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TvCocit^le 



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I 



CYCLOPEDIA 

or 

BIBLICAL, 

THEOLOGICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL 
LITERATURE. 



PRKPASED BT 



THE REV. JOHN M'CLINTOCK, D.D., 
JAMES STRONG, S.T.D. 

Vol. X.— SU-Z. 



D,„u„ab,GoOgIc 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



DigmzedbyGoOglc 



UST OF WOOD-CUTS W VOL X 



ft^Miniam P*ga 

rfmiHlM nn Ihe SncdncUiriiiin.. 
Wubln;: belbra or 4lt« ■ Heal... 

A PuiT (t Dinner or Sapper 

Alur 

Anliltnut 

AntiqH BapnMDtadoos of Sdsu- 

Ftoin nf SnnlSTlt 

TbeSirift 

?irpl* Oilllnale 

Culm ttrock lo Commemornta 

Praa 

Idnccr Cbnrch. - 

Aatient Sg/Mlui F\s('. 

Aodail PenliD Swi>nla and Dig- 

Aarfflbl BgTprlHD Dfi^nrB.. , 

Aqdent Affl^'luj 8wdi^ .,,. 

Cludeal Sirordi aud Dsggen 

Modgrn OrieoUl Swords aDd DiU(- 

BbAMnllwn^-iJH 

Bktt MaHnny Fnill, Le^ and 

SKiaara DMT A^hkelrai 

^imora Fig and Leaf 

PnAiUo BtpnwnuUan oT an An- 

deot Srnafogne , ,....,... 

FUn otRilonTsyongogae at Ttll 

J*wMi STDagDgae In AmMerdani . 
niBafSjTKUe and llaEnTiroDa. 

Osla oT SVncDM. 

XiporSjrla. 

wulo-ntl of TabetnaclaCoarl. 
Ciri1b-«i]I of Bntrann 10 Tabar- 

Fln oCTibcriucle aad Court . 

BbAMi of tiM "hbcrnacla CDDrt. . 
BotUn of Ihc ConHt'Plaaka of 

Tibanude 

RuktoD Ibelr Bawt. 

FuiCDlna f>r Tii|> of Boardi of 

TalHraade. 

Contr Buaid of Taberoacle <»0- 

conhnaLo Bl^zaabacli).- 

Con^loardtucordliig lo Har- 

pkj) - 

Tub ind Bottom Paru of Coniar 

BwdL 

View of lb* Wooden Walla of Uia 

Tabernacle - 

Tibcnaclo a* reauncd bj Fergna- 

^bcrnaclv Ha nfltond hj Palue . . 

Bbu ot Uie Tabernacle 

I^mr Tacbe In Ibe Tatwmacle 

laaei Carulni. 

ha iDd Section of Boards 

Ctmr Bmitl and SuckatS 

Coner Board shoirlnE una Bln^.. 
Cuddibrim of the Tabamada. . . 

SuHH nbemacle at Kiuloie 

XodetB Orleatal Table and Traf.. 

Anlal EfTpilan Table 

AndcBl AaijrUn Table. 

TaUaotSbew-bread 

MsanlTaboc 

Modem OiienUI InairamaDla 

Tsmboorlne Plarera 

Tabula Pacta. 

KalnralTrpeof ttio"Taebe" 

Umiliu oriba l^bemacla 

rm oriba Bain* of Palmrra 

TIev of the Baina of Palmyra..... 

^■ati at Pihajra 

tjyar e^of m mal 



at nrTaraDB...Paga tIO|Ti 



irch or TllD> at Bnnit 



Klevattoo ol ,._. 

BoekMiim of 8al»m<iu'a Teintila.. . 
Qroond-plan of Solumun'eTemiile 

"■rnctores of Solomoii-B Temple... 
ewa of Bolomon-i Temple 

"ineoflheWnliorUiBHariim'ai 

M'AngleofTempiBWa'a.V;!'.!!!!!;.' 
itealonillDa ot Herud'a 'ntmule.... 
■-itlal City 



lit Soman Coffin, York. 

Tomb In WBlerperry , 

Altar-tomb In St. Marv-f, Thain 
InGreatHllIoii.... 

InBradnii 

Tombalone In ItnndtHirongh... 



Andant Itoman 

Modem Orleuul Tunhet . . 



ix^pinfpet 



Assjrlim Tenti 



it-^ and Mallet.... 






n Aaayrlsn Terupblm. 

It Flpnres 

1 .If Terablnib 



tr of Broiiklhiirpe... _ _ 

EfofBrlfllDgtou ew 



. tSUTnttnn'sOolnmnlnBome Bl 

. SHlColn of Trajan bl 

. tS4'It*pbael'i Uepreseiilallim of Iha 

. SMI T™u»Ognr»ilon N 

L niiTmpplatlloukniKlITan H 

. sns Ancient Aeryriiina CuttliiK duwii 



areiilUfillalKnrnnk... 
TbeMeinnoiilomntThe 
CalnofTbeudaalnal.... 

orTtaeualnulalV.' 



iiA»irlnQ TaTlaii u 

ISpnulahTrlnltnrlBuUaok. N 

■ rrintiarinn Snii « 

'Coins of Tiipulle bf 

Triptych " 

"-' — iphal Proceialoa of Riinie>eg 



Ztigphiul 



It ThewolonlcB.. BB4 



nclent Asi<>rlnn Klnj; Id Pri>cae. 
fiiiuanerVicIorleB 

AMyrlan Kii>i: PUclnglhe Foot iii 
■••- Nock iif 0.1 Knemy 






!"RnlDsnrtbeOymiiadnmatTtanB. SOI 



Palliint 

Batcbar's 



.. SSllPlDnorTrogylllani 

. *8i|AnclenlBayp1a"TrnnipeH..., 
.. K8.i;Vnrioa>FotniaorTtnnip«le..., 



THbuluiUrratrii. 

Tba ATiibbor Dhir. 
FlcurecifThiilb .. 



. 883. Coin otTrypbon 

. SMTndor^fe 

. tS4 MapofnirkeT In Bnrona... 

. BS6\P(iiai^ UriUtakiiM 

It Beckley.Oitird ■ 



Oriental Plain Tbrcahlog-aledge.. 

Wheeled Thrablns.elsdi;ea. 

Awyrlnn Chair of Biaw7 

Audeiit Bcyptlan Thruna. 

Bcclealnatlcal Tlirooa 



BSOTnTTBt of 8t. Mary^ Beverley ., . 

BKllTarlur .£eiWt«ic«t 

ttllCblum&alWtnr. 



id Lake ofTlberlag 



. BM.KarlyCnfnorTyn 

, BHB'ModeniTyrB. 

.. S« Greek Ci,(n of Tyi 
, MTiRnliisofTynjom 
.. SW'Planreof Kill.... 
. BBSOreek Uncials.... 

. SsnlLalln Uncials 

. «ll. Wild Ball 



Aeay^nn Clay Tablet. 

Pan-tllea 

EooMllea 

Boman Tiles in Whentley < 

Tile In Weatlelgh 

THelnCuDterbaryCntbedmi 

Tile Pnrement of St. Piiiil'* In 

TIlea In i^aine Cbordt, OiS>rd- 



>« Plnn of Mngtieir Itnli.s. G70 

« Ruins ot Temple nt Mngbelr «l 

W Ancient KEyptInn Sinndhiit Flg- 

nrta of tbe Ooddeas orTroib mid 

w Jnallce «S 



ISIe In Woodpcnr. 

Ancient Oriental Tambnarlna 

Mudem Kayptlnii Tnmbonrtne,... 
^□pendBge to Modern Egyptian 

ColnofTlina. '..... 



10 Plgnrea on Egyptian Breaslplali 

lOSt.Tjrfnla 

UraullDeofTroURlTl^ree, Canada » 



■h^^r^fc 



LIST OF WOOD-OUTS IN VOL. X. 



CotocrVaUntlnluiII Fi« nei&i 

CalnarValeiitlDluilU aaal 

Cola of Teleri»a 

Vane al BUD ton HnrcoDit. 

Plan of Vailcan Pntncfl at Rame,. 
Bpeclmaii of ctaa Ooia Vaticanut. 

Cylindrical Tialt 

Qnilned Vault 

VhoIi Id WettmlnsterAblMr..... 
Vanltlne-Rhan, NsllcT Abbij ... 

OTleDtolOat-door Vdia 

OrieiiUIIn-doorVella. 

All EgTptlnn WotDKn Veiled 

A flT^an Veiled Wumaii 

» urihe Atayrlan Venoi... 



it Sgrpttan Vlnejrard, IrlU 
ICs unit nr water Pagi 



IFIliDrenrVlabDU 

I Habit oflha Order at llie ^atUllon 
I otSLUm. 8M 



i Voneuin 

I Anliooa Bead nTVnlciii .... 

r,Spedineiu oriISS, oftbe Vn 

) BTsTpiian Taltnra 

lOffifon Vulture 

^Auclanl A*>yrl*u Wison.... 
l,TarlilBb Arabah 



rein ule or ttae PaphUa Veiii 

it.VBronlcn 

Portrait ofChrlat on SLVeroi 

Handkerebler 

Vefica Placla. Ely CWbtdt*).. 

Cola of Vetpiuun 

Flpira of Veala 

Veilllnm -, 

AutlqaeFlgnnofVleloiT. TIB Walking wilb Blldu. 

WlniKMp.7. :.... "•'" — ' !-•*--■-.-■ 

Vigneltg TSIJA WnUred Oardan 

""'""°" ~" " ,. T80 Pcileajn?? t'.'.'."".'."'.'"-'. 

it ADdent KETpUiu Woimn WaST- 

-. ™o Inj "... 

iljAn EgTpliui Looni 



.^.-k'HlklDK-eUdnlODadatTbabeL.. SOS 
mPrlaala and olbar Peraoo* ot Rank 

— ~- - 1 a 

Walla S 



fbomai orvnieDeUTe 

Da VIncl'e Flrat Sketcb ot Bi 



Vine otPaleitba , ,.,,. 

Watcb-towerlB Vlna^rd,.,.,^^ ttJjModflm K 



EcxptlnoVinerardnndWlDB-preaa TW AndaatEnullan 

nJniiatiTe Hieroglyphic SIsnlgduK Anajrlao wi^iihla, 

Vlncrard IMl Ancient Kgypilaa 



yptian 8bBW|.ii>aarer . . 8M 



Well atBeerataeba.. 

'adenl EerptlHa laacQTue lor 

Railing Water 

..'eatmliuterAbiM*. 

KgjptlanWbeU 

'-icTeDtBKTpilan Chariot •« bed. 

-jciartlCgyptUD Wblpf. 

Wblp Bnapended fnim Ihe WrUI. 

SaU» .^gupUoM 

Weeping WlllniT 

Branch at tbe Weeping 1 
Oriental On t-doDT Veltl b 
Orianlal In-doot Veile fa 

EKTpilanWolt _. _ 

Speciuan of Iba Caii Qudphir- 

Cinnnian Woraiirood . ■ . 



Rnlni at 8nrnhDd.. . 



wTorlcCllTl; 

liBTiibe of Zebnian 

aaotHnU 

laed Toarn ofSabalU .... 

•demZldon 

Hk Coin of Sldon 

ID of tbe EnTlrDDaorZldo 

iwatHonntZlon 

ip of the Original Sarhce 



Kerf lino Kabt&Mk Ml'Zovi(ao<*San)--< 



.dbyGooglc 



CYCLOPEDIA 



BIBLICAL, THEOLOGICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL LITERATUBE, 



Biud& the Reaan pcnoniflaUioD of pttmaiioit ; 
tbc Umk Ptitlie. 

BnadtlK, thcdimiautiveof SuAPA (q. v.). 

aa'ill(H(ti. n»a SK'aeh,tirrepiiig [GMen.],or rich- 
H [Flint]; ^|M. Suvi). 6m named of ihc eleven " nna" 
•>( Z^phih u A9lietiu(IChroii,vji,3GJ. EC ippit- 

Siuria (»r Snares), J<whfh Marif., a French 
pnbu and ■iriiqaariaih was born July 5, L6S9, at Avi- 
iniaa, and edueat«il at hii native place. Having em- 
tnnd Ike ecdeaasiieal alaie, he became Che coiJJii- 
tnr at hi* nnde Frandacn Snarea (q. v.) as proToM of 
■be mbedral, and afterward* went tn Bonie, where car- 
iliiul Barberini gars hin chatjce oT hii library. Hav- 
ing ncrired apreral adiliiinnal hnnon, he waa at lengih 
(■HMal by Urbaa V[|[, in 1633, to the biahapric nf 
VaiHn.ia which capacity he altaeked Calrinigm; but 
he Inally iai)[ned in r>rar at his brother Chirfe% and 
ntind (■ B*ne, when be died, Dec 7, 1677. His an- 
■i^aaiiaa wrilings are eaunetated la Haefer, iVow. 

Hii bralhu' CHARLin Joanrn, bom at Avignnn in 
ICIK. becaiae pri«t in IGII, iMceeded to the bialiopric 
^VaiMn in 166S,aad died there Nov. 7, IS70. 

A aephcw of both the preceding, Louis Alfhombic, 
bWB Jaae «. IMS, at Avifnon, auiilied thenli^ at the 
SMiaary of St. Sulpacc, raoeeedtd hia nnde aa biahnp 
of Vaeoa in 1671, beU a tf nod there in 167S, and died 
Han.-h II, ISU. nerar Sa^Kue^ in VanduBC 

A BFpliew uf the laat preceding, Looia Mahti^ Waa 
biAop •< Abu (now I>ax) bi 17SS, and dbd Anil ]7, 
irsi. ' 

Saatex. FKA^tciKo^ a Spanish Jeaolc, boni it Qra- 
aada, Ja^ i, IMS, waa a pn>fe«or of repulaci->ri at At- 
cila, ai Salaiaanca, and at Kama. He waa allerwi 
iiTiial !■ Oiabfia, Portagal, where he became 
tnadpal pn,re*M>T of diviiiuy. He died nt Usbon, 
>*»L U, 1617. He waa an aathor uf the 
Biaaaa kind, aad the Jeulls cnnaider him the grealeet 

Vt hia writiriKa in HoeTer. A'nac. Biag. SMnifr, b.v. 
He i< the principal auLhor ut the avMem nf congnium, 
■hick it ai bottom imly that »r Molina. Kather Nnbl, 
a riiiih JeviU, maila an abrid|rinetit of Ihe wnrka 
•( Ibb cowiBeMator (Geneva, 1732. fid.). There is a 
£tf( </ turn bf Anlnny Uenrhampa ( Per|>>t(nan, 1671, 
to). 
SnaTamblm, in HindS (nviholngy, was the son of 

In l>eva^ilhi waa mamed in Kaitama, one at the great 
(■vgeniliirx, and bore nine dau|;1it(ni, who became the 
■<tH<,rilieiiinr rrraaiiiiDgprugtnitun. By Saianipa, 
il>a daugliier of Uramah, liusyambhu became Che fa- 

Mwanla (he exlcoaiun uf the bumau familr. — Vullmer, 
Vilni.rt.dVfrM.a.r. 



I Sa'ba (Idu^Uc ▼■ r. lapi!i\ a name given onljr In 
the Apocrypha (1 Eadr. v, M) amoni; the anna of ^lo- 
mnn'a aerranls who relumed with Zerubliabel from the 
I Capiiviiyi but not found in the parallel Hebrew liata 
(liiraii,3a-37; Neb. vii, S7-«9). 
i au'bai (Sp^n(),aGi«cized forni (I E*dr.v,80)of 
the SiiALMAi (q. V.) uf the Hebrew lists (Eira ii,46| 
Neh. vii, 48). 

Bubairtutlon, a term denoting the delivery bj 
the bridegroam lo (he bride of the ring and other gilit 
at the time, and during the act, of marriage. 

Snbcanoo, an inrerior or minoi canon (q. v.). 
SnbchBnceHor, or Soribe. The nutary of Ital- 
ian cathedrals is the chancellor's vicBr, called also reg- 
istrar ur matricular, and at St. I'aul'i, in 12S0, designated 
as irriplor libranm. He acted as asustant secretary, 
librarian, lecturer iu theology and law, and teacher of 
reading. 
Snbcbaater, or Snocantor, the deputy of (he 

precen(ar, the principal among ihe vicars in choir. 
The precentor sit on the right-hand side of the choir, 
and the succenlor on the left. Hia office was usually 
the gift of the chapter; occasionally, however, be waa 
notninalect by the precentor. There were two kinds of 
subchantere; 1. The auccenlor of canons, or succentor- 
major (Brat mentioned in (be llth century), at York, 
Bayeax, Paria, Amiens, Glaagow, CbUons, Girgenti, 
Well^ and Salisbury, acteil aa precentor'B deputy with 
regaril to Ihe canons; he ranks alier the subdean, and 
the olHce was given by the diocesan. At Amiens 4e in- 
stalls canons in the lower sulls; at Kouen he holds a 
prebend and regulates proceasiona ; he is often called 
prickunire in distinction from (he ffrand chanirt, 2. 
A vicar, deputy, and aasiatant precentor. At Seville 
and I'Ucenlia an.l in England be tabled the minisura 
far service: at Chicheater and Hereford he chaatiaed 
the boys, and nrdiuarily his du(iea were conlinol (o or- 
dering ptoceseiona, delating offenders, and general au- 
petvision nf the luwer choir; he cotdd not correct B 
canon. His olHce appears at Chichester and St. Da- 
vid's in the 13th cpnturj-; he corresponds lo the pre- 
centor of the new rounds tiiiMs. At Lichlield and St. 
David's Ihe subchaoler is beail of the Vicar's 0)l- 
legf. 

SubdAaooo. The ancient Christian Church had 
but two classes ofolficera, (he /irrndrnft, wpnvmifittw, 
mijunt, iiyninivoi, also iiriaicawai, upta^vrtpm, and 
the Mtrvan/i, fiocoi'rii ; the former being charged with 
functions within the Held of ivorship, while the Istler 
were employed iu administering the charities of the 
Church. In lime, the episcopacy waa developed out of 
the preshylerate, and the aubdiscoiisle from the diac- 
onate. The latter una always regarded by the Church 
aa of human invention, and as having been introduced 
" utiliutis cauaa" (aee Mnrinus, Comm. de S. Eecltt. Or- 
dinal. Kitrrilal. xi, 1 ). Ita introduction was, more- 



SnBDEAN I 

ovtr, gradual, and not nnirunn thnMighoot tbc Choich. 
ISnine churcbes were withnut wibdeaconi ■• liu ■* tbe 
■nbldle of the 9lh cenliii)'; and, bcFnre the hierarchy 
anumed a riifid and uiicliaii)^l>le fiirm, the subdUcu- 
nat« wu not re(;an.l«l an iiiili>]Knuble preliminary lo 
the itiacuiime. Tlie exisieim oC *ubilric»ii> in the 
Church of Kome as earlv as A.D. 350 i> ihnwii in a let- 
ter or pope Cornelius M bii>hi>[> Faliiis of Antioch (Eu- 
■eb. //iff. £cr/fJ.vi,13; colap. USi, Itrgtit. FotUif. So. 
N I ; in Spain an early as A.U. iWa, in cb. 30 of the 
SyiHxl oT Elvira; in 'Africa about the middle iif the 
3j centuiv, in different letlera or Cyprian (i, 8, 29, 30, 
etc) ; and' in the East by the niiddl* of the 4th cen- 
tury, aa appeals rrooi deterniinaliona of Ihe Svnod of 
Laoilicea in 3«1 (Diat. xxiii, 31-28}, aud a letter of 
ALhanaiiiu(^d5aiir(ir.A.D.B30). 

The subdeacona were reckoned among tbe ela» of 
Ordintt Mvmrtt, and their functiona mere of inferior 
dignity. They were permitted lo loueb the aacredvea- 
•ela if empty, in thi* baring t pre-eminence over oth- 
er J/mora; but, in general, their duties vereaimply the 
receiving of obUtiona (hence (NUulioaurii), the care of 
the tombs of martyred taints tbe guarding uf church- 
doon during the idminialniion of the lacrament, etc 
In course of time the reading uf tbe Iragon from the 
epistles waa added and became tbeir leading function. 

The Importi nccoftheanbdiaaanalewiaen hanced when 
Cregor}' the (ireatincluded it under the operation of the 

merobera were made eligible lo the episcopal office by 
the Council of Benerenio in the ponlilicate of Urban II, 
I09[. The ijueiLiDn now arose whether the Hibdiaco- 
naie must uiit be counted among Ihe Ordiiitt Miijorti, 
which waa Snally determined by Innocent III in favor 
nf inch promotion. Subdeacona thereby acquired tlie 
ri|{hiB of Ihe superior orders as respects personal in- 
dependence, etc They aaaume a lille at ordination, 






'efuibi 



r, pecuh 



in that the candldalea 

crating Uahop by tba aichdeacnn, Ihe Uying-i 

bands and queaiiunlng of tbe people are not usen, a 
the coiiMcralion is performed tnatead by "iraditiu i 
sirumenlorum et Teatium." The beginning ol the I wi 
ty-second year was fined by the Council of Trent(Sea«. 
xxiii, IS, De Rrfarm.) as the proper age for entering 



is office, 



y folluwi 



le befur 

ahnp^ h. 



ever, may depart from this rule ubeii needful (Sess. 
Xi[iii,lli Richter, /ffrrjItniwA', § 113). At the pres- 
ent lime, the subJiaconale exists aim]i]y aa a aiage oi 
the way lo higher atationa, and ita functions are gen 
erally performed by Uymen and presbyten. The lem 
ie aumelitoea used in I'roteaunt churcbea, but withou 
denoting any diatin^lion of order. 

See MoriiiDB,/Jc Sacrit OrxlinatiomlKii. pt. iii,exercil 
I!, Tham<ssinu^Fef. ff A'or. £aii>ucipl.xa, 30 b(|. 
^\a,RK>UdetI'fnrramta,\\,\,i\btn.; Richter, JjTir 
dtmrrckt, % 91, 103, 11S| Coleman, .4tic<nil CkriMl. Ex- 
n»/i/i>nt,Tiii,ll| KeTmg,Iitat-IiiK^Jop.».\.\ Wal- 
Ooit, Sarred AnliaoLa.T, 

Subdean. Tber« were three kind* oranbdeaniT 
1. The vice-dean. 2. The dean's vicar, hia suboOlcer, 
asvislant when present, and deputy when abacni , vice- 
gerent in choir, aa at Lichfield : both bad a similar of- 
fice, that of supplying the duties of the dean in his ab- 
aenee, S. Tbe eapilolar aubdeani tbe perpetual an 
clean, who is said to hold a place whicb la a t|uasi-di| 
nily in Ihe lilft of a bishop. He has a stall, anil co 
rcKponda to Ihe foreign archpnest having parochi 
charge of ihe cfcwe. The olTice waa founded in Salis- 
bury in 102). For a full hccount of his dulie* in the 
icveral cathedrals, see Walcolt, Siiertd AreAirol.»,v, 

Subdiaconiiaa, ■ term applied, in tbe early 
Church, In the wife of a aubilcacnn. 

0iiU|lU, a Roman divinity, Ihe god of the wed- 



SUBLAPSARIANS 



StlblDtrodnotn (awiitacrai) was a term apfJirA 
femalea kept by penona of clerical rank. Celibacy 
id chastity were regarded aa idenbcal fiom an earij 
period in the Church, and in consequence aaeelics in- 
vented Ihe plan of remaining unmarried and ukiiiK inm 
apiritual uuiun with Ihemwlve* young virgins (i^ti^s 
alrradv hinted ■■ in 
nt in the Sd cenlary, 
when Cyprian rondemns iL Ita spiritual characirrwas 
ipeedily lost, and it auim became aecesaaTy to legidaie 



rial ol 



'aulD 



ach,in 269 (see Eusebiua). 
beris furbade tlie clergy to have "aisten' living wiib 
Ihem: and ihaiofAncyni in 314, *Rd uf Nice in WO. 
prohibited associalion with all femalea whose relation 
lo the clergyman did not obviate all nnpicion (mnther, 
aiater, etc). Subsequent tegislalion on llie pannf boih 
Cburcb and Sute was in Ihe aame direciiuu ; e. g. of 
Ihe third Couucil of Carthage in 397 (On. 17,17) and 
Cod. de KptK. n Cterieii i, S, 19 of Hun.irius and Tbeo- 
•lueiiis. 4£0; Novella cxiiii,29; ciiiTii, 1, n Jan, at 

'I'he practice of keeping m6iB(njArf«. or »-frai«e*,de. 
veloped iuto omiplele concubinage, ami became w gen- 
enl Ihat Gonsiantly repeated pmhtliitioiis became Hecve- 
Bar>', under penally of degradation. Upon the whole 
subject, see Btuns, Cfnwnei J/ioftoi., etc In tbe 1 lih 
century the term /ufltriiB began to be applied Lotbisdta- 
reputnble diss (** meielrice* (bco ■aaitlenles"), and tha 
pricata were tcroKd/ocarulw, i. e.cniinitnii>'ti,^rnrB- 
lora. See Uu Fresne, G^DHitr.s. v.; (iieseler, ifi'rrirw- 
gnd. lih eiL vol. i-iii,pauimi 6'irA. Mugui (d. ISM> 
Stmo dt Foearulu tt NatoHu f orwuf. (Ureed. ISfiO); 
Trident. Cone. Sesa, xav, 14, Dt Rr/vrm^lltwiug, Stat' 
£uci/kiaiht,v. See AaM'KTM. 

SnbJectlTlamlsthedoclrineofKantthat aD hs- 
man hnowleilge la merely relative, or, rather, thai we 
cannot prove it to be abtiiliile, Accnnling In him, we 
cannot oAjecfi/y fhe gtibjfelire; that ia, we eannAt prove 
ibat what appears true to na must appear Inie in all 
liiielhgent bringai or that, wilh different faculties, what 
now appeals true to ua might not appear nntrae. Hntltf 
call our knowledge relative ia merely calling it hanan, 
or proportioned to the faculliea of a man; Juat as the 
knowledge of ancels may be called angelic Our knowl- 
edge may lie ailmilled lo be relative lo oar faculties of 
apiirebending it; but Ibat does nul make it leas cer- 
tain. See Fleming, Voeai.ofPMIotopA.SeinHr,t.r. 

SnblapBariaiis, or Infrauipbakians, is the name 
given by the orihudox Keformed Iheotngiaus to ihsse 
who consider the divine decree of eleclion as dependent 
upon that which permitted the intmductinii of evU. 
Tbe npralapiaTiiat, on Ihe contrary, consider Ihe de- 
cree t^election,orof predealination to eternal salvalioa 
ordamnaliim,as the original decree upon which alt otb- 
ers, including that permitting tbe introdnction of evil, 
depend. The qneslion consequently refers to tbe order 
in which these two decreea were promulgated, or, which 
amounis to Iho aame, lo a nearer appreciation of the •'!>■ 
Ject of predestination, i. e.whether Uod in iesuiiig Lu 
decree of election considered man (and Ihe an|^ls).a> 
fallen, or simply aa aubjecia whose eternal fale was to 
be decided apart from the consideralion of sin, althaoj^ I 
of course, knowing what wouhl be Iheir condurl. Both ! 
opinions have been permitted to exist aide by siile id . 
ihe Church even in times uf Ihe greatest inlaterance. 
as. in reality, the quealion dnea in no way affect Ihe 
dofpna of predestination. UoUi systenu hold to tbe fun 
damenlal principle* that eleclion ia otwlBfe, nol rooti 
rated by any cause outside of Gntl's will, unrkitnffmblf 
Killed since Ihe beginning of Ihe worid, and inJiiUibli 
in ita Mtiou. Yet the Synod of DoI^ in 16ie-lk, cs- 



SUBLAPSARIANS 

doflcd Iht Bri>l>(nuUa lh«atj, Uam«nu alone uphold- 
ing ■BpnUpHruuiUm, wUbout, howerer, eewdng to be 
TDHjCTvd orthodox. The ajand hid recognuni that 
both aMema pnanxcd the aame ruudameDlal <k>ccrine, 
and i«It prerTiwl aubUiiuriinuiD la preaeatiug lh>t 
■Wuiiaf in ■ fufia leas Dbjectionable la otber churches 
Tbia qMMiwn had rw conDrciiao whaUrer with Armin- 
uaimi, liir not tvta the aliithteM ippcmnoe ut ■ con- 
fgajun In Ihoae viem wiHild lUTe been lolented. la 
ItiS, at Iht dn«iiig-U[> of the ferwuila ConMUUl, 
ilM Swim refBKd rxpmaiy Ui endorae iubUp«arianism 

iralapaanaa*. The moat eminent theolngians, auch at 
Hcu, Piacauir, Vuetiot, Uomaru^ etc, a[iheld the Btrict- 
« (TiteH. It ia only in modem limea that aulilipaa- 
ruaiMB haa ennae u be eiinndered aa a real diminiahing 
■J the JiAcaliJca of Iht oithodax Reformed dourinn; 
bal Che aBcienu, who appreciated it more eorrectly, 
ilid sot luok apon it ai auch, and conaequenily did nut 
'fipi« it. The general prindpiea of the system were 
B Mian: The world, and man at Ant, anawered ex- 
«Uy to tbe dirjae plan : man waa created in primilira 
;4iiiy, fell by bia own volunlary act, lud thua becsjue 
'■hfeet (a iMributiaD,and thia infallibly: and although 



It tbe I 



^med, aud~ 



I SUBSCRIPTION 

ered in the plan of creation at having occiiTred, or even 

'cuired in a different manner than in that which tioil 
freely appointed in hii scheme iif creation. See llaeen- 
bach, y*5meiyBseA, ad eeLp,W*B! Schweiier, *'/. /Ay- 
isalii, ii, 12a aq.i the sanie, deici. d. rf/'. CnilruUliaa- 
mm,ii,43,55.l(ll. 

SableyiMB, Pibhrc, a French painter and enfrrav- 
er.oasbom at Uctn in 1839, and was I l>e son of Mat- 
thieu SubJeyrB«,a painter of cDniiderable merit. Pierre, 
St the age of fourteen, went to 'rouloime in order lo 
receive leeaona from Antoine Biralx, In 1724 he went 
ID faria, took the courae in the Academy, and in 1736 
gained the first priie. He went In Bnme in I7S8 aa 
n.yal penaioner, and dieit there. May 28, 1748. Hs 
painted several aacred and eccleaiaslical scenes which 
have been greatly admired. See Hoeler, Ncm. Mig. 
Gtnirak, a. v. 

SabmlkBlon, Act 
Henry Till, in 1631, « 
sary lo the yalidity of certain acta of convocation. 

SUBMISSION TO God implies an e 



m act passed in the reign of 



.UI Uiis bappem eitaly as 

(be •rginiiatim of the wono. an<i oecsuse 11 was tnus 
decadoL Tbe decrees were all equallr pnimulgated bv 
■ • • " ■ • e havini 



or. as Dr. Owen obBe^^■e^ it 
?Aconce in his rif^ht and soi 
edftment iif his righlenniHiei 






um ibc Ubet-. Yet we a 
•bMmml decrees nixaniiag 

wbtcb its object is to be attained; and theas decrees 

en precede the decree on the Hi 



tfaeir relatiiKi to each oth- 
,«by 



^ the aeir- 
i two ere« actri- 
n tlKne he sai-ea, 



B of Uod, anl ibat in I 
bales tl necey and jm 



fieal ebject iif the a 



dnee id eiedioD (ii>d loolied on man merely 1 
DM aa aaa fallen ; bence. also, Uomanis names as 
*f the decree of predeatinaliiin the "creatnra 1 
I, danuabilea, ereabilea, labiles, et 



■frmined properties. The anblapaariana arranged (he 
pka of creation in such a manner that God, fnim mu- 
arn of his own. decreed to create man, and to allow 
kka (o aio. knowing that he wouU infaUibly do ao; and 



>bele diKraice. The tw 
Acuine of abautate predeai 



<aI (be otigioalor of ei 



■ening the guilt of man or making 
method is 

FF4eriiiuit°n as lirmlr, and the guilt of man in the 
Fall: (nr what liod allixred in hit [dan is not permitted 
Iceaitse Uod foreaees what will happen, but only he- 
'Mse he vilb it. The snpralainsrians, indeed, sav that 
tte Fan itartf was piedeMlneJ, but mean oidy that it 
^ iafaHiUy lo come; while, nn tlie other side, tbe 
■iHapMriwii do not in any way mean that the Fall 
■^t not Un bappenad, Ibat it cnoid only be cuiisid- 






i. Keeping our anuls, 
bit wilL See Kitaio- 



Bnbpr«benclar7, a prebendary in inferior orders. 

Subprecentor, an attistant to and substitute for 
the precentor of a church or cathedral, whose diitv it is 
to attend to and guide tbe singing in the absence of tbe 

Snbpriar, an official in a priory, who i) the prior's 
deputy, and is ordinarily second in rank ro the prior* 

Bubramauya Mahabena, in Hiadfl myihnlo^, 
meuiing lit grtal Uadrr "/armia, it a surname of /fiif- 
liiryii, the son of Siva and tbe sisters Gonys and L'ma. 

Bubrunclnator, a Rorruin divinity who presided 
over tbe weeding and grubbing of gardens. 

Snbaactlst, an aasU 
diiiary sacrist or sacrist 
keeper* of the vestry and sacristy, church -deanen, 
bell-rinRer^ etc. At Lincoln they were called stall- 
keepers; at York, clerks of the vestibule; and at Can- 
terbury, vestuTeia. 

Snbuoiirtan. See Sl-bsacrist. 

Bubacrlptioa, Ci-ericai. Subscription to arti- 
cles of religion is required of the clergy of every cstab- 
lisheil Church, and nf some churches not established. 

ably ever enforced," says Dr. Stanle;-, ■' was that in the 
of Brunswick, when duke Julius reijuired from 



dergy, f 



slip 



subscription to all and everything conlaiiied in the 
CoufesHon of Augsburg, in the Apuli^ fur the Confes- 
sion, in the Smalcaldic Article^ in all the works of 
Luther, and in all the works of Chemnitz'' (/>f(<r on 
^fole 0/ Subtcriptim, p. 87). The Church of F.ngland 
only requires this kind of assent lo the Thirly-nine Ar- 
ticles and the Book of Common Prayer. But it has 
been a matter of dispute whether it answers any valu- 
able purpoee as to religion, however necessary as a test 
to loyalty. All language is more or less ambignous, so 
that it is difficult slwiys 10 uudeiiund the exact sense, 
or the imjiniu iH/nncnfu, especially when creeds have 
been long rUablished. It is said that the clergy nf the 
churches of ICngland and Scotland seldom considerthem- 
selves as fettered by the Thirty-nine Articles or the i::on- 
fession nf Faith, when cnmpnsing instructions fit their 
parishes or the public at large. It is lo be fetnd, in- 



SUBSELLIUM 

ty snbecribe merely for tbe uke of emol- 
hoii({h it be pmreswdlj' tx onimo, it ia 
■t it ia nut so in reality ; for when any 






■ thing of no conwqueiiM', b 



e part Id (he Mringency of 
present aulMCTiptions, oil the pin of tboughiriiJ yuung 
men, to enter tbe miniury uT the Churclk i. TheTC is 
some recent evidence, opeciilly at the univerutiet, thil 
the ibalition of wbecriptiun hiu not lenJed to the 
ry of the Churdi or t<> any incr«ued disbelief of lier 
lioctriiie* 3. But, more especially, there b a growing 
ilispnsilioii to inter|iret ariheaioii to furmuUriea more 
narrowly than in former tinie& See Paley, i/ur. PkH. 
i, St8;'Dyer, On Sabicriplim ; Duddridge, Led. lecl. 
70 : Conybeare, Sfrta/m on S«btcripliitn ; Frte und Cim- 
dill Du^uialiimirrlutiag la iIh Church o/KnyUinJ; The 
Cmfttiumal; Duncan and Miller, Oa CrtrJt; S(ai ' 
A Ulltr lo tht lani /tiihop of London m Ihe S'al , 
SiAtcripiioa m Ihe Church »/ England and in Ihe Utti- 
Ttrtily nf OrfoTd. 

SubaelUnm, a term given in the early Church U 
the fooiatool provided for peraons of diaiinciian. Upoi 
Christian monuments lioil ia represeated as iiiting the 
Bubaellium while receiving the ofTeringa of Cain aiid 
Abel; oiir Lord, when teaching bis di»ciplea; and the 
Holy Virgin, in the adoration of the. magi. Tbe epis- 
copal ehairawere also provideil with them, and, to show 
ibeir aubmiuion to Inthopa, persons were accustomed tu 
seat themselves thereupnii. They were also called <ni- 
belium, nthpon/oriarn, aiippfdiineum. 

presbyters, in the ancient Church, on each siile of the 
iMshop's throne, in the upper part of the chancel, called 
Ihe a/Hi'i. Alio the two lower steps in a aedilia, 
thnse for tbe deacon and lubdeacua. 



ing,w 






SUBSTANCE 

r ftnt idea of nArtonce is probably de. 

tions, tbonghts, and puT|Hi*es arc rbai^- 
Wesec bodiet^ alsv, retnaHH 



loquan 



SuDselllum. 

Subaexton. Sec SoBaAcsiSTAH. 

Substanctt (IjL ««*, under, no m Mam, to stand) 
is literally that which subsists by itself. In Greek, 
substance is denoleil by ovaia; hence, Ihal thich Imly 
«, or r$tmcr, seems to be the proper meaning of sub- 
stance. It is opposed lo acddtni! of wjiich Aristotle 
luu Mid that you can scarcely predicate of ■' ""' ''■ " 



md figure, th«r state of motion or of rest, may Be 
changed. Substaneea are either primnrjr, ibii n, sin- 
gular, individual suhstanm; or trnmdary, that is, gn- 
era and species nf laAffaiwr. RubMancei haie alao keen 
diviiled into eompklr aiut htcvaplelt.faiilt and infaiif. 
But these are rather divisions of bang. SiilManec oar, 
however, be properly divided into matter and apinl,ot 

stance is given by Aristotle as one of the faui pvinoples 
common tci all spheres of reality -, the other three beiug 
form or essence, moving or efficient c«uae,and end. lie 
says, farther, that the imlividual alone has ja&rmfiof 
existence, and defines ouoin, in the sense of the individ- 
iial substance, as that which cannot be pTvdkaled of 
anything else, but of which anything else may be pted- 
icated. Johannes Philoponiis of Alexandria, by ex- 
lemling the Aristotelian dodrhie, that substantial exig- 
ence is to be predicated in Ihe fuUe«t sense ooly of ia- 
dividual*, to the dogma of the Trinitv, theicbv in- 
curred the accusation of tritheism. John ScDtna re- 
garded the Deity as tbe substance of all ihingit, and 
could not, therefiire, regard indiv' ' ' 
as Bul)stances,of ^vhicb the gene: 
and in which the accidentid is i 
all things, rather, as contained in 
Berengarius nf Tours (Of Sam 
theory of a change ul nbtttnr*, cUimed by the adm- 



There ■■ caily 
la suhsiance haa 
9 cogiiixaiile by 



whatever is a substance is, as such, not a pari; and the 
part is, as such, not a suiietance, but the result of thai 
snbjective separation of tbe substance into paita which 
we make in [thouKhtand in] discourse. Gilbenus ihw 
speaks: The intellect collects The universal, whtfb et- 
isiB, but not as a substance {nl, W son mibi.a ). fnoi 
the particular things which nut merely are (na'), but 
also (as Bubjecta of accidents) have substantial exist- 
ence, by considering only their substantial similarity 
or confamiity. Descartes delines inIvdaiR aafolhnrs: 
'* By aabgloRce we can only understand that which so 
exists that it needs nothing else in onler to its exist- 
encei" and adds that, " indeed, oidy one substance can 
be conceived as plainly needing nothing else in order to 
its existence, namely, God; for we plainly pefcrive 

Spinoza undeislands tuliariiaor t( 
itself, and is to be conceived by ilself. 

two fundamental qualities or altributei 
us, namel}', thought and e> 
ed substance as distinct from thinking aubsianof." 
"There arc not two substances equal to each other, 
since such substance) would limit each other. One 
substance cannot produce or be produced by anotber 
substance. Every substance which ia in Goil's infinite 
unilersunding is also really in nature. In nnture there 
arc not different substances; nature is one in eaaeiiee, 
and identical with Uot." Locke says, "The tnind, be- 
ing furnished with a great number of simple ideaa, c«i- 

cerlaln number of them always go together; and aitic« 
we cannot imagine that which is represented by than 
as subaisting by itself, we accustom ourselves to sappos 
a substratum in which it subsists, and from which tt 
arises; this subetratiim we call a midmicr. The Htm 
of (ula/ancc contains nothing but Ihe suppoution of an 
unknown aamething aerving as a support for iiualitaea.** 
Leibnitz gives the name mouad to simple, unexlendeil 
lubtlaaa; that ia, a substance which has the power of 
action; active force (like the force of Ihe strained bow) 
is the essence of substance. He held that tba diTiaHjil' 



SUBSTANCE ) 

nj *f Btfter proved that it wm ui s^ingale of sub- 
Maaoa: tbcrc cui Iw m tnullcM imUrixible bodiH or 
ilian becawae thrt muM Mill be extended, and would 
ihmlunbeafigTFgatnorubUuica: ttau the ml aub- 

M grkcrUeil, uid arc iadntnicliUe, aiid in a certain 
ttnc •iiBiUr la •ouli, which be likewiwconHdenai iu- 
iliTiiltial lubiiUDcea. The indtrtdual, unextended «!!>- 
wanew wm termed liy Leibnitz mo 



•yfti^ 



tg qui« 



It per. 



lOKledge of a lub- 
■UDca. The qoeMian whether perceptions inhere in a 
mM«ial or immateiial «ibitanc« cannot be answered, 
beeaiua it hn no intelligible aenH." Juhn Stuart Mill 
•fiaiaguulw* wlMlancea aa ludily and mental, and aara, 
- Of lb« fitM, all m luww ii, the ■eiwatioiu wbicb tbcy 
gire uo, and the order of tlic occutrence oTlheae aenu- 
iiMai L e. ibe liiddea cause o( uur aenutiDni. OT the 
wDoad, that it ii the unknown recipient of them." See 
hlanig, Voa<Ki'/PAilotoplLSaniBa,a.v.i Ueberweg, 
JfiMry o/ Pkitairh (w< Index). 

SrBSTAKCE, a Uxm lued in technical divlnit* to 
4iaciibe nearly tbe aame idea a> ttimce or narurt. 
Tkaa tbe Sod i> aaid to be the aame aubuance with the 
Paiiwr, that ia, tnily and easentially Gud, aa Ibe Fa- 
iker it. See CHxiSTouiaT. 

Snbatantialllta. The Lutheran heresiolngint 



StitMtJmtl (i. e. pnttralon) were penitenia nf the 
tWd order. m> calleil Tnim tbe custom of prostrating 
sa beliire the bbhop or priest aa eoon aa (he 



I of bauds, and be 
pnicn which the eonftrr^li 
livd fijT tbetn \ after which 1 
diiSriT to depart, befim 
taai Butil Ihii put of tbe acrvice iu the lum of tbe 
einrcb. b^ind tbe antAo. Thia sort of peniteuls are 
Bentiiiaed iu the Council ••( Ktce, tbuugh no particular 
Uta a aaoigned them; hut we may collect irom Ter- 
(laftiaB and Sozninen thai their atalion was in thia part 
rt the chaieh ; for Tertullian (th radkif. c. 13), ^^k- 
icggf tbe Banian diBcipliiie, aara pope Zephrrin bmuftbt 

imuaied Iheoi in (he midst before the widinvs and 
^Hw l i ite i a. to implore their commiaeraiion and excite 
ihav'tean. Tber were al« called Kneelers, or C«<H- 
fcyn^M. See »n)-ham, CiriiT. A«iig. bk. viii, ch. t, 
tl:bk.xvUi,ch.i, S6. 

Babtraamrer, the deputy -receiver of certain 
tmi ia a eatbedral of tbe new fijuudatjoni a deputy- 
mmmtu ; the aaoial; a miiKU caooD who had charge 
of the church goods, acted aa parish priest in I be pre- 
naet, pruriiled neceasariea fur dirlne acirice, and was 
libeariaB. Tbe oAce is still partially preserved as an 

.UH«Rli«d iw ranked after tbe auccentor, and sang the 
Fu-Bdei'a Maia. He i* meiititMinl in 1290 at York, 
•ad at Chichester in the Mth century, being the 
"••■■rtr'a ticai, where he made Ibe cbrisin of oil and 



SBbucUa (wo^wntt), > caaaock, like a i 



Erlbcal 



cbet,wi 



SabBTUcaiiBii, an epithet applied to thnae prov- 
mam of Italj which composed tbe ancient diocese of 
biBK. Cooceming thia two qoeaiinna arise; I. What 
•BthecxtcDtofcbisdisttict? 2. Whether it was the 
iait cd the BetTopMitical or patriarchal power? Or. 
Care mtd ctheia think that tba notion of aubiirbicary 
r fc t h M aavht not In be astcoded bejond the lim- 



SUCCESSION 

its of the prtrfrrlHi uriii. vii. a hundred miles about 
Rome; or, at most, not beyond (he limits of those ten 
piDvincea which wore immediately subject to the civil 

Campania, Titacia and Umbria, I*icenum Suburbicarium, 
Valeria, liamnium, Apulia and Calabria, Lucania and 
Brutii, Sicilia, Sardinia and Corsica— which Dr. Cave 
suppoaes to have been tbe exact and proper limits of 
the pope's patriarchal power, as he (hinks the others 
were the bounds nf bis metropolitan jurisdiction. — See 
Dingham, Chritt. A Miq. bk. ix, cb. i, g 347. 

BuburbB ia the rendering, in the A. V., regulariy 
of C^«, THigraih, ptoperly a pailurt (1 Chron. v, 16; 
Eiek. xlviii. 15); hence the open country around a 
city used for graiing (Numb, xixv, 2; Josh, xxi, II; 
1 Chron. \\, 40; xiii, 2, ele.\ or for any other purpose 
(Exek. xxvu, 28; xlv, 3; xlviii, 17). Once (2 Kings 
xxiii, II) it sUnda fur ^I^B, purror, which is but a 
MS. vatialion of Pakdah (q. v.). 

SUBURBS, in an eccleuastical sense, meant, in the 
early Church, all the (owns and villages within tbe re- 
gion or diatrict to which the city magiatnte extended 
bia jurisdiction, whoae bounds, for the must part, were 
the bounds of the bishop's diocese. See Bingham, 
CItritt. A Hiiq. bk. ix, ch. ii, J 3. 

Snocat ia said to have been tbe proper name of 
St, Patkick {q. v.). 

Saooonaum, an old term for a onnr. SeeTuuni- 



Sncoentor, 

eulleijiale cbuic 



lerm used to deiio(e— 1. A preccn- 
calheilral church; i. A eiager in a 
T chapel; B. A auhprecenlor; 4. A 



Sncoeasion, A 

prelatiats and High-Churchmen to designate what is 
vlaimed to be an unbrokm line of clerical ordination 
from tbe apoatles to the preaenl time. In the Kciman 
Church thia claim in put forth in tbe moat abaolule and 
dogmatic manner through theTrideiiline canunp, which 

(he Christian Church oa heretics jnd schismalio. In 
the (ireek, Syriac, l^iplic, ^rmeiiiani and Oriental 
churches generally, the aame eXdnsit^ principle ia 
maintained, although not avowed in so pogiiive and 
fiTroal a inanner. A ainiilar pretence is ael up by many 
frolestanta. audi as (ho eetablirhed churches of Enro- 
(lean countries, particularly of tiieat Britain and ire- 
land, and so likewise by the Vaudoia, tbe Mo^Bvian^ 
and other^ who aeaert that they can trace llieir clerical 
pedigree in a direct line to tbe apostles; and in like 
manner tbe Frotesianl Episcopal Chucch of the United 
offahofits of the English Church, pride 






aupoi 



theii 



Btical lii 



the "regular succeasion." On the other band, the de- 
nominations "unchurched" by thia claim Justly Uke 
exception tn the clerical genealogy thus arrogated, on 
the followtng grounds : 

I. The phriuf apotli^ic tuccatkm' tM nmHaUy ab-'^ 
Murd and Ky-amlradictmy. Stiictir construed, it can 
only mean that the apostles have bad a continuous line, 
of aueccuora to the present time. But the apostolic 
olBce was Mui gmertM, and by its very constitution con- 
fined to the flrst incumbents. Thi> ia clear from two 
inherent qualiflcationt of the order itself, not to naenlion 



pervinolly 

received bis instnictiona, and 



y that on apostle thou 



ihem 



imediatciv accepted the 
:iii, U; AMsi,2l,22). 
lis ground Pant bases his claim to the apnstolale 
*. ix, I), by virtue of the revelation of the (>i>a|icl 

Hence the office was in its very nature inirans- 
ile and incapable uf succenioii, as aoon, at leas^ 



SUCCESSION ' ( 

w ill ibe " original eje-witiKCM* ud miniHera of the 

W.ifil" bad decBMed. Sm Aro«nJE. 

b. The "sign" of »n apoHle wks the power .if coofer- 

lion of haiida. Thia ia oCtea icferred to in Che Acis Hid 
Kpistlei at a disdnguuliing muk belween them aud 
unlitury Chriuiant. All tielievere during ihe primi- 
liva period of the Church enjoyed thsM preternatunl 
t'ina, which were lint iinparted on Ibe day of Fente- 



C (Acu ii, 4) 1 



ered w camaiuiiii 



It the apuetlea alone were empow' 



(vi 



. Hence when the i 



been renewed. The KomaD Catholic Church elutna, 
indeed, a lilie power uf roiracle-wuikiug Tur emiiKnt 
aainta oT lai«r limes, but it baa tkever had the hirdi- 
liood In aver that tta "apostolical auccewion" is invari- 
ably accompanied with this peculiar gift. How pre- 
pOBteMUi, then, fiir sober ChriMiana lo «el up a preien- 
HLun that legitimately luvolveH such InipvaubilitieB ! 
IJee UiPTB, Spikituai. 

2. Evm (At claim n/ an tmmlrmipltd cUrical iiK- 
cfMtion it iaenpabU af proof. All the modem churcbea 

; of Europe and tbis country, which ael up this claim, 
■race their lineage ultimately through the Roman pan- 
'i litTi, Ihit lliB records of the early popes are iirecover- 
I ably loit. It is not certaia that feter (q. v.) ever was 
' in Koine, much less that he ever acteil a* bisliop there. 
All efforts to make out the asserted siicccaai'iii thus ful 
at this initial point. Many other links iu Ihe chain 
are historically wanting^ i'he lineage ia a myth, or at 
best a mere eking-out of probaUliiies by vague and 
late trailitions. This is now candidly aiimilteil by the 
best and most careful Protestant Bchdan. The title it 
indefeasible. See Porn. "I am fully salisHeil," says 
bishop Hoailiy, " that till a consumrnste stupidity can 
be happily eatablisheil, aud universally Bprea<l over the 
land, there U nothing that tends so much to destroy all 
due respect totliedergy asthe demand of more titan can 
be due to them ; anil nothing has so effectually tbrown 
conwmpt upon a regular succession of the ministry as 
the calling no siiocession regular but wlial was niiui- 
lerrupted; and the making the eternal salvatiim of 
Christians to depend upim tbat uniulemipteil succes- 
sion, of which tlie most learned mutt have the least 
atsurai>ce, and the unlearned can have no noiion but 
through ignorance anil credulity." (See below.) 

3. The daim it a/~tt« and frwb lo bigotry and tx- 
cUuieeatti. In the Koman Catholic, Greek, and An- 
glican churches, this teiulency and result are notorious, 
ami in Ihe High-Church party of Ihe Protestant Epis- 
copal Church they are almost equally obvious. In fact, 
•-a good churchman," as he is styled, it compelled by 
this fact to huki Jiimtelf slouf rrom other communions, 

Ihe canons and regiila 



of all Ihe bodi 

So priiicipli 
stun lack of h 



itherlv kind- 
iH's^ .See CiiARirv. 

*. The oMienhm ii mmerrnary, aawitr, ami bated 
tti/Mta u wroag vieto of weltiiailical potttf. The true 
evidences of an evangelical Church are the conversion, 
t-ancLilication, and Mlvation of aoulsi the propagation 
•if a spiritual Gospel, and the amelinratinii of the stale 
of society. But the "cburcbly" claim referred to luma 
the attention of its adherents too eameally upon tl>eir 
t'wh organiiation and technical order, and thus leailt 
I away from a broad and catholic spirit, 



IS well a 



the 



liighest forma of individual and cnllecti 
'rhe question with them habituslly inclines lo be, not 
what will best promote the welfare of Christendom at 
lat^, and most effectually proinote personal holiness ; 
but what must be done to subserve party purposes, and 
keep up the pretensions of a select circle. The Church 
is loo often put in the place both of Cbriat *nd man. 



SUCCESSION 

Tbit,alaa,is no ideal picture j it is butlhc reosfdoftad, 
solemn fact. Ecclosiaaucism and iu feUow fiiiiiislmii 
have ever been the greatest banes to ganuina piHr, 
aud the direst foes to the real kingdom of Uod. Big- 

which the fable of "apiiMolical tueceasiun" bas.bcea 
the mutt fruitful aource, is a crime Dndo' Christianity. 
It is both a libel on its name (John xvii, iS) aixl tiea- 
son to its first la» (1 John ii, 7 ; iii, II). Wbetcrer 
this assumption has been prevalent and active, religWB 
bodies have lield points of onler and rt^rif da cditii 
among their members in higher esteem than histutical 
trulh in profession or vital godliness in practice. IVr- 
secution has been more liercely wageii against tcirssiiwi 
than even against heresy. Zealots Sir onboduxr have 
gathered many a fagot for the martyr, but sticklert fiir 
legitimacy have been foremost in kindling tha pyre. 
Even nonconformity has st times caught the pa won 
for its own established system, aud Puritans kave >n- 
ually maltreated others — if not burned them at the 
stake — iur refusing Ihe nnlinances of the su-calM 
Church. The prelatisc tmiks at such peeado-«ccleai- 
asticitm, and the liomtnist looks with equal contempt 
upon the Anglican mimicry of "the nkother Church;" 
while [he (ireat Head of all weeps at this petty livaby 
as to who shall be esteemed first and greateat. iu ibe 

more valuable in religion has tieen lust tight of. Lax- 
ity of morals has been winked aL while ati infringement 
of canonical rules has been severely punished. It ia 
the old sluty over again ; making void the la* nf God 
by the tradition of men, tithing herbs and neglecting 
judgment, mercy, and faith. We need ever Ui reicn 
from the trmbols of Christianity in iu estentiab^o* we 
shall ftnd ourselves holding its form, hut denying iu 
power. See Publacv. 

LUtraliiTt This may well be exhibited in brief by 

the following extract fmm Eadie's A'cria. Cychp^ wliicii 
ihows how writers in the Episcopal Church are dis- 
agreed on the main olcments of Ibe question: 



tlrnitd by Slltlhigltoel, /rmlnnH. II. ilS: Biisuhiilm, (>. 
TKuf. i. 41ia: In Aytiiu, t^malir. »/ IA< Ou p. lit; Hsui- 
motid, mn-lu. W, Iii. wbo niHkcs them dascnns; Bi«<. 
ZHniH HtplH Kjriin^ lecl. ill), p. IT. i. This ■> Innlra- 
dlcted. Slid the apunles made bkibops dnring ths anm* 
lime, by Tiiylur I'sreinT], KjiIibv- i-trna-. Id. ir«nt>. 
•ll,T,eic.,wb» eontrsdhu iilin.elr in AM. lUI, la >^; 
Ncutt, In PhrlMian LUt. \\\,t!K; Himr", Inmir^i MU Ikt 
Xtv Oiit«*m», V. M: jthlnd, Aimt. p. 10, tic: WIIIbi, Sir- 
ni^ltii /'ni6>n£n.!M; archblsiinp of Spfllatis In Aytrni, 



pinilllTe In afllnnlng .— -.. 

mnde them blsbnjis over the preabyters If. JC. and Kpimm. 
p. IWI. Slid lilsbop B««crldi-e is as eonadrnl tbat Ckrlil 

<ir«-jb<, II. II™. Annln. Land SMefls lerj ■■■."■flj'^r 



. .. . inl n>»d hi Mark 1- 
{Ul. and KpiiBUf. II. IMi. Sn- 



erEdge. on Ihe cnuinry.di'ClarvstbniChrl-t did uol ordain 
any «f them duriiH; bis life, sod addaces In proof tire nan 
of this very lenn Iwtuvt MAiia (ITar^ 11. Ili). S-XXhrr*. 
■ - ■ ttheapo^' .. . ..1 

tilibr. v<Hi 



.^ ipomlss wei« not oninlssbined illl 

atitr Cbrl't'H resnriiKllon. Snge. quoted In Aylixi. Cbu- 
iHl. Iff Ihr. Oi. tup. p. 11. Si fsrsvln's piitaUioftl, Smu- 
belm, Op. TImt. l,4Mi Stlllhi gleet, Irtninvt, I, III. lis. 
Hiid II, «1S| Wblibr. viHnot Lnke i,l: Uannionil. In 
fbitL; Bellnrnliis, Ob /«»>(>/. lib. Iv.clilli Bebar [Bp.l,lu 
L*fi afJerttnti Tafflor, IVorc^ 1. IStk 

II. nr at/onlltt tart MtnuEirdfRary sften. and cmM 
AuDt IH sfMrsHiira, 1, Tbia Is nttiineiriiy Peiinou, Om 
•■- fV«ri,ji.l *,"—■- — '—■ ' ■ ■ '- '- -■--'- 



"•llj 



IBji.}, W-rbi. fill. II, SKx Korniw, In WVte, hil. I, I 
H'lileT. In H-mapttt f^pimi. a. IH, IW; Pell fBp.L 
IMt: V, » : Hooker, tM. l-iJ. vuL ill, bk. vll. I tv. t>. 
Kcble'a sdltlun; Cblllbigwonh : Hlmtsv HiM«v IT ■ 
■ fnniTt- nf CIitM. iC Ill-SI ; " ■ ' — " 

ItflKll, W'-^ -'" ■ 

■<Hkt: f 

Anier. eJ. i Sceele. J'hU. if tin 
IM, 101 ; Dodwell. Pare..r>., sd 

ai,BpndATioii|;I>iive««nt(Bi,.„ .- , 

Z>i(. /.'firAI</£i>iswp.lect.x1l,p.M,npad Aytuu; Sdlllus- 



SUCCINCTORIUM 



ay-ci 






!■ Olf. nllL ]SI)I, pauiio) -. N 

ih* ■uoaUe*. buth lu iiarat nii 

Wm Cswvfiic;, Id TAf ^jek 
tt]igr. In r.rK II, 8S. ia, IW, U7, Itf. HI «8 ; U,w, lu 
ki> jltmaj Lrtltr (■ UU atiibw i^ Bamr Su, In Ox/. TV. 
>t. 1H- SillllaKflnrt [Hp.1, III irc^jlt,t, SIl. lunrl. "Blfb- 

HCll'li U.mlniiii [Bu.), 
Id ATlua; Uaii lUp.' 
|iliilauadiiraruawji(«l 



Snccinctorinm, or SaoolnctOiT, an ornameiii 
pfcaliar la the pope, rettmUiiig a nuaiiple (i|. v.), uiil 
' ' leml wiih the bolf Umb {Agimi Dtij. It ii 
■ tbe left aide, being tuumd bf a ciiielun, and 



aoardintc ta oihen it wai only a reaeniblance of tha 
r*te of a ribbon. Kirmerir worn bj' ninM, bitbopa aa a 
oDrbm DTer (he alb, and which waa cnlkd Antfran 
•r ••belt of modeacy." In the Eaat luabopa 
ituilaKt, of a loicnKC lunii, laaelled, and with 



Soccinfitfi {Kndmugiiig), a tenn uaed to deimbe 
a aidile nt aiopiiK in cnmmiHi unr in lh« earlv age n( 
Ik* Chareh. A precentor began the t-ene, and the pco- 
fit jcaHit him in the eli<*e. It waa nDen uaed fen the 
rake of varielv in the nine wtrioe, with alternate pnal- 
nadT. E«leiiaUical histiiriana n?lale thai Athanaiiua 
tibatd hia eaeape tnm the church in which he waa 
hraic b* tbe Arian aoldiery by aettina the people to 
■bit kiivl of paalmndy: be commaniled the deacnn to 
nad Ihe paahn, and the people (vroieovKf, renpnmJere 
« mccinrrr) lo re|>ea( thia dauae after him : " For hia 
merej endunth forever." See Bingham, Clirul. Anliq. 
I*. »ir. eh. i. § li See AcRmtTicB. 

Snc'Otnb (Heb. SuklMh; rSae or [in Gen. :txnii, 
17: EinLxii.97: xiii.OT; Niimb.\xiiiii, 6, 6] TSO, 
biMla [ aa often ] ; Sept. Zor^ r. r. Sttx'^^r !*■' 
•x^mi in c;en. and Ph. ; Vutg. Socelh or Soctolk), [he 
rane of at leaat two Bllilical place* of early fnention, 
Ike exact pnniiun -if neither oT which, huwever, haa 
l«a clearly idenliOed by modera reaearchei. See al» 

SciXDTH-»eSOTH. 

L A town of anctenl date in the Holy Land, being 
W heard of in the account of tbe hnmewaril journey 
<r Jacob from Padan-anm (Den. xxxiii, 17). The 
oaBe it deriTrd from the fact of Jacob's liaring there 
;« ap •- biioiha'' for hi* cattle, aa well aa a honae for him- 



tf the wandering life, indicate that 
a Inetbeited stay tberr— a fact n(i 
uv rrarellen frequently tee auct 
■■* tbe BMawiB of the Jordan ralli 
beta of lecda. lametimH coreml wi 






STJCCOTH 

would teem that after hia iDterview with 

: Bouth bank, he turned back lo avoid fui^ 
dangerous bratber; and in- 
.doiD, he recroaaed the Jabbok 
y of Lhe Jordan, where he re- 



.t for I 



!uc.; Kitu 



ley of th 



(lee, howeve 
447). 

The next notice of Succoth ia in Joahua'a deecriplion 
of (he lerrirory of (iad. To th'ia tribe the middle aec- 
tioii eaat of the Jurdao waa allotted, including Ihv'ral- 
III up [o the aea of Galilee. See CaI>. 
■IB ill the valley ia Suemlh (Joah. xiii, 
27). Mulhing more can be inferred from thia than lliat 
it lay oil the eant bank nftbe river. 

In the narrative of UiJeon'a pnnuit of Zeba and Zal- 
muDiia it ia laid, "And (jidenn canw to Jordan, ;iuMnI 
octr , . , and aaid unto the men of Succoth," etc {JiHig. 
vtii, 6). Hia course »aa eastward— the reverse of Ja' 
cob's— and he came Hrst to Succoth, anil then to Penucl, 



^ (ver. 



hough tl 



ring in the Bible. At that period Succoth 
■ecu a place of importance, when it ventured 
e mgueat of Gideon. Its •• princes and el- 
re said to have numbered "ibreescore and 



u well known. 



(be Patriarch m 






'Ufa 



aacil by a aeroi-nomad people. Thia fertile spot mi 
kara reminded Jacob of the banks of the Euphra 
tWB which be had recently come. The aituatinn 
^VtoximaUly indicated by the fact that Jacob waa 
Mawav fraiD Peniel to Sbechcra. Peniel was app. 
ally on tks nortb bank of Ihc Jabbok C^eu. xxiii, 



plaaper,! 
The ««md hi 

of the Temple were caal " In the cireuii (^{Sf) of the 
Jordan, in the day ground, between Suecolh and Zar- 
tlian"(I Kings vii, 46; S Chron.ir, 17). Succoth gate 
ita name lo "a vaUey" (p^V), probably a lower aeclioii 
of "the eironii," or great plain of the Jordan (comp. 
"the Tiitr of Siddim," which waa also called an i'nirk 
in "the circuit of the Jordan," Pao. Ix, G). 

Jerome observes, in his notes on Genesis : " There ia 
lo this day a city of this name (Suecolh) bejniid Jor- 
dan in the region of Scythopolia" (Optra, ii, 989, cd. 
Higne); but in the Ononatlieon both Jerome and Eu< 
seliiua merely atate that it ia the place where Jacok 
dwelt on hia return from Heaopolamia, without iiuli- 
catind ita aile or appearing to know of its eKislencc 
(a.v."Scen»"). 

BuTckhardt.on hia way from Beisan loea-SBlt,(<ircte<t 
the Jonlan two hours (about HX miles) belnw the for- 
mer, and obsei\'es in a note (TrarrU tn Syria, p. S16), 
" Near where we crossed, to tbe south, are the ruins of 
Suital." The ruins seem to have been on tbe east 
hank of the river, though he does not expressly say so, 
ai later travellers <lo (see Schwarz, Falal. p.233). This 
may possibly be tbe Siiecoth of Jerome; but it seems 
loo far north to suit the TeifuiremcnU of the narrative 
in Genesiii. Jacob's direct niad from the Wady Zerka 
U) Shechem wouhl have ted him by the Wady Femh, 
on the one hand, nr through Yanflii, on the other. If 
he went north as fat aa .Snkkol, he must have ascended 
by the Wfldy Haleh to Teyastr, and so through Tubas 
and tbe Wady BUIAn. Perhaps hia going north was a 
ruse to escape the dangerous proximity of Ksau; and 
if he made a lonp stay at Siiceolh, as suggested in the 

ahechem would be of liiile importance to him (see the 
Hiitioikmi Siura, Oct. 1876. p. 74! aq.). 

wvered another ruin. called Sniil (which 
' is radically as well aa lopncrsphtcally different from 
I Ihe Suihil of Butckhanltl, ni'lualed on the vest bank of 
milea south of Reisan. "Near 
and Ihe plun amund it is cov- 

,es" (BibL Ra. iii. 309; comp. Van de Velde. 
Tracfli, ii, 343). lu position on tbe n-cit bank pie- 



SUCCOTH-BENOTH f 

(J being HlenliOeil with the Siiccoth of the Bilil«, 
is juM pouible that the name may have been 
rted 10 ■ apoC on tbe uthcr tiile (>« Kiiur, ul 
lap. ii, 446), or it miv hive been a cnuaden' >ite (aec 
CuiKler, T<«t Wm-h m PaitH. ii, 62). 

Until the pnsUinn of Succoih x» morB tiacLly agoei- 
tained, it ia impiM«ble to lay what wu the valley of 
Suceoth mentioneil in raa.lx,G anil cviii,T. The aame 
vroid ia emplayed (Joth. \\\\, 37) in apediying the po 
Htinn of the group of tnwiit among which Suceoth oc- 
cur*, in describing the allotment of Gad ; ao thai it evi- 
dently denulea annie marked feature oT the caunlr}'. It 
i< nut probable, however, that the main valley of the 
Jordan, the Gli6r, it intended, that being alwaya dewg- 
nated in the Bible by the name of "Che Arabah." 

2, The tint campiiifj-place of the laraelilea when 
thry left Egypt (Kind, xii, 37; xiii,20i Numb.xxKiii, 
fi, G|. This place wa* ap|iarenlly reached at the cluie 
onhefiEatday^A march. Hameacs, the atartiiig-place, we 
have ahuwn waa probably near the weatern end of the 
Wady et-TumeyUl. We have auppoaed the dialance 
traveraed in each dayV Journey lu have been about 
thirty milea; and >a ^iuccnth was not in the Arabian 
desert, the next atatiun, Etham, beint; "in the e<1ge or 
tbewildeme»''<Exi>d.Kii!,W:Kumb.xxxiii,G),itiDust 
have been along the present pilgrim route called Dub 
eUBan, about half-way lietween the euteramust branch 
of the Nile and [he castle uF AjrQ<1. It was probably, 
to judge from iu name, ■ reating-place uf caravana, or 
a military atation, or a town named fnim one of the 
two. We fliiJ similar names in Scenn Mandno (//in. 
Ant.), Scenm Mandrorum {Sol, Dign,), or 'Stqvli Mav- 
Spiuv (jVof. Grae. t'pUe«piiluBm). Scenn Veietannrum 
(/'IB. Ani. Noi. D^.\ and Scenn extra Genua (fie: 
fitil. tHipt.y, Hee, fur all theae placet, Pirthey, Zar Enl- 
liande itt allm A'sypleia, p. 536. It ia, however, evi- 
dent that auch a name would be easily lost, and, even if 
preserved, hanl to reco^jnise.aa it mi(;hl be concealed un- 
der a correapunding name of similar aignilicaliiHi, though 
very different in sound, like that of the settlement of 
Ionian and Carian mercenaries, called rd Xrporun^a 
(Herod, ii, 164). See Exode; Kti> Sea, Pahbaok of. 

Sno'OOtll-Be'llOtll ( Heb. SuiiolA'-Bemlh', 
niia-niS^, booOt •>/ dnughtrrt ; Sept. Swex'^ Bc- 
nii v. r. £dicxw3 [and even 'Pox;^] BtnSti; Tulg. 
SotliolK-benolJi) occurs only in 2 Kings xvii, SO, at the 
name of some deity whose worship the Babylonian set- 
tlers in Samaria are taid to have set up on their arrival 
in that country. It has generally been auppoaed that 
this term ia pure Hebrew, and aa auch most inlerprelers 
explain it to mean " the booths in which the daughters 
oT the Babyluniana pruaiitulsd themselves in honor of 
■ their idufO.e.Mylii la. aee HemU. i, 199; Strabo, xvi, 
7-15)1 others "small Ubemocles in which were con- 
tained imaget of female deities'' (comp. Calmetf Com- 
mmluire Liltenit, ii, t<97). It is in objection to both 
theie explanatiuoa that Succulb-benoth, which in the 
passage in Kinga occurs in the tame cunatrudion with 
Kcrgal and various other gods, is thus not a deity 
at all, nor, ttrictlj speaking, an object of worship. It 
shoulil be noted, however, that the expresaion " made" 
(4iC7) ili-ea not nccvaaartly require such an interpreta- 
tion. Sir II. Kawlinson thinks that Suceoth - benoth 
represents the Chaldaian goddess ZiiJiatuI, the wife of 
Merudach. who was especially worshipped at Babylon, 
in conjunction with her husband, and who is called the 
" queen" of the place. Succotk he aupposea to be ei titer 
" a Hamilic term equivalent to Zir," or possibly a She- 
mitic mistraoslation ufthe term— Ziiar," supreme," be- 
ing confounded with Zaral, " tents" (see the £uiijr of 
Sir H. RawUnaon in Rawlinson's llrrodoliu, i, GilO). 
Geaenius arbitrarily alters the reading to pi'03 r'iSD. 
btxaii of the iigh-piieti {Thfinur. s. v.); and'Moven 
(PAflnir, i, 596) underatandt "iatraliicra or trcrria mu- 
iicmm' having reference to phallut-woiship (so Nork, 



SUDAILI 

JfyAo/. i, 124). Th! rabbins (see KimdiiawlJiRU 
ad lot.) fable that it xaaa goddess under the bmrnd 
tim and rtietna ; wbicli Kircher ((Ed. jE^i. i, Sit} ie- 
girda aa an nstronnmical emblem of tbe fltbtloniuK 
See Selden, IJt IHu S-fi.': ii, 7, 808 sq. ; Vois TW 
(1ml. il, 22 ; Crenaiut, Oe SaccolA Book, in Ugdio^ 
rSesaur.xxiii. 

Sa'oliatliite (Heb. oidy in the plur. Sdoiiia', 
C^r^9t), a patronymic of unknown origin; SepLlr 
EoSuifi j Vulg. » tabmuicutit connonnitFs), a daNK"*- 
tion of the last-named of the three families of "milH 
which dwelt at Jabez''(l Cbron. ii, 55) ; apptRinly dt- 
acendanta uf aome person named Sucbah, a Judihtu sf 
the family of Caleb. 

Saokow, Carl Atioi.p, a German ihtotnpan, im 
bom in I8U2 at Mllnstcrburji, in Sileaia. He Mwlinl 
theology and philosophy at Ureslau, was appnlainl 'm 
1884 profeasoc of theology and director of the bnfDilri- 
ical seminary at BrenUin. and died there in 1%S. He 
wrote, Dt Pi-olrrangrlio JaciM, Part I, Dt .4 ryima^ 
w ludide Prolmmgrlii (Vratislavin, 1^1) :— Cofrnfauji 
da driill. Kirchmjaiira in nnrr RtiAt ton FrrAfn 
(Ikwlau, IH38) —A. H. C. nrngdudifr Kirrit<mrhi- 
tiag (ibiil 1846). .See Ktgraibiin/rr Omtntaiiim^hi- 
>£u»,8.v.; Zuchuld,WhLnr»i:ii, l292Bq. (ftP.) 

Sud {"Snl'i V. r. [ in No. 2 ] Xairfo, SoiwiS, «lc.). ita 



Igbbortuiod of Hibv- 
mn, on ine uanHs or wnicn jewisn exiles liveil (Hx. i. 
4), No auch river is known to geographeis; boiifwc 
OHsume that the Htat part of the book of Binicb (S 
written in Hebrew, tbe original text may bave tmu 
SuT, the final *^ having been changed into 1. In tin 
case the name wwdd represent, not the town of San,u 
suggested by Bnchart (Phalrg, i, 8), but the rii« t»- 
phratrs itself, which is alwaya naiDed by Arab Eff*' 
phert "ihe river of Sura," a corruption probably of iIk 
"Sippara" uf Ihe iusctipliuns (Kawlinaon, JfenHLi,6ll, 
note 4). 

2, A comipl Crscism ( I Eadr. v, 29) of Ihe ntm Si i 
or SiAHA (q. V.) in Ihe Hebrew lists (Ein ii, 44; S(l>. 
vii,47). 

SndaiU, Stepiiem Bah, a Monnph3^e nu»ll.'b>^ 
aceording to the Cimdebibriim SitudoTim of AbuUmj 
(q. v.), in Asaemani, Dibl. Oriml. ii, 891, lirnl !>••' 
A.D. 500, at lirst in Edessa and afterwarils in.lFnnlm. 
He iscrediled with the authorship ofa work wliitli cir- 
culated under Ihe name of Hierotheua, the teaclKii»l 
predecessor of Pseudo-Dionj'sius, in which a limimi™ 
of the duTBlion of bell ia laughl on tbe authority Wt 
pantheiilic interpretation of I Cor. xv, 2& NesnWi 
regarded the ascription nf this work to SuriaiU as i»- 
ing upon a mete aaaumption on Ihe port of Abul-liit) 
(6V>rA. d. (hriUl. IM. a. A'l'mlr. i, 7:27), bat ■ill"'' 
having suRicient warrant for hia view. 

Particulars respecting the myaricihpanlheialic Ibr'l' 
ogy of Sudaili are furnished by Xenajaa or Pbikiinun 
(q. v.) of Habiig in a letter addreseed to the pmbii"! 
Abraham and Orentea of Edetsa. which cameatly wit)' 
them against tbe influence uf that learned an<l )i>l><^ 
monk who formerly s»juumed in their city (see eiu*« 
in Assemani, at tap. p. 80-83). Aa there repnstnUt 
Suilaili taught the essential unily of the Falbrr. ^ 
and Spirit, of the divine ami human nature of L'hii' 
and also of God and all created existences, baNnit k 
viewB on I Cor. xv, 28, ii-n g u (fete rd KaiTa !r n 
atf. He had inscribed un the wall of hia cell the "" 
"Omnia nalura Divinitati conanbatantialis e>>I,'aitd 1 
conlinueil to elalHirate the same idea in his Kniis) 
after public opinion had compelled the erasure "f tl 
tnacripiiiHi in his cell. It ia also char^^ed by Thila 
rniia that Sudaili taught Ihat hBpti!<m and th* riidj 
rist are tuperHmmt, that he denieil Ihe intlii-iionl 
punishment for tin at the Inst Judgmdii. and ibul 
l>romised to pagans and Jens tha same heavciity iJ 



SUDARIUM I 

tin a u CbnKiuu, to Jodw ind Simoo tUgiu equal 

iHKh gfUiae uaeriioiu u dicUUd bj malice uid is 
(lailf mwrpreMtiUd. The Mine nrnuk applies la 
ib« CbUiutie viem of Suilaili, who wu « eoiueqaen- 
dil ■ribooiE of Origeniillc doctrinei, mnd m\M be re- 
(imM ■ holding a apiriualixed, idealisdc view of the 
vsriii lit uugbi [hrae world -perioda — the preKni, 
nnapuidiiig Co the tilth Uay of the week; [he millen- 
ciiug, iht grtv Sabbath or reat-dar of Che week ; and 
ttr Htmiij of couaummaiiun or of the 






of the : 



im appcan to hare Micceeded w far u tu c*uM him 
la Ik ntnidxl br all Uonnphyaites u a dBngemiit her- 
lEic The Janbile^ of Syria, e. p^ ailmiited * special 
iniIRM afoHHlHiinalioD againU hi<n inlo Iheir forinu- 
kndxdiDUion. See Ai8emani,£iUl Oiioi/. voLi and 
ii.- Uaieg, Ra^EncsUnp. e. v, 

8aJailmii,ot Sudaiy (laeai-doih): 1. The pu- 
•ijtidmiim ((|.v.) for wiping the chalice; 2. The 
■-Vb (<^ T.); 3. The KTBBca (q. t.) (the bltwing 
Jiht priert's eyea with the wdarium was forbiilden 
u 1^91; 1. The banmei of a luabop'a alaS; called alau 
™&-(q.T.). 

Sodbwy, SiMoH. See SiHOH ov Si'dbcbv. 

Snddath, Wttuxu W^ a PresbTteiian minister, 
■w bun ia Fairfax Countr, Va„ J"iy 81, '826. He 

tr <^ Lniapoa freabrurr itf Che'Cumberland Pn^ 
inniaa Chaich ai a camlidate Tor the ministry, and 

oanl Oiapel HiJl College, in Lafayette G.untT, Ho.; 
tlaliBl Ik«ijot>y in the Cumberland UiiiTerutyat Leb- 
uB.TaB.1 tat before graduating he waa induced, 
b< dit tnu iueteet he took in (be aucceaa of Chapel 
Hil dOrge, Is ntunt U> Hisaouri and accept the pro- 
^Hnliip of language* in that cull^e. He wa> i ' 
■Mit^iUd [naidenC, which poution he lllled 
l>lil.>h« hcaeeepted a call to the chair of lanjcnagea 
ia Ikt Miiaak College at Lexington, Mo. In 1858 he 
kOM eoliilerf br the St. Louis minion, and his far- 
NaEhiag aiod and tkoUe, benevolent heart ooneeired 
I plia to Rli(Te it of its embarranmenlfl. But his la- 

<V Ui tHUtaa in the euHenf to engaf^ in the work of 
lii'dne: heanepted ■ call from the Church in St. 
i»jb, bat died AuR. I, I860, before assuming (he dn- 
im i< Ihc Dew positian. Mr. Suddnth was an eloqoent 
KWtar, s tcbolar, and a Chiistian gent * 
VUu, Prai. Biit. Atnaaac, 1861, p. 286. 

BadboftCAaL,a doctor of divinity, and prominent 

rhmli>gUB of the Calviniatic Church of Germany, who 

<«d ia Ibe year 1866 at Frankfort-on-the-Maii 

"m-^Wrikatamitn (4tb ed. Hamm. 1866):— iJer 

HriMrryer KalaAmau irrglitden {3d ed. Kreuznach, 

' l^l^JHtCnmiiaVu JB« m/er a/rwinylie Gratia la- 

"nmaiiim. rrrtvK Dei, el Sneramrttlam inttreedal, etc. 

{Ud. IHSi)^./. der StUU (Ffankfort, ISM. S pta.) :— 

f'tnCmiekrilUduT l^lire,m HU/timch £Um Hri- 

U-r^ir Kuhekinai, (ibid. iSbT) : — GeidiiehU der 

UnttKinit (Jd ed. ibid. 1861. 8 vnln) ;-C"m>iuim<m- 

\^'i i_iA «I.ibi(L \ii^): — Ckritttickt Rrligianlthre 

\f'*'^\m\:~TknJngiirIiet Hiaidbiifh lur Auilrgung 

> ll'il'lUryrr Kairckitmta <ihiri. 1863). Besides a 

ntef nC anicln fur Herzog's .Reiit-Enrj/Hoii., be aleo 

"* ibe Eth of C. Okvianus and Z. l;rnnu^ pub- 

W in ibe 8lb pan of /.rim md outgnraUft Sehrif- 

I Ar I'iin- avl Hfgrandtr der rrfoTminrn Kirthe. 

■iachold. Kit r*n>i.ii, 1298 «q. (a P.) 

Sn'Olu Itmiliai), ■ ootiupl Urwk form (1 Esdr. 

*) of iht urns HoDAVTAH or Hoi>bvah {q. v.) of 

tael«wB«.(En«iii.«iNeh.vti,*3). 

X— 1* 



SUFFRAGAN 

Sndic«B, the PaUs of the Baheiiii«D» and Uon> 

vians, suppoMd to reeemhle the Roman Partxe. 

SudxB, in Hinduism, is the lowest of the four caalea 
nong the Hindlls, sprung from Brahma's feet and ap- 
linted to serve Ibeotheicaslea. It includea all inferior 
laborers and servanle. 

Sndil, one of the four powerful dwarfs of (he Norse 
lylhology, who support the arch of the aky at the four 
regions frorii which they derive their names. The oth- 
er dwarft are Nntdri, Westci, and Anatri.— Vollmer, 
WdTltrli. d. MgUiol. s. v. 

Baehre, in Pertian mythology, ia (he name of 
Che pUnet Venus before it wsa placed in the akf. 
It is identical with the Arabic Anakid. Suehra 
waa an exi'eedingly charming maiden, of whom 
two angels became enamniued, and who resisted 
their atiraiices with the result that she wss re- 
moved to the akiea, while they were banished to 
the abysi. In her new abode she ia aerv^ by thoa- 
sands of celestial ipiriu, who adore her for her viitoa 
and beauty. 

Snammar O AI.A, in I^maiam, ia a moDDtain of vast 
elevation, which ia surrounded hy three others, upon 
whose circle nos a second circle of four mountains, all 
of tbetn being of gold, with Ibe exception of (he central 
one, which ia cumpoaed of a single green stone. These 
mountains are the place of aboile of the free apirita, 
Erike Bariksan. The wicked spirits dwell in the cav- 
erna of the mountains, and their chief there bolds a pow- 
erfid castle. 

SneDBB. a Cbristian nobleman in Persia, wbo, re- 
fusing to deny Christ, bad hia wife taken from him, and 
given to one of the smperor'a meanest slaves; and what 
added to his mortification waa that he was ordered tn 
wait upon hia wife and tbe slave, which at length hiuke 

SnenT. Eustachk Lb, one of the most celebrated 
of French painters, wan bom in ICIT, and after studying 
with hia father, a sculptor, was placed in (he school of 
Simon Vouet at Paris. He soon excelled his maaier, 
and adopted a style which is nuteil for its simplicity 
and severity. He baa been termed by his sdmiren the 

ler in every respecu He died in J656. He painted the 
celebrated series of SI. Brunn. iwenly-two large piclutes 
on wood, in the cloister of (he Carthusiana at Pari^ be- 
fore hia thirtieth year:— 5^/'aHI 7*rr<irfin30l /Jpii-W).- 
— The GntiUt Burmag thrir PnKnbai Book (1649), 
engraved hy Picart and Hasaard:— Aiuj Healitig Ikt 
Side ! -^ Marlgrdona of Si. LuMrriKt and Bt. ProUat, 
both engraved by Gerard Audran. He painted many 
other celebTaled pictures, as, Chri^ Scourged: — Chriit 
aith Martha and Mary ; — The Prrttnlalim in Ikt 
Tempit: — Tkt Binoriet of SI. Martin and SL £(•- 
tdia. 

Suss. See Red Ska. 

auffarlug-day. See Gooi>-FRinAT. 

Btiflering-pialm, tl 
" Deus, DeuB meus ;" used 
on tjood -Friday. 

SuBeiing-iraelE. See Pabbiox-weik. 

Solleriiiga or Chbiht. See Vicariolb Surnw- 

BulTetnni, Coitncil op ((Tanci/iiini Sufftbrmim ). viaa 
heknn&3e.atwhich»LFulKentiuswaBpreae9iL iliai.. 
np Quod- vol t-Deus (who had dispured the point m im- 
cedency with him at tbe Council of Jooga. iu Aim* ,. 
at his request, presid(^. 

Snfiragan {mffrosaneai) is (he lidr arrplm' i. — - 
cry ecclesiastic who has to assist hia wp""". 1' ■ '■ 
way Alcuin nxplaina the 
msgne: " Suflraganena eat nan 
ideo nesdmua quale flxum ei 
t^tsbyterorum, aut abbatum, . 



a the services of the Cbaivta 



SUFFRAGE 



men, qui iliqnmdo vntra civitati subj«cti erani, iilde- 
re deiimus" {Optra, p. 1160). The term is also lued 
M synoiiymout with rieuriui (we Du Frone, GloMtaii' 
um, L v.). It it given more especUUy to Inahops, how- 
ever, uul in respect tii them wiih > tworuld rererence. 
A m^ragan baliop u an tpiicopat iaparlAut inJuMiam 
eiiiplnyed u the vicar and a«i^'tallt or a regular dia- 
cesaii bishiipi but the name ii given lo tlie latter abo 
ill view of the relatiiui he M'Uiiis, if iwi exempt {^see 
RXEHPTIO!!]. to Ilia metnipiililan. 'i'he rrUliiiii uu- 
taioed by alJ the aulTragarM »f a province (camprorinri- 
ala) tngether with their metrupulilan, and the righti 
bclnns^ng Vi the latter in hia relation to the sutfragane 
■ml tJieir aubordinatea, have been exactly determined, 
and are ataled in (iralian, Cauta Hi, qu. 6, and Caaui 
\x, qu. S. Varioug deciaiont occur also in the decretal*, 
which ordain that the cnnsecralinn of a metropnlitan 
ahatl be perromted by all Ills aulTraitaiia. The righte 
at metnipnlitana over their suffragaiia are limited. See 
Innocent III in c, 11, lit Officio Jaduii Onlimirii, i, 
HI llenng, Rral' Knej/ktup. e. v. See Aiu^ilHiaiiop; 



ll Chua apfwara thai anciently wtSVagan bishopg were 
all the city biihnpi of any province under a melm- 
(lolilan, who were called hi* suffragann liecaiiM they 
■net at liii command lo give tlieir giilfragp, cnunnel, or 
nrlvice in a provincial synod. In this sense the word 
was uaeil in England at the lime when l.inwond wrote 
his ProrvKiale (in 1430): "They were called auffra- 
gaiis because they were bound lo ^ve their suffrs)^ 
aiul assistance to the archbishop, beiiiR tummoned lo 
lake part in bis care, though not in the )>lenitnde of hii 
IHxver." The auffragans were not the aame as Chobk- 
iTsvoFl (q. v.), or rural tnahops. Thus it was also in 
other cburehes. The seventy binhopa who were imme- 
ilialelv subject Ki the bishop of Home, a.« their primate 
•>r melropolilan, were callei) hia sufftagaim, because tliey 
weio frequently called to his synods. I'hvoe bishops 
were called by the peculiar technical Ictm libra, which 
stuMl for seventy. Their ekdioiia were regulated by 
the meltopolitan, who either ordained Ihem binuelf, or 
authorized their ordination. They were summoned by 
him to attend the provincial synods, and could nol dis- 
obey such summons under pain of suaiiensioii, or siime 
such canonical censure, which was leli to the discretion 
iifthemetnipoliUiiand the council. From the I3lli lo 
Ihe 16th century there were in the English Church a 
class of biihops (1) holding nominal sees, titulars or 
HI pariUiia iafidtliuia, in Hungary, Greece, and Aaia; 
{i) exiles, temporary or pemuneni, from bishoprics in 
Ireland or Scoiland. who were called airffVagans. 

Bishop* who had no meiropnlilan power lint began 
til have suffragans under them in the lOth century. 
These were styled vicar-KeneraU, vicegerents, ciet-tpu- 
f'tpi, etc SufTnigan bishops were appointed in lierma- 
iiy f.ir the ordination of inferior officcia and the conse- 
craiiiHi and benediction of churches, altars, baptismal 
wniers, etc Some attempt was inaite in England, at 
the beginning of the Keformation, to restore Ihe ehor- 
e|ilMopi, under Ihe name of suffragan bishops. Act 'iS, 
Henry Vill, 1634, appointed several towns for sulTra- 
gansees. One suffragan biihopwan consecrated for Not- 
lingliam, and another as bishop of Dover in 1870. A 
(lermissi ve act for bishops suBragan in Irebind was passed 
ill the early part of the present century, and ot bets have 
recently been consecrated in the colonies. See Bing- 
ham, ChrUl. A ntij. bk. ii. ch. xv, § 13-16 : ch. xvl, § Vi, 
17; Coleman. .4n«en( CAruli'n%,p. 139. 

Suffrage. In the eariy Church, one of the ways 
of designating persons to the ministry was In- Ihe orili- 
nary courw ol luffriigt and election of the Church, it 
was also customary for the clergy or presbytery (or Ihe 
retiring bishop or presbvler) to nominate a person lo fill 
the vacant office, which nomination wasfollownl by the 
suffrages of the people — sutTrages not merely lotimonial, 
but judicial and eleclive. See Riddle, Chrisl, A «iiq. f.H", 



) SUFISM 

The term was also used to detignate — I. Tbe pohlic 
worship— the iiniled voice and consent of ihe pe»p4e in 
Ihe petitions nffeml. "See now. then, both learned and 
unlearned, how prayers and all otheriD^u^ are iji ana- 
mon to this spiriliial Church" (/.mrrra of high. A.D. 
1400). 2. A Khon form of petition, as in tbe Ulanr. 
Thus, in the Onler for the Consecration of Biabops we 
read that in the Litany as then useil, afler the »«nb 
'-ihat it may please ihee to illuminale all bisbopa.* 
ciCt "ibe proper la^ragt shall be," etc t. Tbe 
rersicle* after lbs Creed in Homing and Evening 
Prayer. 



SflfiB,a 

as founded ii 



■lofro 



I be 9th o 



hilosiiphers in rersia,wi 
cnliiry by Abul Kliair. 



thisM 



:. and III have givei 



I char- 



acter, directing it especially agaiiiS' 
the Riisaiaw. They ant to be found in eveiy fun oTthe 
empire; have their ackmiwleiiged head *l Sbiraz. and 
their chief men in all Ibe principal cities. Hr. MaRin, 
miseionarv to Ihat oouiilrv, calls them ** myatic latitu- 
diuariana;" Fur Ihe lenels,see SOftoM. 

Suflim, or Soofiam (Arabic ni/ purt, rit/). a 
certain mystic system of philosophical Iheolngv wiiLiin 
Islam. !u lenets are, that nothing; exists abwlulrly 






and. thongh divided for a 
will be linally reunited wi 
ble hapjiinos will arise fi 
chief good of mankind en 
the Eiemal Spirit as tlie 
will allow; ihal, fin- this 






le higlie 



tncumbniiKvsitfa mortal frame 
piirpoae, they shuuld break sU 
: objects, and pass thm^ life 
wiilioiit attachmenls. as a swimmer in the ocean airikn 
freely without Ihe impedimeiitsof clothes; thalif naw 
earthly charms have power lo iiiHuence Ihe soul, ih* 
iilea of celestial beauty must overwhelm ii in ccstalic 

exiiress ihe divine perfection and the ardor ot our lie- 

the nearest to our ideas, and speak of beauty aud kn-r 
in a transcendent and mystical sense; that, like a rnd 
torn fconi its native bank — like wax separated from in 
delicious honey— Ihe soul of man bewail* it* di*uaii« 
with melanclioly music, and sheds butniug leal 
Ihe lighted ta|ier, wailing passionalrly fiir the n 
ofilB extinction, OS a disengagement fmm earthli 
meK and Ihe means of reliitning to lis only beloiTil 
SUGsm teaches (bur principal degree* of human 

mcilanism — such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimagv. alnn 
giving, ablutions, etc — atui the ethical precepts < ' ' 
esty, love of tnith, ami Ibe like. i. TariknI. This dn 
grec it attainable by those who, while strictly adheriE) 
III the outward or ceremonial injunctions of religvm. ' 
to an inward perception of Ihe menial power and vii 
i>ec«esary for ihe nearer approach to the Divinity, 
necemily of and the yearning for which they ferl, 
Hatiial (imlh) is the degree of those who, by con 
uouB contemplation and inner devotion, have risen ' 
the true perception of the nature of the visible and b 
vinble — who, in fact, have recognised Ihe (indliead. : 
Ihrough Ibis knowledge of it have succeedeil in ei-t 

degree in which man communicates directly with 
Deity, and is ailmilted Into a mymerioiis union wu 
him.' Thus it will be seen ihat llie highest aim oft) 
^Mi is lo attain self-annilitlaiinii hy losing his linms 
ly in Deity. This is to be ai-conipli»lied liy alwiroRi 
his mind fmm all worldly objeria, anit ilevoijiiff bim> 
ID divine coiilemplalion. Arcin^iliiigly ■heSQHsTiei.-t 
an 1 despise all outward ivoreliip aa useless anil uniMv 



K high an 



aijajau 



ig fnini 



wilb 



IM. All SAIblk potti? and pulutce 
IrgiviaUf ■nd ■jmbolicalli'. Tbey rrprcaeni (he higfa- 
nc (hiii|rs Inr humui embleRM and human pawiont; 
aud Rlifi^ being witb lb«m iiltntical with love, erotic 
icnbiDulu)^ ia chiefly lued to iiluvtnt^ the rcUition of 
maa la God. Thiu the beloTed aiie'ii curia indicate the 
ranlniea oT Ibe Deity; MiuHioua pleuuret. and chiefly 
inluiicaiion, indicate the highest de|[rre of Jivine inv«, 
iiteoUlk cuHtempUtiun. Ita principal reliKioua enter 
B Jalalnktin Uumi, and ila Ibeoloicy prcTsJIa amung 



Soger, abbot at 3c Deni^ and ■ leading dignituy 
nflhe Church and Katesnan nf France in the I2tb cen- 
torr. wat bora probably in the vear 108:, and in the 
neiJcbborbaiMl tf St. (taier, and wai educated in the 
MiiiiHiiij of St. Denis, where the crown-prince, I^ouia 
iht Fat, vaa hia ctxnpaniun. After completing hii 
Nadirs in 1103, be was esi|ilayed by abbot Adam of St. 

ntii-mt, and in their defe 
pn^oty kaighta. On the accoHon of IjHiis VI to 
rbe thniH (1108), Suger became hitcountelUiriand con- 
Iribaled gremlly (o Ibe Mbjufcacion of the baniim, who 
had thnnrn off all raponaibility, and lo the establiih- 
iac of the royal ■uihoriiy. by which the reign of Louis 
VC became noted in the hiMniy nf France, lie was 

line (see the anicle), whtcli at (hat lime agilaled both 
HuDcbaul btaie, taking aiilee wilb the pope, u the pol- 
icy «f Foncc dHiiaiided. He waa pmeent al the l.at- 
ma CnHKil in 1 1 12, which annulled the oniiccMions 
■aadebi pope I'aachal II la Henry V. lii 1118 he met 
■he faKiti<'e inpe (ietasiua II, and, in Ibe name of bis 
kinc. placed all tbe n*Durcei of France sL hia dixpoaal 
Sfninai hii Italian advenariea. He subsequently ne- 
paialtd a teulenwnt of the question <if iuvestituie, in 
1111, which pmTed salisfactorv lo both Fnoce and the 
V»!»". [n IIW he became the snccessor of the de- 
rtMrd Adam i» the alibKy of Si. Denis, and in 1 134 be 
Tiiiial Rsfue to aitend the great Laleran Council, and 
while tbcn *a iugratialcd himseirwilh Ibe popr,Calix- 
|B> IL that [he Uller proposnl to create him cardinal, a 
pn^Kt which failed by reasnnof tlie decease of the pope. 
lU aornnipanied the aimy in a campiifin agaiiiM ibe 






n the 



About II?; Hugo renounce*! the habits of his pre- 
•inaa worldly life ami became an aacetic; ami, after 
ksTinc lefctrmd binuelf, be undertook to enfurce the 
Hnmhrtiiw mie in aU its strictness in the ahbev of St. 
IteaK lie fulAUed his spiritual funclinna conscirn- 
tiHi4i-, and built * magniBcent church while himself 
liriiMtin a little celL Hia principal merit mnaiata, how - 
nar, in an esnllmt adminiMraiinn uf the onnvent, in 

of ehuFclMa. and in the diaseminstion of the influencea 
Mtmkuir throoicbout Ibe MirTounding wtsiea. Hia di- 
i*<n>i« of Ibe albira of tbe State still eontiniKd, and, 
when LoaiaVII ascended the throne (in 1I3T), became 
em more pcnnounced than before. He was ueoeiated 
with UstiapJaacelinarSoiiaoniin the rrgencr, and ad- 
wmisieTed the gorenimrnt on tbe plan of tbe late king. 
His UiMiKM apfwan in his nsisting tbe papal inier- 
dM (in 1141) by which Innocent II Kiught lu force ( 
prrlaie into the archbidioprie of Boitrges against ibe 
**|*TMed win «f the king. His endearnr to restrain 
tkt bine (tom embarking in hia crusade failed ; but he 



STIGIN 

appointed regent of the cmintry during tbe king's 
nee, in conjunclion with the archbishop omheinia 
count Vetmenduis. Aiiled by the pope, he subdued 
rebelliouB notulity, and so wisely *ilniiiii>leteil the 
ices that be was able to honor Ibe incessant drslla 
mis, and also to erect many edillcea, and still save 
large sums of money to the public treasury, llie 
height of his career was reached when he succeeded in 
neutralizing the endeavors of Kobert of Drtux, tbe 
brother of LouU VI, who hid returned from the Holy 
Land in 1 148, in seize upon the supreme auihnrily. At 
tbe same time, he succeeded in reBJating the deaires for 
radical reform fostered by Abelard and Pierre de Uruya, 
while lealoualy endeavoring to correct Ihe abuses from 
which those desires had sprung. He was funber auc- 
cesaful in a conHict with the canons of Sl. Genevij.ve,in 
Paris, whose convent pope Eugene HI had directol 
him to reform in accordance with ihe Benedictine rule, 
Louia Vn.on bis return, in 114V, publicly thanketl ihe 
regent and called him the father of his country; and 
Bernard of Gairvaux and a number of foreign prince* 
wroie to him in token of their admiraiinn and respect. 
He enjnvcd his fame, however, during a brief season 
only, and died Jan. 1!, 1161. His liierary remsins in- 
clude only sixty misceUaneouB letten (in Duvbesiie, 
ftcriplnra, roL ir), a report nf his sdmiiiisiratioii of 
St. IJenis, and a biography of Louia TI which ranks 
among (he superior historii^ productions of the Middle 
Ages (bnih in Duchesne, Kt <«/<.). 

See llil. Lil. de la Framfe, xii, SSI ; Bernardi, Euai 
Hial. mr FA «* Suger, in A rvhirrt Lil. dr FKsropt (Par. 
1807), vol. xiv and xv; C^mv, Eludn mr In Fimdalnin 
de rUnili S'al.m Fnma (ilnd. 1B48), ^-ol. i; Combes, 
/.■Abbe Super (ibid. ISM); monk Wilbclro"s (a contem- 
porary) biography of Suger, in Guizol, CoU. del Mi- 
moirei, vd. viii. — Herzog, Rtid-Emrsklop, s. v. 

Sngseatum, or Stiggestlo <u dttk), a name 
frequently given to Ihe jmu, or sanctuan-, uf a 
chufLh. 

SL'GRESTCM Lkctoruh, one of several namea 

Sngin Cr^'D, from 3tD), or pnirt, is a Masorelic 
term lo denote groups of words which occur in one sec- 
tion several times, once in this connection and once in 

ticeil by the Hasoriles, they arranged them into ','J1S, 
or pain. Thus tbe Mauora Fimitit gives under the 
letter //e (p. !16,coLl)"eleven pairs, each aneofwhich 
pair alternately occurs wiib an audible //e ( = Mappik) 
and wilh a quiescent He ( = Raphe);" e. g. H"'TO 
(Prov, Kxxi, 10) and n^:o (Gen. xxv, 81); T\^ZZ1 
(Lev. xiii,90) and ntSV^ (ver. 4). Or Ibe Mawirites 
tell usof" twenty-two wonis beginning and ending with 

with Car cnnjanclire, and once IHUrl, or wilh Vok con- 
versivc," as liar*! (Gen. ili, 36) and l-ias-l (Exod. 



ii,10); ■!031'^(XJI 



'1 (X. 



«.2I). 



ey tell 


us tba 


"there 


are 


our gn-upe of words, each 


which 






Ibe 




book; 01 


ce with a 






donci 


wilb a 


vord more 


d a lelb 


riess. 


Tbe llrM of sucb 


a pair U 


'Jehovah. 



(Deuu vi, 13); the second, "Jehovah, thy liod, thou 
sbalt frar, him ihou shalt aerve, and to him" (x, 20), 
which will be boE illustrated by the Hebrew, vix.; 

i3rr irwi st-iT T-nis nin" rx iDeuu vi, is). 
131 najn iTK K^-ri ^-nbs nm^ rst (Dent, i, K). 

They enumerate instances in which four words occur 

particle S^ and once without it, as ^SIM xb (<ien. 
ixiii, II) and "•ri!* (ver. 16),or IBH »i (Lev. xiii,4) 
and ^En (ver. 20), They ntcniiuii Ave pain of words 



SUICEK 



12 



SULLIVAN 



Hhkb reipacdiral; occur once with tb« Vav eoi^Dne- 
live aad once wilboat it, w V^'' T' CJ«h. xii, 7) 
and ■JlO'' V^ ("■• *2) 1 1^^^' 131D01 (Exod. i, 8) 
■ml -liiain -lacnni (Oiin. xxxv, 23). without in- 
creujng the numbei the reader ii referred t« Fteiudorff 
(Miutom Magna, p. 339 sq.). where, under the heading 
yilJ, Ibese pain are given in alphalieticBl order. A 
comiriele Hal of the above-quoled initance« ia given by 
Frensilorir in his OcAla-it-Ofila, p. 14, fi2, $ 42 ; p. 14, &2 
H|.,g4a; p. 133, §232; p. 188,5260; p. ISS,S £61; and 
in LevitA, Maiioreth ttamnaiortii (ed. Giiislh), p. ITS, 
2(l7,212,223,22fl. {R P.) 

Saioer, JoHAiTK Cabpar, the author of the Tie- 
laanit EtxUtiiuliaa, waa boni June 26, 16Sa He was 
educated in Zurich, Bfanlauban, and Saiimut. in 1643 
he returned (o Zurich, and hecune pastor in the Thur- 
giu, but was recalled in IG44 to tbe Khool* of the rur- 
mer city. In 1646 he, became inspector of the atuniiute 
and profefleor of Hebrew, teu years ■ftenvarda professor 
of Ureek and Latin in the Coti^iinn Ifmmoiilalu, and in 

lege (Cai-oivtum). He remained in this position until 
1683, and died Dec. 29, 1684. ' 

Snioer rendered valuable service to tbeology by hi* 
thorough phlluloglcal lalH>Tii. His earliest works were 
text-lwoks for atudenu : Sylloge Vocum A'on rear. (Tig. 
1648, and 1653 with appended eotopend or Greek pros- 
ody; republished in 1741 by Hagenboeh) i— 5j>nliizau 
Crocie, etc (1661): — 'EftimfWv/inm Eiai0iiat,gi'o daa 
CArgioitomi tl daa BiuUii M. Homila ConlmmWr, etc 
(1658 and 1681) : — Joh. Frisii Tiguriiii Dirt. Lalmo- 
Gtrm.et Germ.- Lai. (i^i sq. ) t-Cumnniu VeHihuL 
SiAolarum Umi/tlkvu Accommodatum, etc (1605) :— 
finaUy, the celebrated Thaaurat Eixkt. (Ainst. 1GM2. 2 
vol).fDt.: two enlarged edo. 1728 and 1821, with supple- 
ments) :—LfXictm Graco-LaUflljiU-Gracim (1683):— 
and, after Suicer's death, the S^inAoJ^ Skaitri-Coiut.rla 
A nkjuUate Ecda. Iliartrtatm (Traj. ad Rh. 17 18. 4lo). 
Various other writings were left in manuscript, snd the 
Laicoo Grac. Sfnjtu and Ezpotitio SymboL ei Apotl. el 
AtAanatiani are lost, Suicer's kaming in these works, 
particularly the Thtiaunu, is so evident that Charies 
Faiiii, in his TrattU, observes that Suicer uodentood 
more Greek than sll the Greeka taken together. 

Suicer took but tittle part in the doctrinal contro- 
veniies of his day. He regretted tbeir existence, and 
aaaiated hia frieiid Heidegger in securing a modiOca- 
tion of the f'onaala C'uniBaui. — Hetiog, Real-Knct/ttop. 
B, v. See Hklvktic CoNSBNSua. 

SnlcldA (Lat. nt, one's self, snd cadert, to kill) is 
deHned as the killing of one's self with malice afuie- 
thougbt, and while in the poBseaaion of a sound mind. 

felony. In the early Church suicid^ were culled ^o- 
Siii/HTOi ( itolAawift ), fiom oflcring violence to them- 
selves. Because suicide waa a crime that cmdd have 
no gienance imposed upon it, the Churcli denied the eui- 
cide the honor and soleninily of a Christian burial, snd 
alhiwed him to lie excommunicated and deprived uf all 
memorial iu her prayers after death. In England Ibis 
crime was puniabed not only with forfeiture of goods 
and chattels, like other felonies, but the boily of the sni- 
ctde waa buried in the night at the cmnings of two 
highwayawiih a Slake driven through tbe body. This 
ancient rule waa repealed by Statute 4 George IV, c 61, 
snd now the burials take place in a churchyard, iHit be- 
between 9 and 12 P.M. 

Suicide ia now generally considered a aymptom of 
some form of insanity, permanent or temporary, in which 
the entolions and passions aie excited or pervrncd. 
Tbe following statistics : 
CAamAcrsV Encyciopadiaf 
Sweden there ia calculated to 
92,376 inhabitants; in Saxony, 
to 84,246 ; in tbe United Stales, 



to 2700; in St Feienburg and Loodoo, 1 to 21,000. la 

all England the proportion of aiuddea i* 7.J to evoy 
100,000 people." See Winslow, ^iHVomy of StneUt: 
Briferre de Boiamont, Dti Suicide tide la Folie Sncvfc i 
Bertrand, TraiU du Suicide: Kadolitle, EngliiJi SaiiHi 
FitUi; Mtdiail Critic, 18S2. 

ankkab. See Talmud. 

SoklEllin (Heb. SuUdgim', D'^B, booA-^vOtn 
[Gesen.] or inluAitintU nfS6k [FUrst] ; Sept. TpwyXo- 
ivTOi; XtHfi-Troglodgta; A. Y. '■Sukkiims'^,a nation 
mentioned (S Chron. xii, 3) with tbe Lubim anl 
Cushim as supplying part of the army which came 
with Sbishak out of Egypt when he invaded Judah. 
If the name be Hebrew, it may perhaps be better M 
suppose them la have been an Arab tribe like tbe 
ScenitJB than Ethiopians. If it ia borne in mind that 
Zerah was apparently allied with the Araba south of 
Palestine [see Zerah], whom we know Sbishak to 
have subdued [see SmauAKl.our oanjeciore does not 
seem to be impmbable. The Sukkiim may curesficnd 
to some one of the shepherd or wsndering races men- 
tioned un tbe Egyptian monuments, but we have not 
round any name ill hieroglyphics resembling tbdrname 
in the Bible, and this somewhat favors the opinioo thai 
it ia a Shemilic appeUaUon,— Smith. The Sept. and 
Vulg. render Trogtodgla, apparently meaning the Elbl- 
opiaiis by thst name, who lived on the western ibote of 
the Arabian Gulf (Siraho, xvii, 7S6),who might have 
been emplovcd ss fleet and light-armed auxiliaries of 
the Egyptiins {Heliod. Jitk. viii, 16). Pliny (vi, S4) 
menliona a Tn^lodytic city in this dirediun caUed 
Sttche (see Bochsrt, Phairs, iv, 29). See Ethiopia. 

BnlevlZB, ■ kind of wood-godd eases among the nt- 
cient Gaula, who are known to ua only from an inscrip- 
tion in baa -relief found nesr l^uuune. which in- 
clude* three female figures whose hands ate filled irilib 
fruit. 

Solllvan, Daniel N. V., a minister of tbe Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, was licensed as a local 
preacher in Alabama in 1833. In 1838 he removed l» 
Texas, and engageil in leaching. In 1840 be waa re- 
ceived on trial into the Texas Conference, and semi 
the Church as paslnrsnd pre«ding elder until his death, 
at HouBton,Keb.2n, 1847. llewaaa mlniairrirfa high 
order of talents, and especially eminent for his ability in 
defining and defending the dodiioes of the Bible. See 
MihUla nfAaauul Cm/ertaca ofHu if, A". Civrvk, 
South, 1847, p. 96. 

SalliTan, Lott BompiiB. a Congregational min- 
ister, was bom at Wareham. Mass., June 27, 1790. and 
waa a graduate of Brown University in the claaa of 
1814. For some time after leaving college bn had 
charge of the Academy in Wrenlbara, Maaik, at the 
aame lime reading theology with the Ker. Olie Tbomp- 
sun of Rehoboih, Mass. Having completed hia tlteoki^- 
ical studies, he went to Ohio, and was ordained pastur 
of the Congregational Chutcli in the town of Lyme in 
■bat sute. Here he remained about six yeata. 8ab- 
sequently he resided for ten yeaia and more in WeM- 
em New York as a missionary in tbe service of the 
American Home Missionary Suoely, and perfonoed a 
most acceptable work in preaching lo several cbun;bca 
in thst newly settled region. He did a like aarvice in 
sparsely seitled sections of New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. For several years he reaided at Sbutfobarr, 
Mass., preaching as opportunitv presented. He died 
at Fall River, Mass., March 1,~ 1861. See the Comg. 
Quailerif, I8CI, p. 216. (J. C. S.) 

SulllTan, Samael B., a miniater of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, waa bum Jan. 27. 1826. and was 
converted at the age of eleven. In 1816 he waa licpiiaed 
to preach, and It the next session of the Erie Conferpnoe 
was received on uial. His ministry, though marked 
with many conversions, waa short, for be died April it, 
1853. He was a man of more than ordinarj' poircn of 



SULLY 1 

■isd— Gnnit, fofcible, tablime, uid geunallj- powerful 
IB bii piwhing. See MimUt* of Atmaid Coitfemioa, 
l(l«3,p.»«. 

SaUy, MBUilca de, > Freoeh prelMe, wu bom 
H SuUi'-wr-LoiRi, abouL the midillf of the 13th een- 
tiay.arabMun pventage. Having Kqoired in educa- 
(ka (btoi^h cbiritT, be uught letter* and theotoK]' in 
Plrii,WHl wu at length made canon of the Cathedral 
«r Dam Rill, and CTentually of that of Paris, to the bUh- 
ofric of irhich tie Bnallv aiuined by aome mean*. He 
(iatlj «iilaifEed ilie niitlcea, honors, and emolumenia 
nftbaiaee, and died Sept. 11, 11911, leaving L<am,S<t- 
■BH, and a Knocb tranalation of tbe New Teglameot 
(Ljooe, IS1 1, Stu). See Horfer, A'obb. Biog. Gin. a. v. 

Bully, Odon (or i.'aiiv) de, a French prelate, waa 
hon abuut I IGo at U Chapelle J'Angillon (Bern), be- 
hig the aon of Eudea Archambaud, lord of Suliy. He 
wiirdatated at Pari*, and in 1181 became linger at the 
Cubedral ef Boorgn. In 1187 he Tinted Rome, and in 
IIM neceeded bia brother Maurice ai bithop of Farie, a 
e which be ia laid by Pierre I ■ 



lend with greM b 






■Mnaer. Ue loolt the pope'a part in the eecletiaalical 
■loamb of hia oountrj' at the time, and waa cumpelled 
la Ok, leariog hia property to be conSacated by tbe 
cmwo, but waa erentually restored with additional hon- 
m. A owDcil of Tarii waa held under him by the pa- 
pal legate in 1 JOl ; he laid the foondatloD of Pomna, of- 
lefvantatfaniona aa Pon-Royal; and be preached a cru- 
•ade agaiuA the Albigenaes. He died at Parii, July 
13,1-JOH. Se« Hoefer,A'oBc.flio3.C*j<rai,«.v. 

BolphtU ii dewgnated in Heb. aa r^''~it\,gophrilh 
fA.V.-bnBaCoae~>. and in Greek »tiav'(^>i"^l>, 
Jij^nn.ir. g,3). In Clie Scriptoree it ia very frequent- 
!t aagociaisd with *■ fire :" " Tbe Lord rained upon Sod- 
vm and t^onHcnh brimMone and flie out of heaven" 
(UetL xix, 21; aee alao Paa. li, 6; Eick. unvlii, 22). 
Ia J<ib iTiia, 16 and laa. xu, 3S " brimuone'' occuri 
•Imw. baa no doubt in a Muae aimUar to that in the fore- 
rlx. aa a ■yaoaymoua expresaion with 
» haa been oheerred by Le Ctere {DiitrrL <k 
Stiomm /tatrtniimr, Commenlario FnUUBiek Ailjecia, 
$iT>.inebadui,Roaeninllller.aDd otbera. There ie a 
peoiliaraidptaatTnia odor which is occasionally perceived 
isaanBpany athunder-slorni. The ancieiita draw par- 
tiralar alMntioa (o it: see Pliny (Hill. A'uf. xxxv, lb), 
'FiiliBtn ae fulgara qooqne aulphuriaodonimhabenl;" 
StOMa < Q. Sat. ii. 68 ), and Pentua { SnU ii, 'U, ib ). 
UCBCB the cxpnaaiun in the aacrtd writings "Are and 
bnaMCaae' to denote a stonn of thunder and lightning. 
Tbeatreaaw of bfimatone in Isl xxk, 8S is, no doubt, as 
Lee (//(*. I,rx. p. t2B) haa well exproaed it, >• a rushing 
■ ofligtiuiing.' From Deut.xxii,SS,<> The whole 



L would appear that native sulphur itaelfia al- 
aee alao Isa. xxxiv, 9). Sulphur is found at 
«nt parts of Palestine, but in 
e gRateat atnndance on the hordera of [he Dead Sea. 
* We picked up pieci«," says Dr. Kobinson {BM. Ra. ii, 
ttl),''as large a* a walnut near the northern shore, and 
tbt Arabs miA it was found in the sea near 'Ain el- 
Pvbhhab in lumps as large as a man's est: they find 
it ia ailEcient quantities to make from it their own gun- 
pBWdeT." See Irby and Uangles ( rrow/i, p. 463 ), 
Bnekhaiill {Tratili. p. 394), who obserFet that the 
Aiaba wse aulpbar in dixeases of their camels, and Shaw 
iTmtU, ii, US). There are hat sulphurous springs on 
th* casttm cuaat of the ancient Callirrhoe (Iriiy snd 
Hanglf^ TratriM, p. 467 ; Kobinson, BOL Rn. ii, 223). 
'n* pieeaa ufsalphDrirariing In aic from a natmegto 
a saHll ben'a egg, which traTellert pick up on the shore 
•4 tiM PmiI Se«, bavr, in all prebaUlity, been disinle- 
I tbt adjacent limestone or rolcanic rocks 
ittnshortes. Sulphur was much used 
■d Booun* in tbnr leligious puriAca- 
f] PUnr, XIX*, \b); hence the Greek 



» SULZER 

word iiiav, lit. "the divine thing,''was employed la 
express this substsnce. Sulphur is found nearly pure 
in dlRctent parts of the world, and generally in i-ulcanie 
districts. It eiiats in combination with metals and in 
various sulphates: it is very combustible, and is used 
in tbe manufaclure of gunpowder, matches, etc Pliny 
{tot.vii.) uys one hind or sulphur was employed "ad 
cllychnia eooBcienda." See Ubhutohb. 

Snlploioua, or Pbik»t« of tkk Sociktt or St. 
Sulpick. This society was founded in the parish of 
St. Sulpiee, Paris, in 1M5, by Jean Jacques Olier deVet- 
neuiL The act founding the society was dated Sep). 6, 
1646, and was immediately sanctioned by the aiilhoii- 
ties. The society is epecially devoted In the training 
of candidates for tbe priesthood, and is funned into two 
bands, one devoted to parish work and the other to teach- 
ing. Being warmly befriended by SL Vincent de Paul, 
the Sulpiclans soon estshlished themselves in nearly all 
the dioceses of France, and look the chief part in the edu- 
cation of the French clergy down to the Revolution of 
17S9. Thev weie supiireased bv Kapoleon in ]HIZ,but 
were restored by Louis XVllI. ' In 1636 Olier formed a 
companv fur ciilcmiiingthe island of Montreal, who pur- 
chased it in 1640, sent out Sieur de Haisonneiive with 
priesla and nuns in 1641, aitd translefred their proprie- 
torship to the Sulpicians in 1660. In 1667 the Sul- 
picians De Queylus, Snuard, and Ualiniet look posses- 
sion of the island, but their claims were resisted, and a 
conflict or jurisdiction arose which had not been settled 
as late as the early pan of 1876. In I66H the Sulpi- 
cions Franfoia de K^nelon snd Claude Trouve Tounded 
the Drat Iroquois mission at the western extremity of 
l^ke Ontario, but their Ishon were confined principally 
to the Indians near Montreal. In Montreal, in addition 
to the seminary attached to the Church or Koire Dame, 
founded in lGo7, they possess (he Theological Seminar?-, 
the Preparatory Seminatj', or " College of Montteal," 
founded in 1773, and several other suecnrsal churches 
with their residences. Invited by bishop Carroll in 
April, 1791. a band of four Sulpicians and three Semina- 
rians, beaded by Ftanfois Charles Nsgot, ssiled for Bal- 
timore, Md^ where they formed for a time the clergy of 
the catbedraL Some of their number went to teach in 
the Georgetown College, and founded the St. Mary's 
Theological Seminary, lioltimore, with a college or pre- 
paratory school Pope Gregorj- XVI raised the semi- 
nary to the rank of s univeisity. The collegiate tchoni 
waa removed to EUicottaty.Howaid Co., in 181B,and 
suppressed in 1862. 

Bnlpioltis Skvuiub. See Skvbiii.'b. Suuicids. 

Btilter, in Norse mythology, was tbe knife of the 
wicked Uela. The word sigoities drrouring hajtgtr, 

Bnlser, Simon, an avowed adherent and adrocala 
of the Lutheran view of the Lord's supper in Switzer- 
land during the period of the Reformation. He was 
bom Sept. 22. 1608— the iUrgilimaie child of a provost 
of Inter^schen. After previous viciseiiudes, he was rec- 
ommended by Benhold Haller (q. v.) to the Council of 
Berne, and vras thus enabled to punue his studies at 
the expense of the public tresaury, which he did at 
Basle and .Strasburg. He aubaeqnently became a teach- 
er of ancient languagea, and was employed in establish- 
ing schools throughout the canton of Berne. When 
Holler died he waa deputed to Strasburg to negotiate 
the call of a successor. He look lealous part wiilt tha 

snd even (in 15BH) visited Saxony and had an interview 
with Luther. Having been won over to the poNtion 
of Luther, Sulier steadily persevered in defending the 
Lutheran view of the sacrament; at lirst in Berne, aa 
professor of dialectics and rhetoric and subsequently of 
theology, as well as in the pulpit; and anerwsrds, be- 
ginning in 1M8, at Basle, where he became pastor of 
St. Pater's, and in 1563 professor of Hebrew. In I65S 
he became the successor of Myconius in the cathedral, 
and chief pastor of Basle, and with these dignities be 



SUMERU 



U 



SUMMER-HOUSE SILVEl 



united in 16S1 a profeSBonhip nT theology. In 1S63 he 
■cquireil Ihe theological doctorate ; nnd he filled, in ad- 
dition, th» position or Mperinteodent of Rtiteln uuder 
Ibe margrave Charles of Usdon. 

Sulier entertained ilie bold project of inducing the 
Church of Banle to iuhacribe to the Form n/ Coneord, 
and tu refuae the acceptance of the second Helvetic 
Canfeuion of 1666. See Helvetic CosPiuaiON. Ke 
succeeded in cauNnK the omiHon uf explanatory not«s 
fconi future puUicacions of the dm Helvetic (Juiifession 
(of 1&31I, and in limiting its infiuence. Sulzer's views 
on the Biciamenl aie given in the conreHiun which he 
inaligated the hurgomaiter or Brunn to i»ue in IGT8 
itteHtseobac\i,GeMeJi.>Ler1tnBiukrCim/fttiofi). He 
waa also anceeMrul in perauadiiig Ihe authoritiea tu per- 
mit the use at the nrKan in the churches and on hnli- 
daja, aiwl the ringing of the an-called "pope's bell" (a gill 
from Felix V). He died June 22, lUtfi. The archives 
of Ihe Chnrch of Uaile and Sulzer's family papers fell 
into the handa of his heira, and were partially lost. Hia 
auoceaanr, J. J. GryntBus, promoted Ihe Heformeil the- 
dogy, but Sulzer's arrangements with regard to o^an i 
and bell slUl continue in force. i 

See Henng, A Ihea. Raur. p. 26, where a catalogue of 
Sulzer's writings may be found \ Humleshajcen. Cimftibt 
da ZwiaglitnUmia, LutUrtkum u. CalciKtiauu (Ikme, 
1S4'2), p. I05sq.: Kirchliofer, Btrth. llvlUr (Ba»le. 1B27), 
Hagenbach. IHe iheolog. SckuU HokTu, eir. (l)MO)i 
I'holuck, in GtMh. d. alaidrm. JM)eiu tin lllea Jahrh. 
p. 921 sq.— HerzoR, Reat-EnyUap. s. r. 

Sujii«m (or MeT1l).the north pole, ■ monnlain of 
gold ami pi«cioua stones on which dwell Ihe genii and 

SummSnns, an Etruscan and Roman divinity, the 

god of the nightly sky, the lightning-darter of the night, 
as .lupiler was uf the day. His temple stood neat the ; 
Circus Haximua, and a repteaentatinn of him in clay ] 
was given in the pediment of the Capiloline temple. ' 
"Whenever ■ tree waa atruck by lightning in the night, 
the A rc'i/ bmlAtri would olTer a blach ram to Summa- I 
nuB (I'liiiv, //. A", ii, 53j Aupisl. Dr. Cii. DH, iv, 2S; 
Varro,A'7,u^.ti((.v.T4; Uvy,xiEiii,£9; Qvii,Fa$l.' 
vi,73li Cicero, Z>(! Mi>. i, 10, etc.). 

Bmnmei' is the invariable rendering in the A. V. | 
of Iho Heb. y:^, Ugiu (Chald. S7^, kdyil, Dan. ii, 95 ; ' 
New Test. SffMc, ht<U}, which properly signifies iarreil 
of fniils (not iif grain, which is ^^S]?), strictly thecu/- 
fv^/orthefQiit(laa.xvi,9; Jer.viii,!0: xlviii,82); 
specially jfjp-AaiTfitf, which in Palestine takes place in 
-August, although the early figs (D'''1<I3B) ripeti al Ihe 
summer solstice (Isa. iiiviii.4: Micvii,!); hence the 
.harvest-time of flgs, i. e. summer, espediUly nirfjHnuner, 
the hottest season (I'sa. xxxii, 4; the droughts uf sum- 
.mer, I'mv. vi, S; x,o: sxvi, 1, xxx.SSi the sumoter- 
ihuuae, Amns iii, 16); also fruit, specially jtjw, as harvest- 
ed (viii, 1, i; ciimp. Jer. xxiv, I sq.). See AOBICUUT- 
lUBS; FlO; Karvkst; Palhstenk; Season. 

Bunuoeififtld, .To>in, a distinguished divine and 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born 
at Preston, England, Jan. Bl, ITSB. tlis father was 
a local pieachei in the Wesleyan Methodist connec- 
tion in England, and he educated his son in those re- 
ligious principles which govemeil bis own heart and 
life. At a suitable S)^ he was put under Ihe tuition of 



where he gave early indications of 
ius for which he was afterwards sn eminently distin- 
guished. In 1810 he taught a uight-schnul in order tu 
aid his father, who had become cmbarrasscl. Before 

Liverpool, conducting Ihe French cDtreepondence. He 
now, through moral weakness, fell into evil habits and 
company, and had also an intense passion for listening 
to eloquent speaker^ whether in the pulpit, the senate- 
huuse, at Ihe bar, or on (he stage. He would at times 



■hut himself up in bia mom and study inlenll 
teen hours out of the twenty-four with iosutHci 
iihment. This, together wiih Ihe terrible re 
lutTered, seriously and permanently tnjuveil b 
tutiuii. Established in the coal trade by hi* I 
was so discontented and neglectful tkit he 
poverty and distress upun his father'a fainilv, 
himself thrown into the Matshalsea of Dnb'li 
he empluyed himself in drawing up the necei 

Ihat he continued in this busineaa fix aonie ti 
his release. In 1817, in great distress and al 
spair, he waa led by a plain Methodist mechan 
vices, and the same night found peace. He be 
principal of a "praying aMocialiun" which c» 
public, and in April, 1818, look bia place among 
preachers. He waa received on trial in the > 
Conference of Ireland in 1819, emignted tu Ai 

Conference. His first appearance in public 

arrival in New York was al the anniversar 

Bible Society, and liis speech on tl 

produced a wonderful effect, and was reg 

one of the very highest efforts of plathinn el 

ferenoe. He entered on his labors in New Y 
where the churches could not contain the ■ 
that desired to hear him. i'eisnns oT all pi 
and classes of socielf were attracted by the bi 
eloquence, and expressed their admiration uf i 
er wiUi which he enchained them to Ihe wi 
dropped from his lips. He continued to preai'l 
audiences until early in June, 1822, when hi> i 
tions were STinpended by the failurt of his beali 
airing a mililer climale, he was appointed dele^ 
the American Bible .Society to ihe I'Totenant 1 
ciely in France. He retunteil to America, . 
1824, but was unable to perform regular m' 
waa appmnted by Ibe Mis^unaiy Itoanl of th 
delpbia Cunferenos to travel in Pennsylvania . 
Jeney and to lake up cnllectinns. He uniieil w 
islets of crtbet denominations in forming the i 
Tiact Society, and his last public act was an 
aildreas at its organ'izatinn. He died June 
Mr. Summerfleld was veiy famous as a pulpi 
naturally ekiquenl, deeply devoted to the rama 
possessed of great command of language ami 
stock of the most useful knowledge, whenever 
ill the nanK of Uod he poureil forth fnini 
overflowing with the kindliest feelings a si 
evangelical truth which melted his audiencrs. 
ly sincerity" was evidently the pervading prii 
his heart, and a tone of simplicity eharactei 
style of preaching. Jamas Montgomery, the ] 
of his discourses that "the sermons are less c 
fur inatanlaneouB effect than fur alnding usi 

a™ For* /ntri/aliim Jiir tke lntfnaioii »f I 
and Dtinh (1822). Afler his death appeare>], 
nod aktlrifi of SmiHmi, bs Ittr. Jolm Sarwm 
M^ mlh m MrodHdinn bg Rer. Thamat E. Ho 
(N.¥.l842,Rvn). SeeHulUml.'Venotrn^.Svin 
Life atid MMIrs (IR29, 8vo; Sd cd. I83U, He 
Hvo; reviewed by L. Bacon in Ihe Amrr. Quiir 
141; C*r»«(,aH<jr,«p«.ii,118); his Li/V by R 
iam M. Willett (l>hila.evo); .Spragoe, jImhi 
.4ner. Putpil, vli, fiB9-654; Fish, Palpit I 
(IRB7),ii.689: Waterburv, AilWohw o/A'% H--fli 
ni (18G4, lamo) ; AlUbon'e, IHcl. ofhril. ami A 
Ikon, s. V, ; Jiangs, IIUl. of Ikr if. f. Ckurel,, 
329: *>BU*« n/ Amual CoH/errnta, i, 608; : 
Cgchp. of Unlmliiin. s. v. (J. L S.) 

Summer-IUKue BllT«r, a pa:'n]ent mat 
mediiBval agm by certain tenants of abbeys li 
hot or prior, in lieu of providing a temporary 
habitation fur him when he came from a dii 
inspect the proi>iTly.— Lee, G/oai.o/'tiyiiry. Ti 



SUMMERS 1 

SnihiiierB, William, ■ nnniUei of Iha Mclbodist 
KpiKopil Cburch, nu bom in PurTix Counly, Vi., 
ill Seirtcnbfr, 1796. He joined Ihe Cburch in Lees- 
biincK Ow aod ill 183^ wu admiited nn trill in the 
I'iuiburgh Cunrenim. la 1884 he wat ordaineil de>- 

Lk hraUh improving, be w« made effective at the 
nut amfemtet. In Itt&S he wu igain placed on Ihe 
•upMnaDKrar; list, and that relatiun cnniiniied until 
unniiiued by dealb, which came to him in Martiaville, 
I), Match 39, 1855. He waa kind, coun«uiB, and bon- 
cnUe in bit depottnHnt, calm and firm in hia purpose, 
■uadlui in fab friendship, and liithful and ucc^aTuI 
■ a Diaister. See MimKIa of A mual Co^eratat, IBM, 



Sttinmervllle, Joii^f, a Methodist Episcopal min- 
iMtr. was bom jn the County nfrrroQe, Ireland, Match 
1. 1(82. He enjove*! earlv rrli^pous training, was re- 
rrived on trial iii the Bdiimore Conference in 1812, 
and filled the fulluwiiig appointments: Trumbull, Tu>- 
caawai, Hinkuunc, Uxlurd, Ijhenango, Letarc Falls, 
MsiBOrld. Chtiitiuqua, Ridgewa.v, Paint Creek, Erie, 
Yaant;iint> It. Deerdrld, Lisbon, (^iifm, Harlfonl, Butler, 
Mercer. Ceniitevi lie, Kitunning, EliiabHh, Waynesburg, 
aiid EUnniiigbam. In 183C he was made a siiperaiiiiii- 
an. U* died OcL S, 1860. Sec Mi-mta n/ Animal 
L'«/r><WH,ir.602. 

Saminia DAalderantes AFrEcrtBt's is ibe title 
cf ibt bull issued by (»|>e Innocent VIII wher«n he 
informed the Uermans {bat tbeir couiilry ws> overrun 
by wucbeii, and appruiitinK two itiqiiisiinre, Henry 
Kr4BH« and Jacob fignenger, Tiir their deitniclion. S^ 
KiMO, CiutcM »iiLi,i 115,!. 

SnmmlBta, or Summlalae. a name given to 
(bnse sctKilaaic divines of the Middle Agea who pro- 
ponaded tbtir tkignas in works called Samma Thto~ 
lnjia. This name was first afkipled from the Samna 
('■iViDv Thtobigia of Alexander Halea, whoH renown 
was nlipMd by that af Albenos Magtma. He was, in 
lam, unrpaaHd hy hti disdi^e Thnmaa Aquinas, who 
inUnbe'l his fainuna work on divinity under Ibe title 
nfA'niwi T-iHm Throhgur, mnA thereby greatly low. 
end the eMimaiion in which tbe Book of SrHlmrt, 
written by Peter Uimbard, waa held. See Van Ousur- 
Ke, CkriH. Dogmal. i, 31. 

SmniDtia Saoardoa <Lat. for chief priest), a name 
ciren to bishops when it had heoHne the fashion, in the —1 '^"{T-' 
M renratj, in deduce Ibe inxtitution of the tccleais>ti- "f ^"'- <"•'_' 
tal hieranhj fmn the priesta and services of tbe Ti 
pk sf -Irtunlem. Rumiih writers apply the title 



S SUMPTUARY LAWS 

bam, but his views would not allow him to retain 
rectory of Maple-Durham. While Dr. Sumaer held 
bishopric of Chester, the OxfunI movement commei 
and came to a he^l. From Ihe lime that the war 
of Angk>.CalholiciBm waa first sounded in I^S da» 
hia death, biihop Sumner has ever been among the 
and tbe furenMiit lo denounce the dishonegty of 
Tractarian school of theology. In his charf^ea, in 
dresses, in sermons, he ever and again denounced 



ritual. In 



Somner. John Bird, an Kngliih prelate, waa the 
eUnt N of the Kev. R. Sumner, A.M.. many years 
rirar of Kenilwimh and Sioneley, in the COunly of 
Warwick, and was bnm at his father's paisonage hnuse 
11 Kniilworth in 1 700. He waa sent at in early age to 
Einn, where be was nomitisted lo a king's scholarship, 
nut. having spent several years on that royal founda- 
lion. be paased in the usual coufM ID King's College, 
CaaibriilKc, of which he became successirely scholar 
Uil felkiw. Not long afler having compleled hia aca- 
flrfnicsl course, Mr. Sumner was invited to return aa 

al years. During this time he waa oniained deacon 
and priest. He waa preferred, about 1830, to the rH> 
•tr}*i<f MiplF-ihirliam, a pleaunt and retired village on 
the banks uf the Thames, ■ few miles above Reading. 
U itm Mr. .Suraoer was promntsd by the minisuy of 
the earl of Liverpool la a eanonry in the Cathedral of 
Dirfaam, which ba held fi>r many years, together with 
his rMlary uf Mapi«-Durham. In 18!S the see of Chea- 






ingjiis 



nived his U.U. from Cambridge, was a 

op in <liK iBtm. Tbe bithoptic being then but poorl; 

rialuwiKl, he was allowed to retain the canoniy of Oui 



IS48 h>ril John Kussell, wbo held Ihe post u 
at the time, offered the arcIitHshopric of Canlerbiirj- ti> 
Dr. Siimuer. The offer was accepted, and. miK'h l» lliu 
■atisfactinu of the evangelical portion of the listablisli- 
ed Church, he was translaied from Chester lo Canter- 
bury. In I8S0 occurred Ibe mernnrablc event called 
Ihe "Papal AKgression." To ihai measure of the pope, 
by which Rngbind was portioned out inin Roman Caih- 
olic dioceses with preblet set over each, archbi^tliop 
Sumner offered that oppowlion which was to hive been 
expected, and he denounced the measure in terms of 
more than usati energy. Hia grace, as we lesm Irom 
the " Peerage," was " primate of all England and met- 
ropolitan, one of the limls of liet majcsly's privy coun- 
cil, a goveniar nf the Charterhouse, and visitor of Met- 
Iini and All-Souls' colleges at Oxfiml, as well is of 
King's CoUege, London, of Dulwich College, ind of Sl 
.\ugustine'g College, CmterbuTy,'' and he enjoyed the 
patronage of no lew ilian one hundred and sixty-nine 
livings. He was slso moat discreet and blameless in 
the distribution of bis clerical patronage, bestowing his 
best livings on the most exempUrv and painstaking of 
hiadergy. HerijedSerit.6,186i. His works are, £».iy 
OH rit PropArcvi, etc. (Lond. 1802, Svo) —Ajioilelkit 
Ittackins (1815, Svo; 9lh ed. Lond. 1850, Svo):— A^ 
ordt «f Cffatinn, etc (I8I«;, 1817, 1818, 1826, 1833. 1838, 
■i rola.Svo: 7th ed. 1850, 8ro):— frufmcri of Chi-it- 
limilg Drrirrd /rom tfj A'a/Kre,elc.-(Lond. 1824, Svo; 
N. V. 18S5, ISmo) -.—^cnnDns and LttluiT (1827-59). 

Bomner, Joseph, D.D., a Congregational divine, 
wu bnm at Pumfret, Conn., Jan. IE>, 1740. He gradu- 
ated nt Yale College in 1769, was ordained pastor of 
the Church al Slirewibury, Mass., June 23, 1763, and 
died Dec9,t824. During a period of nxty-two years, 
he was never absent from the stated communion of hia 
Church. He published,^ SfrmoH al lie Ordinaliim of 
S>tt<mdSnmtur{\t^\)-.—AThniiia^ringSermimlXiWi): 
™w.y -SrrTuon (18ia). See Allibone, Did. 
A ulion, B. V. ; Spngue, A rmals of 
'. Pvlpil. \\; 630, nolei Corg. Quarlerly, 1869, 



CumptiOD, Thomas, a minii 



Melhudist 
Cecil Counlv, Md., Dec. 
5, 1802. He was convened in 1819, licensed as a local 
preacher in 1828, and in 1838 was received on trial into 
Che Philadelphia Conference. He received a superan- 
nuated relation in 1874, and died in Halifax, Dauphin 
Co„ Pa., Miv 9, 1874. Stt~ Uimla of Amiual Caxftj-- 
r7icr.,1875,p.«. 

Bumptnary Iiaira. At an early period Chris- 
tianity controlled domealic habits in a great variety of 
ways both in food and dress. Excesses were condemn- 
ed. I'hus Clement of Alexandria says, "Other men, 
like the unreasoning animals, may live to eat; we have 



ir pursuit, but rather 



life, III 



in lux 



le ai'oided. AnIiphane^ the 
ician, consiuera variety and research in 
t a main cause of disease ; yet many have 

It (heir chief anxiety to have cbtrice fish- 



SUN I 

u rrom bejroDd ■&■." They might "ou a little vine 
for the Momich'i uke,"*! tbs apoatle exhorted Tim- 
i>thy-, "for U is |[ood to bring the help oT ui aUrin- 
l^n't U> ■ laiiguiil conatilution I biit in utaU quantity, 
leM, inatead of benefiting, it ttaoulil b« found lo produce 
■ fulness whivh would reader other remediea netdrul; 
*iiic« Ibe natural drink oTa tbinty man ii water, and 
this aimple beverage alotie was aupplied froni the cleft 
mch by the Lord-W the um of the Helrew* oT old. . . . 
Water ii the me.licine of a wise temperance. Young 
men and tnaidenii should, for the moat part, forego wine 
altogether; Tor to drink wine during the boiling season 
of youth is adding Hre lo Hre. . . . Those who require a 
mid-day meal may est bread allngecber without wine, 
and, if thirsty, let them utisfy themselves with water 
only. In the evening at supper, when out studies are 
over and the «r is cooler, wine may be used without 
baim perhaps, lot it will but restore the lost warmth ; 
but even then it should be taken very sparingly, until 
the chills of age have made it a useful medicine ; and 
it is for the moat part best to mix it with water, in 

vases, rare to be acquired and difficult to be kept, are 
ta be put away rrom among oa," says the same writer 
that we h*ve been quoting. "Silver sofas, silver ba- 
sins aad saiicem, plates and dishes; beds of choice 
woods decorated with tortoise-shell and gold, with cnv- 
crlels of purple and costly stuffs, are lo be relinquished 
in like msnner. The Lord ate from a humble dish, and 

their feel, girded with a lowcL Our food, our utensils, 
and whatever else belongs to our domestic economy 

" It is proper that boih the woman and the man should 
come into the church decently dressed, with no eluilied 
ateps, in silence, and with a mind trained to real benev- 
olence; chaste in body, chaste in heart, Btled to pray 
to tiod. FurthemHire, it is tight that the woman 
should he veiled, save when she is at home; Ibr this is 
respectable and svoiils offence." " It is enough to have 
the dispoution which becomes Christian women," aays 
Tertullian. '■ God lotdis on the heart. The outward ap- 
pearance is nothing. Why make a display of the change 
that has been wrought in us? Kathct are we hound 
to fumiBli the heathen no occasion of blaspheming the 
Christian nsme, and accusing Christianity of being ir- 
reconcilable with national customs." Vet he adds, 
"What reasons can you have for going about in gay 
apiwrel when you are removed from all with whom 
this is required? You do not go the round of the tem- 
ples I you ask for no puhhc shows; you hare nothing 
to do with pagan festivals. You hare no other than 
serious reasons fur appearing abroail. It is to visit a 
sick brother, to be present st the communion or a sei- 
tnon ; and if offices of courtesy or friendship call yon 
among the pagans, why not appear in your own pecul- 
iar armor, that so the diRtrence may be seen between 
the servants of (ind and of Satan?" Sumptuaiy laws 
have been passed by the Stale and Church, generally, 
however, tu be disregarded. Roman laws prohibited 
■ " " " It they were all 



habitually transgressed in the Uler Umes of (be Repub- 
lic; Such laws were in great favor in the legislation 
of England from the time of Edward III down to the 
Reformation (aee statute 10 Edward III, c 3, act 37 
Edward III). In France they were as old as Charle- 
magne, but the Hrst attempt to restrict extravagance in 
dress was under Philip IV. Scollsud had aim a simi- 
lar class of statutes In all these coimtries, however, 
tliese laws seem lo have never been practically oh- 
eerved. Most of the English sumptuary laws were re- 
pealed by 1 Jamea I, c. 25, but a few remained on the 
BUtatc-book as late as lBa«. 

Sim (prop. Ci;l?, thimtth: ^Xioc). In the his- 
tory of the creation the sun is described as the "great- 
er light," in contradistinction to the noon, or "Icaaer 



S SUN 

light,' in conjunction with which it waa la aeirc "far 

while ita qiecial office waa " to rule the day" (tin. i. 
14-IS). The "signs" referred lo were pcobaUy aoeh 
extraordinary phenomena as eclipses, which wete re- 
garded aa conveying premonilioos of coming eventa 
(Jer. X, ii Hatl. xxiv, 29, with Luke xxi, ^). The 
joint itiSuence aesigned to the sun and moon in de- 
ciding the "seasons," both for agricultural operaliooa 
and fur religious festivals, and aLso in regulating the 
length and subdivisions of the "yean,' coneclJy de- 
scribes the combination of the lunar and solar year, 
which prevailed, at all events, subaequently to the Uo- 
ssic period— the moon being the sHanrer {tat >£■>- 
Xnf) of the lapse of time by the siibdiviBinns of nwatba 
and weeka, while the sun waa the ultimate njirlaUir 
of the length of the year by means of the recurrence 
of I he feaat of Fentecoet at a fixed agricultunl acaaon, 
viz. when the com became ripe. The sun "nikd the 
day" alone, sharing the dominion of tbe skies with Ifae 
moon, the tnilliancy and utility of which bir joumeya 

tries. It "ruled the day," not ady in reference to its 
powerful inllucnces, but also as deckliLig the length of 
the day and supplying the means of colcnlolHig rta 
progreas. Sunrise and suuset are tbe only ilefined 
points of lime, in tbe abaence of artiOcial conlrivancea 
for telling the hour of the day; and, as these points are 
less variahle in the latitude of Palealiite than in iDaiiy 

mencemeiil and conclnrion of the working-ilsv. Be- 
tween Iheae two points the Jews recn^ised tfanv pe- 
riods, viz. when llie Bnn became hot, about £> AM. (I 
.Sam.xi,S. Neh.vii,B); Ihe double light, or noon (neit. 
xliii. Iti; 2 Sam. iv,&); and "Ihe cool of Ibe dav,~ short- 
ly before sunset <t)en. iii, 8). Tbe BUB ako aerTnl M 
Hx Ihe quarters of the bemispheiv — east, wiM, mnb, 
ai>d south — which were repreaenled respectively trr ibe 
rising sun, the selling sun (Isa. xlv, 6; Psa. I, I), the 
dark quarter (Gen. xiii, 14; Joel ii,W),aDd the brill- 
ianl quarter (Dent. xxxiii,23; Job uxvu, IT; Ezek. 
xl,24); or olherwise by their poaitKHi lelaiive to a per- 
son facing the riung snn— before, bebind, on the left 
hand, and on the right hanti (Job xxiii. B, 9). Tbe 
apparent motion of the sun is frequently referred to ia 
terms that would imply its realitv (Josb. x. IS; 2 Kings 
XX, 11; Poo. xix, 6; Eccles. 1,6; Ilab. iii, II). Tbe 
ordinary name fur the aaa,Mmtih,a supposed to refer 
lo the extreme brilliancy of its rays, prodacnig jAipor 
or attimiilmtnl in Ihe mind nf the beholder ; the poeti- 
cal names nnn. eiiimmii (Job xxx, 28; Cant, vi, 10; 
Isa. xxx, 26),' and O^^n, ciira (Judg. xiv, 18 ; Job ix, 
T) have reference to its heat, the beneficial effect* of 
which are duly commemoraled (Dent, xxxiii, 14 ; PM. 

<Psa. cxxi, 6; Isa. xlix, 10; Jonah iv, 8; Ecdus. xliii, 
8, 4). The vigor with which Ihe sun traverses the 
heavens is compared lo that of a "bridegroom ooiiiing 
out of his cbamber," and of a "giant rejiHcing (o mn 
his course" (Psa. xix, 6). The speed with which the 



The worship of the sun as the most prominent and 
powerful agent in tbe kingdom of nature was widely 
diRiised throughout the coiui tries adjacent to Palestine. 
The Arabians appear to have paid direct worship to ii 
without Ihe intervention of any statue or symbol (Job 
xxxi,26,27; Strabo, xvi. 784), and this simple style of 

Jews in Gialdea and Mesopotamia. In P.gypt the eon 
was worshipped under Ihe title of KS or Ro, and not, u 
was supposed by andeiit writers, under the form of On- 
ri>(Diod.Sic. >, II; see Wilkinson, .tiic.fjgipf.iv.SSS). 
The name came conspicuously forward as the title of 
tlie kings— Pharaoh, or rather Phra, meaning "the aoD" 



SUN 1 

(WiUiiDm, A IK. Eggpl. iv, 387). The Hebrewe mait 
hin bMii wfU Bcquuntfll Mrlth the idolitrous wonfatp 
i!( tbr ami during Ihe cafitiTilj in Egypt both from the 
(Htignitr of On, tbe cbirC tax of the iTonhi[i o( the 
■n B iaplifd in [be nuDs iuelf (On — the Hebrew 
BKbaiiffnib, "bouse of tbe aun," Jer. xliii, IS), uid 
■bo rnia the connection between Jo«eph Utd Poli-phe- 
rtb rhe who btloags to Ri"), the prieec of On (Uen. 
xli.(G). Atier iheir removal to Ciiiun. the Hebrews 
oBif in cootacE with ririoiu ronns oT idalalry which 
fj^nunl in the worship af tbe sun— such is the Bui 
>ribe Fbotiidani (Morer^PAdii.), ISO), the Molecb or 
' ■ ' Hiiiea, and the Usdad of ibe " 



-(PK»y. 



ii, 71). 






liM, intiodnced into tbe Hebrew 
aouvtslth SI tsrious peiioda (Judg. ii, II; 1 Kirgi 
li. Si : but it does not fuUow thit the object Bymfool- 
iHil In- ibem wss known to the Jews tbeinselves. If 
n bire in; onliee at all of conscinus lun-wonihip in 
Ibccailj HJgeaoftlMir history, it exists in the douht- 
tdtma D'lan, otoHKumfn (Lev.xsri.SO; Iia.xvii, 
A. etc), which was itwlf signiBcant of the sun, and 
pnUdy dcKiibed tbe stone pillats or ■tatue* under 
wbirh tbe solu Baal (Bsal-Haman of the Punic in- 
irri|iiiiies,Geseniu>, Thriaiir. i. 489) was worshipped at 
But-UuDoD (Cant, viii, 11) and other places. Pure 
m-wonhip appears to haye been introduced by the 
AaTiiios, and to have become formillj established by 
Huaeli (1 Kings xxi, 3. b), in contraTention of the 
inkibit«DiD(Uuse* (DeuLir, 19; xvii,3). Whetb- 
a tbe praaice was borrowed from the Sepharvites o( 
Hoiirii (I Kings xvii,3l), whose gods Adrammelech 
uA ABiBiiDdKb are supposed to represent the male 
ai rciBatc sun, and whose original residence (the He- 
Iv^iiUs ot Benaus) waa the chief seat of the worship 
of iW nn in Dabjloiils (Rawlinson, Htrod. i, 61 \\ or 
■bHbtr the kinei of Jodah drew their model of wor- 
ibifimeimnediBiely rroniiheEast,i8unceruin. The 
ilnkaiim af chariots and honies to the sun (2 Kings 
iiiii, 11) was perhaps bommed from tbe Persians (»«- 
i«Li.l«);airt.iii,8, II; Xenoph. Cyrop. viii.3, 24), 
rti bnortd the sun nnder the form of Hitbias (Stiabo, 
iv.TJj). At tbe same time it should be obsen'cd that 
ibr bene wss omnected with tbe worship of the sun in 
vin eoaMries, aa amonjc the Masaagetn (Herod, i, 
lit) sndibe Armenians (Xenopb. ^noi.iv, 6,35), both 
^■bna used ii as a sacrifice. To judge from the few 
SMins we bare on tbe subiect in the ffiUe, wc should 
mrWe line Ibe Jews derived Ibeir mode of worship- 
lii^ibe SOD from several quarters. The practice of 
kosiim incense on the house-lops (2 Kings xxiii, 6. 
It; Jb. iii.13; Zeph. i,fi) might have been Inrrowed 
f™ [be Arabians (Strabo, xvi,784), as also the umple 
•n of sdjBatiDo directed towards the rising sun (Eiek. 
'iii16:eo«p.Job xixi,2T). On tbe other haod, the 
•»<f Ibe chariots and hones in the processions on fen- 
i><il dsti time, as we have observed, from Persia ; 
■1 ■ ibii the cusinni of " potting the branch lo the 
■«'' (Ei»k. viii, 17) according to the jtenerally re- 
*™i expUrmioD which identifies it with tha Per- 
•a prsoiM of boldintc in tbe left hand a bundle of 
'^calM Etenam while wonhipping the son (Slrabo, 
^. 33; Hjde, ReL Prrt. p. S45). Thi^ however, is 
"7 ilsubtful, the eipmaion being nlherwise nnder- 
**t «<" putting [he knife lo the nose," i. e. producing 
"X^nolilalion (Hitiig, O* Eztt.). Ad objection lies 
from the fact that the Per- 
d to have held the branch lo tho nose. 
. aiucbed to the worship of the sun by 
w Jfliiih Uagi may be inferred ftom the fact that 
<bs bsTMa were stalled within the pftdneta of the 
■(■pie (the unu ~i^^^^,parTir, meaning not "saburb," 
■ >a Ibe A,T., but either a portico or an outbuilding 
''ibeTimilt). They were removed thence by Joaiah 
<>Eiii|pixiii,Il). Sec Sea, WaBSHip OF. 
1* ^ •Mapborical lanj^gv of Scripture, the Mm 



> Ibe fancer 



7 SUNDANESE VERSION 

is emblematic of the bw of God (Psa. xix, 7), of th« 
cheering presence of (lOd ( Ixixiv. 1 1 ), uf the persua 
iif the .Savlonr (John 1,9; MsL it, !), and <.f ihe 
gloiy and purity of heavenly beings (Kev. i, 16; x, li 

See Meiner, GrtA der Pdig. i, 387 aq. ; Norh, Uii. d. 
Srnimmllut d. all. yelirr (Heilbronn, 1840); Pocncke, 
Sptc Hill. A rnb. p. B, 150 ; Jabtontki, Opuic. i, 1 87 sq. ; 
Doaeb^m ArwUel. i, 189j Hvde, £rL Vrlt. Pm-iamm, 
p. 206 sq.; Eichhom, /h SoU ImielB Milkra, in the 
Commml. SiK. GolliBg. iii. 153 sq.; Creuzer, Symbid. 
i, 73esq.; iv, 4()9aq.! Bach art, ffieroi. i, 141 sq.; Ho- 
senmuller, MorpnL iii, S49 sq.; Bose, Dt Jotia Quad- 
iv/ai Solit Rfmocmlr (Lip*. 1741); Pocarns, Dt Sitnii- 
lacrit Solarib-it Itrarlilarum (Jen. 1725); Gesenius, 
lHommm. J'/utaie. ii, 849. 

Btui,ChlldTenof(Anncn..4rm(rvfu),an Armenian 
sect which originated with Sembal, a Paulician, They 
were also called Tirnntrakiinii (nr rAroHrfracww), from 
the village of Throntrake (Throndiac), where their 
Church was formed. Seml»t, who ori^nated in the 
province of Arsrsi, having entered into some conneclioa 
with a certain Medschusic, a Pernan physician and as- 
tronomer, was led, under his influence, lo attempt a new 
combination of Parseeism and Christianity. This sect, 
though it met with no mercy from the bishops, contin- 
ually revived, and spread widely in Armenia. About 
lOO! it made the most alarminf; progress, when it ie said 
10 have been joined by Jacob of Harkh. He gave a 
more distinctively Christian cast lo its tenets; jour- 
neyed through the country, preaching repentance tad 



inveigning against worK-ngnieousnes. 


in masses, obln- 


lions, alm^ and chorch-pravera for the 




Finally, tbe Catholics of the Armenia 


Church,hBv>n|r 


secural bis person, caused him to be 




heretical mark (a fox on the forehe 


ad),carric,l from 



ophice 






. oclaii 
z.CAarcA 



hima heretic, and finally killed him. SeeKun 
tfij'ory, i, 71,2; Neander, CAarM 0utory,iii, om. 

Bun. Worship of (/WWrrtfy). Tha worship of 
the great orb which insures lo us light, warmth, and 
life is as ancient as history. It existed in the eailiest 
ages among the Fhtenicians, Egi-ptians, Persians, and 
Hindis, and later among the Greeks and Romans of tho 
West, venerating its object under Ibe different names 
of Helios or Sol, or of Baal, Osiris, or Milhras. Vatiniis 
furms of sacrifice and prayer cbaracteriied this worship 
among the different nations, but they agreed in regard- 
ing the sun as a mighty and superior deily who ruled 
the world with an independent authority more or less 
complete. The Greeks alone did not render higher 
honors to the tnn than to the other goils regarded as 
uf superior rank. All Eastern nations considered it as 
practically tha supreme divinity. The Romans, loo, 
maintained the worship of the sun after Heliogabalus 
had introduced it and had built a temple lo SoL Sea 

SCH. 

BtUlBdi was a Hindfl divinity, the wife of Utann- 
baden and mother of Ihe famous Dniva, a saint who 
ruled Ihe kingdom of his father during 26,000 yean, 
and was then translated by Vishnu lo ihe pole-star. 

BunduieasVenloi]. Sunda is a dialect spoken 
in tbe west of the island of Java, near the Straits of 
Sunda, and prevails over tbe third of Ihe island. The 
dialect belongs lo the great Potyne^an stock of lan- 
guages, and the difficulties in mastering the same are 
best described by the Kev. G. J. Grashius, who studied 
tbe language with a view of rendering [he translation 
of the Scriptures as idiomatic as possible. Mr. Grasbius 
writes thus to the British and Foreign Bible Society 
(60tkSepoTl,lS6i,p.S0)' 

IS yet 



SUNDAY 1 

cuiloncd bj tbe fotrn In wblcta tb« mitlBr ptcHnta IIkIF. 
Fr-'luM lo yoDCHir lu leiirn ■ Imngiingc which n|>meDU 
lucir ti> Tnu iif n un In mlnUtnra. wltb nil eoncel " '~'~ 
innilniiB i>rawalllng siiri fliulliiK nbjKit. Al ime nin 
jun KB b-indiblDE, Ihe next ll diwpMnra iiKala: moua 
iiKinwiil yoii italiili rnii faiivs lOt hiild nriinnelbliiE, aDd 
r.itmid ariithi cuiiceiJtluu utli,aadlli« iwitTun perceive 

" The atDdi; of ihe Siindincea la, tor ttie moleit pnrt, 

Inntl'reelTiiii nDDrti maklUE xdqniliiUim wITti I'l— nm- 

IbHt'chlldleV r.inn ot ihliikiiii: ai"I opeekiiia. The l^i 
irbich at ibii piiliu I enierinhieiL lipgliiK irradDiiIlT ii> von. 

SniiUniKM wall, If Chid will bat bieeaaitd uriieper dit ou- 
d«r<akliif[. 

"By-aiid-hjrl aball mamer the voenhiilnrji bnl In thli 
1 by un means bDirr ni^1( bacann oibaralH I Tnlgbi 
eaeil* take thlnaa Bic aninied whlcfa, br a cbwer lueliihl 
l<>li> iDniien nndelenlltailliine, I fh.iiild be olillKed !.> nn. 
lenni. Tn niilaani takea ilmc. and t' very niiptiilllKlile 
Hit Ihe fre»hiie««of mind wbich leaflrei reqnielle fur ihe 
etDdj ol rhe Siiurianue iHiiBDiiKe." 
In lf(70 Ihe Britieh and Foreifcn Bible Societr'n Rfporl 
ehowa the piibltcalion or ibe Ucspel oT Su Luke i 
Sundanne, and Ihie aeems lo be [he nnlr pan priiired 
bv the Brii'nh and ForeiKii Bible Societv, while the 
Dutch Bible Society hu printed the New TcxL.t 
tawd by Mr. Coolima, whu ha> also translated thi 
Teal. From the 74/A (1878) Annual Rfporl of the 
Briiiah and Foreign Bible Sucietf we see that the 
Neiherlanda Misaionary Union hare requeslnl the t>in- 
don committee lo undertake the publicalinn of Hr. 
Coolsma'a tnnaiation of the OldTe«t^and ibat ibe 

nn rtveiTing utiafactory leporu aa to the reccptiou of 
Ur. Coolama'a New-Test, translation. (B. f.) 

Simday. I. Ifamr and Change q/*/)iTy.— Sunday Is 
the name of the flrst day or the week, adopted by ibc 
tint Christians from the Roman calendar (Lat. Din 
Solii), Oag nf tkf Sun, ao called because it was dedi- 
cated to Ibe wnnhip of the sun. Tbe Christians rein- 
terpreted the heathen name a« implying the Sim of 
liighteoiisnesa with reference to his "atininR" (Mai. iv, 
-2). It was also called Dia />«*» (Dag o/SmiJ), be- 

ilay. U is called, also, the Locd'a day, its sacml obsei 
aiices being especially in bis honor. 'I'he apoellea ihei 
sekea iniruiluccd Ihe rfliKinus observance nf Sundav, 
meeting for divine service (Acts xx,T; I Cor. xvi, 2), 
ami the opposition in the Christian Chnrch to Jiulaisni 
earlrled to Ihe Bubatitution of Sunday fur the Sabbath; 
and in Ihe epistle of Ignatius lo the Magneaians it is 
presnppnsed thai even the Jews who had come over tv 
Christiaiiily adopted Ibe same custom. See Svna- 






!S (S P.M.) o 
■"4 parisl 



In 



<n Sat- 



nl'a ilay was reckoned from even- 
ing to evening, bnt in 958 firim Satonlay nnnes till 
light oik Monday momiiig. [slip's Ctmtfirutioitt and 
llie Councils of Aix (7H9),.FreJus (791), an.l Frankfort 
(791) BBsigii as the cause that vespers are Ihe drat of- 

uur Lord was burn on Sunday, baptized an Tuesday, 
and began his fast on Wedncnlay. 

II. tMt>iarlicalObten!Un<xojriirDag.—l\\econae- 
craiion of Sunday in a special manner to religions em- 
pli-vments and tbe abstaining from all vroildlv buai- 
iiex*' was eslahliabeil by a synodal law (oannn 'ia. Coun- 
cil of Laodicea) with this realtiction, ihat all Christians 
shoulil abstain frooi worldly business if they were nljle. 
In the relieious services of Sunday we note the fiilk>w- 
ing: all faaiing was prohibited nn that day, even In 
Lent! Tertullian {l)e Coron. MU. c. 3) declaring Ihat 
it was accounted a crime to fast on tlie Loril'i day, aiul 
other authorities were equally severe in their denunci- 
aliiiai. Tbe reason fw ihii observance was that the 





SUNDAY 




day was con 


idered one of jnyfulness because of car 


Lord's resum 


■ctiur. Yet this rule 


■as not au atrioly 


binding b..t 


bat when a neceasory 




and there wa 




!8, ad LiloH 


a might fast upon tlii 
Hia Baiiatm'). 


day (Jerome, Ep. 


It may be 


re be remarked thai another cosUm was 


to pray Stan 


ing on the Lord's day 




Lord's lesun. 


Kiion. The great ca 




the prmltiv 


Chritiiaiu for the re 


igious obaerx-a-oe 


of SuiHlay is 


seen in tbsii ready an 


d con-unt attend- 


anc« upon all the offices and soleini 


ties of public WOT 


ship, and thia, too, even in times o 


persecution; ftoa 



their studious observance of the vigils, or nociumal aa- 
sembliea preceding the Lord's day; from Iheir attend- 
ance, in many [daces, upon sermons twice a day,and at 
evening prayers; and from the cenauna inflicted upou 
those who violated tbe laws concerning the rvligioua 
observance nf the day. The celebration of ibe eocba- 
rist was a standing part of divine service every Idrd's 
day. and every communicant was expected to putake 
' ^renf. See Bingham, C«i'iX..4nfij. bk. xx,cb.ii,$ »- 



Vi; b: 



t.sa. 



The mode in wbich the early Christians sp 

Lord's day is thus described by Dr. .Tamieson 

-Vunnerv and I'lHali y'rhe fi-iiuiiet Ckritiiaia. 

"VlewluE Ihe Lord's ilsy aa a pplrltnnl (Bsllvlly^a 



tbe 



Lord B 

ihey intmdured il 



iplrlia lo rejolc 



IS day 



o mn "If. ^ 
Ibell SaTloor. 



which was Ibllowed b> Hclect portions of the pnipbeo, 
iliegor]>els,and lbs cpldlea, Ibe lutervali beiwten obkb 
ware (iccnpled by the Ibllbfnl Id prlTal* denitlona. The 



plan of ■ervh'*. Id abon, 
Ihat of the (iiHli^ Ib-Higb It 
IVrencef, which we shnTi no 
with ihelrheadabari, audi 

deemed Ihe ai's 

their bands 



Ki, Doin standing, p^il.m 
ud sailed to tbalr eialied n.- 
iltj— with their eyes llfied np 



■.the 



Ih had opened ap the v 
ic«. The rendluic of tbi 
nod lnd(a|ienai 



ended in Ihs f.wi 



. . . ., ,. lie pan ofthe otherv- 

aiid, rSBrtaally to Inineiw It on the tnamoric of 
■diaiice, the hiarons mum alwiiys short and "' r—. 
reCDrreiici). BesMe* the Scrlptaren, they tv 



" ' A Thi 

bleat a 

flrai by ibe 



.... nBictt appointed tut that ohierl, wh-i, 

ling III the diachnrcg nf hie dniy, If It nIniM 

any pan »f the hhU'iry of Jenns, eulninied aluod ii> 



rieesdiiig I 
Ibe people. 



tben ntways commenced wlih'Thns i 
Bwnmed this attltnde.iiiit only IToi 

was tbe itnat resiHCinil p-iatBraln 

coausele of ihe KIih; of Itlngii, bat wlih 



■- the Lnrd.'- 



ler atoiiplngin the 
leuvliig Uie iienple 
founded fur the luos 



Bcrlpinnil qniMnllou and 

M ■niek It alond. Tne dirconrsn, 

iHirt nn Ihe laM pnnlon ufSctipinre 

. . jftiirt, plain, and ezlemponiiy eih-x- 

ehkiAy to etir up Ihe ml>ds of Itic l>r*th- 



tlr up Ihe ml 

.^ — .,- . __,ai>d alwaya prefiiced by the I 

, ' I'ence be unto Jim.' Aa Ihry wers very Hlinn, 
•onieiinief not extending to more than eluht ur ten mln- 1 
niea' dnrallon, serenl of Ihem were dellvemt at n did, ' 
and the preiicher was nsnally tbe hkiut ■>( tbu plntr. 

gur, or one nf hi* brethren known In pnsiwaa ihr tnleio 
uf public epeaking, to addrasa lbs asi«aibly. The clioe 
of the Fermun tiy binissll. which was alwayi- tbe Inxt .it 
Ihe rerler, was tin signal tit Ihs pnUlc prnycrN ui c«m- 
ineiice. PrsvlOBaln ihlsanlemn pnrt nf ihe'eiilo-. h-n- 
eter. a crier commanded InMslsiir any descrlpilim thnt 
niii.'htbenrcseiillowllhdmw,nnd,(bed<HirsbFlng<-K~'d 
and guarded, Ihe iiastiirprnceMedloprnaunnce n iiriiie- 
the iHirden iiTwhlch wa- made i.i bear a apeclnl ref^rron- 

prlmblTS ChnicJi, were not ndmliteil to * mil niu-iicltui- 
llnn In the privi?e<.-«' of ihe (hlthfill. Fli*t c.f nil, he 

' " "' ' "'■ "■" ■" B»E i-etsi.n-.ur tticeut couvcii- 



STTNDAY 

fron bmtbnilna *hn irera pUBlng tbnio;^ n prcpam- 
L^ir rtMttm of liiplmptliin ill li» d«iclrlDet jiud dutitfB nf 
IglilbstiilJiAI- 
llora oT It, mid 



Clrlillaal^— Uiiil Ibelr i 
««J,ilii.irb««rt»n.teH 
ihii ttey nlglii be 1«1 



c B, makea SuadiTa, with Chriatmiu and Eiilcr, hcily- 
days, but permila work in birrot and in ciks of n«- 
ccoity. TbeMitulel E1izibeth,c2,puiiu1ie* by fine 
ig theiii»elve»fro[n cl 



ihii ttey nlzbi be 1«1 l>i cnlltTUe UKire bul* bnlilM 'if penoni ■bsenliiiR ihemselve* tram cburch withuuC «x- 

bawl lud liSi l.» Bblch lliBjr mlfht »4lorn lie di«iiliio jub*. JiroCTl.iu 1618, Ueutd his Bbo* o/Awrtjfq.O, 

ijixsizi .s-JiiyKK.'sa'z'; i» -"i* »• i«u,J'««in ,.»«, iff .A.- 

IMimiKbl rtcciTc deepud Mritmueiii lii>prei«luaa iif ful on SuTidaya aflei divine wrvice. Thia book wu 

IM ti<n<ll«K aiBrolmwa ..f »in, Ibai iheji mlghi b» ml- niaannl by Charles I in 168*. The sUlule 39 Cbark« 



r prol 



„ _. ._[r daMiipllou* iif persiiin, 

<if irbMii lefl the cbDrch when tbe claai li> wblch b 
Igand bud b«u commended In Ihu Go! 
iDd ibeii tbe brvibren. redneed by Ibe mt 
arte la no ■ppnircd companf or the bill 



Ire fkparlj 
■ring aUNidance, auch as reruaing in 



jec 



- ■'"fiill'u ".c-^.«nKl«a"tlialn<. , 

roar), laborer, or other pei»a whatsoever aball do or exer- 
cise any vorldly labor, Uiaiueas, or work of their ordi- 
nary calling* upon the Lord's ilay, or iiiy part thereof 
'. (worka ot ueceiaity and charily nniy excepted);" inrl 
' "that no person or peiaoni whalsoever shall publicly 
cry, show forth, or expose to sale any w■re^ merchan- 
dise, fruit, herbs. good% or chaltela whi(lec>e>er upon ilie 
Sun- I^>nl's day or any pact thereof." This, somewhat moil- 
cicommuniGation. Ir- illed by suliseqiienc laws, ia the present Snnday law of 
laiiil, and is the fuuodalion of the laws on the auU- 
in the United Stales, 

I America the Puritan coloniata eatabliahed, rn the 
full extenc of theii power, the observance of Sundav 
as the Christian Sabbath. Tbe early lawa oT Massa'- 
b^puerisy. or mere extcmal attendance at church, chiiaelts, Connecticut, Ueorgia, South Carolina, and Vir- 
1574 appninied "searchers," or giaia compelled attendance at church, the Uaasachu- 
aetts law (1782} providing that such attendance was 
not oliligUnry where there was no place of warship 
which the peraun could oonacienliaualy attend. When 
the Fcileral gavernment was formed and the aepara- 
tion of Church and State waa fully recogniiied,.the 
earlier Sunday laua were modified in confurmity with 
. this principle. The courts have been careful to dia- 
of Sunday. The ' tingnish between Sunday observance as a religious and 
' w (A.D. 331) 10 ' as a civil inatitution, ami to enforce only the latter. 
The following are the grounda upon which our Sunday 
lawa rest: The right of all claasea,ao far as practicable, 
to rest one day in aenn; to woraliip iimliiturbed on 
the day set apart by the m^ority ol' the people; the 
decent reepect which should be paid to ilie rrli|;ions 
inatitutinns of the people; the value to the Stale of 
Sunday observance, as oonlributing to popular intelli- 
gence tnA mnrnlily. With the partial exception of 
Louisiana, Sunday laws exist in every atste in Ihe 
Union. These laws differ somewhat in detail and 
stiictneta, but the following general characteTialJcs may 
be noted: Sunday ia everywhere held as a difi nan: 
public sfloira are suspended; legislatures do niit sit; 
courts are not held, except city police-courts fur an 

of the states common labor and traffic are forbidden ; 
contracts made for service on Sunday are invalid; pub- 
lic amuaementa are prubibited or reftricied. In aome 
states exception ia made in favor uf thoae who ob«er>*e 



•otia of Hch ai were " raging abroad." The atrang 
mcike laited for nigh a century and a half. Som 
•f Ihe records of the period are cnrimia. See Walcoti 
SarrrJ A rdiieM. s. r. See Loitn's Dat. 

[II. Lr^ ObtreaiKt of ikt D-ig As aoon as th 

ChiiMian religion came to be recognised by the SCati 



ffapenr Cooslantinc mad 

exewpt the day fron being juridical, as wi 

cf). By this law and others he soapendea all actions 

sad pmceedings of the law on this day, whether ai^ 

itati, pleadings, exactions, aentencea of judges, execu- 

tnoi, excepting only such as wets of absolute neces- 

■ty ac of eminent charity, as the manumiauon of 

■laroi, the appointing of curators and guantiana to or- 

ami damage, legacies and Iniats, exhibiting of willa, 
an-l all easea where great damage might be auffered 
eiiker by delay or by death, Valeniinian prohibited 
sU aneits of men for debt, whether public or private, 
Ml tbhi day, and Valeiitinian jirnior, with Theodosiua 
tbe lireat, appointed all Sundaya in the year to be 
dies of TBcation from all buaineaa of Ihe law wbatsn- 



t* were forbidden, except only such as 
■tn eallert to hy necesuty or some great charity, : 
at harresling. By a law nf Honoriiis the judges ' 
n^oiiied to visit the prisons every Sunday [ii exai 



keepers of Ihe 
psper guard, ahould 



denied them any office uf bumar 
orders that the prisoner*, ondt 



« allowed 
Later lawa forbade all huabandry 
« tbe Lonl's day. ailowing only such work as was nec- 
naary lo secure food abwdutely reqaired. The Chris- 
tan Uw( took care to secure the honor and dignity of 
(be Lord's dav by forbidding puUie games, shows, ni 
bdierous recreations {Cod. JitUvt. lib. 8, tit. 12, De Feriii, 
Int. U). and the Church was no Ins careful to guard 
tbs tervice nf ttiis day from the endoachment of all 
•lia pastimes and needless reaeallons. The Fourth 
ronril of Carthage made a decree {catu 88) excommu- 
sieatlng any person who ahould forsake the servioea of 
IbeOhatchioaiUnd a public show. 

In Knt^aad Sunday laws wen of early dale. The 
«de of Ina. king of the Wast Saxons (about C93), pun- 
nWd servile wotk by One. Alfred the Uteat <8;6) for- 
bad) work, traffic, anil legal proceedings 1 while the Stat- 
ue IT Iteny IV, a 6, enaeta that all fain and markets 
g« Sundayi^ except in harreat, shall ceine on pain of 
bit^uia «f gonlL Tbe sutoie 6 and 6 Edward V(, 



Sunday law is that which makes it (with Chrialmas, 
New-year's-day, etc) a puUic rest-day, and provide* 
that citations shall tMI iasiie, nor proceedings be had, 
nor auita inaiiiutcd on that day, and that it shall not 
be reckoned in compnling interest and in protests, etc 
The Conalilution of the Uuited States provides that 
Sunday shall not be reckoned in the ten days within 
which the preddeni msy return any bill; the Federal 
courts and offices of the departmenta are cluaed; the 
posl-olBee service is restricted; no sesiion of Cungreaa 
is held, or, if held on that day, it is considered aa beiug 
part uf the preceding Saturday; and proviaion is made 
by an act of Congress for the observance of Sunday 
by the array and navy. Federal legislation lespecling 
Sunday proceeda no further. The consiilutionallty of 
Sunday laws haa been decided ftequently by the high- 
eat courts of the several stales. Some of our statutes 
define Ihe extent of the Lord's day. In Connecticut 
the OHirta have defined it aa extending only from day- 
break ID the closing of daylight on Sunday. General- 
ly, in Dew England, it is from sunset on Saturday to 
sunset ou Sunday; but for many purposes, and proba- 
bly in most of the stales for all purposes, i' begins only 



SUNDAY 2 

■I midnight between Sitanlay tai Sgoday and end< 
with the DGiC midnight. 

In France, during the ReTolutioa, when the Cbria- 
titn ciiendu wu abollBhed and the decade Nibnituled 
fnr the week, erery tenth day wai made a reM-daj', 
and ita observance wu enlbrceid by a law (IT Thenni- 
dor, an. vi) whicli required the public offlcea, achools, 
•rorkahopa, Uores, ete^ (o be dneed, and prohibited aalea 
except of eacahlea and medicine*, and public labor ex- 
cept in the country during seed-time and harreat. 
When the Gregorian calendar wai mtored, Sunday wa> 
recogniKd in the Codi NapoUrm (art. 2a, S60). The 
law of Nnr. 18, 1814, prohibiting ordinary labor, tnffic, 
etc, and declared by the oaurta in 183H and I84fi to be 
still in force, ia, practically, a dead letter. 

In Switzerland recent Ir^slation haa granted to rail- 
wiy employ^ nnd all government offlce-holden at least 
one Sunday in every three; and slill Turther realriction 
of Sunday labor is being aought in some of the cantona. 
The question ia agitated in Delgium and Gennany of 
better protection by law of Sunda* reel for operatirea. 
Sea Cox, Weralure of 3ab. Qualum (Edinb. 1866); 
A mtr. Lam Rie, voL ii ; Pro'. Epiieapol Qvar, Ret. voL 
vii ; Hopkins, SoNnilli aid Free Imlitulimt, in doc. 39 
of N.Y. Sabbath Commitlee; Judge W. Allen, opinion 
in LMamUlUr vs. The Prnplr, S3 Barl»ur, M8; He*- 
■ey, Bamplon f,eclara (LttCO); Schaff, An^-Amrr. 
Sabbath (1868). See Saudatk. 

Snnday, John, or Sbali-Wiui-Dalm, waa a na- 
aveliidUn,bomiii New Y'>rk State in I7:i.'>-i;. Hebe- 
longed tn the Missisaiiga aectlan of tbe Ojibway na- 
tion, and when a yoiing man he aerved in the Britiah 
army against the United States. He wnn converted in 
1S26, and shortly after was appuinted a leader among 
the converted Belleville Indiana. He uaa Uie earlieat 
evangelical pioneer to the tribes on the north water* 
uf Lakes Huron anil Superior, In tS33 he was received 
into the Conference and waa nrdained in 1B96, and the 
same year accompanied Rev. William Lord to England 
to plead the cause nfoiiasiiins, and n ' ' 

and he hid charge of Alderville, Rice and Mud Ldke, 
and Muncietown circuits. He died Dec. 14. lt<7S. See 
Mimfa a/lif Onlai-io Cvnfii*im. l»7(i, |i. H. 

SnDday-aobooL Among the modem deveic 
menu of Christianity, Sunday-schucls, and what 
known as the Sunday-school enterprise, are prominenL 
To peranns familiar with their iihjecte and the script- 
ural precepta hy which they arc aanctlone-l, it aeemi 
strange that so long a period elapsed belbre they camt 
into actual existence. That a lesdiiig duty of the Church 
waa to teach all nations wat made plain in the great 
commiiaion of our Lord to hia disciples. That little 
children were included in the scope of that commisaion 

"suffer little children too>meunta him and forbid them 
not," aa well as ftnm his impressive charge to Peter, 
"Feed my lambs." While evidence ia not lacking to 
indicate that the Cbristians of the apostolic age both 
comprehended the duty enjoined by our Lord and illua- 
trated it in adaptation to 
are too many proofs that 
fnllowing, that duty fell into abuse and neglect ami 
the rapidly growing corruptions of the Church. Th 
ceremonioua catechetical ayttem of the 4th and fithcei 
tutiea was a labored but poor apology for that neglect, 

general efTuiton the port of the Church for the religiout 
instruction of children. Following the Keformstian ot 
the 16th century catechizatinn in the elementa of Script- 
ure docCriiK was gradunlly introduced into most of tht 
I'rotestant cbuicbei, but it waa rarely extended to any 
beyond the recognised children of the Church. 

1. Oriyia and Earlj/ Hiilorg n/ ikt Sundog-Kkoot 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL 

Sa$lim^\t waa not till near tlie cloae of the ISth e^ 
tuty that the modem system of Sunday-school inacme- 
n took it* rise. Although in nuntcmiu instance* pft- 
iiuly catechizatinn had been practiced on the Lonf ■ 
day, and in aeveral cases individuabi remote from each 
other in time and locality had aasembled children K« 
instruction on that day, yet nothing like a general aya- 
lem of teaching the yonngon Snitdiy*, whether in ice- 
uUr or religious leaming, was known prior to 178I)L 
The system that then arose was purely phiUnthro|ue 
itemplated only local 



Froi 



irly pene 



e I7lh c( 






making bad been an important indusi 

of Gloucester, England. This manufacture emptoyed 

the place, but gathereil in from siirroimding retonni. 
Vast numbers of these children were wholly uneducated, 
and, being without parental restraint or moral aupervia- 
ion, they naturally fell into groaa disorder and imnxml- 
ity, especially on Sundays, when the factorin were not 
in operation. Tbe Arat peraou who nndexaok to resD* 
edy thia distreaainii state lA things waa Hr. Robnt 
Raikes (q. v.), a printer residing in Gbinceater. and ■ 
member nfihe Church of England, He found four per- 
sons who had been accustomed to instruct children in 
readiiifT, and engaged their aervices to leceive and in- 
struct such citildreu aa he should aend to tbem evvry 
Sunday. The children were to go aoon after ten in the 

home, and return at one; and after reading a lesson, 
they were to be conducted to Church. After (^imh 
they were to be employed in repeating the cateduam 
till half after live, and then to be diamisaed with an ii»> 
junction to go home without making a noise, and bj 

outline of the regulations as stated bt- Mr. Raiks, ia 
his celebrated letter of June b, 1784, which condnsir^ 
idendAes him aa the originator of the Sunday-ochool 



A* has often happened in other cases of great RSDhn 
from small beginningi, there have been varioaa en- 
deavors to fix tbe origin of Sitnday-achools at earlier 
periods than that named above. Although it ia not 
difficult to eatabliah priority In aeveral cases, yet there 
is no other instance of an actiul .Sunday-acbocd from 
which continuity ot serial connection can ha traced 
down to the present time. If, therefore, men pricritv 
were in question, it would be neceaaary to go back to 
the period of Moaea, under wlinm the catechetical aya- 
<em of the .lews was appointed, culminating in the grand 
sabbatical year (Denuxxxi, 10-13). But aa it i* not th« 
origin ofcatecbizatioD (i}.v.) which is under conwder a - 
lion, but rather of that form of catecbbation which, tn 
modem timea, ia kitown aa the Sunday-achool ayalem, it 
is safe to accept tbe geitenl verdict of history, accofd- 
ing to which Robert Raikea is recognised as ila founder. 
When once the idea of Sunday instruction for the i^ 
norant children of Great Britain waa fairly developed, 

perfect ailaptatic 
of Hr. Raikes soon negan lo a 
tiona, with reaulls of the most encouraging character. 
A Sunday-achool Society waa formed in London, and, in 
various ways, *a gcner^ an intereac was awakened on 
the subject that in the course of a few yean Snnday- 
schoola were commenced in nearly every part of En^ 
land. They did not, however, become universal, nor in 
the largest d^ree nseful, uniiL a higher idea than that 
of mere philanthropy became emboilied in tbem. Th« 
plan of employing hired teachers not only made it nee- 
esaaty to raise large amounts of money, but neceasarily 
placed a limit upon their eitenaion and permanence. 
Besides, it was not poaaible to secure tbe best qualltv 
of leaching by any appeal to mercenary molivea. In 
discuBsing this subject at a comparatively early perioii 
of the history of Snnday-schoola, the Rev. John Angell 
James said: "Hireling teachers can scarcely be expect- 



SCNDAT-SCHOOL 



21 



StJNDAT-SCHOOL 



rf t* poacn either tht eoI oi the lUUtfofthoM who 
M* tugigt io the vrork fioni motirci of pure benevo- 
Itora. UnlniUHU iiutruclioii win mn utoniihiDg im- 
jnmmiil of the ByUem, and which do« not ippeir to 
ban altered into the views of it* benevolent author. 
'Ifve wen uked,' uje > writer in the Sandos-tckmil 
AfniUry, ' who« name Moud next to that of Robert 
Buks ID the annals of Suuday-acboaU, we tbould uj, 
the penDo who fint came forward and volantaiUy prof- 
fared bii cxertiont, hii time, and his talenu to the in- 
UiwEtiiia of Ibe young and the pwr; unce an imita- 
lia of bi> ezampk has been the great cauM of the 
pnient Smmahing lUtc of then inslitationi. and of all 
tlat htore additional intreaK which may be reasonablj 
aptieipatccL' " 

While il may not be ponible la Sx upon any one per- 
m at haring been the fint u> commence ipatuilaus ef- 
fc(l IB the teaching of Sanday-acbooLa, it is not difficult 
u drtennine, from the hiitory of the times, who was 
pnbably more iiiMrumentat than any other man in 
oulihihing and dilTuinng the syMem of gratuitous and 
CbiMisn instroctian in those echools. It was the Rev. 
Jobs Woky, who, fat more than thirty years prior to 
the fas Sunday-achool of Kaikea, taxt been in the halnt 
of SMeobling childnn in various parts of England for 
ilu poipoae of religious instruction. It was he wbo, 
havi^ recorded iu his Journal, July 18, 1784, that he 
tKmd Soaday-^cbaols sprinting up wherever he went, 
■ho Rcmtled these meiaarable, if not prophetic, words: 
'hrtiapsdod may have a deeper end therein than men 
are awaie oL Who knows hut tome of these schools 
DsybcconMnuneties for Christians V From that time 
lunsid notices of Sunday-schools were frequent in bis 
jovniBla. The fiilkrwing is a brief specimen. "JulyS?, 
IT8;,-We went on to BoltoD. Here are eigbt hundred 
poor cbildim taught in our Sunday-schools, by about 
□glity mBBiem, who receive no pay but what they are 
<« receive fram their great Matter." This record cor- 
rcapeodi lo the statement made in Myles's Buloty nfiht 
PttfUcaBid .VnluMiitU (Lond. 1803). Having referred 
la fuday-achoois as sn excellent institution begun by 
Mr^Raikn, the author says, "Mr. Wesley no soonsr 
luari d it than he approved of it. He published sn 

i;M,aiKlexbonc(l his societies lu imitate this laudable 
(UBpla. They UKik his advice- Laboring, hsrd-work- 
iac lani and women began to instruct their neighbort' 
dutdim, and to go with them to the house of God on 
ttt Lord's day." Whatever was done by others, the 
MdhaiUaa, from tfae beginning, practiced only grata- 
iiEW iatfmctioD in their Sunday-schools. By t'hem the 
OBI iaatitutjon Bud Eoodes of instmction were simulta- 
mn)* inmdnced into the United Btsles of Am 



adopdon of organized Sunday -school eObtt by tha 
Church referred to grew out of the fact ibat persecn* 
tion arose on account of its endeavors to itutmct the 
colored children of the South. In Cbarleslon, S. C, the 
Rev. George Daughaday "was severely beaten on the 
head, and subsequently had water pumped oa him from 
a public cistern, for the crioM of conducting a Sabbath- 
school for the benefit of the African children in that vi- 
cinity." Nevenbeteta, the Methodist Conference, which 
in Charleston in February, 1790, resolved to con- 



lethew 






"Quel What can be dune to losl 



lUbllah Suuday-scbuals lo or nesr ibe pisce of pob- 

'orship. Let persons be appolnwd by Iha bishop, 

elders, deacons, iir preschen, to lescb tmlw n\\ ihHl will 

alLend, and bnvescnpsclty lo lesm . TtieCriDiicllfhsll 

cDiDplle a proper (Chuol-book to leach them leatnlng and 
piety." 

At the period of the origin of Snnday-schools the Meth- 
dist Kpiscopsi Church found one of ils principal fields 
f action in the Southern Stales, being drawn tbither 
y the great spiritual detlilulion of the iiibabitautt. 
kit it is easy lo understand that, owing lo the spane- 
iras of the population and to other reasons, Ibe condi* 
ion of tbal region wsi not favorable to the rapid de- 
elopment and permanent esiablishment of Sunday- 
schools. The same thing was, to some extent, true 
of the entire United Slates, owing to the general ei- 
haaslion of the country following Ibe war of the Revo- 
lution and the unsettled condition of affairs in a newly 
organized government. Hence nearly or quite a quar- 
ter of a century passed hy before Surday-schools be- 
came common ineilbertheBoulhemnrNDnhrmSutes. 
Meantime they had beenmsking steady snd success- 
ful progress in liieat Brilain, • here they were promoted 
by two classes of agencies, the philanlbroptc and the 
leligioDS. Owing lo the low state of public educalioa 
in that conntiy, hundreds of thousands of children were 
wholly dependent upon Sunday-schools for the Antele- 



VHbsdisc aodetiea a similar relation lo that ol 
Wnlry iu England. 

As early as Iba year 17S4 the follawtng paragraph 
Vis incDrparatvd iu the Diteipline oftke Mtthodut Kpii- 
oral dan*. ■ 

-nslihall wpdofor IberlsltiRKensratlonr Wh' 



■xltafiBi 



1. Where I here are lei^ child re 

'hMi BT«r» lime jr. .n si'e I'll 
Hi ri>r ihem. «. iflllpeiilly li 



t poor chUdm, 



Is of insti 






la •cqupiK* of this mandatory rule, 
ntj to miiiisten. but involving Ibe co-operation nf 
1^, Stnday-acboola were estahlished in many ptai 
Of one of tboae scbocd* a very deSnite and ssliirsctoiy 
mmt wM made. It waa taught in 1T86, In Hanover 
Omaly, To., at ihe bntiae of Mr. Thomas Crenshaw, who, 
m 1W7, facly-oiM years later, was a living witness of 
1^ fact, as was also the Bev. John Charleston, a minis- 
UT of thlrty-oitw yeart^ service in the Cfanrch,who had 
t>a* ooavntrd in that aehool (Bangs, ffiU. •>/ Ihe M. 
L. Ctarrft). Further historic cridence of Oie early 



nnivenially taught in the Sunday-schools— the former 
as essential to ibe perusal of the Word of God oi the 
Catechism, which from the first were Ibe text-bol^ 
for all pnpils able lo use Ihem. 

Although much and well-rewarded effort waa pnt 
forth in behalf of Sunday-schools from purely philan- 
thropic motives, yet the greatest progress made by Ihero 
and the highest results secured Ihmogh them were in 

When, at length, this species of effort beciniB general, 
Sunday-schoohi assumed a position of importance and 
of promise not before realised. About Ihe same period 
they began lo develop what may be called Iheir cumii- 
laiive power. This was seen when the first generation 
nf Sunday-school scholars had grown up lo become 
teachers, and felt themselves moved to do for others 
what bod been done fur them. In this manner Ihe 
leaching force in Sunday-schools became gteally aug- 
mented. Besides, cases were not rare in which the 
grown-up scholars of Sunday-schools became ministera 
of the Ouspel, while others, continuing in secular life, 
became prominent men in business and in society. The 
strong snd HTecIive support rendered by such penona, 
as well as by many others of less prominence, gave a 
new impetus to the Sunday-school enterprise, which has 
been enlarging and repeating itself ever since. 

The enlistment of the press as an auxiliary to Sun- 
day-schools was an event of great importance. For a 
consideTable period Sunday-schnol work waa done at a 
great disadvantage for lack of suitable books of all kinds, 
not excepting copies of the Scriptures. The orgoniia- 
' "' " British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804, 






..I..,.. 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL 2 

prk«i adapted to eilenMvs luc in Sundiy-*chO(J«. Be- 



BLblM, and el 






books, ilie first jiublicaciona introduced extai 
SunJay-8olii»la «en called reward-boolu, dd acaiiiiit 
or tlieir being pmented lo childFcn m in enpourigc- 
ment fi>r puiictiul and regular attendance and for the 
memiirization of leasona. At Srw they were tracts attd 
Hury-booka, in paper cove™, of very inferior quality, no 
others being attainable. About 1810 the Keliginm Tract 
Society uf London began iwuiiig children'a booki, pre- 
pared and printed specially with reference lo Sunday- 
■chool pattansge. The demand for auch booka incrtaaed 
in the ratio of their production, >o that other religioDa 
aooieties, and even miacellaneoua publiihera, found it to 
tbeir interest to prorida them. Ac lenglh the idea of 
iiitrodudng drculaiing- libraries into Sunrlay-schoola 
came into vogue, and with it a atill greater publication 
of books deaigned fur jurenile reading, aod also fur the 



There are no data fur accurately tracing the ounver- 
ical growth of Sunday-achoob in the earlier perioila of 
their history. Nevenheleaa, it ia pleasing to know that 
some of the workers of those days were not inattentive 
tu the broader aspects of the enterprise in which they 
were engaged. It waa estimated by the Sunday-school 
Society of London, in 17S6, that within five yean after 
tbe opening of lUikes's flrsl school 250.000 scholars had 



fiirly y 



later (1827) the 
aied that the ag| 
lie Smiday-schoo 



lished. 



2 SUNDAY-SCHOOL 

bat throDgbout the Protestant world, whether in btoM 
ormission lletds. They have also beeti adopted b]rK» 
man Catholics and Jews in Protestant countriea. Nst 
to speak of the influence of Ijunday-schnola in the laib 
named bodies, it is safe to say thai tbe great majorilT 
of all the ministers, missionaries, and commuDicanutf 
all the I'roteatant cburches of tbe world are at this line 
the d'amri of Sunday-scbDuls, and, as such, their acliie 
friends and supporters. I'he recognised necessitiei of 
these schools have given rise lo important changes ir. 
church architecture, by which nearly every church is 
provided with accommodations fur the iiistructian «f 
the young in graded dasscs, ranging from inCancy up^ 
wards. Thoy have called into existence not oidy « 
exicnnive literature, but also a varied pealmoily, cua- 
t«mplBting the special tastes and wants of the yooiig. 
While in England they have been chiefly limited lo the 
poorer and tniddls classes of the people, in the Uniltd 
Sulea they have claimed, and in fnct assumed, a rela- 
tion to public fweek.day) schools cDrre^wnding to that 
which the Sabbath holds to the secular days of tbe 
week. In this relation the/ seek to supplement puMic 
and general education w'"' "' ,,.-■■ 



moral and reli 
ences of Christianity. Iti this view, they se 
> of scholars from the higher as well 



re the 






of cSTort whkh 



enrolled iu 
1,260,000. 

II. The Srmnd Petiod of Ihe Savtag-tchaot EiUrr 
priie. — This euterprise, at the present writing, has hsi 
■ rec^niseii existence of about one hundred yean. Ii 
consideriugits history, it seems proper lo divide its lira 
century into two pctuids of tUly years each. Tbe flrnl 
which has been summarily sketched above, may be de 
nominated its initial and futmalive period. The sec 
and, now closing, constitules its period of i 



Wem 



reforib 



Owing to causes noticed above, it was not earlier than 
ihm 18J5 to l(t30 that Che Sunday-school cause came 
generally and prominently befure Che .American public 
Between the years named two leading Snnday-scbool 
unions (q. v.) were organised — one in Philadelpliia and 

liahing societies were established that have given much 
auxiliary aid Co Sunday-scbuol eflurcs. Tlie idea of rs- 
llgions instruction as the one great businne of Snnday- 
Mbools had then found uiiivenal acceptance. The de- 
velopment of public secular instruction had by that time 
become so general, ai least in the Northern and Central 
States of die American Union^thaC .Sundsy-schoob had 
little occasion to go out of ctieit proper sphere. The 
ntovement in behalf of-general education in England 
had begun, having been greatly stimulated by the re- 
nllsor.Sunday-achooK The purchase and use of Sun- 
day-school libraries had become common in both eoun- 

bouks were improving. In short, the Sunday-echoui 
enterprise was fairly Uuncheil, but no more than that. 
All the general improremenc and progreas of the inter- 
vening lilty yean, togetlier wUh the united and consec- 
utive etTnrts of the multiplied workers in Sunday-schuols, 
have been needed to bring those schools to tbe position 
they at present occupy. 

There are two methods of indicating Ihe progressive 
advance and the actual resultsof Sunday-schools. The 
one is by general statements, and the other by the com- 
parative showing of such uumericnl sisiistics as may be 
found trustworthy. As neither of these mcKles is fully 
adeifuate, both will here be empWeil to a limited extent, 
in order Ihac they may aa far as piisaible 8iip|ilenient 
each otiier. Within the last IHly years Sunday-echoals 
have come to be regarded as an essential bnnch ol 
Churcli action, not merely in England and America, 



lion a quality of talent and 
money could never hire. 

In passing from general though signilicaDt st 
ments like iheee to such showings as rosy be mad 
dgures, it seems necessary to explain that Sum 
Bchoiil statistics, as mlimte and cumpreheiinve as 
nuw seen to be deeirable, are very dilSculi to obtsii 
a large scale. Oidy in rare inetaitces have gov 
ments been interealed to collect them, and comp 
tively few i 






uniformity of method 
isary to making up 
and resulta. The 



comprehensive exhibita of numbers 
moec, therefore, that has beeu up u 
in the way of such exhibits has been lu lorm esumairs 
based upon accurate statistics taken within cenaiu dis- 
tricts or churches, and exiendiug Cbe^nu rata nuiKanL 
About the middle of the 19tb century an eRurt was 

tain the number and attendance of the Suuday-achoiils 
of that oountrv. On a given Sundav (March '3(1. 1H51) 
the Sunday-schools of Kn^land and Wales vierc simul- 
taiieoiisly inspected; and there were found in £3,514 
schools, 30-2,000 teachers and 2,;!S0,000 scholarH. The 
number of children enrolled as scholars was 2.407,409. 
or about three fifths of Ihe number of children beiween 
the ages of Ave and flileen enumerated by Ihe census 

children in American Sunday-schools at the «anie pe- 
riod would hare reached the number of 3.000,000. tf 
Co those aggregaiea the probable number of Sundav- 
schools in Scotland, Ireland, and other countries at the 
same date be added, it seems safe to brliere that there 
were in , Sunday-schools Ihrougbnut tbe world, at the 
enil of IBoO, not less than 6,000,000 scbolan. Siniibr 
estimates made at the end of anidher quarter of a cen- 
tury indicate that at the end of 1876 there were in oper- 
a^on in all cxiiiirieB 110,000 Sunday-schot.ln, ecobrK- 
ing 1,500,000 Icacliers and 10,000,000 sch.dara. Une 
statistician of some promineuce haa since estimated 
Ibat there are In Ihe United Stales alone ixit lots than 
98,303 Sunrlay-schouU and 7,«>t<Ji33 scholars. *Mi that 
basis the alK>ve aggregate for all countries nii>;ht l<e 
enlaced. To tllu»irale the iln.ronghness wiili 



tbe American 
such static icf 
subjoin the o 
pal Church fu 






id alw the inac 



of 



SCKD AY. SCHOOL 

.Stmtaj-wbaol nliioen anil tochrni, 2S6.768 

tUH.OT?: Kholin over Alteei 

•HmUn under HflHii, irul not in infant cla»e^44&,602; 

■dK>lin in infint cUmc*, 491,419: BveragE ittcndaiKW, 

],4MjejI : volunm in Sunclay-ichonI liljrarin, 1,871, 1S3; 

uDul ri|ciiMs at llie Khiioli, •I,6aH,!40: oinlribu- 

iIdw to (he SamUr-Khani tlnii 

■nd liilinz (not kIhwIi. f Xi,SM.i 

■ba nrv coiniDuiiianM in llieChiirch.357.9D!l; Khol- 

ui wbn wtn ciiniiBimirintfi,GII>.8<ll; oinrenions in 

amataiva with Ihc Sunday-Khai^ I !9,6s4. The loul 

1117,316, w 49,000 



leSund 



Kbwld. 



iptaivi conpariacia of i> 
unit Chnruh fmai yeir to year ihowt ■ Mriking cor 
ropuiHtriKe (n [he numbn nf nporied cohveninni iii 
ibt SuMbx-aOwoU. I'o the exient that the abovt 
•uuidc* may be cuniidervd npreMnlative a( the con- 
'hinKi and work of tHiiirUy • Khoula in the Americai 

pnn the nuiEaitude M that work and i 
lavti (at (tw pminotion nf Chriilian iiifluc 

1i unotbibe auppnaHl that reuiltaorib* importance 
hii<Mal«l in the Tur^oinK aketch have naturally ariaen 
Inn Ihc uponuaeou* grawih of Sunday-arhonla. On 
Ike Mbcr hand they are iniiy ID be allribuled u [he 
Ht'uit Umaaic upon the fyucmai^c *ihI well-directed 
ttmt vf iDielli|;enl Suinlay-acbuul worken 






lioB iiC the Kound half cc 



ill fact, t 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL 

antinue in Kuion from one to three weeks at 
a time. In connection with Ihe growing American hab- 
it of taking summer vacalion* and of gaihering in musee 
at populai reaorls, SunJay-achool a»embli«, under iriM 
and energetic managcraent, have Hpeetliiy grown lo b4 
influentiiU of great good and promiuary of long con- 
linuance. The Cbauiauqua Sundiy-Kliool Aaaemhiy, 
held on the borden of ■ beautiful lake in Western New 
York, under the premdeney of Dr. John H. Vincent, may 

olabliahed fur regular annual aeuiuui in diflcieiit parta 
of [he United Stalet; e. t;. at Clear Lake, la.; Lake 
Bluff, IlL; Loveland and Lakeaide, U.i ihe Tlinnaand 
laland Park in the Si. Lawrence Kiver; and ai Round 
Lake, near Saratoga, N. \. Thtae axemllici are de- 
Hgned to do, ii>r vut and widely aeparaled leclioiia of 
America, what wai ciHitemplaleil by ihe London liun- 
dav-«t:hi>ol Union in the ereclion of a building at 66 
Old Bailey, in Ihe heart of London. In that building 
ii a Sunday -ichool muwum and a large hall in which 
CDUTset of lectum are given, while in uihrr rooma traiu- 
ing-clawes are lauglil and competitive examinaliona 
held. While the centre of a million-peopled cily af- 
ford* aome peculiar advantage* fur the objecta above 
indicated, aiHl epecially in being aeceiiible al all seaaona 
of the year, yet the ample ^>acea ai 



ibjecta of the aiarmbly ind during Ih 
1. llany of (he iimairucliona are 
Ihe appcnntmenia are in excellen 



grove adapted (< 
■ ■ w of Ihi 



[uiy of Sunilay-achooU had t 
ilil be said that thae acboob 1 
■m ihomughly popular with even the Chrialian pub- i . . 

lie aT America: nor did ihey become ao wi[hout great I Mrvient to Ihe grand idea of inlelkctnal and s|Hrilu«l 
Bid nuiiiDDoin exertioii* on the part of enthimiaMic ! improvemenl, with apecific refrrpnce to Ihe prumolion 
tneadt uf the cause. As one great agency for accom- | ofCbrist'i kingdom upon eanh through the agency of 
pfahing thai reauli, Sunday-ichool conveniioua were Christian instruction. No one can properly ippreriale 
i(ifiiiiDial and held in various places and in a great the iroportaiM^e and future bearing uf [he agenciea now 
I srieiT of circnmataDcea. There were eonrentiou for under notice without considering Ihat each coming 
[nwiia. for onunlies, for diatricts, for confer- generation will require, in its turn, to be trained and 
for Males. Niiine uf them were manigeil by fitted fur the ever-expanding work of teaching all na- 
'f all de- tiona [he truths of Ihe (i<w|>et. 

Il may here be nmsTknl that Sundny-scbocd con- 



:ntions. prominent Si 

laiini; lesL .Such galhrriiiRs gave an opportunity <<>r 
iht diacuuioa of iiew meihods, and became i 
■(TscT fur the promotion uf all real improvein 
ikf DTgiuaaiiau and condnct of Sunday-schools even 

ihe ijundST-scbool Idea became popular, and agitation 
ia it* behalf became unnecisaary, cujivenlions of Suii- 
^-arhoul frienila and worken began to lake the form 
^ ia<ilHic* adrr the analogy of teachers' iiMitutea de- 

I'ut a long period the most thai was thought poBsible 
<o br done Air Ihe higher training and special iiwtruc- 
lion of SoKtay-Bchool Icachen, was sought to he ac- 

tia wti But at length it was found practicable, with 
Borinign of aupnaediiiK the Dlble-claases referred In, 
inierure many of tbeir tfenefiu 



faci, they have been expanded so as to i 
ly <<>r and even international rtprese ills lion. A 

Its in lierman National Sunday-school Cunveii 
In Ihe L'nileil Stale^ in 



'nliH 



es; in 






W* "f nnmheri of people ii 
llmcB SI Sonday-achnol ooi 

mpnrtant lopics, ■pparalui anil new 
:hibiie<l and explaineil, and mndcl 
:l claMea were taught and iraineil by skilled 
Bv these public pnjceedingi, imt only was the 
II and inainiction of Sunday-«hool» 
["•outod. but an f^rH da eorpi was 



inday-achool ci 



one of a national and one of an iniemalional character. 
The meeting of leading and delegated Sunday-Ecbooi 
worken from different churrhes and nalioni has hsd 
a happy tendency lowards Ihe promotion of practical 
Christian union on tbe largest scale. One of Ihe best 
evidences nf this may be inalanctd in Ihe general adop- 

Btble atady. Uniform scUemu of simnliRneiiua aludy 
had been previously adopted lo a conaidersble extent, 
especially in (Iresl Britain, where ihey had long been 
pmmoled by the I^^ndnii Sunday - school Union, but 
never oAlcially acce|ited tbroughnut Ihe kingdom. Aa 
early as 1860~Mt. Orange Judil.tililor of Ihe ^ncri«(?a 
Agricallurul. otigiiisleil a scheme of lessons having all 

—namely, a lelecliun of about seven consecutive verses 
fur each week, in hisloricsl onler. from Ihe several poi- 

drtw up such a scheme, which was primed in tabular 
fomi in Ihe Agrieulfaivl fur Kebruar}', I86i. and hun- 
d amonc' dreds of I honsands uf copies irf it were dislribuled and 
larrmenis , iiseil in the Sunday -schools of vsrious denmninalians 
nd quali- ^ ihmugboni the United Stales. A similar plan was pub- 
teabon of leaehtti. lisheil in Ihe same manner Ihe Ibllowing year, and in 

The sill 1 1 n of Sunday-school institutes and noimal j Itl62 the drst of four consecutive qimt ion-books, enii- 
rtaiat* naMeil upon tbc conTentinnsI idea and caused I tied Lnumfir Eiviy Simdeaiin lit Yrar, was prepared 
ft la (xpBMl bito that uT Sundgy-schonl aiaembliea, de- I under the same auspices, ami published in New York. 



SDNDAY-SCHOOL SOCIETIES M SUNDAY-SCHOOL SOCIETIES 



Id 1866 the London rrUem, with some modiBotioni, wu 
brought CO the ntuntion of the Ameiuui public by Rfv, 
J. H. Vincent, then editing > Sundiy-Khuol periodical 
in Chiugn. The question wu Mon afler propoeod by 
him in a Sundiy'«hoal inicitule, " Ib it practicable lo 
introduce a unirorm syUcm or Icbkhu inlo all our 
achoula?" Tbia quealiun waa earnestly and hopefully 
dtacuMed in vaiioiu wivs for aevenl years fulluiriiig: 
imtil,BtibeNationalC(>iiTentiDnatIndianapoliaiiil872, 

When the project wu agreed lo by repreientaLiv-ea or 
tiie leading d«iominalion> in America, it wu through 
frienillv currespoadence endoned by the Londoii Sun- 
day-Mhixd Union, and hu uncc been in actual and ex- 
tensive use on both Hdea or the Atlantic The intei^ 
national use of ayaLdms of lesaonsr prepared by Joint 
committeee, bu had a happy tendency to promote in- 
creased inteceat in scriplunl study throughout the 
world. Tbia mode of simultaneous study lias been 
greatly popularized by the publi 



nifomi 



[■of pi 



«dicala in variou. 


countries a 


nd in different 


lang 


ages. 


At the preaenc ti 


me, the sysu 


ta of internal 










vor throughou 


tthe 


I'rot- 


eetanc world, and 


u> have th 




ong. 


f not 












In closing this 


article, it s. 


*"" P"!*'- "> 


aay 


hat it 


U in the United Statu th. 






k has 


been done in th 




on of -Sun- 


dar-schoal liten 


ture. iltho 


gh not witho 




great 






re «r»t adopted a< 




MOlial auxiliarv 


of Sunday 


-Khool effiir 


By thi. 


means, the inHue 


ncea of thp 


Sundav-achoo 




pro- 


Jectad through l 


e secular d 


y» of the wee 


1. 1 


n this 


enuntry also, San 


daynichool 






ic]^ 




cheapneea, hai 


ebee 


puh- 



lisheil in the grealeat profuMOii 

numeniua and important u to have chalicngeil and ae- 
cared a partial enumeration in the official census of the 
governmeiil. The ccnaua of 1870 reported S3,&H0 libra- 
riHsaudB,846,153 volumu in those Ubrariea. This ag- 
gregate, large u it ia, does not include the Slate of Con- 
necticut, and for other reasons is eviclenlly far below 
the facLB in the case at tlie present time. No other 
librariu ire so widely diffused u those of Sunday- 
aehoolsi they are not only foumi in cities, where moat 
great libiariea are eaiabliahed, but in the remoleal sec- 
timia and neighhorhnoda of the land, and everywhere 
tfaey are (lee to all who by attendance on t^nday- 
•choola tiecome entitled to draw their hooka for them- 
eelvea or their friends. In sii vast an aggregate of vol- 
untes, it would not be siraniie if tbere were some of an 
iDdiSerent or even of a very objeclionahle character. 
But such wouhl be only enceptiona to the general rule 
that Sunday-echool libraries furnish vrholeaume and at- 
Inctive reading la millions of youths and children, 
many of whom, without them, would hai-e no reading, 
X only that which is bad. 



The 



of the 1 



IS agenc 



in active operation u parts of the Sunday-achnnl enter- 
prise can hardly fail tc impress any thoughtful mind 
with the moral grandeur of that enterprise as a whole. 
Especially will any true Christian that cnntemplBtcs 
the feeUe beginning of 1780, in comparison with the 
VUt array of Sundir-school aciivicies and ageiiia at 
work in I8KU. be led to exclum. What haih God wrought 
through the inatrumenlality of thoae who have en- 
deavored lo obey the command "Feed my lambs!" 

the Sunday-school efforts of the past hundred yean. 



in the centuries lo come, he will see l> 
lem of the world's conversion is in procc 
(D. y. K-) 
SUSDAV-SCIEOOL SociETiia, Umio 






■DciMed Christian effort may be desrignaled at the ge- 
neric agency by which, under the divine bletaing, itw 
great multa of the Sunday-w:bool enterprise have been 
accomplished. Such cfliirt bat assumed two fonn— 
1, locali 2, general — each correspondent and Hppie- 
mentaiy l« the other. Local associations, whether in 
neighborhoods or churches, have from the Snt ben 
neceasary as a meana of rainng the tnonev to fiond. 
and of enlisting the teachers to instruct, Suoday-tcbooli. 
General associations were also, from an early day, ann 
to be important for the purpose rif awakening pvblir 
interest and of diflVialng informalinn boih as to I be 
necmuty and the best means of insiniciing in religiout 
truth. They have likewise bad an important functim id 
perform in prompting and guiding individual aud local 
effort in the work of organizing and maintaining Hun- 
day-schools, hecfiming at ihe same lime an important 
bond of union between great numben of schools not lo- 
cally connected. Genera] associations for Ibtse ohjetfi 
have aieumeil, somewhat interchangeably, the title of 
societies and unions, the latter predominaling, appar- 
ently, on account of its expressiveness of their cbanc- 
ter and objects. The most important of those rstab- 
lidhed in England and America will now be enumerstcd 

1. enslM.—l. In 1785 "The Society for ITomotiOf; 
Sunday-schoola in the British Dominions' was oi^niasd 
in London. It was nnder the leadenhip of Willian Foi. 
who in various ways proved himseirtobea tmephilao- 
Ihropist, but specially in his zeal, liberality, and peooaal 
eflbrls Ibr Ihe education and moral elevation of Ihe lov- 
er classes of his cnanlrymen. This aocieiy, during tlie 
flrat aiileen years of ita exialence, paid out £40IW for 
thcaerriceaof hired teachers in Sunday-schools. When, 
however, the plan of gratuitous leaching came lobe nni- 
reraally adopted, and Chriatiana and churchea became 
generally enliated in promoting Sunday-schools fmn 
purely religious molives, the importance and inHuetm 
of this society declined until it became en linct. 

2. In 1H03 '' Tlie Loudon Suiiday-schnol Lnion' ■» 
organiaed. It was composed of lay Sunday - acbool 
workeni of different denominaliona of Christians rtsid- 
ing within a radius of dve miles from the ciiy pm- 
office. This limitation wu adopted u a measure vt 



limiting the inHu 
scribed. This ui 
ous career from i 



Lnd unity of v 



iigns, ai 



idily . 



Ihe circle thus de- 

a origin lo the present lime. It has 
la^te amount of funds, nor been able 
in any scale of great importance; but 
consistenlly pursued its speciSc de- 



doing hi 



)le, froi 



eiilral 



Linn, to influence favorably the Sunday-schi^ 
not only throughout Great Britain, hot tbroughoul ihe 
world. The folhiwing have been its more imponani 
funclioos: 1. The publication of Sunday -schoi^ requi- 
sites, lessnn-papera, and periodicals. Of the latter, Ttr 
Smiditg-Kkiiut TrticArit' Miii/mioe tnd several jiiTtnile 
monthlies hare huig held a high rank. i. The promn- 
lion of activity anil improvement in the work of Son- 
day-school instruction. For this object the position of 
Ihe union, in the practical centre not only of London, but 
of England, has been eminently favorable. This ai<- 
vantage ha* been diligently and wisely improved by a 
succession of intelligent and faithful workers, who. by 
peisonal and co-o|>eraiive eBbns, have kept the sund- 
ard of Sunday-school instruction continually advancina. 
As a permanent means to tbia important end. they 
have secured the erection of a Sne building in a central 
location, in which they maintain couraea of leclnm. 
training and miulel claaaes, together with competilivr 
Gxamiuations for teachers. 

S. In IBIO '■The IteliginuB Tract Sodely" of London 
wu founded. This society, although not hearing ■)«■ 
name Sunday-echool in its title, or speciflcally iiamini: 
Sunday-school objects in its cnnslitullon. has nevenhr- 
lesa been, from ils origin to ihc present time, one uf th( 



SCXDAY-SCHOOL SOCIETIES 2s SUNDAY-SCHOOL SOCIETIES 
mt )CTTuxab)e auxilUrits to 



D Ibe Sundif-Khool enter- ' 
pmc. lU puniiaiioni nave been unriTiUed for rbeip- 
uak. ()t£iiK«, [tligioui cbuacler, uid adipUtion u> 
Siuid«y-iichooI kiou. As such they hove challenged 
ud atnuol Ibe patrons^ of alt Sunday-school workern 
ibinigboul the Ihilish dominioiu. Vant numbere of 
Ibca have been nfiiinled in the United States. 

Of KVeral ocher general amwiations we are not abte 
m anign ibe exact date of origin. I'he order of their 

ntjKt of each is auflicienily eipresaHl by its (iile. 
Tbcr an ai fulluwi: "The Church of England Sun- 
diT^bnol Iniiiiuie ;" "llie Ragged Sunilav-icho<)l In- 
^iiuur "The Wesleyan Methodist SunJay- school 
I'Bun.* The Wfslevan Methodist Church has loug had 
ilunDordeDoaiinauoiialactioiiiii behalf oTbcith wwk- 
diy iud Sandaj achoot education. It hu, moreorer, 
ihmigh its pablicalimi-olfice, isaueil many buoka for 
Sunday -aebouls, as well as requitntu and juvenile peri- 
cdicalL Between the years 1B60 and 1870 it thought 
proper to adopt mora specillG nteaaurea in behalf of its 
Sundiy-Khuol work. Hence the inatituiion of the 
union last named, and the appointment of a connection- 
il Suadar-ichaul Kcrctan'. In general, it may be re- 
Diarhed Ifaal the greater part of the churchea through- 
<at (inai Britain maiiiUin tbcir Sunday-Khnnls by ii>- 
iliriiluil Churcli cITiirt, often aided by the cooperative 
indiirneeoflual unimni. 

IL Amfriam.—l. Not euunting the Church action 
alladed ui in the piecediiig anide. the first general 
Saoday-acbool orgaiiiiaiiou established in the United 
Stila dated from Jul. II, 1791. li. was funned in i'hil- 
idtlphla, under the title of "The Fint-day or Sunday 
Scbo.ll Society." It was composed of members repre- 
■ming diHisnit deoomi nations of Christians, among 
wbum were seveTal memberg of tfae Society of Friends. 
-Tbe firM article of the constitution of this society re- 
qnind that tbe inuractkm given in the schools eslab- 
Ibbed nndef its aus|Hcea or receiving its beneficence 
ikHild 'be cnnflned to reading and writing from the 
Ubte and nch other moral and religious books aa the 



Like it 



did n' 



tcty long or iiiflueniial career. Kdther did the New 
Vsrk Sunday -Kbnol Union, formed in 1816, nor the Pbil- 
sMphia .Silndav Bud Adult School Uaion tomted in 
ruiaddpltia in '1817. 

i. la Iti34 tbc Usl-nanied association was merged 
n ' the Aneriean Sunday-school Dninn." This union, 
Ue that of London, is composed of laymeii belonging 
udifemit denominalions of Christians ; but nrom tbe 
fns il has assumed and maintained a far more promi- 
•aH puaiuDn and more aggressive modes »f action than 
in Eagliab prototype. It has undertaken the double 
nrkof the publication of Sunday-Bcboo] litenturo and 

tW frantier and in all destitute portions of tbe United 
.■Mtea. For ihcae objects, it has appealed to its sup- 
(Hting cbiitches for funds. Those sppeala have been 
kanml in largr amounts from year to year; sod thus, 
duinc more than half a century, it has carried forward 
■ pmd aiid expanding work in many placca where dt^ 
•miasiional effort could not hsve commanded success, 
lisn indication of ibe work it isatkd has been accom- 
plisbing, we aubjuto its principal items of statistics for 
ite vcar fading March 1. IKUO: Sunday-Khn-ls orgaii- 
inli 1*M3, conlaiiiiiig l^iH teachen ami 69,433 schol- 
sih Srhnnls aided, IHo2, containing 12,788 teachen 
sad 130,794 scholara. Miles trsvtiterl by its agenis and 
■winarin, 463.243. Addre«es delivered, l-J.Om lli- 
b4ei dtsuibuiol, 6779. Testaments distribnleil, 9387. 
Familin visited. 41,332. It has expeiideil in miuion- 
■y optratioDs an agK^gste i.f «3,47I.G^ while llie 
•sin* of bnnks aiiil fapers it has put in circolaiiun ia 
nc k« (^ (7,000,00(1. k is easy to perceive that 
mA a sfMB of ei'aogelicsl iffu'' -—'•'''- -•••> tutt- 



It of til 



When to ll 
ence of a rich ai 



dant l^nday-schaal literature, diffused oi 
ciples and through business agencies among the vari- 
ous Sunday-scboiils of the land, the minit strives in vain 
to comprebend the full extent of the significance and 
hopefulness of this system of efluru From the natura 
of its work, Ibe American Sunday-school Union is una- 
ble to lake what may be called permsnent siitistics, or 

quent changes anil developments. Its office is usually 
that of n pioneer, making preliminary organizations 
which, in tbe courae of years — and often ofa very few 
subdivide, and become merged in the 
permanent work of the various churches. 

3. In 1827 "The Sunday-K:hnul Union of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church" was organized in New York, in 
a form which also contemplated the publication and dif- 
fusion of religious (tacts and the Holy Scriptures. Al- 
though all Iheie objects had been previously contem- 
plated and promoted by regular Cbuich acliun as taken 
in 1734 and subsequeiilly, it was thought proper, in 
1827, 10 make spedal eSbru iu their behalf by tbe 
joint and special organiiation referred to. In 1840 the 
Sunday-school Union under notice was reorganized as 
a wparale inatituiion, and in 1844 its interests and 
functions were brought into greater prominence by the 
appointment of aii official Sunday-school editor, who 
was also made corresponding secretary of the iiuinn. 
These movements were in harmony with tbe original 
policy of the Church that iostiluled them, namely, to 
promote Sunday-school inslroction as a branch of reg- 
ular Church action. For such action on a large scale 
dtcumslances st the last-named period were highly 
favorable. Tbe Church bad then beconw exieiiileil 
throughout the whole counlT}', so that it could reach 
alnMst any inhabited place by its regular agencies, 
lis plan, therefore, was to stimnlate its ministen and 
members to universal acticity, in accordance with iia 
rules, adopted in 1784 and 1T90. This plan saved the 
great expense of sending out and maintaining special 
SuLtday-sohool missionaries, while it made sure of re- 
Bponsiblc and resident agents wherever the work was 
undertaken. By similar agencies it was sought every- 
where to promote n higher grade of Sunday-school ac- 
tivity and improved methods of inatmction. For the 
production of an extenuve and varied Sundsy-scbnol 
literature, provided under official editoiship, the union 
was able to avijl itself of an organ iieil and most effect- 
ive publishing establishment, owned by the Church, 
with the best of facilities for diffusing its prinleil mat- 
ter. In these drcumstonces, all collections for the lois- 
siunary department of Sunday-school effort were ap- 
plied directly ami exclusively to the disiribution of 
books. St cost price, to be lined by persons engsiied in 
founding new or maintaining poor schools. I'rnbably 
DO more thorough and efficient system of Church effort 
in behalf of Sumlay -schools wis ever organized, inclu- 
Bive of the Hvitem of statistics by which its workings 
are thown from year to year. Some of the results of 
the aciiiHi of thai system, running on in regular course, 
may be iuferreil from the statistical summaries given in 

4. "The I'mtestant Episcopal Sunday-school Union" 
was orgsiiixed in New York, M about the period when 
the two unions last named had their origin; but, fur 
some reason, it never secured a strong support from the 
Church in whose interest it was founded and whose 
name it bore. It acted for a time as a publication soci- 
ety, being often aided by individual congregatinns in 
the issue of particular books. Afler some yean of a 
rather languid existence, its interests were sold out to a 
private bookseller. A similar result occurred lo tbe 
Evangelical Knowledge Society, an organiiallon also 
projected, about IBSO, by ministers and members of tbt 



SUNDAY SERVICE 

ProlcMuit Episcopal Church, in the idea uf wci 
and diffusing a more evangelical literalure than 
Aimiihed by the union lut named. 

6. It is proper Co «ay here th»t neither the Pre«liyie- 
Tian nor Uaptut chuicheB of the <]iii(«tl Stalo ba 
organised Simday-aehool unions. They have avuil 
Ittemselvea to a targg extent uf the iiublicatioiis of t 
Americiii Sunday-achool Uuion, and olao, in part, of I 
Juvenile literature issued by their reiqieclive boards 
publication, aa well aa that of the Amerieau Tract 80- 

& In 1832 " The Uassarhusetta Sabbath-Kfaool Soci- 
ety" was founded in Ituaiun, by repreaenlativeii of the 
(^■Eregational churches of New Engiand. Its n 
of action were denomtnatinnai, and its publications 
numerous andgnoil,but after same yean of independent 
existence the interests nf the suciety were blended with 
Ihoae of the Cuii;;regBiinnal Publishing Society and the 
American Home Mi»iaiiary Society. Neither of Ihoae 
■ucietiea publish Sunday-school statistics. 

7. "The (Dutch) Reformed Sunday-echool Unii 
was orgaoiEed in New York about lS6U,aiid fur seve 
years prooeeded quite actively to pmmote the Sundi 
achiHil intereau of the Church it represented. It pub- 
lished a small catalogue of Sunday-schiwl boolu and 
requisites, but did ii»t long maintain a separate 1 
ance, ila intcreats having been merged inthoaeof apub- 
tiahing sodety oTa more general character. 

8. It la not within the scope of this article to r 
(henatnemuslocalSuDday-achoidamuciatiaaathat 
aprung up in the cities, towns, counties, or even state* 
of the American Union. Kany i>f them have had but 
brief existence. Others have been mainuined for oon 

Chrifltiau union, but rarely engaging in the enterpriJi 
ol publication. Some of them have collected statistics, 
but ususllr within limited spheres. 

9. The Foreign Sunday-«haol Association of New 
York and vicinity had a germinal exiateniw aa far back 
■a ISM, but did not aecure an inoorporatinn till 1878. 
h is eom]nsed of practical Snnday-echool WDTker^who, 
by meana of correspondence, co-operation with mitsiim 
aries, and judicious donations, seek to promote the 01 
ganization aod maintenance nf Siinday-ichoals in tnun 
tries foreign to the United Stales and ouiiude of the 
British possessions. It claims In have "been the means 
of planting 1»;7 Sunday-Mhouls in Germaiiv, 1130 in 
France, 150 in Italy, 30 in Portugal, 40 in Japan, 403 in 
<>ernian Switzerland, besidea some schools iu China, 
(ireece, Hungary, Holland, anil other countries." lu 
published report' for 1379 cnntaina numerous interesting 
facta, and authorizes the hope that iu years to come 

Hrst necenarily feeble, so fat as human agency is in- 
i-olved. 

The fact that the Sunday-schnal enterptise, during the 
first centuiyofiis history, has, with the divine bleasing, 
come so fully (0 pervaile Knglish-speaking countries, 
and has made a hopeful cumniencemeut in many and 
remote foreign nations, dewrvee 10 be laken aa a prom- 

ble extent and value. (D. P. K.) 

Sunday Svrvice or the Metiiodtst Episcopal 
CitL'ltCK was an abridgment of the Pnyer-book of the 
Church of Kngland, prepared by Mr. Wesley. It was 
arranged forlhe use uf the Methodists in America, when 
he recommended their organization into a Methodist 
Episcopal Church. It was entitled The Sunday ^Frricr 
o/Ht MrlkndUU nf Hortk A merira, mlh olhtr Smiat, 
aiul was adopted liy the General Conference of 1784. It 
wu published in conneclion with the IHifiiiUnt (Phila. 
1786; Loud. IT86). This appears to have been the 
last time the Buttday Strviet was published in connec- 
tion with the DitcipliKf, and at the General Conference 
of I7D2 all reference to the use of a Sunday Service wa» 
alricken out. [t gradually dropped out of use. The 
IL E. Church, South, in 1866, ordered that the Prayer- 



i SUNIAS 

book as printed by Mr. Wesley in 1736 should be n 
printed for the use of their Church, and the same la 
vice is used in many Wealeyau churches in EnglaM 
■hough generally the churehes using a tetrice pitfa 
the regular English Prayer-book. See Simpson, Cf^if. 
ofMflhiidini,t.T. 



happeumg upon or near tl 



give below a claaiili^ lii 
AnT.BT(q.v.). TheSnnd 
«r>ek iJiturch by a rerti 



SitJiteiiaiHttq.v.), in tbe Greek Church "SuudnyofApn- 
cre»s,''l>ecnHKmeBtl*nr>trs[eu tMymidlt. Il wnsaW 
tatwi "SillldaruftheS'mor," 

uln> Ksfo MM (Pm-'iizI, *), ttnm ihe Intnil' ; In Oer^ 
many ■'I'rlEsrs F-irlnlght," ncclerlsiitica comracDcioe 
ihelr fasl on ibis day ; mid hi tbe Greek Ctiorcb Tyn- 
ph^juA, bccsu^a cheese is uo longer euieu. 
In La NT (q. v.). 
I. tiuaiiragerimalq.Y.l, called hiBMorti (P«i. ml, IS): 
In Ihe Bust "Orthodoxy Suudnj" In Biiglsnd (Ml) 
"H.il/Dsy.- 
1. RemlnliTere, rmm Ihe IiilMll <P<a. xx*. Ii>: and la 
" I," (rum the Gospel Iu Ux 



a. Oculi, from Ihe Inrr-dt (P-o. iiv, in ; 1 



CaniiD," ISmi a spedal hTmn. In Uuglaiid 11 v<i> 
kui>wna>"CHre4unday"((rar,ap«iiiU|/): ■'M<'iBc'> 
ili«-9andHy"{aal. T],SI), when nil utn.mt msde llieii 
ollbriaK* fn the eiiiliadriil or nioiher-churdi; "Sim- 
i»r or "Carllng gniiday." tniui oiithit; Sue wb«t- 
cakn nr banii* mi ihls dnv. 
e. JDdka (Ph. xliO, 1). - PasKlou Siiiidny :"'• Dhoanclit 
Reuma," Ihmi valllu:: ilie Imiiirea: "Sundiir o( ilie 
Qnmlahi" In Pnnice, fn.m Ilie sp.irl» i.f ih* ria.,- 
■^Black Snudny" In GemiBiiT, fnini Ihe Telllnz ol ihr 
enisses when the w.irds "Jesiia hid hlniself" were 

l>*i.«-SuMi.*i(q, v.), also "Sunday of the Willcw-bonglK.' 
a. STUB (q. v,). 

1. Flr»i Sniidnv after Ka-ier. or Octnve. has nirlnas S|>- 
iwllatloiis; Dnmlnira <n JI'iu, pemiini wh-i were ba|>- 
ilzed at Edsrer liiylin- inside ihe nhhe robea then re- 
ceived; Diet .V«njfAr/f0nim. Ihe oewJy bapilaed be1i>u 
then recopilred ua HCinHl memliers of itie Cbnreb: 
QiituTHofisirfsu (q. v.) ; Pmcha Claiwi'iH, close of Ba^ 
ter: (Msm lufnHlinvi, In stinsliin to ibe newly luip- 
ilzed: (ImlmoiloiKntti, In allusion to miiu'a renuin- 
tloii by ib« Itesurredhiu. 

S. The second Sunday was known nr that of Ihe " Tbrer 
Oiutment-bearera," tnim the O-spel: "8'.Thoi.i«," 
or "Reuewrtl Sniidny*' IJi^fan xx,S7>; Jtfw/^n'rdiv 
Dmiat, tram the Iniroll (Psa. iztll, K ; " Sniiday •■•I 
Whli* Ctmhs" or "after die exhibition of relloi.' 

S."0fthnPnra1ylle->1nlhearrekCbatch: lutlieUI- 
I11, JobOalt, tmm the lutroli (Pan. Ixil, I). 

«. Mid-Pentecoal: hi theOrwk Church "Of tbe Snmsr. 
Iran :" In Ihe Lailn from the Intrxltr. Cantatt <Pi« 
icvill, 1) ; Roffolt (Song of Sol. 11, 11) ; JftautH ll'ra. 



6. K.ieinl.m 

Wui'^DHl.tl 

TaiKiTV Sun I 

day:" Iu Fi 



(q. v.): In Uie Greek Church "Of Ibe 1 



(q.v.): In the Bast "All Saints' Sim- 
e "Kliieof SondBys,"or"Ble«edS'l^■ 
clA* til Ihe rich mnu and [dxaros'^ wst 
:o ddi^niiie the first Sunday after Trlii- 
liy. ID. "SnodHvof Ihe I.I1<ee"ls ilie mime by wblcli 
the Mficeiiih Sinidny after Trliiiiy !« known. 
Arier AMBasliHi; In the Basl"!JlliidaT oriheSIS,- in ak 
Inslon to the Nlrene tatheni ai Itome "Sundav oF 
Roses.- sn calleil by lonoceut 111 In 1180. nHs halni: 
thrown from ilie r.Hir..f Sania Maria Rnmiida, stmh'^- 
ical of the gifts ..ftheSplrlL Sunday* afler Penteci-'. 
Sniidnyn tromWhli-Sundaylo AdTetiii but In Bni.'lauit, 
aucMiitIr as now. Suudajr after Trinity. | 

SnnloB, an e|Hlhet of the Grecian iflaerva, tna I 



SUNISACTANISM 2 

Snniaactwoimi (swiJcrorroc, iii<r«/iic«< with), ■ 
DOM gi'tB U> the practice by which muy ufLhe cler- 
gy tvadsl tbe ii)[nrauB Im retp«cting celibacy. It j> 
HOMiiM* called doifiticiim, uid caoninni in keeping 
bmilr innHtcs in thdr dwellings, with whom they pro- 

UL be eo«nibtne& JeiDme and ChryioUom nverely 
nprehended 



w uT vhici 



tbe highest purity. 



J SUP 

miliar poinu, yet are acknowledged by each other to 
belong to the faithful and lo be capable of ailvilion, 
and they each have a epedal aralary at Uecca. The 
fint of IlieH nects are (he Hane6tea^ founded by AbEl 
Hanifa,whD died l&O years after the Hegira. They 
are etnphalically called " the roliawen of reason," while 
the other three are guided eiclurii'ely by tradition. 
>n to have a principal share in their 
■ r puinti "■ ■■ 



Smma, one of tbe Norse isu, the daughter of Muu- 
diUsn, Ibt nar-god. Her brother and henielr were 
Iis««atd of extraordinary beauty, which induced their 
pannu to name tbem the sun and moon (Sol, or Sunna, 
•ad Uaani); but tbe gods considered the bestowal of 
foch uatoe^ a crimei and accordingly kidnapped the 
children, arierward* placing then iu charge of the sun 
ad ibE muon wagon* which were formed out of aparks 
oTbe which flew froni Huspelheim into the kingdom 
uf the aua. The horaea which drew the wagons were 
outtA Alswidur and Amtkar (the"unit-erBal ecorcher" 
sad tbe "early wake"). They speeded rapidly nn iheir 
cvaiies becauae Skoll and Hate, two roighly giants in 
ibe lunn of wolves, fullmved awilkly on their heel] Ui 



acoordaiice with the Koran, the meaning of which, 
bonnr, is itself explained by the Sunna. The term 
is therefore {though inconvctly) used for the collections 
d Boral and legal trtditiona traced lo the Prophet, 
which sopplemenl the Koran, somewhat like the Miih- 
na (if r.), which aoppleinenla Ihe laws of Ihe Penta- 
wich. Tbe Sunna not only coDipriaea religiout doc- 
triiaa and practice, but also civil and criminal laws 
lad tbe usages of common life — the way to eat and lo 
drink, snd to dress, and Ihe like. This tradition is 
tini bnni of during the civil wars among the adher- 
out of Ihe new faith, about half a century after tbe 
Fliftbi. Tbe single traditions, as we now pi-ssess them, 
rsnlt exceed aix lines. The diction is carefully wrought, 
ladtbc form ia that of a dialogue. For tbe credibility 
lad canonicity of ■ indilion it was ariginilly necessary 
thuiiibauld have been Afurd hy one truthful witness; 
bat this law was much relaxed in after-time. At the 
tnlaf the Sdeeutury (H.),a countless number of indi- 
■idaal coUcction* (.Vomad), mostly of an apocryphal 
rhirscier. had been produced by diflVrtnt tbeolugiana, 

fird In any special theological system, was Bochary 
iiLiK H.). His collection contains 'i7b tingle Ira- 
.btioos, «nU of which, however, occur twice in the 
ndt. Uualim, bis pupil, supplemented Sochary with 
■Hber collreiion, onituiiiag 12,000, again including 
WW irprliiion*. Besides these, there are four more 
-«ii«iical''cDUcctinna — by AbCl DaivDd (d. 275 H.), 
Tuwi.fr» (d. t79). Kuiy (d. 803), and Hgga (d. 278). 
Tin Sauna, as we have it in these colleclions, contains, 
lodly speaking, more truth than it is generally sup- 

Konn. the ninsi authentic source of Islan:). A selec- 
lise fnini the different cnlleclinni (both canonical and 
•>brrwise\ called Jtitiml A l~MaiabUi,hn been Iran*- 
IhhI inia Knglith by Capu Slailhewt (Calcutta, 1SU9). 
I'nCDients from Dorhary are fuund in the (jennan 

I'rintt. BraSomiA. 

Sannltsa. iraditioniata, or briieven in the Sunna 
If.*.); Ihe name nf the "onhudox" Moslem*, as op- 
piaad to iha Shilies <q. v.). They are subdivided into 
Imi pruMSfil aacta, wbov tboogh at issue ou iUff">ni 



it Uedini 



3 H. 



proofs of his real piely and humility, it is recorded thai 
when Baked fur his decixion on forty-tight questions, he 
would only decide on sixteen, freely confessing hi* Ig- 
norance about the others. In Barbary and other paru 
of Africa, the greatest part of hi* adherenu are fuund. 
Mohammed AI-ShRfel, bom in Palestine. 160 H., but 
educated iu Mecca, is the founder of tbe tbird seel, the 
Shirelte*. He was a great enemy of Ihe scholaalic 
divines, and seems altogeiher to have been of an orig- 
inal cast of mind. He never swore by Gwl, and atwaya 

any given question or bold his peace. The most ehar- 
acteriilie saying recorded of him is, " Whoaoever pre- 

time ia a liar." He is accounted of such importance 
that, according to hiseonl«mporaries,"hewassslhesun 
to the world, and as health to the body;" and all Ihe 
relations uf the traditions oF Mohamnied were said lo 
have been ssleep until he came and woke them. He 
appears to have been the Hist who reduced Moslem ju- 
risprudence into a method, and thus made il, fmni a 
number of vague sayings, a acience. His fbllnwers are 
now chiellv fouml in Arabia and Persia. Ahmed Ibn- 
Hanbal founded the fuurlh sect, the Hanbaliies. He 
was bom IG4 H., and was a most inlimale friend uf 
ShSfeT. His knowledge of the tmlilion* (of which he 
could repeat uoi fewer than a million) was no less famed 
than was his piety. He taught ibat ihe Koran was 
not created, but everlastingly subsisted in the essence 
of God— a doctrine for which he was aeveiely prniinhed 
by the caliph Al-Hotaaem. On the day of his death, 
no less than W^ unbelievers (Jew^ Christians, and 
Magiant) ate said lo bare embraced Ihe Mohammedan 
faith. Once veiy numerous, tbe Hanbaliies now are 
bnl very rarely met without of Arabia. On the dilig- 
ences between tbe Sunnilea and Shfites, aee ShiItm. 
See SoHHii'KS. 

SonyKbadiB, a sect of RindQ Atheists, or rath- 
er Nihilisis, who hehl that all notions of U'kI and 
man are fallacies, and thst nolliing eii>ts. What- 
ever we look upon is reganled as vacuity. Theism 
and Alhebm, Maya and Ilmhni, all is false, all ia 

SaovetBUillla, peculiar sacrifieea among the aa< 
cient Komans, ao named because they consisted of a pig, 
a sheep, and an ox. These were offered ct Ihe gen- 
eral lustration of the Roman people, which look place 
every five yean. The Suovetaurilia, indeed, formed a 
pan of every lustration, and Ihe victima were carried 
around the thing lo be puriHed, whether it was a city, 
a people, or a piece of land. The same sacrilice* existed 
among the aiKient Creeks, under the name of Tritlya. 
A representation uf the celebration of these sacriHces ia 
(bund on the 'I'riumpbal Arch of Cunitauline at Kome. 
See Sacbitick. 

Bap (itiirrtm). Our informalion on this subject i* 
but KMiitj. The early Hebrews do not seem to have 
given special names to theii several meals, fur Ihe terms 
rendered "dine" and "dinner" in ihe A. V. (Uen. xliii, 
[6; Prov. XV, 17) are in reality general expreniooa, 
which might more correctly be rendered "eat" and 
"portion of food." In the New Teal, we have the 
Greek terms apuirof and lilwvor, which the A. T. 
•vnrian napectively "dinner" and "aupper" (Luke siv, 



SUP ! 

Ill John xxi, 12), bul which ire more property " break- 
rut" and "dinner." 'I'here is xiine uncertainty aa lo 
the boura at which the maia were taken. The Bgvp- 
tiaoa undoubtedly look their principal meal at noon 
((;en. xiiii, llj); laborent looli alight meal at that lime 
(Ruth ii, 14 : comp. ver. IT) ; and occaaionally that early 
hour wai deval«d to txce» aod revelling (1 RIngi xx, 
IB). It has been inreired (ram thoae pawajpii (aonK- 
wliat too hailily. «« think) that the principal meal 
generally took place at ncion. The Egyptians du, in- 
deed, «till make a subataiitial tneal at that time (Lane, 
jVwJ. t'^spl. i, 189), biit there are indicatioaa ibat the 
.Teirg rai her TuUowed the cuetom that prevails among 
the Bedawin, and made their principal meal after ■un- 
set, and a lighter meal at about 9 or 10 A.M. (Buruk- 
hardi, Mitef, i, 64). For instance, Lot prepared a feast 
Tortile two angel* "at even" (Gen.xii, 1-8); Iloaz ev- 
idently took hia meal late ia the evening (Kuth iii, T) ; 
Ibe Israelite* ti\eJUii in the eveniug, and brtad imly, 
or manna, in the morning (Exed. xt-i, 12); the con- 
text seems to imply that Jethro'sreast was in the even- 
ing (iviii, 12, 14). Biit, above all. the institution of 
the Paschal feast in the evening seema to imply that 
the principal meal vas nsually taken tlien: It appears 
highly improbaWe that the Jewi would have been r>r- 
dered lo eat meal at an unusual lime. In the later Bib- 
lical period we have clearer notices to the same efli-ci. 
Breakfait look place in the morning (John ixi, 1, 12), on 
ordinary days not before 9 a'clack,wbivh was the first 
hour of prayer (Acta ii, lb), and on the Sabbath not be- 
fore Vi, when the service of the aynagogue wa* com- 
pleted (Josephus, Li/r, § M); the more prolonged and 
subslanHi) meal took place in the evening (^d, § 44 ; 
War. i, 17. 4). The general tenor of the iiaiible of the 
great supper cerlaiiilv inipliea thai the feast took place 
in ibe workiug-boun'oftbe day (Luke xiv, I&-24) ; but 
we may regard this, perhaps, as part of the imagery of 
the parable rather than as a picture of real life. See 

Thepoatureitmealavariedatditrerentperiods. There 
is sufficient evidence that the old Hebrews were in the 
habit of lUliiur (Gen. xxvii, 19; .ludg. xix, G; 1 Sam. 
KX, 6, 24; 1 Kinga xili, 20), but it doe* not hence fol- 
low that they sat on chain; tbey may bare squatted 
on the ground, as was the occannnal, though nut per- 
haps the generaLcuatora of the ancient Kgyptian* (Wll- 
kin*on, .lac. Egypl. i, 68, 181). The table was in this 
casa but slighliy elevated above the ground, a* ia still 
tba case in Egypt. At the same time, the chait was 
not unknown lo the Hebrawa, but seema to have been 
i^arded as ■ loken of dignity. I'he Hebrew term is 
Uai (X05). There i* only orw inslaitce of iis being 
mentioned ai an article of ordinary furniture, viz. in 2 
Kings iv, 10, where the A. V. ininrreclly r«ideis it 
"stooL" Even there it seems pmbable that it was 
placed more as a 



I of thia . 



k of special honor lo I he prophet 

As luxury increased, the prac- 

ling. The 



It of re 



who reprobates tbose *^ that lie upon beds of iror}', and 
8tret<-h themselves upon their couches" (vi. 4); and it 
appears that the couches themselves were of a costly 
characlft—the "corners" or rilgri (iii, 12; the word 
is pceh, nXD, which will apply to the edgr a* well as to 
the angle of a couch. That the seals and couches of 
the Aiayrians were handsomely omamenled appear* 
from the specimens given by Layard [.Vinrrrk, il, 300- 
302]), being finiahetl with ivory, and the seat covered 
with «lk or damask coverlels. (The A. V. has *■ in Da- 
mascus in a couch;" hut there can banodoubt that the 
name of tha town was tnnaftmdtn the silk aluA man- 
ufactured there, which are still known by the name of 
"damask.") Eiekiel, again, inveighs against one who 
sat "on a stalely bed with a table prepared before it" 
(xxili, 41). The custom may have been borrowed, in 
the Hrst instance, from the Babylonians and Syriana, 



among whom it 

6; vii,H). A a! 
of the Greeks, w 



SUP 

prevailed at an early period <^*tb. i. 
nilar change took place in the babil* 
lO are represented in the Ueniic Age as 
Od.i,lib),bui wbo alleTwuda attopt- 
ed the habit of reclining, women and cbiklim excepud. 
Sitting appeara to have been the poslure usual UBonf 
the Assyrians on the occa«ion of great feetivale. A bas- 
relief on the walls of Kborsabad represents the Riwsts 
seated on high cbairs (Layard, Xin/ffh. ii, 41 1). In 
the time of our Saviour reclining was tbe uniyeraal ens- 
torn, as is implied in tbe terms (dnuuiaS-cu, Kuraai- 
(rSai. di-acXiftrrSiii. mrocXiviadni) used for •'it/tins at 
meat." a* the A. V. iuconectly has it. 'I'he cot>eh it- 
self (eXi'm) is only once mentioned (Mark vii,4; A- V. 
" lables'), but there can be little doubt that the Koman 
Iriciimiim had been introduced, and that tbe arrange- 
ments of the table resembled those described br clas- 
sical writers. Generally speaking, only three peraont 
recLned on each couch, but occasionally- four, or even 
five. The couches were provided with cuahiona, on 
which the leR elbow rested in support of the upper 
pan of the body, while the right arm remuned fiv*. 
A room provided wiih these was described as itirpatfif 
vov, lit, "spread" (xiv, 16; A. V. "furnished-). A. 
several guests reclined on the aame couch, each over- 
lapped his neighbor, as il were, and realed his head oti 
or near the breaat of the one who lay iiehind him ; hv 
was then said to " lean on the bosom" of bis neighbor 
(dnutia^aitfT^cuAnViJahn xili, 23; xxl,20; Cfmp. 
Pliny, Epi^. iv, 32). The close proximily into wbkb 
penons were thus brought rendered it more than usti- 
atly agreeable that fHetirl should be next to friend, and 
it gave tbe opportunity of making coiifldeuiial commn- 
nicalions (John xiii,26). The onlinary arrangeioeal <>f 
the couches was in three sides of a square, tbe foartli 
being left open Tor tbe servants to bring up the dishes. 
The couches were denominated respeeiively tbe bi^b- 
esi, the middle, and the lowest couch : the Ibiee KoeUa 
on each conch were also denominated highest, inidilip. 
and lowest — the terms being suggested by tbe circum- 
stance of the guest vtho reolined on another's baeom 
always appearing to be btbnB him. The protaUiaUt 
{irpumtkutia. Matt, jtxiii, 6), which the Ptaariseea so 
much coveted, was not, as the A. V. represents it, " the 
uppermost ivom," but the highest seat in the bigbeM 
couch— the seat numbered 1 in the annexed diagrmm. 
See Acci-BATioM. 







^■■f 








^Si 




? 


■ummos 




Imas 




medlns 


s i 


medio* 






t 1 













Some doubt attenda the quealion whether the females 
tnok their meals along with the males. The pteaeiit. 
stale of sodety in the East throws no light upon this 
ibjecl, a* tbe customs of the harem dale from the lime 

Mohammed. 'I'he cases of Kuth amid the reapers 
(Ruth ii, H), of Etkanah with hia wives (I Shd. i, 41. 
of Job's sons and daughters (Job i,4),and the general 
iniermixiure of the sexes in daily life, make it nx>f« 
than probable that they did so join ; at Ibe same tin*-, 
as the duty of attending upon the guests devolved upon 
them (Luke x. 40), they probably look a somewhat ir- 
regular and briefer repast. See Dine. 

Uefore commencing tbe meal, Ihe gueUa washed Iheir 
hands. This custom was fonnded on natural decotura ; 
not only was the hand Ihe aubstitule for our knife and 
fork, but the handa of all the guesta were dipped into 

would be intolerable. Hence not only Ihe Je«^ but 



1 ;iUi, K; Une i, IM). In (II 
mctbod nr eitiog, Snlomon makea it 
ilupgard tl 



will n< 



nucli ■: 



ThUi; bafoi^or arier * Menl. <Prnm Lnn«'' JTDittni 

ih( Gmki (Od. i, 136), the rnndem F.fCTptians (Lane, 
i. IWI.ind many other niiioni have been distinguiahed 
b< ito panic* ; <be Bedauiii, in particular, are carerul 
lowdti i1i«r hands 6rforr,bai are indifl^nnt about do- 
mf » after Ihrir meala (BurckhardE, Xala, i, 68). The 
l%iriiMi tramfurmed thia conrentiunai u»ge into a 
nsal DfaHmnce, and overlaid it vith bunlenaome reg- 
iltiioos— a wilful perversicin which our Lord reprobate* 
ii ikt MiDBi^l tenns IMark vii, I-I3). Another pie- 
tmiuTT Mpp waA the grace or blesaing. of which we 
kicf li^toiK inwance in the Old Test. (I Sam.iK, 13), 
ul aon than nne proniiunced bv nur Lord himoeir in 
lit NfwTMi. (Matt, sv,36; Luke ix, 16; Johnvi,!!)] 
•' onnuil a> Tar as we may jmlge rrom Ihe war>l> ap- 
iM u it, pullr of ■ blewiiig ripnn Ihe frjoci, partly of 
iLubio the (lirer of it. The Ribbinical writen have, 
u mul, laid down lumt miniile regulationa respecting 
iL vkich mav be foand in the Ireatiie of the Miahna 
aiiiln! Smjafc.f*, ch. vi-viii. See Wash, 

TV londe of ukin); the food differed in no material 
|«K Ima Ibe modem usages of Ihe Easti generally 
i»Bt sai a lingle diah, into which each giieai dipped 
ka kml (HalL Kxvi, 23); occarinnally aeparate por- 
uwxre tened oal to eKh (Gen. xliii, 34; Ruth ii. 
Hi i Sam. i, 4). A piece of bread waa held between 
ik( iturnb and two fingers of the right hand, and was 
iftri eiiher into ■ bowl of melted greaae (in which 
IK it ■» termed J-w/iiov, "a aop," John xiii, !6) or 
lU Ike diib of meat, whence a piece was conreyed to 
ikt rnmh between the layers of bread (Lane,'], 193, 
IW: B«ckh*nli, \->ir^ i. US). It is esteemed an act 



([■rot. xix, 34; xxti, 16). At the conclusion of the 
meal grace was again said, in conformity with Deui. 
iii, to, ani) the hands were again washed, twe Meal. 
Thus far we have described the ordinary meal. On 
Ule occasiona more ceremony was used, and Ihe meal 
ras enlivened in various ways. Such occasions were 
lumemus, in connection partly with public, partly wilh 
irivaM evenla. In the fliat class we may place ihe 
great festivals of the Jews (DenLivi; Tob.'it, 1); pub- 
ic saerificea (Deut.xU, 7; xivii, 7; I Sara, ix, 13,!^; 
Ktngsi,9;iii.ie; Zeph.i,7); Ihe raliOcalion oftrea- 
iea (Gen.xxvi,30; xxxi.M); the offering oflbe tithes 
(Deut. xiv, 26), particularly at the end of each third 
' ', 23). In the second rlasa, mairiages (Uen. 
; Judg. niv, 10; Eath. ii, 18; Tob. viii, 19; 
HatLxxii,!; John ii, 1) ; birthdays (Uen.xl,SOi Job 
' 1 1 Hate, xiv, 6, 9) ; buiiala (S Sam. iii, 8S ; Jer. xvi, 
7; UiAix,4:Tnb.iT.lT);>hecp-sbearinK{I8am.sxT, 
2,S6; S aann. xiii, 23) ; the vintage (Judg. is, 87) ; lay- 
ing the foundation-aloae of a house (Frov. ix, N6); the 
nceplion of visiton (tietb xviii,U-8: xix,S; ! Sam. 
iii, 20, xii,l: : Kings vi,!3; Tob. vii, 9; IMacc.xvi, 
lA; 2 Uaec ii, 27; Luke v, 29; xv, 23; John iii, 2) ; 
r any event connected wilh the sovereign (Hoo. vii. A). 
The day of the king," in this passage, has been vari- . 
usly Tindeialood as hia biithday or his coronalioni it 
may, however, be equally applied lo any other event of 
similar importance. On each of the above-men I ioned 
lions a aumpluous repast waa prepared; ihe i-neals 
previoualy invited (Kath.v, gj Matt. xxii.3),and 
le day of the feast a second invilaiion waa imun\ to 
: that were bidden (Eaih. vi, 14 ; I'rov. ix,3i Bfall. 
3). The visiton were received wilh a kiss (Tub. 
>; Luke vii, 45); water waa produced for Ihrin to 
I their feet wilh (Luke vii, 44) ; the head, the beanl. 
the feet, and aomelimes the clothea were perfumed with 
>intment(rBa.xxiii,5! Amos vi,6; Lukevii,3ei John 
iii, 8) ; on special occasiona robes were provided {Malt, 
cxii, 11; comp. Trench, On /'oruilH, p. iHO) ; and ihe 
lead was decorated with wreaths (taa. xxviii, I ; Wisd. 
i, 7, 8 1 Josephus, Am. xix,9, 1). This custom prevailed 
:xtenNvely among the Greeks and Romans. Kot only 
■ere chaplela worn on the head, but restoonsof Sowera 
vere hung over Ihe neck and breast (rti>larch,£jia^ iii, 
t,3; Martial, x, IS; Ovi.l, /~usr. ii, 739). They were 
generally introduced alier Ihe first part of the entertain- 
ment was completed. They are noticed in several fa- 
~ ''" pasaages of Ihel^lin poets (Horace, Com. ii, 7, 
. al. ii, 8, 256; Juven. v, 36). The regulation of 
the feast waa umler Ihe superintendence of a apccial olB- 
cer, named lipi^irpicXii^ {John ii,S; A. V. "governor 
' he feast"), whose huaineas it was to lasle the food 
the liquors before they were placed on the table, 

generally one of Ihe gueaia (Ecclus. xxxii, I, 2), ami 
might therefore take part in the conveisatioii. The 
leaignation of thia officer among the Greeks 
was ctiii-waainfix"!:' among Ihe Romans maguter or 
rn coneiriL He was chosen by lot out of ihe guests 
(Smith, Diet, nf Auliq. y. 926;. See AitCHiTRiCLiNDa. 
The places of tlie guests were Ntded according to Iheir 
respective rank (Gen.xl>ii,3S: I Sam. ix,22; Mark xii, 
39; Luke xiv.g; John xiii,23); portions of food were 
il before each (1 Sam. 1,4; 2 Sam. vi, 19; 1 Chioo. 

," * 'liii.34; comp. Herml. vi, 67) or more choice (1 
Sam. ix, 24; comp. IL vii, 321) portions than the reat. 
The importance of tlie feaat was marked bv Ihe num- 
ber of the guesls(Geii.xxix,22; lSaui.ix,22; I Kings 
i, 9,26; Luke V, 29; xiv, 16), by the splendor of the 
vessels (Eslh. i, 7). and by the profiiMon or the excel- 
lence of the viands (Gen. xviii, 6; xxvii, 9; Judg. vi, 
19; 1 Sam.ix,24: laa. xxT, 6 ; Amol vi, 4). The meal 



eUPER-ALTAR S 

TaaoiUrentd with muuc, nngiag, wid dinning (iSam. 
xix, 3d; Pw. Iiix, IS; Isi. v, 12; Amu* vi, b; Ecctua. 
xxxii,3-6; HMU xir.G; Luke kv,!6), or oiLh riddle* 
(Judg. xiv, ]jC)i uhI uniJ thew enlerUmnKnli Ibe 
rettlval waa pnilongcd fur WTerd dtyt (Eilh. i, 3, 4), 
■inMrUinmeiiU designed ■Imoet eicluuvely for drink- 
ing were known by the ipeciil name of mitklik (Tine's). 
Thii reaembled the mmUialio of the Komuis, whith 
toiik pUo« alter the aupper, and wu a mere drinking 
revel, with only m much food aa aerved Ut wbec ihe 
palate for wine (Smitfa,i)ic<. o/<1nfif.p.1f71>— SmiLh. 
Ijee Bamqiiet. Instances of auch drinking-bouts are 
nncicedin I Sam. kxv,36j 2 Sam. xiii, 38; Eatb.i,7; 
Uan. V, 1 ; they are reprubiled by the propheta (laa. v, 
11; AmusviiS). Samewbatakiii to the mwbti oftbe 
Hebrewa waa alao the ittmOM (lu^ioc) of ibe apoalolic 
•ge, in which gruaa licen tiouaneu waa added to drinking, 
and which ia Irequenllv made the subject of warning in 
the Epistlea (Kom. xi'ii, 13; Gil. v, 21; Epb. r, 18; 1 
l-el. if,8). SeeltHlMC 

Bnper-altv, a term glren— I. To a ponable altar. 
placed un the altar itwlf at the time of the celebration of 
the Christian euchariat, or set up acpantely. Hincmar 
(867) alloweil Ibe use of a coaucraied alate, marUe, ut 
a black alone alib, probably owing lo [lie necdaof the 
Uruuden aiid the deficiency uf churches. It waa la^fc 
enough to contain the chalice and host. See Altar, 
roHTABLK. !. Ordinarily and commonly Ibis term is 
applied to the ledge behind the allar, on which relics, 
Uowen, caiidleuicka, and the alur^nna atand. It ia 
very frequently so applied ill the ancient Church of 
KnglaniL 

Sup«niDnuatatl ronApititiu are miiiittera in the 
MeihiHliat churches who, by reaaim i.( age, inHimity, 
or aMiclinna, are disabled frani preaching, but nflDain 
membeta of the Annual CunferenceK. In the Amer- 
icin ehuichea they relain all the rl^hla and privileges 
of a«ii-e miiiiatera excel* being eligible to appoint- 
loeiila. In the Knglish Wesleyan Church, If members 
iif the Legal Hundred i>r Omatitutional Confennce, 
they cease to be nienbersorthxt body. Their rcaturi- 
liun to the efleclive relaiion dependa upon the vote of 
the Cntiletence. 

I. Sip^lt, Mc— When a superannuated preacher lives 
out of the bounda of his Conference., he is entitled lo a 
seat in the Qusnerly Conference, and Ihe privileges of 
membenhip in ihe Church where he resides. He ia en- 
tilled, if needy, lo receive a ahare of the proceeds of the 
collection uVen In the churches fur Conference claim- 
■nt^ and o( the chartered fund. Each Quarterly Con- 
ference is directed M estimate the amoniil needed for 
thesiippiwtollhesepreacbergor their widows, and for- 
ward a eertificsle lo the Annual Conference. The case 
is conaidered by the Conference stewards, and on their 
report the ammnu to be distributed is deciiled by the 
vote of Ihe Ounlerence. 

II. Otttiri, tic — It ia the duly of the superannuated 
preacher to forward annually lulhe Conference of which 
he IS a member a cettiHcale of bis Christian and minis- 
terial character, sigiieil bi- the preaiding elder of the 
district or tlie preacher jn charge of Ibe worii wlierc he 
TCsides. Without such certificate he has no claims on 
the Omfereiice for support. 

In lt«T6 tliere were in the Melhodist Episcopal Churth 
1103 superannuated preachers. The MethtKliH Episco- 
pal Church,Soulh,in 1875, reported 259. SveDuciptiae 
•>f the M. E. CkuriA ; Simpson, Cytiy. o/ MrlAodum, 

SnpsrattendsnB. The Greek word Mvtotnt, 
tpua)pii4, ha* always been retained in the Church to 
denote tbe chief minisler in sacred things. It waa 
•nmelimes translated by Lilin writers into (ofirnti'/ni- 
dnu, L e. super! nlendenl. See Disiiop. 

Superbla, tbe Roman person i fled /n-ii/f, a daughter 
of £thei and Esnh. 



SUPEREROGATION 



Supererogation («rw< nper 



regat 



«> 11- 



between pracrpla and o 

or between the posiiive duties enjoined by the law and 
the muralrequiremeiilsofche Gospel, which the faithful 
are at liberty to comply with or not, releiring chitfiy la 
1 Cor. vil, 6, and treated in the Curectunt. Aoww. iii, 
3, 24, is of very ancient origin. Scholastic theology In- 
listed most particularly on that distinction, and estab- 
lished it in Ibe form in which it has unce been held 
by all orthodox Knraan Catbolico. If the observapce 
of the obligatory commandments consliluie* all tbe du- 
ties of man, then his luiderlaking to accomplish tbe 
non-obligatnry eoiuUiii may be looked upon a* a snit of 
IralHc, Ihe object of which ia lo gain by this acciimplish- 
ment a certain degree otvtrrii. We octiuireby it a son 
of surplus, and this is what is dewgiialed as apui nr/rr- 
ernffationviM This doctriLte of supererof^atory merits u 
not symbolical, for the Coimcil of Trent does not ciprns 
itself on that poinL On Ihe olher hand, Ibe principle Ibal 
the righleuusmoyfuUy satisfy the divine law ;iniii>rj*j 
eila ilala by works doDS in (iud i* fully aMblisbed 
by Cont^ Trid. Sea*, vi, cait. 16. This ia tlto the case 
with tbe other principle," M i]uisdixerit,bomtiii*JHS(i- 

licatibonaoperaiu * ' - 

ipsius JustiBcaii n 



operiti 



ri augmenlum graltss, vil am 
nteniam et ipsius virie BteruB . . . consecutbHicm Uifne 
etiam aloria augmentum ; anaihema sit" (Seas, vi, can. 

otic Church rcc^^ise also the vohnilary aauimplion of 

can, I), of which Bellarmine.(/)f Monariii, c. viii) lays 
Ibey are " nee pnecepta nee indlRerenlia, se<l Deo ina<a 
et ab illo commendala." If a satisfactory fulSlment of 
the law u possible, if good works constitute a deseit, 
then Ihe achobsltc notion of the »pera npermiffiiiitn 
becomes a natural cnnse*|uence. Thin doctrine, in sboft, 
is the result of the system. It is Ihe natural ouue- 
quence of that concrplioii of Ihe law in rcUiion lo the 
ju«iflcati»n of man. It ia siipportel by tradition fmni 
the lima of Alexander of Hales {Sanniui, pt. iv, qn. 23, 
a.2, n).S; Albertus MauiiusSmr. iv, disLJO, a. 16,17; 
Thomas Aquinas, Snppl. ten. part aamma ThroL qu. 13. 
a. 1), and has not only never been denied, but always 
aaaened and defended against all attacks by tbe ■»■ 
eminent Ibeolngiana of ihe Roman Catholic Church. 
The assertion "iil unus poaset pro ollem sarufacere," 
in the C-iltdi. Rnm 



Ifw. 



further 



setlnence^ as attempted bv more modern thenlogians. 
Mcihler, fur instance (Ntae UVtrMfArngm, 2d ed. p. B05 
sq.). we find an inextricable confuskii^ in the coneeplioD 
of the law. MQbler starts from the admissiofi that Ibe 
moral law, as Ihe absolute will of God, and the unity of 
the human will with the divine by love, wbtch il re- 
quires, cannot be surpassetL Yet his conception of Ibe 
law is erroneous and a mere abalrsction, for, on iIm one 
hand, he considers it aa without limila, infinite: and, on 
the other, as resolving itself inio a number of separate 
commandDients,each of which conslituIesaduCy. Thus 
considered, no one can do more than the law reqiures, 
though any one can da mote ihan is required by tbe 
separate commandments taken individually. From tbe 
moment ilut by his entering into commnnion with 
Christ love becnmcs Ihe ruling principle of a man's life, 
he bas absolutely fulHlled the moral law, Ref^eneralioD 
being presupposed, there are yet diSerent tiegreea in Ihe 
elfecu of love, anil these degrees are not regulated by 

tics OS if Ibey were rut duties for him, thus ovenlqi- 
ping Ihe common limits of duly and attaining lo a high- 
er degree of perfection. According to this arguments- 
lion, the moral law would constitute, so to apeak, an 
imaginary quantity, consisting, on the oae hand, iti the 
complete body of the divine commandments, and, on the 
other, in a number of imputations separata ftom then 
lenls, and vtiy dilBcult lo define particular- 



SUPEREROGATION 



ij. Tlui,UNn,bringi)iubickf4^in ' 



™p™«P"' ■' 






« dUtinctior 



I buit or ihe 07 



_u'iru. I'nileKaiiiMm, od 
i^aa (he diriuc lair u uiie iodiviutile. ami being iu this 
hita tin rule uf all huniB!! life and aciiaD. Olijeciivirly, 
iiiilbcdpmgion of tilt idea orcbac wbich ia good in 
iikU, iibik MilqccUvcly it Hnd* iu aeeumpliahmtnt in 
line, but iu otdei 10 aati^fy the manirold nigencio 
i>r life, il preaenia iuelf aim in tbe rorm of a iiiuralily 

■iilfnd B Hjiarate Truni each u[)ier, nar, when taken to- 
iRibv, a> formine 



.very 



It whic 



iMiobe Umhd 
tfmat tktKBlnJ'lit eomplfit moral idni,iu Iht vtlott 
Mrim tow ia ill rtUiiioa la lie arevmtlimet under ttm- 
i^-arim. Aa to which of the many eommanUiwnla 
iait iu applicsiion in a i^ivcn case, this ia a queation 
toothy riirtiiKl rruro thai which ia obJ«ctiidy to be de- 
SwiL The pcrcepliun of it ia given to the regenerate 
\i! the Boly 8|>iiic through ■ cnnadmca Hlled with 
Lire. It ia tvideut that in thia ayMem there is no poe- 
^bitilr ft suppoaing a huntan power in thoa« regener- 
uot in ChiiW by Tirlue of which the)' could, unilei 
uy aRaaHtancCt do more than ia required of them, Le. 
DDRihaiilhaCwhichisabsDliiielyganlinitHlf. Thua, 

•toaa wbu derulea her life lo Caking care of the aick, 
w ike miMioaan, does not thntby attain ■ higher de- 
i.'nt 1^ monl perfection than othen who contribute but 
iinteiuHardaiheadranceiDent orihekingdumofliDd. 
AIJ depeuda in ihia reapect on the individual, and on 
iiie p«iii«ii ill whifh Uod hai placed him. Thua, a 
i"uag wnman whn. having an aged mother dependent 
uilierarr.iihiiuld enter an order— such, fur inilance, a> 
ib( TMtn of Mercy. 



ir Lord u 



aelf,"i 



Uib done what abe cnulJ" (Mark xiv, 8). In Lake 
Mii. R he tays, " When ye aball ban done all those 
ihiagiohidi are cumniatided you, say. We aieunproHl- 
■Me arranra." Of Iha Uewarila, it is required thai 
Dwy ahimU be found faithful, and nothing elae. Of 
("kriit bimielf it ia aaid that be was "obedient onto 
Kuh, eren the death of the cnm" (PhiL ii, 8), snd to 
(• anr* ttiaa obedient is imponible, while lo be leaa ia 
I1 be dianbedient. The contrary doctrine, which aa- 
rrita mtrits lo man afide from [be grace of God, is not 
imlj isiBotal, but poniiively irreligious. It i> even il- 
Ineical when lonked at fmm the Rnioan Catholic aland- 
r->M,<inse (Mdfaler, p. 300) no living man everaccom- 
plubta tbe whole law. Sec Janor, Dt R^uUi; Catf. 
<>j.vt.»vii;^j»Z.n.lW, 163, 187,269; Ari.Smule. 
u'.KStt: Cat/. A wgL xiv. 

We iboidd neglect one of the ptindpal conaequencta 
'f the itieerv of the ofva nftrtragatictm if we forgot 
'« aaiMn \a relation to indulgancea (q. v.). While 
iSe •rranmt of penance and Ihe absolution connect- 
• liiith it grant exemptioa from Bin and fmm elemal 
r«<B>hiatin, the Church ponessei a meana of leaaening 
•rerrn iraiitling the temporal pimiahmenta required 
■^A'iBfjntica by meana of indulgences. These Um- 
[•nl pmitbiDeDta arc otherwise to ha undergone partly 
•1 Ibis esnh, as peoancea and scclesiaatical expiations 
I r*a> ranbufuw), partly afterwarda in purgaIoi}-(Per- 
'•■t.il.1). RuC wbence does the Church poasesa the 
l«««T thos to set np Bs the "reprenenjative of God's 
BOCT sod Juaticc in oor time," and aa auch to exercise 
ndi a right of grace aa is so far from being eccleMisli- 
isl ia ita ehsracter that it extends (under some restrii> 
nr>)nen beyond this life? How can it defend the as- 
■otptim of a potttitu eow/rmdi Mvlgnliiit a Ciriito 
'waM.aeaiionfd inG-mc.rrid.Sess.ixv? On thU 
twn ther ralcT, as was already done by Alexander of 
HslB, 10 lb* dtnautiiM tajurtivgatimt po-fedorum 
F>uiiM by ihe anpercmgalofy merits of Chnat and of 
i^ialnu': "Eat iiidulgentia lemiuio poems temporalis 
1 aaenipsntalein peceatia tiebi- 



I SUPEREROGATION 

tie, in fora inlemn cnrain Deo vslids, fana per applica- 
tioncm thesauri Eccleaiieaauperiore legitimo" (Perrune, 

ing for all the ains of humanity, of aoy kind, the basis 
and roundation of which are the iiiSnite meriia of tbe 
Son of God as man, and of Christ in hia saints (Klee, 
Doffm. ii, 335), ia considered at fiJri jiroximan. Aside 
from the fact that it is imgiUcitIv establiahed by I tie sanc- 
tion of induiijcencea (Cone. Trid. Sess. xxv, can. 31), it is 
condrmeit by the express declarations of popea Clement 
Vl(Co«f. fn^mi/w),LeoX,PiuiV,GreeoryXIll,Kiu 
VI, and Benedict XIV. See also Alex. Ales. pi. iv. qn. 
23,a.l,m.l; AtbertuaMsgi)us.Smr.ir,diBU!0,s. 17,18; 
ThomaBAquhiaa,|)I.i>i,qu.36,B.l;^flif.iv,dist.!0,qii.I, 
s.3;£HmiH.a(fe.6'nir.iii, 156; Bona Ventura, .<Iflif.iv,diat. 
20, pL ii, qn. 1 ; Dellarmine, De ladulg. e. ii, iii ; Veroiii- 
m,Rrgitla /i<(n',ii,4; Boasuet, frpufAtuo, § 8 ; Dalleri- 
ni [Peter], dunlin. ThraL Pral. iii. Still ther^ may re- 
main some doubt aa lo whether the mtrita on whicli 
the system of indulgences reals ia to be consldeml ss 
active performances in the strict sense of Ihe npui tu- 
ptTfTngaliimit, or aa unmerited suS^iingii, such as I hose 
undergone by the uinia, and which were not In be con- 
aidered ss punishments, but which thus served lo atone 
befnrebaiid for Ihe fanlla alterwards committed by tho 

the doctrine of the opus iiip<rcn>^rioinr forms the baais 
of the ayitem of indulgencea, or the notion of ihenpNs 
Bipertrogolitnun must also embrace the superHnous suf- 
ferings of the perfect \ and on this Ihe orthodox »riiers 
of the Roman Catholic Church do not agree. In Ilicir 
polemical defences of the doctrine of a fund of merit*, 
they mostly base themselves on tbe seconil cniiHiiiera- 
tioH. If we leave these, we find in their other works sn 
much that is obscure and indefinite on Ihia aa well as 
on moat other points that it is impossible for I'rotes- 
lant expoHlora to attempt to define the iloclrine of the 
Church without being at once accused by Roman Cath- 
olics of misunderstanding Iheiraiithnra, The same Miib- 
ler who in Stvr L'utfniichatigni, 1 68,dertve« the ti'mir. 
rut from the excessive suf^ringa of some, in § 69, p. 
411, conaidera good works aa efficient aa undeserveil 
sufferiuga in freeing the yet enansred members of the 
bodv of Christ. Thia ia still more expressly ssserted In- 
Klee (Oi^.ii, 334) and Bellarmine (i)< JfmocA.c vi'i, 
viii). And it could not be otherwise, fiT Ihe lirmBiti; 
that bsMS of indulgences, Ihe product of the "merits 

impetratoriaiffsafiir'uMoriii." Thus tbe o^i^ia aupm-ni- 
gntica contribute unquestionably to making up the fund 
of merits imparted to those who need it in the form of 
, indulgences. "Les bonnes esuvres de lous los homme^ 
, le sang des martyrs, les sacriflcea et let larmcs de Tin. 
' noeence a'accnmulent sans relache pour faire equilibre 
au mal. L'action de (trices, la pritre, lea satinfaciiona, 
les secours, les insjMrations, la foi, I'espersncB et I'smour 
drculent de I'un it I'autre cumme des flenves bienfaisans" 
(De Maiatre, Soiria de Sl.-PiltrAoarg). 

This doctrine of llie opui laptrtrvgalitmii wsB at- 
tacked by WydiOe {Di^ p. S87), and sharply crilicise<l 
in Job. von Wesel'a Adv.Induls. Diipal. The poaiiiim 
of the ReformeiB on that question may be acen in Me- 
lancthon (fon', De Salii/itclioitr) and Calvin (hil. iii, 
G). It was aflerwards treatetl by Chemnitz (i, Dr Bo- 
mtOpp.qii.i: ii, Ae /n(fti^.>,Chamier(Anu(r<irtu Co- 
IhoL iii, lib. S4, De Satitfadioiiiliai AUnit), and Jo. Uer^ 
hard {Lor.xv, 9, ed. Colta). The Synod i^ Piatoja 
(Pro/xu. .rZ,/), in 1876, took the same views in the 
Roman Catholic Church, If ProleslanI polemists have 
occaaionally failed lo observe that tbe vicarious aalls- 
fsction of ihe ssinta does not refer to sin itself, but 10 
Ihe temporal consequences of Bin pardoned, this has, 
nevertheless, made no practical diCference. V/e may also 
notice here Ihe evident Incongruity between Ihe Roman 
Catholic essays on thia aubject and the fundsmentsl 
truth of Chriit'a " ~ - 



SUPERFRONTALE 



; of Chris 



ilill tl 



pic of the aapererogsiory nieriu of the lainta, the l«tier 
cannot increase the viUoe of the merils of Clirisl, lull 
only the qauntiii/ ur nunhr. '' Per modum cumuli ad. 
Jkiuntur satisfaction ibua Chrini, quiu iitis ulla ratione 
deroKetur." Th* meriu of others, con»equ«nlly, are re- 
versible merely ai uitiaractory service*, not as personal 
moral actions, and tbiis are looked apon only as means 
of appllcalion of Ihe meriU of Christ ■■ manirested in 
«il>erero(^live works. " Non habent nisi ratiunem me- 
dii, i)uo Chrisli pretiuni nobis applicilur" (Bellarmine, 

}>t liidalg.x,*,^.*) Ueraog, Acu/-£'Bcyil%>. H. V, bee 

Hekit. 

Superfrontild, a term applied W— I. Tbe back 
wall of the altar, which received either Blone-retiefa or 
a melal covering with embossed designs and enamel- 
work. 8. Tbe modem name for a covering for Ibe top 
at Iba altar, which commonly hangs down about six 
iuchea all round and is fringed. It is antinirily made 
of wlk velvet, satin, ur damask, and is placeil over the 
three vhile linen cloths wliicb customarily cover and 
preserve tbe altar slab. 



I SUPERNUMERARY | 

vote with the leaden' or quarterly meetings. All tbt 

circuit are iti his hands. S. An ecclesiastical aufieriui 
in several Reformed churches where episcopacy it imi 
admitted, particularly among the Luiheransin Uennany 
and the Calviniatd in some olber plaeea. The superiii- 
tendeiiC ia similar to a biihop, ouiy hia power is sumo 
what more restrained than that of our dtucesan Usbofa. 
Ue is Ibe chief paawr, and has the direction of all Ihi 
inferior pastors within his district or dioceae. 

Superior, an official exercising juriwiiclinn ; Ihc 
chief i^a cunfratemity, brotherhood, sisterbooil, moiu]- 
teiy, or convent. In most orders the •' superior" or oihri 
bead of a convent ia elecleil by the members of the coir- 
vent,and the auperiura in a province elect the pro vinciiL 

Bvperiorea*, a female superior of ■ convent « 

Svperoatural. This is a word which is popolu- 

which are not within the onlinary concrete experimw 
and knowledge of mankind being looked upon as funn- 
ing part of a separate system of Ihingii and events. 
"That ia aupematnral, whatever it be, that is tithft 
luii ill thu i-hAiii nf natural cause and etTect.or which 
r cause and elli^t in nature from 
(Bushnell, IValart and (tr ^Kpa- 
{0» the SapematHral, p. 146, 141) 
1 "We may speak of whatever i« 
dthenaturiiasprFfn-aadraL TV 
It only to the divine action, bat to 



[he phrase aapemafurat to tbe Sii- 
, lo the works peifonned by him. 
created by him beyond the natural 

wuni Bitrflcfc to those events whitH 

nur world as a sign or proof iif liml 

itural interporilion or a revelali-Hi 

to man. We. mutt not look ugm 

creariiMi as tHprnutluTal, bau ki- 

do look upon it as roiraculiHi!.' 

' So far as out investigation pmh- 



il into the w 



d of nail 



SupeTbnmeral Clotli, a term used to deaignate 
the <,mc (.,. v.). 
SnparhnmarSld, a term for tbe arch (episcopal 

p«U (q. v.). 

SupeiindlotB were taxes Imposed by the Roman 
emperuni, beyond the ordinary canonical taxes, upon 
great exigencies anil exiraonlinary occasions. The or- 
dinary taxes were called indiciions, s<i those extraorili- 
nary were called snperindictions. From these the clergy 
were universally excm[>ted by several laws of the Chris- 
tian emperors.— Bingham, Chi-iil. Atiliq. bk.v, ch. iii, §8. 

Superinspector, a word by which Latin writers 
have traiislaiol rfiiH'xptu (iirinion'oc), or bithop (q. v.). 

Saperinatltiitiou is. in the Anglican Church, the 
institution ID a bcncHce over the head of a benetlciary 
supposed to be dead after prolonged absence. 

Superintendent. 1. The ofRcer of the early 
Church who was also called nefrinr.nt bithop ((jrrBKo- 
iroc)- 2- The officer in the English Wesleyan Church 
who has charge of a circuit; he is responsible to the 
Conference for the maintenance of discipline and order 
in all the societies of the circuit, and presides as chief 
pastor in all circuit courts. The aupcrinlendent or one 

the quarterly viailaliun of the classes, change or re-elect 
tbe Blewardt— the nomination being ivilb himself, Ibe 



law and order ei 
and ever)' increase of knowledge 
Net. reveals to us furlhet illustralions 

of the assertion that "order is 
Heaven's Ant law." Belief in the supemalnml don- 
not, therefore, require iia to believe in any violation of 
law, since all raas-ining which starts from what we know 
leatls to the conclusion that "supernatural phenomena 
are as much the result nf law as phenomena which are 

SapeisataroliBt. a name commonly given in 

(■erminy at the end of the last and the beginning vixhv 
present century to all who believed in supeniainnl 
agency sa cterled in the inspiration of the Scriplun^ 
Ibe performance uf the miracles therein recorded, etc. 
Their opponents are called AtOiitipentaltiTatili. 

Bapemnmerary pREArHEK. 1. In tbe Heihodis 
Episcopal Church I a "supernumerary preacher is nnu 
who, because of impaircil health, is temporarily unalil<^ 
lo perform effective work. Me may receive an appninc- 
ment or be left without one, according to tbe judi;ineiii 
of the Annual Conference of which he is a laember; 
but he shall hare no claim upon the heneAciary funds 
of tbe Church except by vote of tbe Conferencr,'arid he 
shall be subject in all the limitations of the IHtripiinr 
in respect In reappointment and continuance ill tin? 
same charge that apply to effective preachers. In caiv 
he be left without an appoiutmeni, he shall have > seat. 
in Ihe Quarterly Conference, and all the pririleiiTa of 
membership in the place where he may reside" {Itiri- 
;iIiRf, xviiii I), tn I8U0, on motion of Dr. Cke.aupnw 



SCPEBPELLICE 3 

UKftfrprocbcn, tlHir widnwB and orphaiia, were to 
tin [k( WW upport wbich vM ihtn sccordtd to ef- 
Mininictat. ThcrundinTtheCunfenncesiiiCKas- 
>;,«hI1m[Ik *dvuitagt> or memberahtp miiltiplv- 
nepHt dificulties ■iok, and in I8d0 Clie General 
MlmH ibolUbtd the nUtiou si> fir an the Annuiil 
iWrhhi tm coDMDicd. In 1)M>4 the reUiion wu 
m:ni iiiih tb« dcfiuitioti «[ present given, with the 

ckin g^ IhF bnitliciuy funcla uf the Chiirvfa without 
1 ntt d( (lie Annutl Coiirercncc. In tSTG ihe number 
<J '■limiiiHuj pmKhem was reported ■( 701. 

t. Sm^ tht BnRiiBh Wealeyuis. in order lo secure 
Or nMita of tuptmuinenirv [ he 'consent muM be nb- 
mHd (t iht Hiy District Ueelinit- They receive « 
BHUMM Kcnrding to the number of years they 
liT> bm in the actiie work. 'I'liis ia ilerired Trom 
Ik- .iDDHiUM Soctrty, wbich ia in reality their own 
)i-tHiiim fand. and provides, to a ceruiia extent, 
y tie nppart and ediKaiion nt tbeir children. Upon 
nirtbf iiilabijiiiike«(hev4re reckoned aa Local preach- 

'Jibtlottl hundred, are siinerseiletL They are nnder 
iSa iqiMriiHi of llw UiMiict Meeting: and if their 
iMH iiT OD the minutes, the; art tiKmben of the 
Vwudi.ljicdPctachen'.audDiurictUeeting*. See 
!Wi>«,('jiiiip. Bf i/Hkodirot, s. t. 
flopeipellice (or SuperprUictum), 



Sqterpoaltlo, a word used in the anciont CI 
■ ■taqnalea fift, which lasted mit mily Iliroiigl 
*t.i« tin the mcwuinc of ihe fullowini; day, i 
>-inl^n[^;nheT,aa«aa usual in thePasaitui' 
Tk uiiHiv bits iin Hatinnsry llay^ lerminated at 
i»tt(l«k in the afteitHMin. See Kastinc; Sta- 

SopaipatfaUoD, purgaiion or cleaning beyond 

SQp«r-«Ubk«( Sunw-TAHUC Sec Altab, Post- 

SiipeiltitioB(lfiatiaipi>i^a,iIirniiHt^fmir). Fes- 
tai(»inKiri/Jnlea,iiiromied A^rippB [hat Paul had 
*WM ■ilk thr nther Jews omceminK matters of 
Omhi >i|«ntiti»a (Ads xxv, l»), in which he 
■«b ike a ODt pSKao, equally ignorant of the Chrii 
l^anttmiad uf Die Jewish. Paul, wriiin); (o the 
^'J'sai (ii. B\ lemininends t« them not to retard 
'falaekm.wba wonM persuade them lo a eo 
■■•ia Imswi Hiadoni in an alTecleid humility and 

IptaiK (hat in all Ihiiigs ve are tim superalii 
UaiiTii.n). The heathen idea of religion hi 
'OnkHKiDeofUTrM'. A supentitions man loc 
]M«ajne»ai^ rigid loasier, and obeys with fear 
jMnaUiii^ Vam) says the pious man honors and 
I it* HperMilioua man dreails him, er 
■1 Uaiitma Tvrius observes that a man truly 
f«i«ki on God as a friend full of goodness, whereas 



SUPERSTITIOX 

traduction to a discourse which proposed to describe 
e only proper object of such reverence. See Paul 
The Hebrews were never given to such gross super* 
Ition aa tbe heathen nations of anttquily ; yet there 
e traces of Ihe same weakness of tbe human mind in 

ews of possessed persons (t|. r.). A special instance 
IB been found in the case uf Azazel (q.v.); also in Ihe 
satyr (q. v.) and tbe night- monster (q. v.). Sea also 

are given to siiperGtiliona. 
in Lane's Modrm Kiiyp- 
SOS, 812. In Palestine 
leroua superstitions; they be- 
charms, in divination by sand 
the evil eye, their children be- 
ing left purposely diny, or even besollcd, in order to 
uenccsoTan envious look. The lielief 
general. These incli.de, lirst, the Jan, 
or powerful demon, good or bad, tbe latter kind having 

* illais of the whirlwind, so 

commonly seen in summer; secondly, the Afrit, who is 

igly equivalent to a gboal; thirdly,lhe ghoul or 

hag of the cemetery, which feeds on the dead (a place 

' unted by one of these damans is carefully avoided, or 

least never approached without the most polite salu- 

llona, inlemled to appease the unseen spirit); finirth- 

, there are Kernd, or goblins, whose name is akin la 

n, or Salan, a name often applied lo human beings of 
an evil disposition (Comler, TrM Work ia Faleit. it, 
'.103). See Df MON. 

On the general subject, see Xavier, De SiipirtHiiont 
Judaor. <Hamb. VHi) : Reinecciiis, id. (pref. to Cbria- 
llanl's Wtrkt [Ij^ips. 1705 j); Spizelius, iuaiiaiiuifia 
Ehnro-gentilU (ibiiL tGOB) ; Manzel, De Voce ^mitai- 
povif (itost. 1758) ; and the manographs cited by Danz, 
Wo>1rrb. s. V. " AbertfUube." Sec Witch. 
SUPEBSTETION (Ul. mpcr.*.',.) hod for its an- 



'■WJorith religion, aa to i 
>«: u« whea Paul at Ath 



gion Bupenti 
\thenB tells the Areopagite 
■i^nirtino Hpeniiiiinia, he uses a ward no duub 
"•^iii of a good as well as of a bad sense, aa i 
M lure beta highly indecorous, nor less nntieces 
>, I* olanniaae the religiom dispnaltinn of hi 
lp> vhum he was addipsatnt;. If we take (he word 
^ case of mmhip or reverence, Featua mai 
W lad the Jewa dilfcr in respect of certain o' , 
^nad i t T um ee:," and Paul may say, " I perceive 
at iteatly uacbed lo ol^scta of spiritual ■ 
t-'sM oBlyviibout offence, bat aa ■ rerv graceful 
X.-8 









was appointed by proper authority. Hence religious 
systems not recogniseil by the Roman State were called 
"Bupetstllions," Chrislianily itself being for some cen- 
turies among the number. The word has been used 
so indeSnitely that it IsdlfBcult In determine its precise 
meaning. It does not seem always lo have been used 
in a bad sense in old English, ai Is shown by Acts xvii, 
22, where it represents ftiiri^ai/iDvia, a word used by 
Ihe apoMie as indicating that tbe Athenians were a 
Uod-fearing peo)rie who would not refuse to listen lo 
his appeal about Ihe "unknown Gnd." Superstition 



1 much of true religion, but 
irreligious feeKng, manlfesteil either 

t is, properly speaking, the wor- 






worship nfGod 



in showing religion 

ship of false goda — or 
object desen-ing some veneration, oi 
through the medium of improper ri 
(Whalely, On Bacon, p. IS&). It is generally defined lo 
be the observance of unnecessary and uncommanded 
ricea and practices in religion ; reverence of objecle not 
fit for worship; loo great nicety, feara, or scrupulous- 
ness; or extravagant devotions; or religion wrong di- 
rected or conducted. The word may be applied to the 
idolatry of the heathens, Ihe Iradiilons of the Jews, ihe 
uiiscriptural rites of tbe Calliolics; to the dependence 
placed by many on baptism, Ihe Ixrd's supper, and oth- 
er ceremonies. It may be exiendeil to those who, wilb- 
coit any evidence, believe that prophecies are still in- 
ured or minclea are performed. Some forma of inlel- 
Ifclual scepticism involve superstition of a far more 
dangerous kind than that involved in the credulity of 
rgnurant piety, as belief iu witchcraft, magic, lable-tum- 
ing, spirit-rapping, etc 

Superstition, says Claude, usually aprings either (1) 
from servile fear, which makes people believe that Gud 



SUPEETOTUS 



SUPPER OF THE LOR 



liave lu idolatiy, which niikci 

the Divinity in cxtnordinaij 
creature*, uid on Ihij accouiil 

|>iicrii<y, which mikw men will- 
in); 111 iliachiTfte their obligiiinni 
to Irod by ^mft» And by z«J 
for exienul service*; or (4) fnmi 
pmumptiun, which make* men 

Sec Clande, Knag om tie Compo- 
tiiion of a .SfnKW, ii, 49, 299; 
Saurin. Strmau (Eng. «!.), v, 19 ; 
(ire^ry, JEtMyf, Esuy II ; Blunt, 
Did. of Hill. TlifoL i. v.; Buck, 
Did. ». v.; Fleming, locuiuiur) 
ojfkil ScirtKf, a, v. 

Stipertfitna. ■ long gar- 
ment like a modem greal-«oat, 
nsemliliiii; a etraighl-cut cinak 
in lonta particular!, wnm over the i 
dioB in mediaval times as a pniteetion againM the 

Buperrllle, D*!<iki. oe, a Pmtwwnt iheolnjfian, 
wan bom at Saumur.in AuKl»^ 1657, of a mpeeuble 
Dutch family, and, being early deiignited Tor the aacml 
miniurv. Miidied theology at Sauniur and Genera, and 
in 1683 was called to Uke charge of the Church of Lou- 
dun. On Ibe Rerocatiim of the Edict ofNanlea. he 1<»k 
refuge in Rutterdam, whence he could not be drawn by 
■•Ifen from Berlin, Londitn,and Hamburg. In IG91 Ihe 
Buihoritiea of the rily created for him an exptna pat- 
torale,which he occupied till hia death.June 9, 17-iS. 
He waa of a sweet diapoailion, a lively imagination, ami 
■ happy delivery. He published several serronna and 
ilerotional works, which are eniunersted in Huefer, 
A'aar. Biag. GMrati, a. v. 

SnperrlBor CantAmin, the auster of 

SnpaTvfsor OpBris, the tuperintemlenc of works, 
also called laagiilrr oprru. 

Snph(;|10,a (Hi-K<ntl[KeFLjto],Jon. ii,6)isthe 
characteristic epithet nl the Red Sea (q.v. ), which 
abounila in sed|^ ( Exod. x, 19, and often ). In one 
passage (Deiit. i, I) it hat been supposed by some to 
de*ig]>Bt« a place, but no locality of that name has been 
discovered, and most interprelers (with [he !ie\n. and 
Tulg.) undenland it there to sund for the Re<l Sea (by 
the omission of Q^ sm). So in Numb, sxi, 14, H^^S, 
mphSh (Sept. Z<^t^; \uig.Atan Auiran). someiliink 
a place (perhaps the same) U> be indicateil, but others 



»(a. 



i, 18, ail 






ellon 



:8 special meaning being the prineipnl 

e:(Clii«vely to the lale meal— the iop-nnv of the Ho- 
meric age. It was the chief meal of the Jews, and also 
of the Greeks and Romans, being taken towards or at 
evening, alter the labors of the day were over (Mstl. 
xxiil, 6: Mark xii. Si; Loke xx, iS). In the New 
Test, it is also specially spoken of the pasclial supper 
(John xiii.S; iv, *JI, '20), and nf the [.ord'e supper (1 
UoT. xi, aO): ami of any meal (ver. SI)-, metaphori- 
cally of a marriago-feaat, as flgiiraiive nf the Messish't 
kingdnn (Kcv. xiii,9); and nf heap of the slain as s 
feast for birds of pre}- (vcr. 17). See Sup. 

A modem Oriental supper-party it thus dcaeribol by 
I^martina i " Our apartments consisted of a pretty 



ArabBapasL 
court, decorated with Anbic pilaslem, and w 



g foun 



nthe . 



e fallii>i 



o • Ur 



that is to iay,a chamber lancer than the olhc 
by an arcade, which opened on tbe iimpr i 
which had neither door mir ahutlers to close 
a place nf transition between Ihe horn aiHl I 
serving as a garden to the laty Miaauhnaiia. ii 
ten shade supplying^ for tlmn that of the in 

go and seek where natore herself cause* Iheir 

sppeareil ruinous la Ihe poorest hut of mir 
the windows hail iio glsu, an nnknnwu liisii 
East, notwithstanding llie rignr nf whiter 
mountains; no beds, tables, or chairs; nilhin 
nakeit walln, mntddering and riddled with n\ i 
holes; and as a Hnor, the beaten clay, uneTen, a 
with chnpi-ed straw. Slaves bnmght mala 
which they Mretched npiin this Bnor, ami i 
carpets, with which they cuTerrd tbe mats; IT 
wards brought a small table uf Bethlehem mai 
made of wood, encniBled with molher-of-peall 



labln 

they resemble Ihe tt 
n<it capaUe of huldin] 
Mohammedina place 
pose th«r repasts, 
this table, eonsitted 



k of a btnken mlumt 

It dinner, which wat i 

certain gourds like our a 
plufTed with hashed mutton and boiled rioe. \ 
fart, tbe nwsi de«rable and savory food whitj 
eat in the East. No knives, •poons, or furkai 
with Ihe hands: but [he repealed sldutiont it 
custom less revolting for the Muswlmani." | 

SUPPER OF THE LORD {K.«pintiv !i 
called by Paul in hit historical reference to i 
over supper as observed bv Jesos on the nigbl 
he was betrayed (I Cor. xi, 30; Matt, xxvi, 1 
I. 5cripriiraf SruTFfnou'j;— SevenlconliDvsr 
may perhaps be best adjusted by a connsctsd 
■ the last Passover of the Lord, conit™cl«d 
aiif^lic narrative* alluding to it, but lillii 
irious omitted circumstances from the knowp 
«. See Pahsovkh. 

"Now, when it waa evening. Join isl If 
e twelve (Mali.) apostles" {Maik). Thei 
mnry washing and puriHcationi being peifti 
easing over ttie Jlrl cup of wine, which l| 
ist, would be pronounced, probtMv in [he a 
X We thank thee, O God, out Htarnily Ft 
haat created the fruit of tlM rine." Conria 



SUPPER OF THE LORD 



I the geniaa of the 

be etublished — that the 
cnu Teacher had Miready declared the eiiperiorilv of 
vimfit imM to the involved traditions oC [he Jewish 
ilM>8i^ mnd that hii rtuciplee alone were preseni on 

infEMatba herbs, the recital ot the liturgy (or iaga- 
4af) tiyHliT'"~ of [be redenipLion oT their ancestors 
(ma tKftean bondage wnuld be aamewhat simplified, 
nrifKhlpBaeeompanied with new reflectinna. 

lim tnbably the leamd cap of wine was minftled, 
u4 iri& (ha AMh «f the puchal lamb, featt-olTeiinga, 
•adotlm Tlands, placed befun the I»rd. "And he 
'Bi Mto tbem. With desire have 1 desired to eat Ihix 
■"■ska irilta VOD beTira I lulTrT; for I uy unto vou, I 
<»»U 10 more cu thenof until it be fulRlled in the' 
fcinK-loin or God. And he look the [second] cup, and 
etrt [hinka, ard aiid, Take this, and divide anionj; 
'on. Cor I MT unto yoa, I will not hencefurth drink of 
■Iw frvit of the viae ontil the kingdoia of Uod shall 
i.™' (L»k«). 

Wkm the wine distributed to each wnuld be dniiik 
xfl^ one fif the unleareaed cakes would next be broken, 
I te UaaanK said over it, and a piece iliMributed to each 
•tiiciplf, probablv witb the unial fomiiila— "Thti is the 
■■ulDf affliction which ynur fathers did eat in the land 
of KsTfrt;" L e. not the iileniical breail, transubstantia- 
inl, but a Bemorial or ngu of iL The cunipany would 
ik«i pnteeed with the proper supper, eating of the 
and, after a benediction, of the paschal 

Ation of the phraae iiirmu ■Yivouivov 



>• ikiiik that Juilas waa present at (be Luril'a supper. 
|>nipeily » called. The true reading pmhably is yivo- 
(uma (not jiroiiiror), as undetsiood by the Arabic 
•ad Tenic translatora, ill (he sense "while supper waa 
•hiW,' nr 'during snpper-linie.' 

"And aa they were at supper, the devil having now 
int it into the bean of Judas to betray bim : Jesus, 
kaawiag that the Father had given all thinga into his 
hiaAt. aibl that he waa conie from Uod, and waa going 
u Im4. rinth Snua shipper; and,'' after due prepara- 
'iaa^ " beiiaH to wash the diiciplea' feet" (John). Af- 
ts this scriklng symbolic exhorutinn to humility and 
■uaal serrice (John xiii, 6-20), "Jesus was troubleil 
ia tfirit, and bare witness, and said. Verily, verily, I 
iqr aots you, that one of you will betray me. Then 
tke lUscipfes looked on one another, doubting of whom 
kc sfake' (John). "And they were very eorry, and 
Imaa sacb oftbem to sav onto him. Lord, is it 17" 
(Xau.). "One of the disciplw, leaning back on Je- 
■^ bnas^ saich unto him, Lord, ia it 17 Jeaus an- 
■enil, Ma it is to whom I shall give a sop, when I 
kare dipped it. And after dipping the sop he gireth 
a Id Judas iKuriot. Then Satan entered Into him. 
J«n aaith onto him. What thnu doest, da quickly. 
Helben.en taking the sop, went immediately out; and 
aiasnigbt' (John). 

The supper would then proceed until each had eaten 
HUcDt of the paschal lamb and feasl-of&ring. 

'And as the* were eating, Jesus took the bread," the 
«ka' mleavenBd cake left unbroken, "and blessed" 
'•* "and bfake it, and gare k to rtie" eleven "disci- 
|lt^ and said. Take eat; this is my body (Hatt., 
Mmkif which ia broken for rou: this do in remem- 
Wmb of mo' (Luke, Paid, I Cor. xi, M). 

The tapper being concludeil. the hands were usually 
nriwd the secauil time, and the third cup, or "cup of 
tkaia^ (I Cor. x, 16) prepared, over which the master 
BaOy gare Iha«ks for the covenant of circumcision 
Bf for tbe taw p^"* '<* Hose*. Jeans, therefore, at 
K> jaDctnie announced, wiib peculiar appropriateneas, 
k» Kew CormanL 

'After the same manner, also, Jesus took the cup af- 
to Mfips. iDd, having given thuhi^ gave it to them, 



6 SUPPER OF THE LORD 

saying. Drink all of yon ont of it; for this is my blood 
of the new covenant, which is ahed for many for for- 
giveness of aiua (Matt.) : this do, as oft aa ye drink, 
in remembrance of me" (1 Cot. xi, !t). "But 1 say 
uHIo you, I ahall not drink henceforth of this fruit of 
the vine, until that day when 1 drink it new (Eaivov) 
with you in my Father's kingdom" (Mall.). 

" And when they bad aung a hymn" (Hstt.), prob- 
ably the Hallel, our Lord discoursed long with bis 
disciples about his approaching death and departure 
(John xili, 81; xtv, SI); and when he had Hniahed he 

on u, the Mount of Olivea" (Matt.). 

II. Kccletiatticat Uiagt, — A multitude of diapnles 
and coniroveTBies have eziisted in the Church, from tha 
eariieet agea of Chriaiianily, regarding the nature, ob- 
servance, and elements of the Lord's supper. On these 
points the reader may conault the following works: 
Pierce, n'alerland, Cudworth, Hoadlev, and Bell, On 
tifJiucharuti Orme, LohTm Supptr lltuHniM {LonA. 
1832) ; Goodman, On the Eucharitt (ibid. I841)j Cole- 
man, Chritl. Aniiq.; Halle>', Onlit SmTitmeBli (ibid. 
1S4S): De Linde and Meams, Priie Eaayt on lit Jev 
itk /'oworer and Chriitim Euchatia (ibid. 1845). 

The early Church appears, from a vast preponderance 
of evidence, to have practiced communion weekly, on 
the I»rd's day. 

The custom, which prevailed daring the Unit seven 
centuries, of mixing the wine with water, and in the 
Greek Church with hot water, appean lo have origi- 
nated with the andent Jews, who mingled their thick 
wine with water (Miahna, Ttntaoth, xi). Haimiui- 
ides (in Ckmtn, vr-UaUah, % vii) stales ihat the pro- 
portion of pure wine in every cup must not be less than 
the fourth part of a quarterof a hin, besides water which 
must needa be mingled, that the drinking of it may 
be Iht mitre pleaumt. The rmisin-wine often employed 
bolh by the ancient and mnlern Jews (Ai-bah Turm, 
$ 483, dale ISOO) mnlaina water of course. Bemnanra 
of this caalom are aiill traceable in the East. The Nee- 
torian Christians, ai> late as the 16lh century, as we find 
Irnm the old travellers, celebrated the eucbarist in such 
wine, maile by ateeping niaina one night in water, the 
juice being pressed forth (Osorius, Dt Rri. Emoiaitl. 
lib. iii; Boter, R/L ii, S; Odoard Barboso, ap. Ka- 
mum. i. BIS; Brerewood. Oa the Dirtritliei of Lam- 
rfaaaa [1622], p. 147). The ChristUns of India (aaid 
to be convened by St. Thomas) used raisin-wine, as 
alan do some of the Syrian churches at the preaeni day 
(Roas.yirairinaneSS], p.49!; Ainsworth, rraerbn 
.^nu WiBur[l842J). The third Council of Braga would 
not permit the use of the pure " fruit of the vine," for 
they condemned as heretics "those who used no olhrr 
tritm but what they pressed outoflheclualen of grapes, 
which were then presented at the Lord's table" (Bing- 
ham, CArii/. .4Mi}. bh.v,ch. ii). The wine used Inr our 
Lord waa of course fermented, as no other could have 
been procured at that season of the year, and aa it seems 
ID be contrasted with the fvu wine of the heavenly 
kingdom (Malt xxvi, 39), See Wink. 

As regards the bread, many of the Esstem churches 
use unfermented bread in the communion. « The 
Greek Church adopla a leavened bread, but the Koman 
Church has it unleavened ; and this difference has been 
Ihe cause of much controversy, though it seems easj- to 
decide which kind was used by Jesus, the last supper 
having been on une of the ' daya of unleavened bread,' 
when no other kind could be eslen in Ihe land of Ju- 
dea." The Pmlealanl churches, generally, pay little 
regard to the nafure of the elementa, but use the ordi- 
nary bread, aa well as wine, of Che country. It waa 
probably from regarding in a similar way the bread and 
wine aa mere ordinary beverage Ihat some of the au- 
dent sects gave up the wine altogether, and aubstituiei] 
other things. Epiphaniua {/farei. 49) and Augunine 
(ffarfM. 28) mention an ancient aect of Christians in 
t'hrygia, called Arlotyrite", because they used bread 



SUPPLICATIO 



s Sl'Pi 






of breid and water iml]'; 
;■ (A.D. 675) condemiu 
1 braid lod milk. Sm 



SnpplicatiO, ■ solemn thanhagiTing or aupplics- 
lion lo the guds among Ihe ancient Komana, on which 
occaMun the temples were thrown open, uid the Matura 
i.r Che goda carried on couchei through the public 
BtreeM that Ibey might receive ihe ptayen of the peo- 
ple, A iupptie\ilio waa appointed by the senate when 
a victory had been gained, or in timea of public daiietr 

Snppliaation of Basgara it ■ book which ap- 
peared myslerioiuly in London about A.D. 1627, setting 
" ■ '.e rapacity and licenliouineea of the clergy. '■ 



aaliy c: 



laiHla of Hen 



VIll, who, 



after bearing it read, said, " If a man should pull down 
■n old alone-wall, and begin at the lower part, Ihe up- 
per part might chance to fail upon bis bead," 
broBiUy imimiiing Chat the clergy were the f 
tiona of Che rotten old Church ; and should an a 
be made lo refonn them, the whole structure 
tumble down. See Burcbanl, Uiil. of Congirgiilianat' 



SuppIlcBtion of Commona la a nnubic book 
published in IMH, with the fidl tiile of A 
«/ lit Poor Cumnwiu (o llus Ki«g. It was a so 
counterpart to the Suppliealtan nf Brggan, and 
complainta againat the cbaiacler and conduce < 
clericy, eapecially Ihe monks. See Sirype, ifemt 
liOS-62t i Burch'ard, Hill. o/Coajp-rgaHonatum, i, 

SnppIiCBUSndB (Or. Xtroniai'), in i«» original 
signilicBtinn, is but another name fur prayin in general, 
iif whatever kind, that either were made publicly in the 
church or by any private person. The term is applied 
luth la litanies and short prayera, with brief pccitions 
and responses. See Litast. 

SupralapsailfinB. persons who hold that God, 
without any leganl to the good ot evil works of men, 
has resotvtsl, by an eternal decree, npra liiptunt, ante- 
cedently to any knowledge of Ihe fall uf Adam, and in- 
dependent irTit. to reject some and save othen; or, in 
other Konis, that God intended to glorify his justice in 
the condemnation of some, as well as bin mercy in the 
salvation of others; and for that purpose decreed that 
Adam should neceuarily fall See Si/BLArsARiANS. 

BupramaQya, a HindA deva, aon of Siva, am 
sprung from the eye in the forehead nf that goil. Hi 
fought the giant Sura Parpma, end with the most pow 
erful weapon of hii father split him in two, after seven 
days of battle. The festival Kandershasta ia celebrated 

Bnpremacy, Papau The papists claim for the 
See of Home, reprewnted in the person of the pope. " s 
priocipalily of power over all others, as the mother and 
r>f all Chrisiian churches;" and all other patri- 



estj haib Ui>t the snnia 
''-at Ihe godly kiDgs hi 

rogiJ BoprelBac)r 



Sutes, of course, no suptemacr ot iatn- 
ference in spiritual aflain on the pari of the ciiil u- 
thoritipt is recognised. 

Suir (Heb. Sir, -.lO, trmwtd, as in Ua. alii.Jl; 
Sept. at oioi ; Vulg. Sur), the name of one of the {ila 
~ ipleatJeruBalem<2Kingsxiiii,6); calUin 
ibe parallel passage (2 Chron. xxiii, £•) ~ihe gaitodbe 
auadation,'' "liD^ yraM (which is tbe preti^iaUc irtri- 
tg), being apparently that which led acroas to Zioii b]' 
le causeway or bridge. See Tehvue. 
Sor (Soiip ; Vulg. omila), one of the plKS cm tie 
'S-coasl of Palestine, which are nained as baring bno 
disturbed at the approacb of Holofcmes with tbcAi- 
army (Judith ii. 28). It cannot be Tjta, ll» 






leRom 



ponltlT. ThLi doctrine is chiefly built on the supposed 
primacy of Peter, of whom the pope is the pret 
successor; a primacy so far fmin being counten 
by Scripture Chat we find it there absolutely forbidden 
(Luke xxii, 34; Mark ix, 35). The authority of I 
Koman See was Hnt recognised by the fourth Latei 
Council, A.D. 1215, and was Hrst protested against 
the authors of Ihe Kefonnation. The title of " moti 
of churches," claimed by the Church of Kome, must 
certainty belong to the Church at Jerusalem, and wai 
given to that Church by the second Council of Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 381. See Piuiucy. 

SUPREMACY, RoTAi. In the Church of Kn^nd 
bU ecclesiastical jurisdiction is annexed to the crowni 
and it ia ordained that no foreign potentate shall exer- 
cise any power, civil or religions, wicbin Che limits of 
that kingdoED. Canon ii of the Church of England 
aayi! 






fore. Some have auggested Dor, otheia 

Sot(t, mentioned by Siephanus of ByunoBiD at ui 

Phmiicia, which they wmild identify with AiiBd 

Dthen,agBin, Sartifhid. But nooe of these an ■>>)- 

factory. Tbe apocryphal cbaiadei of tbe bonk HhU 

makea us sutpictooa of the accunuy of tbe Bams. Sr 

Judith. 

Snni DeT«, in Hindtl mrihology, is ib« f>odiim 
wine, who sprang out of the milk-sea when the ■ma- 
in Hamlv waa cast into it, in order to prtpan ll< 
drink amrita. 

Sara Parpma, in HindO mythology, is tbe fiinl 
ith whom Supramanya {q. v.) fought. After he 1*1 
en cut into pieces by the latter, one half changed ii- 
Hlfintoape<tenok,<indt)>eittberl.alf intoaCDck- Siva 
used the Drat as an animal fur riding, ami ilie Mmd 
aerved as a watcher for the house in which the wspn 
of Siva stood. 

SuicloKle is a band of black ailk or ntnC ftinH 
at the ends, and bound round tbe waists of the dofj 
so as to conline and keep the cassock in place. 

Snireiiliaalna {Sureaini), Wiiaxm, proieaar nf 
Greek artd Hebrew at Amsterdam, flourished inihetni 
of the 17th and the beginning of tbe ISch centory. l<( 
edited a beautifully printed ciliticm of the Mutlma, nrr 
loliui fffbraorumJurii, AifHUia, Aiiiipiiai*m,fl Ijvia 
Oraliuia 3gilema,ram Claratmoram Rnbbiimrwn Hi"- 
TBOBUfi* tt Bnrlmonr ContmtMiiriii Inlrgru, etc. (Aiosl 



.|T0S,6 



s. f.d.). w 



edition (see Wolf, BOl. HAir. ii, B86). He pub- 
lished also mci3 nlED,"'" Bi^Xof KnraXVar%> 
quo (rcunJuni Viil. ThtoU. HM. /ormklai aBrJiHidi 1 
landoi inirrjirelaHdi condlianlar loca rx V.m M, T.ailr- 
gala (ibid. 1713, 4to), a work of unsurpassed value <" 
the subject Co which it relatea, 

Suretiea is a name given Co apansors in virtue of 
Che security given through them to the Church Ibi' 
the baptiied shall be " virtuously brought up la lead i 
godly and a Cbrislian life." See Sfonbob. 

Swsty (some form of zns, ardb, to barltr, and te 
pocially lo drpotit a pMgr, either in monej', good^ " 
in part payment, aa aecurity for a bargain; i)7ik>[! 
"Suretyship" in the A.V. ia usually the rendering W 
D'Spin. toktim, literally in marg. "those that striki 
(hands)," from J^^. '" "'■*' (Geseniua, Tifanr. r 
1617). The phraae f; rc^isri, laimeli gSd (Scpi 
irapa^qici)), "depositing in the hand," L e. giving ii 
pledge, may be underalood to apply to the act of picdg 
log, uT virtual, Ihongh not personal, surety ihip (Lev. r 
2 lHeb.r, :i]). In the eolin absence ofconimerct 



AcUwkid dawn no nlM on the mbjeet af BuretTthlp! 
luLii u cvidmt th4t in the lioc of SolwDon mercuilih 
■ktliiigi had liwanw so muliiplicd Chit e< 



ixii, 36; 



». (Pro- 



1. li 



vli, 13). But ii 
II becoming ■ surety fur a 
Hrvin lA he diseharged by anuthei wu in full Turce 
|KC (ien. iliv, 3j), and it it probable that Ihe ume 
funa of undertaking existeH, viz. the giving the hand 
IS (Rriking hand! with), not. B> Htchaelia reprcKnti, 
Ihe penno who was to discharge Ihe service — in [he 
cemBMcial «ii»e the debtor— but the person lo whom 
it «H due, Ihe endilor (Jubxvii,8i frov. vi, 1; Mi- 
dueln. Laia of Mot; § 151, ii, 322, ed. Smith). The 
tnetv. of eaum, became liable for his client's debts in 
ax of bis failure. In later Jewish limes the svstem 
d much distress in taaay 
, the dutv of sureirship in certain cases is 
rmgninlas Tilid (Bcclus. viii', IB; xxix, U, 16, 16, 18, 
19). Sw Pledok. 

The eariini form of turelyship mentioned in Script- 
vn a the pleilginf; of person for penun, as when Judah 
uadrnook with his father to be surety for Benjamin 
lQ2*i;X. / tntl txchaage for Aim, put myself in place 
«f hi>i,(ien. xljii, 9); aud when circumsUncea emerged 
vbichimmed locall fo( Ihe fulfilment of [he obligation, 
he acluaUy offered himself in the room of Benjamin. In 
liit K-Bse the psalmist asks (ind to be surely fur him for 
lIDDd (Ph. cxis, 132), u did also, in his great distress, 
lleiekiah (lia. xsxviii, 14). tbuugh the sense here is a 
liuli weakened in the A.V. by Ihe renderin); "under- 
lake far me,"" More communij-, Loweier, tiie kind of 
Hretyship spoken of had reference to pecuniary obli- 
fstiMM or debts, and forms the subject of prudential 
a^ikea and wunine* in (he book of Proverbs {vi, 1 ; 
ii,lt: Zfii, 18; xx. 16). In theHiM aftheae passages, 
ibe daugetmu practice nf eoleriiiR into sureties U put 
b iim fiwrns — flnt, " if ihuu be surety for thy friend," 
lk« "if Ibou haat stricken thy hand with a siranger;" 
ihoe beiag no funhef diflerence between them than 
that the «ac has respect in the thing ilsetf, Ihe other to 
the Bade of going about it: the person agreeing lo he- 
ave SM«r K"^ I"* ^"^ '" l>" fncnd. Hence, alto, 
ia Pme. xvu, 18, a man " who strikes hands," that is, 
Ra£ly beDooiM a surely, is ileclareil to be void uf im- 
ikManding. In the higlicsi sense the term is applied 
b> Ckriu, who, in his chancier as mediator, i> itpn- 
wsud as "ibe surety (lyyuot} Ota better covenant" 
iHrix ril, 32), hiving made himself rcsponuble fur all 
ikal in (his coveniiit was rrquireil to be (ccumplished 
'« ihf atlvation of (hoae who uere to share in its pro- 
tiiiani, See MkdiatiOX 

RI'KETr. In Ihe ancient Church the clerpy 



SURNAME 

KegiD-Dutch, is the Unguige of Ihe Dutch colony of 

" jrinam, in (iuiani, and is current among a populalion 
at least 10O,UO0 people. Ever since 1738 there has 
lilted in Surinam a mission of (he United Bn'lhren. 
he language is ■ compound of Kiigliih and Duuh, 
ith 1 sprinkling of Spanish, Portuguese, French, and 
frican or Indian words. Prior to ihe year 1813, the 
greater part of the New Test, was translated into that 
lage. In 1S2S Moravian missionaries completed a 
>n of the entire Kew Test The MS. was sent lo 
isny, and was revised by Hans W 



rshsdre 



n Sutii 



ho for 



j lan'i appearance iu a 
•wk son of encumbd 



ihtO 



n distrai 









Soiin. JxAH JoaEPH, a French ascetic writer, was 
Inca at Bordeaux in 1600, entered the Order of the Jes- 
■iis SI Hfteen year* of age, and aoon distinguished him- 
nlf by hi* profound piety and knowledge of human 
aalan. In ISM be waa sent to take charge of * " 
^iiae Gunrent In London, and began a series i 
oiBs against the evil spirits supposed to prevail there, 
kit ereoiually became himself the victim uf : ' 
stal [ 1 mtmi im. ami waarequiredlo return to 
la tor he again went to London, and remained there, 
rah panial seauna of lucidity, far many years, but was 
<tln)tth removed from place to place in hopes nf relief. 
He racnvrml bis sanity in 1668, and died at Bonleaux, 
ifiil t1. 16S&, leaving several worii* on pnrtiral relig- 
ia, which lie eBumcraled in Uoefer, A'ouc. Jliuy. Gini- 

ir.Vfynr-Sa^fial) Vanioo. Negro-Eng- 
n%bi be dasigaatcd with equal propriety. 



«sed [he opinion that the traiiaUlioii was "ss per- 
fect is possible." With Ibe aid of the British and For- 
eign Bible Society, an edition of 1000 o^ies was printed 
in London. This edition was soon eihiusted, and, as 
a result of these publications, more than 12,000 con- 
verts were added to the Church. Another ediiion of 
the New Test, and Psalms mss prepared by the Mora- 
vian missionary Treu, and, with the aid of Ihe Neth- 
erlands and the British and Foreign Bible societies, 
2000 copies were printed in 1846. Whether the Obi 
Ten, has been translated and prin[ed, we are not able 
to say. (RP.) 

SnrlUR. Lacrbktiub, a Carthusian monk, was the 
child of Luiherin, or, as others say, of Romish parents. 
He wisbomatLubei'kin 1522,aud educated at Frank- 
furl-on-the-Oder and at Cologne. At Ihe latter pUce 
he became acquninled with Cani«us (q. v.), and joined 
the Koman Catholic Church. In 1542 he entered Ihe 
Carthusian Order and devoted himself to monastic as- 
ceticism and literary labor. He displayed both zeal fur 
Komanism and hatred for Ihe liefurraation, whose lead- 
ers he chafed with having bcirtowed thdr doclrinea 
fn)m Mohammed. Besides iraimlaling various mvMical 
writings by Tauler, Ruysbnieck, Suso, etc., Surius com- 
pmcd a C'lmmetiliiriui 'Hivru Hn-am w 0-ie Gelttrum 
ubAimo 1600 (Lov. 1666). This book was designed to 
oppusc the famous Pmlestant work by Sleirian (q. v.), 
but was devoid of nnj' itaiticular value i but itwas,nev- 
erlheless, carried forward bv Iswlt and others lo IG73. 
Additional wurks by Surius' are, /lomSia the Cimciona 
FraitanlimiHonim EccL Doctorum, etc {Col. IS69-76). 
— fJoaaUn Oamia, etc. (iUd. 1667):— and Vila Sane- 
torum ub Aiogrio lApwntnmo oUm Coiacripla (ibid, 
I&70-76, 6 vols, fol.), which was repeatedly reprinted, 
the best ediiion being that of Cologne, 1018. A seventh 
voL was added after the death of Surius b}' the Carthu- 
sian Jacob Mosander. Surius died May 23, 1578. See 
Biog. Umrrr$tUr, torn, xliv (Par. 1826) j and aenag, 
RfaUEncykkp. a v. 

Snrlet (d« Chokler), the name of in old Fremih 
family, which dates from the year 1170, and culminated 
in Ihe person of Fastre Dare de Surlet, who died about 
1473. The emperor Ferdinand II ennobled the family 
of Suriet in 1680 with the title <U Chvkur. Tbe follow- 
ing members draerve tiwnliuii here : 

1. Jeah, horn at Liege, Jin. 14, lfi7l, studied at Lou- 
viin,anil look his degrees at Orleans. He became can- 
on of St. Lambert, abbe of St. Hadelin of Vise, and vicar, 
general of Ihe diocese of Liege^ where he distinguished 
himself by his lealous charity and erudition. He died 
about 16&5, leaving several wortu on ecclesiastical mat- 
utn, for which see Hoefer, A'oao, Hiog. Giniruk, s. v. 

2. Jban Ebkicst, nephew of the preceding, became 
canon of Liege and abb^ ofVts^. He founded the bouse 
of the Incurables and that uf the Pilles Kepenties at 
Liege, and died about 1683. 

3. Juan FRifi>riRic, uncle nf Jean, was a learned can- 
on of Liege, who wrote AVAiriJimi FrcecalioiaiBt (Liege, 
1636), and died March 16, 163E. 

Snriiatne. Names were at first expresrive, a> 
those of Scripture, According to Du Cange, lurnamei 
were originally written, not ofier the Chrliitisn-iiime. 

The Ant or ChriMiin mm* ia usually given at bap- 



SDRPLICE a 

tim. Merediuiy turnaine* diil not eiiat in England 
till ifter Che Nornun Conquest. Tbey uv Ukeii tram 
hicalicy, 4a Field ur Foreu; froni ocxupuion, u Fiiber 
ur MiUir, I'ilgrim or I'aUnei; (nun peraan>l qualitiei, 
M Black or llrown ; Tnini naliiril objecu, i» Lemon or 
Ltinb,Pe«lorHng,St«el<irJev(el,«tc, A> diuincl rroni 
[ha lumame, the airname or tireVDame ia a nauiral 
aildilion, witb aon.Macor Fitz,0, ap,wich.or iky (all 
aiKtiiryiiig aon), w Uonaldaon or Uicdonald, FiUgeiald, 
O'Cunnell, Alexandtowich, Petrouaky — ap Howel be- 
coming I'oweL and ap Kicbard becDming I'ricbard. 

Snipllca (LaL luperprlliaam, over the peline), ■ 
long, looae linen garment worn by clergymen of tbe 
Church of En^and during tbe perTonnanm of dirioe 
aervice. 8urp1ioea are iIh worn bj the feUowa of col- 
lq;ei or halli, and by all the Mbolara Bn<l atiidenu in 
tbe uairenitiea of Oxford and Cambridge upon Sun- 
days, holiilaya, and even during Ibeir allendanoe at the 
college chapeta or churches. It is also worn for the 
service of the choir. lu use ilaua back to an early 
day. PaulinuB aent a lamb's-wonl coat bi Severua, and 
Ambrose compLaina of the use of beavir skins and nlk 
dreswa. I'he white garment of the clergy is mentioned 
br Gregory Nazianien, Jerome, Clement of Alexan- 
dria, HDno'riu^ and Ito of Charlra. The Council of 
Baale required the aurplice to reach below the middle 
of the thigh. The Gilbeninea wore a hooded aurplice^ 
At Burgoa, in auminer, the canons wear, instead of a 
oope and mouetta (iheir winter babil), a sleeved sur- 
plice raised on the ihoulilera. The nan>e is first toeii- 
tioned bj' (Xlo of Paris anil Stephen of Tournay, in the 
ISih century. The urigin of the surplice ii thua given 
by Durandi "It waa ao called because anciently this 
garment waa put upon leathern coats made of the akiiia 
of dead animals (taptr itutieai ptUkm de ptUibai •aor- 
taonoH luUmaliiim /iicUu), eymbnlically to represent 
that the «n of our fint parenia, which brought man 
under the neceaaitj' of wearing gatmenta of akin, waa 
DOW hid and covered by the robe of Christ's iiuiuoence 
and grace." The name and color (white) signify holi- 
nesB of life joined (o penitence. The uaeof tbe aurplice 
waa alrongly objected la by the CalviaiMie and Zwin- 
glian reformera on the Continent, and by the Puiiuna 
in England, who regattled it aa a relic of popery. The 
argument against it is to be found in Beia, Tradal. 
Tlltotog.ii\,29; and ils defence in Hooker, Ecdei. Pol- 
ill/, r, 39. Much cnntruveray has been held of late 
years as (n the propriety of the aurplice being worn hy 
the prelcber in the pulpil, which ia contrary to the 
more general practice of the Anglican Church. The 
aurplice and alb (q. v.) are riight variationa of what 
was originally one veatuKut. Foreign aiirplicea are 
much shorter than those used in England. In Italy 
the short aurplice ia called a coUu. Hee Or-jauents, 

ECCLIMIABTICAt. 

BnrpUce-f«e is a fee paid to the clergy for occa- 






Thia 



It Church ; indeed, several laws were passed 
by (lie early Church commanding tbe gratuitous per- 
r.irmaiice of all religiona officea. 

SurrogaW is a name (meaning one substiluteil, or 
appiiiuied in the place of another) commonly applied in 
wKleniaatical usage to an officer delegated by the biahop 
to grant licenaas for marriagea, pmbatea of wills, etc, 
in Urge Uiwns. A surrogate is, properly speaking, the 
deputy 01 substitute uf an ecclesiastical Judge. 

Bnrsam Corda. In the ancient Mrvice of ihe 
Church, it waa the duly of the deacon to summon each 
claw of worshippers aeparalely to engage in prayer by 
Haying, "Let ua pray." Other forms for announcing 
[ha lime of prayer were alao used, aa "Give audience," 
- Lift your heart" (Surtum corda). 1'hia rile is de- 
scribed in detail in the eighth book of the Apailoliaii 
Cuvttitulioiu, where it ia aaid that (he high-priest or 
celebrant at mass says, " Lift up your bean«,~ and Ihe 
fiiithful rtapocul, " We lift them up unto tbe Lord." lu 



3 SUSANNA 

its Engliah form it is found in the Ommiuiion Serriae 
uf tbe Cburch of England. 

Bmtcr, in None mylhnlogy, is the mighty ndcr 
of Huspelheim, the implacable enemy of the (aw^vbI^ 
in thecondagntionofthe universe, will lead tbe srmics 
of the Bana»rMu«pel,J<nnbimaeirwiihthe serpent Hid- 
gard and the wolf Fenris, assail the reaidencea of Ibe 
goda, beside all the aaaa in a tremendous banlr, sod 
tlnally bring on tbe overthrow of tbe world. SeeKoas 
MrTHoujov. 

Surya, in HindO mythology, ia the sun (not lbs sdd- 
god, fur that ia called Indra), which in [nilia ia an li^ 
of wonhip as the celestial geniua. He ri ' 



nby . 



n green 



le leader 



genu are in his train, who adore huo 
and aing bymns to him. Surya isufieu removed (ram bii 
car, and has impreaaed the earth with numeroua legtudi 
ofhia power. He haa many names, among which, bow- 
ever, the following twelve ate chief, indicating hii ai- 
tribuiea in varioua relations, anil also mtasunhly tbe 
montha : Varuma, Surja, Vedang, Bhanu, Indra, Baii, 
Gubasti,Yama,Svania rata, Divakai, Ultra, and Visbou 

tions we Bnd at the loweet stages the powers ol nalarr, 
and especiallv the heavenly bodiee, adored aa miebty 
dailies. SeeUB-^soLATUV. 

Bn*. SeeCBAHE; Hobsk. 

Sn'aa(Esth.xi,S; xvi, 18). See 8hfsiia!i. 

Sn'aanobiU (Chald. only in ib« emphat. plm, 
Suimiasi', S^^J'Sira-, Sept. iotvayaxtuot; Vulg. 
Suumttkiti) ia found once only (in Kira iv, 9, where 
it occura among the liat of the naliona whom tbe 
Aaai-rians had settled in Samaria, and wboae rieseend- 
anta atill occupied the country in the reign of tbe I'seo- 
do-Smerdis). There can be no diiubt that it d«ig- 
natea (As Siiniiia, either Ihe inbaliiianta of the dty 
Suaa or those of llie country (Siisis or .Sosiana) of 
which Susa was the capital. Perhaps aa ihe Elamites 
are ntenUoneri in the same passage, and as Daniel (viii, 
i) seems to call the country Eimra and the city Shn- 
shan (or Suu), the former explanation ia preferahlc 
See Shush AH. 

SusRIl'lUI (£airvarMi v. r. Siaadyva : L e. rT^V=, 
Shotkwmih, a tUg [q. v.]), die lume of two femalM in 
the Bible. The name likewise occun in Diod. Sic ss 
that of the daughter of Ninus (ii,6)i and Slkakim (1 
64, S5) ia of the same origin am] meaniiig 



(Ge* 



. 7-A«. 



• v.). 



1. The heroine of the alory of the Judgnwnt of Dan- 
iel in the Apocrypha, otherwise called 

SuBASSA, Th'k HisrOBV OF, teuig one of the appen- 
dices to Ibe canonical book aS Daniel See Dahiki, 



I. Ti)U and /'Milton. — Thia Apocri-phal picCT has 
different titles. Sometimea it ia calleil {Somana) 
SMsama, sometimes (ionqX) Dimiil, and sometinHs 
(dincpiffie AnnqX) The Judgmmt of DoiaeL Equally 
uxcenain is ila position. Ibe Vau and Alex. MS». 
and the Vel. Lai. pisce it befutc the tlrst chapter of 
Daniel, while Ihe Sept„ after the Oid. Chiaiaous and 
Theodolion, ed. Complu., put it after vh. xii 

3. Detigii.—Tite object of this altnctive storr h to 
celebrate (he triumph of womanly virtue over tempta- 
tions and dangers, and to exalt the wisdom of Daniel 
in saving (he life of ihe pi<ius hemine. Chrrtnaiom 
rightly sets forth the beautiful lesson of chastity which 
this story aSbrds. when be says, "(iod permitleal thia 
■rial, that he might publish Susanna's virtue and Ibe 

emidary conduct, give a pattern lo (he sex of the like 
resolution and constancy in case of lemptatioD" (Sem. 
lie Suiaima). The alory of Susanna is therefore read 
in tbe Roman Church on the vigil of (he faartb Sun- 
day in Lent, aud in Ibe Anglican Church on Nov. 22. 



SUSANNA s 

3. Ciiiracftr, A ulAor, Dale, a»d Ongixal Langaagt. 
— Tbuuicb thr rurm uf lliia Rory, u we now bave il, 
\tori ihit k il gRUir embeUiahed. yn there U every 
mtos tu belirve Ihat it u out wbully ttclitioua, but 
b«anl upnn fact. The panHiomauia ia Diniel'ii exam- 
iuliuq uf ibe d<ltn,when he is repreaenteU aa uying 
t.1 the not wbo ifflrmeil be saw the crime commiired, 
iiii f^j^Hv, uufer u ■uuTiot-frve, " the tugel of God 



ri Kpivo 



a holm-trrt, " tbe angel 



h the ivrord, ir, 



elalmmiiHi of an old Hebrew Mory, but not that it 
iinjtiiialcil with the AleiantlrtDe tranllatur oT Daniel 
Tbe ScMg of SuUmion may have luggealed maletiDl to 
IM auibti*. The opiuion of Euaebius, AfMlliiiatius, and 
Jinow, tbat the prupbet Habakkuk la the author of 
rb« Huiuty of Suaaiiua i« eviileiitly derived rmm the 
line* iiacri|itiun of tbe Hiatory of lie] and the Dragon. 
B« ArocRTrHA. 

2. One of the womeii wbo miniatured to nur Lord's 
pRMul ranu Dui uf their private meana {Luke riij, 
i,^. A.D.28. 

iCSANXA was held by the ancienE Church to be a 
nBlwIufrewrrccibn, and also a type of the penecuted 
(Ikurrti — the twa elden reprfsentmg the pagans aii<1 
Ik JeiL Beprexentiliuns of her are Trequently fuund 

iintt (taDdintc belweeu twu old meu, sametimes between 
1TA urea behind which tbe men are hidinf^. Some- 
(■■eft ahe ia re|ireaented aa a lamb between a fox and a 
Impird. In France she Mill appears sa the representa- 

an. liniht, and V'andal&— Msrtiguy, Dicl. del Aalig. 



i .suso 

ceired holy order*, and in 1S3T vaa appointed profesaor 
U Brtlon. He died June 1, 1S68, at Byatric, in Moravia. 

poeia of Moravia. Of bis worka, which are all written 

in the Czech iaii language, we mention the Workiafih' 
Apatlalic Fulhrri (1837. and oCtea) -.^EecUtiutHcat 
Hynm (I84G; 2d ed. 1859) :— and a Convimtmy m tJu 
Gotpeli (ie64-G7), 4 vols. See LUeraritcher Uani- 
aritrr fir ibti fai(*o(uc*« DtiUtdtltml, 18G8, No. G9, 

p.3o;«i. (ai'.) 

6tlBQ, Hkinbicii, a M\-stic, was bom March 31, 
1300,atCunBlance. Hia real iiame was V'(m £rr/7.' biil, 
baviuK been jireatly iiiHueneed by (he lender pieiy nf 
his miither, be astuined ber name when her death, in 
bit eighteenth year, caused him to seek aatisTacliun for 
hia soul in inward peace. He had been a student at 
CuiiBiance and Cologne, and now was >troii|;]y inRu- 
enced by Master Eckart; but imaginiiion and feeling 
were more puwerfnl with him than ibe speculative fac- 
ulty. Hia myaliciam required a concrete form in which 
lo clothe the idea, and aucb lie (uund in Ibe " wisdum" 
uf the writing! of Snlomon. MeniiryiiiK llin '^eterail 
wiadom" now with Christ and afiaiii with the Uleaaed 
Virgin, he expended upon it bis love and tbe devotion 
life. He grave" 



penei 



Hav 



I. the 



irCunstance, he gave liimielf tu 

wDite his (Uerman} book (M lit Elemat Wiidom. in 
1338, which was designed to leach pinua souls how lo 
imitate Christ in bis suOerings. Having reached the 
age of forty yeara, be concluded bis penances and be- 
came a preacher, or, aa he phrased it, "a knight of 
God," and bis tsbors were largely beneficial to the com- 
munily. [le entered into relations with other myatical 
leachers, eapedally Tauler and Heinrich viMi Ntirdling- 
en. He induced many nuble ladies lo ilevote Ihem- 
selvea to a quiet and charilable life, aided in tbe forma- 
tion of orgaiiiiatioiiB uf the Friends of (iu<l (q. v.), ami 
bunded a Brotherhooil of the Eternal WiMlom, fur 
which he cumpuscd a rule and a number uf prayers. 
These labors cxpused him to critidsm and even dan- 
gers, He was even sccuseil uf disseminating tbe heret- 
ical leachinpa of the Brolbera of the Krei 






<f bin . 





•it inn 


erand 


<.uler life to bis friend llie nun Eliiabetl 


HtHgl 


n, and 


slie wrote the namlive wiiboul bis know 


edge; 


but it 






ban,!. 


atui received into ibe cidlection of hia 


™ks" 


« liart 


firm. Tart second wsa the book of Eltr 




fhrn; 


part third, his book of Trert, like tbe ..th 


r in d 


nhvuo 


form, and InUmled to satisfy the inqnirie 


of a disciple 






Imis- 




eDo- 



It Ulm. Hit 



His 



rally I 



■wed, and 



only the imaginative, romantic alyle ix prmlinr 
His fundamental idea ia that of Eckan. tliat irDifffiirma 
the highest conception, and that bring is (inil. All cre- 
ated being is a mimir of (>ud, and li> revugnise Guil in 
this mirror it to tptcalalr. No name can exhaui4 iIm 
idea of God. He is equally "an elenial niHliing" aiH) 
the "moat essential ■umethinit;'' he is a ''ring whiiM 
centre is everywhere anil' whose drcumfereiica ia iri'- 
where." To gaie upon (Jod ia the highest joy. Crcai- 
ures are eternal in liod aa their " Exemplnr," and tlicv 



iguiahing qualities until sl^i 
il, when they have entered in 



jtbeci 



their original and restore tbe interrupted unity 
lar is Suso's representation of tbe Trinity. Tl 
the Eternal Word which proceeds from the Fai 
love which reunites them ia the Huly Spiril. 
stained human soul can Und no other way to ( 
Christ, and more particularly than the imiiatii 
anfTcrini.'s. The disltnciion between Creator si 



SUSPENSION 4 

ure never ceaM(,boiTcv(ti ao thil, dnpile his mvMical 
•piril, Su*o don not earn the line where Ihe panlheiBtic 
Ueiiding of the created tnd the Kurrul Spiril begins. 
Sum wu, in biief, tbe npmentstire of poetic mriticiBm 
;— B real poet, who i> un^le to apprehend an idea wiib- 
<riit clnEliinj; it in aymlfolic fonn ; and he wai» in no true 
Kiiae either i philnanpher or i prsctical man of af- 
fain. SuHl'* writings appeared at AngnburK, 1 iSi and 
lots, M. Dippenlnuck publiahta tlieni in 18211 at Bat- 
iilion (il ed. IMSIt) ; in Latin, by Suriua (q. v.), 1535 
and o^n. Frnm the Latin they were tendered into 
French and Italian, and even into Gennan again. A 
book, IW dm ntua Frlrm {Oftkt lioK Roda). which 
was long attributed to Suio, waa written in 1393 by the 
ijtraaburger Rulnuui Merswin. — Ueixog, Rtat-Eaeifklap. 

Bnsponaion. an ecclesiutical act nr two kinds: 1. 
One ofthe several lorts of puniihmentinHictednponor- 
fending ntcmbers uf Ihe clergy. This relates either to 
iherevctiuetof the clergyman or to bis offlce, and hence 
is called Mutpattia a brvfiao attd ttup^nni ab ttficiOt Sus- 
giensiuii from benefice depriyea tbe oflender ot' the whole 
or a part or hie revenue. Su^iciisiun from office ia vari- 
ous: lift onfinf, where a clerk cannot exercise his minis- 
try at all ; ii6 offKio, where he ia Turbiilden to exercise il 
in bis charge or cure. In all these cases the incumbent 
retains bis order, rank, and benvflce in distinction to the 
IwiialtieH of solemn depuaal and ilci^dation, by which 
he furfeits all rights of his order and benefice. All per- 
Hins who can eiccaminuniaite can suspend. Suspension 
iniiac be preceded by a monition, and its cauae most be 



liri 



|Hll 



d to have committed auch 
re suspend yon from the i 
ordcra." Kveiy act ofjurii 
ia imll anil void during an: 



and auch things, there- 
ipenuon, if it has been 






. Suspension is removed liy abso- 
n of the aelilencc, by expiration of 
Knaalion. 2. The other sort of nis- 

fhim entering a consecrated buildinj;. church, or chap«l, 
or from hearing divine service, " commonly called mass," 
anil from receiving the boly sacrament; which, there- 
fore, may be called a temporary excommunu'ation. 8fe 
Andrp, On DrvU CawMtfw, i, »43 ; ii. 1110; Klaillane, 
Du I >ivil Cammif IK, \-,Soii mant, I/icf.o/ Voctrimil 
■ Thfob>f/g,».v.; Riddle, CAruf.vJnrfg. p. 343. 

Suaplolon conaiau in imagining evil of others 
without proof. It la aomelimea opposed to charily, 
which thinkeih no evil. " A auapiciaua Umper checks 
in the bud every kind afltoion; it hardens tbe hear), 
and estranges man fiom man. What friendship can we 
expect from him who views all our conduct with dis- 
trustful eyes, and aacribea ever}' beiiettt we confer to 
anillce and stratagem? Acandiil man if accustomed to 

able light, and is like one who dwells amiil I boat beauti- 
ful aceiiea of nature on which the eye rests with pleaa- 

imajjiiuitian filled with all the (backing forma of human 
falsehooil, deceit, and [reachery, resemtiles the travelli-r 
in the wilderness who iliscerns no objects aruutui him 
but what are either dreary or terrible; caverns that 
open, serpents that hiw, and beasts of prey that howl." 
Sec Barrow, A>r«ioM;<iisbome,Ji'ir™ioit»,- Dwight, I"jS«- 
clo^l James, Oh Chtirilg. 

Sn»t«ntatloii Ftmd. I. F.aglUh H-'ni^im.— A 

fund farmed in the aeveiai district! which hasfurita oh- 1 
jecttlie raising tri" such an amount in each district ns, be- ' 
iiigdividedamoi>gtheponrercircuita,will secure In their j 
pnacben a much larger salary than could be paid them 
without sup|>1emenlary aid. The whole la under the 
aupeniaion of Conference. 2. Frre Churdi o/Scinbind, ' 
— A fund provided for the support of ministers nf thai 
Church. The idea was probably derived by Dr. Ciial- ! 



SUTPHEN 

men ftom tbe 'Wesleyansi and a acbeme was deriiri 
by him and made public before Ihe Diampition, and ii 
now carried into operation ihrougbout Scotland. Tit 
amount of this fund for 1873 to 1(174 wai X152,U£. 

SntClUTe (or SontcllSe), Mattbaw. an Kiu- 
lish divine, was alucated at Trinity Gillege.Cambiidin. 
In 1586 be was installed archdeacon of Taunton, ami m 
Oeu n, 1588, conhrmed dean of Exeter. Ke died in 
iei9. He ac(|uired aume celebrity by his CuUrgr iii 
Polemical Divine*, which came to naught shortly sftri 
hia death. Among hia works are, A Trtatitt a/Lcri^ 
tiaUiait DuciptiM (Land. 1691, 4lo):— Dc Praifi/ri-, 
rjiuqM Xora n fj^daia CiruftKaui Fiiliuia (ihid. IWI. 
4to) :—De Ctillmlica H Oilhodara Chiitli Ettiriia (iUL 
1692,3 voU.): — /^ /W/ijtcu /ajViT'i DoiKiaaImm i- 
Katfia, cimfru HrUarmmm (ibid. 1599. 5 vi^) ;-/» 
Turfo-fapiiBu; or SnmMimct betmm Alidunmtlaium 
cml/^iy(ibi.l. 1599.41"):— /)e A. ;yntori>,eic.iibi.L 
1599,4to):— y)ie Vtra CAristi A'crJribt (ibid. IG(IO,ll.>i: 
—t>e .Vitia, adnriHi BMiinamm (ibid. IS03,4(o):- 
Oe/wfofiTNliiiel JuMr) (ibid.l606,3Tula.evo). M« 
Allibone, fH(«. </ ifrif. uiaJ .4 NKT. J idAura, a. v. ; Oul- 
mers, tiiog. Did. s. v. 

SntcllSe. Robert Barns, a mtnialer of tbe IKtili- 
odut Epiwipal Church, was bom in Yorkahiie. £»;:- 
land, in IHI6, ami came to America in 1835, wtiliiiK m 
Trenton, N. J. In J8M he was admitted on trial iui" 
the New Jer«ey Cniiference, and was actively empkiinl 
up to the time of his deaih, which occurred at Vion-ni- 
lowii, Feb. le, ier4. See Miwlit o/Amutd Cmftr. 
rmxi, 1874, p. 36. 

Suthdure (Sax. loiillk dMr), the place where a- 
nonical purgatian was perfumied. When a fact ehsix«l 
affainsE a person was unproved, the accnsed was hrutuht 
to tbe south door of his parish church, and then, in ili? 
presence of the faithful, made oath of his innoctno. 
This is one reason why large south porches are liiuiHl m 

Snthreh Shatiia, a division of the Sikhs in Hin- 
dustan whose priests may be known by parlwulaiiDaik>. 
Tbns they make a pe^ieitdiciilar black wreak down ll>« 
forehead, and carry two small black sttcka, each abuii 
half a yard in length, with which Ihey make a ir<ft 
when they solicit alma. They lead a wandering liP, 
begging ami ainging songs in the Punjabi and oUki d>- 
alecta, mostly of a moral and mystic tendency. Tl«i 
are held in great contempt, and are froquciitlv di>rF|i<i. 
table in chancier. They consoler Tegh bhader. iIm 
father of Guru (iovind, as their father. 

Sutpben, Joaoph WalirOTth. ■ Pnabvuiian 
minister, waa bom at Sweden, N. Y., in 1835. He Fil- 
tered Hamilton Gillege. and giwluated in tM7 ; slirr 
which he entered the Union Theological Seminary, iii 
IMM; from whence be graduated in 1861. He waa «- 
dained with a view of his entering the foreign field u 
miasionary. and on Nov. 7, 1851, departed for Harsuvan. 



loilic 



1 Ihe Turki 






His 



Morris Crater, n.D., a PnabvK 
bom Dec. I, 1837, a 



Church Aug. IA. 1855. He gndM 
aled fnim Princeton College in 1856. After liachi^ 
in a private family in Vit^nJa. be entered PriuMi^ 
Theological Seminary, from whence he graduaml itc, 
a three }-e*ra' coursed In both oolkge ami aeniir 
gained a bij^h pii9iTii>n as a scholar. He was Ii 
bv the Piesbvlerv of Elizabeth town, at Rahwav 
alid cm May 1, \>m, was ordained by the I'resbyl 
Philadelphia, and installed aa collegiate pastor 
Spring tianlen Church in that citv, lo serve as co-i" 
Icir with the vencnble Jobn HcUowell, D.D., a 
death, Feb. 13, ISitH, he became sale paator. 
pastorate of great ticleliiy and fmitfulneas. in w 
became quite popular, lie became collegiate put 



SUTRA 



41 



fbc tnwnUc J. UcElmj, D.D., of the Scotch ChuTcb 
in New Tort, >ad WM iiuuOled April !f8, 186e. He *u 
sUiged (a ttnga in 18Tl,oa lecount araphoni>,wbicb 
tjomoKy to Europe fuLed to remedy. After liLnretunt 
be ipesl ■ wjotet in t'lariiia, uid nude an eBbit (o sup- 
pir tbc polpit of the Jackaonville Church, but wh 
obliged Ut i^inqnuh iu Returning lo Ibe Noitb, hii 
bpmhb ODOtinued to bil, ind he died it HorriMown, N. 
J, Jn 18, 1875. Dr. Sutphen wvt a tilenled, popuUr, 
■ml aaetal pracbtr, > man of geuial ipirit, ■ Chrittiio 
genlenun, a UboriouB p«alor, and ■ hard iluilent, inil 
HH luccewful in all departments of Chrialian work. 
He wn oOered ibe preridenoy of i tree colleges, 
MW time a profenorBbip in one of the Iheulogical aenii- 
uri» of Ibe Church, but to none of thew did he cuii- 
wkt bii bealib aclMiuate. He mai engaged during the 
\tua pan of hi* Ufe in preparing a Uaiuiul of famOji 
WofTiip. (W, P. S.) 

SntTk is Ibe Kcond diviuon of the Mcred irrilingB 
•fihe bidtlhiiu, addreaoctl lo the laity. The following 
viu ahow bov thpie sacred writinga are clauified : The 
I'kaTMmHi. divided iutu the SuUiaii and A MMamMoni; 
■(aia difideil into — 1. ll'uwjiii,aT discipline; 2. Salia, 

TW Ijiiira 1*1 taka cnnlaios Bcren KCtiona, called flon^; 
•nd, includiiig Liith teit and cumoiKnIary, ' 
tuuui. beeUanlj, £a 

Sntri ( near Rame ). Cocncil 
••an), waa held in December, 1046, b; Ilenrv the 
Bbek. king of Germany. Cregoij- VI wai invited 
la tkia enuneil, and came, hoping to be recogniwd 
B site poniilT; but, finding variooa dllGcultiea and 
sMKiea in ibe wa.v, he renounced the papacy, stripped 
kieiaclf of hii omanienta, and gave back the paMural , 
nM,tlut having held the papal chair about twen' | , 
II Boottu. After the council, Henry, accompanied i , 
b* tba pnlstea whu had been prrwnt, went in Rome, I , 

a^l br amimoD eon«ni of the R..ni>n> and Ger- i j,^,^ ^ ji,^ „„i^j ,„j^ ■„ aubddi.rv alliance with 
, elected pope, who i.«k the name the government oflndia, and the prar.ibc mav be con- 
— "• — -'^ "V, '!""^.T ., "" P'"*'!'"'^ aidered in be practically exlinct 
See ItAD-. CoMoL IX, 9*S; U,ma,U5, Am«^ . An atteropl,ollal«yeara,ha.been m.debyrajahRad- 
liankant Deb lo ehow that in a text belonging In a par- 
Batt«e (Sune. mH, Ttiiaoat, Le. wife), the name | licular acboul of the Blaei Yiijur-Vfda ibtn ia really a 
[Ti^ IB Hioduuau to a woman who voluntarily ucri- paseage which wodIiI jiistify Ihe praclice of suttee; but 
kn btn^ by burning upiiti the funeral pyre nf her the text ciied by him is of doubtful canouicilyi and, 
e practice haa nut moreover, there ia a text in the A^Vrcfa which, if 



ao long shall she not be exempted from springing again 
tolifein the body of BomeremaleaiiimaL Wheothrir 
Inrdu have departed at the fated time of attaining beav- 

for women whose vinuoua conduct and whoia thoughta 
hare been devoted to their liuabasds, and who fcai the 
dangen of separation." 

The mode of peiforming luttee varies in anme unim- 
portant respects, but its principal features are the same. 
BO I An oblong space, seven feet by eix feel, is enclused by 
nd bamboo aiskes about eight feet lung, driven into the 
rk. [ earth, witbin which a pile is built of Mraw, baugha, and 
at. lugsofwDod. Allercertaiii prajenand ililulionH have 
' been gone through with, the boiiy of the deceaaed hus- 
band is brought from the house and place<l upon the 
pilej sometimes in a little arbor of wreathed bamboos, 
hung with flowers within and without. Then the wife 
appean, and is unveiled by the Urahmiiu^ herself re- 
moving Ihe ornamenta hom her person, distributing 
them among her friends, by whom they are highly 
prised. She reserves only one jewel, the loli, or amu- 
let, phiced round ber neck by her deceased hiuband on 
the nuptial day. Led by ihe principal Brahmin, she 
walks three times around Ilie pile, and then asceuds to 
the side of her husband. Embracing ihe body, she lies 
or ails beude it, whereupon the nearest relative appliea 
the torch. The shrieks of the dying woman, if she ul- 
ten any, are dnwneil by the shouu of Ibe spectalora 



Fort 


eloB 


ppress thi« ri 


c were made as 


euJy 


as the 


cei 


urv 


V the Mohan 




Akbar, but 


out 


much 


effcLL The 


practice cunlio 


ued 


osncb 




t tba 




D and Wii tber 








nBengaUlo 


le. In 1829 lord Be 


nlinck. 




-gen 


ral, enacted 


s law decUring 


all 


ud, as- 




orjui 


ticipation in 


nyactofs-tle 


tob 




nd 


punbhabk as such 


Inie47,duri 


glordHsr- 



■aaa, Saiilger was 



I.D. IM6. 



Wa eoateed lo India, where it has had ellect fur many 

W E— eiiM nuR than 300 yean aC. The period of 
■aengin ia India is unknown, though it ia certainly (< 
fitm sniiquiiy. Although the practice is not enjoined 
'T thnr saerHl buol», yet it is baaed by the orthodox 
IndfiainUwinjUDciiiinof tbetrShaatraa,andi ' 

inoe the belief wb 

-hua the Bnikma- 

1 after ijie death of ber husband; the separate 
tim of her husband would be luM (to all religious 
■xials). If ber lord die in another country, let the 
* ' U wile place hia Baiidala on ber breast, and, pure, 
■he fire." The faithful widow is pronounced no 
IcbylherediedieitoftheA^lniu. The code 
</ Ttlaa says, ■" Leartx Ihe power of ihat wiilow who, 
IrniaK thai her husband has deceased and been burned 

a BUber region, speedily casta beraelf into the fire." "• '™*- "« translated the Scnpnirw ni'o unya, eira- 
JU the code of Angira^ "That woman who, on the I P'l«l "> OnJ* dictionary, grammar, and lesson-b.-*, 
hak af lier busbuid. ascends the same burning pile " b*«"le» writing The Family Chnphii (Colciitia, 1881- 
■ilb bin is exalted to heaven, as equal in virtue lo ' 82, 2 vols. 8™):— flise and Piegrrf «f llu Muaiou al 
AiBdbMi (the wife of Vasi.htba), She follows her I (^•'^ (Phila. 18mo): — f?>wci in.d ilt /Ctongrlltnlion 
Wiud to heann, and will dwell in a region of jov ! (Oefby. Eng.Svo; Boatoti, I850,»tv..) ^-WsinB-ioot/o-- 
UwB Bsoy years aa there are hairs on a human b.-lv, , ■^f'"i<" CoHjrnjotibM .■— and 6'Bi.fc lo Ihi Saviour. 
^Ktbinyjve millions. Aa long aa a woman (in her i Sutton, CttBTlM Mannera, D.D., an English 
liBa^vt n%ntioDa) shall decline burning herself, like prelate, waa the fourth son of lord <:e«r|:e Mannen. -Siii- 
l( Inthful wife. Em the same fire willi ber deceased lord, | ton, and was bom in llliS. He was cdncaled at Emmanuel 



properly read, directs the widow, ofier attending lo her 
husband's fiineral ceremniiics, lo return home and at- 
tend to her domeMic dutie& See WilNin. On Ihe Hup- 
poted VaidU A ulAoriig far fht Bumiitg nf Hindi Wiii- 
VBS <Uind. 1862), vol ii. 

Snttotl. AItrIi a., a minister of the Melhndint 
Episcopal Church, waa bom in Vrrmoni. June 19, I84G. 

ing and farming. In I8T3 be I'.H.k work iiiKJerlhe pre- 
siding elder, and supplied l^mg Prairie I'barKe fur two 
years. In 187& be was ordained d<aii»i.Hrlmiiied into 

•lerd Mission. He died Feb. 15. Ittlli. See Mnain :f 
Aiauat Con/trtHca, 1876, p. ]»i. 

Snttoii, Amoa, an English missinnsrv, was bom 
at Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1798. lie was ordainnl f.ir ihe 
mission work st Derby in 18S4, and sent li. Oriua, In- 
dia. He left this Held once for a vi>ii la Entrland and 
death took place 



SUTTON < 

Ca11eg«. CunbridKe; appointed dein of Feterborongb, 
1791; bishop or Norwich, I792i dean oTWlndHr, I794i 
■nil archbuhap of Canurbury, ISO&. He died July i\, 
1828. He published, Fivt Briluh Sprdff nfOni«mclu 
{Tramaaimu of the Liiin. Soc 1797, iv, 118):— ^mwiu 
(1794,410; 1797,4to).' See AUibone, i>Kf. o/ Arir. and 

Sntton, CliriatOph«r, ■ learned English divine, 
oas a nariie nrUimpshire, aitd entered Hart Hall, Ok- 
roul, <n lAfli, aged levtiireen jean, but ns socni trans- 
ferred to Linodn Cu]lei;e. He wa> made prebendary 
nf Wuluiinster, 160G) prebendary of Uncnln, 1618, and 
died in 1639. He published, Dtict Mori (Lnnd. 1600, 
24mn, with seven! Uler edjiions, K. Y. 1845, ISmo) :_ 
DUft Vittrt (I^ond. IC08, IIidd; 1863, IHmot N. ¥. 
Iflmo) ■.—Godly Utdilalioni upon Ike Mail Holy Sacra- 
mntoflht Jjirit Supprr (Und. ICSa, 12mo; late edi. 
tii.iit, 1838, 1847, 1849: Oxf. 1839. 1841, ISmo; N. Y. 
1841, IBmo). See AUihoiie, Did. of Brit, and Amtr. 
A iiliort, s. \: 

Snttou, Henry,! miiiiWer of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, was bum near I'rincelun, N. J., .luiy "" 



Leavii 






nTreii 



liiii, K. J., where he united with the Church. After 
|ireacliing ■ year, he entered the Philadelphia Omfi 
eiiee on trial in 1835. In 1858 be was msile siipeni 
merary, and liter Biistaiiiini; that relatinn for Mreral 
Venn, was placed on the superannuated list, and (here 
remained •mtil his death, in PhiladelphU, Pa., Mareh 
!3, 1870. He was then a member of the WilminRlnn 
Umference. Sec Mimaa n/Ammut Coitfirmcti, 1877, 

,Kl2. 

Sutton, Rlohard, the co-founder of Braseinwe 
ColleBe, Onfonl, was the younger son of Sir William 
Sutton. Ur the time or place of his birth we have nii 
•.-ertain accovnl, but we know that he practiced as a bar- 
rister of the Inner Temple. In 1490 he purchased some 
«tUi« in Leicealenhire, and afUrwards increased bis 
landed property in different eoualiea. In 1498 he was 
a member of Henry Vlll's privy council, and in 1606 
was one of the governors of Ihs Inner Temple. We 
Uiid him, in 1513, aclins aa Ueward nf the Munasterv of 
Sioo, near Brentford, Middlesex. He died about 1524. 
His bequests were almuM all of ■ religious or cliaritable 
kind. His benefactions to Bmsennse College were ea- 
pecially liberal, he having completed the buildinft and 
doubted its revenues, besidea leaving to it several valu- 
able cetMei. He bore the expense of publishing the 
very rare book The Oi-dmrdt ofUgoK. 

SnttOD, Stepbon B.. a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Chureh, was bom in Clermont County, O., 
Veb. 14, 1819, and united with the Church in Febriian-, 
1837. He WIS licensed to preach Uaich IS, 1844, and 
was admitted i>n trial into the Indiana Conference in 
October, 1851. He ilied at Martinaville, December, 1863. 
Jlr. Sutton was very successful in his work, having ad- 
mitted about 1373 persona into the Church. See J/in- 
uUi -/ A miiat Coufermctt, 1864, p. !201. 

SnttOH, Thoma* (l), founder of the Charter- 
house school anil hospitsJ, was bom at Koaith, Lincolu- 
Hhire, in 153S. He wis educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge, but at what colleEB is uncertun. Afler travel- 
ling abroad for some lime, be returned borne in 1562; 
was retained by the duke of Norfutk. and afterwards 
became secretary to the earl of Warwick and his broth- 

luincs at Berwick, and tbonh' after obtained a patent 
fur the office of maatet-general uf the ordnance of the 
North, which he reuined until 1594. He entered into 
iMisinem, and was at the lime of his death (at Hackney, 
Dec. r^, 1611) the richest untitled subject in the king- 
dom. He endowed the Cbarteihoun in 1611 with the 
bulk of hi« property. See AUibone, Diet, af Bril. pad 
A Mtr. A alhori, a. v. ; Chalmers, Biog. Ditt. a. v. 
Sntton, Thomaa (3), D.D^ an English clergy- 



Z SVAIXTIX 

man, was bom at Bampton, WeMmoreland, and enleied 
Qiieen'a College. Oxford, in 1603, at lh« age of aiium. 
He became perpetual fellow in 1011, lectnia of St. 
Helen's, Abingtnn, Berks, and minister of Calham,aiul 
afterwards miniwet uf St. Hary Overiea, Southwaifc. 
He waa drowned at sea in 1638. He published aepaiau 
Semoiu (Lond.l6l5,8vo; 1616, Svo; 1636, 4to; 1631, 
ilo^-.—I^tctum on Itanumi, ck. xi (1633, 4iu) :— and 
left in MS. LtHHTti en Roauai, ci. zii, and Pialm oil. 
See AUlbune, DiO. of Brit, and A atrr. A Mlhon, a. v. 

Button, WiUlttm, a minister of the Methodist 
Epincflpal Chureh, was lorn in Virginia about 1783, and 
in 1810 was licensed U> preach. In 18^ he was or- 
dained deacon by bisliop M'Kemlree, aiul in 1839 eldtf 
bv bishop Kobcn*, and after this gave the Cfantch 
faitbrul service Un twentv-nine rears. He died at 
London, Madiwm Cu.. U., l>ec iS,'lB58., Sec Mim-afi 
nfAmuul Ctmfirmca of the M. K. Cliuitk, SonH, 1859; 
p. 190. 

Suva, in Japanese myihnlogr, is the god of the 
cliaae atnl the tutelary patnm of all lumtera. l^rgt 
processiona are aimually formed in his honor. 

STfldiUnr. in Norse my tholngy. was a famous hnr» 
of the giant who built the castle of the gods. He pro- 
jected a great fortress for the asas who were defending 
themselves against the ice-gianis; and he otTered him- 
self as an architect to erect it, provided they would give 
him three winters to Auish it, and the beautiful Freia at 
a wife and the sun and moon as servants. Hy the a<I- 
vice nf Lake, the asas accepted the offer, on the condi- 
tion that he tbonhl fulHI it in one winter, and wiibiut 
any other help than the burse Svadilfnr, The giant 
agreed to this, sihI his home exhibited such exlraonli- 
narytitcii);th that he easily lifted stones of the greatr< 
weight, which would have required a buiulred hiune* tit 
carry ; and the building was already completed, except 
a tingle gale, before Ihe asas had thought it pomblr. 
They then threatened Loke wiih death if he did n"t 
break up the contract. Loke thereupon anuimed Ibr 
form of a beautiful mare, an.1 an engaged the Malli.m 
Svadilfur iliat he broke the rope by which he was held 
and folkiwed Loke, who tuik him far enough airai. 
From this connection sprang Odin's famous eight-paiteil 
hnisc Sleipner, who was fleeter than the wind and never 
tired. The archilect saw himself dcwtted by his hel|i, 
and sought to assume his gigantic form in nnler ro Au- 
ish the work with all hia strength ; but in the dilemma 
of the goils a-H lo wheiher in ihat case Ihey ahnnhl 
abide by their wonl, or whether the giant aboiiUI 



liddenly app'.ii 



his hammer and slew iIm 



Svaba, in HindO mytbotogy, was the spouse of the 
Are-god AguL 

SvaluabaUBl, or Swaths' Hii.i., in None mrlbol- 
ogy, was a place which appears lo have been originally 
nidence t-r dwarfs, inasmuch as the Edda mentions 
several of these as coming thence to Orwanga (anoir- 
fleld} and Jomwall (iron or battle Add). 

Svaixdunoka, in Slavic mythology, was the brill- I 
iant brideof Ihe stat-god. She wat worshipped by the 
heathen Prussians as a friendly, benign goddess, who 
kept the stars in their courses when her husband dro|>> 

storm and cloud. | 

Svalxtix, in Slavic mythology, was the gwl t/lln 
stars and of sunlight, whom the ancient Pnwsiini re- 
vered iu common with the Wends and Slavs in Poaie- 
lania, etc He was represented in exceedingly ricb 
clothing, bad tiames and ravs abuut his bead,and'B loft 
' ir on the miildle of his crown, which rose like a 
flame of Are. From old Ulielnean works of art we infer, 
thstanding the inacripiion which calls him BtUog 
(L e. biali bog, a good deity, in oppontion to Cicnwbeg, 



SVAKONS 



SVIABTOVIT 



Ihc evil goil), that he wu ■ milioons deity, tince lit 
ippun H Berce uid Ibibidding ; but ir« miut bear in 
niiid L)iu Kulplim mutt Hm to ■ bigh Rnit bcfnra 
miit ml inTidog fomu can be repraented. Tbii 
(IT na ai IhU time ui mcb infancy Ihit ne can only 
Tuskr tww the Ogtin* are ihapely at all. SraiiElix 
VH the nwM benevalent deiiy; lie illumitialed the 
ofbi liT ilie Klimner of the uan, by tba aurora 
and tbt •iHtw-iighi, and, like tbe sua- god, imparted 
ipwiib lo lecd* and warailh -' '- '-''-- 



n Lettitb mytbulog;, were nothuyera 
*aa MetoM urtunea from flame and the tmoiie or a 
U|hL 

SvalCOnl. in Letliab mylhulogT, were pneMa vbo 
■BidmUBd nuptial eerenianie)^ eiamined bridegroomi 
and bride* who were abinil to many, tied the conjugal 
luuil, and pranoaneed tbe biening upon (htm in the 

a the meat n- 
ng the Wend*. 
At Aifcena, on the iiland or RUgen, atuod bia gigantic 
ioMKi, wbirb wai far and wide, fur the whnle KHjIhcm 
cma of the Ballie Sea, the central point of wnnhip. 
SrBDlcTit wai an eaamwos eolosaui, which on Tuur 
aedu bon four headi with ■hom hair and ahort beanl. 
Hii ckidiinic waa like that of the Wendi in genend : ■ 
ean eileuding to the kneea, made of doth or Tell, with 
king Hide tleevea: a ginlle bel<l it ii^theri the leg* 




I Ihe right hand 



iiuigiiia, hia iiDiige, whiet 
Blood in Khetra, had al» i 
lung-bearded human heac 
on the breast. Svantevii 
was both a good anil an evi 
ileicy, as the comuco|nB am 
the bow indicated — the lat 
ter for war, the funuer toi 
peace. He nvershadowei 
Ihe whole earth with lii 

Bel was highly priieil am 
hi* oracles were tbe mnw 
conipicuoua, as bla cultui 
iuvolTcd earthly power and 
authority. He was 
abipficd with dmnkpii 



but, it would seem, on 
wlien be was angry, [i 

one high-iiTJest, who, on t! 
day of the great harvest fi 
lival, peraonally swept 1 1 
temple, and tliat with i 
offend the gud with t 
I ml into hi* great enmiicopia ; 
. remained over fmni Ihe pre- 
I drawn as to the abundance 
oc Mhowije of the nut yeer'i cru|). Tbe temple 
sad the image »f the gud were deainiyeil by Wal- 
iWatr [,on the baptijMn uf the pe"|de. Tlie public 
nnhip uf thii god thereafter eeaseil, although it pri- 

nfM Ihe spot wltb auperttilinun awe. The iiilerprc- 
isiiw uT lb< name aa Haig Vol (.Sanctua Vilua) ii 



Svaatldes, in Slavic myihology, was the god nf 
mmer, represented by the warm beans of apritig that 
troduced summer. He was worshipped by tbe Wenda 
and Slavs as a deity of the second rank. 

Svavm, in Norse mytholi^cy, was a beautiful daugh- 
ter of king Eylimi, who became famoua through Uelgi 
Haddingi, the »n of Hiorward, king of Norway. Tbe 
last had made a vow to call hii own tbe fairest woman 
of the eanb; and Ibas he already had three wivee — 
Alfhild, the molher uf Hedin; Siiieid, the mother of 
Humlung; and Sinrind, Ihe mother nf Hilming_when 
he heard that Sigurlin was the handsamest of wnmen. 
He immediately wooed hei through the Jarl Atli, but 
wu rejecled through fear of other suitors. Thereupon 
he made war upon her father, and at length seized Si- 



gurlin. She w. 



rofa 



famous Helgi, who remained (] 
hearted Svava aroused him, gave him tbe lume of Hel- 
gi, and allied herself to him aa a godmother. Defended 
by Ihe bad and charming W'alkiir, and armed with a 
never- failing sword, Helgi signaliaed himself by deeds 
iif llie grealett bemism; but he was, nererlheless, stain 
hy Alii, the son of Hrodmar. No sooner, however, 
was Helgi reborn as the son of king Sigmund and the 
beaulifid Uonchili than Svava oIhi reappeared in a aec- 
aml incarnation as Ihe Sbiltl virgin Sigrnn. Helgi was 
but one day old when he stonil in armor and longed fur 
Ihe batlle and victory. He crepl. in female attire, iiitii 
the house of Ihe powerful but wjckeil king Hundingur, 
explored it as a waiting-maid, and then attacked and 
■lew him in a dreadful oouteM. Helgi next wooed the 
beauliful and formerly Inved Svava, now Sigrun; hot 



and was approaching the goal uf his wishes when a new 
obstacle arose in tbe person uf his own brother Hedin. 
Tbe latter was reluming bnme in Julaabend when he 
met an ugly old wilch, out oTihe furest. riding on a wolf, 
which she drove with reius nf iwistetl snakes, and she 
■ilTered herself as a Walkur to the beauliful youth as a 
pmiedreiwi but when he disdained her, she angrily 
cried. "Thou shalt pay fur Ibis wiih Uraga's cup." 
When Hedin reaehnl his home, he wildly awore that 
be wi«ild possess himself of Signm, his brother's bride, 
and be accordingly went immnliately to seek bia broth- 
er for that purpoae. The latter not only Irealed him 
kinilly, but, having been already monally wounded in 
balile, surrendered her to his brother. When Helgi ar- 
rived in Walballa, all the Joys of heaven eouM nnt sup- 
lutiful Sigrun; he therof<ite re- 



turned to hit tomb, and reeled there all night by tl 

UDunced Iht end a( hia delight; and, mounting his 
tieed, be relumed to the halla of Walhalla. Helgi 
was a ihird time bom as the wamd Haddinga, while 
Svava, likewise, a third lime appeared as Kara, daugh- 
ter of Halldan, who was king of Denmark, an<l, 
with Ihe apouae of bit daughter, ruled orer loiid and 

6v«tga Divi,in Hindu mytbnlogy,is a section of 
genii who exeeale the immediate commands uf Indra, 
the Indian aun-god. They seem not to have a lai^ 
rorm, since they otlen ask human help in order to defend 
them against tbe Aaaur^ or evil genii. 

SriartOTit (SUvic, Ao/y vornor), tbe most cele- 
brated deity of the ancient Baltic SlBvol1iail^ whose 
temple and idol were at Arkona, the capital of the 
island of KUgen. This last stronghold nfSlaniniL-idul- 
airy was taken and destroyed, A. D. 1168, by Waldemor 
I, king of Uenmark, See Si.avoiii*!)a. 



SVIDOR 4 

Svldoi ind Srlpall, in Mane mylhologj, an mr- 

Svlpul, in None mylholagr, wu one of the beinli- 

ful Wa]kun,or fomale spiriu whounierthe Inttle. 

Biraddle (^rn, U hmtdage, arapyavimx but 
nB!^, iu L^m. ii, S3, meuu M btar upon Iht pain), in 
■wathe in infant with clothi in order U> keep its tender 
limba fnim injuiy, a practice comoion in the Eaat (Ezek. 
xvi, 4; Luke ii, 7}. See Blitrit. 

Swaddlers, an ahsurd nickname gii-en by the 
Iriili Boman Cathulica to the early HeLhudiaU. It ia 
«aiU to have originated from John Cennick preaching a 
■enaon on the Babe "wraj^ied in BMaddling-clothea," 
the ignorant Roman Catholica who heard it or heard of 
it aiippDaiiigthe"ewaddling-clatbe«"to be an invention 
of the PmlestantB. In the year 1738 a baliad-iinger 
named Butler actually raited riuu in Dublin and else- 
where to the cry of "Five pouiida for the head of a 

"Anti»waddler»." 

Swahlll TBralon. The Soahill, which wa* for- 
merly deacribed ai KiiaahtH (that is, "according to 
Swahili"), a ipoken at Zanzibar and for a coniideralle 
diatance dawu the East Coast of Africa, besides being 
likely to become an important means of communicatiiin 
with inlanJ Iribea. The language Is evidently an uff- 
shoot of the Kaffir family, but iB.Btrongly impregnated 
with Arabic words, being a connacling-link between the 
two opposite fiunilies of speech. A tentative translation 
of the New Test, was made by the Rev.Dr. Krapf when 
iu Eastern Africa a few years ago, hut he never so far 
perfected his work as to render it prudent Ut propose its 
publication. Independi^utly ofDr. Krapfs work, the at- 
tention of others had been drawn to this important sub- 
ject; andwhen theRev. Dr.Steere returned to England 
in lH69hebtiiU|;htwith him a translation ofSi. Matthew 
and the book of Psalms, which he had himself prepared 
during a ruiilence of several years at Zaniibar. In the 
name year the (iuspel of St. Uatthew was printed ; and 
S6 this was the Hrst time any part of tho Scriptures had 
been puUished in that language, and the circulation 
must of necessity be li mi tad. only a small edition was 
issued. In 1871 the book of Psalms was printed, which 
was followed in IB'S by the publication uf St. John's 
(iospcl, and in IS77 by that uf St. Luke, the latter as 
translated by the lale misunnary Rebmann, but with 
the orthography made to conform to that of bishop 
Steere. From the Rfport for the year 1877, we see that 
a proposal was made to use the Arabic characters fur this 
version, but the committee of the Driiinh and Foreign 
Bible Society could not approve of it, inasmuch as the 
weight of evidence went to show that any natives who 
were acquainted with the Amine characters cnuld read 
■he pure Arabic version, while for the rest the Kisiiaheli 
II Roman characters was far simpler. Altogether the 



. about 



. (i.. 



■he puUicalioii of St. Matthew in 1B69 
187H) 4048 copies. Thus encouraged, bishop Steere is 
prepsring a translation of the other books of the Bible. 
(B. I'.) 

Swaim, John Sanford, a minister of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, w SB bom at Chatham, N.J., 
May 1, 1806, and united with the Church at the age of 
finrteeu. He waaadmiiud on trial in the Philadelphia 
(Junfereiice in 1834, and continued actively engaged in 
■he pastorate until 18GS. He then entered the Chiis- 
lian Coram issioii, and was appointed to Hilton Head. 
In 1864 he was made supernumerary, and appointed : 
misHunary to Jacksonville, Fla. Finding the cUmaie j 
conKeniai to his health, he continued to resiile there nn- I 
til his death, Nov. IS, 1875. ISee UiaiUfi of AmitiU 
Cmftrnett, 1876, p. 42. | 

Swalm, Samnal Bndd. D.D., an able minisiei 
of the Baptist denomination, was bom at Pembertun, 
N. J., June 22, 1809, and was a graduate of Brown Uni- 



1 SWALLOW 

versjty in tbedaMof ISBOandaftheNewCooThadcigi- 
iCBl Institution in the class of 1833. He WM utdniwd 
at Haverhill, Mass., Nov. T, 1S3S. For aootc tiine he 
was professor in Granville College (now Densaou Cat- 
venity). In 18311 be tank charge of the diH Baptia 
Church in Worcester, Mass., where his miniNiy was ao 
eicineutly sucoeasful one. and eoutiaued aixleen rears. 
From ISM to 1862 be was pastor in West Camtoidge, 
and then became an agent for the American Baptist 
Home Missionary Society. His death took pUce Feb. 
a, 1865. <J. C S.) 

Swain, Cbules W., a minister of the Hetbodin 
Episcopal Church, was bum at New Bedford, Maaa., Oct. 
22, 1793. He united with the Church in Ricbmond, 
Clermont Co„0., in 18l9,Bnd in 1831 was admiued on 
trial into the Ohio Conference, and in due time received 
deacon's and elder'a orders. Ue-wai actively engaged 
in the ministry (excepting one year'a service aa ageoi 
of ibe Ohio Wesleysn University) until the fall of lSa&, 
In 18£6 he look a superamiuated relation, and maile hi* 
home in Koston until his death, April ib, 1870. Mr. 
Swain aaaisted in a^aniiiug a temperance aociety in 
New Richmond, O., as earlv as Sept. 1, 1829, the tirBt of 
the kind west of the Alleghany Uoonlains. See Mil- 
aitt nfAmual Con/rrtaca, 1870, p. 166. 

Swain, ITatttan, a Methodist Episcr^ud minialer, 

of age. In 1799 he was admitted on trial in the Phila- 
delphia Conference, in 1801 admitted into full coonec- 
tion and ordained deacon, and in 1803 ordained elder. 
efTective, with the exception of two years. 



U 1816, when 






relltiim 



he sustained until 1832, when he became euperanniiated, 
and so remained until his death, March 1, 1845. See 
Miutttts of A mtual Corferencrtj iv, 14. 

SwBln, Richard, a Melbodiit ETuacopal roinister, 
was a native of New Jersev. in 1789 be was ailmilreil 
on trial, in 1791 into full connection, and filled the M- 
lowing stations: Trenlcn, N. J., in 1789; Flaodcn, in 
1790-91; Middlelown Circuit, Conn., in IT9S; New 
Undon, in 1798; Salem, N. J., in 1794; Buriingion, in 
1785; Freehold, in 1796; Trentnn, in 1797; Fteehnld. 
in 1798; Salem, hi 1799 and 1800; Belhcl, in 1801 ; 
CapeMav,in 1802; Salem,in 18U3. He became ouper- 
numerary in 1804-7, and died Jan. 17. 1808. He was 
a man of great usefulness in the ministry. See JThi- 
ul« ofAHmal Confrrrncet, i, 169; Slei-eiio, IlitKoftlm 
,V.£.(7AurcA,iv,280; Bangs, //if. o/ fjle «.£. Ciarel, 
ii,262. 

S^ralloir is the rendering, in the A. T.,*of two 
Heb. words, and posubly the true meaning of a third. 
None uf ihem. however, are very clearly identifiable ac- 

1. -|i^^.*rtfr,prop./t4m'j (as often rendcrtd), L e. 
•iriclly siri^Hsi, occurB iu two passages only with ref- 
erence to a bird; Fsa. Ixxxiv.S (Heb. 4), "The neal- 
loK [hath found] aneal:' Prov. xxvi. 2, "as the svo^ 
low by flying.^ The ancient versions, in the frwrner 
passage, uwlerstand a larllf-doirt (Sept. rpuiyir ; Vulg. 
luriur), and in the tatter a spunotj (/iTpov^os, ponrr). 
The radical signification of the word fat-ors the ideia 
that it may include the swallow, with other swilUy fly- 
ing or free birdo. The nhl commentators (so tbe rab- 
bins), except Bochait (llirrta. ii. 690 si).), who renders 
it "culumttt fera." apply it to the swallow, from the love 
of freedom ui this binl' anil the impossibility of retain- 
ing it in captivity (De Wette, Cmhreii, Ewald, Geae- 
niu\ Thrtaar. p. 355). It is mure likely that it was bo 
named from its ragudity of flight. It pmbahly, there- 
fore, is nuire properly the " swift" or " black martin," 
probably the dururi, mentioned by Fnrakll as mi- 
ing to Alexandria from Upper Egypt about the end 
of October (/)e»ni>>r. .4ntm.p.l0>. The frequenting «f 
" buildings bv this doss of birds (Herod, i, IBS; 
V. H. V, 17) is proverbial (Schultcos, Momm. 



SWALLOW 46 

FfAArol. Carm. p. 1 i Nicbufar, Beiiai, ii, 3T0). Sec 



SWALLOW 



•"iy, 'agir, tbi twiOerer^ also Damn Hr 
riii,l4,"UheBiTun [or] aMDatbw,Mdi 
' Jw. Tui, 7, " Tbe (unle »nd ttic cni\t 
h» otHcrre (he tinM." Id both these pi 






^(.. 



r. x^>A 






■ii). rHidociI "crane," bu( in the fnrmer pwuge the 

Js. n»1«» both word* by the si 
Vde- paffu tirvudtMu; and in Ji 
imado •( rvvwl.- thus ij^THitig wiLn me a. >. in at- 
aaiif,ikit uraUotc Bnchirl, huweveT(//KroE. ii, fiU 
■VV maimuitis that 'agir a the proper Hebrev de«iK- , 
taua* of tbe crane. He oinipirei tbe wurd with the 
'IhM. SCSI'.Z, lartrfa, tbe Arab, hirki, the Gr. yipn- 
i«f. the Welsh garan, and the Germ, trail, all iif which 
■It, like it, oDomatiipaeric. Tbe twittering or queru- 
Liu BUDd (C;XEX) and the tnigratory habit are both 
cdmctMisucs which meet in the crane; its cry ii often 
(uiii|itn<t by the poets with that of ■ person in distress 
n xrirf, sod its mi^^tnTj- habits are frequcntlv dwelt 
BinibTaiKientwriten(AristaLJ>Rin.viii,lS; .Elian, 
.( ru. "iii. 13. 23 1 Pliny, x, 31 ; Quint Curl. SFaym. ti, 
in;; xiii, 103 sq.). This view has been fallowed by 
KMWDllller, Maurer, and Henderson in Ibeir comments 
■B iHiih. Uewnius, though seeming to favor this 
new in bis minaieflUiy '"' isa'>b, repudiates it in his 
■ ■ ■ ■ verbal adjective 



The Swift {CiiptcliH Djiuii). 
are known, appear all to be the name as those of Eu- 
rope. The following are the most abundant: I. Cypte- 
Itti ajna, the commnn swift or black martin, distiii- 
Ituished by its larger Hie, short legs, rerv long wings, 
forked t»il, anri by all the toes of the feet turning for- 
ward ; these, armed with small, croaked, and very sharp 



.e grouu 



of Ih 



qwbM uf the swallow in the passage in Isaiah, and 
o a <MgiiatiaB of tbe swallow in that in Jeremiah. 
ThitiiUlowed by Knobel {DerPngAHJfaiaerliarl). 
It it in favor of this that in the former tbe copnlslive is 
natiag between the two words; but this may be ex- 
tlned as a case uf aayndelon (as in Koa. vi, S; Hab. 

taH^e Bceou clearly to prove that 'agir and sua de- 
late difleieot bird& Hitiig, indeed, proposes to strike 
m this eopuU, bM without sufficient reason. Matirer 
Mies ^U3 finn an Arabic root signifying lurbavit 
■[■■■, sg as to desgnate an aquatic birdj Knobel 
■uaU trace it to another Arabic root meaning to mourn 
f^nrfji Tbe 040. ni, if distinct from the 14J3, 
'<jar, is probably a laise species of iwallow, and the 
iuirr lefra, when not a mere epithet of the former, 
tnhMy signifies a peculiar kind of heron. Sii, bow- 

il« n^iow'i voice or twitter; and in Dr. Kennicott's re- 
■ark thai in thineea codices of Jeremiah be read /lu fni 
«» Sod tbe source of the ancient fable of the Egyp- 
lua/wbeinjctraniformedintaBswallow. See Ckane. 
Whatever be the precise rendering, the characters 
nnibrd in ihe several passages where the names occur 
cr Hrictly applicaldr to the swallow, vil. its swiftness 
<i'fixh(,i'isn«*iinR in the buildings of tbe Temple, its 
wonhl, garrulous note, and its regular migration, 
'tared, indeed, in common with several others. We 
Mv ohwrre that the gamility of tbe swallow was pro- 
niaal among the ancients (see Nonn. Diony^ ii, 133, 
Bj Ariatniih. Btitr. 93). Hence its epithet ruiriXat. 
-|>«twitierer,''»n'i>^aC^Jrdcx(^iJdv>Tc,Alben.623. 
"aAiiBcr.lM,andip}par<'-ii,Hesiod,C)p.6e6; andVir- 
^Ciar;.iv.306. Although Aristotle, in hi* A'd/urol 
IKAnjr.asd PIinT, following him, bave given currency 
tt tin faMt that 'many swallows bury themselves dur- 
Bf wioier, yet tbe regnlariry of their migrsiion, alluded 
'■ by the prophet Jeremiah, was familiarly recognised 
tribe locienta. See Anacreon (OAmiiii). The ditty 
sauted by Atben. (.860) from Tbet^is is well known— 



length of its wings. Tbe Is 

larly this species, wa take to be tbe derHr, on account 
of the name durari, alresdy mentioned; which was 
most probably applied to it because tbe swift martin 
prefers lowers, minarets, and ruins to build in, and is, 
besides, a bird to which Ihe epithet " free" ia psrlicu- 
larly applicable. On the European coast of the Medi- 
terranean it bears the name of iarbola, and in several 
parts of France, including Paris, is known by Ihe vul- 
gar name of "le Juif," tbe Jew; and, finally, being llie 
largest and most conspicuous bird of tbe species in Pal- 
estine, it is tbe type of the heraldic manlel, origiiuilly 
applied in the science of blaion as tbe eepecisl distine- 
tinn of Crusader pilgrima, being borrowed from Oriental 
nations, where the bird is likewise honored with the 
(digrim, to designate its migratory hab- 



letfcrdrl 



imply B greater generalizi 






literal se 



re of tbe 1 



be taken at referring to tbe w 

pie, and in this view Ihe swift bears that character 

dilate further on tbe history of a genus of birds so imi- 
versally known. S. /iirundo ruilka, or domalica (var. 
Cahirica), tbe chimney swallow, with a forked tail, 
marked wilb a row of white spots, whereof Hirimdo 
5yniica,irBI all diirerent,is most likely only a variety. 
a, CMidon urbica, Ihe martin, or common window 
■wallow. 4. ColnU riparia, aand-mattin, or shore-bird, 
not uncommon in Northern Egypt, near the months of 
tbeDeltt,and inSoulbem Palestine, about tiaai, where 
it nestles in holes, even on llie sea-sbore. Besides 
these, tbe Eastern or russet swallow (//iruixja m/ula. 
Tern.), which neatks generally in fissures in rocks, and 
the crag-martin (fJotyk rupfitrii, Linn.), which is con- 
fined to mountain gorges and desert districts, are also 
common. (See Ilai, i, 27; ii, 386.) The crag-martin 
is the only member of tbe genus which does not migrate 
from Palestine in winter. Of the genua Cypftliu (swift), 
besides the one Unit noted above, Ihe splendid alpine 
swift (Cypilai mrlba, Linu.) may be seen in all Builable 
localities. A third species, peculiar, so far as is yet 
known, to Ihe north-east of Palesline, has recently been 
described under the name of Cgptttiu GiilUteatit, See 
I'rislram, Kvl. Hat. of Ihe BMr, p. iOi ; Wood, BOU 
AtiimaU, p. 881 sq.; Lewysohn, Zoohgie da Talmudt, 
p. 206. See BtBa. 



SWAN 4 

Smui IB Ihs rendering, in tbs A. v., of T'tJICiri, foi- 

MJnwrt, in two of the three pagaigei where thii word 
occuri, nuDelj, Lev. xi, IS; Deut. xiv, 16, where it 
Hand* in the liu of uaclevi hirdH (Sept. iropfupiiMi', 
E/3iC; Vulf^^ copyinglyf porpAifrin, ibU^ SunHrilAn the 
* ume). Bochan (^tlitroz. ii, 290) expUina it ntiedia 
(awt), and deiiTea the name from Q^^, thamdm, " to 
aatnniih," beeauK other bird* are iiaitled at the appa- 
rition of tbe owL Geaeniua suggest! the ptiiciiit, rmm 
ad}, " u> breathe, to pufT," with reference to the infla- 
tion oTita pouch. Whatever may hive been the bird 
intended by llcise*, tliese eonjecturea cannot be admic- 

linctly expreueil eliewhere in the catalogue, (iiggeim 
wavered between these Ivro; ami Dr. Mason Harria, 

American red specie) with the white one of Africa, 
guessed that purpAyrian must mean the Jtamiiigo, 
ParkhuTSt, rteriving tha word from {3ir3, naihdni, "to 
breathe," was inclined to render lituhrmfth by "goose;" 
but as Ihii hird is not bv the present Jews deemed un- 
clean, it may be confldently assumed that no mistake in 
this mitter can haro occurred during any period, and 

unclean by the law and aflerwarda admitted among the 
clean birds with its naniB traiisTerreil tu another >|«cies. 
The Hebrew Diaionary by Selig Newman, it is true, 
renders ftnSi(^<n«rA "swan;' but the Polyglots show the 
great uncertainty there is in several of the names of 
both the chapleti in question. The swan, for which 
some recent scbolara euuiend, auening thai it was held 
aacredin Egypt, docs not occur, an far as has beenascer- 
taineil, in any Egyptian ancient picture, aiul is not a bird 
which, in mignling to the south, even during the cold- 
est seasons, appears to proceed farther than France or 
Spain, though, no doubt, individuals may be blown on- 
ward in hard galea to the African shore. Only two 



I SWAN 

blue, the upper and back parta of a dark bnt iinUissl 
indigo. Tt ia allied to the cnm-crake, and is the tsrged 
and moat beautiful of the family RtitUdif, being la^tr 
Chan the domestic fowl. From iheext[sonUaiTylen«ib 
of its toes,itiBenabled.ligbliytrBa<lingo<i the flat lain 
of water-plants, to support itself without imnieiwia,tDi] 
apparently to run on the surface of the water. It bt- 
quenta manhea and the sedge by the banks ortireaiD 

abimdant in Lower Egi'pL Athenieiia baa correcilr 
noted ita ainguUr hahit of graapiiig its food wllb its 
verv long loea and thus cunveving it to iu mnuih. Il 
is d'islingiiislied frnm all the other speciea of An/Ma br 
ita abort, powerful mandibles, with which ii cmshM in 
prey, coniialing often of reptiles and yoang triidf. It 
will frequently seiie a ynung duck with its lonf; fni, 
and at once crunch the head of ita victim with ht bmk. 
It is an omnivomus feeder, and, frnm the miaceUannat 
character of its food, might reasonably find a plaeeintbc 
catalogue of unclean Inrds. ItaHeah is rank, coane. sail 
very dark-colored, it was anciently kept tame in lbs 
precincts of pagan t«lnple^ and therefore, perhaps, vu 
marked unclean, as most, if not all, the saeml auinub 
ft the heathens were. When, in the decline of id<4aii}, 

other dumeaiicated omammts of Ihc temples had diaap- 
peared, Gciner's researches show hnw earlv and longiht 
writen of the Uiddle Ages and of the Kevival of Iji- 
erature were perplexed tu Hud again the pnrphyrion •* 
the ancients, although modern naturalists have nM Ihs 
shadow of a doubt upon the subject, the specie* being, 
moreover, depicted upon Egyptian monutnenls. Thf 
Parphyrio fiyacintknuM is the npeciee most comnwa irt 
Europe, although there are several othera in Asia ami 
Africa; /'ojjjAyrio tryAropiu, abnndanl on the BOoih- 
east cniat of Africa, appears to be that which the pagan 
prieata moat cherished. 



a betw€ 



re lieen no) iced sr 



oast of Egypt. 



Hasaelqnist, who saw one on 
It may be cuiijectuml that 
swans, particularly as the last mentioned are fresh.watpr 
turdSk and do not readily take tu the true salt sea. Mr. 
Strickland,indeed, savsofthe mute swsn (Cgynui olor), 
that it viiiu Smyrni Eny in winter; and Mr. Varrell, 
on the authority or Mr. Bennett, Idls ns that the hooper 
(Cftraj) som«imoB g.ca aa far south aa Egypt and 
Barbaty. He adds (hat "they visit Corfu and Sicily j^n 
very severe wintera; and Mr. Drummund aaw a few on 

end of April, 18(5," Itiit iheae arc very rare inatances. 
Nor, if it had been hnovtn to the Israelites, is it easy to 
understand why the swan should have been clused 
among the unclean hints. The remlerrng* of the Sept., 
pnrphj/rui and ffiw, are either of them more probable. 
Neither of these binis occurs elsewhere in die catalogue. 
The porphyrlon, or purple gillinule, cannot have been 
unknown to the t^anldatllr^ as it wa^ no douhl. common 
in the Alexinrlrian temples, and was then, as il is now, 
seen both in Egypt and l^lestine. T\optvpiiav, par- 
fhyrio iinfijuoruni, iip.. the purple water-hen, is men- 
tioned bv Arialotle {llUt. Amm. viii, 8), Aristophanes 
{Ae, 707), Pliny (llitl. .V-if. x, 63). and is more fidly de- 
scribed by AtheiueiM (/)n/in. Ix, 386). The circum- 
stance of the same Deb. name being given to the cha- 
meleon (see lielow) may have arisen from both having 
the faculty of changing colors, or being iridesrenl ; the 
first, when angry, becoming green, blue, and purple — col- 
ors which likewise play constantly on the glossy pans 
of the second's plumage. The porphyrlon is superior in 

crimson shield on the forehead, and desb-colored legai 
ths head, neck, and sides ■!« of a beautiful turquoise 



Purple Oslllnula (Porphyria hioeiHlAiniH). 

The same HeU word limhimtlh (rOS3n; Se|" 
RtrirdXol V. r. airiXai, Vulg. fitZ/in) in Lev. si, 3> 
being fuund atoong Ihe unclean "creeping things ihi 
creep upon the earth," evidently no longer standa f<i 
the name of t bird, and is rendered " mole" by the A.V 
ado|iting the interpretation of the Sept., Vulg., Onkcio 
and some of Ihe Jewish d.eion. Bochart haa, howevt 
abown that the Heb. tAoM nl>H], the Arabic kkald i 
thUd, denote* the "mole," and has argueil with mw 
force in behalf of the "chameleon" being the ftnaWawr 
The Syriac version and some Arabic MS8. iindnstar 

athan a "salamander;" aome Arabic versions read son 
.«rf4™., which Golius renders "a kind of lizard." I 
Lev. xi, 80, the " chameleon" is given by tbe A, V. . 
tlie translation of the UekoUacA (mn), which in i 



SWAN « 

pntiitatit;r denatM some larger kind of liurd. S« ' 
t^nkLBKf. Ttw onlj clue to an idcnti Beat ion uf (m- 
(liMfi i> ID be round in lU ttf oxdog:}', and in the con- 
uil in Kbich the word oecu?>. Bocbatl conjeclurea 
tluttberou (D^l, muAdin, [a breathe) from which the 
Hrb.iuBM of thii creature a derived hu referen« to a 
nilfu (ifuuiou among the ancienU that the chsmeleoD 
iifld DB air (nrnp. OviA.Mt'. KV.IU, " Id quoque quod 



aathon 



ukI k 



M\ The iung of 

vtml flkd with ail n renai 

cDi: bum ihe creatuTe'a pot 



ait, //«. 



ihameleun ia very large, 
iden the body temi-lianapar- 
r abalineitce, ao doubt, 
r. It ia probable that 
itttiniiualt iDruiioned with tbt liniliimetk (Lev. xi,3a) 
ilBKUCilillerentkiadaofliiards; perhaps, therefore, since 
Mr MtnolDgy uf aha word ia ravoraUe to Ibat view, (he 
iHiaot^nin nuy be the animal intended by liiuhiiarl/i in 
IbeaUirepiiuge. At 10 the change of color in the akin 
M [til animal, numeioiu iheoriea bive been pn>pnTCd ; 
Int. u thii Mibjecl has on scriptural bearing, it will be 
(pau^h tu refer lo the explanaiicm given by Uilne-Eil- 
nidvohaae paper ii translated in vnl.xvii oflhefr/iH- 
i^ Xrw PlutM«pii<aUuanuL llie chameleon be- 
Jriil^tatkeliibe /JrWnw(iiri>,onler ^iiHi-a; the family 
mhibiti Atia and Africa and the south of Europe. The 
aaxflrt ndgiuit ia doubtless Ihe ipecies nienlionetl in 



SWAN (myth, and axlron.), a beautiful constellation 
v. Ihc Uilk'-way, which may be readily known from 
tliefiTt bright Mam, arranged in the rurni of a cnHs,nr 
wtich it is compnsed. It is situated between Cepheus 
isil Vul|ca,ts the oast of the Ljre. On brigbtwintry 
ui^. the uktd eye may count a hundred and lifty 
HSttiu this large constellation. The Swan coaimem- 
ima III* funn chnsen by Jupiter wbea he deceived 
Ntmnii and Leda, at pussiblr the singing awan, aacred 
la Ap'illi.uiio which Orpheus was, at death, I ransfbraied. 

Swan, RtMvrell Randall, a Congregaliuiial 
niawo'.waabom at Stonington. Conn., June 16, IT;»; 
n> ititd for caUeg« by ttov. Heaekiah N. Woodruff 
'(Staiigfilun.and graduated from Yale College in 1802. 
HtMUUd with the CoUege Church Dec. 1, 1799. His 

1 ahnrlly after be combienced the study 

■Mcriif Ibe aBine year, aflera severe illness, he con- 
*m1 Us itu.lia with l>r. Perkins, of VVe>it Hartford. 
Alulae u preach was granted him by the Hartford 
■MkAaseialian, atNunhinKl.in,FBb.6, 180!). Ow- 
l^fla m-healih. he did not immediately settle, but in 
Bltwkii look charge of an academy in Stnnington, 
aal applied the vacant Chitrch there. He was or- 
Himi fuua of the Churtli in Norwalk Jan. 14, 1807, 
■bn he nmiinueil until his death, Uarch -tl. ISIS. 
^fifngat. Atmalt of Ikf Amrr. Puipit^W, ^b. 

Swan, Samuel, a Prenbyterian minister, was bom 
•I the iiLsKd of Daminica, N'ot.SO, \1VS. While Sam- 
•1 ■B> a child hia father relumed lo his natiie enun- 
i^iSoHland. Here the aon received a liberal ediica- 
inL (Duiiiteiine his course at the Glasgow Uiiiveraity. 
Ai ibe Bge uf nineteen he came with the family to Phil- 
sMphia,from whence he soon vrent to Princeton .Sem- 
nsiy. He was licensed lo picsch by the Philadelphia 
l^Bliyteiy April 17, 1823, and received aa a licentiate 
■ ifce Protn-lety of Huntington, Pa. He received a 
oIKha the Sinking Valley Church, which he declined 
*> accept, and ■■* dismissed to the Redstone Piesby- 
>TT. His next call was lo Ibe churches of FsirHeld, 
loonier, and Donegal, which he accepted, and wa» in- 
<UIM June 17. 18M. He proved to be a devoted, self- 
'•nying, and noceaaful pastor, and for aeventeen years 
xl a baM retained the esteem and growing confidence 
•t hit tbcet diarehe*. Beconing seiiously crippled by 



I SWAYZE 

a shivered limb, he was compelled to relinquish ao en- 
tenaive a charge, and he accordingly resigned, and ac- 
cepted a call to the Johnstown Church, I'a., where he 
was installed in 1841. Haifof hia time was occupied 1^ 
the Church at Armagh. Hen he continued nniil 1866. 
In 18M> he removed to Leiand, La Salle Co., 111., where 
he made an extennve purchase of land ; and though he 
had no pastoral charge, he cunliiiued to preach the Gos- 
pel aa he had opportunity. Fimn 1869 lo 1871 he resided 
at .\urora, IIL For the purpose of giving his children 
an educalion, he returned East, and, though advanced 
in veers, continued to preach until the end of bia pil- 
grimage, Aug, 6, 1877. (W. P. S.) 

Stranger, Joii:* P., a minister of the Urthndist 
Episcopal Church, was bom in Mifflin County, Pa., FeU 
lb, IS3S. He was converted and united with iheChurch 
in 1854, and in 18qS was recrived on trial iu Ihe East 
Baliiini.Te Conference. His ministry-, however, wu of 
short duration, aa he dial June 29, '1867, in Baltimore. 
See Mmvla <■/ Aimvat Cmftramt, 18ee, p. 37. 

Swann is the rendering, in the A. V., of two veir 
dijlerent Hebrew words. 

1. n^S, 'edah (uaoally rendered " rongregalion" or 
"aKtembly"), is employed lo designate the swann of 

(Jndg. xiv, 8).' The lloi'i which Samwn slew had been 
dead some little time before Ihe bees had taken up Ihdt 
abode in the carcass, for it ia eKpreasly alated Ihat "af- 
ter a lime" Samson relumed and aaw 1 he beea and honey 

observed, "any one here represents to himself a corrupt 
and pulrid carca!«, Ihe occurrence cease* to have ai 






in Ihesi 



odor. To the foregoing tiuotaiion we may add that 
Ver)- probably ihe an la would help lo contiime Ihe car- 
cass, and leave, perhaps, in a »hort time, little else than 
a skeleton. Herodotus (v. 1 14) apeaka of n certain Oner- 
ilua,whohad beenlakenprieonerbytheAmathiiiianeand 
beheaded, and whose head, having been suspended over 
the g■le^ had become occupied by a swarm of bees; 
comp. also Aldrovandus (ZV iBird. i, 110). Dr. Thom- 
son {Land aad Book, ii, 863} mentions Ibis occurrence 

thing, and makes an unhappy conjeclure Ihat perhaps 
" hornets," dtbitbir in Arabic, are intended, " if it were 
knonn," nys be, "that they manufactured honey enough 
to meet ihe demands of Ihe story ." It is known, bow- 
ever, that hornets do not make honey, nor do any of the 
family r»pi'/ie, with' tbe exception, so far as has been 

See Bee. 

■i. 3S3, 'ar/A. is the term applied lo Ihe fourth of 
Ihe plagues (q. v.) of Egypt (Exod. viii, 8-31 1 " divers 
Boruoftlies,"Psi.Uxviii, 46; cv.SI). [t ia regarded 
by most interpreters as a species uf St"IJIy, or tubaavt 
(Michaelis, Supplrm. p. 19G0). such as it aiill very troub- 
lesome to animals in Egypt (Foiakal, Drier. AniiH. p. 
So; KUppcll, ^rui. p. TS). See Bocliart, //rrroz. til, 
473; Werner, in the ifuceU. /j>w. Tfov. iii,301 sq. See 
Fly. 

BivBTstt, Jolm J., a minister uf the Helhodiit 
Episcopal Church, was bom at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
Aug. 30, 1813. He was received on trial in the Pitt»- 
bn^h Conference in 1829, and labored with great accppt- 
ability, filling the office of presiding elder nine succes- 
sive years. He took a superannuated relation in 1863, 
and died Feb. 18. 18^. See ifimtu o/Ammal Cof/rr- 
encrt, ISo3, p. 343. 

Swayza, William, a Methodist Episcopsl minix- 
ler, was bom in SuAex Couniy, N. J., Nov. 18, 1784. 



SWEARING 4 

In his youlh h« vu led b; ■ [4otu AAicin to beu > 
HethodUt preKhtr near Btllimore, wu converted, and 
Hwn aDet fell impretaed that it «u bu duty to preach 
the (ioapel, ami liboftd u a kwal preacher to great ad- 
ranuge Tut aeveral years. He was idmiltel inlo the 
New York Ciiuference on trial in May, 1S07, and for 
ei^lil yean labored ■ucceurully nilhin the bounde of 
that conference. "He became eiaphatically a 'son of 
thunder,' alt racljng great crowds of people to hia minia- 
try, and speaking witb a power and paChna that few 
have ever equalled, moving and exciting many — Bome 
to tear*, otbera to err for merer, while others would 
about for Jnr" (liregg^ p. 177). In 1S16 he vaa tran*- 
ferredto the Ohio Conference ; tn 1S17 appointed loCo- 
lumlHit Circuit: >n 1818 to Deer Creek Circuit, includ- 
ing Chilicol.lie; in IRZOpresiding elder of Ohio District, 
where " bin labors, fi>r almogi four yeara, were crowned 
with imexampled lucceaa." In 1824, by the '' 
made by tbe lieneral Coiifereiice, he felt in the Piiu- 
butgh Confereuee, and was apiminted lo Erie Dialricti 
in 18'^ lo Canton Distnct; in 1830, conference miamon- 
ary; in 1832, retraniferredla Ohio Conrerence; in 1834 
to l*ilt«biirgb Conference; alter which, be was super- 
annuated until deaih. March 39, 1841. See Maiula of 
A muial C-on/VrmoH, iit, 238 ; Stevens, Hitl. oflht M. f. 
Chv'-ci, iv, S3S-84I. (J. L. S.) 

Sweartag (some form of n^K or S^V^, ofovfii), 
is an appeal to God in irlestation of the truth of what 
one says, or in conflraia^on of what one promiaes or un- 
dertakes. The Latin term >■ jaijumiidma orjuranai- 
liim. CiceiB (Oe Offidii, iii, 29) correctly term* an oath 
a religious affirmation ; Ibal ia, an afflimation with a re- 
ligious aanclion. This appears from the wonia which 
lie proceeds tn employ: "Quod aiitem affirmale, quasi 
I>eo teste, pmmiseris, ill tenendum esL Jam enim non 
ail iiam deonim, qua nulla est, sed a<l justiliain et ad 
liilem pertinet;" whicb in eifect means thai an oath is 
an appeal to God, as the source and tbe vindicBloi of 
justice and Ailelity. Hence it appears that there are 
tnro essential dements in an oath — fint, the human, ■ 
<leclared inlenlion of speaking ths truth or performing 
the action in a given case; secondly, the divine, an ap- 
peal to (iod, as a being who knows all things and will 
punish guilt. According to usagp, however, there is a 
third element in the idea which " oath' commonly con- 
veys, namely, that the oath is taken only on solemn, or, 
more speciOcally, on juridical occasions. Tbe canon law 
gives all three elements w1i#n it represent s^dKJHn, rt- 
j-ila>,jiutUia as entering into the constitution of an oatb 
—juifin'uTn, judgment or trial on tbe part ol society; 
ttritaa, truth on the part of the oatb-takef) juitilia, 
Justice on the part of God. 

Tbe practice of uking oaths existed before the time 
of Noses. It is found as early aa the days of Abra. 



ct for I 



wifeo 



s family , 



Hl(<Iei 



is here observable that the oath 
private, not a judicial one; ouir that the authority of 
Aiiraham, as pslriatch,muiit be taken into account. An 
nath was sometimes a public and general bond, obliging 
the parties who tocdi It to a certain course— a case in 
which it appears to have been spontaneous and volun- 
tary', as when, in Judges Kxi, the men of Israel swore, 
saying,"There shall not any of us give his daughter unto 
Benjamin to wife" {cnmp. ver. S), From 1 Kings xriii, 

casions of great concern, a public oath, embracing even 
an entire " kingdom and nation ;" but whether Uken in- 
dividually or by some representative we hare no means 
of ascertaining. Snch a custom, however, implying as 
It does a doubt of the public failb of a people, would 
hardly be submitted to, unless on the part of an inferior. 
Oaths did not tak« thrir origin in any divine com- 
mand. They were a part of Ibal consuetudinary law 
whicb Moses found prevalent, snd was bound lo respect, 
since no amaJ portion of tbe force of law Ues in eutlom, 



i SWEARING 

and a legislator can neither abrogate nor ioMitota a 
binding law of his own mere wilL Aocordii^y, Uoaa 
made use of the sanction which an oath gave, bat in 
that general manner, and apart from minute directioiis 
and express words of approval, which abowi thai be 



could not aaMr 
applied in the case uFIom 



ment tbit be found it 

dispense with. Examples 

where an oath is ordered to 

property; and here we ftrsl 

ly be called a judicial oath (Lev. ri, S-6). 

Ad oath, making an appeal lo the divine jusai 
power, is a recognition of the divinity of the bi 
whom the appeiJ is made. Hence to swear by : 
is to be convicted of idolatry, 
ly given In Scripture as a proof of idolatry and a 
for condign punishmenL " How shall 1 paidon tbee (br 
this? Thy chiklren hare forsaken me, and awoin by 
them that are no gods" (Jer. v, 7 ; xii, 16; AmoB viii. 
14: Zeph.i,&). 

This appeal to God was in frequent use ammg tbe 
Hebrews, as a confirmalinn of both staleraenta ^ati. 
XKvi, 74) and promises (1 Sam. lix, S; xx, 17 ; S Sun. 
xix,33; xr,!l; 1 Mace, vii, ^ol For CDveoant o«ba, 
see Gen. ixxi,l>3 sq.; Joah. ix, lb; 3 Kings xi, 4; 1 
Macc.vii,15; Jaeepbu^H»r.xiv,l,i. For oatha of al- 
legiance see S Sam. xv, 21 ; Jc*ephus,,4iir. xr, 10, 4) in 
both public and private life (e. g. Judg. xxi,5; I Kings 
xviii, 10iEirax,5;andC>en.ixiv,S7;l,aiMali.xiv, 
7), as also before the Judges (Exod. xxii, 1 1 ; l«T. nX, 

use. Perjury is forbidden (xix, 12), hut on religi»B* 
grounds, as a profanation of Guil's name. Tbe osiial 
oath was 1^ Jehovah (Deut. vi, 18 ; comp. Gen. xiv, tt ; 
Judg. xxi, T ; Rulh i, 17 ; I Sam, sir, 44 ; 2 Sam. six. 
7; 1 Kings i, 29; ii,23; lsa.xix,iei Ixv, IS; Jer. it. 
2; xxxviii, l6),.whilB the apoeutea swore by sirwnge 
sods (v, 7; xii, 16; Amos viii, 14 ; Zepb,i,&). Sane- 
times an ostb was made by the life of tbe person ad- 
dressed (2 Kings il,S; 1 Sam.i,2fi; xx,S; eompt Eurip- 
ides, HrL 835), by the life of the king (1 aam. xvii, »,- 
xxv,26i 2 8am. xi, 11), or by his bead, even wben not 
in his presence (a common oath in Egypl,Ueii. xHi, 16, 
and still nsed in Persia, RasenmUlkr,;l/oryail^i, 9)0 sq.; 
Horier, ^econJ Joarneif ; romp. Attabo, xii, 567 ; Herod- 
otus, ir,68; Cuniu^vi, 11,18; Lucian, CuTajiJ. 11; Sue- 
tonius, Calig. 27 ; Vegetius, Dr Re MiL ii,6; Tertiillian, 
ApoL fi2; Znm, BiUioik. Atttiq. i, 813 sq. In tbe Got- 
pei arttinlBig lo iVicoifrmiH, ESIate swears by (As taftttf 
of CoMtir; comp. Kein, R6m. Crimmalndil, pL 6U). 
More rarelv, the oath was by the bead of the swearer 
<Matt. r, 86 ; comp. Virgil, .«». ix, BOO ; Grid, rriif, i v, 
4, 4&; Jurenal. vi, 17), by aoAe important member oT 
the body, as the eye* (Ovid, Amor, iii, 8, 18; Tibullm, 
iii, e, 47; Plautus, Jfmaw. v,9, 1); by the earth (Uatl. 
r,35; SiL Ilal. riii, lOb ; Euripide^ My-fw/f"". 1029); 
by hearen and the sun (Matt, v, S4; Talmud Babyl. 
Ueroth.lA\ onmp. Kor. xci, 6; liii, 1; Ivi, 77; Tirgil, 
^'n-xii, 176, 197; ix,429) Aristophanes, £f. 705; Phi- 
larcb, 129; Euripides, Jfeilni, 746; Paitsaniss, riii, 18, 
1; IMiilostratuH, Hit. u, 11; and Wettstnn, i, 305); 
by the angels (Josephus, War, ii, 16, 4). It waa a 
part of tbe punctiliousness of the later Jews lo pnffr 
rather lo swear by the sun, the earth, or heaven than 
by God himself (Pbibwirslus-ii, 271). Somesworaby 
liie Temple (Matt, xxiii, 16; comp. Lightfool, p. 380), at 
partsof it (Matt.xxiii.16; comp. Wettstein adUie,),at 
by Jerusalem, the holy city (MiiLv,S6;Mishna,A:(tAK- 
bolk, ii, 9 ; Lighlfoot, p. ISO). So among other ancient 
nations,theBliarwaslouched in swearing (oim p. DoOKb- 
Ifiis, /I nalnV. ii,26; Lakemachei, O&serr. ix, 112 sq. on 
.SiL Hal. iii, 82. On Iheoath i:obiia)I [q. r.l.see Joar- 
phus,^;i«i*,l,22,4&3). 

The form of swearing by .lehorab, always Ihe mnst 
usual oath (sec above), was verv simple — "The Lord do 
Ibis <ir [bat lo me if I swear falsely" (Ruth i, 17; 2 Sara. 
iii, 9,85; I Kings ii, 23; 3 Kings vi,Sl),or "Aa Jeho- 



SWEARING 

T»h Eieili" (rnh"' Ti, or DtA^ "^i Buth 

;'!'s»m. ii, 27; Jer. M.viii, 16); 



SWEARING 
IS ; I aq. Some <Mbe they dedired invalid : « ir uijr one 



, awcar bv heavfn, eanh. the h 



IpHUr kogth, "Jehovah be a true and faitbrul wlt- 

■•w bnwftn ua" (.~CK Iji 1:5 n;h^ 'T}^, Jer. xlK, | ^' 
bj. Furmulaa of (erriUe impon were used b.v the bter 



'ords a rererence I( 



II (ate Joacphiu, Z.i/r, § 53 ; 1 



lop. LysiaB, Pro. Con. ' Him who M 



nualli- obnen-ed tiy 






A rilnpk. Si). Of the cetemoniet 
ihwe who Look oath* we know but liide. In patri- 
archal antiquity it waa usual to put the hand under the 
■high (tieiLsxir.V; xlvii,29). On thia practice Aben- 
Km D^dR-Fea, "it appear* probable to me that the 
ncaning dC thia aiuuiB waa aaifthe aaperiuT aiid, wiLh 
ihi omnit of hia slave, ' If thon ait under my power, 
■od tberefcn piepaiBd to execute my commands, put 
ihT bud, at a token, under my Ihigh.'" Winer, how- 
•'Ter,ihuiki that, u it was usual la swear by the more 
unpwtaat pana of the human frame, ao th 
MOM 10 Ibe (tenerative powen of man. 
liib iatcrpntuion, u well as on tbe general question 
of (waaring by parts of tbe body.Ueiner, Ge»di.der St- 
Z>;.Ji,iS6aq. It ia, however, ^enain that it wag usual to 
loacli that bT which ■ penon swore. Other inalaoces 
nay be seen' in Nicdek. De Poptiior. Adoral. p. 213 aq., 
and p. tlS, wbkh ^ immediately to oonflrm tbe idea 
alnaeti by Winer. The Targum of Jonathan (on 
Ohl uit, 2) iBppoaes the band to bsve been placed 
iin ilie sKtion of circaniciaian (comp. Jerome, ad bK.). 
linmbajc (RtUgiamL i, 433) most strangely connects 
a wotahip of Baal and 



: the prophet and gave the houli, 11 



an oath" (Maimon. Hoi ShAat^k, 
c. 13). So the Hiahna {Slubuoth, c *): "If any one 
■Inures another by heaven or eaiib, he is not held 
bound by tbis." It is easy to see that oaths of ihir 
naluK, with authorititdve interpretations and glossn 
so Ian, could hardly fail lo looaen moral iibligatiDo, and 
to lead to much praelical peijury and impiely. Ui- 
nute caaoiiticol distinctions undermine the moral sense. 

Dula appear to bind himself and yet be free. 



. (For 



« Dreye 



UiikA. tteckti. p. 116 sq.; Hilhn, in Ber- 
Ontai • Jutrn. vii, 1 18 tq.). 

The more usual employment of the hand was to raise 
iL cawsid) hcaren ; designed, probably, to excite atten- 
lioa, 10 point out tbe oatb-laJier, and to give solemnity 
ID the act (Gen. xiv, 22, 23). In tbe slmngly anthro- 
poBorphitic language of parts uf the Scripture even 
tM is uuroduced saying, " t lift 



e released hy religious authnriiiesi the basis 
of private virtue and the grounds of public coiiiidence 
ara at once endangeied. Besides, the practice of un- 
authorized and spontaneous oath-taking, which srema 
even in the earlier periods of Jewish bision' to have 
been too cnmmuii, became, about tbe time uf our Lord, 
of great frequency, and must have tended lo h>wer ihe 
religious as well as weaken the moral character. J'c 
ter's conduct is a striking case in point, who " betnin to 

xxvi,74). An open falsehood thus asserted and main- 
lained by oaths and imprecations shows hnw litlle re- 
gard there was at that lime paid to such means of sub- 
stantiating truth. Tbe degtce of guill implied in such 
lamentable practices is heightened by the emphsna 
with which the Uossic law guarded the ssnctily of ihe 
divine name and prohibited the crime of perjury and 
ifanalion (Exod. xx, 7; Lev. xix, 12; DeuU v, II ; ' 



v,a3). 



say, 1 live 
Alaiigbly is 



■" (Dent 



imploycd whenever tbe 
repieaented as in any way coming under 
lae UHigsiion of an oath (Gen. xxii, IS, 17 ; Exod- vi, 
1; Eiek.xi,6; HeUvi,!?}. Instead of tbe bead, the 
pkylaociy waa aometiiDe* touched by the Jews on 
ukii« an oath (Haimon. Sk^moOi, c. 1 1). Even the 
Uniy is sometintes iniroduced as swearing by phyUc- 
i»ri« (rmnLfuL vi,3; Olho, Z^. p. 767). "Giving 
tbe haod' (Eiek. xviii, 12) was a ceremuny used be- 
inea equals; tbe violation of this pledge was believed 
to be a moat atrocious crime, and hence tbe prophet 
x^engeancfl on the king of Babylon, who 
nveiiant after having "given bis hand." 
' in of Ihe pledge given 
by Ibe joiniog of handa, in connection with some relig- 
it coins, of which the 
KOHiipanjing engravings are specimena. They are 
lalm frnm golden coins in Ihe British Huaeum. See 
Hum. Swearing by dipping the bands in the blood 



li, 40). Some sup- { p. 3&I ; Philo, ii, 194), « 



■s (Otho 




sT 1 vtetiin was tbe n>oM solemn form of oath among 
■he andent Gr(ek^ and waa chiefly used in' concluding 
disooea uflenslve and defensive. See Covkmamt. 

Tb* Rabbinical wrilen indulge in much prolixity on 
l>i* iDt^ of oat ha, entering into nice distinction*, and 
itoiring ihcmselm exqulsiu casuists. A brief view 
<( tbiit diaqaisUioD* may be (hd in Otbo, Ltx, p. M7 



I entering as at 



ekment into popular poetry (Martial, 
lacrlbe ihe imputation to Ibt known 
injuatice of heathen writeis towards the Israelites. This 
national vice, doublless, had an inBuence with Ihe £s- 
scnea (q. v.) in placing tbe probilnlion of oath* amonft 
the rule* of their rdbrmalory order. Modem Oriental* 
hsintually use the exdatnatinu InthatUik ("in iha 
natne of God") on the most trivial occanons. 

That no case has been made out by Christian com- 
itKntaton iu favor of Judicial Bweaiing we do not sf- 

is a very weak one, wear* a casuistical appearance, and 
as if necessitated in order 10 excuse existing usages ami 
guard against errors imputed to unpopulst sects, such 
as the (juaker* and Mennonite*. II inferential ami 
merely probable eoncluaioDS, such a* Ibe case consist* 
of, may be allowed to prevail against the explicit lan- 
guage of Jesos and James, Scripture is robbed of it* 
certainty, and prohibition* the most express lose Ibeii 
force. For instance, it has been alleged that our Lord 
himself took part in an oath when, being adjured by 
tbe high-priest, he answered "Thou bast said" (MalL 
ixvi, 63, 64). But what has this lo do with bis own 
doctrine on the point? Placed at the bar ofjudgmeni, 
Jeaus was a criminal, not a teacher, bound by Ihe lawe 
of his country — which it was a part of his plan nevei 
unnecessarily to dinegaid — lo give an answer to Iha 
quealion judicially put to him, and bound equally by * 
regard to the great intereals which he had coine into 
the world to serve. Jeeusdid not swear, but was sworn. 
The putting the oath he could not prevent. Hi) sole 
question was. Should he answer the interrogatoTy? — a 
question which depended on connderations of the high- 
est moment, and wbich he who alone could judge de- 
cided in tbe affirmative. That question in eflM was, 
"An thou the Hesoah?" His reply was « simple a(- 
Srmativa. The employment of tbe adjuration was tbe 



SWEARING 6 

act af the migulnU, to hive oLjMted to which would 
hive brought on Jeiua the charge of equirocMiun, if 
not of evwon, or even the deniil of his " high calling." 
The general tendency oTthitanicle i> la ahaw how de- 
nrable it isihacthe pnctice of Mth-ukingufall kinds, 
Judicial u welt u others, ihould at least ba diminished 
till, SI the prDpcr lime, icia Cntally abolished; forwhal- 
aneier is more than a siiaple sfflrmation cometh fruin the 
Evil One. ^(rofironipni-; (»rati.v,87), and equally leail- 
alhioevil. SeeLydii IHv.deJaianu^o; Sicai*l,De 
Jvram, Heimroram^tlnrcorom^ ftomititoramtaUontmqiit 
Populnramf Seldeiii l>iu.de JarumtnliM: Mulembecii 
De Jantmrnla pti- Grmim Priadpit ; Speiioeri i>uu. de 
JvaunKlo per A ikMuIum — all of which may be Tuund 
in voL xivi uf Ugolino'a Tittaunu Anliq. Sacr. See 
alia Hansen, tM Juramait. Veil, in Gnevius, TAfiaanu; 
Carpzov, Appnr, p. 65! aq.: Steiiiler, i>e Jiirejur, Sec. 
Ditdp. Hii. (Lips. 1736); Funoann, Dt Jarejtr. tx 
Menlellrbr.tyniMAim: Valckenaer, £« Ai^ ui Ju- 
rejar.a.Vel.HAr.rl C'vrr. OAMrn. (Fraiiek. 17SG; and 
in Oelrkh's CoOecl. I, ii. 175 sq.) : especially Baasek, Dt 
Jvnjtr. Vel. inipr. Rum. (Tny. *d Kh. 1727); Lasaulx, 
Uei.d.t:!diad.Givrh.(V/ttnb.l»U); Uet. d. Kid bri 
<f. RSm. (ibid. 1844); Olho, Lex. Rabbin, p. 347 M|. A 
mora recent authority may he foiitid in Siiiiulliu, Ge- 
lAicUe der VartleU. s. v. " Eide ;" see alao Tyler, Oalkt ; 
litir OHj/in, etc See Oath. 

SWEA.KIKG, PROFA!iR,was severely condemned in 
the ancient Church, and seems in have been a common 
practice. Swearing, nr rrioliah or wickeil adjuralioiia 
by any creature or dmiion, by the emperor's genius, hy 
■ngel and hy saint, were repnibiied. ferjured penana 
were placed under BficciBl penance. Profanily is also 
punishable by the civil Uw of Great Briuin, and by 
the laws uf some aC the atat«s of the United States. 

SweBt(n:T,Gen.iii,19; 7T^, Eiek. xliv, 18; ifpw(, 
Luke Kxii, 44) was one uf the phjrucal phenomena at- 
tending nur Lord's agony in Ihe garden nf Gelhsem- 
niie aa dewiribed by Luke (xxii, 44) i " His sweat was 
as it were great drupa (lileraUy data, 3p ifi^) otbloml 
falling down to the ground." The Keiiuineneas of this 
veiK and of the preceding has been doubled, but is now 
(;enerilly acknowledged. Tbey are omitted in A and 
B, but are found in the Codex Sinaiticus (X), Codex 
Bene, and others, and in the Peshito, Philoxenian. and 
Curetonian .Syriac (see Tr^gelles, Grrrk New Ttrl.; 
Scrivener, laii-od. lo Ike Crit. n/Ike Srw Ten. p. 494), 
and Tregelles piiinu lo the natation of the section ami 
canim in ver. 42 as a trace of the existence of the verse 
in the Codex Alexaiidrinus. 

Of this malady, known in medical science by the term 
lUiifiedfii'. ihere have been examples recnnled both in 
ancient and modem limea. Ariaiolle was aware of it 
(lie I'nn. Anin. iii, b). The cause assigned ii gener- 
ally violent menial emotion. "Kaiincgiesser," quoted 
by r>r. Sirourt (/'Aji. CnMse of Ike Ifntih o/Chrul, p. 
86 ),"reniarkB,'Violent menial exdlement, whether oc- 
icontrollahle ange 



Id I 



r.forct 



a sweat, accompanied with signi either uf anxiety or 
hilarity.' Aller ascribing this sweat to the unei|iisl 
consiriclion of sume vessels aiul dilalatioii of ntbers. he 
further observes: ' If the mind is seized with a sudden 
fear of death, the sweat, owing to the eiceasive degree 
nf cooalrictlon, oflcn becomes bloody.' " Dr. Hillingcu 
( ViK-iotiiin of Medical Exptrimct, p. 489, 2d ed.) gives 
the folluwing explanation of the phenomenon: "It is 
pruhible that this atiange disorder arises from a violent 

of bluod nut of Iheir natural counie, and furcing the red 
particles into Ibe cutaneous eicretaries. A mere relax- 
ation of the fibres could not produce so powerful a re- 
vulsion. It may also arise in cases of extreme debili- 
ty, in connection with a thinner condition of the blood." 
The following are a few of the instances on recced 
which have been collected by Calmei (Diu.tarlaSutur 



SWEDEN 

ilu .9ta^).'Hilluigen, Stroud, Tmsen {Die Sirttm, Giirim- 
<Ae uad KrwMtiUn d. aU. Iltbr. [Bteslsu, ISaSJ), iu 
addition to Ihoie given under Bloodv Sweat, Sehet- 
hius(Oii. jl/niiii,468) says that in the plague of II iae- 
no in ibbi a woman who waa seized sweated bU-ud fur 
three da>-s. In IbSi Conrad Lycoathenes (/>r Prad^ 
u, p.62a,ed. 1&37) reports, a woman sick of Ihe pligue 
sweated blood from the uppN part >if her bodv. Ac~ 
cording to Do Thou (I, li, SiS, ed. IBafi), liU goy- 
emor of Hontemaro, being suieil by Mtatagem and 
threatened with death, was ao moved thereat that he 
sweated blood and water. In the MUangrt itHiilmrr, 
(iii, 179), by Dom Bunavenlure d'Argonne, Ihe ease in 
given of a woman who luffered so much from Ihi* mal- 
ady that, after her death, no bhxid was fmntil in her 
veins. Another case of a girl of eighteen wbn suffenil 
in the tame way ia reported by Mesaporiti, a physician 
at Genoa, accompanied hy the observationi of Vdisneii. 
pmfeMor uf medicine at Padua. It occurml iu I7fl.t 
[/■Ait r,nw. No,B03, p. 2144). There U sCiU, howerei. 
wanted a well-authenticated instance in modem times 
obeerveil wilh all the caiv and alteilert by all.ibe ez- 
actnee* of later medical science. That pven in Cas- 
par's Wocknuehi-ift, 1848, aa having beeii obaerred b; 
Dr. Schneider, appears lo be Ibe most recent, and re- 
sembles Ihe phenomenon meniinued by Thenphrai- 
tua (CiWofl SIrd. Gat. 1848, 11,553). For further nf- 
erence to authottiies, see CupeLutd, Viel. it/ Mtdiane. 

Siredberg, Jilspkr, bishop of Skara, in Sweden. 
His father's name was .^^coAacin, but, according to a fr^ 
quent Swedish custom, the »Hi,ou taking his degree a( 

bom Aug. 28^1653, in the province of Dalecarlia. Hsv. 
ing received a university educalinn, he was ordained in 
IG85, and became succesnrely court chaplain, profesKit 
of theohigy in the Univen-ity of Upsala (1693), and 
provost of the catheiiral there. He was a pious, elo- 
quent, and active man, a sumcwbat vohiminniw writer, 
chiefly on devotional siihjecta. He slooil high in hii 
native country, and many of his hymns are stilt among 
the favorite ones in Ihe Swedish Lutlieran service. Ite 
was the father of Kminuel Swedenbnrg. He was mail'- 
bishop of Skara in 1701, about the time that he visited 
England. The Swedish Church in London and the 
Swedish cnngregaiions aeltled on the banks of the Dela- 
ware, in America, were placed hy the king under bin 
epiMopsI supervision; ami bia letter* lo the latter c»l- 
oiiy,slill preserved in the records of Ibe Church at Wil- 
mington, show a warm interest in their alTalrs. Fivm 
Ihe information which he had obtained from ihia mr- 
respondence he published a work concerning America. 
s cupv of which is in the library nf Harvard College. 
He also published a Pialm-Boot (1694), which was sup- 
pressed as pietisiic ; and the flrat Sicrdith GromiHiir 
(I722> BishapS»edberediedJuly2G,rS5. (W.&H.) 
Bweten, ■ kingdom in the nonhem part of Eu- 
rope. In conjunction wilh Norway it fomu the Scan- 
iliiuvian peninsula, occupying itself Ihe larger part i>f 
thia peninsula. Its geognphicsl position is between 
U.. R.i= 2U' and 69= N. and long. 1 1" 10' and M" 10' E.. 
and it extends not far from I(MM) miles from north lu 
wHilh, and iu its greatest breadth 900 miles from eaM 
lowest. It is bounded on Ihe north bv Norwegian Liip. 
land, east by Russia, soulh by the Giilf of Finland and 
ihe Baltic, and west by the Sound, the Cattegal, an.) 
Norway. The country has Ihe characleriaiic featuro 
of all northern regions. Alany parts nf it, e^iecially lu 
the north, are barren and unproductive. Its immenir 
forests are a source of great revenue, the wooil bfing 
used not only for fuel, but entering qniie generally iiitn 

parts of all buildings, and fumiriiiug also a proSlable 
article for export. All the grains peculiar lo norilieni 
countries are raised in Sweden, not only iu sufficiciu 
quantity fur home consumption, but also fur exiun. 



SWEDEN 



Td toot of tbe mttils it ia Tetyrich.md no Noall part 
at ibt wealth <rf (he coontiy comes from the working 
nf uian of goW, tilver, iron, copper, etc. The dencrip- 
liMi which ha* been given of Korway, to far a* the 

natunl pmluctioni of the country are concerned, will 
apply 10 Sweden, and renden any mtnuLe detail in thia 

Tb* grt«t political divitions of Sweden are three— 
GMhlaud, Sr^tland, and Norrland. (iothlanil has thir- 
letn lobdiviaioiu, STBalatid eight, and Notrland StS" 
ihe whrite gifina an area of 187,477 aquare mtlea, and 
haHng a pupulalimi of ■ Uule more than four millinna 
ami a •piarter. The lareeM cilT ia Stockbolni, haring 
■ population in 1883 of 1»1,4«9. The only other ciij 
i-f (ontulenbia (ize in Sweilen is Gothenburg, which 
lias a population of tt1.-in3; but ihere is quite a large 
floBher of cities and tuvrns having a population of over 

L Hiitirry The eaHy hialoty of Sweden ia involved 

in gieat ohacurity, nor do we find much in that history 
ikac will iotereM the general reader until we come 
ilowo lo the lime of Gustaviu Vasa, who, with great 
herum. made an attack on Christian II, and succeeded 
is oUaiuing the throne in ii'lS, The next character 
thai rtanda oat prominently un (he pagea of Swediah 
hisnrr is liustavm Adolphua, the (treat champion of 
ibe iSncealant faitli, and the powerful foe with whom 
.Imha had to contend during the important period of 
Ik* Thirty Year-i' Wat. Goauvus was moat fortunate 
is liii cuanwllun and stateemen, eipecially in hi* chan- 
nllnr. the wise and pnd Oxenstiem (q. v.), who, after the 



61 SWEDEN 

forms. Charles died in I87S, and waa aiicceeded by the 
present king, Oacar II. 

II. fl»/iffi«ifc— Christianity was first introduced Into 
9waien in the year 830 by Anschar, a monk of Coibey, 
Wpstphalia, although the Swedish historians assert that 
many of the people embraced ths (loepel aiill earlier, 
and that in 813 a church waa erected at linkiiplng bv 
Herbert, a Saxon ecclesiastic. The Ubors of Anichar 
were followed up by his successor, Kembert, who found- 
several chnrches, but ( 



It the bi 



of Lilt. 



!d with the management of affairs during 
y of ChtiMina, the daughter of Goatavus, 
[o the throne. Paawngovera few years, 
«■ come to the period during which the celebrated 
CharlaXIIaat on the throne, whose wonderful martial 
eipluiij form one of the moat brilliant pages of modem 
ki««T. At the commencetnenl of hla reign the king- 

ii> glory. When he cloMd his adminintraliun, and, by 
Ml death, Sweden csme under the domininn of bis * 
i«, CWca Eleonora, iti prospects were far from Hal 
inc. She surtcnderad herself to the control of her hus- 
tsnd, Frederick of Hesse-Cassel, whose administrati 
<4tht ilbits of Sweden waa nuMt unfununate and I 
wbtiiqt In making terms of peace with the enem 
•iih wbora she had been at war for aa long a tit 
(OBiun* of lai^ territories which were once within t 
bnadarin ol the kingdom had to be rasdeL Ulrica 
(hnng without issue, the throne passed into the banda 
cf.Uolpbus Frvdeiiek, in fulHItnent of one ofthe terms 
"l pract prescribed by (he empress of Russia in the 
inBivoT t7f3. His reign of twenty yean was one of 
DiajtaDI comntotion and trooble. At hisdeath,in I7'l, 
kii aon Gustavua [II suctx«iled to the crown and reign- 
•d twenty years, when lie was assassinated, and hia son 
(intanii IV, ■ minor in age, came lo the throne, with 
Ui slide, the duke of Siidcrraannland, n regent. For 
ratioQs rcuon* the yonng king, after a few years, waa 
Riis(itlled to abdicate, and his uncle, the regent, under 
ilK title of Charles XIII, became king. Upon his de- 
o*>e. Feb. 0, 1818, the French nurshal Bemaiioite waa 
tinud king, taking the title of Charles XIV. Dnr- 
isf his reign of twenty-six years, Sweden enjoyed a 
fMd degree of prosperity, and recovered, in contider- 
•Uc iMasiiTe. whai she had lost under the reigns of his 
tsnlesnors. At his death, in 1844, his son Oscsr I 
■eceedtd him an<l perfected the plans of his fsthet fur 
■trvdiiping the nwiarcea of Ihe country and adding lo 
iu raiterial wealth. Hia reign lasted fifteen years 
I IH4-&9), during the last two of which, on account of 
Ui Hl-beatih, his son and suGcenor had acted as rc- 
int. This son, Charles XV, waa king for thirteen yesrs 
(18a9-71). During his admin iatraijon, liberal ideas 
oined the aacei>dmc;'i and the reaull waf the intru- 
laction iu* ibe gOTcniiDcat of many coBStitutional re- 



of Keir 



ailed ti 






lanitv became almi 
iMt until 1036 that Sweden became a Christian state. 
The Heformation commenced in Sweden in 16S4 under 
(iustavus I, who secretly encouraged the preaching of 
Lutheran dnctrines, in order, when he had formed a 
party of sufRcient strength, to seize Ihe revenues of the 
dominant Church and abolish lis worahip. One of the 
most popular and able minionariea of the Reforniatiini 
was Obif Petri, who published the New Test, in ihe 
Swedish language. The bishops called upon the king 
lo Buppresa the translation, who treated their proiniral 

Upsala between the ttomish and Pnleslani parlies. 



Thiai 






B Romish creed, and they ' 
their houses. GuttaTus seized at once 
two thirds of Ihe whole eccleeiaalical revenues, and ati- 
thoriied Ihe clergy to marry and mix with the world. 
He also declared himaelf a I.ulheran, nominated Luther- 

pariah churches. In the course of two yearn Ihe Rom- 
ish worship was aulpninty ami universally abolished. 



II of A 



reived m 



both ctiiircheis and e 



only rule of faith, John, who succeeded In 
in 1669, had married Catharine of 1'oland, a Roman 
Catholii.'. and soon displayed a decided leaning lowanis 
the Dill faith. In the fervor of his zeal he ] rcpared a 
new lilurgv, entitled "Liturgy of Ihe Swediili Church, 
Confomialje to the Catholic' and Orthodox Church." 
ilurgy was rejected by the mass of the clergy of 
* ' - ■ - . ifij papal aatiction was re- 
fused, snil, the king wi far prevailed as lo induce the 
Swedish Church to revise its liturgy, and to declare all 
opposed lo revision guilty of schism. On his deslh, 
his brother Charles became regent, and one of his tiixt 
acts was to induce the Syiioil of Upsala (1698) toaboliah 
the liturgy prepared by the laic king snd depose Ihose 
ecclesiaatics who had defended it. (ilgismuiid, hearing 
of these proceedings, came to Sweden and inauguroled 
violent meaturea in behalf of the Romish faith, which 
were so generally opposed by clergy and people that 
he returned in disgust to pi-land. Charles rook np Ihe 
work of reform, caused a decree to be published in 1600 
that the Confession of Augsburg slmuld be the only 
rule of faith in Sweden, that all Knmish priests should 
leave the country itt siji weeks, and prescribing gen- 
eral conformity uivder penalty of banishment. Under 
queen Christina lh»Church sank into a deplorable con- 
dition of spiritual declension and decay. There waa a 
religious awakening, however, under Ihe preaching of 
(JIalailiiiB, who eulTered for hta zeal by a lung imprisnn- 
menl. To put an end lo what was called in ridicule 
Pietam,tn act was pasted in 1TIS, and a still more 
stringent one in 17!6, prohibiting, under heavy penal- 
ties, all private religious meetings or con vein icles. 
These hanh neasures and the desire for Irue spiriluol- 
ity led a number of the penple lo seek permission l« 
have the old booka used in the churches of their par- 
ishes, or lo have regularly ordained pastors serve them, 
pramistng themselves to maintain them, in addition lo 
paying all dues, as fimnerly, to the parish priest. This 
was refused, and they withdrew from the worship of 
the naticmal Church, enduring many disabilities, as de* 
nial of marriage, Unes, and penalties. It was not till 
I87S that dissenting minisleis were allowed Iv marry. 
The established Church of Sweden is Lutheran, all 



SWEDEN 



Q2 



SWEDENBORG 



NcM of Cbriatiina, however, being lolented. The king 
nominates the uchbiibop and the bilhops Itdiii ■ liu 
of names preaeiiMd to him by tlie ecdeaiaMical author- 
iti«a. The irchbiiitHip of Upaala ia the bead of tbe 
Swedith Church, having onder him eliven bisho|w. 
All eccle«iauical matters of in)partatice are subject to 
[he decision of the king. A revolution in religious 
matter* is now going on in Sweden which unnot fail, 
in time, to make itself felt in its inSuence on the future 
ilestiuy of the national Church. Especially pmspcTous 
have been tbe missionary operalious of the Uaptiats 
under the labora of the Hev. Andreas Wiberg and his 
feliow-labarem. ThauBandsofconrertahavebeen gath- 
ered into Bap^M eKarcbes, and the work of evangeliza- 

In 1854 the Rev. O, P. Petersen was cammiauoned 
by the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 

arji he had, as an assistant misaionsry, Peter Ixrsaen, 
who went to Sweden and viniled s^eral families at 
Calmar. A mission was begun in 1864 at Wisby, in 
the island of Gothland, and from that lime the work 
has been verj- prosperous. The General Conference of 
iS76 ordered the Sweilish mission to be organized into 
an Annual Conference, whicb was effected under the 
presidency of bishop Andrews at Upsala, Aug. 7, 1676. 
The following is a summiiyof the siatistia of the mis- 
Ki<infi>rlB89: Number of miniaters,G»; local preachers, 
117: Sunday-Bcbonls, !02! leachers and officers, 1097 -, 
Sunday-Mhiwlscholara, 14,417; membeis and probation- 
ers, 15.786; churches, 84; probalde value of churches, 
«ia7.5S4. 

III. EiIaailloa.—7o the credit of Sweden it ia to lie 
said that ahe has provided most liberally for the educa- 
tion of the young. There is a common-school syslem, 
instruction being uratuilous. and children not attending 
the regular government schools are obliged to furnish 
ceriillcatee that thev are under the tuition of private 
teachers. The result of all this careful and systematic 
aiteiition to education is that seldom is a Swede found 
whr> cannot read and write. The higher aeau of learn- 
ing are well palroniied. Tbe Univeisity of UpaaU 
talies high rank among the literary insdtutions of 
Northern Europe. Its home is in the town from which 
it takes ita name— Upsala, forty-Hve miles north-west 
of Slockhalm.a place of some -/lt,uO0 inhabitants. The 
attendance of student* is large, as high snmetimea as 
1600, who gather here not only to pursue the regular 
course of colle^te study, but to listen to lectures frum 
the proreaaors of theology, Uw, medicine, and philoso- 
phy. The univeniiy has a valuable library of over 
16(1,110" volumes, several museums and coUectionB,a bo- 
tanical garden, and an observatory. Both the army 
and the navy are well represented by schools, the for- 
mer having two well-conducted institutions, one at 
Carlberg and another at Marieberg, designed especially 



Swedcnborg, Ehanuki, the founder of tlie Rnr 
Jerusalem Church (q. v.), was boru in Stoekbolm, 9ire- 
den, Jan. 29, 1688. His ancestry were not noble, bat 
of high respectability among the miners of the gnat 
Stora-Kopparberg, in tbe province of Oalecarlia. Hii 
father, Jesper Swedberg (q. v.) or .Svedberg. mairitd 
Sarah, daughter of AlbrechlBehm, asaeaanroT the Koyal 
ttoard of Mines. Eminuelwaslheitsecond annandthird 
child. After the elevation of the father to the prelacy 
as bishop of Skara, the name was changed and the 
family ennobled by queen Ulrica Eleonnia in 1719. 

Reared amid pinua influences, the accounts we have 
of his earliest years seem to indicate a childhood of un- 
usual thougbtfulness and susceptibility to religiooa im- 
presuons. He says of bimself, " From my founh to my 
tenth year my thoughts were constantly engrosaed Iw 
rejecting on God, on salvation, and on the spiritual af- 
feedons of man. I often revealed things in my disconn* 
which fllled my parents with astonish ment, simI luade 
them declare, al times, that certainly the angels spake 



.rough my a. 



>wedoi 



fottli 



gofof 



mngar 



lery departments, and the Utter hai 

naval cadets al Stockholm. There are to be fbund in 

Sweden — as there are in all countties where the people 

are welt educaleit— in all towns and villages, libraries, 
museums of art, etc., societies for the promotion of aci- 
ence and literature, publications in tbe form of news- 
papers and periodicals of many kinds, sa that the diffu- 
sion of knowledge is wide-spread and healthy. 

IV. LtWro/urft— See Adlerfeldt. tfis/oire JfaaoiJ* * 
ClvirlaXII (I'atla, 1741,3 vola. 13mo)i Brown, Mrmovi 
of Iht Soeertign <if S<tfdea imd Denmark (Lond. 1804, 
8 vols-Sro); AnidI, Erinnnnngm aai Schmtdtn (Ber- 
lin, 1818, 8vo); Dunham, Hiiloiy of Dnmark, Sardrx, 
and Nona-y (Lond. 1833-84. 3 vols, llmo) ; Gall. Reit 
d<ir<A SftiwJm ta IS36 (Bremen, 1888, S vols. 13mo); 
Uing, Toar ia StBedtn m 1838 (Lond. 1839, 8vo): Syl- 
\-M,mis,RatiMniitS«)nimntidGolld<nd.Kilk Elchiagihg 
t/it Wayii^r. (ibid. 1817. 8v»); Tham, Bnh-i/nm) f.fm 
A-»rvHAiJ»(Stockh. 1849-66.7 vols.evo); MarrvatI, 
Yaar m SietdtR and aolkUm-l (Lond. I8U2, SvoJ. 



education, which was actiuired principally at 
versity of Upaala, where lie took his degree of VbJX in 
1709, in his twenty-second year. He then visited Eng- 
land, spending a year al Oxford and ihne more on the 
It of Europe. Al this time he was already a 
of the Royal Society of Sciences of Upeala,ait^ 
it while abroad. He snughi evoy- 
,y of the learned, and commenced pub- 
lishing works almost immediately cm his reluin, aome 
of them poetical, othen mathematicaL His nund toot 
an industrious and practical turn, anil for many years 
he was almost wholly employed in scienlidc puT3uil*,in 
mining, engineering, and pbi-siological studies. His 
family connections were influential — one sister married 
Eric Bcnzelius, afterwards arcbbuhop of Upaala; an- 
other was tbe wife of Ldia Benzetstieina. governor of a 
province, whoee son became a blsha]!; while oihet meo>- 
bers of the family rose to ecclesiastical and civil digni- 

and higher classes, and eiijuyed abundant palionage at 

Parliament, and about 1721 he waa appointed by Ch«ri« 
XII assessor of the Board of Mines, which made him also 
a roember uf the Cabinet. In 1724 he was solicited toac- 

of Upsala, but preferred the position he already occupied. 
Twelve years later we find him beginning to puldish 
his philosophical works: fiist, Optra Pkitetopkica el 
Minaalia (Leipaic and Dresden, 3 voU fuL), tutder the 
patronage of the duke of Brunswick; afterwards, his 
Frincipia; The PriHcipla of Natural TJiagi, or Krv 
Atlimpti al a PkiloiopllkalJirpIiinarion of lit Phammt- 
I ma xfihe Eltrmntary ICorUi— then came OnlSma of a 
' Philosophical A ryumtnt on Ike lujirdte aitd rAr Fimi 
Cauie of Crfotioa, and on lie Inlrrcourte brberrm Uk 
Saul and the Bet^.-— followed, a few year* later, by Iha 
Eeonoms of Ike Animal Kingdom (Amsterdam, 2 voh 
4to);and the ,4«'nii/ArD$dDR>(vid.i,Bt the Hague; voL 
ii, Lond. 174fi). There were many other tracia, enaya, 
and volumea of minor importance, his last work of this 
nature being tbe IPorMp a«d Loce of God. These 
works are generally acknowledged as belonging to ibr 
highest order of philosophical thought. His declared 
object in all his investigaUons was to behold the wbdom 
and goodrkess of the Creator in ail his works; giving his 
life to the discovery of truths, determined to rise thmuKh 
their diOerent degrees to those of tbe highest order, for 
the sake of dinng something useful to mankind and ad- 



vancing ( 






have been at this period a mai 
virtue, piety, and decorum. These are the ' 
life" which he wrote down and pteserved for 
guidance: 



of solid 



SWEDENBORG 

tlnr* la kMp the conMleDM d< 

^ TO dischun with fldvllty lipv luui^imitD <ji mj vm- 

pd'TTDcni and lb* dalla or ni; oOce, «nd lo raader m]'- 
■tl/ In »U thtnca mcftil to xiclctj, 

Ht«m mcmbfT of tfar principal Kimtiflc and philo- 
H|ihie>1 aDcicucg of Northern Euiopt. 

lo irUs al Lbc Ige of fifty-WTcn— in the full maturity 
eT hia powfn, in (be enjoymeot orhonoraUe Kation, and 
■( an eoviaMe itputaiion at horns and abroad for worlh, 

bboUiier Ubor* and btgan id devote himaelf lu ihwl- 
ogy, to Ibe promulgation of the docUiDei of the New 
Jfnwlem Church. Having been. u h« declared,caUed 
by the Lvd to be the meweiiger of a New DispeniatioQ 
«r Heatvnly and Divine Truth, be wai no longer at liber- 
ty ta punue faia funner counea of ocxupation and atudy^ 
tat itWDcehward applied himself, with all the diligence 
if bia charafMr, to the duliea of hii new office. The 
Krllinrtng are same of hja own wurda with respect tc this 
-calT and minioii, wrillea to Rct. Dr. Hartley, rector 
efWinoick, England, in reply to inquiries After epeak- 
bv of the circumttaiKM b( his previooa career, he con- 
iinan,-'B<it Ingard all that I hare mentioned bb mal- 
len mpectirely of little moment; for, what far eact«<< 
iksB, I bare been calM to a holy office by the Lord 

*■ la loe, his aerr lilt, ill the year 174S,wheD be opened 
ajugbt In the Tiewof the ifurilual world, and granted 
Be the privilege of canvening with epiiitl and angela, 
vhkh I enjoy to this day. Vrom that lime I began to 
1*ia> and lu publixh various urcinH that have been wen 

the aaie of man after death, the (rue worship of (iod, 
ikc ipiritaal aenae of tfae Wonl, with many other most 

ion. The mdj- reuon of my laler journey* lo foreign 
of being usefnl, by making 
n me." At another lime, 
lee is life be wrilea, to the landgrave of Hease-Darm- 
H^l. "Tbe Lord, our Saviour, had IbreUild that he 
■«aU eotar again into the world, and Chat he would 
iMditifb tbere a new Church. He baa iriveii this pre- 
iJirtHo in ibe Apucalypae (axi and xiii), and also in 
wvenl place* io the evangeliMa. But, n be cannot 
emt into (be world again in person, it was necesury 
ibM be ibauU do it by meani of a man, who ahuuld not 
mh receive the doctrine of this new Church in his un- 
taiua^iag, but alao publish it by printing: and » the 
Ind had prepared me for this office from my infancy j 
kt k« ntanileMed him«rtf in person before me, his ser- 
rm.and9mt melofillit. Thu took place in the year 
I7ti. lie aAerwanls opened the sight uf my spirit, and 
tt^B intfudoccd me into tfae spiritual world, and grant- 
el Be to see ibe beavena an4 many of their wonders, 
■■I also the bells, and to speak with angels and spirits, 
■Hi this cmiiiniully for twenty-aeven years. I declare, 
i* all imih. that such is tbe fact. Tfais favor of the 
1«t in regard to me baa only taken place for tbe sake 
^tbe new Cliur<;b which 1 bave mentioned above, the 
iatiiat 111 which is contained in toy writing*." £x- 
Kf* IB thia cliief abject and in the character of his 
■rttingi, hii babiia of life underwent no change. His 
^vard demeanor remained the same, with an increase 
tf^arimal piety and prayerfultieis,tbe same dignity and 
fiH Hrbiniiy of manner marked his intercourse with 
••Dm, the same solid sense and enlightened intelligence 

<( his lime was uninterrupted. He retained hit seat in 
Ita Swertiab Parliament, and became more 
■.V befon 



3 SWEET 

unfcilded as to what he calls it« "i[nritual mdm." Hm 
deaigo aeema to be lo diacover a Christian meuing and 
application in all things of the "law and tbe prophets;'' 
tbe method pursued does not appear lo be much unlike 
that of other Christian aimmeutaton, except in tbe ex- 
tent to which the principles of symbolism are carried 
and the results arrived aU He maintains that such ■ 
secondary sense runs through all the booka given by 
immediate divine dictation — Law, Forrner Prophets, 
Later Fropbet«, and Psslmi — and that these books are 



Bvdingl 



. unifon 






^eikaborg's Srsl tb ., , 
lantM wvtk, it tbe A rcaaa Cattitia, or Hmeab/ Mgi- 
"nt, B coimentBTy, in ugtat quano vdumes, on the 
>M* af Genmis, with > large part orEiodua; in wbicb, 
liih oiaBy other otMCivittMU and doetrinn, the Itxt is 



the law of universal analogy between 
spiritual and natural things, which law it is one great 
object of bis writings to unfold. Hit citations and com- 
parison of Scripture texts are remarkably full and ex- 
haustive. 

From the time of his alleged "call," be wrote aitd 
publiabed almost constantly until his death. The Ar- 

Ah Acceuai of Iht Loll Jadgmml, and Iht Dttlniclioa 
of Ballon ; ihmcing thai alt Ike Prrdielioni m IiU 
ApoTulj^ie nrt at liii Day FuljilUd: Bring a RrlatiOH 
of Tkinffi Heard and Srm (Lond. 1758) -. — Conctniiitg 
Ifravm imd ill fVovkri, and eonceminy Httl; from 
Thingt Htard and Sm (ibid. nmy-.—TSt Fovr Lead- 
ing Doelrina nfthe Xnn Jtratalnn, rii. Concrmmg tie 
I^rd, Sacrrd Striplarr, Faith, and lift (Anuter. IT6S) : 
— A ngrlic Wiidom rrmrrmiag the Dirint Lutt and the 
Pitine WiiJim (ibid. 1769):— ^In.vrNc IfuJom (VHTra- 
ing the Ditint Preridmct (ibid. 1704) : — The Apocah/pte 
Rrrealed, rkerein are [Htdoeed the A rcoui Ikm fort- 
lotd.ahieh have hUhtrlo Rrmaimd CanttnUd (ibid. )7GS) : 
— The Ap'Xatypte Explained according to the Spiritual 
Srnte I in mhich are Ueuealed lie Arcana which an 
there Predicted and hare been hilhrrto Ikeply Conctaled 
(publitbed after hit dealb, in h vols. 8vo), a much la^er 
and fuller work than the preceding:— TAe DrUghll of 
Wiidom coneeming Coujngal Lore: afier lehick fnllom 
the PUamret of IntanUg conremtHf Srortalery Ijitv 
(Amster. 1768). Tht True Vhriilian Beligiim, eimlaiif 
tag the Uninertal Theatogg of the Ann Church, FortiM 
bglhe iMrdin Daniel rii, 13, 14, and in Rerebiliim xxi, I, 
2 (ibid. 1771), contains his body of divinity, and is di- 
vided into fourteen chapters, under appropriate head*. 
There art also a number of minor treatises and liacM. 



All tl 






ilistribatcd by the author to the principal univer- 
tilies and seals of learning. 

In addition to his philosophical acquirements, Swe- 
denburgwas learned also as a Hebrew and (I reek scholar. 
He died in London, March 39, 1773, mainuining lo the 
last tbe truth of his allied disclosures. He did not 
attempt to collect cDng^egatiDn^ nor organise a church. 
Kor an account of the followers of his doctrines, see 
Nkw Jerusalem Church. (W. R II.) 

Swast, BUbIm, a minister of the Methodist EfUf- 
copal Cburch, was bom at Gotham, Ontario Co., N. Y., 
in IMIO. Hewasadmitledinto theGeneseeConference 
in IB47, in which conference and tlie East (icnesce be 
spent his ministerial life, three years of which he waa 
superannuated. He died SepL 7, IB69. See Miaula 
of Annual Conference; 1870, p. 'iWl. 

Sireet, John Davts, a Baptist minister, was bom 
at Kingatnn, Mass., Oct 16, tS3g. Me was the son of c 
clergyman. From his early life he devel- 






e for lite 



fparalory studies took high rank as a scholar. In 
tbe fall of 18a7 he entered Harvard College, one year in 
aitvance, and distinguished himself by his application 
to his college tasks. Having overworked bitnself, he 
sought to recrait his health by foreign (ravel. Betum- 
!,be embarked in busineM; but, bis friends urg- 



doned his secular pursuits, 
of the Baptist Church in . 
1863, where be remained n 



to tfae I 



nistry, fae aban- 



SWEET CANE 6 

■ecuring in ■ marked degree the ■(Teclion of hi* Cbarch 
uid the respect of the j>«pple of the village in which he 
hid hill home. He wis publicly recogniied u puior 
of Che Fint Baptiil Church in Somerrille, Mui^ May 
4, 1868. He had commenced his work in the new tield 
nf liis labor, and waa prosecuting it with rare aaccesi, 
when he waa stricken down by diaeaae. One of tiie 
Uit recnrda which he made in hia diaiy ■ few daya lie- 
fnre hii death waa the following: "In looking over my 
miniMry of nearly aeven years, I feel 1 ought to drop 
on my kneea and thank Ciud that lie ever caLleil me to 
tbla glorioui work. Some are alwaya apeakiiig of the 
triala of the minietij-; but I can aay, on reviewing 
mine, that it haa been one bright day, with few clouda 
la dim the brighlnem. I luve the work." He died in 
AuguM,1869. See Warren [G. I'.], Jfanona/^eniioiL 
(J. C S.) 

8w«at Cone. See Cjuo. 
Siraet Slngan, a email Scoltith aect, called from 
their fuuiider, John Gib. the Gibbitus (q. v.). They 
foraook all worldly buaineaa, and profeaaed to be entirely 
devoted to fasting and prayer in the open Held). The 
name "Sweet Singen" was gifen lo them ftom their 
habit of ■'wailing ■ porliun" of the more mournful 
paalnuL They renounced and denounced the use of 
metrical psalina, the traiialatiun of the Uible, Longer 
and Shorter Calechiama, the Cunfeaunn of t'uch, the 
Covenant, namea of muiit ha and daya, the uae of churches 
■ad church-yardni all kinda of t4illa, cualum, and trib- 
ute, all aporta, and. indeed, everything and everyhnly 
bat themaelvea. They Anally uudertook a pilgrimage 
lo the Fentland HilU, where they lemained aome day*, 
with a leaolution In ait till they saw the amuke of the 
deaolatiun of Edinburgh, which Ihetr leader had pre- 
dicleri. They were committed to priaon in lulinburgh 
in April, 1681, but were Boon releaae.1. See Bluni.^if. 
tif8tcU,».v.; M-Ciie, ScoUiih ChuifMfitloiy, ii, t9o. 
SWEET SINGERS, the English Rastkrb (q. v.) of 
the ITth century, so called by some contemporary writ- 
Sweat Wine. See Wine. 
Swaatman, Joski-ii, ■ Presbyterian minister, was 
bom at Freehold. Munmouth Co., N. J., March 9, 1774. 
Hia tuother waa a grandilaughter of Walter Kerr, who 
waa baniahed fmin Scotland for his unwavering adher- 
ence M Covenanter principles and hia opposition lo prel- 
acy. When Joseph was about three months old, bis 
parents removed lo Charlton, Saratoga Co., N. Y. He 
graduated al Union College in 1797, being one of (he 
three atudenls that compoied the graduating clasa, 
and receiving its first honura. He studied theology 
privately, waa urd«tied by Albany Preabytery, and 
installed pastor nf Salem Church, Waahinglnn Cu„ 
N.V., Sept. 17, ima. On account id' failing health, ' 



1836 


and 


was called 


to 


Gardii 


er, Me„ 


when, after 




hing 


wo years, h 




as di»miased. N 


w.8,18«8,» 


ihep 




teoflheCalvi 


istCh 


rch,Wo 


roester.Maia, 


wan 


>stal 


edDeclSo 


Ih 




vear, and remained in 


thia 


ffice 


until his dea 


h. 


having 


had a c 


.lleague after 


1874. 


Here the great 




ritofh 


IS life w 


as done. He 






B, 1817, 



{oin installed pastor of a Church, but from 
II his death devoted himself (o aiding you 






waa a trustee of Leicester Academy and of PhiOlpi 
Academy, Andover, from 1860, and president of the Ut- 
ter board from 1864. He was a trustee of the Worw- 
ter Free ludustrial Institute and of Won'estei MeoMrial 
Hospital He was also a member of the council ofibe 
American Antiquarian Society. ■ corporate member of 
the American Roani of Commissioners for Ffireign Ui^ 
sions from 18M, one of the vioe-preridents of the AoKf- 
ican Home Hiasion Society IVom 1864, and pmideni of 
the American Eiiucation Society. From 1866 tn 1873 
he was overseer of Harvard College, during which tiiM 
he publiahed varioua Repoiit, Sermoiu^ and Adttfotn; 
also aeveral articles in the Bi&liolitat SiKra. He died 
fromtheeDtetof a spinal injury and pulmonary diaeue 
combined March 34, 1878. (W. P. S.) 

Swell, in music, a set of pipes in an organ with i 
separate key-board, and forming a separate departmrni, 
which are capable of being increased or diminished In 
intensity of sound by the action of ■ pedal on a series 
of shades or shutters overiapping each other like Venr- 



" Sweelman Scholarship" in Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary, N. J. He died Dec ID. 186a. Mr. Sweetman 
was vigorous in intdlect and eloquent ii\ manner. He 
was a very benevolent man: that he might hare to 
give, he waa industrioua, economical, and prudent. See 
Wilson, /Vfjiv//ut.4/niaiiuc, 1863, p. o7; also 1864, p. 
198. 

Sireataer, Ssth, DJ>., a Congregational miniater, 
waa boro at Newbuirpoit, Maaa.. March la, 1807. He 
waa prepared for college in Nevrburyport Acoilemy, un- 
der the tuition of Leonard Withington, D.D., and'grad- 
uated from Harvard College tn 18-27. He then taught 
Khool for two years (l»i7-29) in (;enesco, N. Y., after 
which he returned to Harvard College as a tutor, re- I 
maining there until 1831. when be entered Andover 
Theoli^cal Seminary, where, ad er a full cinirse of three 
—■"t, be graduated in 1834. He was ordained Nov. 23, 1 



ndow-blinds, within which the pipes In 
arc enclosed. On a weU-ccinsiruclwl swfll ■ practi«d 
performer ran imitate nni only a gradual crttrtmln and 
diminaenda, but also a ^brzinu/u, a very small o|ieniiig 
siiAicing to make an immediate burst upon the ear: 
while, when the shutters are closed, an imitation of an 
echo is produced. 

Slv«lllnK(^ixl,9(iAt, "eKcellency," "pride," eu.) 
or JoRUAM is a phrase occurring in the A. V. at J«. 
xii, 6; xlix, 19; I, 44, but which should be rendrrtd 
"pridt of Jordan," as in Zech. xi, 8. It refers lo the 
verdure and thicketa along the banka, lined with wil- 
lows, tamarisks, and cane, in which the lions once made 
their covert; but haa no allusion In overwhelniing bil- 
lows from a rise of the watera (Reland, PalaiU p. 274). 
See Jordan. 

Swart (or Swaerta), Fbancib, ■ Flemish his- 
torian and antiquary, was bom in Antwerp in I56T. 
He devoted much of hia time to atudy, and published 
a great many works which brought him convidenble 
reputation : Narruliona llatoriet m Dtorum Vra- 
ramqite Capita, etc (Antwerp, 1602, 4io) ■.—Laervur » 
FHHft At.Oilrtu,aiii Oi-lrtii yila (l60l,U'to):- Mtdi- 
laiiimft J, Can/innlii de Tvrrrcrtnala ia V'ilam Ctrini, 
rum FiraCuntetc(CDlogne,l607, l^mo):— AVJrKir Or. 
Ml ChriMtiam* Uttida (ibid. 1608, 1625, 8vo). He died 
in 1629. 

Swift, Ellaha Papa, D.D.. an eminent divine of 
the Presbyterian Church, was bom al WiUlamstnwn. 
Mass.. Aug. 12, 1792. His patemal grandfather was the 
Hon. Hemau Swift; hia father, the Rev. Selh Swift, 
pastor at one time nf the Congregational Chorch in 
Williamstown ; and hia mother was a descendant nf 
Rev.John Eliot, well known in the annals of Amerinn 
history as the "Apiwtle lo the Indiana.' He Krodoated 
with honor at Williams College, Sept. I, I8IS. and at 
the Theological Seminary. Princeton, N'.J.,in 1816: was 
licensed bv New Brunswick l^resbyterv al Lawrvnee- 
viUe, N. J.', April 24, 1816, and on Sepl.' 19 of the aame 
year he met the American Board aTCommisHoner* for 
Foreign Missions at Hartfonl, Conn., and was accepted 
as a foreign missionary, though be waa informed that 
he could not be sen! abrnad for some months. Oit , 
SepU 3, 1817, he waa ordaineil by a Congregatio 



angelist 



tltl of labor, a period ol 



e lale I 






SWIFT 

flbd np *ilb Ubariom 
pTueliIng «]mi 



colled 



„K fii-1'i^ 



titnwien [o Lhe cUims cif ih» great enterprise. At 
kngih bt wu obliged, on account of the winc Of Tunda 
wtbcpinof the board, lo rdiiiquUh hii loiig-cheriabai 
iloin gf being a fuKiftn nJMionary. InOctober,18l8,be 
lii«tae paitDr of Ibc Church in Dover, where he UbomJ 
ikiliftnilT.bui uD<ier great diKoungeraenu; in Noretn- 
btr. 1813, he waa ioatalleil by a commicue of the KeH- 
itne Freab*leir aa paator of lhe Second Preabyterian 
DiuirborPittntHirgh.l'a^uidiRiniedUtelyenleredupun 
liii labcin in thac camnoiiiiy, which he inhMquenlly 
■lunitd and b)(a«il until he became aecrelary niul gen- 
ml ifBit for the Wetlem Foreign HiBUonary Siiciely, 



fa 1.1 






I41IM ii abaukJ, the DoanI of KoreiKii BIivir>ns of the 
lawn] AMmhly of the Preabylerian Church" (a hia- 
Inn of vhich ii published in the Fntb. Hitt. Almmne 
To JWl), He wan al» deeply inlereated in thenlngical 
rdKiiiici. and louk an active part in the establiahment 
I'Fibi.Ulegbeny Theoloffical Sieminarr, Allegheny, Ft. ; 
•ml au connected with it from iia iiuxpiian until bia 
.kith, a perind of forty jeara. He was one of the flrat 
andin. •!» an agent to collect fund), and the lirM in- 
incuir in theuhvy. which office he helil for about two 
,'E«o inl lur which he deciiiieil to reccii'c any remu- 
nuuiun. tu 1836 he teceived a unaiiiinoua call to 
l»o»t IlK paator of lhe Firat I'rfsbyieriin Church 
II AU()[baij, and alW about twelve raoniha, during 
•kick tioie be made such arrancemcnta as to secure 
ilx ««iltniieil efficiency of the Uiwiunary Society, he 
avpttd (be intiutinn, and was installed in this, his 
[•■.bogeit, and mnat inpnriant pistorate. He died 
.tpriJliafiS. Dr. Swill was a man of uncDiDRion pow- 
B of inuOeet and unusual tenderness of heart. As s 
tlnniui he 






U educ 



d«<™,y 


or Cbrisiia 


enterprises, a 


d was a pa- 


Tj« i. the tnieat sense of 


lhe term. H 


was a leader 


oiaiheTsn 




the Church, made an bv the 


Insdih of bts views, tbe 


wisdom of his 


counsels, the 


"•e^iv and 


loveUun. of 




and his man- 


I'f* ln«don 


From all se 




mbiiion. It 




a* a prtKh 


er ih.[ he shn 


ne moat con- 


^«mal.. 


Sea Wil^iu. 


Frt^ liiA Almanac, 1866 



SwUt, Job, a Congregational minister, was bom 
u Ssvdwicfa, Mass., June IT (O. S.\ 1743, anri removed 
n^adTimiih to Kent, Conn. He graduated from Yale 
1^*^^ ia 1764, having made a profession of religion 
■bik in coU^e. He studied theoloity uniler Dr. Ikl- 
«T. WIS licensed ta preach in 1766, and in 1767 be- 
"t paaor of the Church in Richmond, Mass. After 
< iMirue of seven years he left Richmond, ami, hav- 
'H pnscbed in different places fur about a year, be- 
■■ac paoor in Ameuia, N. Y. In the spring' of 1783 
>• naiDTed to Manchester, Vl.. where he preached be- 
inta two and three yean. On May SI, 1784), he was 
iiW uier the Church in Benniii(,-ton, fmm which he 
■ticininy miiuoiiary tunia into the western and norlti- 
>tgiKiiDnsof the state. I.eaving Bennington June 7, 



>• pORhasrd a (atm. He ealablish 



Hedi 



a Church there 



''■^.OcLjO, I«H. Ur. Swift acted as a chapUiii ii 
I'a mBT during moat of the Revolutiunarv war. Sei 
Vip«t, A waU n/llit Anwr. Pvlpii, i, 910.' 

Swift, Jooathan, l>.D.,a prelate and satirist, wai 
•wain DabUa. Nov. 30, I6fi7,and when about a year olf 
■■ carriBl by hia nurse to Whitehaven, Cumberland 
Wlsnd, when he was kept for three yesrs. His fa 
■>«.wbe iiti tbree moethi before he was boni, lell 



5 SWIFT 

hia family in great poverty, and tbey were aupported 
by relatives. Swift, when six yean old, was sent to 

moved to Trinity College, Dublin, which he entered as 
■ pensioner, April 34, 1683. He received his deffree 
of A.B. Feb. \h, 1680, but he remained in the college 
until 1688, when he went to England to visit his moth- 
er, and was on her recommendation admitted into the 
house of Sir William Temple. In 1694 he went to Ire- 
land, took orders iu the Church— that of deacon Oct, 18, 
lt;»l. of |>riest Jan. 13, 1695— and obtained a small liv- 
ing, which he threw up in two years and relumed lo 
England. He lived *« a friend with Temple until the 
death of the latter, Jan. 27, 1698, and in 1699 accom- 
panied lord Berkeley to Ireland as his chaplain and 
private secretary. Being deprived of this office, he was 
given the rectory of Agher, and the vicarages of Lara- 
curandRuthbeggan,wonhallogetberX330ayear. Tbe 



prebend of l>u 

wards. He st 



I upon hi 






d lo reside witli lord Berkeley 
until rrw, when the latter returned to Kngland and 
Swift look possession of Laracor. He performed hia 
duties as a countrv vleri[vman with exemplarv dili- 
gence. His appointment "to the deanerv of St. Pat- 
rick's was made Feb. 98, I71S, and early in June be left 
England to take possevton. He soon relumed to Eng- 
land nn a political misaiun. and agdn visited England 
to solicit the remission of the " liret-fruita." In 1741 
Swift's memory failed, bis understanding was much im> 
paired, and he became subject to violent fits uf pas^on 
which aooii terminated in furious lunacy. In 1743 be 
sank into a state of quiet idiocy, and died Oct. 19, IT4G. 
Dr. Samuel Johnson (tires oflht Engtiih Porli) gives 
the following estimate of dean Swift: "He was a 
churchman rationally lealousi he desired the prosper- 
ity and maintained the honor of the clergy ; of the 
Dissenters he did not wish to iiiftinge the toleration, 
but he opposed tli ' ' - - —. 



in he w. 



y attentive. In his Chur 



>f weekly cammunion, and distributed the 

manner with his own hand. He came lo Church every 
ntoming, preached commonly in his turn, and attended 
the evening anthem, that it might nut be negligently 
perTormed. 'lhe suspicions of his irreligion proceeded 
.in a great measure from his dread of hypocrisy; in- 
stead of wishing lo seem better, he delighted in seem- 
ing worse than lie was. In London he went to early 
prayers lest he should be seen at Church i he read 
prayentohis senams even- morning with Buch dexter- 
ous aecrecy that Dr. Delany was six months in his house 
before he knew it. He gave great attention to politi- 
cal nutter*, am), indeeil, it is to lii« political writings 
that he is principally indebted for his fame. In addi- 
tion to these works, some poems,elc.,he pulilishcd sev- 
eral Sermout and Traai upon religious and ecclesias- 
tical matten. Of his works several editions have been 



SWIFT 6 

Bril.aiiiAmtT.Aiiiion,s,v.; ChMimen, Biog. Dia.t.v.; | 
Englith Ci/clop. >. V. ; Darling, Cydop. BiblHit/. >. v. 

SwlftSeth, brother of Job Swift, w»>«Congr»({i- i 
tioiial miiiisier. Hv wia bc>ni in Kent, Conn., UcU 30, | 
1749. gta(]uii«d It Vale in 1774, atudied tbwiogy umler i 
Dr. Bellamy, iikI wu onlaiiieil ptMor uT the Cliurch in 
WUIiamMown, Mihi., May 37, 1776, which charge he | 
retained until hia ileith, Feb. IH, 1807. He wu greatly 
beloved by lila people, mil hoiiured and revereil by the 
whole community. See Sprague, Anmiti of Ike Amer. 

Swift Beut. SeeCAHKU 

Bwinden, Tobias, an English clergyman, woa rec- 
tor or Cuxton, Kent, in 1688, and vicar of Slioine iti 16S9. 
He died in 1719. He publUheil, Sernm m Lutt xi, 2 
(ma,6yo):—Aa Enquiry Mo 1*< jVofure <«<( Plact of 
//rU,vihichl>elocatedintheBun(Land.i;i4,8vo; trana- 
Uled into French by Bion [AmM. 1728, 8vo], and Uer- 
nun). See AUIbone, Dia. of Bi-it. and A mei'. A ulhort. 



m of the defi 

t cl 



foot«i ruminant. The pig. therefare, though it d 
the hoof, but du« not chew the cud, waa to be c 
ered unclean i and cunaequeotly, ioasrouch as, ■ 
the aas ami the hone in the time of the Kinip^ i 
could be nude of the animal when ilirc, tbe Jew 
not, breed iwine (Lactant. /mtH. ir, IT). It i«, 
ever, probable that dietetical coniidentioiu may 
influenced Mow* in hii pmhibltinn or awine'* flci'l' 

liable to Iepro«r the necauity for the obaerranct 



n Rawl' 



s and Mwilema" (Sir G. Wilkii 



a l/ai 



ii, 47). Ham. 



Swina <-i' 



1, cAiizir; Sept U| 



C, Bis; New 



thne animala, both in their ilomealic and in their wild 
UMe. .See TiiMram, Ifal. Hitt. of ike BitI/. p. 145; 
WwHl, Bible A uifHoh. p. 292. 

I. The Bcih ol awine waa forbidden as food by the 
I«viticallaw(Lev.xi,7: D«iil.xiT,8}. The abhnrreiice 
which the Jewa aa ■ naiiun had uf it may be inferred 
frum lia. Ixv, 4, where aoroe of the idolatcnua penple are 
represented ai" eating iwine't flesh," and as having the 
"broth of abominable things in their vesaela;" see also 
liTi,3, 17, and 2 Mace, vi, IH, 1^, in which puuRre we 
read that Eleizar, an aged scribe, when compelled by 
Antiochua to receive in his mouth swine's flesh, "apit 
it foith, chaogiiig rather lo die gloriously than to live 

tiesh waa faibiiklen to tbe Egyptian priests, to whom, 
says Sir U. Wilkinson {Ane. HgypL i, 8n), "above all 
meats it was particularly abnoniuus" (see llerodntus, i>, 
47; jCllan, Dt fi'al. Atiim. z, 16; Josephus, ApioK, ii, 
14), though it was occasionally eaten by the people. 
'I'he Arabians also wnt diaalluwed the use of awine'a 
fleah (aes Pliny, H. iV. viii, 62 1 Koran, ii. ITA), aa were 
also the PbcBnicians, ^tbiopiaoa, and other 



I, Cydup. a. v.), maintains that Lhl 
liiw'a flesh has breti i 
exaggerated; and recently a writer in Colbum's 
Moathis Magmiue (July 1, 1862, p. £G6) has eiid< 
this opinion. Other conjectures for the reason o: 

be aaen in Bochan {.Ham. i, 80G sq.). Callisii 
(apud Plutarch. Sympvii. \\; 6) sus|>ectetl that the . 
did nut use swine's flesh Cot the same reason whici 
aaya, iuSueiiced the Egyptians, viz. that this an 



the art of ploughing 
ilisseitation by Caasel 
lisrwfnrtu a Porcina . 



Rocfaart, liieivt. i. H06, am 
ritled Vt Jttditorum Odia 
qat Cuatii [Magdeb,]: also Michaeli^ CommaU. 
Ijiwt of Motr; art. 203, iii, '2S0, Smith's iranaL). 
though the Jews did not treed swiiw during the , 
et period of their existence as a nation, there c 
little doubt that the heathen nations of Palestiiu 
the flesh as food. See Pluioptre, BU^ Edncalur, 



of our Lord's 



api 



leEast. 



n for I 



n the law of Mosea beyon 



ilaied 1 1 
j with lespect to swine's flesh. Whether "the her< 

swine" into which the devils were allowed to « 
i <HatL viii, 82; Mark v, 13) were the property of 
, Jewbh or Gentile inhabilanu of (iadar* dues not 

pear from the sacred narrative; but that the prac 
I of keeping swine did exist among some of the .1' 
' seems clear from the enactment of the law of Hyrcai 

IrK.cit). Allusion ia nisdi 
2 l-et.!!. ;-- 



which a 



e have for "v 
lowing ill fbe mire;" thi! 
appears, was ■ proverbiit < 

compared the "arnica lutu s 

of Horace (Ap. 1,2, 26). !■ 

Oman's comparison of a " j( 

^ et of gold in a swine's auci 



Ancient KgypllsD PlgS; rarely ae 



nswere.1 by Trench {Hir 
lr», p. 173), who observes th 
a man is of more lalue thj 



cDlpnireB,andneveTben>reths1Sthilyiisaty. I 



SWINERTOX 5 

AilMrLmltnC Ihe devUi into the iwine. He mne- 
It pmniueil tbcm lo Kn,u Aquiuu uy>,'*quail uiUm 
pni in mm pmcipiuti uinc non fuiL operalio diTint 
oimnili. ml operatio diMnonuni t peraiiMioue divina;" 
wd if ibae Uadarene viUagen were Jews and owned 
ibi iwiu, ibry wen righdy pnniabed by tho lou of 
Ttm abkb tlwy ought not to have bad at alL See 
7^t.J/i^r,i;Jarta,Sul.xW,08i Hacrob. £<if.ii,4; 
J«q>biM,JiK. iiii,e, V; m\o, 0pp. ii,53l; Uiahna, 
Bata A'uMi. viL, 7; Talm. Hierua. SirtuL Tol. 47, Si 
' Ligbcfooi, //or. /M. p. SI& »).; UUia, i^er. AuA. p. 

i. The wild Uht of the wood (Pia. Izxx, 13) is the 
Kmnoo 3— fcri/a which u frequently met with in 
• ■UDily pans of Pileitine, capecially in Mount Tubvr. 



-HkiII 



injur 



ineyardi is well borne out by fatL " It ii 
Moniiliing what haroc a wild twar is capable of effect- 
lofiluiiiig a aingle night; what with eating and trim- 
plu^ imleifonL, he will deitmy a vast quantity of 
gnf" (Hanky, RatarcUti w Crteu, Pl 3S1 ). Sec 

Swioerton. As\ V, a miniiter oT the HetbodiU 
E|>iB^ Church, waa bom at Danvers, Haaa^ in IHW. 
lie yiati the New Englatvd Conference on trial in 
liBl. When the Fnvidence Conference was furmed 
m IKll, be cDiiiiniwd on the diMrict ul which he was 
pKnlim elder, and ibua became a member oT the lat- 



tle . 



h the e: 



(TfCiiia of ODe year (nipemumerary), until 186S, bin 
>aib taking place at Honument, Maaa^ Ucl. V2 of that 
JT«. !inMiiiatao/AiiiiudCintferairfi,iaM,p.&t. 

SwIdbt. Sami-ei. T., a minister of the Uethodist 
Fipimpal Church. South, waa boni in WeM Feliciana 
l^riili. U. or the cimimslance* of conversion, etc, 
■t bare no particulars. He juineil, prubably, the His- 
«|ipi QMleniKe in 1856, and after a number of years 
Wane uiptmumerary, and died Aug. 14, 1869. See 
Jfoiin -fAKuial ConfatKca of the M. £. Churcli, 
»iiiIilN69.p.34l. 

Swlnnock. Geoiwr, an EngUah clenu^man, was 
nar of Ureal Ky mile, Bucks, fivm which he was eject- 
Hi (« nDoconformity in 166^. He aflerwar[l> became 
(■tor It Maidstone, where he died iii 1673. His wril- 
npsie: //mrr» <Bid //rit t'pttomiitd{lMi6A<iit'i,ftro; 
iia.*u,y.~Ckriiliam Mm', Caltmg (in S pti 4to: i, 
l«!;ii.lfi63i iii, ie6i):-'also.fowM>. SeeAllibone, 
i'itrfariLaad Aner. A»liori,».v.i Duling, Cfrhp. 

Swluton. JoiiK, an Enclisb divine and aiiliqnaiy, 
n bm in 1703 at Bextun, Ch»hire. He was edii- 
oM B< Wadham College, Uxfurd, was chaplain to the 
bOHT at Letthorn. and died April 4, 1777, keeper of 
Ik Burenily renmlB at Oxford. He contrihited vols. 
'I ai Tii (the Li/> of Mokarmfd and the //ufory u/ 
'1) Jr^) Id the Modern Vmrmal HuloTy. and wi 
^nr learned disaertalinns on ["hsnician and other 
ibooc, Vkt of Br*, imd Aim: . 
— f.Ok*.«.y. 

SwltUi). »T„ an English ecclesiastic of the »th i: 

bMsnIf. in whom he was made chancellor. He had 

iM.4iir|(e It the education of king Alfred, wl 

■Mfiaiiinl to Knme. In 853 he 

"tAiip 0/ Wine hestCT. William of Ma 

rfbua that he was "a rich treasure of all vinues, and 

iiiH ig which he took moM delight were humility and 

'kmiy to the poor." The origin of the tribute called 

'pRtt's pmee'* (q. v.) has often been asMgned 

ivicliia. add he is said lo have procured an act of the 

"Moanemnw enforcing, for the first limi 

"nsl obligation of paying tithe*. Swithii 

1*0. Hec Hn. Jameson, tjtgmdioftht itoaialic Or- 

*Tl.p.l» 

BwitUn'a Oay. The Ukwing U said to be the 



SWITZERLAND 

origin of the old adage "If it ratn on St. Swithin'a 
Day, there will be rain more ur lesa for forty succeed- 
ing days." In the year 865 SLSwiibin, bishop of Wiii- 
chestcr^lo which rank he was raised by king Ethel- 
wolf the Dane— waa canonized by the ttieii pipe. He 
unguUt for his desire to be buried in the open 
church-yard, and not in the chancel of the minster, as 
bishops, which request was com- 

r heads that it was disgraceful for 
the open church-yard, resolved Ii 



e his body 



have 



solemn procession on July 15. It 

as had hardly ever been known, which 
made them set aside their design as herclical and blas- 
phemous; and instead they erected a chapel over his 
grave, at which many miracles are said to have been 
wrought. The value lo be placed upon the popular 
notion that if it rain on July lb it will do so for 
forty succeeding days may be teamed from the follow- 
ing facts from the Creenwicfa obserraiions fur twenty 
years: It appeara that St. Swithin's Dsv was wet in 
184l,aDd there were at rainy days up to Aug. S4; IMS, 
36rainvdBvB; 1861, IS rainy davsi I86S, 18 rainvdarg; 
IBM. 16 rainy (Uys; and in IBM, 14 rainv davs. lu 
1B42 and following vean St. Swilhin's Dav was dn', and 
the result waN in il»i, I! rainv davsi i»43, is'rainy 
days; 1844, SO rainv davsj 1846, 31 rainv davs; 1847, 
17 rainv days; ISiM^Sl rainv davs; 1849, SO rainv dars; 
I8ii0, 17 rainy lUvs; 1863,19 rainv davs; 1856, 18 rainv 
days; 18f>7, 14 rainy days; I8J8, 14 rainy days; 1869, 
la'rainy days; and in 1860,29 rainy daj-s. These fig- 
ures show tbs superstition lo be foundr<l on a fallacy, 
as the average of twenty years proves rain to have 
fallen upon the largest number of days when St. Switb- 

SwitSflrlaDd, the llehilia of the Lsiin% is one 
of the atnallest of the European stales, Iving between 
46° 49' and 47° fiO' N. lal., and Ifi 56' and 10° 90' E. 
long., its evtreme length from E. to W. being 210 miles, 
and its extreme breadth not far fmm 140 miles. It has an 
area of nearly 1 6,000 English miles, and is bounded nonh 
by Germany, from which it is separated by the Khine - 
and Lake CcHiatance ; un the east by Austria, the valley 
of the Kbirte and the Ilbietian Alps being Ihe dividing 
line between the two countries: on the south by Italy 

out its entire extent by the Alps, which are Krouped 
into several branches. The highest and besl-known 
peaks of Ihe Alps in Swiiaerlaml are Matterhnm, or 
Mont Cervin, Finster-Aarhom, and Jungllwi. Uont 

land, but at the dose of the Franco-Italian war it was 
liansferred to France. The principal lakes of Swilier- 
land are Lake of NeufchAlel. Uke of lic>neva. Uke 
Thiin, Uke Lucerne, Uke Zurich, and Uke of Con- 
stance. Its gieat riven are the Khine and the Rhone, 

the great feeders of these streams and rivers, and are 
in themselves objects of gnrat interest lo Ihe lover of 
nature. Tbe climate of Switzerland is generally cold, 
as might be expected, the region of perpetual snow be- 
in Europe. In the lowlands and valleys the tempera- 
tare is warmer, and many of Ihe productions which 
grow so luxuriantly in Italy are raiseit there. Agricult- 



of this country. 


There are 


some kinds of manufactures 


carried on which 


are prod 


dive, such a* cotton, em- 


broidery, antl silk stulTs of 


various kinds. The Swiss 


abo pay great at 


«nti.« to 




the annual proilu 


lion, in n 


e. of Ihe cuilons being not 


far from se\-en(e<: 


and a half millions of dollars. 


I. t/i,tory,-0 


r eariiest 


knowledge of Switietland 


carries us back t 


Ihe lime 





SWITZEKLASD s 

■Uudal to in Roman hiatory u the Helretii. In tboH 
eirly days, uot far from a century befure the commence- 
mcnC of the Cbtiatiui era, thvy ■uccmrully niitted the 



gions under hia cumowuitl to hiIkIuc these h*rdy dwell- 
er* or the m.iunuiiu and villeya of Helveiia. After 
many year^ by (iPgreH^ the Homan arms brought theae 
pniuil-S(H riled Tuea into subjection, and Tor aeveral oeo- 
luriea the conqueron held dominion over the country. 
Inraaiuiu Crani the northeni triba of Europe laid waite 
many sectione of the land. These barbariaiis of ibe 
North were at laitall brought under the power nflhe 
FranltJ, and Chrisiiauity became ihe prevailing r ' 
Without traciiifC the political hieiory of Switzerland 
through the various phases through which it p 

came a feileral republic iu I »18, and the people are 
living uiuler a revised cunsiitudon, which was accepted 
by them in the ipring of 1874. This cotiMitulUin guar- 
antees to the inbabitanla of Ihe twenty-dve can 
into which SwiuerUnd is divided Ihuse rigliu and 
■nunilies which are found in all properly conHiti 
republics. All ciClsens are equal in the eye of the 
IVivilages nf place or birth have ceased. Absolute 
eriy of oonsdence everywhere prevails. The prei 



free. The right of ai 






exception that the Jesuit* and organ iiatiui is kindred 
them are forbidden. The capital of the confederated 
alales is Benie, 

IL Rttigioa. — Chriitianity was firti introduced ir 
Switaerlaod about A.D. 610 by SuUall, a native of Ire- 
land and pupil oT Columban. He was one of twelve 
Irish monks who labored to disaemhiate Chriuianity 
throughout Europe, They Hrst tnuk up their re^derict 
at Ihe head of Lake Zurich, and, burning with iral, set 
lire to the pagan temples, casting the idols into the lake. 
Driven away by the inhabitanis, they oettl&l at Bre- 
ICCUU, but at the end of two years were banithed from 
this place also, and all left fur Italy except Sl Gi 
was too ill lu be removed. He repaired to a sequescerod 
spot, and with a few adherents built the Honasterv of 
SuUaU in Ihe canton of the same name. After his 
death, several of his scholars and monka from Ireland 
oratinned his woili, until paganism lost iu hold and Ko- 
nanism was substituted in its place. 

With reference to the Reformation, D'Aubign^ says: 
"From I&I9 U> 1636 Zurich was the centre of the Ref- 
ormation, which was then entirely German, and was 
propagated in the eaalem and nnnhrrn parts of Ihe 
oonfederation. Between 1&'J6 and 153-2 the movement 
waa communicated from Berne; it was at once German 
and French, and extended to the centre of ijwitxerland, 
from the gorges of the Jura to the deepest valleys of the 
Alps. In 1532 Geneva became the focus of the light ; 
and the Reformation, which was here esHuitially French, 
was established an the shores of the Leman Lake, and 
gained atrength in every quarter." The main inalru- 
meiii in cinnmencing and carrying forward the work at 
Reformation in SwiizeHand was U'lric Zwingli (i|. v.). 
In 1513 he commenceil the study of the Creek lan- 
guage; and from J6IG. when he began to expound the 
Word of t^id as preacher in the Abbev of Einsiedeln, 
Zwingli dates the Swiss Reformation. The influence 
of Ihe jmre faith was soon eitensively felt, so that, by 
Ihe year 1522, we find Erasmus estimating "those" in 
the cantons " who abhoireil the see of Rome" at about 
300.000 peraons. Gradually changes in the mode of 
wiinihip were introduced. In l.'il23 we find Ihe Council 
of Zurich requiring that " tbe pastors of Zurich shoulil 

the abolition of images in churches soon followed ; mar- 
riage was no longer prohibited to the clergy; and in 
1525 the mass was superseded by the simple ordinance 
of Ihe Lord's supper. In Appenzelt Ihe Kefnrmation be- 
gan about 1621, in SchafFhauaen about the same time. 
The aactajnentaiian coiittoveny between Luther and 



B SWITZERLAND 

Zwingli, and their respective followers, was detrinentsl 
to the cause ofirulh in both Germany and Swiuertaod; 
and in the latur, as well as in the former, the rise of Ihs 
Anabaptist body was both a source of injury and re- 
proach. In the year 1627 Berne became proliseedlvi 
Reformed canton, ami for mutual secoritv allied ilselfiia 
1529, wiih tbe canton of Zurich. In Vm, at tbe DiH 
of Augsburg, when the Lutheran Canfeasiun was pn- 
sented. (he Swiss divines presented another drawa \if 
by BiKcr, known, from the four towns it represented— 
namely, Constance, Sirasbnrg, tjndau, and Hejningen— 
as the Tetrapolitan Confesaion. Tbe two oonfeaiflis 
only differed as to Ihe aenie in which Christ was under- 
stood to be really present in the Lord's supper. At this 
tinK, also, Zwingli individually presented a confesnon, 
to which we And Eck replying. The five Romish cao- 
tons, having made ample preliminsri* preparaiiont^ de- 
termined by force of arms to check ( he furl her prugresof 
ReforirKd (ainciples in the confederation. The French 
sympathies of Zwingli,and his hosiilily lo Charles Y, 
deprived tbe Protestant cantons of liermvi suppon 
iu tbe approaching conHii.^ The Froleataiit cautans 
formed a coiifederiKy, and by a reaoluiion adopted at 
Aarau, Hay IZ, 1631, instituted a strict blockaile of ibe 
five cantons. Uoaded on by the oonsequent faiDiue aixl 
its attendant miseries, these last determined on war. 
and entere.1 the lietd on Oct. <i of the same year, the firi« 
engagement, taking place at Cappel, proring mtiM diaai- 
trous lo Zurich and fsul to Zwingli. The Relutnaliau 
now took Ihe direction of Licneva, jt« opiniun* b«ni: 
first proclaimed by William Farel about I&S2. IU wai 
banished, but was succeeded by Anthony Frommeui. 
who soon shared the same fate. The folh'wiiig yesi 
they were recalled, and the bishopa fled. In liSC liie 
Council of the city proclaimed their adherence tu ihe 
Reformed faith. The folhiwing vear witneesed the arri- 
val of John Calvin, and on JulV 30, 1539, Ihe cititen> 
pn]iery and professed Protestantism. Priia lu 






iiiofih 



in the State lotl to such dissenriiniis ami opposition that 
Calvin and Paicl were banished, but,at the eanieal en- 
treaty o! the ciiiiens, the former returned in 15)1. 
Whatever difference of opinion there may be wilh ref- 
erence to the theological vieu-s of the great Genevan Re- 
former, there can be none as to his Intelleelual atHtiiy, 
and bis wonderful organizing and executive power. 
His legal training (in early life he had studied la«) 
quallHed him to frame a civil code for (Senera, the good 
effects of which were apparent i 



"Thnmgh \\ 






established, govtfn- 
ed by an oligarchy, pervaded by an ecdesiastical spirit. 
and renowned in the history of the world. Thiiber re- 
sorted all who during that age were persecuteil f<»r their 
faith, and it became Ihe acknouledged centre »f a Re- 
formed Church." .See Cai.vim. For some i-eara aftrr 
the death of Calvin ( 1564 ), tbe religious history of 
SwitierUnd is closely ideniifird with that of tbe CtXlt- 
olic reaction from Ihe Reformation. Hopes which bail 
been cherished with reganl u> the ra]iid progreaa of a 



ofChri 



the Roman Catholic power ii 



the 1 



Toward* tbe close of the ITth century, Ihe strife be- 
tween Ihe two great religious parlies, the papists and 
Ihe Protestants, began to assume a more open character, 
and in 1703 the Catholic and the ProlesUnt cantons 

ried on for several years. At last, in 1712, a Setue bat- 
tle was fought St Villmergen, and victory was on the 
if the I'roteslanls. The Catholica were complete- 



SWORD 5 

KdoinUa! gDT«rnm«ii( ii in ■ ecrtun KnK under the 
naiiol iil(b« ontonal govemmuil. The pope hu at- 
uofifi ui do anaiii Chiiigi in Iha KgulaiioD of tlis af- 

hif> of time o«r whom h* claims to exercbn jurisdic- 
1*41, but hii icU have been declared illegal by the civil 
■uikhtv*, ind Ihcy are null and vuhI. 'I'he " Old 
Uubolia'' hare oblaiued pCoienian of uveral parish 
cbmthn in three or four of the canuna. The pieseiic 
niaitiutiiio of Switzerland gnnts complete and abao- 

cgr my penaliia whauoever on account of hia leligious 
ifiiniBiiL No one ii bound to contribute to tbe ex- 
[csnrfi Church to which he doea ni>t belong. Free 
•unhip i> guaranteed, civil marria^ is compulaory, 
•ad wbaequent religiotia service ia optionaL The caii- 

1, petidun, 
I guiranteedi but Jeiuita, and all re- 
bjciAH orders and asaooiations which art affiliated to 
ilHii.treprDhihited. Of late yean much evangelizing 
•ok lia> been dune by tbe Presbyterians, Baplists, and 
Kitludiiu. In IM9 the Methodist Episcopal Church 
■pniiAl the "Germany and Switzerland Mission," 

l!irsa',wilh Switzerland aaone of its districts. Thefol- 
k»in; are its statistics for 1889 : Number of preachers, 
I'; bcsl preachers, 5; Church members, 4SU; proba- 
(mii.90$; Sunday-schools, 186; Sunday-school schol- 
in, IltW: churches, 38; value n^churche^«1.0l8,4^5. 
Ibm H abo a Methodist bonk establishmeni at tiremen 
tsd B tbwiiyical school at Kraiikfort-on-the-Main. 

Ste JfnsDiizi H Hotumenit pabtUt par la Sixiili 
illibmt ^ fArrkiol"yU df Gaurt (Gtmvt, 1841-47. 
i igk.|: Wilson, //it/. n/SmtitrloHd, in Lardner's CiM- 
•X r'jiVifci.- Gailleur, U Saiae (ibid. \Si&-b6, i 
'ikUo); Iugli^5l^s'Er^blNJ(Land.lM0, 
ffufujo/SiFifttTfaitd (N.Y.1876). 

Swoid, in the A. v., is tbe usual randeriiig of a^n, 
r*«n4 (ffooi Z^^T^, lo luy moiie), which was simply 
Istii tajfr, as it is rendered in Josh.T, i; Ezak. v, I, 2. 
Isii bsquent words are nX^, r^sruA, Psa. xlii, 10 
[ll],a rrmikag or outbreak ("slaughter," Eiek. xxi, 
Si; rf)t,iUladk (Job xxxHi, 18, xxxri, 12; Joel ii, 
K I Airf, as elsewhere reodcred; N. T. fmit^ia, a 
s^srViog and broad sword (Luke ii,SSi Her. i, IS; 
a 1* K: ri, S; xix, Ifi, 21); elsewhere l'ax'"P'^ ■ 



icipal offensire 



reap- 



» is Bible history 
a Sbacbem. wheu "Simeon and Levi tix>k each 
hii nnnl, and came upon tbe city boldly and slei 
lit bslB' (Gen. iixiv, So). But there is an aUi 
u It itHinlT before in a paaaage nndnubledly of the 

Ida wiib Jacob (Uen. xixi, 26). After this, di 
ikt mnnt of the ennquest and of the monarchy, the 
»sri=a of the sword is frequent, but very little can b( 
pitend fmm the casual ttotices of the text as to iti 
''^N Bie, material, or mode of use. Perhaps if any- 
i^ is to be infermi it is that (he rAirrb was nul 
'■ktr a heavy or a lung weapon. That of Ehud wsi 
^ a cubit, L e. ei((hl*en inches, long, so as tc havi 

■•bsrilo the inr<rence that it was shorter (ban ususl 
.fthe " 



SWORD 

the modem sword. What riigb(ful wounds one 

of the aword of tbe Hebrews could inflict, if given 

with the led hand of a practiced swordsmati, may 

be gathered from a comparison of 2 Sam. xx, 8-12 

' 1 Kings ii, 6. A ghastly p' 



fortunate A 



Durdert 



."sliuee"with the II 



spal(ered from his"g 
' ' *i had qiuuled from ma victim ; 

e eAirfi was carried iu a sheath (^:F>, 1 Sam. 
61; 2 Sam. ii, 8, only; yjl, I Chron. xxi, 27, 
only) slung by a girdle (I Sam.'xxv, IS) and resting 
upon the thigh (Psa. xlv, 8) Judg. iii, 16), or upon the 
hips (2 Ssm. XX, 8). "Girding on tbe sword" was a 
symbolical expression for commencing war, the more 
fiircibie because in limes of peace even the king in state 
did not wear a aword (1 Kings iii. 24) ; and a similar 
expression occurs to denote those able to serve (Judg. 
viii,10; 1 Cbron. xxi, 6). Other phrases, derived from 
the Mnb, are, " to smite with the edge (literally 






o edges are occasionally referred ti 



(Judg. iii, 16; Pss. 


cxlix, 6) 


and sllusiona are 


found to 


'whelUng" ihesw 


ord (l>eu 


. ixxii, 41 ; Psa. 


Ixiv, 3i 


Eiek. xxi, 9). There is no 


reference lo the 


material 


of which it was CD 


raposed( 


niess it be Isa. i 


4; Joel 


ii, 10); doubtless 


was of metal, from the all 




u brighiues. and 


-glitteri 


B" (see the two 


passsgea 


quoted above, and 




id the ordinary 


word for 


blade, viz. =ni," a 


flame." Fn.m the express! 


n(J«h. 


v,a,a) "swords of 


ock,"A.\ 


. "sharp knives. 




perbai- infer that in early ti 


nesttie material was Qiut. 


-Smith. SeeK-iiFK. 







2. The ERVptian swonl was straight and short, fmm 
two and a half to three feet in length, having generally 

used fur cut and thrust. They had also a dagger, the 
handle nf which, hollowed in the centre, and Kradiially 
increasing in thickness at either extremity, was inlaid 
with cnstly stones, precious woods, or metals; and the 
pommel of that worn by the king in his girdle was fre- 
" ... - hawk, the 



a it be s rendering of the naxnipa of tl 
trren assamiog that Ehud's swuid was thor 

aL yet a onsideimiion of the narratives in 2 Sam. ii, I sword : its bladi 
iadix,g-10,and also of the ease with which Dsvid upering grsdui 
i the finiid of ■ man so much larger than himself to two thirds ■ 
aGnliaih (I Sam. xvii, fil ; xil, 9, tO). goes to show total length, with (he handle, only completed a foot or 
KtbetiirdwaalKith a lighter and a shorur weapoti | uxieen inches. The blade was bionie, thicker in the 



the Sun, the title given li 

It was much smaller than tbe 
Mm t ten or seven inches In length, 
jreadth, from one inch and a half 



SWORD-DANCE 



Ancient Efypdan Daggfri. 

Ill) ■( (tie eilgn, ind slightly gmoTeil in ihat 
1 H «xqui>ile1y iru the meul warked thst 
Hit their pliability and spring after a perioil of 
hODUnd years, iiid Rimnst leaemble eteel in 
. Such is the daKKer »'' the Berlin onllc^inn, 
IS dUco^'ered in a Theban tomb, together vriih 
rn ahealh. The handle ia partly cnvered with 



1y o( bone, iieilhet eriiamented nor 
covered with any Toetal caaing. Other instance of 
thia have been found; and a dagger in Hr. 8«1t'« col- 
lection, nnw in the Britiah Muwum, measuring eleven 
and a halfinchea in length, had th« handle formed in 
« amilar manner. There was also ■ (alchinn called 

Tie, or ckopptr, of the Argives, reputed to he an Egyp- 
tian colony. It was mure generally used than the 
aword, being borne by lights as well a> heavy-armed 
troopa; and that it was a most efficient weapon ia evi- 
dent as well from the uie and foni] of the blade aa from 
its weight, the bacli of this bmnie or icon blade being 
■ometimci cased with brass (Wilkinson, Ak. liggpt. i, 
8S8). 

3. Asayrian swords, lilie the sceptres, as seen on the 
monumentis were often richly decorated. The bilt was 
geneially iinjamenied with several lions' heads, ar- 
ranged t« form both handle and croia-bar. The scab- 
bard or sheath was elaborately embossed or engraved 
(Layard, Xinneh, ii, 231). 





iword (gbdiui, iifot. 



called n 

rather broad, and nearly of a 

poiai. The Ureeks and Roma 



side, BO aa to draw ibem out of the shealh (ngiaa. n>- 
X(uc) by passiog the right hand in front of the body ts 

The early Greeks used a very shun sword. Ipbicrarns 

400, doubled its length. The Konian sword was larpr. 
heavier, and more formidable than the Greek (set 
Smith, Did. of A atiq. s. v. " GUdiiis"), The swords rf 



the most 



by a. 



■nd this • 



G. The sword is the > 



viiw judgment (Deut,XJtxii,4i ; . 

13; Kev. 1,16), and of power ami 

4). The Word of God is called - tne swora, i. 

weapon or instrument, of the Spirit (Eph. vi, 17). 



, |-.18),ofdt 
ii.lS; Jer.iii 
ity (Bom. xiii 



called Lironian Brethren of the Sword. In 12S7 ihr 
Order of the Teutonic Knights amalgamated with them, 

BurmuiHling the Uulf of Kiga. (See illustnitioo un op- 
posiiopage.) 

Sword-dance, in Hindflism, ia a religioua dance 
performed by HindU bayaderes who have dedicated 
themselves to some deity, and involving the diaplay of 
great skill Swords are fastened, edge upward, to two 
long poles, which are indiived against a wall so ■■ to 
form two half-ladders. The bayaderes ascend then and 

and displaying inimiuble skill and glace of bodily 

blades may be exceedingly difficult, the reward of the 
dancen ia correspondingly great, so that they arc nut 
unfrequently enriched by the receipts from a ungle per- 



SYCAMINE 



n Cliriatmu 



Smvd Bnithcr, 
Bwoidl Uid a ducal cap are Ucmed 
tTt, « (b> midaight maaa, by (he pap«, in order to 
bt nl lo farored kinffa, ai Edward IV, !(;» ; Henry 
TU. 1W6: Henry Vllt, 1617. The laxt gift of this 
kinl wu aMde l|j Leo XH to (he due d'Aiigoulf me in 

SwmmBtadt, Lemot, a pmniinen( minifter of the 
¥Rb«di« EpiHKfial Church, waa bom in Hirylanil 
Ua.l,i;9«: When eifrhtcen veanDrafce he profeeHHl 
f^imon, uid wa* licenied to preach Jan. !, 
Ha torriDce inro the itinerant work was lbn)u){h rhe 
i>t>io Onremnce in AiiguM, 1R18. He wai ordained 
'Wna la 1810. and eliler in 1822. In IBSO he was ap- 
pealed prending elder, and nccopied tl '" 
rimed HinUiH agen( of the Western Book Concern. 
.Ua Sling thia pmition for et);ht yetn, he was <*Iecled 
(iwi^ agent in 1844, and conlinued u 
I'M. wboa be biuk a superannuated relBlion. After 
apidly in health, and died Aut;. 27, 
in of vigi ■ • • 

punctual, an energetic and methodical 
["advr. aad a ti|p<t disciplinarian. See ifinuU 
immlOiiifrrmen, 1863, p. 14^ 

Syagiiiu. Sr.. a French prdate, was bom at Autnn 
I'OM iKI, of a (iallo-KoniDn family, and was 

ing onUined by 






His hnii 



a kind r 



''^■nLabeie many •liMinguished 
viLni; and he fouaded Ukewiae a liospirat. am 
'»rtiurthe« of rhe same city. He deeply sympathiied 
ni [tic conqaered Franks. He waa active in Ihe ec- 
'iautial iKiirs af hia lime, and died Aug. 37, 600. 
W Bata, S'otr. Bitig. Gtmralr, s. v. 

SjbArlfs in Grvek mythology, was a monster who 
vi^iiRi a care on Pamaaaui and dcrisiated the land 
rmO. By the command of the oracle a youth was to 
I'ncriSnd to bim, and the talk fell by lot upon Alcy- 
"»« «a oT Diomu*, who, adotned with ■ garland, waa 
'rvtUtaibe carei but, charmed with the beauty and 
*'«ti irf the victim, Kuryhatui took the garland, went 
^^ibeene, fuught the monster, and hurled it down a 

Sreamliia (ovciipivc ; Vulg. morug) ii menlion- 
« we oaly in the BiUe, lii. in Luke xvii, 6, " If ye 
^d bath 19 a grain of muitard-aeed, ye might lay to 
Be tboD plucked up," etc. There ii 
doobc (hat the avmafjtpo^^ ii distinct from 
■a of the same erangeliit (xix, 4), al- 
froio Diosnrides (i, 180) that this 



Stcaxore. The si 






uf the 



if the 
» for 
the mnlberry - tree in (ircece (see Heldreich, Kuli- 
p_fiaratH C'vchfnl.iii,li [Athens, I8G2], p. 19: -Mo- 
rus alba L. and SI. Nigra L, i} Mop^, Hoi^Tpd, 
and Moi^iiid, also Xixnpijvpa ; pelaag. wura"). In 
his learned esiay on the Tritt and ShnU oflkt Ati- 
dnli (I86S). Dr. Daiibeny adoprs Ihe dislinctiun pnini- 
ed out by UodiEus and confirmed by Fraas: the jyni- 
norus uf the Komaiin, ihe (n<Kii/iopov or oi'ia/iivat {if 
AlfBVTif) of Dioscorides, (he iri'id/iii'oe Aiymrrio of 

of modem bnuny. On ihe other hand, Ihe aincri/iivoi- 
of the Greeks, used simply and without the qualiAca- 
lion *' Egyptian,** Ihe tnrEaii^t4n of Dioscorides, is Ihe 
ROrus of the Konuuii— our niilberTy. Dr. Sibthorpe, 
who travelled as a botanist in Greece for the expresa 
purpose of identifying the plants known to the Greeka, 
says (ba( in Greece (he white mulberrj'-tree is called 
fioupin 1 the black nmlberry - tree, mni/itvio. Not 
only ta i( Ihe species whose fruit is prized, bu( it may 



Black llDlber>7 Fruit, Leaf, and Bloaiom. 



SYCAMORE 



«2 



STCHAR 



he qiicatinncd wbcther tfae Mona alba hid (band ill 
way inui Ihow regioru b«lura the inlroductiDii at the 
lilk-wnnn had midi iu ravoriM Tood m object of cuUi- 
vition. Believed lo be a native of Peraia, the mul- 
heny, coRimanlj w cilled, .Vurui mifrii, i> now iprud 
liver [he milder regions of Eumpe, iiid it continually 
mentioned by travellen in the llnly Land. Ai the 
mulberry-tree ii a«iim.in, at it ii lufty ind ifliinU 
■hids, it ii well calculated fur the illiutrelion uf the 
above puwge oTLuke. See Trixrim, A'ul. Hiit. oflht 
Bait, p. 896 ; Tbomun, Lund ,mil Boat, ii, 29«. See 

MULBKBRT. 

SyoamOiO is the invariable rendering, in the A.V., 
nf the Heb. n^t>t, thitmah' (which, however, occun 
in the ring, only in the Talmud, 5jlriHfj,ix,!: the Bi- 
ble employe indilTerenlly the maec plnr. O^C[^C, lAife- 
mf>i,l Kingeic,S7; I Chron. iivii,2g; 2Chr^n.i,l&: 
ix,i7; laa. ix, 10; Ainoi vii, U; and the fem. plur. 
riis;30, ihUmStk (Psa. Ixuviii, *7), and rf the (ireelt 
ffvKOfiwpaiR (Luke xix,4). 'rheSept.ilwiyainnelate* 
the Heb. word by irwto/ui-ocfy™™"'! meaning doubt- 
leu the Egyptian tree, the irtPito/nvoc AiyiPirrin of The- 
ophraatus, which ia reillv the svrimore (Dinscoriden, i, 
180), See Geaenius, rhnimr. Ilrh. p. 1476 4; Koaen- ^f,"'"^ .""■ "■'' '"' 
mliller, ^terrAuniitmiit, iv, Ml aq.; 01liu^ IlifnAA, '" »» «»''™"U» 
810> The »c.n>or,. «, Jis^ulh^rn (frnm ^.o,:fy. V^^V^ ^''^ «l„m m,...,u™ nor nea 
an<l aipor, m«tlmfy), ii in Efivpt md fiftaliiie a tree i '.' '"'''" M"her from miuiiure nor nea 
, r-^,'- 3'' "h. I . „ ,, _,, . lan mummv coffin*, which are made of 

of great importance and verj- extenaive n.e. It attaiiu ] ^.-nd ,fter an entombment of thoii 

the «» of « "'"."f-reo, haa «i"-f-^'"8^"-.^7- [ Ir^i:.":!'!;::. rZZ i"ltS^Zn.„»™, ., 

?^nZrypUMbvtle wav.UeJ I,r^^a;: ^''':^'y'"'"l""'r ^'^".h"""' """iiST^' 
h«rt..bipJ<l. d,.»nv on the underri.le, and fraRran.. , So B^at w^ the va .» of the« tree. .h.. D« 
■l-he fruit graw. dire^Llv from the Inmk it«lf ..Tli.ile ^ ,^ }" '}'""'" '"' "'If •"" « f««1 ""r- 
apriBMnd'indu-tera like the grape. To -"ake it ea.J ^ej-d^for ^hej.ve, (l^hrn^ .xv,. MV ... 
able, each fruit, three nr four day* befurc gaihering, "" ™ ,„"nl^,\,"„™ ,1,^ 
muM, It ia aaiil, be punctured with a itiarp instrument * " "''■■"'™" *"" ' "" 
\<T the Hnger-iiail (comp, Tbeophnutua, lit C'i«: I'liod. 
i, 17,9; Iliil.lH. iv, i, l; Plinv, //. S. xiii, 7: Fi.r- 
■kil, i>racr. PLial. p. IM2). Thia' wia the original em- 



etcamnre t\g and Lf«t 
In biwer Kgrpt it buds in March, and ri 



4ting1y do 



ends of 






Egi-pt's calai 
ner Bycimorea were iie"iro*eii by hailalonrs 

riii,47). The mnteni llaipha waa the citv ol 
lea (Sscomimim, KeUnd, PnUal. p. ie2*),'ii> 
■inn nf iinnmve ire Mill reeogiiiiable (Staiilcv, 
Pal. p. lib). ■ ■ 



gilherer," ciis, Sept avilmi'. the exact te 



in onter lofiel i 



^ of Jericho that Zaccheuiclimbei 
Ptvy- cfJeaua paniugbv (Luke xix, 
Tbeophraitus). HiaaelquiM (Trar. p. 260; Lond. ', aqueduct of Herod'. Jericho Mr. TriMram lately i 
17(10) lays, "The fruit of thi« tree tastes pretty well; ' "a tine old sycamore lig-liee, perhapi i liiieil Ar* 
when quite ripe it is soft, watery, wmewhai. sweet, with int, and nearly the last, uf thai into which Zict 
1 very little pnrliun of in iromillc Hate." It appears, ^ climbed" (/.cnid n/ZirneJ, p. 509). That which it 
however, that a apeciea of gall insect (Cj/aipt tyconori} ed sycamore in North America, the Orcidrmial pl,i 
often spoila much of the fruii, '-I'he tree," ilasselqiiiii \ bul'oa-icood tree, h»« no resemblance whiievcr t 
idds, " is wnunrled or cut by the inliabitanls at the lime sycamore of tbe Bible. The name is also ipptjec 
it buds, for without this pteeiuiiim, as they «iy, it will | apecies of maple (the .4co' prndo-pliiimiii, or 
not beat fruit" (p. 26 1). In form and smell and inward ' /itow), which ia tnuch used by turners snd millwri 
structure it resembles the flg,aiHl hence its name. The , ^e Mayer, Me fycanwm (Lips. 1694); Wameknw, 
tree ia ilwaya venlanl, and beara fruit sei-eral limea in ' Xal. Sycomori, in the Rrpfrt./ir bibl.Lii. x\,2H 
the year without being conlined to fixeil seasons, and is ' xii, Bl sq.; TriMram, .Vol. Ilitl. of Iht BiUr, p. 
thus, as a permanent fuud-bearer, invaluable to the poor, i Thornton, Land and Book, i, 22 sq. See Fio. 

BjtMtm, in Greek mythology, was oi 
the Titana whom, when jupiler punned 
his mother, Earth, received into bet worn' 
Sy'obu- (Xuxo^ in K, A,C,D; but nc 
SiXap with B; Tnlg. Stehari but Codd. 
and Fnld. Sa^ar; Syriic Smut), a 
nimed only in John iv. 5, u "icity nf S 
rii called Sychir, near the ground whici 



most universillv accepted. In the won 
Dr. Robinson (BOt. Rei. ii. 290), "In o 
quence of the hatred which existed bet 
the Jews ami the SBma^Illl^ and in ilh 



A'htelon. (From a phningrsph ' 



SYCHAB a 

el ■kkuiM (pcrfaaps tnno ''JiV, liiitr, " filsehnod," 
ffiDtn of hIoIi in lUb. ii, ISi'or from '^iS1D, lAOMr, 
•inakui," in iIIbiioti Io In. sxTiJi, 1, 7), lucb aa Ihe 
Sfn wtn fund of impoainf; upon |>Ucea they tliilikecl ; 
■HJ Mthing riHilil exceed the enmit)' which eaiswd Iw- 
nrm thf m incl Ihe SanMriuns, who pixsMMd Shechem 
iMnir.^J. Ittboulil not be oveilooked that John t]i- 
|ani)»}'9ta um Ihc enprettinn Xtyufuvoc, "called," 
i"ilnwtea wbiiqitet or title bome by place di pereoii in 
■Uiiivi IO the name, or (o attach it to a place remote 
■ml link known. Iiuiancei of the fonner practice are 
nIS:ix.M;sis, 18, IT; aTlbelall^r, xi, &4. The 
-n ii( Sinch (peaka of "the ruoluh people that dwell 
inSiluna'(l,!8). See Lighiroot,<;|pn-a, ii,&86; lM\ge, 
li/f »/C*™(, ii,B3T; Hengtlenbeig, On St. J<i/mn,b. 
JHMMvin speaking of Paula's Juuniey, Bays, " She pan- 
til Sidim, noi. ai many erroneoutly call ii, Sichur, 
whitli ii DOW fi'eupolu'' (^t'piit. ad Eiiiloch. in 0pp. i. 



BUI crmr; be ailila that it waa then called Ntopolii 
['>!f. ^^ IMU, ed. Migne). So Adamnan wntes lu Ar- 
niabvlratelM in the ;ih cenluiy : " He viaiied the 
Bin oOtA in Hebrew Sidintt, but by the (ireeka and 
LMin SieiMa. and now more iiaually Sgrhir" (Earlg 
TntA, Ifchii, ]».»). rn Ibe t3th century Phucai »ay«, 
-^wkar was Ihe tnetropulia of the Samaritan*, and wai 
■funirds called Neapulis" (Relind, fabal. p. 1009). 
On tht contrary, Euaebiua {Ononuut, •. v. £»%<«> aod 
tirU) urs that Sychar was in front of Ihe city uf 
^etfriii: tiKi, again, that it lay by the tide of Luia, 
•liici >ia (hne milea from Nespoljs. Sycbem. an Ihe 
i^lHsd, he place* in the tiibiitba nf Neapolis bv Ihe 
"qb of Jnepb. The Bordeaux I'ilgrim (A.D.'83S) 

°*iwinigJiMepb'a i»onucaentamlp1otoft;rounil(riU^}. 
U' lbs imereds to lay that ■ Ihouaand pace* thence 
••• the place eaUed Secbar. Moreover, had >u<h a 
HcknuH been applied to Shechem ao habitually ai iU 
••rmatx inJuhn would aeem to imply, there would be 
<w tnce of it in Ihune passages of Ilie Talmud which 
■ff (a Ihe Samarirana, and in which every term ofop- 
niMam and ridicule that can be qunied or invented is 
kapel HI tbetn. It may be affirmed, however, with 
'BUi'l^ that neither in Targum nor Talmud ia ihere 
■n Bvniioa of soch a thing. Lighlfoot did nnt know 

aim ibmtitiand recent close aearch has failed todis- 
»« it S«* Skeckem. 

ftiiJFronM'a view soon became (he prevailing one, 
■^ ba RtniinuHl to be so. Robinson adheres strongly 

■ ibe oihtr Hide, that Jacob's well, which stands at the 
nnaet into Ibe valley wbeie Shechem or NablAs is 
i. b about a mite and a half fruni the town, so 
■Oman would hardly have gone s» far to draw 
BKc ibcre waa [deiily of good water near at 
hi thinka that the Uiwn probably had exiensive 
*>^tfba in the Uoapel age which did not exist in the 
'lar fif EosebiiiL and might have appnncbed quite 
'ttriaHu irrll of Jacob—jnet aa Jerusalem anciently 
'imW much farther nurlh and south than al the 
<«n>i day {Kamrrkn, iii, 131). Porter Ukea the 
V* paeral view, and says, in regard to the distance 
■> U( tr\\ [hat persons " who use aueb aigumeiiis 
^H lililr or Ibe £■■(>. The mere fact of the well 
k"Bi( bsm Jacob's would have brought numbers in il 
Uiht distance been twice as great. Even indepen- 
■f its hiaoiy, some litlk superiority in the quality 
t water, aoch as we might expect in a dtrp well, 
t bare aitraeted the OrientaU, who are, and have 
t liMn, epicures in this element" (Handtook far 
[lU2). Ii may be added that there is no neeil 
Iipwogthia well to have been the one commonly 
tmA by Ibe people oC NablAa. The visit of the 



roman to it may have been quite a 
ir some apecihc puipuse. 
3. it has been ihoui 



e liii 



e of .4 



le identified 



dechvityof MoiiiilEbal(VandeVelJe,,l/™.i.V, P.S60; 
Tbomson, I-cmd ami Book, ii, 206). The eiymology, 
hc.wever, is againat it, and also the lopo^Taphy. Our 
Lord woe on his way to (ialilee. Tlje great tmA runs 
|>ast Ihe month of Wady NablAs. Jacnb's well is on 
ihe southern aide of Ibe opening \ and Aakar about half 
a mile dietaiit on Ihe northern side. The main road 
passes quite close to both. Our Lord sat down by the 
well while Ihe disciples turned aside into the city to 
buy bread. Had Askar been the city, this would have 
been unnecessary; for by cnnlinuing their route fur a 
short diaunce farther Ihey would have been within a 
few paceaoTlhe city. There ia,beiiidea, a cogHoiis spring 
at Askar. In the QuaMo^ SUHmnl of the " I'aL Ex- 
plor. Fund," for July, 1877, p. 149 (q- Lieiil. Conder 
gives a funher deacription of the village of Ashar, and 
some additional reasona for identifying it with Sychar; 
but they are not conclusive. 

87'Cbein (Acts vii, le). See Shbchem. 

Br'chamite (Judith V, 10). See Sheciiehitb. 

Sycltea, in Greek mythalnj:^, tvas a surname of 
Bacchui in I,aced«n>on, as having been the Hrat to 
plant Ihe flg (avKif). 

Sjdeainei) (more properly Stpaidtmni) are Church 
officers, ancienlly appointed to assiet the church-war- 
ig pceaentments of ecclesiasticBl olTences 






shops 



n Essttr wecl 



yearly, i 
by the parish priest and parishioner!, 11 inese cnn 
agree; otherwiw they are in be appointed by Iho 
ordinary of Ihe diocese. Of laie yeare this office lisi 
devolved on the church - wo rdens. The old Engli-h 

Sye'lns (ZuqXoc v. r. 'BairiXot ami ^ anveioi;), 
a cnrnipi Greek form (I Esdr. i, fl) for Jfkitl (q, v.) of 
Ibe Heb. (S Chron. xxxv, 8). 

Sye'nft {Heb. Snnih, njjtj ; Sept. lu^wj ; Vulg. 
3smf),a town of Egypt on tliefronliet of Cush,nr Ethi- 
opia. The pmphel Eiekiel speaks of the desulatinn <if 
Egypt "from Sligilul to Seveneh, even iinln llie Uirder 
of Cush" (xiix, 10), ami of its people being slain " from 
MigdoliDSeveneh''(xxx,6). Migdol was on the east- 
ern bonier [see Uioiioi.], and Seteneh is ihus rif-hily 
ideniilied with the lawn i>f Syeiie, which was always 
the lost town of Egypt on the south, though at cn'ia 

tian name is Sun (Brugsch, ffeo^. Inickrift, \, 166, lab. 
i. No. 56), preserved in ihe Coptic Sovaa, Sfmn, and 
the Arabic ^lua'n. The modem town is slightly to 
the north af the old aile, which is marked by an inler- 
esling early Arab burial-g round, covered with remark- 
able tombstones, having inacriptians in tb« Cuflc char- 
acter. Chanip<dlion suggests the Coptic derivalion m 
"causative," and o»>n oroulit, "to open," ss if it signi- 
fied Ihe opening or key of Egypt (VEggpIt, i, 161- 
1116), and this ia ihe meaning of ihe hieroglyphic 
name. It i* Ihe natural boundary of Egvpt at Ihe 
south (Itolemy, lx,6i Pliny, //«(.' A'uJ, v,"l0; xii,B; 
Strabn, |>. 7g7,'8l5), being 'iiiiaied at the foot of the 
ftrst cataract on the Nile (Murrav, //unrffcwti/or Kggpl, 
p. 463). Sec Jour. Sac. Lil. Gel. 1861, p. 16.S. See 

Syene is lepresenled by the present AiirSn nr Et- 
" ' hich exhibits few remains of the ancient city. 



cepi s( 



date a' 



I the *l 



e colun 



ivety bi 



has been supposed by late travellers to haTe cimlsined 
Ihe famous well of Strabo (Gtng. xvii, p. S17). into 
which the rays of a vertical sun were reported Io 
fall al the Bummer eolaCice^-a circumstance, says the 



SYGN 

geographer, that provea the plicc " lo li« undc 
tropic, the f^omen at midday caating no ahadov." 
altfauugh excaraiiDiu have been carried on codh 
bly betiiw the pavement, which has been turned 
aearch nf [be well it was thought la rover, no other re- 
aulu have been obtained than that thiathrine traia very 
improbable aite for >uch an obanvatiMT, even if it 
existed; and that Strabn waa atrangely miiinron 
nnce the EKvptiana theoMelvea coulil never in hi» i 
have Intaginetl this city u> lie under the tropic ; for t 

w■^ even in the age of Hif^Mrchus (B.C. 140, when 

the obliquil; of the ecliptic waa i ' 

far north or that line. Tho belii 
tTOiHe was, huwever, very general in Ihe linteof the Ro- 
many and is noticed bv Seneca, Lucan, Pliny, and 
ere. Bul,a>SrJ.G.Wilkin9onreinarkii."a»ell» 
have been a bad kind of observatory if the aun had been 
really vertical ; and if (itraba saw the meiiilian sun in a 
well, he might be aure he waa not in the tropic" (JUod. 
Eggpl and Tktba, >i, !86). The same writer adds, " Un- 

ters on the obliquity of ihe ecliptic are n-it so satisTac- 
tory as might be wished; nor are we enahleci, especially 
as Id Grange's theory of the annual change of obliquity 
being varisble is allowed to be correct, to ascertain the 
time when Aswan might have been within the tmpic, 
a calculation ot traditional fact in which, perhaps, orig- 
inated [he eTrunenus taaertion of Slrabo." The lalitnde 
uf Aswan is Bxed by Wilkinson at W &' 30", and 
longitude is usually given al 32° 65'. 

87gn, iu Norse mythology, was one of the female 
aaas, goddess of justice, who takes 
and iirevents anyone denying anything. She guarded 
the doors of the palace of Winguir, so that foreigners 

Sykea, AtthuT AaUay, an English divine, wai 
born in (x>ndcin about 1G84. He was educated at St. 
Pwd'a Schwd, and was admitted lo Corpus Chrisli Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1701, taking his degree of A.B. in 
IT04-SandA.M.inl708. Alter leavingcollege he serveil 
U aaaisUnt in St. Paul's School, but wa« collated lo lh( 
vicarage of Godmersham, Kent, in 1712- 13, by arch- 
bishop Teniion. In April, 1714, he was insciluted to 
the rectory of Dry-Drayton, Cambridgeshire, and in Ihe 
August folluwiiig rcNgned the vicarage of (iKdmershani. 
He was insliluled lo the reclory of Rayk-igh, Kssex, 
November, 171», and resigned Ihe living of Dry-Dray- 
lon. In December fulloiring he was appoiiiled aflet' 
noon praacher of King Street Cliapel, (iolden Square, a 
chapel of ense to St. James's, Wcstmiimcr. The mmn- 



.inled U 



»-24. hi 



pointed lo the prebend of AUoii.B"re>li», Salisbury, and 
three years after became precentnroflhe same cathedral. 

preacher ai St. Jsme..'«, Weslminsler,.\prit, ITM; dean 
or St. Burieu, Cornwall, February, 1739; prebendary of 
Winchester, Ocl.l&, 1740. He dieil Nov. la.lT5«. His 
imbliahcd works number Hxly-lhrce, of which we no- 
tice, .4n Etiiis UfKm Ikt Tnith o/lhe Chritlian Rtligioa 
(Knapuin, l7:!.%8vo: 3d ed. 1775, Hvo] -.—Pnnnplfi and 
Ciammum->f.\nliiralaadRmaledlerli!i%an{\HD,%vo); 
—CrrdOilits of Miiwlrt ami RtrHalion (1742, flvo) :— 
KHogm Sacrifiivt (l74H,8vo) —Sciipliirf VorlHfK '■/ 
BflrmplinH of Man by Jaat ChrtMl (17o5, «vo) --Par- 
iiphnm and Sola apoulht EpUlU to Ike Hrbrrim (n6&, 
4to). See Allibnne, D'kI. of Bril. and Amtr. Author), 
a. v.; ChalmeT!!, Biog. Vict. s. v. 

S]rk«a, Oliver, n minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, was bom at Suffield,Coun.. 177H, He was 
ronverled iu his twenty-Mcond year, and in 1806 was 
received on trial into the New York Conference. In 
1810 he became supennnusted, and held that rc-lation 
through most of his life. He died Feb. 1 1. Ilt.i.t. He 
leH property, about %1!M, to tho Miwionary Society, 



4 SYLPHS 

for (be benefit of the China Hiiaion, Sac Mimta o/ 
<t iniiul Conftnnca, 1853, p. 21i 

Sylea, in Greek mythology, was a daughter of kin); 
Corinthus and wife of Polypemun. to whom abc bon 
Sinis, the pine-tree bender, a notorious robber. 

Sylena, in Greek mythology, waa ■ lyrant afAidis. 
who compelled all foreigner! who entered his domiiiiinu 
to labor iu his garden. Hercules killed him, logMba 
with hia daughter Xenodic*. Another daughter wb 
educated by her brother Dlcnu; she fell in love with 
Hertulea. and died of grief because she could not be hii. 
He also loved her so deeply that he waa with dilBctiliy 
restrained from casting himself upon her funeral pyre. 
SyllSbSe anthronlstlcs (luUin^i ivipovMm- 
irai)>c'<'>=<<lar letters written by bishops recently instalM 
to foreign bishops, to give them an account of their faith 
and orthodoxy, that they might receive letters of ]iea» 
and communion from them. See Bingham, CAi^. ^ ■- 
tig. bk. ii, ch. xii, S ID. 

SyUKbna. an abetracl ; a compendiuni cootaining 
the heads nf ■ lecture or sermon. 

SYLLABUS (Gr. avWalOt, a mllftHm, L e. nKo- 
logur), PaPai., is the title given to the appendix u tbt 
enryclical letter issued by pope Pius IX, Dec B, 1861 
It waa "a list of the principal emre of the day poinnd 
out in Ihe consistorial allocutions, encyclical ^nd mhei 
apoMolical letters of pope E>iua IX," and pDtuneiating. 
under ten general heads or aections, eighty of ibesF n- 
rors. These ten sections of errors are entitled, "L Pan- 
theism, Natnialism, and Absolute Rationalism:' '11- 
Moderale Rationalism;" "til. IndilTerEntiBni, Tidera- 
lion;" "IV. Sodalism, Cnmmaniam, Secret Societies, 
DiUe Societies, Clerico-liberal Socieiie*;" "V. Etmts 
respecting the Church and her Kighls;' "VI, Ermn 
of Civil Society, as much in Ihemselves as cunstdeml 
in their relations in the Church;" "VII. Errofa in Nat- 
ural and Christian Murals;" "VIIL Errors B9 to Chris- 
tian Marriage;" "IX. Errota regarding the Civil Power 
of the Sovereign PunlitT^ " X. Ermrs refeiiiiig tu Mod- 
em Liberalism." Some of the speciAcations under Ibfsr 
general heads bava respect to religions freedom, thesrii- 
aration of Church and Slale. the civil cnninct oT mar- 
riage, education oul«de of the cnnind of the Roman 
Catholic Church, Ihe conHict between the civil law and 
Ihe spiritual authority of ihe Church, the immuniiies 
of the clci^, the cessation of Ihe pope's temporal po*er. 
etc. Much excitement was created by the appeaiance 
of this bull and syllabus, eqieciallT in Frartoei Jul» 
Uaroehe, minister of public worahip, forbidding the bish- 
ops lo publish ihe syllabus and the doctrinal pan of the 
bull. Elsewhere Ihecivil governments di<l not inlerfert. 
For literatuie, see Schulte, Tit Putrtr nf ikt Romau 
ortr Priaeti. Counf-iu, elc (1871): Fesder, 7W« and 
F<>l>r lnf„Uihail<) of tht Popr, {Vienna, ISTl ; Lend. 
and N. Y. ISTA) ; Uladsloiie, Tke Voftan Drcnrt m tbv 
£earii^aaCVri/>U>jnancr:(l874),wilhTepluabyNfw | 

lan. Manning, and othersL ; 

Syllla, in Greek mythology, was a nymph bdoved 

y Apollo, and the mother by him of Xeiixippus. 
SyUltargua (XuXXtirovproc), a Greek term 

esignaie the aasiaunc during Ibe offering of the Chris- 

■n sacrilice. 
Sylphs, in the fantastic system of the ParKeUsls, 

re the elemental spirits of the air, who, like the 
elemental spirits, bold an iniermediale place btt 

■ ■ ' 'beings. Tbeyeat,diink,speat, 



hildrei 






other hand, 

spirits in being more nimble and swift in their motions, 
iiile their boilies are more diaphanous than those of 
lie human race. They also surpass the latter in Itwir 
nowledge both of the present and the future, but havn 
no soul: and when they die, noihins is left. In form 
r, and stnmger than men, but aiaml 
all the etemenlal spirits, and a a 



SYLVESTER 

ia»««qDrnet bM iDlercmirM witb bur 

Wbm tb«y b»TB children by ni»ni«ge with mortals, 

■Jk chiUim hiTc aouU, uid bclang to tt 

OtifuiUy DMtcnlinc, ibey have come, probably by the 

4h(naltutioa or poets, to be coruiilered as feminiiie. 

Bf IvoaUt GozzoLon. See STLVurrBlAMS. 

BylTASter I, pupa, wu barn in Borne about t! 
/ai 170, and was tbe son of Rufinna and St. Jusl 
At thirty rcan uT a^ he ia aald U> bsTe been ordained 
by bBhop (pope) Harcellinns, and on Jan. 81, 811, he 
«M cbnen to ■tceeed Helchidea in the ponti Scale. His 
■dnmbtiatioii ia celebrated Tor the Council of Mioea 
(q. T.), bdd in BX6, which, however, Sylvester did 
■Ueod, «n aeoMint of his inflrai^es; and he wu rei 
•oted by two priot^ called (iuj and Viucent, while 
Onus, bishop of Omtovs, presided in his name. He is 
tfceautbor of several rules to the clerfy. The account 
givHi of the dauatioD to him or the dtyorRomeby Cun- 
lUniiiM is wholly apocryphsL He died in Uodw^ Dec 
Si,S5, and was succeeded by Harcui. 

SflVBrtSr H, one of the most learned of the 
BiediirTal popes, originally called Grrbtrt, wii bom nt 
Aarilkc, in Auvergne, early in the lOlh centur}'. He 
was educated in the tnoiiaatery uf his native village, 
but went early to Spain, when he learned msthemat- 
io, and afterwards to Home, He was appointed abbot 
of the Honastery of Bobbio, where he taught with much 
tbatinclion and ■■»«■>. AC a Ister period he went tu 
tieimany a* preceptor of tbe young prince Ulhn, after- 
ward! Otho H, and ultimately became secretary to the 
aichbishop of Rheima, and director of the cathedral 
idiool, which became eminent under his cate. 'I'be 
aicbbohop having been deposed, Sylvester was elected 
M the arehbiibopric 1 but he wu illerwards set aside, 
the depoaiiion of his predecessor having been declared 
iavahd. In tlie year 99«, however, he was appointed 
archbishop of Kavenna, whence he was called to the 
pcDtiOad throne, April S, 999, ss the successor of Greg- 
ory T. He imoimced tbe liberal lendeneiee of his ear- 
si yma, confirmed the judgment of John XV with 
nprd to the Synod of Rheims, and established Amulph 
in his archbishopric; convened a «ynnd in 1001 at Rome, 
>hich placed the Convent of (landtrsheim under the 
jotisdictiMi of tbe bishop of Hildesheim ; and awarded 
tiili and crown to the king St. Stephen of Hungary, 
t«ida eodferringon him the right to determine in fc- 
doiaitical matl«i in his kingdom. While considering 
I fisn lilt a crusade to the Holy Land, he died in Rume, 
Hay 11, 1003, and was succeeded by -lolm XVUI. He 
■as a man of rare acquirementa for his age. He was 
aaadept in raalhematics and in praclical mechanics and 
aiinnaniy. in which drpartments bis attainments ac- 
Hnindfiir him, among bis contemponriea, the evil repu- 
isiiea Ufa magician. He is slso believed to hace been 
soiuJoled with Greek, and perhaps with AiaLic Of 
•H bia works, which were nnmeroua, his letteis (printed 
by Da Cbenie in tbe llaloritau ofFraaci) have attract- 
el iDOSt notice, fioni their bearing on the history of an 
sbscwa period. His liieraiy remains have been pub- 
bihid by Haaon and others, more recently by Peru, 
ikugb not complete. See Richeri t/iit,' Lib, to, in 
Pari JVmml Gtrm. IliMtoriea Saipt. (Hanov. 1888), 
Ub. iii; UabiUon, Vrl. A rniltHa (Paris, 1728). p. 102 sq.; 
Hvk, Grrhtrt od. Paptt Syimlir II a. tta Jahrhunderl 
Olniis, IS37> See alx) Budinger on the scienliRc snd 
foblicsl imponaocc ofOerbert (Cassel,18£l); Henog, 
BMl-taa^dap. s. v. ; Hoefer, Noav. Ring. GiHiraU, s. v, 
SrlVMter III, anCipope, wu born in Rome, Msy 
I,1H4; and while hnown u John, tuBbopofSabina, he 
•■ set oa the pontifical throne through the influence 
if tbe consul Plolenmua, in place of the Juvenile Bene- 
ta. IX, who had been expelled for his vices. Sylvester 
mitMd but three months, when the counts ofFrascaCi 
■sok np arms ui replace Benedict. The latter, seeing 
k n despised by (be dergy, sold the tiara to John 
GiNliD, whoiB be aowned as Gregory TI. The em- 
X.-8 



B SYMBOLICAL BOOKS 

peror Heniy HI held, in December, 1046, a coundl at 
Sutri, when the three popes were all deposed, and 
Qement II was elected. See Pope. 

SylTsatrlana is the name of an order of monks 
founded by Sylvester Gouoloni, who wu bom in 1170 
(or 1177) at Osimo, in the Papal States. He wu edu- 
cated at Padua and Bolngns, and received a canoniy at 
Osimo, which he renounced about 1S17, in order to de- 
vote himself in solitude to a contemplative life of ascet- 
icism. Pupils and followers gathered about him, with 
whom be founded a monastery in 1S81 on Mount Fano, 
in which the Beucdictine rule wu adopted, coupled with 
a vow of rigid poverty. Innocent IV conflrmed tin 
foundati'>n(IMT),and the order spread, panicalarly in 
Umbria,Tuaciny, and Ancona. It was united witb that 
of Vallambroea in 1662, but again separated fnUD it in 
1681, and was endowed witb new constitutions hv Alex- 
ander VIII (1690), which provided fur the cele'bralion 
of matins at night, for reciprocal and also self-inflicted 
flagellations on every Wednesday and Friday in Advent 
and Lent, and For abstinence from the use of flesh, milk, 
and eggs on every Friday and every Church festival. 
A considerable number of convents, of nuns as well as 
monks, belonged to this order in its flourishing period ; 
but it is now insignillcant. Leo XII purposed to dis- 
solve the order and incorporate its members with other 
organizations i but it has, nevertheless, been preserved 
to our lime. An order of female Sylvestrians exists in 
I'erugia. The direction of the order ia placed in the 
hands ofa general and a procurator-general, the former 
being chosen for four and the latter for three years. 
Tbe habit is compoeed of a gown, scapulary, cowl, and 
mantle; its color is dsrk brown. The general wean 
violet, and is privileged to bear the poalfficaiia (q. v.). 
— Heraog, Retd-Ettej/ldop. s. v. 

Symntbla, in Greek mythology, was a Trinacrian 
nymph, goddess of tbe river of the like name, beloved 
of Faunua, to whom she bore Acis. 

Sjmbol (from aiv and /SoXXu, lo iKnu togtHter, i.e. 
by comparison), sn abstract or compendium, a sign or 
representation ofsomctbinp moral, by tlie figures or prop- 
erties of natural things. Hence symbols are of various 
kinds, as hien^lyphics, types, enigmas, parables, fables, 
etc. (ij. V. severnlly). See Ijnculer, Did. o/Scriplurt 
Sifmboli; Bicheno, V^ymioficaJ Foca^Inry, in his Signi 
of the Timrt: Fsber, On Ihi Pivphtcui i Jones [W.], 
Worb; vol iv; Wemysa, C/urti SymioKni,- MilKSoc 
Sy7abol<igy (Edinb. 1853); Tairbilm, Tspol. o/ Script. / 
Brir. and For. Ecan. Rev. 1848, p. 896, Sec Syhboubh. 
8VMB0L (Cr, Sifi^aXny, n>i. iotrn\ a title an- 
ciently given to the Apostles' Creed (Cyprian, /^. 
76; Ruflnns, De Symfofo; Augustine, De f'idt el Sfm- 
boloi ami Hilary-, De Trm. cap. xii). The ecclesas- 
lical origin of the term is much disputed, hot its most 
probable meaning was Ihst of a contract, or bond of 
'lith. One reason fur the name derivea it from a 
Greek word signifying a throwing or cuting together, 
and alleges that the apostles each contributed an article 
form the Creed, putting theirjoint opinion or counsel 
an abridged shape. The other is the opinion that 
is Creed wu used in times of persecution u a walch- 
ird or mark whereby Christians (like soldiers in the 
army) were distinguished from all others, 

e term tifmbol, importing an emblem or sensible 
representation, is also applied in the holy eucharist to 
the aacred elements, which there set forth the body and 
blood of Christ. 

BjicboIic^Bl Booka. This title designates the 
iblic confeaaions of faith of tbe different Christian 
churches or den ominst ions ; in other words, the writ- 
in which an ecclesisstical communion publishes lo 
the world the tenets that bind It^ther its members 
ind ilistinguish it from other communions of believers 
or unbelieven. For the idea of a symbol we refer to 



SYMBOLICAL BOOKS 

Tht only aymbol which find* univeml mcecpUnce 
the Cliurch is the Apoatles' Creed. Aa the Church creed 
tar i{ax'i>'>'' tBdistingiiuheil fnjm the Scriptutetupou 
which It Lb baaed, but alao, on Ihe oltiei hinrl, from the 
inivus wrilinifa ind coiifeaiana of the teaehtra of the 
Church, howeTer greatlv the litter loe; be rateemed. 
1-he Uter aymboliol W» differ from the briefer B7D1- 
tmlieal^rnalfH, which alone aervcd the purposeaof the 
Cliiirch before Ihe Reruimatioii, in being more vxtcnBire 
and detailed, and in conaliliiting the confehaiona of par- 
ticular churches only (jn/jabala parliculoriti), while the 
;rrcBt erceda (Apoatica'. Nieene, Aihaninan) hare lecu- 
■iienical value. The phraie Libri SgmbolKi origiruted 
ill Ihe ijitheranChurch, and wBSfirM applied to ila own 
riiiife«iniul writing! when Chej appeared in tbe Book 
nj' Oiieord; but ita uae extaided, and haa lung been 
vurreiit in all the ehurchea and aecu of Chrislendi 

Onuiderable dii'eraiiy of opininii hoa exialed 
Tvference to Ihe imporianc^ and value of aynil: 
wriiinga. The Church of Itome regards the aymUol aa 
the imm'irable and unchangeable rule of faiih, and 
iherefure aa the Unding norm of doctrine, 'lliia doea 
not. according to Thomaa Aquinaa (Simuvi Thr^. a, 2, 
i, 9), detract from [ho aiipreme - . ^ • . 









' understood aadiffci 



impl; an expoailion and 1 
iKiiial creed. Variationa i 
nt aapects of Ihe truth, asaumed 



competent to formulate a 
II of the truth, though not 
le traditional creed (.''"hom. 



The Church ia accordingly 
new lymbol for the expoiiii 

Aquina^ uttapX 

The Church uf the Reformalion aawrted Ihe sole 1 
thorityuflJoiy Scripture in matters of duclrine; and 
though it reocived the cecumenical tymbola, it deli 
mined their cliaracier u being tnlimomafidri simp 
1. P. teslinxiiiiea ccriifying the underatanding of I 
Word of Goil current in Ihe Church at a given lin 
Thcinirth ofcvufcHiions i» accordingly made to depend 
■•u liieir agreement wiih Ihe Script 
bealicred ami improved. The author of the ilui/wM™ 
n^ieatedly undertook a Ihorough reviainn of liijt work : 

the evangelical cilatca not only approved of Mclane- 
thun'a Variala. but in 1537 directed tlieir llioilojriaiu 
at the Convention of Smalcald 10 revise Ihe mnfi-uion. 
The beginningi of an obligalory support of Ihe confes- 
«iun are, however, apparent at an early day. tiubecrip- 
tlnn 10 Ihe Aagiburg Confiirien waa occa^onally re- 
quired during the fourlh decade of the ISth cenluri', 
and in !i33 the Iheological faculty of Wittenberg wei 
required byslatule lo teach aunnd doctrine aa containe 
in the ancient creeds and the A ugjburg Cotifeuioa. 
growing diaposiliun to insist on uniformity of leachin,, 
became manifesl, and it was this which gave rlae Ia Ihe 
OslBiidrian Controveraiea {i[. v.> In Ihe middle of the 
lUIh century the various corpora docTrina began lo ap- 
pear; in IStiO the Corput Ikiefr. PhOippKum; in 1561 
theC.n./'om*r(HiicBm{ in \Uii tha C. D. Pnlkmieam, 
etc. The conclnsiim waa maite in \bl6 with ihe For- 
mula of Concord (q, v.\ and this names the vrritingB 
(a which symbolical authority ia given by reaaon of a 
unanimous approval of Ibeir teachings, and ia itaelT in- 

cil ill Ihe coniilrica where theac writings were received 
by the civil govcmraent. The dispute with Calixlua 
(i|. V.) led Ihe Lutheran Iheolngians lo poalulale a mc- 
iliole inspiration, and fnnwi]ueiitly a divine authority, 
for the aynibolical Iwoks; but the distinction between tlie 
canon of Scripture and auch standarda ia nevertheless 
cimatanlly preserved in word, if not alwaya in facL In 
reality, the symbolical booka were regarded aa a naviiv 
TiK f'ortiuc tbruughoul the 17th century side by side 
with the Scriptures, inaamuch as Ihe faith was grounded 
directlyon Ihe pymbolralher than on Ihe Bible. 



i SYMBOLICAL BOOKS 

The Reformed churches have produced no wrilKn 
symbol which baa formal authority over them all*, but 
they have cherished a very deflniie conviction of cun- 
feasiooal unity amoag ihem, as may appear frum tbe 
fnci that the different Kefurmed confession*, and panic- 
ularly Ihe more important of Ihem, Ihe llrlcriitii.tiaHi- 
cnna, Scotioi, Htlyica, elc„ are received in alt such 
churches as embodiments of the pure type of diicirine. 
and from Ihe furt bet fact that Ihe memben of a Cburcb 
holding to one oftbeae confeasiona may paaa beyond iIh 
territory wilhin which auch confcnion haa aitihnriiy, 

ing a Church which adheres to another of Ihe RvturnHii 

membera of Ihe Reformed Church, The number of R«- 
foniKd symbols was influential also in directing atteo- 
lion upon their Hibilaiice rather than upon tbe ionso- 
laled letter, it being conceded that wllh reaped lo the 
latter the confesaion ia not infallible and incarahk of 
further improvement. Such changea, howe\'er, are not 
In be needlessly undertaken, nor may individuals aub- 
ject the confessional standards at will to eiperimenta in 
Ihe inleresta of novelty. Great care haa ever been ex- 
ercised 10 preserve the purity of the confesaional sym- 
bols, in some instances carried to Ibceslent of requiring 
the subscription oflhe clergy and the officers ofauie to 
doctrinal standards settled by law. (Baale and Geneva 
even required such subscription of the body of their dli- 
zena. The Reformed Church of Eaat Friealand aloii( 
never required subscription lo its symbol.) The Kth 
century produced symbols in this body also, e. g. the 
Canoni of DoH and Ihe /Irlnlic Cmunaan, both of 
which go beyond even Ihe Formala nf Comconl in 
acholaatic rigidneas. The beginning of ilie ISth ren- 
liiry saw a reaction, however: Sjiener already veuiured 
lo doubt the neceauly of i^mbols, since Ihe Church had 
so loiig existed wiilicnit them, and expreaaed hisdisaenl 
from Ihe doctrine of iheir inapiralion and infallibility. 
A century ariMwards it was conceded thai (^ligation la 
adhere 10 the aymbol holds only with reference to es- 
seniials: and ■ majority of critics asserted thnt the un- 
esaenlial, not directly religioua and merely iheohigical 
which deserves no place at all in a crecil, was greatly in 
excesa nver that which is really ossenlial. The coiilUci 
with rationalism canaed many moiliHcaliona in Ihe viewi 
orthochiirchea; but subscription to the creed waa gen- 
erally insisleil on, though the obligation Ihua ■aeunied 
was ofttn but lightly felt. In the preaeni p«riod. ihe 
reaction against rationalism haa occisiimcil m revival 
of 17lh.ceiiIUTy confcasionalism in many quarters: and, 
on the other hand, a liberal tendency requires a break- 
ing-away from Ihe aulhoricy of symbols aa beioc 
simply monuments of the faith of our fathers and evi* 
deuces of former conquests, and also aa being ailvene 
to 1I1C geuiua of I'rolestantism. See Cunfesbioh of 

F.*ITH. 

The abstract right of the Church to require aubmii- 
sion to its standards ia evident, but it is ■ question 
which must bo answered, Uay tbe Prolalaia Cburvh 
assert ihal riglil, and, if it may, then tu what eiient ? 
It ia evident that Ihe more recent symbols, as tieing 
more icslriclive and separative in chaiacler than Ihe 
older confessiona and creeiia, are of inferic'r authority. 
It is also clear that Ihe spirit and aubstaiice of ■ confes- 
sion have greater importance than attaches to Ihe form 
or letter. Neither the Aiigthtirg Canfeaion not the 
llrvlcUitrg Caleckum coiislilulea the I'ratestant Conf»- 
aion of Faiih, and must be reganled Htnply as enays 
towanta formulating Ihe body of I'rotciitant dncltine. 
which may be lesleil by criticism and revised. Doctri- 
nal purity in Ihe concrete ia, after all, a rela^ve thing, 
and Ihe Church ia under the necessity of persistiiig iu 
Ihe n'ork of grounding its teachings more aolidly on ilie 
Word of (iod and of devehiping Ihem further towanli 
their idlimale consummarinn. A diatinclion must ac- 
igly be admitted between heterodoxy of a more or 
IcBi serious type,which consisu in departing in some 



SYMBOLICS e 

pMB fmn (he icceplcd Maadinb of ■ Church, and 



b lueir. It ii 



ie fuun 



Luit dT chinctcT. Kvvry step of itB progms miiBt be 
Id iumanv irUh lift funclAmentil principl«Bf which are 
liid ilmrn in tb« 0(mf«Mioni furniiilaCeii by iu fgundera. 
TiBK ivmboli ittoC ■ Taich which belanga equally to 
«ir faiai inil la u). The libertr of ttackin;/, mon- 
atrr, Dtedd ^o Le giuidedt lest it degenerate into lic^iLBe 
•Bd unnti)' ooamry to the Word of God and the order 
of Ok Church. PntESlantiBiD certaialj' hu the right 
to pntfct itd tnjtb ogainaL neulogiziug anlichriotianilj', 
3d1 ilv ogaiiut un-Froteslant Komuiism— in a won), 
■gaini miuifcU perversion. Tbe aubscriplion to >viii- 
bUirtquiml of its accredited leichen can hardly, how- 
ntr, be lilhout candilioi]& Perhaps the utmoN ex- 

coidiil Mciptance of principlea upon which the confe*- 
BUDS in bud, leaving particulars to be determined b; 
ibe snicienDe of the subscriber. In any case, the lyin- 
bob ve (olilleil to reapect so far u to make them the 
■ibject of earnest anil loving study, and to protect them 
■giioii sbnie fniDi proFeased adherents. 

UmfiiT.— Early rmintant writers hare no sepa- 
WtharUa symbolicalbooks, and hilt few treat oflhen 
(•ID iiKidenially (see Hut, Uutltrvt Jtedietc. p. 115, 
HDt 1 ). Among later doctrinal wiiten, see Tweaten 
(!«»), i, 50 fq.; Hase (3d e<l. Iftij), p. 438 sq.; Mar- 
uun. p. 74 aq. Cniitrovenial writings are partially 
eina in ilase. ■( np. A comprehensive mooograph is 
JokaMHn's Wifoaclin/iL u. tut. tfnltri, iib, d, Rttht- 
miai^til iL yrrpjlichl. tn/ tynb. Bieirr, etc. (Allona, 
1103). See also id. Anjanffe dn Symbolxaang; etc 
(Itipi. IS47); Ualtbrs. Verglrifiimdt Sgmbolik (ibid. 
1»U|, |h 2 sq. ; Schenkel, Vr/prmsl. Virliailn. d. Kirehc 
urn Siaai, in the Stud. u. K>-il. 18£0, ii, 4&4 sq. ; HiiflinE, 
/» ^jmi. Salara, KeetuUalr, A HctonlcUt, tt I'la (Erl. 
llOi): BrelBchneider, Uninldtngitii d. SymhiUwimift, 
Mt (Leipi 184 1 ) ; Rudelbach, EinU md.A ugib. Confa- 
a*,Hc(Dtt*a. 1841); Sartorius, AoAbs. u. Vttiritdl 
i iinU. GlambnubfimaKiat (Sluttg. IMS) ; Schleier- 
nacha, ICigniL WniA . . . il. lymb. IHiclier, in Rrf, A In. 
fTrokr. 1819). ,h S3j sq. i id. Sa^ttAr. on v. CUbt u. 
.^f^^ in ilie .«'■!/. ■. Krii. 1831, i, S aq.; id. Prakl. 
Vunh^. p. 62i *q, ; I>c Welie, Ltkranhnl d. eran. 
A«if. in the AVwi ». A.>i(, 1831, ii, ?2l sq.; UUmaiin, 
AUoA^hnkL AfigrLtie^ in lixt Slud. u. KiH. laiO.ii; 
Scbrncf, liit J'rmnp. ». /,ih. SlrUmg d. tcktBtiz-rrf. 
•.'inir.etc-inthe VrTkimdLd.nktBrit.PrrdigergrflUdt. 
a SI. CaUn. 1844 ; Dit grgaiw. Krwit d. larchL Lrbna, 
nclti6it.l8MJ; Vein, Brbmckl. d. goU. D*tiiackriJ}, 
Mc ( Uasov. 1H54 ) ; Hrkldrwig der Dnkickr. ( GiiU. 
1«JI)-, Kittseb, Prakt. ThnL i. 

Aaweg editions of Lutheran aymboUcal writings, 
ikw of Rrcbenberg. CimeorJia, etc. (Lips. 1078, Svo, 
■ndolteti; lasted. I75e),and orHase,Z.iiri £y»iA. A'ccJ. 
£«. etc (ibid. 1837), <l««*ne menlion. The Keformed 
amfwsioin have not been gathered into a ungle collec- 
a°D.llw best amt most complete collection being that 
'i ^iemern. CaUrd. Crmf. U Ktd. Rrf. Pvhlkal. (ibid. 
IMD), mm Append. Other collections ate by Augusti 
'KlberWd, ISff), Ccnnan by Mas (Neuwied, 1858, 
iaO.Ipt«.; eomp. Schweiier, Ar/. GlaubemLi, 123), 
ui Hrpfe,BtiniiitiiititcAri/}nid.rr/.Kirctrn DrvtidiL 
IQberMd, ISeO). The LAri SfmboSd Eeet. Komnno- 
faOtliim wtn edited by Dsnz (Vimar. IH36) and 
Smitoolf el Rlener (Gotl. 1SST oq.); the Ltbri Sytidi. 
EaLOnmlaKi by Kiromel (Jena, 1843; cum Append. 
■M. IftjO). For the symbolical books and writings of 
Fanirnlat cbHTchea and denominationa, see the respec- 
lin otiiclesk— Herw>|(, Rrat-KarjUop. s. v. 

SrmboUc*. The meaning of this term will vary 
*iib ihat aasigtied to the original word from wiiicli it 
■ deriveil: avfi/)«Xov (from miifiaXXiiv) has a pri- 
•«T irfrmKe to the fitling-togethrr of two seiiarate 
°l jKts, F. g. tbe parts of a I'lag or of other " tenera hos- 



J SYMBOLICS 

pi tali talis." SifiPokov (related to nifia) next cacie tt 
denote every mark or sign by which the connection oi 
individuals to a whole, e. g. a corporation or asiuciation, 
alight be indicated. Soch were the bulges wbich se- 
cured admission to a banquet, the "ICMora militans,' 
the flag, the password, etc. In time, whatever miglit 
be employed to illustrate aliMract or lupcrseiisual ideoa 
to the senses came to be termed a symbol, and Ibis may 
be regarded the current meaning of the word to-day. 
Aa Christianity, like all religions, has ita symbols, it ia 
OS proper to speak of CArufiun tt/niMici as of heal hen 
(or ancient). A rich symbolism runs through the whole 
of Christian liturgies, e. g. the symbolism of the eroea, 
etc.: but in the organism of theological study tlie term 
n/niboiia hoa no reference to such symbols. 'Ilie refer- 
ence is rather to the formulated and written eov/eiiuBM 
of the Church, which, more than any badge, are suiteil 
to indicate the union of individuals in one and the same 
eccleeiutical organization. Of these si-mbols the must 
ancient are baptismal confesnons, from which the 5yni- 
bolam Apmtoiirtim was developed, which forms the ral- 
lying-point of all who are adherents of Christianity. 
Heretical tendencies afterwards compelled the Church 
to formulate the great creeds — the Nicene, tbe Niceiio- 
Constaotinopolitan, atvl the so-called Altianasian — in 
which the marks of orthodoxy were determined and 
made prominent; and, in addition la the foregoing so- 
called aaimmicnt tt/mboU, other minor creeds and con- 
fessions were called into being by the force of events 

'ilie rise of Protestant ism furnished a new class of 
symbols which were intended to serve as marks of dis- 
tinction between the olil papal and the new evangelical 
churches. Of these the flrst was the A ugAurr/ Confa- 
lion (q.v.) of 1530, and the supplemenlsry symboUral 
books of the Lutheran Church, dosing with the Book 
a/ Coneard ia 1680. The Reformed churches (Vamed 
distinct symbuls of their own— the Ztca^Um, the Tt- 
Impolilona, etc Of this class the Tkiiit/-niM A titebt 
of tlie Church of England, the Heidelbirg Cu'feiitm, 
and the second IMcaic Con/tMnon (see the respective 
articles) acquired especial prominence. The Romish 
Church, fur its part, was obliged, by tbe rise uf I'roles- 
tantism, to formulate its faith anew with a view lo 
marking the features peculiar lo its teachings, which 
was done in the Pi-"/ruio Fidd Tridmtina and the CVi'r- 
chitmua Romanut (see the corresponding articles). The 
occumulal ion of this wealth of material has D[>eraled 
decisively upon symbolics, so that the term has come to 
denote fk« scvnoc trrAicA u trnplnytd upon tbe doettTnei 
tlml diiiiitgaiik Iht mfal toti/titiimi of Chriirendon. 
Its melkod may be historical, statistical, pnlemical, or 
trenical ; but the ground upon which it operates can 
only be that of oomparisoo of dogmas. 

Like tbe history of doctrines, to whicti it stands re- 
lated, symbolics is a modem branch of thsological sci- 
ence, tnit is poeaessed of so much individuality as to 
necessitate a sepsrato treatment. The foundation for 
the science was laid in the preliminsiy works of Walch, 
Semler, Planck, and others (see be\o^, Lilrrnlurt), while 
its actual beginnings date lo Winer and Marheineke. 
The former drew up tables in which he nmply present- 
ed to view, side by side, the differences existing in the 
various confessions, while the latter sought lo exhibit 
the internal unity of each separate confession. It is 
evident that the Irealment of symbolics requires the u«e 
of both these methods, and will vary according as the 
writer occupies the ground of one coitfcssinn or another, 
or as he places himstlf ahoie alt con/rtnnnn. It was 
because of this fact that Mahler's SfnibolU, from the 
Roman Otbollc point of view, drew forlh the fitmoua 
work of Daur from the Evangelical position (sec below). 
The science speciiily developed the necessity fur examiii- 



■mply in 



igiUm 

■I bol•k^ but in (he spirit of the ci 
:lail has accordingly been made (he sul 
udy; and the ethical, social, political, an 






SYMBOLISM 6 

t 

Bs of tbc Ttrions tymbols )uit« be«D 
Tbia fict givea riw to tbe qneation whelb- 
a avmbnlics is uleqiute to the thing it is in- 






» win Iheii w 



.ubj™. 



■Bually included undflrdograitic theology {q. v.). 

LiUralun^Wiicb, htrod. m tiirai Sywb.Ecd. iMk. 
(Jen. ITBJ); Scmler, A^kituI. ad I.ilrroi Syab. Eccltt. 
Lulh. (H«lle, 1776); Feuetlin, BiU. SjmWiiM ((Jolt. 
1762, 1768); Plnnck, GtKh. rf. EatHtliaRg, d. Vtrdmk- 
naipai,u.d. Bildmig dapTOt-Lthrbrgriffi (Leipa. 1791- 
1800) ; id. Hut. u. TtrglAclirmk DartlrUang d. vrrtdlit- 
dmm Dognu-Satemc, etc. (Gbtt. 1796; 8d ed. ISM); 
Wilier, Compamlint Dant. d. Lfkrbrgr. d. etrtchMdenm 
KirehHgmnnm, etc. (Uipi. 1824, etc. 4to) ; Mirhri- 
neke, SsntboHk (Heidelb. 1810, etc) ; id. Intl. Syabo/ica 
/^>K«rinaruni,elc. (Berl. 1812,ete.)) Manh, Conp. Vit» 
nfihe Churdia "f KngUmd laid Rome (LonJ. 1841, 8vo) ; 
Hohler, SgvAolit (Miyence,6tb ed. 1843) ; Bsur, Grgm- 
mle d. Katiolidimiii u. ProtrtUalumvi, etc. (TUb. 1834). 
See in connection therewith Sock, KilzKh, etc; Koll- 
ner, Sgmb. aller cki-itll Cm/. (Hamb. 1887; 1844, 2 
voli.) ; Gueticke, A Bgem. chi-iitL St/mbol. [Ljitheraii ] 
(Leipa.lS39); Kadttbtch, Rr/ormaliofi, iMlierthum and 
Union (ibid. 1839); U»bel, Lulitrudie u. rrf. Ktrcht 
(Bonn, 183!); Schneckenhurfer, LuihiriicL u. rr/. 
Uhxiegriffe (Stutt^. 1 866, poathuaioiii>) ; Thieisch, Kii- 
IhoL a. Prol^amiimm [lecture*] (ErL 1848, 2a ed.): 
Sehenkel, Watn d. Ptvtalanliimai (Schiffhiusen, 184t>- 
52, etc.). See eapeciall]' 8ch»ff, Crwdi "/ Chralmdiim 
(N. Y. 1877, 8 ToU 8to).— Herzog, Rtal-EafyUiip. s, v. 
See SiHBOLicAL Books. 

Bjmbolism it that system which reproents moral 
or intellectual qiialiiiei by external signu or sytnbnlt. 
It ia characteristic of the earlier and nidei iiiges of de- 
relopmenl, when the mind and moral nature have not 
yet grown to the age which tnkea direct cognizance of 
mental and moral qualiliea, or lakea cognizance of ihem 
only through external Mgne that bear a real or a con- 
rentional reaemhUnce to them. The Old Teat, ii full 
of Bymboliam ; the Jewiah Temple, like the Tabeinacle 
which it Bupeiseded, though no image nf ibe Deity waa 
permitted in it, was itself a symbol of the soul of i 
in wbicb God abides, if It be holy and resily la re< 
him; and all ita utenaila, a* well aa all ita aervicea, 
aymbolicaL See Typk, and the various articles Oi 
Old-TeaL ceremoniala and sacred ohjecta. Symboliam 
wa* also naturally characteriatic of the Church of 
Middle Agea, which undertook to cstta- home to 
eyea, minds, and hearta of Ibe people spiritual tni 
through entemal symbols. The origin of wime of Ihese 
it ia now difficult to diacoTer. Many naturally suggest 
the correlative truth lu the mind; others make the sug- 
geation through hialoricaliitacriptural aaaociation. The 
following is a partial list of some of the principal sym- 
bols in use Inthe Christian churches, for a fuller accciunl 
of which the reader is referred to Clements [ Mrt.], Hand- 
booho/LtgaidaTyand Mi/iholnnical Art. The glory, au- 
reole, and nimbus all represent lightorlightneH,andare 
symbols of sanctity. The nimliia aurrounds the head; 
Uie aureole the body; the glnry unites the two. The 
nimbus attache* in Konuui Catholic art to lUl aaints; 
the aureole and glory only to the peranna of the God- 
head and to the Virgin Mary. The Ash is an emblem 
ofChrist. SeelcHTHYB. Thecniaa,iniisrarionsr"mM, 
is also an emblem both of Christ and hia passion. See 
Cnoaa: Ciiucipix; Labarum. The lamb ia a common 
nmbul uf Chrial. It denvea its signiHcance from the 
fact that It waa one of the chief sacrifices nf the Jewish 
Temple, and from the worda of John the Baptist, " Be- 
hold the lamb of God, which taketh away theain of the 
world" (John i, 29). The lamb is often represented in 
art bearing a cross. The lion is another symbol of 
Christ, who in Scripture is called "the Lion of the tribe 
ofrfuda" (ReT.v.&l. The pelican, which it said to bare 
open her breast tu feed her young with blood, it an em- 



SYMMACHUS 

blem ofredetDption. TbedoTeiaaavmboloflbeHoly 

Spirit (Hail, iii, 16): issuing from the mouth oft' 
dying, it is an emblem ofihe aoul. The olire-bniKk 
n emblem of peace (Gen. viii, 11); the palm, of mi 
yrdom (Rev.vii, 9). The lily representa chastity; Iht 
imp, piety (Malt, kkv, 1-12); Are, ical ot the sbSk- 
nga of martytdum; the flaming heart, ferreut pitty 
nd sfriritual lore ; the peacock, imnkortality ; tbectov, 
ictory: on women, itaignifleslhabiideofCbrisL Tbe 
sword, axe, lance, and club indicate martyrdom ; the 
skuU and scourge, penance ; the chalice, faith ; tbtthipt 
the Christian Church; the anchor, faith (HeKri,!^ 
Each color itso haa a symbolic meaning in artrforwlucli 
ace article Coi.oit. In Roman Catholic art, also, each 
apostle haa his own symbol, as followa: Peter, the ken, 
or a fish ; Andrew, the transierae CToe* which bean Ut 
name; Jamea the Ureaier. the pilgrina's staff; Jofaii,lbc 
eagle, or the chalice with the serpent ; Tbomsi, a 
builder's ruk ; James the Less, a club ; Philip, a eoill 



See Jameson and East lake, llatory of Oar Lordai £r- 
tm^fitdia iriirit(n//li^ (Und. lB64,3v<.la.) ; Didmn, 
Chriilian Imvognipkf, or llitlory nf Chritliam Artm 
the A/iddlt Agn (ibid. 1861, ed. Bohn). 

B^rmbSlom (S^^oXov), a Greek term for (I) tbc 
holy Eucharist; (i)acreed; (3) a belL See SiHBOU 

BymA, in Greek mythology, waa a nymph, dai^h- 
ter of lalymua and Dotia. She was belovetl of thetra- 
god Qtaucus, who carried her off to an island ntar 
Kbodea,on the coatt of Csria, which received its nanw 
from ber (Athennua, vii, 296). By N'epltine slie bore 
ChthoniuB, who colonized the island from Lindua. 

Symeon tub STtUTK. See Simieox, St. 

Symmachla, in Greek mythology, waa ■ aumaux 
of I'enui at Mantinca, in Arcadia. 

STininactliana. The term designales the mris- 
bers of a sect mentioned only by Philaster (£/«r. Ixiiit 
He descriliea them aa adherents of Palriciiia, who taught 
that the human body wat not created by God, but by 
the dc*-il, and that it should be abused in every possi- 
ble way, suicide even being regarded as allowable. The 



it then 



inibable, 



re judgment fur the 



diaciples of Symmachua (q. v.) of Samaria, a Jew who 
became a Christian, eonanrled with ihg Ebiooitca. and 
fumishedaGreek version of the Old Test. H'hich sumli 
before that of Theodotion in the Polygbx, but is of 
ntore recent date Iban the latter. Pelariua (in Xaa 
on Epiphaniiu, ii, 400) endesvuni to tnce their ori^n 

17) aaya that a Jewish-Chrisiian aect orif^nated with 
the Ebionile Symmachua, of whom Ambrose states, in 
a commenur}- on the Epistle to the Galatians, that tbry 
descended from the Pharisees, kept the whole law, call- 
ed Ihcmselves Christians, and followed Photinua in the 
belief that Christ waa merely a man. The Hanielwian 
Fauttus (see Augustine, Contra FouiL xii, 14), on the 
other band, describes the Symmacbiana as NaxareoeK 
and Augustine adds (Coitfra CivMoniun, i, 31} that they 
were but few in number in his lime, and that thea 
praciiceil both Jewish drcumcision and Chrislian hap- 
liam. See Fabticius [Jaann.Alb.], Phaalrii dt /trmi- 
bu3 Liber, cum Emnd. H Nolii (Hamb. 1735), |i- 125.— 
Heizog, Reiil-ErKytlnjt. a. v. 

BTmmBcliiu. pope from A.D. 498 to 514, ia notcc 
because of his conflicts with the civil power, ami hi- 
enJeavon to heighten the importance of the Romu 
see. At the time of his election by the Roman iMnj 
the imperial parly bad elected the archpresbyler Lao 
rentius, who was pledged to sign the llmoticon (q. v.) 



STMMACHCS 8 

TW dctttBiuiUion or the election wu left wilh Tbeod- 
tftc bug of ttte Gothi, aod resull«l in bvor of Sym- 
BKbo, bcoiue be wu ihe firet to be anointed dt wu 
MftfinKi by ■ nujorily of votei. At a synod held it 
Uuiic in t^ it wu thereupon enicled (hit nu vote 
■tKoUlNcut for the eleeliun of « new pupe before (be 
nifnog (lopc had actually died, uid that that candidate 
■kniU be [^;>rded it cleclnl nho was tuppnrted by ail 
•r I rnijuriiy of the votes of ih« Koman derny. At a 
iTiHd u Itiiaie in 50-2 Symmschu* revoked the enact- 

llxpapil chair from Belling any portion of Ihe property 
iifiliiChurch,>ndatihe ume lime he ordained that ail 
loltfftnDcc in ifaeafUis of IheChurcb of Rome ihuuld 
Ik briiMMn to the Uity. Thia prorisian contribuleil 
gnally lo the ilevekipnient of the papal power, iekI has 
iloin rcouipefl a canlinal principle in the adniini»- 
mnga of the RDmisb Church. The party of Lauren- 
tin afUr a time, brougbt heavy charge* againU Syni- 
mctwi, and Tbcodoric deputed blihop Peter of Aiti- 
nua to JDvalieate the case; but, as he became a par- 
Ii!M nf Laarentiua, the liing conroked a nevr synod at 
Km, (be Sywxfu Palmarii, in 503. The life of Sym- 
■ichiB wa> endangernl by tbc macbinations of the 
UHToitiDea, and he lubniiited unconditionally to 
teJHB nf the nynod, in direct contradiction of hi 
fliilT pmnulgaled ordinance against the interference 
oflirEKD in ccclesiBsliail maiteni. He was acquitted 
■iilwat a IriaL Biibop Ennoiliua of TicinutD, i 
nitun (lefenee of thia ayiiod, wag the flnt to di 
ilai God has reserved the judgment of the incumlient 
rftke Ronan m to himself, while other men miit 
nmlinf! in hii will, be judgal by their feltowa. At 
imat btld at Rome in 304, Symmachus promulgated 
I af^ainst all who shocdd appropriate 



bpItc 



leChur 



he synod* held under his ponlif- 
ote aJdrmed to him, by way of eminence, the title 
Paja, Ue appointed bishop Canarius of Ariea his vicar 
ii litiL He baniaheil tbe remaining Hanichsans from 
fa>ar ini] eanaed their books to be burned, but was 
tanaijf branded as a ManichKan by the empet 
Riin& Tradition attribules to him the introduction 
'/ihc Gloria a Erc^m into thr Sunday and feast-day 
•mina of the Church. He ilied, aa is reported, July 
I9.SI1 See Schriickb, CArwr^ /fttciloitHrA. xvii, leo, 
IK-!II: Gieaeler, Kirdtasneh. I, Ii, 338-406.— Her- 
•Y- KMf-';MTUDp. a. r. 

Brnimictaiu, a traiutsiot of the Old Test, inic 
Gn<k,<ns bom in Samaria during the latter halfof the 
U oaaaiy. Ori^nally a Jew, he became a Christian. 
li«<B(inired the doctrine of the Ebionites. 

la ^iie of the high reputation enjoyed by the Alei' 
niriia Tenion, or Sepiaagint (q. v.), not only amonf 
lie Hdksiita outside of Palestine, but alu within Pal. 

fag to the itriclet Jews, owing lo polemical reasons, 
•> 1^ •gainit the Christians, tbey denied ' 
am, lad set up atiotber translation in oppc 
TW iol who made ■ version for tbe lue of tbe Jew* 
*a Aqoila (q. v.) ; mt much later than Aquila, Theo- 
faini (q. T.) prepared a second, and very soon afler- 
*Bd> inMba Inuialalion was made by Symmachus. 
'"•a Bpipbaniua, De " ' " 
(vbpar •ceunnl*, bowc 



r. Keek p 



onounces fabuloog), 
I Samaritan, Sffi- 



*i kam thai Symioachi 

fitsc nc Xaitapt/riK ^^^ ^"P ""TOK vn^v . . . 
r«t»t t>^'>Dx'a>' - ■ - upoiniXiTT-cuii cai *tpiripwrai 
ttrntav. Wiib Epipbanius agree Atbanasiu* (^jnop- 
■".Ibe GkroBioDii Auotnir, and Euthymius Zigabtnus, 
n CsrpiOT. Critiat Saera, p. hS7. Euaetuus (/litl. 
teiit. t\, IT : and Dnmmalr. Erang. vii, I ) calls him 
'EJwnnot, an Ebionile, which is also the opinion of 
Jsme aitd modem critics. Font and Gnger call him 
• Ml, and a popil of R. Heir (q. r.}. 

Aa to Ihe time io which he lived, Epipbanius (loc eif.) 
pttt bin in tbe ni{D of king Sevenis. With this 



SYMMACHUS 

id agree the fact that Iienaus doe* not name 

wbile be mentions AquiU and Tbeodolion, and 

Origen already fuund bis traniialion in existence. 

k says Ibit from Eusebius lloceiL) we may infer 

It tbe translation of Symmachus was little known 

before Che lime ofOrlgen, and Ibat Origen had obtained 

certain woman Juliane,to whom it bad come 

from Symmachus himself." The pasuge in Euiebius 

n* thus: Toiira Ii A 'Upijivtit ficrd tai «\Xuv ii'c 

tc ypafdt JpfiifVEiaiv roii ZvfifmvDU, ajipaivii mpi 

luXiavqc Tims i<Ki)^vai flv ihi ^ai nap' ouroi 

Sv/iiiaxov rdc 0i0\ovt ItaSi^aeSai. 

As to Ihe gfuitu of tbe translation, Epiphaniui tells 
a thai he translated in oppoaitioD to the Samaritans, 
rpot liaaTpo^riv tmv irapd Sn/iofxiraic ipn^vtiaat. 
But this suppflsil ion is in bad taste, for, in the tint place, 
Gen. vSymmachutagrees wilh tbe Samaritan against 
the Sept.; in tbe second place, we cannot see how he 
his translation in opposition to the 
miy accept tbe PenUteoch, while 
Symmachus'* version is on all the boohs of the Old 
Teat. ; and, in the third place, npne nf the other Cbnrch 
fathers knew anything of his opposition to the Samari- 
The probability is that bis whole aim was di- 
rected towaidi a more elegant and Sner version ; for 
Symmachus, in bis vcrnon, betrays the endeavor to sat- 
isfy tbe genius of tbe Greek language and to keep aloof 
from ever]- influence of Eastern ideas and Ihe Hebrew 
originaL Thus he form* periods where Ihe original 
has umply co-ordinate sentences, e.g. ! Kings i, S, ^=b 
1»T1, ArAiovTte ri^tT^i ; Job X3utiT,29, aplC Kim 
ti riptpiar iit6trrot Ti^Karaipii'u; 
Psa. ill, 4, lins la-iX 31B=, avaTrpa^ivruv nil- 
Ix^piy fiov. Where the Hebrew circumscribea an ad- 
verbial idea bv a verb, Symmaelius use* an adverb, as 
vkh Ejori, Efli raXiy Iratv; at be uses 
the adjective for the Hebrew nomen quaiUatu, as Psa. 
lir, 84, nialSI D^a-I idK, iHoi^ovot K<u SaXioi. 
the Hebrew tropes lo the corresponding 
Greek, e. g. 1 Sam. jti, 25, 0VB3 OSES, Honp Ji<:^»; 
XXV, 2S, -Ob-pit ••nx B-'ID"' »3-^», fi4 wpioxK. 
dCiuvi non rilO, in Uen. ii, 17, becomes Sv^Af iof. 
He usca additions for the sake of elegancy: thus, Job 
xxi, 18, irTl'' ilttB 7i-<Z\ tai rixf-ic Svaaiu xat 
nfiaaaiaarot (I'c fStiv car^ovriu; Ezek. xvi, 81, 
^jnst 03pb, Jf aiiaxiaTif awaynvrra fiiff^u/iaro. 
Hebrew proper noun* are often translated etymological- 
ly, e. g. Deut. ixxii, 49, Din3;n Ifl, ri tpot Twv 
iiaffaatuv; Isa. xix, 18, Oinn 1->S, ToXii; qXfou. 

Taken all in all, Symmachus deserves tbe praise which 
has been bestowed on hi> translalion, which was called 
Mrno ptripicua, mainfttla, admiriMliM, aperla. Je- 
rome, /n .4 nos Hi, Il,speakBOf Symmacbus,"Nan sotel 
verbonim irojcoti|Xiav, eed intelligent is ordinem sequi;" 
/» lia. r, 1, " Symmachus more suo manifestius." Eu- 
sebius, In Pia. Ttri, 31 sq., says, aa^iaripav 6 Su/ifia- 
Xoc, snd of 'if pa dnupioruc o Xviipax'^' ^'' ^■o.zM, 
10, ovTU^ ^pfsrjiftvot iavpartTV^ I'l ivpftaxa^. Still 
we cannot characlerize his style as being pure Greek or 
elpgant; and Symmachus himself seems to have felt it, 
for he made a second eiUlion of his transUtion, in which 
he correcled all such Hebraisms and harsh ezpresaiona 
aa had crept in. Thus Jeromo, la Jer. xxxii, says, 
"Symmachi prima ttUlio et LXX et Theodoiio toloi 
(jiotioi) inlerprelati sunt; tteunda quippe Symmachi 
vertit iiiXoirf and In Nakum iii be writes, "Symma- 
ebua anrv/iioc irXqpirc, qnod possum usdicere cmdeli- 
latt vel Hveritatt pfaio; lii alltra ejus edilione reperi 
/itXonMri'ac a-X^pqc, i.e. secfiomhu cuntiunt tljrutlit 



ntnibra eoneui*," Whether his secon 
braced all the books of the Old Test, cann 
with certainty, unce only a few fragmpnls 
edition on some of tbe books are extaiil. 



editi 



Ecided 



SYMMACHUS r 

Fur philalngical puqnm, Sf mmacbas ia jiut m uk- 
Till ■> the other Greek tranaUiors. Bililical criliciam 
mar iIm derive lonie ulrantage from ibe tnnslBlioii, ot 
course, by exhibiting the b™*'*"' ">"■ f'"" I'**- 
iix, 13, SymmacbuB reada ru our lexl, T133, and ta 
alao the Chatilce, Jerome, Syriac, anil Theodotion, 
againat tUe ■'^13^ of the Sept„VuIg., uiil Arab.; in 
Ixvi, 13, our lext hii n'^'l-lb, but Symmachui, tha 
Sept., Syr^ and Chald. seem to have read nnni. 

The fragmeiita of Svmmactiut'i veraion of tbe Old 
Test, are given bv Flwn. Notiilii in Vel. TaU tte. LXX 
IaU. Kcddittim, etc (Rome, 1687); Dnuia*, Vilrrum 
Iiilfrprelum Gracorum in Totura V. T. FragmaUa Col- 
d-rta, eta (Ambeim, 1622) ; Boa, V. T. tx Veriion. LXX 
Inltrp, tic, B« noil FTagmentU Vtrrionmn A juite, Sym- 
macjlj (( Thtodoliomi (Franek. 1709}; Montfaucon, 
/laaphrum Origmt qua Supfrnal, etc (Paris, 1713; 
in M later edition with nates by K. Bahrdt, Leips. 
and Lllbeck, 1769-70). The fragments on uagle books 
were edited by Trendelenburg, C*ra(»iim(Ain Hexaplaru 
(Lubeck and 'Leipa. 1794); Spohn, Jerflntoi ValaeVer- 
tioae Judaornm, etc. (Ups. 1791, 1824); Scgaar, Danitl 
tK. LXXft Telraplit Ongtnu, eW,(Trier, 1775) ; Schar- 
fenberj;, ^ntDUv'ivm'ofKi futhu Fragmt'ila l-VrnDniin 
V. T. Eiaend.pUvr (Upa, 1776-81), apcc i et ii ; Scbleua- 
ner, OpUKola Critica ad Vtraona Umau V. T. ( ibid. 
1812). 

A.iffm/Brf. — Eichhora, Eialtilmg vi dai AUt Ta- 
taiuntt (4lh «).), i, 581 sq.; Carpiov, Crilica Saera, 
p. 566 sq.; Keil, /lUrodactiOH to the Old Telamml, ii, 
283 K|.: Herbal, Eiiddttmg, i, 160; Kaulen, Kininlung 
M dk kntige Schi-ift (Freiburg, IS76), p. 79; Field, 
Origmit Ihiaploranqua Suprr>uM,tU.(0%onu,l«3Vi, 
p. xixiv I FUra^ Bibl. Jud. iii, 399 aq. ; Thieme, Mt- 
pulalio de Puriiait Symmacit (Lipi. \7hb): Geiger, 
JSduchi ZtUickHfi (Ureslau, 1SG2), i, 89-64, and hia 
Sadigriaunt Sehriftm (BerL 1877). iv, 8S sq. j rAwto- 
giiclut UiiTtnat-Lirilxn, s. v.; Heiclcnbeim, Vinitl- 
^rMCj(ri/l(18G;), iii, 463sq. See Greek Vemions. 

<ap.) 

STDHnaChaB, Qui.TTca AtrHKi.nrs,a pnefecl, pon- 
tilTi anil augur of Rome in its declining age, remarliable 
far bis elixjueiit appeal against tbe ruin threatened by 
the triumph of Christianity; he ia the author of fpullei 
still ciianl. His zeal fur the ancient faith of Rome 
excrciseil Ihniughout life a marked infiuence upon hia 
cliaracter. He was chosen by the senate to remonitrate 
with Gratian on the rGmoval of the alur of victory (A.D. 
382), from their council-hall, and for curtailing the an- 
nual aUowance to the Vestal Virgins. The emperor 
banished him from Home, but In 384, having been ap- 
pointed pncfect of the city, he urged in an Gpisile to 
Valentinianua tbe restoration of pagan deities. In Ibis 
he was unsucceasful, hut without personal loss, bdng ap- 
pointnl consul under Theodosius in 391. 

Bytnmea, William, D.D., a Uniurian clergy- 
man, was bum at Cliarlestuwn, Mass., in 1731, and grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1750, where he was a 
tutor from 1755 to 1758. He began to preach in the 
North I'ariab in Andover, and was onlained its paalor 
Nov. 1, I75S, and continueil in that relation until hia 
death, May, 1807. Dr. Symmes waa a goo<1 achoUr,of 
exleniive reading, and an able divine. He published, 
Tkanktsii-i«g Seriam (1768) \—i>ita>artf on Ike fjHlg 
and AdButiliiga of Singing I'raitet to God (1779) : — 
Stnaon at (Ae Gavrol Elrrlim (1785). See Spiague, 
AmuJt o/ihe Aiutr. Pulpil, viii, 35. 

Symmea, Zacharlab, a Congregational preacher, 
was bom at Canterbury-, Kng land, April b, 1699. He 
was educated at Cambridge, and after leaving the uni- 

familiea. In lSi\ he was ap|>n<iiied lecturer at Atho- 
lines, in LoikIoii, and in Sopiember, 1U25, he lipcame 
rector of Dunstable. Kmbarrasscd by his Noncnnl^irm- 
ity, he emigrated li> New England, where he arrived in 



) SYMPOSIA 

August, 1634. He was admitted lo the fellowship ef 
the Church in Charlestown, Most, Dec 6, and oo tbe Cd 
of the same month was elected and ordained teacbcf cF 
tbe same Church, Her. Thomas Jamei being potn. 
About a year afterwards he succeeded lo the rAce of 
pastor, wfaicb he ailed until his death, Feb. 4, 1671. See 
Sprague, AtoiaU qflke Amtr, Pulpil, i,47. 

Bympattiy (ijupira3no,/*flww-/«/iiij) ia the qual- 
ity of being affected by another's affection. Itwaaong- 
inolly used, like pity and cooipassiDn. to signify out fel- 
low-feeling with the sorrows of other*, but now it ii 
used to denote our fellow-feeling with any paasioD what- 
ever. Sympathy with sorrow ot suffering is ctKopoBW. 
with Joy or prosperity ia congratulation. 

Syinpbony (ffvpfuwa) origiiuilly HgniSed the 
uniou of several voices in a chant, bul^by inadem mo- 
ucians it is applied to an inatniroental compoailiao, gn- 
erally used as a kind of inlroduclory movement to an- 
Ihema and other pieces. Symphonies are inltoduad 
with good effect in the interval of the voicai, aod arc 
called prefiidfj when played before the psalmody, itirr- 
Uida when they mark the distinction of verses, ami 
poil'lutla when introduced at Ibe close of the psalm. 

Syaphori&ntiB, a Gallic martyr at Aulun in the 
reign of Aurelian. He was cited ttefure the pnefert 
Herocliua because he had refused to honor Ibe statue 
of Derecyiithia, and rejected the influence ot apfieab 
and scourgingi. Hii mother supported him with brr 
exhortations to fldeliiy. He was beheaded without Ibe 
town wall* and buried in a cell in tbe fields. His grave 
became so remarkable for cures and miracle* that it 

narrative in the Ada Brali Synpk^ as here outlined, 
seems to involve something of fact. The worship of 
BerecynthiaamongtbB'EduiisahistoricalfBcl. Greg- 
ory uf Tours mentiona Symphorianua and tbe mitKka 
wrought by his relics (Dt tlioria Mart, c 52). Uter 
tradition says that a cburch was, in time, built over bis 
grave. Tbe story cannot, bowever, date further back 
than the days ot Gregory, as is evident fium tbe cbo- 
en and even pompous language and the legendary omi- 
clusion. The death of Svmphoiianua i* variouslv Bxed 
in A,D. 180 (the reign of Aurelius), 270,or 280 (. Aurelian). 
He i* cammemuraled on Aug.22. Sec the Ada SS. 
0. V. — Herzog, Rral'FmyUop. L v. 

BymphOT&aa, the Christian widow of ■ martyreil 
tribune. Hadrian had built a temple at Tibur (Ttv<di1, 



moned, and sought by persuasion to induce her to olia 
sacrifices. On her refusal, the empenir threatened bcr, 
and had her carried to Ihe Temple of Hercnle* at Tiroli, 
where she was beaten with fists, hung up by the hsir. 
and afterwards taken down and drowned. Her broth- 
er Eugene, a counciUor of Tivoli, recovered Ihe body 
and buried it in the snburbs. On Ihe tollowing day 
her sons were brought before the same temple arid im- 
paled in various mode*, after which their bodica wen 
thrown into a deep pit, which subsequently became 
known as the pit ad seplen bietAanatoi, The persecu- 
tion then rested for a year aitd a half, during which pe- 

Via Tiburlina and honored as they deaerred. The na- 
talitiei of Symphorosa and her sona are observed oo 
July 18 (see Kninan, Ada Primnrma iraiiyrwm,p. 
18). The legend CKists in manuscript form among the 
writings falsely ascribeil to Julius Africanus, and may 
have originaled in tbe Ibird century, though tbr cun- 
tenlsdo not harmoniie well wiih the known onlinary 
conduct of Hadrian. Kuiuart supposes the probable pe- 
riod of Ihe occurrence lo have been A.D. 120. Sm aba 

ByntpoBla (TOfiirimo,*intjBf'<) is a woril occo- 



mally 



Mical » 
iiagap»(q.v.). These ijm 



re beU at ibc 



SYMPSON 

crtra oTibe miityn; tni ibe rotivil ww dcwgned 

b(, nal only ■ memorial or tbe dcceued, but, according 

l>ntnt,''>ii<Klor of ■ sweet unell 

(iif ito poiit ind needy. 

u^ihrr, uid were lerrabed by the cbarily of the rich. 

SinnpMll. Cltiibert, a layman and a deacon of 
ibt CoOEttgttiana] Church at lalingtun, of which Ruft 
i,iK UiMgb) wan piMor. He wu arrested Dec 13, l£i57, 
unl isnared, being racked three timet lo make him 
dicnl^ ihe members of the Proieuant Church of which 
be wu deacon. He was ereiituallv burned at Smith- 
bkL Much 2S, 1 &a8. See Punchard, Uiil. of Congn- 
SalimaSim, ii, 326, »47. 

BjjtMfopM iavyayuyri i other equivalent teima 
tnipwwxqor irfwmvrqpiai',Le.ciii/>c(,' Heb.i;iI3 
iXoroBMii^o/ Corf; Aramaic !tP333 ■'3, Xra33), 
IbcJcnb place oTwunihip in pml-Biblical and mnd- 
tntiiBH. However ubucure the origin of these eilab- 
liihBenii, the* eventusliy became wi impurUnt and 
clancieriuic as to fiiniiiih ■ ilaignatinn of the Jewish 
L-haiTh itself in later lilerstnre. 

It iBB^ be well to note at the outset the points of 
aauet between tbe historv and ritual of the ayna- 
^^if;sa of the Jews, and the facts to which the inquiries 
M itw BiUical student are principally directed. I. 
Tbey neet ua as the great chsracteriBtic iiiatitUTJnn of 
ilK Inn phsse of Judaism. More even ihsn the Ten- 
pit ind iu ttniet^ in the lime of which the New Test. 
IiHt^ thry St once represented and determined Ihe re- 
liSvuB lire of the people. 2. We cannot separate them 
fiua il» most intimate connection with our Lord's life 



■sd niuiarv. In them he w 


rshippcd 


in his 


youth 


ml in bis msnhuod. Whstev 




learn of the 


riuisl which then prevailed letli 


oaofi 


orship 


which 


In fW^ised and sanctioned; 


which fo 


that 




If r« no Mher. though, like tho Uatelier services 


of the 


loipie, it was destined to pass 


awsy, is 




of our 


iwpm sml honor. They wet 


the see 


ea,too. 


of no 


nail pfinion of bis work. In t 








uf hi. iD^hliest works of heal 


ngCMait 


itii,9 


Mark 


LSI; Lake liii,!!). In then 


were «>oken so 


me of 




(iv. 16 


John 


rL W; many more, bevond al 


1 reckoni 


«. which are 


wnconkd (Matt. iv. '23; s 


ii.M; J 


hn XV 


ii,20. 


«t). 3. There are tbe queslu 


us, leadiog ua back u, 



■rpast,ll 

IWP" oriBinsie? What type was it intended to repro- 

*ncd ss the starting -point for it? i. The syns- 
Pfr. with all that belonged to it, was coiiiiected with 
ite fmufe a* well aa with tbe past. It was tbe order 
•lib which the first Christian believers were most fa- 
Buliii, from which they were most likely to take the 
oidlKi. or even the details, of the worship, arganiza- 
>Mi.arKl gnvemment of their own society. Widely 
ilirai;eDl as Ihe two words and the things they rep- 
rnninl sfierwarda became, tbe eccleua bod lis slart- 
iiiK-I>«ntinibeayna«oBiie. 
L .^ 'imf arid i/t Si^aifittitiou. — The word rrvvayvyij^ 

ciuici] UrWk (I'hucyd. ii, IH; p'lato, RrpubL S2I> D), 
^ bccaine proauneiit in that of Ihe Hellenists. It 
sffitsn in the Sept. as the translation of not leas than 

tnne'ii implied (Ttomcu, Cuaconiutf. a. v.). But, al- 
ibis);b tbe wgtd is (bete used to denote mq land "/ 
j^krisft ktap, maH, or (ftKmUojjr, such aa a galhrr- 
-i'/fiaiu (flit the Heb.^OX, q'D!(,£xad. xiiii, 16; 
suJv.«!l,o/iro*fr<nipO,nipiS,G«n.i,9; Lev. xi, 
«;..« imp »/sfoii™ (bj. Job vili, 17), a iaml nftingtri 
(3'r:^ Jer. ixii. 4, 13), u mau or muliilade o/ ptopU 
« wLSm ( nnOX, >**n, Us. ixiv, 22 ; Eiek. xxxvii, 
mi. o 'r* or family (r^a. I Kings xii, 2 1 ), etc., yet 
Bs prrdmiiiiint aaage in ihii version is to denote on 



1 SYNAGOGUE 

qjipootirf ntttmg ofptojit athrr for eivU or r^igioat 
purpota, thus being synonymoiis with JnXqvra. 'lliiH 
ia evident from the fact tint the -Sept. uses aovayiuyif 
ISO times for the Hebrew ITir, and Iwenly-Hve limes 
for in^, which in seventy instances ia rendered in the 
same veinon by inXiicriii. The synonymous usage in 
the Sept. of these two expressions ia alao seen in Prov. 
V, 14, where laKtivia and nuvayuyq stand in Juxta- 
poailion for the Hebrew VnjT and ni?. In the books 
afthe Apocrypha, the wonl, as in those of the Old Test., 
retains its general meaning, and ia not use<l apeclAcallv 
for any Tecognised place of worship. For ibis the re- 
ceived phrsse seems to be TiivoQ jtpoeivxiit (' MaiT. 
iii, 16 ; S Mace vii, 20). [n the New Test., however, we 
find ffirivyii/y^, like fnrXijffrcr, used mclonymiciilly,more 
especiallv for un oppoiattd onrf recpgaiifd JrKuh place 
<!/'icQr>A.>i(Malt.iT,23; vi,!,o; ix,3o,elc.}. Some- 

connecled with or sat in the synagogue in the narrower 
aense {Matt, x, 17; xxiii,34i Markxiii,9; Luke xxi, 
12l xii, 11). Within the limita of the Jewish Church 
it perhaps kept its ground as denoting the phet of 
meeting ofthe Chrialian brethren (James ii, 2). It seems 
to have been claimed by aome of Ihe pseudo-Ju<<aiziiig, 
half-tinostic sects of the AmsIIc churches for Ihcit 
meetings (Rev. ii, 9). tt was not altogether obsolete, 
as Bp|>lied to Christian meetings, in the time of Ig- 
natius (Kp. ml TraU. e. v ; itd Pol^. c iii). Even in 
Clement ofAlexandria the two nurds appear united as 
(hey hail dune in the Sept. (iiri rqi' imi-nyiiryqv iacXif- 
oinc^frnm. vi,633). Afiecwards, when the chasm be- 
tween Judaism and Cbrixlianiiy became wider, Chris- 
tian writers were fond of dwelling on the meanings of 
the two worda which practically represented them, and 

ecclesia {Augus^ Eaurr. ia I'm. Ixxx; Trench, Sgno- 
«ymt k/N. T. % 1). Tbe c<^nato word, howc\-er, <nV 
□EiCi was formed or adopted in its pUce, and applied lo 
the highest act of worship and communion for which 
Christians met (Siiicer, Tlu$aar. a. v.). 

More definite than tho (jreek term synsgogue is the 
ancient Hebrew name, bilk Irphillih ( n^BH r\-^, 
riiiroE rpoiitvxnt. or simply wpamvyi)') = home of 
prtigrr (Acta xvi, 13, for which the Syriac rightly has 
XP-lbx n'3: Joaephns, /.i/r, 64), which is now obso- 
lete, or iff* hak-kmimk (^0331? n'3) = *oi(K n/ 
autmbly, which hsa superseiled it. This definite local 
signification of the term synagogue among Ihe Jens 
has necessitated the use of another expression for Ihe 



r ^lax, Ii 



lie assembly, v 
ir secondary si 



Hillary of tif Oiv/ia oHit Derrlnprnenl nf Iht 

Sgaagngut 1. According to tnidilion. the pMriarcha 

Alwahsm, Isaac, and Jacob instiiuteil the prayers three 
timea a day (Btyairui, 36 b), and had places of worship 
(comp. the Chaldee paraphrases of Onkeloa, Jnnslhaii 
beii-t'zziel, and Ihe Jerusalem Targnm nn lien. xxiv. 
62. 63 ; XXV, 27). Wc are inrurmcd Ihot there were 
synagogues in the time <ir Ihe pinna kinir Hczekiah 
(saTihrdria. 94 b); that the gt 






gogue ; 



if Jerusalem (B"'boi-i'" Tia) 
umcd (i Kings xKv.at were I 
oguea that existed in Jorusale 
1,1), and that in Babj-lon Ihi 



Nnhiim, ami Ezra (/rtwiorj,, i, 

Ascher [London, 1840]). It is ,-. . 

tradition Ihu Jama decl«re* ", C jOOQIC 



SYNAGOGUE 

in ■verf cilj th«m that praacb him, being Tod in the 
lynagognei ever]' SibbiCh dmy" (Acta XT, SI; comp. 
Pbilrsii, 167, 030; Joaephaa, Apioit,a, IS; Baba Kama, 
OT«! Jetiisjem jr(j>ttiA,iT, 1). But these «i» simply 
trmditions, which love to invMt everything wilh t1 
halo of Che remnteit anliquity. 

2. In the Old Test itself we find no trice of roee 
ings for wonbip in eyaigogun. On the one hind, il 
probable tlut ifneir mount end Sabbaths were obserred 
■t all, they must have been attended by some cclebra- 
tioa apart ftom, as veil as at, the labemade ot th( 
Temple (I Sam. xx, 5i 2 Kings iv, 29), On ihe other, 
M far aa we And uaces of euch local worship, it seems 
U bsve fallen too readily into a fetich religion, i 
does to ephods and leraphim (Judg. viii, 27 ; svii, 5) in 
lfioresandonhigh-placea,oSering nothing but a cot 
to the " reaaonable service," the prayeia, paalmi, int 
tion in the law, of the later synagogue. The special 
miaaiun of the priesta and Levites under Jehoahaphal 
(2 Chmn. zvii, 7-9) shows that there wai no regulai 
proviaion for reading the "book of the law of the Lord' 
to the people, and make* it probalile that even the rule 
which preacribed that it should be read once every 
seven years at the Featt of Tabernacles had fallen into 
dimse (Deul. xxzi, 10), With the rise of the propbetii: 
ocder we trace ■ more distinct though still a partial ap- 
proximativo. Wherever there waa a aimpany of 
prophets, there must have been a life analogous in many 
of its features to that of the later Esienea and Thera- 
peutn, to that nf the conotia and iDOnailetiea of Chris- 
tendom. In the abnormal stale of the polity of 1st 
under Samuel, they appear lo have aimed at purify 
the worship of the high-places frotu idolatrous a»oc 
tioni, and met on fixed days for sacrifice and psalnii 

<1 Sam.ix, 12; x,5). The scene in I Sam. xix.20--/4 

pera who might choose to come, as well as lo " the 
of the prophet," the brothers of the order themselves. 
The only pre-exilian insUnce which seems to ind 
that the devout in Israel were in the habit of resorting 
to pious leaden for blessings and instruction on slated 
occasions u to be found in 2 Kings iv, 23, wher 
Shunammite'a husband asks,* " Wherefore wilt thou 
go to him (Eliaha) to-day? It it neither tKW mooi 
nor SabUth." Yet 2 Kingn xxii,8,etc.j 2 Chron 
xxxiv, 14, elG„ testify undoubtedly against the exist- 
ence of places of worship uniler the monarchy. Tbi 
data of Psa. Ixxiv is loo uncertain far us to draw ant 
inference as lo the nature of the " synagogues of God' 
(^X ^^is, meeting-places of God), which the invaders 
are represented as deatroying (ver. S). It may have 
belonged to the time of the Assyrian or Chalilean in- 
vaaion (Vitringa, De Sgitag. p. 396-405). It has been 
referred to that of Itn Maccabees (l>e Wette, /'laJmm, 
ad loc.), or lo an intermediate period when Jerusalem 
was taken and the land laid waste by the army of 
Bagoses, under Artaxerxea II (Ewald, Pott. liiirh. ii, 
85»;. The "assembly of the eldera," in Paa. ovii, 32, 
leaves us in like uncvrtainly. 

3. During the Exile, in 'the abeyance of the Temple 
worship, the meetings of devout Jews probably became 
mote ayatematic (rurinfia, Dt Sya-ig. p. 4l3-4-i9i Jost, 
Judralhum, i. I6H; Uomilius, lie iSyuiffos. in Ugolino, 
TAfiaur. xxi), and mutt have helped furwatd the 

the Reliim. The repeated mentum of gatherings of the 
elders of Israel, sitting before Ibe pro|ihet Elzeldel and 
hearing his word (Ezek. viii, 1 ; xiv. I ; xx, 1 ; xxxiii, 
81), implies the tranaf^ to the land of the Captivity of 
the custom Ihat had originated in the schools of the 
prophets. One remarkable passage may possibly con- 
tain a mote distinct refeience to them. Those who 
atill remained in Jerusalem taunted the prophet and hit 
companions with their exile, as outcasts from the bless- 
ings of the sanctuary, "liet ye far from the l-ord; 
onto US ia Ihia land given in a potaweiun." The pmph- 



SYNAGOGUE 



sr it that it i 



It to. Jeborab w 



• tnly 



in the Temple at Jerusalem. His piesencv, not the 
outward glory, was itself the sanctuary (xi, lb. 16). 
The whole tiistory of Ezra presupposes the habit of sol- 
emn, probably of periodic, meetings (Eara viii, 15; Neb. 
viii, 3 1 ix. 1 1 Zech. vii, 5). To that peiiml, aocord- 






, if not 



lion, of synagogues, or at least of tbe tystematic totrt- 

ings on fasts fur devotion and instruction (Zecfa. viii, 
19). Religions meetings were also held on Sahbalha 
and fists lo instruct the exile* in the divine law, and to 
admonish them to obey tbe divine precepts (Eara x, 1- 
9; Neb. viii, t,S; ix,l-8; liil, 1-B). These mevlings, 
held near tlie Temple and in other localities, wen tbe 
origin of the syaagi^[ue, and the placu in wbicb tbe 
people assembled was denominated nD9:n n^S, lit 
AoKte of luianbly! hence, alao, (he synagogue in the 
Temple itself. The elders of (his synagogue haoded 
the law to the high-priett (Hithna, Yoma, vii, 1 ; Sobik, 
vii, 7, 6), aided in Ihe sacriOces {Tamid, v, S), took 
charge of Ihe palms used at the Feast of Tabemaelea 
{Suldcah, iv, 4), accompanied tbe pilgrims who btmght 
their nrat-fnnts (Totipkia Bitturim, ii), offlciat«d at 
judges (^Afatiarli, iii, 12), and superintended the iufiuit- 
scbools {Snbbiia. i, 3). As«iming Ewald's theory as 
(o Ihe date and occasion of Psa. Ixxiv, Ihcre must, at 
some subsequent period, have been a great deetruction 



Idings, a 



>rihe 



striking that tb 
in any way prominent in the Bilaccahnao hixory, either 
as objects of attack or rallying-pointa of defence, unleaa 
we are to see in the gathering of tlie persecuted Jews 
St Maspha (Mizpali), aa at a " place where they pnved 
aforetime in larael" (1 Mace iii, 46), not only a remi- 
niscence of its old glory as a holy place, but the CDntio- 
uance of a more recent custom. When that slniggle 
was over, there sppears (o have been a freer develop- 
ment of what may be called the lynagogue parochial 
system among tbe Jews of Palestine and other mun- 
triea. The influence of John Hyrcinui, the growing 
power of the PhariBee^ (he aulhority of the Scribea, the 
example, prohably,or the Jews of the''difipeTHin" (Vi- 
tringa, Dt Syiag. p. 426), would all (end in the saate ili- 
reclion. Well-nigh every town or village bad ita one 
or more synagoguea. Where the Jews were not in suf- 
ncient numbers to be able lo erect and fill a building, 
there was tbe rpmnaxij, or place of prayer, sometimes 
open, totoelimea covered in, commonly by a tunning 
stream or on Ihe tea-shore, in which devout Jewt and 
proselytes met to worship, and, perhaps, to re«d (Acta 
xvi, 13; Joaephus, Attl. xiv, 10, W; Jareoal, Sat. iii, 
296). Sometimes Ihe teiro vponv^ ( = r4BPI n^a) 
was applied even to an actual synagogue (Joaepbus, 
Life, § 54). Eventually we find tbe Jews posseaaag 
synagogues in the diSerent cities of Syria, A^ Uiuor, 
Greece, Egypt, and wherever they leuded. We hear 
of the apostles frequenting the lynagngues in Dama^ 
cua, AnIioch, Icuniutn, Thetaalonica, Berea, Atbtm^ 
Girinth, EpheBuB,elc(Aclsix, 9, !<J; xiii,l4; xiv,!; 
ivii, 1, 10. 1.i xvlii, 4, 19; xix, 8). There were nu- 
merous lynagoguea in Palesline: in Naiartlh (Matt. 
xiii, M, Mark vi, 2; Luke iv, 16), Capernaum (Matt. 
xii,9! Mark i, 21; Luke vii, 5; John vi. 59), etc.; and 
in Jerusalem alone there were 480 (Jerusalem Mrgiliak, 
iii, 1 ; Jerusalem KethKbadt, xiii) In accommodate the 
Jcwa fnim foreign lands who "visited ihe Temple. 
There were synagogues of tbe Libertines, Cyieniana, 
Alexandrians, Cilicisns, and of the Asiatics (Acts vi, S; 
comp. TotiplUa MrgilluA,ii: Babylon 3ifgillal,K a). 
When it Is remembered that more than 2,500,000 Jewa 
canve together lo tbe metrnpolis from all couulriaa 
to celebrate Ihe Passover (Joaephus. X ■(. vi, 9, 3 ; W. 
lacAita, 64 a), this number of synagoguea in Jemsalem 
will not appear at all exiggeraled. An idea may b« 
formed of tbe large number of Jewa at tb« tima of 



SYNAGOGUE 



Ckii«,>b« it 
rnm the Hrdiu 

ntulM nwlf 1 
ni,iL5!3): aiv 
tnpulit, Antio 



I Jevl 



n mind tbil in Egrpt kIdpf, 
I the bordvi of Ethiiipii. tbere 
if Jewi (Philo. Againil Flac- 
Syris, e«i«tially in ihe mc- 
ilulfd a large portion 



ofih^ponukiiiiii (Uriiii[2dnL], iii.SS-^). 

IIL 8iU, Slradmn, Inlcntal ATTtngtmal, Utt, and 
Amtriiy Bj'ikf S)migogiie.—l. Tskiiig Ihe Temple u 
itw firvioiype, i»il fulhiwing the 
tieaoTthepuMgcnin Prov.i, Stand Eira ix,9, which 
m lakeo lo mean chat ihe voice of prayer 
nivd on htighu (X^pn S!t^3}, and that the uiiciu- 
■ry ni iherefure ereclni on a luminil (HK BISI'^^ 
C-nbx n''3). the Jewish canoni decreed that nyiii- 
upoii the moM elevated gruuml 
in the neighborhood, and that 
no houN is u> be allowed lo over- 
I liiplhem(ronpiltu J/i^uA,itij 
I Maimonide*, Ind Ha-Cknaka 
I Hachalh Trpkilu, xi, !). So es- 
Kfitial was this law rieemeii; Slid 
wMrictlywisitobwrvnlin Per- 
sia, even alter the deslrvelion of 
^3'^f M''™?Mi '^" Temple, thai Rah (A.D. 165- 




SSST" 



hile rabbi Ashi de- 



■■ Tell penoitled i 
■ynsgogne, 
«tared (bat the ptoteelion of Son wa* owing to the ele- 
med liie oT ita lyoagogua (^hMuTA, II a). LJeut 
Kiuheoer. bowtrtr, uale* (tjtiar. SiulrmnU ot the " I'al. 
Eiplor. Fund," July, 1878, p. 123 sq.) that the ruins of 
the fuuneen ipedmens of ancieiil gynsgogue* extant ill 
PilMine (all in (ialilee) do not correspond to these Tal- 
nailical nquirementa ailo location, nor yet to Ihoie Le- 
In as to poaiiioo ; for they am frequently in rather a low 
Hie, and face the sonth if possible. FailiDg of a com- 
Dudiog site, a tall pole rose from the roof to render it 
(npicBoui (I^rcr, in llerxog's Btal-EnryUop, s. v.). 

The riverside outside the city was alsn deemed a 
nitabie spot for building the sj'nagogue, becanse, be- 
ioR remored Tram the tuntt at the city, the people 
(snhl vonbip (iod witboi ~ 
liae, hSTe the use of pure vs 
alter nligioua eiereisea (Acts 
or. 10, 23; Jurenal, Sai. til IS, etc ; see also'tbe Chal- 
dte reiHans on Gen. zxiv, 6i). See PBOsaL'ciiA. 

The building was oommonly erected at the cost of 
tfae diAiict, whether by a church-rate levied for the 
pir[i>M,Dr by free gifts, mnsC remain uncertain (Vitrin- 
lia, Dt Sjmagog. p. 3S9). SometioMS it was built by a 
licb Jew, ot even, as in Luke vii, 5, by a fnendly prose- 
lyte lu the later siagea of EaaCem Judaism it was 



■ a o ■ ■ ■ q 

■ ■ ■ D ■ □ ■ 

■ D ■ ■ □ ■ ■ 

□ B ■ D ■ ■ ■ 



Flan ot Bolned SroaKogoa at Tall HOm. 



SYNAGOGUE 



!. The size of 
chapel, varied with the population, We hare no rea- 
son for beUeving that there were any fixed laws uf 
pioponion for its dimensions, like ihoaa which an 
traced in the tabernacle and the Temple. 

The building itself waa generally in the furm of a 
theatre; the door was usually on the we«t, so that, on 
entering, the worshippeii might at once face the front, 
which was turned towanli Jerusaleui, since the law is 
(hst "all the worihippen in lorael are lo have their 
faces turned lo that part of [he world where Jerusalem, 
the Temple, and the Holv of Holies are" (Btrahni, 
BO a). This law, which is deduced from 1 Kings viii, 
2!l; Paa.xxviii,2,and the allegorical inlerprelalion at 
Sung of Sungs ir, 4, also obtained among ihe early 
Christiana (Urigen, Ifom. r. ia f-'um. in 0pp. ii, 2Si) and 
the Mohammedans (Koran, cii). SeeKuBLAH. Hence 
all the windows are said In have been generally in Ihe 
eastern wall, *o that tlie worBbip|>en might hx>k towards 
the holy city, in accordance with Dsii. vi, 10. 

Like the Temple, the synagogue was fiequenlly with- 
out a roof, as may be seen from the fuUowing remark of 
Epiphaniuti "There were anciently places nf prayer 
without the city, bolh among the Jews and the iiamar- 
itaos; . , . there was a place of prayer at Sichem, now 
called Neapolis, without the city in the fields, ia the 
lorm of a theatre, open to the air, and wiihoul cover- 
ing, built by the Samaritans, who in all things imitated 
Ihe Jews" ICmlr. llara. lib. iii, hnr. 80). It was this, 
coupled with the fact that the Jews had no images, 
which gave rise la the aatirical remark of Juvenal — 
" Nil prKWr nubes el tall unmeii adoraiii." 

iSaC xlv, 98.1 
In some places there were temporary nmoifr and 
wm/er synagogues; they were pulled down snd re-erect- 
ed at the beginning of each season, so liiat Ihe style 
of building might be according to the perioil of the 
year (Hain BtUhia, S b). 

8. Ill the inlemal nrrangenient of Ihe synagogue we 
trace an obvious analogy, nulnlit meliaulii, to ihe type 
of Ihe labemacle. At the wall opposite the entrance, 
or at the Jerusalem end, stood lit vooden (hiil or mi 
(pavi) containins the scrolls of the law. It stood on 
a raised bsse with several attpa (bQ33 = (iiE>seUivni, 
KVy^. Jerusalem ifrgiUali, iii, 1), which the priesU 
mounted when they pronounced the benediction (Numb, 
ri. U4-'i6) upon the congregation. Hence the phraso 
•p\-\\ nbs, which was teluned alter the destruction 
Temple tu describe the act of giving tlie bene- 
I lo the people by the priests {Hodt Ha-Shanah, 
S-ilAalK, 118 b). It is neceaaary to bear in mind 
that Ihe ancient name for this ark ia HSR (comp. 
Miibna. £n'n:lofA, V, 3. 4; 7nanifA, ii.'l, !; Uf 
'/tl^j.it', 4,ctc.),the name afterwards given to it 
("|i"ilj) being resert'ed lor the ark-of-l he-covenant 
talile, which wss wanting in the second Temple. 
'I'liere waa a canopy (ttS^B) spread over the ark, 
under which were kept the vcalmenta used during 
Ihe service (Jemsalem ArrgiOah, iii). In some 
place* the ark nrcheat had two compartments, the 



low 



ningth 



wall 


but was free, so 


that it might easily be uk- 




Uude the door 












rder 


that 


he priests show 


1 be able to attend the 




vire 




inio the BCreeta when 




and 


aysofhumilis' 


on were kept (Mishna, 


7Vi- 


nnir. 










«ss was made i 


the wall, and the ark 




kep« 


ihere. This r« 


<ss was called (i< fioiKAiory 


(>r 


rt,Cip). The 




mes 



SYNAGOGUE 



SYNAGOGUE 



read (I'oDia, 68 b 
MrgiUah, 3G b ; Jeru 
ulem MrsiOtJi, in) 
•Thereniling-dCBk ws 
cuvrred wkh a clull 
(JtO'jn), which T« 

curding (o Ihc cir 
cumalancea or thi 
con);rFt^tion (^Mrgil 
fe*,26b). Wbenth. 
Hiilice was large thi: 



111 ihe c 



II III! 



■rm-chaira (■r?'!'~i; 

;pai,1'i'iab[5 = irX<i.- 
Tnpic). or iraU of 



err.(Mari.xxiii,2.6^ 
llirit xii, S9: Luke 



SynsKOt'ue 1 



derebipGd atill rurther in Iho n 

ill Ihi veil which hung bef.<™ il (ViiriiiBa, p. 181) ' On 
certain aecaBJ'ins the ark waa renoveil from the recen 
mil plaeei) on Ihe mgtrum (riT3^3 — ;3qf in) in the mid- 
dle of ilie sviupigue (ro«p*ta Mrgitlai,\\ii Mainion- 
i.lea, Ind Ifa.OirMhi HUdalli LubA, rij, SS). See 
TABEitKACi.ES, Frast OP. Withiii the ark. ai above 
stileit, were the rolb oT the ncred booka. The nillera 
rcHiml which Ihey were wnnnd were often el»bi>tately 
decnnleil, the caan for Ihrm embRnilered or enamelled. 
acoi>n1ing lo their miL«riiK Such casea were cualomary 
■ilTeringB frnii) Ihe rich when they broU);ht their inhnt 
chil<lren on the Hnt annirenaiy uf Iheir birthday lo be 
bleased by Ihe rabtn of the aynagopue. 

In front of the ark wa« the desk of the leader of 
the lUvine wonbip; and at Ihe place of the ark 



ahipper waa invileil (James ii, 8, 8), The>- were place.1 
ill froiit of Ihe ark containing Ihe law, or at ihe Jcni- 
ulem end, in the upperiiHiat part of Ihe eyiiagngiie. and 
theae dialinguiahcd penoiia aal with their faces to 
the people, while the congregation alooit facing Iwlh 
■hew honnrnlle onea and the ark {Toiipila JUfffiU.,/,, 
iii). In Ihe arnaicogue at Alexandria there ifere rev- 
eniy-one gohltii chaira, according lo Ihe number of the 
memben of the fireat Sanhedrim (_Si,ttai, 61 b). See 
SANtmiKiM. In tbe aj-nagogue of llagclad "the at- 
cent 10 Ihe huW ark waa conpoied of ten natble stepii, 
on Ihe uppermow of which were ihe alalb mi apart t'ur 
the prince of the Captivity and Ihe other princes vl ilie 
of David" (Itrnjamiu of Tudela, ilmrraij. i, lOS, 



imphiil 



a highe 






■1 of tl 



Hence 



intCFchan^cahle phrases ^*Af vho daceitdtbefort Iht ork** 
(na^rn ^:eV ^^I'ri) and "hr rho mnw/i bffiit Ikt 
ml" (nr-rn ■'Jrb irirn) nae,I to designaie the 
leiHlpr rif divine worship in the synagnciie (Mishna, 
Tiumili.u.'i; Berakolh.v.i: Roih lla-Slunuih,\v,T-, 
.Vrfl)-tf»A,iv,a,5,7,etc,). 

Tlip next important piece nf fiimiliire wax the ran- 
irnm or platform (7? i?5?, rra-a -li^/ia, St'P^iII, 
cnpnLilc of caniainingaercrai perwHtB (Nch. vMi. 4: ix, 
i: Jowphiia, AM. if, a. IS). On thia pUlf.irm Ihc lea- 

ouFHs doliverol, etc (Iklialina, Saliii, viri. Hi Uahvlm 
SuUah.blb-.ifrgaiah.'iSb). ScellAniTAHAii. 'I'here 

law while reading, and the one upon whom il devolved 
to read a p-inion of tbe pericope bad to hnld Ihe roll in 
hit hand till the second one came up In read, and te- 
tievei) him of il. Alterwanla, however, there waa a 
reading-desk (TJ'tsX^rijmXoydoi') on Ibis plalfonn, 
and the roll of the Inw waa liiit ilown during pauses. 
or when lit mritni-gnnun i_y:i~^7^ = inlejTirfln) wsa 
reciting in the Temaculai of Ihe caunlt>' the portion 



eil.AKbei, Lund. 1840). 

There was, moreover, a perpeinal light (T'Tin ^";l, 
which was evideiitiv in imitation of the IVmple light 
M lower and some- j (EsoiL xxviii, 20). ' This ucred light waa n-liBiuusIy 
fed by the pei^ile, and in caae of any special mercy 
vouchsafed to an individual, or of threateniiig dinger, a 
ceriiinqiuuiityDruilwaa vowed for the perpeiBil lamp. 
This light was the symbol of Ihe human soul (rrov. 
XX. 27), of Ihe ilirine Uw (vi, 28), and of the manifes- 
lalion of Cod (Riek. xliii.j). U musl, howerer, be re- 
marked Ihal thmigli the perpeinal lamp forms an es- 
sential part of the synagogical funiilure to the present 
(lay, anil bos obtained among ihe Imliana, Creeks Ro- 
" y(Ro.enmllBet,.I/nr- 



.?«i/.™-/,ii.l6fi),yettli 
the Talmud, (liher Janips, bmughl by devout wunliip- 
|Kn^ were lighleil at Ihe beginniuK of the Sabhaih, i. e. 
on Friday evening (Vitriiica, p. ISIK), 

As part of the Bitinga, we have tho in nnle (I) an- 
other cheat ft>Tthey/H/)*/iiro/*,ii( rolls i.f Ihe pm|>PiPta; 
(!) Alms-boxes at or near the door, nrier the paiiem of 
those at the Temple, one for the |— ir of Jenualem. the 
other for local chariiiea; (3) Notiee-bninls, nn which 

out of the synsgngue ;* (41 A chest fiir irumptts and 
other musical insirumenls useil at ihe Kew-Yeuj, Sab. 
baiha, and other festivals (Viiringa, Leyrer, Ine, lii,). 
Tbe congregation was divided, men on one side, won* 



SYNAGOGUE 7 

(■DD tlM otbet, B luir fxnitiun, tivo or lix feet hi^h, 
nuiDing betwwn ihera (Philo,/)? l-if-Cun/mpi ii,476). 
TLnnwigemenW of modem «j-ii«gof;ue«,fur miiiycen- 
Igris, bai-e maile Ihe wgtanlioD more complete by 
fUtdng itae womeD in luw iiiile-giilleriet, Ksreeneil oR by 
liUin-wQfk (I«o oT lliiclens, in I'iMrt, Cirfm. Retiy. i). 
4. Dnidn mectinfpi fur wonhip, the synagi^iucs, or, 
mm [HD^Fcly, the ruoim ci>nnect«l villi them, wera 
tkn uanl M courit of JuMice titr Ihe local Sinhe<lrini 
(Tarsm^Jonallitni on Anwa t, 12,15; Jerutaleni Sant- 
MHM,i.l:JtnaiilemBiiiaUflna,ii,8: Habvion Kr- 
U*bfA.5 ■; S,il*uih,l60 >), Mid in it the heaUle ot 
lit irnigogue mdminiiileml Che forty tlripo Mve one 

jVaUsf;l.iii,IJ;eomp.M>lt.x,17i xxiii,34). Trarel- 
Im, loo, found lu uylum in ibe synigogue ; mealt were 
HUB in it {PaaeAim, 101; ScthMU AaMa, c xlv), 
•nd cbildirn wen inuructed therein (KiddHdlDi, 30 a; 
Bvta Balkra, 21 a: ruaair*, U b; StraibofA, 17 i; 
rrfoHtfjl, $& b). Thia, howerei, did not detract rioni 
itiaiciily; fticthe lyuaicogue once oBetl for ibc divine 
■unhip vaa onlv allowed to be aoU an ceriain condi- 
iHu iJtbhna. UrgiUai, iii, i, 2> Wlien Ihe building 
■B finished, it wu Bet apart, aa Ihe Temple hod been, 
bt 1 •prcia) prayer of dedication. From that time it 
hill 1 euiuccnlMl character. The common acts nf life, 

oar vat lo pata throuftb it ai a ihort cnt. Even if it 
RBnltobe medithe building waa not lo be applied to 
UT haK purpoae ^ night nol be Uimcil, e. g., iiilo a 
tBih. a laundrr, or a tannery. A acraper atuod ouutde 
i\t door that men might rid themielvea, before they 
fumd, of anything that would be defiling (Leyrer, loe, 

n. Tht Ojfitii and GoTtmaaa of Ihe Symgogur.— 
Tfct lynigognei of the rtspeelive towns were governed 
bj ibe elilcn (n:]3», irpeo.Jirfpoi, Ijike vii, 3), who 
mniiiuled the local tiauhedrim,conslBting either of the 
twuuy-ihree aeoalon or the three senatois assisted hy 
ia principal mcniben of Ihe congregaliun (l/rgiUoh, 
t;-. ittpbut. Ant. iv,8,Ui War,ii,iO,bi Actavii,&i 
III.'*), IS this depended upon the aize and papulation 
of Ihe place 8« SA.tiiKDnin. Hence theae author- 
iitd adDiniatraton uf ibc law were alternately denomi- 
MUi dupierJt lO^O^~i9 = rotiiivic,ieni»»laa Ptak, 
m.BibyteaCiasigijCeO; JoUof t, 17 a ; Acts u, 38 1 
Eph. iv, II). rie nirrt aflht ti/Kigogut, and /Ac ^irft 
(rO)W 'SX^ ~dpx">'>''ry"T'>'' 4>X<"'"C< Malt. ix, 
IB, a': Uark t, n; Luke Tiii,4l; Acts xiii, 15) and 
«w«!f>i[n"J1BT3=»;»niruii^C,Miahna,ra>nW,T, 1). 

The pfoident of the Sanhedrim was tx offaa the 
hod or chief of the tynagogue, and wu therefore, cor' 
iiaCT^.tU-mfrrD^fie jjr7Hiyojii«(Miihna, fomo.vri, [ j 
MeijI, vii,?). while the other members of thia body, ao- 
oMing to their Taiious gifta, discharged the different 
hnoJoiaiD the synagogue (1 Tint. T, 17), as will be seen 
fniB the fgllowinB clawification. See Hioii-rnticST, 

1. Tik £a^ o/ (Ae Synafji^ae (ng:^!! CXI = dpx'- 
tnifjiTft^ a*d Itit dco A ttotiattt. — Tlioogh the Bu- 
fnax official, like tbe two other members of the local 
•■HI, had lo be duly enamiiied by delegates from the 
UitM Sanhedrim, who certilied that he pase i-aB ed all 
tW neusHry qnaUHcalinns for his office (Usimonides, 
M Ha-Ckaaka UOduAlt SioAtdivx, ii, 8), yet his elec- 
boa mtircly depended upon the suffrages of the mem- 
benoftbt synagogue. The Talmud distinctly declares 
dm "no ruler (01*^0 - woip^i) ii appointed orer a 
anp^aiion nnleas Ihe congr^alion is consulted" 
(AndsrA, &5 a). But, once elected, tbe ruler was the 
tUrd ia ordrcof prcerdeiiccin the Temple synagogue— 
L t ftm came the bigh-prieit, Iheii the chief of the 
piitsi C,^), and then tbe ruler of tho synagogue 
(XMbo, Icwi, *ii, I ; 5BruA,vii,7), while in' Ihe priK 
nadai ayuagisuea the respective tulen were iupretne, 



S SYNAGOGUE 

and had the pritKipal voice in tbe deciaioti and di<- 
tribution uf the other olGceii. Uis two Judicial col- 
leagues aided liim in the admintatration of the law. 
See AncHi-aYKAOoouEa. 

2. The Thrrt A in/mtTi (nflX ■'KaS = itmivcA i PhiL 
i,l; lTim.iii,8,l2; iv,G).— The ofHce of almoner waa 
both very retpoiisible and difficult, as Ihe pooi-taxea 
were of a douUc nature; and in periodically collecting 
aitd distributing the alms llie almoner had to cxereise 
great dineretion from nhom lo demand them and lo 
whom to gire them. There were, first, tke oUb» c/lht 
ditk (^^ni:^), consisting of aniclea of food which hail 
to be collected by tlie nfficiais daily, and distribnleil 
eveiy evening, and tn which ei-ery one hod to contrib- 
ute who resided thirty days in one idice; and there 
were, secondlj-, tAe aim afifa box (nj'p), coDsiMing 
of money which waa collected every Friday, was di"- 
Iributed weekly, and lo which every one had to con- 
tribute who redded ninety days in one place. Two au- 
thoriied persons had to collect the furtner and three the 
latter. They were obliged lo keep logrlher. and were 
not allowed to put into their pocketa any money thus 
received, but were to ihrow it into the poor-box. The 
almoners had Ihe power of exempting from these poor- 
rates Buch people as Ihey believed lo be unable lo pay, 
and lo enforce the tax on such as pretended not to be 
in a position to conlribiite. They had also Ihe power 
to refuse alms to any whom they deemed unworthy of 
them. All the three almoners had lo be present at the 
distribution of the alms. The grealest care waa taken 
by the mien of the synagogue and the congregation 
that those elected lo this otBce slionld be "men of hnn- 
eaty, wisdum, justice, and have the confidence of the 
people" (Bofci BalhTO, 8 ; A boda Sara. 18 ; Tnomth, 24 ; 
Maimonides, lad lla-Chttaia I/ilcholh Ma/Amalh Ati- 
yi'm, ix). Brothers were ineligible to this office; the 
almonen (ftpn!! •'Sti ^^Ol^D) were not allowed tn 
be near relations, and had to be elected by the unani- 
mous vcHCe of the people (Jeruaalem /ViiA, viii). 

3. Tie titgalt nf Ihr, Congrtgalioa, xr lie leader •>/ 
Divint Worik^ (IflaS n-'ici = ayy.Xot lacXtiaioc- 
atniiTroXoc). — To giro unity and harmony to Hie wor- 
ohip, aa well as lo enable the congregation lo lake part 
ill the reaponsen, it waa absolutely nccesaary to have 
oue who should lead tile wonhip. Hence, as soon aa 
the legal number required fur public worship had aa- 
■embled (V'^), 'ii< ">!" of I'"' avnagogue (93^B = 
roi/i4>')> or, in hia absence, Ihe elders (Q'lpi — - rpcv- 
Pvnpoi), delegated one of the congregation lo go up 
before tbe ark to conduct lUvine service. The function 
of the apostle of the ecclesia 013X mbtD) was not 
permanently vested in any Mngle individual ordained 
for this purpose, but waa allenialely conferred upon any 
lay member who was suppoocd to possess Ihe qualifica- 
tions necessary for offering up prayer in the name oT 
tbe cangregalion. This ia evident from the reileraled 
declarations both in Ihe Hishna and Ihe Talmud. Thus 
we art told that any one who is not iiiidrT thineen 
veare of age, and whooF garments are not in rags, mav 
^ciate before the ark (Miahna, Mfyiltiih, iv, 6) ; that 
" if one is before Ihe ark j^ = ministers for Ibe congrrga- 
tion], and makea a misiake [in the prayer], ai ' 



sages have 



dheis 
occasion" (Mishna, Brrakoih, v, 8). 



o rteclin. 






condiic 



flTst.sayingthat 
is unworthy uf it; and if be does not delay, he ia like 
unto a dish wherein is no salt; and tf be delays more 
than is necessary, ha is like tmto a dish which tbe salt 
has spoiled. How ia he lo do It? The flrst time he ia 
ashed, he is to decline; Ihe second lime, he ia lo alir; 
and the third time, he is to move his legs and awend 
before llie ark" (Brrakvlh, 84 b). Even on the ino>i 
aulemn oecasion^ when lir ul"j!a congregatton parted 



SYNAGOGUE 



76 



SYNAGOGtJE 



A with tbe pmident and vicv-pmident or 
iha Sanhedrim fur nilUiiiil humiliition ami prayeT, no 
Mated mtnulei i* apoken of; but it ia aaid that one of 
the aged men proeot ii lo delitet a p«nilenliat ad- 
dreas, and another is Co offer up the aulemn pnyera 
(Hiahni, roosifA, ii, 1-4}. See Fast. On ordinarf 
occauona, however, the rabbins, who weia the ruler* of 
tbe qroagogue, aakeil their diaciplei to act aa officiating 
miniaten before the ark (Btratolh, 84 a). But aince 
the aagea declared that " if the legale of the eoogrega- 
tion (liax r-bs^arfAot iaiAiitriaC, aruimXot) 
cooiniila a mialake while officiating, it ia ■ bad omen 
for the congrogalion who delegated him, becauae a 
man'a deputy >i like Che man hinuelf" (Hiihna, An-n- 
hol/i, V, b) ; and. moreover, noee it waa felt that he who 
conducts public worship ahould both be able to ajnnpa- 
thiie with the wania of the people and poaaea all the 
moral qualificaliona befitdng ao holj a miwon, It waa 
afterwards ordained that "even if an elderdpl^irpio- 
^ur^oi') or aage ia preaent in tbe congregation, he ia 
not to be aiked to oSciate before the ark ; but that man 
ia to be delegated who ia apt In officiate, who hai chil- 
dren, whose family are free from vice, who haa a proper 
beard, whoH garmenta are decent, who ia acceptable to 
the people, who haa a j{ood and amiable voice, who an- 
demands how to read the law, the prophet^ and the 
Kagiographa, who ia rened in the homiletic, legal, and 
traditional exegctis, and who knowa all the benedic- 
linna of the service" (Ui*hni>, Taaial)i, ii, i; Geraara, 
iU<tl6B,b; iiaimaniiet, lad ffa-CIUaaiamlciolATe. 
j]AiJa,viii,ll,13', mmp. irim.iii,l-7i TiLi,l-9). As 
the legate of the people, the most aacred porUons of the 
liturgy (e. g. 15W, O^Sns ro~3, nOTip, Clp). 
which could only be offered up in the preaence of the 
legal number, were aasigned to him {Brrakoth, 21 b, 
and Baahi, ad loc,), and he waa not only Cbe mouth- 
piece of Chose who were preaent in the congregatioa on 
Che most solemn feasts, aa on the Gnat Day of Atone- 
ment and New Year, but he was the surrogate of those 
who, by illneas or otherwise, were prevented from at- 
tending the place of worafaip (AoiA HaShanaii, S5 ; Hai- 
monidea, lad l/a-Chaaka JlilcAoth Tephilu, viii, 10). 

4. Tk» InltrpitUr, or MeAurgtmSn (yiVVlPi, 
llSl^^np). — After Che Babylonian captivitv, when the 
Hebrew language was rapidly disappearing from among 
the common people, it t«came the custom to have an 
iDlerprelet at the readingnlesk (na^3) by the aide of 
those who were allematcly called up to read the aev- 
eral aections of the lessons from the taw and the proph- 
eca. See Hai-iitar*h. This mtthurgrfimn had to in- 
terpret into Chaldee or into any other vernacular of the 
counWy a verse at a lime when the leason from the bw 
waa read, as the reader waa obliged 



o begin 



ling of a verse in Ilebrei 



« mtlhurgr- 
inteipreted 



BUM bad traiislated 
prophets three verses were read an 
lime (Mishna, Mr,jiUah,i\; A). The reaiier ana tne in- 
terpreter had to rea'l in the same tone of voice, and Ihe 
one was nut illovied to be louder than Ihe other (Brra- 
liolA,i6 a). The interpreter was not allowed Co look 
at Ihe law while interpreting, lest it should be thought 
that the paraphrase waa wrilten down. The ofGce of 
interpreter, like that of conducting public worship, waa 
not permanently vested iu any single individual. Any 
one of tbe congregation who was capable of interpret- 
ing was asked to do so. Even a minor, L e. one under 
thirteen years of age, or one whoae garmenu were in 
■uch a ragged oondition that he waa diaquslilicd for 
reading the lesson from the law, or a blind man. could 
be asked to gn up to the reading-desk and explain the 
leason (Mishiia, MrgiUai, iv, b ; Maimonides, lad lla- 
Chizalca Hilfkotk Tephila, xii, 10-14). 

6. TAe ChmtoH, or AltrnJaal on tie Sjfunijruriit 
(DCSsn IJn — unip(r^), wu th« lowest servant, and 



nore like the seiCon or the beadle in our ehurchtk 
ad the care of the furniture, to open Che doon, is 
clean the synagogue, to light the lamps, to get tbe 
building ready for aerrice, to aumtnon the people Co 
worahip, to call out (11137'*) the naioes of tocb penns 
as were selected by the ruler of the aynagogue to CM>e 
up to tbe platform to read a aeccion frvm the law aad 
the prophets, to hand cbe law Co ordinary readers, ot to 
the mler of Che aynagogue when it had to he giroi is 
the high-priest, in which case the apxunivtrfttytf look 
the law from llie chaiaii, gave it To Ihe chief piieM, 
who handed it to the high-prieat (Uiahna, I'dhui, liii, 
1 ; SolaA, vii, 7) ; he had to uke it back after reading 
(Luke iv, 17-20), etc Nothing, thenfore, can be mote 
clear than the poaitioii which this menial servant occd- 
pied in the aynagogue in Ihe time of Christ and a few 
cenluriea after. The Talmud distinctly dedana that 
the cAaioR is the beadle or the aeiton of the congrtga- 
cion, and not the legate or the angel of the chudi 
(-iiax mio u^xi snpn ic obo ain yn; coop. 
Totiphla Yoma, 68 b ; and Hiabna. BeraiolJt, vii, I, kr 
the meaning of DSSJ). The notion that bis office le- 
aembled ^lat "of Ihe Christian deacon," as well aa tbe 
Bsaertion that, "like the Irgalat and the rMrri, he wsi 
appointed by the imposition of hamla," has evidently 
arisen from a cnnfuNon of Ibe cAaioa in Che days tk 
Christ with Che datan five centuries after Christ. Br- 
aides, not only waa thia menial serviul not appointed 
by the imposition of hands, but the Irgalut hlmseir, si 
we have seen, had no laying-on of hands. It was abooc 
A.D. &20, when the knowledge of the Hebrew language 
disappearetl from among the people at large, that alirr- 
ations had to be introduced into the synagngical serrice 
which involved a change in the oBice of the cAoiin. 
As the ancient practice of asking any member to step 
before the ark and conduct the divine service could nvt 
be continued, it waa determined that the ehautn, wbo 
wasgtnerally alao the schoolmaster of Cbe infsnt schDol. 
should be the regular reader of Che liturg\-, which be 
had to recite .with intonation {^Mattcktlh Sopkrrim, i. 
1; ii,4; iiv,9,l4i GAa,Gm*.der JaJm,y.i6y. 

6. Tie Ten BaUanin, or Men af Lrimrt (yAM). 
— No place waa denominated a town, and henoc no syn- 
agogue could legally be built in it, which had not ten in- 
dependent men who could be peimarenlly iu the syna- 
gogue to constitute the legal congregation whenever 
required (Mishna,A/ir^'ttaA.i,S J Uaimonidea,;<i<f /fn- 
CAeauta /fticAofA TVpAiiu. xi, 1). These men of leiun 
were either independent of business because ihey bad 
private meana, or were atipeniiiaries of Ihe congi^n- 
tion, if tbe place had not ten men who could enctrciy 
devote themselves to this purpose (Uashi, On Mryiltali, 
S a). They had to be men of pieiv and iuipgrity {Boba 
Balhra, !8 a; Jerusalem MrpUui,), 4). By some (Lighi- 
foot, Hor. Ileb. h Malt. i>, 28, anil, in part, Vii ringa. (L 
632) Ibey have been identifled wilh ihe above o^ials, 
with the addition of tbe alnuHnlleclon. Kbenlod, 
however (Ugolino, Tieianr. vol. xii), aeea in them udi- 
ply a body of men, permanently on duly, making np a 
congregation (len being Ibe minimum number), so dial 
there might be no deUy in beginning Ihe service at the 
proper houra, and that no single worshipper might go 
away dissppoinled. The latCer hypothesis is sopponed 
by Che fact that there was a like body of men, tbe S)s- 
tionarii or Viri Stalioiiia of Jewish archieologista. ap- 
pointed to act as permanent representatives of the con- 
gregation in the seri'ices of tbe Temple (.lost, Gevk 
da Jtidtnlh. i, 168-172). Ic is of course possible that in 
many esses the same persons may have united bnih 
characters, and been, e. g„ at once oHoti and alma-cnl- 
lecCors. In the Middle Ages these ten Balhntin ron- 
siered of thone who discharged the public duties of che 
synagogue, and were identical with Ihe luleis of ihe 
synagogue described sbovp. Thus Benjamin of Tndela 
UUs us that the ten presidents of Ihe ten coUtgn at 



SYNAGOGUE 7 

B«(U wtn " called the Ballamn, lie kiiurt men, be- 
otiM ilwir uccupitiun coiisisied in the dLacharge or 
pUlif iHuiiKH. During every daf at [he week they 
ilk{m*c<l jiuticc lu mil the Jewiah inhtbilanls of [' 
dJUiiiiT, txce)>t on Uonilav, which was act aude fur i 
■cuibliRi uDiIfT the pmidency of K. Samuel, muter 
[h( eoll^e dtnoniinated 'Coimyacvi,' who on Ihitd 
diipciHeit jiuiicc to eytry applicant, and wbo.wis i 
Hied therein by the aaid ten Ballanin, preaidenta 
tbe eoUtgra" {llii-irarr, i, 101, ed. Asclier, Lond. 1840). 
Thit K«nH tu favor the opinion of Henfeld tha 
iiD Bailmhi are tbe aame $a the ten Judges or i 
dT the ■j'DaRngue nKntianed in Aiolh, iii, 10, acco^!i^g 
ni the reading of Bartenota(//oruyufi, 3 b,fio,i c 
GiK*. dri VoUtt Itraet, i, 392). 

V. Wmthip^l. lU r.«».-As the Bible prescribes 
at ipecial hour fur worship, but simply leconls that the 
Pialnisi praveO three limes ■ day (Psl Iv, 18), and 
that Daniel followed the aame eumple {Dan. vii, 11), 
the Den of the Great Syiiapneue decteed thai tbe wor- 
ihip of the arnagii^e should correspond to that of tha 
Ti> tbia end they ordained that every Iinel- 



SYNAGOGUE 









CrealM at ataleil 

■oming <,n'<'^ns] at tbe tbiidfaour— 9 A.M., being tbe 
line Hhen the daily mominKsairifice was offered; (b) ' 
the irienuoo or evening {nnli:) at the ninth hour ai 
a hiir=3 SO P.M., when the daily evening aacrifice was 
(dined; and (c) in the erening (3'<'^713), or fram tbe 
time that tbe piecea and the fat of tbe sacriAces, 
Mood was sprinkled before sunset, began to be burned 
lit! Ihit proccaa of Iiuming was flniahed. As this ptoc- 
«■ of baminf, however, sornelimei lasted nearly all 
nifbt, the third prayer eoulil be offered at any time be- 
tnen dark and dawn (Uishno, Btraliolh, iv, 1; Ge- 
mirs, ihiJ. i& b; Ptiachim, 68 a; Jerusalem Beraholh, 
tr, 1: JoKphua, .4n/. xiv, 4, a> It is tbia fixeil 



ta fur the diiciples' as 



mhling 
logMher at the third hour of tbe day (i, e, 9 A.M.) for 
aiimiing pTa;-eT (fi'^nna) on the Day of renlecoal 
lAcli ii, l-ia),and for PctCT and John's going up to the 
Tnnplt at the ninth hour (L e. 3 P.M.) for (S^^SO) even- 
'ag pnrer (Acta iii, I), as well as for ComeliuB'a prayer at 
tbe same hour (v, 30). The atatemcnt in Acta t, 9, 
that Feler weot up npon the house-tup to prav abiMit 
lbs ilxlh hour (=12 M.), has led some of ™r ' 
•ipaitots lo believe ihat the honr mentioned li 
II sDd x,SO is the time when Ike fhird pnytT vm 
kni. Tbe two pasaagea, however, and the two 
ftnat hours refer to one and the same prarer, as may 
tt seta from the following cannni "We have already 
staled that the liioe fur tbe erening prai'er (hnsi:) was 
liid according lo (hat of the daily evening sacrifice, 
sad HDce this daily cvenini; sacriHee was uffi^red at tbe 
Bialh hour ami a half ( = 3.30 P.M.), the lime of prayer 
■OS also fixed for the ninth hour and ■ half (=3J0 
rJI.), and this was called (he U-tr Uimliah (nni13 
TCwp). But as the daily evening sacrifice was offered 
OS the burteenlh of Niun (nOB S.-iS) al 
bm and a half ( = U' JO P.M.), when this day hap- 
pHKdtobeona'Fiiila)- (rSS 31?) I»*e Passo1-br], 
It was enacted that he who offers his evening prayer af- 
IB tbe sixth hour and a half ( = 1330 P.M.) discharges 
bis duly pn^wrly. Ilcnce, as anon as tbia hour arrives 
■he tinH of obligation has come, and it is called th( 
';"alirnr*aA''(n^1-13 nrqTS; Hainunides. lad lla- 
anaianildMkTtflulii,Vu,i,Brrahotli,i6b). This 
■iualie is all the more to be regretted, since 
ran ia such minute matters on the part of the aacreil 
wiilen shows how great ii the tnntworlhincss of theii 
Nnml^ and how doaely and strictly the apostles eon- 
tfutd 10 Ibe Jewish praetieea. The prayers tbret 
limes a day wets not abaolalely required la be offered 



. le week, when 

le villagers brought their produce into the neighbor- 
g tuwn and their matters of dispute before the local 
Sanhedrim, which held its court in Ibe synagogue 
(Jerusalem MrgtUiik, r, 1 ; Baba Kama, 33 a), aiul on 
Jewsrasled(Markii,18; LukcT.SSi 
x,BO); (b) the weekly Sabbath; and 
(c) feasts and foals. But though not obligatoiv, yet 
deemed specially accfpiable if the prayers were 
. even privately in the synagogue, since it was 
inferred from MaL iii, IS that theSbecbinahis preacnt 
here two or three are gathered together. 
S. Tie Lfgal Congrrgarion. — Though it was the duty 
everi' Israelite to pray privately three times a day, 
^t, as wfl have already seen, it was only on stated oc- 
ainna Ibat the people assembled fur public woiahip in 
e legally eonalitiited congregation, and recited those 
portions of the liturgy which could not be uttered in 
private devotion. Ten men, at least, who had passed 
the thirteenth year of their age (niXQ 'Z) were re- 
quired to constitute a legitimate congregaiion (-,"•«) 
for the performance of public worabip. Tbia number, 
wbicb evidently owes its origin to the compteteness of 
the ten digits, is deduced from the e.ipression h*T7 in 
Numb, xiv, 37, where it is said " huw long shall I bear 
with tbia (inlS) oo^^n^ltonf'' referring to the ipiea, 
AaJoshus and Caleb are lo be deducted from tbe twelve, 
hence the an>ellation congregation remains for tbe ten, 
and this number is therefore regarded aa forming tbe 
legal quorum (Mishna,£iinj«jrim,i,6j Haimonides, /ad 
Ua-Ckezaka IJUcholk TtjAila, xi, 1). "Tbe Shtma 
(7113) must not be solemnly recited, nor must one go 
before the arfc to conduct public warship, nar must the 
priests raise tbeir bands to pronounce Ihe benediction, 
nor must the leaaona from the law or the prophets be 
read . . . unless there are ten persons present" (Miahna, 
Mrsillah, iv, 3). 

3. fiidinL— The moat important features in tbe insti- 
tutions of tbe svnagngue are the liitiy^, Ihe reading of 
the Uw and Che prophcls, and the homilies. To know 
the exact words of the prayers which our Saviour and 
hia apostles recited when Ihey frequented Ihe syna- 
gogue ia lo us of tbe utnwst inlerest. Tliac the Jews 
in the time ofChriit had a liturgical service is certain; 
but it is equally certain that the present liturgy of the 
synagogue embodies a large admixture of prayers which 
were compiled afler tbe destruction of the second Tem- 
ple. Though the poetic genius of the psalmists had 
vanished and Iba Temple music was bushed, yet nu- 
meroua fervent and devout spirits were slill unquench- 
ed in Israel. These earnest spirila made themselves 
audible in the aynag<^ue in most devout and touching 
prayers, embodying Ihe new anxieties, tbe novel modes 
of perscculion and oppr»«on which Ihe Jewa bad to 
endure from the children of Christiaiiily — Ihe religion 
newly bom and brougbitipin Ihe lap of Judaism— who 
deemed it their sacred duly lo heap unparalleled Buffer- 
ings upon ibeir elder brothers. These pra)-ers, farmed 
after tbe model of the I'salma, not only ask Ibe God of 
Israel to pily the •u(Ierers,togive them patience to en- 
dure, and in his own time to confound tbeir enemies 
and free them from all their troubles, but embody the 
teachings of the sages and the senlimeiils propounded 
by the Haggadists in Ihe Sabbatic homilies. Hence, in 
describing the ritual of ihe synagogue, it is most essen- 
tial 10 separate the later element from tbe eariier por- 
tions. As il is beyond the limits of this article to trace 
the rise, progress, and development of all the component 
parts of the liturgy in its present order, we shall simply 
detail ihnse portions which are, undoubtedly, the an- 
cient nucleus, which, beyond a question, were use<l by 
our Savionr and his disciples, and amund which Ibe 
new pieces were grouped in Ihe course of lime. 



SYNAGOGUE 7 

(1.) Tht Hfimal Group (ni-i''«T ipTOBj.^uW u 
the Temple building wu the pnttotyps for Ihe ayiii. 
gugue eilifioe, so the Tem^Je wn-ice wm the model fut 
the ritual of [tie ayiiagogue. Henc«,jii«t u the Temple 
■errice conniued uf the prieali' reciting the te)i com- 
Runtlmeiiu, pmnuunciiig the beneJicUna upon the peo- 
ple (Numb, vi, 24-27), the ufTering oT the iinWy nwruiiig 
aod evening ucriAce, I he Levi tei' chanting 1'aa.cxv, 1- 
16 1 1 Chroa. xvi,8-33 (>nvi) during the morning aao 
riflce, and I**!!, cxvi ; 1 Chron. xvi, -23-36 (^"^^C) dur- 
ing the evening snciilke, ao the riliuil of the aynagi^ue 
cuusiated of ibe same benediclkm, the chanting of the 
ucrilid*! psalms — aa the lacriScCS themselves could 
niK be oSeced except in the Temple — and aiindr}' »ddi- 
tiona made by Ezra and the men of the Great Syii*- 
gopie* It is for this resaoD that the ritual began with 
the Temple psahna. These were fulluwed by the gruup 

xxxui, xcii], Kciij, cilv-ci — those encloaed in bnckels 
lidng omitted on (he Sahbalh— 1 Chron. xxix, 10-13; 
Neh. a, 6-12i Esod. xiv, SO-xt, IB, and sundry sen- 
lencea not found in the Bible, (lenuminateil the onlei of 
the ItjimaalSfelrtittmt^miiaealptriodiJ' 1'he use of 
ihia hymnal group as part of both the Temple and the 
aynigogue service ia uf great antiquity, as is attested 
by the Sfder Olum, xiv, and HaKrhtlk Sophtrini aee 
also Siibbalh, 118 b, where we are l(dd that '.1in was 
ordained by David, and I'XiD by the Sophtrini, or 

(2.) Tie Shema, or Ktriath Siema (I^d PXi-lp). 
— This celebrated part of the service was precedeil 
by two beneiliclions, respectively denominaled "(Ar 
Creator of IJgUT (11!* iXli ) and "Grral Love" 
(pSI nsnst), ant! rolloweil by oua called " Tmlk" 
(tl'SX, now expanded into 5->S">l nsX). The two io- 
Iroducloty bcnedictioDi were fa fullowg: (a.) "Blessed 
art thou. O Lord our God, King of the universe, who 
creamt li^l't and formest darkness, who makeat peace 
and crentest all tbings[ He In mercy causes the light 
tn shine upon ilie eailh and the inhabitants thereof, 
and ill gnudneu rciKwsereiy day (he work of creation. 
Ulesscil art thou, the Crealorof light T' (6.) " With great 
lix'e bast thou luved ua, O Lord our <iod; thou hast 
shown IIS great and abundant mercy, O unr Father and 
King, for the sake i>( our forefathers who trusted in 
thee! Thou who didst teach them the love of Ule, 
have mercy upon us, and teach us also ... to prstse 
and to acknowledge thy unity in love. Blessed art 
thou, O Lord, who in love hist chosen ihy people!" 
(MiabiiB, 7'uNBiJ, T, I; Btraimk, II b). Thereupon 
■he ten commandmenls were recited, which, however, 
ceased at a very early period, because the Sidducees 
declared that this was done lo show that this was the 
must essential portion of the revealed law (Mishna, 
Taimd, V, 1, with Btrakolh, U b). Then cams the 
Shrma proper, conaisliiig of Dent, vi, 4-9; xi, IS-Sl ; 
Numb. XV, S7-41 : which wn> concluded with henedic- 
lioii (e), entitled '■ True ami tMiibHthed" (3"r*1 nSS), 
as fidlows: "It is true andlimily establisheil that thou 
art the I^ird our Goil and the (lixt of our forefithers; 
then is no God besides thee. Blened art thou, O Lord, 
the redeemer of Israel!" (Mishiis, Btralmlh, i, 4; (;e- 
mars, sK'. 13 a; Mishna, Tanid, v, 1 ; tiemara, ibid. 
32 b). There is evidently an allusion to the reading 
of the Skrma in the reply which our Saviour ga 
the lawyer who asked him, "Master, what must 
to inherit eternal lifeT when the lawyer forthwit 
cited the Rest sentence of the Skemi (Luke i, 36). 

(3.) The third portion which constituted the ancient 
liturgy embraces the "Kighlm' Benedidiimi {TKVSO 

n-icr),c«iioi!,«oj-'i*5.K(„v,rie/'™yf.- (nisnj. ti 
ai« asfullows : a. (~1-n) "Blesseil art thou, Lonl 



SYNAGOGUE 



Ood, the God of our fathera Al 
great, ooinipotcnl, fearful, and must high Uikd, wl 
bountifully showest nsercy, who an the possessor of * 
things, who rememtMiest the pious deeds of our fathpi 
oiHt sendest the Kedeemer to their children's childrp 
For his mercy's sake is lore, O our King, Defender, Sa ' 
iour, and Shield! blcasecl art thou, O Lonl, tbe sbiel 
of Abraliam !" ft. (-112S nnx) " Thou art powerful, ■ 
Uinl, worlil without end; thou bringcst the dead i 
life in great compassiun, thou huldcsl op the fallini 
healesi the sick, loosest the chained, and showest th 
riiihfulness to those that steep in the dust. Wbo 
like unto thee, bird of migbl, and who resemblea ttif 
(a Sovereign killing and bringing to life again, an 
cau^iig salvation to flourish)? And thou an sure t 
raise tlie dead. lUesseil art than, Lord, who raisest th 
dead!" c. (Cilip Hrx) "Thou sit holy, and thy nam 
is holy, and the holy ones praise thee everr day con 
linuolly. Blessed on thou, O Lord, the holy God ! 
J. (V^n nnx) "Thou mercifully bestowen knowle<lt; 
upon men and teachesl the mortal prudence. Hen.-j 
fully bestow upon us, from thyself, knowledge, wtudinr 
and understanding. Blessed art thou, O Lonl, wh 
mercifully bestowcst knowledge!" e. (^VZ^'^ST^) "On 
Fsther, lead iis bach to thy law ; bring us very near. ( 
our King, to thy service, and cause us to return in sin 
cere peiiitente into thy presence! Blessed art Ihou. ( 
Ijord, who delightest in repentance!" /. (H^S) "Ou 
Father, forgive us, for we have sinned; our King, par 
don us, for we hive transgressed; for thou art forgivini 
and pardoning. Blessed art tbou, O Lord, merciful aiii 
plenteous in forgiveness!" g. (riSO)"Look at onr mi» 

name's sake, fur thou art a mighty deliverer. IUess«( 
art thou, O Lord, the delii-erer of Israel!" *. (IIJtEi; 
"Heal ua.OLord, and we shall be healed; save us, ant 
we shall be saved; for thnu art onr boast. Grant us i 
perfect Cure for all our wnumls; for thou, O Lord oi>i 
King, art a faithful and merciful Thysician. Blesivi 
art thou, O Lord, who healest the sick of Ihy people Is- 
rael!" I (irbs 1"3) " Dless to u^ O Lord our God. 
fur good this year, and all its kinds of produce; sctkI 
Ihy blesstiig upon the face nf the earth; satisfy ns witli 
Ihy goodnens, and hiess this year as the years bygnne. 
Blesscdart thou,0 LnnI, who blesscst the seasons!" j. 
(rp~) "Csnse the great trumpet to proclaim onr liberty i 
raise tbe standard for the gslheiiiig of our captives, ami 
bring us logelher from the four comers of the eanh. 
Blessed art thou, O Lord, wlio gslhcrest ti^ther the 
dispersed of Israel !" *. (na^on) " Reiustate our judgca 
as of old, and our councillors as of yore; remove from in 
sorrow and sighing; and du thou alone, O Lord, reign 
over us in mercy and love, and Judge us in righienus- 
ness and justice. Blessed art tbou, O Lord the King, 
who Invest righteousnessand justice!" /. (0^:^C^i:Vl) 
"Let the apostates hsve no hope, and let those who per- 
petrslewickedness speedily perish; let them all be siul- 
denly cut off: let the proud speedily be uprooleil, broken, 
crushed, and humbled speedily in our days. Bleswil 
art thou, O Lonl, who breakest down the enemy ami 
humblest the prood!" m. (O^p^isn br) "On ihe 
righteous, on the pious, on the elders of thy people, the 
house of Israel, on the remnant of the scribes, on the 
pious proselytes, and on ll^ bestow, Lord our God. 
thy ntercy; give ample reward io all who trust in thy 
name in sincerity, make unr portion with them forever, 
attdlel us not be ashamed, fur we trust in thee! Bless- 
ed an thou, O Lord, the support ami lefuge of the right- 
eous!" a. (Cioil-il) "To JarussUm thy city in mer- 
cy return, and dwell in it according to thy promise; 
make it speedily in our day an eveilasting building, 
and aoon establish therein the throne of David. DIess- 



SYNAGOGUE 



(d(nihoa,OLo(d, whobnitttnt JMnulHiir n'. (PK 
m3)"Tht branch of D«vicl,tliT»rTsn[,sp«dilyc«u»e 
u6uunih. iiid eiall hii hani with Ihy help, Tur we 
loik III Ihv help ill day. Itlcncd irt iliuu, O L»nl, 
■iKuiantiallouriahchBhuiiiorDavidr c (;G'J 
i:ii''p]-U(ar OUT vc)icF,0 Lord our Uvdi bare piCy and 
CMipiaiian oa lu, and receiie with mercy «nd ttccept- 
tKt our pn)-«n, fur Lhnu art a tiud hearing pray CT anil 
HppbcitiDDi. Out King, do not send lU empty away 
bm ibT pmence, for thou hfareM the prayers of ttiy 
ptufik IbhJ id mercy! Blened art thou,0 Lord, who 
iwimlpnyer!" ji. (rtXi) "Be favoraUcO Lord our 
iM, to itiy ptople Israil, and to their prayer; restore 
i^ wsrsbip to thy uncluary, receive luviiigly [)ie 
bunil-Hcnrice or brael anil their prayer, and let the 
httIh or [arael thy people be alway* well-pleastng to 
diet JI»y out eye* «ee thee return to Zion in love. 
Ble«ed art thou, O Lord, who testoreat thy Shechinah 
uZiMir y. (D-'TO) "We tbankf.iUy confeM before 
ib« tbat tbou art the Lord our tiod, and the God of 
•nr Cuben, worid without end, and that thou art the 
itwplwid of oar life and the rock ufour aalvatiun from 
gRwoiion lo generation; we Tender tbankH unto thee 
•ad crictnte thy praiees. Blened ait thou, O Lord, 
whise DUDe ia {(oodneea, and whom it becomea to 
pniit'' r. (Wi'S B^3) "Beatow peace, happi new, 
U(i>iii>f, grace, merer, and eompauion upon ui ami 
opcui lb* whole nflwael, thy people. Out Father, Ucm 
u aU unitedly with the liRht of thy countenance, fur 

I) Laid our God, tbe lawnflife, laving-kindneH,juMice, 
bloaiiig, compaKiion, life, and peace. May it pleaw 
lit* U Men thy people Israel at all time*, and in ev- 
ery nwraent, witb peace. Bleated art thou, O Lord, 

■bo bItscM thy people Israel with peace '." 

Tboe eighteen (really nineteen) benedictions are mrn- 
liaDedinlbeMishna,/i^i//a-5A(uaA,iv:£(r<KtorA,ir, 
l-.Taiipila BmitoH.iii: IfnuMlfm BrrahUh.ii; He- 
f*!*. 17 a. We are distinctly told that they were or- 
dd Bed by the one bund red and twenty elders of the Great 
ixtagBgae iUtgiliai, n b i AeniinrA, 33 a i SipAi-e on 



SYNAGOGUE 



DhI.!, 



ii.2),a 



gf tbe people fl«:;a ^eSX) recited them in IheTem)^ 
riBT day (£aUarA, 24 b), that the piieiti ptoDOuneeil 
(bnt of them upon the people every raofiiiiig in tbe 
BaatfSftartM (rr<Mn fiSOb) iti the Tern ple-conrt, 
•nil that tbe high-priest prayed the tixteenlh (nx'^) 
Bxltbe iti-enteenlh (C-nO) eecliana of this litany on 
(H Great Day of Atunement (roiaa,68 h). There can 
ibHtfon be iMi doubt thai our Saviour and his apoatlea 
joonl id Lheae prayen when they retorted lo the ayn- 
tVpf, and ihai when the apostles went on the top of 
iktbouae to pray Bl the stated hour (Acts i, 13; x,9) 
ibeac benedictions formed part of their devotions. It 
DDM,t»weTer, be remarked tbst the Hnt three and the 
1m tbree benedictions are tbe oldest ; that benedictions 
^ to w were compiled during the Maccabnan strugfiles 
ai tbe Koman aacendeocy in Palealine; and benedjc- 
<)« I wu most probably compiled after the destrucliDn 
rftbesrcood Temple. 

But thouRb these three gronpa ( vii. the hymnal 
pmp, Ihe Sltrmui, and the eighteen benedictions) con- 
miBled tbe Ulargy of the Jews when engaged in pub- 
lic (T private deroiwo during the period cf the second 
TtBi^yet there were other prayers which cnu Id only 
ta miied at public worship when tbe legal number 
(^ -) wen pmperiy uafmbled. 

1 Tbe ordrrof the public worship in the syoagogoe 
>«attJlawst 

(I.) Jfomssjr Strria. — The oongr^ation having 
■ssbcd (heir hand* oatside tbe synagogue, and being 
popnly aaacmbleil, delegated one i>( Ihcir number to 
p> Wmt ibt ark and aNuluct public worahip. Thia 



arm [see Fkixgk; riivi.ACTEUT], began with reciting 
the Kailith (t^^'^p), the people responding to certain 
parts, as fullon-s-. " Eullnl and hallowed be his great 
name in llie world which lie create<l according to his 
will ; let his kingdom come in your lifetime and in the 
lifetime of (he whole house of Israel very speedily. 
[Legate and congregaliiin] Amen. BJesscrl be his great 
name, world without end. [Legate ilune] Blesseil and 
praised, celebrated and exalted, extolled and adnmed. 
magniried and worshipped, be Ihy holy name; blessed 
be he far above all benedictions, hymns, thanks, praitef, 
and consolations which have been ultereil in the world. 
[Legale and congregation] Amen. [Lfgatcnlone] Jlay 
the prayers and supplicaltonsof all Israel be graciuusly 
teceiveil before their Father in heaven. [Legate and 
congregaltouj Amen. [Legale alone] Itlay perfect peace 
descend from heaven, anrl life npon us and all Israel, 
[Legate and congregation] Amen. [Legale alone] May 
he who makes peace in his heaven confer peace upon us 
and all Israel. [Legate and congregation] Amen." The 
similarity between this verj- ancient Kiuluh and the 
1.1'nl's Prajer neeils hardly lo be pointed oiii. After this 
the legate recited in a lund voice tbe first sentence of the 
Sitnii, the rest being reciled qniclly by him and the con- 
gregation. Then f^dtowed the eighteen benedictions, fur 
Ihe third of which tie Krduiiah (notlp) was aubali- 
tuted in public worahip. It is ss follows: "Hallowed 
be thy name >ni eanh as il ia hallowed in heaven above. 
as it is wriden by Ihe pmphel, and one calls to tbe oth- 
er and saya [Congregation], Holy, holy, holy, is the 
LoninodorSebsolh; the whole earth ia tilled with hii 
glory! [Legale] Those who are n|>posile Ihem re- 
spond: [Congregation] Blessedbelheglory of the Eter- 
nal, each one in bis aiation. [Legate] And in thy Holy 
Word it ia written, thus saying: [Congregation] The 
Lord shall rmgn forei-er, thy (iod. O Zion, from gener- 
ation to generation. Halleluiah ! [Legale] Prom gen- 
eration to generation we will discloM ihy greatnew, 
and for ever and ever celebrate thy holinen; and thy 
praise shall not cease in our mouth, world wiibont end, 
Tor thou, O Lord, art a great and holy King. Bleaseil 
artthou,hoIyUod and King!" On Monday, Th<ir»la.v, 
Sabbatb, feasts an " ' 



and (will 



ofM 



Thiiraday) discourses delivered by the n 
service concluded with the priests' pronouncing Ihe ben- 
ediction (Nnmb. vi, 34-27). 

(2.) The Afltmooa und Etnag Piaytr.—9oim of 
the psalms in the hymna) group were omillcd, other- 
wise the service was similar to (hat of the morning. 
Tbe public worship of the feasts and fsats is deaeribeil 
in the anicles on the respective festivals, and in the ar- 
ticle Haphtarah. The oiher piayera which precede 
and follow the three ancient gniupa in the present lit- 
urgy of the synagogue aie noi described in this article 
because they ate of hiler origin. See LlTUROv, 

VL./a(fH7(af.1urAartrr._l. As the officers of (be syn- 
agogue were also the administrators of justice, the au- 
thority which each assembly possessed exlendecl to both 
civil and religioua question*. The rabbins, or the heads 
of Ihe synagogue, as it is to the present day, were bolh 
tbe leachers of religion and the judges of ilieir commu- 
nitie*. Hence Ihe tribunals were helil in the syna- 
gogue (Luke xii, 11; xxi. 12), and the cAniioii, or 'bea- 
dle, who attended lo Ihe divine service bad also lo a<1- 
minitler I he SI ripeslo offenders (ir, 17^20; camp. Mishna, 
ilakiolh.iW.U: and Mall. :c, IT; xxiii.M; Hark xiii, 
9; Acta xxii, 19; xxvi, 11). Ihe rahbins whn had 
d^Jomai from. the Sanhedrim, aiHl, aAer the Sanhedrim 
ceaseil, from the Giionim of the respective colleges at 
Son and Pumbaditha (q. r.), and who were chosen by 
the diflerent congregations to be their apirilual bead's 
witb the consent uf the assembly, selected aueh of Ihe 



SYNAGOGUE 8 

members u vare beat qudified to aid them in ths sd- 
miniitradon of the communal affairs. These consti- 
tuted a local seir-goveniing and iudependent colle^ ; 
they issued all Ibe legal tnscniments, such u msirisge 
contracts, letters of divorce, bills of exchange, business 
conlracCs. receipts, etc Tliey bad the power of inflicting 
corporal punishment on any oCiendcr, or to put bim out 
of the synogagueC — excommunicate) altogether (Matt, 
xviii, 15-17; John ix, W; iii,42; ivi, 2). The pun- 
ishment of eicomraunication, however, was very seldom 
resorted to, as may be seen from Che fact that though 
Christ and his apostles oppoaed and coatradiclcd the 
beads of the synagogue, yet ihey were not put out of 
the synagogue. In some cues they exerciMd the right, 
even outside the limits of Palestine, of seizing the per- 
sons of the accused and sending them in chains to take 
theii trial before the Supreme Couuci! at Jerusalem 
(AclsiK,2; iKii,S). 

S. It is not quite so easy, however, to define the nat- 
ure of the tribunal and the precise limits of its jurisdic- 
tion. In two of the passaj^ tefetred to (Matt, x, 17; 
Mark xlii, 9) they are carefully disiingiiished from the 
avtiipio, or councils, yet both appear as instruments 
by which the spirit of religious perMciitiun might fast- 
en on its victims. 'i'Ue explanation commonly gii-en 
that the council ut in the syiugogue, aiul was thus 
identified with it, is hardly satisfactory (Leyrer, in Her- 
log's Reai'Eacsktop. s. v. " Synedrien"). It seems more 
probable that [be council was the larger tribunal of 
twenty-three, which sat in every cily [see Council], 
identical with that of the seven, with two Leviles as 
assessors to each, which Jusepbus describes as acting in 
the smaller provincial towns (vl nl. iv, 8, 14 ; War, ii, 20, 
5), and that under the term synagogue we are !« mider- 
staud a smaller court, probably that of the ten judges 
mentioned in the/ralmud (Gem. Hicros. Simhedr, loc. 
cit.), consisting either oflbeelilers, thechazzan,aiid the 
legale, or otherwise (as Herefeld conjectures, i, S92) of 

VII. BtiaUoiu oftht Jewish Synagogue to Iht Ckri$- 
lian Church.— U is hanlly pouible to overestimate the 
inlluence of the system thus developed. I'o it we may 
ascribe the tenacity with which, after the Maceabiean 
Btru^le, the Jews adhered to the religion of their fa- 
thers, and never again relapsed into idolatry. The peo- 
ple were now in no danger of forgetting the law, and 
the eitenial otdinaneea that hedged it round. If pil- 
grimages were still made to Jerusalem at the great 
feasts, the habitual religion of Che Jews in, and yet more 
out of, Palestine was connected much mote intimately 
with the synagogue than with Che Temple. Its lumple, 
edifying devotion, in which mind and heart could alike 
enter, attracted the heathen proselytes who might have 
been repelled by the bhwdy sacrifices of the Temple, or 
would certainly hare been driven from it unless they 
could make up their minds lo submit lo circumcision 
[Am xxi, 28). See pKoaKLxTi:. Here, too, as in the 
cognate order of Che scribes, Chen was an influence 
lending to diminish and ultimately almost to destroy 
the authority of the hereditary priesthood. The set- 
vices of Che synagogue required no sons of Aaron ; gave 
them nothing mure than a complimentary precedence. 
See pBiesT ; SuHinE, The way was silently prepared 
for a new and higher onler, which should rise in " the 
fulness of time" out of the decay and abolition of both 
the priesthood and the Temple. In another way, too, 
Che syn«g'>gue» everywhere prepared the way for that 
order. Not - Moses" only, but "the prophets" were read 
in them every Sabbath day; and thus the Messianic 
hopes of Israel, the expectation of o kingdom of heaven, 
were universally diffused. 

1. It will be seen at once how closely the organiza- 
tion of the synagogue was reproduced in that of the 
Ecclesia. Here also there was the single pcesbyler- 
bishop [see Itisiiop] in small towns, a council of pres- 
byters under one head in large cities. The Ugatui i<( 
the synagogue appears in the ayyiXoi; (Kev. i. 21); 



3 SYNAGOGUE 

ii, 1), perhaps also ia the ArovTo\o(, of the ChriMiu 
Chnrcb. To the elders as such is given the name nf 
Shepherds (Eph.iv, 11; 1 PeLv.l). They are knows 
also as jiyov/tivoi (Heb. xlii, 7). Even the ttanslec to 
the Christian proselytes of the once distinctively ucer- 
dolal name of itpci'c, foreign aa it was to the feelings 
of the Christians of the apostolic age, was not without 
iia parallel in the history of the synagogue. Seer*, the 
exorcist Jew of Epheaus, was probably a " chief prieal' 
in this sense (Acts lix, H). In (be edicts of the later 
Roman emperors, the terms apxttpii^ and itptiic arc 
repeatedly applied lo the rule™ of synagogues (Cod. 
'I'heodos. De Jurf^ quoted by Viiiinga, Ih Dram Otiottt, 
in ITgolino, Thtt. x\i). Possibly, however, this may 
have been, in part, owing to the presence of the scat- 
tered priests, after the deslnKtii>n of the Tem|de, u the 
rabbins or elden of what was now left to them as tbeii 
only sanctuary. To them, at any rate, a certain prece- 
dence was given in the synagogue services. They were 
invited first to read the leawns for the day. The bene- 
diction of Numb, vi, 23 was reserved for them akme. 
i. In Che viagiiterial /melimt of the syiiagogiie abo 

The InXijo-ia, either by tiself or by appointed dele- 
gales, was to act as a court of arbitration in all dis- 
putes among its membera. The elden of the Charrh 
were not, however, to descend lo the trivial disputes of 
daily life (rci ^curicd). Fur these any toen of com- 
mon-sense and fairness, however destitute of official 
honor and position (u) i^ovhivTiiiivQi), would be enough 
(I Cor. vi, 1-8). For the elders, a> for those of the syna- 
gogue, were reserved the graver offence* agaiosi relig- 
ion and morals. In such cases Ihey had power lo ex- 
communicate, to "put out of" the Ecclesia, which bid 
taken the place of Ihe syiugogue, aometimes by ihelt 
own authority, sometimes with the consent of the whole 
society (v,4). It is worth mentioning that Hammond 
and other commentators have seen a reference to ibess 
judicial functions in Jamea ii,2-4. The special ain of 
those who fawned upon the rich was, on this view, that 
they were "jadga of evil thoughts," carr)-ing respect of 
petBons into their administration of just ice. The inter- 
prelatiun, hon'e\'er, though ingenious, is hanlly auffl- 
ciently supported. 

S. The rilual of the synagogue was to a large exiert 
the reproduction (here also, as with the fabric, wilb 
many inevitable changes) of the statelier liturgy of the 
Temple. It will be enough, in this place, to notice in 
what way the rilual, no less than the organization, was 
connected with the facts of the New-Test, history, and 
with ttac life and onter of the Cliristian Church. Here. 
too, we meet with multiplied coincidences. It woold 
hardly be an exaggeration lo say that Ihe worship of 
the Church was identical with that of the synagi^tie, 
modified {>i) by the new truths, (b) by the new instiin- 
tion of the supper of the Lord, (c) by Cheapirilua) ctd- 

(1.) From the synagogue came the use of fixed forms 
of prayer. To that the first disciples had been accus- 
tomed from their youth. Tbey hod asked their Ma.<lrr 

with their requesc (Luke xi, l),aslhe l)npli>C had done 
before for his disciples, as every rabbi did for his. The 
forms might be, and were, abuse<1. The Pharisee might 
ill synagogues, or, when the synagogues were closed, in 
the open street, recite aloud the devotions appointed 
for hours of praver, might gabble through the Shnma 
(•• Hear. O Israel," etc., from Deul. vi, 4), his Kadiik. 
bis Skem/iiifli Ktrch, the eighteen Beratoli, or bless- 
ings, with the " vain repelilion" which has reappeaied 
in ChrisCian worship. But for the disdples this was, 
as yet, the true pattern of devniion, and their Master 
To their minds there would aeem noih- 
true heart-wonhip in the recut- 
of a fixed order (cnrd raSiv, 1 Cor. xiv.40>, of the 
prayers, hymns, doxologies. such as all liturgkal 
leads us 10 think of as existing in the apostolic 



SYNAGOGUE 

« Bifu of utun 



luu poicB] of Lhat age led Tur a time to greater freedum, 
ig upreiDHliUletl prayer, ir thai wai in iu turn >uc- 
rndrd lir tbe renewed pTedomiaiiice of a formal fixed 
Dcdfr, ib« altematiun and the Mruggle which have le- 
■ppeand in » Dunj [icriwlaof the history of the Church 
ven DM wiibouc tbeir parallel in that of Judaiam. 
There aiu wu a pnilot againat the rigidity of au un- 
bending fonn. Eliezer of Lvdda, a cunleniporary of 
tlK Kinnd tiimaliel (dr. A.I>' HO-llfi), taught that the 
kf^u of the lynagogue ahould diacard even the £A(nuS- 
•4 ijrii, the eighteen fined prayers and benedictioni 
of the daily and Sabbalh aervices, and ahould pray aa bia 
heart prompted him. I'he oReuee againat the formal- 
bm into which Judaiim stiffened wsb apparently too 
pot to be forgiven. He wu enoommunicated (not, 
iDdced,aTawedlT on thia graund), and died at Oaarea 
(JsA GrtM. drt Jndr^k. u. 36, 45). 

(!.) The large admiature of a didactic element in 
Onbiian wotsbip, that by which it waa distinguiabed 
ftm all Gentile rorou of adoration, was deKved from 
the olilet onJer. " Hoaes" waa " read in the synagogues 
ertiT Stbbalh day" [Acta iv, 21), the whole law being 
fMd eontautiTely,>o aa to be completed, acconling to 
UN cycle, ID three j'can, according to that which uiti- 
Daldir prevailed and detcnoined the existing diviuona 
of the Hebrew text (Leyrer, JmlciT.), in the bfty-two 
*nk) of a single year. tj«c Ulble. The writinga of the 
[«nphe[i were read as second leseons in a cotreapondiDg 
mier. They were fuUnwed by the Drrath, the Xoyof 
npofXiiviitfC (Acta xiii,ICi),the exposition, the sennon 
The firM Cbriatian synajToguea, we 
e, fullowed this order with but little deiia- 
tiMi. I[ remained for them befiire long toadd" the other 
Scripturea" which they hid learned to recogniae aa more 
pnciom enii than the law itself, the " prophetic word" 
of the New Test., which, not leaa truly tban that of the 
(Md. came, in epiille or iu namti(-e, from tbe same 
Spirit See Scbipture. 

(X> To the ritual of the synagogue we may prob- 
stdy iracT a practice which hai somelimea been ■ stum- 
bling-bloclt to tbe student of Christian antiquity, the 
Bibject-matter of fierce debate among Christian contro- 
•asialirti. Whatever account may be given of it, it is 
ndain that Prayers fur the Dead appear in the Church's 
»mhip «i aooo BB we have any trace of it alter the im- 
mtdiite rcconia of the apostolic age. It baa been well 
■trscribed by a writer whom no one can suspect of Rom- 
iih tendencies a* an "immemorial practice." Though 
'Seiiptare isiilcnt, yel antiquity plainly apeaka." The 
(mien "hare found a place in every early liturgy of 
the world." (F.llieotI, iJrs/wy of Ikr CrraUrr, aerro. 
li). How, indeeil, we may ask. could it have been oth- 
fit'! Th* strong feeling shown in tbe time of tbe 
UanabecB, that it was not "supeifluona and vain" lu 
loy fw (be dead (2 Mace xii, 44), waa aure, under the 
iollwiMe of the dominant Pbatiaaic scribes, to show 
iisflf ia the devations of tbe synagogue. So far as we 
irtci back tbeae devotiona, we may say that there also 
ibtpnetica is "immemorial," as old, at least, as thelra- 
^liunof the Kabbinic ratben{Buxlorr,J>e SgHagog. p. 
:i»,;iO: M'Caul, OUi'arjli,ch.ixxviii). The writer 
abeady qmiinl sees ■ probable reference to them in 2 
Tiai.i, 18 (Ktlicnit./'fur. f/wflu.adloc). But it is by 

desd. See Dcad. I'havkiw ron thk. 
(i.) The mnfiHTnily extends, also, to the times of ' 
In the buun of service this was obviously the 



I SYNAGOGUE 

(Baxtorf,i>e,Syi(i^.p.230). Theeamehonra,itiawall 
known, were recogniaed in the Church of the second, 
probably alio in that of the flnt, century (Clem, AL Slrtim. 
loc cit.; TertuU, De Oral, c xxv). The sacred daya 
belonging to the two ayatema seem, at firat, to present a 
contrast lathei than a reaemhlanec ; but here, too, theta 
is a aymraetry which ptrinti to an original connection. 
The solemn daya of the synagogue were the second, the 
fifth, and tbe seventh ; the last, or Sabbath, being the 
conclusion of the whole. In whatever way the change 
wan brought about, the transfer of the sanctity of the 
Sabbath lo the Lord's day involved a correaponding 
change in theorderof the week, and the flral, the fourth, 
and the sixth became to the Chriatian society what tbe 
other daya had been lo the Jewish. 

Tbe following auggcstion as to the mode In which 
thia tranafer waa effected involves, it ia believed, fewer 
atlntrary aasnmptions than any other [see Sabbath], 



I iiaeif w 



!img c 



Tbe t1 






r Teat. (Acta iii. 1 ; x, 3, 9), and hod 
ban, probably, for aome time before (Psa. tv, IT,; Dan. 
•ill)), thellxed limca of devotion, known then, and still 
toiwn, reflectively as the SAocAarjM, tbe .tft»cAaA,and 
ihe'.lroUfJl.- Ibfy- had not only the prestige of an au- 
iksriimve trMlition, but were connected re»|icclively 
■itb the names of Abraham, laaac, and Jacob, to whom, 
» lo the Im originatof*, their ioMitutioo was ascribed 



common to the Church and the synagogue. It was a 
Jewish custom toendthe Sabbath with a feast, in which 
they did honor to it as to a parting king. The feast 
wu held in the aynagogne. A cup of wine, over which 
a apedal blessing had been apokui, iras handed round 
(Jost, Gad. da Jadmlh. i, ISO). It is obvious that, so 
long aa the apostles and their followers conlinueil to use 
the Jewish mode of reckoning — ao long, L e., ae they fra- 
ternized wilh their brethren of the slock of Abraham — 
this would coincide in point of lime with their iiiirrov 
on the j!rs( day of the week. A supper on what we 
should call Sunday evening would have been to them on 
the ttcand. By degrees [see Lohd's Sdppeb] tbe time 
became later, passed on to midnight, lo tbe early dawn 
of the next day. So the Lord's supper cessed to be a 
supper really. So, as the Church rose out of Judaiam, 
the supper jrace its holiness to the coming, instead of 
dfririnff it from the parting day. The day came to be 
Kepiatfi, because it began with tbe liiryBr Kvpiatuf. 
Gradually the Sabbath ceased as auch to be observed at 
all. The practice of observing both, as in the Church 
of Rome up to the fifth cent urv, gives ua a trace of the 
transition period. See at;si)A'r. 

(5.) From the synagogue, Ually, came many less con- 
Bpicuous practices, which meet us in the liturgical life 
of the first three centuries. Ablution, entire or partial, 
before entering the place of meeting (Heb.x,S3; John 
xiii, 1-16 ) TertuU. De Oral. t. xi) ; standing and not 
kneeling, asihe attitude of prayer(Lukexviii,II; Tcr- 
tulL Hid. c. xxiii); the arma stretched out (TertuU. 
JMi/.c. xiti); the face turned towards the Kehhih of tbe 
east (Clem. Al. Strom, lot cil.); the responsive Amen 
of the congregation to the prayers and benedictions of 
the elders (1 Cor. xiv, IB). In one strange exceptional 
custom of tbe Church of Alexandria we trace tbe wilder 
type of Jewish, of Oriental devotion. There, in ihe 
closing responaive chorus of the prayer, the worshippers 
not only stretched out their necka and lifted up their 
hands, but leaped with wild gestnres (roiic n ircifoc 
iictYiipoptr), as if they would fain rise with their pray- 
ers to heaven itself (Clem. AL Strom.\n,4(t). This, too, 
reproduced a custom of the synagogue. Three times did 
the whole body of worshippen leap up simultaneously 
as they repeated the great ler-nincfat hymn of Isaiah 
vi(Viiringa,p.llOOeq.; Biiitorf, cb. x). 

Till. ^ifcrnMir,— Jerusalem ilegiUaS, c iii; Hai- 
monides. lad Ila-Cknaka liUckolh TfphUa ; Vitrings, 
Dt S-puigoga Viten (Wetseenfels. 1726); Zuni, !>« 
unllrtdiratllickni VorlrSgt der Judtn (Berlin, 1832), p. 
366 sq. 1 id. Die Kilai dri typagogaltn Oolladietalti 
(ibid.lHa!>); Eilelmann, /yufoj'on Leb (Kimigsb. 1845) ; 
Henfeld, Gacl^iclHe da Votkt* Itratl (Nordhansen, IHM, 
I8&7), i, 24-30, 127, 391-394 \ ii, 189-194. 188-223; Jost, 
licKAicAlt del JudmhuHU (Leipuc. 18&7-OH), i, 38 ti)., 
ir.8 sq,, 262 si|.; Duscliak, lUuttriitt MimalHehnfl ,fHr 
die gnammlen Inin-arrn dfi JudrHHanu (Lond. IWifi), 
i. S3 sq., 174 sq., 409 sq. See also Burmann, Kmrill. 
Acod. ii, 8 sq.; Relaud, Anlig. StKT, i, 10; Cf»{iHiv. 



SYNAGOGUE 8 

jRpar. p. S07>q.; UMitrntim, Verbii\d. de* A. T.mU^ 
Wfun, p. 226 aq. : Brorm, A ntiquilitt a/lhe JeiBi,i, 690 
Hl^[ AiieaiMofiemJudaum,ch.sijL; the monognphs of 
Burnili, Dt Vtl. Spagof/it (Viiemb. 1660); Leovsrdic, 
l>f -Sj/niignga tl Eniata (a. 1. tc *n.) ; Hhenrerd, Dt Olio- 
(M^jFAivnsni (Fnncc IWIG}; lA. ArMtyaagogai Otimtu 
{ibi.l. 1688); TeHWel, De l-roieaetu Sumor. (Vilenib, 
lli":!); and the diiKrutiiiiia cited by Diiiing, Cgdop. 
BibOiig. ixllSli. Stt Worseiip. 

SYNAGOCiUE, the Great (poit- Biblical Hebrew, 
nbiisn np:3; Anmitc, Kna^ XnVSS: lam Greek 
«iid Latin, ouipoyciiyi) luyakti, Sgmiffoga Magna), iht 
drcal A itftaUg, or Iht Grtat Si/nod, according to Jew- 
ish Iradilicin, denotes the euiincil liiiit appinnled alter 
the return of the Jews rrain the Babylonian captiviiy 
tc reorganiie tiie religious life, iiiuilutiotii^ and litera- 
ture o( the penplt. Our iufiirtuation on the subject if 
chiefly frum Kabbinical aoarcea. 

I. A'onK and iU Sigti^iealion. — Though the verb 
O;;, '0 galhtr, to utHiailr, occurs in the Old TeM. 
(Balh.iv,IG; lChron.iiiii,2; Ezek. xxii, SI ; xxxii, 
28; Psa. cxkii, 2), yet the noiin nplS, OMttmily, igna- 
goyat, il»c>i not occur in Biblical Hebrew. In the He- 
brew Scripture) the terms rt^np, bnp, and n^^OEt 
are iianl fur cfxtgrrgulvm, atiti^y [see Ecci^ebiabtbh}, 
sn'l there can be but liltle doubt that (he nou-Biblica] 
r033 is doipiedly pmplayedtodii^inguigh thia assem- 
bly from all other gatheri■1g^ See Stnaoooue. Thi* 
\» also the reason why the article is prefixed to the ad- 
jective alone, and nut aim to the noun — vi?, npJS 
n^ilSn, Ihe Great Sgrnigogvi — iiiasmiich M this sin- 
gles it out from the other lynagogaa, provincial or lo- 
cal, both great and aniall. which obtained at the same 
time, and which were desit;ne<l Tor dlffereut objectB. 
When Ewald auerts that "in the Miibnic hnguage 
the lubsCantive and Ibe adjective nrcer have tba article 
together (I^rhvdi, § 293 a, nnie>, we need only 
tu Sabbaih, ;tvii, 1; Yoma, ir, 8; Taamlh. iii, 7^ 
Ikaboth, vi, 7; NtdiinnL, iii, 11; Nuzir. viii, I; . 
Bulhra, iv, 8; and Co iiuiumerable other poMagi 
refutation of this aiaertion. According to Ihe mut 
cient trndition, this assembly or synagogue was styled 
gnat because or the great work it effected in restoring 
the divine law to its former greatness, and because of 
the great authoriiv and repuialion which it enjoved 
(Jerusalem MegMth, iii, 7; Babylon 3trgill;k, 13' b; 
romu, 69 b; Enbia, 13 b; Zi^baeAim, m i Stiuludnn, 
U a). The enactments of the Great Synah-ogti 
olien quoted in the name uf n^ilin nD33 ^^IN, lit 
Hwn of Ihe Great AaenAlg, or those who •iiccessively 
constituted its members duni)g the long period of 
existence. The abbrevialcd furmi of these two nan 
to be met with in Jewish literature are n'= = rc 

nbnan and n =x, iK=x = nV-n>n rton -ir:x. 
Sumetimes this assembly ia aku> designated the 130 el- 
ders (O-'Jpi B-'^Csn n^-a, MtgiUiih, 17 b, 18 b). 

II. Origin, Date, aad Drrrlopmal o/tke Gteal £yH< 
gogut. — it Is supposeil Ly many that Krra waa tl 
(bunder of the Great Synagogue, and that he, in fai 
was its president. Griltz, however, haa adduced tl 
fuDowinf; atgunwiits to pnive that Mehemiab originali 
it after tlie death of Ezra : 1 . The very name of Ezra 
not even mentioned in the Biblical register of (he re 
resen(atives (Neh. ix; Eini v), and it is incimceivalj 
to suppose that the ori^nator would have been omi 
ted; and, 2. Kehemtah, as is well known, went twi' 
from Shushan to Jerusalem lo res(nre onler— vix. iii tl 
twentieth year of Artaxcrxes's reign (KC. 146), ai 
eonsiiletably after the thirty-second year of his rei( 
(Be. cir. 410). On his second arrival he found Jems 
lem in a most deplorable condition: the chiefs of the 
famities had formed alliances with Suiballat the Ho- 
nnite and Tobiah the Ammonite, enemies nf the Jei 



SYNAGOGUE 

the Sabbatb waa desecrated, and the law aS God md of 
mctuaiyweredisregaided(Xeh.iiii,6-3i). Now 
onvention of the Ureal Synagogue was held ex- 
pressly for the removal of these very evils; and dace 
the representatives distinctly bound Ihemaelvps by a 
most solemn oath lo abatain from mixed marriages, to 
keep the Sabbath holy, and to attend sacredly to Ibe 
sanctuai? and ita lequirements, there can be no dmbt 
that the synod was convened by Nehemiah afirr iii 
i vitil to Jerasalem to devise means in order to 
these perplexing points, and that becau« these 
evils disturbed the order of the community, (herpfore 
!y were made the principal and express objects of 
i first synod. It is the pnution of cb. x recording 
• convention of the Great Synagogue which hsi 
iscd this error. But it is well known that the buk 
of Nehemiah is not put together in chronological order. 
GrStz bos bhown a porition of the different chap(en in 
accordance with Ibe above view(Frankel,J/oi*af*snlri/?, 
vi, 62). See EiR.\. It is obvious, however, that St- 
bemiah acted in perfect concert with Ezra, and ham 
there is no aubBtantial error in attributing the Gnat 
Synagogue tn the latter. 

As to i/t dale, the convention of this Great Syna- 
gogue waa moat probably one of Nebemiah'a last acC^ 
and it must have (akcn place alter the death of AitB> 
xerxes, else Nehemiah could not have remained in Je- 
rusalem, since even Ihe second penaisHon to virat (bat 
city was graiitcil to him on condition that he sb«iU 
return to Shushan. It could not therefore have taken 
place before B.C. 424. The Great Synagogue was mou 
probably held a few years after the above date of Ne- 
hemiah's second visit. Exra was doubtless then desit 
and this is the reason why his name does not occur ir 
the repBtcr of the representatives. The wbole perinl 
of the Great Synagogue embraces abont 104 years {HC 
404-300), or from the latter days of Kehemtah to ilie 
death of Simon the Just (q. v.), who was the laM link 
of the chain constituting Ihe synod {Aietk, i, 2). It 
then passed into the Sanhedrim, when (he whole uf its 
constitution waa changed. See SANiienRiu- 

The exisienee of the Great Synagogue, which is at- 
tested by the unanimous voice (rf' Jewish trailition, wai 
Arst queslimifd by Richanl Sim<in (Ifitl. Cii/. Jit i'im 
Tetl. lib. i, cap. viii). Jacob Alting, with more botd- 
ness, rejected it altogether as one of the inventions of 
tradition ("Synagoga, magna enim nee uno lempoct 
IKC uno loco vixit, eoque lyuagoga tion fuit, reiiun 
commentum est traditbinariorum, qui nullum alicqaiu 
nexum iraentimut reperire potuerunt," (^7>.t, BBJl. 
He was followed bv Itau (DHi'iits dt Sgaag. Mafa 
[Ultrn). 1726], p. 6f„ etc) and Aurivillius (ZJe Sjwj. 
t«lgo diCa Slatimi [ed. J. D. Michae1i^ Gbtling. l79a]X 
De Wette {EbJtiiviig in tbu A.T.§ 14) contemptu- 
ously dismisses it as "a Iradlliun which vuiishes as 
soon as the passages are looked at whereon it is basnl 
and as nn( even being a subject for refutation." Thnst 
who condescend to argue the matter reject this tnili- 
tion because it is not mentioned in the Apocrypha, Jo- 
sepbus, Philo, or the Stdtr Olam. and because the ear- 
liest record of it is in (he tract of the Mtshna entitled 
.46o'A, which belongs lo the 1st or 3d century of our m. 
but probably represents an earlier age- But surely this 
argument from the silence of a few writers cannot sH 
aside the i-xpress and poutive testimony of the Uishna. 
tlie Talmud, and the earliest Jewish works. In likF 
manner, the book of Ecclesiasticus, in its catalogue nf 
Jewish heroes (ch. I), does not mention Eira : Jri~ 
phua never alludeeto the tribunal of twenty-three mrm- 
bers, and (he eBrlies( patristic literature of (he itn 
does not breathe a syllable about (he " 
Would it be fair to conclude from thi 
the tribunal, and the Maccabees are 

the Great Synagogue, the following 

deuce is to be adduced: The errors of the Samaritan 

became ram pai II after the death ofNebemiah. while of 



SYNAGOGUE 



Ik 



a Eliu 



> I ■< 



nn in^nifieuil men ind nihcn were repnitMtes. Ju- 
dum. Donurer, hu na reccnl tthiUvrr of any diilin- 
(nuM pcTKons during this period. We should tbere- 
hn Ui( upKled (be Teligion ut the people to be it 
Uv bnMtbb. "Biit inileid or ileclining, we llnd Ju- 
duio nptdlf [iun;;. No tree* ia to be foupd in the 
wbolc of Ibb period nf the duluibinces, miscnnceptionB, 
ud tmn sbicb preTiiled in (he lime of Km, Kehe- 
iat\ ud ZenibbabrL The Uw anil the pcceepu w«rc 
in-«iiiMnt]( Rrereit. The ancient cnlleclion of Iten- 
finei'i Hvineii, which irllecti the spirit of the people 
ill ibe piF^iiiDonic tge, breathes ■ fvneni enthutiaum 
[qc Um iixpind law (caDi|k Eoclui. ii, 16; lii, 39; ix, 
IS: 1,19; XT, I; xin, 17; xxi, I1-, ssiii,!7. and e»pe- 
□illr eb. xiIt). Who, Ibcn, haa kjiulleil and sustained 

till liBilar to Ihat convened b? KeheDsiab?" (Grttlz, in 
FiabTi ilotaUTkrifl, ri, G3, ctr.). 

ML .Vuiikr of Mentat iiwf lirir Clauifiealion.— 
Wi lie lold that Nehemiih orfranized the Great Syna- 
p^M (tvmp. Neh. X, 1-10 with tlidraih SulA, c iii; 
JnuHlfm SkttiHA, v, \\ and that it coniisted nf 120 
■cDtcn (Jenmlcm Brraknlh, ii, 4 ; Jerusalem Megil- 
lA.\:B^]ooUtgiUali,llh). Inloukingatihe regia- 
III if ibe Great Aewmbly reconleil in Nehcmiah (_: 



will bt ■ 



ihat- 



. ftily >i 



of lfa« 



nnfe-(am dur/i nf Ih priritt (1 Chron, xxiv, 7-lS) 
m nammttd, and Ihil for the eight that are want- 
in; (wr private penoDi are gii-en,riE.Zidkijah, Daniel, 
Btfucti, and UrshuUam. b. Of the six or seven tiirf 
Imirt— tit. Jesbna, Bani, Kadmiel, Hnitijah, Sherehi- 
U, Hnhabniah — who returned with Zerubhabel and 
Fjii(Ntb.ii,4,5; Eira V, 18. 19, 24), Bani i.1 omitted, 

okobledl; the doeton «/llu lav (B^3'=B i Neh. viii, 
;:ii.)> f.Ofther..ny-fii-erfif/»o/M«p«)pfcOa!tn 
:;ri)«ily half are known as heails orbmilica, and the 
nsm again dialinRUuhed private inUividuala. Here 
'Iw bmilin of David and Joah (comp. Ezra riii. 2, 9) 
■iniMing. A Of the rrprrmlatirn a/Tht cilift ttim 
nooly taro mentioned — viz. Anafhnlh and Nebo — 
■UA pliialF ihowB that othen are omitted, aince tbeae 
In places did not at all dUtinguJsh themselves lo be 
ibii Bifikd out. Now. in looking at the peculiar pon- 
Cm m which they are placed among the heads of the 
intdt in Ibe register of the exiles, it will be seen that 
lit faiailT of Hariph (Jnaeb) stand fiist; ihen follow 
lie BHsea of thirteen cities <vii. Gibeoii, Iklhlehem, 
Niuphah, Anitbolh, Beib-azmaveth, Klrjath -jearim, 
LVpdinfa. Beeroih, Itsmah, Gaba, tlicbmas. Beth-el. 
■°4 Ai): Neho eoticludea Ihe catalogue ol the cities, 
nl tbe Cuiilv nf Uagbish follows npoti it (Ezra ii, IS- 
X: Keh. lii, 24-38), which exactly corresponds with 
ibmiier in the repisler uf the Great Synagogue; Ha- 
■^ tiegiu, then come cities, i. e. Anathoih; Nebai 
BOB la«.and then again Magbieh (Neh. x, 19, W). 
1i bai ben supfiuacd, therefore, that the above-named 
aoo ire to be inserted between Hariph and Anathoth. 
lln add to thoe fifteen cities the other live apecifieil 
■0 tkc TTgirier (rix. Lod, Uadid, Ono, Jericho, and Te> 
bia-iii, U, Si), which were represented by this svn- 
'd.n hare in all twenty cities. Under this view, 
OiAidiTiaoni of the prirals are wanting — the family 
•fBaoi is miiBng from the Levitt*, seven families of 
ikt hcadi of the people have disappeared— and thir- 
ina if the repmeniati vta of Ibe cities have dropped 
'■t Kiw.Uwe supply [hose which aeem to hare been 
^>^ified, and add them up with the private individuals 
■mioDed in the rFgiMer,we obtain the following rep- 
""■aiJTes in the Great Synagogue; twenty-eight 
'ne«^ tmsiaiini; of the twenty-four diviaiona and the 
tepctrata individuab; nineteen Leviies, being the 
■m (amilies and the twelve privare persona; flfiy la- 
'■'lita, twenty -nine being chiefa of the people and 
inaty-(«c prirale pemma — making i 



en, with Nehemiab ninety-^ht, white the Tenuuning 
twenty-two are the deputations of the cities. We may 
thus obtain the 130 members of the Great Synagogue 
mentioned by Ihe unanimoua voice of traditioiL It will 
also be seen from the above that these 120 merobera 
represented five claMca, via. : I, Tic chif/t o/lhtprid- 
Ij/ diriiioni {ZX r^2 ■'DStl); 2. The chir/i of lU Lf 
ti/iail famUif (D^^lVn -"SSil) ; B. Tit hradi of lit 
IiratlUe famUiti (Osn ■"ttl*-'); 4, RtprtKnlaiiBet nf 
ririrt, or Ihi tldtri (CSpT ; vpia^iTipot) ; ft. Tkt doc- 
Ion of file line (a^S^3:a B^'^DlOi Tpa/i/ioT(?c). from 
all grades. This numlwr, however, if thus made up, 
was moat probably restricted lo the lime of Nehemiah, 
IS there con be no doubt that the assemblies which 
were afterwards held conaieled of a analler number, 
since, at the [ime when the Great Synagogue is held to 
have poued over into the (ireat Sanhedrim, the repre- 
senlalireii consisted of seventy, which became the tixeil 
rule for the Sanhedrim (q. v.). 

IV. The Wort of the Uirul Syoojojur.—At ila Ant 
organiialiiin under Nehemiah, if the above be its true 
origin, the representatives bound themselves by n most 
solemn oath (nsilO^I n>Ma) to carry out the fol- 
lowing six decisiona, which were deemed most essenliil 
for the ataliility of the newly reconatrucled State: I. 
Not to Intermarry with healhena; 3. To keep the Sab- 
bath holy; S. To observe the aabbaiical year; 4. Ev- 
ery one lo pay annually ■ third of a shekel to the 
Temple ; 6. To supply wood for Ibe allar ; 6. Regularly 
to pay Ihc priestly dues (Neh, x, 28-39). The founrta- 
lion for the reorganization and reconalniction of the 
State and the Temple-service bdng thus laid al the first 
meeting of this synod, the obtaining of the necessary 
materials fhr Ihe anccessful rearing-up of the super- 
structure and the completion of the ediBce demanded 
that the synod should occasionally reassemble to devise 

plishment of the plan and the permanent maintenance 
of the sanctuary. To this end the members of the 
Great Synagogue are believed to hare collected the ca- 
nonical Scriptures. This WIS called fonh by Ihe effecta 
nf Ihe first decision, which involved Ihe expulsion of 
Monasaeh, son of the bigh-priest .loiada, by Nehemiah 
and Ihe aynod fur refunng compliance with that deci- 
sion — i. e. to l>e separateil from his heathen wife, the 
daughter of Sanballat (xiii, 23-39). In consequence 
of this his father-in-law, Sanballat, obtained permission 
10 Imild an apposition temple on Mount Geriiim, in 
which Manasseh bccijne high-prieit, and whilher he 
was fulhiwed tiy man; of the Jews who sympathiied 
with him. 'I'his proceeding, however, compelled them 
to deny the prophets, because their repeated declara- 
tions about the sanctity of Jeruaatem did not favor the 
erection of a temple out of the ancient metropolis. To 
erect * will of panilion between the Jews and these 
apostate^ and to show lo the people which of the an- 
cient prophetical books were sacred, the Snphrrim ond 
the tnen of llie Great Synagogue compiled Ihe canon 
of Ihe prophets. As the eailv prophets and the great 
prophets — i. e. Isaiah. Jeremiah, and Ezekiel^ike the 
Penlaleurh, were already regarded as sacred, it only 
remained for the Great Synagogue to complete Ihtpro- 
phftiait canon by inserting into it the twelve minor 
prophets, which this synml accordingly diil, as may be 
seen from Baba Balhra, 15; Abotk di Sabbi AWAim, 
c i ; 3 Mace xii, 13. Although some of these authori- 
ties are no longer clear about the books inserted into 
the canon, yet they all teatify lo the fact that the 
memben of the Great Synagogue irere cngageil in col- 
lecting the canonical books of the prophets. The Ha- 
giogiapha were not as yet made up, as is evident from 
the fact that the younger Sirach diil not even know Ihe 
expreasion CS^nS, but used Ihe general term ri SX\a 
to denote Ihcm {Pitfact to EaJut.), and that in Aiex- 



SYNALLAXIS 8 

guidria Bdilitions were made M (he book of Eather, and 
Dtdfi book> were inwitetl in what we now all Ihc Ha- 

canonicily of aome of the Hagiographa cantiaaed to be 
■ poiut of differeoce between the achooli of Shammii 
and HlUel, which could not hive been the cue if the 
einon of the Ilagiagiiipha bid been definitely mide up. 
They ilw Gompiled the ritual for privau and public 
worship [«ee Sysaooquk] ; and, finall)-, they intro- 
duced schools for the iludy of the divine Uw ^1S^ TTS), 
Id precepts of Holy Writ. The whole of 



this is 






™ grand 
I in Che laconic style or Che Mi«biia 



maxima — be cautious in judging, get many diMipIes, 
•nd make a hedge about the law" (Abolh, i, I). The 
other work of the men of the Greek synagi^(ue which 
hai come down to us in the name of the Sophti-iiu is 
given in the article ScRIBK. 

V. /.iUrature, — Wassermann, in Jest's ttratliHteit 
Amalm (Fraiikfott-on-Cbe-Main, 1840). ii, 163 sq.; 
Sachs, in Frsnkel's ZtUKkrifl far die nU'/iSim iMc 
nMrxcfc* JuilcnlAu'iu (Berlin, lSt5),ii,30l sq.; Kruch- 
mal, Afore Keboche Ua-Seman (Leopoli, 1851 ), p. hi sq., 
102 sq., 166 sq.; Henfeld, Utichiclile dn Votta Unul 
(Notdhausen, IS6S-57), i, 23 sq., S80 sq.; ii,&3,244 sq., 
264 sq. ; Joal, (Jachidtle da Jud/alhuini. i, 35 sq., 95 sq., 
270 sq. ; Low, Btn Cha«anja (Siegedin, 1858), i, 102 sq„ 
193 s<t., 292 sq., 338 sq.; and espcciallv the elaborate 
CMar of Gr)ltz,in Fralikel's UonalnchrijiJSr Gackidlr 
VHdWiuemchaJl da JudailAunu (Leipsic, 1867), vl, Bl 
sq.,61sq.; a]soFUrsc,CucA.iiu£u>iaTU,p.22,nute. See 

SYNAGOGUE AKD Church. The Jewish Church 
is, in Ibe catacombs, represented as a ironian of majes- 
tic presence in flowing robes; but in mediieval exam- 
ples, as on the doorway at Rochester Cathe<lrai, with 
her eyes bandaged, the tables of the law fBlling (mm 
one hand, and ■ broken sUff in the other (Jer. v, IQ, 
17). The Church is crowned and sceptred, and holds n 
church and a cross. 

Byuallttsds, in Greek mytholog}-, wu one of Ibe 
Ion ids, nvmphs skilled in medicine, living on Che Cvthe- 
ruPiariverofElia. 

Byiiapt«(in'ra*T^)isaGrcek term for Ihe Greek 
Collect in the Utiirgy of St. Mark, resembling the fc- 
line in that of fjc James and of St. Chrysosiom. It is 
used, also, to designate the holy communion. 

Sjrnazarltim (rrvmCnpioi') is a term fur an 
abridgeil form of the Greek nenoUigy ( record of 
months), an account at the festivil liein^ celehmed. 

Synaxla (o-uva^ic), an Eastern term Bienifyins, 
rcspeciively, 1. A collect or short prayer; 2. The hcijy 
eucharisc, or the Christian eacrilice; 3. An assembly lur 
worship; and, 4. The Joint commemoration uf saints. 

SyncelliU (from aayaXkiu, to join} was an ancient 
officer attached to the patriarchs or prelates of the Ori- 
ental Church as witnesses lu their conveisation and 
conduct. Others acted as clerks and scewards. It 
eventually became a mere title of honor. 

STncellna. tiRonoii-s, a Byianiine author and an 
ecclesiastical dignitary of Constantinople, who lii'ed at 
the close of the Sth and the iieginning of the 9th cen- 
tury after Christ, He haBlefla('4ra*^rtpAs,orchro- 
nolupcal reconl of ercnls, extending fnirn the cmlion 
to the accession of the emperor Diocletian. He begsn 
with Adam, and iniended to bring down Ins compila- 
tion to his own time, but death anticipated the comple- 

I. A'lim*.— Hciscalled Georgius AMus anrlGeorgius 
Motiathyi, and has sumetimes been erroneously idenli- 
lled with Gcorgius l/amarlolai, whose works remain 
still, for the most part, unpublished. The designation 
of Sj/nctilui, which has been given to the chrouogra- 



1 SYNCELLUS 

pber as a distinctive appellation, is no penonal latK 
but a title at dignity. It is derived from his ecclen- I 
tical office in the hierarchy of the metropolilan Church 
of the Eastern Empire. The synceilus was origiiiallT i 
[he ciimpanion. room-mate, occupant of the same (til 
with the patriarch— cuAuUaTvr, etUuneiH, amalUani. 
He was to be Ibe constant witness i>f the purity eflbt i 
patriarch's life and the propriety of his condiKt sad ' 
conversation, on the same princiiile as that which is- 
quires membsn ofthe Jesuit Order lobe alwirsaOFiim. 
|)aiiied by one of the fraleniity. ijometime^one rrn- 
cellus was apjioinred, sometimes two, and sometinn 

honoraiy and honorable title. At times the office »« 
employed as a mode of plachig spies around tbe pun- 
srch. The|HipeaorKomehad their ^ncelii donntatbt 
time of Gregory the Grear, at least, as has lieen pn\M 

usual exuberant learning {Gloit. MrJ. r1 I'jiai. Laliik 
s. T.). They were attached, also, to other prelate). The 
relation was naturally one of great intimacy and catfr 
deuce, and consequently became one of infiuence sdI 
high distinction. Hence the synceilus seems frcqnHii. 

have heen for ■ long time regarded as in the legiiimaic 
line at Aucceaaion to the patriarchate The praciin. 
howeier, of elevating the synceilus to the jiairiBtctal 
throne on Che death of the metropolitan af>i>e)n to Iistc 
never been habitual, and to have been abandnneil br- 
fure the eiul of the 9th century (Zffluiras, XVI.iiii.i3; 
Gretser et Gear, Comm. in CadtH. p. IDA). Ihc m- 
peror Romanus Lecajienus mode his youngest snfl,Tbf 
ophylact, sjmcelluB, evidently wiUi a view to the soi- 
cession to the higheac place in the hierarchr (Zonaiu 
XVI, xviii). The special functions of the office am 
to have been gradually abandoned, lint the name >iul 
dignity were still retained when Cudinus prepared hi^ 
Coail-roUoflhe Imptrial QffidaU (tee Gori, P<-oj:o6 
Sywtltiim, ii, 60}. 

II. /.i/e.— Gcarjie Che Chronographer was tyncellM 

bare been oiie uf ibose imposed on that eminent faiir- 
lionary by the emperor Nicepbonis as a spy. We knnw 
nothing uf him except from his name and his title, ai»l 
from his commemoration by bis friend and coiitinnaiii. 
TlieophaneH. The cestinsony of Thenplianei anKUBU 
to very little. It is timply that George, Ihc abbot snd 
^yncelll1^ was a disiingui»heii and very learned ini". 
who faithfully and laboriously chronicled the events ii4 
the world from Adam, and diligenily recordeil tbeit 
cbmnohigical aucccsaion ; that life failed bim when be 
had brought his chronicle down only to the accrssHxi c^ 
Diocletian; that, on the approach of deatb,lie r«|iic»t(d 
and urRcil his friend Theopbanes to complete his ^- 
Bign, and that 'I'heophanes reluctantly undertook anil 
executed this commission. Of Geoi^ the Chronotris- 
pher nothing more is reported. After this brief app«. 
tition .on the stage of history be vanishes into thtfk 

III. H'lirka, — The only work of George SyntrlliB 
which we possess, or know In hare been written by 
him, ishi»CAnaiDjnvip*j(,or ifiifreiKri CArontcin, whirh 
comus down, as bos been sai<t,to the reipi of Diodeliaii. 
Hod life anrl health been spand, he would probaUy, 
like his conlinuator, Theopbanes, and like the genital 
liibe of meilieeval chroniclers, have been fuller, mote 
original, and more instrnetlve in the treatment of cwi- 
temporaneous evenla. T"hese events were, in all likcli- 
hood, well known to him, from his social and official p- 



dfr.™ tbedi 



ilfui 



him the reputation of extraonlinary knowledge (i 
;ia3iiTrarD(). As he died when he had pnKceded no 

exp™tcil from him but fidelity of compilation and diJ- 
cemmenl in the wleclion and use of authorities. Faith- 
fulncm and inilustry may he readily conceded to him. 
Discretion and sagacity are scarcely among his charac 



SYNCELLUS 8 

iBixa. Hi a exceedingly cmt, h*nh, dr;, jejune, 
mi] lAta (mfuKil. Hii temperament, hu rocatian, 
lid ha LUIK4 iDcUibHl him to credulity ftnd luperttiiiun. 
UtlntmliicHhii multitndinoua extnctiin ■ cniileind 
utj^sud Ibnn, uhI accepts wilhuut betiution whiit- 
ns be linll iii hil lext& Yet hia work hu ■ very 
Wfi rdiie, ud largely Trom thii total absence or crit- 
> iaj ibmiiiiatibin. It ii the moM extentire of the 

tUTptiuoFihe Scilian, Alexaaitrine, or PaKhal chroii- 
vlt, n* Liliei aiul the chronicle at Eiuebioa are the 
ia)r»D important chroDoli^ad treatise! tfaiU preceded 
il iitikb hce been preaerred. Euiebiui waa aidly mu- 
tiliuduidrtaeiocntary, and wu in pan reitoied by the 
udnriiriuzUui. ScaliBer,tbere«toterufEuKbiui,con- 
uapUltil Iba ibandonmenC of his undertaking when 
k ia^irei of obtaining the aasiilance of Srncdlus, 
vlkh bf deemed indispensable. The reslorotion was, 
inlnd, inpnciicible without such aid, till the discov- 
(nrfibe complete work, in recent yean, in an Amte- 
iw HS,. ■Iiich was pohlished at Milan, in 1SI8, by 
Mii uid Z^nhrsb. The Chnmogrxipks of Syneellua baa 
ihn mderfd important serriee. It faa> other loureea 
^flnUiFO. tt is througbont a compitaiion, but a com- 
phtin] sbich usually retains the iptiunna reria or the 
uibin fnim whom it borrDWB, and which recurds its 
ob^fUion Thus have been preserved remnsnls, more 
<iliBtit««rt,of many writers who wmild otherwise 
tan piriibeil otierly. The citatinns from Euscbius 
Ian ibesdy been rerened to. We owe, beside^ lo 
WMdla niaiiy all that survives or Julius Arricanns, 
BM «(lb< fragments of Manetho, and much »f the lit- 
■hibsibleft of Derosas, who strangely illustrates the 
Boot of Genesis, and corroborates the remarkable dis- 
B»ina nfthe late George Smith. Amnnc the ihat- 
imd lemnants imbedded in the chronicle of Syneellua 
-lite broken columns, ruined architraves, dismembered 

uLto— Dit be fiwDd passages from books of various 
iadt, ioduding many from partially or wholly lo 
l|«tTpha. There are emracta from the I.ife of Adar 
ibcBoi* of Enoch, the History of Judith, Heraiex, Zo 
ma Ibe philosopher, etc Some of then excerpts s 
"ti aainat, and perpettuile the memory of remarkable 
■^endtiom snd of quaint legends of the ani 
h vodd be misplaced Labor to invtatitral 
rtneokigicsl accuracy of Syncellus, I 
bsAnnoia^cal statements. The service has been r 
■Itml laboriously, if not al together satisfactorily, by ' 
Ifcmoiesn lioar, who added a CmuMi CiroHOffmpAi 
'I iW abia priacqu of the work. The history of 
]|\ (ltd by Goar is curious. It was preserred in 
^'t*Bj tt the iMttiarcb al Constantinople. It reap- 
[and in Ibe Royal Library of France. A notice, ' 
''"rt. appended to the HS. states that it was pi 
danJstConnlh.for four pieces of gold (xputfoSc), by 
Jiln Ahniai [n Abrams), ill the tnonth of November, 

P»'\ It was prolBihly one of the many waifs from the 
Humin csptore of Constantinople. For some time it 
IS betiered to hate been lost from the Royal Library-. 
I> imbed ticaliger's hands. It was, in time, restored 
>" Ibe ruf a] re|MnlorT, where it St" 
■* pHish in the fire* of the Commune. The supposed 
tactfthisMS.is lOSI. It i> somewhat mutilated.and 
«tl>Bfisl»t;but it is the most complete MS. of tli 
isihnt. rHndarf r^arda as of much higher nutrlt ai 
alcr Pttiaaa HS, which be also employed in his r 
nin of tbe text for the Bonn series of the Bjia^ii 
Bmciriat,. This bas loot many leaves in the middl 
x^Uke Catecidge'a CAriiiaM, has neither beginnir 



SYNCRETISM 

Dindorfii (Banna, 1639, 3 vols, 8vo). Dindorf repub- 
lishes the iijiparatat liltnitiui of Uosr, and adds a re- 
print of Bedovii Diiinialio de Georgii Sj/acrlii Ckro- 
Hoyrapkia. (C, F, H,) 

BynoretUm (ai^cpiirio/ivc, tOBoit). This term ia 
iployed in Cburch history to designate Ibe movement 
promote union smong the various evangelical parties 
of Germany in the ITib century. The won) occurs in 
Plutarch (ii, 490 It; ed. Reiske] vii, 910)— perhaps the 
lance among the writeri of antiquity — and 
llustrated by the idea that the CYctans, though 
frequently at wai among themselves, were accustomed 
lo unite their powers against the attacks of any foreign 
foe [tat rovro ijv o loXoviurot irr' aliruy miytpif- 
•/lufl- Kraamus adopted the word into Ibe Adagia 
(chiL i, cent. 1, Xo. It, p. SI), and defined it la signify 
inion of parties wlio have need of each other ot 
lesire to make head against a common foe, though 
may not be influenced to form such union because 
are one at heart Both the word and the idea 
into common use soon afterwards, Zwingli, for 
iple, in a letter to (EcoUmpadius of the year I6S5, 
imends such a syncretism {0pp. ed. 8chiiter et 
Schullhese,vii,S90}j Bucer employs the term frequeut- 
connection with his eflbrts towanls union after 
lublicatiou of tbe Augsburg Confession [Opp. viii, 
as does also Melancthon with reference to ihe 
buunesa {Corp.Rr/. ii,iSb sq.; i,9l7; 0pp. lUtL 
ed. Vilemb. iv, 81S). 'I'be apoalate Slaphyhis (q.v.) 
hargcB Ibe Keformers with being simply BabeMuild- 
Ts,aiid in selUng forth bis proofa represents the Lu- 
thenna as being Sgnatttzanlri (Calov. Sftu:rff, lliil. i, 
a). Zaeh. UrHuuB (q. v.) al 



unfavorable se 


nse (0pp. Urn 


a.-[Ne 


ustadt, 158B 


,ii,a05. 


onIsa.iit,6). 


Syncretism i 


thus 


shown lo h 


vebeen 


a current term with all pen 






culture 


a the I6ih o 


ntury, snd tc 


have been emplo 


vcd, ac- 


cording to cin 




'onble or u 


iifavon- 


bio meaning 1 


» designate an 


ilUance of dissent 


ngpar- 


ties ill de^ite 


ofalldinent. 


The 


twobld use 


of ayn- 




etm of comme 


ndatio 




con tin- 




ilory 


but with a 


gradual 




of the latter 


Idea, 




the in- 




lance which ca 




be attached 





variation of doctrinal beliefs, lu 1603 the Komish the- 
ologian Windcck wrote against the Protestants a Prog- 
aoUictia Fuiuri Slului Ecdttiir, in which he advised tbe 
Bonwnista to culiivale greater harmony, in the words 
Si sapetcnc Calholici, et ipsis cara esset reipublics 



Christi 



sslus, .J 



B Hei- 



H>s (q. V.) re . 
<fc Umou* EeangtL Cuticilianda, wiih 
an appeal to both wings of tbe Protestant Church for an 
alliance against their common foe; but Leonhard llut- 
ter rejected the idea of such an alliance ss preposterous 

Adam Contien, followed in a polemic of eight hundred 
and sixty-one pages, entitled l)e Paer Gtrmania Lihri 
II (Hayence, IStU, Svd), whose principal purpose was 

tween the Lutheran and Reformed parlies of the Prot- 
estant Church. The Undency, scarcely interrupted by 
the raging of the Thirty Years' War, of Lutheran and 
Romanist zealots tn magnify existing diDerences of 
opinion and intensify their influence drew forth the 
proteatof Callxtusfq.v.). He stigmatized ittuehame- 
ful, and urged the making nf distinctions between doc- 
trines of greater and inferior importance, and, while he 
wished the further development of doctrinal matien to 
be relegated to the schools, he also urged that a practi- 
cal sympathy and fellowship be cultivated between the 
churches. This brought on him a storm of obloquy. 
The Wittenberg faculty issueil iwu opinions, warning 

and deprecating the Sandomir Consensus (q.v.); and in 
Ibe sane year (1(345) a Jesuit, Veil Erbeimann, wrota 
a work entitled Eipqvucuf CWioJiciin, etc„ that de* 



SYNCRETISTIC CONTUOVEBSIES 80 SYNCKETISTIC CONTROVERSIES 






!» uolice as being the pmlMble xmr 



north 






.)n« 



i>in, br i 



a ilrnnte, nut, as afurctiiiir, the pnuMical luociation of 
religionisia bolttirig divergent vietf) upcin some ques- 

The new rendering at Che won! Cuniitlied tlic upponeDU 
of CilixtiiswilhidililUHial wea|wnn.<>r which the]' were 
Dot alow to avail tbenMClt-eii. S«e DiiiiiluiiiFr. MgHr- 
riUHi iSgHetrlanii, mc (Strmb. tC48), where (he idea at 
•yncrelism is moile to iiidwie every rnrm ii( hurcTui ■■- 
«oci»tion or iiiterraiiture, e. g, of Kve with the wrpeiii, 
«r tite ehemiaU or mecbanjc*] iiilrmiixdire of betero- 
genvnua elementi in nature, et«. With CaloTiui (q. v.) 
beicina empbatically tbe u*e of the tf rni si-ncretiam ■■ 
denoting ui improper and iinallnwable ipproximation 
of Lutheran and Refurmed Cbrialiaiii lowanle each oth- 
er. This view undedie* the phrase Sfocrrlulic Con- 
Invtrtiri (q. v.) as used in ecc1e«aMical history. The 
more benevulenc meaning was (^adually laid aside, and 
even Calixtua waa conatraineil lo refuse his cniisent lo 
tbe application of the term to hia posiiioii. The per- 
vcrsiiin bos retiuned its bold upon the popular usatifc 






airiicipdvvviii.—ilmnii, Hrut-Kneyliop. e. v. 
Synoretdstlc Controveraies. The title applies 

in connection with efforts made in [lie sHend half of 
tbe lith century lo pramme union and fellowsbip be- 
tween the Protestant churches i^tiprmany. These di»- 
putes ro^i^d le» between Kcfiirmeil and Lutheran theo- 
tngians than between the strict and the liberal wing 
of [he Luiherau Church itself. The progress of con- 
lioveray, moreover, generally resulted in (he interweav- 
ing of extraneous and foreign matters with the direct 

troversies becnme also disputes with reference to [he 
dei^ree of freeilom V be allowed theological achools and 
theological science, the disputinU being known as fiiie- 
ttalHlkenini and Moderiaioivi. The term ij/acrrliim 
<q. V.) is not broad enough to cover all tbese several 
■lisputes, but is in practice eu employed by all pariien. 
Everything prior to the iransactiooa of the year 1645 
must lie regardeil as preliminary lo the ayncreUslic 
oontroversjes proper. From thai date we may diitin- 
guish three (leriods to the death of Calovius'and the 
practical end of ihedispule. 

1, /■ram 1*1! C-Moqay of Thorn lo Ikt Death o/Gnrgt 
Caliilm <1M5-,JO).-Calovius had succeeded in pre- 
vanting the selection of Calixlus as the delegate of 
Danuic to the CoUmiuy of Thorn ; and when the latter 
waa appointed u> serve for Kiinigoberg instead, Calovius 
caused him to be <teprired of all opiurtunity lo co-op- 

;c wiib tbe Lutheran delegates. Calixtui thereupon 
■-'id and counselled with the Reformed thculogi- 
ous, and thereby gave opportunity fur his opponents \a 
Cuien on him the charge of an unwirrantalile com- 
bining of diverse religions — a charge persistently urged, 
though he pnblii-ly and in writing rejected the Keform- 
ed Confesniuu of Tliom. The next measure was a un- 
ion uf all the Kaxoii thealogians, led by Weller, the au- 
perinleiident of Uniiiswich, In a censure of the Univer- 
sity of llehnsliidl, which bvoral Calixlus, on the al- 
legeil cround that it hod made innovations in doctrine 
and had depanol fiom the generallv received Costiavi 
fWrnala el Cnlnkiu Rvdtoram. To this Calixlus re- 
Sfmudeil with a denial under dal« of Feb. 26. 1647 ; but 
with no other result than that of increasing the eager- 
ttess with which every peculiarity in the teaching of i 
Ilclrastiklt was scaiined for the discover)- of error. In 
l-riiK-ia, the appointment of the Calixtines Chr. Dreier ! 
and Joliann Latermann to the faculty of Koni(;aberg j 
excited similar disputes, which called furili numerous 
volumes in dpfcnce of either side; and Calovius, who had! 
been aupcrwle.! Iiy Dteier, continued to fan the lUme | 
fmm a distance, even after Uvslenla, its originator, had 
died (in l<!53>, | 



The increasing prominence of Ihe ekdors paladn 
and Brandenburg was in this period regarded with am- 
iely by the electoral court of Saxony, and the ref«e- 
sentatives of the latter, in the Peace Congress of WeM- 

vent, if possible, tbe concession of rights to the Kefunn- 
ed churches equal to those enjoyed hy the Lulhmn; 
but [he endeavor failed altogether. The claia of \ji- ' 
tbetan theologians which approveil the action of Ibc 
congress in tliis regard was accordingly not in fane in 
elecloral Saxony; and as early as Jan. 2], 1618, the tbe- 
oli^ans of Wittenberg and Lei|>aic were oomtnanded i« 
investigate the errors of the HelmstydttheologiaiH. anil 
s[at< Ihem "article by ■nicle." In ihe following yesi 
the elector addressed to Ibe dukes of Bnniawick a papn 



gians aganv 

[hat the lati 

dbefu 



objecl 



[cagaint 



of hia 



hutch a 



J reqneHed 



In November, 1650, Calorius, the redoubtable defeo-tn 
of Lulheran orthodoxy, was called lo the raculty ff 
Wittenberg. An immense quanlity of conunveisiii 
wrilingK preceded and followed this event. Tbe diikn 
of llruiiswick reftised to accede In the request to silence 
their theologians, and caused a defence of their podtiuii 
to be written by Homeius. and a reply lo the cle<t« 
by CalixtuB himselfi and they alsn rejected Ihe pmpo- 
siiion 10 convene a diet of theologians, as tending rath- 
ct to increase than diminish the uoublea of the Churdu 
They proposed instead a eooveni inn of " political <vua- 
cillors who love peace and are aaguainled with albin-.' 
but this was rejected by Saxony. On Jan. 9. I6&1, Cwrn- 
ly-four accredited representatives of evangelical powm 

in dispute U) a boily of peacefully inclined theolo^ans 
and statesmen for discussion ; but the eleclorof Saiwiy. 
acting under the advice of his theologiaiu, would ni>L 
entertain tbe project. The Saxons now pursned ihe 
|dan of dismissing the party of Ilclmstlidi front th* Lu- 
lheran Church more Eealously than beliire, and in il-e 
course of their labors pruduceil a work which was ti- 
pecicd to serve as the confession of failh of all win 

Rrjirtifui Fidei etrr Lufktrima, To secure the largest 
possible number of supporters, s mass of writings in 
harmony with ils teachings was issued; but it became 
speeilily apparent that but few were ready to adopt the 
new confession, and this fact, coupled with Ihe death of 
fieorge Calixtua in the spring uf 1666, caused a ceaat- 

Five years of almost total quiet ensued, interropieil 
only by slight agilBIions in Brandenburg, where [hi 
Lutheran preacher Samuel Pomarius (q. v.) was auspeiid- 
ed for preaching against the Keformeil and the Kyncn- 
lists. This period was followed, however, by 

2. Rmrtrrd Confiidi (1061-69),— The iminedtale oo 

the landgrave of Hesse-C^ssel, William VI, lo secure a 
religious constitution ri>r his land which shoultl b« ajf- 
liciently broad and generous V> comprehend both Lu- 
therans and Kefiinned under ita operation, liis endeav- 
on culminated in a convention which met at Caseel. 
consisting of two memheis of the (Kefurmed) University 
of Marburg and two theologians lielonging to the (Lu- 
lheran) faculty of Hinteln. Adeclaration was drawn op 
which recognised existing divergencies of opinion be- 
tween the parties, but at tbe same liirw showed an 
agreement between them on all essential matters, and , 
on the gruQiid of auch consent urged Ihe exeirise of 
iHntheriy love and tbe recngnilion of both panics aa 
lielonging to one Church, aharing in a common faith 
and looking towanls a common heaven. 1'he appear 
once of this ileclaratinn mused I he Wiltenbeigera to oc 
lion. They issued a circular asking the support of al 
good Lutherans against Ihe Casiel colloquy, and in 
iluced the facnltics of Jena and Leipsic lo unite witi 
ibem in admonishing Ihe theologiona of Riiiielo cou 



SVSCBETISTIC CONTROVERSIES 87 



SYNEDRIANS 



nnim lb* Up« of which Ihev hu) bftn guilty. A 
iMliite of pap«n in Latin ami Gcmaii, limcJ M both 
ibt lanwd wurid utd the public, nis nviw iiepl up uii- 
lil ifur the death of Williun VI, in leGG, vilieii the 
ml b) Kinlcln liecame mucli oukr in cvntcqucnce of 
LtHfiu cvnlerTal on the lictunned at ibe expeiiae uf 
ibt Ulhf ran parly. 

Tbr renewal nt ih? dispute in Hewe wwn reacted 
■l>u Bnnilmburg, whuu iluke waa brother-in-law tu 
ihc lindi^TBre, aiHl Ihiiruughlj in lympathy with his 
^lu. The goveninienl iuued a nauiresla deprecating 



pulpim 



jng pomi 



augu rating a 



of Tril 



I aftemranls 
.0 Berlin Tor 



ir.' TW Lutbe^al1^ however, proved unyielding, Ibe 
pHI Paul (^erhardt (q-v.) in particular being fixed in 
tiK oiifasiiiau to any oiiDprDmiw, and the coltoquy 
(tkM without rawlt. Varioua onleis now followed in 
i|UKk ucGcsaion, by whicb preacbers were (brbidden tn 
■l<ply oppcobrioiB namea tu their opponenta in the pul- 
jii. and aba to attribute to them doctrines inferred 
tun ibeir principles, but not avowed b}' Ibcm. The 
Latbenna refused to sign a pledge of obedience to theae 
Kliru, ibii being in their eyes tanUmount to s formal 
' 'icir poallioii, Thegoreniment event- 
npelled them to yield, though many chose dep- 



II I6fi4 w 



H the 



A Kw phase of the dispute began 
r-iUiratiua of a great collection of CoiinJia TkrolegUa 

ttiioH Calixtiis and the eyncrctiata, and also the Con- 
Kuw Btprtiivi f'idii xtre f.HlktrnBa. The excluaion 
'if the lyocrettMs waa now less aimed at than lbs rally- 
mt of an strict Lutherans about the CmunttHt aa a new 






The u 



CIS. impUciily coDdemned Calintus and his adherenis 
b JHU-Lutheran and heretical ; anil the new movement 
tOTirdiBgly drew out the aon of Calixtu8,Fredetieli til- 
nr. aba frum Ibis lime made it the object of bi> life lo 
nxrt ibe penislent attacks of Calovius on bia father's 
ikuids and work. Both were extremists, snil could 
am HiUunliate all the a«ertii>na tbey put forth ; but 
lilt psny of Caloviu) triumpbEil over Calixlua fur a 
uiw through the cShu of a new combatant wlium 
iIht had gained lo ibeiiaupiioTt — the youthful Ktrauch, 
\'-frmn of history and asscstor in Ibeology at Witten- 
Ini. The University of Helmstiidi, on the otbci hand, 
adotnl the servicta of Herman Coming (q. v.), a schol- 
V and iiatesuan of Kuropean fame, and be gucceeded 
ra u pnsFuting [o view the danger lo tbo peace of the 
ijktfcli aod to tb« liberty of teaching which grew out 
li lit ituiupl to force Ibe Conteiwtt upon tbc Church 
•■ a CDnlcHion of faith, that universities and princes 
■fe (lanned, and a period of quiet was secured, 1669. 
I. nsaJr«;(Hf.-Cslovius reopened the war in 16TB 
■ nk icnutomed energy; and although the temper of 
ib< liat was changing, and diegust with Ibe intermiii- 
•Llt ifgainl hc^an to be manifested, be was able, by 
ICJ, lo eoiopel the eniire Vniveniily of Jena to di»- 

fmnl [.I lie bis laxi vicinry. His aged patron, the elec- 
tixJobanp Georg II of Saxony, died in the following 
JIB. tui [be new ruler was not so fond of controversy 
IF ikt vM one had been. In 16S2 the JliHuria Syicr., 
vbichCaluviua bad made ■ etarehouse of the detaila of 
■i-iift-liingcDntesl.aiid published anonymously to evade 

•M pncented from circulating among the people by 
'-* memmmL He died of apoplexy Feb. 21, 1CS6. 
S* cmudenble features in connection with the syn- 
■imati: amlrovenn.' appear after the death of Calovius. 
L'tersiu and members of the Keformed Church in 
IrtTBaoy neither desired nor sought fraternity with 



the fugitive Protestants from France. The end of Ibe 
controversy — a peaceful aeparalion between theology 
and religion, [he regulaiiun of the boundaries interven- 
ing between Cburcb and school, between confession aiul 
•cience, between that which it and that which ia not, 
Btory upon all Christians— was not attained. Ca- 
i held pure doctrine to be the oue thing needful, 
and regarded Ihul aa Hxcil and settled, so that every 
(uiul is required to umply accept it as the truth. Ca- 
tixlus did not believe the acceptance of doctrine (o be, 
upon the whole, the csseiilial thing in Christianity, nor 
that all dnclriue bas equal importance; and he held 
that the points of belief which a Christian absolutely 

look minor differences and desire fraternity among all 
rroteslaut Christians. 

I'he literature of [he eontmveray is vast. See enpe- 
cially Cahivius, Uttl. Sgna-el. ; Vfalth, Slreiligifilfa i 
liUh. Kin'h', pi. i and iv ; Tboluek, ALad. I.Am d. 171m 
JiiArA. (1854), pt.il; id. LrbauitugHi rf. lulh. Kircht 
( Beri. IS&9) ; id. Kireil. /..Am d.llln Jahrk. (ibid. 1861} ; 
Gass, Gnrk. if. f«ol. /i>igm,Uit (ibid. IS^T), voL ii ; and 
tbc works mentioned a. v. "CalixluS,Ueorge.''—llenog, 
Real-E«rykl>-p. a. v. 

ByncretlBta ( n^cptirurrni, ■muniuri), persons 
who advocate a ayeiem of union and harmony whicb 
was attempted to be introduced into the Lutbersn 
Church in the I7lh century. It originated with Ca- 
lixtne, professor of ilivinity at Helmallidl, who, in ex- 
amining the doctrinea profcsaed by the difi^nt bodies 
of Chriatians, discovered that, niitwithsUnding tbera 
were many things to be reprobated, Itirre waa ao much 
important truth held by them in common that they 
ought to baniah their animnsities, and live together aa 
diaciplea of one common Master. Hia object was to 
heal the divuiniia and terminate the eontesta which 
prevailed. Like most men of a paciflc spirit, he be- 
came the butt of all parties. Me waa accused of Cal- 
vinism, Roman Calhuliciam, Arianiam, Soeiniaiiiam, J u- 
daiam, and even Atheism. His biltereet oppoiMiil waa 
Buscher,a Hauoveiian clergyman, who published abook 
againat him entitled Oypto-Papumiu A'ora Tirvlogia 
UdmtlaifitntU. The subject was taken up by the Con- 
ference held at Thorn in ihe year lOib, to which Calix- 
tus had been sent by the elector of Bnndenburg; and 
the whole force of the Saxon clergy waa turned againat 
him, aa an apostate from the strict and pure priiiciplea 



•ith c 



Thisf 



end his 



pel the attacks of his enemies lill his death, in I606. 
But this event did not put a atop to the controversy. 
It continued to rage with greater or less violence till 
uear the close of the century, by which time most uf 
thoae who took |iart in it liad died. To auch a length 

in a dramatic piece at Wittenberg, he was represented 

as a Send with boma and claws. Those who sided with 
him were called Culalinti or St/acrtliili, See Syn- 

Byndloa (vMibh), or DEFiiiSiiREa, were ofilcera 
whose duty it was lo watch over the rights of the iioor 
and oT the Church, to act aa superintendeiila of the 
Cnpiaia (q. v.), and to see that all clerks attended the 
celebraiion of moming anil evening service in Iho 
church. See Bingbam, CJiritl. Antiq. bk. iii, eh. ii. 

Synecdttnt {"vpitlripoij/rthtr-pilgrimiXA name 
given by the raulictana in the 9lb century 10 their 
leschers, becante they were all equal in rank, snd were 
distinguished from laymen by no rights, prerogatives, 

BynedrlMis (fmm tiiitpor, << liiriiff loi/ftitr), a 
name given by the Sovalians In orthodox Chriatiana, 
because they charitably decreed in their aynods lo re- 
ceive apostates and such as went to the Capitol to sacri- 
lice into their commnniou again upon their aiucetc re< 
pentance. 



SYNERGISM 8 

SynergiBin {•rvvipyliu, lo vork logtlha) it the doc- 
rrine th«t the bumaa will co-operalM wilh divine grace 
ill the work of conversion, u it wu iidvBnced by Eraii- 
mua in his controvcrey wilh Lulfaer, and arwrwardi 
rcpiesented by M^lancthon and his school. Luther 
(aught that sin had absolutely 












jf hia wiU a slave, h 
ontribQtc in any wa; 






Loci Co, 

roony with Luther's view. Such a view nec«««»rily re- 
plied in the doctrine or predestination, and both Lu- 
ther and Hclancthon (raced everj'tbing back M tiud 
■s the first cause, the sin of Judas nu leas than the con- 
venion of I'auL It was, however, an unnatural view 
for MeUncibon lo hold, and he receded from it into the 
dualistic idea that human liberty must be recognised 
as a factor in convenuon by the Nde of the divine ne- 
cessity. In the third edition of tlie Loci sin is derived 
from the irill of the devil and of man, instead of that 
of God; not everything, cansequenlly. is h> be ascribed 
to the divine causalitj, and there is a realm of contin- 
genciea by the aide irf' the realm of necessity which is 
founded on Che freedom of the human wilL A certain 
measure of volitional freedom to perform outward works 
of obedience ic the divine law remains lo man even af- 
ter the Fallj but be cannot, without the aid of the 
Holy Spirit, quaatttatively and qualitatively fulfil that 
law, and accordingly in every eaai action three causes 
work together (ouvfpyown) — the Word of God, the Holy 
8|urit, and the human will, which does not resist the 
Ward of God.and is at limes described directly as /u- 
cu&iu me appticandi ad gratiam. The doctrine of pre- 
destination fell, of course, so H»n as man came to be 
regarded as other than a volitionless statue. This syn- 
ergistic theory of Uclancthon's was admitted into the 
Leifiaic Interim (q. v.) in the words "God docs not op- 
erate on man as on ■ block, but draws him in such a 
way that his will co-operalea." It wu also advocated 
in a polemical address by Johann Pfefiiiiger, professor 
and pastor at Leipsic (ISM), against wbom Amsdorlf 
(q. v.) contended, in 1558, that " it is presumptuous to 
hold that man could, in the exercise ofhisnaturnt pow- 
ers, prepare and St himself to receive grace." Ffeffing- 
«r had said, however, that the Holy Spirit must first 
arouse the will, after which the latter is required to do 
itf pan in conversion. From this penonal stage the 
question was lifted into the schools by Flacius (q. v.). 
He denied all participation of the will in the work of 

all powera for good, and inclined lo evil conslanlly. 
(iod, therefore, is the sole agent in conversion, and man 
is not only pasuvo, but also unwilling. To the defence 
of such postulates Flacius devoted two days In a dia- 
putalion at Jena, which latter university now became 
the centre of strict Lulheranism as against Wittenberg, 

nre of this Lutheran champion was the publicllion of 
tbe Weimar Book of Confulaliom, which committed 
tbe duke of Saxony to the defence of ortbodiixy, and 
served, at the same time, lo refute atl the errors of the 
time. It likewise occasioned the nvertbruw of Strigel 
(q. v.), who had been forced to aid in making a first 
druft of the book, but was unwilling lo admit into it 
any of the improvements suggested by Flacius, and 
wrote against it in the form in which it was ^veii lo 
the world. He was seiied and imprisoned on Eittter- 
day, 1539, but was soon afterwards liberated in defei- 



when 



JDtted tl 



El of violenc 



ordered lo be held at Wei 


nar In August, 15C0, 


view to scltling the dispuie 


On this occasion 




t original sin is not 


cidenl,bul part of tbe subs 




ly refused lo relract the U 




court now bfgsn in wane, a 


Id ill exactly the sa 


gree did the Flacianisi divi 


[1*8 rage against all • 



colloquy wa» 



8 SYNESIUS 

fused W sustain tb«r opinions. Punishment nsloidy 
followed, and reached its culmination in the ditaiiail 
from office of Flacius and his clique, Dec 10, IXL 
Strigel, on the other hand, was induced lo drsw up ■ 
DtctaraHoH of hij) views, and was thereupon rtiatfiltd, 
which event was followed by an explanatory SuftTia- 
taration from the hand of superintendent Stooel, de- 
signed CO ctindliale tbe opposite parly (Catinrvii sica- 
ifUi, in Salig, iii, 891). Strigel, however, nfuKil H t» 
cepc Che interpretstiun of his views given by Stiari, 
and took refuge "from tbe machinaliuns of false brelb- 
ren" in Ldpsic The Lutherans who rejected Stcad'i 
compromise were banished, to tbe number of ronr. 
The accession of John William lo the throne of dial 
Saxony (1667) restored the Flacianiats, Flacius hinwir 
excepted, Co power-, a futile colloqny was held fur tbe 
puTpose of giviug peace to tbe Church at AlleulN^ 
OcL 21, 1668; and tlie duke was eventually coDslisiiitil 
to order tbe forming of the Corpui Dottriim nsris- 
gicum (Jena, loil) with a view to the protection of •»■ 
sailed orthodoxy. The Fonnida of CanaiTd gttt ihc 
finishing stroke to the conflict, and leltled it mMio- 
tially in harmony with the Flacisn view. See Salij;, 
Hut. d. A Offtb. Couf. i, $48 1 Walch, ReligioiMlrfilistinla, 
imtrha&d.lulh.Kire}if,i,&li iv,8<>; Planck, CrJO-i 
;jror,i*Ar4^ni?>,iv,653; SchlUwelberg.Co^oJcsiff*. ! 
ref.v; lialle,.Vdi(>icU«i,p.326; Thamasius,£el>iMniii \ 
(J.furjLKtVcAe, elc, p.119; Diitlinger. A^oniiftfKi>i,lli, , 
437 ; Schmici, in Zeilieh,: f. kia. Tirol 1819, p. 13; I 
Preger, M. Flacivi /ffyricus, etc., ii, 104-W7.-ller»g. | 
ReuUEncyldop. a. v. I 

Syneslus, bishop of Ftolemsis, was first a pagu. , 
then a Christian, and always a rhetorician. He lived at | 
tbe dose of the 4ch and the'beginning of Ihe 5th centOTv ' 
ofnuma. Hewasalaterepresenlaiii'cof therhtioriol ; 
declaimers of tbe Hellenic schools, and of the Neo-lla- ' 
tonic pbiloBophers. He wasalsnapagan andaChtifliin 
poet, an elegant gentleman of leisure, and a bishop ufilK 
African Church. ConlmBlB were combined and lecoociM 
in Che man and in his career. He lived ill an age nf 
transitions; and be is, in his writings and in bis <«i- 
unei, typical of the age in which he lived. Tie bjoi!- 
raphy and the literary remains of Synesius are much 
more interesting and instruclive for the light whirti 
they shed apon Ihe social, intellectual, and religina 
condition of provincial life in tbe Roman empire daring 
the first period of its manifest dissolution than fur >n> 
influence exercised by him on the liieraiuiT', the pbih*- 
ophy, the paganism, or tbe Christianity of his limo, 
or on the sencimenla, convictions, occhnracier of nlise- 

" the sweetest of philosophers and the delight of ibe 
pious muses" ("suuvistumuB philosopbos et piamm4e- 
licium musarum," Fraf. Up. Gng. A^yWrt..) ; Jtl (to 
authors have excited so much admiration and been to 
seldom read. Few have been so ollen quoted by tbt 
few who were acquainteil with him, and been so iiuc- 
cessible for many generations, even lo pmfened ecbsl- 
' Syneaius are BO special in ibni 



cd class of Bl 



It they Bl 



The pi 



that only the frequentei 



e illusinr 
ning, and so little cnosideie 
»s of hislarc * 
™ than 



turies inlervened between two editions of his worai. 
After this long interval, three complete editions hate 
been published within tbe laac twenty yearat Ok ii 
only a Idlln version, another is a French translaljun. 
and Ihe third is no more than a reprint of tbe tirrtk 
texl and Latin rendering from the edition of 1640, wiili 
some slight correclions. I'he writings of Synesiiis. Lb 
prose or verse, inspired by pagan or by Christian infiu- 
eiices,ate much less nniable for literary chsnn.fut vigor- 
ous ihought,or for philosophical reflection than ■SBprt*- 
entaiinn of the feelings, the aspirations, Ihe alrufrglri. 
the diflicnilies, tbe hajanls, the gratifications, ihe sn- 
noyancee, the occupalions, and Ihe assodalionsof acal- 



SYNESIUS 



umtiteaatrj gentleaii 

(f AntdiDi uid tJoooriiu, wtacn tU p«rt> oS the empire 
mt riUofi [0 piens. They,accutdinKlr, inlcrprctche 
[iaa [uc IB, mil require ifl be iuUrpreied by them. 

L naraatrand Circum4iaitett n/tta Age. — The life 
el.Sriiaiiil ■>• cut in ■ itarnir peiini ; Bild tbe Uonna 
■RF DM LmitRl u> hi< own province, but iwrpt over the 
■bolt toipirr. It «u the (ge of geural diuolutlon, 
pJilidl, tnriil, intellectual, uiil religioun; an iga of 
mirpiiinu and civil diMxrda; of crimes in the palace 
■ulUtKberia in IheSlatej of barbarian invasionii of 
pmninnl diunembermenli; of itrife between pagani 
lai Cbristiam; nf OHitroTeniea, bertsies, and Khiims 
in ibcChrutiaD Church; of social depravation aud de^ 
nr^ 14'univenal di^integnition, and of rapid material 
6f±rn, The dale of the birth of Syneaii ' 
Kraincd. If he wat bom iu B70, it occurre 
rg yrta after the death of the pagan emperor and thr 
biiimof bb attempt to realore paganiem. When Sy- 
DsiadiHl, if he died in 431, Uensetjc and his Vandils 
btJ anied a large part of AlHcai Britain, Gaul, 
^liwi had been cut off from the Roman domii 
DmiiK hi] lifetime usnrpcr had apning up afier lu 
H', .Iaa Minor and Greece and Ital;- bad been ravaged 
bi lit Uoth); ConManlinople had been threatened and 
EoH thrice captured b; tbem, and Alaric hid kd hia 
*ild Inu from the Alpa to Scylla and Cbarybdia. 
milt Sraniut wag HilJ a child io the cradle, Fi 
lidl RTulied in Egypt, and the innineetion had been 
mivfilifterthelapaeofa few year«,to be cnuhed out 
ii tk GiUonic war. Strangely enough, id none of 
that ponentoua eTenti is any diitincl alluaion made 
iiltHmiiaiBiDf this author, except to the Gothic in- 
■mniMi in Phrygia. There ia a poiaible reference to 
ibtCUdonicwar ( CVif (ufarir, ii, 1). In theearly nralior 

(uaiuiiiribe fearful perils from the Northern hordes jm- 
fniiag orer the empire (I/e Rrgnn, c xxi-xxiv). Wli 
la mini ■> engrosard by literary Ubors, by philosoph- 
nl rpcculations. and by troubles nearer home that the 



nn in ia candid 



Or waa b 



slobiafricnds? Yet 

ic chaim between the birth and the death of Sy 
■ irere not the mnet griiTOus calamities of thoae 
I Eren more grieroua was the social 
i iDTiied the inyasiona, and rendered 

There was no coheaion or conccn 
lepiDi^ncea; ito devotion to empenH-orem| 
but division, iaolation, misery everywhers — as 
least, of imperial rule and im- 
pn>] ■■iDiniMratiuii. The organization oftbegovem- 
•eai va iiDpitcnt for defence, or for that vigorous at- 
ik* 'bich is often the best means of defence. It waa 
Minvaily devised for inflicting needless and paialyi 
E( nitratnl, and for extorting revenue from penury 
Kj iridF-iiiread diMreaa. Ldndi were left uncuUlvat«l 
■4 ibuist without inhabitaiita. Wide tracts relapsed 
■C"! ImM or maiah. The people were ground by taxes 
bA the luinooa nwdc* of collecting them. Uovemenl 
^ BUetpriK were prevented in order to facilitate Bscal 
•mafmaeata Bridges were bn^en down by time and 
■riin. Kosd»wereleliwithouliepair,andbecameim- 
^«Ue. Gunmonieation was rendered difficult. Com- 
•"v. oanulactures, and industry of all kinds were 

niTHve repvna banditti luriied in the woods, infested 
U» bil^wsys, and 



h ba.ldi 






a pmbyter nearly cc 
•k theii 






OneU 



■fOn Ttfodimm Codr, whose compilatioi 
lbs ij-r, a DCBipied with defining and enforelng tbe 
I Wiliiiu (a municipal and other puUic burdens, and 
I mh npiluiog and reMiicling the exeroplions from 
' IttiajWhiA were oflen arbiinrily and eapriciouilj 



corded. The hard struggle for bare life engrossed near- 
ly all thoughts; and irregular, treacheroue, and violent 

ver opporiuniliea of indulgence pre- 

The general demoralization and 

the social disinlegraliun were aggravated by divisions 

the Christian Cbuich, wbich weakened the . 

the new religion, and by the great contention 

ecn Cliriaiianitv, oflen sadlv coiruplrd, and the 

■lich wascogniz " '■ 



itofitj 



■laofgov 



law, morals, and religion were fearfully enfee- 
bled, tull and indisputable infunoitlan in regard to 

Cieiialt Dti nf Augustine and the IM Guhtrnaliam 
Z>ri of Saivlan ofManeille*. Yet, despite all interrup- 
tions and apprehensions, philosophy and literature con- 
tinued to be cultivated. Thiloiopby tost itself in Neo- 
Platonic faplaaies and Oriental mysticism. Literature 
was, in large part, made up of pedantic epiailesaiid rhe- 
torical affectatio " "- 



id Symi 



No a 



be sought than is contained in the proiluctionsof Syne- 
aius. It was, however, also the era of the great Chris- 
tian orators and fathers, who contended earnestly against 
vice in high plaoes,oppressi»n and wrong wherever they 
were found, and the manifold diBtretses of the people. 
Ambrose, Bawl, Augustine, John Chrysostom, Jerome, 
and the two Gregvries illustrated tbe Christian Church 
in that age, and attracted the admiration of pagans aa 
well aa of the followers of their own creed. To none 
of them does Syneuua mnke any reference. These, 
■hen, were the varied, and in many respects alarming, 
aspects of the yeaia which measured the career of 8y- 
nesiuB, aikd by them its anomalies are rendered intel- 
ligible. 

II. Lt/c.— Synesiuswas probably bom about the year 
S70. Some authoiiliea say in ST6. His birthplace was 
Cyrene, the capital of Cyrensica, the tract whichst retch- 
es along the AfHcan coast westward ftom Egj'pt. Cy- 
rene was a Dorian colony of the mythical ages; and 
SynesiuB claimed for himself the must illustrioua Laco- 
nian descent. In his denunciation of Andronicus, he 
contrasts tbe splendoi of hia own lineage Hilh the mean 
extraction of the imperial governor. " lu default of 
other merit,"' says he, "I descend from Eurysthene! — 
from anceaton whose names, from Euryslhenes, who led 
the Dorians into Laconia, down to my father, are in- 
scribed in the public registers" (Epitl. Ivii ; comp. Cala- 
ibuu, ii, b). Thia deduces his line from the royal house 
of Sparta, though be has blundered in his statement of 
the ancient legend. His family was opulent i,Epiil. 
cxaxiii). He had a city house, and coootry estates in 
which be took unceasing delight. Meverlbeles^ be dil- 
igently soDgbt exemption from civic and Hscal burdens. 
His love of letter* and philosophy must have been man' 
ifeateil early, for his tastes were already decided and 
much accomplishment attained when be proceeded to 
" ' <SM) to attend the Neo-Platonic a ' ' 



n that ti 



IB city. Hen 



the beautiful, brilliant, and unfortunate 
Hypatia. He enrolled himself among ber disciples. 
He secured her esteem and regard, and always retained 
the warmest admiraliun fur her. Seven of his letlen 
■re addressed (o her. On returning from Egypt, be 
went to Athens, to complete his education at that old 
centre of learning and refinement, whence had issued, 
in the preceding generation, the empctni Julian and 
many of his distinguished contemporaries, psgan and 
Cbristian. He was utterly disenchanted by his visit, 
and made no long stay (£;iur.liv,cxxxv). After desert- 
ing Athens, he paid a second visit to Alexandria, as ii 
shown by a graphic and humorous letter {Und. iv), de- 
scribing the hazards of shipwreck to which he was ex- 
posed on his return. (Dnion, p. A8T-fi89, discuasea the 
calculations of Petavius and TiUemont, and asngns this 
voyage to 897.} Soon after bia letnm, be waa aeni by 



SYNESIUS - 



90 



SYNESIUS 



bit rdlow-dtizem lo Constantinoplr, to prcMnt tbcit 
pclitions anil > golJen cruvrn lo ihe younc emperor 
ArudiuB (l>e Bfffao, e. ii). He wis a youthrul Kmbiis- 
Uilnr. He appein In have diochirReil liia miaaicm with 
abiliiy, iccepunee, anil same Jegree of succeai. The 
emperor wii Hill under tulvlafie. Everything wai in 
nniruiion. The eouct wu diilncted by liitlfc rivalries. 
AUrU hail recently ravaged (ireece and threatened Ath- 
ens. During hia'atiy the iusurreclion of the Golhe in 
Phry([i« oecurred. It woa no wonder that ho npcri- 
enceil frequent inattenlicm and dwheanening procrasti- 
iulion>,and that he was at times r&luccil almoit to des- 
titution and despair. Ilehiii the honor of delivering a 
public harangue before the emperor. He gainul influ- 
eiiliil friends, establisheil a repnlalion for literary tal- 
ent, and acquired elegant correspondenlo, who would 
display and enlngize his epistles at Constant inople, 
while he would pay the ume compliment to theirs at 
Cyreiie. One thing he accomplished for bimaeir— im- 
munity from public dues. An earthquake hastened 
and excused bis departure from the capital of Ihe East- 
ern Empire. On reaching borne he found his cotintty 
desolated by baiharian war, an affliction froin which it 
had selilom been entirely free for five centuries. The 
nomads from the ed|^ of the I jbyan dewrl were mak- 
ing rrighlful irruptions, plundering, deslmying, murdcr- 
int;, and meeting with liitle and only inetTectual resist- 
ance (Kpiil. civ, cjtiii, cxxiv). The governor and offi- 
cials were more studious of pillowing than of repelling 
other |Hl1ap:rs. Synesiiiis calling tn mind his Laconian 
descent and the example of Leonidos, and having ap- 
parently had lome military training 



1 bis neighbors 



d led t 



t the spoilers. This war with the noiriads, 
which was renewei) from time to time, is mentioned in 
many of his letters, and forms the subject of a special 
tracr. These prmlnctions exhibit the weakness and 
wretciiedness of the province— the neglect, imbecility, 
cowanlice, and rapacity of the imperial anthorilieSi and 
the disgust of Synesiut at the conduct of both the peo- 

er, in tlie intervals of partial or local repose, he tnjoy- 
«! an elegant and learned retreat in his country resi- 
dences, duding occupation iu study, literary production, 
and Tnral pursuits, and relasatinu iu hunting, mouly 
sports, and an active cntrcspnudence. Two 
more after the close of his emliassy he revisit 
dria. It was during tliis visit that he marrieiL tie 
received his wife fmm the bands of the patriarch ; and 
lo lier and lo bis children he remained always teudeily at- 
tachol. Hit marriage was his first visible contact uith 
Christianity. It was, perhaps, decisive. It is no vio- 
lent presumption to suppose that liis wife was Cliris- 
tiaii, as he receiveil her from the Christian bishop of 
Ak'xamlria (KpUI. cv). "The unbelieving husband 
VMS barf bten saiKtilled by the believing wile;" at the 
wife may hare been cli<isen with a prevenlent dispoM- 
tion to believe. There is no evidence, no intimation 
of Ibis. Ttie mm was wrilten about this lime. It is 
pocan. The ireaiise Oh Drnimi was composed after 
bis niarrisce. It Is mystical and Ken-llalonic, and ac- 
cords with Christianity as little as Cicero's diiloftiie l>e 
Dirimiliuiif. After an abmle at Alexandria of more 
Ibau two years, and the birth of a son, he came back to 
Cyrcne, which was shortly afterwards 4Ksieged by ibe 
barbarians. Duringtiic succeeding years lie must have 



incliiieil inure at 



a pbikwophical il 



na!<. The d 



reputed a Chrixtian, or " almost a Christian," when elect- 
ed Usbnp oflHalemais (409, 410). The episrop.ilG was 
a very dilTerent function then from what it has been in 
iercner and more settled periods. The bishop was the 
guiile, the advocate, the pmlector, the HiippiTt.and often 
the judge of the Christian flock. His civil ailribules 
were of the utmost impnrtnice to the daily life of his 
people. Character was of more immcdiaie concern la 



them than doctrine. Synenus hod gaitied and dnerrsd 
Ihe esteem and conUdence of his countrymen. The mn- 
ropolitan Church of I'tolemais demanded him fur iii 
bishop. He was unwilling to incur the solemn res[iii-- 
sibililies of the poMlion. He declined, he pnMMed. ht 
urged objections which might be deemeil insupenli«<^ 
He could not put away the wife to whom he was de- 
voted; he was unwilling to forego the pleasures of the 
chase, Ihe other recreations of the couniiy, and the lit- 
erary and philosophical ease which had been the ctuni 
ofhUILfe. Hehndneitherrelish nor aptitude, he Ihougti, 

devolve upon him. He could not surrender the Neo- 
Flatonic cnni-ictiniis which he hid approved, expouinl- 
ed,and still believed: yet he recognised that Ihev nen 
at variance with Christian doctrine^ In an etabnnir 
letter to his brother he preients earnestly the gnwnlt 
of his hesitation and reluctance. He begs him to Itr 
his views iKfore Ihe patriarch Theophiliis, whoae deri- 
sion be ij^rees to receive as the decree of (iod {Epal.cr\ 
The patriarch must have recommended bis acceplSBtt 
of the sacred honor, notwithstanding his A'uia pfw:-- 
pnri. He was consecrated at Alexandria by Tlieofih- 
ilns. Seven months aflerwanls, being still in that air, 
he declared that " Ite would have preferred many deiiii< 
to the ejHSCOpatc'' {EpiM. xcv). Did he separate Imm 
hiswife? Druonlhinkathatbedi'L Ithasbeenmm 
frequently supposed that the separation was not reqolrH 
of him. Did he yield his convictions in regard to Itir 
pr6-existence of souls, the non-resurrection of the hodr, 
and the incompatilHlity of Christian rioctriiie with rr- 
vealeil truth? M. Druon again confidently oonclDdn 
that he did. Other inquiren, ancient and modem. Ik- 
lieve, with more probability, that he continued hj en- 
tertain them, for some lime at leasl, after bis elentioiu 
He may have acted on the convenient pritKiple of Se*- 
vola and Varro, which he avowed in the letter to lilt 
brother, that many things in religion ate ollegotiesl, 
which it is expedient to inculcate upon the vulgar, wbo 
are unable to receive tnitk In it* purity. At any ntr. 
be discharged with enei^, resoluiimi, inlegrily. ar-L 
skill the administrative and other extentalofBceaoftbe 
episcopate. He boldly assaileil the tyranny and rapaci- 
ty of the governor of the province, and succeeded in re- 
lieving the provincials of his rule. His denunciation eS 
I Androuicussun'ives. Another incident of his cpisropil 
\ aptitudes is preserved. He efiecled an amicable *vA 
I satisfactory settlement between two of bis sultragins fi* 
I Ibe possession of a dismantled fortress on the border «f 
their respective dioceses. There was ample occasion for 
the display of his sagacity and forlilude. I'he larifns 
of the nomads weie renewed. The Ansurians besieged 
Plolemais. The resistance of the inhabitants was hi*- 
tained by the courage of their bishop, who continue-l 
zealous in seeking protection (or the province, and hu 
transmitted to our daj-s Ihe reciird of its woes. lie" 
much longer he guided bis diocese we do not know. 
The dale usually assigned for his death (430, 431) it 
founded on a dubious conjecture. InihiadaieH.DnH>n 
does not concur. He considers a letter lo Hypatia, wril- 
ten from a sick-bed, ind ascribed In 413, to be hts lales 
epistolary or other production (Epiit. xvi) (Dnion, p 
551): and believes that be escaped, by an earlier death, 
Ihe affliction of knowing Ihe tragic fate of "his teacher 
mother, sister, friend." It would be stnngp, hod he 
known ii,tbat no mention of her murder occuni in Irlln 
or other t real i*c. A fantastic legend, two centuries aflcr 
his death, aiiributed lo him a miracle for the proof of the 
resurrection. The greatest of all miracles, in hi> can-, 
was that, being, or having l>een, a Neo-Ilatonist, be be- 
came > bishop <>r ibe rbrislian Church without the full 
renunciation of his views; that, being a provincial of sii 
African province, he ocipdred eminence in diplomacy, 
in philosophy, and in |>oeii3'; thai, living amid the tur- 
bulences, vices, and meannesses of Ihe Gib oentnrT. lie 
maintained the reputation of an innoccni, uncfre, aud 
gallant man. 



SYNESIUS e 

tit Wtrit.— The works of Synesiui, tuiuUy bHef— 
(m ihe Mm ig one of ilie longeii— ftr« numeroua inii 
virifd. ThfT are of great iuMmt. We may concede 

litnHceaf big Taney >iid the pmprieLy of hurefleclifina: 
■( nay ti'y-y ii>e frohnem and limplicity ot many uf 
bu iHtvni, ami [he unallnyed purity of his lentimenta; 



anbippj pe*™«. wm" 
OHrial aguny, that eivf ■ value lo hii remiiiu far tnn- 
■xwling their literary ami phiUiaophical eiivUeiicea. 
Tliese eicellencn were, indeed, couitlerbalanced by very 
m%t deffctib The style oTSynetiua ii (oo oHen cbai- 
■ctniied by iffeclaliuns, aUiiind fanciei> and a coii- 
tdoa cnvini; fur (li(t|>Uy. Hia philoaophy ia ■ithout 
■■riKinaliiy. Yet even hii philoaophy meriu attention, 
w Ulutuaiiog the tine graiUtiona by which pagan apec- 
ulalien mdied into tlie aemblance Df Chriaiianily wiih- 
lui iliveMing itaelf of its paf^aii phraM and tpirir. 

The work* of Syriesiua which survive (for his juve- 
nile poem, the CjHrjFrfKU, or, Oh I/nnling.hta been lost) 
an,an ^ Jdrtu lo Pteotam, KtT* lir Gi/I of an A tirelaht, 
uimied or irapruvcd by himself, in which be enconr- 
tffA bis friend lo proeeeuu Ihe sludy of astronomy : — 
■n Oratim on Cmvrwimf, delivered at Cnnitanlinapli 
Lefbn ihe eispcmr Arcidiui; it is somewhat commoD' 
ptie^ bat is remarkable for the boldnesa anil freedom 
^\a Dtierancc anil fi>r its sound aense :— fiion, which 

■ so olltd in honor of Dion Chr>-Boitam, his exemplar 
u Kyle and habit of thought. This treats of the 
iag of a philoaopher, nr, rather, of what had been the 
aaaail I be result of hia own education in philoaophy. 
Ii B. ia tatet wrt, a aeiui-pagan aaiicipation of the Rt- 
iilio Medici ot Sir Thomas Dniwne. 'I'he treatise is at 
tmes iruKendcntal, but abounds in high fancies and 
;:eBeniB ■apiraitons. The Unanaiam an Biitdnru is 

■ rheliirical cxiravaftania, a counterpart and rei^v lo 
Una Cbr)'KiMoai'* Kulagg of Unii: The specnlaliun 
0* ttrrami ia umply ■ specimen of suiierntition and 
)>B>-nuanic mysticism. It waa taoncireit or loaded 

■ by Nicephorua Uiegoraa. The 
r the production consists of 
m diMinct parts— is chiefly ■ mournful reoiiaiion of 
ibc aiwrie* of Cyrenaica, induced by chronie ti>iagor- 
tmBHU and oppressic-n, and by the reiterated inrasiona 
<t the DDoiad*. It iis peihapa. (he auongest testimo- 
gj to ibe weakness, impoverishment, and disorganiia- 
isaef ibe prm-incKt ol the empire that he sacribea the 
cilsmiiies which he specially deplores to only one thou- 
•nd Aiaurian^ and says that they were defeated and 
kaltend by forty imperial trooper^ Unuigirdie. The 
mud Otfatfufu is a eulogy of Anysius, the leader d~ 
iImo L'oni«udie, and ihemilitary chief of the provinc 
rkae Cnlailatn resemble the o^-erwruuRht declami 
tuu of the prufeasional rbetoricians. In the som 
Mmn. also, is (be declamation Ai/oiiat AndroKKia, , 
bUt. «i[itled Tilt Egyplun, or On PrVTidmer, is a n 
(Rt fur Ibe deposition and a laud for the restoration o 





inrfM. A couple of brief llemiiit, are entitled to no 


•fecial t-Kio. 


The DM important and the mint iitiercolinK of the 


TMoins of SynesiiBi ore bia tjUtr,. 1&7 or lfi9 in iium- 




dadtd from or U indu.Ird in the series of Kpinb,, and 


in llpamt. The letters are of diverse style, and on the 


■M dissimilar occasions. Some ore formal letters of 








axoUe «« lilerary flliK»w than for Ibeir contenl- 


OUm iHMia an friendly communicmtiuns or eyneot 




mtfacr 11 dinct mad oOcMioMte, ind i* rendered at 



I SYNGE 

tractive by the revelation of his dispositioD, (eelinn 
- iJ circumstances. The hmily and serious lellera 
loke a farorable contrast to the redundant epislolog- 
iphy of Libanius and Symmachns, and aRord in an 
equal degree pleasure and instruction. 

There is much variance of opinion in regard to both 
the character and Ihe dates of Ihe llgmm of Synesiua. 
Drunnhaseudeavoreilloflx Iheif chronolof-y, but Itard- 
ly secures confidence in his conctusioiu. The first iwo 
were, oimosl certainlv, the earliest. They are thorouch- 
1y Neo-Pbionicand probably pagan. The rest may be 
Christian, with a diminishing Neo- Platonic complexion. 
mly one entirely free from this philosophical choi^ 
istic is the short one numbered the tenth. Druon 
aisigns seven of the hymns lo the years preceding hia 

The third hymn is Neo-Platonie, but it is as Christian 
as the ninth. The later Neo-PUtouism apes so closely 
and sohabitually the languageandscntimenla uf Chris- 
tianity, and the Christianity of Alexandria is oflen so 
deeply imbued with Neo-Platnnism, that exact discrim- 
ination between pagan and Christian utterances is not 
always possible. The convicliuns or men were then in 
a tranution alsge in ei'erylbine, and pagoiibm and 
Christianity freiguenlly lapsed into each other. There 
is a passage in Ihe third hymn (rer. 210-230) which 
may be simply Neo-Plalonic, hut it bears a striking re- 
semblance, in thought and expression, to pans of the 
Alhanaxiaii Creed. Aa the conversion of Synesiun can- 
not be Axed to any certain dale, anil as he avoweil his 
inability to renounce his philosophic opinions when 
chosen bishop, all riie hymns may bare been composed 
under Christian iulluences, and all but the last may re- 
tain Net^Platonic tendencies, without being thereby 
rendered pagan. But these questions cannot be di*- 
cussed here. The hymns of Synesius exhibit no emi- 
nent poetic meriu Their attraction lies in their phihia- 
ophy, iu tbeir ease of expression and facility of versifi- 
cation, tt was a strange ailaplalion of Anacreontic me- 
tie to fit it to philoaophical and Iheoli^csl songs. Yet 
it may well be asked what meaning should be attached 
lo Ihe claim of Synesius, in the opening; of the seventh 
hvmn, to have been the tint lo tune his lyre iu houor 
of Jesus. 

IV. Littraiurr, — £jme«V Oi--i", cd. Tnmebi (ed. prin* 
cep^ Paris, IMS, fol.); >./. e.). Klorell. {ibid. 1SI2, fd.; 
curr. et aucia, tIMO. llUiS) ; id. apud fSirsum falrolo- 
gia, etc, ed. Uigoe (Latin, ibid. IH.MI, Svo; Greek and 
I^lin, ibid. I8U4, tlvo); I>ninn, ItJucm dt Sjmrriiio, 
Iruit, en /'tuofuil (iUd. 1KT8, 8va); Sgiieiii Uymni, 
ed. Itoissonade. apud Porn. Gr. Ssll"gt (ibid. 1824-82) j 
Sgnfiii l/^mni Mtlrici, eiL Fhick (Tub. 1876); Sjm«- 
tii Epiilola, eil. Heischer, apud Jipiiloloffr. Gr. (I'arii, 
1878); Chladni, Thmliigumma Sytrtii (Witienb. 1718, 
4lo); Boyseii,/'Ai/oMpj|uiiinu.Vynrjni'(lIalte,17l4,4lo); 
Clausen, Dr Synetiii Philovplio (UaSa. 1)»1)( Krauo^ 
Obi!. Cril. ia Ajrt»"'i Cyrm. KptHolia (Katisbon, lfl63)( 
Rllies Dupin, A'ourenu BitHoHii^ut dfi A ultur* EccUt^ 
ntliqun: Tillemonl, lliitime Kcfliiiuiliqur, xii, 499- 
o44; Ceillier, tlil. At Aulimt Santi, x, I496-1B17; 
\'i[\i!main,L'£iiiiutnu€hrilit«iKaulVtSiirlt(Pi.ni). 
(O. F. 11.) 

Bynge, Edwam), an Irish prelate, was boni atlni>> 
honane, April G, tdW), and was the second son of Ed- 
wanl, bishop of Cork. He was eibicated at Ihe gram- 
mar-school St Cork, and at Christ Church, Oxford, fin- 
ishing his stmlies in the Univrnity oT Dublin, tlii 



ill parish. 



in the tli 



of Meath, which he exchanged for the vicarage of 
Christ Church, Cork, where he wr^eil for over twenty 
yearn. In IG99 he waa offered Ihe deanery of Deny, 
but declinid it for his mothetV sake. He was chosen 
proctor for Ihe chapter in the Convocalion ofllOS, and 
soon after was presented with Ihe crown's title to the 
deanery of ISt. Patrick V.Dublin. The title being thought 
defective, thcchancellorship was presented loMr-Synge, 
which gave him the care orst.n'erburgh's, Dublin, la 



SYNISACT^ 9 

17 13 be wu choun proctor fur the chapter of SL Patrick's, 
nnil oil Dr. Sterne's promotioD to the ate of Dromore, the 
■rcbbubop of Dublin ippointed Dr. S.vnge bia ticu- 
generil, in wbicb oCBca he conlinued unlU be wu ap- 
poiiited biahop orKapboe, in 1714. Hewu niide ircb- 
biahop of Tuam in 17 IG,ov« which aee he preaided un- 
til hia death, Jaly 21, 1741. He publiihed manf sei-: 
mon* and icligioiu tract*, of labich a collective edition, . 
iiiiilerthetitJeofH'orii<LoDd.l710,lvDKl!mo; 1744, 
17i9), waa iuued. The beM-known ofbi* works is Tht 
CmUman'i Kdtgion. Hii Trtalit m Ike Hots C""'- 
mmioB was publiabed at PhiUdelphia iii 1849, 32mo. 
See AlliboDe, Ihd. of Bril. and A aer. A uMon, •. v. ; 
Chalmera, Biog. Did. ■. r. 

SjIllsaotSB (vuMi'mcrai), ■ Greek term for priMtB* 



of penitenla. called in tbe L^tin Church coniultnln. 
They were m called from their having liberty (after the 
other penilenta were dieiDiaaed) to stand witb the faith- ' 
ful at the altar, and Join in the common pray«n and 
•ee the obUtion ulTered. Still tbey could not yet make 
their own oblatiom, nor partake <>f ihe eucbariit. See 
Bingham, CAruf, Amliq. hk. xviii, ch. iL 

Synnadft, Council op ( Concilium Sgimadnut ), 
waa held about 230, or, according to *ome, in 266, upon 
the subject ofCalapbrygian baptuun. fiaptiam received 
out of the Church waa dedared to be null and void. 
See llanu, ComdL i, 760. 

Bynod (fram ti-votoc, a gadteriitg), a meeting or 
aaaemlly of eccletiaatical petHina to consult on matlen 
of religion. (See the monographB cited in Vo1t>edin^, 
Imiri Pngifwimmtm, p. 1G&.) Of theee there are four 
kindt, via.— I . General, where hishc^w, etc., meet from all 
natiuii). ThBw were flrat called by (he emperors; af- 
terwards by Chiiatian princes; tJU, In later ages, the 
pope UHirped to himself the greatest share iu thia biisi- 
iiess. and by hi* legale* prewded in them when called. 
See CEct'MKKlcAi. i. Katiooal, where those of one na- 
tion only come together to determine any point of doc- 
trine or discipline. Tbe flrsl of this sort which wc 
reail of in England waa that of Hetudlord. or Hertford, 
in OrS; and the last wu held by cardinal Pole in 
I36&. SeeCocNFiu S. Provinciid, when those only 
of one province meet, now called tbe nwrooarun (q. v.). 
4. Dioccaan, where those of but one diocese meet tn en- 
furce canons made by general councils or national and 
provincial synods, and to conaolt and agree upon rules 
of discipline for ihemselvea. These were not wholly 
laid aside till, by the act of aubmision (25 Hen. Vllj, 
art. 19), it was made uidawful for any synod to meet 
but by royal authority. See Synods. 

Synod is also used to signify a Presbj-terian Cbureb 
court, composed uf minialers attd elders from the differ- 
eiv presbyteries within its bounds, and is only subordi- 






'■ (4- V 



SVNOD, Asaoi-iATE, the blithest ecclesiastical court 
amonc the united Preshylerian Dixsenirrs in Scotland. 
the poweN of which an. in a ereat meawre. analt^nMis 
lothiHeof ihrtienpral AseemUy in the established kirk. 



! SYNODATICUM 

u-cre at first appointed by the king, but an now cbesea 
l>y the vlerg)-, the biahop of Attica being perpetual pmi- 
deiit. In 1860 it was furmally recognised by the patri- 
arch of Constantioople, throogh the mtdialicm of Ku«- 
sia, but on the condition that it should always receirr 
the holy oil from tbe molbcr Church- See Uiekk 
Chubch. 

SYNOD. I!BFVitiiBi>. SeeCovENANTBBS; Pkksbi- 

TSRIAN ClIUKCtlKS. 

SYNOD, Rkliip. Sec Scuti^akd, Chukciies is. 

SjOodAlea Testkb were persona anciently lum- 
moned out of every pariah in order lo appear at tbe 
epiacopal synods, and then attest or make prEfermetii 
of the disorden of the clergy and people. In aftri- 
limes ihey were ■ kind of empanelled Jury, cunaslrng 
of two, three, or mora persona in every parish, whs 
were, upon oath, to present all heretic* and other irtep- 
ular person*. These, in procea* of time, became slaixt- 
ing officen in aeveral places, especially in great cttio. 
and henoe were called STDEaKu (q. v.). Thti 
were also called QMatmm, from the nature of their 



BjQodala waa a term applied to (1) provincial 
constitutions or canons read after the synods in paii>li 
churches; (2) to procurations, so called because the 
bishop held his aynod and viaitation togetheri (3) i" 
the payments made a bishop by his clergy in virtue uf 
his holding a synod. See Stnoiiaticum. 

BTDodatlotim, or CATiiKiHtATTrvu, is the annual 
tribute paid by incumbenta of beneltces in the Church 



It is K*""aUy paid 



of the second Svn 
1. S, in 



..qn-iii).- 



., A.D. h-.l 



II. Ciitm 

SVXOD, Hm.v. the hiRhest court ol 
Umk Chureh. esublished by the rzar P 
■nd meeting now at Si. Petentburg. Each 
in a half-yearly report of its churches and \ 

many lii»h«pi. with procurators, aiiomey 
lay DiBciala. See UfssiAX Citt'Rcii. 

SYNOD, Holy Uor^>!(t.i<i. is the hit; 
Ibe Greek i'hurrh. eMaltlished in Gree» 
corerr i^f its indcprixlence. It n>et tinx 
■ 8Kt.'and in IMU was nvut:nised by the 



on ihe part of Spaiiiah bishops are (iiriii'l- 
den, and they an permitted only in connection with 
tbe vinlalionsofthHr districts "bonoremcaihedne sua) 
id est dun* solido* . . . per eccle«as lollere." l~bc sanw 
synod forbida the payment at an impost by candidates 
for ordination, which is also termed niriednirimi, boi 
muBL no) be conrbunded with iTie KpuAiilntm. Tbe 
seventh Council of Toledo, A.D. 646. conBmKd tlw ac- 
tion of Braga ; and Charks the Bald, in »4t, directed tbe 
pavment of two solidi, or an equivalent in kind (Peru, 
Manm. GrTmamia. ui.3T8), aod dewlvsd this collec- 
tion for the bishops on tbe arebpnabyten Vo^ Al- 
exander III cooceded to bisbopB who aboukl obtain a 
cbureb from the hands of the laity tbe ri^i to impose 
on it the mllifdnitiatm (c 9, X, Zle Tnuitu, iii,39>: 
and both Innocent III (c. W, X, Dt Cmibv} and 
llnnnrius 111 (c 16, X, Dr Ofiria JtuHtit Or^timan. 

ilered. Oiherreferenoesmavbe roondinDu FrTSDe.s.v. 
-Synodns;" Benedict XIT. Di 
■,c.vi,l and 2; Richiet. A'inAM- 

iT<-A((5lhed.). Si33,D0te4.eu.i Godenu*. rn£ Z)qtb- 

mal. i. No. 93, p. 260. Tbe Caancil of Tmt diannuD. 

lied the payment of nuDy beaw imponiiintii cnnDcrud 
,T^ with visiuiiona (sea*, uiv, cul S, i^ /trform.) t but 
n J«-.v. various declarations of tbe Cvmfiwyatio prv^ fwtfrpm^ 
«*eiidf C,»K..rri*i«f, have left the coOeAatMst in fence (s« 
^ '"' rerraris.fiW.riiwn.s.T.-CatlMdiatkani'Tboiiunn. 
and as (rf.oc -Vur. An^Oisripi III,ii,»i,M: Bemdirt XK, 
1 other „ „p 6 ,,„, ;, /,r^,r,aiama 18-26 id tbe edition oC 

Trent by Kichier aod Schnlte, lot. tH.}. 
oun of Thin imf«»t is termed calhrdratnm "in bomrvtt 
the re- mtheilne," and tynodoHnm as being coUected durins 
'yra in itic jiewton uf synod; but it ba* to pnctice been pat-l 
itiiiriin. Bl orher limrt a» welL and is cxaclnl even when no 

srooj . bida iBencJict XIV, i 



mip. etc.), i tax cxrseaavc 



SYNODIC^ 



luiml in uiv cue, unonnting gen. 
tnlljr to two •olidi. It mnit be paid by all churches 
iDd boKScn uid tbeir incutDbenU, and iIbo by Hmi- 
pmrf with which bciieficcB are incorporated, and lay 
oaiia hiriog a cbuitb of Iheir own. Bcgulan are 
rumtitwiLh lerermK (a canienu and convent chiiich- 
B IB wbicb tbcy peiwnally miuiiler. The Order o( 
SlJoIu flTJenualem is likcKite exempt. Id pncltce, 
M«u,iihas not alwiyabeen ponible U> collect these 
luM. Austria ccaaed to pay them under imperial re- 
loipti of 17^ and 1803, and in many other dittricta oC 
Gumuiv they were quieUy tliicoutinued. Their valid- 
ii; an deciHil in Bavaria, on the other hand, ao late 
u IHl (we Pennanedei, Jlaitdb. d. Kirrkmrtchli, 3d 

td, p. 319. note) Her»%, Jital-t'iicjitlap. a. v. 

SyooSlcm (stvocwaO vera lellen wriuen by a 
im biibop infiimiing other biihopa of hia proinotioa, 
lad Lo ualify hia deaire tn hnld communinn nith [htm. 
i D^hct Id write such iettera waa interpreted aa ■ re- 
taial lo bold aoch comcnunion and a virtual charge or 
bcTHT upon hia fellowa. Circular Iettera autnmoning 
il* liiibopt 10 a provincial aynud were alao called Sg- 



Srnodlta) ( friHn trimiiK, a tommnHti/ ) were 
amki who lived in communilin or coiivenia, differing 
iailumpect from the Amt^orttrt 

EhfDOda (aim a noticeable Tealuie in the hiMory of 
lilt geatral Churcb. Paiticnlar synods have served to 
niditite particular atag^ in the pmgreta or retrogres- 
i>n cJ the life of tbe Church, as reapecta the develop- 
cni tf knowledge and leaching, the formation of the 
■onUp and the conatiiiilion of the Cburcli itself; and 
ill STBDds serre. more clearly than other inatitulions, 
l» lenal the ruling spirit, the measure of strength, or 
ibe type of disease, in anyf^iven period. The breadth 
d ibe fieU covered by this title will appear from the 
Ian that Hanii'a (q. v.) colleclion of the acts, etc, of 
macis, tilending only into the I6lh century, em- 
bnns II volonee fuliu. 

With tnpect lo the origin of synods opinions differ. 
Sum isibon hold them to have been divinely insli- 
iiMd Ibrmgh Ihe agency of the apostles (Acts xv, ea- 
taaaOy ver. 38. Tl seemed good to Ihe Holy (ihosi, 
■ad 10 bT), while others concede lo them a merely ac- 
(ilaul rise. The courtcit in Acts xv must certainly 

Oa the other haitd, the situation of the Church and Ihe 
pn^rnt of events funiirhed the providential cundicions 
t? akich tcdeaiaatical asaemhliea became necessary, so 
diSl ike Ihtotj' of a merely human origin for ibem can- 
mi be tcnpled. The hislory nf our sulijecl, excluding 
lie period since tbe Keformation, admits of being di- 
TsM into Bve periods. 

L Til Brgianmgi of ike JnlUvlim ofSyiodi at Fur- 
»Ati b, prortHdal Sr^i (to A.D. 3-2&).— The earliest 
•"well ajnoda of which mention is made are one al- 
ireni ID have been held in Sicily in A.D. lib against 
lit Ksatic Ueracleon (q. v.), and one at Home under 
Mop Tctenphonia (d. 139); but Ihcre is not the 
dgkustFTideiKC that either of lliem waa held. The 
adat of which we have aulhentic information wen 
Md ia Asia Minor against tbe MontaniaU (Eiisebius, 
m^. EcrL T, 16), probably not before A.D. IW. Soon 
ifimanls rarioas si'Rods were held to diacusa the cele- 
WiUoo af Waiter (tfrid.r, ffl) and other questions; so 
>b( Tenollian speaks (ZV Jrjmiu, e. 13) of the con- 
rcuag of Mcb bodiea at a custom among the Greeks, 
nl dtaeby at Ihe same lime implies (hat such aaaem- 
Hit> were not known in his oivn (African) Church. 
Sidi eanleTCOcn promatcd Cbriatian unity and laid the 

* were regnlaiiy held in each year, and were itlend- 
li bj Udotia and cidera, so that Ihey had already be- 
amt a bed and periodically recurring instttulion, in 



SYNHSIAST^ 

which the different cbnrches shared in the persons of 
llieit appropriate rtpreaentalives (see Kirmllian's letter 
lo Cyprian, i^pp. No. 76). The earlifsl synods in tho 
West were held in Africa about A.D. 31 S, and soon such 
assemblies became frequent. The next stage in the de- 
velopment of synods appears in tbe extension of their 
Jurisdiction over larger areas than ■ single district or 
province, by which the inauguration of eecumenical 
councils was prepareil for. At Iconium, in 256, repre- 
sentarivcs were present from fiaUtia, Cilicia, etc Ev- 
ery part of Spain was represented at Elvira; and the 
Synod of Aries, in 314. was alUndeil by bishops from 
Gaul. Britain, Germany, Spain, North Africa, and Italy. 
II. A.D, aaa to 869. — The tecumenical synods of the 
Greek Ch urch. beginning with that of Nicsa (q. v.) and 
closing with the fourth Council of Constantinople (q. v.). 
III.A.D,869tolSII.— Councils oftbeWeateni Church 
ider the direction of the papacy, including a great 
imber of provincial and national synods whuae pro- 
ceedings indicated both tbe otmoat devotion md the 
most decided oppoution tn tbe rule of Ihe popes—end- 
g with the general Couodl of Tienne in Gaul (q. r. 
verally). 

IV. A.D. ISII to IS 17.— Councils ostensibly aiioing la 
cure reform " in bead and members" — Pisa, Constance, 
id Basle (q. v. severally). 

V. A.D. 1517 to 1&6S.— Tbe Reformation and tbe te- 
itionary Synod of Trent (q. v.). 

For an enumeration and characterization of the more 
iportant synods see tbe article Councils, to which we 
also refer fur a list of sources. — Henog, Rtal'Eiuyldop, 

SjnSdna (crvcofoc), a term applied in the early 
Church 10 the building (church) in which Ihe synod 
waa held. It was simply transfe^ed from tbe assembl)' 
to denote the place of assemkly, aa was done with Iba 
word ecc^nu. 

Syntbi&nnB (iriv^ovoc), a Greek term to signify 
the seals of a bishop and his clergy in the bema of an 
Oriental Churcb. 

Syn'tyche {^vvrvyiti, uriik Fait), a female mem- 
ber of the Church of Philippi, mentioned (Phil, ir, 3, 3) 
along with another named Euodias (or rather EuoiUa). 
A.D. 67. To what has been said under the latter head 
the foUowing may be added: Tbe apostle's injunction 
10 these two women is that they should live in hamiony 
with each olher, fma) which we infer that they had, 
more or less, failed in Ihia respect. Such harmony waa 
doubly important if Ihey held olGee as deaconeaaes in 
the Church, and it is highly probable that this waa Ibe 
case. They had afforded to Paul active co-operation 
under difflciilt circumstances (fv ry tbayyt\i<f in^vq- 
dMaAf pm, rer. 8), and perbapa there were at Philippi 
other women of the same class (ainvr;, ibid.). At all 
evenl^thie passage is an illustralion of what Ihe Gospel 
did for women, and women for the Gospel, in the apoa- 
tulic times; and it is the more interesting as having 
reference lo that Church which was Ihe liist founded 
by Paul in Europe, and the fint member of which waa 
Lydia. Some thoughts on this subject will be fiiund 
in Billiet, Comm. lur FipUn mx FkOipp. p. SIl- 
814. 

SyniiBiftBtfe (mvovaiairriii) were those who held 
thai the incarnation of our Lord was effected by a blend- 
ing or commixture of the Divine suhslance with the 
substance of the human Uesb. The name is taken from 
the statement of Ihe iloclrine rrovoiHH'iuoif ycycvqvSoi 
Toj epoffic Tns 9<drt|rof (Theod. flier. Fab. iv, 9). 
Theodorel calls this sect Poltmiam, one of the Apolli- 
nariat sects; and Apollinaris himself, in the latter part 
of his life, added to his distinguishing heresy regariling 
Ihe soul of our Lord either this bere»y or one closely 
■kin lo it. At the Lateran Coundl in A.D. 649 were 
quoted two extracts from Polemon'a works, fmm which 
it appears that the Synusiasts retained the heresy re- 
garding Ihe soul of our Lord, denying him a huD'- - 






SYRACUSE s 

netting that be was tobimaetfaralionil louL 

maiiiu^. Al the outbreak of the eonlrovei- 
ling Ibc iiicamiEiun, ume uaerted the con- 
vereiou 01 the suhsL»nc« of the Uodheail iiim the eub- 
uance of flesh, nthen Ibat the Divine nature supplied 
ill CbiiH the place of the human aouL The attempt to 
bold these (wo tenela together resulted in ■ denial of an 
tvai-ipiiiniBis altogclber. To avoid this denial, it wu 
allowed that the duh of man was oHumed, but ao blend- 
ed Kith the Divine substance as to eliminate that Isn- 
dency to un which it waa alleged could not but be resi- 
lient in human nature. Diodorus of Tarsus and Theod- 
otus ofAatiuch irrota against this heresy. See Cave, 
Uil. Lil. ; Blunl, Met. o/Sfcti, etc, «. v. 

Bjrr'aouaa {Svpasovam ; Lat. S^raciaa), a cele- 
brated city on the eontem coast of Sicily, wbither Paul 
acrived in an Alexandrian ship from Helila, on bis voy- 
age to Rume (Acts xxf iii, IS}. It bad a Hiic proaprct 
from every entrance both by sea and Uuil. Its port, 
which had the sea on both sides of it, was almost all of 
it environed with beautiful buildings, and all that part 
of it which wai without the city was on both siiles 
banked up and sustained with very fair walls of mar- 
ble. The city it«elf, while in ita splendor, was the 
largest and richest that the Greeks possessed in any 
part of the worliL For (according to Strabo) it was 
twenty-two miks in cireumrerence, and both Plutarch 



t SYRACUSE 

About aC 210 this city was uken and aackad br 

Htrcellus, the Koman general, and, in storming tbe 
place, Archimedes, the great matheoialician, who ii (•■ 
teemed the lint luventor of the sphere (and who, dar- 
ing tbe siege, had surely galled tbe Buinans with ■*- 
toiiisbing military engines uf his own iiirention), wu 1 
slau) by a common sakliet while intent upon his stud- 
ies. After it was thus deilmyeil by Marcellus, Ai^ui- , 
tus rebuilt that part of it which stood upon tbe islaud, 
and in titoe it so far recovered as to have ihree walU 
three caailes, and a marble gate, and to be able to Miid 
out twelve thousand horse soldien snd four bnmlml 
ships. In A.D. 67& the Saracens scii^ on it, bul ia 
1090 it was taken from (hem by Roger, duke of Apulia. 
It yet exists under its original name (Ital, Siraaua), 
■nd is still much frequented on account of its cotnmudi. 
ous harijor. Paul stayed here three days as he went 
prisoner lo Rome (Acts xxvii, 12) ; here also Chrisiiait- 
itj was early planted, and still, at least in nanie. conliii- 
ues; bat tbe city has lust its ancient splendor, though 



still te 



The magiiideei 



Sicily had been exhausted in the civil wan of Cen 
and INiinpey, and the piratical warfare which Seiti 
Pom|iciu«, the youngeat son of the latter, subaeqiieniJ 
carried on against tbe triumvir Octavius. Augusii 



was 


qualfo 


lat 


of C 


rthage. 


It 


was the olrtes 


of 


lhe<. 




.e^ 


beiuB 


founded 


by 


Corin 


hians,an 


din 




nerconsi 




offou 


cities united 



and 


r Ortycia. 


The B 


rst of these 


conui 


>ed the fa- 




remple of 


Jnpit.^ 


, the second 


tbe ' 


emple of 


Fortune, the third 


a large 


amphilhea- 



. Coogic 



SYRACUSE 1 

mitnd S.TnciiK, ■> abo Ciltna and Ceotoripi, which 
IM hid cuatribulcil much lo [he succeiiful inue of 
tia itniggle wiih Seitiu PompcLui. yet Che iaiand 
()nTi(ii ukI ■ rrrv imall purtioii of Ihe munland ad- 
jnniug vtlSotd fur ihe new coloniMs and th« remnant 
1/ iht lifnner population, liut the bile of Syracuoe 
imlrnri it a c«iT«iieDt place for the African com- 
ilii|4 lu (uucb 11, fur the hailnr wai an excellent one, 
ud iIh Aiuntiin Aiethiua in the iiUnd furnished an 
ubilmg nipply of excellent water. The prevalent 
tiikl in ibii put nf the Mediterranean ii Ihe W.N.W. 
Tbia would canr Ihe vrssela frum the com r^on ly- 
a« dfiiud of Cape Bon.rounii the aonthem poiulof 
i«ilj,C«Iie Pachynos, 10 the eastem ahore of the isl- 
ud. CiwiiinG "P under the ahelter of Ibis, they would 
In (iibH- iu the hartior of Meaaina or at Rhegium, un- 
Id Lhe Bind changed to ■ southera point and enabled 
' : Campanlui harbor Futeoli or Gaeia, 



uOsiia. 



Id CI 



n Aftic 



lo Soly. if the wind waa eiceasire, or varied 
Uim poiiiu to the northward, tbey would naturally 
ttuupfur Ualla; and thii had probably lieen the OM 
nihltK-Twina," the (hip iu which Paul round a pai- 
■n >net hu nhipvreck on the eoau of thai island, 
.(mtnl in llalia, they walcbed for the opportunity of 
1 aUHl III tike then) weslwani, and with auch a one 
Uni naililr nude SyncuM. To proceed farther while 
iiiNuupofd blowing would have exposed them lo the 
tinna at 1 lee-shore, and acmrdingly tliey remained 
-ibnt iliyi.'' They Ihei), the wind baring prohahly 
lUW into A westerly quarter so ai to give them 
mall waa, coasted Ihe shore and made iiripuXSoV' 
T<f uK^rrqffapiv ii'c) Rhefpum. After one day there, 

titr iheielun weighed, and arrived at I'uteuli in the 
OHM ofibe ucDnd day of the run (Acts xxriii, IS-H). 

In ibe lim of Paul's voyage, Sicily did not supply 
lb Emaa with com to the extent it had done in Ihe 
liiiFof king Iliem, and in a leu degree as late as Ihe 
"■tofCicera It i>«n error, however, lo suppose that 
III icil WIS exhausted ; for Slnbo expressly says thai 
i^ 'vn ud some other produclions, Sicily even sur- 
I*«i luly. Out the country had become dcpopu- 
lunl br ibe lung series of wars, and when it pasiied 
niodie hanib of Rocne, her great nobles turned vast 
incuiniopaMore, In Ihe time of AuBustus the whole 

U urnii; ill exports (except from the neighborhood 
■" ibf rolanic F^on, where excellent wine was pro- 
'■Jirf],(u Slack, hides, and wool appear lo have been 
\if DnjuuTKui irtidea. These grazing and horse-breed- 
i^&niawtrfkfpt up by slave labor; and this was Ihe 
"■« Uui the wlmle island was in a chronic stale of 
"^■artmw, owing to the slaves continually running 
■*>7 ud forming; bands of brigands. Sometimes these 
''nae n titraidable as la require the aid of regular 
■iivT opetiliooi U) put them down-, a circumstance 
('liiik TiLerius Cranhu* made use aa an arf^ument 

'■''-i.SXwhich would have reconverted Ihe spacious 
FOs-IOKb into small anble farms cultiraled bv Ro- 

Is iht time of Paul there were only Ave Ronun col- 



onies in Sidly, of which Syracuse wia one. The oth- 
er* were Caiani, Tauramenium.Thernue, and Tyndaria. 
Heasana too, although not a colony, was a town tilled 
with a Roman populilion. Probably il) iiihahitaiils were 
merchants connecio) with Ihe wine-trade of Ihe neigh- 
bnrhood, of which Messaiia was the shipping port. Syr- 
acuse and Panormus were important as SI ralcRical points, 
and a Roman force was Itejl up at each. Sicilisns, Sica- 
nian^ Horgelians, and Iberians (aboriginal inbabitanis 
' early settlers), si ■ 



what ei 












that of villeins. Some 
few towns are mentkined by Pliny as having the Latin 
franchise, and some as paying afixed tribulei but, with 
the exception of Ihe fire colonies, Ihe owners of the (oil 
of the island were mainly great absentee proprietors, 
and almost all ita produce came to Rome (Slraho, vi, 
!i Appian, fl. C. iv, 84 sq. ; v, lS-118; Cicero, Kerr, iv, 
68 ; Pliny, H. ff. iii, 8). For a full account of ancient 
Syracuse, see Smith's Diel. of Grog. s. v., and the liter- 
ature there cited : also Uotler, De Siia ft Oriffint S^ 
raauarum (Lips. 1818) ; for the mwlem citv, Ilkrleker, 
Sou/Ami //a/y, p. 808 sq. See SiciLT. 

Bji'iM, a province and kingdom of Wealeni Asia, 






h have 



■ubjects of no little diScuIly to both sacreil 1 

ical geographeia. As including Palestine, it ia of in 

tense inleiest in Bible geography. 



1. Thew 



itfyi-i. 



n He- 



brew; but in the A.V. it is Ihc usual, though not the 
uniform, rendering of the word Aram (p'ttt). Thus 
in Geo. X, S2, A ram, the youngest son uf Sheni, ia men- 
tioned aa the founder of the Anuniean nation, from 
whom tbe whole counliy coloniieil by his deioendanis 
look its name. The country is therefore rightly called 
"Aram" in Kumb.xxiii,T; but Ihe very same Hebrew 
word is rendered iftiopoltoHia in Judg. iii, IO,and Spin 
in X, 6. 



Ilw 



Are pi 



cipaliii 



: I. 



A raia-Bafomrut (called in the A. V. " Syria of Damas- 
cus'T; 2. Aram-MaachoA; S. Aram-Uith-Rickob 1 4, 
Aram-Zviak ; and 6. ^ram-iVotaraiin (Mesopotamia 
in the A. V.). These have already been described. 
See Aram. When the kingdom of Damascus atlaincd 
to great power under the warlike line of Iladsd, it was 
cil&d by wayofdialioctinn^rnin,which unfortunately 
ia rendered "Syria" in the A.V. (3 Sam. viii, 6, ISi 1 
Kings x,!9; xv,lS; ! Kinga v, I ; xxiv, !, etc.). This 
lax method of Iranalalion waa Iwrmwed from the Sept. 
and Vulg. versions. The Targums retain .< rom ; and 
it would tend much lo geographical accuracj- and dis- 
tinctness were Ihe Hebrew proper names uniformly re- 
tained in the A.V. 

The region comprehended by the Hebrews under 
Ihe name Aram was not identical wiib that which the 
Ureck writers and the authoia of the New Test, in- 
cluded under Syria. It embraced all Mesopotamia and 
Aseyrla, while it excluded Phcenicla and Ihe whole ter- 
ritory colnniieil by the Canaaniles. Sec Canaan, 
In the Sew Test. Ihe name Syria (Svpia) is not em- 
ployed with great ilefinilenesi. In fact, it 
ia doublful if e\'er Ibe (iieek geographeia 
were agreed as lo the exact boundaries of 
the country eu called. Hallbew, after men- 
tioning the mi(!hly works and wondrous 
, teachings of our Lord in fisli lee. says: "His 
fame went throughout all Syria," alluding 
I apparently lo Ihe country ndjoining Cialilee 
on the north (iv, 24), Luke apjilica Ihe 
name to the Roman province of which 

in'rliKlc PalQsthTc {ii, 2). 'in tl"" 



XV, 23. The apoallcs 



vord i 



!ed i 






SYRIA 8 

"unto the brelhren of the Genlites in Anlioch, and 
Syrt*, and CilicU;" Bntl ifterward* it ia aaid that 
l^ul, aettiii); out frotn Anti«ch. " went through S^ria 
and Cilicia" (ver. 41 1 coinp. Ual. i, SI). A widrr sig- 
niJicalioD H«mti to be altacbed to the name in other 
ptuages. It ii wid of Paul, when going to Jenualeni, 
" that he sailtd thence (from Greece) into Syria"— giv- 
ing thii general name to Palestine aa well te the coun- 
try north of it (Acta xviJi, 18 ; nx, B). In one paiaage 
taken fcom tbe Sept. the name is employed an an equiv- 
alent of the Hebrew .4 mm (Luke ir, 37; com p. 2 Kings 
v,50). 

3. The origin of the word is not quite certain. Some 
make it a contraction or corruptinn of A $tyria (Scylax, 
PtripL p. 80; Dion.vs. Perieg. 9;0-976; Eiulalh. Con- 
ntntf. ad loc, etc.). Herodotus ^ay^ "The people whom 
the Greeks call Sgriant are called AMf/riiBU by tbe 
barbarians" ("'1,63); and theie names were frequently 
confounded by the later Greek writers (Xenopb. Ct/r. 
vi, 2, 19; viii, 6, 24}; and apparently also by aonw 
of the Latius (Pliny, ff. y. v, 13). A mnch ntore 
probable etymology ia that which derivca Sj/ria from 
Ttur C^IX), <he Hebrew name of the ancient dty of 
Tyre. The distinction between Syria snd Assyria ia 
very great in Hebrew. The Greek form of the name 
derived from Ttar would be Tiaria ; but as this could 
not be expressed by Greek letters, it was Bofteued down 
to Zupia. Aayria is in Hebrew *1^Q<'(t, and in Greek 
'Aaavpia, and sometimes 'Arou^'a. "A still greater 
distinction between the names is found in the Assyrian 
inscriptions, where Assyria is called .4i-aur, while the 



» STRIA 

Tyriana arc the Tnr-ra-ya, the charaete^n med bs- 
ing entirely different" (Rawlinaon, Herod, i, 63, note). 
Tyre was the most important city along the Meiiit«- 
raneaa ooast. With it and its mterpnsing merchanu 
the Greeks soon became {uDiliar; and they pre to iht 
counlcy around it the general name Sgt-ia — thai a, 
"region of Tyre." 

It is interesting to observe that the connection br- 
tween Syria and Aram is noticed by Strabo when tnce 
menling on a stanza of Pindar; "Others UDderuanl 
Syriam by the A rini, who are now cslliHl A roHrT 
(liii, 62«, and i[vl."86)[ and again, "Thoae whoiB n 
call Syrians (Xiipovc) are by tbe Syrians tbemselTB 
called Anneniaiu and A rammaaiii" (Apofiuaiovi ; i. 
2,34), 

Tbe name Syria was thus of foreign origin. It wa 
never adopted or acknowledged by the people theis. 
•elves; nor was it ever employed by native authors ex- 
cept when writing in Greek for Greeks. At the pm- 
ent day it ia unknown in the country. It has been 

cially applied to Damaacus and its kingdom. Then ii 
something analogous to this in modem usage. EA- 
Sham is the name now commonly given to both ciij 
and country, though in more correct language tbe liir- 
mer is styled Dimahk ti\-3iam. 

II. Eximi and Somdarva.— I. Ancient g«ogtaphm 
do not agree as to the extent of Syria. IlendutiH 
makes it reach to the Black Sea on the north (i, 6) ; lo 
Paphlagonia and the Uediterranean on the west (i. 7i: 
ii, 12, 116); lo Egvpt on the south (ii, 158, IK«); and 
lo Media and Persia on the east (vii, 68>. lie coti- 




ml b 



arose ihe error inio which he fell rt^ 
garding the extent of the fumter. Tbe 
same view is taken bv Xenupbon (.4jni& 
i, 4, 11-19). Even Stiabo states in one 
place that "(lie name Syria seeips tu 
extend Ihjm itabylonia aa faros the bay 
of Is9UB,and anciently from thia bay lu 
tbe Euxine. Bulb tribes of the Cap- 
padocians— those near tbe Taum*. and 
ilKiae near Ihe Pontus — are called to 

however, from a snbsequent aentencr. 
that he in this ]^aco fell intA tbe emie 
of Herodotus; for he thus rcmailis. 
"When the historians of the Syrian 
empire say that the Medea wn« con- 
quered by the Persians, and the Syrians 

ans than those who built tbe royal pa). 
aces of Babylon and Nineveh ; and Ni- 

one of these Syrians" (xvi, 73"). It i! 
eviilent that for Syrians the name ^* 
(yi-imi should here be substituteil. Tbi 
great similarity of Ihe namet^ no iIodIk 
undcd to create this amfunion. 

When writing directly of the connir 
of Syria, Strabo ia more accurate. Il' 
describes its extent, boundarie*, and iti 
visions with great minuleness. " Syri 
isboundedonthenonhbyCilicia[;coai{ 
AclBiv,2S] and Mount AmaniiB; on th 
east by the Euphrates and the Arabia' 
ScenilKjwholiTeon thbiide [weat^ o 
tbe Euphrates; on the south by Arabi 
Felix and Egypt; on the west b; Ih 
Egyptian and Syrian seas, aa far ■■ l- 
ius" (xvi, 749). Pliny ei*e« sulwtar 
tially tbe same boundaries. He ^v 
however, that some ceographerw it 
vide Ihe country inlo four provino^ 
Idumiea, Judna, Pbtcnicia, and Sjri 
(,ri. .V. V, IS i comp. Joaephu% .4 itt. i 
6,1). 



STRIA g 

hilMBf cmfina Sjrit within the (ainelimita on the 
Matt, vnl, tnd cut ; but he nurkiilswiitbpm bound- 
tfT bf a Uh rnmtuig from Dor, at the hase of Ciniielf 
hf Snihnpfto ind Philadelphia, to Aludamua Hon* 
(JtM' HauiiLn). Kc thna includes Phcenieii, Galilpe, 
•Dd a pmion ot Pema, but exclude! Judna and Idu- 
n>a« (t, IS). 

1 In Ihii article the name Svria ii cnnflned to what 
■pptan to be iu mare strict New-Teac liftnincatian. 
In boandariM aaj be given as foliowa: Ftleatine on 
itnamtli; iheHoiiteiTaoeaii on the west; Cilicia and 
Voont Aaianiia on the nonh; and the Eupbratea and 
daert of Palmvn on the eatt. Its length, fmiu the 
nnaih oT the Litinj on the aoulb lu the bay of lakan- 
ditfln on the north, is £60 mile*, and its breadth aver- 
age! about 130 miles. Ita area rnaj tbua be eatiniaied 
K RW aquare raitea. It lies between lat, 33° 19' and 
Wtr N.. and long. So°46' and S8° E. 

Ill, Fhifical Gfograpkii. — Syria, like Palealine, is di- 
' a of belts, exiemliug in parallel linea 
h. (1.) A narrow belt of plain along 

1, on ibe north, extending aa far as the bold 
7 of RAa el-Khanitr. South of the pmnion- 
UKj it the Icnile plain uf Seleueia, now Snweidty eh, at 
ibe DoMb of the Oronto. Then fnllnwi the peak of 
Cinaa, which dips into the aea; and fmm its aoDthem 
tan down to the n»uth of the LilAny atrecchea the 
;Ui of Phonicia, varring in breadth tram ten niilea 
it Ladiklyeh to half a mile at Kdon. It ia nearly all 
Imik ; aod aDine pnrliona of it at Sidon, Beirfic, and 
Tripoli are among the richest and moat beaatiful in 
Sriia. (1.) A belt of mounlaina, the backbone of the 

ih( Bivth; then foUowa Bargylus in the centre, and 
LeUncB an the soiiib. (3.) Tbe great valley of Cnle- 
STria,aDdilanottbein estenaion the valley of the Omn- 
Tn.i(rai Ibe next belt, and omstitute one of the moatre- 
■artablt TcMtireaoftbeFnuntry. (4.) Tbe maunlain- 
cbna <rf Antilebanon, though broken by the plain of 
HHBih,flBdsa natural piolDngBIion in the ridge which 
TBia in tbe parallel of ihe city of Hamath ami ratia 
sanhward beyond Aleppo. (6.) Along the whale eiat- 
wi border Ironj north to aouth extends an arid plateau, 
ycak and deaolate, the borne of tbe roving Bedawin. 

L ftakm. — The plaint of Ph(£nida have already been 
Mind uadtr that head. 

By Ikr tbe axial important part of Syria, and, on the 
vMr,ita most striking feature, is Ihe great valley which 
nadwa fimn the plain of Umk, near Anliocb, to the 
oatnnr gorge on which the Lit&ny enters in about lat. 
WW, Tbia valley, which nina nearly parallel with 
iW Syrian coaat, extendi the length of S30 mllea, and 
kaawkUbTaryingfivmeoratAlSorSOiniles. The 






walhno 



lo the ai 



■•Cak-SyriB,aT "the Hollow Syria," and has already 
bava deacnbot See C<ELC-SvniA. In length tbia por- 
terminating with a 






tf Hun 



tion of Ihe valley alao ceaaea, and 
a ^ns to bend to the north-west. 

Tbi plain of Hamath ia very extensive. It joina 
Otb-Syria «ti the aouth, and eiumla mrlhward on both 
■Jh tt the Orontea aa far aa Apamea, about aeventy 
iriaa: wbDc its breadth from tbe base of Lebanon to 
!>■ iKtn b nearly thirty. Ita aariace ia almost per- 
(vtly lat, ita soil gtnenlty a rich black mould; water 
uibondanL Upon it once stood the large cittea of 
IIiliiah,l.aodiiieB ad Libanum, Emesa, Arethusa, Larissa, 
Baaath, and Apamea; all of which, with the exception 
<i Hamath and Knean (now Haroi). are either in ruin* 
« l«Tt dwindlal down to poor viUagea. 

Tba plain of Damaacus and its oontinnnlion towarda 
lUirtn oa tbe aoath are exceedingly fertile. See Da- 



7 SYRIA 

which stands Ihe misetable village of lakanderiin, tha 
only seaport of Antioch and Aleppo. 

The plain of Suweidtyeh, at the month of the Oron- 
les, is still a lovely spot, in part covered with otcharda 
and mulberry plancationa. On its northern border lie ' 
Ihe mina of Seleueia, tbe port from which Paul em- 
barked OD his Atst miaaiahary jouniey (Acts liii, 2-4), 
a!id once so celebrated for ita docks and foKiAcaliona 
(Polybius, bfc. v). 

2. tfoMiraiiu.— (1.) The parallel rangea of Lebanon 
and Antilebanon have already been noticed under their 
own titles. At the soutbem end of Ihe former is the 
pass called in Scripture " the entrance of Hamath" 
(q.v.). 

(!.) Be^-ond this, in ■ line with Lebanon, rises the 
range of Bargylus, which extends to Antioch. It is a 
rugged limeaione ridge, rent and torn by wild ravines, 
thinly iieopled, and sparsely covered with oaka. lla 
elevation ia much inferior to Lebanon, and doea not av- 
erage more than 4000 feet. In Ihe parallel of Antioch 
the chain meets the On)nteB,ind there sweeps round in 
a ifaaip angle to tbe south-west, and terminates in tha 
lofty peak of Casins (now Jebel Akra), which rises ab- 
ruptly from the sea to a height of 5700 feet, forming 
one of the moat conapicnoiu landmarks aking Ibe coast 
of Syria. The Bargylua range has received the name 
Jebel en-Nueairtych, from the mysierious and watlika 
tribe of Nosairtyeh, who form the great bulk of its in- 

Al the nnrthetn extremity of the range, on Ihe green 
bank of the rapid Orontts, stand the erumUing walla 
and tcwers of Syria's ancient capital, Antioch (q. v.), 
now dwindled down to t poor lawn of some 6000 inhab- 
itanta. A few miles west of it, in a aedudcd moniitain 
glen, are the fountains and ruins of B«t el-Ua, which 
mark tbe ailc of the once celebrated Diqihne (Murray, 
aanOook/or Syr. and PaU p. 602). 

(3.) Beyond Ihe valley through which Ibe Orontea 
breaks nariDW and wild, rises steeply another mountain* 
range, which runs northward till it Joins the Tsurns, 
and has an average elevation of neariy 6000 feet. The 
scenery of this range is verj- grand — deep ravines shut 
in by cliOa of naked rock, conical peaks clnlhed with 
the dark fuliage of Ihe prickly oak, and foaming tor- 
Tents fringed with dense copsea of myrtle and oleander. 
On the west it sends out the lofty promonlorv of RAt 
el-Rbanclr, whicb ahutt in the plain of Suweidlyeb; 
and farther nonh the curve of tbe bay of lakanderfin 
aweeps so dose to the rocky base of the range a> to 
leave a paas only a few feet broad between tbe clitT and 
the sea. Here are the ruins of an ancient arch mark- 
ing Ihe site of the celebrated Syrian Gates; to the 
north of it is the battle-Held of lusui. Tbe suuihem 
section of thia range waa anciently caUed Pieria, and 
gave ita diatinguiahing name lo Ihe city {Sttmda Pie- 

nue. The whole ridge ia now usually called Jawat 
Dagh, thoogh the anutbem portion ia perhaps more 
commonly known as UAs el-Kbanilr. 

(4.) On the eastern bank of tbe Orontea, near the 
ruina of Apamea, risea another but moch tower range 
of hills, which nms notthwanl, not in a tegulsriy form- 
ed ridge, but rather in detached clumps, to the parallel 
of Aleppo. The hills are mainly calcareous, well wood- 
ed in places, and intersected al intervals by fertile plaint 
and vales. They are interesling to the traveller and 
antiquarian aa containing some <if Ihe moat remarhable 
ruins in Syria (Murray, Hm^mk, p. 616 sq,). The 
southern section is called Jebel Rlha, Ihe central Jebel 
el-'Ala, and Ihe uortbem Jebel Sitniin, from its having 
been the home of St. Simeon Slyliles. 

8. The Norlhen tf^jKonrfi.— Northern Syria, espe- 
dalty Ibe district calleil Commagrne, between Taurus 
and the Euphritea, ia still very inaufflciently explored, 
tt seems to be altogether an elevated liacl, consisting 
of twisied spurs IVoni 1'annia ami Amanus, with natrow 
'^em, which open out into bate and 



SYRIA S 

■tcrile pUina. The ralleya themMWei ire not very 
lertile. Tliej' ire wiiereti by boiiII aneima, pruducing 
uften ■buiiduiC flsh, >iiil,fur ihe nmc part, Hawing into 
tbe OrDDiea or the Euphritea. A ceruiin number at 

" river of Aleppo," which, unable lo rath either of the 
oceanic atieams, forma (as we have wen) a lake or 
manb, wherein iu waters evaporate. Along the course 
of the Euphraten there are rich land and abundant vege- 
tation ; hat the character of the country Ihencc to the 
valley of the Oi»iiie< i> bare and waodlesa, except iu 
the vicinity of the towns, where fruit-tteea are culti- 
vated, and orchards and gardens make an agreeable ap- 
pearance. Most at (his region ia a mere sheep-walk, 
which grows more and more harsh and repulsive aa we 
approach the south, where it gradually mingles with 
the desert. The highest elevation vf the plateau be- 
tween the two rivers is 1500 feet; and this height ia 
reache.1 suon sflerleaving ihe Euphrates, whQe toward! 

i. Tht KaUern Dnerl—Eut of the inner roountaJD- 
chain, and south of the culiivable ground about Aleppo, 
is the great Syrian desert, an "elevated dry upl«id, for 
the moat part of gypsum and marls, producing nothing 
but a few spare bushes of wormwood, and the usual art>- 
matic piaiita of the wihlemess." Here and there bare 
and stony ridges of no great height cruss this arid re- 
icinn, but fail to draw water from the sliy, and bare, 

wdls supply the nomad pnpulatiiii) with a brackish 
tluiil. 'I'he ret-ion is travemeil with didicully, and has 
never been accurately aurveyed. The most remarkable 
oasis is at 1'almi'ra,whete there are several small elreams 
and abundant palm-trees. See Tadhok. Towards the 
mote western part of the region along the foot of the 
mauntain-range which there bounds il, is likewise a 
gooil deal uf tolerably fertile country, watered by the 
■treania which tlnw eastward from tlie range, and sfler 

best-known and the most productive of these tracts, 
which seem stolen ftom the desert, is Ihe famous plain 
of Damascus— the el-UhiiUh and el-MeiJ of the Anba 
—already describe!) in the account given of that city. 
See Damascvb. No rival to this "earthly paradise" is 
to be fuund along the rest of the chain, aince no olher 
stream Hows duwn froiD it at all comparable to the Bs- 
rada; but wherever the eastern wie of Ihe chain has 

been fnund at its foiil; corn ia grown in places, and 
olive-trees are abundant (Burckhanll, Trarrh U Sgiiii, 
p. 1^4-139: P.iCK!ke, Daeriplioa of tht K:ul, ii, 146). 
Fan her from Ihe hills, all is bare and repulsive — a dry, 
hard desert like that of the Siiiailic peninsuln, with a 
soil of marl and gravel, only rarely divemified with 

b. Bictri.—il.) The Otolites is the largest river in 
Syria. It is n.iw called el-'Aav (" The Rebellious"), and 
also el-Makiab ("The Inverted"), fnim the fact of its 
running, as ia thought, in a wrong direclion. Its high- 
est source ia in the plain of Ihikn'a (Caile-S\ ria),al the 
base ofAiitilebanun, beside the ruins of the ancient city 
of Lybo. It runs nnrth-weat acroM the plain to Ihe 
foot of Lebanon, where its volume ia more than trebled 
by the greoi fountain of Ain el-'Aay. Itence it winds 
along ilie plain of llamatb, pasting Uibtah, Huma, Ha- 
inaih, and Apamea. At Antioch it sweeps round lo the 
west Ihmngh a magnillcent pass, and falla into the Med- 
iterranean at Seleucia. It.i scenery is in general lame 
and uninteresting. Its volume abnve Hamalh is less 
than that of the Jordan, but tower down it receives 
several tributaries which greatly increase it. Its total 
length is about IM miles. 

(2.) The Litdny ia the next river in magnitude. lit 
principal sources are in the vallev of Buka'a, at Baalbek, 
Zahleh, and Anjar (tbe ancient Chalcis). Afier wind- 
ing down the BukA'a to ila aouthem end, it forces its 
way through a sublime glen, which completely inter- I 



3 SYRIA 

aecta Lelianon, asd falla into the aea ■ few milea north 
ofTyn. 

(4.) The rivers Eleutherus, Lycos, and Adonis bare 
been noticed in the article Lkbamom, and the Abuia 
and [*harpar under Dahabcus. 

(5.) A small stream called Nahr Rnweik rises iKtf 
the village of Aintab, Hows southward ihmugh a ui- 
row glen to Aleppo, waters the town and its ^anlefia, 
and empties itself in winter into a maish bdidc Lwenrv 
miles farther south. It seems to be the Chalus of Xcn- 
ophon(.'lBoi.i,4.9). 

(G.) The Sajiir rises a little farther to the north, in 
the mountains north oTAintah. Its cnuiw fur the firH 
twenty.flve miles is south-east, after which it n»i> eut 
for fineen or twenty miles, linallv resuming iia first di- 
rection, and flowing by the towii of Sijiir into the Eu- 
phrates. It is a larger river than the Koweik, tbtniKh 

G. /.uta. — There are only two lakes of an* impor- 
tance in Syria. 

(1.) One lies aome miles north cf Antioch, and >■ callpil 
Bahrel-Abiad,"WhiteLal(e." Itbabout twentv-five 
miles in circuit, but has a broad margin of manh, whii.-h I 
it flooded afker heavy rains. 

(2.) The other lake is on the Orontee, west of Hunis. ! 
and is called Bahr Kadca. It is about six milca long by ; 
from two to three broad, and is in a great measure, if 
not entirely, artificial It is formed by a dam built 
across the valley. The water is thus laised to an ele- ' 
ration sutBcient to supply the town and irri^te the i 
surrounding pUin (Porter, Aintnacu. ii, S44). 

(3.) The Sabakhah is a salt lake, into which oolv in- ' 
tigniScant streams flow, and which has no outJeb It 
lies midway between Balis and Aleppo, the mute be- 
tween these places passing along its northern shure. It 
is longer than the Lake of Antioch, but natiDwer, beinx 
about thirteen milea from east to west, and lour snilei 
onlv fmm north to south, even where it ia widest. 

(4.) Tbe Bahr el-Meij, like the piece ft water in 
which the Koweik, or river of Aleppo, end^ scarcely de- 
serves 10 be called a lake, unce it ia little better than a 
large manh. The length, according to eoluael Ches- 
ney, is nine miles, and the breadth two mites ^JSMpJknit,. 
i^TT. i,503); but the size teems to varj- with Ihe sea- 
sons, and with the extent in which JrrigaliiMi ia usei) 
along the course of the Barada. A recent iiaveUer, 
who traced Ihe Barada In its termination, Tinind it di- 
vide a few miles below Damascus, and otMerred I hat 
each branch terminated in a marsh of its own; while a 
neighboring stream, Ihe Awnj, commonly regarded as 
a tributary of the Barada, also lost iiaelf in a thiril 
marsh separate from Ihe other two (l'orur,ia Ctogrtiat 
Jaam. xxvi,43-M). 

7. Ciliri. — The principal cilies and towns of Syria arc 
the following : Damascus, pop. 150,000 ; Alepfxt, pop. 
70,000; Beirai,pop.Sa,OUO; Hamath, pop. 30,000; Iluma, 
pop.!0,WO; Tripoli, pop. 13,000; Antioch, Sidnn, mnd 
Ladiklyeb. Besides these, which occupy ancient ute*, 
there were in former limes Palmyrs, in the eastern des- 
ert; Abila, on the river AlMtia; Chalcis, II etinpnlis, ami 
Lybft,in Ihe valley of Oele-Syria; LaodiceaidLibanum, 
Arethusa, and Apamea, in the valley of the Otoatps ; 
Seleucia, Arsdus, and Byblos [tee Uebal], on the *e«t- 
coast, and many others of less importance. 

IT. Political Gmgrop/ijf, — Syria has passed lhn>i|~>, 
many changes. Its ancient divitions were numerous, 
and constantly varying. The provinces of the Bitdicnl 
Aram have already been noticed. See Aram. I^ho^. 
nicia was generally regarded aa a distinct principaUtr 
[see Pii<E.NiciA],and the warlike tribes of Lebanon mx^ 
pear to have remained almost in aataleof indepenilenoc 
from the earliest ages. See Licbamos. The t»1itiaii 
ilivisions, as enumerated by Greek atid Roman g*<wnj_ 
[iheis, are indeHnite and aliDoel uninleltigibte. St.ra|H> 
mentions five great provincea: 1. Commagmr, a small 
terrilot)' in the extreme north, with Samosata fot caini 
tal, aiinalcd on the Euphrates. 2. SfUuda, lying •ou,h 



STRIA 



n four diwricta iccnrd- 
inmber or iti chief citiea: (I) Aniioch Epi- 
^m: (1) Srleucia,in Picria; (8) ApaiDu: and (4) 
Uodim. In the djurict of Antiuch wm tnolber >ul>> 
dimion. n[iBled Mar tbe Eupbrate*, and dlled Ci'r- 
Ttmiw, frooi the town Crrrheuis, which contained a 
ntebmnl Umple of Diana. Southward were two sub- 
iliriitHu (appai«ii[lf ) of Apamea, called Fariporamia 
lUilOukidice. bordering on the Eiiphriies, and inhab- 
ited br ScenitK. The territory of Utmiicea extmded 
Hiolli to the Hrer Eleulhenia. where it bordered on 
Pbonice and Ccele-Syria. 8. Cale-Sgrio, cum[>tiaing 
laodicea ad l^nnaro. Chalcla, AUl«n«, Damaaciif, Itu- 
nn,ini] others farther Miulh, included in I'lleotine. 1. 
Pimmii: &. Jarfsn (fff^. xvi,748 M).). 



PtuleniT mentiani thirteen pnivinces: Commamnei 
n<TU.OrrTheMiea, Seleucis, Caiiolia, Chaliboniri^ Chal- 
ci^ Apiipene, Laodicene, rhaenicia,Ccelr^Rvria. I'almr- 

cwtained in them. He exdudea Paleaiine altogether 
(r;i«fr. T, 15). 

Under the Rnmana Syria became a province nf Ihe 
topiie. SocDe portiona of it were permiited id ninain 
C«a limeandcT ibe rslenf petty prince*, dependent on 
ibt inprriaJ goTcnintent. Gradually, liowerer.all Ihete 
wm iacmporaled. and Antioch waa the ca]Hial. Under 
liaihian the proTince wai diviiln) iiitn two |iaria ; S^na 
Unjar oo the north, and ^iyjia-FAamct on iho anuth. 
Tnoardi the close of the tth cenlurj' another partition 
of Snia WM made, and furmed the baaia of ita ecoleai- 
■aial goietnoient '■ I. Syria Priima, with Aiiliocb ai 
lafiiial! X. S. Sraimla, with Aparoea » capital; ^• 
l%rmaa fVuia, including; the Kieater purt of ancient 
Phmicia— TiTe waa ila capital; i, Fiastiiria Serundii, 
iba called /'jlomria ad /.ibanum, with Damaacua for 
(qwal r Car. ■ *, Paul," Gtog. .Sac. p. -iBT). 

At (lie pnaent lime Syria fonna a poniun of three 
padiaUai — Aleppo. Damaacua, and Stdoii. 

V. CUmnif, MaiilanI; etc— I. The temperature of 
Srna f^aily leaemblea that of Palatine. The aum- 
aiiii of Hrrmon and Lebanon arecrowited niih perpel- 
■il motf, and the high aliiludea along thne ran^^et are 

■ (uilaatbe aoulhiif Enfilind; but, on Ihe mhrrhanil, 
Ik low maniliy plaini of the interior arevcri-IinL The 
Mtnant. beiiie much exposed to Ihe aiin'o raya, and 
fbthemi by Lhr mnuntains behind, ia generally aulcry 
ail nl^eel In ferer* ; but there are a few placet — such 

■ SUoo, Beirfit, and Suwei<llyeh— where the aotl ia 

nraer light ahoweta occa- 



naled at 



nihe 

krabic 

•4 ttuhammedant, Yeiidee*, Druaea, Rumanisla, Jewa, 
B-i (Jftek ChriMiana. The Muliamioedans, who pmb- 
■U* cDoipriiF three fmirtha of Ihe whole, are aeldom 
■Hoaled with the progreaa of arta or indtuirA-, and, 
l^»■e)l pnaaeaaing the influence which belnnf:i to the 
nlJBi; anihoriiiea. are rarely inalmmeutal in the crea- 
ti« of capital « the diffiiairm nf ej rill lal inn. Mnatof 
<li« nometcial eaiabliahmciiia are either in the handa 
■ftbeOiriattan ot Jewish popnlation. The agricull- 
Bal produce of Syria ia far Ibh than might be expect- 
•il final the exteiiaive tracts «I fertile lanili and the fa- 
■waUe Hate of the climate. Keftious of the hiehFal 
Mlitj fnnain fallow, and the want of population for 
'!• piirpDaea uf cultivuinn ia matt deplorable. The 

^vt faithfully depicted Sj'tia when be described it as 
*( laid of almoat Dnparalleltd naiaral mouiccs, com- 
yime within ii» limita every tttiinable variety of cli- 
Mu and of soiL" Tct Syria, under the execrable Hiia- 



B SYRIA 

aulman rule, ia almnsl Ifaa lowest in the acale of natinttf; 
but even in the present stato of thiiiffa ahe proilucei 
pilk, cotton, and wnul— three staple articles of demand. 
A change haa been bmught about during the lust few 
yeara in the external feaiiirea of Oriental dress, and in 
Syria more eepedally, which, with the decline of their 
own oianufaclufES, has tended to inimduce the cheaper 
fabrics of Euiope. The issue of the recent Turko- 
Kusaian war has been to place Syria under the nominal 
protectorate iif Ureal Britain, with promiaea of social re- 
fonn, which, however, the Turks are alow in bringing 
about. See Tukket. 

VI. hiiloTy. — l.The HntoccDpnnlanf Syria appear to 
have been of Hamitic descent. The Caaaaniiish races. 
the HilIileK,-lebu»ile8, Amorites, etc., are connected in 
Scripture with Egypt snd Ethiopia, Ciith and Miiraim 
6, ]6-lH)i and, even inriepeudenily of the 



videiic 



reason for heliev. 



ig that the races in question stood in close ethnic 
neclion with Ihe Cuahitie slock (Rawlinson, Htrod. iv, 
Ua-2ib). These tribes occupied nut Palestine only, 
but alw Lower Syria, in very early timet, aa we may 
Rather from the fact Ibat Hamalh is assigned to them 
in <^nesis (x, 18). Aflerwsrds they seem to have be- 
come posseaaed of Upper Syria atao, fur when Ihe As- 
syrians Arst push their conquests beyond the Euphra- 
tes, they Hnd Ihe llittiiea (A'jIii''i) ralabliahed in 
strength on the right bank of the great rivet. After a 
while the Srst comeit, who were still to a great extent 
nomad^ received aShemitic infusion, which moat prob- 
ably came to thrm from the aonth-eaat. The family nf 
Abraham, whose original domicile waa in Lower Baby- 
loiiia, may, perhaps, be best regardeit a> furnishing iia 
with a siiecimen uf Ihe migratory movements of Ihe pe- 

confederate kings, of whom one at least — Amraphel — 
mutt hare been a Shemitc The muvement may hare 
bepin before the time nf Abraham, and hence, pcrhap. 
tha Shemitic names of many of the inbabitants when 
Abraham dial comes into Ihe cnunlr\', as Abimelech, 
Mtlcbiieriek, ElieHr,etc. The ont>- Syrian town whose 
esislence we |nd dislinclly marked at this time ia Da- 
masons (lien, xir, IS; xr, 3), which appeara to have 
been airaady a place of some importance. Indeeil, in 
ont tradition Abraham is said to have been kint; of 
Dani as CTaioi a time (Nia Dam. Frv^m. 8U) ; but this is 
quite unworthy of credit. Next to Damascus must be 
placed Hai—lti. which ia mentioi>ed bj' Moaea aaa well- 
known place (Numli. xiii, !1 ; xxxiv. S), and appears in 
Egi'prian papvri of the time of the eighteenth dvnaslv 
{Cambridge Eias; 1858, p. 368). Syria at (lita lime, 
and for many centurlea allerwanlB. aeems to hare been 

eral nf these are mentioned in Scripture, aa Damascus, 
Rehob, UiBchah, ZoUh, Geshur, etc We also hear 
occasionally of " rA« Uns* of Syria and of the Hilliles" 
(I Kinga X, 2H; 'i Kinga rli..6} — an expretaion indica- 
tive of that extenNve subdivision of the tract amonR 
numeroui petty chiefa which ia exhibited to ua verj' 
clearly in the early Assyrian inscriptions. At rariont 
limes different atatea had Ibe pre-eminence, but none 
was ever strong enough to establish an authorily over 

S. The Jews first come into hoMile contact with the 
Syrians, under Ikal namr, in the lime of David. The 
wars of Joshoa, however, must have often been with 
Syrian chief)^ with whom he diapuled the poeaesaion of 
the tract about Lebanon and Hermon (Josh, xi, 2-18). 
After his time the Syrians were apparently undisturbed, 
nntil David began his aggressive nani upon them. 
Claiming the fnmtifr of the F.iiphrtlCF, which Gnd had 
pmmiseil to Abraham (Ren, xv, 18), Diivid marie war 
.'11 Hadadezer, king of Zohab, whom he defeated in a 
great batllf, killing 18,000 of his men. and taking from 
him 1000 chariots, 700 horaemen, and 20,000 footmen 
(3 Sam. vi 11,3,1, 18). The Damascene SyIian^ having 
ciidcaroted to succor their kinsmen, were likewise d«- 



SYRIA II 

felled with great Ion (TCr. S) ; and tha blow to wnk- 
eiicd iliem ihiil chev sbortly afterwitrda tubmilted and 
becime David'a lulijecU (ver. e). Zubah, however, waa 
fat fnm bfing iiibdned ai yei. When, a few yean 
laur, nhp Ammnnilea deiermined on engaging in a war 
with Darid, and applied to Che Syriana fm aid, Zobah, 
together with Beth-Keholi, aent them SD.DOO fuoimen, 
and two other Syrian liingdunis fumighed 13,000 (x, 
U). Thia army being completely defeated br Joali, Had- 
■ilezer obtained aid from Heaapotamia (ver. IG), and 
tried Ihe chance of a third battle, which liliewiK went 
agaimt him, and produced the general luhmiHion or 
Syria to the Jewinb monarch. The aubmiaginn thai 
begun continued under the reign .of Siilnnion, who 
"reined urer all the kingdom! from the river [Eu. 
phratea] unto the land of the FhUiatines and unto the 
bunler of Egypt ; thev brought pieaenta and aerred Sol- 
amnn all the daya of his life" (1 Kings iv, 31). The 
only part of Syria which Solonwn h<et aeenu to have 
been Damaacua, where an independent kingdom wae 
act up by Reion, a native of Zobah (xi, 28-85). On 
the aeparatinn of the two kingdimia, eiion after the ac- 
d of Rehoboam, the remainder of Syria no doubt 



ik off tt 



yoke. 



Ihe lending ataie, Harnalh being tecinid to it, and the 
■HTthem Hilliios, whose capital wai Carchemiah, near 
Itambuk, thiriL See CAKCHEHiaK. The wan of tbia 
lieriiid fall moat properly inio the history of Damaacua, 
and have already been deKribed in the acmunt given 
of that city. See DAHAacus. Their reaiilc was to at- 
tach Syria to the great Aeaytian empire, from which ii 
l<aued to the Babyloniane, after a ihurt attempt on the 
|tart of Egypt to hold poaaeaiion of it, which wan frua- 
irated by Nebuchadneizar. From the Habybniana 
Syria paased to the Fenians, ander whom it formed a 
BatrapT in conjunction with Judsa, I'hienicia, and Cv- 
prus (Herod, iii, 91). Ita reaourcea were aiill great,ai'id 
probably it was hia contidence in them that eiicoor- 
Ritel the Syrian satrap Megabazus to raise tbe standard 
iif rtvolt againat Artaxerxea Limgimanus (B.C. 447). 
.\rter this we hear little of Syria till Ihe year of the bat* 
tic of Iiaua (B.C B33), when it submitted to Alexander 
without a elruggle. 

8. Upon the death of Alexander, Sj-ria became, f<ir the 
fine lime, the head of a great kingdom. On the divininn 
»r tbe provincea among his generals (B.C. 331), Seleucua 
Nicatur received Mesopotamia and Syria, and though, 
in Ihe twenty yean of struggle which fidlowert, this 
country was kisc and won repeatedly, it remained final- 
ly, with the exception of Ciele-Syria, in the hands of 
the prince In whom it was nriginally assigned. That 
iwiuce, whose dominions reached from the Mediterranean 
to the [ndus, and from Ihe Oxus Is the Southern Ocean, 
having, as he believed, been eipueed to great dangers 
on account of [he diaianct frum Greece of his original 
capital, Babvlon, resolved, immediately upon his vicioi^ 
of IpsunCaC. 301), to Dx his metropolis in Ihe West, and 
aeltled upon Svria aa the fltleat place for it. Antioch 
was begun in RC. 300, and, being liiiished in a few 
yean, was made the capital of Seleucus's kingdom. The 



Syria, which had lung been Ihe prey of stranger coun- 
tries, and had been exbautied by their exactions, grew 
rich with tbe wealth which now Mowed into it on all 
sides. The luxury and magnificence of Antioch were 
oxtranrdinary. Broad straight sCreeta. with colonnades 
from end toeiul, temples, iiaiueSjarches, bridges, a royal 
palace, and various other public buildings dispersed 
il mailc the Syrian 



lofal 



leEast. 



h LMidice 



I'iiices, other towns of large nii 
up. Seleucia in I'ieria, Apamea, and 
were foundations of the Seleucidz, aa tDeir names sur- 
liciently indicate. Weak and indolent as were many of 
these monarchs. it would aeem that they had a heredi- 
Miy taste for building; and so each aimed at ouiiluing 
his predecessors in the number, beauty, and magnificence 



10 SYRIA 

ofhia cooitructionB. Aa the hialory of Syria nndettbt 
Seieucid princes has been already given in detail in tht 
articles treating of each monarch [ tee Aimociict; 

DKMirrRius: Situtucus, etc], it will be iij 

here to do more than sum it up generally. Tbe OMai 
flourishing period was the reign of the foiuider, NtcalK 
The emjure was then almoat as large as LhaL oC tke 
Achnmenian Pemiana, for it at one lime iiicludeil Asia 
Hioor, and thus reached fnim the iEgean tu India. Ii 






lU Che n 



venty-two. Trade flourished greatly, old liitca o( 
trsftlc being rcslureil and new ones opeiiol. Tbe mgn | 
of Nicalor'a son. Aniiochna I, called Soier, was abe be- | 
ginning of the decline, which was prugreative fnxa hia I 
date with onlv one or two slight inlermplioua. Sottr 
hM territory io Ihe kingdom of Pergamus. and (ailed in 
anaiiempitosubject Klhynia. He was also miasicceaa j 
ful against Blgypt. Under his son, Auliochus IL, called l 
Btof, or '■ the Uod," who ascended the throne in B,C j 
£61, the disintegration of the empire proceeded Hmre i 
rapidly. The revolt of I'arthia in U.a £&6, luUowed ' 
by that of Bactria in B.C 2M, deprived tbe Syriaa I 
kuigdum of some of its best provinces, ai>d g*vc it a ' 
new enemy which shortly became a rival and finaDy s 
superior. At the aame time, Ihg war with Kgypt was j 
prosecuted without either advantage or glory. Fnth I 
losses were suflered in the reign of Seleueus 1 1 {,Calliui- I 
cua), Aniiochus It's successor. While CalUiiicoa wB 
engageil in Egypt against Ptolemy Euergcua, Eit- 
menes of Pergamus obtained posMstion of a greal pan 
of Asia Minor (EC. 212); and about the aame time 
Anaces II, king uf Partbia, conquered llyncania ami 
annexed it to bis dominions. An attempt to recovet 



I" 

slight reaction set in. Mo9t of A 

ere>l (»r Ccrauuus by his vife's nephew, Actueas (a.C 

224), and be was preparing to invade Petgamiia when 

he died poisoned. His successor and brother, AotkM^os 

111, though he gained the surname of Ureat fram the 

grandeut of his expeditions and the partial suceeas of 

some of ihem, can scarcely be said to have really dooe 

anylhiug towards raising the empire from iis declining 

aiaiing of Cvle- Syria, Phcenicia, and Palewiiie, facnKd 
no sufficient compensation for Ihe loss «f Asia Mimr, 
which ho was forced to cede to Rome for the agigran- 
dizementofth« rival kingdom of Pergamus ( B.C. 1901. 
Even had the territorial balance been kept more ewm, 
the ill policy of making Home an enemy of the Syrian 
kingdom, with which Aniiochus tlie tireal ia taxable, 
would have necessitated our placing him among the 
princes to whom its ultimate ruin was mainly owini;. 
Towards the east, indeeil, he did something, if ttnt ii, 
thrust back Ihe Paitbiaui, at any rale to protect his 
empire from their aggressions. But tbe exbataMiaii 

consequent upon Ills coiiaisnc wars and signal dtrfeatt 

more especially those of Kaphia and Uagnesia-^ — tel't 
Syria far more feeble at his death than she bad be«D at 
any former period. The almost eventless leignofSekMi- 
cus IV (Philopaior), his »<m an<l successor (KC 1«7- 
176}, is auflicieut proof of this leebleness. It vtaa not 
till twenty yean of peace had recruited tbe rewmrg c a nt 
Syria in men aiul money that Aniiuclina IV (K[n[>baaw3), 
brother of Phibipalor, ventured on engaging in a grcsii 
war ([I.C. 171) — a war for the conquest of Egipt. ,\t 
first it seemed as if the attempt would succeed. El^^y pt 
was on the pfunl ufyieldiiig to her foe of n> many yearH, 
when Home, following out her traditions of hosiifiiv i.i 
Syrian power and induence. interposed her meiliataoii. 
and depriveil Epjphanes of all the fhiiia of his victori*-* 
(ILQ 16H). A greater injuiy was about the saioe euik 
(RC. 137) inflicted oo Syria by tbe folly of EpipbKTheni 
himself. Mot content with replenishing bis tieaaui^ bv 
the plunder of the Jewish Temple, he madly ordered tti« 
desecration of Ihe Holy of Holies, and thus caoaevl t.tn, 



STRIA 1( 

itnk aC ibe Jcwk, which proved i permaiient Iom to 
tkc (npiiT «nd ai> RggnvaiioD of iu wukneaa. After 
Iktilttihaf Epiphum the empire rapidlf veignl loiu 
UL Tb( ngil power feU iaU Ihe hands a! in inhiil, 
Andoclun V (Eupuor), •on at EpiphiDcs (EC. IM) ; 
Ut oobln couended for the ngmcy; ■ prelendet (u 
ike avrnn Muted up in (he penon nf Etemetriua, aun of 
iiikam IV i Home put in • cUim to ndaiinuier tlie 
((anniBKBt; utd amid Ihe troubles thue caiued the 
Plnhiim, under Uithriditea I, orenan the eaatern prav- 
iac«(aC IG4),cuni(ucnd Media, Fenia, Sunana, Uaby- 
l«a.*ic,anilailvaiiced their froiilierlo the Euphrates. 
It «Bi in rain that Detoetriua It (Nkaioi) made an 
ancBpt (&.C. Hi') to recover the lual terrilar)'; hi* 
tiitinc cost bim hii libeitj; while ■ aimilar atlenipt 
u the pan of hii ■ucceMor, Antiiichui VII (Sidetn), 
am. that nHHurch hii life (aC. 1'^). Meanwhile, iu 
iha ■bora Synan kingdom, diiorden uf every kind were 
lo the inereaae; Commagene revolted and eMabliahed 
btiiodepeadeBee; civil wan, muTdera, tnutinin nf the 
Traofia, rapidly wiecMded one inotber; thedecpiaedJewa 
wen uUhI in by both eido in the varioun •uufg^clea : 
»d Bvria, in tbe upacE of about ni 
IU id B£. 64. had no fewer than ten aovi 
rhe wealib of the cnuitiy had been by this time disai- 
falad — much had ttawtil Komewinla in the ahape of 
luibai more, protaUy, had been tpeiit on tlie wars; and 
Mil Bture had been waated bj the kiiiga iu luxury uf 
eiST kind. [Jnder tliew drcnnuiwxH, the Romana 
■bowed no eagemeM to oecapy the eihiuated regivn, 
■bieh paaed under the power of Tigranea, king of 
Anwaia, in B.C 83, and waa not made a province of 
cb* SoniaD Empire till after Punipr)''a complete defeat 
•fHkhtidatea and hia ally Tinranea in aC. 64. 

The ehronolngv of thia period baa been well worked 
•M bf CltntAn ^faH. IIM. iii, aOH-846), from whom the 
Ubwiog table of the kinga, wiih the daua of their ac- 



veans fmm ILC. 

(fna. All 



■«.. 


^^' 


^Uol 




» '1 

It " 


Oct. Bll 

A Dg.no 

&s 

AnK.l« 

Sis 

Frb. is; 

Feh. IH 

*llil 

W 

m 


iASulSSlhi-:::-..;.:::::. 










KA><l.idiuaBnp^.r. 

It D^riaa Niellu* (ui"igu'i:: 


U. Aatiocbni OiTtHio 


..j^iS;::.-:::::;:::::;:;:::' 





i. A* Svria tulda an important place, not onlv in the 
OM TfM^'UM in the New, aome account of iti condition 
*Wn the Homana muat now be given. That oonditinn 
■BiOBewhat peculiar. While the eountrr generally 
•M farmed intua Roman pmviuce.under governors who 
««t*al Ant pmpiwiaia or queMon, then proconauta, and 
laally legaua, there were esempl«d from the direct rule 
•I tlM gDrcmor. in the Unt place, a number of " free 
ntia," which retained the admin iitration of their ok 
aftm, adject to a tribute levied according to Ihe Romi 
poiipka of taxation: and, arcondiy, a number ofirac 
■ki(b wen aaaigned Ioprltyprinae^ commonly natives, 
In be ridad ■> their pleasure, subject to the aame ul 
risaa oiih the freeciiie* as to taution (Appian,.'isr.£0). 
The frM eiiie* were Anlioch, 9eleucia, Apamea, K]' 
ptaneia. Trifiolia, Sidon, and lyn; the principalitie^ 
loniB^IFne. Chabas nd Behim (near Baalbek), Arethu- 
■, Abii* or AbilnMi Palnyta, and Damaacua. The 
rriariMbliM »ei» amnatim* falW W!™-«™vw. ( 
Thrjtnttr 



STRIA 

vetcralely weilded 

that it was necessary to consult their feelings, to Halter 
the national vanity, and to give them the semblance 
without the aubelance of freedom, (a.) Commagene 
waa a kingdom (rrjaum). It had broken off fmm Syria 
during the later troubles, and become a separate aiatc 
under the government of a branch of the SeleuciilB, whu 
aJftcted the names r>rAnlinchus and Hithridates. The 
Rumaiia allowed thia condition of thing* to eoniinue till 
A.D, 17, when, upon the death of Antiocbui III, they 
made Cnromagene into a provincci in which cnnditliin 
it cuntinueil till A.D. 38, when Caligula gave the crown 
to Antiuchus IV (Epiphanes), the son of Aiitiochus HI. 
Antiochua IV continued king till A.D. 7i, when he waa 
deposed by Vespasian, and Commagene was linally ab- 
sorbed into the empire. He had a aon, called also An- 
tiochua and Epiphanea, who waa betrothed to DniulU, 
the aiater of ■■ king Agrippa," and afterwarda the wife of 
Felix, the procurator nfJudeea. (&.)Chalcia''ad Belum" 
was not the city ao called near Aleppo, which gave name 
to Ihe diatrict of Chalcidice, but a town of leas importance 
near Heliupolis ( Uaalbek ), whence probably the aofHx 
"ad Belum." It is mentioned in this connection bv 
Strabo (xvi, 2, IU), and Joaephua aavs that it was un- 
der Lebanon {Aal. xiv, 7, 4), ao that there cannot be 

the - Hiillow Syria"— the modem Buhfi'a— to the aouih 
of Baalbek (Jnsephua, War, i, 9, S), and therefure prob- 
ably at Anjar, where there are large ruins (Robinaun, 
BM. Rn. iii, 496, iVl). Thia, loo, was generally, or per- 
hapa always, a " kiiigdom." Pompey found it under a 
certain Piulemy, "the aon of HennBus," and sihiweil him 
to retain poneasion of it, together with certain adjacent 
diatiicis. From him it passed la hie son, Lyaanias, who 
waa put to death by Antony at the instigaiion of Cleo- 
patra (abnut B.C. B4), aller which we find lis revenues 
farmed by Lysanias's steward, Zetiodorus, the royally 
being in abeyance (Josephua, A al. iv, 10, 1 ). In RC 22 
Cbalcis was added by Auguatua to the dominiona nf 
Herod the Great, at whoae death it probably passed to 
his aon Philip {Aid. xvii, II, 4). Philip died A.D. 34; 
aiHl then we Iok sight of Chalcia, until Claudius, in his 
first year (A.D. «|;hJ>«*l(*<'ol ■' "0 a Hernd.ihe brother 
uS Henid Agrippa I. still as a " kingdom." From this 
Hervd it passed (A.D. 49) M hia nephew, Herod Agrippa 
II, who held it only three or four years, being promoted 
from it to a better govemtnent (Oid. xx, 7, 1). Chalcii 
then fell to Agrif^'a couain, Ariatobolus, tan of the tint 
Herodian king, under whom it remained till A.D. 73 
( Joeephua, War, vii, 7, 1 ). About this time, or toon 
after, it ceased to be adistinct government, being finally 
absorbed into the Roman province ofSyria. (c.) Arethuas 



sn)w 



Syria, ai 



governed by pbylarcha. The city lay on the right bank 
of the Oronles, between Hamah and Huma, rather nearer 
to the former. In the government were included the 
Emiseni, or people «f Hums (Kmesa), an that we msy 
regard it as cumpriaing the Orontes vallev from the 
Jebel Erba>-n, at least as high as the Rahr el-Kadea, or 
Baheiret-Hums, the hike of Huma. Only two govcmora 
are known — Sampaiceramu*. and Jamblichua, hia aoii 
(Strabo. xvi, 2, 10). Probably thia principalitv was 
one of the first absorbed, {d.) Abilene, so called from 
its caiulal Abila, was a " letrarchy." It was situateil Iu 
Ihe east of Antilibanus, on the route between Baalbek 

Ihe aile of ihe capital (Kobinsnn, BUiL Rn. iii, 479-482), 
which was at the village called el-bilk. on Ihe river 
Baraila, jual where it breaka fiinh from the mounlaina. 






,11," 



Ihe cummencemeiit nf JohnVmii 


.try, which was prob- 


ablvA.D.S5. Of thia Lvaanias i 




he certainly cannot be the Lysann 


swho once held Chal- 


cL\ since that Lysaniaa died abov 





STRIA 

ly. Thirteen yr*n irter the ilste nieiitioned by Luke 1 1 
(A.D. 38), the heir of Ciliguli beglavretl " the telnrchy i 
iif LvMiiiss," by whicb Abilen* is no doubi in[nMled, nii 
ihe eUlcr Agrippa (Jowphui, Anl. Kviii, 6, 10), anil Tuur 
years later Claudiiu cnnflrmed the ume prince in the 
pmusainn of ihe "Abila of Lysaoias" (iMoL xin, S, 1). 
Filially, in A.D. 63, Clau<lii>>, among other firanlh eon- 
Terred on the younger Agrippa '' Alula, which hail been 
Ihe telrarchy uf Lyaaiiiaa" (iiid. xx, 7, 1). Abila waa 
' y Placiiiut, nne at lh« general* of Vespatiian, in 



9 (Josephun, ITix- 



'. 7, G), ■ 



annexed to Syria, (e.) Pi . 
]Hed a different iwutiuii from the reM of the Syrian 
jn-indpaliiies. [C wu in no Mnae dependent upon Kume 
(I'liny, //. JV. v, 25), but, relying on its pnition, claimeil 
ami exeroiseil the riftht of aelf- government fnim Ihe 
breaking-iip oT the Syrian kingdom lo the rtijiii of 
Trajan. Antony made an attempt against it in U.C.4I, 
but railed. It wa* not till 1'rajiii'g aiicremra a);ainn the 
I>arthi■n^ between A.D. 114 and A.U. 1 16, thai Palmyra 
H-aa addeil to Ihe empire. (J-) UamaMni in the laat uf 
the principaliiiea which it in neceMary to notice here. 
It appears t« have been le ri by Pompey in the hands of 
an Arabian prince, Aretaa, whii, however, waa lo pay a 

their pleasure with a garrison (Jusephus, H sf. xiv, 4, 6 : 
5,1: 11,7). This slate of things continued moat likely 

t<i the aettletnent of [Ite empin by Augustus, when 
Dmouscus waa attached In the province of Syria. Dni^ 
ing the rest of Augustus'' reign, and during the entire 
reign of 'riberius, this Brrangement was in furcei but it 
•eems probable that CBllgiilD,on hia accession, separated 
DamawiiB from Svria and gave it to another Aretas, who 
waa kiiiK of I'etra, and a relation (son ?) of Ihe fonner. 
.See .^KKTAS. Hence the fact noted by Paul (2 Cor, iil, 



32), ih 
held bi 






n Dam< 
These 



l>eiidence of Damaacua ia thought la hare continued 
through the reigns nf Caligula and Clauilius (fmm 
A.D. 07 to A.a 64), but to have Come to an end under 
N«r<>, when the districc was probably reattaclied to 

The liat of the goverriors of Syria, from its conquest 
by Ihe Romans lo Ihe destruction uf Jerusalem, has beci^ 
made out with a near approach to accuracy, and is as 
shown in the adjoining table. 

The general history of Syria during this period may 
be summed up in a few wiirda. Down to Ihe battle of 
I'harsalia, Syria was fairly tranquil Ihe inily troubles 
being with the Arabs, who occasionally attacked ihe 
eastern frontier. The Roman governors labored haul 






iking grei 



]>aina to i«slore Ihe cities, which had 
iter the lat^r Seleucidie. Gabinius, 
vear* B.C. bd and &5, made himself panicnlariy 
vpicnous in works uf this kind. After Pliaroalia (EC. 
46) the trouble* of Syria were rcnewol. Julius Uesar 
Kave Iba province to bis relalive Sextus in B.C. 47 1 bul 
I'ompey's parly waa alill so atnnig in the East thai in 
the ne:tl year one of hia ailherenlB, Ceciliiia UasHI^ put 
Sextus to death, and established himself in ihegmem- 
ment to llrmly lliat he was able lu miai for three years 
three proconsuls appointed by Ihe Senate u> ditpoasesa 
him, mid only llnally yielded uptHi lerma which lie 
liimself offereil lo lila anlagonisls. Many of Ihe polly 

madic Arabs took hia pay and fuughi under his banner 
(Slratui, xvi, 2, 10). Bassus had hut Just made his 
Kubmiasion, when, upon the assasainaiiiin of Cnear, Syria 
was diaiinleil between Caiwua and l>>iUbella, the friend 
of Anionv, a dispute lertninaled bv Ihe suicirle nf Dole- 
liella, ILC. 4A, Bt Un<licea. wheir he waa besieged by 
CasAlns. The next year Cassiua left his province and 









la then fell t. 



« XIV, a 
ugee Labienus, overran Syria and Asia Hiiior, deleat' 
ing Anlonv's generals, and Ibreateuiiig Ki>me witb the 
kiss of all' her Asiatic posBessiuiis (ILC. 40-89). Ven. 
tidius, however, in RCSM, defeale<1 Ibe I'aithiuts, atew 
Pacorut, and recovered fur Rome her former boundarv. 
A quiet time followed. From aa 36 to aC, 81 Sjto 
waa governed peaceably by the legates of Antoay, ami, 
alter bis defeat at Actium and death at Alexaitdris 
in Ihal t-ear, by ihose of Auguslu*. In ILC. 87 took 
nbetwi 






imperial ulaiio- 
Syria, being from it* CK- 



rstem dales; and S 

lion amongihe pro, 

by legates, wbu were of conaular 
mlam), and bore severally the full title u _ 

August! pro pmtore." During the whole of thii perioii 
Ihe pniviiKC enlarged or contracted its limita acconliiig 
as it pleaseil the reigning empemr to bestow tiwTta of 
land on ihe native princes, or to resume them aitd pJace 
them under his legate. Judtaa, when attached in this 
way U> Syria, occupied a pecniisi position. Partly, ;>er- 
haps, on accouNi of its remoteness from the Syrian cap- 
ital, Autioch, partly, no doubt, because uf the peculiar 
character of ils people, it was thought best to make ii. 
in a certain sense, ■ separate govemmenu A special 
procurator waa therefore appointed lo rule it. wbu was 
goveniiiT of Syria, but within his 






Br of a legal 111 



Syria continiicd uiihoiit serious diiturbance fnwn tbe 
expulsion of the Panhians (B.C. 38) to tbe breaking- 
oiit of the Jewish war (A.D. 66). In RC 1» it ww 
visited bv Augustus, and in A.D. IB- 19 by C 
CUB, who dietl at Auiiocli - - ■ 
A.D. 44-47 it was the ac 



<I,MsrciDsPhlllppn 



DIcJina. .! 



M. Vlpsnniiis Aerlpiis. . 

M.Tn^lioa 

M. VIpgniiluB AgrlppB. 

M.Tltlna 

C.SsiilluB Sslnroluns.. 



irecelTsd anihorlty rhm tiM 
Ssaale 111 dlapoasaas Baaaa*. 



I^gstna 

Prolegntna... 
PropraitoT.. . . 

Leg*'". 

Umat.'.'.'.'.'. 



STltlA 



lo; 



SYRIA 



i. A Uitk cvlier Cbriuiiniiy had begun lo ipreail 
iMu itiputir by means of iha« who "were sciliercd~ 
M Ibt fiat of Stephen's penecuuon (Acta li, 19), pait- 
>< In Tbe exertiuiu of Paul (Cial. i, 21). The Svrian 
tlWRb ■HO grew to be one of the mut flouruhiiiK 
l.tfli liii I : XT, 28, S6, 41, elc). Here the naine of 
' nKidian" 6m aroee — at the outset no doubt a gibe, 
Iwi ibeiHKfunh a f k>ry an>l a boail. Aiitioch. the cap- 
ii»L hwame, ■■ early probatily aa A.D. ii, the aee of n 
Mmfi, ami *«■ M»n icoigniaed at a palrianbate. The 
^liui (niurcb ia acriupd of laxity bolb in faith anil 
•amb (Newman, A rimu, p. 10) ; but, if it muM admit 
ibeilidgian of . .. . 



nTStlw 






hand, II 



,glor 



of Mcb name* aa lgnatiu>, Theophilua, Ephi 
Habrlia. It autlend many t^erous peraecuiiona 
44jt ihiiDking; and it helped to maite that eni|i 
|(DltK a^cainat w»rldliiit«a and luiuriouHicaa of I 
u which monaaiiciam, according to ila uriginat co(ic«p- 
nam. mun be conridered la have aimed. The ~, ' 
nmika Here among the moat eanieat and niost aclT-de- 
nyinc: and the namea of Hilarion and Simeon Stylite* 
■n Huagh to prore that a most imponant pan 
pLijtd by Syria in the aacetic morenient of tbe 1th and 
Ml ceouirifa, 

t. Tbe country remained under Roman and Byzan- 
linr rale till A.D. fiH, when it waa overrun by the Ho- 
under Khaled. Siileen yearn tater Da- 
il of the Mohammedan em- 
r tbe Cruaadera enlar*d it, 
captortd its principal citim, with the exception of Da- 
nascuf, and retained poaaeagiuii uf them abuut a hun- 
dml yeara. For more than two centuries after the ea- 
tmlMO of the Cruaaderv, Syria wia the theatre of fleice 
onusu beiweeii the warlike honlea of Tariary and the 
Nuadake rukra of RRVpt. At length, in A.D. 1617, it 
■a( eapanred by the Turki under sultan Selim I, and 
bacame a pan ion of the Oitamin empire. 

In 1T98 Bonaparte landed In Egypt with a powerful 
traiT, and, having subjected that country to the arms 
•^Franre, marched into Syria, affecting the iitmoat re- 
t|«t for the Miihammedan doctrine and wonbip, and 

Ea». He laid riege to Acre ; but, the Turkish garrison 
btb^ animated by the presence of SOO Dritlah sailors 
mlrr sir Kditey Smiih, at the expiration ofaixly dayg 
Ike French general was compelled lo retire, after the 
*ttilice nf a large number uf his most gallant anldieis. 
A towrrfii] army of Turks, who had adt-anced from Da- 
lU Ki m to raiie the siege of Acre, were next attacked 
fit Napoleon at the base of Mount Tabor, and routed 
*idi gi^t ataugbter, thouaandi being driven into the 
Jndan. JaSa (Jnppa) fell into his bands, and, eon- 
'ntr 10 the usages uf war, ISUO prbonera wen shot or 
ibi^faeil with the ba\unet. But (he Frenvh cam- 
paian in Kyria was of short duraiinn. On June 16, 
ITffiLibe armr unler Bonaparte arrived at Cairo, hav- 
iscuaverwd'the (treat Desert; and after the battle of 
MumUt. hi the fuUowiug month, when 18,000 Turks 
reriibnl un the field, the general deputed the command 
» Klrfaer, and uiled foe France. 

Syria remained under the Turks till 1880, when Ho- 
kiaiaiiid Ali, pasha of Egypt, declaring war with his 
•sToeign, the saltan, sent an army into Paleatine, un- 
Irr the command of his son Ibrahim, which speedily 
apiani Acre, Tripoli, Aleppo, and Damascus, and, de- 
fcUBg the Turks in vsrious battles, cneeed the Taurus, 
■14 piepared to inarch on Cgnstantlnople itself. The 
■ilUD was obliged lo invoke the aid of Russia against 
iIh cvnqueTDT of Syria; and iO.OOO KuMiana, under 
nml UrIuA hHtily landed on the Asiatic territory-, 
■MBping between Ibrahim and the Bosphonts. The 
■hsn ibn enlrred Inio negntiation with tbe Egyptian 
nafral,an4 solemnly conHrmed to Mohammed Ali the 
'■Tniyakj of Ibe whole terrilory from Adana, on the 
faaiien ef Aria Minor, lo the Kik. The Syrians soon 
4«BTneU thM ih«lr i>«* "Mien were not a wl 



rapacious than the Turks, and several 
place in Mount Lebanon and various districts of gvria 
in 1SS4. The presence of Mobsmmed Ali himself, with 
large reinforcements, suppressed for a moment the spirit 
of disaffection, and in the following year the Druses 
and Christians of Lebaiion weiv disarmed. Ground 
down, however, by the utmost tyranny, the Syrians 
again revolted in 1887; they were chastised by Ibra- 
him, and again reduced (o aubjection. [n IS40, in con- 
sequence of a treaty between England, Ruteia, Austria, 
and Prussia, the seaport towns of Syria were bombarded 
by a British squadron; and,,the Kgvptians being com- 
pelled to evacuate the whole of Syria, the aupremacy of 
the Turke was once more established over the country, 
which they hava ever since held. 

Vl[. j^trerorure.^See, ill geiKral, Smith, Diet, of 
Clou. Geog. s. v.; M'Cullnugh, Gtog. Did. s. v. On 
the geography, see Pucocke, DarrijilioH n/ilu Etut, ii, 
8B-!09; Burckhardl, Traceli in Sgrta atut He Half 
Umi, p. 1-W9 ; Robinson, Laltr Biblical Ratareha, p. 
419-626; Stanley.fmaiaiuf /■ufrOiw, p. 40S-4H; Por- 
ter, >iee Ymn in Dumtacia; Ainsuorth, Trattlt in 
lit Traek of Ike Ttn Tkoutaad, p. &7-7U; Rnrarchn, 
etc, p. S90 sq.; Wortabel, The Syriaia (Uind. 1866); 
Chesney, fiapiroi'M ErpnHtum; TTiomson, in Ihe Bi- 
bliolMeca Stin-a, voL v ; Burton and Drake, {/iwpibrnJ 
Sgria (Lond. 1872). On the history under the Seleu- 
cidat, see {heaidea the original sources) Clinton, fatli 
Httltaiei, voL iii. Appendix iil, p. 808-S4B ; Gardner, 5e. 
kvcid Coiia (Lond. 1878); Vaittani, Imptrium Srltuci- 
durvm (Par. ISBi); Frolicb, .4intiA-> Btrvni tl B^un 
5yrui(Vien.l744); and Plaihe, CmtA. #iic«£m. (Leips. 
1834). On the history under Ihe Romans, see Nuri- 
sius, CmoHipkia IHtana, in 0pp. iii, 424-681 ; Gibbon, 
DtHiHt and Fall, etc On Ihe modem history and con- 
dition, see Castille, La Sgrit tnui MthtmH Ali; Bon- 
ring, RrpoTt on Syria; Kitler, Bgrien aad Paldll.f 
Murray and Bildekcr, ayiri and PiilrH. 

SYRIA. MisstONS IN. The origin of the Sj-rian mis- 
sion dates back as far as 1823. When the two American 
misaionaries Binl and Gondell arrived in that year, the 
civil and the social condition of Jerusalem and l>alesline 
were such that these gentlemen were advised to make 
Beirflt Ihe centre of their operations. Soon several 
English missionaries were added lo the Protestant 
force St that time, and Ihe papal Church became thor- 
oughly alarmed. Letters were addressed froi 



different 






ible, ll 



under- 



taking of the missionaries ineffectual. The lelle: 
answered by the analhenias against the " Bible men ;" 
yet, notwiihalandtng all Ibis, the missionaries took a 
hopeful view of their prospects, and commenced schools 
in 1824 at BrirOt. The firat was a mere class of six 
Arab children, taught daily by the wives of tlie mis- 
sionaries. Soon an Arab leacher was engaged, and be- 
fore the year ended Ihe pupils bad increased to flftv. 
In 1827 they had already 600 chiblren in Ihirteen 
schools, and more than 100 of these pupils were gills. 
That the Romish ecclesiastics were bustlle to these 
schools need not bo meniioiied. 1'he troubles which 
commenced in 1826 with Ihe invasion of Ihe Greeks, 
and the constant apprehension of an approaching war. 



with t 



whei 



t was resumed. In 1834 ai 

cspicislly in the controversy which Mr. Bird had 
.be papal binhop of Beirhl. In 1886 a high-school 
Dmmenced, but missionary wi-rk was impeded hy 
ars uf Lebanon. These' I rouble* lasted till the 
1842. In the rear 1844 ihe missionaries held a 
ntion, the result of which was that it was recng- 
Bs a fact of fundamental importance thai ihe pe<>- 
thin the bounds nf ihe mission were Arabs, wherh- 
-eks, Greek Catholics, Druses, or Maruuiics. 



SYRIA 

>nd that the iWtn reli^ouB ucia KiUy eonalilulcd 
one TIC?. It wia also agreed upon that wherpT 
cnmiMiiiei were read; lo make a cndible profe 
piely, they were eatitled to be reWKiiised as churchea. 
and had a right to such a native minUtry aa coii' ' ' 
fciven them. About that time a call for pTeachiiif; 
tmm Uanbeiya, a village of foi " ' 






lofMomi 



Me body 

of Haabeiyan* had aeceded fram the Greek Church, de- 
clared Ihemaetvei Proteataiita, and made a formal ap. 
plication (n the minion for relifcious iuatruction. Sev- 
eiilv-aix n( these pei^ile were added (o the Church of 
ChrisL A penecuiioii agsinat the Proteatanta now en- 
aiied, who fled lo Abeih, where the bigh-achoul waa re- 
Tiveil under the eharge of Mr. Calhoun. A chapel for 
public wiinhip was (itted up, and here, ai abo at Ueirdt, 
there was pre*chin([ every Sabbath in Ihe Arabic lan- 
RUaee, with an inlereatiiifC Sabbath-school between the 
service!, lu the spring of ibe year 1S45 war broke out 
afreah between the Druaea and Msronites, ami Lebanon 
was again purged by tire. The consequence was that 
the schools in the mountaina were broken up; but in 
the following year, when Dr. Van Dyek was ordained 
lo the work of Ibe Uoapel ministry, there were ten 
Bchnols in the charge of the station at Abeih, with 436 
pupils. Connected with the Beirlit sUlion were four 
■cliools for bovs and giria, and one for girla aloue. In 
SOk el-GhClrb', a village four milea from Abeih, a Pmt- 
eataiit seceuion finm the Greek Church was in piogreiis, 

held with them every Sabbath. At Bhamditn, Che 
summer residence for the brethren oflhe BeirClt suiion, 
there were a number of decided Protestants, and even 
in Zahleh, the hot-bed of fanaticism, there were men 
who openly argued from the Gospel against the pre- 
vailing errora. Missionary work had now so ii»;reased 
that in the year 1S47 an earnat and ebxiuent appeal 
from the miBHonaries for an increaae to their number 
wss made to the Prudential Committee. The appeal 
was published, but it continued painfully true that the 
harvest was plenteous, while the laborers were few. In 
the same year the Proteatanla of Haabeiyi sent one of 
their number lo Constantinople to lay their grievances 
before the sultan. The appeal was successful, and the 
principle of tolerating and acknowledging the Protes- 
tants as a Christian sect was recognised, in spile of the 
bull of excommunication of (he Greek patriarch. The 
moat important event, however, in the year IS48 was 
the formation of a purely native Church at BeirAi. an<' 
the beginning of tranalaiing Ihe Scriptures into Arabic 
ivhiuh was eommtlteil to Mr. P.li Smith, who was sssiat 
ed by Butrua el-BiMany and Nanf el-YanjI. In thi 

was left in 18iu to be eultivaled by the Armenian mia- 
sum, the language in that region being ehiedy iheTurii 
inh. Ac that time the Gospel was preached statedly si 
si.iteen places. At four of these— Beiriit, Abeih, Sirton 
and Hasbeiya — churches bad been organized. Thi 
anathemas of the Hamiiite clergy, once ao lerrifie, had 
liHt iheir |ii>wer, and the riobC influential inhabitanu 
were on friendly t«rtna with the mission, and in fai 
of eihicalion and gonil morals. Things had changed 
Ihe last lifteen yean for the better in a moat remarl 
ble way. We hare now arrived at the year IS57, whi 
opened with the death of Dr. Eli Smith, the Iranslai 
of the Bible into Arabic. He had departed at Beirfil, 
Kabbalh otorning, Jan. II, and was succeeded in the 
workofttanslatiim by Dr. Van Dyck.wbo had been re- 
moved for that purpose from HiiUm to UeirQl. In the 
}-ear I8f>9 the iranslation of the New Test, was com- 
pleted and published under the care of Dr. Van Dyck, 
who then proceeiled wilh the translation and publica- 
tion uf Che Old Test., which was completed Aug. 22, 
1864. The British and Foreign Bible .Society requested 
perminion lo adopt this version, inatesd of the one for- 
merly issued by them. The result of a friendly iiego- 



tiatino was that the American and the Britisli and 
Foreign Bible Socieiy agreed to publish the veisi'iii . 
conjointly from etccuotype plates funiiahetl by tha Ibr- I 




led, embracing nestilv all Ibe ', 
Piocestanls of Ihe various towns and villages, ami a 
commendable degree of liberality was shown by tbt ' 

natives in collecting and contributing. The number of ' 
converts incresscd, churches and stations were multi- 
plied and provided with native preachers and pasloii^ 
snd a proposal was made fur a Proleelant caU^e. Tbt 



[1 for the 
.1 great 



r ndi 



igiot 



In . 



o 8000 volumca and i 



18«2 the pi 

9000 tracts, makinu an aggregate of 6,869,000 page^ | 
Besides the Pratestaiil college, which was proposed in 
I8G1 and incorporated in IHGS, in acconlsuce wiili the '. 
laws of the slate of New York, a theotogicnt aeminarv 
was commenced at Abeih in Hay, 1869, which openal 
with seven students. In the year 1870 die Syrian mii- 

Presbyterian Board of Missions, UDdei whose care it ii 
atill carried on. 

Beirdt ia one oflhe missionary eenttea lor the rerival 
of Bible Christianity in Bible landa. Anumg tiw chief 
inai rumen tali ties fur the develi^ment of Ihia city are 
the benevolent aiwl litemy institutians fdiioded by lut- 
eign missionary zeoL First amottg tbem arc the Amer- 
ican Protestant institutions under the care of the Prea- 
byterian Board of Foreign Missions in Now York. They 
are manned bv a noble band of Christian schidan, as 
Dra. H. H. Jessup, D. Bliss, C V. A. Van Dyck, U. £. 
Post, and Profs. James S. Dennis, E. R. Lewis, and HalL 
In the )-ear IS77, when Dr. Philip ScbalTvinlBl Beirflt, 
a new mission chapel, with a native pastor, bad just 
been opened in the easlem part of the ciiy. Tbetv are 
the American Female Seminary and the printiug-prtas 
and Bilite depository, which sent forth in 1HT6 no less 
than 38,4a0 volumes (or 18.786,380 pages) of Bibles, 
tracts, and other books, including a series of leu-bocdu 
and juvenile works. There is the "Syrian ProUKant 
College," which is independent of the miasioa, bat grew 
out of it, and promotes its interest. In 1877 it uum- 
bered over 100 pupils of different creeds and naiionali- 
tiea. The college embraces, beeidw the liieraiy de- 
partment — Arabic Isuguage and literature, taatbemai- 









iguage*. a 



nd jurispnidence — a medical schonl, niv- 
der Ihe management of Dr. Fnsc i an obsen-atory, nn- 
dci Dr. Van Dyck, who sends daily by tel^trapb rk- 
teorological obaerva^ons to the observatoiy of Gmstaiv- 
tinople; a library, and a museum of lutural curiouties. 
The entire Syrian mii^on of the American Pre«h>-te- 
rian Board embraces, according to Ihe siatisiics i.f 1879, 
39 American missinnanes (\i men and 17 women), 3 
native pastors, 11^ teacher?s 16 licensed preacherv, iO 
other helpers — total force, 140; 12 churches, 716 coni- 
municanlB, IIG received on profession, 66 ptracfaing- 
places. and 46 Sunday -schoola with 1895 pupils. The 
principal stations outside of BeirOt are Tripoli, Abeih, 
Sidon, and Zahleh. Besides these flourishing Pievby - 
terian insliiutinna, the schools of His. U. Matt, Miss 
Jessie Taylor, and I he deaconesses of Kaiwrvverth dr- 
sorve most honorable mention. The Jesiiils ate alsa 
very active in Beirili in the interest of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church. Ther are just now issuing a new Arabic 
translation of the Bilile, evidently in opposition to Or. 
Van Dyck's trnnslation, which is widely cinslated in 
Ihe East. From Dr. SchafTs work, TAroagk BOJf 
/jondt, we subjoin the following itatii' 



It Soboou it tb( Clom or ISIT. 



tiniet BcirAt, w« may mention Damunu, the hot- 
M «f Hohaniiii«dvi ruiaticism. A tiiily diligence con- 
lacuibbplmwithBeirOL "It teems ■ hopektt Uak," 
^1 Di. Schiff, " to pUnr ProteiunI Cliiutiiniiy in such 
>|JiMM DuD*9cus. Keren hdps^ ttae thing bu been 
dm. ml not ilIiigMhet without renult.'' Sinn 1843 
Uk I'lilffl Pnlivterian Church of Ameiica and the 
Flabtlmin Church of Ireland hare miintiined Jointly 






h for CI 



«» Lircn than before the miaMcre. H'unhip is con- 
<tu«el ivici tytry Sunday in Arabic, and occauonally 
in Eni^iih. Bnidea thia Pmbjlerian miuion, there is 
in £|iuni|ial minion, with a chapel built by the London 
^mKr for Pmnioling Christianity iminig the Jews. 
Anjiiiiiiiig the chapel are several fine schoolruoms Tor 
Ian sad giili. Altogether this society etnplays there 

•uif it alia a depot, where Bibles and other books, 
ndi ■• ibe Pilgrht't Pnigrta, are for aile. The mis- 
Kour opeiMion* at Damascus are but small begin- 
cisp; bia the lime is not far distant when, as Abd-el- 
ijia pnphemd. "the moaji 



to Chris 



irchea." 



5 SYRIAC 

tinearelheGennsnculonies at Haifa and Jaffa. Thejr 
belong to I TcUgious MKiety known as "The Temple," 
which originated among the Pietists of WLIrteioberf;, 
whn accept Bengel'a theory of the prophecies of tho 
bonk of KevelstioD a* wt forth in his Gtamim of Ihe 
A'. T. In 1867 an expedition uf twelve men, sent out 
from the parent society at Kirschenhardthof, establish- 
ed Ihemselvea at SemUmeh, near Naiatelh, bat soon 
died at malarial fever. On Aug, 6, 1868, another com- 
pany set out, and, arriving in Palestine in October, sep- 
arated into two culnnlea, one settling at Haifa, under 
the pmidencyofG. D. Kardegg, and Ihe other at Jafla, 
under Christopher HofTmanii. Their object was ■ re- 
ligious one, to prepare the Hoty Land fur Christ's per- 
sonal coming in the Millennial reign. I1iry purchaseil 
land, built hotises, and have addressed themselves at 
once to agiicullure. At JslTa they have two Mltle- 
menrs— one called Sarova, about two and a half miles 
north c>r Ihe town, contiiting in 1872 often houses; the 
second, nesrlhewslls of Jaffa, was bought from the sur- 

grief (for this last see Ridgawat-, ZonT) jLimif, p. 4R6), 
and this settlement included thirteen houseis with a 
The Jsffa colony in all numbered 



I 1872 01 






> of the cokinist 



were docton, and 
some twenty were mechanics, the rest being farmers. 
'■"he Haifa colony in 1875 ntimbered Bl I, having been 
lately reinforced by new arrivals frum Germany. Both 
colonies are welt established, having neat and comforl- 
able houses, and sif^na of external pnuperity, being en- 
gaged in various trades and manufsclure*, ss well as 
farming. They have lirile influence, however.over the 
native population and small security for permanence, 
all bough tui Ihe present fully tolerated by the Turkish 
authorities and highly ipspected by their neighbors 
(see Conder, Tml- Work in Palal. ii. 801 sq.). 

At Jaffa there has lately been likewise established an 
agricultural colony of Jews from Gennany.who have a 
small but flourishing establishment just outside the 



ii.llV.iii 



Fdjoi the work recenllv published by Dr. Schaff, 
nn*^ B»b /jndi,-we extract the follnwing table. 

■ill mention the fact that the last 
V has been sigoaliied by the establishment [ 
b prulfctorale over Syria anil all Asiatic Tur- \ 

D the odnpiion of the English language as the 
cnBeaBediiunoriDslruction. See Anderson, ^fffor} 

frFmigii Mimiamt to lit Orimlol' Churekrt (Bos- ' 
1% l«:i-73, 1 vols.); Schaff. Through hibb lAimU 
iX.I,|g:9): beddes the annual reports oflbe different 
•™tif«. Someofthe publicaiions frum theJcsuitpresa 
■ lUiti BR mentioned in /.iUrariicktr handiMuer, 

anp-awsq. (a p.) 

iiBiag ibe most notable misoonary eBiirts in Palo- 
^nsncaaeOaniB^L PairRSTAiiTAiinKviiiaruatLWoi 



iTnu Pmieiiant Cotl«e 

>^tM 9^0 SchoolK. , , 

• twck ol SaHlsDd MliraloD In lb* J«wa . . . . 

■■■T>7lni^lluslemOlrts-8chi>i.1s 

it Si'hon^{EBsieni ^srter). 



' « SdMiih nr the Free CI 
AKdan Frie ■ — ■ 
^oetj liw Pnmolioi 



of Scotland. ■ . . 

- --) 

In the East I 



>>iTti or Enfiand Mini n the Jei' 

'hm:blll«l<iDarT8aelciT(la ibe Bm 

" ' ■ — -in Wsslou (Latsl 



Minisd PnabjnariaD M 



n Pal- 

ine, where relijiious services are held with more or 
I regularity. At Nazareth is an elegant I'rotestant 
irch founded by the English Missionary Society in 
inection with the Anglo-Prussian bishopric of Jerusa- 
lem, where an ordained clerftj'man (furmerly Rev. J. 
Zeller, now Rev, F. Bellamy) nfficiales. assisted' by a na- 
tive cstechiit. Iti the same town is a hospital founded 
by the Edinburgh Medical Missiunary Society, which 
dispenses medical aid to all applicants; and likewise an 
orphanage, eststilished by the Ladies' Society fur Pro- 
mniing Female Educalion in the East, which educatea 
anil cares for about forty gills, chiefly of Christian pa- 
rentage. See TtlBKEV. 

llissionary work has 
thusafoocbold in Syr- 
ia, but owing to the 
severe Moslem laws 
agsiiiit proBclytism, it 

but little direct spirit- 
ual reauits (see Collins, 
iltH. Entrrprine in lie 
ICuil, Lood. 1878). 

SyT'lao (Oan. if, 
4),nrSyi(iAMToi«iUB 
— I iv, 7) or Lax- 
IB (aKingsxvili, 



A. V. of the Hebrew 
pii37?t, Aramilh, 
wbicil is the (em. 



pi 



SYRIAC LANGUAGE 



Sjrriac Langiiag*. Thig repmenu the Wnl- 
«ni dialect nf Ihat bianch of rhc Sliemitic or Syn>- 
AnbiMi liiiKiiagra uwally termed (hcAnmstn ((|. t.), 
(he EnMini bviiie reprtMnleU bv Ihe ChalilM {<\. r.). 
The lAliill}' between ihii Clllliiee *n<l Ryriic ii iii- 
■leeil M chiae I hit biit fur a few oribographjcal clianf;;*, 
anil e*peciilly Ibe difference In Krilten clinncter.ihey 
iroulil scarcely be itiaiinKuiihablc, In apHcb Ibey 
oinil.i hanlly imve diBereil more Ihan (he ■everil ilii- 
lecln nf the Greek (ii. K. the Dnric, iGulic, Atlir) fnim 
«ach other. White Ihe Childee i« written in Ihe 
•qnare chincirr, nnw iiniaUy called the Helirrw. rlie 
Syriac ia writren in a very dilTerent and mure cur- 
airs baml, awl rxhilriu (in addiiiun in [he peculiar 
fnima liiT Hnal lettern, a« naual in all the Sbemiiic 
_ fCronp) a methml of rDmbining certain letleri or nin- 
Ding (hem together In wriuug, aimilar lo ihe practice 



SYRTAC LANGUAGE 

in Arabic, There are al» two fonna of ihe thai 
le™ (which correrpiBid preciirly In Ihe Hebrew 
Mil m bet ami power) — the ordinary or liglil-atrukt It 
nnw generally naed in ptinliiig, and an older U 
called Ihe Eitranftein, of heavier airukea ami more 
couth abape^ I'he rowel-points aim (••! which ll 
are five, correaponding in piiieral m tlie modem vni 
i, a, amt u, at proiiounceil in Italian) dil&r entii 



hey conaiil of modified foniu uf the lirtck tuweli 
(, o, a), while in the Ealraiigtlo they are dennceil 
o dots in various pniiiions. Olheronhngraphical 
iariiiea of the Syriac as compared wiih the He- 
brew and Chaldee are (be use oTa small line {Hum w- 
rHllimi) beneath silent tetters, the soppmiion allogeth- 

(unme writers, however, emphiying a dot above a B^ad- 
Kephath letter, called A'niAoi, i. e. " liarduen," to re- 
move the aspiration, ami a dot beneath it, calleil RvlnA. 



TABLE OF THB SIKIAC ALPHABET. 







TA 


LK wr IH 


"'"'*'- *LIU 


*BB-l. 










Toax. 











indication ,rf the pln™l 
(when identical in form 




















ample. 




Final. 










with Ihe singular) b>* 


OUph 


X 




SpirUui knU 


tt 


■tt 


% 


two horizon,.! doi. 
placed above il. callcl 


Beth 




a. 


^ 


B 


= 




b 


RMoi, i. e. "increaw/ 
For Ihe leading diBn- 


Oomal 
Dolatli 




r 

51. 


'%, 


G 
D 


n 






encea in (he r,«mauun 
and conslruc(ion of 


He 






H 


r 


<^ 


07 


gous with the CliaUltr. 


Van 




a. 




V 


1 


«« 


o 


OUAOlT*'''"'*'' '""" 


Zain 




V 




z 


T 


N 


? 


The ancient or pn4)rr 












Svriac is belicred to \n 


Cheth 




« 


w 


GennanCH 


~ 


M 


■^ 


naw wlHdly • deail laa- 


Teth 




•t^ 


^OX^ 


T 





V 


\ 


guage, and ia used only 
in the old liturgiea a»d 


Jttd 




- 


-or» 


Y 




V 


em Syriac, which is Bwi 


CopU 




a 


^or,.. 


K 


; 


& 


A 


almna( solely liy the Nn- 


Lomod 






Sor-V 


L 


V 


\ 


i. 


aia, and to aonie exieiit 










M 






by their Koordiah neii:li- 


Uim 




lA 


>oor>a 


'Z 


7) 


to 


bor^diBeracon.i,l™U^■ 


Nim 




J. 


^or,^ 


N 


: 


J 


t 


fr..m the old Sviiae. .j 


Semcath 




tt 


-Bor^ 


S 


c 


ta 


ss 


principal value of a 


£e. 






■%orV 


Peculiu 




^_ 


i. 


is ita uae in the eluoda- 


Phe 




A 


^or.ft 


PHorP 


£ 


& 


1 


ihHi of rare words in Ihe 
Old TeaU and the t™- 


Twde 


^ 


s 




TS 


:: 


^ 


X 


pariaon with Ihe Hrti. 
rooia; and it is ak» of 


Koph 


* 


A 


^or^ 


K 


p 


A 


a 


much iminrlance fn>n> 
the fBC( that ihe oI.Im 


Bish 




r 




B 


■1 


•i 


3 


and b«t MtvAsm of ihr 
















New Test. (Ihe Pahio.) 


Shin 








SH 


IT" 


X 


j:. 


is in (hi. language. .S« 


Tlian 


^ 


;'•- 




THorT 


- 


Y 


A. 


SYBIACVKKSIOMi. Th. 

principal liieraiurrnfilie 


ODIPOOKD 




TOWSLB. '" 




Bynac, oaitiea this aim 
the inferior peminn of the Old Teat., cotin^i 






1 K»n». Po 


ra. PDit«-,Gree* 


H.bnw. 


of certain historical wcnka of (he Eariv anJ 


' Pethocho ' 


r ' il « 


_ 


Middle A«i«, par(icnlarlv the writiop «f 
Ephrem Syrus (<i. r.), and a number nf i- 


%• u 


:b 


Itebotso * 


r .. a t 


., 


liginns poemi and hvmn« (see Stttet fftiw 
a»t //oni/i^a ri»n<l. 18631, lraiiaU(ed Vtw> 






ChevotBO ' 


r .. 6 * 




the Syriac by Kev. H, Burge«). 










General troatiws on the Syriac lanpiact 






Zekopho 'o 


r ' o 




and literature, many of them in conneciin 
with the Hebrew, but e>[c1u«ve ot Ihoee that 






Etsotso ' 


r k n V 


!1 


treat llkewiae of (he Chaldee.are bv theftJ- 










towing: Lysius {V>^am. 1726), Ulcbaelii 













SYRIAC LITERATURE 1( 

[J. &] (HkL 1TK), HicbaelU [J. D.] (GotL 1768, etc}, 
Agnfl(L'pHl, 1791; Loud. iai6), Svinburg (Uprul, 
17K), Loigcrka (Riigioni. I83e), Unaw (Birol. IMl). 
Sa Ihc y»r. a/ Sof. Lii. Ov^ l§62; «n arr. on ilie 
Hfr^Arabiaa Lmgiuign and /.ileralurr, in (he Chiiti. 
Ac XTii,S98 ■).; on .^{yrwc Biblical LileriUair, in ihe 
nml Rrt. T, 36 (q. ; on Syiiu' Pt'i'^oaB' ■■> «>« ''i^i- 
lU. j^Ta,viii.5M*i].; and tbc lut in LlfaleDUiiii'sS^. 

Gnmour* on the Rrriu, exctuaiveir, ire ihow or 
VOkm (Id ed. HiL 1G46), Opitii» (Leijxi. 1691), Leu*- 
ifail (Ullnj. leaS), Beveridffe (UidiL IdM), Michulii 
[a&](HiiL1741).HIchaelii[J.D.](Gett.l784),ArileT 
(.tliaa. 17(H). Zd (Lemgo. I7ti8). TfichEn (Iii>*I. 1798), 
Tun (Lnod, Iffil ), Ew«ld <KrUng. 1826), Hcffmsiin, 
IHtL \»a), UhbounD (Berl. 1829; N. r. I8&a), Tull- 
bajfLmtiSiT), PbilUp* {jd ed.ibid. 184A),Cuwper 
libid. 1860), Uerx (HiUe. 1867). A Cromnar of Ikt 
M»in Sgriac taitgvagt, by Rev. D. T. Slndilird, ia 
inMed in tlw Jomr. of Ike A miT. Oriailal Sacitif (N. Y. 
l*l»\ nL V, Noi, I. Lexicon* have been executed by 
(iuUr (Hunb. 1867; new ed. by Hendennn, Lund. 
ISt) md SehufCLugd. Bat. 1706): tbe aUlract of 
iFc SrriK part oT CMtell'i Htptaglai Ltx. by KIuhHlia 
[J.D'] (Goit. 1TH8); Smith. TkrtaHmt (l^and. lD!iS), 
\t.i, A new »ai exieaiirc Srriac lexicon via under- 
itkn by PcoT. BtnMeia of UeVminy. Syriac chmto- 
■Ulnnan tbowarKineh(Let|HLl789>.tiriniiii (Lem- 
f. 1793). Knaea (UoCI. 1807), Hahn and SicfTert (Lcipa. 
tmX Obedeimer (\'ien. 1826), Ditpke ((iolt. 1829), 
ITaic (Ina^r. iS65), and Rodign (2d eiL Halle, 1868). 
Tbt Biiic HHiTeiuent readiiiK-book fur beginiien ii tlie 
S)riae -VoB Trtt^ published by Bagaler (Lond.), and 
brief lexicon edited by Dr. ilendenun. 

BjTlac Litaiatore. The Syriac literauire ia pre- 
EaimiJj' nlifciouK The nldeM monuoient is the Svri- 
V Tmiuo or tbe Bible, called the Fnhitha or Fiikilo, 
it «hieh aee Striac Vekbionh. Uke the Jewa, the 
Xriima Uealnl their Bible In Maaoretic manner, wbich 
■•r be •ecu fron the aupencriptiona added to (nme 
Ixoka. Thua ve read at the end of Job, NZr: B^O 

lira K^y-B 1 n3r->st varva np^ix ^I'tci. L e. 

'Uotoidi the bcialt orihe Juatand nnble Jub; it con- 
mai K6t rerH." The retult af erilical care fur [he 
l^ikiis B contained in a work ipcakiiiR of Lhe variery 
•r aaglt leadhiK*. of the correct reading of ilifflcidt 
*«i4^aMl in which the pronunciation of proper namea 
ifBiiSaf Id the Creek mode i* Uxi^ht. The lille of 
'kaaUwIioo ia «np^n [lr*ipTI KPliacI XD113 
ITVp Hn'S^isO ^^K Knmi, l. e. - Bunk of lhe 
a»iaMl nading* of Ibe OM and New Teal, according 
u Ike Karkapbte rccenaiun." The htWr expreaaiun 
'raixi t^at die work wa« prepaml in the Jacobilie 
mtmitn Kartapk, which by a miauke lent tlie name 
■il iitn af I KarhipUr or Kariapkaaiait rrermm 
m Utnln, Trnditir* Karhipkintat, on In Ma— art 
'^laSjiiait [Parii, 1870]). After I his, all nmicei 



na of tbc Bible mnal disappear once for all The 
■Me Fnneh writer also calleil atlention to lhe fact 
ikM,like the Jcwa, wbo hare an EaMcni and Weatem, 
• Uabylonlan ani Paieatinian. Mainrah, *c> likeoiae we 
■■■ Aiingiiiab between an Eauletn and WeMeni, a 
^teaahaa and Jaeobician, Maaorab among the Svriana; 
■ad ibia he laid dnw n in bi* Sy-int Oi-irnlaax it Ocei- 
*««B»«(ihid. 1872): "Eiaai but lea deux principaux 
UraaAiaaa««n*;''lowhichwemay aildalhird eaaay 
*? tW MBe author : Hitloirt de lii Pondualiim ovdtia 
)r*Mn ektz la SjnaH (ibid. 1876). These three es- 
niverrry inpoTtantfuT the reading and underala^d- 
^ nf the Syriac rerwm. Faaaingorer the other ver- 
^ttwlriefa win ba treated in tbe art. STStAt Vkr- 
mu, <n BNBt Mata that the lUalerocanimieal boott. 



I? SYRIAC LITERATURE 

which art not found in Lee'i edition of tbe rcaliiln, 
were alreaily iranslaied iKfure the 4th century, fur 
Ephrem the Syrian already quote* Iliem. Thus under 
the fnrmuU of ytyiinirrai ha citea Ecclua.iii,6,T,9. 12, 
18 (0/ip. C.-«e. i, 85); xi, S (iHrf. p. 92); iv, 7 {ibid. p. 
101) ; with ta^iit yiyparrat he quotea Wiad. ir. ' ; 
riit, 1-17 (tMJ.p.241); iii, ■ ; It, 16 (iMiJ. p. 966); rii. 
16 iibiJ. ii, 28) : Ecdua. ij, I he introduce* with uc >r 
ypafh fV" (•^h'- n< S^')> ^<^ >" l^l Lagarde pob- 
liahed the apocryphal booka of lhe Old Teat, under lhe 
title /.ibi-i AfuKTfpki V. T. Sgiiace; Ceriani, in bia 
Moitamnla Suna ft Profima. torn, i, published Ibe 
apocalypae of Baruch and lhe epistle of Jeremiah ; in 
the 5lh vol. the 4th book of Kadraa; and in the 7th vnl. 
(Maliid. IH74) he published the Wiadom ofSolomon and 
Eccleaiasticua. 

The apocri'phal Uieraturo of the New Teat„ aa far ai 
it has bHn |iiiblished, is giren by Renan, Fragmaat da 
Liffre Gttoatiquf tnlitvU A po^at. d'A daot ou Ffnittnct ou 
Talamrnt if Adam, publii d'nprti dna ttrtiaiH Syr., 
in tbe Jiar. At. ait. v, torn. ii. p. 427; by Lagarde, in 
DidoMcalia Apottoiorum Si/ruice (Lipa, 1S54); by Cu- 
reton, in tiiiAneint Z^ecummn, and Lagardc'a Ktliquia 
Jurii Etdtt. A miqvimmm Syriacr. 1856 ; by H. Cowper, 
in lhe Apocr. GoiprU and other Domiaenlt, etc- (2d ed- 
l«iid.l867)i and by Wright, Cunliiiiilwiu M (*e Ajioc- 
rypkal Litrralurt of lie A'nc Trti.. mlittird <md rd- 
itfdfivM SfHan MSB. n lie Biiliii Mvmm (ibid. 
1865). 

Between the tranalatinn of the Scripturea and lhe 
classic period of Syriac literature there exii-ted a gap 
coTBriny about three hundred years, which ia now Hlled 
through Curetuii'a -ImSnil Sj/riiic Dncummii rriulite 
In Ike Eitrlieit hJtaUitimnI of Ciiitlimilg in Jidrwi 
(Lond. 1864). Kunebius, in his Church History, tells lis 
that he tranalated the correapnndence between Christ 
and king Abgar of Edeaaa, Ingether with the narraiire 
of the healing and oniversion of that king by Thadll«u^ 
one of Ibe seventy discipin, from the archives nfEdeaiia. 
A part of ihis report has been found in Niirian MSS, nf 
the 5th and 6lh centuries, under Ibe title Tit ItocliiiK 
nfAddai (lately publiahed, with an English translation 
liy Philipp^ Lond. 1876). From Ibia wc learn that Ad- 
dai,i>ne of the seventy, converted nnt only the king Ab- 
gar Ukkama, bnl also a ifrrat nany of lhe people, and 
built churchcB in and about Eilesaa. Addai was auo- 
eeedcd by Aggnua, who was mnrilered. BeMdes Ag- 
gseiiB,a good manyolhera sntTered martyrdom, for which 
camp. A aa Muriyronim Oritnl. el Occiiltnl. (Rom. 1748, 
2 tomi, ed. Auemani). 

I. Orthodox IFrtfrrf. —Towards lhe middle of Ibe 4lh 
century begins the goiden ant of Sgriac literalarr, and 
under this head we menlinn Jacob, bishop of Niaibi* 
(q. r.). Although later SIS8. cor.lain tonwlhing under 
his name, yet no genuine works aie now extant. Con- 
temporary with Jacob waa Aphraat or Farhad, siir- 
iianwd ^e " Persian sage," the author of hnniliee writ- 
ten between 387 and S45, and published by Anioiielli in 
the Amienian. with a Latin paraphrase, ii'i I76(i, but of 
late in the original Syriac by Wriglit (LoniL 1869). 
I>n>f: Kckell Iranslaleit eight of these homilies into 
German (in the BiblioHet der Kirchenralrr [Kemp- 
ten. 18741, Nn. 102, 103). Un Aphraat see Saase,/Voir- 

Inioot (Up*. 1878), and Schanfelder. in the TiUmgir 
Ihrolog. QuoiiaUehr^, 1878, p. 196-266. 

Of greater renown was lipbrcm (<].r,), who died in 
A.U. 37a, ami whose writings were iranslateif not only 
into I>iin and (ireek, but aim into ihe Armenian, Cop- 
tic, Arabic, Abyninian, and Slavonic BesidM Ephmn, 
we meniion flregory, abbot in Cyprus about 890, author 
ofepiellea; Baheua, whose bvmns are given hv Over- 
beck in his S. Kpkrami Sy<i^ fiabnUe, B'llai ottnivinf m 
Opmi SelMii (Oxford, 1866) ; by Weiiig, in bia Seholn 
.$yri(tcu(Imiabruck,1866); andin a German trsnslsiioii 
by ffickell, in Aa§gevSkllt Crdifilt drr tsritcim Kir- 
denrSler ( Kempten, 1872). Balimn's contemporary 



SYRIAC LITERATURE H 

wn CfriUonaa, whow hjrmiu were ilrc tTanditeil by 
BickeU iloc. cil.). 

Towarrlt ihe end of Ibe 4tb ind btgionins nf the 5th 
nniuiy liveil iiul wrute Uinithu, bUbop of 'I'agril, au- 
thor ara niartynili>(^v(|>riiil«din AMeniani'sBiUiotAcca) 
diid hymiii, 'The eauoinof ihe 8ynodorSclfiiciii{4lO) 
i.iiiiceriiiii{; Church ilucipUne, aiiil bearing bis name and 
that of laaic, bishop of Seleocio. have becii published 
•Itar a I'aris MS. by Umy; Coaaliuai Srltuaa el 
Cleiiphoali kabiliimam>i>HO,til.r!rn,iUutlr, (Lotivaiii, 
18693; RabukiL,bishDporEdeau(died43&),authororepis- 
tlea, canuiis, and hymns, tor which comp. Overbeck (loc 
dt) and BickelL In the year 460 died Isaac the Great 
(q. v.), pre4>yler of Anliocb. His bymna are traniialcd 
by Zingerle, in the TQMnger tkrtjiog. Quat-talachri/}, 
IBTO, and bv Bicltell, in Ibe Kaajihitr HiUielluk dn- 
Ki'-rliaicalcr, 1873, No. 44 The iatter has alsu pub- 
lished S, i$aac\ AnlioeAaa, ftirto™ Syroriin, Opaa 
unvtia, a omaibtii, guotquol alani, Codieibu4 Minn- 
tcriptii atta varia lectitme Si/riace Anibicr^at primut 
fiidii, Latine VfrtU^ J^ro^gomeaU tt Gioaaario aurit 
(Uiessen, 1873-77, 2 vols.); see also Zingerle, Mow- 
iiKula Sgi-iaai tx Romam Codidtnu CoHrrla ((Eni- 
punli, 1869), i, IB-20. Con temporary with Isaac was 
the monk Dada, who wrote about three hundred works 
iin Biblieal, homiielical, and hagiographicai matter. 
About the same tiine lived Coemaa, the biographer of 
^ueon the Slylit« (ace BtUioth. Ortnl. and Aetu 
Marlyvrum Oi-itniaL). Towards the end of the 6th 
and beginning of the 8th century lived Joihua the 
Slylite of Edessa, author of a chronicle covering the 
yean 495-607, which hos been edited by Martin, Chro- 
tii^ut lb Jatai k SlylUc, icnie vrrt Fan bib. TexU 
tt TradudioK (Leips. I8T6), and Jacob, biihop of Sarug 
(i|. v.). In the work by AbbelOn, Dt Vila tt Scriptit 
S. JucAi Siirnaruni Sartyi in Mttopolania t'piicopi 
(Louvain, 1867), three biographiea of Sarug bt« given. 
More recent is Mattin's Eeique-PokU au l* fl uu Fit 
^iielri, ou Jacgutt de Saniug, la Vie, ton Trmpi, tti 
(Eurra, let CrogoRBa, in the Kttmt dn Scimrrt Ec- 
rlitialiqun, Oct, and Nov. 1876, p. 809- MS, 385- 
419. According (o Hartin, Sorug was a heretic, for he 
says, "Jacob waa bom, lived, and died in heresy; be 
loved everytbing which the Church caadeniwd, and 
ctindemned everylhiiif; that the Church bved at that 
liitHT." Hig bymiis Uekell puUislied in ■ German 
translation in the A tiMgttcallllt Grdkiie tyruchrr Kir- 
ckmeaitr. Of Sarug'a writing*, some were puUished 
intiie Mammala S\iriiKa,\,-ll-'36\ ii,6-2-«3; 76-166; 
in Aswinoni's Aela Miaiyr. il, 330; Curetuii, Aviail 
Ooematalt, p. 86 sq.; Wenig, Schola Hgr. p. 155; by 
Ziogtrle,'m i\ieZnUchnfldtrdtaUci.mniynil.Grirlliei, 
1858, p. IIS; 1859, p. 44; I860, p. 679; 1864, p. 751; 
1866, p. 51 1 : by the satne aiithnr, six homilies iv.re pub- 
litbed at Bonn in L867. Martin publisheil in Ihe Zeil- 
ichi-ijt do- dnUci. morgtnL UtttlUck. 1875, p. 107-137, 
Jtiieouri de Jiiegitri dt Sarrmg tar la CiMtt Jtt Idoitt ; 
and ihid. 1876, p. !17-i7S. IjllnM dt Jacyuti dt Sarong 
aux main dn Comtnl dt Mar Bauia it a Fauld-Jidiuf, 
rtttritt « tnidaiU: Dr. K. Schriltcr, ibid. 1877, p. 360, 
Ihe Comokifory Epiiilt lo lit //inijiuriru CAriiliow, in 

lived John Saba, a roonk, a native uf Nineveb, author 
• if sermons and epistles, pnUlishol in Greek (Leips. 
1770), and Isaac of Nineveh (q, v.) (we Jfrnansxla 
Syriaai, i, 97-101), author of an ascetic work in teTen 
bcKiks, and known in the Greek translation, tnade by 
f aliriciiH and .thraham, and given under tbe title Lii'i 
ifr Confnnrifii (Vimti, in the lilh vol. of the .Ifn.TKi fii- 
Uintkrca /'ulTKin, where Ibey are erroneously ascribed 
In Isaac of Anliocb. With Isaac of Ninei'eh the list 
of iirthoilox wrileiB is closed, and we come now lo 

II. l/tierodax WHlert.—l. The AVsToiMni.- Without 
enleriug upon tbe history of these Christians, we will 
only remark that the catalogue of Khedjesu on Nesio. 
rian wriun was first publislieil by Abnhain Ecchellen- 
sis (Rome, 1603), but inure correctly by Asscmaiii in Ibe 



18 SYRIAC LITERATURE 

3d ToL of his BOlialk. OriaiU Besidea. we find nunr 
literary and historical ttotices iu Asaemani'a calalugue 
of the Oriental HSS. of the Vatican Library, or in the 
Bibliotkeca ApoOol. Vatic. Codicum MUS'. Calalogia 
S. E. tt J. a. Au. mAimrmnl Tma. II, cowqiliatm 
Libroi Chald. tint Syroi (ibid. 1758), and in the Ap- 
pendix by Cardinal Hai, in the CalaL Codd. SiU. Folic. 
Arabb. tic, ittnt tjiu paiiit Utbrr. rt SfHace. fiuDi 
A utmani in idilions prallrmiMtnal ( ibid. 183] ). Sec 
NKsroiilANa. 

The earliest writers among the Nealoriaiia wen Bar- 
■uma (q.v.), bishop of Nisibis and author of epiaUes: 
Narses (d. 496), sumamed "the Harp of Ibe Siiirit,' 
author <^ com ntenlaries on the OM Teat., threv hundml 
and aixty orations, a liturgj-, a treatise on tbe sactaaMDi 
of baptism, another on evil morals, various interpreta- 
tions, paradetic sermons, and hymiia (ace Schi>nlelder, 
Hgmnen, ProkUtptationfn u. MartgrtrgtJUbi^ drt Ae- 
(Torum Brtricri, in ihe Tiibinger Iktolng. Qwirfabdkn/?, 
1866, p. 177 sq.)i Mar Abba (d. 55^), wbo wtou a 
commentary on the Old Teat, and a iransUlioa at tlie 
Old Tetl. from the Sept., the latter i>ot extant; Abra- 
ham of Kaahkar, author of ejuatlea and a aomineataty 
on the dialectics of Aristotle; Paul of Nisibia. an exe- 
geticiil writer; Babeus or Kabi, sumamed " the Great," 
archimandrite of Nisibis in 56S, a voluminous writer 
and author of On Ike Incanialioit, an exposition of tbe 
ascetical treatise of Kvagrius of Fonlus, a hiatorv of the 
Nestorians, hymns for wonhip through tlie drele of the 
year, an exposition of the sacred text, nMnastic nUea. 
eic; Iba, Kuma. and Prubo, dDclora of Edeasa, who 
translainl in Ihe 5th century the commeotaries of Theo- 
dore uf Uopaucstia and Ihe writings of Ariaiotle ialo 
Syriac; Hanana of Adiabene, an exegetical writer: 
Joseph the Hiiiile, a mystic; John ^ba, aulbor o4 
epistles; John of Apamea, anihor ufascetioil trealisea. 
Famous B> grammsrians and lexicogisphetB wer« Ho- 
nain Ibn-I>liak (d. 87l>), Bar-Ali (about 885), Dar-Uab- 
lul (about 963), and Elias bar-Sbinaja (d. 1049). 

in parts, we mention Jesujabh of Adisbene. patriarch 
about 060, and author of Da-HnjAet Cka-Aer, at On 
Ihi ComrrtioH or Chongt nfOpimotit, an exbortatiosi to 
certain disciples, and a ritual; Thomas Margeniua, about 
Ihe middle of the 9th century, author of a faiaton- of 
the monastery of Beib-Abe, published by AssraiaDi: 
John bar-Abgura, patriarch about 900, and author of 
canons. Church questions, and decisions, in pan fnveu 
by Assemaiii ; George, metropolitan of Atbela ai>d tlas- 
sai,autliiir>>rBn explanation of the litur^,bi'Asaemtini; 
and Timothy II, patriarch about 1318, author of a tra- 
tise on the sacraments, also given by Aasemani. The 
eibical work, TU Book of the Her, by Salomon, iHshnp 
of Basson (about liti), has lately been publiabed win. 
a Latin translation by Scbnnfelder, SahwriM Kp. Bat- 

LaimK wriil (Bamberg, 1866); George VaHa, two nf 
whoae hymns are given in sn English tnnslatinti bv 
Badger, in hie Tkt Snioriinu and Iktir Sitaab (Load. 
1853), ii, 51, as, 95; Chamis bar-Kardacbe,whflee bywiii 
on the incarnation is abo given by Badger (Joc^ tit. p. 
39). Tbe latest writer among the NeaoTiaiM waa Eb«|. 
jCKi (q. v.), metropnliun of Saba (d. 1818). 

After the 16th century, s great part uf the Neatnriana 
returned to the Church of Ifome. From their midM ■ 
number uf polemical writings in the Syrioe kanguaffp 
were pulilisiied against the errors of their cuuntrvntoi, 
as tbe Tkrtt Ditamrta on FaUk, about the year IGOO, 
by the archimandrite Adam (aflerwanls as tnahr^ of 
Amido, called Tintathv). These iliwD«rsra are givm 
by P. Strmaa, in bis De DogmalOwi CkaUmonm Di^ 
put. (Rom. 1617), and in S^mdaUa CkaUmenat (ibid.), 
where alsu the aynodical letter of the patriarch Elias m 
Paul V, in a Latin translation, and tbe hymn «f tbe pa- 
iriarch Ebnljesu in honor of nus IV, in the Syriac. is 
given. About 1700 the patriarch Joseph II wrote the 
C'ltar llirror, parts of which ue pven by JbacnuDi, and 



STRIAC LITERATURE 



I primt Jaa.Garitl piiLliibH 
■1 Bmc (18U) hil f.*clioiia Dogmali. lie Dieiai /near- 
mtimK fciu U Penide iairial. 
t !%€ Mme,Asiilrt.^Of this dan of wriUn w< 

Wwd by Un J in Dt Sfronm fide m He An 



; <M 



i,l6»,w 



(W. JTu. Bril, idd. ll.i;4, [uL laS); Paul, biihiip 
I'alhiicuQi. Ittc Gnc truulatoi of Serenia's writb^ ; 
\fiujaa fv I'hiJox^nua (q. ¥. ), bitbop nf Hifrapolts 
( MtiMK >, ibe ■u[lk» of a Bible IraiiaUriun. nimtmii- 
urm l)t Trimlalt rl /■miwt^vMr apd lie t'nn rx Tri- 
muit Imcamala H Paao (iteoh >,( Ed««a calla Xenijas 
OK af tlw four Haaw: wiiten of Sjiia) ; Simeon, bishop 
<]f Bdhanaai (<L62(>),iiitlii>rDf cpiBtleii,f!tv«n bv Aaae- 
■antn tbefiiU,Onoi/.i,UG,36l; Peur of Caliiiiicum 
(i78-^l), author of polemical wnrfca and hymn* (Me 
(.'oaL ifu Bril. arid. 14^1. p. 69): John ot Kpbnus 
{i\. T.), aMbor of an ecdoiaMJcal liUtoryj Janib of 
£dtaa (q. t.). autbnr of a rccennon of ihe %ro-Heu- 
p4Bhe cnnilatlon, fragments of wbicb are ^ven bv Ce- 
riui ia Ibc Jil and &tb mlt. of hil MoKVmenla Siicia .■ 

Seriptarea (ptibUabod bv Philippa, Srkolia <nt Pauogu 
*flkt Old Tnl. [Land. I8M1X epiatlea (given iu Lhe 
lOi. Onml. i, 479, ami br Wrighl. in the Jour, nf 
<iae. Ul. Jan. 1867), canons (given br Lagarde, in Rr- 
Sfmit Jrrii txcln. Sjr. p. 117, aod by E'lnv, in Bt 
Hfnnm FUt m lie Euduti-wlica, p. 96): his e«ay un 
ihi jUoi Hammepkoraili was publiahed bv Nestle in 
\htZrilKkiiJldTtdiWtcli.'HOTgad.GttdtldBi/t,\«;6,ii\. 
WSa).: he abo introduced a mora correct rocaliiation 
IXC Martin. yiKfun liKdme el In Voyrlla Sgrirmtrt 
[Patii. 1870]); Ueo^t, bishop ol Che Arabs, in Ihe be- 
xinbiiig of the 8th cenriirr (see Lagarde, Analrrln, 
^l«f-lM); DionjaJus, patriarch of Telmaohar. "rbo. 
pmaiiiig the worka of EuMlnus, Socrates, anil John nf 
EpkHB, wince anoala fmni-)i)ie CRatioii lo A.I). 775, 
tbe tnt book of which was puUiahed liy F. Tnllberg. 
M^SB Telmakln-nnt (Upula, I8M), lib. i ; J<ilm «f 
Dm (q. r.). author of four IhwIib on Ibe Tnorrectinn 
'' Ihe body (esrant), two books on the ecfleaiisllcil 
Old crieatial hierarchirn. firur bnoka on the priesihood, 
Mid a li[u^7 (see ZtngerJe. in ibe Tibinger Ikrvtiig. 
Qaar<dkAr^,18G7,p.lt»-W5; 1868, p. S67-285: Mo- 
mmiUa Sfriaen rx Ram. CoUecfa, i, lOo sq.. anil Over- 
bat, Ice nf. p. 409): Uoaes bai-Cephaa (q. v.), aiilbur 
itfiiiponienury on ihe Tarailise (published by Masiua 
• aLaiin miialaiinii at Antiierp in l(iC9)i bniiles. he 

KtvTesi.. tncu u« the litiii^r, and seven hoaiiliet: 
HaHl'* Jfoni Barcpk. 3 Libi-i Commeml. de Paraduo 
ai Iftal. ImI. rrdd. is also found in the BOL Pair. 
/jr;4n.x«ii.466; DioDVsius bu^Cdib (d. ll7l),eom- 



>lin iif JtlsRlin (<L 
ll«5) (lee the B»L Ori^. ii. 317 n).| ; Jsoiib nf llai- 
patia, aaibor of a dogmatical vork. The Ilituk of' 
nliooed by Asaemani, and an xldtess lo 
a be ordaineit (given in pan in a Latin 
' Deniinger in hia Rilai Orimfuiium » 
>, [Wnixburg, t86B], ii, 106 sq.). 
DonopnTniic irriters i* dnaed by a man 
I all bis predeceioimi, namely, (irpgory 
AMCiraj bar-HebtBui. As Ihe lilerslnre given under 
Dk an. AbcUtabaj (q. v.) is very deBrinil, and has nf 
Ix eraailv ii KCsas ai, we gire it here by vay of supple- 
nan. Ai a hiaiorian, Bar-Hebneus proved himself in 
kiiffenntcle, which ia now complete in Ibe edition by 
UbeMa aod Laatr, Crt^oHi bar-HArm CkroidcoB 
lairtiatlieam guod c Codia Sfiaei BriKnaid Dttcrtp- 
' I CatfamJa Optra Edidrml, Lalimilale Domnnt 
■ -- - - - JTmkyint, HiilancU, Gmsntpkiai 
1 (LoBViin, 1873, IBT4, 1877, 



10 SYRIAC LITERATURE 

8 vols.); ihal part of the cfaioiiicle which treaiiof ihe 
crusade of king Kichard [ of England is given in llie 
nri>^nal niih an English Iranslation in ihe Sgiiuc 
RemlirHj l.nto<u, published by Bagaier and Sons (Lond.), 
Uf bis dogmatical works, we menlion Mrmiralh Xudilii, 
Lc. ''IlieUmpoflhesanc[iiaf7,''a body of ihealo^.'i- o^ - 
tant in Arabic, writlen in the Syrian chancier; Katholf 
iJatriJK, L e. "the book nS rays," a compendium <if 
tbetdogy, exiensively described by Awemani. He aln. 
itniie Kolhnbo dii-Dvbori. i.e. "Ibe book of moraK" n 
comiiendiun of ethics, chiefly deduced rrom Ihe father* 
and ascetical wnlers, and Kolhoba da-T«Mt/e Unphir. 
gmi, "lhe book of pleasant narratives," a collection of 
anecdotes, stnrie^ and senlimenls fnim Peraian, Indian, 
Hebrew, Mohammeilan, and Chrii-iisn wrileta, in twen- 
ty chapiera (nee Adler, limit Lieg«a Sgrinttr laUi- 
miw [AliuLia, 1784]). The ecclesiastical and civil law 
he tmCs in his KnthiAo dii-Hadnst, \. e. "the book of 
directions," published in a Latin translalinn bv Mai in 
Ihe lOlb voL of his Sn-iplarvm Vtlrrvm Aora'CnIleeli" 
CKom. 1838). till Auliar Aon, or "lrpa>uty of mys- 
leries"— hia gnaieM exrgelicat work— is a commentarj- 
on lhe Holy Scriptures, and has pliciled many mono- 
graphs. Lamow's inienlion to publith a new edition 
has not been realized. Ormonngraphs, we menlion Ihe 
general Proamion and the Scliolia <m Job, in Kind 
CkrtHom. SfT. (Leips. 183j, ed. Bemsiein), p. 143, 186: 
Rhode, A bvtphmvgii Scholia n Pta. v tl rtiii (^eslan. 
1832)1 Winkler, Caimm Dibori* ctm Srhoiiii Barke- 
braanii (ibid. 1889); Tallberg.AAoJui n JcHijomiVin 
Pinlmcn Sriolii/rvni Spreinirn (Piiiam. rl SfioUa ui Pu'. 
i.ii,rm[ Tpwla, 1842]); Kiinblnch, Ci^. H. U.Seholia 
in pH:iitiii,i>rinmmfd.flilL (Ureslau, 1863): Knnn 
and WrnnlTTg, Gitg. B. //. BrhtAia ui Jerrm. (Upsala, - 
1 852) ; id. Ci«7. h. II. SchiAia in Pta. rii'j, W, tH, J (Brch 
lui. lS57.«l.l{.8.F.SchTOteT); id-firfo/io in Gn.iKx, 
I; fjrod. rrxii-rxiiv ! Jtidg.T,in ZritThi^fl dtr dmlich, 
moiyrnL CrtrlUei. xxiv, 495 aq.; id. 3dH!liooitPta. in, iV, 
iri;Hi, u-ar, rail), lUi (d-gelher with har-Hebneiis's 
lll^acc tn the New Test, in Ihe same review, xxix,!47- 
30S)i id. Grr^. B. II. Scholia ia Jobi i (BresUu, 1868, 
ed. Semstcin); Schwarz, Grrgorii bar-Ebkraya n 
Krrmgrliui* Johaimu Camvimiiiri'ii. E Theiauro tfgi- 
irrinrum Dmmpliim, rdidtl (Giitt. 187S); KUmroih, 
Crrjjorii Abul/arnsii bar - Ebhriiya ni Aclut Apotla- 
lonmi rl Fpitliilia CalhoHmt AdnoloHontt, Sgiiace 
(ibid. 1878). He was alio not oidy disiinguishrd as 
a poet aiHl grammarian, but combined also both quali- 
ties hi that uf a grammatical porl. His short gram- 
mar in melrt was pnbiishril bv Henheau. Grrg. R. H. 
Grnmm. I.itigtia Syr. in MelroEpkramtv ((ibit. 18J8), 
while Martin published Ihe <F.»rtn Grimmuilienltt 
d'Abovlfaradj dil bar-Ilthraut (I^ris, 1872, 3 vols.), 
or his poems, WoHT published a Spreimen CufBunum pr. 
ed. vert. id. (Ups. 1884), and Uiigerke, Ab. Carmai. 
Syrr. uligaol adhuc tardiln erf. rerf. iU. (Konigsbeiv, 
1886-88)1 hut lately Ihey have been publiihed by A. 
Scebabi, Cre^n'i bar-IMrai Carmimt Cotrrela, uc ab 
fodem t.rrieoa Adjuncltm (Rom. 1877). See UoNO- 



8. Monnlkelilie ITrtrrra,— The only writer who cer- 
tainly belonged to Ibis sect was Thomas of Hsran, 
bishop of Kapbailab, who in 1089 sent an apology of the 
monmhelitic doctrine to the patriarch John of Antioeh. 
But there is a controversy whether the palriarch of 
Anlinch, John Mara, was a Catholic, monotheliie, or a 
myatical person, and whether the Maroniles were aU 
ready orthodox before the cnisades. The writings 
which go under his name, the Mtlul Kokennlka, a 
treatise on Lhe priesthood, and a commentaij nn lhe 
liturgv. are not bis — iHe former bekings lo John of 
Dara-'the latter lo Dionysius bar-Calib. But there is 
no reason to deny him the authorship of the treatise 
on the faith of the Church against Ihe Honophysites 
and Nealorians, which is preserved in a US. dated 1S92, 
and wrillen in Syriac with an Arabic translation. 

III. TVoRsliifMiM. — The translations made from the 



SYIIIAC LITERATURE 11 

Greek inln Syriac »ib rrry nuraemiu, s«pedilly of Ihe 
writing* of Ihe tipottolic hlbera. The Syrims hail 
Uilh epialleii of Uement of Kooie U> the Uurinlbiani 
(we Lifrarde, CUmfiHu Romam RecoffmJvyaea Si/rum 
[Lip<^ 1861]; ill. Clraeiaiaa [ibia. tSti&J; Funk, Uir 
lyritcie Uebtrttttung dtr Cltmrmbriffi, in Ihe TAtolog, 
<iiuinaUctii/t,tS77,p.*ni anJ HUeenMii, Dit Brv/t 
da rOmitdttn CUmtni uad Hie lyrueht Vfifi'ftziiiig. in 
rlie ZtilKhrift JUr vi—nudi. ThnL 1877, xx, pi. 4). 
On tha »erOT epUtl« of Ignatius of Antinih, »*«,«• for 

add Lipniiia, C'thrr ilai VrrhHtma drr B lyr. Brirji 
ritf lymUittt tu itftt iibi'ifffn RecnuM, der ignal^ Literafur 
(ilHd. ISJS), iml Merx, Melrlemala IgmtuKUt (Brealau, 
1S6I). 

A anmewhat peculiar nntk ii rhe Gaemoln^ men- 
tioned tiv Urigen, and sacribed lo Siitua 1 (in Ihe be- 
Kiniiiiifc'oftlie ad Centura), iMiUiilwd in Ulin liy Hil- 
kiiemiua in 1674 and by iSiber in nib. Ijiiianle hai 
liuhlithed it iu Ibe Sjriie according to Niiriaii bISS. in 
Ilia Amalicla. Tciy important also are tlie cimlribu- 
tiiiiia of Ihe Syrian Church Ii> Ihe apnlngciic literature 
oftheSiloenlurv. In Curctnii'a^riia'fr^'uH we Hud an 
.iraiion of Melito of Sardca, written ab-Hit A.D. ISO to 
Marc Aiirel, in which lie triea to ahuw the fully of 
imlylbeiam and teeki to f^in him fur the Chrialian 

by \Vclte,inlheriiivverQiHirVu(KAr{/?,l86£. Derides 
this nratioii, Cureton also sires nine fragmenia from 
Helitu'i wtilinga on the bndy and aoiil, on the croM and 
faith. In the same Spidlrgium we Hnd anolher apolo- 
Iftlio worii, which i* otherwiee Tnentiuned >a the ~ora- 
luHi to the Greeks" by .luilin. The S.i-rian tut mt- 
rribeii it to Ambrose, a Greek. FrafpnenU nfa Syrian 
ininalalinn of Irenieus are Kiven by Hira in Ihe SpicHt- 
jfiim Soif/HBiK (Paris, 1862), <, 8. 0. 

The Nitrian MSS. aim contain much material pei^ 
taining to the works of Hi[)p■■tylM^ the antbot of the 
PiUonipianinia, Laganle, who puldinheil a Greek edi- 
liiHi of Hippolytus ( llijipolifli Rnrnaai ^na fmmlmr 
-ania Gract [Lipa. I83«]), has. eollrcKd the. Syrian 
fragments in his A miltdii, ji. 79-91 ; a|iil in hia Atipf- 
dix ad Aaaleela tua Sgriiica (ibid; IB68), he gives 
Arabic fragmenta of Hiptwlylua's eomnwnlarv on the 
Apocalypse. As for the Sytiac fn^meiits, they contain 
an extract of Hiiqwiylus's oommenlary on Daniel. 
Chapters viii and xi he refera K> I'ersia, Alexander, anil 
Antiochus Epiphanes; the funr kingdoms (ch. ii and 
vii) are the Babylonian, fersian, Macedonian, and Ko- 
man ; the ten horns (ch. rii) he refen to ten kingdiims 
growing out of the Koman empire, three of which— 
£gypl, Ethiopia, and Libya — wiU be aniiihilaled by Ihe 
antichrist, liesidea Ihe commentary on Daniel, ihese 
fnnmeau also contain a scholium on the auihora, di- 
visiun, collection, and order of the Psalms, fragments of 
a commeiiUry on the Sonu of Songa, also fra(rmput» nf 
a treatise on the resurrecliun (iu wbicb Ihe cleaeon 
NicolaiiB is designated as the author or the Niciilaitanp) 

finir animals by Ezekiel, and the genealogy of Jnui 
Chriit. 

In Lagarde's Rrliqiiia Jarit Eedri. Anliquiuiinm 
Sjn-irm (Lips. 1856), we also have the minutes of the 
Carthigenlan Synod of 366, together with Cyprian's 
epiellea and the Hpulola Cimomca of Peter of Aiexan- | 
dria in the Syrian version, while the Analtda by Ihe 
same author contain Sjriac writingi and fragments of 
Gregory Thanmaturgua. A fragment of an episile of 
iKipe Kdix I lo Maximus of Alexandria is contained in 
Zingerie's ifonumtnla Spi-iuca. This mucbfor Ihe nnte- 
Nicene period. As lo the poil-h'icme prriod, we nieii- 
liim two works of Harris Cowper, Aaiiltrlii A'lflma 
(Lnnil. 1867), fragment* relating (o Ihe Council of Nice, 
and j^rtdc HitctHinitt (iUd. 1861), or extracts re- 
lating to Ihe tinl and second general councits, and ra- 
riiHis (lurriailiins. In these tno works wc haveCunstan- 
line's inrilalorr address lo Ihe bishnpa ot Ihe Nicene 



SYRIAC LITERATURE 

Council, his decree against Arius, and Ihe episcopal sig 

A great farorite with the Syrian transtalon wa 
Eusebius of Qesarea, whose ecclevastical hisioTyis pre 
served lor the grvatesl part in London and St. Pelen 
burg M3S.Drihe 6th and Gth cenluriei. Specimeu oi 
the Syriac tranilaliun were given by Cureinn in th- 
CoFTHia Ignalianam, in the tipicilrsiiim and j4isr>m 
DtitiimnI', while Wright is preparing ■ Syiiac edition 
who also edilel and translated in the Jour, of Sue 
l.il. July, Oct^ IBUG, a treslise Ok Ae Star, ascribed I. 
E^•ebiu^ and which is bund in a MS. uf the 6th cen 
lury. The Tbrephmiy (^to^vtia), long losi, was dis 

e<lileil, uiidet llie title EuirUm «■ lit 7'Aropjknnu a. 
Dirimt MnmfriUaiim af Jrtai CkHM, br Le* (Land 
IMi), who also IraiisUted the same into English (iUil 
I84S). The MS. is now in Ihe British Museum, aiu 
Lee asaigns it Id A-D. 41 1. 'I'he Tkto/ikaiHa baa lh< 
same objecl in view as tin iiriitit't tt'myyAitii, thi 
Dtnumitraliii Enugtlica. It speaks in the Jtnl 6a»j 
of the I>igii«,the mediator between Uud and the world 

Creation, refuting at Ihe aame time atheism, polyitu' 
ism, pantheism, and malerialisiiL The Kcomdboot treatr 
of the faU and sin, and ofihe neceieity of adivine inter 



kind; the (Aiiif speaks of ihe incamalion of Ibcdivini 
Logos, his redeeming death, resurreclion.elc.; theyuorr/ 
speaks of the fulHImeiit of the pmphedes of Christ cnn- 

of Jerusalem, the Temple, etc. ; the jf/?i boot refulei 
the objeciiuns made la Christ's miracles as being magi- 



Kiples. 



nUS^fr 



in 1846, who also puUi>he<l an English translation in 
lfU8; another English translation ia given by Iturgew 
and Williams in tlie Libnirg o/ lit FtHhtri (Oxliif I. 
1864) ; they were translated into liemun and anuolated 
by Larsow (I«ips.l8A2), while iheiirigiiiaLwiiha Latin 
translation, is given bv Mai in Ihe Aurti Fafntm BiHi- 
ellirCH (Horn. 1868), vl, 1-168. 

Bendes the writers already mentioned, we must nsmt 
Titus, bishop of BoatTS, who wrote four bordis agiinal 
the Mtnichnans, itnperlect in Ihe Greek, but compleie 
in the Syriac translation, and editeil by Lagarde, Tii 
BoUTtm eoaira Mamehitot Liltri IV Sgriott (Deri. 
I859)j CjTil uf AlexandriB,whn«ecomnienlary onLuke 
has been edited by Payne Smith, & Cyri(/> .4^. vlr- 
ehirp. Commrnlurii in Lueir EetrngtliMm (Oxford, 1858). 
Ofthe ttanslationi of Gregory of Nytaa and ChiymioiD 
onlv a Tew fragmenls hare been puldished (see Zin- 
gerle, MoHummla Sgriaea, i. 111, 117). The Pkgn-iU>- 
jjHi, erroneously ascribed lo Basil, was published (1795) 
by Tyschen. Phytiologiit Synii, sen llitl. AmmBlinf 
rrxii in Siicra Scriplara Afemoralomm. A pan of 
■he Piiruditf, an account of the acts and discourses of 
Ihe most eminent Egyptian monks, cironeoasly ascribed 
lo Pallndins and Jerome, has been published bj Diet- 
rich, Codi/. iSyriunirMm S/mtWiM, jmE inf /ttusfnndnB 
t>oyimau dr Cana Sacra, nrr mm Scripliint Syr. llito- 
™n/<,«.nW(Matbnrg,l855). 

After the 6ih centuri- the translations from Greek 
Church fathers gradually cease, because the Syiiani 
fiom that time nn either belmig lo the Nesiorlsnt or 
Monnphysiles. The Nestoriant translated the wiiiinp 
of Diinlunis and Theodore of Mopsiicsiia for exccrpii 
from their writings («ee La(.'nrde,^itnir(*u), while The- 
odore's commentary on Genesis has lately been publiih. 
ed by Sachau, Tlirodoii MopiaHim FnigmeMa Sfri- 
aeti, rdilil nlqm in IjiI. term, cerlil {Lips. 1869) i Ihe 
MonoplivMlen translated Severui'i writings, whose botn- 
ilies were iranslaUd at the same time by Paul of Csl- 
llnicum, and later by Jacob of Kdessa. Four viiiiatii'n 
of Sevcrui are translaled intu Latin from the 



SYRIAC LITERATURE i: 

SiTUC bj Mmi in Seriplt. Ftteram, yora Coll. is, 74! iq. ' 
StoM rragBicnls rmm Jacub'a Innatitian of Severiu'i 
baUia im publulinl by Martin, »bo alw published 
Jui>b'i qnide to Uvorge, liisbop of fiiritfCi concem- 
iog Srriic orthography (we Jiievbi Epiie. JWmmi 
£fiili)la ad Gtorgium Epitr. Sarvgentrm de Orlhs- 
jr«fJkia SfTVKa; nbteqkmhiT rfiadem Jacobi n«non 
nima Diaeoui Traelatut de Pmclu aliaque Doca- 
mbt ■• (OKfen mialrriam C^>ri^ ISflO), to which 
am ba idded Phillipa, A Lrtler bg Mar Jacub on Sgr- 
iac Oriiographg, alio % Tract by Che um« inlbor, uid 
1 DueouTK by GrfyorioM bar'Ntbr. on Syriac A ccentr 
(Land. 1889), to which arc adilnl apprndicpi. In fine, 
<re BKnlioa lb« mnslatiou ortheepiMleaofpopc Juliua 
L which iagiTen by LaRarda in hit Analerla, p. 67-79, 
■bik th« original Greek ia containHl in Mai's SS. Vm. 
Xtra ColL vii, 165, and in the Appendix to Lagaide'a 
TiliBotlmn. Ofmnalations rmm other languageabe- 
Mtti the Greek, 1ittl« ia to be laid, nnleaa wo mention 
(htworlu into mndern Sytiao iaaiied rrom tbe preaaat 
Cnmnah, aa the tranalalion of the Bible, of Bailer'a 
Km if lit SamU, BanTu'a PUgrim't Pngrai, etc. 

ir. Lilaryin. — The Syrian eburchea are rich in 
■Kfanenlat lilurgiea. The Eaatem Syriani uae a li- 
Uirnical furm which has been innamilted to them by 
■be apMtn of Ed«u and Selencia,Addai and Marifi, 
■bik the Weswrn Syriana uae the liturgy of Jamea, 
■Uch ha> become the baaia for the liturgical aervice 
Ihmifrhoui the Orient. The worlia which treat on the 
Oiinital lilurgiea ire Aaaemani'e Codex Litiirg, (Rom. 
t;i}-M); U^aaudot, LUtirgioTtm Orimll. Culltctio 
(Par. 1716); Duirl, Cod. Lit. (Lipa. 1863), tom. iv; 
y-ait,niMBTyo/lke Uofy ffiuemi f*iireA (Lond, 1860) ; 
Nctia and Ullledale, Tie Lilnrgitt nfSS. Mart, Jama, 
floHnt. Ckrifoilom, and BumU, and Iht Church ofilai- 
Air (M ed. ibid. 1869), traualated with inlroduclion 
•ad ^iptndicea. 

Tb« liEuTgical Berrice {Kurbono, " the oblation or ac- 
n*:" abo Kudtko, " (he holr ritaal") of all the Syrian 
charcbca couusta of two pnncipal parta, the firat being 
psfcniied in the public congregation, composed alike 
<■[ ibe faithful and Che general hearera, but the aecond 
triilatile only to the baptiaed, or believers. This Utter 
ptn is called anapkoru, or "the uplining,''! term re- 
ftniog both to the preaentaUon of the eiichariatic ma- 
wriali oi the altar and to Che devotional elevation of 
ibr nind in the cnaiinunicanta. Of theae anaphoraa, 
a hw are the producliona n( Syrian fatbera; the rest 
m TRWHu or adapuiiona from the Grwk. The old- 
■M uipban ii that of Jamei, which ia tbe basia of 
tkat gnat number of aiiaphoraa which are uaed among 
ibe Jscobilea and Hamniteat The leaser liturgy of 
JuMs is an abnilgtnenl of tbe ronner by Uccgory bar- 
HtbmiL Thia ia used on comparatively private oca- 
■ioos, at bapiisma and matrimony. To Peter, chief 
of tbe apoHles, are aacribed the Jaeobitie anaphoraa, 
r«nd by R^naudot and by Howard in his Chrii- 
'vm of Si. Tkomai and ibrir LUargia from Syriao 
Has. (Oif. and Lond. 1864). The Lilarsy of Ihe 
Trdm Apatiln, compiled by Luke, ia found by Bi- 
naidM. Howanl, Neale, and Lillledale. Iliere are alao 
liriirpn aacribed tu Jnhn, Mark, Clement of Rome, 
Ucnriiua of Atben^ Ignatiu* of Aniioch, Matthew 
ib« fmtitt, XyituB and Juliua (biahop* of Rome), and 
Ctlesinr, whoae litnrpy Wright published {Tlu Lit- 
srjj rf SI. Crtrtin*. Bukop o/ Rami) in the Jour, of 
Xv. Lit. April. 1867. p. S32. To nrthndox Greek fa- 
ibert an aicribed the insphoras of Eiiatathjua of An- 
'iwfa. Baiil, Grepir)- of Naiianium, Chrj'aoMooi, and 

aiM Ihe aiiapb<iras of llanlhas, Jacob of Sarug, and 
!&ntim the Peraian. To Greek beretiea belong (he 
uapburas of Sevcrua of Antioch and Dioscurus of At- 

An ibtae anaphoraa arc either apurioaa or rerydubi- 
•w, while ihoae prepared br the hi)ho|is, especially (he 
luriarthi of tbe Syrian JacoUlea, have mure hiacorjcal 



1 SYKIAC LITERATURE 

foondation in their favor. Of such we mention Philoi- 
enua, Jscob Baidcus, Thomu of Charchel, John of Baa- 
aora, Jacob of Edesaa, Eleaiar bar-Sabetha of Babylon 
(abio caUed "Pbiloxenus of Bagdad" in the 9th cen- 
tury), Moses Barcepha, John bar-Shushan (d. 1078), 
John of Haran and Mardin (d. 1166; in Catholic mia- 
sala enonaoutly called " Chryaoacom"), Dionyaiua bar- 
Calib, tbe patriarcha Michad tbe Elder, John Scriba 
or the Lesser (towards Ihe beginning of Ihe 18th cen- 
tury), John Ibn-Usadani (d. 1268), Gregory bar-Ue- 
braeus, Dioscoms of Kardu (at the end of the ISch cen- 
tury), and Ignatiua Ibn-Wahib (d. 188^). 

All Che anaphoras which we have mentioned are pub- 
lished either in the original or in a iransladon, biil ihere 
ara some which are eiiant only in MS. or known from 
incidenul quotations. Altogether I hetc are about aixly 
anaphoraa belonging to Che family ufSyio-Jacohilic lit- 
urgies. 

From the West- Syrian liturgies we come now to 
East-Syrians, who, aa we have already s(a(ed, used a 
liturgical form transmitted to (hem from Addai and 

the anaphoras of Theodore of Uopsueslia and MesCo- 
rius is used. The latter was, aceording to Ebedjeau, 
translated bv Thomas nf Edeata and Marabha. The 
anaphoraa of Nsnea, Banuraas, and Dioriore of Tar- 
aua, mentioned by Rberijesu, are lost. The liliirpy of the 
apoitles, together with the Gospels and Epiittei>, is founil 
in Syriac in the MiMsale Cbiildaiaai « iVoWo a. 
Congrtg. d* Propagamia Fide edimm (Rum. 1767); 
Ordo Cialdaiau Miaal Btaioram app. jnila Sitam 
Ecda. Malabar, (ibid. 1774) ; Ordo CkaUaicv) Riloum 
el Lttlionum jitxia Uorem Ecd. MaL (ibiri. 1776); 
Tvkkt ve Kerjane da Ckrdala ica dt Altitrlka akk 
TrUiia KaldKJa dt Mnlabar (ibid. 1H4) (comp. alao 
Ki^naudot, Neale, and Uttledale [foe. eir.]). 

V. RiluaL—'V\\e main work on this subject is Dei)- 
lingerV Riiat Orimalium, Coplaram, Syronim H Ar- 
mnarun in Adnimtlrandit Saerunenlit CWIlnburg, 
1868-64, 2 vols.), who collecied his material from A»- 
aemani, Codex LUvrg, Ertleiia UnKtrta in XVIibr. 
dalribului (Rom. 1740-G6). and pemaed that left by 
the late Renaudol, as well as (he documenta copied for 
that purpose by Zingeria from MSS. at Kome. The 
ritual fur '■ baptism" among the firttoriaia, aaid (o be 
used by the apostles Addai and Maria, and Uxed by 
Jeaujab of Adiabene in tha 7tb ceriury, ia tmnid in (he 
Cod. Lil., by Badger in hia Nrtloriaru, and Denzinger. 
The Jacobila have many baptismal rituals, one nf 
which is ascribed to James, tbe brother of (he Lord; 
while another, transmitted by Christ to the apoulee, 
and instituted by Sei-enis, is, according (o a Florentine 
MS., said to have liecn (raneiated into Syriac by Jacob 
of Edeasa (comp. Aaaemani, Bibliolhtat Medicta, Laa- 
rtnliana tt Palulma Codkum Manynripl. Oiiffil. Caia- 
ttyvi [Flor. 174!], p. 83). The aane Secerns ia said to 
have prepared two other baptismal rituals; benidea, there 
ia one by Philoxenua fur casee of emerjiency. In three 
forms (for a bov, a girl, and (nany candidate*) we have 
■n order of baptism ascribed to Jacob of Edesoa ; an- 
other, called alter St. Basil, is said to be of Melchitic 
origin, although Ihe Jacobites use It. All thefe ordera 
are found by Asaemani and Denzinger. The ilaronila 
also uae (heformntte of Ihe apoalleaJameaand Jacob of 
Edessa; besides, they have one by Jacob of Sarug, an 
anonymous one, and one named after SU Basil Tbe 
latter two are only found bv Denzinger, the liret also 
by Assemani. The distribu'tion of the "eucharist" ia 
dcacribed in the Ulurgiee. The "penitential rite" aa 
preKribeil by the Neatnrian Jpsiijab of AdiabFUC, to- 
gether with that of the Jacobi teUiuiiVBius bat-t^alib and 
other Jacobiticdocumenia, are given by DcnziuKer, who 
also gives the Nestorian and Maronitic rite of " ordina- 
tion," on which also ice Lee, The VolUHly «/ Ihe Holy 
Orderi o/ Ike Ckarrh of EogUnd (Lonil. 1869). Tha 
order for "matrimony" according (o (he Neatorian 
and Jacobitic rite i* alao given (•}■ Dcniingcr. Tbe 



SYRIAC LITERATURE 11 

ucnnwnt ot "estnan nnctiuo" hM gnduilly diup- 
peareJ among the KeMotUtu, tlthoogh ibtrc i* no 
tliHibt [hu ii exitwd U ■■■ early time, as may be eeen 
rrom TCveral alliujoiu mack t» it by Kpbrem (gee abo 
Cttd. Vol. Sgr, 119, p. 127-128). The Jacobilic Ordo 
lAinpadit (a» thia iKninent ia ealkd by the V/attm 
Si-riana), Denanger gii-** after Tmmbellii Tratlalu* 
III de Exinma Untfiont (Balngna, \"a). In conclu- 
eimi. we only add tbat tlie exlenaive Nnlorian ritual 
fur (he burial of a prieit 'a given in Engliata by Bad- 
ger (toe. rit ii, p. 282 >q.). •"d i" the Offician D'/anc- 
rorunt, ad Uium Uanniitanin Grtgorii XIII lmpnua 
Cialdaidt dmraeUrHMii Impreuim (Rom. 15S5), we 
find tbe ritual Tor tbe dead, both clerical and lay. 

VI. Tkt Bntiaty.— On thia aubject tte, be«ide« the 
bnviariea, DadRet (Aw. ril. li, 16-25), IKetrich (_Co~- 
ntmlalio He Piabmi Vtu FMieo rt Dirinone m Ec 
Ofria Si/riaea [ Marburg, 18623), ■■"' ■<'« ■"- ""BV- 
lARY in thia CyelopBdia. The Neatorian "(five in ila 
prerciit furm mav be traced back to tlie 5lb centurv. 
Aa eariy M the 5th century Theodul wrote on the m.Hle 
nr the reciiaiion of the paalmi in the ofllce (q. v.). 
KarHK wrote pmclamatiun* and hymnii Tor the Mmt, 
and Micha and Abraham of Bethnbban treat of the 
Kalhimvila (q. v.) of tbe nnctum. In the 6th century, 
Harabb* inatituteJ aiilipbons (etoon) tot all psalma, 
while Babttui arranged the hyiniii liir the dayi nf ihe 
saints and other feUiraln. lu Ilie 7lh cenluty, accord- 
ing (o tbe teetimony of Thomaa Margenaia, the Pro- 
priam At Ttmpon (chudra) waa arranged by Jesujab of 



2 SYRIAC LITERATURE 

ibid. 18S3},with an aj^iendix eontaining the C^ieintm 
Drfimetonuit and otber preyen. An editimi nf tbe of- 
fice wai publiahed on Mount Lebanon in 1855, Bt tirtm 
abba va brra va ntctia de KudtlLa ataha altarirv Uibrrt- 

nan theckimrtMa oiA fjada dt iladt Martyuajr, 

It may not be out ofordertoipeak bere of ihe fo-risn 
Church lectionary. Tbe MS.S. nf the Syriac N'ewTwi. 
are atrangen to the modem diriaion of the bnnk* ii 



h tbey di 



etbe 



w prayeta and hymna, unlU it received ita 
filial revininn about 1260 iu Ihe monaalery uf Deir 
Kllaitha at MosAL 

K»r better underalanding, tt i> neceaaary to know Ihe 
diviaiun of ihe Pulter among the Nestnriana, which 
almoM correapond* to that of Ihe Greek Church. The 
liook of Pialmi is divided into twenty hullalaa, to which 
is wkled aa the twenty-fint the song of Eiod. zvi and 
Deut. xxxii. The hullalaa are again subdivided into 
fifty-icven (incluure of Exml. xvi and UeuL xxxii, 
sixty) mannilhas. Each marmitha is preceded by a 
|irayer and succeeded hi' Ihe lHoria PalrL £aeh psalm 
hu an aniiphon (canon) after the first Tene, which 
serves very often to impress the whole with ■ specific 
Christian cltaracter. The paalma thus arraiigeil were 
printed atHosQl tn 1S66 and twice at Kome, PtuUeriain 
Chalduicum in Ui«m Saiionit C^bLtdttam (184-2), 
and Brnia'iun Clutld. in Vnm Sal. Chald. a Jm. 
Gariel, trtundo Blitam (1863), Aa it ia not Ihe object 
of this anicle to give ■ description of the breviart', ne 
here mention only, for such as are interested, Dietrich, 
Margti^tbtle dfr aba Kirche del OHtaliJar dit Fri- 
trilm (Leipa. 18G4); Tuklua A lutmnAiirAu ilanyilha 
de Jaannlia tAtehime rt da tiar « mnkida Krlhaba 
d-ihktm raileb<ahar (MosQl, 1866)i Schiinfelder, in the 
Tubiagrr QaarlttUchrift, 1866, p. 179 sq. 

The Western Syriac or Jscobitic office, with whieh 
the Mnmnitic corresponds for the greater part, is distiii- 
guiilicd not only froni the Eosleni .Syriac but also from 
all olberis in not having the psalms as ita tiuiin aub- 
stance. The Jacobilic oRlce is found in Breriai-iim 
frrialt Syianm US. Kplintmi tt Jiicabi Sgivran 
JHxta KilVM ijuidem yu/imii, quod iacipU a Frriii II 
vwte ad SaHJtatam iact'itice; wtJi/ii r/rtiu Hymnit 
ae Bmffliclianibus. Ab AlSan. Saptar A/iucopo Afar- 
iHa (Hum. 1696). The Siimlay office may be found in 
O^ium FtiiaU juxia Riliim Awieai'n Sfrarum (ibid. 
1851). The office for the Passiini week was published 
by Clodins from ■ Uipsic MS. in 1720, Lilargia Sgri- 
nca Septimamm Pattionu J3nm. A'. /. Chr, rxcfrptam 
t Cod. MS. BibUolA. Lipt. td. ae nolU iUatlr. 

The &taronitie feaUval office is funnd in Qfcia Sine- 
toramjnxta Jlitum EccUtia Stamailarum (Hon). 1666, 
8 vols, fnl), and in Brrriarvim Syriaeum, Offidum Ft- 
rinlt juil. Ril. Eccl Syr. Maron. Inmoentii X Ponl. 
Max. Jiaiu Edilum, llmuo Ti/pit Exmtam (&tb ed. 



several bonks (except the Apncalypae) into readi: 
sons of difierent lengths, but sveraging about fifteen 
of our verses. Thus the first lesson (Matt, i, 1-17) ia 
for the Sunday before Chrialtnasj the second (ver. IB- 
25) is entitled the revelation to Joseph; tbe thint (ii, 
1-12), vespers of Chriidmas; Ihe fourth (ver. lS-18), 
matins of alanghter of tbe infania, etc The four Gnft- 
pcia contain 248 lesaons, uf which aeven are nnappm- 
prialed or serve fit any day, and tbe remaining 24 1 
serve for 2&2 difhrent oecasiune. The AcU and the 
Epistles (which sro culleciively caUed tbe ApoMtt) oon- 
tain 242 leasotis, of which twenty are uDapprnpriBtpd, 
and the remaining 222 Ber\-e fur 241 Dcasona, On 
DKot of the nccasiuiis there was one lesson appointeU 
from the Gus[iels, and one also fnim the Apoatlea. A 
tabular view of these lessons is given in the Gnt apfien- 
dix to Murdnck's A'rd Tal. from the Syriac l>eahito xn- 
Non (N. r. 1869). 

Vll. //yiinii%)r.— According lo Hahn, the first hrm- 
nolngist of the Syrians was the celebrated Ciniiatic Bar- 
desanes, who Houilshed in the second half of the £,1 
century. In this he is in some degree supported \iV 
Ephrem in bia Fijig^tliird Hoimlg agniiul llrrriicm (i'i. 
558), where, although he does not actually anert tbat 
Bardesanes was Ibe inventor uf measures, i-et he a|ie«k* 
of him in terms which abow that he not only wrote 
hymna, but also imply that at least he revived and 
brought into fashion a taste fur hymnokig]' : 




It ia lo be regretted that of tbe hymna of Bardeaanea 

which, it appears, in consequence of their high poetic 
merit, exereiseil na extensive influence over Ihe nlig. 

much strength and popularity to his Gnostic errors—* 
very few fraKmenis only remain. These fragmenu art 
to be found suatiered through Ihe works of Ephrem. 
For Bardeaanes. see the esccllcnl monograph bv Hahn, 
Bardeiamt Gaoukat Synnm Primiu tlgmnelogat 
(Lips. 181R), who makes Ihe following beautiful re- 
mark: "Gnosliciam itself is pneliy; it ia not tberefurc 
wonderful thai among its votaries true poets shnuLI 
have been found. Tcnullisn mentions the pMlms nf 
Volentinnsi and Marcus his disciple, a contemporarv 
of Bardeeanei% incidcsted his Rnoslicism in a son^, 
in which be introduced the .^Eons conversing'* (lie. eil. 
p. 28). 

Harmonius, the son of Bardeaanea. stands next in the 
history of this subject, both ehronologicallr and for his 
sncceasful cultivaiion of sacred poetry, he was edu- 
cated in ttw lanijuage and wisilnm oftireece, and there 
can be no qiieation that he would make his knowledge 
of Ibe exquisite metrical compositions of thai litafatnre 
bear on the improvement of his own. Thia is said on 



SYRIAC LITERATtJKE 11 

iIm (miiDipdoa that the occmnti or tbe ccdniutietl 
iMtotitRi Sioomcn lod Thcoduret ■» credible. The 
hmcr uatra, in his Ufe of Epkrau, lib. iii, c 16, 
llui ■ Humoniai, the hui nr Btrdceinn, having been 
■til tdaraled in Grecian lilenture, was tlie Kist vho 
■ibJKUil bis native language U metres and musical 
hn (rpirov /iiVpoic Boi »n'p(nc fiBtwucoif Tifv ira- 
rauv fHintv rruyaytlf'). and adapte<) it la chain nf 
■iagtn,ss ih« Syrians noir commonly chanl— not, in- 
Ited, using Ibe (rritinga of lJannoniu>. but his num- 
ba> (nif fuAtffi) i for, not being allnifelfaer free from 
biilsiba's herar and Ihe Ihings which ihe Urecisn 
ptHlmpben boaMcd of oonoeming the soul, the biidr, 
tad ngeseniion (_nXiyytmiiot)i havine set these to 
Basic be mixed them with his own writings." The 
Bedn of 'Rieotlnret is yet more brieC Ue says (lib. iv, 
c!S): "-And since Harmoniui, the son of ^nleeanee, 
had fiinBeriy cfKnpnsed certain songs, and, mingling his 
iB|i(fly with the gwcetoeaa uf muuc, enticed lii* bear- 
oi and allured them to deetruction, haring talten ftnm 
bio metrical harmnny (rqv dpfiownii tob fiiXovc)) 
Efdiira mixeil goiUiixaa with it," etc. This swtc- 
Dtnt u DM niiilltmcd by Ephrem, who attiibula (o 
Uh fubcr wbai the (ireek hisluriant atcribe to the aon. 
HshD idmila, wiihiHit any expressed hesitation, the 
ladmaiy orihe t-reek historians, their miiuke aa to 
ibt intention of the metres excepted, and ingeniously 
ttso* ID Hamoiiiut certain fasturea ofthe Syrisc poetry 
tCrirr in Gntiwg in dtr itpvdkn Xi'rcAe, p. 61). A»- 
Hsni. in his UiUiilimi Orieilatit,i, 61, makes an in- 
oltnial alliuion to Harmonius, hitimaling thai in the 
liter iranicriptiunt or Syriac literature his name and 
iaflnnia were ackiwwleilgtd, since Ifith he and his fa- 
tim. Ittntnanea, are mentioned in USS. as the inren- 
lun of meirea. 

I'niil we cuene (n Ephrem, Ibere ia oiie more name 
vhich hss historical ot traditionary importance in Syr- 
iu awtrical literature — that is BalBii, or more proper- 
ly Bilai, wbo,aa Uahn eaya (flanfrMnwrj, p. 47), "gave 
liii same In the pentasyllabic melte, because the ortho- 
doi Syrians •nlcttaiiied a horror of Bsrdeaanes.' He- 
lm Epbirm, aecordtng to the catalogae of Ebedjeeu, 
liml Simeon. Lisbop of Seleucia, w1k> suSrreil mart^'t- 
rtois abwit " ~ 



o be foui 



of the 



n the SI 



e greateM of all hyi 
■heK niTk* are extant, aiid whose hvmns 
mnlaied into German as well as iulo English (see 
BsiRra, UHrimt lljmnt and Hoailirt [Lund. 1863]], 
ns Cphrcn Syrus (q. r.) Besides these writers, the 
UlHring are oieniioiied by Eberijeau : Pauloiia, a dis- 
(ipk of Ephrem; Marutba, biabop of Haipbenwta; 
Xinn of Eiteiea, Bumanieil " the harp of the ■{Hril," 
■ho ned the hexasyllabic metre; Jacob of Edetsa; 
bH bar^KiHbnoe. about A.D. 720; Jacob, bi*h<ip of 
Ckiluia, abmit A.D. 710; Sbalila, bishop of KaBfaina, 
ibm A.D. 740; -Saliba of Uesopotamia, about A.D. 
ni: Chabib-JeSD bar-N'un of BethabaTt, about A.D. 
»»: JtsDJahab bar-Ualkun of Niiibi*, about A.D. Vii2; 
Cbtainos bat-Kardschi: George Varda, about 1538; 
bmsMn, laabop of Amiola, about I6IG; and Gabriel 
Hona. 

Tin. Lihrafvir-— Asaemani, B^olheai OrinU. Cl^ 
muim-VnUc. (Sum. 17)9-28, S toK; abriilg. ed. by 
Pfailfcr, Eriuigen, 1776, ! voK}; Aiaemani [3. E. and 
J. a,], BiUkuktea ApoHoL Vatic Codic. MSS. CnlaL 
9im. 1786 aq.); Uai, CaUd. Codd. Biii. Valic Arab. 
A. iltm rjat parlit Biir. tt Syriad quam A tttmam in 
ifim na prMirwattnmt (itnd. 1831) : Kosen, C<ilaL 
Ctii. HSS, Oriimlalitai qui a Mitfo Brilitmaca 
tmsifaT (l^oA. 1838 sq.) ; Wiseman, Hora SgH 
(Ben. ISM); Wenricb. IM AkdanoH Grat. Vrrt 
•hu rl CasHMWimia AyHnnt (Ups. 1843). Besi 
ibi work! already mentioned in this article, see 
Btidt "Sytische Spt«ch« n. Lileralur" in the Rrgrtii- 
^rjB AOfmme ltnil-t>r!iibip.t Elheridgc, Tile Sjir 
at CUrohs oitd GnftU (l^mri. 184(1) ; Bickell, " Sy 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 

riscbes fUi dentsche Theologen" in the Liter. Bmtt- 
■ittr. No. 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 86, 88, Bl, 98; id. Cowipre. 
r Rei Sfntrvm LtUraria A dditit Noli, BibKogrojikint 
tketrptit Anecdotit (Munster, 187]): Hermann, Hi- 

bliolkmi Orimlalit rl Liagaitliea (Halle, 1870); and 

Friederici. BiUiotkeca Oriatalit (Lund. 1876, 1877, 

1878). (B.P.) 



Syriao Venlooa. The fi>llowing acconnt of the 

Iran^tions of th$ Huly Scriptures in the ancient Syr- 
iac lannajce is sofficiently copioiu on the general lub- 
ct. Hee Vi-KBioxs. 

1. TAe Old Tnlamiml^Th*n an two Syriac Iransla- 
liona of (his part of the Bible, one made directly fmm 
the original, and the other from an ancient Greek rer- 

A. From Ihe fffimir.— 1. ffame.—ln Ibe early (imea 
of Syrian Christianity there was executed a reision of 
the Ohl Teat, rram the original Hebrew, tbe use of 
which must hare been aa widely extended as was the 
Christian profevion among that people. Ephrem the 
Syrian, in the latter half of the 4 th century, gins abun- 
dant proof of its use in general by his cuuntrjmen. 
When he calls it "our version," it dne« not appear to be 
in opposition to any other Syriac Iranslaliun (fur no 
other can be proved to have then existed), but in con- 
trast with Ihe original Hebrew text,nr with Ihnae in 
other langnagea (Ephrem, O/vra £yr. i,380,on t Sam. 

' , 4). At a later period this Syriac Iransbilian was 
deeignaied Fftiilo, a term in Syriac which aigniHes 
timfit or ii'w'', and which ia thought by some to have 
been applieil ii> thia version to mark its freedom from 
glosses ami allegorical modes of interpretation (Hllver- 
nick, Eiviti). I, u,90). It is probable that this name wan 
applied In the rersinn aDer another had been foimeil 
from the HexapUr Greek text. (See below.) In the 
iraiislalion made from Origen's revision of Ihe Sept.. 
the ctit ical marks introduced by him were retained, and 
thus every page and every part was marked with aster- 
isks and obeli, from which the translation from the He- 
brew was free. It might, ihaMore, be but natural for 
a bare text to be thus designated, in contrast with the 
marks and Ibe citations of the dilTrrenl Greek ttaosla- 
ton found in the version from the Hexaplsr Greek, 

2. Zlafe.— Thia translation from Ihe Hebrew has al- 
ways been the ecclesiastical versiun of the Syrians; 
aikd when it is remembered how In the &th century 
dissensions and divisions were inlnutuccd into the Syr- 
ian churches, and how from iliat time Ihe Honnpby- 
slles and those termed Nestorians have been in a state 
of unhealed opposition, it shows nut only Ihe aoliquiiy 
of Ihii veision, bat also the deep and abiding hold 
which it must have taken on Ihe mind of Ihe people, 
that this version was firmly held fast by both of these 
opposed parties, as well as by those who adhere lo the 
Creek Church, and by the UaroniteiL Ita existence 
and use prior to their divisioiu is anfficientlv proved by 
Ephrem alone. But how much older it u than that 
deacon of Edessa we have no evidence. From Bar-He- 
braus (in Ibe 18th century) we learn that there were 
three opinions as to it* age : some saying that tbe ver- 
sion was made in the reigns of Salomon and Hiram; 
some that it was translated by Asa, the priest who naa 
sent by the king uf Assyria to Samaria ; and some that 
the version was made in tbe days of Addai the apostle 
and of Abgann, king of OsrhnSne (at which time, he 
add^ Ihe Simpk version of the New TeaL was also 
made) (Wiseman, llora Synaca, p. 90). The first of 
these opinions, of course, implies that the books written 
before Ihat time were then translated ; indeed, a limi- 
tation of snmewhst Ihe same kind would apply to the 
second. The ground of the first opinion seems to have 
been the belief lhat the Tyrian king was a convert to 
the profession of the tnie and revealed faith held by 
Ihe Israelites ; and that Ihe ]>oaaessian of Holy Scriptors 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 1 

in the SyiUe tongue (which they identified with Va 
own) WM a neceauiy ooruequence of Ihu Adoption of 
the true belief: Chia opinion ia inentioneil lu haviig 
been held by aoRie of the S}-ri>n« in the 9th century. 

been died from tny Syrisc writer prior to Bar-Hebne- 
■u) aeenu to have »nie connection with the fonnatioa 
of the SiRiariuui verthn o( the renUleuch. Aa that 
renion ■■ in an Araninan dialect, any one who aup- 
poaed that it woi made immediately after the miasion 
uf the prieit from Aaayria might aay that it was then 
flrat that an Aramean tTinatalinn waa executed; and 
tbii might t(teTirard\ in ■ aun of indefinite manner, 
have been connccled with what the Syriani IheraiKlree 
uaecl. James nf FUlessa (in the latler hair of the 7th 
century) ha<l held ihe thiid of the opinions mentioned 
by Bar-Hebneu*, who citea him in aupport of it, and 
accord* with it. 

It ia highly improbable that any part of the Syriao 
reiwon ia older than the advent of onr Lord, chow 
who placed it under Ahgania, king of Edesaa, eeero to 
have argued on iho theory that tlie Syrian people 
then receired Chriatianity j and thus they auppoaed 
that a veraon of the Scriptures waa a neccaaarj' accom- 
paniment of auch conTonion. All that the accnnnt 
abowi clearly ia, then, that ii waa believed lo belong to 
Iho earlieat period nf the Cliristiati faith among ihem : 
an opinion with which all that we know on the aubjecl 
accords well. Thua Ephrem, in the 4ih centiir}-, not 
only ahowa that it waa then current, but alan girea Ihe 
impieMion that this had even then been long the case. 
Fur in his commentariea he giveaexplanatinns of terms 
which were even iben obaeure^ Thia might have been 
from age: if ao, lire rernon waa maite comparaliii-ely 
lung befure hia days; or it might be from ila having 
been in a dialect diObrent from Ihat to which he was ac- 
cuatomed at Edesia. In Ibia eaae, llien, Ihe tranalaliun 
waa made it) aomo other part of Syria; which would 
hardly have been done unleaa Cbrisiianiiy had at auch 
■ time been more dilTused there than it waa at Edeasa. 
The dialect oflhat city In slatcil lo have been the purest 
Sj'riac ; if, then, Ihe veruon waa made fur lhat place, it 
would no doubt have been a monument of such purer 
dialect. Probably ihe origin of the Old Syriac version 
ia to be compared with tbat of the Old Latin [aee Vrt^ 
OATe]-, and it probably differed as much from ibe pol- 
iihcd Isngutge of Edcasa aa diil the Old Latin, made in 
the African province, from the contemporary writers of 
ICome, auch as Tacitus. Even though Ihe traces of the 
origin of Ibia version of Ihe Old taU be but few, yet it 
ia of iropMtance that they ahouid be marked ; f.ir Ihe 
Old Syriac haa Ihe peculiar value of being Ihe firit vcr- 
aion from the Hebrew original made fur Christian use, 
and, indeed, the only translation of Ihe kind before lhat 
uf Jerome which was made aubaequenlly to the time 
when Epbrem wrote. This Syriac commentator raoy 
have termed it "onrvenion" in contrast with all nthers 
Iben current (for the Targnma were hardly versions), 
which were merely reflections of Ihc Greek and noi of 
the Hebrew original. 

8. Or^'n,— The proof that Ihia version was made 
from the Hebrew is Iwofold: we have the direct state- 
menti of Ephrem, who compares it in places with the 
Hebrew, and speaks of thia origin aa a fact; and who 
ia confirmed (if that were needful) by later Syrian 
writcn; we lind the lame Ihina evident from the in- 
ternal examination of the venunn itself. Whatever in- 
ternal change or revisinti it may have received, ihe He- 
brew gmiindwotk of Ihe translation is unmistakable. 
Such indications of revition muat be afterwardi briefly 
spccifled. 

From Ephrem having menlioned Inmlalort of thia 
version, it has been concluded that it waa the work of 
•everal: a thuig probable enough in itself, but which 
could hardly be proved fnjm Ihe occurrence of a casual 
phraae, nor yet from variations in the rendering of ibe 
aame Hebrew word; auch variations being found in al- 1 



4 SYRIAC VERSIONS 

moat all Iranslatlons, even when made by one perawi— 
that of Jerome, fur instance; and which it would be ol 
moat impossible lo avoid, especially befrire the limi 
when eoncordancea and lexicons were at hand. Varia 
lions in general phraseology give a far aurer groand fu: 
•uppoaing several tranalalnra. 

It boa been much diacuaaed whether thia Iranalalior 
were a Jewish or a Christian work. Some, who hav< 
maintained that the tranalalor waa a Jew, hav« arguei 
from his knowledge of Hebrew and his mode of render 
ing. Bui these considenliima prove nolfaing. Indeeil 
it might well be doubted if in that age a Jew wouli 
have formed anything except a Chaldee Targum; an{ 
thua diffuienesB of paraphrase might be expected in- 
atead of closeness of transUiion. There need be no rea- 
aonablc ob)tctinii made to the o^Hnion that it ia a Cbri» 
lian work. Indeed it is difficult lo anppoae thai, befon 
the dilTnsion of Christianity in Syria, the veraiMi eoiik 
have been needel. 

4. Hiitoiy. — The Snl printed edition of thia venioi 
was that which appeared in ihe Paris Polrglot of LeJaj 
in ISiS ; it is aaid that I he editor, Gabriel Siouita, a U> 
ronite, had only an imperfect Uii., and that, bewde* er 
rors, it waa ricfecttre as to xhulc pasaages, and even * 

aa if it were to imply that liooka were omitted beside 
those of Ihe Apocrypha, a pare which Sinniia cnnfeaaed- 
ly had noC He Is Mated lo have supplied the defi- 
ciencies by Iran^aliog Into Si'riac from Ihe Vulgate 
It can hardly be aiippoaed but that there is anme exag- 
geration in theae aiatemenla. Sioniu may have eUer 
up nccanonal hiatus in hia HS.: but it requires ret; 
deflnite examiiulion before we can fully credit that hi 
thus lupplied whole booka. It seema needful lo believi 
lhat the defective Inoka were simply those In the Apoc- 
ri'pha, which he did not anpply. Ilie teaull, however 
ia, that Ihe Paris edition is but an inllrm groundwurl 
for our sprakingwith confidence of the texl of this ve^ 

In Walton's Polyglot, 16ft', the Paris text is reprint- 
ed, but Willi the addition of the apocryphal books wfaici 
had been wanting. It waa generally aaid thai Wallor 
had done much to amend the texts upon MS. author- 
ity; but Ihe lale Prof. Lee denies Ihia, auiing lhat "ihi 
only addition made by Walton was some apucryphi 
bocdH." From Walton's Polyglot, Kitsch, in 1787, pub- 
lished a separate edition of the Pentateuch. Of ttx 
Syriac Psalter there have been many editions^ Tht 
first of these, oa mentioned by Eichhom, appeared iu 
1610; it haa by Ihe side an Arabic version. In I6ii 
there were two editions; Ihe one at Paris edited by Ga- 
briel Sioniu, and one at Leyden by Erpenius fh>m t*< 
MSB. These have since been repeated; but anterior tc 
them all, it is mentioned that the seven penit«ntlil 
Paalms appeared at Some In 1A84. An English rnnit- 
lalioB of Ihe Pialmi of Darid waa made from the Pe- 
shiio by A. Oliver (Bist. 1861). 

In Ihe punctuation given in the Polyglota, ■ system 
was inlniduced which was in pan a pcculiaiitv of Ga- 
briel Sionita himself. Thia has to lie borne In mind by 
those who use either the Paris Polyglot or that of Wat- 
ton ; for in many words there is a redundancy of vow. 
els, and the form of aome ia thua exceedingly changed. 

When the British and Foreign Bible Society proposed 
more than flfly years ago to iaane Ihe 8\-riac OM TesL 
for the first lime in a separate volume, the late Prof 
l*e waa employed lo make such editorial preparation! 
aa cnnld be connected with a mere revidon of the lexl, 
without any speciRcBlion of Ibe antboritiee. Di. Lh 
collated for the purpose six Syriac HSS. of the Ulrl 
Test, in general, and a very ancient copy of the Penta- 
teuch; he also used in part the commentariea of Ephrem 
and of Bar-Hebneus (see Ihe Clan. Jonmal, 1821, p. 
!4o sq.)- From Ihese various aourcea he conalrvcted 
hi" text, with Ihc aid of that found already in the Pol- 
yglots. Of course Ihe correcliona depend«l on Uie edi- 
tor's own judgment; and Ihe want of a apectflcation uf 



STEIAC VERSIONS 11 

llic nnilu of colUtkma kiret thi! reader in doubt u 
u atiil tbt evidence ibmj he in thoK plans in which 
ihm ii ■ departure rrom tbt Polyglot Mxc. But 
fhaagh toon infonoalHin night be denirtd, w( bare in 
rhE ntilion oT Lse (Land. 1S2S) a rentable Svriac text, 
Inn .Sjrriac aatboridei, and fnt from the auiincion of 
lucinit been foimed in modern timea by Gabriel Sio- 
uia'a Iniulaluig portiuna frmn the Lalin, 

Bui we unr have in the US. treuures brought rroni 
Ike NiDian Tillefs the mean) of far more accurately 
editing Ihii tenion. Even if the reiulls nhould not ap- 
fiear in be Riiktiif;. a (borough use u( thrae USS. would 
|4aK this Teraon on aucb a baeia of liiplomaiic eci- 
rlence ai would ahow poaitirely how this earliest Chris- 
liui inulauon from the Hebrew wai read in ihe 6th 
«( 7ih century, or pmaibly aiill earlier : we could thua 
me Ibe .Si-riae with a fuller degree of conHdenre in the 
criiinun of the Hebrew text, jiiac as we can Ihe more 
aacienl leniom of the New TeM. fur tbe criticiam of 
Ike Greek. 

la tbt teaming of 1S40 the Rer. John Knger*, cannn 
if Exetn, publiabed AnaoH wiy <i A>» £,i6uM o/'fAe 
Padii/c, or Amdml Sgriae Vrrthm of lit Old Tola- 
meti, limiU be fmbliilHil. There waaa alrong hope ex- 
Iirtved am after the iasue of Canon Koj^era'a appeal 
■hat the work would be funnallv placed in i 
mannn in the handa of Ihe ReV. Wm. Cure 
ibB be accnmplished under his Mipeiintendenc 
UifnnI UniTerdlT preea. Cannn Bogera announced 
ihia ii an Appendix lo hia pamphlet. Thii, howerer, 
haaMK been cRectcd. 

The onlT tolerable lexicon for the Old.-Tesl. Peabilo 
i< UicbMl'ia'* enk^ed rvprint of Castell (GBIt. 1878, 
1 pn, iJTo), for Bemstetn did not lire to publish more 
than (me part of hia knif^xpectcd lexicon. See Stbi- 

i /rfnfiry.— Bnl, if the printed Syriac text retu on 
I'V DO DKBns a really salitfaclory basia, it may be aiked, 
Ihn cm it be (aid positively IhaE what we have u 
tht Mnie version aubstantiiUy that was used by Eph- 
nm lu the 1th cmtnty? Happily, we have the aame 
Bieani erf identifying Ibe Syriac with that anciently 
Btrl ai we have nf ahowing that the modem Lalin 
' VDleiie ii suhatanLially the veraion executed by Je- 
ra». We admit that Ihe comniDn printed Lalin has 
•il^Rd in various waya, and jet at Ibe bottom and in 
iu Renenl texture it is undoubtedly Ibe work of Je- 
nae: lo with the Peahito of the Old Teal., whatever 
(Hon of jmlpment were oommiited by Gabriel Sionita, 
ik( Gni editor, and however little baa been done by 
lint who aboiild have conecled these tbinga on MS. 
MiWiij-, the identity of the version ii loo certain fiir 
I In lie tbn* destroyed, or even (it may be aaid) materi- 
■Oy obaenred. 

FmiB the cilatinna of Ephrem, and the aingle worda 
« ihicb he makes remarks, wc have auflcient proof 
"fibt identity of the version; even though at timea 
be aim fumiirttea proof that the copies as printed are 
ant exactly as he read. (See the instances of accord- 
uct, OMCly from the places Rireii liy Wisemaii, Hor, 
»jr. p. Vii, etc^ in which Epiirem thinks it needful 
■> explain a Sirian word ia thia veraion, or lo discoas 
u waniiq^ ntber from ili having become antiqaated 
n his lime, or from ita being unused in the aame aenae 
n the Syrians of Edeaaa.) 

Tbe pioaf thai the version which baa come down to 
■ imihaantiallr that naed by ihe Syrians in the 4th 
raMny is, p^bapa, more deliiiiie from tbe comparison 
<i nrdi than it wimld have been from the comparison 
1 paaagts of greater length ; becaose in longer cita- 
<nn there alwara might be tome ground for thinking 
ilai petfaafa ilie US. of Ephrem might have been 
aa fcnin d to later Syriac copies of Ihe aacrcd text; 
aUle, with TTKBrd 10 ptctUiaT worda, no such aua- 
piriua can hare aoy place, rince it is on such words 
xiO (bund in ttie Peshiia thai the remark* nf Ephrem 
•n based. The fact that he aomeliines cites it dil^F- 






6 SVRIAC VERSIONS 

enlly from what we now read only abowa a 
of copies, perhaps ancient, or perhaps aucb ai 
merelv in the printed text chat we have. 

e. Riluliani lo other TexiL—U may be said that the 
Syriac n gmeral auppotta the Hebrew text that we 
have: bow far arguments msy be raised upon minule 
ctHncideiiees or variations cannot be certainly known 
until the ancient te:tt of tbe veruon ia belter establisb- 
ed. Occasionally, however, it ia clear that the Syriac 
translator read one consonant for another in ihc He- 
brew, and translated accordingly : at times another vo- 
caliialion of the Hebrew was folhiwed. 

A resemblance has been pointed out between the 
Syriac and the reading of anme of tbe Chaldee Tar- 
guma. If the Targum ia the older, it is not unlikely 
that the Syriac Iranslalor, uring every aid in his pow- 
er to obtain an accurate knowledge of what be vaa ren- 
dering, examined Ihe Targums in difficult passages. 
This is not the place for formally discussing the date 



>a(q.v.)i 1 



I if (as 



most certain) the Targums whieb have 
UB are almiMt without exception miire recent Ihan the 
Syrian venion, itill Ihey an probably the succeatora of 
eariier Targums, which by ampliBcatlon have resched 
their present Kliape. Thus, if existing Targuma are 
I more recent than the Syriac, it may happen that their 

ail earlier Targum. 

But there ia another point of inquiry of more impor- 
tance : it ia, how far baa this version been afecled by 
the Sept.? and lo what are we to attribute this influ- 
ence? Jt is possible that Ihe influence oftlie Sept. is 

pan, this belonged to the version as originally made. 
Fur, if a tranalalnr had access to another version while 
occnpied in making his own, he might consult it in 
cases of difficulty; and thua he might unronsciootly 
follow it in other parts. Even knowing the words uf 
• particular tnmalaiion may aOect the mode of ren- 
dering in another translation or revision. Thus a 
tinge from the Sept. may easily have existed in this 
version fmm the liist, even though in whole books it 
nuy not be found at all Biit when Ihe extenuve nse 
of the Sept. is remembered, and bow soon it was super- 
stitioiisly imagined to have been made by direct iaspi- 
ration, so tbac it was deemed canonically authorilalive, 
we cannot feel wonder thai readinga from the Sept. 

may have cumroenced probably beflira a Syriac vetriun 
had been made from the Hexaplar Greek text; becanae 
in such revised text of the Sept. the additions, etc., in 
which that veraion differed from the Hebrew woidd be 
an marked tJiat they would hardly seem to be Ihe au- 
thnritaiive and genuine text. (See the article fullow- 
iuK.) 

ft.ime comparison with tbe Greek is probable even 
before the time of Ephrem ; fur, as to the apocryphal 
baiki, while he cites some >,r them (though not as 
Scripture), the apocryphal additions to Daniel and the 
hooka of Maccabees were not yet found in Syriac 
Wboevei translated any of these books from the ^reek 
may easily have also compared wilh it in some places 
Ihe hooka previously translated IVom the Hebrew. 

7. ffecnuiDiu. — In the book of I'salma thia venion 
exhibita many peculiarities. Either the translation of 
Ihe I'salur must be a work independent of the Peshito 
in general, or else it haa been strsngely reviaed and al- 
tered, not only from the Greek, but also from liturgical 
use. Perhaps, indeed, the Psalma are a dllTerent ver- 
sion; and that in tbia reaped the practice of the Syrian 
cbiuchea is like that of the Roman Catholic Chureh 
ami the Cbiinh of England in using liturgieally a 
dilbrent veniun of the book so much read ecclesiaaii- 
cally. 

tt ia stated that, after Ihe divisiniia of the Syrian 
Chureh, there wen revisions of thia one veraion by the 
Honophysitca and by tbe Ncatorians; probably it would 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 11 

be found, if Ihe Hibjcet could be fullr inr«Mig>led, tbar 
then were in the hands of difliereiit partie* copies in 
which the urdiiiary accident* uC trinncription had in- 
troduced variatiun*. 

The Karhipkauiiai recenrinn mentioned by Bar-He- 
brsua wM only known by name prior (a the inveMii;*- 
liooiofWiBeniani it ii (bund in two HSS. in the Vat- 
iotiu In thii lecemioR Job Gomei before Samuel j and 
immediately after Isaiah the minor prophets. The 
Pforerba aueeeed DanieL The arran([en»nt in the 
New Test, is quite as singular. It begins with the 
Acts of the Apostles and ends with the four liimpela; 
while the epiallea of Jameis Peter, and John come be- 

ceeded fmm the Uonopfaysiies. According to Asaema- 
ni and Wiaenan, the name sipiitie* mnunfoawiu, be- 
caoK it originated with those living about Mount Sa- 
gara, where [here was a monastery uf Jacobite Syrians, 
or simply because it was used by ihecn. There ii a pe- 
culiarity in the punctnatimi introduced by a leaning 
lowarda the Greek; but it is, as to iu lubatance, the 
Peahito Kerrion. 

R r*s SyHac Vtmmf.-om lit HtxaplarGnfk Text. 
— I. Origaawt Ciunuier. — The only Sytiac veruon of 
the Old Teat, up to the Glh century was apparently Ihe 
{"ahilo as aboTe. Tbe Hrst deliniie intimation of a 
portion of the Old Test, translated {mm the Greek ia 
through Mnaea Aghelms. This Syrisc writer liiid 
in Ihe middle of the filli century, lie made a transla- 
liniiof the Glapijiiii of Cyril of Alexandria from Greek 
into Syrtac; and, in the prellxetl epistle, he speaks of 
thgre'rwins of tite New Test, and the /^oiTfr, " which 
Polycarp (rest his soul!}, tbe ehorepiscopus, made in 
Syriac for the faithful Xenaiaa, the teacher uf llabug, 
worthy of the memnrt' of the good" (Asaemani, Bibli 
otttea OriiMola, ii, SB). We thus see that a Syria< 
venion of the Psalms hail a similar origin in the Phi 
h'Senian Syriac New TesL We know that the date ol 
tbe latter 'was A.U. 508; the Psalrer was pmbably i 
eontempntanenui wnrk. It ia said tliat tlie Nesiuriai 
■ patriarch Marabba, A.D. 552, made a verainn from the 
Greek ; it does not appear to be in existence, so that, 
if ever it was compleltly executed, it waa pmbably su- 
penieded by the Hexaplar version of Paul of Tela; in- 
deed, Paul may have used it as the basis of hia work, 
adding marks uf reference, etc 

This version of Paul of Tela, a Monnphysite, was 
made in the beginning of the 7[h century, for its bads 
he used the Hexaplar Greek text — that is, the Sept., 
with the cnrreciions of Origen, Ihe asterisk ^ obeli, etc, 
and with the references to the other (ireek vsniona. 
The Greek text at ita basis agrees, for the most part, 
with the Codex Alenandrinus. Diit it often leans to 
the Vatican, and not addum In Ihe Complulensian 
texts. At other times it departs from all. 

The Syro-Hexaplar version was made on the princi- 
ple of fiilluwing the Greek, word for word, as exactly as 
possible. It contains the marks introduced by Origen, 
and the references to the version* of Aquila, Symma- 
chus. Thendution. etc In fact, it is from this Sj-riac 
version that we obtain our most lecurale acquaintance 
with the results of the critical labnr* of Orieen. 

1. UiitoTg — Andreas Slaaiiia. in his eilitinn of the 
bnuk of Joshua (Antwerp, 1574), tirsi used the results 
of this 8vro-HexnpIar text; for, on Ihe authority of a 
MS. in bis pussessiiHi, be teviseil Ihe Greek, inlnxiucing 
asterisks and obeli, thus showing what Origen had done, 
how much he hail insertfd in the text, and what he had 
marked as not foimd in the Hebrew. The Syriac SIS. 
used by Masins has long been lost; though in this day, 
after tlie recoi-ery of the Codec Reuchlini of Ihe Apiic- 
alypse (from which Erasmus flrM edited that book) by 
Prof. Delitisch, it could hardly be a cause fur sitr|>rise if 
this Sytiac Cmh'X shoulil again be found. 

It is from a SIS. in the Ambrosian librarj- at MiUn 
that we possess accurate means of knowing this Syr- 



6 SYRIAC VERSIONS 

Job, Pfoverba, Eeclesiasteii, Cantides, Wisdom, Eccle- 
siasticus, minor pn>pbets, Jeremiah. Baruch, Daniel, 
Eickiel, and Isaiah. Norlierg puldished, at Lund in 
1787, the books of Jeremiah and Eiekiel from ■ Inn- 
scripl whicli he bad made of ihe HS. at Milan. In 
1788 Bugali publuhed at Milan the book of Daniel: 
he also edited Ihe I^ms, tbe priming of which ha<l 
been complited before his death in IHllii it waa pub- 
lished in I8«l. The reat of the conteniB.^ the Milan 
Cixlex (with the exception of the apocrrphal bmikt) 
was published at Berlin in 18S6, by Middeldurpf, from 
the transcript made by Noiberg; Middeldorprnlso add- 
ed Ihe fourth (second) book <'f Kings from a USt at 
Paris, Rdrdsm isHied Libri JiaUcmm rf Rik taaiitmi 
Vernomm Sgriaeo'Hfrapalarrm a Codia Mutri Bri- 
tnimici Mine prvmim trtiH, Grace (ruaWuti, flotitfti H- 
laHrali (in two fasciculi, 1869, 1S61, Copenbagen, 4lo). 
A compeleut achoUir has undertaken Ihe task of edit- 
ing the remainder— Dr. Antonio Ceriani, of Milan. In 
IS6I appeared ilia ^oaaneiua Sucra el Pro/ami (Mil- 
an, torn. L fascic i], containing, among other ancient 
documenla, Ihe Hexaplai^Syriac Baruch, Lamentations. 
and ihe Epistle of Jeremiah. In the preface tbe learn- 
ed eilitor states his intention to publish, from the Am- 
hroaian MS. and olheis, the entire version, even the 

speaks iu just terms. A second pan has since appeared. 
Besides these portions of this Syriac venion, the HSS. 
from the Nitrian monasteries now in the Btilish Muse- 
nm woulil add agood deal more: among Iheae there are 
six fnim which much might be diawn, so that part of 
the Penlateiicb and other books may be recovered. 
These MSS. are like that at Milan, in having the marks 
of Origen in tbe text, the references to rcadinga in the 
margin ; and occasionally the Greek word itself is thus 
cited in Greek. The following is the nutation of these 
MSS., and their conlenla and dales: 
II.IU (besides the Peshlto Ei.idnp' 



>r the Three Chlldrei 






IMST, Aumkrrs Hud 1 Kingt, defecllve (cent, vll or vtll). 

The snbscrlpiloii to 1 Khie* rajs ihnt li wse translated 

into Hvrlnc nl Aleisudriii Tii Ihe rear KI (A.D.<lf). 
14,Mt,dnisrii,detsnlTe (with 1 Sum. Pesbllo). "Accunl- 

lMgtiHhe8epl."{cenL»l). 
lI,lA,Jmrpir<ii<nd AiU, defective (cent, vll or vlin. Snb- 

scrlptlon In Jndge% "Aecnrdlni to the Sepi, ;" loRnih. 

"Froio Ihe Tetmpla of the Sept." 

Rurdsm Issned at Cnpanbainn In ISM the first poninn 
of an edtilou i>r Ihe MS. ll.lia: anoilier imrt has t\wt 
beeu published. Borne of Ihese HSa. were wrttren In i)ie 
snmecentUTTln wlilch the ver*^Hl waamiide. Theyrn.-tt 
lirobably be depended on ns giving ibe lezi witb iteneral 

the Old Test. 



names of which appear 
such as never had an ac 
are either the version 
from the Hexaplar te^ 

the auppoaed versions is needless. It ia only requisile 
lo mention that Thomas of Harkel, whose work in ihe 
revision of a translation of the New Teal, will have i 



ansUtior 



this. 

II. Tkt Syriac .Vnc rr-Knninrt Vrtww.— These ve 
may cnnvcuiently enumeraie under five head*, indudini: 
several recensions under some of them, but treating se]i- 
arately the nouble " Curetonian texl." 

A. Tla Fahito-Ssriia Ntic Tat. (text of Widmsn- 
Btadt, and Ciireton's Gospels). — In whatei-er forma rhf 
Syriac New Test, may have exiated prior to the time 



STRUC VERSIONS i; 

of rbOonqiu (the beginniag of the 6th century), who 
tamtd ■ IK* inniUtion to be made, it will lie more 
BHiiFuieiit to coDsider all lach moM unckiit Iraiula- 
LioWK it^uioiu togejhfr; even though (here may be 
nauiu tReminla uugneil r»[ iHit ngudiiig the ver- 
lin of the (arlier >gu of Chtutuniiy u alwolulely 

I. Dalt, — It may atand ai an admitted fsct that a 
rown of th« New TeM. in Sytiac exialed in the 2d 
miiiiry; and lo tbia we may refer the tlatement of 
Euacbint respecting KegcMppua, that he '-made quola- 
uuB fnm the Gogpel aetnnling to the Hebrewa arvd 
tlw Svriac," fit It roS tai' 'E0paioo{ liiiyyiXioii mi 
r»g Itpiatai (IliM. Ecd. W, 22). It aeems equally cei^ 

kiiii<nicftheXeirTeu.ai~nfttieOI<]. 1 1 was the com- 
puuan of the Oh) Teu. tranalatiun made iium the Ue- 
l«T. isd aa Hich waa in habitual uae in the Syriac 

ibe Syrian, otthodox, Moiinphyaite, ur Kestiittan, fruiD 
ibt ^h ccniuiy and onward, the name of Peibiio haa 
lamMnauDonly apiilied in tbe New Teat, as the Old. 
In ih* 7lh eenlury at leaM the Tcraion ao current ac- 
quind Ibe name of oU, in crailrait to tbal which waa 
line (brmed and reriied by the Monopbysilei, 
pMBgh we have no certain data a* to the nrigiu of 

iai laudation of the Kew Test, waa an accompaniment 
•A that of Ibe Old ; whatever therefore bean on the one, 
bean on the other alao. 

1 HitUrjf. — There aeem to be but few nolicei of the 
bM Syiiac Tcraion in early wrilera. Coimu ludico- 
iilnm^ in the (bnnei half of the 6th century, inci- 
>itual]y inleniu ua that Ibe Syiiac traoalation dues not 
ninuiii Ibe Seamd Epialle of Peter, 2 and 3 John, and 

ytaa afierwarda, thia ancient tranalatioa became again 
toeiiB ID WoUm acbolara. In 1a53,Moaea of Mardin 
am* lo Borne lo pope Juliua III, commiaiiotied by Ig- 
DUiua, Ihe Jacubile (Jloonpbyaite) patriarch, io itate 






»id)a 



itc Banish Church, and lo get tbe Syriac New Teat, 
pnutd. In thia last object Iloaea failed both at Rome 
■ml Tcoicc At Vienim he waa, howerer, aacceaafiil. 
WidmaniladL, the chancellor of the emperor Fenlioanil 
L bid himaeir leaninl Syriac rrom Theaeua Ambnuiua 
naay yesn pntiouily; and IhnHinh hit influence tbe 
oqisui uDilertoolt the chai^ nf an eilition which ap- 
pFOHt in IS&a, Ihnwgh the Joint laboia of Widman- 
^■It, Mom, uhI PoatelL Some copiea were afierwarda 
BWd with the dale of 1562 on the back nf the tille. 

la having only three Catholic epiallea, Ibia ISvrrao 
New Tm. agreed with ihe deacriptinn of Cnemaa ; ihe 
-IfBotTpgc waa elan wanting, ai well aa the aecliiiM 
MlBTiii,l-11; tbia laat omiaaion, and aome other poinla, 
■tie nMiced in tbe liat of errata. It atoo wanla aame 
nnb in Uail. x. 8 and sxvii,3&i two veraea in Luke 
uii— viz. 17, 18; and I John t. 7, all which are abaent 
fnn Syriac HSSl In 2 Cor. v, 9 jt hoa in Iht (ram of 
piriif, which ia (inind in Neslotian murcea alonej but 
ii haa ihe uanal reading in Ileh. ii, 9, not the NeHorian 
"* twnc 3ioB. Tbe editor* appear to hare follnued 
iMt USA. witli great fidelity. >o that the eiliiion \» 
)m\y vaJued. In aubaequent editiona enilearora were 
oadt oonjcciunlly lo amead the te^l by inlrudueing 1 
iiibii T, 7 and other pnrtinna which do nni belong lo 
ikia tranalalion. One of the principal ediiiona ia that 
i' Laden and Schaaf: in Ibia Ihe text ia made aa full 
■ paaible by aupfilyingeveiy lacuna from any aource; 
n ilw puneliuitnii there ia a atrauge peculiarity, Ihat in 
Ike lonncr pan Leuaden chnae tr> follow a aort of Chai- 
ta Bulogy, while, on bia dealh, Schaaf inlniduml a 

nt «< Ibe volucoe. The [.e»con which accompaiiiei 
liM edition is nf great value. Thia eilition waa Aral 
iwied ia ITU8 : moTe copiea, however, have Ihe date 
CtH; while tonw have tbe talat aod diahaneat aUle- 



7 SYRIAC VERSIONS 

ment od the title-page, "Secanda cdltio a mendii pur- 
gata," and Ihe dale 1717. Tbe late Prof. Lee publiabed 
an edition in 1816, in which he corrected or altered the 
texton tbeautborilyofalewllSS. Thia ia eo far in- 
dependent of that of Widmanslidt. It ia, however, 
very far abort of being really a critical edition. In 
\liii the edition of Mr. William (ircenfield (often re- 
printed from the Bteieotype plain), was publiahed by 
aiessra. Bagaler; in thia Ihe lext of Widmanaiadt waa 
followed (wlita the vowela fully expreurd), and with 
certain eupplementa within bnckcii from Lee'a edi- 
tion. For the collalion with Lee'a lext Greenfleld waa 
not rcaponaible. I'here ate now in Europe excellent 
maleriaJi for Ihe foraialion of a critical ediiimi uf Ihia 

publieatioii the MSS. employed were honeilly uaed, it 
ia in Ihe text of Widminaladt in a far belter condition 
■ban ia Ihe Petbito Old Teat. The beat leiieon, which 
ahu aerre* for a couconlance, ia Schaafa (1TD9, Ito). 
The Peahilo haa been (ranalaled inio Kngliah by Elhe- 
riilge (1846, 1849, S vola. 13mo); and betur by Mur- 
doch (in 1 vol. 8vo, N. Y. 18fil). 

3. CharaarT, — Thia Syriac veraion haa been varioua- 
ly eatimaled : aome bare tliooght that in it they had 
a genuine and unaltered monument of ihe 2d, or per- 
ha|H even of the lat cenlnry. They Ihua naturally 
upheld it aa almoat co-ordinate in aulhority with Ihe 
Ureek lext, and aa being of a period anterior lo any 
(ireek copy exlaut, Otben, finding in it indulntable 
marka of a later age, were itKlined to deny thai it had 
any claim 10 a very remole antiquily. Thiia La Croie 
Ibuugbt that the commonly printed Syriac New Teat, 
ia not Ihe Peahilo at all, but the Philoxetiian excculed 
in the beginning of ihe 6lli eenlurr, Tbe fact ia, ibat 
I bia veinun oa inuamilted lo ua eoiilaina marka of an- 
tiquity, and alao liacea of a later age. Ilw two Ihinga 
an IO blended that, if eiiher daaa uf phenomena alone 
were regarded, Ibe moat nppuaite opiniona might be 
formed. The opinion of Weiuiciii waa one of the moat 
perveree that could be deviaed: be found in Ihia ver- 
aion readinga which accord with the Latin; and then, 
aciing on Ihe atranga ayalem of criticiam which be 
adopted in bit later yeare, he aaaciled that any anch 
accordance with ihe Lalin waa a proof of eorroption 
from that veraion ; ao lhat with him the pnofk of an- 
tiquity became the tokens of later origin, and be ttana 
anigned tbe Iianalation to the 7ih century. With 
him the real tndicationa of later reailingt were only ihe 

aite ground to Ibat of Wetlaiein; be upheld ilaantiquily 
and authoriiy ver)' airenuoualy. Tbe former point could 
be eaiily ptuved, if one class of readinga alone were 
conndeird; and thia ia conHnDcd by Ihe conlenla of 
ihe veraion itaclL But, on Ihe other bond, there are 
difficulties, for very oflen readinga of a mnch more re- 
cent hind appeari It waa thua thought that it migbt 
be compared wiib the Latin aa found id the Codex 
UrixianuB, in which there is an ancient gnwndworii, 
but alao the work of a reviaer ia roanifeat. Tbua the 
Judgment formed by Urieabach aeema to be certainly 
peculiarity of the text of thia 



Heaa 






liuna); "Nidii b 
!.in, prout qi.idem Irpis 
ulli pmnoa diiaimilia ea 
exaiidrina reeeniione, in plnribna cum Occidentali, in 

<|UB in banc poaterioribua demum aeculia inreela aunl, 
plerique repudiet. Ditrrtii ergo laiporibiu ad Cneru 
anHctM pltne dtttmtt itemm Uentmque rrcogmin raaa 
riJffH.-" (A'oF. Ttt. Prohg. Ixxr), In a note (iriea- 
bach introduced the cooipariann of Ihe Codex Brixia- 
iiua, "liluatrari hoc poleil codicura nonnullorum Lati. 
nornm eiempto, qui priaclm quidem veralonem ad Uc- 
cidentalem reccnaionem accommodatam tepresentaiii. 
lelam. £'z koe 



SYRIAC VEliSIONS 

GnBeo-LAtiDuecvi>tu9tiaribusI^tiniaomnibui solus dii- ' 
c^it, et in Gtaoornim partes Lrumit." Some |tn»r thtt 
the text of Ibe commaii priiiwd fesliitD hu b«n re- I 
wrought will appear when it is compued with the 
CuretunUa Sjiiic Goipels. I 

1. Minor Receuiont, — Whether ihe whole of this ver^ 
don proceeded rrum the same cniiBUlor has been igoe*- 
lioiKd. Not only may Michielit be right in aoj^ioBing ' 
a peculiar uantlator i^ the Episile to (he Hebrews, but 
also other paru may be from ditTecent bands ; this upiu- 
ion will beeoiDe more general Ihe more tbe version ia 
Mndied. The revi^oni to wbich tbe veniao was lub- 
Jeeled may have smxceded in pari, but not wholly, in 
eBacing the indications of a plurality of translMon. 
I'he Act* and Kpiiilea seem to lie either more recent 
than the Gospela, though far leas revised; or else, if i 
ooeval, far more corrected by later Greek MSS. | 

There is no inlHcient reason for suppoaing that this 
version ever contained the four catholic eplsUea and the 
Apocajypae, now absent Tram it, not only in the printed 
editions but also in tbe MS.S. I 

Some variations hi copies of the Peshito have been | 
regarded a* if they might be styled Monophysite and l 

loo dellnile, fur the difTerenoes are not sidBcient to wai^ I 



The MSS. of the Km 
been termed) nf the Peshiio Old Test, contain also the 
New with a umilar character of texL 

B. Tit Curfloiiiam Sfriuc GoiptlM,—Tbi*, although in 
reality but a variety of the feshilo, exhibit* such nark- 
it mav almost be called a distinct 



1. Hiilory, Datf, aad CoofMiff. — Among the MS& 
brought from the Nitrian monasteries in IMS, Dr. Cure- 
tOD noticed acopy of the Guapels diAring greatly from 
the common text ; aud this is the form of text (o wbich 
the name of " Cnretonian Svrisc" has tieen rightly ap- 

■hito not to exhibit a text or extreme antiquity, equal- 
ly proves the early origin of this. The discovery is in 
face that of the object which was wanted, the want of 
which had been previously asccrtaii^ed. Dr. Cureton 
coasideTs that the HS. of tbe Gospels isoftbeanh cen- 
tuiy, a point in which all competent Judges are proba- 
Uf agreed. Some persons, indeed, have sought ta de- 

Pe*hit«, to regaid all such variations ai corruptions, 
and thus to stigmatiie Ihe Curetoriian Syriac as a cor- 
rupt rerulnn of the Peshim, barbarous in language and 
false in readiiigi. This peremptory judgment is as rea- 
aonable aa If the old Latin in the Codex Tercelleiisi* 
wen called an ignomnt reri^n of the vendoii of Je- 
rome. The judgment that the Curetonian Syriac is 
older than the Peshito is not the peculiar opinion of 
Cuiaion, Alford, Tregelles. or Biblical scholaia of the 



118 SYRIAC VERSIONS 

made out of the Hebrew, which inserts these thm 
kings iu the genealogy; but afterwards ii speaks ul 
fvurleni and not of Kpntlern generations, because fwir 
teen generations has been subetiluted for aeveiiieeii b> 
the Hebrews on account of tbeij holding to tbe aeptcna- 
ly number," etc This shows that Bar-Salibi knew of i 
Syriae text of the Gospels in which Ahaziah,JoMh, anr 
Amaiiah were iuierled in Uatt. i,8; there ia tbe MnH 
reading in the Curelunian Syriac : but this might havi 
been a cuinddenee. But in ver. 17 the Curetonian ten 
has, in cuniradiction to ver. 8,^(irl<eii geiwraliona an- 
not trrnUeen .- and ti> had Ihe copy metitioued by Bar- 
Salibi : the former point might he a mere cuincideim : 
the latlei, however, shows such a kind trf union iii cnn- 
iraUtctiun as proves the identity very convincingly 
Thus, though this veniun was unknown in Europe prim 

lury have been known as a text sometimes found ; and 
Si mentioned by ibe Umiophysite bishop, it might U 
more in use among his co-religiniina than among oth- 
ers. Porhsps, as iu existence and use is thus rMordetl 
in the ]2ih century, some further discovery of Sytiac 
HSS. mny furniali iis uiih aiiulher copy so as to supply 
tbe defocis of the one happily recovered. 

S. RrUaiM lo Ihe Prthilo and lo Older Trrli^-la ex- 
amining the Curelonian text wilh the common prii)ted 
Peshito, we often fiuil such identity of phrase and ren- 
dering as to show that they are not wholly iadependeni 



I lie forms of words, etc., as seems to indicate that in the 
Peshito Ihe phraseology had been revised and reriiied. 
Hut Ihe great (it might be said characleiisiic) diBer- 
cncc between the Curelonian and Ihc Peehilo giispeli 
their readings; for while the latter cannot in it) 
nt stale be deemed an unchanged production of 
Id centun-, tbe former bean all Ihe marks of ex- 



h as Ewald, and sppai- 
xiii, 36, 



that of Coiiliueiital scholars, 
ently of the late Pnif. Bleek. 

The HS. contains Hall, i-viii, 33; x, Si 
Mark, the fmi last verses onlv : John i. 1-42 ; iii, 
97; xiv, 11-39; Uke ii,48-iii, 16; vii,8S-xv,31; xvii, 
2f--Kxiv, 41, It would have been a thing of much value 
if a perfect copy of this venion bad come down to uh ; 
but aa it is, we have reason greatly to value Ihe discov- 
ery of Dr. Cutelun, which shows how truly those critics 
have argued who concluded that such ■ version must 
have eiialed, and who regarded this at a proved fact, 
even when not only no portion of the version was fcnimn 
to be extant, lint also when even the record of its exist- 
ence was unnuticol. For there is a record showitig an 
acqnainuiiee with this version, lo which, a* well at to 
the version itself, attendoa has been directed by Dr. 
Cureton. Bar-Salibi, bishop of Amida in the 13th cen- 
tury-, in a passage tmnslaled by Ur- C. (in discnsaing 
the omission of three kings in Ihe genealoiiy in Mat- 
thew), says: "There is found occiuonally a Syriac copy, 









suffered from the introduction of reading 

Tbe fdlowing are a few of tbe very many cases in 
which ihe ancient reading is found in the Oiretonian, 
and the later or transition reading in Ihe Peahiio. Fur 
the gtvral avtharilia on the subject of each passage. 

ofthe Greek New Tesl. 



Mntl. I 



:, n, .; 



n with the Peahlto. 1 



of [he common text, ui ti gtiwiia^a i Ji- ^ui>i.ti>#.<i 
(nnd the oirrespondlng part ofthe rolliiwlng verve), uie in 
Ihe Pwhiioi while we know from Orlgen that ibei nvrs 
Inblsdny apecnllarllyomark: omitied In tbe Corel. ~ 

Peshito and enme revised Lailn eoiiles, there Is mi evi 
deiico at all axlant fOr these words |ir1i<r lo ibe Bib ceu- 
tnrr. MutLT.4.fi: here the ancieut order uf the bfiati- 
inder, SB FDppnried by Oi1cen,Tartnllliin, ihe csnoua of 
Bn>4UD>, and Hilary, la that of placing ^..ri,,.., .1 .pa- 

linreiuiiiaii ■Breei'^MffThrdlillnct laitliniHiies f..r I hit 
order agsltisi Ihe Peshito. Iu I, IS, wa know tTom Iieiicne 
ihfit the nnme "Jeaua" was not read; and ihls Is n>ii- 

boirpver widely popiHined. conlii not hnve nrl)[loiiled 
nnill 'Inmuc xf"'^ was trenied as a combined pmiwr 
name, oihemlH Ihe niennlngorTiir it 'Inim:: uistoD i. t- 

ing is In full acc>irrisnca with what w« kimw of Ihe 
Id eentnry Iu oppnsltloB lo the Pei-blin. In vl, 4 ibe 
Cnretiinlan omits avruii In ihe aame ver. and In ver. a It 
omits h n fatiiA: In each oiae with Ibe best aulborl- 
lle^bnta|[aln■llllaPe•hlto. Malt.i.44hBa breii nmp)!- 
' ■ by cnpyirlti In an ■iirnordlnsn n»ii,„.pf ih- ,>..rri. 
irnckete show the 



fled by cnpyirlti In 
which et 



SYRIAC VKRSIONS ll 

_Ti«avt. i^iS.: Lake Vlll. H ln^oMt lEa itdrrai Hi: 
El.i.'^.-; Mr.»^A..«i-HA;..K«Vt.! ll,S,7..». 

i<. o; •>.'j>>i^> : I, I«,™_i&— ...i™ i««ir.:™: tI, 

Oa tilt otber hand, the Cnietaaiwi oIUd chiugM tbe 
Ion fill Lh« wone, u io tbe followiiig euunplee: 

la Lnk* xiIt ihs ronleih reru l« onlited, amtnitj lo 
lk(FBblloaiidIlwmoMuidvDtiiuGUlM3S.A,B.M' lu 
HiiL uU, U, ui Jt>7i» la Rsd b; tba Cnratoului ; bat It la 
lUat rrum ibc PwhUo, which la loppucted bj B and X, 
lDTlt.M,1lw wurda ■■haveweDDi ealeu ii 
ibjiiuut" an loKTled wltboal iiiT US. ni 
ptnDUrrnmiLakBxIll.M. lu il,E3,lDeu»d 
GnHi lEir. U hw "thoa ahali D»t be eialiei 
bat:" oiDtnrj ti> all nnlborllj, aud bei mjlo;; at me t 
liuE a Onrk orlsiiiBl with wi. Id ill. 0. It la add? 

JakhiEaiid prafflnK Ood tmiMnilDE xll that wblcb i 
Fiv," wtnda whullj uuaalhurtud. In vei. IS, J-^dsi 
la mlued wlibxiii aDihurltT. In nlll. IS, rram « ,1 

iT'uiu nil, 1«, la ib« nuwiniorticd iddl 
fafU anixher parable." In il, tt, "Ficep 
lb* ninriiel J>maa" la nnilited. cnnlrnry ii 
11. 11 it «nllted wltbont aulhi.rilj. In i 

(IwalMBt luTar,10 wlihuataDIbarllJ. I 



k lu 
horllj, Kjr- 



,'%£, 



Te ibc addlUou "go aw 
«.t.--adAhetuoknphla 
•A^lf an left ont, acalD 


wd"ii''^„i'i'.?^.""i* 

tUS-aalhurlty. 


Tbt Ii^kiwiDg are paiiiU 
.HvKSS.: 




Il nfleB aerws with B, C. D, nnd the old Lall 
rfmvit wn ciiTTecied bi Jerimie, eapeclBllj iu 1 

A»». .Twi°u Mat.. Vlx'l ihe"*^. l^T 

m. R a hHie paiwaiw la added which le uiiV \ 



I SYRIAC VERSIONS 

lal, although injund unce by copriata or leviaen. Tha 
■me view ia maialuiietl by the abbe Lebir (£fi«Jr, e(e. 
[Par. 1869]); but it ia Tigormialy rejected by Ewokl 
(Jiihib. d. tM. IVuiauckitft, voL iz) aud many later 

C. The PhUoxmian Sarioc Vrrtun, and ill Rtriiin 
bg Thoimn of //ttrfci.— I'hiloxenm, or Xeniiaa, biahoi> 
of Uierapolia or Uabug at the beginning of the liili 
: (who woa one of thoae Uaiiophyaitei that aub- 
the llamtiamaiibe eiiipemrZena),cauaed I'ul^- 
carp, hla chorapiacopua, Id make ■ new iranalalion n( 
the New Teat, into Syriac Thia waa einnited in KM. 
d it ia geiiarally termed Philoxcnian from in 
er. [n one puaage Bu-UebneUa aays Ihal it 
ide ittlketiait o/ Pliiloxenua; in hia Cjinaic.™ 
waa dona by Ail dniii ; and in annlber place iif 
the aame work that it wu hit own production. Uoaea 
Aghclnvia (Auemani, BibHoth. OritniaL ii. SB) alalia 
that its author waa Polyrarp, rural biahup of FhiloxenuK. 
In an Arabic M&, quoted by Ataemani {Syid. ii, SS), 
Pfailoxeiiiia ia aaid b; a Jacobite author to have iraii»- 
Uted the four tiuapela into Syriac. 

I. //iMai:y_Thia Taruon baa not been tranamitiail 
ua in the form in whicb it waa tint made; we only 
aeaa a reviMon of il, executed bv I'homaa of Harki 1 
tbe fnllowing century (The Goipeli, A.D. Glli). INi- 
froro itar-Satibi, in 



S. H,^nv Origiaal ofMalUm^ll is not nefdrul for 
TOT pot atientiun to be paid to the pbraicology of 
lb OuHooian Syriac in onler Io a« that the Goapol 
o( Matthew dilhr* in mode of expreaaion and vaiioua 
atWr (Mnienlara from what we find in the real. Tbia 
Ktj Itad ua (gain to look at the tealimuny of Ba 
EU; h« icUa ua. wbeo apeaking of thia varaion of 
ikt«, "ihara ia found ocoainnally a Syriac copy 
»d t/di» //ahrw ,-" we ihoa know that the opinii 
'kr Hyiiaaa tbetnaelvea in the 13th century waa 
ikia mnalaiioo of Hatlhew waa not made Irtnt. 
Irttrk, bat Tram the Hebrew original of the CTaniteliat : 
■cLtoo, ia the judgment of Dr. Curaiim: "thia Goopel 
i< Matthew appeon at leaat lobe built upon the original 
Amaaic text, wbicb waa the work of tbe apoatle him- 
kIT" iPrtloct III Spine GotptU, p. vi). 

Ve kniw fnnn Jerome that the Hebrew Hattbew 
Sad ^ns where tbe Greek baa (Wiovaiov. We do 
Bit fad ibot word here, but we nod for both itnnitiinv 
Md 'wuinv at the eud of tbe verae. " cntv'tHif of the 
itj' Tbi* migbt hare aprung from the inlerpreti 
i><i.''awrrDw by mnrruw." giten lo *^nS; and it ml 
b* illoatraied by Old-Teat, paaeages, e. g. Numb, i 
'. Dwee who ihtnk that if Ihia Syriac reraion hi 
bna made from Matibew't Hebrew we oughl to Sr 
*nr belt fiirget ibat a tnnaUtioii ia not a vcibol tnn 

Wt know fnnn Euacbiua that Hege^ppua cited from 
ikt Koapel accurilinK to tbe Hebrewa. and from the 
^^riiac Xnw irt a fra^^inent of Uegeuppua (Bouth, 
III) than ia the quiitation. ^uudpioi ol i^aXitoi I'ln 
■i Shn'-m{ «" T^ "'''' '■p«' ri aiovavrn, wor 
•hich might be a Grrek remlecing fmm Matt, xiii, 1 
■ it Honda in tbia Hyriac goapel aa we have it, « pro 
^r tbo in Ibe Hebrew work of the apiAtle himaelf. 

Fna ibcM and oiber paiticulan, Dr. Cureton co 
dsdr* thai in Ibia vcraian Malthew'a goapcl waa trana- 
ioad (ram tbe apoMla'i H«bn* /fhnkChaldak) origi- 



III of ThD 



la of Hir 
now trial 



and though Pococke did ni 
had made, be apeaka of a Syriac traiulalion of the tii«- 
pels commonicaled lo him by aome learned man whom 
he does not name, which, from ita servile adherence lo 
the Greek, waa no doubt the Harklean text. In the 
BiUiolheca OnaOalii of Aaaemani there ware further 
nolicei or the work of I'homaa; and ia ITBO Samuel 
Palmer aent from Ihe ancient Amida (now Diarbekir) 
Syriac USS. to Dr. Ulouceater Kidley, in whicb tbe 
veraion ia coniained. Thut he had two copiea of the 
(ioBpela,and one of all Ihe real of the New Teal., except 
tbe end of the Epialle to the Hebrewa and the Apoca- 
lypse. No otber MSS. appear lo have yet come to light 
which contain any of 'thia venton beyond Ihe (ioapela. 
From Ibe aubocriptiona we learn thai tbe text w» rc- 
vited by Thomaa with (Am (aome c<^iee say fwo) (iicek 
HSS. Out Greek copy il aimilariy menlioned al tha 
cloae of the Catholic epiatlea. 

Ridley pabliahed in 1761 an icconnl of iha MSS. in 
He bad 



ended t 



edit the 



: thia 



;:8 Io 1B08. After 
ihe publication of Ihe Guapela, tbe reaearches of Adlei 
broiighl mora copiea into notice of thai pan oflhe Har- 
klean text. From one of the USS. in the Vatican, 
Jobn'a Goapel waa «lited by Bemalein in 1861. It will 
be noticed that thia veraion diSera from tbe PeahiU In 
containing alt the aeven Catholic ei^atleo. 

2. Character. — In describing thia version ai it haa 
come down to ua, tbe intl ia the first thing \o be coiwd- 
ereil. Thia is cbaracleriied by extreme lileraliiy; the 
Syriac idiom ia conttanily bent to suit the Greek, and 
everything ia in sonie manner expressed in tbe Greek 
phraie and order. Il is difficult to imagine that it coiilil 
have been intended for eccleaiaalical reading. Il is nut 
independent of the Peabito, ibe worda, etc, of whiih 
are DfteD employeil. Aa Xo the kind of Greek lext that 
it represenia, il is just what might have been expeclcd 
in tbe Sth century. The work of Thomaa in Ihe lext 
ilaelf is aeen in the iDlroduetion of obeli, by which poa- 
sages which he rejected were condemned; and of asler- 
iaka, with which bis inaertions were diatinguished. Hia 
model in all thia woa ihe Hexaplai Greek text. The 
>ISS. which were used by Thomas were of a diflerent 



dfmi 



mploye. 



11 Ihey 



ildet and p 

The margin of the Hsrklean lecenaiun contains (like 
the Hexaplar text of ihe Sept.) resdinga mostly, appar- 
ently, Trom the Greek MSS. used. It ha* been 4ue*> 



SYEIAC VERSIONS 



witli Che Peabito; ir uiy of them ue », they 
probably been inCmlueed linee the time of Thomi 
it, piubable that the Philoieaian reraion was vei 
titi, but that the lUvigh adaptation to the lirwk 
work of 'rhomai ; and that hi* Itxt thiia bare about the 
Mine rela^nn to that of E>h<lo](eni» u the Latin Bilile 
■■f Arias Munlaiiua duea to that ot his pred««aar Fag- 
ninua. Fur textual criticiam thi* verrioii ii a good ai 
tbority as to the text of iti own lime, at leatt where 
does not raerely follow the Peahito. The ampliAcatioi 
■II the margin of the book of Acta bring a MS. uaed t 
Tfaomai into dose compaiiaoD with the Codei Ben 
One of the HSS. of the Goqiels sent to Ridley conuii 
■be Harklean text, with aomB reTiiimi by Bar-Saiibi. 

The marginal readings are probably the most vaiui 
b)e part of the renioii in a critical view. One at the 
(ireek MSS. compared by Thomat bad ooiiiiderable af- 
tinitv to D in the Gospels and Aots^ Of IHO marginal 
readings, about 130 are found in B, C, D, L, i, S8, 6f 
With D alone of MSS. it harmoaiiea nineteen tie 
the Uospels; with D and B seven times. With the 
Alexandrian, or A, alone, it agrees twi», but with i 
nthen,D,L, eight times. With the Valican,or B,i 
it harmoniies twice, but with it and others four ' 
(see Arller, p. 130, 131). 

D. Syriuc ftriioHM af ForiiovM Wattling in Ike Pahi- 
In.— {I.) Tht Second kpitlle of Piter, llu Srcoml and 
rUnl of Juki, and that nf Judt—Tbe fact haa aireaily 
been noticed that the old Syriac veraion did not con- 
tain these epistles. They were published by Fococke 
ill 1630 from a US. in the Bodleian. The version of 
ihpse epistles so nften agrees with what we have in 
ihs Harklean recennton that the one is at least de- 
pendent on the other. The suggestion of Dr. Davhl- 
win IBiblical Crilidim, ii, 196) that the text of Pococke 
in that of Philuxenus befure it was revised by Thomas 
Heems most probable. But, if it is objected that the 
translation does not show a« great a knowledge of Greek 
aa might have been expected in the translstlon of the 
rest of the Phiioxenian, it must be remembered that 

Piilyglut these epistles were added to the Peshiio, with 
which they haveainca been commonly printed, although 
they have not the slightest relation to that veiHnn. 

(II.) Tkt Apoatlspte.-~\a 1627 De Dien edited a Syr- 
iac venion of the Apocalypse from a HS. in the Ley- 
dcD library, written by one " Caspar from the land of 
tba Indians," who lived in the Utter part of the 16th 
cantury. A MS. at Florence, also written by thia Cas- 
par, has a suliscripl inn sta^ng that it was co^ed in 
IMJ from a MS. in the writing of Thomas of Harkel 
in SIS. If tbb ia correct, it shows that Thomu by him- 
adf wouU have been but a ptior translator of the New 
Test. But the aubMription aeems to be of doubtful 
authority ; and, until the Kev. a Hania Cowper drew 
attention to a more ancient copy of the veruon, we 
might well be somewhat uncertain if thia were really 
■n ancient work. It is of small critical value, and the 

It was in the MS. which Abp. Usher sent as a present 
in De Dieu in I63t, in which the vAofe of the Syriac 
New Test, is said to have been contained (of what ver- 
siun is unknown), that having been the only complete 
MS. of the kind described; and of thia MS., in eompar- 
iiHin with the text of the Apncalypae printed by De 
Dieu, Usher say*, "the Syriac latelv set out at Levden 
may be amended by my MS. copy" (Tnid, WalMt. i, 
ISO, note). This b»>k, fmm the Paris Polyi;lnt and on- 
wanl, has been aihled to the Peshito in this translation. 
HutatL have erroneously called this Syriac Aimcalypse 
the PhiUaritiim, a name in which it has no title: the 
error seema to have nri(>ii>aled fmm a verbal miatake 
ill an old advertisement of (ireeiifleld's edition (l^ir 
which he was nor responsible), which said " the Apoe- 
afypt and the Kpiilla not found in the Peahito are 
raven (ram the Pbiloxenian versloa." 



10 STKIAC TERSIONS 

(111.) The Syriac i'errien of Jaki viii, 1-11 Frop 

the M& sent by Abp. Usher to De Dieu, the latter pub 
liihed this section in 16S1. Fium Ue Dieu it was in 
aerted in the London Polyglot, with a lEfemKe to Usb 
er's MS„ and hence it haa passed with the other edi 
tiona of the Peahito, where it is a mere interpolation. 

A copy of the same version (essentiallv) is 6>und ii 
Ridley's C*<bx B»nal»ai, where it is 'attributed « 
Maras, 622 ; Adler fouud it also iu a Paris US. ascribet 
to Abbas Uar PauL 

Bar-Salibi cilea a diSbrent version, out of Uarai 
biahop of Amida, through the chronicle of Zachaiiaa iil 
Meliiina. See Assemani (BitliolM. Orient, ii, 5S an. 
170), who gives the iniroductoiy wonla, PrvbaUy thi 
version edited is that uf Paul (aa staled in the Pari. 
MS.), and that of Haras the one cited by Bar-Salibi 
while ill hidley'a US. the two are confonnded. Tbi 
Paul mentioned is apparetitly Paul of Tela, the trans, 
laloroftbe H ex aplai Greek text into Sytiac 

E. Tit Jtriuatem Sgriue Ltctiomny.—Tbt US. ir 
the Vatican conluning this verrion was pretty fully de- 
scribed by S. K, AsMmani in 1766 b tbb caiali^ue of 
■ he MSS. belonging la that library; but so few oopiei 
of that work eacaped destruction by lire that it wasvir- 
lually unpublished and ite cnnlents almost unknown. 
Adler, who, at Copenhagen, had the advantage of study. 
ing nne of the few copies of this catshcue, drew public 
attention to this peculiar document in bis Kitrze i'rbrr- 
tirkl Kiner bOtiiei-iritiKAe'i Rrite nooi Rom (Altona, 
1783), p. llS-127, and, still further, in 1789, in his val- 
uable examinaiion of the Syriac versions, llie MS. 
was written in IU31 in peculiar Syriac wiitingi the 
porliona are, of courae, those for the diflerent faWivaii. 
some parts of the Gospels not being there at all I'he 
dialect is not common Syriac; it was termed the Jrrn- 
tiilem Syriac from its being supposed to resemble the 
Jeruaalem Talmud in language and other points. The 
grammar is peculiar; the forma almost Chaldee rathft 
than Syriac; two aharacten are used for expresaiug PH 
and P. 

In Adier'a opinion ita date as a version wnuk) tie fmm 
the 4lh to the 6th centurj'; but it can hardly be sup- 
posed that it is of so early an age, or that an;- Syrian) 
then could have used so cotnipt ■ dialect It may 
rather be auppoaed i» be a translation made from a 
Greek lectioiiary. never having exialed aa a aubstanlive 
lation. Til what age its execution should be aa- 
aigneil aeems wholly uncertain. A further accoant of 

Assemani'a description in Ih 

that of Adler, with the MS. itself in the V 

' given in Home's M<vd. iv, 284-387. The only 
lete passage published till recently was owing to 
'— vii. Malt, xxrii, 8-8!; and acholata could only 
repeat or work upon what be gave. But the Tensou 
baa been puhlisheil entire by Uinischalchi Eriiio (Vr- 

I, 1861, ISG4. 2 voU.4to; the first contuning the 

1, wiih a Latin translation; the second, pmlegomena 
a glossary). Critical editors of the Gnek T»- 

ent cannot now overloak this very valuable docu- 
ment, whose readings are an important. It contains 
the following portions of the Gospels; all Matthew ex- 
cept iii, 1-2; v,34^l; Ti,2Ii-S4i vii,19-23i viii,14-l9; 
X, 9-15,23-31, 34-36; xi,16-W; xii, l-S9,B8-50i xiii. 
l-43,S9-58; xiv, I-IB, Sa,S6; xv, 1-20,39-31 ; xvi, I- 
12,20-28; xvii.20,27: xviii,a-9, ll,!l,»; xix, 1,3, 
13-15; XX, 17-28; xxi, 44-16; xxvi,4<MS; aU Martt 
except i, 1S-34.4S; ii, 18, 18-22; iIi,6-SS;iv, v,l-83, 
86-43; vi,6-18,31-»; vii, 1-98; viii, 1-16, 83,33; ix, 
1-16,81, 4I-&0: x,l-3I. 46-52; xi, l-Sl, 26-88; lii. 1- 
37; xiii; xiv; xv. l-16,3S~t3; all Luke except i.69- 
75, 77-79; Ui, 211-88: iv. 1-lS, 87-44; v, 13-16, 83-39; 
vi, 11-16.24-30,37-19; vii, 17, 18, 80-86; \-iii, SS-'/J, 
40; ix,7-!6. 45-56; x, 13-15,33-34; xi, 1-86. »4-54; 
lii. I, 13-16,22-31,41-69; xiii. I-IO, 80-8i; xiv, 12- 
15.26-36; xv, 1-10; xvi, 1-9, IS-18; ivU, 1, 9,»)-S7j 
xviu, 1, 15-17,28-34; xix, 11-48; xz,9-44; ui, 6-7, 



n catalogue, a 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 1: 

8-M, r, »»: ixu, «>, 41, 46-71 ; xxiii, 1-31, 50-66i 
■II Job! unpc ti, I8-SS 1 iii, 34-86; ir, 1-4,43-45: vi, 

ILIS,4£,7I; rii, 30-86 ; xi, 46, b»-57 ; xUi, 18-30; xix, 

A) U (Ih mdingi, it appeua lo ua Ihit they are 
Kb H (bincurued ibe bth ind 6lli ccniuriea. Tbe 
kii ii IMC ihtt of It. B, Z.OT even U, but raiher that 
of A ud C In UaCL ti, it hu ifae doxology of the 
In't'iPnjer, which is not in X, B, D, Z ; it hu John 
iu,3S-nii.ll: containn JubnT,3,4; bu the uxuil or- 
ikfoflln Ivunhind Brth Trnei in Uitt.v; and huthe 
inn alirpd tuna of v«r. 44. Il iIid cuiiuiiiit the lut 
tniK mm of U*rk xri, conlruy to K iiid B; bu 
iM(.iwt3Hif,ia Juhni, IS; and in Matt, ixii, Sa bu 
ihr Iiui leading ini Xiywv, omitted in B, L, and the 
Tahiih U hu alio oi DmiSita in Luiie xxii, 14, wilb 
A, i; E, tit, but conliMy to K, B, D, the Cutetuoian 
Sinic, and Italic In John i, 27 it baa the wonli ifi- 
ipMiir inv Yiyony, txatnry to El, B, U and the Cu- 
iHMiui STtiac; but wiib A. R, P, etc the old lulic, 
ri%u(, and Peabiio. In UatL xix, 17 it ha* the old 
ml psiiae ri fU ipwTf c wipi no aydioi , in John 
iiLli,)UtaiBXir'" aXXd are omitted <rith K and the 
CWMnian Scriac, E, ttc On the whole, while it ia 
etiTliima number of the ohlett reading! in the text, 
uct a those in tt, B, the old Italic, D, eta, yet the 
m/Soft nf a later penod praiaJL lu text, thougb 
nfuu difuing fnm the Ptflhito, ia Dcilbet older nor 



I Syriaca (I827)i Ridley, De 
.^yitianM ,V. f'aderit I'trikmiini lahtf alque Um, etc 
ii:(l»; Wiaer, Commntalio de Vrraomi N. T. Sgriaca 
Cm Cilia eaale InuilMruda (1323) j Wichelhaut, Dt 
>'<<ri Tal. VmitnK Sfriaat Aaliqaa giiam Pnckitho 
roal (])W); Betnitein, Dr Ckarklom N. T. Trmila- 
ivr Sfriaea Coimrmltilio (1667); Cureloii, AnliaU Rt- 
<~u >/d> Syrine Gotpeli (preface, etc, IS58); Lee, 
fnlrfimna to Uaglrr'i Fnfyglol ; Reuwh, Sj/rut loUr. 
fn tan FaiU S. T. Gram ooilatmi ( 1741); Slorr, 
llTTiBkWJ imptr ,V. T. Vrrtioniiii Sfriicii (1773); 
Lriilnn.jjnu/fp.ad Aptericu /uteiTirM (ISSfi); Mi- 

AftdiJiBmim (I7&6); Credner, Dt Prvphftaram Mia. 
fn9r.1*am PfKiilo TOfoU /*fc(e(IS27); tbe /n- 
"•dotw of De Weite. Herbut, and BIc«li,with Da- 
nlm'i TtaKm «n Biblical Criltcitm, vol. ii ; al» tbe 
EufMm cefeiTed lo hv Walch, BiU. Tlitot. iv, 148 «q,; 
fcwiBllUn, Hia^mii', iii, 19 «[., 91 M).; Dwii, Thai. 
T^iKsl.p.aj:-, Darling, Cgelop. Biiliag. eoL 70; and 
Btnnrt. Kml-fJiefUop. a. v. 

SriliC (PrMo) VERSION, RtLATiO!) or, to thb 
-'•nctcinrr axd Chaldkb. OtM of the moat mooted 
ruti wklcb hare vexed Kholar* ia the qiieition aa to 
<hr itluisn of the Peabito to the Sept. and Childee 

I JMifioi It Ike Srflaagitl.—k. goml deal has been 
"inn oHweming thii i|iMation, pn and am. To Ibe 
'^vtt nte beding (leaeiiiuis Ccedner, Havemicli, and 
BM:u>thelatler,HirzeiandHert>M. Wilbuut adduc- 

vt Ibt UinmKn ti OKd on bnth lidea, i t must be admit ted 
tte » iulaeiia of the Sept. upon Ibe PeehitA cannot 
h'cniid.aiidhilhissiippOMtion we are led by a com- 
Fnoaofthe one with the other. To make our auer- 
<"" coal, n will preMnt the following paHUgea frnm 
■lifefM booka, and tbe reader can draw bis own infer- 
on Weconmence with the book of lienensi 
ii.t8«pl..^;.,;r-8Tr.X-<T^-'nS. From the art. TVit 
maiic Sana* m tkt Stpttmoial, a. t. SarrcA- 
•i>T In ttaU CiriBpa^la, It wftl ha reen Ihnt the 
StM. tbanrad bera pnrpowly "•evomh" Inio 
■■•lllb.'' ir the Peghlin Tenlon were mads 
I only rmn UN oriitaal Hebrew, there wu no 

iBunn why tbe "J-'i'Sn oribaHebtaw ataunld 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 

ba tnnalaled aa ifit read ^CCtl, like tbe read- 
Ine of tbe Sam., Bam.Ter«., and Syr., wblcb all 

I1,4.D'<SC:n y^gt— Sept»><>>pu>i><aiT^.i;.>i Syr. 
tl5-iX1 sciao. 
IS. a-<Ka-Sapt.hi .<»i>^». <wt:<: Syr. msi ';«-!. 

14. ^■<nl-8«pL lai Inwio. tS iff. Syr. ^vnil 

Ill, S. ys -nBQ^Sepc ini wa^it (iK«, -. Syr. alio hu 

T. nb7-8ept. •MAai 8yt.EtB-^B. 

t. ^SifT— Sept. aoi (Jan 'AUh ; Syr. alH> inppllea 

OIK. 
11. ItlX-'n-Sept. (ui tin, airr ° Uii; Syr, -ICSI 

(r-i« ni. 

15. no!tn-bs-sepLriairpT»a..;i8yr.!trn3i»bi. 

IT.B. l^riK-Sapt. ^iUw* M td ••«'»; Syr. KT^3 

ttrVpnV. 

10. -iHtt^l-Sept. •«; €.'.■ rBi>,«; Syr. rt 1CK1 

tn-in. 

CpSX^Sept. ,>°f ; Syr. K^l. 
IB, pV— Sept tix ol^w; Syr. EUaKtb. 
IJ. B333-8epL h. t^ i«BaT,i 8yr. Cicby. 

16. inSM-pK-Sept. E&u Til. i»u<. aitiAi Syr. 

nrrsR mnV 

ibri-Sept. uu oXXa^iMra •••■(>i Byr, mb^ 

nsaai, 

T, U. ^mi-Sept. «; ))<»>» i Syr. Tim (Id. ver. Bl). 
W. Iivraa-Sept. ^« ^' 1p^A> '^B*; Syr. p 

lia-Hepl. .» ^i| Syr. -,^1. 
rl,». iaO-Sepl. and Syr. i=01, 
TlMD-'SO-Sept. *!•*«.-. Syr. •(■'-in T'in. 
1. sa— Sept and Syr. B11. 
8. bsl— Sept. and Sk^SSI. 

M. B-'-mn-Sapl. Td <p. l*n\di Syr. (tal ttllO. 
Ill, T. 3101 Xir< K3-<1-Sept. »i 4FiU«. .i. ,i.^ 
>vi*>; Byr. -;En K^l pBS pll91. 
IT. hz—Stft. and Byr. in (Id, Ter. It). 
tt. lpl-S«pt and Byr. ^p. 
ypl -Bopt and Syr. Y''P- 
Ix, 1. bsS-Sept .» h. ■•>r> j Syr. Vsb^V 
».C'!( "1^0-Sept4«x"pi'l Syr.S'T'X ITSl. 
T. '!X->3'Sapt »i ■Avi<~» 1 Syr, IT^IKI. 
ID. n«n33-.SepL ui Ari «•!■«. ; Byr. Kn-<73 B71. 
Il, K. Iins Pld-Sept ■.! li. N-w 1 Syr. Iinjil. 
tIi,S.^bbp131.-Sept nil «<it i.r.p^j.wt >< ; Syr. 

T'wbisr 

T. '^Klfl-Septuii'itir oi>y;Syr.nb niSKI. 
13. tt]-8epL and Byr. omit (Id. xlll, 8). 
:lli,T. aer— BepL.ot^wn Syr.^'arr 
Jr. 1. T^^X -Sept and Syr. ^I^Rl 

b7inn-Sept»v)><A; Byr. Win. 
3. aXSS-Sept and Syr. SttlOV 
S. Sna.lu Ham— Sept. £i><i o^oTt; Syr^Vian. 
t. BTina-Sept. )• .<"■. J^«. ; Syr. "Ilaai- 
I.mc, the cMoniry — SepL td^ ifix'>""; Syr. 



SYRIAC VERSIONS ] 

iiv, so. Tra-sepi i*.x<v.'"t «»i Bjt. T^-xa. 

iv,ll.1l:Sil_8epl.wi«'ir»o«#j Sjr.rt -|13l»1. 

•.•,iaKni-s«pt.aii...nw,i,-AA.o».[ejr.To''ni 

(v1, t. tO-Sept. DDd Sji. omlL - 

«. ^^■a-s«pl.^, .a.-t xtfi •"! Sir. ■>s-'-i->ja. 
i8.mb^-8«pt.j.i«. otryjSjr.nV niTstn. 

XYll,i«.''sbo-8eiit.<Bi il^^iL,;,; Bjr.»zhz\ 

1». C^nb!t-8epL4Si«irpi.'AA«,^i8yt.Dmn((b. 

xviii,B."in(t-8Bpt.<=iiitTaT«Sfi.i 6jt.;o nrai. 
11. emsxi: -Stpt i.i -.flpoi^ ™ .„«t M«; 8jr. 

onian ■'nas lu. 

».na^ '■9— Sept. ■■■\a».lrrai wiK-i f I J Sfr. 

••BTpnbs. 

H). ri'SSH Kb - B«pt ai nh ^wa^.'n.; Sfr, K^ 

isianjt. 
zlx.t. nnX-Stpt. )»4<t avToic; Sjr. ■jtnb kbx. 
T. ^OXi1-S«pl. iln U npir .^Ti.V; S;r. n^SXt 

■,in*.. 

11. E^pan ^S-9ept. ii T« t£(» Toi^oi.; Sir. '(^ 
M.lB.^Vo^aX — SepL ■kfi<ui>"x ^f '"ft-B-Hi Stt. 

oniaxb. 
x^i.B. pnx^— Sept. 'ifii.1. « vUi oil..:) sk- Mia 
nsipnob. 

IC. B9 (S,)— 9epl. iDd Bjt. DmIL 

ij.-nji-sepL .;.!>.« ^'t; eyr.ttai Kiayb. 

M. BQ-Sept. mi IwJJiNri S/r. DD1. 

U, JBil-Sapt «u tt^>r» 'AAxui^i Sjr. aX31 

omas. 

sill, 13. nnK-8ept. A; 8yr. in. 

1«. -\-nn^ PK-Bapt. TDv Atuii'» U ^uJ) Sfr. 
^la T'TTT'b. 
mil, 14. nV-.Scpt, *iid 9jr. amlL 

IB. •'3B bs-sopi. a (»Tn ^.tHin, i btt. man. 

iliT.Sl. C'<in^-bept.uiw<v»nWii; Syr. XpaP^I. 
H. Dips D3-Sepl. ■•>> i««i Syr. mnS TjXI. 
ai. IBK^l-Sept. uii ..Vik .irf I Syr. fli lOttl. 
■3. ial 13X11 — Sept. noj •!■», Adkn>D>i E;r. 

. ins< nb -("loxi. 

BS. i]aV--S«pt. ^ •■y an bi»<>i Byr. ',3 ^la's 

pn. 

40. nVC-8«pL atnt K^'^em^tli Sjr. 1111: IH. 
IM. t3nbo-Sept. l«rJfi«>Tj fu ita i-miM^; Bjrr. 

brK -JiiiB. 

W, HTIM 1BX-^-S«pI. tl><i> U ol ilu\tti siriic: 

Syr. I'nn nb iiox^. 

in»-8epl..a;wtrii»5rBi Sjr.l'lini. 
so. npai-S«pi. TiA'.iQ. i^. .Uci^^i 'ItS.j Syr. 

iinnn xpaiV. 
XII, B.pni'i_s«pt. Vail T^iif >!»:{ syr. pno^b 
ma, 
B. xasi^Sept. •>• ix^put i.Hipdi.) Syr. ;aw 



Without enlarging 
once that thi 
Syriac veruo 

use or by tha 



ir wllati 



'ecn the 8«p>. and i 

lerely acciilenral. and i 

t th« Sept. has been ma 

Is thU iurereum ct 



SYRIAC VERSIONS 



wonla, the Syriac trainlaior made use oT the SfpL lit 
the other booka too. And, in<1eed, Sfseiiiui bai |ii». 
<luoed a number of eiamplca Troni the book oriuiahti 
show that the Sept. hu (oUowed eveii in free and arti- 
trary tnlerpreUtiona (comp. hia Cownnrinr ibtr ii* 
Jeiaia, i, 82 gq.) ; and, in like manner, Crtdncr, vhs 
baa minutely examined tbe minor pmphela in iutlM 
Propielarua J/inoruai Vernonit SytVKa quai Pnii- 
to vocaKl ladolf, thinka that tbe SepL waa employnl 
there. A eimilar mult will be acbieted in conipaiii^ 
tbe bookorjeremiab. Thu^ 

IL !S. a 



4. nb» bsbsiB-Sept Jiii >^>^ V^; syr.r-rei 

lb->il bSi bolh probably rending nbM. 

5. 13153 -8epl..c,»niiByr.Kari,readi'iiB27if:. 



(1. Tilairrt-8ept and Syr. orolt. 

0. Bnin in'xbi— sept-.o^ aitt-,, u.^*. urwii 

Syr. linb piaOSt Sb aini: both leadlat 

BHin for cn|n. 

E.i:i»K DV-Sept. r^ir<iv !,.i,.^«.: Syr. VX'^ 

ei93iai: both reading CU^. 
4.1110 1>SB-8Bpt. !ai ..-.pot ^..r.,-; Syr. -jB 

»iin nO: both leading illS. 

i.iBin iBia D^-sept..a;irai..<\.<iM..g.^srr. 
■j-pncn 16* prvo ytin-. bwh repudBi 

^i:la not Ht a prnpn' noon, bnt aa an Anma- 
<c lotlnlUve otE^T 
1.3ln llpB laErf ski. Id tbe Iluaratlc ten 
the Atbnach nndar l^pB lodtcaln that li be- 
kmitatiiiaiOli. The Sept. ennnecUllpDirlib 
ain, alao randint 3111 1^.„„ ^^x-i^- in 



It would be useleaa to adilaee more examplei for oui 
naition, since we do not write a disaertaiion, but fi* 
clopailja which, ao far aa the pninc in quealiun ii 
«nied, baa treated that aubject in such a riiU wa.T ai 
neither the intrDductiona to the Old Teat, nor c)*elo|ia^ 
itionarie* of the Bible have duue before, if 
luched thia point fully, 
-et another mailer which we nhould not pan 
which, aa it •eelIl^ little attention haa been 
paid. We mean the tillea of the Syriac paalma. which 
found neither in the Hebrew nur in Ihe eiliiiona of 
Sept, The titles are partly hiatorical, parllv dra- 
matical ; the fbrmer apeak of David or the Jewish peu- 
' latlerorChristUHlhiaCburch. Nnwtheqne^ 
iwa, ir the Syriac iraiialatora realty peruaed Ihe 
Sept., as our auppoaition is, how ia it that the litlea 
found in the Syriac psalina are not to be met vitb in 
the Sept.? But the quntion is easily amweieil, when 
we consider the fact that these titles ire not only fouiid 
in the commentary of Eusebina. but also in the Cnlrx 
AUrandrinvi. From the latter Ihcv were rppritiieil in 
Walion'a Folyglm (ynl vi, pU vi, p. ia7 •q.),aDd again by 
Grabe, in llie fourth volume of hia edition uf ihe Sept. 
ipativin nf the tiilea aa fountl in the Alex. Codex 
:hnte in the IVshito abowi that tbe dDccDwiical 
part of iheee liilea are a laier aildilion, otherwiae v-e 
nt for the omiasion in the Hree k, if rral- 
I copied the Peahilo. Deducting thew 
itles otherwise agree with each other. 
Tbua the title of Paa. ii readi: rpo^riia mpi Xp<- 
IV mi icX^ff(«t i^£r; Syr. K^rsn Hr.ilp bSB 



SYKIAC VERSIONS i: 

m 's m nna iso xnnra 101 : Pu. iii, itpo^ 

rM7Eii)tforiti'wv 'iynSHi' r^douif; Svr.'fl'T^ I'^^tt 

^TTJl SrS3 S J ! Pm, ir, irpnfijriia r^ Aauii wtpi 
M. Hrot^n: SjT.m^T Tin bST3 T-ni. 

IL Briaiim In lit Ckaiia.—ThMt there is a loltralle 
iiinm twCween Itw SvnK uiil Cbaldte in miiiy placet 
amm tie ilfljiaL GeacDlua hu prvdiieecl > iiumlMr a( 
iiuipl** from luiah la ibow thai [he Tir)(um was 

lifinkn in nfnrd lo tbt minor pmpliets {De Propktta- 
rxm. (IC_ fh 107). Hiinmick Ind UeriHt are of an op- 
(miite npinion, and ret tbe original inctt of a ow of ■ 
J'l^un are too iliiitinct to be denied, ai the fuUowiiig 
tunpk* in GcDCsi miut ahow : 

li, 1. Dxax Va— chiiid. Out iin^b^n Va: sji. 

t r33i1-Ch«ld. Oak. mt ■ Syr n-SPPKl. 

s.mpi3— ch■ld.Odk.^^^3^pbT^;^)T.D^^p^u 

IT. ^113ia-Clin1d.0iik.''3"V^la: 8T^.^^b^1^. 

w. Sinn ani_chnid.onk.ioin •fiS; Sjr. 
xa-in-t lojs. 

«i. 1 1. E"3p-Chald. Oiik. l''1nia : Ayr. Stl^lfl. 
rlkt-l'-a-C-O-Chald. Ont ((133 n"tll3i8jr. 

R1313 nno. 
iiii,i.^3Er>i-ch«id onk.inii: 8^- in^snrsi. 

t. BllJt ^n i7-Chald.Olik. mp 11» ^3 : 

sjr.'Tip '-iiais. 
jj. -rac^-chiid. ooij. iiiaa^ ! Syt. -,iia33- 

I. It. i;9D— Cbald. Onh. ^33 ; Syr. ^33. 
il, ai "JB bS-Ckald. Onk. ^^n3 : 8jr. ^03. 
ifT.H. t^S-in rH-CluM. Onk. -"nlsis n^; Ayr. 



13 SYRIAC VERSIONS 

aps-iii Syi. if<*i''33i fM m-vpi 
T-ire sips-lb. 
ml, », 10. byn-Chald. S-itSl : S)t. 01B1. 

B4.V«n -:3-Cli:.ld, kV«-| RS-SSS: 8yr. 

xs:;;t jtaisra. 
iiiTii,». D'isjisc^rn-.st-Chnid. "Ml? n'.^O: 

Syr (("31311 ((ni'O. 
ii:f,».1SB53 miOp ICBJl-Chold. fT'CtJl 

h'CBsa n'i na^an; syr. ncBJi 
ncBJ --"i nh ((a-'an. 
iiTii,»i.n''iji irx i-'ain wn r!(i-ch»ia. 
■^ipi ■'iipn linn-' lasH kiss n*"!, i.e. 

andihepenjileheniiidehlni 'opiiwfnini ctly 
toclty: 8yr. ((ip p l')K "'JO K^jil 
K1p3. Tbla <> a terr "bvl.in* liDlialt<in uf 
the Chaldee. 
Illi.S. ■«3'lSin"IO((1-Ch«lfl."tpn BTI-. Byr.O''1 

"Bpin. 

We could Itina gn on wiib lli« oilier books of t)ic 
Penlaleuch, but our exanipln are Nifflciriit to ahow 
that the prloriLv belongs to tbe Chaldee i>f Uiikelo«,and 
not lo the Peahito. Out auppoailion beinji correcl,the 
aasenii>na of those muat fail to the ground who would 
put Onkeloa in the 2d or 8d century. On the con- 
uan: we believe that the Targum of Onkeloa beloiiga 
to the time of Christ— provided llw S.vriac version of 
the Pentateuch belongs lo the lat century of the Chris- 
tian (ori — and thus the noiicea concerning Onkeloa 
which we find iti the Taltnud are conlirmed anew. 
Our examplea from the book of Genesis leaving it be- 
yond ■ shadow of doubt aa to the dependence of the 
Syriac version upnn the Chaldee, the Chaldee of the 
bo»k of Proverbs will prove this more fully. Thua we 



Chaldee— ProT. 1, L 

x~= ipi xnsvr -.[tbaVi ttniia^is ■'iamb 'p-ab 
JCi "Ttrn -;*n ma niiii -"nh iiioa lusias 
11,11. 
(uiom itnniMa y'im^ Kni-'in 

il, IE, 

im^i-'ao i^irsTJi "i^psia •,innni6(i 

lii, 1. 1W1 I^XXna-Cbdld. Onk. -m ;-S3 i 8yr 
13 T>y3. 

x>tu, 11. TOTS ■% nr-n "nba ^nw-ch«id. -ipa 

"V ia-bs Knr. n^a-'oi: syr. ira p 

((Wa-Vs "b x«in n-bai. 

-,pT ■^liCI-Cb.ld. a-'o "Jaili Syr. •nai 

39(0. 

nLB-isX ra^-Cbald. Max) aX31: Syr. a»1 

Mnaxs. 
iill.*.r>i3((a— Cbald. WSS; Syr.tU^po. 
uffl, ij. mrn qoa-chaid. sipn -"ai ((bos; ejr. 

((ipn "Bl ((BO 3. 
tHr.itblEJn bsa inn — ChaW. nj^smS: Syr. 

prsins(. 

imi,t Tibn— Cbald. ^B■0. Syr. ^B""0 

iii.ut».s"inn-cbaid.-,'Triia""i9yr. Kmia-i, 
a -pso napj-tTuid. b^b i syr. eiiB, 
«t aps-'b c"^cpn> pH o'sasn n-vn- 



Kr^smi Krsii tcbsbi kpioiis maoi ini:i 
inns 1-K Ola »bisi txrni Vd'o t*!* ■>m->rba:i 

((misa '(ipinai Kna^in sniis i^paa^ 
iwisni 
Tin^biao •(■'brtai lapso -iinpnuK 



We will not increase the quotaliona, but let (be sludenl 
examine paasagea like i, 6, 8, 10, IS, IS, 18, S1-S8, Se.SO, 
SSi ii.l,i, 10,U, I'.Sl; iii,S,4,6-8, 12, l&,19,ai,2&, 
29i iv,2,8,10,lI,14,18,2l-aa,a&-!7; r, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 
>3, 16, 1S,!I,2S: vi, 1,3,4-6, 13, lb, IS, 17, l!>,!6,S8,S4; 
vii,2-4,IO, lS-l8,SS-3a; viri,4, R, 10,13,18,90,18,!)), 
83; IK, 4, Ml, 14; x, S-«, 7, 9, 16,23,80,81 ; xi,7, IS, 
14, I8,3l,33,36,37,etc. — altogether mare than SOO pas- 
sages where he will find a striking limiUrily between 
these two Tcrsioiis. 

Besides this similarity, there are a great many pas- 
ssges in which the Chaldee and Syriac deviate from the 
Hebrew,and the inner connection of both versions with 
each other can no longer be doubled. .Thus Prov. i, 7, 
theHebrewreads,n91 n'0»l mfl" p»l"— i.B,"The 
fear of tiod is the beginning nf wisdom ;" but the Chal- 
dee reads, "''1 Krhm SPaan B->1— i. e. " The begin- 
ning of wislnm ia the fear of God;" and so also thcSvr. 
(("lai ((PVni RPOpn CI ; or xvi, 4, VjB W 
^tnSW nini_"The Lord has made all things for 
himKlfi" the Chaldee para|.hraaes, -,-«iai9 \^rAs 

n-i T?araai i^biMV tmbsi— i. e. "All works of 
God are for those who obey him;" aod thus also tha 



SYRIAN 12 

Syt. nV T>sTsnoon ^^••xh tciw "rmas iinba, 

WitbiHit iocreanng the numbei of aucb paiiMge«,«e will 
ulduce •oine in which bocb venionl entirelv give up the 
Hudretic text and follow another reading: Ihua Ptot. 
i, S4, for UROni the Childw resili 1 J-'OXP *i\ t-r the 
tiwuliUoa i. T^rSO^n Rbl,«ndBOBl«ot1ieSyri«c,(tin 
lWS13^n:T,9, the Cb»We* reads ^3^niinle«d of Tnn, 
lor the translation ia ^i^n,«nil«oiiithE Syriai,^V^n: 
ix, II. fur ^3^3 the Chaldea lodl na^S. fur the irana- 
laUonian3lbi:j13,anilliitheSyrUcni'l^Si3. Theae 
examplea, which cuuUl be increawd greatly (comp. iii, 
27; »,4.9,19,8li vii,22,28j vUi.B; is, II ; «, 4; xi, 
36; xii,4,l9,SI,38j xiii, 16,19; xiv, 14iXT,4; six, 
19,33; sx,4, 14,30; xxi,i,SOi ikii, II, 16; xxiv, &, 
it; xxv,20,37; xxvi,&,7, 10; xxviii.G.II; xxix, 18,31 ; 
XXX, 31 ; xxxi, S), leave iia doubt that the Cbaldee and 
Syriac >taud in a reliliuii ofdepeDdeitce lo each other. 
. But in apeakiug of a rtlattmi of tbeae veraiona, it 
miut not be uiidentood ai if they relate to each other 
■a the original and cop}', but tbia relation conalala in 
that the author of the one version, in preparing the 
same, fidlowed mostly tlie other wiihout giving up his 
iiulepeudenoe entirely. This we can see from the eighty- 
two paaaagea in which the Cbaldee (iillowa the Haanrelic 
text, while the Syiiao deriateafrum it, as ii,l6; iii.SO; 
iv,S, 11,33, 3J,S3; vji, 7, 8, 10, 12 ; viii,7, 11,33; ix, 13, 
18; X, 10,13,19,34,36; xi, 9, 10, 16, 18, 34, » ; xii, IT, 
33; xiii, 1,10,38; xir,7,lT, 33, 33,33,86; xv, 10, 14, 16, 
17,23,30; xirt,7,26; xvii,4,9,15t xvlii, 1,8, 6, 15; 
xix, 1,4,32,29; xxi.H; xxii,8,19; xxiii, 3, 6, 80, 84 ; 
xxiv, 10. 36, as, 38; xxv,4, II, 10, 18,31,23; xxvi, 3. 
11-13. 17-19.26; xxx. 15, J9; or from Ibose panieii* 
in which the Svtiac agrees with the Masoreiic text 
against the Ch^ee, ai vi,36; vii,16: viii,29; x, 39; 
■ ■ " -■ ■ - tvii,6, 10; ■■ " 



4 SYRIAN CHURCHES 

lychian hereay, in one or other of il> fonna, cM 
wide extension in Syria : and ihe uaual teaulti of 
sion ensued in the corruption and decay of true rel 
The Mualem conquest accelerated (be ruin thus begun; 
and from the 7th century downwarda,thia once flourinlw 
iiig Church declined into a weak and apiiitleas c« 

best aecurity from oppression lay in the belief en 
pan of ihe canqueiors uf their attcrly fallen and 
(emptible condition. Coder the head Haro^tii 
been detailed the moat renuriinble incident in Ibe Isut 
biitoTTofche Syrian Church. This branch of the EiM- 
em Christianity, although for the tnmt part d 
from the orthmtox Greek Chureh by the profean 
Honophrsitisni, look part with the Creeks in their tept' I 
ration from The West, under Michael CemUrins; bbI 

able result of establishing aide by ride, within the nsi- ' 
row limits occupied by the Cliristiana under the Uodaa i 
rule in 8yria, two distinct communities, epuking ibi 
same language, unng the aame liturgy, and foUunig 
the same rites, and yet subject to Iwo different palti- 
archs, and mutually regarding each other as bemia 
and apoBlales from the ancient creed of their countiy. 

The chief peculiarity of the Syrian rite, as contradii- 
tinguiahed frum the Greek, eoniists in its liturgy, ami 
the language uf that, liturgy, which ia Syriac, and wiiti 
which the people, anil, in many cases, the prieala, are eo- 



xix,2,13; xxiii,28; xxiv, 9, 14; xiv, 9; xxviii, 1 ; 
xxxi, 8. 

To these examples fronl the book of Proverbs we 

Teaiigstions baaed upon these must show the tenability 
or otherwise of our assertii.n. See also S,'hunfc1der, On- 
bloi and Pftchiro (MUnchen, I8«»); Mnyluum. Urbrr 
dit Bprarht dtt TVirynm tu Jn Spiiicin undStwn IVr. 
hakai— mia Si/rtr, in Merx, ArrMr fiir leiafstrhii/i- 
lidlt Er/.,riA««g -Itt A lltn TfaiutHli, ii, 6lj tq. : Dathe, 
Oputaila, p. 106 sq.; Frankl, SlaiHrB aber du Srjiliiii- 
gUln und PtKhilo sn Jnemiit. in Frankel-tirHtz, Ho- 
tmtuckHft, 1872, p. 444 s<|. (It. 1'.) 

SjT'la-iiui'aotuh (1 Chroo. xix, S). See Ua- 

Bfl'lail ("a^St, ^ruwiai,Gen. xxv, 20; xxviii, 5; 
xxxi,20,24: Dcut.xKvi,6, 2Kingsv.30;fem.ma^X, 
Aramm^SA, 1 Chron. vii, 14, " Aramileis;" plur. nutc. 
B->S?!t. ^ranuniHi, 2Kingsviii,38,29; xri, 6 [where 
tbe'teit baa 0"'iai-.tt, which Ihe marg, correeta to 
O^ai^S, Eiiomitfi'] ; 3 Chruu. xxii, 6 ; but " Syriana" ia 
elaewhere the renderinti of S^X, Arim; ^vpot, Luke 
iv, 37), an tnbalntant cither of Weslem Syria, i. e. on 
the Hnlilerranean [3 Kings v. 20), or of Eastern, i. e. 
Hesnpotamia (Cen. loc. cil.j. Stt Simn. 

BytlanCburohea, a general name far that portion 
of the Oriental Church which had its seat in Syria, and 
which was anciently comprehended in the patriarchate 
of Aniioch and (afler that of Jenisalem obtained a dis- 
tinct jurisdiction) in the pattiarchate of Jerusalem. The 
Syrian Church of Ihe early centuries was exceedingly 
flourishing. Befora the end or the 4th century it num- 
bered 119 iliatinct sees, with a Chriatian population of 
several millinns. The Gist blow to the prusperily of the 
Syrian Church was the fatal dirision which arose rrom 
the controversies on the incarnation. See Eirrvc^Hes ; 
jA<»BiTsa; Mo:iOFHTsrTe«; NsaTOBiANa. The Eu- 






innga 



maiiion under both heada, in permitting the manisxe 
of prieata (provided Ihey many before ordination), aod 
in adminiaiering Ihe unction ofconlirmatiDo at (he aame 
time with baptiam, even lo infants. 

The Christian community uf Syria may at preami be 
divided into fuur classes: the Maron lies, the Greekt 
(who are also called tlelchites), the Honophynte^ who 
are called Jacobites, and the primitive Syrian Chris ' 



Dnites)whoa 



withH 



last-named community fori 

the conlruveray on the incamaiion, at the time of tb* 
general lapse into Mnnopbyailiam. To these are to be 
added the ChristiaiM of Ihe' Latui tile. The HaromlM 
number about 150.000; the Greeks are audio be ahooi 
50,000 ; the Jacobites of Syria and of Armenia Proprr 
are aaid to reckon together about 40,000 families, of 
whotD. however, but a small proportion (probablv scarce- 
ly 10,000 in all) can be set down to the acconiil of ths 
Syrian Church. The non-Hanniie Syrians who follow 



the Holy 

Land, and European Catholics whn have settled penna- 
nently or fur a time at Jeruaalem, BeirCLI, and Damas- 
cus. None of these csn in any way be regarded as be- 
longmg to the Syrian Chureh. It may he well in add 
that the belief, and, in moat particulan, the diaciplinary 
practice, of these several classes coincide substantially 
with those respectively of the same cooimuiiitiea in Ibe 
other churches of the East. All (with the exception of 
Ihe Maronites and ihe few United Syrians) reject tbe 
>f the Roman see. TheSyrianaoflbeGn!^ 



1114000. Tbe resident Lalii 
e religious onlers who 



reject ll 



I Holy 



the Jacolules flimly mdntain Iheii oM 
tenet of Eutychianism. Among them all arc lo be found 
monks and religious females. All enforce celibacy on 
their bishops, and refuse to priests the privilege of con- 
tracting a second marriage, or of marri'ing aAer oidina- 
licNi. The practice of fasting prevails among all alike. 
They receive and practice the invocation of sainia and 
prayers fur the dead, and Ihe use of painted, although 
not nf graven, images, Many particulars rqcarding 
them are lo be gleaned fmm the memoira of recent 
missHinaries oTtbe seTeial<leitomliiatian% among wbicta 



SYKINX i: 

iki iMUn pobluhcd rn>m time to lime by the French 
SwiMv foi (he Propagation or the Faith, Kltbougb ut- 
gnllf tii^si with totue acctarian coloring, are panic- 
iilirir full and iateneting. — Ckaw^rfi Exfyclnp. a. v. 
S« Eihcridge, Uitt^ f-ityrgg, rlc, of SgHan Churchrt 
lUnl.]Si6)i Beoifk.rmiKruiuo/'^yr. CAiin;A«(ibiil. 

Brrlnx, ia Greek mylhab^, wai ■ daughter of the 
riitr-fod Lado, who, when puraued on account of her 
Ivauij b« Pan, pnjui to her father for relief, and waa 
rkaopd into ■ renL Pan cut aoine atalka from it, Join- 
ts tlirm together with wax, and uaed it, in the furm 
tnon to n> aa Pan'a-pipc, in remembrance of her 
(Ond,Jf<AHmi,690). 

Sttim, in Greek mjtbology, waa a daughter of the 
Cuian king Damiethu*. She fell from the roof of her 
Imoic, and waa natored by the art oT Podaliriui, who 
iliHi Blamed bet, and built the ciiv named after bei in 
Cuia. 

Sy'ro-Phcsnl'dan {Xvpofolnaa/t v. r. Xvpo^- 
nnara).a general name (Mark rii, !6) of a (female) 
loh^iant of the northern portion of Phcenicia, which 
wH popalariy calM Sifro-Pkamcia, by leaMin of i» 
pnniioitj 10 Srria and iti abaorplion by conqueat into 
tbn kinpliMD. See Phiemcta. The name ii made ea- 
IKiiUy intenaliiiK la the acriptural aludent on acconnl 
U the woman who beaoiight out Lard in behalf uf her 
iditfed daiichter, ami the miraculoua cure wroiigbl by 
Vlnia ibelailet. Uilihew call* the woman a woman 
"fCaaaan (ir, 23), being in respect to her nalionalily, 
in cammxi with Ihe PluEniciaui, a dearenriant of Ca- 
nau: Haifc dncriliee her ai "a (ireek, a SyropluBnici- 
labr nation' (vii,K), but RoMiimUllerriebllyobMrvea 
ihMibe Jcwa called all lientiles Greeka (EXXqwi). 
Jiot M the Gtecka called ali Mrangen harbariana. She 
«a therefore a (lieek, or Gentile, and t native of that 
pan or in-ria which belonged to Phonicia. We have 
t caneui inaianee of the interchange made in napect 
» the lernia Cauaaniiea and Phonicianit, of an earlier 
Unrt, m ibc raae of Shaul, the aon of Simeon, w' 
wl in GeneHi (xlvi. 10), anording to Ihe Sep^, 

'- Ix Ihe son nf a Canaanitiah woman. The ca 
ilw Si-Tuplumician wnmaii waa a very angular 
i-vk •« accniinl of the strong faith manifealed o: 
mn. aiid ihe eiereiae nf dirine grace and power in 
■ainoibiw* working by Chriu be}'oiid the proper 
•ptm uf hi* penotui miiiisiraticma. In Ihe latter re- 

PeH. hiatorv referred to br out Lord in Lake i 

37. 

The inventioa of the word* " Srto-PhiBnida'' and 
'.'me-Pbaeaiciana'' aeema to have been the woi 
iW Boaaanii, though it ia difficult lo aay exactly what 
il>ty intended by Ihe e^ipreHiona. It haa generally 
ten ■■ppaaei) (hat they wiihed to diuinKiiiah the PhiB- 
acMDi of Hyrta from iboee of Africa (Ihe Carthagtni- 
u); and the term *^53rn^hiBnis" haa twen regarded 
Miht exact convene to ''LihyphiTnix"(Alfard,ai/^]. 
But Ihe Libyphvnicea are not Ibe Phceniciani of Afri- 
onrfwrallt — they are a peculiar race, half-African and 
'■atf-Ilnenirian (' mixluro Punicum Afria ge^n^" Uvy, 
'li. xn. The Syro-Phofuiciana, iherefiire. ahould, on 
['it aiMluf[y. be a mixed race, half Phvniciani and half 
■TnaiK Tfaia ia probably ihe lenae of the wnni in the 
•auiBU LucUiua (ap. Non. Marc Di Propi-itlol. Sfrm. 
i>,OI)andJurenil(£ar,riii, 169), who would regard 
■ •eBgrel Oriental aa peculiarly contemptible. In tairr 
iiw* a geoeraphie aenae of Ihe temit siipcrwded Ihe 
•iteir on*. Tb« emperor Hadrian divided Syria into 

'*»t pane Syria Proper, SyrD-Ptxenice, and Synv 

1'itaaina; BDd heoccfiinh a Syn>-Ph<Biiiclaii meant a 
>aiic ■/ ^b aab<pn"ioc« (Lwian, 0( Coac. i)»r. § 1), 
•kcb iBchided Pbrniicia Proper. Damaacnf,and Pal- 
■]T«ot (•MRawliDa«i,0<''aiI.it.l4BM].). 
Bjvopfthia (alao Stnnrapcixa, SyovpomuXot, 



5 SYRTIS 

Syevpos), SrtvEsncs, a writer on the biatuy of lb« 
CouneilofFeirara and Florence (1438 H),), who himaelf 
participated in its boainns, and was one of tbe moat de- 
termined oppuoenla of the union between Ihe chnrchea 
of the Eaat and Weac upon which the emperor, Johti 
Palnologua, had set hia heart. So far did he earn bia 
oppoaiticfi that he fnundit advisable to rengn his place 
as CHie of the aix debalera in Ihe council, and came into 
violent anlsgonism with both the patriarch and the 
emperur. He yielded to the emperor's commands and 
threats, buwcver, so fat aa to ai^in the decree of union 
which had been adopted, but aftetwatda deplored tbe 
weaknen of hia action. He waa a legal officer (^(cot- 
ilfvXn£) attd a chief aacrislan (fiiyaf iKtXifeiapj^O at 
(>>nstaniinople, and also one of Ihe Ave dignitaries 
about the patriarch who were alhiwed lo wear ihe 
badge of the cross upon their robes; but hia want of 
flrmnesB in the matter uf the treaty uf uiiicm with tbe 
Latin Church rendered him unpopular at home an>l 
thus caused him to retire Irom public life. He devoted 
his leiaure lo the compoailion of a " tme hiator;- of Ihe 
untrue onion between tbe Greeks and Ihe latins," 
Ihereby exciting againat himself the anger nf ibe Lal- 
ina and their ftienda in turn, ao that Kueaiab writers 
like Lahhe and Allatius claaa him iinqualiAedly with 
Grecian lian and Ihe worst sort of scliixnalica. 

The work of Sympuius haa important and undeniable 
value aaa source fur the historj' of the Synod of Ferrara. 
It preeenta a credible view of ev 



nby tl 






positi 



nallyr. 



aented in the council, besides revealing lo 
of connected and involved incidents which, but for Ita 
narration, could not have been known atthiaday. The 
later criticism of Allatius may, nereithelesa, have coi^ 
reeled avroe minor parttculara of the narrative. The oh- 
Ject nf tbe book was to abow that a real union was im- 
poBsible, though the lesders on both aides, the pope, 
Besaarion, the patriarch, the emperor, etc., ateadily drew 
nearer to each other, nnlil the necessities of Ihe Greeks 
decided the result, which Syropulua justly characteriiea 
aa a compmrniae iiiiainjf) ralber than a union. The 
final drafting of the terms of union involved extraordi- 
nary difficDities (sect, viii, 14). Book xii relates Ihe 
disagreements of Ihe Greeks while returning from Ihe 
synod, and their discouraging reception at home. 

The work is extant in a single edition baaed on a 
codex of the ffihiiolheca Regie (N. 1S4T), Ihtm which 

Isaac Voa>iua for publication; bul Sir Eilward Hyde, 
tbe English ambaandor, caused (he manuacript to be 
placed at the dispoaal of Robert Creyghton, chaplain at 
tbe court of Charles II and, laler, bishop of Bath. The 
latter iaaiieil the book in the original Greek and accom- 
panied il with a Latin Iranslalinn unrler the title Vrra 
Hitl. Uniotii boh Vrra ailrr Grrtcoi rl Lolinot, etc (Ha- 
gtt Comitia, 1660), besidee preRxinE lo it a eulogy of 
Syropulus and of the Grecian Iheiilngy and Church as 
compared with the papal, which rendered Ihe work si ill 
more unpalatable to Rnmiah reader*. Allatius accord- 
ingly prepared a refutation, directed more especially at 
Crevghton, entitled In R. Crrygklrmi Apparat., Veriii- 
wm d Aof. ad Hiil. Cooc. Flamlm, etc. (Rom. 1669), 
pi. i. Creyghlon'a edition and also the Paria codex are 
incomplete, aa ihe whole of the Hnl book ia wanting; 
bnl several other manuMript copies of Sympulua exisi, 
solhatlbedeliHenrj-may perhaps be met. SeeCrrygh- 
ton's preface, nbiiap.; Oudiiii ComnHwr. iii, t4IS; Cave, 

lliMt. LiltT. Append.; Schrdkh, xuiv, 411 ilenog, 

RaiUKxcylhp.i.'.: 

Syrtl* {Ifpni:, "quicfcaanda," Acta xxvit. IT). 
There were iwo quicksands on tbe cnait of Nnrib Af- 
rica, between Cj-rcne ami Carlhage, whnae shnala and 
eddies the ancient marinen grrailv feared (llarace. 
Odti, i,32, 5; Ovid, Fnl. iT,4»»: TibuD. ii,4, 91). The 
greater of these was named Sjrfw Unjor, or Jfiijw.i. 
and Ihe leseer .'^yrfia Minor; and old geographers used 
to ttdl many marvela ttipecting them (Strabo, ii. iHS : 



SYRUS 1 

XTli,SS4; Ptolemy, iT, 3 1 Pliny, r,li 3olin.27t H«la, 
i, T, *i SlUlut, Jug. ;S), Modern eiplenlioiu fliid 
]jotb ot them to b« highly riiiigtroua b*y>, wtme the 
tmcberou* auidy >hi>re is barely covered with wa- 
ter, and where terrllic cluinta of und are auddenly 
railed by the >viiii<,<ibiic«rin{: the light wid oTeTwhtini- 
iiig men and even ^hi|)^ The (ireater Syrlia la now 
called [he aii{f •>/ Sidro, bttveen Iripo]" •"'l Barea; 
awl the LcMcr Hie GbI/ of Cuba. The runner it ipe- 
ctally iiileuded in the accuunl of Paul's eiiipwreck (i|. v.). 



!6 TABEEL 

See Smith, Diet, of Clan. Gtog. i. v- 



Sre Qiics- 



Sttiu, in Greek mythology, wu ■ ton or Apolki ■»! 
Sinope, wbu ia aaid to have giveii name to the Syriun 

ByataSoBB (ZuararcEai) were letlcn of limw 
granted by a bishop for a clergyman lo remove tr-a 
bia diocese to another, called i>y the old ci 
torg Ulhri. 

BjxfgaM. See Toki-pkia^w. 



aVUmi- 



Ta'ttnaota (Heb. Taanai; •r\iSV\.taiidg [Gnenins], 
orftnii/itd [FilnC] ; twice [JuiIk- xki, ia ; I Cbroii. vii, 
as] more briefly Timaf, TlSSn, A. V, "Tanach ;" Sept. 
fiaya^f or Oaai-ax v. t. Tovajii Savdjc. etc.), an ancient 
Canaanilish cily, whoee king ia enumerated among ihe 
thirty-one conquered by Joahua (J«h. xii, 'il). It 
came into the hands of the hair-irilc orManuseh (xvli, 
II I xxi, Sfi; ICbron.vli,29j, though it would appear 
to have lain within the original allotment of iasachar 
<Jii»h. xvii, II). It wii bestowed on the Kohathite 
Lsvtla (vxi.ij). Taanach was one of the places in 
which, cither fnim some strength or poiitiun, or from 
the graund near it being favuraUe fur iheir nioile c.r 
flgbting, the ibnriglnea succeeded in making a stand 
(xvii, 12; Jurlg. i, !7)i and in tlie great struggle of ihe 
Camutnitei under Siiera against Deborah and Bank il 
appean to have fiirmeil tbe headquarters ot their army 
(Judg. V, 19). Alter this defeat Ihe Canaaniles of Taa- 
D*ch were probaUyanade, like the rest, to pay a tribuie 
(Josb. xvii, 13; Judg. i, 28). but in the town they ap- 
|>ear tu have remained lo the last. Taanach is almost 
always named in cuiBpany with Megii<<b>, ami iliay 
were evidently ihe chief towns uf that itiw, rich ilinlricl 
which forms the western portion of ilie great plain of 
Esdnelon (1 Kings iv, IS). It was known In Kusebiua, 
who mentions it twice in the OammiiHct/n (Hnni'ii;^ and 
Hn>>aq) as a "very large village" aiattding between 
three and four Roman miles from Legia — the ancient 
Klegiddo. It was known lo hap-l'arehi, the Jewish 
tnedinval traveller, and it Mill stands about fimr milea 
wiulh-eaat of Leijftn, rcuutiiiig ils old name with hardly 
llie change of a leitcr. Schubert, Tullowed by Kobiii- 
son, found it in the modem Ta'ammi, now a mean ham- 
let on the south-east side of a small hill, with a summit 
ofuble-land {ScUnherr, MorfffaluHJ, 111,104; Robinson, 
JliU. Rtt. iii. IM: AtU. Sncra, 1843, p. Tli; Schwan, 
Paltil, p. lat). The ancient town was planled on ■ 
large mound at the termination of a long spur nr prom- 






I out noithward from Ihe hills ot 



le plain, 

iliuate lo ibe main plain on its north siile, and between 
it and I.cjjan (Van de Veldr, i, 358). Kuiiis of some 
extent, but possessing no interest, encompass it {Porter, 
llaadbook, p. 371}. The bouses of [he present village 
are mud hut% with one or two stone buildings (Ridga- 
way, The LaitTi Land, p. 5(W). 

Tmaaah. See Taavatii-Siiiloit. 

Ta'Snatb-Shi'loh (Hcb. Taiaalh- Shiluh', rtxr\ 
tAv, Tuaanh [Gesenins, appivach; Fllrat, ardt] ~of 
Skiioi, so called piob. from its vicinity lo that place; 
Sept. Tjifai £itXw T. r. Qi/raaa mi SiXXifc), a place 
mentioned (-Insh. xri, 6) as silnaled near Ibe northern 
border of Ephraim at its eaateni end between the Jor- 
•lan and Janohah. Se« TniSK. With this agrees the 
statement of Eiiseblus ((TiWMUsr.a. v.),who pbces.Tann. 
hah twelve and Tiemilh ten Roman miles east of Ne- 
apolis. It is probably the Tina {Onva} mentintie<l by 
Ptolemy (Cfi^.v, IG,s),niie of thechiefciiie.i nfSama- 

tusslen ili/iiliili. i), Taanalh-Shilob is said to be iden- 



tical with Shiloh, a statement which Kuni {Gttti. Jh 
All. Bundit, ii, TO) understands as meaning (hat Tii- 
naih was the ancienl Canaanitiab name of th* place, 
and Shiloh Ihe Hebrew name, conferred on il in lokn 
of Ihe " rest" which allowed the tabernacle to be eub- 
luhed there after ihe cooqursi of the country had bna 
comidcled. But Ihis is evidently conjeclare arisn^ 
from the probable proximity of the two places. Tii- 
nah-of-Shiluh is prubably ihe Ji'a Tana seen by Roli- 
inson mirth-east uf Mejdel (Laler Re$. iii, 295). auil l>y 
Van de Vehle (ilimoir, p. I'il, although erruneoulr 
maiked Stmtj td'Dia on his ifi^), about a mile !nm 
ihe road between Acrabi and Mejdel, eonsistiiig nf-i 
small lell with a ruin, on the first loner plateau iu^u 

TaaDltb. .See Taltuud. 

Tab'aoth {TaiiawS v. r. Ta|3»3), a leas corrcn 
form (1 Esdr.v, 29)of Ihe name Tabdaoth (q.T.)°' 
iheHeb. lists (Kira ii,4S; Neb. iii, 46). 

Tab'baoth (Heb, TMaJUk; nSra^, riigt [Ge»- 
niua], or */w** [FUnit] ; Sept. To^/Jnia v. r. Taffa^ 
and To^u3), one of the Nethinim whose deaoendaais 
or familv relumed from Babvlon with Zerubbabel (Em 
i'i,W; Neh.vii,46). RC s'nle 5S6. 

Tab'bath (Heb. TaUati; na^, perh. cMraud 
TGesenius]; Sept. Ta^a3 v. r. ra/3^), a place men- 
tioned in describing the flight of the Uidianilish biM 
afler Gideon's night attack; they fled to Bech.^iiiBh, 
to Zereraih, to Ibe brink of Abel-meholah on (^T) Tab- 
bath (Jndif. vii, 32). As all these places were in or n«t 
Ihe tihor, Tabbaih is probably the present jT^iaUii'- 
Fahit, i. e. "Terrace of Fahil," a veiy striking naturtl 
bank, 600 feet in height, with a long horizonul sml 
apparently Hal top, which is embanlied against il"' 
wcalem face of Ihe mountains east of Ihe Jordan, anil 
ileacends wilh a very Heep front lo Ihe river (Rolinjoo, 
BiU. Art. iii, 82a). 

Tab'eU (Isa. vii, 6), See TarIu, I. 

Tab'eBl (Heb. Tabtil; !>X3B [in pause T-htit. 
Itsna, I«. vii, 6, A. V."Tab«ai"J? Cod is 3«oJ.- Sep'- 
TafJfqX), the name of two men. See alsi TnniM- 

1. The father of Ihe unnamed person on ulienn 1,'r- 
ziii, king <if Syria, and Pekah. king of Inrael, pn>|<H'l 
Id bettow Ihe crown of Judah in case Ihev uieceednl in 
deilmiMing Ahai (Isa. vii, C). RQ anie 738. Vibo 
"Tsbeal's son" was is unkni>wn, but it is conjectuml 
that he MBS some faclious and powerful Ephiaiioiic 
(perhaps Zichri, 2 Chron. xxviii, 7), who proawltd Ihe 
war in the hope of this result.— Kitto. The Aranui'^ 
form of the name [see TaSBHsMOk], however, bMbno 
ibougbi In favor Ihe tuppuuiion ihai he was a Sitim 
in the army of Reiin. 'The Targum of Jonathan mi- 
llers Ihe name as an appellative, "and we will iiuil.< 
king in the midst of her him who aeems good lo '"' 
(Xih •<'iZ'n. ;•? r*). Kaslii by Gfmalria turns Uh 
lume into JtVi;'*, Ai'mdi, by which apparently be woulii 
underitaiid Remaliah. 



TABELLIUS 11 

1. .(n oflcn oT the PoiUn BOTemment in Simam 
mltitrdpcifAruiieneiCEzniv, 7). B.C. 619. U 
k» ben trgntd thM he, liw, wu an Aramcan, Tmrn 
ihtfui ibu Ibt kuer whicb he aiid hia companion! 

gmp. Gonisa, howerer (^rau, i, 380), tbinka that 
it m; ban hteo a Samariun. 

Tlbel'lfaU (Ta|]iAXioc)-aOTSclz«l fiinn (1 Eadr. 
B,:*l oT lb. Hab. naoM (.Em W, 7) TAomt. (q. v.). 

Tab'eilll (Htb. JiihroA', n^53P, aHuumplioa ; 
SifL, ^mxipir], a place in the vrildemeu nf Paran ; 
utalMriun tbcfact that "the Sre of Jehovali bamed" 
(TCljaiDong the laneliie* there in conaequerce of 
tbdTMplunii (Numb, xi, S). It by at the next bU- 
boa bnoni Hunb, aiid muM thereraie be aoiight some- 
ibtR in Waily SiaL See ExoiiG. Keit arguea (Cuiii- 

■unuu part i-f the camp," and rrom the omiarion of 
iMaiwin Numb. xx!tUi, IhU the place waa identical 
•ilk ibc uaiHin Kihtalh-halluvab next oameil; but 
^ mtiboki the fact that both iheae are aeparaleljr 

TaberiOB (~iEBh'3; Sept. fStryuf (vnt ; Tulg. 
unaroVn). an nhaulete won! tned in llie A. T. of 
!>iL ii, 7 in ihc itnit of itmnHiiM^, or making regular 
mini!. Tbe Hebrew word ia derived from 5|FI, "a 
lialftL" Hid Ihe image which it bringi before 









nine * 



in of Nineveh, led ai 



« bcai ipdn ilKir timbieli (comp. Pna. Iiviii, ib [26 J, 
•IKR ibe name retli ia uwd). llie Sept. an'l Vulg., an 
■tart. Bake d» iitempt at giving the exact meani 
TIcTirgiim of Juiiaihan givM a word wlitch, like 
Krtni, haa Ihe meaning of ''iTTDpaniuntca." The 
*-r.iolilninanner,reprodoceaihe original idea (* 
•vi^ The "labour" or "labor" waa a musical in 
mi !if Ihe drum irpe, which with Ibe pipe fiirmnl Ihe 
^■dodcDiipin-rillase. We nuin a (race at once 
of ibf ■«id and of the Ihinp in the " laboiiriite" ut 
'uatamiie' of modem muric, in Ihe " labrei" of Ihc 
A.T. ud oMn English writers To " labour." accord- 
■ely. b to beat with loud BUohea aa ineii beat upon 
>jd u iMniiiienl. The vcrti ia fuund in thia senae In 
BsMora and Fletcher, Tie Tibmi- T.tmed (" I would 
"<« bcT^. and anwen with a aingnlar felidty to tbe 
mn Mailing of the Helircw, See I'iumptre. BOk 

TtbenMcle it the rendering, in ihe A. T, of the 
tAnnig Heb. and (ir. wordai I. bnit, CM, the moat 
ln|Hi lenn, bat often Hgnifyingand rendered acom- 
^■"inl;' i. *,^13C, nHsAtmi, the dialtnelive term, 
■''•II » mdeml, except ("dwelling") in 1 Chron. 
"''i; Jiibiviii,ll: xxi,38i xxxix,6; I^a.xxvi,Hi 
iIa.ll:lixiT.;; Iixxvii. !; Isa. xxxii, 18: Jer. ix, 
I':i»,8;li,80; Kiek.xxv,4; Heb.i,6; ("habita- 
na') tCbnm.XKix,6; Paa. Ixxviii, 38; cxxxii, 5; 
''•■ixii,lS;Kv, Ij ("tent") Cant. 1,8; 8. "rjO [once 
r' Ublb, 6], (At (Paa. Ixxvi, !), nzQ, mlcHi (Lev. 



^U',I6,lB,19),orrqsp,nUiifA (Amosv.a 
■■iag 1 tmiti, u oOeii rendered : 4. omjvij, in 
'tra.T.l.t),!^ sc^Hifui (Acta vii, 46 [rather hab- 
■■■a]:! tyt.i,IS,U),a(nif. Deaidea occaaioiHl uk 
^ u MdiDaTy dw^ing. Ihe term is specially employed 
> Inipiaie Ihe Arat aacred odillce of ihe Hebrewafmor 
OiteiinnofSidDmoa; fully called l;^-3 hni)i,lhe 
.'•*«Jp"(e*p*ciallyinNnmb,) mrn IJCia.'oi- 
'*'* •/ lit eongrtgatiB* (Sept. onjv^ [1 Kinga 
Uirii)ni(u,] rov fHipn>piin>i Philo, iipiv ^«pifT&y, 
Vii, lU; Joaephua,furafipnfu>'0£ *ai nf/nr^mi- 



7 TABERNACLE 

ir»c va6i; Awl. iii, S, I). (In the diacusaion of lliis 
iiiEereitiiig subject we hnve availed ourielvea uf MS. 
ointtibutiuns from ProT. T. O. Paine, LUD., author i.f 
Soloinim't Timplr, elc, in aildition lo Ihe suggestions in 
Ihe twik ilaeir. For an exhaustive treatment we trfrr 
lo the most recent volume and charts, entitled The 
Tubtmade xf Itrad m rAa Z>e*rr(, by Prof Jamea 
Strong, Providence, 1888.) 

1. Tttmt ami Synoa^nt. — 1. The first word thita 
used (Exod. xxv, ») ia IBO^, mitkk&K, from ^31$, lo 
lit dotal or dwell, and thus itself equivalent to diptUiiig. 
It connecu iuelf with tbe Jewish, though ikol acriptu- 
ral, word Sbecbinah (q. v.), aa describing the dwelling- 
place of Ihe divine glory. It is noticeable, however, 
that it ia not applied in proae to Ihe common dwellings 
*r men, Ihe tenta of the patriarchs in Genesis, or those 
of larael in the wildemcas. It seems to belong rather 
to the speech of poetry (Psa. l.Txxvii, !: Cam. i, 8). 
The loftier character of the word may obvioiuly have 
helped to determine its religioua use,and Juatifiea Irvis- 
lators who have the choice of synonyms like "laber- 

" and "tent" in a like preference. In ila applies- 

to the sacred building, it denotes (u) the ten iri- 

oilureil curtains; (b) the forty-eight phinka supporting 

Ihem ; (c) Ihe whole building, including the ruuf. See 

DWEtUNO, 

2. Another word, however, is also used, more con- 
nected with the common life of men; SHit, ihtl, Ihe 
emt of tbe patriarchal age, of Abraham aiul of Isaac 
and of Jac»b (Gen. ix, 21, etc.). For the moat part, as 
needing something to raise it, it ia used, wben appliol 
to the sacred lent, with some diitingniahing epithet. 
In one paaaage only (I Kinga i,S9) does it appear with 
this meaning by itself. The Sept., not dialinguiahing 
between Ihe two wonia, gives tt^v^ for both. Tlie 
original difference appears li> have been that 3i^!t rep- 
resented the uppermnat covering, the black gosis'-hnir 
roof, which was strictly a tent, in dialinctiini rmm the 
lower upright house-like pari built of boards. The 
two wonle are acoorriingiv sometimeejoincil, asin Exod. 
xxxix, 32 1 xl, S, e, 29 ( A. V. " the tabernacle of the 
tent"). Even here, however, the Sept. gives oaivij 
only, with Ihe esception of the vur. Uel, of q aajvi^ 
rqc snirqt in Exod. xi, 19. In its application to ihe 
tabernacle, the lerm iM mean* (a) the lenl-roof of 
goata'-hair; (t) the whole building. See Text. 

3. r73, iijn'A, Aotua (olcoc, domui}, ia applied lo the 
Ubemacle in Exod. xxiii, 19; xxxiv, S« ; Joah. vi, 24 ; 
ix, 23; Jiidg. xviii, 81; xx, 18, as it had been, appar- 
ently, lu the tenia of the patriarchs (Gen. xxxiii, IT). 
So far aa it dilTera from the two preceding words, it ex- 
idea of a fixed settled hab- 






■r the 



Israel after Ihe people were setlled in Canaan than 
during their waitdetings. For us Ihe chief inleteat of 
Ihe word lies in ita having deacended from a yet older 
nnler, the Hrst word ever applied in the Old test, to a 
local unclaary, Beth.«], "fAr AonM^Co(f"(xxviii, 17, 
22), kee[Hng its place, ride by aide, with other words — 
tent, lalMniacle, palace, temple, synagogue— and at last 
outIi\-ing all of them; riaing, in the Christian Ecdftiu, 
to yet higher uses (I Tim. iii, 15). See HotiSE. 

4. cnp, kdJai, or ti^^Q, mhlath ^iyiniriia, iyio- 
trr^ov^ ro uyiov, rd tiyui, 4anctuarium\ the hi/tj/^ 
consecrated place, and therefore applied, according lo 
the graduaUd scale of hulineaa of which the Ubeniacle 

none but the prieala might enter (Lev. iv, Gi Numb, iii, 
38; iv, IS), somelimeB to Ihe inneimnst sanctuai)- of ul, 
the Huly uf HoUea (Lev. xvi, 2). Here also the word 
had an eariier slarting-poinl and a far-reaching nia- 
tory. En-Mishpal, the city of Judgment, the seal, of 
some old oracle, hal been alao Kadeah, the sanclusrv 
(Gen. Mv, 7; Ewald, CacA. /jr. ii, 807). The nair 



TABERNACLE 11 

El- Kadi stiD cling> to tfa« w*Ui of Jeruulem. See 

Sa!(CTUABT. 

0. bs^n, ktfk^ ItmpU (mSt, Umptam), u meanine 
the stately buUding, or palica of Jehovah ( I Chron. 
xxix, 1, 19), ii applied mem commoiiljr to the 'I'eniple 
(S Kinga xxiv, IS, etc), but wu u«ed aUo (prulwhly at 
the period when the ihuoght of the Temple had affect- 
ed the teligioiia Domendatitre of the time) of the lab- 
emicle at Shiluh (I Sam. i, 9t iii,9) and Jenualeni 
(Paa. V, 7). In dlher owe the thought which the wont 
emboiUes a that the " tent," the " home," ii royal, the 
dweUing-plaee ot the great king. See Tkmflk. 

The flnt two of the above wordi receive a new 
meiaing in combiaadon with tsn (wwid), and with 
nnsn (ta-efiil*). To undenitaad the full meaning 
of the diitinctive titles thus fomied ia to poMcse the 
kaj to the HgnificaDce of the whole taberoade. 

(a.) The primary force of 15^ i« "to meet by ap- 
poiotmenC xnd the phrwe ^;p^a hnx ha> thertfure 
the meaning of "a phice of or for a Hxed meeting." 
Acting on the belief that the meedng in thia cue wu 
that of the worabippert^ the A. V. bu unifonnly ren- 
dered it by "ubcniacle of the congregation" (lo Seh. 
Schmidt, "tenlorinm conTentOsi" and Luther, "Stlfta- 
hUtte" in which Slift - P/an-kinAe), while the SepU 
and Vulg^ confounding it with the other epithet, have 
rendered both by ij ffnji^ roii (mpruprop, and "taber- 
naculum lealiiDonii." None of these rendering!, how- 
ever, bring out the real meaning of the word. Thii ia 
[o be fiiund in what may be called the Iocum doanou, 
as the interpretation of all wonla connected with the 
labeinacle. " Tbia ahall be a continual burat-offering 
... at the door of the tabernacle of mirliiig (^S'19) 
where I will mat you 0?J!«, ymaHl'ioiiai) to apeak 
there auto thoe. And there will 1 tneeC OPI^ri, raCo- 
fioi) with the children of liraeL And 1 wiU u<iitt{fy 
(■>ri1S^p) the ubemade of meeting . , , and I will 
dutU Ori93l^) among the children of Israel, and will 
be their Uod. And they shall know that I am the 
Lord their Qod" (Exod. xxix, tt-K), The same cen- 
tral thought occurs in xvr,22,»ThareI willnMfwith 
thee" (comp. iln xsx, 6, BS{ Nnmb. xvii, 4). It is 
dear, therefore, that " congretcation" ie inidequste. 
Not the gathering of the worsliippera, hut the meeting 
of (iod with hit people, to commune with them, lo make 
bimseJf known to them, was what the name embodied. 
Ewald has accordingly suggesMd OffaibaruKgiith = tent 
ofreTelBtion,aatbeb««equiralent{^frer4Aiiner,p.lS0). 
Thia made the place a icwrliKiry. Thus it was that the 
lad wu the tbcrllii^, the Aouae of Uod (Bithr, SfmL i, 
81). See CosonaoATioK. 

<A.) The other compound phraM, TnTn bns, as con- 
nected with TIS (= to bear witnes«), is righlly ren- 
dered by if eiaivii tob futprvpioii, tiibimaeuliim I. 
nanii, die H^oiiiua^ dei Zniffiiiita, •' the lent of the 
ny"CNumb.ix, 15) - - - 



<xv 



.-iii, 2). 






: derive 



name from that which ia the centre of its holinesa. 
The two tables of alone within the ark are emphatical- 
ly tie testimony (Exod. xxv, 16, 31 ; xxxi, 18). 'Ilioy 
wete to all Israel the abiding witness of the nature and 
wilt of God. The tent, liy virtue of ita relation to 
(hem, became the wilness of ita own aigniflcance as the 
meeting-place of Rod and man. The pmbaUe con- 
nection of the two distinct namea, in aenae u well aa in 
Hnind (n:thr, Symb. i, S3, Ewald, Alt. p. 230), gave, of 
oiurse, a force to each which no transladuo can repre- 
sent. See Tkstimo!<», 

II. Hinory.—l. We may diatinguiab in the OM Teat. 
tbree aacred tabemicles, 

(1.) The Anle-Sinaitic, which wu probably the dwell- 
ing of Hoses, and waa placed by the camp of the la- 
nclitea in the desert, for the transaction of public bmi- 



8 TABERNACLE 

neM. Exod. xxxiii, 7-10, "Moaes took the tabemaele 
and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the csixp 
and called it the Tabenucle of the Congregalim. Ant 
it came lo paaa, that every one which sought the Lort 
went uDt unto the tiliemacle of Che congi^ation, whict 
was.withodt the csrap. And it came to pass, wber 
Hole* went out unto the tabernacle, that lU tite peo- 
ple rose up, and stood every man at his icnt-door, anu 
looked after Huses ontil he wu gone into the taber- 
nacle. And it came to pass, aa Mote* enteied into ih< 
tabernacle, the clouily pillar descended, and stood at th< 
dooi of Ibe tabernacle, and the Lord talked with Uoaes 
And an the people aaw the cloady pillar stand at tin 
tabemacle-door : and all the people rose ap and woe- 
shipped, every oiw in bis tenl-door." This waa neitbei 
the sanctuary of the tabernacle described in eh. xxv 
sq.,wliich wu not made tilt after the perfect reaora- 
tion of the covenant (ch. xxxv aq.), nor anntber ■wictu- 
oiy that hid come down fnm their forafatfaen and wn 
used before the ttdjetnacle proper wu built (u Le QtR, 
J. D. Uichielia, and RnaenmuUer supposed) ; but an or- 
diasTy lent used for the occasion and puipose (Keil, 
Commem. ad lot). - 

(2.) The Siiudlie labemicle sopeneded the tent 
which had served fur the transaction of pnblic business 
probably from the begthning of the lixode. This wu 
conalnicted by Beialeel and Aholiab ai a portaUe man- 
sion-house, guildhall, and cathedral, and set up on the 
first day or the first month in the second raw after leav- 
ing Egypt Of thia alone we haveaccuraledeacriptions. 
It wu the second of these sacred tents, which, u the 
most important, is called the tabernacle jmr exerllaKr. 
Moses waa commanded by Jehovah to have it erene<l 
in Ibe AraUan deaen, by vcduntary contributioos of the 
laraelitcs, who carried it about with them in their mi- 
graliona until altar the oonqnesi of Canaan, when it re- 
mained stiiionirv for longer perioda in various towni 
of Palatine (is betow). 

(3.) The CawJic tabernacle WM erected by David, in 
Jerusalem, for the reception of the ark (2 Saul, vi, 11): 
while Ihe old tabernacle remained to tbe days o( Sok-. 
mon at Uibeon, together with the biaseo altar, n tbe 
place where sacriSoes were offered (1 Chron. zri, S9; i 
Chron. i, S). 

2. lurifd Fortmia o/llte SaaiHc Tabenade. (I.) 
In Ike K'iUerwu.— The outward history of the taber- 
nacle begins with Exod. xxv. It comee after the fiiH 
great group of lawa (ch. xix-xiiii), after the oovensni 
with the people,after the vision of the divine glory (ch. 
xxiv). For forty days and nights Moaes is in themoiinL 
Befnre him there lay a problem, a> measured by hunun 
judgment, of gigantic dilficuliy. In what flt symliol* 
wu he to embndy the great truths without which thr 
nitiim would rink into brutality ? In what way conlrl 
those sytnbola be gttarded agaiiiit the evil which he had 
Been in Egypt, (^ idolatry Ihe moat degrading? He 
wu ni4 left to solve the problem fur bimselt Therr 
ruse before him, not without puinis of contact with prt- 
vioiis amncialiona, yet in no degree formed out of then. 
the " palioru" of the tabernacle. The lower analogia 

ward eye, [heir completed worii before the work titdf 
begins, may help us to understand how it wu that the 
vision on the miiunt incloded ill detaila of form, mess- 
urement, materials Ihe order of the ritual, the appanf 
of the priests, lie is directed in his choice of the im 
chief artists. Bezsleel of the tribe of Judah, Aholiab ef 
the tribe of Dan (ch. xxxi). The sin of the golden calf 
apparently posi|>nues the execution. For a moment it 
seems u if the people were to be left without the Dirim 
Presence itself— without any recognised symbol of il 
(xxiiii, 3). Aa in a tnntiiion period, the whole fut- 
ure depending on the patience of Ihe people, nn the i> 
lercession of their leader, ■ lent ia pllched (ptThsblfi 
thatof Moses himself, which had hitherto been tbe b»i)> 
quartern of coniultatinn), outside tha camp, to be imW 
visionillr the labemnclr of meeting. Then the mm 



TABERNACLE 1; 

•f the liw^Tct CDtere into «ver-doMT fellowahip vith 
Iht mind of Ood (ver. 11), ietm^ la think of blm la 
"■■Kitiful inil gradoiu" (iixir,6); in the gtreofith of. 
ilu[ ihooKht b led back to the rulfllment of the plin 
whicti had iMiii*!) Ukel^ to ervd, u it b*gin, in vision. 
Wlti) ptvTinanal tabenucle it bu to b« noticed that 
tbsi wu tt yet no ritnel and no prirathood. The peo- 
plt veal out la it u IS an oraela (xxiiii, 7). Joahui, 
ilwugh of the tribe of Ephnim, had free acma to it 
t«.iO. 

Another outline law waa, however, given ; another 
period n( BlitBde, like the Aral, followed. The work 
onlil now be tcaumed. The people offered the necea- 

S,6). Other workmen (ver. 2) and wo[kiiromen{j[xi[v, 
&) placed ihemaelTea under the direcljon of Bexaleel 
ind Aboliih. The parti were completed geparately, and 
tktD, oD the fint day of the aeooiid year from the Ex- 
ok, Ibe tabernacle itself waa erected and the ritual ap- 
poMed for it begun (il, 2). 

The position of the new tent wu itaelf H^iBcanl. 
Il Hood, not. like the prot^iaional lahemacle, at a dia- 
tasn Ironi the camp, but in ila Tery centre. The mul- 
tindt <i< Israel, hitherto acatiereil with no flied order, 
■en Dov, within a month of its erection (Numb, ii, 2). 
(Tosped niund it, as around Ihe dwelling of the unseen 
Csplain of tbe Host, in a fixed order, according lo their 
tnbal rank. The priests on the east, the other three 
Imitia of tbe Levites on the other sides, were closest 
ia tUoidance, tbe "body-guard" of the Great King. 
See LcviTE. In the wider square, Judah, Zebutun, Is- 






; Ephrai 



Benjs 



■la,oo Ihe west; the leeaconspicuoua tribes, Dan, A>h- 
B, Napfatali, on the north ; Reaben, Simeon, Gad, on 
■lie amlh aide. When Ihe army put itself in order of 
Batdk, the poiition of the tabernacle, carried by tbe 
l«ii(s, was still central, the tribe* of the east and south 
IB (real, thoM of the north and west in the rear (ch. 
u). Upon It there rested the lymbolic cloud, dark by 
d^ and Hery-red by night (Eiod. il, 88). When the 
dml remoTed, the host knew that It waa Ihe ilgnal for 
lbatogoforward(Ter.S6,S7; Numb.li,17), Aslong 

t^tj coniinued wbere they were (ver. 16-2S). Each 
natch, it maN be remembered. Involved the breaking- 
sp e( tbe whole atructore, all the parts being carried on 
wiggna t^ Ihe three LeviUcal familiea of Kohatb, Ger- 
•bca,sodHerari,«bi]e the "sons of Aaron" prepared for 
ibe temoTal by covering evemhing in the Holv of Ho- 
li(awiihapur|^clotb(iT,6-la). See EnCahfhent. 

Ib an apecia] (acts connected with the isbemacle, the 
engioal thought reappears. It Is the place where min 
unit wiih God. There the Spirit "conies upon" the 
"moty tlders, and they prophesy (Numb. li, 24, 26). 
Tbitbo- Aanm and Miriam are called out when they re- 
U against the servant of the I/ird (iti,4). There the 
'(k^ of the Lord" appears alter the unfaithfulness of 
Ii* twelve spies (xiv, 10) and the rebellion of Korah 
sad his company (xvi, 19, 42) and the sin of Mertbah 
(XI. G). Thither, when there is no sin in punish, but 
a diSculIy to bt net, do the daughters of Zelophehad 
»■« lo bring their caul* « before the Lord" (xxvii, 2). 
Tbcn,«beD the dcaih of Hoses draws near, is the sol- 
(■n'diarge" given to hia successor (Deut-xxxi, H). 

(Z) h I'alaliite. — As hmg a* Canaan remained un- 
(Boqurcd, and the people were itill therefore an arTny, 
tbt (Remade was jirobably moved from place to place, 
■kmer the boat of Israel was for the time encamped— 
St Gilgal (Joab. iv, 19), in the valley between Ebal and 
Gtnam (vlil, SO-Si), again, at Ihe headquarters of 
Gillpl (ii,6; X, 15. 4S)i and, finally, as at " the place 
■kich tbe Lord bad chosen," at Sb'iloh (ix, 27 j xviii, 
I). The leasonaofthi* laatijioiceare not given. Pan- 
h. periupa, iu central poaiUoo, partly iu belonging to 
ttt puwBftil tribe of Ephr«im,the tiibe of tbe great 
■flAof the hoal, nay bave determined the pieferenee. 
Tim it ooDlhiued doringihe whole period of the Judges, 



TABERNACLE 

the galbering-pcnnt for " the heads of the fathers" of 
' 1, SI), for council* of peace or war (xxii, 
1! ; Judg. xxi, 12), for annual solcmti dances, in which 
the women ofShikih were couFpicuons (ver.2l). There, 
too, as the religion of Israel sank towards the level 
■tic heathenism, iroope of women assem- 
bled, ahamelesa aa those of Midian, worshtppen of 
Jehovah, and, like Ihe cipii^ovXoi of heathen lemples, 
» of his priesla (1 Sam. ii, 32). It was far, 
, from being what it was intended to be, the 
one nstional sanctusiy, the witness against a localized 
divided worship. The old religion of the high- 
u kept its ground. Allan were erected, at flr>t 
:i protest, snd with reserve, as being not for sacri- 
Sce (Josh, xxii, 26), aflerwarda freely and wilbout Bcm- 
■ (Judg. vi, 24; xiii, 19), Of the names by which 
one special asnctuaiy waa known at this period, 
■e of the " house" and the " temple" of Jehovah (I 
Sam. 1,9,24; iii,3, 15) are most prominent. 

A state of things which was rapidly aaaimilaling the 

inhipofJehovabtothatDfAthUrothorMvliltaneed- 

I to be broken up. The ark of God was taken, and Ihe 

aanctuBiy lost its glory ; and the tabernacle, Ibough 

*' Aid not perish, never Bf^ain recovered it (1 Sam, iv, 

). Samuel, at once the Luther and the Alfred of Is- 

^1, who had grown up within ila precincta, treala it as 

abandoned shrine (ao Psa. Ixxviii, 60), and sacrifices 

elsewhere— at Miipeh (1 Sam. vii, 9), at Bamah (ix, 

12; i,S),atGilgal (ver.8; xi, 15). It probably became 

once again a movable aancciiary; leaa honored, as no 

longer possessing the symbol of the Divine Presence, 

' e priesthood, and some portions at 

least of its ritnal kept up. For a time it seems, under 

~ ' to have been settled at Nob (xxi, 1-6), which 

became what it had not been before— a priestly 

The massacre of the priests and the flight of Abi- 

' must, however, have robbed it yet further of iu 

glory, !l had before lost Ihe srk. Itnowlostlbe pre*- 

high-priest, and with it the oraculai ephod, 



eUriT 



d Tbun 



n (X. 



,i, B). What 



ige of fortnne then followed W' 
fact that all Israel waa encamped, in the lost days of 
Saul, at GilboB, and that there Saul, ihough wilhout 
success, inquired of the Lord by Urim (xxviii, 4-6), 
makes it probable that the tabernacle, as of old, was in 
the encampment, and that Ahiathar had returned to it. 
In some way or other it found its way to Gibeon (1 
Chnn. xvi, 89). The anomalous separation of the two 
things which, in the original order, had been joined 
brought about yet greater anomalia. and while the ark 
retnained at Kirjatb-jearim, the tabernacle at Gibem 
connected itself with tbe worship of ihe bigti-places (1 
Kings lii, 4). The capture of Jernsalem, and the erec- 
tion there of a new tabernacle, with the ark, of which 
the old had been deprived (2 Sam. vi, 17; 1 Chron, 
XV, 1), left it little more than a traditional, historical 
sanctity. It retained only the old altar of bumt-oS'et- 
inga(l Chron. xxi,29). Such aait was, however.neither 
king nor people could bring themselves lo sweep it awa.v. 
The double service went on; Zadok.as high-priest, of- 
ficiated at Gibeon (1 Chron. xvi, 39); the mote recent, 
more prophelie service of psalms and hymns and mu- 
se, under Asapb, gathered round Ihe tabernacle at Je- 
nualem (ver. 4, S7). The divided worahip continued 
all the daya of David. Theaanctjty of both places was 
recognised by Solomon on his accession (I Kings iii. 15: 



imply ic 



It tent, it 



decide betwren them. The purpose of 
David, futHlleil by Solomon, was, that the claims of both 
should mei^e in Ihe bigbci glciry of the Temple. Some. 
Abialhar probably among them, clung (o the old order, 
in Ihiaaa in other things; butihe Hnal day at last came, 
and the tabernacle of meeting was either taken down or 
left to perish and be forgotten. So a page in tbe relig- 
ioua hiatory of Israel was closed. Thus Ihe disaster of 
Shiloh led lo its natural conaummalion. 



TABERNACLE 

IIL ^)cKr^(iim.— The wri[lvii authoriliei for tbc n 
lontionof tbeUberrulBarc.linl.Ihe dfuiled accou 
ia)icrauD(liaExod.xxTi,Rncl repeated in xxxvi,S-S8, 
wiibout Uij virution bej-ond tbe sliKbUtt pouiblc 
■bridgmeot; tecondly, [he Kcoant given of [he build- 
ing bj Joaephui (Ak/, Ui, 6), which is so nearly t repe- 
CitiDD o( the account found in the Bible tbac we may 
feel anured that be had uo really imporUDt authotity 
before him except the one which is equally acceaaible ' 
■la. Indeed, we might alnioat put bii account on a 
Bide if it were not ibat, being ■ Jew, and ea much nei 
er tbe time, he may have had aeceaa U> sonie traditional 
accauDia wbicb miy hare enablnl him to realize ita a 
pearance more readily tbaa we can do, and hii knon 
edge of Hebrew technical terma may bare aaaiated hi 
U> underatand what we might otherwise be unable 
explain. The additional imlical 



TABERNACLE 



n Philo ■ 



fulai 






It (hey p: 



iwledge, and may lafely L 



auihoritiea probably would n( 



X without sc 



the aTTaogemeats of the tabernacle were so simple 
that they are really all that are required. Every im- 
portant dimension was either fire cubits or ■ multiple of 
Bve cubits, and all the arrangements in plan were either 
•quarea or double aquarea, aotliat there ia, in ract,ai 
Acuity in putting the whole together, and none i 
ever hare occurred, were it not that tbe dimensio 
the sanctuary, as obtained from the "boards" that formed 
i(a walls, appear at first sight la he one thing, whili 
those obtained from the dimensioiu of tha curtains 
which covered it appear to give auotber. The appar- 
ent discrepancy is, however, easily explained, as we ' " 
presently see. and never would hare occurred to an_ 
who had lived long under canvas or was familiar with 
the eiigenciea of tent architecture. 

The following close transUtion of Exod.xxvl will act 
the subject generally before the reader. We have indi- 
cated, by the use of ilalia, marked variationi from Ott 
A. v.: 

1. Andthe taheniac1e<^BdQ)lhansbsltiniike— ten 
talna: twUtedUnen.andTlnletandpnrnlaandcilmaan 
of cochineal: cherabg,work<>r(an] artificer, thou shalt 
1. makeibem. (The)lengt]i Dttheoneciirlaln(sha1l *--' 
eight and twenty by the cubit, and (tha breadth) I 
bf the cnbit, the onecnruln: one measnre tobstl 
1. to all the cnrtalna. Five of the cnrtalua sball be lam- 
ing sacb to It* fallow, and lire of the cnrialoa Jornlni; 
4. each to Ita Mlow. And than ahalt make loop! {b)bj 
ofrlolel upon {the) edge of the onscurtalu from (the) 
endlnlheJolnlne.anifsoshallthonniskelndhelMltn 
t, a/tAxndnusteurtatnln thesKDnd^fr^ntng.' flRjluopt 

•anmd iiHntny, the loojw stenrfftiff iqipoiUt (nibjptt) 

a, theonelollarellow. And thonshalt mskeflllytsdies 

(D^P)of gold, and thou ihalt Join the cnrtalna one In 

lu fellow wltb the taches, and tbe tabernacle shall be 

T. And thou tholt make cnrtnlnt of Koats f hair) for a 

unt (bntt) upon the Ubemacle, eleven cnrtalna •halt 

a ihon make them. (Thel length of the one csrtaln 

(shall be) thlrt; by the cMx. and (ibej breadlh fnar bv 

the cnblt, the one cnrtalD : one miware ishill be) to 

>. (the) eleven cnrtalna. And thou sbaltjoln areofihe 

cnrtalD* Miparalelr.and iliof tbecDrtalnisapsratcly; 

and thon sbalt dnnble the sixth cnrtalo l«Mnl( (the) 

14. IbrelhiiitartheMiit. And ihoDshnltmakefiny loops 
npon (the) edge oTih* one cnrtalu— the endmoatln 
Ihejolniog^ and linj Imps npon(ibe) edge of the cnr- 

IL taiu— the KonHl joining. And than abalt make Uches 
of copper— flfty 1 and shalt bring the taches In the 
loone, and thon ahalt Join the tent, and (it) shall he 

n. one. And (the) overpfnaSonu In (liie) curtains of the 
ItM — lialf t/ tbe iiverplns cnrtnlo snail hanr npuo 

18, the back of the Ubemacle: and Ue cnblt from ihia 
(side) aadlAtcnbllfrom that <«lde) In the orerplns In 
jibe) length of (the) cnrtalna uf tbe tent shall be bang 
npon (the) side* oflbe taberancle from this l^de) and 
from that (side), (o cover It 



. And thou 



nt, sUna 



, And than ahalt make Itw plunki (9^^) Fir tbe tab- 
eratcle, trees [n»d] of acaclni (S'::3), nnndlug. 

L Ten cnhlla (>hall be the) tengih .>! thepliDk. and (a) 
cnblt and (llir) hiilf of the ciililt (tbe) iimidih uf the 

. one plank. IVti hnndi (U~MUJ (shalt there be) to 
the one plank.Jolned [niatO'O.olhers nmapniddv) 



thon 1 



(0[or 



o)f..raII(tlii 



le tabernacle. And 



B. Andf . 
13. [wH(]th( 



phlDks f.ir (Ihel T^tgeh CxnitA] quarter toward* Tej- 

n. miallluKnilhi. Andforty bam (-j-TX) of sliver ahalt 

than make nnder the twenty pliiilu, iwu basoa under 

the one plank for lis two h;iuds. n^ two bases under 

». (he one ttian plank fw lis two hsuds. And for Ihe 

■eoind rib l/ankj of the tnbemacie to (the) TesphAn 

n. [i»rf A] quarter (Ibere shall l>e) iweui)' |>innks: sad 

■ — * "wo bsM* under ihe ouo (nnij plank. 
thlgha [noil of the tabernacle seawsfd 
laltmske tli plauks. And two pliukt 
Ike for (Ihe) angles {71Xpp,ni(tn>tr>>/) 
. ofthetabemaclein thelfalght [rsor]: and (they) slisii 
be twinned (D''nMn,perhsiieJolnlsd,Uii^ or Mud) 
from below together, and shsll he twins npon Its 
head ['op\ towards tbe una ring: so shall (1i) be lo 
both ..f them ; for the two angles shsil (Lhey) be, 
, And {there) thsll beeiRhtnlaoks. and their base* of 

and two bases under tbe oue [iitxt] plank. 

(Tl-'lai of trees li«i«f]of 

...... ..he) plank* o 

inclCj snd five bsrs l<>r (the) plsnki 



KDi thon fhalt maki 



■caclaa (ShUtiml ; five for (the) plank* of Ihe on* rib 

M. l/anijofthotabemncle sndfi»ebs™^^>^(lhe)^'~'" 
or the aecoDd rib Iflani] of ihe tnbemaele, atiu eve 
burs for (the) planks of (the) rib IJIank] of the taber. 

IS. nscle for the Ihlgha [r«n eeawnrd Imirij. And Ibt 
middle bar In (the) niddre o[ ibe plunks (abalt) bar 
(H'^'IS^.be bolUng throngli) from the end to the end. 

». And I'be planks than ehilt overlay (with) gold, and 
the rings thoashflU make (of) gold, (as) houses [piaa'l 



1. Tie eoBrf pxn) was a large rectangular eneloann. 

ftsdimensions are given more tlian once, being lOOmbiii 
long and 60 broad. Jta conslruciiun was very simplr, 
being composed of a frame of fimr aides of dislinct pil- 
lars, with cnrtalna hung nponlhem. In other wordi.lt 
wai surrounded by canvas screens— in the East calW 
kawaSli, and still univcisally lued M enclose the pri. 
rale apartments of important personage*. The pillsn 
were probably of shi tlim-wood (that is, the desert acacii). 
a light, close-grained, imperishable wood, eaaily lakiiiir 
on a line natural polish, though it is nowhere diceci'y 
intimated of what malerial they were; Ibay wtre Bis 
cubits in height (sufficient to prevent a person from look- 
ing over them into tbe enclosure), but their other di- 
mensions are not given, so that we cannot be sore 
whether ther were round (Ewald) or four-ootmnd 
(Dahr). probably the latter. At the bottom these pil- 
lan were protected or shod by suckela of bias* (coppd). 
It is nol quite cany to aay whether these sockets wet* 
merely fur protection, and perhaps ornament, or if thtr 
also helped to give stability to the pillar, to tbe [stter 
case, we mar conceive the socket to bare been of Itis 
shape of a hollow wedge or pointed funnel driven into 
the ground, and then the end of the pillar pushed doan 
into its cavily ; or they may have been aimply plsto 
laid on the ground, with a hole for the reception of iht 
tenoned foot of Ihe pillsr, as in the case of the "boanlf" 
noticed bebw. Other appliances were used to give tit 
structure firmness, vit the common article* of lent a^ 
chitecture, ropes and pins (Rxod. xxxr, 18). Atll» I 
top these pillars had a capital or head (xmriii, 1^ 
"chapiter"), which was overlaid with nlrer; butwheth- . 
er the body of the pillar was plated with any metil i> I 
not said. Cunnecled with Ihe bead of tbe pillar were i 
two other articles, hsokt, and thing* called O^p^'S 



TABERNACLE 



TABEKNACLE 



■nillorCMU 



tt»k,Um,n 

rclirf 
nnl the pillar (lo Ewild, .Iftrr. 
tturr, p. 33S, iKtU &), bat moU 
pntitbir moaing rodi (w <ie- 
■nniUit'Uni, and othen), Joining 
OH piUu u> aDothcT. Tbesc rodi 
mt kid DpoD the hoaki, and 
vn-ed lo mltach tli« hwiginga to 
nd mpend them rrooi. Tbe hooks and rodi were 
■Ircr, ibuugh Knobcl conjectures tbe liller miut have 
bwo m«e1)r pUt«d (ExaL p. 278), The mode of ad- 
JuBing ibfae haofpngt wu timilar to tbat of tbe door- 
■if xTHiu and "vul" deKiibed below. 

The drciuDfereoce of tbe enclos- 
m tha formed ■» 800 cubit*, 
at tbe niunber of piltaia is iwd lo 
iiT«beaiSO+») + 10 + 10=60, 
■luch vonld give betoeen areiy 
m piUin a apu:e of ^ - & cu- 
Ini. There baa beeo conaider- 
■Ue difiealty in ■ccorately con- cnrtaln-wall orEnlmi 
cnriog ibc melbod adopted by 
(hi writer in dlculiting tbeK pillan. Thi> difficulty 
na from the ooraer pillan, each nf wbicb, o( coune, 
Idngi both (D tbe tide and tu the end. It baa been 
■Vpoacd b; nany that tbe author calculated each one 
(■nxr pillar twice; tbat is, coniidered it, though one in 
iuctf.aia pillar of tbt side and abo u a pillar of tbe end. 
nitmoM antkein all 56 actual pillars, and, ofcourae, u 
■«iT>pac«(Itabr,KnDbel,elc.); that ii, nineteen spaces 
« each aide, and nine on the ctiU. Now uace tbe aide 
■H 100 rabiu and the end 50, thia would give for each 
■itail^e Vlf.=?A.'""l f™™"" •'"' »P»" V=6f •!'»■ 
t>iti,ipaceiaiiificial in ihenuelvea and unlike each other, 
hiioerlainlj mrot probable that the apaces of side and 
ol were of exactly the aame liie, and that each of them 
«M MRH exact, and no fnctiMial, number o( cublta. 
Tbe lUBnilt y may be completely remored by aaauming 
tbe dalance of 3 cubiu to each ^lace, and counting aa 
in tbe accompanying gnmnd-plan. Thus, aince each 
■ilia vaa 100 cubitti tbia neeils twenty apacea. But 
mnty ^lacea need twenty-one pillin. So that, aup- 
p«i«g ua Id aurt from the aoutb-eaat comer and go 
■Jcog tbe nath ndr, ve ihould have for 100 cubila 
msty-oDC pilUrauui twenty tpuxt; but of theae we 
Awid OD«Dt twenty spacea and piUara for the aoutb 
■de,aad eaU the aoutb-weat corner pillar, not the twen- 
ty-ana pilhr of tbe nda, but the ftiit of the end. Then 

cess 



rr'rm 



(Det. 



1 snggested bj AMjrlu 



going up tbe end, we thould count ten pillara and spaces 
aa end, but cvnsder the north-wnt comer pillai nut a* 
eleventh of tbe end, bat firet of the north siile; and so 
on. In ihi* way we gain sixty pillira and aa many 
•paces, and have each apace esaciiy 5 cubiia. 




dbyo, 



whUe B. 






rendering « 

for conon. At all cventa, tbe curtaina were a atriHig 
this glancing white material, and were hung 
pillars, moat likely outude, ihoiigb that u not 
known, bdng attached to the pillan at tbe top by the 
hooks and rods already described, while the whole waa 
stayed by pins and cOTds, like a tent. 

The entrance, which via uluated in the eentnof the 
eaat end, and was twenty cubita in extent, waa formed 
also of ■ hanging (tecbnically T\0'0, matdi) of " blue, 
purple, and acarlet, and fine twined linen, work of the 
Dpi-^ rokem' (A. V. " needle-work"). The lut word 
has usnally been cocaidered to mean rmbnidertr with 
the needle, and the curtain fancied lo have had figares, 
flawera, etc, of tbe menlioned culora wrought into it. 
But BDch kinds of work hare always a "wrong" «de, 
and, moat probably, taking into account the meaning 
of the word in Aiabic, and tbe fundneta of the Arab* at 
this day for atriped blanketa, the word means "weaver 
of atriped cloth," and the hanging 1* to be coneeived aa 
woven with lints or stripes of blue, purple, and aculet 



a e ; B 



S 3 ii 5 S E .1 




o 



Fla« oftba Tabamade and lu Coart. (From BIggenbaeb'a MoiaiKKt Sf/tiUlu.) 

tmltlmwO. a.ArtlalttHoljDtHolia. t,T>)l>iifik 



TABERNACLE 

Ml th« whiM gnand of ikak (Koobel, K«it, etc), 
other worda, the tcarp, or lougitudinil threads, wi 
whiui linen, while the moo/ made cro»-bars (n 
would hmng verticaUv) of hrilliinlly dyed wool 
treble thread. Thej were merely iiiiin uid wi 
without gohl ur emljroiderHl figures. 

The furniture of the court coiuiMed of the eltar of 
burut- offering and the iaver. ThCK are Hifflci 
deectibed under their appropriate heading). See Al- 
tar; Lavkr. What coocenu us ia the position of 
them. In all probability, the tabernacle proper stood 
with iu entrance exactly in the middle ol the court, 
that is, any cubila frooi the entrance of the court 
very poasilily the altar of burnt -olleriug ulood, again, 
midway between the door of the court and that of the 
tabernacle, i. e. twenty-five cubitafmin each, and i 
where in the twenty-live cubits between the alta 
the tabernacle stood tbe laver (Josephua, AM. iii, 6, 2). 

'i. The TiAenuide iTMl/t— Following the nethod pur- 
sued with the outer court, we begin with the walls. 
These were built of bosrds, or, rather, planks (B^1C^[|'| 
Ixriulim), in dose contact with each other. Tbey were 
of shillim-wood, overlud with gold on both sides, ten 
eubita high and one and a half culut broad, their 
thickucBs being nowhere given. From the foot of 
plank came out two "tenons" (TMl^, jnddfA = hands), 
which must not be conceived as connecting the pL 
with each other lateralli', m if there corresponded 
tenon in one plank a mortise in another; they wer 
connecting each particular plank with the ground, 
mutt he conceived as two wedge-ahaped or pointed 
pieces (probably of copper, or perhaps of silver), pro- 
jecting from the lower end of the plank. These tenon 
were thrust into silver aocket^ of which two were pre 
pared for each plank, each socket being the weight of 



TABERNACLE 




irt. Slid their Position nn- 



talent of ulver. Whether theae sockets were wedge- 
ahued or pointeil, and themselves went into the ground, 
or whether they were mete faot-pUtes fur tbe pisnk 
with holes forthe tenons to pamlhruugh into the grounii 
(the last more probable), is not intimated. I'n.r. PaiiK 
has ingeniously suggested the thickness of these sock. 

ulni BQuarc). ai in the adjoin- 

if the sock- 

es, that the planks should be (as Jose. 

third of a spsn, i. e. one MXth of a cu- 

■" thick (which i! 



tJ 



jiPdne). 



strenglh),in order to 

ly.as illustrated in the 
subjoined cut. This 
might indeed hr.TC 
been effected on the 
suppodiion that the 

thick,aitbe accompa- 
nying cut will show ; 
hut we can hardly 
suppose that the 
planks overhung the 
Bupport- 



ConierPlai..r,.,.„„„ 

tbe BsHs (accord- «■ them. These I 
did not nquirc U 



• 1 I — 

— • • 



Planks on their Bases (aceordinit to the eomaon view), 
ter deeply into the ground, aa tbei« wu do lateral ainin 
upon them, and the whole wright of the building kept 
them firmly in their place. TlKir only object was to 
keep the Iraltom of the planks level and even. Tbe up- 
per ends of the planks, however, needed to be kept from 
separating, as tliey would certainly do under the trac 
tion of the atay-ciinl* fure and al\. Hence the lenosi 
mentioned in Exod, iKvi, IT are carefully distinguished 
from those (already described) referred to in ver. 19; 
and they ate designated (without any sockets aasi(^«i 
to them) by a peculiar term, nSa^d'a, tiutluillihiiti, 
which occura here only. It is regardnl bj- Qeseniui as 
radically signifying nnlcAtd, but he undciitands it here 
as meaning joi'nnf, a sense in which FUrst and Ullhlau 
emphaticallv concur, to the exclusion of that adcqxed 
by the Sepl iAvTixirrovrit) and the A. V. ("set in 
order"). Prof. Paine refers the term to the lop of the 
pUnks, and renders it dutped, understanding a separate 
plate with holes corre- 
sponding to pins or ten- Ff: ZTl 

ons (probably all of cop- [^ ^ 

per) in the nppet end " 
of the pUnks likewise, ^ 
as in the annexed cut. i-pl p=h-. 



visimifurtheatabiliivof " 

the Mracture, of *liich '''^'^^X-'" 'the T^raad' 
no one else aeema to (accord! ug la Psina). 
have thought. Never- j,^.,i_^ B, i- b-,* d-p-. 
thelern, as he privately 

informs ua, he has since abandoned this distinction be- 
tween the lop and bottom tenons, and in hia tbtthcoin- 
ing second edition he will dispense with the dasps. 
The long middle bar, if pinned to each end fJank. 

'ould subserve a umilar purpose. Something of ibii 
sort ia perhaps intimated by the boiling (n^-IZ-S, m:!i) 
The roof-curtains wwilil 
likewise assist in holding the planks together. 

or these boards, which, being one and a half mbll, 

!. about two and • half feet broad, must have been fann- 
ed of aeveral smaller ones jointed together, there "tie 
the north and twenty nn the south sidp,tliiis 
making each side the length of thirty cubita. For tbe 
west end were made six boards, yielding nine cuhits. 
and in addition two boards for the comers (Exod. xxvl, 
22 sq.), making in all eight boards and twelve cubltii 
and as the end is thought (so Josephus, A nf. iii, 6, B) 
' have been ten cuhits (proponionate to that in Soln- 
m'a Temple, I Kinga vi, 3, 30), this would imply that 
each comer plank added half a cubit to the width, hoi 
nothing to the length, the measurements being tskati 
inude. Were the planka supposed a cuhit thick, wbicb' 






.n (but 






i«hi),lhei 

iBclly cover the thickness of the »«, 
plank. The description given of the comers is exeerd' 
ingly perplexing, and the diversity of opinion is nalursl", 
lygreat. ThodiKcuhiesallliein Kxoil.xxir,t4. Itgooj 
....... ,|,p]jj together;" rather, they ibiDl 

be " twins," or " twinned" (DCXP, MEaifn]. "Tber* 
evidently refen to the comer plonks; and, setting saM 
they make twins together, which antm 



TABERNACLE 



TABERNACLE 



W- 



vX itself iDikes talni, whicb 

I it would do if iL bad two \tp 

• ccauining tbr ■ogle bMween 

— them. IfChe comer pUnk be 

two-leggsd, it iildi necema- 

rily Mmething la llie length, 

and thai de«tni)-8 ibe meaa- 

< I uremenL One explanation 

CoTKi Board of Iha Tab- i, therefore to regara the end 
Si^i.T" .,.>.^,rpU,„l..,,^..in. 
t. e. corresponding to the aide 
[hnk (L FoTtber, ewh comer plauk must be " entire 
(:-ari,(<iaui(j»)«lorop ita head" (A. V., with many 
abmcoiHiden fanuum the aame aa toaminC), Kow if 
ibftuaiTbe not the lop of the plank, but the edge or 
pint <if [tic eomer,^ then the atitcirtenl impliea that the 
onfrpliDk of the end wall, though prolnnKing the aide 
Till ouiadp^ muat TK>t be cut away or sloped, for example, 
mitKCBhioR indicateil bv the dolled line* c i. Once 
agn, Ibe worda are added " unto one ring," accnratelj 
■HiathedntriDg." Keii(ConTnflif.adloc)undeiaund9 
ihit -Ibe tmo eorner luardi at the back were to cmisist 
DfKiiiiinx* joined logetber at a right angle, >o aa to 
{stB, at doable boardi,aiie single whole from the top to 
tilt bouom." and cliaC "one ring waa placed half-way 
^ ■ifxi Dprif-bt board in tbe comer or angle, in such a 
niBBttihil tbe central bolt, which stretched along the 
rvtirf IfDgrh of the walla, might fasten into it from 
bub ibt aide and back." Hurpby {Cammaa. ad Inc.) 
suggeala a rorm 
which we rep- 



.in.pI.. 






effectual 

C«Mr Board (aecoriing to Murphy), m"""*'- The 
rnig and sUplee 
■ the tip and bottom of the comer planks formed a 
lii^.nibal tbe adjoining planks were nciannf, ot car- 
n»l tuftether aa me. That the end planks went in be- 
'nm the last tide planks (aa neatnea* and uuge in 
■di itniaam dictated), making the inlerlor width of 
Ot ubenade the full twelve cu- 
iitL ii probable from Ihe length 

■Ard,il tbey were kHigitndinal- 



Ibe ■illi or pUnka, in addition 
lo [U natality they may have dc- 
nnl Ironi the aocketa at the bot- 
■■> (ad periiapa tbe cl*spa at Ihe 
1^). vac boBDd together liy fire 
bn or botii, thma into rings ot- 
UcMu each plank. Theae bars, 
n sD |int)aljilily,nn along the ouu 
idc iboogb that ia not inlimated, 
M Evald tbinka otherwise^ One 
laritnidlohavegonain Ihemid- 
<lle Ti'ra) : thia ia uaually Uken 
U BOB k^r-way op the pisnk, and 
■iib tn bars on each aide of it, 
•ice Hid below ; but some inler- 
tm ""tbrnugb tbe heart of the 
toanji* (Rii^enbacb), and others 
*>kniai>4 it of the rear bar alone. 
Tint tbeie scciD to bare been ihm 



rowa of bars, the top and bottom one on each of the 
sidea being in two pieces. Jowphus'a account ii sonie- 
what different : " Eiery one," he savi iA -1. iii, 6, 8), 
"of tbe inllars or boards had ■ ring of gold sfGxed to 
its front outwards, into which were inserted bars gilt 
with gold, esch of Ihem five cubits long, and these 
bound together tbe boanls; tbe head of one bar run- 
ning into another after the manner ofiine tenon insert- 
ed into anotbeT. Hut for the wall behind tliere waa 
only one bar tbat went through all ihe boarda, into 
which one of the ends of the bars on both sides was in- 
serted." Tbe whole edittce was doubileaa further stayed 
by ropes attacheil to tent-pins in the ground from knoba 
on the outside of the planks. (See below.) 

8. Draprry oflkt raiernocfa.— Tbe wooden stnictare 
was completed as well as adorned by four kinds of 
hangings, each of which aerreil a useful and even need- 
ful purpose. 

(I.) Tht Aoo/— The first question that arises here is 
whether Ihe roof was Sat, like ihat of Oriental housea, 
or peaked and slanting, as in Occidental buildioga. The 



<1J tlUI MH ll 

=1 i=« !=« 6=* !=« 6=^ ^=e t= 



Qeneral view of the Wooden Walls of tbe Tabdnacla. 



(^wW^lc 



TABERNACLE 



TABERNACLE 



M minred by FtrgnnoD. 



old regireaenUtion*, HKh w Cdmet'i, take the roroKr 
vie*! but to this it ma; be rorcibl; objedetl that it 
wDuU ID that cue ba impUMible to (trelch the ruof- , 
covering lufficienllv tight lo pievent Che nin and anaw ' 
ftnm callecting in the middle, and either cnuhing the ! 
whole hy iu weight or flooding the apartment*. Uenee 
moat later writera awinie a peaked n»r, althoagh there ; 
it no mention of a ridge-pole, nor of lupparta to it ; but ; 
the name " lent" given to the upper part or the edifice 
u itaelf concloaive of thii rorm, and then theie acceaao- 
rie* would necowarily Tollow. 

The roofing material was ■ canvas of goals' hair, the 
article still employed by the Bedawin for their terns. It 
consisted of eleven " curtuns" (n*9'<'l'^), L e. breadths or 
piece* of (this csmlet) cloth, each thirty eutnls long and 
fear cubits wide, which is as large, probably, aa could well 
be woven in the loom at once. Ten of these were lo be 
*■ coupled" (^xn), i. e. aewed together, live in one sheet, I 
and five in another, evidently by the selvage; thus I 
makiug two large canvases of thirly cubits by twenty ! 
each. But aa Iho Iniilding was only twelve cubits wide, | 
one of them alone woold more than suffice for a roof, | 
even with a peak. Hence moat interpreters understand i 
that the surplus width waa allowed to hang down the | 
aiilea. But what is to be done with the _ 
other sheet? FergiiMon {in Smith's Did. 
of At BibU, a. V, " Temple") supposes (with 
interpreters in {general) that the two aheeis 
were thrown side by side across the ridfce- 
pote, the extra length (aome tifteen cubits) 
being enlended at the cavea into a kind of 
wings, anil the anrpliis width (ten cubits) 
furled along the ^t•<^>f of the gable, or per- 
haps itretcheil out as a porch. But Cliere 
is no authority wbatet'er for this diaposal; 
and if the two pieces uf canvas were intend- 
ed lo be thus ai^joincH, there appear* no 
good reason why tiiey should not have been 
teioed together at the tint, like the indiviil- 
ual breadths. Hence Paine Bii|;gesls that 
they were designed as a douUr roof, so as 
the' more eKectually to »he.l rain, nomewhat 



adequate. If the angle nt the peak werr a 
rii;ht ani;le, as it naturally would be, rhe K*- 
t^ of COUTH, being an isoacelea triangle, 
eil-lilaiid a half cubits would becei|uite<l fur 
each slope of Ilie roof (they being the two 
legK of which twelve i* the hypolhenuse) ; ^ 
leaving one cubit to cover each of the p 
a (as qiecidol in ver. IS), anil <«ie cuUI U 



Older to be water-'tight (especiall]' since they ran paral- 
lel with the ridge and eavea) aa well aa smooth, would 
best be formed by overiappiiig the edges, in sb ingle style. 
The sixth "curtain," or extra single pietc, waa lo be 
" doubled in the fore-front of the tabernacle" (xxvi, 9, 
^rjSO "^B ^""S"!"? P^!91)i "hich interpreters gen- 
erally have undenlood as meant to dose the gable. 
This, aa Paine auRgests, it would neatly do if folded in 
two thicknesses (like the rest of the goat'a-bair dotb) 
across the lower part of the rear open space above the 
"boarda," as it is just long enough (twice Sfieen cubits; 
the surplus three eulnts being employed exaoly aa in 
the case of the other sheeta), and sufficiently wide (rour 
cubits up the ni of the perpendicular; leaving only s 
small triangle at the peak for ventilation) ; the goi« 
oi comen probably being tucked in between the twe 
tbickncaacs of Che roo^sheets. This sixth curtain.nl 
course, was sewed rmhcim lo one of the outer fMCCCS o{ 

These roof-curtains were Joined by means of flFly 
"loops" (riK^b, lulaSth) of unspecified (prttbably Che 
same strong) material, and as many tacbea (B^O", 
Irraiim) of "biaas." With most interpreters, Fergus- 
son nndersUnda (hese to be intended for connecting the 



^ 



TABERNACLE 



TABERNACLE 

bMrdi uid prereat any one IVooi ImkuiK through tbe 
cnek* from without. These cuiuins wen uupended 
on artf kooba or tachu of gold by means of flftj loops 
or the mate milerial as the curtains Ihemsdres; these 
baCeniogi may be artanged as in the case or tbe roof- 
is. It thus became "one tabenucle" (veT.6, ^IC^ 
inx, L a. these cartaios belonged to the upright [woud- 
en] part of the sErucluiv^ in 



[ca 



as] 01 






; it). The n 









Copper Tscbe In the Tnb- 

itaAttachmanls. (After 
False.} 



piiiamtauifona oi 
tuTia. But bendca the 
BiknoH of this (as above 

pciinial (nt), on this plan the laia would flnd an easy 
ulH It this imperfect suture. Hence Paine more rea- 
Boably coneliidea that they weic designed for button- 
iog dmn tbe double canras M the eavea so as to form 
■™t««"(xxvi, ll.inst bri»,i.e. the upper or tent 
pan rf the baikting). the taches, according!}-, were 
not iult ( as DMat understand : Fergusson thinks 
*S bm^'^, but ktioba in the planks on the outside, 
plmd one cnUt below the top (ver. 12). The number 
tliit tiches would tfaus exaclJy correspond to the re- 
quRmnits of lbs " boards," Le. twenty for each side 
ul eif bl lor the end, with one additional Tar each rear 
ana (where a tache would be needed for both edges 
°f the board, the others being in the front edge, as the 
tnt board wnold neceoaarily have it there i in the rear 
basnU ibe knob would be in the middle). See Tacuk. 

(i) ADOther set of curtains was provided, c 
°rt«|Heceaaf stuff, each twenty-eight cubits long and 
Iw abiu wide, lo be aewed into two large clolhs of 
irt'cBrtaiiis'Dibrvadthseach. Fromthegene ' 
bti^of ihedtKriptioo, interpreters hive naturally iu- 
fcrnl thai they were to bejoini 



was similar to that of the door of 
the outer court (xxvii, 16), but it wis also to be em- 
broidered with cherubim, like the interior "rail" (xxvi, 
"'~ -'-■-'h will be considered below. 

coat of "nuns' skins dyed red and tAchash 
badgers'," probably teal or some other fur; 
13 furnished ai an additional covering {xivi, 14, 
nb^^bp, m^lemdlai, /r<m upaard). This is usually 
regirded as ■ part of the roof; hut to pile them there 
■auld have been sure to cstch the rain, and so prove 
irune than useless. Paine places them on the outside 
>f the "boards" to hide the cracks and prevent the 
wind and rain from driving in. Hence the number of 
kina is not q>ecified ; they were la form a blanket luS- 
iently large to cover the walls, and run up under the 
dge of the roof-canvas so as to catch the drip from tbe 
Lavea, Doubtless the tAchash fur was placed next the 
smooth gilding, and in its natural stare, because hid- 
den ; and the rougher but more durable ram's-wool 
was exposed, the hiir shingling downward to the 
weather, but dyed a brilliant color for effect. They 
would naturally be hung upon the copper taches, 
rved so many useful pniposes in tbe " boards." 
They are called in ver. H "a covering (nOSO, mitii*, 
not necessarily a roof, for it is used only of this fur robe 
[or aome nmilBi one, Numb, iv, S, 12] and of tbe screen 
[whatever that may have been] of Noafa'a ark [Gen. 



•a; bol (he a 



irsctlcahility of employing 

HI obvious. Nor does the 

sides the difficulty of disp< 

of the suTplussge in breadth 

(in length they would be 

scant if double), we natu 

ask. Why were they dill 

in number and siie IVom the 

other rooSng material? Prof. 

Paine therefore thinks that 

they were sewed mil loaid (the 

original is nriht(~SS flS 

to Mearjler,xxvi,8; <! 

I ferent fntm 13b, trparatelji, 

ver. 9, of the roof-curlains) in 

two long piece* (they would 

I probably have been woven 

I thna bad it been possible). 

1 and then hnng double in 

I loose drapery around the in. 

_^_^ I toiorof tbe tabemacle.being 

Tit Isfw Cnrtalns ac i"* high enough (four cu- ] 
cordlag to Paine. laii)toooverlhaJniiitsuf the 



nchmeurp. (After Pilne. 



TABERNACLE 11 

viii, 13 ]) (or ibe ItuT (^nbl^), apptnoUr u oompletiiig 
the onvu or unt-like part of the MnictoTe. 

SulachUU {Ai'cliaol dtr /ftbrStr, ii, BSl sq.) repre- 
KDii tb« hingingi of tbe ubeniwje •> ttupeoded in 
the torm uF a ten), but in a pecuUu rurm. He thinks 
the *|SCT] was pruperlv the apaoe endiwed bj the 
lioanls erf' acacia-woml ; aiwl that theae formed the outer 
wall.ao to apeak, ■ri'Ain which the tabernacle, the bnx 
properiy ao called, wai nared in the form of a peaked 
tenu or this thi bjiaus curuioi, he auppoaes, rormed 
the interaal drapery, while the goata'-haii cunaina, cov- 
ered with teathct and tichaih akina, formed the outer 
coveting. The whole alracrure would thiia pnaent the 
appearance externally of a peaked lent, reared withia ■ 
hieb paliudeorwood.audopea at the front. This rep- 
teaentaliun hai the advanta^ ofallawinf; the omanien- 
tal curtain, and alao the gilded boarda with their gold- 
en rings and ulver aoekela, to be fully riaible. There 
•eenih however, at leait oue fatal abjection to it, via. 
that it doea not rulOI the condition that the joining* of 
the curtain* ahill be over tbe pillaia that aeparate the 
holy from the moat holy plaee_a condition of eoential 
■igniflcanre, as we shall aee. 

(i.) 'I'be tloorvagi of the tabernacle were formed or 
rather closed in a manner altogether analogous to the 
entrance of the exterior coart, namely, by a vertical 
screen or sheet of cloth made of heavy material, and 
(in one case) still further stiffened by embroidery, stmi- 
lar to the piece of tapestry that hangs at the portal of 
modem cathedrals in Italy, or (to speak more Oriental- 
ly) like the Hap at tbe opening of a modem tent and 
Ihecarpetorcamlet partition between the male and fe- 
male apartments of a Uedawin abode. Of them there 
were two, each of which is denoted by a distinctive 
term rarely varied. 

(n.) The front openin)t{nnB,p*ioc*( A. V. "door") 
was closed siifllcienily hi;;h li> i>rt'\-eiit a passer-by from 
looking in, by a "haiiginj;" I'^'^'i.mtudt, a lerroi, or 
'■covering" from the sun [I'na. cv,39] or from obsen-a- 
tlon [2 Sam. vii, 19; Isa. Kxii, 8]) of maleriilji exactly 

suspended upon five copper-socket«d and gilded pillars 
(S^nirs?) of acacia-wood by means of golden hooks 
(9^1^, prfft, spoken only of these and those at the outer 
entrance), the whole being probably of the same height, 
proportions, and style in other reelects as the exterior 
one just referred to. Tbe number uf these pillars is 
signiScant; as there werrjiie of them, one must neces- 
sarily stand in the centre, and this one was probably 
carried up no aa t« support one end of tbe ridge-pole, 
which we have above aeeu is presumable. A coire- 
iponding pillar in the rear of the lent may be inferred 
to sustain the other end, and possibly one or mc 
the middle of the building. 

(ft.) A " vair (nS^O. parAlxlh, uparalrix, used only 
of this particular thing, sometimes [Cxod. xxxv, IS: 
xxxix,84i xl. 21] with the addition of the previoui 
term fur emphaus) divided the interior into two sparl- 
menu, called respectively the "holy place" and the 






111 b»th 



udes; comp. I Kings vi. 29) with llgures of chen 
stitched (probably with g-dd thread, i. e. strips of p 
leafrolleil and twisted) upon it, apparently with thi 
of the embroiderer (Stin HiO^?, Ihr aort nf ,in ,i 
icir; A. V. "cunning work"). It was suspended upon 
four pillars precisely like those of the door " hanging," 
except that their socketa were of Hirer. A special state- 
ment of the text (Exod.KX>i, 33), "And thou shalt hang 









D^sn^n rnn), evidently meaning that the pilUi 
which ita ends were to be attached were to be ph 
directly beneath the gulden knobs opposite in the wall^ 



TABERNACLE 

wise hung the side-cartains, shows both 
ler were thus completed by a drapery on 
J side of each room (it will be renwD- 
bered that tbe front knobs likewise oormpond in pu- 
that of the doorway screen), and likewise 
a chsracler snd situation of tlie tacbes them- 
selves (out hooks in tbe roof, which at the eaves was st 
five cubits above the top of the " vail"). As ibe 
l,"likB Ibe two outer Brreena, wis stretched tight 
across the space it occupied, it was of course made ex- 
actly Long enough for that purpose; thus, too, tbe eru- 
broidered figures (which, if of life-sixe.were uf just th« 
height to extend upright across the stuiT— about foot 
cubits) would show to the finest effect, not being ia 
folds like the interior tide-euruins. 

It ia not a little singular that the es.nct position of 
tbe "vail" is not otherwise prescribed than by the 
above rvqnirement; nor is the length of either of the 
which it separated given, although together 



hirty ci 



On I 



4. Si 



(sustained by the analogy in Ibe Temple) that the Host 
Holy was an exact square, Le. (acconling to our deter- 
mination above) twelve cubila each way, the knob of 
tache oppinle which it would hang must have been 
that which stood in the forward edge of the eighth 
plank from the rear of Ibe building. Whether it was in 
front of or behind the pillars is not certain; but the br- 
mer is probable, as it would thus seem a oioie efleetaal 
lurrier from without. The end pillars apparently Hood 
in immediate contact with the eide walk, both in order 
to sustain the ends of the vail, and to leave a wider apace 
between them for ingress and ^ress. The vail was sus- 
pended directly upon golden pins (A. V. "hooks") in- 
serted in the face of the piltais near their summit ; nd 
thus differed (as did likewise tlie screen of the dootof 
the tabernacle) from the hangings of the outer court, 
which hung upon silver rods (A. V. " filleta") (doubtin* 
by loops running on the rods) resting on similar pins or 
" hooks." The reason of this diBercnce seems (o have 
been that the greater space between the Court |Hllsn 
(so as to admit animals as well as men) would have 

diite support, which could only be furnished by the 
' and attachments along tbe upper edge. 

' Ty .Vo/r. — Since tbe above was in type 

ure of this eiiific* which admit of further elutidii ion. 

(1.) r^s " t'i.rnfr-6o(ird)."— Tbe fact that tbe Uinxn- 
Bioni.of the courts and the building itself were iu deci- 
mal proponiuns, and that iu tbe temple subseijuently 
erected for the same purpose, which maintained multi- 
ples of these dimensions, the holy and most holy wen 
exactly twenty cubits wide (I Kings vi, t), l«adi K 
strongly to tlie presumption that in the uberaarie 
these rooms were ten cubits wide, that we are disposed 
to recall the arrangement adopted in the l>icef;nag 
disciiaHon. which gives these apanmenia a widlh of 
twelve cubits, leaving for tbe holy place the imgo- 
lar dimensions of eighteen by twelve cubits. Adopdng 
the suggpBlion of Kcil {ConuHnilary, ad loc.) thai tbe 
comer-buanls were constructed of two parts, forniinp a 
right angle with each other, we hare only id iskt a 
plank one and a half culnis wide, like all the atbo^ 
divide it lengthwise into two portions, one fiwr rijllu 
and the other Hve sixths of a culdl wide, and fasten ibne 
together in that manner, in order to obtain the needed 

one wing of the comer-bnaril to lap around the tnd of 
tbe last side-board, and cover Ihe joint neiily anil lyB- 
metrically, as in the following figure. This lax it lbs 
adjustment adopted by Bmwn (nt TnUniacit, Ut. 
[Lond. lS!-i], p. 23), who reviews and Justir rejects lbs 
conjectures of Josephus (/iNf. iii, 6,S), Kaliich |C«- 
meiirdr;, ad loc.),anil Von (leriacb (ilml.). HiicvnipU- 



TABERNACLE 





Comer 


lw»rd 


■Dd BockeU. 




IvA iivi. 


M, "Anrt 


llier 


.hHU be f»»«J (n-'B^h) 


flWDbflonr.MiiiWSftl 


crih 


y ihall be mmptoe (D 


-HB) 


upon Id rnp 


lo the firU (o 


.am) nii(r,"WB <ni< 


(hen 


mdcoluidl 




at iheywere tobe in Ihil 




Its -yintni 




: chf 


r lenf^b. «nd were 




(be fir<t or . 






rid^pl.,.k in coram 




IfcsIopiwBt 


bar. (hiu 


hDldl 


ng [he comer Hrm in 


both 



gf the >ule-bir for further wcurity. 



■CoiMi-lMirf," thoRlDe it» "One Ring," I 



wlUi It 



uf the Slde-pl 



(t) Pontitm oflkt Car1abu. — -Vbt ate of 
pines of dr^iei7"ill nnt be miteriiilly effected by thj* 
rteiee in Ibe width of Ihe Hrui-'iure. We need only 

io Mdet to di^mie of the n>of-c«ii>M. The curuiu 
Knm the retr ^tiAf oi«y be wr«|i(>eil a linle farther 
•IsBc ibc Bde u each end, and it will al the tame time 
aiT« ibe top* of Uie feat planka, aiiJ cloK the joint 
■ben (he endi rftho ronf-cuitain" fall thort of doing to. 

Ub Ibe Mippontinn of a flat ronf itretchtd directly 
•aw Ibe lapa of the pUiiki, the dimenHona of bo 
Ml of nrtaini may readily be maiii in ciirrMpond wi 
lh« r«(iureiBenta of Ibe buildiofc. The embroidered 
CKtaint may either be used aruund the walls, ai 
tiiHwIy.oi Ehey may be juined togeihcr inlii one I 
•beet ID carer the eeiliug and walli nn the ini 
TlKw lenclh (iwenty^iBhC cubiu) would in the latter 
tmm reach id within one cubit of the cmund ; and 
CMibiiKil breadth (forty cubila) would in like ml 
nnr (he end «aU (ten eubiu -f thirty cnbiu of lenRlh 
of buil.ling). The lutore, where the two canyaaea are 
ortioatily wppoaed to be Joined by the lonpn, woidd 
tbB alao exactly fall over the ■'vail," acparsling the 
bdy fion the moat holy place. 

1 he Mme wouU be true likcwiM of thegoati'-hiir cur- 
laiH ir«nulaily Joined and apnad over Iba roof and out- 
■da a( Ibe UbeViiBcle, reMhing to within one rixth cubil 
rf (be riauai op each aide and rear. The only diScul- 



If tl^ 



TABERNACLE 

I to the eleventh or exlii goala'-bair cur- 

e wholly superfluoua, unleu 

■ light be if doubled 

iofEiod.iiTi,9). 






idlba, it 
uied (o clixe the ■ 
(according to the iuubI intcrpretuii 
But it aeema agreed upon by all critici mat it must be 
employed upon the rair of the building (aa explicitly 
atated in ver. 1!). tCeil understonda that it was di- 
ided between the bach and the front equally; but 
lia anawera lo neither poaaage, niakea part of the rear 
trtUg covered in fact, and brings (by his own confea- 
kdb) the suture one cubit behind the " vail" {contrary 
to rer.33). Brown reviews and confutea the explaua- 
tions of other inlerpretera (Kaliieh, Von Gerlach, and 
FerguBion), bul frankly admits his own inability lo 
Bolre the problem (p. 43). Taine's interpretation ia tbe 
only one tlisC meets the caae. 

this last insuperable difficulty, together with the im- 

poeailulity of abedding the rain and snow, aeema lo na 

acnnelu^ve objection agiinat the flat-rooT theory uf the 

building. Brown innocently remarks (p. 47), " Admil- 

ling that snow sometimes falla on the mountaina of 

Sinai, it seldom, if ever, falla in the wadiea or plains ; 

if slight sbonera ever do occur, they must be like 

Is' visits, few and far between. None of the many 

ors I have followed acroas the detert of wandering 

I ever to have wilneased snow, and veiy rarely even 

," This last circumstance is probably owing lo 

fact (hat travellera almost invariably avoid the 

er or rainy season. The writer of Ihia article waa 

orertaken, with hia party, by a snow-storm in March, 

covered the ground in the ptaina and bnl- 

Sinai ankle-deepi and ev- 



ery I 



aveller n 



t have 



■served t 



traces of terrific flooda or freaheta along the vslleya of 
lie whole region. It olYen rains here in perfect Inr- 
!n(a (ace Palmer, Datrl of the Kiodai,f.aS, 177). "A 
.ngle (hunder-storm, with a heavy ahower of rain, fall- 
ing oa Che naked granite mountains, will be sufflcieix 
dry and level vallev into a roaring river in 
hour3"(i4irf.p.ia9).' ' ' 






-nade 



„ , ily be done efleciua _ _ 

(he Inie ten(-form,wilb ridge and peak. See TittiT. 
\ funulurt qf Ikt TaitniarU^-Tha only piece of 

of the covenant; and the furniture of the outer 
n or holy place eonnated of the altar of inceoae, 
table of show-bread, and the " guldra candlestick," 

55. They are all described in detail under their re- 
vive heads in this CydopaiHf. but we subjoin the 
follovring particulars aa supplementary to (he article oa 
the last-named piece. 

rndfUArum, as described in Exod. uv, S1-S7 
(of which ixxvii, 17-23 it almost retbatim a copy), 
■ ■ irably from (hat in the account of Joae- 
6, 7), and from the sculptured figure still 
extant upon the Arch of Titus ( Kdand, Dt Spoliit 
Trmpli, p. 6; in which work other repreaeutalions, all 
aligbily varying, are giren from Rabbinical aourcea and 
' i). Hence it is probalile that the " eandleauck" 
luilrucled for the tabernacle bv M'laes waa not ex- 
actly the same in form as iu the later models of Solo- 
moii't and Herwl's templet ; it would nslurally be sim- 
pler and leas ornamental in the earliest case, and the 
Herodian fahriealion (if, indeed, this were other than 
tha( of the restoration from Babylon), tu which all the 
later Jewish and profane tiatementa apply (Solomon 
does not appear to have furnished hia Temple with any 
Other than the original eandelabrum of the tabernacle), 
would of course depart roost widely from the scveriij- 



(1.) In t 
clearly del 
There waa 



jrieinal ol 






TABERNACLE 




A. T. " ih>a"), doubUeaa fUring or enluged at the bot- 
tom, foe ■ wcun foot. From each aide of ihU went off 
(ippareotljroppouuucb other, aail at equal intemta), 
Ihree arm* (C?^, taain, mdf, "branchM"), baring 
each along their coune thiee aliDond-ahapcd calycei 
CB''S''3S, ^ehim, cvpf, "bowlt"), one crown (in&X, 
h^t6r,ari^,"in<ip"),»adone blouom {fn^piraci, 
'• flower") : the middle stem bad Tout such calyces, and 
■t leaat tbiee crowns, placed each immediately beneath 
the Mveral junctions of the arms with tbe main stem ; 
alto more than one blonsom. Finally, tbera were seven 
burner! (0'''nl, wrini, iijAlj, "lamps"), evidently one 
for the eilremity of each arm, and one for the top of 
the central stem. Every part of tbe candelabrum (in- 
cluding the burners, only so far as applicable to them) 
was a continuous rounded (hammered or turned) piece 
of refined gold (nina 2m pn» ITEpO, " one beaten 
worlc of pure gold*^. It has usually been assumed Chat 
tbe arms were all in Ibe same plane with the main 
stem, and their summila all of equal height, and equi- 
diitant from each other, as is the case with tbe repre- 
senUtion on the Arch of Titus. 

(2.) The following are the principal points that re- 
main uncertain : The relative position of the calyces, 
crowns, and blassoms on the arms; for although they 
are always enumerated in this order, there is nolhlng 
to show absolutely whether the enumeration begins at 
the intersection with the shaft or with the extremities. 
Tbe former view, which is counleiuiiced by the rest of 
tbe description (since this proceeds upward fmm the 
base), it adopted by Dr. Coiiant (in the Amer. ed. of 
Smith's MiV, rj/'fiU £iMr, s.v."Candlesticli''); the lat- 
ter, which is favored by the difficulty (or rather impus- 



Templt, 



it of th 
re<|uire), is adopted by Prof. Paine {Soloi 
etc.. p. 10). The signification of tbe terras is not de- 
cisive ; for the kaphlSr, or " knop," may quite as well 
signify a little ornamental bait or globular enlargement 
in the necks of the arma and in the stem at their points 
of departure, as a oopifaJ or surmounting decoration (the 
three ranged along the main stem certainly were not 
such in strictness). The pirach, or " Bower," is regard- 
ed by both tiie above writers (who thus agree iu mak- 
ing these, after all, tbe extreme points of the chande- 
lier) as the "receptacles" of the lamps themselvei; 
theae last being regarrled by Paine a* denoted by tbe 
g«biim, or " bowb," having a iriiial form in tbe case of 
tbe aide arms, and aquatemal in tbat of the raain sEcm 



18 TABERNACLE 

~a Tiew wliich leads to great complexity in tbeit con- 
ttruction and in the form of their sockets, and which, 
moreover, is incongroent with the number (seven only) 
assigned to the lights. Furthermore, in Ibe eonipar- 
i»u of tbe ornament in question with tbe nhspe of 
atmrndt, it is not clear whether the fiotcn or fnit of 
that tree ia reTerred la; we prefer the latter as briog 
more properly designated by the simple word, and be- 
cause the former is denoted by a diOerent term in the 

must also be noteid that the anus had each three of tbs 
first-named ornament, and but one of tbe other twoi 
whereas the main stem had four of the flral, and at 
least three of the second and two of tbe third: tbe 
three kinds, therefore, did not invariably RO logclhet, 
although they may have done so in tlie vase of ihe 
central stem. Feihapa Ibe whole may be best adjusted 
by aasigning such a group or combination of tbe thm 
kinds to each summit and to each inleraection of tbe 
arms with the main stem, and merely two othen of 
one kind (the ff^Aia, or " bowl") to Ihe aide arms, piob- 
ably at equidistant points; the group itself consistiiig 
simply of an ovale cup-like enlargement of the rod con- 
stituting the shaft, with a raised band Just above (be 
bulb, and the rim opening into petal-like li|», fomung 
a cavity or socket for Ihe lamp. Sec Lamp. 

IV, Relation of the TxitnacU to lit SeHgioai Lifeef 
liratL — 1. Whatever connection may be (raced belweta 
other parts of the Mosaic ritual and that of the nalious 
with which Israel had been brought into conlacl, the 
thought of tbe labeniacle meela us as entirely new. 
Spencer {Dt Leg. HAraor. iii, S) labor* bard, bnl not 
auccesafully, lo prove thai tbe tatiemaelci of Moloch of 
Amos V, S6 were Ihe prototypes of the lent of meclin)'. 
It has (o be remembcreil, however, (1) that Ihe word 
used in Amos (njbtuljl) is never used rXlht tabemarle, 
and means something very different: and (!) tbat the 
Moluch-worship repreaenied a defection of the people 
i^ae^uenl lo the erection of the tabernacle. The 
'■house of God" [see DKTHtx] of the patriarchs hod 
been Ihe large "pillar of stone" (Gen. xxriii, 18, 19). 
bearing record of some high spiriliial experience, and 
(ending to lead men upwani lo it (Bfthr, SymboL i, M), 
or the grove which, with its dira. doubtful light, at- 
tuned the souls of men to a divine awe (Gen. xxi, 3S). 
The temples of Egypt were magnificent and cohMol, 
hewn in the aolid rock, or built of huge blocks of stone 
as unlike as ponible to the sacred lent of Israel. The 



ness. The stalely temples belonged lo Ihe house of 
bondage which tbey were leaving. The sacred pUcfs 
of their fathers were in the land towards which they 
were journeying. In the UManwhile, they were la be 
wanderers in the wilderness. To have set up a betbd 
after the old pattern would have been (o make that a 
resting-place, Ihe object then or afterwards of devout 
pilgrimage; and the multiplication irfauch placeaatthe 
different stages of their march would have led inevita- 
bly to polytheism. It would have failed uturly to lead 
■'-—■--•- -' ight which they needed m ' "' 



e Presence never absent froi 



a, protecting, n 



judging. A sacied tent, a moving bethel, was the 
nt sanctuary for a people still nomadic It was capable 
of being united afterwards, as it actually came to be, 
with "the grove" of the older fulfut (Josh, xxiv, !6). 

cerlainable historical connection, are to be Ibund antOBg 
the Galulians and other tribes nf Northern Africa (SL 
Ital. iii, S89), and in the sacred lent of Ihe C^artfaaginian 
encompmenta <Diod.Sio.xx, 66). 

1. The structure nf the tabemade was obvioasly de- 
termined by a complex and profound aymhoUsm, bat iu 
meaning remaina one of Ihe things at which we can 
but dimly gueaa. No interpretation is given in the law 
itself. The explanations of Jewiah wrilen long aher- 
warda are manifestly wide of the mark. That which 
meets us in the Epislle to the Hebrews, Ihe applieatian 



TABEKNACLE I: 

•f Itw Ijf^ of Ihe Ubetnaele u> tbs nijsterie* of rc- 
dnptioo, wu Ulenl till tboM myMtties were made 
liiuiB. Vet we ciniiM but believg thmC, b nch por- 
un «r thi mmderfiil order lOM before the inwird eye 
rftlieliirgiTer, Itmiut hire embodied dittinclly miui- 
(gU Imilu which be ipprehended hiiii»lf and sought 
u ononnicatc la othen. It entered^ inilecd, jnlo the 
oiln of > divine cduolion Tor Mosei and for larae), 
nal in fdncatioD by meant of aymlwls, no le« Ihan by 
tiMine lanf!U»B»' So 



k (Witaiui, ^HgjpHaai, in Ugulino, Tht- 
anr, tbL i), frum aaking what ihoughla Ihe Egvptian 
ttaaiiim of Moms wonld lead bim to connecl wilh [be 
■jinboli he waa now taught to dm, we nay aee in it a 
Ifgttinaie awthod of inquiry— almoat the only awtbod 
poBhle. Where that bil^ the gap may b« filled u|> (aa 
in Btbr, Sfmbol. panim) from the analogic) of other 
nationn, indicating, where they afcree. a wi(le«|tread 
piaenl lymboUin. So far Trom laboring to prove, at 
ibc prin of ignoring or diatoiting facta, that every thing 






tinkna 



IS liule I 






tiUn- 



a tee ia Hebrew a new and heaven-t 
gatnopoken for the Hnt tine on Sinai, written for tbe 
tm time on tbe two table* of Ihe covenant. 

>. The tbooght of a graduated unctity, like that 
al Iht outer court, the holy place, the holy of holien, 
lud iu counterpart, often the nine number of atagea, 
B Ihe Mmctnre of Egyptian temple* (BKhr, SymiuL i, 
IK). SeeTajirUL 

(I.) The interior adytum (to proceed ftom the inner- 
BOit iKfaa outward) waa tmall in proportion to tbe net 
tflbe bflilding, and commonly, ai in Ihe tabernacle (Jo- 
«n>hBi,^if.ii.6,S),wu at ibcweatemeDd (Spencer, 
At I^ Hfbrmr. iii, !), and waa but Utile liKhted. In 
(he idyium, often at leaat, waa the ucred ark, the cul- 
Biuting-point of hoUneaa, containing the higheat and 
■m DTaterioni aymboli — winged figures, generally like 
thoMBfihe cherubim (Wilkinson, ^ac £;»>(. v, 3T5t 
Korick, Egspt, i, 460), tbe emUenu of alability and 
Kfb Here were outward poinls of raemUanec. Of 
a (leBfflU iif Egyptian woiahip thia wai one which 
cndd be lia uaf erte d with leaat hazard, with moat gain. 
Na ne could think that the ark ilaelf waa the )ikene«» 
ef Ibt God he worshipped. When we ask what gave 

dilerence, the gmi golf between the two ayMem& 
That of Egypt wM predominantly OMnricdJ; atarting 
ftMi tbe productire powen of nature. The symbola of 
ihcae puwen, though not originally involving what we 
kmnmitaparitv, tended to it fatally and rapidly (Spen- 
ow. IM Liy. BAntor. iii, 1 ; Warii'urton, Diruit Liga- 
lait,ii,4.nole)L That of larael waa predominantly eff- 
«aL TIm nation ma taue^t to think of <it>d. not chief- 
ly at ntealed in nature, but aa manifesting himself in 
ad ta tbe spirita of men. In the ark of the covenant, 
B the hifheM revelation then ponble of the Divine 
■Me, were the two table* of atone, on which were 
pavtB, bv the teaching of the Divine Spirit, and Ihere- 
fcnbyiha finger ofUod"(Hatt.iii,28; Lukeii.W; 
■«ihDCViD«it of Alexandria [Slnm,v\, taSJ and 1 
KlapxviiLW; ! Kings iii. IS; Eiek.i,B; iii, Hi I 
Ctnn. iiviii, 19), tbe great unchanging laws of hn- 
■aa duly which had been proelaimeil on Sinai. Here 
■ba lassNi taught waa plain enough. The highest 
knuwtedge waa aa tbe aimplcM, the esoteric aa the exo- 
wk. In the doptb* of the holy of holiea, and for the 
U(h-priesi as for all Urael, there wia the revclalion of 
a nihteous Will requiring rigiitenusoeaa in nun (Saal- 
^1ia.AtjiUoLe.T!y See Ark. 

l^tT the aik waa the topkfrfth (" mercy-aeat"), an 
•Bad with a twoMd reference to the root^neaning nf 
Ik* word. It <««ereil the ark. It waa tbe witness of a 
■wiey ntmag sin*. Aa the "fontataol' of God. the 
'■kruna'of tlM DivtiM glmy, it declared that over Ihe 
In which aecmed so rigid sod nnhending there rested 
Aa eampMaioD of one Kngiving " iniquity and umt- 



id TABERNACLE 

gression.'' EwaM, however, giving to *1(9, the root 
of koptertik, tbe meaning of "to scrape," "erase," de- 
rives from that meaning the idea implied in the Sept. 
iXairrqfuriVi and denies that the word ever aignilleil 
iTiaipa (AUrrlk. p. 1!S, 129). See Mkrcv-skat. 

Over the mercy-seat were the cherubim, reproducing, 
in pari, at leaa), the aymboliam of tlie great Hamilic 
race*, forma fumiliar to Moaea and to Israel, needing no 
description for them, interpreted for n* hy the fuller 
vision ofibe later prophet* (Eiek. 1,6-19; x,8'IG; xli, 
19), or by the winged forms of tbe imagery of Egypt. 
Representing a* they did the manifold power* of nature, 
created life in ita higbest form (^hi. J>t Ltg. H^rraor. 
i, 841), their "overshadowing wings," "meeting" at in 
token of perfect harmony, declared that nature a* well 
as man found it* highest glory in subjection to a divine 
law, that men might lake refuge in that order, aa under 
" the ahadow of the wings" of God ( Stanley, Jemiih 
CKureh, p. 08). Placed where those and other like fig- 
urea were, in the temples of Egypt, they might be hin- 

fying the worship of the people. But it was part of the 
wisdom which we may reverently trace in the order of 
the labemacie that while Egy pliansymbol* are retainetl, 
as in the ark, the cherubim, the urim, and thelhummim, 
their place i* changed. They remind the higb-prieal, 
the representative of Ihe whole nation, of the Iruiha oh 
which the order rests. The people cannot bow down and 

The material, not Ie*a than the forma, in the holy of 
boliea waa significant. The acacia or shittim-wood, 
leaat liable of wood* then accesnble to decay, might 
well represent the imperishsbleneaa of divine truth, of 
the laws of duly (Mhr, Ss<«boL i, 286). Ark, mercy- 
seat, cherubim, Ihe very walls, were all overlaid with 
gold, tbe noblest of all metata, the symbol of light and 
purity— sunlight itself, as it were, fixed and embodied, 
the token of the incomiptibte, of the glory of a great 
king {ibid, i, 2812). It was not without meaning that 
all this lavish expenditure of what waa most costly ws* 
placed wbere none might gaze on iL Tbe gold thus 
offered taught man that the nobleat acta of beneficence 
and sacrifice are not those which are done that they 
may be seen of men, but those which are known only to 
him who "seeth in secret" (Hatt vi, 4). 

Dimeuuons alao had their meaning. Difflcolt aa it 
maybe to feel sure that we have the key to the enigma, 
there can be but liltle doubt that the older religious 
systems of the world did attach a mysterious lignificaoce 
loeach separate number; that the training orMoaeB,Ba 
sfternanl* tbe far leas complete initiation of Pythagoras 
in the symbolism of Egypt, must have made that trans- 
parently clear to him, which in ui is almoat impenetra- 
bly dark. A full discussion of the subject is obviously 
impoaaibJe here, but it may be uaeful to exhibit briefly 
the chief though ta which have been connccledwith the 
numbera that are most prominent in the language of 
aymboliam. Arbitrary aa some of them may seem, a 
sulEcient induction to establish each will be found in 
Biihr's elaborate diaiorution (SyiiboL i, 128-255} and 
other work* (cnmp. Wilkinson, .4 iir. Egypt, iv, 190-199; 
LeyrEr.ln Htno^t Ktal-Eiryldop. s.v. "Stiftabuite"). 
OKI— Tbe Oodbead, elernlly, lih, ereallve fores, the inn. 
Two— Mallar, time, death, receptiva capacity, Iha moon,' 



Pooa (I be number, or Id ihe sqnnreor cube)— Condi tinned 
eilstonce, the world aa created, dlvlue order, revelii- 

Biivn<*a=it-|-4)— Tbe nninnnnhe world and Ond, real 

(na In the Babbsib), pescr. hltsdiie, pnrlllrjiil.iii. 
Taii(a« = l + t-f.8-|-«)— (Jiimplereiiet^mornlnndphyal- 

cnh perfcctlnn. 
Pivs.-Perfoctlanhairaltainsd.lncompleleneM. 
TwiLva— The signs ofths sod lac Ibecycleof ilie •carina t 

In l>mel ihe litenl nnmheroftbe iienple. iifiliecoi- 

Eoaut.>ra->dw1thlbero. 



TABERNACLE I 

To tboae who think over the word* of two great lucli- 
en, one heathen (Pluurch, Dt It. el Ot. p. 411) and 
une CbriMiu) (Clem. AL Strom, vi, fM-87), wbo had al, 
leait Uuilied u Tar u tbey could tlie mfateriea of the 

religion of Egyyil, and had inherited part nribeold aya- 
lem.lhepreciaiunofthenunibi " ' --■ - - 



willni 



If, in 



a tighl-angled triangle, with the aide* 
three. Tour, five, repreiented the triad of Oniris, lait, 
OruB, creative force, receptive matter, the nnit-ene of 
creation (Plutaich, loc «r.), the perfect cube of the hn)y 
or boliea, the conaunt recuntncc of the numheni 1 and 
10, najwell lie accepted aa ■jtobolizing order, atability, 
pofection (Bahr, Syibol. i, 226}. The lymbol reap- 
pears in the most atartling form in the ftosing visions 
of the Apocalypse. There the beavenly Jeruaalem it 
detcrtbed, in wordi which abaolotely exclude the literal- 
iam that baa sometiniea been blindlj' applied to it, oa a 
city fuuT-square— 12,000 furlongs ill length and breadth 
and height (Rev. ixi, IS). Sec Ndkber. 

Into the inner aanctuarjr neither people nor the prieata 
■a a body ever entered. Strange u it may seem, that 
in which everj'thing repreaenled light and life waa left 
indarknesa and solitude. Onctonly intbeyear, on the 
day of atonement, might the high-prieat enter. The 
ilrange contrast haa, however, ita parallel in the spirit- 
ual lifa. Death and life, light and darkneea, are wou- 
deifully united. Only through death can we truly live. 
Onlv bv passing into the " thick darkneaa" where God 
ia (Exod. xx, 21; 1 Kings viii. IS) can we enter at all 
into the "light inaocesuiila" in which he dwells evei- 
lastinglj. The solemn annual entrance, like the with- 
drawal of symbolic forma from the gaie of the people, 
was ilaelf part ofa wise and divine order. Intercourse 
with Egypt had shown how easily the symbols of truth 
might become common and fimiUar thinga, yet without 
■ymbola the tniiha themselves might be forgotten. 
Both dangers were met. To enter once, and once only 
ill the year, itiLo the awful dariuieat— to stand before 
the Isw of duly, before the presence of 
gave it, not in the stately robea that became the rep- 
resentative of God to man, but as representing 
his humiliation in the garb of the lower priest 
footed and in the linea ephod— to confeas his o 
and the una of the people — Ihia waa what connected the 
atonement-day (jtipjnSr) with the mercy-seat (kopki- 
n/h). To come there with blood, the symbol of life, 
touching with that blood tbo mercv-seat— with incense, 
■he symbol of adoration (Lev. xii, 12-1*), what did 
that express twt the truth (1) that man must draw 
near to the righteous God with no lower offering than 
the pure worship of the heart, with the living sacrifice 
of body, soul, and apitit; (3) that could such a perfect 
sacrifice be found, it woald have a 
working beyond itself, in proponioo 
cover the multitude of sins? 

From all Dlhem, from the high-priest at all other 
limes, the hcdy of holies was »hroude<l by the heai 
vail, bright with many colors anil strange forms, even . 
curtains of golden tissue were lo be seen hanging befo 
the adytum of an Ef;yplian terople, a strange contra 
often to the bestial furm behind them (Clem.AI. Fird. 
ill, 4). In one memorable instance, indeed, (lie 
waa the witness of higher and deeper Iboughls. 
the shrine of lais at Sais, there were lo be read words 
which, thnugh pointing to a pantheistic rather 
ethical religion, were yet wonderful in their loftiness. 



n(« 



■0 yfyoviiiO, I 






shall be, and 

\tpfny) (Vlutarcb, Dt fi.el Otir. p. 894). 
more unlike, the truth, we feel that no such words could 
have appeared on the vail of Ihe tabernacle. In that 
identificatiou of the world and God all idolatry waa la- 
tent, aa, in the faith of Israel, in the / on all idolatry 
waa excluded. In that despair of any withdrawal of 
the vail, of any revelation of the Divine will, there were 
latent all the ana of an unbelieving priestcraft, subsli- 



TABERNACLE 

i^ng symlnlii pomp, ritual, for such a revelation. Bui 

what, then, was the meaning of the vail which met tlw 
gaie of Ihe priests as they did service in the sanctuary? 
ColorSfin the art of Egypt, were not leaa significant than 
number, and the fonr bright colon, probably, after Ihe 
fashion of that an, in parallel band»— blue, symbol of 

and Joy, and whita of light and purity (B«br, Symigl 
i, 805^30 >^faTmcd in their combinatioa no itmote 
umilitude of the rainbow, which of old had been a 
symbol of the Divine covenant with man, the pledge of 
peace and hope, the sign of the Divine Presence (Eiek. 
i,!8; Ewald,,1frnYLp.S33). See Color. Withintbe 
vail, light and truth were seen in their unity. The vail 
itself represented the infinite variety, the troXuirokiXs; 
oo^K of th e divine Older increii ion (Eph.iii, 10). Tben^ 
again, were- seen copied apua the vail the mysteriDui 
forms of the cherubim ; how many, or in what attitude. 



i, IGj : 



i,4).s 



to justify t! 



that here also they were of gold. In the aba^ioe of 
any other evidence, it would have been perhaps natural 
to think that they reproduced on a larger scale the 
number and Ihe position of those that were over the 
mercy-scat. The visions of EiekJel. however, repro- 
ducing, aa they obviously do, the forms with which bu 
priestly life had made him familiar, iniUcale not Ich 
Iban four (ch. i and x), and thnce not all alike, haviDg 
severally llie faces of a man, a lion, an ox. and an eagte 
— strange symbolic words, which elsewhere we thuolil 
have identified with idolatry, hut whicli here were 
bearing witneaa against it, emblerai of the manifold va- 
riety of creation as at once manifesting and concealing 
God. 

(2.) The outer sanctuary waa one degree lets awful 
in its holineas than the inner. Silver, the type of hu- 
man purity, took the place of gold, the type of the Di- 
vine glory (lUhr, SgwiboL i, 384). It was to be tro<l- 
den daily by the pricala as by men who lived in the 
perpetual consciousness of the neameaa of God, of the 
mystery behind the vaiL Barefooted and in garments 
of while linen, like the priests of Isia [see Paiasr], 
they accomplished their minittrationa. Here, too, then 
were other emblems ofdivine realities. It waa spedsl- 
ly illumined by Ihe golden lamp with ita aeven lights 
never all extinguished together, the perpetual syntbtpl 
of all derived gifts of wisilom and hoiineia in mao, 
reaching their mystical perfection when they thine ia 
God's sanctuary lo his glor^- (Exnd. xxv, 31 ; xxvii.JO^ 
Zech. iv, 1-14). The sbew-biead (the "bread of faces') 
of Ihe Divine Presence, not unlike in outward fonn to 
Ihe sacred cakes which the Egj'piians placed before Ihe 
shrines of their gods, served as a token that, though 
there was no torm or likeness of Ihe Godhead, he wti 
yet there, accepting all offering recognising in partic- 
ular that special oF ' 



n the I 



of ib 



unity 



li, 2). The i 



people (Enald,Xi/*rtA, p. 120). The 
01 tne altar of incense was not less obi'ioiii. 
i of fragrant smoke was the natural, alirmt 
rrsal, emblem of the heatl's adoration (Ph. 



-iukled on Ibe si 



Ihe Ismp taught men that all otbetoffenngsneedeilibe 
intermingliiii; of that ailoration- L'pon thai sliu «« 
"strange lire" waa lo be kindled. When fresh fire wta 
needed it was to be taken fnim the altar of biint-oStt- 
ing in the outer courl (Lev. ix, 24; x, I). Very strik- 
ing, as comparcil with what is lo follow, are the sublim- 
ity and the purity of ihenc symbols. It i* as if the 
priestly order, already leading a consecrated lilir, were 
capable trf understanding a higher language which hsd 
lo be translated into a lower for Ihoae that wen uiU 
without (Saalschl)t2,XrcAoof.|TT). 

(3.) Outside tlie teni, bul still within the consecnUd 
precincts, waa the court, fenced in by an eticlotBrc, f c( 



TABERNACLE u 

tprs 10 ill Ihe coagregttion U •rell u Is tbe Lei-itcs, I 
lime oDlf excrpteil who wen cerenoniallT unckan. 
Ka Gentik mighi pun IwjtodiI the curUuii of Ibe en- 
amct, bul crtty member or the prieuly ntlion night ' 
ihu tu "rtnir tieai" U> the prewnce of Jehovah, 
ilwf, therefore, Moocl the alur uf biimi-jflcringii, at 
ihich ucrifice* in all their virieiies were aS'ereJ b; 
imiiiHit or thankful wurehippcra (Exud. xxvli, 1-8; 
uiriii, 1), the bruen Uver at which those wonhip. 
|xn purified themtelvei before ibty ueriflced, the 
prieM befbn they entered into the aincCiKry (xxx, 
I'-il). Here Ibe ^odualed Male of bolineu ended. 
WhU Imel woa to the world, fenced in and wt apart. 
liH ibe court of the tabernacle WM tu the iiirrDunding 
■lldenwH, Just as the distinction betiteen it and the 

indMhri laraelilce; Jnn uthe ide* of holinen culmi- 
utnl pcmnoU; in the high-prieal, loeoUy in the bol; 
irflmlia, 

V. Tkteriao/Lattr Tiaei.—\. It !■ not probable that 
the eliborale symbolidd of tuch a stlucture was undec' 
UDod br Ibe rude and xnauat multitude thai came out 
<if Ejcypi. In iu fulaeae, perhapa, no mind but that at 

faia, DM half, and that the hlgheat,orit9 meaning muM 
bave hem allnselher latent. Yet it ira« not the lett, 
■u perhaps the more fitted, on that account, to be an 
■ e people. To the 
. least a wilncsa of 
[t net the craving 
vrorghip, wilh 

lit their fleshly nature wan the hindemncc 
hat it renilered them unclean i that only 
in nbdLiiug il, killing it, aa they killed the bullock and 
Ibi gMt, cuulil they offer up an acceptable sacrillce; 
that Hch a ncriAce vaa the ccndilion of forgiveness, a 
tiigber tacriOce tfaan any they could offer as the ground 
tl tbu liirgireness. The sina of the past were coneid- 
tn<l *• belonging Co the fleihly tialuie which nai slain 
and offered, not to the true inner self of the worshipper. 
Hire thoughtful minda were led inevitably to higher 
inutis. 1'bey were not slow to see in the tabernacle 
Ihe parable oX God's presence manifested in creation. 
UukntM was as hi* pavilion (2 Sam. xxii, 1!}. He 
bu made a tabeniacle for the sun (Psa. six, 4), The 
beaTm were spread out Uke its curtains. The beams 
idiot chambers were in the mightv waters (civ, 2,3: 
!«. il. ti: Lowth, D« Sac Pua. viii}. The majesty 
i/liai seeu in the storm and tempest wa* as of one who 
ndw apDa a ebcnib (a S.im. xtii. 1l> If the wordi 
"Hcthaldwellcth between Che cherubim'' spoke on the 
toe mIc of a special, localized manifestation of the Di- 
Tio* Praieiior, they apoke also on Ibe other of that 
Pnamcc u in (be heaven of heavens, in the light of 
•Mtiag nins, in Ihe btackncn and the flashes of the 




! TABERNACLE 

him to Bee in the holy of holies and the sanctuary that 
which answered to Ihe Tlatonic distiuclioti between the 
visible (oi'jSijrH) and the spiritual (jpoijTii), the coarser, 
less intelligent Josephus goes still more completely into 
Ihe new system. The holy of holies ia the viuble fir- 
mament in which Uod dwells, the sanctuary is the 
earth and sea which men inhabit (_Anl. iii, S, 4, Tj 7, 
7). The twelve loaves of the sbew-breod repce«eiitei1 
the twelve months uf the year, the twelve signs of Ihe 
zodiac The Mven tamps were Ihe seven planets. The 
four colon of the vail were the four elements (aroixlT"), 
air. Ere, water, earth. Even Che wings of Ihe cherubim 
were, in the eyes of some, the two hemispheres of the 
universe, or the constellotions of Ihe greater and Ihe 
lesser bean (Clem. Alex. Slram. v, 3G). The table of 
shew-bread and the altar of incense stood on the nonh, 
because north winds were most fruitful ; the lamp on the 
south, because the raoliona of the planets were soulh- 
wsrd (iUd. g 84, 85). We need not follow such a sys- 
tem of interpretation further. It was not unnatural 
that the authority with which it started Bhould secure 
for it considerable respeel. We find it reappearing in 
some Christian write™ — Chrj-soslom (_ Horn, in Juann. 
Btipl.) and Theodoret (QncMf. in Ezod.); in some Jew- 
ish— Ben-Uzziel, Kimchi, Abarbaiiel (^hr, SymboL i, 
103 sq.). It was well for Christian thought that the 
Church bad in the Epistle lo the Hebrews and Ihe 
Apocalypse of St. John thai which helped to save it 
from the pedantic puerilities of this physico-lheologi-. 
It ia curious to note how in Clement of Alexandria the 
two systems of interpretation cross each other, leading 
sometimes to extravagances like thnae