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XXXIX. MiEZA AND SaHIBA-W ». ... ... ... .1 

XL. — A Yebsion of Sassi and PoNNiiM ... ... 25 

XLI, — PiKTHi Raj AND Malkan ... 39 

XLIL — The Legend oe Haei Ghand 53 

XLIH. — The Lesend of Shams Tabr&z 89 

XLIY. — The Legend of Shah QumSs 93 

XLV". — Saewae and Nik 97 

XLYL — The Legend oe RiaA Dheu 126 

XLVIL — The Saints of Jalandhak 158 

XLYIII. — Two Songs ABODT Eaja Rasalu 218 

XLIX. — The Legend OB Raiw KoKiLAN 227 

L. — Amae Singh of Gaeh MiETA ... ... ... 242 

LI. — Raja Eiethi Singh oe J6uhp6e 252 

LII. — The Song of GtoA 261 

LIII. — The Mieacles of Sakhi Saewae 301 

LIV.—The Founding of Basti ShSkh DaetSsh ... 322 

LV. — Saytid AsmSn oe Barha Bavjn 327 

LVI. — SiSPAL AND Paeduman 333 


LVIII. — The Legend OF Banasue 365 

LIX.— The Beginnings OF MuLTAN 413 

Index ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 


SupFi-BMENTARy Indbx ^36 


It is nearly twenty years ago since I made up^my mind to- 
publish by instalments in original and translation my col- 
lection of the legends told in the Panjat. The work 
proceeded regularly for two years, and somewhat irregularly 
for two years more, but I could only manage to publish at 
long intervals during the s'ucceeding six, since when I have 
been able to publish nothing. The exigencies of ofiBcial life 
in India are responsible for the irregularity of publication, 
for the fact is that, in the matter of writing books about India, 
the official proposes but the Government disposes. My own 
experience has been merely that of others similarly circum- 
stanced, for in the midst of my self-imposed labours I found 
myself transferred back to my old Province of Burma and 
then to the Andaman Islands, where I have had to work 
amidst associations so alien to those in the Panjab and have 
been occupied by duties so numerous and absorbing as to 
render it impossible to continue in any form the work of pub- 
lishing the Legends. This is an old story in India, for to the 
preface of the third edition (1823) of Sir "William Jones' 
Grammar of the Persian Language there is attached a signifi- 
cant note : — "My professional duties having wholly engaged 
my attention and induced me not only to abandon Oriental 
Literature, but even to efface as far as possible the very 
traces of it from my memory, I committed the conduct and 
revisal of this Edition of my Grammar and the composition of 
the index to Mr. Eichardson." 

I have, therefore, determined to let the matter rest where 
it is and to satisfy myself with the completion of three volumes, 
although it has happened that I have been able to print 
only exactly half of what I had collected. It Las so chanced 
that the number of legends and stories published in the three 


volumes which are now completed, is 59, and that a careful 
survey of the total collection shows it to number 118 separate 

Although I have no hope of being able to print the whole 
collection, it may be of value to give a list here of those stories 
that have been partially prepared for publication and of 
those that have not yet been examined o-r translated ; for, 
whether or not other hands wjll ever take up and carry to a 
conclusion the work mine have commeneed, the following list 
will serve as a guide to ttre rijhe? contained ia the unwritten 
lore of the Panjtb, for those who may interest themselves 

Roughly Prepared for Fuhlication. 
LX. — The Legend of Eajil Harnakas. 
LXI.— A Miracle of B^iwa Fi^rid. 
LXII.— Story of Sbih Eahawal Sh^r. 
LXIII.— Story of Dulla Bhaitl. 
LXIV. — AurangzSb and Guru Gobind Singh. 

LXV. — Ranjifc Singh and Yazaflar Khan of Multan. 
LXVI. — Eaja Rattan Sain of Chittaur. 
LXVII.— The Song of Bhi";ra and Eadal of Chittaur. 
LXVIII.— The Marriage of Shiv. . 
LXIX.— The Story of Banda Bairagi. 

LXX.- — The Legend of Adham Faqir. 
LXXL— The Story of RSi MornL 
LXXII, — A Song of Gugga. 

Not yet Translated. 
LXXIII.— The Story of Jarasandh. 

LXXIV.— Brij Raj of Jammun and Ghamanda of Giiler. 
LXXV.— The Story of Mand^v of Jammun. 
LXXVL— The Ballad of Hari Singh Nalwa. 
LXXV II .—The Song of Khawas Kh^n. 


LXXVIII.— The Legend of Dh61a and Sammi. 
LXXIX. — A Version of Raja Jagd^. 
LXXX. — A Legend of Raja Rasalu. 
LXXXL — The Story of J aim al and Fatteh. 
LXXXII. — A Song about Rqja Jaawant of Jodhpnr. 
LXXXIII.— Tho Song of Miran Sajvid Hussain Wall 
LXXXIV.— The Story of Hart Chand. 
LXXX v.— The Story of Daud Eddshah. 
LXXXVL— Shiv and the Weaver. 
LXXXVIL— The Story of Raj^ J6binas. 
LXXXVIIL— The Legend of Mirza and Sahihan. 
LXXXIX. — A Story about Aurangz^b. 

XC. — The Legend of Raja Amar Singh. 
XCI. — Akbar and Jamil Beg. 
XCIL— The Legend of Raja Karag, 
XCIIL— The Song of Tara Azim. 
XCIV.— Daud Khali of the Dakhan. 
XCV.— Raja Man Singh of AmbSr. 
XCVL— The Wars of Rajanri. 
XCVIL— The Story of Ranjit Lev of Jammuu. 
XCVIII.— The Song of Suchet Singh of Jammun. 
XCIX.— The Song of Amar Singh. 

0. — ^The Legend of the Eaja of Jaisalmer. 
CI.— The Story of Raja Bhim. 
Oil. — Sikandar Zu'lkaran and Sher Jang Badshah. 
CIIL— The Story of Daya Ram Gujar. 
CIV.— A Version of Raja Jagdeo. 
CV.— The Song of Jaimal and Fatteh, 
C VI.— The Story of Bhao. 
CVIL— The Story of Kaligarh. 
CVIII.— The Wars of Jaimal and Fatteh. 
CIX.— The Stoiy of Chandarbhan. 


ex.— Bani Nautanki and the Panjabi Lad. 
CXI. — Another Version of Jagd^o. 
CXII.— The Story of Rana Mald^v of Garh M^rta. 
CXIII.— The History of Kasur. 
CXIV.— The Story of Bikarmajit. 
CXV.— The Story of Maghrab Khan. 
CXVI.— A Legend of Raja Nal. 
CXVII.— The Story of Raj^ Chand. 
CXVIII.— The Story of Raja Bhartari. 

The present volume has been completed precisely on the 
same lines as those that have preceded it ; the only difference 
being in the addition of an index to the three supplementary 
volumes and of a supplementary index to this Preface. The 
necessities of printing have obliged me to construct two indexes 
iq this manner, despite the plan being less convenient to the 
reader than that of one index only to the v?hole work. I have 
endeavoured to make the indexes true guides to all the points. 
I wished to bring into prominence in writing the volumes, as 
from their nature the matters to which any particular student 
would desire his attention to be drawn are necessarily over- 
laden by, and partially hidden away underi much that is purely 

In the remarks that I am now about to make I will try 
and_ gather together for the benefit of students the points 
upon which it seems to me that the legends give valuable 
evidence. I shall not insist on any general conclusions, for 
my intention is to maintain throughout the general character 
of this work as one of original research, — of evidence of facta 
at first hand — ^leaving it to such individuals as may honour 
my pages by perusal to draw their own conclusions from 
such facts as they may find in them. I shall not do more 
than help them to the best of my ability to find what they 
may be looking for with as little trouble as possible by the 
aid of the indexes and the Prefaces to this and the preceding 


In endeavouring to bring into a brief comprehensive view 
the 'folklore contained in The Legends oj the Patijab, 
I have, in 6on]mon with all investigators of popular lore, 
found myself face to face with a difficulty, viz., the beat mode 
of presentation. If one is strictly scientific and arranges the 
facts in a severe sequence, one is not only apt to be dull, but 
also to incorrectly interpret the subject, which from its very 
nature hardly admits of a logical treatment. To begin with, 
the folk are not consistent and their ideas are all hazy and 
muddled. Consequently the points of folklore are so far from 
being clearly separable that they are always mixed up with 
each other. Any given notion is not traceable to a distinct 
single basis, but strikes its roots in fact into many, and can 
often be classified indifferently under any one of several heads. 
The surest way therefore of projecting oneself into the folk- 
mind — so far as such a process is possible — is, with the aid 
of a loose and simple general sequence or classification, to take 
the various points as they have seemed to grow one out of tK© 
other in folk logic and processes of thought. This is prac- 
tically the line that every one who undertakes the exposition 
of the subject seems to adopt in the end, and I apprehend that 
it is a procedure that will commend itself to my readers. 

The value of the Legends for local historical purposes and 
for the linguistic forms in which many of them are conveyed 
has been already explained in the preceding volumes, but in 
addition they present a pretty complete view of the machinery 
of Indian folktales. The extent to which they actually do so 
can be gauged by experts from the typical tables to be found 
in the course of my remarks that follow, and drawn up on the 
lines- just indicated. It is my hope that the tables will bring 
home to some of my readers what a wide and fruitful field any 
given collection of Indian tales affords ; how well worth 
indexing they are for those who seek to get at the roots of the 
genuine lore of the folk in any portion of the world. 

Now the so-called faculties of the human mind, despite their 
apparent diversity, are in reality very limited in extent, and 


are referable to quite a few radical capacities. Tbose of atten- 
tion and co-ordination will be found to cover most of the others 
that have names. Thus memory and observation are both re- 
ferable to attention, and so are mathematics, logic, and grammar 
to co-ordination. Indeed, mankind, though unaware of it, talks 
mathematically, for the facts of speech can be actually stated 
clearly in terms of mathematics. And now when tracing the 
deas of folklore by apparently natural processes to their roots, 
I soon found mjself harking back to grammar with its main 
divisions of subject and predicate ; the matter to talk about 
and the conversation thereon. The subject divides itself into 
the hero and heroine, and the predicate into the commence- 
ment, the incidents, and the conclusion. But here all approach 
to clear division stops, and although the heroes are classed as 
natural and supernatural, and the heroines are considered 
according to qualities and peculiarities, and although the sub- 
heads under each of these are very numerous, it must be 
understood that they have been placed just as has been found 
convenient, that a very different disposition would probably be 
equally correct, and that most of the items can fairly occupy 
places under several heads. 

Having thus explained my procedure and methods, I now 
give the tables themselves. 


(I.) Heeo. 

A. Natural. 

1. Miraculous conception and 6. Identifloation 
(o) Remarkable pregnancy of 


2. Substituted cbild. 

3. Predestined child, 
(a) Avenging hero, 
(i) Imprisoned hero. 

4. Calumniated child. 

5. Acts and endowments. 

(a) Signs of the coming bwo. 
{b) Fulfilment of prophecy. 

7. Companions, humap and ani- 

(a) Unrequited faithfulness. 
(6) Community of birth. 

8. Sons. 

(a) Nostrums for procuring 








(a) Reappearance, 
(i) Saints. 

(c) Ghosta. 

(d) Spirits. 

(e) Gods. 
(/) Godlings. 
[ff] Warriors (birsj. 
(A) Demons and devils. 

(i.) Exorcism. 

Second sight. 


(o) Delegated power as 

(i.) Miracles by proxy. 
Restoration to life. 
Restoration to health, 
(i.) Cures. 
(ii.) Benefits. 

(1) Sons. 

(2) Rain. 
Inexhaustible supplies. 

(i.) Voracity extraordinary . 
(e) Miracles for injury. 

(i.) Curses. 

(ii.) Nightmares. 
(/) Stock miracles. 
{g) Native view of miracles. 
{h) Secret miracles. 

Magic versus Miracles, 
(a) Sympathetic magic. 

(i.) Effigies. 

(ii.) Ceremonial cannibalism, 

(iii.) Life-index. 

(1) Life token. 

(2) Token-trees. 

(a) Prophylactic charms, 
(i.) Snakebite. 




(a) Faith. 

7. Invocation. 

(a) Summoning the ahsent. 

8. Propitiation, 
(a) By abuse. 
(6) Offerings, 
(e) Libation. 

(d) Ceremonial generosity. 

(i.) Charity, 
(ii.) Alms. 

(1) Self-sacrifice. 

(e) Sacrifice. 

(i-) Asceticism. 
(ii.) Penance. 
(iii.) Austerity. 
(iv.) Slavery for debt. 
(/) Vows and oaths, 
(i.) Ceremonial oaths. 

(1) Antidotes, 
(ii.) Vowing and swearing 

9. Prophecy. 

10. Metamorphosis, 
(a) Disguise. 

(i.) Change of skin. 

11. Metempsychosis. 
(a) Sati. 

12. Counterparts of saints. 

(q) Hagiolatry. 
(i) Demons. 

(c) Godlings. 

(d) Ogres. 

(e) Giants. 

(f) Sea-monsters. 
(^) Mermaids. 
(A) Serpents. 

(i.) Charaeteristios attd 

(ii.) Miracles, 
(iii.) Origin. 




A nthropomovpbosis . 
(a) Humanised animals. 

(a) Heroic leap- 
0) Flt/ing 

through the 

(i.) Talldng. 


(ii.) Grateful. 
(iii) Revengeful. 

[y) Winged ani- 

(J) Humanised things, 
(i.) Talking. 
(ii.) Enchanted things. 
(1) Circles. 

(8) Winged things. 

(€) Migrating imor- 
ges and 

(2) Lines. 

(3) Necklaces. 

(9) Magic music. 

(4) Rosaries. 

(a) Magic instru- 

(5) Arms. 


(6) Magic numbers. 

-(10) Hair and its 

( 7) Holy water. 


(a) Blood. 

(a) Sacredness of 

(3) Milk. 

the beard. 

(y) Ambrosia 

(11) Invisibility. 


(12) Procedure for en- 

(8) Sacredness of 



(13) Priests. 

(8) Miraculous ve- 

(a) Possession, 


(/3) Exorcism. 

(II.) E 


A. Qaalities. 


Counterpart of hero. 

(o) Calumniators. 


Native view of women. 

(ft) Co-wives. 

(c) Stepmothers in polygamy. 



(d) Witches. 



(i.) Wise-women. 

(a) Dehcacy. 

(1) Powers. 

(i) Attraction. 

(2) Attributes, 
(e) Ogress. 



(i.) Serpent heroine. 


Beneficent heroines, 
(a) Fairies. 

8. Ftundling. 

(i.) Celestial messengers. 
(ii.) Foreign brides. 

(a) Egg heroine. 
(A) Sleeping beauty. 

(i.) Foreign or irregular 


Maleficent heroines. 




B. Peculiaritiej 




(i.) Fulfilment of propTiecy. 



(ii.) Signs of royalty and 

(a) Male verstis female. 


(i) The zone, ir 



(iii.) Filgrimage stamps. 



Impossible task, 
(i.) Swayamvara. 


Maintenance of virtue. 

(ii.) Kiddles. 



(1) Symbolicnl speech. 

(a) Tests for identiflcation. 

(iii.) Ceremonial gambling. 






Seeking fortune. 







(c) Astrology. 



S. Ill hick. 

(a) Fortune-telling. 



(S) Horoscopes. 





(a) Preordination. 
(S) Decree of fate. 

(i.) Widows. 

(ii.) Ceremonial uncleanness. 
(1) Leprosy. 


Prophetic dreams, 
(a) loterpretation. 

(2) Treatment of 
(iii.) Female infanticide. 



((z) Divination. 

{b) Omens. 

(iv.) Expiation. 
(v.) Purification. 

(1) Cererponial bath- 




B. Incidents. 



(A) Adoption. 

(a) Origin of jewels. 



(i ) Rubies. 



(ii.) Pearls, 

(e) Initiation. 

{b) Flowers. 

(i.) Earboring. 

(c) Laughter, tears and speech. 








(a) Marriage. 

(i.) Challenge 
(ii.) Disgrace, 

{{.) Btlrothal. 

4. Domestic custom*, 


5. Beliefs. 

(a) Animals. 

(6) Celestial bodies. 

(c) Eclipses. 

\d) The human body. 

( e) Tlie deluge. 

{/) The Deity. 

6. Customs based on beliefs. 

(n) Aspect of shrines. 
(J) Refuge. 

{i.) Sanctuary. 

(ii.) Asylum. 

(iii.) Hospitality., 
(c) Calling by name. 
{d) Releasing prisoners, 
(e) Ceremonial umbrellas. 

(i ) Signs of dignity. 

Poetical jusUce. 
(a) Punishment, 
(i.) Torture- 

C. Conclusion. 

(J) Ceremonial suicide. 

(i.) Self-immolation. 
(c) Stock punishments. 

We are now in a position to tackle the multifarious details 
of the subject with sone chance of arriving at definite ideas, 
even though the extent of the materials obliges me to be 
brief almost to baldness. First of all it will be perceived that 
the typical hero is born on an auspicious day by various 
forma of miracolous conception or impregnation, and that 
his mother experiences a m.iraculous or at least a remarkable 
term of pregnancy. He is a substituted child in one instance, 
that of Raja Jagdeo, by an accident which curiously brings 
out an allusion to an old custom of registering princely 
births, and in another by his own act, as a mode of mag- 
nanimous self-sacrifice. Now, substitution of children in 
folktales is usually an act of malice, and its attribution to a 
m^ere chance occurrence is, so far as I know, a novel feature. 
He is a child of predestination fated in one case to slay the 
ogre who is to devour his hostess's son, the ogre being 
aware of the predestination. In such case he would appear to 
be a variant of the avenging hero, pre-ordained to set right 
what is wrong in this world, a belief common apparently to 
the whole world of religious notion. As regards this last idea, 
the form it usually assumes in this collection is the common 
one of predestination to kill his own parents, who try as 
usual to avert their fate by imprisoning their uncanny 
oHspring in a pit, necessarily to no purpose. He is the 


victim of calumny everywhere, the stock cause being jealousy 
or ill-will begotten of unrequited love. Versions of Potiphar'a 
Wife are common in Indian and all Oriental folklore. There 
are two in the Legend of Raja Easalu alone ; one relating to 
his step-mother, Lonan, and the other to his wife, Kokilan. 
He, of course, assists the grateful animal to his own subse- 
quent advantage, and obtains access to the heroine by disguis- 
ing himself as her husband with success. He is endowed 
with extraordinary and impossible strength or skill. His 
identification is almost always due to miraculous intei'vention 
of some sort, and we have more than one instance of the 
corollai-y to that idea in the signs of the coming hero with 
which he has to comply, a notion not far removed from that 
of fulfilment of prophecy. The "signs" are in themselves, 
however, as might be expected, childish and not very dignified. 
E. g., his horse's heel-ropes will bind and his sword will slay 
giants of their own accord, and his arrow will pierce seven 
frying-pans. He is able to strike a pair of bamboos with 
arrows and knock the golden cup off the top of them. He 
can knock down the mangoes off a particular unapproachable 

The hero has companions of the conventional sorts, human 
beings, beasts, birds, and insects, who talk to him and assist 
him in his difficulties. Thus, Raja Parag (Parikshit) has a 
falcon that saves his life. Raja Rasalu has a parrot who on 
more than one occasion helps him to a mistress. Eaja -Jagdeo 
has a horse and a servant to start with on his adventures, a 
following which, after success, is enlarged to a wife, a maid, 
and several servants. The hero's human companions, however, 
sometimes desert him in his times of difficulty, a situation ap- 
parently introduced to enhance the glory of the hero himself, 
while his animal companions undergo at times the fate of 
Gelert, and are killed for their endeavours on behalf of their 
masters, an incident well known to Indian and other folk- 
lore generally. Accidental community of birth is a common 
and perhaps natural characteristic of the hero's companions 


everywhere. The hero and his horse or his constant friend 
are frequently described as havino; been born at the same place 
and hour. It is to be expected that a chance of tbia kind 
should attract the popular attention and lead to an assumption 
of community of fate in the beings so circumstanced. 

Perhaps the most deeply engrained superstition of all 
among the Indian populations is the necessity of having a son 
as the surest means to salvation, and there is no subject in 
Indian folklore of more universal occurrence than that of the 
miraculously and fortunately born hero-son and his doings. 
IThere is no point upon which folktales more frequently turn. 
The hold that the desire of a son to succeed has on the 
people is more than once powerfully indicated in the Legends. 
Says Raja Jcwar in the Guru Gugga Legend to his wife : — 
"Without a son is no salvation in the world (as) all the 
Scriptures have sung. Our life has been wasted fruitlessly 
in the world." Answers Rani Bachhal : — "0 Raja, listen to 
the thoughts in my heart. Without a son I am uneasy as a 
chahvi at night. Like the chahwi at night, Raja, I am rest- 
less day and night. No child plays in the yard and my heart 
is very full." In the Raja Dhrii (Dhruva) Legend the point 
is still more powerfully put: — "There was a well known Eaja 
Uttanpat (Uttanapada) of Ajudhia. His Queen was barren 
and he had no hope of a son. He was hopeless and full of 
sorrow. To him continually said his Queen : — ' Raja, we 
Lave no son and the palace is therefore empty. The garden 
is dry and hath no gardener.' ' Rani, a cowife is an evil and 
burneth the heart. Thou wilt understand when thy heart 
burneth. Rani, if thou wilt and sayest it from thy heart, I 
will bring (home) another (wife) and be at peace.' ' Raja, 
marry and I will say naught against it. Let there be a son 
in the palace to succeed to the throne. Raja, who hath milk 
(plenty) and a son in his house, Knoweth no sorrow and sleep- 
eth in great comfort. Without a son rule and honour are 
empty; Therefore, R^jS, it will be well with thee (to 
marry')." There can be no doubt as to the strength of a 


desire when a woman will deliberately introduce a cowife into 
her home to secure it. A desire so universal, so strong, so 
important to the peasantry necessarily finds not only frequent 
expression in their stories and legends, but also in the acts of 
daily life, sometimes of a very serious nature. Women have 
over and over again been guilty of murder and incendiarism 
due to wild superstitious attempts to gratifj' it. I can recall a 
case in which the ignorant low-class mother of daughters only 
has, with the assistance of her elder daughter, killed a little 
girl belonging to a neighbour by way of human sacrifice to the 
supernatural powers to procure her a son at the next confine- 
ment, and a case in which a barren woman of the, superior 
peasantry set fire to a neighbour's dwelling with the same 

The whole category of nostrums known to Indian folk 
wisdom, and it is a very wide one, is employed by those who- 
Bre so unhappy as to be barren or son-lef^s to avert or over- 
come the misfortune. Every kind of supernatural being, go-d, 
godling, hero, saint, wise-woman, wizard, demon, devil, ogre, 
exorcist, and the like can grant or procure sons. The faith in 
the givers and the power to give is boundless and ineradicable^ 
going back to the dawn almost of ludian folklore. But, 
astonishingly varied as arette nostrums tried, the oldest and sti II 
the favourite in story is the giving of something to- eat to the 
would-be mother — flowers, fruit, riee, grain, seeds, and so' 
on. Prayer and saintly intercession are also common in the 
Legend», more or less consciously introduced for the glorifica- 
tion of high places ; and of course holy wells, pools, tanks, 
shrines, tombs, graves, and other spots, out of which money 
can be made byr way of fees are notorious for f ulfillin,g the- 
wishes of the disappointed. 

Sons born in re&ponae to vows, intercession, faith in nos- 
"trums, intervention of holy personages, and so forth are 
almost always heroes ushered into the world with the customary 
portents and acting in the ordinarily heroic manner. It is 
only, therefore, by considering what the possession of sona 

Xviii PEEfAOB. 

means to a native of India that one can grasp the full ""P°^* 
to an Indian audience of such a story as that of ihe Balooti 
hero, Jaro, in the Mir Chakur Legend, who slevf his two sons 
in fulfilment of a rash vow. 

Apart from though closely connected with purely imaginary 
heroes, or beings round whom a mass of myth has collected, 
by far the most important class of popular heroes in North 
India are the saints and holy personages, Hindu and Muham- 
madan. The holy man, godling, or saint of Northern India 
is precisely the demon or devil (bhittaj of South India. There 
is at bottom no difference between any of them, and the stories 
about them are hopelessly mingled together. Be his origia 
Hindu or Jiluharamadan or merely animistic, the saintly or 
demoniacal, i. e., supernatural, hero's attributes, powers, 
characteristics, actions, and life-history are in Indian folklore 
always of the same kind and referable to the same fundamental 
ideas. He does not belong to any particular form of creed or 
religion, but to that universal animism which underlies the 
religious feeling of all the Indian peasantry. I can see no 
radical difference in the popular conception of the Hindu 
Gurft Gorakhnilth or the Muhammadan Sakhi Sarwar of the 
North, and the animistic Koti and Ohannayyn of the South. 
The peculiarities of any one of them are proper to them all. 
Tliey are best studied as a whole. 

In the Legends holy personages play a larger and more im- 
portant part than the Rajas or secular heroes themselves, and 
their characteristics and the notions about them are well 
displayed. Thus, in the quaint tales that have gathered round 
the memory of the Saints of Jalandhar, we find an account of 
the struggle for local spremacy between a Musilman saint 
and his rival and counterpart a Hindu joji and the point 
for the present purpose is that the characteristics and the 
powers of the pair are represented as being precisely the same : 
they both belong to the same class of supernaturall3'--endowed 
beings, and the result of the contest clearly hinges on the 
Kectarial proclivities of the narrator of the story. 


Immortality aud reappeaiauce, ideas apparently common to 
the whole human race, are widely spread attributes of Indian 
holy men, the title of Saint Apparent (Zahir Pir) being by 
no means limited to the mixed Hindu-Musalman canonised 
warrior Guru Gugga, and in these pages we have a case in 
which the opposing saintly personages, Hindu and Musalman, 
on both sides of a sectarian struggle kill each other and all 
become living, i. e., immortal, saints fjtitte pir J. But in other 
matters than immortality* we find that the gods and saintly 
heroes are much mixed up, and naturally, in popular concep- 
tion ; and we have more than one instancS in which the special 
attributes of the Deity, even from the Hindu "standpoint, are 
ascribed to such personages, ought we to say more accurately 
such abstractions as Guru GorakhnAth. And vice versd even 
such gods, ipar excellence as Siva and Parbati are reduced 
almost to the level of ordinary mortals. 

In connection with the belief in immortality, that pathetic 
hope of the incapacity of a whole personality for death, so 
universal in mankind, we find that saints, especially deceased 
saints, are much mixed up in Indian idea with ghosts ari.4 
spirits. In this form they have the power of appearance 
peculiar to ghosts all the world over, particularly at midnight — 
"mid-night the time for saints, adhi rdt Pirdn, da veld''' is 
an expression that occurs more than once. They appear also 
in dreams, sometimes I rather suspect with a view to helping 
the progress of the story. 

A careful study of the instances in which beings endowed 
with immortality, i. e., ghosts and spirits, on the one hand, and 
gods, godlings, and warriors fbirs) on the other, appear in the 
Legends, and of their actions as recorded therein, will afford 
yet another proof that fundamentally there is no individual 
difiference between them in the popular conception, nor 
between them and their mortal counterparts, the holy person- 
ages of all sorts. They all, the mortal and the immortal, do 
the same thing, have the same characteristics and powers, and 
are introduced into folktales for the same purposes. The 


differences to be observed in titles and attributes is due to an 
overlayino, a mere veneer, of rival religious philosophies 
thus, v^here ghosts and spirits appear the tale v^iU be found 
to be Muhammadan in origin or form, where gods, godlingB, 
and warriors appear it will similarly be found to be Hindu in 
origin or form. Where the tale refers back to days beforft 
set Hinduism, or has its origin in an anti-Hindu form of 
behef, or is given an anti- Hindu cast, the appearance will be 
demoniacal or animistic. In every case .they will belong to 
one fundamental category and be essentially animistic heroes, 
or they may with equal truth be classed as saints minus the 
veneer of Musalfnan, i. e., Western, philosophy. 

The corollary to the notion of ghosts and spirits, exorcism 
and the casting out of devils, only once occurs in the Legendsg 
though miraculous and magical cures of all other sorts abound, 
and then only by a reference, which is, however, a significant 
one. For there a Hindu y^^rt cures a Muhammadan family of 
goblins and spirits by medicines and herbs ;^ and it is to be 
observed that in the passage in question the goblins were (jinn) and the spirits were Hindu (bhtitj. 

Perhaps the most strongly marked variant of the idea of 
immortality to be found in Indian belief is the very common 
folktale expedient of temporary death. In the Legends there 
is, in the story of Raja Jagdeo, a distinct instance of it, and 
also a matter-of-fact allusion to it in the legend of Hari 
Chand (Harisohandra) made in terms that clearly show the 
universality of the acceptance of the notion. 

Supernatural personages in Indian story have as a matter of 
course, in common with many otherwise work-a-day mortals 
the power of second sight— that knowledge of things that are' 
hidden— and, in addition to forestalling secret malice, proving 
innocence "not proven." and so on, can detect unseen thieves, 
a power by the way claimed by certain leaders of theosophy* 
and esoteric Buddhi sm who ought to know better. 


Supernafcrti'al personages may also be said to possess certain 
inherent powers, of which that of working miracles is the most 
important. So much are miraculous powers inherent in saints 
that saintship is held to be proved by the possession of the 
wonder-working gifts, and it is not an offence to holy men to 
seek to test them. Every one in contact with a saint is con- 
sidered to be justified in doing so. These powers can be 
delegated, and we find several instances of mii-acles performed 
through an agent, by proxy as it were. The agency need 
not be necessarily that of a supernatural or human being. 
Things dedicated or sacred or appertaining to a saint are 
sufficient for the purpose, «s when a fountain or well sacred 
to a saint will effect a cure, or when his flute, or conch, or 
horse, or other animate or inanimate thing belonging to him, 
will procure for him even a passing desire. The miracles 
effected at tombs and shrines belong to this class, and these are 
ubiquitous in India generyi . their universalit j' giving form to 
the widely-spread and pi"----/ notion of the lover miraculously 
disappearing alive into the tomb of the dead and buried 
beloved. It occurs in the great love tale of Hir and Ranjha, 
borrowed, I fancy, from an identical incident in the older and 
equally famous tale of Sassi and PunnAn, where Ranjha, 
transformed into a wonder-working saint, "lifting up his 
hand prayed much (to God and said) : — ' Either do thou bring 
her to life or slay me ! All things are easy to thee, God 
(Rabba), mighty and merciful.' It is said that the grave (of 
HJr) opened and Ranjha went in." 

As regards the human workers of miracles the sense of 
agency or proxy is distinctly inferred in the following re- 
markable narrative about one of the Saints of Jalandhar : — '■ 
" ' Sber Shah is dead ; where shall I bury him ? ' And he (the 
brother) also prayed to the Holy Bawa Jan, saying : — ' The 
dying ascetic is dead : what shall I do now ? ' From out of 
his contemplation said the Saint : — 'All that came will return 
sound:' it la the word of God. Ye should all go to Kaude 
Shah's (follower of Bawa Jan) abode. Go to him and say : — 
' Pass thy hand over him.' At last obeying the order they 


ran to Kaiide Shall, Gave him the message and brought him 
to their abode. Said Kaude Shah :—' My friends, I am his 
slave. It is Bawa Jan that restoreth to life affd giveth me the 
credit.' When Kaude Shah passed his hand over the corpse, 
Then life came to it and he became quite well." 

By ^assuming the power of working miracles to be an attri- 
bute of saints, one becomes prepared for their being able to 
do anything that is necessary for their own personal glory, the 
protection of themselves and their followers, or the exigencies 
of the tales about thera. But even then one is sometimes 
taken aback at the ingenuity of. the story-tellers, e. g., causing 
the gods to cash a document that borresponds to a cheque is 
the bright idea of a tale so well known about Narsa Ehagat 
as to merely require a reference to it in modern story-telling, 
and carrying a tiger up his sleeve to terrify the ruler of the 
period is another bright idea attributed to Shah Qumes. In 
yet another instance the legal remar^_%e by a saint of a parted 
orthodox Hindu couple after restoration to life is a greater 
revolt agaiust the accepted situation in such cases in Hindu, 
life than at first appears. 

But the very quaintest, and in some respects the most 
remarkable and instructive tale I have ever come across of an 
Indian miracle, is one arising out of the well-known scientific 
and astronomical proclivities of the celebrated Raja Jai Singh 
Sawai of Jaipur, who flourished only one hundred and fifty 
years ago, and to be found in the Legends. It is quite worth 
extracting from the general story of Raja Jagdeo and repeat- 
ing here. "Now Raja Jai Singh had a moon of his own, 
which he hung up in the sky to give light to his people, and, 
of course, when Raja Jagdeo was in the city it was lighted up 
as usual, and this made him aak about it, and he learnt that 
it was an artificial moon made by Raja Jai Singh. As soon 
he learnt this he determined to play a practical joke, and 
found out where the moon-makers lived, and sent his servant 
to fetch them in order to make him a moon like Raja Jai 
Singh's. The moon-makers had heard of what happened to 

PRElfACE. Xxiii 

' the oilman for refusing oil [Raja Jagdeo bad stabbed him], 
so they were afraid to refuse also, and accompanied the 
servant to Rjija Jagdeo's house. When they arrived be asked 
them how much they wanted for a moon. They replied, 
whatever he wished to pay, so he_gave them oGO golden pieces, 
and ordered a moon like Jai Singh's. Calling them quickly 
spake Raja JagdSo to the moon-makers, And had a moon put 
up in the heavens (that burnt) without oil: All the city cried 
out at it, And Jai Singh said to his minister, ' the sun hath 
risen ! ' As soon as the moon-makers had raised up a second 
moon Raja Jai Singh heard of it and asked who had done such 
a thing. His officials told him that it was by order of the 
man who had killed the oilman." 

It is obviously necesarry to the greatness of the saints, 
indeed to the very success of the shrines on the proceeds of 
which the bai-ds and story-tellers live, that holy men should be 
able to protect themselves and their followers; and the 
varieties of ways in which they are fabled to be able to do 
this is surprisingly large. They can, of course, go unharmed 
through ordeals by fire, and can starve without injury. They 
can make themselves invulnerable by arrows, rocks, bullets, 
daggers, and what not, and can burst their fetters. They 
cannot be hanged, and can control and tame animals and 
slay them with ease. Even for such matters of mere personal 
advantage and comfort as keeping birds out of their gardens 
they effect miracles. In one place Shah Qum§s, in order to 
keep his horse in a mosque without defiling it, prevents it from 
evacuating for forty days ! Raja Rasalu cooks rice by placing 
it on his Rani's breasts and procures water from a stone merely 
in order to get a dinner, and opens locked doors without keys 
in order to get at his mistress, illegitimately by the way. After 
all- this one is somewhat surprised to learn in the Legends that 
it is wrong to work miracles for inadequate objects or for the 
mere pleasure of the thing. But the favourite miracle of the 
creation of a crowd of followers or wild beasts as a means of 
protection in a difficulty is probably an extension of that idea 


of invisible supernatural assistance in all severe straggles tbat 
has taken so strong a hold on the popular imagination all over 
the world. And this leads to the consideration that in the 
study of the actual miracles attributed to saints and the like 
it is something more than merely interesting to observe bow 
much they follow the general notions of the people as exhibited 
in their folktales, how much they are based on folklore, 
how much on the desires and aspiration of the folk themselves. 
Thus we may class as belonging to the idea of immortality and 
its corollaries the frequently recurring miracles of restoration 
to life, the vivification of an idol, and the curious instances 
of a child saint making a wooden horse run about and a wall 
into a hobby-horse when in want of a plaything. The restora- 
tion to the original form and life of human ashes, of a 
devoured bride and bridegroom, of an eaten horse and kid, are 
but extravagant extensions of the same idea. So also without 
the extravagance are the restoration to greenness and life of a 
dried-up garden , a dead tree, a withered forest. The odd 
miracles of making the dM6-gra38 evergreen and fruit trees to 
bear fruit out of season are farther developments of the main 

From restoration to life it is not a far cry to restoration to 
health, and as might be expected miraculous cures abound in 
the Legends and may almost be considered to be the stock in 
trade of a saint. With restoration to health I should be 
inclined to connect the bringing about of blessings and good 
fortune, the fulfilment of desires, the grant of assistance of 
every kind, especially in the case of followers and supporters. 
Saints are, of "course, conspicuous for the power, directly or 
indirectly, to grant the most prominent of all the desires of 
the Indian peasantry, i. e., sons to succeed them. This occurs 
again and again in the Legends, but instances are also found of 
the grant of promotion and high position in life. With these 
must also be classed the great "blessing" of a rural peasantry, 
the bringing of rain, and the great chief desires of seafarers^ 
a fair wind and immunity from drowning. Saints can accord- 
ingly do all these things. In a land of great and dangerous 


rivers, like the Pan jab, ferries and the crossing of rivers 
occupy a prominent place in the life of the people, and so 
we find a saint making a boat out of his begging gourd and 
an oar oat of his staff when in a huriy to cross a stream, 
the form of this particular miracle being attributable to the 
universal belief in the miraculous vehicle. 

Riches, including a plentiful supply of food, and assistance 
in procuring them, are largely desired everywhere, and sa we 
have saints finding hidden treasure, turning all sorts of things 
into gold, and producing jewels and jewellery. We also find 
them making the sun to broil fish for themselves, and supplying 
followers with miraculous food. But cupidity demands much 
more than the mere supply of necessities, and the narrators of 
the stories about saints have bad to cater ta this failing of 
human nature, and hence the miraculous prodiactioa of in- 
exhaustible treasure and inexhaustible supplies of food, the 
inexhaustible bags, the stories of " loaves and fishes," and such 
like ; the finding of hidden treasure and the creation of gold 
and jewels and of all sorts of unlikely objects, even out of 
ar praying-carpet. From an inexhaustible supply to an in- 
exhaustible capacity for absorbing it is a natural step, and so 
we find voracity extraordinary iu many a quaint form to be a 
common capacity of heroes, gods, and ogres alike; indeed, of 
the last, as the enemy of the heroic tribe, it is the usual 
attribute or sign. 

In opposition to the beneficent powers the co'uverse powers to 
destroy life or inflict injury in an extraordinary way naturally 
appears in many an ingenious form, and with these may be 
classed the great family of saintly curses and nightmares or 
terrifying dreams. " He that can help can also injure," "the- 
Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away," are propositions 
involved in the glorification of every kind of hero. They are 
constantly brought forward in the Legends with as much 
emphasis as possible, the saints helping and injuring, giving 
and taking away and giving back again almost in the same 
breath. The withdrawing of all the water in the wells of the 


enemy into the wells of his friends, attributed to G6rakhnath, is 
an act thoroughly to be appreciated in a dry and thirsty land 
like the Pa'njfib. So also would the hungry and greedy Panjabi 
peasant appreciate the force of the method employed by SakhJ 
Sarwar of punishing a recalcitrant follower by making him 
vomit his food and turning his vessels of gold into brass. 

Precisely as blessings can be conferred vicariously, so can 
injuries be similarly inflicted, and as a consequence of this idea 
a town fire is attributed to the fettering of a saint by its ruler. 
And lastly just as it is necessary for the bards and singers to 
glorify the saints, and inculcate a sense of their power for 
mischief, so it is also necessary, since bards are usually attached 
to particular saints, to maiutain their individuality. Hence 
the peculiar habit of attributing stock miracles to certain 
saints. To explain: Dhanna, the Bhagat, is always connected 
with the story of making a god out of a stone; Rode Shah 
with the well-known greenness of the dub'gmss in the dry 
weather; Guru Gugga with speaking from his mother's womb; 
Sakhi Sarwar with several performed at his shrine ; and 
Gorakhnath with a whole string of them performed in "the 
Land of Karu." 

The very large number of miracles that occur in the stories 
of saints, universally common as these stories themselves are, 
is due to the attitude of the native mind everywhere towards 
the marvellous. A miracle in India does not excite much 
wonder, and is to some extent looked upon as a natural incident 
in everyday life. Miracles are always occurring ; every village 
has instances of them ; everyone has knowledge of some that 
are notoriously within the experience of acquaintances. Even 
Europeans can hardly become intimate with the thoughts and 
customs of native neighboui-s without being cognisant of 
supposed miraculous occurrences around them. They are fre- 
quently believed to have happened to Europeaus themselves. 
Sir Henry Lawrence is thus believed at Firozpur in the Panjab 
to have been compelled to compliance with a saint's behest by 
terrifying occurrences induced by the saint during sleep. 

.rEEPACE * xxvii 

Almosfc precisely the same story has been current in the 
Ambala Cantonment about myself, and I have also conversed 
with the son of the child supposed to have been raised from 
the dead by the long- deceased saint Sakhi Sarwar for Dani 
Jatti, now the heroine of a popular Panjabi Legend widely 
sung all over that Province, That personage and his 
neighbourhood had no sort of doubt as to the truth of the tale 
about his father and grandmother. It would never have 
occurred to them to doubt it. The once notorious Ram Singh 
Kuka, whom the present writer knew personally while a political 
prisoner in consequence of his raising a petty religious rebellion 
against the British Crown, was credited with miraculously 
lengthening the beam of a house for a follower at Firozpur by 
way of helping him to preserve his property. This beam was 
shown to me in all good faith within ten years of the date of 
the supposed miracle. Such being the conditions one can 
hardly be surprised at what has been noted on the subject of 
the miraculous doings of saints and holy personages. 

So far we have been dealing with miracles, whose value lies 
in their publicity, but the bards and tellers of the marvellous 
stories have by no m.eans overlooked the importance to them, 
as a means of turning the popular imagination to their own 
benefit, of hidden or undisclosed miracles. In the Legench 
among the tales that have gathered round the Saints of 
Jalandhar, we are specially treated to a relation of the " open 
and secret miracles of Sufi Ahmad of Jalandhar," and of the 
severe physical punishment of a woman for disclosing a secret 
miracle of another Jalandhar saint. In other instances, 
disease, and even hereditary madness, are attributed to divul- 
gence of miracles secretly performed by Shah Qumes. Now, 
when one thinks over the enormous influence that the idea of 
ability to perform miracles secretly could be made to wield 
over the minds of a credulous and ignorant population, one 
wonders indeed that it does not more frequently crop up in 
Indian folklore ; unless its occurrence is to be regarded as an 
outgrowth of the idea of the punishment of idle cui-iosity so 

XXviii • PREFACE. 

common in all folklore- the tales of Bluebeard's wives andso 
on- which again may perhaps be held to rest on the notion 
of tabu. 

Miracles may be defined as wonders legitimately performed, 
while magic embraces the class of illegitimate wonders. Tbe 
actual deeds, whether the result of miraculous powers or 
magical arts, seem to be much the same, and in India to be 
performed for much the same objects. The difference is that 
the one is right and holy, and the other is wrong and unholy. 
It is good to work marvels miraculously, but very bad to 
arrive at the same result by magic. And as, in the bard's 
eyes at any rate, all heroes, saintly or secular, are personages 
to be reverenced, one is not astonished at the very small part 
that magic is made to play in the Legends. Indeed, one 
scarcely ever sees it put forward as a mode of producing the 
innumerable marvels related. Magic is, however, distinctly 
attributed in one instance to a daughter of the Serpents, but 
only for the purpose of moving a heavy stone, an object which, 
in the case of a saint, would be related to have been achieved 
by a miracle. It is as distinctly attributed in another instance 
to Gorakhnath, in circumstances where a miracle would seem 
to have been more appropriate, and in the midst of a host of 
miracles related of this great saint or holy man. Indeed, in 
this last case the bard would seem to have confused the notions 
of miraculous and magical powers. 

Of what is generally known as sympathetic magic, aiid 
may be nothing more than an extension of the notion of the 
delegated miracle, and so merely a cure by proxy, there is a 
strong instance in the Legend of Raja Dhol, where the injured 
leg of a valuable camel is cured by firing that of a stray ass. 
Restoration to life and health, i. e., cures, and their opposites, 
destruction and injury by effigy, are strictly extensions of the 
same idea. 

Now, when a belief becomes rooted in the popular mind, a 
custom, however barbarous and disgusting, is sure to be based 
on it, and the apparently harmless notion of sympathetic 


magic has led in India, and many other lands, to the horrible 
custom of ceremonial cannibalism. In Ihe Legends we have 
distinct proofs of this, where faqirs eat up the body of a 
famous leech in order to obtain his curative pov^ers, and Baloch 
heroes make roast meat of an enemy's ribs in order to absorb 
his " virtue," i. e., fighting strength. 

A harmless phase in the belief in sympathetic magic, 
leading to many a pretty and fanciful custom of the folk, is to 
be seen in a form which I have always flattered myself I dis- 
covered, when writing the notes to Wide-awake Stories a good 
many years ago, and then called by me the life-index. It now 
seems to have found a definite place among the recognised 
technicalities of writers on folklore under the guise of the 
life-token. In the Legends, however, we do not hear much 
of it, except in an allusion to the custom of presenting a female 
infant to the hero as a bride, together with a mango-seedling. 
When the tree fruits,. the girl will be twelve years old at 
least, t. e., marriageable. It is evidently felt here in a dim 
way that the tree is somehow or other her life-token. This 
custom may be of more interest to ourselves than at first 
appears, because the habit of planting trees, fruit trees 
especially, to commemorate tbe birth of children, or of con- 
necting certain trees with, individual children in a family, is 
common enough in England. It has occurred in fact in the 
present writer's own family, where the trees dedicated to 
himself and his contemporaries are still standing at the ances- 
tral family home. It is possible, therefore, that the custom 
of what we may now call token-trees, the world-wide habit 
of planting trees to commemorate local and even general 
events of striking importance, such as the Revolution Elms 
just outside the ancestral home above mentioned, and many 
a famous oak and ash and yew one can readily call to mind, 
partly has its roots in the fundamental idea of sympathetic 

The existence of miraculous and magical powers presumes 
the existence of recognised— or may we call them orthodox ?— 


processes for producing miracles and magic, opening up tlie- 
wide subject of charms. But of these, as matters too well- 
known to require explanation, there is not much detail in the 
Legends, apart from that necessary to briefly explain the 
miraculous acts themselves ; and such as occurs is confined to 
that all-important division of the subject in the eyes of a super- 
stitious peasantry of prophylactic charms. The importance 
of these to the people is further emphasised by the fact that 
when charms are mentioned it is in every case but one for the 
prevention or cure of snake-bite, perhaps the greatest dread 
of all of the Indian peasant, a situation in which he probably 
feels more helpless and more inclined to invoke supernatural 
aid than in any other. Such charms are indeed so much mixed 
up with miracles proper as to form in reality a variety of 
miraculous cures. Besides charms against snake-bite there 
are mentioned some as existing against sorcerers, i. e., the 
charmers themselves, and among real prophylactic charms 
against general bodily harm only the wearing of the sacred-. 
tuki (sweet basil) beads occurs. 

The absence of detailed accounts of charms and of the 
performances of exorcists must not, as above hinted, be taken 
as implying their scarcity, or only a languid intei-est in them 
among the population, and perhaps the best indication of the 
facts being the reverse of such a presumption is to be found 
ia the Legends themselves, in tho so-called "genealogies" of 
Lai Beg, the eponymous saint or hero of that curious sect of 
the scavengers, which may be said to have set up a religion 
and ritual of its own, though that is in reality an eclectic 
hagiolatry derived from every superstition or faith with which 
its members have come in contact. Now the ritual, where it 
does not purport to relate the genealogy of the hero, consists 
chiefly of a string of charms of the common popular sorts. 

Supernatural intervention in the afi'airs of mankind, as the 
result of vicarious prayer and intercession, is, one need 
hardly say, a universal and deeply-cherished human belief 
and it is not by any means always claimed in Legends 


tbat saints or saintly heroes effect their assisting or injuring 
wonders direct. Thus by prayer Sakhi Sarwar restores a 
dead horse to life, by prayer Shekh Darvesh turns grey hair 
black, by prayer Shah Quines creates a well, by prayer Raja 
Kasalu restores a corpse to life, by prayer to God (Khuda) 
Kankali the Hindu witch vivifies the headless Hindu Raja 
Jagdeo. By faith Dhanna Bhagat turns a stone into a god. 
An empty platter and a pitcher are fiilled miraculously with food 
and water merely in response to the prayer of a saint's servant 
in order to save him from the apprehended wrath of his master. 
While in the curious collection of miracles attributed to the 
Panjabi Saint Uodfe Shah they are all described as the result 
of the " order of the Court of God," following on more or less 
directly inferred prayer. These and similar instances are in 
themselves remarkable. 

Prayer is, 'in fact, in common request as an agent for the 
performance of miracles, and some quaint stories regarding it 
are to be found in the Legends. Besides those ah-eady quoted, 
saintly prayer restores to life not only man and beast, but also 
trees and gardens, restores lost sight and limbs, procures a 
son, prevents a boat from sinking and produces unlimited 
food. This is a pretty wide category ; but it is quite equalled 
by the efficacy of the prayers of the laity, both Mnsalman and 
Hindu, who by it restore man and beast to life, procure water 
for the thirsty and move a heavy stone. Prayer in the Legends 
is usually, but not of course always, addressed to God, by 
both Muhammadans and Hindus, by that mixing up of the 
rival religious so typical of the natives of India. Thus Hani 
Achhran in the Rasaiu Legend prays to the moon for help in 
characteristic terms: — "0 Moon, I have slept on my bed in thy 
light. I embrace the feet of my bed (now) and weep." And 
in a still more striking instance we read: — "Light all the 
candles, and pray to the (gods of the) lamps, saying : — ' Hear, 
Golden Lamps, hear my prayer, To-day I meet my love, burn 
(then) all the night.'/' 

From invoking the aid to invoking the presence of the 
supernatural and invisible protector is but a small step, and 


the notion of prayer leads straight on to that of invocation — 
that summoning of the absent so common in folktales, 
usually to help on the story. It is necessarily a most widely- 
spread notion, appertaining to the religion of the folk all the 
world over, and the means employed for it are everywhere very 
varied. The story in the Legends of the use of holy water 
for the purpose in the Panjab has a European ring about it. 
As saints" may be invoked by their followers, so can they ia 
their turn invoke others ; sometimes by mere will-power ; 
sometimes by a direct summons in everyday use, such aa 
clapping the hands ; sometimes by one of the stock devices for 
summoning the absent employed in folktales. 

Now, saints and all the supernatural powers that be can 
injure as well as aid, can curse as well as bless, and beings 
that can injure need propitiation. So we find offerings made 
to the saints without reference to the faith or creed of either 
giver or receiver, such as milk, the most important beverage 
of all in the Panjab, precisely as it is offered to Mother 
Earth. At the same time we have a remarkable instance of 
propitation by abuse in the story of Puran Bhagat, where 
a woman deliberately abuses and curses her patron saint, with 
the avowed object of extorting favours from him. This notion, 
though somewhat startling, is widely spread. Propitiation is 
naturally originally prescriptive, i. e., it is usually employed 
towards one special protector or class of protectors ; but it as 
naturally constantly loses that character, and becomes general 
and even vicarious; as when the heroine pours out libations 
first to the God of the Waters and then to the birds and beasts^ 
an act of general charity likely to be welcome to the gods. 

In close connection with the notion of general or promis' 
cuous propitiation, there is a variety of terms in the verna- 
culars, which are usually translated by "alms-giving, gene- 
rosity, charity," and so on, but their real import is the making^ 
of propitiatory gifts or ofi'erings to saints and priestly or holy 
personages. Generosity in the East does not convey the idea 
of lavishnesa in gifts generally, but in gifts to saints or priests. 


In this sense it is perhaps the most largely extolled virtue of 
all in fable and story, and of set purpose. This universal 
inculcation of the virtue of what may be called ceremonial 
generosity does not arise altogether out of any superstitious, 
religious, or folklore custom, but out of the necessities of the 
bards and the tellers of tales about saints. Shrines and their 
attendants have to be supported and means must be gathered 
to support them, and hence the very high praise and the 
very great supernatural and future rewards offered to the 
"generous," which are not confined to any particular creed or 
country. The Indian saint and after him the attendants and 
hangers on at his shrine live on alms, and so "charity" and 
" generosity" on the part of their adherents and audiences are 
" virtues" that naturally loom very largely in their tales and 
poems. Tbe ceremonial nature of the "generosity" comes 
out in the fact that the gifts to be efficacious must be of the 
conventional sort, and we have repeated instances in the 
Legends of the wrong kind of alms being refused by saints 
and holy men, however valuable and lavish. 

It is obviously necessary, when dwelling on the importance 
of such a virtue on behalf of a hero, that the hero himself 
should not be represented as being wanting therein, and hence 
"generosity" is an invariable attribute of the saints. Every 
saint has been wildly and extravagantly "generous," what- 
ever else he may have. Sakhi Sarwar, Shams Tabrez, and 
the rest of them are all heroes of generosity. So also on the 
other hand are the folk-heroes Hari Chand and Raja Amba 
while the Baloches have a special hero of their own N6dhban- 
dagh the Gold-scatterer. The extravagance of the acts of 
generosity attributed to saints and holy men is boundless. Self- 
mutilation and self-blinding to gain small objects are among 
them, stretched in more than one notorious instance into the 
impossible feat of striking off his own head as alms. 
Extreme self-sacrifice of this kind assumes a curious form when 
a jdgi is credited with ceremonial cannibalism, in allusion, 
perhaps, to the well-known real or attributed habits of the 
Aghdvi faqirs. The details of the episode are worth repeating 


as a side light on the Indian peasant's views on such matters. 
" Rani Sundran dressed herself and went to see the Guru. 
When she reached him, she asked him where his pupil (Kasalu) 
-was. ' Oh,' said the jogi, ' I have eaten him up ' [Rasalu had 
really only runaway]. 'But,' said the Rani, 'I sent you a 
plate of jewels and a plate of sweets. If these have not 
satisfied you, will your meal off your pupil satisfy you V ' I do 
not know,' said the jogi, 'all I know is that I put him on a 
spit, roasted him and ate him up.' ' Then roast and eat me, 
too,' said the Rani, and she jumped into the [jogi's'] sacred fire 
and became sati for the love of Raja Rasalu." 

Offerings of all sorts, and under whatever name, involve the 
giving up of something, if of value to the giver the better. 
A notion that has universally led to such concrete ceremonies 
as sacrifices of all kinds of things of both material value, like 
cattle, and of purely ceremonial value, like the blood spilt in a 
notable fight detailed in the Legends. All these things are, 
however, the giving up of something outside the self, however 
valued or appreciated, and the idea can be easily extended to 
the yet greater virtue of the giving up of something that is 
-within or part of the self. It has actually been so extended all 
over the world in the forms of asceticism and penance, and 
nowhere more recklessly and intensely, more wildly in fact, 
than in India. The virtues of austerity and expiatory self- 
sacrifice are most carefully extolled and inculcated throughout 
Indian folklore and in the Legends, and have led there and 
elsewhere to one practical result in the widely-spread custom 
of voluntary slavery for debt not only of self but of wife 
and children. 

Gifts, offerings, sacrifices, penances, and the like may be 
called practical propitiation, but several ways of reaching the 
same desirable goal supernaturally have been evolved by the 
superstitious peasantry of India, and the rest of the world too 
for that matter. Vows or promises to reward the supernatural 
powers invoked for acceding to prayers, and oaths or invoca- 
tions to the same powers to witness the promises, are two 

pRErACE. xxxy 

prominent methods of propitiating the all-powerful inhabitants 
of the unseen world, constantly in every language and in every 
national mind mixed up with each other. In the Legends we 
have the whole story of the idea: oaths which are vows and 
vows which are oaths, notices of the advantages of performing 
vows and oaths, the importance of keeping them, and the 
terrible penalties attached to their breach, especially if made 
to a deceased saint, or a shrine in which a bard is personally 
interested. A variant of the terrible tale of Jephthah's 
daughter is to be found in the Legends, 

In every case where it goes beyond being a mere invocation 
to the supernatural powers the taking of an oath involves a 
ceremony deriving from the superstitions of the takers, and 
the ceremonies connected with the taking of oaths are there- 
fore not only interesting but nearly always valuable to the 
student. They are also varied to a limitless extent, and are a 
strong indication of the objects held to be sacred in any given 
form of belief, e. g., swearing by touching the sacred thread 
fjaneuj, or by tearing the thread oflf a cow's neck by a 
Hindu, — by touching the Quran by Muhammadans or the 
Bible by Christians, are sure references to things held specially 
sacred under each form of faith. So also when a warrior swears 
by drinking the milk of his own mother, or when the hero 
swears by placing his hand on the body of the person adjured, 
or by drawing a line on the ground with his nose, we are taken 
back to survivals of forgotten animistic belief. That there 
should be in the Legends occasionally a mixture of Hindu and 
Musalman ideas in the forms of oaths will not surprise my 
readers, and of this a fine example is the phrase : " The Ganges 
is between us and above us is the Quran," said by so strict a 
Musalman as one must presume a Qazi to be. 

The object of the ceremonies and forms used in taking oaths 
is of course to render them binding, but it must long ago have 
been equally important at times to avoid the consequences of 
rash and indeed deliberate oaths, and the inventive ingenuity 
of the folk has been turned on to this side of the question with 


oonsiderable success. E. g,, it is a happy and. simple, not to say 
a convenient, expedient to interpose the presence of a pigeon's 
egg as an effectual stopper to the binding effect of an oath on 
the Quran. 

In the matter of vows and oaths the Legends give a great 
number of instances in which a certain form of oath or vow, 
used for many purposes, but generally for emphasis, has be- 
come common to both Hindus and Musalmans. It has arisen 
out of the Muhammadan custom or law of divorce, tin taldq as 
it is called in India. The custom is due to a passage in the 
Quran which lays down that if a man with the proper ceremony 
pronounces dismissal (taldq) three times to his wife he cannot 
marry her again until she shall have been married to another 
man and divorced by him. Now, this solemn performance of 
tin taldq, or three dismissals, has evidently presented itself to 
the Oriental mind as a very serious vow or oath, it matters 
little which, and we constantly find in consequence that 
not only the notion, but even the very terminology of 
this form of divorce has come to be synonymous with that 
of taking a binding oath or vow. There is among the Indian 
peasantry a regular custom nowaday' s of emphasising both 
oaths and vows by taking them three times. 

Besides the miracle and magic working powers there are 
two others of importance, which may be said to be inherent in 
saints, those of prophecy and metamorphosis. In the Legends 
the saintly power of prophecy is usually introduced for the 
very useful story-telling purpose of indicating the unborn 
hero's career as about to be developed, and the power of 
metamorphosis for the purely folklore objects of helping on 
the progress of the stories connected with the saints, or those 
in whom they are interested, or with whom they have been 

Metamorphosis is a belief that has struck its roots deeply 
into the minds of the Indian folk, and hence we find it constantly 
occurring in the hagiological legends. The saints can assume 
any form that is necessary to the tale or likely to attract the 


attention of the audience, can change the forms of others, and 
delegate unlimited power of metamorphosis to their followers. 
The idea so obviously lends itself to fancy that the variations 
of it assume forms most startling to the everyday man. In 
- the Legends there are many astonishing extensions of the 
notion, of which turning the Deity himself into a dog in a 
legend about Namdev, for the purpose of pointing a moral, is 
perhaps the best example. A dog ran ofif with the saint's 
fjogi's) food, and, instead of beating him, the saint addressed 
him in language applicable properly to the Deity. For his 
reward the dog turned into the Deity, and thus the saint had 
the inestimable privilege of beholding the Deity in person. 

In the application of the theory of metamorphosis to folk- 
tales, we also find another indication of the fundamental 
identity of the hero, the saint or surpernatural mortal and the 
god or supernatural immortal in the popular mind. The 
power is possessed by all alike, and by none to a specially 
great or striking degree peculiar to himself. It is equally 
possessed by inanimate objects. In the Legends there are 
indications that the forms it especially assumes are due to two 
causes : the perceptible effect that disguises have in altering 
the apparent nature of human beings, and the changes of skin 
and plumage that snakes and birds undergo; and the old- 
world belief in metempsychosis or transmigration of souls, 
by which the Indian and Far Eastern peoples have for so very 
long been thoroughly permeated. 

Disguises for the sake of enabling the hero or heroine to 
carry out their respective objects are very numerous, but the 
essential poverty of peasant ideas, despite their apparent diver- 
sity, comes out in the fact, that the disguises are apt to run in 
grooves and become stereotyped. As a rule they are such as 
might be expected, but there is a notable instance of metamor- 
phosis by a humanised serpent merely for the sake of disguise, 
and it may also be said that many of the objects for which 
disguise is used are identical with those for which metamor- 
phosis is made to take place. Disguise may be said to be, 


indeed, merely metamorphosis with the marvellous left, out. 
Changes of skia or clothing, or of things pertinent to human 
and animal heroes, are so directly connected with metamor- 
phosis, and so constantly in Indian folktales, as to give rise to 
a temporary form of it, of which many instances will almost 
without efifort occur to those well acquainted with the tales. 

The allusions to the doctrine of metempsychosis in the 
Legends are, of course, ubiquitous, but without much variation, 
and they habitually refer to the variety of lives the heroes and 
heroines have already passed through in diverse forms. In 
fact, the sole difference between the folk notions of metamor- 
phosis and metempsychosis lies in the fact of the former 
consisting of change of form during life, and in the latter after 
death. The two ideas are very closely connected, so much so 
that the special changes represented by metamorphosis are 
based on the variety of bodies, that one and the same unfetter- 
ed soul is assumed to be capable of vivifying. 

In passing it may be here mentioned that metempsychosis 
is in the Legends most ingeniously dragged in to defend the 
doctrine of sati, which is indefensible, except politically, even 
from the native scriptural point of view. A victim of the 
custom is made to say : " For many ages will I obtain the 
same husband," i. e., in reward for becoming sati. In the 
Legends, too, heroines are signiiioantly made to commit saii, 
not only on husbands' but also on sons' deaths. 

It will have been seen from what has been above said that 
saints scarcely differ from folktale heroes of the conventional 
sort. They are beautiful in appearance ; they have all sorts 
of secular occupations, even finding a livelihood as private 
soldiers and horse-dealers; they have obvious foibles of their 
own ; they claim kingly rank on assuming saintship, make 
royal alliances, and keep up a royal state ; they are known by 
special and peculiar signs, they perform conventional heroic 
acts in an heroic supernatural manner. Indeed, just as the 
saint is hardly to be distinguished from the demon, so is 
he hardly to be distinguished from the ordinary folk-hero. 


Indian demonolatry is ancestral or tribal hero-worsliip, and In- 
dian hagiolatry is very little else. The saints and their demonia- 
cal, heroic, or godliise counterparts are, however, essentially 
snpernaturally endowed beings of the narrator's own nationality 
or party, but there are in Indian folk-idea other supernaturally 
endowed beings, demoniacal in their nature and usually styled 
rakhas and translated "ogres,'' who belong as essentially to 
the enemy's party. In the demon world the hhuta, especially 
in South India, may be said to be always of the narrator's 
own class or side, and the rdlihas to belong to the outside 
world, while the demon proper (deo) may be looked on as being 
on the borderland between the two and as belonging as much 
to the one side as he does to the other, occasionally exhibiting 
the characteristics of the ogres as clearly as he does those of 
the saints, heroes, godlings, and what not. 

In translating rdlihas in its varying forms, I have adhered to 
the usual term ogre, as being its best European representative, 
both expressions indicating, as I take them, the foreigner who 
has at one time inspired fear, and has, therefore, been credited 
in the popular imagination with certain terrifying supernatural 
powers, attributes, and habits. The essentials of Indian 
ogre-stories seem to be constant. The ogre feeds on mankind, 
an idea extended to feeding voraciously on the larger animals 
also. He worries the hero's people and friends, and he is 
finally conquered by the hero, in fair fight, by miraculous 
intervention, or by conventional exorcism.. He is, of course, a 
giant, and supernaturally endowed, performing much the same 
miraculous feats as his heroic or saintly opponents. In many 
respects he may be fairly described as the hero on the 
other side, his attributes as the result of the fear he inspires, 
and the struggles with him as vague memories of long past 
tribal fights with remarkable foreigners. 

In one notable passage, showing how ideas extend and run 
into each other, in a fragment of a modern version of the far 
renowned (in India, that is) Sindhi story of Sassi and Pun- 
nun, we find that ogres and man-destroying monsters of all 


kinds are closely classed together. The fragment is based oh 
the very celebrated (in India) poesa by Hasham Shah, and for 
the present purpose I will quote the original : 

AdamkhSr jandwar jal de , rdkas rup garden ; 
Majarmachh, kachhit, jal-huri, sarp, sansdr balden ; 
Tandue, kahar, zamhAmh-wdU, Idwan zor tadden. 
Man-eating monsters of the deep, like unto ogres ; 
Alligators, turtles, mermaids, serpents, and world-horrors ; 
Crocodiles, dragons, porpoises, were bellowing aloud. 

Of the same nature in Indian story as the ogre is the nag or 
serpent, this important fact being strongly emphasised in the 
Legends, in which the serpents and their doings occupy a 
prominent place. They here, though not in ordinary belief, 
appear just as ordinary heroes, and are distinctly human in 
their personalities and all their ways, as often appearing. in 
human as in other forms. They are servants to the hero's 
patron saint ; they live in human dwellings and show hospitality 
to human heroes ; they are subject to human diseases ; they 
give their daughters to, and marry the daughters of, human 
neighbours. They are divided into families, and like ogres 
they live on human flesh. Like the rest of the heroic or 
supematui'al world, they have a wide power of metamorphosis : 
into and out of human or serpent form, into many animal 
forms and into a variety of things, such as fruit, a fine needle, 
a golden staff, a blade of grass. In the same way they have 
an almost unlimited power of working miracles, chiefly 
malevolent ; destroying life in various ways, setting on fire and 
scorcbing with their breath, or bite, or by the flash of their 
eyes, and drinking up the life of another. But they have an 
equally pronounced power of restoration to life, ordinarily by 
the recognised folk-tale methods. And, lastly, apart from 
being frequently "winged," they have the usual heroic powers 
of rapid and miraculous movement. 

Now,, the notions exhibited in these modern legends on th& 
Naga serpents go back a long way in Indian Story, and I think 
it a fair inference to draw from them and their prototypes, that 


Itidian serpent legends are |3ut a memory surviving in an 
ignorant and superstitious peasantry of an old life struggle 
between the Aryan population and the perhaps aborigiiial 
Naga peoples, whose totem, so to speak, or even merely 
national fighting emblfem or standard, has, it may be, become 
confused with the race. 

From the ogre and the ndga one passes almost imperceptibly 
to the humanised' animal that appears so constantly in Indian 
legends, and plays so conspicuous a part in the stories loved 
of the people. The humanity, so to speak, of thg animal, 
*. e., the^'non-hutnan, world of beings is most strongly mai'ked 
in all Indian folklore. Indeed, human and non-human beings 
seem hardly to be distinguished in the minds of the peasantry. 
In the Legends we find in one clear instance a distinct 
ascription to the latter of an immortality of precisely the same 
nature as that universally attributed to mankind. "He took 
the bullocks at once to the river. They began to drink in the 
river, where a serpent was on the bank. Bitten, they fell to 
the ground and their life went to the next world." Here the 
actual expression used is : " hhawar Baikunth 16k kS dlidyd, the 
breath went off to the world of Paradise " ; just such an 
expression as would be properly applicable to a human being. 
In another strong instance a parrot describes itself as 
"a good Hindu," requiring a purification ceremony after 
touching a dead body. 

Human characteristics may be expected in tales of the 
customary Oriental animal pets and companions of mankind, 
such as the horse, the bullock, the camel among quadrupeds, 
the parrot, the maind^ the falcon among birds. And there are 
many instances in the Legends, in which the doings, sayings^ 
and feelings of all of these are hardly to be differentiated from . 
those of the human actors. It may be here noted that the 
absence of any allusions to a sense of companionship between 
man and the dog marks a point of wide divergence between. 
ordinary Oriental and European feeling. 

There is, in fact, scarcely any characteristic or capacity of 
the human that is not equally attributed to the n«u-human 

Xlii Pft-EfACB. 

^orld. All sorts of animals act as messengers. SerpentSj 
cattle, and birds are, of course, described as being affected 
Btrougly by music. Serpents and deer, extended in one case 
to " all the beasts and birds of the forest," are attracted by 
human beauty in a human. manner. A awan falls in love with 
the heroine in the human sense: deer can dream human 
dreams : a swan is made to address the Creator (Kartd) by 
way of prayer, and a doe to distinctly pray to God (kitl Babb 

The grateful animal is a stock expedient in folktales, and we 
are treated to instances of all kinds in the Legends, some of 
which may be called unexpected. Thus, in this category appear 
cats, crickets, hedgehogs, serpents, swans, crows, cranes. The 
opposite quality of ingratitude is also ascribed to a deer and a 
parrot. And in the quaint legend of Dhanna, the Bhagat, a 
god, consisting of an ordinary commercial stone weight, is 
made to play the part of the grateful animal, using the term 
in the sense of a non-human being. But the legend here has 
more than probably an origin in a consciously allegorical story. 

Just as animals can be grateful and ungrateful, so can they 
be revengeful, and of revenge on human lines here is a fine 
instance in the tale of the humanised Hira the Deer in the 
Rasalu Cycle, who throughout acts the part of the ordinary 
folk-hero. The tale goes even to the extreme length of 
attributing caste feelings to the herd he belonged to ; for "they 
cast him out of the herd because he had no ears or tail, " 
(they had been cut oflf). But perhaps the strongest possible 
instance of hnmanisation occurs in the same Cycle, where a 
lizard as the hero and a female serpent as the heroine play a 
variant of the story of Potiphar's wife. 

The direct and almost universal use in story of the animal 
with human attributes is to help on or interfere with the action 
of the hero in a simple or in an extraordinary manner, as when 
cranes, crows, parrots, and falcons act as messengers, a falcon' 
takes his turn at keeping watch, and a flock of birds stop the 
progress of a ship by merely sitting on the shore. In order to 


do these things they must be able to talt, and do so as naturally 
and freely as do the men and women themselves. But the use 
of unnatural powers of speech is carried very much further, 
and they are habitually attributed to everything that is intro- 
duced to forward the story or the interests of the actors therein. 
Indeed, in the legend of Niwal Dai we are expressly told, " It 
was the virtuous time of the golden age ; all things could speak 
their mind." An expression used again in the legend of Raja 
Dhol in almost identical but more limited terms : " It was the 
golden age of virtue and the cranes spake." An astonishing 
variety of objects is thus supposed to be gifted with speech. 
Any kind of plant for instance : trees, mangoes, plums, pipals, 
plantains, grass. All sorts of articles in domestic use : a bed's 
legs, a lamp, a pitcher, a necklace, a conch, a couch, a needle, 
a pestle and mortar, a garland. Even such a general object in 
Nature as a lake. In one instance a sandal tree relates its very 
human adventures merely by way of incident. Anthropomor- 
phism could hardly go further. 

It is, however, carried pretty far in an instance that occurs 
in the fruitful Rasalu Cycle in two versions. A corpse, restored 
to life through the prayers of the hero, helps him out of 
gratitude in such a matter as a gambling match, in one of the 
instances. In the other the corpse appears as a number of 
severed heads, whom1;hehero adjures not to weep and to help 
him with their prayers. After all this the story of the well- 
known parrot of Raj^ Rasalii, that " was wise, knowing the 
Four Vedas," could answer riddles and give wholesome human 
advice, falls somewhat flat. And the common folk notion of a 
foetus speaking from the womb becomes, as it were, natural. It 
is the stock miracle related of Gurd Gugga, but attributed also 
to a good many other personages remarkable in subsequent 
separate life. 

It will have been noticed that the notion of the humanised 
animal almost slides imperceptibly into that of the humanised 
thing. When once the habit of anthropomorphosis comes into 
play, it appears to matter little whether it be ap{)lied to an 

xliv PREFACE, 

animate or an inanimate objectj and especially is this to be 
obseyved in the case of things held to have been subjected to 
the action of miracles or magic, i. e., to things charmed or 
enchanted by visible or invisible agency, the main use for 
v/hich in the Legends, it may be observed, is to assist the hero 
or the progress of the tale about him : e. g., enchanted dice 
made out of such uncanny objects as dead men's bones, which 
always win. 

The well-known enchanted or protecting circle or line, 
within which no harm can come, taking us very far back in 
Indian belief, is but hinted at in the Legends, though- its 
descendants the ascetio's necklace and rosary commonly occur. 
But the more practical means of defence, such as magical or 
enchanted arrows,, play a considerable part. Thus, there are 
several instances of the use of fiery arrows, varied in one 
quaint instance as the fiery quoit, a survival of the classical 
magical quoit of Krishna and in 3" still quainter one as 
an arrow of cold. This last variant is clearly due to an 
expansion of the general idea of the, fiery arrow, for it is 
introduced for the purpose of combating fire : " Then again 
Arjun shot an arrow of cold and all the enemies' bodies 
trembled. Then were the sun's rays obscured and day turned 
into night. Frost and cold began to fight with fire. " 

Magic numbers of course exist in India, chiefly in the forms 
of multiples or parts or combinations of seven and twelve, but 
I do not think that the peasant mind sufficiently grasps 
such abstract notions as numbers to lay much stress on any 
enchanted properties that they may be supposed to possess. 
I have carefully collected every number that occurs in the 
Legends, and the general conclusion is this : that as to the 
larger numerals no clear conception is entertained at all. 
They all mean a very large quantity to the peasant story- 
teller, and for that purpose one large figure is as good as 
another. As to the smaller numerals there is but a dim idea 
that there is something holy or sacred or supernatural about 
some of them, they are not sure which, and they never 
remember them accurately. 


The most widespread and familiar, but perhaps not the beat 
recognised, article subjected to supernatural agency is holy- 
water, as common in India under Islam and Hinduism as it is 
in Europe under Christianity. In the Legends its uses are to 
invoke " the blessing of the great saints " and to effect 
miraculous cures — uses that will recall ideas current outside of 
heathenism. Much of the virtue of holy water is transferred 
in the popular mind to blood, especially human blood, which 
is the main folk agency of miraculous restoi'ation to life and 
health, and a common one for the performance of a host of 
other marvellous feats. In the Legends these virtues are to a 
certain degree yet further extended to milk, and it is of 
interest to record that in them ambrosia or amrita not only 
turns up as the beverage of the gods, but also when pure 
as holy water, in a most remarkable passage iu a Hindu story, 
where it is regarded as the blood of the Almighty : 

Kirpd hdi hai SaTcat hi : hud Qudr at Jid Ithiy&l : 
Apnt unglt cMrTte amrtt lid nikaX. 

The Almighty had meroy: the All powerful considered them . 
Cutting His finger He draw forth the .water of life. 

In India, however, all water may be called in a sense holy. 
Ther& water of itself purifies, an idea that still leads to an 
incalculable amount of disease and sickness. The rivers and 
pools are all more or less sacred, though some of course are 
pre-eminently so, and ceremonial bathing is a source of infinite 
gains to the priests and holy personages. 

The enchanted miraculous vehicle is a very old and widely- 
spread folk-notion, and so we find all sorts of heroes, saintly 
and demoniacal, flying through the air, leaping the ocean, 
accomplishing a journey of months in a few paces, and proceed- 
ing about their business at any required rate of speed on a 
variety of unlikely articles, of which abnormally winged 
creatures, bulls, lions, horses, camels, and the like are but 
variants. So closely do we find the two ideas connected, that 
I have sometimes thought that the whole notion of the mira- 
culous 'vehicle and its concomitants is nothing but iin expan- 


sioa of the heroic leap, which in its turn is a mere popular 
exaggeration of some actual feat. In the Legends the idea 
of personally flying through the air is extended to making a 
saint's shoe to fly through the air in order to punish the saint's 
opponent by beating him. This causing of things to move 
miraculously is to be further seen in the common miracle of 
a saint moving his tomb from one place to another, leading to 
the quaint practice, observed by myself in Hindu India, Bud- 
dhist Burma, and even Japan, of chaining an image to prevent 
its returning whence it miraculously migrated. 

The value of invocation or calling together the tribe and its 
defenders by a loud cry or sound must necessarily have been a 
very early human observation, and its importance and weird 
suddenness when used has all the world over led to some 
fanciful and pretty notions as to magical music and enchanted 
instruments, dependent chiefly on the observed or fancied 
influence of musical sound on the animal world. In these 
Legends there are distinct evidences of the history of the idea, 
and the chief use to which the magic flute, or its variant the 
magic conch, is there put -is, where it is used by the secular 
hero, to call together the tribe and its friends, or where it is 
used by a saint or religious leader, to collect his following, 
celestial or terrestrial. Its secondary uses are to play upon 
the emotions of friendly animals and to call the attention of 
the gods and the invisible inhabitants of the celestial worlds 
to the aid of the hero, who, where the hero is a saint, usually 
seem to occupy the place of his subordinates and assistants. 
The sound of the flute or conch seems also to have become 
mixed up in the popular mind with the "voice of prayer," for 
it can " reach to the Court of God " and so secure the divine 
intervention in human aff'airs. 

The power of enchanted human hair to assist human beings — 
perhaps as a spirit haunt, to use Sir James Campbell's phrase 
— is another world-wide and very old notion, and again in the 
Legends we seem to get at an explanation of it, for it and its 
counterpart the insect's feeler is of no avail until burnt, an ided 
arising probably from the palpable effect burnt hair has on 


those who become insensible from a blow or disease. The 
concrete idea, however, iu burning hair appears to be to 
drive the spirits out of it by the process and so compel them 
to your service, for the actual use of burnt hair is to call up 
invisible assistance. But when once the hair has started on its 
career as a power to interfere in the affairs of man, it is made 
to do a variety of things for him, for it can, among other 
things, cut down trees, burn up forests and enemies, and lead 
the heroine into her enemies' clutches. The outcome of the 
belief in the virtue inherent in hair has been a variety of 
Oriental beliefs and customs deriving directly from it: — e. g. 
the sacredness of the Musalman's beard and of the entire hair 
on the body of a Sikh. 

To pass from a part to the whole, the great power possessed 
by enchanted human or animal bodies is invisibility. But I do 
not think its constant use in folktales and in these Legends is 
altogether due to a love of the miraculous. The notion gives 
such obvious opportunities for investing the heroes and actors 
with a deeper interest than they could otherwise be made to 
possess, and especially saints with additional supernatural 
powers for overawing those who listen to tales about them, 
that neither story-tellers nor bards have anywhere refrained 
from taking advantage of it. The practical use to which the 
power of invisibility is put in the Legends is to help 
on the development of the tales, or to assist the hero or the 
heroine in their desires, or to glorify a sainb or holy 

Curiously enough the procedure of enchantment is not 
anywhere directly .given in the Legends, though of course 
it occurs often enough in the folklore of the country. All the 
enchanted articles that occur are supposed to have undergone 
the processes necessary to render them supernatural. Probably 
the audience is assumed to know what those processes were, 
and such charms as occur are all of the prophylactic nature 
already described. 

xlviii PllBFAl^E. 

Between tlie supernatural and unmistakable human beibg 
there has existed everywhere and at all times an intermediary, 
a being who, while obviously and distinctly human, has assum- 
ed or acquired certain unusual and therefore, in the popular 
mind, uncanny powers. His ordinary form is that of the priest, 
but the forerunner, and in early society the contemporary, of 
the priest is the being who is possessed, i. e., subjected to 
enchantment, magical, supernatural, or miraculous. Spirit-pos- 
session is not a desirable accident-of life, especially as sudden, 
severe, or striking disease or illness is confounde"^d with it, and 
heuce the existence of the possessed has led to that of the 
exorcist or professional curer of the misfortune. The idea of 
possession and its antidote does not seem to have taken a strong 
hold of the Panjabi, and consequently not much of either 
appears in the Panjab Legends- Indeed, it is directly mention- 
ed only in one place; but in many respects a remarkably similar 
series of legends from Kanara which I have somewhat recently 
editedinthe Indian Antiquary under the title of the BevU-Wor- 
ship of the Tuluvas, mainly turns on it, as indeed does the whole 
complicated system of modern Tibetan Buddhism, exhibiting 
once more that common phenomenon in Nature, the rudimen- 
tary existence only in one series of connected creatures of 
a part that is fully developed in another. 

So far, we have been dealing with the heroes and their 
male counterparts, but on tui-ning to the heroines it will be 
found that, so far as Indian ideas on the parts that the soxcs 
ai-e capable of playing in the affairs of life admit, the stories 
of the female actors follow strictly on the lines of those of the 
male. The main cause of the differences observable lies in the 
low estimation in which women generally are held by the 
populace — a fact typified in the Legends by the belief that it is 
not only foolish, but socially indiscreet, to praise a woman, 
especially one's wife, by the ceremonial observances demanded 
of the women towards their male relatives, all intended to 
emphasise their position of subjection, and by the universal 
custom of the seclusion of women. 

' ¥lie typical heroine is emphatically "a child ot pfedes* 
tination," tabued as it were, from birth to the hero. Her charac- 
teristics are impossible strength or skill to save the hero in 
trouble, as when she cuts a tigress iu two; or, on the other hand, 
impossible delicacy, as when she is weighed against flowers ; or 
she is endowed with impossible attractiveness, dropping flowers 
when she laughs and pearls when she weeps. Her beauty 
is, of course, all-conquering, the animal world, the heavenly 
bodies, and the God of the Waters (Khwaja Khizar) succumb- 
ing to it, and like the hero, she is known by "signs" — e. g,, by 
the bubbling of the water in a well when she looks into it. 

Of beneficent heroines we do not hear much in the Legends, 
Perhaps it is hardly to be expected that amongst the Panjabi 
peasantry a woman could be held to be of much assistance in 
life. The fairies, when they do appear, are accordingly mere- 
ly messengers between this and other worlds, or they represent 
outside, unorthodox brides or mistresses of Rajas, or heroes, as 
in the well known case of Rani ^Lonan in the Rasalu. Cycle. 
But of maleficent heroines we hear a good deal, and of the 
victims, male and female, of their active ill-will. Calumny, 
born of jealousy, is the favoured method of showing it. 
Jealousy of a co-wife, natural enough where polygamy is 
practised, and of a co-wife's children, gives so commonly the 
spring to vindicative action, that the story of the calumniated 
wife may be looked upon as a spef"ial variety of Indian folk- 
tale, though the enmity is sometimes represented as being 
extended to the husband, the husband's sister, and the nurse 
or duenna. 

To the category of malevolent heroines belong the step- 
mothers, who play a prominent and peculiar part in Indian 
folktales, due to the polygamy practised by the rulers, the rich- 
and the great. They are nearly always the malignant co- 
wives with the hero's mother, interfering in his life and story in 
two main ways— i. e,, they either get him into trouble by acting 
after the manner of Potiphar's wife, or they seek to ruin him 
out of jealousy of his mother. From the latter cause the 


heroine is also frequently made to suffer at the hands of orie or 
more of her step-mothers. The methods of the step-mother of 
arriving at her ends are, however, generally human, and the 
women held to be endowed with malevolent supernatural 
powers are the wise-women, witches, ogresses, and ndgnU ov 

So far as the legendary lore is concerned, we may treat 
witch and wise-woman as synonymous terms for the same class 
of wicked woman. Both invariably play the same part in a 
tale and have the same characteristics. They are the marplots, 
the malignant fiends of the story, and their natural occupation 
is to place the heroine in the power of her enemies — of which 
assistance to the hero to get at the heroine in irregular manner 
is but a variant. They have disgusting and terrible attributes; 
They are cannibals and take out the liver and eat it. They 
have second sight and are suspected of knowing things that 
are hidden. But they are not necessarily ugly or uncomely^ 
often, indeed, they are the reverse. In order to attain their 
ends they are endowed with the power of metamorphosis and 
miracle-working — "setting water on fire" being in one instance 
claimed in the Legends as a difficult feat, which no doubt it is. 

The ogress is in every essential merely a female counterpart 

of the ogre, with the same attributes, the same supernatural 

powers, the same enmity to the hero's race, even as the ndgnt 

or serpent- \voman is just a woman of her kind, with all the ndg's 

attributes, humanity, habits, and powers. In their struggleswith 

the human or heroic races their methods, though necessarily 

differing from those of the males of their class, are in each case 

of the same nature. Thus instead of directly fighting mankind 

or the heroic opponents, they seek to destroy them by winning 

them over by female blandishments, and so getting them into 

the power of themselves and their party. 

Besides what may be called the heroine proper of a legend 

or folktale, the child miraculously born and predestined to 

great deeds, the legitimate pride and glory of the tribe or 

race, there is the foundling, that kind of child which has 


come irregularly or illegitimately into the tribal or family cii-cle. 
to play au importaat part therein. The career of the foundling 
may be expected to attract the iraagination of a peasantry. 
Such, an unexpected and unlooked-for addition to the family 
or tribe is sure to be interesting and to givre rise to hereditary 
tales. But apart from the interest attaching to the conditions 
underwhich foundlings are introduced, the exigencies of native 
life serve to create and maintain foundling stories. So many 
sub-castes and tribes and so many families of the upper ranks 
have from the naitive point of view a doubtful origin, so many 
of the richer people, who can pay for bards and their flatteries, 
have a blot on their escutcheons — a bar sinister, as one may 
call it — that tales of foundling girls are bound to flourish in 
order to connect families, castes, tribes, and prominent person- 
ages of the day with those of bygone times, whose position 
and claims are held to be beyond all doubt. Ancestor-making 
and genealogy-inventing are arts well understood in India, 
especially by the bardic class, and the story of the foundling 
mother of the eponymous hero is the most cherished resort 
for the purpose. In the Paujab, that land of great rivers, the 
river-borne foundling is the favourite variety. The girl infant 
is discovered floating by various methods down a river, is 
adopted by the iinder, is married to the eponymous hero or 
his father, is subsequently traced to an aristocratic family, 
and the desired high-class connection is established. A dive 
into any of the accepted accounts of the more important 
families, or into the legendary history of the sub-tribes and 
sub-castes — even into that of the tribes and castes themselves — 
anywhere in India will produce many such stories in many 
quaint forms. They abound in the folktales and appear iu 
the Legends of course. 

Pretty and popular varieties of the foundling tale are to be 
found in the many variants of the egg-hero story, where the 
little stranger, male or female, is fabled to have sprung mira- 
■culously from an egg, from fruit, from a box, a flower, or other 
small and fanciful article. And to the same category must, 
I think, be referred the universally popular sleeping-beauty. 


A careful survey of her life-history, the manner of he« 
discovery, her doings and charactei-istics, point her out as 
the representative of the bride from the other side— raped i^ 
may be, or stolen, or abduoted, or taken in fight as a sort of 
spolia opi/na, or perhaps simply found. Whatever she may 
be, princess in disguise, ogress born, or captive in a foreigu .? 
land, she is emphatically not of the hero's race or party, and 
their union is always irregular — /. e.., not according to estab- 
lished tribal custom. 

In one essential point, arising ont of the view taken by tie 
peasantry of women and girls, the folk-heroine differs entirely 
from the hero. As the actual property of some male, either, 
tabued to him or as part of his personal effects, the heroine haa 
to be chaste. Of male chastity we do not hear mnch, except 
as virtue — i. e., manly capacity, which is quite a different idea 
from that attached to sexual chastity. Of virtue in the above 
sense a great deal is heard, and it i'' f^ost jealously guarded, 
The terms usually rendered "pure" and "chaste" and so on 
however, never, imply male sexual purity, and E,a,ja Rasala, 
a hero essentially of gallantries of every kind, is repeatedly 
called '^ jati sail, pure and chaste," in the sense of being 
endowed with unimpaired capacity. He was in that sense 
fully virtuous. The possession of such virtue is made a con* 
dition of worldly power, and when possessed in an inordinate 
degree calls down the wrath of the supernatural powers as a 
positive danger to them. It is also a vital point to keep out of 
touch with women at periods, of stress and tt'ial in order to 
maintain it, their approach and proximity impairing it. The 
origin of all this is obvious, the male is not subjected to tahvt 
or appropriation, and the female is. 

Perhaps the neatest indication of the point that of old 
chastity was the virtue of women and virile capacity the virtue 
of men, is shown in the manner in which the zone, both as a 
word and as an article of costume, was used. There was 
always the female girdle or zone, the emblem of chastity, and 
the male zone or sign of virility and fighting capacity. In 

tke Himalayas the silver zone is still tlie sign par excellence of 
a warrior. Says a legend: ''The Lord Raja is coming himself 
to this war. Be has called every wearer of a silver zone to 

Now, the very line of reasoning which renders male chastity 
of no account, makes female chastity the main virtue— i. e., 
capacity of the sex. In such a society as is reflected in Indian 
legendary lore, it was as essential for a woman to be chaste, 
as it was for man to be of his hands, capable. The main- 
tenance of the tribe and its social structure rested on these 
features of the two classes of human beings composing it. 
We Europeans have the remains of this feeling iu all our 
languages when we talk of a woman and her virtue. Female 
chastity,. then, being of such very great importance to the 
men, and also very difficult to secure without the co-operation 
of the women themselves, the men were always calling in the 
gurpematural powers to their aid in maintaining it, out of 
their natural and well-founded suspicion that such co-operation 
did not exist. Of this there is universal folktale evidence, 
and it gives occasion to resort to ordeals, both practical and 
gHpernatural, more often than anything else — except perhaps 
the cruel "wisdom" of the witch-finder — by fire, by dice, 
by water, by impossible tasks and conditions. However, it 
being on occasion most important to prove the virtue in a 
hero, ordeals of the same kind are resorted to in tales for that 
purpose also, and no* only has the hero to prove that he is a 
man of parts, but the saint, too, has to show the peculiar 
virtue in him by giving a "sign," usually in the form of a 
miracle. Indeed, many miracles are merely forms of ordeal. 

The extravagant extension of any idea for the purpose of 
story-telling, may be looked for in all the literary productions 
of the folk, and in the Legends, by way of emphasising the 
grave importance of female chastity, the famous heroine, Hir, 
before what we, but not the natives, would call her fall, is in 
one place said to feel polluted, simply because the hero 
occupied her bed in her absence. 


The Value to the early intelligence of ordeals for the dla- 
covery of virtue in mankind has led to their wide employment 
in folktales, for the intelligible and important purpose of 
proving the long lost hero or heroine — for testing claimants, 
in fact. Tests, natural and supernatural, for their identifi- 
cation are ubiquitous in all folk-stories, and equally so in the 
Legends, leading in many instances almost imperceptibly into 
the region or prophecy and its fulfilment. Almost the whole 
Stock of folk ideas is pressed into the serivce of this most pro- 
minent necessity of the progress of a story. Heroes and 
heroines are identified by marks, personal characteristics, and 
properties, surviving still as "the signs of royalty," both possible 
and impossible, and by definite ordeals, such as the answering 
of riddles and the performance of impossible tasks; and, 
further, by resort to such purely mythological ideas as a coi'rect 
recollection of details and surroundings in '' a former life." 
On the other hand, there is in one instance a reference to that 
widespread, practical form of identification, which is embodied 
in the custom of placing a stamp or mark on the body or 
clothes, as a voucher of a visit to a shrine or of a pilgrimage 
completed, where the hero's camel carries away betel-leaves 
and water to show that he had really been to the heroine's 
abode, and so knew the way thither. 

The favourite folktale form of ordeal is the impossible task, 
and naturally so, as the individual fancy can here range at 
"vvill ; while the poverty of peasant imagiqfition is also shown 
by the constant resort of the story-tellers to well-known stock 
tasks. In one form, however, the impossible task is of ex- 
ceptional interest, for when it is imposed as a condition of 
marriage with the heroine, the Legends show that it is the 
poor remnant of the once important political manoeuvre of 
the sivayamvara, or public choice of a husband by girls of 
princely rank. 

There are two common variants of the impossible task 
frequently occurring in the Legends — riddles and ceremonial 
gambling. Conventional riddles preserved at the present day 
in garbled traditional verse, and usually perfectly unintelli- 


gible, are used for all the purposes of their prototype — for 
identifying the hero ; as necessary preliminaries to marriage, 
and even to an illicit intrigue ; as a variant of the swayamvara ; 
as a kind of initiation into saintship ; in fact wherever an 
ordeal is for any reason desired. But the more legitimate use 
of riddles as a symbolical, or secret, or private form of speech 
is merely hinted at in the Legends, as where a birth is announced 
in the form of a riddle, and where the female attendants of a 
princess make communications in the same form. 

Gambling is looked on by the Indian populace as the usual 
and proper occupation of the great and rich, and so a good 
deal is heard of it in the Legends. But the ceremonial gam- 
bling occurring in them bears evidence of the origin; for, as a 
test before marriage, it is clearly an ordeal in the form of a 
variant of the impossible task. In this sense it is regarded 
and repeatedly spoken of as "a virtue of the rulers." Of 
course, in folktales and legendary lore, the notion is subjected 
to great exaggeration, and we' are favoured with most ex- 
traordinary stories of reckless gambling — for property, pos- 
session, and even life itself — and in the Legends, with what is 
of far more importance, detailed descriptions in all its techni- 
calities of the great and ancient royal game of chMipur or 

Passing thus without effort almost from the actors to the 
course of the story, we find that perhaps the commonest way 
of commencing it is to set the hero seeking his fortunes, either 
by way of a start to the story, or to get a living, or as the 
result of troubles at home, or in response to a prophecy or 
..fortune-telling. This opens a wide door to preliminary in- 
cident, even to a relation of invaluable details as to the 
prescribed modes of procuring oracles and forecasts of fate 
and fortune, which will be found on examination to be sub- 
stantially the same all over India, north and south. Such 
oracles as occur in Indian tales are as vague in form and 
uncertain in meaning as elsewhere, leaving the inquirer to 
make what he can of them. A fine specimen, drawn from the 
working of the Persian water-wheel so universally used in the 

Ivl fllHFAOE.' 

rural Panjiib, and couched in good rustic verse, occurs xn 
the Legend of Mirza and Sahiban, though the hero seems 
to comprehend it without effort or hesitation : 

The axle binds the shaft and the spokes bind the axle ; 
The axle-tree lies on the ground fastened by strong chains ; 
Wheel works with wheel as a king with his courtiers ; 
The whole machine creaks as a beggar among husbandmen ; 
The pitchers clink (as they come up) full of pure water. 

It could hardly be expected that the regular and irregular 
priesthood of India would allow so fruitful a source of class and 
personal profit as is ofEered by such a matter as fortune-telling 
to pass them by, and so we are distinctly told that the casting 
of horoscopes, or the grant of peeps into the future, is the 
peculiar province of the Brahmans. 

The whole vast fabric of fortune-telling, prophecy, sooth- 
saying, oracle making, built up by the various kind of Indian 
priesthood, is throughout Indian folklore and in the Legeri^ds 
to be seen to clearly rest on the universal and ineradicable 
belief in fate. Allusions to it are innumerable, and every act 
or chance of human life is referred to it as a matter of course — • 
as an accepted incontrovertible proposition. The terms for fate 
and life are even found to be mutually convertible, though 
instances do occur in which, especially among Muhammadans, 
fate is distinguished from the consequences of evil deeds, being 
perhaps an echo there of Christian or Jewish or even Buddhist 
teaching. Of such a sentiment the following is an example : 
" If a bullet strike thy forehead, know it is the reward o[ thy 
(evil) deeds, know it not for thy fate."' But such ideas as 
this are, however, extremely rare in storj^, and habitually every 
event is attributed to the action of fate. 

Perhaps the best way of obtaining a comprehension of the 
depth and width of the sentiment of fatality among the Indian 
populace — a notion of the extent to which it permeates their 

3 " Toind g6l{ je lagi vichh tawiroh ; 

Jdni apne kanii pit, iiahth jiinl takdiroh." ' 


ideas as to the causes of the events of everyday life — is by au 
examination of the ipsissma verba of the bards and popular 
singerSj for which the Legends afiord very many opportunities. 
It will then be seen that the popular philosophy really amounts 
to this — every occurrence is fated, the action of fate 
is visible in every event, is inevitable, is pre-ordained, 
" written, " or decreed. The very terms in which the actors 
in the Legends apostrophise Fate shows this strongly. Cries an 
unfortunate more than once : " What, Fate, hast thou written 
in my fate ? " Cry others again and agaiii : " Fate, what 
hast thou done?" "0 Fate, what is this that thou hast 
resolved on ? " 

Widely differing occurrences are repeatedly attributed to the 
direct action of fate. Typical expressions are the following : 
"The matter was in the hands of Fate, and she (the wife) 
saved the Raja." Thou wast not in fault, my Lord, it was in 
my fate." " What is to be must be borne ; why make plans (to 
avoid it) ?" " Fortunate is our fate that the Court remembers 
us. " *' Thy fate is evil. " Here are expressions that recur 
repeatedly : " 1, too, aoi fate's victim. " ''I die for her sake, 
my fate hath come." Says a king of his minister : " His fate 
and mine were one. " Says an enemy, feeling that ho had no 
chance othei-wise : " If Puran's fate be awake (i. e., against 
him) I will come back and slay him." Cries a young girl: 
"Ail my studying is over, for Fate lath brought me love." 

The difficulty of accounting for occurrences — the inscrutabi- 
lity, in fact, of fate — has of course forced itself on the peasant 
mind, and the feeling finds voice in their exclamations, of which 
" There is no fathoming fate " is perhaps the commonest. 
The most conspicuous quality, however, of fate is necessarily 
the inevitability of its action, and we accordingly find this fact 
expressed in many different and sometimes quaint terms, of 
which good examples are: "The rest is in my daughter's 
fate (over which) none have power, " " Who can vary the 
lines o£ fate? " " This (a throw of dice) was in the power of 
fate, no power (of ours) avails. " ^'Thy fate liath cnriompass- 

lyiil pkefact;. 

ed thee and there is no way to save thee." " Fate is not to hd 
gainsaid, and God doeth as He listeth. " Here is a strong 
way of putting the rustie view: " Fate hath come on thee: 
when fate slew such prophets, shalt thou escape ?" Perhaps 
the most usual ways of all of expressing the hopelessness of 
fighting against the inevitable are ! "What fate has written 
who can blot out ? " " There is no remedy against fate." And 
lastly a curious belief in the godlike powers of the founder of 
the Sikh Keligion is to be seen in the expression : " "What 
fate the Guru (Nanak) hath ordained cannot be avoided." 
But the pathetic cry of a mother over a murdered son seems to 
point to a latent hope in the villagers ' hearts that peradven- 
ture, for all its inevitability, the action of fate may possibly be 
avoidable : " Death met him in the street and fate stopped, 
the way (for flight). When thy fate was written had I been 
by, I would have made a great cry to God and had it written 

The usual way of stating the inevitable is by viewing it as 
written or decreed by fate. The common expression is : "It 
was written in my fate; thou canst do nothing.'' And there 
also occurs twice in the Legends : " See, this was written in the 
lines of fate, this misery of mine. '' A religious fanatic in 
order to account for his mode of life, says : " Mendicancy 
was written in my fate : " and it is further said of a herdsman : 
" God wrote no labour (in his fate) ; he was to be happy with 
(tending) buffaloes." Of a parted husband and wife it is 
said : " This much connection was written ; fate hath done 
this." Again, one of three brothers puts the Panjabi peasant 
belief very powerfully when he explains to a judge : " Chief- 
ship was written in (Jhuohak's fate and lordship in Michru'a. 
In my (Katd^'s) fate was written saintship; it was the writ- 
ing of God. " 

The decree of fate occupies a prominent position in Indian 
idea, and typical ways of giving expression to it are such as 
these : " The decree that fate has written down against me 
have I suffered to the full. " " queen, if posterity had been 


decreed iu my fkte, it would have been through you. " " The 
decree of my fate (leprosy) hatb been passed upon me. '' 
The commonest expressions of resignation are: " The decree 
of fate must be borne, '" and '' Pain and grief are with all ; it 
is the decree of fate. " The notion has even passed into a 
frequently recurring proverb : "The decree of fate is strong 
and waits not for postponing." Cries one of a number of re- 
fugees from an unhappy political struggle : " It was fate's 
decree that drove us to the forest. " 

Fortune-telling in all its forms involves the intervention of 
a second party, but a forecaste of fortune can also be sought 
within one's own personality, as it were, by the interpretation 
of dreams, and so dreams, their results and their meaning 
play an important part in Indian folktales. They frequently 
occur in the Legends, where they are usually of the prophetic 
sort, a start being given to a story by the hero's dream of the 
heroine or vice versd ; an idea neatly turned to practical use in 
Bome stories of saints by making the saintly hero fix on a pre- 
ceptor owing to a dream. The idea is further useful in tales 
about the recovery of recalcitrant followers, by making the 
saint terrify them through dreams. The actual method of 
utilising dreams in folktales is to make the hero or heroine 
follow them up in their subsequent waking hours, often to 
their great temporary tribulation. And of the familiar warn- 
ing or prophetic dream of the western world, there is one 
quaint example, in which a doe is made to warn her husband, 
the buck, of his impending death at the hands of the hunts- 
men, by telling him a vividly related dream as to the details 
of it. 

The interpretation of dreams is a form of augury or divina- 
tion, i. e., it is a means of foretelling the future, from occur- 
rences to human beings which are beyond control, though the 
latter terms in themselves imply an attempt to forecaste the 
future from natural occurrences beyond human control that take 
place only in the surroundings of mankind. In the Legends 
direct references to augary and divination are few, and then 

only stock ones relating chiefly to marriage ccromonies; which 
last may in India be best described as one prolonged effort to 
sacerdotally control and foretell the future. But all over the 
world the commonest and most universal mode of arriving at 
an idea of the future from chance occurrences in the natural 
world around us lies in omens and their interpretation, and of 
these we are treated to a great mimber in the Legends, as 
might be expected. They are all, however, of the usual sort, 
except perhaps that it is unlucky in the Himalayas to give milk 
to a warrior on the war-path. With this exception we have 
dished up for us the well-worn superstitions relating to the 
meeting of lucky and unlucky personages, to lucky and un- 
lucky things in Nature, plants, ti'ees and so forth, to the 
flight and calls of birds, to sneezing which, like hiccough, is a 
most mj'sterious proceeding of the animal body to the Indian 
mind, to accidental occurrences on mounting a horse and while 
walking and so on. 

Following on and arising out of the notion of fortune^teil- 
ing, augury, divination, and omens are the actions necessary 
to ensure good fortune or luck; the lucky things to do, and 
the lucky times for doing them, such as swinging during the 
rainy season. And as everyone is of course interested in finding 
these out, we are everywhere favoured in Indian folklore with 
a goodly array of them, and amongst lucky acts may be men- 
tioned as noticeable, that of mounting a horse with the left 
foot, a curious instance of giving a semi-religious sanction to 
an act that is otherwise right from a practical point of view. ■ 
The sole use to which the " science " of astrology is put in the 
Legends, is to ascertain auspicious times and moments. 

In folktales the main use of the idea of ill-luck is to fill up 
the tale by introducing a great number of incidents, describing 
all the misfortunes which fancy can call up as happening to the 
hero or heroine ; but the thousand and one precautions takeo 
in practical life against incurring misfortune are based upon 
far more serious considerations than this. To the Indian pea- 
sant mind misfortune is a sin, and indicates a sinful condj.x 


tion in tlie -victim ^hereof, defining that very difficult and 
piuch ill-used term "sin" as an offence, witting or unwitting, 
against the tribal conventions. The good luck of the lucky 
obviously benefits their surroundings, and the bad luck of the 
unlucky as obviously brings harm. Therefore the unlucky 
are sinful and, what is of supreme practical importance to 
them, must be punished accordingly. The amount of misery 
and suffering arising out of this "correct argument from a 
false premiss" that is being and has for ages been incurred by 
the victims of perfectly involuntary and uncontrollable misfor- 
tune — such as widows for instance — is quite incalculable, 
and a little consideration will show why it is that the nostrums 
for the prevention of the dreaded sin of misfortune are inter- 
minable, both in variety and number. 

Another most fruitful result of the primitive view of 
misfortune is the idea of ceremonial uncleanness, an " unfor- 
tunate " condition clearly the consequence of inadvertence 
even to the savage, which has led to unnumbered ceremonies 
and customs in practical life and to many incidents in tale and 
story. The ceremonially unclean condition, however much it 
may be natural or the result of mere chance, is perceived in a 
dim way to be somehow sinful or the result of sin, and hence 
the nostrums for avoiding the consequences thereof, but when 
the condition is intensified and exhibits itself in a loathsome 
or continuous form, then to the popular mind its sinful origin 
is no longer doubtful. The story of that prominent, mys- 
terious, obviously unclean, loathsome, and much dreaded 
disease, leprosy, and of the native treatment of lepers in India, 
will bring out all these points ; and the subject of lepers and 
leprosy, if taken up as a folklore study, would be found to 
■cover nearly the whole range of belief and customs among the 
folk. In the Legends we see much of it. There, the 
•separation, isolation, and treatment of lepers is due to their 
uncleanness, the origin of leprosy lies in sin and in 
the punishment of sin, and its cure : is due to ceremonial 



lu another direction, the doctrine, so to speak, of lU-luck 
has led to very serious practical consequences, a fact which is 
clearly brought out by an incident in the Legends. The birth 
of a daughter is announced to Eaj4 Sarkap just as he had 
lost his "great gambling match. "Kill her," said E4j4 
Sarkap, " she has been born at an unlucky moment, and has 
brought me bad luck. " But, as an instance where female in- 
fanticide, based on ill-luck, has been widely resorted to, though 
from a different concrete origin, the whole of the celebrated 
historical legend of Mirza and Sahiban is witness. Briefly 
Sahlban, a daughter of the Panjabi Siyals, eloped with Mirza, 
the Kharal, and was overtaken by her tribe and strangled. The 
subsequent feuds were so severe that it became unlucky to 
have daughters, and an extensive practice arose of strangling 
female infants in memory of Sahiban. This is an instance 
where folk -notions have actually affected history. 

Now, the predatory portion of the priesthood has everywhere 
been most careful to keep alive and foster the folk-notions of 
si a, misfortune, and ill-luck, because out of them arises the 
most prolific source of all of a good livelihood for themselve^.' 
Sins must be expiated ; sinful bodies must be purified ; the 
priest is always ready to secure expiation and purification, and 
to guide the ceremonies enjoined in either case. Ceremonial 
bathing, as a result of the notion of the holiness and cleansing 
powers inherent in water, is the great panacea in India, and out 
of the holy bathing places perhaps more wealth has been 
transferred from the laity to the coffers of the priestly classes 
than from anything else that has been invented for the ghost- 
ly benefit of the people. 

After providing the personages and setting the story going 
in a definite direction, the next thing necessary is to keep 
up the interest by the process known to adverse reviewers as 
padding and to the sympathetic as valuable incidents. Those in 
theLegie»(isare,as might be expected, of the stock description ; 
scraps of well-known verses or tales, or references to stock 
notions about this world and its affairs. From the very nature 


of the circumstances under which they are introduced they 
offer the most undiluted folklore with which the narrators are 
imbued, and are thus often the most valuable part of a tale 
to the student. Thus, there are everywhere valuable references 
to the miraculous origin of that puzzle to the peasantry, a 
pearl or precious stone, or even a bright flower. Rubies are 
the products of the sea, or the special gift of the god of the 
rivers, or more fancifully still drops of blood from the murder- 
ed magical hero or heroine. Pearls are rain-drops during a 
particular asterism, and both they and flowers are derived from 
the tears or laughter or speech, indiflerently, of the hero or 
heroine, and so on. 

A very large portion of the incidents observable in folktales 
are tricks, in the narration of which, as in that of many other 
contents of stories, resort is had to both plain matter of fact 
circumstances and to the whole gamut of peasant fancy and 
wisdom. There are tricks humorous and tricks malicious. 
There is the cruel practical joke, the mysterious superna- 
tural tragedy, the downright cheat; even the lie direct is per- 
petrated by the Lady of Virtue (Sila Dai),who is held up to 
honour as the embodiment of all the virtues. 

References to and details of ceremonies of all sorts are a ne- 
cessary, and frequently a most valuable, form of folktale in- 
cident, but they do not require more than mere mention in 
such a discussion as this. In the Legends we ai-e treated to 
many a most interesting and instructive description especially 
of marriage ceremonies, involving allusions to equally interest- 
ing and instructive notions about marriages generally. In 
fact, as regards marriages, and betrothals which are their 
counterparts in India, a perusal of the Legends will take the 
reader over the whole subject: the beliefs, forms, ceremonies, 
customs and laws, and political uses; some of them throwing 
light on European customs of past and present times. In 
other directions also we are treated to allusions to, or descrip- 
tions real or fanciful of, such practical ceremonial matters as 
the adoption of girls, declaring an heir to the throne, regulat- 


iag a Rajput hunting party, the reception of guests. In 
sacerdotal or quasi-sacerdotal matters we have the ceremonies 
of divination by the breath, and initiatory rites into the sect 
of the Lalbegi scavengers and into various sects of jogis and 
faqirs, of which the ear-boring ceremonies are the most promi- 
nent and of some importance, as they have led to the use of 
earrings of fixed sorts as signs of occupation or caste and to 
earboring custoQis among the women of various natigns in the 
East as general prophylactics against evil. 

In matters affecting the daily life of the people, there are 
the use of ashes as a sign of both grief and saintship, and 
other conventional modes of expressing sorrow, such as the 
breaking of bracelets and jewellery, and the ceremonies gone 
through by the newly-made widow. There are also various 
conventional ways of conveying specific and general challenge 
to combat, claiming inheritance to land, blacking the face, 
and other strange methods of inflicting disgrace. Of the daily 
and domestic customs which are hardly to be distinguished 
from ceremonial observances, there are many instances ; e. g., 
the quaint methods of showing that the occupant of a house 
is not at home, announcing a visitor, awakening a slumbering 
chief on an emergency, tying a knot to jog the memory, 
showing submission and making supplication. To show how 
the Legends reflect the people and their ways, there is an in- 
teresting use made for story-telling purposes of the inveterate 
habit of village children of teasing hedgehogs. 

xillusions to popular beliefs and the frequent introduction 
of incidents turning on them must, of course, be looked for. 
These open up so many questions of interest and debatable 
points, that it would only be unduly swelling this already 
too long category of folklore subjects, to do more here than 
just merely run over the recognised titles of some of those 
that occur in the Legends and have not been above classified, 
in order to bring them to notice, and to show how very 
wide is the net that is cast by this collection of tales for- 
gathering in the flotsam of Indiaji folklore. Many are the be-- 


liefs relating to the animal world and their forms, of which the 
following are samples : — the origin of twisted and back -curv- 
ed horns of various deer, the sacred, celestial, and marvellous 
characteristics of that favourite the horse, the sacred and' 
supernatural nature of the peacock and the swan, the capa- 
bilities of the dreaded scorpion. Beliefs relating to the heaven- 
ly bodies are necessarily legion, and those relating to eclipses 
and the moon and stars find a place here, as do also the worlds 
outside that which man inhabits, heaven and hell and their 
inhabitants, hurts and such like. The parts of the human body 
and their uses give rise to many beliefs, such as the correct 
foot to start with, the marks of hands and feet on rocks and 
other places, both natural and marvellous, the head and the 
shaving thereof. We have also most interesting references to 
the world-wide belief in a flood or del uge, clearly' in one in- 
stance more or less indirectly based on the Biblical story. 
And lastly there are many data for arriving at a clear notion 
of the peasants' ideas of the Deity and the confusion of mind 
they are troubled with on the subject, owing to the intermix- 
ing of Hindu and Musalman teaching in so many parts of 

Customs having their roots in popular beliefs are from their 
very nature, not only perpetually alluded to in the stories of the 
folk, but are a productive source of incidental narrations ; e.g., 
the aspect of the shrines as the remnant of sun-worship. Of 
these the old-world and universal idea of refuge, asylum, and 
sanctuary, as it is variously called, and as likely as not owing 
its inception and extension to sacerdotal pretf^nsions and ex- 
clusiveness, is perhaps the most favoured in legend and folk- 
lore. In practical application it everywhere consisted of pro- 
tection to strangers against their enemies, so long as they paid 
their way and only so long. The well-known Oriental concep- 
tion of hospitality and its obligations is sanctuary pure and 
simple, both in theory and practice. Indeed, the Indian and 
Eastern notion of hospitality cannot be distinguished from 
sanctuary, and when the Pathan treats his enemy or a guest 

Ix-Vi PEEFAeF/,' 

worth pliinclerlng to the best clieer iu his power, gives bim 
a fair start, and then prepares to try and murder or rob him, 
he is merely doing in his way what the old heatheu Greek, or 
for that matter the medieval Christian priest, did in his, when 
he granted asylum or sanctuary to the fugitive or criminal 
only so long as he could pay for it, and made no sort of effort 
to shield him or obtain immunity for him when the payment; 
ceased. AH this is pithily brought out in a passage in the 
Legends. Raja Rasalu's faithless wife had successfully hidden 
her paramour. Raja Hodi, in her husband's house, but Rasalii's 
faithful parrot betrayed him, and then we read: — "Said 
the parrot ; 'slaj^ not thy guest, he is as thy brothei*.' So Raja 
Rasalu and H6di went together to the wilds, and there, wound- 
ed by an arrow, Raja Hodi was slain." 

The very widespread custom, rooted in a superstitious belief 
that it brings ill-luck, of declining to refer to a husband by 
name is also mentioned in the Legendu, while on the other 
hand the ancient royal prerogative of releasing prisoners, now- 
adays in civilised Europe attributed solely to kindliness and 
mercy, is given in the directest phraseology its right attribution 
of an act t) insure good luck. That very ancient and wide- 
spread Oriental emblem of divine protection, the shade giving 
umbrella, is repeatedly mentioned, as might be expected, in 
its degenerated form of a sign of royalty and thence of dignity 

Indian folktales end up usually in the most orthodox manner. 
The hero and heroine live happy ever afterwards after the Indian 
fiishion, which I must remind European readers is not at all 
their.s, and the villain, male or female, comes to an untimely 
and well-deserved end. Poetical justice is thoroughly appre- 
ciated in the East, perhaps because for so many ages there has 
been so little of any other description. The interest here is 
chiefly in the forms that vengeance and punishment take as an 
indication of the popular notions on the subject. In the Legends 
and elsewhere punishments are all vindictive and cruel, most 
ingenious indei-d in their cruelty ; and torture is solely used as a. 

PREFACH. ixvii 

moans of ■ expressing viiidictivene?3. In resorting to it there 
is no other ulterior motive. Enemies are cut to pieces, buried 
and burnt alive, shot to death with arrows, buried up to the 
neck to starve, in company on occasion with thorns, scorpions 
snakes, and so on. There is much personal triumph mixed 
with the vengeance. Enemies' skulls are mounted in silver 
as drinking cups, strangled bodies are exposed, graves of ene- 
mies are ploughed up and walked over by the conquering 
hero and heroine, the ashes of victims of burning alive are sent 
to their mothers, and an unchaste wife is tricked into eating 
her lover's heart by the injured husband. Callously cruel as all 
these proceedings are, they may, as every reader of Oriental 
history knows, be fairly termed mild when compared with many 
that must have often been within the actual personal know- 
ledge of the peasantry of all parts and at all times, even the 
most recent. 

The lengths to which sacerdotal vindictiveness has often, 
gone in India, is indicated by the well-established custom of 
ceremonial suicide, self-immolation, and self-injury, in order, 
to bring divine or supernatural wrath on an opponent or 
enemy. Debased as such a custom is in its nature and object, 
it has given rise to another equally well established and as 
noble as its prototype is execrable : the old and often exercised 
Rajput sakd or jauhar, which meant the voluntary suicide 
of the women of a palace, while the men went out to make the 
last wild sally when it was no longer possible to continue 
a defence. 

With this, perhaps the noblest outcome of all of Indian 
superstition and belief, I close my survey of the folklore 
contained in these pages, in the hope that I have said enough 
to show that in the Legends of the Punjab we have displayed 
before us practically the whole machinery of popular Indian 
story-telling. Both the actors and their actions, so far as We 
have been able to regard them, have all shown themselves to 
be of the same description, and to have the same character- 
istics as those in Indian folktales generally whether purely, 

Ixviii PREFACE, 

narrative or of set purpose connected with tlie hagiolatry or 
demonolatry of the people. I hope also that what has been 
laid before my readers has been sufficient to convince tbem 
that these Legends, if explored, will decisively and instructively 
show the value of studying them in detail to those who would 
dig down to the roots of folklore anywhere in the world, and 
would learn something of the thoughts of the folk and of the 
trains of reasoning, which give form to the many apparently 
incomprehensible and unreasonable actions observable in the 
everyday life of the peasantry everywhere. 

I cannot part finally with the Legends, my companions, in 
true Indian fashion, ofE and on, for so many years, without once 
more expressing my gratitude to those who unselfishly helped 
me long ago, and if in the former prefaces I have inadvert- 
ently omitted the names of any friends that ought to have 
been included amongst those of my acknowledged co-ad jutors, 
I humbly crave their pardon. 

And now in saying the last words about my old friends, the 
Legends, I would ask the reader's indulgence if 1 point out 
that the story of the composition of this book is itself tho- 
roughly typical of English life in India. My labours on it began 
about the time that my children were being born. Like them, 
this book was at first my constant companion. With the pass- 
ing years, as with them, the conditions of Government service 
in India, obliged me to part with it for ever lengthening pe- 
riods, till at last I have been obliged, as again with them, to 
launch it on the world with far less personal knowledge and 
recollection of it than a true father desires. Thus is it always 
now, as it has always been, with those whose fortune takes 
them for their working life to the "Land of Regrets." 


Port Blair, Andaman Islands, May 1900. 



[This is a very celebrated tale in the Jhang and Montgomery Districts, and 
thenoe throughout the Panj4b, because of the feuds which the elopement 
of the heroine, Sahibdn, with her cousin MirzS led to between the Mahnis 
(SiyAls) and the Chadhars of KhtwS in the Jhang District and the Eharala 
of DSnS,b&d in the Montgomery District. The story generally told is as 
follows : — Mirzfi was sent to his relative the Mahni Chief of KhiwS, who 
had a daughter Sdhib&n. S^hib£n Was betrothed to a youth of the Chadhar 
tribe, but before she could ,be married to him she eloped with Mirzi 
towards Dandbad. Before they reached, however, their pursuers, the 
Mahnis and the Chadhars, overtook them, killed MirzS, and strangled 
SShibaii. The Kharals thereupon attacked the Mahnis and the Chadhars, 
defeated them and recovered the corpses of MirsS and Sfihibfin, which they 
buried at DAndbdd. The fends, however, lasted a long while, so that it be- 
came to be considered unlucky to possess daughters, and thus they led to 
extensive female infanticide by strangulation in memory of the manner 
of Sahibdn's death. As regards the Kharals, this was only put down by 
the English within the last forty years. The Siy&ls to the present day 
resent a reference to SShibdn as they do to Hir, the heroine of the tale, of 
Hlr and BaujhS given in the previous volume.] 

[The date of Hir was in the previous volume referred to the 1 6th century A.D. 
and that of Sdhibdn is no doubt much more modern.] 

[The version here given is characteristically incomplete arid full of references 
of a local nature. It is also wanting in that skillful treatment, which is 
so distinctive of the ancient Indian legends, even in their garbled modern 

Ghar Khiwe de Sahiban jami Mangalwar : 
Dom suheli gawande Khan Khiwe de bar. 
Raj doain ditti&n sohane parwar, 
Ral tadbir&n bandian ; chhail hoi mutiar, 
5 Sahiban nal suhelian kAri ris kar. 

Ghar Banjal de IVtirza jamid karare bar. 
Janam ditte mai-bap ne, rup ditta Kartar : 
Aisa Mirza s^rman Kharalaii da sard^r. 
' Sahiban parhe pattian, MirzS, parhe Kuran : 

VOL. III. — 1 


10 Bich Masit* de lagian, jlne kul jahan. 

"Na mar J Kaji chhamkari, ni de tatl niin tao. 
Parhna sada rah gia, le ke ishk hikhi." 

SahiUh gai tel nM, gal pasarf de hat : 
Phar ni jane takhri, har nS. jane wat. 
15 Tel bhuia^ve bhAla Banian, ditta shahit ulat. 
Banajfganwa le Banian ; balad ganwae Jatt. 
Tin sai Naga pir rihia, ho gae chor-chapat. 
Mirza Sahib^n di dosti raho bich jagat. 

Ghar se Sahiban tur pie karke parhne ki nit : 
20 " Kaji sya mar gia, sunl pie Masit." 

" Tiin sun, KarmA Bahman&n, kadhi na S,ia kam, 
Ghori dean tare charhan ndn, sane kathi lagam : 
Hathon di dewan chiirian, sona kardi dan : 
Jhoti dean dudh pin nun, hal di zamln inam. 

25 Jad lag jive Sahiban, rakhe tera ahsln. 

Chauthe nidi Ghandar biyah le jange, phir ki karoga Sn ?" 
Agion Karmft bolda : " Sachl dean sunae. 
Chalis kohin da panda hai ; kaun ave ? kann ja ? 
Ghar Mirza dl hor istri, snnl di burl balae. 

30 Saukan utte saukan pai mare leve adh bat§,e. 

Chhad de purine Jatt di dostl, nawin Karmfl bal 1^. 
Ghar bich la, le dosti bahke ishk kama." 
Age Sahiban boldi : " Munh tere suh§,e : 
MElran chaupar tere gajab dl, dean akal ganwde. 

35 Khabar ho ja mere bap nun, tainfin shaharon den ujar : 
Tan khabar ho ji bir Shumer nun, tainiin karan mar : 
Je khabar ho ja pind de mundidh nM, karde teman di 

Bhnlke sradh, Dada, ^wange, neude khan te ja I 
Lagian main teri potrl, bah gia ran banae. 

* For Maejid. 


40 Lago Kaeliahri KhJwe b§,p de, tainfin banhke Idn 
" Eh gun^h mera bakhsh le, S^hib^n, jithe gballe utlie 

Dora laga afim di, akie akal thikan^ ndn. 
Main to bhola gharib ban ; iiieri rakb dhauMn di Mj. 
Bari raton uthke tur pawon Kharalan di rah." 
45 Siy5,13,n te Bahman tur piS,, pia KharaRn di vih. 
Kol Mirze de ^ke das ditti sahe die pa : 
" Mehndi Sahiban de biy§.h de ohalke Mthon apne 1^. 
Bhej^ SS,hiban da a gia ; chheti ho tayy^r." 

Charhde Mirza Khan nftn Chhahti kare jab^b : 
50 " Hatke baithen, MirzSi, ghar vichh karin sal§,h. 
Utte palang te bahke mere hathin kaj sunw&r : 
Bhulke awange Bh£ttfci Sandal Ear de, SS,hib Sunde 
" Mera jan zarAr da, pichhe bhaich&r : 
Achhi karni apne nak niin : nahin, Kharalan ntix ao Mr. 
55 Mera janS. zariir da, jande nAn hor na pae. 

Kfij bahiinan main phirSn, mainAn ki kisi kajan nal ?" 

Charhde MirzS, Khan nM mata deve man : 
" Bare Siyal§,n de mu'amla ; buri Siyalan di reih ; ■ 

Buri Siyalan di aurataa : j§,dii len pa. 
60 Kaddh kalije khandian j mere jhate tel na pae. 

Ran de kh&tir chalia, aven jan ganw^e. 

Akhe mere lag j^ ; kge pair na pae." 
" Ghar Khiwe di kaj hai : Idgi bhajia mere bar. 

Ghar mere anke das ditti sahe de pS,. 
65 Oh ninke main dohta ; jande ndn mor na p&. 

Panj rupae ik patr& mainiin 4^ pailnga ja." 

Mirzd ne ghori singar lie, &san balthS. j4. 
Charhde da pall^ atakia ; chhink sambne k I 
Mirzl Syal&ii nM chalia, Kbere niw&ke sis. 


70 Kaddli kalije le gai Khari KMwe di dhi. 
" Gaz gaz lamian inendian, rang jo gori sJ ; 
Je deve piala zahar da, main, Mirza, lainda pi : 
Je mare burcM kaske, MirzS. kadhi na karAnga si : 
Apni maufc main maraii : mere nal taha nAn ki 1" , 

75 Charhde Mirza Khan nte Banjal dend^ mat : 
" Bhat ranan di dosti ; khori jinhan di mat. 

Hanske lawandi jarian, roke dendi das. 

Jis ghar lai dosti mul na ghate lat. 

Sathi hath na awandi danishmandan di pat, 
80 SS,hiban ain na chhadke, sir na raho sadi pat. 

Eaja jhore raj niln, budh niin jhore chor. 

Gori jhore rAp nun, pairan jhore mor." 

Charhde MirzS, Khan nto ma mat dindi khari : ^ 

" Sapan sheran di dosti na kar, bhai, ari. 
85 Tapi karha hai tel di, sir par lat jali. 

Musa bhSjia Maut te, us de age Maut khari j 
Parbat bharde tukren lenghan kehre gali. 
Eondi Bibi Fdtima karke bahan khari. 
' Main ki, Rabba, tera pharia, meri jori khS.k rali ?' 
90 Aj da wS.r bichale, bhalke Siyalan ja barin." 
"Biy^h hove chhadd dewan, mang na chhaddi jL 
Jekar mang main chhadd dewsin, lage Kharal§,n ndn laj. 
Put Mirza, vAh Sahiban, s^di tirni jag vioh war." 

Charhde Mirza Khan nAa ma mat dindi khari. 
95 " J&ran choran vichh baithke gal na kariye khari. 

Aj da w^r bichae, bhulke Siyalan ja barin." 

Age Mirza boM : " dewan sach suna ; 

Ghar Banjul de jamia ditto kul sanw^r. 

Sadia Sahiban Siyal, kikar dew^n jab4b ? 
100 JiwandS, raha tki. a milto j mat chhoro as. 

. » 

Mirza Siyalan nun tur piS,, chaliS, h<5,a sawar. 

Mirza puohha PiW ska'ir ndn ; " dasin shaguu vichar." 


PiM baitta kM te karke lakh tadbir. 
" Kanjan bandba takula^ takula bandlia tir ; 
105 Lath pilana milia, karare ghat zanjir. 

Kabian mudh dhaturian, jiwen badshahari mudh wazir. 

Katha hat hat kar vahk, jiwen ddr vichh khara fakir. 

Tindan giram giriah, bhar bhar dhaulan nir." 

Age Mirza bolia : " tainte dean suna : 
110 Teri gallan jhatJan ; ik bhi mandi na." 
" Ehnan charkhe-wale admi kabaren ja pie ; 

Je bhale chahuna zindagi gahan pair na de." 

" Raste pe jao, rahio, dandi pair na ghat. 

Jis din saha sadhia ligi dinde ghat, 
115 Grhar Mirza de ake pawanda s&h§,i de das, 

Panj rupae ik patia, na wada jana ghat. 

TuMde bar ghorian, meri Bakki da patla lak. 

A, leo rupae, saMm da tuhaniin kge na ke mat. 

Sum Bakki di kharakde, jo lohe pain dhagan : 
120 Dum Bakki di in phiri, jaisi chaunri kare ghulam. 

Munh nal lahen pagari§.n, phatke site anjan : 

Bakki lihiah pagarian, vekhi na kisi di laj. 

Nai mera maria, sharbat ditta dhol. 

Puchh na painde mu'amle, na ho na lagde chhor. 
125 Gallan karan sukhalian, aukhi pilne bol," 

MirzS. SiyMan much a gia, ran Sahiban dl chor. 
Hor ande ha then barchhan, Mirza di sabz kuman. 
Dahine kane awand^ mera MirzS, sher jawan. 
Mirza ghar Bibo di a gia, charkha dinda thahra : 
130 " Je tun masi dharm di Sahiban nun le ake mila." 
Grhar te Bibo tur pie moharan leke char : 
" Uthen, Sahiban sutie, uthke dean didar 
Chirewala chhokra Bibo andar kaun para ? 
Mirza phul gulab da meri jholin tiit piS, !" 

135 " Na phar, hadukxx ghutk^, bangelii jandi phat f 
Kal chir oharhi&n, pahin na dekhl raj ! 


Bherl gali, kuthian ghar, mflrakh dhuli gad. 
Khabar hove Khan Shumer Hiin, lahu pivega raj ! 
Le chal Danabid nurij je sir haigi pag ; 
140 Taindn mar ganwayegi ; tAn rakh Kharaia.n di laj." 

Age Mirza bolda : " tt siin, Jam* Lohar ! 

Kya suta ? kya jagda ? ki gia pawar ? 

Majiiri le lien apni, kilian dien hazar. 

Je tu bhai dharm da Sahiban torien nal." 
145 Mirz^ killari gadian, Panj Pir manS, : 

Pauri pauri Jatt charh gia^ ilpar charhiS, ja ; 

Uparon Sahiban utari, pai gai chhinkar : 

Said da pallg, atakia. " Eatak Bakki nfln pher !" 
" Age ghar, Sahiban, bap da nau lakkha. La dAi salA^n 
da dher. 
150 Charhi rah Bakki di bel te, sakh Mirza di lor." 
" Mari teri tirki, Mirza, laia kidharoii tor ? 

Sukki, ahida chaukata ; kiwm khade kamror ! 

Je ghar na si tere bap de, mang le awanda hor ! 

Ghori Khiwe Khan di bari muratab-khor ! 
155 BhajiSiii nth. jan na denge, udhal ghasian de chor ; 

Bich ujar de marde, tere sat de dhon maror !" 
" Kan Iambi, khor patli, dum Bakki di siyah ; 

Dekhke mari tir nun jhori chit na pa. 

Bai Dogar jinhan de bahan pawande a: 
160 Bap de khati^n cMrke Bakki ne lian bana. 

Das mahian dS, gliian ditt& Bakki de didh pa. 

Bakki te daran farishte, maitori dare Khuda ! 

Chobhe bich Patal ; urke charhi Agas ! 

Charhna apne shauk nun, Bakki nAn Mj na 1^ 1" 

165 Bdhe nAn tamak bajia, Sahiban ghate tel. 
Andar baithe nanaki, buhe baitha mel. 
Thali batwa rah gia, kftpe atar phulel, 
Gahne sane patari^n, chh^njan sane hamel ! 

Paroz Dogar kftki^n : " Sunin, Khan Khiwa, bat. 
* A title used towards the caste. 


170 SS,liiban nfin Mirza le gia rondi Kunde de Bar ! 
L& gia laj Siyalan niin, gi§. si dagh \L 
GHore pao pakaran, paidal, ho jaon aswar 1 
Easte pawo, paidalo, murtd mallon aswar I 
Sawari Mirza mcima, karke kaul karar \" 

175 Ishk litare admi, baraf litare rukh ; 

Nind Ba awandi chor nun, 4sliak na lage bhukh. 

" Sahiban Mirze di dosti jag na rahni luk. 

Le cbal DanS,bad nfin, jan lukS,ve mukh. 

Jand de heth, Jatta, so raba, utb sust sambhal. 
1 80 Bakki tainiiii cbhaddke nth gai, jis de utte barS, aitbar ! 

Narad cbhaddke uth gia, tera mudh kadiman Ai yar, 

Maran Sahiban nun a gia, jeh da karda na si aitbar !" 
" Mere upar na koi didha siirma, jere mera parwar kare. 

Mar kohan tare, jin ne pas tere bir kare. 
185 Jhattak jhiita jand heth lain de, jere Khnda kare ! 

Aj di ghari so lain de, duji ghari baran Dan^bad." 
" Jand de hethan, Jatta so riha lal dushS,l tan, 

Wahi chaMian kanian Maut ne dinde jan. 

Mathe bich kaljogna, fatteh na dinde hon. 
190 Likhi&n Dadhe Eabb ; deian metan-waM kon ? 

Uthan, Mirza sutia j khabe ae aswar ! 

Hathen teghan rang li§,n, karde mar-o-mar ! 

Mere babal wargian ghorian ; bir mere sawar ! 

Ki dhuridhawan asan de ? Ei mir-shikar ? 
195 Jand de jatoria, tuhen karen niyalin. 

Hoio dfina phale, chaugunS, teri mehndi mine chhaun." 

Muthian bhar jagawandi yar nun: " Jagiye,. Eabb de 
nam : 

Dhur na aprl ran Sahiban ; meri bichalon tflti Ian. 

Je na si or nabhani, mere kah nun palri bahen ? 
200 Bacha dendd, ashaka*, nk ige milna tainfln thailri." 

For 'dshiqd. 


Arson utare chhah jane, chhah hain bahin bharM. 
Duldul lien Shah Ali ne, paien Kaba di r^h. 
Ik lia G-flge Chauhan ne, Bagran dittiaii Shi. 
Nila lia Eaj^ Easalft ne, Kania lia chhunda. 
205 Garara Jaimal Fatte sandal beti na ditti biy§,h. 
Lakhi le lain Dula jaw&n ne, mare Akbar di rtth. 
Kakki ghar SuMn de charen kuntan laian niwa. 
Sabhndn te chhoti hain Bakki, chalke ai Mirza de pas. 
Munh kadiaia, Jatt ne de lia Panj Pir nian§i,; 
210 Chhikke tang kasia ; lie na shagun mana : 
" Sir Siyalan de badhke, dewan jand charha. 

Bakki ki bel par bahke ; Bakki nAn Ej na la !" 
" SherU Kaliyar bhaunkde ; dekh janan de dhun. 
SjtJx Makka labba hajian, mainun labba tun. 
215 Shahar Siyalan de a lage, jo phattan utte nto : 
Teghan mar urawange, jo panja punjda riin." 
Mirza akhe : " Koi na dhend^ surma, jei-a mainun hath 

Katak bharS. den tukren, maithon bharar dare; 
Balbal bad diinga sftrmS,, jo kethi ndn pain gare. 
220 Sir Siyalan de badhke sittunga bich rare." 

" Athan wakat dhor da, jyiin suboh se hoe sh^m. 
Dharti tamba ho gai, siahi phari asman. 
Ghar bagane marke, so raha bich maidan. 
Tere sire sagan bajdian, jyte lohe pare thang§.n. 
225 Ohandar dhunke jan banke m&re, tainuh baj na Jan. 

Chher Bakki chaliye Danabad ; kyun pia bich maidan ? 
Mere Mirza de hathon paian bhajran, ambar koi na 

pinda thai. 
Rani mahani tanjani tarapi MirzS, di gal." 
" Main baitha bich Kachahrian Raja honde mere bal. 
230 Maran rah Lahor da, shahren ghatta har jal. 
Charan kuntan Mt liari, sangan nal athal. 
Marna te jag chhaddna, meri jag bich rah jave gal." 

Ohandar Siyal charh pie, rahi ghat bhir : 
Faujah ghera ghatia karke bare tadblr. 


235 Karakar chalan golian, Mirza vAn bahoti painde tir. 
Oh suta nahiii jagdaj k^im naMn honda sarar. 
Dekh jandre di chhatri sir par boli kad : 
"Tangon baje Maliku'1-Maut de; kite naMn dinde Jan." 

" Chandar Siyal marange bare surme jawdn. 

240 Uth, Mirza sutia, kyiin pia bare guman ? 

Grhori awandi bir Shumer dij awandi hain bare tan. 
Suta hi tii uth khar, je Rabb rakhe sidak iman." 
Mirea awanda dekhia Sahiban da bir Shumer, 
To Mirza ne goshe vichon kaddhia karari nukhi dS. tir, 

245 Kar Bismi'llah maria, bhaunda wang bhabir, 
Ghori uthon lah lia Sahiban dS. bir Shumer. 

Age Sahiban boldi : " Man, Mirza, meri sal§.h. 
ChharBakki nun pa wan rkh. Kharal^n di, le chal Danabeld. 
Siyalan di ghoriS,n adam-khanian, nit rok laindiM r§,h. 
250 Jo td, Mirza, siirma, meri S§.hibari di or nabhan." 

Mirza vich bara ghuman tha, phir son gia jandore de 
pas : 
" Main balbal bad diinga surmen, deAn piir khapa. 
Main jhitak dhaunka la lain de, sute nun na jaga. 
Din charhde nun chalange, tainun le chalan Danab^d." 

255 Honi Mirza di kdd pie, rail Siyalan de nal. 

Chhuti kani ghazab de le gieu Mirza nun nal ; 
Kdh Mirza di nikal gai, lagi jandora nal. 
" Manda kita, Sahiban, tii ral gain Siyalan de nal." 
" Kani ghari kamgaran, phal ustakar. 
260 Dhoke mare meri Sahiban ne na ar na par." 

Khainchke khande Mirza jawan ne, kar gie Mirza nth 

par ! 
Age Sahiban boldi : " Mirza, man meri arja.* 
Honi barti pagambaran ; Hon Mirza te gai 4. 
Bete Shah Ali de, Hasan wa Hussain bharail, 

* For 'arzi. 
vot, HI— 2 


265 Larde nal Yahildi ditto piir khapa. 

Dar vich rondi Bibi Fatima : ' murke na ae mere pas.' 

Mirza ede pagambar mar lie, tA ki da pani-h^r ? 

Ik araz meri man le mainim, Sahiban, ]e chal nal !" 
" Manda kita san, Sahibaii, mera tirchhak tangia jand. 
270 Tin sau kani Mirza jawan di dinda Siyalaii ndn band. 

PaHle marda bir Shuiner de; duje kuUe de tang; 

Tije maran joi-ke, jede hai tu mang." 

Sir te mudasa ur gia ; gal bich pie jhand ; 

Bajh bbarawan Jatt maria ; koi na Mirza de sang. 

275 PM pAchhe shair nt.h ; " kewal gi^ jahan. 
Lag lag gaian majlisaii, beh beb gae Diw&n. 
Mirz^ marS, Maliku'1-Maut da, kuchh mara unlion gliu- 

man : 
Bicb kabaran de kbap gia Mirza sobana jawan \" 
Yeh kissa Mirza Sabibaii da jora Pilvl shair ne, je nilii 

jane jag jaban. 

S§.biban was born on a Tuesday* in the house of (the 

Chief of) Khiwa : 
And the singers sang songs of rejoicing at the gate of 

the Chief of Khiwa. 
The kindred congratulated him with auspicious prayers 
And made presents; and as she became beautiful and 

5 Her maidens emulated Sahiban. 

Mirza was born in the house of Banjal on an inauspicious 

His parents gave him birth, but God gavp him beauty : 
So that Mirza became a hero and a leader among the 

Sahiban learnt her letters and Mirza read the Quran : 
10 And in the Schoolt they fell in love, so that the whole 

world knew (of it) . 

* Or simply " on an auspicious day.'' f Lit., Mosque. 


(Said SahiMri), "Strike not, holy Q^zi, beat not the 

All my studying is over, for Fate hath brought me 


(Sahiban) went for oil, went to the druggist's shop. 
He could not hold his weights, nor adjust his scales, 
15 And so the fascinated trader forgot the oil and gave 
honey instead. 
The trader forgot his trade and the Jatt his oxen ; 
Three hundred Nagas* fell in love and were undone :t 
But the loves of Mirza and Sahiban live on in the world. 

Sahiban went out to learn.J; 
20 (Said she) : " My teacher is dead, the school is empty ."§ 

(Said Sahiban): "Hear, Karmii Brahman, thou hast 
not (yet) done me a service. 

I will give thee a horse to ride with saddle and bridle : 

I will give thee bracelets for thy wrists, and alms of gold : 

A buffalo for milk to drink, and a plough of land as a 
25 As long as Sahiban lives she will remember her obliga- 
tion to thee. 

In four days will Chandar come to marry me and then 
what will he (Mirza) do ?" 

Then said Karmu : " I will tell thee truth. 

It is 40 miles from hence : how can I come and go ? 

I hear that Mirza has another wife said to be of an evil 
30 Co-wife with co-wife will divide half (the property). 

Let go thy love for the old Jatt and take anew to Karmii. 

Come home and be my love." 

* Compare Legends XV. and XYI. of Vol. I., p. 414 ff . 
t For love of Sahiban. 

X This seems to begin a story of which the bard has forgotten all 
but these two lines. § Lit., Mosque. 


Then said Sahibari : " Be ashes on thy face : 
I will slap thy face and knock out thy senses. 
35 If my father hear of this, he will turn thee out of tha 
city : 
If my brother Shumer hear of it, he will kill thee. 
If the village youths hear of it, they will stone thee. 
To-morrow there is to be a funeral. Father, but who 

will feed thee ?* 
I should be thy daughter and thou wouldst make me 
thy wife ! 
40 When my father (the Lord of) Khiwa's Court is open 
I will have thee fettered." 
" Forgive this my fault, Sahiban, and I will go whither 
thou sayest. 
I am drunk with opium and my senses are not clear. 
I am poor and foolish ; spare my white locks. 
In the early evening I will start for the Kharals." 
45 The Brahman left the Siyals and went toward the 
Going to Mirza he gave him the invitation (to the 
marriage, saying : ) 
" Put the henna (in earnest) of marriage to Sahiban on 
thy hands. 
Sahiban hath sent for thee, get ready quickly." 

Said Chhahtit to Mirza Khan as he was going : 
50 " My advice, Mirza, is to come back and stay at home. 
Sit on thy couch Jand arrange for my marriage : 
For to-morrow will come the Bhatti of the Sandal Bar, 
Lord of Sunde Bar."§ 
" I must go ; our kinsfolk are (left) behind. 
Who will , arrange well for their own sakes, or the 
Kharals will be disgraced. 

* According to Hindfl custom : observe that the speaker is a Musal- 
"^^n-, t His sister. . J i.e., at thy ease. 

§ i.e. her betrothed was a Bhafctt of the Sandal B&r, a tract in the 
Montgomery and Jhang Districts.' 


55 I must go ; stay me not. 

I go to my duty : I have no concern with the duty of 

Said his mother to MirzS. as he was going : 
" Evil are the dealings of the Siyals ; evil the way to 
the Siyals ; 
Evil the women of the Siyals : be not bewitched by them. 
60 They will take out thy liver and eat it ; * lay not this 
trouble upon me. 
Thou goest for the sake of a woman^ thou wilt return 

with loss of life. 
Hear my say : put not thy foot forward." 
" I have business in the house at Khiwa : they have sent 
(a marriage) messenger to my door. 
Coming to my house he has shown me the date fixed 
65 I am a son of their house ; stay me not. 

I will go and give him five rupees and a suit of 

Mirza saddled his mare^ and took his seat. 

As he mounted his skirt caught ; and some one sneezed 

in front of him. J 
Mirza went to the Siyals and bowed his head to the 

70 The daughter of the Khan of KhiwS, took away his heart. 
(Said he) : " Her locks are a yard long, and the maiden 

is fair : 
If she give me a cup of poison, I, MirzS,, will drink it : 
If she strike me with a spear, I, Mirza, will never even 

I will die in my own way : what have I to do with you ?" 

* A common attribute of witclieB in India, 
t In earnest of agreement to the marriage. 
X A bad omen. 
§ See Vol. II., story of Hir and EanjM, passim. 


75 Said Banjal* to Mirza as he was going : 

" Evil is love for women ; foolisli are their ways. 

Smiling they make love and weeping they tell it abroad. 

Never put thy foot into the house where thy love is. 

The honor of the wise when lost is never found again. 
80 Bring Sahiban with you that our honor be not destroyed. 

Rajas weep over kingdoms^ thieves over ill success. 

Women over beauty, peacocks over their feet.f" 

Again did his mother give Mirza advice as he was going : 
" Make not friends of serpents and lions, my beloved. 
85 The oil in the cauldron is boiling and the flames reach 
thy head. 
Moses fled from the (Angel of) death, when he stood 

before him, 
And stopped his way as he entered the mountains. J 
Bibi Fatima wept and wailed, (saying) : 
* What have I done to thee, God, that thou hast laid 
my pair (of sons) in the dust ?'§ 
90 Stay then to-day, and go in the morning to the Siyals." 
(Said Mirza) : " Were she married I could give her up : 

I cannot give up a betrothed maiden. 
If I were to give up my betrothed shame would fall on 

the Kharals. 
The story of thy son Mirz& and his wife Sahiban will 
go forth into the world." 

And again his mother spake to Mirz4 as he was going : 
95 " Speak not honest words before thieves and scoundrels. 
Stay to-day and go to the Siyals in the morning." 
Then spake Mirza : " I tell thee truth j 

* His fatter. 

t Which, are ugly. These two lines are proverbial. 

X i.e. he could not escape fate. But the passage seems to refer in a 
manner to the Muhammadan version of the story of the burning bush 
as related in the 20th and 27th surds of the Qurdn. 

§ Hasan and Hussain, the martyr-heroes of the Shi'a Muhammadans. 


I would be a glory to the house of Banjal, wherein I 
was born. 

How can I refuse S8.hibaii the Siyal^ who hath sent for 
me ? 
100 As long as I live I will come to see thee ; he not down- 

Mirza went riding to the Siyals. 

Said Mirza to Pilil the soothsayer : " Explain to me the 

Pilii sat by the well-side and thought out a thousand 

things (and said) : 
" The axle binds the shaft, and the spokes bind the axle ; 
105 The axle-tree lies on the ground fastened by strong 

Wheel works with wheel, as a king with his courtiers. 
The whole machine creaks, as a beggar among the 

The pitchers clink (as they come up) full of pure 

water .^'* 
Then said Mirza : " I tell thee, 
110 That thy words are false ; I will not listen to one." 

(Said Pilu) : "They that love women fall into trouble; 
If thou wishest well for thy life put not thy foot forward." 

(Said Mirz£i) : "Go along the road, travellers, go not 

on the pathways. 
On the day that the messengers gave me the invitation 
115 And came to my, Mirza's, house and showed me the 

(I fixed the marriage by a present of) five rupees and a 

suit of clothes, and cannot go back on my word. 
Tour mares are fat, my Bakki is lean. 
Come, take your money, or your proposals will not prosper. 
Bakki's hoofs clang like iron on an anvil : 

* Simile drawn from tte ■working of a Persian wheel. This, of course, 
ia an oracle. 


120 Bakki's tail whisks like a fan in the hands of a servant. 

She will tear off turbans unknowing : 

Bakki will tear off a turban and think of no one's honor. 

They* beat my barbert and threw away the sweet drink. 

Love Cometh not for asking and sticketh fast. 
125 It is easy to say but difficult to fulfil." 

The thief of Sahibaii, Mirza, hath come to the Siylls. 

Mirza hath in his hands a green bow and the others 
have spears. 

Mirza, my lion-like youth, hath come from the right 

Mirza went to the house of Bibo and stopped her spin- 
ning her wheel (and said) : 
130 " If thou be my real aunt then bring Sahib^ii to me." 

Came Bibo from her house with four gold mohars, and 
" Up, sleeping Sahiban, and show me thy face. 

What turbaned youth is in Bibo's house ? 

Mirza, (as beautiful as) a rose, has fallen into my skirt !" 

135 (Said Sahiban to Mirza) : " Squeeze not, my bracelets 

break ! 
Only yesterday I got them and am not tired of them 

Narrow the lane, small the house, fool wast thou ? 
If Shumer Khan hear of it, he will satisfy himself with 

thy blood ! 
If there be a turban on thy head take me to Danabad, 
140 (Or) they will kill thee: so preserve the honor of the 


Then said MirzS, : " Hear, Blacksmith ! 
Art sleeping, or waking, or in the clouds ? 

* SaliibS,n's pai'ents. f i. c, marriage messenger. 


Take thy wages and make me a thousand nails. 
If thou be my sworn brother we will take Sahiban hence." 
145 Mirz§, prayed to the five Saints,* and drove in the nails. f 
Up went the Jatt up this ladder : 
(But) as Sahib§.n came down her ornaments clinked, 
And her skirt caught. J (Said she) ; " Stop (thy mare) 

Bakki r 
i^Said Mirza) : " In fi'ont, Sahiban, is my father's house 
worth nine lakhs (of rupees). § I will get thee many 
150 Get on to Bakki and pray for Mirza's safety." 

" Lean and bony is thy mare, Mirza, whence hast thou 
stolen it ? 
Dry is her skin and her back, and the crows have eaten 

into her back ! 
If (a strong mare) were not in thy father's house thou 

shouldst have brought one from elsewhere ! 
Khiwe Khan's II mares are great eaters of corn ! 
155 They will not let thee escape, that art the thief of an 
eloped woman; 
But will slay thee in the wilds and cut thy throat !" 
" Bakki's ears are long and her sides thin and her tail 
black ; 
But be not down-hearted at her wretched appearance. 
Behind whose bed two and twenty Dogars sit :^ 
160 Bakki eats freely of my father's fields. 

Bakki eats up the butter of ten buffaloes. 
The angels fear Bakki and God feai's me ! 
She can penetrate into Hell and fly to Heaven ! 
So get up cheerfully and disparage not Bakki I" 

165 Music was played at the door and Sahiban was anointed 
with oil. 

* See Vol. II., footnotes, passim. 

t i.e., made steps with them in the wall of Sahiban's house. 
X Bad omens. § See preceding volumes, footnotes, passim. 

II i.e., my father's. 

*i[ i.e., behind his father's bed. This means that he was so great a 
man that Dogars sat behind his bed as a sign of inferiority. 

VOL. III. — 3 


The women sat within and the guests at the door. 
But the pastry remained in the plate and the essences 

in the bags, 
The jewels in the caskets and the bangles and necklaces 

too ! 

Piroz the Dogar* cried out ; " Khan of Khmi', hear my 

170 Mirzl has carried off Sahiban weeping to the Sunde 

Shame hath he brought to the Siyals and a stain upon them. 

you footmen, catch the horses and mount them ! 
Take the road, footmen and horsemen, to the 

forests ! 
And make a promise to slay Mirza \" 

1 75 Love distresses mankind, as snow loads the trees ; 
No sleep knows the thief, and no hunger the lover. | 

(Said Sahiban) : " The Joves of Mirza and Sahiban are 

not hidden in the world. 
Take me to Danabad, this life irks me. 
Arise, Jatt, sleeping under the acacia tree and be on 
thy guard. 
1 80 Bakki, in whom was thy great trust, hath left thee ! 
Narad, thy oldest friend hath left thee ! 
Sahiban (too) will die, whom thou wouldst not believe!" 
" I know of no hero that can harm me. 

1 will slay every brother that you have. 

185 Let me sleep awhile beneath the acacia tree, and let 
God do (as He pleases) ! 
Let me sleep this hour, we will enter Danabad the next." 
" Jatt sleeping under the acacia tree with thy red shawl 
round thee, 

* Sahiban's maternal uncle. t See line 52. 

t A proverbial couplet thrown in for effect. 


(The Angel of) Death hath ready his arrows and will 

not let thee live. 
Misfortune is upon us, and we shall not win the 

190 The Great God hath said it, and who shall gainsay 

him ? 
Up, sleeping Mirza ; these are horsemen ! 
Swords are in their hands and they are brandishing 

them ! 
The mares are like my father's ; the riders are my 

brothers ! 
Are they looking for us ? Are they a-hunting ? 
195 O acacia tree, be on our side. 

May thy fruit be doubled and thy shade increase four- 
Elneading him with her hands she awakened her love> 

(and said) : " Awake, for God's sake r 
Sahiban hath not reached her home : save the broken 

rope {of my life). 
If thou protect me not to the end why didst thou take 

me by the wrist ? 
200 Save me, my love, or thou shalt win no place (in the 

De'xt worH)." 

Six horses descended from heaven and the six were 

brothers and sisters. 
Shah *Ali took Duldul and found the road to the 

One had Guga the Chauhan, which beat the Bagras. 
Raja Rasalii had the dark-grey one and conquered the 

city of KSnia. 
205 Jaimal Fattah had the piebald one, that refused his 

beautiful daughter in marriage. 
Dftlfe, the hero, had the bay one> who plundered 

Sarwar (Sultan) had Kakkl and conquered the four 

quarters (of the world)'. 



Last of all was Bakki that was with Mirza.* 
The Jatt (Mirz§.) called on the Five Saints, 
210 Bitted and tightened up (the mare), but took not the 
omens. t 
" I will cut off the heads of the Siyals and bang them 
on the acacia. 
After having ridden Bakki do not disparage her !" 
(Said Sahiban) r "I hear Sherii and Kaliyar barking; 

I see the dust of the men. 
As pilgrims look to Makk^, so do I look to thee-. 
215 The Siyals use their weapons, so that none escape. 

They will scatter us with their swords, as cardera 

scatter cotton." 
(SaidMirza): " I know of no hero that can conquer 

I will cut the host to pieces, for the warriors fear me. 
I will cut up these heroes, that are banded together in 
the field. 
220 I will caste down the heads of the Sijkh on the sands." 
" It is dark as night, as when day turns to evening. 
The earth is (red) as copper and there is blackness in 

the sky. 
Thou that robbest others' houses art sleeping in the 

plain ! 
(The arrows) fall about thy head, as the strokes upon an 
anvil. ' 
225 The ChandarsJ are come as a marriage party^ they know 
not that thou art flying. 

* The allusions here are numeroiis. The first is to Dttldul the- 
famous mule of 'Ali : then to the horse Javadia of Gflga, on -wMoli he 
rode when fighting his brethren (see Vol. I., p. 200ff) : Kania, said to be 
the city of RajS, SirUap (see Vol. I., p. 39 fi.), is a new name in con- 
nection with RasaW and his grey horse : the story of Jaimal is a Rajpdt 
one belonging to Chittaur ; see story of Raja Rattan Sain, Vol. II., 
p. 350 fB : DOla Bhatti was a celebrated robber chief of the Mont- 
gomery District in the 16th Century : Kakki was the name of the mai-e 
of Sakht Sarwar (See Vol. I., p. 96). 

t And said to Sahibftn. 

X i.e., the Chadhars of Khiwd into which tribe SShibfin was betrothed. 


Spur up Bakkl and let us go to DInabad : why art lying 

in the plain ? 
My Mirza^ at whose hands the heavens tremble, should 

rout the warriors. 
My Mirza is known in the battle-field and at the 

meetings of girls and maidens." 
" When I sit in my Court I have Rajas under me. 
230 I can rob on the road to Lahor and put the cities into 

I have robbed in the four quarters (of the world) by the 

power of my spear. 
When I die and leave the world my story will be told 

in it," 

The Chandars and the Siyals assembled on the road, 
And were drawn up together in good order. 
235 They fired their balls at Mirza and many arrows fell about 
He slept and awaked not and his body could not live. 
Sitting in the shade of the acacia tree spake a crow to 
him : 
" The drum of the Lord of Death is being beaten and 
thou shalt not live." 

(Said Sahiban) : " Great heroes of the Chandars and 
the Siyals (are come to) slay thee. 
240 Up, sleeping Mirz^, why art full of pride ? 

My brother Shumer^s mare cometh on apace. 
Wake up out of thy sleep, if thou hast faith in God !" 
When Mirza saw Sahiban's brother Shumer coming, 
He took out of his quiver a sharp-pointed arrow, 
245 He loosed it in the Name of God and it hurtled (through 
the air), 
And threw Shumer, the brother of Sahiban, from ofE his 

Then said Sahiban: " Mirza, hearken to my advice. 


Mount Bakki and take the way to the Khai-als and take 

me to Danabad. 
The mares of the Siyals are man-eaters and will stop 

the way. 
250 If thou be a hero, Mirz4, save SahibS,Q to the end." 

But Mirz^ was overcome by pride and went to sleep 

again under the acacia tree (and said) : 
" T will destroy thy heroes and break them in pieceSr 
Let me slumber awhile and wake not the sleeper. 
I will take thee at sunrise, take thee to Dan^bAd." 

255 Fate deserted Mirza and joined the Siyals. 
A small arrow entered Mirza. 
And the soul of Mirza was about to leave him under the 

acacia tree. 
(Said he) " Thou didst practise deceit on me, S&hiWn, 

and wert joined to the Siyals." 
(Said she) : " A bowman made the shaft and a cunning 

workman made the tip. 
260 It hath gone throngh thee by no deceit of Sahiban;" 

Mirza the hero drew it out and it had gone through himi t 
Then said Sahiban : " Mirzd, hearken to my prayer. 
Fate came on the prophets : Fate hath come on thee. 
The brethren Hasan and Hussain, sons of Shah 'Ali, 
265 Were destroyed in the fights with the Jew.* 

At the door wept Bibi F§.tima (saying) : ' They will cotue 

not back to me.' 
Mirza, when (fate) slew such prophets, shalt thou 

escape ? 
Hear my prayer and take me, Sahiban, with thee !" 
" Thou didst play me false, Sahiban, and hanged my 

quiver in the acacia tree. 

* Hasan and Hussain, the sons of 'Ali by Patima, the daughter of 
Muhammad, were destroyed respectively in 669 and 680 A.D., it is said, 
at the instigation of Yazid tlie son of Mu'awia, the great opponent of 
'Ali-^ As Taztd succeeded Mu'awia in the Khalifate at Damascus, and as 
Mu'awia ruled Syria and Palestine for about 40 years, the expression 
" the Jew" probably stands for both of them. 


270 In it were my 300 arrows to shoot at the Siyals. 

First I would have slain thy brother Shumer, next his 

And thirdly the fool to whom thou wast betrothed." 
His turban fell off his head and his locks fell about 

his neck. 
And Mirza the Jatt died and his brethren were not 

there (to help him). 

275 Said Pilii to a poet : " Thus runs the world on. 
Societies and Courts all pass away. 
Partly the Lord of Death and partly pride slew Mirza : 
And the beauty of Mirza was hidden in the grave ! " 
Pilu the poet hath composed this story of Mirza and 
Sahib^n, celebrated throughout the world. 

No. XL. 


[This bardic version of the very celebrated tale of Sassi and Punnun, which 
properly belongs to Sindh and Southern BaliicliistSn, is specially valuable as 
showing a folktale, after becoming a literary story, in the process of 
returning to the people. In this case it is the literary Panjdbl version of 
the tale by the poet HAsham Shdh that has become the property of the 
bards and is reprodiioed in a terribly curtailed, confused and mangled 
shape. The bard has repeated as much as he could remember— which is 
not much— and as the tale is thoroughly well known to the audience in all 
its details he is quite indifferent as to how many of the original verses are 
given or in what order.] 

[Hi'sham Shuh's poem is a complete one and consists of 120 stanzas or qua- 
trains and his version of the story is as follows : In the City of Bhambor 
there was a king called Hm Adam to whom was born a daughter named 
Sassl. The astrologers foretold that she would fall in love with a man out- 
side of h^r tribe and so disgrace her family. So she was placed in an ark 
and floated down a river (the Indus or a mouth of it) , from whicb she was 
rescued by Attfi, a washerman, who brought her up as his own daughter. 
Many a young washerman wished to marry her, but she refused them, 
saying she was a king's daughter. Presently the king heard of her beauty ' 
and wished to marry her himself, but when he saw from the amulet round 
her neck that she was his own daughter he was very much ashamed and 
sent her back to the washerman. After a while Sassi happened to see a 
picture ofPunnilii, the son of the king of Kecham,* and fell in love with it_ 
Some merchants too from BalAcbist^n told her all about him and said 
they were his brethren. She thereupon looked them up in the hope that 
Punndn would come to rescue them. Two cameleers of the party escaped 
and told Hot 'Alit,iPunniih's father, what had happened. PunnAn accord- 
ingly set out, met Sasst, lived happily with her, and refused to leave 
her. So his father's adherents made him drunk and carried him off 
from Sassi. Finding this out she went off after him on foot and died in the 
deserts. J At her death her spirit visited Punn&a and called him to her 
grave, and he resisting all entreaties went there, when it opened and he 
entered it.] 

* * Kech in Maki-an. 

t Arl in the aindh version. Tlie tribe of the Hots can have hud no coimectiun with the tale 
and the name U a modern interpniatlon. 

% In the Pabb Mountains in Sindh. 



{Thu following table will show how tho original order of the stanzas has been 
perverted by the bard, and it mast bo understood that in many oases ha 
has given but fragments of the poet's stanzas. 




























(?) 33 












(?) 104 






(?) 105 





Stanzas XII., XIV., and XV. are not in the original, but appear to stand for 33, 

104, and 105 respectively.] 

fin order to show clearly what the bard refers to by his fragments I here give 
the full stanzas of the poet meant to be quoted by him, with a rendering. 
With the help of this and the outline story above given the student will 
not find much difficulty in comprehending this difficult and mutilated text.] 

l_Orak kavif ut&rnaj'Umt, b&t kaM man bhint .- 
" K&mil ishk Sassi nun hosi, jad liog jawdn siydni. 
Mast he-hosh thal&n vichh marsi, dardfar&k na j&ni. 
(H&sham) d&gh lag&wag kul m<ln ; jaj vichh hog lcah^,nt." 
At last the astrologer overcame his fear and spake what was in his heart. 
" Sasst will be perfect in love, when she grows up. 
Wild (with love) she will die in the deserts and not know the fear of 

separation (from her lover) . 
She will cast a stain on her family ; and her story will be known in the 


Kahid Waair, " H dos Sassi nAh ? Likhid lehh Kahdrt. 
Be-tdksir kah&wan kanidn ; nasht kare hul sS/i-t. 
Is thin pAp ki hor parere ? Kauin hove hati&ri. 
(H&shayn) pde sandOJc rirhd>, mill chuM khar-khwAr't." 
Said the Minister, " What fault is it of Sassi ? God hath written it in her 

The maiden shall be called blameless, though she disgrace the whole race. 
Is there any greater sin' than this ? Her race will be disgraced. 
Put her into an ark and float her away and thy fears shall be destroyed." 

Kar tadbtr kite Un chhAnde, charkh ditl& kar n&le, 
Tis de milk hoi& ik chhAndA, sMr pildwan-wdle ; 
D&jA d&j-dahej Sasst ndh ; hor pachSiwan-wSXe. 
{Hdsham) likh tdvh hakikat, harf Sasst gal ^&le. 

VOL. III. — 4 


They settled her (future) expenses in three portions and put the money in 

for them. 
One portion for him whose she would become, for rearing her j 
A second for Sassi'a dowry ; and (a third) for her education. 
They wrote her story on an amulet and put the writing round Sassl'B neck. 

Channan shdkh mangai kad&hoh, baith Ic&rigar ghariA : 
Bats, vol sunahri hUi ; Idl jawahir jarid. 
P& zanj^r chauf&r 'pi'n^ar niih, haith he-dard&h Icadhid. 
(B&sham) veleh tawallad hundi, dm dukh&n lar phari&. 
Procuring a branch of sandal-wood a workman fashioned it ; 
Put trees and creepers of gold upon it and studded it with rubies and 

They put chains all round the ark and the shameless ones put her into it. 
Behold her fate was evil and troubles came upon her. 

F& sandHk rirh& 3assi mdh : N{lh Mfdn wagaindd. 
Bdsalc Nag no hdth lidwan, dMl siydh hagaindd. 
Pdr v/tdr bal&ih phirdtdh, deo d&hw dhal rahindd. 
(Hdsham) iiekh, nasib Sassi dd M kiojh hor Ttaraindd T 
They put S^ssl into the ark and floated her off: a very storm of Noah 

B^sak Nfig could not stay her and the black dnst flew.* 
Horrors wandered on both sides and demons and devils dwelt there. 
Behold, could Sassi's fate do any more ? 

lurid tor zanjir sidak dd, chdtdh rizak muhdrdh; 
Gardash falak hAd sir-garddh : bdjh malldh kahdrdh. 
Swraj ten hoid, jal kkCtnt, lain tusdn chamk&r&h, 
(Hdsham) vekh, Sassi vichh ghere dushman lakh hazdrdn. 
On it went, breaking the chain of continence, drawn by tjhuhS^ter of fate, 
Surrounded by a stormy sky, without a boatman. 
Hot was the sun, blood-red the water from his shiniiig rays. 
Behold, a thousand thousand enemies had suri'ouuded Sassi. 

Adamkhor jand/war jal de, rdkas rilp sarieh, 
Magarmachh, kachh'd, jalhUri, ndg, sansdr bal&eh, 
Tandue, kahar, zambArdh-w&le, Idwan zor taddeh. 
{Hdsham) marg Sassi vichh thai de : mdraa hhaun uthAeh ? 
Man-eating monsters of the deep, like unto ogres. 
Alligators, turtles, mermaids, serpents and horrors of the world, 
Crocodiles, dragons, porpoises, were bellowing aloud. 
Sassi'a death was (however) to be in the deserts : and who shall stay fata ? 

* Bee notes to Text, p. 34, foti. 



Shakroh h&Mr fto pattern dhoiS, dhondi nadt Icindre. 

AttS, nam, misdl farishta, huzurg nek sat&rl, 

Ditthd OS sandHk dur&dd, dil vichh kauf chitAre. 

(BAshwrn) gaio ras hash dirndghoh, wehh sand4.1e sitdre. 

Without tha city was a -washerman washing by the river-bank. 

Att4 his name, holy and righteous as an angel ; 

He saw the floating ark and was afraid in his heart. 

His senses left him, when he saw the shining ark. 


Bharkatndl ShaHle Aite de, hure, hakhU, fasidi, 

Pds Bhambor SJiahr de w&lt jd, hoe fariy&di : 
" Boi jawdn Atte gJiar ieti, surat shakal shdJizddi." 

(Hdsham) Tcahd puTedr balchildn : " Ldik hai tusddi." 

AttEi's comrades, the evil and wicked strife-makers, made a plan, 

And went to the lord of Bhambor City and said : 
"A dau^Lcer hath grown up in Att^'s house, like unto a princess." 

Called out the wicked men : " She is worthy of thee." 


Bheji& nafar ghuldm Atte rf&n, Adam Jdm huldiS,. 

Sassi khol t&viz gale d& shdh-i-huzHj' paliunchdiA. 

K&ghaz v&ch pachh&td sh&h ne, jo p&e sandAk rirh&id. 

(fldsham) vek'h hoi& sh armindd Adam Jdm siw&i&. 

Sending a servant to AttS J4m Adam called her. 

Sasst took the amulet from her neck and sent it to the king. 

Ihe king read the paper and recognized her as (the girl) set float in tha 

When the great Jim Adam saw this he was much ashamed. 


LahA garm hoi&, dil bari&n ; pher auldd pi&ri. 
M&h pi4 ndl Sass^ de chdhan, b&t kWi akw&ri : 
■" ySfassi, s&fjavidi) dito ni, khol haUkat sdrt 
(S&sham) mnla/n, har&m tusd nHh rirh ditt akvidri." 
His blood warmed and his heart expanded, for love of his offspring 
He desired to speak with the maiden Sassi's (ostensible) parents 4 
(Saying) : "speak to me clearly, Saesi, and tell me all thy story. 
We did thee a wrong when wo set our maiden afloat." 


JTt dinTcol Sassi de piU ne haith kttl gal chheri. 
Akh : " Each&, t&h hdligh hotoh ; v&g tere hath tere. 
Vhoii z&t Hchke ghar &wan : pTm phir jdn lahutere. 
(Sdahtm) iawn ttrt man iMv«.^ Akh sunS, sawere." 


One day Sassi'a (washerman) father sat beside her and spake disagreeable 

Said he : " My child, thou art of age : thy fate ia in thy hands. 
Washermen of good houses come and many go away again. 
Whom doth thy heart desire ? Tell me early." 

Sasst mfU jawdh «a kUS, ndl piu sharm&nM. 

Dil vtchh pher lagi oh sochan .- " Bekh HUM karm&h dt. 

DhAndan sdlt jharre mdpe; main dhl iadsMhdh di." 

(_Hdsham) pher oh nam na lewan, vehh Sassi darm&h dt. 

Sassi for shame gave no answer at all to her father. 

And began to think in her heart : " Behold, the decree of fate. 

My parents want to marry me to a washerman and I am the daughter of 

Bat he said no more, seeing that Sasst was unwilling. 

Kvjh bahindi, hujh digdi thaindi, uthdt tedam laindi ; 
.TitLnhar tut sharilbon &ve, pher utte wal dhaindi : 
Dhdndt khoj shutar dd phirke ; hit wal bhdl n& paindi. 
(Hdsham) jagat na kiilhkar g riven, pit sap-Hran jihheh di ? 
Sometimes sitting, sometimes falling about, getting up and resting; 
As when intoxication from wine comes and overcomes the strength : 
She searches for the footprints of the camel and finds them nowhere. 
Shall she not be sung throughout the world, whose love was perfect ? 

Kudrat ndl Sassi hath 6,id phirfU'm khoj shutar dd. 
J dn paid us Ichoj shutar d&, mi'Mjdm Khiiar dd. 
IVi 0?!. nur natar i!d kahiye ddrtl dard jigar dd ! 
(HS,sliain) paik Sassi hath aid, kisid Kech Shahar dd. 
Searching Sassi luckily found the camel's footprints. 

She recognized them and followed them to the realm of (Khwfiji) Khizar.* 
Call ye that sight the cure for the pains of the heart ! 
A messenger it was from the City of Kech, that reached Sassi, 


Vdid ihawar Sassi de tan thin, pher Funnilh wal &id ; 
Mahmal, mast, ie-hosh, Punn'&h nin suphne dn jag&id : 
" Le hun, y&r, as&h sang tere, kaul karH/r niihdid. 
(HAsham) rahi Sassi mchh thai de, main r&h rukhsat le &id." 
Sassl's soul left her body and went to Punnfih, 
And wakened the love-stricken Pnnnftn in a dream : 
" Tate me now, my love, with thee and fulfil thy promise. 
Sassi hath remained in the desert ; I, her soul, have taken my leave and 
am come." 

* i.e, Ihe ri?«r. 



W&h idiom nasib Sasst de, nAm US,h dil dardi. 

Takhton ch&e site sultdnAn, Tchair pawe dar dar dS, : 

Bail gharth na-kdhil jihS> chde za/m/iih sir dhard&. 

(Hdsham) j&e 11 a iolan Wdli, jo ch&he so Icardd, 

The heart fears to mention the fate of Sassi. 

Kings are hurled from their thrones and are given alms from door to door, 

Like a poor powerless ox that stands with his head on the ground.* 

God is not to be gainsaid, that doeth as He listeth. 


Aiyar chhod Sasst wal turid, dard& rah palcardd. 

S&rat veTch dhwdl Sassi dd,, charhid, josh Ttahar dd. 

Bil ton shauk gai& uth s&r& : ■m&l, aurat, put, ghur dd. 

(Hds7iam) j&n diloh jag f&ni de yehfakiri phardd. 

Leaving his flock he went to Sassi, taking the way with fear. 

Seeing Sassi's heauty and condition, pity rose within him. 

All desires left his heart : property, wife, son and home. 

Knowing in his heart that this world is mortal he became afaqtr, 


Thai nchh gor Snsst di karke, iaitJiA gor sirhine. 

Gal kafni, sir. pd barahnd, lodng yattm nim&ne. 

Ik gal j&n lai — jag f&ni ; — hor kal&m najdne, 

(R&sham) kh&s fakiri ih&, par koi virlA j&ne. 

He made a grave for Sasst and sat at its head. 

A shroud was on his breast and his head bare, like a neglected orphan. 

One thing he knew — the world is frail ; — nothing else he knew. 

Ihis was real saintship, but some thought it madness. 


Shdbash os shutar da turn&, tea turo tuk tiroh ! 

Pahutct &n Sassi di gore akal shutar waziroh. 

T&zi gor dithi shdhzdde; puchhi& os fakiroh. 

(H&sham) " kaun huzurg sannXid ? W&kif Icar is piroh !" 

Praise be to the camel's pace that went as swiftly as wing of bird i 

The camel, wiser than a minister, reached Sassi's grave. 

The prince saw a fresh grave and asked the faqir : 
" What saint is buried here P Tell me about this saint I" 


Akhe OS fakir FunnHh nHh, khol hakikat s&rt : 
" AM nal pari di s-drat, garmi m&r ut&ri : 

Japdi ndm PwnnUn da &M, dard ishk di m&rt. 

(B&sham) n&m makdn nAjdndh, dhi kaun vieh&ri." 

* For explanation <ee the text ou page 37. 


Said the faqir to Punnfln, saying all he knew : 
" Beautiful waa she as a fairy and borne down by the heat : 
Calling on Punntln's name waa she, stricken with love. 
I know not her name, nor home, nor who she was.'' 


Qal sun Hot zamtn te digd,, Tchie ItaUjS, fcdm?. 

Khul gat gor, pi& vichh kabme : pher milt dil-j&ni. 

KMtir ishk gai ral mttiM, sArat, husan, jawS,ni. 

(ilds/iam) ishk Icamdl Sassi M jag vichh rahe Icah&M ! 

Hearing this the Hot* fell to the earth stricken to the heart by the arrow 

(of love) . 
The grave opened and he fell within it, and once more mec his heart's 

For love's sake was their youth and beauty mingled in the dust. 
May the story of the perfect love of Sassl remain ever in the world.] 
[The story of Sasst and Pannun has oftea been treated, and in the Indian. 
Antiquary, Vol. XI., p. 291, will be found all the bibliography of the subject, 
as far as I am acquainted with it, except the mention in Burton's Sindh 
Revisited, Vol. I., p. 128 ff. Briefly the story may be referred to an early 
period in Sindh History. Bhambor or Bhambftr is a ruined site on thfe road 
between Kar&oht and GhSr-a, and was probably on an old mouth of the 
Indus. It is one of the places fixed on as the Barbarikft eniporinm of the 
Greeks. The name of Sassi appears also in the form of Sasswi, and of 
Panndn as Panhil and PannAn, The story is naturalized in the Panjfib and 
Kachh, besides being indigenous to Sindh.] 

* This is probably an error. Punnun was not at all likely to have been a Hot by tribe. 



Orak khaump* utar najurni bat kare man bhanl : 
" Ishkhou kamal Sassi da, jad hove jawan siyanJ. 
Mabbal mast thalan vichh marsi, dard farak rijhani. 
(Heisham) dagh lag§,ve kul ndn tere : pawe jahaa kah&ni." 

Kahe Wazir : "ki dosh Sassl nM ? Likhia lekh likMri 1 
Be-takslr k6hS,ve kanJan : tere nisht ho j& kul sari ! 
Is te pap na hor badhere, tere kaum ho j§, hati^ri ! 
(Hasham) pa sanduk rirhave ; e di mul chuke kar- 

t For kauf. 



Kar tadbir kite tre clih&nde, kharch dittfl kar nM6 : 
Tis de milk hoia ik chhandflj shir cliugahan-wale ; 
Ddja daj-dahej* Sassi nftn ; hor parliWan-wale. 
(Hasham) Likli tabezf hakikat, harf Sassi gal dale. 

Cbannan cliir madani sittia^ baith karigar gbaria. 
Buta bel sunabri karke, lal jawahir jaria. 
Pae zanjir cbaupahre pinjre, baith be-dardan gharia. 
(Hasham) bolan di chah kujhna, an dukhan lar pharia ! 


Sassi pae sandiik rirhd lie, j6kar Ndh tfifan bagaindL 
Basak Nag ndh hath na ave, Dhaul panah mangainda. 
Par urar balain burian, jithe deo dano thil rahinda. 
(Hasham) dekh nasib Sassi dk ! Aje ki kujh hor 
karainda ? 

Taria tor zanjir sabar da ; chahian rizak muharan : 
Gard vichh falak hoia sir-gardan, baz mallah kaharan. 
SArjj vekh hoia jal khi^ni, pain lashkan chamkarari. 
(H&sham) dekh Sassi vichh gheri^ jithe dushman lakh 


Adam-khor janawar jal de, rakhas rup sar§,iri, 
Magar-machh, kachh, jal-hiiri, nag, sarlr baMin, 
Tandue, kahar, jambhuran, bolan lawan aor uthain. 
(Hasham) maut likhi vichh thai de ; mare kaun uthain ? 


Atta natoj mashM farishta, buzurg nek sitarJ. 
Dekhfi, un sanddk daride, man vichh khauf chit^ri, 
(Hasham) gae oh de hosh dim^kAf dekh sandAk sitari. 

* Forjahex, f Fov ta'viz. J 'For dividghon. 


"Betl jawan Atte ghar janami; oh de sftrat shakal 
shahzadi : " 
BadsMhan nun chug boldeal " Laik hai kul fcu^dl ! " 

Ghattia nafar Atte de ghar nfin, pas Atte de aia : 
" Kah kahS,n, beta ; ki kariye apaii ? Likhia Huziiron ai^." 

Khol tabiz Sassi ne gal da, Hasham de hatth pharaia. 
"Banch le, be pid, likhia: mera (Hasham) jam paraia." 
Lahu garam hoia, dil bhadia, orak aulad piari. 

Mattan den Sassi nvin mape : " Ao, dhi, pavahin. 
Dhobi zat kamln karke, tainun chhad gai tujh tahin." 
" Dhobi zat Jhinwe janedi : main dhi badshahan di. 
Karmi likha, kadhi nahih talda : honihar nahin j4ndi." 

Sassi niin khoj PunnAn dS. laj pia magari jandi bhaje. 

Jaun jaun khoj agari jaada, bal pate-pat sitdi. 
Sassi di gotak wang kabutaraii, latak latak jind tutdi. 
"Nitdiaii nitdiari kajian naloii, mainiin kar ja chukdi- 
(Hasham) bolan di chah kujh na mere nardjorion tutdi." 

Uria bhawar Sassi de tarfon, phir Punniin bal dhaia. 
" Lakhan, yar, asan sang tere, kaul karar nibhaia. 
Sassi mar gai bioh maru thai de ; ruh rukhsat lekar aia." 

BS.h, kala,m naslb Sassi de nam lian dil darda. 
Takhton chah site sultanan, khair mangave dar dar da, ■ 
Bail gharib nak^wal* jiha, chah zamin sir dharda. 
(Hasham) bolan di chah kujh na; Eabb jo chahe so 

* For nd-qAhil. 


Ijar chhor aj§,li turlaj dil dard^ pav dharda, 
Dtar chhaunk* gia sab dil da mdl, dhyan, pat, ghar dS.. 
Dekh shakal Sassl di us ue baith fakiri kard4. 

Gal vichh. alfi, sir babraai, ball gi& kabar sirMne: 
" Iko jan — raka-jag faiii," Hor kaEm na jaae. 

Sabash akko us karhe nun tej dhare pay tiron.f 
Pakuncba an Sassi de kabare akaloi surt wazlron. 
Taai gor dekke shabzade pucbhia os fakiron : 
" Ithe kaua buzurg samana ? Wakif karo, fakiro \" 
Akhia us fakir Piinnun ndn kkol hakikat sS,ri: 
" A gat nar, pari di surat, gar mi rn^r utari. 
Japdi nai^n PunnCiii da, d gai teg hijar di mari. 
(Hasham) thaa makan nahin jauda, d gai kaun bip4rl."f 

Sunde sai- zamiu par digia, khae kallja kanl. 
Kbul gai gor, pia vichk kabare, phir mile dil-jani. 
Kbatir ishk de oh ral mati ; oh di surat husan jawani. 
(Hasham) ishk Sassi de lagia, oh di pai jae jah^a kahinf, 


At last overcoming his fears the astrologer spake his 
** Sassi will be perfect in love, when she becomes of age. 

By her evil destiny she will die in the deserts, over- 
come by the pains of separation (from her lover). 

Ske will cast a staia on thy family, and her story will 
be known throughout the world."§ 

* For shauq. f For tdirofi. 

t Probably meant for viclidH. 

§ i.e., her love will be illicit. I have omitted the taqallus or nom de 
plume of the poet, where it is inserted in the text without reference to 
it after the Indian literary fashion. 



Said the minister : " How is Sassl to blame ? It is the 

will of fate ! 
If thou let the innocent maiden die, thy whole race shall 

be ruined. 
Thou canst have no greater blame, than to destroy (one 

of) thy own race ! 
Set her afloat in an ark; thus will thy anxieties cease." 

They made a plan for her (future) expenses (dividing 

them) into three portions and put the money in for 

One share for him whose she was to be, for her rearing ; 
One for Sassi's dowry ; and (one.) for her education. 
They wrote her story in an amulet and put the writing 

round Sassi's neck. 

They cut down a sandal- wood tree in the plain, and a 

workman fashioned a box. 
He put on it trees and creepers of gold, and studded it 

with rubies and jewels. 
They put chains all round the box, and the shameless 

ones put her into it. 
One can say no more than that trouble had seized upon 

her ! 

Sassi was put into the ark and set afloat (in the river) 

rushing as in a Noah's deluge. -j- 
B^sak NagJ could not stay her, nor Dhaul give her 


* i.e., into the ark : see preceding verse, 

t The story of Noah and the Deluge is common to Christians and 

J Vasnki ; see Yol, I., p. 415ff. Dhaul is one of the Elephants that 
supports the earth. 


On this side and that were dread horrors, and demons 
and devils dwelt there. 

Behold the fate of vSassi I Could it be worse ? 

On -Went the ark, breaking the chains of patience, drawn 
by the halter of fate : 

Hidden it was, as the sky by dast, and without a boat- 
man (to steer it). 

The watec became blood-red at sight of the sun, shining 
with his light. 

Behold 1 thousands upon thousands of horrors have sur- 
rounded Sassi. 

The man-eating monsters of the deep, like unto ogres, 
Aligators, turtles, mermaids, serpents and all horrors. 
Crocodiles, dragons, porpoises, were bellowing aloud. 
But her death was ordained in the deserts ; who can 
slay her now ? 

There was a holy man, righteous as an angel, named 

Seeing the ark floating he was terrified in his heart. 
His senses left him on seeing the shining ark. 
" A daughter is born in the house of AUd, beautiful as a 
princess ;" 
Said the backbiters to the king : " She is fit for thy 


A servant was sent to Atta's house, and came to Atta* 
(Said Atta): "Tell me, my daughter ; what shall we do ? 

His Highness' letters have come." 
Sassi opened the amulet at her neck and Hasham* took 

it in his hand (and she said) : 

* i.e. the author ! 


" Read the writing, fathei': 1 was born ia a strangev's* 

house." . 


Sis (the king's) blood warmed and Ms heart expanded, 

and in the end his daughter became dear to him. 


Spake her |fwasber-) parents to Sass! advising her: 

" Daiigbter, mend your ways. 
Thinking you to be a low-caste washerman's daughter, 
they have left you here."t 
"The washerman is of the Jhinwar caste :|: I am the 
daughter of kings. 
Fate wrote it, whiub cannot be gainsaid ; fate is not to 
be put aside." 

Sassi followed after the footsteps of Panniin^ 

When the footmarks led her forward she tore her haiir, 
yassi's voice was as a dove's ; Worn out she sank down. 
(Said she) ■ " Secret was our lov^ and it is be'st that 

I die. 
When so deci-eed by fate, I have no escape from joining 
the broken." 

Sassi's soul left her and went to Funniin. 
" Between us, love, thousands of pronaisea must be 
Sassi has died in the crael deserts, and her spirit has 
taken leave of her and come (to thee)." 
The heart fears to contemplate the strangeness of Sassi'a 

Kings are dashed from, their thrones^ and have to beg 
from door to door. 

* ie., I am a stranc^er's daughter and not thiiiile. 

t This verse is not in the original poem. j A low one. 


Like a poof powerless ox that stands with hia head on 

the ground.* 
Fate is not to be gainsaid^ and God doeth as he listeth, 

The shepherd left his flock and went onwards with 

trembling heart< 
His heart went out to her (leaving) his goods, his 

daughters, his sons and his home. 
Seeing Sassi's beauty he became afaqlf, 

A raendicant*s dress on his breast, his head bate, he sat 

(as afaqir) at the head (of her tomb), 
(Saying) : " One thing I know--the world is perishable.'^ 
Nothing else Would he say. 
Praise ye the camel that quickly goes onwards with 

winged feet. 
He came to Sassi's graVe with the unerring wisdom of 

a minister. ' 
Seeing a fresh grave said the prince to the faqlr : 
" What saint is contained in this ? Tell me ^ fa qir !" 
Said the fagir to Punnfln telling the whole story : 
" A woman came, fait* as a fairy, worn down by the heat< 
Calling on Pttnnftn she came and stricken at heart. 
Her home I know not, nor who she was.'* 

Hearing this he fell down and the arrow (of death) 

pierced his heart. 
The grave opened and he fell Within itj and again met 

his heart's delight. 
For love's sake he was turned to dust, beautiful and 

His love for Sassi is known throughout the world. 

* Simile drawn from an ox that has slipped his yoke and stands 
helpless with his head lowered to the ground : a common sight in India. 

No. XLl. 


[This story belon^a ta the well-known dydld of the Alhlihdnd, a popular coUeO' 
tion of poems relating to the doings of Alhd and fjdal (or B&dal) two 
warriors engaged by RAja Parradl (Paramirdi Deva) the Chandel ruler 
of Mahobfi in Buadelkhand to defend him against Prithivi RS.ja of Dehli, or 
more properly Dilli. Frithivl EAja, who Was the grodt Rai Pithaurd of 
Dehlt and Ajmer, defeated and slain by Shahiba'ddtn Muhammad Ghori in 
1193 A.D., overcame Parmdl in 1182 A.D. and reduced the Chandels erf* 
Mahob^ to the rank of petty princes from which they never recovered^ 
This is all the history that is connected with Ihe Alhkhand cycle, the rest 
of which is merely a oonfuSed popular tradition of a memorable fight 
between the Chandels of Mahob& and the Tunwar — Chauhan dynasty o( 

t^The Alhkhand is divided in the ordinary I'escensions — that by Chandhrl Gfa^a 
R3m of BhatiparS, printed at Merath, being the best knowd in the Fanj£b 
and the Westerii divisions of the North-VVest Prov'inoes — into seven- 
parts or chapters. A usBfUl risumi of this by Mr. Q. A. Grierson will 
be found in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV., p. 255 ff. This particular 
quarrel is detailed there in the fifth chapter, and as th»t version differs 
entirely from the one here given I qnote Mr. Grierson'S summary of it. 
" One day Malkhd (Malk&n in the bard's text) respectfully made repre- 
sentations to Parmil (of Mahobd) that all his brothers had been allotted 
separate forts and residences, but none had been given to him. He asked 
that the same consideration might be shown to him. The king (Parm&) 
replied that Prithivi Rdja of Dilll had encroached on his territory and that 
lie had invited him d,tid the neighbouring kings ta taSet him at Mahobi 
and settle the dispute. He was prepared to give Malkha what Prithivi 
Bhodld return. The meeting took place and Malkh4 charged Prithivi 
with the encroachment and demanded the territory badk on pain of war. 
Prithivi finally refused to give np tte disputed laud aud war ensued. 
Parmdl first laid ssige to Saresmi (SafaSwa in the bard's text) and in the 
first battle defeated Pdrath (of SaresmA, who is (?) the Pdras of the 
bard). Then a larger array was sent from Dilli, but it also he defeated. 
Thus the king of Mahob4 got possession of SaresmA and giving it to 
Malkhd rettirned to his capital." I Would mention that the bard's version, 
Which makes oat that the powerful ruler Prithiyl Rftja, who was stirohg 

pirthJ raj and malkan. 39 

enongh to make a long stand against Shah&bu'ddfn, on this occasion 
merely suppressed a refractory baron for ravaging hia borders, is mora 
likely to have preserved the correct tradition than Gh&st Ram's version.] 
[_Aa to the other actors in the tale. These are P£ras, Kop Bachhr£j and 
Gajmodhni. Mr. Grierson has made out a pedigree from the AWchati^, 
which shows the relationship between the parties as therein stated. From 
it we gather this much : — 

B&sdeo of Mahob^, 


Malnfi d. m. Diwaia d. m. Tilkfl d. m. (Kop) 

Farm&I of Jasrfij of Jhijhawat Bachhrfij of 

Mahoba. I Jhijhfiwat. 

Alhft. Udal. I I 

MalkhS by a slave 
m. Gajn4, girl Pars4 
d. of Gaj or Pflras. 
of Kusaudt. 

[The relationship in the bard's version differs from the above, but not 
materially. As to Gajmodhni : she is evidently the Gajn4 of Chapter vii. 
of the Alhkhand, who was the daughter of Gaj, king of Knsaudiin Gnjarfl. 
Her brother was Moti, and it seems that in the bard's version these two 
names have been merged into one. Moti figures in Chapters vi. and vii. 
of the AlhJchand as a great hero.] 

rSaresmA or Saxaswd seems to have been a fort in the old Indiam district or 
division of Sambhal or Sambhalpiir, now in the MurSdibad District.] 


QissA Laeai Raja Pirthi Raj. 

MalTcdn zaminddr lid Rdjd se zamm lekar qild banana aur 
chughali khdni Pdrai ne Malhdn M Bdjd se. PJdr lardi honi 
Rdjd Pirthi Bdj hi Malhdn se aur Malkdn hd mdrnd Paras ho 
aur Kop Bachhrdj hrddar Paras ho, aurphir hamla karn 
la-zdt khud Bdjd Pirthi Bdj hd aur mdrnd jdnd Malkdn kd. 


Pirthi RS.ja hue Dilli men asthan. 

Nau lakkh neza sang men, siir bir balw&n. 

Aisa,.balwan ball chhatardhari, 

"Ds ko to dekh parja kampi sarJ. 

Raja sab jit lie nezadharl, 

Kampe balwan, hukm ais& bharf. 

40 0^: 



Sua Rajl ke zor ko, an TikkS. Malkan : 
" Jagah batao, Raoji, mujhe mile asthaa, 
Charsa bliar ik jagali mujh ko dije, 
Rakh lend man, karam apna kije. 
Eaja ke dharam karam, jitne sare, 
Mujh ko manzur aur bartun piyare." 

" Us Sambhal ke sarhad pe mujh ko hai manzflr, 

Jagah banao, khush raho," bole Sadr-sadAr. 
" Us par makan karo khatir rahna ; 

Age, Malkan, raha tevi lahna, 

Neki bar wakt karo ; sobha pio : 

Rahna hoshiyar ; badi mat na \ko." 


Sis niwayd Rao ko pahucha apne dham. 

Kila sarhad pe aur karan lagd bisrdm. 

Hat aur bazar kare baithak niyari ; 

Mahilon men rahan lagl us ki n&ri. 

B3.ghi das bis sath lekar doll ; 

LAte aur khae ; phir bal ko toll. 

" Taine dini thi jagah aur us ne kari anek, 
Be-iman Malkan to ave nahin babek. 
Woh to balvvan hda, Idite, khave. 
Badha hai ghar&r ; nahin hdzir ave. 
Apna hi zor-shor ghar ghar tole. 
Maya men mast hda andhd dole." 


Pirthi Edj. 
" Ptiras, us ko jake kah dena samjhae. 
Dher dilasa sab karo, aur 14o use buMe. 
Us ko bulwao, chale abhi jao ; 


Leke sitab khabar ulte ao : 
Pichhe bisram karo kbana khao. 
Mat karo avir, chale jaldi jao." 

Sun Raja ke bacban ko Paras pabuncha jae : 
" Chalo pas Pirtbi Raj ko, kabun tumben samjbaBi 
RajS, ne yad kiya tujb ko, Bhaia. 
Nabin bo mallab teri kaisi naiti. 
Neki to ddr, badi karta doli. 
Resam M gaijtli kaun is ko kboli ?" 

" Main apne mak&n pe n§. kucbb lia kasflr. 
Jis ke dil ko sbak hfa, kya nere kya dur, 
Raj& ke pas badi kisi ne kini. 
Jitna tba bukm maine utne lini. 
Kapti bo, mitr nabin, us pe jae. 
Gere to dut pas, phir mat na ae." 


Sunke itni bat ko Paras bbartl gbariir. 
Tab aya Pirtbi RSij pe ; kabna laga buzAr : 
" Wob to Malkin nelbin bas men ave. 
M^ya men mast bfla, lute, kbave. 
Kijo ilaj koi us ka k§,r}, 
Mujb ko bbi, Mabaraj, bda rabna bbari." 


" Ik lakh neza, aur sawa likb talwar ! 
Top dbaro bob-bbant ki ab mat karo awar :'^ 
R^ja ne bukm kani faujan Si. 
P§,ras ik bar dibal dil pe kbai. 
Jangai lie fauj cbarbi saump sari. 
Raj4 Pirtbi Raj cbarbe, bal ko dbari, 


SaraswS. ko gber lia dera kinsl : 
Jab to ik bar bukm RajS. dlnaj 
Vol. Ill — 6 


Mahilon ke Rani khari dekh rahi chhaun or ; 
Jab to lo aisi lagl, jaisi chand chakor : 
" Jangal men ghat kisi dhobi ne'laya ? 
Kya pbiilen men kaiis ? Bagi Har ki may a I" 

Bdni Oajmodhni ki Ma. 
" Fauj cbarhi Pirthi Raj ki, suniye Rajkanwar s 
Suta sher jaga de, ab mat kare awar. 
Beti, mat der kare, mano men. 
Akal kis des gai, suniye, teri ? 
Marae ki kal ghari sir pe ai ! 
Pani ke ag bich kis ne lai ?" 

Jab RanJ Gajmodhm pabunch gai darbar, 
Pahili us ne jake tba lie hathiy§.r. 
Thae hatbiy^-r aur us se boli ; 
Jitni tbi bat sabbi dil se kboli : 
" Duahman ki fauj saji tujb par ai ! 
Utho, Mabaraj, main to tujb pe ai \" 

Snnke itni bat ko utbe Rajkanwar. 
Edi s© cboti lagi, jaisi jhamak rabi talwar. 
'' Mere batbiyar kaho kis ne tbae. 
Dusbman koi pas nabin mere ae ! 
Aobraj ki bat fikar man men kbayS, ! 
Main tba be-d4gb ; dagb kis ne laya ?" 

Hatb jor E&ni kabi : " eh lijo batbiyar. 
Dusbman tere sis pe iipar karba tayyar. 
Eaja Pirtbi Raj tere lipar aya. 
Dekbke abwal meri kampi kayet. 
BaraswSi ko gber lia faujan garjain. 
Dekbo, Mabar&j, tere bagbi larjain." 

Pancbon pbare kapre,b§-ndb lie batbiyar, 
Pirtbi Raj ki fauj pe R^jA liM tayyar. 


Deiii lalkar uthe baghi ae ; 
Bandh kathiyar khare age pae. 
Das hazar sath charhe ran pe dhae : 
Saraswa ko chhor nikal bS/hii- ae. 

Jab dekta Pirthi Eiaj ne mara b&nji tAr. 
Charho udhar se garajke : " Suniyo saiiwat-silr." 
Paras tab bikat age dhaya : 
Dekhan balwan ball kS.mpi kaya. 
Sunte talwar pare jodhS, ran men, 
Jaisi ik bar kg lagl bliari ban men. 

Maha krodh tan men utha yftn bola Malkan : 
'' Sanmukli se hatna nahin, cbahe jate raho pran, 
Kat-kat-ke sis nuhi fipar aveii. 
Marin bar wakhfc ; nabin jane paven. 
Sunto talwar, barbo age, maro. 
Dusbman se war karo, lija taro." 

Paras ne dbdwa kiya : " dekb bamare hatb ! 
Age se nabin jan ddn, aur din se karun rat." 
Mare talwar ik Paras barbke, 
Dhal pe sambbS,! lie age barbke. 
Jab to mukb mor dia us ka, bira, 
Bbula gia bosb, nabin dbare dbira. 

Teg lie Malkan ne ; sanmukb dbaya dhir. 
Badhke mare beg de; kampan laga sarir. 
Eaja ne war kiya, ran pe dbaya ; 
Mare das bis ; pbir us pe aya. 
Raja talwar batb le raba nangi ; 
Cbau tarfon fauj kbari dekban jangl. 

Paras ne tega lia ; bal badb gia upar. 
Tega mara sUntke ; kai-a dusra war. 
Hane pe teg lagi, tuk ke maro. 


Kalghi ghore ki kafc niche dare. 
Jhukke talwar phir tije mare : 
Jab to Malkan dher dil pe dMre. 


Ghore ke chabuk dia; agin lagi balwan. 
Sis kat niche dhara, kabhi na ubhrat pran. 
Paras ko mlr aur dhawa kina. 
Rahna nahin, yar, sada jag men jina. 
Baje talwar jawan iko bari : 
Raja ki fauj tarash deke miri. 


Paras ka mami sunS. nth Kop Bachhraj. 
An para Malkan pe, jun titar pe baj. 
Goli bandfik chaleii, baje barchhi. 
Tuk-tuk-ke jawan sang mS,ren tarchbi. 
Lothon pe loth pare faujari sari ; 
Pae nahin hosh, man aisi m§,ri. 


Agan pari ran bich men, pave nahin shumar ; 
Jab Malkan mahabali sAnt raha talwar. 
Nangi lie teg sftnt dhawa kina ; 
Bh§,gi sab fauj, hfla mushkil jina. 
Das hazar fauj khapi ran men aisi, 
B^dal ke bich chhipi bijli jaisi. 

Sang lie jab hath men, dhawa kina hal ; 
MS,re jab Malkan ke sanmukh dar sa kal. 
Sanmukh se kal dekh us ko aya ; — 
Aisa nahin aur bali ran men paya ; — 
Dekhl chau taraf, teg sonti nangi, 
Jab to koi nahin raha sa ho sang!. 


S^ng lie Malkan ne aur mario BachhrSj. 
Ran jita, faujan bhagi, aur puran ho gia kaf, 
Pichhe se phir ik dhawa mara ; 


Das hazar fauj khapi katnpil* sar^. 
BhAla IJe sab dham charhe jitne bagi ; 
Dekha Malkan fauj age bhagl. 

BarS,]i kampii* bandhke charhe ap Prifchi Raj : 
Kampen sflrma ball, charhe bir ransSj. 
Ghanf ka banduk chalen bajen goli, 
Rang ki phuar, jaise khelen Holl. 
Jab to Pirthi Raj ap barhke aya ; 
Mara Malkan ; nam us ne paya. 

Darwaza ko torke Ha Saraswd liit. 
It ut bhage sArma, par gai ran men phut. 
Lute dhan mal aur hS,th} ghora. 
Uham dham haul kal sir par ghora. 
Jab to Pirthi Raj fattah aisi pai : 
S&runt ko jit fauj dal men ai, 

Kishn Lai Shibkanwar n6 bhaka kahi banae, 
Jaisi min samundar ki jit chahe ut jae. 

Stoet of a fight with RijA Pirthi Raj. 

Malkan, a land-owner, obtains some land from the Bdjd and 
builds a fort thereon and Paras tells tales of Mallcdn. Then 
there is war between Bdjd Pirthi Bdj and MalMn, and Mal- 
hdn slays Paras and his relative Kop Bachhrdj, and then Edja 
Pirthi Bdj himself attacks Malkdn and Mils him. 


Raja Pirthi Raj's throne was at Dilli. 

Nine lakhs of spears and heroic warriors were in his 

So heroic and powerful a ruler was he, 
That all his subjects trembled to look upon him. 
He conquered all the spear- bearing kings, 
And heroes trembled at his wondrous power. 

* From the English word camp, 
f For the English word gun. 



Prince Malkan came, hearing of the Eaja's power, 
(And said) ; " Show me a place, Sir King, where I may 

find a home. 
Give me as much land as I can irrigate (in a day). 
Keep up thy honour and thy word. 
As many rights and dues as the king may have 
I agree to and will willingly fulfil." 

•" I agree to a spot on the boundaries of Sambhal.* 

Build a home and be happy there," said His Majesty. 
" Make a house there to dwell in 

For the rest, Malkan, remains with fchee. 

Do ever good and be happy : 

Be wise and do no evil." 

He bowed his head to the king and went to his home. 
He built a fort on the boundaries and took his ease 

He built shops and a bazar and a separate palace, 
And his women began to dwell in the palace. 
He collected a few outlaws and wandered about, 
Robbing and enjoying himself, and using his power. 


Par as. f 

"Thou gavest him a place and he has made encroach- 
The faithless Malktln has no prudence. 
He is a warrior and robs and enjoys himself. 
His pride increases and he is never present (in Court). 
He shows his power in every house. 
He goes about blinded by his illusions." 

* i.e., apparently a spot somawhere between the modem Dehli and 
Muradabad Districts. 

t Complaining to Pirthi R^j. 

piethI eaj and malkan. 47 


Pirthl Raj. 
" Go and make him understand. Paras. 
Use all haste and bring him here. 
Go now and call him here. 
And come back soon with news of him. 
Take thy ease later and eat thy food. 
Make no delays and go quickly." 


Hearing the king's words Paras reached (Malkdn), 
(And said) : " I tell thee, come to Pirthi Raj. 
The king hath called theej Friend. 
Thy boat cannot float without the boatman. 
Thou hast sent away goodness and doest evil. 
"Who shall untie this silken knot V 

*' I have done no wrong in my house. 
Some person, who has doubted me, whether near or far. 
Has spoken evil of me to the Raja. 
I have done as I was told. 

Some hypocrite and no friend has gone to him. 
He may send a messenger now, but I come not." 


Hearing this pride filled Paras. 

Then went he to Pirthi Raj and said in the presence '■ 
" I had no power over Malkan. 
Filled with illusions he robs and enjoys himself. 
Invent some strong remedy for him, 
For I, too, will now find it difiicult to live, Maharaj." 

" Get one lakh of spears and one and a quarter of sworda. 
Get many kinds of guns and make no delay." 
(Such) were the king's orders and the army assembled. 


P§,ras was suddenly frightened in his heart. 

He sent forward a warlike army with much care. 

Eaja PirthiEaj went with it and gave it strength. 

They surrounded SaraSwS* and pitched their camp. 
And the king gave orders at once. 
The Ranit stood on the palace (roof) and gazed around 

She stood like a partridge gazing at the moon, J '"^ 
(And said) : "Has a washerman brought his clothes to 

the forest ! 
Or is the kans grass flowering?" § It is an illusioa 
(made) of God ! 


Bant Gajmodhni's Mother. 
" It is Pirthi Raj's army, hear, my Princess ; 
Go and awaken the sleeping lioa|| and make no delay. 
Make no delay, my daughter, and mark me. 
To what country have thy seTises flown ? 
The hour of death hath come upon us. 
Who hath thrown fire into the water ? "^ 


When E^ni Gajmodhni reached the presence. 
First she took up (Malkan's) arms. 
Taking up the arms she spake. 
Saying all that was in her heart : 
" The enemy's army is upon thee ! 
Up, niy Lord, I stm come to thee !" 

* The Saresma of the AlhtcJiand and MalkSn's fort. 
f Gajmodlmi, the wife of Malkto. 

I The chakor, partridge, is commonly supposed to be in love with 
the moon. 

8 The kans grass has a conspicuous white flower. 
i.e., Malkfin. 
% Idiom — who hath spoken evil against us ? 



Hearing this up got the Prince. 
(Anger) blazed from head to heeles as a sword flash. 
(Said he) : " Tell me who hath taken my arms. 
No enemy hath come to me ! 

Thou art troubled at heart at an impossible thing ! 
I was without a stain; who hath brought a stain upon 
me V 

With joined hands said the Princess: "Take these 

Thy enemy is ready to be upon thy head. 
Raja Pirthi Raj hath come upon thee. 
When I sa,w it my body trembled. 
A roaring army hath encompassed Sai-aswd. 
Behold, my Lord, thy outlaws are trembling/' 

He took his five (sorts of) clothes and fastened on his 

The Raja Malkaa was ready for Pirthi Raj's army. 
Shouting out the outlaws came up. 
And stood before him armed. 
Ten thousand went up with him to the field ; 
And leaving Sarasw^ they came outside. 

When Pirthi Raj saw that they were Beating their drums, 
Puriously he came forward (and said) ". listen to them, 

ye warriors." 
Then Paras rushed forward furiously, 
And. the warriors and heroes trembled as they saw him. 
Drawing their swords the warriors rushed into the field. 
As a fire suddenly catches a great forest. 

Very wrathful in his heart thus spake Malk&n : 
" I will not turn my back on them, though I lose my life. 
And severed heads fall upon the ground. 

VOL. III.— 7 


Strike every moment and let tliem not escape. 
Draw your swords and go forward and slay. 
Pall upon the enemy and rest not.^'' 


Cried out Paras : " behold my strength ! 
I will not let thee go on and will. turn day into night." 
Paras advanced and struck a blow with his sword. 
And he (Malkan) advancing warded it with his shield. 
And when he turned his face at himj friends,* 
(Paras) forgot his sense and had no courage. 

Malkan took his sword and rushed forward . 

Quickly he struck him and his body trembled. 

The Raja (Malkan) shouted and rushed into the field. 

Slew some ten or twenty and then came upon him again. 

The Eaja had his sword drawn in his hand. 

And on all sides the warlike army looked on. 


Paras took up his sword and showed great strength. 

Drawing his sword he struck a second time. 

His aim (was bad) and the sword struck the pommel.f 

The crest of the horse was cut and fell down. 

Recovering his sword he struck a third time, 

When Malkan summoned up all his courage. 


He whipped up his horse and a strong fire burned with- 
in him. 
He cut ofi'his head and there was no hope of life left. 
Slaying Paras he went onwards. 
One cannot stay, friend, or live for ever in the world. 
Suddenly the warriors brandished their swords. 
And cut up the Raja (Pirthl R4j's) army. 

* To the audience. t Oi Malkdn's saddle. 



Hearing of the deatli of Paras up got Kop Bachhrfij. 
He came upon Malkan, like a hawk upon a partridge. 
Guns discharged bullets, and spears were brandished. 
The warriors aimed and hurled their javelins. 
All the army was piled up, corpse on corpse. 
And the javelins were so hurled that all lost their 

Fury raged in the field beyond compute, 
When the powerful Malkan drew his sword. 
Drawing his naked sword he went forward. 
And all the army fled, and it was difficult to live. 
Ten thousand men slain fell in the field, 
As lightning is hidden by the clouds. 

(Kop Bachhraj) now seized a javelin and went forward. 
And hurled a terrible blow at Malkan's face. 
Seeing death in front of him, — 

— For there was no such warrior as he* in the field, — 
He looked all round, with his naked sword (drawn), 
And found no comrade by him. 

XXVI. ^ 
Malkan took a javelin and slew Kop Bachhraj. 
He won the field, as the army fled, and his work was done. 
Then he again rushed forward. 

And destroyed the whole camp of ten thousand men. 
As many of the warriors as advanced forgot their places, 
And seeing Malkan's army ran away. 

Putting together twelve armies Pirthi Eaj advanced. 
And powerful warriors trembled on the advance of the 
battling hero. 

* i.e , as Kop Bachhraj. 


Cannons let loose their ballsj 

Like tlie powder* that is thrown about at the Holl 

Then Pirthi Eaj came up himself, 
And slew Malkan and made a name for himself. 

Breaking open the gates they sacked SaraswS. 
Its warriors running hither and thither were slain on the 

They took the money and the goods, the elephants and 

the horses. 
Trouble and death came upon every household. 
So Pirtht Raj won the victory. 
And having beaten the enemy the army returned home, 

Kishn lAl and Shibkanwarf made this in the vulgar 

Just as a fish in the sea goeth where it listeth. 

* A red powder is thrown oyer each other by the revellers at this 
Indian Carnival. 
f The bai'd and his wife. 

No. XLII. 


[This is a modern yersion of the very old tale of HariSchandra, which is related 
in part in the Mah&ihdraia and Aitareya Br&hma'n.a and in detail in the 
M&riandeya Pur&na, on which last the modern versious are mainly found- 
ed. Like the tale of Nala and DamayantJ, the tale of Hariachandra is a 
very favorite one at the present day. In the Classics HariSchandra's 
wife is Saiby£ and his son Rohitasva.] 

[The story of the Glassies is fairly well followed by the modern one so far as 
it goes, for it only carries us to the point where Harischandra and all hig 
Buhjects go to heaven. While in heaven (according to the Classics) Ndrada 
induced hiin to boast of hia merita, whereon he was expelled, but while 
he was falling he repented and so his course to the earth was arrested 
with the result of his occupying a position in mid air, where his city can 
still be seen. This is alluded to in stanza LXVII. of the following legend 
and is still a favorite folktale in Northern India.] 
f Bisw4mitr or Yiav^mitra, who plays an important part in this story, was one of 
the Eishis and is a personage of great antiquity. He is related to have 
been a Kshatriya (soldier) who became a Brahman (priest) by virtue of 
his austerities. He incurred the animosity of the Brahman Vasishtha 
(Bisishth) and the struggle between this priest and his rival the soldier- 
priest is told in many a story. Visvllmitra is an ever present personage 
in ancient heroic tales, and often plays, as here, a part intended to show 
the ' virtue' of complete submission by the laity to the priesthood .] 

Qissa Raja Sari Ghand. 
Satwadi Hari Ohand si, sati jo Tara nar; 
Silwant Rohtas si ; sat ka ar na par. 

The Story of Raja, Hari Ghand. 


Virtuous was Hari Chaudand virtuous was his wife Tara ; 
Virtuous wag his son BohtaS; whose virtue had no 


' Sat ka ar na par !' kahti parja s§,ri. 
Bed aur kit^b parhen bedacMri. 
Pichhe se jag kare aise bbarf^ 
Indar ke lok gaJ sobhS, sari. 

Indar kahe^ "Narad, suno, mere larze pran. 
Mirth lok ke bJch men barha kaunsa dSn ? 
Kaunsa wob daa badba ? Kaunsa raja ? 
Eh to ahwal sana ham se taja. 
Matkaro abir; chale abhi jao : 
Sat ko bism^r karo; ulte ao." 
Biswamitr Brdhinan. 
"Eaj^, duteta n§, karo; dil ki na karo andesh. 
Bidiy^ koi dharaa kariin, aur metAn tera klesh. 

' Their virtue hath no bounds/ said all their subjects. 
Faithfully they read the Scriptures and the books. 
At last (Hari Ohand) performed so great a sacrifice, 
That the fame of him reached to India's land.* 

Said Indra, " Listen, Nirad,t my heart trembles. 
Who is it upon earth that gives so" much in charity ? 
Who is it that gives in charity ? What king is he ? 
Tell me of this new matter. 
Make'no delay, but go at once. 
And come back after ruining such virtue,."J 
Biswamitr, the Brahman. 
"R4j^ (Indra), be not afraid and have no anxiety in thy 
I will fix on some plan and blot out thy fears. 

* See Vol. II., p. 215. 

t N&rada was the messenger of the gods. Here he is meamt to be 
Visvamitra, c/. Vol. II., p. 222. 

J The' point is that Indra fears that the virtue of Hari Chand's aus- 
terity and good works will oust him from heaven. 


Met dfln Mesh, debli Har ki may a. 
Sat ko bismar karAi, paltAn k&yS.. 
Jodhia Nagarl men khet aisa dElriirij 
Raja kS, man ik pal men mS,rAn." 

Raja Indar. 

" HatM, ghor^, rath le, raj, pat, dhan, ma] ! 
ChaLiye, le to Indarpad ; hira, lije l&l ! 
Hira aur lal, ratan, mukta lije ! 
Itna aksan ik mujli pe kije ; 
Meri to laj r§,kh. Pandit BhM. 
Meri to aj haul dil se ai." 

I will blot out thy fears when thou seest the illusions of 

I will ruin his virtue by transforming my body.* 
I will create such a disturbance in Ajndhia City, 
That I will destroy the Raja's credit in a moment.'' 


Bdj'd Indar, 

• Take elephants and horses and chariots and kingdom 

and dignity and wealth and goods ! 
If thou wilt, then take my Indra's throne, take diamonds 

and rubies ! 
Take diamonds and rubies and gems in hoards ! 
Lay me under an obligation. 
But preserve my honour. Friend Priest. 
To-day is my heart anxious." 

* By pretending to be some one else. 


Kar parnam, bidd hM Biswamitr sujdn : 
Awadhpuri ke high men rok lia maidan, 
Eoka maiden; ik maya dhari. 
PMlan ke bel phar niche dart 
Ghancka* bismar kia jifcnd sara : 
Mali ka man gia nahche mara. 

" Janwar to balwan hai ; kiya bagh bismar. 
Lakh lakh ka pad tha, lagi nek nahin hiv. 
Ghanchd* bismar kara, mewS, phari. 
Meti sab rit-bhant, jitni sM," 
Mali to hath male, peti chhdtl : 

" Meri yeh sak gai, ab nahin ati \" 

Bowing and taking his leave the wily Biswamitr 
Blocked the park in the gardens of Awadhpuri.t 
He blocked the park, putting on a disguise. 
He pulled down the flowering creepers and threw them 

He destroyed the whole garden. 
And the gardeners could not resist him. 
" A mighty beast hath destroyed the garden. 
In a moment of time (he hath destroyed) myriads of 

He hath destroyed the gardens and pulled down the 

fruits : 
And hath blotted out all the orderly (ways)." 
The gardener wrung his hands and beat his breast : 
" My honour hath fled and will not return !" 

* For haghichd. f i.e., Ajudhia in Awadh (Oudh). J To his wife. 



" Jan war ko mat chherlye, mere kanth suj^a. 
Ag lago is bagh men, tujhe na deti jan. 
Jauwar ke pas nahin jane defci. 
Chhoro rozgar, karo khao kheti. 
Janwar to zor-shor aisa karta. 
Bia ai maut mare kaise, bharta 1" 



" Jas jlwan, ap jas maraa ; kal men upje do. 
Ky§, Lankpat le gia ? Aur kyS, Karan giya kho ? 


Gardener's Wife. 
" Incense not the beast, my wise husband. 
If the garden be on fire I will not let thee go. 
I will not let thee go near the beast. 
Give up thy profession and take to farming. 
The beast is niaking a great noise. 
Do not thou die an untimely death, my husband \" 



" Good it is to live and evil it is to die : these two things 
are born into the world. 
What took the Lord of Lanka away ? What lost 

* Allusions here to the story in the Rdmdyana in which R&vana, lord 
of Lanka, abducted Sita, wife of Rama Chandra, for which act he was 
eventually slain. And to the story in the Mahdbhdrata in which Drau- 
padi at her swayamvara would not allow Karna, then king of Anga 
(Bengal), to compete for her hand on the ground of his being a baatard. 
He was half brother to the Pandavas. 

VOL. m.— 8 


Bed aur kitab bharen ua ki sS,k]ii. 

Duniya ke bich nam rahta bakl. 

Kaja ki rit chalan tu na jane. 

JhAta takrar kaun kare ? Sat ko nadne ?" 


" Jinwar ko mat chheriye, ai mere bhartar. 
Tdti nao samundar ko kis gun utaregi par ? 
Jan war yet nabin : koi honi ai. 
Raja ke satb an baji lai. 
Dharke bakral riip bagh men 8.ya. 
Dekbke chalitr meri kampi hajL" 


" Chbod'cl to kuchh hai nabin, kiya bagb pamal. 
Us Eaja ko jake kabna para abw^l. . 

Tbe Scriptures and tbe books tell their story. 

A good name lires on in tbe world. 

Thou dost not know the ways of kings. 

Why lead me astray ? Let me rememlDer my duty !" 


Gardener's Wife. 
"Incense not the beast, my husband. 
How shalt thou cross the ocean in a broken boat ? 
This is no beast, but some frightful horror. 
It will play some trick on the Eaja. 
Assuming a horrible shape it hath come into the gardea. 
Seeing the trick my body trembles." 


" Nothing is left, but the whole garden is destroyed. 
I will go and tell the E^j& all about the matter. 


Kahna hai atwal, khiyal guzra sara. 
Be-waris mal giya jitna niyar^. 
Jan war to kUd kud ftpar §,ve,, 
Dalile sab bkawan, nakin rasta pave.", 

"Ugme, soi, utme, janne so mar jae. 
Ckkunne sol gir pare, pkille so kamlae. 
Pand ko bicMr, bagk lave mali, 
Karta gulzar jagak nakin kkdli. 
Birwe bflnton ko kare niyara niyar^, 
Sincke sab ped ; rake sab se piyara." 


Mali bagkan se ckala Eaj-sabka men jde, 
Jo kawal* kua bagk men, dina sabki sunae : 

I am determined to tell all tkat bas kappened. 
All tke fruit kas become useless. 
Tke beast keeps leaping about. 

And all my body trembles and I know of no way (of 

Gardener's Wife. 
" Wkat appears disappears, wkat is born dies. 
Wkat is picked up falls again, wkat blossoms fades. 
Selecting kis (seedlings) tke gardener makes kis garden, 
Beautifying every place and leaving notking empty. 
He separates seedling from seedling in order. 
He waters all tke trees and takes care of tbem."t 

Tke gardener went to tke Royal Court, 
And told all tkat bad kappened in tke garden : (saying), 

* For almdl. 
t This speech is a mere string of platitudes in rhyme thrown in for 


'' Kina bismar bagh jitna s^ra. 
Gonda, gulzar, kat-kslt-ke dara. 
Clihorf na ik kail sabit dole ; 
Aisa ahman hua, bal ko tole." 

Bdja Mari Ghand. 
•' Teri akal kahan gai, re Mall mat-hin ? 
Parbat lipar, baware, kaiae baithe min ? 
Jal bin to mln kabln dole. 
Eit ko pahcli§,nj jhiit mat na bole. 
Parde ki bat raM pargat khole. 
Td to be-hosb yilnhlfi marta dole." 
" Raja, merl bat kk mano turn aitbar. 
Baki te chhorl nahiii, kara bagh mismar. 

" (The beast) hath destroyed the whole garden. 

It hath cut down the marigolds and the flowers. 

In its wanderings it hath spared not a bud ; 

And is now quite mad and wild in its strength." 
Raja Hari Ghand. 
" Where are thy senses, thou foolish Gardener ? 

How shall a fish sit on the mountain top, thou fool T 

A fish cannot wander except in water. 

Think it out and tell no lies.* 

Thou art divulging some secret thing. 

Thou art fooUsh and art wandering at random." 

" Raja, believe my words. 
It hath left nothing, but destroyed the garden. 

* Tlie GarJcuer seems to have described ' the beast ' aa a fish to 
tte Raja and hence this speech. 


Aisi bism^r kari dMi dali. 
Dekhke ujar p§,s §,ya Mali. 
Lajja ko rakh mere, Chhatardhari. 
Bandho hathiyar, karo jaldi tayyari." 
Raja Han Ghand. 
" Bikat bandhj Jodha, charho, karo bagh men Jang. 
Janwar to balwan kai, bigar gia hai rang. 
Baghori ke as pas jaldi jana ; 
Chhatri ka dharm sis bandho bftna. 
Sanmukk se aur nahin katke ana ; 
Karke ashnan, plier khao kMna." 

'' Sabka-dkyan, thade rako, yeh janwar balwan. 
Yek to bas ka kai, nakin aisa mare man. 

It katk destroyed it branch by branch. 

I, the G-ardener, have seen it and come here. 

Preserve my honour, King. 

Fasten on thy arms and come quickly." 


Bdjd Han Chand.* 
" Go together, Warriors, and fight in the garden. 
The beast is very strong and affairs are bad. 
Go round the garden 

And fasten on your heads the turbans of (true) soldiers. 
Turn not your faces back (from the beast), 
Then bathe and eat your food."t 
'' Lord of the assembly, wait awhile, the beast is strong. 
It is beyond control and not thus to be stayed. 

* To his men. f Idiom : do your work quickly. 


Rhja, Maharaj, dekh ftpar aya. 
Pal pal tueii badle rang, palti kaya, 
Tera to liukm nahin jata pherji ; . 
Eaja, raho alag, man kahna mera." 

Efiji, to mana nahin, pahile kina war. 
Jan war aya kiidke, sont Me talwar. 
Sonti talwar ik us ki mari. 
Lie sambMl gliao aya kari. 
R§.ja lalkar die. " Us ko maro ! 
Mat karo abir, hatli dpar daro ! " 

Jan war ne dhawa kiya aur mare das bia. 
Bhuja pbar pbenke, tabhi aur ura de sis. 
Sdwar kft rAp dhara ; ijpar aya. 
Janwar ne palat lie apni kaya ; 

When it sees a Eaja, my Lord, it will come upon thee. 

It changes its colour and body every moment. 

I cannot disobey thy orders ; 

(But) Raja, keep aloof and hearken to my words." 


The Raja would not listen and made his first attack. 
The beast leapt at him and he drew his sword. 
Drawing his sword he struck it once. 
Receiving the blow it was wounded. 
The Eaja called out : " Kill it ! 
Make no delay and capture it \" 


The beast charged and killed some twenty men. 
It tore off their arms and hurled about their heads. 
In a boar's form it attacked them. 
The beast then changed its form 


Hathi par war kara, ghore m§,r&. 
Janwar to tej khet chhodeii sara. 

Hari Chand Eaja kahe, badan gia ghabra : 
" Leke tegh tarash dth, jo koi Latke ja. 
Jis ke upar ko kud janwar jave, 
Us ki to aj gale phansi ave ! " 
Nagari men shor macha aisa bhai'i : 
' Raja ki laj ik janwar tari ! ' 


Janwar ne dhawa kiy§, ; {ipar kina war : — 
Jab Eaja ke bagh ko babut kiya bismar : — 
Dma dar dar, pair sir par mara. 
Pabili hi bar parau Eaja Lara. 
Man men to socb kare Chhatardbari : — 
' Kya karun ilaj ? Pari bipta bhari ! ' 

And attacked tbe elephants and slew the horses. 

All the swift animals (that were there) fled from the 


Eaja Hari Chand cried out at this extremity : 
" I will kiU him with my sword that turneth back. 

Over whom the beast shall leap and escape. 

Shall be hanged this very day !" 

And it was widely noised throaghout the city : 
' A beast hath ruined the Eija's honour !' 


The beast attacked and leapt upon the RajS, : — 

It had greatly destroyed the Eaja's garden : — ■ 
' It put its paws on his head (and leapt over him) . 

At the very first the Eaja went back on his word. 

The king thought in his heart : — 
' What remedy have I now ? Great is my misfortune !' 



" Raja, meri bat ka kara nahin aitbar ! 
Jatan banao kya bane ? Gia paran ko bar ! 
Paran ko badar dia, hari baji ! 
Age, Mabaraj, rabe teri raji. 
Main ne jo bat kabi age ai. 
Turn ne, Mabaraj, dagba kaise kba} I " 


Raja ko dosht biii: — " Kije kaun ilaj ? 
Bat gai Darbkr ki sabbi bigara kaj ! " 
Ban ke bich gik Raja bira, 
Suraj pargasb badan sundar bira. 
Mirg ka bicbar kare Raja bole ; 
Brabman se pftcbb raba: " sat ko tole." 


" Raja, tbou wouldst not believe in my words ! 
Wbat canst tbou do now ? Tby oatb is broken ! 
Tbou bast broken tby oatb and lost tbe game ! 
For the rest, my Lord, it is tby pleasure. 
Wbat I said bath come to pass. 
How much wrong hast thou done, my Lord \" 

The Raj^ was frightened (and said) :— " What shall I do ? 
The oatb given in Court bath been all broken ]" 
Tbe noble Raja went into tbe forest, 
His fair body shining as tbe sun and like a diamond. 
Thinking of tbe deer tbe Raja spake 
And asked the Brabman to tell bim the truth.* 

* ' The beast' has now become ' a deer,' and in that form speaks as 
the Brahman Visvamitra to the Raja. 


Biswdmitr Brahman. 
" Mh-gk to dekba nahm ; sun, Raji, parbia ; 
Ik arzi meri suno, kahta huh paradhia. 
Ajodha ko aj lagi meri tayyari ; 
Eaja Hari Chand suna satadhari. 
Izzafc ki kaj maha bipta bbare ; — 
Kaudi nahiii pas, byab kaise kare ? " 

Bdjd Hart Chand. 
" Ajodha k§, rahna gia aisS atkl kam : 
Pharisa paran ke bich mod. Mera Data Ram ! 
Atka hai kam, paran kina bhiiri ; 
Mitha jal aj lage mujb ko khari ! 
Ab to kuchh dan dia nabfn jsUa, 
Bipr, maiii sack kahiiii turn se bataii." 


Biswamitr, the Brahman,. 

" I Have seen no deer ;* hear, my wise Raj^ ; 

Hear a prayer of mine which I bring respectfully. 

I go to Ajudhia to-day, 

For I have heard that Raja Hari Chand is fall of virtue. 

A great misfortune hath befallen my honour : — 

I have no money, so how can I perform the marriage Vf 


Raja, Hari Ghand. 

" I am prevented from staying in Ajudhia, 

As my oath has been broken. God is my Redeemer ! 

My difficulty is that I made a great oath. 

And to-day sweet water tastes bitter to me ! 

I can give thee no alms now, 

Brahman, and I tell thee truth." 

* i.e., " the beast" — tlie poet-is confused here. 

t Of my two (laughters : see further on in stanza XXV. 

roL. III. — 9 



Biswdmitr Brahman. 
" Satw^di Raja suna mulkon men sarnam. 
Kaniyan donon biyah de, na til de kuchh dam. 
Kaniyan bar jog bhai meri, EajS,, 
Atka bai kaj^ bachan suniyo taj^. 
Ganga asbnan karo, Chhatardhari ; 
Kar le kucbb nam, ^j terJ bari !" 

Ban men gborsi, bandbke, karan laga asbnan. 
Hath jor tbada kbarS. : " Bipr, lijo dan. 
Mango, Mabaraj, jaise icbba tere. 
Hatbi, gajbaj, mang kane mere. 
Chabiye so mal, mulk bam se llje. 
Itna absan ik mujb par kije." 


Biswdmitr, the Brahman. 
" I have heard tby great name, Eaja, throughout the 

land as virtuous. 
Let me marry my two daughters and never mind the 

My daughters are ripe for marriage, Eaja, 
I am in difficulties and my tale is new. 
Bathe in the Ganges,* King ; 
To-day is thy opportunity for gaining a name !" 

Fastening up bis horse in the forest he prepared to bathe, t 
He stood with his joined bands and said : " Brahman, 

take thy dues. 
Ask, my Lord, according to tby desire. 
Ask elephants and hawks of me. 
If thou desirest goods, take my country. 
Lay me under this obligation." 

* Idiom : perform a good work ; in this case by helping to marry off 
the Brahman's danghterp. 
t i.e., to do the good work the BrShman demanded of him. 


Biswamitr Brahman. 
" Sath bhdr swarran mujlie, Hari Chand, kar dan. 
Niche ko mat dekhiye, kar Ganga ashnan. 
Kar Gangd ashnan paran dharan kije ; 
Swarran \q sath bhar mujh ko dije. 
Daniya ke bich baje tera baja; 
Tab to anand suphal bolun, Raja." 
Rdja Hart Chand. 
" Chalis bhar men lijiye is gunthi* ka mol ; 
Bis bhar men basat le : dine turn se khol. 
Main ne sab khol die jitni sari. 
Age, Maharaj, rahi mansha thari. 
Sath bhar dan die main ne s§,re. 
Ab to ghar baith, mere Brahman piyare." 

v^ , 


Biswamitr, the Brahman. 
" Give me dues of sixty loads of gold, Hari Chand. 
Look not down, but bathe in the Ganges. f 
Bathe in the Ganges and take an oath, 
To give me sixty loads of gold. 
Thy glory shall be noised throughout the world, 
And I will call thee happy and blessed. Raja." 
Haja Hart Chand. 
" Take this ring for forty loads of gold. 
And my property for twenty loads : and I have given 

I have given all I have. 
For the rest, my lord, thy desire remains. 
I have given the whole sixty loads in alms. 
Go to thy house now, my dear Brahman." 

* For anguthi. f Idiom : do it quickly. 




Biswamitr Brahman. 
"Raja, tu; sarb ans de dachnadekar piyar. 

Yeh prabhe ke same hai^ kar bere ko pdr : 

Bera kar par, mere Raja gyani, 

Satiya ka kambh suni terf Eanl. 

Dachna de aur bane puran asa ;, 

Tei-a Baikunth dham hovega basa." 
Eajd Earl Ghand. 
" Ik Rani Tafa^^ati, ik beta Kanwar Robtaa : 

Ik Raja Harl Chand hai khara tumhare pas. 

Hazir main pas khara, lije arji : 

Kab de, JIaharaj, kaisi ten marji ? 

Jodhia men cbal, aur lije bira. 

Mat karo abir, karo man men dMra." 


Biswamitr, the Brahman. 
" Raja, give me every part of my dues witb gladness. 
This is the opportunity for thee to take thy boat over^* 
To take thy boat over, my wise Raja. 
1 have heard that thy Queen is a pillar of virtue. 
Grant me my fees and fulfil my hope. 
That thou mayest dwell in Heaven for thy home." 

Bajd Han Ghand. 

" I have a Queen Tarawati and a son Prince Rohtas, 
And I Raja Hari Chand stand before thee, 
I stand before thee, hear my prayer : 
Tell me, my Lord, what is thy desire ? 
Come to Ajudhia and take thy dues. 
Make no delay and have patience in thy heart.'* 

* To obtain salvation. 



Ban men se chal parOj Jodhiapur men fie- 

"VVoh Eaj& Hari Chand ke baitha asan lae ; 

Asan to 1^ did Bipr piyare. 

Raja ke mdn ik pal meii mare : 
" Laya tain bagh khili dali dali. 

DaclinS, bin dan chala sagra kMli.'' 
Raja Hari Chand. 
" Sun, Eanl Tarawati, dan dia sarb ans- 

Dachna men tinon bike, na rakh lia kuchli ans. 

Chhatri ka ans i-akh main ue nahlii lina. 

Mama bar-hakk, nahlii sat ko dina. 

Eani, dliar dhir, karam ktlran niyara, 

Bidhna ki dat nahjii metanhara.'' 

They left the forest and came to Ajadhi4 City, 
Raja Hari Chand took his seat there, 
So also did the friendly Brtlhman, 

In one moment he ruined the BSja's honour (and said) : 
"Thou hast planted a gai-den (of virtue) and every 
branch is blossoming, 
But without alms it is all useless," 
Raja Sari Chand. 
" Hear, Rdni Tdrawati, I hare given away every part of 
me in alms. 
We three must be sold for alms, for I have kept back 

no part. 
I have kept back no part of the Chhatri.* 
It is better to die than to give up virtue. 
Eani, have patience, fate cannot be avoided. 
The lines of fate cannot be blotted out." 

—— ^ ■ 

* i.e., of himself as a Kshatriya or Chhatri. The 'parts' of himself 
■were his own body and those of his wife and son. 




Beta, lina sang men, aur Rani Hnl sS,th, 
Brahman ko kahne lage : " suno hamari bat. 
Meri sun bat, chalo, Pandit gyant. 
' Lijo kahln dtim,' kahe turn se Rani. 
Chahe jalian bich dam apne lije. 
Itna, MaharSj, karam mujh pe kije." 

Pandit lekar sang men gi& Ban3,ras Gam. 
Us Kasi ke bich men m^ngan laga dam ; 
" Barde hain p&s tin ; lijo, koi I 
Sath bh&r dam kaha turn se soi, 
Saudel sastd hai ; aj koi lijo ! 
Sath bhar d^m mujhe dil se dijo \" 


He took his son and his Queen with him 

And said to the Brahma^ : "hear my words. 

Come, hear my words, my wise Priest. 
' Get our price from somewhere,' saith the Queen to thee. 
' Get thy price (somewhere) in the world. 

Show me this favor, my Lord.' " 


The Priest took them with him and went to Banaras City. 
And began to demand a price for them in Kasi,* (say- 
ing) : 
«' I have three slaves ; buy them, somebody ! , 
I demand sixty loads of gold from you ! 
The bargain is a cheap one, buy them to-day ! 
Gladly give me sixty loads of gold 1" 

* i.e., Ban&ras. 


Bis bMr randi ne die aur Rani lini mol ; 
Baki to chhode nahin ; die tav§,zu tol. 
" Bis bh§,r dam, Bipr, mnjh se bharua. 
Is men takrar koi nahin karna. 
Mujh ko rasid ap dil se dijo ; 
Pichhe Rani ko s4th mere kijo." 

Us randi ke hath se Bipr lini Akxn. 
Randi ko rukhsat kiya, sabhi bane subh kam, 
" Sabhi subh kam kare Dat^ mere. 
Karta ke ank nahin jate phere.^' 
Pichhe se Bipr ik bani bole : 
" Larka ik aur bike, dil ki khole." 
Baijnath Seth. 
" Larka mujh ko dijo ; suno, Bipr Maharaj. 
Molkaro, sachi kaho, Bipr, parmS,rath ke k§,j. 

A courtezan gave twenty loads and bought the Rani, 

And weighed out the price, leaving nothing. 

(Said she) : " I owe twenty loads, Brahman, 

And will not quarrel over it. 

Gladly give me a receipt for it, 

And then give me over the Rani." 

The Brahman took the price from the courtezan. 

He dismissed the courtezan and obtained all his desire. 

(Said he) : " God hath fulfilled all my desire. 

The will of God cannot be turned back." 

Next said the Brahman : 
" I freely offer this lad for sale." 
Baijnath, the Merchant. 
" Give me the boy, hear me, my Lord Brahman. 

Fix the price and say truly, Brahman, for pity's sake. 


Satki ik bat kalio, Bipr bMi. 

Sat ki mirjad Bed charon gai." 
" Eh la;ka tujhe dia bis bbar, MaharajS,. 

Abbi dijo tolke, tujhe sunadi. kaja." 
Baijruith Beth. 
" Lark& mujh ko dijo, suno, Bipr MaharSj, 

Abh! dijo tolke, tujhe sunailn aj." 
" Tujh ko tuain aj kahi sachi bani. 

Bis bhar bich die Tara R4ni. 

Rauda sasta hai, is se hanske lijo. 

Is ka kuchh bhed kahin mat na dijo." 

Bis bhar swarran die ; larka lina sang. 

Saump die sab lachhmi, nirnial kini ang. 

Say one true price, friend Brahman. 

The four Vedas have sung the praises of truth." 

" I give thee this boy, my Lord, for twenty loads. 

Weigh it out at once, I tell thee." 


Baijnath, the Merchant. 

" Give me the boy, hear, my Lord Brahman. 

I will weigh it out now, to-day I tell thee." 

" I have told thee truth to-day. 

I have sold the Rani T4ra for twenty loads. 

It is a cheap bargain, take him from me. 

Let there be no secrets in this." 


He gave the twenty loads of gold and took the boy 

with him. 

He handed him over all his money and purified his 


* Idiom : had a son. This would argue that he had been previously 


Nirmal sab ang bani, Har ki maya. 
Seth ko jawahir, M, kundan paya : 
Bliogi sukh cbain, drab mayadhari : 
Bipta sab dilr gai jitni sari. 


Kahvd Chanddl. 
" Mol kaho Hari Chand 'k^, lijo ham se mal. 
Chahe soi lijiye, tujhe siinlya Ml. 
Tujh ko main hal kaha sachi bam. 
Kabani ki jog nahin, so nahin kabaDi. 
Kah dena mol tol iko b4ri : 
Hit rit bat karo jitni sari." 


Biswdmitr Brahman. 
" Eh Eaja satwant hai, sat ki bole bat. 
Beta bika bazar men, got gina nahin nat. 

By the wondrous (power) of God his body was purified. 
The merchant obtained jewels and rubies and gold, 
He dwelt in comfort and became very rich, 
And all trouble was absent from him.* 
Kdlivd, the Scavenger.-f 
" Fix a price for Hari Chand and take it from me. 
I say truth, take what thou wilt. 
It is truth that I have told thee. 
One should not say that which is unworthy. 
Tell me the price once for all. 
Speaking proper words.'' 
Biswdmitr, the Brahman. 
"This Raja is virtuous and speaketh truth. 
His son was sold in the market without noting caste 
or clan. 

* i.e., his purcLase prospered laim. f To Visvamitra. 

TOL. III. — 10 



Sat ke partap taji sagrf m§,ya. 
Sat ke partap bikan Kasi men aya. 
Bis bhar swarran ke mujhe ablii dena : 
Eaja Hari Chand pas apne lena." 

Swarran dma tolke, bis bh4r kiya mol ; 
Sath lia Maharaj ko, karke pura tol. 
Bis bhar dam die, baje baja. 
Marghat ke rakh dia cliauki meii Raja. 
Baniye se roz ser sattfl leta, 
Raja Hari Cband nahiii sat ko deta. 


Oangd Bandi. 
" Bis bhar main ne die, RS,n}, tere mol. 
Peshi karna parega ; dina turn se khol. 

For virtue's glory he gave up all his wealth. 
For virtue's glory he hath come to be sold in Kasi. 
Give me twenty loads of gold now, 
And take Raja Hari Chand with thee." 

He weighed out the twenty loads of gold for price. 
And took the Raja with him, after paying the full price. 
He paid the twenty loads and beat the drum (of his. 

He placed the Raja as guardian over the burning-place.* 
Daily he procured a serf of coarse ffour from the trader. J 
Still Hari Chand gave not up his virtue. 
Ganga, the Courtezan. § 
" I bought thee, EIni, for twenty loads. 
I tell thee that thou wilt have to be a courtezan. 

* Whore his duties would be to see that the fees for burning the 
dead were properly collected, 
t 2 lbs. + As food for Hari Chand. § To her slave the Rani Tara. 


Turn se main khol die dil ki Rani. 
Ganga se nir bharo mera pani. 
Mat kare andesh, ap khana kMo, 
Ganga ashnan karo, abM j^." 


Ik ausar pa ckali Eani dil men Gangaji ke nahane ko. 
Tap tej barM aur sil charhaj lagi mukat sila pe jane ko. 
Pat khol die deta tajke, kuchh gham na rahi sarmane ki. 
Raja ke socli kare Rani ; 'tajvij kare kya khane ki V 
[Kishn Lai Shib Kaiiwar], sang Hari Chand nazar paiS, 

Rani ki. 
Atamr^m ko cMn lia, rah! bat nahin samjhani ki.* 

I have told thee. Rani, what is in my mind. 
Get me water from the Ganges (daily). 
Have no anxiety and eat thy food. 
Go and bathe in the Ganges now." 


Thus the Eani had an opportunity to bathe in the 

Her glory shone and her virtue increased towards 

attaining salvation. 
She took off her veil and felt no shame. 
The Rani left the water and began to think how the 

Raja was obtaining his food! 
[Say Kishn Lai and ShibkanwarJJ her glance fell on 

Hari Chand. 
Her soul went out of her beyond telling. 

* This verse is in a metre peculiar to itseK, as though it came from 
another song, 
t And so obtain salvation. 
X The authors of the poem : see below at the end of it. 



Ratii Tar a. 
" EajS, apne chit ki bhul kho mat ko. 
Jab lag bat na bMkhe, tab lag karaj ho. 
Eaja, main araz kari turn se sol. 
Tajub ki bat : kalian kaya khoi ? 
Sdkh gia badan^ Mi pinjarkaya. 
Kaise til socb kare ? Kyiin na khaya ? " 

Bdja Han Chand. 
"Rani, Bipr wahi hai; sabit mange dan. 
Laj gai, to jan de ; sat nahin dena jan. 
Sat ko na j^n dia^ meri piyari. 
Sat ki par tap hAi ham se niyari. 
Sat ke hi kaj gia beta ham se. 
Sat kS, sat sang kaha main ne turn se." 

Eani Tdrd. 
" Raj^, tell not the secret of thy heart. 
As long as the secret is not oat, thou wilt prosper. 
Raja, I told thee this before. 
Wondrous it is whither thy body hath fled.* 
Dried up is this thy bony body. 
Why art so anxious ? Why dost not eat ?" 

Bajd Hari Chand. 
"Rani, it is the Br^hman^s (fault) that demanded his 
full dues. 
If thy honor go, let it go, but let not thy virtue go. 
I let hot my virtue go, my love. 
For the glory of virtue thou art parted from me. 
For the sake of virtue my son hath left me. 
It is only of virtue that I speak to thee." 
* That tliou art so thin. 


Edni Tar a. 
' Raja, mujh ko blii bipta pari raadi ke darbar. 
Bolaa ka tilta hAa, ron zar-bazar. 
Karta ki dafc naliin jate phere. 
Age takdir rahe, kantha mere. 
Eandi ne zor zulam mujh par kina. 
Pesha karue ko kaki, mushkil jlna ! " 


Bdjd Hari Chand. 

' Rani gkara uthwa de, kahta hove §,dbia. 
Rat dinaii tarphuii, para jaise jal bin min. 
Rani, har wakt sabar kaise ave ? 
Dekhiin chau taraf, nahin rasta pave. 
BiptS. ke kaj -pare, seven Kansf. 
Apna to maran, jagat karta baiisl ! " 


Bdni Tard. 

" Raja, great is my trouble at the courtezan's house, 
I cannot speak and weep incessantly. 
The will of God cannot be turned back. 
Fate is before us, my husband. 
Great is the tyranny of the courtezan upon me. 
She tells me be a courtezan and hard it is to live ! ' 

Raja Har'i Ghand. 
" Rani, help me with the pitcher, I ask thee humbly. 
Restless am I day and night, as a fish out of water. 
Rani, how can patience be ever with us ? 
Looking all around I see no way (of release). 
To overcome my trouble I dwell at K^si. 
I am dying and yet the world jeers ! " 




Rani Tdrd. 
" Chhati tak jal men baro, anr ghara lije tliS,e. 
Sat Nam ke tek hai, ab tu gbar ko jae." 
Ghare ko to tba lia, bbangi ke &ve : 
Baniya se plier ser satbA lave. 
Jab to kliane ko laga Bipr aya; 
Sabit lia mang ; nabiri kliane paya. 

Ganga ke lipar khari, Rani dhari dhir. 
Socli kare mail men khari, nain se a gia nir. 
Nainori se nir Ma us ke jare : 
" Lajja ki bat mare sat ke mare. 
Duniya men aj naliin merSp koi/' 
Bipta ko yad kar Rani roi. 


Rani Tdrd. 

' Go breast deep into the water and lift up the pitcher. 
Trast in the True Name (God) and go to thy home." 
He lifted up the pitcher and went to the scavenger's, 
And then got his ser of coarse flour from the tradesman. 
When he began to eat the Brahman came 
And demanded the whole of it, so that he had nothing 
to eat. 

Standing by the Ganges the Queen had patience. 
Standing there thinking tears fell from her eyes. 
Tears fell from her eyes : (said she) : 
" It is shameful that I suffer thus for virtue's sake. 
I have no friend in the world to-day." 
Thinking of her misery the Queen wept. 



Rani man men jhuri thi, gia wahaii seth : 
" TA ghara kaisi bhari ? Kahan lagi karam ke heth ?" 
Beti ka bachan kaha : " Mukh se bolo, 
Apna to bhed kabo, sat ko tolo. 
Tujb ko chbutw^ke jabM khana khauri ; 
Ab to main nabm palat ghar ko jauri." 


Pani bbar Eani chali randi ke ghar jae. 
Picbhe ae setbji atir kahan lage samjhae. 
Kahte samjhae : " Suno, randi piyari, 
Eani ka mol kaho khatir mahari. 
Bis bhar swarran ke mujh se lijs. 
Rani ko ap mujhe dil se dije." 


While the Queen was grieving a merchant* went 

(And said) : "Why art filling pitchers (with water) ? 

How hast thou come to misfortune ?" 
Calling her daughter (he said) : " Tell me, 
TeU me the truth about thy secret. 
I will not eat till I have released thee, 
Nor will I return home (till then)." 


The Queen got the water and went to the courtezan. 

The merchant followed her and spake. 

Said he : " Hear, friend courtezan, 

Tell me the price of the Queen. 

Take twenty loads of gold from me, 

And graciously give me the Queen." 

* i.e. Baijnatli, who had bought her son. 



Oanga Randi. 
" Bis bhar swarran dia, suno, seth gunwan. 
Eani ham se lijo, tujhe nahiii dun jan. 
Eani ko sath karuii, kuchh na, leni. 
Tujh ko jawab naWii ulta deni. 
Yeh to, Mab^raj, kare hge tere. 
Mat karo aubir, le ja apne dere." 

Eani linl setb ne, aur bete se die milai. 
Marne se to bach gai, aur kini Earn sahai. 
Bete ke pas gai Tara Eani, 
Jab to yeh bat gai jag men jani. 
Mata aur putr mile, batan kholi. 
Ankhon se nir chala, deke koli. 


Gangd, the Courtezan. 

" I paid twenty loads of gold for her, hear, my wise 
Take the Queen from me, I will not let thee go back.* 
I give the Queen and take nothing (for her). 
I will make thee no refusal. 
Here she is, my Lord, I offer her to thee. 
Make no delay and take her to thy home." 

The merchant took the Queen and brought her to her 

She was saved from death, for God helped her. 
jjani Tara went to her son. 
And all the world knew of it. 

Mother and son met and told (each other) their stories. 
Tears fell from their eyes, as they embraced. 

* On thy bargain. 


Bani Tdrd. 
" Beta, jao bagh meri, plaiilon ki dekh baMr: 

Un ko lo j&o sath. mea jitne tere yar. 

Larkon ko sath leke baghon men jao ; 

Gajre pMlon ke gund ulte ao. 

Daliya pliulon ki ik dil se bharfye ; 

Auna shitab, der mat ua kariye." 

Gale bank dalke piyara, woh bS.glioii men dhaya ; 

Baghbanon se yuii bola, " barg lene ko main aya." 

Dbara jab dast pMlon pe, nikalke nag ne kMya. 

Nashe men ko gia ghafil, jatan koi pesh nahin aya. 

Pai-a tab gardiyau khake, zard nill bAi kaya : 
" Meri mata se kahna, mujhe sine se nahin laya." 

Bdni Tdrd. 
"Goj my son, into the garden and see the beautiful 

And take all thy companions with thee. 
Go into the garden with the boys, 
And come back with garlands of flowers. 
Fill thy basket with flowers happily. 
And come back quickly, and make no delay." 

With arms round (each other's) necks they went into the 

And (the prince) said to the gardeners : " I am come 

for flowers." 
As he put his hand to the flowers a snake came out and 

bit him. 
He became insensible and there was no help for him. 
He fell backwards and his body became pale and blue : 
(Said he) "Tell my mother that she hath not pressed 

me to her breast." 

VOL. III.— 11 

82 Legends ov the panjab^ 


Rdjkanwar Rohta/!. 
" Mera piyar^ hai jo koi, mere bedan kaho sdi. 

Nahiii jiae k& main, saki ; nahiri rah gia dam ko:, 

Burd kar de mujhe ake, rdera dil milne ko chaha. 

MilS, hai gul se gul, jake daskar woh samp Be ake mara. ' 

Brahman palatke kaya suna mat§. se yuri bole : 
" Bohtas ki naya pari manjdhar men dole/' 

Bete ka mama suna Rani kiya andes< 

Bal bakheri mahil meii, aur Jogin ka kiya bhes. 

Jogin ka bhes bharS,, taja sab ka nata. 

Aisa to dukh saha nahin jata. 

Bete ke pas g^i^ chhati se laya. 

Umar thi nadan, nahin bilsa khayd. 


Prince Bohtds. 
" Let him who is my friend go and tell her of my misfor- 
I shall not live now, my friends ; no breath is left me. 
Let her come and perform my obsequies, for my heart 

would meet her. 
Flower met flower and a snake slew him." 
The Brahman changed his form and spake to his mother 5 
" The boat of thy Rohtas is wandering in mid-stream.^'* 
The Queen was sorrow-stricken on hearing of her son's 

She dishevelled her locks in the palace and put on the' 

garb of a Jo gin. f 
Patting on a login's garb she deserted her kindred. 
She could not bear such a sorrow as this. 
She went to her son and took him to her breast- 
Young was he and had (as yet) known not enjoyment. 
* Figurative for " be is dying." f Female ascetic. 



Jtajhaiiwar Rohtas. 
" Ai-mata Tarawati, sachi karke jan. 

Pita milan se rah gia, mere nikas pr&n, 

Marne ki nahiri rahi mujh ko sansa. 

Duniya se aj chali meri hansa." 

Ghhut gai pran, khari pit! chhati, 
" Beta koi nahiii raLa mera sS,tlii ! " 

Eani le marghat gai, aur ckata lagai an. 

Marne ki tayyari kari, apni khongi pran. 

Taji tlii praUj jabhi Eaja ayS,. 
" Lenti, nahih hukm : — dagh kaisi laya ? 

Panch take swarran ke mujh ko dije, 

Pichhe larke ko phunk marghat dije." 


Prince Rohtas. 
" Mother Tarawati, know the truth, 

I have not met my father^ and my life goes. 

But I have no fear of death. 

And to-day my soul will leave the world." 

His life departed and she stood and beat her breast^ 

(Saying) : " I have no son with me now !" 

The Queen took him to the burning-place and raised a 

She prepared to die by destroying her own life.* 
As she was about to give up her life Eaja (Hari Chand) 
came up (and said) : 
" Thou art forbidden to do this :t — what disgraoo art 
thou bringing upon me ? 
Give me five pieces of gold, 
And then thou canst burn the boy in the burning-place." 

* This is a very curious incident : the Queen is about to coimmit saU 
for her son instead of her husband, 
f i.e., perform the obsequies without paying a fee. 




Edni Tard. 
" Pa neb take parbat Me, kaudi nahin pas. 
Beta terd mar gia ; sun meri ardas. 
Yeh to ardas suno, kantha mere. 
Kaisi anrit hui dil men tere ? 
Panch taka, bol, ap kis se lita ? 
Mujh ko bete ko kyiin na phAnkan deta ? " 

Raja Han Chand. 
" Us Kalwa ke hukam ko kaise karfin adiil ? 
Jiua to bhari Ma, lena mujhe mahsAl. 
Us ko jawab, kako, kaise dije ? 
Bipr anrit kare hanske lije. 
Mujli ko to panch taka dena chabiye. 
Is ka jawab mujbej Eani, deiye." 


Bani TArd. 

" Five pieces (of gold) are a mountain to mej I have not 
a mite. 
It is thy son that is dead ; hear my prayer. 
Hear this my prayer, my husband. 
What unlawful thing is in thy heart ? 
Of whom art thou demanding the five pieces ? 
Why- wilt not let me burn thy son ?" 


Raja Han Ohand. 
" How can I disobey the orders of Kalwa ? 
It is hard to live, but I must take the fees : 
Or how should I answer him ? 

It is the Brahman that gladly doeth unlawful things. 
Thou must give me the five pieces. 
Answer me this, Rani." 



Sir ka cMr utdrke us ke dena hath. 
Ag die jab chati. merij jalae baitlii sath. 
Chata lie dekh, jabhl Bipr aya ; 
Eani nangi hili dekhi kaya. 
Rani sarmake sati andar ai ; 
Bipr lash kadh agi lagai. 


Biswdmitr Brahman. 
" Dakin ai sati men, suniyej Kalwa^ bat. 

Adamkhori ho rahi, karan lagi utpat. 

Baijnath Seth ka woh larka khaya." 

Raja ke pas jabhi KalwS, aya. 
" Leke shamsher abhi jaldi jao ; 

Dakin ko mar abhi hazir ao." 

She took off her veil and gave it into his hand.* 
Then she lighted the pyre and prepared to sit beside 

(the body).t 
When he saw the pyre the Brahman came up 
And saw the Queen's naked body. J 
The Queen ashamed went into the sati's hut 
And the Brahman took off the corpse and set fire (to 
the pyre) . 

Biswdmitr, the Brahman. 
" A witch hath gone into the sati's hut, hear, Kalwa, 
Cannibal she is and is making a disturbance. 
She has eaten up the son of Baijnath, the merchant." 
Then Kalwa went to the Raja, (and said) : 
" Take thy sword and go quickly, 
Kill the witch and return .'' 

* In lieu of the fee. 

t i.e., to commit satt : see above stanza LX. 



Hari Chand talwar sont dhay^ nangi ! 
" Aisa kiya zulatn meri chauki changi !" 

Sati se nikal lie apal Eani, 

Jab to Hari Chand ik bola b§,ni : 
" Larke utMo, suno, &damkh§,ni; 

Marna ka wakt pas, baitho, Eani I" 

H^th jor R^ni khafi; " Ai mere Kartar, 

Aisa tegha mariye, tinon ke ho ja par !" 

Kaja shamsher sont upar aya ; 

Eani ki ik bcir kampi kaya. 

Eaja shamsher sont maran lage, 

Jab to asman zamin kampan lage. 

DatS, ne tir suni us ki bhari ! 

Aisa Mabaraj kare pAran sari ! 

Hari Chand drew his naked sword and^vent up (to the Eani) , 
(And said) : " Such is the disturbance thou Greatest, 

while I keep strict watch ! " 
He drew his Qaeen out of the sati's hut. 
And then spake Hari Chand : 
" Take up the boy, hear, thou cannibal ; 
Thy death is near, sit here, Eani." 

The Rani stood with joined hands (and said) : " my 

So strike thy sword that it go through all three of us !" 
The Raja drew his sword and came up. 
And the Eani all at once began to tremble. 
When the R^ja with his drawn sword prepared to strike, 
The heavens and the earth began to quake. 

God heard the loud cries (of the R§,ni) ! 
Thus the Raja fulfilled all (his trials) ! 


Data ne darshan dia sat ke karan : 
Jab to MaMraj par ave t§,ran ! 
Nagari par an kari jitni sari. 
Eaja Hari Chand, aj tert bari I 


Nagari cliali, Ganga chali, Kalwa bhangi, sath. 
" Mere to kul sab taren, suno hamari bat 1" 

Dekhke aliwal sablii Bipr dhaya. 
" Lakhoiij Maharaj, rache main ne maya* 

Eaja ne sat mujhe nahin di§;. 

Tajub ki bat mera larze hiS,." 

Bipr ne jitni kalii suni Indar man laei 
" Eaja, ne tajub kia, ab kuclih kahe na j4e. 

God appeared to him througb. his virtue^ 

And the Eaja came to salvation ! 

His whole city also was saved.* 

Eaja Hari Chand, this day was thy opportilnity ! 


The city and Ganga (the Courtezan) and Kalwa were 

(saved) with him. 
(Prayed he) : " Save my whole family, 'hear mf prayer!" 
Seeing all this the Brahman came (and said) : 
"Thousands of plans have I tried, my Lord (Indra), 
But the Eaja would not give up his virtue to me. 
Wondrous it is and my heart trembles." 

Indra listened attentively to aU that the Brahman had 

(Said the Brahman) : " Wondrous things hath the Eaj^ 

done that are beyond telling. 

* Allusion to another portion of the legend of Hari Chand : see pre- 
liminary note. 


Eaja ne jit lia mujh ko, piyara. 
Chhoda sab raj; naliin sat ko hara. 
Mayfi, aur mal taje jitne sare. 
Apne sab chhor die dil ke piyare." 


Rani apne s<it ko lina god uthae. 
Larka to jiwat mila ; kini Ram sahae. 
Jodhia ke bich pbir Raja aya ; 
Jitna sab raj, wahi paya. 
Rani mandar ke bicli asan lave ; 
Maya ke bliog kare kbele kbave. 

Kishn Lai Shibkanwar ne bani kahi apar. 
Raja Rani ral mile, sat ka kiya adbar. 

The RajS, bath beaten me, my friend. 

He left his whole kingdom, but gave not up his virtue. 

He gave up all his money and food. 

And he gave up all that were dear to his heart." 


The Rani took her son* into her lap. 

Through the mercy of God she found him (still) living. 

The Raja went again to Ajudhia, 

And obtained again all his kingdom. 

The Queen went into the palaee 

And enjoyed all wealth and luxuries. 

Kishn Lai and Shibkanwarf made this great story. 
The Raja and Rani met again and lived on virtuously. 

* Restored to life in tlie interim ! 
t The authors : see Vol. III., p. 52. 



[This story in a garljled way relates the usual legend of this celebrated Stlfi 
saint. It is to be observed that the scene of the story of his being flayed 
alive and wandering about after that operation is placed in Multfin, where 
there is a tomb or shrine to a namesake ; as also is that of the story of the 
sun broiling a fish (should be an ox) for him. The heat, so Tory observable 
at MultSn, is here attributed to the action of Shams Tabrez on this last 
occasion. Properly speaking, however, the story should be referred to 
Qunia, or Iconium, in Asia Minor, where the saint really lived and died. 
It is noticed at pp. 404 and 573 of Vol. II. of this work.] 

[JlauUlnS Shamsu'ddin Muhammad Tabrezl, i.e., of Tabrez, was the SMi tutor 
of the Iilau.l^n4 JaMlu'ddin Maulvt KAmt, who dedicated a work to him 
under the title of the Dtivdn-i-Shams Tabrezl. In disputes between the 
opposition parties of SfifSs led by Shams Tabrezi and 'AlAu'ddin Malimfld, 
the son of the Maulvi R6m!, Shams Tabrezl was killed by being thrown 
down a well at Qunia in 1247 A.D.] 

[There is in MultSn an important Shi'a family, who call themselves descend- 
ants of a saint of Multin named Sha,ms Tabrez, to whom in 1787 A.D. 
Mir 'Alt, one of the family, raised a large tomb. This has, as the astute 
founder probably conjectured, caused the local Shams Tabrez to be 
confounded with his great namesake to the profit of the shrine and its 

Zikar Kardmdt Shams Tabrez Sahib. 

Maula di razk da dam jo mare, 
Allali oh de bigare kam sanware. 
Faizoii se jalian jin ki labrez, 
Hai, yaro, oh pir Shams Tabrez. 
5 IMultan men buzurg jehre mashhui" ; 
Un men hai bayan in ka mazkur. 
]V[ultan men sa ik Nawab hoia ; 
Iklota pisar tha oh da moia. 
Nawab ghamiii jo eh ne paia, 
voi,. III. — 12 


10 Hukm apne se murdd nM jil§,ia. 

Eh kaM, ke 'Mere hukm ee zinda ho.' 
Kyiin na kahsl, ke ' Khuda ke hukm se zinda ho ?' 
Ulma ne kari, ' eh nuktagiri 
Haigi eh khilaf shara piri.' 
15 Tazir di, hukm eh pukara : 
' Eh da chamr& tare saii ! ' 
Jallad na kar saka jo tamil. 
Tab pir eh bola karke t^jil : 
' Main chamra utar dewan tainte. 
20 Taklif na, jar, hove tainiin ! ' 
Ik chutki se post-i-tan utard : 
Allah nun yad kar sidhara. 
Jad bhukh ne bahut kuchh sitaia, 
Machhi kuchh kahin se laia ; 
25 Bhunnan ndn jo us de hoia tayyir; 
Nafrat se hata dia ahl-i-bazar. 
Surij nun pukara hoke lachar : 
' Ham-n&m di laj rakh de, tu yar.' 
Kahinde hain, ke niche nayar aia, 
30 Aur pir di machhi nun bhunaia. 
Multan di garmi di shikayat 
Mashhdr hai : pir di karamat ! 
Multan men Am-kha,s de kol 
Pirozi roza un ka sa dhol. 

The Story of the Miracles of Shams Tabren. 
Who awaits the will of God, 
God will perform his frustrated desire. 
The lavisher of his gifts on the world. 
My friends, is the saint Shams Tabrez. 
5 In Multan the saints are famous ;* 

Among them' (even) his story is renowned. 
There was a Nawab in Multan, 
Whose only son died ; 

* Multan is a veritable City of tlie Saints. 


When (tlie saint) discovered the Nawab's sorrow, 
10 By his own command he raised the dead to life. 
Thus said he, ' By my order be alive.' 
"Why did he not say, 'By Ood's order be alive ?' 
Said the doctors, ' such conduct 
Is against the law of the saints.' 
15 The order of the law was thus proclaimed :* 
' Take off all his skin !' 
The executioner could not do it, 
And the saint said at once : 
'I will take off my skin and give it thee. 
20 Be not troubled, my friend !' 

(He gave) the skin of his body a pinch and took it off, 
And trusting in God he went his way. 
When he became very hungry 
He procured a fish from somewhere ; 
25 And prepared to broil it, 

But the people of the bazar turned him away with 

Then he called out to the sun in his trouble : 
' Preserve the honor of thy namesake,t friend.' 
They say that (the sun) came down 
30 And broiled the saint's fish. 

Complaints of the heat of Multan 

Are loud, (and it is due to) the saint's miracle ! 

Near the Public HallJ in Multan 

Is the dome of the (saint's) blue-enamelled tomb. 

* Ta'zir is properly in Mulaammadan law a pimisliment ordained by 
God, but left to the discretion of the judge. 

t A play here on the name Shams Tabrezi, which means the Sun of 

J Built by Diwan Sawan Mall, Governor of Multan, under the Sikhs, 
from 1829 to 1844 A.D. 

No. XLIV. 



[This legend is about a local saint of muoh celebrity in the AmbSla District, 
whose shrine is at SadhaurA and who is said to be a descendant of 'Abdu'l- 
QAdir Jiiani, (flourished in Baghddd between 1078 and 1166 A.D.) 
through a son 'Abdu'r- RazzSq, apparently not otherwise known to history. 
For an account of 'Abdu'l-Qiidir Jtlan! see p. 153, Vol. II.] 

[The legends make out, according to a genealogy, that the birth of ShSh Qnmfes 
occurred about 1423 A.D., and that his arrival at Sadhaur4 for the &st 
time took place in 1454 A.D. But in another place they make out that 
AUIu'ddin Hassain ShSh of Bengal, who reigned 149Si — 1524 A.D., offered 
his daughter in marriage to Sayyid Shdh Ta ju'ddln, the saint's grandfather, 
and that this marriage was accepted for Sayyid Shfih 'Abdn'l-Hay^t, hia 
father. His mother was apparently according to the legend this Bengal 
princess. His brothers are connected with the wars of Nasib Shah 
olias Nusrat Shah of Bengal, the son and successor of Alfln'ddln Hnssain 
Shflh, who reigned 1524 — 1538; and the legends say that the saint 
himself married this king's daughter. Another part of the story connects 
him with the wars of the Emperor Humiy&n in recoyering the Panjab 
fromSikandar Shuh Srir in 1555 A.D., a-nd says, too, that his brother-in- 
law, Sayyid 'Abdu'llah, lost his life in the expedition against Burhfmpfir in 
1563. It also distinctly connects the saint himself with the Emperor 
Akbar, who did not commence his reign till 1556. This chronology, 
though an impossible one, makes it pretty clear that Shah Qumes most 
probably flourished in the 15th century A. D.] 

[The story of the saint's and his father's royal marriages in Bengal, though not 
impossible, see Vol. II., p. 116, is not, so far as I can ascertain, supported 
by history, nor can I find out if there is any real reason for saying that his 
cult extends to Bihar and GorakhpAr, as stated in the legends.] 
[The language of the stories as given to me being current Urdft I have not 
recorded the originals.] 

The Saint of Sddhaurd. 
His name is Shall Qumes and he was a follower of Shekh 
'Abdu'l-Qadir Jilani, who adopted him as his son ; but some 
say that he was the legitimate and not the adopted son of 


'Abdu'l-Qadiv.* Three large fairs are yearly held in honour of 
Shah Qumes at Lodi&n^ and Sadhaura and in Bihar. He was 
bnried at Sadhaura and performed his devotions at the other 
placeSj hence the fairs. They usually take place in March. 


The Legend of Shah Qumes according to Fir Muhammad 

of Lalior. 

I am a follower of Shah Qumes^ whose pedigree is as follows : — 
Shah Qumes, son of Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l-Hayat, son of Sayyid 
Shah Taju'ddin, son of Sayyid Shah Bahau'ddin, son of Sayyid 
Shah Jalaln'ddin, son of Sayyid Shah Daild, son of Sayyid 
'All Nasir, son of Sayyid Shfi,h, son of Sayyid SalahU'nnasar, 
son of Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'r-Razzaq, son of Sayyid Shah 
Muhayyu'ddia 'Abdu'l-Qadir JilanLf 

One day Sayyid Shah TSjuMdin was sleeping in the Mau- 
soleum J of Sayyid Shah Muhayyu'ddin 'Abdu'l-Qadir Jilani 
on the night of the 7th of Ramazan, when he saw the great 
saint in a dream, who told him .to go to Bengal and convert to 
his sect Sayyid Hussain Shah, the king thereof. Then he awoke. 
He soon fell asleep again and had another dream and was 
again told to travel to Hindustan. He accordingly set out and 
in due time reached Bengal, where he began to work miracles, 
being especially successful in obtaining many followers at 
Grorakhpur. The king heard of these and became his follower. 
After a while the king sent his minister to the saint asking 
him to accept his daughter in marriage, saying he had made a 
vow to give her to him. The saint, however, wanted the 
girl to be married to his son Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l-Hayat, then 
resident in Baghdad, and in the end they were married in due 

Soon afterwards Sayyid Shah T&ju'ddin left for Baghdad and 
put up at Bannur§ on the way, staying in a masjid, outside 

* This would make him out to have existed 300 years at least before 
the rest of the legend does. 

f This genealogy makes out the birth of Sh&li Qumes to have been 
about 1425 A.D. which corresponds fairly with the rest of the tale. 

J i.e., in Baghdad, see below. § In the Patiala State. 


which he tied up his horse. Next day when the people came 
to say their prayers they objected to the horse being there, as 
his urine and excreta would defile the masjid. The saintj how- 
ever, said that that would never happen, and though it com- 
menced raining and continued to do so for forty days, during 
which the horse was never moved, he had no calls of nature ! 
The saint worked many other miracles besides this and many 
people followed him, but he would not have them for disciples 
and said he would send his grandson Sayyid Shah Qumes to 
them, whom they could follow. He then went away. 

Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l-Hayat had three sons, viz.. Shah Qumes, 
Sayyid Shah Muhammad Zakiri and Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l- 
'A.z\z. One day Muhammad Zakiri was playing with some 
boys, who were riding wooden horses, and as he had not one 
he got on to a wall and made it run about with him. This 
made his father very angry and he cursed him to die an 
untimely death, which duly came to pass. Sayyid Shah 
•"Abdu'l-'Aziz suffered martyrdom when his mother's brother, 
Nasib Shah, was fighting to extend his dominions. 

Shah Qumes devoted himself to the service of God and 
was married to the daughter of Nasib Shah, but he would 
not have connection with her. One day while he was praying 
she came and stood before him and he told her to sit down, 
but she would not do so, though he repeated the command 
more than once. At last he cursed her to sink into the earth, 
which she did at once and was seen no more. When 
Nasib Shah heard of this eve at he went to the saint and 
said that his first daughter had met her fate and wanted him 
to marry another. This made the saint angry and he left for 
Sadhaura, where he dwelt in the service of God for forty years. 
He then went on a pilgrimage to Makka, after which he dwelt at 
Baghdad with his grandfather, who gave him an ewer of water 
and told him to go away with it and to dwell at that place, 
where all the water was found to be expended. He accordingly 
started and found that the ewer was quite dry at Sadhaura, 
so he took up his abode there under a dried up tree. This im- 
mediately became green and under it he lived. This was in 


A.H. 858 (or A.D. 1454. )* Near the tree he prayed that a well 
might come into existence, and when it did so miraculously, he 
used the water for drinking and for his ablutions. These 
miracles made him famous and the chief Qdzif of the place 
became his follower along with many other residents. Soon 
after this the saint went to Pirpur, which is close by, and there 
married the daughter of Shekh 'Abdu'l-'Aziz,J and then return- 
ed to Sadhaura. 

At this time (1555 A.D.) the Emperor Humayun was making 
his conquests and among other doings he made prisoners of many 
of the saint^s followers at Sarhind,§ so he went to Humayun at 
Shahabad || and asked him to release them. As the Emperor 
had heard of the saint's miraculous power he came with^ 
his Minister Bairam Khahl and paid his respects to him, 
and he in his turn prayed that the Emperor might succeed in 
obtaining the throne of Dehli. In reward for this the Emperor 
and his Minister made a vow, that if they should succeed in 
winning Dehli, no follower of Shah Qumes should be again 
molested, and that the revenues of Sadhaura should he remitted 
to 'the saint for the entertainment oifaqirs. The Emperor then 
marched on and conquered Dehli, and not long afterwards was 
called away from this world and was succeeded by Jalalu'ddin 
Muhammad Akbar, (in January 1556). 

About this time a child was born to Shah Qumes, who 
would not suck in the day time ; and it was the daily custom 

# This was protably before tis adventures m Bengal. „ „, , , 

+ The Muhammadans of Sadhaura say that m the time ot bhaha- 
bu'ddin Ghori (1174—1206 A.D.) four sects of Sayyidsgot possession of 
the town and divided it into four wards {mahallas) and that these were 
caUed after them QSzi, Wasti, AbQ-halim, and Siania. To this a fifth 
was afterwards added caUed Pirzada, where the descendants of Sayyid 
Shah Qumes congi-egated. Curious^ enough their story is that Shah 
Qumes came to sidhaura in 1008 A.H or lo99 A D. The 'chief Qazi 
oithe text means the leader of the Q^zi mahalla of Sadhaura. The 
Sikhs in their irruptions about 1760 A.D. dispossessed the Sayyids of 
nearly aU their lands and possessions. 
+ A local personage merely. 
S This battle was fought 22nd June 1555. 
\\ Tn the Ambala District. ,„ . « , , , 

\ This is the Bairam Khah, Khan Khanan, who was the great 
general of Humayfln and Akbar. 


of the saint to visit the graves of those who had suffered martyr- 
dom.* Sayyid *Abdu'llah,t the saint's brother-in-law, took 
service under the Emperor Akbar and went to the Daklian on 
an expedition. In a battle at Burhanpurf Sayyid 'Adu'Uah 
was captured by the enemy, but called on Shah Qum6s for help, 
who immediately appeared and released him. On another 
occasion when a barber was shaving the saint he observed that 
the saint's dress was soaking wet and asked him why. He 
replied that the ship of a follower named Hatim Beg had been 
sunk in the sea and that he had just been to fetch it up and 
had got wet. He told the barber never to mention this or he 
would go mad. After a while Hatim Beg returned from his 
journey and thanked the saint for his help in the barber's 
presence. Whereon the barber forgetting the saint's injunction 
said, " Yes, the holy father told me all about it," and went on 
to relate the story. As soon as he had finished he went raving 
mad and to this day his descendants are still born mad ! Once 
a follower named Sayyid 'All presented the saint with a philo- 
sopher's stone, which the saint at once threw into a river. 
When asked why he had done so by Sayyid 'All and why he had 
not valued what had been procured with so much trouble, the 
saint said, " go to the opposite bank and you will find it." His 
follower did so and found there many such stones. 

Akbar once sent for Shah Qumes to test his miraculous 
power and the saint accordingly went to Dehli. When he 
arrived the Emperor observed a lion in each of the saint's 
sleeves and became so frightened that he sent him back at once 
to Sadhaura. Soon after this Shah Qumes left for Bihar, where 
he died. When he was dying he requested his disciples to 
bury him at Sadhaur^, which they did. 

* Apparently in Hum&ylin's wars. 

t Son of the 'Abdu'l-'Aziz, whose daughter Shah Qumes married. 

J Burhanpto was taken by storm for Akbar in ISBii. 




[I have been unable to find out who the heroes of this legend were in real life. 
Uti^ti. Ambfi of Vhnk and SatSrfl, with his wife Amli or Ambali and his sous 
Sarwar and Nir, after various mishaps, end life happily in Ujjayini, of 
which place AmbcL finally becomes EEiJH. Such is the legend and in all 
probability Ambi is a Raj p At hero, and not a Morathd as the legend would 
show him to be.] 

[The heroes of some of the legends are very difficult to unearth from their 
historical hiding places, and it is possible that Amba may yet be tracked 
down. When I gave the Story of Eajil Dhol, legendarily the son of Nala, 
I had not traced him oat : see Yol. II., p. 276ff. Now, however, I find him 
duly recorded in Tod's B&jasthAn, Original Ed., Vol. II,, p. 302fE, as a very 
prominent Rdjpiit hero and founder of the Kachhwfihfi State of Amber or 
Dhundh4r. Tod puts his date from local information at 987 A.D. and calls 
him a descendant, — 33rd in the line— of Nala. He records a form of hia 
famous love-tale with Mdroni, daughter of the Kiiia of Ajmer. Dhol and 
Mfirwan in Tod are known as UhoM ESi and Mdron!.] 

[HfijS, Ambfi. is a well known name in the Panjfib and connected with the Rasfilu 
legends, having been one cf his opponents, and as such had possessions, 
according to the legends, at Arabak&pi in the Lahore District and at 
IMuikyala in the Bfiwal Pindi District. He is also credited with being 
the founder of Ambfila. There is a well known verse quoted by Cunningham 
in his Ancient Geography of India and in his Archwological Survey of 
India which runs thus — 

Anibd Kap& pat lar&i ; 
Kdlpi iahin chhur&wan &i. 

This Cunningham has rendered with fair accuracy by 

When strife arose 'twixt Amb and Kap, 
Theii||iiter Kfilpt made it up. 

But whether this RAja Amba has any oonuoctiou with the R^j4 Ambi of 
the tale now given I cannot say.] 

VOL. III. — 13 


Qissa Sarwar Nir. 
Ik Amba, ik Amli, ik Sarwar, ik Nir^ 
Vdne ka Raja hua ; wahan aya ik fakir. 
Ang pe bhabut, mukh se nadh bajave. 
Aya bagb men ; baith ' alakb' jagave. 
Bistar dia lae, dhare dbiraj man men. 
Gall bich pari sili ; soch kini man men. 

Malan ne dekM; us se aur kini ardas : 
"Apne man se jo kah, laun tare pas. 
Bhojan chhattis tujhe khane ko laiin. 
Kar dfin teri kbabar Raja pe jaftn. 
Rani se bayan kahun, Phakar, tera. 
Raima hoshiyar ; man kabna mera." 

The Story of Sarwar and Nir. 
There were Amba and Amli and Sarwar and Nir. 
(Ambd) was Raja of Puna, wbere came a faqlr. 
With ashes on his body he sounded his conch. 
He came into (Amba's) garden and called out ' alakh.'* 
He brought out his bed and began to meditate in his 

His {faqtr's) necklace was round his neck as he medi- 
tated in his mind. 

The Gardener's wife saw him and said : 
"I will bring thee thy heart's desire. 
I will bring thee the thirty-six kinds of food. t 
I will go to the Raja (Amba) and tell him about thee. 
I will tell the Rani about tbee, Faqir. 
Be careful and mark my words." 

* See Yol. I., p. 32. 

t i.e., a complete " dianer" from the Native point of view. 



*'Mal mulk ki gliam naMn aur naMn raj se kam. 
Rat baseij din uth chalen ; aur baso tumhara gam ! 
Basti abad rabo, Malan, teri. 
Dhuni pani men rabe icbha men. 
Eaja se jake khabar jaldi karlye. 
Ho gia diyal, kaba mera kariye." 


B^gbon se malan cbali aur gbata rabe gban cbbae. 
" Raja, tere bagbon men jogi utara ae. 
Kbana nabin kbae, nabin pani pive. 
Raja, kis taur, kabo jogi jive ? 
Ranij tu cbal, abbi darsban karna. 
Jogi ka ik kbauf nabin karna." 



"1 grieve not for wealtb and lands and bave no wisb for 

I stay tbe nigbt and go on in tbe day; and bappy be 

tby town ! 
Full be tby town, Gardener's wife. 
All I want is fire and water. 
Go to tbe Raja and tell bim quickly (of me). 
Be kind and do as I tell you." 


Tbe Gardener's wife left tbe garden and clouds gatbered 

in tbe sky. 
(Said sbe) : "Raja, Sijogi batb come into tby garden. 
He eats not food and drinks not water. ' 

Raja, say, bow can tbe jogi live ? 
Rani, go at once and visit bim. 
There is nothing to fear in the jogt," 



Raja E^ni bhare liirS,, lal, jawdhir. 
Khdn-pan manjan lie aui" kho lae bhandar. 
Khole bhandar, lie bhojan sare. 
Dnniya ke aur pare wahan se lare : 
Eaja Rani to bagh bich men aveii ; 
Bhojan ke thai us ke age layen. 


Anand ho bhojan lie, duniya nadh bajae. 
" Jo manguii, so lilhga, kahta tumhen sunae. 
Man ki ichha se mujhe bhojan dina ; 
Jab to, Maharaj, sukhan ham se lina. 
Sab ka sawal mera turn se kahna, 
Is gun, Maharaj, tera bagh men rahiia." 


The Raja and the Rani collected diamonds, rubies and 

They took food and good things, opening out their 

They opened up all their stores of food. 
Many others of the world collected there (as well). 
As the Raja and Rani went into the garden. 
Taking the platters of food to {the faqir). 


He took the food gladly and sounded his conch (saying) : 
"I will take (from thee) what I desire, I tell thee. 
Thou hast brought me food with a sincere heart. 
And, Raja, I will tell thee something. 
I will tell thee all the desire 
I had, Raja, in coming to thy garden." 

SAEWAE AND Nfs. 101 


Ttnjd Amhd- 
" Phakar, turn dil ki jo jo apni bat, 
Jo mange so tujhe dun aur bahuteri bat. 
Adar se baith, abhi kiana khao. 
Apna lo sukhan, pichhe jao. 
Jo jo, Mabaraj, tere dil pe ai, 
Main ne bhi ik bat dil ki pai." 


" Eaja, tii sarb ans de, ke sat jao bar ! 
To bera maujdbar men, karna is ko par. 
Is ko jo par karo sobha teri. 
Hovega nam ; man kahni meri. 
Koi nabin pas ; meri jan akeli. 
Dijo sat bhao ; tera Data beli !" 

Baja Arnbd. 
'' Faqir, wbatever is in tby heart. 
As thou askest so I will give thee and much besides. 
Sit at thy ease and eat thy food. 
Fulfil thy desire and then go (hence). 
Of what hath come into thy heart, Maharaj,* 
I would find out but one matter." 
_ Faqir. 
" Eaja, give me every part of thee or lose thy virtue ! 
My boat is in mid-stream, take it across. 
If thou take it across thine will be the reward. 
Thou wilt obtain a (good) name ; hearken to my say. 
I have no friend and live alone. 
Give me freely and God will be thy helper \" 

* Form of address used towards faqirs. 



Raja Eani bdgh men donon kareri bichar. 
" Ke, Raja, sarb ans do, ke sat jao har. 
Sat ko mat bar, mere kantha gyani : 
Dena is wakt, tujhe kabti Rani. 
Mat karo aver is se, abbi dena : 
Phakar ka sukban ik dil kar lena." 


Tab Raja sarb ans diya us pbakar ko dan : — 
" Sat ki bandi Lacbbmi ; pbir milega an." — 
Raja ne dan dijA, jogi lina. 
Jitna sarb ans, raj sara dina. 
Sarwar aur Nir rakb. dil se lae ; 
Rani ko rakh lia ; bacban jogi se pae. 


Tbe Raja and Rani pondered (tbe matter) togetber in 

tbe garden. 
(Said sbe) ; ' Eitber tbou must give every portion. 

Raja, or lose tby virtue. 
Lose not tby virtue, my wise busband : 
Give at once, saitb tby Queen. 
Make no delay in tbis, but give at once : 
Fulfil the faqh-'s desire witb all tby beart." 


Tben tbe Raja gave every portion as alms to the faqtr : — 
(Saying) : " Lacbbmi* is tbe slave of virtue and I sbaU 

meet ber again." — 
Tbe Raja gave tbe alms, wbich the Jogi took. 
Tbe Raja gave up every portion. 
Sarwar and Nir, bis beloved, be kept, 
And be kept tbe Rani, and received tbe blessings of tbe 


* i.e., wealth personified. 



Raja Rani chal pare, Hi god men Nir. 

Sarwai' Rajl ne lia ; tuk ik bandhi dhJr. 

R4j pat tiyag diya, mS,ya tiy%i : 

Sat ki shamsher He Rani hhkgi ! 

TJs ban ko ckhor aur ban men ae : 

•Jo kuchh th§, kand-mul ban men khae. 

Bdjd Amll. 
'' R&ja, angiya lijiye, becho sar bazar : 
Angiya us ko dijiye, jo ke bo sahdkar. 
Angiya ka mol ap dil se kabna : 
Jo deve dam, sohi mahara labna. 
Bete ko bhdk lagi, kbana khilao. 
Jaldij Maharaja abbi bechke lao." 


The Raja and Rani went away with Nir in her lap. 
The Raja took Sarwar and had patience in his heart. 
He gave up rule and honour and wealth. 
And the happy Rani gained the sword of virtue ! 
They left their own forest and came to another. 
And lived on the fruits and roots of the forest. 


Rdni Amll. 

' Raja, take my bodice and sell it in the hazar, 
Giving the bodice to som.e merchant. 
Fix the price of the bodice in thy heart. 
And he that giveth the price is our benefactor. 
Thy children are hungry, give them to eat. 
Go quickly, Raja, sell it and bring (the food)." 



Angiya le R^ja chal^, aur kari nek nahln w^r. 
Age us ko mil gt§, Kundan Sab<ikar. 
Kundan ko jake us ne angiya dikh^i : 
" Bectne ki mauj mere dil par ai. 
Angiya ka mol kaliiin, is ko lena. 
Apne rakh pas, dam mujh ko dena \" 


Raja ko bithla lia aur puchhan laga bat : 
" Ram cbhopi tii Kahan ? Kyun nahid laya sath. ? 
Laya na sath ; teri akal mari ! 
Kaise tain aj kari dil se niyari ? 
Dhoke men S,ke kabin mdrS. jave : 
Rani ka kboj pbir nabin pave \" 


Tbe Raja took the bodice and made no delay. 
Presently be met Kundan the Merchant. 
He showed the bodice to Kundan, (and said)]: 
"I have a mind to sell tbis. 
I will tell thee the price of the bodice and thou shouldst 

buy it. 
Keep it and give me the price !" 


He made the R§ja sit down and asked him : 
" Where hast left thy Rani ? Why didst thou not bring her 

with thee ? 
Thou hast not brought her with thee and hast lost thy 

senses ! 
Why hast thou separated thy heart from her to-day ? 
Thou art fallen into a snare and wilt suffer, 
When thou shalt find no trace of thy Rani 1" 



Rdjd Amha. 
' Rani baithi bar tale, ik Sarwar, ik Nir. 
Mol karo, angiya dharo, suno, ham§,re bir. 
Das hazar d§.m us ke mujh ko den§, : 
Pichlie se ap meri angiya lena. 
Sauda sasta hai, ap mujh se lije. 
Mat kare andesli, dam mujh ko dije." 


Us se bitMya diikan par apne ghar ko jae. 

Jaldi jakar shahar men dola Iia khichae : 

Pola khichwake pas Eani ke aya. 

Angiya dikHa die : " chalo, tujh ko bulaya." 

Dole bithla lie, Eani piyari : 

Larke lie ap kara dola jari. 

Raja Amha. 
" Tlie Rani was under the banyan tree with Sarwar and 
Buy the bodice and listen, my friend. 
Thou must pay me 10,000 (rupees) for it. 
And then take my bodice. 
It is a cheap bargain, so take it from me. 
Have no fears and give me the price." 

(Kundan) sat (the Raja) in the shop and went homewards. 
Going quickly into the city he got a litter, 
And took the litter to the. Eani. 
He showed her the bodice (and said) : " (Thy husband) 

calls thee, come." 
He sat the lovely Rani in the litter. 
And taking the boys (aside) started off the litter. 

VOL. III. — 14 



Larkon ko chhorke ay^ Sahukar; 
Jake apn€ mandir men Eani die utar. 
Rani ko utS.r pas Raja ke aya : 
" Angiya ka mol nakin ghar pe paya. 
Angiya ko leke yeMn se gkar ko jana. 
Becho kahin aur ; jao kh&o khana." 


Angiya le Amba chala^ larkon aya pas: 
^' Amman thari kit gai ? Suniye ardas ! 
Amman ka bked abhi ham se kakiye. 
Amman bin, turn kaho, kaise rahiye ? 
Sachi bat batl§.o, Beta, mujli ko. 
Dil men mat rakho, kak4 main ne turn ko.' 


He left the boys there and the Merchant returned. 
And going to his house put the Rani down. 
Putting down the Rani he went to the Raja (and 
said :) 
" I could not find the price of thy bodice in my house. 
Take away home thy bodice. 
Sell it somewhere else and live on the proceeds." 


Amba took the bodice and came to the boys (and 
said :) 
" Whither hath your mother gone ? Hear my words ! 
Tell me now all about your mother. 
Say, how shall we live without your mother ? 
My sons, tell me the truth. 
Keep back nothing in your hearts, I tell you." 

, SAEWAR AND nIe. 107 


Barwar Nir. 
" Dola ay a shahar se am man lie bithEte. 
Ham ko to dhoka diS., gi^ badan ghabarsie. 
Ham to ghabra gae dil se, Pita. 
Angiya dikhla die, aisa kita ! 
Mata ko an kabS, : ' tujh ko bulaya.' 
Dole bithlake le gii,, pber na ay a." 


Sun larkon ki bat ko man men karS. andesh : 
" Bipta kis se sunaiye ? An take pardes ! 
Bbuk piyas tan men, nahin kbana kbayS. ! 
Karta ne d^t likba, sol paya. 
Beta, nabin aj koi jag men tMra. 
Karan Bidbna ke nabin metanbara." 


Sarwar and Nir. 
" A litter came from tbe city and our mother was seated 
in it. 
We were deceived and are afraid. 
We are afraid in our bearts. Father. 
Tbe bodice was sbown ber and thus was it done t 
He said to our mother: '(thy husband) calls thee.' 
He seated her in tbe litter and returned not again."^ 


Hearing the boys' words he was grieved in his- heart : 
(And said) : " To whom shall I tell my sorrow ? I am 

in a strange land ! 
Hungry and thirsty I have eaten no food ! 
I have received according to tbe lines written by ^od. 
My sons, you have no friend in the world to-day. 
The will of Fate none can blot out." 




" Mata meri kit gai ? Mujhe batao hal ! 

Hon! to hoke rahi, an meri be-kal. 

M^ta se chalkSj Pita^ mujh ko milao : 

Pichlie se phir ap kh^na khao. 

Dil pe kuohli aur lagi mere sansa ! 

Marne k^ taur cliali meri hansa I" 
Eajd Ambd. 
" Amman rakmk ke gai, suno, Sarwar Nir. 

Amman tumhen mila dun, jo tuk bandho dhir. 

Amman ke pas tumhen leke jaiin. 

Mat na ghabarao, us se turn ko dikhafln." 

Kandbe pe bitha lie donon bhai : 

Karan Data ka, nadi age ai. 


" "WTiither hath my mother gone ? Tell me of her ! 
Fate hath come upon us and we suffer unduly. 
Take me to my mother, Father, 
Before thou take thy food. 
More grief than ever is on my heart ! 
And my soul is like to die !" 

Raja Amba. 

"Your mother has gone to her brother, hear me, Sarwar 
and Nir. 
I will take you to your mother, if you will have patience. 
I will take you to your mother. 
Be not afraid, I will show her to you." 
He sat the two brothers on his shoulders. 
And by the will of God he came to a river. 

SAEWAB AND nIe. 109 


SocB kare Eaja khara ; " kis bidh tartln par ? 

Jo na deta raj ko gia thS, paraa ko har !" 

Nir to bitha dia, Sarwar lina : 

Bar gia nadi men, gawan Eaja kina. 

Larke ko par bithake ulta aya : 

Gah ne garas lia ! Har ki maya ! 


Chakwa chakwi ki tarah, ut Sarwar, it Nir ! 
Jo Bidhna ne Ukh di, kyS, kare tadbir ? 
Ho gia andesh baithe rowan ban men : 
Mata ko yad karen apne man men : 
" Ham se te bichar gia mahara pit^ 1 
Jogi ne zulm bara ham se kita I" 


The Eaja stood thinking : "how shall I cross over ? 
Had I not given up my kingdom I should have broken 

my word." 
He put down Nir and took Sarwar : 
He went into the water and the Eaja used his strength. 
He put down the boy and came back : 
When an alligator seized him I It was the will of God ! 


Like chakwa and chakwi* Sarwar was on this side and 

Nir on that ! 
What remedy is there against the writing of Fate ? 
They sat down and wept in their sorrow in the forest, 
Eemembering their mother in their hearts, (and said) : 
" Our father too, is separated from us ! 
Great hath been the faqir's cruelty to us !" 

* See Vol. I., p. 125. 




Ban fajar dhobi utha dena gtat paUae. 
Do larke rowat mile, us ne dekha he. 
Larkon ko dekh daya dil pe ai : 
Dhobi ne mila die donon bkai. 
Donon ko leke apne ghar pe ay& : 
Mukhre dfia die, khana khilaytl. 


Ik mandir men rakh lie donon Sarwar Nir : 
Brahman kari rasoian, piyave thanda nar. 
Parhan ko bitha die donon bbai : 
Jo jo sab rit-btant un ko batai. 
Raj-dharam rifc paphe jitni sarij 
Aur sab kit§;b parbe niyari niyarJ. 


In the early morning a washerman was up and 

spreading out his clothes. 
He found two boys weeping and came to see. 
He had pity on the boys in his heart. 
And the washerman brought the two boys together. 
He took them both to his house, 
And washed their faces and gave them food. 


He put Sarwar and Nir into one house, 

And a Brahman cooked for them and gave them water.* 

He taught both the brothers to read, 

And taught them all the ways (of society). 

He taught them all the ways of royalty, 

And made them read all the books one by one. 

* So that their caste might not be injured. A dhohi is of much lower 
caste than a Rajpftt or Chhatri. 


Parte jo barah baras, tak bidiyS, lie anek. 
Jitne sab kanlln thi, unhon no lini dekb. 
Karno rozgdr chalo donoii bhai ; 
Chalkar Ujjain Nagar^ un ko ai. 
Raja se kahan lage biptS, sari ; 
Chbode gharbar aur duniya-dari. 


Ujjain ha Rdjd. 
" Kaun des ke gadbpati ? Pata, kaho, kis des ? 
Mata tbari kaun hai ? Turn kina maila bbes ! 
Ham se bayan karo niyara niyara. 
Sacbi kaho bat, kya hai maksad tbar^ ? 
Apna bayan sabhi bam se kahna. 
Bandho hatbiy§,r, kushi dil se rabna.'^ 

They read for twelve years and became very learned. 
They learnt all the rules (of the law). 
The two brothers (then) started to obtain a living. 
And went to Ujjain City. 
They told the Raja all their sorrows. 
How they had left their home and kingdom. 


The Baja of Ujjain. 

" Of what country was (your father) lord ? Tell me, of 
what land ? 
Who was your mother ? Tou are in dirty clothing ! 
Tell me the story bit by bit. 
Tell me the truth, what is your meaning ? 
Tell me all your story. 
Put on the arms* and remain here at your ease." 

* i.e., as retainers of the Court. 




" Ambali to mata roahari, Amba pita bakhan : 

To, main Nlr Mn ; sachi karke j^n. 

Ham to rozgar kareri dil pe ae. 

Dil se lo r^kli, rahen donon bhai. 

Gi,h ne girds lia babal mera : 

Amman par jal ik thag ne ghera." 
Ujjain kd Raja. 
" Mahilon ki chauki karOj jaban merS, ranwas. 

Kbabardar boke rabo, koi nabin^^avei^pas." 

Dine batbiyar aur wardi sari. 

Donon ko rakb, bukm kina jare: 
" Deorbi ke pas tumben cbatikas rabnS : 

Guzre jo bal sabbi bam se kabba." 


" Our motber was Ambali and our father Amb§, : 
Tbis is Sarwar and I am Nir : know tbis for truth. 
We came here in hopes of a living. 
Take us to thy heart and let the two brothers remain 

An alligator seized our father, 
And a deceiver carried oflf our mother by guile." 
The Raja of TJjjain. 
" Be ye guards over my female apartments.* 
Be ye careful that no one approaches them." 
He gave them arms and all the clothing (required). 
He kept them both and gave them orders : 
" Be ye guards over the entrance, 
And tell me of all that happens." 

* A responsible position in a Kaj&'s palace. 



Donon bhaiya mahil ke kai-en rat diaon]rakliwal. 
Dia soven, naisa same jagen baratn-bar. 
Bandhen talwar, aur pabra deven: 
Baki kucbb aur hukm us se leven. 
Raja ke bakut bile dil ke piyare. 
Hazir bar wakfc, nabin boven niyare. 


Jhiriwar ay4 nadi par, rok dia hai jal. 
Gab pbansa, wob anke Una bahir nikal. 
Pet ko jo cbak kara aur us ki kaya, 
Us ke andar se Raja Amba paya ! 
Raja ke pas gia, us ko leke, 
Donon kar jor mila age leke. 


Tbe two brotbers kept watch day and night. 

In tbe day they slept and were up at times tbrougbout 

tbe night. 
They fastened on swords and kept watch, 
And took other orders (from tbe Raja). 
Tbe Raja was very fond of them in his heart : 
They were ever present and never away. 


A fisherman came to tbe river and dammed it with his 

An alligator was caught and be took it out. 
When be cut open its body and stomach, 
He found Raja Amba in it (alive) ! 
He took him to the Raja (of Ujjain), 
And presented him with joined hands. 

VOL. III. — 13 


Jab Raja ne dekhke ape lia bittae. 
To : " Bhaiya, kis taur se gia jal men ae ? 
Aisi bipta pari kyunkar tajh pe ? 
Kis tarab yeb pakar tujh ko laya mujh pe ? 
Kalina bayan hal niyara niyara. 
Ban ke tain bich kara kaise guz^ra ?" 


Raja Amha. 

" Pune ka to janam aur Satara pas. 
Pan-dan bahute kare, sab karan the ras. 
Jogi ne mang lia mujhe aisa, 
Jitna sarb ans dia jaisa taisa ! 
Chhora sab raj, pat, jitni maya : 
Hani ko sath lia ban men aya." 


When the Raja saw (Rajtl, Amba) he sat him down be- 
side him, 

(And said) : " brother, how earnest thou to fall into 
the net ? 

How came such misfortune to fall upon thee ? 

How came he to catch thee and bring thee to me ? 

Tell me the story bit by bit. 

How didst thou live in the forest ?" 


'Bdja Amba. 

" I was born in Puna near Satara. 
I gave much in alms and was well-to-do. 
A faqlr came and asked so much of me, 
That I gave him every portion of what I had ! 
I gave up all my kingdom and all my wealth : 
And taking my Rani with me I went into the forest." 

SAEWAE AND nIe. 115 

Itcija TJjjain ha. 
" Rani teri kit rahi ? Guzra kaun hawal* ? 
Til kaise is men phansa, an mara be-kal ? 
Bliai aui- band taje tain ne sare. 
Ab main kis taur karuii, mere piyare ? 
Man ki jo bat sabhi ham se kalina. 
Bipta Mi dur, pas mere I'ahna." 
Rdjd Amba. 
" Rani bahir bithake main gia Banaras Gam. 
Ik Sarwar, ik Nir tha, — yek larkon ka nam. — 
Angiya main pas lie beclian dhaya ; 
Eundan Sahiikar mere age aya. 
Angiya kS, mol kaba main us se. 
Sunke itni^ lie us ne mujh se." 

The li'lja of Ujjain. 
" Wbero hath thy Rani dwelt ? What hath happened to 
her ? 
How earnest thou into such untimely trouble ? 
Thou hast left all thy brethren and friends. 
What can I do for thee now, my friend ? 
Tell me all that is in thy heart. 
Thy trouble is over, for thou canst dwell with me." 
Bdja Amba. 
"1 sat my Rani outsidet and went into Banaras City. 
Sarwar and Nir were with her, — these are the names of 

our boys. 

I went to sell her bodice, 
And met Kundan the Merchant. 
I asked him to buy the bodice, 
And he took the bodice from me." 

* For ahwdl. t ^■^•' ™ *^^ forest. 



Edjd Amha. 
" Us E^ni ko jake acgiya di dikhae. 
Larke claliore bar tale ; laya us se bithae. 
Mandir men bitM mujhe angiya dlni. 
Eani ko rakh lia, aisi kini ! 
Angiya ko leke main pas larkon ko ay a; 
Eani ka khoj kahin mujh ko pay&." 

Raja Amha, 
" Leke lai-kon ko nadi upar aya : 
Ga.h ne giras lie meri kaya. 
Aisa to pech para mujh pe bkari : 
Is gun se ckhut gai meri nari. 
Chahe so ap karo kMtir mere : 
Main ne sab bat tere age gere." 

Raja Amha. 
" He went to the Rani and showed her the bodice. 
He left the boys under the banyan tree and took her 

away (in a litter). 
He took her to his home and gave me back the bodice. 
Thus it was that he kept the Eani ! 
I came back with the bodice to the boys. 
And could find no trace of the Eani." 


Raja Amha. 

" I brought the boys to the river. 
And an alligator seized my body. 
So great was the heavy trouble upon me. 
That I had lost my wife. 
Do what thou canst for me ; 
I have told thee the whole story." 

SARWAK AND nIe. 117 


Raja ne khatir kari, dil se kina mel. 

Us ko beta kar lia : yeii Kudrat ka kliel ! 

Bis bavas bit gae us ko, bhai ; 

Tlaja ki kal gheri, sir pe a}. 

Raja ka maran hila, us ne gaddi pai. 

Raja ko aur same aise de ! 


Rani se kakne laga Kundan Sahukar : 
" Bahut dinan turn ko hfle, ab base gkarbar. 
Baso gharbar ; karo rahna-sahna. 
Dil ka turn bayan sabhi ham se kahna. 
Duniya ki rit-bhaut barto sari : 
Baso gbarbar J suno, meri piyari \" 


The Raja (of Ujjain) had pity and loved him in his heart. 
He adopted him as a son: such is the caprice of (God's) 

power ! 
Twenty years passed over them, my friends,* 
When the Raja (of Ujjain) was encompassed by death. 
The Raja (of Ujjain) died and (Raja Amba) obtained 

the throne. 
Thus the times changed for Raja (Aroba) ! 


Said Kundan the Merchant to Rani (Amli) : 
' Many days have passed over thee, live now in my house. 
Dwell in my house and live with me. 
Tell me all the desire of thy heart. 
Fulfil all the customs of the world :t 
And dwell in my house ; hear, my beloved !" 

* Addressed to the audience. 

f i.e., let us live as husband and wife. 



Bdni AmTi. 
" Ganga mujlie nahla de, jab b^sun gharbar. 

Ab to meri dil ka tujh ko Lai ikhtiyar. 

Ganga de nahlaej karo khatir meri : 

Pliir to main karungi, jaisi marji ten. 

Ab tu mat der kare^ mano meri. 

Teri bbl bat nabin jagi pheri." 

HatM, ghore, ratli lie, aur bhare lakhine mal. 

Eani baithi rath men^ die wabari se chal. 

Jab ke Ujjain i^agar cbalke ae, 

Tambu die tan aur dere lae. 

Kundan Sahfi&ar cbala Raja ke aya : 
" Tere darbar main ne dera lay^." 


Banl Amli. 
" Let me bathe in the Ganges and then I will dwell in 
thy house. 
Now hast thou power over tny heart. 
Have pity on me and let me bathe in the Ganges, 
Then will I do as thou, desirest. 
Make no delay and listen to my words. 
Go not thou back upon thy promise." 

He took elephants and horses and chariots and lahhs 

of property. 
He sat the Eani in a litter and started thence. 
When he reached Ujjain Oity,* 
He pitched his tents and made a halt. 
Kandan the Merchant went to the Rajaf (Amba) (and 
said : ) 
"I have made a halt in thy territories." 

* There is confusion in .the geography here. Kundan starts from 
Banaras for the Ganges and has to pass Ujjain ! 
t Now R&ja of Ujjain. 

SARWAE AND nJe. 119 


Ectja Amha. 
" Jo kuchli tere kahan hai ham se de tu khol. 

Jo mange so dim, tujhe na kuchh leta mol. 

Eahna hoshiyarj ap dera lao : 

Chahe jis taur ap khana khao. 

Aur kaho bat koi apne man ki. 

Malke asknan karo apne tan ke." 
Kundan 8dhuhdr. 
"Pakra mujh ko dljiye, lagi andkeri rain. 

Pichke to dukh bahut saha, raton pari na chain. 

Ganga ashnan karan ham ko jana ; 

Dan-pun aur kareu khana-dana. 

Ham to, Maharaj, saran tere ae : 

Ghar se te mal bahut bharke lae." 


Raja Ambd. 

" Tell me all that thou hast to say. 

I will give thee what thou dost want and take no price 
(for it). 

Be careful and make thy halt, 

And eat thy food at thy ease. 

And tell me of any other desires of thy heart. 

Bathe and anoint thy body." 
Kundan the Merchant. 
" Give me a guard, for the nights are dark. 

Hitherto I have had much trouble and no ease at night.' 

I am going to bathe in the Ganges, 

To give alms and much food (to Brahmans). 

I am come, Raja, to salute thee. 

Bringing many things from my house." 



Pahra dene bhoj die ik Sarwar, ik Nir, 
Tambu ki chauki die^ upar barse nir. 
Bipta ki bat kahen donon bbai : 
" Bhaiya, kis tarah guzara kare mabari rnai ? 
Babal kis'des gia ? Milta nahin : 
Un ki to phir kbabar pai nabin." 


M^ta ne us wakt hi un ka suna bayan : 

Data ka karna hfla ; lene kanwar pabcban. 

Kanwaron ko pabcban lia, tambu pbarS. : 
" Lakhon ka mal gia mera sara !" 

Rani ne kuk die, sbor niacbi.ya : 

"Kis ne yeb cbor mere tambu men laya ?" 


He sent Sarwar and Nir as guards. 
They watched the tents, while the rain fell from above. 
The two bi'others began talking over their sorrows : 
(Saying) : " Brother, what can our mother be doing? 
Whither hath our father gone ? For we see him not. 
And have had no news again of him.''* 


Their mother overheard them talking, 
And by tho will of God she recognized the princes. 
She recognized the princes and tore open the tent : 
(Crying out) : "All my lakhs of property are gone \" 

The Rani cried out and made a noise : 

" Who brought this thief to my tent ?" 

* This is a slip, they had met their father long before this and he 
was now King of Ujjain. 



Rani ne pakamS. de donon Sarwar Nir. 

Dekho Rtija Amb^ ki sudhi hui takdir ! 

Donon giraftar kiye Raja pe lae : 
" Mere to chor yoh hi donon bhai. 
Kar de insaf aj mera, Raja : 
Sab ka ik bar baje milke b&ja." 


Raja Sabha lagake piichhan laga bat. 
" Kah dena bam se sabbl kya kudib guzri rat. 

Kitne ka mal gia tera^ piyari ?" 

Raja ne soch kare man men bbari : 
" Kar dunga insaf tere dil se, bina. 

Tera to mal gia, mera tarpbe sina." 

The Rani had both Sarwar and Nir seized. 

Behold the change of fortune to Raja Amba !* 

They were both seized and brought to Raja (Amba) : 
{Said she) : " These two brothers are the thieves. 
Do me justice to-day, Raja : 
That we may all sound our drumsf together." 


The Raja held a Court and began to ask (questions, 
saying) : 
" Tell me all that hath passed during the night. 

How much of thy property hath gone, my friend ?" 

The Raja was very grieved in his heart ; (said he) : 
" I will do thee justice according to thy desire, my friend. 

My heart is grieved that thy goods have gone." 

* Addressed to the audience, 
f i.e., be Lappy. 

voi. III. — 16 



Jab Eani kahne lagi : " Mano madan gind ! 

Chamkat aven bijli, jhuk-jhuk barse ind. 

Is ne kaka Nir : ' Suno, Sarwar bkaiya, 

Jane kis des gai mahari maiya ?' 

Puton ko pakchan, ros dil pe aya. 

Main ne is taur, Raja, yeh phail machaya." 


Utkke Eaja Amba ne ckhati se 11 lagae. 
Amli Amba ral mile ; kar di Ram sahai. 
Kundan ko kukm dia : " Phansi lao : 
Leke jallad is se abhl jao. 
Yek to badmash bada, mara jave. 
Kar do bismar, nabin jiae pave." 


Then said the Rani : " Be careful of the young 

elephant ! 
The lightning flashes and the heavy rain is falling. 
Said Nir : ' Hear, brother Sarwar, 
Who knows whither our mother hath gone V 
I recognized my sons and anger was in my heart.* 
So I made all this disturbance, Raja." 

Up got Raja Amba and took her to his breast. 

Ami! and Amba met again through the mercy of 

He gave an order to have Kundan hanged, (saying) : 
" Go and do it at once, fetching the executioners. 
He is a great scoundrel, let him be killed. 
Undo him that he may not live." 

* At her treatment. 



Le jallad jaldi diarhej phansi pe dia charhae : 
Jab Kundan ke gale men katwa dia lagae. 
Phansi se tar lia'niclie dara: 
Khainche ik bar us se gardan mar§.. 
Jangal men dur use gerke ae : 
Eaja ko bayan sabhi ake sunae. 


Rani utari mahil men, bipta sab Mi dur. 
Eaj pat sab mil gia, baithe rahan bazdr. 
Rani sab dharam-karam leke ai : 
Sat ke partap bari sobba pai. 
Karti asbnan dhyan kbana kbave. 
Rath men sawar hiii Ganga nahave. 


They quickly fetched the executioners and put on the 

noose : 
Then was Kundan strangled by the neck. 
They tightened the rope and threw him down. 
And pulling at it broke his neck. 
They threw (the corpse) far into the wilds. 
And came and told all about it to the Raja. 


The Rani dwelt in the palace and all her troubles passed 

far away. 
Rule and honour and all she gained and dwelt in the 

(royal) presence. 
The REini fulfilled all her obligations, 
And obtained great happiness through her virtue. 
Bathing and meditating before her food. 
Going in a litter she bathe iu the Ganges. 


Rftja Kani se kahe : " Bipta. pari upar. 
Hira, lal^ jawfihir k} nahiii koi jane sar. 
Rani, kis taur tu ne khana khaya ? 
Kalian kakaii ka pani tere pine ko aya ? 
Kar de bayan Ml niyara niyara : 
Bipta ka hal kaho liam se sara." 


Bdni Amli. 
" Jis ko Sain rang dia kadhi kurang na ho : 
Lakh bairi sir pe baso, bal na binga ho. 
Jis pe, Maharaj, khushi hoven Saiu, 
Sat ke partap nikal wahaii se aeii. 
Bete bill phir mile, baki saiyan : 
Data ne Ap meri pakari bS.nhiyan !" 


Said the Eaja to the Eani : " Great trouble fell upon us. 

None know the value of diamonds and rubies and jewels.* 

Rani, how didst thou get thy food ? 

How didst thou get water to drink ? 

Tell me about it bit by bit. 

And tell me all the story of thy sorrow." 

Bard Amli. 
" Whom God honoureth can never be dishonoured : 
Though a hundred thousand enemies be against him, yet 

a hair of him is not injured. t 
With whom, Raja, God is pleased. 
Is saved from them by his virtue. 
I have met my sons and then my husband again, 
For God Himself hath taken me by the arm !" 

But those tliat-lose them : a proverb. f A proverb. 

SAEWAE AND nIe. 125 


Kaja sunke khusli hfle anr man meii bliaru umang. 

Efini bete sab mile, charha sawayu rang. 

D;Ua ne raj dia, baki maya. 

Karam ka likha tba, sol age aya. 

Jab to khusM se rahan lage Eaja Eani. 

Mukli seti kahan lage imrat bani. 

Cbali putali Ion ki tli& Sindli ki Ion ! — 
Kisliu Lai Shib Kauwarji kah ; jawab de kon ? 


The Eaja heard and was pleased and very happy in his 

The Eani and her sons and all met again and were 

exceedingly happy. 
God gave them rule and also wealth. 
What Fate had written down came to pass. 
Then the Eaja and Eani dwelt in happiness. 
And began saying pleasant things with their lips. 

'A doll of salt hath entered into the salt of the 

ocean V — * 
SayKishn Lai and Shib Kanwar jf 'who shall answer it I' 

* A riddle, answering apparently to tte Englisli phrase ' a drop in the 
ocean,' and meaning that the legend is as a drop gone forth into the 

t The authors : see ante, page 62. 

No. XLVI. 


[The Legend of Dhruva ia a favorite one all over Northern India and is based 
-T-in its modern forma — on a atory repeated in most of the Piir&nas. That 
on which the present seems to be based is found in the Tishnu, Bhdgavata, 
Padma, Agni and N&radhja Pur&nas, and others are in the Maisya, 
Brahma and V&yu Pur&nas. It is also to be found in the Ha/ri 7ahsa.^ 

[The usual classical legend is that Uttdnapada, the son of Manu SwAyambhuva, 
had two wives, Suruchi and Sunritd. The former gave birth to Uttama 
and the latter to Dhruva. Suruchi was determined that her son should 
succeed to the throne, and to this Sflnritfl. and Dhruva agreed, the latter 
declaring he only wanted religious and not worldly honors. He there- 
upon went through such austerities that Yishnu raised him to heaven as 
the pole-star-] 

[It will be observed that the present legend differs very much from this — 
making out that Utt&napada was King of AjudhiS and that the worldly 
Queen was the daughter of a EAj4 Mfln Pkl of Amardvati (Amrdotl).] 

[There is a well known saying — DhrU, M md pdri md ; Gopi Ohand M m& &dkt 
m& : Dhrii's mother was a full mother ; Gopt Chand's mother was half a 
mother ; — which arises from the story that Dhru's mother never tried to 
dissuade him from completing his austerities, whereas Gopi Chand's 
mother first persuaded and then dissuaded him. See Yol. II. pp. 1 to 77. 
This part of the story is, however, only once hinted at in stanza LXII. of 
the following legend and it is nowhere brought into prominence.] 


Qissa Edja Bhru. 


Uttanpat Raja hAa Jodhia men pargas. 
Rani ki sampAt nahin, beta hua niras. 

The Story of Eajd Dhru. 
There was a well-known Raja Uttanpat of Ajudhia. 
His Queen was barren and he had no hope of a son. 


Ho gia niras, soch kini bhari. 
Us se bar wakt kahi us ki nari : 
" Raja, koi putr nahiii, mandir khall : 
SAkha gulzar, p&s nabiQ mail." 
Raja Uttdnpat, 
" Ajja sut§. ke khanth men jam ralie than do : 
Kantfln to sobha gal, rakbdn to dukh bo. 
Rani, bai sauk buri, dil ko jalave. 
Dekbi jis wakt jalat man men ave. 
Rani, ti\ bukm kare, aur dil se kabna : 
Laun kol aur kbusbi boke rabna." 
Pahili Rdni. 
" Raja, biyab karaiye, main nabin karun babad. 
Beta bove mandir men ; gaddi bove abad. 

He was bopeless and full of sorrow. 
To bim continually said bis queen : 
" Raja, we bave no son and tbe palace is (tberefore) empty 
Tbe garden is dry and batb no gardener.^''^ 
BAjd Uttanpdt. 
" The goat batb but two udders at its waist. 
If I cut them off its beauty goes, if I keep tbem it is in 

Rslni, a co-wife is an evil and bumeth tbe heart. 
Thou wilt understand when thy heart burnetb. 
Rani, if thou wilt and sayest it from thy heart, 
I will bring (home) another (wife) and be at peace." 
Fi7-st Queen. 
"Raja, marry and I will say naught against it. 
Let there be a son in the palace to succeed to tbe throne. 

* Figurative language : we have no son. 


Eajaj jo dudh pflt ghar men hove, 
Na raho andesh, bara sukh bhar sove. 
Bote bin raj pat khali sara : 
Is se gun, Maharaj, bhala hove thara/' 


Raja ne poti likhi Man PM ke pas : 
" Meri mansa biyah ki, putr nahiii koi pas. 

Beta nahin koi pas ; Rani rove ; 

Khana nahiii khai ; nahin sukh se sove. 

Mujh pe hukm dia Rani piyari : ■ 

' Kijiye turn biyah, nasil hove jari.' " 


Pati le kasid chala, Amrawatpilr men ja ; 
Euja Man Pal ko pati die dikha : 
" Dokho, Maharaj, pas tere laya. 
Rasta hai kathan, dukh main ne paya. 

Eaja, who hath milk* and a son in his house, 
Knoweth no sorrow and sleepeth in great comfort. 
Wit houta son rule a nd honour are erugtjj 
Therefore, Raja, it will be well with thee (to marry)." 


The Raja wrote a letter to (Raja) Man Pal, (saying) : 
" I wish to marry as I have no son. 
I have no son and my Queen weepeth. 
She eateth not her food, nor sleepeth at her ease. 
My beloved Queen hath desired me 
To marry and beget issue." 


The messenger took the letter and went to Ami'awatpflr,t 
And showed the letter to Raja Man Pal, (saying) : 
" Behold, Raja, I have brought it thee. 
Rough was the way and much trouble I endured. 

* i.e., plenty. f i.e., Amraoti. 


Is k4 jawab mujhe dena chahiye. 
Pati, Malias?§.j, kbushi boke Isblye." 


Parwane ko dekbke kbusM bi5.e Mabaraj : 
** Icbba puran bo gai sabbS^ bani sab kaj. 
Is men nabih ber-pber ; sacbi jS,no. 
Is men sbak nabin ; mera kabna mano. 
Beti hai ik, kbusbi boke deni. 
Mat kare andesb ; feeri pati leni." 


Magb mabina pancbami, rut basant lagi an. 
" Kban-pan man-jan karo, bbar lo sabbi sam4n. 

Sbadi ka, rao-rang sabbi karna : 

Sab tarab samiiii aur bera bbarna." 

Raja ne sudb likbS, matlab sara: • 

" Main bhi kisi tarab nabin us se niyara." 

Let me bave tbe answer to it. 
Accept tbe letter gladly, Raja." 


Tbe Raja saw tbe letter and was glad, (saying) : 
" My desire is fulfilled and my ambition satisfied. 
Tbere is no evasion in tbis ; know it for tbe trutb. 
Tbere is no doubt in it ; bear my words. 
I bave a daugbter and I give ber gladly. 
Have no fear ; I accept tby letter." 


It was tbe fiftb of Magb* and tbe spring bad begun. 
(Said bet) : " Gret ready tbe food and all tbe necessaries. 
Make ready tbe rejoicings for tbe marriage. 
Prepare all tbe necessaries and tbe supplies." 
Tbe Raja replied sincerely and fully (to tbe letter and 
said) : — 
" I will never be separated from bim." 

* Febrnary-March : say about 20tli February. f To bis people. 

TOL. III.— 17 


Knsid wataii se chal para, Jodhiapur men jae ; 
Jo jo kharcli barat ka dia sabhi samjliae : 
" HaBske, Mataraj, meri pati lini : 
Us ne to baliut meri ktatir kini. 
Rut likM basaut, kaba : ' Kasid, jao, 
Sajke barat mere dware lao.' " 

Snn, saman Raja kara, gaven mangalchar. 
Hathi, ghora, palki, kini bagb babar. 
Jitna gulzar cbaman rausban jari. 
Baje bajwae, git gaveu nari. 
Sajke barat cbali cbbatardbari ; 
Hatbi gaj-baj lie faujan sari. 


Tbe messenger went thence and arrived at Ajudhia, 
And explained all tbe preparations for (receiving) the 

(Said be) : " Ewja, be took my letter with gladness, 
And was very kind to me. 
He wrote that it was the spring timet (and said) : ' Go, 

Bring a great marriage-procession to my doors.' " 


Hearing this the Raja made preparations and they sang 

songs of rejoicing. 
He made a splendid show of elephants and horses and 

He lighted up the whole garden of flowers. | 
The bands played and the women sang songa. 
The monarch went forward with a splendid procession. 
Taking his elephants and falcons and all his army. 

* That Man Pal was making. f i.e., the season for marriage. 
X i.e., made a very fine show. ' 


Kangna kare, bandh lia, baje baja ; 
Sajke barat cbarhe sundar Eaja. 
AmrawatpAr jake dera kina ; 
Adar sat kar bahut bahufc kas lina. 
TambA tanwa die dera lae : 
Leke sab bast khare hazir pae. 


Lagan maliiirat sadbke pheroii ka kia saman. 
Eaja beg bula lia, pandit kai-en bakhan. 
Agin to parcband kare, sakha gai. 
Pheroii ke wakt sabhi kamni ai. 
Kaniyan ka dan kara, dil se dina. 
Pbere die sath aur sundar bina. 

He made a marriage-bracelet and fastened it and the 

music played. 
While the handsome Eaja advanced with his splendid 

They halted at Amrawatpur, 

And were received with all courtesy and attention. 
They pitched their tents and made their halt. 
And servants waited on them with every kind of food. 

Awaiting the favourable moment they prepared for the 

The Eaja was. quickly called and the priest read the 

The (marriage) fire was kindled and their genealogies 

All the maids came to the marriage. 
The maiden was given away with gladness. 
The marriage was performed with every grace. 

* To see that they were not within the forbidden degrees. 



HatLij gbor©, rath^ ghane bhfikan basan apar : 
Das die, dasi di, aur jhtik kare jaw^hr. 
Eukhsat kari barat, bida sab ko dini : 
Raja lie aur bari minti kini. 
Ean! ka dola lia Jodkia men ae : 
Jitna parwar sabki dekkan ae. 


Eani ka dola lia, ghar men dia utar : 
Jitni pur ki kamni darsan karen kai nan 
Mil-mil-ke nari sabhi gaven bajaveri. 
Bahii ko bitbla aur khana khilaven. 
Ratse parwar sabhi niyara niyara. 
Rani ka bhav kara, jitna sar8,. 


Elephants, horses, chariots and jewels in plenty were the 

dower : 
Servants and maids were given and bowed low to them. 
Then were all dismissed and the procession sent away. 
And the Raja showed great humiiity. 
Taking the (new) Queen in a litter he returned to 

And all the household came out to see. 


The (new) Queen's litter was lowered at the palace. 
And many of the maids of the town came to look on. 
All the women together sang and played. 
They sat the bride down and gave her a feast. 
All the household rejoiced in groups. 
All rejoicing over the (new) Queen. 


Eaja ae mandir men jab Eanl ke pas : 
" Jo ciahlye, so hi karAn, suno meri ardas. 
Kanclian ke palang aur swarran jhiri, 
Mahilon ke bich riiho, Eani piyari. 
Mukh se ikbal karo, mujh ko kahna. 
Mat kare andesh, khusM dil se rahn^." 

Dusrt Rant. 
" Cbhlnkat hi dola ut.M sir par bola kag. 
Meri saukan mabil men ; dijo us sedubag ! 
Dijo duhag ; yeb hi kahna merS.. 
Is merij Maharaj, bhal^ hove tera. 
Rani k& mahil juda dil se kije. 
Itni, Mahliraj, araz meri lije." 

The EajS, came to the (new) Queen in the palace (and 
said) : 
" I will do as thou desirest, hear my say. 
A bed of pure gold and an ewer of gold (I will give 

That thou mayest dwell in the palace, my beloved 

Tell me thy desire with thy lips. 
Be not down-hearted, but dwell at ease." 
Second Queen, 
" As the litter was raised a crow cawed overhead.* 
I have a co-wife in the palace ; make her a widow ! 
Make her a widow ; this is my desire. 
Thi^lnirirbe weiilor thee,^Eaj¥. 
Give the (first) Queen a separate dwelling. 
Hear this my petition, Eaja." 

* A bad omen. 



Raja JJttanfdt. 

" Bhali kari tain ne ; kahi apne dil ki bat. 

Jo Jo tore dil pe kar dun us ke sath. 

Us ko dM duhag, kariln khatir tere. 

Mujh se to kahan nahin jate phere." 

Sun karkar soch. bari Eaja kini : 

" Data, Tain aj bipat kaisi dini V 


Bari fajar Eaja utha ; man men kara andesh : — 
"Kaho, kaun se kijiye, nahin kuchh ave pesb !"- 

Eani ke pas gia Eaja bole ; 

Apna to bhed sabhi dil ka kbole : 
" Tujhe dun duhag, aisi dil par meri. 

Karta ki ank nahin jatl pheri." 

RaiSi JJttdnpat. 
" Well hast thou done, and spoken the wish of thine heart. 
I will do to her as thou dost desire. 
I will make her a widow and I will cherish thee. 
1 will not go back upon my promise." 
(But) hearing (the Queen's wish) the Eaja was in great 
trouble, (and said) : 
" God, what sorrow hast Thou given me this day ?" 

In the early morn the Eaja arose and was sorrowful at 

(And said) : " Tell me, what should I do, I can think of 

nothing !" — 
The E4ja went to the (first) Queen and said, 
Telling all the secret of his heart : 
" To make thee a widow, this is in my heart. 
The decrees of fate cannot be blotted out." 



Pahili Edni. 
" Bada barlia, Maharajjtj us Eani ka bhag ! 

Bina dosh, Raja, mujhe kaise deve duhag ? 

Mere taksir muaf, Raja, kije. 

Kis ke kahne se karam aisa kije ? 

Mujlie to bahut kkusM us ka ana. 

Main ne kia sabar ; pas us ke jana." 
Rdjd TJttanidat. 
" Suhe kushambe sis se, Eani, dharo utar, 

Abran pahro rand ke ; mujhe kfia gul khar ! 

Dena ik mahil aur tujb ko niyara. 

MitM jal cbbor, pio pani khara ! 

Miiega roaina tujhe, Rani, khana : 

Bhojan sab dur kare, jau ka dana !" 

First Queen. 
" Greatly hatli the fortune of the (second) Queen advanced, 
my Lord ! 
How canst thou make me a widow without any fault, 

Raja ? 
Forgive my fault. Raja. 
Who hath urged thee to do this thing ? 
I was pleased that she should come. 
I will have patience, if thou go to her." 
Raja, UUdnpdt. 
" Rani, take off the red veil* from thy head. 
Put on the garb of a widow ; f my rose hath become a 

thorn ! 
I will put thee into a separate dwelling. 
Give up sweet water and take to salt ! 
Food shall be given thee daily. Rani ; 
But give up good food and eat barley grain !" 
* The sign of coverture in India. f -^ coarse white robe. 



Jab Eaja ke samhne abran dhari utar : 
" Yehan mera koi nahin. Ky^ kare, Kartar ? 
Bbai aur band nahin koi mera. 
Saukan be-iman, bbala hove tera ! 
Tera kya dosh ? Burl kismat meri ! 
Data ki dat nahin jati pheri." 


Phute-tftte mandir men Eani die bhijwa : 

Phute purane bistar de, jau khane ko kaha. 

Rani ko duh% dia R^ja &ya ; 

Rani se araz kare : " Ab sukh paya !" 

Raja ne aur bat mukh se boli : 

Jo kuchh parde ki bat, soi mukh se kholi. 


Then she took off her clothes before the E^ja (and said) : 
" I have no friend here. my Creator, what hast thou 
done (for me) ? 
I have no. relatives and friends here. 
Faithless co-wife, may it be weli with thee !* 
What is thy fault (in this) ? It is my evil fate ! 
The lines of God cannot be blotted out." 


He sent the (first) Queen to a broken-down dwelling, 
Gave an old and worn out bed and ordered barley for 

her food. 
Making the (first) Queen a widow the Raj^ came 
And said to the (second) Queen : " Be happy now !" 
And the Rajl said other things with his lips. 
Telling all the hidden secrets of his heart. 

* Ironical. 



Mas das bit© jabhi ktelan cliala shikar. 

Ban men to ghora dia aur 114 mirg ko mar. 

Mirg kffl utha lia, uM S.ya ■: 

Rani jo duhagan tlii, us ke dera laya. 

Rani ke pas raha, khana khaya. 

Us ko to garb raha ~, — Har k5 maya 5 


Sai-i fajar Rajd utha, aya Eani ke p^s, 
Dil se lae khusbi kare, kiya rain ko ba3. 
Us ko bihi ;garb rafea ; — Kudrat Teri I 
Eani ue boli, ik us par geri : 
"*' Kal ki lafc kahan baithe, Raja ? 
Boime se aur lagi mujh ko laja." 


After ten months had passed (the Raja) went a-hisntang,. 
He took his horse into the woods and slew a deer. 
He took up the deer and returned. 
And stopped at the house where the widowed (firat) 

jQueen was. 
He stayed with her and ate his dinner. 
She became pregnant, by the will of God I 


In the early morning the Raja arose smd came to tho 

(second) Queen. 
He took her to his heart and was happy and remained 

the night. 
She too became pregnant, by the will of God 1 
Said the (second) Queen, asking (suspicious) questions j 
" Where didst thou pass yesternight, Eaja ? 
I am ashamed to -say more." 
vol.. III. — 18 



Riijd TJttanpnt. 

" Khelne sliitar gae, Rani, ban men. 
Pichhe ki nahin rahi koi man men. 
Khelton sbikar rain itpar ai. 
Kahne ko ik kati ban men pai, 
Hote parbtat pas aya tare. 
Na-hakk meii tA yftnlim boli geri." 


Utar gai nau mas jab larka upja ik. 
Saukan ko khabaran hM, hua kalJja cbhek. 
Man men to iikar kiya, sunka mani. 
Sunke yeh bat socli kini Rani : 
" Bap bina p6t, kaho, kaise hove ? 
Sun pave kanth, laj us ki hove !" 


Bdja Uttanpdt. 

'1 went hunting in the forest, Rdni. 
I had no other thought in my heart. 
I was overtaken by the night while hunting. 
And had to stay in a hut in the forest. 
As soon as it was dawn I came to thee. 
Thou art thus suspicious of me without cause." 


When nine months liad passed a son was born (to the 

first Queen). 
When her co-wife heard of it her heart was jealous. 
She was distressed in her mind through jealousy. 
Jealously thus thought the (second) Queen : 
'Tell me, how shall there be a son without a father ? 
When my husband hears of it he will feel disgraced !" 



Eani ke baje bajeii ; upje put saput : — 

Jis gliar aise putr hon kablii na uljhe slit I — 

Rani ke bar bajeii naubat-khane. 

Dekhen sab nagar^ gae mulkbii jane. 

Us ka to mabil kiya Raja niyara. 

Kaise shahzada hAa dil ka piyara ! 


Diisn Rant. 
" Us saukan ke mabil men rahe deo ke dant ? 
Raja^ tare dil ka mujhe na pave ant. 
Pave nahin ant ; bua achraj bhari. 
Rani ne laj teri kaisi t4ri ? 
Leke talwar saf gardan maro : 
Kiya, to dariyae par us ko taro." 


Drums were beaten for tbe (second) Queen^ for a true 

sou was born to her : 
Who hath such a son in his house shall ever prosper ! — 
The drums were beaten at the (second) Queen's door. 
All the city came to see and the world heard of it. 
The Raja gave her a separate palace. 
And how dear to his heart became the prince ! 


Second Queen, 

" Doth a devil or demon dwell in my co-wife's house ? 
Raja.; I have not fathomed thy heart. 
I cannot fathom it; it is a mystery to me. 
How did the (first) Queen dare to disgrace thee ? 
Take a sword and cut off her head : 
And then take her over- the waters." 



Bdjd IJttanjpat, 

•' Ean?,^ dhiipat dliariye, mat na kare audesb. 

Eakhna us ko hai Qahinj,pahaiichaun pasrdes. 

Jo jo tain bat kahi dil par mere ; 

Jitne tain bol kabi, sachi teri- 

Kar dfefrga jataU, iip khana kliao. 

Mat karo andesh, ram* talabi pao." 

Us ke bhi larka hAa, baje beje-n apar. 

Dan dia, sobha kare, harkhe baraui hkr. 

Raja ki bahut khusbt man men hove : 

Miakte moti ke tbal bhar bhai bove, 
"Khane \o dan-pan, baki mewa: 

Data ne par kiya mera khewa 1" 

Raja Utfayipaf. 
" "Rini, have patience and be not distressed, 
I will not keep her, but will send her abroad. 
What thou hast said is on ray heart ; 
"What thou hast said is true. 
I will make some plan,t so do thou eat thy food. 
Be not distressed and take thy needfal rest." 

(The second Queen) too had a son and mncb mmsic was 

Alms were given, and there were rejoicings evetyfrhere. 
The Raja was very pleased in his heart ; 
And gavef away many platters of pearls, (saying) : 
" Riches had I in plenty, I but wanted fruit :§ 
~6od hath made my boat to cross over!"],]. 

* For dram. f To get tid of the' fii^t Qtteen. 

J I/t<., sowed, § i.e.^ a Bon. |[ i.e.,- given me my desire. 



Panch baras ke ulnar men Dhri\ ne boli bol : 
" Mata, merl bap ki batan mukh se bol, 
Mata, yeb bat sabbi ham se kahna. 
Kis bidh se ake hha tera rabna ? 
Khana kis taur mile ham ko, Mata ? 
Aisa to dukh saha nahiii jata I" 


Pahili Rani. 
"Bet&, tere pita ne bahut kare anrit. 
Bina dos mujh ko taja ; ho^ Beta, be-prft. 
Ham se be-pfit hM babal tera. 
Us ghar mat ja : mdn kahnd mera, 
Saukan ki slkh snni Eaja us se : 
Raja is taur hfia ham se ghusse !" 


When DhrA* was five years old he said i 
" Mother, tell me all about my father. 
Mother, tell me all about him. 
How camest thou to dwell here ? 
How do we get our living, Mother ? 
Such trouble as this is intolerable \" 


First Queen. 

" My son, thy father did a great injustice. 
He discarded me without a fault, and became Unloving, 

my son. 
Thy father became unloving to me. 
Go not to his house : mark my words. 
The Eaja listened to the teaching of my co-wife, 
And so the Eajd became angry with me \" 
* Dhrft was the son of the first and discarded Queen. 



Us wakt sunke, gia jhukke kari jawahr. 
Gia pita ke takht par, lagi nek nahiii bar. 
Baja ko pint hui, chhati se laya. 
Dusra woh aur apne pas bithaya. 
Donori se piyar kare Raja aisa, 
Chand ka cbakor kare ur-ur jais^, 
" Ik nagar, do chhatarpati aur Apar chhatarphir§,n 
Main tujh se pucbhfin, Pita, kis bidh raj karan 7 
Mali lave bagh, per sab man men mane : 
Jude jude pahchan, bel birwe ki jane. 
Un ko bhojan dih, ham ho jau ka dan^ ! 
Un ko seja ratan, ham ko pbus purana !" 


As soon as he heard tliis he went (to his father) and 

saluted him. 
He went up to his father's throne without any hesitation. 
The Raja loved him and took him to his heart. 
He took his other (son) too and sat him down beside 

And the Rajfi, fondled them both, 
As the partridge* flieth to the moon. 
" One city and two kings and both would rule : 
I ask thee, Father, hosv shall they both rule ? 
The gardener maketh a garden and knoweth every tree. 
He knoweth all apart, shoot and branch. 
They have good food, we have barley grain I 
They have jewelled couches, we have old straw !"t 

* See Vol. II. p. 257. 
t They are the second Queen and her son : we are the first Queen 
and her eon, Dhra. 



Raja ke dil pe charhi, sun bete ki b4t : 
Bahut piyav karne lao;a us larke ke sath. 
Tab woh Rani a gai, kahin mill nabin bat. 
Bari soch dil raeii hid, kampan lagd g&it. 
Raja ko haul hui iko b§.ri : 
" Kis bidh se aj rate izzat mabari ?" 


Us larke ko dekhke jalne lagsl, gafc. 
Niche gera takht se, upar mara hath. 
Upar hath dia : " Phir mat aiye ! 
Jau ka, nirbbag, jake kbana khaiye !" 
RSja se kahan lagi hoke ghusse : 
" Is ko na chahe, kaha main ne tujh se !" 


When the Raja heard his son's words^ they sank into hia 

And he loved the boy very much. 
Then the (second) Queen would have nought to do with 

He was distressed at heart and began to tremble. 
The Raja too was altogether distressed (saying) : 
" How sha-11 honor remain to me to-day ?" 


When (the second Queen) saw the boy her heart began 

to burn. 
She threw him down off the throne and struck him. 
She struck him (and said) : " Come no more ! 
Go, wretch, and eat thy barley grain \" 
And then in wrath she said to the Raja ; 
" I desire him not, I say to thee !" 



Raja Uttdnpdt, 
" Jis din gia shikar koj Eiiii, kahAu sun^, 
Us din us ke mahil men us gun ufcara j&. 
Utara main jae, wahin khdna khdya ; 
Hote hi parbMt pas tere %a. 
Is tarah yeh putr hda, main ne batai, 
A beta pS,s, daya mujh ko ai." 


Dusr'i Rani. 

"Us saukan ke mahil men jis din upjd pAt, 
Mara tera aj se' is gun bigard silt. 
Jab tii mukar gia ham se bola ; 
Apna nahin bhed koi dil ka kholS,. 
M.evk taiii, kanth, nahin mana kahn§ : 
Ab to, Mahardj, hM mushkil rahn^ !" 


Raja Uttdnpdt. 
" I tell thee, E&ni, that on the day I went a-hunting, 
I stayed at the house (of the first Queen). 
I stayed there and ate my food, 
And. at the dawn I came to thee. 
Thus was this son born, I tell thee. 
My son came to me and I had pity ou him." 

Second Queen. 
" From the day a son was born in my co-wife's house 
There hath been estrangement hetwixt me and thee. 
Then didst thou tell me an untruth, 
And did not tell me the secrets of thy heart. 
Thou didst not hearken to my say, my husband, 
And now, my Lord, it is hard for me to stay ! " 



"Mam pahunclia th& taklifc.par, aur kiya pita ne piyur. 

Gliussa man miUa uthij dia taklit se dar. 

^iujh ko dir aur takta boll ^ 

Dekhi anrit, meri kaya doli. 

Raima ka dliaram uahin, Mata, merjl^ 

Is men uahiii dosh koi, Mata, tera." 
Pahili Runt. 
*' Beta, mukh se bolo Ram ; jagat ka Karta soi. 

Likh ank Kai-tar bhavega jag men soi. 

Un ke mithe bachan kokila bii-li? raga : 

Hamare bacban khator, tark jyua bolat kaga ! 

Jis ghar badhe pap, pbfll phal aisa five; 

Ast bhan ho jae, tabar upar ko cbbave !" 

" I went to the tbroue and my father was kind. 
My (step-)mother came in wrath and threw me from 

the throne. 
She threw me down and spake harshly, 
And at her injustice my body trembled. 
It is not right'for me to stay, Mother. 
In this there is no fault of thine, Mother." 
first Queen. 
"My son, call on God with thy lips; he is the Creator of 
the world. 
The decrees of the Creator must be fulfilled in the world. 
(The second Queen's) words are as sweet (to the Raja) 

as the song of the cuckoo and peacock: 
My words are as harsh as the caw of a crow ! 
In whose house sin prevails its fruit will be obtained ; 
Sunlight will desert it and darkness cover it up V 

* Speaking to his mother. 
VOL. ni. — 19 


" Mera pita to bebak meD barat raha anrit. 

Para, pani, istri : kabbi na pa le prifc." 

Sat S.saa kar lia, sail kar jag men dole. 

Kisi tarah koi kaho, ap mukh se nabin bole. 

Baitha asan lae surt jin sodhi lai, 

Nahin koi dekhe aur, ikta aisi pai. 

Sone se kundan hua aur palat gai sab sar. 

Tinori us ki mit gai, mar, dbar, talwar. 

Larke ae pas, bhed kuchh dil ka khole ; 
" Tu hamare satb khelta nis din dole ; 

Ah Ho baitha miui, ap mukh se nahin bole. 

Rit-bhant gai chhut, ikta sat ko tole." 


" My father hath been duped into doing injustice. 
Mercury, water and woman should never be beloved."* 
He became ajogi f and wandered over the earth. 
However much one spake to him he spake not with his 

He sat in his {jogi's) seat with a pure heart. 
None else saw him, so secret was he. 

From gold he became pure gold and changed all his 

He conquered the three (vices), murder, robbery and 

His playmates came to him and spoke their mind: 
" Thou didst play with us day and night. 
And now thou sittest dumb and speakest not with thy 

Thou hast lost thy (old) ways and hast taken to piety." 

* This line is a proverb. f Lit., took tlie seat of virtue. 

X i.e., he was under a vow of silence. 



Sat kS, usan la dia, aur macha nagar men shor. 
Ik bai- parja chali, jaisi chand chakor. 
Sun-sun-kar nagar gia jitna sara : 
Kaja ka pftt hM sab se niyara. 
Raja se kahe duniya jake; 
Bole ik bar pas us ke ake. 


Sunkar un ke bachan ko Raja bola yflii : 
" Us'larke se jd kalio, jo mange so duii. 

Mange so dxdi mal jitna sara. 

Rakhta nahin kaput ; woh hai mera piyara, 

Kah do samjhae abhi us se jake : — 
' Baitho is wakt gharon apne ake.' " 


He became a jogi* and it was noised in tbe city. 

And the people all went together (to see him) as a 

partridge to the moon.f 
All the city went when they heard 
That the Raja's son had separated himself from all (the 

The crowd went to the Raja and spake ; 
Speaking all together they came to him. 


When the Raja heard their say he spake thus : 
" Go and tell the boy I will give him what he asketh. 
If he ask for all my goods I will give them. 
I hold him to be no bastard ; he is dear to me. 
Go and tell him at once^ 
That he should go at once to his house." 

* See above, Stanza XL. t See above, Stanza XXXII. 



Raja ue agya di am- sunke cliala diwan j 
Us larke se aiike karne lag^ bay an : 
" Tere pita ne tujLe pas bulaya. 
Le to sab khan-pau, cbabiye maya. 
Mere turn sath clialo, abhi fi.o : 
Chahiye jo bast, sabhi us se pao." 


" Jo sandasi lob ki, kabhi pani, kabbi ag, 
Aise jiwan maran men phanse raben nirbbag. 
Mujh ko kucbb mal darb nahin cbabiye : 
Main to ik rang hAa. Us se kahiye : 
Manun nabin ik koi tera kahna. 
Duniya main tark kare, ban men rahna." 

The Raja gave the order, the minister heard it and went. 
And coining to the boy said to him : 
" Thy father calleth thee. 
Take thy fill of food and, if thou desirest, wealth. 
Come with me and come now, 
And obtain from him all thy- desire." 


" As a blacksmith's pincers are sometimes in water and 
sometimes in fire. 
So are the unfortunate encompassed by life and death. 
I have no need of wealth, 

I have become of one hue.* Say to him, that 
I will not heed a word of his. 
I have given up the world and will dwell in the forest." 

* i.e., one given up entirely to meditation. 



Tab diwtin Arahan se chalaj sunke us ka gyan. 
Eaja se kahue laga : " Us se iia apne jan, 
Apnfi, mat jan putr, Raja ruera. 
Duniya di chhor kare ban men dera. 
Dil pe koi nahm rabe us ke sanka; 
Swarran ki cbbor die teri Lanka." 


Itni sun Eaja cbale aur cbala nagar sab satb. 
Putr Iia tab god men aur pucbban laga bat : 
" Mango kacbh aur^ jaisi mansa teri. 
Itni ardas suno. Beta, meri :■■ — 
Eaj, pat, mal, mulk tujb ko chahiye, 
Gaddi, sarb ans, aur laiye." 


Tben tbe minister left him, bearing his wisdom. 

He said to tbe Raja : «' Hold him not to be tbine. 

Hold him not to be tby son, my King. 

He hatb left tbe world and dwelletb in tbe woods. 

He hatb no doubt in bis heart. 

And hath given up tby golden Lanka."* 


Hearing this the Raja went and with him went all the 

He took his son into his lap and said : 
" Tell me more of thy desire. 
Hear this much frona me, my son : — 
If thou desire rule and goods and lands, 
And throne and all my portion, take them from me." 

* Lanka was, in the Rdmdyana, the dwelling of Ravana and is now 
the conventional home of all wealth. 


" Rit rit astMti sabbi raiyat s.o die : 
Jahan koi bas gia chhin us se nahin lie, 
Jo Raja ki parja sabhan ko apna kije : 
Jaisa kisi ka bhag, bant waisa hi dije. 
Jis ghar barhe dharam, daya sabhi us ghar ave : 
Ude bhan ho jae, tabar dekhat mifc jave." 
Raja Uttdnpdt. 
" Sut bbagi ho jae pita ko aisa chahiye, 
Kaj, pat, dhan, malj sabhi us ko de die. 
Jo andha ho jae, jot kar us ko dikhS,ve. 
Abhi dan ka pun, ant us ka nahin ave. 
Ab chaliye ghar baith, m9,n tu kahni meri. 
Aur kahan kuchh kaho, rahe ab ichha teri." 


" Every subject should be given his right : 
Where a man hath settled he should not be taken 

A RajS, should make his subjects his own 
And give to each according to his deserts. 
To the house where right dwelleth the attachment of all 

is attracted: 
There is sunlight and darkness fleeth thence." 
Bajd Uttdnpdt. 
" When a father hath a duteous son it behoveth him 
To give him all his rule and honour and wealth. 
Give the blind man sight, that he may see.* 
Thus shalt thou win the reward of profuse chai'ity. 
Come home now and hear my words. 
Tell me moreover what of thy desire remaineth." 

* Put me in the right way. 



'■ Jami jaun loha kute agin mev, dhar dhar tave, 
Man ka rah jAga ser, mol men bahut bikave. 
Jab loha tap ja hath nahiii lawat koi : 
Jab tap namrat ho jage sab parmat khoi. 
Jaisa ptini ik sabhi belau men ave, 
Jaisi jis ki zat, so waisa ho jave." 


Bete ne mani nahin us Rija ki bat. 
Bida pae Raja, chale aur Ma nagar sab sath. 
Lina sab sath nagar pur men ay a : 
Us ka kuchh bhed nahin R&,ja ko paya. 
Gaddi pe baith hukm kina jari : — 
' Apne sab dham jao duniya sari." 

"When the iron is beaten and burnt in the fire, 
A man of it becomes a ser,* but is sold for much. 
When the iron is hot none can touch it : 
When it loseth its heat it loseth its value. 
The water put into the pitchers is all one water, 
But it becomes as the caste (of the owner). "t 


His son would not hearken to the Raja's words. 
Taking his leave the Raja went and took all the city 

with him. 
Taking all the people with him he reached the town. 
And the Raja learned nothing of his (son's) secrets. 
Sitting on his throne he gave an order, 
That all the people should return to their homes. 

* A man is 80 lbs. : a ser is 2 lbs, 
t A high caste Hindil will not use the water of one of lower caste. 



Us jage ko clihor galire ban rneri jae : 
Singh, siyal, mirgan phiren, beta asan Ike. 
Asan ko lake sflrat Har se lage. 
Ban men koi pas naliiii us ka bagi. 
Us ne sab dAr kare kaja maya. 
Darse nabin aur, dhjan aisa laj'a ! 


Narad Mun ban men mila, rasta dia batae : 
" Woh Data tujh ko mile, msit man men gbabarae ! 
Gidar aur singh siyal bsin men dolen : 
Kandhe pe pair dhareii aur mukh se bolen ! 
Bipta ik bar sabhi aisi deven : 
Cliont-chont mas t;era mukh men leven !" 


Leaving that place (Dhrtl) went into a thick forest, 
Where were tigers and jackals and deer, and there the 

boy took his seat. 
Taking his seat he meditated on God. 
No friend came near him in the 'forest. 
He put away body and wealth far from him.* 
So did he meditate that he conld not see 1 


Narad, the Munit met him in the forest and shovVedhim 
the way, (saying) ; 
" God will meet thee, be not afraid in thy heart ! 
Jackals and tigers wander in this forest 
And will put their paws on thy shoulders and roar ! 
They will all worry thee together, 
Tearing thy flesh with their mouths !" 

* i.e., laccame separated from the world, 
t See Vol. II. p. 222. 


Narad Mun, 

' Asan padam lag§,ke mftl band ko Mndh ; 
Mir dind sidha karo, aur surt gagaii ko saadh I" 
Bistar koi pas nahia, kayil nangi : 
Ah to koi nakia raha\ sangi. 
Kud kdd slier pareii flpar ake : 
Rakhtd nahia ; dhji^u aisd lake ! 


Jab wok sabit ho gia mile Ap BhagwSn : 

Asst haisar saniya die aur pha.-kan khai-e nishfi.a, 

Gaddi sab saump die ban men, piyare, 

Si\ba chau taraf khare niyare ni^-are. 

Ran kejo bich baje maro tiira : 

BaktaF pahra die sunke pilia. 

Narad, the Mimi. 

" Sit cross-legged and gird up thy loins. 
Sit straight upright and fix thy gaze above ! " 
He had no bed and his body was naked, 
And had no companion with him. 
The tigers leapt upon him, 
But prevented him not : such was his meditation ! 


When it was completed he met God Himself, 

Who gave him 80,000 followers and banners to wave.* 

He gave him the rule of the whole forest, my friends, 

And lieutenants on every side. 

Drums of war were beaten in the field, 

And the turbau (of war) was duly bound upon him. 

* Addressed to the audience. 
VOL. in. — 20 



Hathi bithl^ did Dhru ko Apne hath. 
Aya apne nagar men lie fauj sab sath. 
Utare hain fauj sabhi pur men ake, 
Sun sun log bhage, achraj khake. 
Raja ko khabar kari sab ne jake : 
" Suniyo, Maharaj, kan nlchhe lake \" 


Nagar ke Log. 

" Dushman tere raj men ftpar garja ae I" 

Sab nagar kampe khaia, badan gae tahrsle. 

Jaisi ik kali ghata ilpar ai. 

Bhagen kis taraf ? Jaga nahin pdi t 
" Jagat ka sawal ap suniyOj Eaja ; 

Is jangal ke bich bajen mard baja \" 


(God) sat DhrA on an elephant with His own hands. 
He came to the city with all his forces. 
All the army came into the city, 
And the people hearing it fled astonished. 
They all went and told the news to the Rajd, (saying) : 
" Hear, my Lord, with attentive ear \" 


The People of the City. 

"An enemy hath come roaring into thy land !" 
All the city was taken with a trembling. 
It was as it were a dark cloud covering them. 
Whither should they fly ? There was no place (to go to) ! 
(Said they) : " R^ja, hear the cry of the world; 
They are beating the drum of death in the forest !" 



Bdjd Uttdnpat. 
" Larne ki satiySi nahin, aisa guzra hal !" 
Jab to Raja gale men lia kubara dal. 
Kanchan mukta ke bhare Rajd bori i 
Hathi gaj baj lie, do kar jore. 
Le karke bhint airp age aja : 
Dekha balwan fikar man men. khayS.. 

Dekb pita ki siirat ko gaddi dini tiyag^. 
Mundha charnon men para : " Bai-a tumhara bhttgl 
Main to,, Mabaraj, putr bonga tera ! 
Mane mat khauf ab to. Raja, mer§, T 
Main to, Mabaraj, saran teri aya. 
Mausi ke karan main ne obda paya I" 

M&ja Uttdnpat.. 
" I bave become unable to figbt !" 
Tben the Raja bung an axe round bis neck. 
Tbe Raja filled a tray witb gold,. 
Aad taking elepbants and falcons be went with hands 

joined (in supplication). 
Taking presents tbe king went on, 
And seeing (the enemy) powerful was distressed at heart. 

Seeing bis father's condition (Dhrfl) came off his throne. 
He fell prostrate at his feet (and s^-id) : " Great is thy 

good fortune I. 
I am thy son, my Lord ! 
Be not afraid of me, Raja !' 
I am come to salute thee, my Lord. 
It is owing to my (step-)mother that I have attained to 

this estate !" 



Pits anr putr donon mile aur gun kara ik b&r : 

Apne mandir men gae piolihe raj-dwar. 

DinS. sab raj pat sut ko skvk : 

Rajaik taraf hfla ns se uijaia. 

Gaddi pe baith gia clihatardhari ; 

Jab to Mabairaj ki parja kampi sdri. 

Mata. ke cbarnon para anr mnkh se holi bol. 

Jo hawal guzra as se, diua as se kbol. 

Mata se hal kaha jitna sara : 
" Tere partap hfta Har ka piyai4 ! 

Mat na sarmae j suniyo^ Mata^ mart, 

Yeb to sab mal mulk jitna tere 1" 

Baithd (ipar takbt ke Mata ii© bulae : 
" Main to nipat nadaa tba, tain ne kari sahai. 

' lZ ~~ ' ~ 

Tbe father and son together left the place. 

And went each to his home and palace. 

(The Raja) gave np all bis kingdom and honors to his son ; 

And dwelt on one side apart from hira. 

The monarch (Dbrii) sat npoB the throne. 

And ail my Loi-d's subjects were in awe of him. 

(Dhril) fell at his (step-) mother's feet aad spake to her 

with his lips. 
He explained to her all that had happened to him. 
He told his mother a)l that had happened, (saying) : 
" Tbrongh thee I became beloved of God ! 
Be not ashamed ; hear, my Mother, 
All this wealth and land is throagh thee !" 

He sat on the throne and sent. for his mother, 
(And said to her) : " When I was altogether ignorant* 

thoo didst cherish me. 

I.e., wlion I was a helpless child. 


Tero partSp main ban ko dhaya : 
Leke saman palat ultd aya. 
Nagari paran hfli, Mata, terl : 
Pal men di& rfij, nahin Ifigi derl 1" 



' R^j snkhi, parja snkhij baki sukbi nadan ! 
Sat ka dharau kar lie^ mujhe mile Bhagwan ! 
Mata, main aj kara aisa dbaran, 
Ae Bhagwan Ap mujb ko taran ! 
Sat ke partap hid puran asa : 
Chbattis bazar baras mera basa 1" 

Kishan Lai Shib Kanwar ko upj& kewal gySn : 
Jaisa gola top ka, aisa kare maidan ! 

Through thee I went to the forest,* 

And bringing the gifts (of God) I have returned. 

Thy city hath been blessed, Mother, 

And without delay (God) at once gave me a kingdom !" 


" Be happy my kingdom, my people and their children ! 
I practised virtue and I met God ! 
Mother, I so practised virtue 
That God Himself hath saved me ! 
Through virtue hath my hope been fulfilled. 
And may I live on for 36,000 years ! " 

To Kishan Lai and Shib Kanwar t hath been bom th« 

flower of knowledge. 
As a ball from a cannon it goeth through the field ! 

• i.e , Bhe urged, him to be ajogi. f See "Vol. III., p. 125, eto. 





[The present proprietors of the town lands of the ancient City of Jfilandhar 
are largely Afghdns, Sayyids, Shekhs and Mnghals, -who hare, as a rule, 
acquired their property by ptirchases during the last three centuries. 
The enyirons of the city are occupied by lastis or suburbs belonging chiefly 
to the Shekhs and Sayyids, and are named after their tribes or founders. 
Naturally these founders, being of the Maliammadan priestly classes, are 
' Saints,' and of them are told many legends, especially of the miracle* 
attributed to them, of which the following are fttir samrplea. They are all 
on the same lines as those of Indian Saints generally.} 

[The ancestors of the Barik Path^ns of J^landhar came over from, the Logh4r 
Valley in Afghanisfcfin with Shekh Ahmad Ghaus, mentioned in the 
genealogy below, in 1594 A.D. and occupied the wards of Kar^r Khfin 
and the Ikhwand Koad. In this tribe are included the Guzslns, Ali^ka 
and Bibfikhels.] 

[Mention is made in the following pages of the doings of the chief J^landhar 
Saint the Im^m Ntlsirn'ddin Shlrflni with the jogi Jdlandhar. Tha 
ancient history of the jSlandhar District carries us back to the days of 
the Pur&nas and the early history of the Katooh ESipflts, who once held 
the JAlandhar Doilb, but have since been long confined to the Panjib 
Himalayan lands about the K&ngrfi District. The original legend of JSlan- 
dhara the Asura being overcome by Siva and hnrled down so that parts 
-of his huge body fell over several geographical points extending over 
the Jfilandhar, HushiArpftr and K&ngrd Districts is related in the Padma 
Purdna and has thence been repeated with embellishments in many a 
more modem work. But there is another and distinct legend which con- 
nects the jogS JSlandhar Nath with Gurti Gorakhnftth (see Vol. II., p. &fE.) 
and makes him out io be the person who refonnded the modem City of 
JSlandhar in say the 14th or 15th century A.D., in which case, if the 
surmise that the Imfim Ndsiru'ddln Shirini was the contemporary 
of Nizimu'ddin Auli^ of Dohli (1236 to 1325 A.D. ; see tale No. X. 
following) is correct, the saint and the jogi were- probably contemporaries 
also. Another local legend is that the samddh, or shrine, of this jogt 
J£landhar was pulled down to make way for the mosque erected to the 
memory of the Im4m Ndsiru'ddin.] 



XBastS DSnishmandfii and Bast! Shekh Daryesh, (called also shortly Baatt 
Shekh) subarba of Jfilandhar, were founded by Anafri Shekhs, who aro 
intimately connected with the Barik or Bariki Path£na of Jdlandhar 
with whom they intermarry. Bastt Dfinishmand^n was founded in 1609 
A D. and Basti Shekh Darvesh in 1617 A,D., the lands in both oaaes being 
purchased. The AnsSri Shekhs claim descent from Khalid AnsAr of 
Madin^, who died in 65 A.H. or 675 A.D., and the eponymous founder 
of Bastl DAnishmandEii was MauWna Ibrllhim D/lnishmand, l5th in descent 
from Khalid Ans£r, who migrated to MultSn and died there in 1270 A. D. 
From Maultna Ibrf.htm we have a kind of genealogy which will partly 
explain the relative position of the various ' Saints' of this race. 

Maulfiua Ibrahim DSnishmand ob. 1270 


I I 

Shekh Tasaf, Shekh Surfiju'ddJn 

ancestor of the 
AnsSri Shekhs - 
of Basti D£n- 

Shekh Mahmild 

Zaid 'Aqa 

Shekh Mztd 

Shekh Muhammad 

a son, m. d. 
of Abil Bakr 

Shekh Ibrahim 


Shekh 'Alt 

Shekh B^ztd, 
Fir Raushan, 
founder of 
the B,aushan- 
t&a temp. 

a son 

a son 





b&d near Agrd 
by Sa'adn'llah 
Kh£n, temp. 

Eashfd Kh^n, 
a comimander 

AbA Bakr 

"^ I I 

a son Shekh Pir Walt. 


Shekh Darvesh 
ob. 1682, founder 
of the Ansfirt 
Shekhs of Basti 
Shekh Darvesh 

'Abdu'r Bahtm. 

Shekh Ahmad 

Shekh Ahdad&d 
whose head is 
buried in Shekh 
Ahmad Ghaus'a 

Shekh Walidfld 
and 5 others. 

The whole subject of the genealogy is, however, as nsnal, very confused.] 


Shekh MahmM. 

Hal Miyuh Shekh Mahmud Sahib sahna IJasti Shekh Barvesh, ho 
40 iaras sahrd-nishiai nie« fuqrd se milte rahe : jab ivdpis de, majzu- 
bdna hdlat meit de, in se bahut sikardmdt zahvr meii den:~wdste 
tal-hvif qdtaldn in he donoh phaluh se do sheroh kd paiad ho jdnd ; 
Sher Shah kd markar zlnda ho jdnd aur us kd sahat-ydb hond ; aur 
Walt Muhammad ndnbdi kd in k% sahat se sdhib-i-mdl wa auldd 
hond ; aur ik bdfinda ko dafina niilnd. 

Sahib sijjada jad te hoe Miyan Shekh MahmAd, 
Muridan dian sab as&ii pujiaii, shukar kia Mabdd. 
Jawani sakht baiwani miri haij har koi janeii akil : 
Hag sunan ndu Shekh Sahibji luk luk hunde mail. 

5 Ik i-at men Shekh Sahib nftn eh bisharat hoi : — 
'Pir kahaven Soharwardian, rag nun rakhen dboi I' — 
Khwab yeh dekha masjid atte charhna bub inen chahia: 
Charon taraf di bar ke karau rasta mill na paia. 
Yeh jana, ke ' Piiai'i di kuchh khafgi mujh par hoi.' 
10 Masjid de chau phere, jaro, bar laga de koi ! 

Watan chbaddan da dil apne vichh irada karia : 

Bechan karan asp kharide rabi Hind da phaiia. 

Das vih manzil rah chalke ubar rasta pae ; 

Naukaran nAii ghore bakhsbe Kajali Ban vichh gae. 
15 Chali warian uthe rahkar khidmat ki faqiiaii : 

Ghar-bar men khabar na bhaji ; man Wkn takdii-4n. 

Mulk mariS.n, baghian utte kabza kia sharik^n : 

Murna uu ka kisi na bhave, khabaran maran adik^n. 

Allah di eh kudrat dekho :— de to matwdle ! 
20 Shahnawaz Khai nam kahawan, gallari karan kuch&le. 

Sab muridan janan dil te : " Eh hai Pir mukarard. 

Sir sada taa jutidn in kian^ is men uzar na zara." 

Ghasib lokdn mat& mataian : " In ko mar mukaven. 

Bhai baradar muridan ham se milkaa chhin dildven." 


25 Ik rafc shai'ik&u ua- hakk Bastion bahir nikdle : 
Chuhre jahil chand zaliman raste vichh bitjia le : 
Kiha un ko : " KaLala-ramla idhar wal jad ave, 
Mar mukana us uhi ethe, zinda mul na jave." 
Shekh Sahib jad rat same men do tin koh. par gae, 

30 Ghaton apne sir kadli zalim akar pae. 

Shekb. Sahib ne pahile akhia : " Chale jao, mardftd ; 
Nahirij tahada bura ho jao, barkafc Rabb wad&d." 
Jad oh daion baz na ae^ donon banh uthaerij 
Donon pasion sher cha nikale, bukan lage oh thaen ! 

35 Eh karamat Shekh dekhkar ohAhre ghar nfth dhae. 

Shekh Sahib ne Virowal men dere jakar lae. 
Bahut muridah othe jakar araz kia ik bari : 
" Kya majal ke koi mukhalif dekh tarap tamhari ? 
Awal to sab milk tusadi un se lekar deveh : 
40 Warna jitni milk asadi adhi adhi leveh." 

Parmaiaj ke " Milk di sanun hai parwah na koi." 

Plran di hun Shahr nAii jana eho dil vichh dhoi. 

G-haus nun farmaia Hazvat : " Khana kuchh pakao. 

Bhai ae Basti walon^ un ko khub rajao. 
45 Jo khana si shab da bachitij us vichh pani pao. 

Chulhe utte us nuii dharke, jhabde ag yalko," 

Kahinde hain, ke rat de vele chawal si pakwae : 

Kuchh dana si kande thale, baki rahne pae. 

Barkat hukm Shekh Sahib te deg hoi bharpur : 
50 Sau mardah ne khaiS, : us ko adhi bachi zarur ! 

Amritsar phir jakar Hazrat ethon dera kita : 
Othe bhi jad hoi shahrat Multan gae tad^ mita. 
Ik same jo chand murid ziarat karan chale, 
Sadme dhade bar gajbe de apne iipar jhale. 
-55 Sher Shah de hath sajje par zakhm a gia kart : 
Zakhm agarche kapde d^ sa bahuta kar dia ari. 
Multan Shahr vichh pahuncha us niah aisH zakhm yitail, 
Kire paike ais^ wadhia, jan labafi pe laia. 
vui. III. — 21 


Kuchh dinan bimS,r ralia, phir aisa zakhm oh barhid : 
60 Nabz tam^mi band ho gain, sab ne jana maria. 

All Sher baradar us de kita araz shitab : 
" Sher Sbah to mar gia : main kithe die dab ?" 

Yeh bhi nale araz kari an Hazrat Bawa Jan : 
" Marne joga mar gia, hun kariye ki darmiyan ?" 
65 Murakba andar jakar Hazrafc is dam eh farmaia ; 
" Jitne ae salim jao, Allah nun eh bhaia. 

Jana tuba nua wajib haiga Kaude Shah de dere. 

Oh nun jake akho: ' Apanhath ja upar phere.' " 

Akhir eh vi hukm mankar Kaude Shah wal daure ; 
70 Oh nuh eh paigham sunakar le ae apae dere. 

Kaude Shah eh bolia : "Logo, main oh da barda; 

Bawa Jan hi zinda karda, sanun rasw^ karda!'' 

Kaude Shah ne murda par jad akar hath pherS., 

Murda viohh tad jan par gai, ho gia bhala changera. 
75 Us de pichhe zinda Sher Shah chali barsan riha. 

Eh riwayat us ne kiti, horan ne bhi kiha. 

Guzri9,h hain panjah ik barsan Hazrat kiinch katoi. 
Nazar-niazah log chaihawan : is men shakk na koi. 

Sher Shah eh riwayat kiti : — " Mainun tihai charhdEi ; 

80 Aisa aukhd hoia is te, jiwanda sa na mard^. 
Jine se na umed hoia, tan dil vich eho dhara : 
' Jiwane di kuchh as nahih, hun bajokuch nakarsi.' 
Bh tafkar karde karde, ankh lag gae, yaro ; 
Apne tain paJa main ne Rauza de darbaro. 

85 Shekh Mahmftd bisharat ditti : ' Nan tft har ausan : 
Bahuti haij aji, umar tumhari ; Allah dafarman !' 
Eh bisharat sun jo pai, tiliaia hoia kafur ! 
Waliaii de main sadke jawan, jin kita masur !" 

Khalk marwat eh thi, yaro, jis kiinche vichh jana, 
90 Jeh da balak ronda hove leke chupkar jana. 
Ik rat jo ik kuche vichh un ka jana hoia, 
Ik Julaha bara nitana Hazrat pa a roia ; 


" Ell halafc hai meri, Hazrafc, tangi rizak hamesli ; 

Din nuii mila, to rktiix nahin ; hoia hai dilresh." 
95 Ik roti cha mange us te Bawa Jan Tanflpi. ' 

Do sill rotian, tin khwanda, pawe kikar puxi ? 

Kuchh deri de bad Julahe rati lakar dini 1 

Farmaia : " Kydn is karan tuii ifcni deri kini ? 

Gadhe niin ja pat le, tainuii milsi itna mal : 
100 Allah di inayat aisi, ho javen mala mal !" 

Kahte hain ke patde patde jad sawera hoia, 

Ik degcha rupaion da us nun cha labhoia ! 

Araz kia, ke "Yk Hazrat, main hoia bah kushh&l : 

Der SB kyun milia mainAh ? Eho ik saw^I." 
105 Bole : " Roti lawan' karan der na karda zava, 

Tainun vi eh mal cha milda bahuti jaldi mukarara." 

Hor karamat Pir Sahib di araz karanga pher : 
Eursat mainiln kam haigi, ho jS.vegi der ! 


The story of Miydh Shekh Maymtd* of Basti Shekh DarvesJi, wlio 
dwelt with holy men for 4)0 years in the deserts, and when he returned 
as- an ascetic publicly performed many miracles: — two tigers sprang 
from both his sides to protect himfromf murderers ; he restored Sher 
ShdhX to life and health; he gave miraculously wealth and posterity to 
Wall Muhammad, a haker ;% and he found a hidden treasure for a 

When Miyan Shekh Mahmiid succeeded to the spiritual 

He fulfilled the hopes of his followers, who gave thanks 

to G-od. 
Tooth lives rudely, as all the wise know : 
And Shekh (Mahmud) was privately fond of music. || 

* See Introduction. Shekh Mahmftd, being an ancestor of Shekh 
Darvesh, could not have lived in the town founded by the latter. 
f Lit. to teiTify the murderers, 
t A follower: see line 55. 

§ This miracle is not mentioned in the succeeding legends. 
II i.e., of a riotous kind. 


5 One night Shekh (Mahmild) had a warning : — 

' They call thee a Soharwardi* Saint and thou haat 

taken to (riotous) music !' — 
After this dream he wished to leave the masjid (he 

was in), 
But could not get out because of the walls all round. 
He considered the Saints to be angry with him, 
10 As some (of them) had (miraculously) put a wall round 
the masjid, my friends !t 

He made up his mind to leave his home. 
And started to sell horses in Hindustan. f 
After going some ten or twenty miles he came to a 

wild road, 
And so he gave his horses to his servants and dwelt in 

the Kajali Forest. § 
15 He dwelt there forty years in the service of holy men: 
He sent no news (of himself) to his family and was con- 
tented in his mind. 
His heirs took his property and wasted it and his 

gardens : 
No one expected his return and awaited (news of) his 

Behold the will of God : — he came back an ascetic I 
20 He calledhimself Shahnawaz Khah|| and spake at random. 
All his disciples thought in their hearts, (saying) : " This 

is our appointed Saint. 
He may place his shoes on our heads and we will not 

object at all."^ 
(But) the wicked (heirs) made a plan, (saying) : "Let 

us slay him. 

* Followers of KhwajTi Habib 'Ajami one of the Ch&r Pir, {oh. 738 
A.D.,) through Sliekli Ziau'ddin AbO Najib Soharwardi. 

t To the audience. 

X Afa;lians of all kinds still commonly sell horses in India, visiting it 
annually for the purpose . 

§ See Yol. I. p. 520 and Indian Antiquary, Yol. XIY. p. 209. 

(1 The title of Khan is commonly taken by the Ans&ri Shekhs. 

•(T Meaning, we will abase ourselves before him. 


He is taking the property from us and giving it to his 
friends and followers." 

25 One night his heirs unlawfully thrust him out of Basti 

(Shekh Darvesh),* 
.And some wicked men placed cruel murderers in his 

And said to them : " When the madman comes this 

Set upon him here that he may. not live." 
When Shekh (Mahmfid) had gone some two or three 

miles that night, 
30 The cruel men came out of their ambush lifting their 

At first Shekh (Mahmild) said : " Be oS, you murderers. 
Or by the blessing of the great God it will be the worse 

for you." 
But when they would not desist he lifted up both his 

And a tiger came out of either side and roared ! 
35 When the murderers saw this miracle of Shekh (Mah- 

miid) they ran home. 

Shekh (Mahmfld) then settled at Virowal.t 
Many followers at once collected there and said : 
" How can any one look on thee as an enemy ? 
We will first take thy property from them and give it 
40 Or we will share ours with thee half and half." 
Said he : " 1 have no wish for property." 

The Saint now wished to go to (Jalandhar) City. 
And the Saint said to GhausJ : " Cook some food : 

* The bard is here becoming confused in his geography. 
f In the Amritsar District. This would argue a settlement of the 
Ansari Shekhs in India prior to that at Jalandhar. But see line 77. 
X His cook. 


My brethren are coming from Basti (Shekh Darvesb) 

and must be well fed. 
45 Pat some water on to the remains of last nigbt's 

Put it on the hearth and quickly light the fire." 
It is said that some rice had been cooked overnig|;it. 
And that a few grains remained in the cauldron. 
By the blessed order of Shekh (Mahmdd) the cauldron 

was filled full, 
60 So that a hundred men ate of it and certainly half was 

saved ! 

The Saint went thence and came to Amritsar and stayed 

And when he became famous there he went on to 

Multan, my friends.* 
Once when some followers went to visit him, 
They fell into trouble in the great forest. 
55 (One of them) Sher Shah was wounded in the right 
And though the wound was a slight one it gave great 

By the time he reached Multan City the wound had so 

And maggots had begun to so grow in it, that his life 

began to ebb. 
For some days he was ill and then the wound became 
so bad, 
60 That his pulse disappeared and all considered him 
Then quickly prayed All Sher his brother, (saying) 
'" Sher Shah is dead : where shall I bui-y him ?" 

And he also prayed to the Holy Bawa Jan,t (saying) : 
" The dying ascetic is dead ; what shall I do now ?" 
65 From out of his contemplation said the Saint : 

* To the audience. 

t Apparently an alias of Shekh Mahmlld : see line 96. 


" All that came will return sound : it is the word of God. 
Ye should all go to Kaude Shah's* abode. 
Go to him and say : ' Pass thy hand over him.' " 
At last obeying the order they ran to Kaude Shah, 

70 Gave him the message and brought him to their abode. 
Said Kaude Shah, "My friends, I am his slave. 
It is Bawa Jan that restores to life and giveth mo the 

credit !" 
When Kaude Shah passed his hand over the, corpse. 
Then life came into it and he became quite well ! 

75 Sher Shah lived on 40 years -after this . 
He told this tale and others also tell it. 

It is about fifty years since the Saint made the marchf 

(of death). 
People give him offerings : there is no doubt in this. 

Sher Shah tell this story : — '■ I had tertiary fever, 
80 And was so ill with it that I was neither alive nor dead. 
I had no hope of life and then I thought. 
That there was no hope of life and that Ae drums for 

my march (of death) were being beaten. 
Thinking thus my eyes closed, my friends, f 
And I found myself at the gate of (Shekh Mahmud'a 
85 Shekh Mahmud said to me : ' Be not downcast ; 

Thou hast much longer to live, sir ; it is the order of 

After he had given me this warning the fever disap- 
peared like camphor ! 
I am a worshipper of the Saint that gave me comfort !" 

* One of Shekh MahmM's followers. 

f This would make out that the hero of the legend is not the 
celebrated ancestor of the Ansari Shekhs, but another worthy. Perhaps 
the bard is mixing up two personages. 

X To the audience. 


My friends,* the Saint loved the people so mucli, that 

if he went into a street 
90 And foand a child crying, he hushed it. 
One night he went into a street, 
Where a very miserable weaver wept (and said) to the 

Saint : 
" This is my condition, Saint, that I am ever pressed 

for food, 
If I get it for the day I get it not for the night,t and 

my heart is sad." 
95 Bawa Jan Tamlri J demanded a cake of him. 

He had two cakes (at home) and three to eat them, and 

how could (even) two cakes go round ? 
After a delay, (however,) the weaver brought the cake 

and gave it. 
Said (the Saint) : "Why didst thoa delay in this ? 
Dig a hole and thou shall find much treasure : 
100 God hath given it and thou shalt be wealthy I" 

It is said that he dug all night and when it was dawn, 

He found a pitcher full of rupees ! 

He said : " Saint, I am very happy. 

But why did it come to me after so long ? This is my 

105 Said he : " Hadst thou not delayed in bringing the 

It was appointed for thee to find the treasure very 


The vSaint worked other miracles which I will relate 

later : 
I have no leisure now and it will take a long time. 

* To the audience. 

t Ordinary natives eat at morning and evening only. 
J This makes the hero into a Tanilri, for which surname see below. 
No. VIII. 

1\HE SAINTS OF .UI^ANDflAE.. .169 


■Shekh Ahmad Ghaus. 

Haydn Kanhnat Hazrat Shekh Ahmad Ghan? WaK, jo Alcban 'aJiid 
mieh AfyhunisUin se Jdlandhar men dkar liusfa Akhun w.eii muta- 
icattan hoe. Sal rahlat jin ke sanJi 999 Hijn hai. Ma:ur amvdr uv, 
3cd Mahalla Karur Khdu, meii mutassil Buland Khelidh hai. 

Ahrand Gbaus Wali Jalaiidhar jag raeu si mashhilr. 
Kasf kanimat oh dl zahir : kv-a. nere ? kya dur ? 
Sab karamafc bayaa meii karsan, mera kya makdiu- ? 
Mushte az kliarwar par inainiau amal karna manzur- 

S Ik si murid Shekh dS. safar di\r u'&ri turrd : 

Rasfce men dari^ya te us nth langhua achanak pa'riS. 

S'hah-mauj meii beri pahunchi, lag] ghota khawan: 

Marid othe khauf jan te Ixiga Pir manawau. 

NazaT muayan karke othe yun kita latkara : 
1-6 " Eh kishti jo kande lagi, adha mal tumhara!" 

Mfil safamat bahir lakar chakiaii ja khariden ; 

Nafa sa milia aisa^ yaro, khushiai karan muriden. 

Pir Sahib kafai halat nua sahat-kbane se gae- 

Beri do langb&ne karan turfc mastadir hoe. 
15 Pa-kh&ae se bahir jo ailcale reta ua ke h&th-; 

Khidmatgar ne puchia us dam ; " Bh haiga ki hat T" 

Asal to dasi^ us iiim, par t^kid eli ki-: 
*'Eh hai ua zahir karna, is men hikmat si." 

Us aui'at ne jS.u-bnjhke zahir hi kar dia : 
20 Jis ke kdran mamma us da jaldi suk ik gia. 

Kuchh arse de bad murid jo safar te hokar ai^, 

Nazar muayan apni salam Hazrat pas laia. 

Farmaia: " Jo nafa hai us dil tu re hasil kita : 

Woh bhi lakar pesh karo ; hai hakk asada, Mita.'" 
25 Pina nata le akar as ne Hazrat age dharia : 

BDt-a oh de nek niyat da sada raha sa haria. 

WOL. lU. — 22 



The Story of a Miracle* by the Holy Shelch Ahmad Ohaus Wali, 
who came to Jdlandhar from Afghunutun in the time of Altbar and 
settled in the Ahhwisf Boad. He died in 999 A.H. (1590J A.D.) 
His glorious shrine is in Kardr Khdii's Ward^ near the (Quarter of) 
the Buland Khels.\\ 

Ahmad Ghaus Wall of Jalandhar is known throughout 
the world. 

His miraculous power is known far and wide. 

How can I tell of all his miracles ? 

But I am willing to relate a little of the great (whole). 

5 A disciple of Shekh (Ahmad Ghaus) went on a long 
And unexpectedly had to cross a river on his road. 
His boat was caught in a whirlpool and began to sink^ 
And the disciple in fear of his life called on his Saint. 
He thus cried vowing him a present : 

10 " If this boat gets across half the goods shall be thine !" 

He took his goods across safely and bought up mill-stones, 
And made so much profit, my friends,^ that the dis- 
ciple was very pleased. 
The Saint had gone to the privy for a call of nature, 
And had promptly gone thence to save the boat. 
15 When he came oul of the privy his hands were full of 
And his servant then said : " What meaneth this V 
(The Saint) told him the facts, but warned him, saying: 
" Tell this to no (man) ; there is a secret in this." 
The (servant's) wife knowing told (the story), ;< 
20 And for this one of her breasts quickly dried up. 

* Compare the tale told of Shall Qumes of Sadhaura, ante, p, 96. 
f Or Ikhwand. 

X This is an impossible date : see Introduction. 

§ This ward was founded by Barik Pafchans from the Banmlii District, 
following in the train of Shekh Ahmad Ghaus. 

11 A section of the Barik Pafchans. ^ To the audience. 


After a while the disciple returned from his journey. 
And brought the present vowed for his safety to the 

Who said : " The profit thou madest on this. 
Bring that too ; it is my right, Friend." 
25 He gave the Saint the full profit, 

And the tree of his righteousness ever flourished^ 


Shekh Pir WalL 

Zilmr kal murid hone Hazrat 8hel;h P'lr Wall Miydn Shehh 
Gliaus Wale Jalandhari kd aur un ki haramat choron k'l jama'- 
yai kd hhdg jand. 

Ik roz eh dil mere vichh aisa aia ahir, 

Pir Wall dk hh[ poshida kar dean kuchh kuchh zahir. 

Pahile-pahil sawaran vichh eh naukar jakar hoe : 
Woh sawar Bnrhanpur ya Ahmadabad khiloe. 
5 Sher Khan Barik sa jo Subedar oh thaih : 
Oh di jamiyat Afghsinaii di uami si har thairi. 
Khwaja Khizar di sohbat rneii ja kadi kadi si bahinde f 
Darveshah de milne karan-bah mutalashi rahinde. 

Ik darvesh de milne karau Pir Wali jo gae, 
10 Nanirnubarik puohhan khi.tir in ke piehhe pae. 
Bole : " Mera nam walid ne Pir Wali hai rakha, 
Jis de sir par Shekh lagaia lokaa karke dhaka." 
Tabinan farmaia : " Sain Shekh Pir Wali,^ 
-'•Ism musamma hona chahiye : eh hai ramz jali." 
15 Eh makula Sain da sa aisa achha bhaia, 

Naukari di parwah na karke Shahr Jalandhar aia, 
Bishte men jo Ahmad Ghausji khal hakiki si : 
Foran in se akar, y^ro, baiat hi kar li. 
Ahmad Ghaus jo pahile un ko baiat karan kahinde, 
20 Talkiu zikar jo Khizar se karke muiih idhar na dende^ 


Yeh karamat Ghaus -Ahmad ne apna zor dikhaia;-^- 
Pir Waliji shank dili se bariat hone aia I 
Sidak dili se khidmat kiti, rutba all paia; 
'' Khalifa/ Irshad' laka-b- mil- giay Fir Wali kab-laiai 

2^ Ik d'afa mnrid Sbekh de tajfirat karne cbale :■ 
ChcT^d thaiS mar aaiz^ asb^b lilt le cbale.' 
In lokaii imdad Pir di ajiz hokar chahe : 
Ik satt na guzri thi ke dekha ik sipabir 
Ik sawar siyah ghore da hath vichb neza taia i 

30 Bare zor se ghora apna choraa taraf bhijhaia, 
Choijih eh di shan dekhkar jald hazimat ai : 
Mi1.1 tamami chbac}, tai) rah- salamat pai. 
Muridau salami hal apne par shukar Khuda da kia^ 
Pir Wali ne chorai da phir akab mul na lia. 


&m the Eohj Shekh I'/r WaVt'* became o folloicer of Mi ijd^ 
Shekh Ghaus Wali of JaTandTiM-, and Tlow he miraculously put 
ft hand of rohhers to flight. 

One day a desi-re came into my head 

To tell the secret tale of Pir Wall 

First of all he took service in the CTavalry, 
And was in service as a soldier at Burhanpur or 
S Sher Khan Barikf was Governor of the place, 

And his troops were distinguished among the Afghans.- 
(Pir Wali) ever was fond of (.serving) Khwaja Khizar,J 
And eager to find oiit and be with Uarveshes. 

When Pir Wali went to visit a (certain ) EarvesJi, 

* Legenda.rily the -Cousin and contemporary of Shekh Ahmad Ghaus 
«arly in the 17th century A.D. 

t Perhaps this is meant for the Rashid KhAh mentioned in the Intro- 
duction : but that worthy hved generations aftov Ahmad Ghaus, who 
is described as Pir Wall's cousin and contempoi'ury. 
X See ToL I. p. 221. 


10 (The Saint) pressed him to tell his auspicious name. 
Said he : " My father called me Pir Wali, 
On top of which the foolish people l\ave stuck Shekh." 
(The Saint) said admonisliing him : " My Lord Shekh 

Pir Wali, 
One should live up to one's name: it is a goo(3 

15 The Saint's admonition so struck him, 

That giving up his service he went to Jalandhar City. 
He had as owli cousin among his relatives, Ahmad 

And he went at once, friends,* and served him. 
Ahmad Ghaus had previously essayed to win him to 

20 But believing in (KhwSjS.) Khizar, he would not listen to 

This mighty miracle did Ahmad Ghaus work; — 
That Pir Wali served of his own ^vill ! 
He served him fervently and obtained a high title 

(from him) : 
For Pir Wali was called by the title of Khalifa 


25 Once some followers of Shekh (Pir Wali) journeyed 
to trade, 

And robbers fell upon them and seized their goods. 

These people in their helplessness asked the aid of the 

And in a moment thy saw a soldier. 

He was a horsemali on a black horse poising a spear. 
80 Great valour did he display towards the thieves ; 

Seeing his valour all the robbers quickly sought 
safety : 

They abandoned all the (stolen) goods and thus obtain- 
ed safety. 

* to the audience. 
f The Expounder of tlie orders of God. 


The followers (of the Saint) gave thanks to God foP 

theii' deliverance. 
(But) Pir Wall did not follow up the thieves. 


Shekh Daevesh. 


Darbdb paiddish Hazrat Shehh Varvesh. 

S4 Balakh men rahinda ik majzAb ; 

Juz yad Khudd na rakhda mahbub. 

Khwah kitnn bara amir awanda, 

Parwah na zara dil men le anda,. 
6 Jad Shekh de dadaji se milda, 

Tazim we karda khub khilda. 

Puchhia, ko " Sabab batao, ai Pir, 

Tazim karo ho kyiin ba-tankir ?■" 

Bola, ke "Teh haign mard yazdau ; 
10 Hai is par fazal khas Rahman. 

Hai pith meii is de ik moti, 

Be-sakbta takrim miajh te hoti. 

Farmande hain is tarah Wall Pir :— 

' Wakif is rar ramz takrir,' " 
16 Janake oh durr hai Shekh Ayub, 

Jo.bhai sa Shekh da bahut khub. 

Jab ghaur se dekhia phir hoia zan : 

" Rajil umzada hoga pur fan : 

Akmal* bhi na us ko jadke paia." 
20 Darvesh par kaul rast aia. 


Concerning the Birth of the Holy Shekh Darvesh. 
A majzilbf dwelt in Balkh^J 

Who held nothing dearer than the contemplation of 

* For Jcdmil. t -^ contemplative ascetic. 

J There is nothing in history, however, to lead us to suppose that 
Shekh Darvesh's father was ever in Balkh. 


However many great nobles came to Lim, 

He held them of no account in his mind. 
6 When he met the grandfather* of Shekh (Darvesh) 

He paid him very marked respect. 

He was asked : " Explain, Saint, 

Why showest thou him such boundless reverence ?" 

Said he : '' This is a holy man ; 
10 God Himself hath mercy upon him. 

In his back is a pearl. 

So I respect without hesitation. 

Thus hath spoken Pir Wall :t — 
'Understand this hidden speech.' " 
15 Know that the pearl was (meant for) Shekh Ay lib, 

The dearly loved brother of Shekh (Darvesh). 

When (the majziib) had meditated he propheoied : 

" His cousin Eaju shall be filled with glory : 

Even the wise shall not be able to argue with him.'" 
20 It was (Shekh) Darvesh that fulfilled this prophecy. 


Shekh Darvesh. 

Baydn hardmdt Hazrat Shehh Darvesh Sdhib, Bdni viiihdni Basti 
Slitkh Darvesli, 'ildqa JdJandhar, l^lauras 'did Ansdridh saJcndi Basti 
viazJcdr, asal bdshinda qasba Kdiigrdin, wdqi'a Zilla' , Bannuh. 

(1) Awal Kardmat Shekh Darvesh, Ice ill shahhs led ha-ld'is 
be-adabi inuhh tahrd hud, phir unheh In barJcat se tandurust hud. 
Ik shakhs sa Kangram men rahin'da, 
Be-adabi se Shekh nal kahinda. 
Gustakhi se sahat-sust bole ; 
Kalamat zabiln muhh se tole. 

* Rahim Diid by name. 
t Apparently meant for the name of the majzub mentioned in the 
first line. This Pir Wall may be the hero of No. III., or it may be 
meant for Babft Walt, the celebrated Saint of Qandahar, in Timor's time 
in the latter part of the 14th century, better known as Hasan AbdaL 


5 Munli us da hiia katnal bing§, ; 
Bad-shakal hua ; iia hove changa. 
Gall is se hundi si ba-diisliwar; 
Akliiaii te rowan rahe sa'lbashar. 
Is marz men oiubtila jad hoia, 
10 Kar uzar hoia, muafi joia. 

Jad Shekh ne juram kar did muaf, 
Shafi ne vi sahat ba-khash de saf. 

{2) Boyam Kariimat Hazrat Shehh Barvssh, Jc3 un he tasarruf se 
Faujildr Kdbil Beg hilci ta'nrraz khddim Shehh ho ruhhsat kar did, 

Sandrana jo mauza haiga mashhur, 

Basti de karib, na ke hai dflr. 
15 Malik hoe bechne par fcayyar ; 

Zar de dia Shekh, ho kharidar. 

Ik shakhs amin sa Jalandhar ; 

Sheo Earn sa nam us mahindar. 

Ghak-bandi kar us gmri di, 
20 Ahmad Rajpilb nuii rawai di : 
" Ta malik apne tain jane ; 

Malia apne zimma mane." 

Jad Shekh nun eh malum hoia, 

Khadim nun us jagah bhijoia : 
25 " Ta pakka makan ja banave. 

Tad kazie di siirat nikal ave." 

Ahmad ne aisa hal paia, 

Fariyad nfin Faujdar pas aia. 

Jad talabi hoi naukarau Darvesh, 
30 Oh hoe bechari la daresh : 
" Ethe na wasila haiga. koi ; 

Bin is de na hoga koi dhoi." 

Khadim nuii jo shab men khwab dia, 

Darvesh nflu apne pas paia : 
35 Farmaia ; " Na ho tA dil men dilgir 

Imdad nun a gia hai eh Pir." 

Jad khwab te aukh us ne kholej 

Kanoii men eh us de ae bole : 


Eahinda hai eh Paujdar us ko : 
40 " JS,Qde raho, is jagah te kliisko ! 
Azurdagi Shekh hai na manzilr : 
Chahinda haii ke rahve mujh te masrAr \" 

(3) Soy am Kardmat Bazrat Sheleh Darvesh he yaman uuzds 
qadlasi ashds safed hdl kijagdh siydh'hdl niJcale, 
Us shakhs par fazal hove bari, 
Aulad ho nek jeh di sari. 
45 SI Shekh de panj put piare, 
Abad nek-bakht sare. 
Un men se wadda Miyan Wall Dad : 
Sk chhot-pane se oh Khuda-jad. 
Jad bap de samhne sa anda, 
SO Sajje p&se us se bahanda. 
Aur Shekh de walan di siahi 
Kaim si^ kami zara na ai : 
Bete da sh zahad se eh hai, 
Chitti hoi bahut sari si wal. 
65 Jo Shekh nun milne ghair andS., 
Pahile us se masafa chahanda : 
Aur janda, ' haiga eh hi Darvesh/ 
Piri di isar dekhkar pesh. 
Eh dil men mill hondi dirham, 
60 Par chara na banda oh da is dam. 
Darvesh ne eh shakal jo pai, 
Kuran di ky&t ik batS,i : 
Farmaia, ke " Jad ke ave hajjam, 
Islah da karna chahe anjam : 
65 Eh ^yat parhde nal jana, 

Jo chitti hai wal sab chugan^. 
Barkat se kalam pak bari 
Nikalegi siah wal sari." 
Bete ne jo hukam bap mauS, 
70 Piri ne uthaia apna thana. 

Zahir hoia bar ik par eh ah wal, — 
' Eh Pir hai aur hai jaw§.u sal.' 

VOL. HI. — 23 


(4) ChuMram Kardmat Haxrat Shekh Darvesh he musalle he 
mche apne farzand arjamand Miydn WaU Dad ik hhizdne he- iahd 
dikhd did. 

All ik SI bahut Pathan namij 

Ik ik se bara grami ; 
75 Basti men oh ake hoe abad, 

Duniya di niamatan te dilshM. 

Kitne se makau un ke mamur, 

All ik da mahalla hoia mashhilr. 

Eakhte si saudagiri oh kar, 
80 Kahlate the is lie oh tajjar. 

Un vichon sa ik Pathan natni : 

Woh Hazrat Shekh da salami. 

Jad Shekh de sS,mhne oh andd, 

Dast basta zabau par landa : 
85 " Banda ko ghulam khas janiii : 

Meri har chiz apne manin. 

Jis chiz di hove kuchh zarilrat, 

Banda do makan se mangavin, Hazrat." 

Garche Shekh vi ghani si, 
90 Imlak muafi se dhani si, 

Sarkari mutaliba jo hoia, 

Khadim All ik vi wal bhijoia: 

Aur apne izhar kar zarurat. 

Mange mubligh ba-kaid mohlat. 
95 Khadim jad buhe un de aia, 

Dastak kiti, paigham vi puchhaia, 

Laundi ne eh ake kiha : " Miyan 

Khaudahi de na haiga inhaa." 

Khadim ne jawab ake eh saf, 
100 Khidmat men bayan kia bila ISf. 

Hazir si inhan Miyaii Wali Dad ; 

Bole, ke ' Miyan, mukam hai dad ! 

Aiaaii te hai mangne de kya gharaz ? 

Irshad kareii jo mainAii bilfaraz. 


105 Zar dl diwar wa dar banawSn ; 

Zar& vi is vichh der na lawan. 

Hazrat tan eh sunke ho gae lal, 

Bole, ke " Idhar tft a, mere lal." 

Ik gosha tnusalle da uthaia : 
1 10 Ganjina be-baha dikhaia ! 

Takid bahut kari mukarara : — 
" Hove na eh rS,z fash zara !" 

TJie Story of the miracles of the Holy Shelch Darvesh, the Founder 
of Basti Shelch Barvesh in Jdlandhar and Progenitor of the Ansdrh* 
inhthiting it. He was originally an inhabitant of Kdni Kurdm in 
the lianniln District. 

(1) The First Miracle of Shekh Barvesh. Twisting the face of a 
inan who had treated him with disrespect, and then out of kindness 
tnahing it straight again. 

There was a man dwelling in Kani Kuram, 

That spake disrespectfully to Shekh (Darvesh) . 

He spake evil and arrogant (words), 

And bad words escaped his lips. 
5 His face became quite crooked ; 

He was horrible to look at and could not get well. 

His speech sounded badly, 

And his eyes continually wept. 

When he suffered thus 
10 He made apology and begged for pardon. 

When Shekh Darvesh forgave him his fault, 

The Curer (God) made him entirely well. 

(2) The Second Miracle of the Holy Shekh Barvesh. Getting the 
Governoi'f Kdbil Beg into his power, so that he released his followers 
without opposition. 

There is a well-known village (called) Sandrana 
In the neighbourhood of Basti (Shekh Darvesh) and not 
far from it, 

* So far, that is, as Jalandhar is concerned, 
t Apparently of Sarhind. 


1 5 The owner wished to sell it, 

And Shekh (Darvesh) bought it with gold. 

There was a land-reyenue-assessor at Jalandhar; 

Sheo Ram was the name of this great official. 

He measured out the village, 
20 And recorded it in the name of Ahmad the Eajpftt. 

(And. said) : "Consider yourself the owner, 

And be responsible for the revenue.-" 

When Shekh (Darvesh) heard of this 

He sent a disciple to the place, 
26 (And said) : "Build a (burnt-) brick house there 

And then a quarrel will arise," 

When Ahmad heard of this 

He complained to the Governor. 

When the servants of (Shekh) Darvesh were summoned 
(by the Governor). 
30 They felt themselves in helpless case. 

(And said) : " Wo have no helper here. 

And without one there is no safety." 

lu the evening a dream came to a disciple, 

And he found (Shekh) Darvesh (standing) beside him, 
85 Saying : " Be not downcast in thy hearty 

Thy Saint hath come to help thee." 

When he opened his eyes. 

He heard a voice in his ears speaking, 

And the Governor saying to him : 
40 " Go and be oS from this place !* 

I have no wish to thwart Shekh (Darvesh) : 

I wish him to be ever favourable to me I" 

(3) The Third Miracle of the Holy Shehh Darvesh, Turning 
grey hair to hlaclc hy the effect of the breath of his holy naturef 
That man is ever blessed 
All of whose children are good. 

* The Court. f i. e., by his prayer. 


45 Shekh (Darvesh) had five beloved sons. 

All upright men. 

The eldest was Miyai Wali Dad, 

Who was G-od-fearing from his childhood. 

When he came to visit his father 
50 He would seat him on his right hand.* 

Shekh (Darvesh's) hair was black 

Still, and changed not at all : 

His son from his austerities 

Had very white hair. 
55 When strangers came to visit Shekh (Darvesh), 

They would first greet (the son). 

Thinking that he must be (Shekh) Darvesh, 

Because they saw the signs of age. 

(Shekh Darvesh) did not at all like this in his heart, 
60 But could then remedy it. 

When (Shekh) Darvesh saw this 

He found a passage in the Quran, 

And said (to his son) ; " When the barber comes. 

Have thy shaving done in this way. 
65 While repeating this passage 

Have all thy white hair plucked out. 

By the blessing of the holy words 

It will grow again black." 

His son obeyed his father's words 
70 And the old age left its (accustomed) place. 

Every one now understood the facts. 

That he was a Saint and a young man. 

(4) The Fourth Miracle of the Poly Shekh Darvesh. Shoiving 
his great son Miycih Wali Dad a boundless treasure under his 
praying carpet. 

There are well-known Pathan (families) called 'Ali,t 
One as great as the other. 
75 They have settled in Basti (Shekh Darvesh) 

* Show him great respect. f Or 'Aliak Bariks. 


And are happy in the (good) gifts of the world. 
They have built many houses, 
And the 'Ali ward is well-known. 
They took to trading 
80 And are called merchants. 

Among them was a well-known Pathan 

Who was an acquaintance of the Holy Shekh (Darvesh). 

He came to Shekh (Darvesh) 

And said with joined hands : 
85 " Know me for thy own followerj 

And consider every thing I have as thine. 

Whatever is necessary to thee, 

Saint, demand it from my house." 

Though Shekh Darvesh was wealthy 
90 And rich from his rent-free grants (of land). 

When a Government necessity arose* 
' He sent a disciple to the 'Ali, 

And explained his need. 

Asking for money as a loan. 
95 When the disciple reached the ('All's) door. 

And knocked and gave the message, 

A maid came and said : " The master 

Of the house is not within." 

The disciple returned with this refusal, 
100 And explained it without restraint to his master. 

Miyaa'Wali Dad was present there 

And said : " Miyan (Shekh Darvesh), this is a pity ! 

What is the use of asking from such men as these ? 

Ask me now, 
105 And I will make a door and wall of gold. 

And make no delay at all about it." 

When the saint heard this he grew red (with anger), ■ 

And said : " Come hither, my son.'^ 

He lifted up a corner of his praying carpet •- 

* To impose a tax on tlie people. 


110 And showed him a boundless treasure ! 
And he greatly exhorted him, 
'^ Let not this matter get abroad !" 


Shekh Darvesh. 

BdM hardmdt wa hdldt Miydh Shelch Darvesh Sdhih, mauras 'did 
Shekh Ansdrldn Basti Shekh Darvesh 'ildqa Jdlandhar he, murid 
Shelch Jaldl bin Musd Tee imddd ho foraii Bukhdrd men pahunchhar 
ha-hhubi hhddimdn-i-Masjid Muhhdk ho ru ia-rdh farmdyd. 
Ik mard Jalal Shekh nami ; 
Hoi^ oh Bukhara men mukami. 

Roziari da mahiDa j^d ke aia, 

Oh shakhs eh dil vichh apne laia : — • 
5 Das roza akhira mah-i-Ramzan 

Masjid Mukhak men guzavan. 

Parh karke namaz wahan hi tahra ; 

Akhan lage khadiman ohaii a : 
" Rahine nahin denge ithe tuha nun ! 
10 Chalda ho dikhakQ pith sS,nun !" 

Surat koi rahne di na pai : 

Main ne ditte pir di dohai. 

Mahrab se nikale Shekh filfaur ! 

Khadim hoe dekh us nun kafur ! 
15 Phir das din khadiman-i-Masjid 

Karde rahe iltafat behad. 

Ziafat karde halwe di khilai : 

Kahne lage ; " Ai Buzurg-jai, 

Multa'ui pir hai tumhara : 
20 Zorawar bahut hai Khudara." 

Is hai niin pisar-i-Muse kai bar 
Tamsil ke taur karda izhar ; 
" Yane mere pir di ba-daulat, 
Othe hoi bahut sari izzat." 



Another miraole and story of Miydh Shehh Barvesh, the founder 
of the Ansuri Shelchs of Basti Shekh Barvesh of Jdlandhar, who, 
to help his disoiple Shehh JalcU Un Musd* at Bukhara, went 
there in a moment and converted the attendants of the Mukhdk 

Sliekh Jalal was a celebrated man. 

Who settled at Bukhar^. 

During the montli of fasting 
He took it into his head 
5 To spend the last ten days of Ramzant 
In the Mukhak Masjid. 

After saying his (usual) prayers he stayed on, 
But the attendants of the place came and said : J 
" We will not let thee remain here ! 

10 Be off and show us thy back !" 

He could not see any way of remaining on, 
And called on his preceptor. § 

Shekh (Darvesh) immediately came out of the mahrab /|[ 
And the attendants when they saw him (melted like) 
camphor ! 
15 After this for the ten days the attendants of the Masjid 
Served them with unbounded courtesy. 
They feasted them well with sweets, 

* This must be meant for Sayyid Jalal Bukhari who flourished 

1188-1283 and died at Uohh as a disciple of the great Shekh Bahau'ddin 
Zakaria of Multan (1170-1266). He was the grandfather of the 
celebrated Saiat Shekh Jalal JVEakhdAm Jahaniah Jahangasht (1308- 
1381')) the founder of the Malaug and Jalalia Paqirs, and of Sayyid 
Sadru'ddin Raja Qattal who died in 1403. Jalal BukhSri is often 
confused with the greater Shekh Jalal the Makhdflm and is no doubt 
introduced here as the disciple of Shekh Darvesh in order to glorify 
the latter. 

t The Musahnan month of fasting. 

^ X Because his being there interfered with their profits from the 
visitors at the shrine. 

§ Observe the use of the first person here. 

11 The niche in every mosque which marks the direction of Makka. 


And said (to Shekh Jalal) : " son of the Saints, 
Tliy preceptor* is of Multan, 
20 And is a powerful man of God," 

The son of Musaf hath often 
Told this tale as a tradition ; (saying) : 
" Through the kindness of my preceptor 
He had great honor there." 


Shekh WALioAD. 


Hal hardmdt iliijd.'i Waliddd Sahib, farzand kclldh Miydn Shekh 
Darvesh Sahib, lit Sahib kd laqab Nlkrd Miijdii hai. In ki 
tabhtyat par jaldliat bahict thL Az hardmdt Mlijdii Waliddd Sdhlh 
billi kd sindd hond aur hhddim nua sher bankar dikhdi deiid aur 
qahar kd rauxa Ice bdkir se andar ho jdiuu 

Kakhte the hamesha Shekh Darvesh 

Sunnat ke mutabiat ko dar pesh, 

Har Juma nuii fatiha ko jande ; . 

Hargiz na si is men nagha pande, 

•5 Ik roz jo chale hasab muatadjj 
Sath un ke chale Miyan Walidad. 
Kabar4a te jo ghar nfm hoe rahi, 
Easte vichh ik billi moi pai. 
Pas bolia jad ke Nikra Miyan, 
10 Is murde men jan par gai wahad ! 
Jad Shekh ne aisa dekhia ahwal, 
Jhirka unhen hoke bahut sa Ml ; 
Farmaia : " Na aisa hona pave, 
Jis se ke shara men rakhna ave." 

15 Ab haiga mukam fikar aur ghaur, 

* i.e., Shekh Baliau'ddin Zakaria. 
t i.e., Shekh Jalal, the hero himself, 
t For 'ddat. 

VOL. Ill — 24 


Nikra Miy^u kyuii gae si Lahor. 
Walid ne jo. kita un ko majbur : — 
" Shatabafc mushaekhaii se rah dflr/' — 
Be azan woh ho gia rawana, 
20 Labor men ja, jamaia thana. 

Pichhe gae us de Shekh Darvesh, 
Lahor da kasad karke dar pesh. 
Obhe jad pahunche patta Jaia: — 
Kis kunche men rahinda mera jaia ? — 
25 Khadim niin kiha : " Jhabde jave, 
Farzand nun sade pas lave." 
Pahili dafa jad gia oh kbadim 
Dekbia, ke ba-shakal sber adam ! 
Diiji bari jo kbadim aia, 
30 Sa sber ghazanda us nun paia ! 
Tiji dafa jad woh bazir hoia, 
Tha pharne da mutawwar goia ! 
Khadim ne eh jake sar^ abwal 
Ik ik bayan kia ba-imsal. 
35 Sun Shekh ne Mir nun kaha bal ; 
" Is hafte meii jau mar mera lal ! 
Lash us de nud Basti vicbb pucbaua : 
Is vichh na zara vi der lana." 
Us hafte men mar gia Walidad : 
40 Miyad Mir nun kaul Sbekh sa yad. 
Sa.ridiik men dalkar janaza, 
Basti nuii rawan kia janaza. 
Kabte baiii jad ithe lash ai, 
Bahir rauza de hi dabai. 
45 Lokaii ne kaha, ke " Hazrat Miyaii, 
Rauza nahiii jagdb Nikra Miyan." 
Farmaia : " -lo sher hoga sacba, 
Khud rauza de andar ao, bacha !" 
Go kabar si bahir hi banai, 
50 Par rat nftii rauza andar ai ! 

Zahir boia mardaman par filhal : — 

Yeh Nikra Miyaa vi haiga sahib-i-kamal ! 



The Story of the miracles of Miy an Walkldd, the eldest sonofMiydh 
Shekh Darvesh, who is called the Young Miydii (Nihrd Miydn). The 
glory of his might ivas very great. Miydn Waliddd miraculously 
restored to life a dead cat, and showed himself to a follower in the form 
of a tiger, and removed his tomh from outside to inside the {family 
shrine) . 

Shekh Darvesh ever acted 
According to the precepts (of Muhammad). 
Every Friday he went to repeat the fdtihd* 
And never failed in this. 

5 One day when he went as usual (for this). 
He took with him (his son) Miyan Walidad. 
As they were returning home from the graveyard, 
They came across a dead cat on the road. 
When the Young Miyan spoke to it, 
10 Life came into the dead body ! 
When Shekh (Darvesh) saw this. 
His face became very red with anger. 
And he said : " Do nothing 
That shall be injurious to the faith." 

15 Now is the place to consider and think 

Why the young Miyan went to Lahor. 

When his father pressed him, (saying) : — 
" Keep away from fanaticism and miracles," — 

Without asking him he started off, 
20 And fixed his abode in Lahor. 

Shekh Darvesh followed him. 

Intending to go to Lahor. 

Reaching there he found out 

In which street his son dwelt. 

* The opening chapter of the Quran repeated over the graves of the 


25 And said to liis follower :* " Go quickly 
And bring my sou to me." 

When his follower went the first time 

He found a man looking like a tiger I 

The next time the follower went 
30 He found him like a roaring tiger I 

The third time he saw him 

He was ready to tear him ! 

The follower went and all the story 

Bit by bit he related. 
35 When Shekh (Darvesh) heard it he prophecied to 
(Miyan) Mir,t (saying) : 

" My son will die this week 1 

Bring his body to Basti (Shekh Darvesh), 

And make no delay about it." 

Walidad died that week, 
40 And Miyai MirJ remembered the request of Shekh 

He put the body into a coffin, 

And started it (on a camel) to Basti (Shekh Darvesh). 

They say that when the body reached, 

It was bui'ied outside the shrine. 
45 The people said, "0 Holy Mi^aii (Shekh Darvesh) t 

There is no place for the Young Miyai'i in the 

Said he ; " If thou be a true tiger. 

Come into the shrine thyself, my son \" 

Although the grave was made outside,. 
50 It came into the shrine that night ! 

Then the people at once knew. 

That the Toung Miyan is a worker of miracles ! 

• Miy&ix Mir : see below, line 40. 
t See line 40. 

X Probably meant for tlie great saint of Labor, Shekb Muhammad 
Sbah Mir, Miyan Mir, who flourished in 1550-1635 A.D. 



Satyid ^Abdu^'llah Tantjri. 


Hal hardmat Sayyid 'Abdullah 'urf Tanun Jdlandhart, "ke lohe 

he garm tanur men Naivab Tiiglah LdJior ne dalwde ; Khudd he 

fazal lua harm se saMh sdlim nihale ; ik hdl ko dnch na lagi. Sayyid 

'Abdu'llah he wdlid hd nam Sayyid Ihrdlmn Tanuri liai, jin hi 

mazdr Sarhand men Jiai. 

Pak Sahifan vicbh hai likhia, — is men sliak na kujhj 
Bhale bure ifal lukai adil zalim bujh, 
Je bande nek amal kamawacij tad to Allab Said 
Hakim munsif adil bbaje ; adal kare bar tbtliu. 
5 Je khalku'llah bure kamon par himmat apni lae^ 
Allah Pak di khalkat sari zalim hath vichh pLae. 

Subedar Lahor da bania ik banda kamzat, 
Sayyid nun oh katal karakar khush hove din rat. 
Kisi te eh sun lia us ne ; ' Jo Sayyid ho asali, 

] Oh nun mutlak ag na lags, sahih riwayat nikali.' 
Aur musahib na-laik ne eh matlab samjhaia : 
" Hor kauman ne Sayyid banke mulk lut hai khaia. 
' Shahji, Shahji' bare kahawan, murid bahut banawan. 
Har-bar se fatuhaii leke, aishau khub udawan." 

15 Lahor Shahar hukm dia si: 'Jo koi Sayyid ave, 
Ohobdar Nawabi us nun pakar Kachahri lave.' 
Jo koi Sayyid afat-mara Kachahri vichh a janda^ 
Lohe da tandur tapakar oh de vichh sarwanda. 
Is tarah us zalim muzi bahut Sayyid jalwaia. 

20 Us zalim de dil men, yaro, zara rahim na aia. 

Akhir Sayyid Abdu'llah Shah Lahor Shahr vichh aia : 
Kisi moman de dar par us ne dam hukka da laia. 
Hindu da makan sa band-buha rakba nicha ; 
Shah Sahib farmane lage : " Uncha kar, nicha !" 
25 Ghussa hoke Hindu bolia : " Hathi sath na kai, 
Jis ke karan mainiia, Sain, eh jhirk farmai \" 
Duja bolia-; " Hazrat Maula, ki hai zat tumhari ? 


Shekb-zade, ya Mughal baoha ho, ya Sayyid bikhiari 1" 
Bolia Baba : " Sandn Sayyid sar: kahe lukai : 

30 Shabir di nasal kahaveii : is vichh shak na kai." 
Is bat nun sunkar lokan bahut tasuf kita : 
Piada shahi Sayyid Sahib nun pharia ; uf nan kita. 
Jad Kachahri hazii" hoia puchhia us malzada : 
"Ki hai zat tuhadi? Sanun daso, Sahibzada I" 

35 Bolia Baba: '^ Zat safat da Malik haiga Allah ! 

Sayyid Hussaini saniin akhan : is men shak na Wallah ! 
Us mAzi ne hukm dia : " Eh jald tandur tapao : 
Is Sayyid nun bhaian-wali lazat khub chukao \" 
Bolia Sayyid: "Uzar nahin hai ; jo marzi hai Manila, 

40 Sir par mannaii ; dam na maran : sab te hai eh aula." 
Tadur lohe da jis dam hoia umda loha lakha, 
Sayyid " B'ismi'llah" parhkar kadam ja us par rakha. 
Sayyid ^hib tandur garm vichh jis dam jakar waria, 
Naukar shahi jaldi jakar chapar us par dharia. 

45 Din tije us papi hakim bhijia ik sipahi. 
Shah Sahib di rakh le ave, der na lae kai. 
Naukar shahi wahan pahunchkar chapar cha uthaia. 
Shah Sahib nAn andar us ne Kalima parhda paia ! 
Araz kia, ke " Hazrat, hun ithon bahir ao !" 

50 Bole : " Kuchh parwah na, sanftn Hakim nftn bulwao." 
Hakim sunkar pa piada turt wahan par aia : 
Muafi da phir khwahaii hoia. Shah ne eh farmaia : 
" Ter6 kuchh taksir na,' Sahib, meri eh takdir. 
Jo ave so sir par dhare : kya kije tadbir ? 

55 Phir jo tusi muafi mango, main Allah de nam 

Bakhshi dil se, is shart par ; — chhodo eh bM kam." 
Nawab Sahib ne Shah Sahib nuii khilat aur inam 
Nazar men dekar araz kia : " Ik hathi lijo tham.'' 
Shah Sahib ne filkhane se mast hathi chun lia : 

60 Har zanjir jo paia uthe jhatki se bhun did. 

SAkhi ghas dikhakar bole : " Sun, hathi, ik bat ; 
Yehan bahut mulide khanda,. sadi siikhi pat \" 
Hathi ne oh saund men lekar mathe utte dharia : 
Age age Shah chale, ta pichhe hathi turia. 


66 Shah Sahib jad chalde chalde us jagah par ae, 
Jithe hukka pita sa aur Hindu tana lae. 
Lokaii uthe araz kari : " Eh buhe haiga newaii : 
Duje buhe chalkar wariye : is vichh hikmat enwan." 
Bole : " Yaro, chup raho turn ; jad main hukm karewan 

70 Hathi apne rasta ape khula karega envaii. 
Hathi de ik takar te oh deodhi gir hi gai j 
Shah Sahib ne pesh-khabari ithe zahir ki ! 
Eh shohra jad Shah Sahib da aman ne sun paia, 
' Is jagah se chal dena hai,' Hazrat man vichh dhaia. 

75 Jo Sayyid muk&bir, yaro, Jalandhar vichh hain rahinda, 
Fakhar ke b^is is Hazrat nilu wadkS, apna kahinda. 
Mazar inhan di Basti aur Jalandhar di darmiyan. 
All Shah ne uai banwai, chune gumbaz zi-shan. 
Nau sau ath hain Jbarsaii guzreii duniya ton sidhare. 

80 Is duniyaii nun hech hi jana^ Allah kam san-ware. 

Sahih rawayafc yun hai Sahib Sayyid Ibrahim, 
Tanuri Sahib da lakab sa pakar, hoe khuld mukim. 
Char-diwari masjid men hai un ki kabar zarftr : 
Jo chahe ziarat karne^ is men shak nan kur ! 
85 Watau chhod Abdu'llah Sahib jad Jalandhar vichh ae 
Lakab abai satli le ae, Tanuri hai sadae. 
Asal nam hai un ka, bhaio, Danishman Abdu'llah. 
Wali kamil hain; un ko manen ithe de ahilu'llah. 

Story of a miracle of Sayyid 'Abdu'llah, called the Tanuri of 
Jalandhar, ibhom Nawdb Tughlaq of Ldhor* threw into a hot oven, 
and ivho by the grace of God came out therefrom safe and sound 
with not a hair of his head injured. Sayyid 'Abdu'llah's father, whose 
shrine is at Snrliand (Sirhind), was named Sayyid Ibrahim Tanuri. 
It is written in the Holy Books, that there is no doubt 
That a people hath kind and harsh rulers according as 
* its own actions are good and bad. 

* Apparently meant for some member of the Tughlaq family, of which 
eight held rule over Lahor from 1321 to 1398 A.D. 


If a people do righteousness then doth the Lord God 
Send a good and just ruler, that ever doeth justice. 
5 If a people do evil with all their might, 

Then doth the Holy God thrust them into the power of 
a tyrant. 

A low man was made Governor of Lahor, 
Who delighted day and night to slay the Sayyids.* 
Some one told him that it was a true saying, 
10 That a pure Sayyid could not be hurt by fire. 
Then an evil-minded friend said to him : 
"Men of other classes pretending to be Sayyids are 
ruining the country. 
They are saluted as great (personages with the title of) 

' Shahji 't and have many followers. 
They take large gifts and enjoy themselves thus." 
15 The order was given in Labor City that if any Sayyid 
entered it 
The Nawab's agents were to seize him and to bring him 

to Court. 
If any unfortunate Sayyid was taken to the Court, 
They heated an iron oven and burnt him in it. 
In this way this base tyrant burnt many Sayyids. 
20 My friends, J the tyrant had no mercy in his heart. 

At last Sayyid 'Abdu'llah Shah went to Labor City, 

And was smoking at the door of some good man. 

A Hindu (close by) had built a vei'y low entrance to his 

Said the Saint : " Make it higher, low man !"§ 
26 Said the Hindu angrily : " Thou hast no elephant with 
That thou mayest mock me, my Lord !" 

* Who are looked upon as peculiarly sacred persons. 

t Commonly accorded to Sayyids. 

1 To the audience. 

§ Making play on the word nichd, low. 


Said another : ' ' Holy Preacher, what is thy caste ? 
Art a Shekh, a Mughal or a beggarly Sayyid ?"* 
Said the Saint ; " All the world calleth as Sayyids. 
30 They say we are the seed of Shabir ;t there is no doubt 
in this." 
The people were very sorpowful on hearing these words. 
The royal messenger seized the Sayyid and had no 

When he reached the Court said the tyrant : 
"What is thy caste ? Tell me, thou son of the Saints!" 
35 Said the Saint : " God is the Lord of caste and clan ! 
We are called Hussaini SayyidsJ : there is no doubt by 

(the grace of) God !" 
The tyrant gave an order : " Quickly heat the oven. 
And let this Sayyid have a good taste of his brethren !" 
Said the Sayyid: " I make no complaint; the will of God 
40 I take upon me without hesitation ; this (duty) is above 
When the iron of the oven was thoroughly red hot, 
The Sayyid, saying " In the name of God," entered 

into it. 
As soon as the Sayyid had entered the oven 
The royal servants quickly shut down the lid. 
45 On the third day (afterwards) that evil tyrant sent an 
To bring him the Saint's without any delay. 
The royal servant went and lifted up the lid. 
He found the Saint repeating the Creed inside it ! 
Said he : "0 Saint, come out of it now !" 
50 Said (the Saint) : " Never mind, send the Governor to 
When the Governor heard of this he came quickly on 

And was anxious to be forgiven. Said the Saint : 

* All these are Musalman ' castes' or classeSi 

t i.e., of the Imam Hussain. 

X Descendants of the Imam Hussain, 

VOL. III. — 25 


" Thou art not in fault, my Lord, it was my fate. 
What is to be must be borne : why make plans (to 

avoid it) ? 
65 If thou wouldst hare forgiveness, in the name of God, 
I will grant it with my heart on this condition : — that 

thou give up these evil ways." 
The Nawab gave the Saint dresses of honor and money 
As gifts and said : " Take an elephant also." 
The Saint chose a furious elephant from the (royal) 

60 That would break all the chains put on it. 

(The Saint) showed it some dry grass and said : " Hear, 

elephant, my say. 
Here thou wert well fed, I have but dry grass !" 
The elephant took (the gi-ass) in his trunk and put it on 

its head.* 
The Saint went first and the elephant followed. 
65 Then going along the Saint came to the place 

Where he had smoked his pipe and the HindA had 

abused him. 
Said the people: "This door is low. 
Be pleased to enter by another door : it will be best." 
Said he : " Silence, my friends, when I order it, 
70 The elephant will himself open up a way." 

(Thereupon) the doorway fell down from a push by the 

As the Saint had prophecied there If 
Everybody heard of the doings of the Saint, 
And the Saint judged it best to leave the place. 

75 The great Sayyids, my friends, J that dwell in Jalandhar, 
Proudly call this Saint their ancestor. 
His shrine is between Basti (Danishmandan) and Jalan- 

* i.e., accepted it. 

t The proptecy the hard has apparently forgotten to relate, 

j To the audience, 



'All Shah rebuilt it with a magnificent plastered dome. 

It is 908 years since (the Saint) left this world.* 

lu doing God's work he deemed this world to be nothing. 

It is a true saying that Sayyid Ibrahim, 

Who obtained the title of Tanurif Sahib, entered 

It is true (too) that his tomb is in a four-gated masjid. 
Who wish can visit it : there is no doubt or lie in this I 
85 When 'Abdullah Shah leaving his home came to 

He brought the title with him and was called Tanuri. 
His real name, my friends, J was Danishmand 'Abdu'llah. 
He is a perfect Saint, and the men of God worship him 

there (at Jalandhar). 


Shah 'Abdu'l-Ghaffue. 
Zikar Icardmat Shall 'Abdu'l-Gliaffur Sahib sdkin Basti Banish' 
manddn 'ildqa Jalandhar, he landuq goUdn wi he chddar par thandi 
hokar zamin joar gir parnd. 

Ik pind Bhawanipiir hai mashhur; 
Majlis othe hove ndr — purnur. 
Othon chale ande si jo eh Shah, 
Dar\resh kal si in de hamrah. 
5 Pahunche jad Badale de barabar, 
Parne lagin goliah taratar. 
Sathi hoe darke bahut bad-hal : 

* This is of course an imaginary date. 

f Whoever Sayyid Ibrahim TanOri m.ay have been it is clear that he 
takes his name Tant^ri from some place. The title seems to have 
become a general one in Jalandhar : see above No. I. The local deri- 
vation is from tanur, an oven, in honour of the hero of the red hot 
oven, i.e., Sayyid 'Abdu'llah, but the fact of this saint's being the son of 
a Tanflri upsets this derivation. 

J To the audience. 


Farmaiti, ke "Kar lo sabar nfin thai." 

J ad age kadam cbale woh do cliar, 
10 Ai tad golian di bochhar. 

DhAndan lage satlii, koi ho ot : 

Farmaia: " Raza da pahino turn kot."* 

Jab kuchb chale rah age hamdam, 

Paine lagih golian chhama-chham. 
15 Sathi hoe nfiha kar niwali : 

" Hun janaii de pai gae bain lali \" 

Cbadar di utfir vin ne phir kar : 
" Turn tan lo sare apne sir par." 

Pahili si golian jo awan diii, 
20 Sajje khabbe se nikal jandin. 

Phir cbadar ke barabar akar pa din, 

Thandi zamin saban girdih. 

Yeh dekh karamat hove mashkflr, 

Sathi jo ho gae se dil chur ! 


Account of a miracle of M«/i 'Ahclul-Qhaffilrf of Basti Banish- 
mandim in Jdlandhar :■ — Malcing bullets that fell on Ms sheet fall 
cold to the ground. 

There is a well-known villlage (called) Bhawanipur^J 
Where there is a brilliant company (of saints). 
When Shah ('Abdu'i-GbaffAr) was coming thence. 
Many darveshes followed him. 
5 When tbey neared Badala§ 

Bullets began to fall noisily about them. 
His followers were wretchedly frightened. 
But (the Saint) said: "Put on the shield of patience." 
When they bad advanced a few steps, 
10 The bullets came in showers. 

* The English word ' coat.' 

t This is probftbly a strictly local saint. 

J In the Jalandhar District. 

§ Three miles from Jalandhar. 


His followers began to searcb for a shelter, 

But he said : " Put on the coat of contentment." 

When the companions advanced a little further, 

The bullets began to fall very quickly. 
15 The terrified followers began to lament, (saying) : 
" Death hath fallen on the way-farers !" 

(The Saint) took off his sheet and said again (to them): 
" Stretch it over all heads." 

The first bullets that came 
20 Went right and left (of them). 

Then thoy fell upon the sheet 

And all fell off cold upon the ground. 

Seeing the miracle they were thankful, 

The followers that h^d been weak of heart ! 


Imam Nasieu'ddin Sieani.* 


Baydn tashrif uwari Imam NdsiruWdin SaTiib Jdlandhar men, aur 
Julandhar nam jogi ko magliluh Icarke nihul dend, aur izhdr digar hard- 
mat Ha: rat inazkur. 

Awwal hamd Khuda de kahkar akhan salam ISTabbi nun- 
Mera maksad dili barave ! Eahmat bhaj Wall niih ! 

Nasiru'ddin Sirani Sayyid jad Jalandhar ae, 
Lokan de hidayat karan ethe dere lae. 
5 Jogi sa ik bada hankari is shahr vichh rahinda, 

Jo kuchh chahanda so kuchh karda, dukh bahut sad- 

Fajar de bele nur de tarke is zalim te darderij 
Gaiah-waliaii dudh chiieke is v,g& lii dharden. 
Jo koi is men deri karde, ya naghasi pandi, 
10 Oh de dudh bigar janda si, ya gae mar jaudi. 
Ik same jo Hazrat dekhia ranah zalan kurian, 

* This is the chief Saint in Jalandhar. 


BahAfc se bartan dddh dahi de oh nAu dene turiad ; 
Nilsiru'ddin Imam Sahib ndii ua par raham jo aid, 
Ik Gujareti dudhwalt nuj apni taraf bulaia. 

15 Do phul daboe dudh men; farmaia : "Lejao; 
Jo kuchh halat uthe guzre s3,nun akh sunao/' 
Jad jogi de pas Gnjarian pahunchid kuchh kar der, 
Puchhan laga, " Der kyua lai ? Paria kya andher V 
Dudh jo un ka dekhia jogi, haiga khflni rang ! 

20 Teorhi pakar puchhan laga : " Kyun hai khuni rang ?" 
Budhia dardi, ■ Har Har' kardi, boli : " Ik fakir 
Mere dudh men ungali dubi : main janan koi pir I" 
Panj chhe chele pahile ghalle, nal hukm eh kita : 
" Jekar tuhade nal na ao, pao apha kita. 

25 Jaldi jao^ pakar le ao : ho mard fakir, 

Jis ne taza dudh mere ko kita lahii nazir!^' 
Pas Hazrat de chhaian akar Kalima Hakk da parhia ! 
Uthe hi oh baithe rahe kuchh tazkira na karia ! 
Phir jogi ne ghusse khakar das vih chele hor, 

30 Pakaran karan Imam Sahib de jaldi ditte tor. 
Oh vi ja Musalman hoe, na murkar gia koi : — 
Jeh de wal ho Sacha Sahib, oh de wal har koi ! — 
Panjah chele hor bhajkar jogi ne eh kiha : 
"Kya ghazab jo uthe gia ? Uthe joga riha \" 

36 Baki chele sath lekar api hoia rahi. 

Imam Sahib de nere akar eh gall kiti wahi : 
" Ya kaiamafc dekho, Sahib, ya kuchh hamen dikhao." 
" Phir tamasha kudrat Eabb da. Akkheii dekhde jao. 
Pahili si eh Hindd nagari Musalmani hun us jao. 

40 Sahib hath wadaian ; jis deve oh pao.'' 

Jogi eh gall sunke, yaro, wal asmanan charhia : 
Juta Hazrat Imam Sahib da pichhe oh de ud pariS. ! 
Juta ' tai-tar ' lagda sir par, pichha mill na chhadia : 
Jogi akhir lukia, yaro, nur jamal da kadhia ! 

45 Ek karamat Imam Sahib di pahili hi mashhur. 
Bahut zamane us par guzra, koi na jane ktlr ! 
Rawi yuri riwajat karda : — jis eh shahr basaiS, 


tJa ne apne Gurft Sahib te lakab Jalandhar paia. 
Phir jo us di gaddi baitha ehi lakab us paia. 
50 Usi tarah is jogi tak eh lakab sa milda aia. 

Jogi de nath jane di jad pahunchi khabar chauphere, 
Shah Sahib de girde lokan akar pae dere. 
Gawwan-walian razi hokar Kalima shukar da parhia. 
Din duni da maksad un ka kadhi na hargiz aria. 
00 Eauza Hazi'at Imam Sahib da bania alishan ; 
Ziarat karan lukai javen Hindu Musalman. 
Nadaz-niaz charhaveh othe Wall muraden paven. 
Har mahine mele hone, ami dekhan javeri. 

Allah de main sidka jawan, jo haiga Kartar 1 
60 Bandian de gham dur karainda hoke woh Ghaffar ! 


The Story of the advent of the Imam Nctsiru'ddm* to Jalandhar, 
and of his conquering a jogi called Jdlandhar,\ and an account of 
the other miracles of this Saint. 

First I praise God and then I salute the Prophet (Mu- 
hammad) . 

May he fulfil the desires of my heart ! May he send 
peace to his Saint ! 

When the Sayyid Nasiru'ddin SiraniJ came to-Jalan- 

He settled there to convert the people. 
5 A very haughty jogi dwelt in the city, 

Who did as he pleased and gave great trouble. 

Early in the morning through fear of this tyrant, 

The owners of cows milked them and brought (the milk) 

to him. 

* He is probably only a local Saiait, but may be meant for Nasir- 
u'ddin Awadhi, the preceptor of tbe celebrated Saint NizSmmu'ddin 
Aulia of Debli in the 13th Century. t See introduction. 

X The Shiranis are a tribe of Pathdns settled all about the Sulaiman 


If any one delayed and neglected to do so 
10 His milk went bad or his cow died. 

One day the Saint saw the women, old and young, 
Groing to him with many pails of milk and curds ; 
And the Imam Nasiru'ddin had pity. 
And called a Giljar woman* to him. 
15 He put two flowers (into the milk) and said : " Take it 

And come and tell me all that happens." 
When the Gfljars went to the joiji after some delay, 
He asked them, " Why are you late ? What misfortune 

has happened ?" 
When the jogi saw their milk it was all bloody ! 
20 He frowned and asked them, " Why is it bloody ?" 

Said an old woman, terrified and calling on God : " A 

Put his fingers into my milk : I think he must be a 

saint !"t 
{Thejogi) sent five or six disciples and gave them an 

order : 
" If he does not come with you bring him by force. 
25 Go quickly and seize him : he must be a hold faqir 
To make ray fresh milk look like blood \" 
The whole six went to the Saint and all repeated the 

Creed of God ! J 
They remained there and said nothing (of what they had 

been told to say). 
Then the jogi in his wrath sent ten or twenty disciples 

30 To seize the Imam quickly. 

They two turned Musalman and none went back : — 
On whose side the True God is, on his side is every 

one! — 
The jogi sent fifty more disciples and said : 

* The Gfljars are the cowherd class of the Pani&b. 
t And has worked a miracle. 
X i.e., turned Musalmans. 


" What magic is there, that the jogis remain there ? " 
35 Then taking the rest of his disciples he started himself. 
He came to the Imam and said these foolish words : 
" Kither see my miracles, my Lord, and sLow me some 
(of yours)." 
(Said the Saint): " Still (the sign of) the power of God 

i-emains. See it with your eyes. 
Formerly this was a Hindil city now it is a Musalman 
40 Success is in God's hands ; He obtains to whom He 
gives it." 
Hearing this, my friends,* fKejocji flew up into the sky: 
But the holy Imam's shoe went up after him ! 
The shoe kept beatiijg his head ' tap-tap ' and would 

not leave off: 
At last the jogi disappeared, my friends, turned out by 
the glorioug light of (the Saint If) 

45 This was the first remarkable miracle of the Imam. 

A long time has passed since and yet no one thinks it 

untrue ! 
Historians relate that he who founded the city 
Obtained the title of Jalandhar from his Guril. 
Aad then whoever sat on the throne took the same title. 
50 In this way the (above-mentioned) jog't came by the 

When the jogi disappeared news of it reached every- 

And the people came and settled round the Saint. 

The owners of the cows much pleased gladly repeated 
the (Musalman) Creed. 

They were never disappointed in their religious or 
worldly desires. 

* Addressed to the audience. 

t T'his means that he was thoroughly beaten, Because to be struck with 
a shoe is a most ignominious thing in India. 

VOL. Ill,— 26 


55 A magnificent shrine is built to the Imam, 

And Hindfls and Musalmans (alike) worship there. 
They bring their offerings and obtain their desires 

through the Saint. 
There is a fair in June, which all the world attends. 

I worship the God that is the Creator ! 
60 That puts away the sorrows of His servants and is the 
Remover (of Sins) ! 


'Aqil Shah SiRANl. 


Zikar kardmat 'Aqil Shah Bukhdri Sdkih Sndni,* jinhon ne apnd 
malcdn Jaundh-wdle Chdh par handkar, ih mukhtasar baghicha dil- 
chasp lagdyd. 

Ik shakhs Ashur Beg sa Mughal barai nami : 

Hatht amba heth ghora banhke soia nal arami. 

Ghora chhutkar oh d^, yaro, waria vichh b§.ghiche; 

Sain log dhatkaria is nun, ja giria niche. 
5 Mirza Sahib jo jage nindon langri dekha ghora : 

Loha lakha hoke oh ne hath vichh pharia kora j 

Zor nal faqir Sain nAn do kore ja mare. 

Shah Sahib ne kore khae, na kuchh mul pukare. 

Bole Mirza : " TainAn goli je lagi vichh tawiron; 
] Jane apni karna pal, nahin jane takdiroii." 

Shahr Jalandhar warda si, jo goli sidM ai : 

Mathe uthe lagke, oh dl jan laban par ai. 

Aisi goli khakar, y&ro, bachda hai vi koi ? 

Jo takdir Ilahi, y^i'o, so hi pftri hoi. 
Ab mazar faiz asar 'Aqil Shah Bukh^rl Sahib usi makan par 
maujud hai. Har sal wahan par ik oiukhtasar melS. hot& hai. 
Malang log aksar tahmM pate hain. Pur-fiza makan hai, aur 
Basti Shekh Darvesh ke ruqba men, janib Sharaq, Jalandhar 
ke pukhta sarak par waqi'a hai. 

* As the Stir^nis are Pathans this Saint is hardly likely to, have 
really come from Bukli&ra. 



The Story of a miracle of'Aqil Shah Strdni of Bulchdra, who 'huilt 
himself a house at the Jauridn Well* and made a hectutiful little 

There was a well-known Mughal^f called 'AsliAr 

Wlio tied his elephant and horse under a mango treej 

and went to sleep at his ease. 
The horse got loose in the garden,, my friends ;.§- 
The asceti'cs frightened him away and he fell down. || 
5 When the (Mughal) nobleman awoke he saw that his 

horse was lame, 
Red as a (hot-) iron (with rage) he took a whip in his 

And twice struck the Saint hard with it.- 
('Aqil) Shah received the blows, but said nothing. 
Said the nobleman : " If a bullet strike thy forehead, 
10 Enow it is the reward of thy (evil) deeds,- know it not 
° for thy fate." 
As he*^ was going into Jalandhar City a bullet came 

straight at him,. 
And struck his forehead and his life departed. 
My friends, § from such a bullet (-wound) can any one 

escape ? 
My friends,§ as God had ordained, so was it fulfilled. 

The gracious shrine of 'Aqil Shah of Bukhara is still where 
his house was. There is a small fair there every year, where 
ascetics perform dances. It is a delightful house in the 
environs of Bastl Shekh Darvesh, to the East of it on the high 
road to Jalandhar. 

* At Jalandhar. t A class of Indian Musahnans. 

J In the Saint'fl garden. § To the audience. 

II And broke his knees. 
^ Who ' he' is — whether the Saint or the Mughal— is not clear from 
this story. 



'AzAM Skah. 


Tazldrdt Miijdn 'Azam Shdhi Suhib, 'asali mutawattan 'Aid 
Fothoivdl yane Oujrdt, ba'd ash muqayyim Bijivdrd td dhhiri 

Miyaii 'Azam 8hkh, pir Kadiri, aise ahili kamdl, 
Fazal karamat dekh unhon da mnlk hoia khushhal, 
Jagtr muafi mftl na lainde langar aisa khula, 
Darvesh musafir khawan uthon, tut na ave, Wallah ! 

5 Ik dafa barat a ntari Bijwara vichli bhari : 
Dawat un de warji bolia : " A karke^ langari \" 
" Vih sei' hainge chawal, Miyan, v5h ser haiga ghi ! 
TJn de siwa ik bakrota haiga, hor na hai kuchh, Ji ! 
Kitne san barati hainge, sau ik bain darvesh : 

10 Lnkma lukma milo nnhan nftn : ghaur kijiye khesh [" 
Langri nfln bole Hazrat : " Gham na zara kha^o. 
Dohra chhanda turn ne lena ; ghi dikhakar pao." 
Jad pulao tayyar hoiiij tan pahile janj bulae, 
Har ik nun tawazzil karke khAb baranj khilae. 

15 Is de pichhe Bure Shah niin dohra ditta chhanda : 
Fakra se jo baki bachia ghurban nua ja banda ! 

Ik dafa jo Hazrat, yaro, Basti Shekh men he, 
Sahib Dad ne ziafat karke teh ser chawal pakae. 
Ziafat khawan chale Hazrat, aisa rnankia hoia, 

20 Jo koi milia nal ho chalia, jam ghat san da hoia. 
Sahib Dad Mirasi bolia : " Itni fauj jo ai, 
Sabhan nun taam khilakar ho jawan karzai !" 
Bole Hazrat : " Gham na kh&, tun sanua das de pher, 
Jo taam hi tun pakwtiia, haiga kitne ser ?" 

25 Araz kSa, ke " Teh ser chawal ja, kuchh kara ziada, 
Darveshah di khatir main ne kar rakhe amad^,." 
Bole Hazrat : " Wahi khana mere samhne lao. 
Allah barkat pno, us meii gham de pas na jao 1" 


Hazrat oh cliawal bahke apne bath bart&e : 
_ 30 Sare log vi raj gai, ytiirOj adhe kharch men ae ! 

Eh dastiir we dekhid lokan, nazSn jo kuchh awan, 
Apne pas woh mul na rakhen sabh ja bartawan ! 


Tfte Stortj of Miydn ' Azam SMM, originally an inJiabitant of Great 
Fothou-ul or Gtijrdt, hut afterwards a settler in Bijwdru* to the etid of 
Ms life. 

Miyan 'Azam Shah, the Qadaria^f was so powerful a 

That the people were made happy by his kindly miracles. 
Although he would not take any free grants of revenue 

he kept up so large a kitchen. 
That durveshes and travellers could not eat him out, by 
(the grace of) God ! 

5 Once a very large (marriage) procession came to Bij- 

A A 


Said his cook (to them) : " Come, processionists \" 

(And said to the Saint) : "Miyan, there are twenty sers J 
of rice and twenty sers of ghi ! 

Besides this a young goat and nothing else ! 

The processionists are several hundreds and there are a 
hundred durveshes : 
10 They will only get a morsel each : think over it \" 

Said the Saint to the cook : " Have no fear at all. 

You shall have a double share j show me the ghl." 

When the puldo^ was ready, he first called the pro- 

Satisfied them all and fed them well. 

* Bijwilra is in the HushiarpOr District, 
f A member of the order of ascetics fomided by 'Abdu'l Qadir Jilani. 
X A ser is 2 lbs. § A spiced dish of rice and meat. 


15 Then Bilre SMh the cook took his double share : 

And the portion left by the faqirs was given to the 
poor ! 

OncOj friends^* when the Saint came to Basti Shekh 

Sahib Dad (the Minstrel) cooked thirty sers of rice for 

a feast. 
When the Saint went to eat the feast it so happened, 
20 That whoever met him went with him and a crowd of a 

hundred was created. 
Said Sahib Dad the Minstrel : " So great a crowd has 

That if I feed them all I shall become indebted \" 
Said the Saint : " Have no fear, show me 
How many sers of food yon have had cooked." 
26 Said he ; " Thirty sers of rice, more or less, 
I have kept ready for the durveshes." 
Said the Saint : " Bring me the dinner. 
God will bless us, have no fear 1" 
The Saint sat down and distributed the same rice with 

his own hands : 
30 All the people were satisfied, my friends,* and only 

half (the rice) was us«d ! 

The people saw that (the Saint's) custom was that, 

whatever gifts came to him. 
He kept nothing at all himself, but gave it all away. 


Sufi Ahmad, 
Zihar hamdliyat zdhiri wa hdtaivi Sufi Ahmad Sdhih, miitawaian 
hhds Jdlandhar, nmhalla Kishn Ghand, murid khds Shekh Anwar 
Sdhib, sd/cin Bajohd Khurd, 'ildqa Nalwdar. 

Khudae Pak de nazar sawalll bande par jad hoe, 
Pir kamil milave us n(di, sab kadiirat dhoe. 

* To the audience. 


SAfi Ahmad Shekh muazzam kasab se rizak kamande. 
Lokari nun hidayat karde, pir par sidka jande. 
5 Khidmat se-hi azmat mildi; satnjho ramz jail 
Anwarji di shafkat karan ho gae mard wall. 
Kasaf karamat Sflfiji dJ jo haigi mashhflr ; 
Budhe budhe mard muabbad karde haiii mazkur. 
Zuhad o tiharat SAfiji ne aisi shahrat pai, 
10 Alim fazil miirid ban gae ; bahut khudae. 

Maulvi Muhammad Khalil Sahib ne pir pakarne khatir, 

Bahufc justajil ki chauphere, koi na paia mabir. 

Kai dafa Maulviji de dil men hoia irada : — 

Sdfi nun main pir banawan^ par hai jahil sada ! — 
15 Khwab men oh nAii hoi ish§.rat : — Sflfi pir banao. 

Din dani vichh zahir bafcan faida achha pao. 

Diije din istikhare andar, eh isharat hoia : — 

SAfi de tusi baiat karo, juram jaega dhoia. — 

Tije din jad Maulviji nAn eh isharat hoi, 
20 Siifi da murid ban gia, uzar na laid koi. 

Barkat sohbat Siifiji ne eh jalwa dikhlaia; 

Har ik madaraj darvesh da oh nun sair karaia. 

Hafiz Muhammad Akbar Sahib fazil si muatbar. 

Sat tafsiran Quran Majididn oh nAn haisan azbar. 
25 Hafiz ne eh suniS. jab shagird rasid hamara ; — 

SAfi da murid ban gia, karke bahutS. chara : — 

FarmaiS,, ke " Zahir men bahu aukha haiga kar ! 

Jahil da ho alim paira ; bana samjhad bichar !" 

Hafiz Sahib Sufiji de milne khatir ae ; 
30 SAfi Ahmad Akbarji nAn yun irshad farmae. 
"Allah de main sidka jawan, bahuta fazal farmaia, 

Fazilkari jami mard nun mere ghar bhijwaid. 

Araz asadi eho ik hai ; ho jave manzfir : — 

Fafciha de tafsir farmakar saniin karo masrAr." 
35 Hafizji ne b&d aisS, kaha nrukarara : 

" Sab kuchh hun main bhfll gia han, rawan na aye zara !" 

Farmaiiij ke " Hafiz SSrhib> f ukra log nimi,ne 


Nazal- hik^rat nal na dekho, karke hik thigdae. 
Allah Saliib jis bande nAn ilm bitani deve, 
40 Us de age sab sukhal^ ilm zahiri hove." 

Phil- farmaia : " H&fiz Sslhib, shaf kat karke tain,* 
Kuchh masail akh sunavin, dil pave aram." 
Us wakt phir Ha,fiz Sahib aisa wa'iz farmaia : 
Bahutian nun taughash a gian, bakiai nun rulwaia! 

45 Maulvi ne jad Slfi talken, zikar di pai. 

Ik roz tali oh nun yaro, eh gall farmai: 
«* Wa'iz kia karo har Jume ndu, khalkat faida pave; 

Gumrahi nun chhad ohhodke sidhi rah wal ave." 

Pir di itaat kare, ke mumbar par ja bahe ; 
50 Ik tan masliha inAl na kita : ronde ronde rahe ! 

Eh hikayat sunke SAfi, eh kalima farmaia : 
" Ilm tan parhid; fukar na aid; did tda ki aid ?" 

Farmaia, ke " DAje Jume nftn main howdngab hdzir; 

Mere sdmhne mumbar bahke wa'iz akhe nazir." 
55 Diije Jume niin Sufi Sahib raasjid d khilove ; 

Maulvi Sahib wa'iz farmakar dp zara na rove : 

Lokan dd eh hdl sd hoidj sab karde si zari. 

Maulvi Sahib wa'iz karainde, juh dariyd ho zdri ! 

Maulvi Sahib hajj karne nun jad hoe dmadd, 
60 Su.fl Sahib ijdzat bakhshe ; bole : " Wah irddd ! 

Mdlk Arab vichh dost mere dd ghati utte derd ; 

Oh nftn saldm akhna ; mul na kariye derd. 

Maulyi Sahib Baitu'Uah de hajj te fdrigh hoe ; 

Us pahar par jae upre^ jithon fakir labhoe." 
65 Sdmhne hunde ik bdri woh bolid mard azdda : 

" Salam-alaik, Muhammad Khalila, Sufi dd dil shddd ?" 

Burkaposh sd mard Khudd da, khdtir se pesh aidj 

Rati rakhia khidmat kiti, tarke in farmdid : 
" Ithe rahan, to ghar tusdda jdnd ho, nahiii zor." 
70 Maulvi akhid ; " Mihr tusdde, sandri deo tor." 

* For tamdm. 


Mard Khud^ da Mth pakai-ke sath sath ho chalia : 

Thoia chalkar daldal aia, mitthi paai raM: 

Us de pichhe khai ai, pani se matnur. 

Farmaia : " ethon laugh marke, langhna hai zarAr." 
75 Ghhal marke khai uthon asi jad laagh gae. 

Farmaia, ke " Bas, Sahib, asi aggon chalau rahe. 

Parhne dS, hun vela ^ia, kyun main karari taksir ? 

Tusin SMi uAn salam akhna jaldi be-takhh\" 

Eh gall fakir akhke kahiri chhin ho gae, 
80 Hajiji do kadam chalke kholiad vichh ae. 

Eh kholi Lahor Shahr di dekhi si kae bar ! 

Painda dhada muk gia ! Phir shukar kia Ghaffar ! 

Sufjji di khidmat vichh salam-alaik pahunchaia. 

SAfiji jawab akhkar yuh irshad farmaia : 
85 " Pani di jo khai dekhi samundar sa zakhar ! 

Daldal jo si pahili ai kandasa us par ! 

Itna rasta dur da jo jaldi hoia tai, 

Faqiri eh nan jamnah ; darveshi hor hai shai ! 

Aise karshama dikhaune nahih hai kuchh chiz : 
90 Pahchaa Allah Pak de niamat bari aziz I" 

Maskan Silfi Sahib da Kishn Chand da Kot. 
Asheshan* ufchoii disda, na hove koi ot ! 


Story of the open and secret miracles of Sufi Jhmad of Jdlandhar, 
dwelling in the ward of Kishn Ghand, a follower of Shekh Anwar of 
Lesser Bajohd in NaJcodar.f 

When the Holy God oasts His benign glance upon His 

He brings to him a perfect SaintJ and washes away all 

his wickedness. 

* This is the English word (Railway) Station. 

t Both these worthies are probably strictly local saints, 

J In the sense of spiritual guide. 

Toi. in.— 27 


The great Shekh Sufi Ahmad earned his living by work. 
He exhorted the people and served his preceptor well. 
5 Service leads to greatness ; understand this great secret. 
He became a saintly personage through the favor of 

(Shekh) Anwar. 
The miraculous powers of the SAfi are well known, 
And his old worshippers can tell it. 
The devotion and sincerity of the Siifi became so famous, 
10 That the wise and learned became his followers, as all 
the world knows. 

The Maulvl Muhammad Khalil to obtain a preceptor 
Had made great search everywhere and had found no 

one competent (to guide him). 
Many a time had the Maulvi made up his mind 
To make the Sufi his preceptor, but he was entirely 

illiterate !* 
15 He had a sign in a dream to make the Siifi his preceptor. 
And thus obtain much open and secret advantage in 

both worlds. 
Next day as a good omen he (again) had a sign (in a 

To follow the Siifi and have his sins washed away. 
On the third day the Maulvi again had a sign, 
20 And became a disciple of the Sufi and made no excuses. 
The Siifi blessed his disciple with his company. 
And initiated him into all the paths of a durvesh.-\ 

The very leai-ned H&fizJ Muhfxmmad Akbar 
Had by heart the seven chapters§ of the Holy Qurdn, 
25 The Hafiz heard that his own disciple || 

Had become a disciple of the Sftfi with all his heart, 

* And fcliat made the difficulty. f Religionist or ascetic, 

J A person who has the Qiiydn by heart. 
§ Should be 114 chapters. 
il i.e., the Maulvi Muhammad Khalil. 


And said : " This is apparently a truly wondrous affair ! 
The learned become the disciple of the illiterate ; it is 

beyond comprehension \" 
The Hafiz went to see the, 
30 And thus spake his ideas to the Siifi Ahmad Akbar* 
(Said the Sufi) : "I worship God and He hath greatly 

favored me, 
That he hath sent a wise and learned man to my house. 
I have a request ; pray, accept it : — 
Repeat the Fdtiha* chapter and gratify me." 
up The Hafiz tried and said over and over again : 

" I have forgotten it all now, none of it comes to me at 
Said (the SAfi) : " IJafiz, though we faqirs are poor 

Look not upon us with contempt and disdain. 
To whom God gives hidden knowledge, 
40 He granteth the open knowledge of all kindliness." 
Again he said : " Hafiz, with great kindness 
Teach me some (moral) precepts, that my heart may be 

at rest." 
This time the Ilafiz preached so well. 
That many swooned away and many more wept ! 

^6 It is said that the SAfi then became the Maulvi's pre- 
One day, my friends,t he said to him : 
" Preach e^ery Friday J that the people may be benefited. 
And the lost leave their ways and come into the straight 

Obeying the Saint he went into the pulpit, 
50 Bat could not deliver even one precept and stood 
weeping ! 
Hearing the tale the SAfi said to him : 

* The first chapter of the Q/urdn. f To the audience. 

X The Musahaftn ' Sunday.' 


" Thou art learned, but not ascetic, so what hast thou 
gained ?" 
And he said : " I will be present next Friday ; 
Ascend the pulpit before me and preach openly." 
55 The next Friday the Sufi came and stood in the mosque, 
The Maulvi preached and wept not at all himself: 
This happened to the people, who wept continuously. 
The Maulvi went on preaching as (easily as) a river 
flows ! 

When the Maulvi prepared to make the pilgrimage (to 

60 The Sufi gave him leave and said : " Well is thy 

intention ! 
A friend of mine hath his dwelling on a hill in the 

Arabs' land ; 
Give him my greeting and make no delay." 
The Maulvi completed his pilgrimage to the Temple of 

And went to the hill on which the/ag''''t dwelt. 
65 As soon as he reached him the free-thinker said : 

" Greeting to thee, Muhammad Khalil, is the SM well ?" 
The roughly-clad man of God came forward with 

And served him during the night and in the morning 

said : 
" Remain here or return home, as thou wilt." 
70 Said the Maulvi : " With thy permission I will go 

The man of God took him by the hand and they went 

After a short while they came to a lake full of sweet 

And afterwards to a ditch full of water. 
Said they : " Let us jump this, as we must cross it." 

* At Makka. f i.e., tlie SOfi's friend. 


75 Leaping the ditch they* crossed it. 

Said (the saint) : "Enough, friend, I can go no further. 
It is time for prayer and why should I commit a fault ?t 
Give my greeting to the SAfi without any delay." 
Saying this the faqir disappeared, 
80 And the pilgrim going on a few paces came to a ruin. J 
And saw that it was a ruin in the City of Lahor, 

which he had often seen ! 
The long journey was accomplished ! And he again gave 

thanks to the Deliverer ! 
He brought (his friend's) salutation to the Sufi. 
Thus spake the Siift in reply : 
85 " The ditch of water that thou sawest was the boundless 

ocean ! 
The lake that thou didst first reach was the ocean beyond 

To quickly accomplish so long a journey 
Is not to be a, faqir ; a durveshis another being !§ 
It is nothing to exhibit such miracles. 
90 To know God is the most blessed gift \" 

The dwelling of the Sdfi was in Kofc Kishn Chaud. 
The Railway Station is clearly visible from it ! 


Saytid Kajbir. 

Kardmat Hazrat Sayyid Kabir Sahib Jdlandhari mutawdkhili 
guzdrd harnd, zahhira na jama' karnd, aur kulukh-khet ho sond 
hand dihhdnd, aur tdmi' mill na hand. 

Hazrat Sayyid Kabir Sahibji WalJ hoe hain kamil : 
Y§.d Khuda ton farigh hokar dris men rahinda shaghil. 

* Ohserve the first person in the text as if the Manlvi was now telling 
the story to the Sllfi. 

f By not praying. J Narrative again in the third person. 

§ The meaning is that a miracle like this is a mere trifle and that 
much more is expected of faqirs and durveshes. 


Khudai Pak di mihr karm te amad si ba-tah^t, 
Ik wakt dk kharach si rakhde, baki karaa khairat. 
5 Mul na lende kadi bazaron do vele da kut : 
Do waktan do bar maagandej bo karke mazbut. 

Ik murid jo akar vekbia sajag guzara pir§.n, 

Dil vicbh sochia : — is kam di kariye kuchh tadbiran. 

Akhir bil nazaraaa dekar araz kifca : " Ta Pir, 
10 Lakh rupae di cbaadi bansi haigi eh aksir V 

Hazrat ne farmaia : " Taiuuri je eho hi chah. 

Us tak par rakhke eh nua apae ghar nAn jah." 

Oh ttta apne ghar ndn turidj phir na litti sujh : — 

Haiga yi bil de andar, ya na haiga kujh. 
15' Kuchh arse de bad oh banda Hazrat kol jo aia^ 

Jiha guzar^ chhand gia sa, oha-jiha hun paisi. 

Araz kita, ke '' Hazratji, mera ik sawal : — 

Tang guzara hun kyun rahinde, nahin hoe khushhal 1" 

Farmaia, ke " Chak le a tun ik wahan ton dhitn : 
20 Qudrat sadi dekh lewanga tarfon Rabb Rahim." 

Hazrat ne jad hath lagaia ban gia oh sona ! 

Bole : " Rabb ne sab kuchh ditti., mutawakkil wajib 
hon^ !" 

Phir farmaia : "Bil tusada othe haiga dharia ; 

Sanfln kuchh parwah na oh di, le le othon ariti." 
25 Murid ne jo jakar dekha, paia hasab dasttir ! 

Gustakhi di muafi mangi, apni jan kasdr. 

A miracle of the Holy Sayyid Kabir* of Jdlandhar, who lived 
in dependence {on God) and kept no stores {of food), and who 
turned a clod of earth into gold and was free from avarice. 
The Holy Sayyid Kabir was a perfect Saint, 
And when he had finished his prayers to God was 

busied with the scriptures. 
By the mercy and blessing of the Holy God he had a 
boundless income, 

* A small local Saint. 


But kept only enough for one meal and gave the rest 
away in charity. 
5 He never took from the hdzar* more food than 
(sufficed) for one meal, 
And throve by begging for each meal. 

A disciple came (to him) and saw the trustful (on God) 
life of the Saint, 

And thought in his heart that (his method ) should be 
tested in some way. 

At last he brought a hil\ as a gift and said : " Saint, 
,10 Canst thou turn this fruit into a lakh of rupees ?" 

Said the Saint : " If thou wishest this. 

Place it on that shelf and go home." 

(The disciple) went home and (the Saint) thought no 
more about it : — ■ 

Whether anything had come into the hit or not. 
15 After a while the disciple came again to the Saint, 

And found him living in the same poor way as before. 

He said : " Sir Saint, I have a question : — 

Why dost dwell poorly now, and art not happy ?" 

Said (the Saint) : " Pick me up a clod from the field, 
20 And behold my power (granted) by the God of Mercy." 

When the Saint put his hand (on the clod) it became 
golden ! 

Said he: "God hath granted me all things, (but) it 
behoves me (still) to be dependent (on Him !") 

And again he said : " Thy hil is placed there ; 

It is of no use to me : throw it away." 
25 When the disciple looked at it he found it as he had left it ! 

Then he saw his fault and craved pardon for his pre- 

* By begging, 
t The hil is a kind of receptable used by faqirs and consists of the 
hard rind of the hel (^cegle mnrmelos) fruit, the pulp within being scooped 
out so as to form a hollow cup. 



Mohammad Safa. 


Hal kardmat Muhammad Safd Sahib ke, mahind Itdmil Mardthe 
he kaid men rahd, aur is 'arse men na Jcuchh khdyd aur na pia jUd 
rahd, aur taivdndi mehfaraq na dyd. Mazdr in M Basti Shekh Bar- 
vesh men. wdq^ia hai. 

Allah da jo hove hai piard, 

Maulla oh dk kar saz sara. 

Kahinde hain Marathe jad ke kih, 

Dehat par dand oh ne laia. 
5 Jeh ne dia hadi^ hoia khushhal ; 

Baki rahe jis men kitfi. p4-mal. 

Baki-wale pind se oh zalim 

Lejauda sa, pharke chand ^dam. 

Basti Shekh se oh bad-kho 
10 Do tau nAn pharke le gid wo. 

Do shakhs se sahib zar-o-mal : 

Ik Miyan Safa fakir tams&l. 

Donan ne to zar mukarard ditta ; 

Rukhsat hoe^ rastd ghar da litta. 
15 Par eh ajiz wa bechard 

Kai manzil kaid rahia, yara. 

Grhoron par jo marz pie bhari ; 

Is te hoe fauj bahut an. 

Sardar ne puohhia : " Kya sabab hai, 
20 Ghot'ian. par jo aid eh ghazab hai V 

Umrk ne kaM : " Mahina bita, 

Kaidi ne na khaia hai na pita." 

Oh ne eh sunke mare dar ke 

Rukhsat kia in nun suboh tarke. 
25 Aswari we apni dittt hamrab, 

Pahimchaia watan men be-klialash rah. 



The Story of a Miracle of Muhammad 8afd* who was detained a 
prisoner for a whole month ly the ManUhds, durinrj which interval he 
neither ate nor drank and lived without showing any bodily change. 
His tomb is in Basti Bhehh Barvesh. 

For him that is beloved of God, 

God prospereth all his work. 

They say that when the Marathiis came,t 

They fixed a contribution on the villages. 
5 Whoever gave his contribution was happy ; 

The remainder were they that refused. 

The tyrants took the defaulters from their villages, 

And (thus) seized several men. 

In Basti Shekh (Darvesh) the scoundrels 
10 Took away two mon. 

These two men were rich : 

(But a third that was taken) was Miyan Safa, a poor 

The two gave up the fixed contribution 

And were dismissed to their homes. 
15 But the poor and helpless (Safa) 

Was kept a prisoner for several stages, friends, { 

The horses (of his guard) became very ill 

And rendered the guard helpless. 

Said the Commander : " VVhat is the cause 
20 Of the calamity which has befallen our horses ?■" 

Said the (Saint's) custodians: "A month has passed 

And our prisoner hath neither eaten nor drunk." 

When (the Commander) heard this, through fear 

He released him in the early morning. 
25 Sent him away upon his own horse 

And had him escorted safely home. 

* A local Saint. 
t At the end of the last centary. 
X To the audience. 

VOL. 111. — 28 




[These songa are good speoimena of tieir kind and well exhibit the fragmentary 
and enigmatical way in which the Panjabts relate in song subieots, the 
details of which are well known to them.] 

[The first song alludes to the well-known tale of Bfijd Easdlu and his wife 
KokilAn. It has been already given in detail in Vol. I. p. SOff., but I will 
here give an outline of it again in order to render the following pages 

[R£jil Easalii played with Ei;jA Sirkap at chaiipiir, the stake being the head of 
the loser. Easdiil won the game, and instead of taking Sirkap's head, took 
his infant daughter Kokililri as his future wife. With her was given a 
young mango tree, and whenever that tree should bear fruit Kokilan would 
be fit to be a wife. This ia alluded to in the song. On attaining puberty 
KoUilSii went hunting with Basalft and caught the deer Hii'S, which aroused 
the jealousy of Rusulil, and he cut off its ears and tail, and thus caused it to 
be cast out of the herd. Hira the deer in revenge went over to Easalft's 
riiral U&jk Hodi and induced Taim to chase him, leading him to Easdl&'s 
garden. There Hodi met KokilSi'i, on which an intrigue followed. Koki- 
l.'n's guardians were a ■mainu, and a parrot, and the latter apprised Easfiltl 
of what was going on. Easiilu finding oat what had happened from the 
state of Kokilin's palace managed in revenge to make her cook and eather 
lover's heart. The words of the verses, if compared with those previously 
given, will show that the poetical treatment of the legend is practically 
the same throughout the Panjab.] 

[The enigma of the second song is not so easily solved. It evidently relates to 
some amour of R5ja Rasalu with a gardener's wife and the consequent 
wrath of his legitimate Queen. 1 have not yet seen the full tale to which 
the song alludes. It will be observed that there is an allusion to a certain 
wet night, and all through the long legend of R:'.ja Easulfi given at the 
commencement of this work there are like mysterious allusions brought 
jnto the story in the most inappropriate manner. It would be interesting 
to unearth the original tale of this" wet night."] 



Git lldja B a said. 
" Amb sukh sukh daliaii, tarsega tera te sada ji, Rajaji ? 
Amb pakke, rase cbu pie, chaupuewalti rasia dur ! 
Bharjoban di kbariaii hoka skahr bazar ! 
Jiabaii de palle raul kai, we Rajia ; an ckukaye sad4 
bhao, Rajaji !" 

5 Raja te Rani jid pie : " Asan jangal jana shikar, Rajaji." 
Pakila tir maria Rani ne, we Rajia: Hire hiran nun jadi 
sulik, Rajaji. 
" Ranaii da maria mirg, ni Ranie, mardan ndii khana 
parain, ni Rauie." 

Hirni m.aran bolian : " We Hiria ; aia kan te pucklial 
wadha, Hiria R^'aji !" 
" Sade tin sau hirniaiii, we Rajia; Hira oknaii da Sardar, 
10 Janda tan janda Hira bolda : "MainAii taii Hira hiran tad 
akhin, we Rajia, tere mahilaii nun lawahga chor, 

" Mahilan heth phirandi^n, we Rajia, chor phire ke sadh, 

Rajaji ?" 
" Choran maile kapre, ni Ranie, sadhaii di chitti poshak, 

"Andar andar paurian, we Rajia, pair dhare dhar a, 

" Dhaular tera kick da, ni Ranie ; thuk tut ja, Raniji." 
15 " Dhaular tera kach* da, we Rajia; tu ghore sane charh a, 

" Pahili pauri charhda, ni Ranie : mera ghora gia sarkar, 


* For Mnch. 


" Kanan di wechan walian, we Rajia, tera gliorS. langd 

chlauda, Eajaji." 
" Waliaii orak chalian diaii, ni Ranie : mera ghoia tan 

derli Lazar, Raniji." 

" Mainaii taii totaT lar pie, we Rajia : mainan ne khoian 

patliaii, we Rajia : tota ne chananhar, Rajaji." 
20 " Kut kut pawan churian, we totia : terl nimak harami di 

zat, totaji." 
Tota ne ja pukaria ; " We Rtijia, tere maliilari nAii lage 

clior, Rfijaji." 
" Ath tote, naun sMrakan, totia mera; bar! ban vicli baitli^ 

mor : ehnian pahriaii baitbian ; kis nidli mahilan 

nftn lage cbor ? " 
"Raja tan Hodl chaih pia, Rdjia, an lathe bagbaii heth, 


"Kin mera kbiia geria, ni ffanie ? Mere kb&e di gilri 

nisar, Raniji !" 
25 " Tab marandi geiifij we Rajia : tere kbi1.e di gilri nisar, 

" Kin meri chaupi ambali, ni Ranie ? Sajre pe cbaupak^ 

Eanij? I" 
" Mulan dhoia anda^ we Rajia, kbilri paini chanpak, w& 

Rajia [" 
" Kaun meri cbanki nabia, ni Ranie ? Dur gia cbbankar, 

Raniji \" 
" Tan maran di main nati ban, we Rajia : dur gia cbbankar, 

Rajaji !" 
80 " Kaun mere palang letia, ni Ranie ? Meri palang di dhili 

niwar, Raniji !" 
" Sul marandi leti ban, we Rajia ; tere palang di dbilj 

niwar, Rajaji !" 

*' Bbawar kali dalia, we Rajia, thartbar kyM kampe ? 
Yelan chare paiaiaii, bun mauton kyAn dare, we Rajia ?" 


" Baithaii dinda galiaii, bun we Rajia : sanAn^ klialan niln 
taae na de, Rajaji. 
35 Jinhaii da sauuii ralna, we Eaja, skik maran unMn de ual, 
Aadar warke pAchhdi ; " We Eajia, teri bahin lagan ke 
dhi, Rajaji ?" 
"" Sirkap Raja di betri, Raja Rasalu di nar : baji tun jit 
andij ni Ranie : na bahin lagi na dhi, Raniji. 
Kadhke girde rakii, ni Ranie, tainun bhunke dewan 

kabab, Raniji. 
Jiwandian sbaku maniau, ni Raniej hun moian da 
kMda hai mas, Raniji !" 
40" Ak di na khaiye kakri, we Rajia; sap da na khaiye mas 

ChM parai pifcia, we Rajia, pani warga sawad, Rajaji. 
Ag parai sikian, we Rajia, udh udh paindi khak, Rajaji, 
Put bagana cliumia, we Rajia, lali bbaria gat, Rajaji. 
Nar bagani seviai, we Rajia, kadhi na hundiapni, Rajaji. 
45 Khanda, gkora, istri, we Rajia ; tinon jat kujat. 

Khanda wade sir khasam da ; ghora de pir vich har : 
istri jithe weklii war sohna, uthe rahindi din te rat. 
Makbi, machlii, istri, : tinon jat kujat. 
Jithe wekhan hot wage, uthe rahinde din te rat." 


Rag Raj a iva Malan M. 

" Kin kin di weri. Raja, phulan keora V 
"Rani di weri, Eaja, nibna: Malan di weri phulan keoia." 
" Kaun to chaupe nibna ? Kaun handave phulan keora ?" 
" Rani to chaupe nibna : Malan handave phulan keora." 
5 " Thanda tan pani garm karaia ; ao, Eaja, tusin naha lo. 

Nahave tan nahave sadi R^ni." 
" Eaja nahave ghar Malan de." " Tati rasoi thandi hoi ; 

ao, Eaja, tusin jiwan lo." 
*' Jivin ghar di Eani, main jiwan ghar Malan de." 


"Unclie mure palang vicliliuia : rafcfca palang, safed nih^li; 

ao, Raja^ tusin let lo." 
"Letiii ghar di Raai: maiii letaii ghar Malan de." 

10 AdLi tail rati miiili barsaia. "Malan dijliugi, Rabba, 

dheli pie 1 
piie tan dhe teri raari Malan di I" " MSlan di jhugi, 

Rabba, sukh dise !" 
Adhi tan rati miiih barsaia. " Malan di jhugi, Rabba, 

chu pie [" 

Ago Raja, picbhe Malan : Raja aia ghar apne. " Utliie, 

ni Raui, buha kbole. 
Bliijia tan Raja tere dar khar^ : uibie ni bainsari Rani : 

aveii pairaii di sardi mere sir cbarbe." 
15 "TJthie ni golie, buha khole : Raja aia ghar apne. 

Kora ghara, thanda pani : utho. Raja, tusin naha lo. 
Bai to rott, amb achari : utho. Raja, tusin kha lo. 
Tutti maijji, van puraoa : ao. Raja, tusin dhe raho. 
Sa(le tan marie. Raja, machhar : kuchhar da balak ronah \" 


A Song about Raja Ras&lii. 

(Sang Rani Kokilan) : " The mango ripens on the bough, 
and our hearts are longing for each other, Raja ! 

The ripe mango drips, and the loved gatherer is far !J 

The basket of my youth crieth out in the hdzdr ! 

Who hath a full pocket. Raja, shall settle my price, 
Raja 1"* 

5 The Raja and Rani spake eagerly, (said she) : " Let us 
go hunting in the wilds. Raja." 

* All this means tliat the Rani has now reached a marriageable age. 


The Rani at hei- first (arrow) shot, disfigured the deer 
Hira,* Eaja. 
" Deer slain, by a womaiij R^ai, cannot be eaten by a man, 

The deer wanted to slay (Hira, saying) : " Hira, thou 
hast come to us shorn of ears and tail, Raja Hira !" 
(Said Hira to Raja Rasalu) : " I have three hundred 
does. Raja, and I, Hira, am their Lord." 
10 As he was going said Hira : " Thou shalt know me for 
Hira the deer, Raja, when I bring a thief to thy 
palace. Raja !" 

(Said Ram Kokilan to Raja Hodi :) " Wandering under 

the palace, Raja, art a thief or a holy man. Raja V 
(Said Raja Hodi) : "Thieves have dirty clothes. Rani, 
holy men have white clothing, Rani." 
" The steps are inside, RaJEi, put thy feet on them and 

come up. Raja." 
"Thy palace is of mud. Rani, and a blow will break it 
down, Rani." 
15 "Thy palace is of glass. Raja j thou canst come up horse 
and all, RSja." 
" I have climbed the first steps. Rani, and my horse has 

gone to its master. Rani." 
" I will sell my ear-rings. Raja, and release thy horse, 

"Thy ear-rings are worth but forty rupees. Rani, and my 
horse a thousand and a half. Rani." 

(Said the parrot to Raja Rasalfi) : ^'The maina and 
parrot fell out. Raja : the maina lost her feathers 
and the parrot his necklace, Raja." 
20 (Said the Raja)-: "I have given thee the best of food, 
parrot : thine is a faithless race, parrot/' 

* Allusion to ier leading to its ears and tail being cropped : see 
introduction to the tale. 


The parrot called out : " Raja, a thief hath come into 

thy palace. Raja." 
" There are eight parrots, nine mamas, my parrot, and a 

peacock on each window : with so many guards 

how comes a thief into my palace V 
"Raja Hod! hath come. Raja, and hath pitched (his tent) 

in thy garden, Raja." 

(Said Raja Rasala to Rani Kokilaii) : " Who hath used 

(the bucket of) my well. Rani ? The brim of my 

well is wet. Rani !" 
25 " I was dying of thirst, Raja : and thus the brim of thy 

well is wet. Raja \" 
" Who hath eaten my mangoes, Rani ? The rinds are 

fresh. Rani !" 
" The gardener's wife brought them, Raja, and so the 

rinds are fresh. Raja !" 
" Who hath bathed on my stool. Rani ? The splashing 

hath spread afar. Rani \" 
" I was hot and bathed. Raja, and the splashing spread 

afar. Raja !" 
30 " Who hath lain on my bed. Rani ? the cords of my bed 

are loosened. Rani !" 
" I was in great pain and lay on it, Raja : and so the cords 

of thy bed are loosened. Raja !" 

(Said Rflja RasalA to Raja Hodi) : " Hiding behind the 

screen. Raja, why art trembling ? 
Thou hast eaten of another's fruit, why dost thou now 

fear death. Raja V 

(Said Rani Kokilan to Raja Rasalu) : " Sitting thou dost 
abuse me, Raja : abuse me not standing. Raja. 
35 For whose sake thou dost taunt me. Raja, with him will 
I die, Raja." 

Going within she asked him: " Raja, am I thy sister or 
thy daughter. Raja ? "* 

* Hinting thus that she had never been treated as a wife. 


"Thou art Raja Sirkap's daughter, and Raja Rasald's 
wife: I won thee for a wager, Rani: thou art not 
sister nor daughter to me. Rani. 
I will take out his heart, Rani, and cook and give it to 

thee. Rani. 
Whom thou didst enjoy as a husband. Rani, thou shalt 
eat of his flesh dead. Rani ! " 
40 (Said Rani KokiMn to Rdja RasaM) : " Eat not the fruit 
of the aJc* Raja : eat not the flesh of snakes. Raja. 
Drink not another's milk. Raja, or it will taste like 

water, Raj4. 
Warm thyself not at another's fire. Raja, or the ashes 

will fly up at thee. Raja. 
Kiss not another's son, Raja, or his spittle will stick to 

thee, Raja. 
Follow another's wife. Raja, and she will never be thine. 
45 Sword, horse and woman. Raja ; these three are a low lot. 
The sword will cut off its master's head : the horse turn 
in the battle field : where a woman meets her loved 
one, there will she remain day and night. 
Fly, fish and woman : these three are a low lot. 
Where they see enjoyment, there will they remain day 
and night." 


The Song of the Bajd and the Gardener's Wife. 

" In whose house does the keordf bloom. Raja ? " 

" In the Rani's house is the lime. Raja : in the house of 

the G-ar doner's wife is the heard," 
" Who sucks the lime ? Who hath the flowers of the 

keora 1 " 
" The Rani sucks the lime : the Gardener's wife hath 

flowers of the keora." 

* Asclepias gigantea : a poisonous plant. These are well known 
rhapsodical lines put in for the occasion. 

t The sweet scented Fandanus odoratiesimus. 

vol. III.— 29 


5 (Said the Eani) : " The cold water hath been warmed : 

come, R^j^j and bathe in it. Thy Ran! doth 

"The Eaja will bathe in the house of the Gardener's 

wife." " The boiling-hot food hath cooled : come, 

Raja, and eat it." 
" Do thou eat it, Rani : I will eat in the house of the 

Gardener's wife." 
" Thy bed is laid in the lofty room : red the bed and white 

the sheets ; come, Raj4, and lie on it." 
"Lie thou on it, Rani: I will lie at the house of the 

Gardener's wife." 

10 At midnight the rain fell. (Prayed the Eani) : " 

God, let fall the hut of the Gardener's wife ! 
May thy hut fall, thou Gardener's wife!" (Prayed the 

Raja) : " God, preserve the hut of the Gardener's 

At midnight the rain fell. (Prayed the Rani): " God: 

may the hut leak that belongs to the Gardener's wife! " 

First the Raja, and next the Gardener's wife, came to the 

Raja's house. (Said the R&ja) : " Up, Eani, and 

open the door. 
The Raja stands wetted at thy door : up, cruel Eani, 

the cold is spreading from my feet to my head." 
15 (Said the Rani): "Up, my maid, and open the door : 

the Raj& hath come home. 
There is a fresh pitcher and cold water : up, Eaj^, and 

There is stale bread and pickled mango : up. Raja, and eat. 
There is a rickety bed, and old rope cords ; come, Eaja, 

and lie on it. 
There are mosquitoes in my house, Eaja ; and a crying 

child in my lap ! "* 

* AUthis is sarcastic, levelled at the Raja for deserting lier for tlie 
Gardener's wife. 

No. XLIX. 


[This variant of this very celebrated Legend, which in itself is as fragmentary 
and unsatisfactory as the rest, is of considerable help in filling up the 
gaps left in the versions previously given. It should be read specially in 
connection 'with pp. 50-65, Vol. I., and vfith the two preceding legends.] 

[The only new point that tarns up is that Eaja Hodi here calls himself the son 
of E^jd Hatia of Badnfi. In Vol. I., p. 51, he calls himself the son of 1« jS 
Atkl Mall of Atak. There are two districts of the Panjflb which specially 
claim to be the scene of EdjA RasfilA's exploits — Rawalpindi and Siillfcot — 
and the story of KokiUn and Hodi is usually placed in the former. Every 
thing, however, connected with EasAlil is equally placed by some bards in 
Si&lkot and the neighbourhood, and it is quite possible that this Hoslnai-pflr 
bard, belonging to the Chhatt^s, a tribe of the GnjrAnwAlS district, may be 
referring to the Si^lkot district throughout and by Badn4 means BadiftnA 
in that district. The whole question of the identity of RSja Hodi is involved 
in the greatest obscurity, but it seems pretty certain that his home should 
be referred to the EawSlpindi and Peshdwar districts.] 

Jis din Kokila jami aur na jama ko ! 

Bich darpan de mukh vekhe behre vich kharo. 

Rant KoJcildn. 

" Gahne ap de lah lie, main na pile dho. 
Asijoban bechn&j jo koi gahak ho ! " 

Eajd Rasdlu. 

5 " Je tain joban beclina, pakhi gkat bajar : 
Munh di banal kotbri lavin jake bajar. 
Thora kajla pake naini kare bapar. 
Kan^n di kar le takri, julfon di bat le dor. 
Jhukdi palrJ tol de, tere gahak lakh karor 1 " 


Ban'/ Koldldn. 

10 " Je t6n ohala shikar nftji, le chal mainflid nal. 

Nile ghore tun charhin, mainte tule lie charha. 

Alio, dekli, chugde mirgre sang parbat di ot ! 

TJtarke ghoroii chot kar, dekhin ten chot. 

Puckh khandi'A badh le, hontb na chhadl nal. 
15 Tere mare mirgale chhalaii karan chaL. char: 

Sade mare mirgale khare bfthe de bar ! " 

Har sangLar lake bah gai ; mirg pati bahnda a. 
Har Eani ne kholke diti. mirg de gal pa. 

Raja Rasalu sadda. 

Bdja Rasalu. 

" Hire, mere kol ^vin ja. 
20 JAh main de dftn chugan nftn, klida dean liwa." 

Badhe kan pftchh, te bnchha dita bana ! 
Hh-d Mirg, 

" Mirg main k.iX\ dhar da, charhke aia utar. 
Tere khil da main panl na pi Ija, na jilh na charia ghah. 
Andosi de badhe kan puchh, te jimme na kadh^ gunah. 
25 Hira nam mirgala tan kahiii, tere mahilen pa deveii dhlr." 

Uthon mirg tan tur pia ; ^ia mirgaii de pas. 

Mirg an. 

" Kithe baiae kan pAchh ? Tain lai mirgon nAn laj ! 

Jehri chaukion pi'ili nikali, ralane da kl sawad ? " 

Age Hira bolda : 

Hlra Mirg. 

" Suno mera jabab, 
30 Bagh Eaje Hodi d& chalke kariye biran." 

Bich b^gh de anke mirgaii de dere lathe an. 



" Raja, tere b^li men pai mirgau di dhar : 
Aisa tufaui mirgala kita bagh biran. 
Marwa, chamba kha lia, tore amb, anar. 
35 Ais^ tufani mirgala aia dar de nal : 

Pede takar kahar de mare sitia zamin de nal. 
Akliin chalke dekh le ; kita bagh biran." 

Hird Mirg. 

" Tftn Eaja Thanthor da, khanda tera pargas ! 
Sone bargi Rani Kokilan tainAii oh de paveh das." 

Rdjd Hodi. 

40 " Jhute kaul karendi^, kani baith^ gaiiwa ! 

Budhe di na jave gau khai-i; chor births ja ! " 

Eird Mirg. 

"As pujadian herian, main mirg na mara ja ! 
Uthke ghora chher le, tur par mere nal." 

Rdjd Modi. 

" Parbat basdia totia, basda kali dhar, 
45 Kithe da janambhon hai ? Kehra shahr granw ? 
Kis Raja da tun hai janwar ? Ki hai tera nan ? 
Kaun dend4 khan piwan nM ? Kaun hai parbasgar ?* 
Asi piase jal de; sanun bharke pil4 de dol. 
Dfiron age chalke, sunke tera sii ! " 


50 " Parbat tot& main basUn, basda kali dhS,r, 

Gorakh tibbe janamian, oh bhari thaun. 

Sahib denda khan piwan nun; Oh hai parbasgar !* 

Sirkap Raja di betri chhadi dhaulri charh. 

Bhala chahen tattu niin moriye, tainAn karegi khwar. 
65 Hath banhke kahinda, main ne sach dean suna ! " 

* Tor parwardigdr. 


Rant Kokilan. 

" Mahilen tale phirandia, sadh phire ke chor ? 
Ki tain ne ganwS. le m§,iisan ? Kl ganwS.e dlior ? " 

Bajd Hodi. 
" Na ganwa le maiisarij asi na ganwa le dhor. 
Landa bucha mirgala tere mahile bar gae chor. 
60 Nahin to chor phara de, nahin phaia de pair. 
Choran de maile kapre ; santan di pat aur. 
Lakh take de admi tain bana He chor ! 
Asi piase jal de^ sanAn bharke pila de dol." 

Rant Koldlah. 
" Pani pi We, sidhar : — na ankhiri dekh, na bhul ! 
65 Jis rasia di nar hun, oh de p§.nan da nahin mul 1 " 

Raja Hodi. 
" Panan da mul chhah take, orak ane char : 
Ghar chalke vekh le mere, chaudah sath panihar ! " 

Rani Kokilan. 
" Men bargi sohani jangal hirni hog ! " 

Raja Hodi. 
" Hirni da ki sulahuna, jhar pataindi ja ? 
70 Je bas pe ja herniaii, jan ujain ja ! 

Khal teri kadhange heri, lainge heth bichhEi 1 " 

Rant Kokilan, 

" Kehra tera pargana ? Kehra shahr graAn ? 
Kis Raja da betra ? Ki hai tera naun ? " 

Raja. Hodi. 

" Badna Nagari parganaj oho shahr graAn. 
75 Hatia Raja da betra, Hodi mora naAn." 

Rani Kokilan. 
" Mahileh sade S. ja, teri aisi levenge &kv. 
Ghora bandh nal amb de, sobane b%hon de m\." 


Edjd Eodl. 

" Nai-an bliariari gandalaii bih diarij kbain sambhal sam- 
Mabilen sade a ja, asi levenge sar," 

Bdni Kokildh. 
80 " S^man barse meghla, barse jMmbar la. 

Rukh dflbe san kombali, hathi mal mal nha. 
Gbara dAbSi san chapni, cbiri tihai ja ! 
Bani^ asi mat kutia, kapre lite la. 
Eh paheli bujh le, mere chhej par a ! " 

Bdjd Hodi. 
85 " Eh paheli ' 6s' di : hor naviri koi p^ ! " 

Eani Kokilah. 

" Jami thi sath gaj : bharjoban gaj char ! 
Bap bete ram li karke iko nar ! " 

Raja Hodi. 
" Eh paheli ' chhafln ' di : hor navin koi pa ! 
Je tere bich hai dharamj chheji apnl charha." 

Mdnl Kokilan 

90 " Ambar bel, agas phal ; jo seve so kha ! 
Man kuari, pitS, dhd put biyahwan ja ! 
Eh paheli bujh le, tan tainiin chheji charh^." 

Maja Hodi. 
" Main te nahici bujhi jandi !" 

Edni Kohilan. 

" Tu meri chheji a ! " 

" ChAri kutan phut khand di, bahke dasti kha. 
95 Mui maina mar jan de, tere biyah kara dM char. 
Maina d^ ki marna ? Oh de bich sarir jind na ! 
Mar4n tere bargiarij khari karke bich madan ! " 

Mahilon se tot^ ur gi^, ura pankh sambMl. 


"Mainftn Dhart najar na awandJ^ pahuncha tere p&s, 
100 Mahile tere dhar lag gai, tainun sujhde shikar ! 
Akhiu chalks dekh le, tere mandir kite khwar ! " 

Sdja Rasalu. 
" Ath khAi, nau bariaii, ban bari mor : 
Itni pahru hundiai, Tota ; mahile kid^ lags chor ? " 

" Ik jo k gia EajpAtj mar karainda mar^ 
105 Terh dhuni^ tamak paria, tukre kite char. 

Ik kamand sitid Rani Kokilan, mahile li^ charha. 
Ohneii khede baji sir di, badhi bhar utha." 
Edjd Basdlii. 
" Kis ne khAa geria ? Kaun phiri bich bar ? 
Kis ne pari dantan ? Kis ne siti khungar ? 
110 Kis ne khadi ambali ? Phutak sita bAhe bar ! 
Kis ne chheja m^aiaii ? Dhili pari niwar ! " 

^.ge Kokilan boldi : 

Edni Kokilan. 

" Sun le mera jabab. 

Main ape khft^ geria : tota sh^mi phira bich bar : 

Main kpe pari dan tan ^ ape siti khungar : 
115 Bhftki ne khadi ambali, phiUak bflhe b^r : 

Main ftnandi ne chhejan manian, dhili pari niwar. 

Sikar do-pahr§, a gia, a gai totan di dar. 

Maina tola lar mare, main hi chhudawanhar. 

Tote ne patian mendhi&n, maina tora har. 
120 Bharte jinh^n de mar gae, bure unhan de hal : 

Mainiin kalli niinchhad gi^, mere kine na pai sar." 

Rani jadukhori Raja lia bharma : 
Hodi Raja lakt ditia, ditia saf bich pa. 
R^ja thanda kar lia, chheji lia baha. 
125 Khana kattha khande, darii lia pia. 
Tote ne Hodl kadhia, ijjat chhodi na. 


*' Gliar aia na marije, lage saga bhara.'' 

Raja RasalA te Hodi fcur pie, gae bich uj^r; 
Laga tir ghazab da Raja Hodi sitia mar. 
130 Mds oh da kadh 11a, Rani Kokilan kMndi ap i 
Mas yaran de khandi, kh^ke pflchhe suwad. 

Klianda, ghoia, isfcri ; tinon be-imaa. 
Khanda na rakhiye manjke, murke pawe kapM. 
Ghora mahela na pa Jiye, oh raadan bick dinda bar. 
135 Ran na kariye l^li, jad kad kare khwar. 

Mas yarah de khadian, khake puchhan suwad ! 
Ghhatta Qadir Yar eh banaia, 4p pa Bhagwan ! 

On the day that Kokilan was born may no one else be 

She stood in her courtyard looking at her face in a 

Raul KvMldn.f 
" Take back thy jewels, I have not let them soil. J 
I will sell my youth to the first purchaser ! "§ 
Bajd Rasdhi. 
5 "If thou, wouldst sell thy youth take a hut in the bazar : 
Thy beautiful face will get thee a place in the bazar. 
Putting on a little lampblack drive a trade with thy 

Make thy ears into a balance and thy locks into strings. 
Weigh out with unbalanced scales and thy customers 
shall be in hundreds and thousands !" 

Rani Kokildn\\. 
10 " When thou goest a hunting take me with thee. 

Mount thy dark grey horse and take me up behind thee. 

* It was so inauspicious. f To Raja Ras&lft. 

j i.e., hardly worn them. § Because Ras&M neglected her. 
' II Scene changes : to R&ja Rasaia. 

VOL. III.— 30 


Look, the deer are grazing nnder the shade of the hills 1 
Dismount from the horse and shoot and let me see thee 

(Thy shot) pierceth from hoof to lip ! 
15 The deer thou strikest runneth forward fonr paces : 
The deer that I strike* stand at my door I" 

Putting on her necklace she sat down and the lord of 

the deer came np to her . 
Eini (Kokil^n) took off her necklace and put it on the 

deer's neck. 
EaJEk RasS/lA (then) called him up (and said) : 

Rdjd Basalu. 

" Hirajf come up to me. 
20 I will give thee a pasture to graze, and sink for thee a 

He then cut off his ears and tail and made him tailless !{ 

Him, the Deer. 

" I am a deer of the dark mountain and have come down 
from it. 
I have not drunk the water of thy well, nor have I eaten 

the grass of thy pasture. 
Without fault hast thou shorn ears and tail, for no fault 
is proved against me. 
25 Thou shalt know my name to be Hira, the deer, when I 
bring a robber to thy palace." 

Then the deer went thence and came to his herd. 

* By attracting them by my beauty. 
t The name of the deer. J Treacherously out of jealousy. 



" Whither have gone thy ears and tail ? Thou hast shamed 
the herd ! 
When bread is cast out of the hearth, can it be takea 

Then spake Hira : 

Hlra, the Dear, 

" Hear my say : 
30 Let us go into the garden of Raja Hodi and lay it waste." 

Going into the garden the herd took up its abode there. 

The Gardener. -f 

" Raja, a (robber) herd of deer is in thy garden : 
And a destructive deer is laying waste thy garden. 
The marwdX and the jasmine he has eaten and ruined 
the mangoes and pommegranates. 
35 A most destructive deer is in the herd : 

Strong trees in the garden is he destroying and throw- 
ing to the ground. 
Come and see with thy own eyes ; he hath laid waste 
the garden." 

Hlrd, the Beer. 

" Thou art Raja of Thanthoi-§ and thy sword is bright ! 
I will bring thee to Rani Kokilan, (bright) as gold." 

Raja Hodi. 

40 " maker of false promises, that hath lost thy ears ! 

A (wise) old man does not lose his cow, and the thief 
goes disappointed away ! " 

* Allusion to the Hindfi custom of cooking and eating only within a 
fixed spot {chaukd) made temporarily siicred for the purpose. 

t To Raja Hodi. % The sweet-scented artemiaia elegant. 

§ See below, line 74. 


Hlra, the Beer. 
" The liuntsman cometh full of hope, bat I, the deer, am 
not to be caught ! 
Up and spur on thy horse and eome with me-" 
RdjA Hodl* 
" parrot of the mountains, that dvvellest on the dark 
45 Where was thy birth-place ? Where thy city and home? 
What Eaja's parrot art thou ? What is thy name ? 
Who giveth thee to eat and di-ink ? Who is thy pro- 
tector ? 
I thirst for "water; give me a bucket to drink from. 
I am come from afar,, hearing tby praises ! " 

50 " I, the parrot, dwell in the mountains, in the dark hills : 
I was born on Gorakh's hill,t which is a steep place. 
God giveth me to eat and drink ; He is my protector ! 
The daughter of Rnja Sirkap is left in this palace. 
If thou wishest thy good, turn thy horse home, or (Raja 
Rasalu) will bring thee to trouble. 
65 With joined hands I say it, and I tell thee truth ! " 

Rini KoMl(in.% 
" wanderer beneath the palace, art a true man or a 
Hast tbou lost men ? or hast thou lost cattle ? " 

Bijd Hod'i. 
" I have not lost men, nor have I lost cattle. 
A thief of a tailless earless deer hath entered thy palace : 
60 Either catch me the thief, or show me his tracks. 
Thieves wear dirty clothes ; true men are otherwise. 
Thou hast turned a wealthy man into a thief ! 
I thirst for water, give me a bucket to drink from." 

* To Raja Rasalil's parrot : he has now reached Kokilan's palace, 
t See Vol. II. p. 546. Better known as Gorakhnath's TiM. 
X From the palace, seeing Raja Hodi below. 


Rani KoMliht. 
" Drink tliy water and be off : nor look with thy eyes (at 
me) nor forget thyself! 
65 Whose wife I am, his very shoes are beyond thy value 1 " 

Edjd Hodi. 
" The price of a pair of shoes is six half-pence or four 
pence at the outside : 
Come and see my house, where there are fourteen sixties 
of water-bearers !" 

Rani KoJcildn. 
"There may be a doe as beautiful as I in the forest !"* 
Rdjd Hodi. 

" Why praise the doe that jumps about the bushes ? 
70 If she fall into the hands of the huntsman her life is 
gone ! 
(Verily) the huntsman shall take thy skin and spread 
it under him ! " 

Earn Koldldh. 

" Where is thy country ? Where thy city and home ? 

What Eaja's son art thou ? What is thy name ? " 

Raja Hodi. 
" Badna City is my home, that is my city and home. 
75 I am Raja Hatia's son, and Hodi is my name." 

Rani Kohildh. 
"Come to my palace, that I may hear about thee. 
Tie thy horse to the mango tree in the beautiful 

Raja Hodi. 
"Women are (sugar-)stalks full of poison, one should 
eat them carefully. 
Come to my palace, that I may hear about thee." 

* But nowhere else. 


Bani Kolcildn.* 
80 " The August clouds are raining, raining in torrents. 

Trees and their branches are sunk (in the flood) and the 

elephants are bathing themselves. 
The pot and its cover are sunk (in the flood), but the 

bird still thirsts I 
The shopman is robbed in his house and his clothes 

taken from him. 
Solve me this riddle and then come to my couch !" 

Edja Hodl. 

85 " This riddle means ' dew ' : give me a newer one I" 

Rhnl Koldldn. 

" At birth she was of sixty yards : at full age of four 
yards ! 
Father and son both enjoyed the same wife ! " 

Eafa Hodi.f 

" This riddle means ' shade ' : give me a newer one I 
And if thou art honest, admit me to thy coach." 

Bani Kohilan. 

90 " The stalk in the earth, the fruit in the sky ; who follows 

shall eat. 
The mother a virgin, the father the womb, and the son 

present at the wedding ! 
Solve me this riddle, and I will admit thee to my 


Raja Hodi. 
" I cannot solve it ! "J 

Rani Kokilah. 
" (Nevertheless) come to my couch !" 

* Slie now commences to ply tim with riddles : see Vol. I. p. 42 and 
Vol. II. p. 335. 

+ Compare the riddles about Raja Rasalfi at p. 307, Vol. XII. of the 
Indian Antiquary. 

X The stock answer to this riddle is Kusum or safflower. 


" I will give thee sugared cakes to eat, sit on my hand and 
eat them.* 
95 Let the dead maina go, I will give the four to wife. 
What use is there in kicking the maim ? She hath no 

life in her body ! 
I would strike such as thee in the open plain ! " 

The parrot flew from the palace, flying with careful wings. 
Parrot f. 
" Without seeing the earth (very quickly) have I come to 
meet thee. 
100 Robbers are in thy palace and thou art a hunting ! 

Come and see with thine own eyes, they are ruining 
thy palace ! " 

Raja Rasalu. 

"Eight wells, nine windows, and a peacock at aach 
window : 
So many guards, Parrot ; how can thieves have entered 
the palace ? " 

" A mighty Rajput warior came 
105 And broke thy (challenge) drumsj and made them 
into four pieces. 
Rani Kokilan threw down a rope and brought him up 

into the palace. 
They played at chaupur together." 

Rf'tja Rasalu.^ 

"Who threw down my well- bucket ? Who came in at my 
door ? 
WTio used a tooth-brush here ? Who spat about the 
place ? 

* Rani Kokilan says this to the parrot. For explanation : see Vol. I. 
p. 54fe. 

t To Eaja Rasalfl who is out hunting. J See Vol. I. p. 44. 

§ He has now reached home and is questioning Kokil&h. 


110 Who ate these mangoes ? The stones are thi-own down 
by the door ! 
Who lay on my bed ? The strings are loose I" 

Then said Kokilah : 

Rani Kokilun. 

" Hear my answer. 
I threw down the well-bucket : the parrot and maind 

■wandered in at the door. 
I used a tooth-brush, and spat about the place: 
115 I was hungry and ate mangoes, and threw the stones 
about the door : 
I was sleepy and lay on thy bed, and so the strings are 

At midday there came a flight of parrots : 
And the parrot andmaind fought together and I simply 

separated them. 
The parrot dishevelled my locks and the maina broke 
my necklace. 
120 Whose husbands are dead are in sad case : 

Thou didst leave me alone and no news came to me." 

The bewitching Rani deceived B,nja (Rasalu), 

And put Raja Hodi into a mat and set him up in a 

She cooled down Raja (RasalA's rage) and sat him on 
her couch. 
125 They ate together and drank wine. 

(But) the parrot discovered Hodi, and (destroyed his 


" Slay not thy guest, he is as thy own brother."t 

So Raja Rasalft and (Raja) Hodi went into the wilds, 
And there wounded by an arrow Raja Hodi was slain. 

" * To Raja BasaM. 

t Allusion to tlie custom of granting sanctuary to any person who 
has eaten of the householder'^ food. 


130 (Raja Easalm) took of kis flesh and gave Rani Kokil&n to 
Eating her lover's flesh, she remarked -on its taste. 

" Sword, horse and woman j these three are faithless.* 
Keep not thy sword sharp lest it return on thy head. 
Feed not thy horse on mahela beansf or he will turn on 
the battlefield. 
135 Make not thy wife a darling or sho will some day bring 
thee to sorrow." 
Eating her lover's flesh (Rani Kokilaii) remarked on its 

taste ! 
Qadir Yar Ohhatta made this poem, by the help of God ! J 

* See Vol. in. p. 225. 

t Phasiolus radiaius : said to be the most heating of all kinds of 

X Tke name of tlie Bard : note ttat by his name he is a Musalman, 
while he invokes the Hindfl God Bhagwan. 

VOL. in. — 31 

No. L. 


[The following is the bardic version of a startling incident at the Court of the 
Emperor Shdhjah&n, which once created an immense sensation.] 

[In A,D. 1638 the celebrated Eathor K^jS Gaj of Marw^r or JodhphAr died, 
leaving two sons — the elder Amar Singh, the hero of this tale, and the 
younger Jaswant Singh, who snooeeded him and became famous in the 
days of the Emperor Anrangzeb. The turbulent and impracticable 
temperament of Aniar Singh induced the assembled nobles of Marwfir to 
exclude him from the succession even during the lifetime of his father by 
the ceremony of desw/UA or banishment. Tod, in his Bdjasthdn, describes 
this as consisting of mounting the victim on a black horse, clothed in black 
with black accoutrements, and turning him out of the State as a perpetual 
exile. Amar Singh after this betook himself with the following that 
always hangs on to a R4jpflt chief to the Mughal Court at Agra, where be 
was taken into favor, granted N^anr in Bik^ner, a EAthor feof,— but 
never apparently MertS as the bards think — and made » commander of 
3,000. On one occasion he had absented himself from duty and was called 
to task and fined by the Emperor Shahjahan. The Mir Bakhshi (Con- 
troller of Military Accounts) Sayyid SalSbat Kh^n was sent to recover the 
fine, but was told by Amar Singh to go away. On this the Emperor sent 
for Amar Singh to his presence in the Diwi'.n-i-'khds, (Hall of Private 
Audience) at Agr4, where the irritated Eii jpCit stabbed Salfibat Kh^n before 
the assembled Court. He was thereupon pursued and cut to pieces with many 
of his retainers near a gate of the fort known to this day as Amar Singh's 
Gate. This tragic event occurred on the evening of Thursday the 30th of 
JumAdiu'l-awwal 1054 A.H. or 25th July 1644 A.D.] 

[Tod states that the feof of Nagaur was nevertheless continued by Shfihjahdn 
to E£i Singh, Amar Singh's son, after whom it devolved successively on 
Hfithi Singh, AnAp Singh and ludar Singh, which last was dispossessed by 
the then head of the Eathors, and Nfigaur once again annexed to the 
Jodhpdr State. The descendant of Amar Singh, the head of the Efithors 
by right of birth, after this became and is still but a petty th&kur or baron 
of the M^rw^- feudal system.] 


Rag Raja Amak Singh sakna Garh Merta 'ilaqa Bikanek. 

Shdhjahdn Eddshdh se ahilltdroh ne chughali hhdi, Ice ' Bdjd Amar 
Singh muddat se dp Ice saldm ko nahih dyd,' jis par Shdhjahdn ne 
huhm diyd, he ' sat Idhh he dastah jdve.' Bdjd Amar Singh Shdh- 
jahdn Bttdshdh Ice saldm he waste chald. Bdni ne hahd, he ' Bdjd 
matjdo ?' Is par Bdjd Amar Singh Bdni par ghussa hud. 

Bharka Raja Amar Singh mange hathiar : 
" Rani, mera tarkash la de zarri da, gendS. dt dhar." 

UtM jo Rani Hadia, pkar lindi bag : 
" Kaun wakt Darbar d4 ? Gai adhi rat ! 
5 Shish bbaruu sharab de, piala mera hatb. 

Bbar bhar piala piawandi, karti musbtak. 

Pi le, Raja Amar Singb, na hove udas. 

Rang mabilon sej bichbawandi ; kar le do bat. 

Piu de main chihtti" bhej dun, aven nau lakb : 
10 Gal ka bar jo bech dun, kat jan cbbah mas. 

Aj baso rang mabil men, Badshab ko milna parbhat." 

Gbussa boke Rani ne ik araz sanai : 
" Mar ja meri mata, jinben Hadi jai ! 

Mar jaii tai aur cbaohiaii, jinben god kbilai ! 
15 Mar jau nai Brabmanan, jine ne kari sagai ! 

Main beti Rajput di cbakar gal lai ! 

Cbakar bo te naukaran le palla pai ! 

Bera rah gia bicb men, na par langhai. 

Hatke dola pbir do babal gbar tain : 
20 Ab di jawan pbir pii\ de, dewaii Ram dubai. 

Adb-purusb Ratbor de na koi kare sagai ! 

Panan jiba rang tb4, pbir gai zardai. 

Kya tujbe dukbra mal da ? Kya zabmat ai ? 

BarjAn, Raja Amar Singb, milna na jae : 
25 Age zulmi Badsbab dega marwae : 

Pairon beri, Mtbon thokri, gal tank pabinae !" 

Barja Raj§, na raba, gbori cbalal. 

Kbusbi bo Raja Amar Singb cbala Darb§.re : 

Moharan liari pesb kar le panj aur cbare ; 


30 Hazir leke rakhiari Sbahjalifi,n Darbare; 

Dekhkar Shahjahan Badshah bitart^ hankare r 
Kaha Salabat Khan nun : " Kam karo hamare. 
Age auna nh do,^ Raj,put rakho atkare." 
Salabat Khan nn Bakhshi dida tare : 
35 " Adab manke khara raho, Rajput biehare ! 

Teri bftfc digi Darbar men, maiii khara sidhare."" 
" Meri tA kya bat saiiwarda t Kartar sanware !." 
Amar Singh (3igai&, na digeyjaisa parbat bharL 
" Hatke khara^ gaiiwariar ! Kyi, kare ganwari V 
40 ' Ganwar' kahe se khijta bharta hankare : 
" Aj kaha ganwarilfcr, kal dega gari ! 
Parson nun banh pakarke kadh de Kachahri bari 1'" 
Jabbal kadhi misrf nikali do dhari : 
Mare Salabat Khan di ja khili pari : 
45 Lagi mavdt de hath di na rahJ wo dharl. 
" Eh la apne sat lakh, Salabat piare f 
Kante dharke janch le, hor ghat hamare !" 
Khara puiaren umre Badshab de piare : 
" Bhala kia, re Amar Singh, Salabat mare ! 
50 Bhale bure da chughal tha, tain aj guzare !' 
Dera pakaro, Rajput, mere mit piare ;. 
Mansab likhia suber nun pakka sat hazare t" 
Charh bola Shahjahan Badshah t "Sun, umro, mere-: 
Khflni jane na pave, niEirO' turn ghere. 
55 Sab meii sher kahaute, torn mard badhere I 
Hindu mar Salabat Khan nun ja lega dere."' 
Rao di ujar tale na aia, h.© gia parere. 
Dfir ja bola r " Dilli de Badshah, ab darwajakyun bhere ? 
Kaul deke Rabb de a dhoka nere."" 
60 Arjun, dahe Bura, siti shamshere ; 

Tan 14 de Amar Singb d$, tan gai udhere : 
Pardon Raja Amar Singh lie jaundhar ph-ere. 
Sat amiron nunmarke Raja surgdhai'i. 
Oj-ak Amar Singh de larde kaharan : 
fc'5 Ikki amiraii nuii marke, jujhe chhali kaharaa. 
Raja da Brahman Rai Gokal Das i 


Gokal ne silti misri, chokhi Gujiit : 
Man Mallftko jo anke ja kata mas : 
Chandan rukh katke talwaron ghaia. 

70 Raja da niinak halal kar Brahmau Baikunth nfln dhai^. 
Kishan Das MasalcM ran phera changa : " 
Mir Khan de tan nun la dia kuwat kar jhanda. 
Duje maria Hasat Khaii dil kar lia changa.' 
Umre yun lite Darbar men, jdn pare Malanga. 

75 Phuare* ghau yun pare bhakabhak, jun bahe GangL 
Kha li bhajia bhang, yar, jun charhe tarang^ : 
Pachis amiran niin marke nai da ban chala sarauga. 

Larka p(ichhe Earn Singh : " Sun, Kishan Das, 

Turn gae Dai-bar men chacha de nal. 
80 Mere kya chacha se namre ? Kya mila in^m ?" 
"■ Kya kahuii, mere Kaiiwarjl ? Na pilchhe bat ! 

Eaja Amar Singh nun us ne kaha ' ganwar ' ! 

Loth pari, Kanwarji, Kachahri pas. 

Thokar maren Mughal, yar, gal katen mas I" 
85 Sun sun batai Ram Singh ho gia udas. 
" Meri dhari rahin do palki, ghar jao, kahar : 

Apne mahalon so raho, jis se piari nar. 

Mere dhore woh rahe bandhe talwar." 

Ghore kaza kar die kilef de bar. 
90 Darwaze tore kile de kuhare nal. 

Kile de andar ja bara pan sau jawan. 

Misri baji kile men parte jhankar ; 

Sauda tole sarohion nar kare bampar. 

Kesrani jama ho gai, jiha khenda gulal. 
95 Pan sau men se larka Ram Singh laia do sau sath. 

Kahe Rani Hadia : " Meri bandi, daur ; 
Mahilon sej bichha de, thori post ghol. 
Age Raja Amar Singh a gae Eathor !" 
Unche charhke dekhdi bandi nadan. 

* For fawdre, a jet, spring of water. f For qila'. 


100 " Rani, n^ Doradri dJ joriari, na lal rabaib ! 
Khali tarkash bajdi^ dal genda dhal!" 

Jad band} ne Rani se kiha^ ke " Sab cb}zS,n dikUai dindl 
hain, magar Raja nahin dikhda." Rani ne eh bat sanke apne 
man men ghussa karke kiha, ke " Mera Raja bara bahadur 
hai." Jad sabh mardman mahil men akar jama hoe, tan Rani 
ne puchhia^ ke, " Hamara Raja kahan riha T'' Tan sipahiaii ne 
jawab dia, ke " Raja tan Surg sidhare !" Itni sunke Eani zar 
zar rone lagi, aur tamS.m mahil men shor ghul hoia. Eani ne 
bandi se kiha, ke " solah singar mera utar lo, sari khushi Eaj& 
de nal gai !" Rani ne solah singar battis abran, sabh ut^r lia 
aur kiha ke "sit kataia lao, main khakar mar jMn. Raja mera 
mar gia, Padshah mainuh pakarke din se be-din karega, aur 
chakki piswakar dana dilwa dega. Us bipta se bihtar hai, ke ap 
hi mar jauii." Itni kahkar Rani ne apne hath se gale men 
talwar m^ri aur foran mar gai. Jad Badshah ne eh hai suna, 
nihayat afsos kia, aur jo kuchh ke jagir Raja Amar Singh di thi, 
us di fauj niln bakhsh di. 


The Song of Raja Amar Singh op Gakh Meeta in Bikaneb. 
His courtiers told tales to ShdhjaMn, the Emperor, saying that 
Amar Singh, had not been to pay Ms respects for a long while, on luhich 
Shdhjahun issued an order that a demand for seven lakhs {of rupees') 
was to he made upon him. So Bdjd Amar Singh went to Shdhjahdn, 
the Emperor, to pay his respects. His Bum, however, said to him, 
' Qo not, Bdjd,' on which Bdjd Amar Singh became angry xcith his 

At once Raja Amar Singh ordered his arms, (saying) : 
"Rani, bring me my jewelled quiver and my golden 
Up got Rani Hadia and seized his reins, (and said) : 
" Is this a time for the Court ? It is past midnight ! 
5 I fill thee a flask of wine^ the cup is in my hand. 
I fill the cup for thee to drink and make merry. 
Drink it. Raja Amar Singh, and be not sorrowful. 


I spread a bed in the painted palace, let us talk 

together there. 
I will send a letter to my father* and he will send nine 

lakhs (of rupees). 
10 And I will sell my necklace from my neck, on which we 

can live for six months. 
Stay to-day in the painted palace and go the King in 

the morning." 
In her anger prayed the Eani : 
" May the mother die, that bore me HadiS ! 
May the aunt and uncle die, that brought me up ! 
15 May the barber and the Brahman die, that arranged my 

marriage ! 
For I the RajpAt's daughter have embraced a servant If 
Have been given to the servant of a slave ! 
My boat hath remained in the midst (of the stream) and 

hath not crossed over. J 
Send me back to my father's house. 
20 Now would I return to my father, and claim the protec- 
tion of God. 
No one should marry into the Eathors, the first of men ! 
Thy hue was fresh as betel leaves and has now become 

What loss is there in property ? What evil hath come ? 
I entreat thee, Raja A mar Singh, go not (to the King) : 
25 For the cruel King will slay thee : 

He will put fetters on thy feet, handcuffs on thy hands 

and a weight round thy neck [" 
The Raja would not listen to her entreaty and urged on 

his mare. 
With pleasure Raja Amar Singh went to the Court : 
And presented four or five gold mohars, 

* She was the daughter of the Raja of Btodi. 
t A taunt leveUed at her husband for coming under the power of the 

t Idiom : I am in great trouble. 


30 And laid them before Shahjahan in Court. 

As soon as lie saw him Shahjahan the King called out, 
And said to Salabat Khan : " Do my bidding. 
Let not the Rajpilt come forward, keep him back." 
Salabat Khan, the Controller, cast his eyes on him, 
35 (And said) : " Stand and be respectful, thou wretched 
Rajput ! 
Thy fame hath fallen in the Court, and I keep watch 
(over thee)." 
" How can'st thou watch over me ? God shall watch \" 
Amar Singh, like a great mountain, was not to be kept 

(Said Salabat Khan) : " Stand back, thou boor ! What 
wilt thou with thy boorishness ?" 
40 Incensed at the word ' boor' (Amar Singh) called out ! 
" To-day he calls me a boor to-morrow he will abuse me ! 
Next day he will take me by the arm and put me out of 

Court !" 
In his wrath he drew his dagger and struck twice : 
He struck Salabat Khun and went through him : 
45 Struck by a warrior's hand the blow stayed not. 
" Take this for thy seven Idlclis, friend Salabat ! 
Take thy scales and weigh them out \" 
Called out a trusty noble of the King :* 
"Well hast thou done, Amar Singh, to slay Salabat! 
50 To-day hast thou slain a tale-bearer ! 
Go home, Rajput, my beloved friend, 
1 will have thee made in the morning commander of a 

good 7,000 !" 
Up came the King Shahjahan and spake : "Hear, my 

nobles : 
Let not the murderer escape, surround him and slay him. 
65 Ye are lions among all men, and great warriors ! 

The Hindu hath slain Salabat Khan and hath gone 

* Arjun Glior according to Tod's account : lie was Amar Singh's 
brotlier-in-law. This was said to quiet down Amar Singh. 


ThoRnja's (Amai- Singh's) blow did not reach {the King) 

and he went within. 
From a distance (Amar Singh) exclaimed: "King of 

DillJ, why hast shut thy gates f 
I came to thee deceived by the oath in God." 
60 Arjun* and Bura drew their swords, 

Struck at Amar Singh and pierced his body, 

And Rajl Amar Singh lay stretched (upon the ground). 

After slaying seven nobles Raja (Amar Singh) went to 

Afterwards Amar Singh's litter-bearers took up the fight, 
65 And slew twenty-one nobles with the loss of six bearers. 
The Raja's priest was Ral Gokal Das, 
And Gokal drew his sword, forged in Gujrat.t 
And struck Malluko,J who came up, and cut into his 

And having cut down this splendid tree he was destroy- 
ed by swords. ' 
70 True to the salt of the Raja the Brahman entered Heaven, 
Then Kishan Das the Torch-bearer rushed into the fray 
And inflicted a mighty blow on Mir Khan, 
And next he struck Hasat Khan with a brave heart. § 
The nobles strewed the Court, as fall Malangs.jj 
75 Blood gushed forth in a bubbling stream, as flows the 
Like one who is filled with hhang, my friends,^ when the 

intoxication rises, 
After slaying twentj'-five nobles, the barber became 

Said the youth Ram Singh : " Hear, Kishan Das,** 


* See above, line 48. 

t Meaning Gujrat in the PanjAb, famous for its cutlery. 
1 A noble of the Court according to the bard. 
§ Door-keeper of the palace according to the bard. 
\\ Malangs are militant Muhammadan fanatics. 
•([ To the audience. 
** Amar Singh's Toroli-bearer : See above, line 71. 

VOL. in. — 3J 


Thou wentest to the Court with my uncle. 
80 How fared my uncle there ? What reward obtained he ?" 
" What shall I say, my Prince ? Ask me not ! 
Rajf\ Amar Singh was called a boor ! 
And his body lies, Sir Prince, near the Court. 
The Mughals spurn it, my friend, and cut its flesh !" 
85 Hearing these words. Earn Singh became sorrowful. 

(Said he ) : " Put down my litter, and go you home, my 

bearers : 
Let them stay at home that have cherished wives. 
Let those stay with me that fasten on swords." 
They rested their horses at the fort gate, 
90 And broke open the fort gate with axes. 
Five hundred warriors entered the fort. 
Swords flashed in exchange in the fort ; 
And dauntless warriors struck bargains with their 

Their robes became red, as if they were playing with 
95 Out of five hundred the youth Ram Singh brought back 
two hundred and sixty. 

Said Rani HS,di3. : " Run, my maid ; 
Spread the couch in the palace, and mix a little opium. 
For Raj4 Amar Singh the Rathor comefch !" 
The silly maid went up to the roof to see (and said) : 
100 " Rani, I see not the drums of the musicians, nor the red 

lutes ! 
The quiver rattles empty and the yellow shield is in the 

crowd [" 

When the maid said to the Rani that she could see everything 
except the Raja, the Rani heard her and became angry, saying, 
" My Raja is a great warrior !" And when all the warriors col- 
lected in the palace the Rani asked them, " Where hath ray Raj^ 

* A red powder tin-own over each other by the revellers at the Holi 


stayed V Then the men answered, " Thy Eaj^ hath gone to 
Heaven !" Hearing this she wept bitterly and there was a cry 
through all the palace. Said the Rani to the maid; "Take off 
my sixteen ornaments^ for all my joy hath gone with the Raja !" 
The Rani took oif all her sixteen ornaments and her thirty-two 
jewels* and said, " Bring me a dagger that I may stab myself 
and die. My Raja is dead and the King will seize me and 
despoil me of my faithf and giving me a hand-mill to grind will 
make me live on it. To kill myself is better than such misfor- 
tune." Saying this the Rani struck her own neck with a 
sword and died at once.f When the King heard of this he 
was very sorrowful and gave to Raja Amar Singh's following 
all the lands he had held. 

* See Vol. I. p. 452. 

f SeveraJ Rajpdt princesses liad before this been forced into marriage 
with, the Musalman Emperors. 

X Tod says that Amar Singh's body was removed by his wife and 

No. LI. 


[The followiDg legend is the Panjfibi bardic version or rather distortion of the 
tale of the tragic death of Pfithivi Singh , son of Efija Jaswant Singh of Jodh . 
pOr and nephew of the Amar Singh whose story has just been related. As 
usual the bard has managed to confuse the history he has undertaken to 
preserve, and perhaps the best way to account for what he has recorded is 
to give a plain version of the historical facts as they really occurred.^ 

[R&jd Gaj Singh of Jodhpi^r loft two sons Amar Singh and Jaswant Singh, 
of whom the younger, Jaswant Singh, succeeded him in 1G38 A.D., under 
circumstances explained in page 242 ante. KSjA Jaswant Singh's son and 
heir was Frithivi Singh, the hero of this tale, who died in so sudden and 
startling a manner in 1680 A.D., that his death has caused a deep impression 
on the native mind of having been occasioned by the treachery of the 
Emperor Aurangzeb— a monarch who has left behind him an unenviable 
reputation for unscrupulous guile.] 

[Eaja Jaswant Singh bitterly opposed Aurangzeb when the latter was striving 
for the throne of his father ShS.hjahfin, and was moreover a friend and 
officer of Aurangzeb's opponent and elder brother D^rS Shikoh. He also 
soon after the accession of Aurangzeb, at the battle of KajwS in 1658 
treacherously seized the Royal camp and carried oflf its treasure to Jodbpilr. 
The story of the subsequent relations of Aurangzeb and his powerful 
vassal is that of a succession of mutual intrigues, during which they were 
ostensible friends, the Efijpiit holding several governments in succession 
from the Crown, ending with the mission of keeping the turbulent Pathans 
of Kabul in proper check. On this expedition Jaswant Singh started in 
1670, leaving behind him, as his representative, his sou and heir Pritbivi 
Singh. In 1680 Aurangzeb sent for Prithivi Singh and received him with 
niuch courtesy, giving him a khila't or robe of honour, which by etiquette 
he was obliged to wear on leaving the Court. On reaching his house he 
died suddenly in great pain that same evening, and from that day to this 
his death has been attributed to the poison in the robe. There is, however, 
of course, no evidence to show that the robe was poisoned and how it came 
to affect his health so rapidly. Jaswant Singh died soon afterwards iu 
1681 at K4bul heart-broken, it is said, at the news of the death of Prithivi 
Singh, which came on top of that of his two other sons, Jagat Singh and 
DalthamuS Singh, at KSbul. He was succeeded by a posthumous son, Ajtt 
Singh, who afterwards became famous and was finally murdered in 1725 by 
hia own son Eakht Singh. This crime was the canse of the break-up of the 
Mthors from the intestine strife it gave rise to.] 


[While Ajtl Singh was etill a babe, Aurangzeb made an attempt to seize his 
person, but wag foiled by the fidelity of DurgdD&s, a servant, who carried 
him safely to M&rw^r iu a basket of sweetmeats. Durgfi DAs is alluded to 
in the following legend, tljough wrongly.] 

[Iu line 29 of the legend the version told by Tod of the last interview between 
Aurangzeb and Prithivt Singh seems to be alluded to. The bardic story 
of the lions is naturally pure tall talk. Tod's story is this. When Prithivl 
Singh went to see Aurangzeb in Court the great Emperor took him firmly 
by both his folded hands and said, "It is told me that you possess as nervous 
an arm as your father : what can you do now f " " God preserve Your 
Majesty," he replied, " when the Sovereign of mankind lays the hajid of pro- 
tection on the meanest of his subjects, all his hopes are realized ; but when 
he condescends to take both mine I feel as if I could conquer the world !" 
His vehement and animated gesture after this speech gave full force to hig 
words and Aurangzeb quickly exclaimed: "Ah, here is OiDOther Tchutan 
(villain)" — a term he always used towards Jaswant Singh. However, out 
of policy be gave him a khila't and honoured him as above stated.] 

[Two other persons of note are alluded to in the legend. — Sarbuland KhSn and 
Virk Shikoh. Sarbuland KhSn belongs to times posterior to those of the 
leo-end and so the allusion to him is wrong. He was Governor of Gujarfit 
under the Emperor Muhammad Shih and was dismissed ; Ef.jfl Ahhai Singhi 
son of Ajit Singh and so grandson of Jaswant Singh and nephew of Prithivi 
Singh, being appointed his successor, They had a fight in 1727 in which 
Sarbuland Khfiii was defeated. That is all the connection he really has 
with the house of JodhpAr.] 

[Ddrfi Shikoh's defeat, capture and execution in 1659 are well known matters 
of history and there is nothing to show that Jaswant Singh had any concern 
iu them, as the legend presumes.] 

QissA Eaja Pirthi Singh Pisae Eaja Gajja Singh WalI 


Baydn hid gU had, lee Bdjd PirtU Singh, hirddar Jaswant Singh, 
Naurang Skdh Ehdnddn Shuhdn DehU lee 'ahad men hud, jis se is ne 
lardi hi, magar maghlUb hud. 

Simriin Sahib apna, bbaj Nandi Mai. 

Bakhshi Sher Buland Kbaii ne chnghli kbai. 
Khoja ne bukam dia : " De ja cbilam tavae." 
]\Iisri sfiti miyan se kboja ke babeii : 
5 Do dbar nacberi dbarau par Kacbahri manh. 


Dekhe Badshah chambhe ho jae. 

Baith takht par Badshah Jaswant bulde : 
"Tumhare baghal men Rajpvlfc, Rani ka jae: — 

Tumhare is biran ka nam kya ? Do hameii batAe." 
10 " Mali bap ne kia chfiOj nailn baia badhaya. 

Mere biran ka nafln Pii-thi Singh Gobind kh pay& : 

Chhote ka Partap Singh, siirat ka s&.ya." 

Itni sunke Badshdh man men khunsayS, : 
" Turn Pirthi Singh ke yar, main kaun kahS,y& ? 
15 Mere baia sher ae ;. umukte ik kehri aya ! . 

Pirthi Singh ko do jata : ' Badshah ne farmay^ 1 ' " 

Itni sunke Jaswant man men ghabarayii ; 

Apna ghora chherkar bhai pe ayd : 
" Bhala kia, re Pirthi Singh, Badshah ne bulaya, 
20 Badshah ne sher kS, tere gail jang karw3.ya." 

Itni sunke Pirthi Singh man men ghabaraya : 
" Abhi kaho Badshah ko, sher ko le ave." 

Sher Kachahri Badshah aya, am tamasM. 

Pirthi Singh, surat sohna, bhartaron sacha, 
25 Ik hath men lie tegh, duj^ dhulwasa ; 

Dia pukara sher ko, talwar nikasa. 

Kehri dya zor men; tor die dhulwasd. 

Dflja kehri baliwa.- bhar zor nikasa. 

Punje pakape hath men, kar sidha rakha"; 
30 Mari bagothi sher ko, gai kalam tarashi : 

Ik sher ke do kare, jaise patar noohe. 

Dekhke Naurang Badshah chambhe ho jata : 
" Aj mard mera kehri sher, kal hameii binase ! 

Pirthi Singh ko deflii siropa suneri." 
85 Uth chald tha BS^dshah, sang chali Kachahri. 

RajpAtaii se kari bad Naurang Shah bairi : 
Bhola Kanwar jane nahin siropa jo pahri : 
Jaise amli ghflme amal men, daug Ine gid zahri; 
Kul chhote Rdjpiit ki kayS, ho gai dhari. 
40 Khidmatgar lagae do sewa kario gahri. 
"Biran biran," kukia, "mera"; bir ne bola. 


Dhore khari Partap Singh ; murili khola pallS, : 
" Mert tAt gal banli dvlri, main rah gia akela. 
Maut nimani bag gai, ghuil do gai jhola." 
45 Dhore khara Partap Singh, bhar ansd roya: 
" Mere bare biran Pirthi Singh kis nindra soya ? 
Mera ran mandal, kal ka singar, kahan an chhipaya ?" 
Jamnaji ke nikat ghat le chandan dhoya ; 
Pirthi Singh ko dia dagh ; Rajpfltan ne nahan rach3,ya. 

50 Itnt sunko Badshah parwana mangwaya ; 

Jabhi to Naurang Badshah likhkar bhaji fardi : 
" Jis din ka mar gia Pirthi Singh badshahi mcri adhi. 

Meri dil ki dil men rah gai, man hua bairagi." 

Fardi banchi Jaswant Singh; jhat fardi pba;i: 
55 " Turn aisi baton likhen ; kia kapti be-dardi ? 

Log dikhawa karo, kia matbal ko garji! 

Pirthi Singh ke maran to nau kiinti larai !" 

Askaran ke Durg Das ne Kaohahri lai. 
" Hai koi dil men sflrma mukh bira khave ?" 
60 Jis ke tan men lag rahi, nfx bujhan bujhae : 

Bira uthaya Partap Singh ne ; bhaiyan nun jhukke sis 

Nau kuti charh gai Marw^r, ayani syana, 
ShekhA Shahzada ke sis par bah dia tang tand. 
Haude so nichhe dia ger, jaise burj purana. 
65 Dekhke Naurang Badshah dil men ghabaraya : 
" Tam, bhai, hat jao, jo Rabb ne chaha !" 
Itni sunke Jaswant Singh ghora mangwaya ; 
Begamen luten kile men, khizana lutwaya. 
Badshah ka Khizana lutkar nukara bajwaya. 
70 Raja chale gharan niln tamak bajwaya. 

Manzilon manzilon chalke JodhpAr men ay a. 
Ranian charon bhaion ki chaukian bichhwaya : 
Raja charh gae chaukian, hath thai diwai. 
Boll Rani Ranriip Kaiiwar, bhar araj lagai^: 
75 " Raja Pirthi Singh uh dekhti, tumhare bhai. 


Yd biran ko marwae ? Sach deo batde ! " 
Itui sunke Jaswant Singh mukh llrjsft lava : 
«' Pirthi Singh mar gia, kile men Dilli jalaya." 
Itni sunke Rani ne boli lae : 
80 " Aise Raja Pirthi Singh hath na ae !" 
Itni sunke Eaui ko de dia duhag ; 
Chandar Kaiiwar Rani ko dia suh&g. 

The Story op Raja Piethi Singh, son* of Raja Gajja 
Singh, Lord of Jodhpue. 

It is said that Edjci Pirthi Singh, brotherf of (Edjd) Jaswant Si?igh, 
lived in the days of Royal House of Naurang Shah (Aurangzeb) of 
Dehli, with whom he fought and by ivhow he was defeated. 

I (first) worship my LordJ and praise Mother Nandi.§ 

Sher Buland Khany the Commander told tales. 

Said the (Royal) eunuch (to Raja Pirthi Sing) : "Do 

thou light the (Royal) pipe." 
(The Raja) drew his sword and thrust it through the 

5 And the two halves leapt upon the ground in the open 

The King saw it and wns astonished. 
Sitting on his throne the King sent for (Raja) Jaswant, 
(And said) : "The Rajpiit by thy side, the son of a 

Queen : — 
What is the name of this thy brother ?1 Tell me." 
10 " His father and mother for love of him gave him a great 

n n m p ** 

* Properly grandson. f Really son. % Krishna in tliis case. 

§ i.e. Yasoda, the wife of Nanda, tbe foster-father of Krishna. 

\\ For Sarbuland Klian ; see introduction to the tale. 

^ Prithvi Singh was the son, not the brother, of Jaswant Singh, as 
this legend makes him out. 

** Prithivi Singh means Lion of the Earth, and the name moreover 
was very famous as being that of 'the celebrated R^i Pithaurfi of Uehli 
in the ISth Century A.D. 


My brother's name is Pirtld Singh, granted him by 

Gobind ;* 
The younger one is Partapt Singh, the pride of beauty." 
Hearing this the king grew furious in his heart, 
(And said) : " You would be a partisan of Pirfchi Singh; 
what do you think of me ? 
15 I have two and twenty lions just arrived, one stands 
roaring now ! 
Go and warn Pirthi Singh that the King hath said 

this ! " 
Hearing this Jaswant was anxious in his heart 
And gallopping his horse to his brother, (he said): 
"The King hath done well to call thee, Pirthi Singh. 
20 The King hath made up a battle between thee and a 
Hearing this Pirthi Singh became anxious in his heartj 
(and said) : 
*'Tell the King to have the lion ready at once." 
The lion came to the King's Court and (there was) a 

public show. \ 

Pirthi Sing, beautiful of form and true to his master, 
25 Took his sword in one hand and in the other his shield. 
And calling out to the lion drew his sword. 
The lion came on with great force and broke tke shield. 
But the other lion J confronted him in his strength. 
He seized his paws in his hand and stood him up 
30 And he struck the lion a blow, which went through him ; 
And the two parts of the lion danced (apart) like leaves. 
When Naurang Shah§ saw this he was astonished, 
(And said to himself) : " To-day he hath slain my lion, 
to-morrow he will ruin me ! 

* i.e. Krishna, i.e. God. 

t This hero does not seem to be otherwise known to history. He was 
really a younger brother of Jaswant Singh. 
X i.e. Prithivi Singh, the hero. 
§ The lisnal bardic and -pulgar form of the name of Aurangzeb. 


I will give PirtM Singh a golden robe." 
85 Up gat the King and his Court followed him. 

Naurang Shah had henceforth a great enmity with the 

The foolish prince knew not the robe he wore, 
And the poison of it entered him, as drunkenness encom- 
passes the drunkard, 
And all the body of the young Rajput fell down. 
40 His attendants did him all service. 

His brother (Partap Singh) called out "my brother, my 

Partap Singh stood by and removed the sheet from his 
face, (and said) : 
" My other arm is broken,* and I am left alone. 
Cruel death hath wounded me, and the bag (of life) is 
45 Partap Singh stood by and wept tears, (saying) : 

" With what sleep doth my elder brother Pirthi Singh 
sleep ? 
Where hath my hero in the field and the glory of my 

house hidden himself?" 
They placed his sandal-wood pyre by the banks of the 

And burning Pirthi Singh, the RajpAts bathed. 

50 Hearing of this the King sent for paper. 

And Naurang the King sent a letter at once : — 
" My kingdom is injured from the day Pirthi Singh died. 
My heart is sad-j- and my soul bereaved." 
Jaswant Singh read the letter and tore it up at once 
(saying) : 
55 " You that write such words have acted in cruel hypocrisy ! 
You deceive the people, and have done your desire 1 

* Conventional phrase for " my brother is dead." 

t lit., (the desires of) my heart have remained in my heai-t. 


At the death of Pirth; Singh the nine divisions (of 
Marwar) tremble 1" 

Dnrg DaSj* the son of Askaran, held a Court, 

(And said) : " Is there any hero at heart here that will 

put the betel leaves to his lips ?"t 
60 He in whose body rage (the heroic fires) that mnnot be 

put out, 
Partap Singh took up the betel leaf and bowed his head 

to the, brethren. 
All the nine divisions of Marwar advanced, old and 

And struck off the head of Prince ShekhuJ and hung 

it up. 
They threw him down from his elephant-litter aa (one 

would) an old tower. 
65 When Naurang Shah saw this he was agitated in his 

And said : " Do you, my brethren, retreat ; it is the will 

of God !" 
Hearing this Jaswant Singh sent for his horse, 
And robbed the ladies in the fort and the treasury. 
Eobbing the Eoyal Treasury he sounded his drums (of 

70 The Raja returned home sounding his drums. 

Stage by stage he travelled and came to Jodhpftr.§ 
The Queens of the four brothers y spread seats for them. 
And when the Eija sat thereon, they put a platter inta 

his hand. 
Spake Eani Eanrfip Kanwar,! saying : 
75 " I do not see thy brother E^ja Pirthi Singh. 

* The tmcle of Jaswant Singh according to the bard, but Bee intro- 

^^+*qii' Vol T n 43 etc. t DarS Shikoh : see introduotion. 

I STtMs Ja^n^stake. Jaswant Singh died at Kabul, a^d never 
returned home after his son's death. 

II ie of Jaswant, Amar, Pirthi and PartSp. ,, .t. ,, j 
f -lielhiTot jkswant Singh's Queens acoordmg to the baxd. 


Hast had thy brother killed ? Tell me the truth \" 
Hearing this Jaswant Singh wept: 
"Pirthi Singh died and was burnt in the fort at Dehli," 
Hearing this said the EanJ ; 
80 " Such an one as Raja Pirthi Singh shall never be again !" 
Hearing this (Jaswant Singh) made this Rani a widow,* 
And made Rani Ohandar Kanwar into a wife." 

* i.e. Being displeased at this speocli, lie displaced Rani Banrilp 
from being his chief Queen and set up Hani Ohandar Kanwar in her 
place. This is .the bard's story. 

No. LIL 



[This important variant of the Legend of GurCi G&gk has been most carefully 
taken down, aud represents faithfully all the vagaries of the local bardic 
dialect. It should, of course, be read with the version given at pp. 121-209, 
Yol. I.] 

[The chief point about this poem is that it brings the story of GftgS. into 
history in the usual bardic fashion of E^jpfltanii, divesting it, as far as 
possible, of the miraculous and giving it a specific date St. 1369 or 1312 
A.D. The history is naturally a little ' mixed;' but not more so than is 
ordinarily the case of such compositions when meant to be historical] 

[The usual version of Gilg&'s story — so far as it may be called historical — is 
that he died defending his country against Mahmud of Ghazni in the 
latter's last expedition into India in 1024 A.D.; whereas this legend makes 
him out to have conquered Firoz Shilh of Dehli, when that monarch 
took the part of the Saint's twin half-brothers Arjun an^ Sarjun in a 
characteristic quarrel over the division of the ancestral property, and to 
have died afterwards in 1312 ^.D.] 

[The Firoz Shah of Dehli, who, according to the bard, was thus defeated by 
GiigCi, would chronologically be Firoz Shah Khilj?, who reigned 1282-129S, 
but the indications contained as to the bard's meaning in verse 27fFpoint to 
his intending Firoz Shah lughlaq (B^rbak), who reigned 1351-1388, to bs 
his hero. As to the other prominent persons mentioned in the tale by 
name, those who figure as partisans of the DehlJ king do not need mention 
here, the bard having, so for as the names can be identified, apparently 
drawn on Indian Musalman history generally ; but those on Guga's side 
are very interesting. Bdla Gbiizi aJias Sfiliir Ghilzi, the well-known hero 
of the ballad given at pp. 99-120 of Vol., I., appears as Guga's partisan 
and nephew (sister's son), though beyond all doubt he was really the 
nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni. He was most probably, however, a 
contemporary of GugS. Nar Singh the family priest of Giiga and a 
Brahman, Bhajjil his household scavenger, and Fatteh Singh ChauhAn 
his kinsman, also appear as partisans. Now at the shrines of Gilgfi in 
the Panj^b are commonly to be seen associated with him figures of Nar 
Singh, Bhure Singh and K^le Singh, the last two being identified by the 
bard with Bhajjil and Fatteh Singh. This poem, therefore, is valuable 
as explaining who these personages are in the popular estimation. Fatteh 
Singh is called by the bard the pagari-ladal hMi of Giig^, i.e., a man 
who, by exchange of pagarfs or turbans, had sworn a close, offensive aud 
defensive alliance with him.J 



Git GSge ka. 


" Mata kalien ki Mausi ? Tu lage Dharam ki Ma. 
Ta Dadrere gam men thora biswa ham ko diwa : 
AdM kftka baon;* adha khet aur kiyar; 
Adha tattu tairi ; adha dhan aur mar." 

JBajiJ Baclihal. 

5 " Awan do ghar Pir ko ; adha lo dhan mar ; 
Adha lo tattu tairi; lo adha khet kijnr." 


The SoNa op Guga. 
The Tioms.-\- 

" Shall we call thee Mother or Aunt ? Thou art our 
sworn mother. 
Get us a small share in this village of Dadrera. 
Half the wells and reservoirs ; half the fields and beds ; 
Half the horses and mares ; half the wealth and goods." 

Queen Bdchhal. 

5 "Let the Saint J come home, and then take half the 
wealth and goods, 
Half the horses and mares, and half the fields and 

* For Idoli : I is frequently interchanged with r tki-ougliout this 

t To their aunt Bachhal and mother of Gilga : See Legend of Guru 
Cfugd in Vol. I., which also see as to Arjun and Sarjun, the twin 
half-brothers of GAga. 

J i.e. Gfiga and so on throughout the poem. 

THE SONG OF gGga. 263 

J ore. 
"TA Mata, it Mtiusij ham fte tere dwar. 
Purja* ham ko lekh die ; tira likM rahe parwar." 

Harapht shiaWj dsllne, kalam dawtlt mangae. 
10 Kalieu§ Sitabi : — se dhani kismat gai palta khae. 
Khabar Mi us Aulia ; le Lili bag uth^e. 
Awat dekha Pirji, pm-ja lia lukae. 

Hani Bdchhal. 
" Guga, ye mausir bain, bhum-bhai kar le : 
Ya Dadrere gam men biswa in ko de." 

The Twins. 
"Thou art our Mother and thou art our Aunt; we are 
come to thy door (as suppliants). 
Give us a document : thy writing will ever avail." 

For (writing) the letters in ink, they sent for pen and 

10 Saith Shitabi:|| — the fate of the wealthy changed at 

The Saint heard of it and gave rein to Lili.^ 
(When the Twins) saw the Saint coming they hid the 


Queen Bdchhal. 
" Gilga, these are my nephews,** make them brethrenf t 
in the land. 
Give them a share in this village of Dadreia." 

* For purza: zandjarefrequentlyinterctangedtliroitgliout tliepoem. 

t For harf, f and ph is also a constant interchange. 

t So is s for sh : here shidM is for sidht. 

5 For Shitdbi : see preceding line. 

H Shitabi, a bard, is the author of the poem. 

■[f The dark-grey mare identified with Gliga and with RasalO and 
Sarwar as well. 

** i.e. sons of her sister Kachhal. 
■ft i.e. shareholders. 



15 "Kaka ke, ua tuft ke; goti bhai Eae. 

Surij he Mata bawarij tu biswa kaise diwae ? 

Biswe baten kuput ke : bina bo so de ! 

Ye biswe Chauban ke koi tarwaran bal le !" 


" Jabir, toe maren jiu se, len Dadrere cbbin ! 
20 Ham Jore ar ke dbani : tire Bagar baseu amin.' 


" Jute rabo, re Joriyo : nabakk na audas lAii. 
Hukm nabin gur pir ka. Kaba binason dun ? " 


15 " Tbey are Bot sons of my father's elder or younger 
brother : they are not brethren of my family 
Hear, foolish Mother, how can you give them a share ?* 
A bastard might give a share, or the conquered ! 
Let them take the share of the Chauban by the power 
of the sword \" 

The Twins. 

" Zahir,t we will slay thee and seize Dadrera ! 
20 We twins are strong of purpose: we will dwell in thy 
Bagar as officers (of the king of Debli)." 


" Go, you Twins : I would not be a sinnerj for nothing. 
It is against the orders of (religious) teachers and 
saints. Why should I slay you V 

* i.e. Under Hindft notions they could not possibly have a claim. 
f i.e. Gflga and so tbroughont the poem. Z&bii- Pir is a common 
name for him. 

X By having to kill them for attacking him. 


Bhagwfiu kint ka kappe, lie masal jagae, 
Majil majil ke chalue pakunclie Madipur ae. 
2o Ga,u cliaraveii gawalie apae hi ban mdne. 

" DiUi kitaa pkasila ? Deo uiddn bat^e." 

" Dilli kos pdnch ik liai : Killa Purana tin. 
Age Tiiklabad hai, jahaii basen liain amm ; 
Jiirbag, Makbai-a Hamayftn, Sah Najamuddin. 
30 Age ka bewara naliiu ; wahai Gujar lete chhin." 

(The Twins) put on red {jogi's) clothing and lighted 

Going stage by stage they reached Madipur.* 
25 Cowherds where tending their cows in the forest. 
The Tivins. 
" How far is Dehli 1 Tell the ignorant." 

The Cowherds. 
" Dehli is about five miles off and the Old Fort three. 
Then comes Tughlaqabad, where the ofiicials dwell ; 
And Jurbagh and the tombs of Humayun and Nizam- 
u'ddin Shah. 
30 Beyond we have no knowledge, as Gujars rob there."t 

* A village near Dehli. 

t This local geograpky clearly shows that the bard is well acquainted 
with modern Dehlt, but very little -with history. The Qila' Purana (or 
Indrapat) was Humayfln's capital and was commenced about 1630 A.D. 
Tughlaqabad was the capital of Ghiasu'ddin Tughlaq and was founded 
13-21-1325 A.D. Jarb^gh is a village close by HumayCta's Tomb, which 
itself was not commenced tiU 1666 A.D. The tomb of Nizamu'ddin Aulia, 
the celebrated saint of Dehli, is not very far from this in the village 
of Ghiaspilr, and he died in 1325 A.D. The next reference is appai;ently 
to the modern Gfljai- villages in the Qila' Purana and Pirozabad, Firoz 
Shah Tughlaq's (Barbak's) town. Now if this Firoz Shah was the king 
with whom Gilga. fought in this poem, and as he reigned m Pirozabad 
from 1351 to 1388, it is clear that the Qila' Pui'ana, as now known, did 
not then exist, nor did Ilumayto's Tomb, nor could the Twins have 
gone on to Dehli, which, in its modern position, was built by Shah Jahan 
between 1638-1658. If Firoz Shah Khiljt was the king meant as 
Gilga's opponent then none of this geography is correct, as he reigned 

VOL. III. — 34 


Kadam uthae Jore kai- Dilli ka dhyan ; 
Eajghat par aeke, kle Jamna ashnan. 
Arjun se Sarjun kabe : 


" Pakar cLalo samser. 
Am kkas men baitbkar, rang ko deo bakber. 
S5 Araj karo : ' He Bassab* 1^ bbum diwao beg.' 
Jo Bassab mane nabin, rosan kar do teg." 


" DadrerS, akbi bM, aur Bagar cbale na rah. 
Bbum dabi Chauban, Bassab, cbalkar bbum diwab !' 

Witb uplifted foot tbe Twins made for Debli, 

And going to tbe Eajgbatt tbey bathed in the Jamn^. 

Said Sarjun to Arjun : 


"Seize thy sword. 
Let us mix with the people and take off our (jogt) 
coloured robes. 
35 Let us say : ' King ! Give us the land quickly.' 

If the King heed us not, let use our swords (upon him)." 

The Twins.t 
"Dadrera§ is a robber, and the high-way to Bagar is 
The CbauhS,n (Gflga) has usurped the land : go and give 
us back our land !" 

* For Bddshdh. 

t This probably means merely large bathing place. 
J They have now reached the Court and are addressing the King. 
§ i.e.Gfiga: the name of his property is here given to the owner. 
Dadrera, is in the Sii'sa District, 


Firoz Shdk Bddshdh. 

" Kaun kaum aklii M\\. ? Kin lim bhum chhin ? 
-40 TMrt bhum diw3,e de; mire le ja sangamin." 

J ore. 

" Nagar dini pMnk ; mar* sabon ke Iftte ; 
Biswe Iiedabae; dirib die, Raji, cMiilte. 
Arab-kbarab dal jor, dinon din boe bbarl. 
Cbito, Pirossab ;t takbat ki kare tayyarl. 
45 Naubat baje bar ; kie bassabi dere. 

Takbat-rawan par baitb, yabln gaj sikka phere !" 

"Firoz Sliali Bddshdh. 

" Wbat tribe batb robbed you ? Wbo bath taken your 
40 I will give you back your land : take mj officer -witb 

The Ttvins. 

" He batb burnt tbe cities and robbed the merchant's 

He hath taken our shares ; give money, King, and 

release them. 
He batb collected a countless host and it increaseth day 

by day. 
Hear, Firoz Shah ; he is preparing for (the capture 

of) thy throne. 
45 Drums are beaten at his gate,{ and he hath a royal 

He sitteth on a throne, and is minded to strike (his 

own) coins !" 

* For mdl. 

t For Firox SMh. 

J A sign of royalty. 


FIroz Shah Bddshah. 
" Joro, yell ka jhfik lagi ? Mire kya Kachahri sor ?. 
Jamiodar jag ik Jbai : main dekhiid wu ka jor !" 
" Bagar dal pure jire jire singhani ban. 
50 Dilli par dawe dhare,' kcp rahfi Chaulian.'" 

Bddshah kd Khatt. 
" Kyilii, EangTiar, Bagar sajatm ? Kya pakari yeh ban ? 
Jar* lekar jo na mila, tire ulat dharun Hindwan ! 
Kyil'ij Rangbar, Bagar sajatm ? Baro machaya sor. 
Jamindar jag ik hai : toen dekhnn kitta jor. 
55 KyuD, Raaghar, Bagar sajafcin ? Bara macbaya dhand. 
Hiitb bandh jor na mila, miri Dilli bove band." 

King Firoz Shfth. 

" TwinSj wbat is tbis noise ? Wbat tbis ci'y in my Court ? 

He is only a farmer : I will see wbat he can do !" 

The Twins. 

" Bagar is fall of armies armed witb powerful arrows. 

50 Tbey will attack Debli : the Cbauban is wratbful." 

The King's Letter.^ 
"0 Eaagbarjl wilt tboa lose Bagar? Wby dost tbou act 
thus ? 
If thou do not bring money and visit me I will overturn 

thy HindwaQa.§ 
O Rangbai-j wilt tbou lose Bagar ? Great is the cry 

(against thee). 
Tboa art but a farmer, and I will test tby power. 
55 Eanghar, wilt thou lose Bagar ? Great is the cry 
(against thee). 
If tbou meet me not witb joined bands, I will imprison 
thee in Debli." . 

* For mr. f To Gflga. 

X i.e., inhabitant of Bagar : the name implies an insult to a true Rdjpflt, 
as the Ranghars are of bastard origin. § i.e., RajpAtanfi,. 


" Jar nalua to u miUIn, aur bhajafc lagi laj. 
Main tore sir ka nahiu, Phirossah Maliaraj. 
Niyail kare, to na cliai-hs : jor kare, charlie ao. 
60 Pasa Rabb ke bath hai ; pare kaun ka d^o ? 

Glia,-e charhanta pal charho ; man ki man mat rakh. 
Jo, Bassah, mane nahiii, likh de tin talakh.*" 
Firoz Shah Baclshah. 
" K'lisa Bagar des ? Kaisa jag Hindwana ? 
Kaisa Jahir Jinda ? Kaisa Rathori Rana ?" 
65 " Dhan maya dekhi nahid : apne dilon bhup. 
Woh nar ko bbira nahiii, deklie sadh suriip.-" 

The Reply. 
" I have no money or I would visit thee, and I feel asham- 
ed to fly from thee. 
I am not thy equal, King Firoa Shah. 
If thon art just thou wilt not attack me : if thou art 
tyrannical thou wilt attack. 
60 The dice are in the hands of God; who can (of a cer- 
tainty) win ? 
If thou wilt attack, attack quickly, and hesitate not. 
If thou heed not, King, I will dismiss thee." 
King Firoz Shdh.f 
" What is the land of Bagar like ? What is Hindwana hke ? 
What is Jahir JindaJ like ? What is the Chief of 
the Rathors§ like ?" 

The Messenger. 
65 " I saw no wealth nor goods, but he appears to be a king, 
.He is no enemy to mankind and looks like a saint." 

* The expression tin ialdq is borrowed from the Muhammadan law of 
divorce and is commonly used to mean an irrevocable vow or oath, 
f To the messengers who brought the answer. 
J For Zahir Zinda : two titles of Gflga inferring that he still lives. 
§ Meant for Gflga, but incorrectly. 


Cliarhe saliansar ban ; charhe liaude ambari ; 

Charhe tiddi dal phauj ; charhe sab darbUri ; 

Chfii'lie amir umrao ; charhe rajon ki rai ; 
70 Mugal chaphe dal joi- ; charhe Joron se bhai. 

Sath sahansar ban, jarb woh chhak hajari ; 

Sath piyade pailn ; itta dal charhian bhari ! 

Sutar sahansar assi, kurang sare lakh char ! 

Kaheii Sitabi : — ik jiii par, itta charha lakh bhar ! 
75 Barsan ko badra charhe, rahe ind jun chhat. 

Bhan gagau men chhup gae, din se ho gai rat. 

Nau-mahile Siriyal kharl ; khari sukhave kes. 

A thousand archers . advanced, and so did elephants 

with litters. 
An army (as nnmerous) as grasshoppers advanced and 

so did all the nobles. 
(Muhammadan) nobles and chiefs advanced and so did 

(Hindu) chiefs and nobles. 
70 The Mughal (King) advanced with his army together 

with the Twin brethren. 
Sixty thousand archers and six thousand guns, 
And sixty foot armies : so great an host advanced ! 
Eighty thousand camels and four hundred and fifty 

thousand horses ! 
Saith Shitabi : — So many hundreds of thousands to ad- 
vance against one man ! 
75 The clouds gathered for rain as when they cover the- 

The sun was hidden in the heavens and the day turned 

into night, 
Siriyal* was on the top of the palace, standing and 

drying her hair. 

* Gfiga's wife : see the version iu Vol. I. 


Edni Siriyal. 
" Stlso, phirke dekhiyo, tira lutta ave des !" 

Nau-mahile se utai'i Siriyal niln nAa kare awaj : 

Edni Siriyal. 
80 " Bhaonre sove pitam mera ; ky^, main kariln ilaj ?" 

Bani Bachhal, 
" Sain ap soe ralien: wahi hamare Eao. 
Beti Raja Sanjlia ki, mira Jahir Pir jagao." 

Edni Siriyal. 
" Bagar baje ranjhane ; pauri men hensa tar I 
Uth, Salyari, hathiyar le ; toe kaise nind bahar ? 

Edni Siriyal.* 
" Come and see, mother-in-law, thy land is being 
pillaged !" 

And Siriyal came down from the palace roof with a 
great cry, 

Edni 8iriyal.\ 
80 " My husband sleepeth beneath the palace J : what shall 
I do V 

Eini BdchJial. 
" Thy Lord sleepeth : he is our King. 
Daughter of Eaja Sanjha,§ wake up my Zahir Pir 

Ednt 8i7-iyal.\\ 
" There is a tumult in Bagar, and the horses are neighing 
at the (palace) steps ! 
Up, my Lord, and arm : how heavily thou sleepest ! 

* To Baothal, GOga's mother. f To Rani Bachlial. 

X A bhaunrd is a pit or sunken cliamber used for coolness. 

§ Raja Saiijha was the father of Siriyal : see the version in Vol. I, 

II Going to wake up Gflga. 


85 Surlii kliedi sut sau, aur Mohan Jaimal gawar. 
Khare pukaren gawalie tire dada Amar ke bar ! 
Khvlnte tura^Yar^ bacHiarft phaujon raiiheii gae. 
Mundhe pare balone, pliir pbir jaen chhaclihae ! 

Ais^ putr tain jana aur barlike nam dharfl ! 
90 Ham kaheko lajte ? Tira hota kydi na mara ?" 

Bdni EdchJial. 

" Mario pjlpi dMiddari ; mario papi sAm ! 
Mera to Jahir ball, jis par dal ae jhum. 
Jahir ke sir sehra ; use laran ka chao. 
Beti Raja Sanjha ki, ab ke pher jagao." 

85 Seven hundred cattle have been captured and Mohan 

and Jaimal the herdsmen. 
The herdsmen are wailing at thy grandfather Amar 

(Singh's) gate ! 
The calves are restless at their tethers, and the cows are 

lowing in the midst of the host. 
The churns are overset, and the milkmen are returning 

(empty) ! 

' Such a son hast thou* borne and given so great a 
name ! 
90 Why am I thus shamed ? Why was he not slain at his 
birth ? " 

Rani Bdchhal. 
" Let the wicked sinner die : let the wicked miser die ! 
But my Zahir is strong, against whom a great army hath 

On Zahir's head is a chaplet, and his delight is in the 

Daughter of Ruja Sanjha, wake him again." 

* Having failed to wake up Gilga she runs back to his mother. 

THE SONG or' gAga. 273 

Bani SirhjaL 
95 " Blium bLalou di nahiu am- bhai die bidar. 

Kill ho, koue hike ; ab charhifiii kaun pukui- ? 

Woh mosas ko Jore liic pbauj charhao. 

Dth, Saiyau, hathiar le : ab kyAi'i jau chhipae ? 

Aisa putv taiii jauS, jaya piU kuput. 
100 Lakh khoJ Chauhan ki : iu kyftii baadha sir att ?" 

Ed III Bachhal, 
" Aisa putr maiii jaua, Gorakh sa jis ka pir ! 
Lakh rakho Chauhaa ki ; iu yAii bandha sir chir ! 
Mera to put supiit hai ! Mora to J3,hir Rao ! 
Beti Raja Saujha ki, mira Jahir phor jagao." 

Rant Siriijal.* 
95 " Thou gavest not thy brethren the land and sent thy 
brethren away. 
If thou be a coward hide in a corner; and who will meet 

them now ? 
The pilfering Twins have brought an army against thee. 
Up my Lord and arm : why hide thyself now ? 

Such a son hast thout borne ; a worthless son is thine. 
100 He is losing the honour of the Cliauhans: why is a, 
turban J wound round his head ?" 

lidni Bachhal. 
" Such a sou have I borne that he is a saint like Gorakh 
(Ndth) ! 
He will uphold the honour of the Ohauhans and thus is 

the turban bound round his head ! 
A worthy son is mine ! mine is the Zahir Rao ! 
Daughter of Raja Saujha, wake up my Zahir again." 

* To Guga again. f Back to Bachlial again. 

J The turban is often synonymous with honour and valour, 
vol,, in. — 35 


Bdni Siriyal. 
105 " Sang gbarai shan ki, aur bandhi gajgao : 

Ya iDandhe ki birg baho ; nahin jogi ho ramjao. 

De moe panchon kdpre ; de panchon hathiyar. 
Mail! palti pi ke larftn ; miri Sflsur, karo sahar !" 

Edni Bachhal, 
" Sanwant bin sakh§, nahiii, aur nari sahe na gLtio. 
110 Beti Raja Sanjba ki, mire Jabir ab ke jagaa." 

Hani Siriyal, 

" Ohflri pahro, Saiyaih, aur karo janana blies ! 
Apuo pakh moe de ; mira khara tamasa des !" 

Itdm^ Siriyal.* 
105 " Thou hast a staff of (royal) dignity, and turban bound 
upon thee. 
Preserve the honour of thy turban, or become a jogt. 

Givot me the five (manly) garments : give me the five 

I will fight for my husband: Mother-in-law, do thou 

support me !" 

Bant Bachhal. 

" It wants a brave man to be brave, and a woman cannot 
brook a wound. 
110 Daughter of Rdja Sanjha, wake up my Zahir now." 

Rani Siriyal.% 

" Put on bracelets, my Lord, and a woman's robes ! 
Give me thy armour and see what I shall do !" 

* Again to Guga. 

t Back to Rani Bachhal. 

X Back to Gflga again. 


Lagu kalijii bol ; uthe woh singh sani. 
Girwar kampoliar, mahil ki chhut gai ri. 
115 Tilte sal palang, ball ki phuli di. 


" Kahan gai woh nar, khari moe tana di ? 
Kahan karftn hatliiyar ? Suno tft nur ki beti. 
La raira tel pliulel ; big mira lave nai. 
Ghui-la lao sanwar ; khan kya deve taua ? 
1 20 Lao panchoii hathiyar ; sahidi paltiln baaa ! 
Chandan chauki^ buttna ake rang lagae. 
Duddh-hil mora kare^ merl man ko big bulae." 

The taunt entered his heart and the ferocious lion was 

The mountains shook and the palace trembled, 
115 The bed broke down as the warrior's (body) swelled 
(in his wrath). 

'.■■:'■ .Giiga. 

" Where hath the woman gone that taunted me ? 
Where shall I use my arms ? Hear, thou daughter of a 

Bring my oil and scents and quickly call my barber. 
Make ready my horse : why dost stand taunting me ? 
120 Bring my five arms ; I will put on the martyr's robes ! 
(Bring) a sandal-wood stool and anoint me with 

Give me some (mother's) milk and quickly call my 


* This is a Muhammadan ceremony performed ou departure to battle. 
The wai-rior sucks three times at his mother's breast, while she says 
" I grant thee the milk thou hast sucked of me." She thus releases 
him from his obligation to serve herall his life in return for the milk 
granted him in childhood. 


Rcini Siriyal. 

" Jaga kul-rosan hAa; utM munA, ke tant. 
Dal moran biri-dhant utlia tant men kant. 
125 Chandan chauki buttna cbalkar rang lagai. 
Duddh-hil us ka karo, big bulae, Mai," 


" Mata, meri madat karo ; teri sflt pie battis. 
Tek bandliao din ki ; mira duddli karo baksis. 

Dad lagi Dargahi men : gaibi chailii puk§,r : 

Gugd Id Bad. 
130 " Na janflii ib kya karon ; in Joron tbai rtlr," 

TZawi Siriyal. 

" The glory of the house is awake ; in a twinkling he is up. 
My husband is up in a moment^ the slayer of enemies, 
to turn back the army. 
125 (Bring) the sandal-wood stool and anoint him with cos- 
Give him of thy milk ; he calloth thee quickly, Mother." 


"Mother, aid me; I put my thirty-two (teeth) to thy 
Be true to the faith and give me of thy milk." 

His prayer reached to the Court (of God): his cry to the 
hidden (heights). 

Giigdi's Prayer. 

130 "I know not what they will do : the Twins have begun 
the quarrel." 


lidni Bachhal. 

" Yalii dinti kc karno sat sahia Davbar ! 
Saran Guru Gobind kc, turn Singh, charko lalkar." 

Jab nar kina nahan, aras* se utavi piri. 
Mukh parka kalam, charke dola ko siri.f 
135 Hflr lagaveu buttna, pari ckarkaveu tel : 
Jab dillka dal ko ckarha, sakki arta kel. 
Kkftb bana aswar, bantl kesariya bagS, : 
Jis ki madat Imam gaib ka charka ckiraga. 

Edni Baclthal. 

'' I prayed to the true Court (of God) for tkis day ! 
Under the protection of Gurft Gobind (Singh), J go my 
Lion, shouting (to the fight)." 

When the hero had bathed the saintship descended on 

him from heaven. 
He spake prayers with his Hps and ecstasy entered the 

135 Hurls put on the cosmetics and fairies rubbed in the oil. 
When the bridegroom went to the army the maidens 

brought the adu.^ 
Handsomely was ho dressed in saffron garments. || 
To whom the ImamTI gives help his lamp is in the 

hidden (heavens). 

* For 'arasJi. t I'or sMHn. 

X This great Sikh hero flom-ished 1675-1708 and is by the bard placed 
anterior to Gflga ! 

§ Reference to a ceremony for receiving the bridegroom at the 
bride's house. 

II These arc all metaphors drawn from the marriage ceremony : Gflga 
the hero going to join the army being likened to a bridegroom going 
to his bride's house. 

•j[ Probably meant for 'All, the aucccssor of Muhammad. 


Jab dal ke dahau chliute ball bhare hankar. 
140 Kaheii Sitabi ee : — dhani phauj lie lalkar. 

Baveii ko lakh dahnej aur dahine chhatr amir. 

Lakh bais Bassah charhe^ panch pach Pir. 

Hath jor Jahir kahe : 

Giigd hi 'Arzt. 
" Arji hamari mau ! 

Ta Bari Tala miraj tu mira Pak Subhaa ! 
145 Kadlii tia dekha jang ; kadhi na bhaya bhala ! 

Main balak nadari : rar na januu lala. 

Hath kangan, sir sehra, gal muttiii Id mala. 

Ab ka jang jitac de ; tu dhan mira Bari Tala !" 

Dal umage dariy&o, jftn ate jare aswar. 

When the hero, the slayer of armies, went out he raised 

a great cry. 
140 Saith Shitabi : — the hero challenged the army. 

On the left were a hundred thousand men and on the 

right the (royal) umbrella-bearing chief. 
Twenty-two lakhs had the king : about five had the 

With joined hands prayed Zahir : 

Gtiga's Prayor. 

" Plear my prayer ! 
Thou art my God Most Holy ; Thou art my Wise and 
Holy One ! 
145 Never have I seen a fight : never have I used a lance 1 
I am but an ignorant child : knowing nought of bloody 

On my wrists are bracelets, round my head a chaplet, 

and on my neck a garland of pearls.* 
Win me this fight ; and glory to Thee, my God Most 
Holy !" 

When the warriors collected the army surged like the sea. 

* i.e., a oliild's dress. 


150 " Cliot chhatar par kijtyo: paliili ki ten war." 

Biila kina bal, jadi ja bag uthai. 
KAd pa; a dal bich, pliati jftii jal so kai. 
Ja mara Saltan tek* mastak par bhai. 
Dekhat rahc amir aur sara Turkai. 
155 Karha pukare dal Bala, aur dhiri dhare na ko. 

Bald Ghazi. 
"PaUa le Sultan kA, koi tera jo dal ho !" 


150 "Strike down the umbrella-bearer :J thine is the first 
(turn to) attack." 

Bala (Ghazi) took up his reins and used his strength. 
When he leapt into the army, it scattered like the scum 

on the waters. 
He struck the forehead of the Prince§ with his sword. 
All the nobles and the Turks (Mughals) saw it. 
155 Bala (Gh^zi) cried out to the army, and none had cour- 
age (to face him) . 

Bala Gdhzi\\ 
" Be revenged on the Prince, if thou have an army !" 

* For tegli, 

t Speaking to Bala Gliazi : see introduction. 
X i-e., tlie King. 

§ i.e., the son of Firoz Shaii, Snltan was the title of the DeJili 
Royal Princes. 
II To the King. 


Firoz Shah Bachhnh. 

" Bliim, Bliiwaui ke dhani, diet JfitA Bhun, 
Ikli\ dal Bala lare, mira mar liti Sultan." 

Chetft JatA Bhan Miyaii se saumukh diyfiya, ■ 
] GO Giyasi liiii hatli tabal* gbora chhatkaya. 

Nek na laya clhfl, hanka Bala par aya. 

Kewar se dino kat, ban atak dikliaya. 

Ablii kaisi bijli bab gai ik bl sath : 

Pbaljbar to mayyar giro, kabje rab gae batb. 
165 Pbenk die kabjc mayyar un donoii aswar. 

Kaben Sitabi : — par gai donoii ke kbali war ! 

Fii'oz Shah Bddshuh. 

" Up Jata Bban, lord of Bbiwaaif strong as Bhima,t 
Bala (Gbazi) Ggbts my army and batb slain my (sou) 

Jatft Bban tbe bero faced tbo Miyaii (Bala Gbazi), 
160 And took a spear and an axe in bis band and gallopped 
bis borse. 

He lost no time and rusbed on Bala (Gbazi). 

Split on bis bracelet tbe arrow seemed as notbing. 

And tbon (tbo swords) flasbcd all at once like ligbtning. 

Tbe blades fell to tbe ground and tbe bandies remained 
in tbeir bands. 
1 65 Botli borsomen tbrew tbo bandies on the ground. 

Saitb Sbitabi : — Tbe attack of eacb came to nou"-bt ! 

* For tahar. 

t Bhiw&ni is an old town in tlic Hissilr district, wliicli district was 
f ormci-ly called Hissiiv Fiv( iza after Firo/. Shall, with wliom it is inti- 
mately connected both by history and tradition. 

X Reference to Bhiuia the Piiuilava, the conventional strong man of 
Indian falile. 


Bala Ohdzi. 
'< Man men dhubda mat kai-o : dil bich rakho karar. 
A, JatA, donon laren, kamaron bich katar." 

Jdttt Bhdn. 
" Sile palto dal men aur bano din ke y^r. 
170 Akbakbat* ham turn mileri, yahi kalam gahi Kartar.'' 

*' Kaho, Bala, kaisi bani ? Kyun khali par gai war ? 
Bhap lare, man gha gae, toe daga dai tarwar ! 
Woh Dilli ka Bassah ; main ugdi Chauhan. 

Bala Ghdzt. 

" Have no hesitation in thy mind, but keep courage in 
thy heart. 
Comej Jatu (Bhan), let us fight with the daggers at our 

Jatu Bhdn. 

" Change sides in the army and become the friend of thy 
170 We two shall meet at the Last Day, as hath been 
ordained of God."t 


" Say, Bala, what hath happened ? Why was thy attack 
fruitless ? 
Kings fight and hearts tremble when thy sword de- 
ceives thee ! 
He is King of Dehli, and I a true Chauhan, 

* For 'dqibat. 

f According to the bard at this point the fight was brought to an 
end for the day by the darkness, under cover of which Jatd Bhan fled 

X To Bala Ghazi on his return to the camp. 
VOL. III.— 33 


Bare larenge siirma, bare paren ghamsan. 
1 75 Chura pahri dant ka ; kaun us ka uthe sarap ? 
Ja, Bala, ghar apne, Eanghar ki karti ja-p I" 

Bald Ohd/i. 
" Mtima, man mera bujh gia^ bich katak amboh. 
Pher madat meri karo, moe daga dikMya loh," 

' Bismillah' kar teg li, rstkh Dhani se dliySn. 

Bali Ghdzi. 
180 "Aj bakhat iman ka> bakbat shabidi jaa I" 

Parhke nek salab Pir ka hua isara : 
Cbarhia bala bhup > hafch men lie dudbara. 

Great warriors shall fight and terrible shall be the 

175 She weareth ivory bracelets, and who can bear her 

Go, Bala, home, the Ranghar'sf daughter awaiteth thee." 

Bald Ohdzi. 
" Uncle, my heart was agitated in the midst of the army. 
Help me again, for my aim failed me." 

' In the name of God' he seized bis sword, and put his 
trust in God. 

Bala Ghazi. 
180 "To-day is a day for the faith; a time for martyrdom I" 

Saying the prayers for safety the Saint gave the sign, 
And the young king J advanced with a two-edged sword 
in his hand. 

* i.e., thy wife at home will curse thee for not winning the fight, 
t See line 61. J i.e., Bala Ghazi. 


Kud para dal bich, para liikhou par bliarti. 
Bagad utlvae bag, km lothoii ambara. 
185 Haude ki hadd torke Adali lia Pathan. 
Dal bich Sah Piroj ke Bala ddla ghan. 

Bala Ghdzi. 

" Woh nar to jag men sahe, suno, Pirohaj Sab ! 
Ikle dal Bala laruii : tere dekhe lakh sipah !" 

Phire Bukhara Pir B^ssah tana mara. 
190 Khota-khaai hath, kamar se jare nidan. 
Sahaj gai samser, gagan juii tiita tara. 

He leapt into the army, into the hundreds of thousands. 
Taking the reins he made a heap of corpses. 
185 He threw down 'Adali the Pathan* from his (elephant) 
Bala caused a massacre in the army of Piroz Shah. 

Bald Ghdzi. 

"Hear, Firoz Shah, that man has distinguished himself 
in the world ! 
I, Bala, fight the army alone : behold thou hast a 
hundred thousand soldiers !" 

Then the king taunted the Saint of Bukhara. f 
190 He took a large spear in his hand and fastened a dagger 
to his waist. 
His sword €ashed like a star shooting through the 

* This probably represents Muhammad 'Adil Sbab Silr of DebK, 
who played a prominent part in India about the time of Akbar's ac- 
cession and who reigned 1554-1556. He is generally known as 'Adali. 

t i.e. Bala Gbazi : see introduction. But it should be remembered 
that to the bards Bukhara, like Balkh, stands for all the lands west of 


Pakar pakai- bhujle^ pare klianjar ik sara. 
Bhim bhim tan ho gae donon jere an. 
Hur piyala de gain^ dono ki lo gam jan. 

195 " Bare bare kunjar khare, age khare harol. 

Nar Singh, tera jang hai ; turn piire kar do kol.*" 

Singh charhe Nar Singh : singh kar dino bela. 
Bamman charhe bapkar, BhAp dh§,r lia ruhela. 
Chauki palti char lare sanwant akela. 
200 Kunjar die girae : lie bassahi chelS. 

Mund dhule ; ghinwar gire ; chele lini mar. 

Seizing each other's arms, they thrust their daggers at 

the same moment. 
Their bodies went apart when the pair came (together) 
Huris gave them the cup (of death) t and took the lives 
of both. 

195 "Huge elephants are standing (there) and before them 
the standard-bearei-s. 
Nar Singh, it is for thee to fight, and fulfil thy promise."§ 

Forward went the lion Nar Singh : the lion did valiantly. 
The Brahman went forward shouting and attacked the 

Against four divisions the warrior fought alone ! 
200 The elephants fell down and the royal followers took him . 
Headless he fell to the ground and the followers slew him. 

* For qaul. 

t Muhammadan warriors who die on the battle-field are presented 
just before death with a cup of db-i-Kausar, water of Paradise, by 
hurh to enable them to enter heaven at once. 

1 To Nar Singh Brahman, who now joins the fight. 

§ This according to the bard refers to a promise to Gflga made by 
Nar Singh that he would on this occasion make an exhibition of gi-eat 
strencth . 


Firoz Shah Badshdh. 
" TumLen ball ke ans ho, mira phiro, Sayad Jauhar." 

Phi re Sayad Jauhar Bassah mara tana. 
Turkl saje kumet, turt dhar lia nisana. 
2iDo Teg Sayad Jauhar, kar dia sahidi bana. 

Nar Singh sang chalae : lare bin sir Mi dana. 
Jab Nar Singh kbanjar gha, ulat gia tan chir. 
Bahen gal men bahke, hiie jiAte pir ! 

"Teg gaho, Bhajju ball : utho bali ke ser. 
210 Muta dhalen; ghinwar giren; dal ko deo bakher." 

Firoz Shah the King. 

" Thou art a son of mighty warriors, now charge, my 
Sayyid Jawahir." 

Then the King taunted Sayyid Jawahir, 

Mounting his bay Turkish (horse) he quickly upraised 

his standard. 
205 Sword (in hand) Sayyid Jawahir put on the robes of 

Nar Singh hurled his javelin, for headless he fought on. 
Then Nar Singh thrust his dagger, and it entered his 

It fell into his arms and they became living saints ! 


" Seize thy sword, warrior Bhajjil* : up thou warrior 
210 Let heads fall off and fall to the ground, and disperse 
the army." 

* Bhajju Chamar : see introduction. 


Bhajjii uthe bhunjag teg bandhe baldhilri. 
Kild para dal bich ; phauj Mugaloii ki bhari. 
Sis dhare tha khud Turk ki taki ambari : 
Baalien gera, ban lia Daild Hajari. 
21 5 Bhal d 'a bapkarke, aui- girwar kampebar. 

Mugaloii men halcbal pari is Mirza lia Kamar. 
Gir gae kal Kamar Khan ; dhale kit ik namud. 

Firoz Shah Bddshah. 
" PhirOj Sayad Brabimji, mira mar lia Daud." 

Phire Sayad Brahim dekh Mugaloii ka kharu. 
220 Khota-khani hathj kamar se jara kalara. 

Up gat Bhajju hastily and fastened on his mighty sword. 
He leapt into the army, the mighty army of the Mughals. 
He aimed at the head and quilted (elephant) litter of 

the Turk. 
He encompassed (Sayyid) Daud^ the Hazari,* with his 

arms and seized him. 
215 He shouted the war cry and the mountains shook. 

There was confusion among the Mughals when Mirza 

Kamal was captured. 
Death fell upon (Mirza) Kamal Khau and many of his 


Firoz Shah the King. 
''Come up, Sayyid Ibrahim, they have slain my (Sayyid) 

Then Sayyid Ibrahim viewed the Mughal forces. 
220 He took a large spear in his hand and fastened a dagger 
to his waist. 

* Probably a vague reminiscence of Dalld Khaii Panni, a celebrated 
warrior of the last century whose exploits are still fresh iu the popular 


Mall lareri bhuj-bang, mall jiln mundhtl akliara. 
Jhapat ik ko ik lage, aur pal men dukh barba. 
Bagad bagad bahe ball : khurag kba gae aug. 
Kaheii Sitabi : — se dbani do gire ik bi sang. 

225 " Dekh, 3urkb yeh pdlki ; age khare harol ! 

Fatteb Siugb, ya dal men tft bhale nibhao kol ! " 

Fatteh Singh Chauban bara dil bhup gumani. 
Bastar palte kos Raja ki pbauj amdni. 
Singh chalai sang : palki bhi utflni. 
230 Lia bair se jodh, arfch* men kuki R^ni. 

The warriors wrestled, as wrestlers in the field. 

They seized each other at once and then the trouble in- 

The warriors fought together and the bodies were 

Saith Shitabi : — both the warriors fell together. 

225 "Behold, yon red (royal) litter with the standard-bearers 
in front ! 
Fatteh Singh, it is well that thou fulfil thy promise in 
this field!" J 

Fatteh Singh was a great and proud king. 

He changed his dress and entered the Rajl's§ army. 

The lion hurled his lance and the litter was broken. 

230 The warrior seized the enemy and the Queen || cried oufe 

in her chariot. 
/ ' 

* For rath. f To Fatteh Singh Chauhan : see introduction. 

J Compare line 196. 

§ Apparently meant here for the Mughal King's army. 

II i.e. the Mughal Qneen. 


Jajire sirohi sis jab kia Fatteh Singh war. 
" Par gae dal men tit Fatteh Singh lia mira itbar."' 
Jodha lia bapkarke aur dal ka ghata guman. 

Piroz Shah Badshah. 
" Tumhei bali ke ans ho, mire phiro Sayad Burhan ! " 

235 Phire Sayad Burhan ; uthe be-jan sipahi. 

Uthe bali ke ser siint li miyana sahi. 

Bhup lare maidan, dalon men rahi na kahi : 

Jodha sakal bahA bir gire gire iklahi. 

Bagad bagad bahe ball, khurag kha gai ang. 
240 Kahen Sitabi : se dhani do gire ik hi sang. 

When Fatteh Singh attacked the enemy's head trembled. 
" There was trouble in the army when Fatteh Singh 
seized my pride."* 
The warrior gave the war cry and the courage of the 
army failed. 

Firoz Shah the King. 

" Come, my Sayyid Burhan, thou art a descendant of 

235 Up came Sayyid Burhan and the lifeless soldiers stood 
The lion warrior came up and drew the sword frpm the 

royal scabbard. 
The Kingt fought in the field and none remained in the 

army (to fight him), 
For all the warriors, and many heroes fell together. 
The warriors fought together and their bodies were 
240 Saith Shit^bi : — the two warriors fell together. 

* Said by the Mughal mentioned in line 230. 
t Thafcia Fatteh Singh. 


Aisa jag men kon na hai maya ko cHalie ? 
Bin mudh lalach k^m kon barahe ? 
Woh birle sansar jM parmarat khoen : 
Har dam rakhen dhyan jati woh dil ko dhoen. 
245 Jin ke jM hirde nahtn, andhi ginen na dhup. 

Kahen Sitabi : — He Dhani, tain bhale banae bhup ! 

Firoz Shah Bddshdh. 

" Kalian woh dayedar ?* Kahan m§,ya ka laha ? 
Sote singh jagae : aulion kina baha ! 
Kahan woh khan amir ? Kahan woh lashkar mera ? 
250 Kahan woh lal nisan ? Kahan bassahi dera ? 
Mei-a to chaya nahin : woh th&ra upgar ! 
Jahir karo piyan, nahin to ji se darun mar." 

Who is there in the world that desireth not riches ? 
Without greed of wealth who is there that worketh ? 
Few are they in the world that would give their lives for 

others : 
That every moment give their" hearts to contemplation 

and holiness. 
24-5 Who feareth not for his life heedeth not storm nor sun. 
Saith Shitabi : — ^ifc is well that God hath made kings ! 

Firoz Shah the Kmg.i 

" Where are the claimants ? Where the lusty after wealth ? 
Ye have waked the sleeping lion : roused the saint ! 
Where are the khans and the nobles ? Where my army ? 
250 Where my (royal) red standard ? Where my royal camp ? 
I had no desire for this ; it is your doing ! 
Slay ye Zahir, or I will slay you." 

* For da'weddr. 
t To the Twins. 
▼01. III. — 37 


" Jo Jahir ham mar len, Bagar dijo moe : 
Jahir jo ham m&r le, laj kutam ki toe !" 

Firoz Shah Badshah. 

255 "Bagar tumhari ho chuki: lo, JorOj tarwar. 
Jo Jahir ko mar lOj to biswe likh dun char.' 

Sarat* kini Sah ; charhe ginwar hat tanka. 
Baje tarhe bam : charhe Ainat Khan banka. 
Char aur chaunki charhe, bich Jore bapkar : 

260 " Ab chetu Jahir Jati, tire ae dayedar !" 

The Twins. 

" If we slay Zahir, give us the Bagar land : 
If Zahir slay us, the duty of (supporting) our families is 
on thee !" 

Firoz Shah the King. 

255 "Yours is Bagar : seize your swords, O Twins, 
If you slay Zahir, I will give you fourt shares." 

The King gave the signal, and they drove forward their 

Drums were beaten and the noble 'Inayat Khan went 

with them. 
Four divisions also came up and in the midst shouted 

the Twins : 

The Tivins. 

260 " Have a care. Holy Zahir, the claimants against you are 
come !" 

* For ishdrat. 

t i-e., a double share each. 

THE SONG 01? GLIQA. 291 


" SunOj bhai mausir, turn kaise kirpde ! 
Dilli ka dal jor bhale milne ko ae ! 
Bhale dikhae daur ; kia Mugalou ka chaya ! 
Kaha mile jagir ? Kaha kuchh mansab paya ? 
2(35 Mera to chayfi nabm, woh thare upgar. 

Man dhoka rah jaega ; turn karo pahil ka war !" 

Sarjun lini sang, surma sanmnkh cbhflta. 
Jae lia David, tang taji ka phiita. 
Dflj war so bhan gia khainch khainch man sae : 
270 Kar le chabuk Pir, tir dino gagan urae. 
Kabje dhare kuman gor Arjun lalk§.ra : 


"Hear, sons of my aunt; ye have done me a kindness ! 
In that ye have collected the armies of Dehli in order to 

visit me ! 
A good disposition have ye shown in urging on the 

Mughals ! 
What lands have you received ? What rank have ye 

attained ? 
265 I had no desire for this : it is your doing. 

The deceit will remain in your hearts : make ye the first 


The warrior Sarjun seized a spear and rushed forward. 
He seized David, and the girths of his horse broke. 
His next aim failed when he drew : 
270 For the Saint sent the arrow to the heavens with his 
The warrior Arjun adjusted his bow and cried out : 


Arjun . 
" Ajon hi bhum bS-nt : man le kahS hamtira." 

Sir se b&ndba tir, khainch Lili ko mard. 

Surkhi di na ang, dudh ki chliuti phawdrd. 
275 Duja ban so bhan gid khainch khainch man sae. 

Kar le chabuk Pir^ tir dino gagan urae. 

Jab kopke David kamar se lina khanda. 

Line jor girae, dhala nahakk we tandS.. 

Sis kate Jore gire, ran baje tarwar ! 
280 Ainat Khan bdnka lia, aur chaunki bach li char. 

Bhak bhak nain balen Joron ke, muchhe rahe bal khao. 

Donon sis uthae, Pir lie hane latkae. 

" Give us the land to-day : hear my say." 

He drew the bow to his head and struck Lili. 

No blood came from her body, a fountain of milk 

gushed forth. 
275 His next aim failed when he drew : 

For the Saint sent the arrow to the heavens with his 

Then David in his wrath drew his sword from his waist, 
And with force threw him down, and so the family was 

broken: up for nothing. 
With severed heads the Twins fell and swords were 

used in the field. 
280 'Inayat Khan the brave was slain, but the four divisions 

The eyes of the Twins were wide open and their 

moustaches stiff. 
Lifting up both their heads he hung them to his saddle. 


Nautanki Mult&n, bhau soblian sa dhyS,ya. 
Hflthi dini hM, sabhi umrS,o jhukaya. 
285 Le le misri hath chhute Sayadane jaya. 
Silj tabil, bandiik, ban, ghoron garmaya. 
Lakh bar Arjun khar^ kuk pahari ban. 
Said, Sit3,bl, sak nahin rakhanhS-r Subh3,n. 

Firoz Shah Badshdh. 
" Main Dilli Bassah ; jag men phire dohai. 
290 Teri kyAn kina jujh ? Tira kyftn aamat ai ? 

Hath bandhke na mila, aur na pfichhi aalae.* 
Dal ke bandhe a phaiisa : ab kahan bhajkar jae ?" 

Taking his bow of Multant he sped like the sun's 

Goading on the elephants all the (Mughal) nobles were 

285 Sword in hand the son of the Sayyids went forth (to the 

With battle-axe and spear and gun and arrow he 

gallopped his horse. 
A thousand times Arjun cried out, and sent foth his 

Of a truth, saith Shitabi, the Lord was not with him. 

Firoz Shah the Eing.t 
"I am King of Dehli and my power is throughout the 
290 Why hast thou opposed me ? Why hath (the time of) 
thy trouble come ? 
With joined hands thou hast not come to me, nor asked 

my advice. 
Thou art caught in the net of my army : whither shalt 
thou flee now ?" 

* For soldi}. t ■i-«' one of special excellence. J To GflgS. 


" Takht dia Kartar : kaisii tA niyao chukave ? 
Bagar balil ret; yehdn kya maya pave ? 
295 Kare pir se jiijh : tire kyun samat ave ? 
Ulat ab bhi pher : hon ko mat katwave. 
Bag kud ghinwar kariin : mira aur pas lakh char. 
Man dhoka rah jaega'j tu kar le pahili war." 

Nautanki Multan karar khainchi hank&ri. 
300 Pita patke kat kamar ki uri katari. 

Dflji war Wajir ka khainch khainch man sEie ; 

Kara chabuk Pir, tir dino gagan urae. 

Kini chet kumet kamad se kina jhatka : 

Sagan pat sanwant jae ghinwar se atka. 
305 Mastak baje paur, Pir ko awa latka. 

" God gave thee a throne and how hast thou dealt justice ? 
Bagar is a land of dust ; what riches wilt thou find here ? 
295 Opposing the saints : why hath (the time of) thy trouble 
come ? 
Better turn back now and cut not short thy fate. 
I will leap upon thee and throw thee down, for I have 

four laHhs more (of men). 
The deceit will remain in thy heart : do thou make the 
first attack." 

The owner of the bow of Multan drew it and shouted ; 
300 Taking off his belt he drew the dagger at his waist. 

The (Mughal) Minisljer made the next attack with 

drawn bow, 
But the Saint with his whip sent the arrow to the 

Gallopping his bay horse he hurled his lasso. 
And threw his opponent suddenly to the ground. 
305 Ilis face beamed and the Saint was pleased. 


Gall men ger kaman chat haude se patka. 
Bhuja tor Pathan ki, bichal gae umrao. 
Champe oharMan sis pitli de bhaje kunjar^o. 
Jati jagae jot kia, kia Jahir ne jhanjar. 
310 Ja pakara David, hath men le lia khanjar. 

Lakh bais bhaj gae aur bhaj gae woh lakh khan. 
Dekh sakal Jagdis ke larja tnan Ohauhan. 

"Mujh ko nibala janke tii charhian sah jor. 
Sain gat jane nahin : bita gae kuchh hor. 
315 La miri surhi sat sau ; Mohan Jaimal mat rakh. 
Jab chhorungElj Bassah, moe likh die tin talakh." 

Putting the lasso round his neck he threw him from the 
(elephant) litter. 

The arms of the Pathan were broken and his nobles dis- 

There being trouble on their backs the elephants fled. 

The Saint awakened the goddess ( Jatl)* and Zahir. 
310 They seized David and took their swords in their hands. 

Twenty-two lakhs of men and a lakh of nobles fled. 

The Chauhan's heart wondered seeing the doings of 

''Knowing me to be alone thou hast come up in force. 
Thou dost not heed the Lord, thinking something else. 
315 Bring me my "700 cows and retain not Mohan and 
Jaimal. { 
Then will I release thee, King, when thou dost give 
me thy oath."§ 

* Observe that ste also was on his side, 
t To Firoz Shah. 
J His herdsmen. 
§ See line 62. 


Firoz Shah Bddshdh. 
" Le le surhi sat sau; Mohan Jaimal mat rakh. 
Jan bakhsh, mire Aulia, toe Hkh dte tJn talakh. 
Sikli suni thi Jor ki : dhoke dfiba ae. 
320 Ab ki guna bakhsh de, Jahir : tft BamhaUj main gae." 
Dliarti to dehla pari^ lakhtar rache ang. 
Kahen Sitabi : — se dhani pai Aulia jang ! 

Hari bag ki wai par kamta Gorakhnath manae. 
Mahil charhi Kacbhal dekhi thi ; woh Joron ki mae. 

Bant Kachhal, 
325 "G-uga re, Jore bhi dekhe ? bewar un ka a bata." 

Firoz Shah the King. 
" Take thy 700 cows : I keep not thy Mohan and Jaimal. 
Spare my life, my Saintj and I will give thee my oath. 
I listened to the teaching of the Twins and have been 
undone by deceit. 
320 Forgive my fault, Zahir : thou art as Brahman, I as thy 
cow.* " 
The Earth shook and was dyed with blood. 
Saith Shitabi: — (thus) the noble Saint took the field! 

He went round the garden green and worshipped 

Gorakhnath. t 
Kachhalf went up the palace and looked around : she, 

the mother of the Twins. 

Bani Kachhal. 
325 " Giiga, hast seen the Twins ? Tell me news of them." 

* A common HindA expression in asking forgiveness, meaning — . 
treat me as well as a Brahman would treat his cow. See Vol. II. p- 

t The scene completely changes here and GAga has returned home. 

I The mother of the Twins ; see the story in Vol. I. 


*' Mausl, main kal to dekhe the : aj ka bewara na." 

Rani Kdchhal. 

*'Main janAu tain Jore mare^ chele Goraklindth, 
DoMi Goraknath ki, moe s§,nch bata de bat \" 

Lili ke hani sis lie mauai ko diklila«. 
330 Bhak bhak nain balen Joron ke, miichh ralien bal khae. 

Rani Kdchhal. 

" Oharbte kate bel ; tain Joron ko mar lia. 
Doha} Gorakhnath ki, matS, ko mukh na dikha \" 

" Aunt, I saw them yesterday : to-day I have no news," 

Rani Kdchhal. 

"1 think thou hast slain the Twins, thou disciple of 
Bj the justice of Gorakhnath, do thou tell me the truth " 


He showed the heads on Lili's saddle to his aunt. 
330 The eyes of the Twins were wide-awake and their 
moustaches stiff. 

Rani Kdchhal. 

^* Thou hast cut the growing shoots ; thou hast slain the 
By the justice of Gorakhnath, show not thy face to thy 
mother !" 
VOL, III.— 38 


" Burl kari; tain doliai dini : phir aunga na ! 
Ja Dharti main sounga; pachtilvegi ma." 

335 Bag pakar Siriyal khari kahe : 

Bmii Siriyal. 
" Suno^ Jangal ke Eao ! 
Mai-bap tu man ae bisare : mera kaun niyao ? 
Tumbi bin rawal nahin : bina birch nahin chli^. 
Turn cbale pardes, sath main cliLorungi nke." 

" Mahil jude banwae le, tire mabilon ave Pir. 
340 Mata boli bolni : mire lagi kalija tir. 

"Thou hast done evil and hast claimed justice (from 
Gorakhnath), and I come no more ! 
I will go and sleep in the earth and my mother will 

335 Siriyal seized his reins and said : 

Bant Siriyal. 

" Hear, thou Lord of the Wilds \ 
Thou hast put away thy father and mother from thy 

mind;, who will do me justice ? 
A mendicant is nothing without his begging bowl : a 

tree is nought without shade. 
Thou goest abroad and I will not be left behind." 

" Take a separate palace and thy Saint will come to thee 
340 My mothert hath spoken evil and the arrow hath entered 
my heart. 

* I.e. miraculoutjly. There is a well-known story in which Gflga' 
Tisited lus wife, after "sleeping in the Earth," by night for 12 years : 
See Indian Antiquary , Vol. XI., p. 34. f i.e., aunt. 

THE SONG OF g6ga. 299 

He, Dliarti Mata Jagat, yeh thara basfcar. 
Kirpa kare, Karimji, bistar ham ko darkar." 

Dharti Mata. 

" Kol* bhare main Rasul se ; HindA jhilvln na ! 
Jafc janam Hindft tii-a : Kalima bharkar a 1" 

345 Phar pbar Kalima bbara ; Dharti hi^i udae. 
Kirpa kare Karimji: son Lili gae samae. 
Pariyan lain achra, aur hArin lain har. 

Earth, Mother of the World,- this (body) is (of) thy 

Have mercy, Thou that art merciful, I have need of 


Mother Earth. 

*' I have giv3n my word to the Prophet (Muhammad) that 
I will not tolerate a HindA ! 
Thou art a HindA by birth : fulfil the (Muhammadan) 
Creed and come !" 

345 He learnt the Creedf and the Earth opened. 

The Merciful had mercy and he went to sleep with 

Fairiea brought him a chaplet and hurls brought him a 

* For qaul. 

t This bard says that it was Gorakhnath that taught Gflga the Mnham- 
madan Oroed ! A very clear instance of the manner in which Islam 
and Hinduism are now mixed up in the vulgar Indian mind. 


Hur Pari. 
" Pahro, Jahir Auli^^ Bahist ki bag baMr." 

Sammat tera sau unhattaran yeh sakha Chauhan. 
350 Kahte Sitabi : — Meo ka jag jag jio gawan. 

Hurts and Fairies. 

" Don thenij Saint Zahir, (and enjoy) the spring garden 
of Heaven." 

It was in Samvat 1369* that the Chauhan died. 
350 Saith Shitabi : — ^May the hearers of the Meof live for 

* 1312 A.D, 

t i.e., the bard is a Meo by caste. 

No. LIII. 


[These three short ballads each have their own interest and play a part ia the 
elucidation of the story of this great Saint.] 

[The first is remarkable for the specific date it gives to Sakhl Sarwar's death, 
vii; 1174 A.D., and also for the reasonable account it gives of bis doings 
and of the causes that led to his death; — a family squabble overland. 
The Khors, so often mentioned in these Sarwar legends as his ' brethren,' 
are probably the Ehokhars, into which tribe the Saint's father married 
(see Vol. II., p. 118), and the quarrel seems to have risen thus. The 
headman of theKhokhars at Shakhot, near Multfin, had two daughters, one 
of whom he married to the Sayyid, Zainu'l-'dbidln, Sarwar's father, 
probably for the social position thus gained, and the other as usual into 
his own tribe. On his death a dispute must have arisen over the division 
of the property inherited through these two daughters : the Sayyids and 
the Khokhars both claiming a share. This feud ended in the murder of 
the Sayyids and in the extirpation of their line.] 

[The second, while repeating in other words much that is to be found in the 
first, gives a fairly full account of the matters hinted at in the fragments 
about Sarwar in Vol. I., p. 91 ff. ] 

[The third is a, ' mixed '' legend, and while purporting to give the story of 
Pherd the Brahman given in full in Vol. II., p. 104 ff., it repeats mainly 
that of DAnt Jatti, (Vol. I., p. 66 ff.), who here appears as Devi the wife of 
Pherft. As might be expeote:! in an incomplete and obviously muddled 
legend snch as this, portions of more than even two stories have found 
their way into it. Thus, part of the well-known tale of 'Is&, the restorer of 
Sarwfir's shine at NigAhd, re-appears (Vol. I., p. 210 ff.), especially that 
portion (Vol. I., p. 214) which relates to the three invalids cured at the 
springs there, from whom the present mujawirs, or shrine attendants, claim 
descent. Again, in the name Bh^i Pherfi, and in the fact of his marrying 
among the Sikhs, there is an allusion to quite a distinct story. Bhdi is a 
common title of the holy men among the Sikhs and there was in the 
beginning .of this Century a Bhdi Pherfi, whose tomb or shrine is at 
Mifinke, near Chdnifin, in the L&hor District, and who is frequently invoked 
in the well-known sentence " Shdi Pher4 teri kdr, may Bh4i Pherik protect 
thee," used as a charm on seeing one of the small whirlwinds so commoa 
in the Panj&b. For an explanation of this phrase see Indian Antiquary, 
Vol. XI., pp. 81, 32.] . 



Khalak sab d^ Allah taiga Rabb, Karim, GhafFar. 
Rasiil Nabbi se is ne bheje bandon men bar bar : 
Fazal, inayatj bliakhshish-bari sabhnan nun ja dasan ; 
Kahir-kaliari, Jabar-jabbari, lokan nfln a dasan. 
5 Baade oh de amar nahi nua khub tarah se janen: 
Jo koi us ton muiih nun moi-e Dozakh kareii, thikine ! 
Khalkat guna-gun banae, sab j3, hoe, pukar ! 
Rizak sab nun rozi denda oh Wall Kartar ! 

Panch Sadi de awal, ya ki Char Sadi de akhir, 
10 Mulk Arab men fitna uthkar, kaim ho gai akhir. 
Khilnrezl di hoi si kasrat; mar lut chauphera : 
Aman, salamat, sukhchain ne apna pat lia dera. 
Zainabdiuj* bap Sayyid Ahmad^ tarak watan tad kita : 
Arab chhad Panjab men Shaikot sanh sa lita. 
15 Sayyid hone in Sahib men shubah na shakk hai mill : 
Sayyid Hussaini in-ko jano; mano al Rasul. 
Mukaddam Pira Shaikot ne sidak yaktn de nal, 
Larki bad] biyahke, Shah se hoia khushhal. 
Chhoti larki Pira ne cha Khorahf vichh biyahi : 
20 Us gaan men rahinde si, aur karde si oh bahi. 
PirS, di aulad te baki donoh si eh dhian : 
Apne apne hisse par eh donoh kabiz thian. 

Shdh Sahib de ghar de andar Sayyid Ahmad jad jaid, 
Khalazad bhaiah da tad hasad hoia sawaia. 
25 Sakhi Sarwar to bhaiau nale khulak marwat karde : 
Bughz wa adawat dil apne vichh har vele oh bharde. 
Lachari nun watan chhad Baghdad Shahr wal chale : 
Barkat sohbat Pir Pirah te bhar bhar lite palle. 
Shahabu'ddin Soharwardi, Shekh wakat kahave, — 

* For Zainu'l-'aHdin. 

t This throws light on the word hhordii in Vol. I., p. 91, translated, 
no doubt wrongly, as " enemies" in p. 94. 


30 Un ki solibat ba barkat se bahut faida pave. 

Maiidud Chishti us vele sa, Jagat-pir. kahawandA.; — 
Un ki kliidmat ba azmat se faiz batani pawanda. 

Hubb watan di Sayyid Ahmad dil men bahut jo M, 

Baghdad Shahr chhod-chhadke Dhaunkal jhuggi pai. 
35 Kashf karamat Pir Sahib di jag meii hoi mashhur : 

Bahut khalaik faiz batani pakar hoe bharpur, 

Shaikot jad ae Sarwar bhaian kahir machnia : 

Hasad jabili un lokan da pher josh par aia.. 

Khoraii milkar us jage par mata eh pakaia : 
40 " Sarja maran in ko bhajo : khud mua ya mar aia.'^ 

Dhada Pir kahre nAn marke sarja jind ganwai ! 

Bhaian di tad ag daruni duni hoi sawai. 

Khoran Hakim pas jaeke kita yi^ii pnkarS, : 
" Sayyid Ahmad nAu kaid kar lOj tan sada ho chhutkaia." 
45 Hakim Shahr Multan kol jad eh gal galaia^ 

Hazrat de pakaia wan karan ahdi turt bhijwaia. 

Sayyid ne jad had Shahr men apna kadam takaia, 

Hakim nun tad shauk milan dd ji men bah at samaia ; 

Kyuiike Hakim wakat nun eh bisharat hoi : — 
50 ' Sayyid di be-adabi karan sharurat jM khoi.' 

Pir Sahib Darbar men akar dakhil jis dam hoi, 

Darbari lokan, adna ala, sir kadamaii par dhoi ! 

Hakim wakat ne azmat kai-ke gale turt lagaia : 

Ghora Tazi, jora shahi, nazarane da laia. 
55 Pir Sahib ne nazar lene men uzar bahut sa kit^ : 

Hakim ne az rah khushamad is de gal mai-h dita. 

Sakhi Sarwar no izzat pai : Khor hoe sharminde. 

Khoran de ghar matam hoi ; Sayyidan de ghar chande, 

Raste men ik tola fakiran oh nun akar miha, 
60 Darbaron jad, rakhsat hoke, Sayyid apne gAun nini 
Sawal kia ; " Ham bhuke hainge ; stinM kuchh khila ! 
Nahin, asada jiwana haiga sakht baia." 
Pir bolia : " Jangal barhi ; nan karda main paj ; 


N&l mere Shaikot chalo, aur khanS, khao raj." 
65 " Lakhd^ta tera nam hai, Chau KtntAJx viclili mashhAr : 

Ghora jor& bakhshke sa.nuh kar masrdr." 

Manga un ka de dia, aur ghar de janib turia. 

Fakiran ghora zibah kar cbulbi^n utte dhariS,. 

Laham ghore da khakar, jora liran karia : 
70 Kalima shukar Sayyid Ahmad Sain us vela ja parhia. 

Khor4n eh dekhkar Darbare bhani mari : 
" Sayyid tnsade bakhsh di zara kadar na jam. 

GhotEl tera dia hoia fakiran nun khilwaia. 

Age ham ky& kahen^ jo kia Sayyid jaia V 
75 Shah* ne ahdi bhajke Sayyid Ahmad bulw^i^. 
" Ghor^ Tazi nal la !," eh Sahib* farmaiS.. 

Pir Sahib ne jis ghari eh hukm sun pai3,j 

Donon hath uthake boUa bar : " Khuda yk. 

Tun Kadir Karim hai, main miskin nimana. 
80 Is ghore niin zinda kar, kuchh mera nahin thik&n^ !" 

Ghora zinda ho gia ; Sayyid hoia kushhal. 

Shukar Khuda da bhajia hoke bahut nihal. 

T^zi ghor^ lake jad Darbar ja waria, 

Sdbadar Multan ne kadar bahut s§, karia. 
85 Eh karamat dekhka, aur na kuchh ban M, 

Apni beti Bai di us se kari sagM ! 

Sayyidzada biyahke Shaikot men aiS,, 

Khoran ral mil baithke eho mata jad laia : 
" Jad tak eh hai jiwandS. sanAn nahih aram. 
90 Ao, is nAn mar den, te hove achha kam." 

Abdu'l-Ghani bhai tha Hazrafc da ik khAb : 

Suraju'ddin nan larke dk, oh har ik da mahbub. 

Sarwar jan de khauf ton watanon se hath dhoe; 

Mak^m Nigaha jake kheme zan phir hoe. 
95 Khoran pichhiS. chhadia othe bhi nan mdl : 

Sana kabile Shdh nM kita ja maktAl. 

' * Observe that Shdh and Sdhib here mean the Governor, elsewhere 
in this poem they mean the Saint. 


San shahadat Pir da haiga panj sau satar. 
Sahili is hub man le, na kar tiin kuoLh chalitar. 

Makam Nigaha pind hai pahaie par abad ; 
100 Andar us de kabar hai; Sayyid Ahmad ne yad. 

Niche oh de khad hai barsati be-kal. 

Mela us men honda hai Baisakhi nun har sal. 

Pani wahan kam yab sa ; tihaian kiti zari : 

Hazrat di doa te chashma ho gai jari. 
105 Sidak wa yakiu se jo koi jakar is men nahave, 

Fazal Ilahi, yaman Wall te, jald shifa un pave. 

Ik same ik ghar ja Hazrat majlis ki. 
Dhig phatkar sir utte jhab girne nAii thi ; 
Hath apna Pir Sahib ne niche se jii dharia, 
110 Shikaf wahaii da jitna hoia sa, utna hi rab ghari^, 
Shakal musallis ab hai ghati men maujud : 
Uparon bahut farakh hai, akhir ja mafkud. 
Panja da nislian bai is da khub ayan. 
Jo chahej so dekh le, hor shak na an. 

115 Sayyid Ahmad nam ap da walidaia ne rakhia; 

Lakhdata, Lalaawala,. lakab hua hai achha ! 

Sakbi Sarwar bhi akhde jag vichbani log : 

Sarwar Sultan kab mande Jatt Chamar bar log. 

Bhaialn eh de Sayyid di jan se karan kabul : 
120 Wall apna jande eh fir ka majhul. 

'Abdu'llah eh hi nazm banai : oh huada hai asi. 
Allah oh de hk\ par rahmat bhajen khasi ! 

The God of all creatures is the Lord, Merciful and 

He hath sent. His propbets to His servants at all times, 
To show to all His grace and gifts and kindness, 
To show them that He is Almighty and Omnipotent. 
6 His servants know well His orders and interdicts, 

TOL, III.— 39 


And he that turneth his face from Him shall dwell in 

He made His creatures of dififerent kinds that all raight 

call on Him ! 
The Lord, the Creator, giveth their daily food to all ! 

In the beginning of the Fifth Century, or at the end of 

the Fourth,* 
10 Disturbances arose in Arabia and afterwards became 

general .f 
There was much bloodshed and robbery on all sides, 
And peace, security and happiness struck their tents. 
So Zainu'l'ibidin, the father of Sayyid Ahmad, left hia 

And leaving Arabia settledj at Shaikot§. 
15 There is no doubt nor suspicioa at all as to the Saint 

having been a Sayyid : 
Know him to be a Hussaini Sayyid, and of the female 

line from the Prophet. || 
Piia, the head-man of Shaikot, in his faith and assur- 
Gave his elder daughter in marriage to the Saint (Zai- 

nu'l-'abidin) with gladness. 

* i. e. A. H. ; this gives us the beginiiing of the Xllth Century A.D. ; 
See Vol. I., p. 66. 

t This reference is intelhgible : A.H. 467 to 512, or A.D. 1075 to 
Ills, the period covered by the reigns, more or less nominal, of tha 
'Abbiai Khalifas of Baghdad, Al Muqtadi B'illah and Al Mustazahir 
B'illah, under the real sway of the powerful Saljflqs, JaUlu'ddin MaUfc 
Shah (1072-1092) and Sultan Barkayaraq (1092-1104), was indeed a 
period of distui-bance. It saw the rise of the Crusades in Syria owing 
to the excesses of Malik Sh&h at Jerusalem, the struggles there under 
the Fatimi Khalifa of Egypt, Musta'ali B'illah Abu'l-Qdsim Ahmad 
(1094-1100), the decline of the great Saljaqi Empire on the death of 
Malik Shah, and the rise and power of the Assassins or Ismailias under 
Hasan Sabbah, the Old Man of the Mountain (1089-1124), 

X Lit., drew breath. 

§ Should be Sh^hkot ; see Vol. II., p. 118. 

II i. e. a descendant of Hussain, son of 'Ali, and grandson of Mu^m- 
mad through his daughter Fatima ; see Vol. II., p. 154. 


His younger daughter Pira gave in marriage to the 
20 (The Saint) dwelt in the village and took to ploughing. 
Pir&'s only descendants were through those two daugh- 
And they all took their shares through those two. 

When Sayyid Ahmad was born in the Saints' house, 

The jealousy of the cousins increased apace. 
25 Sakhi Sarwar had kindly feelings towards his brethren, 

But they continuaUy kept enmity in their hearts. 

In despair (the Saint Sarwar) left his home and went 
to the City of Baghdad, 

And was filled with the blessing and communion of the 

Shahabu'ddin Soharwardi, whom they call the Saint of 
the day, 
80 Benefited him much with his blessing and companion- 

Maudiid CLishti lived then, whom they call the World- 
saint ; — 

From serving and honoring him he obtained grace in 
his heart. t 

When an eager desire for his home came into his heart 
Sayyid Ahmad 

Left the City of Baghdad and pitched his tent atDhaun- 
85 Tt© miracles and mysteries of the Saint became known 
to the world, 

And the hearts of many people were filled full of grace. 

When the Saint went to Shaikot his brethren raised up 
a disturbance, 

* See introduction. 

t Shahabu'ddin Soharwardi of Baghdad, flourished A.D. 1145-1232. 
Khwaja Mauddd Chishtl died at Chislit in 1153. 
J Near WazirS/bad in the GujrdnwaM district. 


And the uatural jealousy of those people again gathered 

The Khors assembled at that place and made a plan, 
40 (Saying) : " Send him to slay a lion : he will slay or be 
The great Saint slew the lion with his slipper!* 
Then the inward fire of the brethren increased doubly. 
The Khors went to the Governor and thus cried out : 
" Put Sayyid Ahmad into prison, that we may be rid of 
45 The Governor of the City of Multan, on hearing these 
Sent a messenger qiiickly to seize the Saint. 
As soon as the Sayyid put his foot within the boundary 

of the City, 
The Governor was seized with a great desire to meet 

him : 
Because a sign had been given to that Govei'nor of the 
60 That he would lose his prosperity if he showed any dis" 
respect to the Sayyid. 
When the Saint put his foot in the Court, 
The courtiers, great and small, laid their heads at his 

The Governor of the day honoured him and quickly 

embraced him, 
And brought him as a gift an Arab horse and royal 
65 The Saint greatly objected to taking a gift. 

But the Governor persuaded him with sweet words. 
Sakhi Sarwar was honoured and the Khors ashamed. 
There was weeping in the house of the Khors and joy 
in the house of the Sayyids. 

On the road a band of faqirs met him, 
60 As the Sayyid was returning home from the Court. 
* Cf. Vol. I., p. 96. 


They begged (of him, saying) : " We are hungry, give 

us something to eat ! 
Else it will be very hard for us to live." 
Said the saint : " It is the wide jungle, but I hesitate 

not ; 
Come with me to Shaikot and eat your fill." 
65 "Thy name is LakhdatS,, known to the Four Quarters 
(of the Earth), 
Grant us thy horse and robes and make us happy." 
He gave what they desired and went homewards. 
The faqirs slew the horse and put it on their hearths (to 

cook it). 
They ate the flesh of the horse, and made themselves 
breeches of the clothes : 
70 And then they repeated the prayers for thanks to the 
Lord Sayyid Ahmad. 
When the Khors saw this they went and told tales to the 
Court (saying) : 
"The Sayyid did not at all value the (Governor's) gifts. 
He has given the horse io faqirs to eat. 
What more can we say of the doings of the Sayyid'a 
son ?" 
75 The Governor sent a messenger to fetch the Sayyid. 

And the Governor said : " Let him bring thte Arab horse 

with him !" 
When the Saint heard the order, 
He raised his hands and said again and again : 

Thou art Mighty and Merciful, I am but poor and 
miserable : 
80 Eaise this horse to life; I have no resources (but in 
thee) !" 
The horse became alive and the Saint was happy. 
Giving thanks to God he became very happy. 
When he entered the Court with the Arab horse. 
The Governor of Mult4n greatly honoured him. 
85 Seeing this miracle, he had no alternative 


But to give him his own daughter BM iu marriage !* 

After the Sayyid's son had married he came to Shaikot, 
And the Khors met together and made this plan : 
" As long as he is aUve we shall have no peace. 
90 Come, let us slay him and we shall prosper." 
The Saint had a good brother 'Abdu'l-Ghani, 
And Suraju'ddiu was the name of his Son, beloved 

of all. 
Sarwar from fear of his life washed his hands of his 

And went and pitched his tent at Nigah^. 
95 Even there the Khors did not cease to follow him, 
And slew the Saint with his family. 
The date of the Saint's martyrdom is five hundred and 

seventy. t 
Know this for truth and doubt it not. 

Nigahd is a village in the hills :{ 
100 In it is his tomb iremember, Sayyid Ahmad's. 
Beneath it is a ravine in the rains. 
Every year in Baisakh a fair is held there. 
There was a scarcity of water and the thirsty (pilgrims) 

cried out ; 
And a spring arose by the prayer of the Saint. 
105 Who goes and bathes there in faith and assurance, 

By the grace of God and the favour of the Saint, will 

quickly be cured. 

Once the Saint held an assembly in a ravine. 
And (the rocks) were ready to fall on his head ; 
When the Saint placed his hand beneath them, 
110 The ravine remained as it was made. 

The triangular appearance of the pass still remains; 

* See Vol. I., p. 95 ; Vol. II. p. 116ff. and 131. 
t i.e. 570 A.H. or 1174 A.D. 
J See Vol. I., p. 66. 


Wide at tlie top and narrow at the bottom. 

The mark of the (Saint's) hand is clearly visible. 

Those that wish can see it and have no doubts. 

il5 Thy parents called thee Sayyid Ahmad,* 

Lakhdata and Lalauwala are thy noble titles I 
The people, too, call thee Sakhi Sarwar in the world, 
And all the Jatts and Cham§.r8 worship thee as Sarwar 

The bards acknowledge thee for a Sayyid with their Uvea, 
120 The poor bards knowing thee for their patron. 

'Abd'ullah made these verses, thy sinful servant. 
May God have special mercy on him ! 


Awal gawah Sache Allah : 
Hazrat lenda Bahisht muhalla : 
Manila minen jeh dl gallon : 

Oh Pir main pharia. 
6 Sarwar DhodS, donon bhai 
Nal Khoran de sanj rachai ; 
Nadi kinare kanak bijai. 
Viyah Nadi de utte rahinde. 

Khet Piran da hari^. 
10 Kanakaii pakian Chet Basakhi. 
Khoran Piran ghalle rakhe. 
Khoran de sab rakhe mare ; 

Sarja zor karia. 
Khoran milke mata mataia : 
15 "Kakh ghallo Sayyid jaia; 
Sarja us nun mar mukave : 

Sada mantar phuria ! " 
Pir kharawaii, hath musalla, 

Piran pahra karia. 

* The bard now invokes Sakhi Sarwar. 


20 Kar 'B'ismi'llali' kharan ik mare; 
Sarja dhere karia. 
Kanak pakiari; Mle paiudl : 
Khoran Piran de pas jande : 
" Badshahaii de daftar bharnl ! " 
25 Shah da palla pharia. 

Ralke Khoran ditta tana: 
" Nal sade chalo, Sultana ; 
Badshahan da bharo khazana; 
Dastak sanuii pharia ! " 
30 * Abij Jodha, Sanwan, KakkA, 
Chauhan bar^ uthai4 Makkii : 
Pir nun pharke nal le chale. 
Eh. ki augun karia ? 
Garh Multanon Pir chale ; 
35 Chham chham barsan nur tajale. 
Bahlaii Khoran daft na chale : 
Maulla honda jeh de Wall. 
Nal Khoran de turia, 
Darbar vichh jad rakhia pair : 
40 Jithe pair te ohte khair. nazaron Ghanan Pathan4 : 
" Gajja Pir hai, ratak sadaha. 
Bara karam kita. Sultana." 

Uthke Badshah bhi milia. 
45 Ghan Pir baheii barabar : 

Hor rahan sab khari^ ! 
Bol Khoran da raddi painda : 
Sayyid ghore charhiL 
Tazi ghora te nal jora 
60 Piran age dharia. 

Sayyid kahinda : " Suno, B^dshfihA, 
Mainun Maulla de parwaha. 
Main ki jana tuta laha ? 
Tazl Allah bakhshe : 

* This line explains the allusions at p. 96, Vol. I., and at Vol, II.. 
p. 118. 


55 Kam S^in d^ kariei ! " 

Fakiraii ghatte an sawaM : 
" Ghoi-a deh Badhshahanwala." 
Tflzi ghora te naJ jora 

Pir te Malangaa phari^. 
60 Sakhi Sarwar di ' dhan dhan' hoi : 
Malangan mile mutih mangi dhoi. 
Shukar Khuda da karke Sarwar 

Watan des niin turia. 
Kar ' B'ismi'llah/ parh takbiran, 
65 Pukra hukm Shara da karLsl. 

Began bharian uthe jawane : 
"Sar-mukh tare duhen jaMne 1 " 
LangEiu lian phar diwane ; 
Rajje fakir den doain : 
70 Darud Nabbi par parhi^. 

Khor chughal Darbare ai& : 
"TaziteraPir khilaia. 
Tera ditta yad na laia : 

Chit kisi na dharia/' 
75 Sayyid utte ahdi thave : 

Sayyid Eao ndn Badshah bulS,ve. 
Kakki charhkar Pir phir &ve ; 
Oho ghora tan ban ave : 
Nila Tazi haria ! 
80 Ealke Sayyid karan pukar^ : 

" SunJye, Muhammad, Charon Yflra, 
Eho ghora hoe sar§-, 

Nila T^zl haria!" 
Had cham chun kita dher4 : 
85 Jande kalam Malaik mora. 
Azrail phir andi jindri : 

Sabit ghorEi bania ! 
Oh ghora le aia : 
Badshah kahe : " Khuda y^ ! " 
90 Ghaniai waziran Shah nuii samjhaiat : 
Badshah ne dola dekar, 
VOL. III. — 40 


Niyat khair phir parhiS.. 
Bol Khoran da raddi painda : 

Sayyid ghore charhi^. 
95 Shakar wandi, hoi sMdi ; 
Niyat khair parhia Pirz^de, 
Bai bakhshi kaul zabani. 
Sayyidzade Bai di bani jori, 

Jo rang sabhi bania ! 
100 Lai, jawahir, moti, hire, 
L^gian n6n pahinae chire. 
Sayyid di jad shidi hoi, 

Dhol damama dharia. 
Shada bharain nazam banai : 
105 Bhaian vichhon hurmat p^i. 

Nau nidh, baran sidh ho gaian : 

Har sal Nigahe turia 1 


First I sing the True God : 

(Secondly) the Prophet* that dwelleth in Heaven: 

(Thirdly) whose prayers God heeds, 

I worship that Saint. t 
5 Sarwar and I)hoda,J these two brothers. 
Made a partnership with the Khors, 
And planted wheat by the river bank. 
They dwelt on the banks of the River Biyas.§ 

The field of the Saints prospered. 

10 The wheat ripened in Chet and Baisakh.H 

The Khors and the Saints sent their field-watchmen. 
The watchmen of the Khors were all slain. 

For the lions were furious. 
The Khors met and made a plan, (saying) : 

* i. e., Muhammad. f i.e., SakM Sarwar. 

I Dhoda wa.s own brother to Sai-war : see Vol. I., p. 76, &c. 
§ A gratuitous assumption on the part of the jiJandhar bard, who 
seems to know of no other important nver. 

11 i.e., in March and April. 


15 "Let us send the Sayyid's son as a field-watchmen, 
That the lion may slay him, 

And our charm prosper ! " 
The Saint with his sandals on and his praying-carpet 
in his hand, 

Kept the watch. 
20 Saying, ' In the name of God,' with one blow of his 

He overthrew the lion. 
The wheat ripened and the tax was due. 
And the Khors went to the Saint (saying): 
" Pay (the taxes) to the King's office J" 
25 And they seized the Saint's skirt.* 

Together the Khors reproanhed him, (saying) : 
" Come with us, (Sakhi Sarwar)' Sultan, 
And pay into the King's treasury, 

For the summons has reached us!" 
30 Abi, Jodha, Sanwan, Kakkfl, 

Tke four brethren, took Makkft {with them), t 
And seizing the Saint took him (also) with them. 

How great a sin they committed ! 
The Saint went to Multan fort, and 
35 Heavenly glory shone upon him. 

The plan of the wicked Khors did not flourish 
Against him whose Lord was God. 
He went with the Khors. 
• Wherever in the Court (the Saint) placed 
40 His feet, there was blessing. 

Ghana the Pathan cast a side-look at him saying : 
" The Saint is a warrior and hath called up a host. 
O Sultan, thou hast done me a great kindness." 
And the King got up to greet him. 
45 Ghan and the Saint sat down together. 

While all the rest remained standing ! 

* i.e., pressed him to make all the payment. 

f These five were the Khors and cousins of Sakhi Sarwar. 


The words of the Khors were thrown away, 

And the Sayyid mounted a horse. 
An Arab horse and a suit of apparel 
60 Were brought before the Saint. 

Said the Sayyid : " Hear, King, 
I heed (only) God. 
What know I of loss or gain ? 
God hath granted this Arab horse : 
65 It is God's doing ! " 

A crowd oifaqirs came and begged (of Sar war, saying) ; 
" Give us the Royal horse." 
The Arab horse and the suit of apparel 

The Malangs* took from the Saint. 
60 They spake well of Sakhi Sarwar, 

And the Malangs obtained what they asked. 
Giving thanks to God, Sarwar 

Returned to his native land. 
Saying ' In the name of God' and the (proper prayers) 
65 The faqirs acted according to the Law.f 

Filling the cauldrons they stood up, (saying) : 
" Mayest thou he honored in both worlds (Q Sarwar) !** 
The estatics tore up the raiment, 
And being satiated the faqirs gave thanks, 
70 And prayed to the Prophet. 

The Khors told tales in the Court, (saying) j 
" The Saint hath eaten thy Arab horse. 
He hath not remembered thy gift. 
Nor valued it at all." 
75 Messengers were sent to the Saint, 

And the King sent for the Lord Saint. 
The Saint came back on (his mare) KakkH 
And then the horse was restored j 

The grey Arab was flourishing ! 

* Properly a sect of mendicants who, through one Jaman Jati, axe 
followers of Badtu'ddin SMh Madftr of Makkanpto (1350-1433 A.D.) 
t i.e., they killed the horse for food in the orthodox way, 
J See ante in all the legends of Sarwar, passim. 


80 The Sayyids had met and called out : 

" Hear Muhammad, and ye his Poui' Friends,* 
May this horse be made whole, 

And the grey Arab flourish 1" 
They collected the bones and skin into a heap, 
85 And the pen of the Angel (of Death) turned back. 
Azrail t gave him back life. 

And the horse was made whole ! 
(The Saint) brought the horse : 
Said the King : " my God \" 
90 The ministers together explained to the King (what 
he should do). 
And the King gave him (his daughter) in marriage, 

And married her to him lawfully. 
The speech of the Khors came to naught. 
And the Sayyid mounted the horse. 
95 The sugar was distributedj and the marriage com- 
And the descendant of Saints performed it lawfully. 
(The King gave his daughter) Bai§ according to his 

spoken promise. 
A match was made between Bai and the Sayyid's son. 
The fairest match of all ! 
100 Rubies, jewels, pearls and diamonds, 

And bright turbans were given to the hangers on. 
When the Sayyid was married 

The great and small drums were sounded. 
Shada the bard made this poem, 
105 And obtained honor among his brethren. 

He obtains the nine riches and the twelve enjoyments. 
That goes yearly to Nigaha ! 

* See Vol. 11., p. 502. 

f The Miitiaimnadaii Angel of Death. 

+ In token of the completion of a marriage it is usual to hold a feast, 
Mt when this for any reason is not practicable, sugar or dates are 
distributed among the relatives and guests instead. 

§ See former stories of Sarwar, passim. 


Bhai Pherft Bahman thia; 
Na oil da put, na oh di dhla. 
Kangal kalaach. ho j^ne karan, 

Man vichh nazar manawandS. : — 
5 "Je Mere ghar dhan put hove, 

Teri jag vichh, Pira, ' dhan dhan' hove. 
Makam banawari : 
Nit dive jalawan : 

Eh mere man awanda." 
10 Jad Allah oh di as puchhai, 
Pir Sahib ne hurmat pai. 
Jhanda gadia : makam banaia : 
Sohle nit oh g§.wand&. 
Bare put da biyah rachaia : 
15 Sikhan deghar biyahan ai&. 
Kurman oh nun tana mari : — 

" Bajh Sat G-ur kydn sis niwawanda ?" 
Daulat di gharfir se 
Na sAjhi oh nun dur di. 
20 Dhiman gara dhuwake, 

Makam da hdhk chanwawanda. 
Ghar vichh Devi nar, ji ;* 
Deve matan tan kari pukar, ji. 
" Oh tan jodha Pir hai, 
25 Jeh di tiin kar mitawandsi !" 

Munde kahinde : " B§,pua ! 
Kah niin kandan piten, papia ? " 
Dhoda chabuk marke, 

PherA nun chit awanda. 
30 Bahman di akal mari gai : 

Har dam oh nAn phatkar pai. 
Jad oh di dehi phat gai ; 

Kaya da rang batawandd. 

* Ji, Sir, addressed to audience has not been translated : see in many 
previous legends. 


Rarda pairon gik, ji : 
35 Ujfire jake pia, ji. 
Jande sang dekhkar, 

Saugan di wal oh awanda. 
Aia mah sujal, ji : 
Sangan di paindi chal, ji. 
40 Toba kiti badkar te : 

Sharm aia bahut phatkar te : 

Darbare sis niwawandS.. 
Awaz ai : " Eahmanarij 
Na papi honde jawanari. 
45 Chashme jake naha tHii : 
KS,ya da rang bana tdn : 

Apne karne da plial pawanda." 
Jad Bahman achcblia hoift^ 
Phir zari karke roia : 
60 " Main kliw&r bonda babut sa, ji; 

Tuba n<an rabam bun awanda." 
Pbir jab tak rabia jiii da, 
Pir di sifat karniii da. 
Ob di sev karan bahir na tbiuda : 
65 Har sal Darbar men jawand^ 

Nihala, kbub banwaia makam, jl : 
Ave mulk jabari, ji. 
Tiratb bania is da tban, ji : 
Labor ilaka jawanda. 

Bbai Pberu was a Brabmanj 
That bad nor son nor daugbter. 
As be was poor and bungry. 

He made a vow in bis heart : — 
5 " If a good son be born in my bouse * 

Thy praises shall resound in the earth, Saint 
I will build thee a shrine, 
And light thee perpetual lamps : 
This is in my heart." 

* Prayei' addressed to Sarwar. 


10 When God granted his desire, 
There was honor to the Saint, 
He raised up a standard and built a shrine. 

And songa of praise were perpetually sung. 
He arranged for the marriage of his elder son, 
15 And married him among the Sikhs. 

His brother-in-law reproached him (saying) : 

"Why bowest thy head to any but the True' 
In pride of wealth,. 
He could not see ahead. 
20 Collecting bricks and mortar 

He closed up the door of the shrine, f 
He had a wife at home called Devi, 
And she called out to him advisedly : 
" He is a valiant Saint, 
25 Whose worship thou art blotting out ! " 

Said his boys : " Father ! 

Why dost pull down the (shrine) walls, sinner?" 
Dhoda beat him with a whip, J 

And made Pheru remember (bis vow). 
30 The Brahman lost his senses. 
And was cursed at every breath. 
Then his body broke out (into sores). 
And his body changed color. § 
He crawled on his feet, 
35 And went into the wilds. 

He saw a party going (to Sarwar's shrine) 

And he joined the party. 
It was the cold season. 
And the party went on their way. 
40 He repented of his sin. 

And was much ashamed of the curse (upon him). 
And bowed his head in the shrine. 

* i.e., Gurft Govind Singli, the founder of the modern Sikhs, 
t That he had built to Sarwar, i.e., he became a Sil^h, 
J 0/., Vol. I., p. 76. § i.e. he became a leper. 


There came a voice, (saying) : "0 Brahman, 
Be no longer a sinner. 
45 Go and bathe in the fountain,* 

And the color of thy body shall be restored, 

And thou shalt win the fruit of thy deed." 
When the Brahman became well 
He again wept bitterly (saying) : 
60 "I was a great sinner, 

And now thou (0 Saint) hast had mercy. 
And now as long as I live, 
Will I praise the Saint. 
I will do nought but serve him, 
S5 Going yearly to hia Shrine." 

O NihAla,t well did he build the shrine, 

Whither all the world goes. 

The (Saint's) home he made into a place of pilgrimage 

Whither the people of Labor J go. 

* Cf., Vol. II., p. 214. The bard explains ttat to the North-west of 
Nigtiha are two or three small springs rising out of the water made by 
the Saint's horse ! ! 

t The bard addressing himself; see Vol. I., p. 66. 

J i.e., of the Panjab. 

vot. III. — 41 

No. LIV. 


[This 18 a typical legend of local history and serves to eonSrm much that ha» 
been already said at pp. 158.159 and p. ITSff of this volume as to the 
histoi-y of the Saints of J&landhar. It is to be noted that the date of the 
foundation of Basti Shekh Darvesh is here given as A.H. 1026 or A.D. 1617r 
and that this agrees with the usual historical date.J 

("The poem also gives a list of the- JMandhar BastSs past and present, which is- 
worthy of note.] 


Kaiiiyat Abadi Basti Shekh Dartesh. 
Awal hamd Khudawand da, lakh darud Nabbi nun • 
Hal abadi Basti Shekhan pher sunawaii tainurir 

Shekh Darvesh, Pir Pathanaii, Kaniyun hoe udasij 

Pir Wall te rukhsat le Jalandhar hoe basi. 
5 Haztra Bijli Kh&n de pas jo jangal sa ghanerS, 

Ethe ake Shekh Sahib ne apna kita dera. 

Lodi log, sharir admi, un se larne lage : 

Shekh Sahib ne apne dera rawan karde age, 

Theh Lobar?, jis ja utte hun baigi abadi,, 
10 Malik^a pasoh mol leke dil men kiti shddi. 

Malikah log sbararat-pesha aisa kahir machaia,^ 

Jitna makan din n&n banda, rati ake duhaia. 

Shekh Sahib ki naubat nalish hakim tak jab ai,. 

Siasat shahi pakar Malikan akal thikani &i. 
15 Jah&ngir da ahad si, aur san sa das sau ehhabbi : 

Tarikh abadi Basti Shekh di Tazkira vichhon labhL 

Jah&ngir da baiS, shahzada jo sa Shfih Jah&n, 
Wazir Azam sa us da, yaro, Miydn Sadu'llah Khte. 
Murid sacha sa Hazrat da eh feanda Musalm^n : 


20 Bddshah ki khidmat vichh yftn kita us bayan : 

" MursHid kamil mera haiga Hazrat Shekh Darvesh ; 

JMandbar de ilake vich rahinda oh hamesh." 

Badshah fakir- dost ne us vele farmaia : 
" Shauk milau k^ un ka mere dil vich bahut sam^ia." 
25 Dera shahi jin dinoii Jalandbar aia nere, 

Wazir Azam ne araz kari, ja Hazrat wakt sawere. 

Badshah ne hukm hazuri Shekh Sahib nun bheja : 

Shekh Sahib ne araz kia ki, " ana mera be-ja. 

Manne hukm Hazflr Anwar te sanun nahin inkar : 
SO Darbar Khuda da chhadna buh haiga dushwar." 

Nukta mauzAn fakir da jo sunia Shahanshah^ 

Jagir muafi bakhshish klti us dam khatirkhwah. 

Mughalan shahi ahad tak ba-h41 muafi rahi : 

Sikhan shahi daur men muafi jati rahi ! 

35 Rauza masjid Shekh di umda hai tawir : 
Zair log akhde : " Hainge be-nazir." 

Pahile Hazrat ae the sane kabile ap : 

Murid baradar a gae, karke bahut shitab. 

Basti Hazrat Shekh vich jad na rahi sarmai, 
40 Bahir nikal har ik ne, Basti nai basai. 

Barah Bastian gird Jalandhar j4g vich hain mashhflr. 

Tin da kujh nishan nahin, nau maujiid zariir. 

Babakhel te Danishmandan, Basti Ghazan pachhan : 

Basti Nai te Shah Kuli, Pir Dad di jan : 
45 Satvin Basti Bahram Khan ne apne se basai : 

Matthfi Sahib di athvin, navin Shekh di ahi. 

Sarbuland ne nazm banai, Sahib hukm sa karia. 
Rabba us nAn jinuda rakha hazaron waria ! 
Eh mere doa hai : ' Ai Miyan Shekh Darvesh, 
60 Sidka jivia us da kaim rahe hamesh V 

Story of the Foundation of Bast! Shekh Darvesh. 
First praise to the Lord and a thousand prayers to the 
Prophet (Mwhammad), 


And then I will tell you the story of the foundation of 
Basti Sliekh (Darvesh). 

Shekh Darvesh, the Pathan Saint,' wearied of Kaniyun,* 

So he took leave of Pir Wall t and settled at Jalandhar. 
5 There was a great jungle near the tomb of Bijli KMA, 

And going there the Saint pitched his camp. 

The wicked Lodis began quarrelling with him,J 

And the Saint started onward with his camp. 

The ruins of Lohari,§ which are now populated, 
10 He bought from the Maliks, || and was happy in his heart. 

The quarrelsome Maliks raised such a disturbance, 

That they threw down at night as much as he built up 
in the day. 

An opportunity of complaint to the ruler came to the 

And the Maliks owing to his punishment came to their 
15 This was in the days of Jahangii', in the year one thou- 
sand and twenty-six.^ 

The date of the foundation of Basti Shekh (Darvesh) is 
written in the Aunals.** 

Jahangir's elder son was Shah Jah^n, 

* i.e., Kani Kui-am: see Vol. III., p. 179. 

t For this saint see Vol. III., p. 175. 

J By " the tomb of Bijli Khan" is probably meant the ruined mosque 
at Kot Btee Khan, a deserted suburb of Jalandhar, formerly belonging 
to the Lodis in the District. The Lodt Pathans of the Jalandhar District 
were formerly a family of much importance and undoubtedly did sell 
lands to the present proprietors of those parts. 

§ Meaning the lands of the Lobar i Pathans. 

II The Maliks are Muhammadans claiming E&jp'ftt descent and 
belonging to JMandhar town. ^ i.e. A.D. 1617. 

** The book meant is the Tazkirdt-i-Baushanid, translated in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1878. This book, how- 
ever, refers to the doings of another branch of the Ansari Shekhs, to 
which family Shekh Darvesh belonged. See the genealogy at p. 159 


And his Chief Minister, friends*, was Mijaii Sa'adu'Uah 

He was a true follower of the Saint, was this Musalmaii 
servant (of God), 
20 And he thus spake to the King : 

" My perfect guide is the Saint Shekh Darvesh, 
That ever dwelleth in the Jalandhar District." 
The King, the friend oifaqirs, said at once : 
" I have a great desire to meet hin-i in my heart." 
?5 On the day that the royal camp approached Jalandhar, 
The Chief Minister came early to the Saint to talk with 

him. J 
The King sent a command of invitation to the Saint, 
And the Saint answered : " It would be wrong for me 

to come. 
I have no intention of disobeying the commands of 
Tour Illustrious Highness, 
80 But it is an evil thing to leave the Court of God." 

When the Emperor heard the appropriate reply of the 

He at once became his supporter and gave him a free 

grant (of land). 
During the Mughal rule the grant remaiBed free. 
But under the Sikh rule it went in a raid ! 

3-5 There is a fine mosque and tomb built to the Saint, 
And visitors say that it is unequalled. 

First the Saint himself came (to Jalandhar, only) with 
his family ; 

- * Addressed to the audience. 

t Sa'adu'llali Khan is otherwise said to have been a follower of Shekh 
Bazid, or Pir Raushan, a relative in the previous generation of Shekh 
Darvesh and much better known : see genealogy, at p. 159 ante. For 
Pir Baushan's descendants he procured a f eof near Agra, and one of them 
restored nauch later the shrine of Shekh Darvesh. That is all the his- 
torical connection there really appears to be between Shekh Darvesh and 
Shah Jahan's great minister. 

X This means that he paid him special honor according to eastern 


Then his relatives and supporters quickly followed. 
When the Basti of the EToly Saint could not hold 
40 They all went away and founded new Bastia. 

There are twelve (such) Bastis round Jalandhar famous 

in the world. 
Three have disappeared, but nine remain. 
Babakhel, and Danishmandan, and Bastl Ghazl,ri, 
Basti Nai and Shih QuIi'h, and Pir Dad's; 
45 The seventh Basti Bahram Xhan himself founded; 

The eighth is Matthfi Sahib's, and the ninth is the 

Sarbuland * made this poem, as the Saint directed him. 
May God keep him alive for a thousand years I 
This is his prayer ! " O Miyan Shekh Darvesh, 
50 Mayest thou ever remain in prosperity !" 

* The name of the bard. 

No. LV. 



[This legend evidently has reference to the doings of some member of ths 
celebrated Bdrhfi SMat, or Sayyids of B^rh^, but which particular Sayyid 
is here meant I have been unable to find out. It is more than probables 
that the bard has mixed up several stories.] 

[The story in this legend is shortly as follows : Sayyid Asmftn, son of 8ayyid 
Alfbar Shah, Governor of Sarhaud (Sirhind), who appears with the alias of 
Mtn'n or Mir Sayyid BukhSri, was summoned to Court by his master, thet 
Emperor Sh^h Jah^n (lf)28—lli58 A.D.), on account of his having been 
absent therefrom for 1 2 years. A courtier named Qutb Sh4h was sent to fetch 
him, and on the road m maged to make him believe that the Emperor was 
about to imprison him for contumacy. This resulted in a distnrbance 
being created at the Court at Dehli, and ending in the death of Sayyid 
Asmuii, The bero is described by the bard as coming from Bfirhfl 
Bavin near Sarhand.] /• 

[This tale in its general outline is one told properly of Kh£n-i-'Azim or 'Azim 
Khfn, otherwise UirzS 'Aziz Muhammad Kota, or Kokaltfish, the 
foster-brother and friend of the Emperor Akbar. 'Azim Kh^n was 
Governor of Gujarfit, and after he had been 10 years absent from Court, 
Akbar sent for him in 1592, but on his way thither he was persuaded that 
the Emperor was unfriendly, so instead of proceeding onwards he went to 
Makka. After a while he returned and was received back into favour, and 
on the death of Akbar opposed the succession of JahSnglr in favour of the 
hitter's son Kbusrav. In 1G23 Jah^ngirhad him imprisoned at Gw^lior, but 
he died eventually at peace at Ahmadabiid in big old Government of 
Gujarat in 1624.] 

[Historically Sayyid Mirtn Bukh^rt was a, scion of the Bukhfiris, a quite 
distinct family to that of the Bfirhas, being the son of Sayyid MubSrik. 
His son Sayyid HiSmid was a firm supporter of 'Azim Khtn, and hia 
grandson Sayyid Kamal supported the Sayyids of Biirhfl, and in fact helped 
to save them from destruction, when they attacked Khusrav at Bhairoii- 
wW near jaiandhar in 1605 on behalf of Jah.lugtr. This is the fight which 
is apparently alluded to by the bard, the chief hero of which was Shekh 
Farid Bukhsrl Martaza Kh£n, The BdrhA Sayyids in command that day 
were Sayyid 'Ali Asghar SaifKhtn and Sayyid Jalfil. Sayyid Jalal waa 


[The montion of Qiitb Shflh as the deceiver of Sayyid Asmftri takes us to 
another story of the same time. Qutbu'ddin KhSn Ohisti Shekh KhCiba, tbe 
foster-brother of Jahatigir, was sent in 1607 by the Emperor to induce 'AIJ 
Quli Istaljfl Sher Afkan Khfn to come to Court from BardwSn, so that tho 
Emperor might seize his wife, Nftr Jah^n, whom he coveted. It was 
intended to murder Sher Afkan, but a mistake was made in the plan, and 
Sher Afkan made a thrust at Shekh Khftbft aad out open his stomach 
fsee legend, line Ki). Both Sher Afkan and Shekh Khilbft were killed 
and the Emperor obtained N(\r Jab^n.] 

[Reading between the lines of the confused tale presented in this Legend of 
Sayyid Asmflii we seem to find allusions to all the above facts.] 

The Insurrection {Juddh) of Sayyid Asmun of^ 
Bdrha Bavin in Sarhand. 

Sayyid Asmua's father, Sayyid Akbar Shah, was appointed 
Governor of Sarhand (Sii'hind) by Shah Jahan, King of Dehli, 
and when Sayyid Akbar Shah died, Sayyid Asmuh was appoint- 
ed in his place, though only twelve years of age. 

For twelve years he did not go to the King to pay his 
respects. At the Royal Court there was a Nawab, Qntb Shah 
by name, who told the King that Sayyid Asmuh had not come to 
pay his respects from the date of his accession twelve years 
since : nor had he paid any tribute. The King thereupon 
ordered him by some means to arrest the Sayyid. Qutb Shah 
accordingly went to Sarhand and after a while induced Sayyid 
Asmuh to visit him, and told him that out of friendship for his 
father he warned him that certain persons were speaking ill of 
him to the King for not having visited the Eoyal Court from 
the day that his father had died. 

On Qutb Shah's advising him to accompany him to the 
Court, Sayyid Asmun- asked him : "Suppose I go there and 
there is a disturbance, what then ? " On this he swore an oath 
on the Quran that no harm should come to hira. But a 
pigeon's egg had been put into the Qwrdn, so that the oath 
was rendered valueless.* 

Sayyid Asmilh took 500 horse with him and set out for 
Dehli with Qutb Shah, and when he had reached Karnal Qutb 

* This is a noteworthy superstition. 


8hah became faithless to his oath. He placed a pair of silver 
fetters on a chiua platter {chhu hi rihdhi) before the Sayyid 
and said to him: "You had better put these on when you 
appear before the King," 

"No," said Sayyid Asmiin, " I will not put on the fetters. 
You must let me go on, even as you induced me by your pro- 
mises to come so far." 

"■ You have been in fault," said Qntb Shah, "and without 
the fetters you will never have audience." 

Said Sayyid Asmftn : " If you had said this at my house T 
would have shown you that there are other kings (than SLilh 
Jahan), but by the grace of God I have still .500 horse by 

So he went on towards Dehli and had a fight with the Royal 
forces ; but they were many, and, despite his bravery, Sayyid 
Asm (in became a martyr. 


Ed'khe taiii I a j jab salcal Sahadud* ki, up raiishan hue, Miniii 

Sayyid Biihhun- . 
Ap raushaii Me, kolas sah ko die ; hare tdrif, Mhiiii, hhalk 


AePaiMii; Quran age dhare ; hhdi liai kasaw, mil Char 

Din anr dunid men such Quran hai : handhkar kamar Jtini 

tayydri : 
5 Sdje jawdn Varhdr ke chalan ko dekhe hai hat mardon 

thdri : 
Jura sanjue, aur rag, bakhtar jhuleh, morichd lareh sipdhi sdre. 
Kot ddkhil hole : saviajh man men ; pari karam ki rekh nd 

tale tdri ! 
Sayyid Asmiin kahe; " Suno, Nawdbji, aur mat haro ham 

SB ar bichdri. 
Ham die Basul, auldd haih Ali M : atal nd talenge Sayyid 


* For Sdddt (./) 

VOL. HI. — 42 


10 Tegh Id dhdr par mdl hhar dungd, hovegt soil jo honhdn." 

ChM Sayyid Ud AU ne bar did ; kamar se hddh, lie har 

kai dri. 
Bieh do char jab haraTc Nawdb pe, hue hai hayati, aur lagi 

Khalkat dekh khari : Sayyid aisi kari ; bhdgo Nawdb le 

jdn pidri ! 
JaMh bahut tU bhir, tahdh ohhir-chhin men hari kyu : nd 

le saki dnah thdri. 
15 Finjrd phul aur chhot sure pare Mi; Darbdr men mar 

Sanmukh lien aur dien mil, dran he kJiul gae pet, jaise pitdre. 
Shahid Ime Mirdn Sayyid. Asmun : bali kdb ki sifat dliddi 



When thou didst preserve the honor of all the Sayyida, 
thou becamest thyself honored, ,Miran Sayyid 

Thou wert honored and gavest gifts to all, and all the 
people praise thee, Miran. 

Came the Pathan, and placed the Quran, before him, and 

swore an oath (by it and) the Four Friends.* 
The Quran (makes an oath) true in both worlds (and so 

the Sayyid) fastening on his sword made ready (for 

the journey), 
5 And the people gazed at the great warrior going to the 

With chained falcons and music and flags flying and all 

the soldiers with their guns. 
They entered the fort : and understand in your minds 

that the lines of fate cannot be blotted out ! 
Said Sayyid AsmAn : " Hear, my Lord, make no more 

plans with me. 

* See Vol. II, p. 377. 


I am of tlie house of the Prophet (Muhammad) and of 

the line of 'Ali : the powerful Sayyid Bakhari 

draws never back. 
10 I will fulfil my tribute on the edge of my sword, happen 

what may." 
'All favoured the Sayyid, and drawing his dagger from 

his waist he took it in his hand. 
He gave the Nawab four or five blows, which endangered 

his life. 
The people saw that the Sayyid so fought, that the 

Nawab fied for dear life. 
The crowd quickly fled from where it had collected, for 

it could not stand the (Sayyid's) attack. 
15 The fort was broken and the warriors fell wounded, and 

there was a great fight at the Court. 
They met and mixed and warriors' bellies were broken 

open like boxes. 
Miran Sayyid Asmfta became a martyr, and the bard 

sings his prowess in verse. 

No. LVI. 



[This and the two following legends belong to the Krishna cycle. This one 
purports to relate u, fight between Pradyumna, the son of Krishna by 
Eukmiui, and his kinsman Sisupala, king of Chedi, resulting in the defeat 
of the latter. I do not know that this particular incident has the support 
of the clasaicB in any way]. 

[Rukmini, the daughter of Bhishmaka, king of Vidarbha (Ber^r), was 
betrothed to Sisupala, and was carried off by Krishna ; hence the life-long 
enmity between Sisupfila and Krishna. Krishna was the son of Vasudeva, 
a, Yfidava, and SiSupala was the son of Damaghosha by Srutadevi, sister 
of Vasadeva.] 

[DwArakfl on the coast of KathiAwfr, and now in the territories of the 
Gaikwar of Earodfi, was in Krishna's possession at the time of his escapade 
with Kukmini, and is or should be the scene of all these legends.] 

[The following genealogy will show the relationship between the principal 
actors in the two Krishna legends about to be given, and it will also help to 
explain the sides they took in the family quarrels. It will farther help to 
prove that the tendency of Indian legendary heroes to become related by 
blood as time goes on, explained in the preface to Vol, II. (p. ix.), is no new 
matter. The names in the genealogy which actually occur in the legend 
are marked in italics. 

1) Ritilii ParAsara = SatyavatS = 



Amb& = VySsa = AmbSlikA. 


I (2) MadrJ = P&idu=(l)Kunt5 
The Kauravas. I 

(2) SAntanu = GangA. 


Silra, YAdava king at MathurA. 

King of MathurA. 




I I 

Devaka. Ugrasena. 

I I 

^rntadeva (2)Eohirii =Vastideva = (1) Devakl Konio of MathurS 
Damaghosha, \ | = two d. of Jardsandha 

king of Chedi. Balarama Krishna = king of Magadha. ^ 

I (Baldeo). Eukminl d. of 

Sisup&la. Bhishmaka, king 

of Vidarbha {? BadarsS.1) . 

Bhima or 


Frady umna. 


QissA Laeai Raja Sispal wa Raja Pakduman. 
Sau jojan men Dwarkfi^ kile banae tin. 
Parduman Raja Ma, khel kare parbin. 
Sone ke maudir bane^ hira lae : 
Mukta aur ratan jare age pae. 
5 Swarraii ke kalas charhe niyare niyare^ 
Ambar ke bich, jaise chamakte tare. 
Saa jojan men Dwarka; darwaza hain chare. 
Sangal lagen sar ke : kathan kile ke bar. 
Raja to jit lia jinne sare : 
10 Sab ka bal clihin, hua kaid men dare. 
Baki Sispal raLa iko Raja, 
Jis ke Darbur baje marfl baja. 
Parduman ne pati likhi : b&ki likha hawal. 
Khait Raja Parduman ha. 
" Jor zulam -karna nahin ; rit bhant se chal 1 
15 Rit rit bhant karo jitni sari. 
Teri kyun aj gai akal mari ? 
Baki hushiyar adab karke rahna. 
Raja Sispal, man mera kahna." 

Kasid le pati chala, Chanderi men jae : 
20 Parduman Maharaj ki katha kahe samjhae. 
Katha katha samjhai^ bat jitni sari : 
" Raja ne bayan likhi niyari niyari. 
Chalna hai sath ap. Raja, mere. 
Age kis taur rahe marzi teri ?" 

25 Pati dekhi Rao ne, bandan gia gabharae. 
Jawab Raja Sispal kd. 
"Jo karna Maharaj ka diinga use dikhae. 
Tu to balwan hua kab ka, bhayya ? 
Acharaj ki bat! Suniye, mei-i dayya ! 
Zat ka Ahir aur nache gave : 
30 Raja ki rit bhtint kaise pave ?" 


Bdjd Sispdl. 
" Kahna us ko jake mere man ki bat. 
Marunga maidan men; din se kariin rat. 
Dia se main rab karfln ; aisi ml,ya. 
Mujhe bhi shikar ik ban men pay a ; 
35 Ki tfl, Maharaj, ap charhke ao. 
Eahna hoshiyar ; nahin jane pao." 

Bida lie, kasid chala ; khatt likh dia nidan. 

Khatt Rdjd Sispdl lid. 
" Tu bhula kis rit men ? dekke nahtn maidan 
Sone ke mandir dekh bal ko tole. 
40 Tikta hi bachan aur mukh se bole." 

Kasid ko kaha : 

Bdjd Sispdl. 

" Jake gero arzi : 
Sunke sawal meri kaya larzi." 

Dwarapur men a taka ; kasid kahe banae : 

" Raja, chahiye Jang ko, hatke kabhi na jae. 
45 Bahut hai saman ; nahiri bas meii ave. 
Pani ke bioh ag baitha lave. 
Sanka nahin ik kare, Raja gyani. 
Kah rahe anek, nahin us ne mani." 

Parduman Raja uthe ; saj lie gaj baj . 
50 Hukm dia sab phauj ko milke karna kaj. 

Rdjd Parduman. 
" Mil-milke kaj karo ; sat ko jano. 
Sab ka ik rang rahe ; meri mano. 
Milne ko aur koi turn se ao, 
Maro bar wakt : nam aisa pao." 

65 Char bhaut ki phauj ko kara balbir. 


Bdjd Parduman. 
" Meri mansfi, kijo, jutak bandho dbir. 
Bandho sab dhir aur sir pe bana. 
Rabna hosbiyar; nahin hatke jana. 
Dakban ke des karo jaldi tayyari : 
60 Larne ki rit karo jitni sari." 

Tab Raja ran pe cbarba, nikat babe nishan. 

Sakal des kampe kbaia^ aise marft ban. 

Assi bazar pbauj kini jari :' 

Jitne balwan cbarbe iko bari. 
65 Raja to Sabar mila, sarna Una, 

Pabile sab bbit ball age din a; 

Tabhi satb Raj& cbarbi, kampA* ek lina. 

Chanderi men ja take bajo bajeii anek. 

Phaujan to an pare dera kina ; 
70 Jab to Mabaraj bukm aisa dica : 

Edjd Parduman. 
" Dusbman ka des ; nabin koi bag ka : 
Mil-milke kam karo^ jitna bas ka." 

Kbabar hiii Sispal ko ' RajS, cbarbe anek ! ' 
Rajii Sispal. 
" Marung4, cbborfln nabin : kabe lakb ki ek." 

75 Pingal aur Rang pas us ke ae : 

Dekbi sab pbauj fikar man men kbae. 
Raj^ se kaban lage jitni sari : 

Pingal aur Bang. 
" Ab tOj Mabaraj, karo ran pe tayyari." 

Raj a Sispal. 
" Kabo tu ; main utbke milfin ? Kabo tu ; karna jang ? 
80 Jo turn karo sabai, ta suniyo, Pingal wa Rang. 
Pingal aur Rang, mere dil ke piyeire, 

* For the English word camp. 


Dusliman ne jor kare jitne sare ; 

Kijo samtin aur daru gola. 

Raja Sispal liukm mukli se bola." 

85 Pingal aur Rang kaline lage : 

Piiigal aur Rang. 
" Jang karOj Maharaj, 
Yell Rajoii ka dharm : ab kuchh kar na laj. 
Laj ki jo bat karo, Raja mere, 
Kile ko chhor, karo babir dere. 
Bandobast khub karo jitna sara. 
90 Bliai aur band, dekho apna piyara. 
Mai khizana babut se bahir die nikal. 
Jine ka sliak liai nahin ; aj maro, clia kal." 

Phaujafi to nikal bahir pfir se ai, 
Badal ki ghor gb&ta jaise cbLai. 
95 Garje clihaun aur baje maru tura : 
Sanmukh se chot karo sadat sura. 
Parduraan Mahai'aj se kahan lage Sispal. 

lidja Sispal. 
" Tf\ to put Abir ka, Rajon kJ chali cbal ! 
Raj on ki chal-ohali aisa karna ? 
100 Na hakk, Maharaj, tujhe aya marna. 
Banjenge ban, pare bharat bhari. 
Teri to aj kabaii akal mari ? " 

Raj a, Parduman. 
" Hatke jana nahin: ab kuchh karna laj. 
Kal achanak mare, jun titar ko baj. 
105 Titar pe baj pare bal ko dhare : 

Dushman ki chot khaia sanmukh miire. 
Mere ab hath dekh iko bari. 
Rahna hoshiyar : kahi tujhe sari." 

Raja Sispal. 
" Din bita, rajni hfli ; hone de parbhat : 
110 Mahah jang turn se karun ; dekh hamare hath. 


Mere to hath dekh iko bari : 
Kama nahin derj sajo phaujan s^i. 
Dekho maidan; dharo dhiraj man meri. 
Baki nahiii ik rahi mere tan men." 

115 Battis hazar phaujan sajl ; charh gae Pingal Rang, 

Do dal khai-i barabari ; hone Idga jang. 

Hone laga Jang; Rang charhke aya. 

Pingal ne katal kari sab ki kaya. 

Kat-katke sis kare, sanmukh dhaveni 
1 20 Sanmukh se ckot karen^ sobha paven. 

Utha Giddh jab kopke, gada sambhale hath. 

Maha ghor ran men hua ; din se sujhi rat. 

Din se to rat hui, jodha mare ; 

Kut kat sis mahi lipar dare. 
1 25 Pingal aur Rang bandh lia bana. 

Baje hathiyar, nahin hatke jana. 

Kitne ek mare ? Wa bas kare aur sAnt raho talwir. 

Nali chal gai rudhar kij sanmukh kare parMr. 

Sanmukh se chot karen, upar dhaveii. 
130 Banjen hathiyar bari sobha paven. 

Pingal aur Rang Giddh ne donan mare. 
' Ha ha' to kar para ran men, piyare. 

Badi debal Raja kari, mare Pingal Rang. 

Rdjd Sispdl. 

" Ab to meri bat men ■Sn para hai bhang. 
135 An para bhang; sis de de mire, 

Dushman ke hath kaun upar dare ?" 

Jab to Sispal charh mayadhari. 

Bajat hain ban, para bharat bbari. 

Parduman Maharaj ne bandh lie hathiyar ; 
140 Jab Raja Sispal ke sanmukh kara parhar. 

Mara ik ban, jaisa badal garje. 

Chau taraf shor huEi., duniya larze ; 
*■ Jab to Sispal hosh bhula sari, 
vol,, in.— 43 


Edja Sispdl. 
" Acliraj ki bat ! Gae saniati mare I" 

145 Maha ghor bharat lata. ; kahan laga Sispal : 

Rdjd Sispal. 
" Pardumau Maharaj ke sanmukh darsa kal 1" 

Jab to Sispal ban aisa laya, 

Tor dia dhans. Lagi Bar ki maya ! 

Tute hi dliaran par^, murclia khai. 
150 Jab to yell kal ghari sir par ai ! 

Agin ban aisa dia, jwala badhi apar ! 

Bbuja sia katke giren barsen baratn bar. 

Sanmnkh se chot karen, fipar dhaTen : 

Mare bar wakt nahiri jane paven. 
1 55 Jab to Sispal charha iko bari. 

Raja Sispal. 
" Achraj ki bat I Gae sanian sare I" 

Parduman Maharaj ne sAnt lie talwar j 

Us Eaja Sispal ke sir par raha ubbar. 

Mai'i talwar, lagi us ke tan men. 
160 Bli(ll gia hosh ; para mundba ran men ; 

Bhul gia rit bhant jitni sari. 

Ho gia behosh, xn^n us ki mari. 

Das haz^r pkaujan pare pftr men ik bar. 

Maha ghor biyapak hua ; sfint rahe talwar. 
165 Darw&za tor dia pAr men dh^a : 

Lakhon ke mal lute mare khae. 

Garjen ik bar, khare aggya-kari. 

Kat kat sis zamin upar dari. 

Kuchh mare, kuchh bas kare, dina hukm 'bidar.' 
1 70 Maha ghor bharat para, pave nahin shumS-r. 

Bhul gai rit bhant jodha sari. 

Raja ki man gai aisi mari ! 


Chhftti sab dh^m ! Same aisi ai ! 
Raja lia jit ; fateh ige pai. 
175 Ratan padarafch bhar lie, swarran ke lie thai; 
Hathi, gb-orftj khachra aur lakhiae mal_: 
Bbarke sab mal pAre bahir ay^. 
Dekba sangranij lagi kampni kaya ; 
Raja ke pas gia minti kini; 

Bdjd Dhamgos, 

180 "Main to, Mabaraj, saran terJ liai. 

Turn to ap mahabali, yek larka nidan. 

Kab raba main, mana nabin ; ab do us ko jan. 

Jane do aj, saran tere hyh. 

Is ne, Mabaraj, so bi paya, 
185 Jitna yeb raj pat, sagra lije. 

Bakbsbo taksir un se, jane dije, 

Hatbi, gbora, ratb, gabne, bbukan basan apar." 

Das die, dast die, minti kari nibar. 
Adar sat kar ais^ bbari, 
190 Ho gia nid^n, kbapi pbaujan niyeiri ! 
Kabta Dbamgos ik mukb se bani ; 

Bdjd Dhamgos. 
" Ab to yeb bat gai mulkon jani ! " 

Raj pat us ko dia, karn§, kari nisang. 
Sabbi jit R§,ja lie, raba na iko ang. 
195 Eaj pat sab dia, sobba dini ! 
R§,ja Dbamgos satb aisi kini. 
Jit lia jang ; cbale mayadbari : 
Dwarka ke bicb gae iko bari. 

Ganga Jamna mudb men Bbaratkband hai nam ! 
200 Kisba Lai Shib Kanwar sang ati pavitr nijdbdm ! 


Story op the fight between Raja Sispal and Raja Parddmaw. 
Dwarka occupies a hundred leagues* and has three forts 

in it. 
Its Raja was Parduman, who was very gTorious. 
He built palaces of gold!, studded with diamonds. 
And set with pearls and gems. 
5 He mounted golden pinnacles on each. 
Shining like stars in the skyr 

Dwarka occupies a hundred leagues^ and has four gates. 
Fastened with chains of iron ; and strong are the fort gates- 
He had defeated all the Rajas (of the neighbourhood), 
10 And taken away their power, and put them in prison ! 
But one. Raja Sispa], remained, 
Who beat the drums of victory in his Court. 
Parduman sent him a letter, and after writing the salu- 
tations (he said); 

Raja Parduman's Letter. 
"Thou shouldst not exercise tyranny and forcje, but walk 
according to the (royal) customs. 
15 Perform all the (royal) customs. 

Why hast thou lost thy senses to-day ? 

For the rest be careful and respectful (to me). 

Raja Sispal, mind my words.-" 

A messenger took the letter and arrived at Chanderi,t 
20 And explained the message of Maharaja Parduman. 
He explained all that there was to explain. 

The Messenger. 
" The Raja has written each point of his meaning. 
Come with me thyself. Raja. 
For the rest, what is thy pleasure ?" 

25 The King read the letter and his body became agitated. 

* Jojan for yojmia : a space of 8 miles. 

t Tills ancient site is now in tlie territories of Maharaja Sindliia. 


Raja Sisjpdl's Answer, 

" I will show him what the King can do. 
Since when hast thou become powerful, friend ? 
This is a wonderful thing. Hear it, my nurse 1* 
Ahir by caste,t a dancer and a singer ; 
30 How shall he know the ways of Kings V 

Edjd Sispdl.X 

" Go and tell him the desire of my heart. 
I will slay him in the field, and turn day into night. § 
I will turn day into night ; such is my power. 
I, too, have found a quarry in the forest: 
35 Do thou, my Lord, come with me. 
Be careful J I will not let thee go." 

Taking leave, the messenger went, and the fool wrote a 

Bdja Sispdl's letter, 

"Why hast thou forgotten thyself? Thou hast never 
seen a (battle) field. 
Seeing thy golden palace thou wouldst try thy strength, 
40 And hast spoken evil words with thy lips.^' 

And he said to the messenger : 

Baja Sispal. 

" Go and throw him my letter. 
Hearing his request, my body trembles (with rage) ." 

Stopping at Dwarapur|| the messenger told his tale : 

* Idiom : sometliiiig very unexpected. 

f A sneer at Krishiia, for having been brought up as a cowherd, i.e. 
of the Abir caste, by his foster-mother Tasodha. 
t To the messenger. 

§ Idiom : create a very great disturbance. 
11 i.e. Dwarka. 


The Messenger, 
"Raja, it must be war; he will never draw back. 
45 He has made much preparation, and comes not under 
He sits in water and sets it on iire.* 
Have no doubt, my wise Raji,. 
I tried to explain the right, but he would not hearken." 

Up gat Raja Parduman with his elephants and his hawks. 
50 And he gave an order to all his army to collect. 

Bdjd Parduman.f 

" Work all together, and be mindfal of your honor. 
Be all of one colour : J hearken to my words. 
If any one (of the enemy) approach you. 
Slay him at once and so obtain a great name." 

55 The hero collected an army of four arms. 

Bdjd Parduman.^ 

" Do my desire and fasten on courage as a yoke. 
Fasten on courage and the (war) tarbans on your heads ; 
Be careful and turn not back. 
Make ready quickly for the Southern land, 
60 And make all preparations for war." 

Then the Raja took the field and his banners ever float- 
ed (in the air). 
All the country stood trembling at his murderous arrows. 
He went forward with eighty thousand men, 
And all the heroes advanced together. 
65 Raja Sabar|| met him on the way and did homage. 

* Idiom : professes to be most powerful. 

t Proclamation to the army. 

t i.e., work together. 

§ Proclamation to the ai-my. 

II Raja of Kachh acoordiiig to the bard. ■ 


First he placed all the gifts before the hero. 

And then he joined him with a camp. 

They went to Chanderi and beat well the drums (of 

The army arrived and made a halt, 
70 And thus the Maharaja gave an order to all : 

Raj a Parduman. 

" It is the enemy's land ; you have no power here : 
So work together with all your might." 

Sispal got news that the Eaja had advanced ! 

'Raja Sispal. 

" I will beat him, and I will not let him escape: one word 
will do for thousands." 

75 Pingal and Rang came to him,* 

And seeing all the army became anxious in their hearts. 
They spake to the Eaja all that was in their hearts : 

Pingal and Rang. 
"Be ready now, my Lord, to take the field." 

Raja Sispal. 

" Say you : shall I up and meet him ? Say you : shall I 
80 If you would help me then listen, Pingal and Eang. 
Pingal and Eang, beloved of my heart. 
The enemy hath brought all his force ; 
So make ready preparations and powder and shot. 
Eaja Sispal hath given the order with his lips," 

85 Said Pingal and Rang : 

* Ministers of Sispal. 


Pingal and Rang. 

" Fight him, my Lord, 
I'his is the way of Kings ; bring no shame upon thyself 

If thou wouldst bring shame upon thyself, our King, 
Then leave the fort and take up thy abode outside. 
Make well all the arrangements. 
90 Behold, thy brethren are thy beloved (friends). 
Bring out much store and money. 
Life is uncertain : we die to-day or to-morrow.'* 

The army came out of the city, 
As the thunderous clouds cover the sky. 
95 They roared on all sides and the battle drums were 
And heroes and warriors were wounded in front. 
Said Sispal to Parduman' the Maharaja. 

Raja Sispal. 
" Thou art an Ahir* and wouldst tread the ways of Kings 1 
Should the ways of Kings be trodden thus? 
100 Thou hast come to thy death for nothing, my Lord. 
Arrows will fly and there will be a hard fight. 
Why are thy senses gone to-day ? " 

Bdjd Parduman. 
" I will not go back, and I must do honourable deeds. 
Death strikes suddenly as doth the hawk the partridge. 
105 The hawk falls on the partridge with great force. 
And an enemy should strike in front. 
Thou ehalt see my power to-day once for all. 
Be careful : I have told thee all." 

Raja Sispal. 
" The day is spent and night hath come : wait till dawn, 
110 And I will fight thee hard, and thou shalt see my power. 

* See above, line 29. 

sispIl and paeduman. 345 

Thou shalt see my power once for all. 
Make no delay and prepare all thy army. 
Behold the field and have courage in thy heart. 
I have no other desire in my heart." 

115 With an army of thirty- two thousand Pingal and Rang 

The two armies confronted and began to fight. 
The fight began and Rang advanced. 
Pingal slew everybody (that came in his way). 
Cutting off heads he rushed forward, 
120 And giving wounds in front he obtained glory. 

Then up gat Giddh* in wrath with a bludgeon in his 

There was a great disturbance in the field, and day was 

turned into night. f 
Day was turned into night, as the warrior slew. 
And cutting off heads threw them on the ground. 
125 Pingal and Rang drew their arrows. 

Arms clashed and there was no giving way. 

How many they slew ! They used their might and they 

drew their swords. 
Streams of blood ran, and faces were not turned. 
Giving wounds in front they rushed forward. 
130 Clashing their swords they obtained great glory. 
Giddh slew both Pingal and Rang. 
There were cries of grief in the field, my friends. 
Raja (Sispal) was greatly grieved at the death of 

Pingal and Rang. 

Raja, Sispal. 
" Ruin hath now fallen on my fortunes. 
135 Ruin hath fallen on me and I dash my head (in grief). 
Who will now lay hands on the enemy t" 

* Minister &f Kishn. In tlie classics Gada is the younger brother of 

t A common idiom in ' battle pieces/ meaning : — it was a terrible 

Toi,. m. — 44 


Then the powerful Sispal advanced. 
Arrows hurtled and there was a great fight. 
Parduman, the Maharaja, fastened on his arms, 
140 And confronting Raj^ Sispal struck him. 

He struck him with an arrow like a thundering cloud. 
On all sides there was a roar and the earth trembled, 
And Sispal lost his senses. 

Rdjn 8is;pdl. 
" It is wonderful ! my heroes are slain !" 

145 There was a great roaring fight and spake Sispal : 

Bdjd Sispal. 
"It is death to be in front of Parduman, the Maharaja!" 

Then Sispal drew an arrow, 

So that he broke his bow. It was the work of Hari 

(God) ! 
It fell upon the ground in pieces. 
150 Then the hour of death* came upon him. 

(Then Pai-duman) shot an arrow, a fiery arrow whose 

flames burst forth greatly ! 
Heads and arms were cut off and fell one after the 

other like rain. 
Giving wounds in front he advanced. 
He slew them at once and did not let them escape. 
155 Then Sispal suddenly advanced. 

Bdjd Sispal. 
" It is wonderful ! all my heroes are gone 1" 

Parduman, the Maharaja, drew his sword. 
And sprang at the head of Raja Sispal. 
The blow of his sword struck his body. 

* This is here a bardic exaggeration ; Sispal was not killed on this 


160 He lost his senses and fell on his face in the field. 

And forgot all that he ought to have done. 

Losing his senses he lost his honor. 

Ten thousand men suddenly entered the city. 

There was a great disturbance and swoi'ds remained 
165 They broke open the gates and entered the city, 

And robbed and destroyed lakhs (worth) of goods. 

Roaring together they waited for orders. 

Heads were cut off and thrown on the ground. 

Some they slew, some they overcame; and orders 
were given to drive out (the enemy) . 
170 A roaring fight took place beyond computation. 

All the wariors forgot their customs. 

So greatly was Raja (Sispal's) glory destroyed ! 

They left their homes ! Such a time had come upon them ! 

Raja (Parduman) won and gained a victory. 
175 (Raja Dhamgos*) took jewels and presents in a golden 
plotter : 

Elephants, horses, mules and valuable goods : 

And taking all the goods he went out of the city. 

Seeing the fight his body trembled, 

And he went to Raja (Parduman) and besought him. 

Rdjd Dhamgos. 

180" I am come to pay thee homage, my Lord. 

Thou art a great warrior, he is a foolish boy. 

I warned him and he would not listen : let him live now. 

Let him go to-day, I am come to do thee homage. 

He hath had' his deserts, my Lord. 
185 Take all this realm and this empire. 

Forgive him his fault and let him go. 

(Here are) elephants, horses, chariots, jewels and clothes 
beyond telling." 

* For Damaghosha, the father of SisnpSla, 


Slaves he gave himj maids he gave him, and besought 

him much. 
So great honor and respect, 
3 90 And all his forces (Sispal) lost by being a fool ! 
Spake Dhamgos a speech with his lips: 

Rdjd Dhamgos. 
"This matter hath now gone through (all) the lands!" 

(Raja Parduman) gave him back land and rule, and did 

an uselfish act. 
He conquered all the Rajas, leaving not one remaining. 
1 95 He gave him all his land, and rule, and gave him honor .' 
Thus did he treat Raja Dhamgos. 
He won the fight and went on in glory. 
Returning at once to Dwarka. 

The land of Bharatkhand* is between the Ganges and the 
200 Kishn Lai and Shibkanwarf dwell together in their 
glorious home. 

* Bharatavarslia in the classics meant India generally, as being the 
kingdom of Bharata, the common ancestoi" of the heroes of the Maha- 
bharata. It was divided into nine divisions or hhandas. The bard here 
probably makes a confused allusion to this and means merely to say 
that the ' Holy Land ' of India lies between the Ganges and the Jamna. 
This, however, is not the fact. 

t See ante, Vol. III. p. 157. 

No. LVIl. 


[This legend, closely related to the last, purports to relate a story well known 
in the classics as Simp&la-hadha, the Slaying of SiSupfila, which is the 
title of a separate poem by M^gha, called also the MAghaMvya, and of a 
portion of the Saihaparva of the MahAhh&rata. The present verBion, 
however, takes a line of its own.] 

[Cbedi, the home of SiSupdIa in the classics, is the modern land of the 
Chandel Rajpftts or B^ghelkhand. Chanderi, as the bard calls it, is a town 
in Siudhifi's territories.] 

[Bhishma in this poem turns up as the minister of SiSupfila and the enemy of 
Krishna. In the Mahdbhdrata Bhishma brought up his relatives, the Kauravas 
or the sons of Dhritardshtra and the Pindavas or the sons of PSndu, and 
when these fell out and fought, he took the side of the Kauravas. Krishna 
took that of the P^ndavas, and hence probably the appearance of Bhishma 
in this legend and the portion assigned to him. See genealogy at p. 332, 

[All the PSn(Javas are frequently mentioned in the legend, and the scene of it is 
laid at Mathurfi. In the Mah&bh&rata the scene is the great royal sacrifice 
(rSjas-dya) held by Tudhishthira at Indraprast;ha (Dehli). Sahadeva offers 
the first arghya or oblation to Krishna, which action SiSupala strongly 
resents. This brings on a disturbance, in the course of which SiSupfila 
becomes abusive to Krishna about their old quarrel over Rukmini. Krishna 
thereupon much enraged strikes off SiSupfila's head in the assembly with 
his chakra or quoit, a weapon well calculated for such a purpose. It will 
be seen that the classical story is a far better one than the bard's.] 

QissA Raja Sispal dae bayan laeai Raja Kishn. 
Shahr Chanderi bich "men Raja bhae Sispal : 
Sab deaon ke garhpati us se charhaveii mal. 
Mane sab adab Raja jite ; 
Hazir bar wakt hukm us se lite. 
5 Mulkon men nam hua us ka jari : 
Manen sab adab : rahen agy§,-kari. 


Wazlr Bhikham. 
" Ik Mathura men Kans hai, maha-bali balwan. 
Us se upar Kishn hai : turn se karilii bayan. 
Eaja^ sab nazar tere age deven : 
10 Maneii sab adab aur age raheri. 

Jadoii ke bans hua Kishn Ghanayya :* 
Ik hai Baldeo pas us kk bhayya." 

Rdjci Sispal. 
" Us ne chhora^awana, bal bhar gia gharflr. 
Bhikham^ us ko jaeke lao mere hazur. 
15 Us ko samjhaeke pas mere lana : 
Kama nahin der aur jaldi ana. 
Bharte nahih rit bhant jitni s&ri. 
Rahlia behosh ; badi karta niyari." 

Hukm man Bhikham chala, Mathurajif men pf. ,1 
20 Jab to us ko jaeke, katha kahi samjhae : 

Wazir Bh'ikham. 
" R&ja Sispal ne tujhe beg bulaya : 
Tere lene ki kaj main Mathura men aya. 
Bhayya Baldeo sath apne lena. 
Sab suno hawal aar utar den^.." 

Raja Kishn. 
£6 "Main us ko janim nahin. Kaun des ka i-aj ? 

Ham se ]ag§. bolna use na ai ]aj ? 

Ai nahin laj ? Karam karan niyara ! 

Kar le woh sab jatan : kaun kahanhara ? 

Havi to mah?fll use nahin dete. 
30 Aise Sispal phiren jag men kete ? " 

Itni sun Bhikham chala : kari Raja se ardas : 

* For Kanhayya. 
t The anthropomorphism here is interesting. 


Wazlr Bhikham. 
" Bal bliar gia gharili' se ; woh nahin ave pas. 
De naWn mahsill, na woh kuns mane. 
Karta hai man ; naliiii tujh ko jane. 
85 Kama, MaMraj, jaise dil pe tere. 
Jang ka saman karo : bandho dere." 

Itni sun Sispal ne man men kari bicbar : 
Aisa magra bo gia, d:a laj dar dar. 

Eajffl Sispal. 
" Bbikbam, turn bukm suno t aisa karna ; 
40 Pbauj ka saman chabiye bam ko bbarna. 
Kijo saman aur kbanS, dana : 
Le lo batbiyar aur bandbo bana." 

Suna bukm Mabaraj ka bbarti bhari apar : 

Hatbi, gbora^ ratb gbane ; pave nabin sbumar. 
45 Hat aur bazar bbare jitne sare : 

Cbbattis bazar jawan bbare niyare niyare. 

Lini sab bast, aur apne piyare, 

Cbanda ke gird jaise boven tare. 

Baki to kucbb na rabif sabbi bhari sam^n. 
50 Ik lakh saniyah cbaibo, tan ke piire jawan. 

Raja Sispal. 
" Barcbhi, banduk, tir, sabbi lijo. 
Mat karo abir; kaban meri kijo. 
Ghanka to satb karo jaldi tayyari. 
Le lo sab pbauj, haigi jitni sari." 

65 Itni siin Bbikbam utba, bandb lie hatbiyar. 
Ik Mkb pbaujan cbarbi; dia saban dar dar. 
Hatbi asw^r bila Kaja aisa, 
Abar ke bicb garje badal jaisa. 
Kampfl* aur bikitf saje pbaujan dbai : 

* For tlie English word camp. 
f For the EngHsh word picket. 


60 Mathura ke nikat chalke jaldi at 

Jagah jagah tambfl tane aur pharkeii khare nishan. 
Jagah jagah jodha khare, bandhe dhans aur ban. 
Garje sab sur, bir bal ko toleii : 
Tursh ho, bar bar mukh se bolen : 

Phauj Raja Sispdl hi. 
65 " Ab to, Maharaja, hukm ham ko dije : 
Dushman ke sath Jang hanske kije." 

Kasid ko bulwa lih aur karne laga bichar. 

Raja Sispdl ha hhatt. 

" Kikar jang samalke ab nahin kije war ? 
Ya nahiii, mahsul aj ham ko dena ? 
70 Ya yah juddh pare tujh ko lena ? 
Bajegl talwar; parega bharat bhari. 
Taine be-adab hayya kaise dari V 

Pati le kasid chala, Mathuraji men jae: 
Jo kahna Sispal ka jake dia sunae. 
75 Arjun balwan, Bhim jodhe bhari, 
Nakul, aur Sahdeo, aur agyfi-kari, 
Dehli men chhatr phire jin ka kari, 
Baithe balwan aur Bed-achari. 

"Ja, Kasid, apne gharoii, aise marun mekh, 
80 Eaja ko chhorun nahin : kahi lakh ki ek. 
Lakhoii ki ek kahi maiii ne tujhe. 
" Defce nahin kharaj,' jake kahna us se. 
Kama hai jang, nahin hatke jana: 
Upar dushman ke para mujh ko dna." 

85 Bachan sun kasid ohala; Eaja se kari jawahir: 

" Larne ko mustaid hai, saniyan khare tayyar 
Ab to mat der kare, Chhatrdhari ; 


Phaujoii ko hutm karo, hove tayyarf. 
Charhke MathurS, ko katal karna ckahiye. 
90 Main to kun Mhin ; araz mere leiye." 

Sunte hi Sispal ke lagi badan men ag : 
Honi to koke- rake : &ge sab ke hhig : 
Raja ne kukm di^: 

Bdjd Sispal. 
" Sajke ao : 
Dashman ke ik bar ftpar dhto. 
95 Karke kamar band chalo milke sare : 
Pahili karo w§.rj sabki mere piyare \" 

Saniyan chale kopke aur Jamnaji ke tir. 

JAn pargas sftrij kare sab sanwat balbir. 

Bandho hatkiyar, khari pkaujan jangi : 
100 Lakhon talwar lie lipar nangi. 

Lag rahi umed ; — koi dushman ave. 

Mare ik bar, jabhi sobka pave. 

Assi kazar jodha ckarke Arjun lini s§.tk, 

Kiskn ckarke, bkayya ckarha aur din se kini rat. 
105 Ckalke Jamna ke nikat Arjiin aya : 

Tab to ik ban us ne aisa laya; 

Agni se khel gai pki\tin kaya. 

Dusra pkir war kara Arjun dhaya. 

Uantbakar Jarasandh ne gajja sambkali katk: 
110 Kop ckale Baldeoji larne un ke sath. 

Mara Baldeo ban un ke tan men : 

Dantbakar donon gire age ran men. 

Das bazar aur us ne jodha mare : 

Kat kat sis un ke niche dare. 
115 Jarasandh dhawu kara, sunt lie talwar : 

Upar us Baldeoji ke sir par kini war. 

Lagton talwar, khabar na rahi tan ki.' 

Dekho, us wakt kaun jane man ki? 

Ik hazS,r jawan Zarasand* ne mare: 

* For Jarasandh.. 
vot. III. — 45 


120 Ghoron ke sawar patak niche ddre. 

Dhans b§.n dharan kare Kishn uth§. ghanghor : 

Jarasandli ke bhuj4 ko dia ban se tor. 

Panch ban aur die iko bari : 

Tiji talwar ik aisi mari, 
125 Jarasandh mar lie, bal ko tola. 

Jodha ik bar nahin mukh se bole. 

Jarasandli marna lil5a aur para phauj men shor. 

Badarsal dhawa kia ; aisa kina zor, 

Goli bandAk chalerij gbanka* garjen. 
130 Sunke gliangbor phauj sari larzen. 

Lothen par loth pare, lothen dholen. 

Sidhi hfli nazar, nahin mukh se bolen. 

Ban lagaya Kishnji aur dhaja chhatr dia tor, 

Jaisi bijli karakti hiii dhans ki ghor. 
135 Leke talwar Kishn flpar dhayS.: 

Mara Badarsal : kari chhedan kayS.. 

Do hazar jaw^n aur us ne mire : 

Kat kat sis mahi lipar d^re. 

Madant ban kar men lia aur jwMa uthi ap^r : 
140 Jaise badal Indar ke barsen mAsaldhar. 

Hathi gajbaj aur ghore mare : 

Dini das ban aur badan sab jhare. 

Jojan men khet para aisa bhari : 

Barchhi, bandAk, ban, tan men mare. 
145 Gajja sambhali hath men uthI Bhim balw§.n : 

Mara Madan tarak de, wahan se diS, na Jan. 

Gajja ko jo hath lia aisi mari, 

Bhagif ik bar gire jitne sare. 

" Ohhatri ka dharm nahin hatke jana : 
150 A koi aur, sis bandho bana !" 

* Cf. line 53. 

t Probably meant for Mada, the monster whose exploits are detailed 
in the Mahdbhdrata. 
t For bdghi. 


Dekho tamasliS. jang ka rath men Ma sawdr : 

Tab R§.ja Sisp&l ne kar& Kishn pe war. 

MarEl ik b^n dliaj4 niche darl : 

Kafce hain turang donon iko bSri. 
156 Rath ka jo chakar kara chhedan ran men, 

Duji ik ban dia us ke tan men. 

D&jk rath mangwake hM Kishn aswar. 

Mahaban bajan lage pave kuchh na shumar. 

Sarkar ik bar uren ; bhAtal larzen : 
160 Ran ke jo bich jaise kahri garjen. 

Chhora ik chakar agin ran men jai-i ; 

Jab to Sisp^l hfta jlna bhari. 

Babha dhyan Sisp^l hAa ; rath ko dia phir^ : 

Patkat dia jab medani bhfl, bal kahah j^e ? 
165 Ik jojan pe rath para us k§, jake. 

M^ra hai kharak, phir ult^ ake ; 

Pakari hai banh, chakar us ko dina ; 

Jojan pe phenk dia : aisa kin4. 

BhAtal pe lote para ; aisa ho gia hS.1. 
170 Sab kaya kampne lagi, pave nahin sambMl. 

Rath men sawar hiia, sanmukh ay& : 

Tab to ik ban jor us ne Mya, 

Tora hai dhans ban chhedan kinS, ! 

K&mpe sab badan hta mushkil jina. 
1 75 Chakar phiraya Kishn ne^ dina sis uda. 

Jeh parbat kundra pari, gai phauj dhul&. 

Bhagi chau taraf rahi senS. sari : 

Raja ki phauj gai ran men mari. 

Padmon ke mal lute, kampA sdre, 
180 Jab ke Sispal gae ran men mare. 

Arjun jita, Bhim Sen aur bhM Baldeo : 

Jite ran ko Nakul bhi aur jita Sahdeo. 

Mathura ke bich Kishn kina basa : 

Mara Sispal, hM pfiran as^p. 
185 Piuchon. P^ndon ne gawan Dehli ko ktna : 

Jitna sab raj pat us k^ linel. 



Kishn Lai SWb Kaiiwar ne kin^ ^n bhi g ySn y 
Sukh bilas anand karen ) ais^ upja gy&n 1 

The Stoey of jhe Fight between Eaja Sispal 

AND Eaja Kisbn. 
Sispal was Raja of the City of Chanderi, 
And the owners of forts* in all tbe land brought him 

The Eajas obeyed all his orders with respect, 
And always held themselves ready to take his com- 
5 His name ran throughout the land : 

All obeyed him with respect, and were obedient to his 

Wazir Bhikham.f 

" There was one Kans in Mathura, a very powerful warrior ; 
After him is Kishn, I tell thee.f 
Baja, all bring tribute to thee ; 
10 All obey thee with respect and remain in thy presence. 
Kishn Kanhayya§ is born of the Jadfl house. 
And he hath a brother by name Baldeo."[| 

Raja Sispal. 
"He hath left off coming (to Court), proud of his might. 
Bhikham, go and bring him to my presence. 
15 Make him understand and bring him to me : 
Make no delay and return quickly. 
He carries out none of the (royal) customs. 
He remains without his senses, and does evil every day." 

* i.e., Rajas. f To Sispal. 

% Kanaa, King of MatlmrS, cousin of Krishna, (see aiife, p.332), tried 
to destroy Krishna soon after his bu-th by a general massacre of 
infants. Krishna afterwards slew him. 

§ Kanhayya is a common title for Krishna. 

[j For Balarama: See p. 332, ante. 


Obeying the command Bhikham started and reached 
Mathur§. ; 
20 And there going to him (Kishn), explained all the 
message to him. 

Waztr Bhikham. 
" Raja Sispal hath sent for thee early, 
And I am come to fetch thee from Mathura. 
Thy brother Baldeo is also to come with thee. 
Listen to the whole story and make a start." 

Bajd Kishn. 
25 " I go not to him. What land does he rule ? 
Hath he no shame that he should speak to me ? 
Hath he no shame ? Doing a strange thing ! 
Let him make all his plans : who is to stay him ? 
I at least will give him no tribute. 
30 How many such Sispals are there wandering in the 
world V 

Hearing this Bhikham said to Eaja (Sispal) : 

Wazir Bhikham. 
" He is proud in his might, and wiU not come. 
He gives no tribute, nor recognizes (thy) authority. 
He is proud and will not come to thee. 
35 Thou must do, my Lord, as thy mind desires. 
Make preparations for war aod pitch thy camp." 

Hearing this Sispal thought in his heart. 

And became so haughty that he laid aside shame.* 

Baja Sispal, 
" Bhikham, hear my order : thus must thou do ; 
40 Thou must prepare for me necessaries for the army. 
Make ready the necessaries, the food and fodder : 
Take up the arms and fasten on the arrows." 

* To wage war against Krishna is, of course, in bardic eyes downright 


Hearing the king's orders he made vast preparations ; 
Elephants, horses, innumerable chariots without number. 
45 He filled all the shops and bazars, 

And got together 36,000 men, each and all. 

He provided all the arrangements, and even his own 

favourite (troops). 
Like stars surrounding the moon. 

There remained nothing, for he prepared all the 
60 A IcHh of warriors advanced ; fully grown men. 
Bdjd Sispdl* 
" Take spears, guns, and arrows and all. 
Make no delay and obey my command. 
Make cannons also quickly ready. 
Take all the army, all that you have." 

55 Hearing this up gat Bhikham and fastened on his arms. 
A Idhh of men advanced, all of whom laid fear aside. 
The Eaja rode his elephant. 
Like a thunderous cloud in the heavens. 
Placing camps and pickets the army advanced, 
60 And quickly came near to Mathura. 

The tents were pitched in their places and the standards 

floated (in the air). 
The warriors stood in their places with bows and arrows 

fastened on. 
The warriors shouted and the heroes vaunted their 

In their excitement they continually shouted with their 
lips : 

Rdjd Sispdl's Army. 
65 " Give us the order now, Maharaji,, 

And we will gladly fight the enemy." 

(Raja Sispal) sent for a messenger and began to think. 
* To BMkham. 


Bdjd Sispal's letter. 
*' Being prepared for war why dost thou not attack me ? 
Or else pay me thy tribute to-day ? 
70 Or go through with the fight that hath fallen on thee ? 
Swords will clash, and there will be a hard fight. 
How earnest thou so disrespectfully to challenge me V 

The messenger took the letter and went into MathurS, 
And explained what Sispal had said. 
75 Arjun the hero, Bhlm the great warriorj 

Naknl and Sahdeo and the obeyers of orders, 
Whose umbrella* was powerful in Dehli, 
Heroes and expounders of the Vedas were sitting (in 
the Court). 

" Go, Messenger, to thy home, I will so strike the nail,t 
80 That I will not leave thy Raja (alive) : one word is aa 
I have told thee one word that will do for thousands. 
Go and tell him that we give no tribute. 
There will be a fight and no turning back. 
And I will fall upon our enemy." 

85 Hearing this the messenger went and made obeisance 
to Eaj& Sispal : 


" They are ready to fight and the warriors stand prepared. 
Make no delay, thou bearer of the (royal) umbrella, 
And give the order to thy army to make ready. 
Thou must go and spread death in Mathur^. 
90 I make obeisance j listen to my say." 

As soon as he heard this the fire (of wrath) burned in 
Sispal's body. 

* i.e., symbol of royal authority. f Idiom : to put to death. 


Wliat is to be will be: fate is before (us) all. 
The Kaja gave the order : 

Ea^a Sisfdl.* 

"Be ready : 
Spring suddenly on the enemy. 
95 Girding your loins advance all together, 

And make the first attack, all ye who are my friends !" 

The warriors (of Sispal) went wrathfuUy along the banka 

of the Jamna. 
All the brave warriors shone like the glorious sun. 
The warlike army stood with arms fastened on, 
100 And drew its thousands of naked swords on high. 
They were in hopes that the enemy would come, 
That they might slay them at once and obtain glory. 
(On the other side) Arjun had with him 80,000 warriors. 
Kishn advanced and his brothert advanced, turning day 
into night. 
105 Arjun approached the Jamna, 
And drew such an arrow, 
That its firej destroyed bodies.' 
And making a second attack on went Arjun, 
Dantbakar§ and Jarasandh took clubs in their hands, 
110 And Baldeo in his wrath advanced to fight them. 
Baldeo hurled an arrow into their bodies. 
And (Jarasandh) II and Dantbakar both fell in the field. 
He also slew 10,000 other warriors. 
And cutting off their heads threw them down. 
115 Jarasandh advanced with drawn sword, 
And made an attack at Baldeo's head. 

* Proclamation to his army. 

t Most likely meant for Baldeo or BalarS,ma. See genealogy at p. 332, 

X Compare preceding legend, line 151. 

§ Dantavakra was classically a king of Karusha (MS,lwS,) who was 
killed by Krishna in a fight. 

II The bard anticipates a little here : see hne 115fE, 


The blow fell and no sense remained in him.* 

Behold, at such a time who knows what his mind was ? 

Javasandh slew a thousand braves, 
120 Throwing down horsemen instantly. 

Preparing his bow and arrows up gat Kishn roaring. 

And broke Jarasandh's arm with an arrow. 

He shot five more arrows at once ; 

And next he dealt such a (blow with his) sword, 
125 That he slew Jarasandh, showing his might ; and 

Suddenly the warrior said nothing with his lips.f 

Jarasandh was dead and there was a cry in the army. J 

Badarsal§ made an attack with such force. 

That gun bullets flew and cannons roared. 
130 Heai'iug the noise all the army trembled. 

Corpse fell on corpse, and corpses writhed about. 

Their eyes were open, but no word was spoken with 
their lips-H 

Kishn shot an arrow and broke the umbrella standard 
(of Badarsal) 

The noise of the bow was like crackling lightning. 
135 Taking his sword Kishn rushed forward. 

Slew Badarsal and pierced his body. 

He slew two thousand other warriors. 

And cutting off their heads cast them on the ground. 

Madan took an arrow in his hand and its flames spread 
140 As when Indra's^ clouds rain down pestles,** 

He slew elephants and falcons and horses. 

He shot ten arrows and pierced the bodies of all. 

* Lit. he had no knowledge of his body. f i.e. he died. 

J Jarasandh, King of Magadha, (South Bihar), was father-in-law to 
Kansa, in revenge for whose murder by Krishna, he drove the latter to 
Dwaraka from Mathurfi.. He was killed eventually by Bhima (not 
Balaiama) over a quarrel arising out of Yudhisthira's great sacrifice. 

§ Meant apparently for Bhishmaka, King of Vidarbha, (Berar) and 
father of Rukmini. 

II i.e. they met with a sudden death. % As god of the sky. 

** Metaphor from the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, like the English 
' raining cats and dogs.' For Madan, see note to p. 354, ante. 

VOL. Ill — 46 


So great was the battle-field tLat it spread for a jojan* 
And he slew bodies with spears, guns and arrows. 
145 Then up gat the hero Bhim with a club in his hand. 
Slew Madan incontinently and let him not go thence. 
With his club in his hand he struck so, 
That all the rebels fell. 

" It is the duty of the Chhatri never to retreat ; 
] 50 Come on, any one who will fasten a turban on his head !'' 

Seeing the condition of the fight (Sispal) entered a 

And then Raja Sispal attacked Kishn. 

With one arrow he hurled down his standard. 

And his horse was cut down at the same time. 
155 He (also) pierced the chariot careering in the field. 

Next he shot an arrow into his body. 

Kishn sending for another chariot entered it. 

Great arrows began to hurtle beyond counting. 

Suddenly straws arose (in the air), and the earth 
trembled ; 
160 It was as if lions were roaring in the field. 

(Kishn) hurled a fiery quoit J in the field, 

And then Sispal found it hard to live. 

Sispal recovered himself and turned Kishn's chariot. 

He threw it over on the ground with great force. 
165 The chariot fell at the distance of a jojan§ away. 

(But) coming back (Kishn) gave (Sispal) a sword cut, 

And seizing him by the arm whirled him round. 

And threw him a jojan away : thus did he. 

He fell as a corpse on the ground ; thus it happiened to 

* See ante, p. 340. 
t This is a general challenge to Sispal's side. 
Allusion to tlte vajrandhha or magic discus of Krishna. 
§ See above, line 144. 



170 All his body trembled and he could not control it. 

(But) mounting his chariot he (again) came to the front, 

And drew an arrow with force. 

His bow bi'oke and the arrow was pierced ! 

His body trembled and he found it hard to live. 
1 75 Kishn (then) hurled his quoit and struck off Sispal's head. 

As a hill slips away, so (Sispal^s) army dispersed. 

All the army rushed away on all sides, 

And Eaja (Sispal's) force was beaten in the field. 

Millions (worth) of goods were robbed and all the 
180 When SispM was slain in the field. 

ArjunandBhimSen, and (Kishn's) brother Baldeo won, 

And so did Nakul and Sahdeo. 

Kishn dwelt in Mathura, 

And when Sispal was slain, Hs hopes were accomplished. 
185 The fiv.e Pandavas started for Dehli, 

And took over all the kingdom and power. 

Kishn Lai and Shib Kanwar,* having obtained know- 
ledge (unto salvation). 

Dwell in happiness and joy: so greatly hath their know- 
ledge prospered them ! 

* See ante, p. 157. 



[This legend is a bardie version of one of the most celebrated stories of the 
Krishna cycle, which has been dramatized over and over again. The 
outline of the tale is that Aniruddha, the grandson of Krishna, of course a 
Vaishnava hero, falls in love with UshS, the daughter of the Saiva King 
Bslna or B^n Ssura, whom he carries oS from her home at Sonitapura to 
DwiratS, after defeating her father. The celebrity of the story is no 
doubt due to the sectarian struggle it relates, and the interest in it to the 
oft-repeated incident of the love of a girl of one party for a member of the 

[It is never easy to fix the locality of a Krishna legend, as places both in 
Southern and Northern India claim to have been the homes of the heroes 
of the cycle, and in the present instance the familiar names occur in their 
usually garbled form. The scene of the legend as told by the bard is, 
however, clearly meant to be somewhere in the Himalayas, probably the 
neighbourhood of Nadaun in the Kdngrd District. It is to be noted here 
that the Rfijfis of the Bashahr State in the Simld District claim to be 
descended from Pradyumna, father of Aniruddha, whom Krishna is said to 
have left in the Himalayas as ruler after the defeat of B^n&sura.] 

[As in the former legends of this cycle the Piindavas are found helping their 

kinsman Anii-uddha against B^nfisura.] 
[It will be as well, for the sake of general clearness, to supplement the 

genealogy given at p. 332, Vol. III., by the following ; — 




I Krishria = Eiikmini 

• Bali I ' 

BdnSsura Pradyumna = Kakudmati, d. of 
I I Rukmin, brother of 

iS^hA = Aniruddha Rukmin!.] 


Qissi Raja Banastje wa Ukha ka. 
Sunantpflr woh shahr hai aur Badram woh des. 
Banasur Eaja mange jang hamesli. 
Mangta hai jang. 

Rdjd Banasur. 

" Suno, Karta mera, 
Raja koi aur nahiu kul men tera, 
5 Aisa balwan bhuja de de mare ? 
Aisa koi bali bhar mera tare ? 

Udayast kabne laga : 

iJaj« TJdayast. 

" Bhola hove diyal, 
Chalo, araz us se kare ; pal men kare nihal. 
Pal men nihal kare mayadh§,rl. 

The Stoet op Raja Banasur and Ukha. 
SunantpAr was his city and Badram his land. 
Raja Banasur ever wished for war : 
(Ever) wished for war. 

Bdjd Banasur.* 

" Hear, my Creator, 
Is there no Raja, in thy family,t 
5 So stroiig as to break my arms ? 
No warrior to withstand my might ?" 

TJdayastJ said : 

Prmce Udayast. 

" Bhola§ will be kind. 
Come and pray to him and he will favour thee in a 

The wondrous one will favour thee in a moment. 

* Prayer to ^iva. t i.e., among thy followers. 

J Second son of Banasur : see below line 229. § A name for ^iva. 


10 Mange soi degS. : gati us ki hai niyarl. 
Karega nihal mera Shambliii Bhola : 
Nadiya sawar bail us ke dhola ! " 

Sunke itni bat ko Raja ki^ yakin : 
Raja Bandsur. 
" Is wakt chalna waharij kabta ho adhin. 
15 Kakta adkirij dekh us ki may a." 

Tab to Maharaj pas us ke dhay& : 
Rdjd Banasur. 
" Raj, pat, mal main ne tujh se Una : 
Mujb ko, Makaraj, jang koi na dina \" 
" Beti tare makil men, Uklia us ka nam : 
20 Jo mange soi degi, karo ap bisram. 

10 He will give what tkou askest; he hath special favour 
(towards thee). 
He will favour thee, will my Shambhu* Bhola, 
That wandereth riding on his bull Nadiya 1" 

Hearing this Raja (Banasur) believed in it, and said : 
Rdjd Bdnasur. 
" Let us go to him now and beseech him humbly : 
16 Beseech him humbly and see his power." 

So the Maharlja went (to Siva, and said) : 
Rdja Banasur. 
" Kingdom, rule and goods hast thou given me, 
But thou hast not granted me a war, my Lord !" 
" There is a daughter in thy palace, whose name is 
20 She will grant what thou askest, so be at rest. 

* Names for ^iva. 


Kfje bisram, dhir dharke rahua. 
Itna sawll jake us se kahna. 
Mat kare andesh, mere chhatrdkan, 
Tain ne barbad kare nagari sari." 

25 Banasur ne anke beti se kia sawal : 
Baja Bdn&sur. 

"MahMeo mujh se kabe, mile jang tatkal. 
Mujh ko to jang mile^ sobha pauii. 
Bandhiid hathiyar aur larne jaAn. 
Beti, yeh araz meri suniye, bina ; 
30 Karne ko jang mera taraphe sina." 

Edni Ukhd. 

" Jae, pita^ ghar baith le ; jatan karuii, Maliaraj. 
Pfljuii Bholanath ko, bane tumhar^ kaj," 

Be at rest and keep patience. 

Go and tell her what I say. 

Be not anxious, my (royal ) umbrella-bearer : 

Thou shalt destroy a whole city. " 

25 Banasur went and said to his daughter : 
Raja Banasur. 
" Mahadeo told me that I should obtain a war presently : 
That I should obtain a war and become glorious. 
I will arm myself and go to the fight. 
My wise daughter, hear my say ; 
30 My heart trembles (with excitement) for a fight." 

Princess TJkha. 
" Go, father, and rest at home : I have a plan, my Lord ; 
I will pray to Bholanath* that thy desire be fulfilled." 

* A name for Siva. 


Sunke sawal chali Ukh& piyari : 
Shankar ke pas gai, sundar nari. 
Bani tkhd. 
35 " Pita ko jang mile ; mujh ko pia, 

Tain ne, Maharaj, nahin mujli ko dia \" 
" Sahans lakh das jojanan, nikat samundar tir, 
Tujhe tera pia mile ; tuk ik bandho dhir. 
Magh mahine, badi dw^das hoij 
40 Tujh ko bardan mila, beti soi. 
Eaja to phar bhuja niche dare : 
Sukh jae talao ; man us ka mare." 

Khushi man Ukha chali : 

Hearing (her father's) say the lovely Ukha went (away), 
And the beautiful girl went to Shankar.* 


Princess JJkhd-f. 
35 ".My father hath obtained his war, but a lover to me. 
My Lord, thou hast not given !" 
"At a thousand and ten lakhs oi jojansl on the sea-shore. 
Wilt thou meet thy love : (so) be patient awhile. 
It will be on the 12th of the waning moon of Magh§ • 
40 That thou wilt meet my boon (of a lover), my daughter 
(He will be a) Raja that will break arms and throw them 

And dry up the (very) ponds || and (at last) his pride 
shall be destroyed."^ 

Ukha went away joyfully : 

* A name for ^iva. f Prayer to Siva. 

X See ante, p. 3-10. This merely means a very long way off. 
5 January-February. This date would be at the end of January. 
f( Conventional phrase, meaning that he will be so powerful as to dry 
up the very ponds through fear. 

% All this is a kind of prophecy relating to the tale that follows. 


Rani JJkhd. 

■" Chiriiijio, Maharaj ! 
Tiim saman duja nahid parmarat ke kaj i 
45 Kinan parmarat tain, Natli, haaia-rd ! 
Sobas basiyo, Ji, Kailas tambara, 
Aisa bardan sada mujli ko deiyo ; 
Nadiya saw4r sadfl Lote raliiyo J" 

Bachan Miang Ukhu chali j 3.1 apne dham. 

Ram JJkha. 
50 "Mere Bholau-atli ne puran kar die kSm! 
Pi\ran yeh kam kara, sobM diiii 1 
Pita ko jang dia ; aise kini ! 
Mujh ko bardan dia Shambft Ebola : 
May^j dban, mal, dia sundai* dola !" 

Prhvoe-ss Ukhi. 

" Blessings on theOj my Lord ! 
Tbou hast no second in blessing 3 
45 . Thou hast given us the blessing, Lord, . (that we 
sought) 1 
Be happy. Lord, in thy Kailas.* 
Mayesfc thou ever bless me thus, 
And mayest thou ever ride thy (b«li) Nadiya !" 


Having got her- oracle Ukha went home. 

Princess tJkha. 
50 " My Bholanath hath fulfilled my desire ! 

He bath fulfilled my desire and honored me ! 
He hath granted my father a war, thus bath he done ! 
He hath granted me a gift (also), hath Shambhu Bhola; 
Wealth, goods and riches, and a beautiful (marriage) 
palanquin !" 

* Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas is the peculiar home of ^iva. 
VOL. III. — 47 


55 Kushi guzari Rao ne, fanjad ka Ma, saman. 
Jang mila, aobhS, mill. DinS. gad nishan ; 
Siibon ko hnkm dip : 

Raja Bandsur. 

" Bharti kije : 
Bandho hatbiyar : jang banske Itje. 
Shankar ne hnkm dia aisd bbari : 
60 ' Bbant bhant bhed karo iko bari V " 

AdM rat ke wakt men sove tbi parbin. 
Larka aya khwab men : kabti bui ad bin. 
Kabti ddhin biii : 

Rant Ukhd. 

" Eandi ineri, 
Pdran kar kam, jaisi marzi teri. 

65 Tbe King was very pleased and got ready his army. 
He obtained a war and be obtained bonor. He planted 

bis standard. 
And gave orders to bis generals : 

Raja Bdnasur. 

" Collect (your forces) s 
Fasten on your arms and go gaily to the war, 
Shankar bath given me this strict order: 
60 'Make up your divisions at once.' " 


The wise (Ukba) was sleeping at midnight.* 
She dreamt of a youth, and spake bashfully, 
And said bashfully : 

^ A 

Princess TJkhd. 

" My Maid, 
Fulfil my desiref in what way thou canst, 

* Scene altogether changes, 
t To meet the youth she had di-samt oi. 


65 Chande mahtab jawan mujh ko ptiya. 
Dil pe afsos kliwab aisa aya !" 

Kalamdan lia hath men aur kahan lagl Sat bhai : 

Bdndi Ohitrlekhd. 
" Sat dip nau khand ki rachn^ rachi banai." 

Rachna rachi banai ChitrlekhS piyari. 
70 Jitne khalak fcumtim, siirat sab ke tari. 

Bharatkhand Pandila, Sri Kishn apara, 

JadAn ka bans, likha niyar4 niyara. 

Naksha age rakh lia, dekh rahi man la : 

Martlok men. Dwarka pahunchi, us men ja. 
75 Dekhi chau taraf baith Ukha piyarJ : 

65 I have met a youth (as beautiful ) as the moon (in my 
I grieve that such a dream came (to me) \" 

(The Maid) took a pen in her hand and spake truthfully 
(saying) : 

Chitrleliha, the Maid. 

"1 draw the picture of the seven worlds and the nine 

The lovely Chitrlekha drew the picture. 
70 She drew the portraits of all the world : 

The Pandus of Bharatkhand, the glorious Sri Kishn, 

The race of the .Jadus.t she drew each separately. 

She laid the picture before (the princess), who examined 

it carefully. 
Through it she reached Dwarka, (situate) in the mortal 



75 The lovely Ukha sat looking all over it, 

* Of the whole world. f See ante, p, 366. 


Kartl pahclian sArat niyari niyari. 
Dekha jab Kaiiiwarj laj dil pe ai, 
Rdnl Uklid. 
" Bandlj sun bat ; jagah mujh ko pai ! " 

Bdndi CMtrlelcha. 
" Bnri kari yo pakai-iyan ! Aya kal pukSr ! 
80 Chhappan karor Jadflii badhe ; dal ka aut na pJr. 
Dal ka ua par; parja kampe sfirL 
Eaja mahbiib^* bare Cthatrdliari, 
Arjun anr Naknl, Bliitn jodha bhari : 
Khak men milegi teri uagari sari !" 
Rini Ukha. 
85 " Bandi, ns ko la de, na to gae pian ! 

Honi ho, to hovegi : yeli nische kar Jan. 
Jaldi se lao ; karo karaj mera : 

Examining eacli portrart separately. 
When she saw the Prince (of iier dream) shame camp 
into her mind. 

Trine ess tlkJid. 
"My Maid, hear me; I have found the place I" 

GhitrleJihd the Maid. 
"It is not well that then hast taken this one 5 Deatb 
cometh roaring ! 
80 The Jadfls have increased to 66 karors and their armies 
are innumerable. 
Their armies are innumerable and their people tremble 

(at them). 
Their Eaja is brave, and a great King. 
Arjun and Nakuli and Bhim are mighty warriors, 
And all thy city will meet the dmst !" 
Princess UJcJid. 
85 "My Maid, bring him (to me), or I shall die I 
What will be will be; know this for certain. 
Bring him quickly and do my bidding; 

* The sense of this word in this poem s«einis to be bram. 


Itna ahsdu bhala hove tei-a. 
Meri surt lagi, Bandi, aisi, 
90 Chand ki chakor cliah karta jaisi \" 

Kar juMr bandi chali, aui' gagan-panth men jai ; 
Martlok men Dwarka utari hi waliaii a5. 
Utari hi aij ik darsan pahchana. 
Dekhi tadbir, nahin khaya khanA. 
95 Bhuk piyas dvlr hui bandi tan ki. 
Teh to pardes, kaun jane man ki ? 
Malan ai bagh men, dekhi pari nidan. 

"Kaun des se aunahfia ? Kahan hamare mdn. 
Kaunsa hai des ? Kya hai maksad tera ? 
100 Kahna bayan : man kahna raera." 

And thus lay me under a great obligation to thee. 
I so love him, my Maid, 
90 As the partridge desires the moon*!" 

Making obeisance the Maid went and took the path of 

the sky,f 
And descended to the land of mortals at Dvvarkd. 
She descended and made an inspection. 
Making her plans she ate not her food. 
95 Hunger aod thirst were far from the maiden's body. 

This was a foreign land and who knew the desires of her 

heart ? 
The gardener's wife came into her garden and found 

her lying helpless (there). 

Oardener's Wife. 
" From what land hast thou come ? Hear my say. 
What is thy country ? What is thy desire ? 
100 Tell me thy story : hearken to my say." 

* See Vol. II, p. 57. t 'i-^-> ^^"^ through the air. 


Bdndi ChitrleJchd. 
"Badram to woh des hai ; B^nasur hai Rao ; 
Ukha to beti hiii, zalim bura subh^o. 
Itiii to ik araz meri lije ; 
Us ka jawab phir mujh ko dije. 
105 Sove thi mahil bioh men piy&ri; 

Dekha hai khwab, ishk tan men jari. 
Jis ko Anrudhar kaho, lene ai. 
Kar deui khabai", kasm teri kMi.'' 
" Ten kaisi kamni darsan us ko rafc. 
110 Lakbon tabib bula.chuke us larke ke sath. 
Larke ne bahut dawa daru khai ; 
DAna bimar : nabin fursat pai. 
Rove din rat, nabin khave khana ; 
Mata bbi bilak rahi, main ne jana \" 

Chitrlehha the Maid. 
" Tlie land is Badram and Banasur is its King. 
His daughter tJkha is of a cruel wicked temper. 
Hear my petition, 
And then answer me. 
105 My beloved (princess) was sleeping in her palace, 

And saw (a lover) in a dream and love came into her 

I am come to fetch him they call Anrudhar.* 
Tell me of him, I ask thee by an oath." 
Gardener's Wife. 
"He (too) saw in the night a beauty like thy (princess). 
110 A lakh of doctors have been called to the youth. 
Much medicine and drugs hath the youth taken, 
But his malady (of love) hath doubled and hath no 

Weeping day and night he eateth not his food. 
His mother (too) I know is weeping \" 

* Aniruddha, son of Krishi.ia, so called throughout this poem. 


115 Jab Malan lekar chal}, gai mahil darmiyan, 
Larka us se mila dia ; yeh. nische kar jan. 
Sftrat pahchaa lie us ki niy&ri : 
Man ki jo bat kahi us se sari. 
Kaul aur karar kare jitne save : 

Bdndi Chitrlehhd. 
120 " Mat karo avir ; chaloj dil ke piyare." 

Panchori pahiue kapre, bandh lie hathiyar. 
Same jo adhi rat thi lark^i bua tayyar. 
Palang par bitha lia Raja gyani ; 
Leke akas uii dil ki jani. 
125 Tis^ to Mahil bicli leke ai. 

115 Then taking (the maid) with her the Gardener's wife 
went into the palace. 
And know this at once,* she brought her to the youth. 
She recognized him apart (from the rest). 
And told him the desire of her heart. 
She made him all promises (saying) : 

Chitrlehhd the Maid. 
120 " Make no delay, but come, my heart's beloved.t" 

He put on the five (manly) garments and fastened ou 

his arms. ' 
It was midnight when the youth was ready. 
She sat the wise Prince on a couch, 
And took her belovedj flying through the air. 
125 She came to the Tisa Palace. § 

* To the audience. 

t i.e., he was beloved by the maid on account of her mistress. 

j See above, line 120. 

§ The name of tikha's dwelling throughout this poem. 


UkM ki ik soch dil pe ai. 

Sundar sakhi bula li aur man men kia babek. 

Rani Ukhd. 
" Bandobast karo mahil ka ; kahe lakh ki ek. 
Babal ko kkabar karo mat na koi. 
130 Karta ke ank likha, barfce soi. 
Maliil bich ik sis bandho bana ! 
Rahaa ik tbaur, nahin pliirke jana [" 

Assi hazar jodhd rahen aur sab ko lia bulae : 

Rant JJlcha. 

"Honi tki so ho gai : kijo meri sahai ! 
135 Kijo sahai meri, sawafc sare, 

Jitne mahbAb khare, dil ke pij' 

An idea came into Ukha's mind. 

She called her beautiful maids and made a plan in her 

Princess. tJkha. 
" Make arrangements as to the palace ; let one word do for 
Let no one give news of this to ray father. 
130 The Creator hath written the line (of fate), let it be 
Let the turbans (of war) be fastened on in the palace ! 
Let each remain in his place and let none turn back !" 

She had 80,000 warriors and she sent for them all (and 
said) : 

Princess Ukhd. 
" What was to be hath been : be ye my helpers ! 
135 Be my helpers, all ye my heroes, 

As many brave friends as stand here. 
* See ante, p. 359. 


MerSi to liukm m^n, bhai, lije. 
Rahna hoshiyar^ Mm aisa kije." 

Parwana Ukha likha, dina bandi hath. 

Bani Ukha. 
140 " Meri to minti* kaho us mata ke p^a ! 
Mat6L ke satk bhed mera kahna :" 

Rani tfkhd lea Parwdna, 

" Paya ik lal mujhe, sundar gahna. 
Sflrat mahbub ik larka aya : 
Ukha ne fikar bara man men khaya \" 

145 Hukm m^d band! chali Sunatpur menjae : 
TJs Ukha ke lal ka dina hal sunae. 

Friends, here my orders. 

Be wide awake and do as I say.'' 

Ukha wrote a letter and gave it to her maid. 


Princess Ukha, 

140 " Go and tell my prayer to my mother. 
And tell my mother all my story." 


Princess Ukhd's Letter. 

" I have found a ruby, a beautiful jewel. 
A warrior-like youth hath come, 
And a great dread hath come into Ukha's heart !" 

145 Hearing the order the maid went to Sunatpur, 
And told the story of Ukha's ruby. 

* For hinti. 

VOL. HI. — 48 


Bandi ChitrleMa. 
" Beti ne bhaj di : tujh pe ai. 
Pani ke bich % aisi lai. 
Raja ko phand 11a bai-a jori. 
150 Kini naWn sliarm : laj us ko thori \" 

RajS, se kahe : 

Rant Bajd Bdndsur ki. 
" Sun meri ardfts. 
Deo, dant, dariv koi us Ukha ke pas : 
Beti ko phand M ; bidiya kini : 
"Daran to bahut ik us ko dim. 
155 Darwaz& band kie jitne sare, 

Assi hazar giraftar jodka niyare \" 

RaJEi, sabha laga die ; kahan laga sat bbae 

Chitrlekha the Maid. 
" Thy daughter sent me : I am come to thee. 
Thus hath she set water on fire.* 
She hath entrapped the Prince with great force.f 
160 She hath no shame, and small is her sense of honor!" 

The Queen said to the Raja: 

Rdja Bdnasur's Queen.. 

" Hear my say. 
Ukha hath a demon, devil or spirit (in her). 
That hath entrapped our daughter and is doing evil, 
And is giving her much trouble. 
155 He hath closed all the doors (of her palace), 
And seized each of her 80,000 warriors !" 

, The Raja held an assembly and spake to them the truth : 

* i.e. created a gi'eat disturbance. 

t Allusion to the classical story in whicli tJshS, brings Aniruddha to 
herself by magic arts. 


Eajd Banasur. 
" Hai kol jodha bali, us ko pakare jle ? 
Jangl to jawan cliarho larnehare ! 
160 Pakaro ik bar use, mere piyare. 
Meri to laj gai, sobha khoi ! 
Teh to ik bel aj bikh ki boi." 

Jab utbke Kachhraj ne bira lia uthae. 
Battls haz§.r faujan charhi ; larS, mahil pe 
1 65 Chau taraf maMl gher linaj piyare ; 
Sawat balbir khare niyare niydre- 

Bajd Kachhrdj, 

" Mahil men kaun bali sanmukh ao ? 
Karn& nahin der : barS. mansab pao ! " 

Bajd Banasur. 
" Is there any warrior who will go and seize the prince ? 
Let some warlike fighting youth come forward !] 
160 Seize him at oncOj my friends. 

My honor hath gone and my glory is lost ! 
Surely it is a. poisonous plant that hath been sown 

Then up gat Kachhraj * and took up the betel leaf.f 
An army of 32,000 advanced to fight at the palace. 
165 They surrounded the palace on all sides, my friends,{ 
Every brave warrior standing in his place. 

Prince Kachhraj.^ 
" What warrior will confront me from the palace ? 
Make no delay to obtain a high office !" 

* Raja Banasur's eldest son. f f'ee Yol. I., p. 43, etc. 

X Addressed to the audience. § Challenge to the palace guards. 


Sun Chhatri Anrudhar ne b&ndh lie hathiy^r : 
170 Darwaza ko kholke giS; mahil se bahir. 
Mahil se bahir gia Chhatri bole : 

Raja Anrudhar. 

" Sanmukli se chot karOj bal ko tola. 
Chhatri ran chhor nahin hatke jana : 
Kama hai laj : sis baadho bana." 

1 75 Dhans ban Raja lia, mara iko bar. 

Dhuja tut rath ki pari ; Jang hua bisiyar. 

D^ran ik ban dia Raja ran men : 

Baki koi nahin rahe us ke tan men. 

Murchha to khai Anrudhar piyara. 
180 Karm ke lekhe ko nahin metanh§.ra ! 

Hearing this the Chhatri* Anrudhar fastened on his arms, 
170 And opening the gates came out of the palace. 
Coming out of the palace spake the Chhatri : 

Prince Anrudhar. 

" Give your wounds in front, showing your might. 
A Chhatri will not leave the field and turn back.' 
Be honorable, and fasten on the turbans (of war)." 

175 Prince (Kachhraj) took a bow and arrow and made a 
The froat of (Anrudhar's) chariot was broken and there 

was a great fight. 
It was a terrible arrow that the Prince shot into the field, 
And he had no desire left in his heart. 
The splendid Anrudhar fainted ; 
180 For there is no one to blot out the lines of fate. 

* Chhatri here means that he belonged to the old Kshatriya or 
warrior caste. 



R&jd Anrudhar. 

"jSabha, dhytln chaukas raho. Bachan suno, MahMj ! 
Main to ay^ maliil se juddh karan ke k^j \" 

PaacL. ban pur, lie kampii*. sara : 
Larze sab des kharS. jitna sara. 
185 Daa das to ban die sab ke tan men : 
Pai nahin khabar ; pare lote ran men. 
Khnrag sftnt Raja chal§., sanmukh pahunch^ j&e. 
Tega mara sftntke j kijo R&m sahai. 

Bdjd Kachhrdj, 

"Kijlye sahal ik, Karta mere ! 
190 Ao, balbir, charho sanmukh mere ! " 

Prince Anrudhar. 

" My army, be attentive on all sides ! Hear my words, 
my Lord (Kachhraj) ! 
I am come out of tbe palace to fight !" • 

He let fly five arrows and took his whole army ( with him). 
And all the land stood trembling. 
185 He shot ten arrows each into all their bodies. 

They became unconscious and fell corpses in the field. 
Drawing his sword Prince (Kachhraj) advanced and 

faced him. 
He drew his sword and strack him in the name]'of R&m 


Prince Kaohhrdj.f 

" Be my helper, my Creator ! 
190 Come on, my hero, J and meet me face to face !" 

* See ante, p. 351. 

f Prayer to Eama, see preceding line . 

+ To Anrndhar. 


Sflnti talwar, ik tan men marJ : 

Rajl ne at lie iko b^ri. 

Diisr^ bhi war kia aisa kari ; 

Dekhe taraf khare^hai aggyS,-kar}. 
195 Sanmukh se cbot kare sawat sflrS, : 

Baje bar wakt khar§, ran men tftra. 

Age ko pair dbare, sastar mare : 

Picbbe ko pair nabrn nM dare. 

Ufche Anradbar maba bali, dbans b^n lio bath 
200 Dbarm juddb karne laga us Raja ke sath. 

Mare ik bS-r ban, fauJEln larjen : 

Kat-katke sis paren, jodha garjen. 

Biyakul Kacbbraj bfta ; Har kJ may§, ! 

Dusbman balwan btia, kslmpi k^ya. 
205 Hathi pe aswar bo jab dbayo Kacbbraj : 

Drawing bis sword be struck at bis body, 

But Prince (Anrudbar) warded it ofif. 

He, (also) tbus made a second attack, 

And saw (Anradbar's) followers standing on all sides 

(of bim). 
195 Tbe brave warriors gave their wounds in front. 

And all tbe wbile tbe drums were beaten in tbe field. 
(Prince Kacbbraj) advanced bis foot and used bis 

And never did be turn bis feet back. 
Up gat Anrudbar tbe migbty warrior and took bis bow 

and arrow in bis band, 
200 And began a pious figbt witb tbe Prince (Kacbbraj). 
He sbot an arrow and tbe army trembled, 
And beads cut off fell down, wbile tbe warriors roared. 
Kacbbraj was helpless : it was tbe doing of God 1 
The enemy was a strong one and his body trembled. 
205 Then Kacbbraj mounted an elephant and charged 

(shouting) : 


Bajd Kachhrdj. 
" Lame ki mansa rahi, suno, hamari aj !" 

Karke ik bal charha Eaja niche. 
Edjd Kachhrdj. 
" Maro ik bar, nahin jane dijo !" 

Kampil ko hukm dia : 

Raja Kachhraj. 

" Oharhke jao ! 
210 Raja ko pakar, bandh rath ko lao ! " 

Jab Raja Anrudhar ne bidiya lie banae : 
Charh raara Kachhraj ko ; gai fauj gabharae. 
Jodha gabhara gae, uthe, dhae : 
Jab to sab dham nikat uthke ae. 

Prince Kachhrdj. 
" It is my intention to fight to-day : hear me \" 

Thus roaring the Prince went on. 
Prince Kachhrdj. 
" Slay (Anrudhar) at once and let him not escape !" 

He gave an order to his army : 

Prince Kachhrdj. 

" Advance ! 
210 Seize the Prince (Anrudhar) and fasten him to my 
chariot !" 

Then Prince Anrudhar made a plan^ 

And advancing slew Kachhraj, and the army was taken 

The warriors taken aback fled away. 
And all returned to their own homes. 


215 PAri men jo shor macM Eani roven .- 

Moti ke tor kancli baithi poven. 

Jab Anrudhar maha ball gia mahil darmiyS,n. 

Ukha ne mangal parhi ; kia baiiut sa dan. 

Kia bahut sa dan ; bahut sobhS. pai, 
220 Raja ki phauj sabhi cbarkhe ai : 

Sanmukh se stv bir bal ko toleri. 

Man men anand hde, mukb. se bolen. 

B^nasur kahne lage maha ball balwan : 

Bajd Bdndsur. 
"Baki to chhode nahin; suno, sabha, kar kan. 
225 Suniyo ik bat, bbayya mere, 
Karta ki d&t naMn jatl phere. 

215 There was a cry in the City and the Queen wept, 

And tearing off her pearls she made (a necklace) of 

Then ' the mighty warrior Anrudhar went into the 

Ukha sang songs of rejoicing and gave much away in 

charity (to Brahmans). 
She gave much in charity and was much honored. 
220 Prince (Anrudhar's) army (also) all came up, 
And warriors vaunted face to face with heroes. 
They were happy in their hearts and spake with their 

Spake the great hero Banasur : 

Rdjd Banasur. 

" Hear, assembled (warriors), with your ears ; nothing 
hath been left (of the old army). 
225 Hear a word of mine, my friends. 

The decree of God is not to be turned back. 

* A sign of mourning among Eanis. 


Aisa balwan kaun charhke ayS, ? 
Mara Kachhiij nam aiea payS, ? " 

Udayast sunke utha ; 

Edjd Uday&st. 

" Mera yeh hi karar : 
230 Charhke jaAn mahil pe, mardn iko bk ! " 

Bawau hazar fauj charhi, halla kina. 
Edjd Udayast. 
"Sanmukh se chot karo, chaho jlna ! " 

Faujan ik bar wahan ran pe dhai : • 
Kile ko chhor nikal blihir ai. 
235 Udayast it se chala, ut se Rajkanwar. 

Ikis hazar saniyan saje, gia mahil se bahir. 

Who is this hero that hath come upon us ? 

And slaying Kachhrij hath obtained so great a name ?" 

Udayast* hearing this sprang up : 
Prince Udayast. 

"This ia my vow : 
230 I will go to the palace and slay him at once 1" 

A shouting army of 52,000 advanced. 
Prince Udayast. f 
" Give your wounds in front, if you would live I" 

The army at once advanced into the field ; 
Leaving the fort they came outside. 
235 This side came Udayast, that side the Prince (Anrudhar). 
With 2], 000 warriors he came out of the palace. 

* B&nasur's second son, called also by the bard his diwdn or minis- 
ter : see line 7. 
t Challenge to Aniruddha. 
voi,. III.— 49 


Mahil se b^hir nikal jodha ayS. : 

Bandho hathiyar, nikat kampu dhaya. 

Ran ke jo bicli khare sawafc sare, 
240 Larne ka hukm dia, mere piyare. 

Mahablr jodha charhe, lagi nek nahin bar : 

Un us ke, un us ke upar kara parhar. 

Banjen hathiyar, para bharat bhari: 

Donon chau taraf laren ik hi ban. 
245 Kat-katke sis bhuja niche kvei. 

Pichhe pag nahin dharen, age dhaven. 

Chhattis hazar jodha mare, bahab para sangram. 

Maha ghor bharat hua, kabhi na ubhar pran. 

Jab to Anrudhar ban iko mara : 
250 Kiui sab chhar, nikat biti dhara. 

Udayast mar, fatteh Chhatri pai : 

Raja ki fauj rahi nlti dhai. 

Coming out of the palace the warrior came ; 
With arms fastened on he came to the camp. 
To all the warriors assembled in the field, 
240 He gave the order to fight, my friends.* 

The mighty warriors advanced and made no delay, 
And made attacks one upon the other. 
Arms clashed and there was a great fight. 
And both sides fought at all points at once. 
245 Heads and arms were cut oS" and fell down. 
No one turned a foot back, all went forward. 
There was a great fight and 36,000 warriors were slain. 
There was a great resounding fight and there was danger 

to life. 
Then Anrudhar shot an arrow, 
250 That out all to pieces and made the blood to flow. 
Slaying Udayast the Chhatri gained the victory. 
And the R9ja's army fled away backwards. 

* To the a\id.ience. 


Fatteh pa ChhafcrJ cbalii Tisa Mahil samae. 
Ukha ko anand hila, sukh kaM na jae. 
255 Jab to Bana Eao ko bahut hu^ afsos. 

Bajd Bdndsur. 
" Dushman to is mahil ke tha nahiii sau sau kos. 
Maiii to bardftn ik Har se lini : 
Daran yeh dakh die : kaisa dina ? " 

Achraj ki bat fikar man men khaya. 
Eajd Bdndsur. 
260 " Deo dant kaun aj pur men aya ? 
Mera bal chbin Ma satiadhari ! 
Achraj ki bat : gai faujaii mari ! 
Assi hazar fauj phire ham se kaisi ? 

The Chhatri gained the victory and wont into the Tfsa 


Ukha was happy and her joy was untold. 
255 Then was King Bana* very sorrowful. 

Rajd Bdndsur. 
" There was not an enemy within 100 miles of my palace. 

I obtained a boon from Hari.f 
- But he hath given me a great grief: what hath he given?" 

He was grieved in his heart at this wondrous thing. 
Rdjd Bdndsur. 
260 " What demon or devil is this that hath come into the 
city to-day 1 
The power of me, the upright, hath been taken away ! 
It is wonderful, and my army is destroyed ! 
How came 80,000 men to turn from me ? 

* Bana, as well as,Banasura, was a classical name for the liero of this 

t Hari is Vishnu : he really got his boon from Siva, Vishnu's rival 


Chanda ka grihan kare RaW jaise ! " 

265 Sangramjit jodha utha, kahan laga balbir : 
R&ja Sangramjit. 
" Samnukli ran men &ke kine na bandhe dhir I" 

Jite sab sflr bir jitne sare ; 
Ik bar phand lie niyare niyare. 

Bdja Sangramjit, 
" Badram yo des kahin V 

Boleii bani : 
Bdjd Sangrdmjit. 
270 " Ab to yeh bat gai mulkon jani !" 

Sangramjit jodli& cbtirhe. 

As tbough E^M had swallowed up the moon !"* 

265 Up sprang SangrS,mjitt the warrior, and thus the hero 
spake : 

Prince Sangrdmjit, 
" No one hath had courage when face to face with the 
field ! " 

He had conquered all heroes (hitherto,) 
And had ensnared them each at once. 
Prince Sangrdmjit. 
"Where (is gone) this land of Badram?" 

Spake he : 
Prince Sangrdmjit. 
270 " Now will this matter be knowQ in the world !" 

Sangramjit the warrior advanced. 

* Allusion to the HindA belief regarding the cause of eclipses. 
t Raja Banasur's third son. 


Baja Sangrdmfd. 

" Jfln surij pargas, 
Tiwar binasAn; chhink meii karftn shikar biuas !" 

Jodha sab as-pas line sari : 

Bawan hazar fauj charhi balkeri sari. 
275 Jugpat ik bar mahil upar ke : 

Nikat hi bban khare age pae. 

Panchon phire kapre, bandh lie hathiyar : 

Rath sajae, jodha chale, giS. mahil se bahir. 

Mahil se bar khari faujan sajen : 
280 Sanmukh ran dhir khari, mfi,ril bajen : 

Garjat hain hkn, agin jaise ban men. 

Eandhe hathiyar, khare s&want ran men. 

Ik bar hukm dia, aggya kini : 

Dhae sab sur bir, sobha dinl. 

Prince SangrdmjU. 

" Like the light of the sun, 
Removing the darkness, in a moment will I destroy 
them all ! 

He took all the warriors all about him, 
And an army of 52,000 men advanced shouting. 
275 The mighty lord at once came upon the palace. 

And found the glorious sun (Anrudhar) standing before 

He put on the five garments and fastened on the arms. 
And made ready his chariot, and (then) the hero went 

out of the palace. 
His army stood ready outside the palace gate. 
280 The lines stood face to face in the field and the battle- 
drums were beaten. 
The arrows crackled like a fire in the forest. , 
With arms fastened on the heroes stood in the field. 
Suddenly he gave the command and orders, 
And all the warriors advanced and won glorj'. 


285 Dwadas to ban die sab ke tan men : 

Jhfljen ik bar, agin biyapi ran men. 

Pare hain jawan bhuja katke niyare : 

Battis hazar fauj aise mare. 

Sangramjit sanmukh charii^, ran meii pari puk&r. 
290 Bhan chhipaya dhul men, p3,ven kuchh na shumar. 

Lagi na shumar fauj aisi dhai : 

Dnrgam ke pas nikat jaldi ai. 

Chhfmti bandftk aur ghanka garjen: 

S3,want balbir kliare ran men larjen. 
295 Assi hazar jodha lie, hukm karii ik bar: 

Jaise sandh samagto barseii megh apar. 

Dhac sab sur bh- iko bari : 

Kanteh bhuj sis chhati upar dare. 

Gir-girkar pher larefij sanmukh dhaven. 

285 He shot twelve arrows into the bodies of all. 

They fell at once and fire fiamod in the field. 

With arras cut off each warrior fell. 

There were 32,000 men slain thus. 

Sangramjit advanced to the front, roaring out in the field. 
290 The sun was hidden by the dust (thick) beyond telling. 

An army beyond counting advanced, 

And very quickly approached the fort. 

Guns cracked and cannons roared. 

And very heroic warriors trembled in the field, 
295 Taking 80,000 warriors (Aurudhar) gave orders sud- 
denly ; 

And they advanced like the sound of heavy rain 

All the warriors advanced at once, 

And cutting off heads and arms threw them on the 

Palling about they fought again and advanced face to 


300 Mareii das bis, nahin jane pa veil. 
Jab to Sangramjit mukh se bolen : 
Jitna chalitr, sabhi dal ko kholeri. 

Bdjd Sangramjit. 
"Kis ka til putr ? Kaun terli pita ? 
Laya Lai kaun kanij aisa kita ? 
305 Kaunsa hai des ? Kaho maksad sara ! 
Mat pita kaun kaun tera^ piyara ? " 

Eaja Anrudhar. 
"Kila liamara Dwarka; pita mera Bhagwan. 
Baba Sri Anand hai, Pandiiii ki hai an. 
Lakh sandani baa chaleii, sanmukh maren. 
310 Hathi, rath, baj, chur karkar daren. 

Chhappan hai kot* sage mere tan men. 

300 Slaying some ten or twenty they did not let them escape. 
Then Sangramjit called out with his lips. 
And opened all his secrets to the army. 

Prince Sangramjit. 
" Whose son art thou ? who is thy father ? 
Why art thou acting thus ? 
305 Where is thy land ? Tell me all thy meaning ! 
Who are thy father and mother, friend V 

Prince Anrudhar. 
" My fort is Dwarka and my father is Bhagwan. t 
My foster-father is Sri Anandf and I am come of the 

They shoot r any terrible arrows and fight face to face. 
310 Elephants, chariots, falcons they grind to dust. 
There are 56 karors of relatives of my body. 

* For haror, t i.e., Krishna. 

% This must moan Nanda, Krishna's foster-father. 
§ This is of coui'se not con-ect : ho was, however, n relative of the 
Pandavas : sec the genealogy, Vol. III. p. '■&!. 


Sunegi nadan charhen iko sunke." 

Gajja h&tli dMran kare, dh&ran kar sangrS^m. 
Rdjd Sangramjit. 
" Sanmukh se nahm jan dAn, marAn athon jam. 
315 Jo ho balhin palat ult§, jao : 

Jo ho balwan mere sanmukh ao. 

Dekhfin ik bar aj teri karni. 

Kama hai juddhj bharAii teri bharni." 

Jab Anrudhar maha ball dio agin ka ban. 
320 Ik jojan upar parS,, bhula khata usan : 
BhAla gia rit bhint jitni sari. 
Larne ki pher kari duji tayyari. 
Suuton talwar Chhatri ilpar aya : 
Jab to Anrudhar bSn chhati lay a. 

As soon as they hear I am helpless they will advance 

(Sangramjit) took a clab in his hand for the fight. 

Prince Sangramjit. 
" I will not let thee go from my face, I will fight thee 
all day.* 
315 If thou be weak go back ; 

If thou be strong come and face me. 

I will see for once to-day what thou canst do. 

I will fight and fulfil what is to be fulfilled for thee." 

Then Anrudhar the mighty warrior shot a fiery arrow. 
320 (Sangramjit) fell a. jojan away and lost his senses, 
And forgot all the ways and customs (of war). 
He made him ready for a second fight. 
Drawing his sword he went at the Chhatri (Anrudhar). 
Then Anrudhar struck him in the chest with an arrow. 
* Lit., during the eiglit watches. 


325 Sangramjit jodhu gira, ran meu pari pukar. 

Phi^l-mal jyAii kanth se hathi dhari utar. 

Jodha ka maran hua, saniyan bbTije, 

Hiithi rath chhor hi^e, khali taje. ranwis bich ghar ghar roveii : 
^30 Raja to bij bura bikh ka boveii. 

Banasur dabla gia, kampan laga sarir. 

Cliandarbban sunke uthe, kucbh ik bajidhi dhir. 

Beta aur bap charb-a donon kari ; 

Saniytin Mabaraj lie iko bari. 
335 Tisa to Mabil beg cbarbke ue : 

Dekh«n cbbaun or bare acbraj kbae, 

Ikkis bazar saniyan lie tab Anrudbar Kaiiwar : 

Crhar se utari beg, de kar a,yadh sab dbar. 

Dbare liain karpan, ban clibuten kar se : 

325 Sangramjit tbe warrior fell and there was a cry in the 
(Anrudhar threw him) as au elephant would throw a 

• flower-garland from his neck. 
When the warrior was slain the army fled. 
Elephants and horses deserted the chariots. 
The Queens in the palaces wept in their rooms> 
330 The Prince (Anrudhar) had sown an evil seed of poison. 
Banasur was frightened and his body trembled. 
Hearing of this up gat Chandarbhan* and was courage- 
Both father and son advanced, 
And the King took all his army with him at once. 
o35 They quickly advanced to the Tisa Palace, 

And loqking all round they were much astonished. 

Then Prince Anrudhar took 21,000 men. 

He quickly came down from the palace, and took all 

his weapons in his hands. 
He took up his bow and shot an arrow from his hand. 

* Banasur's fourth son. 
VOL. ai.— 50 


340 Sanmukh se chot karen, nahin bhagen ran se. 

Chanchali se sflr karen, badal dMven : 

Bajen talwar, chot sanmukh khElven. 

Chandarbhan age barh&j Kam-ban lie bath. 

Mahasdr ran men barha, tirya pat. gai sath : 
345 We to balhin hue jodha sare. 

Tab to ik ban khainch kar se mare : 

Maya ka ban dia duja kari. 

Tab to boh-bhant gae saniyan mare. 

Mogh-ban Ghhatri lia Chandarbhan ki or. 
360 Mara ban tarakde. Jaisi gahi chand ki kor, 

Chand mah ki kor gahi Raja darse. 

Dhans ban chhut gia us ke kar se : 

340 Giving wounds in front he did not desert the field. 

The warrior flashed in the field, as a (lightning) cloud 

Swords clashed and wounds were received in front. 
Chandarbhan went forward with an arrow of Love in his 

The great warrior advanced into the field and the 

maidens went with him,* 
345 And all the warriors became weak. 

Then he drew (his bow) and shot an arrow from his 

And a second magic arrow did he shoot. 
Then all the warriors were incontinently slain. 
Next the Chhatri (Anrudhar) aimed a terrible arrow at 

350 He shot a dexterous arrow. Like the moon eclipsed, 
Like the moon eclipsed the Prince (Chandarbhan) 

His bow and arrow fell from his hand, 

* This means that Ohandai-bhan caused heavenly maidens to mix with 
the enemy, so that they might lose their virtue. Cf. Vol. I., p. 51. 


Dekhe chau taraf khari parja darse. 

Ran men ghangor, jais^ badal barse. 
855 Nag ban Raja \ik, bidiya di paMlae : 

Sanmukh chhora ik bar, girS, rath par jae. 

Mara jab ban dekh Chhatri larze ; 

Ohhode hathiyar ; kaun us ko parje ? 

Dharm phans bich phaiis^ RSjd bina : — 
360 Nag-b^n pilr dio, kampi sina ! 

Bdndh Ho Rajkaiiwar aggy3,-kar!. 

Sena ik bar ckali pur ko sari. 

Mahilon pe dekh rahi sundar nari : 

Chande mahtab ha Ukha piy§,ri. 
365 Nagari sab moh lio jitni sari : 

And his people standing on all sides saw it trembling. 
There was a noise (of pain) in the field, as when a 
(thunder) cloud rains. 
355 The King (Ban§.sur) took a serpent* arrow with great 
He shot it in front at once and it fell on (Anrudhar's) 

Seeing the arrow strike the Chhatri ( Anrudhar) trembled. 
He let fall his arms : who should urge him (now) ? 
Thus was the wise Prince (Anrudhar) caught in a net 
of belief : — 
360 When a serpent arrow was shot at him, his heart trem- 
bled ! 
The (King's) followers bound the Prince (Anrudhar). 
All the (King's) army at once returned to the city. 
Beautiful maidens beheld them from the palaces. 
And the lovely Ukha found (a youth as beautiful as) the 
365 All the city rejoiced, 

* The point of this is that Ohhatris, considering serpents to he gods 
■will not fight with them. This accounts for what follows. 


Db§,m dham bich khari snndar nari. 
Nag ban baudheii bitba, Kishn Lai, hua rang ; 
So Sbib Kaiiwar samagti ; — ^jit lio sab jang. 
Narad ko bulwa lia Sri Kishn Mabaraj. 

Sri Kishn. 
370 " Larka ghaib ho gia, turn se nikale kaj. 
Turn seti kaj bane, mera bhai. 
Bipta ki bat, same aisi ai, 
Deo, ke dant, koi dana aya : 
Sote ko utha lia ; phir nahin paya." 

Narad Brahman. 
375 "Main to Utar dasa ko abhi chalan, Balbir; 
Palat aun beg, tuk ik btindho dhir." 

And beautiful maidens stood in every house. 

(Saith) Kishn Lfil* — the serpent arrow brought a gift 

(of victory) and there were rejoicings. 
Saith also Shib Kanwart : — (the King) won the fight. 
Sri Kishnf the King sent for Narad. § 

Sri Kishn. 
370 " My son hath disappeared, do my desire. 

Let my desire be fulfilled through thee, my friend. 
It is a time of great trouble that is come. 
Some demon, or devil, or spirit hath come, 
And taken him ofi" in his sleep, for he hath not been 
found since." 

Narad the Brahman, 
375 " I will go to the North at once, Mighty One, 
And come back quickly, so be patient awhile." 

* The bard : see ante p. 363, etc. 
t The bard's wife : see ante p. 363, etc. 
J The scene completely changes. 

§ See Vol. II., p. 222, and Vol. III., p. 162. It is noteworthy that he 
la here called a Brahman. 


DwS,rl<a ko clihor gagan lipar dhuya : 
Dekline se lilp hfle us ki kaya. 
Sunantpilr des gia mayadhari : 
880 Dham dham puchh ralia BedacMri. 

" Kaise ho gia auna ? Hamen sunao hal. 
Ham se bitlia lijiye, jo kuchli chakiye mal. 
Hira aur lal, ratan, mukta ]ije : 
Pichke asirbad mujhe dye. 
885 Apni, Maharaj, kaho ham se bani : 

Kahani ke jog nahin, so nahin kahfini." 

Narad Brahman. 
" Beta aya Krishn ka aur dhund lie sab des. 
Yeh parbat dekha nahin, gai ik nahin pesh. 
Ik bhi na pesh gai ; suniyo, saki : 

Leaving Dwarka he advanced through the sky,* 
And his body disappeared from sight. 
The wonder-worker went to the land of Sunantpflr, 
380 And the teacher of the Vedas sought him in every house. 

"How earnest thouf here ? Tell me thy story. 
Take a gift from me, if thou desirest wealth. 
Take diamonds and rubies and jewels in plenty. 
And then give me thy benediction. 
385 Tell me thy story, my Lord : 

Tell me nothing that thou wouldst not tell." 
Narad the Brahman. 
" I came for Krishn's son and am searching all the land. 
I have never seen these hills (before) and have no plan 

(of finding him). 
I have no plan ; hear, my friend ; 

* Cf. above line 91. 

t The meaning here is apparently that Banasura's country was a 
land of demons. 
X Speaking to N^rada. 


390 Raja ke tan bich nahia chhori baki. 
Rove din rain aur us ki mS.ta. 
Achraj ki bat, nahin larka pata [" 

" Larks, Tisa Mahil men rata kare din rain. 
Pakara Bana Rao ne, us pare nahin chain. 
395 Larke ne jang kara, sobha pai. 
KAde sab kot aur us ki khai. 
Dhave to char kare us ne jari. 
RajS, ka man hata aur saniyan mari." 

Sunat beg Narad chala, raj-sabha men jae. 
400 Bhed-chhed sagrd kahS aur dina katha sunae. 
Narad Brahman. 
" Raja, yeh shor para pAr men kaisa ? 
Biti ik bar kaho ham se aisa. 

390 And Raja (Krishn) hath no other (desire) in his heart. 
He weepeth day and night and so doth the mother (of 

the Prince), 
It is a wonderful thing that I cannot find the boy ! " 
" The boy remains day and night in the Tis§. Palace. 
King Bana hath seized him and he is not happy. , 
395 The boy fonght him and obtained glory, 
And leapt over all his forts and ditches,* 
He made four attacks upon (the King), 
And the King destroyed his pride and slew his warriors." 

As soon as he heard (this) Narad went into the royal 
400 He said all his say and made them understand. 
Narad the Brahman. 
" Raja, what is this noise in the city ? 

Tell me at once what hath happened^ ^ 

* i.e., those within which Princess UkbS, was confined. 


Eanwar ko dikhao abhi ; suniye. Raja. 
Ik to sawal mer& suniye tajd." 

405 Ilukm dia Maharaj ne, larka lia bulae : 
Raj-sabha ke bich men age dia dikhae. 
Age dia dikhae : bari miuti kini. 

Raja Bdndsur. 

" Lijo, Maharaj, bhifc teri dini. 
Kahna kuchh aur jaisi marzi teri. 
410 Singasan baith ; man kahni meri." 

Khushi Brahman ho gia^ chhati se lia lagae : 
Bat pita ki jo kahan dini us se sunae : 
Mat4 ki bipat kahi jitni sari. 

Show me the Prince now ; hear, Raja. 
Hear thou early my complaints." 

405 The Raja gave an order and sent for the boy. 
And showed him to the royal assembly. 
He was shown, and (the Raja) making a great obei- 
sance, (said to Narad) : 

Raja Bdndsur. 

" Take him, my Lord, I present him to thee, 
TeU me if thou hast any other desire. 
410 Sit on the throne ; hearken to my say." 

The Brahman was pleased and took (Anrudhar) to his 

Told him all that his father had said, 
And told him all the sorrow of his mother. 


Narad Brahman. 
" Aya kis bewanfc ? Kahhh akal mari ? 
415 Kahn^ Koshiyar ; abhi ulta jMii. 

Nahana kis kam ? Nahin kMn& khadn ! " 
Baja B&nasur. 
"Narad Mun Malaar&jjij- suno hamari Mt. 
Main kuchh bal kind nahiii is larke ke sath. 
Larke ke bahut tarah khatir kini bhdri. 
420 Is ne aprad kia^ saniyan inari. 

Baitho, Maharaj, abhi mat na jao : 
Larkd jis taur yahau klielo khS,o." 

Bida ]ia, Nirad cliale ; larke ko samjhae. 
Jaisa gola top ka gagan-pantb. men jae. 
425 Chala hai sbitab, pAri Dvyarka he : 
Kia hai bayan : 

Narad the Brahman. 
" How comest tliou here ? where hast thou lost thy 
wits f 
415 Be awake, for I go back now. 

Why should I bathe ? And I will not eat my food !"* 

Raja Bandsur. 
" Narad Muni,t my Lord, hear my words. 
I have shown no violence to the boy. 
I have shown the boy much kindness. 
420 He committed a great fault in slaying my army. 
Sit down, my Lord, and go not now. 
And let the youth amuse himself here as he pleases." 

NS.rad took his leave and explained to the youth. 
As a ball from a gun he rushed through the air. 
425 Going quickly he came to Dwarka, 
And (there) he said : 

' * Idiomatic way of saying that he would go quickly, 
t See Vol. III., p. 152. 


Narad Brahman. 

" Jagab miijli ko pail " 

M4ta se kalian laga us ki boli ; 

Jitni till bat sabM dil ki kholi. 

Khabar hiii Anrudbar ki, rahas ralia parwar. 
430 Chhattis baje bajeii, kina dan apar. 

Dini haih dan aur manga] gae i 

Sunk« parwar pas us ke ae. 

Hathi, gaj-baj die, may a dini 4 

Mata ne bahut khusbi dil men kini. 
435 Garur charMe sakal dal das jojan ke pher, 

Baja damama Krishn ka, kare nek nabiii der. 

Nek bhi na der kari, jaldi -dhai. 

Narad the Brahman,* 

"I have found tke place.'' 

He told (Anrudhar's) mother all that he had said. 
And opened out all the secrets of his heart. 
All the family rejoiced on hearing news of Anrudhar. 
430 Thirty-six kinds of music t were played and much alms 
given (to Brahman s). 
The alms were given and songs of rejoicing were sung. 
Hearing of him his family went (to Anrudhar). 
Elephants and falcons and money were given away, 
And (Anrudhar's) mother was very happy in her heart. 
435 All the army riding garursX covered a space of ten 
The war-drums of Krishn were beaten and they made 

no delay. 
Making no delay they went quickly. 

* To Krishna. t See Vol. I., p. 176. 

X The king-fisher, or garuda, the vehicle of Krishna : hence its use 

VOL. III. — 51 


Jitne the sur bir hge pae, 

Badrampiir des gae s§,riwat sare : 
440 Utare sab dham dham niyare niyare. 

Parbat ke bich baje maru baja. 

Sun-sunke ghor araz kini Raja : 
Raja Bdnusur, 
" Banjara kaun mal bharke laya ? 

Mujh ko nahid bhed nek is ka paya. 
tl'5 Lliuna khabar^ abhi jaldi jao: 

Saiike bayan pas mere ao." 

Halkara* pur se chala, llaja ko kia juhar. 
Paujan dekhin bahut se, pave nahin shumar. 

" Chau taraf fanj pari, Eaja, sari, 
450 Ghanka banduk chhute halkadari. 

All the warriors advanced. 

All the hei'oes went to Badrampiir, 
440 And each alighted in his (appointed) place. 

Tho war-drums were beaten in the mountains. 

Hearing the noise said Raja (Banasur) : 
Rajd Bdnasurt. 
" What pedlars are these that have brought goods here ? 

I have not understood the real meaning (of this)". 
4 15 Go and bring mo news about them at once, 

And when you have heard it come and tell me." 

The runner left the city and made obeisance .to the 

He found a large army beyond telling. 
The Messenger. 
" The ai-my are encamped on all sides, R4j§,. 
450 Cannons and loaded guns are let off. 

* For hnrhdrd. f To his official messengei'. 


Hat aur bazdr raclie mandir sare : 
Tirath kare anek, rache tMkurdware." 

Purakh se kambakh hvla, rohchak lie shumar. 

Jagali jagah dekhat phire, nahin kuclili paya par. 
455 Paya nahiii par, dabal dil pe khai : 

'Eaja ki kal-gbari sir pe ai !' 

Man men jo soch kari, acbhraj kbaya : 

Dekhke tamam pas Raja ke aya. 
" Banjara to bai nabin. Aise dekbe mauj ! 
460 Sur bir garjen kbaro, charbi lakhini fauj. 

Lakbon to fauj charbi !" 

Boll bani : 

All the shops and hfirJirx, and dwellings* are propavod. 
They are making proper pilgrimages, and the temples 
are being built." 

From morn till noon^ till dusk he counted on ; 
Wandering on from place to placo he could not got 
through it. 
455 He could not get through it, and four came into bis 
heart : 
(Thinking that) the hour of death hath come upon the 

Raja ! 
He was anxious in his heart and astonished. 
Observing everything he came to the Raja. 
The Messenger. 
" They are no pedlars. I have seen a wondrous thing ! 
460 They are roaring warriors, for an enormous army hath 
An enormous army hath advanced !" 

And be said . 
* i.e., a completely formed army. 


" Kijo sambhal, mere Raja gyani ! 
Mujh ko to p&r nahin, Raja, paya ! 
Jane> yeh kaun .Bbup charhke aya V 

465 Bari soch Raja kari, aur man men kai'i bicliar. 

Edja Bdndsur. 

" Kanwar phand tu ne lia ; us ka hai parwar t 
Ctliappan to kot charhe saniy^n ae. 
Pani ke bfcli ag ab ki lai ! 
Bajega ban, pare bharat bhari !" 

470 Shankar ke pas gia Chhatrdhari. 

Din bita, nisa hM, ausar pe &dhi rkt. 

The Messenger. 
"Be careful, my wise Raja I 
I have not been able to get ttrougk (the camp), Raja t 
(God) knows what King this is that hath come !" 

465 The Raja was very anxious and thought in his heart. 

Raja Bdnasur.* 

" Thou hast seized the Prince (Anrudhar) and his family 
hath come ! 
His fifty-six karors of warriors have advanced. 
A fire hath now been lighted in the midst of water !t 
Arrows will hurtle and there will be a great fight !" 

470 The King went to Shankar.t 

The day had passed and night had come and it was near 

* Soliloquising. 

t There is coming a terrible time ; see above, line 148. 

J See above, line 34. 


" Kya koi dushman cbarha ? Ktlmpe tera gat ! 
Kampe hai gat, hile teri kaya. 
Dushman hai kaua tere upar aya ? 
475 Kar de bayan, hal niyara niyara. 

Ham se juda hoke kaise kina guzara ?" 
Bdjd Bdnasiir. 
"Jag rache liai bhawan men, aur charh ae bhupal. 
Ab partangya rakhiyo ; suniye, din diyal ! 
Din ke diyal, karo khatir mere ! 
480 Kama nahln der ; laj, Bhola, tere ! 
Taiii ne sab raj pat dini maya ; 
Lljiye sambhal : pas tere aya !" 

Sunke us ke bachan ko Shankar hua diyal. 
Charke Nadiya bail pe, uthe ap tatkal. 

" Hath an enemy advanced ? Thy body trembles ! 
Thy body trembles and thy form shakes. 
What enemy hath come against thee ? 
475 Tell me the story bit by bit. 

Deserting me what hast thou done ?" 
Raja Banasur. 
'^ Sacrifices are being prepared in the palace, for a 
monai'chhath advanced (against me). 
Preserve my honor now ; hear me, thou that art mer- 
ciful to thy servants ! 
O merciful to thy servant, favor me ! 
480 Make no delay; my honour is with thee, Bhola ! 

Thou hast given me all my kingdom and power and 

Have a care of me (now) : I am come to thee \" 

Hearing his words Shankar* was merciful. 
He mounted his bull Nadiya and got up at once. 
* Foj- all these names of Siva see early part of tliis legend. 


485 Nadiya sawar kile andar aya; 

Jab to kuchli pur die apni m3,ya : 
" Arjun ke sat jang kal ko kijo. 
Darjen ko mar, nahin jane dijo." 

Parat kal Raja uthe, baje marft tur 
490 Sawa lakh saniy^n sabhi cbarh gae sadr-sadur. 

Sane sane fauj charhi, ran pe ai. 

Garjen sab sur bir tan ke bhai. 

Ran se jo pith die phansi pave ; 

Aise koi aur same nahiii ave. 
495 Banasur ban dia daran ran men. 
Bdjd Banasur. 
" Kar lena fikar, rakh mat man men : 

Age, Maharaj, rahi teri raji. 

485 Riding on Nadiya he entered the fort. 

And then he worked some wondrous things (and said): 
"Have a fight with Arjun to-morrow. 
Slay thine enemy and let him not escape." 

In the early morning the Raja was up and the war 
drums were beaten. 
490 A lahh and a quarter of warriors all advanced with the 
Bit by bit the army advanced into the field. 
The full-grown warriors and heroes roared. 
Let him that turneth his back in the field be hanged, 
For such a time was not to come again. 
495 Banasur shot a terrible , arrow in the field. 
Bajd Banasur. 
"Be kind and keep faith in thy heart : 
For the rest, my Lord, is thy pleasure.* 

* Prayer to Siva, 


Jis ko do Ram, soi jiti baje. 
Saumukh se chot karOj bandho band. 
500 Rahna hoshiyar, natiii Hatke jhna \" 

Rath aswar Arjun hua, lia Mth sandani ban. 

Rukat baran sab ho gia, gher Ita maidan. 

Mara ik ban ; dekh Raja larja : 

Ran ke bich jaisa badal garja. 
505 Kate das bis bhujan faujaii naari : 

Lakhon ke pran gae iko bari ! 

Kat-katkar mund bhuja niche a,veu. 

Bhule sab kam, nahin jane paven. 

DAje ik ban dia mayadhari. 
510 Lakhon balwan tiriya upar jari. 

He will obtain victory to whom Ram (God) granteth it. 
Give your wounds in front, and fasten on the habiliments 
(of war). 
500 Be careful and go not back !"* 

Arjun was riding his chariot and had a mighty arrow 

in his hand. 
He became (athirst for) blood and went round the 

He shot an arrow and seeing it Raja (Banasur) trembled; 
It was as if a cloud had thundered in the field. 
505 Some ten or twenty arms were cut off and the army 

Lakhs of lives were lost at once ! 
Heads and arms cut off fell down. 

They forgot everything and were not allowed to escape. 
The wonder-worker shot a second arrow, 
510 And women appeared over the heads of lakhs of 

warrior s.f 

* These three lines are addressed to the army, 
t See above line 314. 


Naclienj gal bicli pari, mukh se bolen. 

Nainai^ ki chot kareii, bal ko tolen. 

Agin ban Eaja di^, hil hil charli gia tap. 

Sab loten hain dharan pe^ kya bet^^ kya bap. 
515 Beta anv bap giren ran men sare. 

Arjun ki man mare nichhe mare. 

Bhul gae dham, gai akal mari : 

Aisa sangram bua iko bari ! 

Sit ban Arjun dia, bil hil kampe gat. 
520 Bhan chhipa yun gird men, din ho gai rat. 

Jada aur sit lare agin j§,gi ! 

Dekhe ahwal sakal parja bhagi ! 

Tija ik ban dia Arjun tan men : 

Banasur lot gia age ran men. 
625 Jab diyal Shankar hda Arjun ke aio pas. 

They danced and fell on their necks an-d coaxed them 

with their lips. 
They wounded them with their eyes, trying their 

Then Raja (Banasur) fired an arrow of fire and they all 

trembled as with fever. 
They all lay on the ground, whether fathers or sons. 
515 All the fathers and sons fell in the field. 
Arjun's pride was altogether humbled. 
He forgot his home and lost his senses ; 
So heavy did the fight suddenly become ! 
Then Arjun shot an arrow of cold, and all the (enemies') 

bodies trembled. 
520 Then were the sun's rays obscured and day turned into 

Frost and cold began; to fight with fire ! 
Seeing the state of things all the people ran away ! 
Then Arjun shot a third arrow into (Banasur's) body, 
And Banfisur fell forward in the field. 
525 Then Shankar was kind (to Ban§,sur) and came up to 



" Ciihama-chhir dil pe karo, karo aio ras ! " 

Arjun ko s^th M apne Bhola; 
Amrit ke kalas lie : mukh se boli, : 
" Ban^sur bir, utho, kalini mano. 
630 DAtiya ko dur karo, nische jano." 

Banasur Maharaj k4 chhin ineri giS. ghariir j 
Sam parkdr mintin kare ; 

Baja Bdndsur. 

" Chaliye, Sadr-sadftr \" 

Mandir ke blch gae, sobha pai. 
Chandan ke rftp bane, sabiya ai. 

" Have pity now, tby desire is accomplished I " 

Bhol& took Arjun to himself. 

And gave him a cup of amrita ; * and (Arjunj spake with 
his lips. 


" Up, thou warrior B^n&,sur, and hear my say. 
630 Pat away all evil afar and know (my meaning) at once." 

In a moment RS,ja Banasnr'a pride disappeared ; 
And he humbly begged him in every way (saying) i 
Raja Banasur. ' 

" Come, my Lord ! " 

(Arjun) went into (Ban&sur's) house and honored. 
He was covered over with (powdered) sandal-woodf and 
was revived. 

* The drink of the gods : ambi-osia, t To cool him. 

TOL. III. — 52 


535 Tab to Anrudhar Kanwar Eaja dina : 
Karke san m^n aur arpan kin^. 

Eant Raja Bdnasur la. 
" tJklia un ko dijiyo, rit bhant kar, kanth. 
Dau karo hiva ratan aur batao panth." 

UkM bulwae lie, Rani boli : 
540 Milne ka chhab kareii bhar bhar kolt. 

Phiil mal aur gale andar dale ; 

Gaven ik bar khari inangal-sale. 

Ratan-maJ dolS, diaj Ukba die biyahi. 

Das die, dasi die : so chhab kahe na jae ! 
545 Kini sab fauj bida. Beta aisa, 

Taron ke bich dips cbaudar jaisa. 

Bbukau aur basau swarraB dina ; 

535 Then the Eaja gave up Prince Anrudhar. 
He showed courtesy and gave him up. 

Raja Banasur's Queen. 

" Give him Ukha and do what is customary, my husband. 
Give alms of diamonds and jewels and show them the 
way (to Anrudhar'shome),^' 


Calling Ukha the Queen spake (to her), 
540 Delighted to see her she embraced her eagerly. 

She put the flower garland (of marriage) round (Anra- 
dhar's) neck, 

And (maidens) standing at once sang in the hall of joy. 

A jewelled litter was given her and Ukha was married.. 

Slaves they gave and maids they gave; their delight 
cannot be told I 
545 All the army was dismissed. (Anrudhar, as) n son. 

Was like the moon shining amid the stafs. 

(.Banasuv) gave him jewels and clothes and gold, 


Charnon ke bich para, adar kina. 
Jab Anradhar bidd kare, anand bo apar. 
550 Chbappan kamr Jadiiii sage ubhi ik si bar. 
Gai-ui- pe sawar hue jitne sare. 
Ure sab akas bich sawant piyare. 
Dharam ko bichar lia, pun ke pure : 
Dwarka ke bich aa ubare sure. 

65-> Kishn Lai, Shib Kauwar ne baai kahi apar : 
Ghar ghar pare badhaiy^n,. gaveri mangalchar 

And (Anrudhar) fell at his feet and paid him respect. 
Then (Anrudhar) took leave and (all) were very pleased. 
550 The 56 karors of JadA relatives went off' at once, 
All riding up garurs.* 

All the splendid warriors flew through the sky, 
Thinking on their, duty arwi filled with virtue. 
The heroes alighted at Dwarka. 

555 Kishn L^l and Shib Kanwarf made this long lay. 

Let congratulations be in every house, and may (the- 
' people) sing songs of joy ! 

* See above line 435-. t See ante, p. 363. 

No. LIX. 


[This disonrajve and chairacteristically fragmentary account of the early 
history of Multfln and the creation, etc., is fiom the KitAh-i-Bay(Lz, or 
Common-place Book, kept by the family of QelnAngos, or local rcTenue 
officers, of Sborkot iB the Jhang District. They still hold the office of 
QAnilng^, and thongh originally Hindfls became iUusaliE^ns daring the reign 
of the Emperor Anrangzeb (1658—1702 A.S.) The MS. from which this 
atory is taken dates from the last century.] 

[The account is of course ^aile valueless as history, but it so well illustratea 
the manner in which the "educated" among the people approach the 
snhjects treated of, and is so characteristic of the confusion of Hindtt and 
Musalm&n traditions among them, that it is well worthy of a place here.] 

[It is to be observed that the writer seems to have some idea of the traditional 
ancient names of Multfin preserved so long ago by Al Birfini.] 


Khahar-i-Afrimsh-i-Zamin vm Asman. 

Awwal Khudai-Ta'alS, Marij Dev az atish paida kard 
chunanclii dar Qur'an-i-majid wa Furqan-i-hamid khaba, 
midihad : " Wa khalqa'ljann min mariji'mmin an-nar." 
Khudai-Ta'sila az pahl4-i-M^rij Marija biyafrid. Har do dar- 
miyan juftl kardand; az ishan do pisar paida sbud. Yakl 
nam-i-wai Jinn nihadand, wa az pahli-i-Jinn zan Jinni paida 
shud. Har do darmiyan-i-khud jufti kardand : az ishan do 
pisar paid& shud ; yaki nam 'IzrMl nihadand ; pisar-i-duwam 
ra nam Mabandev nihadand. Wa az pahlA-i-Mahandev 
Korchabari paid^ shud. 

Wa muddat-i-Zamin wa Asm^n shast do lak wa hashtad wa 
panj hazar sal shuda. Wa azan bar Multan abadanl shuda, wa 
an chihar qiran biida : dar qiran-i-awwal Rahanspur miguftaud, 
wa dar i,n abad§.ni bddan nawad (nausad ?) bist chihar lak wa 
hazhda hazar s^l buda. 


Wa Isar Mahandev rk dw^zda pisar bAdand. Awwal ra 
nam Koln bAd ; dAwam rtl. n&m Narayan bud ; sium ra nam 
Vishan ; chiliarum ra nam Kishan ; panjum ra nam Birahman ; 
shashum ra nam Parmesar, haftum nadarad, hashtum ra nam 
Narsang ; nuhum ra nam Bhagw^n ; dahum ra nam lAt ; 
yazdahum ra nam 'Uzza ; dwaadahum ra nam Isar Jagannath. 
Dwazda dukhtaran Isar Mahandev ra, nam-i-in bfid ; awwal 
dukhtar ra nsbm Mahmai ; dAwam ra nam Devi ; sium ra n&m 
Misrl, chuharum ra nam Parmisri ; panjum ra n&m, 
sbashum ra nam Bhagwani ; haftum ra nllm Lanka ; hashtum 
ra nam Mathra ; nuhum ra nam Jamna ; dahum rh nam Totla ; 
yazdahum ra nam Gharz ; dwazdahum ra nam Lanka. 

Chua chandin guzasht, ba'dahA dar qiran-i-dftwam Multan 
ra nam Makpur miguftand; wa daran &badani farishtagaa bfld; 
hazhda lak wa bist hazar panj s&l bAdand. Dar qiran-i-sium 
Multan ra nam Shampur miguftand. Wa dar qiran-i-Bakpur 
abadani chihl &dam bild. Wa ba'aze gAyand ki hashtad adam 
bAdand, fa-amma az ish&n tawalud wa tanasul na bfld. Wa 
dar qarn-i-chuharum Multan ra nam Multan shud, wa dar fi,n 
abad&ni aspan btid ; hasht lak wa haft haz&r ishan dar Multan 
bild. Ba'd az hasht lak wa hafda hazar (sal ?) Mihtar Adam 
Paighambar (salatu'llah'alaihi) afrida shud. Az g^h-i-Adam 
ta in dam shast hazar wa nuhsad chihl wa panj sal ast ki 
guzasht. (Naql manqM ast.) 

Az Khwaja,Hamidu'ddin NS.gori(qaddasa' Uahu sirrahu'l'azlz) 
mazkAr ast ki HaqqSubhanuhu Ta'ala chAn Adam r^ ('alaihi's- 
ealam) biyafrid, wa baqi gil ki az qalib-i-Adam ('ahaihi's- 
salam) mand, chihdr cbiz afrid; awwal, khurma ; dftwam, angdr; 
Slum anar ; chiharum ru-i-aspan wa chashm ast. Az lu'ab-i- 
Hflran Bihisht biyafrid j wa tan-i-asp az Bihisht afrid, wa pusht- 
i-asp az kursi wa 'arsh-i-majid afrid, wa mA-i-asp az txiba afrid- 
wa j^n-i-asp az 'aztnat-i-khud afrid. Wa fazilat in ast ki asp 
ra pesh-i-khud bidarad, wa hawala-i-digaran na kunad; zirank 
bara-i-an Paighambar (Salla'Uahu 'alaihi wa sallama) madam 
pesh-i-khud midasht, wa ba jama wa ridad-(? rida).i-mubarak- 
i-khud sar wa ru-i-fl pak karde, ham dar ^n j^ma jau charanid. 
Wa ba miqdar-i-mu-i-asp gunahan. 



Aooount of the Creation of the Earth and the Heavens. 

First God Almighty produced the Dev Marij from fire, as it 

is writtea in the Holy Quran and in the Glorious Scriptures, 

" And the Jann were created from smokeless flame from the 

fire."* God Almighty created Marija from the rib of Marij. 

Thay mated together, and two sons were born to them. One 

they called Jinn, and from Jinn's rib the female Jinni was 

produced. They mated together, and two sons were born. 

One they called 'Izrail and the second son they called Mahaudev, 

and from the rib of MahS,ndev Korohabari was brought forth. t 

(Till then) the duration of the Earth and the Heavens was 

6,285,000 years. And from that time Multan became an 

inhabited place, and it went through four ages. Inthefirstage 

they called it RElhanspur,J and in this it continued inhabited 

for 92,418,000 years. 

* There is a muddle here. In the passage quoted, which is not from 
the Quran, but from the Hadis (see Lane's Tlwusand and One Nights : 
Introdaofcion, Vol. I., p. 27, note 21), the meaning is that "Jann- 
were created from mdrij (smokeless flame)." Now there are, live 
distinct kinds of jiiins according to Muhammadan tradition— (1 ) Jann, 
(•2j Jinn, (3) Shaitan, (4) 'Ifrit, (5) Marid (see ante Vol. I., p. 544), and 
the writer seems to have confused the whole subject and to have 
thouo-ht the passage to mean " the Jinn Marij (should . be Marid) 
was created from fire." The Qunhi itsejf does, however, several times 
say that these supernatural beings were created from fire, notably in the 
Su,mtu'l-Baqr and Sui'atu's-Swdd, and by impUoation in the SwatvJl- 
Jinn. The feminines Marija and Jinni formed by the writer out of 
his '■ inner consciousness " from the words Marij and Jinn are as eiuious 
as they are wi-ong. 

t 'Izrail or 'Azrail alias Malika'1-Maut, the Lord of Death, is the 
fourthr of the Musalman archangels. Maliku'1-Maut, much distorted, 
is now adopted into general Indian belief (see Indian Antiquary, Vol. X., 
p. 2S9), and he also appears in the Suratu's-Sijda ,oi the Quran. 
Mahandev is evidently Mahadeo or Mahadeva, i.e. Siva. The only 
explanation I can offer of Korchabari is that the name stands for 
the two Persian words Gaur Gabr or Gaur Jabr, meaning the old 
Persian fire-worshippers and thence infidels generally, and should be 
read Kor Ohabari. 

X Rihanapur as a name for Multan is, no doubt, meant for Hansa- 
pura, which Cunningham {Ancient Geography of India, p. 232,) says 
Aba Rihau Al Birani gives as one of its ancient names. The passage 
may have been originally read " Multan-ra Hanspur Miguftand. ' 


And Isar Mahandev* had twelve sons^ named : — First Koin ; 
second Mrayan ; third Vishan ; fourth Kishan j fifth Birah- 
man j sixth Parmesar ; seventh wanting ; eighth Narsang ; 
jiinth Bhagwanj tenth L4t j eleventh ^Uzza; twelfth Isar 
Jagannath. Isar Mahandev had twelve daughters, and their 
names were as follows: — First Mahmai ; second Devi; third 
Misrij fourth Parmisri; fifth Divaai; sixth Bhagwani ; seventh 
Lanka; eighth Mathra ; ninth Jamua; tenth Totla ; eleventh 
Gharz ; twelfth Lanka.* 

When so much (time) had passed, in the second age Multan 
was called Makpur, and angels dwelt in it for 1,820,005 years. 
In the third age Multan was called Shampur. And in the age 
of Bakpur ( ? Makpur) t for by men dwelt there (some say 
that there were eighty men) ; but there was no begetting nor 
generation among them. And in the fourth age Alultan was 
called Multan, and horses dwelt in it; there were 807, dOO of them 
in Multan. After 817,000 (years) Mihtar AdamJ the Prophet 
(God's mercy upon him) was created. From Adam's time till 
now 60,945 years have passed. (The copy has been tran- 

* Isar MaMndev is beyond doubt for Isvara Maliadeva, and neai-ly 
all Hs sons and daughters are readily recognizable. Thus of the sons 
(2) is Nar&yana, (b) Yishnfi, (4) Krishna, (5) Brahma, (6) ParamesYara, 
(8) Nrisinha, (9) Bhagavan, and (12) Isvara Jagann§,tha. (10) Lat and 
(11) 'Uzza are the well known pre-Islamite idols of the Arabs, and are, 
I may remark, both female. As to (1) Koin, I stiggest Kari, a sage or 
patriarch in'HindA mythology, a name or title applied to several of the 
gods themselves. Of the daughters, (I) isMahamai, i.e. Durga, and (2) 
Devi, (8) Mathura and (7 and 12) Lanka are female personifications of 
the places bearing these names, and so is (9) of the river known in Sanskrit 
as Yamuna. (4) is a feminine form of Paramesvara and (3) I take to be 
a mistaken analogy made to rhyme with Parmisri in a way well known 
in Asiatic nomenclature ; but the components of Paramesvara are 
parama and isvara, not para and misvara. (5) Divfini I take to be a 
mere rhymed form of Devi to rhyme with (6) Bhagavani, a female form 
of Bhagavan. (10) TotaM is one of the M^tas or minor goddesses of 
the classics, but (11) Gharz is a puzzle (the word means" ardent desire" 
or " longing"), unless it be " Persian" for Gaurja, i.e. Durga. 

t Bakpur and Makpur we may fairly take to be the same word, and 
it seems to stand for BhSgapura, which according to Cunningham is 
another name given by Al BIruni for Multan. Shampiir would corre- 
spond to feyamapura, a new name for Multan apparently. 

J Mihtar Adam stands for the Adam of the Jews and Christians, 


It* has been stated by Khwaja Hamidu'ddin Mftgorif ( God 
sanctify his glorious tomb) that when God the Holy and 
Omnipotent created Adam (with whom be peace) out of the 
earth that remained over from the mould of Adam (on whom 
be peace) he created four things: firstly, dates; secondly, 
grapes ; thirdly, pomegranates ; and fourthly the face and 
eyes of horses. And from the spittle of the Hflris he created 
Heaven ; and from Heaven he created the horse's body, and 
from the exalted throne and firmament he created the horse's 
back, from the tuba, treej he created the horse's hair, and by 
his own decree he gave life to the horse.. And its perfection 
is such that he keeps the horse in his own presence and does 
not make it over to the charge of others ; wherefore the 
Prophet (God have mercy upon him and preserve him) always 
kept it with him, and used to clean its head and fa(|e with his 
own honoured cloak and mantle, and would give it barley to 
eat in his cloak. Sins are equal in number to the hairs of the 

* What follows is apparently a distinct entry, 
t The book refeii-ed to must be the Tawdlatu'sh- Shams by Q^zi 
Hamidu'ddin N&gori, buried at Dehli, near the great saint Qutbu'ddin 
Bakhtiar in 1296 A.D. It is an essay on the essence and nature of the 

X A tree in the Muhammadan paradise. 




a, change of, to i (e) and i, in 
Kyonthtili noted I. 368 

'Abdu'l-Crhant, the name of 
Sakhi Sarwar's brother III. 310 

Abul-khair, cousin-german to 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 118 

"Abdullah, a bard of the 
Sakhi Sarwar legend ...III. 311 

'Abdullah Shah of Samin, 
legend of II. 177 ff. ; facts 
about him II. 177 

'Abdullah Shah TanQri III. 195 

'Abdul- Qa'Sft- Jilani, his 
story, II. 152 ; a hymn to 
II. 153 if. ; as an ancestor 
of SliahQumes IH.92, 93 

Abt, wife of Sanha, a follower 
of Sakhi Sarwar I. 95 note 

Abi Khor, cousin to Sakhi 
Sarwar II. 315 

absent : summoning the ab- 
sent, a common motif in 
Indian Folktales I. Ivi. ; the 
various devices explained I. 
svi. ; a device noted in the 
Adventures of Eaja Rasalft 
and in the Legend of Guru 
Gogga I. Ivi., svii. ; clapping 
the hands I. 495 

Abu, cousin-german to Saklii 
Sarwar II. 118 

Aba Salili='Abdul-Qadir Ji- 
lani, g. c II. 162 

Achhran Rdni, qween of Salba- 
han I. 1 ; mother of Pliran 
Bhagat J. 1, 11. 377; restor- 
ed to sight by Pliran Bha- 
gat I. 2 

Adali, Kaja, II. 539, 653 ; a 
note on II. 566 note; his 
doings II. 566 ff.; as a 
notorious bribe taker H. 
660, 578, 579 ; his attempts 
oaHir II. 57-1 fE. 

'AdaH, a name fol- Mithammad 

'Adil Shah Sur III. 283 

Adam, references to ...III. 415, 416 
Adhik Anfip Dai, story of, 
belongs to the Rasalfl Cycle 
I. 225, II. viii.; her story 
I. 226, 242; is the daughter 
of RajS, Sirkat of Kanauj I. 
225: marries Ras&ld and 

goes to Sialkot I. '241, 242 

adoption, ceremony as to 

girls II. 389 

Adventures of Bdjd Rasdlu, 
the II. 1 fE. : as a tale, an 
instance of the In-oaking 
down of a hero — poem into 
a folktale I. vii. ; belongs 

to the Rasdlfl Cycle I. xii. 

'Aesha = 'Aesh&h, Sakhi Sar- 
wav's mother I. 94 note, II. 
118; belonged to the Kliokar 

tribe^ II. 118 

Agarwals, a sept of the BaniyS, 
caste from Agroha, near 

Hissar I. 243 

Agroha, Stla Dai's family 

home, destroyed byShahabu- 

'ddin Ghori in A.D. 1194...I. 298 

Ahalya, wife of the Rishi 

Gotama, allusion to the 

legend of II. 5 and note 

air, flying through the, I 
495, 498, 501, 520, 525, 528, 
III. 373, 395; on a couch 
III. 375 ; by Gurfl Gorakh- 
nath to succotir Sila Dai 
I. XX. : is a variant of the 
miraculous vehicle ...I. xix., xs, 
Aish^n = 'Aesha, the mother of 

Sakhi Sarwar I. 223 

Ajit Singh of Jodhpilr, facts 

about ni. 2S3 

Ajudhia, the home ol! Hari 
Chand .IIL 55 




Akal Purakh, ancestor of Bal- 
mik, tlie founder of the Sikh, 
sect of the Akalis ... I. 531 note 
Akbar, his connection with 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 106, 107 ; 
his connection with Shah 

Qumes III. 96 

alalch, the cry of the jogi 
when begging I. 31, if. note, 
332, 333 ; the cry of faqirs 
I. 171, 623; the cry of men- 
dicants II. 25 fl., UO, 442 

ff., 558fi III. 98 

'Alau'ddin Khilji II. 358 ; his 

sack of Chittaur II. 350 

Albel Singh Kaleka kills Saj- 

jan II. 133 

Al-Bii-flni, bis names for Mul- 

tan III. 412 

Alkhaiid version of the Pii-thi 
Kaj and Malkan Story, the 
III. 38, 39 : references to 
the III. 38, 39 : the history 
connected with legends of 

the III. 38 

'All, as a sacred object among 
the scavengers I. 541 note, 
544 ; allusion to the story 

of .III. ly, 277 

Alif Laila, its analogies to the 

Seven Wise Men I. 1 

alms to Brahmans from a 
Musalman III. 11, 12 : pearls 
as, refused by J03& II. 25 ff., 
67, 68, 171 : by. saints II. 
443, 444 ; jewels as, refused 

hy jogis II- 31 fi. 

Amar, Raja, grandfather of 

GuruGugga I. 178 

Amarpur = Amarapura := 
AmarSivati, the City of the 

Immortals I. 361 

Amar Singh, grandfather of 

Gugga III. 272 

Amar Singh of Garh Mertil, 
story of 111. 242. fE.; facts 

about III. 242 

Amba, Raja, father of Sarwar 
and Ntr III. 97 ff.; connected 
^vith the Rasalu tales III. 
97; as Raja of Ptlna III. 
98 ; leRoudary account of 
his (jlDtaininc; the throne of 


Ujjain III. 117 ; is seized by 
an alligator 111. 109 

Ambali, wife of Sarwar and 
Nir III. 97 ; her abduction 
by Kundan Sahakar III. 106 

Ami Chand, a hero of the 
Eraser Legends ...II. 366, 369 fE. 

Ami Singh, was a hir, or 
warrior godling II. 190 

AmlL = Ambali III. 97 

amrita, a new origin for I. 
862 note : = holy water II. 
434 : areferenceto the. ..III. 409 

Anand = Nanda, Krishna's 
foster-father '. III. 391 

Amar Singh, see Nar Singh 1 1 . 429 

Andkande, ancestor of Bal- 
mik = (P) Siva I. 531 note 

animals, belief in the immor- 
tality of, alluded to I. 152 ; 
affected by music I. 176, 
177, II. 517, 558; attracted 
by human beauty I. 446, 
III. 234, can dream I. 462; 
can pray II. 90, 419 : grate- 
ful, cricket, II. 378 : revenge 
of III. 223, 234 ff.; could 
talk in the Golden Age II. 
280, 311, 325; talking, see 
speech I. 466 ; talking, exhi- 
bited in the Legends I. xiii. ; 
the talking as a deus eso 
macliind II. xvii. ; talking, 
camels II. 312 fE., cranes II. 
280 tf., cricket II. 378, crow 
II. 391-i, 554 ff., III. 21, doe 

II. 419, elephants II. 311 ff., 
maina III. 223 ff., parrot 

III. 223 ff., 236, 239 ff., 
swan II. 88 ff.. 210 ff. 

Aniruddha, a note on III. 364 

Anrudhar ^ Aniruddha ...III. 374 
Ansada, ancestor of 15almik,^(?) 

anuiara, a demon ... I. 530 note 
Ansari Shekhs, the, a note on 

the III. 159 

Anthropomorphism : a parrot 
supposed to he a " good 
Hindu" and to require pux'ifi- 
cation ceremonies I. 61 : rais- 
ing Gurd Goraknath to the 
level of a god and reducing 
' Siva and Parvati to that of 




mortals, noted I. 243 : mes- 
sages to trees II. 537 : in 
place names III. 350 note 

Anilp Sen, Rana of Kyonthal, 
perhaps Rilp Sen I. 367, 368 ; 
his date 167U-1693, but if he 
is 'Rdp Sen then he was a 
contemporary of Raja Mahi 
Parkash of Sarmor I. 368 ; 
his war with the Raja of 
_ Bilasptoabout 1680A. D...I. 404 

Ac[il Shah Sirani, a saint of 
Jalandhar, his story III. 202, 203 

Arabic history, references 
to III. 306 

Ari, see Hot AK III. 24 

Arjun, half-brother to 
Gugga III. 261 

Arjun and Sarjun, the twin 
brothers of Gugga, their do- 
ings .^ III. 262 

Arjuna, a hero of the Krishna 
Cycle, genealogy of III. 332 

Arjun Ghor, murders Amar 
Singh III. 248, 249 

arms, the five, — sword.dagger, 
battle-axe, lance, bow and 
arrows I. 222 note 

arrows, use of fiery III. 346, 
360, 361, 392, 468 : varied as 
a fiery quoit III. 362, as an 
aiTow of cold III. 408 

asceticism, the virtue of III. 
211. 212 : the short bed of 
faqirs II. 169 

ashes, rubbing on, a sign of 
saintship li. 12, a sign of 
grief II. 43 

astrology, fixing the time for 
a marriage feast I. 193, 
194 ; finding the auspicious 
moment for a cei-emony I. 
163, 164: forecasting of a 
ship's voyage, I. 212, 213: 
allusion to I- 161 

Atak, as the kingdom of Raja 
Hodi I. 54 

Atar Singh of Bhadhaur, 
Sirdar, his share in the ■ 
Legends I. xxiv., II. xxi. 

Atki Mall, Raja, is the father 
of Raja Hodi I. 52 ; perhaps 
Kidara of the Scythian 


(Kushan)coins I. 52«ofe; his 

date was probably 250 A. D. 

I. 52 note; his capital was 

Ohind opposite Atak I, 52 note 
Atta, foster-father of 

Sassi III. 35 

aubergine, unlucky II. xv., 

388 note; unlucky for 

fairies II. 388 

augury at marriages II. 131 

Aurangzcb.his connection with 

Pirthi Singh of Jodhpurlll. 253 
Awadhpuri = Ajudhia ...III. 56 
'Azim Shah, a saint of Jalan- 

dhar,his story III. 203 ff. 

'Azazil, as a sacred object 

among the scavengers I. 589 note 
Azrail, allusion to III. 317; 

= Maliku'1-Maut III. 414 

Baba Bala = Balmik := Bala 
Shah ^ I. 634 

Baba Brahna, an attendant on 
Ghazi Salar I. 114 

Bachhal Rani, the favorite 
wife of Raja Jewar of Bagar 
and mother of GurQ 
Gugga I. 123 ff. ; her grief 
at being barren, I. 123 ff. ; 
visitsGorakhnath I. 31; begs 
and obtains a son from 
Gorakhnath I. 133, 142; is 
calumniated by Rani Kach- 
hal I. 145, 146 ; is turned 
out of the palace I. 150 ; 
files to Ghazni to hermother 
I. 150, 155; brought back 
by Raja Jewar I. 153, 161 ; 
procures the heirship of 
Gugga to the throne I. 164, 
165 ; curses Gugga for kill- 
ing Urjan 1. 203 : her doings 
III. 262 fl., 271 : the story 
of the Brahmani I. 166, 169 

Badarsal="Vidarbha, the home 
of Rukmini III. 332; = 
Bhishmakaof Vidarbhalll. 361 

Badna in the ( P ) Sialkot 
District is RasaM's 
home Ill- 237 

Badram, the home of Bana- 
sur HI. 365 fe. 

Badrampilr = Badram ...III. 402 




Bagar, the tonic of Gnrti 
Gugga, its identity and si- 
tuation ...I. Vlinote, III. 264 ff. 

Bagra, name of a dog of Eani 
Uliandni I. 36 

Balilol Lodi, his connection 
with Namdev II. 99, 101 

Bai, daughter of Ghanuii 
Pathan and wife of Sakhl 
Sai-war I. 96, II. 123; also 
I. 220 Jioie, 221, II. 106, 113, 

114, III. 310, 317 

Baijnath Seth, a hero of the 
Hari Chand Legend III. 71 
fe. ; his doings III. 79 fi. 

Jia'Tcutith = Paradise ^ the 
future life I. 152 wofe 

Bairam Khaii, Khan KhSnan, 
liis connection with Shah 
Quracs ; III. 95 

Bnkhtydr Ndma, Clonston's, 
noted I. 1 

Bakk!, Mirza's mare III. 15, 16 fE. 

Bakpilr as a name for Mnltan 

III. 415 

Bala = Ghazi Sdlar ...I. 113 note 

Biilii Ghazi, = Ghazi Salar, = 
Salar Ghazi, his connection 
with GuggaUI.26l ; describ- 
ed as a saint of Bukhara III. 
283 : the son of Firoz Shah 
of Dehli, his connection with 
Gugga III. 279fi. 

Uiilanatli, =: Gorakhnath ...II. 503 

Bfila Shah = Balmik I. 529, 

_ I. 641 n. 

Baldeo, a liero of the Krishna 
Cycle, Genealogy of HI. 332 

Bale Miyaii, a title of Ghazi 
Salar I. 98 

Balkh, bardic use of the term 

III. 283 

Ballad of 'tsd, belongs to the 
Sakhi Sarwar Cycle I. xii., xiii. 

Balmig = Balmik I. 529 

Balmik = Valmiki the low- 
caste author of the Sanskrit 
lidmdyaija I. 529, II. 273 ; 
his legendary genealogy I. 
S30 ; is next to Lai Beg in the 

scavenger's liagiology I. 529 

lialmiikiind = VrihacVisva II. 200 

Buuft -= Banasur III. 387 

Banasnr, genealogy of III. 
864 : legend of 111 . 364 ff. ; a 
note on the geography of 

the legend 111. 364 

Banjal, Mirza's father III. 14 

Bannflr, connected with Shah 

Qumes' father III. 93 

Bansi Lai, author of the Swdng • 
of Gurtl Gugga I. 122; of 
the Legend of Gui-fl Gugga 
I. 209 ; of the poem of Lila 
Dai I. 366; of the Gopi 
Ohand Legend II. 2 note; 

oit\e Legend of Nal II. 275 

Baran = Varum II. 224 

Bararakki = the lands of the 

Barars, defined II. 134 

Barars, the, described II. 133 

bard,vai-ious kindsof described 
I. viii. ix. ; beginning to die 
out in the Panjab I. vii. ; in 
other parts of India noted 
I. xxiv.,xxy. : the position of, 
in families of standing I. 
293 note -. their inability to 
explain difficulties in their 
poems I. xi. : their habit of 
abusing those from whom 
they do not receive consi- 
deration II. 496 : as messen- 
gers in families of standing 

I. 294 ff., 11. 141, 286 fl. ; as 
marriage messengers II. 
220; (doms) as messengers 

II. 463, 465 : a custom con- 
cerning 11. 198: their poems 
contain a foundation of fact 
behind the folklore they 
contain I. vi. ; all construct- 
ed on the same lines as 
folktales I. v., vi.; reasons for 
being more valuable than 
folktales I. v, ; are move an- 
cient in form than folktales 
I. V. ; are breaking down into 
folktales, instances of I. vi., 
vii. ; run in cycles I. xii. ; 
maintain closely classical 
legends in oases in which they 
relate them I. vi. ; mode of 
collection adopted I. ix., x., 
xi. ; mode of recording 
adopted L s. xi. 




Bare Miyah, a title of Glitlzi 

Siilsir I. 98 

BarliS, Siidat = the SayyitJs of 

Barha III. 327 

BasakJSrag=VasiikiI. 176 ; III. 34, 
Basak-Nagni, tlie serpent's 
■wife, the atory of I. 10 — 13 

Biisak, Raja, = Vasxiki I. 418 ; 
the natural enemy of Parik- 
shit I. 42.1-, 4.'25 ; is afraid of 
Pai-ikshit I. 4.'21, 4-22 ;_offers 
a reward for the killing of 
Parikshit I. 460 ; kills a deer 
belonging to Parikshit I. 
41 S S. ; bites the cows to 
spite the priest Siji I. 430, 
431 ; his wrath at Niwal Dai's 
marriage I. 459 &. : Vasuki 
the serpent, invoked in a 
Musalman fight I. 117 

Basantar, Gnrft = the sacred 
fire of the Hindus personified 

II. 380 

Basanti, Kani, the mother of 
Parikshit = (?) Biranti = 
Uttara, the daughter of the 

. Rajaof Vii-ata(Bairat),..I.470re. 

bathing, expiatory II. 110: in 
the Ganges, efficacy of III. 

75, 118 

Bawa Jan = Shekh Mahmild 

III. 1(J6, 167, 168 

hdzi hadhm't, to bet with dice 1. 244 

beard sacredness of the 
(Baloches) II. 476 ft, 491 

beasts fascinated by female 
beauty I. 415 

beauty, test of, weighing 
against flowers II. 298, 307, 

308, 310 

belly, gods entering into the 
the human II. 242 ff. 

Bethgelcrt, an variant of the 
tale I. 468-469, 476-478 

betrothal, the serious nature 
of , in the Panjab I. 415 

betrothed bridegroom, his 
power to dispose if his 
betrothed bride I. 31 

BhabQli, the camel of Raja 
Dhol II.313fE. 

Bhagwan = God I. 204, III. 
1S3, 211 ;= Krishna ...III. 391 


Bhai Phcnl, facts about III. 
301; a legend of III. 319; 
mixed up with Phoru the 
Bx-ahman HI. 301 

Bhaikians, the, desci-ibed...n. 139 

Bhairava the god, is a child 

II. 127 

Bhaii-on = Bhairava the god 

II. 126, 127; = messenger of 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 100 ff. 

BhairQn :=Bhairava =Bhairun 
I. 75 ; is Sakhi Sarwar's mes- 
senger I. 75 note; is the 
minister of Sakhi Savwar I. 76 

Bhais = BhaikiaiiB II. 139 

Bhaj ju=Bhare Singh III. 261 ; 
his doings III. 285 ff. 

Bhambor, the home of Sassi 

III. 24; a note on III. 30 

bhardih, a variety of bard I. 

ix., i. ; a professional singer 
in honour of Sakhi Sarwar 

I. OG 

Bliaratkhancl,anoteonIII. 348, 371 

Bhartali= Bhartrihari 11. 1 

Bhartrihari,the classical story 
of == the bard's legend of 
Raja Gopi Ghand I. vi. ; was 
the elder brother of Vikra- 
niadityall. 1: his connection 
with the Legend of Gopi 
Chand II. 1 ; as a hero of 
Gopi Chand Cycle II. ix. 

6/i4^, a variety of bard I., ix. 

Bhawnr 'Iraqi, false Persi- 
anism for Bhaunri Rakhi, 
Rasalu's horse I. ii. 

Bhaunri • Rakhi, the Name of 
Rasala's horse I. ii. note 

Bhawan! invoked in a Musal- 
man fight I- 117 

Bhikam = Bhlshma .-..III. 356 S. 

Bhim = Bhimasena 111.362 

Bhimaof Vidarbha, the father 
of Damayanti II. 211,219 fi. 

Bhim Chand, Raja of Bilaspfir, 
his war with the Rana of 
Kyonthal about 1680 1. 404 

Bhim Sen = Bhima of Vidar- 
bha II. 219f[. 

Bhima, the Pandava, quoted 
in a Muhammadan poem I. 
118; = Bhimasena 111 332 




B"liimasena, a lioro of the 
Krislina Cycle, genealogy 
of. ■ III. 332 

Blitslima, aliero of tlie Krishna 
Cycle, genealogy of Hi. 332: 
his place in the Krishna 
Cycle '...III. 3.i9 

Bhoj, Raja, allusion to II. 413 

Bhola = Siva III. 365 fE. 

Bholanath = &va III. 367 fE. 

Bhftga, Hir's father-in-law II. 558 

Bliflra brother to Rattan Sain 
11.357; his doings 11.360ffi. 

BhQre Singh, a hero of the 
Gugga Legend III. 261 

Blidri Singh, a Naga, wor- 
shipped as a godling with 
GurQ Gugga I. 426 note 

Bhutta Vais, an authority on 
the story of Hir and Ran- 
jha II. 178 

Bibi Patima, Muhammad's 
daughter, as a sacred object 
among the scavengers... I. 539 n. 

Bibo, Mirza's aunt III. 16 

Bidarbhain = Vidarbha ... II. 214 

Bijli Khaii of Jalaudhar, the 
term explained ... III. 324 note 

Bikhi De — ancestor of Balmik 
= (p) bhikslni, a monk I. 531 note 

hil, a begging-bowl III. 215 

Bir = Pir II. 377 

Bir Sen is the father of Nal II. 216 

Bir Singh, son of Ohiihar 
Singh II. 133 

hirs, = the warrior godlings 

II. 190 n. 

birds as messengers, crows II. 
554 ; cannot fly into a saint's 
garden II. 387 ; fascinated 
by female beauty I. 415 ; on 
shore can keep the wind 
from reaching a shiiJ II. 
180; (swan) remains in a 
burning tree from gratitude, 
for the fruit it has given it 

I. 10 

birth, propitious moment for, 
of hero I. 161: community 
of, as indicating community 
of action througlioiTt life ; 
the action exhibited in the 
Legends I. xiii: of female 

infant at unlucky moment 

entails death I. 50 

births, registration of royal, 

alluded to II. xii. 

Bishn = Vishnu I. 133, 331 

Bisishth = Vashistha, a'note 

on him ; III. 53 

Biswamitr = Visvaraitra, a 
note on him III. 53 : his 

doings III. 54fE., 85 

Blood, powers of II. xviii., 
note ; as a restorer II. xviii : 
healing and revivifying 
power of the blood in the 
story of Sila Dai I. xvii ; of 
the little finger can restoi-e 
slain animals and men I. 
472 fF, 447 ; II. 74 :_ of human 
being, will stain pearls, 
other blood will not II. 420 : 
cannot flow from a saint's 
horse, but milk can in its 
place III. 292 : horse will 
not eat grass stained with 
II. 474: as an offering I. 118 

bows from Multan unusually 
excellent III. 293, 294 

bracelets, breaking, is a sign 
of grief II. 92 

Brahna, see Baba Brahna ...I. 119 

Brahman as the messenger II. 
283 : kept as family priests 
by Muhammadans II. 521 ; 
called in to explain horo- 
scopes at a Musalman wed- 
ding I. 109 III. 12 

breath, scorching power of 
the in serpents, and the 
legends I. xv. 

Brij, the holy land of the 
Hindus ...II. 189 

Bukhara, bardic use of the 
term III. 283 

calumniated persons, a motif 
in Indian folktales I. xlviii. : 
in the Legends, in the Raja 
Rasala Legend and in the 
Gurd Gugga Legend I. 
xviii. : calumniated wife, a 
motif in Indian folktales I. 
xviii. ; by co-wife a version 
of 1. 145 ff. 




camel, the wind-winged I. 238 

cannibalism, witclies credited 
with. III. 86, 86 ; amongst 
faqirs, eating Dhanwautara 
in order to obtain his powers 

I. 504, 505: making roast 
meat of an enemy's ribs 
(Baloches) II. 491 

Cassandra, a, of the Simla 
Hills I. 375 

caste, alluded to 11. 392, III. 
110, 161 : amongst Musal- 
mans III. 193 

celibacy incumbent on Saints 

II. 40 

ceremonies, i. e., ceremonial 
observances, will keep off 
demoniacal possession II. 
242 ; the gods avenge failure 
in II. 263 

Ceylon, the home of demons 
.and ogres II. 189 

Chadhars .the=Chandars III. 
20 : their feud on account of 
Sahibaii ....III. 1 

Chaina Mall, his share in the 
Legends II. xxi. 

Chakurmari(Mt.) origin of the 
name II. 490 

chalcwdnnichakioi, the. allud- 
ed to I. 125noie, III. 109 

chakwi, allusion to the I. 140, 142 

challenge, to war, custom of 
taking up naked swords and 
betel leaves, as a, 1. 460, 461, 
478, 479, 496, 497, II. 146, 
148; betel leaves III. 259 

Champa Dai, sister of Gopi 
Chand II. 61 ; dies of grief 

II. 72 

Chand Karan, Kaja, Legend 
of II. 78 fl. ; =Chandarbhan 

II. 218 : Rani, daughter of^ 
Raja Kam, her story ...II. 78 S. 

Chandar betrothed to Sahiban 

III. 11 

Chandarbhan, Raja of Gazni, 
the father of Rani Bachhal 
I. 160 : — a hero of the Gopi 
Chand Cycle II. is. ; Legend 
of, belongs to the Gopi 
Chand Cycle II. 78 ff, ; is 
the nephew of Gopi Chand 

II. 78 ; allusion to the story 
of II. 215 :— fourth son 
of Banasur III. 393 ff. 

Chandar Kan war, wife of Jas- 
want Singh III. 260 

Chandars, the tribe into which 
Sahibaii was betrothed... III. 20 

Chandcri, the home of Raja 
Sispal III. 340, 356; geo- 
graphy of III. 340 note 

Chandni, a name for Sila Dai 

I. xxi. :— wife of Mahita 
Chopra, her story I. 35, 39 

Chandrawal, Rani, a queen of 
Gopi Chand II. 47 

Charan the Bard II. 220 ff. 

charity, alms-giving virtue 
^of III. 54 

Charm against snake bite, nim 
leaf I. 471, 473 note, -190; 
ndgdaun I. 184 note; scjun 
or milk-hedge I. 492 :— a 
charm against snake bite I. 
151' ; given in full I. 474, 
483 ; for restoration to life 
after snake bite I. 189: — 
against serpents fail I. 500, 
501 : — against charmers I. 
494 -.—tulsi beads, as a pro- 
tective I. 318 note :— a, of 
the scavengers in full I. 633 

Charpatnath, a Guru as yet 
unidentified II. 9 

chastity, virtue of, in ordeals 

II. 432: ordeal by dice, to 
prove, by naming the throw 
I. 312 ff : proof of, by ordeal, 
to spin a single thread of cot- 
ton yarn and draw up water 
with it in an unburnt earthen 
pot I. 39; ordeal by boiling 
oil, to prove 1. 31.5 ff. ; by 
fire to prove 299, 304, 309, 
316, 318 : — weighing against 
flowers, a test of female II. 
96 ; the idea of pollution 
extended to the use of the 
bed itself of a girl II. 520 
ff. : — male, as a condition of 
worldly power I. 7 ; forms 
of, wari'ior cooking apart 
from his wife I. 62 ; the per- 
spiration of a woman touch- 



iiig a wamof takes tlie vii't-ue 
out of liim I- 51 : — in 
saints H. o53 

ChatraiiLT Dai, tho motlier of 
Rcij;l Uliatrmukat II. 95 

Ohatrmukat.Raja of U"jj3,yini, 
grandson of Vikl'ami- 
ditya ir. ?8 

Cliatur Mamola, tlio name of 
a witch I. 258 

cUdnpur tlie royal game in 
folklore I. 27, 114, 253, IL 
208, 242 fi. 319, 359, 377, 
5:13, III. 238, 282, 332 ; is 
really tlie cross in the board 
used at the game I. 243: 
tllllorentiated from pacMsi 
I. 244 : the game explained 
in detail I. 243-244 : allu- 
sions to the game and its 
toolmicalities 1.312 fE.: — the 
groat game between Sarkap 
and RasaW described I. 48- 
50, mentioned ...I. 40, 42, 44, 47 

Chaudhal, Raja, father of 
Rani Achhran II, 377 

Chedi = Ohanderi, geography 
of III. 349 

Cherry, Mr., his murder, allu- 
sion to the story of 11.365 

Chhahti, sister of Mirza ...HI. 12 

Chhari ka mela = the Fair of 
the Flags I. 98 

Chhariyai = Siriyal, the wife 
(.f Gm-a Gugga I. 169 note 

Chhatta, servant to Sakhi 
Sarwar II. 114 

Chhatti, Hir's maid ll. 565 

Chliimba, a Naca, undertakes 
to kill Parikshit I. 460 fl ; 
the Naga, is killed in his 
attempt to kill Parikshit I. 

469, 478 

c/(S = the six in dice I. 244 

Ohitrlekha,Ukha'smaid III. 371 ff. 

Chitlaur, a legend of the sack 
of II., 350: a version of the 
sack of II. 356fE. 

OhoJhal, Rani, daughter of 
Ri'ija Sarkap, her story with 
llasalu I. 42-14' 

Chopra, a sept of the Panjabi 
<.jbte of the Khatris I. 213 

Christ, as a saint of the sca- 
vengers I. 532iiofe 

Christian notions of transla- 
tors affecting the form of 

folktales as reported I. xiv. 

ChQchak, father of Hir I[. 17?' 

Ghahar Singh, the Ballad of 

11. 133 fE. ; founds the house 

of Bhadaur II. 133; his 

family II. lyS ; his death II. 133 

circle, the enchanted, alluded 

to_ ._ I. 247 note 

classical stories in modern 

folktales J. vi. 

classics, allusions to the 11. 385, 

393, 404, 432, 433, 573 ; III. 57 
coins, the striking of, as 
evidence of independent 

power III. 267 

Companions of the hero, the 
folktale notion of the, found 
in the Legends I. xiii., 7: a 
falcon, who saves hero's life 

I. 468 S. 476 ff. ; a parrot, 
who helps him I. 236, 361, 
357 ; a horse and a servant 

II. 184; wife and a servant 
II. 195 ; a horse and ser- 
vants, afterwards also a 
wife, maid, and a following 
II. xii. : his human, desert 
him in his danger I. 9 : 
killed by mistake for saving 
his life I. 469, 477 : of Raja 
Rasald as hero I. xiii. 

conch, see magic flute II. 552; 
miraculous powers of a 
faqir's 11.429, 445 

constancy, female I. 17, 18 

copper plates, existence of, in 
the Simla Hills, alluded to 
in a legend I. 389 

cotton-tree, the stock emblem 
of what is beautiful but 
valueless I. .266 

cow, its sacred nature to the 
Hindu II. 103 

co-wives, mutual relation of, 
alluded to III. 11 ; surviv- 
ing, as enemies to hero and 
heroine in Indian folklore I. 
xiv. ; co-wife injui-es 
heroine II. 283 ff. 




cranes as messengers ...II. 280 if. 

Creation, a folklore version of 
the (Miihammadan) III. 416 

cricket, helps hero ... II. xvii., 378 

cries, tribal, custom of allnded 
to II. 552 

crow helps hero II. xvii. 

cme, hy proxy II. xviii. : — of 
bhndness, dipping in sacred 
water II. 315 

curse, form of a, I. 449 : allu- 
sion to a III. 282 : can strike 
the body with leprosy I. 434 : 
a saint's II. 455, III. 94 ; 
from a Brahmani 1. 168 : by 
the widowed doe of a slain 
black buck I. 467 

custom, to show that a man is 
not at home, a broken 
stick and some wooden shoes 
placed outside the door I. 

7 and note 

cycles of folktales, the Sakhi 
Sarwar I. xii., xiii. ; develop- 
ment of Indian II. viii., ix., 
X. : reasons for tales running 
in, in India II. ix., x. : — of 
bardic poems, noted I. xii. : — 
as differentiated from groups 

II. xi. : — the Rasalu I. xii. ; 
the PS,ndava I. xii. : the 
Krishna .' III. 332 

Dadrera, the home of Gugga 

III. 262 if. 266 note; used 

as a name for Gugga ...III. 266 
ddl, a dice used at cliaupiir...!. 244 
Dal Singh, the brother of 

Chflhar Singh II. I33_ ff; 

founds the Kot Dunna Sikhs 

II. 133; his death .II. 133 

Dakhdakh a sacred object 

among the scavengers I. 54lwoie 
Dames, Mr. M. Longworth, 

his share in the Legends 

II. xxi. 
Damwanti = Damayanti II. 207 ff. 
Dani Jattt = Devi, wife of 

Phera ill. 301 ; her story 

with Sakhi Sarwar I. 66-81 : 

a story about her I- 97 

Danishmand 'Abdullah = 

'Abdullah Shah TanUri III. 195 


Dtoon = Jinn.... I. 544 note 

Dantavarka =Dantbakar..III. 360 

Dantliakar, a hero of the 
Krishna Cycle III. 360 

ddo badhnd, to bet with dice I. 244 

ddo ginnd, to count throws 
of dice I. 244 

Dai-a Shikoh, allusions to 
him III. 253 ff. 

Darera in Bikaner, the pro- 
bable home of Gurih Gugga 

1. 178 

Dasaratha allusion to the 
legend of II. 41 

Dasrath = Dasaratha II. 41 ; 
allusion to the Legend of II. 70 

D&dd Khan Panni, allusion 
to III. 286 

daughter, giving a, to the 
conqueror to stave off con- 
quest, as a sign of defeat, 
custom of I. 376 

David and Bathsheba, a va- 
riant of the story L 332-39 

David, anameforGuggalll. 291fl:. 

dead, raising from the, still 
believed in, in India I. xv . 68, 358 

death, temporary, an im- 
portant item in the con- 
struction of Indian folktales 

I. xvii.; chiefly affects the 
hero and heroine I. xvii : — 
clear case of II. 202, 203: 
instance of III. 88: — means 
of restoring life discussed 

I I . xviii. ; by water from the 
finger of a god I. 362: — 
alluded to ••■H- xiii. 

deer, origin of the twisted 
horns of the black buck and 
the back-curved horns of 
the antelope I.U7 note 

Dehh, bardic geography of 

111. 265 

Delmerick, Mr. J. G., his share 
in the Legends. ..1. xxiv.,_II. xxi. 

deluge, allusion to the Biblical 
story of the HI. 34 

demons = ogres come from 
Ceylon II. 189: a land of, 
the hill country III. 397 ff. 

Dera Ghazi Khan, foundation 
of II. 458 




Dera Ism§,'il Kli&ii, foundation 

■ of II. 458 

Mswdta, the ceremony of, 
described III. 242 

deus ex machind discussed 
II. xvi., xvii. -. as exhibited 
in folktales I. xii., xviii. : is 
a god in the story if Niwal 
Dai I. xviii. ; is Mahadeva in 
the story of Sila Dai I. xviii. ; 
Siva and Parbati called in to 
raise hero and heroine who 
have been killed off. I 359; 
Indra as a III. 54 ; Hanuman 
II. 577; Devi II. 304 :— in, 
Indian folktales is oftenest 
an animal I. xviii., xix. ; in 
the story of Raja Rasalu is 
a sei-pent, a hedgehog, and 
a cricket 1. xviii. ; m the 
Legends is largely the par- 
rot I. xviii. : — in Indian folk- 
tales is often a talking plant 
1. xix. :— in Indian folktales 
is sometimes a hair I. xix. ; 
is a cricket's feeler I. 42 

Dev Marij, an explanation of 
the term III. 413 woie 

Devi the goddess attends Sakhi 
Sarwar's wedding II. T'iQ, 
127 — name of wife of Bhai 
PherO HI. 320 

Dhamaghosha, a hero of the 
Krishna Cycle, genealogy 
of'. ■. III. 332 

Dhamgos = Dhamaghosa 

III. 347, 348 

Dharma, Danl's brother-in- 
law I- 97 

Dhanna the Bhagat, the story 
of, belongs to the hagiolo- 
gioal class of tales I. xiii; 
a note on him I. 82 : a song 
about him I. 82-90; his 
miraculous powers, can 
vivify an idol I. 80 ; turns a 
four ser weight into the god 
Krishna by faith I. 87 

Dhanantar = Dhanwantara I. 441 

Dhanhantar = Dhanwantara 

I. 441 n. 

Dhantar = Dhanwantara ...I. 441 

Dhanthar = Dhanwantara...!. 441 

Dhanwantara, the fabulous 
leech I. 441 mote; a saint of 
the ordinary type I. 45 1 : 
applied to by Niwal Dai when 
she fails to keep Parikshit 
alive I. 490 ; his power to 
restore to life, I, 491 ; raises 
Parikshit's ashes to life I. 
491-492, 494 : killed by the 

serpents I. 602, 520 

Dhai-a = DharSnagarl II. 182 

Dharanagai'=the seat of Gopi 
Chand II. 1 , 63, 64 := Dhtoa 
the seat of Vikramaditya II. 

1 ; = Panipat II. 1 

Dharanagari = Pakpattan II. 182 
Dharma, the brother of Karmft, 

Dani's husband I. 75 

Dharmi, the Brahmani, a Cas- 
sandra of the Simla Hills... I. 375 
Dharmraj = T^ma ...II. 212, 224 
Dhartmandal = (?) the MultS,n 
Province I. 418 note: = 
Patala = ( P ) the Southern 
Panjab, the home of Raja 

Basak, I. 418 note 

Dhaul, a note on III. 34 note 

Dhavala, term unexplained II. 117 
Dhi&n = Bibi Dhiani, a female 
relative worshipped with Lai 

Beg I. 534 noie 

Dhoda Khan, brother of Sakhi 

' Sarwar I. 223, II. 118, III. 

314, 320 ; was buried at 

Baghdad, but he has a shrine 

at Vador I. 76 note: his 

shrine at Nigaha I. 77 

Dhol, legend of Raja III. 276 
ff. ; facts about him II. 97 : 
was the son of Raja Nal II. 
276 ff. ; the reason for 
making him a son of Nala 
II X. : — is the name of R&j4 
Sarkap's rat I. 48 :— is the 
hero of a celebrated Panj§.bi 

lovetale I. 48 

Dhra Raja, Legend of III. 126 
fE.i=DhruvaIII. 126; Dhrfl 

becomes a Saint III.146ff. 

Dhruva, classical authorities 
for the story of III. 126 ; 
allusion to the legend of II. 
6 ; as the polestar III. 126 




Dhupnagar, the city of R&jS, 
Banja I. 171 ; ^ (?) GauMti 

in Assam I. 180 wofe 

dice, various names for I. 2-W) : 
the technical names for the 
20 chief throws of, I. 24,4 : 
made of dead men's bones 
ai'e likely to win always 

I. 41 

Didho, see RanjhS, II. 177 

Dido, mule of Ranjha II. 503 

Dibnalikh Rind, his wealth 

and his doings II. 472 &, 

Dip Singh, son of Ohuhar 

Singh 11. 133 

Dipalpilr, a pote on ...II. 184 noie 
disgrace, a mode of, with 

women 11. 425 

disguise in Indian folktales 

I. xix. ; in folktales discussed 

II. xiii. ; explained I. xx. : 
hero as an oilman II. 265, 
as heroine's husband to get 
at her I. 270 ; hei'oinc's 
husband visits her disguised 
as a jogi I. 3'J8 f£. ; saint's 
wife as a trader's wife II. 
114 : heroine as a water- 
carrier II. 205; as a man 
to escape detection after an 
assignation I. 30 : co-wife as 
a man II. 302 : men for 
women for an ambush II. 
361: warrior as saint III, 
265 ffi ; as a water-bearer to 
attract attention I. 398 : 
saint appears as a warrior I. 
222, as a trader II. 11 3 ; saint 
and servant as physicians 
II. Ill ; saint's servant as a 
groom II. 113, as a shepherd 
II. 113 : Sakhi Sarwar as a 
Sayyid 1.76: Bhairdn as a 
Brahman I. 76 : of a gold- 
smith as a mendicant I. 
25 : — metamorphosis for the 
purpose of II. 180 ff. 

divination, by breathing 
through the nose I. 429, 430 

do = the deuce in dice 1 244 

Doda, a Baloch hero, his 
story 11.492,493 

Dodai Baloches, origin of... II. 458 


Dodais, legendary origin of 
the II. 492,493 

Dohman the goldsmith, story 
of I. 25-31 . misses his 
assignation with Sauhkhni 

I. 27, 28: married to Ram 
Saunkhni 1.31 : — a village, 
probably Dflmal near Bagh 
Nilab I. 25 

Draupati, allusion to the 
classical legend of I, 318 

dreams, a common motif in 
Indian folktales I. xvi; in 
the story of Princess Adhik 
Aniip Dai, in the story of 
Niwal Dai, I. xvi : — pro- 
phetic, in folktales II. xvii ; 
instances of II. 114. 204, 278, 
279, 521, 564, III. 180, 210, 
370 ; of death I. 462 :— by 
hero of his future bride I. 
233 : — heroine appears to 
hero in a, and vice versa 

II. 168, 169 :— terrifying, 
caused by saints II. 106, 107, 158 

Drishak tribe, legendary 

origin of the Ill, 471 

drums, for challenge III. 239 

Dildhii, cousin-german to Sakhi 

Sarwar II. 138 

Dala Bhatti, a robber chief of 

the Montgomery District 

in. 19, 20 
Duldul, 'Alis mule, alluded to 

I. 541, III. 19: modern use 

of the name II. 169 note 

Durga Das, a servant of the 

Jodhpilr Court, his fidelity 

III. 259 
Dwapar=Dwapara=a god II. 241 

Dwaraka, note on III 332 

DwarapQr=Dwaraka III 341 

Dwarka^=Dwaraka, the home 

of Raja Parduman III. 340, 371 

ears, boring the, of a disciple, 
as a proof of devotion to a 
holy life I. 2; of a novice I. 
329, 330. 332 : as a sign of 
saintship II. 9 &, 24; of 
beingajojfl I. 327 

ears, rings in the, signs of a 
jogi I. 341 i pearls in the, 



sign of a mercliant of tlie 
Baniya caste I. 346 note: — 
"blowing religious knowledge 
into the, to make a saint I. 

330, 332 
eclipses, Hindu theory of, 

allusion to III. 388 

effigy, burning in, an explana- 
tion of the custom I. svii. 
note : restoration to life by, 
common in the Legends 

I. xvii. 
egg-hero, variant of the folk- 
tale I. 532 note 

eight as a number used in the 
Legends I. xxiii., 42, 43, 154, 
159, 239, 426, 478, 494, 514, 

515, 11. 335, III. 224, 239 
eighteen as a number used in 
the Legends, I. xxiii., II. 105, 
150, 338; as a multiple of 

twelve II. XX. 

eighth day as a lucky number 

I. 161 
eighty as a number used in 
the Legends I. 408, II. xx. 
374, III. 153, 270, 342, .'^GO, 

376, 387, 390 
eighty-four as a number used 
in the Legends 1. xxiv., 133, 
360 ; II. 7 ; as seven and 

twelve combined II. xx. 

eighty-four Idhhs of lives= 
the number of transmigra- 
tions the soul can make I. 
74 note, 360,=metempsy- 

chosis I. 133 

eleven as a number used in 

the Legends II. xx., 113,^ 200, 202 
Emana, founder of Emanabad, 
was a nurse of Piroz Shah 

Khilji^ II. 104 

Eman&bad, its connection with 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 104,ff, with 

Salivahana II. 104 

enchantment in Indian folk- 
tales I. XX., II. sviii. 

English words in bai-dic poems 
III. 45, 1. 387, 401, II. 85, 

366; 196, 335, 351 
English articles of dress and 
furniture, vernacular cor- 
ruptions of II. 369, 374 

Enoch, as a saint of the sca- 
vengers I. 532 note 

eunuchs, a custom of 11. 396 

executioners are scavengers 
in India .....II. 140 

face, blackening the, a form 
of disgrace I. 390 note 

fairies, efEect of an unlucky 
plant on their powers of 
flying II. xiv., xv., 388: as 
messengers II. 428 

faith and good works, belief 
in, illustrated I. 126 

falcon as companion of hero 

I. 468, 476 : takes the place 
of a p.irrot as a messenger 
for human beings I. 449-450 

faqir, as religious mendicant, 
found inthe Legends I. xiii.: 
saint I. Q5;=^jogi I. 31, often 
a bard I. x.: — mu-aculous 
powei's of I. 2, 3 : — special 
dress of II. 357 

Paridan, popularly supposed to 
have been a Muhammadan 

II. 368 ff. :=Mr. "William 
Fraser II. 365fE. 

Pariian=Mr. William Fi'aser, 
legends about II. 365 

Fariiar=Mr. William Eraser 

II. 365 

Fate, belief in the power of, 
illustrated I. 125, 126, 127, 
143, 145, 147 note, 148, 150, 
152,162,169, 173,202, 208, 
326, 254, 259, 285, 286, 
289, 337, 338, 343, 349, 355, 
357, 434, 437 ; II. 28, 34, 36, 
48, 64, 88, 143, 241, 244, 
263,270,271, 272,273, 418, 
419, 421, 424, 431, 505 ; 
509, 570, 571; HI. H, 22, 
37, 69, 109, 135, 194 :— syno- 
nymous with life III. 294 : 
as distinguished from con- 
sequences of evil deeds III. 203 

Fatima, allusion to the story 

of III. 14 

Patteh Chand, brother of 

Sansar Chand II. 146 

Patteh Parkash of Sarmor, 
Ballad about 11. 144 ff. 




Fatteh Sitigh Cliauhan, his 
doings III. 287 ff. . = Kale 
Singh ....^ III. 261 

FattU tlie Qazi, his doings 
with Hir II. 537 ff. 

fifteen as a number used in 
the Legends 1. 36, 377 ; II. 
189, 190, 191, 202, 37 : as 
three and iive combined II. xx. 

fifty as a numbei- used in the 
Legends II. 471, 472, 473 

fifty-six as a number used in 
the Legends ...III. 372, 404, 411 

fifty-two as a number used in 
the Legends I. 495, 632 ; II. 
XX., 361, 375 111.385,389 

fire will keep ofE ogres II. 190 

firing as a cure II. 320, 321 

Firoz, the Dogar, Sahibah's 
uncle III. 18 

Firoz Shah of Dehli identified 
with Firoz Shah Tughlaq 
(Barbak) III. 261: his con- 
nection with Gurd Gugga 
III. 261 . his doings III. 267 fE. 

Five as an important number 
used intheiejrertds I. xxiii., 
110, 222, 260, 327, 328, 329, 
342, 430, 433, 463, 464; 
II. XX. 14,87,184, 190, 191; 
194, 195, 197, 198, 283, 284, 
286, 344, 363, 369, 372, 373, 
374,387, 391,470, 614, 515, 
565; III. 13, 15, 49, 83, 
84, 141, 247, 250, 266, 274, 
275, 278, 328, 361, 363, 
375, 381: — its aliquot parts 
used in the Legends 1. xxiii., 

II. XX. 

flood, a prophecy of a I. 248 

flute, magic II. 568 ; com- 
mands animals II. 677 ; can 
be heard in heaven II. 516 ; 
conjures up the gods II. 
676, 677, saints II. 576 : 
variant, a magic conch II. 
552 : — story of an enchanted 
I. 176— 177:— the power of 
Gura Gugga's I. 176, 177^ 
playing the, to collect a 

tribB together II. 544 

fly, ( ? = impurity) should not 
touch a coi-pse II. 202 


flying through the air, a power 
of the serpents in the Legends ; 
(see air) I. xv. 

Folklore, science of, discussed 
II. vi.-viii. : — of ships ... II. 180 

folk poem (see bards' poems) I. vii. 

folktales constructed on the 
same lines as bards' poems 
I. V. : more modern than 
bardic poems , I. v. 

Folktales of Bengal, compared 
with the Legends I. xii. fl. 

foot used in starting, walking, 
native ideas as to the... I. 80 note 

fortune-seeking by hero as a 
motif for a tale I. 7 : a com- 
mon moii/inlndianf olktales 
I. xvi. ; the motif in the Ad- 
ventures of Raja Rasald I. 
xvi. : — by two heroes III. Ill 

fortune telling, a mode of I. 607, 509 

forty as a number used in the 
Legends III. ii., 94, 164, 167, 
223: as a lucky number,.. 1. 109 

forty-eight as a number used 
in the Legends I. xxiii. 9 

forty-nine as a number used 
in the Legends 11. 105: as 
seven times seven II. xx. 

foundling, river-borne, sto- 
ries of III. 24, 34fl. 

four as a number used in the 
Legends I. xxiii., 233, 303, 
472; II. 51, 382, 395, 448, 
497; III. ii., 16, 234, 238, 
284, 292, 294, 340, 342, 398 : 
as a part of twelve II. xix. 

Four Boohs, The = Quran, Tau- 
ret, Zabflr, Anjil = Quran, 
Pentateuch, Psalms of David, 
Gospels I. 94 

Four Friends, the II. 169 note; 
explained II. 502 

four hundred and fifty as a 

number HI. 270 

Four Saints, the, explained II. 

377 note 

fourteen as a multiple of seven 

II. XX. : as a number used in 

the Legends I. xxiv., 42, 43, 

237, 238 ; II. 117, 187, 271, 358 

Fraser, Mr. W., a version of 

the story of his murder II, 




366 : the facts of his murder 

II. 366, 366: legendary 
accomits of him II. 865 fC. 

Friday, the maiTiage day 
amongst Musalmans II. 130 

Gabir, a got of the Jhiiiwars 

of Sialkofc I. 65 

Gabriel, as understood by the 

scavengers I. 533 

Gada = Giddh III. 345 

Gadhilas, a legendary origin 

for them II. 455 

Gaj, Raja of Marwar, facts 

about III. 242 

Gaj Singh of Jodhpto, facts 

about III. 252, 253 

G^jan, a nickname for Ghazi 

Salar I. 109 note, 119 

Gajt Miyah, a title of Ghazi 

Salar I. 115 

Gajja Singh = Gaj Singh III. 256 
Gajmodhni, wife of Malkan 

III. 48 : explanation of the 
name III. 39 : her pedisfree 

ni. 39 
Gajni = Ghazni I. 151 fE. : but 

(P) I. 121 

gambling in Indian folktales, 

I. xvii. : in the story of Raja 
Rasalii I. xxii. : as a virtue 

II. xix. 208, 377, 383: for 
property II. 473 f£. ; for 
entire property II. 204, 242 
fE. : for life II. 144 : as a test 
before mari-iage II. xix. 

Gandgari mountains = Gand- 
garh Hills near Atak I. 20 

Ganesa, allusion to the classical 
legend of I. 318 : wor- 
shipped at the commence- 
ment of all ceiemonies 1. 194 
note : at Dera Ghazi Khaii I. 534 

Gan^shi Lai of Ambala, Lala, 
his share in the Legends 1. xxiv. 

Ganga Randi, a heroine of the 
Hari Ohand Legend... III. 74 ff. 

Ganpat = Ganesa, his worship 

I. 159 note 

Gard Darera (see DarerS,), the 
home of Gura Gugg4 L 178 

Garhkot near JVIultan = 
Shahkot II. 118 

Garh Rathas= Rotas Fort I. 251 

Garh Rattas = Rotas 1.254 

Garhwal, the Rajas of, their 
quari-els with the Sarmor 
Kajas I. 380 : defeats the 

Raja of Sarmor 1.399 

garuda, a reference to the 

III. 401, 411 
Garuda, the rider on = 

Vishnu I. 347 noie 

Gaur Bangala=Bengal I. 267 ; 
II' 60 ; = the home of 

Gopi Ohand II. 1, 2 

Gaura = Devi II. 1 note 

Gauri = Devi II. 1 note 

Gaurja, wife of Siva, as a 
sacred object among the 
scavengers I. 540 note :== 

Devi II. 1 note 

Genealogies of Ldl Beg, the, 
belongs to the hagiological 

class of tales I. iii. 

generosity, as an Oriental 
virtue, synonymous with 
almsgiving to holy person- 
ages ll. xiii. ; as a virtue of 
saints III. 206, 214 fE :— stock 
instances of II. 202 : Sakhi 
Sarvvar as a hero of III. 309 
ff.; Shams Tabrez as a hero 
of III. 91; Hart Ohand a hero 
of III. 54 fi.; Raja Amba as 
a hero of III. 101 fi ; a 
Baloch hero of, his doings 

II. 481 fl. 
generosity (see charity) III. 
54 :— in a saint II. 119, 121 ; 
saint allows himself to be 
mutilated and blinded * to 
save a friend from trouble 

II. 421 fE., cutting ofE 
his head II. 200, 201:— 
rewarded two-fold in the 
next world II. 536 ; reward 

of IL 487 

Ghana yya = Kanhayya = 

Krishna III. 350 

Ghanil Pathan, a hero of the 
Sakhi Sarwar tales, said to 
have been Governor of Mul- 
tan I. 95mofe, IL 119, 120; 

III. 315; gives his daughter 

to Sakhi Sarwar...I. 96, II. 123 




GhSsi RSm's rescension of the 
Alhhhand, note on III. 38 

Ghauns BaiSu'ddin = Slaekh 
Bahau'ddin Zakaria of 
Multanfi. 1170-1266 A. D. 

I. 76 note 
Ghausu'l-Azam = 'Abdu'l- 

Qadir Jilanl II. 152 

Ghausu's - SamdSnt ='Abdu'l- 

QldirJilani 11.152 

GMzi SalSr, was tte nephew 
of Mahmad of Ghazni I. 
98 : a legend about him I. 
98-120 : his mari-iage I. 109- 
112 : his fight with RSja 
Sohal I. 112 &; details 
thereof I. 117 fE; slays Raja 
Sohal I. 120 ; slays Nh-mal, 
Raja Sohal's brother I. 119 : 
killed at Bahraich in Awadh 
on June 15th, 1033,1. 98; is 
the patron saint of British 
Cantonments in Northern 

India I. 98 

Ghori confounded with KhUji 

II. 356 S. 
ghosts, an instance of the 

modern belief in 11.494 

ghosts, can only " walk " at 
midnight II. xiv. : appear- 
ance after death 11.178, 180, 
181, 497 : deceased heroiue 
appears to her lover III. 36 : 
shews God to mortals II. 
181 : mixed up with deceased 
saints 11. xiv., 510, 517 ; III. 

173, 298 

Ghulam Hussain Khaii of 
Kasur, his share in the 
Legends I. xxiv., II. xxi. 

Ghunna, a professional singer 
at the Darbar Sahib at Am- 
ritsar I. 82 

giants=ogresintheLeg'em(£sI. xiv. 

Giddh = Gada, Minister of 
Krishna III. 345 

Giljhapra.=Lal Beg I. 532 note, 540 

Girdhari:=Krishna II. 2 note : 
=Krishna=God ....II. 262 

Gir wardhari, a title of Krishna 
I. 323 TOO^e :=Krishna ...1.366 

Gobind=Krishna=God I. 88 

note, III. 257 


Gobind Singh, Gurfl, allusion 
to III. 277, 320 : his Granth 

11. 99 

God, as a sacred object among 
the scavengers I. 541 note -. 
defined from a Hindu point 
of view 11. 41 note; as 
understood by the modern 
Hindu II. 101, 102, 103, 212 
fE; in Hindu Legend II. 
204:— (Boibfe) interferes to 
protect a woman in an 
intrigue II. 534 : orders EajS 
Indar to rain 1.498 :=Hari= 
Vishnu I. 335;=Raghbir 
=Rama I. 357 note ;= 
Raghunath=Rama I. 125 
note ; =Ram I. 362, 366 ;= 
Thikur I. 498 

goddesses, tutelary of a fort 

11. 364 

Godhan = Gordhan = Govar- 
dhana = Krishna =: also (?) 
Gautama Buddha I. 534 
note :=also perhaps Sakhi 
Sarwar I. ^ZAi note 

godlings, warrior II. 190 note 

gods, rival III. 387 

Gohar, the story of II. 

461, 462, 464 ff. 

Gokalnagari = Gokula near 
Mathura I. 4!%^ note 

Gopal = God II. 102 

Gopi Chand, Legend of II. 1 
ff : is king of Uj jain in Gaur 
Bahgala II. 2 : throws Jalan- 
dhar Nath into a well II. 15, 
16 : is persuaded to become 
a jogi II. 5 ff. : becomes a 
jogi II. 24 ; resists his sister's 
attempt to turn him from 
becoming a jogi II. 76; re- 
sists efforts to dissuade him 
from being a.jogi II. 32 ff.: as 
a jogi begsfi'om his own wife 
li. 25 ff., from his sister II. 
62 : — i-estores his sister to 
life II. 74: — declares himself 
to his wife II. 31, to his 
wife's maid II. 29, to his 
sister II. 66 ff : follows 
jaiandhar Nath II. 10 

Gopi Chand Cycle, the con- 




nection of the, with the 
Easala Cycle II. ix., x.; deve- 
lopment of II. ix., X. 

Gorakhnath, Guru, the Brah- 
manical opponent of the 
mediEBval reformers I. 2 
note, 127 note ; his date 
I. 127 note: — his connection 
with Kftra Des II. 434 fE :— 
is the chief of the nine Naths 

I. 358 note -. the state kept up 
by him I. 128 : his beauty I. 
130, 131 . his miraculous 
powers I. 2, 127 ; his power 
to prevent a dagger leaving 
its scabbard when intended 
to be used against a follower 
I- 148 ; grants a son to 
Rani Kachhal I. 139 ; grants 
Gurtl Gugga as a son to 
Rani Bachhal I. 142: causes 
a terrifying dream I. 158 : — 
as the Guru of Pflran 
Bhagat II. 375 ff., 403; 
saves Pflran Bhagat from 
the well I. 2, 430 ff. ; releases 
Jalandhar Nath from a well 

II. 16 fE. ; visits Machhan- 
dhar Nath II. 21: helps 
RasaW I. 357 ; is the precep- 
tor of RasaWs parrot III. 
237 ; is the preceptor of Gopi 
Ghand II. 8 : his connection 
with Ranjha, reasons for II. 
X. ; is preceptor of Ranjha II. 
545: is the preceptor of Gugga 

III. 296 : — he quotes an 
aphorism of Kabir I. 357 : — 
his connection with serpents 
I. 176 ffi. ; his power over ser- 
pents I. 178 note; restores 
snake -poisoned cattle to life 
I. 154: — his connection with 
fairies II. 428:— the cere- 
mony of making a follower 
of I. 332: — looked on as a 
god I. 243, 425 ff. ; invoked 

as a god I- 314 

Govind = Krishna = God II. 102 

grateful animals : cat helps 

hero I. 47 fE. ; cricket helps 

hero I. 42 fE.; deer, the 

reverse of the usual folktale. 

revengeful deer injures hero 
I. 51-52; hedgehogsaves hero 
I. 46-47 ; parrot, reverse of 
the picture, ungrateful par- 
rot injures heroine I. 59-62 ; 
serpent helps hero I. 10-13; 
swan helps hero I. 10 ; helps 
hero and heroine II. 91 : — 
corpse helps hero I. 40-41 : — 
God helps hero 1-88, 89 

green, the color of the turban 
of Musalman saints... I. 644 note 

' Greyhorsed Raja,' a title of 
Rasalii 1.43, 68 

grief, signs of II. 397 : shewn 
by teai-ing the hair and 
rubbing ashes on the body 

11. 29 

groups of tales as difEerentiat- 
ed from cycles II. xi. 

Gtiga = Gugga I. 122 S., III. 
261 ; allusion to his mare 
Javadia III. 19, 20 

Gugga, is one of the chief 
Muhammadan saints I. 121 ; 
as a saint throughout a poem 
III. 262 fE.:— (see GurA 
Gugga): was a Chauhan Raj- 
pOt I. 121, II. 264 fE.; called 
a Rather III. 269 ; his title 
of Rao I. 162 fE. : his life and 
timesl. 121: a bardic date for 
III. 261 ; a date for III. 300 ; 
his connection with Mahmiid 
of Ghazni III. 261 ; men- 
tioned by Tod, Malcolm and 
Elliot I. 121 : described as 
Gflga the Eajpflt of Bagar 
I. 122: his home at Gard 
Darera 1. 178 : — the name of 
Giiru Gugga given him by 
Gorakhnath I. 178 :— his- 
conversion to Muhammad- 
anism I. 204-209 ; becomes 
a Musalman in order to be 
buried III. 299 : — his legend- 
ary connection with Firoz 
Shah of Dehli III. 261 :— a 
recognised follower of 
Gorakhnath I. 178, 207 : - 
a legend of III. 261 fl. ; 
granted to R&ni Bachhal by 
Gorakhnath I. 142 ; his 




fight with Urjan and Siirjiln 
his half brothers I. 196-203 ; 
kills Urjan I. 202; takes 
Urjan's head to Rani Bachlial 
I. 203 ; is cursed by his moth- 
er for killing Urjan I. 203 ; 
the stoi'y of his disappearance 
into the earth I. 20-1-209 :— 
his betrothal to Siryal I. 
169, 178 £C. : — speaks from 
his mother's womb I. 153, 
155 : — his standard, a pole 
covered over with blue and 
white striped cloth sur- 
mounted by a large tuft of 
peacock's feathers I. 162 : — 
• story of the Brahmani I. 
166- 169 ; is cursed by the 

Brahmani I. 168 

Gunman Pandit, the family 

priest of RajaSanja I. 170 ff. 

Gur Dev = Guril Goraknath I. 

246 note 

Gui-A, the,=Goraknath I. 279 

Gui-ft Gorakh:^Goraknath I. 
242 : his house in the Kajali 

Forest I. 621 

Gurd Gugg4 the legend of I. 

Gurfts, belief in theii- superna- 
tural powers II. 243 

Gwaharim, son of Nodh- 
bandagh II. 439, 488 fE. : his 
doings II. 460fe., 472 fE. 

Haddeh a Baloch hero, his 
story II.478fE. 

Hadia, Rani, wife of Amar 
Singh III. 246 ff. : her death 

III. 251 

hagiolatry, as a form of 
popular religion II. xxi. 

hagiological class of legends, 
the, noted I. xi., xii. 

hagiology, the part played by, 
in Eastern legends I- xv. 

hair, as a deus ex machind in 
Indian folktales I. xix. : 
power of, to help hero III. 
xvii.; of the heroine, attracts 
animals by its scent I. 51 : — 
a ciicket's feeler used as a 
deus ex machind iuthe legend 

of Raja Rasalfl I. xix. : when 
warmed in the fire is a deus 
ex machind I. 42 ; when 
burnt helps hero I. 43-44; 
saves haro II. 378 :— tying 
the, into a knot, the sign of 
a. faqir I. 336: — shaving the 
head, a sign of being a,jogi, 
I. 328:— of Sikhs not out 

II. 146 
Haivtan a Baloch hero, his 
story II. 476, 476 ; his doings 

II. 490 ff. 

/laZ/, as a number II. 636 

Hamidu'ddin Nagori, allusion 

to III. 416 

hand, mark of Sakhi Sarwar's, 

in the rock III. 311 

hanging by the waist as a 

punishment..., II. 109 

haiisd explained II. 88 note -. 

(see swan) II. 152 

H anumiln as a deus ex ma- 
chind II. 577 

Hanuman Gosain;^IIanuman 
the god, he advises in a war 

between Hill Tribes 1.377 

Hanwant = Hanuman, is a 

child II. 127 

Harbans Sahai, the father of 

SiiaOai I. 246 

Harbhaj Sah, the father of 
Sila Dal I. 296 ; persuades 
Sila Dai not to become sati, 
being bound by custom to 

doso^ I. 349 

Har Dai, the name of Adhik 

Anflp Dai's maid I. 236 

Hari = God U 53, 234, 101; 
III. 346; = Krishna I. 88 
mote ;^ Vishnu I. ISinote;^ 
Vishnu=God ... 1.335; II. 7 
Hari Ohand, Legend of III. 53 
ff : Raja,=Harischandra of 
the classics I. 20 note, 209 ; 
his connection with RasaM 

I. 20 S; dethroned by 
RasaM I. 34 

H irischandra, allusions to 
the classical tale of I. 209 ; 

II. 5 ; III. 53 ;=Hari Ohand 

III. 53 : his story mixed up 
withNala's II. 260 




Haryal, brother of Niwal Dai 

I. 436 

Hasan and Hussain, allusion 
to the martyrdom of ...III. 22 

Hasham Shah, a writer on the 
tale of Sassi and Punnflii 

III. 24 fE, 

Hasanu'l-Hussaini = 'Abdu'l- 
Qadir Ji'lani II. 152 

Hatia, Raja, is Raja Hodi's 
father III. 237 

head, the, is the seat of pro- 
creation II. 554 : shaving the, 
custom alluded to I. 508 

Headless Coi-pse, story of the 

I. 39-41 

heaven, an anthropomorphic 
view of the Muhammadan 
II. 181 : earthly judicial 
punishment inflicted in, 
Muhammadan belief II. ... 181 

hedgehog — native childi-en's 
habit of teasing the ...I. 41 note 

heir to a throne, ceremony of 
declaring the I. 164,165 

Hem Nath the son of Ma- 
chhandar Nath II. 22 : is a 
'guru' I. 192 

hermaphi'odite gods, a note on 

n. 623 note 

hero, bom on a lucky day 

I. ' 161 : miraculous preg- 
nancy of his mother for 
twelve montlis I. 157 : sub- 
stitutes himself for the vic- 
tim for the ogres I. 17, I'' ; 
substituted by malice II. 
xii : gets admittance to 
heroine disguised as hero- 
ine's husband 270 : destined 
to slay ogre II. xii.; slays 
ogre who was to devour his 
hostess's son II. 184 fE. : 
helps serpent by taking sand 
out of its eyes I. 10 : 
mode of summoning, II. xv.: 
the avenging, a type of 
incident II. xiv. xv. ; the 
avenging, is shut up in a pit, 
to prevent him from acting 

II. xiv : extraordinary 
strength attributed to 
II. xvi : his identification 

an important point in In- 
dian folktales I. xx., xxi.: 
signs of the coming, are a 
variant of the identification 
theory I. xxi. ; signs of the 
coming I. xxi.; II. xvi.: his 
panions, the folktale notion 
of the, found in the Legends 
I. xiii. ; companion, horse 
helps him 1. 97 ; companion, 
parrot brings his bi'ide to 
him I. 239, 240, 264, 272 fE., 
helps him to answer riddles 

I. 240, 241 
heroic, class of legends, the, 
noted I. xii., xiii. ; the local, 

noted I. xiii. 

heroine destined to many 
hero I. 24 ; saves hero from a 
tiger II. 341, 342 :— delicate, 
variant of, weighing against 
flowers II. xix.; fills a bas- 
ket of flowers when she 
laughs and a platter of pearls 
when she speaks I. 233 ; flies 
through the air III 373,375 : 
— her beauty attracts the 
heavenly bodies I. 444-445, 

the god of the water I. 449 

Hindu customs mixed up with 

Muhammadan II. 159, 160, 161 
Hindu and Muhammadan 
maiTiage customs mixed II. 

116 ff. 
Hindu princesses married to 

Musalm&n emperors III. 251 
Hinduism confounded with 
Muhammadanism I. 75, 117, 
118,305, 311, 312, 313; II. 
102, 105, 106, 111, 187, 190, 
202, 203, 247, 306, 351, 412, 
417, 498, 508 fE.; 111.11,12, 
295, 299, 414, 415, 416: 
Muhammadan expressions 
to a Hindu god I. 362 : 
Hindus studying the Qurdn 
I. 495 note, 619 : Hindus and 
Musalmans worshipping at 

the same shrine III. 202 

Hindw&na, a name for R&j- 

ptitana III. 268 fE. 

Hir, facts about her II. 171: 
marries Shida II. 503: her 




abduction II. 504 : as a 
disciple of Gorakn&th II. 
575 : as a mii-acle- worker 
II. 575, 576; a miracle 
concerning her II. 178 : was 
a ' red-headed ' woman ...II. 180 
Hir and RanjhS, a list of the 
populai' resoensions of the 
story of II. 502 : the linguis- 
tic value of the version by 
Waris Shah 11. 502 : story 
of n. 177: a version of II. 
502 : a legend of the tomb 
of II. 49-1 : the marriage of 

II. 507 : the tale mixed up 
with that of Mii-z& and 
SahibSn II. 603 ff. : variant 
story of, in Baldchist&n II. 
177 fC.: as saints II 506 

Hira, the name of a deer I. 
51, 462; III. 223, 234 fE. ; 
revenges himself on Rasalii 
I. 51, 52: — also the name of 
Rani Lonah's maid II. 396 ff., 
406 : — also the name of the 
father of Bewa in the Dhol 
Legend '. II. 344 

Hira Dei, the maid of Rani 
Bachal I. 129 note 

Hiraman, a common name for 
paiTOts I. 265 note 

Mrd 'mirg=the black buck I. 

462 note, 466 note 

Hodt, a hero of the RasAlft 
Cycle II X. : killed by Rasala 
for intriguing with Rani 
Kokilanl.65 : a note on him 

III. 227 : his kingdom, ex- 
tent of described I. 52 note, 
was Atak I. 54: wasRajS, of 
Thanthor in the (?) Sialkot 
District III. 235 :— his his- 
tory withRasalfl and Kokilih 

I. 62-66 ; III., 223 235 
Hodinagri = probably Rani 
Thi-od in the Chittar Pahar 
near Atak I. 23 note -. as the 
home of Raja Hari Ohand I. 23 
Holocaust of snakes, the classi- 
cal story of=the bard's legend 
of Princess Niwal Dai ,.. I. vi. 
honorific caste name, in- 
stance of III. 6 



horoscopes, mode of telling I. 
507 ; explaining, the peculiar 
province of Brahmans ... I. 

horse, sacredness of the III. 
416 ; descended from heaven 
III. 19, 20:— the dark-grey, 
of Raja Rasala III. 238; 
name of Rasala's I. 11; — 
companion of hero I. 3, 4, 48, 
49 : — wind- winged of the sea 
I. 287; a fabulous kind of sea, 
alluded to I. 249 : — men- 
tionedinthe Sila Dai Legend, 
the Dhanni breed of the 
Jhelam District I. 249 note : 
— six celebrated Ill, 19, 

hospitality extending to ofEer- 
ing no harm to strangers 

II. 186 fE. 

Hot tribe not really connected 
with the Sassi and Punnun 
story III. 24, 

Hot 'All, Punnun's father III. 

Bdmayfln, his connection with 
Shah Qumes III. 

hunting, "a law "to the Raj- 
put 1. 200 : ceremonies before 
I. 463, 

huris, allusion to the office of 
the III. 

Hussain Ghai, Faqtr, a friend 
of Sakhi Sarwar II. 






Ibbetson, Mr. Denzil, his 
share in the Legends I. xxiv., 

II xxi. 

identification of the hero in 
the Legends I. xx., xxi. ; an 
important item in Indian 
folktales I. xx., xxi. : — 
proofs for, explained I. xxi. : 
means of, in folktales II. 
xvi. ; by marks II. xvi. : — of 
hero by ' lotus ' mark in his 
leg 11. 336, 343, moon on 
his forehead II. 343 ; by his 
ring I. 38, 282, 291 ff. ; II. 
93 fE.; by riddles I. 42-43 ; 
by means of mischievously 
breaking pitchers at a well 
I. 6, 7 ; by ogres I. 18, 19 : 
— of heroine by amulet III. 
24 ; by. her cooking II. 267 j 




by placing an amiilet round 
heroine's neck for the pur- 
pose of III. 34 : — hy a tiddle 
key on a signet riiig II. 322 : 
by betel leaves and water II. 
314 : — vai'ied as the signs of 

the coming hero I. xxi, 

idioms explained, notes to pp. 
I. 6, 8, 18, 19, 30, 43, 53, 60, 
74, 80, 89, 90, 94, 112, 113, 
114, 123, 128, 131, 133, 135, 
137, 138, 143,146, 161, 159, 
161,162,165,167, 171, 173, 
180, 191, 195, 197, 201, 203, 
220, 222, 224, 233, 234, 235, 
237, 245, 251, 258, 259, 260, 
262, 265, 266, 268, 284, 292, 
293, 297, 300, 305, 313, 316, 
320, 324, 328, 332, 340, 345, 
346, 355, 375, 378, 389, 390, 
393, 394, 396, 402, 403, 408, 
409, 410, 431, 457, 489, 532, 
544, 545; II. 8, 10, 11, 14, 
15, 18, 20, 32, 33, 36, 37, 41, 
44, 50, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 
80, 103, 106, 107, 108, 111, 
127, 138, 142, 169, 170, 171, 
180, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 
196, 206, 213, 216, 222, 261, 
277, 295, 311, 344, 347, 348, 
357, 363, 369, 374, 377, 387, 
388, 390, 392, 393, 401, 405, 
409, 411, 413, 418, 419, 420, 
425, 427, 447, 453,. 476, 484, 
521, 522, 524, 626, 533, 534, 
546, 560, 567, 668,571,580; 
III. 12, 17, 36, 48, 61, 66, 67, 
68,69,72,73,76,82, 85,111, 
115, 117, 121, 122, 127, 128, 
130, 140, 146, 148, 150, 162, 
156, 157, 164, 180, 182, 194, 
200, 203, 215, 224, 233, 236, 
247, 258, 263, 264, 271, 273, 
296, 318,316,320,325, 341, 
342, 345, 359, 361, 366, 368, 

370, 400, 403 

immortality of animals, belief 
in, alluded to I. 152 

impossible task before mar- 
riage, as a variant of the 
sioayamvara I. xxii. 

impregnation by the sun II. 

883, 384 

'Inayat Khan, a hero of the 

Gugga Legend III. 290 fE. 

incidents in folktales, impor- 
tance of II. v., vi. : classifica- 
tion of, additions to, 
avenging hero II. xiv. : classi- 
fication of, additions to, 
miraculous misfortunes II. iv. 
Indar, 'Rkja,=lndrii I. 444 ; 
his share in the Legend of 

E&ja Nal II 223 ff. 

Indai-pad = Indra's throne III. 58 
Indargarh = Amaravati = (?) 

Indraprastha=Dehli ...I. 44 note 
Indar Sabha alluded to II. 
209, 210, 403, 407, 409, 428 ; 

III. .54, 388 
Indian Fairy Tales, compared 

■with the Legends I. xii. fE. 

Indra as a god III. 87,88: 
as inferior to god='rhakur 
I. 498 : as god of the rain I. 
498, III. 361 : as a deus ex 
machind III. 54 S. : — fasci- 
nated by the beauty of Mwal 
Dai I. 415; attracted by the 
tinkhng of Niwal Dai's 

anklets I. 444 

Indarpuri=Amr&vati I. 625 
note : = Indravati = Indar 

Sabha II. 390 

Indrasan^Indra's Court=the 
house of beauty and licen- 
tiousness I. \S1 note 

inexhaustible bag, the, — var- 
iant story of II. xiii., 487 ; 
III. 205, 206 : variant of the 
idea in the inexhaustible 
praying- carpet of a saint II. 
124: — pot, variants of the 

III. 166, 182, 183, 215 
infanticide, female, owing to 
birth at unlucky moment; 
I. 50 : by strangulation, a 

cause of III. 1 

inflections, the indeterminate 
character of the nominal and 
verbal, in Kyonthall, noted I. 368 
ingratitude prevents miracles 

11. 315 
inheritance, claim to, thrust- 
ing a speai- in the ground 

II, 183, 184 




initiation, rites of, among the 
Lfilbegis I. 589 ff. 

invisibility in folktales II. 
xviii. : caused by act of the 
gods II. 225, 226: of hei-o 
to all but the hei-oine II. 
225, 226 : of heroine pro- 
tects her in an intrigue II. 
534 : of the followers of a 
saint 11.126, 375 

Isa BSniya,, the story of I. 210 
ff., 301; was a merchant of 
Agra or Delhi, who restored 
the shrine at Nigaha about 
1675 A. D I. 210 

Isa Bapari, story of 1. 216-224 : 
= Isa B&niya I. 216 : was a 
trader of Agra I. 220 

Isar Mahandev — Isvara Maha- 
deva III. 415 

Isma'il Khan's grandmother, 
the tale of II. 494 

Israfil as a sacred object 
among the scavengers I. 539 note 

'Izi-dil='Azrail III. 414 

jado = Tadava I. 460 : = the 
name of a Naga messenger 
I. 460 note, 478, 484, 488, 

489, 492, 496, 515 

Jadus = Tadavas III. 371 

Jagat Singh, Raja, of Niirptir, 
Ballad about II. 148 ff. ; 
facts about II. 148 

Jagdeo, story of Raja II. 182 
&.; was an accidentally sub- 
stituted child II. 183 ; a 
Bubstitiited hei"o II. xii. : 
ogre in story of II. xii. 

Jahangir, allusion to the 
Emperor III. 324 

Jabir Jinda, a name for 
Gugga III. 269 

JaimaJ, a herdsman of Gugga 
III. 269, 295, 296 :— of 
CMttaur, allusion to him 

III. 19, 20 

Jai Singh Kanhayya, story 
relating to II- 146 note 

Jai Singh Sawai, miracles 
atti-ibuted to II. xiv. : le- 
gendary tales about... II. 195 ff. 

Jal = Varuna 11.224 

T i«i« _,■» , PASB 

Jalah, the song of, an obscure 

^biit popular tale II. 163 ff. 

Jalandhar, the story of the 
saints of III. 158 ff. ; theii- 
origin III. 158 ; their genea- 
logy III. 159; a legend about 
them III. 322 ff. :-a list of 
the Bastis of III. 326 

Jalandhara, the A sura, his 
connection with JAlandhar 

III. 158 
Jalandhar Nath, the jogi, 
confounded with Jalan- 
dhara III. 158 ; was the 
opponent of Gorakhnath II. 
9 ; — is cast into a well by 
Gopi Chand II. 15, 16 ; is 
released from the well by 
Gorakhnath II. 16 ff. :— is 
the preceptor of Gopi 
Chand II. 9 :— his connec- 
tion with Nasiru'ddin 

SMrant Ill, 158, 199 ff. 

jaipa = Jwalamuklii 11.415 

Jalpa Devi = Jwaiamukhi II. 387 
Jam, a caste title of the 

LoMrs III. 6 

Jam Adam^, father of Sassi III . 24 
jam Ninda, facts and stories 

^abont him 1. 457, 4.88 

Jan Muhammad of Jhang, 
a hero of the later tales 
about Hir andRanjha II. 
Janamejaya, the story of, 
probably of historical value 
I. 414 ; is in the Adi Parva 
of the Mahdbhdrata I. 414 : 
is in the Bhdgavata Purdna 
1. 414 : — is the son of Parik- 
shit and ISTiwal Dai I. 507 : 
is charged with being a bas- 
tard I. 610 : treacherously 
invites the NSgas to Safi- 
don I. 513, 614 : destroys 
the Nagas I. 418 : having 
promised Tatig the Naga 
his life, plunges his tail into 
a caldron of boiling oil and 
thus marks him I. 627, 628 ; 
ptirsues Tatig the Waga 
I. 677 : boils the Ndgas in 
a caldron I. 576 : visits 
GurO Gorakhnath I. 521 ; 




visits Siva on Monnt Meru 

I. 522, 523 
Janmejt = Janamejaya ...I. 507 
jdnn, explanation of the term 

of ; III. 414 

Jarasandha, a hero of the 
Krishna Cycle, genealogy 
of' in.' 332 : a note on III. 

361 note 
Jaro, a Baloch hero, his -story 

II. 477 
Jaso complains of Raja Sohal 
to Ghazi Salar 1. 114 : = the 
wife of Nand Lai ... I. 112 note 
Jasrath = Da8aratha...I1.41 note 
Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur 
= Marwar, facts about III. 

262; anote on III. 242 

Jati, a hero of the Sakhi Sar- 
war Legends, father of 

PheiH II. 104 fE. 

J&tO Bh&n of Bhiwani, a hero 

of the Gugga Legend III. 280 fE. 
jauhar allusion to the cere- 
mony of II. 364 

jauhar Tcarnd, obsolete ex- 
pression : " to commit sui- 
cide " 1. 229 

Jephthah's daughter, variant 

tale of n. 477 

Jewar, BajS of BS.gar, father 
of Gura Gugga I. 122 flE. , 
his grief at having no son 
I. 123 fE.: turns Kani Bft- 
chhal out of the palace I. 
149-150; fetches back Rani 
Bachhal I. 158-161: wor- 
ships Gorakhnath I. 128 : 

his death L 173 

jewels, dropping of, when 
speaking, in Indian folk- 
tales I. xxii. ; is probably 
the jBgurative become 
the concrete I. xxii ; 
variants of in the Legends 

I. xxii. 
Jhang, the story of the 

Bracelet-maker of II 499 fE. 

Jhatidiala, the city of Guril 
Hand&l in the Amritsar 

District , I. 1^ note 

j7i&ioor=bheestiel. 65 note : — 
Clan, an oi'igin for the ...I. 65 


Jibi'ail=Gabriel I, 533 

jinni, explanation of the term 

III. 414 
jinns, a note on III. 414 
note : — ^among the scaven- 
gers I. 544 note 

Jit Khag was a bir or warrior 

godling IL 190 

Jiwan the Nfiga kills Parik- 
shit I. 489, 493; his plan 
for killing Parikshit...I 488, 493 
Jiwan Singh, a Naga, brother 

of Raja Basak I. 416 note 

Jodha Khor, cousin to Sakhi 

Sarwar III. 315 

Jodhia=Ajudhia III. 55 

JodhpQr ^ Marwar III 242 

jog [see yoga) II. 9 

Jogan = Togini = Durga = 
Kill, invoked in a Musal- 

man fight 1.118, 119 

j6gi is often a bard I. ix., x.; 

= faqir I. 31 

jogis, belief in their canni. 
balism I. 34 : powers 0£ 
prophecy tested I. 314 . 
prophecy as to R&ja Rasaltf 
before birth, as to day of 
his conception, bii-th, sex, 

name and career I 3 

Jonah, variants of the tales 

of IL xvi.,505; IIL 113 

Joseph, allusion to the story 

of II. 498 

Judishtar =: Tudhishthira in 
the Legend of Raja Nal, 

passim II. 207 ff. 

JUhga = Kyonthal I. 404 

Jw&lamukhL, explanation of 
the term II. 205 

KabJr, his date A. D. 1488- 
1512 I. 367 note: his apho- 
risms alluded to II. 405: 
his belief in the power of 
fate I. 357: is quoted by 
Guru Gorakhnath I. 357 

Kachhal, Rani, sister and co- 
wife of Rani Bachhal I. 134 
note : the mother of Gugga, 
her doings III. 263 fE. : 
calumniates Rani B&chhal I. 
145; supplants Rani Bachhal, 




and obtains twin sons 
from Gui-a Gorakbnatla I. 185 £E. 
Kachhraj, a hero of tlie 

Krishna Cycle III. 390 fl. 

Kahin, origin of the, shrine 
attendants at Sakhi Sarwar 

I. 214 note 

KahMr=Bilasptlr I. 404 

Kaidu, Hir's uncle, his doings 

II. 536 ff., 671 
Kailas, as the home of Siva, a 
reference to III. 369 :=Siva 

1.133, 331 

Kajali Forest=Kajjalatirtha, 

is opposite Hardwar on the 

Ganges I. 520 note ; II. 174, 

426 ; III. 164 : is the home 

of Gm-a Gorakhnath I. 521 

Kakki, the Brown Mare, name 
of Sakhi Sarwar's mare I. 
27, 222 note ; II. 130 ; III. 
19, 316, 350 ; helps him 1. 97 ; 
is bought from a carpenter I. 96 
Kakkti Khor, cousin to Sakhi 

Sarwar III 315 

Sale Singh, a hero of the 

Gugga Legend III. 261 

Kali Singh, a Naga, worship- 
ped as a godling with Guru 

GuggS, I. 426 note 

Kali Tuga, allusion to the I. 141 
Kalir, a scoi-pion who scoops 

out men's eyes 1.45-47 

Kaljug=Kali=a god ...II. 239 ff. 
Kalka=Durga as the goddess 

of death and mm-der ...II. 147 
Kallowal, the well at, is that 
into which POran Bhagat is 
thrown I. 2 ; the well at, now 
produces children for women 

who bathe at it I. 2 

Kallu Kal = Kali Tuga I. 224 note 
Kalwa Chandal, a hero of 

Hart Chand Legend ...III. 73 S. 
Kam Deo, the Indian Cupid 

I. 264 note 
Kama (see Kam Deo) ... I. 264 note 
Kamachhya = K&makshi, a 
form of Devi worshipped at 
Kamakhya near Gauhati in 

Assam I. 180 note 

Kamal Khan, Mirzd, a hero of 
the Gugga Legend HI. 286 


Kamaii, sister of JaMli ... III. 171 
KSnia, as a home for RajS, 

Sirkap III. 19, 20 

Kanipa as the disciple of 

Gorakhnath ...II. 16, 440 fE., 650 
Kankali, a heroine of the Jag- 

deo Legend II. 198 

Kankhar, Raja, a hero in the 

Jagdeo Legend II. 1 84 fE. 

Jcanphatds {jogis) explained 

II. 435 note 
Icanphattd faqirs, or followers 

of Gorakhnath I. 332 note 

Kan3=Kansa, a note on III. 356 
Kansa, a hero of the Krishna 

Cycle, genealogy of III. 332 

Kahsi=Banaras I. 248 

kdr, the custom explained 1. 247 note 
Karals, the, their feud on 

account of Sahib&fi III. 1 

Karma, the husband of DSnt 

Jatti 1.75, 97 

Karmfl Brahman, a hero of 
the Mirz& and Sahibah tale 
III. 11 : makes love to Sahi- 

baii in. 11, 12 

Kani=(P) Kamrflp in Assam 

I. 180 note 
Kara Des=(p) MalwS. ...II. 432 fE. 
Kasab, Baja,=Kasyapa I. 445 note 
kauri phenknd, to throw kau- 
ris at pacMsi I. 245 

kauris used in pachisi, the 
technical names of the 

throws of the I. 244 

Kech in Makran, the home 

ofPunnfln III. 24 

Kecham =Keoh IIL 24 

kerchief round the neck, sign 
of great humility in women 

II. 36 
Khahfa Irshad = Shekh Pir 

Wall in. 173 

Khan Jati=Phoda Khan U. 118 
khdna, a square in the game 

oi chaupur I. 244 

Khem Nath', a ' gurd ' I. 192 : 
is the son of Machhandar 

Nath ...11. 22 

Kheras, a section of the SiySls, 
IL 13, 503 fE., 520: came 
from Rangpfir in the Muzaf- 
fargarh District II. 567, 




668: tlieir doings II. 6o7 
£C. : — Hir married into the 

II. 587 S. 
Khiddii the scavenger II. 417, 454 
Khilji confounded with Ghori 

II. 356 fi. 
Khors, the = the Khokars 

III. 301 
KhuUsa Tawdrihh-i-Mas'udi 
is an abstract of the Mirdt- 

Ki-Mas'udi I. 98 

hwajS, = KhwajS, Khizar I. 
449, 534 —Shekh Farid II. 631 

Khw&ja Khari I. 540 

Khvvaja Khizar = the god of 
the water I. 416, 449 : is the 
god of the river I. 221 note : 
as an object of worship by 
saints III. 172, 173 : as a 
saint of the scavengers I. 
532 note : grants rubies II. 
519 : allusion to I. 41 note, 

206; II 173,608 

Kishn = Krishna III. 349 ft. 

Kishn Lai, a bard of the 
Krishna Cycle III. 348. 363, 
411 ; of the Dhrfi Legend 
III. 157 ; of the Hart Chand 
Legend III. 75, 88 ; of the 
Sarwar and Nir Legend III. 
125 ; of the Pirthi Raj and 

Malkan Legend III. 51 

knot, to refresh memory ...II. 107 
Kokilah, the Legend of III, 
227 fE.: a note on the story 
of III- 218 : a variant story 
of III. 222 ff.: her da,rk 
complexion I. 53 note : the 
power of her scented hair 
I. 51 : her life-index is a 
mango branch I. 50 : was 
the ancestress of the Jhtn- 

war Clans I. 65 

Koli, a caste of weavers and 
professional singers in 

Kyonthal I. 367 uote 

Kop BaohhrS,j, a hero of the 
Pirthi Raj Malkan tale, 
his pedigi-ee III. 39 : his 
death III. 5 1 : the cause of 

his death III. 45 

Korchabari, explanation of 
the term IIL 414 

Icrdn Icrdn, the noise of a 

scorpion I. 46 note 

Krishna, an Ahir by caste, 
explanation of III. 341, 344 : 
sanctity of III. 357 :=Hari, 
Thakur, Govind, Narayan, 
Naranjaii,Krishn, Murari I. 
88 note : confounded with 
Ranjha II. 523 : helps the 
serpents I. 627, 523 : genea- 
logy of in. 332 

Kfishna Cycle of Tales III. 
332 : genealogy of the 
heroes and heroines of the 
III. 332 : a further genea- 
logy relating to the ... III. 364 
Kukmg, origin of the, shrine 
attendants at Sakhi Sarwar 

I. 214 note 
Kumba = Makka = also (P) 

Kunaba = Madina I. 534 

Kundan Sahflkar, a hero of 
the tale of Sarwar and Nir 
III. 104 S.: his doings III. 

115 ff. 

hursf-=hursindma I. 530 

kursindma is a genealogy of 
the saints of the scavengers 

I. 530 
Kyonthal, the Simla Hill 
State of, described I. 367 : 
history of I. 367, 368 : the 
Ranas of, became Rajas by 
British Patent in 18571. 367, 368 
Kyonthali dialect explained I. 
368 : a vocabulary of I. 368-371 

Lachhmi, wife of Pherfl ... II. 112 

Lachhmi Chand = Lachhmi 
Narayan, g'. ■!? 1.308 

Lachhmi Nai-ayan, Sila Dai's 
brother I. 297 

Lady's Plate, the, is an offer- 
iag to Fitima, Muljam 
mad's daughter I. 110 

LaUhdata, a title if .'akhi 
Sarwar L 66; III. 3u , 11 

Lai Beg, as the tutelary saint 
of the scavengers I. i i ' : 
is probably the persouiSca- 
tion of the pi-iest of the 
scavengers I. 529 :=pr,3ba- 
bly Lai Bhekh, the Red 




(saffron-clothed) Monk I. 
529 : an account of I. 5-29- 
64(3: his titles I. 5i9 : the 
obscurity of his origin I. 
529 : origin of, sprang out 
of an earthen pot I. 532 
note : Dhiani is a female 

development of I. 534 note 

Lai Gnra=La.l Beg I. 529 

LalKhan=Lal Beg ... I. 529, 548 
Lai Khan's rods=the stocks 

II. 295 

Lal-o-lal=Lai Beg I. 629 

Lai Shah=Lal Bog ,.. I. 529 

Lalciu\vala=Sakhi Sarwar II. 

503, III. 311 
Lalbegi^follower of Lai Beg 

I. 629 : the initiatory rites 
of... L 539 fl. 

Ldli, sister-in-law to KanjhS, 

II. 514, 524; her love for 
Kanjha II. 542 : her doinys 

II. 644 ff. 

Lalo=Lali 11. 5-16 

Lanj, a name for Nigilha I. 

223 note 
Lanja, a name for Sakhi 

Sarv?arL 223; II. 181 

Lanka^vJeylon II. 189 : as a 
conventional name for 

wealth III. 1-49 

Lasharis, story of their settle- 
ment in Kach II. 470, 471 

Legend of Gurd Gugga, the, 
partly heroic and partly 

hagiological I. xii. 

Legend of Safidoii, the, exhi- 
bits the human character of 

the serpent races I. xv. 

left foot, mounting with the, 

lucky I. 457, 464 

Leghari tribe,legendaryoi-igin 

of the II. 471 

lepers, the custom of separat- 
ing I. 434 : isolation and 

treatment of 11.109, 110 

leprosy as a piinishment by 
a saint II. 109; III. 320: 
attacks Basak for killing 
the cows to the 
curse of the girls that drink 
their milk I. A'i'-', ff. : in the 
Pan jab attributed to the 


sacrilege of R^ja B^sak, 
the king of the serpents I. 
XV. : origins for I. 417, 456: 
—bathing to cure I. 453 ff. ; 
by bathing in sacred foun- 
tain I. 2^3 ; by the water 
of the well of immortality 
at Safidori I. 415; by 

bathing in a well I. 43!) ff. 

libation, instance of, first 
bucket to the god of the 
water, second to the beasts 

and birds I. 450 

Libro de los Eiigannos et los 
Asayamientos de las Uliige- 
res. — Coote's translation, 
noted I. 1 : its analogies to 

the Seven Wise Men I. 1 

life, restoring to, modes of, in 
Indian folktales, noted I. 
xvii. ; a power of the ser- 
pents in the Legends I. xv. : 
by serpents in the Raja 
RasalQ and Niwal Dat Le- 
gends I. xvii. . by effigy, 
common in the Lcijcnds I. svii. 
Life-index, definition of the 
I. xvii. form of, granting 
a female infant with a 
mango branch . when the 
branch grows into a tree 
and blossoms the girl 
reaches puberty I. 50 : 
survival of the idea in the 
Legends in a custom I. xviii. 50 
Lili the name of a dark grey 
mare identified with Gugga, 
Rasalu and Sakhi Sarwar 

III. 263, 292, 297, 299 
Lilli, name of Ghazi Salar's 

mare I. 116 

line, the enchanted, alluded 

to .^ I 247 

Loharfl, Nawab of, murders 
Mr. William Eraser II. 365, 366 

Lena = Lonaii I. 34 

Lonaii, Rani, queen of Salba- 
han I. : becomes pregnant 
by Salbahan I. 3 : falls in 
love with her stepson Pflran 
Bhagat I. 1 : is refused by 
PQniu Bhagat I. 2 : calum- 
niates Puran Bhagat I. 2 : 




asks Pflran Bhiigat for a son, 
confesses her crime to him 
I. 3. 2:32 : jui/fs prophecy as 
to Raj SI RasfUil, as to day of 
his conception, birth, sos, 
ndme and career 1. 3 : advises 
her son to keep pure as a. 
waiTant of power I. 7 • a 
story about her II. 33ri if : 
her 'connection with the 
Ranjhii tale II. 512 

lord, awaking the, of a Simla 
Hill State, by clanging a 
bnuss plate I. 390 

love at first sight, from 
seeing a picture III. 2-1 : the 
rains are the season of II. 

b-22, 531 

love-song, a specimen of 
Simla Hill I. 400-403 

luck : the custom of playing 
in the name of a god or 
saint for, alluded to I. 246 : 
good, twisting green-barley 
round the pitchers at a wed- 
ding for good luck to the 
wedded pair I. 110 : good, to 
mount a horse with the left 
foot I. 420 note 

Ludim, the ferryman, a hero 
of the Rlniha tale II. 517 ff. 

Limah = Lonah II. 512 

madvi = mdi}i I. 380 

M.!cauliffe, Jir., his share in 
the L'jgends ... I. xxiv. ; II. xxi. 

Machhandar Nath was the 
prelccc'ssor of Gorakhnath 
and the opponent of the 
Bhagats in the 15th century 
A.D.I 4y7 n.o<e: as the (/ims 
of Gorakhiiath II. 19, J.;)l, 
553 : as the master of Dhan- 
wantara I. 497 note : falls 
away fi-om virtue II. 19 of the Mahdbhdrata, 
allusion to III. 334 

Madan = Mada III. 364, 30 1 : 
=Krishaa II. 2 note 

Madana the Brave, Lord of 
(Jhaura, the story of, belongs 
to the local heroic class of 
tales I. xiii. 404 ff. 


Madhan = Krishna II. 2 note 

miUjanhdr, a mode of address- 
ing Brahman women ... II. 385 

magic, used by jugis against 
each other, belief in II. 18 : 
heroine can remove a 
huge stone I. 415 : — sympa- 
thetic, firing an ass tkj cure 
a camel II. 321 ; miracle by 
proxy III. 167 ; extended to 
cure by proxy II. xviii. 

Malidbli'it-ata, the, represents 
the modfrn Pandava Cycle 
of folktales I. xii. 

Mahadeo ancestor of Balmik 
=Siva I. 531 tvote : = Siva 

III. 866 

Maliadev = Siva 1.359 

TOa/iai :^ canto I. 225 

Mahaudev = Mahadeva...III. 414 

?»a/iany, the mode of address- 
ing a husband I. 333, 345 : 
form of address toBrahmans 
I. 132 note; a mode of 
addressing faqirs I. 334, 
343, 344; III. 101; mode of 
addressing Siva I. 361, 362 

Mahdfdjd, a form of address 
to saints II. 32 notp ; the 
mode of addressing a faqir 
I. 334 ; a title of jogis I. 326 note 

Mahbab-i-Subhaui = 'Abdu'l- 
Qadir Jilani II. 152 

Mahi Parkash,Raja of Sarmor, 
his story I. 367-379 :=Malhi 
Parkilsh the fourth Silraj- 
bansi Raja of Sarmor, 1108 
to 1117 A. D I. 367 

Mahitii Chopra, Minister to 
Raja Rasalfl I. 35 :^Mahita 
Agarwal I. 243: his home 
is Sialkot I. 287 : advises 
Rasald to marry I. 233 : 
praises SilS. in RasaWs 
Court I. 245 ff. ; is sent to 
buy horses by Ra^Mil so that 
he may get to his wife I, 
249 ff. : his precautions to 
protect his wife from 
RasaWI. 253. £54: becomes 
a j'/i/i after SiLI Dai'a 
dc"i>avture I. 326 ff. : visits 
Silii Dai disguised as a joiji 




I. 328 ft'. : is recognized by 
tlic gardener's wife at 
Agrolia I. 335 : the gar- 
dener's Avife informs B'da 
Dai I. 339 : dies at Agrolia 
I. 354 : is raised from tlie 

dead by Siva I. 362 

Mabmild of Gliazni, liis con- 
nection with Guru. Gugga 

111. 261 
Mahnis are Siyals IIL 1 : their 
foud ou account of Sahiban 

III. 1 
Mai 'Aesha, Sakhi Sarwar's 

mother I, Qi note 

Miii Parkash=Mahi Parkash 

I, 367 
Mai Rajji, the wife of Chilhar 

Singh II'. 139 

maind and parrot, a version 
of the folktale, found in 
the story of Raja Basalii I. 
xiii. : — and parrot, variant 

of the story I. 64-61 

Mainawanti = mother of Gopi 
Chand Bhartari (Bhartri- 
hari) I. 534 note, II 2 ff. : 
persuades Gopi Ohand to 
become s- jogi II. 5 ft : — is 
a sacred object among the 
scavengcrs=(?) Avanti and 
Ujjayini personified... I. 53t note 
MakkQ. cousin german to 

yakhi Sarwar III. 118, 315 

MakpQr as a name for Multan 

III. 415 
Malangs, a note on the HI. 

316 : aUusion to the ... III. 2 19 
Malhi Parkash=Mahi Par- 
kash I. 367 

Mali, the minister of Parikshit 

I. 485 
Malik Sohrab^Sohrab Khau 

Dodai II. 458 

MaHku'l-Maut. notes on II. 
379 note ; III 414 : allusion 

to 111.21,23 

Malkan, a hero of the Prithi 
Raj and Malkan tale III. 33 : 
his pedigree III. 39 : the 
cause of his quarrel with 
Pirthi Raj III. 45: the 
cause of his death Ill, 45 


Mamul, the mother of Ghazi 
Salsr I, 109 note 

Man Pal, Biija, grandfather 
ofRiijaDhrft III. 126 

Mandal=DhartmHrflal I. 42:! 

Manjfl, father of Ranjha... II, 177 

Mansflr Halldj, note on ... II. 67J 

Manuel, Mr., of Dliarmsala= 
his share in the Legends I. xxiv. 

Maqbara-i-Hir, a note on the 

11. 177, 178 

marriages in Indian folktales 
I xxi. : — heroine destined 
to hero I. 24 : — made in 
heaven II. 57G, 531: — fre- 
quently irregular in folk- 
tales I. xvi. : — by mutual 
consent, veiled allusion to 
II. 525 : — the importance of 
their regularity exhibited 
in the Niwal I)ai Legend 

I. sxi. : — see sivayaihvara 

II. xix. : — auspicious time 
for, is spring III. 127, 128; 
the most propitious time of 
all for feast is under Cancer 
(Karak) I. 193 -note -.—ot 
daughters, allusion to the 
great cost of III. 65 ff. :^ 
obligation of early, in India, 
alluded to II. 624 : — preli- 
minary tests before 1. 24, 
II. XV., xvi.; a condition of, 
to separate millet seed from 
sand I. 43 ; tests before, to 
shoot straight with an arrow 
II. 127. 130 ; answering 
riddles, a i^reliminary condi- 
tion to I 240, 24 1 ; gambling 
as a test before II. xix., 
impossiljle task a test be- 
fore II. 338 fE. :— ceremonies 

II. 239, 277, 317 :— cus- 
toms, details of II. 540 S., 

III. 13 ff. :— details of a 
Hindu I. 457 fi., II. 125, 126, 
1.59 160, 161; of a Musul- 
man I. 109 ff., II. 130 :- 
customs, Muhammadan and 
Hindu mixed up II. 159, 
160. 161 ; Hindu customs at 
a Muhammadan, calling in 
a Br§.hman to tell horo- 




scopes I. 109, erecting a 
temporary marriage bower 
I. 110 : custom, throwing 
garland round the neck II. 
\1M) : the barber arranges tlie 
wedding I. Lill note: mes- 
sengers of, Brahmans II. 87 
Ji'. ; Brahmans for Musalman 
III. 12: messenger is a 
swaii II. 88 ff.: — effects of 
caste feeling II. 108 : — exo- 
gamic, alluded to II. 383, 
•'95 ; csogamic law of the 
Kajpilts, allusion to III. 
l.'il : eudo^amic law of, 
instanoe of III. 21 ; forbid- 
den degrees, brother and 
sister = really however 
unele andniecel. 11-6: — be- 
tween faqtrs and girls of 
high birth II. 116 :— of 
Ghazi SAl;'ir,the story of the, 
bi longs to the hagiological 
class of tales I. xiii. 

Ma'.-gala. Pass in the Ernviil 
Piud) District I. 62 

Warhii, a celebrated ogre of 
the Panjab 11. 181 ff. 

Marija, explanation of the 
term III. 414 

JMarkanda, ancestor of Balmik 
= author of the Mdrhan- 
di'lin Piirdna I. 531 

JMav.')ut = Marwan III. 97 ; 
facts about her III. 97 

Jliirwan was the wife of Raja 
l^hol II. 278 : legend 
about il. 276 fl. 

Mavwar = Jodhpflr III. 252 

Mas'iid tialar Ghiizi = Ghazi 
Salar I. 98 

]\rathura, the home of Kausa 

III. 356 

Miitti, a heroine of the Sakhi 
Sarwar tales II. 107 

Maudfld Chishti, Khwaja, 
liis connoi-tion ivitli Sakhi 
Sarwar ..III. 387 

IMaujdhi Khwaja := KhwAja 
Mn'aiuu'ddin Cliisliti of 
Ajmcr, as a sacred objrrt 
among the scavenger.", I. 

639 note 


Maulla = God = a sacred 
object among the scaven- 
gers » I. 541 note 

nidvi, a small independent 
landholder in the Simla 
Hills I. 380 ; = perhaps 
mu'dfi I. 380 

inavjdhi ^ mdvi I. 380 

mawdwi = independent, in- 
surgent, rebel = mdvi I. 380 

Mayil Das of Pirozpflr, his 
share in the Legends ...I. xxiv. 

meditation, the mode of holy 

III. 153 

Meer Jakur Zund=Mir Cha- 
kur II. 457 

mermaids alluded to III. 35 

Merta never really gi'anted to 
Amar Singh III. 242 

metamorphosis in Indian 
folktales explained I. xx. ; 
varieties of I. xx. . in the 
Legends is common I. xx.; 
of Gura Gugga and JSTiwal 
Dai I. XX.: — power of I'ajjid 
III. 62 ff.: — temporary in 
Indian folktales I. xx : — a 
power of the serpents in the 
Legends I xv.; can turn into 
fifty-two forms I, 495 ; boy 
intoasmall serpentand back 
I 495,496,520.521,522, 525; 
in human form can change 
into sei'pents and back I. 
480, 481; — Basak becomes 
a serpent by taking poison 
I. 431, 432; Mwal Dai 
transforms herself into a 
serpent to avoid the Pi5nc]a- 
vasl. 416; Nagainto serpent 
form and back again I. 450- 
452 ; into a Brahman I. 
ISO fe., 183, 184, 4,98 ; into 
a fish I. 498 ; into a fruit I. 
488, 493 ; into a golden 
staff and a blade of grass 
I. 5( 2, 503 ; from human 
form into a snake, into a 
fine needle I. 441 : — general 
power of, in a saint III. 55 ; 
into a tiger III. 1S7, 188 :— 
God a dog II. 103 ; 
gods assume human form 



II. 232; assume hero's form 
II. XV.: — human beings iuto 
bullocks by a witch throw- 
ing mustard seeds over 
them II. xii.: — hero into a 
scor^jion I. 450 ; a prin- 
cess into a kite I. 5 ; Brah- 
man into a wild beast III. 
6*3 ff. ; jogis into bullocks 
II. 435, 43(5 : — by contem- 
plation II. 224 

metemp)sychosis, belief in the 
doctrine of, alluded to, I. 
124, 133, 143, 209, 304, 306, 
350, note, 360 ; II. 5 note, 
7, 20, 216, 262, 399, 418, 
523 : the number of trans- 
migrations the soul can 
make is 84 Ukhs=S, 400, COO 

I. 74 note 

milk, bringing, to a warrior 
on the war path, a bad 
omen I. 411 : on a sacrifice, 
to make it propitious 1. 429, 

430, 4,S1 

MinChand=Ami Chand II. 372 ff. 

Mir Chakur ; Legends abovit 
him II. 457 fl . : facts about 
him 457, 458 : his genealogy 
II. 459 : his irruption into 
the BalQchistan plains II. 
460 : his quarrels with the 
Lashai'is 4fi2 ft'.: his doings 
with the Emperor Humayun 
II. 493 : conquers JS.m 
Ninda II. 460 : his defeat 
at the Nali Torrent II. 463, 
467 : his adventures with 
an elephant, a tiger, and a 
horse 11.468, 469 

Mir Han, story of II. 488 : his 
death 11.463, 467 

Mir 'Imad Karwizi = P Mir 
Chakur II. 457 

Mir Jalal Khan, an ancestral 
leader of the Baloches...II. 459 

Mir Sayyid Bukhari, facts 
about "III. 327 : = Sayyid 
AsmQn III. 327, 330 

miracles in Indian folktales, 
discussed I. xv. ; in the 
Legends, noted I. xv. : — 
in India, still of daily oecur- 


rence I. xv. : — a case of 
raising from the dead in 
modern times I. 66 : — at 
shrines II. xiv. ; at tombs II. 
xiv.; a tomb opens to receive 
the deceased's lover II. 505; 
III. 24, 37:— of Dhannathe 
Bhagat, noted I. xv. ; of 
GoraUhnath II. 436 fE.; of 
GurO Gugga, noted I. xv. ; 
of N&mdev, noted I. xv. ; of 
Sakhi Sarwar, noted I. xv. ; 
arising out of the memory 
of scientific qualifications 
II xiv. : — open, as distin- 
guished from secret III. 
209 fi. : — hy prayer, plate 
filled with rice and pitcher 
with water II. 120; restora- 
tion to life II. 202, 20,3 ; res- 
tores a murdered saint to 
life II. 173; saint raises an 
eaten horse from the dead 
III. 309 ; saint makes a 
well III. 95; saint turns 
grey hair black III. 180 
S.: — by proxy II. 113; 
saint raising a fountain 
through his horse's hoofs 
III. 321 : — ^ it is wrong 
to work, for inadequate 
object III 94, 187; it is 
a sin to tell the story 
of a III. 96, 170: made 
valueless by ingratitude II. 
316 : — getting water by 
lifting up a stone I- 38 : 
supply of milk from a buffa- 
loe sent from heaven II. 
516 : a peg swallows a 
necklace 11.259: water help- 
ing fire to burn II. 577: 
opening locks without keys 
I. 35 : cooking food by 
placing it on a woman's 
breast I. 38 ; leprosy cured 
by bathing in fountain 
sacred to a saint I. 223 -—of 
saints, discussed II. xiii.; 
belief in a saint's power 
of II 561 575, 576 ; power 
of working, inherent in 
saints II. 102; power to 




work, proves a saint I. 10 ; 
III. 200 : — of saints, stock 
samples of ll xiii., xiv. : 
in order to injure ; kills at 
will I. 77 ; kills a cow by 
a blow from clotlies and 
restores it to life 1. 80 ; slays 
a lion with a slipper III. 
308, 315; burns up bis 
opponents II. 19; renders 
insensible by sprinkling 
lioly water I. 80; destroys 
beauty II. 175; /or restoring 
life ; saint wben burnt alive 
ascends in tbe smoke 
unharmed III. 173, 114: ; 
walking about after being 
flayed alive III. 91 ; raises 
from the dead I. 3fi3, III. 
90, 91, 163, 1()7; restores 
a child to life I. 80-81 ; 
restores a devoured bride 
and bridegroom to the 
lattor's mother II. 161, 162 ; 
raising the dead, by blowing 
on him I. 358 ; restores a 
dead cat to life III. 187, 
188; restores snake-poisoned 
cattle to life I. 154; restores 
a dead horse to life II. 122 ; 
restores an eaten horse to 
life I. 95 ; HI. 317 ; vivifies 
an idol I. 80; by faith 
turns a stone into a god I. 
87; makes a wooden horse 
run about III. 91': for 
curiny evils; restores sight 
II. 453 ; restores the 
blind to sight, cures a 
leper, restores an eunuch 
to virility, strikes a man 
with leprosy and cures him 
I. '214, 215; cures the 
broken leg of a camel I. 223 ; 
cures with holy earth II. 
Ill: for procuring food and 
shade; restores a dried up 
garden II, 448 &., 568; 
makes the d'db grass green 
for ever II. 169; makes green 
adeadtree III. 95; makcsthe. 
dry forest green, a tree to 
fruit out of season, restoi'es 

eaten kids to life and form I. 
79; makes trees to bear fruit 
out of season and the forest 
green I. 96, 9/ ; ripens 
fruit out of season II. 131, 
132 ; produces inexhaustible 
supplies of food III, 166 ; 
makes the sun broil a fish 
for him III. 91 ; starves for 
a month without harm III. 
217; supplies unlimited 
food III. 205, 206: for 
procuring treasure; pro- 
duces inexhaustible treasure 
III. 182, 185 ; finds hidden 
treasure III. 163, 168; 
turns a clod into gold 
III. 215; lifts a large bag 
of rubies and pearls on the 
end of his bow I. 223 ; gives 
a cheque on a non-existent 
banker and causes it to be 
cashed by a god I. 318 note; 
turns gold into brass and 
vice versd and causes food 
to be vomited II. 114: /or 
procuring good fortune; 
grants sons 1. 97, 232, 2;-i3: 
to punish opponents 
frightens by dreams III. 180 ; 
makes a fire to burn, turns 
water into blood, brings 
maggots into rice, breaivs 
the leg of a camel I. 220, 
221 ; turns milk into blood 
III. iiOO ; dries irp a 
woman's breast III. 170 ; 
twists the face and vice 
versd III. 175 ; breaks legs 
of camel of owner who has 
neglected a vow I. 213 : 
connected with ships and 
boats; brings a favourable 
wind to a ship II. 180; 
makes a boat of his gourd 
and an oar of his staff to 
cross a river II. 170 ; saves 
a boat from sinking III. 
170; leaps the ocean III. 
212, 213; does a journey 
(if months in a few paces 
III. 213; flies through 
the air III. 201 ; sends 



his slioe tlii-OTigli the air III. 
'^01 : eoiinecbed with ordeals 
ly fi''<^ )■ goes unliarmed 
thi-ougli an ordeal by fire 
III. 191, 19:1 ; is unharmed 
in a heated oven III. 193 : 
for self-protection ; to pre- 
vent a dagger leaving its 
scabbard v.hen intended to 
be \ised against a follower 
I. 1 !S ; vpards off arrows 
with his whip III. 291, £92, 
2i)t; makes bullets that 
strike him become spent 
HI. 1911, 197 ; keeps rocks 
from falling on him with 
his hand III 310, 311; 
jumps unhai-med from a 
palace II. 40() ; carries a lion 
up his sleeve III 96 ; tigers 
spring from his sides III. 
163, 165; creates a crowd of 
follower,^!. 1 19, 120; a saint's 
army III. 153 ff.; builds a 
wall round a masjid III. 1 64 ; 
moves his tomb III. 187, 
18S: general and miscella- 
neous; can tame animals 
III. 19-I'; prevents his horse 
from eva,oaatiug for forty 
days III. 91 ; shakos 
earings out of a wallet of 
food II. -14 J ; produces the 
absent II. ;:S-i; spea'csfrom 
his mother's womb I. 153, 
155; performs remarriage 
of a parted Hindu married 

couple ._ I. 3P3 

Mirari=Sayyid Asmili: III. 327 
Minui Bakhsh, a professional 
singer at the Darbar ^ahib 

at Amrit.-iar I. 84 

M'ran Muhayyu'ddin = 'Ab- 

du'1-Oadir Jilani II. 152 

Miraii Shah = Lai Beg I. 529, 

532 note 
mirasi, often a bard I. viii., ix., x. 
Miri'it.i-iTns'ndi gives the 

life of Ghazt SalAr I. 98 

Mirza, a note on the story of 

II. 177 
Mirza and Saliibaii, storv of 

III. Iff. 


misfortunes in tales as a help 
towards the progress II. 

xvi. : is a sin II. 357 

Mlshle Sandabar, its analo- 
gies to the Seven Wise 

Men I. 1 

Miyan GA.jan, a name for 

Ghdzi Salar II. 112 

Miyftn Mir, a follower of 
Shekh Walidad III. 188 : a 

note on II. 608 

Miyaii Ranjha = Ranjha II. 508 
IMiyah Walidad = Shekh 

Walidad III. 187 

Mohan, a herdsman of Gugga 
III. 26!J, 295, 293:— the 
bard of Sila Dai's family I. 293 
"Mookurba Heer" explain- 
ed II, 177 

moon, partridge popularly 
supposed to be in love with 
the III. 48, 142, 373, 391 
is the son of Kasyapa I. 
41'5: — Jai Singh Sawai 
popularly credited with 
keeping a moon of his own 

II. 197 fl. 
moon-makei's, belief in the 

possible existence of II. 197, 198 
Moses, allusions to the Story 

of III. 14 

motif in Indian folktales, the 
common, is to seek fortune 
I. xvi.; a dream is a common 
I xvi. ; calumniated wife I. 
xviii., calumniated persons 
I. xviii. ; summoning the 

absent is common I. xvi. 

mourning, signs of royal 

(women) III. 384 

Mu'ainu'ddin Chishti, Khwa- 
ja, said to have converted 

Gura Gugga I. 205 S. note 

Muhammad as a sacred object 
among the scavengers 1. 54 1 
note: Hazrat Kati Katal- 
min = Hazrat Qiizi 'Aliu'l- 
Qattal, as a sacred object 
among the scavengers 

I 539 note 
Muhammad Akbar, Hafiz, a 
hero of the Jalandhar saint 
stories in. 210 ff. 




Muhammad Gliori = perhaps 
Shahabu'ddin Muhammad 
GhOri I. 114 note- helpa 
Ghaiii Salar in a fight ...i. 119 

Muhammad KhalO, Maulvi, 
a hero of the J^landhar 
saint stories III. 210 

Muhammad Safa, a saint of 
Jalandhar, his story III. 216 ff. 

Muhammadan creed used by 
the scavengers I. 545 

Muhammadan influence in a 
Hindu tale II. 89 noie 

Muhammadan andHindu mar- 
riage customs mixed.. II. 116 ffi. 

Muhammad anism confounded 
with Hinduism I. 75, 117, 
118, 305, oil, ol2,al3, 314; 

II. 102,105,106, 111, 159, 
160, 161,187, 190,202, 203, 
217,306, 351, 41-.>, 417, 498; 

III. 11, 295, 299, 414, 415, 
416: — Muhammadan ex- 
pressions to a Hindu god I. 
362: — Hindus studying the 
Qufiin I. 495 Hoie, 529 

mujdwir, attendant at Sakhi 

Sai-war's shrine I. 66 

niitfcai = fate I. \i5 note 

mukh, the face of a dice used 

in chauTpu I' I. 244 

Mdlchak = Multan ...I. 224 note 
Multiin, legends about III. 
412 fl:.: as the city of the 
saints III. 90: its saints 
alluded to II. 117: its con- 
nection with the Sarwar 
Legends II. 119 li. . as the 
scene of the Shams Tab- 
rez legends III. 89; the 
heat of, attributed to Shams 

Tabrez III. 91 

Murari = Krishna I. 88 note 

murder of a Itinsman, a 

heinous sin II. 249 

Marti Hills to the S.-W. of 

Rawal-Pindi I. 50 note 

Musalmans and Hindus wor- 
shipping at the same shrine 

III. 202 
Mushkil-kusha = 'Alt I. 541 note 
music, magical I. 176, 177: 
power over deer .., I. 14 


NadiyA = Nandi, diva's bull 

III. 366 ff. 
Nag = Naga II. 210 

Naga = JSlag, is human only 
in legends, otherwise is a 
venomous serpent I. 415 

Naga races, their fight with 
the Ai'yans of Dehli I. 414; 
the confounding of them 
with serpents I. 414 : their 
quarrel with the Ai-yans 
caused by the abduction 
of a Naga princess by 
Parikshit 1. 414, 418; their 
attack on Safidoii, Parik- 
shit's city I. 484 ff. : allu- 
sion to the III. 11 

ndgdaun, a specific against 
snakebite I. ISinote 

?i05rai-^=: country, home I. 54 note 

ndgphani = sqjun I. 492 note 

Nahan = Sarmor I. 367 : the 
name came into vogue be- 
tween 1616 and 1630 A. D. I, 367 

nakedness, a matter of great 
shame II. 266 ff. 

Nakula, a hero of the Krishna 
Cycle, genealogy of ...III. 332 

Nal, Raja, legend of II. 204 
if. ; his son marries Piija 
Pingal's daughter 11. 275 

Nal Daman, the modern tale 
of, explained II. 204 

Nala and Damayanti, the clas- 
sical story of, = the bard's 
legend of Raja Nal I. vi.: 
the tale in modern form. II. 204 

Nalkot = Narwar inGwalior 

II. 276 

Nam^., the Dyer = Namdev 

I. 80; II. 101 

Namanand = Ramanand II. 523 

Namdev, songs about II. 99: 
note on H. 99 ; his mira- 
culous power — can kill a 
cow by a blow from clothes 
and restore it to life I. 80 

name, the custom of a wife 
never mentioning her hus- 
band by, noted 1.282 

Na,modar Patwuri, composer 
of the story of Hir and 
Ranjha II. 178 




Nanda = Nand Lai I. 11;.' 

Naiidi = Yasoda, invocation 
to lil. 256 

Nand Lftl, a servant of Gliazi 
SAMr I. \V2note 

Nan^S. Dliobi, a iiei-o of the 
Dhol Legend II. 3-2t ff. 

Narada, as the messenger of 
the gods III. 5-t ff., 162: 
= Narada as the messenger 
and adviser of the gods II. 
±2i ff. : as Nestor II. 2oy : 
as the " maker of strife " 
II. 147 ■ as a Brahman 

III. .m e. 

Naranjan ;= Krishna ... I. 88 note 
Nai-ayam = God ' H. 103: 

= Krishna I. 88 note 

RarfJ,a'man' in chaiiptir I. 244 
Narpat, EajS, of Sarmor ^ 
perhaps BSna Narpaii Sen 
of Kyonthal (16th centiiry) 

I. 380 
Nai'si, the Bhagat, alitision 
to the legend of I. 818: 
inii'aele by, giving a cheque 
on Krishna which was 
cashed by him in the form 
of Sawal Shah, a iion-esist'- 

ent banker I. 318 tiofe 

Nar Singh, a liei-o of the 
Gugga Legend III. 2(il, 
284 :— see Nar tiingh ...II. 429 

Nar Singh, 3,jogt IL 429 

Narwargarh = Narwar in 
Gwalior II. 276 : represents 

Nishadha II. 268 

Nasib Shah = Nnsrat Shah 

of Bengal ...III. 93, 94 

Nasiru'ddin Awadhi may 
possibly be meant by Imam 
N4su-u'ddin Sirani III. IQ.'^ : 
— Shirani the great saint 
of Jalandhar, facts about 
III. 158, III. 197^ S: 
his connection with Jalan- 
dhar Nath IIL 158 

Nath Mall Lala, the composer 
of the song about Ghazi 

Salar I. 112 

Naths, the nine II. 436 note: 
the nine, of whom GoraUh- 
nath was the chief ...I. 368 note 


Nathd, a setvant of Ghftzi 

Salilr I. 112 note 

Naurang Shah = Aur.-mg- 
zeb III. 256 fe. 

necklace, wearing a, a sign of 
saiatship II. 13 

negi = militai-y command- 
er I, 400 

Negi Bahadur, the story of, 
belongs to the local heroic 
class of tales I. xiii., 400 ff. 

Nekahil = Mi kail = Michael, 
is a sacred object among 
the s>iaveilgers I. 539 note 

Nigaha, the shrine of Sakhi 
Siirwar I. 66, 75 ; II. 113 : 
a reference to the fair at 
III 310 : the rebuildin.r 
of I. 223, 224 

mgi^= negi I. 402, 403 

Nihala Bhariliii, a famous bard 
of the Salihi Sarwai' class I. 
66; II. 117, 131, 132. ; 321 

NikhSd == Nishadha = the 
Bhil counti-y ll. 208 : = 
Vidarbha by mistake ... II. 211 

Nikra Mijau = Shekh Walf- 
dad III. 187 

Nila, the name of a deer in the 
story of Rani Kokilaii ...I. 57 

Nila City ^ perhaps Sila = 
probably Bagh Nililb, south 
of Atak I. 17 

nine as a number used in the 
Legends, I xxiii., 42, 43, 
1S2, 209, 235, 240, 287, 358, 
426, 443, 498; II. xx., 149, 
202, 278, 281, 2i-i4, 302, 333, 
335, 337, 393, 408, 509, 529, 
645, 550; III. 17, 4-), 239, 
224, 247, 26:i, 317, 326, 371 : 
as a n^ultiple of three ...II. xx. 

nine Idhks as an expression of 
great value I. 235, 443 :— 
garden I. 240, 488, 498 

Nine Naths, the 11.549 

nineteen as a number used in 
the Legends I. xsiv. 

Nir, a hero of the Sarwar and 
Nir Legend ^^■.^'^ ^■ 

Nirmal, brother of Raja 
Sohal, slain by Ghazt Salar 

I. 119 note 




Niwal Dal = (?) Jaratkai-a 
of the Mahdbhdrata I 418 
note : as tlie granddaughter 
of Kasyapa, is the.nieCe of 
the Snn and Moon I, 44!i :— 
was the daughter of Raja 
Bilsak, chief of tte serpents 
1.415 ; goes to Raja Parag's 
•well to ctire her father's 
leprosy I. 440:— Princess, 
story of I. 418 ff. ; is placed 
in a pit to avoid Raja 
Basak I. 428; marries a 
Pandava I. 417 ; her abduc- 
tion by Parikshit I. 418, 453 
fE. ; her struggle with RaiA 
Parag 1. 451 H., 452 ; marries 
Parikshit I. 457 ff ; bears 
a son, Janamejaya 1. 506, 
507; tells Janamejaya her 
story I. 510 ff. : — transforms 
herself into a sei'pent to 
avoid the Pandavas I. 416; 
plan for savini^'her husband 
from the Nagas I. 486 ff. ; 
fails to preserve her hns- 
band against the third 
attack ot the Nagas I. 488- 
491 ; invokes Dhanwatara 
when her own charms fail I. 
500, 501:— her beauty 
attracts the heavenly bodies 
I. 444, 445; fascinates 
beasts, bii'ds, and Indra 
I. 415 ; fascinates the water 
in a weU I. 416 : — moves 
a huge stone by her magic 
stone I. 416 ; removes a 
heavy stone with her little 
finger I. 436; restores a 
black buck, a falcon, a ser- 
pent and her husband to life 
1. 4 72 ff. ; restores Parikshit 
to life a second time ...I. 481 ff. 
Noah, allusion to the story 

of III. 34 

Nodhbandagh, a conventional 
hero of the Baloches II. 
458 : was a Lashari II, 459 : 
the gold-scatterer, his story 

II. 481 ff . 
numbers in folktales discussed 

I. xxiii., xxiv, ; II. xix., xx. 

numbers in gronps : — II. xx,; 
instances of large specific, 

but false III. 414,415 

Ntna = Lonaa II. 389 ff. 

Wfln&a = Lonah II. 394 ff, 

Nilp Sen — Anfip Sen I. 367 

Ndri Shah Saia == Lfllbeg I 

544: Balmik t. S29 

Nusrat Shah of Bengal, fcis 
connection with Shah 

Qames III. 93, 94 

Nyogi the Naga I. 676 

oath, see vows I. 284 : — of 
friendship, ceremony of 
III. 261: by the Saints EL 
521: bv father and mother 

I. 482:' (Hindu) by Indra 

II. 200 : — mode of taking a 
strong Hindu, to tear the 
thread off a cow's neck I. 
395, touching the sacred 
thread I 395, 396 :— form 
of, drinking the mUk of his 
mother by a warrior I. 116 
note ; placing the hand on 
the body of the person 
adjured 1. 263, 290 ; drawing 
a line on the ground with 
the nose I. 5U; a strange 
form of, on the Ganges and 
the Qiwdn II. 358: a 
pigeon's egg will render 
void, on the Qurdn III. 328 : 
— Muhammadan divorce 
form used as a form of 

III. 269, 296; custom of 
swearing three times I. 145, 
427, 428, 428, 429, 453, 454, 
473,478,522, 524,526; cus- 
tom of taking, three times 
in writing I. 423, 424, 425, 
510, 511, 512, 518, 521:— 
retractation from a, very 
shameful ....III. 63 

offering to saints — milk II. 
615; milk to Mother 
Earth II. 516 

ogres found in the Legends 
I. xiii : = the ogres of ordi- 
nary Indian folklore I. xiv. ; 
= demon icteo) II. 184: 



attributes of II. xii.; eats 
12 loaves of bread and a 
Luman being daily II. xii. 
18-1; eats a man every day 
from tke city X. 17 ; dinner 
consists of a, man, a basket 
of bread and a bufllaloe I. 
17; destroyed by virtue 
(= chastity) II. 185, 189 fE- : 
frightened by fii-e II 190: 
destined to be slain by 
hero II. xii.; killed by hero 
II. 184 S. ■ story of, in the 
AdveiUures of Rdjd Rasdhc 
is substantially the u,sual 
ogre story of India I. xiv, 

Ohind, the capital of Atki 
Mall I. '^2 note 

Old Dtcean Days compared 
with the Legeads I. xii. ff. 

omens, discussed II. xix..: — 
good — meeting a pregnant 
woman with a basket of 
fruit on her head II. 297; 
meeting a horseman escort- 
in a bride's palanquin II. 
298; five birds flying to the 
house I. 110: — bad — a 
violent wind II. 407 ; meet- 
ing a scavenger with a 
head load of wood 11. 138; 
bringing milk to a warrior 
on the war path I. 411 ; 
sneezing I. 409 ; III- Vi ; 
breaking of a stirrup when 
mosnting I. 464; catching 
the skirt when mounting a 
horse III. 13, 17; ornaments 
clinking III. 17; a bird fly- 
ing overhead II. 520; 
cranes making a noise 
during a dream II. 279; a 
crow cawing overhead III. 
lo3 ; cry of a partridge on 
starting a journey I. 269, 
271 ; a partridge calling on 
the right, and a crow on the 
left II. 395 :— lucky— a par- 
tridge calling on the right 
and a snake on the left I. 
161:— alluded to ...HI- 20 

one as a number used in the 
Legends I- xxiii. 

one and a quarter as a 
number used in the Legends 
I. xxiii. 212, 213, 253, 265, 
272, 282, 428, 429, 436, 448, 
473; II. XX. 92, 120, 121, 
126, 183, 289, 298, 415, 447, 

513; III. 47,406 
one and a half used as a 
number in the Legen,ds I, 

xxiii.; III. 223 
one hundred not a common 

number IL zx. 

one hundred and one as a 
number used inthe Legends 

I. xxiv. 509 
one hundred and sixty as a 
number used in the Legends 

I. xxiv. ; II. XI. 
one thousand and one as a 
numberused in the Legends 

I. xxiv. 
one thousand and ten as a 
number used in the Legends 

III. 368 
oracle, a sample of an III. 16 : 

in Saiva temples ,. II. 360, 361 
ordeals, discussed II. xix. : 
in Indian folktales I. xxi, . 
in the Legends I. xxi. : — 
passing through the fire 
i. 299, 304, 309, 316 S., 
318; by boiling oil I. 315 
ff. ; II. 114 ff.; by naming 
the throw of dice I. 312 ff . : 
— to prove chastity in the 
Legend J>f Sila Dai I. xxi.; 
to spin a single thread of 
cotton yarn and draw up 
water with it in an unburnt 
earthern pot 1 . 39 ; —to prove 
saintship II. 432 ff; 

pachlsl the game explained 
I. 244, 245: differentiated 
irom chnnfur - I- 244 

PadmaDa.1, Rani, wife of Raja 
Biisak and mothf-r of Niwal 
Dal I. 419 note: = (P) Pad- 
mapriya = Padmavati = the 
goddess Manasa, the sister 
of Raja Basak I. 410 note 

Padm.ini = Padmawati ...II. 355 

Padm^wat = Padmawati II. 350 




PadmtWati of Oliittaup, a 
li'gend of n. 350 : an histo- 
rical instance of the story 
of II. 350 : literature of the 
story of ,..., 11. 350 

Piihlad = Prahl6da : legend 
alluded to 11. 272 

palmistry, allusion to II. 523 

piinch = the five in di&e I- 244 

Pa-ichatantra, the, contains 
the gems of the Seven Wise 
Men I. I 

Prindava Cycle of folktales, 
noted I. xii. 

Pandiiviis, a bardic version of 
the story of the III. 3J.9 ff . : 
attempt to seize NiwalDai I 416 

PandQs = Pan(l;i,vas I. 414 

P:mj f»r, explained 11.372: 
help an intr;;.;ue II. 5S0 : the, 
alluded to II. ;!r;8, 3Gfl. 508, 
51t!. 525, 531, 57«; HI. 17, 20 

Parnirtn = Punnfln III. 30 

Paradise, the water of, allusion 
to III. 284 

Parag, Baja = Parikshit I. 
421 : his homo in Safidoii 
City 4:^3; demands Niwal 
Dai in marriage from Rnjil 
Bus;ik I. 422 : his struggle 
with Niwal Dai ...: I. 451-452 

Paras, a hero of the Pirthi 
Riij and Malkaii tale, his 
pedigree III. 3'.t : his deal- 
ings wiQi Malkan III. 45, 
40: his death III. 50 

Pavduman = Pradyu.mna III. 

340 fE. 

Parikshit, the Pandava, king 
of Hastinapura, his abduc- 
tion of Niwal Dai I, 4 18, 453 
If. : his home at Safidoii I. 
460 ff. : goes hunting after 
Hira tlic deer I. 46Hf. : mar- 
rie.-i Niwal Dai I. 457 ff. : his 
murder ))y Vasuki's emis- 
saries I. 418 ; is poisoned 
and killed by the head of the 
slain Ohhimba the Naga I. 
470, 478; killed by' the 
Nagas I. 481 ; by the Nayiis 
for the third time I. 48',i ; 
foi' the fourth time I, 49!), 


500 : is finally dead and 
burnt 1. 506 : his body is 
burnt I. 491; restwed to 
life I. 491-492, 494 :— as a 
follower of Dhanwantara I. 451 

Parkash, the designation of 
the Sarmor Rajas I. 367 

parmans ^param hans, an 
ascetic of the highest order 

I. 130 note 

parrot — hero's companion, 
helps himl. 3,9, 62, 354, -liS?; 
helps him to get at. heroine 
I. 264 fi., 272 &.; helps 
him to meet his bride I. 233 
ffi., 239, 240 ; helps Idim in 
danger I 12, 13; helps 
him to answer riddles I. 
240, 241 ; advises hero I. 
10, 11; is faithful when 
human companions desert 
him I. 9 : — the part played 
by the, in the story of Raja 
RiisalO I. xiii. ; helps Rasalft 
I. '.^9 ; helps Sauiikhni to 
find Dohman the goldsmith 
in aid of Rasalfl I. 29 ; knows 
the four Vedas I. 354: — 
falcon substituted for I. 
449, 450: — and maind — 
variant of the story I. 54-61 

Partap Singh, brother to Pir- 
thi Singh III. 257 

participle, the oontinuative, in 
the Kyonthall dialect 
expls^ined I. 368 

partridge calling on the 
right, a good omen for a 
journey I. 161 :— is in love 
with the moon 11.267 

Parvati looked on as a mortal • 

I. 243 

Paryal.brotherof NiwalDai I. 436 

Pata.k, a Ntiga, brother of 
Hilja Basak I. 426 note: see 
SMak I. 479 ff. 

Patal is the land of serpents I. 534 

Patam Dai, the wife of Gopi 
Chand II. 27, etc. : dissundes 
Gopi Chand from continu- 
ing as n.j6gi II. 32 ff. 

Pathiln, the brother of Hir II. 
620, 527 : his doings ...II. 534 f£. 




pam'i, = tlio ace in dice I. i24l 

peacocks, tlieir sacred clia- 
racter II. 90 

pearl, a popular origin for 
pearls I. 126 note: — > in the 
back, sign of saintsliip...lll. 1/5 

penance, of a saint, sitting in 
a hole .'.II. 440 

Phabbav, the Jatt, his adven- 
ture with R&ni Sannkhni I. 28, 

Phalanka, a fabulous island 

II. 190 

phditsd, the arms of the chau- 
pur board I. 243 : the 
variety of ch.avpur played 
with dice I. "244 : a dice in 
the game of chaupur I. 244 

phdiisd pheitlchd, to throw dice 

I. 244 

Pharijan = Mr. William 
Fraser II. 365 

PherO, a hero of the Sakhi 
Sarwar Legends II. 104 
fp. : — was a saint-given son 

II. 106 :-^ the Brahman, 
mixed up with Bhai Pherfl 

III. 301 
Phulmade,wife of Riija Jagdeo 

II. 194 
Phiilkiaiis, the, described II. 

IH3: the genealogy of the. II. 134 
Piia, a hero of the Sahiban 
story III. 15: his sayings 

III. 23: — the composer of 
the story of Mirza and 
Sahiban III. 23 

Pingal, Raja II. 260, 264, 266 
•fir. : father of Marwan II. 
276 :■ — was probably a Naga 
Rajil of the Panjab II. 276 : 
his daughter marries Raja 
Nal's son II. 275 : — minister 
of Sispal III. 343 fE. 

Pipa, the Bhaghat, facts about 
him II. 383: was the father of 
Lonaii II. 383 

Pir Asa=' Isa = Jesus Christ, 
a saint of the scavengers I. 

532 note, 540 

Pir Bannoi alluded to II. 125 

Pir Kbasa = Khwa,ia Khizar, 
a saint of the scavengers 

I. 532 note 


Pir Siiftl = Safiu'llah =■ Idris 
= Enoch (Akhnukh) a saint 
of the scavengers I. 532 note, 540 

Pir Wall, alluded to III. 
324 := Baba Walt = Hasan 
Abdal "..III. 175 

Pir-i-Dastagir = 'Abdu'l- 
QftdirJIlani , II. 152 

Pira of Shithkofc, father-in-law 
of ZainuTabidin ..III. 306, 307 

Piran-i-Pir = 'Abdu'l-Qadir 
Jilanl 11. 152 

Pirthi Raj =Prithivi RSja == 
Rat Pithaura of Dehli = 
III. 38 :— Pirthi Raj and 
Malkan, legend of ...III. 38ff. 

Pirthi Singh of JodhpQr, the 
story of III. 2.-i2 6.: facts 
. about III. 252: his perform- 
ances at Auvanzgeb's Court 
III 257 his tragic death 
III. 252, i:'58 : his murder of 
a royal eunuch III. 256 

plant, talkiug, used asadeiis 
ex •machind in Indian folk- 
tales I. six. 

popular poems, see bard's 
poem I. vi. 

portents on Gopi Chand be- 
coming a jogi II. 24 

possession, demoniacal, arrest- 
ed by ceremonial observan- 
ces II. 242 

Potiphar's wife, variants of 
II XV., 396 ff. : story of, 
version with female serpent 
as heroine and lizard as 
hero I. 11-13 : found in 
tlie Adventures of Rdjd 
Rasdlu and common in 
Indian folklore I. xiv. 

Pradyumna, son of Krishna 
and Rukmini, legend about 
him III. 332 fi. : claim to 
descent from III. 364: 
genealogy of III. 332 

Prahlada, allusion to the 
classical legend of I. 317; II. 6 

prayei' as an agent in restoring 
the dead to life I. 472 ff. :. 
can restore the dead to life 
II. 122, 202, 203; to the 
god of the lamps through 




the lamps themselves II. 92 ; 
to the moon for help II. 
41^7; for a miraole success- 
ful II. 120 ; gives water to 
a thirsty hero I. 407-408: 
can remove a heavy stone 
with a girl's little finger 
and great toe I. 436, 448 : — 
of a saint, restores the dead 
to life I. 40 : restores a child 
to life I. 80-81 ; can restore 
an eaten horse to life and 
stolen clothes I. 95 : restores 
eaten kids to form and life 
I. 79; restores a burnt tree 
to leaf I. 10: restores a 
diied up garden I. 2; restores 
hands and feet which have 
Ijoen cut off I. 2; restores 
lost sight I. 3 ; procures a 
son I. 3 : — to a saint, makes 
a tree to fruit out of season 
I. 79; procures sons I. 7i; 
keeps a boat from sinking 

. I- 221 
pregnancy, Indian calculation 
is ten lunar months = 280 

days I. 2-iSnote, I. 506 

Prichhat= Parikshit II. 38.6 

Princess Niwal Dai, the story 
of, belongs to the Pandava 
Cycle I. xii. : the story of 
= the classical tale of the 

Holocaust of Snakes I. vi. 

Princess Adhik Auflp Dai, the 
story of, belongs to the 

Rasalu Cycle I. xii. 

prisoners, release of, by king, a 

lucky act I. 50 

prophecy by astrology, as to 
heroine's career III. ,':i3 ; 
Brahman prophecies a son 
to a pregnant woman II. 
384, 385 ; by a Brahman, as 
to the marriage of the king's 
daughter 1.24-25: — saints' 
power of III. 194 ; of life 
III. 175; of hero's career 
before birthl. 233 : — of sons 
by a priest I. 126, 127 :— 
as to sons II. 376 : — a form 
of III. 368: as to Rnja 
RasahVs career before l.iirth I. 3 

proverbs quoted in the Legends 

I. 16, 402, 442 ; II. 278', 283, 
290,307,392, 409; III. 14, 

18, 37, 124, 146 

Punha = Punnflh III. 30 

punishments in folktales I. 
xxii. : for unchastity in the 
RajSi Easalil and Sila Dat 
Legends I. xxiii. : strangling 
and throwing the corpse into 
the jungle III. 123 :— for 

deceiving a saint 1 . 142 

Punnflii, he];o of the tale of 

Sassi and Punnto III. 24 ff. 

puns explained, notes to I. 
234,246,247; II. 14, 15,91, 

191 ; III. 91, 192 
Pflran Bhagat, a hero of the 
Basalu Cycle II. x. . legend 
of II. 375 ; part of the 
Easala Cycle II. 375 ; II. 
viii. ; mi^ed with Rasald's 

II, 385 ff, :— son of Salbahan 
by B4ni Achhrdh I. ; elder 
brother of Rasalfl II. 375 ; 
beloved by Hani Lonaiv, a 
wife of his father Sllbahan 
I.: refuses Rani Lonaii 1.2; 
calumniated by Rani Lonah 
I. 2 ; has his hands and feet 
cut off by his father and is 
thrown into a well at Kallo- 
wal I. 2 ; is saved by Guj'fl 
Gorakhnath I. 2; revisits 
Sialkqt I. 2 ; declares him- 
self to his parents II. 440 
ff. : declares himself to 
Salbahan and Rani Lonan I. 
3 : — his miraculous powers 
I. 2, 3 ; restores his mother's 
sight by prayer I. 2 ; grants 
a son to Rant Lonftn I. 3, 
232,^233; prophecies R4ja 
Rasaia's career before birth 
I. : — refuses to rule II. 
4t6, 447 ; returns to Gorak- 
nath I. 3 :^ story of Sun- 
drftn ,11. 441ff. 

purification by bathing after 
touching a corpse I. 61 

Puskar = Pushkara, the bro- 
ther of Nal II. 242 



_,,,, .^ . PAGE 

qadhica samts. the ...III. 205 

Qadarydr, tile bnitl of the 
Pflran Bhligat Legend ...II. 456 

Qadir Tar Olihatt-i, bard of 
the Rani Kokilah Lesjend 


quarter as a number II. 636 

Quarters of the Earth, Three 
11.88:— Four ti. 58, 158, 
221,407, 453; III. 19, 21, 
309; Nine II. 118; Fourteen 

II. 117, 522 

Qudrat = God — used in a 
Hindu poem I. 313: used 
towards Siva I. 362 

Qutb^ Shah = Qutbu'ddin 
Khan, foster-brother of 
Jahangir III. 828, S29 

Rabb, God, used in a Hindu 
poem I. 30-5,311,312, 314, 

412, 419 ff. 
Rag Bhairavi, the Song of 

Defiance and War 1.176 

Eaghae = Raghun^th = God 

I. 164 note 
Raghbir = Ram = God II. 
258, 357 note : see Raghunath 

I. 126 note 
Raghu Eai = Ram = God II. 255 
Eaghunath ^ Earn = simply 

God ^ 1. 125 note 

Eaiba of Eihana, the great • 
uncle of Sakhi Sarwar... II. 118 

Raja, a title of the gods H. 
222 : a title of Gm-ii Gugga 

1. 175 fE. 

Eajd Gopi Chand, the story of 
^the classical tale of Bhar-' 
trihari I. vi. 

EajaMahiParkashof Sarmor, 
the story of, belongs to the 
local hfiroic class 

Eaja Nal, the story of = the 
classical tale of Nala and 
Damayanti I. vi. 

Eakhi festival, an account of 

II. 198 ff. 
rdkshasas = ogres or giants 

I. xiv. 
Eahanspur, as a name for 
Multan HI. 414 

T, 1 PAGE 

Ealston, the late W. E,, S i on 
metamorphosis in Indian 
Folktales ^ I xx 

Earn = God I. 362, 11. 7, 101,' 

219,376; III. 331 

Eam Singh, a hero in the 
Amar yingh Legend ...III. 250 

Eama = God I. 3fig 

Eama Chandra as a Guifl...II. 433 

Eamsinand confounded with 
Eaujh4 II 523 

Udmdyana, alluded to Jl. 271, 

273, 551 

Eamen Lash.ari, his defeat by 
Mir Chakur II. 462, 463; 
story about II. 460, 461; 
his death H. 4,70 

Esma, son of Sakhi Sarwar 
I. 'ijj his Tree at Nigaha 
I- 77 : — as the brother of 
Sakhi Sarwar I. 223 note 

Eandhaur, Eaja, younger bro- 
ther of Jagdeo, who acciden- 
tally ousts him II. 183 

Eandhir, the son of Rasaltl I. 324 

Eang, minister of Sispal III 343 £E. 

Rangachar = Vrihadasva II. 
204 : his connection with 
the Gura Gugga story I. 
243 ; the household priest of 
the family of Gurfl Gugga 
I. 126 fB. ; prophecies Gug- 
ga 's career I. 161 :— the 
Brahman is the reciter of 
part of tlie Legend of Sila 
Dai I. 248 ; his speeches I. 325 fE. 

Ranghar, the term explained 

IIL 268, 282 

Ranjha, facts about him II. 
177- slays a tiger II. 504: 
object of making him a 
■wonder-working saint II. x. ; 
ranked as the first saiat 
after the five saints II. 508, 
516; as a saint II. 507, 609, 
546 ff. ; becomes a jogt II. 
603; as a miracle- worker II. 
575, 576 : his connection 
with Gorakhnath, reasons 
for II. X. ; as a follower of 
Gorakhnath II. 545 ; steals 
Gorakhnath's couch II. 649, 
568 : his connection with 




Rani Lonai'i II. 512 : con- 
founded with Kam^nand II. 
523 : confounded with 

Krishna ;.. II, 523 

Raujhefca, see Ranjha II. 177 

Ranjhetra, see Ranjha II. 177 

Kanjhua, see Ranjha II. 177 

Rani-ap Kaiiwar, wife of Jas- 
want Singh, her disgrace 

III 259, 260 
Rao Gflga, a title of Guril 

Gugga I. 162 

Rasala :— Cycle of folktales, 
noted I. vii. ; development 
of II. viii. ; its connection 
■with the Gopi Ghand Cycle 
II. ix., X.; includes the 
Pilran Bhagat Legend II. 
375 : — was an ludo-Scythiau 
hero perhaps == Sri Syala- 
pati Deva 1. 1 : — is son of 
Salivahan of Sialkot I. 1 ; 
king of Sialkot I. 24i.>, 287; 
gives up his kingdom of 
Hodinagari I. 39 ; dethrones 
Raja Hari Ohand I. 34 ; his 
palace was in the Mlirti Hills 
I. 52; his statue in the 
Gandgarh Hills near Atak 
I. 20 : speculation as to his 
identity II. 375 ; was a 
living man probably II. 
ix. ; his probable date I. 
1 : — his story is said to be 
in ten cantos I. 225; contains 
analogies to the stories of 
the Seven Wise Men II. 1 j 
his legend mixed with 
Salivahana's II. 377 fE. ; with 
PQran Bhagat's II. 385 tf. : 
the connection of the tales 
about him with the Sindibad 
Cycle II. ix. ; analogies to 
the story of, found in many 
hdzdr books in India I. 1 ; 
the probable existence of 
Arabic-Persian folklore 
concerning him II. ix. ; — 
the signs of his coming I. 
19, 23, 24 ; identified by his 
ring I. 38 ; by power to 
answer riddles I. 42-43 : 
is shewn his mother's home 

by a princess 1. 6 ; Visits his 
mother I. 7; is introduced 
to Salbahan through com- 
plaints (ialtsed by breaking 
pitchers at a well I. 6, 7 :— 
Sarkap's atteulpl, to poison 
him I. 45; story of Raja 
Sarkap I. 41 ff. : — story of 
Saunkhni, daughter of Hart 
Chapd I 20-31; marries 
Rani Sauiikhni, to Dohman 
the goldsmith I. 31 ; detects 
the unfaithfulness of 
Saunkhni by makinga mirror 
of a cup of water 1.27: — story 
of Rani Kokiiaii I 50-65; 
plants the mango tree which 
is the life-index of Rani > 
Kokilaii in the Murti Hills 
I. 50 :— story of Rani Sund- 
rai) I. 31-34 :— story of Kani 
Chodhai I. 42-44: — dreams 
of Adhik Anflp Dai of Kanauj 
I 233 ; meets Adhik Anflp 
Dai through the help of his 
parrot 1. 2;i9, 240:— the story 
of the Basaknagni I. 11-13 : 
— story of the gardener's 
wife III. 225, 226 :— story 
of Mahita Chopra and Rani 
Chandnt I. 35-39 :— story of 
Sila Dai ; sends Mahita 
Chopra to buy horses so 
that he may get at his wife 
I. 35, 244; disguised as 
Mahita Chopra gets admit' 
tance to Sila Dai I. 209 fE. ; 
sets a witch to find about 
Sila Dai I. 259 ; gives his 
ring to Sila Dai I. 282 ; 
seeks reconciliation with. 
Mahita Chopra I. 354 ; vows 
to burn with the body of 
Mahita Chopra, and does bo 
I. 355, 361 : — songs about 
III. 218 fe. : his character 
of libertine I. 253 : his 
adventures I. 1-65 = pro- 
phecies as to his career 
before birth 1.3; prophecied 
before birth to be a libertine 
I. 233 : conceived on a 
Sunday and born on a 



Tuosdiiy 1. 3, -1; — his biitli 
II. -155 ; is given at his 
birth a, colt born on the 
same day and a parrot, is 
put into a celhir for ]'2 
years 1.4: must not see his 
father or mother for 12 
years, or they will die I. 3 ; 
breaks out of his cellar at 
1 1 yesu-s of age and saddles 
his colt I. 4 ; is warned to 
bathe on leaving the cellar 
before speaking to anyone I. 
4 : — sets out to seek fortune 
1. 7 ; his companions are 
a goldsmith, carpenter and 
parrot I. 7 : companions 
compared with those of the 
hero in other folktales I. 
xiii. ; the carpenter kills a 
serpent at the first camp I. 
8 ; his companions desert 
him in his danger I. 9 : — 
releases prisoners I. 50 ; is 
the " enemy of the giants " 
I. 9 ; kiUs a " horror " I. 
8 ; restores the Headless 
Corpse to life I. 40; injures 
a deer who revenges him- 
seM I. 51, 52 ; saves a burn- 
ing cricket I. 4'2 : is raised 
from the dead by Siva I. 
362 : — his mii-aculous powers 
I. 35, 38 : foUower of 
Gorakhnathl. 242; becomes 
a jogi I. 31 : — a wet night 
in the story of, not yet 
understood III. 218 : — story 
of the Headless Corpse = 
the brother of Raja Sarkap 
I. 89-41 : story of the ogre 
at ISTila City I. 17-20 : story 
of Kalir and Talir I. 45-47 : 
story of the buck and doe I. 
13-17: story of the cat I. 
45-46 : story of the burning 
cricket I 42 : story of the 
drowning hedgehog I. 41 f . : 
—his title of " grey-horsed 
Raja "I. 17,18,43,58; III. 
19, 20: — previous quotation 
pn him I. 9 : — claim of 
descent from !• 324 


Rath^sgarh ^= Rotas I. llHl 

Ratliors, a legend of the. ..III. 247 

Rattan Haji = Khwaja 
Mu'ainu'ddin Chishti of 
Ajmer I. 205 fl'- and note 

Rattan Sain of Ohittaur, 
Legend of Raja II. 350 

Rathasnagar = RotS.s I. 

249 note, 270, 288 

reception ceremonies in a 
Simla hill-hovise described. 

I. 390 

red, a colour' tovjogis III. 266 

registration of royal births, 
alluded to II. xii. 

revenge of hero on faithless 
wife : — giving her her para- 
mour's head to eat I. 6-1-65 

revengeful animal, see gi-ate- 
ful animal I. 52, 59 

Rewa,the gardener's daughter, 
maid to Marwan...II. ^97, 328 ff, 

Richerche intorno al Libra 
di Sindihdd, Comparetti's, 
noted I. 1 

riddles III. 1 'lb : to prove 
identification of hero I. 42, 
43 : on birth of an heir I. 
4 : two maids speak in, to 
each other I. 265, 266 : pre- 
liminary to marriage I. 240, 
241 ; II. 336 ; as a variant 
of the stoayamvara I. xxii. : 
as a preliminary to granting 
saintship II. 445 : as a preli- 
minary to an intrigue III. 
238 : precede the great game 
of cliaupur between Sarkap 
and RasaW I. 48 

Rikhi De, ancestor of Balmik 
=Rikhab Deo = Rishabha, 
thefather of Bharata.. I. 631 note 

rings in the ears, sign of a 

saint II. 25, 441, 553 

Risal=RasaW I. 243 

Hisalgarh = Sialkob... I. 243, 

355, 364 

robbery, as an achievement. 

I. 21 

Roda see Rode Shah II. 163 

Rode Shah, an obscurS but 
popular saint II. 163 

Rohitasva = Rohtas III. 53 




Rolitfis = Roliitasva = son of 
Hari Ohand III. 53: his 

doings Ill- 81 fE. 

rosaries alluded to II. 411 

Rotas Fort in the Jhelam 
District, its various names 

I. 249 note 
royalty, signs of... II 199, 267, 526 
rubies, spring from the sea 
II. 130; come from KhwAja 
Khizar II. 519; come from 

rivers II. 519 

rttcZr(i7i!sft.a alluded to II. 411 

Rukmini, facts about III. 332 

Rustam Kh&tun, Sakhi 
Sarwar's stepmotlier II. 118 

Sa'adu'llah Khan, his legend- 
ary connection with tlalan- 

dhar III. 326 

Sabad Rikh, grandfather of 
Balmik = (?) shabd, the 
dictum of a Sikh GurO, 

personified I. b'iO note 

Sabar, Raja, a hero of the 

Krishna Cycle III. 342 

Sabda = Negi Bahadur ...I. 400 
Sabir, a got of the Jhiiiwars 

of Sialkot I. 65 

Sabir Dei, the sister of RajS. 

Jewar ■• I. 143 

Sabranj, the name of a witch 
I. 258 ; tricks Sila Dai into 

admitting Rasalfl I. 259 ff. 

sacrifice, the virtue of ...III. 54 
Sadhaura connected with Sh4h 

Qnm^B III. 94 

Sadhi the author of the poem 

about Isa Bapari 

Safidam = Safidon I, 414 

Safidon is ia the Jind State 
I. 414: = (?) Sarpadamana 
I. 414 ; was founded by the 
Pandavas I. 414 ; the home 
of Parikshit I. 460 fl. 479 : 
the legend of I. 414-417: 
the three wells at, contain 
(1) amrita, (2) snakes, 

(3) locusts I. 415 

SagrS,, name of a dog of Rdni 

ChS,ndni ...I. 36 

Sahadeva, a hero of the Krish- 
na Cycle, genealogy of III. 332 


Sahan cousin-german to 
Sakhi Sarwar 11.118 

Sahib Singh of Patiala, Raja, 
helps the Siddhus against 
the Barars II. 142 

Sahibah, a note on her story 

II. 177; is properly a 
modem heroine III. 1 ; was 
an educated gii'l III. 10 : — 
and Mirza, a note on the 
story of II. 177 

Sahibz&di, the grandmother 
of Sakhi Sarwar 11.118 

Sahilwan ^ Salivahana I. 23 

Saha Salar, the father of Ghazi 
Salar ......I. 98, 111 

Saibya, wife of Harischandi-a 

III. 63 

Saidar Shah = (?) Haidar := 
'All, a sacred object among 
the scavengers I. 541 note 

Saide Khan Dogar kills Sajjan 

II. 133 

saints in India, importance 
of II. xiii. ; the cult of I. xv.; 
stories of, their value to 
Indian students I. xxiv. : — 
rival Hindtl and Musalman 

III. 199 ff. :— signs of II. 
f47 ff.; bored-ears II. 11; 
ashes on the body II. 12 ; 
wearing a necklace II. 13 ; 
rings in the ears, wallet and 
bowl II, 25 : — beautiful in 
appearance I. 130, 131, 
344 : — the state kept up by 
them I. 128 : — secular occu- 
pations of III. 210 ; a 
private soldier III. 172 ; 
horse dealing III. 164 : — 
refuse jewels and valuables 
as alms II. xiii. :— private 
foibles of a, alluded to 111. 
13 : — mai-ryinig royal prin- 
cess ; instances claimed 
as real III. 92,^93, 94; 
mai'riage of a RS>j& with a 
saint's daughter II. 393 ff. ; 
remai'kable stories about 
the connections of III. 95, 
26 : — gives his own head as 
alms II. xiii. : — an instance 
of an immortal III. 269 ; 



immortality of, alluded to 
III. 285 : — instance of the 
attx'ibutes of tlie Deity being 
passed into II. 17 : — • power 
of procuring the philoso- 
pher's stone III. 96: — has 
second sight II. 120; knows 
who has stolen his propex-ty 
II 550 : — general power of 
metamorphosis III. 55 : — 
can prophecy II. 376 ; III. 
194 ; can prophecy an unborn 
child's career I. 142, 233:— 
inherent power of working 
miracles II. 102 ; proved by 
power to work miracles I. 
10 ; testing miraculous 
powers of, a justifiable act 
II. 120 ; can work miracles 
by prosy II. 109, 113:— 
leprosy cured by bathing in 
fountain sacred to I. 223 : — 
means of invoking, throwing 
down a drop of holy water 
I. 350 : — abusing, by way 
of procuring favours from 
them II. 425 : — milk, an 
offering to II. 515 '■ — injury 
to a, causes a fire II. 504 : — 
power of appearance at a 
distance III. 96; can appear 
in dream II. 114 ; appear 
at midnight II. 510, 517; 
deceased, can only appear 
at midnight II. xiv. ; 
deceased, mixed up with 
ordinary ghosts II. xiv., 510 
517 ; III. 298 ; appear as 
ghosts III. 173; can appear 
after death I. 222 :— helps 
hero through his servants 
the serpents 178 f£ . : — of 
Jalandhar, a legend about 
the III. 322 fe. :— miracles 
of . possess miraculous 
powers generally I. 127 : — 
can restore to life I. 358, 
363,497; II. xiii., 101 fE. ; 
III. 90, 91, 163, 167; 
can restore ashes to life 
by applying a herb I. 492, 
494 ; can restore a devoured 
bride and bridegroom 

to the latter's mother 

II. 161, 162; can restore 
a child to life I. 80, 81 ; can 
restore- snake-poisoned cattle 
to life I. 164; can restore 
an eaten horse to life I. 95 ; 

III. 309, 317; can vivify an 
idol I. 80 ; (child) can make 
a wooden horse run about 
III. 94 :— can cure leprosy II. 
xiii. 111; can cure snake- 
bite by sacred fires 11. xiii. ; 
can cure the broken leg of 
a camel I. 223; can restore 
sight II. 463 ; can take out 
the stings of snakes and 
scorpions II. 569 :— can grant 
great pi-omotion II. 1 (j6, 107 ; 
can grant position in life II. 
xiii. : — can grant sons I. 74, 
97, 139, 142, 232, 233; 

II. xiii., 106, 158, 182, 183, 
384, 454 : — can bring rain II. 
677; can restore a dried up 
garden II. 448 ff., 568; can 
make green a dead tree III. 
95 ; can make the dub 
grass green for ever II. 169 ; 
makes trees to bear fruit 
out of season and the forest 
green I. 96, 97 ; 11.131,132: 
can dry up water in wells 
and draw it from one well 
to another II. 436: — can 
bring a favourable wind to 
a ship II. 180; can save a 
boat from sinking III. 170 ; 
can make a boat of his gourd 
and an oar of his staff to 
cross a river II. 170 : — power 
to kill and injure I. 77; 
can destroy by fii-e II. xui. ; 
can burn up opponents II. 
19, 23 ; can render insensible 
by sprinkling holy water I. 
80 ; can curse with madness 

III. 96; can inflict leprosy 

II. xiii., 109 ; can destroy 
beauty II. 176 ; can twist the 
face and vice versd III. 176 ; 
can dry up a woman's breast 

III. 170; breaks leg of 
camel of owner who has 





neglected a vow I. 21o; 
can frighten by dreams 1, 
158; II, 106, 107; III. 180; 
can turn milk into blood 
III. '200; can destroy the 
cattle of those who neglect 
them 111. 200 : — can assume 
the form of a tigev 111. 187, 
188 ; can give power of meta- 
morphosis to followers I. 
457; can change back 
charmed men from bullocks 
with ashes II. 43C ; can 
change women into asses 
and restore them II. 437, 
438, 439 : — can produce 
inexhaustible treasure III. 
182, 183 ; praying-carpet of, 
as an inexhaustible bag II. 
12 h ; can find hidden trea- 
sure III. Ifi3, K18; can turn 
a clod into gold 111.215; 
turns gold into brass and 
vice versa and causes food 
to be vomited II. 1 14 : — cau 
bring good fortune III. 163; 
can cause gods to cash 
cheques I. 318 note; can 
shake earrings out of his 
wallet of food II. 445; cau 
lift a large bag of rubies and 
pearls on the end of his l>ow 

I. 223; — can produce in- 
exhaustible supplies of food 
Iir. 166, 205, 206; can 
make the sun broil a fish for 
him III. 91; can starve for 
a month without harm III. 
217 : — can journey with mira- 
culous rapidity III. 213; 
can leap the ocean III. 212 
213 ; can leap unhanned 
from a palace II. 406; can fly 
through the air III. 201; can 
send his shoe flying through 
the air III. 201 : — can call 
up the absent II. 564 : — can 
go unharmed through an 
ordeal by fire III. 191, 192; 
is unharmed in a heated 
oven III. 193: — restores a 
dead horse to life by prayer 

II. 122 ff.; can turn grey hair 


black by prayer III. 180 ff.; 
can make a well by prayer 
III. 95 ; by faith can turn a 
stone into a god I. 87 : — 
can burst ropes and fetters 
that bind them II. xiii. ; can 
make bullets that strike him 
become spent III. 196, 197; 
can ward off arrows with his 
whip 111. 291, 292, 294; can 
keep rocks from falling on 
him with his hand; III. 310, 
311 ; slays a lion with a 
slipper III. 388, 315 ; can 
make tigers spring from 
his sides III. 16,^, 155; 
can carry a lion up his sleeve 
III. 96 : — can create a crowd 
of followers II. 119, 120 :— 
cannot bo hanged II. 514 : — 
can move his tomb HI. 187, 
188; can build a wall round 
a masjid III. 164: — can 
speak fi-om his mothers 
womb I. 153, 155 : — can see 
God through the interven- 
tion of a ghost II. 181 : — 
can tame animals, elephants 
III. 194 : — • can remarry a 
parted Hindu man'ied couple 
I. 363: — can prevent his 
hoi-se from evacuating for 
forty days III. 94 : — birds 
cannot fly into the garden 
of a, II. 387 : — can make 
a dry forest green, a tree 
to fruit out of season, restore 
eaten kids to life and form, 
kill a cow and restore it to 
life I. 79, 80 : — can make a 
fire to barn, tui'n water into 
blood, bring maggots into 
rice, break the leg of a 
camel I. 220, 221:— can 
prevent a dagger leaving 
its scabbard when intended 
to be used against a fol- 
lower I. 148 : — can restore 
the blind to sight, cm-es a 
leper, restoi-es a eunuch to 
virility, strikes a man with 
leprosy and cures him I, 

214, 215 




Sajjaii, tho Bai'Mr Jatt. kills 
t'huhar Siug-h II. K>o ; des- 
troys CluUiar Sin^-h and 
Dai Siuoli II.' I-IO ; Is killed 

by OhMiar Singh II. 133 

Saka. see Sankh II. 376 

sdk'i=jauhar II. 364 

Saklii Sai'war, his full style I. 
6(i ; his date in the I3th cen- 
tury A. D., 1. 66 ; dates for 
-him HI. 306: his Indian 
character and descent II. 
116; family III. 310; enu- 
merated II. 117 ff ; connec- 
tion with the Khokars III. 
rill7 • connected -with the 
Lahor, Gniranwala and Guj- 
rat Districts I. G6 : his birth 
a.nd early yoiith I. 94 ; II IIS 
ff. ; goes'to Bag-hdadlll. 307 ; 
studies under Shahabu'ddln 
Soharwardi and Mandild 
Ohishti III. ;-l07 : marries 
Bill, the daughter of Ghauiiu 
Pathan, the ruler of Multan 
I. 96 ; marriage detailed II. 
llti ff. : date for his death 
III. 301, 310 : his " charity "I. 
9o ;. releases the pi'isoners of 
Multan II. 120. 121 :— cycle 
of tales about him noted I. 
xii.. xiii. ; mythical tales 
about II. si. ; stories about 
him I. 91-97: and Dani 
Jatti, story of I. 66-Sl : a 
legend of II. 104 ff. : slays 
a tiger I. 94-95 : his power 
over the Hindu gods I. 75 : — 
appears to Isa Bapari I. 
2-22 : — story of a miracle 
by II. 104 fE.; mii-acles of, 
detailed III. 301 ff. ; his 
power to kill persons at will 
I. 77 ; to render insensible 
by' sprinkling holy water I. 
80 ; — restores a child to life 
I. 80-81 ; restores life and 
form to kids that had been 
eaten I. 79 ; restores to 
life a horse that had been 
eaten I. 95 ; makes the 
dry forest green — n tree 
to fruit out of season I. 


79. 96, 97 ; makes a fire to 
burn, turns water into blood, 
brings maggots into rice, 
breaks the leg of a camel 
I. 220, 221 ; makes an un- 
belieyer into a leper and 
restores him again to health 
I. 214, 215 ; — breaks the legs 
of Isa Baniya's camel for 
neglect of a vow I. 213; 
cures the broken leg of a 
camel I. 223 ; restores blind 
man to sight, cures a leper, 
restores a eunuch to yirility 
I. 214; lifts a bag of peai'ls 
and rubies on the end of his 
bow 1 . 22;i ; helps Isa Bapi3.ri 
to cross the Indus with his 
goods I. 221 : — can grant 
sons 1. 74; gives a son to Dani 
Jatti I. 97 : — his messenger 
is Bhairiln 1. 75 : — his 
shrine at Nigaha I. 66 ; the 
origin of the shrine attend- 
ants I. 214-215: — leprosy 
cured by bathing in fountain 
at JSTigaha I. 223 : — fair in 
April I. ()6 : — among the 
scavengers I. 534, 544, 545 : 
allusion to his mare Kakki 

III. 19, 20 

Salabat Khaii, murder of III. 
2 1 8 : facts about his murder 
by Amar Singh III. 242 

Salar Ghazi, a title of Ghazi 
Salar I. 98 

Salbahan = Salivahan of 
Sialkot I. 1: his date put 
popularly at A. D. 80, 1. 1 : 
visits Pflran Bhagat in his 
garden at Sialkot I. 2 ; asks 
Piiran Bhagat for a son I. 
3 : gives Rasalfl a colt born 
on the same day and a 
parrot at his birth I. 4; 
refuses to recognise Rasahl 
at 11 years of age for fear 
of the j6gi's pirophecy I. 7 ; 
tests jugi's powev of pro- 
phecying sex of an unborn 
child I. 3, 4 ; answers 
riddle on birth of Rasalil 

1. 4 




Salivahan of SlMkofc, father 

of Raja Rasala I. 1 

Salivahaua, tlie Nortliern and 

Soutlierii, discussed Il.viii., 

is. : mixed up with the 

stories about RasaM...II. 377 ff. 

Salona festival, au aooount 

of _ II. 198 fE. 

Salwin, = Siilii'ahana as a 
hero of folktales ..'.... II. 378 ff. 

Salivahan = Salivahana I. Si 

Sama, the neatherd, Raja 

Basak kills his cows I. ■131, 

432 ; informs Parikshit's 

mother of his death...!. 470, 471 

Samali Beg = Lai Beg I. 529, 6 1-4 

8amtui Kachhwahi, the wife 

of Raja Dhol II. 276, 282 fp. 

Samson and Delilah, an expla- 
nation of the story of I. xix. 

sanctuary to a guest, custom 

of, alluded to III. 240 

Sandokh Rikh, the father of 
Balmik = (?) Santosha = 
Content personified... 1. .530 note 
Sang Jane in the Margala Pass 

I, 62 
Sangaldtp as the home of 
Padmani II. 357, 359, 441: 
=Sakaladvipa = feakadvipa 
in the Northern Panjab II. 276 

Sangla = Ceylon II. 19, 20 

Sangramjit, third son of 

Banasur III. 388 fE. 

Sanja Raja, of Kamrlip in 
Assam, fathei'-in-law of 
Gura Gugga I. 169 note: 
his home at Dhflpnagar ...I. 171 

Sanjha, Raja III. 271 

Siinji, the partner's in a game I. 245 
Sanha, a follower of Sakhi 

Sarwar I. 96 note 

Sankchur = (?) Sankha, the 
father of Raja Basak. .1. 426 7iote 

Sankh = 'Saka II. 376 

Sankh, Raja, father of 

Salivahana II. 376 

SansS.r Chand of Kaiigra, 
ballad about. II. 144 tt. : 
his sister is said to have 
married Patteli fai-kash II. 
14'4: historical facts relating 
to II. 114 

Saiiwalia, the minstrel, a hero 

of the Dhol Legend II. 287 

San wan Khor, cousin to Sakhi 

Sarwar III. 315 

Saphtdan = Safidon I. 414 

Sapidah =, Safidon I. 414 

Sarad = Sai-asvati I. 122 note; 

II. 266 
Sarada = Sarasvati ...I. 159 note 
Saradya Devi = Sarasvati = 
(?) Siriyal, wife of Gnrd 

Gngga I. 169 note 

Sarasvati = the goddess of 

speech II. 2 note 

Saraswa, its probable site III. 

39, 48 fE. 
Sarbuland Khaii, his connec- 
tion with the house of Jodh- 

pur III. 253 

Sarda = Sarasvati II. 276 

Sardhana near Merath should 

be Sardhuna , I. 225 

Saresma = Saraswa ...III. 38, 39 
Sarfaraz Hussain of Ambala, 
his share in the Legends I. xxiv. 

Sariyal, see Siriyal I. 169 note 

Sarjun, half brother to Gugga 
III. 261 : and Arjiin, the 
twin-brothers of Gugga, 

their doings HI. 262 fE. 

Sarkap, Raja, city of, proba- 
bly Kot Bithaur near Atak 
I. 39 note -. is found at Atak 
and Kanauj, on the banks 
of the Jamna in the Ambala 
District, and at Sardhana 
L 2-25: story of I. 41-50; 
attempts to poison Rasald 1. 
45 ; to destroy RasaM I. 45 : 
his capacity for cutting ofE 
heads I. 40-41: his brother 
is the Headless Corpse ... I. 39 
Sarmor, the Simla Hill State 
of, describedl. 367 ■ =Nahan 
I. 367 :— Rajfi of, defeated 
by the Raja of Garhwal I. 
399 : history of Ra.jas of 
I. 367 ; their quarrels with 

Garhwal Rajas I. 380 

Sarwan, the heroine of the 
Eraser Legends, her abduc- 
tion II. 367 H. : and Parijan, 
Legend of 11.36511. 



Sarwav, see Saklii Siirwar : — 
the Miinsarobar (Manasasa- 
saiovara) Lake in the Hima- 
layas I. 130 note ; = also a 
laliO in a rdjas garden 1. 130 
note: a hex'o of the Sai-war 
and Nir Legend III. iJ" ft'. ; 
and Nir, Legend of III. 97 
if. : — Sultan, a name for 

Sakht Sai-war I. 223 

Sassi and Punniln, a note on 
the original version III. 21 : 
a version of III. 24 IE. : 
bibliography of III. 30 : 
allusion lo the tale of ...II. 564 

Sasswi ^ Sassi ...III. 30 

sati, the object of, to obtain 
the same husband through 
several lives I. 350 note : 
preparations for the cere- 
mony of I. 3-17 S. : for a son, 

instance of 111.83,85 

Saunkhni — destined to marry 
RasalO I. 24 : prophesied to 
mai'ry a goldsmith instead 
I. 24, 25 '■ daughter of Hari 
Chand, clandestinely visits 
BasalO I. 20-23 -. falls in love- 
■with Dohman the goldsmith 
I. 26 ; lier clandestine con- 
duct with Dohman I. 26 ; 
makes an assignation ■with 
Dohman I. 27, 29 ; mar- 
ried to Dohman 1.31- con- 
ditions for marrying her 

I. 23 
Sawan, the name of Raja 

BasaM's parrot I. 235 

Sayyid,Hussaini,term explain- 
ed.....' in. 306 

Sayyid 'Abdu'Uali of Simla, 
Maul VI, his share in the 

Legends I. xxiv. 

Sayyid 'Abdullah Tanflri, a 
saint of Jalandliai', story of 

III. 189 fE. 
Sayyid Ahmad = Sakhi Sar- 

war II. ■ 118,213 ; in. 306, 307 ff. 
Sayyid Ahmad Sakbi Sarwar 
Sultan Lakhdata, the full 
style of Sakhi Sarwar ...I. 66 
Sayyid Asmto of Barha Bavin, 
a legend about III. 327 fE. : 


the tale of, properly belongs 
to the Kh&n-i-Azim, foster- 
brother of Akbar nil. 327 

Sayyid Burhan, a hero of the 
Gugga Legend III. 288 

Sayyid DaQd, half brother of 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 117 

Sayyid Hussain Shah of Ben- 
gal, his connection with 
Sayyid Shah Taju'ddin III. 
93 : his connection with 
Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l-Hayat 

III. 93 

Sayyid Ibrahim ; a hero of the 
Gugga Legend III. 286 

Sayyid Jalal Bukhari con- 
founded with Shekh Jalal 
MakhdQmlll. 184 : allusion 
to III. 184 

Sayyid Jawahir, a hero of 
the Gugga Legend III. 285 

Sayyid Kablr, a saint of 
Jalandbar, his story III. 213 ff. 

Sayyid MahmUd, half brother 
of Sakhi Sarwar II. 117 

Sayyid Eana, the father-in-law 
of Gh&zi Salar I. 109 note 

Sayyid Sahra, half brother of 
Sakhi Sarwar II. 117 

Sayyid Salar Sahib, a name of 
Ghazi Salar ..'....L 109, 117, 119 

Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'1-Aziz, 
brotherof ShahQumes...IIL 94 

Sayyid Shah 'Abdu'l-Hayat 
maii-ies the daughter of 
Sayyid Hussain Shah III. 
93 : father of Shah Qumes, 
stories about III. 93, 94 

Sayyid Shah Muhammad 
Zakirt, brother of Shah 
Qumes III. 94 

Sayyid Shah Taju'ddin, grand- 
father of Shah Qumes, 
stories about III. 93, 94 

Sayyidpura Salona, the old 
name for Bmanabad II. 106 

Sayyids, sacredness of the 
III. 192:— of Barha, a 
legend about Ill- 327 

scavengers' religion is hagio- 
latry alone I. 529 ; reverence 
anything held sacred by 
those around them I. 529 ; 




their mixed i-eligion I. 495 
note: view of lieaven ...I. 533 

school, as the scene of a love- 
match in. 10, 11 

scores, counting by II. 488 

scorpions Itill snaltes ...I. 451 note 

seclusion of Hindu females, 
alluded to I. 416 

second sight, belief in; a 
washerwoman suspected of 
' ' knowledge of things that 
are hidden " I. 57 : saint 
knows who has stolen his 
property II. 650 : proves 
innocence from charges I. 2 : 
gives knowledge of the exis- 
tence of a son I. 3 : Sakhi 
Sarwar's knowledge of Dani 
Jatti's evil intention I. 76 : 
in a saint II. 120 

sejun = sij = ndgpliani = 
sihunda = milk hedge, an 
antidote against snake 
poison I. 492 note : is found 
on Mount Meru under a lamp 
burning under a tree I. 503 

seli, the necklace of jogU 

II. 13 note 

serpents, in the Legends have 
the same characteristics and 
powers always I. xv. ; in 
folktales probably represent 
the real Serpent Races, 
whose totem has been 
confused with the race 
I. xiv. : — probably the 
totem of the Naga races 
I. 414 ; = Nagas — names of 
I. 426 ; probably represent- 
ing in legends a man of the 
Serpent Races I. 8 ; races, 
the " humanity" of the, as 
exhibited in the Legends 
I. XV., 414 "• — as being the 
servants of the patron saint 
of hero help him I. 178 fE. :— 
as gods, a reference to the 
cult of III. 395 :— the eight 
kinds of, alluded to 1. 154 : — 
appear in the Legends of 
Raja Rasalu, Gurft Gugga 
and Niwal Dai I. xiv., xv. : — ■ 
the well of, at Safidon I. 


415 : — have a particular 
smell known to each other 
I. 480 : — live on human 
flesh I. 11 : can turn into 
fifty-two forms I. 495 ; take 
poison as a means of chang- 
ing from human form into 
a I. 431; in human form 
can change into serpent 
and back I. 480, 481 ; into 
a Brahman I. 180 ff., 523 ; 
into a Brahman and back 
several times I. 49, 183, 184, 
501, 502, 503,504; in form 
of a child, can change into 
a winged-serpent and back 
1. 495, 496, 497, 520, 521, 
522, 525, 528 : can change 
into a fish I. 498 ; human 
forms into snakes ; into a 
fine needle 1. 441 ; into a 
golden staff and a blade of 
grass 1. 502, 503; into a 
fruit I. 488, 493:— can 
charm their charmers I. 
494 : can move a heavy stone 
in human form vfith the 
great toe I. 442 : — power of 
rapid movement I. 180, 190, 
191 ; winged, 1. 495, 498, 501, 
520, 521, 522, 525, 528 :— the 
breath of the, can scorch I. 
177 note ; breath can scorch 
and set fire to the trees and 
an ai-my I. 441 ; has power 
to burn up a tree by a bite 
I. 9 ; can kill by a flash of 
the eye 1. 446 : slay by drink- 
ing up the life I. 481 : — 
their power to restore to life 
I. 472 fl., 478 ; restoring to 
life by, in the Raja Rasalii 
and Niwal Dai Legends I. 
xvii. ; can bring to life a dead 
animal I. 417 ; can restore 
the life he has taken I. 188 
fE: — slain, can be restored 
to life by merely joining 
the sepai'ate pieces together 
I. 473 : — affected by music 
1. 1 7(i, 177 :— sucking out the 
poison to render them in- 
nocuous I. 577 : — charms 




against poisoning by a 1. 
15-i ; a palace of glass, sur- 
rounded by a ditch, a wall 
of needles, sprinkled with 
salt and water, keeps off I. 
487, 488, 49-2, 497:— fear 
scorpions I. 451 note: — out 
of gratitude to hero invites 
him home and is hospitable 
111 : — the chief of the, smit- 
ten with leprosy for biting 
a oow I. 416 : an origin for 
the flat head of the I. 431 

service, obligation of, towards 
pai-ents, custom illustrating 

HI. 275 

seven as a common number 
used in the Legends I. xxiii , 
14, 17, 19, 35, 51, 110, 171, 
178, 179, 181, 190, 204, 209, 
237, £38, 336, 389, 392, 396, 
S97, 412,496, 512; II. xx., 
102, 202, 278, 358, 463, 464, 
469, 484, 488, 506, 624, 570; 
III. 210, 246, 248, 249, 272, 
295, 296, 371 ; aUquot parts 

of II. XX. 

Seven Wise Men, the analogies 
of the story to that of Eaja 
Rasala I. 1 

seventy as a number used in 
the Legends I. xxiv., 44, 80, 
}09, 116,117,440,461, 462, 
463, 479, 545 ; II xx., 190, 

627, 546, 572, 576 

seventy hundred as a number 
used in the ie^ereds II. xx. 

seventy-two as a number used 
in the Legends 11.527, 572 

sh for s, used in all the Simla 
Hill dialects I. 368 

Shabir = the Imam Hussain 

II L 193 

Shada, a bard of the Sakhi 
Sarwar Legends III. 317 

ihdh = sdh, a merchant I. 

273; II. 351, 354 

Shah 'Abdu'l-Ghaffiir, a saint 
of Jalandhar, his story III 195 

Shah Mir = Miyafi Mir ..II. 508 

Sh4h Qumes, Legend of III. 
92 ff.; his pedigree III. 92, 93; 
chronological points in his j 


history discussed III. 92 ; 
marries the daughter of 
Nusrat Shdh of Bengal III. 
94 ; — the story of his des- 
cendants at Sadhaura 

III. 95 note 
Shahabu'ddin Soharwardi, his 
connection with Sakhi 

Sarwar III. 307 

Shahjahan, his connection 
with Amar Singh III. 242, 

246 fl.: allusion to III. 324 

Shdhji, mode of addressing 

Sayyids IIL 192 

Shahkot near Multan, the first 
home of Sakhi Sarwar's 

father 1.213; II. 118 

Shahnawaz Kh&u = Shekh 

MahmM IIL 164 

Shahti, sister-in-law of Hir 

II. 504 
Shakambhari == Devi I. 122 

note ; IL 2 note 

Shambha = Siva IH. 366 ff. 

Shambha Nath := Gorakh 

Nath IL 436 

Shampur as a name for Multan 

III. 415 
Shams Tabrez, a legend of 
III. 89 ff. ; facts about him 
IL 404; notes on II. 404, 
573 ; III. 89 ; the legendary 
cause of his being flayed 
alive III. 91 :— of Multan, 
confounded with his name- 
sake III. 89 

Shankar = Siva III. 368 ff. 

shart lagdnd, to settle the 

stakes of a game I. 244 

Shekh, origin of the, shrine 
attendants at Sakhi Sarwar 

I. 214 note 
Shekh Ahmad Ghaus, a saint 
of Jalandhar, his story III. 

169 ff. 
Shekh Anwar, a saint of 

BajohaKhurd III. 209, 210 

Shekh Bahau'ddin Zakaria 

alluded to ....III. 186 

Shekh Darvesh, a saint of 
Jalandhar, stories of IIL 
] 74 ff . :— of Kani Kuram, 
allusion to IIL 324 




Sheldi Fan'd alluded to II. 

125, 531 note 

Shekh Jalal tin Mdsa = 
Sayyid Jalal Bukhari ...III. 184 

Sliekh Jalal Maklidflm oon- 
fonndod with the Sayyid 
Jalal Bukhari ...III. 184 

Shekh Mahmfld, a saint of 
Jalandhav, his story III. 
160 n. : his miracles III. 163 ff. 

Shekh Pir Wall, a saint of 
Jalundhar, his story III. 171 ff. 

Shekh. Walidad, a saint of 
Jalandhar, story of III. 185 
ff. : alluded to III. 182 

Shekha = DaraShikoh ...III. 259 

Sher Buland Khaii = Sarbu- 
land Khan III. 256 

Shibkahwar, wife of Kishn Lai 
III. 75, 88, 125, 157, 848, 

363, 411 

Shida, the husband of Hir 

II. 603 

Shimla = Simla I. 400 

Shitabi, a bard of the Gu^ga 
Legend III. 263 ff. 

shrines, aspect of Mubam- 
madan, to South, so that 
pilgrims can pray facing the 
West, i. e.,toMakka.. I. 224mofe 

Shumer, brotber of Bahiban 
III. 12: his doings ...III. 21 ff. 

Sida, husband of Hir, his 
doings II. 5:<8 ff , 565 ff. 

Siddhu- Barars = Barars ...II. 133 

Siddhxis, the', described' II 133 

signs of the coming hero I. 
19 : his heel ropes will bind 
and his sword slay giants 
of their own accord and his 
arrow pierce seven frying 
pans I. 19 : striking a pair 
of bamboos with ari'ows and 
and knocking off the golden 
cups on the top I. 23 : 
knocking down two mangoes 
from a special tree I. 24 : — 
heroine, the bubbling of the 
water in a well I. 416 

sij = s^jun I. 492 note 

Siji, the faijiily priest of RajS, 
Basak =^ Sanja = {?) San- 
jiiya, Lhu mcsscuger of i-au- 


(lava I. 430 : refuses to make 
Bdsak's sacrifice propitious 

I. 431 

sihunda = sejun I. 492 note 

Silfi Dai, the Legends of, 
relates the story of RasaM 
and Mahita Chopra I. 243 ; 
the story of, belongs to the 
Rasalft Cycle I. viii., xii., 
243 ; = Rahi Ohandni I. 
243 :— her story I. 243-366 : 
is a variant of David and 
Bathsheba I. 245 ff. : — sUd 
= virtue, a play upon the 
name I. 246 note; her virtue 
causes her husband to win 
with dice I. 216: — advises 
her husband to do Rasalii's 
bidding I. 253 ; is warned of 
Rasalfl's character as a liber- 
tine I. 253 ; is proof against 
Rasalii's blandishments I. 
277 ff. ; is visited by her hus- 
band disguised as a faqir 
I. 333, 343 ff. :— Ues to 
Mahita Chopra about Rasa- 
la's ring I. 291, 292 ; her 
disgrace I 292 ff . ; proves 
her chastity by ordeal by 
fire I. 318-320; leaves her 
husband after the ordeal 
I. 320 ff.; is remarried to 
Mahita Chopra after tempo- 
rary death I. 363 : — resolves 
to become sati because her 
husband has become a j6gt 
I. 347 ff. ; becomes sati on 
the death of her husband 
I. 354; is raised from the 

dead by Siva I. 362 

Sila R&ni = Sila Dai I. 261 

silence, the vow of, alluded to 

III. 146; hj faqirs ... I. 332 note 
Silvanti = Sila Dai II. 455 :— 
the daughter of Machhandar 

Nath II 455 

sin, misfortune is a II. 359 

Sindh = R, Indus I. 54 note 

Sindibdd, story of, contains 
the germs of The Seven Wise 
Men I. 1 : the story of, its 
connection with the Ras&W 
Legends II. i\., 376; — ■ 



i _ PAGE 

Cycle, its counecfcion witli 

the Rasala Cycle II. ix. 

Siraria= Bhairoh= Bhairava, 
the messenger of Sakhi 

Sarwar I. 544 

Sir, a got of the Jhinwars of 

SiAlkot I. 65 

Siriyal, daughter of Raja 
Sanja of Kamrflp and wife 
of Guru Gugga I 169 note: 
her betrothal to Gurd 
Gugga I. 169-172: is res- 
tored and married to Gurli 
Gugga I. 181 ff. ; her doings 
III 270 ff. ;— =(?) Saradya 
Devi, worshipped at the 
Kamakhya shi-ine, near 
Gauhati in Assam ... I. 169 note 
Sirkap = Sarkap, a hero of 
the Rasala Cycle II. x. ; his 
home at Kania III. 19, 
20 : — Rfija of Kanauj ^ 
Raja Sai-kap I. 225 : — father 

of Kokilan III. 225 

Sispal = Sisupala III. 332 : 
bibliography of the legend 
of in. 349 ; and Parduman, 
Legend of III. 332 fe. ; and 
Kishn, Legend of ... HI. 349 fE. 
sister sa,luting brother by 
bowing to his left foot, the 

custom of I. 390 

sisters marrying the same hus- 
band, Hindu custom of ... I. 322 
Sisupala = Sispal III. 332: 
a hero of the Krishna Cycle; 

genealogy of III. 

Sita, wife of Rama Chandra, 

as the model of virtue I. 247 note 
Siti, a heroine of the Hir and 
Ranjha Legend II. 659 ff . : 
and Murad, a popular love 
tale, allusion to ... II 563, 
Siva quotes the name of God 
I. 361 : looked on as a 
mortal I. 243 : treated as a 

saint I. 622 

six as a number used in the 
Legends I. xxiii., 176; II. 
148,293; III. 19, 200, 247, 

249, 270 
sixteen as a number used in 
the Legends I. xxiii., 258, 

I. 332 


342, 850, 443, 452; II. 89, 
187, 317, 382; III. 251: as 
a multiple of twelve II. xix. 

sixteen hundred as a number 
used in the Legends II. 335, 
337,348, 361. as a number 
for wives II. xx. ; queens of 
Chatrmukat II. 93, 96, 97 ; 
queens in Gopi Chand's 
harem II. 6, 33, 34, 36, 40, 
46, 52, 53, 59, 76 : queens (of 
a swan) II. 91 

sixty as twelve and five com- 
bined II. XX. ; as a number 
used in the Legends I. xxiv. 
20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 293 ; 
II. 541 ; III. 67, 70, 238, ^70 

Siy&l, chief of J hang, the 
family history of II. 494 

skin, change of, is a variant 
of temporary metamorphosis 

I. XI. 

skull of an enemy used as a 
drinking-cup(.Baloches)...lI. 492 

slavery, selling self, wife and 
child into, for debt ...III, 69 fC. 

sleeping beauty in Indian 
legend represents the raped 
bride I. xxi. 

snake on the left, a good omen 
for a journey I. 161 :^ bite 
of, induces madness II. 204 : 

— the holocaust of I. 414 : 

— see serpents I. xv. 

sneezing, a bad omen I. 409 

Sohal, Raja, steals Ghazi 

Solar's cattle and kills the 
herdsmen L 112, 113: his 
fight with Ghazi Salar I. 
112 fl.: details of his fight 
with Ghazi Salar I. 117-120; 
slain by Ghazi Salar I. 120 

Sohrab Khan Dodai, facts 
about him .II. 468 

sohan mirg = the black-buck 

I. 4(>2 note 

Soharwardi Saints, the, 
alluded to and explained 

III. 164 

son, importance of, to a Hindu 
for salvation I. 124; III. 
127 ; virtue of possessing a, 
alluded to 111. 72, 73.— 




custom at the birth of a I. 
162 note -. — must not see 
father or mother for 12 yeai-s 
or they will die I. 3 : — 
preparations necessary for 
first visit I. 3 : — • slaying 
own, in performance of a 
vow II. 477, 478 :— granted 
by a saint I. 139, 142, 232, 
233; II. xiii., lOS, 158, 182, 
183, 454;— procuring, from 
saints I. 97; throu gh /a ^jrs 

I. 3; through the interces- 
sion of a saint 1. 74 ; — (twins) 
through two flowers pre- 
sented by a saint I. 139 ; by 
eating a grain of riee 
given by afaqir I. 3; from 
a saint's touch II. 506 : 
faith in the power of saints 
to procure I. 131, 132, 136, 
138, 140, 384 : nostrums for 
procuring in Indian folk- 
lore I. xxiii. ; that related in 
the Harivan§a of the birth 
of Visvamitra is typical I. 
xxiii. : procured at wells and 
sacred pools II. 424 ; by 
bathing in the well at Kallo- 
wal I. 2; in a sacred tank 

II. 383, 3P4 : mode of grant- 
ing, by eating enchanted 
fruit II. liii. ; prayer for a 

II. 106 

sori'ow, conventional mode of 
expressing II. 309 

speech — all things could 
speak in the Golden Age I. 466 

spirits — casting out, alluded 
to II. 663 

Spring, the time for lovers 

III. 368 

Sri Narankar = Narftyaiia I. 41 

Srinagal, near Safidon I 424 
note'- the home also of the 
Nagas I. 426 note 

Srinagar = Garhwal I. 380 

Steel, Mrs. F. A., her share in 
the Legends ...I. xxiv., II. xxi. 

stars, the, are hung in the sky 
II. 117 : prophecy by the I. 161 

step-mothers in Indian folk- 
lore play the part of Poti- 


phar'3 wife I. xiv. : as 
enemies to hero and heroine 

in Indian folklore I. xiv. 

strangers, nation of never ill- 
treating II. 186 fP. 

strength, extraordinary, of 

the hero II. xii., 192 

Subhan Khan, the ministar of 

Parikshit 1. 4.8t> note 

submission, mode of making 
III. 155 : custom of ac- 
knowledging, by placing the 

arms in the mouth I. 399 

substituted pei-sons in folk- 
tales, by accident ...II. xii., 183 
Sflfi Ahmad, a saint of Jalan- 

dhar.' III. 206 

Sfifi Ahmad Akbar = Safi 

Ahmad ....III. 211 

Bulcasaptati, the, contains the 
germs of the iSeven Wise 

Men I. 1 

Sakhi, a witch II. 435fe. 

Sultan a title of Sakhi Sarwar 

I. 97, 221 note; III. 315 ff. 
Sun, the, is the son of 

Kasyapa I. 445 

Sunantpdr = Sonatipura, 

home of Banasur III. 365 

Sundar, the son of Syama of 
Sohini I. 380: escapes from 
the massacre of Syama's 
family I. 397: his revenge 
I. 398-399 : calls in the aid 
of the Rftja of Garhwal 

^ I. 397, 398 
Sundran, Rani, of Hodinagari, 
falls in love with Rasala 
and becomes sati for his 
sake in the sacred fire of a 
jogi I. 34 ; a story about her 
and Puran Bhagat ...II. 441 ff. 
Sflnrita, mother of Dhruva 

III. 126 
supplication, garment round 
the neck, a sign of female I. 

I. 845, 436 
Surajti'ddin, the name of 

Sakhi Sarwar's son III. 310 

Surjan, twin-brother to Urjan, 
son of Rani Kachhal and 
half-brother of Gurft GuggA 
I. 196 note : quarrels with 




GurO Gugg& over the divi- 
sion of the family property 

I. 197 fl:. : beguiles Gurtt 
Gugga into a hunting ex- 
pedition in order to kill 
him I. 201 

Suruchi, step-mother to 
Dhruva III. 126 

SOtak, a Naga, brother of 
Raja Basak I. 426 note : and 
Patak kill Parikshit ...I. 479-481 

swdng, a semi-religiotis 
metrical play I. viii., ix.; 
described I. 121 

swan, emblematic of nobility 

II. 643 : eats in the sea, 
myth alluded to I. 403 ; live 
on pearls II. 152, 2C9 ; and 
diamonds II. S9 note -. sings 
to heroine II. 88 ; helps 
heroine because he is in love 
■with her II. xvii., 89 ff. 

Swat = Arcturus I. 126 : 
allusion to the belief that 
if a drop of rain fall into a 
shell when the moon is in, it 

becomes a pearl I. 126 note 

swinging in the rains alluded 
to I. 557 

swayaihvara in Indian folk- 
tales I. xxii. . the custom 
of II. 216: in the Legend 
of Adhik Aniip Dai I. xxii. : 
the story of Damayanti's II. 
21 9fp. : as a form of marriage 
II. xix. . is vai'ied as the 
answering of riddles I. xxii. ; 
as the impossible task 
before marriage I. xxii. : 
a degenerated form of I. 23 

Syals, the, an account of ...II. 177 

Syama, Lord of Sohini, his 
story 380-399 : the story of, 
belongs to the local heroic 
class of tales I. xiii. : his 
capture by treachei-y and 
death I- 

Syntipas, story of its analogies 
to the Seven Wise Men ...I. 

tales, groups and cycles, 
difference between II. xi : 
mythical, of saints and 


hel'oes, reasons for their 

existence 11. xi. 

Taltr, a serpent who sucks out 

men's blood I. 46-47 

talking things in folktales 
discussed II. xvii. : a couch, 
II. 382 : a garland II. 381 :— 
grass II. 169 ; a lake II. 
320; a lamp I. 275 ff., III. 
380 ; needles II. 391 ; pestle 
and mortar II. 1 74 ; a 
pitcher II. 381 ; plums II. 
326 ; — severed heads II- 
379;atiee..II. 390, 391;1II. 19 
Tanflri Sahib = Sayyid 
Ibrahim Tanflri III. 196 = 
derivation of the name 

III. 195 note 
taqaUus (== ncm de guerre), 
instance of its use by a 

bard III. 31 ff., 263 ff., 396 

Tara = Saibya = wife of 
Hari Chand III. 53: her 

doings III. 76 ff. 

Tarawati =: Tar& = wife of 

Hart Chand III. 68 

Tarloch Bhagat.anote on him 

I. 82 
Tarwan, sister to Marwan, the 

sister of Marwau ...11.278,346 
Tatig the Kaga = Astika, son 
of Jaratkaru, sister of 
^'asuki, his appearance in 
the Mahdbhdrata legend I. 
494 note ; is nephew of Raja 
B&sak I. 494 ; hisconnection 
with Gurd Gugga I. 494 note; 
is directed to help Guru 
Gugga I. 179; procures the 
carrying out of the betro- 
thal of Siriyal to Gugga I. 
189 ff.; bites Rani iSiriyal 
I. 185; kills Parikshit I. 
499, 500 ; kills Dhanwantara 
I. 502, 503 ; pursued by Jana- 
mejaya I. 617 ff . : — is the 
priest of Basak Nag 1 . 177 
ff . : — disguises himself as a 
Brahman by metamoi-phosis 
in order to help GurQ 
Gugga I. 180 ff. : in his 
form of a Brahman restores 
life to Siriyal .....' I. 188 ff. 




Titzki,rdl-i-Rausliamd, allusion 
to III. 324 

Tegh Ohand, fatlier of Sansar- 
Chand II. 146 

temporary deatli, saint's power 
t.» restore to life I. 497 : 
serpent's power to restore to 
life I. 47 ii ffl. : restoration of 
ashes to life I. 492 

ten, is not a common number 
in the Legends II. xx ; III. 

17, 381 

text of the Legends valua- 
ble as a record of dialects 

I xxiv. 

Thakur = God II. 198; = 
Krishna I. 88 note 

Thikar Nath, a jojfi II. 441 

tlnrteeit as a number used in 
the Legends I. xxiv. 

thirty as a number used in the 
Legends II. 317 

thirty-six as a niimber used 
in the Legends I. xxiii., 176, 
:V2i, 515; II. XX., 11, 13,216, 
264,392, 440, 617; III. 98, 

358, 386, 401 

thirty-two as a number used 
in the Legends I. 443, 450, 
452; II. XX., 344, 3 to, 34«, 
31S, 424 ; 111. 251, 276, 345, 390 

three as a common number 
used in the Legends I. 
xxiii., 240, 255, 273, 304, 415, 
42;-!, 424, 42.1, 453, 454, 465, 
473,478, 480, 488, 490; II. 
52, 91, 254, 266, 347, 358, 
485, 438, 509, 631, 536, 5.^4, 
571; III. 11, 23, 69, 70, 146, 

217,223, 265, 27 , 340, 408 

three and a half as a number 
used in the Legends II. xx., 312 

three hundred and sixty as a 
number used in the Legends 
I. xxiv., 79, 233, 241, 466, 
467; II. XX., 92, 121, 276, 
280, 286, 311, 312, 321, 333, 

337, 349, 572 

three quarters as a number II. 

XX 526, 553 

thrice as a number I. 145, 204 

Thursday, as a holy day at 
shriiip.s II. 498, 506 


Tilla in the Gujranwala Dis- 
trict, the home of Gorakn&th 

II. 375, 429 

Ttsa Palace, the, tlkha's home 

III. 375 

title, use of territorial, as an 
individual name, instance of 

III. 266 

torture, by hanging up by the 
hands II. 96 : by hanging 
and driving in nails 11. 149 

transliteration adopted is that 
of the Indian Antiquary ...1. xxiv. 

travellers, mourning for long 
absent, as dead, custom 
noted I. 25 

tricks, in Indian folktales 
examined I. xix. : stock, in 
tales II. XV., xvi. -. in the 
Legends I. xix. : — a lie 
direct as a trick in the story 
of Sila Dai I. xix. 

Trilochan Bhagat, see Tarloch 
'Bhagat I. 82 

truth, rewards for telling the 

1. 3, 12, 13 

Tuesday, a lucky day for a 
birth III. 10 

Tughlaqs of Labor, the, allu- 
sion to the III. 191 

TutAndma, its analogies io the 
Seven Wise Men I. 1 

twelve as a very common num- 
ber used in the Legends I. 
xxiii., 3, 8, 12. 50, 74, 142, 
375, 376, 378,3.91, 403,428, 
439, 508, 514; II. xix, 52, 
127, 184, 242, 293, 301, 307, 
308, 345, 358, 423, 428, 429, 
4 to, 442, 498, 514, 541, 543, 
544, 551, .572; 111.51, 111, 
317, 326, 327, 328, 415:— 
month's pregnancy necessary 
for hero's mother I. 157 

twevty as a number used in 
the Legends I. xxiv ; II. 

547; 111,17 

twenty-four as a number used 
in the Legends I. xxiii. 

twenty -five as a number used 
in the Legends...!. 327; III. 249 

tn'enty-one as a number used 
in the Legends I. xxiv., 70 ; 




II. XX., 524, 526 ; III. 2-19, 
385, 393 : as a multiple of 
seven II. sx. 

twenty-two as a, number used 
in the Legends [. xxiv., 31, 

800; III. 17, 267,278, 295 

two as a number used in the 
Legends I. xxiii, ; II. 303, 
304; III. 361: asai.artof 
twelve II. xix. 

two and a half as a nuu^bel• 
used in the Legends 1 xxiii., 
250, 517, 5--S; II. XX,, 169, 

183, 289, 298, 307, 310 

Udadit, Raja, father of Raja 
Jagdeo 11. 182 

Udayast, second son of Bansx- 
sur III. 365 fl:. -■ his doings 

III. 385 fi. 

Ugar Sain the eponymous 
hero of the Agarwal Bani- 
yas I. 296 note 

TJgatia (= (?) Agastya) among 
the scavengers I. 544 

Ujjain as the home of Gopi 
Chand II. 2 

■Okha = trsh& III. 365 fE. 

umbrella, as a sign of dignity 
II. 265 : as a sign of royalty 

III. 278, 359, 361, 367 

Ui'jan, twin-brother to Surjan, 
son of Hani Kachhal and 
half-brother of Gurft Gugga 
I. 196 note: helps Surjan 
in his attempt to kill 
Gugga I. 201-202 

tJsha, genealogy of III. 364 

Uttama, half-brother to 
Dhmva III. 126 

Uttanapada, father of Dhruva 

III. 126 

Uttanpat = Uttanapada III. 126 f£. 

Vasishtha ^ Bisishth Til. 53 

vehicle, the miraculous, in 
Indian folktales I. xix ; II. 
xvii., xviii., 102: flying 
through the air as a 
variant of the I. xix., xx.; is 
a swan II. 91 ; is a mat of 
grass II. 113; a reed mat 11. 113 


vengeance in folktales I. xxii. 

virginity = chastitj^ II. 432 

V)kram4ditya, his connection 
with the Gopi Chand Legend 

II. 1 ; as a hero of the Gopi 
Chand Cycle II. ix. 

virtue, a typical instance of 

III. 83 fe, :— the gods object 
to too much, in man III. 
64 : — women destroy the, of 
heroes III. 394, 407 :— (= 
chastity) recognition of II. 
199,200; is the danger of 
ogres II. 185. 189 fE. 

virtuous wife, variant of the 
story I. 35-39 

Visv&mitra = Bisw&mitr III. 53 

voracity, extraordinary, is a 
variant of the Jonah tale 
II. xvi. — instance of,in gods 

II. 127 

vows III. 385 : importance of 
keeping III. 133 ff. : advan- 
tage of performing III. 
171: — instances of a III. 95, 
385 ; penalty for breaking 
a, to a saint III. 320, 321 : 
among the Baloches, bind- 
ing effect of II. 475 ff. . the 
custom of vowing or swear- 
ing thrice arises from the 
Muhammadan [tin taldq) 
divorce I. 204 : — see oath I. 204 

Walmik = Balmik I. 629 

Waris Shah, celebrated Pan- 
jabl poet, and writer, on the 
story of Hir and Banjha II. 178 

water, holy, a drop of, will 
invoke the great saints I. 
358; as a cure 11.434 

■Wazvr'Ali, murderer of Mr 
Cherry, allusion to the story 
of II. 365 

Webbe, Mr. A. P., his share 
mtheLegends II. xxi. 

Wide-awake Stories, compared 
with the Legends I. xii. ffi. 

widows, treatment of, alluded 
to III. 135 fl. :— Hindu, the 
ceremony of assuming 
widowhood 1.490, 491 




wife, falling at her husband's 
feet, custom of, 1. 395 note -. 
see sistei- I. 390 : to praise 
a, in public, a social indis- 
cretion in the Panjab I. 39 

■winged camel I. 238 

wise women found in the 
Legends 1. xiii. 

witches in Indian folktales 
discussed I. xv , xvi. : found 
in the Legends I. xiii., xvi. : 
the usual use of the, is to 
catch heroines for their 
enemies I. xv. : — as wicked 
step-mothers I. xv. : as sup- 
planters of calumniated 
wives I. XV. ; help hero to 
get at heroine I. 256 fl. : — 
appearance of I. xv., xvi. : — 
beautiful in appearance I. 
257 : — their powers I. xv. ; 
can set water on fire, 
separate lovers, banish love 
by a glance of the eye I. 
258 ; can turn stone into 
wax, bring back lost love 
I. 259 ; can metamorphose 
others II. xii. ; can change 
men to bullocks with 
charmed mustard seed II. 
436: — are cannibals III. 
85, 86 ; take out the liver 
and eat it III. 13 : — in the 
story of Sila Dai I. xvi. : — 
broom-stick of, a survival of 
the mirac uloua vehicle ... I. xix. 

woman, the low estimate of, 
alluded to I. 250 : to praise 
a, looked on as foolish ...I. 247 

Tadavas, a reference to the 

II. 371 
ydrhi = ydhri = gydrvin, 
the feast in honor of 'Abdu'l- 

Qadir Jilani II. 158 

yoga =jog, defined II- 9 note 

Y(isaf = Joseph 11. -198 

Tunis = Jonah II. 505 

Zahir, a name for Gugga III. 
264 ff. : Zahir Pir = Gugga 

I. 121; III. 264 

Zahir Rao = Gugga III. 273 

Zahir Zinda, a name of Gugga 

III. 269 ff. 

Zainu'l-'abadin, father of 
Sakhi Sarwar I. 77, 94, 
228; II. 88: his first home at 
Shahkofc I. 213 note; III. 306 

Zainat Khatun, Bai's mother 

II. 130 

Zarasand = Jarasandh = 
Jarasandba , III. 353 

zone, wearing a silver, the 
sign of virility in the Simla 
Hills I. 410 

Zu'-n-nUn Beg, facts about him 

II. 467 

Zunu = ZQ'-n-nto Beg, 11.4.58; 
his dealings with Mir Cha- 
kur II. 467 ff.; defeated 
and slain by Mir Chakur II. 471 





abuse as a form vi propititia- 

tion ... „ 32 

Adliam faciir, prepared for 
publication, ulipnblished ... 6 

air, flying through the 46 

iikbar and JSmil Beg, unpublish 

ed 7 

alms-giving in Indiai defined ... 32 f. 
Auiai' Singh, Sotig of, Unpublish- 
ed 1 

ambrosia, tnixecj up With holy 

water 45 

'imriia=ainbrosia... .i. ... 45 
■animal legends of India, an^ 
thropomorphism in the, 41 f . ; 
tallying, 43 : the rule of the 
grateful, 42 ; the grateful and 
the hero, IS ; the rOle of the 

revengeful 42 

aiiimism pervades all li^diau folk- 
i-eligion .;. ... ... ... 18 

anthropomorphism in the animal 
legends of India ... ...41 f. 

arrows, fiery, 44 : of cold .i. 44 

asceticism, origin of ... ••• 34 
astrology, used for purposes of 
augury ... ... ... ... 60 

asylum, .we- sanctuary .i. ..■ 65 
augury riot common iii the 
LifjeiKls, 59 : used Chiefly in 
reference to marriage ceremo- 
nies, 60: by actions to ensure 
luck, 60 ) by astrology, 80 ; by 

dreams, 59 J by omens 60 

Aurangzeb, Story aboUt, un- 
published, 7 ; and Guril Gobiud 
Singh, prepared for publica- 
tion, unpiibliahed * fi 

auspicious 4ays, hero born on .». 14 

austerity, origin of 


... 34 

bags, inexhaustible ... ... 215 

BandA BairSgi, prepared for 
publication, unpiablished ... R 

Bathing, cetemohial, origin of ... 62 

B4w4 Farid, Miracle of, prepared 
for publicatioti, unpublished ... B 

beliefs, popular, reflected in the 
Legends ... ... ... ...64f. 

Bh^o, Story of, unpublished ... 7 

Bhfira and BSdal of Chittaur, 
Song of, prepared for publica- 
tion, unpublished ... ... 6 

bJiAta, definition of, S9 sl'D 
denlOri iS 

BikarmSjit, Story of unpublish- 
ed 8 

birth, Community of, common 
in Iiidian tales.; 15 f. 

blood in Indian folklore ... 45 

Bluebeard, tale of, tests iri tlie 
notion of iaM ... 2S 

Srij KSj of JammAii and Gha- 
hiandS Of Gul6r, unpublished... 6 

bl'ide, hhorthodos, basis of the 
sleepingbeahtiy, Si2; as fairies... iS 

caluninid.tfe(i wife, the ,„ u. 49 
calumny, stock causes of i.. 15 

cannibalism, CeremOhial, due to 

sympathetic magic .i. ... 29 
ceremonies iii tte Legends j value 

of .; 63 f^ 

CilafldarbhaQj Story of, ttlpUb- 

lished 7 

" chatity " in India defined ... 33 f. 
charmed thiilgs, uses Of, in the 

LeijMds ... iu 44 



charms, nature of, 30 1 prophy* 
laotio, importance of, 30 ; for 
bnakc-bite, 30 ; against sor' 

oerefs ... .i. 30 

"chastity" in India, 52 : male,= 
virtue^manly capacity, 52; 
origin of the difierenee between 
folk views of male and female. 52 
chav]>vr described in the Legends 55 
companions of the hero, conven- 
tioiial, IB ; serve for his glori- 
fication ... ... 15 

conception, miraculous ... 14 

conclusion of Indian folktales, 

usualform of ... 66 

co-wife, the, in folklore 49 

cures, miraculous, 24 : miraculous 

acd magical >. 20 

curiosity, puuishmcnt of idle, in 
folktales rests on ta6?i... ... 28 

curses of saints, 25 : used to 

extort favors 32 

customs, conventional, as ex- 
hibited in the iff/cKi?*, 64: based 
on ideas, 28 ; based on beliefs, 
noted in the Legends 65 

Daud Badshah, Story of, unpub- 
lished ... 7 

IJaud Khfiii of the Dakhan, un- 
pablished ... ... ... 7 

Daja ESm Gujar, Story of, uu' 
)iiiblished ... ... ... 7 

dead, raising the 21f. 

death, temporary, an universal 
notion, 20 : a form ot immorta- 
lity 20 

Deity, confused peasant notious 
of the 65 

Deluge, the belief in the, reflected 
in the Legends ... ... ••• 65 

demon, definition of, 39 : worship 
of. is hero-worship, 39: of South is the saint of North 
InJiij 18 


dia, definition of 39 

devil, »ee demon, 18 : oa-sting out, 

not common in the Legends ... 20 
Dhanna Bhagat, stock miracle of 26 
Db61a and Samml, Legend of, un- 

publislied 7 

disease, loathsome, a sin ... ... 61 

disguise, uses of, in folklore, 15, 
37; as distinguished from 
metamorphosis ... ... .>. 3? 

divination not common in the 
Legends, 59 : used chiefly in 
reference to marriage ceremo- 
nies, 60 : by dreams, 59 

dog, Oriental view of the 41 

dreams, mode of utilising, 59 : to 
help the progress of stories, 19 ; 
as a form of fortune-telling, 59 : 
prophetic, as a start to a story, 
59; as a warning, 69 : terrifying, 
26 ; use of terrifying, 59 : — in- 
terpretation of, a form of 
augury or divination ... ... 59 

drowning, immunity from ... 24 

(?dJ-grass, the miracle of the ... 24 
DuUa Bhatti, Story of, prepared 
for publication, unpublished ... 6 

eat-boring customs, origin of the 
use of 64 

ear-rings, origin of the nSe of ... 64 

egg-hero, a variant of the found- 
ling story 51 

enchantment, procedure of, not 
mentioned in the XfjrcH.ds ... i1 

enchanted line, the, 44 : circle, 
the, 43 : rosary or necklace 
arises out of the enchanted 
circle ... „. 44 

eSoroism, not common in the 
Legends, 20: arises out of posses- 
sion ,., 48 

exorcist defined 48 

expiation, ceremonies of, origin 
of 62 




fairies, position of, in Indian folli- 
lore, i9 : represent unorthodox 
brides or mistresses ... .. 49 

faith, the part played by, in the 
Legonds ... ,,, ,., ... 31 

fate, the power of the belief in 
India, SB ; efEeoc of, on Indian 
popular instances, 
57 ff, . is the explanation of 
every event, 57: — ^"life" in 
India, 56 : — rarely distinguished 
from the consequences of evil 
deeds, 56: — forecasts of, me- 
thods the same all over India... 55 

folklore, value of studying, 86 : 
the ideas of, can be expressed in 
terms of Grammar, 10; table of 
points of, 9 fE. : of the Legends, 
9 ff . : of the Legends, best 
method of presentation ... 9 

folktales, points in the com- 
mencements of, 13 ; points 
about the conclusions of, 11 : in- 
cidents in, points about the ... 13 

fortune, good, grant of 24 

fortune seeking as start to a 
story 55 

fortnne.telling as a start to a 
story, 55; as a means of priestly 

profit 56 

food, supplies of, inexhaustible .., 25 
foundling, the rSle of the, in In- 
dian folklore, 50 f. : stories of. 
Origin of, 51 : riverborne, 
stories of, in the Panjab ,„ 51 

gambling, popular Indian view 
of, 55 ; as"' a virtue of rulers,'' 
55 : as an ordeal, 55 : ceremo- 
nial, origin of, 55 ; a variant 
of the impossible task ...54 f. 

Gelert, tale of, common in India 
in certain forms ,., ... 15 


''generosity" in India defined, 
32 f. ; extravagance of, instances 
of, 33 f. : — in India means a 
propitiatory gift to a priest or 
saint, 32 : — ceremonial, origin 
of, 33 : consists ou y of con- 
ventional gifts 3'. 

ghosts mixed up with saints ... 1;> 

giant, in India,^ogre S;i 

godling, see saint ... 1*- 

gods and saints mixed up, 1!) ; 
reduced to the level of ordi- 
nary mortals I-i 

gold, creation of ... 35 

GorakhnSth, his miracles in the 

land of K4ru :2r; 

grave, the opening 31 

GuggS, Story of, prepared for 

publication, unpublished ... (i 
Gurii GuggS, nature f, 19 : stock 
miracle of ... ... ... 2*> 

hair, sacredness of, origin of, 47: 
burnt, origin of the folk -notions 
of, 46 f.; human, a spirit haunt, 
46 : — enchanted, use of, 46 ; 
enchanted, variants of 40 

Hari Chand, Story of, unpub- 
lished ... ... ... ... 7 

Hari Singh Xabvii, Ballad of, un- 
published ... ... ... S 

hero, natural, points about the, 
10: supernatural, points about 
the, 11 :^'0onventional com- 
panions of, 15 ! — born on auspi- 
cious day, 14 ; portents at his 
birth, 17: — is a substituted 
child. 14 ; is a predestined 
child, 14 : predestined to kill 
his parents, 14 ; victim of 
calumny, 15 : — the avenging-, 
14; — signs of the coming 
51 : — Identification of ... ... 13 




Jieroine, the Indian, 48 ff. : cha- 
racteristics of the Indian, 49 : 
ideas nbout thg, follows those 
about the hero, 48: — qflalitifes 
of the, 12j peculiarities of the, 
la: — mvtst be phaste, 52:—. 
usually ntaleficent, 49 ; benefi- 
cent, not pommon, 49: — is a 
child of pi;edesti;patiou ... 49 

Hinduisrp ^nd Islam mixpd up ^n 
popular belief 20, 31, 35 

holy perso;iages, sue samts ... 18 

holy places, use of prayer tP 
glorify 17 

holy water, use of, jn the Pa^ijab 32 

Inoroscopes, the casting of, a 
priestly privilege 56 

hospitality, Oriental, is sanctuary 65 f . 

jdentifipation, usually miraculous, 
15 : — by stamps or marks, 54: — 

by riddleg 55 

images, miraculous migration o.f, 

40; origin of chJvined ... .,, 46 
immortality, Indian belief in, 19; 
in relation to saints, 19: varied 

as temporary deatl^ 20 

impossible tf^t'k, the, a forrn qt 

ordeal 54 

impregni^tion, mir^pulousi ... 14 
incidents in fo}litaleSj valae of, 

62 f. : stgok 62 

Indexes, the object of tl}e ... !i 
inexhaustible, the, ill folklore ... 25 
infanticide, fenaale, i^se of, ^q 
avert ill-lack ... ... ... 62 

initiation by riddles ... ... 5,5, 

injury, of self, p.bject. Qf, 87 : by 

proxy 2Q 

invisibility, origin qf its uses in 
folklore, 47: superi;xatural ag- 
siatanpf, by, notion qf... ,,. 24 

invocation pf the presence of 
supernatvirfil beings, 31 f,: stock 
rr\ean3 for, 32 : — is b^spd on 
prayer ... 32 

Islam mixed witli Hindvii-stn. 20, 31, 3.^ 

^armaj £jnd patteh,gqng of, nn-. 
published 7 

J^imal and Fatteh, "Wars of, 
unpublislied ... ,,. ... 7 

Jamm41 ^nd Fatteh, Story of, 
unpublished ' ,,. ... ... 7 

J^gdeo, another Ver.siop of, un- 
published 8 

Iki Singh S^w^i of Jaipur, talo 
about 22 f. 

Jar^saudh, Story of, unpublish- 
ed fl 

jauluiry described... ,„ ... 6f 

Jephthah's daughter, story of, 
v^iriant of, in India ... ... 35 

jiute pir, immortal siliiit . . 19 

justice, poetical, in Indian folk- 
lore ' , 66 

K&ligarh, Story of, unpublished... 7 
Kasiir, History of, unpublished ... i^ 
Khaw^s Khan, Song of, unpub- 
lished ... ... 6 

LSI Beg, aept of 3a 

Lawrenpe, Sir IJenry, his sup- 
posed connection v^ith a 
miracle 26 f, 

leap, the heroic, basis of the ide» 
of the miraculous vehicle ... 45 f. 

Lei/enHf — number published i^ 
59, r(umber collected, is 118, 6: 
reflept the ways of the, people, 
64;— folklore of the, 9 ff. :— 
valfl^ of ,asropreseu,ting general 
In4\a,ufolkore, 9 ; display the 
full rpaohinery o| Indic^n folk- 
talea^ ... .,, ... ... 6^ {^ 




Jeprosy treated jjs a sin 61 

lj£e, lestoratioB ito, 24: destrUQtjou 

of 25 

Jife-iii^dex, a development of 

sympathetis paagic 29 

}i£e-token, see Jjfe-indes 29 

" loayes and fi*.es," stories of ,.. 25 
■Juck, *Qtion to ensure, b^sgd on 

augury 60 

Juck, bad, use of, in follfts,les, 
60 : a sin in Xndigi, CO f .; punished 
as a sin, 61 ; as a sin, the oause 
of some of the female inf antipide 
jnjfidia ... ... .,. ••• 62 

Maghrab Kh,4», Story of, un- 
pubjished ... .,. ... 8 

inagio, defined, 20 :— plays a small 
pa,rt in tlie Legends, 28 :— rcon- 
fused with mii-acle, 28: vsmis 
jniracle, 28 ;s=fSympathfitiG, idea 
due to that of the miraoje by 
proxy, 2§ ; gives rise to 
ceremonia) cannibalism, 29 :— 
oonch, use of the, 4:6 ; flute, 
use of the 46 ; music, origin of, 
46 : — number ... .,. ... 44 

lUandeT of Jainmun, Story of, 
unpublished ... ... ... 6 

Marriage of Shjy, prepa,red for 
publication, unpublished ... 6 

marriage ceremonies in India, an 
effort to foretell the fnture, 60 : 
in the Lf^ends, value of ... ft3 

raetajnorphpsis, origin of the idea, 
37 : as distinguished from 
disguise, 37 : — object of, in 
folklore, 86 ;— temporary, 38 : — 
power of saints as to 36 

jnetempsycliDsis, spread of the 
idea, 37 : folklore use of ... 38 

•'midnight the time fpr Saints" .., 19 

migration, miraculous 46 

milk wixgd up with boly w^ter,.« 45 

(Jjiracles defined, 28 -.— attitude of 
the native mind towards 2|d f . : — 
instances of, 22 : — objects of, 
21 f. : — for inadequate objects, 
23: — are often ordeals, 63 : — 
secret, 27 f,; the idea of, possibly 
rests on talm, 28: — by pTOxy, 
31 : — confused with magic, 28 ; 
versus magic, 28 : — power to 
work, testing of, 21: — the p^wer 
of working, inherent in saints, 
2J. ; of saints, nature of, 23. f . ; 
stack, of saints, their origin, 26 ; 
tq prove sqintship, 53 : efEeoted 
by things dedicated or sacijed 
to saints, 31 : — connected 
with Sir Henry Ijawrence .... 26; 
lyiiran Sayyld Hussftiu Wall, Spng 

of, unpublished... 7 

Mirzfl and Sahibfin, Legend of, 

unpublished ,, 7 

misfortune, a sin 60 f. 

inoon, the story of an artifio'i^d, ... 2:i 
music, magic, QTJgin of if% 

?i(S^, iee serpent ■• -10: 

NSgas, the, remain in Ijidiau 
folklore as serpents 41 

i^iigiii, sec serpent, 40:=sim ply the 
female nig „, 50 

nfvme, to mention the, of a hus- 
band unlucky „, 66, 

nightmares, nature of ... ... 25 

nostrums in India used to avert 
the sin of misfoiTtune 61 

numbers, magic, 44 : not importaflt 
in folklore ... ... .... 44 

Oftth, definition of, 34 ; mixeS ap 
popularly with vow, 3 5 : — origin 
of taking an, three times, 
36 : — ceremonies on taking, im- 
portance of, for folklore, 35: — 
avoiding of consequences, on 
taking a rash .,, ... ,., 35f. 



Ogre, definition of, 39; is the hero 
of the "other side, " 39; the 
enemy of the heroic tribe, 25 :— . 
capacities of, 25 : — in India= 
giant, 39; description of tho 

Indian 3g 

ogress=6imply female ogre .,. 50 
offerings, to saints, nature of .,, 32 
Omens, attempts at foretelling 

the future ... , 60 

oracles, modes of procuring, the 
.same all over India, 55 : — 

specimen of 55 f. 

ordeals, origin of, 53: for testing 
claimants, 54 : lead to miracles, 53 

pactit-ii described in the Legends, 65 
penance, origin of .. ... 34 

philosophy, the peasant, exhibited 
in the incidents of the folktales 63 

portents at bijths 17 

"possession " defined, 48; not 
prominent in the Panjab, 48 ; 
the leading motive of religious 
eremonies in South India 

and Tibet 48 

Pntiphav's Wife, place of the story 
in folklore, 15 : a common Ori- 
ental tale, instance of , 15 

prayer, uses of, in Indian folktales, 
17 : the part played by, in the 
Legends, 30 f. • introduced to 
glorify holy places, 17 : in the 
Legends addressed usually, but 
not always, to God. 31 : voice of, 
its connection with magic 

music ... 46 

predestination, child of, hero is.. 14 
predestined child, heroine is a ... 49 

pregnancy, miraculous 14 

priesthood arises out of " pos- 
session" ... ... 48 

prisoners, release of, an act to 
ensure good luck ,,. ... 66 

prophecy, usual object of, in 
folklore, 36 : as a start to a 
story, 55 ; power of saints, 30 : 
fnlfllment of, its place iu folk- 
lore ir> 

propitiation, object of, 32 : vicar- 
ious, 32 : by abuse 32 

punishments in the Legends ... 66 f. 

purification, ceremonies of, ori- 
gin of „ ... 61 i. 

rain, bringing of .... .„ ... 24 

EAja Amar Singh, Legend of, 
unpublished 7 

RSja Bhartari, Story of, unpub- 
lished S 

Eaja BhJmi Story of, unpublish- 
ed ,. 7 

RUja Chand, Story of, unpublish- 
ed 8 

Eanjit DSv of JammAfi, unpub- 
lished 7 

Eaj4 HarnSkas, Legend of, pre-- 
pared for publication, unpub- 
lished ... ... e 

EljH JagdSo, tale of, 22 f,: a sub^ 
stituted child, 14: a Version of, 
unpublished, 7 : Legend of, un- 
published 1 

Raja of JaisalmSr, Legend of, 
unpublished 1 

Kaja Jaswant of Jodhpftr, Song 
about, unpublished ... ... 7 

Kaja JSbinas, story of, unpub- 
lished ... 7 

Eaja Karaig, Legend of, unpub- 
lished 7 

Eaja Man Slngh of Imber, 
unpublished ., 7 

Bai Morni, Story of, prepared for 
publication, unpublished ... 61 

ESja, Legend of, unpublished 8 

Eaja RasaiA, Legend of, unpub- 
lished ... ... ... ..> 7 



Raja Eattau Sain of Ohittaur, 
prepared for publication, un' 
published ... ... .>. 6 

Eajauri, Wars of, unpublished ... 7 

■rdkhas, definition of 89 

Ram Singh Kuka, a miracle con' 

neoted with ... • 27 

EHua Maldev of Gai-h Meria, un- 
published ... ... ..' 8 

Eani Nautanki and the Panj^bi 

Lad, unpublished .., ... 8 

Baiiiit Singh and MuzafEar KMa 

of Multan, prepared for publi' 

cation, unpublished ... ,.• 6 

reappearance in relation to saints 10 

refuge, see sanctuary ... ... 65 

registration of royal births .•. ll 
religious sanction to acts of 

practical value.., 60 

restoration to life, 24 i to health... 24 
resurrection, various forms of ... 24 

" Kevolution Elms " 29 

riddles, uses of, in folktales, 55 : 
ordinary use of, almost un- 
known in folklore, 55 ; con- 
ventional, used for identifying 
hero, 55 ; a variant of the im- 
possible task, 84 f. : a form of 
ordeal, 54 i as a variant of the 
iwayanivara, 55 : conventional 
form of, 55 : initiation by ... 55 
Eode Sh4h, stock miracle of ... 26 

sacrifices, origin of, 34 : hitman, 
modern instance of ... ... 17 

Saint Apparent 19 

saints, description of the, in the 
Legend^) 38 : importance of, in 
Indian folklore, 18: play a more 
important part than the secular 
heroes, 18: worship of, is hero- 
worship, 39: and all holy per- 
sonages essentially animistic 


heroes, 20; — of North India is 
the demon of South India, IS ; 
and gods mixed up, 19 ; with 
the attributes of gods, 19, mixed 
up with ghosts and spirits, 
19 :-^stoties of, forms of, due 
to religious philosophies, 20 -.-^ 
miracles an attribute of, 22 ; 
miracles of, nature of, 23 f. ; 
brigia of stock miracles at- 
tributed to, 2G : — power to pro- 
phesy, 36 ; power to injure, 
25 f , ; power of metamorphosis, 
36 f. : — sons granted by, 24 :^ 
are always heroes oS " genero- 
sity," 33: — intercession of , uses 
of, in Indian folktales, 17 j 
offerings to, nature of ... ... 32 

«(J/i:(? described fi" 

Sakhi Sarwar, stock miracle of... 26 
sanctuary, described, 65 f. ; the 
idea of, covers Oriental notions 

of hospitality , ... liS 

sati, as defended in the Legeiuh, 
38 ; political nature of its origin. 38 

second sight in India 20 

self-sacrifice, 14 j expiatory, origin 
of 34 

serpent of Indian folklore re- 
presents the fightiug emblem 
of the NAga people, 41 : stories 
represent the struggles between 
the Aryans and the "NAgas, 41 ; 
of Indian folklore described ... 40 

serpent-women, Uses and methods 
of 50 

seven, a leading magic number 
in India, i. ... ... ... 44 

Shah BahSwal Sh§r, Story of, 
prepared for publication, un- 
published 6 

Shiv and the Weaver, unpublish- 
ed 7 

shrines, aspect of ,,4 ,.> ,., 65 


feUPPLliMENTAlit iNDilXj 

signs of the coftlillg h6ro, relrif- 
ed to " fulfllmfiht of prophecy," 

15 ; to prove saintship ,., 5S 
"signs ti£ royalty)" the, a form 

of ordeal 54 

Sikandar Zu'lkararl atld ShSr Jang 

Badsh4h unpublished 7 

sin defined, 61 : a condition of, 
indicated by misfortune ... 60 

skill, impossible 'IB 

sleeping beauty, the, :t'ests on 
the foilndling, §1 f , : the, 
chatactefistics of, 52: is an 
unorthodox bride ..i ... 52 
slavery, Voittntary, fdi" debt, ori- 
gin of .li S4 

Snake-bite, its effect on the pea- 
santry, 30 ; charms for ... 30 

sons, value of, in India, 16 1.: desire 
for, reflected in Indian tales, 

16 f. : desire for, has led to 
murdet and inceudlnrism, 17: 
LTiiuted by saints, 24 i nostrums 

f or protturing 11 

sorcerers, charms against, 30 : 

mixed Up with saints find spirits; 19 
stamps and marks used at shrines 54 
strength, impossible ... ... 15 

Btepmother, the, in tfldian folk- 
lore 49 f. 

substituted child, 1'4 ; by own ilot 
as a mode of self-sacrifice, 14 : 
iustance of accidentally ... 14 
BUch^t Singh of Jdttimiih, unpub- 
lished 7 

Suicide, voluntary, to escape dis- 
honour, 07 : ceiremonial, object 
of 67 

Sun-worship, i:embants of ... 65 
Kiimyamvartti bstsed on ordeal 
as a variant of the impossible 
task, 54 : a political manteuvre, 
54 : in the form of riddles .,j 55 

tdlii Of wonldtl in IridiW, i9 : 
the basis of fetHale chastity, 52 : 
the idea of, leads to' secret 
miracles... .„ ... „•. 28 

tales, modes of eOinmenciiig ..-.• 55 f. 
talking animals aid things ... 43 
T^rS Azim, Song of, unpublfehBti 7 
M» taldq, customs based oii ..-. 36 

" token^trees " defined 2t» 

tombs, miraculous migratiota'ol,.. 4(5 
torture, the use of, in the Legends, 

merely vindiotive 67 

treasure, inexhaustible, 25 :• find- 
ing of hidden 25- 

treeSj commemotative, origito of 

planting 29- 

tricks as incidents... ... ... 63 

tuUl beads as a general proffey- 

laotic charm ... 30' 

twelve, a leading magic number 
in India... ... ... ... 44: 

umbrella, the royal, originally an 
emblem of divine protection... 66' 

unOleanness, ecremonial, a mis- 
fortune and t'herefore a sin ... 01 

vehicle, the niiraculous, 45: Inira- 
cUlous, based on the lieroio 
leap, 45 f.: ihiraculous forifW of. 25 

vengeance as exhibited in the 
Lecjends, 06 f.-: sacerdotal, forms 
Of 67 

virtue, male,=^ftianl!y capacity, 
52 : is fighting Strength, 39 : 
fetnale,=ohasfity, 52 f.: in the 
form of oerethonial gambling ... 55 

vorScity extraordinary 25 

vo*, origin of Wiaking a, three 
tithes, 36: definition of, 31 : mix- 
ed up pop ulartj With oath, 35: 
fulfilment of iS^ 



warriors (Jfr.s), nature of ... 

water, Indian notions of, as » 
purifier, 45 ; water, holy, in 
India, 45 ; mixed up with 
ambrobia, 45 ; mixed up with 
millv ,., 

wind, fair, bringing of a 

wise-woman in Iudia=witch ,., 




witch in India= wise -woman, BO : 

charaoteristios and uses of the... 50 
women, position of, in India, 

4 8 :— in India, to Jm of , 49 

ZShir Pir=Saint Apparent ... 19 
zone, the, as the emblem of male 
and female ohastity 52 f.