was this same Duke 
of Norfolk, who, by his quarrel with the Duke of Hereford, oc- 
casioned the exile of both, and thus instigated that nobleman to 
take those measures which ended in the deposition and death of 
Richard, and his own exaltation to the throne, by the name of 
Henry IV, Soon after this event, his rival, the Duke of Norfolk, 
died at Venice. To his widow Elizabeth, sister and co-heir of 
/Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, this castle and manor were 
4iss]gned as part of her dowry; but being liable to the incursions 
of enemies on account of tlieir vicinity to the sea, Henry IV. gave 
lier in exchange for them an equivalent in the counties of Derby^ 
Buckingham, and Leicester. They were next granted to Sir 
Thomas Erpingham *, but it was not long before Henry re- 
stored them to Thomas Mowbray, eldest sou and heir of the lat^ 

• See Btautie^ Vol. XL Karfo0c,p,169,9S9. 

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IMketf K«rfolk^ who wai reeeifed into the kiog't favour, and 
kul Btmed bia niece. Thia Dobleman, who never aaaumed ihi$ 
ftocal \iUe, but afcyled himaelf Earl Marshal, Earl of Nottiagfaam, 
Lord of Mowbray, Segmve, and Gower, regardless alike of tha 
ties of gralitode and relatioDshif», joined Percy, Earl of Norih- 
ambokod, and Scnwp, Arckblshop of York, in tlieir rebelliooa 
dengna against thdur sovereign ; bat falling with that prelate intQ 
the king's hands, they were both beheaded at York. For thia 
ofience the earl's real and personal estates became forfeited to tha 
crown. The king thai granted the castle and manor of Fram* 
linghsM to the Prince, of Wales (afterwards Henry V^ who kept 
Ilia first court there in the sixth year of his father's reiga ; hot 
Henry, who naed his utmost endeavours to reconcile his disaf- 
fected nobility by obligations of gratitude, in his fourteenth year, 
gruiled all the poesessions of the late earl, to John Mowbray, hia 
brother and heir, who assumed the same titles as his predeces« 
sor, and was in 3 Henry YI. restored to the Dukedom of Nor* 
klL The son of this duke dying without issue male, all hia 
kmoais became extinct, bnt his p o s s e ssions descended to Aanc^ 
bis only daog^hter and heir. This lady being eonaidered a suita* 
ble match for Richard, Duke of York, second S09 of King Ed* 
fpaid IV. vras married at the age of six years, to that prineet 
who was Tery little older than herself, and on whojsi his fisher 
confeired the additional titles of Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Wafy 
ren, Surry, and Kot^gham, and Earl Masrshal of England. At 
the same time this castle and manor were veated by Act of Par* 
hament, in trosteea for the benefit of tiie duchess and her heira* 
The tragical end of this yoai^ prince, and of his brother Kinf 
Edward V. is well known ; and as the lady also died in her ten«i 
ia ye^n, the gf^^ possessions to which she was heir, devdbred 
to the Lords Hovrard and Berkley, who were descended from two 
daoghteiB oi Thomas Mowbray, first Duke of Norfolk of that 
juune. John Ixyrd Howard, as next cousin in blood, and one of 
the heirw of the late duchess, was invested by Richard III. with 
the title oi Dake of Norfolk^ and Earl Matabal, and also ap* 


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pointed Lord Admiral of England, Ireland, and Aqaitaine, ibr 
life. In the division of the great inheritance of the Mowhrays, 
the catitle and lordghip of Framlingham, formed part of the share 
allotted to this nobleman, who adhering fiiithfuUy to Richard, fell 
with him in the batUe of Boswortfa, where he commanded the Tan 
of the royal army ^, For this attachment of the house of Norfolk 
to their soyereign, the Earl of Richmond, on obtaining possession 
of the throne, caused the late duke and his son, the Earl of Sar- 
ly, to be attainted, and then granted his estate at Framlingham, 
and other places, to John Vere, Earl of Oxford. In the fourth 
year of his reign, however, Henry VII. restored the Earl of 
Surry to that title, and to the estates which had belonged to his 
&ther. As a reward for the fidelity, conduct, and valour, displayed 
by this nobleman, in the execution of various important com- 
missions with which he was intrusted, during that and the fol- 
lowing reign, and in particular, his signal victory over the Scotch 
at Flodden Field, Henry VIII. created him Duke of Norfolk, and 
eonferred on him other distinctions. He died full of years and 
honours, at the Castle of Framlingham, in the sixteenth year of 
that king^s reign, and, among other bequests, gave by his will to his 
von and heit apparent, one suit of hangingtf of the story of Her- 
cules, made for the great chamber of this castle. By the at- 
tainder of his son Thomas, Dnke of Norfolk, (whose monument in 
Framlingham church has been described in a preceding page) a 
few days before the decease of Henry VIII. this castle and ma- 
nor were again forfeited to the crown, in which they remained 
during the reign of Edward VI. On the death of that prince, 
his sister Mary, who was then at Kenninghall, in Norfolk, having 
asserted her claim to the throne, in opposition to the powerful 
-partisans of Lady Jane Grey, repaired for the greater security 


* It was opon this, duke'a gate tl)at, the night before he' went to join tht 
' kiog't army, were affixed the following weli-knowi| lines : 

Jack of Korfo^, 'be not ^00 bold, 
! iFoT Dickon tby master is bought and sol^* 

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^f her penon, to ike Caatle of Framlingfaam ^, where she resided 
till her resiovsl to London, to take possession of the crovn. Ths 
Duke of Norfolk, who so narrowly escaped the axe of the exe- 
eationer hy the opportune death of Henry VIII. had ever sinoo 
heen kept a prisoner in the Tower ; but on Mary's accession, was 
released from his confinement, and restored to his honours and 
possessions. These he did not long enjoy, dying at Framling- 
ham, in 1554. His successor was Thomas, eldest son of Henry, 
Earl of Surry, who had been brought to the block by Henry 
Till, but was restored in blood, by Act of Parliament, in the first 
year of the reign of Queen Mary. This duke being tried by his 
peers, and convicted of treasonable designs against Queen Eliza- 
beth, was beheaded in 1572, and this castle and manor once mora 
leverted, with his other estates, to the crown. James I. immedt* 
Ittely after his accession, granted them with other demesnes, to 
Thomas Lord Howard, Baron of Walden, eldest son of the late 
duke, by his second wife Margaret, sole daught^ and heir of Lord 
Audleyi and to his uncle. Lord IJenry Howard. The latter soon 
sfterwaids resigned his moiety of these estates to his nephew, 
who bad in tbs meai| time been created Earl of Sufiblk, and 
whose son Th^phiJns ii| 1635, spld Frandiugham, with all his rights 
in the hundred of Loes, to Sir Robert Hitoham, for 14,0001. " The 
title to the estate,'' obserre the nuthors of Magna Britannia f* 
was so peiplexed, that had he not had a strong brain and power- 
fnl purse, he could never have cleared it; of which be was so 
sensible, that in thankfulness to God for his wonderful success^ 


* TrtditioD bas perpetoated the roenory of Mary's rfsidence at this place, 
bj tatknj stories, wiihout doubt, the ioveotion of sealoos Prbtestants, to whom 
this princess afterwarda proved so cruel a scourge. Amoog others, it wa4 
asserted and believed by many, that she was delivered in this castle of a 
monster, which, in a pafoyysm of horror she instantly destroyed, and no^ 
many years since, the stone on which she is said to have dusiied it, continue^ 
to be pointed oat A small part of the cattle still remaining is called Quee^ 
Maiysrooai, and a laa«» in which she probably aaed to walk, yet retains th^ 
appeUatiOB of Bloody Qaien MaryU Lane. 

i Vol V. p. SOS, 

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he tetded it ibr piom nam eta Vernhnke UiU in GmM^/' 
This he did hy irill, dated Avgnt 8, 1636, by whMi he dem«d 
the eastle maiKNr and lordship of FraiBliiigham^ together with tbe 
nanor of Saxted, being then of the yeariy Taloe of 10001. to tiM 
masters and feilovB; 1001. to be expended for the heneil of tbe 
CloUege ; and the remainder to be appropriated for tiie enwIaBenk 
ef the poor of the parishee of Framlingham, Dunham, and Le» 
vington, in this eovnty, and of Coggeshall, in Essex. He fiur* 
Uier direeted '* all the castle, saving the stone bnilding, to he 
pnlled down/' and the materials to be employed in the ereelioB 
ef the houses for Ihe charitable institations that have ahready been 
described. Seven days after he had executed this will. Sir Ro» 
bert died, but his heir at law contrived to keep the College ont 
of the possession of the manor, lands, and hundred, for many 
years, till, in 1653, an ordinance was published by order of 
Cromwell, then Lord Protector, for settling and confirming them 
agreeably to the intention of Uie testator. 

WooDBRiDGE is situated in a long narrow tract nearly sor* 
rounded by the hundreds of CarUbrd and Wilfoid, on the east 
side of a sandy hill, commanding a pleasant view down the river 
D^n, which ftJls into ihe sea at the distance of about teh miles. 
Towards its mouth it takes the name of Woodbridge Haven, and 
is navigable up to the town, which carries on a considerable traf* 
fie with London, Hull, Newcastle, and the Continent ; and has 
several docks for buildittg vessels, with commodious wharfs and 
^uays. Some idea may be formed of the importanpe of the com- 
merce of this place, when it is known that the quantity of flour, 
com, and malt, carried coastwise firom the port of Woodbridge to 
London alone in the year 1810, was as follows : 11,354 quarters 
of wheat; 13,477 of barley; 9634 of mah; 4288 of beans; 
2377 of oats ; 1133 of pease ; 233 of rye ; and 9220 sacks of 
dour. The population amounting in 1801 to 3020, had increased 
in 1811 to 3674* The market is held on Wednesday ; and ther^ 
^e two annual fiurs, on the 6th of April, and on the 2d of Oe* 

4 Thit 

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Thift town ui Mdd to hmte derived tto name firom a wooden 

.i^i^t buiVi ov€*r a^ hollow na^ W form a commitiiicatioii between 

%itt pariui sefiarated by the road wliich leads from Woodbrtdge* 

11^ i1 ^Vii I t o w M tis IpsiiiicJi ; Mid y^e are told that at the fool 

wHkm \uid, alKmt m stone's throw from the spot where this bridga 

. to have stood, ihi^re is a houses which still retains tho 

. ol Dry Bridg^e.''^ The reader may bestow what credit 

km ^Waata an ifais etytoolfi^y, when he is informed thai in ancient 

timea tbii tnwn was written Oddehntife, or, as in Domeaday-booir, 

Udebrfgt^ from whicli i\M present dtnomiHatioB is eridently de- 


Tbe priitei pal fitreeli» of Woodbridgf^ one of which is near a 
wSa bi length, though narrnw, contain many good booses, and 
mm tolerably welt puved. The uiarket-plaoe is clean and weH 
baih ; and in the middle of it is an ancient shire hall, in which 
th* qtotrtar^^eBaiOfis for the Liberty of St. Etheldred are held. 

The CkmKh, a f^pacious aiid noble titnietore, is conjectared to 

hav« hmm built in th«^ reign of Edward III. by John Lord Se* 

fftre, and hia wife Margaret de Brotherton, whose anna are yet 

to be aern oTer the door of the Kteepli. It consists of a naTe and 

two aialca, the roofs of which arc supported by ten beautiful Go* 

Ibic pillars, and imis^ dtimy ones. The exterior watlsare of blaak 

Sinla» Adioiamg U\ ihe cbaticel oit the north side is a private 

chapel erected by IVbomaii Scckford, Esq. Master of Requesta 

OL the mgu of Queen Elimljcth ; Ihe east window of which ia 

adfloed with a fiuted piiaisier. The north portico is decorated in. 

Ceoit with the rrpresent^itioii; in rr-lievo, of Michael, the arch- 

a^gdf an CO uo tiering I be Dragon. In the chnrch were formerly 

Ihi ajtaiu ni St. Anne and St. Saviour, and the chapel of St. 

KieiMylaa in the iiortb aiiite; mid either in the walls of the church. 

Of ia tha clntrch-yiird, ntuod a celebrate image of our Lady, to 

wikim this edifice was dedicated. Ihe large quadrangular tower, 

1^ Ibrt high, fomia a conspicuous oFiject at sea : it is built of 

tbt aiin# materials as the cliureh ^ and toward the top the ilint 


. - • Suffolk rr#«aer. U eJit. p. 106. 

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and ftlone are beautifiiUy inlemixed in various derioea. The 
comers are adorned ii»ith finiab^ aumiounted with weathercocks ; 
and on the haUiements between them are the badges of the four 
E?angelist8. This steeple, with the north portico, was bnilt, or 
perhaps more correctly speaking, repaired about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, as appears from numerous legacies bequeathed 
about that time by various persons. Upon a stone inserted in 
the wall of the north side, at about the height of 24 feet, is a 
mutilated inscription, upon which the name of Albrede, one of 
these benefoctors, may easily be discerned. 

The monumental inscription of this John Albrede, in the church, 
was, with some others, de&ced by Dowsing in' 1643 or 1644 : 
but part of it yet remains. This twUUweaner, as he is there 
called, not only left twenty marks towards building the steeple, 
Jbut was at the charge, according to the piety of the age in which 
he lived, of carving, gilding, and paintbg the rood-loft over the 
partition between the body of the church and the choir, in which 
were the pictures of the cross and cmcifiic, the Virgin Mary, and 
several archangels, saints^ and martyrs, figured, as we are told, 
to the life. 

On the south side of the church formerly stood a priory of 
Augustines, founded by Sir Hugh Rous, or Rnfiis> but at what 
time we are not informed. The church belonging to t^is foun- 
dation appears to have joined the south-east end of the chancel of 
the parochial church, and probably extended to what is now called 
the Abbey. Within it were interred many individuals of thie 
equestrian families of Rous, or Rufus, the founder, Breos, or 
Brews, and Weyland. The possessions of this priory at the 
lyisaolution were valued at 501. 3s. 5|d. per annum; besides 
which it was seised as of fee, of the churches of Woodbridge, 
Brandeston, and St Gregory, in Ipswich, with a portion of 
tithes in Stradbrook and Wingfield ; and the small priory of A^ 
neaboume in the hundred of Colneis, was united to it. The site 
of it, together with the advowson of the church and other possea- 
aions, was granted 20 Henry YIII. to John Wingfield, and Do- 

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mhy his wife, in speeial tale nude ; and on hm death, withoot 
iaane, to Thomas Seckford, Esq. in fee. In tiiat iunily it continued 
till 1673, when it passed hy the will of Mrs. Dorothy Seckford^ 
into the fiunily of the Norths of Laxford, a younger branch of the 
noble family of that name, from whom it devolved in 1707 to the 
family of Carthew. After tlie decease of the Rev. Thomas Car- 
thew in 1791, the priory estate was divided and sold : at which 
time the capital mansion called the Abbey or Priory, was pur* 
ehased hy Francis Brooke, Esq. of U£ford : but the representa- 
tive of the family of Carthew still has a residence here. 

In a vault of the chapel ftt tiie north end of the chancel is the 
teiily vault of the Seckfords. Hero is interred Thomas Seek- 
ford, Esq. an ancient henefiu^r of this town, by whom this 
chapel was erected* In the centre of it stands an altar-monu- 
■ient» consisting of a large grey marble table, supported by eight 
ttttic pillars with arches. It has no inscription; but several 
brasses which appear to have been inlaid on the under side, were 
piobaMy taken away by the window-breaking visitor Dowsmg^ 
among other depcedations of the kind committed by him in this 
diurch in 1643. 

Thomas Seckford, Esq. one of the Masters of the Court of 
Bequests, and Surveyor of the Court of Wards and liveries in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was the second son of Thomas 
Seckford, of Seckford Hall in this county, by Margaret, dangh* 
ter of Sir John Wingfield, of Letheringham. He was not less 
distinguished in the profession of the law, to which he was bred^ 
than in the other polite accomplishments of the age in which he 
Ijved ; and to bis patronage to his servant Christopher Saxton, 
the public was indebted for the first set of county maps, which 
were aigraved by his encouragement, and at his expence. In the 
29th year of Elizabeth he obtained the queen's letters patent for 
founding and endowing these alms-houses ; and drew up himsdf 
the ordinance for the government of his charity, which have been 
considered so perfect, that the sncoessive governors siaoe his de- 
•sase have sddom thought fit to deviate from the genend plan. 


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He also bvilt the fiesMons-boittie at Woodbiidge» ginag the iqpfCr 
part of it for the use of the county for sver, without reserving any 
rent Mr. Seckford repreaeAted the bonragfa of Ipswich in three 
parliaments. He married Eltzab^h, daughter of Thomas Har^ 
bwe, and widow of Sir Martin Bowes, lord-mayor of London, 
and died without issue in 1588^ aged 72. 

Seekford's Alms^umge, founded by this gentleman in 1587 
for thirteen poor men and three women, was endowed by him with 
an estate in Clerkenwell, London, then let for 1121. Ida. 4d« but 
leased in 1767 for sixty years at 563L per annum, clear of all 
charges. What the revenues may amount to at the expiration of 
the present leases, it is impossible to conjecture; but as mora 
than 20,0001. has been recently expended upon this estate, it may 
reasonably be supposed that a considerable advance will then take 
place. The governors of this alms-house are the Master of the 
RoUs, and the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas for the time 
being. By the regulations and ordinances made after the exeeu* 
tioQ of the last lease by Sir Thomas Sewell and Sir Eardley Wi^ 
mo|, the then governors, the annual allowances to the residaits in 
the alms-house were increased to the sum of 271. to the principal, 
and 201. to each of the other twelve poor men, besides a suit of 
cbthes, a bat, three shirts, two pair of shoes and stodLings, and 
a chakh^n and a half of coals. The three poor women appointed 
aa nurses for the men when they happen to require attendance, 
reside in a house built in 1748 dose to that of the men, and re* 
ceive 121. per annum, and a proportionate supply of clothing. The 
same men wear a silver badge with the Seckford arms, and are re- 
quired to attend divine service at the parish church on Sundays, 
Wednesdays, Pridaya, and holidays in general. The same ordi- 
nances direct lOL a year to he paid to the minister of Woodbridge 
for instructing the alms-people, and visiting them when sick ; and 
five pounds to each of the two churchwardens for receiving tha 
rents, superintending the distribution of the money, and enfordng- 
the oiders of the establishment ; and 10L to the poor of Clerken* 
well. These various paymenta amount to 3331. ; the remaining 


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23M. 18 expended m clothing, firing, mediofti attendance, and 
repain; and the sarplu, if any, digtribnted among sach poor of 
Woodbridge as receive no relief from that, or any other pariah. 

Woodbridge has a Free Grammar School for ten boys, sons of 
the meaner aort of the iilhabitaats of that -town, wbo are to be 
instrocted in Latin and. Greek, and fitted for the Uni?eruty« For 
all the children above that nmnber who are a^nt to this school, 
the master cannot demand moie than twenty shillings per annnm. 
He 18 elected by tbe chief inhabitants of the parish, and has a good 
house, wiih a laige room for a school, and conveniences for board- 
ers. He is also eatitled to the revenues of lands and premises 
amouatiiig in 1796 to near 401. a year. 

The town contains a Quaker's Meeting-house, another for In« 
dq^endenfts, three public Fire-offices, and two Banks ; and about 
a mile from it on a hill contiguous to the Ipswich road, are bar- 
racks capable of accommodating 6 or 7000 men. 

In 1666 Woodbridge was visited by the plague, which carried 
^the minister, his wife, and chiid> and upwards of ttiree hun- 
dred of the inhabitants. 

The other places worthy of notice in this hundred are : 

Campsey Ash, or Ash by Campseff, which was reoMirkable 
for a nannery of the order of St Clare, founded by the direction of 
Theobald de Valoines, who gave bis estate at this ptace to his two 
sisters, Joan and Agues, for the purpose. His intention being 
sanctioned by King John, waa accordingly put in execution, and 
the revenues of this pious establishment were considerably in- 
ereased by subsequent benefactors. This nunnery was seated in 
a fertile and pleasant valley, on the east aide of the river Debea, 
and had a large lake on the iiorth. Ma.ud de Lancaster, widow 
•f William de Burgh, Earl of ITlster, who aA^rwards married 
Ralph de Ufibrd, chief justice of Ireland, obtained a licence fron» 
King Edward III. to found a chauntry of fk^e cbaplains, secubr 
priests, to pray and sing mass in the church of this nunnery for 
the souls of her two husbands, fw her own, and for that of Eliza- 
beth, the first wife of William de Burgh. This chauntry re- 

VOL.XIV. X maiued 

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aM ftffFFOUk 

mibinod hert for aomt ywfu, and wm Ihin NiiMNrod !• thii amor 
of Roke Hall, ia BmMyw^ the MTfuaaft^d site of wtd^ Wiw 
aftenrvds gtvea Ip ih^ prioroi* tad auaa of St Glaroi wheft^tke 
cbanatry wan eoavorted iolo a aaaaeiy. At tha WmolMkm, the 
posaeaaiona of tl^ia honae w«f8 yalaed at IBM. Ik; &L far aaaia^ 
aad grattlad ta Sir WiUiam WiUoofhby, fraai nhoM th^ d** 
aoeaded th^agh variova hand^ with the vcai of hia ealaie, to 
fs^wk Whitbread, Eaq. of Leadhan. 

Aik Hcmte in Campaey,. ia a good maatioi^ and waa bu3l by 
John GloTer, who waa in the aenrice of ThoauM Hdwaid» Duke of 
Norfolk ; bat one of hia aneeeaaon ranoviag to Rraateadaa, aoM 
it to the Shephards^ whose deaceadanl^ Joha Shqifaaid^ Eaq. aov 
reaidea here. 

Earl Soham deri?ea ita name from the eiroaawtaaaa oi ita 
having belonged to the Earla of Norfolk. Ia 20 Edward L Boger 
Bigod had a grant of a market aa well aa a foir heroi wfatcb waa 
confirmed to ThonuM Je Brothartoa ia the 7th Edward II. The 
market haa long been diaoaed; but there ia atiU a yearly fidr at 
this place on the 4th of Angoat 

Soham lodge ia aa old irregalar brick building, aniraunded with 
a bridL waU and large moat, and ataading within a paik, to which 
the nianor of the Tillage beUmga. It waa formerly the aealof the 
family of Corpwallis ; but one of them left it by will to the Cor- 
deroy's; since which time it haa passed tfaroagh the handa of 
Tarioos proprietors, and now bdonga to John Ayten, Esq. of 
Hisaenden AU>ey, in Bnckinghamahire. 

Easton waa formerly the lordahip of an ancient family in Ket» 
tleburgb, suraamed Charleai and afterwards heoame the property 
of the Wingfielda of Letheriogham. Anthony Wtngfield, who 
waa created a baronet ia 1627, built the Hall here, aad made it 
his seat ; and one of his successors. Sir Henry, sold it, with the 
rest of the family estate in the neighborhood, to William Lord of 
Zuileatein, created by King William IIL Earl of Doehford, to 
whose descendant, the present earl, it now belonga. The house 
ia a handaome brick buildiag. 


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Al LvramyciHAM «m fermerly a litHe priory of BladL C^- 
mom, fbvbded by Sir Jotai BovOe, :b«t<«t irhiit thao^o tre notia- ' 
ibiaed. It #» a coU to Bt Peter's ia ItNnrieh, wAtrdiaed al tka 
dkoblalioaitdM. IBs. M. aad gtaated 7 Edward VI. to M ta. BU- 
zAeHk NaaatoB. EKr EoWt Naonloa^ arho, ia the reiga of Jamee h 
apaaoeeretary ofetale, pri?y oolaiieHor^ and maeter of the Coart 
of Waide and* lirefieei eoaverted the priory iato a good maa- 
siefl^ to whMi he reaiovad his eeat from Aiderton^ in the hundred 
of Wilford ; and here his suocesson resided for many generations. 
On tlie dteth of the*widow of the hst^of theai, soon after 1700, 
the eUale defolTed to William Leaiaa, Esq. who was obliged to 
wmiatain bis rigbl by a tedioas and expensive law^soit, against' 
elaiauarts wlio preteadsd descent from some of the Naanl^ &-- 
mify liMt bed eiaigrated to Normandy about eighty years befiHre. 
Tbe bandiMM old mansion was puHed down about 1770; slid- 
the ftie odUeefeioii of' portraits which tt oontaiaed are supposed to* 
bein the poasMtlon of the iMMn family. 

At Letheringham was also a seat of tie once flourishing fhmlly 
of WingM^ of wUdr Sir Anthony/ who lived ia the reigns of 
Henry VIII; and Edwaid'Vii was eajptain of the gaufd/afid tiee-' 
ohamberfaaatothefomer, fcaigbt of tlm garter, and a aseinber of 
hk prity-eouiieiL Hw was also appointed by that monarch to- 
sssist the executors of his will, for which he bequeathed him a* 
legaey of'30CI. His desoendaat of the same name was created a 

In the ehaacel of the parish chaircb^ which Ibrmerly belonged 
to the priory, were some elegant monuments for the Boviles^ the 
WingMds, and Naantonti; those of the latter are in general* 
without inscriptiens: aad in the windows were many portraits and 
matches; bnt the clmrcb was sufiered to go to ruin; and the 
monuments, among which was a splendid one for the iunous Sir* 
Sabert Naunton and his lady, and another fox Sir Anthony 
Wingftdd, wliose epitaph was thought of consequence in the con«' 
test for the office of great chamberlain of Bngtaad, were defoced 
and dentroyed. " Mere neglect and exposure to the weather,'* 

X2 says 

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■ays Mr. Gongb/ ** could not baro redhio^ tlieaii to thot state 
of complete desob^n in wbioh they an^etfed in 1780. In 1766».' 
and perhaps later, they were in a good, thongh not in so ^ean 
a^conditiaii as they desenred. perhaps/' adds the same g^tle* 
maaj '' it was lor the inteiEesi ol some of the parties who lately 
disputed the estate^ to destroy every, record preserved in this 
phce : but how the dilapidation of this sacred edifice came to be 
permitted by the higher ecclesiastical powen> is a qaeation not 
easily resolved." 

Rendlesham, or RendiWiam, that is, according to Bede,* 
the hoase of Rendiliis, is a very ancieirt toirn, asi^ipears by. 
Redwald, king of the £ast- Angles, having kept his court here. 
Camden says, ** He was tha first of all that people that waa bap- 
ttsed^ and reeeived Christianity; but afterwards being sedooed by 
his wife, he had in the self-same church one altar for the religioa 
of Christ, and another little altar fior the sacrifices of.Devib. 
8udhelra also, king of the East-Angles, was afterwards baptised 
in this place by Cedda,'' bishop of York and Litchfield. 

An ancient silver crown was fonnd here in the beginning of the 
last century, weighing about sixty ounces* which is supposed- to 
have belonged to some of the East^nglian kings. This eurions 
piece was unfortunately diffused of for old silver, and melted 

From the charter-rolls, it appears that Edward I. granted to 
Hugh Pitz-Otho the privileges of a market and fair, Hugh do 
Naunton, 2 Edwsrd II. had a grant of firoe-warren in Rendk- 
sham. Robert de Fiimeux was a great land-owner there 7 Ed- 
ward IL The prioress and oonvent of Campes, or Campsey, had 
lauds there 2 Edward II. which were exchanged for other lands 
vrith the rector of Ashe. Richard de RendWsham had lands there 
36 Edward III. . 

Rendlesham Hautte, supposed to stand on the site of the palace 
of Rendilos, became the property of the Spencers in the reign of 
Edward VI. and continued in that family till it was vested in 

. . Jame^ 

* Caimfen. U.'lST. 

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8VFFOLK. 300 

l&ites, tbe JiAh ^uke of HmnUtolk by tiii mstrriligiB wttb Elixa- 
WUi, ibii^Ur and belrees of Edwiurd Spencer. The duchess 
rfi'rieiLhere nhtr the death of her hitibftiid. At her decease it 
dmmAid to her eMe^ ^on. Laid Arehibald, the present Duke of 
' HnuItoB, n ho sold tt, wttU lire esMe^ to Sir Geort^e Womb- 
vdligfrom vhom it was pureha5iedibr5l«400lbby P. J. Tbdifssoi, 
irterwafds creat4Ml Lord Eei^dlefthani^ 'Mher' to the present no* 
,iikpo«»es6orof tUe Ulle fiiid estate. 

- ThiftfenTierly was a hunt] so me^ roomy, commodious mansion, 
jM by the iiaproTemeults elfected in the house and groonds, 
11 mifcipence of the ule^ant and. refined taste of the bte pro- 
jia^r* H i^ become a prtncciy rdsidence, surpassed by few in the 
kuigdeiii; wkilli itsBpleddid hospitalities have been extended not 
oMy tir tn&sy of .il|0 imt nobiUty, but also lo several branches of 
tli Royal fioDnily who have honored this place with their presence. 
The atylft <^ wreliiteetiire ^ the hooao i« an ImitatioB of tha 


Thki httndFed is boanded on the nortb, by that of Hartismere ; 
OfttWs west and sovtll, by Bosmertf ftdd Claydon ; and on the east, 
bytiQien. It contains only fire parishes, Ashfieid, with its ham- 
Ha^Tboip; Debenfaaia; Ffaoisden; Pettaug^h, and WinstDn. 

JhtB^KHAM * the o|dy place worthy of notice in this hundred, 
isa unerket-towtt, seated 9R the side of a hill, near the source 6f 
the rirer Debea^ from whioh it derives its name. It contains 390 
boiaes, and 1215 tiAbahitsnts; and has a small market on Fri- 
dajHi, and A &ur on the 24th of June. 

This Wwn, which safTered severely by fire in 1744, is in ge- 
oefil meanly built, bat the church is a handsome edifice. It con- 
tains some ancieat monuments, the inscriptions of which are 
mssdy so mach defoced as to bo illegible. The market-house al- 
to i* a good stracture. Here is likewise a free school, for which 

X3 the 

* In the Europ. l^Iag- VoJ. LL p. 168, is a view, and brief accoant of 
Rendieflham Hou%e* 

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■the town IB indebted to Sir Bobert HitdMUB, vho diraoled ty Iu0 
trill, that twenty poor cUUren of this phee ■honU be imtraeleA 
at his school at Framlinghsm. This being fiMud impossible, am 
.ordinance was obtained from OliTor Oromwell for tiie fennding of 
a school, and the maintenance of a anster at Debenham, oot of 
the prodace of Sir Boberf s estate; and a salary of M. per an- 
nam was assigned for that pnrpose. 

The manor, impropriation, and advowson, of the vicaiage, be* 
, longed to the priory of Bvtley, and were^ in ISiSt, gnrnled by 
Henry VUI. to Francis Fraalingham. They derolYed aboat 
1600, to the Gandys, who resided at Crows Hall in this pariA. 
Sir Charles Gaady, of Crows Hall, was created a baronet in 10n. 
They are now the property of James Bridges, of Bealings, Ea^ 
to whom also bdong the eontigaoos manors of Scotaetfs and 

Here are likewise two oAer manors, UWeralon Hall and Sack- 
ry\% which the corporation of Ipswich hold by the will of Henry 
Tooley, who died in 1552, for chsritable i 


The hnndred of Home hordns to the sonlii, on the hundreds 
of Plomesgate and Lees; on the west, it is bonnded by Loes and 
Hsrtismere; on the north, by the river Waveney, which separatea 
it from Norfolk ; and on the east, by Wangford and BIsrthing. 

BnuNDisH was formerly of considerable note for a chantry^ 
foandpd by Sir John Ptiyshall, rector of Caston, one of the es* 
eentors of Robert do Uffiird, Earl of Saffi>lk, in 7 Richard II. 
for six chaplains to pray for the seal of that nobleman, and alt his 
benefactors. At the dissolntion it was of the yearly valoe of 
131. Os. 7id. and was granted in 1546, to Richard Fdmerston, 

It 18 worthy of remark, that all the hnd in this parish is free- 


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mrgfouL 3ir 

AlCUftLSMV itohmitry mm iniided abott the year 1330^ 
bj Jdbtt FrainKBgliMn, NNBtar of Kdaak, for tliree chaplaina to 
pray for the soul of Alice, the first wife of Thomas de Brother* 
too, fiati of Noifelk. It UBS granted, 36 Henry Vlll. to WiU 
U^m Honng. 

DsMHiiWTOH was theieadence of the family of the PheKps, 
ef iriiMi Sir John Pkelip mnred with fgreat distinctioil under 
Henry V. In FhuRe. His tneceasor,. Sir William, acquired the 
title of Lsid Bavddph, by his marriage with Joan, daughter of 
tlmt nobleman. .In the 6th ywr of Henry VI. he founded a 
dHmntry, Ibr two prieals to eelebrate divBie senrioe erery day at 
therghar of fit Mmgaiet, in the chocch of this place, fer the 
weltee of himself and hk wife dafing their lives, and ioir their 
souls after their decease. By his will he bequeathed his body to 
be bttned with those of lus ancestors before tbe aboTe-meationed 
altar,and directed a thousand masses to be said ibr liis son], by the 
Sif wa l orders of friars in Norfolk and fiuflblk, as soon as possible 
after his death, allowag them four-pence §w each mass. He alio 
gaire to thb ehuroh, aifter the decease of has wife, a certain mass 
book sailed a gradual, a silver censer, and a legend; but by a 
4foAcil ioedersd his body to be intenred in the drorch-yard. He 
left only one dangliter, who being married to John Viscoant 
Beanmonty carried the estates of the Bardolphs into that family. 

The Umll, with several esUtes, the l<Nrdship of the manor, and 
the advowson ci the rectory, have long been in the recently enno- 
bled imnily of Rous, of which Lekad observes : " All Ihe Rouses 
that be inSnfiblk, come, as for as I can leant, out of the house of 
Rous of Dennington. Divers of the Rouses of this eldest house^ 
tie in Dennington chnrch under flat stones. Anthony Rons, 
now heir of Dennington Hall, hath much enlarged bis posses- 

Besides the chauntry founded by Lord Bardolph, valued at the 
dissolution at 361. 4s. 7d. there was another in the church of 
Dennington, belonging to the altar of St Mary, of the annual 

2X4 value 

« LeUnd*! Hen. VI. p. 10. 

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31^ ftOTFOUL 

valtteof 9L Ob. 7W: bofh of tbem were grurted U fiichitfi Fid* 
merBtoii. In this church are monumeiits for several of the Wmg- 

Frbsinofield deserves notice as the place where that escel- 
lent prelate Dr. William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
drew his first and last breath.* At his seat in this parish he re- 
sided after he had sacrificed to oonacientioos scroples the high 
dignity which he enjoyed, and was interred in the ehorch-yard 
under a handsome monument. He has peipetoated his name ia 
this his native parish, by varioos bene&etions. He settled an 
estate, in fee fiurm rents, to the annual value of 62L on the vicar 
and his successors for ever, on condition that the latter sheuld 
pay lOL a year to the master of a school which his lordship at 
the same time founded here, and 61. per annum to the parish- 
clerk, for whom and his successors for ever, he also built a con- 
venient habitation. 

HoxNB gives name to the hundred, but is much more remark- 
able on another account. It was to this village, anciently deno- 
minated Eglesdune, that King Edmund fled, after his laat unsue- 
oeasfid encounter with the Danes in 870, having relinquished all 
intention of opposing them any ferther. Tradition relates, that 
in the hope of escaping his punuers, he concealed himself under 
a bridge near the place, now called Gold Bridge, from the ap*- 
pesrance of the gilt spurs which the king happened to wear, and 
which proved the means of discovering his retreat. A newly - 
married couple retumiug home in the evening, and seeiQg by 
tnoon-li^bt the reflection of the spurs in the water, betrayed him 
to the Danes. Indignant at their treachery, the king is said to 
have pronounced a dreadful curse upon every couple who should 
afterwards pass over this bridge in their way to the church to be 
married ; and we are told that, at this day, after an interval oS 
nearly one thousand years, such is the regard paid to this denun- 
ciation, that persons proceeding to the church on such an occa*^ 


• For someaccoont q( this preUtCi see Beatities, Vol. VIL 818. 

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ma neror ftil to avoid it, eyen if they ^te oUig^ to tako m 
^inmtUaiB road.'^ 

Here- alto .tiie remains of that onfolrtiiiiate monarch were first 
ivternsd.' Over his grave was erected a chapel, oomposed, like 
thoaacknt chufoh of Greensted in Essex^f of trees sawed down 
the middle tiid fixed in the ground, having the interstices filled 
with mud or mortar, and a thatched Toof. From this mde stnitf- 
1npe„ the bo^ of the reputed saint was removed, about thirty 
yeaiB afterward^ to its more splendid receptacle at Bury. 

This diapel was, in process of time, converted into a cell or 
priory, iahahited -Jby seven mt eight Benedictine monks, governed 
by'ai prior, nominated and removable by the prior of Norwich, 
and called the cell and chapei of the Messed St. Edmund, king 
ted martyr. In 1226 Thomas de Blumville, Bishop of Norwich, 
confirmed all revenues to God, and the chapel of St Edmund, at 
Hoxne, which at the dissolutwn amounted to about forty pounds 
per amrnm.^ 

The Hall, manor, rectory, and advowson of the vicarage, for- 
merly belonged to the bishops of Norwich, who used frequently 
to reside here till 1535 ; when they were surrendered conforma- 
bly with an act of parliament^ to King Henry VIIL who granted 
thear to Sir Robert Southwell. Tha Hail is now the mansion of 
Sir Thomas Maynard Hesilrigge, Bart who succeeded to the title 
on the death of his nephew. Sir Arthur, in 1805. 

Hoxtt^ had a considerable fiiir for cattle, beginning on the Ist 
of December; but, owing to the extortions practised by the far- 
■wrson the Scotd> drovers, it has been removed since 1780, to 
Harleston, in Norfolk. 

Laxfield is conjectured to have been formerly a place of 
greater note than at present, for in the reign of Edward IV. 
John Wingfield obtained a grant for a market here, and the vil- 
lage has two annual fairs, on the 12tfa of May, and on the 18th of 
October. The church, with its steeple, is a handsome edifice : 


' CiUingwtter'i Hist, of Loweitoft, p. 6. t See Beautivi, V. 4t5, 

t Bloonfield't Norfolk, VoL U. p. 437. 

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t9im48 hiiUiiig the litttr, wmf legMW mn lift AmXOm 
niddle of tiie 15Ui century. A manor, and tlie reetory maiw Aum^ 
•oBoftiievieeragey fben by BebertM«letloiiie.(iriory of Bye, 
wcregraaHedaepMtof tfae p ew mi o M oftimthpnee, 3a Henry 
¥UI.toEAnMin4BedingieM: and in llie same year nnoUHTM. 
ner liere was granted, aaparceloftliepoflaeaaionief Ltarton Ak> 
bey, to Okarlee Brandon, Duke of GMblk. 

f%ep«rialiof MBHDHAMieeitnaledeii both ridea of Hm over 
Waveney, eomprekending irithin Ha bonnda paitof Ibaltfim ef 
Harleaton in Norfolk. In the Sv&b par^ WiUiaa 4e Hoating. 
field branded In Stephen'a reign a Claniaie priory, dedieatedto Aa 
BloMed Virgin, and anbordinate to Caatle-acre in MerfoJk; ^eh 
at the DiaaolaAion waa granted to Chnrlea Brandon, Dake of •Snf* 
Mk. 80BM remaina of Ihia priory are aliUatanding; and part of 
it haa been eenverled into a fma-honae, 

Stbabdrook, a cmiaid oraMo nilage, and wiiieh ieniedy Jmd 
a market granted by Henry III. waa the birth-place of Hial ode* 
brated aeholar and prelate Robert GroatlMad, Biahop of linooln.* 

Stlbham, a araall village in a ineiy wooded eoaaAry, ia ra» 
maikaUe for Hie iguU /rftM, eoaunonly oalled Syi$kam 1mmp$, 
that are frequently aeen in the low gronnda abont it, to the tar- 
ror and deatraetion, not only of travdlen, but alio of the inha* 
bitanta, who are often nualed by them.f 

WiNGPiELD wte early in the 14th eentwy tlM eotale ef Raeh* 
ard de Brewa^ who obtained a grant for a foir here in IWS. It 
waa afterwardfl the aeatof a (amily which tookita nameirom tlua 
tillage, and flooriahed here for many yeara, till its removal ta 
Letheringham and Eaaton, in the hundred of Loea. In tiie reign 
of Henry VIII. this fomiiy ia said to have numbered eight or 
nine knights, two of whom were invested with the order of the 
Garter. By the marriageof Katharine, daughter and heir of Sir 
John Wingfield, to Michael de la Pole, Earl of Snflblk, thia manor, 
and the extenaive estate attached to it, were carriedinto that noble 
family, in which it conttnned for aeveral generationa. While in 

• See Beaotic^ VoL DC. p. €18. f Ooagh'i Camd. IL tft. 

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jnimuu Mi 

i lido 9^!g9Mk,f9d Jb (McVMeuwd ittipaikri^ tlwiimoAi Md 
.fandb Manfing toH. nit MlUe mtm kttaly^ fiir ateg tiliM^ 
'^leited mAeftmilgr of tiie«alal]wfc^ on ^be^itinQlioii.rrf ^AUh 
il Je^?ed tothfi lieini rf Thmnto Umok, Biiq..0f WentuMltiL 

At the south-west eoroc^. foTihe .eluMh-i|ffrii* college imi 

«eclei Aoiit the yeiir l8Q8ibgr tiie eteettooiiof Sir A»hB Wiog- 

AM„kr a pronoit^ or inaftkit «nd ifine {iricsla. Ift was dedi- 

^^tttedtoBt Hary^ St. iohb 'Bsfvfeitft, jiod BL Jtidnm, smi was 

t9lMiMXM. »i.^m. ittthe wipi^MttioB, after irUdi ifc ms 

.gfinted, ty Kingfidward VI. to the Bishop oC Nortvkh, pnha- 

JUy in ssehaiigeiir aoaoe maiwr of v^cb ho had ben depohred. 

The weift aide of its qaadmogle Is now a ten house. Sm the 

ehinnch bolwgteg «P this ooUeg^^i^as tatared Wiffiamde lai^>le, 

jDidDoof fiuflblk, whose jHttrder of the good Hna^phray, Duke of 

lahuieestflr, ma ao aigoally ajresged in his own nutinriy Me. 

His head was sAnak 4dl in^the gmvide of a. boat^ in Ji^sver 

roads, and his body thrown into the sea; but behg cast on shore, 

it was brooghty and buried here, in 1450. In the same plaee was 

also inteired his son and soooessor, John do la Pole, Duke of Snf- 

Uk, whoBiarriedUiaaMh,a|rtOT0f JKiagBdwardlV. 

Tlie Church, built of flints and stones of diffiarent colours, ex- 

Juhils a lery^mgahr and beautiiU apusarance. In the chadcel, 

irfajiohsl^leof arehi<t«htT% arasosie noUoiaonoaMntsof the 

. Vtagfiekk and do la Poies, parUcaiarly of Michael de la Pole, 

.fcst Earl of Ekiialk.w*o died 12 ttchardIL and his lady; of 

his grattda<m, WilHasi^.a bnvre and diatingnishcd cowsnier in 

. JPhneo; in Ifco lalgns of Oeniy V. and VL who died in 1 4fi9 ; of 

hia jon John, who died 1491, and his lady. ThMo aiel 

.aofend kawea te other hianches of this ftarily, whose 

adorn the 4Biit» «id the east window. 

About a quarter of a mile north-west of the chaidb, are the ce- 

■HdaaaftheeaatlobniitbyMishafi de la Pole, irsi earl of Suf- 

Idk, wheae anns« with those of Wj8gfidd> cat in stone, remain 

9 on 

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916 0VFFOUC. 

on each tide of the entranee. It «tta4i low^ %ithoi^4m7eartb^ 
works for ite defeobe. The wmth front, or principal entninee^ is 
still intke, ao4 the west side is a farm-hoose. ' It was the pro- 
perty and residenoe of the late Robert Leman^ D. D. reelor of 
Pakefieid, near Lowestoft^ who died here in 1T79; and is interred 
in the ehaocel of the parochial chnreb. 

WoaLiHGWORTH. In the chancel of the cfavrch of this Tik 
bge, is interred Sir John Major^ Bart who died in 1781. He 
was an elder brother of the Trinity Honse, high Sheriff of 8ns- 
sex in 1755^ elected in 1761^ a representatiTe in parliament for 
Scarborough, and created a baronet, with remainder to his son- 
in-law, John Henniker, Esq. who was afterwards elevated to the 
peerage by the title of Lord Henniker, and died in 1803. 

In this church is preserved the antique and beautiful Gothic 
font, which once adorned the abbey church at Bury, and escaped 
the general wreck of the dissolution. It was some years since 
thMOughly refiaired and beantiCed, at ttie expense of Ae present 
Xord Heaniker.*^ 


The hundred of Plonesgate, containing twenty-tbur parirtes 
and hamlets, is bounded on the east, by the Gknnan ocean ; on the 
sonth,*by the hundred of Wilford ; on the east, by Loes; and on 
' the north, ' by Hoxne and Blything. It comprehends three mar- 
ket towns, Aldborough, Orford, and Saxmundham. 

Aldbobodoit, or, as it was ibrmeriy denomuiated, AUkhmrgi^ 
derivea its name from the river Aid, and is pleasantly mtuated in 
the valley of Siaughden, under shelter of a steep hiU, whidi nms 
north and south Uie whole length of the prindpal strecl, about 
three quarters of a mile. 

Two hundred yeaiB ago, Aldborough was a place of oonsider- 

*. An sagriYing of thii font was pnbltabed in t75S, by Vertiis, 

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auFFOUL 317 

^ikf unportauice^ but repeut^^d iacroidtiiieato of the Ma. Tednced 

it to tlie nuik of & soiaU fishing tova. Baring the but ceotnry, 

Ihc octaa made great ravafres, nd in the reooUeettoa of pertone 

J«4 Bvkig, destroyed many hettei, together with the Berfcet- 

fliee «iid tross. A plan of the tewn in I659i^ which is still ex- 

Ittil^ fkToves it to liave been at thntttme a piece of eooeidenhle 

leigiiilede, atid represeols the duurch es being at mere than tea 

t&Biei ila preix^ul dlataiice froin fhe ahdre. Prom the eaaedeco- 

it nldo a|>pear9, that tlieie wen denes of oome eateot, n* 

ilar to Ihofle at Yarmouth, between the town and see, which 

loiig heen evallowed up, 

^1Qielefm<^ importance of Aldboroogh, indaoed auuiy noaarohs 

ii font it exti-n&ive cLartf ra. The last of theae^ renewed by 

CWteii II. eDtrufliu llie goveriunentof the town to two bailiA, 

fn capital^ aiid twcuty-four infecnr bmgetaea, giving also a 

\ power to the majority of ttie capital bnrgeasea, one of them being 

I a htili^ la elect an unliiuilcd nnmbor of freemen, mther relident, 

or not By tbe baili^ oiiil bargeaaes resident in the borough, 

* and aot receiving alms, abuut thirty in nnmber, two membera are 

retamed to the parliament of tbe Umted Kingdom. It fiiat aent . 

trcprescotsiiTes, in tbe 131h of EUzabeth, and. as Wiliia* aappoaea, 
•btsfoed the elective fianchiti: in the tenth year of thatqneen's 
ntpi, when she grauted the Duke of Norfolk a weekly market on 
Saturday, at tlus his manor. 

Till wtthia the lanl fifU^tn or twenty years, Aldborougb, depo^. 
palated and impovei isUtil bjr the incroacbments of the sea, was 
haatenitig' to complete decay ; but aeveral fiunilics of distinction, 
wisbiog for a greater degree of privacy and retirement than can 
be enjoyed in a fatiiiloaable watering-place, having made this 
town their suitiiner reBideuce, its appearance has lately been totally 
^umgedL To the deep sands which formerly led to it, have suc- 
ceeded excellent tnmpike-roads, and instead of tbe clay-built cot- 
tages, wbich give the place a mean and sqtolid appearance, are now 


♦ Notit. PwK 

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Mtr S01WI.S. 

doBai relmllof penwuiof nak andllbcteie. 

Miteiioitliemtalraiiiyof tfetowa, tm the MiwMl«r tiw^ 
litllifluidBtlie elmrcfa^ an tas^m^haiUimgp thsnghTery Hnleb ifi>- ' 
tanixediiitli OMdem woik. It 
loeBls; Wl tiMw arefsome stoiMS aypavaiUy of < 
ti|Mty. ia tlwdtodi^yari^ whieh^ from its eb?«ted 

a nagnificent tiw of Ite ooao. Near tiie ehaicii 
I »tnriiieiFin% bull aftw aa itaUan pbn, by L. Ycnm,. 
Eai{. and aveh adnnred te a: aiBgaiarly bantiM iitkKgm nam. - 
At thia esEtremhy of the town alao, on the hniw e£ the hiil, ace 
ailaactodlheaMBaiiMrof tiieHoKttiWyaihaBi; aadaroanaUo 
caMine» tbe^ &Yeffite anaiBKr leaidenee of the Mai^ua of Mis- 
bury. At the oppeatte end of the tenaee ia the aeet of W. C. 
Creapigny, Sa^ AlltfieaebeioDgtothereceD*iinpoTettenta of. 

For the pioteetioB of the iiAing aad tradia^ teaadb on this 
coeat^ tiwre ia' nheHary of tno aJghtoB^pnariHra at theaonUnm > 
extaonitsrvf' the main alieet, and m nuorlde iewer on the heaoh^ . 
abenttfanerqnarteivof naule tether tathenonthy iaiaAendedta 
add to their aaenri^. Thia bnildinv, tfaoogh oona wn ee d tear 
ywa ago^ yet remaina nniniafeled: isdbed the neoeaaity aadnd* 
ranttigeof 80 expenaiTe an areetion, appear Ofnally donbtfoL 

For invalida Aidborough poaaeaaea advnatagea aemDety Ofaal* 
led, and certainly not eseeDed, by any which the meat faalfion. 
aUeplseeaofreaortoasbenat The atraad, to winch the deecent 
ia remaricably eaay, i* not mom thaa Ibtty or fi% yarda fioni 
moat of the lodging honaea; and dnrinn; the tide of ebb, andfre- 
qoently far weefca together, it ia peenliaily adapted for walking 
and bathing, as the aaad ia vary haid.aad fini, and the balhiag«^ 
machinea, of which ^^ are k^heie, aftrd the giealeat aecarity 

To the attraelioaa of the aen bendi, Aidborongh adda nnoywr, 
which cannot fui to delight the lover of Nature. The magnifi. 
cent terrace on the annunit of the bill behind the town, corn- 

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i % mm that enbraoes muiy iuJUvrm, both of the sbUum 
aad bewtiful ; for not only dooi th^ eye windier over the bouiik* 
lee» aptsee of AUborough and HoHesly Bftye, licUy studded 
wMi tbeur Meviiig treuureik end aepanited frook eaok oUmt bf 
the iffomoBtory of Orfcard-neM ; but it is also gratified wilii a 
view ef a rich eeaatry, through which flows the cKfrnsiom Aide^ 
«ddiiiga;beaaty of nooetmHoahifldy totheseeae^ 

Thk wtfestie river» after approaoUag within a faw' heodied 
jarda of the sea, to the south of the town, saddeidy tnmi lowaida 
Orford^ bdow which place it discharges itself inti^the oeesa. Be% 
aides the beantiea whidb it exhilnts, the widthand diflliof) its 
chaimeli' and the eesy. flow of its tides^ reader it peoaliarlyf 
adapted far pleesure yachts and boats, of which sevemfc are kepi 
by the residents of the town. Northward of the pkee is a laero^ 
•r lafee, of coasideraUe egct^nt^ the draining of whieh; is in eeii« 

AlAorongh has long ban fawms, and is abandsatly sap* 
plied with every neossssry, aadnKWtof the lajianeat>f the tables 
The native inhabitanti are chiefly fishenaen. Heniags and 
sptefes in large qnantities w^re, till latdy^ enred here lot' em* 
peitatiofr to Holland; hot since the suspension of our interi* 
oamae with that covatry, thia branch of industry haagreatly da« ' 

In^the year 11(!^> the manor of Aldebure was given by William 
Hartel to the abbot aad convent of St John, in €k>lcheiften At 
asabsequent period, this muMr, together with the manors of Scoto 
and Tastards, in this neighbourhood, was granted to Cardinal 
Wolsey, as part of the possessions of the priory of Saape, which 
was a cell to the Abbey of Colchester; and after the disgrace of 
that prelate, they were given, 24 Henry VIII. to the Duke of 

Aldborougfa contains 201 houses, and 804 inhabitants. It has 
a small market twice a week, on Wednesday and Satnrday, and 
two annual &irs on March 1, and May 3. 

The authors of the Magna Britannia^ make mention of the 


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idnicaloas apptswranee of pease O^'the s d » tiout,' wetoriiib^rtiogfc^ 
daring a &miBe, in the reiga of Queen MoFjr, by \i3^ tbetivw 
df many of tbe neighbonrhig poor wxfe providentMy ':*.iMil * 
These pea^e, as ^eil as the cotetnMs^ found growtng'oa ^ 
ionth pa^ of the meer-slunglos, . are ntet Willi in sevend ^al* 
lar satiiitiotti on the English coast The ibnner iir tho Pumai 
martnujft; it bears a pnrple Uoiwoin in Jnne, and in a prosttite 
pUmt, perennial, •-with a Tsry deep root;. and thonglk H jnnst Junre 
grown hare before/ distress probably fisl broagbt it ii^ notiee off 
the occasion abore allnded to* 

' Orfoed is sitbaied near the eonflneitee of t)te rivers Aide 
and Ore^ from the latt^ bf<^hich,p: il is' eenjeiftured to have 
derived ita name. This I6wn, onoo?^^ place of coosUerafaie 
traffic and importance, is vjom 'smalLsttd itt-^bniit.' Tfao«gii net 
a parish, its church being only a.chapd of ease to tbe ai^acGnl 
village of Sndbome^ it is a corporate town, governed Uy a mayor> 
eiglit porlnien» mid twdte eiiief bingesses. It sends two mem- 
bers t0' paliiamenty in which it was represented so eaiiy as. thq 
reign of Edward I. bnt aegleciting for a long aeries of- fsmmdft, 
• avail itself of the elective iirandbJse, it lest tUa n^wk^^j^fl 
snpposed to have been restored to the'towii.B)rlUeha]!d '" " *" 

in his first year, granted itachaiiei^ vith coimBiet»Bki|liiwft(|pBg; 
It contains 83* houses, and 751 inhabitants; has a weeU) 
on Monday, and a fidr on the 24tk of June. Qrfecd* 
gave the title of Earl to Adnucal Rnssdl, who van 6I4 
the peerage by William UL for Us eminent 'aervices» . H^l|| ^ p *^^ 
become extinct in that fainiiy.^ it was reviveiin ihe pemmiiM;^^' yf 
BobertWalpole, in 1741; but again boosttfing eKtinct^.w Jttir/'-^- 
death 1^ fioiatio^ &mrtfa <»trl, ia J9V7> it ^mi^^^oakiaieiJjkUilKs' .- 
on Horatio, Baron Wolpole of Woljkorion, *j . .. '■>-.• ^ \r%l^ 

The most remarkable, object at Oxibvd is the Cjoiih^ Si«leiwii 
a rising gmnsd, westward of the place. This:^pot in vepettad to 
have formeify>een Uie centre :«f4he lewn 9 m ftSsditiolk wfaiek lum 
every appearance of being fbnnded on'trttth. " Nol only are great 
qoantitiea of old bricl^y stones, and otlier remains <tf fanildiaga 



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^mmtmm^m «* W^ '** 

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SDFFOLk. 321 

i^eqaently tarnedl up by the plough^ in the fields to fhe west and 
ionth of the castle, bat seTeral of them retain the name of street 
annexed to their denomination of field, as West Street Field, in al« 
Innon to streets formerly situated there : in addition to which eyi* 
denee, the report is corroborated by the charter of the corporation 
and other authentic records. 

All that at present remains of this castle is the keep. Its 
figure is a polygon, of eighteen sides, described within a circle^ 
whose radios is twenty-seyen feet This polygon is flanked by 
three square towers, placed at equal distances, on the west, north- 
east and south-east sides ; each tower measuring in front nearly 
twenty*two feet, and projecting twelve feet from the principal 
building. They are embattled, and overlook the polygon, which 
is ninety feet high. The walls at the base are twenty feet 
thick : at the lower part they are solid, but galleries and small 
apartments are formed in them above. Round this building ran 
two cirenlar ditches, the one fifteen, and the other thirty-eight 
feet distant from the walls. Between these ditches was a cir* 
cular wall, part of which opposite to the south-east tower Is still 
remaining. In 1769, when the view of this castle, given by 
Grose, was taken, this firagment was sufficiently entire to shew 
that this wall was orginally forty feet high, and had a parapet 
and battlements; but the hand of time has since considerably 
reduced it The entrance into this castle was through a square 
building, adjoining to the west side of the tower, on the south* 
east part of the polygon, to which a bridge conducted over tha 
two ditches. The interior of the keep contained one room oa 
a floor, and was divided into four stories, as may still be seen by 
the holes made in the wall for the reception of the joists. By a 
spiral staircase it may be ascended to the top The main build- 
ing is lighted by two stages of small windows, and the tourers 
by five ; but the latter might with greater propriety be denomi* 
sated eyelet-holes. It is related that there was a small building 
. adjoining to the keep, called the Kettle-house, which fell down 
fjioat seventy yean afo« This is conjectured by Grose to hava 

Vol, XIV, Y " been 

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been the kiidien. Lord Hertford purposed some yeais ago to 
take down what remains of this castle^ for the sake of the mate^ 
rials, bnt as it was considered a necessary sea-mark, eq^^iaUy §or 
ships coming from Holland, whieh, by steering so as to make the- 
eastle cover, or hide the church, avoid a dangerous sand-bank^ 
called the Whiting, government interfered and prevented the exe* 
cntion of the design. 

. • We have now no means of ascertaining eithef the time of the- 
erection of this castle, or the name of its founder: but it is 
presumed to be of Norman origin, from its being coigned, and 
in some places cased with Caen-stone, and to have been built 
soon after the Conquest. According to a curious story, quoted 
by Camden, from Ralph de Coggeshall, an ancient writer. It 
must have existed in the reign of Henry I. when Barlholomew 
de Glanvil is said to have been constable of it Stowe, from the 
same authority, and naming the same constable, fixes this cir- 
^u^tance in 33 Henry II. and it is by other writers placed alaiost 
a century later^ in the 6th of King John. These las^ relate it a» 

In the sixth year of John's reign, some fishermen of OvforC 
took in their nets a sea-monster, resembling a man in size and 
figure. He was given to the governor of OHbrd Castle, who* 
kept him several days. He had hair on those parts of the body 
where it usually grows, except on the crown of the head,whicl» 
was bald ; and his beard was long and ragged. He ate fish and 
flesh, raw or cooked^, but when raw,, he first pressed it in his 
bands. He could not be made to speak, though to force him te 
it, the governor's servants tied him Up by the heels, and crueU^F 
tormented him. He lay down on his couch at sun*sel^ and rose 
again at sun-rising. The fishermen carried him one day to the 
sea, and let him go, having first spread three rows of strong 
nets to prevent his esci^; but diving under them, the animal 
appeared beyond these barrien, and seemed to deride his asto^ 
Hished keepers, who giving him up for lost, returned home,, 
whither, however, they wore soon followed by the monster. He 

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^ODtimied with them for some time ; |)ut heing, as we are told, 
weary of living ashore, he watched an opportunity, and stole away 

At the distant period in which this event is placed, Orford 
Castle appears to have helonged to the crown. We find that 
in 1215, Hogh Bigod and John Fitz-Rohert were made governors 
of Norwich and Orford Castles ; and that on their removal in th« 
same year, Hubert de Burgh was appointed gpvemor of both. 
In 48 of Henry III. after that monarch had been taken prisoner 
at the battle of Lewes, by his barons, they conferred this poBt> 
^hich seems to liave been considered an important one, on Hugh 
le Despenser. By one of Henry's successors this castle was 
probably given to the descendants of Peter de Valoines, who 
made it the capital seat of their barony. This must have been 
prior to the reign of Edward III. in whose fourth year Robert de 
Ufford having married the daugh^r and co-heir of Robert de 
Valoines, obtained a grant of this town and castle for life. In the 
5th of Richard II. William de Ufford died seised of it, and Isabel, 
his wife, had it assigned, among other possessions, for her dowry. 
On her death, Robert Lord Willoughby of Eresby, whose an* 
cestor married Cecilia, daughter of the above-mentioned Robert 
de Uffi>rd, had livery of this town and castle, ia the 4th of 
Henry V. In the 18th of Henry VIII. William Lord Willoughby 
died possessed of the lordship of Orford, which he assigned to his 
widow for life. It probably descended afterwards, with the es- 
tate at Sudbome, to Sir Michael Stanhope, and came with that 
to Viscount Hereford, by whose executors it was sold in 1754> 
to the &ther of the Marquis of Hertford, the present proprietor. 

The Church, or rather Cfuipel of Orford, dedicated to St. 
Bairtholomew, was, when entire, a large and very handsome builds 
ing. It appears to be of great antiquity; but its founder, and 
the date of its construction are both unknown : though probably, 
like most other chapels of ease, it was. erected at the expence 
of the inhabitants, assisted by the Lord of the Manor, and the 
donations of religious individuals. Over the west door, in the 

Y 2 square 

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square embattled steeple, is a niche^ now vacant, and tbe poreh fip 
adorned with shields, and a handsome cross oyer the cente. Thm 
inside cf the arch is adorned with kings' heads ; six on the west^ 
and five on the east side. The tracery of the windows is fin^ 
and in good preservation. The interior consisted of three aisles^; 
those of the body are still standing; but the chancel haviog^ 
fidlen to ruin, has been excluded by a wall built across the east- 
end of the nave. This chancel appears, from its remains, to havf 
been of a workmanship fiir superi<Mr to the other portion of th» 
edifice, and also of much higher antiquity, probably of a date an* 
terior to the castle itself. These remains consist of a double row 
^f five thick columns, supporting circular arches ; whereas thosa 
an tl.e rest of the building are of the pointed form. The heighl 
«f these columns is equal to their circumference, each measuring 
about twelve feet. The arches on their inner sides are decorated 
with the zigzag ornament; a»d all the carvings are sharp, and 
seem to have been highly finished. The columns are cased with 
hewn stone; the interior being filled with flint and sand. A 
aingularity observable in them, is the difierent mode in which 
their sur&ces are decorated, so that even the opposite ones ara 
not alike. They have in general cylindrical mouldings, running 
firom the base to the capital, some four, and others six, like small 
columns attached to' the main shaft. In one, these mouldings 
twist spirally round the column : in another, though they take 
the same direction, they are continued only in every second 
course of the stones of which it is composed : while in a third, 
they cross each oth^ lozenge fashion, and form an embossed net* 

The Ume, says Orose,* when this beautifiil chancel was suf- 
fered to fidl to ruin, is not exactly koown ; though the mono- 
ment of the Rev. Mr. Mason, once rector of Sudbome, seems to 
shew that it was in tolerable repair about the year 1621, when 
that gentleman was buried, and had his monument set up in it^ 
an expenca which his executors would not have taeuired, had the 


* Aatiquitfct, V. 77. 

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SX7PF0LX. 325 

ohancel then Been in ruins. This momnment is a mural one ; it 
stands against the sbuth wall of the chapel, and is of marhle. 
On it is the figure of Mr. Mason on his knees, praying at a desk, 
upon which a large book lies open ; beneath. is the following iiw 
Acription : 

** Here lyeth Franncis Mason, borne in the bishoprick of Du- 
resme, brought up in the universitie of Oxford, batchelonr of 
divinitie, fellow of Merton College, after rector of Orforde, in 
Suffi>lk^ where he built the parsenage-honse ; chapleyne to king 
James. The books which be writ testify his learning. He mar* 
ried Elizabeth Price, daughter of Nicholas Price, vicar of Bis* 
sain, in Oxfordshire, by whom he had three children. She 
erected this monument for him. He died in December, 162K 

*' Primm Deo cai cara fuit f acrare labores, 
Cui itudiuro sacris invigilare Librif, 
£cce sub boc tandem reqaievit marmore Ma«o, 
Eipectans Dominom speq ; fideq ; taam,'* 

Cfn a triangular tablet at the bottom ; 

" Id justice to the memory of &o great a man, who was rector 
here 80 years, and above 1 10 years old, this monument was re- 
moved from the ruinous chancel, and repaired and set up here at 
the charge of the present incumbent, Josiah Alsop, B. D. Anno 

Besides this, Orford chapel contains various other funeral me- 
morials, particularly a coffin-shaped ston^ with a cross-fleury, 
and several brass-plates, put down about the time of Elizabeth^ 
or James I. The arches dividing the ailes of the body are pointed. 
The font is very elegant, and apparently ancient Round the 
ed^e it has this inscription, but without date : Orate pro Animas 

Y3 bus 

* In this last inscription tliere are two great roistakei« one respecting th« 
age, and the other the tirae^ that Mr. Mason held the rectory of Orford. In 
Wood's AtKen^t Otoniann^ there is an acooont of him, in which he it said 
to have been bom in 1556, and made rector of Orford in 1597. According to 
the monument, he died iu 16tl, lo that bis age could bqC exceed 55/ or his 
iacnmbeucj S4 years. 

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3M 8U7VOLK. 

Ms Jokannis Cokerel, et Katerkut uxaris ejus qiU istam fmtem 
in honare Dei feeenmt fieri. 

Orford has a mean Taum-hali and an Assembly-housey a plain 
brick baildipg^ erected about forty years ago by the Marqaia of 
Hertford, but very little used. 

Thai this town was formerly of mach greater extent than at 
present, other facts, besides those already adverted to, aeem to 
demonstrate. In addition to the parochial chapel, it had one 
dedicated to St, John the Baptist, and another to St. Leonard. 
These were standing since the year 1600 ; and a piece of land 
on the north side of the town is still called St John's Chapel 
Field, In 1350 Orford sent three ^ips and Bixty->two men to 
assist Edward III. in the siege of Calais. Here too was a 
house of Angnstine Friars,* an hospital of St Leonard, and a 
ehanntry, valued at the Dissolution at 61. Ids. IH per annum : 
and there are naked lanes which yet retain the name of streets, 
as Bridge^slreet, . Chnrch-street, Broad-street, &c. The decline 
of the town is ascribed to the loss of its harbour, from the retiring 
of the sea, and a dangerous bar thrown up at its mouth by that 
changeable element In Orford river there is a considerable oys-f 
ter fishery, though there are no regular pits for the preservation 
of the fish. In 1810, licences to dredge for them were granted by 
the Marquis of Hertford to eighty vessels, at one guinea each. 

About a mile from Orford is Sudbame Hall and park, a 9eat 
of the Marquis of Hertford, who possesses the property and pa- 
tronage of this borough, which is at present represented in par* 
liament by his brother and nephew. The hall, a plain quadran^ 
gular building, covered with a white composition, was rebuilt 
about thirty years ago by Wyatt The staircase is executed with 
his usual^skill and taiste : but the general appearance of this man- 
sion conveys an idea of simplicity rather than elegance. It is 
chiefly used as a sporting residence, the park and neighborhood 
abounding with game. 

* So ssya the Suffolk Traveller, (Sd edit p. It5,) but the authon of JkUi«« 

BritaiiMMy<V. St9X,) call it a Benedictine uunoer^^k 


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Saxmundham, a small market-tovn> seated on a hill near s 
TiTulet tliat runs into the Aide, contaias 103 houses^ apd 855 
inhabitants. Its market is on Thursday ; and it has two fiiirs, on 
Holy Thnrsday, and the 23d of September. The streetjs are nar- 
row and nnpaved: the houses in general well built: but the towii 
has no particular manufacture. 

At the southern extremity of the town is Hurts Hall, the man- 
sion of Charles Long^ Esq. The house has within these few yearii 
been partly rebuilt and considerably enlarged by the present pro* 
prietor. The front consists of three semicircular projections ; the 
hall is adorned with a handsome geometrical staircase : and tha 
whole interior of the mansion is fitted up with taste and elegance. 
The surrounding grounds have been judiciously laid out and planted 
by Mr. Long, and they are embellished with a fine piece of water^ 
which flows through them, and the extremities of which are^ through 
«kilfiil management, concealed by wood. 

Near this mansion stands the church, a^ tolerably spacious build- 
ing, the advowson of which belongs to the manor. The interior it 
neatly fitted up, and contains monuments to the memory of the lat« 
proprietor, and of his brother, Beestou Long, Esq. Here is also a 
handsome mural tablet, embellished with naval trophies, and sur- 
mounted by the fisunily arms, to the memory of George, son of the 
last-mentioned gentleman, a lieutenant in his majesty's nay y, who 
gloriously fell in the very moment of victory, at the storming of 

Trincomale, in the East-Indies. 

In August, 1766, the House of Industry at Saxmundham was 
destroyed by a riotous assemblage of people, under pretence of 
releasing the poor to harvest^work, but in reality to defeat an act 
of parliament that had just passed respecting them. It was found 
necessary to summon the assistance of the military ; and several 
lives were lost before the disturbance was quelled. 

The other places in this hundred worthy of notice are : 
Benhall, formerly the lordship and estate of the UflR>rda, and 
de la Poles, Earls of Suffolk. In the reign of Elizabeth it be- 
longed to the Glenham fiunily, by which it was sold to that of 

Y 4 Duke. 

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S38 I07FOLK. 

Duke. BenkaU Lodge m9a}m\timl9a8,hY Bit EimndJhke, 

iirho, in IMl, was eretlid a btraiit. Hk jnodawj 

out latae, the eatate devdlTed to bia niter'a 9tt^ ; 

relli Esq. of Gi|r|^ng, aad paased tliroiigh varicnal 

bicame the property mad residence of the late Adnuial Sir ] 


BEUiSTAftD is worthy of mentioii only for a ooUegtate < 
of a warden and fonr aecular prieaU, founded kj Maud doi 
caster, countess of Ulster, at that time a nun at Campsey, 
which place it was translated hither in 1354. About eleven ] 
afterwards it was changed into a nunnery of the order of St. < 
and was yalued at the Dissolution at 66L 2s. Id. It ' 
in the dOth Henry VIIL to Nicholas Hare; and baa 
some time in the &mily of Lord Rous, the present proprietor* 

At BuTLBY, about four miles west from the sea» and three ^^Qlif.; i 
Orford, wfis a priory of Black Canons of St Augustine, founded i||\i 
1171, by Ranulph de Glanviile, a famous lawyer, afterwar4#i ' 
QSticiary of England, who dedicated it to the Blessed Viq$iii|^ ^ 
and endowed it with many churches and lands. Being removw'r-^l 
from his office, he, in a fit of discontent, took on him the cnMi^ 'JT^ 
attd resolved to visit the Holy Land. Accordingly he aecompiitygg^'. 
nied King Richard I. thither, and was present at the si^^ ^^'mt- 
Acre. Before he set out on this expeditioi^ he divided his estafe^j^l 
among his three daughters. To Maud, the eldest, who marriel^^ *\ 
William de Auberville, he gave the entire manor of BenhaU^ " 
and the patronage of the monastery at Butiey ; and fo his other 
daughters the remainder of his estates. 

Kiftg Henry Yll. in the 24th year of his reign, granted tlw . 
priory and convent of Butiey, the priory .of the Virgin Mary at 
Snape in this county, with all the lands and tenements then be* . 
longing to it, or which Thomas Neyland, late prior of Snape, etK*;; 
joyed in right of the same ; to hold in pure and perpetual afans* 
without account of any rents, and to be annexed to the said priory 
of Butiey. The priory of Snape, situated about five miles north 
ft Butiey, was originally a ceD to the abbey of St. John at Cok 


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I" ' 

'♦ 1 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

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iImM, \fj the a^ppmstmait of William Martel^ Ae founder; but 
ftM^Moe ^Rrma depriTed of it by tbe bull of Pope BoDi&ce IX* 
mder the ]^eleaee that it did not maintain there a sufficient nn»* 
Wr of lefigkms acccHrdiag to the will of the founder; it was ther^ 
kte made eoDTentoal^ and absoWed firom its snbjection to Col« 
Chester. This bidl^ however^ seems to hare had hot little eiect| 
fer it sppean from the legirter of the bishopric of Norwich, that 
the MtA and convent of Colchester presented the priors down to 
1491 ; and probably the canons of Bntley found that this eefl 
hroi^ht them more trouble than profit, for in 1509 they quitted aO 
claim and title to H. 

The endowment ai this priory was yery ample. At the Disso* 
iBElim the aannal income was estimated at 3181. 178. 2d. : its site 
was snorted, 32 Henry Till, to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, ; and 
96 of tiie sane king to William Forth, in whose fiunily it long 
eoBtinaed. In 1787, George Wright, Esq. whose property it 
Umb wa% fitted up the gat&-hoose, and coDverted it into a hand- 
aome mansioa, which has nnce been inhabited as a shooting seat 
hy noriooa penons of distinction. Mr. Wright, at lis death, left 
it to hm Widow, from whom it descended to John Clyatt, a 
watehnmn in London, as heir-at-law ; and was by him sold to 
Mr. Strah«i> printer to his majesty. It was afterwards the pro» 
pertf of Lord Archibald Hamiltcm, by whom it was sold, with the 
Rendlesham estate, to the fiither of the present noble possessor. 

In the chnrdi of this priory was bterred the body of Michael de 
la Pole, third hard Wingfield, and Earl of Snflfolk, who fell at 
the battle of Agincourt, with Edward Plantagenet, Duke of 

The priory was both large and magnificent ; its walls and mine 
ecenpy near twelve acres of ground. The gate-house was an 
cl^aiit atmctiire. Its whole front is embellished with coats of 
mms fiady eat in atone : and between the interstices of the free- 
stone are placed aqnare black flints, which, by the contrast of 
tieir ooloor^ ^▼^ it a beautiful and rith appearance. Sonth of 
the gaie«wr»y «re the remains of sereral buildings, particularly of 

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330 sttrFOLK. 

itn old chapel^ in a wall of which^ as Grose was infonned, a cbest 
of money was found arefaed into the wall, and tke arch was still 
Tisible when the view given by him was taken.* 

Glemham Parta gave name to a iamily^ which flourished 
there till the middle of the seventeenth century^ when two persons 
belonging to it raised themselves to great eminence in their re- 
spective professions. Sir Thomas was the eldest son of Sir 
Henry Glemham, of this place, by Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Sackville, Earl of Dorset. On finishing his education at Trinity 
College, Oxford, he embraced a military life, aad went to Ger- 
many, which was then the school for English officers. Returning to 
his native country at the commeBoemeilt of the war between Charies 
L and his parliament. Sir Thomas took the part of his majesty; 
and was enabled, by the skill which he had acquired abroad, to 
render him the most signal services. Having reduced York, which 
had declared for the parliament, he was appointed governor of 
that city, and defended it with the greatest intrepidity fer eigh- 
teen weeks against the united forces of the English and Scotch, 
till the defeat of the king at Marston Moor compelled him to 
capitulate, but upon terms honorable to himself and'advantageous 
to the citizens. He was then sent to command the garrison of 
Carlisle, which, assisted by his two gallant countrymen. Colonel 
Gosnold, of Ottley, and Major Naunton, of Letheringham, he 
defended nine months, in spite of pestilence and ftunine, with 
remarkable circumstances of resolution and patience ; and on his 
surrender, obtained not less honorable terms for that city than 
he had for York. The fortitude and gallantry displayed by Sir 
Thomas on both these occasions, marked him as the fittest person 
to be appointed to a similar command at Oxford. Here he aug- 
mented and strengthened the works, and prepared for an obsti- 
nate resistance in case of a siege, which, though it would have 
probably terminated in his surrender, must have cost the enemy 
a great expence of blood. His majesty, however, in the hope of 
obtaining some important advantages for h^nself and his friends, 

• Antifukieh V. 61. 

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sent express orders to Sir Thomas to give up the place^ ^nd with 
these he relactantly complied, hut not till he had stipulated with 
FairfiLX for the most &vorahle terms. Being, however, contrary 
to the articles, soon afterwards apprehended, he was imprisoned 
for some time, and, on his release, fled to Holland, where he 
died in 1649. His brother caused his remains to be brought to 
England, and interred in the church of this his native place, with 
the following inscription on his monument : 

Tho. Gleraham, cni castra Carleolense 
£t Eboracense Monumentum sant, et 
Oxoniom Epitaphiom. 

Henry, the brother of Sir Thomas, was equally distinguished 
for loyalty and attachment to the royal cause. He was bred to 
the church ; and on the triumph of the popular party was de* 
prived of all his preferments. On the restoration of Charles II. his 
fidelity was rewarded with the appointment, first, to the deanery 
of Bristol ; and in 1667 to the bishopric of St. Asaph. He sur- 
vived this promotion only two years, and was interred in the vault 
belonging, to his ftimily in the parish church of this place. 

In the grandson of Sir Thomas, the fieunily of Glemham be- 
came extinct The estate was purchased by Dudley North, Esq. 
who made great improvements in the Hall, where his son now 

Parham was the lordship of the de Uffords, Earls of Suffolk. 
The church was built by William de Ufibrd, who dying suddenly 
while attending his parliamentary duty, the estate went to his 
sister. Cicely, who married Sir Robert Willoughby, and carried 
it into that fiunily. Their descendants, who were elevated to the 
peerage by the title of Willoughby de Eresby, were for some time 
in possession of this manor, till one of those barons gave it to his 
youngest son Christopher, who fixed his residence here. His 
son. Sir William, was, in the first year of Edward VI. created 
liord Willoughby of Parham; and his successors eigoyed the 
honour till the doath of Henry, the ^sixteenth lord, in 177& The 
4 tido 

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tide is now vetted in Priacilla Barbara Elizabetii Lindsay^ wife 
of Lord Gwydir^ daughter and co-heir of Peregrine, Dake of An* 
eatter, and joint hereditary great Chamberlain of England. 

In 1734, the bones of a man, an nm, and the bead of a spear, 
were feond in a grarel pit in a field called Fryer's Close, in this 

This place seems to have had its Christmas-flowering thorn like 
that at Glastonbury. It is mentioned by Kirby, in the first edi* 
tion of his Smfolk Traveller; and the Ipswich Journal of January 
13, 1753, contains a letter, affirming that it budded eleven days 
earlier than usual, in order to accommodate itself to the new 
style. The publisher of that paper, however, observes, notwith- 
steading the positive manner of the writer, that he had received a 
very diflerent account of the Parham thorn. 

At Parham was bom in 1717 Joshua Kirbt, F.R.S. A.S 
designer in perspective to their Majesties. He was the son of 
John Kirby, author of the SnA>lk Traveller; and himself pub- 
lished in 1766, Dr. Brook Taylor^ s Perspective Made Easy, a 
work of distinguished merit Mr. Kirby died in 1774, and was 
interred in Kew church-yard, where the remains of his friend, 
Thomas Gainsborough, were afterwards, by his express desire, 
placed beside him. He married Miss Sarah Bull, of Framlingham, 
by whom he had two children ; William, who died in 1771, and 
the late Mrs. Trimmer. 

Shape is of note only ibr a monastery of Black Friars, founded 
there in 1099, by William Martell, Albreda, his wife, and Jeffiry, 
their son and heir, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Being 
possessed of the manor of Bnape, including the benefit of wrecks 
of the sea from Thorp to Hereford Ness, they gave it to the 
abbey of Colchester, Ibr the purpose of founding at this place 
a priory, which should be a cell to that abbey. A prior and iMme 
Benedictine monks from that house were accordingly settled here 
in 1165; but upon complaint made by Isabel, Countess of Sufifolk, 
and patroness of this priory, to Pope Boni&ee IX. that the said 
pibbcit foid convent did not maintain a jnii^ent number of religious 


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igk it according to ike will of the ibnnders^ thiti honee was, by a 
bull, dated A. D. 1403, made con^entoal, and exempted from all 
■abjection to that at Colchester. WUliam de la Pole, Earl of 
Saffi}lk, in the time of Henry VI. designed to have new-founded 
this priory ; which was given by King Henry VII. in his 24th 
year, to the monastery of Bailey ; but the prior and his canons 
relinquished all claim to it in 1509. It was suppressed in 1584, 
and givjen to Cardinal Wolsey for the endowment of his colleges; 
and after the Cardinal's attainder, the site of this edifice was 
granted to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. 

The church of Snape is dedicated to St John Baptist, and 
contains a very ancient and highly ornamented stone font The 
figures round the pillar by which it is supported are an assemblage 
of kings, prehiies, and non-descripi birds, standing on pedestals. 
The font is hexagonal, having a pillar at each angle ; between 
the pillars are figures, the alternate ones of which are crowned : 
the others are in priesfs habits, and all of them bear a scroll, 
the characters of which are illegible,^ 


The hundred of Blithing is bounded on the east by the Ocean ; 
on the west and south by the hundreds of Hoxne and Plomesgate ; 
and on the north by Wangford and Muiford. It contains forty- 
eight parishes, and three market-towns, Dunwich, Halesworil^ 
and Sonthwold. 

Dunwich, once an important, opulent, and commercial city, 
now a mean village, stands on a cliff of considerable height, 
commanding an extensive view of the German Ocean, about four 
miles south of Southwold. This place still retains its market, 
which is held on Mondays, but is so scantily supplied, as 
scarcely to deserve the name ; and has seiU two members to par- 

* A view of tMf corioai font it given io the Anti^wUn €ni Topogra' 
fhie^l Ctikmtt, No. SO. 

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384 mmouL 

liament er^r sinee the CoBmanB of England fint acquired the 
right of representation. The corporation conaista of two bailiffii^ 
and twelve capital burgesses ; and the right of election lies in the 
freemen reaiding within the borough^ and not receiving alms. Ac-> 
cording to the retoms of 1801, the town contained forty-two 
houses, and 184 inhabitants. 

Though many of the traditionary accounts relative to this town 
are probably fabolbus, it is nevertheless certain that it is a place 
of very high antiquity. It is conjectured by some to have been 
a station of the Romans, from the number of their coins disco- 
vered here. So much is certain, that in the reign of Sigcbert, 
king of the East*Angles, Felix, the Bargundian bishop, whom 
that monarch in^ted hither to |ff0HM>te the conversion of his sub- 
jects to Christianity, fixed his episcopal see at Dunwich in the 
year 1636 : and here his successors continued, as is related under 
the ecclesiastical histor of the county, for about two hundred 

When an estimate was taken of all the lands in the kingdom by 
Edward the Confessor, there were two carves of land at Dun- 
wich, but one of these had been swallowed up by the sea before 
the Conqueror's survey was made. It was then the manor of 
Robert Malet, and contained eleven Bordarii, twenty-four free- 
men, each holding forty acres of land, 196 burgesses, 178 poor, 
and three churches. It became the demesne of the crown about 
the banning of the reign of Henry 11. at which time, as we arf 
infonned by William of Newbury, it had a mint, and was a town 
of good note, abounding with much riches, and sundry kinds of 
merchandizes. The annual fee-form rent then paid by it was 
1201. 13s. 4d« and twenty-four Uiousand herrings. This was pro- 
bably the period of its highest prosperity. 

Under Richard I. Dunwich was fined 1060 marks, Orford 15, 
Ipswich 200, and Yarmouth 200, for unlawfully supplying the 
king's enemies with com. These sums may afibrd some idea of 
tiie relative importance of those towns at that time. King John, 
in the first year of hia reign, granted a charter to Dunwich, by 


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nvfvotK. 335 

which its inhabitants were empowered among other things, to 
marry their sons and daughters as they pleased, and also to give, 
■ell, or otherwise dispose of their possessions in this town as 
they should think fit. This charter, dated at Gold ClifT, 29th 
Jane, 1 John, cost them three hundred marks, besides ten falcons, 
and fire ger-fiedcons. 

In the reign of King Edward I. after this town had consider* 
ably declined, it had eleven ships of war, sixteen fiiir ships, 
twenty baiks, or vessels, trading to the North Seas, Iceland, &g. 
and twenty-four small boats for the home fishery. In the 24th 
year of the same reign, the men of Dunwich, built at their own 
cost, and eqfuipped for the defence of the realm, eleven ships of 
war, most of which carried 72 men each. Foiir of these vessels 
with their artillery, valued at 2001. were taken and destroyed 
by the enemy, while on service off the coast of France. In 
1347, this port sent six ships with 102 mariners, to assist in 
the siege of Calais; but during the war with FVance, most of 
the ships belonging to it were lost, together with the lives of 
about 500 townsmen, and goods, and merchandize to the value of 

A still greater loss however, was sustained by this town in the 
removal of its port; a new one being opened within the limits of 
Ulithburgh, not far from Walberswick Key, and two miles nearer 
to Southwold than the former port. This circumstance, while it 
greatly increased the trade of those places, caused that of Dun- 
wich to decline in the same proportion ; and, combined with the 
ravages of the ocean, gradually reduced this town to poverty ; 
in consideration of which, the fee-farm rent paid to the crown was 
abated at various times, till Charles II. fixed the anu>unt of it at 
one hundred shillings per annum. 

The present ruinous state of this once flourishing place, is 
pwing chiefly to the repeated encroachments of the ocean. Seat- 
ed upon a hill composed of loam and sand of a loose texture, on 
a coast destitute of rocks, it is not surprising that its buildings 
•hoald have tuccetsively yielded to the impetuosity of the bil- 

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936 ftrrrou* 

Iow8« fcrealuAg agtuut, and easily andemiaing the fool of tlie 
precipices. The following geoeral view of their principal ra* 
Tages is extracted from Gardner's Historical Accoont :-* 

We have already seen that out of two carres of land, taxed 
under King Edward the Confessor, one had been washed away, 
at the time of the Conqueror's sunrey. The sea, agitated by 
▼iolent east, or sooth-eaat winds, continaed its conquests quite to 
the town, for whose preservation, Henry III. in the 6th year of 
his reign, not only required assistance of others, but himself 
granted 200L towards makinga fence to check its inroads. Dnn- 
wich snfiered considerable damage on the night of January l8t» 
1286, from the violence of the winds and sea, by which sereral 
churches were overthrown, and destroyed in different places. In 
the first year of Edward IIL the old port was rendered entirely 
useless, and before the twenty-third of Uie same king, great part 
of the town, containing upwards of four hundred houses which 
paid rent to the fee-farm, wiih certain ahc^ and windmills, had 
fallen a prey to the waves. After this, the church of Su Lao- 
nard was overthrown, and in the course of the same century, the 
churches of 8t Martin, and St Nicholas, were also destroyed. 
In 1540, the church of St John Baptist was demolished, and 
before 1600, the chapels of St Anthony, St Firmtcis, and St 
Katherine, together with the South Gate, and Gilden Gate, were 
swallowed up, so that not one quarter of the town was then left 
standing. In the reign of Charles I. the Temple buildbga yield- 
ed to the irresistible force of the sui^ges, and the sea reached to 
the maricet-place in 1677, when the townsmen sold^the mate* 
rials of the cross. In 16S0, all the buildings north of Maiaoa 
Dieu Laue were demolished ; and in 1702, the sea reached St 
Peter's church, which was dismantled and soon undermined. The 
town-hall shared the same fete. In 1715, the jail was absorbed, 
lind in 1720, the farthest bounds of St Peter's church-yard wer^ 
washed away. In December 1740, the wind blowing very har4 
from the north-east, and continuing fer several days, occasioned 
terribls devastatioas. Great part of the <diff was carii^ away by 


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dUFTOLlt S37 

the riideitce of the wayes, which destroyed the last remains of the 

churcli-yan! of St, Nicholas, tuj^ether with the great road for- 
meriy leading from the Key to the town, leaving several naked 
Wtilis, the tokens of ancient buildings. King's Holm, otherwise 
called Leonard's Marsh, then worth 1001. per annam, was laid 
under water, and covered with snch quantities of shingle and 
sand, as to be ever since of very little value. The Cock and 
Hen hills, which, the preceding suiiiraer, were forty feet high, 
had their heads levelled with their bases, and the ground about 
them was so rent and torn, that the foundation of the chapel of 
St. Francis, situated between thera, was exposed to view. The 
remains of the dead were waslied from their repositories, and se- 
veral skeletons appeared scattered upon the beach. A stone cof- 
fin containing human bodies covered with tiles, was also seen, 
but before it could be reinovedj the Violence of the surges broke 
it in two pieces. Near the chapel, were found at the same time, 
the pipes of an aqueditct, soine of which were of lead, and others 
of grey earth. The fotjowinfr year, in digging a trench for the 
purpose of draining the maibhes overflowed the preceding winter, 
were discovered several old coins, and other curiosities, of which 
Gardner has given a representation in his History.* - 

Dunwich had but one church iu the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor, but in the reign of the Conqueror two more had been add- 
ed. The erection of the former is ascribed to Felix, the first 
bishop of Uunwich, to whom it was dedicated. It is farther 
reported that this saint was buried here in 647, but that his 
remains were afterwardu removed to Soham, in Cambridge- • 

In the sequel this town contained six, if not eight parish 
churches : — 

St. John's church, a rectory, was a large edifice, and stood 
near the great market-place, in the centre of the town. In a 
will dated 1490, and proved in 1501, there is a legacy t)f tea 
marks for some ornaments for this church, with the following 
clause; " If it fortune the church to decay by adventure of the^ 
- Vol, XIV. Z «ea,* 

* See p. 96. 

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838 StJFFOLK. 

Bea, the ten marke to be disposed of by my ationues, (or eiitcu^ 
tors) where they thiok best" About 1510 two legacies were given 
towards building a pier against St John's church. The last insti-' 
tution to it was in 1537. The inhabitants, to prevent its being 
washed away by the sea, took it down about the year 1540. In 
the chancel was a large grave stone, under which was discovered a 
stone cofEn containing the corpse of a man, that fell to dust when 
stirred. On his legs, we are told, " were a pair of boots, picked 
like Crakows,''* and on his breast stood two chalices of coarse 
metal. He was conjectured to have been one of the Bishops of 

St. Martin's, likewise a rectory, is thought to have stood on 
the east side of the town. The last institution to it, was in 

St Leonard's was an impropriation. It probably stood east- 
ward of St. John's, and was early swallowed up by the sea, for in 
a will dated 1450, the testator devised his house in the parish 
anciently called St. Leonard's. 

St. Nicholas, a cross church, the tower, or steeple, standing in 
the midst of it, distant twenty rods south-east of the filack 
Friars. The last institution to this rectory was in 1352. The 
utmost bounds of its cemetery were washed away in 1740. 

St. Peter's, also a rectory, stood about sixty rods north-east of 
All Saints, and had a chapel on the north side of it called St. Ni- 
cholas's. This edifice, on account of the proximity of the sea,, 
which daily threatened its overthrow, was by agreement of the 
parishioners in 1702, stripped of the lead, timber, bells, and other 
materials. The walls which alone were left standing, bein^ 
soon afterwards undermined by the waves, tumbled over the clifl^ 
The church-yard was swallowed up by the devouring element^ 
not more than twenty years before Gardner published his History. 

All Saints is the only church of which any portion is now 
standing. It was built of flint and free-stone. The square towes 


* Shoes with long poioted toes beot opwsrds. 
t Tmmtr'tColL 

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n still ft%\ty entire^ bat of the body of the church nothing but a ])or- 
lion of the exterior walls remains, aad cattle graze within ils area* 
It appears from Gardner^ that about the year 1725, part of iliis 
edifice was demolished, and its dimensions considerably reducedi 
In the south aisle, which was then pulled down, were magisterial 
seats, decorated with curious carved work, and the windows were 
adorned with paihted glass, which, through the carelessness of 
the glazier was broketi in pieces. Most of the grave-stones had 
brass-plates with inscriptions, all of which were embezzled by 
the persons employed in the work. We tiud thai in 1754, divine 
service was performed here once a fortnight, from Lady Day to 
Michaelmas, and monthly during ibo rest of the year : hut when 
it was discontinued we are not iu formed. Recent inscriptions in 
the church-yard, shew that it is sftill u^d as a place of ititcrnienl 
for the parishioners. 

In the time of the Gonqucror^ alt tlie churches then erected. 
Or to be erected in Dunwich, were given by Robert Malet, to his 
priory at Eye, in his charter of endowment. The prior and cou-* 
vent accordingly presented to all instituted churches, and had 
tithes out of most of them, together with all the revenues of such 
as were impropriated, finding a secular priest to serve the cures. 

According to the Register of Eije, Dunwich had two other 
churches dedicated to St. Michael and St. Bartholomew, which aro 
there recorded to have been swallowed up by the sea before 1331 ; 
when the prior and convent of Eye, petitinued the Bishop of Nor- 
wich to impropriate the church of Laxtield to them, alledging, 
among other reasons, that they had loit a considerable part of 
their revenues at Dunwich, by the irruptions of the ocean. 

Besides these churches, Weever mentions three chapels, dedi- 
cated to St. Anthony, St Francis, and 8t. Katherinc. The site 
of the first is unknown. The second stood between Cock and 
Hen Hills, and as well as St. Katherine's, which was ii^ SL 
John's parish, is supposed to have fallen to decay in the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

In this town was anciently a house belonging to the Kuight's 

Z 2 Templars, 

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340 ^ ftrTroLK. 

Temphrt, and afterwards to the Hospitallers, endowed with s 
eonsiderable estate in Donwieh aad the coDtigaous hamlels of 
Westletoii and Dingle. To this ertablishment belonged a chureh 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. John Baptist, hoik for the 
me of the tenants of the uMtnor, whose houses were all distin* 
guished by crosses, the badge of the Knights. 

Here were also two monastic institutions, belonging to tbe 
Franciscans and Dominicans, or Grey and Black Mars. Tbe 
ftrst was founded by Richard Fitz-John, and AUce his wife, and 
Ha rcTennes were afterwards augmented by Henry III. The area 
encompassed by the walls of this house, which yet remain, is vp« 
wards of scTen acres. Th^y had three gates; one of these, the 
eastern, is demoliriied; but the arches of the other two, standing 
close together to the westward, continue nearly entire. They 
have nothing remarkable in their construction, but being orrered 
with ivy, form a picturesque object The largest of these gates 
aerved for the principal entrsace to the house, and the other led 
to the church. A bam is the only bnitding now standing in tiiis 

The monastery of the Black Friars was founded by Sir Roger 
de Holish. In the eighth year of Richard II. the sea having 
washed away the shore almost up to this house, some attompta 
were made to remove the friars to Blithbnrgh. Tbey neverthdess 
continued here till the dissolution, when the site of this house, 
as well as that of the Grey Friars, was granted among other poa- 
aessions to John Eyre. Both of these monastic establishmento 
had handsome churches belonging to them. 

Besides these religious edifices, Dunwich contained two hos- 
pitals. St James's hospital, to which bel<mged a large, handsome 
ehurch or chapel, was founded for a master, and several leprous 
brethren and sisters, in the reign of Richard I. by Walter de 
Riboff. By the generosity of the founder and other benelactMv, 
this establishment enjoyed ample revenues, till several sordid 
"blasters, for their private interest, alienated lands and other do- 
nations, to the great detriment of the fraternity, who being thus 


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defrauded of their sabsistence gradually decreased^ and their edi- 
fices fell into irreparable decay. Thus the large income of this 
onee oelelmited hospital is now dwindled to a trifling wim, which 
is ap^ed to the maintenance of a few indigent people, who reside 
in a wfetched house, being all that is left of their original habitat 
lion, except some remains of the church and chapel. 

The other hospital, denominated Maison Dieu, or God's House^ 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was, as early as tlie time of Henry 
III. abandantly endowed with houses and lands, lor a master, six 
baelhren, and several sisters. The revwues, reduced through 
the same mismanagement as tliose of the hospital of St James, 
to a mere trifle, are divided among a few poor people, who with 
the master, reside in two old decayed houses, which, with a small 
part of the church, are all that remains of this institutioii^ 

In former times a wood, called East Wood, or the King's Fo* 
rest, extended several miles south-east of the town, but it has 
been for many ages destroyed by the sea. The land must conae^ 
gently have stretched for oul;, and have formed the southern 
boundary of the bay of Southwold, as Easton-ness did the north* 
em. Weever says, that the men of Dunwich, requiring the aid 
of William the Conqueror against the rage of the sea, affirmed 
that it had devoured great part of the Forest ; and Gardner in* 
forms us* that he had seen manuscripts mentioning that this mo^ 
narch gave permission to the Rouses of Baddingham, and other 
gentlemen in the neighbourhood, to hunt and hawk in his forest 
at Dunwioh. The same writer also reEktes, that in the furious ir^ 
ruption of the sea in 1739, its impetuosity exposed the roots of 
a great number of trees once growing there, which appeared to 
be the extremity of some wood, and was in all probability the 
ancient forest. Contiguous to the latter was another wood, from 
its relative situation denominated Westwood. 

Hales WORTH is a well built town, situated near the river 
Blith, which has been made navigable up to this place. It cou^i 
tains 258 houses, aud 1^76 inhabitants, many of whom are em- 

Z 3 ployed 

* Historical Accoont of Ounwicb, &c. p.-38. 

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948 00FFOLK. 

ployed in spiniiing linen yarn, great qnantitieB of bemp being 
grovn in the neigbbourhood. lU market is on Tbunday, and it 
bas a yearly hir on the 29tb of October. Thoagh a place of 
considerable antiquity, it contains nothing worthy of notice, ex* 
cept a handsome Gothic church, and a charity-school. Sir Ro« 
bert Bedingfield, who was lord«mayor of London, in 1707, was a 
native of Haleswortb. 

SooTHwoLD, anciently Sudwald, or Sauthwood, was probably 
thus named irora a wood near it, as tbe western confines still re- 
tain the appellation of WoodVend marshes, and Woods-end 
creek. It is pleasantly situated on an eminence oTerlooking the 
German Ocean, but nearly surrounded on every other side by the 
river Blith, which here discharges itself into the sea. This town 
was made corporate in 1489, by Henry VII. according to whose 
charter, confirmed by seveial succeeding sovereigns, it is govern- 
ed by two bailifli, a recorder, and twelve aldermen. In 1801 it 
contained 206 houses, and 1054 inhabitants. The market on 
Thursday is well attended, and there are two fiurs, on Trinity 
Monday, and the 24th of August, 

Though Soothwold is not of such high antiquity as Dunwich, 
Blithburgh, and some other neighbouring places, yet the inha^ 
bitants were enabled, not only to enter into competition with those 
towns, but in time to surpass them in navigation and traflic. 

Alfric, Bishop of the East Angles, who possessed this lord- 
ship, gave it, among other donations, to the abbey of Bury St, 
Edmund's, by which it was' held as one manor for the victualling 
of the monks. It had half, and a quarter of the other half of 
the sea belonging to the manor, before the Conqueror's time pay- 
ing 20,000 herrings; butafter the conquest, 25,000. From the di- 
mensions of this manor given in Domesday survey, Gardner 
calculates that the sea has since gained upon this coast one mile, 
one furlon|2:, and nineteen perches.* In the 43d Henry III. the 
manor of Southwold was exchanged, by Simon, abbot of Bury, 
for other possessions, with Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloncestev, 


* His^ of Donwich, &c. p. 189, 190, 

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liho, in the year following, obtained permission to convert his house 
in this town into a castle.* By his son's wife, Joan of Acres, 
daughter of Edward I. it was carried, on her second marriage, 
into the family of Mounthermer, which had been invested with 
the earldom of Gloucester and Hertford; but in 12th Edward IIL 
some part of the manor was annexed to the priory at Wangford, 
and is now held by the corporation of Southwold, of Lord Rous, 
to whom the priory belongs. 

In the 10th Henry IV. Southwold was exempted from the pay- 
ment of any customs or tolls, for their small boats, passing in or 
out of the river, or port of Dnnwich. King Henry VII. in con- 
sideration of the industry and good services of the men of South- 
wold, made the town a free burgh, or corporation, to be govern- 
ed by two bailiffs, a recorder, and other inferior officers, to whom, 
and the commonalty, he gave his lordship of the same, called 
Queen's demesne revenues, and also the privilege of admiralty, 
for the annual payment of 141. He moreover granted them ex- 
emption from all dues and customs payable to Dunwicb, and con- 
ferred on the town the rights of a haven, which probably caused 
the denomination of the port of Dunwich to be changed to that 
of Southwold. Henry VIIL not only confirmed all his father's 
grants, but added to them many gifts, firanchises, and immunities. 
These royal favors gave great encouragement to the trade and 
navigation of the town, of which the fishery constituted no small 
part ; being carried on by merchants, who annually fitted out nu- 
merous vcssek, tradition says upwards of fifty, for taking cod and 
other fish in the North Sea. The herring fishery off their own 
coast was also highly conducive to the prosperity of the town. 
Though Southwold was sensibly aflfected by the emancipation of 
the country from the pi^al supremacy, still it retained an exten- 
sive trade, and exceeded all the neighbouring towns in shipping 

Z 4 and 

• This structure is soppoted by Gardner, to have occupied the spot, where 
in the seqoel Gu9man*t, or Siellman't stood ; many stones, some of ihero hewn 
for arches, and other architectural remain?, having of late years, says that 
vriteri been dug up in a garden there. 

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844 wfwoix. 

Mid commeroa. But ike gr«at9st calaiiiit;y ihal ^evar beM lUi 
place, was on the 26th of April 1669, when a fire, whoae desftrvc- 
tive fory was heightened by a vioieat wind, consnmed, in tha 
apace of four hours, the town«hall, market-honae, market-plaesj 
prison, granaries, shops, warehouses, and 238 dwfsUing hoaaes, 
and other buildings. The greatest part of the moTeaUe goods, 
nets and tackling of the inhabitants for their fishery, and all their 
com, malt, barley, fish, coals, and other merchandize, werede- 
atroyed in this conflagration, the total loss by which exceeded 
40,0001. to the min of more than 300 families. By this disaster^ 
many substantial persons were obliged to seek habitations else-> 
where, so that the town never recovered its former importance ei- 
ther in trade or buildings. All the conrt-baron rcdls were de* 
atroyed on this occasion, in consequence of which, all tf^ QiVT* 
holders of the corporation are become freeholders. 

About the middle of the last century, the commerce qf tU$ 
place received a fresh impulse. The entrance to the bayeB^ 
which is on the south side of the town, was anbject to be choked 
up, till an act of parliament was obtained fiyr repairing and i^i- 
proving it. Accordingly, one pier was erected on the nerth side 
of the port in 1749, and another on the south in 1752. The es* 
tablisbment of the Free British Fishery, in 1760, also oMitribiited 
greatly to the prosperity of the town, where two docks were oon- 
atnicted, and various buildings erected fiv the making and 
tanning of nets, and for the depositing of stores. As the beach 
at Soulhwold partakes of the advantages enjoyed by other towns 
on this coast for sea-bathing, it has of late years derived some 
benefit from the strangers who resort thither during the summa 
season for that purpose, and for whose accommodation two conve- 
nient machines are kept in the town. 

The first chapel here was probably built in the reign of King 
John, by the prior and monks of Thetford, who, in right of their 
cell at Wangford, were patrons of the church of Rissemere, or 
Reydou, to which Southwold was only a hamlet^ and to which 
the inhabitants of this town were still obliged to resort in order to 
6 receive 

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mem flie jMcnments, as also for the perfbrmance of the i 
Tiage and fiuieral ceremonies, and divine aenrice on particalar 
fcitijraiB. This chapel was destroyed by fire aboat 230 yean after 
Its ereetiAli* The present edifice dedicated to St. Edmnnd is sup- 
posed to hi^e been coHMneoced aoon after the destraction of the 
old one. The exterior was apparently finished about 1460^ as 
the legacies after that time are chiefly for the inside work. This 
second chapei was made parochial^ and in 1751, being endowed 
with 4001. giyep by the governors of Qneen Anne's boonty, and 
the like som raised by public contributions, it was separated firoa 
Jfteydon, and made a distinct curacy, to which Lord Rous, as pa- 
tion of Reydoa, has the nomination. 

The total length of this fine fidiric is 143 feet 6 inches, and 
|fae width 66 feet 2 inches, it has two aisles, which are sepa- 
lated 'from the nave by seven arches, and six pillars of elegaal 
workmanship. The tower steeple, about 100 foot in height, is a 
fine piece of architecture, beautified with freestone intermixed 
with flint of various colours. The porch, erected about thirty 
years after the church, is highly ornamented ; over the entrance 
is a vacant niche, which probably contained the l^tue of the pa- 
tron saint, and it is decorated in various parts with Gothic let- 
ters, similsf to tiiose of the inscHption upon the arch over the 
great west window of the tower : sat bdmdnd. oaa. p. nobis, 
aignifying Sancte Edmunde, ora pro nobis. Every letter is 
adivned with a crown placed over it» and the whole is considered 
an excellent performance. The north door has a niche on either 
aide, with a figure in each, resembling an angel with prodigious 
wings, in a kind of palpit, and his hands joined as if in the atti- 
tude of prayer. The pillars supporting these niches rise from 
grotesque heads. The mouldings between the receding arches of 
all the doors, are ornamented with foliage, flowers, grotesque 
lieada^ and figures;, as is also the fillet that runs round the 
body of the church, above the windows. At each comer of 
the east end of the chancel, is a low hexagonal tower, with 


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348 BWfOhK. 

batUemeaU, none of wbich are stiU decorated ivith' onutmental 

The interior of this edifice still indicates that it was ]f et more 
highly ornamented than the exterior. It contained sereral 
images; and the carved work of the rood-loft^ and seats of the 
magistrates^ now somewhat dehced, originally bore a great re- 
semblance to those in Henry the Seventh's chapel^ at Westmin* 
ster. Every pew in the church was likewise decomted with re« 
presentations of birds, beasts, satyrs, or human figures, which 
have partaken of the same usage, except a few on the north side 
of the north aisle, and others concealed by the folding doors 
opening into the chancel. . The ceiling of the latter is hand- 
aomely painted, as is likewise that over the screen in the nave. 
'' On one side,'' says Gardner, " angels seemingly express much 
joy, with part of the song of St. Nicetas, TV Deum Laudamms, 
&0. On the other, answering thereto, is the historical rcfresent- 
mtion of Zacharias's prophecy, Benedictus lyns, &c. The fironts 
of the magistrates' seats are adorned widi gildings and paintings. 
The skreen has iuthe north aisle, the emblematical figures of the 
blessed Trinity in a Triangle ; next Gawhriel; after liiat the hier- 
archy, Arkangeiui Potestates, Ihmmationes, Ckerebyn, Sera- 
fyn. Thrones, Primcipatus, Virtutes, Angelusf in the south 
aisle, Barush Pha, 0$e Pka, Naum Pka, Jeremias Pha, He«» 
fya* Pha, Moytes Pha, Daniel Pha, Amos Pha, Isaias Pha, 
Jonas Pha, Ezekias Pha. In the middle are the twelve apostles, 
on the north side six, and as many on the south. Under them 
are four impresaions of the angel, lion, ox, and eagle, represent- 
ing Ezekiel's vision of the foar cherubim and evangelists. . Here 
blind zeal, ignorant superstition, and obstinate bigotry, with 
united force wrought their spite, by defacing, not only angels, 
apostles, and prophets, but likewise extending their malice, by 
breaking all the historical faces in the painted windows, and in 
committiiig sacrilege by robbing the grave-stones of the brass- 
plates, whiph bore monumental inscriptions to the memory of the 


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ieaA, and enunng others; wkence we may conclude, that the 
paintings on the ceilings would haTe had no more fitvour shewn 
thera^ if they had been as e&tsily come at.''* 

Though ^outhwold contains many good houses, it has no other 
building, except perhaps the GuHdhall, worthy of being parti- 
cularized. On the clifis are two batteries, one of which is a re- 
gular fortification, with a good parapet, and six guns ; the other * 
has but two. On a hill called Eye-cliff, and several otliers situ- 
ated near it, are to be seen the vestiges of an ancient encamp* 
ment, and where the ground has not been broken up, are tokens 
of circular tents, vulgarly denominated fkiry-hills. Gardner con- 
jectures that this may have been a camp of the Danes, when they 
invaded the country in 1010. i* 

It baa been remarked, that at this town in particular, as at all 
the places on this coast, the swallows commonly first land, on 
their arrival in England, and hence also they take their dq»ar* 
ture, on their return to warmer climates. " I was at this place 
about the beginning of October,'' says the author of a tour 
through Great Britain, { " and lodging in a house that looked in« 
to the church-yard, I observed in the evening an unusual multi- 
tude of swallows, sitting on the leads of the church, and cover* 
ing the tops of several houses round about. This led me to en« 
quire what was the meaning of such a prodigious number of swal- 
lows sitting there. I was answered, that this was the season 
when the swallows, their food fiiiling here, begin to leave us, and 
return to the country, wherever it be, from whence they came ; 
and that this being the nearest land to the opposite coast, and the 
wind contrary, they were waitings for a gale, and might be said to 
be wind-bound. This was more evident to me, when in the morn- 
ing I found the wind had come about to the north-west in the 
night, and there was not one swallow to be seen. This passing 
and repassing of swallows is observed no where so much as on this 
eastern coast, namely from above Harwich to Winterton-ness in 
^forfolk. We know nothing of them any farther north ; the passage 


f Qardoer't Donwicb, p. JOS, & t04. f l^id. p. 189, i Vol. t p. 189 . 





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•f the tea being, as I nq>poae, toe bfoad from Fhttbortagh 
Head, and the duve of Holdernew in Yoriwhire/* 

SoHthufoldBay, commonly called Sole B^, is celehriM as Uie 
theatre of a most obattnate and saogainary nayal engagement, 
which took place, in 1672, between the combined fleet of Eng* 
land and France, on one aide, and that of the Datoh on the other. 
The former coosisted of 101 sail, thirty-five of which were French, 
carrying 6018 guns, and 34^630 men. In this bay they were 
lying on the d6th of May, when the Dutch fleet, composed of 
ttinety^ne men of war, fifty-four fire ships, and twenty-three 
tenders, commanded by the famous De Ruyter, bore down i^on 
them so unexpectedly, that many of the ships were obliged to 
cut their cables, that they might get out more expeditionsly> and 
range themselves in order of battle. Bankert> who commanded 
the van of the Dutch, commenced the attad^ on the white s^aa* 
dron, under the French Admiral Count d' Etr^. The latter re* 
eeived them with some appearance of eonragie, but soon aheeied 
M, in conseqaenee, as it is generally belieYod, of secret ordeia 
from his master not to expose Us ships too much, bat to leave 
the English and Dutch to e&ct their mutual destruction. In 
the mean time De Ruyter made a fiurioiis attack ou the Duke 
of Yoric and the centre squadron, whik Van Ghent eogag>ed tho 
Uue, under the Earl of Sandwich. The duke, after an obstanato 
conflict of several hours with the Dutch commander, wss obliged 
to shift his flag frmn the disabled state of his M^. The Earl 
of Sandwich, in the Roysl James, of 100 guns, maintained a 
most unequal conflict with Vsn Ghent's division. He was first 
attacked by the Great fiollsnd, commanded by Captain Braakel, 
and a fire-ship. Braakel, though of inferior force, yet depending 
on the assistance of his countrymen, who had the advantage of 
the wind, gnq»[ded the Royal James, and the eari being ill sup« 
ported by the rest of his squadron, was almost entirely surrounded 
by the enemy. Van Ghent wss soon killed, and his ship, being 
much disabled, sheered off. Another Dutoh man of war, and 
three fire-ships were sunk, and at length the earl succeeded in 


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dif engagtag hiauelf from Braakd's shif, aftar being gnqipled 
vilh her an hoar aad a half, and reducing her to a mere wreck; 
the captain himself being wounded, and two-thirds ef his men 

The earl had now with unexampled intrepidity defended him* 
self ftr fire hours, but disdaining to retieat, another Dutch fire 
•hip approached under cover of the enemy's smoke, and boarded 
the Royal James mi the q[uarter. The greater pari of her crew had 
already fidlen, aad her hull waa so pierced with shot, that it wan 
knpoasible to canry her oC In this condition, the earl begged his 
Ci^tain Sir Richard Haddock, and all his servants to get into the 
boat, and save themselves, which they did : but some of the 
■ailora resolutely refuaing to quit their commander, remained on 
board, and endeavoured, but in vain, to extinguish the flames. 
The ship blew up about noon, off Easton Ness, and they thus 
periahed together. 

Van Ghent's division, thrown into confusion by the death of 
their admiral, and the fiirious attack of part of the earPs squadron^ 
which anrived, but too late, to his assistance, was obliged to re* 
treat, and withdrew for some time from the engagement Thu 
aflbnded Sir Joseph Jordan, who had now succeeded to the com- 
mand of the blue squadron, an opportunity of uniting with the 
led, in order to assist the Duke of York, who, being deserted by 
Ike French, had suffered considerably from the powerful attacka 
•f the enemy's two divisions under De Ruyter and Bankert la 
this conflict Cornelius Evertzen, Admiral of Zealand, was killed, 
aad De Ruyter himself was wounded, and narrowly escaped being 
baraed by the Englirii fire-ships. His ship was at length so 
completely disabled, that she was obliged to be towed out of the 
line; and it was with great difficulty that she afterwards reached 
home. Van Ghent's squadron having by this time rallied, bore 
down to the relief of thdr commanders, and thus saved them frt>m. 
destmction. Towards night great havoc was made among the 
Dutch fire-diips, five or mx of which were destroyed by one Eng- 
lish man of war. The battle continued till nine at night, when 


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860 SOFFOtK. 

the Dutch vessels being dreadfully shattered, were obfiged ta fe« 
treat, and the English having suffered in an equal degree, were iv 
no condition to pursue them* 

In this sanguinary contest the Dutch lost only three ships of 
war, one of which was burned, another sunk, and a third taken* 
Their loss in men is supposed to have been very great, as the 
publication of it was forbidden by the States. Considering the 
disparity of force after the defection of the French, it cannot ap* 
pear surprising, that our fleet should have suffered still more 
severely. Two English ships were burned, three sunk, and one 
taken; and yJx>ut 2000 men were killed and wounded. Among 
the formefwer^ rear-admiral Sir Fratcheville Mollis, in the Cam- 
bridge; Captain Digby, of the Henry; Captain Percy, of the St. 
George; Captain Waterworth, of the Anne ; Sir John Fox, of the 
Prince; Captain Harman, of the Triumph; Lord Maidstone, Sir 
Philip Cartwright, Sir Charles Harbord, and many other persona 
of disti^ctioil. But the ikte of the gallant Earl of Sandwich 
was particularly regretted. The day before tiie engagementy 
while the fleet was riding in the Bay, the earl, apprehensive 
of being surprised by the Dutch, had advised that it should 
weigh anchor, and get out to ^a. The Duke of Yoric, however, 
not only rejected this advice, but even told the earl that it wask 
the result of fear, which is supposed by some to have made S9 
de^ an impression on the mind of the noble admiral, as to ren- 
der him careless of life. Agreeably te this idea, it is related,, 
that when his ship was on fire,- the earl retired to his cabin, 
whither he was followed by his captain. Sir Richard Haddock, 
who, finding him with a handkerchief before his eyes, informed 
him of his danger, to which he replied, ** he saw how things 
went, and was resolved to perish with the ship." This is evi- 
dently a diiierent account of the circumstance related by Camp-^ 
bell, who observes, that " he might have been relieved in his 
distress by Vice- Admiral Sir Joseph Jordan, if that. gentleman 
had not been more solicitous about assisting the duke. When^ 
therefure, he sa^ hipi sail by, heedless of the condition in whiok^ 


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SI7F7<^L8. 851 

Ik lay, lie laid to those abcMit him ; * Th^e is Bothbg left for 

»aaK.>nft to defisMl the ship to tte fiwt mui ;' and. thoMrtii«t 

Icnew liim readily understood^ that, by the last man, he meant 

hiao^.^^ This representation certainly places the matter in a 

'TCTy £foent li^ht; and thongh it is evident, that the earl 

m^jlil have escaped with the captain and others, yet the eharac* 

ter whkh he onilbiinly exhibited, does not justify the idea, that 

he irooUL ivuitimly sacrifice a life so nsefiil to his country. The 

cestificate d* lus Inneral presenred amon^ the archives of the 

BeiaUi' Cfdkge, has been adduced to corroborate a contrary opi* 

skm* It IS there stated^ Uiat " he staid in his ship till the last, 

vbot he was forced to put himself to the mercy of the sea, is 

vhich Le perished.^' His body was taken up a few days after* 

wsr^ fay one of the king's ketches, and being known by tlie 

G^flvge which he had on, was carried to Harwich, whence it was 

nomvedy and solemnly interred in Westminster Abbey. 

The i^ench, notwithstanding the little share they .had in the 
ai|;^^ment, lost two ships, one of which was burned, and the 
etiier BudL , and among the killed was their rear-admiral, M. de hi 

BtNAC&K was> in the Idth and 16th century, the lordship and 
demesne of the noble &mily of Dacres. ^ It is now the property 
^ Sir Thomas Gooch, Bart, who resides in the spacious mansion^ 
called Benacre HalL ^ 

In 1786, one of the workmen emplc^ed in making a new 
tumpike-foad at this place, struck his pick-axe against a stone 
bottie, containing npwards of nine hundred pieces of siher coin> 
in gi^neral in good preservation; but none older than the time of 
Fespssian. They were all about the size of a sixpence, nine of 
than weighing^ an ounce. Near seven hundred were purchased by 
Sir Thomas Gooch ; others were bought by different persons, and 
the remainder sold to a Jew, who retailed them at a low price is 
the neighbourhood. 

Blithburgh, situated on the river Blith, gives name to thia 
hutidred^ and though ujqw a mean village, was formerly a flourish- 


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992 MVFOIS. 

ing place. Its origin is Qneeitain, bat it is yery phimbly 
jsctnred to b* of Ufeh aatifuly, 86v«tsl urns and HbdU 
haying been disoovaed here. It was enee the raidenee 
ehants, and nrach Drefaenled on-aeooiwC'^ fts trade, 
the fishery, which it posaeised hefin% ^e rivor w4i. 
Here was the jaH for the divttiott'tff B^ccfea; Mm 
the sessions for thttt division were formerly hiML 
n weekly maikeft^ and two annual fhtrs, one ofwMj 
toins, on the dth of AprO, bat the market hid tUfaf 
teeedent to the birth of flie oldest inhsMtttift 
After tiie soppression of tte priory of BliMW|| 
to deoay^ and oontinned gmdoaHy to dedine fill' 1990^ 
svstatned a hws by fire, to lAe eoiif^oied asMMitflof 
which aome of the inhribitaifa b^ otaddh, ant 
tte ftilnre of trade, not thbdung ii wordi whill^b 
houses, settled elsewhere ; and 'fik^'^e* place w# 
poverty. InlSOl, iteont8tnedd4hoH|es^itthaiAslby 

The church, a carious bntlding, and oTconBidAtfle: 
is 127 feet in length, and fifty-four feet two inches wlie. 
windows are very numerous, and were once extremely 1 
tt the remains of the painted glass which adorned them seem 1 
cate. This edifice now presents a spect»e(e that cannot fkil 1 
cite the indignation of every adnurer of antiquities. It 1 
highly ornamented both within and wfthout Externally 
beautiAit trao^ of the windows' hhs* been retnoved, or 
destroyed, by the hand of time, sad its plaee has been sup 
with unsightly niasses igtlffiiA, iiT one or two instanceilf < 
surrounded with glass. The chasms in the painted ghss cf thesV 
windows have in like manner been supplSeil with bridk^aiilt mcf^ 
tmr. Internally the fine carved work has been coveted w|^ m 
coat of white- wash, and the carvings on the roof, i iniiilBt||| nf 
angeb bearing shields, on which are painted the arms U fll l S^ 
beoefilcters to the church, are in such a decayed conditioil as to 
bo osotimially (ailing. Upon the ceiling of the church was fiur* 

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nvtroLK. 343 

lAeiiy theBcnlptnred figure of a man^ in a sitting attitode^ of 
which both Kirby * and Gardner f have giren a representation ; 
and round it a label, with this inscription : Oraie pro diabz Jokne 
Maim et Kaierme uxoris eiu. This fignre, as also that upon 
the chancel, mentioned by the same writers, and conjectured by 
Gardner to be intended few King Henry VI. J hte been re- 
moved, and together with the fragments of the tracery taken 
horn the windows, thrown info a promiseaons heap in tha 
chureh-yard. The porch is stiU decorated with grotesque 
headsi and at each comer stands an angel with expanded 
wings. Upon the chancel, not iar from ^e foundation, are ele- 
ven antique letters with a crowtt above each, resembling in 
^ery respect those over one of the windows of Southwold church ; 
and, doubtless, originally forming an inscription of a similar iffl<* 

This fabric, from the architecture, does not appear to be so 
ancient as some have imagined. Several letters and emblemati- 
cal figures upon it corresponding with others at 8outhwold, 
Walberswick, and Covehithe churches, would encourage the in- 
ference that it is coeVal with those structmres whose foundation 
was not antecedent to the fifteenth century. The chancel was 
probably buih after 1442, when John Greyae, by will, left twenty 
marks towacds rebuilding it, in words which shew ^t it was 
not then begun. Several other bequests towards it occur down to 
the year 1473, at which time, or soon after, it was most likely 
finished. The similarity of the workmanship of the dianeel to 
that of the church warrants the coodusion, that it cannot hare 
been of much later erection. The tower, which fiiirmerly had a 
spire, is of inferior workmanship to the diurch and chancel, attd 

Vol. XIV. 2 A 

« mttor^ Ace. if Twehe PrinU, p. tS. 

t UUtor. Jec« rfJhtnwiehf &e. p. ISS. 

t A writer in the OmflMMA't Maganmt for September leOS, p. Tf6, onder 

the tignatttreol D. Devb, nyt that this figera was intended ior » represented' 

lion of the ^riaitj. 



It t 

I 4 

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3^ SVf FOUL 

iMreftre ttongbt to be nia<;h older; but H we» probtUy rapeiretf 
and e9vered with lead wheo the cbwrtk was rebuilt 

There WM a chafela^ the ^ end of ike aouth aisle dedicated 
tp the pleased Virgin, and aa^er at the end of the north aisle 
d^icated tdi her ini>ther« Qt AfmOi. By old wiU^ it alio appear^ 
that, prior to the Reformfitioo, tl^f cburch eontained a jpreat Bam- 
her of iaug«u as that of the I{o|; Tfiaity on th^ north sid^ of 
the high altar, the us^^ plaq^ for the, principal image, or that of 
the saint to vr)^om th/^ churph w^a d^cated; the images <if St 
Mary and St Anp,e, in their cbi^^ vhere tbey probably had 
altari likewise s thi^ ii^^ag^ of St Si^mnnd, St Erai^mnar aid 
St Katherine; ajad perbw^ othc^^ at lemt in the painted giaaa 
of t^ wiadowa; for Bobf^ Pinne^ in his will dated 1497, ordered 
bjui exfiCBjUNTs to glaae a window on the north side of tbe ckmch, 
and to paint it with the history of St Andrew. 

By letters patenV 4^ ^^ ^^ ^^ year of Henry VI. lioenee 
was gji?^ to John Hf^tpp, Esq. tp found and endow a chantry at 
Blithbargb, to the honoi^ of St Margaret the Virgin, by the ap- 
pellation of IJoptoii's Chai^tryi for ope chaplain to celebrate mass 
for the welfare of the fol^ldeca and bene^tors while living, and 
after their deceafM fo|! tl^. he^ of th^ sonls} hot it is oncertain 
whether it was actj^aUy foliated or not* as no n^ention is made of it 
at thy^ diaaolotioQ. 

At the east end of the nqrth aisle, is shewn a tomb, said to 
be thai of Anaa^ King o( the ijaat A^l^» aiid in the cbanoel 
unothfir for his son Firmiaiis, who bot^ fell in battle with Penda, 
King of Mereia, ii^ 6^^a^d arere first interned in thia place, 
wbc^^ce th^ refnuMia wer^ afterwarda removed to St Edmnnd's 
Bury, Gardaer ooiyectures^ that the latter monument may be 
tba tiomb of Sir John Hopton, and that the former might have 
been erected before the rebuilding of the church, for one of the 
Swillington's, lords of Blithburgh. He forther observes, that 
near the south porch is a black marble stone, narrower at one end 
than at the other, that seems to have been carved on the side with 

a moulding. 

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t m(mldiigr» «ni raised iii tiie middle^ «md wbioh nigbt ^perlapft 
hftYd Wft thft otfferiiig of King Aninu 

The upper itone of Hie teub, wbich coumoii report aitigiiB to 
thftt HMmtreh, liM been Itokeii into three pieees, the middle one 
ef iMch hi hMft, attd the interior now serres as a leceptade ht 
itfh end dirt tf pen the aftar moniittent, is the ehanoel, hate 
been raiArf tiTb or three dnmsy sqnare oolnmnt of farid^, which 
has eeeasiemed the remark, that the pereon whom it covers, wbiA*^ 
ever he might have been hi hit life-time, is m>w onqnestionably a 
ton sappofter of the chinch. 

titthe hoiii of ft6 peWs, near the litter tomb, are small figoree, 
eighteen in miknbar, representing the Apostles skid other chamo- 
ters of Seriptore ; and at the west ^ of the middle aisle U the 
figure of a man, which used to strike time on a bell, now cracked, 
in the same manner as those at St Dmistatt*8, in Lqmlon. 

Stow gives, in his annals, an account of a terrible thunder. 
etMm, which happened here on Sunday, the 4th of August, 167T, 
during divine serfice, when the lightning did great damage to 
the church, struck down upwards of twenty people, '* who were 
IbaDd grevellii^ hidf an hour after/' Of these a man and a boy 
were dead, and ^ others scorched. Blithburgh Register fiKT* 
Iher mentionB, that the apire part of the steeple wsb thrown 
down, and the standing remains greatly rent and torn by the 
tempest, whidh took its course to Bungay, where it did much m\sh 

Not fiur from the church are some remains overgrown with ivy, 
of a small priol^ of ftlack Canons, <a Prmmonstrantenses. The 
revenues of the church of Blithburgh being given by King Henry 
I. to the abbot and convent of St. Osith, in Essex, they probably 
founded this piory soon afterwards, as a daughter-house, but not 
as a cell to that abbey, according to the assertion of most writers. 
The revenues of this priory were not only valued separately from 
those of the abbey, but the prior and convent of Blithburgh pre- 
sented to their own livings, and seemed in all other respects an 
independent body, except that the abbot and convent of St Osith 

2 A 2 nominated 


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noniittfttod the prior. Weever makes Henry I. the foaiMler •£ ihim 
house, and Richard Beauveys, Bishop of Londmi^- so gmt a h0> 
.ne£u9lor, as to be esteemed a eo-fomider. In this, howerer, he 
seems to be mistaken^ for if it had been fimnded by the king, tfa« 
patronage of the priory would have been in the crown, whi«k 
it manifestly was not; and if the bishop had been so great ^m 
hekiefiictor, some notice would haye been taken of the 'ciream- 
stance, either by Godwyn, Wharton, or Newconrt, who wrote him 
life; and who all n^ention his founding the Abbey of St Ositk. 
The lords of the hundred of Blithing seem mnch more likely to ^ 
have been its principal bene&ctors, for upi^n every vacaney^thej 
presented the person nominated by the abbot and- convent of 
St Osith as prior of Blithburgh, to the Bishop of Norwich, to 
be instituted into that office. 

In 1528, Cardinal Wokey obtained a ball for suppressmg this^ 
among other small religious houses, and applying its ravenaeo 
.towards the endowment of his collie at Ipswich, provided the 
king should grant his consent ; but by some means or other bin 
design was frustrated as to this house, which continued till the 
general suppression, 26 Henry YIII. when it contained no more 
than five religious, and its annual revenues were valued ai 
481. 8s. lOd. In the 30th year of the same reign, the site of it» 
with other possessions of the priory, was granted to Sir Arthur 
Hopton, Lord of the Manor. Tanner * says, that Sir Richard 
Gipps, in his Suffolk Collections, speaks of a register of this pri«- 
ory in Gresham College library. 

On the north side of the main street also stood another religions 
edifice, called Holy Rood chapel, some remains of which were 
standing, when Gardner wrote f. 

• To the sooth-east of Blithburgh formerly grew West Wood, 
which, in process of time, was converted into a park, and received 
the name of the Grove. Hera stood the mansion-house of the 


* Noit 10 BUihburgb, in hu NotiL MmwU, 
t Hm. of Dnnw. p. 150. 

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kttds^f ttettanor. ' The andent holt having, as is conjectundy 
fii^m Tanoiw vetiea Ibimd on the spot, heen destroyed hy -firei 
liie present edifice^ called Westwoad Lodge, commanding a 
pleasant sea view, was erected about the middle of the 17th een- 
tary, hy John Brooke, Esq. From the Brookes it descended to 
the family of Blois, and is now Hie property of Sir Charlea 
Moift^ Bait, bnt in the occupation of Mr. Howiett^ whose fiorm 
llere, consisting of 3000 acres^ is pronounced by Mr. Young, to 
fee' without exception the finest in the county.* 
' The manor of BftAMFiELD formerly constituted part of the en- 
d i w imen t ef the college of Mettingham, built by order of John de 
Ncvwich, who Uved in the reign of Edward III. At the disso* 
hitioa it was granted to Thomas Denney, but has long been Test- 
ed in the recently ennobled &mily of Rous,, of Henham. 

In jtiie chancel of the parish church is an elegant monument 
erected to tiie memory of Arthur, third son of the celebrated 
lawyer Sir Edward Coke; and on the pavement are many black 
marble stones, for the two ancient families of Rabbet and Nelson, 
The estate of the former is now vested in Reginald Rabbet, who 
residea in Bramfietd Hall, a fine old'mansion, situated near the 
church. About a mile distant was another old seat, which for* 
mcrly hekmged to Thomas Neale, Esq. hut was afterwards con* 
verted nto a farm-house. That gentleman, by his will, directed 
an alms-house to be built and endowed here, for four single per* 
s<ms, who have each a room, and about a rood of land ; and one 
of them receives an additional allowance of three pounds per an* 
nnm, for teaching six poor children to read. The widow of Mr. 
Neale, who after his death married John Fowie, Esq. left an es« 
tate at Metfield, of the yearly value of about ten pounds, to keep 
these alms-houses in repair, and for the instruction of six more 

Bl7Li/»CA]iP, originally Bald^amp, which signifies a bold fight- 
ing hand to hand, is thought to have received its appellation from 
the obstinate engagement in 654, between the Mercians and East 
i^ A 3 Angles 

• Agric. of Soff. p. 13. 



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AaglM, uiwUch t)ieUtt«r wm lotaUj defe^M* wHlkfl^tlm 
nf tkeir kii^ Amia, and bis eldest sen FiraiMiili. TUi fofyfsf 
tore is strea^eHed by a inditioB oureat ip ^f mrigbbo^MMA 
tbat tbe uaforUuMite noaarcb was killed ia BuQcmp %iil» ffr 
Weed, as well as by the proximity of BUthbufgb* tbe flaesil 
bis iffst iBtenaent to the field of battle. 

On arising gronad in this parish, stands tbebowe of indvl^ 
for tbe bondred of Blithing, iacorporated in 17Q4' IV pun 
borrowed for the erection of this edifice was l%fi99L Mf ef 
wUeh WIS paid off in 1780, and tbe renmder in 17(a< At^ 
first incorporation of the hundred, ecmtaimng fiirty^sis |iariffb«b 
the annual average of tbe poor8'*ralea was not ahofo ea^ ibiHiiK 
in tbe ponnd, and this rate wv diminished oi tb« payiDfl9t#C 
half the debt in 1780. Tbe nvinher of poor in tbe boiMe anmiqli 
toabont250insHmaer, and dOQ in winter. ThsSratf ft^pWyed 
ia waaahrtares of woollen and linen for tbe nee of tbo bogfo^ «i 
abo in soaking aU their own sboo^, slookiog^^ omI deAes^ Ut 
nen is made here op to tbe ^ahie ot three sbilliiifa ^ mt t ms^ 
a yard. 

CovnaiTHE was anciently tbe estate el a tesdly mmA C«M^ 
In ia08, John de Cove, and Eve has wift, bad aehnrter^ i«9 
w^ren ia their lands here, and ia IdSS obtaiMd the fianJI of ai Imt 
al this pl^ee. It was once a considnrahle fisUag lewa, and b$4a 
ttoUe cbureb which has been safiered to fidl to nio, tbo OQirtb w^ 
only being preserved and inclosed for. divine aewioiu 

Covebitbe was the birth plaoe of Joan Bai^b, a mtei of tbo 
Mth century, aothor of a work of eonsiderable biboui i^ mtr. 
dition, intituled Dc S4riptarihus BriUmnicu. He was bora l9 
1496, and after having been educated at le«as Colkge, Cam* 
bridge, became a Canaelite Mur at Norwich. Having mabiaeed 
the doctrines of the Reformation, he was exposed to the par* 
secution of the Catholic dergy, against whom be was pioleqlted 
by Cromwe]l,£arl of 6#sex, On tite death of that stojteomwi bo 
was obliged to take refqge in the Netherlands, wber^i bfi fMaiafid 
UU the accession of Edward VL by whom be was advanced to the 


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Uihopri^ of OiBory in Irelaal Tto pn^ewwrt ^« «»Joy«* >"»* 
a short tine: on the king's d^ath he was agun ol>!iged to learn 
Ilis country, end resided in Svitterfend daring Queen Msrj's 
reign. Retnming to England, sdon after Elizabeth ascended the 
Umae, he obtained a prebend in the cathedral of Canterbury, 
hot could never reeorer his bishoi^c. He fied in November lfi63» 

At Darsham is DarAam HaH, a seat of Lord Rons. 

EiisToif Batent, though now ahkosi entirely washed away 
by the ocean, seems ibrmeriy to hare been a place of some con- 
sequence. Inttereignof Edwaidl.ftwast^kldshfpof The* 
mas de Barent, one of whose desc«ndairts, i^ the 4th Edwaird lO. 
obtained a grant lor a weekly market here, and a ycarfy Ito, on 
the ere, day, and m6rroW of Ae fdlst of St. Wtholas. Besiden 
fte parish chtoch, which WW standSng ita 10«, H had a efaapd 
dedicated to St Margaret 

In this parish was die pmmontory knbwn by the nam* cf Eas- 
ton-ness, the extensio, or Ei}oxiJ of the ancient geographers, and 
which, before it wiw overwhelmed by the ocean, was the easteru- 
motft point of the English coast 

FoBDLEY. The church of this village has long been in rains. 
ft stood in the same church-yard with Middleton church, and so 
near to the latter, thi^ in 1620 complaint was made to the bisbop 
of Norwich, that when service did not begin and end at Both 
churches eiacUy at the same time, the bells and steeple of one 
disturbed the congregation of the other. To remedy this ihcbh- 
venience^ the bishop directed that the same minister should serve 
both, and officiate in them alternately. It was probably for this 
reason that Fordley church, which was but a small building, was 
auflered to go to decay. 

At Henhah is the elegant mansion, and extensive park, of 
Lord Rous, whose family has resided at this place near three hun- 
dred years* In 1660, John Rous, Esq. was created a baronet ; 
and b 1796 the present proprietor of Henham was elevated to 
the peerage by the title of Baron Rous of Dennington. The 

hous^ is of modern erection, having been built after the deslmc- 




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tion of the old manBioa by fire, in May 1773; the i^ot on mhuk - 
oecosioQ was estimated at dO^OOOL 

HuNTiNOFiBLD was, for a oonaideraUe tune after the Nonnaa 
conquest, the estat^ aad residence of an etninent family of that 
name, one of whom founded Mendham priory in St^hen^s reign. 
It afterwards descended to the de la Poles, Earls of Suffolk, and/ 
in the time of Queen Elizabeth, was the property of Henry, Lord 
Honsdon. It was ne&t the estate of that great oracle of the law. 
Sir Edward Coke, by whose descendant, the Earl of Leicester, it 
was sold to Sir Joshua Vanneck, father of the present proprietor, 
who, in 1796, was created Baron Hnntingfield of Heveoingham. 

Htvenmgham HaU, the magnificent residence of this noble- 
man, is justly considered one of the finest seats in the county. 
It is of modem erection, having been begun about the year 1778 
by the late Sir Gerard Vanneck, the elder brother and predeces- 
sor of the present owner, from the designs of Sir Robert Taylor; 
but finished by Mr, James Wyatt. The west end, erected by the 
latter, is in a much more tasteful style than the other parts of 
the edifice. The front, about two hundi'ed feet in lengtl^ is 
adorned with Corinthian columns, and otherwise chastely orna- 
mented. The whole building is covered with a composition which 
has the appearance of very white free-stone. Seated on a rising 
gcoundi this mansion appears to great advantage firom various 
parts of the extensive park^ which abounds in fine plantations, 
and is diversified by a noble piece of water in front of the 
house. The avenue that conducts to it from the porter's lodge 
is of great length ^nd uncommon beauty. The interior of this 
superb edifice, is embellished by an extremely valuable coUectiou 
of pictures, chiefly of the Dutch and Flemish masters. 

At the old mansion, when in the possession of Lord Hunsdon, 
Queen Elizabeth is said to have been entertained by that nobler 
man, and to have enjoyed the pleasures of th^ chase in a kind of 
rural majesty. The approach to it was over an arm of the river 
Blithe, which waters the park, and through tlucee sq^uare courts. 
A gallery was continu^ the whole length of the building, and 


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^penipt «|K>D i^ baleony f^er the porch, gmf e «ir Mr cf graiidear, 
wUh loiiie iwiety to the front. The great hall ^raa bvilt roand 
six straight, maatfy oaka^ which mginally vfhM thereof asth^ 
^em : apon theae, thefoiesteraand yeomen of the guard aaed to 
Ittog their nets, croaa-bowa, hanting-polea^ and other implemeiita 
of the chaae. Id; littler years, the roots being decayed, the 
ahafta irpre saiwii off at the bottom, and supported either by irre* 
g^lor legs of wood, or by masonry ; and part of the long gal- 
lety, where the qteeii and her attendants used to diFort them- 
sebes, was converted into a cheese-chamber. Elizabeth is report- 
ed to baTe been much pleased with the r^irement of this park» 
fflled with tall and maeay timber treea, but particularly with an 
oak which ever afterwards bore the appellation of the Queen^s 
Oak. It stood abont two bow-ahots from the old romantio hall, 
aad at the height of seven feet froib the ground measured near 
eleven yaida in circnmference. To judge from the condition of 
other treea ^ the aame qpedes, whose ages are supposed to be 
pielty aeenratdly aacertained from historical circumstances, this 
venerable monarch of the forest could not be less than five or six 
bttndced yeara old. Traditioii reoards, that Elisabeth, from thia 
favonrite tree^ahot a book with her owk hand. By a person who 
e^amifted tte qneen's oak about twenty or thirty years ago, its 
state at that tame is thua desmbed :-*^' It is still in some degree 
of vigour, though most of its boughs are broken off, and those 
wteh remain are approaching to a total decay, as weH as its vast 
trunk. The principal arm, ' now bald with dry antiquity,' shoots 
np to a great height above the leafrge, and being hollow, and 
truncated at top, with several cracks, resembling loop-holes, 
tfafoi^h which the light shines into its cavity, it givea na an idea 
of the winding stair-case in a lofty Gothic tower, which, detach- 
ed from the ruins of some veneraUe pile, hangs tottering to its 
fyU, and affects the mind of the beholder after the same nmnner 
by ite greatness and sublimity.'' 

The present noble proprietor of Heveningham has ornamented 
tb0. whole (sonntry round his splendid residence with plantationa 


i 1. 


X ! 

Digitized by 


dm MVrOLK. 

•r oiks^ \mtkm, f^mmu, nd other fUkm, mlMh mUmmM 
is pirtiotfatily fiiVMilde, wiH, at mwerf dMini f«tM> ptort* 
treirare to the {mWo as wdl w to W ow^ luaXtf. 

].Bi8Ti>x M vemaricabto fir Ibo fiwM oi itt iMity ef F^ 
.teMiMi M&oM, dadkatoAto tha Blaaaad Viffto. fka afigifeal 
iMose^pkoeA ahavt a nik naafer to the Malhaalhe fmmm i mna^ 
waalHuttaiid endowed ahoiiltiie>«arll8il9Randpiid«GlaBf^ 
wbe gave to it Ike manor ef Laiaton, eoafctred oa him hj U murf 
IL and alao etrtotn chimdna, wMek he had heiore gimi to ttia 
cMooa of the priory feuded byhunat Bmtley, alidb iM^ thiy 
rtaiigiied in fiivoar ef thia aoaaatoiy. The ateaHiett of «hb iaii 
heiMe being fcandhoth mmh a lc aaai e and ttaoeavaniem Boherlde 
Ufford» Eari ef Saftik, about the year 1»S| bum an abbeyea 
the site of the mina that yetesiat, Thia edSdee vaa deeMydd 
by fire befeie 186§; bat being rebniit» iteontianed to floaririi m 
the genead diaaotottoa, nhat it eoataiiMd flItoannMnka, aadito 
aanaal revennea were, aeoofdinf to Weet«r*a ebanhraliett^ fer n*« 
der-rated at 181L 17a. IH Theold henae, hfffvm, waanelto^ 
tally abandoned, aone OMnka fanHdning to il, aeeMttif to Tan-, 
ner, till the avppieaaion, and togadea being, aa he aaya, M to 
Oar Lady of the Old Abbey, in wiUa preaerred in theofieeeflhe 
aichdeaoan of Snialk, aototeaaMllandMML CUterA.9. 
l»l in Ckrameom Bmdef, ia the feitowingf paaaage I4nch eeftw# 
beiateathia aUtenMOt: ''John GfOne, leltofiiaUng hik Obbaein 
bychoie^ waa eonaeewted an naaborito at the tkwfd of Si. Ifa- 
ty, intheoldnMnaaleiyMnrtheaoa." 

Grant p«rtef the diord^ aoTend aahtartluioona ehaprfi, mul 
vartana eficea of the awnaalery aiB aliil alMding, andifplini to 
the imrpeaea of bama and gmariea. The leagAef Ihe^ 
waaahont 66yar^; and the bnadth of Ike niUdk date, 
yarda. It appean to haire bean a handMnw atmOtare, deeonitod 
mth emaannto, foraMd by an totermiwtare ef bkoh M|Hared flinto 
aiidfreeatone. In the walla of th^dnreh and other hiddtogn era 
laany brieha eta fine diftrentfranithoaa need mpreaent. being 
Mch thinmr mp w fM r t hin to tiioir length and breadth. Near 


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Urn wpl Ml* * «mI1 tower tmikfiy of hmk^ ffokiibly «ifoM 
about th« tine of Henry VII. wm of tte onwiBto of vlikb 
^^leor to liate beeu formed in nuwld^. The interior eeens to have 
Iwen eadreme^ pinin ^ vitbont ornament^ loid the colnmae yel 
femaining nr^ ?ery naaHTa In the memory of penom yeiliTim^ 
» fast eitoni of the neighboring iwd me indooed with mlh, 
fiobohly thoee which miionnded the gronnds belonging to lUa 
entnhliahment^ hot they haye been denoliahed iof the aake of the 
material Theae nuoa beifng to the Hon, Joahna Vannock, eon 
«f liud Hnntingfieid, who roaidea near the apo^ and they are at 
ivaaant oecnpaad by llr« JeaMfk 

|lSYiioii» a yillagtt bordering weetward ^ SontkwoU, waa loc« 
marly a phee of importoMo^ and had n market and n park* The 
Imllin the ktter waa takei^ dotwn in ICiM. The clmreh* »b or* 
dinary edifiee of one aisle, appeara to be of gveatantifnity. It ia 
JHtcMcd to St MaigawC «d waa the moljiar dmreh to Soath- 
moH. Thifliplaee had alao %chapel» which iaanfpoaed to hnve 
atood about a mile ea atwa ad of the ehuKh^ on m apet aliU dem>- 
yraiatod the Ch^pdi Piece. Heietoo« on a hranoh of the Blith, 
ealled Wooden End credL, are aome veatigea of a whaH^ which 
grohably (eU todecay ia ttie tin^ of King Henry III. in eonse- 
4piB«o ^f the riaing proapevij^ of the neighhoong town of Sonth^ 
m^Ul Qa UMftaaaM bcanch of the river, about a mile and n half 
a^KOthon^ fnay» hnilt i» 1737 by Sir Johft Pli^ptaf^ atood 
WobiiyBridgv^ fopwtod^in 1747«by8ifJohnIU«a,Bwt.intoa 
akuea for draining the low landa abow i^ whiak were betMO anh* 
jfKttobe overibwodbg^high tidea. Beapeetiag^ the origin of 
thrabndg^. traditienraportpf, thatCaidimd Wob^, whena lad« 
9fKMa^ Ua ftther, a hotoher, to drive caMe from theae parto to 
Ipawich^andhavingobaerrodonthediftrontdiitaneaa of oroeaing, 
ipd making the cimiii <^ the wmefc to Blilhbnigh» dedaopd^ that 
•f ever hia pniae were adoy ato to hie mind, h^ wonidaeeommQ- 
ditfp tot^faOem. with the ahortoatpaaaage. Aeooidtogly, ia pro* 
Wfaa-^ thae he waa aa good aa hia word, making canaewaya to 


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M4 80FV0LX. 

wA from tiie chsmiel, over wUch Ue erected a bridge tbtt after* 
wards bore the name of the foimder.* 

RuMBUROH is a place of no note except for a Benedictine mo>» 
natte^, feanded soon after the Norman Conquest by J^tephen, 
Earl of Brittany,. and given as a cell to the abbey of St. Mary at 
Yotk. At the general suppression it vas granted to Cardinri 
Woliey. t The remains of this edifioe have been eonrerted infes 
a (lurm-honse, which belongs to Mr. Jessop of Leiston Abbey. -^ 

At SiBTON was also a monastic establishment of tiie Cistereiali 
order, fi>Bnded abont the yesr lldO, by William de Casineto, er 
Cheney, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Thb hoase was 
so amply endowed that its revenues were valued at 8501. 15s. TJd. 
per annum, and were granted by the abbot and convent thesDselves 
to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, AaMiony Rouse, Esq. and Nicholas 
Hare, Gent in 1636. 

Thorihoton was formerly Hie lordship and demesne of Wal- 
ler de Norwich, and afterwards of the Uflfords and the C<Ae8'. 
Alexander Benoe, Esq. to whose family it for sometime belonged, 
fixed his residence at the HM^ which is now the seat of George 
Golding, Esq. 

Walberswick, commonly called Walderswkk, now a hamlet 
of Blithburgh, a place of great antiquity, was once a oonsideii> 
able and populous town. It carried on an extensive commeron 
both by land and sea, especially in fish ; having, in 1461, thvteett 
baf ks trading to Iceland, Ferro, and the North^ Seas, and twenty- 
two fishing boats employed ofi^ this coast. The alteration of tiie 
port which ruined the' town of Dunwich, proved a source of inw 
creased prosperity to Walberswick, which continued to thrive tiH 
the middle of the sixteenth century, when the alteration. made in 
the established religion, proved highly detrimental to this, as 
well ss to many other towns oB the coast, whose principal support 
was derived from the fishery. * From that time this village began 
gradually to decline, and repeated and destructive confiagrations 

* Gftrdnei's Dnnwich, &c p. S57. 
t Dogdale hu erroneously placed this ooavent in Cambridgeahir*. 

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kstened ita rain. Before the year 1583^ Wtlbenwidc eeftma 
sererdy by fire; in 1633, great pari ef the' toivn iras borae^; 
in 1683 it vaa again Tiaited by a Vke seouige, and in 1719 ahoat 
ene third tA the amall remains of ike place was conmiBed. Thia 
bal aoetdent mua oecauoned by the chimney takii^ fife at the 
fivthMt honae, aoath-weat of the village. The wind bebg high 
at maX, carried the blazing thatch to the akns-hease, ninety 
yank diataot The hnming flakes from the latter flew abof e 
190 yards to another cottage, (roB which it connnaiiieated to 
sercial dwelIing*lionseB^ bams, and other boildings, consoming 
in its passage two standing green ash-trees. But what was very 
aarpriaiag, a fence made with furze, staked and exceeding dry, 
was iHffned by the flames running fimn end to end, only to the 
stakes, or middle of the hedge having one side consomed, and 
the other remaining entire, from the violence ^ the wind, which 
carried some of the bnrnbg matter miles off to the sea. 

The old chnreh of Walberswidc, though thatched, was adorned 
with several images, and possessed an organ. This edifice was 
taken down in 1473, when ^e inhabitants at their sole cost, rais- 
ed m its stead, a handsome structure with two aisles, dedicated 
to St Andrew ; which is a striking demonstration of the opulence 
of the place at the time of its erection. It was finished in 1493L 
It contained a chapel of our lady ; and the images of the Holy 
Trinity, the Rood, St Andrew, and several other saints. A few 
years afterwards, it received the addition of a north aisle, which 
imdered it a beantilul stroctore, well built with flint and free- 
stone, with many curious devices on the exterior walls. Each 
side was parted from the nave by seven arches, and six pillars 
neatly wronght The whole length was 124 feet enclusive of the 
iteeple, and the width sixty feet The steeple, still pretty entire, 
was upwards of ninety feet high, crowned with eight pinnacles, 
sod a wooden spire. This beautiinl edifice, though it sufiered 
severely from the fanatical visitors, by whom most of the religi- 
an edifices in this county were despoiled in the middle of the 
17th century, nevertheless continued pretty entire lill 1696, when 


Digitized by 




an MFrotit. 

Hm inlMbtCaiili unable to support the charge of repatra^ took dowa 
the greatest psrt of it, resenring only the aoath-west aagle for 
the peribrmaiiee of roKgioiis worship. 

At Wanovord was iormerly a priory. Or ceil of Cluniac raonlur, 
stthordinale to Thctfori, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. At 
its snppressioa in the 3-id Henry VI 11. it Was yalned at 30L 9s. M. 
per annum, and was soon afterwards granted with the monastery 
of Thetlord, to Thomas, Jhke of Norlblk. His son sold it in 161^^ 
to Sir John Rons, in whose fhmily it has erer since continned. 

The chuMih at thw place is bnilt partly of fKnts, and partfy of 
brick, and has a newly erected spire steeple, to defray the ex« 
pense of which, » peal of bells was sold by the parish. 

Wbsthall, anciently the manor of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of 
Kent, has belonged since the time of Henry VIII. to the fiunily 
of Bohnn, of which Edmund Bohnn, Esq. who resided in thu 
Tillage was a voiuminoas writer of the 17th century. The most 
noted of bis woiks were *' a Geographical Dictionary, and a 
History of King James the Second's thsertion, ip answer to a 
pablication entitled T7ie Desertion Discussed, by Jeremiah Col* 

The manor of WnEiirrHAM was held at the period of the 
Domesday Snrvey, of the famous William, Earl of Warren, hf 
Robert de Pierpoint, and afterwards belonged to the Poinings, the 
last of which (amity fell at the siege of Orleans, in 1446. In the 
time of Edward VI. it was purchased by the family of Brewster, 
who bnilt Wrentham Hall, and whose seat it still continues. 

ToxFORD, is a remarkably pleasant village about four miles 
to the north of Saxmundham. On the north side of it is Cock« 
fidd Hall, formerly the seat of the ftimily of Brook, but now the 
lesidence of Sir Charles Blois, Bart. Here is also the neat man* 
sion of D. E. Davy, Esq. receiver of the land-tax for the eastern 
division of the county. This gentleman in conjunction with a 
Mr. Jermyn, is engaged in the compilation of a History of Su& 
folk, which will be a voluminous work, and is not likely to make 
its appearance till a distant period. 


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Tlie limrfred cf Wmghid U divided from Norfolk hf Iht 
WftTwey «n tiie north: on llie east it is boanded by the haadredb 
rf Mvtibid udBlythiflg^; on theoevth^ by Blything; tad on the 
weel» by* Hoeue. It oontuns two inarket*teimo, Beoelee and 

BsccXBs, a bfge nell kull town, attoaled on the tirer Ware^ 
ney, wUeh ia navigable from Yannonth, contiina 691 heuseo, 
wd 27d8 inhahilantt. It ia a ooqiofation conaiating of a peri- 
were, and tUrty^aix bargaaaea, diatittgniahed by the appellationa 
of the twelves, and the tweMty^fiurs; the offlee of portreeve, or 
chief ungiatratiy being boM in lolatien by tbefermer. The mar- 
ket ia eii«3atorday, aipd the town has three amual fiun, on Holy' 
Thnraday^ Jnae Oth, and October ML 

Becdea eonmta ef aavcral atreeta, whteh terminate in'a apa- 
riooa are* where An amriLet ia kept The Ckurek is an elegant' 
Gojthie atrufitere with a ateeple, which stands at some distance 
from the aantb-eaat ocaner of the chancel, and contains a peal of 
ten bells. The porch ia a fine specimen of what is termed the 
florid Gethie. The chaieh*yard from its eleraled sitoation, com- 
aaanda a remarkably beaattlnl proapect In tim soath part of the 
town, are stiU to be seen the mine of another pariah chnrch, call- 
ed Bndgate, deoNliahed by order of Qneen Elitabeth, " for that 
the parishea of Beeelea and Bndgi^ had been for so roan^ years 
blended together, thai the boonds and limita of them could not 
be known in 1419 ; when a legal agreement was made by the 
biahop, patron, and rectora, of both parishes^ that the rector of 
Becdea shonld take the whole tithes of both parishes, and pay 
the rector of Bndgate OL I3a. 4d. yearly in the parish chnrch of 
Bndgate : ao that the inhabitania of Endgate have time eat of 
ouad been eateemed parishioners of Beccles/' At this place was 
also fersMrly a chapel of St. Peter, near the old market; a cha* 
pel itf St Mary Magdalen, belonging to a smaQ hospital on a hill 


'•I' » 

! i 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

„ 1 



968. suFioiJU 

near the free school; and a chapel, or heimitage, near the bridge 
over the Waveney. 

The TatDH-haU in a handsome bailding, in which the qoarter- 
aemioBS are held. The Gaol has been censidendbiy iiq>n>fcd' on 
the modem plan, and is attended once a wvek by n ohaplain« 
Here is a Free-Mckool, ibmnded in the reign of James I. by Sir 
John Lemaoj alderman of London, who endowedit with one hmn 
dred acres of land for the maintenance of a master and nsher, to 
inslrfct fiNty^ighi boys in writing and arithmetic. The town 
has likewise a good GnamMor-^osAooi, for the endowment of 
which. Dr. Fakonberge, who resided several years in this parish, 
where he died in 1713, bequeathed an estate at Gorton in this 
county, of the yearly rent of forty ponnds. 

To this town belongs an extensive comnon of about 1400 
acres, which is of particular benefit to the poor, who kb^ allowed 
to turn cattle upon it on very easy terms. The management of 
it is vested in the corporation. This common, together with the 
manor of Becdes^ formed part of the possessions of Buiy Abbey, 
on the dissolution of which, they were both granted by Henry 
VIII. to WUliam Rede, but the former for the use of the infasM* 

In 1686 Becclea sustained great injury from a conflagration/ 
which destroyed more than eighty houses and property, to the 
value of 20,000L 

Bungay, is likewise situated on the Waveney, which is navi- 
gable, for barges as high as thu town. It contains 479 houses, 
and 2349 inhabitants. The market is on Thursday, and two 
yearly foirs are held here on May 14th, and September 2dth. 

This town is neat, and of recent erection ; the whole of it ex- 
cepting one street having been consumed by fore in 1688, the total 
loss on which occasion was computed at 30,0001. It has two 
parish churches. St. Mary's is a stately fobrii^ and with its 
beautiful steeple,, containing a peal of eight bdls, is a great oma- 
Uientto the town. The roof, covered with lead, is supported by 
ten light, elegant pillars. The nave is 72 feet long, and 37 bioad ; 

t the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

8VFP0LX. 869 

tlK two aklei are of the same length, and each eighteoi feet ia 
kctdlh ; and the chancel as wide aa the nave. The church ia 
ftoTided with a fiae organ. 

Besidea thia church, and that of the Holtf Trhuty, there waa 
finnaedy a third, dedicated to St. Thomaa, which waa atandingand 
in aae once 1500, hot haa heen so long demolished, that iU site 
caanot aaw be ascertained. Between the two churches, are the 
niina of a Benedictine nunnery, founded by Roger de Glanville, 
and the Cottnteas Gundreda, his wife, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin, and tlie Holy Cross ; and endowed by numerona benefiMT- 
tora, whoae gifts were confirmed by Henry II. At the dissola- 
tion, when it contained eleven sisters, and its revenues were valu- 
ed at 621. Oa. l|d. per annum, its possessions were granted to 
Thonaa, Duke of Norfolk, in whose descendants they are still 

At Bungay, are also to be seen tlie ruins of a very strong 
CasUe, built as it is conjectured by the Bigods, Earls of NoHblk. 
During the intestine commotions in the turbulent reign <lf Sta* 
phen, it waa ao atrongly fortified by Hugh Bigod, and stood be- 
sides in so advantageoaa a situation, that he was accustomed to 
boast of it aa impregnable, and is reported by Holinshed to hare 
nude use of this expression : 

Were I in mj Cattle of Bongay, 

Upon the water of Wareoe^, 

1 wonld not set a batton by the King of Cockney. 

On the accession of Henry II. however, this nobleman, who 

hsd invariably espoused Steph^'s cause, was obliged to give a 

huge sum of money, with sufficient hostages, to save this castle 

from destmction. Joining afterwards in the rebellion of Henry's 

eldest son, against his &ther, he was deprived by the king of 

the castle of Bnngay, aa well as PramliaghaB ; but they were 

restored, with his oth^ estatea and honours, to his son and heir, 

whose posterity enjoyed them for several successions. In the 

reign of Henry III. this castle was deoMilished ; and in the lOth 

VouXIV. 2B year 

Digitized by 




year of Edward I. Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, obtaiued per- 
mission to embattle his house erected on the site of the ancient 
castle. He endowed his second wife, Alice, with this manor; 
and having no issue, settled all his castles, towns, manors, and 
possessions on king Edward and his heirs. The castle, borough, 
and manor of Bungay, are supposed to have been given by that 
monarch to his fifth son, Thomas de Brotherton, and to have 
been carried, by the marriage of his daughter and co-heiress, into 
the family of the Uffords. The records belonging to the castle, 
as well as those of the convent, perished in the great conflagra- 
tion already mentioned. The mutability of human afiairs is 
strikingly evinced by the present state of this edifice : once the 
residence of the great and powerful, it is now become the habi- 
tation of the lowest class of people, a great number of hoveU 
having been raised against its walls, and let out in lodgings to 
the poor. 

lu the Market-place, situated on a gently rising ground in the 
centre of this town, and considered the handsomest in the county, 
are two crosses, in one of which fowls, butter, &c. are exposed 
for sale ; and in the other corn and grain. The top of the former 
is adorned with a figure of Astrsea in lead, weighing eighteen 
hundred weiglit. The principal streets, which are broad, well 
paved, and lighted, branch out from the market place to the great 
roads leading to Norwich, Yarmouth, Bury, Ipswich, Beccles, 
and Lowestoft; and being each terminated by a handsome edifice, 
produce, at first sight, a very favorable impression. The Theatre 
and Assembly-Room are neat structures, and well frequented; 
and the county bridge over the Waveney has recently been re- 
built. Here is also a Free Grammar School, which enjoys the 
right of sending two scholars to Emanuel College, Cambridge ; 
and a Meeting-house for Dissenters. 

Contiguous to the town is a common of great extent and ferti- 
lity, which, being inclosed and rated, is of considerable benefit 
to the inhabitants. A pleasant ws^ of about a mile and a half 
to the lower end of it, conducts to the .BatA-Aoti^e, where there 


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WM fitfmeily a yiiieyard and a physic garden; and it has now 
an excdlent cold bath. The town itself^ standing on a sandy 
soil, has several springs, which yield a strong mineral water ; 
and one in particdar at the King's Head Inn is said to possess 
medicinal properties of great efficacy. . 

By means of the Waveney, which nearly surrounds the town 
and common in the form of a horse-shoe, a considerable trade is 
carried on in com, malt, floor, coal, and lime $ and several capital 
floor-mills, malting offices, and lime-kilns, have been lately erected. 
Here is also a manu&ctory of Suffolk hempen cloth, considerable 
quantities of which are sold in Norwich market 

Qf the other places in this hundred, the most remarkable are : 

Barsham, near Beccles, where, in 1671, was born Laurencb 
EcBARD, a divine and writer of some eminence in the last cen- 
tory. His fiither was minister of Barsham. After receiving his 
education at Christ College, Cambridge, he settled in Lincoln- 
shire. In 1699 he published the first part of his Romtin His- 
tory, which, in 1702, was followed by a General Eccksiaatical 
Hiitory, a work which has gone through numerous editions, and 
probably procured his professional promotion to the offices of pre- 
bendary of Lincoln, and chaplain to the bishop of that diocese. His 
next work was a History of England, down to the Revolution, 
by which he gained ccmsiderable reputation ; but the most useful 
of his performances, was the Gazetteer^s, or. Newsman' $ Inter' 
preter, which may be considered as the model of the Gazettecars 
of the present day. In 1712 he was appointed to the archdea- 
conry of Stow. Towards the end of his life he was presented by 
the king to the livings of Rendlesham, Sudborne, and Alford, in 
this county* to which he removed. He died in his carriage, pro- 
ceeding to Scarborough for the benefit of the waters, in 1730. 

Flixton, or St. Mary South Elmham, is one of the nine pa- 
rishes in this hundred, to which the addition of South Elmham is 
given. Here was formerly a nunnery of the order of St. Augus- 
tine, founded by Margery, the widow of Bartholomew de Creek, 
and daughter of Jeffery Hautvile, about the time of king U enry III. 

2 B 2 The 

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372 ^vrrovK. 

•The feiuidr«» gave Ae iMsor of Ftixloii lo Hum hoote, vUehvas 
dliMlve^ by tke Moond Ml of (Pope ClemaA Jlh vkiism, ^rhw 
ito yeafly Teveiiae was ^siioMkled at 931. 4b. ^id. and.lntcniialiv 
Cardinal Wolaey : bat tke ofier being dediMsi by tbat pniat»> li 
waa granted to John Tasbuiigfa^ ythoae deaondaafta^agiMnAUbtf 

' FMxton Hall. This iuaily beoomiag extinct, tt deaoaadied to thtf ^ 
of Wyburn, of whom it waa potrabaaad by Williaaii, Adair/Baq. 

FUmUm Hall, now tiie leaideBee of hia aoo, Akxander Adrir, 
Baq. ia a AoUe etnietare, pleaaantly attnatad near tba.WaTanef* 
It waa boiH about 1^16, and. waa originaJly^anrnHuidad by anMit, 
filled up aome yeara ago. The style of the «roluteot«ie ia*wluit 
haa been denominaAed Inigo Jonea'a Gothie. The princi|ial frcmt 
fteea the norUi. The hall and atairci«e are giaod, and the a^art- 
aaonta apacioaa. To the aoath waa an open e^donoada;, now dooed 
np, and conTert^ into aqiarate roona. The giowida in tpopt 
have been embelliahad with extenaiye planlationi, .wUeh^ to^atlier 
with the fine woods of Che park, and the ^iow of the n^et, pFodnoe 
a ohanniag efiect 

At Mettikoham, a village ahant a nule and, % half firom^ Bon- 
gay, are the ruins of a quadxangnlar castle, whioh» from tiie 
gate-house, and aome parts of the walla atiU standing* mtist baye 
been an edifice of considerable extent and strength. It waa bnttt 
by John de Norwich, who, in the 17th year of Edirard tU. oi»- 

- tained permission to convert his house here into neaitie; in whi^ 
he alao founded a college or chantry, defeated to Godapd the 
Bleased Virgin. The revenues of this house at the Disaolotion 
were valued at 3021. 7s. 5d. The founder dying in the. 36th of 
Edward III. left all hia estates to his grandaoa* iriio, at hia de- 
cease, was possessed of this manor. His couaia and hdr, .Catha- 
rine de Brews, having assumed the veil, her eatatcil devolved to 
the fitmily of theUfibids. Within the shattered w^ of this qastle 
a modem lann«honse haa been erected* 

At Shipmbadow, a village about a mile southward of BeecleOp 
is the House of Industry lor the twenty-seven parMea of the in- 
corporated hundred of Wangford, built in 1765. The original ddit 


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o«iitmcladfcrtlii«yiiiptBe was 85001 The namW of paopiGnia 
Hm kouM is ahouft 200, whpse chief suployment is spinning for 
the Norwich msnnfsctiiffora* 

At Sqttoeuy is Satieriqf HaU and park* the residence of 
Miles Boine, Es^ At this place the ancient fiunily of Play tera 
had their seat so early as the reign of Edward IL and for some 
eentnsies afterwards. In 1633, Sir Thomas Playters« Knt of 
Sotteiley, was created a baronet; but the title is now extinct. 
In th« dwrch are ssfvecal monmnents for indiYidoals of this ia- 

WoBUNWHAii waa fiurmerly divided into two parishes, St* 
Mary's aad St Peter's; but the church of the latter having loiig 
bean desMlashed, it is now accounted bat one. The hall is a 
neat msiAsioa, and was for some time the seat of Sir Thomas 
nsbiasoB, BarU It is now the property and residence of Robert 
SpaiTow, Es^ 


This hondred is bounded on the south by the hundred of Blith* 
ing; on the east by the German Ocean ; on the mnrth by thelaka 
Ltfthing ; and onjthe west it is separated Aom Norfolk by the river 
WaTeney . It contains no market-town ; and the principal villagea 

GiffLEflAM, situated abont £ve miles to the south of Lowestoft. 
The church is defeated to the Holy Trinity : both the body and 
ehaneri are thatched : they are separated within by a screen, oa 
whidi are painted the twelve apostles. On the outside of the 
south porch are tgures of two angels in a kneeling posture on eack 
aide of a niehe destined for the reception of a cruci^ On ona 
of the north windows is some painted glass, representing an Ecce 
Agtms Dd, with the saint broken. Under another small mati* 
ktod saints standing with an arrow in his left hsnd, and his right 
against his breast, is inscribed St. Edmund. Theiearo also two 
SSU& ligwes of a nan and wonun kaeding; the i 




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374 stjrFOLK. 

hhie, with red breeches and jellow stockings ; tiie Woman entirely 
in Mue, and the words " William Gange and Margaret :" bat 
the heads of both are wanting. There are likewise several crowsB 
of psunted glass in the windows^ alluding probably to the royal 
martyr, St. Edmund. The steeple is circular at the bottom ; but 
the upper part is hexagonal, and contains four bells. 

Kessingland had formerly a weekly market^ whence it is 
probable that it was then a place of greater importance than at 
present. The impropriation of the church of this parish was 
given, in the reign of Edward III. to the nuns of St. Clare, or 
Minoresses of London, to whom it belonged tifl the Dissolution. 
It was then vested in the crown, till granted in the 6th year of 
James I. to Francis Philips and Richard Moore. After having 
passed through several hands, the impropriation was purchased by 
the celebrated William Whiston, then viear of this parish, and 
settled by him on the vicarage for ever. 

The church, dedicated to St. Edmund, while it belonged to the 
nuns, was considerably larger than the present building, as is 
evident from the ruins of the old structure, which still remain : 
but, after the suppression of the religions booses, being deprived 
of the assistance which it was accustomed to receive from that 
source, it soon fell to decay. In 1686, the roof was in such a 
ruinous state, that the whole of it fell in, and the timber and seats 
were carried away and burned. Divine service was in conseqnenoe 
dsscotttittued ; till, in 1694, the rebuilding of it in its present 
<kmtracted form was commenced by Thomas Godfrey and John 
Campe, with contributions collected by diem for the purpose. It 
has a lofty square steeple, which contains five bells. The font, of 
▼ery ancient workmanship, is of an octagonal form, having on 
each of the eight sides, the figure of a saint in a sitting posture, 
and underneath each of these the figure of another saint standing 
on a pedestal. On that side which foces the body of the church 
is a small figure of St Edmund, sitting with an arrow in his left 
band, and holding the. point of his beard with his right. Over 
the arch of the vest door in the chorch^yard aye two Migeb with 


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two ceusers, and a small figure of St Edmund sitting between 
them in the same manner as on the font. 

It seems highly probable that there was formerly a religious 
house of some kind in this parish. About half a furlong from the 
church on the way to the vicarage-house^ which is called the 
Nunnery, there is a fiint-stone wall about forty yards in length ; 
and near the road leading to the green, is a small house built of 
freestone, with buttresses, which appears to have been the re- 
mains of a chapel. 


The hundred of Lothing is bounded on the north and west by 
the Waveney, which separates it from Norfolk ; on the 
the hundred of Mutford and the Lake Lothing ; and on the eaut 
by the German Ocean. 

This hundred is generally called the island of Lothingland. 
In former times it was literally an island, the Waveney discharg- 
ing itself into the ocean on its southern border between Lowestoft 
and Kirkley. After the sea had receded considerably from the 
river in this place, it still preserved a small communication with 
it ; and whenever a spring tide was accompanied with a storm 
from the nortli-west, its waters were forced into the river with 
such violence, as to threaten the adjacent country with inun- 
dation. To guard against these irruptions, a break-water was 
erected as a security for the low grounds contiguous to the river. 
Lothingland ceased to be an island in the early part of last cen- 
tury, when the sea entirely withdrew itself from the mouth of the 
river, which, from a deficiency of water, gradually receded to the 
west, leaving an isthmus of about a quarter of a mile, which is 
able to resist the most impetuous attacks of the Ocean. The fast 
of these irruptions was in December, 1717, when the waves 
forced their way over the beach to the river with such irresislible 

2 B 4 ' violence. 

" tl 

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$t6 8UFF0U. 

Tiolence^ aa to carry away Mntford bridge^ at a distance of a mife 
and a half from the shore. This bridge indeed was little more 
than a dam of earth, with a passage for the water, till 1760, when 
it was replaced by the present structure of brick, with one spar 
dous arch, large enough to admit small craft to pass under it 

Lowestoft, the only market-town in this hundred, oontains 
496 houses, and 2332 inhabitants. Its market is on Wednesday ; 
and it has two annual fairs, on the 12th of May, and lOth i^ 

Lowestoft is situated on the easternmost point of the English 
coast, upon a lofty eminence commanding an extensive view of the 
German Ocean, and forms a remarkably beautiful object when be- 
held from the sea. It consists chiefly of one principal street, nm- 
ning in a gradual descent from north to south, and intersected by 
several smaller streets and lanes from the west The high street 
stands exactly on the summit of the cliff, so that the houses on the 
east side of it hce the sea. The declivity, formerly barren sand, 
has been converted by modem improvements into gardens, inter* 
spersed with alcoves and summer-houses, and descending to the 
foot of the hill. At the bottom of the gardens, a long range of 
buildings, appropriated to the purpose of curing fish, extoids the 
whole length of the town. From the situation of these fish- 
houses, the inhabitants derive the two-fold advantage of the easy 
conveyance of the herrings torn the boats, and a total exemption 
bom the disagreeable effluvia arising from them during the pro- 
cess of curing ; though at the same time it must be acknowledged 
that the distance of the town from the water is considered as an 
inconvenience by the invalids, who resort to Lowestoft for the 
benefit of sea-bathing. For this, however, the shore is peculiarly 
« fiivorable, consisting of a hard sand, intermixed with shingle, 
perfectly free fit>m ooze, and those beds of mud which are fre- 
quently met with on other coasts. Four bathing machines are 
kept for the use of the company, by whom this place has of late 
years been much frequented during the season. 


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The parorhiil ChMrck «r Lowestoft is sitiiat«id dbout half a 
tnile west of the town. The reason oi its heing erected at such a 
distance^ is coigectbred to be its greater security from the in- 
cursions of the ocean. This edifice is forty-three feet in height^ 
fifty-seren in breadth, and including the chancel and steeple, 
182 feet in length. The height of the tower is 120 feet, in- 
cluding a leaden spire of fifty. The church itself consists of a 
nave and two aide aisles, separated by two rows of lofty, hand- 
some pillarSf In the times of popery it had a rood-loft, the stairs, 
ascendinlp^ ^hi^h, Jrere discovered a few years since by the ac- 
cidental ^ing of some bricks from one of the buttresses on the 
south side of the church. The chancel is remarkably neat and 
degant, having been greatly embellished by the late rectors, the 
Rev. Mr. Tanner, and the Rev. Mr. Arrow. 

The principal entrance to this edifice is by a stately porch on 
the south side, above which are three niches. On the ceiling of 
this porch is a representation of the Trinity, in which the Father 
appears as a feeble old mah, with Christ on the cross between his 
knees, and the Holy Ghost, as a dove on his breast Here are 
also two ancient shields, on one of which is the cross with the 
teed and spear in saltire, also the scourge, the nails, and on 
Hbe top, the scroll for the inscription. On the other is the cross 
only. Over the porch is a chamber, called the Maid's Chamber. 
Tradition relates, that it received this appiellation from two maiden 
■inters, Elizabeth and Katharine, who, before the Reformation, re- 
sided here in religious seclusion. It is farther reported of these 
sisters, that they caused two wells between the church and the 
town, to be dug at their own expense, for the benefit of the in- 
habitants; and that their niame of Basket Wells, is only a corrup- 
tion of Bess and Kate. 

The font in this church is of very ancient workmanship. 
There is an ascent to it of three steps, on the uppermost of 
which is an old inscription, but so worn as to be almost wholly 
Illegible. It is surroilnded by two rows of saints, each row con- 
nstiog of twelve figures, much defiu^d by Dowsing's deputy, 


,1 • 

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Francis Jessope, vken he visited the churchy in 1644. At the 
same time he too^ away from the grave-stones all the brass- 
plates^ inscribed with the words Orate pro anima, &c. and others 
of the like natiure, together with many effigies in braas« and sold 
all the metal for five shillings^ though there was sufficient for a 
bell» whicli is now used for the chapel. 

In this church is the burial-place of many persons of note. 
Beneath a large stone, ia the middle of the chancel, is interred 
Thomas Scroope, Bishop of Dromore, in Ireland, and vicar of this 
parish, who died here, January 15, 1491. On this stone was 
formerly the effigy of the bishop, in his episcopal habit, his 
crosier in one hand, and pastoral staff in the other, together with 
several escutcheons of the arms of his family^ and a border, all 
in brass ; but scarcely any remains of them are now to be seen. 
Weever informs us, that a Latin elegiac epitaph was also en- 
graven upon the moni^ment of this prekte, and has even given 
us a specimen of one of the last verses ; but it probably pmshed 
by the mistaken zeal that prevailed at the era of the Refonna* 

The bishop was descended from the noble fiimily of Scroope, 
and was otherwise snrnamed Bradley, from the place of his 
birth. He was first a monk, of the order of St. Benedict, but 
aspiring to greater sanctity took upon him the rule and pro- 
fession of a Dominican. He afterwcurds embraced the stiU stricter 
discipline of the Carmelites, of whose institution he wrote a 
learned treatise, and preached round about the country. Clothed 
with sackcloth, and girt with an iron chain, he used to cry out 
in the streets, that " the New Jerusalem, the bride of the Lamb, 
was shortly to come down from heaven, prepared for her spouse, 
and that, with great jo^, he saw the same in spirif He then 
withdrew again to the Convent of Carmelites at Norwich, and 
there remained twenty years, leading the life of an anchoret He 
next went abroad, and was appointed to the Bishopric of Droraore, 
by Pope Eugene IV. who sent him on an embassy to the Island 
of Rhodes, concerning which he wrote a book; and on his re* 
6 turn. 

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tiim» repaired io his see in Ireland.' Prompled aa' it 'iroald appear 
by a certain reatlessneas of dispoaition, he soah qfoilted his hi* 
ahopric, aad came into Uieae eastern ooaiitieB, where be went up 
and dowil hare^foot, preaching ami insthieling the peopJe in 
the ten commandments. In 1478, he was instituted to the vicar^ 
age of Lowestoft, and died in 1491, at the age of very little less 
than 100 yeaTs, witha great reputation for sanctity, say both Rale 
and Pitz; and it is aiTohder, observes' Fdller, that they agree in 
the same opinion. 

In the chancel is also interred James Howard, youngest son of 
Thomas, Earl of Berkshire, who died on the 7th of June, 1665, of 
the wounds he receired the preceding day, in the sea-fight with 
the Dutch, off Lowestoft. " He was,'' says the inscription on 
bis tomb, ** a youth of svperidr parts, aid from bis most tend^ 
years, had an inMiable tliirst for glory." He fell in:the24tbyear 
of bis age. 

On the first step of the chancel, on a white marble stone, ari 
inscriptions for the Rev. John'Tannelr and his wife. He was the 
brother of Dr. Thomas Tanner, Biahop of St. Asaph, airthor of the 
Notitia Monastica, The second edition of that work having 
been left unfinished by the bishop at his death, was completed 
and published by his brother *. Mr. Tattner was for fifty-one 
years vicar of Lowestoft, and also for some time commissary and 
official to the archdeaconry of Suffolk, which duties he resigned, 
when the infirmities of age rendered him incapable of performing 
them with such exactness as he wished. He was distinguished for 
his activity in promoting the interests of religion, which was 


* Tbe Archaiologia u under tome miitake concerning this work, of which 
it Myt : " Before he (the bishop) wat 2S ^etit old, he pohlished hb NotUia 
Ncnattiea, in 1695, 8vo. ; and it wa* repoblilbed in folio, in i75X, with great 
additions, which he begao to collect in 11l5, bj his brother. Dr. John Tan- 
ner, precentor of St. Asaph» and rector of Hadleigb, in Sufolk.*' ' It was in 
fact published in 1744, by his bfother^ the Rev. John Taqner, precentor of 
St. Asaph, and vicar of Lowestoft. Tbe rector of Hadleigh was Dr. Thomas 
Tanaer, the bishop's only son. 


I i 

I! ' 1 


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1.1 f* 

tn sorrouL 

p«rtMd«ri7 «nMid in tiift nkdUiac of IQddef 

ofUtdMNsk Ha 4i6dDMMbcr 88,1788!, aged 7« 

lathe •MlhaialebiatBmdMnTlHNBaaAnMit.iriiafea^ 
die gnuamar-adioel «l Lowealaft. Hen alao aie teaiAa of the 
Utben, Adihys, tail MigheBa, aaiaee dialinKaiihed in ow aaial 
hurtory, and all of thinB natiTea of thia towD. 

Beer Adaural Ulber, niio took ta aotm ehare in meat of the 
hard^Mglit cngagementa leMi the Datoh, ia the eariy partef the 
leign e€ Charlee IL ead died in 1M9» ia hm baried, with hie 
wife and two aoaa, both eaptaiae in the royal oaTy. Joha^ the 
eMer, oemBaaded the Onemaey frigate, and M in l€e&, at the 
early age of tweaty-two, in aa attack en a Datoh fleet of aiefw 
chant ehipe, in the port of Bergen, in Norway. The eecoad lon^ 
Eobert, died in lew, aged M. 

Against the eostti side of the akle, abovealaigeHiaibleteaA^ 
wiadi aoveia Ae reaieiae of AAaind Sir John Addiy, ia a Met 
t with thie ineeription s 

Seered to the aMBOty «f 

Sir JoMH A«B»r« Knight, 

PnifeoC of the Cowts of Ssndgate. 

On whom for bis anithaken idelity and appra?ed*of 

Valoar in tbc engagement with the French at 

Baittbii BaTj 

Where he (^orioosly foegfat lor hk Kmg and Country, 

His Mi^esty co nfe rred the honour of kmgbtbood. 

He afterwards gave many signal eaamples of his bravery 

and skilfiUaess inaaval aAurs, 

By which he obtaiaed the pott of Admiral and Comowader 

bchief of the Royal Naty, aad General of Harms. 

Adorned with tbeie heno«ri» 

He exchanged earthly gkny for ieuaortalitjr, 



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TIm y^iaqipJ Jirnvtl opentioiifl i« mlmk Sir Mib Ankkj ^tm 
«igiige4 MfaMiquea t iy to the UtOe Df Bantry Buy^ wef» tlie ear 
fagemenU otf Beaehy tteaa, in 1069, audi Caj^ la KkgU(&, ui 
1692. On the latter accaaioii» ha conmaaded the Uiie aqoairo^ 
and waa aent after tfie Tictory, to aftteinpt the deatrodion of pait 
af the Freneh ileel^ which had taken refuge ia the Port of St. 
Halo. Thia» however, he fooad implieticable, mad though hia 
eoodact, io regacd to thia citcnms^ance, waa loadly ceasured by 
aooie, yet the gallaat adaiiral found uMaaa to juatify hiawelf 
completely, when exaaiined oa.the aahjeot betbre the )Io«ae of 
-Commona. Sir Joha died it Portamooth, and waa there ia» 
lerred, but hia bodjr waa afterwarda reaMTe4 to thia hia native 

A little to the weat af Sir Joha Aahby'a monuaient, ia one to 
the memory of hia nephew, Jaaiea Mighdla, Eaq. vice-admival 
aad comptroller of the royal navy. The firat enterpriie in which 
thia gentleman had an opportunity of signalizing himaelf waa the 
capture aad deatructioa of a Preach ooavoy, in GfaaviUa 99f 
on the coast of Nonaaady^ ia July 17M. Ia the foUowiag month 
he sustained a gloriona part in the hard-fought, but indecisive 
engagement with the French fleet, off Malaga. About the middle 
of this action, in which he commanded th^ Monk of aixty guna, 
and 365 men^ the French admiral sent the Serieux of seventy guna 
to board him. Captain Mighalla, however, gave the enemy auch a 
warm receptiou, that she was obliged to aheer off, after three at- 
tempta, though her wounded men were each time replaced from 
the galleys. In 1711, he commanded the Hampton Court, under 
the ordera of Sir John Jennings, in the Mediterranean, and in com* 
pany with aome other English vessels, fell in with two French 
ships of 6fty guns, one of which, the Thoulonse, struck, after an 
action of two hours, to Captain Mighells. The last active service 
which thia officer performed, was as commander in chief of the 
naval part of the successful expedition against Vigo, in 1719. Ha 
waa appointed comptroller of the navy, in 1723, and died March 
21, 1733, aged 69. 

A hand. 


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t89 BvrrouL 

A haadflome moDimieiit of white marUe in^tlua aidje^ k ioBoribed 
to the -memory of Captain Thomas Arnold^ who served in tk« 
royal navy forty years, and died Aognst 31^ 1737, aged 56. The 
most roaarkable trait in the pnriGessiimal life <^ Captain Arnold, 
was his conduct as £rst lientenant of the Supethe, one of tlie 
ships detached hy Sir George Byng, imder Cqitain Walton, im 
pnrsait of a division of tlie Spanish fleet, on the coast of Sicily. 
In the action which ensned, Captain Master, in the Superbe, 
here down apon the Spaaiah admiral's ship, the Royal Philip, of 
74 gan8> bat being diffident about the most successful method of 
attacking the enemy, he consulted his first lieutenant, Mr. Ar- 
nold, who replied, that '* as the eyes «f the whole fleet were 
upon him, expecting the most vigorous effi>rts in the discharge 
of his duty in that critical moment, he advised him to board the 
Royal Philip immediately, sword in hand.'' This coansd was 
adopted, and Lieutenant Arnold putting himself at the head of the 
hoarders, soon carried his antagonist; bat in this service he re- 
cmed so dangerous a weund in one hand and arm, as rendered 
them almost useless ever after *« 

In the vestry, the following lines inscribed on the tomb of Mr. 
Joseph Hudson, fourteen years minister of Lowestoft^ who died ul 
1091, deserve notice for their quaintness :-— 

Here Lie f Yobr Fain Foil 

j||inisler» LameDt; 

YoD Must Account How Yon 

This Life Hftve Spent -, 

Worthy Your Tears, He's Dead, 

His Work Is Done ; 

Live What He Tanglit Yoo 

For His Glass Is Rno. 


* It is castomary at Lowestoft to hang flags across the streets at weddings ; 
and the colours of the Royal Philip, taken hy Mr. Arnold, have frequently 
been used on these occasions. . 

f The coupling of the singular nonn with the plural rerl^ is one of the pe* 
' csUarities in the language of the natives of this county. 

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Hit Sonle's Id Blisse, The Dust 

Hit Bodjr Takes, 

Thus Wee Lose All, While 

He8v>sn and Earth Pan Stakes. 

But Patiently Await, He 

Shall Arise, 

Bj An Habeas Corpus, At 

The Last Assiie. 


In this church is also interred the late \ricar, the Rev. Robert 
Potter, F. R. S. and A. S. to whom the literary world is indebted 
for the best poetical versions that we possess of the three Greek 
Tragedians. His Mschylus appeared in 1777; Euripides in 
1781, and Sophocles in 1788. Besides these laborioos works, 
he published some performances of inferior importance. In 1789, 
he succeeded the Rev. Mr. Arrow, in the vicarage of I<owestoft, 
and abont the same time was presented to a prebendal stall in the 
Cathedral of Norwich. He was fonnd dead in his bed in October 
1804, at the advanced age of 83. 

In the church-yard is the burial place of the family of Barker, 
with an elegant pyramidal monument, erected pursuant to the will 
of John Barker, Esq. who left dOOl. for that purpose, and the in- 
terest of 10001. three per cent Bank Annuities, to keep it in repair, 
and the overplus, if any, to be distributed among the poor of the 
parish. Mr. Barker was one of the elder brethren of the Trinity 
House, a governor of the London Assurance Company, vice- 
president of the Magdalen, and a director of Greenwich Hospital. 
He died at his house in Mansel Street, London, November 1, 
1787, aged 80 years, and was interred here with great funeml 
pomp. He was a great benefactor to this his native town, hav- 
ing for many years before his decease caused not less than 2501. 
to be distributed annually among poor, infirm, sailors,' their wi- 
dows and fiunilies, exclusively of many other liberal acts of bene- 

There is no church-rate in this parish, the profits arising^ from 
the lands belonging to the church being amply sufficient for keep- 

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i ! X 



iDg it in repair. These lands oonsial of sixtj-seren acres, besides 
sereral tenements, the donor of which was nnknown so early as 
the time of Edw^ VI. and together with 28i acres purchased 
with 601. left by William F^ch, by will, dated April 14, 1929, 
to buy free lands for the use of the poor, are let by anction in the 
town-chamber every seyen years, in the presence of the minister 
and churchwardens. 

On account of the distance of the church from the town, it was 
found necessary to erect places for public worship in a more con* 
venient situation. Accordingly Lowestoft had two chapels, both 
erected before the Refonnation. One of these, called Good Crosa 
Chapd, stood at the southern extremity of the town, but has long 
since been so completely destroyed by the sea, that no vestige 
of it now remains. The second, nearly in the middle of the town, 
•n the west side of the High Street, being in. a very ruinous con* 
dltion, was taken down, and rebuilt, in .1698, by means of a sub- 
scription of the inhabitants. 

Contiguous to this chapel, is the Corn-cross, over which 
is the town-chamber, used not only for the transaction of *the 
business of the town, but also as a school-room for the children 
belonging to Annott's foundation. In 1698, when the chapel 
was rebuilt, this structure was put nearly into the state in whidi 
it at present appears. The market was at the same time re- 
moved from a large area, still known by the name of the Old 
Mmrket, to that part of the High Street, contiguous to the edi- 
fice : but this situation being found inconvenient, it was again re-^ 
moved, in 1703, to the spot where it still continues to be held. 
The original design of this cross was to provide a shelter for the 
formers, when they brought their com hither to maiket; and for 
this purpose it was used, till 1768, when part of it was inclosed 
for a vestry to the chapel, and the remaining part now serves 
merely aa a passage to that place of worship. 

The Grummar-Mchoot at Lowestoft was founded by Mr. Tho- 
mas Annotty merchant of this town. By indenture, bearing dale 
the 10th of June, 1S70, he settled lands in Wheatacre Burgh, 
9 Norfolk. 

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Norfolk, for the payment of twenty marks, afterwarda augment- 
ed by his heirs to sixteen pounds per annum " to maintain one 
honest and sufficient person, learned in the art and knowledge of 
grammar, and the Latin tongue, and other things incident and 
neoeasary belonging to the said art,'' who was to instruct forty 
boys bom in Lowestoft ; if there should not be so many wanting 
to be taught, then the numb^ to be made up from those resident 
in the town ; but should it still be deficient, the number then to be 
oompleted with any from the half-hundreds of Hutford and Lothing- 
land. The school-house for this foundation, was formerly in the 
Town-Close, adjoining to the east wall of the church-yard ; but 
this building being in a ruinous state, the Town Chamber was 
fitted up for a school iroom in 1674, and has been used for that 
purpose ever since. 

On the east side of the High Street stands the school-house, 
erected in 1788, in pursuance of the will of Mr. John Wilde, of 
Lowestoft, dated 22d July, J 735, who bequeathed an estate at 
Worlingham, and all his lands and tenements in this town, for 
the maintenance of a virtuous and learned schoolmaster to in- 
struct forty boys in Latin, writing, reading, and arithmetic. The 
minister and churchwardens are empowered to appoint this mas- 
ter, and also to remove him at their discretion. His salary is 
fixed at forty pounds by the testator, who directs any overplus,. 
arising from the estates left by him, to be expended in such cha- 
ritable purposes as the minister and church-wardens shall think 

On an elevated point of land near the edge of the cliff*, on 
which Lowestoft is situated, and a little to the north of the town, 
stands the Upper Light-house, a circular tower of brick and 
stone, about forty feet high, and twenty in diameter. It was 
erected in 1676 ; and the upper part, for about two- thirds of the 
circumference was originally sashed, that the coal fire continually 
kept burning within, might be visible in the night at sea. In 
1779> this part was found to be so much decayed, that the breth- 
ren of the Trinity House resolved to take the top wholly off, and 

VouXIV. 2C to 

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tb enet one of tite heit\j invebM cylMen fe iU ileiil Ot IM^ 
beach bestow the cliff «MmAb aA#lh«r ttg fclh <W P 6 U twlbeiv iHbM» 
iMLtigft IB n frftMe of the MaMie flMttfMi, nM i» 
Mich h maimer m to admH ef ito Ma^; tettoved. By 
<his bdRdifig eorrei«d l»y tin upper ligM-lfteit, i 
erg;ohigoiit of, Lowestoft mtAn are AiectfeiHtiie StniHi < 
ftel, whieh ties beVwcea What aM deHMdiiliUd ibe AMmo tad 
Biumard aands. TUa channel is abo«t k ^[terter of a nito brtoi^ 
and three quarlera of k nftle flMfni the ahiMe; 90A thoogk It ham. 
existed from tuae innneniorial iieari7eiithttaiMieflpotaaatfffe«» 
sent, yet fttm the effeda of daiteMa, alonaa» and parhapii ( 
eanses beyond the Teach of hnaaA fsne aUga t lk ia, H ia to 
ating that H nerer contnraea long in tfie same aiintioa* Of iifta 
years its motion has been northerly^ as is eTideiit Hoaitito aa y uat 
changes that have been made in thefioaitioft of the lower li|^t- 
house, to bring it in a line with the «pp«r lighwboiiae, and ^k^ 

The pnncipal part of the eommeiee of ijoweiAoft fa derivcn 
TOln the herring fishery. The aeaaoo commenees about the ini^ 
die of September, and lasts fSXk abocil the middle of If ovembar^ 
The boats stand ont to aea, to tJhe dbbmce of aboiit t h ii % un 
leagues tiorth-east of Lowestoft, hi order to eSeet the ahoaia aC 
herrings coming from tiie north. Hating readked tte fl^Ba^ 
gronud, in the evening, the proper time ior Mung, ^hey a hort t 
Ont their nets, extending d>ont i,Md yards ia length Had ^ight Ilk 
depth ; which by meana of amatl casks, called bowls, ftusteoed o* 
one side, are made to swim in a position perpeafieular to the war- 
Ihce of the water. If the quantity of Mi caught in fMiO niglit 
«monnts to no more thai» a few thousaniB, they are sailed, wmk 
the vessels, if they meet wiA no better aneeesa, co n t ia ae oa the- 
fishing ground two or three niglits-loiiger, ssMhig the fish aaHmy 
are caught Sdmetimes whea the quantity taken ia very wmdl, 
they win continue on the ground a week or wrore, bat in geneiai 
Uic fish are landed ev^ two or three 4aya, and sometinMa oAener 
when they mre very suboesaftd. Am aoonwatheiiemBga vehiwoght 
+ am 


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fi4> ti|4 ll^4 «D the floury in li^ap^ ^^% tVQ (Mi 4eq^ AArr 
tll^ lu^re ffeiwii04 in Miis ifMe aMl ^ 1uum«, they are p^ 
into |)mIi«^, ^ fluBseilliitP wat^ <o wash %\m mtU fro^A U1019. 
Wog4«i| lipitp,!^^ Ifor feed lopf, ^fe thfip rw fhfopgk the gills 
of as many of the fish as th^ will hold, oad fixed at p'o|ier dip- 
tiiBC^ in t)ie iqipar pfut of l^e lio^w^, ^ ||igh as the top of the 
fHoC A millll«r of aiiall mquA firea, acw^tg to tlie si^ of the 
ptoooi 010 HMT killed upon the flwtr, M|d hy the soioke aseM- 
VUg from thaia, tl^ (lOEriBga foro «of»d, Aft^ M»P Nl Ma hoog 
la ^his mMiafr aboi4 «av«B di^y^ the ikes ^# oatw^had <or 
tiva day^jtiial the ^il a^dM may drip finm tbm* Ttm Ar^ 
ipe tfa?ii|r«k4i4M, md ^er two mof^ i^^ dri^pi^gp, tboF we 
Jl^t fo nli pfHy haroing until the fi^ ^e peynplei^j oi^>ed. This 
operatioii required a longer or a ahortar tm% aeaar^HJV aa thuy 
lire dmgaad fyr exporlatiop;, or fow hape oppsimiptioa. The 
l^crriogs^ haviiiig hiwg a p^er tiiae« m^ picked m l>«n»bi aoa- 
t^jaiogSOPor 100Pe94^)»i 4^»d shipped f^n»iiet 

T|ia Pimher of ba^ta nwn^j ^ifiplof e^ at (isw^vtoft in this 
49h«ry for mpy y«ais^ prorioHlly to ) 7B|, wa^ ahoat thiKyrthre^, 
IIq4 the Vf^^%J pf i^Bfrinia ^s^Aghjt av^mgpd tveaty-000 laf4s, 
(each containing 10,000 )i^pg^) \9 % ^at Afl#r thut tiai^, 
owing to the w«r with the Patch apd pt^Ksr powfwn, tha yiaoiher of 
hoa«s engaged m the ha^rlog fishinry in^lhi^ dii^aiihed ; bat the 
hooaliev grapited by an fM^pi^ssad ja )786, fur the eneoucageBieat 
of tho fiaheriaa, govo now Figoqr to tbi» ▼MiiftHa hraoch of indus- 
try, ao that paly ilkraa years ofterwards, |be baots fitted out by 
thia town snouotod to forty-fcur. ^»ch of these b^ts, whiah 
are built bon», parr^afi iibout far|y tam, aod aeqaifos eleven men. 
la 1808 sonietbiag pare thaa thirty bpf^ gfiiaed dOfiOQU. the 
pripaaf thefiah a«r94,i^l%iif^8un|tblMlhad p?^ before been made 
m oae s^asffi, iad, the fi;dlowi|ig year, thf y afuraed in sii^ weeks 
lOjiQOOl. by inaAireU eaolwively of the other fish caught duriog 
thft pariod. Within tho last fl<|y yaan the deiaand for cured 
barriogf far tha foiiigli worfcets has coatiderably declined* while 
2 q 2 the 



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388 svFPOLif. 

' the home eonramption hu proportiomAly incretsed. The sbpe^ 
nor qaality of the Loweatoft herringB is evident from their fetcti* 
ing a higher price than those of any other place. The London 
fishmongers have long heen accustomed to give ten shillings a 
last more for Lowestoft herrings than for those of Yartnonth, 1^ 
the price of the latter he what it will. 

Another fishery carried on hy the hoats of Lowestoft, is f<»r 
madcarel: hut the principal advantage derived from it hy the 
' owners, consists in its finmishing employment fer the fishermen, 
' and keeping them at home for the herring season ; as the emolu- 
ments received from it are very inadequate to the expense of fitting 
ont the vessels, «id the dangers to which tfiey are liable. The 
maduiel fishery begins at the end of May, and coatiniies till 
the end of June. The number of boats annually employed in 
it from this town is about twenty*three. 

Lowestoft formerly fitted out about thirty hoats annually for 
the North Sea and Iceland fishery, which, however, gradnally de- 
clined, till, about the middle of last century, the ill success of the 
adventurers caused it to he entirely relbiquished. On the denes 
m little to the north of the town, may still be seen a trench wh^re 
stood the blubber-coppers, in which the livers of the fii^ brought 
home 'from this voyage used to be boiled. 

This town being part of the ancieftt demesne of the crown, 
obtained at diflSsrent times various privileges, many of which, 
however, are now become useless and fiufgotten. The only one 
perhaps of which the inhabitants at present avail themselves, in 
the exemption from serving on juries, et^er at the quarter-sessions 
or assizes ; though the others; if duly invesUgated, might not 
•even at the present ikj be found altogether unprofilable. 

Lowestoft has experienced a large proportion of ^le calamities 
of pestilence, fire, and tempest It has been several times visit- 
ed by the phigne, but the greatest mortality which it ever expe- 
rienced was in 1603, when 280 persons were buried in this parish 
in the space of ^ve months, and in the whole year 316. The 
town has also, on different oecasions, sustained heavy losses hy 

confiagratiotts ; 

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pnMaigtti&stm; Wl none proved more deetntetive timn that which 
befipened en the 10th <^ Mereh> 164d^ ajid eonsomed property in 
dweUing'houees, fiih-houMe^ and goode, to the vahie of 10^71. 
Off thistown was foaght on the 3d Juoe^ 1665, one of the moat 
aanguinary naval engagementa that took place during the war 
with the Dutch under Charles II. The enemy^s fleets composed 
of 102 men of war, and 17 yachts and fire-ships, had retreated to 
their own coast before the English force of 1 14 men of war, and 
28 fire-ships commanded by the Duke of York. The States sent 
peremptoiy orders to Opdam, to put to sea, and fight at all events. 
The admiral having called a council of war, and finding that the 
general opinion concurred with his own for avoiding an action^ 
said to his officers: '' I am entirely of your sentiments, but 
heits are my orders. To morrow my head shall be bound eith« 
with laurel or with cypress.'' He accordingly weighed anchor ai 
day-break on the 3d of June, and in an hour discovered the Eng- 
lish fleet The engagement began about three in the morning off 
Lowestoft^ and continued with great fury, but wiU^ut any remark- 
able advantage to either side till noon, when the Earl of Sand-" 
widi foroing through the centre of the Dutch line, threw their 
fleet into such confiision that they never recovered firom it The 
' Dnke of York in the Royal Charles of 80 guns was, lor some 
hoors» closely engaged with Opdam in the Endiacht of the same 
force. The Eari ai FaUnouth, Lord Muskerry, Mr. Boyle, toge-' 
ther with some of the duke's attendants, were killed by his side 
and the prince himself was wounded in the hand by^ a splinter of 
Mr. Boyle's skull. In the midst of the action, the Dutch admi-* 
ral blew up, and out of 500 men, among whom were a great num- 
ber of volunteers of the most distinguished families in Holland, 
only five were saved. This ^tal accident increased the confusion 
•f the enemy, so that soon afterwards four of their ships ran foul 
of each other, and were destroyed by a fire-ship ; and three more 
shortly after shared the same &te. Tlie Orange of 74 guns 
being disabled and taken, was likewise burnt. The Dutch vioe** 
idmiral Cortenaer received a shot ia the thigh, of which he imme^ 

2 C 3 diately 






', I 




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aiately ext>ir6d, and vlD(e«*Aiiifftl ftMlklgWBki taHAf iiM frilMt, 
their tbips bora «nt (tf the Uiie» VilbiMik sMitil|r iMr iej;*} ftid 
being Mowed by several olker», Ibft eimflttioii ifMl Wieito g«iM»* 
Wd. Yati Tramp, boweveiV witii faitt dltMon, g«lltAlly ooM- 
dned the omfliet till iieve« In tbe «tilii«f » itten Aiding; fAmmV 
d^erted by the rast of the fieet, he wai likewtve obliged to ratlfe* 
In this protracted engagement^ efgkteen ef Hie tiieAy'a ahipk 
irere taken, and fomieen eunk or WatuM tbey hid' vpimfdi ^ 
4000 Mn killed, and tmO, antotig wlibtn WeNailciMM eaplaiin,tok«ia 
pHamierg. The Englhih le^t only ofte abip of 46 gnni t Hi^ kH«i 
afliountsd to fifiO, end their womided ttd notex«aed Sdh. A«imig 
the tbhner, wera AdmiUfth BuipMi a«d bftlMibn> and t$lfMm, 
tihe Eaiie of Marlberangii atid ^tlaAd. AlnlAg the kttarv HI* 
the Hon. Jatnea Ito1nild,the yonngait son tof the Bari ef Bai tohi ra, 
#ho being carried <r)n ahote, (expired on the 74^ of lanei «Mi iiltf> an 
we hate seen, inteft^ \itk Lowealail oharah. 

In ad^4ittbn lo the d^bmted Mital tetettandetft if this W#ti^ «C 
whom «^me aoeonnt haa abieady been giyeti> maf be MM n Mi 
Sir ThoBHas Allen, and Sir AmdraW Leafcik 

Sir TiaoBiAs Allsn, whb during CromwtiU^* pilsitoetoNit» 
ims stedfaftHy atlaehed tb tlie royal eaa»o, wti flMtt rite M 
refllc^tien i^pointal to n oonHnand in the boyid Navy. In \t$4 
he waa «eat aa dommimderpin^ohief into Hie Meditonhiiein, WhiM 
the fbUowing e|^ng, eH Ae eoqimeneeliieAk ef lh(s w«ilr with the 
Dutch, he fcll in wi^ theh* Snyftia f eel^ t o n t d n M ug ef fiMrty v«l- 
ael8,aonieor which WM viery aOmg, mrfer eMitt^y ef f^nr ahipa 
of war. AHer an obiftiMato engagMent, iki Whieh lih« Dnleh tein^ 
mander fell, €ir ThMiaa, Who had only eight ahipa, Mialeprine M 
fy» of the rieheift of Hie encMy'a fleet. In the ^ibslAiato eoghge- 
vaents off LoWeaColl, in 1005, and near the ooaiA^f Hhndera «nd 
the Netth Foneknd, in 1660, Shr Thoinaa bora a dMngntehed 
part On the eondnaionof the first Dnieh Wsfr, he wttaagainaent 
into the hfeditemmean 1^ chailbe Hie A^gerines, and after hk ra** 
tQra,waa, in consideratiM oCHiemmerous aervkea^ traated abaranel 
Bi 1689. About the same time he purchaaed Hie eatoto ef 6o* 


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•f Ms fib itt ftimmnL 

Ai|BUw Lbau aJUr sevaitl grogmiRive ilepa in t^ navy* 
mtapipoiBlHl to Uia •n«p»yiil of a 8|iip« dwrtni; the wv which 
ms fannaated ky the {mm «f Rytwick in 1696. In IWP h^ 
mn aa^t witk a anaU aquadfon W Newftmndlaad for the pr4t^- 
tiam of ike Miery. Oa the M-eDBnaeacemeBl of ho^Uti^ with 
VWanae and Sfma, he waa nmofveA la the Torbay ef 80 gqii«, au4 
paitifaUarly aignaUzed his^elf in the briUiant atUok pa Vigp; 
wiwfe hia ehip, whieh hoake the boom fonnad aerqie the hafh^ar^ 
aaai lednoed aearly t» a w«du The T4>rhay baviag becQf^ 
anaag the pabka with which this boon» wej» 
that ahe cauU aot ha eKtrioatadi t)^ eneoiy 
ant a fire^Up to aaiaplele her deatrp^tion : in which attempt 
they would doabtleai have suceead^, bad not a l^ge qaantity 
of snnff oa beaid aasieted to eatiagaiah the flames at the mooient 
of the espleaian. The eKortioaa of Oaptaia l^N^p on this ooca- 
aian prooured him tke hamm of Laig()thoad. In 170a Sir An* 
drew^ ia the Graftoa of 70 giiaa, contributed to the attack on 
Gibraltar. In the eogaigemaat off Mals^ga in the wae >ear, 
he led the . van of the division a^der the conuaander-in-chief. 
Sir George Rooke ; but received a wound, of which he expir- 
ed during the action. After it had been dressed, he wrapped 
a table-cloth round his body, and thoagh life was fast eb- 
bing, he placed himself in lua elhew-diair, in which he desired 
to be again carried upon the quarter-deck, where he undauntedly 
sat and partook of the glories of the day until he breathed his 
last From the remarkable comeliness of his person. Sir Andrew 
is said to have been distinguished by the appellation of Queen 
Anne's handsome captain.* 

THOMAS' Nash, an autlior of considerable reputation at tbe 

latter end of the 16th ceatary, was also a native of Lowestod, 

dC4 his 

* It is WQrtbj of remark that tlie naval heroes of Loh entoft. Sir Thomas 
Allen, Admiral Utber, Sir John Aihby, Admiral MiglieiU, and Sir Andrew 
LeakCf were all related thfaer by coBsaflgoiaitj or juarriage. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

398 «inPFOU. 

Uii ftunilj was descended from the Niilies «( Herafbrddiim^ 
and he was educated at Cambridge. He wrote mnch both in praae 
and yene, especially of the satirical kind. Three of his pieces 
are preserved in the British Mnseua ; the king's Ubrary ooolains 
twenty-fonr, and the Marqnis of StiBifibrd's seven. Among him 
prodncUons, that in which he refen most to his native place, m 
his '' Lenten Stuffe, or the Praise of the Red Herring, fiUe 
of all Clearkes of all Noblemen's Kitchens to be read, and noi 
unnecessary by all servhtg-inen that haoe short board wages to 
be remembered, 1599. 4to. Bwtnden observes that the facetious 
Nash in his Lenten Stt^ffe, designed nothing more than a joke 
npon our staple, red herrings ; and being a Lowestoft man, the en* 
mity between that town and Yarmouth led him to attempt that by 
humour, which more sober reason oonld not accomplish. He died 
about the year 1600, aged forty-two. 
The other places in this hundred worthy of notice are : 
Beltok, remarkable as the hnrisl-place of the late John Ives, 
Esq. F. R. S. and F. A. S.* iliiose remains are deposited in the 
fitmily tomb in the church of this parish. On a mnral monument 
erected to his memory, is this inscription, composed by the late 
Rev. E. Thomas of Feversham :— 

M. S. 
ViRi Lectjssihi 


Rbcijb AC ANTiavA&Ls London S. S. 

Nec non P&ovtncijb Suffolciensis 


Inter Pbjmds brvditi bonarvm artium 


Qui in Priscorvm Temporum Monumbntis 

ilxustrandis mvltvm (nec xnfbucrter) 




Maximo cum oesioerio cm nium 

* For a brief Jtcconnt of this gentleman, tee Bcantiei^ VoL XL Norfolk, p. S6S 

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nntouL 993 





Burgh Castle is a relic of the Roman empire in Britain, con- 
cerning which oar antiquaries are divided in opinion. One party, 
with Camden at their head, insist that it is the Garianonum of 
the Romans ; whereas Sir Henry Spelman and some others, place 
that station at Caistor, near Yarmouth. Both produce plausi- 
ble reasons in support of their opinions, but probability certainly 
keems to favor the pretensions of Burgh Castle; though Caistor 
is allowed to have been a summer camp, or station, dependent on 
this fortress. 

Mr. Ives, in his ample and ingenwns remarks on fhis castle, 
contends for the identity of this place with the Roman Garianonum. 
He fixes the era of its erection in the reign of the Emperor Clau- 
dius, and conjectures that it was built by Publius Ostorius Sea- 
pula, who conquered the Iceni, or people inhabiting the counties 
of Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, and Huntingdon. We are in- 
formed in the Notitia Imperii, that the troops who garrisoned 
this station were a body of cavalry, called the Stablesian horse, 
under the command of a Propositus, who was particularly styled 
Gariennonensis ; and it is computed by Mr. King,* that Burgh 
castle, even its present mutilated state, would contain at least 
one cohort and a half, with their allies. 

The remains of this fortress stand on an eminence near 
the eonflnx of the rivers Yare and Waveney. From the great 
quantities of oyster-shells, and also many iron rings, and pieces 
of anchors, belonging to ships, dug up near the walls, it is in- 
ferred that the estuary of the Yare once washed its ramparts.f 


* ManimiiDt. Antiq. p. 116. 
t Thit estoary, prior to the formation of^tbe sand on which Yarmooth ia 
•itoated, is said to have occopied the whole of the flat conntrj between 
Caistor and Burgh Cattle, In support of this tradition, Mr. Ives gives in his 


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These remains tern tiwee sMei cf a penlW^gnai, haYing the 
angles rounded off. WImUmv Hw ^rasl sMa» next the nver, was 
ever bounded by a ivrall seenm dedbtM* The water might theo^ 
have approached near^ to the foiiren, and^ with the steep bank» 
haye been deemed a sofBcient security* The north and south 
sides are neariy equal in lengthy each measuring 107 yards, just 
lialf as much as the east side, which is 214. The height 
throughout is fourteen, and the thickness nine feet. The are» 
is four acres two roods, or, including the wall^ five acres, two 
roods, and twenty perches. 

The wall is of grout-work, faced on the outside with Romais 
bricks, interlayed in separate courses betwe^ layers of cut flint. 
It is buttressed on the east by four round towers, or rather, solii 
cylinders, about fourteen feet in diameter; one on the souths and 
another on the north, banded likewise with Roman bricks. The 
towers seem to have been built after the walls, to which they aiw 
not joined, excepting at the summit. At the top of each is a 
round hole, two feet deep, and as many in diameter, designed^ 
as it is supposed^ for the admission of light temporary watch- 

At the south-west comer is a circular mount, which Mr. Ives 
took for the Prsetorium. Mr. King, however, though he admits 
that the Pnetorium was unquestionably placed on the west side^ 
observes, that this mount may be suspected, from its form and si- 
tuation, to have been rather an additional work in Saxon or Nor« 

Mmarht a copy of tnawieat nap, pwpoiting to repretoit the oMiudi •f the 
liierai, or Varit, u it appewed in tin jeu 1000. Hie OTiginal, m be in< 
forms xa, reiBaini in a chett called the Hatch, bekutgiag to the corporatiea 
of Yarmouth, and was copied from one Mill more ancient, which appeared 
to he in a perishing condition, ahont the time of Queen Eliabeth. He also 
hitrodnces an extract from a manaacript in his posseMton, dated 1560, which 
says, «' that all the whoUe It? ell of she marshes and fennes, which now are 
hetmiate the tewne eif Yomioath and the city of Korwiche, were then all an 
armo of the sea, enieringe within the lande hj <be mouthe of fiicras; and thb 
wasaboHte the jere of oar Savioor lfXL» aad k»go balbre," Mmm^ So* 
t £dit. p. r. 

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MHitiM^ MMlki intefticm of tInM dradar ncwtli «kidi w% 
iMtwilhittsdmaAyliwtratMBof thoieigai.* Ntirthn nmuii 
flli6d tlwMitiilMtr, whiofa beio^ aiiAmiMd afUr mhi* keavjr 
nte^ Iby the fotM of Um mtef nuaing ditwi ^ vallum Ihil 
nomflUidaity Iim Adfteo on om bMo nmr ite origiiiil aitiiataoii, b«l 
wlira. Tlio nottii tewer, haTiag «i|KmiMed a auulai 
nt, haa foc«M at Mm tdjp akout atx Ibat from the wall, a»4 
immn 4awii put of it Tlie tUi of tka oDalli loirv diaoovorod 
Hua sittgokrily, tiM Ihe innadiala foiMbtioa waa eovared wiOi 
oak planks, about two inches thick ; over tkeae was kid a had of 
Nrtar, oB wiych wwe iivegokriy sfpvead tha irat 
of tbo AMe. Tho prinoifal aatranco waa oa the oast 

Tha fidd oontigoooa to tho oaaloni waU, is anpjpoaed to havo 
baoA tho easBiaoa horial plaoo of the gorriaon, fron the gioa* 
noAber of RHMan wm that havo hoeH kmd in it, and tha nmo* 
heriesafragtnQtawitiiwhichit is every when boslvewod. Those 
mtm ofe not MMtfkaUo either for tho wocknaaahip or ike ante* 
tkia; hoing made of ooaioe Uue cloy, hiooght ftom the Migh^ 
fcaiiaig vUkge of Bradwell, ill-formed, hrittie, aad poioua. " Im 
the year IWI/' eaya Mr. Ivea,t " a apace of ive yaida a^oaio 
wooeponed in thia field, aad ohoiil two bet below the aorfiuse, o 
gieait assny fragSKala of oraa were diacovored, whkh appealed 
to have been broken by the ploughs and carts passing over theoL 
nooe^ and the ojoter abells, hoMo of eotdo, honit cool*, end 
elhM> roomiBS lomid with them, plainly diaoovered thia to hove 
hean tho uttrma of the garrisam. One of these urns, when the 
pieces were onited, held asore than a peck and a half of oam, 
andkaid a large thick stone opeiealum on the top of it; within 
WES a oewsiderahle ^aatity of hones aad ashes, oeveral taar piecea 
of Ooiitaalliaie, end the hemi of a RooMn spear/' " In paUing 
doww pan of the hill which formed the Pimtorinm,'*' contiauea the 
aasM writer, ** orns and aahes were discovered in great aboodaiiee. 
AanoDg Ihem waa a stralnn of wheat, pure aad unadxed with 


• Manimeot, Antiq. 11,$$, f RoMHrka, second Edit p. 34 

Digitized fey CjOOQ l( 

M6 strrfOLK. 

earth, the whole of whieh i^ppeand Uke tiial Umij^ht bumHet^ 
enlaiteuin, quite black, as if it had heeii hwmd. - A gneal pari of 
it reaembled a coane powder; bat the gia&alatM ferm of tfa^ 
other, pUdaly ahewed what H had origiaally beea. In the Miae 
place, and at the aame time, waa found a cochleare, or Romaa 
apoon; it vaa of ailver and had a long handle .very ahaip at thft 
point, that being naed to pidc fish ont <^ the shell/' Ringa^ 
keys, bnckles, fibnls, and other instmments, are ftequently foond 
in this neighborhood, and abo coins of silver and copptf , hat 
mostly of the Lower Empire. 

A little to the north of this eaade, are the remaina of amonas^ 
tery, built by Forseus, an Irish ikionk, who. under the patronago 
of Sigebert, the first Christian king of the East Angles, .and 
Felik, the firat bishop of Donwich, coUeetsil a Coapahy of reli* 
gioas persons under tiie monastic mle/and pksed them at Buigji; 
then called Cnobersbncg, after the name of a Saxon cUetf, who^ 
had formerly reaided there. On the death of Sigebert, Fur^eus 
quitted his monastery at Bnigh, and retired to France, after which 
the establishment gradually dwindled to nothing. The anthers of 
Magna Brk4amia observe, that, according to a tradition current 
here, this monastery, after its desertion by the moi^ waa inha^ 
bited by Jews, and add, that an old way leading to the en- 
trance, called the Jewa' way, seems to give it some ooiov of 

The Domesday survey informs us, that in the time of Edward 
the Oonfossor, Stigand, Bishop of Norwich, heU Burgh by soc« 
cage. Under William the Conqueror, Radulph Baliatarwa was 
lord of this SMnor. It is nevertheiesa certain, that thia village 
was always a demesne of the crown, being held by the tenure of 
aeijeanlry by Roger do Burgh, Ralph hia .oQn, and Gilbert de 
Weseham ; at whose decease, being surrender^ into the hands of 
King Henry III. he granted it, with all ila appurtenances, to the 
priory of Bromeholme, in Norfolk, to be held by the same tennrew 
To this retigious house the castle and manor belonged till the 


Digitized by 




dknc^tionrlSd Heniy VIII. when they rererted to the crown^ ill 
which ^ttey remained tiU they were sold by Queen Mftiy to Wil* 
tiun Roberto,' town-derk of Yarmouth. 

The chnreh <tf this parish; dedicated to St Peter, is a small 
buHditig, -consisting. of a nave, chancel, and round towar. Urn 
advac-son of it was giren by Roger de Burgh to the priory of St. 
01ave,at Herringfleet, and King Henry III. confirmed this dona- 
am. The prior presented to the rectory, and had a reserved 
fension of four marks out of it, which is still paid to the pro* 
prictor of St. Olavcf's.' Since the dissolution of the priory, the 
patronage has belonged to tfie crown. 

CosTOTV, a lillagedbout a mile to the north of Lowestoft, is 
situated on a high cliff, commanding an extensive prospect of the 
sea. The parish, comprehending upwards of a thousand acres, 
IS a yicarage, the impropriation of which belonged to Leiston ab* 
bey before the dissolution, when it was granted to Chailes Bran- 
don, Duke of Suflblk. The body of the church is now dilaptdated, 
the chancel being the only part appropriated to difine service. 
'The ruins yel^remaining, prove that the building was of consMerib^ 
Ue dimensions, and the tower, which is still perfect, attesto its 
original elegance. 

There is every reason to believe that Gorton was formerly mudi 
larger than at present. In addUion to the parish church there was 
another, or at least a chapel of ease, some remains of which art 
still visible nt a place called the Gate : and the old foundations of 
houses discovered in different pwts of the parish tend to confirm 
the conjecture. 

Some centuries since th^e was contiguous to Corton, a parish 
called Newton, of which scarcely any other vestiges remain, than 
a stone which supported a cross, denominated Newton Cross, and 
a smaU piece of ground, known by the name of Newton Green ; 
ahnost every other part of this parish having been swallowed up 
by th^ sea. 

Flixton is supposed to have derived its name finom Felix, the 
first bishop of the East Angles. The church of this parish, now 



: i' 

: 1. 


: i! 


Digitized by 



909 «t;fFot|(. 

cotuolidated irith BlondestoQ^ ig in nSm, its not huting Umi 
Uow9 off in the great nloim^ Ner. 87, IfiiS^ TH«Ml»|i|pr 
been chiefly demoliahed for the rapiir ef ntffhlps* mi yh^J|>' 
mHM of this hulding is ap^ie4 to the purpose ef a fin^^ft^ 
evS-boiises* while tbs fem^ i^ esesder^ sspperls the twe vnifliijf- 
i^heg^trongb^ ^'. 

Ck>Ei«sn'ON^ with the a^jecent hsmlet ef Sootii Te«iir,-i^ 
lewukshle for nothing bnt the rouis qf an ancieat hmUjiiy 
supposed hy Camden to baye hesn a Hligieiis house. Afl^ 
are in &€t the rsmaios of the ebvreh of St. Nicholss, 4? 
Sooth Town, which with the hanriet ^ West-Town, wmff^ 
to Yaroonth Bridge, are m old writnigs sailed iitde ¥sv^ 

A late writer * says^ that the parochial jnrisdictions of Goil^ 
slon and Sontb Town are partly msriudd by an nacieat monas^ 
renmitt ; som& rnios of the chapel, s^me of the lyartments of iflac 
eUeb. the egOerior ofices and wall fsiicea of which est«Hjf|p 
meat may yet he traced to a eoosidsvahle exteat; hot it«eeii^ 
prohaUe that be has &Uen iato the same mislsfce ss Camtew # 
segard to the ehorch of Soatfi Towil 

GoNTON. This pariah liee to the north of hom^ta/b^ faHa 
which it is a ^p a rate d only by a Imnk, thrown ap in 1790, by the 
propriebsr of Oaatea, to iaelose pwt of the cosmioQ, irhixk k^ 
till then lain waste. Itcoatainaimiy twoor threebomiea,mioa# 

which* the HM, isaspaaoqs aade^prntboiUing, f^niftf 

with beaatihl woods an d p h n t atio w f Itwascopaiderab|yfal«^pi^ 
and improved, in 1746, by Howling Lewaon, Eaq. In (76^ Af^ 
aviate together with thesmall pariah of Fisbky»iaNoifiAm» 
pwvhaaed by Admiral Sir Charies SaaodcP^ for ISjQM. Um 

The charch ia a small plain atractaie, aadwaarebailtialTW 
as appears fiam the foUowiag iaaqpiptiea aa a ssmll aunl «mmi»* 
SMttt in the nerth-west < 

■ lib lapcral ««l4t^ YcL IL p. set. 

Digitized by 


r 1 


, ' 1 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Digitized by 


l^ear this place it interred 


W1m> 1>efiig de«4 yet tpMbeih ; 

Baling ai Ml tiV^daio 

Sa^ilt this cimoh at hb own es9#iic% 

In thcjflviroa 

A we ud Usting proof of bit SMcra pietj. 

In tbe ckuicd is an iiiscriptiMi on nuurble tcr the iseiiioiy &i 
Ciuuries Colby, £a^ who eolered eariy in life into his majeoty^o 
maaml oerviee^ and oommanded Tesseh of almogt every rate, vith 
Snat credit to hiaiBelf, and advantage to hu oonntry. In 17M 
he was appointed oommiesioner of the navy at Gibraltar, and at 
tte conoliiaion of peace in 1763 returned to England, and epent 
tbBTeMaiiider of his days in peaceful retirement in the mansion of 
ksB friead. Sir Charles Saandtrs, at Guntoo, where he died 28 
newwher 1771, aged 70 yeara. 

At HKaaiiiGFi.EJBT was a priory of Black canons, fonaded by 
Bagat Ktx-Osberl» of Somerley, the last of thai fiunily, in bo- 
aMVof the Virgin Mary and St. Olaye, the king and martyr, in 
abe beginning of the reign of Henry IIL At the diaaolntion it 
contswifld five or aU religioss, and its revenues were vaUied at 
491. lis. 7d. The site of this house, and great part of its pos»- 
aionSfe were gzantod^ 38 Henry YIIL to Henry Jemegan,E8q. 
The rsBaains of this edifice were chiefly taken down in 
1784; hut some parts of it are still standing. 

Near this priory there was» in the reign of Edward L a ferry, 
fiir the ^onreysBce of pasaengers serosa the river Waveney. It 
M been kept saaiiy yearn before I^ one Sireck^ a fisherman, who 
MCCf mf Ar Us tronUs bread, herringay and other thinga of that 
luad, %o Ike v< t ttc of ttavnty ^hilUnga a year. The deacendanta 
af <hisiMUB SOU the fary to Robert de Ludham^ at which time its 
fgbe MM mcjnaaed to fifteen poimds per annam« It was held by 
hk yMker R^^ ^ 12^ wh^ Edward I. granted permiaaion 
ik ykd Sk l»ri4^ vfv the river at thia ferry : bnt it doea not ap- 

Digitized by 



pear thai omch waa dona till the reign of Henry VII. when Lady 
Hobart. relict of Sir Jamea Hobart, attorney-general and prify* 
oounaellor to that king, waa at the expense of erecting the 
old bridge, which in 1770 waa replaced by the present stmctore. 

About the year 1290, the Jemegans of Horham, became the 
possessore of the Somerley and Herringfleet estates by marriage 
with the heiress of the Fitz-Osberts, and made Somerley the 
principal seat of the family. 

The site of the priory, together with almost the whole of this 
parish, passed, about the year 1740, from the Bacon fttmily to 
Hill Mttssendon, Esq. This gentleman left it to his elder bro- 
ther, who had assumed the name of Leathes, and by whose sac- 
cesson it is still enjoyed. 

KiRKLEY, being separated from Pakefield only by the high 
road, forms a considerable part of what is generally undentood by 
the latter denomination. It is situated to the west of Pdcefield, 
and on its north side lies the lake of Lothing, communicatittg 
with the sea by means of a small channel, called Kirkley Ham, 
which formerly had a sufficient depth of water to admit vessels 
of small draught. The principal support of this village, as well 
as that of Pakefield, arises from the fishery, which waa once very 
considerable, but b now much declined. The church, dedicated 
to St Peter, was for many years anteri<Hr to 1749 in a dilapidated 
state, but the minister officiated in Pakefield church on one part 
of the Sunday, alternately with its own minister. In this man- 
ner both parishes were for a considerable time supplied, but at 
length they were again parted. After this separation the incum- 
bent of Kirkley, not only refused to perform divine service in 
Pakefield church any longer, but alao to allow any thing to the 
minister of Pak^eld for officiating in his stead, alledging that he 
could not be legally compelled. The Rev. Mr. Tanner, vicar of 
Lowestoft, and at that time commissary and official in the arch- 
deaconry of Suffi>lk, used all the mild and peranasive arguments 
in his power to prevail on the incumbent of Kirkley to make an 
allowance, but to no purpose. He therefore left htm with this 
9 thieati 





threat) ** If, Sir, yon will not officiate in Pakefield church, I 
will build yon a church at Kirkley, and in that you shall offi- 
ciate/ Mr. Tanner was as good as his word, for, partly at his 
own expense, and partly with the contributions of others, he fitted 
up the present church at Kirkley, in which divine senrice haa 
ever since been performed. 

The old church consisted of two aisles ; the north still conti* 
ones in ruins, and it is only the south aisle that constitutes the 
new church. The tower steeple, about 72 feet high, is an excel- 
lent sea-maric, but is falling to decay. In clearing away the rub* 
bish from the ruins of the old church, several brass-plated stones 
were found ; but they are all disrobed, and laid under the pews of 
the new building. 

OuLTON is situated to the west of the parish of Lowestoft. 
The church is an ancient structure. The steeple, placed between 
the church and the chancel, contains five bells, and was formerly 
ornamented with a spire. The whole building was originally ia 
the form of a cathedral, paving two cross aisles or transepts. 
The south transept is in ruins : but the north still remains. This 
transept, together with a considerable estate in this parish, was 
the property of the Fastolfs, a family of considerable note, who 
resided here, and were great benefactors to the church, their 
arms being painted in many parts of the cieling. In the chancel 
on a large stone, are the effigies in brass of John Fastolf, and Ca- 
tharine his wife, with their feet resting on a greyhound, the arms 
of Fastolf at the comers, and this inscription : 

JoHK Fastolp eiqujer died 1445, and 
Kates RN, hit wycf, deglitcr of — — — Bedingfelde« 1478. 

In the windows are several pieces of painted glass, particularly 
in the west window on the north side, in which is a figure in robes, 
but without a head. 

The manor and estate of Oulton High House, which formerly 
belonged to the Bacon femily, and afterwards to that of Fastolf^ 
Hobart, Reeve, Heytbusen, and Allen, is now become by pur- 

VoL. XIV. 2 D ehase 

Digitized by 


400 svnoxMj 

ph^ae the prtopeTfy of tjie BlftckneUs : but tlie pafBtnovntslBf , a# 
alfiQ th^ presentation to the Uviug, nemauui vith the propcir^ 
tor of Somerley, 

The half hundreds of Mtdford afid Lolfainj^iwid haying beett 
incorpflrated by aet »{ Parliament in 1764 for the heOer relief of 
the poor, and the bnilding of a house oi indostry for their habi- 
tation, one of those houses was in 1766 erected in this parish for 
that ptti|)ose, into which th« poor belonging to the Tarioos pa- 
rishes of \he two handreds were soon afterwards removed. Thi» 
edifice, erected on a Jfrugal plan, cost abont 30001. and will con-^ 
tain about 200 poor, who ^are employed in making nets for the 
herring-fishery, and in spuming woollen yam. The nunher of 
parishes incorporated is twenty-foar. 

Pakefieu) is a parish of considerable extent. Under this 
Bame is generally coviprebended not only Pakefield properly so 
called, but also the a4Joining parish of Kiridey ; and though to a 
common obsenrer the two places seem to ibnn but one village, 
yet they are in reality under different regulations in all the brancfaea 
of parochial goyenunent Pakefield is sitoaled eastward of Kiik* 
ley, on the very summit of the cliffib that bound the German Ocean, 
which, dashing against their base, has fre^iently carried away 
large portions of these cli£&, together with the buildings which 
they supported. 

According to Ectoo the church is dedicated to All Saints ; bat 
from the ancient inscription on a small silver communion cap 
Pakefielde Sante Margaret, 1337, this appears to be erroneous^ 
It consists of two aisles built nearly uniform ; the steeple, standing^ 
at the west end of the south aisle, contains five bells. This church 
was some years since repaired and beauti6ed at the expense of 
the late rector, the Rev. Dr. Lemau, who not only new laid the 
floor, erected a new pulpit and desk, and placed over the curioua 
old fiont a handsome model of the tower and spire of Norwich 
cathedral, but also embellished it with other useful ornaments. 
The old pulpit was of very ancient workjna^ship; having on seve* 
ral parts of it the figure of a a^an in a devout attitude, and a label 
S isBOfog 

Digitized by 




iwuing from his meuth with this inHcHptioiii Miserkordia Dei 
in etemu cantmbo. At the upper eud of the south aisle, ou a 
plain stoBe^ with a brasji plate^ is the follawiug iDatcnption in old 
English characters t 

" Here lies Master Richard Folcard, formerly a rector of a 
mediety of this church to the soutli, wlio died on St. Martin's 
Day, in the year of our Lord one thousand four hundred. To 
whose soul be ttierciful, God. Amen.^' 

In the north aisle, on a brass plate^ representing^ a man and his 
wife, with eleven children, is another inscription in old Eug* 
lish characters, in memory of John Bowf, who died in 1417. 

In a barrow on Blood more- hi II, uear Pake field, was fouud^ in 
1768, a skeleton, round whose neck hung a g-old medal^ and an 
onyx set in gold. The legend round the medal was D. K, T» 
AVI TVS. 0^ the ohverse, a rude head hel meted, with a cross 
on the shoulder ; on the reverse, VICTORIA AVGGG. exerguo 
CONOB. and a rude figure of Victory. Ou the onyx was a mam 
standing by a horse, and holditig the reins, with a haslapura 
in his right band, and a ^t^dr on hi^ helrneL 

SoMERLiTON, commouly called Somerley, is chiefly remarka- 
ble for a beautiful old seat called the Hall, of which Fuller re- 
marks that '* it well deserved the name of Summerly, because it 
was always summer there, the walks and gardens being planted 
with perpetual greens.'^ It was anciently the residence of the 
Fitz-Osberts, but afterwards became the property of the Jerne* 
gans by the marriage of Sir Walter Jemegan, of Horham, with 
Isabel, sister of Roger Fitz-Osbert, the last of that family. At 
what time this estate passed from the Jernegans, or Jeminghams, 
we are not informed. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth it was the 
property of Sir Henry Jerningham, but about 1627 belonged to 
Sir Tfiomas Wentworth. By the Wentworth family it was sold, 
about 1669, to Admiral Sir Thomas Allen, whose son, dying a 
bachelor, bequeathed the Somerley estate, with its dependencies^ 
to his nephew, Richard Anguish, Esq. on condition of his assum- 

2D2 Mg 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 









1 ' I 



i I 


ing the name of Allan. This gentleman was created a baronet in 
1699; but some yeais since the title became extinct. 
) In Somerly church is a monument to the memory of Sir Ri- 
chard Jemegan, who is represented upon it o'oss-legged^ in imita- 
tion of the knights Templars, with this inscription : 

Jeaas Chrut, both God «nd man. 
Save thy servant Jernegan. 

This Sir Richard was a gentleman of the privy chamber to 
King Henry VIII. The occasion of his receiving that i^point- 
ment is thus related by Stow : — Certain gentlemen of the privy 
chamber, who, through the king's lenity in bearing with their 
lewdness, forgetting themselves, and their duty towards his 
tsrrace, in being too familiar with him, not having due respect 
to his estate and degree, were removed by order taken from the 
council, unto whom the king had given authority to use their dis- 
cretions in that behalf; and then were four sad [grave] and ancient 
knights put into the king's privy chamber, whose names were. 
Sir Richard Wingfield, Sir Richard Jernegan, Sir Richard Wes- 
ton, and Sir William Kingston. 


Digitized by 



« > 





Illustration of the Topography and Antiquities of the 

Suffolk is one of those English counties of which no General 
History on a satisfactory scale has yet made its appearance, and the 
printed information which we possess respecting it must, upon the 
whole, be considered as rather scanty. The first peison who made 
collections for this county, with a view to publication, seems to have 
been the indefatigable Sir Simonds D'Ewes, whose papers are pre- 
served among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum. Subse^ 
auent collectors, as Wenyeve, Le Neve, Martin, Ashby, and others, 
aesigned in their researches rather to gratify their particular taste than 
to inform or amuse the public ; whilst the unaccomplished intentions 
of Ives embraced only one single corner of the county. The his^ 
tory and topography of Suffolk projected and begun by Nlessrs, Davey 
ana Jermyn, both residing in the county, will, it is understood, be y^ 
voluminous, that its appearance must necessarily be deferred to a very 
distant period. 

In 1732, 3, and 4, Mr. John Kirby, who had been a schoolmaster 
at Orford, and then occupied a mill at Wickham Market, took art 
actual survey of the whole county, and, in 1 735, published the result of 
his labours, in a small 12mo volume, under the title of 

" The Suffolk Traveller;** or a Journey through Suffolk: in which 
IS inserted tlie true distance of the roads from Ipswich to every mar- 
ket town in Suffolk, and the same from Bury St. Edmund's. Like- 
wise Uie distance in the roads from one village to another ; with notes 
of direction for travellers ; as what churches and gentlemen's seats 
are passed by, and on which side of the road, and the distance 
they are at from either of the said towns : with a short historical ac- 
count of the antiquities of every market town, monasteries, castles, &c, 
that were in former times, Ipswich, 1735.** 

Mr. Kirb^died at Ipswich, in December 1753, and in 1764, a new 
edition of his work was published by subscription, with this title r— 

" TheSufolk Traveller,** first published by Mr. John Kirby, of 
Wickham Market, who took an actual survey of the whole county, 
in the years 1732, 1733, and 1734. The second edition, with mauy 
alterations and large additions, . by several hands. London, 1 7^4. 
Svo. This volume, besides a folio map of the county, contains en- 

2 D 3 graving 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC I ,'^ 

406 UST OF BOOXSf &C. 

§ravtDff9 of the principal roads in Suffolk, on four quarto plates ; and is 
le only distinct work that has hitherto appeared on the topography of 
the county in general. 

Its agriculture has been ably illustrated by Arthur Young, Esq. (of 
whom as a native this county has just reason to be proud) in his 

" General View qf the Jgricultufe of the County qf Suffolk; drawn 
up for the Consideration ot the Board of Agriculture, and Internal Im- 
provement. By the Secretary to the Board. Third Edition, London, 
1804." 8vo. with a map, exhibiting the extent of the diflferent soils of 
which the county is composed. 

In 1748, Mr. Joshua Kirby, son of the author of the Si^olk Travel- 
ler, who was settled as a house-painter at Ipswich, emulating the ex- 
ample of his father, contribute to the illustration of his native county 
by publishing; a set of twelve prints, accompanied by an octavo 
pamphlet, intituled : 

** An Historical Jccemnt of the Twelve Prints <f MemaeterieSf 
Castles^ ancient Churches, and Monuments, in the County qfSuJMk, 
which were drawn by Joshua Kirby, Painter in Ipswich, and pub* 
llshed by him, March 26, 1748. Ipswich. 1748.'^ 3d pp. TWse 

Sints were Clare Castle, Sudbury Priory, Bungay Castle, Cbmt's 
oepital in Ipswich, St. James's and the Priory Chorcfa at BorVf 
Lavenham Church, Blitbburgh Church, Bungay Church, the TomM 
of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, of Henry Fitaroy Duke of 
lUchmond^ and of Henry Howard, Esui of Surry, at Framlinghaiflf 
and that of William Lord Bardolf at Dennington. In the pamphlet 
are introduced several additional engravings, illustrative or some of 
these subjects. 

The *• Journal of HFilliam Dowsing, the visitor appointed by the 
Parliament for demolishing the Ornaments of the churches of Suffolk, 
in 1645 and I644y'^ is a curious memorial of the misguided seal of the 
puritaDicai reformers of that period. 

Some slight notices respecting certain portions of this county are 
comprehended in " Observations on several Parts qfthe Counties of 
Cambridge, NoffoVc, Suffolk, and Essex. Also on several parts of 
Korth Wales, relative chiefly to Picturesque Beautv. In Two Tours, 
the former made in the year 17()9 ; the latter in the year 1773. By 
* William Gilpin, A. M. Prebendary of Salisbury, and Vicar of Boldre, 
in New Forest, near Lymington. Published by his trustees, for the 
benefit of bis school at Boldre. London, 1809.'' 8vo. 

" A Description of the ancient and present State of tlie Town 
tmd Abbey qfBufy St, Edmund*s, in the County of Suffolk. Chiefly 
collected firom ancient authors and MSS. The second edition, with 
corrections. Containing an account of the Monastery from its foun- 
dation to its dissolution ; with a list of tlie abbots and the several 
benefactors in the town. To which is likewise added, a list of the 
Post and Stage Coaches to and from Bury, with the distance of the 
ieveral towns to which they go. Pury, 177K'* ISmo. This edi- 
- tion was revised by the Rev. Sir John Culluni> and the third, under 
the superintendence of the Kev. George Ashby^ appeared in 1782. 


Digitized by 


tfST OV BOOKS, Ice, 


^ An HistoricaT and Descriptive Account of St. Etlmuntl's Bury, 
HI the County of Suffolk: comprising Detuih of the Ongin, Disso- 
fcitioDi and Venerable Remains, of the Abbey arid olher Places of 
Antiquity in that ancient Town. By Edmund GiUingwaler, aiithor 
oftheHistbry of Lowestoft, &c.'* Bury, 1804. ISnio. This volume 
contains engravings of the Abbey Gate, Huins of the Abbey, St, 
James's Church, and the Angel Hi'll ; and dii»phys greiiter industry in 
the collection of nuilerials, than judgment or skill in the arrangement 
of them. 

*' An Illustration of the Monastic Hi$iory and Antiquities of the 
Town and Abbey of SI, Edmund's Buri/. By the Rev, Richard 
Yates, F. S. A. of Jesus College, Cambndgc : Chapbln to his Ma> 
jcsty's Royal Hospital, Chelsea, and rector of Ashen, With Views 
cf the moat considerable Mona&terial Remains. By tlie Rev. VVilliam 
Yates of Sidoeyi Sussex College^ Cambridge. 1B05.'' 4io. 

The father of Mr. Yates was employed near forty years as gardener 
in the Abbey Grounds, and, thougn not a man of iitemry attain mejitSj 
was nevertlieless so interested by the ruins with which he was con^ 
tinaally surrounded as to defote all his leisure moments to the attempt 
to form a collection illustrative of their ancient ^nd present state. 
The materials thus collected by him were digested and arranged by 
his son, and led to the composition of the above-mentioned work^ 
which is to be extended to another volume ; but the old man did not 
live to witness the publication of the first. 

The late Thomas Martin, of Palgrave, was an enthusiastic admirer 
•f the Monastic Antiquities of Bury, He intended to write a his- 
tory of them, and was many years engaged in making collections for 
the purpose, but death prevented him tiom giving to the public the 
result of his inquiries. After passing through several hands, such 
of his papers as related to Bury were purchasiid by the late Mr. 
Gough, who generously permitted Mr. Yatus to incorporate iUmn with 
his work. 

Dr. Battely, Archdeacon of Canterbury, and a native of Biiry^ who 
died in 1708, published a small 4to. vokime, in Latiii, on the Au" 
tiquities of that town. Prefixed is a view of the Abbey Gate, exhi- 
biting the towers which formerly stood at each corner, on the side next 
to the Angel Hill. 

" The fforful and Lamentable fFaste and Spoile done by « sud- 
daine Fire at St, Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk, on Monday the 10th of 
April, 1608." 4to. 

'* A true Relation of the Arraignment of Eighteen Witches that 
were tried, convicted, and condemned, at the Sessions holden at St. 
Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk, and there by the Judges and Justices of 
the said Sessions condemned to die, and so were executed, and their 
several confessions before their Execution \ with a true relation of the 
manner how they find them out, 1645,'' 4to. — At the end of Sir 
Matthew Hale's " Short Treatise touching SherifPs Accounts, 1683,'* 
12mo. is *' A Trial of IVitches, at the Assizes held at Bury St. Ed- 
nuod'i for the County of Suffolk, on the iOth day of March^ 1664« 
2 D 4 before 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


408 USt OF B00K9« k€. 

before Sir Matthew Hale, Kot. then Lord Chief Baron of his Ma- 
jesty's Court of Exchequer. Taken by a person then attending the 
Court. London, 1682." Sir Thomas Browne, who wrote against vul- 
^r errors, was summoned as a witness on the latter occasion, and 
18 here said to have declared in court his conviction that ' the fits of. 
the plaintifTs were natural, but heightened by the devil co-operatins 
with the malice of the witches at whose instance he did the villainies?^ 
He con finned it by a similar case in Denmark, and so far influenced 
the jurv, that the two women were hanged. The hardships and incon* 
sistencies in both the above transactions are suflliciently exposed in 
Hutchinson's " Historical Essay concerning Witchcraft.'' Chap. IV« 
and VIIL 

Amon^ the State Trials is given *' An Exact and Particular Nar-* 
rative qf a cruel and inhuman Murder attempted en the Body qf Ed- 
ward Crispe, at St. Edmund's Bury, Suffolk, by Arundel Coke, £sq« 
Barrister at Law, and John Woodbuni, who were afterwards convicted 
on the Coventry Act, for this offence, and executed. '^ 

The late Sir John CuUum, Bart, who was Rector of HaXMted, 
published its History and Antiquities, 1784, 4to. The same 
gentleman was the author of a brief account of Little Saxham Church 
and Bury Abbey, inserted with views, in the Antiquarian Reper* 

Some particulars respecting Bury and the procession of fhe Bull, 
with testimonies in notes, and a neat cut of the abbey seal may be seen 
in a very rare tract : — " Corolla varia contexta, per GuiK Iiaukinum 
scholarcham Hadleianum in agro Sufiblciensi. Cantabr. ap. Tho. 
Buck, 1634." 12mo. 

A curious account of Bury Fair is contained in — " An Historical 
Account qf Sturhridge, Bury^ and the most celebrated Fairs in Eu^ 
rope and America " printed at Cambridge, about 1774. 

An account of a body, believed to be that of the Duke of ExKer^ 
found under the ruins of the Abbey at Bury, with some reflections 
on the subject forms Art. 33. Vol. LXII. of the Philosophical Trans- 

In Archaeologia HI. 311. are remarks on Bury Abbey, with a cor- 
rect plan and elevation of it by Edward King, Esq. 

*' Notes concerning Bury St. Edmund sin Com. Suffolk, extracted 
out of the Right Honourable the Earl of Oxford's Library, by Mr« 
'Wanley." fol. 4 pages. 

<« Bury wfd its Environs, a Poem. Lob, 1747." By Dr. Winter, 


Of Ipswich scarcely any thing has been printed in a separate form. 
Mr. Bacon, recorder, town-clen, and representative, of Ipswich, abo 
Master of Requests under Oliver Cromwell, compiled Ammls of this 
town, which form a volume of more than eid|it hundred pages; but 
as the editor of the second edition of the Si^blk TraocUer obaorves, 
notwithstanding his learning, abilities, and oppoitunitics of gainlog io* 
&>nnation, it is evident f^m bis writings, tnat be was a pctsoo of 


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slveng pi^judiceSy and that his partiality, in fiavour of particular no- 
tions, led him into many mistakes^ some of which are so gross as not to 
be easily accounted for. Such being the case, it b no wonder that the 
result ol his researches yet remains in MS. 

Mr. Raw, bookseller of Ipswich,^ is at present engaged in pre- 
psffing for publication an account of tfiat town, and from his industry 
and intelligeoce, much curious and useful information may be expected' 
from his work. — All that has hitherto appeared about this place is 
comprised in the two following pamphlets, edited by the Rev. Richard 
Canning, minister of St. Lawrence : — 

*' An Account qf the Gifts and Legacies that Imve been given and 
bequeathed to charitable uses in the toxvn qflpsmch; with some ac- 
count of their present State and Management, and some Proposals for 
the future Regulation of them. Ipswich, 1747." 8vo. and 

" TJie Principal Charters which have been granted to the Corpora' 
tionqfjpsvnch m Suffolk; translated. London, 1754." 8vo. 

" An Historical Account qfDunxvich, anciently a City, now a 
Borough ; BHthbur^h, formerly a Town of note, now a FiUage; 
Southwold, once a VtUage, now a Town Corporate ; with Remarks on 
some places contiguous thereto ; principally extracted from several 
ancient Records, mSS. &c. which were never before made public. 
By Thomas Gardner. Illustrated with copper plates. London, 1754." 
4to. The author was salt-officer and deputy comptroller at Dunwich, 
and died in 1769, possessed of considerable collections of coins and 
other antiquities. 

" The History of Framlingham, in the County of Suffolk, in- 
cluding Brief Notices of the Masters and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, 
in Cambridge, from the Foundation of the College to the present 
time. Begun by the late Robert Hawes, gent Steward of the Ma- 
nors of Framlingham and Saxtedj with considerable Additions and 
Notes, b^ Robert Loder. Illustrated with ten elegant copper-plates. 
Woodbndge» 1798." 4to. Among the plates in this volume, which 
are well engraved, are views of Framlingham Castle, the Churches of 
Framlingham and Saxted, and several monuments in the former. This 
work, savs Mr. Loder, in his Preface, forming part of the History 
of the Hundred of Loes, is extracted from a very fair MS. com- 
prising upwards of 700 folio pages closelv written, adorned in the body 
of the history, and in the margins with drawings of churches, gen- 
tlemen's seats, miniature portraits, ancient seals, and coats of amis, 
blazoned in their proper colours, which was compiled in 1712, and 
remains in the collection of John Revett, of Brand eston Hall, Esq. 
Another copy was presented by Mr. Hawes, to Pembroke Hall ; a 
third is said to be in the public library at Cambridge ; and a fourth in 
the collection of the Marquis of Hertford. 

•' The History of Framlingham Castle, written by Dr. Sampson, 
of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1663, printed at the end of Leland's 
Collectanea, I. part II. 681. edit. 1770, gives a particular account of 
the castle, church, and monuments. 

'' An Ordinance for settling and cor\firming the Manors qf Fram- 


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410 Utt OF BOOKtr A^C 

Umgkam and Saxiedf in the counly of SaAblki and the Lands, TeHe- 
Mentfl, and Hereditaments thereunto belongings deveed by Sir Ko* 
bert Hitcham, Knt. and late scneant at law to certain charitable nses> 
1654." fol. 

In addition to the History of Framlingham (be pmblicif indebted to 
Hw late Mr. Loder, of Woodbridge for all t^t bat yet appeared re- 
i|iecting the laUertown. 

•• DeacriptionoflFoodhridge Church, in the County of Suffolk.^ 
Ibl. 4 pages; without date. 

•* Tte Statutes and Ordinances for the Government of the Alm9* 
houses in ff^oodhridge, in the County of Suffolk, founded by Tho- 
mas Seckford, Esq. Master of Requests, and Sur\'eyor of the Court 
of Wards and Liveries, in the 29tn year of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1587. Together with others subsequently made by Sir 
John Fynch» Knight, and Henry Seckford, Eaqun^i 1633 ; Sir Joseph 
Jekyle, Knight, and Sir Peter King, Knight, 1718; Sir Thomaa 
Sewell, Kni^t, and Sir John Eardly Wilmot, Knight, 1768, (Gorei^ 
Bors for the time being.) To which are annexed, a Translation of the 
Queen's Letters Patent for the Foundation of the Alms House ; an 
Abstract of Mr. Seckford'sWill ; a concise Account of the Founder; 
and a Genealogical Table of his Ancient Family. Embellislied with 
Foor Plates adapted to the Subject. At the end is prefixed. Notes 
relating to Woodbridge Priory ; together with the ancient Monu* 
nental Inscription in the Parochial Church, and those of late date 
collected and published by Robert Loder. Woodbridge, 1799.^ 4to. 
The engravings in this tract (of which I find but three) are Views of 
Seckford Hall, in Great Beatings, and of Seckford's Alms-houses in 
Woodbridge, and a Plan of the estate at CierkenWell, left by the foun- 
der for the support of that charity. 

« Orders, Constitutions, and Directions, to be observed for amdcon* 
ceminz the Free School in fVoodbridge^ in the Countv of Suffolk* 
and or the School-master and Scholars thereof, agreed upon at the 
Foundation, 1662 ; with other matters relating to the same. SeoHid 
edition, enlarged and corrected. Wcfodbridge, 1796." 4to. 

«« ffbodbridge Terrier, exhibiting an Accoimt of all the Charities 
in that Town, with Note* by R. Loder. Woodbridge, 1787." 4to. 

In 1771, the late Mr. Ives, whose devotion to antiquities, and to- 
pography, must render his premature decease a subject of regret to the 
lorer ot those studies, issued anonymous proposals for publishinff a to- 
pographical History of the Hundred of Lotningland, in which his fii- 
ther possessed large property. To obtain the necessary information 
he circulated a list of queries among the clergy and inhabitants, and 
had several plates of arms and sepulchral monuments eneraved ; but 
his plan never arrived at maturity. Three years afterwards, however, 
be presented to the public :-- 

** Remarks upon the Garianonum of the Romans : the site and re- 
mains fixed ana described. By John Ives, Esq. F. R. S. and F. A. S. 
London, 1774." 12mo. with a south view of Garianonum; (be 
icfaiiography, two plates; mi^ of the river Yare copied firom an an- 

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XSST 07 BOO Its ^ SrCt 


ci^ttt Origiflial til tbe corporation diest at Yarmouth, and an inscriptiosi 
on the mantle*tree of a farm house — A second edition ** with some 
slight remarks ;" also a portrait and account of the author was printed 
at Yarmouth in 1803. 

'* An Historical Account of the Ancient Tami of Lorvegtqft, in the 
County of Suffolk. To which a^^ addt^l sum'' cursory Remarks on thfe 
adjoining Parishes* and a General Account ot the f^land of Lothing- 
land. By Edmund Gillingwater. London, 1790/' 4to- Thh vo- 
lumej like the other works of this aulhor, is cxtrenjely crude and lao* 

'* riavs in Suffolk, Norfolk ^ and Norlhomptonshire; lUustratlre of 
the works of Robert Bleomiield 'i ncc am panted with descriptions : to 
which is annexed, a Memoir of the Poet's Life by E. W. Bray ley. 
London, 1806." 8vo. Of the views and descriptions in this elegant 
little volume, the greater part belonp to SulTolk, and comprehend 
£u8ton Hall, Temple in Eusion Park, rarm House at Sapiston, Sapi»- 
ion Chutch, Honington, two of Fakenham and Troston HalL 

A small part of the south-east comer of the county is comprehended 
in the " Mafioich Ouide, contnining an Accotmi of the Ancknt 
and Present State of that Borough; likewise a Description of Dover- 
eoutt, Mistley, Manningtrce, W fckes, Walton on the Nasp, Languard 
Fort, Felixstow, Walton, Trimley, Shotley, kc. To which are added 
Biographical and Historical Notices of Extraordinary Characters. 
Ipswich, 1808." 8vo. 

In the second volume of The Imperial Guide, by J. Baker, is a 
•• Guide to the Picturesque Sctntr^y Subjects of Antiiiuiiij, and 
fashionable Resorts, throughout the CofiM of Suffolk to Yarmouth,'* 
It contains also a " General Description of Lowestoft^* and its 

In the European Magazine f Vol. IT. 1 6R, is a brief description and 
view of Heiidleshan House^ and iji the same volume, p, 356, an account 
of Aldborough. 


" A New Map of the County of Suffolk, taken from the original 
^ap, published by Mr. John Kirby, in 1736, who took an actualaod 
^6curate Survey of the whole county ; now republished (with correc- 
tions and additions). By iohn and William Kirb^, sons of the Au 
thor, 1766, and engpnaved by John Ryland. Dedicated to his Grace, 
the Duke of Grafton. With twelve views of remarkable places, the 
arms of nine noblemen, and 102 Baronets, Esquires, 8ic." The views 
accompanying this map, which is on a large scale, are : Burgh, Met- 
tin^hain, Framlingham, Orford, Bunj^ay, and Wingfield Castles, 
Leiston Abbey, Butley Priory, Covehithe Cbnrch, Gateway to Bary 
Abbey, Blithburgh Priory, and St. James's Church at Dunwich. 

The best and most correct map that has hitherto appeared of this 
county is that in six sheets *' from the surveys of Joseph Hodskinson 
of Arundel Stroet^ Strand/' published by Fadeo, 1783. 

A reduction 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

419 usT or BooKti &e. 

A reduction of Hodskiinon't map in onesheet has also been pnblidied. 

Smaller maps of SuflTolk Itave been ^ven among the County Maps 
published by Smith and Cary» and also in the Atlas which accompanies 
this work. 

** A new and accurate Plan of the ancient borough of St. Edanvn^t 
jSury, in the county of Suffolk, bv Alexander Downings, was en- 
graved by Tomsy and' adorned with views of the Cross and Abbey 

Another Survey was published in 1747, bv Thomas Warren, in two 
sheets, adorned with views of the S. front of the H(»pital, the 8. front 
of the market-cross, the £. front of the Grammar School; the S. £. 
side of St James's Church ; part of the Abbot's Palace, 1720 ; S. W. 
view of St. Mary's Church; N. front of the Eari of Bristol's house; 
W. front of the Abbey Gate ; N. front of the Grand Jury House. 

Of Ipswich a plan was published so &r back as 1564. I have seen 
a copy of it in the possession of Mr. Raw of that town, but so mucb 
defaced that very little of it can be made out. 

** The Borough or Corporation qf Ipswich, in the County of Suffolk, 
actually survey^ and delineated, anno 1674, by John Ogilby, his Ma- 
jesty's Cosmograpber, and exactly engraved bv Thomas Stuart, anno 
1688, and are to be had at his house in Brook Street, Ipswich. With 
the S. £. prospect of Ipswich, faithfully and accurately performed, 
Gr. King Delineavit. Surveyed per Robertum Felgate generosum." 
This survey, which occupies nine sheets, is adorned with views of the 
churches of St. Margaret, St. Nicholas, St Mary Stoke, St Elen, St 
Stephen, St Clement's, St. Mary Tower, St. Lawrence, St. Mary 
Elms, St. Mary Key, and St Peter, and the houses of £s<)uire Gaudy 
and Lord Hereford. 

A smaller pfon of Ipswich, with a short historical account, is given 
in Grove's " DialogUie in the Elysian Fields between ff^olsey and, 
Ximenes, Oxford, 1761." 8vo. and in the same work is also a plan <^ 
the streets throuch which the procession passed from Cardinal College 
to Our Lady of Ipswich. 

" Map qf the Toxtm qf Ipsxvich, in which the Streets, BuildingSA 
Yards, &c. are drawn from an actual Survey, finished 1778, by Joseph 
Pennington, Land Surveyor." 

Messrs, Bucks' engraved, in 1741, Ftews of Bury, S. Ipswich 
S. W. and in 1738, the Abbey Gate, Bury, and the castles ot Fram^ 
lingham, W. mngfield, S. and Mettingham, N. 

A View of the Abbey Gate, Bury, by W. Millicent, was engraved 
by E. Kirkhall, with this inscription : ** A Fiew qfthe Gate-house be-- 
longing to the Abbey in St. Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk. It being un- 
cerUin when this was built, I shall leave it to the more learned to 
judge, whether before or after Edward I. ; the wall which inclosed the 
Abbey being built in his time." 

The " Angel Hill, in St. Edmunds s Bury ; with the Church qfSi. 
Mary and St. James, and the Abbey Gate; also a View qfSt. Edh 
mund's Hill, Rushbrook, and HarJwicke, J. Kendall del. P. S, 


Digitized by 




Lamborn sc* 1774." This plate was re-eagra?ed in a much neater and 
more accurate manner in 1777. 

«« Fieof qfthe Interior qfSi. Mary's Church, Bury!' designed by 
James Mathew, and engraved by J. Bateman, 1808. 

A View of the Font in ff^orHng^oorth Church, drxwn by N. Hevett, 
Esq. was engraved by Vertue, 1753. 

ffeveningham Hall has been engraved by Heath. 

Groseyinhis Antiquities, has given the following views in thi^ roun* 
ty: In Vol. V. JU Saints Church, Dunwich; Alderton HhII ; 
Church Gate, St, James's Church, and Ruins qf the Conventual 
Church, Bury; Arches near the East Gate, Bury; Blithburgh Prioru; 
Burgh Castle; Butley Priory; Framlingham Castle; Leysione M- 
hey; St. Matthews, or M^est Gate, and Cardinal WoUcu's Callrse, 
Ipswich; Offord Castle and Chapel. In Vol. VIII. Clare Castle; 
Town HaU, Ipswich; and H^alton Castle. 

In Britton's Architectural Antiquities, are two Views, and a ground 

Slan of Redgrave HaU; West Stow HaU, Part XVL Gifford's HaU, 
tokeby Neyland, PartXVIIl. North Porch qf St, Mary's rhurch. 
Bury; P'iew qf the Abbey gate, plan, and elevation of the north side 
qf the same; Details qf the western front. Part XXV. Plan and 
details of the Abbey gate-house ; Plan and details qf St, James's 
Tower Gate-way, and Fiew of the same, I'art XX VII I. 

In the Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet, No. 46 is devoted 
to the illustration of the antiquities of Clare, and contains engravings 
of the Castle, three plates of the Priory, three plates of the Stone Font 
in the Church, and of an Ancient House in the town. In No. 50, of 
the same work, is a view of the curious stone Font in the church of 

" Specimens qf Gothic Ornaments, selected from the Parish 
Church of Lavenham, in Suffolk, in forty plates. London, 1796.'' 
royal 4to. A volume worthy of the fine rabric which it is designed to 


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Acton, m. 

•»— — Place, ib. 

Agriculture, pecnliwrites Sn the Suf- 
folk practice, II ; implements of,9l. 

Albemarle^ Earl of, lut agricultural 
trnproTementii, 44. 

Albrede, JoUu, his benefaction to 
Woodbridge church, 30t. 

Aldj river, its course, 7—319. 

Aldborough, situation, 316 *, incroach- 
ments of the sea, corporation, re- 
cent improfemenU, 317 ; martelio 
tover, sea-bathing, 318 ; river Aid, 
fisheries, popolatton, 319; pease 
and coleworts found on the beach, 

Alderton, church in ruins, t76. 

Aldham Common, near Hadleigh, in- 
Bcription there, tlX 

AUen, Admiral Sir Thomas, account 
of him, 380. 

Ampton, 17f; alms-house, 173; 


Arwerton, S94. 

^—- Hall, 214, J«5. 

Ashby, Admiral Sir John, his monu- 
ment at Lowestoft, 380; account of 
bim, 381. 

Ashby, Rev. Oeorge« hit ooUectionsy 

Ashfield, 181. 

Ash Hoose, in Campsey, 306. 

Aungenryle, Richard de^ account of 


Babergli, hundred of, 147. 

Bacon, Helena, inscription on ^cr» 

217, 218. 
, Sir Nathaniel, his monument 

atCulford, 183. 
■ ■■ ", Sir Nicholas, his monumeat a/t 

B^dgrave, 202. 
Bale, John, account of htm, 358. 
Bardweli, 183. 

Baret, John,his monument at Burjr,74. 
Barker, John, Esq.accoimtof him,S83. 
Bamardiaton, 140. 
— , anecdotes of ihe ftmfly 

of, 14f, natt; their monumenta ft 

Kedingtoo, 14«. 
Barnbam, (Blackboum hundred) tu- 
muli there, 183. 
Barnbam, (Bosroere and Clajdon) 

house of industry, church, 217,218. 
Barrow, 109; antiquities, cmineBt 

rectors, llO. 
Barton, Great, 174. 
Battely, Dr. John, account of hi0,lO9« 
Battisford, 218. 
Baylham, ib. 
Bealings, Great, 265. 
Beccles^ churches, 367; town-ball, 

gaol, schools, common, 368. 
Beauiort, Thomas, Duke of Exeter, 

discovery of his remains at Bury. 

Belton, Mr. Ives's moBsment there, 



Digitized by 



Beincfe> cojiu found there^ 5ol. 

Hall, 351. 

BenbtJl, St7, 

Lodge, 328. 

Benicrs, William, Esq. pMisk to bn 
memory at Woolvertton, S29. 

Bildcston, population^ mauvfaetaresy 
charcb, 913. 

Blackboum, handred of, 181. 

Blith, river, its courac, 7. 

Blithborgh, 351 ; its former iropprt- 
AQce and decay, tbe cl»Mrch, Sbt ; 
tomb of Anna, King of the East 
Angles, 354i priory, ^55. 

filithing, hundred of, 333. 

Bloodmore Hill, near Pakefield, an- 
tiquities discovered there, 403. 

Bloomfield, Robert, anecdotes of his 
family, 186. 

Bofauo, Edmnod, account of, ti66* 

Borlase,Dr. lingular custom recorded 
by him, 125, voir. 

Bosmere, lake of, 2, 217. 

BoMaere aad Claydon, hundred of, 


Boston of Bury, account of him, 105. 
Botesdale, chapel, grammar-school, 

Bottold, John, inscription on him at 

Tpswicb» 240. 
Boxford, 160. 
Boxtead, 161: 
Boyce, Charles, his monument at 

Guuton, 399. 
Boyse» John, account of him, 214. 
Boy ton, charitable foundation there, 

Bradfield Combust, 174. 
Hall, the seat of Arthur 

Young, Esq. 175. 

-, St, Clare and St. George, ib. 

Bramfield, 357. 

Hall, ib. 

Br^mford, uncommon tenure attached 

to its manor, SI 8. 
Brfndon, population^ rabbit-warrens, 

manufactory of gun-flints, noble fa- 

jnilies to whojs it has given title, 

eminent native, 41. 
Brettenbam* conjectured by some to 

be the Combrttonium of Antoninus, 

Bricet, priory, 218. 
BrigbtwcU, 265. 
Bromfield, Edmund; accoiuit of him, 


Broome, 198; raeBUieftts ia <li» 

church, 200. 

^^ — Hall, described, 199, fOOt, 

Broughton Hall, at Stoiiham AjmI^ 

Brownrigg^ R«lph« eccounl of him, 

Bruisyard, chantry, 328. 

Bruiidish chantry, 310. 

Buil-Cttmp,engagement there hetwee« 
the Mercians and East Angles^ 
357; house of Industry, 358. 

Bungay, church, 368; castle, 369; 
market-place, theatre, school, bath 
bouse, 370; trade, 371. 

Dures, its church and monammiti^ 

Burgh ca8tle,the Roman GarianoamB, 
393 ; its present remains 394 ; ai^ 
tiquiiies discovered there, 395; 
monastery, 396; church, 397. 

Burnt Fen, in Lackford hundred, im- 
provements there, 39. 

Bur^, St. Edmund's, aituatum, 47"; 
history of the town, 48 ; history of 
its abbey, 56; Grey-Friars, 70; 
other ancient ecclesiastical institi^ 
tions, 71 ; St. Mary's church, 72 ; 
St. James's church, 76; Chufich- 

gite, 77; the church-yard, 78; 
lopton's hospital, 80; tesideace 
of John Benjafield, Esq. Shire 
hall, 81; Abbey gate, 82; anti* 
quities discovered in the Abbey 
grounds, 84 ; Guildhall, free gram- 
mar school, 86 ; charity schools* 
theatre, bridewell, wool balls, 87; 
assembly rooms, Suffolk public U- 
hrary. Angel inn, 88 ; new gaol, 
house of correction, 89 ; St. Ed- 
mund's hill, military magadne, 90 ; 
ancient gates, remains of ancieai 
buildings, 91 ; vine-fields, 92 ; na- 
vigable canals, 93 ; charters, fiair% 
94 ; visits of royal and noble pec^ 
sonages, and remarkable eventf^ 
95; eminent inhabitants and na« 
tives, lOJ. 

Butley, priory, 328 ; its remains, 329. 

Buxhall, 206. 


Cabbages, cultivated for cattle, 15,18* 
Calihorpe, Porotbea, her charitiet, 
173, 174. 


Digitized by 



Campsoy Ash, nonnery,d05. 
Canning, Rev. Richmrd, account of 

him, S41. 
Capel, Sir William^ anecdotes of him, 

in, nt. 

Capel, Edward, Esq. account of him, 

Carew, Sir William^ his monnment 

at Bury, 75. 
Carleton, chantry, 911. 
Carlelord, hundred of, 264. 
Carrots, cultivated for horses, 16. 
Cavendish, 163; eminent persons of 

the family of Cavendish, 163. 

-, Sir John, account of htm. 


him, ib. 

», Sir William, account of 


-, Thomas, his voyages, 269, 

Chedvirorth, Lord, his monument and 
inscription at Ipswich, 249, 250; 
account of him, 250, 251. 

Chelsworih, remains of a stone build- 
ing there, 213. 

Chilton, remains of its chapel, 164. 

Clare, 132; iu castle, 133,136; the 
prioryi 136 ; eminent persons bu- 
ried in the priory church, 137; 
parochial church, 139. 

Clagget, William, account of him, 

, Nicholas, account of him,ib. 

Clenche, judge, his monument at 

Clopton, Foley, account of his fami- 
ly, 80. 

■1 ■-, William, his monument at 
Melford, 165; curious writ issued 
by the court of chivalry respecting 
hiro, 166, note, 

I , John, his monument at Mel- 

ford, 167. 

Cockfield, 164. 


Colby, Charles, Esq. account of him, 

Colneis, hundred of, 267. 

Cooke, Sir Thomas, account of him, 

Copinger, Rev. Henry, his monu- 
ment at Lavenham, 154 ; anecdote 
Ihim, 155. 

m , Sir .William, 206. 

Cordell. Sir William, his monnment 
at Melford, 167 ; founder of the 
liopttals there, 168. 

Comwallis, particulars of the noble 
family of, 198, 199; monuments for 
various membeis of it at Broom«» 

Corton, 397. 

Cosford, hundred of« 21U 


Cowling, 140. 

Cows,brecdof, 18. 

Crofts, Lord, description of his m9» 
nameot at Saxham, 131. 

Crag, a manure composed of shelly 

Greeting, All Saints, 219, 220. 
, St. Olave, ib. 

>, St Mary, 220. 

Crisp, Edward, Esq. attempt to as* 

sassinate him, 79, 80. 
Crowfield Hall, 220. 
Culford, church and monuments, 185* 

, Hall, 183. 

Cullum, Sir John, account of him» 


, Sir Thomas, his monument al 

Hawsted, and account of him» 

117, 118. 

Dalham, 140 ; church, 141. 
Hall, 141. 

Darsham, 359. 

Daundy, Edward, his foundations at 
Ipswich, 240, 249. 

Deben, river, its course, 5. 

Debeubaro, population, church, free- 
school, S09, 310. 

De la Poles, Dukes of Suffolk, their 
monuments at Wingfield, 315; 
at Budey, 329. 

Dennington, chantry, 311. 

Depden, 141. 

D'Ewea, Sir Simonds, account of his 
family and himself, 188, 192, note» 

Dister, Allaiue, his moiiBmeni at La* 
venham, l.>6. 

Dodneis priory, 225. 

Downham, Sandy, 41 ; extraordinaijr 
inundation of sand from which it 
received that appellation, 42. 

Dowsing. William, the parliamentary 
visitor, devastations committed by 
him in the churches of Ipswich* 
242, 255; at Ufibid, 279; at 
Woodbridge, 302. 

Drtnkstone, \76» 


Digitized by 



thuTf, moQttiMdts of tbM f^milt ^ 

Hawstcd, 113. 
— — i Elkabel^ aiKoiint of her, 115, 

•* , Maif«re^ tinguUr purchMet 

HMmIc bjr htr, 178. 
* , Sir Robert, accouDt of him, 

lie, 117. 

— ' , Sir Thomai, bi9 VMXiQiiciit in 

St. Mv7^i> Bw/i 75. 
- — ^, Sir WiUiam, accotDt of him, 

115, natt. 
Ptt«king-9tool piti^rlr^ tt Imwicb, 

Bunwiflbj btiboiM of, S5 ; tituation of 
the town, 353 ; representation, «n- 
tiquitj,aod former importance, 334; 
iooruachroenti of tbe $ea, 335 ; its 
churches, 337; monastic institutions, 
Impkalf, wyi fiafftwMdi 341. 

fcait Bergbolt, charch, aad |;eotIe- 

■Ma's teats there, 8S5« 
— — - Bavantr 359. 
-^ — Hall, the seat of tbe £arl o/ 

Rochford, 306. 

Ne«j 359. 

Echard, Lawrence, account of bim, 

Edmund, St. his historj, BO, 
fidwardston, 164 ; religious house 

there. 165. 
Eidred, John, his monument at Sax* 

ham, 1«9. 
— — , Thomas, hit Inscription at 

Ipswich, C38i 
Elephant's tooth found at Walton, 

Elmsett, church, monument, drop- 
ping well, 914. 
Elmawell, church, and monument, 

EUedon, 44. 

Hall, scat of the Earl of Al- 
bemarle, ib. 
Elwts, Sir Hervey, anecdotes of him, 

-» John, Esq. anecdotes of him, 

146, 147, fifftf. 
Enfield, William, account of him, 

Ereswell, 44. 
Euston, 184. 

Vol. XIV. 

Euitoo Hall; the teat of tbe Duke of 
Grafton; the temple in the park, 

Eversden, Jobnj a^couQC of him, 105. 

Esniug, 44; situiLiiciD, church, an- 
cient historj of, 41. 

Eje, situation, monastery, 195 ; cat- 
tle, 196 ; Roman cams discovered 
tber«, 197. 

Ejrre, Simon, account of blm, 41. 

Falcenham, 185, 1B6. 

Fastolf, Jofaoj hi» moouinent it Oui* 

ton, 401. 
Felixtow, 267 ; priory, S73. 

-Cottage, «73. 

Felton, account of the familv ofi 566- 
Finborough Hall, seat of i\. Pclii- 

ward, Esq. 207. 
Finers, John, his tomb at Briry, 75. 
Fires, dcstnicliTe, at Mildenliall, 40 ; 
at Bury, 10« j at Debcnhara, sm% 
at Southwofd, 3+4 ; at Blithburgb, 
352; atHenham Hall, Sb9, 3(iUi 
at Walberswick, ^65 j at Becdcs, 
368; at Bungay, 368. 
Fish, a remarkable one, caught at Or- 

ford. 322. 
Fitc-Eustace, niauument of one of 
that family, ii^. 
Fitaroy, Henry, natural son of Hen- 
r^ VlII. hii motiuinent at Fram-. 
lingham, }85 ; account of bii&, 
Flixton, rLothing hundred) S97. 

(Wangford hundred) 371. 

' — Hall, leat of Alcjcinder A- 

dair, Esq. 37f . 
Ford ley, 359. 
Forrdiara All Saints, iia 

— St. Genovevc, 176. 
St. Martin, ib. 

Framlingham, situationp church, SB r ; 
monuments, t^, tm ; alnu-hontcA, 
f89; free-school, castle, SjyO; de* 
•cription of the ca$tle, i9i ; jit 
history, 294^ sgO, 

Fresingfield, 3U, 

Freston, 2f5. 

Tower described, t25, f26, 


Gainsborough, Thomai, accownt of 
him, 149. 
* ^ Oardinar, 

Digitized by VjiOOQ IC 


Gardiner, ^r Robert, his monameot 

at Eimswcll, 184. 

, Stephen, bishop of'Wio- 

chester, account of bim, 108, 
Giff«»rd's HbU| Stoke juita NejrUod, 

de>cribed, 17«>, 171. 
Gii'piiig, river, its course, 6. 

Hall, Utn, 

.Gipps, Sir Richerd, account of him, 

Oialebaoiy church, 37S. 
Glemhiim, Sir Thomas, accoont of 

hire, 330; his monument at Glem- 

ham, 331. 

■ I Henrjr, account of him, 

Gleroham Parva, 330. 
Glemsford, 165. 
Gorleston, 398. 
Gosnold, John, his monument al Ott- 

Icy, «65. 
Grimstone Hall, f o9. 
Grundisburgh, church, f 65« 

Hall, ib. 

Guiiton, 398; monuments in the 

cburcb, 399. 
Guthraro, the Danish chieftain, his 

supposed tomb at Hadleigh, tlS. 


Hadleigh, population, Sil ; the 
church, nienuracnt of Guthram 
the Dane, aims-houses, «1S. 

Halesworth, 341, 34X. 

Hardwick, alms-house ibere, 183. 

Heath, fine flock of sheep 

kept there, 1^3. 

House described. 


singular custom practised there, 

Kf, 1«S. 
Harmer, Rer. Tbcmias, account of 

him, «]6. 
Hanisroere, hundred of. 194. 
Haselton, Mary, inscription on bet 

grave, 79. - 
Hau|[hley, formerly a market-town, 

t08 ; remains of iis castle; privi- 
leges of (he manor, ib. 
Haverhill, 139, 140, 
Hawes, Robert, account of him, t89. 
Hawsted, its church. 111; sepulchral 

monuments, 113 ; history, 119, 


— Farm, 12t. 

■ HooM described, 120. 

Helnmgham, ffO; chorchimd ma^ 
numents, Stl. 

Hall, «f 1. 

HeminffstOD, ludicrous tenure b^ 

which it was held, 988. 
Hemp, cultivation and mtniiihctQra 

of, 16. 
Hengrave, 123; church and 

BMnts there, If 5. 

Hall described, lt4. 

Henham Hall, seat of Lord Roo^ 

Herring-fishery at Lowestoft, account 
of it, 386. 

Herringfleet, priory, ferry, 399. 

Hesset, 176. 

Heveningham Hall, seat of Lord 
Huntingfield, 360; the Queen's 
oak, 361. 

Higham, Sir Clement, his monument, 

Hintlesham, monuments of the Tim- 
perley family, Jf 6. ^ 

Hitcbaro, Sir Robert, his monument 
at Framlingbam, 288; his alms- 
houses there, 289 ; his princely be- 
quest to Pembroke HaU, Cam- 
bridge, 300. 

Hogs, breed of, 21. 

Holbrook, monuments in the churchy 

Hollesley Bay, curious cannon pick* 
ed up there, 276. 

Holt, Sir John, his monument at Red* 
grave, 203. 

Honington, the birth-place of Ri>> 
bert Bloomfield, autlior of the Far- 
mer's Boy, 186. 

Hopkins, Sfatthew, witch-finder ge* 
neral, 103. 

Horoingsherth, 126. 

Horses, breed o^ 20. 

Houses of industry, observations on 
those of the incorporated hundred^ 

Howard, Hon. James, account of him» 

Howards, monuments for them at 
Stoke juzta Ney land, 170 ; at Frami> 
linghani, 9Hi» 

Hosne, hundred of, 310. 

. ■ .., King Edmund discovered and 
put to death there, 312 ; chapel ia 
which he was interred, 313. 

Hall, the seat of Sir T. M. 

Uesiirigge, 313. 



Digitized by 




Icklingham, curious Romau bricks 
preserred there, 46; supposed, 
from the vestiges of an encamp- 
menti to have baen the Roman sta* 
tion Combretonmm, 46. 

Ickworth, lt6. 

— Park, new baiiding erected 

there by the late £ari of Bristol, 

Uleigb, Brent, 16^. 

--, Monks*. 169. 

Ipswich, liberty of, situation of the 
. town, 250 ; population and ancient 
slate, SSl; charters, %32; officers 
and privileges of the corporation, 
SS5 ; representation, 236; churches 
tST; St. Clement's, 238; St. He- 
Jen's, SS9: Sl Lawrence, 240; 
St. Margaret's, S4t ; Christ church, 

- St. Mary at Elms, 242; St. Mary 
at Kay, Black Friars, Chrises hos- 
pital, 245 ; Free Grammar schao], 
244; Tooley's foundation, 245; 
Custom House, St. Mary at Stoke, 
Gusford Hall, 246 ; St.* Mary at 
Tower, Archdeacon's palace, St. 
Matthew's, 247 ; Town Hall, 248 ; 
our Lady of Ipswich, 249; St. 
Nicholas , house in which Wol&ey 
was bom. Grey Friars, sr5l ; While 
Friars, St. Peter's, Wolsey's col- 
lege, 252; St. Stephen's, Coach 
and Horses Inn, 2.5.'«; The Tan- 
kard public bouse, 256 ; Theatre, 
Market-place, 257; New Market, 
county gaol, 258 ; House of Cor- 
rection, Town and Borough gaol, 
259; charitable institutions, bar- 
racks, race-course, 260 ; 'manufac- 
tures and commerce. 260, 261; 
passage vessels to Harwich, 261 ; 
eminent natives, 262, 264. 

Irrigation, not much practised in Suf- 
folk, 17. 

lining, sea Eining. 

Izworth, population, priory, inicrip* 
tion in ibe church, 181. 


Jf rroyn, anecdotes of tlie family of, 
178, 179. 

Jemegan, Sir Richard, his monument 

at Somerley, 403. 
Joan of Acres, account of her, 137« 


Kedington, 142. 
Kentweil Hall, Melford, J69. 
Kersey, priory, 215. 
Kessingland, church, 374. 
Kettilbarston, service by which it was 

held, 216. 
Kirby, Joshua, account of him, 332. 
Kirkley, 40<}. 
Kitson, Sir Thomas, his monument at 

Heograve, and account of him, 125. 

Lackford, hundred of, 39. 
Langham, 188. 
Languard Foit, 275-275. 
Lany, Benjamin, Bishop of Ely, ac- 
count of him, 264. 
Larke, river, its course, 7. 
Lavenham, its manufactures, 151 ; 

church, 152 ; monuments, 154; 

charities belonging to the town, 1 57; 

history of its manor, and eminent 

natives, ib. 
Laxfield, 315. 
Leake, Captain Andrew, account of 

bim, 391. 
Leiston abbey, 362. 
Iretheringham priory, church and 

monuments, 307. 
lievington, alms-house, 267 ; the 6rst 

crag dug there, 268. 
Lidgate, ruins of a castle there, 143. 

— , John, account of him, 106. 

Lionel, Duke of Clarence, account 

of him, 138. 
Li vermere. Great, 176. 
-, Little, 188. 

Lloft, Capel, £i»q. account of him, 

Loes, hundred of, 281. 
Long, monuments of the family of, 

at Saxmundhara, 327. 
Lothing, hundred of, 375. 
Lovekin, Rev. Richard, account of 

him, 1280. 
Loudliam, 277. 
Lowestoft, situation, S76; church, 

377; monuments, 578; chapel, 
S £ 2 corn- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


flMn croMf gnnunw icaiool^ 394!» 
385; light-hooMif MS $ itherie^, 
386-388; tea-figlit^ 388. 


Mad4ockt, anec4oU oidtt of tb«t fa- 
mily, I9f . 

Major, Sir John, aeeount of bin, 318. 

Mary, Queen, tradition* respecting 
her re«dcnce at FnunUngban, 899, 

Mary, Queen of France, account of, 
7t ; description of ber tomb at 
Bury, 78. 

Hason, Rer. Francis, his monnnent 
at Orford, 384. 

lAelford, cburcb, monuments, 165; 
hospital, 168. 

Hall, ib. 

^ Place, 169. 

Melton, boose of industry tbete« 877, 

Mcndham, priory, 314. 

Mendlesham, population, church, an- 
tiquities discovered tbere« 801. 

Mettinsham, castle, S7t. 

Migbelli, admiral, #cconnt of him, 

' 381, 

Mildenhall, 39; popolatMMV church, 
Motlemen's seats, 40. 

Mills, Thona«, bis qbaritable foonda* 
tion at Framlingham, S89;bis toab, 

Mptford, hopdred of, 3739 

—— — - bridge, 376. 


Kaetoiii 868 ; bouse of industry, 868, 

869 ; harrows in this parish, 869. 
Kash, Thomas account of him, 381, 

Neale, Thomas, Esq. his charitable 

foundatkm at Bramfield, S57. 
Needham Market, population, manu- 

factores, church, 81?. 
Vcttlestad, 888t 
Kewmarket, 47. 
Kewton. (09. 
Holland, maaufikctufcti church, 158 ; 

title of honour conferred by it, 159. 
Korfolk. Duke of, his monument at 

Frmmltngham, 186 ; accooat of 


Norwoldi Johnde^ accoojit of him, 


OAoB, 883. 

Old Hall, Fetiitow, id rtim 8r8. 

Qnehoose, SlO. 

Orford, situation, repret8ntatiott, ^^ 
pntationi title conferred by it, 380; 
the castle, lb. ; deaeribed, 881 ; 
iu history, 388 ; the chapel, 383 ; 
funeral monuments, 384 ; town* 
hall, assembly bouse, fmner im- 
portance of the tomi, 386. 

Orwell, river, its geneml charaeter, 7; 
tradition resp^ctiBg its ancient oMit^ 
let, 8*75. 

Park, 868. 

Ottley, church and monument, fSS. 

Ottlton» ehutch, 401 ; hooae of in^Ofv 
try, 408. 



Pakenbam, 177« 

Palgrave, the burUl pUc« ofllio* 

mas Martin, the antiquary, 801. 
Parham, 381 ; antiquities discoTcred 

there, the Parham thorn, 3&8. 
Pembertoi), John, his charities, 880» 

Peyton Hall, near Boxford, 360. 

•, Kamsholt, its ruins, 8T8, 

Pigeom, great numbers of them rear* 

ed in this county, 81. 
Playford, 866. 

Plome^atc, hundred of, 316. 
Ptumston Hall, at Whepstead, 1S8« 
Potter, Rev. Robert, account of him« 

Poultry abundant in this cood^« tU 

Rabbit-warrens, 81« 
Ramsholt, 878. 
Redgrave, 801; 
church, 808. 


m Ihe 



Reere, Clara, account of her, 864. 
-, John, last abbot of Buiy, d«* 
scription of hia tomb^ 73, 74. 


Digitized by 



H fM liih t i Hall 30t, 909. 

IteydoD, S6S, 

JUjmMs* HUt Hon. Jamea, kb mo- 
noment at finrj, 77. 

Bichard of Lanham, account of him, 

ItUbrid^e, hundred oi^ I3f. 

Bitbjj Its church with a circular stee- 
ple, 129. 

Tiivert, Stonr. Gipping; Orwell, De- 
ben, 6; Aid, Blythe, Larke, Ware- 
ney, Little Ousc, 7. 

B<oger, the Conputitt, accovat of 
him, 105. 

lUogham, 117; moDDDieots of the 
Drurj family there, 177, 178. 

Hall, 177. 

Jtoggles^l*. Esq. observatiois an the 
houses of industry, 11« 

Bombai^gh, P'iorj, 364. 

Bttshbrook, 178. 

»— Hall, 179. 

Bushmere, t66. 


MfiM, wUtivatioii o^ 17. 
Salisbury, countess of, aneodatat of 

her, e09. 
Samford, hundred of, tt4. 
Sanpson, Dr. aocoont of him, t9S, 

Baacraft, Dr. WiUmm, arcbbtsiiop of 

Canterborj, his benefactions ta bis 

natiye tillage, 319. 
Sapiston, 188. 
fiaviloy Sir Hanry, aaeedula af hitt, 

f 15, nottt. 
Sazham Magna^ moauniaiit ia the 

cbareh, 1«9. 
■ ■ Parya, aionanwat af Lord 

CroAs in the akuwli thara, iSt. 
fiazmaBdbsMi,chafpb,haasa of mdot- 

try destroyed, 3f7. 
Scroope, Thomas, ac eoaat af him,S78. 
SaakAffd, Tbamas, Esq. bis aomi. 

ment and account of bin, 505; 

sdms-booia foandad by bun at 

Woodbrtdga, 504. 
Samer, boose af hidoitry erected 

there for Casford bandied, 916. 
fiwcn, bread of, 19, 
Sbarland, Edwvd, Ssq, Ms mmin- 

ment at Elmsett, 914. 
fiUpneadaw, bausa of iodailry, 979. 
ftbniblaiid HaU, 919. 

ftblon, 5^. 

Simon of Sa^mry, arebbishop of 

Cautarbary, bis tomb «t Sudbury, 

Smitli, John, an eminent benefactor 

of Bury, bis tomb, 75. 
Smvth, Ana, ber charitable fouiida- 

tion tt Ipswich. 945. 
Snape, monastery, 53«; curious font 

in the efaurch, 355. 
Soame, Sir Stephen, bis monument at 

Little Thurlow, 147. 
Sobam, Earl, 506. 

Lodge. Earl Soham, ibid. 

Samarley Hall, 403. 

Somerliton, church, ibid. 

Sotterley Hall, seat of M. Bame,. 

Eiq. 373. 
Southwold, situation, 549 ; privileges 

of the town, 545 j dreadful fire, 

improramaats, 544; the church, 

545 ; guildhall, batteries, &e. 546. 
* Bay, eaa^lgbt there, 546. 

Sparrow, Dr. Anthony, bishop of 

Norwich, aecoantaf bim, 141. 
Spencer, Henry, bishop of Norwich, 

accooat of him, lOO npte, 
Spink, James, Esq. bi« sapulcbral in* 

scriptioQ, 76, 79. 
Spring, Thomas, the rieh elothier, 

Ibf, 155, 157. 
Stoke juxta Clare, its monastery and 

collegiate ebureb, 145. 
Neyland, iu cburcb and 

monuments, 170. 
Stonham Aspal, 995. 

Earl, ibid. 

'— — ^ Parva, 294. 

Stonr, river, its course, 6 ; tradition 

respecting its ancient outlet, 975. 
Stow, hundred of, iOS. 
Stew Hall, at StowtaagtofI, 188, 1S9. 
Stowlaagtoft, 188; antiqotties dis- 

covered there, 191. 
Stawwmaiket, popalation, riiarch, ma- 
nufactures, 905; navigable canal, 

Abbott* a Hall, boasa of Industry, 

Stradbiook, St4. 

Stratford, inscription on the church, 
997, supposed to be the Mdj^ntam 
of the Romans. 997, 998. 
Sudbury, 147 ; manufactares, college, 
priory, 148; eminent natives, 149. 
I Sodbourne Hall, the seat of the Mar- 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Sofblk^ iitwttioiiy eztentt diTvioo. 
9fld popolatioo, 1 ; climate, loil, 3; 
riTertj 6; roa4s« canals, and woods, 
7 ; wastes, 8 ; state of pioperty,9; 
boildings, state of the poor, 10; 
agriculture, 11 ; comnetce and ma^ 
nuiacttties, M; general histor]^, 
ib. ; honorial history, f9 ; eccleti* 
astical and ciyiI government, 57* 

* ■ ■, Earls and Dnkes of, t9. 

Salyardy anecdotes of the fiimlljr of, 
«10, til. 

Sorry, Earl of, his mooament at Fram- 
lingham, t8t ; account of him, i83. 

Swallows, obserrations on their de- 
parture, 347. 

Syleham, its i|pnei/atKt, 314. 

Tanner, Rev. John, aoeoontof him, 

Tatlingstone, boose of industry for 
Samford hundred, fS8. 

Taylor, Dr. Rowland, his martyrdom, 

Tendring Hall, the seat of Sir Wil- 
liam Rowley. 171. 

Thedwestry, hundred of, 17S, 

Thetfoid, 47. 

Thin^, hundred of, ib. ' 

Thonngton, 364. 

Thorn, Chrittmas-flowering at Par- 
ham, 3S«. 

Thredling, hundred of, 309. 

Thnrlow, Great, 145. 

— , Little, 147. 

■, late Lord, account of him, 

, Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Dor- 
ham, aoeoontof him, 189. 

Thwaice, f03, S04. 

Tiroperley, John, inscription on bit 
tomb at Hintlesham» tt6, 

ToUemacbe, anecdotes of the noble 
family of, f fO, Ml. 

Toole^, Henry, his charitable foun- 
dation at Ipswich, 945. 

Trtmlejr, St Martin, 969 ; its church 
in ruins, 971. 

Trimmer, Sarah, aoeount of her, 964. 

Troston Hall, the seat of Capei Lloft, 
Esq. 199. 


Uford, church, 978; dettractton of 

■ its oniiitienti, cm mm uotct to Ao 

ibnt^ 979. 
Utber, Admiral, account of bin, 380« 


Vernon, Mrs. her monument at Hun* 
don, 141, 149. 


Walberswick, its former prosperity, 
364; destructive fires, church, 365. 

WalgraTC, monuments of that family 
at Bure^ 161 ; anecdotes of it, 169. 

Waltoa, church, castle, 971 ; stats 
of its ruins in the last century, 979* 

Wangford, priory, cburchi 366. 
, hundred of, 367. 

Ward, Dr. Samuel, account of hima 

Warner, Maiy, ber charitable foua- 

dation at Bioyton, 976. 
Wattisham, singular tenure by whidi 

it is held, 916. 
Wateney, river, its course, 7. 
Weld, Joseph, Esq. his tomb at Bnry« 

Welnetham, Roman antiquities die- 

covered there, 179. 
Wesdiall, 366. 
Westhorp, 904. 

Hall, its demolition, 904< 

WestStow Hall, 194. 

Westwood Lodge, near BUthburfl^ 

Wetherden, its church, 911. 
Hall, 910. 

Whatfieldft remarkable for its fine 
wheat, 916. 

Whepstead, 139. 

Wherstead Lodge, the seat of Sir 
Robert Harland, f98. 

Wickham Market, 980. 

Wiles, John, hti epitaph at Lavenhamw 

Wilford, hundred of, 975. 

Wingfield, 314; college, church, caa- 

Wingfield, Anthony, Esq. his monu- 
ment at Stonham Aspal, 993, 994. 
, Sir Anthony, his mon»> 

ment at Leiheringbam, 307. 
Witchcraft, cruel persecutions for 

that imaginary crime, 103, 104. 
Witnesham, 966. 
Wollaston, William, bis monument at 

Finboroogh, 907. 


Digitized by 



Wokej» Cardinal^ lumie In which he 
was born at Ipswich, t51 ; his col- 
\tfsi6 in that lown» S5f 1 854 ; anec* 
dote of him by Fuller, f 54« note, 
biographical account of him, f 6f . 

Woodbridge, commerce, population, 
500; church, 301; priorj, 302; 
alms-house, 304 ; itee-grammar- 
scbool, meeting-houses, fire-offices, 
banks, barracks, 305. 

Woollen manu£scturcs of this coun- 
ty, «S. 

Woolpit, iu manufactore of brick, 
charch, spring, supposed by some 
antiquaries to be the Sitomagus of 
the Romans, 180. 

Wooiverston Hall, 2S8; obelisk in 

the park, t99; long litigation r*. 

specting this estate t30. 
Worlingham, 373. 

Worlingworth, its beautiful font, 316. 
Wrentham, 366. 
Wykes Bishop, S38. 
Ufbrd, «39. 

Young, Arthur, Es^. introdoces the 
cuItiTation of chicory into Suffolk, 
17; also the breed of South Down 
sheep, 19 ; his seat at Brad&eld, 
174, 175. 

Yoxford, 366. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Digitized by 



Surrey, considered as part of a highly caltiyated coontrj, will 
be found, on a general survey, to present, perhaps, as large a por- 
tion of beauty and deformity as any county in the kingdom. This 
mixture, however, contributes to give it that variety so eminently 
pleasing in natural soenery. Here vast naked heaths impart au 
air of wildness, which is strongly contrasted with the numberless 
beauties strewed by the hand of art over its surface ; there its 
hills aspiring to the bold character, and exhibiting the picturesque 
situations of mountains, gradually decline into richly wooded 
dales, or plains covered with abundant harvests ; whilst, on its 
downs, its 

^ spacious airy downs 

With grass and thyme overspread and clover wild. 
Where smiling Phoebus tempers ev'ry breeze, 
The fairest flocks rejoice — 
Such are the downs of Bansted, edged with woods 
Andtow^y vilks.* 

It b a common observation that this county contains a larger 
proportion of gentlemen's seats than any other district of Eng- 
land of the like extent This circumstance is certainly owing in 
part to its vicinity to the metropolis ; but when the acknowledged 
sakbrity of its air and other natural advantages are taken into 
the account, we shall only wonder that they are not still more nu* 

Vol. XIV. B sitvation 

*Pyer't Fleece, Book I. 

Digitized by 




Situation and EXTEivT.^Surrey is an inland county, si^ 
tuated on the south-eastern part of the kingdom. On the north 
it is separated by the Thames from Middlesex, and a very smalt 
point of Buckinghamshire; on the west it is bounded by Berk-' 
shire and Hampshire; on the south by Sussex; and on the 
east by Kent. Its form is a pretty regular oblong, except- 
ing on the north side, where it ts deeply indented by the 

In regard to size Surrey ranks below most of the other counties 
of England ; its greatest length from north to south being about 
twenty-six miles, and its greatest breadth from east to "Iresf, 
about thirty -eight. In the Magna Britannia^ it is said to be 
twenty-two miles in breadth, and one hundred and twelve in cir- 
cumference, and to contain 592,000 acres : but the best modem 
authorities make its contents 811 square miles, or about 519,000 

DiTiSioN AND POPULATION.— The county is divided into 
thirteen hundreds, the names of. which, with their population, 
are shewn in the subjoined table drawn up from the returns mad6 
to Parliament in 1801. 

Hundreds, Townihips, 

Hund of Black heath 
Brixton - • - - 
Copthornfic Effingham 
Eimbridge • - - • 


Godaiming - . - 
Godley & Chcrtsej 
Kingston ..... 


Tanridge .... 
Waiiington - • - 


Wottou, or Dorking 
Boro. of Sonthvark 


Bj how 
many fa- 
odUes oc- 




















itt agri- 


Duiu in 
rade ni 






















Total 46072 63673 127138 1419051 227 46 ,42865| 269043 


Toial o 





• Vol V. p, 3n. 

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tn ike yetf ITW, the popvlatioa of Surrey was estimated at 
154,900; in 1750, it had increased to 207,000 ; in 1601 it was 
found, as ahove, to be upwards of 369|000; and there* is every 
reason to helieve, that when the returns under the act of 1811 
are made public, it will appear to have received farther acces- 
sions dnring. the last ten years. No inconsiderable portion of 
this increase nmst doubtless be sought in the immediate vicinity 
of the metropolis, and in the establishment or extension of dif- 
ferent manufactures there. 

The number of inhabitants on each square mile averages 332^ 
and the averaged number of deaths, taken from the registered ac-* 
counts for ten years, amounted to one in foity-one of the resident 

Climate. — In a county where the soils and elevations are so 
various, the climate also must of course vary considerably. It is 
the general opinion^ that less rain falls in most parts of Surrey, 
than in the metropolis, or in the vale of London, so that the cli-* 
mate may, upon the whole, be regarded as dry, as fiur as respects 
the quantity of rain merely : but the southern border must neces- 
sarily be moist and damp, from the nature of the soil, the flat« 
ness of the surface^ and the immense number of trees which co- 
ver it and obstruct ventilation. Prom the like causes^ the low 
parts near the Thames must be considered as rather damp. On 
the other hand^ the Sitmosphere of the chalk-hills, which run 
across the whole county from east to west, is dry^ rather keen, and 
bracing. Ou the wide and exposed heaths about Bagsho^, Al- 
dershot, and Hind-head, n similar climate prevails, so that the 
whole west side may, with | very small exception, be said to have 
8 dry, and rather cold, atmosphere. 

The spring is in general early, and here vegetation is not so 
often checked by frosty morifings, and cold, raw, easterly winds, as 
in some of the more southefn counties. The summers are com* 
flumly dry and warm ; an^ the harvest early, generally com- 
snencing in the first ten days of August, and from the steadiness 

B2 of 

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4 SORftEV. 

of the weather at that important time, there ia seldom aaty eon 
oat in the fields after the first ireek of September. 

The wind Mows most steadily from the west and south-west^ 
seldom keeping long in any point between the aorth-wetfl and 
north-east. In the spring, and fireqnently towards the end of 
antomn, the easterly winds prevail ; and the weather is then ooM 
and raw/with a drizzling moisture : hot the greatest quantity of 
rain iklls when the wind blows firom the soutlHsoath*west» or 

The climate is deemed very healthy in most parts of the county, 
between the southern district, called the Weald, and the Thames, 
particolariy near the northern foot of the chalk-hills. The dry- 
ness of the soil and atmosphere, and the entire freedom firom the 
smoke of the metropolis by the prevalence of the westerly winds, 
have deservedly conferred the character of salnlnity on this divi- 
sion of the county. Even in the Weald, where the surftce is 
low, and the soil moist, diseases are by no means fir^uent, nei^ 
ther is the ordinary duration of human life abridged. 

soii^-^The soil of Surrey is extremely various, and by no 
means so clearly discriminated as in some other districts of the 
kingdom, the different kinds lying a good deal intermixed in 
small patches, especially in the nortiiem part of the county. 
They may be reduced to the four general heads of clay, loam, 
chalk, and heath. The most extensive tract of onifom soil is 
that which extends along the whole southern border of the eoun^ 
ty, and forms what is denominated the Weald of Surrey; adis' 
trict about thirty miles in length, and varying from three to five 
in breadth. This consists of a pale, cold, retentive clay, upon a 
sub-soil of the same nature: its smr&ce is flat, covered with 
wood, and its elevation is said to be less than that of any odier 
vale district in the island. The agricuhura] management of this 
soil not only requires a large capital, but also superior skill, at* 
tention, and activity, in order to make the moat of the proper ssa« 
sons for the difierent oporatiotts. Proceeding northward we eoms 
to a district of sandy loam, likewise stretching across the whole 


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eomiy,. but oa the eait aule seldom exeeediag baK a mik m 
breadth, till aft Albory and Shalford ft expands as fiir as Has- 
eomb and Hambledon on the soath. The richest part of this 
tract lies fovnd Godalming; the soil is eyery irhere of great 
depth, and rests oo a base of sand^stone, Teined with iron ore. 
The most striking and remaricabie district consists of Ae chalky 
downs, coDtignons to the former. They lie nearly in the middle 
of the coanty, entering from Kent into Surrey by Croydon and 
Limpsfield where their width is about seven miles, and gradaaUy 
narrowing as they [nrooeed westward, till their termination near 
the border of Hampshire, where there is merely a narrow ridge, 
but little broader than the turnpike road. Along the elevated 
summit of the downs, pcrlicnlarly about Walton and Hedley, and 
between the Mole and the Wey, is a large extent of heath, whieh| 
for a considerable depth, divides the chalk of the northern from 
that of the southern compartment of the downs, though it is pro- 
bable that they jmn at their base. Setting out from the eastern 
extremity of the downs, and proceeding northward, we iind a va- 
riety of soils, but chiefly strong clay, streaked with sandy loam; 
and these, with patchsn of gravel, continne till near Dulwieb, 
from which place, to the extremity of the county near Rother<» 
hithe, is a Strang unmixed clay. If we set out farther to the 
west, from Bansted downs, we find the chalk bounded by a long 
stretch of clay, by Sutton, Morden, and the east side of Morton, 
till we reach the h>aam of Putney heath, Wimbledon, and Mort* 
lake. A similar line of soils, but with leas extent of clay, be- 
fore we reach the sandy loams, prevails, if we set out from any 
point of the downs between Bansted and Clandon; and the 
brther westward we proceed, the breadth of the clay soil that di- 
vides the chalk from the sandy loam decreases in proportion. 
Rom the norttem borders of the clay to the Thames, the soil in 
general is sandy, intermixed, however, especially on the bankft 
of the Mole and the Wey, with loam of different qualities and 
day. It is diftcult to conceive a worse kind of soil than that of 
the ktfOm of Surrey^ and these nnfortunately occupy a very 

B3 largo 

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Ivge portion of the west side of the comity. The whole traet 
from Egham to Ash is, with little exception, heath, or moorish 
soil, which is ako of considerable breadth; for the space from 
Bagshot, throQgh Chobham and Byfleet, to Cobham, Ripley, 
and Qattands, b a series of dreary and almost irreclaimable 
heaths. The soil is similar on that line of the barren land which 
runs from Blackheath to Leith hill, and stretehes from the ?ale 
of Albnry to the beginning of the Weald, near Ewhurst. 

Genbral appearance. The svr&ce of almost the whole of 
Suirey, except the Weald, consists of gentle hill and dale. In 
some parts the hills rise to a considerable height, and present 
very bold wd commanding views. The northrweat comer of the 
eoonty, near the Thames, has its sor&oe varied by Cooper's 
hill and St Anne's hill ; both remarkable for the great extent of 
country whjoh can be seen from them. The next eminence to the 
east, but at a greater distance from the Thames, is St George's 
Hill; after which, proceeding down the river, the heights of 
Richmond, Putney, and Roehampton, attract the eye, and farther 
to the east, the rising grounds about Norwood and Dnlwich. 
Across the middle of the county the downs, rising with a gentle 
slope from the north, and broken in their eastern division into 
deep and waving vallies^ form n striking object^ and give variety 
to the appearance of the cpunty. Towards the northern border of 
the downs, Saqdersted hill, near Croydon, affords a rich and ma« 
jestic view. From Box hill, Bansted downs, and Hedley heath, 
the prospect^ are also singularly commanding and diversified. To 
the ^nth of the downs the suriace of the county ri9es in the hills 
that overhang the Weald, near Oxted, Godstone, Reygate, and 
Dorking. As we approach the western ext^mity of the county, 
these hills cover a greater breadth ; and near Wonersh, Godal* 
ming, and Peperharrow, covered with a rich foliage, and waving, 
with a grscefol line, into intermediate vallies, watered by the difr 
ferent branches of the Wey, they present the most picturesque 
prospect that Surrey can afford. On Leith hill, to the south- 
west Qf Dorking, Tilbuster hill, near Godstone, and Qratewood 

t w« 

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hill, near Godahning, the views are very extensive ; bnt perhaps 
ttiere is no part of the county in which the appearance of the 
richly wooded vale of the Weald is more strikingly pleasing than 
on the road from Albury to Ewhurst. After toiling up the deep 
and barren sands to the south of Albury, that present no object 
on which the eye can repose, even for a moment, we suddenly 
come to the sonthem edge of the hill, whence the whole extent of 
the Weald, clothed with wood, appears to the south, with an occa- 
sional peep of the sea, through the breaks of the Sussex Downs, 
which form the back-^jonnd : on the south-west appears the rich 
and finely varied country about Godalming, backed by the wild 
heaths that stretch across from Pamham to Haslemere. Some- 
times on a clear night the shadow of the mooa is to be seen glanc- 
ing on the waves of the English Channel, forming a singular and 
romantic feature in the prospect.* 

Waters. — ^Thc principal rivers of this county, including the 
Thames, which only washes its northern border, are the Wey, 
the Mole, and the Wandle. 

The Wey rising on the border of Surrey, south-west of Hasle- 
mere, first takes its course by Liphook in Hampshire; atraiu 
entering Surrey it runs eastward to Godalming and Guildford, 
having been joined at Shalford by a stream, which rises in the 
commons to the south of Wotton, and which, though small, sup- 
plies a great number of mills, besides embellishing the grounds 
of many gentlemen in its course. From Guildford the Wey passes 
north-eastward to Woking, leaves the town at a small distance 
on the north-west, then proceeds to Weyhridge^, to which place it 
gives name, and there discharges itself into the Thames. 

The Mole is formed by the union of several springs rising on 
the sonthem border of this county and in the forest of Tilgate, in 
Sussex, which, in the parish of Horley, southward of Reygate, 
compose a considerable stream. It flows at first through a flat 
and rather uninteresting country, till it approaches the great bar- 
ripr of Downs, which extends across the county. Near Dorking, 

B 4 which 

• Stfvenaon'i Vi«w of the Agricaitare of Surrey, p. 40. 

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which it leaves on the soath-weftl» it enters one of the defiles of 
these Downs, and traversing a romantic valley, washes the foot 
of Box-hill iu its progress to Letherhead. Here the Mole makes 
its exit from among the hills, and winding through arangtof 
commons by Stoke, almost encircles the village of Oohham, and 
proceeds to Esher. Here all the beauty of this river cessefl!, and 
it winds through an uninterestiDg 0at to East and West Molesey, 
till its oonflttx with the Thames opposite to Hampton Court. 

Thia river has long been celebrated for a pecaliarity, which has 
been much represented, or misunderstood, even by modem writeiSp 
and still more by those of ancient date. *' The Mole/' says 
Camden, " coming to White-hill^ (now called Box-hill») hides it- 
self^ or is rather swallowed op at the loot of the hill there; and 
for that reason the place is called the SwaUow : but about two 
mUes bdow it bubbles up and rises again ; so that the inhabitants 
of this tract, no less than the Spaniards, may boast of having a 
bridge that feeds several flocks of sheep," On this statement 
the Rev. Mr. Manning makes the following comment, in which, 
he has explained the tme character of the phmnomenon.* " From 
this iabniotts account^ plainly founded on an idea suggested by 
common report, the reader might be led to imagine that the 
river actually disappears, forms a channel beneath the sorfeee of 
the earth, and at a certain distance rises again and pursues ita 
course %bove-ground. The truth of the matter seems, however, 
to be this : The soil, as well under the bed of the river, as be- 
neath the sur&ce on each side^ being of a spongy and porous 
texture^ and having by degrees become formed into caverns of 
different dimensions, admits the water of the river through cer* 
tain passsges in the banks and bottom. In ordinary seasons, 
these receptacles being full, as not discharging their contents 
faster than they are supplied by the river, the current sustains no 
diminution : but, in times of drought, the wat^ within these ca^ 
vems being gradually absorbed, that of the river is drawn off intq 
them, aAd in proportion to the degree of drought, the stream 


History of Siirrf y, Vol. I, Introdoction, p. 3. 

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i« limiiiithf^. In ¥«ry dry immimij tb# oomnl k, in certftin 
plaoeB^ tntirdy ezhaoitod^ and the clniiDel remua^ dry^ except 
hiere and there a alanding pod. By the hridge at Thoracroft it 
riaes again in a strong a^iig ; and after that the coivent ia coaaUiit, 
At a place called the Way Pool« 6n the aide of the river next to 
Box-biU, the Diethod in nhioh the water ia thua oceaaionally 
drawn off is visible to the observer. It has here fiuned a kind 
of circolar basin, about thirty feet in diameter, which is sopplied 
in the ordinary state of the current by an inlet fitom theriveo two 
feet broad and one deep. This iulet being stopped, the water in 
ikt basin aeon subsides, and in less than an hour totally diaap* 
peara; when the dMums through which it passes off at diflbrent 
depths from the upper edge of the basii^ may eaaiiy be disco- 

From the drcumstance of the river occasionally betaking itself 
to these subtorraneeui channels, it probably received the name of 
the Mole. In mere anciait times it seems to have been called the 
Emlay, ^e tt[^per part of it being known by that name in the 5th 
of Edward III. and even so late as the time of Henry VIIL ThU 
will alas account tar the origin of the name of the hundred through 
the heart of which the river takea its coarse, now, and from the 
earHest times, denominated Emley Hundred. 

The third and least considerable river in this county is the 
Wandle, which, rising near CFoydon, and passing by Bedington, 
Caiahalton, Mitcham, and Merton, rana into the Thamea a little 
below Wandleaworth, or Wandsworth, to whkh it givea name. 
Its origin is small; but at Ctohatton it ia much increased by the 
numerous springs which rise in that place; and in its course of 
rather more than ten miles, it turns near forty mills of difierent 
kinds, and is said to furnish employment for about 2000 people. 

Another stream, though of still less magnitude, is w<Hrthy of no- 
lice, Ibr supplying seveial gun-powder mills at Ewuil and Maldon, 
and a large eorn-miU at Kingston. It rises in a strong pellucid 
apring in the town of Ewell, and, proceeding doe north* falls at 
lUngstpp into the Thames. 

9 A con- 

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A considerable branch of the Medway rises m the parishes of 
Godstoue and Home^ in the sooth-east part of the oonoty ; audi 
after receiving an auxiliary stream in the parish of lingfidd, 
leaves Surrey and enters Kent. 

The river Loddon skirts the county on its west side ; its direc* 
tion is nearly north-west by Frimley till it leaves Surrey. Its 
waters are employed to supply the Basingstoke canal. 

On the wide and desolate heaths in the west part of the county 
are several extensive ponds, some of which, as Shire Pond^ be- 
tween Chobham and fiyfleet, and another near Frensham, con- 
tain not kss than 150 acres. In the south-eastern parts of th^ 
county also, particularly near Godstone, there are ponds, but of 
inferior magnitude. All these are employed for the purpose of 
feeding fish for the London market 

The nuneral waters of this comity were formerly in high repute, 
and some of them were much frequented ; but, principally owing^ 
to a change in ftishion or opinion, they have now lost their repu- 
tation. The springs of this kind are those at Epsom, Cohham, 
Strsatham ; the Dog and Duck in St George's Fields; Jessop's 
Wells, Comb-hill, Kingston j Dnlwich ; tiie Iron Pear Tree, near 
Godstone; Warplesdon, N.ewdigate, Frensham, Witley, Meg's 
Well, near Dorking, &c. of the principal of which an account will 
be given in the proper place. 

The county in general is well furnished with springs ; but in 
regard to wells, it is often found necessary to bore to the depth of 
dOO feet, before a regular supply of water can be procured. This 
IS principally the case on the chalk, but even in other places it is 
sometimes requisite to go to the depth of 200 feet 

Minerals and fossils.— Iron^re is found in considerable 
quantity in the south-west part of the county, about Haslemere^ 
Dunsfold, and Cranley ; and in the south-east quarter about ling- 
field and Home. In most parts of the Weald also this ore pro* 
bably exists; but in consequence of the high price of fuel the 
iron-works of Sur^ have b^en totally neglected. Ragstone, 
containing soms iron, abounds near the junction of the W^lc^ 


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and the chain of sand-hills to the south of Bleehingly, Reygate, 
and Dorking; and is found in smaller quantities dboat Send and 
Chobham. Ore also of tolerable purity appears in the sand about 
Puttenham and Godstone ; and more or less of it is probably con^ 
tained in all the sand-hills between those two places. 

That useful material^ fuller's earth, is found in great qu'anti* 
ties about Nutfield, Reygate, and Blechingly, to the south of the 
Downs; and some, but of inferior quality^ north of them, near 
Sutton and Croydon. There are two kinds, tiie blue and yellow, 
which Sre used fov different purposes; the latter being chiefly 
employed in fiolling the finer cloths of Wiltshire and Gloucester* 
shire, and the former sent into Yorkshire fo? the coarser manu- 
fectures. It is not known how long this earth has been dog in 
Surey ; the oldest pit now wrought is said to have lasted fifty or 
sixty years, and is fast wearing out It is thought that the de- 
mand ibr the fuller's earth of this county will be affected by the 
recent discoyery of a pit of the yellow, or more valuable kind, 
near Maidstone, in Kent The price at the pits is about six shil- 
lings a ton, which, at the London wharfs, fetches about twenty* 
&fe or twenty-six shillings. 

Jn the neighbourhood of Godstone, Gatton, Merstham, Reygate, 
and Blechingly, are extensive quarries of stone of a peculiar qua- 
lity. This stone, especially that dug near Merstham, is at first 
soft, and incapable of beuing the action of a damp atmosphere; 
but after being kept under cover for a few months, its texture 
becomes so compact, that it can resist the heat of a common fire ; 
and in consequence of this property it is in very general demand 
for fire-places in London and its neighbourhood, where it is sold 
at about one shilling and six^nce the cubic foot. On the White 
Hills Qear Blechingly, the stone is of a somewhat different qua- 
lity, and considerably more valuable. It is softer than that horn 
tlie other quarries, and was once much used by chemists, bakers, 
and glass manufiicturers, but is now principally employed by the 
latter, who have been enabled by means of it to produce plate- 
fflass of much larger dimensions than formerly. These stones 


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aie piaeorad of tbnoct 6Y€ry Au, mbm coiiluiiiBg aot leat Ham 
•eveaty-lwo Mperficial fe«t, of ten iacbeo thiek.* 

lArge ^airioi of luBe-atoae noar Dodkiiig afibid Hme equal ia 
purity and strength to any ia tbe kingdom. It ia parlienlariy 
seiTiceable for w«ka under water, aad waa ea^loyod in the oon* 
atruetion of th* Weat-India and Wapping-Dodu. liaieatone is 
alao dug and burnt at GknUfetd, Sntten, and Canhnlton. 

Chalk b very abundant in Smtey, and is m general use aa a 
manure. There are dialk-pttn at Croydon, Sulton, Epsom, l^e* 
therhead, Rookham, Effingham^ Horaky, Clandon, Stoke, Guild* 
ford, and Pattenham, on the nortli aids of the Devns; and at 
Godatone, Cater ham, Reygate, Heratham, Buckland, and Belch* 
worth, on the south aide; besides otkers of less extent and note. 

Coal is said to have been formerly found in diflSffent distrieta of 
Surrey, particularly in or near the pariah of Cranley, and in tha 
parish of Warplesdon. Aabvey, in hia History, gives the leaoh 
of an attempt to dUsoover ooal in the tatter, whidi proved soo« 
cessful ; but unfortunately in boring, when the weriunen came to 
the coal, " as &ai as the ifona were pnt in they would snap off; 
and this was thought by Mr. Lilly, the astrologer, to be by tim 
subterranean spirits/'f donbtless exasperated at being thus wvi- 
tonly diaturbed in their profound retreats. 

The sand about Taaridge, Dofking, and Reygate, is in great 
re%ueBt for hoar-glasses, writing, and a variety of purpoaea; that 
about the latter town is thought to be uneqaalled in the kingdom 
for purity and colour. 

In Camden's time there were pits of jet near Okewood. An* 
brey makea no mention of this fossil; but, in a letter preixed ta 
hia History, Evdyn says, that there were then " pita of jeate 
in the skirtaof the parish of.Wotton, near Snsso.'' Atpresettt 
there is no i^ipeannce of it. 

Bride-earth is feand ia most parts of the county, but iaierior 
in qudity to that of Middlesex. At Nonsuch, in the parish of 
Cheam, is a paiticularly valuabte bedL from which are amde ire- 


^ Mdcoha^a ^nrrcj. Vol. L p. 48« t Aubrey's Seney, Vol. III. p. 3t7. 

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•tnuuit. IS 

hndu, SB iiMfj aie imomouM, from their property of xmMng 

Statb of propsbtt. — ^Tbere are ne very large estates b S«ir« 
rey. The most estensire does not mveh exoeed 10,0001 per animal, 
and hot few approach to that annual rent The yeomanry are by 
no means so num^ons as in the adjoining ooonty of Kent; though 
in the western division nmnd OniidfiMd, and in some parts of the 
Weald, there are sercral gentlenien who &mi their own estKtes 
at from 2001. to 4001. per annom. 

The size of farms dso in Sorrey may he considered as rather 
small than large, the most extensive oomprehending 1000 acres; 
there are a few others from MO to 1900 ; but the most common 
site is from 900 to 900. Many, however, are below that standard ; 
and Maleohn reckons that 170 acres may bo assumed as the fair 
average of the eovnty. 

The tenvres are principally freehold. Most of the farms are 
let on leases, the duration of which is generally ibr twenty-one 
years, though some are only for seven or feuvteen. A few are 
lett Ibr three lives ; but there are many extensive ftrms which are 
held without a lease from year to year, entirety at the will of the 
landlwd : and this custom is rslher upon the increase. 

The rents» excepting in that part of the ooanty which lies 
within the influence of the London markets, amy be deemed low. 
In the clays of the Weald many farms are lett ibr ten shillinga per 
acre, and few of them reach twenty (killings. The elay land in 
the other parts of the county is lett from fifteen to twenty shil- 
lings : the rents run about the same on the chalks ; but the best 
kinds, that is, the hazle loam and the rich sandy loams near 
GodaimiBg, prodoea from twenty*fivo to thurty shillingB, In the 
vicinity of London rents rise considerabiy ; at the distance of 
seven or eight miles they are from two pounds to three pounds ; 
and stiH nearer the metropolis, the ground that is possessed in 
small quantities by cow*keepers and nursery-men, letts for six 
pounds, eight pounds, and even ten pounds per acre. 

BuiiDnfOS.-— Few counties in the kingdom can vie with Sur- 


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rey in Ihe number and elegfanoe of Ike gead^lBeii'B ieats wUdi it 
contains. In regard to the farm-houBes^ a atriking difierence ap« 
pears In di&rent districts. In the Yale, or Weald^ of Suney 
they are too often mean and ruinous, and certainly justify tha 
remark, that from the condition of the farm-honses and oflicea^ 
the state of agricolture may be safely Inferred. In the otker 
parts of the county they are In general sofficiedtly large and con* 
yenient, in good repair, and kept neat and dean* The oldest are 
built entirely of brick, and mostly covered irith large heavy 
slate-stone I and many are constructed of a framing of wood 
lathed and plastered^ or rough-cast Some of the bams have 
day walls; but they are commonly of timber placed on a feonda-i 
tion of brick or stone. They are large and commodious, as are 
also the stables ; but in regard to the latter, a general practice 
prevails throughout the county of not making proper divisions 
between the horses4 The disadvantages of this mode of con« 
struction are too obvious to require enumerating. Such fiurmers 
as lie near the chalk are careful to bottom their fiirm-yards, and 
line their drinking-pools with that material. The cottages are in 
general sufficiently laiige and convenient for the class of persona 
by whom they are occupied; and a small piece of ground for 
growing vegetables ia commonly attached to them. Upon the 
whole, the buildings of the ftumers in Surrey may be conaidered 
equal in point of goodness to those of most other counties, and 
perhaps not less convenient than such as are to be found in dis- 
tricts where agricultural improvement has not made greater pro^ 


this county vary exceedingly in diffisrent parts. In 1803 the 
lowest rate was 8d. and the higheat 18s. in the pound; the ge»e« 
ral average of the county being Sm. 8d. Bdbre the pnaperty-tax 
took place the general proportion in most parts of this county 
was two-thirds, and such it continues in the himdreds of Wokingi 
Blackheath, Godalmiog, and the town of Gaildfoid; but in the 

•8l«TMuoii'f Agiic tt lt M sl Smmf, p. 9% 

Digitized by 


temaiDdeFi particvlarly in the hundreds of Kingston^ Blmbridge, 
tteygale, Tanridge^ and Wallington, the parishes^ since the pas- 
sing of that act, hare been assessed at the rack rental. 

From the abstract of the returns of the expense of the mainteK 
nance of the poor made to the House of Commons in 1803, it 
appears that those returns "vere given in from 151 parishes or 
places. Ninety-nine of these maintain all, or part, of their poor» 
in work-houses; the number of persons so maintained during the 
year ending Easter 1803, was 5268, at an expense of 75,1051. 
The number of persons maintained out of workhooses at the same 
time was 30,870, besides 6875 who were not parishioners. The 
expense incurred for their maintenance was 58,7351. The expen- 
diture in law, removals^ and overseers' charges, amounted to 
8535L ; and the sum of 16111. was laid out in purchasing mate^ 
rials for employing the poor. The paupers of eighteen parishes 
were farmed or maintained under contract; and those of seven 
others were maintained and employed under the regulations of 
special acts of P^liament 

Two hundred and sixty friendly societies have been enrolled at 
the quarter-sessions pursuant to the acts passed in the thirty -third 
and thirty.fifth George III. ; and there are sixteen female friendly 
societies, containing 1845 members. 

Agriculture. In regard to agricultural improvement Surrey 
may be considered as behind many other districts of Great Britain. 
The arable land far exceeds the proportion of pasture ; but, as 
Mr. Stevenson remarks, '' in a county where the soils are so vefy 
various, and where so little of system prevails, it is impossible 
by any general observations, or remarks, to give an adequate ai^ 
just idea of the rotation of crops that prevails even in any con- 
siderable district of the county.'' * The leading principle of mo- 
dem husbandry, that in no case except under very particular 
ctrcnmstances, ought two com, or white crops, to succeed each 
other, seems to have been not long adopted, and to be making 
its way, though perhaps but slowly, in most parts of the county. 


* Agricnttora! Survey of Surreyi p, 179. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

16 iraEET. 

the drill tinaiMiidry has not kiani many firiloiran in Batnj, 
accept in the wert part of the oonnty, about Bagahot» Ether, 
Send, Gehham, and Ripley, where it is yery general. The pro« 
duoe of wheat is from two to five, and sometimes six qnarters an 
acre, and that <^hariey from ibnrto seven and a half. The latter 
is nsed only for malting, for which purpose it is reckoned eqnal in 
quality to any in the kingdom. 

The olimate of Sorrey seettis to be less fiiTonrable to oats than 
to iriieat or barley. As the former is often grown on fonlland, the 
produce is sometimes very low, not exceeding three quarters per 
acre ; but when sown on clean ley, or after turnips, it frequently 
yields from six to eight quarters. 

Garden pease and beans are cnltirated in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the metropolis, and the sandy loams near the Thames 
about Mortlake ; while the field varices of both are extensively 
grown in most other parts of the connty, and especially on the 

There is every reason to presume, that tnrnips have been 
raised in the fields in this county as long as in any other dis- 
trict of England. Sir Richard Weston of Sutton, in his " l>t- 
rectims for the Tmprwemeni &f Barren Lmid/* first published 
in 1650, gives a very clear and foil account of the mode ni 
raising turnips, practised in Flanders and Brabant^ and strongly 
recommends the culture of them to his countrymen. It is not 
improbable, that his book might have been the means of intnK> 
ducing this nsefol root to the notice of the farmers of Surrey, by 
whom it has been largely cultivated beyond the memory of the 
•Meat inhabttants *. It is always sown, as strong objections 


* Mr. Rent is certainly iooorrecr, when he assert^ in hit Survey of Nor* 
Ibik, that the tamip hotbandiy was tntrodaced into that ooontj by Lord 
Townsbend, who had witnesMd the advantages derived from it in Hanover, 
whither he accompanied Georse I. ; lor it appears from Campbell's Politieal 
Survej of Great Britain, that the coltare uf the turnip was not then established 
there, as George II. caused an abstract of the Norfolk syitem of cnlcivatiog it 
to he drawn np lor the use of his Hanoveriui snigects. - 

Digitized by 


itiUbig pif«ftfl b ibis ctmnty. Wfcen 8ot3 tole drawn 
off the fteU, twm t«n to twelve goineafl per acre are very com« 
lK>i^ girea ky oow-feeders i wbere thcfy are bmiched frr market^ 
they tttty be reckoned worth 401. per acre. Most of tbe fiirmer^ 
wbo grow any qaaniity of tbe common tomip bare also several 

Tbe rbisiag of c ab bages is confined to Ae msiket and fiBurming- 
gardeners, and eow-keepers in tbe immediate vicinity of tbe metro* 

Carrots are hirgely grown in tbe nortbem part of Surrey west* 
^ranl ^the Mole, ^tbiety fur the London market, being very sel- 
dom given to eatll^. When sold upon tbe ground they generally 
feteh ffom 161. to 5941. per acre. 

Potatoes are not a common erop, except in tbe neighbourhood 
of tbe metropolis, especially in the parishes of Mitcbam, Toot* 
lag, Streathaai, and the new enclosure of Norwood Forest. The 
fops are frequently cut by tbe cow-keepers to be given to cattle 
when other (bod becomes scarce. When sold by the acre, which 
yields from eight to ten tons, they vary in price from twelve to 
twenty pounds. 

Surrey was one of the first, if not tbe very first, district in Eng- 
land in wbieb clover i^ cultivated. We are. told by Aubrey that 
H was iafrodue^ in 164ff, by Sir Rkhard Weston of Sutton, and 
Aat be brought it from Flanders, or Brabant Trefoil is sometimen 
•own lere with red clover. 

Sainfoin is very extensively grown across the whole county, 
from the borders of Kent to those of Hampshire, large tracts of 
tbe chalky ridge being covered with its valuable herbage. The 
greatest part of it is made into hay. 

Very little lucern is sown, a few fiurmers only having finir or 
five acreafor g^reen crops. 

Hops are largely cultivated about Famham, wbere they occupy 
about 900 aores, tbe produce of which fetches a higher price than 
that of any other bop«district in tbe kingdom. 

Vol. XIV. C Woad 

Digitized by 


18 SItUBlk 

,.Woad is found to answer remaiieal^y weH on Ike chalk hilfe 
near Bansted Downs, and is generally sown with barley. 

It is conoeived, that a greater quantity of land is employed in 
raising physical planta in this county than in any^ other in 
England. Those whidi are grown to. the greatest extent aiw 
peppermint, lavender, wormwood, chamomile, anitiead) lii|aorice^ 
and-poppy. . With these and other plants for the droggista and 
perfumers, upwards of 250 acres are Occnpied in the parish oC 
Mitcham alone, and about 100 more in other adjoining parts of the 

Surrey .has a much smaller proportion of gras6*land tiiaa moel 
other counties in England. By far the greater part, and the moat 
valuable of the meadow-iand, lies along the banks of the Thames 
in the north-west division ; in the parishes of Oxted, Taaridge, 
Liugfield, Crowhnrst, in the south-east division; on the banks 
of the Mole, near Cobham ; and on the banks of the Wey, near 
Godalming. There is also some meadow-lai^d in the north-east 
corner, near the metropolis; but in the .Weald, where most graea 
would be expected, tlie proportion both of meadow and pastnre m 
the smallest. 

With respect to dairy -grounds there may be said to be iione in 
Surrey, though there is reason to brieve that it formerjy sup- 
plied a small part of the butter consumed in.. London. The 
greatest extent of pasture-land lying togeth^ is oft the estate of 
the Duke of Norfolk in the parishes of Newdigate and Chart* 

• It is calculated, that the whole quantity of garden-greund in 
Surrey employed in raising vegetables for the London market 
amounts to about 3500 acres, being, according to Middleton, nearly 
as much as in the three counties of Middlesex, Kent, and Essex. 
Some of the Surrey gardens are particularly diatingaished for 
asparagus, which is grown in great quantities, and of excellent 
quality in the parishes of Mprtlake, East Sheen, and Batlciwea. 
Ill the latter much of the garden-ground is employed in raiaing* 
ve^^etables for seed. 

t The 

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SVRftST. 19 

The district 4f Sumy most remarkable for its timber is' tbat 
4BaUed the Weald, which borders on Sussex, and wfaseh thiere is 
Mason to believe was at some former period covered entiiely iKth 
wood. The woodlands in the other parts of the county, particn* 
larly on the ehalk*hills, contafin in general a greater proportiott 
of coppioe, and fewer timber-trees than those of the Weald* The 
most common kinds of timber are oak^ beech, walnut, ash, elmy box, 
yew, birch, fir, larch, andnmple; besides which, thelindeand 
chesnot are iband about gentlemen's seats. 

It cannot but appear surprising, that a oonnty so near the me< 
tn^lis should oontain such a prodigious quantity of waste land 
as Surrey. Before some recent enclosures it was generally com* 
puted, that one-sixth of the county lay in this unprofitable state. 
WilJiin the last fifteen or twenty years, one-seventh of the wastes, 
amounting to 12,000 acres, has been enclosed* There yet remains 
in heaths 48,180 acres, of which Bagsbot Heath occupies 3l«a00 ; 
in commons 17,410, and in common fif^lds 8,350; making a 
total of 73,940 acres. Almost all the heaths, as Mr. Stevenson 
lemarks*, might be planted with every prospect of success, and 
there are very few of the commons which would not bear good 
crops of com. , 

The vicinity of the northern parts of Surrey to the metropolis, 
and the &cility of conveyance, afford the &rmers an opportunity 
of procuring from London a variety of substances to be employed 
as manure. At a greater distance, besides the produce of their 
own &rm-yards, they have no other substitute than lime or chalk, 
which is furnished in great abundance by the quarries on either 
side of the high Downs which run across the centre of - the 
county. The application of chalk is very genera}, except in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Londpn and the Weald^ for the teugh 
cold clays of which lime is considered more proper. The applica- 
tion of chalk was formerly confined to the stronger lands ; but it 
has latterly been applied with equal, if not greater, eflbct to the 

C2 light 

* Agrio of Sjirre/f 457. 

Digitized by 


Hglit hutm, aid €f?en to the naady Mib. Ob mck frna 6 to dlM^ 
knskeb an aere afefreqoeaftly laid* 

Fkom apasMgie in Anbrey'ft Hktory it i^pean that imgatio* 
iraa ptactised in this county by Sir Richard Woston^ bdbro th# 
■uddtoofthoiOfeiitoeathoeBtury. The amailqnantityirf' meadow- 
land, and the sitaation of mnch of it, p^venta {hit operation fWiift 
bihi|^ either general or common r added to which, the waters of 
one of its principal rirers, the Wey« are not favourahle to tlm 
practice, as one of its chief branches brings down immense 
qnantities, of sand from the hilb near Godalming, and rather in* 
jnres, than benefits, the meadows over which it is flooded. Iv 
the soQth«east eoraer of the county irrigstion appears to bare 
Ibnnerly prevailed in a greater degree, and to have had more at4 
tsntiott paid to it than at present At Cobhain, Byfleet, Clan* 
don, and a few other places in the western division, a lew watm 
may here and there be seen irrigated on the banks of the Mdeandl 

In regard to cattle there seems to be no particnlar breed thai 
Surrey can claim as its own. 

The horses usually employed by the ftrmer are in general large» 
heavy, and black. 

According to the statemeats given by Mr. Middleton in him 
Survey of Middlesex, out of 8^00 cows kept for tiie supply of 
l4>ndon with miOc, Surrey supports only about €00. These aie 
alnmst exdunvely of the short-homed, or'Holdemess hteed. By 
gentlemen's Hunilies the Jersey, Aldemey, and Suflblk, breeds are 
often kept, and by the fiurmers at a distance from the metre^lis, 
the Welsh, I>evon8hire, Sussex, and Staflbrdshire : the last of 
which are in many places very common and much esteemed. The 
ohalk hills of Surrey are considered by Marshall as the boundary 
between the long and middle^homed breed. The same writer 
charactcriies the cattle on the heaths of this county as small 
and mean-loeking ; " yet,'* says he, ^ they must be of^ a quality 
intrinsicaliy good, or they could not exist on so bare a pasture. 


Digitized by 


gCRaET. at 

Their bone is in general remarkably fine. In horn, eoldnr* anl 
thinneas of carcaae, many of them resemble so much the ordinary 
long-homed breed, that there can be little doubt of their being 
•ne and the aame race *« 

The rearing of calves fi>r the London market was once a &^ 
Yonrite and profitable employment in the centre of the county; 
imt from various causes this practice is on the dedine, or at least 
is not carried on to any great extent, except in the more re- 
mote parts about Chobham and Bagshot* and in some districts of 
the Weald. 

Most of the cattle ftttened for the butcher in Surrey are in the 
Aands fit the great distillers in the vicinity of London, The num« 
fter annually purchased for this purpose by Messrs. Hodgson and 
€o. of Battersea is from 400 to 500. Many of the gentlemen 
and fitfmers also occasionally fatten a few oxen ; but none of them 
to sach an extent as Mr, Adam of Mount Nod, or Mr. Coles of 
Norbnry. The buildings of the former, constructed with particn- 
lar attention to convenience, are sufficient to accommodate 600 
bead of cattle. 

Oxen were some y^rs since worked by many farmers, but very 
few are now used in harness. 

In the eentml and weston parts are bred great numbers of sheep. 
It is but lately that much attention has here been paid to the breed 
of this useful animal. In the memory of persons still living the 
large Wiltshire entirely occupied the sheep-iarms on the chalk- 
hills, while a singular breed of small ill-formed sheep exclusively 
possessed the extensive western heaths, which they, though not 
in so pure a state as formerly, still continue to occupy. At pre** 
sent, besidea the Wiltshire and Bagshot sheep, the Dorsetshire^ 
South Down, Somerset, or Mendip, the Berkshire, the Romney, 
imd the Merino South Down, are kept The South Down, Wilt* 
shire, and Dorsetshire, are by fiir the most common. The latter 
are kept for early lambs ; the Wiltshire are by some preferred for 
th^ Mi^ and the Soutii Down for the butcher and their wool. A 

C3 cross 

• MaitbsU*» Soatb. Count IL 85. 

Digitized by 




cross of the Merino and South Down^ and of the Ryland Meriotf 
and South Down^ is kept hy many of the gentlemen, and by some 
of the fanners in Surrey ; and from the success which has at- 
tended the trials^ especially of the latter cross, there is reason 
to believe that they will gradually supplant the pure^ Sooth Down, 
wherever the soil and situation are adapted for them *• 

Neither the South Down nor the Bagshot sheep are often found 
quite unmixed. A pure heath sheep is a remarkably ugly crea^ 
lure, with very large horns, and seldom weighs more than 8 lbs* 
per quarter. 

A few years since Surrey was much celebrated for the number 
and excellence of the house-lambs, sent from different parts of it 
to the London market; hut latterly not near so many are reared, 
and the practice seems to be gradually removing to the more dis- 
tant parts of the county, whence it wOl probably be transferred to 
districts still more remote from the metropolis. About Ewel, 
Esher, and Walton, however, there are still formers whp rear a 
considerable number of house^lambe ; but, from the increase in the 
price of labour, and in the first cost of the ewes, the profits of this 
branch of business are greatly diminished. Dorsetshire ewes alone 
are employed for this purpose. 

Immense numbers of hogs were formeriy fed at the distilleries 
in the ncigbourhood of London ; but it has of late years been 
found more profitable to fatten oxen, though great supplies are 
still sent both from the distilleries and the starch-manufactories 
in this county to the victualling-office. They come from different 
parts of England, principally from Berkshire, Shropshire, and the 
East Riding of Yorkshire ; but the breed of the former seems to 
be generally preferred. Most of the farmers also keep hogs, in 
greater or less numbers, of the Berkshire and China breed*. Rudg- 
wick, on the borders of Sussex, is remarkable for a breed of swine 
that fatten to an enormous size. Some of them have attained 1 16 
stone, and 80 or 90 is n<^ uncommon weight 

Pf poultry great numbers of geese are kept on the oommonSy 

^ Steveiuoa*! Surrey, p. 5t7, 

Digitized by 


SVftHET. 93 

especially in the Weftld. The DorkiDg breed of fowls is well 
known: they are large^ handsome, and perfectly white, distin* 
guished by having five claws on each foot, and are not now un* 
common in gentlemen's poultry-yards in different parts of the 

Surrey contains few rabbit-warrens, though they would cer* 
lainly be profitable in the heathy districts in the west of the 
cottnty. Near- Bansted Downs is a hare-warren containing about 
Ihrise acres, in which 200 bmce are usually kept. In summer they 
are fed on clover, rape, &c. and in winter on hay. The warren is 
mnronndedby a brick wall, about ten feet high, with openings 
at' regular distances, within which are wire-gratings on hinges ; 
these give way to the hares when they enter the warren, and are 
so constructed, that they immediately close after them, and prevent 
their escape. 

In regard to the implements of agriculture Surrey seems to 
have none that it can claim as peculiarly its own, if we except a 
machine for taking smut out of wheat, contrived by Mr. W. Hall, 
miller of Ewell, which is described by Stevenson* as nearly re- 
sembling that used for dressing flour. It consists of a cylinder 
perforated with small holes ; furnished in tlie inside with a great 
number of brushes, which are drive^i round with great rapidity. 
The wheat is put into the cylinder, and the constant friction 
occasioned by the rapid motion of the brushes effectually separates 
the smutty grain, which is driven out by the holes of the cylin- 

Roads. The turnpike roads of this county in general are not 
distinguished Ibr. excellence, or judicious management. The 
badness of many of tliem is ascribed to various causes, as, the 
want of a proper foundation ; too flat a form ; neglect in suffer- 
ing the water to stand upon them, and not scraping off the mud 
in winter, and the dust in summer ; and the height of the hedges, 
and the overhanging of timber, which prevent the free circulation 
pf the air. To these causes may be added the unfitness of the 

C 4 s material 

* Agric. Sorr. 241. 

Digitized by 


ft4 SUREST. 

ntterial eniployed in theyr fqranlioiiy pftiwi i rtiB g |ri wp«llf #C I 

small flinty gravel, which is soon ground tofow^^. The Isigor I 

flints, nhioh abound on the hills, might be ^plied tp this piapo«^ I 

with great adyantage. The cross roads are good on tbehiUs^Ml i 

in some other parts of the county ; but on the days of the Wftli^ 
on the sands, and on the low tract near the Itumei^ they aps wry 

The Surrey iron rail-way ^nem Wsn^aweslh to Ckoyden ww 
first projected in 1808, and Is the first inst^nee eC the tumMm 
of roads of l^is kind for general nse. It w«8 soon completed; 
nod the suGceas of the undertaking indueedthe piopeielonifo ex*' 
tend it to Itfervstham : but, on acopunt of the inequalities ef. the 
ground passed oyei in this second part, it proved a work of giMft - 
labour, difficulty, and expense. The breadth of the read whieh 
is occupied by the going and returning railways, and a feot«palhk 
Is twenty-four fee^ and the rise is one inch to every teo feet. 
The distance by the.jrail-way from Wandsworth to Groydenia 
shout ten miles, and from the latter town to Msrstham about . 
seven. Mr. Stevenson observes, that this road doea not appear 
to be much psed ; neither is it prohMde thst it wiU ever pome inta • 
general use« The expenses attending the formation of them in 
enormous, and the advantages, and consequently the gain, am 
confined to carriage in one direction. The part from Wandsworth 
to Croydon lies pear |u> many extensive manu&ctnres, thst it may 
possibly answer; but the division from Croydon toMersthamnuu 
ning through a tract destitute of manuiactureSj, and having only 
lime, fulleis' earth, stone, and com, to depend on at the ferther 
^tremily, can neyer pay very well *, A large .b|udn capable o# 


* A carioiB tiperiment on the facility of drsagbt wu made on thia rail, 
way Jsly S4^' %905» whon one hofte drew twelve loaded waggoiu, each 
WOghing ftbave three tons, fron Merathsm to Croydon, a dtstsnee of sis 
iniles in one hour and forty^one minutes. Foor asove waggons were sftet'^ . 
wards attached and monnted by fifty laboor«rs, and with this prodifions timnt 
the animal proceeded without di£|cait^. The tplsl weight thus dnwa WM 
tf7-(ve uin^ si4 cwt, two ^rs, 

Digitized by 


monr tkta llurly Wges has been md« at Wandsworth 
Jbr Ibe foipose of ftimiiig a oammimicatiOD betwesn the Thames 
aad the railway. 

Oana^ls. There is good reason to believe that the first loeks 
erected in this kingdom were those on the Wey. This eontri- 
vanoe was brov^ht from the Netherlands between 1645 and 1690^ 
by Sir Richard Weston of Sutton, to whom, as we have seen, this 
comity is indebted fer several improvements. Under his directioa 
ihe flan for making the Wey navigable from Guildford to Wey- 
hridge was larmed; but, though an act fiw that purpose passed ia 
1651, it was net earned into execution till towards the end of the 
oentoiy. In 1760, the navigation was extended to Godalming, 
BMween that place and Guildford there are four locks; the navi* 
gstum sepamtes from the course of the river a little below Purfoid 

The next canal made in Surrey was that which runs from Ba» 
aiflgsloke to the Thames, and is principally fed by the little river 
Loddon, thai divides this county from Hampshire. It passes 
fi«mk the latter into Surrey near Dradbrook, thence turns up tO| 
Cdingley Moor, and returns by Pirbright and Oak Farm, into the 
river Wey, near the village of Westby. From Dradbrook to the 
Wey, a distance of fifteen miles, it has a hX\ of 195 feet This 
.eaml was completed and made navigable to London in 1796; the 
principal article conveyed upon it is timber. 

The Surrey canal, fer which an Act of Parliament was obtained 
ia 1861, eommvtticates with the Thames by means of a dock at 
Rotherhithe, capable of containing about 100 sail of square* 
rigged vessels. The nmin line passing from the dock at first runs 
neatly in a south direction to the west of Deptford, and thence, ia 
awestline, crosses theKent,CamberweU, and Clapham> roads, and 
again enters the Thames at Vanxhall Creek. The whole of this, 
nnge of eight miles is on one level, without a lock. The upper 
lines of this canal pass near Clapham and Tooting to Mitcham. 

The Croydon wmi w^ first projected in 1800, and the Act fof^ 
. . it 

Digitized by 


M SOftUT. 

it obtained Uie Moiriiig year. It is carried from Ooydoo^ 
throngh the north-west comer of the oonnty of Kent^ and is in- 
tended to* enter the Surrey canal in the parish ef D^tML 
The estimate of the expense of constracting this canal given in 
hy Mr. Rennie anoont^ to 64,1001. 

MANur ACTUREs. Though Sorrey cannot by any means he dor 
nominated a mannfitetnring county, yet from its vicinity to the 
metropolis, and the convenience of its streams for the erection of 
mills, several manu&ctures of importance are established in it 
As these will be noticed in the places to which th^ respectively 
belong, it would be superfluous to enter into an enumeration of 
them here ; but it may be generally observed, that most, if |iot all, 
of these manufrctures being in a great measure independent «if the 
flttctuatioQS of trade, are free from some of the moat serious and 
increasing evils attendant on the manufteturing system ia many 
other parts of the kingdom. 

FouEST. Under the Norman race of kings a large portion 
of this county was reserved as part of the demesnes of the crown, 
and experienced the effects of that extraordinary passion hr the 
chaoe, which poss e ssed those princes* Under Henry II. the 
limits of Windsor Forest were gradually extended by the en* 
closure of his marors in Surrey, till at length he had afforested 
the whole county. Richard, his son and successor, soon fimnd 
himself obliged, by the general disgust which this innovation had 
excited, to undo in part what his father had been 90 anxious to 
accomplish. In the first year of his reign he consented to dis* 
afforest the county from the riyer Wey eastward, and from Guild- 

. ford Down southward, whiph amounted to no less than about 
three-fourths of it : and his charter for this purpose was con« 
firmed by King John, What remained forest upon the footing 
of this chatter was called the BaUMwitdc of Surrey, as being et« 
empted from the jurisdiction of the sheriff, and subject to that 
of its own bailiff alone. It contained the paridite and townships 

of Chobham, Bisley, Horshill^ Pyfleet, Purford^ Wanboroagh, 


Digitized by 


StTRItfiT. 37 

f lArighty Ash, Winaiaham, Tongham, WarpIetdoB, Woking'^ 
and Stoke. Witiiia tiie same jurisdiction also lay Cheitsejr, 
Cgham, and Thorpe; hnt these, being the estates of the Abbejr 
of Chertsey, were not subject to the bailiff's jurisdiction. King 
j John, we are told, '' followed the example of his brother and fa* 

ther in afforesting the lands of his subjects, so that the forests 
were every where so much enlarged, that the greatest part of the 
kingdom was turned into forests; the boundaries whereof were 
80 large, and the laws so very severe, that it was impossiUe for 
any man who lived within these boundaries to escape the dan* 
ger : and thus it continued till the 17th year of his reign, A. D. 
1215/' * By this time the business of aArestation had become 
Bb general a grievance, that several of the nobility and gentry 
petitioned the king, among other things, that all the new afifores* 
lations made by him and his predecessors might be disif orested. 
The king, though unwillingly, complied, and this produced the 
Great Charter and the Charter of the Forests, stipulated for at 
Rnnnemead, in 1315. John ought in consequence to have dis* 
afibrested that part of the county which his brother had left a 
forest; but, probably owing to his death, in the following year, 
nothing of the kind was done till the charter granted by his son 
and successor Henry HI, in the 9th year of his reign. With re^ 
gard to Surrey, this grant amounted to a disaflbrestation of the 
whole except the park of Guildford, and notwithstanding the at^ 
tempts of Edward I. and II. to set it aside, the commons of the 
eounty maintained the rights which it conferred witii such per<» 
severance, that in the first year of Edward III. they obtained a 
fon confirmation of the above charter. The revival of the roya) 
pretensions in the 7th year of Charles I. were not more success^ 
ful, and served only to render the just claims of the people on 
this head more notorious, and the privileges they enjoyed under 
that charter more substantial and complete. From this period 
Ihat part of the county, known since the time of Richard I. by the 
||/0e of the Bailiwick of Surrey, is to be reckoned purlieu of the 

* Manwood, p. 243, 

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aw tumuT. 

finrttsiaBly^ in whick Ike king «tiU has a ligkl and property o?er 
kia deer eacapinginto it, againal every man,, except tke ewnen of 
the wooda, or landa, in wkick tkey are ibond, bat wkiek ia en- 
empted from tke geneni lawa of tke foreat» and tke ordinary jv^ 
riadictioa; and ao fiur free and open to att ownera of land wilbi^ 
tke aame, aa tkat> under certain limitalkmi^ tkey may cbaae and 
kill any of the deer aetoally firand tkerein* 
. For tke better preaerration of tke deer ao eeeaping into the 
purlien, the king kaa in e?ery aadi place a ranger, wko ia Mf^ 
pointed by lettera patent, and wkoae office it ia to reohaae and 
driye back again tke wild beaata of tke foreat,. aa crflen aa Ikey 
ahall range ont of the aame into kia pnrlien. 

The preaent ranger of the foreat in ikia pnrlieo, ia the Hononr* 
able Thomaa Onflow, eldeat aon oi Earl Onalow, to whom, ia 
kia official capacity, belonga FangroTo Lodge liear Gkertaqr** 

Roman btations, emcampmentc, koads, &c— Wken it ia 
considered tkat Surrey liea contiguona to tke capital of the Roman 
settlements in Britain, and tkat tkia district waa traveraed by the 
roads which led from tke aontk and east coasts of tke islandts 
tkat capital, it will not appear auiprising tkat nttmerooa remvns 
of those conquerors skoold kayo been discoTcred witkin its limits. 
Thougk there ia no positive evidence that tkia diatrict contained 
any permanent atationa, yet tkere are atrong preaamptive proofc 
of tke exiat^ee of auck atationa at Kingaton on tke Tkamea^ and 
at Woodcote near Croydon, wkick ia apparently on very good 
grounds, considered by Camden and Honley aa tke Noviamagui 
of Ptolemy. 

In.St. George's Fields, Soutkwark, wkere amny Roman coina 
and pavenients have at different timea been found, waa tke centra 
of aeveral Roman waya. One of these waa the Ermine Street^ 
wkick ran nearly parallel to, and at a very amall distance to the 
eastward of, the pi«Mnt turnpike road, through Cliq[»ham, Tooting, 
Merton, Ewell, and Epaom, to Ashted; and then proceeded ii| 
H^ly a sottthem direction acroas Micklehani Down, where it ia 

* Mvuuuc'iSiiRey, Vol I, .Utrodoctiga. 

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USA piunly TisiMe to Dorking. From Dorking it was oontinaed 
along « remarkable ridge of hill, leaying Gaiidferd about a mile 
<»n the north, to Famham; beyond which town It entered the adja« 
cent county of Hampshire. 

The StoM Street, or Stone Street Caoseway, a branch of the 
Ermine Street, commences at Dorking, and passing through tbe' 
ehvrch*yard, where remains of tt have often been discovered' in 
digging graves, it may be clearly traced thnmgh the parish of 
Ockley, tiH it eaters tite county of Sussex in Its progress south* 
maii to the city of Chichester. Another Roman military way 
beginning at the metropolis, and likewise known by the name 
of the Stcme Street, intersected the county near its eastern bor* 
der from north to south, and has been traced through Stretham« 
Chroydon, Conkdon, Caterham, and Godstone; till it enters 
Sussex, where it is continned *titrough Lindfield to Shore^ 

I of Roman encampments are found on Holmbury hill, 
ui the parish of Ockley, about two miles from the western Stane 
Street; and on Bottle hiD, in the parish of Warlmgham, near 
liie eastern military way which bears tike same denomination ; but 
the most extensive work of this kind, is that of St George's 
hiH, Walton on the Thames. Here Caesar seems to have encamp- 
ed previoisdy to his having crossed the Thames at Cbway Stakes, 
thus named from tike sub-aquatte contrivance of the Britons to 
obstruct his passage, some vestiges of which exist to this day; 
M Walton on tiie Hill, also, great quantities of Roman bricks 
and other relics, discovered within an inclosure of earth-work, 
BMtfk the site of edifices belonging to the same people, the foun- 
dations and arrangement of some of which have been traced: 
Lastiy on Blackheath, in the parish of Aldbury, are the remains 
of a Roman temple, surrounded with .embankments. 

Vestiges of various other works, unquestionably designed foi' 
mtRtary purposes, are to be found in different parts of the coun- 
ty. Some of these, as Hanstie Bury, on a projection of Leitir 
kUl, about feur miles south of Guildford^ and the fortification on 


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War Coppice bilt in Caterlnai, ue atcribei to the Dano^ bet 
the origin of others, such as the small camp on a common in the 
parish of Effingham, lately enclosed, it is impossible to deter- 


The first inhabitants of this connty, of whom we have any 
information that can be relied on, were the 8q;ontiaei, mginally 
a people of Belgium, whose first settlements in Britain, were in 
the west of Hampshire; from which proTince, howerer, they 
were obliged to retire eastward on the arrrral of another colony 
of the same nation. In process of time, such of them as had beea 
left in Hampshire retired to the main body, sod thus they all be» 
came confined within the tract forming the present counties of Sur« 
rey and Sussex. Such was their sitoation in the time of Ptolemy, 
by whom they are denominated RegnL 

On the dirision made by the Romana during their dominion 
oirer the island, this dbtrict constituted part of the proTinoe of 
Britannia prima, or the portion southward of the Thames and 
Serem. On the new partition of the country which took place 
after the arrind of the Saxons, and ui known by the appellation 
of the heptarchy, this county formed with Sussex a distinct state, 
under the title of Suth^Seaxna^rice, or kingdom of the South 
Saxons. It was founded by Ella about the year 491, and had its 
own monarchs till 726, when it was subdued by Ina, King of Wes* 
sex; On the division of England into shires, this district, fifem its 
situation on the south side of the Thames, receiyed the name of 
Sutkrea, or StUhrie, since changed to its present appellation of 

On the invasion of the island by the Danes, Surrey, as well as 
others of its provii|ces, was dreadfully ravaged by those harba* 
rians, till their leader, having gradually subdued the whole king* 
dom, seated himself on the British throne. William the Conque<^ 
ror having, in like manner, made himself master of England by 
the eword, divided mong his followers the possessions of Iks 

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Saxons ill this county, as he had done in others. He gave to TonelHrage, or de Clare^ thirty*eight manm ; to- Wil- 
liam Fitz AsooJph, seven; to Hugh de Montgomery, four; to 
Walter Fitz Other, or Windsor, three; to Milo Crispin, two; to 
William de Braose, two; to Godwin, Earl of Kent, two; to Ed- 
,ward de Salisbury, one; to Geoffrey de Magnaville, one; to Gil« 
hert d' Aqaila, on^; and to Leofwiue, Earl of Kent, one. 

In the later history of this county nothipg worthy of particu- 
lar notice oocvrs, exc^t that daring the contest between Charies 
I., and hiii Parliament, Surrey strenuonsly supported the proceed* 
ings of the latter. In the early part of those commotions, a 
petition from this county, subscribed by 3,000 persons, was pre- 
sented to the House of Commons, and another to the Lords con- 
gratulating them on the measures which they had adopted ; com- 
plaining of the delays in relievii^ Ireland, and the distractions 
of the nation, which could not be redressed as long as there were 
evil counsellors about the king, and popish lords in the house, 
and praying that they might be removed. This petition, in a day 
or two, prefaced the bills against bishop's votes, the pressing of 
soldiers, and some others. 

. HoNOKiAL HISTORY. It is known that so early as the time of 
the Bosons^ this county conferred the title of Earl ; but the only 
person who, during their dominion, is recorded in history, as hav- 
ing borne that title, was Wada, or Huda, who, in the year Sdd; 
was battle with the Danes in the Isle of Thanet, whither 
be had marched with the forces of Surrey, to the assistance of Eal- 
here. Earl of Kent The first who enjoyed this dignity under the 
Norman princes, was 

William de Warren, Earl of Warren in Normandy, who 
married the daughter of the Conqueror, and accompanied him to 
England. Having signalized himself at the battle of Hastings, 
he was liherally rewarded by his father-in-law, out of the estates 
of his new kingdom : but the earldom was not conferred till sooa 
after the. accession of William II. He died in 1068, possessed of 
pore than 200 lordships in different counties* 


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Hii iiMMesMr Wit Us ddesi MB 

William, vho espmiAUg the canud of Aobert» ^6fll twrtiicr 
of Henry I. in hui otleiByt upon the gtowb of Eaglaad, wiui dis* 
poMOwed of Ids earidoa^ and obligod to retire into Korowody. 
HiB digoitj wm tkordy oAer restored, aad his fiddity aod sdkao- 
qvent sernees pr<Mred him worthy of the frfour of his so?eroigii^ 
whom he otieiidod in his last illttOM^ and died in Ae same yoat 
with him, A. D. 1135. 

William the third oarl, oldest srni and heir of the preoeiiingi 
wis ohiefly remarhablo for the wnvefing policy, witb whieh ho 
hahmeed in sneh a flmnner between the opposite interests of Moad 
and Stephen, as to serve both in a^petranee, bat nrntiMr in eflhei; 
Having acoompanied the great easpeditlon to the Holy Land ia 
1147, he was the year following intereepled by the Infidels, meA 
Ohin. He was the last heir male of his ftonily, leaving an only 
daaghter, Isabel, who was svoeessively married to William do 
Blois, a natnnd son of King Stephen ; and Hamelin Plmitage^ 
net, a natural son of Geofiry of Anjon. 

William de Blois succeeded to tho earldom in right of has 
wife. From the varions grants conferred on him by his father, IM 
bore the titles of Earl of Bologne, Morteign, Warren, and 9ar« 
ley, Iiord of Norwich, and Pevensey; and died without issoO 
in 1160. On his deosase, the king lor some time Mtainod hii 
Agnities in his own hands ; bnt on tho mamage of Isabel, hhi 
widow, with Hamsun db Plawtaobnet, who was bmther to 
tto king by the father, the Earldom of Snrrey was revived in his 
person. He died in 1*301, leaving hie honours to his son mid 

William, who e^foyed great luflnenco over ffing Joha^ and 
possessed his confUence fai an eminent degree. Ho was one of 
the witnesses to Hie infamous deed by whieh liie crown of Bng^ 
land was surrendered to the see of Rome, and had Hio custody of 
some of the most important fbrtresses in the kingdom;'but noO^ 
withstanding tho marks of royal favour which he had roeeivod^ 
when the king reused to confirm the charter of Henry L ho wont 
9 over 

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•9un. 93 

«»Ter to die barons. He was tbo at the head of thoae who aue- 
ceaafally oppoaed the r^eal of the forest charter in the soceeed* 
iog leigB. He died in 1248, leaving his honours and great poa* 
aessions to his son 

John, who, in 1247, married Alice, daughter of Hugh le Bmn 
Earl of March and Angonleme, sister of William Valence, Eail of 
Pembroke, and also sister to Henry III, by the mother, whom Hugh 
bad married after the death of her former hnsband. King John. 
This alliance aceonnts for the steady adherence of thia nobleman 
to the royal cause, when most of the