(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Encyclopedia britannica; a dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. With new maps, and original American articles by eminent writers. With American revisions and additions, bringing each volume up to date"

^rcsnttcb to 

-©lie |Itbrar^ 

of the 

^ubcrsUu of 'Toronto 

L.V. Mills, Esq., 
50 Indian Trail, 
Toronto, Ontario. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Ontario Council of University Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/encyclopediabrit23bayn 



THE '^ 



EXCYCLOPiEDlA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



Arts, Sciences, and General Literature 



THE R. 8. PEALE REPRINT 

WITH NEW MAPS AND ORIGINAL AMERICAN ARTICLES BY EMINENT WRITERS 



WITH AMERICAN REVISIONS AND ADDITIONS 

By W. H. DkPUY, D.D.. LL.D., .. 
Bringing Each Volume Up to Date 



VOLUME XXIU 



CHICAGO 
R. S. PEALE COMPANY 



AE- 



708G86 



I 



Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Vol. xxm. — (t-ups). 

TouJ number of Articles, 625. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTa 



TABARI. M. J. Di OoEJZ, Professor of Arabic, Uni- 
versity of Leydea. 
TABLES. 'mathematical J W. L. Glaishee, 

F. R. S. , President, Royal Astronomical Society- 
TAHITI. Baron AnaTOLE vos Hucei. 
TALES AUDEEW Lang, M.A. 
TALMUD. S. M.;ScHiLLEE.S2iNESST, MA., Pb.D 
TAMILS. Keinhold Rost. Ph.D., LLD., CLE. 
TAPE-WORMS. W. E. Hovlk, M.A. 
TASSO. J. A. Stmonds, M.A 
TASTE. Prot M'K.E>a)EicK, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 
TAXATION. J. Shieu) Nicholson, M.A, D.Sc 

Professor of Political Ecoaomy. UniTersity of Edin. 

burgh. 
TAXIDERMY. MoKTAOtTE Bsowjje, Aathor of "Prac 

tical Taxidenny." 
TEA. James Patok. 

TEAK. Sir Dietbich Beandis, K.CI.E.,Ph.D, F R.3. 
TECHKICAL EDUCATION. Sir Philip Macnits. 
TELEGRAPH. Thomas Gkat, B.Sc, F.E.S.E 
TELEMETER Major Aethcb W. White, K.A 
TELEPHONE. Thomas Geay. 
TELESCOPE David GiLU LL.D., Astronomer Royal 

Cape of Good Horn. 
TELL Kev. W. A. B. Coolidge, M.A. 
TEMPLARS T A. AECB£.(. 
TEMPLE W. Ro»eeT8ok Smith, LLD. 
TEMEKS H'NRi Htmas% 0-.c5erTatenr. Biblio 

th^oe Boy'.ie, B ussels. 
TEliTtlS. JcliaX tiABSBAXL, Aatbor of "Annals of 

Tenni& " 
TEXTILES. J R. Middletos. M A. Slade Professor 

of Fine Alt, Universitv of Cambridge. 
THACKERAY WalterH Pou<)ck 
THALES. Pi-of. G J Allmaw. LLD.. FRS, and 

Henet Jacuon, LittD. 
THEATRE. Prof. J H. Middleton and JaMES 

Williams. B.C.L. 
THEBES. A. W. Vereall, M.A, Lecturer in Clasaica, 

Trinity CcUege, Cambridge. 
THEISM. Rev. Roeebt Flint, D.D., LLD , Profeasor 

of Divinit". University of Edinburgh. 
THEODORA. James Brvce, D C.L.. MP 
THEODORIC Thomas Hodgkin, DC L, LLD 
THEOLOGY Prof R Flint 
THEOSOPHY. Andrew Setb, M.A, Professor of 

Logic University of St Andrews. 
THERSIODYNAMICS. P G Tait, M.A., Professor 

of Natural Philosophy I'aiversity of Ediiiburgb 
THERMOMETER H EL Mill. D.Sc. 
THESSALONIANS, EFIST.'.ESTOTHE E Scbueer. 

Professor of N*'w Testaa.. .'.t Theology, Giessen. 
THIBAUT JoBK Macdonell. M.A., Author of "Th« 

Land Qaestion. " 
TH1EF.3. Geoeoe Saintsbcrt, M A 
THOF.EAU. William Sharp. Author of "Life ot 

Shelley. " 
THROAT DISEASES. .1 Affleck, M.D. 
THUCYDIDE3. Prof. F- C. Jebb, lLd. 
THUGS. Reisbold Rost, LLD . CLE; 
THULE. Sir Edwaed H. BusBiRy, Bart. 
TIBET. General J. T. Walker. R t. C.B.. F R S . 

and Prof. A. TERaiEN TE Lacoitperie. 
TIDES. G. H. Darwin, M.A., F.R.S., Pluraian rrr>. 

fes3or of Aitronomv and Esperiraental Pliilosophy. 

University of Camtridge. 
TIME. J. L. E. Deetee. Ph.D., Astronomer. Armagh 

Obaemtoiy. 



TIMUR Major. Gen Sir Fredeeick J Coiosuiu 

K.C.SI..C.B. 
TIN Prof W. DiTTMAE- 
TITHES. W. Robertson Smith. LLD . and Jamls 

Williams, B.C.L. 
TITIAN. W M. RossETTi. 
TITLES OF HONOUR FuEDtfciCK Dbpmmond 
TOBACCO James Patch and Prof W. DittmaR- 
TONNAGE. W. Moore, Principal Surveyor of Too. 

nage, Board of Trade. London. 
TORPEDO. Commander Eowi.y J. P. Cu-Lwet. 

H.M.S. "Polyphemus." 
TORT. Feedebick Polloci. LLD., Corpus Professor 

of Jurisprudence, University of Oiford. 
TORTOISE. Albert GOktheb, M.D., Ph.D.. F.R.S 
TORTVRE James Williams. 
TOTEMISM. J. G. Fkazee. 
TOUCH Prof. J. G. M'Kendbick. 
TOCRNEUB. A. C. Swinbibne. 
TRACTION. J. A. Ewing. B.Sc., F R.S., Profeeaor of 

Engineering. University College, Dundee, 
TRADE UNIONS. FreuDrummond. 
TRAMWAY. Thomas Courington, C.E. 
TRANSIT CIRCLE J L E. DaEniB, Ph.D. 
TREASON. James Williams. 
TREATIES Thomas E H.jlland. D.C.L., CbichoU 

Professor of International Law and Diplomacy. Uni- 
versity of Oxford. 
TREMATODA. W. E. Hovle. 
TRENT, COUNCIL OF- Rev. Dr. Uttledale- 
TRI CYCLE. C. V. BoTs. 
TRIGONOMETRY E W Hobson, M.A. , Lecturer in 

Mathematics, Christ's College Cambridge. 
TRIPOLI. A. M. Bkoadley, Author of "Tunis, Past 

and Present" 
TROAD. Prof. R C. Jebb. 
TRUMPET VicTOB Mauillok, Conservatoire Roytl 

de Musique Brussels. 
TRUST James Williams. 
TUNICATa W a Herdmab, D.Sc., Professor of 

Natural Histor}*, Univt^rsity College, Liverpool 
TUNNELLING Benjamin Baker, C.E. 
TURKEY- 

HisTORT AND LiTERATTRE. E J. W. GiBB, Author 

of ■Ottoman Poems,' and C. A. FvEFE, MA,, 

Author of " History of Modem Europe ' 
Oeography and Statistics. Prof. A. H. Keane 
TURKS Prof M. Tb HuUTSMA, University of Leyden 
TURNER. George Reid. R S.A. 
TYPHUS, TYPHUID, AND RELAPSING FEVERS 

J A,PPLECK M D 

TYPOGRAPHY— History. J. H. Hesseu, M.A.- 

Practical John Southward. 
TYROL A. J El-tlek. M,A- 
I'LFILAS, Rev, C. Anderson ScoTT, B,A, 
UMBRIA. William Ridcewat, M.A., Professor o* 

Greek. Queeo's College. Cork. 
UNITARIANISM Rev. J. F. SMITH. 
UNITED STATES- 

1. History asd Colonization. 

11. Physical (iKOGRAPHY and Statistics. 

III. I'll .III' .11. liKOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS. 

I'.r. Rbv. Samuel Fallows. D.D., lata Professor 
-' Phv,=ic!:. Lawrence University. 

UNIVERSITIES. J. Bass Mullinceb, M.A., Libranaa. 
St .lohn's College, Cambridge. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BKITANNICA. 



T 



Tig the t^rentieth symbol in our alphabet. It has varied 
but little in form since the earliest days when it ap- 
peared in Greece and Italy, though some of the Italic 
alphabets exhibit variants : e.g., in Umbrian and Etruscan 
inscriptions we find the horizontal stroke sometimes on one 
side only, and slanting ; sometimes the form is nearly that 
of our ordinary small t without the ornamental turn at 
the bottom. In value it has been in all lang;uages a surd 
or voiceless dental, corresponding to d, which is voiced. 
But the term " dental " includes some varieties of position, 
of which the most definite are — (1) where the point of the 
tongue touches the teeth (true "dental "), as in French ; (2) 
where the tongue touches the gum behind the teeth, and 
not the teeth at all, as in English ; (3) where the point of 
the tongue is slightly bent back against the palate, prodHC- 
ing the sound much heard in south India (often called 
" cerebral "). T when followed by t or y is liable to pass 
into the ssound ; this happened in the local dialects of 
Italy before the Christian era ; at Rome the transition was 
later. This changed sound passed on into the Romance lan- 
guages, t.g., in French " nation," pronounced " nasion," 
whence in England it was sounded first as " nasiun " ^and 
now as ''nashun." Similarly in English t followed by u 
undergoes a change of sound ; this is due, however, to the 
old sound of tZ,- viz., long French u, or Old English y. This 
long yy developed into the iu sound heard in "use," 
" cure," (fee. ; then the new i affected the preceding t, and 
the result is Uh, as in " nature " (natshure) -, similarly d in 
" verdure '" is sounded as dzh (verdzhure). 

English employs the digraph th to denote two sounds, 
differing as voiceless and voiced sounds — the initial sounds 
of " thin " and " then " respectively. It would be a great 
convenience it dh could be used for the voiced sound, so 
that "then " should be written "dhen." /"But it would be 
oven better if the single symbols could be employed to 
denote these single sounds, as was to some e.xtent the case 
Sn the earlier days of our language : in Anglo-Saxon we have 
the twp symbols 6 aud (>. The first is only a d crossed ; the 
second was a rune and wascalled " thorn." These, however, 
were not consistently employed one for the voiceless and 
one for the voiced sound ; also Oi, is actually found in the 
oldest texts, and later on it occurs together with 8 and j>. 
It is probable that the voiceless sound was origioally the 



only one in Teatonic. It was eventually differentiated into 
two sounds ; but, as is usually the case, writing remained 
more archaic than speech. In modern English and Ice- 
landic, and probably in the parent Teutonic also, initial 
th is voiceless, except in English in a small number of 
pronouns and particles in common use, as " thou," " this," 
"that," "then," "than," "though," "thus", and it is regu- 
larly voiceless when final The nature of the two sounds 
is this : the tongue is pressed against the back of the teeth 
(sometimes, especially when used by foreigner? against the 
bottom of the upper teeth) and either the breath. for th or 
the voice lotdh is forced through the interstices of the teeth. 
This pair of sounds is found in modern Greek, where Map- 
pears as and dh as £. In Spanish and in Danish under 
certain circumstances the sound denoted by d is dh, 

TAB.VRI and Eaely Arab Historians. Arabian 
historians differ from all others in the unique form of 
their compositions. Each event is related in the words of 
eye-witnesses or contemporaries transmitted to the final 
narrator through a chain of intermediate reporters (rdwls), 
each of whom passed on the original report to his successor. 
Often^ the same account is given in two or more slightly 
divergent forms, which have come down through different 
chains of reporters. Often, too, one event or one important 
detail is told in several ways on the basis of several con- 
temporary statements transmitted to the final narrator 
through distinct lines of tradition. ■ The writer therefore 
exercises no independent criticism except as regards the 
choice of authorities ; for he rejects accounts of which the 
first author or one of the intermediate links seems to him 
unworthy of credit, and sometimes he states which of 
several accounts seems to him the best. Modern judgment 
does not always confirm this choice ; some authorities 
much esteemed by Moslems are by European scholars 
deemed untrustworthy, and vice versa. Fortunately the 
various historians did not always give preference to the 
same account of a transaction, and so one supplies what 
another omits. 

A second type of Arabian historiography is that in which 
an author combines the different traditions about one 
occurrence into one continuous narrative, but prefixes a 
statement as to the lines of authorities used and states 
which uf them he mainly follows. In this case the writer 



T A B A R I 



recurs to the first method, already described, only when 
the different traditions are greatly at variance with one 
another. In yet a third type of history the old method is 
entirely forsaken and we have a continuous narrative only 
occasionally interrupted by citation of the authority for 
some particular point. But the principle still is that what 
has been well said once need not be told again in other 
words. The writer therefore keeps as close as ho can to 
the letter of his sources, so that quite a late writer often 
reproduces the very words of the first narrator. 
■■ From very early times the Arabs had great delight in 
'verses and tales, and the development of their language was 
certainly much influenced by this fact. In ancient times 
storytellers and singers found their subjects in the doughty 
.ieeds of the tribe on its forays, in the merits of horse or 
camel, in hunting adventures and love complaints, and some- 
times in contests with foreign powers and in the impression 
produced by the wealth and might of the sovereigns of 
Persia and Constantinople. The appearance of the Prophet 
with the great changes that ensued, the conquests that 
.iiade the Arabs — till then a despised race — lords of half 
*.he civilized world, supplied a vast store of new matter for 
relations which men were never weary of hearing and 
cccouuting. They wished to know everything about the 
a[)o:itlo of God, whose influence on his own time was so 
e'.iormoi'.o, who had accomplished all that seemed impossible 
and h?.d inspired tlie Arabs with a courage and confidence 
that made them stronger than the legions of Byzantium 
and Ctesiphon. Every one who had known or seen him 
was questioned and was eager to answer. Moreover, 
ihe word of God in the Koran left many practical points 
undecided, and therefore it was of the highest importance 
to know 'jxactly how the ProJ;het had spoken and acted 
in various circumstances. Where could this be better 
•earntd than at Medina, v,'here he had lived so long and 
\vh'f e the majority of his companions continued to live 1 
So f.t Medina a school was gradually formed, where the 
fjhief pa-, t of the traditions about Mohammed and his first 
succe3'jo:'s took a form more or less fi.xed. Soon divers 
facu'jr'j of Islam began to assist memory by making notes, 
and Iheir disciples sought to take written jottings of what 
they had hsard from them, which they could carry with 
tliem when they returned to their homes. Thus by the 
close of the 1st century many dictata were already in circu- 
lation. For example, Hasan of Basra (d. 1 10 a.h.; 728 a.d.) 
had a great mass of such notes, and he was accused of some-' 
times passing off as oral tradition things he had really drawn 
f<om books ; for oral tradition was still the one recognized 
Authority, and it is related of more than one old scholar, 
and even of Hasan of Basra himself, that ho directed his 
books to be burned at his death. The books were mere 
heljjs, and what they knew these scholars had handed on 
by word of mouth. Long after this date, when all scholars 
drew mainly from books, the old forms were still kept up. 
Tabari, for example, when he cites a book expresses himself 
/,s if he had heard what bo quotes from the master with 
■vhom he read the passage or from whose copy he tran- 
scribed it. Ho even ox])ressos himself in this wise : " "Omai 
b. Shabba has related to mo in his book on the history of 
3a.sra." 

Historians before Tabari. J 

'.' Naturally, then, no independent book of the 1st century 
'rom the Flight has come down to us. But in the 2d cen- 
'ury real books began to be composed. The materials 
were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the 
second by the dktata of older scholars, and finally by 
various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collec- 
tions of poetry, and genealogical li.sts. Genealogical studies 
had become necessary through 'Omar's system of assigning 
«tate pensions to certain classes of persons according to 



their kinship with the Prophet, of their deserts during his' 
lifetime. This subject received much attention even in 
the 1st century, but books about it were first written in 
the 2d, the most famous being those of Ibn 'al-Kalbl (d. 
146 A.H.), of his son Hishim' (d.204), and of Al-SharkI ibni 
al-Kotdml. Genealogy, which often called for elucidations,; 
led on to history. BelAdhorl's excellent Ansdb al-Ashrdf^ 
(Genealogies of the Nobles) is a history of the Arabs on a 
genealogical plan. - ' . < ' 

The oldest extant history is the biography of the Prophet 
by Ibn Ish4k(d. 150). This work is generally trustworthy. 
Mohammed's life before he appeared as a prophet and the 
story of his ancestors are indeed mixed with many fables 
illustrated by spurious verses. But in Ibn IshAlf 's day these 
fables were generally accepted as history — for many of thbm 
had been first related by contemporaries of Mohammed — 
and no one certainly thought it blameworthy to put pious 
verses in the month of the Prophet's forefathers, though,; 
according to the Fihrist (p. 92), Ibn IshAlf was duped by! 
others with regard to the poems he quotes. - ( 

■ The Life of the Prophet by Ibn 'Okba (d. 141), based; 
on the statements of two very trustworthy men, "Orwa ibn' 
az-Zobair (d. 94) and Az-Zohrl (d.l24), seems to be quite 
lost, Sprenger having vainly made every effort to find a 
copy. It was still much read in Syria in the 14th century.j 
But we fortunately possess the Book jif the Campaigns 
of the Prophet by Al-W41>idl (d. 207) and the important 
Book of Classes of his disciple Ibn Sa'd.^ Wilkidf had much 
more copious materials than Ibn Ishdk, but gives way 
much more to a popular and sometimes romancing style of 
treatment. Nevertheless he sometimes helps us to re- 
cognize in Ibn Ishdlj 's narrative modifications of the genuine 
tradition made for a purpose, and the additional details he 
supplies set various events before us in a clearer light.| 
Apart from this his chief merits lie in his studies on the 
subject of the traditional authorities, the results of which 
are given by Ibn Sa'd, and in his chronology, which is often 
excellent. A special study of the traditions about the 
conquest of Syria made by De Goeje in 1864 led to the 
conclusion that WAkidl's chronology is sound as regards the 
main events, and that later historians have gono astray by 
forsaking his guidance. This result has been confirmed 
by certain contemporary notices found by Nbldeke in 1874 
in a Syriac MS. of the British Museum. And that Ibn 
IshAk agrees with WAljidi in certain main dates is import- 
ant evidence for the trustworthiness of the former also. 
For the chronology before the year 10 of the Flight Wdljidl 
did his best, but here, the material being defective, many of 
his conclusions are precarious. Yet, though we have good 
ground for doubts, wo are seldom able to construct a better 
chronology. W4kidl h.ad already a great library at his 
disposal.- He is said to have had 600 chests of books,' 
chiefly dictata written by or for himself, but in part real 
books by Abu Miklinaf (d. 130), Ibn IsliAk (whom he uses 
but docs not name), 'Aw.^na (d. 147), and other authors. 
Abu Mikhnaf left a great number of monographs on the 
chief events from the death of the Prophet to the caliphate 
of Walfd II. These were much used by later writers, and 
we have many extracts from them, but none of the works 
themselves, except a sort of romance based on his account 
of the death of Hosain, of which Wiistenfeld has given a 

' Of Hisham b. al-Kalbi'a book there are copies in the British 
Museum and in the Escorial. ' 

2 Ibn Ishak's original work seems to be still eitant In the KoprOlH 
library .it Constantinople; the edition of it by Ibn Hisham has been 
cditcil by Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1858-eO) and translated into Gennno 
by WeiUStuttgart, 1864). ] 

' WAkiili has been edited from an imperfect M3. by Kremer (C«l-j 
entta, 1856). A condensed translation by Wellhausen appeared in; 
1882. The great book of Ibn Sa'd is unpublished, but there are (oms^ 
useful papers on it by Loth. 



T A B A R I 



trmslatioft. 'Witli regard to the history of IrAlf in par- 
ticular be was deemed to have the best lights, and for this 
subject Ji« is Tabari's chief source, jiiat as Madiinl, a 
jounger contemporary of Wikidi, is followed by preference 
in all that relates to Khor4san. Madiini's Uiitory of tM 
Calipht is the best if not the oldest published before Jabari ; 
but this book has quite disappeared and is known only by 
the excerpts given by later writers, particularly BeUdhori 
and TabarL From these we judge that he had great 
n.rrative power with much clear and exact learning, and 
must be placed high els a critical historian. His plan was 
to record the various traditions about an event, choosing 
them with critical skill ; sometimes, however, he fused 
the several traditions into a continuous narrative. A just 
estimate of the relative value of the historians can only 
be reached by careful comparison in detail. This has been 
essayed by Brunnow in his study on the Khirijites (Ley- 
den, 1884), in which the narrative of Mobarrad in the 
Kimil- is compared with the excerpts of Madiinl given by 
Belidhorl and those of Abii Mikhnaf given by TabarL 
The conclusion reached is that AbA Mikhnaf and Madiinl 
are both well informed and impartial 

Among the contemporaries of Wikidf and Madiinl were 
Ibn Khidish (d. 223), the historian of the family Mohallab, 
whose work was one of Mobarrad's sources for the History 
of the Khdrijita ; Haitham ibn 'Adi (d. 207), whose works, 
though n9w lost, are often cited ; and Saif ibn "Omar at- 
Tamlml, whose book on the revolt of the tribes under Abii- 
bekr and on 4he Mohammedan conquests was much used 
ly Tabarl. Saif, however, seems to have been little es- 
teemed ; Belidhorl very seldom cites him, and nothing can 
be found in Arabic literature about his life and those of 
his authorities. He is barely mentioned in the FihrUt, 
the writer plainly having nothing to tell of him, and 
blundering in the one thing he does say by representing 
hi disciple Sfe'&ib as hi» master. HAjji Khalifa knows 
nothing but his name. Hia narratives are detailed and 
often tinged with romance, and he is certainly much in- 
ferior to Wilfidl in' accuracy. Besides these are to be 
mentioned Ab\i "Obaida. (d. 209), who was celebrated as a 
philologist and wrote several historical monographs that 
are often cited, and Azraki, whose excellent History of 
Mecca was published after his death by his grandson 
(d 244). With these writers we rass into the 3d century 
of Islam. But we have etill an important point to notice 
in the 2d century ; for in it learned Persians began to 
take part in the creation of Arabic historical literature. 
Ibn Mokaffa' translated the great Book of Persian Kings, 
and others followed his example. Tabarl and his contem- 
poraries, senior and junior, such as Ibn Kotaiba, Ya'k'ibl, 
Dlnawari, preserve ^o us a good part of the information 
about Persian history made known through such transla- 
tions.' But even more important than the knowledge 
conveyed by these works was their influence on literary 
style and compodtiou. Half a century later began versions 
•from the Greek either direct or through the Syriac. The 
pieces translated were niostly philosophical ; but the Arabs 
also learned eomething, however superfidaliy, of ancient 
history. 

The 3d century was far more productive than the 2d. 
Abii 'Obaida was presently succeeded by Ibn al-A'ribl 
(d. 231), who in like manner was chiefly famous as a 
philologist, and who wrote about ancient poems and battles. 
Much that he wrote is quoted in Tabrlzfs commentary on 
the ffamdsa, which is still richer in extracts from the 
historical elucidations of early poems given by Ar-Riy4«hl 
(d. 257). Of special fame as a genealogist was Ibn Hablb 

'' For detaila Me the iDlrodaction to KCldeke's excellent trantlation 
of TftbarTi HisCary qf the Persians and Arade in the AJaeanian Period, 
Lejdaa, 1S79. 



(d. 245), of whom we have a booklet on Arabian trilfil 
names published by Wiistenfeld (1850). Azraki again wM 
followed by Fikihl, who wrote a History of Mecca in 272,' 
and 'Omar b. Shabba (d. 262), who composed <an excellent 
history of Basra, known to us only by excerpts. Of the 
works of Zobair b. Bakkir (d. 256), one of Tabari's teachers, 
a learned historian and genealogist much consulted by later 
writers, there is a fragment in the Kopriilii library at Con- 
staintinople, and another in Gottingen, part of which has 
been maide known by Wiistenfeld (Die Familie AlZobair, 
Gottingen, 1878). Ya'kiibl or Ibn Widih wrote a short 
general history of much value, published by Houtsma (Ley- 
den, 1853). About India he knows more than his prede- 
cessors and more than his successors down to Bininl. Ibn 
Khordidbeh's historical works are lost Ibn 'Abdalhakam 
(d. 257) WTotaof the conquest of Egypt and the West. 
Extracts from this book are given by De Slane in h'uHistoire 
des Berberes, and others by Karle and Jones, from which 
we gather that it was a medley of true tradition and romance, 
and must be reckoned, with the book of his slightly senior 
contemporary, the Spaniard Ibn Hablb, to the class of 
historical romances (see bdow, p. 5). A high place must 
be assigned to the historian Ibn Kotaiba (d. 276), who, 
as Eosen has well shown, wrote a series of books with a 
view to raising the scholarship of the large class of kdtib$ 
or official scribes. To this series belong his very useful 
Handbook of History (ed. Wiistenfeld, Gottingen, 1850) 
and his 'Oyun al-Akhbdr, though the latter book according 
to the arrangement falls rather under the class of litters 
humaniores. Much more eminent is BeUdhori (d. 279), 
whose book on the Arab conquest (ed. De Goeje, Leyden, 
1865-66) merits the special praise given to it by Mas'iidt 
Of his great Ansib al-Ashrdf a. large part exists at Paris 
in the valuable collection of M. Schefer and another part 
was published by Ahlwardt in 1884. A con,temporary, Ibn 
abl Tihir Taifilr (d. 280), wrote on the "Abbisid caliphs 
and was drawn on by Tabart The sixth.part of his work 
is in the British Museum. Of the universal history of 
Dlnawari (d. 282), entitled The Long Narratives, en edition 
by Girgas is now (1887) in the press. 
Taiari. 
All thesS histqfies are more or less thrown into the shade 
by the great work of Tabarl, whose fame has never faded 
from his own day to ours, and who well deserves to have 
this article on early Arabic histories placed under his name. 
Abii Ja'far Mohammed b Jarlr at-Tabari (so his fuU name 
runs) is described as a tall lean figure, with large eyea, 
brown complexion, and hair which remained black till hia 
death. His learning was astounding and few could speak so 
well. Bom 224 a.h. (838-9 a.d.) at Amol in TabaristAn, he 
came to Baghdad as a young man and heard there the most, 
famous teachers of the age. He travelled through Syria 
and Egypt (where he was ip 263), and finally settled 
down in Baghdad, where he remained till his death in 310 
(922 A-D.), always active and surrounded by p^ipils. Ha 
is said to have written forty pages daily for forty years. 
This no doubt is an exaggeration, but certainly he must 
have been a man of most persistent industry. His two 
chief works are a great Commentary on the Koran and his 
Annals. There is an anecdote to the effect that each 
originally filled 30,000 leaves, but that his pupils found 
them too extensive to be written to his dictation, and that 
he then resolved to condense them to a tenth of their 
original size, exclaiming, " God help us ! Ambition is 
extinct." One cannot say how far this story is true, but 
it is probable enough that his materials, at least for the 
Annals, were many times greater than the book itself. 

>-Pabli<taed in ezcerptb; Wiutealeld iiloiig with Azraki, Leliele, 
1857-69. 



T A B A R I 



WTiere the same topic comes up in the Annals and in the 
Commeniary we often find different traditions quoted, or 
tho same tradition denved through different channels, and 
this shows the copious variety of his sources. Various 
parts of the AnnaU give the impression of being condensed. 
The C'lmmminry was published before the Anruils, and is 
better composed. It is the head corner-stone of Koran 
exegesis, as the Annuls are of historiography It came into 
general use mainly through the abridgment of Baghawl in 
the beginuiug of the tilh century of the Fhgbt, being itself 
too large to be much read. The great book exists complete 
in the viceregal library at Cairo, and ought to be pub- 
lished at once ' 

Ihi A nnals are a general history from the creation to 302 
A.H., and are in the course of publication at Leyden. They 
will fill some 7000 to "500 pages, one and a half printed 
pages corresponding roughly to one leaf of Tabarl's original 
MS Taoarl added a supplement about his authorities, an 
abridgment of which is to follow the Leyden edition. It 
contains biographical notices of traditionalists, coutempo- 
raries of Mohammed, and their successors to the second half 
of the '2d century ^ Other works by Tabarl will bespoken 
of in detail In the preface to the Leyden edition 

The success of the Annals and Commeniary was due 
above all to the author's personality The respect paid to 
him by bis contemporaries appears in various anecdotes 
preserved in his biography His pupils had an unbounded 
admiration for his extraordinary knowledge, and wh.it ho 
said seemed to them the best that could be said In tnitli, 
both his great works were the best of their kind, especially 
the Commeniary, which, in the judgment of all impartial 
critics, has not been equalled, before or since, io complete- 
nes.1, learning, and independent judgment. A conterapiv 
rary says that " it would be worth a journey to China to 
procure the book " So general was this view that the 
opinion of Tabari was quoted as a legal authority 

The inferiority of the Annals .as a literary com|)Osition 
may be due partly to the author's years, partly to the in- 
equality of his sources, sonietim>iS sujwrabiindant, some- 
times defective, partly perhaps to the somewhat hasty 
condensation of his original draft. Nevertheless the value 
of the book is very great the author's selection of tradi 
tions IS usually happy, and the episodes of most import- 
ance are treated with most fulness of detail, so that it 
deserves the high reputation it has enjoyed from the first. 
This reputation rose steadily ; there were twenty copies 
(one of them written by Tabarl's own hand) in the library 
of the FAtimite caliph 'Aziz (latter half of the 4th cen- 
tury), whereas, when Saladin became lord of Egypt, the 
princely library contained r200 copies (Makrlzl, i. 408 
tq ). Only princes and rich men could own a booU 
which in the time of 'Aziz cost one hundred dinars. We 
knsiw that it had a place in most great libraries in other 
countries, for we find that it was used in all lands. Thus 
the fact ^hat no complete copy can now be found any 
where, and that the Leyden edition rests on odd volumes 
lying in various places, gives a striking image of what the 
East has suffered from barbarism 

The Annals soon came to be dealt with in various ways. 
They were published in shorter form with the omission of 
the names of authorities and of most of the poems cited , 
6ome passages quoted by later writers are not found even 
in the Leyden edition. On the other hand, some interpola- 
tions took place, one in the author's lifetime and perhaps 
by his own hand Then many supplements were written, 
e._(7., by Fergh.'inl (not extant) and by HamadhAnl (|;artly 
preserved in I'aris) 'Arib of Cordova made an abridg- 

' Srif Ihr excclWnl .irtule by l.olh in Z MilU.. xxxv 588 si/ 
' Tilt Mb riiuuiiiiiig tlii.-i obridgiiictit ij. tlescnheii by Lotb in 
y..b.M.<J-, Axxu. 081 itf. 11 13 LOW lu lilt: Unlisli Mustuui. 



ment, adding the history of the 'West and continvjing the 
story to about 365^ -Ibn Mashkawaih wrote a history 
from the creation to 3fi9 a.h., with the purpose of draw- 
ing the les.sons of the story, following Tabari closely, as 
far as his book is known, and seldom recurring to other 
sources belore the reign of Moktadir ; what follows is his 
own composition, and shows him to be a writer of talent* 
In 3.52 an abridgment of the Annals was translated into 
Persian by Bal'aml, who, however, interwove many fables.'' 
Ibn al-AthIr (d G30) abridged the whole work, usually 
with judgment, but sometimes too hastily Though be 
sometimes glided lightly over difficulties, his work is of 
service in fixing the text of Tabari. He also furnished a 
continuation to the year C20. Later writers took Tabari 
as their main authority, but fortunately sometimes con- 
sulted other sources, and so add to otir knowledge, — 
es|)eciaily Ibn al-Jauzl (d. 597), who adds many important 
details. These later historians had valuable help from 
the biographies of famous men and special histories of 
countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much 
labour was spent from the 4tb century onwards, 

EislOTvina after Tabari. 
Tho chief historians after Tabari may be briefly mentioned In 
chronnldgical order. Kail (d. 326) wrote a Hwlory of Spam; Euty- 
cluiis (il 328) wrote Annals (published by Pocock. Oxford, 1656), 
which are very important because he giv&s tho Christian tradition \ 
Ibn 'AH Rabbihi (d. 328) has very valuable historical passages in 
bis fam^-us roiscellaj^ called /tl-'Ikd at-Fartd (3 vols., Cairo, 1293 
AH); bull (d 335) wrote od the 'Abb^sid caliphs, tboir viziers and 
court |->ets. Ma5'udi(see MAs'tiov) comiwsed various historical and 
peograiihical works (d 345). Of Taljari 8 coDlemporary Hamza Ls- 
jxihani uehave the .<4n7uiZ* ( published Ijy Gottwaldt, St. Petersburg, 
1844), Abu.l-Faraj aJ Isjialiini (d. 356j in Ms Booi o/Sonjs (fiWJ 
nlAg>i<tTii, 20 vols., Cairo, 1285) gave the lives of poets whose songs 
Mere >iing , Ibu al-Kutiya (d 367) wrote a History of Spain ; Ibn 
Zulak (d 1)87) a JJislory of Egypt , 'Oibi wititiithe History of Mah- 
mild of ifhazna (»L 421), ai whose court he lived (printed on the 
margiu of the Egy]'tian editioo of Ibn al-Athir). "Thalabi (d. 427) 
wroie a well knonn History of the Old Prophets . Ahu No'aim al- 
Isfiab^ni (d. 430) wrote a History of Ispahan. chieHy of tho scholars 
of that city; Tha alibi (il 429 or 430) wrote, inter alia, a well- 
koown History of the Poets of his Time, now (1887) iii course of 
publication at Oamascus. Bernui (d. 440) takes n high place 
among historians by his Chronology of Ayicifiit Nations{eA Sachau, 
Leipsic, 1878 , Eng trans , London, 18/9) and his contributious to 
the history of India anil Khwanzm; Koda'i (d. 451) uTote a Dc- 
st-ription of Egypt and also vanous historical pieces, of winch somo 
are extant; Ibn Said of Cordova (d. 462) wrote a Vieio of the 
Htst&ry of the l^arwus Nalums Baghdad anil its learned men 
found an excellent lustonan in Al Kliatib al Baghdad i (cL 463), 
and Spam in Ibn Hayan (d 469) and half a cenlury later in Ibn 
Khakan (d 529) and Ibn Bassam (d 542). Samani (d. .562) wToto 
an excellent iKwk on genealogies , IbnAsakir(d n\)a History of 
Damascus and hrr Scholars, which is of great value, and exists in 
whole or in part in several libraries. The Btoqraphicnl Dictionary 
of the Sjianiard Ihn Piusrual (d 578) and that of Dabbi, a some- 
what junior conteTTiporary, arc edited in Coilcra s Btbliotheca Arao. 
Ilisp. (1883- 1SS5); Saladin found his historian in the famous 
Iniad addin Id 597). Ibn al J.iuzi. who died in the same year, 
has been already mi-iitiohed. Abdalwahiils History of the Almu- 
hades, wTiIun in 621. was publisheil by Do^y I2d ed , 1881), The 
geographer Vakiit (d 626) wrote also some historical works, now 
In^t, Atidallatif (d 629) i.i kiiipwn by his wniings alwut Egypt 
(trans. L>e S,ii y, 1>'10); Ibn ahAthir (d 630) w-iute. m addition tc 
the Chronicle already mentioned a Bionmphenl Dictionary of C'oi- 
lempnrnnei uf the Prophet. Kifti (d fJ-16) is es|«-cially knowni bl| 
his History of Aiahie Ph,lot«n,sls Sil't ibn al-.lau2i id 654),graiKr 
.son of the lim al-Jaun already nieniionod, wrote a gieot i^hrwncle, 
of winch niurli the larger part still exists. Coileia has edited 
iMa.lnd. l>(.'-6) Ibn al AbUirs (d 658) Unupaphu-at Lexicon, a]- 
leady known by Dozys exierpts from u. Ibn al-'Adiin (d. 660) is 

' Of this work the Gotha library has a jioilion containing 290-320 
AH .of which the |>art about Ihr Wesi li.is b-wii pnnied by Dozy in the 
Diiydn, and the rest is to be pulilislied al Leyih-u 

■• A fragment (198-251 a B ) is i.nnted in De Oocje, Fraym. Hist. 
Ac., vol il.. Leyden, 1871. Scht-ler possesses an excellent MS. uf 
the years 219-315 ; Oxiord has another fragment, 345-360 a. a.; the 
second part is in the Esconnl 

» The first part was lendvred into French by Dnbeux in 18S6. W» 
have now an i-xtelieut Krencb translation by Zotenberg, 1874. 



T A B— T A B 



fcmed for bis Siatory of Aleppo, and Abii Shims (d. 6€5) wrote a 
^til-known ffisCory of Saiadin and Xureddin, taking a great deal 
^m Imad addin. A. Muller has. recently published (1S8£) Ibn 
ybi Osajbia's (d. 663) History of nysiciana. The Hiatory of Ibn 
lI-'Amid (d. 675), better knovn as Elmaci.s (q.v.), was printed by 
Erpenius in 1623. Ibn Sa'id al-Ua^bribi (d. 673 or 635) is famous 
fw his histories, but still more for his geographical writings. The 
loted theologian Nawawi (;.r. ; d. €76)- wrote a Biographical 
Dictionary of tht Worthies of the First Ages of Islam. Pre-emiuent 
t3 a biographer is Ibn Khallikan (d. 631), whose much-used work 
»»s partly edited bv D« Slana and completely by Wustenfeld {1 S35- 
iO\ and tnnsliWftf into English by the former scholar (1 vols., 
1843-71). 

Abu '1-Faraj, better tnown as Bar-Hebneus (d. 6S5), wrote 
besides his Sj-riac Chronicle an Arabic History of Dynasties (ed. 
Tocock, Oxford, 1 663). Ibn "Adhari's History of Africa and Spain has 
keen published bv Dozy (2 vols., Leyden, 1848-51), and the.Arart.is 
«f Ihn abi Zar' \>y Tomberg (1843)- One of the best known of 
Arab writers is Abulfeda (d. 732), whose AnnaUs Muslemics wcro 

Tablished with a Latin version by Reiske (Copenhagen, 5 vols. 4to, 
789-94). The History of the Time before Mohammed has been 
Siblished by Fleischer (1S31). Not less famous is the great 
nri/clopBdia of his contemporary Nowairi (d. 732), bat only some 
extracts are as yet in TF^i- Ibn Sayyid an-Nds (d. 734) wrote a 
foil biography of the Prophet ; Mizzi (d. 742) an extensive work 
on the men from whom traditions have been derived. We still 
pcasess, nearly complete, the great Chronicle of Dhahabi (d. 748), 
A very learned biographer and historian. A complete edition of 
the geographical and historical J/oso/ut al-Absdr of Ibn Fadlalldh 
(d. 719) is much to be desired. It i» known at present by extracts 
itren by Qnatremere and AmarL- Ibn al-Wanli (d. 719 or 750), 
best known by bis Cosmography, wrote a ChronidcWVick has been 
printed in Egypt. Safadt (d. 764) got a great name as a bio- 
grapher. YaFi (d. 768) wrote a Chronicle of Islam and Lives of 
SmAts. Sobki (d. 771) published Lives of the Theologians of Oie 
Shiifi'iie School. -Of Ibn Kathir's Bislonj the greatest part is ex- 
tant. For the history of Spain and the Maghrib the writings of 
Ihn al-Khatib (d. 776) are of acknowledged value. Another history, 
«f which we possess the greater part, is the large work of Ibn al- 
Forat (d. 807). Far superior to all these, however, is the famous 
Ibn Khaldiin (d- 808), who proves himself a great thinker in the 
Prolegomena to his Universal History. Of the Prolegomena there 
•rarln edition by QnatremJre (1858) and a French version by De 
Slftne (1863). The latter scholar also published text and version 
of the History of the Berbers, and there is a poor Egyptian edition 
•of the whole work. Of the historical works of the famous lexico- 
erar.her Finizabadi (d. 817) only a Life of the Prophet remains. 
MaiPEIZI (d. 845) is spoken of in a separate article ; Ibn Hnjar 
(d. 852) is best known by his Biographical Dictionary of Conlcm- 
poniries of the Prophet, now in course of publication in the Billio- 
theea Indica. Ibn 'Arabshdh {i, 854) is known by his History of 
Timiir (Leeuwarden, 1767). "Ainf (d. 855) wrote a General History, 
*till exUnt. Abu '1-JIahasin (d. 874) wrote at length on the history 
(«f Egypt ; the first two parts have been published by JnjnboU. 
rriiigel nas published Ibn Kotlobogha's Biographies of the HanafUe 
[Jurists. Ibn Shihna (d- 890) wrou a History of Aleppo. ' Of Sa- 
khawi we possess a bibliographical work on the historians. The 
poU-math Soyuti (d. 911) contributed a History of the Caliphs and 
many biographical pieces. Samhudf s History of Medina is known 
through the excerpts of Wiistenfeld (1861). Ibn lyas (d. 930) 
wrote a History of Egypt, and Diyarbefcri (d. 966) a Life of Mo- 
liammed. To these names must be added Mafkaki (q.v.) and 
Hajji Khalifa, the famous Turkish bibliographer (d, 1068), who, 
•besides his Bibliographical Lexicon and his well-known geography, 
the Jihdn-numa, wrote histories, mostly in Turkish. He made 
tise of European sources, and with him Arabic historiography may 
■be said to cease, though he had some unimportant successors. 

A word must be said of the historical romances, the beginning 
of which go back to the first centuries of Islam. The interest in 
All that concerned Mohammed and in the allusions of the Koran 
■to old prophets and races led many professional narrators to choose 
these subjects in place of the doughty deeds of the Bedouins, 
The increasing veneration pejd to the Prophet and love for the 
marvellous soon rave rise to feblea abonf his childhood, his visit 
to heaven, it, which have found their way even into sober his- 
tories, iust as many Jewi'ih legends told by the converted Jew 
jKa'b al-Ahbar and by Wahb ibn Monabbih,.and many lables 
•bout the old princes of Yemen told by 'Abid, are taken as genuine 
listory (see, however, Mas'ddi, iv. 88 sg.). A fresh field for 
jomantic legend ivas found in the history of the victories of Islam, 
^e exploits of the first heroes of the faitli, the fortunes of 'Ali and 
iis honse. Even under the first Omavyads there were ia the 
aio«<)ue8 of most great cities preachers who edified the people by 
Atones about Islam and its victories, and there is ample evidence 
Ihat these men did not stick to actual fact ShoT^a said of them 
*|^hey get from us a handbreadth of tradition and make it an ell." 
Jihen. too, history was often expressly forged for party endk 



The people swallowed all this, and so a romantic tradition sprang 
up side by sid»with the historical, and had a literature of its own, 
the beginnings of which must be placed as early as the second 
century of the Flight The oUest samples still extant are' tlio 
fables about the conquest of Spain ascribed to Ibn Habib (d. 238)^: 
and those about the conquest of Ecj-pt and tlie' West by Ibn 
'Abdalhakam (d. 257). lu these trutn and falsehood arc mingled,' 
as Dozy has shown in his Recherchcs.' But most of the extant 
literature of this kirid is, in its present form, much more recent: 
e.g.. the Story xf the Death of Hosain by the Pseudo-Abu Jlikhnar 
(translated by Wustenfeld) ; the Conquest of Syria by Abii IsmA'i'. 
al-Bai;ri (edited by Nassau Lees, CalcutU. 1854, and discussed bv 
De Coeje, 1864); the Pseildo-Wakidi (sco Hamaker, De Erpng- 
natione Memphidi^ et Alexandria, Leyden, 1835) ; the Pscudo-Ibii 
Kotaiba (see DczjiUieckerches) ; the book a.scribed to A'^am Kufi, 
tc Further inquiry into the origin of these works is called for, but 
some of them were plainly directed to stir up fresh zeal against the 
Christians. In the 6th century some of these books had gained sc 
much authority that they were used as sources, and tlms many un- 
truths crept into accepted history. (M. J. DE G.) ; 

TABERNACLE, the portable 'sanctuary of Israel in the 
wilderness wanderings. Critical analysis of the Penta- 
teuch (g.v.) teaches U3 to draw a sharp line between the 
old notices of the tabernacle contained in the pre-Deutero- 
nomic history book (JE) and the account given by the 
post-esilic priestly narrator. The latter throws back intc 
the time of Moics the whole scheme of worship and ritual 
of which the second temple was the centre, and, as this 
scheme necessarily implies the existencfe of an elaborate 
sanctuary on the pattern of the temple, he describes a 
tabernacle of extraordinary splendour pitched in the middla 
of the camp, with an outer and inner cliarfiber and a court- 
yard, and all the apparatus of sacrificial and atoning ritual, 
just as in the temple, only constructed '6.fnx)ards, posts, 
and curtains so that it could be taken down and moved 
from place to place. The whole description is ideal, as 
appears not only from the details but from the fact that 
the old history knows nothing of such a structure? The 
Chronicler indeed, who had before him the Pentateuch ir. 
its present shape, assumes that after the Israelites entered 
Canaan the tabernacle continued to be the one legitimatt 
place of sacrifice until it was superseded by Solomon'i 
temple, and represents it as standing at Gibeon in the 
days of David and his son (1 Chron. xxi. 29 sq. ; 2 Chron. 
i. 3). But the book of Kings knows Gibeon "^nly as "th& 
greatest high place" (1 Kings iii. 4).* 

Again, the tabernacle of the Priestly Code is pre-emi- 
nently the sanctuary of the ark, bearing the name miMan 
haedatk, " the tabernacle of the testimony," i.e., the habit-- 
ation in which lay "the ark of the testimony" or chest 
containing the stones on which the decalogue was inscribed. 
But between Joshua's days and the building of the temple 
the ark migrated from one tent or habitation to another 
(2 Sam. vii. 6 ; 1 Chron. xvii. 5), and at Shiloh it was 
housed not in a tent but in a temple (1 Sam. iii. 3, 15). 
And, while in the Priestly Code the tabernacle is the only 
legitimate sanctuary and its priests are the only legitimate 
priests, the whole history shows that no such restriction 
was even thought of till after the time of the prophet 
Isaiah. 

With all this it agrees that the oldest parts of the Penta? 
teuch speak indeed of a tabernacle, but one of a quito 
different kind. The tabernacle of the Elohist (for of tho 
two narratives — Elohistic and Jahvistic — which are com.: 
bined in the so-called Jehovistic history only the former 
seems to mention it) is a tent which Moses pitched outside 
the camp (Exod. xxxiii. 7 sq.), and where Jehovah was 
wont to reveal Himself to him in the pillar of cloud, which 
descended for the purpose and stood at the door (Num. xi. 
25; rii. 5; xiv. 10); it is therefore called okel moid, "the 



' Two passages in the old history, which comprises the books of 
Judges, Samuel, and Kings, speak of the tabernacle {OhH mO'id) ; but 
external and internal evidence show them to be interpolated (1 SaSk 
JL 22; 1 Kings nil. 4). - "" 



6 



TAB 



TAB 



tent o! trj-st." No description of it is given, nor ia its 
origin spoken of, but something of the old narrative has 
obviously been lost before Exod. xxxiii. 7, and here what 
is lacking was probably explained. It appears, however, 
that it was very different from the tabernacle described by 
the priestly narrator. It was not in the centre of the 
camp but stood some distance outside it,' and it was not 
the seat of an elaborate organization of priests and guarded 
by a host of Levites, but had a single minister and custo- 
dian, viz., Joshua, who was not a Levite at all but Mosea' i 
attendant (Exod. xxxiii. 11). 

The existence of such a simple tent sanctuary presents 
none of the difficulties that beset the priestly narrative. 
Portable shrines were familiar to Semitic antiquity, and 
tents as sanctuaries were known to the Israelites in much 
later times at the high places and. in connexion with irre- 
gular worships (Ezek. xvL 16, "thou didst take of thy 
garments and madest for thyself sewn high places," i.e., 
shrines of curtains sewn together ; 2 Kings xxiiL 7, where 
for " hangings for the grove" read " tents for the Ashera"; 
comp. Ho3. ix. 6 and Syriac prakk, Assyrian para/cku, a 
small chapel or shrine, from the same root as Hebrew 
pdi-oketh, the vail of the Holy of Holies). Such idolatrous 
tabernacles were probably relics of the usages of the 
nomadic Semites, and it is only natural that Israel in its 
wanderings should have had the like. And it is note- 
worthy that the portable chapels of the heathen Semites 
were mainly used for divination (comp. Joum. of PhiloL, 
xiii. 283 57), just as the Mosaic tabernacle is described by 
the Elolu-.t not a-> a place of sacrifice (such as the tabernacle 
of the Priestly Code is) but as a place of oracle. 

The heathen shrines of this sort contained portable idols 
or baetylia (see Selden, De Diis Syriis, i. 6); but what the 
Jlosaic tabernacle contained is not expressly told. The 
ordinary and seemingly the easiest assumption is that the 
ark stood in it, and Deut. x. 1 sq., which must be drawn 
from the lost part of the older narrative already alluded 
to, certainly places the construction of the ark, to contain 
the tables of stone, just before the time when the taber- 
nacle is first mentioned by the Elohist. But neither in 
Deuteronomy nor before it are the ark and the tabernacle 
ever mentioned together, and of the two old narrators it 
is not clear that the Jahvist ever mentions the tabernacle 
or the Eloliibt the ark. The relation between the two 
calls for further investigation, especially as the ark retains 
its importance after the occupation of Canaan, while the 
" tent of tryst " is not mentioned after the time of Moses, 
who, according to the Elohist (Exod. xii), enjoyed at it 
a. privilege of direct access to the Deity not accorded to 
later prophets. 

; TABERNACLES, Feast of. The original character 
of this Hebrew feast, celebrated at the close of the agri- 
cultural year as a thSnksgiving for the produce of the 
seasoiis, but especially for the vintage and olive harvest, 
has been exfilained in Pentatedch, vol. xviii. p. '511. 
As such it is described in the old law of Exod. xxiii. 16, 
under the name of " the feast of ingathering, at the end 
of the year " (which, in the old Hebrew calendar, ran from 
autumn to autumn), " when thou hast gathered in thy 
labours out of the field " (comp. Exod. xxxiv. 22). The 
same feast is spoken of in Deut. xvi. 13 as "the feast of 
booths" (E.V. "tabernacles," whence the current name 
of the feast), when " thou hast gathered in thy corn and 
wine" from the corn-floor and the wine-press. No ex- 
planation is here given of the name "feast of booths"; 
but after the exile it was understood that during this 
feast the people assembled at Jerusalem were to live in 



* In old Israel the sanctuary, after the people had settled flown 
In cities, usually stood outside the town, and this was the case even 
«rith the temple at Jerusalem when it was first built, ^ 



booths constructed of branches of trees (Lev. xxiii. 39 sq. \ 
Neh. viii. 14 sq.). The passage in Nehemiah, describing 
the celebration of the feast in 444 B.C., serves as a com- 
mentary on the post-exilic law in Leviticus, and from it 
we learn that the use of booths on that occasion had no 
foundation in traditional usage, but was based directly on 
the law, which then for the first time became generally 
known.* According to the law in question, the boothi 
were to be a memorial of the wilderness wandering (Lev. 
xxiii. 43), but of this there is no hint in Deuteronomy ; 
and, while it is quite in the style of the later law to attach 
a new historical reference to an old name like " feast of 
booths," it is certain from Exodus that the feast had 
originally agricultural and not historical significance. As 
such it is exactly parallel to the vintage feasts of other 
ancient nations, e.g., to the Athenian Oschophoria^ And, 
in particular, it is noteworthy that in Judges ix. 27 we 
find a vintage feast at Shechem among the Canaanites, 
from whom the Israelites first learned the ways of agri- 
cultural life, and from whom so much of the popular 
religion was copied. To acts of worship nominally ad- 
dressed to Jehovah, but really to the Canatanite Baalim, 
Hosea expressly reckons rites celebrated "on all corn- 
floors" (ix. 1), expressing thanks for divine gifts of com, 
wine, and oil (iL 8 sq), and in their context theSe allusiona 
leave no doubt that the prophet refers, in part af least, 
to autumn feasts, in which Jehovah worship was mingled 
with Canaanite elements (comp. Wellhausen, Prol. zur 
Gesch. Jsr., cap. 3, ii.; Eng. trans., p. 92 sq ). These feasta 
were local in character, but in northern Israel there was 4 
great autumn feast at the royal sanctuary at Bethel (1 
Kings xii. 33), as even in the days of Solomon there was 
such a feast at Jerusalem (1 Kings viii. 2). Li the nature 
of things the local feasts were the older, and it was the 
fame of great shrines that gradually tended to dra'w 
worshippers from a distance to temples like those of 
Jerusalem and Bethel. Finally, the Deuteronomic law of 
the one sanctuary and the course of events which made 
that law the practical rule of the remnant of Israel put 
an end to all local religious feasts, but at the same time 
obscured the old significance of the festal cycle, and made 
room for the historical interpretation of the celebrations, 
now concentrated at the temple, which prevailed among 
the later Jews (comp. P.assover and Pentecost). Ia 
their later form all the yearly feasts have exact times and 
rules. In Deuteronomy the autunin feast is not yet tied 
to a day — it could hardly be so while it was still essentially 
a harvest thanksgiving — but in the priestly legislation it 
is fixed to commence on the fifteenth day of the seventh 
month (Lev. xxiii. 34). In Deuteronomy the feast lasta 
seven days ; Lev. x.\iii. 36 adds an eighth, and this day 
ultimately became the most important (John vii. 37). 

If we accept the conclusion th.at the autumn festival was origin- 
ally a vintage feast celobrated in local sanctuaries, tlie name 
"feast of booths" admits of a natural explanation The Canaan- 
ite feast at Shechem and the Hebrew feast at Shiloh (Judges \%\.' 
21) were partly celebrated abroad in the vineyards, and Hosea also 
knows such feasts on the open corn floors. That it was usual to 
go forth and live in booths dunng the vintage may be concluded 
from Isik i. 8 ; the same practice still prevails at Hebron {Robinson, 
Bibl. Res, ii 81) If it was these booths erected among the vine- 
yards that originally gave their name to the feast, we can under- 
stand how the bottk of Nehemiah recognizes the erection of boolha 
within the city of Jerusalem as an innovation. No doubt at all 
feasts where there 'was a great concourse of visitors many would bo 
compelled to live in tents , this seems to have been the case evea 
in old Israel {Hos. xii. 91 But that is quite a different thing 
from the later observance, in which booths or bowers had to bo 
made and used even by those who had houses of their own. 

^ The expression that the Israelites had not done so since the dayi 
of Joshua means that there was no recollection oi their having evef 
done so ; for of coarse it is assumed that Joshua cArhed out evei^ 
direction of the law. 



TABLES 



■? 



TABLES, Mathehatical. In any table the results 
tabulated are termed the " tabular results " or " respond- 
ents," and the corresponding numbers by which the table is 
entered are termed the "arguments." A table is said to be 
of single or double entry according as thefe are one or two 
arguments. For exr jple, a table of logarithms is a table 
of single entry, the .umbers being the arguments and the 
logariflims the tabular results ; an ordinary multiplication 
table is a table of double entry, giving xy as tabular result 
for X and y as arguments. The intrinsic value of a table 
v«]iM of may be estimated by the actual amount of time saved by 
toblM,^ consulting it ; for example, a table of square roots to ten 
decimals is more valuable than a table of squares, as the 
extraction of the root would occupy more time than the 
multiplication of the number by itself. The value of a 
(table does not depend upon the difficulty of calculating it; 
for, once made, it is made for ever, and as far as the user 
is concerned the amount of labour devoted to its original 
construction is immaterial. In some tables the labour re- 
quired in the construction is the same as if all the tabular 
results had been calculated separately; but in the majority 
of instances a table can be formed by expeditious methods 
which are inapplicable to the calculation of an individual 
result. This is the case with tables of a coTitinuous quan- 
tity, which may frequently be constructed by differences. 
The most striking instance perhaps is afforded by a factor 
table or a table of primes ; for, if it is required to deter- 
mine whether a given number is prime or not, the only 
available method (in the absence of tables) is to divide it 
by every prime less than its square root or until one is 
found that divides it without remainder. But to form a 
table of prime numbers the process is theoretically simple 
and rapid, for we have only to range all tie numbers in a 
line and strike out every second beginning from two, ever)' 
third beginning from three, and so on, those that remain 
being primes. Even when the tabular results are con- 
structed separately, the method of differences or other 
methods connecting together different tabular results may 
afford valuable verifications. By having recourse to tables 
not only does the computer save time and labour, but he 
also obtains the certainty of accuracy ; in fact, even when 
the tabular results are so easy to calculate that no time or 
mental effort would be saved by the use of a table, the 
certainty of accuracy might make it advantageous to 
employ it. 

The invention of logarithms in 1614, followed immedi- 
ately by the calculation of logarithm!' tables, revolutionized 
all the methods of calculation ; and the original work per- 
formed by Briggs and Vlacq in calculating logarithms 260 
years ago has in effect formed a portion of every arith- 
metical operation that has since been carried out by means 
of logarithms. And not only has an incredible amount of 
labour been saved ' but a vast number of calculations and 
researches have been rendered practicable which otherwise 
would have tieen quite beyond human reach. The 
mathematical process that undsrlies the tabular method of 
obtaining a result may be indirect and complicated ; for 
example, the logarithmic method would be quite unsuitable 
for the multiplication of two numbers if the logarithms 
had to be calculated specially for the purpose and were 
not already tabulated for use. The arrangement of a 
table on the page and all typographical details — such as 
the shape of the figures, their spacing, the thickness and 
placing of the ndes, the colour and quality of the paper, 
<tc. — are of the highest importance, as the computer has 



' R«ferrmg to factor tables, Lambert wrote {SuppUmenla Tatmlarum, 
1798, p. xr.): "Universalis finis talium tabojarum est ut semel pro 
8emp« compotetur quod saepius de novo compnteodum foret, et ut 
pro Omni caau coraputetur quod in futnrum pro quovis caaa compu- 
t&tum desiderabitur." This applies to all tables. 



to spend hours with his eyes fixed upon the book ; and 
the efforts of eye and brain required in finding the right 
numbers amidst a mass of figures on a page and in taking 
them out accurately, when the computer is tirecl as well as 
when he is fresh, are far more trying than the mechanical 
action of simple reading. Moreover, the trouble required 
by the computer to learn the use of a table need scarcely 
be considered ; the important matter is the time and 
labour saved by it after he has learned its use. Tables 
are, as a rule, intended for professional and not amateur 
use ; and it is of little moment whether the user who is 
unfamiliar with a table has to spend ten seconds or a 
minute in obtaining an isolated result, provided it can be 
used rapidly and without risk of error by a skilled computer. 

In the following descriptions of tables an attempt is 
made to give an account of all those that a computer of 
the present day is likely to use in carrying out arithmet- 
ical calculations. Tables of merely bibliographical or 
historical interest are not regarded as coming within the 
scope of this article, although for special reasons such 
tables are briefly noticed in some cases. Tables relating 
to ordinary arithmetical operations are first described, and 
afterwards an account is given of the most useful and 
least technical of the more strictly mathematical tables, 
such as factorials, gamma functions, integrals, Bessel's 
functions, kc. It is difficult to classify the tables de- 
scribed in a perfectly satisfactory manner without prolixity, 
as many collections contain valuable sets belonging to a 
variety of classes. Nearly all modern tables are stereo- 
typed, and in giving their titles the accompanying date is 
either that of the original stereotyping or of the tirage 
in question. In tables that have passed through many 
editions the date given is that of the edition described. A 
much fuller account of general tables published previously 
to 1872, by the present writer, is contained in the British 
Association Report for 1873, pp. 1-175; and to this the 
reader is referred. 

Tables of Divisors (Factor Tables) and Tables of Primes. — Tlie DivlBon 
existing factor tables extend to 9,000,000. In ISU Chemac rub- and 
lished at Deventc- his Cribrujn ArUhmctictivi, which gives all the primes 
prime divisors of every rumber not divisible by 2. 3, or 5 up to 
1,020,000. In 1814-17 Burckhardt published at Paris his Table) 
des Vivisciirs, giving tne least divisor of every number nut divisible 
by 2, 3, or 5 up to ',036,000. The second milhon was issued in 
1814, the third in 1816, and t'lc first in 1817. The corresponding 
tables for the seventh (in 1862), ciL'hth (1863), and ninth (1365) mil- 
lions were calculated by Dase and issued at Hamburg. Dase «lied 
suddenly during the progress of the work, and it was completed by 
Rbsenberg. Case's cnlculation was performed at the instigation 
of Gauss, and he began at 6,000,000 because the Berlin Academy 
was in possession of a manuscript presented by Crelle extending 
Burckhardt's tables from 3,000,000 to 6,000,000. This manuscript, 
not having been published by 1877, was found on examination 
to be so inaccurate that the publication was not desirable, and 
accordingly the three intervening millions were calculated and 
published by James Glaisher, the Factor Table for the Fourth 
Million appearing at Loiidon in 1879, and those for the Bfth 
and sixth millions in 1880 and 1883 respectively (all three mil- 
lions stereotyped). The tenth million, though calculated by Dase 
and Rosenberg, has not been published. It is in the possession of 
the Berlin Academy, having been presented in 1878. The nine 
qmrto vo]nmes (Tables des Diviscurs, Paris, 1814-17; Factor Tables, 
London, 1879-83; Faetoren-Tafeln, Hamburg, 1862-65) thus form 
one uniform table, giving the least divisor of every number not 
divisible bv 2, 3, or 5, from unity to nine millions. The arrange- 
ment of the results on the page, which is due to t^urckhanit, 
is admirable for its clearness and condensation, the least factors 
for 9000 numbers being given on each page. The tabular portion 
of each million occupies 112 pages. The tirst three millions were 
issued separately, and also bound in one volume, but the other 
six millions are all separate. Burckhardt began with the second 
million instead of the first, as Chernac's factor table for the first 
million was already in existence. Burckhardt's first million does 
not supersede Chernac's, as the latter gives all the prime divisors 
of numbers not divisible by 2, 3, or 5 up to 1,020.000. It occupies 
1020 pages, and Burckhardt found It very accurate ; he detected 
only tnirty-eight errors, of which nine were due to the author, the 
remaining twenty-nine having been caused by the slipping of type 



e 



TABLES 



[itATHSMATiaU^ 



e«^i i„lo?h':xUnt and ace«5.cy any other.^the ^me^md 
the largest of which only reaches 408,000. itus is lue ' 

stroyed. Vega (/o«"«. \'^" S" 102,000, foUowed by a 

!of numbers not divisible by 2. f > ";» "P " ihe e^^ ier editions of 
list of primes from 102,000 to 400 313 la the <^^^'=^;'" j^^bt 

:?o='^%":wSo:Tmo^^ 

Ttbiifoi^^r&i^^^^^^ 

every number up 'o'l°>°°°.'"*°„r« {07 'This table is unique 
spo/ding to «32 .ve liave given 2 -^J^^ Jil^'^T primes up' to 

of 1840. • In Kecss qvc';P^'« (18 9).Jrti;'^i Jn decades. The 

edition, 1864), wnicn P"'? i" ,, , -jjtinles of any one number 
1000 X 1000, so arranged *a*ai'*M™r'J'i^on was published in 
appear on t^e same page Th^ong^ledmoa^^^^ p^^ ^^^^^^ 

■1820 and ^°"'f ,t^ °[ '" "nvenient foUo volume of 450 pages 

|.^^;mS^o?i:^^™4^g?£feKSS 
,f^:^S«^"|fe. e^ th^ jrtruui Ve-i^n 



/v.„„»» isqs-i wHch extends to 40,000. In Merpaut's woA th» 

'^ ?.?=;, Voisin Tabl^ del hhdliplicalions, ou logantJma de$ 



as weU as the most extensive, is '^=■"°".^%'t"'~ VT", Jt ; , ■" 
Society. I^ndon, from the stereotyped, ^t^o^l8«)^ , 



-,i„ the Di"ltipHca"d being five insteadof seven W 1 ^^^^y^^^ 

Tot/, "-/.^f '(f li^^t S'^v n ty a7oubIe arrange'ment The 
number by a single Uigit is fe"'-" 7, . - Rretschncider s, as also 
Icxtcnt of .the Ubie . he --;„„=^„*,^„f i^faiffcrenrLaund/^ table 

■^ '■^' Jl^ont'lO pages anTCichneider's 99 pages. Among 
.occupying ""'y /" r^^c ; a ^^^^^ £i„ma;«-,« to>i Ew^ 

■earlier works may bo noticca uru^o , products up to 

Ms Hunderuauscnd Berlin, l<99^-ataDie^oj j„ ioo,000, 
!ex 10,000. The -thorVf n r-%t^^^^^^^ ,„ ^,^3 'book 
^b"L"L'."^c»dc"nLtlon'or d^ ble arnfngement, the pages are 
/very large, each <:°"'^'"J.fSoTmay be performed by means of 
&T . S^gfeTntTyt'lkKprydi^f^ by the formula ^ 

rThas..tKataWeofquarter.squaxeswe^^^^^^^^^ 

■two numbers by ^"""i^^.? ] '3\'i;^''''TlXgest table of quarter- 
Ifrom tl'e q-;arter.squa,e of thorsum. 1^ g ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ,^ 

iJoveSur'^ISVfl. f"r > netiM of thia book. ^ 



Societv London, from the stereoryiHju iiuic^ >..•-.-/. ■■"— °nn„ 
sqTarel^ cubes, sauare rooU, cube '?o^' ^J^ P'Z^' ^.Xr 
Tho Urffest table of squares and cub»s is K.UI1K, .'«'«" «fr 
Q^iaf^Li^ii*-^"''- (Uipsie,.1848), which gives bo'h as far 
^100 000 Two early tables also give squares as far as 100.000, 

numben Barlow, iMh^tical Toilc. (original editmn. I^nd°n. 
?s?l? mVea the fii4t ten powei-s of the first hundred nutnbeis. The 

1869^andYmi r^°«(.zl^ Logariamen (I844),give squares of, 

^5i:^-i^9IS=pS^. 

5;^.^lt^l A^M^srta^ni^^i^y^- Of ^ Cr., 
(1853),givespowereof2upto2 • x>e Natura rf PrscZaro Tri- -_ 

^ir;5ns"^e^nKnrbe^U7=rtolo.OOO.Jhetable^ 
""Z^r4^% r^'e.g™.cipro^^^^^^ 

(London, 1865). -l"^ ^"M ^;';°_g° logarithms, difference* 
is arranged like a .*fbl« "^ '^^^° "nStg re?inrocal of a number 

t\STulH°pl^'ofTJ;\^i^^^^^^^^^ 

are not common. , jr j„^, rrirj-tirms as Decimals.— TMea'^'oig'' 

TahWor the Exprcsstmof Vulgar FyMl-^a^JJCcx^ fractions 

nators. The most extensive an4 ^abo^j^^^°'^i,*rC«.^^7y of 
published are contained in H?ni-y-^<^^^^ ' ^ Tabular Scries of 
\abUs of all Decimal QuotiefiT^^on^^l^^^^^ 

surpass 1000. The argurnents are not amnged atxorm^^ 
numerators or d«"<''";°=''°f^i\,.?^°\='3y ^frSse frTm -001 ( = r^| 
that the tabuUr -^.^f t^^J^'^'Jv^ ''Sded the table to include all 
to -09989909 =,Vt)- The ^"'■1'" ""^ffiT^?.' ,„ each less than 
fractions whose ""■°="'»' ^"^jf^ri T^^VaW^irci^ (1823) 

r.^^lfthe%STfK^?Sn^^^^^^^^^ 

,■„ .hich the fraction f3 can circulate. :, The Uble occupi. ^ 
pages, some of the periods being of cou^e veryj^.n(,^^^^^^^^^ 

S contains 1020 fibres JJ^"^^^^^ 

complete penods of the r«<='P'°""? " tv„y ^re near W unique of 
Goodwin's tables are very scarce, but as t^ey^are ^ h^ ^^^ , 
their kind they deserve special notice A ^cond^ ^^ ^^^.^ ^^ 

Pird Centenary w^as issued »" l^, '."''I^Xk 60 and the denomk ■" 
^Tabular Scries, the numerator jiotexceeaing ou _ 



llATSntATICAL.] 



TABLES 



9 



- Mtor not exceeding 100. A poathumoiu t&blo of Otau'a, entitled 
.•'Tafel zur Verwandlung gtjmeiner Bruche mit Nennern aus dem 
cnteD Tauiend in Decinialoruche," occurs in voLiL pp. 412-434 of 
hia OttamwulU iVerke (Gottmeen, 1863), and reaemblea Ooodwyn's 
'Table of Cirda. Ou this subject aee a paper "On Circulating 
Decimals, with special reference to Heni^ Ooodwyn's TabU qf 
Circlet and Tatnttar Scries of Decimal Quotients," in Camb. Phil. 
Proc, vol. ill. (1878), pp. 185-206, where is also given a table of the 
periods of fractions correspomling to denominators prime to 10 
from 1 to 1024 obtained by counting from Ooodwyn's table. See 
> also the section on "CirvuLiting Decimals," p. 13 below. 
Seiagesi- Sexagesimal ami Sexcentenary Tables. — Originolly all calculations 
mal and were sexagesimal ; and the relics of the system still exist in the 
Mxcen- division of the de^rree into 60 minutes and the minute into 60 
tenary. seconds. To facilitate interpolation, therefore, in trigonometrical 
^^ and other tables the following large sexagesimal tables were con- 
structed. John Bernoulli, A SejxeTiUnary TabU (London, 1779), 
gives at once the fourth term of any proportion of which the first 
term is 600* and each of the other two is less than 600" ; the 
table is of double entry, and may be more fully described as giving 

the value of „-^ correct to tenths of a second, x and y each con- 

taining a number of seconds less than 600. Michael Taylor, A Sexa- 
gesimal Table (London, 1780), exhibits at sight the fourth term of 
any proportion where the first term is 60 minutes, the second any 
iiumoer of minutes less than 60, and the third any number of 
'minuted and seconds under 60 minutes ; there is also another tablo 
in which the third term is any absolute number under 1000. Not 
much use seems to have been made of these tables, both of which 
were published by the Commissioners of Longitude. Small tables 
for the conversion of sexagesimals into centesimals and vice versa 
.^are given in a few collections, such as Hiilase's edition of Vega. 
Trlgono-'. TrigonoTneirical Tables {Xaiural}. — Peter Apian published inl533 
;aK°.r1cal. a table of sines with the radius divided decimally. The first 
■^j complete canon giving all the six ratios of the sides of a right-angled 
triangle is due to Rhetic^is (1551), who also introduced the semi- 
quadrantal arrangement. Kheticus's canon was calculated for 
every ten minutes to 7 places, and Vieta extended it to every 
minute (1579). In 1554 Reinhold published a table of tangents to 
every minute. The first complete canon published in England was 
by Blunedvilc (1594), although a table oi sines had appeared four 
years earlier. Regiomontanus called his table of tangents (or rather 
coi&ngeQls) tabula /(Ecunda on account of its great use; and till 
(the introduction of the word "tangent" by Finck {GcumctritB 
Rotundi Libri XIV., Basel, 1583) a table of tangents was called a 
, tabula facuiida OT canon /(scundus. Besides " tangent," Finck also 
introduced the word "secant," the table of secants having pre- 
' viously been called tabula bencjica by Maurolycus (1558) and tabula 
fcBCundissiTna by Vieta. 

! By far the greatest computer of pure trigonometrical tables is 
George Joachim Rheticus, whose worK Las never been superseded. 
His celebrated ten-decimal canon, the Opus Palalinum, was pub- 
;lished by Valentine Otho at Neustadt in 1596, and in 1613 hia 
fifteen-decimal table of sines by Pitiscus »t Frankfort under tho 
title Thesaurus Malhematicus. The Opus Palalinum contains a 
complete ten-decimal trigonometrical canon for every ten seconds 
'o( the quadrant, semiuu ad ran tally arranged, with differences for 
all the tabular results ttroughout. Sines, cosines, and secants are 
^iven on the left-hand pages in columns headed respectively 
i.'.'PerpenJiculum," "Basis," "H)-potenusa," and on the right-hand 
appear tangents, cosecants, and cotangents in columns headed 
respectively " Perpendiculum," " Hypotenusa," "Basis." At his 
dea:h Rheticus left the canon nearly complete, and the trigonometry 
(was finished and the whole edited by Valentine Otho ; it was named 
jin honour of the electorpalatine Frederick IV., who bore the ex- 

fase of publication. The Thesaurus of 1613 gives natural sines 
• every ten seconds throughout tho quadrant, to 15 places, semi- 
adrantally arranged, with first, second, and third differences, 
'natural sines are also given for every second from 0°to l°and from 
89° to 90°, to 15 places, with first and second differences. The 
rescue of the manuscript of this work by Pitiscus forms a striking 
episode in the history of mathematical tables. The alterations and " 
Wmtndations in the earlier part of the corrected edition of the Opus 
Palalmum were made by Pitiscus, who had his suspicions that 
Rheticus had himself calculated a ten-second table of sines to 15 
decimal places ; but it could not be found. Eventually the lost 
canon was discovered amongst the papers of Rheticus, which had 
twssed Trom Otho to James Christmann on the death of the former. 
Aratongst these Pitiscus found (1) the ten-second table of sines to 
15 places, with first, second, and third differences (printed in the 
ITtesaurus) ; (2) sines for every second of the first and last degrees of 
,the quadrant, also to 15 places, with first and second differences ; 
(3) the'comiaencement of^ a canon of tangents and seiants, to the 
same numbei of decimal places, for every ten seconds, with first and 
second diffcreoceg ; (4) a complete minute canon of sines, tangents, 
and secants, also to 16 decimal places. These tables taken in 
connexion with_the_OJ?i« £aUuinum give on idea of the e nonnona 



labours undertaken by Rheticus : his tables not only remain toi 
this day tbe ultimate authorities but formed the data whereby Vlacq' 
calculated his logarithmic canon. Pitiscus says that for twelvo' 
years Rheticus constantly had computers at work. ^ 

A history of trigonometrical tables by lliitton was prefixed to 
all the early editions of his Tables of Luganthins, and forms Tract' 
xix. of his MalAejimtual Tracts, vol. i. iip. 278-300, 1812. A good 
deal of bibliographical information abuut tho Opus Palalinum 
and earlier tiigoiiouictrical tables is given in Lie Morgan's articlo 
"Tables" in the English Vyclupxdta. The invention of lognruhmt 
the year after the. publication of Kheticus's volume l>y Pitiscuy 
changed all the methods of calculation ; and it is worthy of not^" 
that Napier's original tablo of 1614 was a logarilhmic caiiun of sine* 
and not a table of the logantlims of numbers. The Iug.iritli';iic; 
canon at once superseded the natural canon; and sIiilc I'ltis.-us's 
time DO really extensive table of pure trigonometrical fun^ tio'is hai 
appeared. In recent years tho employment of the ariihrnometer 
of Thomas de Colmar has revived the use of tables of natural 
trigonometrical functions, it being found convenient for some 
purposes to employ an arithmometer and a natural canon instead 
of a logarithmic canon. Junge's Tiifcl der wirklichen Lanye der 
Sinus und Cosinns (Leipsic, 1864) was published with tins obioct,! 
It gives natural sines and cosines for every ten seconds of*^ the 
quadrant to 6 places. F. M. Clouth, Tables pour le Calcul der 
Coordonnics G(mioin4lriques (Mainz, n.d.), gives natural sines ano 
cosines (to 6 places) and their first nine multiples (to 4 [ilaces) for, 
every centesimal minute of tho quadrant. Talks of natural func-' 
tions occur in many collections, the natural and logarithmic value* 
being sometimes given ou opposite pages, sometimes side by sido 
on the same page. 

The following works contain tables of trigonometrical functioni 
other than sines, cosines, and tangents. Pasquich, Tahulte Log-'. 
arithmico-Trig(/nometricselXe\'^s,\<:, 1817), contains a table of sin'a:^i 
cos-x, tan^s, cot-i from x= 1 to 45° at intervals of 1' to 5 places.', 
Andrew, Astronomical and Kautical Tables (London, 1S05), con.' 
tains a table of "squares of natuial semichords," i.e., of sin' Jj^ 
from 1 = 0° to 120° at intervals of 10" to 7 places. This table has' 
recently been greatly extended by Major-Gcneral Hannyngton if- 
his Haversincs, Natural and Logarithmic, used in computing Lunat 
Distances for the Nautical Almanac (London, 1876). The nam," 
"haversine," now frequently used in works upon navigation, is a: 
abbreviation of "half versed sine"; viz., the haversine of J is equ» ' 
to J(l-cosr), that is, to sin-Ja;. The table gives logaritlimi 
haversincs lor every 15" from 0° to 180°, and natural haversincs fu 
every 10" from 0° to 180°, to 7 places, except near the beginnin/ 
where tho logarithms arc given to only 5 or 6 pl.ices. The wor 
itself oecupies 327 folio pages, and was suggested by Andrew's. ■ 
copy of which by chance fell into Hannyngton's hands. Hali. . 
nyngton recomputed the whole of it by a partly mechanics' 
metncKl, a combination of two arithmometere being emfiloycii 
A table of haversincs is useful for the solution of siiheiical triangle 
when two sides and the included angle ate given, and in manj 
other problems in spherical trigonometry. Andrew's origins' ' 
tablo seems to have attracted veiy little notice. Hannyngton'' • 
was printed, on the recommendation of the superintendent o - 
the Nautical Almanac oflice, at the public cost. Before the car ' ' 
culation of Hannyngton's table Farley's Natural Versed Sin* 
(London, 1856) was used in the Nautical Almanac office in coi;. 
puting lunar distances. This fine table contains natural versir 
sines from 0° to 125° at intervals of 10" to 7 places, with proportione-' 
parts, and -kg versed sines from 0° to 135 at intervals of 15" to.- ' 
places. The arguments are also given in time. The manuscri:- 
was used in the office for twenty-five years before it was printeo 
Traverse tables, which occur in most collectioui of navigativ ■ 
tables, contain multiples of sines and cosines. 

Common or Briggian Logarithms of Numbers and TngoriC' Oomtnon 
metrical Ratios. — ?or an account of the invention and history of or Bng- 
logarithms, see Logarithms (voL xiv. p. 773) and Napier. The gian log- 
following are the fundamental works which contain the results of arithms, 
tho original calculations of logarithms of numbers and trigono- 
metrical ratios :—Briggs,yin'(Am«(icn Logarilhmica (London, 1624), 
logarithms of numbers from 1 to 20,000 and from 90,000 to 100,000 
to 14 places, with interscript differences ; Vlacq, Anthmclica Log- 
arithmica (Gouda, 1628, also an English edition, London. 1631. 
the tables being the same), ten figure logarithms of nu.ubers from 
1 to 100.000, with differences, also log sines, tangents, and secants 
(or every minute of the quadrant to 10 places, with interscript 
differences; Vlacq, Trigonometna Artifcialis (Gouda. 1633). log 
sines and tangents to every ten seconds of the qu.adront to 10 
places, with differences, and ten-figure logarithms of numbers np 
to 20,000, with differences ; Briggs, Triqonometria Britannica 
/London, 1633), natural sines to 15 places, tangents and secants 
to 10 places, log sines to 14 places, and tangents to 10 places,! / 
at intervals of a hundredth of a degree from 0° to 45° with 
interscript differences for all the functions. In 1794 Ve'tra re^i 
printed at Leipsic Vlacq 's two works in a single folio voliimej 
ThAsaurufLogariiiimorum Computus. ^ The arrangcuient of thfr 

XXIII. — 2 ' • 



10 



TABLES 



[ MATU EMATIC AL, 



tableof loeanthmsof numbers is more rompendiou3 thau in Vlacq, 
being Similar lo th.it of np or-iinary seven figure table, but it is not 
60 convenient, as mistakes m taking out the diffprences are more 
liable to occur The tnt;onnmtitrical un-ni gives log sines, cosines, 
tangents, and ootangfuts. fiom 0" to 2' ai init-rvals of one second, 
to 10 places. wTlhuut ditfereuces. and for the rest of the quadrant 
at iuter\-als of u-ti s.-conds The tngonmn.'tncal canon is not 
wholly rrprinted from rh..' Tri,jnnonirJr,,x ArttJ\r,ialis, as the log- 
arithiiis lor cwry scrood of the first tw4» d.-gri-fs. which do not occur 
in Vlacq. wtre calculated for the work by Lieutenant Dorfmond. 
Vega df voted great attention to the deti-rnon of errors m Vlacq's 
logarithms of numbers, and has j^ven sevt-ral iniiwrlant errata h.sts. 
M Lclort (Amtoles dc i Ohscrnnioirr dc /'■tris. vol iv } has given a 
full errata list m Vlac:q s;iiid Vegi* s lo;;;trilhmsofnumbeis, obtained 
by compiirison wuh the gieat Krenrli manuscript Tahles da Cad- 
astre (>f.v LouARil HMs, p 776 , romp ;ilso Monthly AWiWJ of Roy. 
Ast. Soc for May l'*7-2. June 1S72. Marrh 1873. and 1874, suppl. 
numberV Vega seems not to have bfst/>wed on the trigonometrical 
canon anything like the i*.are that he devoted to the loganthms of 
numbers, as O^iuss ' estimates the loul of laxt figure errors at from 
*31,983 to 47.746. most of them only amounting to a unit, but 
some to as much as 3 or 4 As these errors m the Triguruyinetna 
Artijlciaiis still n-main uncorrected, it cannot be said that a 
reliable ten place logarithmic tngonometnral canon exista The 
calculator who has occasion to perform work requiring ten-figure 
logarithms of numbers should use Vlacj) s ArUhTrw.ficn L'tgantUrn tea 
of 1628, after r-arefully correcting the errors pointed out by Vega 
and Lefort. After Vlacq. Vega 9 Thesaurus is the next b^st table . 
and Pinetos Tnbht de Lofiarilhmr.s l^ufgairesd l>ix Df-cimaU^, am- 
Struit^s d'npris iin jioui'e/ju modft (St Peter'^bur;'. 1871), though a 
tract of only 80 pages, may be usefully employed when V'lacq and 
Vega are unproi arable. Pinelos work eousLsts of three tables: 
the fir!!t. or auxdiary table, rontauis a series of factors by which 
the numbers whose logarithms are reiiuired are to be multiplied 
to bring them within the range of t.tble 2 . it also gives the loga 
nthmsof the reciprocals of these factors to 1"2 places Table 1 merely 
gives logarithms to 1000 to 10 pl-v. es. Table 2 gives logarithms 
from l.OOO.OOO to 1.01 1.000. with proporti">nal parts to hundredths. 
The mode of using these tables is as follows. If the logarilluu 
cannot be taken out directly from talile 2. a factor M i» found rn)m 
the auxiliary table by which the number must be multiplied to bring 
it WTthin the range of table 2, Then the loganthtn can be taken 
out. and. to neutralize the effect of the multiplication, so far as the 

result is concerned, log ( ^.\ roust be added , this quantity is there- 
fore given in an adjoining column to M in the auxiliary table. A 
similar procedure gives the number answering to any logarithm, 
another factor (approximately the reciprocal nf J/) being given, so 
that in both cases multiplication is used. The laborious part of 
the work is the multiplication by M , but this is somewhat com- 
pensated for by the ease with which, by means of the proportional 
parts, the logarithm is taken out. The factors are 300 m number, 
and are chosen so as to minimize the labour, only 25 of the 300 
consisting of three figures all different and not involving or 1. 
The principle of multiplying by a factor which is subsequently 
cancelled by subtracting its logarithm is used also in a tract, con- 
taining only ten pages, published by M.M Naraur and Mansion at 
Brussels in 1877 under the title Tables dc Logantkmcs A 12 dtcimales 
jusqu'd. 4S4 milliards Here a Uble is given of logarithms of 
numbers near to 434,294, and other numbers are brought wnthiu 
the range of the table by multiplication by one or two factors 
The logarithms of the numbers near to 434.294 are selected for 
tabulation because tlieir ditferences commence with the figures 100 
. . . and the presence of the zeros in the difference renders the inter- 
polation easy 

II seven figure logarithms do not give sufTicientlv accurate results, 
it is- usual to havf recourse to ten figure tables , with one exception, 
there exist rio tibles giving 8 01 9 hjjures. The exception is John 
Newton's Tri^jonontrfnu BrUnmuva (London. 1658), which gives 
logarithms of numliers to 100,000 to 8 places, and fllso log sines 
and tangents toi evi-ry eentesiiiMl luiiiuted e.. the nme-thousandth 
part ol a nght angle), and also log mnks. and tangents for the first 
three degrees of the quadrant to 5 places, the interval being the 
one-thousandth [)ari ot a ileL'ree. This table is also unique in 
that It gives (111* logaiiThfiis o( (he <li[ferf nc-.'s insteail of the actual 
dilU-reii'-es Tin- ;uran;.'<'nipnl of the pige now universal in seven- 
figure tables— with the tilth h;;ures running honzontally along the 
top line ol the pa^;!— is iluf to John Newton 

As a tub' sevfti tiu'ure l(i;;ar it hiiis of nuntbers are nol published 
scpaiatrlv, most tables nl to<:;ii iihnis con lain ing both the logarithms 
of uimiiIk-is aihl a ti);!nriniiii>irie.il eamui Ijabbage ^ and Sang's 
logaiithins are exceptiiuial and give logarithms of numbers only. 
Balibu^'e. Tiit'le of (In- l.i"i'ir,ihms 0/ the An/urn/ XninOrrs from 1 
to lOSjiOO (l.nnilnn. slt'in. typed in 1«27 ; there are several tirages 

1 Si-f his ■■ Kiinjie Di'Mii rkuii)^eii <ii Vci-a > Ttir^iarns Lof/oritfivtoryin,' tu 
j{*trn>.nmi'<t>, ^.nfirirhlrn for 1b:>I (repruilcil in Ins Wcrhe, vui ui. itp. 2.'t7-;j64j', 
ftlso MoHlhly A'uliccj Hoy. Aat 60c. lor May lH7it 



of later dates), is the best for ordinary use Oreat pains were takeo 
to get the maximum of clearness The change of tij^ure in the 
middle of the block of numlwrs is marked by a change of type m^ 
the fourth figure, which {with the sole exception of the asterisk^- 
13 the t»est method that has been Uied Copies of the buok 
were printed on paper uf different eoloury — yelluw, brown, 
green. &.c —as it was consuler'-d that black on a while grounJ 
was a fatigumg combinatioy (or the eye The lalHci were also 
Lssued unth title-pages and inttoductiuus in 4ti|i<-r laiiiiuages. Tho 
book IS not very e.a^y to procure uuw In 1^71 Mr Sany publtsheil', 
A Aetv Tablf uf S'Vn-placc tw/ar-i/hmi. u/ all Aunilcrs from 
20000 to 201(000 (L*)ndou). In au or.imary uble extruding from, 
10.000 to 100. OoO the differences near the b»-ginniug are so ounicrousi 
that the proportional parts are either veiy crowded or sonic of 
them omitted ; by making the table extend honi 2U.0UO lo 200,000- 
instead of from lO.O'iO 10 lUO 000 the dilleren>es are halved in 
niagtiirude, while there are only one-fourth as many in a [>age. 
There is also greater accuracy A further peculiarity of this lablo 
13 that multiples of the ddferences, instead of jiroportional parts, 
are given at the side of the page Typographically the table is 
exceptiouaL, as there are no rules, the numbers being separated 
from the loganthms by reversed commas. This wurk was lo a 
great extent the result of an original calculation , see Edinburgh 
Traiisactunis, vol xxvl {1871) Mr Sang proposed to publish a 
nine figure table from 1 to 1,000,000, bu.i the requisite support 
was not obliiined. Vanous p.apers of Mr Sang's relating to his 
lifganthmic t:al<ulatiou3 vnW be found in the Edinburgh Proceedings 
subsequfut to 1S72. In this ixmnexion reference should be made 
to Abraham Sharp's tabic of logarithms of numbers from 1 lo lOO 
and of primes from 100 to 1 100 to 61 places, also of numbers from 
999,990 to 1.000.010 to 63 places These first appeared in Gcomctnf 
hnprov'd by A S Philimuith (LoDdou, 17 17)- They have been 

republished id Sherwin's, Callet's, and the earlier editions of 
Hultons tables. Paikhurst, Jistronomical Tables (New York, 
1871), gives loganthms of numbers from 1 to 109 lo 102 places.' 

In many seven-tigure tables of logarithms of numbers tne value* 
of .Sand fare given at the top of the page, with K, the variation of 
each, for the purpose of deducing log sines and tangents. S &nd T 

denote log ' and log respectively, the arguments belong 

the number of seconds denoted by certain numbers (sometimea 
only the first, sometimes every tenth) in the number column on 
each page. Thus, in Callet s tables, on the page on which the first 

«, « « . sin 6720' . „ , tan 6720" ,., ^, 
Dumber is 67200, S = log ^^.^^ and T = log ^^.^^ . whJe th© 

V^s are the variations of each for 10" To find, for example, log 
r^52'12"7, or log sin 6732"7, we have 5=46854980 and log 
6732-7-3 8281893, whence, by addition, we obtain 8-5136873 j 
but y for 10" is - 229, whence the variation for L2"7 is - 3, and 
the log sine required is 8-5136870. Tables of S and T are fre- 
quently called, after their Inventor, "Delambres tables." Some 
seven figure tables extend to 100,000, and others to 108,000, the 
last 8000 logarithms, to 8 places, being given to ensure greater 
accuracy, as near the beginning of the numbers the differences are 
large ana the interpolations more laborious and less exact than in 
the rest of the table The eight-figure logarithms, however, at the 
end of a seven-figure table are liable lo occasion errcFT ; for the 
computer who is accustomed to three leading figures, common to 
the block of figures, may fail to notice that in this part of the 
table there are four, and so a figure (the fourth) is sometimes 
omitted in taking out the logarithm. In the ordinary method 
of arranging a seven-figure table the change in the fourth figure, 
when It occurs in the course of the line, is a source of frequent 
error unless it is ven' 'it-arly indicated In the earlier tables the 
change was not marked at all. and the computer had to decide 
for himself, each time he took out a logarithm, whether the third 
figure had to be increased. In some tables the line is brokea 
wliere the change occurs , but the dislocation of the figures and 
the corresponding irregularity in the lines are very awkward. 
Babbage prinied the fourth figure in small type after a change. 
The best method seems to be that of prefixing an asterisk to the 
fourth figure of each loganthm after the- change, as is done in 
Schron's and tnany other modern tables This is heautifully clear 
and the asterisk at once catches the eye. Shortrede and Sang 
replace after a change by a jiokfa (resembling a diamond in a 
pack of cards). This is verv clear m the case of the O's, but leaves 
unmarked the cases in whidi the fourth figure is 1 or 2. Babbage 
printed a subscript point under the last figure of each logarithm 
that had been increased. Schron used a bar subscript, which, 

2 Legendre (Tmif/ de.* FcTctwvi ElhpUqv/s. vol. ii-, ls2fi) gives a table of 
n.ilurai sines to 15 piares, wml <>f In;; smcS to H places, fur evi-ry 15' of the 
quadrant, iind also n l-ible ol I'-cantlutis nf uneven imnibers frnm 1)03 to 1501, 
aiei of pntiifv from l.SQi in 10,000 to l.t places Thr l.Tticr. wt.icli wabextraciei 
Iriim hie Tohlrs tJu I'tuiastTt. is ft cnnrumatinn of a Uil.le 111 Gar-liner'a 
Tiiblfi' uf Lofftr.lhms (London. lT-1'2 . rHpnntod at Avignon, f'O), which pivev 
l-'Rantliiiis (if all numbers lo lOOO. and ol uneven rum ben- from 1000 to 1)43;. 
Le^cuUre s tables also appeared In his Exercices dt Calcul inugrol^ vol. iU. (l^l^X 



aUTHEMATICAl.] 



TABLES 



11 



bcin" moro obtrnsiTc, is not so satisfactory. In some tables tlie 
inci-rase of th» last BRwro is only marked when the fif^ure is iji- 
ereased to a 5, anvl then a Roman five (v) is used in place of the 
Arabic Bgure. Hereditary errors in logarithmic tables are con- 
sidered in two najiers " On the ProCTCss to Accuracy of Logarithmic 
TVibles"anJ "On Logarithmic Tables" in Shnihly ti'otices of Roy. 
AsL Sx. for 1873. Sec also the Monthly Kotkcs for 1874, p. 248 ; 
tnd a paper by Cemcrth, ZUch. f. d. osferr. Gymn., Heft vi. p. 407. 
■■ Passioc now to the logarithmic trigonometrical canon, the first 
great advance after the publication of tlie Triganmnttria Artificials 
in 1C33 was made by Michael Taylor, Tables cf Logarithms (linden, 
1792), which gives log sines and tangents to every second of the 
qoadrant to 7 places. This table contains about 450 pages with 
'an average uumbcr of 7750 figxires to the pa^. so that ttiere are 
:»ltogether nearly three millions and a half of hgures. The change 
iin the leading figures, when it occurs ill a column, is not marked at 
.»U ; and the table must be used with ver)' great caution. In fact it 
'is advisable to go through the whole of it, and fill in with ink tho 
ifirst after the change, as well as make some mark that will catch 
jthc eye at the head of every column containing a change. Tho table 
".was calrulatetl by interpolation from the Trigano^rutria Arlificialis 
;to 10 places and then reduced to 7, so that tho last figure should 
'nlways be correct. Partly on account of the absence' of a mark to 
denote the change of figure in the column and partly on account of 
■the size of the table and a somewhat inconvenient arrangement, the 
;Tvork seems never to have come into very general use. Computers 
■have always preferred Bagay's Nouvtlles Tables Aslronomiqucs cl 
■Hydrographiques (Paris, 1829), which also contains a complete 
■ logarithmic canon to every second. The change in tho column Ls 
'very. clearly marked by a large black. nucleus, surrounded by a 
:circle, printed instead of zero. ' Bagay's work has now become 
>ery rare. The only othjr canon to every second that has been 
'published is contained in Shortredc's Logarithmic Tables (Edin. 
.Durgh). This work was oftonally issued in 1344 in one volume, 
but being dissatisfied with it Shortredc is.sued a new edition in 
:1849 in two volumes. Tho first volume contains logarithms of 
numbers, antilogarithms, &c., and tho second the trigonometrical 
canon to every second. The volumes are sold separately, and may 
be regarded as independent works ; they are not even described on 
their title-TOges as voL i. and vol. ii. The trigonometrical canon is 
'very oom[iicte in every respect, the arguments being given in time 
as well as in arc, full proportional parts being ailded, &c The 
'change of figure in the column is denoted by a nokta, printed instead 
of where the change occurs. 

i Of tables in which the miadrant is divided centcsimally, the 
principal are Hobert and Ideler, Nofuvclles Tables Trigonomitriqucs 
,'< Berlin, 1799), and Borda and Dclambre, Tables Trigonometrigiccs 
'■Decimnlcs (Paris, 1801). The former give, among other tables, 
'natural and log sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents, to 7 places, 
the arguments proceeding to 3° at intervals of 10" and thence to 60° 
at intcrv.ils of 1' (centesimal), and also natSral Rines and tangents 
for the first hundred ten-thousandths of a right angle to 10 places. 
The latter gives log sines, cosines^ tingents, cotangents, secants, 
and cosecants from 0° to 3° at intervals of 10" (with full proportional 
■parts for ever}' secoml), and thence to 50° at intervals of 1 (ccntesi- 
'Dial) to 7 places. There is also a tabjfe of log sines, cosines, tangents, 
and cotangents from 0* to 10' at intervals of 10"^nd from 0° to 50° 
at intervals of IC (centesimal) to 11 places. Hobert and Ideler 

S've a natural as well as a logarithmic canon ; but Borda and 
elambre give only the latter. Borda and Dclambre give serert-- 
figure logarithms of numbers to 10,000, the line being broken when 
'» change of figure takes place in it 

) In Briggs's Trigonomctria Britannica of 1633 the degree is 
divided centesimally, and but for the appearance in the same year 
of Vlacq's Trigmwmetria Arlificialis, in which the-deeree is divided 
aexagesimally, this reform might have been effected. It is clear 
that the most suitable time for effecting such a change was when 
the natural canon was replaced b'y the logarithmic canon, and 
Briggs took advantage of this opportunity. He left the degree 
unaltered, bat divided it centesimally instead of sexagesimally, 
thus ensuring the advantages of decimal division (a saving of 
work in interpolations, multiplications, &c ) with tho minimum of 
change. The French mathematicians at the end of the 18th century 
divided the right angle centesimally, completely changing the whole 
system, with no appreciable advantages over Briggs's ^stem. In 
fact the Centesimal degree is as arbitrary a unit as tne nonagesimal, 
and it is only the non-centesimal subdivisioii of the degieo that 
irh'es rise to inconvenience. Briggs's example was followea by Roe, 
Onghtred, and other 17th-century writers ; but the centesimal divi- 
iion of the degree seems to have entirely passed out of use, till it 
was recently revived by Bremiker in his Logarithmisch-trigono- 
metrisehe Tafeln mil fiinf-Dtdmahttllen (Berlin. 1872). This little 
book of 158 pages givea-a five-figure canon to every hundredth of a 
degree with proportional parts, besides logaritbmC of numbers, 
addition- and subtraction logarithms, &c. 

I Colttetiona of Tables. — For a computer who reqnires in one 
^olmna logarithms of numbers and a ten-second loganthmic canon, 



perhaps the two best liooks arc Schron, Snvn'Fig}tr(: Logarithm f: Co]\t$ 
(London, 1865, stereotyped, an English edition of the German work lions, 
published at Bronswick), and Bruhn.s, A New Man'iiai of Logarithms 
to Seven Places of Z)ccij?iais (Leip^'*ie, JS70). Both give logarithms 
of numbers and a complete ten-second canon to 7 places ; Bruhns 
also gives log sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents to every 
second up to 6° with proportional parts. Schron contains an inter- 
polation table, of 75 pages, giving the first 100 multiples of all 
numbers from 40 to 420. The logarithms of numbers extend to 
108,000 in Schron and to 100,000 in Bruhns. Almost «|ually; 
convenient is Brcmiker's edition of Vega's Logarithmic Tables' 
(Berlin, stereotyped ; the English edition was translated from tho 
fortieth edition of Dr Brcmiker's by W. L. F. Fischer). This book 
gives a canon to every ten secoiuis, and for the fir-st five degree* 
to every second, with logarithms of numbers to 100, 000^ All these" 
works give the proportional parts for all tho diflurences in tho 
logaritluns of numbers. In Babbagc's, Callct's, and many other 
tables only every othec^able of proiwrtional p.irts is given near tho 
beginning for want of apace. Schron, Bruhus, and most moderu 
tables published in Germany have title-pages and introductions. 
in different languages. Dunuis, Tables de Logarithmoc A sept 
Decimates (stereotyfied, thiril tirage, 1868, Paris), is also very: 
convenient, containing a tcn-Rccond canon, besides logarithms of 
numbers to 100,000, hyperbolic logarithms of numbers to 1000, to 7 
places, kc. In this work negative characteiislics oro printedj 
throughout in the tiblcs of circiuar functions, the minus sign beings 
placed aliove the Cgunj ; these are preferable to the ordinary char- 
acteristics that are incrca-sed by 10. This is the only work we know- 
in which negative characteristics are used. The edges of the pages 
containing the circular functions are red, the rest being grey. Dupuuj 
also edited Callet's logarithms in 1862, with which tins work must 
not be confounded. Salomon, ioj^ari/AmwcAcrn/c/H (Vienna, 1827), 
contains a ten-second canon (the intervals being one second for tho- 
first two degrees), logarithms of numbers to 108,000, squares, cubes, 
square roots, and cul"* roots to 1000, a factor table to 102,011, 
ten-place Briggian and hyperbolic logarithms of numbers to 1000- 
and of primes to 10,333, and many other useful tables. The work, 
which is scarce, is a well-printed small quarto volume. 

Of collections of general tables tho most n.seful and accessible ara 
Hutton, Callet, Vega, and Kohler. Button's well-known Mathe- 
matical Tables (London) was first issued in 1785, but considerablo 
additions were made in the fifth edition (1811). "The tables contain 
sevcn;figur6 logarithms to 108,000, and to 1200 to 20 places, some 
antilogarithms to 20 places, hyperbolic logarithms from 1 to 10 at 
intervals of "01 and to 1200 at intervals of unity to 7 places, logistic 
logarithms, log sines and tangents to every second of the first two 
degrees, and natural and log sines, tangents, secants, and versed' 
sines for every minute of the quadrant to 7 places. The naturai. 
functions occupy the left-hand pages and the logarithmic the right/ 
hand. .The finst six editions, published in Button's lifetime (d,' 
1S23), contain Abraham Sharp's 61-figure logarithms of numbers.' 
Olinthus Gregory, who brought out the 1830 and succeeding' 
c<litions, omitted these tables and Button's introduction, whicS- 
contains a history of logarithms,~\he methods of constructing them^- 
&c. Callet's Tables Portatives de Logarithmes (stereotyped, Parisr 
seems to have been first issued in 1783, and has since passeti*. 
through a gr-eat many editions. In that of 1853 the contents are- 
seven-figuro logarithms to 108,000. Briggian and hyperbolic loga-- 
rithms to 48 places of numbers to 100 and of primes to 1097, logs 
sines and tangents Tor minutes (centesimal) throughout the quad-^ 
rant to 7 places, natural and log sines to 15 places for every ten' 
minutes (centesimal) of the quadrant, log sines and tangents for 
every second of the first five degrees (sexagesimal) and for eviry ten. 
seconds of the quadrant (sexage^simal) to 7 places, besides logistic 
logarithms, tho first hundred multiples of the moilulus to 24 places 
and the first ten to 70 places, and other tables. This is one of the 
most complete and practically useful collections of logarithnia thaV 
have been published, and it is peculiar in giving a centesimally 
divided canon. The size of the page in the editions published ir>- 
the 19th century is larger than that of the earlier editions, the type 
having been reset Vega's Tainilte Logariihmo-trigonoitutricfc v&^ 
first published in 1797 in two volumes. The first contains seven-i 
figure logarithms to 101,000, log sines, ic. . for every tenth of a 
^econd to 1', for every second to V 30', for every 10" to 6° 3', and 
thence at intervals of a minute, also natural sines and tangents to 
every minute, all to 7 pla'/es. The second volume gives simple 
divjsws of all numbers up to 102,000, a li-sf of primes from 102,000 
to •400,313, hyperbolic logarithms of numbers to 1000 and of primes 
to 10,000, to 8 places, c' and log|„C to ■! = 10 at intervals of 01 toj 
7 figures and 7 places respectively, the first nine powers of the- 
numbers from 1 to 100, square* and cuWs to 1000, logistic loga-' 
rithms, binomial theorem coclficients, ic. Vega also published 
Manuale LogarithTiLico-trigoitonietnaiin (Leipsic, 1800), tne tables 
in which are identical with a portion of those contained in the first 
volume of the Tabula:. The Tabula: went through many cditions.j 
a stereotyped issue being brought out by }. A. Hulsse (Sammlun^ 
mathematischer Tafdn, Leipsic) in one volume in 1840^^j^Tlifc 



12 

I - ^ . 

cositBts &rc sekrl; the same aa those of the original work, the chief 
dUfennce being that a large table of Oaossian logarithnis is added. 
Vega differs from Hutton and Callet in giving so many useful non- 
lo^rithmic tables, and his collection is in many respects comple- 
mentary to theirs. Schulze, Neue wid erwcittrU Sammlung log- 
arithmischcry IrigonomctTiacher, urid andercr Tafeln (Berlin, 1778, 
2 vols.), is a valuable collection, and contains scven-fignre loga- 
rithms to 101,000, log sines and tangents to 2° at intervals of a 
second, and natural sines, tangents, and secants to 7 places, log 
sines and tangents and Napierian log sines and tangents to 8 
plaoes, all for every ten seconds to 4* and thence for every minute 
to 45°, besides squares, cubes, square roots, and cube roots to 1000, 
■binomial theorem coeflBcients, powers of e, and other small tables. 
Wolfram's hyperbolic logarithms of numbers below 10,000 to 48 

Jilaces first appeared in this work. Lambert, Supplcmenla Tabu- 
arum LoganthmicaTum ct Trigoiiometricarum (Virion, 1798), con- 
tains a number of useful and furious non -logarithmic tables ; it 
bears a general resemblanco to the second volume of Vega, but 
contains numerous other small tables of a more strictly mathe- 
matical character. A very useful collection of non-logarithmic 
tables is printed in Barlow's New MaViematical Tables (London, 
1814). It gives squares, cubes, square roots, and cube roots (to 7 
places), reciprocals to 9 or 10 places, and resolutions into their 
prime factors of all numbers from 1 to 10,000, the first ten powers 
of numbers to 100, fourth and fifth powers of numbers from 100 
to 1000, prime numbers from 1 to 100,103, eight-place hynerbolio 
logarithms to 10,000, tables for the solution of the iiTetlucible case 
tn cubic equations, to;. In the stereotyped reprint of 1840 only 
the squares, cubes, square roots, cube roots, ^id reciprocals aro 
retained. The first volume of Shortrede's tables, in addition to the 
trigonometrical canon to ev6ry second, contains antilogarithms and 
Gaussian logarithms. Hassler, Tabula Logariehmics el Trigono- 
metrical (New York, 1830, stereotyped), gives seven-figure logarithms 
to 100,000, log sines and tangents for every second to 1°, and log 
sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents from 1° to 3° at intervals of 
10" and thence to 45° at intervals of 30". Every effort has beeu 
made to reduce the size of the tables- without loss of distinctness, 
the page being only about 3 by 5 inches. Copies of the work were' 
published with the introduction and title-page in different lan-_ 
piages. Stanley, Tables of Logarithms CSev/ Haven, U.S., 1860), 
gives seven-figure logarithms to 100,000, and log sines, cosines, 
tangents, cotangents, secants, and cosecants at intervals of ten 
seconds to 15° and thence at intervals of a minute to 45° to 7 places, 
besides natural sines and cosines, antilogarithms, and other tables. 
This collection owed its origin to the fact that Hassler's tables were 
found to be inconvenient owing to the smallness of the type. Luvini, 
Tables of logarithms (London, 1866, stereotyped, printed at Turin), 
gives seven -figure logarithms to 20,040, Bnggian and hyperbolic 
logarithms of primes to 1200 to 20 places, log sines and tangents for 
each second to 9', at intervals of 10" to 2°, of 30" to 9°, of 1' to 45° 
to 7 places, besides square and cube roots up to 625. The book, 
which is intended for schools, engineers, &c, has a peculiar arrange- 
ment of the logarithms and proportional parts on the pages. 
Chambers's Mathematical Tables (Edinburgh), containing loga- 
rithms of numbers to 100,000, and a canon to every minute of log 
sines, tangents, and secants and of natural sines to 7 places, besides 
proportional logarithms and other small tables, is cheap and suitable 
tor schools, though not to be compared as regards matter or typo- 
graphy to the best tables described above. Of six-figure tables 
Bremiker's LogaritAmorum VI. Dedmalium Nova Tabula Bero- 
liiunsis (Berlin, 1852) is probably one of the best. It gives 
logarithms of numbers to 100,000, with proportional parts, and 
log sines and tangents for every second to 5°, and beyond this 
pomt for every ten seconds, with proportional parts. Hantschl, 
LogaTnthmisch-trigtmomctrischcs Sandbuch (Vienna, 1827), gives 
five-figure logarithms to 10,000, log sines and tangents for every 
ten seconds to 6 places, natural sines, tangents, secants, and 
versed sines for every minute to 7 places, logarithms of primes 
to 15,391, hyperbolic logarithms of numbers to 11,273 to 8 places, 
least divisors of numbers to 18,277, binomial theorem coefficients, 
&o. Farley's Six-Figure Logarithms (London, stereotyped, 1840) 
gives six-figure logarithms to 10,000 and log sines and tangents for 
every minute to 6 places. Of five-figure tables the most convenient 
is Tables of Logarithms (Useful Knowledge Society, London, from 
the stereotyped plates of 1839), which were prepared by De Morgan, 
though they have no name on the title-page. They contain five- 
figure loganthms to 10,000, log sines and tangents to every minute 
to 5 places, besides a few smaller tables. Lalandc's Tables de 
Logarithmes is a five-figure table with nearly the same contents as 
De Morgan's, first published in 1805. It his since passed through 
many editions, and, after being extended from 5 to 7 places, passed 
through several more. Galbraith and Haughton, Manual of Mathe- 
mniical Tables (London, 1860), give five-figure logarithms to 10,000 
and log sines and tangents for every minute, also a small table of 
Gaussian logarithms. Houel, Tablet de Logarithmes d Cinq Deei- 
males (Paris, 1871), is a very convenient collection of five-figure 
tables ; besides logarithms of numbers and circular functions, there 



TABLES 



[UATEUEMATICAi.' 



are Gaussian logarithms, least divisors of numbers to 10,841, anti- 
logarithms, &c. The work contains 118 pages of tables. ITie same 
author's Recueil de Fonnules et de Tables Numeriques (Paris, 1868) 
contains 19 tables, occupying 62 pages, most of them giving results 
to 4 pLices i they relate to very varied subjects,— antilogarithms, 

Gaussian logarithms, logarithms of -^, elliptic intrcgals. squares 

for use in the method of least squares, i'c. Bremiker Tafetvier- 
atelliger Logarithmen (Berlin, 1874). gives four-figure logaritbmsot 
numbers to 2(i(*9. I'lg sinef, cosines, tangents, and cotangents to 8** 
fori'very hundredth of a degree, and thence to 4.5° for every tenth 
of rt degree, to 4 places. There are also Gaussian logari thms.sqnares 
from U'UOO to 13..5IH). antilogarithms, &c. The book contnins 60 

fiages. Willi^h, Popular Tables (London, 1853), is a useful hoolc, 
or an amateur ; it gives Briggian and hyperbolic logarithms to 
l'.i00 to 7 places, squares, &c., to 343, ic. ' = 

Hi/pcrbolic or Napierian Logarithms. — The logarithms invented' Napierian 
by Napier and explained by him in the Dcscriplio (1614) were not'o^ 
tlie same as those now called natural or hyperbolic (viz., to base,""*™'- 
c), and very frequently also Napierian, logarithms. Napierian 
logarithms, strictly so called, have entirely passed out of use and 
are of purely hisKiric interest ; it is therefore sufficient to refer to 
Logarithms and Nam er, where a full account is given. Apart 
from the inventor's own publications, the only Najiierian tables o( 
importance are containeci in Ursinus's . Trigonometria (Cologne,' 
1624-25) and Schulze's Sammlung (Berlin, 1778), the former being 
the largest that has been constructed. Logarithms to the base e^ 
where e denotes 2'71828, were first published by Speidell, A'n< 
Logarithyjies {\&\^). .. -- 

The most copious table of hyperbolic logarithms is Dase, Tafcl Hype'? 
der ■natiirlichcn Logarithmen (Vienna, 1850), which extends from 1 bolic 
to lOOttat intervals of unity and from 1000 to 10,500 at intervals loga. 
of "1 to 7 places, with differences and proixirtional parts, arranged ritbiTij^ 
as in an ordinary seven-figure table. By adding log 10 to the results 
the range is from 10,000 to 105,000 at intervals of unity. The 
table formed part of the Annals of the Vienna Observatory for 
1851, but separate copies were printed. The most elaborate table 
of hyperbolic logarithms is due to "Wolfram, who calculated to 
43 places tho logarithms of all numbei-s up to 2200, and of alli 
primes (also of a great many coniposite numbers) between this limit 
and 10,009. Wolfram's results first appeared in Schulze's Samm-^ 
lung (1778). Six logarithms which Wolfram had been jjieveuted 
from computing by a serious illness were supplied in the Berliner 
Jnhr/iuch, 1783, p. 191, The complete table was reproduced in 
Vega's Thesaurus (1794), when several errors were corrected.! 
Tables of hyperbolic logarithms are contained in the following 
collections :---Callet, all numbers t» 100 and primes to 1097 to 48 
places ; Borda and Delambre (1801), all numoers up to 1200 to 11 
places; Salomon (1827), all nunibei-s to 1000 and primes to 10,333 
to 10 places ; Vega, Tabulx (including Hulsse's edition, 1840^ and 
Kohler (1848), all numbers to 1000 and primes to 10,000 to 8 places; 
Barlow (1814), all numbers to 10,000 ; Hutton and Willich (1853), 
all numbers to 1200 to 7 jilaces ; Dupuis (1868), all numbers to 
1000 to 7 places. Hutton also gives hyperbolic logarithms from 1 
to 10 at intervals of '01 to 7 places. Rees's Cyclopmdia (1819), art, 
"Hyperbolic Logarithms," contains a table of hyperbolic loga-i 
rithms of all numbers up to 10,000 to 8 places. __ 

Tables to convert Briggian into Hyperbolic Logarithms^ and vice C6bver*> 
versa. — Such tables merely consist of the first hundred (sometimes ^iion of 
only the first ten) multiples of the moduhis '43429 44819... and Briggiau] 
its reciprocal 230258 50929 ... to 5, 6, 8, 10, or more places. They and 
are generally to be found in collections of logarithmic tables, but hyperr 
rarely exceed a page in extent, and are very easy to construct, bolic 
Schron and Bruhns both give the first hundred multiples of the loga- 
modulus and its reciprocal to 10 places, and Bremiker (in liis edition rjthuift 
of Vega and in his six. figure tables) and Dupuis to 7 places, c 
Degen, Tabitlarum Enncas (Copenhagen, 1824), gives the first 
hundred multiples of the modulus to 30 places. . - '- 

Antilogarithms. — In the ordinary tables of loganthms the AntP 
natural numbers are integers, while the logarithms are incommen- loga" 
surable. In an antilogarithmic canon the logarithms are exact ritbJl^ 
quantities, such as '00001, -00002, &c., and the corresponding 
numbers are incommensurable. The largest and earliest work of 
this kind is Dodson's Antilogarithmic Canon (London, 1742), which 
gives numbers to 11 places corresponding to logarithnis fiom to 
1 at intervals of -00001, arranged like a seven-figure logarithmic 
table, with interscript differences and proportional parts at th* 
bottom of the page. This woi k was the only antilogarithmic canon 
for more than a century, till in 1844 Sliortrcde published the '.irst 
edition of his tables ; in 1849 he published tha second edition, anj 
in the same year Filipowski's tables appoared. Both these, work* 
cont.ain seven-figure antilogarithms: Snortredo gives numbers to 
logarithms from to 1 at intervals of -00001, will) diffejcnces and 
multiples at the top of tho page, and Filinowski, A Table of Anti- 
logarithms (London, 1849), contains a table of tho same extent, tlw 
proportional parts being given to hundredths. ' 

__ Addition and Subtraction, or Oaussian, Logarithmt,— The ohiM 



TABLES 



13 



Cmssiu of snch tables b to gire log (a±S) by only one entry when log a 
lop- . mJ log 4 are given (see Looabithmr, vol. iit. p. 777X Let 

"'*■*-.,,,- A^Xogx,. £=log(l+^), C=log(l+i). ■^•^T' 

letTuig out the specimen tsble in Leonclli's ThiorU da LogarMvus 
AdditionntU el Diducti/a (Bordeaux, 1303), the principal tables are 
the following. Gauss, in Zach's MonatHehe Corrcapondem (181 2),' 
giving B ana C for argument A from to 2 at intervals of 001, 
thence to 3 40 at intervals of 01, aud to 5 at intervals of 1, all to 
E places. This table is reprinted in Gauss's IVcrke, vol. iii. p. 244. 
llattbiessen. Ta/el lur bapiemem Berechnung (Altona, 1818), giving 
'fsnd C to 7 places for argument A from to 2 at intervals of 
•0001, thence to 3 at intervals of 001, to 4 at intervals of 01, and 
to 5 at intervals of '1 ; the table is not conveniently arranged. 
Peter Gray, Tabid and ^ormu^ (London, 1849, and "Addendum," 
1870), giving C for argument A from to 2 at intervals of 0001 
to 6 places, with proportional parts to hondredtlis, and lo^(l -i) 
for argument A from 3 to 1 at intervals of "001 and from 1 to 1'9 
at inlervals of ■flOOl, to 6 places, with proportional parta. Zech, 
Tafeln der Additions, und Subtra/Uion^ ■ Lcgariihmen (Leipsic, 
1849), giving B for argument A from to 2 at intervals of '0001, 
, thence to 4 at intervals of 001 and to 6 at inlervals of 01 ; 
«lso C iat argument A from to 0003 at intervals of- 0000001, 
thence to 05 at intervals of 000001 and to 303 at intervals of 
"00001, all to 7 places, with proportional parts. These tables are 
reprinted from Hulsse's edition of Vega (1849) ; the 1840 edition 
of Hulsse's Vega contained a reprint of Gauss's original table. 
Wittstein, LogarUhma de Gauss A Sept D/cimalcs (Hanover, 1866), 
giving B for argument A from 3 to 4 at intervals of 1, from 4 
to 6 at intervals of 01, from 6 to 8 at intervals of •001, from 8 to 
10 at intervals of 0001, also from to 4 at the same intervals. 
'In this handsome work the arrangement is similar to that in a 
6even-6gure logarithmic table. Gauss's original 6ve. place table 
was repnnted in Pasquich, Tabulm (Leipsic, 1817); Kohler, ycrom« 
■de la irtJuiM To/efn (Leipsic, 1832), and Havdbuch (Leipsic, 1848) ; 
nnd Galbraith and Haughlon, Mantial (London, 1860). Houel, 
TabUs de iogari/AmM (1871), also gives a small five-place tible 
of Gaussian logarithms, the addition and subtraction logarithms 
being separated as in Zech. Modified Gaussian logaritlims are 
given by J. H. T. JIuller, Vierstelhgc Loga-nthmen (floiha^ 1844), 

viz., a four-place table of B and -log (l - -) from A = to 03 

'at intervals of 0001, thence to -23 at intervals of '001, to 2 at 
'inten-als of '01, and to 4 at inlervals of 1 ; and by Shortrcde, 
Logarxthmie Tables (vol. L, 1849), viz., a five-pl.ice table of B 
■ and log (1 +x) from y< = 5 to 3 at intervals of 1, from A = 3 to 27 
,»t intervals of 01, to 13 at intervals of ;O0I. to 3 at intervals 
'of "01, and to 5 at inlervals of "1. Filipdwski's AjUilogarUhms 
'■(1849) contains Gaussian logarithms arranged in a new way. The 
principal table gives log (z+ 1) as tabular result for log x as 
argument from 8 to 14 at inler^'als of "001 to 5 places. Weiden- 
bach, Ta/cl um den Logariihmen (Copeuhagen, 1829), gives 

log — ; for argument A from "382 to 2"002 at intervals of -001, to 
z- 1 , ' 

3"6 at intervals of '01, and to 5'5 at intervals of '1, to 5 places. 
Logistic Logistic and Proportional Lcgarilkins. — In most collections of 
-and pro- tables of logarithms a five-place table of logistio logarithms for 
portion- every second to 1" is given. Logistic tables give log 3600 - log x 
al loga- at intervals of a second, x being expressed in degrees, minutes, 
rithmsu and seconds, Schulze(1778)and Vcga{i797) have them tox = 3600" 
And Collet and Hutton toI = 5280^ Proportional logarithms for 
every second to 3" (i.e., log 10,800-Iogx) form part of nearly all 
collections of tables n-lating to navigation, generally to 4 places, 
Bometimcs to 5. Bagay, Tables (1829), gives a live-place table, 
but such are not often to be found in collections of mathematical 
tables. The same remark applies to tables of proportional loga- 
rithms for every minute to 24", which give to 4 or 5 places the values 
of log 1440-logz.. The object of a proportional or logistic table, 
or a table of log a - log a:, is to facilitate the calculation 01 propor- 
tiuDs in which the third teriQ is a. 
iBterpo- JnUrpolalian Tables — All tabled of proportional parts may "be 
lation regarded as interpolation tables. Bremiker, Tafel der Proportional- 
tables.^ ll^le (Berlin, 1843), gives proportional parts to hundredths of all 
Dcfmbera from 70"to699. Scnroo, LogariUi-ms, contains an inter- 
polation table giving the first hundred multiples of all numbers 
.from 40 to '410. Tables of the values of binomial theorem coef- 
ficients, which are required when second and higher orders of differ- 
ences are used, are describerl below. Woolhouse, OnJnterjtolaliont 
:SuinT7ialion^ and the AdjuStjnent of Nwmerical Tables (London, 
: 1865), contains nine pages of interpolation t-ibles. The book con- 
sists of papers extracted from vols. xi. and xii. of the Assurance 
Magazine. 
Dual Dual Logarithms.— This term is used by Mr Oliver Byrne in his 

logi- - Jhial Arithmetic, young Lhial Arithmetician, Tables of Dual 
nthms. ioyoriMmj, &C. (London, 1863-67). A dual number of the ascend- 
isj; btaoch is a continued product of powers of 11, 101, 1001, ic. 



taken in order, the powers onlv being expressed; thus a 6,9,7,8 
denotes (1 1)«(1'01)9(1'001)'(1 oobl)', the numbers following tha 
■^ being called dual digits, A dual number which has all bilt tha 
last digit zeros is called a dual logarithm ; the author uses dual 
logarithms in which there are seven ciphers between the j, aud tha 
logarithms. A dual number of the descending branch is a con- 
tinued product of powers of '9, '99, &c. : for instance, ( 9)'( 99)" is 
denoted by ■3'2T. The Tables, which occupy 112 pages, giva 
dual numbers and logarithms, both of the ascending and descends 
ing branches, and the corresponding natural numbers. The author 
claimed that his tables were superior to those of common logarithms. 

Constards. — In nearly all tables of logarithms there is a page de- Cori- 
Toted to certain frequently used coDsUnts and their logarithms, staattk 

such OS T, -, ifi, sjv. A specially good collection is printed in 

Templeton's Millwright s and Engineer s Poel'ct Companion (cor« 
reeled by S. Maynard, London. 1871), which gives 58 constants 
involving r and their logarithms, generally to 30 places, and 13 
others that may h« properly called mathematical. A good list of 
constants involving ir is given in Salomon (1827). A paper by 
Paucker in Grunert's Archiv (vol. i. p. 9) has a number of con- 
stants involving r given to a great many places, and Gauss's memoil 

on the lemniscate function ( Iferke, vol. iii.) has e'"^, e" , e"'"^, 
&a, calculated to about 50 places. The quantity ir has been worked 
out to 707 places (Shanks, Proc Hoy Soc, vol. xxi. p. 319) and 
Euler's constant to 263 places (Adams, Proc. Hoy. Soc, vol. xxvii. 
p. 88), The value of the modulus ^f, calculated by Prof Adams, 
IS given in Logabithms, vol. xiv p 779. This value is correct' 
to 263 places ; but the calculation nas since been carried to 272 
places (see Adams, Proc Hoy Soc, vol. xliL p. 22, 1887). -'■ 

Tables for the Solution of the Irreducible Case in Cubic Eguations. — IrrediicI* 
Lambert, Supplementa l\79S), gives ±(x-x') from a; =001 to 1155 ble cubic 
at intervals of '001 to 7 places, and Bariow (1814) gives x'-x from equation* 
x=l to 11549 at intervals of 0001 to 8 places. 

Eimmial Theorem Coe£icuynts. — The values of ' . JBinoniiaf 

-, , a(z-l) x[x- l)(j-2) z(j-l). .. (x-5) theorem', 

• 1.2 ' 1.2.3 • ■ ■ ■ 1 . 2 ... 6 ' cp^ffi- 

from x= "Ol to x= 1 at inlervals of '01 to 7 places, are serviceable for eieuts, 

use in interpolation by second and higher orders- of differences. 

The table quoted above occurs in ScliiiUo (1778), Barlow (1S14), 

Vega (1797 and succeeding editions), Hantschl (1827), and Kohler 

(1848). Rouse, Doctrine y/" CAanccs (London, no dale), gives on a 

folding sheet (a + 6)" for ii=l, 2, . . . 20. Lambert, Supplementa 

(179S), has the coefficients of the first 16 terms in (l-Hx)i and 

(l-z)4, their accurate values being given as decimals. Vega (1797) 

113 1 

has a page of tables giving 5-—, ' . . . ;— -5, . , . and similar 

quantities to 10 places, with their logarithms to 7 places, and a 
page of this kind occurs in other collections. Kohler (1848) gives 
the values of 40 such quantities. x(x + 1) 

FiguraU Numbers. — Lambert, Supplememta, gives X, — ., , . . . Figuraia 
a:(i-Kl)...(x + ll) , ■, » „» numbers 
1.2...]2 ' fr°mx=lto30. 

Trigonometrical Quadratic Surds. — The surd values of the sines Trigona- 
of every third degree of the quadrant are given in some tables of metrical" 
logarithms; e.g., in Hutlon's (p. xx.\i.\., ed. 1855), we find quadiatio 
sin 3°=i{V(5 + V5)■^ ^/V■"^V?-\/(15■^3^y5)-^/?-^/5^; and surds. • ' 
the numerical values of the surds \/{b + \/f>), V(V). ^'e., are given 
to 10 places. These values were extended to 20 places by Peter 
Gray, Mcssengcro/Math., vol. vL (1877), p. 105. 

.Circulating Decimals. — Goodwyn's tables have been described Circulat* 
above, p. 8. Several otliers have been published giving the num- ing deci« 
bers of digits in the periods of the reciprocals of primes : Burck- niols, 
hardt. Tables dcs Diviseurs du Premier Million (Paris, 1814-17), , 
gave one for all primes up to 2,543 and for 22 primes exceeding 
that limit. Desmarest, Thiorie dcs Nombres {Paris, 1852), included 
all primes up to 10,000. Reuschle, Mathcmatische Abhandlung, 
cnthaltend neue zahlcnlheorelische Tabellen (1856), contains a siml* 
lar table to 15,000. This Shanks extended to 60,000 ; the portion 
from 1 to 30,000 is printed in the Proc Pay. Soc, vol. xxii. p. 200, 
and the remainder is preserved in the archives of the society {Id., 
xxiii. p. 260 and xxiv. p. 392). The number of digits in tha 

decimal period of - is the same as the exponent to which 10 be* 

longs for modulus p. so that, whenever the period has p - 1 digits, 
10 is a primitive root of p. Tables of primes having a given number, 
Ji, of digits in their periods, i.e., tables of the resolutions of 10"- 1 
into factors and, as far as known, into prime factors, have been 
given by Loof (in Orunert's Archiv, vol. xvi. p. 54 ; reprinted in 
Nouo. Annales, vol. xiv. p. 115) and by Shanks {Proc. Roy. Soc, 
vol. xxii. p. 381). The former extends to n = 60 and the latter to 
n = 100, but there are gaps in both. Reuschle's tract also contains 
resolutions of 10"- 1. For further referencea on circulating deci' 
mals, see Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, vol. iii. p. 185 (1878). 
Pythagorean rriansfes.— Right-angled triangles ia which til* 



14 



TABLES 



Powers 
of V. 



Series ' 



Pj-tha- sides and hj-pothemise are all rational integers are frequently termed 
.gorean Pjtliagorean triangles, as, for example, the triangles 3, i, 6 an4 
triangles. 5, 12, 13. Sclmlze, Sammlung (1778), contains a table of such 
triangles subject to the condition tan'jaoijV C" being one of the 
acute angles). About 100 triangles , are given, but some occur 
twice. Largo tables of right-angled rational triangles were given 
bv Bretschneider, in GruiicH's Archiv, vol. L p. 96 (1841), and by 
Sang, Edinburgh Transadiotis, vol. xxiil p. 727 (1864). In these 
the triangles are arranged according to hypothenusea and extend 
to 1201, 1200, 49, and 1105, 1073, 264 respectively. Whitworth, 
in a paper read before the Lit. and Phil. Society of Liverpool in 
1875, carried his list as far as 2465, 2337, 784. See also Rath, 
" Die rationalen Dreiecke," in Gmnerl'a Archiv, voL IvL p. 188 
(1874). Bang's paper also contains a table of triangles having an 
angle equal to 120 and their sides integers. 

Powers of TT. — Paucker, in Grunert's Archiv, voL L p. 10, gives 
7r"* and wi to 140 places, andir"^, r'i, ir^, "^ to about 50 places ; 
and in Ma3maid'slistofconstants(see"Constants,"abovB).ir^ is given 
to 31 places. The first twelve powers of ir and ir"' to 22 or more 
places were printed by Glaisher, J'roc. Land. Math. Soc., vol. viii. p. 
140, and the first hundred multiples of ir and ir"* *» 12 placps by 
Kulik, Tafel dcr Qtmdrat-und Kubik-Zahlen (Leipsic, 1848). 

2'/M&n«l-" + 2-'' + 3-''+ i:c.^LetiS„,s„,<r„ denote respectively 
the sums of the series 1"" + 2"" + 3"" + &c., l-"-2-"+3-''-&c., 
1"" + 3"" ^ 5"" + &c. Legendre {Traitd dcs Fondions EUiptiqucs, 
vol. ii. p. 432) has computed S„ to 16 places from » = 1 to 35, end 
Glaisher {Proc. Land. Math. Soc, vol. iv. p. 48) has deduced s„ and 
ffn for the same arguments and to the same number of places. Tlio 
latter has also given S„, s„, <t„ for n — 2, 4, 6, . . . 12 to 22 or more 
places {Prcc Zand. Math. Soc, vol. viii. p. 140), and the values 
of 2,, where 2o=2"'' + 3~" + 5~"+ &c. (prime numbers only in- 
volved), for Jt=2, 4, 6, ... 36 to 15 places Ifiomptc Rcndu.de V Assoc. 
FrMnr,aisc for 1878, p. 172). 
Hyper- Tables of e' and e~', or Hyperbolic Aniilogarithms. — The largest 
'bolic tables are the following. Gudermann, Thcori^ dcr potcnzial- oder 
antilog- cyklischrhypcrboliscJicn Funciioiicn (Berlin, 1833), which consists of 
■ aritluns, papers reprinted from vols. viii. and ix. of Crellc's Journal, and 
gives log,, sinh x, log,„ cosh x, and logu tanh x from x = 2 to 5 at 
intervals of '001 to 9 places and from x = 5 to 12 at intervals of '01 
to 10 places. Since sinh x=\{e'-e~') and cosh r=4(c' + e-'), the 
values of e» and e~' are deducible at once by addition and sub- 
traction. Newman, in Camb. Phil. Trans., vol. xiii. pp. 145.241, 
gives values of c~' from k = to 15'349 at intervals of -001 to 12 
places, from k = 15'350 to 17'298 at intervals of '002, and from 
x= 17-300 to 27-635 at intervals of -005, to 14 places. Glaisher, 
in Camb. Phil. Trans., vol. .xiii. pp. 243-272, gives four tabWs of e', 
e~', logio C, log,,, C, their ranges bcitig from x=-001 to -1 at in- 
terv.ils of 001, from -01 to 2 at intervals of -01, from "1 to 10 at 
intervals of -1, from 1 to 500 at intervals of unity. Vega, Tabules 
(1797 and later (^J.), has log^e* to 7 places and e* to 7 figures 
from 3-= 01 to 10 at intervals of -01. Kbhler's Handbuch contains 
a small table of c'. In Schulze's Sammlung (1778) (^ is given for 
K = l, 2, 3, ...2". to 28 or 29 figjires and for x = 25, 30, and 60 to 
32 or 33 figures ; this table is printed in Glaisher's paper (Joe. cil.). 
In Salomon's Tafcln (1827) the values of e", e-, e«", <^-»'», . . . e-o»»»«»", 
where n has the values 1, 2, ...9, ere given to 12 places. Bret- 
schneider, in Grunert's Archiv, iii. p. 33, worked out C and e"* and 
also sin x and cos z for x= 1 , 2, ... 10 to 20 places. 
Facto- Factorials.— Thu values of log,, (nl), where n\ denotes 1.2.Z...n, 

rials. from n = l to 1200 to 18 places, are given by Degen, Tabulanim 
EnMos (Copenhagen, 1824), and.teprinted, to 6 places, at the end 
of De Morgan's article "Probabilities" in the Encycl(g>xdia Mefro- 
\!olita-na. Shovtrede, Tables (1849, vol. i. ), gives log (?i !) to »= 1000 
to 6 places, and for the arguments ending in to 8 places. Cegen 
rilso gives the complements of the logarithms. The first 20 figures 



of the valnea of .n x n! and the values of log,( 



nxnl 



are computed 



Bcrnoul- 
lian num- 
bers. 



fables of 
log tan 
(iT + iW- 



by Glaisher as far as n=71 in the Phil. Trans, for 1870 (p. 370), 
and the values of —r to 28 significant figures as far as n=50 in 

Camb. Phil. Trans., vol xiii. p. 246. 

Bcmoullian Numbers. — The first fifteen Bemoulliari numbers 
were given by Euler, InsL Cak. Diff. , part ii. ch. v. Sixteen more 
were calculated by Rothe, and the first thirty-one were published 
by Ohm in Crellc's Journal, vol. xx. p. 11. Prof J. C. Adams 
has calculated the next thirty-one, and a table of the first sixty- 
two was published by him in the Brit. Assoc Pcport for 1877 and 
in Crellc's Journal, vol. Ixxxv. p. 2G9. The first nine figures of 
the values of the first 250 BernouUian numbers, and their Briggian 
logarithms to 10 places, have been printed by Glaisher, Camb. Phil. 
Trans., vol. xii. p. 384. 

Tables of foj fcra (Jir-f J0). — Gudermann, Theorie dcr potenyial- 
odcr cyklisch'hypcrbolischen Functitmcn (Berlin, 1833), gives (in 100 
pages) log tan(ijr-f ^^) for every centesimal minute of the quadrant 
to 7 places. Another table contains the values of this function, 
also at intervals of a minute, from 88° to 100° (centesimal^ to 11 



places. Legendre, TraiU dcs Fondions Ellijjliqucs (vol. n. p. 256),' 
gives the same function, for every half degree (sexagesimal) of tha 
quadrant to 12 places. 

The GamvM Function. — Legendre's great table appeared in vol. Gamm« 
ii. of his Exerrciccs de Calcul Integral (1816), p. 85, and in vol. ii. fnnctioaj 
of his Traili dcs Fonctions EUiptiqms (1826), p. 489. Log,„ r(2) 
, is given from x=l to 2 at intervals of -001 to 12 places, with differ, 
ences to the third order. This table is reprinted in full in Schlii. 
milch, Analytische Sl-udien (1848), p. 183 ; an abridgment in which 
the arguments differ by '01 occurs in De Morgan, Diff, and Int.] 
Calc, p. 587. The la.st figures of the vali.es omitted are also sup.' 
plied, so that the full table can bo rt/loduced. A seven-place 
abridgment (withonl differences) is published in Berti-and, Calmi 
Integral (1870), p. 2; 5, and a sLx-figure abridgment in Williamson^ 
PUcgral Calculus (18, 4), p. 169. In vol. i. of bis Eierciecs (1311),', 
Legendre had previoiv ly published a seven-place table of log,, V{x), 
without differences. 

Tables conneded w'th Elliptie Functions. — Legendre calculated Elliptic, 
elaborate tables of the elliptic integrals in vol. ii. of TraiU (Zctfanction* 
Fondions Ellip'.igucs (1826). Denoting the modular-angle by 0, 
the an plitude by 0, and the incomplete integral of the second kind 
by £, {<p) the t ibles are— (1 ) log,, E and log,. A' from fl = 0° to 90," 
at intervals of 0°-l to 12 or 14 places, with differences to the thitd 
order ; (2) £■,( .) and P tp), the modular angle being 45° from ^=0* 
to 90° at intervals of 0°-5 to 12 places, with differences to the fifth 
order ; (3) £', (15°) and ^^"(45°) from = 0" to 90° at intervals of 1°, 
with dififerences to the sixth order, also E and K for the same argu- 
ments, all to 12 places j (4) .£,(>?) and Fi<p) for every degree of 
both the amplitude and the argument to 9 or 10 places. The first 
three tables had been published previously in vol iii of the Excr* 
decs de Calcul InUgral:{l^\&). 

Tables involving j.^-Verhulst, Trait4 dcs Fonctions ElliptiqtusTMea 

(Brussels, 1841), contains a table of log„log„ (-\ for argument *|^„°„''' 

at intervals o!' 0°-l to 12 or 14 places. Jacobi, in Crclle's Journal, 
voL xxvi. p. 93, gives log,, q from ff = 0° to 90° at inter^-als of 0°-Z 
to 5 places. Meissel, Sammlung mathanatixher Tafeln, i. (Iscr- 
lohn, 1860), consistsof a table of log,, y at intervals of 1' from 8 = 0' 
to 90° to 8 places. Glaisher,^ in Month. Not. Roy. Ast. Soc, vol. 
xxxvii. p. 372 (1877), gives log,, g to 10 places and j to 9 places for 
every degree. In Bertrand, Calcul Ini^gral (1870), a table of log,, j 
from 0=0° to 90° at intervals of 6' to 6 places is accompanied by 

/2J? 1 ' 

tables 'of log,, / — and logi,log„ - and by .abridgments of 
fSJ tr ^ q 

Legendre's tables of the elliptic integrals. Schlomilch, Vorlesungcn 
dcr hihcren Analysis (Brunswick, 1879), p. 448, gives a small table 
of log,, q for every degree to 5 places. 

Lcgendrian Cocfficimis. — The values of P'ix) for n = 1, 2, 3, ... 7 Lt,,. 
from a = to 1 at intervals of -01 are given by Glaisher, in Brit, diian c6^ 
Assoc. Rep. for 1879, pp. 54-57. The functions tabulated are P\x)=x, efficients." 
P»(z) = JK3x=-l), P-'{x) = i{53?-Sx), P'{x) = H3&3e'-30x' + Z),' 
/«(a:) = J(63r»-70x'-Ho.--), P«(a;) = ^(23l3;«- 315x« -1-1052--5), 
P'{x) = -,^(429x'- 693x5 -H?I5x'-35x). fhe functions occur in 
connexion with the tVeo-y of interpolation, the attraction of 
spheroids, and other ply-sicil theories. 

Ecsscl's Fundions. — Bessel's original table appeared at the endBessel's 
of his memoir " Untcrsuchung des planetirischen Tlieils derfunc- 
Storungen, welche aus der Bewegung der Sonne entstehen " (in tions 
Abh. d.' Bc'^'u Akad., 1824; reprinted in vol. i. of his Abhand- 
lungen,\'. 84). It gives 7,{x) and 7i{x)fi-om'x=0 to 3-2 at intervals 
of -01. More extensive tables were calculated by Hansen in " Ermit- 
telung der absoluten Stbrungen in EUipsen von beliebiger Excen- 
tricitat und Neigung" (in Schri/tcn der Stcmwarte Secbcrg, part i, 
Gotha, 1843). 'They include an extension of Be.isel's original table 
to x=20, besides smaller tables of JJ.x) for certain values of n as 
far asn=2S, all to 7 places.. Hansen's table was reproduced by 
Schlomilch, in Zeilschr, fur Math., vol ii. p. 158, and by Lommel, 
Studicn ilbcr die Bcsscl'schcn Functioncn (Leipsic, 1868), p. 127. 
Hansen's notation is slightly different from Bessel's ; the change 
amounts to halving each argument. Schlomilch gives the table 
in Hansen's form ; Lommel expresses it in Bessel's 

Sine, Cosine, Exponential, and Logarithm Integrals. — The func- Sine, itc, 



, /"-'sinx , /*cosx . /"' e». 



tions so named are the integrals 

, , which are denoted by the functional signs Six, Cix, EizL 

logx 

Ii X respectively. Soldner, Thioric ct Tables d'une Nouvclle Fonciim 

Transccjuiantc (Mmiich, 1809), gave the values of lix from x = to 

1 at intervals of -1 to 7 places, and thence at various intervals to 

1220 to 5 or more places. This table is reprinted in De Morgan's 

Diff. and Int. Calc, p. 662. Bretschneidar, in Grunert's Arcliiv, 

vol. iii. p. 33, calculated Ei (±x). Six, Cix forx=l, 2, ...10 to 20 

places, and subsequently (in Schlbmilch's ZeUschrift, vol. vi.) worked 

out the values of the same functions from x = to 1 at intervals of 

•01 and from 1 to 7 '5 at intervals of '1 to 10 places. Two tracts 

by L. Stenberg, Tahulm Logarithmi Integralis (Malmo, part i. J8Jl^ 



T A B — T A B 



15 



and part ii. 1867), giTe the values of li 10' from i= - 15 to 35 at 
iutcivals of 01 to IS places. Glaislier, in FhU. Trans., 1S70, p. 367, 
givis Ei(±J-), Sir, Cxj from z = to 1 at intervals of -01 to 18 
pUcca, from 2=1 to 5 at iiitorvals of *1 anil tlieace to 15 at intervals 
of unity, and for r = 20 to 11 places, besides seven-place tables of 
Six and Ctxaiid tablets of ttieir ntaxnnuin and minimum values. 
See also B<:llavitis, "Tavole Nuinericlie Lof^ritmo-Intcgralc" (a 
pa|>cr in Mcmoirsofthe Venetian Ituitttutc, 1S74). Uesscl calculated 
the v.ilues of li 1000, li 10,000, li 100,000, li 200,000, . . . li 600,000, 
and li l.OuO.OOO (see Abhaiidlmigen, vol. ii. p. 339). In Glaislier, 
i'aclor T^itle for the- Sixth Milltim (18S3), § iii., tlio valuc-s of li x 
are -ivon from x=0 Jo 9,000,000 at intervals of 60,000 to the 
nearest integer. 
Valuta of Values of C'c'^iU and c''/''e~''dx.—Thcso functions are eni- 

fe-^dx ployed in Toscaiches connected with refraction'^, theory of errore, 
,nj conduction of heat, ic 'LxxT'c'^'dx aiiir <!"'"(ic bo denoted 

t^f'e"'dx. I'y Erfx and Erfox rcs|iectively, standing fur "error function" and 
•'• "error function com[>lement," so that Erfx+Eifu x^^V"" {/*'**'. 

Jfag., Dec lt71 ; it has since been found convenient to transpose 
as above the delinitions of Erf and Erfc). The tables of the 
functions, and of tlie functions multiplied by e'', are as follows. 
Kianip, Analyse dcs infractions (Strasburg, 179S), has Erfcx fiom 
x = to 3 at intervals of "01 to S or more places, also logj^ (Erfcx) 
and lo;;,,/<^'Erfc x) for the same values to 7 places. Ecssel, Funcla- 
vtenttt Aslronomiae (Konigsberg, 1818), has logi.Xc^'Erfc x) fiom x = 
to 1 at intervals of "01 to 7 idaces, likewise for argument 1%'ioX, 
the arguments increasing from to 1 at intervals of 01. Legend re, 
Truiu da functions EUtpli<iucs (1S26), vol. ii. p. 520, contains 
rii,«"'^), that is, 2 Erfcx from x=0 to -5 at intervals of 01 to 10 

9 

places. Eucke, Berliner Ast. Jahrbueh for 1834, prints — ^ Erf x 

• 2 \/t 

from x=0 to 2 at intervals of 01 to 7 places and — - Erf {pji) from 

t = to 3 4 at intervals of 01 and thence to 5 at intervals of -1 to 
5 places, pbeing -4769360. Glaisher, in Phil. Mag., December 1S7I, 
has calculated Eifc x from .r = 3 to 4'5 at intervals of 01 to 11, 13, 
or H places. Encke's tables and two of Kramp's were reprinted 
in the £ncyclopsdia iiitropoUtnna, art. " Probabilities." 

Tables of Intcgrah, not Numerical. — Meyer Hirsch, Integral' 
tcifeln(\i\0 . Eog. trans., 1823), and Minding, /ii^cjra/ta/dn (Berlin, 
1849), give values of indefinite integrals and formulae of reduction ; 
both are useful and valuable works. De Haan, Nouvelles Tables 
Slntegrnlcs £it/!iii«(Leyden, 1867), is a quarto volume of 727 pages 
containing evaluations of definite integrals, arranged in 485 tables. 
The fir-st edition appeared in vol. iv. of the Transactions of the 
Amsterdam Academy of Sciences. This, though not so full and 
accurate as the second edition, gives references to the original 
memoirs in wliich the different integrals are considered. 

Tables relating to Iht Theory of Numbers. — These are of so tech- 
nical a character and so numerous that a fu]l account cannot be 
attempted here. The reader is referred to Cayley's paper in the 
Brit. Assoc. Rep. for 1875, where a full description with references 
is given. Three tables may, however, be biiefiy noticed on account 
of their importance and because they form separate volumes: (1) 
Degcn, Canon Pcllianus (Copenhagen, 1817), relates to the inde- 
terminate equation y^-az^=l for values of a from 1 to 1000. It 
in fact gives the expression for \Ja as a continued fraction ; (2) 
Jacobi, Canon Arithmeticus (Berlin, 1839), is a quarto work contain- 
ing 240 pages of tables, where we find for each prime up to 1000 
the numbers corresponding to given indices and the indices corre- 
sponding to given numbers, a certain primitive root (10 is taken 
whenever it is a primitive root) of the prune being selected as base ; 
(3) Reuschle, TafUn completer Primzahlcn, weleheaus IVurzeln der 
Einheil gebildd eind (Berlin, 1875), includes an enormous mass of 
results relating to the higher complex theories. A table of x(n), 
where x.'^nf denotes the sum of the complex numbers which have n 
for their norm for primes up ton = 13,000(cf Quart. Jounu,yo\. xx. 
p. 152), his been published since the date of Cayley's report. Some 
tables that belong to the theory of numbers have been described 
above under "Factor Tables" (p. 7). 

^iWioffrapfty.— Full biblingraphical and historical information relating to 
lobfes 13 collected in Brxt. Assoc Hrp. for 1873, p. 6. The principal work? are : 
— tleilbromier. Hintoria JlfQ(A«s«>s(Lelpsic, 1742), theanthnietical portion beujg 
at the end ; Schejbel, Einle^lung nr TruithfmaiiRchen Pueherke-nntniis (Creslau, 
1771. 84); Kastner, Gueht/^hle d^ Mattiematik (Gnttingen, 179fi-lS00) vol iii - 
Murhard, Bibttolhaa A/aI*«7nuti™(X<ipsic, 1797-18041. vol. ii.; Rocp. Bilihotheca 
.*f«t/*riiuiXK,f (Tubingen. 1S.X>). and continuation from 1830 to 18M by Sohnke 
(L<i|«jc and L>Jndon, 18.'.4) ; Lalande. BiblioQTxiphif A^tronomifpu (Pans. 160S). 
a :>e|ianit« index on p. 060. A peat deal of accurate information upon early 
tablea 18 given t>y Delambre. HiMorrr de V Aiironamie Modem* (Pans, 16'Jl), 
vol. I. ; and No^. xix. and xx. of Hutlon's Math^maiviaL Trocta (1812). For a 
ciHiiplete list of Ingarithmic ubies of ail kinds frnni I6I4 to 18C2. see De Haan. 
" letx over Ixgarjthmeiltafels," in t'ersUigen en Medfdeeiingeti drr Koning. Akadi 
rnn U'ttrn^eJiajfjifn (Amsterdam, lsi52), pt. xtv, De Morgan's article "Tabies," 
wliieh appearwl linit in the Penny Cyct<rpsedi^. and afterwards with additions 
In the Kitgli^h Cy>J^'«ed\j3. gives not only a good deal of bibliographical informa. 
tion biit also an accoonl of tables relating to hie assurance and annuities 
wtroiKimieal tables, commercial tables, &c. (J. W L. G ) * 



T.\BOO (also written Tabit and Tapu) is tho rnino 
given to a system of religious [irohibitioiis wliidi attaiiiutl 
its fullest development in Polynesia (from Hawaii to New 
Zealand ; see vol. xix. [i. 420), but of which under different 
names traces m.iy be discovered in most parts of the world. 

The word "taboo" is common to tho different dialects Mwwihig. 
of Polynesia, and is perhaps derived from la, "to mark," 
and ;i«, an adverb of intensity. The compound word 
"tabtro" (tapu) would thus originally .mean "marked 
tlioroughly." Its ordinary sense is "sacred." It docs not, 
however, imply any moral quality, but only "a connexion 
with the gods or a separation from ordinary purposes and 
exclusive appropriation to persons or things considered 
sacred ; sometimes it means devoted as by a vow." Chiefs 
who trace their lineage to the gods are called arii luhu, 
" chiefs sacred," and a temple is called a luahi tabu, " place 
sacred." The converse of taboo is naa (in Tonga e/nifwa), 
wliich means "general" or "common.". Thus tho rulo 
which forbade w-omen to eat with men, as well as, except 
on special occasions, to eat any fruits or animals offered in 
sacrifice to the gods, was called ui tabu, "eating sacred"; 
while the present relaxation of the rule is called ai noa, 
eating generally, or having food in common. Although it 
was employed for civil as well as religious purposes, the 
taboo was essentially a religious observance. In Hawaii 
it could be imposed only by priests ; but elsewhere in 
Polynesia kings and chiefs, and even to a certain extent 
ordinary individuals, exercised the same power. The 
strictness with which the taboo was observed depended 
largely on the influence of the person who imjio.^ed it; 
if he was a great chief it would not be broken ; but a 
powerful man often set at nought the taboo of an inferior. . 

A taboo might be general or particular, permanent ofGeneroi 
temporary. A general taboo aiiplied, e.'j., to a whole class ond pArf 
of animals ; a particular taboo was confined to one or more''^"'" 
individuals of the class. Idols, temiiles, the persons and 
names of kings and of members of the royal family, the 
persons of chiefs and priests, and the property (canoes, 
houses, clothes, A-c.) of all these classes of persons were 
always taboo or sacred. By a somewhat arbitrary exten- 
sion of this principle a chief could render taboo to {i.e., in 
favour of) himself anything which took his fancy by merely 
calling it by the name of a part of his person. Thus, if he 
said "Tliat axe is my backbone," or "is my head," the 
axe was his ; if he roared out " That canoe ! my skull shall 
be the baler to bale it out," thft, canoe was his likewise. 
The names of chiefs and still jnoTe of kings were taboo, 
and could not be uttered. If the name of a king of Tahiti 
was a common word or even reseinbled.a common word, 
that word dropped out of use and a new name was sub- 
stituted for it. Thus in course of tune Most of the common 
words in the language underwent oonsiderablemodifications 
or were entirely change(L 

Certain foods were permanefiiJy taboo to (t «'., in favour Dura. 
of or for the use of) gods and inen, but were foibiddea fot'ou. 
women. Thus in Hawaii the flesh of hog3, fowls, turtle,.' 
and several kinds of fish, cocoa-nuts, and nearly e,rerythiiig 
offered in sacrifice were reserved for gods and men, and 
could not, except in special casis, be consumed by women. 
In the Marquesas Islands human .riesh was tabooed from 
women. Sometimes certain fruits animals, and fish we're 
taboo for montlis together from botli men and women. In 
the Marquesas houses were tabooed against water : nothing 
was waidied in them ; no drop of water might be spilled 
in thfem. If an island or a district was tabooed, no canoe 
or pcrson'might approach it while the taboo lasted ; if a 
path was tabooed, no one might walk on it. Seasons 
generally kept taboo were the approach of a great religious 
cereniony, the time of preparation for war, and the^ickness 
of chiefs. _ The time during which they lasted varied from 



16 



TABOO 



years to .months or days. In Hawaii there was a tradition 
of one that lasted thirty years, during which men might, not 
trifti their beards, &c. A common period was forty days. 
A taboo was either common or strict. During a common 
taboo the men were only required to abstain from their 
ordinary occupations and to attend morning and evening 
prayers. But during a strict taboo every fire and light on 
the island or in the district was extinguished ; no canoe 
was launched; no person bathed; no one, except those 
I who had to attend at the temple, was allowed to be seen 
out of doorsj no dog might bark, no pig grunt, do cock 
crow. Hence at these seasons they tied up the mouths of 
dogs and pigs, and put fowls tnder a calabash or bandaged 
their eyes. The taboo was imposed either by proclamation 
or by fixing certain marks (a pole with a bunch of bamboo 
leaves, a white cloth, <fcc.)'on the places or things tabooed. 
Penalty The penalty for the violation of a taboo was either religions or 
for Tio- civil The religious penalty inflicted by the offended atuas or 
Ution. spirits generally took tne form of a disease : the_ offender swelled 
' np and died, the notion being that the atua or his emissary (often 
an infant spirit) had entered into him and devoured his vitals. 
, Cases are on record in which persons who had unwittingly broken 
; a taboo actually died of terror on discovering their fatal error. 
; Chiefs and priests, howfever, could in the case of involuntary trans- 
gressions perform certain mystical ceremonies which prevented this 
penalty from taking effect. The civil penalty for breaking a taboo 
varied in severity. In Hawaii there were police officers appointed by 
' the king to see that the taboo was observed, and every breach of it 
1 was punished with death, unless the offender had powerful friends in 
the persons of priests or, chiefs. Elsewhere the punishment was 
milder; in Fiji (which, however, is Melanesian) death was rarely 
inflicted, but the delinquent was robbed and his gardens despoiled. 
In New Zealand this judicial robbery was reduced to a system. No 
sooner was it 'known that a man had broken a taboo than all his 
friends and acquaintances swarmed down on him and carried off 
whatever'they could lay hands on. Under this system (known as 
mum.) property cu-culated with great rapidity. If, e.g., a child 
fell into the'fire. the latner was robbed oi nearly all he possessed.' 
Things - IJesides the nermanent and the artificially created taboos there 
natural]^ were others whicn arose spontaneously as a result of circumstances. 
taboo. Thus all persons dangerouslv ill were taboo and were removed from 
their houses to sheas mthe bush ; if they remained in the house 
and died there the house was tabooed and deserted. Jlothers after 
childbirth were taboo, and so were their new-born children. Women 
before marriage' were noa, and could have as many lovers as they 
chose ; but after marriage they were strictly tabooed to their 
husbands and from every one else. One of the strictest taboos 
'was incurred by all persons who handled the body or bones of a 
dead person or assisted at his funeral. In Tonga a common person 
Avho touched a dead chief was tabooed for ten lunar months ; a 
chief who touched a dead chief was tabooed for from three to five 
months according to the rank of the deceased. Burial grounds 
were taboo ; and m New Zealand a canoe which had carried a corpse 
was never afterwards used, but was drawn on shore and painted red. 
' Ked was the taboo colour in New Zealand ; in Hawaii, Tahiti, 
Tonga, and Samoa it was white. In the Marquesas a man who had 
slain an enemy was taboo for ten days : he might havg no inter- 
course with his wife and might not meddle with fire ; he had to get 
some one else to cook for him. A woman engaged in the prepara- 
tion of cocoa-nut oil was taboo for five days or more, during which 
she might have no intercourse mth men. A tabooed person might 
not eat his food with his hands, but «as fed by another person ; if he 
could get no one to feed him, he had to go down on his knees and pick 
up his food with his mouth, holding his hands behind him. A chief 
wno was permanently taboo never ate in his own house but always 
in the open air, beiug fed by one of his wives, or taking his food 
with the help of a fern stalk so as not to touch his head with his 
hands ; food left by him was kept for him in a sacred place ; any 
other person eating of it was supposed to die immediately. A man 
of any standing could not carry provisions on his back ; if he did 
80 they became taboo and were useless to any one but himself. For 
the taboo was communicated as it were by infection to whatever a 
taboojd person or thing touohed. This rule applied in its fullest force 
to the king and queen of Tahiti. The ground they trod on became 
sacred ; if they entered a house, it became taboo to them and had 
to be abandoned to them by its owner. Hence special houses were 
) ' The origin of this custom may perhaps be discerned in a custom 
of the Dicri tribe, South Australia. Among them,. If a child meets 
,with an accident, all its relations immediately get th^hf heads broken 
|with sticks or boomerangs till the blood flows dowft -their fteea,' this 
irorgical operation being .supposed to ease the chiU't piip^JW*« 
yribae/S. Av^Tolia.-^iW). ' ' -',• 



set apart for them on their travels, and, except in their hereditary 
districts, they were always carried on men's shoulders to prevent 
them touching the groUnd. Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, thia 
rule was not carried out so strictly. But even in New Zealand the 
spots on which great chiefs rested during a journey became taboo 
and were surrounded with a fence of basket-work. The head and 
hair, especially of a chief, were particularly taboo or sacred ; to 
touch a man's head was a gross insult. If a chief touched his own 
head with his fingers he had immediately to apply them to his nose 
and snuff up the sanctity which they had. abstracted from his head. 
The cutting of a chiefs hair was a solemn ceremony ; the severed 
locks were collected and buried in a sacred place or hung up on a 
tree. If a drop of a chiefs blood fell upon anything, that thing 
became taboo to him, i.e., was his property. If )ie breathed on a 
fire, it became sacred and could not be used for cooking. In his 
house no fire could under any circumstances be used for cooking ; 
no woman could enter his house before a certain service had been 
gone through. Whatever a new-born child touched became taboo , 
to {i.e., in favour of) the child. The law which separated tabooed 
persons and things from contact with food was especially strict. 
Hence a tabooed or sacred person ought not to leave his comb or 
blanket or anything which had touched his head or back (for the 
back was also particularly taboo) in a place where food had been 
cooked ; and in drinking he was careful not to touch the vessel 
with his hands or lips (oUierwise the vessel became taboo and could 
not be used by any one else), but to have the liquid shot down his 
throat from a distance by a second person. ^ 

There were various ceremonies by which a taboo could be removed. Rrra'Wio 
In Tonga a person who had become taboo by touching a chief or ot [M^a. 
anything belonging to him could not feed himself till he had got 
rid of the taboo by touching the soles of a superior chiefs feet with 
his hands and then rinsing his hands in water, or (if water was 
scarce) rubbing them with the juice of the plantain or banana. But, 
if a man found that he had already (unknowingly) eaten with 
tabooed hands, fie sat down before a chief, took up the foot of the, 
latter, and pressed it against his stomach to counteract the effect' 
of the food insida In New Zealand a taboo could be taken off by 1 
a child or grandchild. The tabooed person touched the child and' 
took drink or food from its hands ; the man was then free, but the; 
chUd was tabooed for the rest of the day. .A Maori chief who be-! 
came taboo by touching the sacred head of his child was disinfected,' 
so to speak, as follows. On the following day (the ceremony could, 
not be performed sooner) he rubbed his hands over with potato or 
fern root which had been cooked over a sacred fire ; this food was 
then carried to the head of the family in the female line, who ate 
it, whereupon the hands became TUxi. The taboo was removed 
from a new-bom child in a somewhat similar manner. The father 
took the child in his arms and touched its head, back, &c., with 
some fern root which had been roasted over a sacred fire ; next 
morning a similar ceremony was performed on the child by its 
eldest Felative in the female line ; the child was then noa, i.e., free 
from taboo. Another mode of removing the taboo was to pass a ^ 
consecrated piece of wood over the right shoulder, round the loins, 
and back again over the left shoulder, after which the stick was 
broken in two and either buried, or burned, or cast into the sea, ' 

Besides the taboos already described there were others which PrivatST 
any one could impose. In New Zealand, if a man wished to pre- taboos^ 
serve his house, crop, garden, or anything else, he made it taboo ; 
similarly he could appropriate a forest tree or a piece of drift timber, 
&c., by tying a mark to it or giving it a chop with his aie. In 
Samoa for a similar purpose a man would set up a representation 
of, e.g., a sea pike or a shark, believing that any one who meddled 
with property thus protected would bejdlled by a sea pike or shark 
the next time he bathed. Somewhat similar to this was what may bo 
called the village taboo. In^the autumn the k-U7nera (sweet potato) 
fields belonging to the village were taboo till the crop was gathered, 
so that no stranger could approach them; and all persons engaged 
in getting in the crop were taboo, and could therefore for the time 
engage in no other occupation. Similar taboos were laid on woods 
during the hunting season and on rivers during the fishing season. \ 

On looking over the various taboos mentioned above Classn 
we are tempted to divide them into two general classes, — flcation, 

' taboos of privilege and taboos of disability. Thus the 
taboo of chiefs, priests, and temples might be described as 
a privilege, while the taboo imposed on tlie sick and on 
persons who had come in -cdntact with the dead might be 
regarded as a disability ; and we might say acccordingly^ 
that the former rendered persons and things sacred or holy,i 
while the latter rendered them unclean or accursed. But, 
■that no such distinction ought to be drawn is clear fromJ 
the fact that the rules to be observed in the pnd case ancl. 
in the other were identical. On the other hand, it is troff 

.that the opposition of sacred and accur§e(J, clean '^u?^ 



TABOO 



17 



UtirleAn, which plays so iiniioitant a part in the later 
history of religion, did in fact arise by diirorentiation from 
lhesiiii:lc root idea of taboo, which includes and reconciles 
them both and by rcTercncc to which alone their hjstory 
»nd mutual relation are intelligible. 

The original character of the taboo must be looked for 
•ot in its civil bill III Its religious element. It was not the 
Creation of a legislator but the gradual outgrowth of 
animistic beliefs, to which the ambition and avarice of 
chiefs and priests afterwards gave an artificial extension. 
I But in si-rving lh>'<ause of avarice and ambition it subserved 
(ilie pro^'ress of civMization, by fostering conceptions of the 
|riglils of property and the sanctity of the marriage tie, — 
toiiceptinns which in time grew strong enough to stand by 
themselves and to fiing away the crutch of superstition 
which in e<irlicr days had been their sole support. For we 
shall scarcely err in believing that even in advanced societies 
the moral sentiments, in so f:ir as they are merely sentiments 
•nd are not based on an indiiciion from e.vpcrience, derive 
mu<h of their force from an original system of taboo. 
Thus on the talioo were grafted the golden fruits of law 
and moralitv, while the parent stem dwindled slowly into 
the sour cnilis and empty husks of pojmlar superstition on 
which the swine of modern society arc still content to feed. 

Ii remains to iiulicate briolly some facts which point to a 
wide ditfusioii under various names of customs similar to 
the taboo As might have been expected, the taboo is 
found, though in a less marked form, among the Micro- 
oesians, Malays, and Dyaks, all of whom are ethnologically 
connected with the Polynesians. In Micronesia both the 
name and the institution occur the inhabitants of certain 
islands are forbidden to eat certain animals and the fruits 
of certain trees, temples and groat chiefs are tabooed 
from the people ; any one who fishes must previously for 
twenty-four hours abstain frona women;' in conversing with 
women men are not allowed 'to use certain words, <tc. 
Again, the Malays have tlie custom, though apparently not 
the name. In Timor and the neighbouring islands the 
word for taboo is pamali (or poma/i) ; and during the 
long festival which celebrates a successful headhunt the 
naan who has secured the most heads is pamali ; he must 
not sleep with hjs wife nor cat from his own hand, but is 
fed by women. Pamali is a Javanese word, and had 
originally in Java and Sumatra the same meaning that it 
now bears in Timor. In Celebes a mother after child- 
birth was pamnli Amongst the Dyaks of Borneo the 
phmnli (called by the Land Dyaks ponkli) is regularly 
practi.sed at the planting of nee, harvest home, when the 
cry of the gazelle is heard behind, in times of sickness, 
after a death. Ac. At the harvest homo it is observed by 
the whole tribe, no one lieing allowed to enter or leave the 
village. The house where a death has taken place is 
pamali for twelve days, during which no one may enter 
It and nothing may be taken out of it. A tabooed Dyak 
may not bathe, meddle with fire, follow his ordinaxy occu- 
pation, or leave his house. Certain families are forbidden 
to eat the flesh of particular animals, as cattle, goats, and 
snakes. The taboo is often indicated by a bundle of 
spears or a rattan. The Motu of New Guinea also have 
the taboo a man is tabooed after handling a corpse. He 
then keeps apart from his wife , his food is cooked for 
hiin by his sister, and he may not touch it with his hands. 
After three days he bathes and is free.' But the Motu 
appear to be Malayo- Polynesians, not Melauesians proper. 
However, in Melanesia also we find the taboo. It tlour- 

' For other cx^iinplus of tjboos feepiicuilly idjuiiciiod> to coutinence) 
Amon^ various peoplas m rionocxioQ with fi.sliing, buDiiDg, au<l trudiog, 
aee Turner, Sanwon, p. 34.9 ; Aymonier, A'olcs stir Its Laos, pp. 21 sq., 
25, 26, 113, HI, W. Powell, Want/Brings m a Wdd QuurHry. p. 
207 , /iepoi-t nf hUtrnaiiontil Kx-paiiLuni, to I'mnii Barrow, Alaska, p. 
39. Wa»liiucloii. laSS. ' Joiirn. 4.iU/irop. I'lisl., viii. p. 37a 
S3— 2 



ished 111 Fiji, It is observed in New Caledonia in cases 
of death, to preserve a crop, etc. According to the Rev. 
R. H. Codnngton, there is this distinction between the Mel- 
anesian and the Polynesian taboo, that for the former there 
IS no supernatural sanction : the man who breaks a taboo 
simply pays compensation to the person on whose tabooed 
properly he has transgressed. But Mr R. Parkinson slates 
that in New Britain (now New Pomerania) a person who 
violates a taboo-mark set on a plantation, tree, &c., is 
supposed to be " attacked by sickness and misfortune." 
To go through the similar customs observed by savages all 
over the world would be endless ; we may, however, note 
that a regular system of taboo is said to exist among some 
of the wild tribes of the Naga HiUs in India,^ and that the 
rules not to touch food with the hands or the head with 
the hands are observed by tabooed women among one of 
the Fraser Lake tribes in North America.' In fact some 
of the most characteristic features of taboo — the prohibi- 
tion to eat certain foods and the disabilities entailed by 
childbirth and by contact with the dead, together with a 
variety of ceremonies for removing these disabilities — ■ 
have been found more or less amongst all primitive races. 
It is more interesting to mark the traces of Such customs 
among civilized peoples, e.g., Jews, Greeks, and Romans. 

Amongst the Jews — (1) the vow of the Nazarite (Num. Amongst 
VI. 1-21) presents the closest resemblance to the Polynesian tf^ Jews, 
taboo. The meaning of the word Nazarite is "one separated 
or consecrated," and this, as we saw (p. 15), is precisely 
the meaning of taboo. It is the head of the Nazarite that 
IS especially consecrated (v. 7, " his separation unto God is 
upon his head ", v. 9, "defile the head of liis separation" , 
v. 1 1, " shall hallow his head "), and so it was in the taboo. 
Tho Nazarite might not partakeof certain meats and drinks, 
nor shave his head, nor touch a dead body, — all rules of 
taboo. If a person died suddenly beside him, this was 
said to "defile the head of his separation," and the same 
efl'ect, expressed in the same language, would apply to a 
tabooed Polynesian in similar circumstances. Again, the 
mode of terminating the vow of the Nazarite corresponds 
with. the mode of breaking a taboo. He shaved his head 
at the^door of the sanctuary and the priest placed food in 
his hands, either of which acts would have been a flagrant 
violation of a Polynesian taboo. (2) Some of the rules for 
the observance of the Sabbath are identical with rules of 
strict taboo ; such are the prohibitions to do any work, to 
kindle a fire in the house, to cook food, and to go out of 
doors (Exod. xxxv. 2, 3; xvi. 23, 29). The Essenes strictly 
observed the rules to cook no food and light no fire on the 
Sabbath (Josephus, Bell. JuH., li. 8, 9). (3) Any one who 
touched a dead body was " unclean " for seven days , what 
he touched became ifnclean, and could communicate its 
uncleanness to any other person who touched it. A. the 
end of seven days the unclean person washed his clothes, 
bathed himself, and was clean (Num. xLx. 11, 14, 19, 22).. 
In Polynesia, as we have seen, any one who touched a 
dead body was taboo , what he touched became taboo, and 
could communicate the infection to any one who touched 
it ; and one of the ceremonies for getting rid of tlie taboo 
was washing. (4) A Jewish mother after childbirth was 
unclean (Lev. xii.) ; a Polynesian mother was taboo. (5) 
A great many animals were unclean, and could infect with 
their uncleanness whatever they touched, earthen vessels 
touched by certain of them were broken Certain animab 
were taboo in Polynesia, and utensils which had contracted 
a taint of talKxi were in some cases broken. 

Amongst the Greeks a survival, or at least a reminiscence, AmongBt 
of a system of taboo is perhaps to be found in certain tli* 
applications of the epithets "cacied" and "divine" jn "reek*. . 

•* Joum. Anthrop. Inst., xi. p. 71 . Daltnn, Dcsaiptive SthTwlogy 
-' Jitigai, p. 43. * Joiiru. Anlhrop. Irsl.. \\i. p. 2W 

XXIII. — 3 



18 



T A B — T A :B 



Homer. Thus a king or a chief is sacred (Upij U Ti)A& 
tuL)(oio,Od.,'u. i09, z\iiu 405, &c , U/jbv fl.ivos'A.\K^v6ou>, 
Od., viL 167. viii. 2, &c.) or divine (Sios 'OSxxrafv^, &c. , 
'O&vaxnjot toio. It., ii 335, (fee , Oiiuiv /?a<r< \^u)i', Od , iv. 
■€91); his chariot is sacred (It., xvii 464), and his house is 
divine (Orf., iv 43). An army is sacred (Od., xxiv. 81), 
.and "lo are sentinels on duty (//, X 56, xxiv 681). This 
resembles the war.taboo of the Polynesians ; on a warlike 
expedition all Maori warriors are taboo, and tke permanent 
persona! taboo of the chiefs is increased twofold • they are 
"tabooed an inch thick " The Jews also seem to have 
had a war-taboo, for when out on the warpath they ab- 
stained from women (1 Sam xxi 4, 5), — a rule strictly 
observed by Maori warriors on a dangerous expedition. 
The Dards, who with the kindred Siah Posh K&firs on the 
southern slopes of the Hindu Kush^tribes which probably 
of all Aryan peoples retain a social state most nearly ap- 
proximating to that of the primitive Aryans — abstain from 
sexual intercourse during the whole of the fighting season, 
from May to September, and "victory to the chastest" 
is said to be a maxim of all the fighting tribes from the 
Hindu Kush to Albania ' The same rule of continence in 
war is observed by some Indian tribes of North America '^ 
In Homer a fish is sacred (// , xvi 407), and Plato points 
out that during a campaign the Homeric warriors never 
ate fish (/irp , 404 B) Even in time of peace the men of 
Homer's day only ate fish when reduced to the verge of 
starvation (OJ , iv 363 «'/ , xii 309 sq ). The Slab 
Posh Kafirs refuse to eat fish, although their rivers 
abound in it ■* The Hindus of Vedic times appear not 
to have eaten fish * It is probable, therefore, that 
among the early Aryans, as among primitive peoples in 
various parts of the world, the eating of fish was tubooe*!. 
Again, the threshing-Hoor, the winnowing fan, and meal 
are all sacred (// , v. 499 , H Merc, 'Jl, 63, //., xi. 631). 
Similarly in New Zealand a taboo was commonly laid on 
places where farming operations were going on ; and among 
the Basutos, before the corn on the threshing-fioor can be 
touched, a religious ceremony has to be performed, and 
all "defiled" persons are carefully kept from seeing it.^ 
Although the Homeric folk ateswiiie, the epithet "divine^' 
commonly applied to a swineherd in Homer may point to 
a time when pigs were sacred or tabooed In Crete pigs 
were certainly sacred and not eaten (Athenaeus, 376a), 
and apparently at Pessinus also (I'ausanias, vu 17. 10). 
Amongst the Jews and Syrians, of course, pigs were tabooed ; 
and it was a moot question with the (Jreeks whether the 
Jews abhorred or worship|)ed pigs (Plut., (Jiuxst. Conv , iv. 
6). The pigs kept in the great temple at H lerapoUn^w^re 
neither sacrificed nor eaten , some people thought that they 
were sacred, others that they were unclean, tVayeav (Lucian, 
/)« Dea Syria, 54) Here we have an exact taboo, the 
ideas of sacredness and unoleauness being indistinguish- 
able Similarly by the Ojibways the dog is regarded as 
"unclean and yet as in some respei'ts holy "' The diver; 
gence of the two conceptions is illustrated by the history 
of the cow among ditTerent branches of the Aryan race . 
the Hindus regard this ammal as sacred ; the Shin caste 
among the Dards hold it in abhorrence' The general 
word for taboo in Greek is ayoi, which occurs in the sense 
both of "sacredness " and of "pollution"; and the .same 
is true of the adjective ayios and of the rare adjective 



' Reclus, A^oK7» iifog Unw vui p I-'t> 

' Schoolcraft, huiuin TrtJjc3, iv p 6;j . A<jair, Utst of American 
Indiana, p 163. Cp Morse. Report mt- Induin Affairs, p \Z0 sq, 
and Bancroft, Native Kacea u/ On Paci/U: Stales, i p I 89 

' Elphinstone, A'in^{/twn tz/Cdu/Hi/, ii 379, eil 1 839 . ^(ntm. ^(Atu;/ 
Sue, i p 192 * Zininicr, AUinUmJies Leben, p. 271 

' Ca.sali!*. Tfu B&mUoa, p '251 sq. 

• Koti], KUcfii-iJami, p 38. Eog. trans, 

^ F Drew. Tfu yuinmoo and /laskmir Tcrrttvru:3. p. 42S: Biddulph, 
Trihf.s of the HmdiKi KooitK p 51. 



oKayijs, "tabooed" (Bekker'a AnecdoUt Greua, 212, 32, 
Harpocration, s.v ai/ayfis) Usually, however, the Greeks 
discrimmated the two senses, dyvos being devoted to the 
sense of *' sacred " and eVayijs to that of " unclean ' or 
"accursed" "To taboo" is a^i'feii' , "to observe a taboo" 
is o.yv(.\ni\/ , and the state or season of taboo is dyi'tia 
or dyurrei'u The ndea of the Greek dyveia correspond 
closely to thpse of the Polynjsian taboo, consisting in 
" purificatiofls, washings, and sprinklings, and in abstain- 
ing from moujining for the dead, child-bed, and all pollu- 
tions, and in refraining from certain foods," &c ' 

Amongst the Romans, who preserved more traces of Amongsi 
primitive barbarism than the Greeks, the flamen dialis '''» 
was hedged in by a perfect network of taboos He was "^ 
not allowed to tide or even touch a horse, nor to look at 
an army under arms, nor to wear a ring which was not 
broken, nor to have a knot on any part of his garments , 
no fire, except a sacred fire, could be taken out of jis house, 
ho might not touch or even name a goat, a dog, raw meat, 
beans, and ivy , he might not walk under a vine , the feet 
of his bed had to be daubed with mud his hair could be 
cut only by a freeman, and his hair and nails when cut 
had to be buried under a lucky tree , he might not touch 
a corpse, <fec His wife, the flaminica, was also subject 
to taboos : at certain festivals she migu,. not comb her hair , 
if she heard thunder, she was taboo (ferxata) till she had 
offered an expiatory sacrifice. The similarity of some of 
these rules to the Polynesian taboo is obvious The Roman 
fenae were periods of taboo , no work might be done during 
them except works of necessity e j, an ox might be pulled 
out of a pit or a tottering roof supported Any person 
who mentioned Salus, Semonia, Seia, Segetia, or Tutilina 
was tabooed {fenas observabat) '^ The Latin smct is exactly 
" taboo"; for it means either "sacred ' or " accursed " 

L(n.:ralwre — On the Polynesian taboo, sefCook. Vmages, vol t 
p. 427 .v^., vol vii. u. 146 sq (eii 1809) , G K Angas, Savaqe Sana 
in Australia and New Zealand, passim , W ^'ale, New Zealand, p 
84 sq. , Kllis, Folynesmn ftesearches 2d ed vol iv p 385 sq , 
Lan^dorlf, lirise um die Well, i p \\\ sq Mariner Tonga 
Islands, i p 141 note, ll pp 82, 220 s? . Turner, Nineteen Years in 
Polynesia, p 294 sq , lu , Samoa, p 185 sq , Klernin, Cullur- 
grxhichle, IV p Z7'2 sq. , Wailz-Gerland, Anthropologit der Nalur. 
I'olkcr, VI. pp 343-363 , Shortland, Traditions and Supirstttiont 
o/lJie NewZmlitndfrs,p 101s? . \A . Moon Keligwn and Mylhology 

V 25 sq ; Vld New Zealand, by a t'akeha Mauii, cliapters vii -XM 
i'olark, Ma.nnfrs and Customs of tkr New Zcalanders. l p 275 sq , 
\}ii;\h\\ho.ch. Travels m New Zealantt, n y 100 s? . R Taylor. A'cu; 
Zealand, p. 163 sq On the uboo in Mii ronesia, see Waitz Gerland, 
op cU., V pt ii p 147 sq. , among the Dyaks and Malavs, see Id , 

VI p 354 sq. , Low, Sarawak, pp 260 262 , Bock, Hmd Huntirs of 
Borneo pp 214-230 , Spencer St John, Li/e in the Fotests of tfU 
Far 'Bast, i. p. 184 sq. , A R Wallace, TIte Malay Archipelago, p 

-M^ , 10 MeUlnesia, \Villiams, Fiji and tlu Fijians, I p 234 sq 
(ed I860); J K ErskiDe,.7'Ac H'esiem Paalie. \> 254, Vim-endon- 
Oumoulin and De.sgraz, fles Marquises, p "259*?. ; Journ. Anthrop 
Inst.. X pp 279, 290. Ch. Leinire, Nouvelle CaUdi^nie, Paris 
1884, p. 117 , H Paikiiison, Im Bismarck Archipel, Leipsic, 1887 
p. 144 (J G FE.) 

TABIvtZ, Tavris, or Tavhiz, a town of Persia, capital of 
the province of .Adarbaijin (Azerbijan, ancient Alropatene), 
is situated in 38° 4' N lat. and 46° 18'^ long , more than 
400o feet above the sea, at the eastern end of a wido 
valley, through which runs a river whose waters irrig-.ite 
the gardens that encircle the town In 1812 the walls 
had a circumference of 3 j miles Overlooking the valley 
on the north-east and east are bold bare rocks, while to 
the south rises the more regular pe.ik of Sahand The 
town possesses few buildings of note, and of the extensive 
ruins but few merit attention Moiinsey in 1SG6 men- 
tioned the blue mosque , the ark or citadel, containing the 
palace of the heir apparent, — a large frowning building near 
the centre of the town; the Great Maidan, an open sijuare, 



" Piogencs Laerliua, viii. 1, 33 
» Macrobios, Sat , i 16. 8. 



cp Plut, QuKst Conti., V. 10. 



T A C — T A C 



19 



•»nd the bazaars The mosque, which he ascribes to Sh4h 
Abbas, 13 that of the Turcoman Jahan Sh4h (1410-1468). 
Abbas Mirza converted the citadel into an arsenal. Among 
the ruins of old Tauris the sepulchre of the Mogul sultan, 
Ghazan Khiin, is no longer to be distinguished, except as 
part of a huge tumulus. It is situated about 2 milee 
southwest from the modern town, but far within the 
original boundaries. .Xhe "spacious arches of stone and 
other vestiges of departed majesty " with which Porter 
found it surrounded in 1818 were possibly remains of 
the college {madrasa) and monastery (jrfwiya) where Ibn 
Batuta found shelter duung his visit to the locality In 
spite of the cholera visitation of 1822 and other occasional 
ravages of sickness, and the severe cold of winter, the 
climate of Tabriz is proverbially healthy. Its orchards 
and fruit gardens have a high reputation, and its running 
streams make amends for ill-paved and narrow streeta 
and sorely defective municipal arrangements General 
Schindler estimated the population in 1886 at about 
170,000. — a number agreeing with the latest local census. 
The same authority stales th.it the city conuiins K tombs 
of imimzadehs, 318 mosques, 100 public baths, 166 cara- 
vanserais, 3922 shops, 28 guard houses, and 5 Christian 
(Armenian) churches , but this account must comprise in 
some of Its items more buildings than are actually lu use 
There are said to be nearly 3000 Armenians in the place 

Tdlirlz Id a city of txt«n3ive commcrco, a great emporium for the 
trade of Persia on the west, and tlie sf>eci:il mart hetween Turkey, 
Russia, aod Persia ll possesses an intemattunal tele^::|>fi .-station, 
and the line passes henre to TiHis and Europe on one side aii<i to 
Teheran on the other Subsidiary lines have been construuted to 
Dear Astara on the Caspian (136 miles lon^) and to Saujhulak on 
the Kurdish frontier (125 miles long) East wick in I860 estimated 
;the*value of the exports to Turkey at about i'60O,0fiO and to Russia 
:at about £400.000. exclusive of smuggling The chief imports 
were British, and some Swiss — coloured cotton goods, grev calicoes, 
and broadcloth, — with miscellaneous goods fioin Germany In 
1881 there was a marked improvement in the tiade of Tabriz, 
mainly in increased imports from CoDsuntinople In 1885 the 
imports amounted to £721.730 and the exports to £306,ti87 The 
principal items of the former were cottons {from England), woollen 
cloth (from Austria and Germany), sugar (from France), and lea 
(from HoIlaQd)i of the latter dried fruits (lo Russia) and silk (to 
France. Austria, and Switzerland). There are lea<i mines near 
Tabriz, and cobalt and copper are obtainable from the Sahand 

There is perhaps do city in Persia on which so murli has f>een 
recorded by native and foreign writers as Tabriz Among the 
former Ibn Batuta, the Arab, and Hamd Ullah, the Fersian. are 
nota)»le Of the latter may be mentioned Chardin, Porter. Ouseiey, 
Tancoigne, Moricr. Du Pre, Malcolm, Lady Shell, Eastwick. Moun 
8*y, Scdiindler. and Madame Dieulafoy (in Tour du Monde, 1883) 
The name Tabru has been a subject ol mui:h comment and con 
jecture, but tliere is no doubt that it is taken from (lie ancient 
name of Tauns The history of Tabnz is a long and painful record 
of sieges and conflicts, of earthquakes and desirucliou by natural 
causes Of late years it has recovered to some extent its former high 
position, and is lu many respects a worthy rival to the capital 

TACITUS The famous Roman hi.storian Tacitus, who 
ranks beyond dispute in the highest place among men of 
letters of all ages, lived in the latter half of the first and 
in the early part of the 2d century of our era, through 
the reigns of the emperors Nero, Oalba, Otho, Vitellius, 
Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan All we know 
of his personal history is from allusions to himself in 
his own works, and from eleven letters addressed to him 
by his very intimate friend the younger Pliny The exact 
year of his birth is a matter of inference, but it may 
be approximately fixed near the close of the reign of 
Claudius, from 52 to 54 a D Pliny indeed speaks of 
Tacitus and himself as being " much of an age " ' (jmipe 
modum evjiuxles), tW)ugb himself born in 61 or 62, but 
be must have been some years junior to his friend, who 
began, he tells us,''' bis official life with a qusestorship 
under Vespasian in 78 or 79, at which time he must have 



' PUny, Epp., n. 'JO, 



Hiai , I, 1. 



been twenty-five years of age at least. Of his family and 
birthplace we know nothing certain , we can iufer nothing 
from his name Cornelius, wl , h was then very widely 
extended , but the fact of bis early promotion seems to 
point to respectable antecedents, and it may be that his 
father was one Cornelius Tacitus, who had been a pro- 
curator in one of the divisions of Gaul, to whom allusion 
is made by the elder Pliny in his Natural History (vii. 
76). But It is all matter of pure conjecture, as it also is 
whether his " prsenomen " was Publius or Cams. He bos 
come down to us simply as Cornelius Tacitus. The most 
interesting facts about him lo us are that he was an 
eminent pleader at the Roman bar, that he was an eye- 
witness of the "reign of terror" during the last three 
years of Doniiiian, and that he was the sonin-law of the 
great and good Julius Agricola, the humane and enlightened 
governor of Britain This honourable connexion, which 
testifies to his high moral character, may very possibly 
have accelerated his promotion, which he says' was begun 
by \'es(iasian, augmented by Titus, and still further ad- 
vanced by Domitian, under whom we find him presiding 
as praetor at the celebration of the secular games in 88, 
and a member of one of the old priestly colleges, lo which 
■good family was an almost indisjiensable passport. Next 
year, it seems, he left Rome, and was absent till 93 on 
some provincial business, and it is possible that in these 
four years he may have made the acquaintance of Germany 
and its peoples His fatherin law died the year of his 
return to Rome In the concluding passage of his Life of 
Aiinrola he tells us plainly that he witnessed ^he judicial 
murders of many of Rome s bust citizens from 93 to 96, 
and that being himself a senator he fell almost a guilty 
complicTly in them "Our hands," he says, "dragged 
llelvidius to prison , we were steeped in Senecio's innocent 
blood "* With the emperor Nerva's acce.ssion his life be- 
came bright and prosperous, and so it continued through 
the reign of Nerva's successor, Trajan, he himself, in the 
opening passage of his Agncola, describing this as a 
" singularly blessed time " (bcatissimum s'eculum) ; but the 
hideous reign of terror had stamped itself ineffaceably 
on his soul, and when he sat down to write his History 
he could see little but the darkest side of imperialism To 
his friend the younger Pliny we are indebted for all we 
know (and this is but trifling) about his later lif<» He 
was advanced to the consulship in 97, in succession to a 
highly distinguished man, 'Virginius Rufus, on whom lie 
delivered in the senate a funeral eulogy "The good 
fortune of Virginius, ' says Pliny,' " was crowned by 
having the most eloquent of panegyrists " In 99 he was 
associpted with Pliny in the prosecution of a great political 
offender, Marius Priscus, under whom the provincials of 
Africa had suffered grievous wrongs The prosecution was 
successful, and we have I 'liny's testimony " that Tacitus 
spoke with his characteristic dignity Both received a 
special vote of thanks from the senate for their conduct of 
the case. Of his remaining years we know nothing, and 
we may presume that he devoted thera exclusively to 
literary work. It would seem that he lived to the close of 
Trajan's reign, as he seems' to hint at that emperor's ex- 
tension of the empire by his successful Eastern campaigns 
from 115 to 117 Whether he outlived Trajan is matter 
of conjecture. It is worth noticing that the emperor 
Tacitus in the 3d century claimed descent from him, and 
directed that ten copies of his works should be made 
every year and deposited in the public libraries He also 
had a tomb built to his memory, which was destroyed by 
order of Pope Pius V. in the latter part of the 16th cen-, 
tury Tacitus, as we gather from one of Pliny's letters,' 



' Hist,., i 1 
« Epp., li. 11 



Atj'ncola, 45 
.\ nn. , ii. 



eiiiv « 



• Epp., u. 1 
° Spp., Iz. 23. 



20 



TACITUS 



had a great reputation during bis lifetime. On one 
occasion a Koinan kniglit, wlio sat by his side in the circus 
at the celebration of some games, aslted him, " Are you 
from Italy or from the provinces?" His answer was, 
■" You know mo from your reading." To which the knight 
replied, " Are you then Tacitus or Pliny t " 

Pliny, as we see clearly from several passages in his 
letters, had the highest opinion of his friend's ability and 
worth He consults him about a school which he thinks 
of establishing at Comum (Como), his birthplace, and asks 
biin to look out for suitable teachers and professors. And 
he pays ' him the high compliment, " I know that your 
Hutnrtes will be immortal, and this makes me the more 
anxious that my name should appear in them." 

The following is a list o( Tacitus's remaining works, 
arranged in their probable chronological order, which may 
be approximateh inlerred from internal evidence— (1) 
the Di'il'j'ji" un Omtnrs. a.ho\i\ 7G or 77, (2) the Life 
of Anrirolo, 97 or 98. (3l the Qermnny. 98. published 
probably in 99 , (4) the HrM'<r,es {Ihstxrut). completed 
probably by 115 or 116, the last years of Trajan s reigo 
(he must have been at work on them for many years) ; 
(5) the Annals, his latest work probably, written in part 
perhaps along with the l/isi:n,s. and completed subse- 
quently to Trajan's reign, which he may very well have 
outlived. 



The Dialoniu on Orators discusses, in Iho form of a conv<.r«tion 
which Tantii3 professed to have l,,-a„l 'a? a vo.mg man. .ptv>-..n 
some eminent men at the Roman ha- thp cauvrs of ihr .l«ay of 
eloquem-e under the erapiK: Tl.rre are some lufresrinz remarks 
in it on the change for the worse thai had taken place in the 
education of Roman lails. 

Tlic Life ofA<,r,cnla. sh..rt as it is. has always been consirtered 
an admirable specimen of hmg.arl.v The great man with all his 
grace an.l dignity is brought v,v„l,v before us. and il.e sketch we 
haw of the hi'.tiry oi our island uu.ler the Romans gives a special 
interest to this lutle work ,...,- „„ ti „ 

The Germany, the full title of which is Concerning the 
geogranhv. the manners and customs, and the tnhesof f^'-nnany 
Sesaibes'wilh many suggestive lunts the general rhar.ac,er of the 
German peoples, and dwells parucularlv on thcr fierce and lude^ 
pendent spirit, which ibe author evidently fell o be a siaml . g 
menace to the empire The geography is its weak point ; this was 
no doubt gathered from vague hearsay , , , i„„„„i,, 

The IlSlorus. as origmaUv composed in twelve books, brought 
vlie history of the empire from Oalba m fi9 down to tie close of 
Domitinn-s reign in 97 The first four books, and .a small fragment 
of the fifth, giving us a very minute account of the even ful year 
of revolutioiK 69. and the brief reigns of Calba. Otho, a,,. V iicllius | 
are all that remain to us. In the fragment of tl«. fif.li h"ok we 
have a curious and interesting account of the .lewish nation, of 
their character, customs, and religion, from a cultivated Romans 
point of view, which we see at once was a strongly prejudic-.l one 

The Annals-^ title for which there is no ancient authority, and 

which there is no reason for supposing Tacitus g^^, <i'^;'';:;''^,; ^ 

to the work-record tlie history of the emperors of the J"l>a" J'f 

from Tiberius to Nero, comprising thus a period from '^ « /> J" 

68 Of these, nine books have come dQwn to ns entire . ol books 

V xi and xvi. we have but fragments, and the whole of he reign 

of'Caius (Caligula), the first six years of Claudius, and the last three 

years of Nero are wanting. Out of a period of fifty-tour years we 

thus have the history of forty years. .. . ,k ^„„„;, 

An attempt has been made recently to prove Iha, the ^W, 

arc a forgery by Poggio Bracciolini. an Italian scholar of the l.'i h 

ccntu y^u^t their 6°""iueness is confirmed by their agreement 

i,° various minute details with coins and inscnptioDs discovered 

since that period. Another important fact has ^"" J'^?'" 1° 

light. Ruodolphus, a monk of a monastery at Fulda m Hesse 

cLel, writing in the 9th century, says that C"^"^ '"Vyj''"/ 

speaks of the river known to moderns as the Wcser as t he \M urg s^ 

Id the An,mls as thev have come down to us wo find the Visurgis 

mentioned five times in the first two books, whence we may coiv 

elude that a manuscript of them was in existence in the 9th 

century. Add to this the testimony of .leiome that Tacitus wrote 

in thirty books the lives of the Ciesars. and the evidence of style. 

and theie cannot be much doubt thai in the AnvnU we have a 

genuine wor k of Tacitus. ____^ 

Epi>.. vii. 33. , 

» See Introduction to vol. i. of Furneaux's edition of the A7fa/s 
OlTucitus. Clarendou Press Series. 188t 



Much of the history of the period described by hini. especially 
of the earlier Ca'sars. must have been obscure and locked up with 
the emperor's private pap.rs and memoranda. As we should ex. 
pert there w.as a vast amount of fioating gossip, which an historian 
would have to sift and utilize as bust he might Tacitus, as a 
man of "ood social position, no doubt had access to the best 
informati°on. and must have talked matters over >Mth the most 
eminent men of the day There were several writers and chron' 
icleis whom he occasionally cites but not very oficn there were 
memoirs of distinguished persons. -those, foi example of the 
youiicer A<»rippina.ofThiasca. tnil Hclvi.lius. There were several 
colleL"llons°of lell.-rs. like those of Ihe younger IMiny a number, 
too, of funeral orations, and the --acta tcnatus" and the "acl» 
populi " or " a.'ta diurna." the first a record oi proceedings in the 
senate, the latter a kiud of gazelle or journal Thus there were 
the materials lor history in considerable abundance, and lacilu» 
was certainly a man who knew how to turn them to good account 
Ik has given us a striking, and on Ihe whole doubtless a true, 
picture of the eminrc in the 1st century. He wrote, it may be 
admitted, with a political bias and a decided turn lor satire, but 
he assuredly wrote with a high aim. and we may accept his own 
account of ' it "I regard ^ it as history s highest function to 
rescue merit from oblivion, and to hold up as a lerroi to base 
words and actions the reprobation of posterity " Amid great evils 
he recognized the existence of truly noble virtues e\an m his own 
degenerate age Still for the most part he writes as a man who 
felt deeply that the world was altogether "out of joint", the 
empire was in itsdf .n his view a hufe blund-r. and answeratjlc 
more or less diiectly lor all the diseases ol society, for all tli« 
demoralization and .orruplitm of the creal world ol Rome, though 
as to the iirovinces he admits that they were t^Uer olf in many 
ways under the emperors than they bad b.-en in the last days of 
the republic liul Ins political svmpathu^s were certainly with 
the old ari.stocratic and scnalonan regime, wilh the Rome ol the 
Scinios and the Fabii ; lor hini the greatness of his country lay m 
the past. and. though he fell her to b. still great her glory "as. 
he thon-lit. decidedly on the wane He «as. in fact, a political 
idealist. "and cnul.l hardly help speaking disparagingly of his own 
day In his Orrinnnn he dwells on the routiasi between barbarian 
freedom and siinplicilv on the one hand and Ihe servilitv an.l 
degenei-acv of Roman lite on the other Vet he had a strong and 
siiiiere paiuotism. which invariably made him minimize a Koinan 
defeat and the number of Roman slain There seems to have been 
a strange tinge, loo. of supersution about liim. and he could not 
divesl liimsell of some belief in asiiolngy and revelations of the 
fulure throu-h omens and i.<.rienu. thoiii;h he held these were 
often misunderstood niid misinieipreied by eharl.itans and im- 
postors -On the whole he appears to have inclined to the philo- 
sophical Iheoiyof ■•iiecessitarnnism," that every man » fulure is 
fixed from his birth . but we must not fasten on him any particular 
theory of the world or of the universe Sometimes he speaks as a be- 
liever'in a divine nverruliii= I'rovidence. and we mav say confidently 
that with the Epicurean dorinne he had no sort ol sympathy 

His btvle whatever judgment mav be passed on it. is certainly 
that of aman of genius and cannot l»il to make a deep impression 
on the studious reader Tacitean brevity has become proverbial, 
and with this are closelv allied an occasional obscurity and a rhetor- 
ical alTertatiop which his warmest admirers must admit He has 
been compared to Carlyle and there are certainly resemblances 
between the two both ID stvle and tone of thought. Both affect 
sin'-ularilv of expression both incline to an unhopeful and cynical 



view ol the world Tacitus was probably ueve, a popular author; 
to be understood and appreciated he must be read again and again, 
or the point of some ol his aeuiesl remarks wdl be quite missed^ 
He ha,s been several time.s translated, but it has always been felt 
that he presents very great, if not insuperable, difficulties to the 
translator _ , .. 

Miirnhv irnr..l.uen la puraptirwe we should «11 II) !• I'^''".''' ""'."' J^J 
he. kS"w„ ,T w.. p„bn.l.p.l 'a-1. .n .he prewnl century "n Ihls wa. b^ed 
the ,e called 0,..,rrt lr.n.ln.>..n, puMished bv B"l.n in .revised cdumn Th« 
Llern .n.la.ine 1. ..at hv M-^.r, Chur, I, aed Ki-edril.b Theic .« en the whoU 
L°L"d Vrrn h ..;n,la",ne h, Lmi.nd.- The e.llMoh, ol Tacl.u> are very num 
Pto,,^ Amo.,11 moie ipcenl edluons.the best «nd moM iiselul are Orelh « (18.W1. 
Rule, s *1SMK Nlppe. de, 'S (1879, . Ku,-neaai> s Mnna/,. 1 -vl.^ vol ' Claiende, 
Press. 18.S4 ^ 

TACITUS, M Claudius, Roman emperor from Sep 
lember 25. -270, to April 276. «'as a native of Interamna 
(Terni) in Unibria, and was born about the year 200. In 
the course of his long life he discharged the duties of 
various civil offices, including that of consul in 2/3, with 
univer.sal respect. Six months after the assassination of 
Aurelian he was chosen by the senate to succeed him. and 
the choice was cordially ratified by the army. During his 
brief reign he set on foot some domestic .reforms, and 



' Avn . ill. 65. 



4nn., vi. 21, 22. 



T A C - T A G 



21" 



«onght to revive the authority of the senate, bat, after 
a victory over the Alani near the Palus Ma;otis, he 
succumbed to the hardships and fatigues of his new 
duties at Tj-ana in Cappadocia. Tacitus, besides being 
a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the 
state), had considerable literary culture, and was proud to 
claim descent from the historian, whose works he caused 
to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the 
public libraries. 

TACTICS. See War. 
TADMOR. See PALimta. 

TAFILELT, a large oasis in Morocco (see vol. xvi. p. 
632). The principal place is Abuam. 

TAGANROG, a seaport of southern Russia, on the 
northern shore of the Sea of Azotf, in the government of 
Ekaterinoslaff, and nearly 200 miles south-east of its chief 
town It is built, principally of wood, on a low cape, and, 
with its extensive store-houses, exchange, and wholesale 
shops, has the aspect of an important commercial city._^ It 
is well provided with educational Institutions for children, 
«na uas a library and a theatre. The imperial palace, where 
Alexander I. died in 182-5, and jhe Greek monastery 
{under the patriarch of Jeru.salem) are worthy of notice. 
The advantageous situation of Taganrog was well known as 
•early as the 13th century, when Pisan merchants founded 
there a colony, Portus Pisauus, which, however, was des- 
tined soon to disappear during the great migrations of the 
Mongols and Turks. An attempt to obtain posses.sion of 
the promontory was made by Peter I , but it was not 
definitely annexed by the Russians until seventy years 
afterwards (1769). Its commercial importance dates from 
the .second half of the present century , in 1870 its popu- 
lation had risen to 38,000, and after it had been brought 
into railway connexion with Kharkoff and Voronezh, and 
thus with the fertile provinces of sorth and south-east 
liHssia, the increase was still more rapid, the number 
reaching 03,025 in 1882, —Greeks, Jews, Armenians, and 
West- Europeans being important elements. Notwith- 
standing the disadvantages of its open roadstead, the 
foreign trade of Taganrog rapidly expanded, the annual 
value of the exports having recently reached £2,-500,000 
The chief article of export being com, the trade of the 
«ity, depending on the crops in south Russia, is subject to 
great fluctuations. Linseed afid other oil bearing grains 
are also important articles of commerce, as well as tallow 
•and butter The imports, which consist chiefly of fruits 
(dried and fresh), wine, oil, and coffee, are much smaller 
than the exports, and of the 989 ships (499,500 tons) 
that entered the port in 1885 no fewer than 775 (446,500 
tons) were in ballast. The coasting trade, chiefly with 
Rostuff, was represented in the same year by 1321 vessels 
{224,000 tons) entering and 1343 vessels clearing 

The roadstead of Taganrog is very shallow, and exposed to winds 
•winch cause great variations in the height of the water, it is. more 
OVL-r. ni|.i.lly silting up. At the quay the depth of water is only B 
to 9 li'Ct, nnci large ships have to lie 5 to 1.3 miles from the town 

Taganrog, with the surrounding territory of 137,000 acres, having 
a popiilitioii of nearly -30,000. living in a dozen villages, constitutes 
a separate township, and, though reckoned to the Rostotf district 
of Ekaterinoslatf. lias a separate governor and administration 

TAGLIACOZZI, Gasparo (1546-1599), a surgeon of 
wide repute, was born at Bologna in 1546, and studied at 
that university under Cardan, taking his degree in philo 
Sophy and medicine at the age of twenty-four He was 
appointed professor of surgery and afterwards of anatomy, 
and achieved notoriety at least, and the fame of a wonder 
worker He died at Bologna on November 7, 1599. 

His luincipal -work is entitled Dc Curlonm ChiruTgia per 
IimilioncM L^hri Duo (Vmice, 1597, fol. ); it was reprinted in the 
following year under the title of Chirurgia Nova de Narium, 
Aurium, jMbiontmq^ie Dcfcctu per Insitiuncm Cutis ex Hmnero, 
arte hactenm omnibtts ignota, sarcicndo (Frankfort, 1598, 8vo). 



The latter title sufficiently indicates the art which he professed o( 
repairing nose, eai's, and lips by a species of ingrafting of skin from 
the arm, that member being kept in apposition with the part to b« 
repaired until such time as the semi-detached graft had formed its 
new vascular conuexions. His Latinized name of Tiiliacotius 13 
well known to the readers of Butler (Budibras, i. 1), whose hum- 
orous representation of the nature of the Taliacotian art is, how. 
ever, in some important particulars inaccurate. 

TAGLIONI, Marie (1809-1884), a ballet dancer, was 
the daughter of Filippo Taglioni, an Italian master of the 
ballet, and was born at Stockholm 23d April 1809 She 
was trained by her father, who in his discipline is said to 
have been pitilessly severe. It was to his care and her 
own special talent for dancing that she owed her success, 
for she possessed no remarkable personal attractions Her 
first appearance was at Vienna, lOth June 1822, in a 
ballet of which her father was the author. La Reception 
d'une jeune nymphe a la cour de Terpsichore Her success 
was immediate, and was repeated in the chief towns of 
Germany. On 23d July 1827 she made her debut at the 
Opera House, Paris, in the Ballet de Sicihen, and aroused 
a furore of enthusiasm. Her style was entirely new, and 
may be termed ideal as opposed to the realistic and vplup- 
tuous ballet previously in vogue. Among her more remark- 
able performances were the dancing of the Tyrolienne in 
Guillaume Tell and of the pas de fascination \n Meyerbeer's 
Robert le Diable. At this period the ballet was a much 
more important feature in opera than it is now, and in 
fact -ivith her retirement in 1845 the era of grand ballets 
may be said to have closed. In 1832 she married Comte 
Gilbert de Voisins, by whom she had two children Losing 
her savings in speculation, she afterwards supported her 
self in London as a teacher of deportment, especially in 
connexion with the ceremony of presentation at court 
During the last two years of her life she stayed wnth her 
son at Marseilles, where she died la April 1884 Taglioni 
IS frequently mentioned in the novels of Balzac , and 
Thackeray, in The Newcomes, says that the young men of 
that epoch " will never see anything so graceful as Taglioni 
in La Sylphide." 

TAGUS (Spfwi. Tojo, Portug. Tejo), the longest, river "of 
the Iberian Peninsula. Its length is'566 miles, of which 
192 are on or within the frontier of Portugal, and the area 
of its basin, according to Strelbitsky, is 31,864 square 
miles. The basin is comparatively narrow, and the Tagu.s, 
like the other rivers of the fberian tableland, generally 
flows in a rather confined valley, often at the bottc'in of 
a rocky gorge at a considerable depth below the general 
level of the adjacent country The source of the river 
IS at the height of 5225 feet above sea-level, on the 
western slope of the Muela de San Juan, in the south west 
of the province of Teruel. Thence it flows at first north 
westwards, but, after receiving the Rio Gallo on the right, 
It Hows west, and then south west or westr-south- west, 
which 18 its general direction for the rest of its course. 
The rocky gorges which occur in its course (the principal 
being where the river is overhung on the right bank by 
the ancient city of Toledo, and again at the Puente del 
Arzobispo, neai — the frontier of Estremadura) all belong 
to the Spanish section of the river, and in this section 
tb« stream is frequently encumbered by sandy shallows or 
broken by rocky rapids, and is not navigable except for 
short distances. The Portuguese section has a quieter 
current, amd V^illavelha, the highest point to which boats 
can ascend, lies within the Portuguese frontier Regular 
river navigation begins only at Abrantes, a few miles below 
which the Tagus is greatly widened by receiving on its right 
bank the inrpetuous Zezere from the Serra da Estrelha, 
Passing Santarem, the highest point to which the tide 
ascends, and the limit of navigation for large sailing vessels 
and steamers, the river divides below Salvaterrajnto two 



22 



T A H — T A H 



aVms, called the Tejo Novo (the only one practicable for 
ships) and the Mar de Pedro, and these arms enclose a 
deltaic formation, a low tract of marshy alluvium known 
as the Lezirias, traversed by several natural canals or minor 
branches of the river. Both these arms enter 'the upper 
end of the fine Bay of Lisbon (11| miles long by about 7 
broad), and the Tagus leaves this bay in the form of a 
channel 4J miles long by 2 wide (see vol. xiv. p. 692), 
communicating with the ocean, but having unfortunately 
a bar at its mouth. On the north side of this channel 
stands the city of Lisbon. Only slight traces are still to 
be found of the gold for which the sands of the Tagus 
were anciently celebrated. 

The narrower part of the Tagus basin lying to the 
south, the tributaries on the left bank are almost all mere 
brooks, most of which dry up in summer. The principal 
exception is the Rio Zatas or Sorraya, whicli, rising in 
the Serra d'Ossa, flows westwards across the plateau of 
Alemtejo, and joins the Mar de Pedro. The principal 
tributaries on the right bank, besides the Zezere, are the 
Jarama, descending from the tableland of New Castile a 
little below Aranjuez, the Alberche and the Tietar, which 
collect their head waters from opposite sides of the Sierra 
de Gredos, and the Alagon, from the rough and broken 
country between the Sierras ds Gredos and Gata. 
See vol. TAHITI ARCHIPELAGO The eastern Polynesian 
^^- island-group generally known as the Society Islands (Isles 
lit** '^" ''^ Societe, or Taili) lies between 16° and 18° S. lat. 
and 148° and 155° W, long., and stretches for nearly 200 
miles in a north-west and south-east direction ; the total 
area does not e.xceed 650 square mile.s, of which 600 fall to 
Tahiti alone. To the east and north-east a channel of only 
140 miles in breadth, but over 2000 fathoms in depth, 
separates this group from the great chain of the Low Islands, 
beyond-which the ocean extends unbroken to America. To 
the west as far as Fiji — the main islands of which group lie 
between the same degrees of latitude as those of Tahiti — 
there are 1 500 miles of open water. About 300 miles south- 
west lies Cook's Archipelago, and at the sscme distance south 
are the Austral Islands. To the north, excepting a few 
coral banks, there is open sea to Hawaii, a distance of 
2600 miles. 

Tahiti occupies a central position in the Pacific. Sydney 
lies about 3400 miles to the west and San Francisco about 
as far to the northnorth-east. Honolulu, 'Noumea; and 
Auckland are each somewhere about 2400 miles away ; 
Panama is at a distance of 4600 miles. 

The archipelago consists of eleven islands, which are 
divided into two clusters — the Leeward and the Wind- 
ward Islands — by a clear channel of 60 miles in breadth. 
The Leeward I.slands, to which alone the name of Society 
Islands was given by Cook, are Tubal or Motu-iti, a small 
uninhabited lagoon island, the most northern of the whole 
archipelago , Maupiti or Mau-rua — " Double Mountain," 
the most western ; Bora-bora (Bola-Bola of the older 
navigators), or Fdarui ; Tahaa ; Raiatea or Ulietea (Boen- 
sliea's Princessa), the largest island of this cluster, and 
Huahine, which approach each other very closely, and are 
encircled by one reef. To the Windward Island.s, the 
Georgian Islands of the early missionaries, belong Maiaiti 
or Tapamanu (Wallis's Sir Charles Saunders Island and 
Coensiiea's ''^lada) ; Morea or Eimeo (Wallis's Duke of 
York Is)' I. and Bocnshea's San Domingo); Taliiti — Cook's 
OtalieitI v|)robably Quiros's Sagittaria ; Wallis's King 
George's Island, Bougainville's Nouvelle Cythere, and 
Boenshea'a Isla d'Aniat), the most southern and by far 
the largest of all the islands ; Tetuara or Tetiaroa— " The 
Distant Sea" (? Quiros's Fugitiva ; Bougainville's Umaitia 
and Bocnshea's 'Tres Hernianos) ; and Matia or Maitea 
(J Quiros's La Dezana. Wallia's Osnaburg Island, Boug?"n- 



ville's Boudoir- and Pic de la Boudeuse, and Boeushea's 

San Cristoval), which is by a degree the most eastern of the 
archipelago. Bellinghausen, Scilly, and Lord Howe (Mopia) 
are three insignificant clusters of coral islets to the north- 
west and west, and, like Tubal and Tetilara, are atolls. 
The length of the Tetuara reef ring is about six milfls ; it 
bears ten palm-covered islets, of which several are in 
habited, and has one narrow boat-passage leading into the 
lagoon. With the exception just named, the islands, which 
agree very closely in geological structure, are mountainous, 
•and present perhaps the most wonderful example of 
volcanic rocks- to be found on the globe. They are formed 
of trachyte, dolerite, and basalt. There are raised cora' 
beds high up the mountains, and leva occurs in a variety 
of forms, even in solid tiows ; but all active volcanic 
agency has so long ceased that the craters have been 
almost entirely obliterated by denudation. Hot springs 
are unknown, and earthquakes are slight and rare. 
Nevertheless, under some of these flows remains of plants 
and insects of species now living in the islands have been 
found, — a proof that the formation as well as the denuda- 
tion of the country is, geologically speaking, recent. la 
profile the islands are rugged. A high mountain, usually 
with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole 
island ; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, 
as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land. 
These mountains, excepting some stony crags and cliflTs, 
are clothed with dense forest, the soil being exceptionally 
fertile. All voyagers agree that for varied beauty of form 
and colour the Society Islands are unsurpassed in the 
Pacific Innumerable rills, fed by the fleeting cloud* 
which circle round the high lands, gather in-lovely streams, 
and, after heavy rains, torrents precipitate themselves in 
grand cascades from the- mountain cliffs — a feature 6» 
striking as to have attracted the attention of all voyagers, 
from Wallis downwards. Round most of the islands there 
is a luxuriant coral growth ; but, as the reefs lie at no 
great distance, and follow the line of the coast, the inter- 
island channels are safer than those of the neighbouring 
Tuamotus, which exhibit the atoll formation in -perhaps 
its fullest development, and in consequence have been 
jiistly called the ' Low " or " Dangerous Archipelago." 
Maitea, which rises from the sea as an exceedingly abrupt 
cone, and Tapamanu appear to be the only islands which 
have not their fringing and more or less completely 
encircl'mg barrier-reefs.'* The coasts are fairly indented, 
and, protected by these reefs, which often support a chain 
of green islets, afford many good harbours and safe 
anchorages. In this respect the Society Islands hava 
the advantage of most of the Polynesian groups. 

The island of Tahiti, in shape not unlike the figure 8, has 
a total length of 35 miles, a coast line of 120, and a super- 
ficial area of 600 square miles. It is divided into two 
distinct portions by a short isthmus (Isthmus de Taravao) 
less than a mile iq width, and nowhere more than 50 feet- 
above sea-level. The southern, the peninsula of Tairabu, 
or Tahiti-iti (Little Tahiti), alone as large as Raiatea 
(after Tahiti the most important island of the group), 
measures 12 miles in length by 6 miles in breadth ; while 
the northern, the circular main island of Porionuu, or 
Tahiti-uni (Great Tahiti), has a length of 23 miles and a 
width of 20. The whole island is mountainous. A little 
to the north-west of the centre of Great Tahiti the Society 
Islands attain their greatest altitude. There the double- 
peaked Orohena rises to 7340 feet, and Aorai, its rival, 
is only a few hundred feet lower. Little Tahiti cannot 
boast of such mountains, but its tower-like peaks are very 
striking. The flat land of the Tahitian coast, extending 
to a width of several miles — with its chain of villages, it* 
' DaiwiD, SCniclure o/Coral Ree/a, London, 1842. 



TAHITI 



23 



lertile gardens, and its belt of palms, sometimes intersected 
by stream-fed valleys which open on the sea-shore — tonns 
a most pleasing foreground to the grand amphitheatre-like 
mountain ranges. A good road surrounds the entire 
island, which is divided into eighteen districts, each under 
a chief and a municipal councii of which he is president 
A railroad is in contemplation By the last census the 
population of the entire island was 9194, one-eighth being 
French and foreigners The majority of the natives pro 
fess the Protestant religion ' 

The extreme north ot the island is formed by Point Venus, to 
the east of which lies the Bay of Matavai, and some miles still 
farther east Papeete, the European town and the scat of govern 
ment The beautiful harbour, of fair si/o and depth, is entered by 
iwo ^issages in the reef, Papeete to the north, 7 fathoms lu depth, 
• nd Taunos to the east, the wider and more convenient, though 
.Jiallower The town, in 1881, had a population of ,1224. half of 
whom were French or French half-castes, but at least a dozen 
different nations were represented by the 800 whites. The little 
city IS decidedly French in ohar-acter " Papeete is the emporium 
of trade for the products of the South Sea Islands east of 160° F» 
long. Small schooners of from 20 to 50 tons burden bring the 

Sroduc^ of the various groups to Tahiti, whence they are shipped 
irect for Europe, either by Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope, 
according to the sea.son of the yp.ar These schooners, of which 
ab«nt twenty fly the Tahitian flag, take back portions of the 
cargoes of vessels arriving from Europe for sale oi barter amongst 
the islands. The chief exports are cocoa-outs, mother-of pearl, 
cotton, and some sugar mainly to England and Germany, very 
little to Fi-ance , and oranges, trepang (for China), and edihte 
fungus to California."' Many whalers formerly visited Papeete 
harbour, but foi some years there has been a steady dimuiution 
in their number In 184.') forty eight called there, m 1860 five, 
and none in 1874. Conmierce has also in olhei respects decreased 
Three sugar-mills with distilleries attaithed, two cotton manu 
factories, and a ■lanufactory ol cocoa-nut fibie were at »vork in 
1886. Oranges and vanilla are profit.ably growiL The timber of 
the country is hardly used, great quantities of Califoniian pine 
being imported. Oxen and hogs are reared. The artifit'ial cultuie 
of the pearl oyster is beginning to be discussed, but the peails of 
the Society Islands are not to be compared in numberor quality 
to those of the Tiiamotus. A good deal of rr.ading in fruit, fibre, 
shell, ic. , is carried on with the natives, but still mainly by baitei 
The competition of the Chinese immigi-ants, of whom in 1866 tlieie 
were already 400 on Tahiti and Einieo, is beginning to he keenly 
felt The importation of " laboni." chiefly fru the pluriLar ions, from 
othei Polynesian islands was placed under Government control in 
1862. The Tahitians themselves prelei handicrafts to agricultural 
work, and many are employed as arlisans by Euiopean niastt-i-s 
who find them as handy and industrious as then own eouriirynicu, 
but for domestic service they show no aptitude Papeete is in 
direct sailmg communication with San Francisco, and with Syilnty 
by a Goverrunent steamei which calls every five months, also with 
France by Bordeaux steamers which touch on their way ro 
Noumea. " 

ChmaJt —The seasons are not well defined. Damp is exce.ssive 
there is little variation in the weather, which, though hot, is never 
theless not depressing, an'i the climate foi the tropics must be 
considered remarkably healthy The rainfall is largest between 
December and April, but there is su niucb at othei times ol the 
fwii also chat these moiiths hardly deserve the name of the rainy 
•easori During this period north west winds are frequent, con 
tiiitiing at limes foi weeks and there are thunderstorrus am! 
hiir-ticanes. though they are not nearly .so destructive as m some 
of the neighbouring islands liuring the eight driei and co<ilei 
ninnths south-east wiud^ (corresponding with the trades) prevail, 
hut i.liert- are southerly winds which bring ram. and even westerly 
'•■-•^/.es are not iiufiequent The mean temperature foi the yeai 
1 /'■ F . maximum 84° minimum 6a' The average rainfall 
'■■.111 Dficembei to March (4 months) is 29 inches, from April to 
Kov .rubei (8 months), 19 inches The abovn observations applv 
<o the coast only 

Fauna — Neithei the zoology noi the bou-iny of the archipelago 
bas been thoroughly investigated Mammalians, as in othei Poly 
oesian islands, are restricted to a few species of bats (mostly of 
the genus Pteropus), rats, and- mice, none of them peculiar Of 
domestic animals, the pig and the dog— the foimer a small breeii 
which quickly disappeared before the stronget European strains- 
were plentiful even in Wallis's days. The ornithology is very 
pool as compared with that of the Westeni Pacific, and, in marked 

' The best chart of Tahiti is that publiihed by the French Govenunpntln 1876 
aod corrected down to 1881. Morea is givca on the eame sbeei 
' Wallace, Auitralatia, Londoo, 18S4.. * 

• For fuller itatlstlca, lee Notices Cotoniatta^ Pans, 1886, vol u 



contrast to the Isolated Hawaiian archipelago, the Society Islands 
possess no peculiar genera and but few peculiar species Tlicy 
claim, however, a thrush, several small parrots of great beauty, 
doves, pigeons, rails, and a sandpiper Of this sandpiiier, Tringa 
Uucopfera. w-hich, with many of the birds here mentioned, was di.^ 
covered as far back as Cook's st.iy in the islands, only one specirocD 
(now in the Lej'den museum) is known to exist, and of the rest, 
their range being often limited to one portion of a small island, 
several species are (through the increase in the number of cats, 
&c. ) threatened with extermination A jungle. fowl (var of Galhit 
bnnktva) is found in the mountains, but as domesticated fowls weio 
abundant, even when Tahiti w-as first discovered by Europeans, 
these wild birds are doubtless the oflTspnng of tame birds, probab'y 
ini[iorted with the pigs and dogs by Malay vessels. There are 
no peculiar reptiles, and fiatrachians are entirely wanting The 
lagoons swarm with fish of many species. Insects are poor in 
species, though some of thein are indigenous. Crustaceans and 
nu)llusi;s, on the other hand, are well represented , worms, echino- 
derms, and corals comparatively poorly A noteworthy feature of 
Tahitian conchology is the number of peculiar sjjecies belonging to 
the genus Parlula, almost every valley being the habitat of a dis- 
tinct forut 

f'/oAa. — This, though luxunant, is not very rich. Like the /oology, 
It IS much poorei than that of the more western groups of the Pacific 
MelroxaUros, MelasUmm, and Acacia arc the only links which this 
typically Polynesian region bas retained to join it to Australia 
Four genera are peculiar, of which three are cl.aimed by the t'tmi- 
poHitiv. and Lobflwccx, orders characteristic oi Hawaii. It is rich 
in trees, sliruhs, and hardwood planls, ]ioor in the smaller under- 
growth Orchids, including some beautiful species, and ferns are 
abundant , but, here as in Polynesia generally, Rttbiaceas is the 
order best represented Remarkable are the banana thickets, which, 
chiefly on Tahiti, grow at an altitude of from 3000 to 5000 feet. 
Ahing the shore — m some places almost to the extinction of all 
native growth — many exotics have established themselves , iind a 
great variety ol fruit-bearing and other useful trees have been 
successfully introduced into most of the islands.' 

Inlwhilants. —The Tahitians are a typical Polynesian race, closely 
connected physically with the Marqucsans and Rarotongans, but 
widely divided from them in many of their customs The dialects, 
also, of the three groups are difleient, the Tahitian being perhaps 
the softest in all Oceania. The women rank with the most beauti 
fill of the Pacific, though the accounts given of them by eai-ly 
voyagers are much exaggerated , and for general symmetry of form 
the people are unsurpassed by any race in the world. Even now 
in Its decadence, after generations of drunkenness and Eurojieau 
disease and vice, grafted on inborn indolence and licentiousness, 
many tall and robust people (6 feet and even upwards in height) 
are to be found The women, as a rule, are small in proportion to 
the men. Men and women of good birth can generally be dis- 
tinguished by their height and fairness, and often, even in early 
age, by their enormous corpulence The skin varies from a very 
light olive to a full dark brown. The wavy oi curly hair and the 
expressive eyes art black, or nearly so , the mouth is large, but 
well-shaped and set with beautiful teeth , the nosi; broad (formerly 
flattened In infancy by artificial means) . and the chin well 
developed So long as the native costume was retained, the tiputa, 
an oblong piece of bark cloth with a hole in its centre for the 
head, and the pai-u,, a plain piece of cloth rourtd the loins, weit 
worn alike by men and women of the highci classes Men of all 
ranl<s wore, with oi without these, the man, oi T bandage The 
women concealed their breasts except in the company of thei» 
.superiors, when etiquette demanded that inferiors of both sexes 
should uncover the uppei part of the body The chiefs wore short 
fealhei cloaks, not unlike those of the Hawaiians, and beautiful 
sennciiculai breastplates, dexterously interwoven with the hlacli 
plumage of the frigate bird, with crimson feathers, and with sharks 
teeth . also most elaborate special presses as a sign ot niourning 
The priests had strange cylindrical hats, made of wicker work and 
ovei a yard in height Circumcision, and in both sexes tattooing, 
were generally practised, and much significance wasattached to some 
of the marks. The houses (tiare) were long, low, and open at ths 
sides. Household utensils were few — plain round wooden dishes, 
sometimes on legs, cocoa.nut shells, baskets, &c Low stools and 
bead -rests were used Pottery being unknown, all food was baked 
in the " n.ative oven " or roasted ovei the fire Theii chief musical 
instruments were the nose-flute {vivo) — often used as the accompani- 
merit of .song— and the drum [jxihu) Of the latter, tho.se kept m 
the ntnrai were huge elaborately carved hollow cylinders of wood, 
the uppei end of which was covered with sharks' skin Conch- 
.shells (6«) were also used Tahitian stone adzes, which are greatly 
inlerioi in finish to those of the Hervey Islands, arf, the adzes 

of eastern Polynesia m general, distinguished from tbos^of western 
Polynesia by then triangular section and adaptation to a socket 

• FiDsch and HaiilBub. Fauna Centrat-Puiynetiem, Hallt, 1867 

• ll« Castillo, lUuitrattonu Ftoroi Jmtilarmm Mant I'acxfici, Paris, 188ft 



24 



TAHITI 



Slings were perhaps *e favourite -^^^^^^^ J^^j *^I 1 

had also plam spears "X .f SfJe b^^n " '-^d i" '="'^'° «>-«™°"'^l 

may possibly be^^^'^^'^t^d fmit the taro-rootf the yam, the 

so ford as to s>icMe "'oi U favourite dish made of bananas 

th.nr O"" 'l^f 'f^.a^S^vtich was prepared in the usual Poly 
resia'n^ranne'r. ,^ardri"nk?but in mode?ateVant.ties and only by 

which included only the -suzerain [mirai), who bo e a semi sacrea 
I weU as rpoUtical character, and the reigning chiefs of districts 

?01 the 6« 'oatira, proprietor and cultivators of inherited land, 
land and with it certain privileges. Ilank '^ h"ediU y auQ oe 

powefof to v=isals, the district chiefs [raatirasl -lio ruled 

hit was alone responsible for any act. The bi-insular lorm o 
Tahit pronioted the independence of tlie chiefs, and war was rare.y 
declared or an army or fleet despatched witnout the raaliras being 
fi?^ summoned to council. Without their favour nothing could be 
nrsi sumii ojieu. people was absolute. 

T^e^otofgovemm^nvartlm" strictly feudal L character, but 
it araduallY fentralized into a monarchy, which in the person of 
Pon are 1 1, the English missionaries greatly helped to regula e 
Ld strengthen. The arirai sent his commands by a mes|^nge 
Za) whose credentials were a tuft of cocoa-nut film. 1''"' "; ' 
l^'returned intact as a sign of assent or torn >».f ^en of refus.a 
After the chief the wife ranked first, and then his biother. 1 he 
^fa wa^ carried on the shouldeis of his subjects, and chiefs we e 
rTot allowed to feed themselves. Women always ate apart. 1 heir 
Xce orworship (™zr«)-national, local, or private-were square 
I ce su? ounded^enclosuris. They each had a single entrance and 
conUined several small courts, within ^''.ch were houses for the 
images and attendant priests. A pyramidal stone st'uct"/^' "^ 
whifh weie the actual altars, stood at the further end of the squaje^ 
The mr.a\s were also used as places of sepulture of chiefs, whose 
I^baTmed bodies, after being exposed for a ^'nie. were buned ,n a 
crouchin" position. Their .skulls, however, were kept m tl c houses 
"fthir nearest relations. In the great mara, ■'tAtahuratlie stone 
structure was 270 feet long. 94 feet wide, and 50 feet high, ana lU 

nini? of this centurv. Oro was the most venerated. Xlie images, 
Srhfch are less remarkable than those of Hawaii, were rough repre_ 
rnUtionsof the human form carved in wood. Some were covered 
.rom head to foot with small human figures cut in "-"''f ■ °'°"! 
were mere sticks clothed with feathers The arcm s. >'^""'°"^ 
association of strolling players men and ^°'"^"'.^^J^J"^}'ZZ 
among its ranks the highest chiefs, and practised mfanticide. was 

a special feature of Tahitian society. 

£ Tahitians are Ught-hearted, frivolous, courteous, and genei 



.1 The masenia of the I«..aoa Missionary Sodel, *"" "<» Brlfl.h Ma»um con 
■la tminrtaiit coUectloM nl TnhlUan lro»K6», dressM. Wl^»l»n^ 4c 



oas: but -with these traits are blended deceit irntabJity and 
craelty; which formerly reached an unexampled degree of savage 
bVitS y Their notions of morality were never, according to our 
ideTv Jn precise ; and their customs, such as the ta,jo, or exchange 
of n^'me wifh the rights which it carried over the wife of the giver 
thTname and all her female relations, seemed to th^ eariier 
European observer strangely revolting. It r»."'d app^^/' b°;;^™;' 
that with the introduction of the vices of cmTization such limita- 
tions as theb primitive morality recognized have disappeared and 
all seK.respecl has been lost Especially characteristic were the 
e aborateTstume-dances {hcims) performed by women Beside 
dancTn" the siiK'in- of £ongs {pehe), and the recitation of historical 
and mfthkil b^ lads (ul.4 the natives had also a variety of sports 
and ^mes During the periodica! seasons of rejoicing wTestling 
:l^rboxing(>i/.), an'd sp^ar-throwing ivcro |«^-)^-f^^b^ ; 
with foot and Sanoe.races. were held; also sham fights and naval 
reviews Thev had several games in which a ball was used,-one 
aZ not uBlikc our bandy,%hile another, ''/^^'^ (Pl^y-^*^ chieny 
by women), was a kind of football-, but smf-svammin| (>c^) 
was nerhaps the most favourite sport with both sexes. Kites were 
kTown Sick fighting ^/aatitoraamoa) was much practised. . 

Zcov^y^E^ploloiion.-TheTe is little doubt tha the mai. 
islfnTand^ome other members of t^e group were visited by the 
S ,amard Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in February lb07. They were 
Spaniara reaiu ' '•'" Wnllis in the " Dolphin, who took 

iliiiiSlii 

his most inaccurate chart Almost all we know of *?« ^ar.y siaw 
o the islands is. however, due to Captain Cook s visits in 1,69 
f77t 1 74 and IVl. The name of Society 'slands -as given to the 
Leeward group on his first voyage in honour of the K°yal Society 
In 1774 Tahiti wis also visited by two Spanish vessels wh eh left 

that ship after the famous mutiny. At this time .™« Jf ^'^'°6^n>" 

:r^u\i::n^Wv:ly'-'Cati.^-!a^^ 

"'^^^S:: -^r^tempt o. the Spamards in im wa, follow^ 
bythese,t,eme,,,on.entyfivepe™^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Iwertm'lSO ) ti?ey had many diificulties, especially from the 
i':n\Vnl\rs 'and /r '^l^b 'he^ fled with PomareU to E.^^^^ 

Cri^^S^^hSe^r S.l^^LdMsp.wer.n 
Tahiti For a time the missionaries made good progress, a pnni 
lahiii. 'O"^* ,,:,„, ,18,71 and cofl'ee cotton, and sugar were 



T A I — T A L 



25 



Tahiti, indudiug Eimeo, was proc1ai::.c(? a French colony. It is 
the residence of the ^overnoB-general' of the French dependencies 
in the Pacific. 

Itierai are,— The following list Includes thd books which aeem moat to de- 
»ci^e mention: Hftwkesworth s Voi/agei. especially Wallis's Voyage, H.M.S. 
"Dolphm." in vol. t,. London, 1773; Cock's Three Voyages, wlih Forster's account 
Cf ihe second *ovage ; Freycinet, V'o'joge de la Coquille. and L«&son"8 account 
of the 5.>me vova'ge, Paris. IS39 ; Bennett, ^fialtng Voyage, LondoD. 1840. For 
inanners and customs of t(ie natives, see Cook. Duff. Ellis. For modern statistics, 
•ee De>graz, La Tahiti. Pails. 1^6; AViicw Colontates. Paris 18S6, vol. 11. For 
the early hislor>- of the islands, see Ellis, Polyriesian Researthex, London. 1829 ; 
Vincendon Dumoulm and Dtrs^rat, lies Taut. Psiit, IS44. For mission history, 
see Voyage of the Duff. London. 1799,. Ellis ; Williams, Musionary Enterprise in 
the South Sea Islands, London. 1S39. For the French occupation, see Moerenhout, 
Voyage aux /lesdu Grand Oceari, Paris. 1837 ; Vincendon- Dumouliu and Desgrat; 
Pritchard, Polynesian Reminisctncfs, London, 1866. (A. v. H.) 

TAIWAN. See Formosa. 

TAJAK, Tajik, or Tausik, a term originally occurring in 
the Pahlavi writings, and explained to mean, first, the Arabs 
in general, then their descendants born in Persia and else- 
where out of Arabia, and, lastly, the Persians in general and 
their descendants born in Turkestdn and elsewhere out of 
Persia. Tajak has thus come to be the collective name 
of all communities of Iranian stock and Persian speech, 
wherever found in Central Asia. These are co-extensive 
with the former eastward and northward limits of the 
Persian empire ; but, since the ascendency of the Tflrki 
races, they have become the subject element in Turkest4n, 
AfghdnistAn, Bokhara, Khiva, Kashgaria, while still politi- 
cally dominant in Badakhshin, Wakhin, Darwiz, Kost, 
and Karat^ghin. In most of these places the Tajaks, with 
the kindred Galchas, seem to form the bulk of the popula- 
tion, the distinction being that Tajak is applied rather to 
the settled and more civilized lowlanders of modern Persian 
speech, Galcha to the ruder highlanders of FerghAna, 
KohistAD, WakhAn, itc, who speak either archaic forms of 
Persian or dialects intermediate between the Iranian and 
Sanskritic (Indian) branches of the Aryan linguistic family. 
The Tajaks are thus a settled Iranian people,' agriculturists 
in the country, traders and artisans in the towns, and are 
essentially "ParsivAn," that is, men of Persian speech, — this 
term, however, being more specially applied to those of 
AfghAnistAn. But, although mainly of Iranian stock, with 
light complexion and regular features, the Tajaks claim 
Arab descent, regarding the district about BaghdAd as their 
primeval home, and considering themselves the descendants 
of the Arabs who overran Central Asia in the first century 
of the Flight. At the same time, " it is evident that the 
inhabitants of the greater part of this region (Central Asia) 
must from an early period have come in contact with the 
successive waves of Turkish (TOrki) and even Mongol 
population which broke over them ; accordingly we find 
that, although the tj'pe is essentially Iranian, it has under- 
gone a certain modification, . . . face, though obviously 
Persian, is more oblong than that of the Turk, more or less 
heavy cheeks, thick nose, large mouth, wide forehead, . . . 
middle height, powerful frame, and broad shoulders, . .*. 
dark hair, but among the Galchas a few fair people are 
found " (Capt. J. M. Trotter, Bokhara, p. 1 69). The term 
Tajak must also be distinguished from Sarte, the latter 
simply meaning "trader" or "shopkeeper," and being 
applied indiscriminately to the settled as opposed to the 
nomad element, and especially to the urban populations, of 
whatever race, in Central Asia.' The Tajaks are knowti as 
Tats on the west side of the Caspian (Baku, Lenkoran, &c.). 
TAKA. See Nubia. 
TALAVERA de ia Reina, a town of Spain, in the 

* "Quand un Usbeg est devenu completement s^entairc , . . il 
devient SarU ; le mot Sarte n'est done pas nne appellation ethnique" 
(Charles de Ujfalvy in Bui. Soc. Ofogr., June 1878). But the Tajaks, 
biiing always settled, were the fiist to be known as Sartes ; whence the 
still preTalent erroneous impression that the word had a racial meaQ' 
ing, implying an Iranian as opposed to a Tilrki element. Neverthe- 
less there is a certain local etiquette observed in the use of the two 
words Tajak and SarU^ embodied in the popular saying; "When a 
stranger presents himself and eats your bread, call him a Tajak ; when 
he ia gone you may call him a Sarle. " 



I province of Toledo, is situated on the riglit bank of the 
Tagvs, and on the railway from Madrid to Caceres, some 
40 miles below Toledo and 64 miles south-east from Madrid. 
It was formerly surrounded by a triple circumvallation, 
portions of which still remain. It has no buildings of 
special interest, and its commerce and manufactures are 
inconsiderable. The population within the municipal 
limits in 1877 was 10,029. 

Talaverais the birthplace (1536) of Mariana the historian. Well- 
ington overcame a superior French force here on July 27-28, 1809. 

TALBOT, Family of. Apart from its achievements, 
this is one of the few families in the English aristocracy 
which traces alike its descent and its surname from the 
Norman conquerors of England ; and it may really be said 
that there has hardly been a time during the last eight 
hundred years in which the Talbots have not been of con- 
siderable account in public life. Yet in some periods they 
appear rather as a potential influence, while at certain 
marked epochs they stand out among the most prominent 
actors in English history. The name of Richard Talbot 
occurs in Domesday Book as the bolder of nine hides of 
land in Bedfordshire under Walter Giffard, earl of Buck- 
ingham. There is no evidence that he came over to Eng- 
land with the Conqueror himself ; and, as he did not hold 
of the king in capile, it is clear that he was not a leader. 
His son Geoffrey Talbot took part with the empress Maud 
against King Stephen. But apparently it was another son 
Hugh who continued the line ; of whom it is recorded that 
he held the castle of Plessi against Henry I. for Hugh de 
Gournay, and afterwards became a monk at Beaubec in 
Normandy. His son Richard obtained from Henry II. the 
lordship of Linton in Herefordshire, and from Richard I. 
the custody of Ludlow castle ; and his descendants for 
some generations appear to have been wardens of various 
castles on the borders of Wales. L'nder Edward II. a 
Gilbert Talbot was head of the house, and invaded Scot- 
land in the king's company, but afterwards took part with 
Thomas of Lancaster against the king. He, however, was 
pardoned, and obtained from Edward III. a confirmation 
of tEe grant of the manor of Linton and other lands to 
himself and his. heirs. 

His son Richard, who had married a daughter of John 
Comyn of Badenoch, laid claim to certain lands in Scot- 
land in her right, and, when restrained from entering that 
country by land (Edward II L having then made an alliance 
with King David), he joined in a successful expedition 
which invaded it by sea in the interests of Edward Baliol. 
Three years later he was taken prisoner in Scotland, and 
redeemed for 2000 marks, after which the king made him 
governor of Berwick. He took part also in Edward's 
wars against France, as did likewise his son Gilbert, who 
succeeded him. At this time the family possessed lands 
in the counties of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, and Kent, 
and a little later in Berkshire, Wilts, Salop, and Essex. 
Another Gilbert Talbot, grandson of the last, claimed to 
carry the great spurs at the coronation of Henry V., and 
had a commission to receive the submission of Owen 
Glendower and his adherents. He also distinguished 
himself in the invasion of Normandy. He was twice 
married, his second wife being a Portuguese lady, but he 
left no male issue, and was succeeded by his brother John, 
the special hero of the family 

Hitherto the head of the house had borne the name of 
Lord Talbot ; but this John, after obtaining by marriage 
the title of Lord Furnivall, was for his distinguished 
actions created earl of Shrewsbury.. ' He made his name so 
terrible in France that for several generations afterwards 
French mothers used to threaten refractory children that 
the Talbots would come if they were not quiet (Brown's 
.i Venetian Calendar, ii. 75). He rescued Maine from the 

XXIIl. — 4 



26 



TALBOT 



French and took Pontoiso ; but his own capture by 
the Maid of Orleans was what probably discouraged the 
English most of all in their disasters beyond sea. He was 
exchanged for an eminent French prisoner and a heavy 
ransom besides. He served also several times as lieutenant 
of Ireland, and in 144'> was created earl of VVe.xford and 
of Waterford, in addition to the title of Shrewsbury, which 
had been conferred upon him in 1442 He died in 1453, 
in an unsuccessful expedition for the recovery of Guienne, 
which had lately submitted to the French His son John, 
Viscount Lisle, was slain along with him in the same fatal 
battle. 

But, besides Ins uiartial exploits which live in history, 
this John claims some attention for his family alliances. 
His first wife Maud, a granddaughter of Thomas, Lord 
Furnivall, brought him the castle 'of Sheffield as part of 
her inheritance, and he was accordingly summoned to 
parliament in the days of Henry IV as John Talbot of 
Hallamshire, otherwise Lord Furnivall, more than thirty 
years before he was made earl of Shrewsbury- The 
property remained in the hands of his descendants, and 
became a favourite residence of the family during the 
whole of the Tudor era , and, but for the death in 1616 of 
Gilbert, seventh earl of Shrewsbury, without male issue, it 
has been remarked by Hunter that Sheffield migh"; have 
remained much longer a centre of feudal magnificence 
rather than of commerce and manufactures The second 
wife of John, earl of Shrewsbury, was Margaret, the eldest 
of three daughters of Richard Beauchamp, earl of War- 
wick, by his second wife, a daughter of Thomas, Lord 
Berkeley. By her he obtained a third part of the Berkeley 
property ; and, though she did not become the mother of 
a hue of earls, her elilest son, John Talbot, was created 
Viscount Lisle, and it was he who fell along with his 
father at the disastrous battle of Chatillon in Gascony. 
His son Thomas, who inherited the title of Viscount Lisle, 
WHS also slain at the early age of twenty-two in a feudal 
contest with Lord Berkeley, arising out of a dispute as to 
the possession of Berkeley castle, at Nibley Green, near 
Wotlun under-Edge, March 20, 1470, and the title was 
allerwards conferred on Edward Grey, the husband ol one 
ol his two sisters. 

John, the second earl of Shrewsbury, was the first earl's 
son by his first wife He had been knighted at Leicester 
in I I'jb along with the infant king Henry VI, had served 
in the wars of France, and been made chancellor of Ireland 
dunijg his father s lifetime, when he was only Lord Talbot 
Allerwards he was made lord high treasurer of England, 
and III 1409 was rewarded for his services to the house of 
Lancaster v\'ith a grant of 100 marks a year out of the 
hnilsliip of Wakefield, forfeited by Richard, duke of York 
But ne\t year he and his brother Christopher were slain 
at the battle of Northampton, fighting in the cause of 
Henry VI. His son John succeeded him, and then his 
griind-wn George, who fought for Henry VII at Stoke, 
and whom King Henry VIIL sent as his lieutenant 
against the rebels in that most formidable insurrection, 
the Pilgrimage of Grace. But perhaps the thing which 
most redounds to his credit is the humanity with which 
(as related by Cavendish) he received the fallen Cardinal 
Wolsiy into his house at Sheffield when he was on his way 
up ti' London as a state prisonei. and endeavoured to 
remove those gloomy anticipations of his fate which in 
fact lirought on his Last illness. 

Francis, the fifth carl, took a leading part in the 
inv.asions of Scotland under Henry VIII and Edward 
VI., and w.as one of the two peers who alone opposed the 
bill for abolishing the pope's jurisdiction under Elizabeth 
His son George, who succeeded, was the earl to whom the 
custo^' of ^'arv Stuart was committed, his delicate and 



onerous task being rendered all the more difficult for him 
by the intrigues of his bold, ambitious second wife, Bess of 
Hardwick, the builder of Chatsworth, who had married 
three husbands before her union with him. Two sons of 
this last rarl succeedeil one another, and the title then 
devolved, for want of male issue, on the lineal descendants 
of Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton in Worcestershire, third 
son of .lohn, the second earl This Sir Gilbert had fought 
for Henry VII. at Bosworth, where he was severely 
wounded, was knighted on the field, and was throughout 
one of the first Tudor's most trusted councillors. He 
fought also at Stoke against the insurgents with Lambert 
Sininel. w.is made a knight banneret, governor of Calais, 
and lord chamberlain. 

The ninth earl, George, descended from this Gilbert, is 
not distinguished by any prominent actions. He died 
unmarried, and his brother, who followed next, was 
succeeded by bis grandson Francis, chiefly memorable for 
his unhappy fate. His second' wife, a daughtel' of the 
earl of Cardigan, was seduced by the duke of Buckingham, 
whom the outraged husband challenged to a duel The 
countess, it is said, was present at the scene, and held 
Buckingham's horse in the disguise of a page, saw her 
husband killed, and then, clasped her lover in her arms, 
receiving blood-stains upon her dress from the embrace. 
Charles, the twelfth earl, son of this unfortunate nobleman, 
was raised by William III, to the dignity of a duke for 
his important diplomatic services. His "position in those 
slippery times was altogether exceptional Abandoning 
the religion of his ancestors he became a Protestant, was 
one of the seven who signed the invitation to William of 
Orange to come over, and was continually consulted by 
him on state affairs after he became king. Vet, being 
apparently of a very sensitive disposition, he seems to have 
at times repented what he bad done, and even corresponded 
with James at St Germain . yet again, in times of danger, 
he was as ready as ever to stake his life and fortunes in 
the service of his country to preserve the new .settlement. 
It was apparently his extreme sensitiveness that caused 
him to be spoknn of as "the king of hearts." In 1694 
he was created marquis of Alton and duke of' Shrewsbury, 
but as he left no son these titles died along with him, and 
the earldom of Shrewsbury devolved on his cousin Gilbert, 
a Roman Catholic priest. 

From this time the direct line of Sir Gilbert Talbot of 
Grafton began to fail A nephew three times succeeded 
to an uncle, and then the title devolved upon a cousin, 
who died uumarried in 1856 On the death of this cousin 
the descent of the- title was for a short time in dispute, and 
the lauds were claimed for the infant son of the duke of 
Norfolk under the will of the last earl , but the courts 
decided that, under a private Act obtained by the duke of 
Shrewsbury in the sixth year of George I„ the title and 
estates must go together, and the true successor to the 
earldom was found in Earl Talbot, the bead ol another 
line of the descendants of Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton, 
sprung from a second marriage of Sir Gilbert's son, Sir 
John Talbot of AlbrightOD The head of this family in 
the beginning of the last century was a divine of some 
mark, who died bishop of Durham in 1730 His son 
Charles, who filled the office of lord chancellor, was 
created Baron Talbot of Hensol in Glamorganshire in 
1733 , and his son again was advanced to the dignity of 
Earl Talbot in 17C1, to which was added that of Baron 
Dynevor in 1 780 Then succeeded a nephew, who was 
also created Vj.scount Ingestre, and assumed by royal 
licence the surname of Chetwynd before Talbot, from his 
mother 

The Earl Talbot who successfully claimed the Shrews- 
bury title fas the eighteenth earl) was the present earl's 



T A L — T A L 



27 



grandfather, and all the titles just mentioned have been 
ooited in his line ever since. (j ga.) 

TALBOT, William Henry Fox (1800-1877), a dis- 
coverer in photography, was the only child of William 
Davenport Talbot^ of Laycock Abbey, Wilts, and of Lady 
Elizabeth Fox Strangways, daughter of the second earl of 
Lchester He was born in February 1800, and educated 
at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
gained the Porson prize in 1820, and graduated as twelfth 
wrangler in 1821 From 1822 to 1S72 he frequently 
communicated papers to the Eoyal Society, many of them 
on Tiathematical subjects. At an early period he had 
begun his optical researches, which were to have such 
important results in connexion with photography To 
the Edinburgh Journal of Science in 1826 he contributed 
a paper on "Some Experiments on OoJoured Flame", 
to the Quarterly Journal of Science in 1S27 a paper on 
"Monochromatic Light", and to the Philosophical Maga- 
zine, a number of papers on chemical subjects, including 
one on " Chemical Changes of Colour ' Before Daguerre 
exhibited in 1839 pictures taken by the sun, Talbot bad 
obtained similar success, and as soon as Daguerre's dis- 
coveries were whispered communicated the results of his 
experiments to the Royal Society (see Photography, vol 
xviii. p 824). In 1841 he made known his discovery 
of the calotype process, but after the discovery of the 
collodion process by Scott Archer, with whom he had a 
lawsuit in reference to his patent rights, he relinquished 
this field of inquiry. For his discoveries, the narrative 
of which is detailed in his Pencil of Nature (1844), he 
received in 1S42 the medal of the Royal Society While 
engaged in his scientific researches he devoted a consider 
able portion of his time to archaeology, and this field of 
inquiry latterly occupied 'his chief attention. Besides 
reading papers on these subjects before the Royal Society 
of Literature and the Society of Biblical Archaeology, he 
published Hermes, or Classical and A ntu^vartan Researches 
(1838-39), and Illustrations of the Antiquity of the Book 
of Genesis (1839). With Sir Henry Rawlinson and Dr 
Hincks he shares the honour of having been one of the 
first decipherers of the cuneiform inscriptions of Nineveh 
He was al.so the author of English Etymologies (1846) 
He died at Laycock Abbey, 17th September 1S77 

TALC See Geology, vol x. p. 228. and Mixeralogy, 
voL xvL p 414. 

TALCA, a town of Chili, capital of the province of 
Talca, is situated on the Claro, a tributary of the Maule, 
nearly due south of Santiago, with which it is connected 
by rail The town has a lyceum and some woollen manu- 
factures (especially of " ponchos''). In 1875 the population 
numbered 17.496, and in 1885 about 19.000 

TALENT See Numismatics, vol. xvii. p. 631 

TALES are, in the usual acceptance of the word, ficti- 
tious narratives, long or short, ancient or modern In this 
article "tale" is used in a stricter sense, as equivalent to the 
Geiman "Volks-marchen" or the French "conte populaire." 
Tims understood; popular tales mean the stories handed 
d'lrtn by oral tradition from an unknown antiquity, 
among savage and civilized peoples So understood, 
popular tales are a subject in mythology, and indeed in 
the general study of the development of man, of which the 
full interest and importance is scarcely yet recognized 
Popular talcs won their way into literature, it is true, at a 
very distant period. The Homeric epics, especially the 
Odysxry, contain adventures which are manifestly parts 
of the general human stock of popular narrative Other 
examples are found in the Rigveda, and in the myths which 
were handled by the Greek dramatists. Collections of 
popular tales, more or less subjected to conscious literary 
tr^tment, are found in Sanskrit, as in the work of 



Somadeva, whose Kathd Sartt Sdgara, or " Ocean of the 
Streams of Story," has been translated by Mr Tawney 
(Calcutta, 1880). The Thodsand and One Nights (q.v.) 
are full of popular tales, and popular tales are the staple 
of the mediaeval Gesta Romanorum, and of the collections 
of Straparola and other Italian conteurs. In all tliese and 
similar gatherings the story, long circulated from mouth 
to mouth among the people, is bandied with conscious art, 
and little but the general outline of plot and character of 
incident can be regarded as original. In the Histoires ou 
C antes du Temps Passe of Perrault (Elzevir, Amsterdam, 
1697, the Parisian edition is 'of the same date) we have 
one of the earliest gatherings of tales which were taken 
down in their nursery shape as they were told by nurses 
to children This at least seems probable, though M. 
Alfred Maury thinks Perrault drew from literary sources. 
Perrault attributed the composition to his son, P. Darmau- 
cour, at that time a child, and this pretest enabled him to 
give his stories in a simple and almost popular guise. In 
the dedication signed by the boy, Perrault offers remarks 
which really do throw a certain light on the origin and 
characteristics of " inarchen ' He says, "lis renferment 
tons une morale trte sens6o et donnent une image 

de ce qui se passe dans les moindres families, oil la louable 
impatience d'instruire les enfans fait imaginer des histoires 
d^pourvdes de raison pour s'accomoder k ces memes enfants, 
qui n'en ont pas encore." It seems that popular tales in 
many cases probably owe their origin to the desire of 
enfo,-cing a moral or practical lesson. It appears that 
their irrational and "infantile" character — "d^pourvfteu 
de raison " — is derived from their origin, if not actually 
among children, at least among childlike peoples, who have 
not arrived at "raison," that is, at the scientific and modern 
conception of the world and of the nature of mart 

The success of Perrault's popular tales brought the 
genre into literary fashion, and the Comtesse d'Aulnoy in- 
vented, or in some cases adapted, "contes," which still retain 
a great popularity But the precise and scieirtific collec- 
tion of tales from the lips of the people is not much earlier 
than our century. The chief impulse to the study was 
given by the brothers Grimm. The first edition of their 
Kinder- und Haus-Marchen was published in 1S12. The 
English reader will find a very considerable bibliography 
of popular tales, as known to the Grimms, in Mrs Alfred 
Hunt's translation, Grimm's Household Tales, with Notes 
(London, 1884). " How unique was our collection when it 
first appeared," they exclaim, and now merely to enumerate 
the books of such traditions would occupy much space. 
In addition to the miirchen of IndoEuropean peoples, the 
Grimms became acquainted with some Malay stories, 
some narratives of Bechuanas, Negroes, American Indians, 
and Finnish, Esthonian, and Magyar stories. Thus tho 
Grimins'knowledge of non-European marchen was extremely 
slight. It enabled them, however, to observe the increase 
of refinement "in proportion as gentler and more humane 
manners develop themselves," the monstrosities of Finnish 
and Red-Indian fancy gradually fading in the, narratives 
of Germans and Italians The Grimms notice that the 
evolution of popular narrative resembles the evolution of 
the art of sculpture, from the South-Sea idol to the frieze 
of the Parthenon, "from the strongly marked, thin, even 
ugly, but highly expressive forms of its earliest stages to 
those which possess external beauty of mould." Since tho 
Grimms' time our knowledge of the popular tales of non- 
European races has been greatly enriched. We possess 
numbers of North-American. Brazilian, Zulu, Swahili, 
Eskimo, Samoan, Maori, Kaffir, Malagasy, Bushman, and 
even Australian marchen, and can study them in comps-r 
ison with the stories of Hesse, of the Weet Highlands ot 
Scotland, of Scandinavia 



iJ3 



TALES 



While the popular romances of races of all colours must 
be examined toizellier, anothur clfmcnt in this subject is 
not less important. It had pruOably been often observed 
before, but the fact was brought out most vividly by 
Von Ilahn (Gnrc/tische uml alljanesrsche Mdn/nn, Lei[>sic, 
1864), that the popular tales of European races turn 
on the same incidents, and display the same succession 
of situations, the same characters, and the same plots, 
as are familiar in the ancient epic literature of Greece, 
India, Germany, and Scandinavm The epics are either 
fully-developed marchen evolved by the literary genius of 
poets and saga-men, or the marchen are degenerate and 
broken-down memories of the epics and sagas, or perhaps 
there may be examples of both processes The second 
view, — namely, that the popular tales are, so to speak, the 
scattered grains of gold of which the epic is the original 
"pocket" or "placer," — the belief that the marchen are 
the detritus of the saga, — was for a long time prevalent. 
But a variety of arguments enforce the opposite conclusion, 
namely, that the marchen are essentially earlier in char- 
acter than the epic, which is the final form to which they 
have been wrought by the genius of Homer or of some other 
remote yet cultivated poet. If this view be accepted, the 
evolution of marchen and of certain myths has passed 
through the following stages — 

(1) The popular tale, as current among the unculti- 
vated peoples, such as Iroquois, Zulus, Bushmen, Samoans, 
Eskimo, and Samoyedes. This tale will rcllect the mental 
condition of rude peoples, and will be full of monstrous 
and miraculous events, with an absence of reason proper, 
as Perrault says, "a ceux qui n'cn ont pas encore " At the 
same time the tale will very probably enforce some moral 
or practical lesson, and may even appear to have been 
invented with this very purpose, for man is everywhere 
impre.ssed with the importance of conduct. 

(2) The same tale — or rather a series of incidents and 
a plot essentially the same — as it is discovered surviving 
in the oral traditions of the illiterate peasantry of European 
races. Among them the monstrous element, the ferocity 
of manners observed in the first stage, will be somewhat 
modified, but will be found most notable among the 
Slavonic tribes. Nowhere, even in German and Scottish 
marchen, is it extinct, cannibalism and cruel torture being 
favourite incidents. 

(3) The same plot and incidents as they exist in the 
heroic epics and poetry of the cultivated races, such as 
the Homeric books, the Greek tragedies, the Cyclic poets, 
the ICalewata of the Finn.s, certain hymns of the litr/feda, 
certain legends of the Crahmanas, the story of the 
Volsungs,— in these a local and almost historical character 
is given by the introduction of names of known places, and 
the adventures are attributed to national heroes, — Odys- 
seus, CEdipus, Sigurd, Wainamoinen, Jason, Pururavas, and 
others. The whole tone and manners are nobler and more 
refined in proportion as the literary workmanship is more 
elaborate. 

This theory of the origin of popular tales in the fancy 
of peoples in the savage condition (see Mythology), of 
their survival as marchen among the peasantry of Indo- 
European and other civilized races, and of their transfigu- 
ration into epics, could only be worked out after the 
diijcovery that savage and civilized popular tales are full of 
close resemblances. These resemblances, when only known 
to exist among Indo-European peoples, were explained as 
part of a common Aryan inheritance, and as the result of 
a malady of language. This system, when apjilied to 
myths in general, has already been examined (see Mytho- 
logy). According to another view, miirchen everywheri 
resemble each other because they all arose in India, and 
have thence been borrowed and transmitted. For t'lis 



theory consult Benfey's Panrhntnmrfi and M. Cosqiun's 
Contea de [.oruimc (Pans, 18SG). In opposition to tho 
Aryan theory, and the theory of borrowing from India, 
the system which is here advocated regards popular talcs 
as kaleidoscopic arrangements of com[)aratively few situa- 
tions and incidents, which again are naturally devued by 
the early fancy. Among these incidents may be men- 
tioned, first, kinship and intermarriage between man and 
the lower animals and even inorganic phenomena. Thus 
a girl IS wooed by a frog, pumpkin, goat, or bear, or 
elephant, m Zulu, Scotch, Waiachian, Eskimo, Ojibway, 
and German marchen. This incident is based on the lack 
of a sense of difference between man and the things in the 
world which is prevalent among savages (see Mytholoi;y) 
Other incidents familiar in our nursery tales (such as 
"Cinderella" and "Puss in Boots") turn on the early 
belief in metamorphosis, in magic, in Iriendly or protecting 
animals (totems or beast manitous). Others deiienJ on 
the early prevalence of cannibalism (compare Crimm, 47, 
"The Juniper Tree"). This recurs in the mad song of 
Gretchen in Faust, concerning which a distinguished 
student writes, "This ghost of a ballad or rhyme is my 
earliest remembrance, as crooned by an old East-Lothian 
nurse " (Compare Chambers's Pojudur RIojntes of Sot- 
land, 1870, p. 49 ) The same legend occurs among the 
Bechuanas, and is published by Casalis. Yet another 
incident springs from the taboo on certain actions between 
husband and wifg, producing the story of Cupid and Psycho 
(see Lang's Custom and Myt/i, 1SS4, p. G4). Once more, 
the custom which makes the youngest child the heir is illus- 
trated in the marchen of the success, despite the jealousy 
of the elders, of Cinderella, of the Zulu prince (Callaway's 
Tales from the Anut:uhi, pp Gl, G5), and in countless 
other marchen. In other cases, as id the world-wide 
marchen corresponding to the Jason epic, we seem in 
presence of an early romantic invention, — how difTused it 
is ditRcult to imagine. Moral les-sons, again, are inculcated 
by the numerous tales which turn on the duty of kind- 
ness, or on the impossibility of evading fate as announced 
in prophecy. In opposition to the philological explanation 
of the story of CEdipus as a naturemyth, this theory of 
a collection of incidents illustrative of nioral lessons i.s 
admirably set forth in Prof. Cauparetti's Edipo e la 
Milolor/ia Coniparata (Pisa, 1S67). 

On a general view, then, the stuff of popular tales is a 
certain nmnber of incidents and a certain set of combina- 
tions of these incidents. Their strange and irrational 
character is due to their remote origin in the fancy of men 
in the savage condition , and their wide distribution is 
caused, partly perhaps by oral transmission from people te 
people, but more by the tendency of the early imagination 
to run everywhere in the same grooves. The narratives, 
in the ages of heroic poetry, are elevated into epic song, 
and in the Middle Ages they wric even embodied in 
legends of the saints. This view is iiiaiiUuincd at greater 
length, and with numerous illustrations, m the introduclio-- 
to Mrs Hunt's translation of Grimm s Kindfv- und Unit)- 
Marchen, and in Custom and Myth, already referred to. 

A complete bibliography of the literature of popular tales uQuTd 
fill many pa^^es The reader who is curious about savage popiilar 
talos may turn to Theal's Kaffir Folk Lore (2cl cl., fxui'lnii, 
18S6); Callaway's Nursery Talcs of the A mazulu {XMw\on, ISiJsi 
Sclioolcraft'3 Alpc Hcsearchcs ; Gill's MtjUis ami Tnlc^ uf the S'uth 
Pacific: Pctitot's Traditions hdicnncs (1886)! SliorllanJ's d/.....-. 
Religion and Mythologtj (London, 1882) ; Tlie South Afnr-iO l';lk 
Lore Record; the Folk Lore Record (London. 1879-85, Mal.a-.isy 
stories) ; Rink's Talcs and Traditions of the Eskimo , iJletk's 
Hottentot Talcs and Fables (London, 1864); Castrcn'a Samui/uliiehe 
Marchen , and Leiand's yl/!70ii7i(iii Lcjcnds (London, 1884). For 
European talcs, the bibliography in tlie iranslaliiui of Gnnitit 
ahcady refciied to may be used, and the Maisonncuve colleclion 
Les Littei atiaes- poj/ulaircs may be recoyimciidcd. The names 



T A L — T A L 



29 



Liebrfcht, Kohler, Dasent. Ralston, Nigra, Pitre.Cosquin, Afanasier, 
Gaidoz, Sihillot. may serve as clues through the enchanted forest of 
the nursfry tales of Europe. {A. L. ) 

TALFOURD, Sir Thomas Noon (1795-1854), was at 
once eminent as a la(rj'er, as a writer, and as a member of 
a brilliant and polished society. He had the faculty of 
winning friendships ; so sympathetic indeed was bis nature 
that he unconsciously biassed many of the most acute 
among his acquaintances towards an estimate of his genius 
as an author — more especially as a dramatist — hardly 
commensurate with what more impartial criticism has 
decided to be his just meed of praise. But, though even 
his most excellent work in literature has now ceased to 
be generally cared for, his poetry must always be inter- 
esting to the literary student. 

The son of a brewer in good circumstances, Talfourd 
was born on January 26, 1795, at Doxey, near Stafford 
(some accounts mention Reading). He received his early 
education, first at an institution near Hendon, and later 
at the Reading grammar-school under Dr Valpy. Here, 
it is said, he acquired his taste for dramatic poetry, pre- 
sumably under the guidance of Dr Vaipy. At the age of 
eighteen the lad was sent to London to study law under Mr 
Chitty, the special pleader. Early in 1821 he joined the 
Oxford circuit, having been called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in February of that year. When, fourteen years 
later, he was created a serjeant-at-law, and when again he 
in 1849 succeeded Mr Justice Coltman as judge of the 
Court of Common Fleas, he attained these distinctions 
more perhaps for the zeal and laborious care which he 
invariably displayed in his conduct of the cases confided to 
Dim than on account of any brilliance of forensic talent or 
of any marked intellectual subtlety. A parliamentary life 
had always had an attraction for him, and at the general 
election in 1835 he was returned for Reading. This seat 
he retained for close upon six years, and he was again 
returned in 1847. In the House of Commons he was no 
mere ornamental member. Those efforts of his which have 
most interest for us of later date were made on behalf of 
the rights of authors, for whose benefit he introduced the 
International Copyright Bill ; his speech on this subject 
was considered the most telling made in the House during 
that session. The bill met with strong opposition, but 
Talfourd had the satisfaction of seeing it ultimately pass 
into law in 1842, albeit in a greatly modified form. 

At the period of his elevation to the bench he was 
created a knight, and thenceforward his life was, in the 
intervals of his professional labours, devoted to scholarly 
and literary pursuits. From his school days he had enter- 
tained dreams of attaining eminence as a writer ; and to the 
last he remained a diligent student of literature, ancient 
and modern. During his early years in London Talfourd 
found himself forced to depend — in great measure, at least 
— upon his literary exertions. He was at this period on 
the stafi of the London Magazine, and was an occasional 
contributor to the Edinburgh and Quarterly reviews, the 
New Monthly Magazine, and other periodicals ; while, on 
joining the western circuit, he acted as law reporter to 
The Times. His legal writings on matters germane to lit- 
erature are excellent expositions, animated by a lucid and 
sufficiently telling, if not highly polished, style. Among 
the best of these are his article "On the Principle of 
Advocacy in the Practice of the Bar" (in the Law Magazine, 
January 1846) ; his Proposed New Law of Copyright of the 
Highest Importance to Authors (1838) ; Three Speeches de- 
livered in the House of Commons in Favour of an Extension 
of Copyright (1840); and his famous Speech for the De- 
fendant in the Prosecution, the Queen v. Moxon, for the 
PuJblicatvm of Shelley's Poetical Works (1841). 

But Talfourd cannot be said to have gained any position 



among men of letters until the production of bis tragedy 
Ion, which was privately printed in 1835, and produced 
in the following year at Covent Garden theatre. The 
tragedy was also well received in America, and it met with 
the honour of reproduction at Sadler's Wells in December 
1861. This dramatic poem, its author's masterpiece, turns 
upon the voluntary sacrifice of Ion, king of Argos, in re- 
sponse to the Delphic oracle, which had declared that only 
with the extinction of the reigning family could the pre- 
vailing pestilence incurred by the deeds of that family be 
removed. As a poem Ion has many high qualities. The 
blank verse, if lacking the highest excellence, is smooth 
and musical, and the lines are frequently informed with the 
spirit of genuine poetry ; the character of the bigh-souled 
son of the Argive king is finely developed, and the reader 
is affected throughout by that same sense of the relentless 
working and potency of destiny which so markedly distin- 
guishes the writings of the Greek dramatists. 

Two years later, at the Haymarket theatre, The Athenian 
Captive was acted with moderate success. In 1839 Glen- 
coe, or the Fate of the Macdonald^, was privately printed, 
and in 1840 it was produced at the Haymarket; but this 
home drama is indubitably much inferior to his two classic 
plays. The Castilian (1853) did not excite a tenth part of 
the interest called forth by Ion. Before this he had pro- 
duced various prose writings other than those already re- 
ferred to, — among them his " History of Greek Litera- 
ture, " in the Encyclopsedia Metropolitana. 

Besides the honour of knighthood and his various legal 
distinctions, Talfourd held the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
from the university of Oxford. He died in court during 
the performance of his judicial duties, at Stafford, on 
March 13, 1854. 

In addition to the writings above-mentioned, Talfourd was the 
author of The Letters of Charles Lamd, with a Sketch of his Life 
(1837); RemlUctians of a First Visit Id the Alps (1841); Vacation 
Rambles artA ThaughJs, comprising recollections of three Conti- 
neotal tours in the vacations of 1841, 1842, and 1843 (2 vols., 1844); 
and Final Memorials of Charlej Lamb (1849-50). 

TALISMAN. See Amulet. 

TALLAGE, or Talliage (from the French tailler, i.e., 
a part cut out of the whole), appears to have signified at 
first a tax in general, but became afterwards confined in 
England to a special form of tax, the assessment upon cities, 
boroughs, and royal demesnes — in effect, a land tax. Like 
Scot AGE (q.v.), tallage was superseded by the subsidy sys- 
tem in the 1 4th century. The last occasion on which it was 
levied appears to be the year 1332. The famous statute 
of 25 Edw. I. (in some editions of the statutes 34 Edw. I.) 
De Tallagio non Concedendo, though it is printed among 
the statute^ of the realm, and was cited as a statute in 
the preamble to the Petition of Right in 1627, and by the 
judges in John Hampden's case in 1637, is probably an 
imperfect and unauthoritative abstract of the Confirmatio 
Cartarum. The first section enacts that no tallage or aid 
shall be imposed or levied by the king and his heir." with- 
out the will and assent of the archbishops, bishops, and 
other prelates, the earls, barons, knights, burgesses, and 
other freemen in the kingdom. Tallagium facere was the 
technical term for rendering accounts in the exchequer, the 
accounts being originally kept by means of tallies or 
notched sticks. The tellers (a corruption of talliers) of the 
exchequer were at one time important financial officers. 
The system of keeping the national accounts by tallies was 
abolished by 23 Ger IIL c. 82, the .office of teller by 57 
Geo. III. c. 84. 

TALLEYRAND DE PfiRIGORD, Charles Mauricb 
(1754-1838), created by Napoleon a prince of the empira 
under the title of the Prince de B^n^vent, was born at 
Pans on 2d February 1754. His father, who was of s 
younger branch of the princely family of Chalais, was as 



30 



TALLEYRAND 



officer in the army of Louis XV., and his mother, also of 
Dohle family, was a member of the royal household at Ver- 
sailles. An accident in infancy rendered Talleyrand lame 
for life, and changed his whole career His upbringing was, 
in accordance with the fashionable heartlessness of the day, 
entirely left to strangers ; and while a boy he was, in con- 
sequence of his lameness, formally deprived by a conseil de 
familU of his rights of primogeuiture, — his younger brother, 
,the Comte d'Archambaud, taking his place, and he was 
destined for the church. He keenly felt the blow, but was 
powerl°.ss to avert it; and he used his enforced profession 
only as a stepping-stone to his ambition, always despising 
it, and coolly and defiantly forsaking it when he found it 
an embarrassment. 

When he was removed from the country he was sent to 
the College d'Harcourt, where he speedily distinguished 
himself; and in 1770, when sixteen years of age, he 
became an inmate of the S^minaire de St Sulpice, his 
education being completed by a course in the Sorbonne. 
Much as Talleyrand despised the church as a career, he 
never ceased highly to appreciate theology as a training, 
and he publicly testified to its value to the statesman and 
specially to the diplomatist. While achieving distinction 
as a student, he carefully cultivated such society as might 
promote his advancement ; and it was in the circle of 
Madame du Barry that his cynicism and wit, reported by 
her to the king, gained him the position of abb6. To his 
arts of manner were added, net only his advantages of 
birth and scholarship, but a penetrating judgment of men 
and affairs, a subtle audacity, and a boundlessly selfish 
ambition. As early as 1780 we find this ahhe malgre lui 
to have reached the important position of " agent-general " 
of the French clergy. His ability and his flagrant 
immorality alike rendered him a marked man, and the 
latter did not prevent his appointment, in accordance 
with his father's dying request to the king, as bishop of 
Autun in January 1789. The clergy of his own diocese 
immediately elected -him a member of the states-general ; 
and he delivered before his constituents one of the most 
remarkable speeches which the crisis produced, containing 
a sagacious and statesmanlike programme of the reforms 
which the condition of France demanded. He thus entered 
the assembly as one of its leaders. 

The states-general had hardly met ere Talleyrand's influ- 
ence was called into play. He successfully urged the 
clergy to yield to the demand of the commons that the 
three estates should meet together; and the nobles could 
thereafter only follow the example thus set. On the 
question of the extent of the assembly's authority be again 
sided with the popular leaders. As a financier of great 
foresight and power he soon became justly celebrated; 
and his position in the assecably may be estimated by his 
appointment as one of a committee of eight to frame the 
project of a constitution. All his previous successes were, 
however, eclipsed by the daring with which he attacked 
the rights and privileges of his own order. He had 
seconded the proposals that the clergy should give up their 
tithes and plate for the benefit of the nation, and on 10th 
October 1789 he himself proposed a scheme whereby the 
landed property of the church should be confiscated by the 
state. On 2d November, after violent debates, his project 
was cirried, and the old clergy thereafter ranked him as 
an enemy. But his general popularity so much increased 
that he was charged by the national assembly to prepare a 
written memoir in defence of its labours ; and the mani- 
festo, read on February 10, 1790, was received "ith great 
approval througho jt the country. On the 1 6th he was 
elected president of the as.-^.^nibly for tiie usual brief term. 
On various subjects he was now looked up to as an 
aothoTity,-*on education, on electoral and ecclesiastical 



reform, on banking, and on general finance. His career as 
a diplomatist had not yet begun. 

On July 14, 1790, fallcyiand, at the head of 300 clergy, 
assisted at the fete in the Champ de Mars in commemora- 
tion of the fall of the Bastille, and pubhcly blessed the 
great standard of France. By this time, however, the 
dispute as to the civil constitution of the clergy had broken 
out, the decision cf the assembly being resisted by the 
king, backed by the pppe. Whan in November the king 
yielded, Talleyrand boldly took the required oath, only two 
bishops following his example. New bishops were elected 
by the assembly, and these he, in open defiance of the 
church, consecrated. In the end of April 1791 he wa^ 
suspended from his functions and excommunicated by tl.. 
pope. Without a moment's hesitation Talleyrand aband 
oned his profession, which he never afterwards resumed. 
He had been false to its vows, and had scandalized it by 
his shameless life. It was only in the preceding February 
that he had, in declining nomination for the archbishopric 
of Pans, felt, indiscreetly enough and contrary to his usual 
practice, the necessity of writing to the MonUeur a hypo- 
critical confession of his gambling propensities, stating 
his gains at .30,000 francs. Although in 1801 the excom- 
munication was recalled, it was nearly half a century after 
his first act of defiance ere he became personally reconciled 
to the church, and then only when he was at the point of 
death. 

On purely political lines, however, Talleyrand's career 
became more and more celebrated. In the beginning of 
the same month of April 1791, his friend Mirabeau having 
just died, he was appointed to succeed him as a director 
of the department of Paris, a position which still further 
increased his influence in the circles of the metropolis. 
On the flight of the king in June, Talleyrand leaned at 
first and cautiously towards the duke of Orleans, but finally 
declared for a constitutional monarchy with Louis XVI. 
still on the throne. Ere the constitutional assembly 
brought its existence to a close on 1 4th September, he 
unfolded before it his magnificent scheme of national 
education, which, in the wirds of Sir Henry Bulwer, 
" having at one extremity the communal school and at 
the other the Institute, exists with but slight alterations at 
this very day." The assembly had voted that none of -its 
members should be members of the new legislative body, 
so that Talleyrand was free ; besides, events were hurrying 
on with strange and critical rapidity ; and Talleyrand left 
France for England, reaching London in the end of 
January 1792. With this visit his diplomatic career may 
be said to have begun. 

He was not formally accredited, but had in his pocket 
an introduction to Lord Grenville by Delessart the foreign 
minister ; the king himself was aware of his mission, the 
ostensible object of which was to conciliate England. 
Talleyrand for his part shared the ulterior views of 
Narbonne, the minister of war, that it would be for the 
advantage of his country to divert its energies, which were 
morbidly directed to its internal troubles, into another 
channel, and to precipitate an Austj-ian war. Although 
received well in London society, he found the want of 
oflicial credentials a fatal obstacle to his diplomatic nego- 
tiations, and he returned to Pans, whence he was almost 
immediately again despatched to the English court under 
much more favourable conditions. He was nominally only 
attendant with De Chauvelin, the minister plenipotentiary, 
but he was really the head of the embassy, and he carried 
with him a letter of Louis XVI. to George III. At this 
time, indeed. Talleyrand's relations with Louis were very 
close, — far closer than he afterwards cared or dared to 
avow. All, however, was of no avail. The startling 
course of the Eevolution made the English look askance 



TALLEYRAND 



31 



upon his mission, and he returned baffled to Paris, where 
tie arrived shortly before the coup dtitai of the 10th of 
August. But this place, where his wariest manoeuvres 
were outdone by the rapidity of the popular movements, 
and where at any turn of affairs he might lose his head, 
was not to his liking , and by the middle of September 
he IS for the third time in London. It is characteristic 
of the man — of the dexterity as well as audacity of his 
intrigue — that he who had but shortly before carried with 
him a letter of favour from Louis XVL was, now that 
royalty was abolished, the bearer of a speciSc passport — 
"' going to London by our orders " — under the hand of 
Oanton. Equally characteristic is the express falsehood 
with which he opens his negotiations: he writes at once 
to Lord Grenville, " I have at this time absolutely no kind 
of mission in England " — he was selling his library and 
seeking repose. His courtesies were not returned ; and, 
although he succeeded in making friends in certain high 
quarters, he was, in the end of January 1794, under the 
provisions of the Alien Act, ordered to leave England. 
Forti6cd with an introduction by Lord Lansdowne to 
Washington, he sailed for the United States. 

A decree of the convention had issued against Talley- 
rand during his stay in England. He was an emigre. 
But as the excesses of the period drew to a close the 
proscription was recalled on the appeal of Ch^nier, who 
founded on Talleyrand's relations with Danton and his 
mission to England in the service of the Revolution ! On 
July 25, 1795, he arrived at Hamburg, whence he passed 
to Berlin, and, after a short stay there, to Paris. He was 
received with enthusiasm in the circles of fashion and 
intrigue. He would have been eagerly welcomed by any 
of the political parlies as a strength ; but the Directory 
was in power, and he Supported it. Within the Directory 
he supported Barras, as against his compeers. He was 
thus a moderate constitutionalist and in the way of 
advancement. 

During his absence from France he had been elected a 
member of the Institute. He was now elected its secre- 
tary. In this capacity he read before it two memoirs — one 
on the "commercial relations of the United States with 
England," and the other "on the ad^-antages of withdraw- 
ing from new colonies in present circumstances." These 
memoirs exhibit Talleyrand at the very maturity of his 
powers, and are sufficient to establish his position as 
one of the most far-seeing and thoughtful statesmen that 
France ever possessed. The first paper shows how, in 
spite of the War of Independence, the force of language, 
race, and interest must in his view bind England and the 
States together as natural allies , and it contains that 
remarkable passage (which once read is never forgotten) in 
which the civilization of America is described as exhibited 
in space as well as in time, — as the traveller moves west- 
ward from State to State he appears to go backward from 
age to age. The papers, which were read in April and 
July of 1797, made his claim to state recognition irre- 
sistible, and towards the end of the latter month he was 
appointed to the post-of foreign minister. 

He had been carefully scanning the political situation, 
and be accurately foresaw that the Directory, which 
represented no one set of opinions, but only a vain com- 
fiound of all, could not stand against unity of policy 
backed by force, and in the meantime coulu be manipu- 
lated. Thus with a brutal swiftness its personnel becomes 
changed. Barras with his sluggish moderation remains ; 
but, behind and through him, it is the dexterous purpose 
of Talleyrand that is at work. This is the first character- 
istic of his administration. Its second is the ability which 
he displays in his communications with the diplomatic 
service, in view of the rupture with England. Its third is 



the shamelessly corrupt manner in which he approaches 
the American ambassadors on the subject of the seizure of 
certain ships, on the conclusion of a commercial treaty 
between England and the Slate.s, putting himself in hib 
public and powerful position at their service^ — if the bribe 
were suitably large. And its fourth is that he is hardly in 
the chair of office until he has shrewdly selected Bonaparte 
as the object of his assiduous flatteries, writing to him in 
semi-confidence, and laying the basis of their future 
intimacy. But his first terra of office was short : the 
American ambassadors spurned his olTer and let h>» 
conduct be publicly known, with the result that for this 
and other reasons he resigned his post. Public opinion 
was outraged. His official corruption, however, was not 
ended, for Talleyrand turned' everything into gold ; in his 
later diplomacy also he could always be bought ; and this 
public immorality was but too faithfully reflected in hia 
pnvate life, in which gambling was his passion and a 
source of his vast wealth. 

Out of office, but still pulling the strings of the Directory, 
he awaited the arrival of Napoleon in Paris, and it was 
his hand which was most powerful in shaping tLe events 
of the 18th and 19th Brumaire — 9th and 10th November 
1799. He reconciled Sieyte to Bonaparte ; a majority of 
the Directory — Siey^s, Ducos, and at last at his persuasion 
even Barras — resigned ; the Directory collapsed, and the 
consulate was established (see Napoleon and Siivis). 
Napoleon was the first and Talleyrand the secpnd man in 
France. 

He was now an absolutist, the whole drift of his 
influence being in the direction of consolidating, under 
whatever title, the power of Bonaparte. For many years 
henceforward Talleyrand's career is part of the general 
history of France. He is soon again foreign minister ; and 
he is acknowledged to have been the ablest diplomatist of 
an age when diplomacy was a greater, power than it has 
ever been before or since. To him falls a full share of 
responsibility for the kidnapping and murder of the Duo 
d'Enghien in March 1804 (see Savary). He had assisted 
at the councils when the atrocity was planned, and he 
wrote to the grand-duke justifying the seizure of the 
prince while on Baden territory. His hand in the matter 
was of course concealed. Cut, when one advised him to 
tender his resignation, he demurely remarked, " If, as you 
sa}', Bonaparte has been guilty of a crime, that is no reason 
why I should be guilty of a folly." In other and more 
agreeable directions he had prostrated himself before 
Napoleon's purposes, approving among other things of the 
policy of the Concordat (15th July 1801), and securing 
thereby the recall of his excommunication. To the pope's 
grateful brief, which gave him liberty " to administer all 
civil affairs," he coolly gave a wide interpretation, and he 
shortly thereafter married. He of course supported and 
defended first the consulship for life and then the crown- 
ing of the emperor. 

By and by, however, a change comes over his political 
attitude, and it is not long ere Napoleon detects it. This 
change we date, with Sainte-Beuve, from the end of 
January 1809. Before the peace of Tilsit, July S, 1807, 
from Jena onwards, he had personally accompanied the 
great conqueror ; after it they stood apart, for the states- 
man saw in those brilliant but ceaseless conquests the 
prelude to the ruin of his master and his country. He 
was now prince of Beneven'o. and he withdrew from the 
ministry, recei' ng at his own sire the title of vicegrand- 
elector of the empire. Yet he had not disapproved of the 
Spanish war ; Lhe young princes had even been entrusted 
to his surveillance at his country house at Valen(;ay. But 
anything might have happened to the emperor in Spain, 
and Talleyrand had evidently been calculating the chances 



32 



T A L — T A L 



of the future. So at the date stated the explosion occurs, 
NapoleoD pouring upon Talleyrand all the fury of his 
iQvective, reproaching him with the affair of the Due 
d'Enghien, and clamouring to know vhcre his enormous 
wealth had come from, — how much he had gained at 
play or on the stock exchange, and what was the sum of 
his bribes by foruign i^owers. Over and over again such 
scenes are repeated, the burden of the fierce reproaches 
being always the same ; .ut Talleyrand stands impassive 
as a statue, remarking ont >, but not till he is out of the 
room, and is limping awaj " What a pity that such a 
great man has been so badly brought up !" or sending in, 
at another time, a resignation, which of course is not ac- 
cepted. The reproaches of the emperor were only too well 
founded, his minister having reaped a vast harvest from 
the smaller powers at the formation of the Rhenish Con- 
federation; it is indeed recorded that Talleyrand once put 
a figure upon his gains m this department of corruption — 
the figure be ag no less than sixty million francs. 

It is undoubtedly to his credit, however, that he steadily 
resisted a warlike policy, and that he was particularly 
opposed to the Russian invasion. He was occasionally 
employed in diplomatic negotiations, and was even again 
offered the post of foreign minister if he would give up 
that of vice-grand -elector. This offer, which would have 
placed him at the mercy of Napoleon, he declined, and 
the breach between the two widened. Before the events 
of 1814; his hotel had become the centre of anti Napoleonic 
intrigue ; as the crisis approached he communicated with 
the allies ; when it was at hand he favoured a regency, 
and appeared anxious that Marie Louise should remain in 
Paris ; and when this was abandoned he carefully arranged 
a feigned departure himself, but that his carriage should 
be turned back at the city gates , he did return ; and the 
emperor Alexander was his guest at the Hotel Talleyrand ! 
The revolution was his work ; and his nominee Louis 
XVIII. ascended the throne. For a third time, and again 
under a new master, he was appointed foreign minister. 
It would be difficult to overestimate the splendid services 
which he now rendered to France. In Paris, on 23d April, 
the treaty was concluded under which the soldiers of the 
allies were to leave French soil , and Talleyrand success- 
fully urged that the territory of France should be the 
enlarged territory of 1792, and also that the great art 
treasures of which so many European cities had been 
despoiled should remain in Pans. A final treaty ot peace 
between Europe and France was concluded on 30th May, 
and in September the congress of Vienna assembled. It 
was the scene of Talleyrand's greatest triumphs. He 
succeeded single-handed in breaking up the confederation 
of the allies, and in reintroducing the voice of France into 
the deliberations of the European powers. Further, on 
January 3, 1815, a secret treaty was concluded between 
Austria, France, and England. 

When Napoleon escaped from Elba and advanced 
towards Paris, Louis XVIII. retired to Ghent. Although 
the congress of Vienna was thus broken up, Talleyrand 
made no haste to follow him thither. He was puzzled, 
and remained so during the Hundred Days. He despised 
Louis, and an early approach to Bonaparte was out of the 
question. He therefore coolly betook himself to Carlsbad, 
remarking, when an explanation was asked for, that the 
first duty of a diplomatist after a congress was to attend 
to his liver I Waterloo of course decided him. He ap- 
peared at Ghent, and was but coldly received. The foreign 
powers, however, intervened, conscious after Vienna of 
Talleyrand's value ; and, among others, Wellington insisted 
that the great diplomatist must be taken into the councils 
of Louis, — with the result that he became pnme minister 
at the second restoration. But bis position was one of 



extreme difficulty. The king di.sliked him ; there were 
scenes bordering on violence in the royal presence ; the 
Russian emperor intimated his hostility to him ; he shared 
the odium of having a man like Fouch^ for a colleague ; 
Chateaubriand and his parly hated and beset him. For- 
tunately £.n excuse of a broad and national kind soon pre- 
sented itself. He objected to the conditions which the 
allies were imposing upon France, refused to sign tha 
treaty, and on 24th September resigned office. 

He retired into private life, in which he remained for 
fifteen years. He only spoke in the House of Peers 
three times during this period, — twice (1821 and 1822) 
in favour of the liberty of the press, and once (1823) 
to protest against the Spanish war. But in 1830, when 
Charles X.'s reign was evidently imperilled, he again is at 
the centre of intrigue ; and it is actually at bis private but 
urgent suggestion that Louis Philippe heads the revolution, 
taking, to begin with, the title of lieutenant-general of tha 
kingdom. Declining the post of foreign minister, he 
proceeded to London as ambassador, conducting himself 
and serving his country with his usual consummate skill. 
He returned crowned with success after the formation of 
the Quadruple Alliance. In November 1834 he resigned,, 
and quitted public life for ever. 

He emerged from his retirement ob March 3, 1838, to 
pronounce before the Institute the tloge of Reinhard, and 
in so doing to treat of diplomacy in general, and to. 
suggest an indirect but adroit apology for his owu career. 
He was received with unbounded enthusiasm by thfe 6lite 
of French literature and society — Cousin even exclaiming 
that the 6loge was worthy of Voltaire. His last illness, 
which had by this time shown itself, soon prostrated him. 
He was visited on his death-bed by crowds of celebrities, 
including the king. He died on May 17, 1838, at tha 
great age of eighty-four. He is buried at Valencjay. 

According to his desire, his memoirs under his own hand 
will not appear till 1890. 

There is a considerable body of anonymous and untrustworthy 
literature both in Flench and English on the subject of this sketch. 
For the earlier pari of Talleyrand's career, see the general literature 
of the Revolution; Ibrlhe Napoleonic, the general histories, includ- 
iug especially the Meviotrs of the Due de Rovigo ; for the third and 
last, also the general histories, and especially the CorTp^ondtnca 
bflween Talleyrand and Louis XVIII , edited by Pullain (18&0-, 
transl. into English. 1881). and the Mtmoira of Guizot. Refer- 
ences abound to the private lile of Talleyrand, and on it see also 
the Hisloire Politiqiu: el U'ie Intime, by 0. Touchard-Lafosse (1848), 
and the Souvenira hdtvies sur M. de T(tlleyran4, by Amedee 
Pichot (1870). The student roust be on his guard iu perusing 
most of this last-mentioned literature. For many years the His 
toire Polilique ct Privie, by Michaud (1863), stood practically 
uncorrected, although evidently a studied and bitter attack. The 
view taken hy I.ouis Blanc in his Dir /t'w (translated into English 
in 1846) is also quite distorted, and if one wishes to see a complete 
misreading of Talleyrand's career it can bt rr)und in f^laiic's ti^nth 
chapter of his fifth book. Sir Henry Lylioii Bulwer rendered great 
service by his life of Talleyrand, publislied in liis Historical Cfuir- 
aeters; and the worth and accuracy of Rulwcr's biography, which 
was speedily translated into French, lias been amply acknowledged 
by Sainte.Beuve in his valuable treatise (lectures) on Talleyrand, 
published in 1870. Reference should also be mad« to Mignet, 
Bastide, and the Mejnoires Politujues of Lamartine. 

Caution will have to be exercised in reading Talleyrand's auto- 
biography, which will not appear till 1890, The testimony of con- 
temporaries will not be available to check it, and Talleyrand i.<i 
proved to have presided at the destruction of much documentary 
evidence implicating himself, eg, at the moment when the 
Russian emperor was living at his house. (T. S. ) 

TALLIEN, Jean Lambekt (17C9-1820), the chief 
leader of the party that overthrew Robespierre, was the 
son of the viaitre d'/i6tel of the Marquis de Bercy, and 
was born in Paris in 1769. The marquis, perceiving the 
boy's ability, bad him well educated, and got him a 
place as a lawyer's clerk. Being much excited by the first 
events of the Revolution, he gave up his desk to enter i 
printer's office, and by 1791 he was overseer of the printiDK 



T A X-T A L 



33 



(iepartmer.t of the MonUeur. While thus employed ha 
conceived the idea of the joumataJichf,'eiTid from January 
to May 1791 he placarded a large prioted sheet on all 
the walls of Paris twice a week under the title of the Ami 
dts Citoyms. This enterprise of his, of which the expenses 
were defrayed by the Jacobin C\\i\\ made him well known 
to the revolutionary leaders ; and he made himself still 
more- conspicuous in organizing the great " Fete de la 
Libert^" on April 15, 1792, in honour of the released 
soldiers of Chdteau-Vieux, with -Collot d'Herbois. On 
July 8, 1 792, he was the spokesman of a deputation of 
the section of the Place Royale which demanded from 
the legislative assembly the reinstatement of Potion and 
Manuel, and he was one of the most active popular leaders 
in the attack upon the Tuileries on 10th August, on which 
day he was appointed secretary or clerk to the revolution- 
ary commune of Paris. In this capacity he exhibited an 
almost feverish activity ; he perpetually appeared at the 
bar of the assembly on behalf of the commune ; he 
announced the massacres of September in the prisons in 
terms of praise and apology ; and he sent off the famous 
circular of 3d September to the provinces, recommending 
them to do likewise. At the close of the month he 
resigned his post on being elected, in spite of his youth, 
a deputy to tbe Convention by the department of Seine- 
et-Oiae, and he commenced his legislative career by defend- 
ing the conduct of the communo during the massacres. He 
took his seat upon the Mountain, and showed himself one 
of the most vigorous Jacobins, particularly in his defence 
of Marat ; he voted for the execution of the king, and was 
elected a member of the Committee of General Security on 
January 21, 1793. After a short mission in the western 
provinces he returned to Paris, and took ai^ active part in 
the coup3 'cTelat of 31st May and 2d June, which resulted 
in the overthrow of the Girondins. For the next few 
months he remained comparatively quiet, but on Septem- 
ber 23, 1793, he was sent with Ysabeau on his famous 
mission to Bordeaux. This was the very month in which 
the Terror, was organized under the superintendence of the 
Committees of Public Safety and General Security, and 
Bordeatiz was one of the cities selected to feel its full 
weight, Tallien showed himself one of the most vigorous 
of the proconsuls sent over France to establish the Terror 
in the provinces ; though with but few adherents, he soon 
awed the great city into quiet, and kept the guillotine 
constantly employed. It was at this moment that the 
romance of Tallien's life commenced. Among his prisoners 
was Theresa, Comtesse de Fontenay, the daughter of the 
great Spanish banker Cabarms, the most beautiful and 
fascinating wonran of her time, and Tallien not only spared 
her life but fell deeply in love with her. She quickly 
abated the fierceness of- his revolutionary ardour, and 
from the lives she saved by her entreaties she received the 
name of " Our Lady of Pity." This mildness, however, 
displeased the members of .the committees; Tallien was 
Te<»iled to Paris ; and Madame de Fontenay was imprisoned 
ther^. Danton and his friends had but just fallen, and 
the members of the committees were .half afraid to strike 
again at the moderates, so Tallien was spared for the time, 
and was even elected president of the Convention on March 
24, 1794. ' But the Terror could not be maintained at the 
same pitch : Robespierre began to see that he must strike 
6t many of his own colleagues in the committees if he was 
to cony out his theories, and Tallien was one of the men 
condemned with them. -They determined to strike first, 
and on the great day of Thermidor it was Tallien who, 
Qrged on by the danger in which his beloved lay, opened 
the attack upon Robespierre. The movement was suc- 
cessful ; Robespierre and his friends were guillotined ; 
bnd ths young Tallien, oa the leading Thermidorian, was 
2:j— 3 



elected to the Committee of Public Safety. Now came 
tho great months of his career : he showed himselt a 
vigorous Thermidorian ; he was instrumental in suppress- 
ing the Revolutionary Tribunal and the Jacobin Club ; he 
attacked Carrier and Lebon, the proconsuls of Nantes and 
Arras ; and he fought bravely against the insurgents of 
Pi-airial. In all these months he was supported by his 
Theresa, whom he married on December 26, 1794, and 
who became the leader of tho social life of Paris. His last 
political achievement was in July 1795, when he was present 
,'with Hocho at the destruction of the army of the 6migr6a 
at Quiberon, and ordered the executions which followed. 
After the close of the Convention Tallien's political import- 
ance came to an end, fof, though he sat in the Council of 
Five Hundred, the moderates attacked him as terrorist, 
and the extreme party as a renegade. Madame Tallien 
also got tired of him, and became the mistress of the rich 
banker Ouvrard. Bonaparte, however, who is said to have 
been introduced by him to Barras, took him to Egypt in 
his great expedition of June 1798, and after the capture 
of Cairo he edited the official journal there, tho Decadt 
igyptimne. But Menou sent him away from Egypt, and 
on" his passage he was captured by an English cruiser and 
taken to London, where he had a good reception among 
the Whigs and was well received by Fox. On returning 
to France in 1802 he got a divorce from his unfaithful 
spouse (who eventually married the Prince de Chimay), and 
was left for some time without employment. At last, 
through Fouch^ and Talleyrand, he got the appointment 
of consul at Alicante, and remained there until he lost the 
sight of oni eye from yellow fever; On returning to Paris 
he lived on his half-pay until 1815, when he received the 
especial favour of not being exiled like the other regicides. 
His latter days were spent in the direst poverty ; he had 
to sell his books to get bread. He died at Paris on Nov- 
ember 16, 1820. 

TALLIS (TAii-ys, Talys, or TALLisros), Thomas 
(c. 1515-1585), justly styled "the father of English cathe- 
dral music," was born, as nearly as can be ascertained, 
about the year 1515. The history of his youth is involved 
in some obscurity ; there seems, however, but little doubt 
that, after singing as a chorister at old Saint Paul's under 
Thomas Mulliner, he obtained a place among the children 
of the chapel royal. His next appointment was that of 
organist at Waltham abbey, where, on the dissolution of 
the monastery in 1540, he received, in compensation for 
the loss of his preferment, 20s. for wages and 20s. for 
reward. An interesting relic of this period of his career 
is preserved in the library of the British Museum, in the 
form of a volume of MS. treatises on music, once belong- 
ing to- the abbey, on the last page of which appears his 
autograph, " Thomas Tallys," with the final letter pro- 
longed into an elaborate flourish — the only specimen of 
his handwriting now known to exist. 

Not long after his dismissal from Waltham, Tallis was 
appointed a gentleman of the chapel royal ; and thence- 
forward he laboured so zealously for the advancemefit of 
his art that his genius has left an indeUble impression upon 
the Englfsl^ 'school, which owes more to him than to any 
other composer of tho 16th century, and in the history of 
which Kia name plays a very important part indeed. 

One of the earliest compositions by Tallis to which an 
approximate date can be assigned is the well-known Service 
in the Dorian Mode, consisting of the Venite, Te Deum, 
Benedictiu, Kyrie, Nicene Creed, Sancttia, Gloria in 
Excelsis, Magnificat, and Nunc Dimittis, for four voices, 
together with the Preces, Hesponses, Paternoster, axtA Litany, 
for five, all published for the first time, in .the Rev.: 
John Barnard's .First Book of Selected Church Munc, in 
1.641, and reprinted, vrith the exception of the Venita 

XXIII. — 5 



34 



T A L— T A L 



ttud Patemof'-r, in Boyce's Cathedral Music in 1760.^ 
That ihia wotlc «as composed for the purpose of supply- 
ing a pressing need, after the publication of the second 
prayer-book of King Edward VI. in 1552 there can be 
no reasonable doubt ; and its perfect adaptation to its 
intended purpose is sufficiently proved by the fact that, 
for more than three hundred years, its claim to occupy the 
first and highest place among compositions of its class has 
been undisputed. Written in the style known among 
ftaliaa composers as lo stile famigliare, i.e., in simple 
counterpoint of the first species, nota contra notam, with 
no attempt at ingenious points of imitation, or learned 
complications of any kind — it adapts itself with equal 
dignity and clearness to the expression of the verbal text 
it is intended to illustrate, bringing out the sense of the 
words so plainly that the listener cannot fail to interpret 
them aright, while its pure rich harmonies tend far more 
surely to the excitement of devotional feeling than the 
marvellous combinations by means of which too many of 
Tallis's contemporaries sought to astonish their hearers, 
while forgetting all the loftier attributes of their art. In 
this noble quality of self-restraint the Litany and Responses 
bear a close analogy to the Improperia and other similar 
works of Palestrina, wherein, addressing himself to the 
heart rather than to the ear, the princeps musical produces 
the most thrilling effects by means which, to the super- 
•icial critic, appear almost puerile in their simplicity, while 
*.hose v.ho are able to look beneath the surface discern in 
them depths of learning such as none but a very highly 
cultivated musician can appreciate. Of this profound 
learning Tallis possessed an inexhaustible store ; and the 
rich resources it opened to his genius not only placed his 
compositions on a level with those produced by the best 
of hi? Italian and Flemish contemporaries, but enabled 
him to raise the English school itself to a height which it 
had never previously attained, and which, nevertheless, it 
continued to maintain undiminished until the death of 
Its last representative, Orlando Gibbons, in 1625. Though 
this school is generally said to have been founded by Dr 
Tye, there can be no doubt that Tallis was it« greatest 
master, and that it was indebted to him alone for the 
infusion of new life and vigour which prevented it from 
degenerating, as some of the earlier Flemish schools had 
done, into a mere vehicle for the display of fruitless 
erudition. Tallis's ingenuity far surpassed that of his 
most erudite contemporaries ; but he never paraded it at 
the ex'iense either of intrinsic beauty or truthfulness of 
exp.'-ess'.on. Like every other great musician of the period, 
he produced occasionally works confessedly intended for 
no more exalted purpose than the exhibition of his 
stupendous skill, one of the most remarkable character- 
istics of which was the apparnnt ease with which it 
disposed of diflBculties that, to composers of ordinary 
ability, would have proved insurmountable. In his canon. 
Miserere nostri, the intricacy of the contrapuntal devices 
seems little short of miraculous ; yet, so smooth and 
flowing is the effect produced by their dizzy involutions, 
that no one unacquainted with the secret of their con- 
struction would suspect' the presence of any unusual 
element in the composition. In his motet. Spent m 
ahum non habtii, written for forty voices disposed in eight 
five-part choirs, each singer is intrusted with a part, 
agreeable and interesting in itself, yet never for a moment 
interfering with any one of the thirty-nine equally interest- 
ing parta with which it is associated. These tours de 
force, however, though approachable only by the greatest 
contrapuntists living in an age in which counterpoint 

* Boyc€'« an»ccountabIe omissioo of the very beautiful VeniU is a 
mUfortune which canoot be too deeply deplored, ctiice it has led to 
i^ onoaignnMnt to aimofft bapelfu obLinon. 



was cultivated with a success that has never since been 
equalled, serve to illustrate, one phase only of Tallis's 
many-sided genius, which shines with equal brightness in 
the eight psalm-tunes (one in each of the first eight 
modes) and unpretending little Veni Creator, printed in 
1567 at the end of Archbishop Parker's First Quirujuagent 
of Metrical Psalms, and many other compositions of like 
simpUcity. 

In 1575 Tallis and his pupil William Byrd — as great a 
contrapuntist as himself, though by no means his equal 
in depth of expression — obtained from Queen Elizabeth 
royal letters patent granting them the exclusive right ot 
printing music and ruling music-paper for twenty-one 
years ; and, in virtue of this privilege, they issued, in the 
same year, a joint work, entitled Cantiorus quse ab argu- 
menio Sacrse vocarUur, quinque et sex partium, containing 
sixteen motets by Tallis and eighteen by Byrd, all of thft 
highest degree of excellenca Some of these motets,, 
adapted to English words, are now sung as anthems in 
the Anglican cathedral service. But no such translations 
appear to have been made during Tallis's lifetime ; and 
there is strong reason for believing that, though both he 
and Byrd outwardly conformed to the new religion, and 
composed music expressly for its ■ use, they remained 
Catholics at heart to the end of their days. 

Tallis's contributions to the CarUiones Sacra were the 
last of his compositions published dnring his lifetime. He 
did not, indeed, live to witness the expiration of the 
patent, though Byrd survived it and published two more 
books of Cantianes on his own account in 1589 and 1591, 
besides numerous other works. Tallis died November 23, 
1685, and was buried in the parish church at Greenwich, 
whet's, a quaint rhymed epitaph, preserved by Strype, and 
reprinted by Burney and Hawkins, recorded the fact that 
he served in the chapel royal during the reigns of Henry 
\^II., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. This was de- 
stroyed with the old church about 1710; and it was not 
untU about twenty years ago that a copy was plaied in 
the present building. Portraits, professedly authentic, of 
Tallis and Byrd were engraved by Vandergucht in 1730, 
for Nicolas Haym's projected History of Music, but never 
published. One copy only is known to exist 

Not very many works besides those already mentioned wert 
printed during Talhs's lifetime ; but a great number are still pre- 
served in MS. Unhappily, it is to be (eared that many more were 
destroyed, in the 17tn century, during the spoliation of the 
cathedral libraries by the Puritans. (W S. R. ) 

TALLOW is the solid oil or tat of ruminant animais, 
but commercially it is almost exclusively obtained from 
oxen and sheep. The fat is distributed throughout the 
entire animal structure ; but it accumulates in large 
quantities as " suet " in the body cavity, and it is from 
such suet that tallow is principally melted or rendered. 
The various methods by which tallow and other animal 
fats are separated and purified have been dealt with under 
Oils (see vol. xvii. p. 743). In commerce ox tallow and 
sheep tallow are generally distinguished from each other, 
although much nondescript animal fat is also found in the 
market. Ox tallow occurs at ordinary temperatures as a 
solid hard fat having a yellowish white colour ; when fresh 
and lew it has scarcely any taste or smell; but it soon 
acquires a distinct odour and readily becomes rancid The 
fat IS insoluble lo cold alcohol, but it dissolves in boiling 
spirit of 0822 sp. gr in chloroform, ether, and the 
essemial oils. The hardness of tallow and its melting 
point are to some extent affected by the food, age, state 
of health, <fec., of the animal yielding It, the firmest or 
tallo« being obtained in certain provinces of Russia, whe-e 
for a great part of the year the oxen are fed on hay Ne * 
talow melts at from 42°-5 to 43° C. old tallow at 43' 5, 



T A L — T A L 



.35 



and tbe melted fat remains liquid till its temperature falls 
to 33° or 34° C Tallow coosists of a mixture of two- 
thirds of tbe solid fats palmitiii and stearin, with one-third 
of the Ikiuid fat olein A fluid oil known as tallow oil is 
obtained from solid tallow .by the separation by pressure of 
the greater part of the olein To facilitate the separation 
of the olein, tallow is first melted and just before resolidi- 
fying It is mixed with about 10 per cent, of benzene or 
petroleum spirit. The mixture is then allowed to solidify 
in flat cakes or slabs, which are placed in press bags and 
piled between iron plates m a hydraulic press. On the 
application of pressure the olein mixed with the solvent 
hydrocarbon flows freely oat, leaving a hard dense cake of 
stea.-iii and palmitin in the bags The volatile solvents 
are subsequently driven off by blowing steam through the 
oil, which remains a turbid fatty fluid from the proportion 
of solid fata it carries over with it from the hydraulic 
press. Tallow oil is a useful lubricant and a valuable 
material for fine soap making, but it is not now abundantly 
prepared. Mutton tallow differs in several respects from 
that obtained from oxen. It is whiter in colour and 
harder, and contains only about 30 per cent, of olein. 
Newly rendered it has little taste or smell, but on exposure 
it quickly acquires characteristic qualities and becomes 
rancid. Sweet mutton tallow melts at 46° and solidifies 
at 36° C. ; when old it does not melt under 49°, and be- 
comes solid on reaching 44' or 45° C. It is sparingly 
soluble in cold ether and in boiling spirit of 0822 sp. gr. 

Id early times tallow was a most important candle-makiDg 
substance, and candles made from this material are still consumed 
in no inconsiderable quantity, but the greater proportion of the 
•npply is now absorbed by the soap trade , the artificial butter 
trade which has sprung up since 1872 also takes up large quantities 
of sweet tallow. Tallow is further used extensively as a lubricant 
and in leather dressing, &c. It is of course a product of all cattle 
and sheep. rearing countries, and it forms an important article of 
export from the United States, the Argentme Kepublic, and the 
Australian colonies. Till within the last quarter of a centnrv 
Russia supplied nearly all the tallow imported into the United 
Kingdom ; but now the imports from that source are on the most 
meagre scale, although Russian P. Y. C. (pale yellow candle) con- 
tinues to represent the finest commercial brand 

TAXLOWS, Vegetable. See Oils, vol. xvii. p. 746. 

TALILV, Joseph Fbas^ois (1763-1826), French 
tragedian, was born at Paris 15th January 1763. After 
attending the Mazarin college, he accompanied his father, 
who was a dentist, to London, where he studied in the 
hospitals. While in London he took part in some amateur 
theatricals, and, his talents at once attracting notice, a pro- 
fessional engagement was offered him. To this, however, 
his father would not consent, and shortly afterwards he 
was sent to Paris, where for some years he was assistant to 
a dentist. His predilection for the drama could not be 
restrained, and on 21st November 1787 he made his d6bnt 
at the Comedie Franijaise in Mahomet. His efforts from 
the first won appreciation, but for a considerable time he 
was restricted to secondary parts. It was in jeuTie premier 
parts that he first came prominently into notice, and he 
attained only gradtially to his unrivalled position as tbe 
exponent of strong and concentrated passion. In 1791 he 
and other dissentients founded the Theatre Francis de la 
rue de Richelieu,— a name changed in 1 792 to Th^tre de la 
lUpublique, where he won his most striking successes. 
Talma was among the earliest advocates of realism in 
3cenery and costume, being greatly aided in his reforms by 
his friend the painter David. He possessed in perfection 
the physical gifts fitting him to excel in the highest tragie 
parts, an admirably proportioned figure, a striking counten- 
ance, and a voice of great beauty and power, which, after 
he had conquered a certain thickness of utterance, enabled 
him to acquire a matchless elocution. At first somewhat 
ttilted and monotonoos in his manner, he gradoallj 



emancipated himself from all ^artificial " trammels, and 
became by perfection of art a model of simplicity. Talma 
enjoyed the intimacy of Napoleon, with whom he had 
an acquaintance before Napoleon attained greatness ; and 
ha was a friend of Chfinier, Danton, Camille Desmoulins, 
and other revolutionists. He made his last appearance 
Uth June 1826. and died at Paris 19tb October of that 
year 

Talina was the author of ifemmra dt Le Kam, prMtUs de 
K^/texums mr cet Aclcur a surCArl Thiitral, contributed to the 
Colkctiwi lUs Memoircs sitr I' Art Liranuutque. It was published 
separately at Pans in 1866, under the title Ktflcxions dc Talina. sur 
Lc Kaifi a I Art TlUiUral. .See il&moircs de J F Talma, ecriti par 
luiitUmi, H Tcccuillis ct mis en ordrf <tur tes papurs de safamilU 
by Alei Dumas (1856). _ 

TALMUD signifies — (1) "study of and instruction in 
anything (whether by any one else or by oneself)" ,' (2) 
"learning acquired",- (3) "style, system"^ as such it is 
synonymous with Mi^hnah in its fifth signification, vol. 
xvi. p. 503, (4) "theory," in contradistinction to "prac 
tice,"* — synonymous with Midrask in its fourth significa- 
tion, vol. xvi. p. 285 , (5) such interpretation of the .Mosaic 
law as is apparent on the surface thereof and does not 
necessitate any further disquisition;' (6) Buruitko, or tho 
non-canonical Mishnak ;* (7) Gemara, tVe., the oldest com- 
mentary on the canonical Atithnak ;' (8) the texts of Misk- 
nah and Gemara combined, — the meaning which is the one 
most commonly attached to the term Talmud. Although 
the word Talmud is not to be found in the Bible, there can 
be little doubt that it is a classical Hebrew terra, as may 
be seen by the analogy of Tahdnun, "supplication," Tan- 
hum, " consolation," ic. 

Recensions of the Talmud. — The Talmud exists in two 
recensions, — the Palestinian, commonly, but by mistake, 
called Talmud Terushalmi (see below), and the Babylonian, 
correctly called Talmud Bahli. The Talmud Yerushalmi 
embocLes the discussions on the Mishnah (q.v.) oi 
hundreds of doctors, living in Palestine, chitfly in Galilee 
from the end of the 2d till about the middle of the 5th 
century, whilst the Babylonian Talmud embodies chiefly the 
discussions on the same Mishnah of hundreds of doctors 
living in various places in Babylonia, such as Nebarde'a,' 



' Compare Mishnah, Peak, i 1, 0^3 13^3 min IID^HI ("and 
the studying of the Law balances them all") , Abolh, iv. 13, THt 'IH 

11D?n3 (" be circumspect as regards in.'itruction"). 

' See Perek Rabbi ileir, 6, nioVna u"? D'30 kSi(" whose heart is 
not arrogant on account of hn learning") , c/. T. B , Pisahtm, leaf 49o ; 
lODD nonCD nioSni O' his learning becomes forgotten by him"). 

» See T. B., Syrihednn, leaf 24a, ^33 Ss? mio'jn ("the modeof 
study prevalent in Babylonia"), comp. T B-, Pescthim. 346. '!<^33 

i3t'noT KnnyDt:' pn'ioN K3it;'m NyiN3 '3n"i om-o "nk'SO 

(" foolish Babylonians, who, because ye d^vell in a land of darkness, 
say sayings that are obscure "), and T. B., Data Mcsi'a, leaf 85o; 
Ftabbi Zera fasted a hundred fasts on going up to Palestine, so that he 
might forget the style of Babylonico-Talmudic study (nK733 K1D3 or 
nK733 KIIDPri), that it should not trouble him any further. Rashl 
takes the quotation from 5(2^a Mesi'a to signify the concrete Babylonian 
Talmud, which, however, is impossible. 

• See T. B., KidduAin, leaf 406: "Is theory (llO^n) greater or 

practice {HtTVO) greater! . . . They all an.swered. Theory (IID^) 
is greater because it leads to practice." Talmud, as will have been' 
seen, is here given as synonymous with Limmud. 

» See T. B., Baba Kamma, leaf 1046, K^'OSp "Wthn V (" I say 
this is a plain [Mosaic] teaching"). . 

• See T. B., Baba Bathra, leaf 1306, catchword I'lOh I'K. and 
Variw Lectiones in loco. 

' See T. B., Baba MesCa, leaf 33J, and compare Rashi in loeo. 

'The rector of this academy was Sbemuel, court physician of Shapnr 
I., and astronomer. Whilst his friend and fellow-pupil R»B (q.v.; 
they both attended the lectures of the principal editor of the Mii^ 
nah) excelled in the other parts of the Jewish law, Shemnel was pre- 
eminent in the civil law. On account of this be is repeatedly called 
in the Talmud both "Shapnr" (like his master) and " Aryokh" (Uan, 
king, teacher). _ To him ii due the legal principle that " tbo law of 



TALMUD 



Kaphri,' MahiKa,^ Shelchanslb.s but notably at the two 
great aciidemies'of ^ara anid Pumbaditha, from about 190 
to nearly the end of tke 6th bentury. The doctors of both 
recensions, although they' primarily discuss the cotrectness 
of the text and meaning of the Mishnah, and what should. 
be the right legal decision according to it, do not confine 
themselves to this. They introduce, as occasion serves, 
not merely the whole of the oral traditioa-handed down to 
their time, and the necessary references to, and interpreta- 
tions of, the various laws to be found in the Pentateuch 
and the other sacred writings, but exhibit also, though only 
in a fragmentary manner, an almost complete cycle of the 
profane sciences as current orally and known to them 
by books composed by Jews and Gentiles. The doctors 
of both these recensions were and are called Amoraim 
(Q'N";iOS)_ j.f,, mere "discussers, speakers,"'' because, unlike 
the Mishnic doctors, who were and are called Tannaim 
(Q*S|n), i.e., " learners, teachers," they abstained from raak 
ing new laws unless absolutely compelled by circumstances 
to do so.* These Amoraim stand, on the whole, in the 
same relation to their Mishnic predecessors as counsel 
giving a legal opinion, or judges deciding legal cases, stand 
to the legislature which frames the laws. In these points 
the doctors of both recensions agree. There are, however, 
also points of considerable difference between the two Tal- 
muds. These are not merely geographical, and so neces- 
sarily linguistic,^ but also material. Whilst the discussions 
in the Palestinian Talmud are simple, brief, and to the 
point, those in the Babylonian Talmud are subtle, long- 
winded, and, although always logical, sometimes even far- 
fetched.^ But there is another difference The Palestinian 
Talmud, besides containing legal and religious discussions, 
is a storehouse of history, geography, and archaeology. 



the civil government Is the law," i.e., that except id religious matters 
the Jew must submit to the laws of his country (T B . Saba Sfithm. 
546). Shemuel and Rab (like Rabbi Yohanan and Resh Lakish, 
Abayye and Elaba, and others), though intimate friends, nevertbelesa 
differ on nearly all i.Tiaginable points, so that when the Talmud wishes 
to give firmness to a rerlain decision or opuiioo. it uses the phrase 
" Rab and Shemuel, kc, both agree " 

' The rector of this school was Rab Hlsda, the father-in-law of 
Kaba {ij.v). 

• The rector of this school was RaBa (<; v ) 

' The rector of this school was Tab Mahman b Yishak (T B , OMm, 
316, Rashi, catchword K3N), husband of the learned and accomplished 
■yaltha, the daughter of the resh galutha (T B . Hulhn. leaf 10961. kc 

• Aiwra may also mean an interpreter The great teachers of the 
first five centuries had generally a man (or sevcnil men) at their side, 
who to the learning requisite to translate the master's teaching given 
in Hebrew, and dilate on it in Aramaic, added a Stentor's voice, and 
could by f.TScinating speech command the attention of the audience 
The first Babylonian Amora, i e., explainer of the itishnah, who had 
an Atru/ra, i e , a popular teacher, was Rabbi Shila. The first who is 
known to have acted as Airwra, \ e , popular teacher, to an Amora, 
i,c.. nn explainer of the Mishnah, wa» the famous RaB {q u. ) See 
T. \ . BtTukholh IV 1, 2, 4c. . T B., Berukhoth. leaf 27* . and T B., 
Koiii.c, le.if 2(J') (against Ripoport, 'Lrekh Miihn, s v " Amora") 

' Thi« ceruiiily was not uofrequently the case, but even then they 
did so "fily in the spinl of the Tannann. 

• The Palestinian A^noraim, leaching people who understood Creek, 
had not to explain ilie Greek terms which frequently occur id the Sfish 
nnli and oihei works kindred to it The Babylonian Amoraivi, how. 
ever, who il common with their hearers weie ignorant of Greek, had a 
somewhat irregular though certainly effective way (received by them 
traditionally) of explaining the Greek terms in the Mishnah, &c , hy 
Aramaic etymology We will give two instances only of this practice 
— (1) 'P'niBS, which 13 evidently the Greek uToflij/tii, is explained 
T B . Baba itesi'a, leaf 666, nO «'?« pVlQ iS KH" kS. "thou shalt 
get no payment excepl from this, "—evidently - *KP NHH nsS* — 
" mxiii this thou bhalt stand,' t.e , *' if 1 do not pay, this shall serve 
a.s my security", compare Rashi on Baba Kamma, 116, catchword 
'P'maK . (2) "p'n't is evidently the Greek 5ia»jj«Ti, and Is ex- 
pl.iiiied as being a compound of (O'p) Dp'O? Nnn NT, " this shall 
stiiid when I am no more," i.e., "this is my last will and testa 
iiicnt " From T B., Baba Dalhra, leaf 1356 (evidently a B.ibyloiiian 
flnroitho), we see that in T B . Baba MfSi a. leaf 19a, three words 
'ri3 3irCE^73) have falleu out. ' Compoio p. 35, footnote 3 



whilst the Babylonian Talmud, taking into consideration 
that it is treble* the size of its fellow Talmud, contains less 
of these. On the other hand, it bestows more care upon 
the legal and religious points, and, being the later and the 
more studied of the two, it is also the more trustworthy. 

System of the Talmud. — Most people imagine not only 
that the Talmuds are a pathless wilderness, without so much 
as grammatical rules in their respective languages, but that 
the laws laid down in them rest on mere tradition. In 
reality their languages have strictly grammatical rules (see 
below under Aids, ic), and their laws rest en a strictly 
logical system. The laws in both Talmuds are discussed and 
argued on philosophical rules, for which it is claimed that 
they have existed from time immemorial, and can be traced 
to the Pentateuch itself These are — (1) the Seven Rules 
(nno y2tr), put forth by Hillel (Tosephto Synhedrin, vii,, 
last § , Siphro, towards the end of the Introduction ; Aboth, 
de-Rabbi Nathan, xxxvii.) but a great deal older than his 
time , (2) the Thirteen Rules (nno mt^'V zhu), put forth 
by R Yishma'el (Introduction to Sxphro), which can, how- 
ever, be traced in nitce to the foregoing "Seven Rules": 
both these are for the Halakliah ; and (3) there are also 
the Thirty-two Rules (nna D'HK'l WU^'C), put forth by R. 
Eli'ezer b R Yose Haggalili (vol i. of most editions of 
the Babylonian Talmud), which are for the Agadah. In 
addition, most of the pointb to which these rules apply are 
secured by early tradition. It is quite true that by idiosyn- 
crasy digressions are very frequent both in Talmud and 
Midrash , but in the HaUthhah the digression, however 
long, invariably ends m coming back to the original cause 
of the logical combination, whilst in the Agadah the 
digression either conies back to the place from which it 
started, or else will be found, on examination, to have been 
introduced for its own sake, and have served its own pur- 
pose Ao the doctors of Talmud and .^ftdrash are mostly 
introduced in dialogues, this is the only practical, if some- 
wbal uncommon, method 

Dimstun of ihr Talmud —The external division of both 
Talmuds is identical with the division, subdivision, and 
sub-subdivision of the Mishnah, although there is not 
always Gnnarn in the one when there is Gemara in the 
other ^ This, however, need not be further discussed herej 
as all on this bead is minutely specified in MishnaH; 
(7 V ) Concerning the internal division into Halakhah 
and Agadah. it ought to be said that the former is more 
largely represented m the Babylonian Talmud, whilst the 
latter is more largely and more interestingly given in the 
Palestinian Talmud Whole collections of Mvirashimnovi 
in our hands have constituted (if we may judge from the 
known to the unknown) part of the Palestinian Talmud,'* 
and seem to have chiefly belonged to those portions of it 
which have been gradually lost. 

Purpose —The Talmud, unlike the Mishnah, contains not 
only individual decisions, but everything that is necessary 
for arriving at legal and religious decisions of whatever 
description these may be, whilst, like the Mishnah, it is not 
Itself a handbook of decisions Tbia is only in accordance 
with the nature and spirit of an oral law which delegates 
the decisions to theTalmudico-speculative cajiacities of the 
teachers of every age Even several of the comparatively 
few instances in which the words '3 Nns^ni ("and the 

' Bibliographers generally fall into a mistake in describing the st28 
o( the Babylonian as twelve tunes that ol the Palesliman Talmud. 
They forget that two-thirds ol the nic ol the former is simply owing 
to the commentaries bj which it is luvanably accompanied. 

' The only thing that ought to be mentioned here is, that to the 
Palestinian Talniud the SA€6o^nwWi/u(6 Kelunnoth Yenishalmiyyolh 
(Frankfort, 1851, Svo) must be added, whdst O'emura Shrf:alim and 
the Massekhlnth Kttannvth, which now form an integral part of the 
Babylonian Talmud, are l^6o(A de-Rabbi HaUian excepted) uiijusti-_ 
tiably attached to lU '" See Rashi on Gen. xlvii. 2. 



TALMUD 



37 



decision is according to so and so ") occur in the Babylonian 
Talmud are alater addition. They belong to the Hatakhoth 
Gedoloth,^ acd are consequently, at the earliest, of the 8th 
century, bat are probably of even much later dat«. 
^ Editors.— 1\\& editorship of the Palestinian Talmud is 
generally, after Maimonides,' ascribed to Eabbi Yohanan 
(b. Napha). But this, if literally taken, is a gross mistake, 
as that teacher (ob. 279) died more than a hundred years 
before the latest ^1 mora (c. 450) mentioned in that Talmud 
A similar error is made with respect to the editor or 
editors of the Babylonian Talmud, whose names are given 
as Rab Asshi (see Rab) {ob. 427) and Rabina {ob. 550), 
and who lived still much earlier than the^ last teachers 
mentioned in that Talmud (8th century). ' But it ought 
to be remembered that when the ancients speak of 
editors of books of such a mixed character as the Mish- 
nak, the Zohar, both Talmuds, &c., they mean the person 
or persons who gave the first impulse to the collection or 
redaction oi such books. In this sense, certainly, Rabbi 
Yohanan waa the editor of the Palestinian and Rab Asshi 
and Rabina were the editors of the Babylonian Talmuds. 
For, whilst the first of the latter pair went more than 
once through the discussion of the whole Mishnah by the 
Amoraim from 190 to his time (a. 427), the latter supple- 
mented the collection down to his own time (550). As 
regards the Babylonian Talmud, the Amoraim were 
succeeded by a new order of men called Saboraim (j33l 
»K1UD), i.e., " opiners," who ventured only occasionally to 
revise and authenticate the sayings of their predecessors. 
The last of these Saboraim were Rab 'Ina (or Giza.) and 
Rab Siraona (c. 550-590). In any case neither the one 
Talmud nor the other was written down, slight private 
notes excepted (onnD ni^JO), before the close of the 6th 
century, if then. The apparently insurmountable diffi- 
culty of keeping such vast masses of literature in the head 
is removed when one takes into consideration that both 
teacher and student had means of help to their memory 
fully corresponding to the vastness of the literature. In 
the first place, they had the numbers already occurring in 
the Mishnah {e.g., five must not separate the heave-offering 
on account of the benediction to be recited in connexion 
with the act; Tervmoth L 1), <fea Secondly, they had 
names. Since to thejsayings of the Talmud were generally 
attached the names of those who uttered them, saying and' 
name became in the memory of the student identical If 
somebody who had heard a certain saying from somebody, 
who in his turn had heard it from somebody else, was 
mentioned in the Talmud, all other sayings, however 
unlike these in nature, if they had only the same link of 
tradition, were recited on the same occasion : e.g., in the 
Palestinian Talmud, Megillah iv. 1, "says Rabbi Haggai, 
says Rabbi Shemuel b. Rab Yishak," kc. ; T. B., Berakhoth, 
leaf 36, <tc., " says Rabbi Zerika, says Rabbi Ammi, says 
Rabbi Yehoshua' b. Levi," d-c. Thirdly, other oral tradi- 
tions, which went by the order of the Pentateuch, received 
in the written Pentateuch vast aids to memory. Fourthly, 
the MishTiah (although itself not written down), by its 
divisions, subdivisions, and sub-subdivisions, became, in its 
turn, a mighty aid to memory. Fifthly, as regards the 
Babylonian Talmud, there are additional means of aiding 
memory in existence, for every now and then one meets- 
with a Mnemosynon (Siman), which strings together the 
order of subjects {e.g., T. B., BerakhoiA, 32a, last line). 
Both in MSS. and printed editions these $imanim are 
given in brackets. Rapoport and his followers would have 

• E.g., T. B., Berakficlh, leaf 36a. See Eaahi and To$apholh, 
catchword Nn27ni ; Bid., 366, and in other places. 

' In his Introduction to the commentary on the Mitknah (commonly, 
bat by mistake, called Introduction to the Seder Zeram) and in bis 
Intro<luction to the Miahnch feroA. 



US believe that th&Be mnemonic phrases are late inventions, 
but they have aa yet failed to make good their assertions. 
See T. B., Shabbalh 104a, and T. B., 'Erubin, 546, where 
these S'.manim are positively mentioned early in the 4th 
century ; cf. Rashi in loco. 

Value. — The value of the Talmuds may be estimated by 
the fact that they contain the Mishnah in various recen- 
sions and a large portion of the contents of Midrashic col- 
lections, and in addition comprise a vast amount of Sopheric 
literature not to be found in the canonical Mishnah and 
Agadic matter not to be found in the known Midrashim, 
and have thousands of notices on secular knowledge of all 
kinds. Here, however, the reader ought to be again re- 
minded that, whilst the Babylonian Talmud, the one of 
much larger extent, contains a great deal more Judaeo- 
religious matter, the Palestinian Talmud — of much smaller 
extent — is of much greater value for the historian, the 
geographer, the numismatist, and other students. 

Vicissitudes of the Talmud. — Whilst the Babylonian 
Talmud commanded the attention of a hostile world, and 
was proscribed, mutilated,* and condemned, and finally 
delivered over to the flames* by popes and kings, the 
Palestinian Talmud suffered still more from one single 
enemy — neglect.^ Thousands of copies nf the former 
recension were destroyed in the course of time, but, this 
Talmud being studied in all parts of the world, the few 
copies surviving became the means of an endless supply. 
Not so as regards the Palestinian Talmud, which found 
no students, or but few, after the closing (c. 450) of the 
Jewish academies in Palestine ; and we have even to thank 
the enemies of traditional Judaism, the Karaites, who used 
it in controversy with their' Rabbanite opponents, for the 
preservation of some copies of it. By degrees th o neglect of 
the book became so great that whole chapters of treatises, 
whole treatises of orders, and almost two whole orders 
themselves, disappeared, and are lost to this day.' 

Aids to the Study of the Ttlmuds. — (o) Lexicons. — The 6rst rank 
is occupied by lexicons for both Talmuds and Midrashim, and of 
these tnat by E. Nathan b. Yehiel of Rome, compiled in the llth 
and 12th centuries, claims the first place. All other lexicons, from " 
Ellas Levita, Philip Aquinas, Johannes Buxtorf, &c. , down to 
LeTy and Jastrow, are more or less based upon this grand work 
called 'Arukh.'' (b) Grammars. — A slight attempt at compiling a 

* Raymundus Martin (Ramon Martinez), backed up by his teacher 
Pablo Cristiani (see Ramban), was one of the first five (or rather six) 
mutilators (called censors) of the Talmud and kindred books. Sea 
Touroo, Histoire des H&mmes lilustres de VOrdre de Saint Dominiqite, 
L (Paris, 1743, 4to) p. 492 ; Jour. Phi'.oL, xvi. 134. 

* In the midsummer of 1244 twenty-four waggons full of Talmud 
copies were burned in France (see Journal of Philology, xvi. 133). 
A certain Donin (afterwards called Nicolaus), a converted Jew, by his 
accusations against the Talmud, managed that Rabbi Yehiel of Paris 
had to dispute with him publicly about its contents. The disputation 
took place in the midsummer of 1240; and R. Yehiel came out of it 
60 victoriously that only after four years* further machinations the 
Talmud was actually burned. The disputation is printed under the 
name of Disjruiatio cum Nicolao A. 1252 {\) habita cum Versions 
Latina in Wagenseil's Tela Ignea Satanx (Altdorf, 1681, 4to) ; a less 
incorrect Hebrew edition came out in 1873, Svo, at Thorn. This 
event of burning the Talmud called forth three, elegies — (1) by R. 
Binyamin b. Abraham De' Mansi, beginning D7W ri13t<, and the 
refrain of which was niKSD nOSH 'K, NIDJl HJIVD <N (see MS; 
Add. 374, Camb. Univ. Lib., leaves 307a-308a); (2) by R. Meir of 
Rothenburg (sce.RosH), the beginning of which is !5'8<3 nCIIB' '7XB' 
(in the Ashkeuaac ritual for the 9th of Ab) ; and (3) by R. Abraham 
b. Yiahak (see Zunz, Zur Oesch. u. Lit, pp. 463—4). This Abraham 
b. Yishak is the father of the famous En-bonet Abram Bederesi (not 
Bedarshi'; see Schiller.Szinessy, Catal., L correction 5), the author of 
t]\6 Behinaih 'Olam. 

' See Schiller^Sanessy in the Academy, 1878, p. 171, and extract 
from Excursus iii. (to the Catalogue) on the Palestinian Talmud in 
Occasional Notices, kc, i., Cambridge, 1S78, 8vo. 

* See the before-mentioned Occasional JVotices. 

' Rabbenu Nathan b. Yehiel b. Abraham was, on his father's sidq 
an 'Anav (131)) — and not an 'Akko (ISJT) as Rapoport, no doubt alter 
Ibn Yahya, writea it in BikJcure Ba'ittim. x. 7 — i.e., of the family 
'Anavim' (Dei Uanai, Dei Mansueti, Dei Fiatelli, Dei Pietosi, Dei 



38 



TALMUD 



grammar, and this only for the Babylonian Talmud, was made by 
the late learned S. D. Luzzatto. It exists in Italian (Padua, 1865), 
German by Kniger (Breslau, 1873), English by Goldammer (New 
York. 1876), and Hebrew by Lerner (St Petersburg, 1880). Of 
more value, however, is Noldeke's Mandaitic Grammar, although 
it stands in connexion with the Babylonian Talmud only in an 
indirect way. (c) Cominintanes. — Commentaries on the greater por- 
tion of the Babylonian Talmud are extant, by the famous Rabbenu 
Hananeel of Kairwan, the teacher of RiPU (q.v), by Rasbi (q v.), 
and by the descendants and disciples of this latter commentator, 
who composed the Tosapholh. All these are included in the latest 
Talmud edition of Vilna. It is asserted by Rabad II. [q.v.) that 
the whole (B. ) Talmud had been commented on in Arabic. As 
regards the commentaries on the Palestinian Talmud, it ought to 
be said that the Pcne MosheK &c. , by R Mosheh Margaliyyoth, 
and the Korban Hdedah, &c., by R. David Frankel (the teacher of 
Mendelssohn), make more than one commentary on the whole, and 
tliey are embodied m the Zliitomir edition (1860-67). (rf) Method- 
ology. — Among the many Introductione to the Babylonian Talmud 
that of R Shcmuel Hannagid must now be considered the first, 
not only in time but also in value. There was indeed an earlier, 
and perhaps a still more valuable one in existence (see Saadia), 
but it is now unfortunately lost. As regards the Palestinian 
Talmud, the only one in existence is that by the late Z. Frankel 
(Breslau, 1870, 8vo). The author was a most learned man, but 
somewhat confused in his diction, (e) TranMalicma. — Renderings 
of isolated treatises of the Babylonian Talmud exist in Latin, 
Ugolim, Thesaurus, xix., Zebahivi and ^leiiahoth, and xxv., 
Synhedrfn;^ in French, e.g., Scrakhoth, by Chiarini (Leipsic, 1831, 

Umani, Dei Umili). and, on his mother's side, of the Tappuhim, i.e., 
De Pomis, to which the celebrated author of the Lexicon Semah David 
belonged. Rabbenu Nathan's father and grandfather, lUie Rabbenu 
Nathan himself .iml his brother's descendants, were, no doubt, papal 
court Jews (and not hnendrapers, as the latest editor of the 'Arukh, 
by misreading and misinterpreting the somewhat hard verses of his 
author, contrives to show). This lucrative position furnished them with 
ample means not oidy for their noble charities to congregational insti- 
tutions (a synagogue, religious bath, &c.), but also with the leisure 
necessary for the pursuit of Talmudic studies. Rabbenu Nathan was 
Tcsh kailah (rector of the Jewish university), and unquestionably 
the greatest Talraudist, even as he was the poorest Hebrew poet, in 
Italy m the 11th and 12th centuries. As regards his teachers we 
know four, three of whom he attended, whilst he studied and digested 
the works of the fourth so well that, though personally unknown to 
one another, they may be justly called master and disciple. His first 
teacher was his own father; his second teacher, from whom Rabbenu 
• Nathan no doubt obtained his thorough knowledgo of Babylonian 
habits, was R. Masliah of Sicily, who bad been a hearer of the greatest 
" gaon " of Pumhadilha ; his third teacher was R. Mosheh b. Ya'akob b. 
Mosheh b. Abbun of Narborme (or Toulouse ; better known under the 
name of R. Mosheh Haddarshan); and the fourth was Rabbenu Han- 
aneel of Kairwan. He owed so much to this teacher that as soon as 
tb'e ' Arukh had appeared most people took it for granted that Rabbenu 
Hananeel had lived at Rome, and accordingly called him *'a man of 
Rome— 'Ish Romi", see MS. Brit Mus. Add. 27,201, leaf 73J, and 
Tosapholh, passim (That Rabbenu Gershom, Rabbenu Mosheh 'D1D3, 
and others were his teachers, as Rapoport, foe. ci7.,. asserts, is a 5c- 
tion. ) Rabbenu Nathan, in his 'Anikh, does not merely explain the 
foreign (i,«., Aramaic, Persian, Greek, Latin, and Arabic) words occur- 
ring in the Targums, Talmuds, and Midrashim, but the subject-matter 
also, and thereby proves himself a doubly useful guide. In thus, al- 
though he had been preceded by no less a personage than the Oaim 
Semah b- Paitoi (fl. 870), who also composed such an '/4njjM. Rabbenu 
Nathan was virtually the first, as the Oaon's work had been early 
lost. The assertion that the fourth of the four men captured by the 
Spanish admiral (see below, p. 39) was R. Nathan Habbabli, that he 
lived in Narbonne, and that he also composed a similar '^ruiA, rests 
on a misunderstanding, as the quotation in the Yohusin clearly shows. 
The passages there given under R. Nathan Habbabii are taken verbatim 
from the 'Arukh of our author (compare the article CJE^, &c.). That 
Rome has been at times called in Jewish writings "Babel," and that 
consequently Hahbahh may mean "the Roman," is clear from the 
writings of the New Testament. We will only add here a few words 
conccrmng the bibliography of the book. Of the 'Arukh exist so far 
ten editions, the first of which came out undated, but before or about 
1480. The seventh edition was enriched by the physician R. Binyarain 
Musaphia's Musaph, i.e., Addilamenta (Musaphia was a Greek and 
Latin scholar), and the latest edition by Dr Kohut is now m progress. 
As regards the MSS. of this remarkable lexicon the best copies are to 
be found partly in the University Library, Cambridge (Add. 376, 
wliioh has all the verses of the author and addilamenta by R Shemuel 
l"n VOJ. and Add. 471-72), and partly at the Court Library, Vienna 
(I'od cvi. 1 and 2). The latter were earned off by Napoleon L to 
P.iris in 1309, but in 1815 were returned to Vienna. 

' Vanoas writers assert that there exist many books containing 
Latin translations of various treatises of the Babyloman Talmud. 



8vo); and in German, e.g., Berakluith, by Rabe (HaUi'. 1777, 4to), 
regard being had also in both to the same treatise of the Palestiniao 
recension, and again by Pinner (1842) . Baija Men a, by .Sammter 
(1876), both at Berlin and in folio; 'Abodah Zamh.' k:y EwalJ 
(Nuremberg. 1856, 8to) ; Ta'anith, by Straschun (Hal.t, 1883); 
Mcgillah and Rosh Hasshmnah, by Rawicz (Frankfort-onthe-Main, 
1884 and 1886). Tlie assertion that the whole of this Talmud has 
been translated into Spanish has yet to be proved. As regards the 
Palestinian Talmud, Ugolini's Thesaurus contains the following 
treatises in Latin ; — Pesahim(vo\. xvii.); Shekahm, Yoma, Sukkah, 
Rosh Basshanah, Ta'anUh. Megillah, Hagigah, Be^h, Mdcd Kalan 
(vol. xviii. ) ; Ma'aseroth, Mdaser Sheni, Hallah, 'Orlah, Bikkurim 
(vol. XX.); Synhcdrin, Makkoth (vol. xxv.); Kiddushin, Sotah, 
Kelhuboth (vol. xxx. ). M. Schwab (of the Bibliothcque Nationale, 
Paris) has undertaken a French translation of the entire Palestiniao 
Talmud, which is now in progress . from this Berakhoth has been 
translated into English (London, 1886, 4to). 

Editions. — The editions of the Palestinian Talmud, in what was 
then called its entirety, are only four: — (a) Venice, 1523, without 
any commentary, (i) Cracow, 1609, with a short commentary, the 
text apparently from a diiferent MS. from that used for the editio 
princcps, (c) Krotoschin, 1866, with a short commentary differing 
from that of Cracow: these three editions are each comprised in 
one volume, {d) the fourth edition came out at Zhitomir, with 
commentaries by different men (see Coinmeutancs above). All these 
editions are in folio. Of the editions of isolated treatises, which are 
not a. few, we will only mention those of Berakhoth (Vienna, 1874) 
and Peah and Demai (Breslau, 1875, both in 4to), with a new com- 
mentary by Z. Frankel. The editions of the Babylonian Talmad 
are so numerous that they would require several entire sheets for 
enumeration. There is iii existence an approximately good treatise 
on them (see Varise. Lecticnies, vols. L and viii.). We will only 
name three of the entire editions : — (1) the editio princeps, Venice, 
1520-23,^ — which, though disfigurea by numerous misprints, waa 
not mutilated by the censor; (2) the edition of Basel (1678-81), 
which omits 'Abodah Zarah altogether, and has a cheering (?) notice 
in Latin;' (3) the latest edition, now printing at Vilna, with old 
commentaries hitherto unpublished- Of isolated treatises, which 
may be counted by more than hundreds, we will only mention one 
(the Portuguese of at least Berakhoth), tho existence of whieh waa 
asserted in the last century {Pahad Yishak, s. v. Nn"inn03 ^<3]}), 
then again called in question in our own times, but positively proved 
by the present writer from an early work composed at the time 
when but few editions of the Talmud existed. It is the Zenf 
Abraham (Camb. MS. Ti. 6, 60 leaf 59;/). Materials for the critical 
edition of the Babylonian Talmud from an ancient MS. formerly in 
the monastery of Pfersee, but now in the Royal Library of Munich, 
and other MSS. and early prints of isolated treatises in various 
public and private libraries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, have been 
collected and are being published by Rabbiuovicz. Of this import 
ant work fifteen volumes, containing the following treatises, nave 
already come out. — the vj\io\Q Seder Zera'Tm (1867), Besah, Bagigah^ 
Mdcd Kalan (1869); Sukkah, Tdamth (1870); Rosh Hasshanah, 
yo;na'(1871); ' Erubin (1873); P^aAim (1874); Shabbalh (1875); 
Megillah, Shekahm (1877); Syvhedrin (1878); Abodah Zarah, 
Makkolh, Shebiioth, Borayoth, ' Eduyyoth (1879); Baba Bathra 
(1881) , Baba Kamma (1882); Baba Mesi'a (1883); Zebahim (1884); 
Menjiholh (1886).* AU these were printed in 8vo and at Munich, 
except vol. ix., which came out at Mainz. 

Influence of the Talmud. — It must be admitted by every 
critical student of history that the Talmud has not merely 
been the means of keeping alive the religious idea among 
the Jews, but has formed their strongest bond of union. 
When, after the fall of the city of Jerusalem and it« temple, 
and the expatriation of the Jews from Palestiue, a goodly 
portion of the Mosaic law lost its application, the Talmud 
became the spirit which put fresh life into the letter which 

Upon examination these books turn out to contain either a transla- 
tion ouly of Mislmic treatises with oi without excerpta from, and 
with or without schoba on, Oemara, or disputations which introduce 
small pieces of Oemara. "The utmost they contain is a chapter or two 
tran.slated from Oemara itself (as, for example, " Edzard, AbodaSara,'* 
&c., Hamburg, 1705-10, 4to. which contains Oemara of the first tw9 
Pera^:im). 

' 'The paging of this has been followed in all subsequent editions. 

' Nunc ab omnibus 'iis quae contra religionem Christianara facie* 
bant recogoitum, et juxta mentem Sacri concilii Tridentini expurga- 
turn et approbatum, ut non modo citra impietatem verum etiam cam 
fnictu a nostris legi possit. 

* The notes in the first fonrtecn volumes go under the name of 
.D'TDID '"I3T , whilst those of -the fifteenth volume have the title of 
DmDt<7 "113T, in memory of the late Abraham Merzbacher, who not 
merely proved the Maecenas of this publication during- his lifetime,, 
but left a considerable sum for its continuation and completion. 



TAM-TAM 



SiJ 



hki become to a great extent dead. Moreover, by the Tal- 
mud, the interpretation of which was chiefly in the hands 
of the academies of Sura and Pumbaditha, the Jews of alJ 
the world found, if not a new Jerusalem, at least a new 
Yabneh (Jamnia), i.e., a place where the old learning was 
not merely continued, but made to shine with a yet greater 
splendour. This fact will be the more readily acknow- 
ledged and appreciated when one casts a glance at the 
miserable religious condition of the Karaites, the so-called 
Scriptural Jews. 

Transference of Talmvdu Leamtng from the East to the 
West. — There naturally came a time when Talraudic learn- 
ing, if it was to maintain its influence upon the Jews, 
could not be conflned to one spot. We have seen under 
Rashi (q.v.) that the great emperor of the West (Charle- 
magne) had been the means, towards the close of the 8th 
century, of bringing learned Talmudtsts not only to Pro- 
vence but to the north of France and the south of Ger- 
many.' But when nearly two hundred years later the 
academies of Babylonia were threatened with extinction 
(because of their lacking, from various causes, the means 
of subsistence), so that they had to send out members of 
their body to supplicate the support oF their richer brethren 
in other countries, it providentially happened that the four 
men whom they sent were taken by a Spanish corsair 
admiral and sold in four diS'erent slave-markets. Rabbi 
Shemaryah was sold at Alexandria, and was redeemed by 
the Jews, and great was their astonishment when they recog- 
nized in him a most able Talmudist. He became the head 
of the Cairo community, and one of the most successful 
Jewish Talmud teachers Egypt ever had. Rabbi Husshiel 
■was taken to Kairwan, in Africa. There the Jews redeemed 
him ; and when his great learning was found out he was 
named the spiritual head of the Jews in that place. From 
the school which he founded sprang not merely bis own son, 
the famous Rabbenu Hananeel, but also the great Rabbenu 
Nissim, both teachers of Rlph [q-v.). Another learned cap- 
tive, R. Mosheh, was brought to the slave-market of Cor- 
dova, the rabbi of which town, a noble and rare_ example 
of unselfishness, modesty, and love of truth, placed the 
ragged stranger who had only been ransomed for charity's 
sake a day or so before at the head of the community 
instead of himself The name of the fourth is unknown 
(see Rabad II., and Yohasin, ed. Cracow, leaf 1 256). Some 
assert that he Was R. Nathan Habbabli, and that he became 
the teacher of the Jews in Narbonne^ but this is a mere 
conjecture, the truth of which has yet to be proved .(see 
page 37, footnote'). Be this, however, as it may, four 
great Talmudists, who had come direct from the Babylonian 
academies, became the means of bringing Babylonico-Tal- 
mudic learning to places the Jews of which had been de- 
pendent on the religious and literary crumbs that fell from 
the richly laden tables of Sura and Pumbaditha. Some 
years afterwards the former academy was closed, and a 
short time afterwards the same fate befell that of Pumba- 
ditha, the sunset of which, if not the noonlight, in the 
persons of Rab Sherira Gaon and his son Rab Hal Gaon 
was even more glorious than that of the sister academy, 
the last " gaon " of which was Rab Shemuel b. Hophni, 
father-in-law of Rabbenu Hal. Meanwhile, however, Tal- 
mndic learning had not merely become naturalized, but 
eventually indigenous in various parts of Africa, and pari 
of Europe (Spain, Italy, Provence, the south of Germany, 
and the north of France). Rabbenu Gershom b Yehudah 
of Metz and his disciple Rabbenu Yishak of Troyes, 
Rabbenu Ya'akob b. Yakar of Worms, Rabbenu Eli'ezer 
Eaggadol and his disciple and successor Rabbenu Yishak 
Segan Leviyyah, Rabbenu Yishak b. Yehudah of Mainz, 

' Italy, Dotably Sicily, was apparently the country wliich obtained 
ber teachers direct from Irak. 



Rabbenu Elyakim of Spires, Rabbenu Nathan b. Yehiel 
of Rome, and last but not least Rashi himself, and hi* 
sons-in-law and other disciples, represented Talmudic learn- 
ing in such perfection as had not been found before at 
regards the Babylonian Talmud, even in the land of itt 
birth and growth. It was the disciples' disciples of these 
men who studied and taught in various towns of England 
within a hundred years (1150) after the Conquest. When, 
towards the end of the 13th century and the commence- 
ment of the 14th, the Jews were driven out of England 
(1290) and France (1306), and flocked chiefly to Italy, 
Greece, Germany, and Poland, the last-named country 
appropriated the lion's share of Talmudic learning, so 
that till within our own century the rabbis of the chief 
communities in Hungary, Moravia, Bohemia, and other 
Austrian states, and in Germany, Holland, England, (tc, 
had to be fetched from Poland. Talmudic learmng,'since 
Mendelssohn and his school arose, threatened to die out 
not merely among the Jews in Germany, but also among 
those of the other countries where the Jews spoke the 
German tongue in some form or other. Within the last 
twenty-five years, however, fresh impulse has been given 
to these studies, not merely among Jews but also among 
Christians. (s. M. s.-s.) 

TAM, commonly called Rabbenu Tam, more correctly 
Rabbenu Tham (n"n=Dn »3i). By this title are 
known two eminent Rabbinic scholars, both named 
Ya'akob, to whom this epithet was given in allusion to 
Genesis xxv. 27: "And Jacob was a peifect man" {Ish 
Tam, Cn Bi'K). They belonged to the north of France, 
lived in the 12th century, and .were master and pupU. 

1. Rabbe^ju Ya'akob b. Meir b. Shemuel was, on his 
mother's side, a grandson of Rashi (q.v.). He was his 
parents' third son, younger brother of Ribam and Rashbam 
\q.v.\ older brother of Rabbenu Shelomoh of Rameru,^ and 
brother-in-law of Rabbenu Shemuel b. Simhah of Vitry the 
younger' (the reputed author of the Mahzor Yitr^,* now 
apparently lost '). Rabbenu Tham had, like his grand- 
father Rashi, six teachers;— (1) his own father, (2) his 
brother Ribam, (3) his brother Rashbam, (4) Rabbenu 
Ya'akob b. Shimshon,* (5) his grandfather Rashi,' and (6) 
Rabbenu Yoseph Tob- Elem the younger ^ Rabbenu Tham 
had at least five children.* The names of three of his sons 
were Yoseph,^" Yishak,^' and Shelomoh.'^ Rabbenu Tham 
was unquestionably among Jews the foremost man of his 
age. For not only was he the greatest Talmudist after 
his maternal grandfather's death, but he also added reading 
vride and varied to a stupendous memory and a marvellous 

' See MS. Add. 27,200 in the Br. Mua., leaf 168ft. 

* See Rashi's Siddur, L leaf lb. 

* See Schiller-Stineuy, Catalogue, ii. p, 88. 
' See art. RASm (toL zx p. 284, note 10). 

* This rabbi was a diaciple of R. Shemuel Hallevl (see Schilitt* 
Szinessy, Catal. , ii. p. 65, note 1 ) and of Rashi, and was not only a 
great Talmudist, as were oil the disciples of the last-named eminent 
teacher, but also a great mathematician and astronomer, though a 
terribly bad poet Uis commentary on Aboth la in part printed, and 
is to be found, more or less perfect, in vanous libranes in Europe, 
although not recogni2ed as his. It is ascnbed variously to Rashi, to 
Rashbam, and others. There are copies of it in Cambridge (Add. 
1213; Add. 1623), Oxford (0pp. 317), the British Museum (Add. 
27201), the Beth Hammidrash of the Ashkenazim In London, &c. 
(The master of St John's, Cambridge, is preparing an edition of it.) 
A work on intercalation by Rabbenu Ya'akob b. Shimshon exists in 
MS. at the Bodleian (0pp. 317) under the name of Sepher Hadkoshi. 
From him, no doubt, Rabbenu Tham imbibed his love for science. 
On the fact that Rabbenu Ya'akob b. Shimshon was Rabbenu Tham'3 
teacher (against Zunz), see SchiJIer-Szinessy, Catal., ii. p. 66, note, 

' Rabbenu Thara, dying an old man, must have been from fourteeo 
to sixteen years of age when Raslii died. 

* See Sepher Ha'tyashar, § 620 (leaf 74o, col. 2). 
» See Camb. MS. Add. 667, 1, leaf 646, col. 1 

'» See Brit Mus. MS. Add. 27200, leaf 158i. 
"See Sepher Uayyashar, § 604. 
. " See Shibbole UaUeket (ed. Buber), p. 10. 



40 



T A" M — T A M 



power of combination, such as appeared only'agMn in the 
last century in the persons of R. Yehonathan Eybenschiitz 
{ob. 1764) and R. Yehezkel Landau (ob. 1793). Let us 
add that he was a lexicographer, grammarian, and Biblical 
commentator of no mean order ; that he was a poet in 
Hebrew and Aramaic ' inferior only to Ibn Gebirol 
(AvicEBRON, q.i\), Mosheh Ibn "Ezra, and Yehndah Hallevi 
(and by far greater in this art than the commentator 
Abraham Ibn "Ezra); that he was held in high esteem hy 
prince and nobles ;^ and that he was a man of greai wealth, | 
with which he generously supported, not merely his own I 
poorer hearers, but other itinerant scholars also.* 
His works are the following;— 

(1) C6mnientary on Job, and, nodoobt, on other parts of Iho 
Bible Jsee Camb. Univ. Lib. MS. i/i 8. PS, leaves lb, ia, 11a, 
126). All tliese arc apparently no* loa.t (2) Hakhrdoth, i.e., 
lexical and grammatical <Iecisiona between Menahem Ibn Seruk 
and Dunash b Labrat (see Stphcr Teshubolh Dunash b, Labrat, 
Edinburgh, 18S5, 8vo). That these "decisions" are really by 
Rabbinu Tham 13 proved by the before-named MS., leaves 10<i and 
16a, where the book is quoted by in anthor of the 13th century. 
3) Sephcr Btitiyitskar (Vienna, 1810, folio). Although this work, 
n its pro?rnt form, is the compilation of one of Rabbenu Tham's 
lisciples. R. Yislialc b. Durbal by name (also called Isaac of Russia; 
-ee Schilier-Szincssy, Catalogue, i. p. 164, and ii. p. 66), not only 
s the foundation Sabbenn Tham's (see Preface), but the contents 
also are virtually his. Compare the Cambridge MS. Add. 667. 1, 
posrixi. (4) The gr?ater part of the Tosaphoih in the Babylonian 
Talmud are indirectly also by Rabbenu Tham ; and he is Wrtu- 
■illy the first Tosaphist It is true that -his father, his brother 
Sashi^am {q.v.), and his uncle Rabbenu Yehudah b. Nathan had 
■vritten Tosaphoih before him, and that this kind of literary acti- 
vity lasted to within the first quarter of the 14th century. Still, 
most and the best of the Tosaphoih now in our hands rest on 
ilibbenu Tham and his school. (5) ifahior, i.e., a prayer-book, 
Ac. for the whole year, with Rabbinic' ordinances, &c. See 
Tc'Sinkolh on T. B., Berakhclh, leaf Z'a, catchword DDIDH, and 
BiTckhoth Moharam of R. Meir b. Barukh of Rothenburg (Riva di 
Trento, 1553. 8vo), leaf 4a. (6) Poems These are partly didactic 
and partly liturgical. Of the former kind a specimen will be found 
i"On the Accents," communicated by Halberstam) in Kobak's 
Y'-^hurun, \. p. 125 sq. The liturgical poems, again, are of two 
kinds : (a) such as have no metre and rhyme only by means of 
plurals, possessive pronouns, and such like (rhymed prose), and 
which perfectly resemble most of.^the productions of the Franco- 
Ashkenazic school (see, for exampla, the facsimile in Muller's Cata- 
lyjut, Amsterdam, 1S68, 8vo); Q>\ such as have metre and rhyme, 
and resemble the productions of the Sepharadic school, e.g., the 
one beginning 'rPO ^^ '" (and not 13 ; see MS. Add. 667, leaf 
(02a). (7) Various ordinances, kc, are to be found in later writers 
I'-ee MS Add. 667, in Ombridge, passim, and Teshubolh Maharam, 
Prague. 1608, fouo. § 1023, &c.). Rabbenu Tham died in 1171 ; 
see Rashi's SidduT, il (formerly Luzzatto's, then Halberstam's, and 
now the property of the master of St John's College, Cambridge), 
leaf 43a. 

2. Rabbenct Ya'akob of Orleans, rabbi of London (J). 
He is often quoted in the Tosaphoih (both on the Penta- 
teuch and on -the Babylonian Talmud). No independent 
works of his, however, are extant. He was killed at 
London in the tumult on the coronation day of Richard 
Coeur-de-Lion (September 3, 1 189 ; Schiller-Szinessy, Calal., 
I p. 117). (s, M. s.-s.) 

TAMAQUA, a borough of Schuylkill county, Pennsyl- 
vania, United States,, in a broken, hilly country, upon the 

' See hi3 Yesih PUhgam (in the Ashkenazic ritual; it is intro- 
ductory to the prophetic lesson for the second day of Pentecost). 
If we have the correct reading of that poem there, flabbenu Thara 
rouel have been a Levite ; aud if so, the Shemuel Halle\i mentioned 
by R Yaakob b Shimshoa as his teacher, in the Cambridge MS. 
Add. 1213, leaf 276, is very possibly ^Rabbenu Tbam's paternal 
grandfather 

' See SijiheT JTayyashar. § 595 (leaf 6.7a, col. 1), and § 6:0 (1st) 
in jine. To this high ^wsition it is no doubt to be ascribed that his 
life waa saved by a knight during the second rrusiade, ir. which the 
whole cocp-egation of Rameru was reduced to beggary, after many of 
fts riembers had been ruthlessly slain. 

* For example, the poverty. stricken" Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, to whom 
he not only gave r.ioncy but kind words also, in good verses i,Kerem 
Be- ^d, vil. p. 35) 

For other metrical poems by Rabbenu Tham. see Zunz, Literature. 
AtS..-i. f'ai::t .Etriin. 1865. 8vo), p. 266. 



Little'SchnylkillTiTer,' 9? miles Dearly north of 'Phil- 
adelphia. Jilt is in the midst of the anthracite coal region, 
and coal mining is one of its principal interests. It is 
an important railroad centre, npon the Philadelphia and 
Reading system, being the point of intersection of three 
main lines and the terminus of several minor branches- 
The borough had a pcpnlation of 5960 in 1870 and of 5730 
ia 18S0. 

TA3IARIWD. This name U popularly applied to the 
pods of a Leguminous tree, wh.oh are hard externally, but 
within filled with an acid juicy pulp containing sugar and 
various acids, such as citric and tartaric, in combination 
with potash.' The acid pulp is uied as a laxative and a 
refrigerant, the pods being largely imported both from the 
East and the West Indies. The tree is now widely distri-, 
buted in tropical countries, but it is generally considered 
that its native country is in eastern tropical Africa, from| 
Abyssinia southward to the Zambesi, ijir Ferdinand vori> 
Mueller notes that it is truly wild in tropical Australia.; 
The name (meaning in Arabic "Indian date') shows that 
it entered mediseval commerce from India, where it is used," 
not only for its pulp, but for its seeds, which arp astringent,* 
its leaves, which furnish a yellow or a red dye, and its 
timber. The tree {Tamanndus indica, L.) attains a height 
of 70 to 80 feet, and bears elegant pinnate foliage and 
purplish or orange veined flowers arranged in lerrainal 
clusters. The flower-tube bears at its summit four Fepals,'i 
but only three petals and three perfect stamen's, with 
indications of six others. The .stamens, with the cialked 
ovary, are curved away from the petals at their ba.e. \ii;t 
are directed towards them at their apices. The &nlheri» 
and the .stigmas are thus brought into such a position as to 
obstruct the passage of an insect attracted by the brilliantly- 
coloured petal, the inference of course being that insects 
are necessary for the fertilization of the flower. 

TAM.\RISK. The genus Tamarur gives its name to 
a small group of shrubs or low trees constituting the 
tamarisk family. The species of tamarisk and of the very 
closely allied genus Myrjcaria grow in salt deserts, by the 
sea-shore, or in other more or less sterile localities in south 
temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the eastern 
hemisphere. Their long slender branches bear very num- 
erous small appressed leaves, m which the evaporating 
surface is reduced to a minimum. The flowers are minute 
and numerous, in long clusters at the ends of the branches 
or from the vi-unk. f'ach has 4-6 free sepals, and as 
many petals springing with the 4-12 stamens from a fleshy 
disk. In Tamanjc the stamens are free, while in Myri.-ry'-ia 
they are united into one parcel. The free ovary is one-' 
celled, with basal placfintas, and surmounted by 3-5 styles. 
The fruit is capsular, and contains numerous seeds, each 
usually with a long tuft of hairs at one end. The great 
value of these shrubs or trees lies in their ability to with- 
stand the effects of drought and a salme soil, in consequence 
of which they grow where little else c<tn flourish. It is 
on this account that the common' tamarisk, T. galHca, is 
planted on our sea-coasts, and affords shelter where none 
other could be provided. The light feathery appearance of 
the branches, and the pretty rose-.coloured flowers, render 
it also an elegant and attractive shrub, very different in 
character from most others. 

Some species produce galls, valued for their tannin, while 
the astringent bark of others has been valued for medicinal 
purposes. The ashes of the plant, when grown near the 
sea, are said to contain soda ; but, when cultivated "nland 
or on sweet soil, they are, it is alleged, free from soda. 

For tamarisk manna, see JIanna, vol. xv p 493 

TAMBOFF, one of the largest and most fertile govern' 
ments of central Russia, extends from nortll to soufb 
^r--(^nn thn 'u«,fiiQs of tb« Oka aiul the Don, And h&ei 



i 



T A M— T A M 



41. 



Vladimir and Nijni-Novgorod on the N., Penza and Sara- 
toff on die E., the Don Cossacks and Voronezh on the S., 
Tula and Ryazan on the W. It consists of aa undulating 
plain intersected by deep ravines and broad valleys, rang- 
ing between 450 and 800 feet above sea-leveL Chalk 
and Jurassic deposits, thickly covered by bonlder-clay and 
loess, are widely spread over its surface, concealing the 
underlying Devonian and Carboniferous deposits. These 
last appear only in the deeper ravines, and seaois of coal 
have been noticed at several places. Iron ore (in the 
north-west), limestone, cl|iy, and gypsum are obtained for 
building and manufacturing purposes ; traces of naphtha 
h<>ve been discovered at Tamboff. The mineral waters of 
L:petok, siaiiiar to those of FranzeLsbad in tL r.r alkaline 
elements, aoi chalybeate like those of PirD2ri.,i and Spa, 
sre well known in Russia. Tamboff is watered by the 
tr.butaries of the Oka and the Don. T'-e Oki itself only 
touches the northwest corner of the govemm:nt, but its 
tributaries, the Moksha and the Tsna, ar? important 
channels of tratSc. The Don also only touch j3 Tamboff, 
and of its affluents only the Voronezh and the Khoper and 
its tributary the Vorona are at all navigable. .-Vs a whole. 
It is only in the north that Tanaboff is well watered ; in its 
southern part, which is exposed to the in8uenco of the dry 
south eastern winds, the want of moisture is much felt, 
especially in the district of Borisoglyebsk, which belongs 
to the dry steppes of the lower Volga. 

Tte climate U contineDtal, and, aItbo.igh the avernge tempera- 
tore at TacboffU 42' F., the winter is comparstivrly cold (Janu- 
ary, 13°; July, 68°). The rivers remain frozen for four months 
and a half. Forests occupy less than one-sixth of rhs total area, 
and occur chiefly in the west ; in the sooth-east wood is scarce, 
and straw is resorted to for fuel. The soil is fertile throughout ; in 
the north, indeed, it is clayey and sometimes Eaodv, hut the rest 
of the government is covered with a sheet, 2 to 3 fecr in thickness, 
of the most fertile UheTTioztm^ of such richness, indeed, that in 
Borisoglyebsk com-fields which have not been ascuied for eighty 
years still yield good crops. 

Tamboff is one of the densely peopled provinces of Russia. Its 
population in 18S3 reached 2,519,660, and in se-fral districts 
(Kozloff, Lebedyajl, Li^-etsk) there are from UO to 1*0 inhabitants 
per square mile. It is Great Russian in the centril portion, but 
has a notable admixture of Mokdvi.sians (j.c) a:: I Mescheriaks 
in the west and north-west, as also of Tartars; the Mordvinians 
(who are rapidly becoming Russified) constitute 4 per cent of the 
aggregate population of Tamboff; the Tartars number about 20,000, 
and the Mescheriaks about 4000. Konconformity is widely spread, 
although the official fimres disclose only 14,300 Raskolniks. Not- 
withstanding a high birth-rate (45 in the thousand), the annual 
increase of population is but slow (0'5 per cent, annv.ally). 

The prevailing occupation is agriculture, and in 1883 only 
168,200 persons bad their residence in towns, which are mostly 
themselves nothing but large villagesof agriculturists living together, 
with a few merchants. More than two-thirds of th; area is arable, 
and of this proportion 53 per cent, belongs to peasant communities, 
36 per cent, to private individuals, and 11 per ceDt. to the crown. 
The crops of the years 1883 to 1885 )-ielded on the average 8,885,000 
quarters of grain (half being rye, and one-third cats). Com is 
exported to a considerable extent from the sooth, although it is 
<leficient in the north. Hemp and linseed are also cultivated for 
exportation. The cultivation of tobacco is yearly increasing: 
5220 acres were nnder this crop in 1885, and yielded nearly 50,000 
cwts. la the same year 15,950 acres were undt.: beetroot, and 
yielded 1,660,000 cwts. CattlS-breeding, though less extensively 
carried on than formerly, is still important (656,300 horses, 399.600 
homed cattle, and 1,325,600 sheep in 1883). Excellent breeds 
of horses are met with, not only on the larger estates, but also in 
the hands of the wealthier peasants, those of tl.e Bityug river 
being most esteemed. ^ Manufactures are repi-eset ted chiefly by 
'il-tilieries, tallow-melting works, sugar-vrorks, s'd a few woollen- 
t.lc>th mills. The petty trades are not very extensively carried on in 
the villages. Commerce is very brisk, owin^ to the large amounts 
of core exported, — Kozloff, Morshansk. Tamboff, and Borisoglyebsk 
^i^T the chief centres for this traffic, and LebedyaiS for the trade 
m hcrsea and cattle. Tamboff is rather backward educationally ; 
in 1883 there were only 629 schools, attended by 34,739 boys and 
6680 ^Irli The government is divided into twelve districts, the 
chief tov-cs of which, with their populations in 1534, are Tamboff 
(34.000 inhabitants), Borisoglyebsk (13,C00), Elatma (7560), Kii^ 
»anoff{7770), Katlcff i27,90O). Lebe^iJi (f^Jf), Lipetsk (15,860), 



Morshansk (21,200), Shatsk (7280),. Spa^ (5010\ Temnikofr 
(13,700), and Usnmfi(8110 in 185"',. A distinctive feature of Tam- 
boff is its very large villages of crown-peasants, a dozen of vliirh 
have from 5000 to 7000 inhabitants each. Several of them— like 
Raskazovo (a great centre of NoL^unfoiuiity), Atabukhi, Saso»o,- 
Izberdei, and Arkhangelskoye — are important commercial cenirea 

The region now included in the north of the governmcit va* 
settled by Russians during the earliest centuries of the princip<i!:'y 
of Moscow, but until the end of the l?th century the fertile tracts 
to the south remained too insecure for settlers. In the followii;» 
century a few immigrants began to :ome in fron: the steppe, aca 
landowners who had received large gnnts of land .is giits of tho 
czars began to bring their serfs from central Russia. The ^puia- 
tion has very rapidly increased within the present century. 

TAMBOFF, capital of the a'-'-ve goTernmeDt, 300 miles 
distant from Moscow, is situalc 1 on the Tsna river, an'i 
on the railway from Kozloff to Sara'cS. It is almosi 
entirely built of wood, with broad unpavel streets, line J 
with low hotises surrounded by gardens. It has a sma! 
public library, a theatre, and the few educational institu- 
tions which are usual in the chief towns of Russian pro- 
vinces. Its manufactures are insignificant ; and its trade, 
in local grain and in cattle purchased in the south and sent 
to Moscow, is far less important than that of Morshansk 
or Kozloff. The population in 1884 was 34,000. 

TAMERLANE. See Timur. 

TAMILS. The word Tamil (properly Tamil) has been 
identified with Dravida, the Sanskrit generic appellatioQ 
for the South Indian peoples and their languages ; and 
the various stages through which the word has passed — 
Dramida, Dramila, Damila — have been finally discussed 
by Bishop Caldwell in his Comp/i rative Grammar of Oie 
Dravidian Languages {2d ed., 1875, p. 10 sq.), end tia 
derivation has recently been endorsed by Col. Yule and Dj 
Burnell in their Gtossari/ (p. 2516). The identificatita 
was first suggested by Dr Graul {Reiie nock Osiindien, 
voL iii., 1854, p. 349), and then adverted to by Dr G. 
U. Pope {Tamil Handbook, 1859, Introduction) and Dr 
Gundert {Malaydlma Dictionary, 1872, t.v.). It should, 
however, be mentioned that the former prefers now to take 
the word Tamil to be a corruption of tenmoli, southern 
speech, in contradistinction to mdugu, the northern, \.t., 
Telugu language. As in the case of the Kafir, Turkish, 
Tagala, and other typical languages, the term Tamulic or 
Tamnlian has occasionally been employed as the designation 
of the whole class of Dravidian peoples and languages, of 
which it is only the most prominent member. The present 
article deals with Tamil in its restricted sense only. 

The Tamils, taken as the type and representatives of th-j 
Dravidian race, do not now, owing to early intermixture 
with the Aryan immigrants, materially differ in physical 
character from the other curly-haired indigenous popula- 
tion of India. They were at one time, on the ground of 
the general structure of their language, classed with the 
Mongoloid (Turanian, Scythian) and even the Australian 
races, but that classification b rejected by all the leading 
ethnologists. They form, in fact, with the other mem- 
bers of the group, a separate and distinct family, which 
is of the dolichocephalic class, and comes near the Indo- 
European or Aryan type , while there are scattered 
remnants of a still earlier population ofe India (Mundaa, 
Kolarians), whose race characteristics, however, do not so 
essentially differ from those of the Dravidians as to con 
stitute them a class by themselves. The Tamib proper 
are smaller and weaker-built than the Europeans, thoUfih 
more graceful in shape. Their physical appearance \s 
described as follows: — a pointed and frequently hooked 
pyramidal nose, with conspicuous nares, niore long than 
round ; a marked sinking in of the orbital line, produci:ig 
a strongly defined orbital ridge ; hair and eyes black , the 
latter, varying from small to middle-sized, have a peculixn 
sparkle and a look of calculation , moufh large, lips thick 

XXII I. — 6 



.42 



TAMILS 



and frequently turgid; lower jaw not heavy, its lateral 
expansion greater than in the Aryan and less than in the 
Turanian type, giving to the middle part of the face a 
marked development and breadth, and to the general 
contour an obtuse oval shape, somewhat bulging at the 
sides ; forehead well-formed, but receding, inclining to 
flattish, and seldom high ; occiput somewhat projecting ; 
beard considerable, and often strong ; colour of skin very 
dark, frequently approaching to black (Manual of the 
Administration of the Madras Presidency, Madras, 1885, 
voL i., Introd., p. 36 ; see also Caldwell, Comparative 
Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, 1875, pp. 558-79). 
The Tamils have many estimable qualities, — frugality, 
patience, endurance, politeness, — and they are credited 
with astounding memories ; their worst vices are said to be 
lying and lasciviousness. Of all the South-Indian tribes 
they are the least sedentary and the most enterprising. 
Wherever money is to be earned, there will Tamils be 
found, either as merchants or in the lower capacity of 
domestic servants and labourers. The tea and coffee 
districts of Ceylon are peopled by about 800,000 ; Tamils 
aerve as coolies in the Slauritius and the West Indies. In 
Burmah, the Straits, and Siam the so-called Klings are all 
Tamils (Graul, Rcise. nach Oslindien, Leipsic, 1855, vol. 
iv. pp. 113-212). 

Language. — The area oic? which Tamil is spoken 
extends from a few miles north of the city of Madras to 
the extreme south of the eastern side of the peninsula, 
throughout the country below the Ghits, from Pulicat to 
Cape Comorin, and from the Gh,lts to the Bay of Bengal, 
including also the southern portion of Travancore on the 
western side of the GhAts and the northern part of 
Ceylon. According to the census of 1881, the number 
of Tamil-speaking people throughout the province was 
12,413,517, inclusive of 21,992 Yerkalas, 3843 Kurumbas, 
and 287 Irulas, three tribes speaking rude dialects of the 
language. To these should be added about 160,000 in 
the French 'possessions. But, as of all the Dravidian 
languages the Tamil shows the greatest tendency to 
spread, its area becomes ever larger, encroaching on that 
of the contiguous languages. Tamil is a sister of Malay- 
alma, Telugu, Canarese, Tulu, Kudagu, Toda, Kota, Gond, 
khond (Ku), Uraon, Rajmahal, Keikadi, and Brahui, the 
nine last-named being uncultivated tongues ; and, as it 
is the oldest, richest, and most highly organized of the 
Dravidian languages,-it may be looked upon as typical of 
the family to which it belongs. The one nearest akin to 
it is Malayalma, which originally appears to have been 
simply a dialect of Tamil, but differs from it now both in 
pronunciation and in idiom, in the retention of Old-Tamil 
forms obsolete in the modern language, and in having 
discarded all personal terminations in the verb, the person 
being always indicated by the pronoun (F. W. Ellis, 
Dissertation on the Malaydlma Language, p. 2 ; Gundert, 
MaltyAlma Dictionary, Introd. ; Caldwell, Comparative 
Gr., Introd., p. 23 ; Burnell, Specimens of South Indian 
Dialects, No. 2, p. 13). Also, the proportion of Sanskrit 
words in Malayalma is greater, while in Tamil it is less, 
than in any other Dravidian tongue. This divergence 
between the two languages cannot be traced farther back 
than about the 10th century ; for, as it appears from the 
Cochin and Travancore inscriptions, previous to that period 
both languages were still substantially identical ; whereas 
in the Rdmacharitam, the oldest poem in Malayajraa, 
composed probably in tho 13th century, at any rate long 
before the arrival of the Portuguese send the introduction 
of the modern character, we see that language already 
formed. The modern Tamil characttrt originated " in a 
Brahraanical adaptation of the old Grantha letters corre- 
sponding to the so-called Vatteluttu." or round-hand, an 



alphabet once in vogue throughout the whole of the' 
Pandyan kingdom, as well as in the South Malabar and 
Coimbatore districts, and still sparsely used for drawing 
up conveyances and other legal instruments (F. W. Ellis, 
Dissertation, p. 3). It is also used by the Mappilas in 
Tellicherry. The origin of the Vatteluttu itself is still a 
controverted question. The late Dr Burnell, the greatest 
authority on the subject, has stated his reasons for tracing 
that character through the Pehlevi to a Semitic source 
{Elements of South Indian Paleography, 2d ed., 1878, 
pp. 47-52, and plates xvii. and xxxii.). In the 8th 
century the Vatteluttu existed side by side and together 
with the Grantha, an ancient alphabet still used through- 
out the Tamil country in writing Sanskrit. During the 
four or five centuries after the conquest of Madura by the 
Cholas in the 11th it was gradually superseded in the 
Tamil country by the modern Tamil, while in Malabar it 
continued in general use down to the end of the 17tb 
century. But the earliest works of Tamil literature, such 
as the Tolkdppiyam and the Rural, were still written in 
it. The modern Tamil characters, which have but little 
changed for the last 500 years, differ from all the other 
modern Dravidian alphabets both in shape and in their 
phonetic value. Their angular form is said to be due to 
the widespread practice of writing with the style resting 
on the end of the left thumb-nail, while the other alpha- 
bets are written with the style resting on the left side of 
the thumb. 

The Tamil alphabet is sntBciently well adapted for the expression 
of the twelve vowels of the language (a, d, t, f, u, <2, e, (, o, 6, ei, au), 
— the occasional sounds of o and ii, both short and long, being 
covered by the signs for c, i, i, t; but It is utterly inadequate 
for the propeh expression of the consonants, inasmuch as the one 
character k has to do duty also for kh, g, gh, and similarly each 
of the other surd consonants ch, (, t, p represents also the .re- 
maining three letters of its respective class. The letter k has, 
besides, occasionally the sound of h, and ch, that of s. Each o( 
the five consonants k, ch, t, t, p has its own nasal. In addition 
to the four semivowels, the Tamil possesses a cerebral r and 1, 
and has, iu common with the Malayalma, retained a liquid t, 
once peculiar to all the Dravidian languages, tho sound of which 
is so difficult to fix graphically, and varies so much in different 
districts, that it has been rendered in a dozen difTercnl ways 
[Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency, vol. ii. 
p. 20 sq.). Fr. JIuller is probably correct in approxim.iting it to 
that of tlie Bohemian r. There is, lastly, a peculiar n, dilfering in 
function but not in pronunciation from tho dent.al n. The three 
sibilants and h of Sanskrit have no place in the Tamil aljihahet , 
but ch often does duty as a sibilant in writing foreign words, and 
the four corresponding letters as well as^' and ksh of the Grantha 
alphabet are now frequently called to aid. It is obvious thai 
many of tho Sanskrit words imported into Tamil at various periods 
{Caldwell, foe. dt., Introd., pp. 86 sq.) have, iu consequence of the 
incongruity of the Sanskrit and Tamil notation of their respective 
phonetic systems, assumed disguises under which the original is 
scarcely recognizable : examples are ulagu (lolia), uruvam (riipa), 
arukken (arka), arputam (adbhutam). natcktUtiram (nakshatrara), 
irudi (rishi), lirkiim (dirgha), arasni (rajan). Uesides the Sanskrit 
ingredients, which appear but sparsely in tlie old poetry, Tamil 
has borrowed from Hindustani, Arabic, and Persian a largo number 
of revenue, political, and judicial terms, and more recently a good 
many English words have crept in, such as tiratti, treaty, potior, 
butler. Mi, act, kuUb, club, kavarjiar, governor, pinnolkdJu. penal 
code, stkku, sick, mejastirattu, magistrate. But, as compared with 
its literary sister languages, it has preserved its Dravidian character 
singularly free from foreign influence. Of Tamil words which have 
found a permanent home in English may be .mentioned curry 
(kari), mulligatawny {mitagu, pepper, and tanntr. cool water), 
cheroot (suruUa), pariah (pareiyan). .... 

The laws of euphony (avoiding of hiatus, softening of initial 
consonants, contact of final with initial consonants) are far more 
complicated in Tamil than in Sanskrit. But, while they were 
rigidly adhered to iu the old poetical language (Sen-Tamil), there 
is a growing tendency to neglect them in the language of the 
present day (Kodun-Tamil) It is trne the Tamil rules totally 
Siller from tho prevailing Sanskrit ; still the probability 'is in favour 
of a Sanskrit influence, inasmuch as they appear to follow Sansknt 
models. Thus, iru( nikkiJidn. becomes iruntkkindn ; pon piUiram, 
porpdUiram; vtl((il karuUn, viiffiT kandin; vdlsininm, vdMrumn; 
palan tanddn, palanranddn. Noun* wo divided into high-c»8te 



TAMILS 



45 



or personal an J lovv.»;astc or iin|'ci>-«t>ril. --tlio lornicr comprising 
wor4s for rational b.'iii'^, the lattir alt the rest Only id high- 
caste DOitns a distinction between in;uiciiliiie and feDiinine is 
observed in the singular, both have a common plural, which is 
indicated by change of a final n (feminine /) into r , but the neuter 
plural termioatioti hil (gat) may be sujHTadded in every case 
Certain nouns change their b;\se termination before receiving the 
case affixes, the latter being the same both for singular and plural 
They are for the ace. ci. ioilr dl, social 6du (orfu, udan), dat. k'u, 
loc U {idatiit, in), abl, t/iru?u^j{ [ininru), gen udeiya (adn). 
There is, besides, a general oblique affix in, wnich is not only fre- 
quently used for the genitive, but may be inserted before any of 
the above affixe-'i, to some of which the emphatic particle i may 
also be su|ieraddeu In the old poetry there is a still greater 
variety of affixes, while there is an option of disj.cnsing wiih all 
Adjectives, when attributive, precede the uoun and ure unchange- 
able, when predicative they follow it and receive verbal affixes. 
The pronouns of the Isl pcrstAi are sing ndn {y&n). inffcxiooal 
base en, plural ndm {ydm). infl nam, including, ndngfil ,'\n\\ oignl, 
excluding the person addressed, of the 2d person nf. infl un 
(m'n. ninO, pliiial nir {niyir, ntvtr), ningal, infl urn, ungal {num) 
To each of those forms, inclusive also of the reflexive pronouns 
tAn, tdnt, td'igat. a place is a.*5signed in the scale of houoiihc pro- 
nouns- As in the demonstrative pronouns the forms beginning 
with 1 indicate nearness, those with a distance, and (in the old 
poetry) those with u what is between the two, so the same forms 
oegiiining with e (or yd, as in ydr, dr, who?) expiess the interro- 
gative The verb consists of three elements — the root (gener.illy 
rclucible to one syllable), the tense characteristic, and the personal 
alhx There are three original moods, the indicative, imperative, 
and infinitive (the 2d singular imperative is generally identicnl with 
tlio root), as well as three original tenses, the present, past, and 
future. The personal affi.xes are — sing (1) -fn, (2) dy, honorific 
• ir , (3) masc. -dn, feni -dl, honor dr, neuter -adit, plural {\) 
-Old (.dm. -^m). (2) -Ir^-a/ , (3)masc. fem 'ar/ra/, iieut -nna. These 
affixes serve for all verbs and for each of the three tenses. exceT>t 
that, in the future, -adii and aun are replaced by iirn. [kkum) It 
;5 only in the formation of the tenses that verbs differ, intransitive 
verbs generally indicating the present by -kir- {-kmr-), the past by 
-d-, -Tui-. or in-, and the future by -v- (-6-). and transitive verbs. 
by the corresponding infixes. -kkiT [-kkinT-}, -U {rul-), and ■]yp- ; 
but there are numerous exceptions and seemingly anomalous forma- 
tions Other tenses and moods are expressed with the aid of special 
affixes or auxiliar)^ verbs Causal verbs are formed by various 
infixes {-ppi-, -vi , -ttu-). and the passive by the auxiliary paitu, 
to fall, or by uri. to eat, with a noun. The following four pecul- 
iarities are characteristic of Taniil : — first, the tenselcss negative 
form of the verb, expressed by the infix a, which is elided befot©- 
dissimilar vowels, second, the predicative employment of two 
negative particles ittei and atla, the one denying the existence or 
presence, the other denying the quality or essence; third, the 
use of two sets of particjfjes,— one. called adjective or relative 
participle, which supplies the place of a relative clause, the language 
possessing no relative pronouns, and an ordinary adveroial particirde 
or geruuii , and. fourth, the practif^e of giving adjectives a vernal 
form by means of personal affixes, which form may again be treated 
as a DOUD by attacning to it the declensional terminations, thus . 
periya, great , periyO>», we are great ; periydmukku, to us who are 
great The old poetry abounds in verbal forms now obsolete. 
Adjectives, adverbs, and abstract nouns are derived from verbs by 
certain affixes All post-positions were originally either nouns or 
verbal forms Oralio indirecta is unknown in Tamil, as it is in all 
the other Indian languages, the gerund enru being used, like M 
in Sanskrit, to indicate quotation The structure of sentences is 
an exact counterpart of tne structure of words, inasmuch as that 
which qualifies always precedes that which is qualified Thus the 
attributive precedes the substantive, the substantive precedes the 
preposition, the adverb precedes the verb, thfi secondary clause the 
rrimary one, and the verb closes the sentence. The sentence. 
, Having called the woman who had killed the child, he asked why 
•he had committed such infauticide," runs in Tamil as follows : — 
Kulandclyel kkonrnpottavalel Rlrlppltta 

r TSe clillj her who had killed having caused >o be called. 
ppat(a slBU.T-«tlt Bey^l&y gnru kSttan 

^D*de cbUd. murder didst?" having said he asl<ed 

Much as the similarity of the structure of the Tamil and its 
•later languages to that of the Ugro Tartar class may have proved 
suggestive of the assumption of a family affinity between the two 
classes, such an affinity, if it exist, roust be held to be at least 
very distant, inasniDch as the assumption receives but the faintest 
•hade of support from an intercomparison of the radical and least 
variable portion of the respective languages. 

Literature. — The early existence, in southern India, of 
peoples, localities, aoimals, and products the names of 
which, as mentioned in the Old Testament and in Greek 
and Uoioan vriters. have been identified with correspond- 



nl (n IppadI 
"Hiou why thua 



ing Dravidian terms goes far to [irove the high aiitiijuity, 
if not of the Tamil language, at least of some form of 
Dravidian speech (Caldwell, loc. cit., Introd,, pp. 81- 
106, Madras District Manual, 1., Introd., p. 134 s^/.). 
But practically the earliest extant records of the Tamil 
language do not ascend higher than the middle of the 8th 
century of the Christian era, the grant in possession of the 
Israelites at Cochin being assigned by the late Dr Burnell 
to about T.'iO a D , a period when Malaydlma did not exist 
yet as a separate language. There is every probability 
that about the same time a number of Tamil works sprung 
up, which are mentioned by a writer in the 1 1th century 
as representing the old literature (Burnell, l<jc. at., p. 127, 
note). The earlier of these may have been Saiva books; 
the more prominent of the others were decidedly Jaina. 
Though traces of a north Indian influence are palpable in all 
of them that have come down to us (see, e.r/., F \V. Ellis's 
notes to the Kural), we can at the same time perceive, as 
we must certainly appreciate, the desire of the authors to 
oppose the influence of lirahmanical writings, and create a 
literature that should rival Sanskrit books and appeal to 
the sentiments of the people at large. But the refinement 
of the poetical languau'C, as adapted to the genius of 
Tamil, has been carried to greater excess than in Sanskrit; 
and this artificial character of llie so-called High-Tamil is 
evident from a compari.son with the old inscriptions, which 
are a reflex of the language of the people, and clearly show 
that Tamil has not undergone any essential change -these 
800 years (Burnell, /oc. dl., p 142) The rules of High- 
Tamil appear to have been fixed at a very early date. The 
ToU(lj>jiii/am. the oldest extant Tamil grammar, is assigned 
by Dr Burnell (On Ihe Amelia School of Sansl.rtt Gram- 
marians, pp. 8, 55) to the 8th century (best edition by C. 
Y. Timodaram Pillei, Madras, 18S5) The Vh-asul lyam , 
another grammar, is of the 1 1th century. Both have been 
superseded by the Nannul, of the 15th century, which has 
exfitcised the skill of numerous commentators, and con- 
tinues to be the leading native authority (English editions 
in Pope's Third Tamil Giammar, and an abridgment by 
Lazarus, 1884). The period of the prevalence of the 
Jainas in the Pandya kingdom, from the 9th or lOtb to 
the 13th century, is justly termed the Augustan age of 
Tamil literature. To its earlier days is assigned the 
Ndladtyar, an ethical poem on the three objects of exist- 
ence, which is supposed to have preceded the A'uml of 
Tiruvaljuvan, the finest poetical production in the whole 
range of Tamil composition Tradition, in keeping with 
the spirit of antagonism to Brahmanical influence, says 
that its author was a pariah priest It consists of 1330 
stanzas on virtue, wealth, and pleasure. It has often been 
edited, translated, and commented upon , see the introduc 
tion to the excellent edition, just published, by the Rev. Dr 
Pope, in which also a comprehensive account of the pecul 
iarities of High-Tamil will be found To the Av\ei, oi 
Matron, a reputed sister of Tiruvaljuvan, but probably of 
a later date, two shorter moral jinems, called Attisurh and 
Konreiveyndan, are ascribed, which are still read in all 
Tamil schools. Chinldmam, an epic of upwards ot 3000 
stanzas, which celebrates the exploits of a King Jivakan, 
also belongs to that early Jain period, and so does the 
Divdkaram, the oldest dictionary of classical Tamil The 
former is one of the finest poems in the language ; but no 
more than the firstand part of the third of its thirteen books 
liave teen edited and translated. Kamban's Rdmdyanam 
(about 1100 A.D.) is the only other Tamil epic which comes 
up to the Chintdmani in poetical beauty. The most bril- 
liant of the poetical productions which appeared in tlie 
period of the Saiva revival (13th and 14th centuries) arc 
two collections of hymns addressed to Siva, the one called 
I'iruviUakam, by M&nikka-VSsakan, and a later and larger 



44 



TAM-TAM 



one called Tivdram, by Sambandhon and two other 
d'vot«e8, SuadaraD and &ppaQ. Both these oollectioDg 
ha-i been pnDted. the former m one, the latter in five 
vnlijoiea They ar« nvalled both in religious fervour and 
lu poetical merit by u cuotempotaneous collection of 
^ roshjjava hTmna, the NiUdyira-prabandham (also printed 
at Madras) The third sectioD of it, called Ttruvdymoli, or 
" Words of the8a<red Mooth," has lately been published in 
Telugunharacters, ontb ample commeutanea, m ten quartos 
(Madras, l$75-76) After a period of literary torpor, 
which lasted oearly two centories, King Vallabha Deva, 
better Icnown by his assomed name Ativirarima Paijdiyan 
(second half ■>< the 16th c«ntnry), endeavoured to renve 
the love of poetry by compositions of hie own, the most 
celebrated of which are the Nndadam, a somewhat extrar 
vogant imitation ut Sri Barsha's Sanskrit Naithadham, 
and Iba Fernverkei. a collection of sententioaB mtirimB 
Though he had oumeroufl followers, who made this revival 
the most prolific in the whole history of Tamil literature, 
Qooe of the compostttons of every kind, mainly translations 
and bombastic tmitationa of Sanskrit models, have attained 
to any fame An exceptional place, however, is occupied 
by certain Tamil sectanans called Mtar (t.e.. nddkaa or 
sages), whose mystical poeois, especially those contained m 
the Sixavdkyam, are said to be of singular beauty Two 
poems of high merit, composed at the end of the 1 7th 
century, also deserve favourable notice — the Ifttxntn- 
vUakkam. an ethical treatise by KomAragtinipara Desikan, 
and the PrabhidtTigatUet, a Cranalation from the CJanarese 
ot a famous text book of the Vtra-Saiva sect. See the 
analysis in W Taylor's Catalogue, vol ii p. 837 -47 

The modam penod, which may be said to date from the be^^Inniug 
of the last ceLtary. is oahered m by two great poets, one native and 
the other foreign. TSynmanavan. a pbuoaopber of the pantbeutic 
tebool. compoeed 1453 stanzas Ijsddal) which have a high reputa 
tion for guDlimity both of sentiment^ and style, and the Italian 
Jesuit J<»epb Boscbi (d. 1742), tuider the name Vtnm&mani, 
elaborated, on the model of the Chiiudmani. a religioos epic 
Timbdvani, which, though marred by blemUbes of taste, ia classed 
by native critics among the best productions of their litermtnre. 
Irtrete of the hiatorv of Si loseph. and has been pnnted at 
Pondicherry in three volumes, witu a ftill analyaia. English 
inflnence has bene, .as m Bengal and elsewhere iii India, greatly 
tended to create a healthier tone m literature both as to style and 
■entiment. ks one of the best Tamil translations of English books 
in respect of diction and idiom may be mentioned the BilavyipA- 
riial, or "Little Merchants,' published by the Vernacular Text 
Society, Madras, P Percival s collection of Tamil Proverks fSd ed . 
1876) should also be mentioned The copper-plate grants, commmily 
called idsanains, and stone mscnptions in Tamil, many of which 
have been copied and translated {ArchsecUygioal Survey of Smitlifm 
India,, vol. iv , R. Sewell, Lists of tht Antiquarian Remains in the 
Presidency of ifadrat, vols. i,. ii ), are the only authentic historical 
records. (See also Sir Walter Elliot's contnbution to the fntcr 
national Numismata Onentalia, vol lit pt 2.) As early as the 
time of the Chinese traveller Hwen Tsang, books were ^vntten 
in southern India on talipot leaves, and Albiruni mentions this 
custom as quite prevalent in his time (1031). It has not died oat 
even at the present day, though paper imported from Portugal has, 
dunng the last three centuries, occasionally been used. Madras 
is now the largest depository of Tamil palm-leaf MSS. , which ha»e 
been descnbed in Wilson's Catalogue of the Mackenzie ColUclwn 
(Calcatta, 1828. 2 vols.), W Taylor's Catalogue (Madras, 1857, 3 
vols 1. aod Condaswamy Iyer 9 Catalogue (vol. i. . Madras, 1861). 
The an of printing, however. *vhich was introduced in southern 
India at an early date, while it has tended to the preservation of 
tnany valuable productions ol the ancient literatnre, has also been 
the mrans of perpetuating and circulating a deal of Uterary rubbish 
and lasci^otiPDess which »vould much oetter have remained in 
the oomparatT'ely safe obscurity of mannschpt Dr Burnell has 
a note in his Elfmerus of South Indian Paleography (2d ed. p 
44), from which it appears that in 1578 Tamil types were cut 
by Father Joao de Fana. aod that a hundred years later a Tamil 
and r'ortus^ese dictionary wap ptibiished at Ambalakkadu. At 
presenr th-^- noinber of Tamil nooks (inclu..*ive of oewspafKTS) 
print^'d dUDuallv far exceeds that of the other Dravidiau PeraaciUars 
put tccether The carlipst Tamil version of the New Tesraninnt 
was commenced by tlio Datch m Ceylon in 1688; Fabncius'e cmns- 
tatioa agpearodj at Traiit^m^bar In 1716 Since then auui.v Qt^w 



translations of the whole Bible have been pnntea, and some ol 
them have pasaed through several editions. The Gerumo nu^^sionary 
B. Ziegenbalg w«a the first to make the study of Tamil possible in 
Europe by the publication of his Orammatua Damulica, which 
appeared at Halle in 1716 Some time later the Jesuit father 
Besctu devoted much time and labour to the composition of 
gmmmara both of the vulgar and the poetical dialect. The former 
ts'tre&ted m his OraTnTnaiica Latino-Tofnuliia, which was written 
10 1728, but was not pnnted till eleven years later (Tranquebar, 
1739) It was twice reprinted, and two English tnnslatious have 
been published ( .831, 1848). Hta Sen-Tamil Orammar, accessible 
ainoe 1822 in an English translation by Dr Babicgton, was pnnted 
from bia own MS. (CUima humanioruTn lUterarum ^ublimioria 
Tamulici tdumuHw) at Tranquebar in 1878. This work is espe- 
cially valuable, as the greater portion of it consists of & learned and 
exhaustive treatise on Tamil prosody and rhetoric. (See, on hi* 
other works, Graol's Reise, vol iv p. 327.) There are also gram- 
mars by Anderson, Rhenins, Graul (in vol it of his Bibliolhsca 
Tamulica, Leipaic, 1856), Lazarus (Madras, 1878), Pope (4th 
edition in three parts, London, 1883-5), and Orammaire Pranipiae- 
Tamoule, by the Abb4 Dapuis, Pondichem, 1863 The last two 
ar« by far the tiost. The India Office library possesses a MS. 
dictionary and grunmar "par le R4v Pere Dominii^ue" ^Pondi- 
chem, 1843), and a copy of a MS. TamJ-Latin dictionary by the 
celebrated missionary Sdiwarz, in which 9000 words are explained 
About the like number of words are given m the dictionary of 
Fabncius and Breithaapt (Madras, 1779 and 1809). , Rottler'e 
dictionary, the publication of which was commenced in 1834, is a 
far more ambitious work. But neither it nor Wiaslow'e (1862) 
come up to the standard of Tamil scholarship, the DiaiomiaiTe 
Xamoui- Franfau, which appeared at Pondicherri in 2 vola. (1865- 
62), IS enpenor to both, ]ust as the Dictionanum Latino ■Qallico- 
Tamulicum iUnd. , 1846) eicels the various Bnglish-Tamil diction- 
anes which have been published at Madras. 

Compart (be foUowind work* of relereoec —A T Mondl^re and J Vinson 
m Dtctionnam fU* Sntneex anlhnpoioffufvet. i o ' DrsrldlenB"; S. C Chltcy. 
7^ Tamit PlutarcA. JafFDa. I8fl9 . J MurdociL C'iOMVUd Cataloffn* of Tamil 
Fnnttti Babti^ Madras. 1866 C £ Govei. t'olk-Sofifft V Soulhem /ndia, 
Madraa. 1871 .' Bishop CaJdw,fll « Comparanpc Orammaf o/ l/tt Dravuiuin 
Langttafft*. 2d ed.. Looaoa, isld , liraul s Hetit .uj^/i Ontnatei^ vola It aad v . 
the qaanerly JAtti oj Boots regut«red id iDe Madrua (irealOeDCy (Dr Macleao a] 
Afanual of M« Admtnutraiton ofUu Ha<J''a* Pr^uUncy vola I and 11 Madras 
1886. foUo and P UUUar Oruutrl$$ <ier SpracAauieiuCmft Vieuu^ 1804. ill I 
162-}4e (R H.) 

TaMWORTH, a municipal borough and market-iowo 
ot England, on the borders of Staffordshire and Warwick 
shire, chiefly in the former la situated at the juoctiuu ut 
the Tame with the Ank«r, and on brajuchea ot the LunduD 
and North Western and Midland Railway lines, 7 aiilee 
soQth-eastof Lichtield. 20 oorlh-west of Coventry, and 1 10 
nCtrih-wbst of Loi^don The castle, situated on a boigbi 
nbove the Anker near its junction with the Tame, la no« 
chiefly of the Jacobean penod, but is enclosed by uiaasive 
ancient walla It was long the residence ot the SaxoL 
kinga, and, after being bestowed on the Marmiuuij by 
William the Conqueror, remained tor many years an im 
portant fortress Through the female lino of the Mar 
mionf It has descended to the Marquis Townsbena 
Formerly the town was surrounded by a ditch called the 
King's Dyke, of which some trace still remains Tht 
church of St Editha, originally louuded in the 8th century, 
was rebuilt, after being burned by the Danes, by Edgar, 
wbo made it collegiate, but the present building in the 
Decorated style was erected utter a fire m the 14tb century 
Since 1 870 it has been undergoing restoration at a cost of 
£10.000 'fbe free grammar school, retounded by Edward 
VL, waa rebuilt in 1677. and again lo l867-t)8 at a cost 
of £3000 The other public buildiiigs are the swimming 
batb and boys lostituie (1886) the town hall (1701), 
and the arcade, forrnerly used as a covered market, bu» 
recently obtained by the Salvation Army "The chi-.nties 
mclude Quy's almshouses, endowed lu 1678 by Thomas 
Ooy. founder of Gay's Hospital, Loudon, and the cottage 
hospital with twenty-one beds W aterworks have recently 
been erected at a cost of ovei £'^5.000 On the " moors 
burgesses have ngbta for cattle Coal, titeclay, and blue 
and red brick clay are dug in the nBighbour!,uod , and 
there are also market gurdena The town ^lossnst'e? a 
clothiuu factory, paper mills, and manufavt.orios Ot » 11 
~%r«a. rfcu population of the uiuntuiiu' Ovjiou^'h (cioa 



T A N— T A N 



45 



200 acres) in 18"i was 4589, and in 1881 it was 4891, — 
that of the parliamentary borough (area 11,602 acres) in 
the same years being 11,493 and 14,101. Tamworth 
ceased to be a parliamentary borough in 1885. 

Tamworth iesitaated near the old Roman Watling Street, and 
occupies the site of a fort which, from the beginning of the 8th 
century, waj the chief royal residence in Mcrcia. The town, after 
being burnt by the Danes* was rebuilt and fortified by Ethelfleda, 
dangbter of Alfred the Great. From the reign of Edward the 
Mirtyr to that of 'WilUani Rufus it was a royal mint, and some of 
the coins struck at Tamworth are still in esistence. The town was 
incorporated in the 3d year of Elizabeth, from whom it obtained 
the grant of a fair and the confirmation of various privileges 
bestowed bv Edward III. The Elizabethan charter was superseded 
by one conferred by Charles 11., which continued to be the govem- 
.og charter of the town till the passing of the Municipal Act. The 
lown, with occasional intermissions, returned members to parlia- 
ment from the reign of Henry I. till 1885. Among its more dis- 
tingnished representativee have been Thomas Guy and Sir Robert 
Fed. 

TANAGER, a word adapted from the quasi-Latin Tan- 
igra of Linnaeus, which again is an adaptation, perhaps 
with a classical allusion, of Tan^ara, used by Brisson and 
Buffon, and said by Marcgrave (Hist. Her. Nat. JBrasilise, 
p. 214) to be the Brazilian name of certain birds found in 
ihftt country. From them it has since been extended to 
a great many^ others mostly belonging to the southern 
portion of the New World, now recognized by ornitholo- 
gists as forming a distinct Family of Oecines, and usually 
considered to be allied to the Frinffillidae (cf. FiNcn, 
voL ix. p. 191); but, as may be inferred from Prof. 
Parker's remarks in the Zoological Transactions (x. pp. 
252, 253, and 267), the Tanagndx are a " feebler " form, 
and thereby bear out the opinion based on the examination 
of many types both of Birds and Mammals as to the lower 
morphological rank of the Neotropical Fauna as a whole 
{cf. BmDs, vol iii. p. t43)- 

The Tanagera are a group in which Mr Sclater has for many years 
interested himself, and his latest treatment of them is contained 
in the British Museum Catalogue {xi. pp. 49-307). Therein he 
admits the existence of 375 species, which ne arranges in 59 genera, 
forming six Subfamilies, ProcnuUirue, Euphcmiinse, Tanagrime, 
Lamvroiinm, P)umicophiliiue, and Pitylinte. These are of very 
une<jual extent, for, while the first of them consists of but a single 
species, Proenias Ursa, — the position of which may be for several 
reasons still open to doubt, — the third includes more than 200. 
Kearly all are birds of small size, ti\S largest barely exceeding a 
Song-Thrush. Most of them are remarkable for their gaudy 
colouring, and this is especially the case in those forming tho 
genus called by Mr Sclater, as by most other iuthors, Callislc, a 
term inadmissible through preoccupation, to which the name of 
Tanagra of right seems to belong, while that which he names 
Tanagra should probably be known as Thraupis. The whole 
Family is almost confined to the Neotropical Eeg-on, and there 
are several forms peculiar to the Antilles ; but not a tenth of the 
species reach even southern Mexico, and not a dozen appear in the 
northern part of that country. Of the genus Pyrariga, which h.is 
the most northern range of all, three if not four species are common 
Bummer immigrants to some part or other of the United States, 
and two of them, P. rubra and P. astira, — there known respectively 
as toe Scarlet Tanager and the Summer Redbird,— reach even the 
Dominion of Canada, visiting as well, though accidentally, 
Bermuda. P. ssstiva has a western representative, P. cooperi, which 
by some authors is not recognized as a distinct species. The males 
of all these are clad in glowing red, P. rubra having, however, the 
wings and tail black. The remaining species, P. liuioviciana, the 
males of which are mostly yellow and black, with tho head only 
red, does not appear eastward of tho Missouri plains, and has not 
80 northerly a range. .Another species, P. Jiepalica, has' just shewu 
itself within the limits of the United States. In all these the 
females are plainly attired; but generally among the Tanagers, 
however bright rosy be their coloration, both sexes are nearly alike 
in plumage. Little has been recorded of the habits of the species 
of Central or South America, but those of the north have been as 
closely observed as the rather retiring nature of the birds renders 
possible, and it is known that insects, espeeiaily in the larval 
condition, and berries afford the greater part of their food. They 
liave a pleasing song, iind build a shallow nest, in which the eggs, 
generally 3 in number and of a greenish-hloe marked with brown 
and purple, are laid. 

On a whole the Tana^ridse may perhaps be considerfid 



to hold the same relation to the FrinffUlida as thc Icteridat 
do to the Slumidx and the Mniotiltvdx to the Sylviidet or 
Turdidst, in each case the purely New- World Family being 
the " feebler " type. (a. N.)- 

TANCRED (d. 1112), son of the marquis Odo the Good 
and Emma the sister of Robert Gaiscard, one of the most 
famous heroes of the £rst crusade. See Crusades, vol' 
vi. p. 624 sq. 

TANCRED, the last Norman king of "Sicily, reigned 
1189-1194. See Sicilt, vol. xxii. p. 26. 

TANGANYIKA, a lake in East Central Africa, called 
Maaga (" tempestuous ") by the Wakawendi and Kimana 
by the Warungu. The meaning of the name Tanganyika 
is,, according to Cameron, nothing more than "the miring 
place." It is the longest freshwater lake in the world, 
being about 75 miles longer than Lake Michigan. 
Although the Arabs had long known of the existence of 
the lake, the first Europeans who discovered it were Speke 
and Burton in 1858. It has since been visited by Living- 
stone, Cameron, Stanley, Thomson, and Hore, who have 
all added to our knowledge of it. Tanganyika, which is 
situated some 600 miles as the crow flies from the east 
coast of Africa, extends from 3° 16' S. lat. to 8° 48' S. lat., 
and lies between 29° 10' E. long, and 32° 30', E. long. Its 
length is 420 mUes, and its breadth varies from 10 to 50 
miles. Its area is 12,650 "square miles, and its altitude 
may be taken as 2700 feet above sea-level (Cameron, 2710; 
Stanley, 2770; Hore, 2750; Popelin, 2665). It has a 
coast-line of 900 miles in extent. Its greatest depth has 
not yet been determined, but Hore states that a 168-fathom 
rope often failed to reach the bottom. Tanganyika may 
be described as an enormous crevasse. It is bordered on 
all sides by hills and mountains, some of which rise to 
from 5000 to 10,000 feet above its waters. The scenery 
is marked by exceptional grandeur, and is 'well calculated 
to impress the traveller. Burton says: — 

"It filled us with admiration, with wonder, and delight. Beyond 
the short foreground of rugged and precipitous hSl-fold, down 
which tho footpath painfully zigzags, a narrow plot of emerald 
green shelves gently towards a ribbon of glistening yellow sand, 
here bordered by sedgy rushes, there clear and cleanly cut by the 
breaking wavelets. Farther in front stretches an- expanse of the 
lightest, softest blue, from 30 to 35 miles in breadth, and sprinkled 
by the cast wind with crescents of snowy foam. It is bounded on 
the other side by tall and broken Walls of purple hill, flecked and 
capped with pearly mist, or standing sharply pencilled against the 
azure sky. To the south lie high bluff headlands and capes; and 
as the eye dilates it falls on little outlying islets, speckling a sea 
horizon. 'Villages, cultivated lands, the frequent canoes of the 
fishermen, give a something of life, of variety, of movement to the 
scenery." 

Tanganyika is fed by numerous rivers and streamlets 
which flow from the surrounding hills, the yearly rainfall 
being about 27 inches, but the rainy seasons vary extremely 
in different years, altering the surface area of the lake 
accordingly. Hore found that between March 1879 and 
August 1880 the waters had fallap 10 feet 4J inches, 
as marked by a water-gauge he had erected at Ujiji, and 
he also saw evident signs of the receding of the waters all 
round the shores of the lake — belts of dead timber and 
bleached rock. Some 120 rivers knd streams flow into the 
lake ; the most important river is the Malagatasi, near 
Ujiji. Just below; the rapids its width is 500 feet, and 
the average depth 5 feet For many years Tanganyika 
was a riddle to African explorers, — Livingstone, Baker, and 
others believing that it belonged to the Nile system, and 
that it was connected with the Albert Nyanza. That this 
theory is incorrect was proved when Livingstone and 
Stanley explored.the north end of the lake in November 
1871, finding no outlet. It was Cameron, in March 1874, 
■who first solved the riddle, and found that the outlet of 
Tanganyika was the river Lukuga, at about the centre of 
the western shore of the lakp, 5° 52' 45" S. laL In 1876 



46 



T A N — T A N 



this outlet, was visited by Stanley, wbo found that ttiere 
was no apparent outflow, and doubt was thrown upon 
Cameron's obsorvatmn^, which, however, have been proved 
to be correct by Hoie, who in ISSO found a strong current 
setting uneiiuuocally out of the lalte Not only so, but he 
obtained good views of the rivt-r, which gradually widens 
soon aftcr'the rapids near the lake are passed He followed 
the river to 5' 50' S. lat., and. from an altitude of 1100 
feet above the river, he saw it flowing far away to the 
westward. The question is therefore settled that Lake 
Tanganyika belongs to the Congo -system, but it is only an 
occasional tributary to that nngliiy rivt-r, its contribution 
depending upon the rainfall The lake is subject to fre- 
quent storms, especially fruru the S .S E and S W , lasting 
Eomelimes for two or three days, and leaving a heavy swell, 
which proves a great hindrance to navigation. Hore says 
— " I have never witnessed such wondrous cloud--sceiiery 
and majestic effects of thuudtir and lightning as on Tau 
ganyika." 

Theshoresanawatn- of the lake abound m auimal lilo.— crocodiles, 
the hippo[iotamus..otUT*, anJ many kinds of fi!.li Uiiij; fuund lu Us 
■waters. Flocks of w.itcrfowl il."Ui]J in tlit- tiv-r inuuili- gulls, 
diteis, herons. kinf-'fi-,liers. i.nf;l>-s. hsli h.iwks, und bla. k ibis an- 
very numerous. Thr shore., .ire V'.r\ f.riilv. — n.,.. manior. kdlfn- 
corn, two kinds of giound nuts, ujaii'r. u1.-)m, punipkins, sweet 
potatoes, sugar-cane, ca~tui <iil tri-o. laiuann'l. euiton. tomato, 
Find cucumber growing lu\unaiill> Tlie I'll |p,ilm grows at l'|iii 
Uiuudi. and at the south i nd ■•> the laki . th.- bun^»us neat the 
Mal.agauii river, the suew pilni in I'guba, ml th. raphia in 
several localities Thi i/<\^ fl) i- f'>und\.n th. ..li'.nsol thr lake 
from Ujiji round the southern eml is fat a» I'b.vdri on the n.st 
coast. Amongst the useful tiinb.:i ti.es may b. iiotned the gigantic 
mbule, the mininga, lignum vite, untl . bony Thi |jen|,l,. mh.ihit 
ing the countiies on the b..rdir» of the lak.- t..rm t. ti di-.lin. t tiib.s, 
with sepaiate national peculiariiies ind customs Th.-y live in 
wcll-organizeil villages, in whnli cun^ideralil.- »oeul oid'r is main 
tained. They have also learnt, to som. exlnii at any rate, to 
utilize the products ol then eounrry th. y w.irk then own irou 
and copper , salt is prepared foi hart, i palm oil is voile, te'l . ami 
in some places there are huge [.ott-ry works Th. ii tishing industry 
is t-ttcnsive, and dried fish i»txporie.l boatbuilding is •■arried .in 
to a small cictent , cotton i loth is manuU tunJ at vvrral places, 
ind at others the famous grass oi palm libn ih.th . whilst the 
dairy farms of L'hha export pa. kag..s ol butt. I Th..r>- are sev. 
eral London Missionary Soeiety stations on Laki Tinganyika. also 
one belonging to the Roman Catholics, and a stati.m ..f the African 
International Association is situated at Karenia. L'jiji, an Arab 
town of some importance, stands on the easteru slion of the lake. 

T.\NOIERS, or Ta.nciek (Tmij.<), a seaport of Morocco 
and capital of a pashalik, on the Strait of Gibraltar, 
about 14 miles to the east of Cape iSpartel, .stands on two 
eminences at the north west extremity of a spacious bay. 
The town has a tine appiearance from the .sea, rising 
gradually in the form of an amphitheatre, and defended 
by walls and a castle. The streets, which are unpaved, 
are very narrow and croo'ked, and the houses, except those 
occupied by foreign ambiussadors or consuls and a few 
others, are mean. The main thoroughfare is that which 
leads from the Bab-alMarsa (Gate ol the Port) to the 
Bab-al-Sok (Gate of the .Market Tlace) , the sok presents 
a lively spectacle, esiiecially on Sundays and Thursdays. 
The manufactures of Tangiers are of little importance, 
consisting chiefly of coarse woollen cloth, mats, and 
pottery; tanning is also carried on, but the leather, 
though much esteemed in Europe, is inferior to that made 
in other parts of Morocco. The harbour is a mere road- 
stead, but It is the best Morocco possesses, and affords 
good anchorage and bheller to the largest vessels, except 
during the prevalence of strong winds from the north-west 
or east. Tangiers has a large trade with Gibraltar. The 
climate is teiirperate and healthy, but the inhabitants often 
suffer much in summer [rom deliciency of water-supply. 
Tangiers, which is the residence of all the foreign ministers 
ftiid consuls to the court of Morocco, has a population esti- 
mated at about 20.000 of whom some 400 are_ Europeans^ 



The Koman Tingis, which stood in the immediate vicinity of 
the site of Tangiers, boasted of great antiquity; under Augustui 
It became a free city, and Claudius made it a Roman colony and 
capital of Tiugitaiia It was held successively by Vandals, Byzan-' 
tines, and Arabs, and fell luto the hands of the Portuguese towards 
tho end ol the 16th century In 1&62 it was made part of the. 
dowry ol Catherine of Biagauza on -her marriage with Charles II. 
oi Eiigland . the English defended It in 16S0, but, on account of it* 
expenso, dismantled it in lt)84 and abandoned it to the Moors, who 
fortided It anew It was bombarded by a Spanish fleet in 1790 
and by the French lu 1844 

T.^NU.\USER, or Tannhauser, the subject of one of 
the most famous of old German legends, is represented 
as a knight who alter many wanderings comes to the 
Venusberg He enters the cave where the Lady Venus 
holds her court, and abandons himself to a life of sensual 
pleasure By and by he is overcome by remorse, and, 
invoking the aid of the Virgin Mary, he obtains per- 
mission to return for a while to the outer world. He 
then goes aa a pilgrim to Rome, and entreats Pope Urban 
to secure for him the forgiveness of his sins. The pope, 
who happens to have a rod in his hand, says it is as im-^ 
possible for him to be pardoned as for the rod to blossom.; 
Tanhauser therefore departs in despair, and returns to the' 
Lady Venus. In three days the rod begins to put forth 
green leave.s, and the pope ^nds messengers in all direc- 
tions in search of the penitent, but he is never seen again. 
Thi.s legend was at one time known in every part of 
Germany, and as late as 1830 it survived in a popular, 
song at Entlibuch, a version of which was given by' 
L'hland in his A/te hock- und nuderdtutsche Volksheder. 
It can be traced back to the 1 4th •century, but in its 
original form seems to have belonged to the period of 
Teutonic paganism According to some legends, the Venus-' 
berg IS the Hoselberg or Hurselberg, a hill near Eisenach 
associated with the Teutonic goddess of the nether world, 
who was known by various names, such as Hulda, Hilda, 
and Hel To this goddess the name of Venus appears to 
have been transferred Among the attendants of Hulda 
was the faithful Eckhart, and in the preface to the 
Uddi-idruch he is said to sit before the Venusberg, and 
to warn passers-by «f the dangers to which they may be 
exposed if they linger in the neighbourhood The legend 
has been reproduced by several modern German poets, 
and forms the subject of one of 'Wagner's operas. 

In the 13th century, contemporary with Pope Urban 
IV , there was a German knight called Tanhauser, who was 
well known as' a minnesinger at the court of Frederick 
U., duke of Austria After Duke Frederick's death 
Tanhauser was received at the court of Otlio II , duke of 
liavaria , but, being of a restless disposition, and having 
wasted his fortune, he spent much time in wandering 
about Germany. He also went as a crusader to the Holy 
Land. His poems (printed in the second part of the 
Miniirxin'/rr, edited b^ Von der Hagen) are fresh, lively, 
and graceful, but lack the ideal tone which marks the 
writings ol the earlier minnesinger He was much 
esteemed by the incistersinger, and it is po.ssible that the' 
story of his adventurous lile may have been connected 
with the old legend about the Venusberg. 

See K.irnui.uni, .U./iu- yencm (lfil4). and Grasse, Die Sage vom 
RiWr T'tnluiustT, and Der Tiifihau^cruiid h'uiyc Jutit, aiaoZaaia, 
DiC Tilnhiiiiser Sayc uiiUJ<r M ailusailijcr TanhauscK 

TANJORE, a district of British India, in the Madras 
presidency, lying between y' 60' and 11° 25' N. lat. and 
between 78° 55' and 79° 56' E. long , with an area of 
3G54 square miles. It forms a portion of the Southern 
Carnatic, and is bounded on the N by the river Coleroon, 
which separates it from 'lYichinopoly and South Arcot 
districts, on the E. and S.E by the Bay of Bengal, on 
the S.W. by Madura district, and on the W. by 
Madura and Trichinopoly and Pudukotta state. Tanjore 



T A N — T A N 



47 



ia known as the g&rdan of Sontberu India. It is well 
watered by an elaborate system of d&ms, cuts, and canals 
in connexion with the rivers Cauvery and Coleroon, and the 
soil is exceedingly productive. The delta of the Cauvery 
occupies the flat northern part, which is iigUy cultirated 
with rice, dotted over with groves of cocoa-nat trees, and 
densely populated. Tanjore is a land of temples, many 
of them being of very early date. The great temple of 
Tai^ore city is said to be the finest in India ; it is of the 
11th century, and remains in excellent preservation to the 
present day. The district has a coast-line of 140 miles, 
but communication with shipping is unsafe, owing to a 
heavy surf which breaks incessantly on the shore. The 
ninfalT,' as elsewhere on the Coromandel coast, varies 
considerably from year to year ; the mean annual fall, as 
observed at ten stations for four years, was 4714 inches. 
Tanjore is amply provided with means of communication. 
It is traversed by two branches of the South Indian Railway. 

The census of 1881 retamed the population of the district at 
■2,130,333 (males 1.026,528, females 1,103,855), of whom 1,939,421 
were Hindus, 112,058 Mohammedans, and 78,258 Christians. 
Taiyore is the first district in which Protestant missions began, 
and now it is second only to Tinnevelly in the number of fts 
Christian mission^. These establishments were taken over in 1826 
by the Society for the Propagation ql the Gospel, which subse- 
quently founded missions in several parts of the district The, 
total number of native Protestants belonging to the various societies 
in 1881 was 8255. Romau Catholic missions in Tanjore date from 
the first half of the 17th century, and the number of native Roman 
Catholics in 1881 was 67,745. Five towns have populations ex- 
ceeding 10,000, viz., Tanjore (see below), Negapatam 53,855, Com- 
baconnm 50,098, Mayavaram 23,044, and Munnargudi 19,409. 

Of th» total area of the district, reckoned at 2,392,117 acres, 
1,468,500 were returned in 1884-85 as cultivated, and 149,228 as 
available for cultivation, while forests covered 21,422 acres. Rice 
is the staple crop, and is raised almost entirely by artificial irriga- 
tion : green crops are common ; plantain and betel-vine gardens 
abound in the delta, where sugar-cane and tobacco are also cQlti- 
vated. The chief manuf.ictures are metal wares, sUk cloths, carpets, 
and pith-work. Imports consist chiefly of cotton piece goods, 
twist and yarn, metals, timber, and betel nuts. Rice is by far the 
most important article of export alike by sea and land. The gross 
revenue in 1884-85 was £549,982, the land yielding £389,755. 

The modern history of Tanjore commences with its occupation 
by the Mahrattas in 1678 under Venkaji, the brother of Sivaji the 
Great. The British first came into contact with Tanjore by their 
expedition in 1749 with a view to the restoration of a deposed rdja. 
In this they failed, and a subsequent expedition was bought off. 
The Mahrattas practically heli Tanjore until 1799. In October of 
that year it was ceded to the East India Company in absolute 
sovereignty by Raja Sharabhoji, pupil of the missionary Schwartz, 
the company engaging to pay the raja of Tanjore one-fifth of the 
net revenue of the territory which was transferred to them, with a 
further sum o( £35,000. Raja Sharabhoji retained only the capital 
and a small tract of country around. He died in 1833, and was 
succeeded by his son Sivaji, on whose death' in 1855 without an 
heir the house became extinct, the rights and privileges appertain- 
^ing to it ceased, and Tanjore became British territory. 
; TAXJORE, capital and administrative headquarters of 
.the above district, is situated in 10' 47' N. lat. and 79° 
■10' 24" E. long. As the last capital of the ancient Hindu 
dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief 
political, literary, and retigioua centres of the south, the 
city is full of interesting associations. Its monuments of 
Indian art and early civilization are of the first importance. 
■Besides its great temple, the city is famed for its ^rtistic 
manufactures, including silk carpets, jewellery, repousse 
work, copper wares, <tc. It contained a population in 
1881 of 54,745 (26,272 males and 28,473 females). The 
South Indian Railway connects Tanjore with Negapatam, 
its. seaport on the east, and Trichinopoly on the west. 

TAXNAHILL, Robert (1774-1810), one of the most 
popular of the successors of Burns in song-writing, was a 
weaver in Paisley, where he was born in 1774. He was 
apprenticed to his father's trade at the age of twelve, in 
the year of the first publication of the poems of Bums, 
which quickened the poetic ambition of so many Scottish 
yontha in humble life. The yoting apprentice studied and 



composed poetry as he drove the shuttle to and fro, with 
shelf and ink-bottle rigged iip on his loom-post. Apart 
from his poetry, he had little variety in his life. He was 
shy and reserved, of small and delicate physique, and took 
little part in the \'igorous social life of the town, beyond 
sitting and smoking at a club of local worthies, and occa- 
sionally writing humorous verses for their amusement. 
He haid apparently bat one love affair, the heroine of 
which was the original of " Jessie, the Flower of Dunblane." 
He bade her farewell in indignant rhymes after three years' 
courtship. The steady^ routine of his trade was broken 
only by occasional excursions to Glasgow and the land of 
Burns, and a year's trial of work at Bolton. He began in 
1805 to contribute verses to Glasgow and Paisley period- 
icals, and published an edition of his poems by subscription 
in 1807. Three years later the life of the quiet, gentle, 
diffident, and despondent poet was brought by his own act to 
a tragic end. Tannahill's claims to remembrance.rest upon 
half a dozen songs, full of an exquisite feeling for nature, 
and so happily wedded to music that their wide popularity 
in Scotland is likely to be enduring. " Loudon's Bonnie 
Woods and Braes," " Jessie, the Flower of Dunblane," and 
" Gloomy Winter's Noo Awa " are the best of them. 

Tannahill's centenary was celebrated with great honour at Paisley 
in 1874 ; and, in an edition by Mr David Semple, published in 1876, 
there is an exhaustive and minutely learned account of all that has 
been preserved concerning the poet, his ancestry, and the occasions 
of his various poems. 

TANNIN, a generic name for a class of vegetable 
substances which, as the name indicates, are all available 
for tanning, meaning the conversion of animal hide into 
leather. 'Tannin is widely diffused throughout the vege- 
table kingdom. An enumeration of the principal materials 
which form the commercial sources of the substance will 
be found under Leatbee, vol xiv. p. 381, and in various 
special articles referred to from that heading. 

Our chemical knowledge on the subject is very limited ; 
and, as long as we know no better, each of the various 
tanning materials must he viewed as containing a "tannin'' 
of its own kind.' Only a few have as yet been obtained 
in a state approximating chemical purity. The following 
characters are common to them all : — 

(1) All are colourless or little-coloured non-volatile solids, sol- 
uble in water and in alcohol ; the solution has an astringent taste. 

(2) They colour blue litmus paper feebly red, yet all unite with 
the alkalies into soluble salts ; the solutions of these eagerly absorb 
oxygen from the air, with formation of dark-coloured products. 

(3) They form insoluble salts with the oxides of lead, zinc, 
copper, producible by addition of solution of the tannin to one of 
the respective acetate. 

(4) They form very dark-coloured (green or blue) compounds 
with ferric oxide, conveniently producible by addition of the tannin 
to ferric or ferroso-ferric acetate. Ordinary old. fashioned black 
(gall-nut) ink may be quoted as an illustration. 

(5) Tannin solutionsprecipitate gelatine as an insoluble compound, 
generallyassumed to be chemicallysimilartothe substance of leather. 

(6) If a piece of raw hide be placed in a solution of any Unnin, 
it imbibes the latter with formation of Leather (q v.). 

(7) Aqueous tannin-solutions, if mixed with dilute sulphuric acid, 
are readily oxidized by solution of permanganate of potash, which, 
being reduced to manganous salt, loses its intense violet colour. 

Upon the last two propositions Lowenthal has based a convenient 
method for the assaying of tannin materials. A known weight of 
the substance to be analysed (say sumach) is extracted with water, 
and the extract diluted to a known volume. An aliquot part of 
the extract is then mixed with a certain proportion of a standard 
solution of indigo-c'lrmin and of sulphuric acid, and, after large 
dilution with water, standard permanganate is dropped in from a 
burette (graduated glass tube) until the colour of the indigo is 
completely discharged. After deducting the volume of reagent 
which would have been taken up by the indigo alone, the rest ia 
put down as corresponding to the "permanganate reducers gene- 
rally." Another measured volume of the extract is then poured 
over a sufficient weight of dry shavings of raw hide, after naving 
been suitably diluted, and the whole is allowed to stand until the 
tannin has idl passed into the hide. The liquid is then filtered, 

^ Coffee beans and t«a leaves contais peculiar taimlsf. 



48 



T A N — T A O 



and ft measured volume, corresponding to exactly the quantity of 
extract used for the assay, tested ^vith permanganate. The volume 
of reagent used this tinif is deducted from that used in the assay 
•3 a correction- From the net permanganate the weight of pure 
gallotannic acid which it would oxidiie is calculated on the basis 
pf standard expenuients, and from this weight the '* percentage of 
tannin" is deduced. The method is purely empirical, and the 
reeults are of no value unless obtained according to a rigorously 
prescribed mode of procedure. Of individual taunins that of the 
gall-nuts, known aa galloUinnu: acid, is best known. For its pre- 
paration (according to P^louzp.) powdered gall-nuts are placed in 
an apparatus for extraction "by displacement," and in it soaked 
in a mixture of 9 parts of ether and 1 part of water for twenty -four 
hours, ^he liquid is then allowed to draiu off, and the residue 
washed with aqueous ether. The liquid on standing separates 
into two layers, — a lower heavy layer, which contains the taonin, 
and an upper more purely ethereal layer, which contains gallic acid 
and other impurities. The lower layer is drawn off, washed once 
or twice with ether, and then evaporated to dryness at a ^entlo 
heat ; the tannin remains as a porous friable mass of a slightly 
greyiah. yellow colour This is the tanniu of the pharmaceutist. 

Such tannin is not by any means an absolutely unitary substance. 
Its solution, if allowed to stand in the presence of a ferment which 
is naturally present in gall-nut extract, or more readily if boiled 
with fiulphuric acid, yields a large proportion of gallic acid, which 
is easily obtained in pure crystals. According to Strecker, glucose 
is formed at the same time, whence he viewed tannin as a glucoaide 
(see SOGAR). But this is now recognized as a mistake, since Hugo 
Schiff showed that ^re tannin is only digallic acid, C,,H,(,0,— 
2C7HJO5 (gallic acid) minus IH5O. Pure tannin, according to 
Schiff, can be obtained by dehydrating pure gallic acid by means 
of chloride of acetyl. The tannin of the Chinese gall-nuts seems 
to be identical with gallotannic acid. 

Querettannic Acid. —The tannin of oak bark is certainly different 
from gallotannic acid, because it yields no gallic acid when boiled 
with dilute vitriol. Etti {Jahresb. iiber die forCschr. der Chcmie 
for 1880, p. 898) prepares it by extracting the powdered bark with 
dilate alcohol at a gentle heat, adding ordinary ether to the alcoholic 
extract, and shaking out the tannin with acetic ether. The acetic 
ether extract is distilled to recover the solvent, the residue filtered, 
and the filtrate evaporated to dryness to obtain the pure (?) tannin 
as a reddish-white powder of the composition CtyHijOg. At 130- 
140' C. it loses water and forms phhbaphen, Cg^HjoOj,, a brown 
solid insoluble in water but soluble in solution of the tannin. 
Quercitannic acid forms quite a series of such anhydrides; 
C«H,„Oi, : C„H„0„ ; C„H„0„; C5,H„0„. Some, if not all, of 
these are contained in aqueous oak-bark extract, and they play an 
important part in its application for tanning. According to Etti, 
quercitannic acid is a tri-methyl substitution-product oi digallic 
ecid, Ci,H,.Oj minns 3H plus 3CH3-C„H„0,. 

Besides these two tannins, those of coffee and cachou are the 
only ones which have been obtained in a relatively definite form. 

TANNING. See Leather. 

TANTALUM. A rare element closely allied to 
NiOBltrM. See vol. xvii p. 513. 

TANTALUS, a hero of ancient Greek myth and 
legend. He wa8 a son of Zeus and Pluto ("Wealth"), 
and became the father of Pelops, Proteus, and Niobe. He 
dwelt in splendour on Mount Sipylus near Smyrna, and 
was admitted to the table of the gods themselves. But 
he abased the divine favour by revealing to mankind the 
secrete he had learned in heaven, or by killing his son 
Pelops and serving him up to the gods at table. Another 
story was that he stole nectar and ambrosia from heaven 
and gave them to men. According to others, Pandareus 
stole a golden dog which guarded the temple of Zeus in 
Crete, and gave it to Tantalus to take care of. But, when 
Pandareus demanded the dog back, Tantalus denied that 
he had received it. Therefore Zeus turned Pandareus into 
a stone, and flung down Tantalus with Mount Sipylus on 
the top of him. The punishment of Tantalus in the lower 
world was famous. He stood up to his neck in water, 
which fled from him when he tried to drink of it ; and 
over his head hung fruits which the wind wafted away 
whenever he tried to grasp them. From this myth is 
derived the English word "tantalize." Another story is 
that a rock bung over his head ready to fall and crush 
him. The tomb of Tantalus on Mount Sipylus was pointed 
out in antiquity, and has been in modem times identified 
by Texier with the great cairn beueath Old Magnesia; 



but Prof. W. M. Ramsay inclines to identify it with a 
remarkable rock-cut tomb beside Magnesia. The story of 
Tantalus contains a reminiscence of a semi-Greek kingdom 
which had its seat at Sipylus, the oldest and holiest city 
of Lydia, and one of the chief birthplaces of early Greek 
civilization. Of this ancient city the remains are still 
visible on the northern slope of Mount Sipylus, and about 
4 miles east of Magnesia. They consist of sepulchral 
mounds, rock-cut tombs, and a small acropolis perched on 
an almost inaccessible crag which juts out from the nearly 
perpendicular limestone wall of Mount Sipylus, There 
was a tradition in antiquity that the city of Tantalus had 
been swallowed up in a lake on the mountain ; but the 
legend may, as Prof. W. M. Ramsay thinks, have been 
suggested by the vast ravine which yawns beneath the 
acropolis.' This acropolis is too small ever to have been 
the seat of a great empire ; rather, like Pessinus and other 
great religious centres of Asia Minor, it may have been 
" the seat of a priestly suzerainty maintained over the 
hiero-douloi [sacred slaves] of the surrounding district." 
Connected as the city was on the one hand with the sea, 
and on the other with the capital of the ancient kingdom 
of Phrygia by means of the " royal road," it was a natural 
meeting-place for Greek and Oriental culture. A com- 
parison of the art of Phrygia with the early art of Mycense 
and Olympia has fully confirmed the legend which con- 
nects the family of Tantalus with the Peloponnesus. 

See Pelops, Phryoia, and a paper by Prof. W. M. Ramwy In 
Journal of Hdlenic Studies, iii. p. 33 »J. 

TAOIS^L See Lao-tszb. 

TAORMENA {Tauromenium), now an unimportant vil- 
lage of about 3000 inhabitants, is magnificently situated 
at the edge of a precipitous cliff 900 feet high on the east 
coast of Sicily, about 32 miles from Messina and the same 
from Catania. The original city was founded by a tribe 
of Siculi after the destruction of the neighbouring city of 
Naxos in 403 B.C. by Dionysius of Syracuse. It was built 
on the hill of Taurus, whence came the name Tavpo/jo-ioi' 
(Diod., xiv. 58). In 358 B.C. the city was increased by 
the settlement of the exiled survivors from Naxos, which 
was only 3 miles distant ; and hence Pliny (H. N., iii. 8) 
speaks of Naxos as having been the original name of 
Tauromenium. Owing to its commanding site, the city 
has frequently been the scene of important struggles. 
When with the rest of Sicily it passed into the possession 
of the Romans, it shared with two other Sicilian cities the 
privileges of a "ci vitas foederata." During the Servile 
War (134-132 B.c.) Tauromenium was occupied by a 
body of rebel slaves, but was finally taken by the consul 
Rupilius, and the whole garrison slaughtered. In 36 B.C. 
it was one of Sextus Pompey's chief strongholds in his war 
with Augustus, who after his victory established a Roman 
colony there. Under the empire it was a flourishing city, 
famed for iu wine (Pliny, H. Jf., xiv. 6) and red mullets 
(Juv., v. 93). In 902 a.d. it was taken from the Byzan- 
tine emperor by the Saracens, who called the place Moezzia. 
In 1078 it was captured by the Normans. A large 
number of ancient remains bear witness to its former 
importance. Fine autonomous silver coins of c. 300 B.C. 
exist, with otm. a laureated head of Apollo, and reti. a 
tripod, with the legend TAYPOMENITAN, and a magis- 
trate's initials AI. The theatre is, next to that it Aspendus 
(Pamphylia), the best preserved in existence. It is Greek 
in plan, but the existing structure belongs mostly to the 
Roman period, and is specially remarkable for the preserva- 
tion of its lofty Bcena wall, and two large chambers which 
form entranee- porchee to the cavea. It is excavated in an 

' Ugends of aubmaiged dUes and castles are common In different 
parte of Enropa. It hat bean anggssted that they are conftuad recol- 
lections of the anoiant TlUagat bnUt on piles in lakea (Wood-Martin, 
Laht Dvtllingt qf IrtlOHd, p. 88). 



I 



A 



T A P — T, A r 



49 



elevated peak of rock, aud commands one of tbe oiost 
magnificent views io the "n-orld, with Mount Etna in the 
distance. Remains of five piscinie and a large bath, 
popularly called a uaumachia, still exist, together with 
remains of the ancient city wall and that of the arx. 

See Serrtdifaloo, AnluhM di Sicilia, Palermo, 1834-42, vol. v. ; 
Uittorff uid Zanth, ArchiUclun AtUiqiu de la Sidle, Paris. 1870. 

TAPACULO, the name* given in Chili to a bird of 
singular appearance, — the Pteroptochtis albicollis of ornitho- 
logy, — and. throughout this series of articles (Birds, 
vol. iii. p. 743 ; Ornithology, vol. xviii. p. 40, et alM), 
apphed in an extended sense to its allied forms, which are 
now found to constitute a small Family, PteroptocJiidx, 




Tapaculo. 
belonging to the Tracheophonous division of Passeres, and 
therefore peculiar to South America. About 20 species, 
which are disposed by Mr Sclater (Ihis, 1874, pp. 189- 
206) in S genera, are believed to belong to this group. 

The species of the Family first made known is Snjiatopns 
nwgellaiucus, originally descnbed in 1783 by Latham (Si/uopsts. 
iv. p 464) as a Warbler. Even in 1836 Gould not unnaturally 
took it for a Wren, when establishing the genus to which it is 
now referred : but some ten years after Johannes Mnller found 
that ScyUilopiis, together with the true Tapaculo, which w.is first 
described by Kittlitz in 1830, possessed anatomical characters that 
removed them far from any position previously assi^ed to them, 
and determined their true place as above given. In the meanwhile 
a kindred form, Hylacles, also first described in 1830, had been 
shewn by Eyton to have some very exceptional osteologn-al features. 
and these were found to be also common to PlcTuptochus and 
ScytaUmus. In 1860 Prof Cabanis recognized the Pleroplochida: 
as a distinct Family, but made it also include Menvra [cf. Lyre- 
bird, vol. XV. p 115), and in 1874 Mr Sclater («/ stipra) thought 
that AlTiehia (cf. ScRUBBiRD. vol. xxi. p. 5f>i) might belong here 
It was Garrod in 1876 and 1877 who finally divested the Family of 
these aliens, hut. until examples of some of the other genera have 
been anatomically examined, it may not be safe to say that they 
all belong to the PtcropUxhidte. 

The true Tapaculo (P. albicollis) has a general resem- 
blance in plumage to the females of some of the smaller 
Shrikes (Lanius), and to a cursory observer its skin might 

• Of Spanish origin, it is intendexl as a reproof to the bird for the 
•bameless way in which, by erecting its tail, it exooses its hinder parts. 
It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo." as by Mr Darwm. who 
gave (/ourruU of JieseaTCh^^, chap. xiL ) a brief but entertaining account 
of the habits of this bird, and its relative, HylacUs jTugapod^ut, called 
by tbe Chilenos "El Turco." 

23—4 



pass for that of one ; but its shortened wings and powerfuJ 
feet wculd on closer inspection at once reveal the differesce. 
In life, however, its appearance must be wholly unlike, for 
it rarely flies, hops actively on the ground or among 
bushes, with its tail erect or turned towards its head, and 
continually -utters various and strange notes, — some, says 
Mr Darwin, are " like the cooing of doves, others like tbe 
bubbling of water, and many defy all similes." The "Turco," 
Hylacles megapodius, is larger, with greatly developed feet 
arjd claws, but is very similar in colour and habits. Two 
more species of HylacUs are known, and one other of 
Pteroptochtis, all of which are peculiar to Chili or Patagonia. ' 
The species of Scytalopus are as small as Wrens, mostly of 
a dark colour, and inhabit parts of Brazil and Colombia, one 
of them occurring so far northward as Bogota. (a. n.) 

TAPESTRY. See Textiles. 

TAPE-WORMS, or Cestoda, are a group of worms^ 
forming one ' of the three mam divisions of the Plnty- 
helminthes, the other two being the Twbellana (sec 
Pla.n.\kians and Nemertines) and Trematoda (.sec 
Trematoda). They have been defined as follows : — " Flat 
worms without mouth or alimentary canal, which typically 
develop by alternation of generations, by budding from a 
generally pear-shaped nurse, with which they remain united 
for a lengthened period as a ribbon-like colony or ' strobila.' 
The individual joints of the colony, i.e., the sexual animals 
or ' proglottides,' increase in size and maturity as they are 
removed farther from their origin by the intercalation of 
new buds, but are not distinguished in any special way. 
The nurse, however, known by the name of the ' head' 
(scolex) IS provided with four or two suckers, and usually 
with curved claw-like hooks. The dorsal and ventral 
surfaces. of the head are perfectly identical, so that the 
arrangement of the hooks presents a strikingly radiate 
appearance. By means of this apparatus the worms fasten 
themselves on the intestinal membrane of their hosts, 
which (except in. the case of the otherwise peculiar 
Archigetes) all belong to the Vertelrata. The nurses 
develop from little round six-hooked embryos m a more 
or less complicated fashion as so-called ' bladder- worms.' 
The latter inhabit very diverse, but usually parenchym- 
atous, organs of the higher and lower animals, and are 
thence passively transferred to the intestine of their 
subsequent host" (Leuckart, 1,' p. 270). 

Histonml Sketch. — Certain forms of Cestodes have 
been known from time immemorial. The hydatid cyst is 
alluded to by early medical writers, and Aristotle speaks 
of examining the tongue of pigs to ascertain the presence 
of bladder-worms. By this author and Hippocrates tbe 
Cestodes and other flat worms are spoken of as IKnivDc; 
irkaTiiai, 111 Opposition to the o-rpoyyiJAQi or "round 
worms"; the word Tama (Gr. Taii-ia) does not occur m 
Greek authors, but is first used by the Romans (Pliny, 
H. N., XI. 33). In the treatises of the Middle Ages the 
tape-ivorm figured as Lumlmcus latus, only one species 
being recognized. Felix Plater (23) separated Bothne- 
cephal-us from the other human tape-worms, and Andry 
(24) gave it the name Tmta it epme, mistaking tLe 
nodular generative organs for vertebrie. The apjiellation 
liothriocephatus latus dates from Breniser, 1819 (25). Like 
other Entozoa. tbe tapeworms and bladder-worms were 
supposed to arise by spontaneous generation ; it was found, 
however, that animal forms strikingly like the £ni(,:oii 
sometimes lived freely. Pallas (19), seeing that the eggs of 
intestinal worms are expelled from the animals iii whicL 
they live, and may remain for some time unaltered in 
water, suggested the hypothesis that the Eutozoa agree 
with other animals in originating from eggs which can lie 



' These figures refer to the bibliographv. pp. 55, 56 

XXIIL — 7 



50 



TAP E:vW R M S 



carried from one animal to another. ^He aLso * supposed 
that they reached the liver and other internal organs by 
means of the blood-streanx Other authorities endeavoured 
to explain the presence of Entozoa by supposing that they 
were transmitted from parents to children. Von Siebold 
(26) in 1S38 discovered the si.x-hooked embryos of Taenia^ 
and came to the conclusion that they could only pass into 
the- fuUy-formed animal by a kind of metamorphosis. The 
subject was fully discussed by Eschricht (27), who endea- 
voured to prove that this phenomenon was of common 
occurrence among the Entozoa. Shortly afterwards ap- 
peared Steenstrup's famous work upon the alternatioD of 
generations (28), which furnished a ready explanation of 
the isolated facts till then observed regarding the Cestodea. 
The most important advances in modern times have been 
due to the- introduction of helmiothological experiment by 
Kiichfinmeister, by means of which the demonstration has 
been furnished that certain bladder-worms are the larval 
stages of particular tape-worms. The first of these ex- 
periments took place in 1851, when Kiichenmeister fed a 
dog with bladder-worms from the rabbit, and a cat with 
■Specimens from the mouse, and succeeded in rearing tape- 
worms in their intestines (29). Similar investigations on 
'different species have been made by Van Beneden, Leuckart, 
and others. Of systematic treatises the most important 
are those of Rudolphi (35). Diesing (20), and Van Beneden 
(13), while Von Linatow, in addition to numerous scat- 
tered papers (30. 36), has given us an invaluable list of 
hosts with their respective para-sites (21). 

Anatomy. 

Id considering the anatomical [leculi.irities of the Cfstoda it will 
be convenient to describe one jiarticuKir specie? and afterwards to 
iodicate the chief differences presented by other members of the 
group. For this purpose Taenia saghutta. Goze(7'. mcdiocandlata, 
' Kuchenmeister), may be seletud as a tyj'e, as it has been peiha|>s 
more studied than any other, nnd is one of the species most 
■oommonly found in man . for further details, see Soninicr (31) 
■ Dim'fTisions — .^n Tvi^rage specimen of this tape-worm (fig. 1, A) 
•will measure in a state of moderate contraction about 500 cm , an<l 
' consist of nearly 1 lOu S'-gmcnts : of those uhit.!i immediately follow 
"the head more th.m 250 will be fonnd within a length of 5 cm. ; 
they gradually wiJen poslcrioily, untd the widtst, which are 
situated about half way down the chain, h^ve a brcadtli of \i mm 
and a length of 6 mm . whilst the terminal segments measuie 5 
mm in breadth by 19 mm. in length 

, The head (Hg 1. R; is spheroidal. 1 5 mm in diameter, and bears 
on Its lateral surface four equidistant suckers, which serve for the 
attachment of the whole worm. After death these are genei-ally 
retracted, but during life thfy can be protruded and moved in all 
directions. They are a spefial develo|ttnent of the musculature of 
the body wall, the radial fibres being the most conspicuous. The 
tapeworm now being described is abnnimal. inasmuch as the front 
of U3 head is not provided with a circlet of hooks; these are well 
8ecn, howuver, in the other common human tape-worm {Txnia 
Solium), which bears a double ring of them, situated around a 
button shaped muscular pad {roslclliiui) which forms the apex of 
the head (fig. \, C). By the varying contraction of the sejiaratc 
parts of this organ the hooks may be moved in different direc- 
tions, aftd when tlie worm is attaching itself they are 'first 
extended directly forwards, and then brought bark so as to force 
the robtellum into the tissues of the host. Each hook has a broad 
bifid base, to which tlie muscles are attached, supporting a long 
curved point In Txnia saguuita, to the consideration of which 
we no* return, the rostellum is quite rudimentary, and lias 
been described by^ earlier authors as a fifth sucker or even as a 
mouth , it IS interftting to note that during its incipient stages it 
bears a number of minute spines homologous with the hooks of 
othef species. The head contains furthermore the anterior portions 
ftf the nervous and excretory systems. The latter of these consists 
of an annular vessel fTlaccd immediately below the rostellum, 
froip wliich four canals, corresponding to the four suckers, pass 
backwards: tuo of th?se gradually disappear, leaving two which 
pursue their course down the proglottides, in connexion with 
which they will be again alluded to, and open at the hinder 
extrcmitv of the worm by a common pore The nervous system 
of tlie Cestodea was long, sought in vain: although eome early 
ihvestigaters described a ganglion, they were unable to give any 
Ratikfactorx. proof of its existence, this having been first furnished 
^ SchaeiJer. It •e«ina generHlly to consist of & ceatrai ganglioD 



lying within the head, fnjffi -ti'iiich tw<j cords [rrocwd backwards, 
these were regarded by Sommer and Landois as part of the ali- 
mentary system. Niemiec (5) has recently given a detailed account 
of its structure in several different species, and'its relations have 
been discussed by Lang (7). 

The proglottides arise by a species of budding in the narrow 
neck which immediately succeeds the head; they are separated 
from each other by groove^ which are- at first so shallow and 




Flc. I. — Anatomy of Txnia (frnm Leuckan). A, Portions ol Titnia iaymnia' 
X i. B. head o( the sainu . x 8. C. lieaJ of T. toliutn showmt; uie ciown ol 
hooks, X 22. D. * scRmint of T fagniata. showing ti^c gcntt.itivc oipans 
n., nervous syst'-ni ; ei., IfingituJinai excn-tury tuliti ; tr , ii.insvci''e vessel 
g.p . ccniial papilla; cl .cloaca: t.p.. ^lrl^^I•ouch; vd .\as dcfticns. ( f.. lesica 
v.. vagina: oo or . ovuriis. sh,g . 5ln.ll cluncj, y 7,. yolk gland, r * .rcccptaculum 
semiois. «r. uterus; x 7 E. liiccnnnejiionsof IhegtntTativeoiKnns.leilctlng 
as ^bove o t/.. d . ovirtucts , /, feitilizmi; c.niil; x 3i K. drrnclitd scgmtnl 
ol r.jJs^inflfo. showing rli'cuterua; X / G.iix-hooktdembryu. highly maginfled. 

indistinct that it is impossible to say with certamty where the 
segmentation really begins. The proglottides whiLh have attained 
sexual maturity are situated some 30-40 cm. from the head, and 
measure 15 mm. in length by 5 mm. in breadth. Jhe segments, 
like the head, consist of a solid mass of tissue in which the varioui 
organs are inibedded. Like the Trematodes, the Cestodes were lonj: 
thought to have no body-cavity or cctloni, and hence were called 
*' parenchymatous" worms. Recently, however, a series of inter- 
cellular spaces has been described by Fraipont (8) as leading into" 
the terminal excretory organs, and these sr>aces have been inter- 
preted both by himself and others as the nomologue of a body* 
cavity, although this ojHnion has not been allowtd to" pass 
unchallenged {sec Pintirer, 9). The surface of the body is covered 
by a thin clear homogeneous cuticle, which, according to some 
authoriiu-s, is perforated by fine closely-set pores. The hooks 
which have been described above, as well as the small spines and 
bristlee found in certain species, are developments of this cuticle.' 
This external covering cannot, according to Leuckart (1, p. 289),' 
be regarded as homologous with the cuticle of other invertebrates, 
inasmuch as it is Jiot a secretion from a»special layer of subjacent 
cells, but is "the structureless limiting membrane of the connective 
tissue substance,, and fa comparable with the so-called basement- 
membrane found ifi the other flat-wormB . . . between the muscular 
layer and the dermal epithelium.'* It la to b« observed, however; 
that this view has by no means found univerul acceptance (set 



TAP E-W O R M S 



51 



Steadener. 10), and it is o priori improbable, ^ince the Cestodes 
(and Trematodcs) would tlna form an cTctption to the general rule 
by which all animals arc clad with an epithelium derived fjom the 
embryonic ectoderm. Tlie subcuticular layer is described as con- 
-sisving of long fusiform cells (probably modified rcnnectivctis'sue 
tt!l5) disjiosed perpendicularly to the cuticle. It seems possible 
•tt«; they are in direct connexion with the transverse muscles of 
the body. The matrix of the Cestode body consists of connective 
tSffiue, the cells composing which are seldom providcil with ,a dis- 
tinct membrane, and sometimes can only be separately distinguished 
by their nuclei. The layer of muscles (see lielow) separates this 
matnx into a central and a cortical portion. Distributed in it, and 
«spe.-ially in its cortical portion. areUnmerous calcareous corpuscles, 
which are generally spheroidal in form, varying up to 0019 mm. 
in diameter aitd concentrically laminated ; tirey contain a large 
imount (often 20 per cent.) of lime salts, ditfuscd through an 
organic basis, from which the salts can be removed with effervescence 
by the action of acids. These corpuscles have been variously inter- 
preted by the older authors as eggs, or as lymph or blood corpuscles, 
tut the only thecnes wliich have been seriously maintained in 
modern times «re-(l) that they are skeletal (Von Siebold); (2) 
that they are excretory (Claparede, Grie.sbach); or (3) that they form 
a reserve store of calcareous material to be used either in counter- 
acting the Odd digestive juices of the host or for the production of 
egg-shells (l,enckart, 1, p. 283). 

The muscular system consists of three sets of fibres— longitudinal 
transverse, an.l s.igittal. The first are the best developed, and 
run down the inner part of the cortical layer in the form of strong 
bands : the second set lie immediatefy below them and pass across 
the Ivxiy m the form of two flat muscular plates, which converge 
towards each other as they approach the margins of the proglottis: 
the sagittal muscles run nrimitively straight from one flat surface 
of the Iwdv to the other, but their direction is much modified after 
the growth of the genital oigans, between the various parts of which 
they lie as isolated bundles; they are the weakest of all the sets 
the muscular fibres are non-striated, and when they are fully de- 
veloped no nucleus can be ilotected in them. They taper towards 
the extremities, sometimes branching dichotomously, and, as above 
mentioned, a connexion has been asserted to be visible between 
them and the subcuticular cells. 

The excretory system in the proglottides consists of two or four 
rongitudinal canals which lie along their two narrow margins (fig. 
1. U.a:.). The ongin of these in the head has been already noted. 
and they pass continuously down the whole worm until they open 
into a vesicle at the posterior extremity of the terminal segment. 
In the hinder part of each proglottis they are connected by a trans- 
verso ves.'iel (fig 1, D, ir.). immediately above which a valve is 
fcrnjed by a duplicature of the wall, so that it is impossible to inject 
the excretory system.from behind whilst fluid can be readily forced 
alOMg It from before backwards. Fraipont has drawn a distinction 
between ascending and descendingcanals. Excretory openings have 
been described by various observers in the anterior portion of the 
worm, near the suckers (Wagener, 11; Fraipont, 8; Riehm, 12) 
ani, although their presence is denied by Pintncr (9), there seems 
sufficient evidence to show that they are more generally present than 
was formerly supposed. A ramifying network of smaller vessels 
connected with the main trunks just described is found in the more 
stiperficial parenchyma, and this in its turn gives off still finer 
rapiUanes which terminate in ciliated funnels. According to 
fraipont these open into the intercellular lacuns which are the 
representatives of the calom (sec above), whilst Pintner maintains 
that the terminal funnels are completely-closed, and are to be 
regarded as unicellular glands. The subject, however, is one of 
♦xtreme difficulty and demands further investigation. It is worthy 
of notice that each of the three systems of canals above described 
mainuins Its proper diameter throughout, and that ro intermediate 
sizes can bo found. The "plasmatic vascular avstem" described 
by bommer and Landois, and regarded by them' as part of the 
alimentary .ystem, consists partly of some of theso delicate canals 
and partly of the two cords of the nervous system. The main 
canals open posteriorly into a pulsatile vesicle, at the end of the 
last proglottis; when, however, some of these haro been cast off 
the opening may be either by a shortened transverse vesicle as 
Unckart (1) maintains to be the case in the present species, or by 
separate openings, one for each canal. 

The reproductive organs are serially repeated in the proglottides 
each of which contains a complete set of male and female organs 
\ag. 1, U). Ihe male organs may be discussed first The testes 



uiem inwnrus trom the cloaca. The vagina (« ) opens imme.Iiat 
posterior to the vas deferens, and like it is lined by a continual 
ol the external cuticle. After p.issing about half way across 
segment it bends backwards and terminates in a .•.mall cvst i 



tion of the vas has a thickened muscular wall, and this part of it i> 
capable of extrusion and retraction, thus lorming the male intro 
mittent organ or "cirrus " (c.;,. ), The cuticle wliich lines alHlie 
distal portion of the vas deferens is here thin and delicate and 
armed with a series of minute spines, which are diiecte<l backward' 
{Echennbollirnim). The cirrus in tlio present species is verv 
sliort. but in other forms its length is sometimes considerable', 
ihe protrusion is effected by circulaj- muscles placed around the end 
of the vas dofcicns, while the retraction is brought about by special 
lonptudina fibres, lying along the walls of the cvaginable portion 
Ihe female organs may be most conveniently studied by Iracino 
them inwards from the cloaca. The vagiii.aj« ) opens imi^ediatelj 

uatioi; 
the 

receptaculiim scminis (fig. 1, E, r.s.);thiV7ecelves"aiui'sYores'up 
the male fertilizing elcmenU. retaining them until the ova are ripe 
from Its posterior extremity there passes a thin-walled canal, widct 
than the vagina (/.), which serves to convey the spermatozoa to 
the ova and hence is termed the " fertilizing canal "(Befiiiclitun<^. 
canal of German authors). It unites with the common oviduct! a 
tube formed by the union of the two oviducts (o.rf.), and the two 
together nass b.ickwards into a spherical glandular structure called 
from Its discoverer " Mehlis's body" or the shell glan.l (fi^ 1 D 
and E shg.). Within this apparatus it receives the diict^of tli( 
yolkgland (yg.), and then passes directly forwards to open int( 
the uterus. The ovaries (ou.) are two in number, situated one on 
each side of the middle line of the body; they arc fan-shaped 
and consist of a system of blind tubules situated on a biancheii 
efferent duct. The cells of the ovary (primitive cg^s) hive a shaif 
contour and a large nucleus; the yolk-gland (j/.y ) is very simila. 
to the ovaries, behind and between which it is situated but i- 



(t. O are very numerous and scattered throughout the greater part 
of the proglottis; they are round vesicles (0 15 mm. in diameter) 
containing spermatozoa, and attached like berries to the termina 
reniificatlon3oftlievasdeferens(v.rf.); these gradually unite form- 
ing larger and larger branches until they reach the main canal 
which runs in a aeries of coils transversely half way across the 
Joint a little behind its middle, and ends in a common cloaca 

' ;iJ' -'i T^'^'* '*°"' ""^ "»'■' """1 f''"ial« organs, and if coc- 
atettH mM\ the nater world by the porus genitciia. The ooter por. 



distinguished by vorious histological details (it is called "ovary 

by Moniez). The shellgland, formerly regarded as the ovarv 

consists of closely compressed nucleated cells, and is provide.! 

with small thin ducts opening into the narrow internal cavin 

of the organ. The uterus («(.). in its early stage of development' 

is a long straight tube, lying almost in the longitudin.al axii 

01 the proglottis, and receiving posteriorly the oviduct after ii 

emerges from the shell-gland (fig. 1, E, ««.). From what has beer 

said It will^ appear that the ova on their way down the comnioi 

ovidHct are impregnated as they pass the end of the fertilizin" canal 

and then receive in succession, first their supply of food-yolk and 

their shell, during their sojourn in Jlehlis's body, after which the} 

go forwards into the uterus, where tliey undergo the first star-cs ol 

their development The uterus assumes a very different sha°pe a- 

It becomes distended with eggs, which are far too numerous to bt 

contained in a simple straight tube; small protuberances arise from 

its walls, growing rapidly and bifurcating here and there, so as 

to produce the complicated branched appearance seen in fi.^ 1 F 

As the nterus grows, the male, and later the female, genitalia 

degenerate and disappear, and in the proglottides which are icady 

to be liberated the only organ visible is the distended uterus. One 

of the most characteristic peculiarities in the sexual system just de 

scribed is that there is no passage by which the ripe eggs can make 

their exit from the proglottis; the.se are theiefoie extruded only 

on its rupture ; a very different state of things obtains in the geniis 

Bothriocephalus (see below). Self impregnation certainly occur- 

and IS probably the rule; it is obvious that the contrary case caii 

only happen where two individuals lie side by side within the 

same host. Furthermore, the cirrus has been seen protruded into 

the vagina of the same joint, and the tmisMon of sperm has been 

witnessed (Leuckart, 1; Van Pencdcn, 13, p. 601). 

The eggs are ovoid or spherical, and consist of the germ cell 
(nncleus and protoplasm) with an albuminous envelopingsnbstance 
which IS again surrounded by a thin transparent skin The shell 
frequently presents one or more appendages, probably the secretion 
ol the shell-gland drawn out into threads. The structure of the 
egg has been best studied in Titnia serrata (Van Bencden 14) 
where it consists of a delicate shell containing a gemi-cell with a 
quantity of secondary yolk; the former divides into * "granular' 
cell, which segments no further, and an "embryonic- globe, which 
again divides into a number of cells, of which three are larger and 
constitute the "albuminogenous layer," whilst the remainder are 
smaller and form the "embryonic mass," and .secrete a delicate 
superficial cnticio, the cell-limits being indistinct In the embry- 
onic mass from three to five flattened ceUs form a chitinogenoiis 
layer and give origin tp a superficial homogeneous coat, a shell 
of radially disposed chitinoid cylinders, and an internal faintly 
striated lining, whilst the remaining cells become the six-hooked 
embryo or proscolgx, a superficial layer to wliich the hooks belong 
and a central mass of clearer cells. When the proscolex is mature 
the original egg-shell and the albuminogenous layer disappear, and 
only the chitinoid coats remaii^ 

The proglottides are cast off by muscular action ; the Hbres are not 
continuous between the successive segments, so that these are con 
nwted mcrfljy bysoft eomuwUTe tiaaoe, which readily gives way the 



TAPE-WORMS 



T4.clewh,ch forms the termmat.on of the excretory system. 
Life-History and Development. 
Tl,n .nx hooked embryo (fig. 1, G) may be conveyed to the inter- 

mavtrk'e place either by n.eans of free eggs o. by whole ,- oglot^ 
may take place eu J , f, tissues are fi rat digested by the 

shorSr t ra^free .n the stoofach or intestine. prooeJs to per orate 
Jhewall Tf thS^e or-ans by means of active buirowing motions. 
Although th^ibTyo of a r^HU. has only once been captured in 
annougu lu ^ / alimentary canal (Raum. 10, 

which It has been found by more than one observer Ihis xouui 
«i ^a,n the frciueocy with which the next sU"e .a found in the 
fil'll ThereTeenis however, reason to believe tTiat many embryos 

nect.ve tissue, with a cellular ining, and ^"'""".^ ''^^^^,;,^'°,"e 
cavity within, this --""?■ 'r;;t;;, ''r°Vtemb'o now 
C^oTs'tu'sizTTntr^ri/tco^'ig somewhat elongated, ind the 
irk:7roro^r^^rometn,.,they;.nhe^f 
X-'rd'ir^nTe^r:! .'e;^P ^ormingt ^uan^^^ 

-IdTaVn'g fn length fron. . . 8 - ^^^^^^ ^llfeSe^r 
uture ne*u , rudimentary head thus formed is about i 

%r"^;eTo;mtr.r'X'"adrupe worm Ukes place only 

r.^r e neck of the «>orn, are dissolved by the gastric ju.cc The 
next the neck oi li e ,„,estine its snckei-» 

heajd »•'y;-,,y'•^,'^„'':er lively motions, which serve to bniig 
:^ut u^ a 1 1 n thV intestmal wall. It .radnally increases 
about IS B''»y " = formation of segments speedily commences. 



under favourable circumstances (that I., within 'h° >""»'-'''^'«^; 
tinue to CTow after being detached from the parent chain; it c*nn« 
be Lid! Cever, that tlie evidence upon which this resu is qintt 
fncfntrovertible. Regarded from this point of view the life-history 




no ..-Deveu>p.ent C -r^u (--- .^-l^'"^^ ^,,?rl-uT°:ZZl\'rf^ 
L-p^feflo'lSL;. V'rl-e^C .n«o.ll,ep^^c^^^^^ 

luhoulh maintained ^^ -^-rdir.:c"uo"rhas iee"n 'd^- ^' 
^rnTierrTi^iLp t,:. budding seen ^^^^^ 

- ra''S^:;^"^A" ~ C new ..nn. to the .- 

— ::;t::.fo^^:^f3"E"=rn,'-^ 
=^'€;i;r^^otj^^en".^.- 

where there is a proliferation <>' heads " ' , ^asjustbeeo 

The Cestode larva, "rresponding to the stage wh j^ ^^^^ 

described present '^»"V'^"»,^''L'^"' 'X eronp have been based. 

^-rTrc^^ritadVerarl'f^o^lheVoscolexhys.^^ 

„„!, sTmctura. -•'''■S-J;- -ryU''Ld"s";Ll«orarso 
parts A larger or smaller quantuy oi n t CyUuercy, 

surrounded, not only bJ '^e body o^ tn „„„ jh, 

^b;ihrbXot^.rw\r:ndrtuy£fdd^ c.u..(.ror., 

'/.^6n.), 'Stapky^cyst.. f'"-"^''"' fjCCoup, and regarding 

Of these the most important are the brst g o p =6 

some of them a few words must be ^dde^ J^J aod such bladder- 
of species only one Upe-worm ''^,^j';.P^''„",7he older hclmintho 
worms constituted the genus Cys'-;^"" »' '^^ ^ „„,.„ „hvck 
logists in certain ^^-i ^^"w"", noU>Wy inj^ ^^^ ^^^^_^ _^ 

produces the staggers of ^"".f ' °" ,„„„j ,he genus Comurus, 
fhe wall of each bladder , such '''^^^ J°™Xre are nostructun.1 

»rtrs.t;ye^p5?i=j^^ 

develop "ithoul un intetuiedlMe host 



T A P E - W O R M S 



53 



wcrm (EchirXKoccus) is charattoriwtl l>y tlic fact tlwt the tai«:-woiiii 
kcads irc not Oirectly devcloncJ in the wsll of the blaihlcr itself, 
but from " brootl capsules" which lie in iiunibei's oo the inner wall 
•f the bladder. 

Development of Oic Echmoaxciis. — The smallest bladiler jfc seen 
was reared by Lcuckart in the pig, and consisted of a minute proto- 
plasmic mass surrounded by a structureless cuticle. This cuticle 
thickens by <lenosition of new layers as growth proceeds, and the 
lamination of tne cuticle is one of the characteristic peculiarities of 
the t'ckinococciis, another being the absenec of an excretory system. 
At certain points in the parencltynia lining the cyst small warts 
are noticed {fig. 2, D,a), wliich enlarge and become hollow ; tlien the 
cavity enlarges in a direction opposite to the point of origin, mid at 
the extremity of this hollow suckers and hooks are formed as in the 
ease of Cysticerats described above {!/, c). No sooner has the devel- 
opment of tlie first of these rcacheil a certain degree of completencss- 
thaa othei-s arc formed in simihir fashion. The lirst part of tlie 
invagination takes plaec, by which the future head comes to lie 
within the brood-capsule and the pedicle is no longer hollow but 
solid le) ; the suckers and books are. liowever, still invagiiiated, 
and remain .so for a considerable iwriod. Seeing that the interior 
of the brood-cai>snle is lined with cuticle, it corresponds to the 
outside of tlie parent cyst, and hence is probably the representative 
of a previous invagin.ition. If this be so tlien the develojmient of 
£chiiiococciix would be quite comparable with that of Cysliccrais, 
the only difference being that, instead of the liead being an inva- 
gination of the wall of the tyst itself, it is S secondary invagina- 
tion, the prini.iry being the brooil-capsulc. This does not, however, 
exhaust the ivceuliarities of the Echuiococcus ; the form just de- 
'icrtbed, witii a simple cyst and brood-capsules, is common in 
cattle, and hence goes by the name of Eckuiococcii3 vcterinoi~tim ; 
but cases are frequent, i>nd are the most common in tlic human 
'subject, in which the cyst contains daughter-vesicles, difl'eriiig 
from those just described in being stcrile^giving rise to no heads. 
These daughter-bladders may originate in three different w.-iys : 

(1) from little granular heaps, which arc seen between the different 
layers of the cuticle, and which are jn-obably derived primarily from 
the parenchymal layer, — since new layers of cuticle are continually 
formed internally, these bladders gradu-iHyniake their way out- 
wards, until they come to lie externally to the mother-vesicle 
{Echinococcits exogena, Kuhn ; K. scoleciparie-i\s, Kuchenmeister) ; 

(2) from brood-capsules ; (3) from EckiiwcocctLS-ht^&'Xs ; these last 
two modes of development give rise to vesicles, which are within the 
mother-vesicle, and produce a forni which has been variously called 
EchinocoiCKts ejidogejia, Kuhn, £. altriciparicns, Kuchenmeister, 
and £. hydatidosus, A very remarkable form is Echinococcus 
muUUocularis, which consists of a number of very small "Vesicles 
embedded in a common soft stroma; it is found exclusively in 
man, and for long was regarded as a form of alveolar cancer. 
The mode of its development is unknown (for further iaformation, 
•ee Virchow, 17J. Compound bladders occur in man anil the ox, 
V'hilst other ruminants, swine, and monkeys usually harbour the 
simple or exogenous forms. The organs most often affected are 
liver and lungs. The adult tape-worm {T. echinococcus) is found 
in the intestine of the dog, jackal, and wolf, occurring in consider- 
able numbers between the villi. Its length (fig. 3, A) is at most 
6 mm. and it consists of only three or four segments; the head has 
6)ur suckers and a double circlet of hooks. 

Pathological Effects. 

The pathological effects of Cestodes fall naturally into 
two categories — (1) those due to the adult worm, and 
(2) those due to the larvae or bladder worms. 

(1) Those «f the first group are in general slight, being 
confined to the abstraction of a certain amount of nutri- 
ment, and to a more or less acute feeling of irritation, 
sometimes amounting even to colic like pains, in the 
intestine. There have indeed been many authorities who 
have maintained that they were beneficial ; Jordens went 
80 far as to describe them as the good angels and unfailing 
helpers of children, and Schimper records that the Abys- 
sinians consider .that they prevent constipation, and only 
regard them as disadvantageous when they grow too long. 
Notwithstanding all this, however, there are not a few 
cases on record in which anajmia and neurotic, or even 
mental, diseases have been caused by the malnutrition 
and irritation which they occasion.' 

^ Tlie method of treatment for the removal of these tiiit'-wnniis 
froni the human lio*ly eoiiHi.sts in tlie ailminiHtration, first of pnr^pitivefl, 
*uii thereafter of one <>r other of the following antbeliuintic«: — tur- 
{K&tiUf, male leni iLit.^.trt-tt Fitix-tntia^ |*(<iiiegrana(i^, or l;oiiiiau, — of 



(2) The effects of Cestode larva; may again be divided 
into two subdivisions. (a) iThat due to the invasion 
and wandering of a large brood of si.x-hooked . embryos 
has been most successfully- studied in cases in which 
animals have been fed for experimental purposes with 
fragments of ripe tape-worms ; in such instaocift a train of 
symptoms has been observed to which the name "acute 
cestodic tuberculosis" has been given. It is characterized 
by loss of appetite, fatigue, ruffling of the hair, and fever ; 
on post-mortem examination it has been found that the 
lymphatic system is in a state of inflammation, while the 
muscles present the appearance which has already been 
described. (4) The effects of formed bladder-worms may 
be summed up as dependent upon the pressure of the 
growing cyst and the consequent absorption of the sur- 
rounding tissues of the host, so that the importance of the 
results depends almost entirely upon the organ wliich is 
affected- Bladder-worms in the brain are, of course, the 
most frequently fatal, especially when, as is not unfre- 
quently the case, they exert pressure upon the ganglia 
at its base. Kiichenmeister has collected a considerable 
number of occurrences of cystic worms in the brain ; 
among these sixteen were not accompanted by pathological 
symptoms during life; in six others these were slight; 
twenty-four were cases of epilepsy, six of cramp, forty- 
two of paralysis, and twenty-three of mental disturbances 
of varying intensity. Ci/sticerci in the brain vary greatly 
in size and form according to the jirecise situation which 
they occupy ; in its ventricles they have been found as 
large as a pigeon's egg. In the meshes of the arachuoid 
the bladder sometimes grows into a remarkably branched 
structure, which has been called C^sticercus racemostis by 
Zenker (3). Another peculiar form from tlie same organ 
ha;3-been described by Koberlo (4) ; it is characterized by 
the great length of its head-process (2 cm ), which is coiled 
up into a regular spiral of sometimes three turns ; it has 
received the name Ci/sticerctis tu>bi7MtuSj though its specific 
distinctness is doubtful. The ocoui'rence of Cysticeni in 
Jhe eye is of special interest, because of the opportunity it 
affords of observing, by means of the ophthalnmscopc, the 
development of the worm in its natural environment. It 
seems generally to lie at first below the retina, and is 
visible as a bluish-white sharply defined body; subse- 
quently the retina is destroyed by the pressure, and the 
worm falls forward into the vitreous body; sometimes the 
head jnay_be_seen protruding first^Kmgh the_ opening; 
in the chambers of the eye the Cyslicercus is almost 
always free, that is, without a capsule, and swimming in 
the fluid, so that its form and motions may be readily 
and accurately observed. A large number of cases of litis 
affection have been recorded, jirincipally by Von Graofo in 
Berlin (5), and in some the bladder has been successfully 
removed by operation. 

The special symjitoms of the Echinococcus Viiiy^likc 
those of other bladder-worms, with its situation and size : 
when it grows within cavities with more or less firm limits 
compression of adjoining vesseJs and glandular passages 
often results, producing cedema, varicose veins, co^ngestion 
of various organs, or even dyspna?a, if the iiarasite occur 
in the thorax. The IKer is its most fre(|uent seat, ami 
next the lung , but there is scarcely any organ of tin. 
body in which it has not been found, even the bone; being 
sometimes affected. Since the expanding cyst grjws in 
the direction of least resistance, it has a tendency to pa!w 

whiLh the firs't two are the most reliable. Tuipeiitiiie may be <:iveii 
ill h.-ilf.oiince doses nloiig with castor oil, or made up into an emulsion 
with yolk of egg ; while the male fern is usually administered iii the 
form of li«|uid extract (h.iii a dMchiii to one tlraehiii). Careful seiin li 
bUuuUI lie made in the evaeuations for the head or scolex, without the 
uipuliiioii nf which then- ix no certaiu evidence that the itarasttejias 
betm rvuiovtiil (rum lli« boily. 



54 



TAPE-WORMS 



towards the surface of organs, and sometimes a cure is 
affected spontaneously by its rupturing into the alimentary 
canal or into some other jwissage leading to the exterior. 
Ca^es in which the cyst opens into the blood-vessels are 




Fig. 3.— Vdrious Forms 0/ Tape-Worms A, Tfita crhtnocorrus; x 12 (from 
Leuckart). R. A'rhigeles tiebotdt; x tiO(from Lcuckait)- C,Echinobolhrium 
tvput; X 10 {from Van Beneden). H, Caryophyl/xus mulabilis; x about 5 
(irom Curua), 

almost always suddenly fatal. When the Echinococciis 
occurs n^ar the surface of the body, it may be evacuated 
by puncture' and a cure effected with but little risk. 

Systematic Arrangement of the Ccstoda. 
Tlie following classification of the Cestodes. based mainly Oil tliat 
of Van Ueiieden, exhibits the present state of our knowledge of 
the group ; — 

Class Ccstoda. 

Faitiily I- Amphilinid<B. — Body oval, flattened, with a surker 
at the anterior extremity ; testes vesieular, vas deferens 
opening posteriorly; ovary (gerniarium) single, yolk glands 
double, vagina opening near tJievas deferens, uterus opening 
mitcriorly; embryo ciliated in front and with ten hooks. 
Examples; .^ni/)Ai7i7ur, Wageuer (see below), Amphiptychcs, 
Wagener. 

F»inily 11. CaryopkyUxidsE. — Rody unsegmented, flat, extended ; 
head expanded, bilobcd, and witliout hooks ; a single set of 
sexual organs in the liindcr portion ; development probably 
n simplihed motamorphoiis. Example : Caryop/njU/rus 
tnutabilis, from the intestine of Cyprinohl fishes {fig, 3, D). 

Family III. Pscudophy^hd.T.—Wen.d provided with two sucking 
grooves; proglottides not always well defined; a uterine 
ajM-rture always present in addition to the openings of tlic 
vas deferens and vagina; embryo always (?) with a ciliated 
coat, and egg-shell with an operculum. Examples : Bcthrio- 
tcphaUis (see below), Tnwnophorus { = Tricuspidarin), i>o/cno- 
phorus, Sckistocephalus, Lujula, Archigdcs, and perhaps 
Dufhicrsiu (see below). 

Faniily IV. DiphyHidfS. — Neck and two suckers armed with 
liooks. Example : Eehinnbotkrium, two species known from 
Sflachians, ofic inunature from a mollusc (fig. 3, C). 

Vamily V. Tctrarhijnchidx. — Head provided with four suckers 
and four protractile proboscidea armed with hooks; sexual 
openings marginal. Example : Tclrarhynckus (see below), 
about forty species known, many only described from im- 
mature forms. 

/arpily VI. Teirapkyllidm.—Uc^id with four very mobile and 
distinct suckers, which are often armed with hooks or 
chitinoua rods ; body segmented, proglottides cast otT when 
mature; sexual openings marginal. 
Subfamily i. Phyllobotkrinx. — Suckers withouthooks or spines. 
Examples : EchencibotkTium^ rhyllobothTixim , AnUwboth- 
rium, a few species of each, all from Elasmobranch fishes. 
Subfamily ii. PhyllacaTUhmte. — Suckers each with two to fyur 
hooks. Examples : Calhohdtkriwm, OTichobothrium, Acan- 
(hobotkriui^ two or Three speciee of each genua known from 
^eUchiaDS. 



Family Vll. Tsniadee. — Head furnished with four euck 

often with a single or double circlet of hooks ; proglotlidM- 
well-defined and cast off when mature ; no uterine apmrture. 
Example : Ticnia (see below). 

It seems advisable to odd a few details regarding some of thn 
lorms alluded to in the above synopsis. 

Ampkilina foliacea, described as a TremAtodc by Rudolphi, is 
found in the body-cavity of the sturgeon. A number of unicellular 
glands open into tlie sucker, and are surrounded by the muscles 
of tliat organ; the nervous system consists of two ganglia, with 
a commissure, and two lateral nerves ; the male organs resemble 
those of Boihrioccphalns, the female those of the Tiematodes ; the 
family is generally regarded as furnishing a connecting link be- 
tween the Ccstoda and Tranatoda ; see Salensky (18) and Lang (7), 
er v.e. c cp. ex. 







jtAjf 



Flc. 4 — B'-t\noffphaJid.€. A, A sccmcnt of Dothrweephafus tattix, sliowing the 
gtncraiive oicons Iio.n the reniral surface ; fT.. excretory vessels; r, cuius; 
f.p.. cirrus pouch ; i-.i/ . vus defeiens ; r.o., vaclnal openiftg ; v , vaginu ; fh^., 
shell-gland ; 01/ . oviduct ; oe.. ovary ; y,y , yolkylaod , ^<i . its duct; uf.. utci us; 
U.O.. ulerlne opening, tlie testes are not vislhle (10m this ..-idc ; x 2J (fiom 
Somnier and Lucdnl^l. I(. C. niarciiial and lateral views of the anterior pan of 
B tnrdalu*. slinwinp the cephalic grooves: x h (from Leuckan). D, Ciliated 
embryo ol tl- lalui ; x (Ju (fiom Leuckan) 

Bolhrioctihului latus (32) is tlio most conspicuous c.vamiile of the 
family Pscitydophylhdw, and is, moreover, notcwoithy as being the 
largest lQ|ie-\vorni round in man ; its length often teaches 8 to 9 
metres, and its extreme breadth ]0 to 12 mm. The head bears 
two grooves, whioh correspond in position with the Hat sides of 
the body. There are two (mure correctly three) genital openings, 
which arc-situated, not on the margin but on the flat side of the 
body, on that sniface which is nsnaily called the vcntial. The 
most anterior of these is the male apertuie (fig. 4, A, c . ), and im- 
mediately behind it is that of the vagina (f.o. ), so close that 011 
superficial examination the two often seem to coincide. This vaginal 
opening, like that of the Tmniadn-, serves for the intromission of 
the penis and for the ferlliizatioii of the ova. but not for the exit 
of the ripe eggs; this being |.irnidcd for by a special aperture at 
the other entT of tTic uterus fiom fh.it at wni* h the eggs enter it. 
This uterine opening (mo.) is situated at a s'lort distance behind 
the other two. The result of this arrangement is that the eggs con 
be evacuated without any injury to the proglottis, and consequently 
their discharge commences before its separation from the jtarent 
worm and may continue for a long period. The uterus {ut.) itself, 
owing to its disposition in folded coils, when full of eggs, iMcsentS' 
an irregular, rouml, lobular apj-rarance, which has been compared 
to a flower or heraldic lily. The yolk-gland (i/.j.) is widely dis- 
seminated in the lateral areas of the segments, and its duct-s (y.rf.)- 
form a series of branching tubules, first described by Eschricht 
(27) under the name "yellow ducts. " The excretory organs (cr.) 
differ from those of the Tmniads!. in that the canals exhibit a reticu- 
late arrangement. The embryo (lig. 4, D) as it leaves the egg \» 
covered with 1 cili-ated mantle, whicli corresponds to the firm egg- 
shell and associated membrane of the cystic tape-worms, and per- 
haps also to the ciliated cnvelo]io of certain Trematode larva.- (see 
Tkematoda). This ciliated organism swims fitely about in the 
water, but after a time the six hooked pioscolex escapes from it. 
The next stage in its life-history is not yet known, but it has been 
recently shown by [iraun of Dorpat (33) that at a subsequent stage 
it iiJbabits the pike and burbot, and develops into the sexual adiilt 
when transferred to the intestine of the human subject. The 
geographical distribution of Bothrwccphalia is limited; it has been 
recorded with certainty in but few places outside Europe; wlifle 
within that continent the coasts of the Baltic and Switzerlend m 



TAPE- WORMS 



oo 



the principal localities, it is widely distributed in Russia, aniA has 
been recorded from Poland, Denmark, Germany, as well as from 
Frapce and Untain, though it is possible that the ca^es occurring 
in these latter countries Jiave becrtdue toAiportatiorf: 

Tlie genus Ligula has tlie segmentation obscure orindistinguish- 
atie!" About six species are known. One is found encapsuled in a 
monkey, one hr the common seal, others in reptiles and telcosteans. 
Arxhigctes siiboldi (fi% 3. B) occurs in the body-cavity of an 
Oligochstous worm {tuhifcxyiv^lorum)\ it is about 3 mm. long, 
and consists of au oval body (scoleX)-, to which is attached a cylin- 
drical tail (proscolex), bearing at the posterior extremity three 
pairs of hooks; both these parts arc capable of motion. Thescolex 
has eight longitudinal excretory canals, and a terminal vesicle; 
the ventrally sitnated genital aperture is the common exit of the 
vas deferens, the vagina, and a uterus separate from the latter; 
the development is direct, and it attains sexual maturity without 
a change of host. Duihiersia, Perner (34), contains two species, 
both from the intestines of varanian lizards. The genus is 
characterized by the presence of two large compressed frilled 
enckers, separated by a septum and perforated at their bases. 
The proglottides have three genital apertures resembling those of 
Bothrioccphalus. 




Fig b —Teirarhynehu$. A, GeneiMl vie**" of the worm ; x 4. B. head showing 
the Suckers. prubusciJes, and excretory canals; x 25. C, portion of a pro- 
bu6Ci3 showing the tu'o forma of hooks ; higiily magnified. (Alt frum Pintner.) 

The genus Tctfrarhynehus was, a few years ago, made the subject 
of an elaborate memoir by Pintuer (9), who investigated T. longi- 
colli'i, V. Ben. The head, in whii;h its most striking anatomical 
peculiarities are situated, really includes both the head and neck 
of previous authors (fig- 5, A); it is some 9 "94 mm. long, but only 
075 mm. in diameter, and bears at its anterior end two oblifinely 
placed oval di.'iks (fig. 5, B), each of which is perforated towftrds the 
apex by two round holes through wldeh the four proboscides pro- 
trude. Each of these disks, moreover, shows traces of a division 
into two, a fact which indicates that it is formed 'by the fusion of 
two suckers corresponding to those commonly found in tape-worms. 
The Hatteiiing in this genus seems to be in a direction at right 
angles to that in which it usually takes place. The proboscides. 
winch nre the most characteristic organs of the genus, are four in 
number, and protrude from or can be retracted into the anterior 
surfaceof the head. Each consists of three parts: — (1) the tootlied 
portion IS the most anterior; it is shaped like a long narrow glove- 
ftng'ir, liku which it is invaginable; on its external .surface it 
bears rows of hooks, closely set in diagonal lines (fig. 5. C); there 
art two forms of these: those which are directed outwards are 
large triangular hooks, with apices pointing backwards, whilst 
those situated on that surface "of the proboscis which is turned 
towards the other proboscides are fine, delicate, and curved ; 
between the hooks are fine uhitinous hairs; (2) the membranous 
sheath is firmly attached where the general surface»of the body 
passes over into the toothed portion around the orifice of the 
invagination ; it consists of a thick homogeneous transparent 
skin, apparently an excretion of cells lining the cavity of the pro- 
boscis ; (3).the muscular portion is the most posterior of all, and is 
composed of srx layers, remarkable as Containing striped muscular 
fibres . throughout all these three portions'Qf the proboscis ^there 
eKtends a retractor muscle. Tire action of these various structures 
is not thoroughly understood, but it is probable that the proboscis is 
protruded by the action of the last-nampd muscular sheath, whilst 
it is retracted, after the relax.ation of this, partly by the retractor 
muscle and partly by the pressure of the surrounding medium. 
The family T&'/iiadw is usually" described as containing only th<» 



onb genus Txnia, but, owiug to tha number and variety of its 
species, of which more than 350 have been described, it has been 
subdivided ^tito gi-_Qups, regurJed by different authors as geneia or 
subgenera. "The subjoined arrangenifntis mainly tliat of Leuckart 
It labours under the disadvantage that its chief divisions are based 
upon the bladder-worm or larval stage, which is only known iil 
the case of comparatively few species. 

I. Cystici (cystic tape-worms). — Head rarely unarmed; usually 

{provided with a rostelluin and with one or more rows of 
looks; proglottides longish oval when mature; uteiug 
with meaian stem and lateral branches ; the larva has a 
caudal bladder containing fluid. 

1. Cystotmiia, Leuckait. — The head arises in the wall of the 

embryonic bladder. 
a. Tasnia sagiaata, Gbze. — Without hooks (= T. wedw- 

eanellata^ Kivchenmeister, =genus Tseniarhynchiis^ 

AVeinland). 
h. Txnia solium, Rudolphi. — Head with a double 

circlet of hooks. 
c. Taenia acantftotrias, Weinland. — Head with a triple 

circlet of Looks (•= genus Acanthotrias, Weinland). 

2. Eckinococci/cr, Weinland.— The heads arise in speciaf 

brood-capsules. T&nia echinococcii^, V. Siebold. 

II. Cystoidci (ordinary tSpe-worms). — The larva'has no distended 

caudal bladder containing fluid, 

1. /fi/)nc3io/c;jt6, Weinland. — Proboscis with a single row of 

small hooks. Tmnia na-iia^ V. Siebold, T. Jlavopunctala, 
Weinland. 

2. Dipylidium^ Leuckart. — HeaU with several rows of hooks. 

vgach with a discoidal base ; a right and left -set of 

•genital organs in each joint, the uterus, however, being 

single and common to the twa Tsenia citcumerina, 

Rudolphi (= T. dUyiicx, Batsch). 

Hamann (2) has recently proposed a new genus, Ptychopkysa, 

for Txnid liJieala, Gbze, - which is defined by the following 

characters: — (1) the porus genitalis is on the surface and not on tlie 

margin of the joints ; (2) the vagir.al opening is anterior to that of 

the cirrus; (3) at a certain period the uterus is convoluted; (4) 

there is a peculiar shell-gland. la many of these characters the 

species shows a resemblance to i\\t^ Bothriocephalidm. 

Occurrence in Man. — The Cestodes whiLh in the adnlt state 
infest man, with their CQrresponding larvae and temporary hosts, 
are as follows : — 

Teenia saginata. Cysticercus bovis. Ox. 

T. solium. C. cellulosx. Pig, man. 

r. naTia. (?) (?) 

T.fiatojninetata. (?) (?) 

T. viadagascariensis. (?) (?) 

T. cxuntmerina. C. T cvcuvurinm. Trichodectes canis, 

Bothriocephahis IcUus. Pike, burbot.i 

B. cristatus, (?) 

B. c&rdalits. Fish(?) 

Other species, however, inhabit the human body in their laVvat 
condition ; a list of them, v/ith the corresponding adult forms.-Xnd 
permanent hosts, is subjoined : — 

Cysticercus cellulose. T^nia solium. Man. 

C acanthotrias, T. acanthotrias (incog.J (?) 

C. tenuicollis. T. marginata. I^^g, wolf. 
Echinococciis. T. cchinococcus. Deg. 

Phylogcny. — There can be no doubt that the Cestodes and Tre- 
matodes are intimately rt-lated and have sprung from a comn'ion 
ancestor ; there are so many structural peculiarities i:i which they 
agree (compare Trematodes), and they are connected by so n:any 
intermediate forms, that their aflfinity can admit of no doubt. 
According to Leuckart, the original ancestor of both was probably 
allied to the Planarians, while Huxley (22, pp. 213i 676) points^ 
out that it is at ail events possible that they have no^ conncxioii 
with free forms but have always been anenterous, land' in fa^t are 
nothing but " giganti ; morulie, so to speak, which have neyer passed 
through the gastrula stage." 

Bi'jliographi/ — (1) Leuckart, Die Payasiten des Menicken. Lcipsic, lP63-7f: ; 2d 
cd.. 1879-86; Eng transl, T/ie /'araiiYe; u/A'un.Svo. Edinburgh. IhSG, (2) HumiUin, 
ZfAlschr.f. tciss. Zoo/,, jlii., 1885. (3) Zvoker, in Ziemsttn's Cyclop, of Pr-ac. Med.\ 
lit (4) Kijberld. Da CyUicn-quei ties Timiai dit t/Ivmme. Pans. ISCl. (5) Grnefe, 
A'-chivf O/'/U/ialmolome, xU^ 1S74. (6) Niemiec, fire 2oo!. Suiae, it., It-SS. (T/ 
Lang. Millh. Zoot. Stat. J^tapel.ii., 1881. (8) Fraijiont. Archives de Biol., I,. JS80» 
li..lP31. (9) VSnincT, Art. Zool. I7isi..\\\.. X'icnna, 18bl. (10) Steudener, AbhandL 
nalurj. Oe^ethch., xiii., Htlle, 1S77. (11) Wugener, \ota Acta Cxi. Lrop Carol, 
Acad-, xxiv., Suppl., 18*4. (12) lUchjn,-C-rrej!f<bl. d ttaturw. Vet- f. Sat/iten u, 
Tfuiringen, lti82. {13)P. J. Van bcr.edt.-n. " Vei8 CesfoUlos." Me>n. A>ad.B-.iitl!es. 
XXV,, 1851. and " Verslntestlnaux," Coinpirs Reiidus. Paris. Suppl.. ii.. lbi;i. (H) 
E(i Van Heneden. virfrtipe dc-fifo/.. U, ISM. {\&)na\im, Bttlr. tw Entmrielvn^y. 
ffesch. der C'/f-tieercen, Doipul. ltfS3 (16) ViHol. At. Sci. Nat. Monipcl'te- . Sept. 
1&S2. I8S3, (17) Virchow, Verh-tndl. Wurzb. phys-med Gaelltch., vi., is.=.rt. (18) 
Salcnsky, Zeitschr.f. iris:. Zoot.. \\\v , 1X74. (19) Pullu^. A'eufnni-rfisrV fi'i.'rage, 
i., il., 17S1. (20) Diesin^; Sijstema //p/mi/*(-'*u.H, &vo. Viennti. 1650. (21) l.iaatow, 
Comp, drr Jlelminthologie, 8vo, Haiiuv.-i, IS78. (22) Huxley. AmU. invvrtci/r. 
Anim., 8vo. London, 1877. (23) Pia^er. Opui Pt-axfos Afedicx. 1601. (24) Andry. 
'Aa Account of the Breeding of "SVormt in Hvman Bedics, 8vo, Londu!!, 1701 
(tranBl.). (25) UremsT, Utinr Itbcnde Wurmer im Itbenden Mcnuhtn, 4to^ 



56 



T A P — T A P 



Vienna. !B19 (26) Burdacirs rn^sMotjtt. It., Leiptilc, 1838 (87) EBCiirJcht, tfova 
Attn f*i Leop -Carot. Acad., Ilx.. Suppl.. 1841. (SB)SteeDStrup. On the Atttrna- 
Itun of Gmtratio'it, Ray Society. 8va London. 1845. (29) KUchenmeister, 
Animal Partimtt Sydenham Society, Bro, London. 1857; newf German ed., 
I.elpslc. 1H80-SI- (30) Linylow, Arehis /. jfafut gftffi , 187i tq. (31) Sommer, 
Ztiticht / i^tiJ Zoot., ixtv . 1874. (32) Sommei and Landols, op. CU-. xxll., 
167J. (831 Braun. Zur Entwicktlunt;iges<h. del bmtm BandwurmfS. Wiirz- 
burit. 1883 (84) rcrnei. Ar^h. dl Zoot Eipe>- . 11.. I8i3 (351 Rudolphl. 
Enloioorum Hut Nat. 8vo, Amsteidara, 1803. (38) Llnstow, Areh. /. A'atur- 
gtich., 18B6. p 113 For a concise account of the comparative anatomy and 
tftpiooa bibliography, sec Jnckaoa. in Kolleston'a Forrm of Ammat L\!f. 2d ed., 
Oxford. 1887 (W. E. HO.) 

TAPIOCA is a farinaceous food substance prepared 
■from cassava starch, the product of the largo tuberous 
r(X)t3 of the cassava or manioc plant, Manihot vtilissima 
{Jatropha manihot), native of Brazil (see Cassava, vol. v. 
p-. 182, and comp. Arrowroot, vol. ii. p. 631, fig. 6). 
Cassava starch, being separated from the fibrous and nitro- 
genous constituents of the roots, is in a moist condition 
spread upon jron plates, and with constant stirring exposed 
to such heab- as causes a partial rupture of the starch 
granules, which agglomerate into irregular pellets, becoming 
hard and translucent when cooled. In this partly torrefied 
condition the starch forms the tapioca of commerce, a 
light, pleasant, and digestible food, much used in puddings 
and as a thickener for soups. The French prepare an 
artificial tapioca from potato starch, mixed with various 
vegetable substances, for use in soups, &c., which is 
found in the market under such names as tapioca Crecy, 
tapioca Julienne, Ac, according to the dried vegetables 
with which the preparations are made. 

TAPIR.' The general characters of the aiiinjals of the 
perissodactyle or odd-toed section of the hoofed mammals 
are described under Mammalia, vol. xv. p. 427. This 
once numerous group is at present representeij by only 
three rather isolated families, the Horses, Rhinoceroses, 
and-Tapirss The last of these have retained much more 
of the original characters of the primitive Ungulates of the 
Eocene period than the others, and have indeed remained 
practically almost unchanged since the Miocene period, 
while almost all Other mammalian forms which existed 
then have either become extinct or undergone extensive 
modification. The tapirs constitute the single genus, 
Tapirus, of the family Tapindce. 

The dentition is i 5, c {, p J, m | ; total 42. Of the upper 
incisors, the first and second are nearly equal, with slioit, broad 
crowns, the third is large and conical, considerably larger tlian 
the true canine, which is separated from it by an interval. Lower 
incisors diininishing in size from the first to the third; the canine, 
which is in contact with the third incisor, large and conical, working 
against (and behind) the canine-like third upper incisor. In both 
jaws there is a long interspace between the canines and the coni- 
inencenientof the teeth **f the molar series, which are all in contact. 
First upper premolar with a triangular crow^n, narrow in front 
owing to tlie absence of the anterior inner cusp.- The other upper 
premolars and molars all formed on the same jOan and of nearly 
the same size, with four roots and quadrate crowns, rather wider 
transversely thanfrom before backwards, each having four cusps, 
connected by a pair of transverse ridges, anterior and posterior. 
TIi^ first lower premolar compressed in front; the others composed 
of a sim|Mo pair of ti-ansverse crests, with a small anterior and 
posterior cingiilar ridge. 

Skull elevated and compressed. Orbit ond temporal fossa widely 
•continuous, there being no true post-oibital process from the frontal 
boue. Anterior narial apertures very large, and extending high 
on the face between the orbits; nasal bones short, elevateTl, 
triangular, and pointed in front- Vertebra: i^C 7, D 18, L 5, S 6, 
C abiJlit 12. Liinbs short and stout, fpre feet with four toes, 
linving diitiiict hoofs: the first is absent, the third the longest,, 
the secon.l and fourth nearly equal, the fifth the shortest "and 
scarcely reaching tlie ground in the ordinary standing position. 
Hind fei t With the typical perissodactyle arrangement of three 
toes,— the middle one being the largest, the two others nearly etiual. 
Nose and upiier lip elongated into a flexible, mobile snout or short 
probo.sci9, near the end uf which tlie nostrils are situated. Eyes 
rather small. Ears of moderate size, ovate, erfv't. Tail very short. 
Skin thick ami but scantily covered with hair. 

The existing apecies of tapir may be grouped into two 
.sections, the distinctive characters of which are only 
recognizable in the skeleton. (A) With a great anterior 



prolongation of the ossification t>f the nasat Beptnm 
(mesethmoid), extending in the adillt far beyond the naeal 
bones, and supported and embraced at the base by ascend- 
ing plates from the maxilliE (genua Elasmognnthus, Gill). 
Two species, both from Central America, Tapirus bairdi 
and T. dowi. The former is ^ound in Mexico, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama ; the latter in 




American Tapir, from a living specimen in the London Zoological 
Gardens. 

Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. (B) With ossificaJ, 
tion of the septum not extending farther forward than the 
nasal bones {Tapirus proper). Three species, T. indicun, 
the largest of the genus, from the Malay Peninsula (as far 
north £is Tavoy and Mergui), Sumatra, and Borneo, dis- 
tinguished by its peculiar coloration, the head, neck, fore 
and hind limbs being glossy black, and the intermediate 
part of the body white; T. americanus {T. terrestrie^ 
Linn.), the common tapir of the forests and lowlands of 
Rrazil and Paraguay; and T. roulini, the Pinchaque tapir 
of the high regions of the Andes. All the American 
species are of a nearly uniform dark brown or blackish 
colour when adult ; but it is a curious circumstance that 
when young (and in this the Malay species conforms with 
the others) they are conspicuously marked with spots and 
longitudinal stripes of white or fawn colour on a darker 
ground. 

The habits of all the kinds of tapirs appear to be very 
similar. They are solitary, nocturnal, shy, and inoffensive, 
chiefly frequenting the depths of shady forests and the 
peighbourhood of water, to which they frequently resort 
for the purpose of bathing, and in wliicli they often take 
refuge when pursued. They feed on various vegetable 
substances, as shoots of trees and bushes, buds, and leaves. 
They are hunted b"y the natives of the lands in which they 
live for the sake of their hides and flesh. 

The singular fact of the existence of so closely allied 
animals as the Malayan and the American tapirs in such 
distant regions of the earth and in no intervening places 
is accounted for by wliat is known of the geological history 
of the race, for, if we may judge from thesomewhat scanty 
remains which have been preserved to our times, consisting 
chiefly of teeth, the tapirs must once have had a very wide 
distribution. There is no p^roof of their having lived in 
the Eocene epoch, but in deposits of Miocene and Pliocene 
date remains undistinguishable generically and perhaps 
specifically from the modern tapirs (though named T. 
priscus, T. arvemensis, kc.) have been found io France, 
Germany, and in the red crag of Suffolk. Tapirs appear, 



T A R — T A R 



67 



however, to have become extinct in Europe before the 
Pleistocene period, as none of their bones or teeth have 
been found in any of the caves or alluvial dej^'Osits in which 
those of clt|ihants, rhinoceroses, and hip|io>intaniUbes occur 
in abundance , but In other regions thtir distribution at 
this age was far wider than at pri sent, as they arc kiiu«n 
to have evtendcd eastward to China (T .«<«<#i.-i«. Owm) 
ind westwards over the ■.'nater part o' the souilurn 
United States of America, from South C.iroliiia to Oili 
forma. Lund also distinguished two species or varieties 
from the caves of Brazil. Thus we have no dilliculty in 
tracing the common origin ir the .Miocene tapirs of Europe 
of the now widely .separated American and Asiatic species 
It IS, moreover, interesting to observe how very sliglil an 
amount of variation has taken place in forms isolated 
during such an enormous periuc' of tunc 'w h f 

TAK is a product of the destructive distillation of 
organic substances, ft is a highly complex material, vary- 
ing in its composition according to the nature of the 
body from tvhich it is distilled,— ditierent jiuducts, more- 
over, being obtained according to the temperature at which 
the process of distillation is carried on. As commercial 
products tlieie are two principal clas.se.s of tar in use— (1) 
wood tar, the product of the special dislill.itiotr ^f several 
varieties of wood, and {.) coal tar, which is primarily a 
iiyc product of the distilLUKm of coal for tlie manufacture 
of illuminating gas Tliese tars are intimately related to 
'the bitumen, asphalt, mineral pitch, and petroleum ob- 
tained in verv many localities throughout the world. 

W','k( Tor. — Wood tar, known also as Stockholm and 
Ss Archangel tar, is principally prepared in the great [>ine 
forests ol central and northern iiussia, Finland, and Sweden. 
Tlie material rliiiHy employed is the resinous stools and 
roots of the Scotch fir {J'iitns si/hystn'x) and the Siberian 
larcH fLnnx silin'ca), with other less common fir tree 
roots. A large amount ot tar is also prepared frpm the 
roots of the sw-amp pine (P. austmtis) in North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, in ihe United 
States. In the distillation of wood a series of products, 
including gas, tar, pyroligneous acid and wood spirit, and 
charcoal ni.iy be obtained, and any of these may be the 
primary object of the operation. When tar is the sub- 
stance sought, tlie ancient and crude method of working is 
yet largely adopteQ in ihe north of Europe. The wood to 
be treated is closely piled up into a huge conical stack or 
pile on an elevated platform, the sole of which is covered 
with clay and tiles. The sole slopes inwards from every 
side to the centre, where an opening communicate? with a 
vaulted cavity under the elevated platform. The pile of 
wood is closely covered over with layers of turf and earth 
or sand to a depth of several inches, but leaving at first 
near the bottom numerous apertures for the admission of 
air to promote ignition. The pile is ignited from below, 
and as the fire spreads through the heap the various 
apertures are closed up and a slow smouldering combus- 
tion goes on for some days till, by the sinking of the pile, 
the top of the stack falls in, and a bright flame springs 
up at that point. About ten days after ignition tar first 
begins to llow, and it is at once collected into barrels. 
According to the size of the pile, the distillation may 
continue several weeks, the tar secured amounting to 
about 17 5 per cent, of the wood operated on In this 
method several valuable products — the gas, the Ci..dc j'yro- 
ligneous acid, and much charcoal— are lost or wasted, and 
a more economical process of treating the wood in closed 
stills or retorts is now largely used in Russia, the gas evolved 
serving as fuel under the retorts The heavier tar prO' 
ducts of the distillation collect at the bottom of the retort, 
whence they are carried off by a pipe to a receiver , the 
jolatUe portion passes off at the upper part of the retort, 



and is separately condensed, tbe lightest portion passing 
through a worm condenser. From treatment in close 
retorts resinous roots yield from 16 to 20 per cent, of tar, 
with some oil of turpentine and pyroligneous acid. 

Wood tar is a .semi-fluid substance, of a dark brown Ot 
bl.ick coloui, with a strong pungent odour and a sbar[7 
taste Owing to the presence of acetic (pyroligneous) 
aiid, wliieli is a coU.iteraJ product, it has an acid reaction j 
It is soluble in that acid, as well as in alcohol and the fi.xeq 
and es.stntiul oil.s, Ac Tar consists essentially of a mixtur^ 
of homologous hydrocarbons, and by redistillation it can be 
fractionated into a series of bodies having fi.xed boiling 
points Some varieties of tar have a granular appear) 
anec, from the presence of mimitc crystals of pyiocaiechinj 
which dissolve and disappear on heating the substance! 
Fyrocatechin dissolves freely in water, and to it the taV 
water (lii/uor /ncis) of phannary probably owes its value> 

Crude tar from retorts, when submitted to redistillation^ 
gives off wood spirit (inetliyl-alcohol). and then acetic 
(pyroligneous) acid, and finally, on forcing the heat, [litch 
oil is driven off The lesidmnu left in the still hardens 
into a solid vitreous mass, which forms the black pitch of 
commerce. Tar and pitch are most largely used as pro-, 
tective coatings for woodwork and other materials much 
exposed to water and the weather. Thus tar is of great 
value in connexion with shipbuilding and shipping gencr 
rally A considerable quantity is used in manufacturing 
tarred ropes, and in the "smearing" of highland sheep to 
afford a protection against the weathei Pitch also is the 
basis of the Berlin black or Brunswick l^lack Used for coat- 
ing cast-iron goods and for "japanning" preparations 

Cu<d Tar. — The art of distilling coal for the production 
of tar was discovered and patented by tbe earl of I)un- 
donald in 1787, and till the general introduction of coal 
gas some amount of coal was yearly distilled in Scotland 
for the production of coal tar. The demand for the sub 
stance was limited, it being principally used for coating 
iron castings and smith work, for making an inferioi 
lamp black, and as a«source of a .solvent oil. With the 
extensive use of coal gas the necessity for this separate 
distillation ceased, and soon tar was produced in the manu; 
facture of gas in quantities that couM not be disposed of. 
It was burned up for heating gas-retorts; it was mi.xed 
with coal dust, .sawdust. Sec, for making patent fuel ! 
and it was distilled for producing a series of hydrocarbon 
oils, heavy tar, and pitch ; but it was only aftet'the dis- 
covery and introduction of "tar-colours" that the sub- 
stance came for some time to be really valoable. Since 
that time its price has fluctuated greatly ; and in the 
United Kingdom alone there are now distilled annually 
about 10,000,000 tons of coal for gas-making, producing 
120,000,000 gallons of crude tar — a quantity greativ in 
excess of the ordinary demand 

If wood btr distilled elowly nt low temperatures, the gases cwisist 
cliiefly of carbonic oxidt- and carbonic acid, mixed with only very 
little of carburettt'd Iiydrogens, and consequently little luminous 
OD combustioD , the watery j-art of the t;ir includes relatively mucb 
of methyl. alcohol, acetone, and acetic acid ; the oily part of the 
tar (tar proper) has a Cfrtain proximate composition chariicteristic 
of this mode of distillation. Our present knowledge in regard tc 
this last-named point is very incomplLle , of definite species tho 
following have been discovered : — 

il) Phenol, C^Hi OH (>>-nonvm caibolic acid). 
2) Crcsol. (CjH, Cn.lOR 
S) Phlorol. (C^H, OHlCjHj 

(4) Pyrocntcchine, (CaH,)(OH);. ont- ol three iaomeridea 

(5) Ouaiacol. C,;!!, \ q''„ . methyl-ester of No.'4. 
((!) Homo-pyroeatcchlne, {CsBjtCH,)}(On)j. 

(7) Creosol. I CRjlCnjl I g^jj , mclhylester ot No. 6?^ 

Genuine creosote consists of (1), (2), (5), and (7). In addition.. 

there aro numberless bodies which still await scientihc definition. , 

. if the distillation of wood is carried out at a very high tempera 

ture, — if, 'or instance, the wood is placed in a relatively large r«tor^ 

~ XXIU. — 8 



58 



TAR 



previously brought up to a bright red heat and "kept at such 
temperature, or if the vapours produced at a relatively low tempera- 
ture are passed through luteiiscly heated pipes before reachiug tlie 
condenser (Pettenkoter's method for producing illuminating gas 
from wood), — the gas produced contains a considerable admixture 
of lurainiferous hydrocarbons, the proportions of methyl-alcohol, 
acetone, and acetic acid gt-t less, and the tar proper assumes more 
of the character of coal gas tar (sec below). Similar observations 
we make in the case of coiil. About 1862 Wigan cannel coal used 
to be distilled iudustriolly at low temperatures to produce "light 
oils." Schorlcmnier examined these and found them to consist 
chiefly of "paralVms" (see Paraffin) from CjHia upwards. A. 
similar result is obtained with ordinary coal, although iu its" case 
the " benzols " are more largely represented. If we distil any kind 
of coal at high temperatures— ».?. , in the w;iy customary tor illumin- 
ating-gas making— the distilhble part of the tar proper consista 
chiefly of benzene, C^Hfi, and benzene-derivatives, i.e., benzols, 
CgHe + nCH^; j)hcnols, CJi,p. and homologues, (CeH5.nCH2)OH ; 
amido-bodies, CgH^NH.. (auiline), and homologues'; condensed 
benzols, such as naphthalene, CiyHg = 2Ct;H^- CjH^; anthracene, 
CuHio = SC.He - CjHg ; chryseno. C,sH,; = 4C6H8 - C^H^^ &c. The 
paraffins then beeonte an altogether subordinate feature. 
J A great and meritorious research of Berthclot's has thrown con- 
siderable light on the chemical mechanism of dry distillation. As 
found by him, evou the most complex of the substances named are 
producible by the interaction upou one another of a few bodies of 
very simple constitution, or even one or other of these by the mere 
action of a high temperature. To give a few examples. Marsh- 
gas, CH^, when pa-ssed through red-hot tubes, yields defines, C,Hj, 
CgH^, CjH^, &c. , with elimination of hydrogen, H^. The same 
CHj, if subjected to a spark-current (i.«., local application of intense 
heat), yields acetylene and hydrogen, 2CH4 = CaH,-t-3Ha, and the 
acetylene produced passes partly into benzene^ C6Hn = 3C2H2. 
Ethylene, CjH^, when passed through a porcelain tube kept at a 
uioderato red heat, yields benzene, C^.Hg, etyrolene = phenyl- 
ethylene, C2H3.C6H5, naphthalene, CjoHe, and perhaps also its 
hydride, CioHjo. Acetylene, f/fwz potential benzene, and ethylene 
yield st>Tolcne and hydro;^cn, CeH^ + Con^ = Cf,H5.C2H3 4-H2; and 
stjTolenc plus ethylene yields hydrogen and naphthalene, CioHe- 

Benzol at a high temperature loses hydrogen, and, so to say, 
doubles up into di-phenyl, Cj^Hjo; and this latter, when heated with 
ethylene, yields anthracene, CnHio, and hydrogen, Cj^Hjo + C^Hj^ 
^14^10 + 2H3. Conversely, hydrogen may, so to say, turn out its 
equivalent of a hydrocarbon ; ^thus, for instance, chrysene, Ci^Hi-j -t- 
2H2. yields di-phenyl, CiM^q, + benzene, CJl^. 

Pyrogenic reaction.'* generally are revtrsiblo; thus, any of the 
following three equations is correct, whether we read it from the 
left to the right or from the right to the left : — ^ 

(1) C,B, (ethane), at a red heat become* CsH^-t-n,. 
-(S) C„H,o-l-2Ho=2CaBe-|-C2H5. 

Hence no single pyrogenic re.'Ktion goes to the end ; if it doea not, 
so to say, check its ov^ii progress, other secondary reactions set in 
and do so, the general result being that ultimately, but in general 
slowly, a state of dynamic equilibrium is attained in which a set 
of synthetic leactions on the one hand and a set of analytic 
Tdactions on the other compensate ijtae another. 

Industrial Working of Coal Tar.^ — Coal tar, as it comes from 
the gas-works, is used for a varioty of purposes, sx^ch as— -(1) for 
fuel, the tar being made into a spray by means of a steam -injector 
and the spray kindled ; (2) for the preservation of building 
materials, porous stones, and bricts. &c. ; (3) for talking roofing- 
felt (iu 1S68, five-sixths of the 9000 tons of tar produced at the 
Berlin gas-works was tlius utilized ; the case, however, is" diflcrent 
now) ; (4) for making a low quality of lampblack. At present, 
ho^vevcr, raoat of the tar produced, in centres of industry at least, 
19 worked up h^ distillation. The tar as it comes from the gas- 
>vorks is allowed to rest in a "pond" until the tar-water (solution 
chiefly of ammonia and certain ammonia salts) has gone to the top. 
The tar proper is then pumped into a large wrought-iron still (of 
upright-cylinder form preferably) and therein subjected to distilla- 
tion over a naked fire. A necessary preliminary, however, is the 
removal of the unavoidable remnant of water, which is best cfTccted 
by cautiously heating the tar in the still so as to render it more 
lliid and enable the water to risa to the top and then letting the 
upper stratum run out by an overflow tap at the side. The dis- 
tillation is then started. It involves the formation of two setd of 
vftlatde products, yaraely— (1 ) combustible gases (includitig sulphur- 
«r,ted hydrogen and bisulphide of carbon vapour), which must bo 
ltd away to avoid uuLsance and danger of fire, and (2) a very 
complex liquid or semi-liquid distillate. This latter is collected 
iti successive fractions, generally in this manner: — (I) as ** first 
runnings." what comes over at temperatures below 105* to 110* C. ; 
(2) as " light oils," at temperatures between 110' and 210^ C; (3) 
13 "^rbolic oil," at temperatures between 210* to 240* C. ; (4) as 

' For wood i«r, Bce Wood 8praiT aod VnrBOAR. 



"creosote" oil," at temperatures between 240* to 270* C; (5) u 
anthracene oil. at tempeniture.s above 270°. 

in the earlier part of the "first runnings" and light-oil period 
the condenser r.uist be kept cold ; towards the end it must be kept 
warm to prevent choking by solidified naphthalene. In practice, 
the operator does not go entirely by the boiling point, put to a 
great extent by the specific gravity of the distillate, which, in 
general, increases as the boiling point rises. As soon as a drop of 
the last runnings floats in water (exhibits the specific gravity 1), 
the "light oil " is supposed to be over. That the fractionation ia 
not always and everywhere effected in the same way needs hardly 
be said. If the manufacture of carbolic acid is aimed at, it is beet 
(according to Lunge) to select the fraction 170' to 230' C. for this 
purpose. Naphthalene boils as high as 217°, yet a deal goes into 
this carbolic-acid fraction. As soon as naphthalene begins to 
crystallize out largely (on cooling down a sample of distillate), the 
carbolic acid may be presumed to be over. What follows next is 
put aside as creosote oil, until, after the disappearance of the 
naphthalene, a now solid product, namely, authracciie, begins to 
'show itself. With any tar that contains a remunerative proportion 
of anthracene, the anthracene oil is the most valuable of the pro- 
ducts, as the raw material for the making of artificial alizarins. 

Supposing the anthracene to have been extracted as completely 
as practicable, the residue in the still consists of "hard pitch, ' 
a viscid black fluid which on cooling freezes into a fragile solid. 
In former times more commonly than now "soft pitch" used to 
be produced by leaving more or less of the anthracene oil and even 
creosote oil in the still. At the end of the anthracene stage of the 
distillation it is as well, if not necessary, to help the very high 
boiling vapour out of the still by means of superheated steam, and 
to keep the worm at 100* C. to prevent choking. At a Germa.n 
establishment a vacuum is used with great advantage. 

We come now to explain briefly how the several fractions are 
worked up. 

The pitch (which wo assume to be " hard pitch ") must be run 
otf hot through a tap at the bottom of the still and h-d into a low- 
roofed and well closed-in "house," because it would take fire in 
the open air. After it has cooled down sutficiently in the '* house," 
the pitch is run into pitch-holos in front of the house and allowed 
to freeze there. The depth of pitch in a hole is about 12 inches. 
The solid pitch is hacked out with pickaxes and sent into com- 
merce. A superior apparatus for the recovery of the pitch, which 
precludes all uanger of conflagration and many inconveniences of 
the ordinary system, has been devised for the Paris gas-works by 
RegnauU.- Lunge found, fiom-many distillations, that tar from 
the midland couutjes yields about 55 per cent, of hard pitch. 

Hard pitch is used chiefly for making the following. (1) 
Asphalt. — The pitch is fused up — perhaps in the still whicn pro- 
duced it — with the requisite proportion of creosote and anthracene 
oil, previously freed from their valuable components. Such asphalt 
is used for street-paving, i.e., filling up tne spaces between the 
paving-stones, and, in admixture with sand and generally more or 
less of natural asphaU; for the making of footpaths and floorings 
generally. In Germany it serves for the making of pipes for con-' 
veying acid liquids in works and chemical liboratories, kc. End- 
less herap-paper is soaked in liquefied asphalt and wound spirally 
around an iron core, preWously smeared over with soft soap, in 
about 100 layers. The whole ia then exposed to strong pressure 
Vhile still hot, and is separated from the core after being allowed 
to cooL Such pipes stand almost any kind of acid, but they must 
not be -used for hot liquids. (2) Varnishes. — The pitch is dissolved 
in suitable tar oils,— creosote oil for a lower and light oil for a 
higher quality. (3) Coke. — In former times more frequently than 
now pitch was made into coke by transferring it to a special flat 
still and distilling as long as any volatile products came off. 
The coke which remains is a very pure and consequently valuable 
fuel. (4) Lamp Slack (as a last resource, if no other mode of 
utilization is practicable). — The p-itch is subjected to partial com- 
bustion on hot iron plates and the smoke conveyed into chambers 
to deposit its carbon. The yield is about 40 per cent. 

Anthracene Oil. —The oil is allowed to stand cold for a week 
or so until the anthracene has crystallized out as completely as 
possible. The mother-liquor is then eliminated, the bulk by 
means of a filter-press, the rest, at a higher than the ordinary 
temperature, by hydraiilic pres:sure. The crude product includes 
far more than half its weight of impurities — phenanthrcne, paraffin, 
naphthalene, &c. To remove these as far as possible, the crude 
anthracene is giOAind up and treated with petroleum spirit (boiling 
at 70* to 100' C.) or coal tar naphtha {120 to 190°), in which real 
anthiacene is relatively insoluble. The insoluble part is separated 
by filtering arrangements and presses {so construded as to avoid 
dange*- of Ore), and at last sublimed, more with the view of bring- 
ing il into a customary convenient form than with the object of 
effecting further purification. Such final anthracene may contain 
50 to 65 per cent, of pure substance. The only reliable method for 

2 It ia descrtbod In Liini^e's Treatise on the DutitlatioH 0/ Coal Tar, London, 
1883, to witicb tbis aixtcle Ih largely indebrM 



qaS™r?f H hf h T '" -J^T.* * '?°^? ^''Sht into anthra- 
2f rhm^.h' ■^" " -^ '""'"'« '*.'"''' * ?'*='*' a«ti(iMid solution 

call«cung «nd «^i|hing the product Qne part of qumoue corre 
sponds to 0-8558 of anthracene. "i 4iuaoue corre- 

Of pitch. &C. or else redistilled to extract from it what there is of 
r^t^^J"' "' ^■"l,<^f''ohc acid oU. which are worked up with the 
respective principal quantities. ^ 

CarMic 0,7 -Assuming this oil to have been collected (as it should 
•^30= Sifnti"' f' "''^'°S "' carbolic acid) between 70' Jnd 

^Li .f"^'^ of extraction is. briefly, as follows. The oiJ is 
™..ed with a suitable proportion of caustic-soda ley (ascertained 

. uS^Tv^irrL"^" '"^'^ ^\ '''}' '"y- Charles^L^ve r^com 
..'. nds ley of 1 34 sp. gr.. diluted with water to five times its 
l^d hL. Af^r ^ttlin.. the aqueous layer is withTw Tto^ 
Cn^ri^n^Lr^'r" "■' '°'^^ supersaturated by sulphuric ac°d 
Crude carboUc acid nses to the top as an oil, and is withdrawn t^ 
bo sold as such or purified. See Carbolic Acid '"''"''*^" »" 
Aapkihakn, abounds in the oil left after extraction of the 

S c,^:« „rFrrl' "' ■" '"^""^ volatile factions of 
^J^ "i'" "'^'' " separates out (not completely) 

on standing, in crystals^ These are collected, best in a filter- preL 
lht^,l '"^'"''^ to hydraulic pressure to force out the rcsHl 
the mother-liquor The cmde naphthalene thus obtained ontains 
an impunty which causes >t to become red on standing in 'the a^r 
To remove it, the crude product ,s mixed with 5 to oVcr cent of 

VuZJ o, Tn' 'ni^" ^'- " ' ■"""^"'^ '^^" (additVn Z 1 tt e 
^11 A ^ "^nsanese is an improvement, LnngeJ- it is then 
washed first w,th water, then with dUute alkali, and lastly a^an 
ri.r -k'" "^"."""^tely distilled or sublimk In t!^ fct " 

^u!^ •' .ttres^'"s^''^.td hif -t ^?^r^^^^ ^ 

WthT-Serk'> i*°'l„t.''? "eautiful scarlet* and crimsons made 

c%%'unL"'d:"v'ed??om^trap^t^hT.^"^-fS\i^iif'^^o:r/-- 

or more nuxtureaof " benzols " are obtained ' "'"' °°' 

^e cann^ot po^ibirconstert T/ln '°T""'- ^"' "•'=^« 
the way in which the Mver.r\ "^%""" rather g,ve an idea of 
40.) are heing isolated u> a t . "r"^' '?'""' (i"^'^zene, toluene, 
the demand^^oHhe ter^oloor L^°^'PP"'^■^"" P""«5' '° ""^<^t 
named component by meals of ^7'^' ^■n'*'' '" "''" '"^ °"« 

mediate condenser at a ,^if,M . "■"■ """^ ''^"P "'" '"t"- 

the less volatne part „f?v,'"'"^'" temperature, so that all 
to thestill An exceirent ,n?PT '^'^1°.'"^^""^ ^"d sent back 
and worked successfullv bvTr^" "^ u" ^'"'^ ^^ constructed 
three parts Z J!\)Lhu% TI\ "'' ''Pl'^ratus consists of 

= ^'Sii'^i5^~r'^=ii;^i"i/'^: 
siiX^^^o^nrrHsEr^^^^— -^^^^^ 

xaponr m passing from a compartment to the next higher 



T A R— T A B 



59 



^aporlan ovl'rfl^""?'' "l' "''"'j' ""■''^"^=<J ">"« from preceding 
ImSltlonTf 1h„ iP'^A'^PP'^'^ '"='''"' ^V coudensate, Ldcrinf 
W m „ . '"''"'* '" °"y compartment beyond a certaiS 

Sor stp^e :? a-uTr^'tnfwr ;5;:^Toin'th^^ .^ru!r-5 
rap;rVert7tLTr,-, -d°'.srnird^£ - "-™--^ 

1 o prepare benzene the still-head is kept at 60° to 70° C At first 
1^0^71° lowboiling bodies and benzene goes over whi^h is 
reiected, but soon pure benzol follows and continues un'tnarnn!? 
hUtrG^-s'/c^ distiUedover. The^benXb'i^L'ed bo 

UO' and .n.m^thvl-b:iVenTc fs rioit^' "o nt^l?^'°"tV 1^0^ 
ZhllnZT.Z'Tr'' • ""' '''^ P—b-ome trouble om; 

c5^^C:?r^^-,-Str-t^L|ofi?; 

Pure benzene, toluene, and xylene are used largely for the mam. 

S 'iZZ%:\: ES '"'""' '""'""oiat e|-c. 

(3) -Toluol- ■ ■ ■• 83 

(4) Cnibureuing naphtlia " ■' !?? 

(5) Solvent iiaphtlia ... " " !,X 

(6) Burning napJiiho [_ "" ' " {'^ 

powe°r ^NoTr^/ '="''ch>ngcoal.gas and adding to its lummiferoua 
fZ7,\ fh varmshes, ,^o. 6 for feeding primitive laiuDS 

used in the open a,,-, where smoke is no objection. "^ 

,r„-k / ""^/."'"""^Sc table for the tar from the Berlin eas. 
works (given in C7«,„»c/«, /«rf„^/„« for 1879) gives an Sea of th. 
quantitative composition of this most complex material - 
Benzol (includinc tolnol. tcj n sfi 

Higher benzols " "" 

Crysuljized carbolic neld... „.?„ 

Ciescfl for disinfecting purposes: ■ 030 

— C'60 
S400 
0-20 
U'OO 
15-20 

TARAI, a British district in the Kumdun dfyrsron^of 
the lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces 
and Oudh India, lying between 28° 5r and 29° 30' N 
lat. and 78 46' and 79° 47' E. long, ft contains an area 



Creosote 0(1 

Anthi-acene (pure) 

Pitch 

Water and loss 



01 <i.J8 square miles, and is bounded on the N by the 
Khumaun Bhabar, on the E by Nepil and Pilibhit sub- 

rZ'h" . \T'"^ t'''/"'' °° '^' S. by the districts of 

Bareiliy and MoradibAd and the native state of R.^mpur 

and on the W^ by Bijnaur. The headquarter, of the dis! 

trict are at Nam, Tal. Tarai (■■ moist land ") consists of 

a long narrow strip of country running for about 90 miles 

east and west along the foot of the Himalayas, with an 

average breadth of about I 2 miles. At its northern edge. 

where the waterless forest tract of the Bh4bar ends a 

series of springs burst from the surface, and these 'in- 

creas.ng and uniting in their progress, form the numerous 

streams that intersect the Taiai. The Deoha is the great 

nver of the Tarai proper, and is navigable at Pilibhit 

Elephants, tigers bears, leopards, hy.Bnas, and other wild 

animals are found ,n the district. The climate is normaUy 

bad but improvement is gradually following the spread of 

sanitary measures. ^ 

,,,^'"'*"S tn the census of 1881 the ,>onulation was 206 993 

iud''.'o,.rin:d^:; ^'^ '-'t:' ."r''^ "t*^"" '"'•«'' 

tendency of the populatton is to agricultural and not to urUn lifi 



60 



T A B — T A R 



rho total ai-oa under crop in 1834-85 was 254,288 acres, of which 
rico occupied 92.136 acres, wheat 54,627, and other food grains 
80,304 acres. There are no maniffactures worthy of note, and 
tho cliief trade is the export of grain. The gross revenue io 
1884-85 amounted to £42,048, the land yielding £35.507. The 
Farai came umier British rule at the time (1802) when Rohilkhand 
ivas ceded to the East India Company. The Government is said to 
bavo looked with indilfercnce on this uninviting tract, but since 
1831, when the revenue settlements were revised, this reproach 
aa.*i been less deserved. ,, With an improved system of embankments 
uid irrigation in 1851, the formation of the Tuiai into a separate 
listrict in 1801, and its complete Kubjection to Kumaun in 1870, 
;he moral and material history of this tract lias ;rcatlY irauroved. 
^TARANTO. See Tarentdm. \ 
iTAUANTULA. „ The taTa.nln\a. {L^ua' tarantula)' he- 
longs to the mining section of the faniily Lt/cosidx or 
Wolf Spiders." Its cephalothorax is dorsally of a brownish 
jrey colour, whilst the abdomen is more distinctly brown, 
ind marked with either two or three pairs of triangular 
black spots above the apeif of the triangles pointing back- 
tvards. , One of the most striking specific characteristics of 
this spider is a large circular black spot which covers the 
interior ventral half of the abdomen, the remainder of this 
surface presenting an ochreous hue.' The largest species 
does not exceed -J inch in length. . The eight eyes are 
irranged in three transverse rows, the anterior containing 
four small eyes, while behind this two pairs of larger eyes 
ire arranged in two rows, the eyes of the hindermost row 
having between them a wider interval than the .first pair. . 
^.The tarantula is widely distributed in southern Europe, 
round the shores of the Mediterranean. ' • It occurs through- 
out Spain and is found in southern Franco, and extends 
into Asia. ~ In Italy it is said to be especially common in 
/Apulia, round the town of Ta ran to, from which place the 
aame of this spider is usually derived. A species has also 
been described from northern Africa. . It is usually to be 
found in dry pieces of waste land exposed to the sun.: It 
lives in an underground passage, which it digs for itself 
ind lines with its web. These passages are' round in 
lection, .and sometimes an' inch in_ diameter, and may 
2xtend to a depth of a foot or'more below the surface. 
The^ tube_first .descends, vertically foF'some inches, then 
benda fttan obtus^angle, becoming__vertical again near its 
j^osed"en3r^'yie_.tLViuititl£Takes_up its position -at the_ 
ilrst Eend,Avhore it can c6mn^nd,thel;iitrance,'on_lhe''look- 
5ut foFprey.^In some cases_tlie tube is prolonged fabove 
jhe surface of the earth by the formation of a small funnel, 
built up of. fragments' of wood and earth, and lined like 
ihe walls of the tunnel by the web. - The females show 
considerable maternal care for their offspring, and some- 
times sit upon their egg sacs;' and the species', ' although 
jomewhat fierce and combative ' amongst themselves, are 
capable of being tamed.', 

Tahantis.m. The tarantula has~givcn its-name to one of those 
dancing manias which. ovcrspre.-id Euro.pe during tho Middle Ages. 
The bite of tlio spider tlirew the sulTerer into a depressed state of 
melanclioly, accompanied by various nervous disorders. The con- 
dition was accompanied by an increased sensibility to, the power 
?f music. The excitement of tjie nervous system amounted in 
some cjses almost to insanity. The symptoms of the patient seem 
to have varied a good deal with the character of tlie individual 
Jttaeked: tlio nio.st common were a lividity of tlio body, icy cold- 
ocss, great depression, n.-iusea, sexual excitement, and loss of sight 
ind hearing. The only me.ans of arousing the suHcrer from the 
letliargy into which he sank was music. Under the influence of 
this he awoke as it were, and commenced moving ihythmic.ally, 
then began to dance, and continued increasing the r.ipidity of the 
motion until he fell exliausted to the ground. 13y this 'means it 
ivas considered that the poison of the tarantula was distributed 
through the system .ind worked out tl-.rougli tlie skin. If the 
music ceased whilst the patient was dancing, he at once sank bacli 
into the state of lethargy from wliich he liad been aroused, but 
when tlioroughly exhausted he generally awoke lelieved and cured 
at least for a time. This dancing mania became contagious: one 
person cnuglit it from another qnite independently of the bite 
of the tarantula, and in this way whole districts became alTccted. 
One of the most Dtculiar characteristics was the attraction that 



bright pieces' of metal.^ or brilliant pieces of colour, exercised 
J5ver the imagination of the dancers. This was particularly marked 
in the later history of the disease. Each sufferer apparently admired 
one p.irticular hue, the -sight of which seemed to cause him tie 
greatest rapture. Red was a very general favourite, though this 
colour threw St Vitus's dancers into a frenzy of rage; green, 
yellow, and other colours also had numerous admirers. Other 
colours, on -the contrary, they detested, and attempted to destroy 
articles of the obnoxious shade. 

In marked contrast to the" cfTect'produced by hydrophobia,' 

tarantism appeared to cvoko in its victims an intense longing for 

the sea, into which at times they would precipitate themselves; 

at all times they seemed to prefer the vicinity of water, sometimes 

'* carrying globes of this fluid whilst dancing. 

In its origin tarantism ai>pears to have bcen'contcmporaneous 
with the St Vitus's d.ince of Germany, It first appeared towards 
the end of the 14th ccntnry in Apulia ; thence it spread gradually 
lliroughout Italy, and reached its heiglit during the 17tli century, 
by which time the dancing manias of the North had already died 
out. It affected not only inliabitunts of the country but foicigir.i-s- 
visiting it; age appears to have had no saving influence: children 
and old people alike conmicnced dancing at the sound of the 
taiantulla, but as a rule women were more susceptible than menj 
From tlic 17tli century onwards it has gradually declined, and is 
.now practically unknown, tlie only relic of it being the graceful 
dance of soutiiern Italy called the tarantella. The bite of tho 
taraiitula'is painful but not dangerous, and the real cause of. th«' 
phenomena described above niu.st be sought in the temporary 
epidemic prevalence of an hysterical condition. 
^Thc Lucofa tarantula is figured in Ann. Sc. Nat., 2d scr., ii[. Zoologie, 1835. 

TAR ARE, on tho Turdine.^a manufacturing town oi 
France, and the second most populous in the department 
of Khunc, is 2.5. miles north-west of Lyons. Within a 
circle drawn. 25 or 30 miles from the town more than 
C0,000 workmen are Employed, and the value of the 
textile fabrics produced exceeds £G00,000 per annum. 
Tarlatans are made in Tarare on more than 3000 Jacqnard 
looms. ■; The manufacture of Swiss cotton yarns and crochet 
embroideries was introduced at the end of last century ; 
in the beginning of the 19th figured stuffs, openworks, 
and zephyrs were first produced. The manufacture ol 
silk plush for hats and machine-made velvets, which was 
set up a few years ago, now employs 2900 workmen and 
000 girls, the latter being engaged in silk throwing and 
winding.'^ There are, besides, four or five dyeing and 
printing establishments, and silk .looms working for the 
Lyons trade!' 'An ini[)Ortant' commerce is carried on io 
corn, cattle, linen, hemp, thread, and leather. "^ In .1686 
the population was 11,848 (commune 12,980). 

Till 1756, when Simonnct introduced the manufacture of muslins 
from S\\itl!eiland, Tarare lay unknown among the mountains. Od' 
„the old c.istle to which the town owes its grigin may be seen tht' 
arms of tlie family of Albon.- 

'TAT{ASCON,irtown"of France, in. tbe department ol 
Bouclies-du-Rhune, is. situated on the left bank of "li.e 
Rhone, opposite Beaucaire, with which it is connected by 
a suspension and a railway bridge. It is on the Lyonf 
and Marseilles Railway, 156 miles south of the formei 
town. The church of St Martha, built in 1187-97 on 
the ruins of a Roman temple, rebuilt in 1379-1449, ha^ 
a Gothic spire, and many interesting pictures in the 
interior, which is of fairly pure Pointed architecture. Of 
the original building there remain a porch, and a sid{ 
portal with capitols like those of St Trophimus at Aries? 
The former leads to the crypt, where are the tombs ol 
St'Maitha and Louis IL; king of Provence. The castle;' 
jiicturcsciucly situated on a rock, was begun by Count 
Louis II. in the 14th century and finished by King Rent 
<4 Anjou in the 15th. It contains a turret stair and a 
chapel entrance, which 'are charming examples of 15th; 
century architecture, and fine wooden ceilings. It is iio\V 
used as a pri.son. The civil court of. the arrondissemeut of 
Aries is situated at Tarascon, which also possesses a com' 
mercial court, a hotel de ville, and fine cavalry barracks, 
Hats, and the so-called Aries sausages, are made ler^ 
The population in 1886 was 6647 (commune 9314). ~ 



T A R — T A R 



61 



The town wmk« op for the fair of B«ttDcaire aoil the fSte of Ls 
iTsrajque, the latter in celebration of 3t Martha's deUverance of 
the town from a legendary monster of that name. KjDg Ren^ 
presided in 1469, and grand exhibitioas of costume and strange 
cei'aznoniea take pVue during the two daja of the f estivaL Tarascon 
V5:j or:ginally a settlement of the Uaasaljots, built on an island of 
t^^ Rhone. The meJisv&l castle, where Pope Urban II. lived in 
\\ 7G, was built on the ruins of a Roman castrum. The inhabitanta 
of T:rucon preserved the municipal tnstitutiona granted them by 
the li^mans, and of the absolute pow«r claimed by the counts of 
Proisnce they only recognized the nglitB of eovereignty Tarascon 
played a bloody part in the White Terror of 1816 

TABAXACUM is the name usually applied in medical 
practice to the common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale, 
Wiggers). The Dajtdklion (q.v.) is a plant of the northern 
bemisphere, extending to the Arctic regions, and is culti- 
vated in India. The preparations chiefly employed are the 
fluid extract, the preserved juice of the root, or succus, and 
the solid extract The dried and roasted root, mixed with 
ground coffee, is often sold under the name of dandelion 
eo^ee for use as a beverage. The root is most bitter from 
March to July, but the milky juice it contains is less 
abundant ic the summer thdli in the autumn. For this 
reason, the extract and succus are usually prepared daring 
the months of September and October. After a frost a 
change takes place in the root, which loses its bitterness to 
« large extent. In the dried state the root will not keep 
%eU, being quickly attacked by insects. Externally it is 
brown and wrinkled, internally white, with a yellow centre 
and concentric paler rings. It is 2 inches to a foot long, 
and about ^ to ^ ioeh in diameter. The juice when first 
exuded is bitter and neatral, but on exposure to the air 
saon acquires an acid reaction and a brown tint, coagulat- 
ing aud depositing a complex substance, to which the 
oame of " leontcdonium " has been given. From this 
deposit a bitter principle, "taraxacin," and an acrid 
crjrstalline substance, " taraxaceriu," soluble in alcobol, 
have been obtained, but to which of these the medicinal 
properties are due is not known. In autumn the root con- 
tains about 24 per cent, of inulin, but in summer barely 
2 per cent. When the juice has fermented, mannite is 
found in it Taraxacum is chiefly employed as a stimulant 
tonic in hepatic disorders. In some cases it acts as a 
cholagogue and mild aperient, and in others as a diuretic. 
, The roots of other Composite plants are sometimes gathered 
ty careless collectors for dandelion, especially that of Leontodon 
jMpidus (L). The root of this plant is tough when fresh, and 
rarely exudes any milky juice. The flowers, moreover havo 
feathery pappus, while in the dandelion it is simple. 

TARBES, a town of France, chef lieu of the depart- 
ment of Hautes-Pyrin^es, is situated in one of the most 
beautiful plains of France, on the left bank of the Adour, 
streams from which are conducted through all parts of the 
town. The lines of railway from Paris to Pierrefitte and 
from Toulouse to Bayonne cross here. Among the many 
.gardens and open spaces for which Tarbes is distinguished 
is the Massey garden (35 acres), given to his native town 
by a Versailles official of that name, in which his statue 
faces the town museum, founded by the collector Achille 
Jubinal. The varied collections iuclude Roman remains, 
and specimens of the fauna and flora of the Pyrenees. 
The architecture of the cathedral is heavy and unpleasing, 
but the cupola of the transept (14th century), the modern 
glass in the 12th-century apse, and a rose window of the 
13th' century, in the north transept, are worthy of notice. 
T^e' Carmelite church has an interesting steeple, and there 
arfe the ruins of a chapel and cloister, and Roman remains 
in the garden of the former episcopal palace, now occupied 
by the prefecture. The municipal buildings, with the 
pablic library (22,000 volumes), the lyceum, the court of 
justice, and the barracks (which are large and fine) may 
also be mentioned among the public buildings. The 
jarrison and artillery establishments, the latter associated 



with an arsenal and large workshops, have conaiderable im- 
portance. Other industrial establishments are a ftJundry 
machine manufactory, felt and woollen factories, and wool 
and flax spinmng mills. Paper, lace, knitted goods, car- 
nages, and leather are also made here, and marble from 
the Pyrenees is prepared for the market. There are 
important fairs and markets, particularly for horses, as 
Tarbes is a well-known centre for a special breed of light 
horses, its stud being the most important in the south of 
France. The population of the town was 24,882 in 1886. 

Tarbes, a mere vicus in the tune of Gregory of Tours, rose into 
importance after the destruction of the ancient Aquitanian town ol 
Turba. The seat of the bishopric was transferred to it about the 
9th century, when a castle was also built. Raymond I., towards 
the middle of the 10th century, rebuilt the town, fortified it, and 
made it the capital of the county of Bigorre. The English held 
the town from 1360 to 1408. In 1569 Tarbes was burpt by Mont- 
gomery, and the inhabitants were driven out. This happened a 
second time, bat in August 1570 the peate of St Germain allowed 
the inhabitants to return to the grass-grown streets. Subsequently 
Tarbes was four times taken and r«-takcn, and a number of Uio 
inhabitants of Bigorre were forced to take refuge in Spain, but in 
1594 the members of the League were finally expelled. The Eng 
lish, under Wellington, rained a victory over the French near 
Tarbes in 1814. Thdophile Gautier was bom here in 1811. 

TARENTUM, or Taea8, now Taranto, a famous Greek 
city of southern Italy, situated on the north coast of the 
bay of the same name, at the entrance of the only seeure 
port on the gulf. This port, cow called the Mare Piccolo, 
is a bay 16 miles in circuit, landlocked by a low rooky 
peninsula. The entrance is so narrow that it is crossed by 
a bridge of seven arches ; it was already bridged in Strabo'e 
time. The modern tovrn, in the province of Lecee, which 
is the see of an archbishop and had in 1881 a population 
of 26,611, stands on the peninsula, which is now rather an 
island, the isthmus ooonecting it with the mainland having 
been cut through for defence by Ferdinand I. The ancient 
citadel occupied the same site, but the city in its beat days 
was much larger, traces of the walls being visible about 2 
miles from the gates of the modern town. The remains 
of antiquity are inconsiderable. 

Tarentum was a Spartan colony founded about tlie close of the 
8th century B.C. (Jerome gives the date 708) to relieve the parent 
state of a part of its population which did not possess, but ckimed 
to enjoy, full civic rights. Legend represents-thcse Parthmim (so 
they are called) aa Spartans with a stain on their birth, but the 
accounts are neither clear nor consistent, and the. facts that under- 
lie them have not been cleared up. The Greeks were not tlie fii-st 
settlers on the peninsula : recent excavations have brought to light 
signs of a pre-Hellenic trading-place, and the name of Taras may bt 
older than the colony. To the Greeks Taras was a mythical hero, 
eon of Neptune, and he is sometimes confounded with the oecist of 
tlic colony, Phalanthus. Situated in a fertile district, especially 
famous for olives and sheep, with an admirable harbour, great 
fisheries, and prosperous manufactures of wool, purple, and pottery, 
Tarentum grew in power and wealth and extended its doniair. 
inland. Even a great defeat by the natives in 473 B.C., when more 
Greeks fell than in any battle known to Herodotus, did not break 
its prosperity, though it led to a change of government from aris 
tucracy to democracy. A feud with the Tburians for the district 
of the Siris was s&ttted in 432 by the joint foun Jation,of Heraclea. 
which, however, was regarded as a Tarentine colony. In the 
4th century Tarentum was the first city of Great Greece, and it- 
wealth and artistic culture at this time are amply attested by it 
rich and splendid coins; the gold pieces in particular (mainly late: 
than 360) are perhaps the most beautiful ever struck by Greekc 
(see NnMiSMATics, vol. xvii. p. 637). In the second half of the 
century Tarentum was in constant war with the Lucanians, and 
did not hold its ground without the aid of Spartan and Epirote 
condottieri. Then followed war with Rome (281), the expeditiot 
of Pyrrhus, and at length, in 272, the surrender of the city by it 
Epirote garrison (see the details in vol. xx. p. 743 sq.). Tarentnn 
retained nominal liberty as an ally of Rome. In the Second Puni- 
War it suffered severely, when it was taken by Hannibal (212), al 
but the citadel, and retaken and plundered by Fabius (209). After 
this it fell into great decay, but revived again after receiving t 
colony in 123 B.C. It remained a considerable seaport, and it.- 
purple, second only to that of Tyre, was still valued, but in Strabo'E 
time it had shrunk nearly to the limits of the present town. After 
the fall of the Western empire it was held from time to time by 



62 



T A R — T A R 



Goths, Lombards, and Saracens, but was not finally wrested from 
Byzantium till Robert Guiscard took it in 1063. 
For speclil literature about Tarenium, see Busolt^ QriecJi. Oa(h.,\. 206 sq. 

TARES, or Vetches. See Agriculture, vol. i. p. 376. 

TARGQM (D'Sil?) in its concrete sense signifies the 
paraphrastic translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, or parts 
thereof, into the Aramaic tongue. It has, however, three 
other meanings: — (1) a translation from any language into 
another;' (2) an interpretation in any language;' and (3) 
the /Vramaic portions of certain books of the Bible (notably 
Daniel and Ezra).' 

The word is not itself found in the Bible , but the 
participle methurgam (D^inP) occurs in Ezr. iv 7 The 
noun Targum, a form similar to Talmud {q.v.), occurs tor 
the first time in the Misknah, both canonical ♦ and non- 
canonical,^— the latter being apparently the older source. 

Origin. — Although none of the Targums uow in our 
hands are as old* as the Septuagint (q.v.), the public use 
of Targums on Sabbaths, festivals, 4:c., is very ancient, 
and indeed their language was for several hundreds of 
years the sole one understood by the majority of the Jews 
in Palestine and Babylonia. How the Hebrew people of 
Judaea came so entirely to unlearn their own Hebrew 
tongue as to stand in need of an Aramaic translation of 
their Scriptures need not be dwelt on here (see vol. si. 
p. 597 and vol. xxi. p. 648). But an important contrast 
between the Aramaic and Greek versions deserves particular 
notice. The use of the Septuagint by the Greek-speaking 
Jews of 'Alexandria, Asia Minor, and elsewhere caused 
those who adopted it to forget entirely their own Hebrew 
tongue The Aramaic version (Targum), however, spring- 
ing from a religious necessity, was the cause of revival of 
the knowledge of Hebrew, which had been nigh forgotten. 
It is tberefore easy tr, understand why the Jews in general 
have shown comparatively little attachment to the Septua- 
gint, whilst they ever ardently revered the Aramaic version, 
even after the institution of publicly reciting it had ceased." 
To this day pious Jews privately prepare themselves every 
Friday for the lessons of the coming Sabbath by reading 
the weekly portion twice in the sacred tsst and once in 
the Targum (DUin inxi XlpD D'Jty). 

F(rrmer Use of the Targum in Public. — The following 
rules had to be observed in the reading o£ the Scriptures 
at the synagogal service : — 

!. As regards the Law (Pentateuch). (1) The private person 
called to the Law (yhich chiefly contains balakhic ' matter) read 
one verse of it, which the official methurgeman or tnrgeman (trans- 
lator) immediately paraphrased ; (2) whilst the reader of the Law 
was not allowed to take his eye off the written scroll, the methurge- 
man was forbidden, not merely to read out of a written Targum, 
but even to look into the sacred text ;' (3) each of these had to 
wait till the other had quite finished the reading and translation 
respectively; (4) one was not allowed to raise his voice in a louder 
key than the other; (5) a certain number of passages, although 
allowed to be read, were not allowed to be translated; these were — 

« ■ I U.-I 

> Hence 'TIDE'S DIJIH (German translation), &c. 

' When the vord is nsed in either of these two senses the" language 
Into which the translation is made, or in which an inteijirctation is 
given, must be speci6ed, or otherwise indicated,, f. p., OV DUin 
(Greek translation), CrynCH DlJ-in (Septuegint), D7'pj) DJID (Aquila 
translated), except when it is Aramaic, in -which case the language 
may be named (as in Ezra Iv. 7) or not (Tosephto, Shaihalh, xiii. 
[ir'.]2). 

» Compare Mishnoh, Vadayim, iv. 5. • See last aote. 

• Sipkere (see vol ivi. p. 507) on D'eutEiononiy (Pericope 
BKophetim), Pisko 161. 

« "Let not the Aramaic be lightly esteeintd'by thee," says- the 
Jerusalem Talmud, " seeing that the Holy One (blessed be'-Jle !) has 
given honour to it in the Pentateuch (Gen. xxri, il), in the Prophets 
jJer. ji. 11). and in the Hagiograph.. (Dan, iL 4)," (Sb<aA,,vii. 2)., 
Instead of " Arimmi" (Aramaic) the Miurash Jtaibah on Gfiiusis 
teads " Parsi " (Persian) ; the reading here is "Sursi " (SyriaiJ- 

' See MiSHKAH, vol. ivi. p. 503. 

' This was done to prevent its hcing thougnt that fhff T-iT. uiTK 
(the exponent of tho oral Law) was to be found ia_i»J51iji6 la Iho 
renlateuch (the exponeot of the written Law^ 



(a) such as might reflect unfavourably on a father of a tribe, or oQ 
anaminent tcacher(T. B., MegilL, ibb, Tom/jA., catchword nOTO) ; 
(i) such as might encourage the ignorant to think that there was 
sonie truth in idolatry ; (c) such as might otfend decency ( J/'sAnaA, 
Megillah, iv. 10; Tosephto. ibid, 35, 37, T. Yer, ibid., iv. 
10; and T. B. , ibid., leaf 256); (,rf) such as were lised by the Lord 
Himself to be lead in Hebrew only (as the sacerdotal benediction, 
Num. vi. '24-26);® (6) the translator wa^ neither allowed to give 
a literal translation nor to add anything that had no foundation 
in the Divine word ; he had to give the spirit of the letter.'* 

II. As regards the Prophets. (1) The person called to read the 
Prophets (which chiefly contain agadic matter") oiiglit read three 
verses, of which the translator, wlio might be the reader himself,'* 
sought to render the meaning to the best of his ability , \2) the 
translator was allowed botti to read out of a Targum volume and 
to look also into the book containing the prophetic text , ,3) if 
reader and translator were two different persons they observed the 
third rule giv^ above tor the case o^ reading the Law ; (4) here 
also certain passages wore not allowed to be translatetl : — (n) such 
as reflected on great men of the Israelite nation; (i) such as offend 
decency , (5) any one sufficiently intelligent might read, and of 
course paraphrase, the portion from the Prophets. 

in. As regards the Hagiographa. The widest range of liberty 
must have been granted both to reciters and translators, is very 
scanty mention of any particular provision concerning it is to be 
found in the Talmuds. The Psalms and the book of Esther are 
classed together in so far as they may be read and paraphrased even 
by ten persons (T. B. , ilcg., 216). For Job and Lamentations, 
see below. 

Duration of this Practice. — The practice of publicly 
reciting the Targum continued somewhat later than the 
last of the geonim. Within the list 400 years of that 
period, however, the power of this ancient institulun 
began to fluctuate, gradually declined, and finally almost 
— but not entirely '^ — died out. The causes of this were 
twofold. One was, that after the Mohammedan-conquests 
Arabic supplanted Aramaic as the vernacular, and the 
Targums thus became unintelligible to the mass (see 
Seder Rab 'Amram, i., Warsaw, 1863, leaf 29a), even as 
was already the case in the Western world. A second 
and more important cause, however, was the .spread of 
Karafsm, whose criticism of the Rabbinic contents of the 
targums provoked the Rabbanites to pay more attention 
to the etymology and grammar of the Hebrew text of the 
' The Baliylonian TalDui.l \.\Iigdlah, 256) says that tho pricslly 
benediction was not to be rented in Aramaic on account of the pLr.ise 
"the Lord shall lift up llis countenance upon thee," which wouf.l 
appear as if the Lord liad been a respecter of persons, 'n Talmudic 
times they bad apparently, in Babylonia, .ost the real reason of the 
Mishnic prohibition, wlurli 's that this bcneiUctiou is doubly, yea, 
trebly Dmue, bemg I'ramt.t lu its every word by God Himself, and 
can thus only be recited in: those very words ^3, thus , Num. vi. 
23). See Mishnah. Sniab. vii 2 . T Verushalrai, tbid., and MeyilLih^ 
iv. 11, and, finally, IScmrMnr Habbah, cap. XL m medio.- 
"> See Tosephto, Mrrjitlah, iv. iii/w. 
^ See MiDiiiSH, vol. xu. \<. 2S5. 

" Thus Jesus (Luke iv. Iti 27) no doubt read the Uaphtarah (pr*. 
phetic portion) himself, and jiaraphiased it himself From this cnston» 
of reading and paraphrasing by one and the same person the sermon 
(^B'^^) sprang The p.a.'is.age in questiou (Isa. hi. 1, ic.) was read 
on the Sabbath before the New Year (day of memorial). 

'' Long after the institution of publicly reciting the Targum ou the 
Law had generally declined, it was yet retained in Germany and Italy 
on certain days of the three high festivals, viz., (a) the seventh .lay of 
Passover, (6) the fir.-t day of Pentecost, ami (r) tlie last J.iy ati.iched 
to the festival of Tabernacles (i.i!., mm nUnV). The passages so 
recited were— (a) parts of the lesson for the il.iy— the song of Moses 
and the children, of Isr.-iel, with the iiitvf.luction ; \b) the Dec.ilogin 
irt f"xodu5; (c) the labt portion of Deuteronomy. In the hrslcase tba 
-pn.aphiase was from the thiee Targums mixed, m the second from 
the Taroum Yonalhan,with deviatious, iii the last from the Targum 
Oiikelos" (Thesepieces-arc inteisi.ei.M-il «ith siiMiUy bits of poetiy. 
seeCamlr. MS. Add. 374,- leaves llifl.i-iri'.. 10'Jii-203a, 4236-4276 ) 
Towards the end of the 1 4th tcmmy , a< ivc.n.l- I'.i-sover and Pentecost, 
the custom fell into desiielude. but ilown lo oiii o«ii days some A 
the congregations of Italy cpiilmm' Hie us,ii:c ol icntiug the Targan. 
Onkelosiu connexion with ihe n.iir.iiioii of the ileath of Moses. Thi» 
custom, hovrever, is-now rapidly dym- rait. As regards the recitatioo 
of liie Targum ou thej-roiihets. a <-mM r. iniiai.t ol the cougiegatiora 
following the rilc 01 Rome (i.e.. the so.called Jtnliam) continue il 
to llrs d;iv on the fcstivil of Passover. For the use of the Taigui* 
su Pelitecosi, see /irs**"'*!. by Iv Me.r »( Rothenburg (Roaa, y.« 
Cooioote 31. No« SSk.. 



T A R G U M 



65 



Bible. Thus the Targums, both in their periods of vigour 
and decay, exercised, directly and indirectly, a salutary 
iofluence. In each case the knowledge of Hebrew was 
promoted ; and it advanced so much, that by 1000 a.d. 
the Jews of Irak,. like those of the rest of the world then, 
and as in our own days, certainly knew the pure Hebrew 
better than the Aramaic idiom. The same was the case in 
other Arabic-speaking parts, as Spain, Africa, ic, — Yemen 
then and still forming a solitary exception.* 

Authorship and Age of the Variotts Targums. — The 
Targums on the various books of the Bible are not merely 
by various authors, but also of various ages. They have 
only one thing in common, — all of them rest on oral tradi- 
tions, which are hundreds of years older than the earliest 
form of the wTitten Targums now ii, our hands. We 
enumerate them according to Biblical order, although that 
is not necessarily the chronological order in which they 
were either composed or committed to writing. 

I. The Pct!t'jUuc}i.—{a) There is a complete Targum known as 
Onkelos (DlSp:iX. D^pjlX. Dl^pJS, DlS"P21N). The person and 
even the name of Onkelos have been for the last three hundred 
years a crux criticorum. 

According to the Babylonian Talmud, iiegil., Z<t, " Onkelos (son 
of Calonicus, GitC, 564, or of Calonymus, 'Ah. Zor., lln), the pro- 
selyte, composed the Targum on the Pentateuch (ilDX) out of the 
mouth of R. Eli'ezer and K. Yehoshua',' who tauglit in the 1st and 
2d centuries. Ic the Jerusalem Talmud, Meg., i.9, tlie same thing 
is related on the same authorities, and almost in the same words, 
of the proseljte Aquila (Akylas) of Pontus, whose Creek version 
of the Bible was much used by Greek-speaking Jews down to tlie 
tilde of Justinian [Xov., cxlvi. cap. 1).' There are other jiarallcls 
between what Toscphlo and the Babylonian Talmud tell of Onkelos 
and what the Jerusalem Talmud aud the MiJiash tell of Aquila. 
Both throw their idolatrous inheritance into the Dead Sea (Tos., 
Demai, vi. 12 ; T. Y.,Demai, vi. 10). and,both have connexions with 
Roman emperors, Onkelos being sister's son of Titus {GiUin, 56b), 
and Aquila of Hadrian {Midr. Tnuh., Mishpadm; see, also, for 
Onkelos, 'Ab. Z., 11a, and for Aquila's connexion with Hadrian, T. 
Y., n<i^.,\\. 1; Shcm. Rah , xx\.; V.-;<\x\\a.m.Ms, Dc Mens, ci Pond. , 
xiv. sq.). From these facts some (see N. Adlcr, Xctlivmh laggcr, 
in the VUnaPent., 1874, Introd.) still argue that Onkelos is but 
another name for Aquila, and that the Greek translator also wrote 
onr Targum. This view was long ago refuted by R. 'Azaiyah de' 
Rossi,' and is quite untenable. It is incredible that Aquila or any 
other Greek could have had the mastery of Aramaic and of tradi- 
tronal lore as well as of Hebrew which the Targum displays; and 
the phrase of T.Y.i'it/cyiX, i. 9, "an untutored jierson picked out for 
them Aramaic from the Greek," is quite inapplicable to Onkelos, 
and ought to be taken as referring to the Pcshito Syriac, which is 
admittedly dependent on the L.\X. In a Jewish wTiting "for 
them" — set absolutely— means "for the Christians." The view 
now accepted by tnost critics is that the word Onkelos is a 
Babylonian corruption of Akylas, but that the name' "Targum 
Onkelos " originally meant no more than " Targum in the style of 
Aquila," i.e., bearing to the freer Palestinian Targums a similar 
relation to that of Aquila's version to the Septuagint.'' On this 
view there never was a real person called Onkelos. But how Akylas 
(D^'P?; in Ber. Sah.,i. middle, DlS'** or I'VpX, i.e., )'!?'pX) 
eonld be corrupted into Onkelos has not been satisfactorily ex- 
plained ; and, besides the traditions about Onkelos which resemble 
what is kuown about Aquila, there are others, and these older than 



• In Yemen the Targum is publicly recited to this day, and, strange 
to say, by boys of nine years of age or so in turn. See .1. S.iphir, 
Ebm Sappir, i. (Lyck, 1866, Svo) leaves 536, 61o. Saphir once told 
the present writer that a youth, eighteen years of age {lU supra, 616), 
who- carried his travelling-bag and served as bis guide over the 
moontaios. Said, >'.«., 'Se'adyah, by name and a shoemaker by trade, 
could tranaUte to him in Aramaic from memory any passage Saphir 
recited in Hebrew. 

' For the connexion of Aquila with R. Eli'ezer and R. Yehoshua', sea 
also Bcresk. Rat., lii. ; Bemidb. Rob., viii. end ; Kohel Rah., vii. 8. 

' I.e., "min Haadummim." The AUunimim are supposed to b« 
one of the four noble families carried to Rome by Titus. 

♦ The Jerusalem Talmud repeatedly cites Aquila's renderings and 
never names Onkelos. But it does show acqimintance with renderings 
found in Onkelos (e.g.', Megil., iv. 11 ; cf. Onk. on Exod. xiiiL 35) 
In the Midrash Rabbah, besides many citations from Aquila, we find 
one of Onkelos by name (in Bern. R„ ir. -in fine ; Onk. on Deut. xxxii. 
24)_aiid various allusions (without name) to renderings found in him. 
He'ia alao cit«d byname in the Palestinian Piiekede-R Eli'ezer, ixxviii. 



either Gcmara, which have no such resemblance, and assign to him' 
an earlier date, associating him with R. Ganiliel the elder, tlie 
teacher of St Paul (Toscphlo, Shab., vii, [viii.] 18; Hnij., iii. 2, 3; 
Ktl. Bab. Balh., ii. 4; Mhv., vi. 3; Talmud h.,'Ab. Zar., 11a; 
Mas. Semah., viii. init.). The Zohnr (iii. leaf 73a of the small ed.) 
ascrilies his being ciicunicised to HiUel (R.Camliel's grandfather) 
and Shanimai. These notices, it is true, do not speak of Onkelos as' 
a targumist; and, indeed, the Targum being a representative picc«' 
of the oral law was certiinly not written down, private notes {i)iegil-\ 
lolk sdharim) excepted, belore the Mishnah, Toscphlo, kt:., i.e., till 
about the end of the 6th or the beginning of the 7th ceuluiy. But 
in the opinion of the present writer this need not prevent us from 
recognizing Onkelos as a corrector and compiler of oral 'I'argiun in 
the 1st century! As regards the name, it may be"suggciitt.d that 
Onkelos -is a deliberate perversion of Evangehis, a Gruck* proper 
name which exactly translates the Jewish (aud especially Uabylou- 
ian-Jewish) name Mcbasser. As the Christian wiitings arc called 
Aval (iniquity, idolatry), and as the pre-Mishuic tcaclier R. Meir 
calls the gospel {cvangelion) ongillayon (iniquity of the roll ; T. 13., 
Shab., leaf 116, Amst. ed. of 1645), or, by inveision, gibjon-avcn 
(roll of iniquity), the name Evangclus, which suggested associations 
with the gospel, might be perverted into Onkelos quasi Ou-keles 
(iniquity of disgrace/.- And, w-hile a Babylonian Jew comi,iig to, 
Palestine might lind it convenient to translate his Hebrew name into 
Evangelus, this good Greek name was enough to suggest in after 
times that he was of heathen origin and so to facilitate the con- 
fusion with Aquila. The idioni of the Targum Onkelos, whii h is 
held to bo Palestinian with some Babylonian features, points to- 
Babylonia as the country of its final redactor, if to Palestine as 
its source. It must bo remembered that Hillel and other great 
fountains of Palestinian learning were of Babylonian origin.* . -*i,.'1 
(3) Certain Targumic fragments on the Pentateuch go under the 
name of Targum Yerushalmi, or, rather, Palestinian Targum. 
These are the remains of a much larger Jcrusalan, Targum, once 
current in' P^alcstine. But, the Palestinian rabbis not having 
ajiproved of It, perhaps because it accorded in various of its 
interpretations and phrases with interpretations and phrases to 
- 1 

' BiUiographtj of the Targum D17PJ1X.— (A) There are very fine: 
MSS. of this Targum at Parma, Oxford, Cambridge (Dd. 11, 26, 
Add. 446, 1053), the British Museum, Kissingen (Rabbin Bamberger), 
ic. (B) .\ Massoreth on our Targum by an anonymous author, 
who must have lived in or before the 12th century, has been pub-, 
lished— (1) by Luzzatto (Osar Xchmad, iv.); (2) by Adler (Vdua- 
edition of the PenUteuch of 1874) ; and (3) by Berliner (with a 
German translation, &c., Leipsic, 1877, Svo). (C) Leading editions: 
— (1) Bologna, \i&'i,editio princeps, without vowel-points; (2) the 
Complutensian polyglott ; (3) the Bomberg Rabbinic Bible of 1517; 
(4) Sabbioneta, 1557, 16mo (reprinted, not without mistakes, at 
Berlin, 18S4, imp. Svo) ; and (5) Vilna edition of the Pent,ateuch of 
1S74, the Targum being pointed according to a Bodleian MS. (Canon.' 
Orient, 91). (D) Translations :—((i) into Latin — (1) by Alphonsus 
Zamorensis (Polygl., 1517, ic); (2) by P. Fagius (Strasburg, 1546,' 
folio); (6) into English by Etheridge (Targums, London, 1S62-65'' 
Svo). (E) Commentaries, all in Hebrew:— (1) Pathshegen, by an' 
anonymous Proven9al rabbi of the 12th century (see MiHzoBi, in 
the V'ilna Pentateuch of 1874; (2) by R. Mordekhai b. Jv'aphtali 
(Amsterdam, 1671-77, fob) ; (3) Lchem Vesimlah (double con)mentai-)') 
by R. Bensiyyon Berkowitz (Vilna, 1846-66); (4) by Dr Nathan 
M. Adler (Vilna Pentateuch of 1874, ut supra). (F) Other litera- 
ture (also for the other Targums): — (a) in Hebrew — Meor 'Enayim, 
by R. 'Azaryah m. Haadummim (cheapest and best edition, Vilna, 
1863; Mine Targuiw, by R. Y. Berlin or Pick (Breslau, 1851, 4to); 
Oheb Oer, by S. D. Luzzatto (Vienna, 1830) ; 'Oteh Or, by the before- 
named B. Berkowitz ('V'ilna, 1843) ; Iggereth Biihoreth, by R Z. H. 
Hayyuth (Chajes), ed. Briill, Pi-esburg (1S53, Svo); Rapoport, '£rekh 
Millin, (Prague, 1852, 4to) ; Lijwy, Bikkoreth JIaltalviud, i. (Vienna,' 
1863, 8vo); (6) in L,itin — Morinus, Sxerdtatioiies, ii. viii. 6 (Paris ' 
1650) ; Winer, De Onkeloso (Leipsic, 1820, 4to) ; R. Anger, De Oithelo 
(Leipsic, 1845-46) ; (c) iu German— Zunz, Gollesd. Vorlrage (Berlin, 
1832) ; Geiger, Vrschri'l (Breslau, 1857) ; Hamburger, Real-Ency- 
kloptidie; Targum Onkelos, by Dr A. Berliner (Berlin, 1S84, imp.' 
Svo). -On this work, see Nbldeke, in Zarncke's Centralbl., IS&t, 
No. 39, and Lagarde in Gbtt. Gel. An:dg., November 1886 (No. 22); 
(d) in English : E. Deutsch, in his Literary Remai-ns—io be used' 
with caution. (G) Lexicons to this and other Targums :— -(I) as for 
the Talmuds and Midrashim, so also for the Targum, R, Nathan 
b. Yehiel's 'Arukh (see Talmud, p, 37, note 7) stands fii-st ; (8) nex^ 
to it is Elias Lcvita's Methurgcman (Uay, 1541, fob); (3) Buxtorf'a 
Lexicon Chaldaicttm, Tabmulicum, el Rabbinicum (cheap and new^ 
though by no means best, edition, Leipsic, 1869-75); (4) J^vy's 
Chald. WorUrb. (1S66-68) ; (5) Jastrow's Dictionary, i. (New York, 
1886), (H)Grammars:—{l)JndaJeitteles's.V«Jo,ffa«ojfto« (Prague,' 
1813, 4to); (2) Blucher's ilarpe Lcshon Aramvii (Vieimai 1838); 
(3) Ftirst's Lehrgeb. d. Aram. Idiome (Leipsic, 1865); (4) Lemer'e. 
Dii-'dvk Lashon Arammith CWarsaw, 1876) ; all in 8vo. 



64 



T A R G U ^I 



be lodnd in tlie Gospels, *..it graduully lost its outhority ^md the 
greater portion of its origiual matter, and is now in our hands 
what It is. It certainly never was part of the T. Onkclos, nor was 
the T. Onkelos^nri of it, though the two are closely related. As 
regards its age, several of the pieces formerly found in it (now in 
T. YoTiathan) were in the 2d and 3d centuries distinctly quoted ^ 
with disapprobation. But like Onkdos it cannot have been written 
down before the Mishttak and other parts of the oral Law. 

(7) The Tarijum Yoixalhan, or T. of Jonathan, on the PcntQ-lcuch 
is also Palestinian. This Targum was no doubt undertakeit, as Dr 
Bacher has shown {_Z.D.M. 0., xxviii. p. 69), ta combine the finest 
parts of what early T. Onkdos and T. Yc-rushalmi contained. This 
attempt could ^ot have been made without both these Targums 
lying in writing before the compiler of the third Targum. The 
Targwn Yonathan on the Pentateuch is a product, at the earliest, 
of the 7th century, to which conclusion internal evidence also 
points.* The author is, of course; not the Yonathan b. 'Uzzicl, 
principal of the eighty disciples of Hillel {T. B., Sukkah, 28a), 
whoj according to T. Bab., McgilL, 3a, composed a Targum on the 
Prophets from the traditions of Haggai, Zechaiiah, and Malaclii.* 

II. TarguiJi Yonathan 0)1 the Prophets. — It has been known from 
early quotations, as from Rashi {q.v.) and others*, but notably from 
KiMHi ig.v.), that, in addition to the complete extant Targum on 
tlie Proplicts, there existed other Targums or fragments of them. 
These are now known from the marginal additions to the Reuch- 
linian Codex of the Targum on the Pro};hets published by Lagarde 
(Leipsic, 1872), and have been discussed by Baoher (ut sup.). As 
regards tlie complete Targum on the Prophets, no mistake can be 
greater than to believe that Rab Yoscph, a teacher of the 3d 
and 4th centuries, and head of the academy of Pumbaditlia (see 
Rabbah), was the author of this Targum in whole or in part. This 
mistake has its origin in the repeated plirase of the Babyloni lu Tal- 
mud, C^DV 31 DJ"in01D ("as Rab Yoseph targumizes") ; butthena 
similar phraseexistswithregardtoRabShesheth,nt;*C' 31 DJ")nDlD 
(" a3 Rab Shesheth ^ targumizes "). And in like manner the expres- 
sion p^OJinOID ("aswetargumizo") is of frequent occurrence. In 
this last instance the words mean "as we are in the habit of 
translating certain passages in Holy Writ according to a Targum 
we have received," As applied to Rab Yoseph and Rab Shesheth 
the phrase may certainly mean more aud yet not imply that these 
teacners were in any way authors of the Targum on the Law, the 
Prophets, or Hagiographa. Pjib Yoseph and Rab Shesheth were 
both blind, and as such were not allowed to quote in exienso the 
written word of the Law, which it was forbidden to recite orally. 
They therefore committed to memory the oral Targum, and so were, 
of courbc, appealed to as Targumic authorities, &c.' That Rab 
Yoseph was not the author of tlie Targum on the Prophets will be 
clearly seen from the following Talnmdic passage {B., Mcgillah, 3a; 
Mded Katan, 286) : — "Were it not for the Targum of that verse 
(Zpchar. iii. 11] I should not know the meaning of the prophet." 
This verse is from the last but one of all the Prophets i^ and we 
see that R^b Yoseph must have had the Targum on the Prophets 
before him. In the ojiinion of the present writer this Targum was 
composed by Yonathan ; and, not being ou books of the Law, ther^ 
xvas no reason why it should not have been there and then written 
t_ __ . 

' See T. Yer. , Berakhoth, v. 3, and compare with it Luke vi. 36. 
Compare Berliner, ut supra, pp. 85, 86. 

* Compare last note. 

' Bibliography of the Targum, Yerushatmi <m the Pentateutk. — (A) 
There is a MS. of this Targum preserved in the Vatican library (ccccxl.). 
(B) The first eOilioo of thisTargura is in the so-called Christian Rabbinic 
Bible of 1517. It is to be found also in most poly^lott and Rabbinic 
Bibles, iDcludtngthe Polish editions (Warsaw, ic. ). (CjTraaslations ; 
—(a) Latin— (1) by Taylerus {London, ]fi49, 4to); (2) by Chevalier 
{ia the Pol i/glott, London, 1653-57). (b) in English by Ethcridge( Tar- 
guTtis, Loniion, 1862-65, 8vo). (D) There are two commentaries on 
this Targum in Hebrew !—(!)' by R. David b. Ya'akob (Prague, 1609, 
4to); (2) by R. Mordekbai b. Naphtali (Amsterdam, 1G71-77, fol ^. 

* See our Targum on Gen. xxi. 21, where Mohammed's first Wife 
(Kbadi'lja) and their youngest daughter (Fatima) are mentioned by 
uamo. 

* Bibliography. — (A) There certainly exists," somewhere in Italy, a 
MS of this Targum, although tho o\viier is at present luikuowc. (B) 
This Targum ippoared for the first time in the Pentateuch edition of 
Venice (1590-91, 8vo). (C) Translations ;— (a) Latin by Chevalu-i 
(London. 1653-57); (i) in English by Etheridge [op. cxt.). \ (D) Com- 
menUriea:— (1) by R. David h. Ya'akob (Prague, 1609, 4to). (2) by 
R Mordekbai b. NaphtaU (Amst., 1671-77, fol.); (3) by an nnouy- 
mous B'jthor in the Warsaw edition. 

* Id the editiooa before us (T. B., Sotak, 4d&) Yoseph stands on the 
margin instead of Shesheth ; hut iu thtf edition before R 'Azaryab ni. 
Haadummim the reading was absolutely Shesheth ; see Meor " Enaytm^ 
cap. xlv, 

' 6ee Tosaphoih on B. Kam., leaf 3a, catchword D3"lnD^D. 
' 'llii^ 13 by no moans an isolated phrase ; m T. B., Synhednn, 9ib, 
ft similar one* ncci^rs. referri.ig t') Isa. viii. 6. 



dowii.^ Although tho traditions itemhodies came originally from 
Babylonia and returned to Babylonia, its language has yet u more 
marked colouring of. the Palestinian idiom than that of Onkclos, 
because it was not studied so much and therefore not so much 
modified and interpolated. Some of the Agadoth occurring in 
this Targum are ascribed in the Talmud and filidrash to^ later 
men, but this is no conclusive argument against an early date. It 
can be shown that many laws and sayings supposed to he of the 
2d, Sd.'and 4th centuries of the Christian era are actually of pre- 
Christiaii times, and, indeed, certain explanations, figures of 
speech, &c., had been, so to say, floating in tlie air for centuries. 
Certain passages in the Septuagint contain Agadoth which le- 
appear, seemingly for the first time, in the Talinudic literature. 
The Prophets themselves kn^w Agadoth which only reappear in 
what are believed to be late Midiashim (comp., c.g.j Isaiah xxi.x. 
22 with T. B., SijiCk., 196; Isa. xxx., 26 with Targum on Judges 
V. 31, Per. Rab.t xii.; Ezek. xxii. 24, &c., with Per. Pah,, xxxiii.).'« 
III. Targumon the Hagiographa. — Noauthor's name isattached 
to this Targum in whole or in part. The Psalms must have had 
one'^ or two^- Targums ; the book of Proverbs at least two ; '^ the 
book of Job at least three.'* Tiiere must have been two Targums on 
Canticles,'^ Ruth,*'' Ecclesiastes," and Estiier,'^and probably thecc 
on Lamentations,'^ the earliest of which was," no doubt, simultane- 
ously coming into existence with the 'Earliest on the book of Job. 
For 'Ezra-Nehemiah no Targum exists. Daniel only in part wanted 
a Targum, and it is supposed to have had one ;-" and The books 
(or rather the book) of Chronicles have a by no means late one.-' 
although it is not by Rab Yoseph, of the 4th century.-^ 

* See, however, vol. xxi. p. 648. 

^^ Bibliography. — (A) There are MSS. of the Targum on the Propheu 
in the Bodleian (0pp. Add., 4to, 75 and 76, Uii 4 and Keuuicott 
5), (B) The earliest edition is in the Rabbinic Bible of 1517. (C) 
Translations : — {a) m Latin — (1) by Alphousus Zaniorensis (revised by 
Arias Moutauus and afterwards by Cloricus) ; (2) Jeremiah, by 
Ghislerus, 1623; (3) Minor Prophets, by Mercenis, 1559, Tremelhus, 
1567, aud Figueiro, 1615; (4) Hosea, Joel, and Amos, by Quinquar- 
boreu.s, 1556; (5) Obadiah, by Bedwell, 1601, and Leusden, 1656; 
(6) in English— Isaiah, by PauU (London. 1871. Svo). (D) Besidei 
the general literature mentioned uuder " Onkelos" (nifne), we must 
mention Frankel, Zum Targum der Propheten (Breslau, 1872, 4to), 
which must be used with caution. 

" See T. B., Megillah, 21a, and also Rashi on T. B., Ta'amlh, leal 
18a. 2unz is greatly mistaken when he says {Gott. Vorlr., p. 64) that 
the Targums on Psalms, Job, and Proverbs have one aud the eAXne 
linguistic character. The Tai-guni on Proverbs is almost pure S>Tiac. 

'■- See the Targum itself on Psalm Ixxvt 11. ^ 

'^ There, no doubt, existed another Targum ou this book, older than 
that now in our hands; see Ber. Pab., xciii. 

'* See the extant Targum on Job xxiv. 19, and.comp. note 19 in/nu 

" SeeR. Nathan b. Yehicl's '^ruW, s.v. NWD. _ A J^Yerushalml 
Targum " presupposes at least one other. 

J8 'fhe Targum on the Five MegiUotb has all one character, and is 
therefore wholly YerushalmL 

^' The Targum itself repeatedly quotes another Targura. 

" See Rashi on T. B., Megillah, leaf 136, catchword HO?: We 
have still two Targums on Esther. It ought to be mentioned hera 
that in the post-Talmudic Maasfkheth Sop/ierxm, xiiL 6, an ArauSaic 
translation of Esther iii. I is given wth the introductory words : 
D3"U1 c^Dl* 3"> (**Rab Yoseph targumized "). This somewhat lengthy 
translation is found (the quotation from the Targum on Proverbs 
excepted) almost verbatim in the Targum. Sheni in he ' 

^^ The book of Liimentations, and consequently a Targum thereon,' 
was no doubt used along with the book of Job and the Targum 
thereon, by mournere. See Scbiller-Szinessy, Catalogue, i. p. 27. 

-" See Munk, " Notice sur Saadia " (Cahen, La Bible: 'Isaic, Paris, 
1S38), p. 159. His ingenious remarks are scarcely home out by fact. 

2' From a late name occun'ing in a book no conclusions must b« 
drawn, as isolated words may be a mere interpolation. The internal 
character of a work must decide the age in which it was composed. 

^ Biblwqraphy.— {A) There are MSS. of the Tarium— (l)on the 
Psalms, in Parma (De-Rossi, 31. 32, 732) and Pans (110); (2) on 
Proverb.-!, in Parma (31, 32) and Paris (as before); (3) on Job, in 
Parma (31, 32) and Paris {as before); (4) on the Five Megilloth. 
ID the Coujt Library of Vienna (xxix.), Parma {31, 32), the Bod- 
leian (Un 1, 44), Cambridge (Add., 436); and (5) on Chronicles in 
the Vatic^a (Urb. 1.), the Erfurt ministerial library, Cwnhridge (E 
5. 9), ond the Bodleian (Uri 35, 30). (B) The carhest editions of the 
Targum on the Hagiographa (exci^jjt on Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiab, and 
Chronicles) are the Rabbinic Sible^ luid on Chronicles those of 1680-83 
by Beck and 1714 by Wjlkins. (C) Translations: — (a) in Hebrew — 
the Targum Sheni—(l) leshon Zahab (Const., 1732X and (2) Path 
shegen hakkethab (Amst., 1770, ropr. at Czemowitz, 1888).— all Svo, 
(ft) iu Latin— (1) on the Psalms, by Aug. Justinianua, and again bj 
Anas Moutanus ; (2) on Proverbs, by AJpbomjus Zamorenflis; (3) on 
Job, by the same; (4) on Canticles, by the aame, /and tigain^ by 
Schreckeiitucbs (Bxsel. 1553. Svo); (5) on Ruth, by Arias Montanos. 



T A R— T A R 



65 



Sale of Text. — The Targum text is, taken as a whole, in a very 
corn ijt state. The cansos of this corniption are many, but chiefly 
the following : — (1) mistakes ordinarily made by scribes through 
carelessness, or ignorance, or both ; (2) the Targunis had passed 
from century to century and from country to country without 
having been written down ; (3) when written down they were prob- 
ably not provided with vowel points at once ; (4) when provided 
with vowel-points most of them were first provided with Babylonian 
(or Assyrian), which afterwards were changed into Palestinian ones ; 
this change was a fertile source of fresh mistakes ; (5) the loss of 
the general knowledge of the Targumic idiom contingent on the 
decline and final fall of the institution of publicly reciting the 
Targum was an additional source from which mistakes arose ; (6) 
conjectural emendations contributed their quota to the corruption 
of the text ; (7) Buxtorfs emeudatioos founded on the diction of 
the Biblical Targum (as suggested in the ^fcthtn■galtan) are a gross 
mistake, inasmuch as they lack the criticism of history ; (8) 
printers* mistakes, increasing in every nevv edition, have all but 
ruined the text. The remedies for this corruption are : — (1) good 
Targum MSS. in private hands and public libraries, notably in 
Italy, Germany, and England ; (2) Targum MSS , according to the 
Babylouieo Assyrian system of punctuation, chiefly preserved in 
South Arabia, Russia, and England ; (3) some early and com- 
paratively gooil printed editions ; (4) the Mtissorclh. of the Targum. 

Value of the Tarjims. — The idea so long entertained, even by 
the learned, that these old versions were valuable chiefly as guides 
to the original readings of the sacred text must be given up. All 
of them contain more or less, whether visible at first sight or not, 
certain paraphrastic elements, which give no absolute security for 
the exact reading of the pristine Hebrew text But besides tlieir 
imporUince as linguistic monuments they have the highest value 
as historical records — (1) of the exegesis which obtained at the 
time of their composition, and (2) of the then current manners, 
thoughts, and aspirations both of the Jews and of the surrounding 
nations.' . _^ (S. M. S.-S.) ' 

i. TARIFfA, a seaport of Spain,' in'the provicce of Cadiz, 
at the extreme south point of the Peninsula, 59 miles south- 
east from Cadiz and (by land) 21 miles west-south- west 
from Gibraltar. The town is nearly quadrangular, with 
narrow crooked streets, and is still surrounded by its old 
Moorish walls. On its east side, just within these, stands 
the alcazar. The rocky island in front of the town, con- 
nected with the mainland by a causeway, is strongly forti- 
fied, and in some sense commands the Strait of Gibraltar 
It has a lighthouse, 135 feet high, which has a range of 
30 miles.'v The population within the municipal limits was 
12,234 in l§77.s Anchovy and tunny fishing is carried 
on, and there is some coasting trade. The manufactures 
{leather and earthenware) are unimportant.^ ^Tbe oranges 
of Tarifa are famed for their sweetness. 

Tarifa is the Julia Joza of Strabo, between' Gades and Belong 
which, according to that ^vrite^, was colonized by Romans and the 
removed inhabitants of Zelis in Mauretania Tingitana, The 
Jiclii Transduda or Traducta of coins and of Ptolemy appears to 
be the s.ime place. Its present name (Arabic Jaziral Tarlf) is 
derived froin Tarif, the forerunner of Tarik'(seo vol. xvi.'p. 573). 
After a long siege it was taken from the Jloors in 1292 by Sancho 
IV. of Castile, who entrusted it to the keep ing of Alonzo Perez 
Quiiiquarhoreus (Paris, 1556, 4to), Mercerus (Paris, 1564-65; revised 
1657); (6) on Lamentations, by Alph. Z.ini., by Quinquarboreus 
(Pans, 1549, 4to), by Ghislerus (Leyd., 1623, fol.), and again by 
Taylerus (Lond. 1651, 4to) ; on Ecclesiastes, by Ar. Mont., by 
Schrecketifuchs (Basel, 1555, 8vo), and ag.iin by Costus (Leyden, 
1554, 4to); (7) on Esther, by Ar. Mont. (1572, folio); (8) Chronicles 
by Beck from' the Erfurt MS. (imperfect, Augsb., 1680-83), and by 
Wilkins from the Cambridge MS. (Amst. 1715); (c) in German — 

(1) on the Five Megilloth, by R. Ya'akob b. Shemuel (Breisgau, 1584,. 
4to); (2) on' the Targum Sheni, by David Ottensosser (Sulzb.ach," 
1820, 8vo).' (D) Commentaries: — (a) in Hebrew— (1) on the Targum 
of the Five. Megilloth, by R Elyakim Rothenburg (Prague, 1618); 

(2) on Esther alone, by R. Shemuel Makshan (Prague, .1601, 4to); 

(3) on the same Targun;,' by R. David b. Yehudah Melammed (Cracow, 
1644, 4to) ; or. t:i6 Targun Sheni, by R. David b. Ya'akob (Prague, 
1609, 4to) ; (6) in Spanish— on Canticles.by R. Mosheh Laniado 
(Venice, 1619. 4to). 

' R. . YehuJah Ibn Koreish fully understood the v.alue of the 
Targuras. See his interesting epistle, addressed to the Jewish com- 
munity of Fez, published at Paris (1857, 8vo), under the name of 
Epislota de Htudii Targum Vtiltlate. : A translation of the intro- 
ductory part (by Wetzstein) is given ia the Z- B. 0., iii. col. 22 
(reprinted by Dr Berliner, T. 0., p. 168 sj). ! Ibn Koreish belonged 
to the 9th century, and not, as Berliner says, to the 10th or 11th; 
nor was he a Karaite as Graetz (v. p 293) half believes ' 

23—5 



de Guzman ; the heroic defence by the latter," commemorated iii 
the Romancero, earned for him the name gf Guzman "cl Bueno.'* 
It was in the defence of Tarifa tjiat Alfonso XI. gained the battle 
of Sal.ado, a short distance to the westward, in 1340. 'The placs 
was successfully, defended ag.ainst the French by Cough in 1812. 

TARN, a dfipartment of southern France, formed in" 
1790 of the three dioceses of Albi, Casties, and Lav.'iur,' 
all belonging to tho province of Languedoc, lies between 
42° .23' and 4-t° 12' N. lat. and 1° 32' and 2° 50' E- 
long.' It is bounded N. and E. by Aveyron, S.E. by 
Herault, S. by Aude, S.W. and "W. by Haute-Garonne, 
N.W. by Tarn-et-Garonne/ The slope of the department 
is from east to west, and its general character is moun- 
tainous or hilly; its three principal ranges,'the Mountains 
of Lacaune (peak of Moirtalet, 4154 feet), the Sidqbre, aud 
the Montague Noire, belonging to the Cevennes, lie on the 
south-east. ^ The stony and wind-blown slopes of the first- 
named are used for pasturage. The highest point of the 
range and of the department is the Pic de Montalet (4154 
feet) I several other summits are not much short of this.' 
The granite-strewn plateaus of the Sidobre, from 1600 to 
2000 feet high, separate the valley of the AgoiJt from 
that of the Thor6. ^ The Montague Noire derives its nama 
from the forests on its northern slope, and some of its 
peaks are from 3000 to 3500 feet high. The limestone 
and sandstone foot-hills are clothed with vines and fruit 
trees, and are broken by deep alluvial valleys of extra-- 
ordinary fertility.' 'With the exception of a small portion 
of the Montague Noire, which drains into the Aude, the 
whole department belongs to the basin of the Garonne,' 
— indeed, if the rivulet Giron be excepted, to that of the 
Tarn, which flow's in a westerly direction past Albi, Gaillac,' 
Lisle, and Eabastens, receiving on the left the Agoflt at 
St Sulpice. Northern Tarn is drained by the Aveyron 
and its tributary the Viaur.', The eastern portion of the 
department has the climate of Auvergne, the severest in 
France, but that of the plain is Girondin. At Albi the 
mean temperature -is 55°, and the rainfall 29'5 inches.' 
The population of the department in 1886 was 358,757. 

.Of the total area of 2217 square miles, or 1,418,969 acres, there 
are 887,709 acres of arable land, 118,071 of meadows, 118,934 of 
vineyards, 186,594 under wood, and 52,408 of moorland. By last 
returns there were 11,360 horses, 3280 Timles, 5430 asses, 20,550 
bulls and oxen, 53,900 cows and heifers, 13,240 calves, 455,500 
sheep (wool-clip iu 1878 1209 tons), 87,700 pigs, 5350 goats, and 
17,190 bee-hives. In 1878 37 tons 14 cwt. of silk cocoons were pro- 
duced. Oxen and sheep are fattened; ewes' milk cheese like that 
of Roquefort is made ; and geese and turkeys are reared. Tho 
crops in 1881 were- wheat,.3,429,112 bushels; meslin, 53,113; 
rye, 1,371,040; barley, 37,730; buckwheat, 8448; maizeand millet, 
1,566,873; oats, 538,422; potatoes, 2,554,860; dry vegetables, 
374,715; chestnuts, 268,125; beetroot, 196,625; 782 tons of hemp; 
476 of flax; 9,676,476 gallons of wine (only half the quantity ol 
the previous year, owing to the phylloxera)^ Koth common and 
good table wines are produced. 

The mineral products include marble, porphyry, granite, lime, 
manganese, sulphate of baryta, alum, iion, lignite, and tourmaline. 
In 1881 335,430 tons of coal were taken from seven pits, and other 
mines are about to be opened. , There arc iron, alkaline, thermal, 
and carbonate of lime springs. The chief centre for the mann- 
facture of woollen stufl"3 (in 1875 287 mills, 6457 workmen, and 
98,615 spindles) and for wool-spinning and weaving (4893 machine 
and hand looms) is at Maza.met (j.r.), but all sorts of woollen and 
cotton stuffs are produced in other localities. Other industrial 
products are woollen hosiery, cotton, silk, and linen thread, 
morocco, hats, earthenware, glass, soap ; and there are tanneries, 
distilleries, flour-mills, breweries, dye-works, sawmills, printing- 
works, and numerous limekilns. In 1881 929 tons of steel and 
1947 tons of iron of various kinds were produced. The Tarn is 
'navigable for 43 miles; there are 208 miles of national roads, 4274 
of other roads, and 120 of railway. The department forms the 
diocese of Albi, and belongs to the 16th corps d'armee (Montnellier),' 
and the court of appeal is at Toulouse. The chef-lieu is Albi. 
There are 4 arrondissements (Albi, J^astres, Gaillac, Lavanr), SS 
cantons, and 318 communes. ^ 

TARN-ET-GARONNE, a department of south-western 
France, was formed in 1808 of districts formerly belonging 
to Guienne and Gascony (Ouercy, Lomagne, Armagnac 

•XXIII. —9 



66 



T A R — T A R 



Bouergue, Agenais), with the addition of a small piece of 
i,anguedoc. From 1790 to 1808 it was divided between 
Ui8 departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Tarn, Aveyron, 
Gers, and Lot-et-Garonne. Lying between 43° 47' and 
44' 25 N. lat. andO° 55' and 1° 58' E. long., it is bounded 
on ttl6 N. by Lot, on the E. by Aveyron, on the S. by 
I'asa .and Haute-Garonne, and on the W. by Ger& and 
JLOt-et>Garonne. The Garonne and its tributary the Tarn 
Uli'tea few miles below Moissac, and separate the ele^'ated 
lanas to the north, which belong to the CevenneS and 
the central plateau, from those to the south, which are a 
continuation of the plateau of Lannemezan. The principal 
tributary of the Tarn on the right is the Aveyron, the 
affluents of which run through remarkably parallel valleys 
from "Borth-east to south-west. The general slope of the 
department is from east to west; the highest point (1634 
faet) is oa the border of Aveyron, the lowest (164 feet) 
w^cra the Garonne leaves it. The winter temperature 
is 8T* F., that of spring and autumn 54° F., .and that 
of summer 72° F. Kain falls seldom, but heavily, espe- 
cially in spring, the annual rainfall being 28'9 inches. 

Of i total area of about 1436 square miles, or 919,265 acres, 
arable land occupies 552,708 acres, meadows and grass 45,073, 
vineyards 102,849, woods 115,429, moorland and pasturage 41,S19. 
The returns in 1883 showed 2,167,000 bushels of wheat, 35,062 of 
maslin, 62,975 of rye, 77,000 of barley, 2,722,500 of oats, 759,000 
ofraaize, 1,867,250 of potatoes, 35,468 tons of beetroot, 172 tons 
8 o^tt. of colza seed, 399 tons of hemp, 394 tons of flax, 250,788 
to.18 of foddor, 12 tons 15 cwt. of silk cocoons, 20,048,380 gallons 
of wine. The live stock ic 1881 included 14,336 horses, 1680 
mules, 2120 asses, 89,295 cattle of various descriptions, 116,349 
sheep, 1353 goats, 32,375 pigs ; 6347 beehives gave 25 tons 13 cwt. 
of honey and 8 tons 2 cwt. ot wax. There are 57 quarries, employ- 
in.T 426 workmen, where phosphates of lime, lithographic stone, 
freestone, potters* clay, gy^isura, and schist for slating are worked, 
as are also iron and copper. The manufacturing industry is repre- 
sented by flour-mills, various kinds of silk-mills (1317 workmen), 
acd inanuf.tctories of linen, wool, and paper. Much fruit is grown, 
and the principal exports are fresh fruit, wine, flour, phosphates, 
lithographic stone. There are S3 miles of waterway, including 48 of 
canal, 156 miles of national roads, 3515 of other roads, 127 of rail- 
way lines, the centre of which is Montauban. Tarn-et-Garonne is one 
of the least densely peopled departments of France: in 1886 there 
were 214,046 inhabitants, aird their number is decreasing. Except 
some 10,000 Calvinists, all are Roman Catholics. The department 
forms the diocese of Montauban, and belongs to the jurisdiction of 
the Toulouse court of appeal and to the district of the 17th corps 
d'armec (Toulouse). It has 3 arrondisscments (Montauban, Moissac, 
and Castel-Sarrasin), 24 cantons, and 194 communes. 

TARNOPOL, a market- town in Galicia, Austria, on the 
Sereth. It was formerly a fortress, and rendered valuable 
services to Polish king's, who, in their turn, conferred upon 
it important (iriviloges. The town enjoys a brisk trade in 
grain and Avine, and has some sugar factories. Its yearly 
horse fairs are famous throughout the country. ■ Thepopu- 
lation in 1885 was 27,000, about half of them Jews. 

TARPAULIN is a waterproof sheeting consisting of a 
Btout canvas cloth impregnated and coated with tar. It is 
employed for covering hatchways and other openings into 
the holds of vessels, for making covers for railway and 
other waggons and farm ricks, and generally for protecting 
bulky goods and structures from weather and damp. 
Many waterproof compositions other than tar are used for 
similar purposes, the princii al ingredients being solutions 
of india-rubber, gutta-perclia, and various resinous bodies 
combined with pigments. See Waterproofing. 

TARQUINIL See Etruria, vol. viii. p. 634. 

TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, Lucius, fifth, legendary 
king of Rome, is represented as the son of a Greek refugee 
who removed from Tarquinii in Etruria to Rome, by the 
advice of his wife, the prophetess Tanaquil. Appointed 
guardian to the sons of Ancus Marcius, ho succeeded in 
supplanting them on the throne on their father's death. 
It was he who first established the Circus Maximus, built 
the great cloacae, and founded the triple temple on the 



Capitol, — the expense of these vast works being defrayed 
by plunder seized' from the Latins and Sabijjes. Many 
of the ensigns both of war and of civil office are assigned 
to his reign, and he was the first to celebrate a Roman 
triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, in a robe of purple 
and. gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses. 
After a reign of thirty-eight years he was assassinated 
by the contrivance of the sons of Ancus Marcius, but 
Tanaquil had influence enough to «ecure the succession 
to Servius TuUius, his son-in-law. See vol. xx. p. 733. 

TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, Lucius, son of the pre- 
ceding, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, immediately 
succeeded the latter without any of the forms of election, 
and proceeded at once to repeal the recent reforms in the 
constitution, seeking to establish a pure despotism in their 
place. Wars were waged with the Latins and Etruscans, 
but the lower classes were deprived of their arms, and 
employed in erecting monuments of regal magnificence, 
while the sovereign recruited his armies from his own 
retainers and from the forces of foreign allies. The com- 
pletion of the fortress temple on the Capitoline confirmed 
his authority over the city, and a fortunate marriage of 
his son to the daughter of Octavius Manilius of Tusculum 
secured him powerful assistance in the field. His reign 
was characterized by bloodshed and violence ; the outrage 
of his son Sextus upon Lucretia precipitated a revolt, which 
led to the expulsion of the entire family, after Tarquin had 
reigned twenty-five years. All efforts to force his way 
back to the throne were vain, and he died a lonely and 
childless old man at Cumaa. See vol. xx. p. 73'< 

TARRAGONA, a maritime province in the north-east 
of Spain, with an area of 2451 square miles and a popu- 
lation in 1877 of 330,105, 'was formerly part of the 
province of Catalonia. It is bounded on the S.E. by the 
Mediterranean, on the N.E. by Barcelona, on the N. by 
Lerida (the Sierra de Almcnar), on the W. by Saragossa 
and Teruel, and on the S.W. by Castellon-de-la-Plana. 
The Ebro flows through the southern portion of the pro- 
vince, and the other chief streams are the Gaya and the 
Francoli. The district, although mountainous, is the rich- 
est in Catalonia. The hills are clothed with vineyards, 
which produce excellent wines, and in the valleys are 
cultivated all kinds of grain, vegetables, rice, hemp, flax, 
and silk. Olive, orange, filbert, and almond trees reach 
great perfection, and the mountains yield rich pastures and 
timber trees of various kinds. Manufactures are well 
advanced, and comprise all textile fabrics, soap, leather, 
and spirits. There are also several potteries and cooj)- 
erages, and flour, paper, and oil mills. Silver, copper, 
lead, and barytes are plentiful, and quarries of marble and 
jasper are worked in the hills.' The military government 
of the province is dependent on the captaincy-general of 
Catalonia. For administrative purposes the district is 
divided into eight parlidos judiciales, containing 1S6 
ayuntamientos, and returns three senators and eight 
deputies to tie cortes. Besides the capital, the towns 
in the province with more than 10,000 inhabitants are 
Reus (27,691), Tortosa (23,808), and Valls (13,256). 

TARRAGONA, the capital of the above province, is 
a flourishing scjiport, the seat of an archbishopric, at 
the mouth of the Francoli, 63 miles by rail west-south- 
west of Barcelona, in 41° 10' N. lat. and 0° 20' R long., 
with a population of 23,046 in 1877. The picturesque 
but badly built older portion of the town stands on the 
steep slope of a hill 760 feet high, and is still surrounded 
by walls of Roman (in parts Cyclopean) origin. Below the 
walls a broad .street, the Rambla, divides the upper from 'he 
lower town, which has been more regularly built in modern 
times along the low promontory which stretches out into the 
Mediterranean. The city is most beautifully situated, and 



T A R — T A R 



G' 



gains consideraLily in etfect from its magnificent cathedral, 
one of tlie noblest examples of early Spanish art. It is 
300 feet in length and 100 feet in breadth, and consisted 
originally of a nave, aisles, transepts with an octagonal 
lantern at the crossing, and an apsidal chancel. Several 
exterior chape's have been added in later times, and on 
the south-east stands a 1-tth-century steeple raised on a 
Iloraanesque tower. The east end was probably begun in 
1 131 on'the ruins of an earlier church, but the main body 
^f the building dates from the end of the r2th century 
\nd the first half of the 13th, and is of transitional ch.ar- 
icter, — the exuberant richness of the sculptured capitals 
being admirably kept in subordination by the Romanesque 
^mplicity of the masses. Considerable changes were in- 
'roductjd at a later date ; and the present west end of the 
.ave cannot have been completed till late in the 14th 
century. On the north-east side is a cloister contemporary 
with the church, with which it communicates by a very line 
doorway. The cloister contains much remarkable work, 
and the tracery of the windows bears interesting marks of 
Moorish influence. Two other noteworthy churches in the 
city are San Pablo and Santa Tecla la Vieja, both, of the 
12th century. The mole, begun in U91, was cliiefl.y con- 
structed out of the Roman amphitheatre, of which a few 
rows of seats can still be s;;en on the seashore. The 
remains of a Roman aqueduct form a picturesque feature 
in the landscape. The Carcel do Tilatos is said to have 
been the palace of Augustus Ca;sar; it was partly destroyed 
by SuChet, and now serves as a prison. The museum con- 
tains a collection of the Loman antiquities which are con- 
tinually being discovered during excavations. 

The trade is steaciiiy iucreasing. During ISSfi tlic vessels cleared 
amounted to 377, 'JoO tons (45,795 tons Biitii.li, 47,1S1 French, 
and 42,017 Swedish and N'oru-e^iaii). Tlic evjioits were valued 
at £1.289,533 (wine £1.023,847),'' and the impoits at £1.237,012. 
The expwts were mostly to France. Great Hritaiii, and the Itiver 
Flate; the imports were chiefly fioin Ocrniaiiy. Russia, France, 
and Swe^ien". There is communication ly rail with Barcelona, 
Valencia, and Lerida, and by steamer with otliir ports of Spain. 

Tarraco was one of the earliest strongholds of the Romans in 
Spain, and became a colony (of Julius Caesar), tlie capital b( His- 
pania Citerior, and the richest town on the coa:>t. To the Romans 
the Visigoths under Euric succeeded in 467, but on their expulsion 
by the Jloors in 710 the city was razed to the ground. It w.is long 
before the ruins were again inhabited, but by 10S9, when the .Moors 
\rere driven out by Raymond IV. of Barcelona, tiarc must have 
been a certain revival of prosperity, for the primacy, wliirh had 
been removed to Vich, was iu tbat year re.e^tored to Tarragona. In 
1118 a grant of the fief was made to the Norniaii Robert Burdct, 
who converted the town into a frontier fortress .against tlie Moors. 
In 1705 the city was taken and burned by the English, and a cen- 
tury K'iter, after being partly fortified by them, it was captured an<l 
sacked by the French in ISIl under Suchet. 

T.AJJSHISH. See Ph(enicia, vol. xviii. p. S06. 

TARSUS, now Taesls, an ancient city in the fertile 
plain of Cilicia, la}' on both sides cf the Cydnus, whose 
cool and swift waters were the pride of the city (Dio 
Chrys., vol. ii. p. 2, Reiske's ed. ; Vila Apollon., i. 7), and 
bore traffic t&and from the port of Khegma. In the time 
of Xenophon (Anab., i. 2. 23) Tarsus w.is already great 
and flourishing, and was the residence- of the vassal king 
of Cilicia. Its civilization at this time seems to have been 
mainly Semitic, as was to be expected from the geograph- 
ical relations of Cilicia, which have generally associated 
its history with that of SyTia. We have coins of Tarsus 
(nr>) of the Persian period, bearing Arainaio inscriptions; 
and the deities of the town, knov.-n lii later times as 
Heracles, Perseus, Apollo, Athena (Dio Chr., iL 22), seem 
to have been akin to those of the PhcenicianS- and Syrians 
(see below). The Semitic influence wds doubtless very 
ancient ; indeed, the Assyrians invaded Cilicia iaihe 9th 
CBDtury B.C., at which date Tarsus is perlia])« mentioned 
on the monuments under the name of 'J'uisi (Schrader, 
Keilttuthr. -jAd Gfseh., 1878, p. 240 ; the reading is not 



certain). After Tarsus was Hellenized the citizens learned 
to boast that they were Argives sprung from the com- 
panions of Triptolemus (Strabo, siv. 5. 12; Dio Chr., 
ii. 20), and the town became the seat of a famous school 
of philosophy which was frequented almost exclusively 
by natives, but sent forth teachers as far as Rome 
itself.' More than one of these philosophers, notably 
Athenodorus the teacher of Augustus, and Nestor the 
teacher of JIarcellus, held the chief magistracy of the city. 
Athenodorus and his' predecessors were Stoics, but Nestor 
was an Academic (Strabo, xiv. 5. 14),- so that the Platonic 
pihilosopliy is that with which Paul would probably have 
come in contact ■ if he gave hec^ to the Greek wisdom of 
his native city. Presumably, however, he formed no 
higher opinion of the culture of Tarsus than did his con- 
temporary Apollonius of Tyana, whose testimony as to the 
character of the citizens {Vil. Ap., i. 7) is confirmed by- 
Dio Chrysostom. . Tarsus had made rapid material, pro- 
gress since Cilicia' became Roman (66 B.C.). It w.is the 
ca[)ital of a rich province, and had recei\cd freedom from 
Antony, and from Augustus the dignity of a metropolis and 
important immunities for its commerce (Dio Chr., ii. 30). 
The inhabitants were vain, effeminate, and luxurious, more 
like Phoenicians than Greeks. Theif sensuous Eastern 
religion in these golden days of affluence had more attrac- 
tion for them than the grave philosophy of the Porch ; and 
the legend supposed to be graven on the statue of Sardana- 
pal.us, at the neighbour city of Anchiale, " let us eat and 
drink, for to morrow we die," which Paul quotes in 1 Cor. 
XV. 32, might have been the motto of the mass of the 
townsmen.-^ At Tarsus the emperor Tacitus died, and 
Julian was buried. The city was deserted and lay waste 
during the frontier war's of Greeks and Arabs in the first 
century of Islam'; a. Moslem general, who saw the ruins, 
estimated its former population at 100,000 (Beladhori, p. 
169). It was rebuilt and settled as a military colony and 
frontier post by H.iriin al-RashiJ in 787 a.m., and became 
a starting point of forays against the Christians. On such 
a campaign the caliph Jla'mun died, and was buried at 
Tarsus (833), having caught a fever, like Alexander the 
Great, by bathing in the cold Cilician waters. Tarsus 
W.1S temporarily recovered to Christendom by Nicephorus 
Pliocas, and again by the crusaders under Baldwin. 
Finally it remained in the hands of the Turks. 

The Heracles of Tarsus was the Cilician god Sandan. Dio 
Chrysostom calls him the ap-jcnyis of the Tarsians (ii. 23), and 
he may be identified wlili the B.ial of Tarsus named on the coins 
already spoken of. He was woii>hi]'ped by the periodical erection 
of "a very fair p\rc" {tOi'i.), a rite presumably analogous to that 
described in the Dc Den Sijria, eh. 49 ; and the remarkable ruin of 
Dbniik-tasli, a vast court with massive walls enclosing two lofty 
platforms .of concrete, probably marks the site of his sanctuary 
(SCO Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, de I'Arl, iv. 536 .s^. , and Langlois, 
VoTiage dans la Ctticic, p. 2G5 sq.). A tradition making Sandan 
the founder of Tai-sus is given by Ammianus (xiv, 8. 3); and, as 
the Greeks appear to have taken elements of the myth of Sandan 
(iHclading tlie pyiv) into tiieir legend of Sardanapalus, this 
explains the current story that Sardanapalus founded Anchiale 
and Tarsus iu one day (Ariian, ii. 5, 2 ; Athen., xii. p. 529 sq). 
On Sandan, sec K. O. Midler, in PJieiH. Mus., 1829, and E. Meyer, 
in 2. D. M. G., 1877, p. 736 sq. Another account in Ammianus 
makes Perseus the founder of Tarsus, and it appears from Dio Chr. 
that he was almost or quite as much* honoured. The footprint of 
Pegasus was shown at Tarsus (Avienus, 1031 sq. ; comp. Dio, U. 24), 
and his rapc-ifs (wing?) was said to have fallen there (AJex. Polyh." 
ill Steph. Byz., s.v.). This worship reappears at Joppa. . Apollo 
'* with the trident" had a sacred sword at Tai3Q9, which could be 
cleansed only by the water of the Cydnus (Plut,Z'i!/'- Orac., 41), and 
is probably ths Kume as inc harpt shown on-'coins of Hadrian's 
time; if so, he is-; presumably a dilfcrentiated form of PerseuS; 
.^ To Strabo's U.-it rtust be added Zeno, the successor of Cbrysippus. 

' Luciari, Jt/a<;ro!i.,'21, makes him a Stoic, and teacher of Tib«rius. 

^ Atheniens, V. p. 215^ tells of an Epicurean phdbsopher, Lysia^, 
wh.i, liecoming,pnest;of Heracles, became tyrant oi, the city, taxing 
the rich to provide largesses for the poor. The fact is probable, th* 
date quite uoosrtain. 



68 



T A R -T A R 



Tbe worship of Athena may be coimected with the statement of 
Athenodonis (the famous pmlosopher of Tarsus) that the ancient 
name of the city was Parthenia (J^. Hist. Gt , iii. 437); Abydenus 
.in Ensb., Chrcnu, p. 36, ed. Schbne) ascribes the foundation of her 
temple with its brazen columns and of the city itself to Sennacherib. 
Thus with the Baal of Tyre there was worshipped an unmarried 
goddess, as In so many shrines of Syria and Asia Minor Dio Chr., 
ii. -2, speaks also of Titans as lords of the city. The reference is to 
Japetus (Japheti), grandfather of Cydnus (Athenodorus, ul svp.). 

TARTAGLIA, NiccolO (c 15Q0-1557), a self-taught 
mathematician, was born at Brescia about 1500 His 
father, Michele Fontana, was a postal messenger between 
Brescia and the neighbouring towns, who, dying m 1506, 
left two sons and a daughter to the care of their penniless 
mother Niccol6's childhood was accordingly passed under 
the stress of dire poverty, and was marked by a cruel 
misfortune. Dunng the sack of Brescia in 1512 he was, 
•m the cathedral where he had vainly sought a refuge, 
horribly mutilated ty some infuriated French soldiers. 
His skull was laid open in three places, his palate cloven, 
both jawbones fractured. Yet he recovered vnth no 
further assistance than his mother's patient care He, 
however, long continued to stammer in his speech, whence 
the nickname, adopted by himself, of "Tartagha. His 
education remains a mystery Save lor the barest rudi- 
ments of reading and writing, he tells ub that he had no 
master, yet we find him at Verona in 1521 an esteemed 
teacher of mathematics. In 1534 he transferred his 
residence to Venice, and was there met by A.ntonio del 
Fiore with a challenge to one of the intellectual dnels 
then customary Del Fiore relied on his possession of an 
undivulgsd formula by Scipione del Ferro for the solution 
of a particular case of cubic equations. But Tartaglia had 
attained in 1530 a similar result, which he now, in Feb 
■ ruary 1535, greatly extended. His consequent triumph 
over his adversary gave him a high reputation, and bis 
house became the resort of the learned of all grades and 
nations. The mystery in which he chose to shroud his 
method of dealing with cubic equations promised him a 
highly effective weapon in future contests, as well as 
leisure to perfect, before publishing, the coveted rules. 
But in 1539 Cardan enticed him to Milan, and there, by 
unremitting solicitations, procured from hiiu the rude 
verses in which be had enshrined his discovery (see 
Algebra, vol. i p 513). The Milanese physician's breach 
of his oath of secrecy gave rise to a bitter and lifelong 
quarrel, the most conspicuous incident in which was a 
public disputation at Milan, August 10, 1548, at which 
Cardan shrank from appearing In 1548 Tartaglia ac- 
cepted a situation as professor of Euclid at Brescia, but 
returned to Venice at the end of eighteen months. -He 
died at Venice December 13, 1557 Acrid and emulous 
in disposition, he incurred abundant enmities , yet his 
honesty, uprightness, and the morality of his life remain 
unimpeached. He was keen-witted, diligent, and ingenious, 
and by his discoveries in the solution of equations helped 
to initiate the rapid progress of modern mathematics 

Tartaj^lia's first printed work, entitled Nova Saciuia (Venice, 
1537), dealt witii the theory and practice of gunnery, to which his 
attention had been drawn in 1531 by the question of a boral)ardier 
at Verpiia as to the elevation giving the greatest range He easily 
found it to be 45* {true only in vacuo), but failed to demonstrate 
the correctness of his intuition ludeed, he oevei shook off the 
erroneous ideas of his time regaidiiig the patiis ol projectiles, 
further than to see that no |iart of them could he n straiglit line 
He nevertheless inaugurated the scientific treatment of the subject, 
and his propositions reappeared in most ballistical treiitises down 
to Blondel's in 1683 The publication of the Nova Scwuliu was 
determined by the menacing attitude of Soliman II Unless lu 
the interests of Chnstendoin. Tartaglia regarded it as « crime to 
promote aiLs of destruction Inquiries rendered lawful by necessity 
were, however, resumed in his Qnrsil.i f,t Invrnzionl Diverse, n rol- 
h'Ctloii of the author's replies to questions addressed to him hy 
persons of the most varied conditions, published in l.^clO, with a 
iledication to Henry V||I nf England Hroblems in nrtillery 



occnpy two ont of nine books ; the sixth treats of fortification , tha 
ninth gives several examples of the solution of equations of tha 
third degree. His last years were full of activity. He published 
in 1551 Regola OentraU per sollevare ogni affondata Nave, inlilolata 
la Travagliata Inverimone (an allusion to his personal troubles at 
Brescia), setting forth a method for raising sunken ships, and 
describing the diving-bell, then little known m western Europo. 
He pursued the subject m Ragioiiammti sopra la Travagliata 
Invenzione (May 1551), adding a table of specific gravities. Of 
his largest work, entitled Gsneral TraJialo di Numeri « Miswre, 
Two parts appeared at Venice in 1556, the remainmg four post- 
humously in 1560. This is a comprehensive mathematical treatise, 
including arithmetic, geometry, mensuration, and algebra as far as 
quadratic equations. He designed to embody the results of his 
original investigations in a separate form ; but his Algebra Nova 
remained unwritten. He published the first Italian translation of 
Euclid (1543) and the earliest version from the Greek of some of 
the principal works of Archimedes ( 1 543). These included the tract 
De Insidentibus Aqux, of which his Latin now holds the place 
of the lost Greek text. An Italian version of it la appended to 
his liagionaimnti. Tartaglia was the first Italian writer on forti 
fication, and claimed the invention of the gunner's quadrant. 

TartAglla's own accouat of Ms early life Ift contained in his Quaici, lib. r1. p 
74 See also Blttanti's DUcorto di Niccold Tartaolii, BrescU, 1871; Baoncom- 
pagnl, Iniorno ad un Tfitamenlo tnedito di /f Tartaglia, MUac, 16SI ; Ubrl, 
Hist, dts Sfiencfi Siatttematitjuti, t. III. p. 149; Montucla, Bill, de* Uath., voL I 
p 667 ; Marie, Htst. dci Scimcai, t, 11. p. 242 ; Hankel, Zur QeKh. d. Math. . 1874, 
p. 3fiO.- Rossi. £/0(7idi Brfsctani ///uKri, p. 386. Tartajflla'a wrlUncsongaunery 
wei-e translated Into Enelish by Lacar In 1588. and into Fiencb by Rleftcl In I84& 
Tbo.t. .Salnsbury published (Londnn; I5ti4) an English version of hJs Travagliata 
/ncetuwiie, and a selection fioin Ms wrttlnfrs appeared at Venice In 1603 with tiit 
title Opere del Pamosisiimo Niccolit Tartaglia, 1 voL 8vo. 

Tartan is a worsted cloth woven with alternate 
stripes or bands of coloured warp and weft, so as to form 
a chequered pattern in which the colours alternate in 
•'sets "of definite width and sequence. The weaving of 
particoloured and striped cloth cannot be claimed as 
peculiar to any special race or country, for indeed such 
checks are the simplest ornamental form into which dyed 
yarns can be combined in the loom But the term tartan 
is specially applied to the variegated cloth used for the 
principal portions of the distinctive costume of the High- 
landers of Scotland. For this costume, and the tartan of 
which It IS composed, great antiquity is claimed, and it i& 
asserted that the numerous clans into which the Highland 
population were divided had each from time to time a 
speoial tartan by which it was distinguished. After the 
rebellion of 1 745 various Acts of Parliament were passed 
for disarming the Scottish Highlanders and for prohibiting 
the use of the Highland dress in Scotland, under severe 
penalties These Acts remained nominally in force tiU 
1782, when they were formally repealed, and since that 
time clan tartan has, with varying fluctuations of fashion, 
been a highly popular article of dress, by no means con- 
fined in Its use to Scotland alone , and many new and 
imaginary " sets " have been invented by manufacturers, 
with the result of introducing confusion in the heraldry 
of tartans, and of throwing doubt on the reality of the 
distinctive "sets" which at one time undoubtedly were 
more or less recognized as the badge of various clans. 
The manutacture has long been earned on at Banaockburn, 
in the neighbourhood of Stirling, and it still continues to 
he a feature ot the local industries there 

Undoubtedly the term tartan was known, and the matenal was 
woven, 'of one or two colours tor the poor and more varied for 
the rich.' as early as the middle ot the 15th century. In the 
accounts of John, bishop ot Glasgow, treasurer to King James III 
in 1471, there occurs, with other mention ot the matenal, the 
following — " Ane eine aud ane halve of blue Tartane to lyne his 
gowne of cloth of Gold " It is here obvious that the term is not 
restricted to particoloured chequered textnrcs. ' lu 1638 accounts 
were incurred for a Highland dress for King James V on the 
occasion of a hunting excui"sion in the Highlands, in which therv 
are charges for "variant cullont velvet," tor "ane schort Helaud 
coit," and for ' Helaud tartane to be hose to the kinge's graca" 
Bishop Lesley, in his De Ongim:, Moribus, et Rebus Gestis Scotorum. 
nnblished in 1578, says of the ancieut and still-used dress of the 
Highlanders and islanders, "all, both noble and common Mople, 
wore mantles of one sort (except that the nobles preferred those of 
several colours)." George Buchanan, in his Rennn. ScoUcarum 

' Neither so is it m tbe French ttreUtine or In tbe Spaiusl* txrilafUu 



T A R — T A R 



69 



ffi^oria (15S2), as trarslftted by Slonypenny (1612), says of the 
IlighUiulers, "they Jelight in inarlod clothes, specially that have 
«ny ons stripes of sundry colours ; they love cniclly purple and 
bino; Their prcdecessore uwd short mantles or plaids of divers 
colours sundry ways divided ; and amongst sonio the same custom 
19 observed to this day." A hint of clan tartan di^tinctions is 
given by Martin in his H^cslcrn Jiks of Scotlnyiii (1703), which 
work also contains a niinnto description of the dress of the High- 
landei-^i and the manufacture of tartan. " Every isle," lie observes, 
"dilTci-s from each other in their fancy of making plaids, as to the 
stripes in hi-esdlh and coloui-s. This humour is as different throu,i;h 
the mainlaml of tho Highlands, in so far that they who have seen 
tiiosc places is able at the lirst view of a, man's plaid to guess tho 
place of his resilience." 

S\C \V. anil A. Snurh, T'li-lnrt* cf Ihe Clans of SfOtrnnif, 1S.'.0; J. Sohicskl 
Stuart. Vfttij'-iuin SfotirHin, iM2 : R. It. M'liin, C^ith* e/ the Si-ottish Wylitiimh. 
l$4o-|i: : J. Onint. Taitam oflhf Ctnits o/Su'ltnml, Lilinburcli, 1S85. 

TARTARIC ACID, in its ordinary acceptation, refers 
to one acid, (CjH,0^)H;, which occurs in most acid fruit 
juices, in association generally with malic or citric, or both. 
Grape-juice owes its sourness almost entirely to acid tartrate 
of potash. Wliile the juice ferments into wine, the greater 
part of the acid tartrate separates out, along with tartrate 
of lime, colouring matter, and other impurities, as a hard 
crust adhering to the sides of the cask. Such impure acid 
tartrate of potash is known commercially as "argol." It 
was known to the Greeks as rpii, to the Romans as fxx 
vini: The alchemists from the 11th century called it 
tnrtanis, which name has survived in familiar chemical 
parlance to this day. The true constitution of larlarus 
villi was discovered by Scheele in 1769. He was the first 
to isolate the acid from its acid potash s.alt by a method 
which is still used for its industrial extraction. 

Manxifacture. — Crude tartar (10 to 14 cwts.) is placed 
in a tank, and dissolved in sufficient water with the help 
of steam. The surplus acid is then neutralized by addi- 
tion of powdered chalk, and precipitated as lime salt: — 

2(C.H A)KH = (C,H A)Ks + (C,H A)H» ; 
nornml shU. acid 

(C,H,0J"i + CaC03-(CjHj0^j)Ca+H~0 + C0, 

The other half of the tartaric acid which remains dissolved 
as normal potash salt is then precipitated in the same 
form by addition of chloride of calcium : — 

(C.HjO,)K., + CaCU=2KCI + (C,H,06)Ca. 
The. tartrate of lime precipitate is collected, washed, and 
decomposed by an excess of sulphuric acid at 75* C. : — , 
: (CjHjOs)Ca + Hj.S04=CaSOj + (C4H,Oe)H2. 

The sulphate of lime is removed by decanting and filter- 
ing, and the acid solution evaporated in leaden pans to a 
sufficient degree to deposit crystals on standing in the 
cold. The crystals are purified by redissolving them in 
hot water, decolorizing the solution with animal charcoal, 
and causing the acid to crystallize a' second time after 
addition of sulphuric acid, which promotes the formation 
of large crystals. The crystals contain a little sulphuric 
acid and a trace of lead ; if intended for internal use, they 
must be recrystallized from pure water. 

Tartaric acid forms hard colourless transparent mono- 
clinic prisms of l'76-l spec, grav., easily soluble in cold 
and abundantly in hot water. It has a strong but agree- 
able sour taste. At 15° C. 100 parts of water dissolve 
138 parts of the acid, 100 of alcohol (absolute) 20 4, and 
100 of ether 0'39. It fuses at 135° C. and passes into 
an amorphous modification known as meta-tartaric acid ; 
when heated more strongly it loses water, and passes into 
the forms of anhydrides. At high temperatures it is 
decomposed with formation of charcoal and volatile pro- 
ducts, which smell pretty much like those formed from 
sugar in the same circumstances. Mo.^t oxidizing agents 
produce formic from the aqueous acid. Boiling with oxide 
of silver and excess of caustic alkali produces oxalate. 

Tartaric acid is used largely in calico printing as a 
discharge. In pharmacy and households it serves, con- 
jointly with bicarbonate of soda or potash, for the extem- 



poraneous-preparation of efltervescing drinks. The so- 
called German effervescing powders are a combination of 
vveighed-out doses of tartaric acid and of bicarbonato of 
soda. In the so-called " scltzogenes " (glass apparatus in 
which carbonic acid is produced in one compartment, to be 
forced by its own pressure into a mass of water, vino. ,^-c.,' 
in the other) the gas is similarly produced. 

Tnr(ra(c-s.— Tlionf«;io/n.rfiOT«, (CjHjOJHK, "cream of tartar, "_ 
is prcp.Trcd from crtidc tartar (argol) hy dissolving it in lint water,'' 
filtering olf \\'liat remains of tartrate of lime and other impurities,' 
and allowing the filtrate to crystallize. Tlic crystals arc generally' 
contaminated with a little of the lime-salt, lor the removal of 
which the best melhoil is to treat the powdered crystals with 
cold dilute liydrocliloiic aci'l and then wash them with coM water 
by displ.acement. Tho lime passes into the filtrate. Cream of 
tartar iorms small colourless hard crystals which dissolve in al>out 
200 parts of cold and in 15 parts of boiling water. In alcohol the 
salt is even Ic^s soluble than in water.' 

The iiormnl (neutral) potash sail, (CjIIjO^iK, -^ JHoO, is prepared 
by dissolving powdered creatn of tai t.ar in hot solution of cnibonntc 
of potash until a neutral or slightly alkaline solution is produced. 
Tho salt, being extremely solulilc in water, does not crystallize 
very readily. In former times the carbonate of potash required 
used to be made by igniting one half of the cream of tartar to be 
0]>cratcd upon in a crucible. Hence the name of Utrtarus totaris- 
aliis, whicli is still familiar in pharm.acy. The salt is used medi-' 
cinally, and also for removing free acid from excessively sour wine 
by formation of relatively insoluble bitartrate (Liebig's method). 

Itochclk sntl, (C^H40|;)KNa-(- 4H;0, is prepared by not ([uite 
neutralizing hot solution of carbonate of soda with powdered 
cream of tartar. The (filtered) hot solution deposits on cooling 
magnificent crystals, readily soluble in water, though less so than 
the iiumixcd potash salt. Roehelle salt is used as a mild purgative. 
The so-called Seidlitz powders arc clfervescing powders with a con- 
siderable addition of Roehelle salt to the bicarbonate. 

The normal tartrates of lime, baryta, &c., arc insoluble precipi- 
tates producible by double dei:oinpositions. 

Tartar emetic, (C,l-l,0,.)K(SbO) -fiHaO, is produced by boiling 
4 parts of o.\ide of antimony, Sb.^Og, and 5 of jtowdered cream of 
tartar with 50 of water for about an hour. The filtered solution,! 
on cooling, deposits crystals of the above comjrosition soluble in 
15 parts of cold and 2'8 of boiling hot water. The crystals gene- 
rally exhibit the appearance of tctrahedra; yet they are rhombic 
pri'iiiis combined with pyramids. The process going on in the 
formation of the salt is easily understood if we remember that 
SbjOs often acts on aqueous acids as if it were tho monoxide, 
(SbO).O, of a radical (SbO) antimony!. (SbO),0 -t- H,0 is eqni- 
valent to 2(SbO)OH, and 

(CjH,Os)KH-HOH(SbO) = H20-H(CjH40j)K(SbO). 

Tartar emetic has long had a standing in medicine. In doses of 
1-3 grains it acts as a powerful emetic ; very small doses (,', to -j^ 
grain) induce perspiration. Large doses produce poisonous effects. 

Analysis. — Tartaric acid is characterized chiefly by the relative 
insolubility of its acid potash salt. To produce it from a solution 
of a neutral tartrate, add acetic acid and acetate of potash, and 
stir vigorously; the salt gradually separates out as a crystalline 
precipitate. Neutral tartrate solutions, with chloride of calcium, 
give a precipitate of tartrate of lime, which is at first amorphous, 
and in this condition dissolves pretty readily in excess of reagent - 
or tartrate, but in general re-separates in the crystalline form (the ■ 
undissolved tartrate likewise becomes crystalline) on standing. 

Anhtjrlrides.~-TaTts.uc acid, when kept at 135°, fuses and becomes 
meta-tartaric acid without change of weight, and on continued appli- 
cation of 140-150° C, ditartrylic acid, CgH,jO„-2CjHj05 - H,0; 
and at 180° tartrelic acid, C8HeOi|, = 2C4HsOj- iH^O, is pioduccd. 
All these three acids form salts of^ their own, which, however, tend 
to become tartrates in the presence of water. At ISO° real tartaric 
anhydride (like tartrelic, CjHjOk, — 2CjHj05) is produced, in addi- 
tion to tartrelic acid, as an infusible yellowish mass, insoluble in 
water and in ether. By continued contact with water it is con-^ 
verted finally into tartaric acid solution. 

Isomeric Modijicalioiis. — Among these raccmic acid has long been., 
known as an occasional bye-product in the manufacture of tartaric- 
acid. It used to be believed that lacemic acid is present ready- 
formed in certain grape-jnices, and thus comes to make it.s appear-; 
ance occasionallytbut it is well known now that the bulk of it at", 
any rate is protluced from what was originally tartaric acid, by thfcs 
continued action of high temperatures and water. Raccmic acid is 
almost identical with tartaric acid ; the only purely chemical point 
of difference is that corresponding salts of tho two acids often 
crystallize witTi different proportions of water. The two acids, 
however, are easily distinguislicd by their action on polarized light 
(see PoLAKixy, vol. xix. p. 314). A solution of tartaric acid turns 
the plane of polarization to the right ; racemic acid is, in this sense. 



70 

^,^n,.a1W inactive These long known facts led Pasteur to the 
d^»'"rVrtrt.ue Stions^f the t.'O acids If the double 
uisco\cry oi i -vtjNH 1 is allowed to crystallize slowly, two 
S ■ir^s"a\?ire rro'd'uced. both bearing Vemiedric faces, but 
J fferingfrom each other in the situation of these, exactly as tie 
ri"ht hand d.R-ers from the left. Pasteur separated the two kinds 
of crystal, and found that one kind is identical with the ordinary 
"dextro) tar-rate of soda and ammonia, while the other contains a 
,new kind of taruric acid, which he called Uevo-tartano acid because 
"uurus the plane of polarization to the left. Equ.al weights ol he 
l^-o acids when dissolved separately in water and mixed, unite. 
!rith percept ble evolution of heat, into optically neutral racem.c 
""* "^^c'emic .cid. then, is tevo- ^nll dext^-UrUric um.cd 



T A R — T A R 



acid Kaceraic acui, men, 13 ife.u- ....v. -^ ■ . ,, 

nooselv) into one molecule. There are a number ot optically 
Kve tartaric acids, not susceptible of decomposition in he 
sense in winch racemic acid IS. ■ 1 

TART'VIvS (more correctly Tatars, but Tartars is the 
form generally current), a name given to nearly tlirce 
million inhabitants ot the Russian empire, chiefly Moslem 
and of Turkish origin. Tlie majority-in European 
Russia— are remnants of the Mongol invasion of the Uth 
century (see Mongols), ^vhile those «-ho inhabit Siberia 
are survivals of the once much more numerous Turki^U 
iiopulation of the Ural-Altaic region, mi-xed to some 
■extent uith Finnish and Samoyedic stems, as also ^vlth 
Moncols. The name is derived from that of the ia-ta 
Mongols, who in the 5lh century inhabited the north- 
easteni Gobi, and, after subjugation in the 9th century by 
the Tungus Kidaiis, migrated southward, there foimding 
the Mongolian empire under Jexghiz Khan (y.f.). Under 
the leadership of his grandson (Batu) they moved west- 
wards, driving with them many stems of the Turkish Ural- 
Altaians towards the plains of Russia. The ethnographical 
features of the present Tartar inhabitants of European 
Russia, as well as their language, show that they contain 
no admixture (or very little) of Jlongolian blood, but 
belon.' to the Turkish branch ot the Ural-Altaic stock, 
neces.°itatinc the conclusion that only Batu, his warriors, 
and a limited number of his followers were Mongolians, 
while the great bulk of the 13th-century invaders were 
Turks On the Volga they mingled with remnants of the 
old Bulo-arian Turkish empire, and elsewhere with Finnish 
stems as well as with remnants of the ancient Italian and 
'Greek colonies in Crimea and Caucasians in Caucasus. 
The name ot Tatars, or Tartars, given to the invaders was 
afterwards extended so as to include diflcrent stems of the 
same Turkish branth in Siberia, and even the bulk of the 
then little known inhabitants of the high plateau of Asia 
and its north-western slopes, which was described under 
the general name of Tartary. This last name has almost 
disappeared from geographical literature, but the name 
Tartars, in the above limited sense, remains in full use. 
' The present Tartar inhabitants of the Kussian empire form three 
lai-f-e "roups, -those of Enropean Russia and Polan.l those ol 
•CaScasus, and those of Siberia. The discrimination ol the separate 
stems included under the name is still far lioni completion. The 
following subdivisions, however, may be regarded as established. 
(1) The Kazan Tartars, descendants of the Ki).tchaks settled on the 
Volca in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of 
the Bulgar Turks and partly with Fnn.ish stems. They number 
about half a millionju the government ol Kazan, .about lUO 000 in 
each of the gnvernments of Ufa, Samara, aud Simbii>k, Mi.d about 
300 000 in Vvatka, Saratoll', Taml.olV, Penza, Nl,pll•^ovgoro(l, 
Perm and Orciibuig; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have 
.miTa'tCil tc KVazafi, 01 have been settled as prisoners in the loth 
* and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Groduo and 1 odolia)-, and 
there are some 200(1 j„ St IVl. isbn,g. n IVlnml ihey eonslUnte 
I per rent, ot the population of ll.c district of Pt.H-k. 1 be Ka/aiS 
Tartars spe.ak a pure Turkish dialect ; they arc ,nid>Vesi/.e.l broad- 
shouldered, and itrong, and n.ostly have black eyes, a str.iight nose, 
and salient cheek bones. They arc Mohammedans; poly,L,;ani.Y is 
practised only by the wealthier classes and is a w;aning institution, 
kscellent agriculturists and g.ardeners, very laborious, and hav'nt'.a 
Rood repntatiou for honesty, they live 011 the best terms with their 
Ku.«ian peasant neighbours. It may be added that, according to 
M YuferolV i£t,idc iilm. sitr Ics DaMirs, 1S81), those Bashkirs who 
live between the Kama, Ur.al, and Volga are not of Pinnish origin, 
but in virtue of their history.' language, anthropological features. 



and customs rtust be regardea as Tartars. (2) The Astrakhan M anan 
(about 10 000) are, with the Mongol Kalmucks, all that now re- 
mains of the once so powerful AstrakhaJi empire, They ah.o are 
"r-r" ulturistsand gardeners; while some 12,000 Kundrovsk Tartar, 
sun continue the nomadic life of their ancestors. (S) The Crimean 
Tartars, who occupied the Crimea In the 13th century have pre- 
served the name of their leader, Nogai. During the 15th, 16th, 
and 17th centuries they constituted a rich empire, which prospered 
until It fell under Turkish rule, when it had to suffer much from 
the wars fought between Turkey and Russia f°/ ''jf P°f;f;°'if'' 
the peninsula The war of 1853 and the laws of 1860-63 and 1S74 
causk an exodus of the Crimean Tartars; they abandoned their 
admirably irrigated fields and gardens ^nd moved to l>jrkey, so 
?lat i,ow^heir° number falls below 100,000. Th<)se of the souUi 
coast mixed with Greeks and Italians, are well known for thei 
skill n gardening, their honesty, and their laborious habits as well 
as for their fine features, presenting the Tartar type at its best 
The mountain Tartars closely resemble those of Caucasus, while 
those of the steppes-thc Nogais-are decidedly of a mixed origin 
from Turks and Mongolians. ,.,... . ., . 

Tlie Tartars ol Caucasus, who inhabit the upjier Kuban, the steppes 
of the lower Kuma and the Kur,i, and the Araxes, number about 
1 350 000 Of these (4) the Nogais on the Kuma show traces ol 
ail intimatfe mixture with Kalmucks. They are nomads, supporting 
themselves by cattle-breeding and fishing; ew are ap-jcul "rists^ 
(5) The Karatchais (18,500) in the upper valleys about Ebuiz live 
by agriculture. (6) Th^ mountain Tartars (about 850,000), divided 

i.fto many tribes and of an origin ^f" ""''^■''•™""^''i."»k 'na'h 
throu'-hoiit the provinces of H.aku, Envan, Tiflis, Kutais, Dagh- 
an,°and partly also of Balum, They are certainly of a mixed 
origin, and present a variety of ethnological types, a 1 he mce 
as all who are neither Armenians nor Russians, "0^ ''«'°'lg/° ?,"y 
d stinct Caucasian tribe, are often ea led Tartars. As a rule th y 
are well built and little behind their Caucasian brethien. They 
are celebrated for their excellence as gardeners, agriculturists cattle- 
tenders and artisans. Although most fervent Shiites they areon 
le ygo'od terms both with th?ir Smmite and with their Russian 
Iieigirbours. Polygamy is rare with them, and their womeu^go to 

" The P^bei'iau Tartars, mostly mixed with Fiimish sterns are the' 
most difficult to classify. They occupy three d'^t"";' "S^^f '"^ 
strip running west to east fioni Tobolsk to Tomsk the Altai and 
ft 'spirs. ami South Yeniseisk. They originated m he »gSlo- 
me.'tions of Turkish stems which in the region north of the 
Alt i succeeded the Ugro-Samoyedic civilization (see Siberia) and 
fea::^ed a rehUively h,|h degic^of culture between the 4t,, ami he^ 

8th centuries, but were subdued and .^"^''■'yf, ^^ '^ "™»°5 
In the meantime thejolhjwuijgsubdiv,^^^^^^^^ 

?i",';t:'o7''th ir ti^slB",^number about 50,000 iu the', 
grmTeia of Tobolsk aiu/about 5000 in Tomsk After asti.nuous 
Resistance to Russiim conquest, and much suffeiing at a later 
pe, od fion, IU ghiz and Kalmuck .-aids they now live by agn.] 
c,i ure e ther i°i seirarate villages or along with Russians (8^ 
TrTJhoynojTchilyni Tartars on the Tcholyin and both the 
iV rsyus's^eak a Tuiiish language with --y "°|!f "-^ t' 
Yakut words and are more like Mongols than lurUs. In lasij 
mit y they l.aid a tribute for 2550 arbaletes, but they now are, 
raiX becoming fused with Russians. (9) Tlie Abakan or Mi lU- 
si sk Ctars oca 1 ied the steppes oil the Abakan and \ us in the, 
1 ttcin my X\he withdr,'ial of the Kirghizes, and r^^^^^^^^ 
mixture with Koibals (whom Castieu cousidei-s as partly o Ostiak 

/^r,,,arT, .11 d /,^'//^'0" ""« So,,, of the Sayan Mountains. 

{Mu^socwM. T'eSo "fY ,^°^ „( north-west 

aiel reduced now to a li w nuiuii^u f„carlv 20,000 in 

-rf'K5l5«f=r?sssiSi 



T A R — t A S 



71 



k«« deengtrcu ty mistake, and who havo nothing in common with 
tha Kalmucks escept their dress and mode of life, while they 
•peak a Turkish dialect, and {b) the Teleutes, or I'elenghites (5S00), 
a remainder of a formerly numerous and warlike nation who hove 
migrated from the mountains to the lowlands, where they now 
live along with RussL-m peasants. 

Finally, there are a number of Tartars in Turkestau and Central 
Agifi Without including under this name the Sarts and the 
Knramintses of Turkestan, still less the Kirghiz-Kazaks, it may 
be reckoned that there are still nearly 30,000 survivors of the 
Uigurs in the valley of the Ili, about Kuldja, and in the Khami oasis. 
is is evident from the above, altUough the name Tartare 
originated in an indiscriminate application of the word to the 
Turkish and Mongolian stems which invaded Europe six centuries 
ago, and its gradual extensioo to the Turkish stems mixed with 
Mongolian or Finnish blood in Siberia, it still represents an aggre- 
gate of characters which warrant at least a provisional use of this 
fenetic name, if those to whom it is given are properly subdivided, 
t embodies stems which, although widely distinct, stiU have some 
common ethnoOTaphical and philological features, besides being to 
some crtent of like ongin and history 

Tbe uterature of tlie stibjeci Is Tery extensive, aad blbliojfraphlcal Indexes 
mftj be found In the Gfo-p-apfttcat £Hctt^rtary of P Semenofi. appended to the 
ankles devoted respectively lo tlie names given above, as also in tlie yearly 
Indcxci by M. Uezltoff- Besides the well-known works of Castren, which are 
a very rich source of tnlomiation on the subject, Schiefner (St Petersburg 
academy of science), Donner. Ahlq\isl, and other explorers of the Ural-Allalans. 
as also those of the Russian historians Solo*ieff, Koslomaroff. BestuzhcfT-Riumin, 
SchapofT, and Iloraisbiy, the following containing valuable information may be 
mentioned ;— the pubhcationsof the Russian Geogratihical Society and ita brarcties : 
the Russian Etnographicf^ikiy Si^mik: the hrfitui of the Moscow society of 
the amateurs of natural science: the works of the Rossian ethnographical con- 
gresses . KostrofTs researches on the Sibenaii Tartars in the memoirs of the 
Siberian branch of the peogr. soc., RadlotTs Hetsf durcft iten Altai, Aus Sittrien\ 
** Picturesque Russia ' (Jitfpisniiya Rotfipa) ; Semenoff's and Potanin's "Supple- 
ments" to Ritter's Asi^n , Ha; Ravi's report 10 the congressat Kazan ; Hartakhai's 
'*Hist of Crimean Tatars," in VyeUnit Evropy, 1866 and 1867 ■. "Katchinsk 
Tartars." in JiraHa Russ. Otogr Soc., ix., ISM (P A. K.) 

TARTARUS, in the lltad (viii. 13 sq., 481), is a dark 
ondergTound prison with iron gates, as far below Hades as 
earth is below heaven, whither Cronus and the Titans were 
thrust down by Zeus (vol. xxi. p. 321), and to which the 
sovereign of Olympus threatens to consign other gods who 
may disobey his behests. Later writers make Tartarus 
the place of punishment of the wicked after death .(Eneas, 
in his visit to the abode of the shades, comes to a point 
where the road divides, the branch to the right leading to 
Elysium and that on the left to the prison-house of 
Tartarus, girt about by a triple wall, with the fiery Phlege- 
thon as a moat, and guarded by the fury Tisiphone (^n., 
vi. 540 iq.). Tartarus is personified as the son of iEther 
and Ge, and father of the giants Typhoeus and Echidna. 

TARTINI, Giuseppe (1692-1770), violinist, composer, 
and musical theorist, was born at Pirano, April 12, 1692, 
and in early life studied, with equal want of success, for 
the church, the law courts, and the profession of arms. 
His life as a young man was wild and irregular, and his 
temper extremely violent and impulsive. His unfitness 
for an ecclesiastical career was manifest , and, after failing 
in jurisprudence, he crowned his improprieties by clan- 
destinely marrying the niece of Cardinal Cornaro, arch- 
bishop of Padua. Though the family of Tartini had been 
legally ennobled, the cardinal resented the marriage as 
a disgraceful mesalliance, and denounced it so violently 
that the unhappy bridegroom, thinking his life m danger, 
fled for safety to a monastery at Assisi, where, calmed by 
the soothing infiuence of the religious life, his character 
underwent a complete change. Docile and obedient, as 
he had before been passionate and headstrong, he studied 
"the theory of music under Padre Boemo, the organist of 
the monastery, and, without any assistance whatever, 
taught himself to play the violin in so masterly a style 
that his performances in the church became the wonder of 
the neighbourhood. For more than two years his identity 
remained undiscovered, 6ut one day the wind blew aside 
a curtain behind which he was playing, and one of his 
hearers recognized him and betrayed his retreat to the 
cardinal, who, hearing of his changed character, re- 
admitted him to favour and restored him to his wife. 

Tartini next removed to Venice, where the fine vitilin- 



playing of Veracini excited his admiration and prompted 
him to repair, by the aid of good instruction, the short- 
comings of his own self-taught method. After this he 
studied for some time at Ancoua , and here, about 1714, . 
he made the curious acoustical discovery on which his fame 
as a theorist chiefly rests. He observed that, when two 
notes are sounded together on the violin with sufficient in- 
tensity, a third sound, distinct from both, is simultaneously 
produced. For the production of this ' third sound," as he 
called it, Tartini failed to account on strict mathematical 
principles. "WTien the two primary notes form an im- 
pure consonance, the " third sound " of Tartini (now known 
as a difference tone of the first order) is accompanied by 
beats due to the presence of different tones of higher 
orders, the existence of which, unknown of course to 
Tartini, has been established by Helmholtz. Tartini made" 
his observations the basis of a theoretical system which 
he set forth in his Trattato di itusica, secondo la vera 
scifTma dtlV Armoma (Padua, 1754) and Dei Pmiapy 
dell' Ai^bnia Musicale (Padua, 1767). In 1721 he re- 
turned to Padua, where he was appointed solo violinist at 
the chufch of San Antonio From 1723 to 1726 he acted 
as conductor of Count Kinsky's private band, but after- 
wards returned to his old post at Padua, where he died 
on February 16, 1770 

Tartini's compositions are very numerous, and faithfully illustrate 
his passionate and masterly style of execution, which surpassed 
in brilliancy and refined taste that of all his contemporaries. He 
frequently headed his pieces with an explanatory poetical motto, 
such as " Orabra cara," or "' Volgete il riso in pianto o mie pupille." 
Concerning that known as It TrUlo del Diavolo, or The DeviTi 
Sonata, he told a curious story to Lalande, in 1766. He dreamed 
that the devil had become his slave, and that he one day asked 
him if he could play the viohn. The devil replied that he believed 
he could pick out a tune, and thereupon he played a sonata bo 
exquisite that Tartini thought he had never heard any music to 
equal it. On awaking, he tried to note down the composition, 
but succeeded very imperfectly, though the resulting Devil s Sonala 
is one of his best and most celebrated productions. 

Besides the theoretical works we have mentioned, Tartini wrote 
a Trattato delle AppogicUure, postnumously printed, in French, 
and an unpublished work, Delk Ragioni e delle Praporziatii, the 
MS. of which has been lost. 

TARUDANT. See Morocco, vol. xvi. p. 834. 

TASHKEND, or Tashkent, one of the largest and 
most important cities of Central Asia, now the capital of 
Russian Turkestan, is situated in the valley of the Tchir 
tchik, some 50 miles above its junction with the Syr-Dana, 
in 41* 20' N. lat. and 69° 18' E. long. The city, formerly 
enclosed by walls which are now ruinous, is surrounded 
by rich gardens, and its houses are buned among the 
fruit and other trees which grow all along the number- 
less ramifications of the irrigation canais. The buildings, 
which are of stone and sun-dried bricks, are mostly low, 
on account of the earthquakes which frequently disturb 
the region. Like all old cities of Asia, Tashkend is sub- 
divided into sections [yurts), which are characterized by 
the special trades carried on m each Asiatic Tashkend 
in 1871 had 78,130 inhabitants, mostly Sarts (75,176), 
with a few Uzbegs, Kirghizes, Jews, Russians, and Ger- 
mans. A depression in the south-east is occupied by Rus- 
sian Tashkend, dating from 1865, which has clean, broad 
streets lined with poplars, the low nice-looking houses 
being surrounded by gardens. In 1875 its population, 
exclusive of the military, was 4860, mostly Russians. It 
has a public library containing a rich collection ot works 
on Central Asia, an observatory, a museum, two gymnasia, 
a seminary, and the buildings occupied by the administra- 
tion. A branch of the Russian Geographical Society has 
been opened at Tashkend, and its publications, as also those 
of the statistical committee and the Turkestan Gazette, 
contain most valuable information about Turkestan. Ac- 
cording to the most receut estimates, the population of 



72 



T A S — T A S 



Tashkend, with its suburbs, is reckoned at 100,000. lu 
consequence of the chequered history of the town (see 
PoRKESTAu), few old buildings have been preserved, and 
only the madrasah Ijeklar Bek, with its fifty students, and 
the graves of Sheikh Zenedjin-baba and Zenghi-ata are 
worthy of mention. The former is four centuries old, and 
that of Zenghi-ata, a saint held in high veneration through- 
out Central Asia, yearly attracts thousands of jjilgrims. 

A variety of petty trades are carried on in numerous uniall work- 
shops, — weaving and dyeing of cottons and the manufacture of small 
brass and iron wares, of harness, and especially of boots, being the 
chief. Most of the inhabitants are also engaged in raising corn, 
rice, oij-plants, cotton, wine, and lucerne, and in gardening. The 
trade of Tashkend has lost its former importance, but corn, cattle, 
silk, cotton, and fruits are still exported, and all kinds of inanu- 
factured wares arc iniiiorted from the countries to the .south. 

TASMAN, Abel Janszen {c. 1G02-1659), a dis- 
tinguished Dutch navigator, born at Hoorn, North Hol- 
land, probably in IG02 or 1G03. He is known to have 
made two important voyages of discovery in the Pacific 
and Southern Oceans , only of the second of them have 
we a full account. In June 1G39 Tasman, along with 
Matthew Quast, was despatched by Van Diemen, governor- 
general of the Dutch East Indies, on a voyage to the 
Western Pacific, which was first directed to the Philippine 
Islands; part of the coast of Luzon was explored. Sailing 
east and north Tasman and Quast touched at several of 
Ihe Bonin Islands, which they were probably the first to 
discover Sailing still farther north, in quest of what 
were then known as the " islands of gold and silver," they 
reached the latitude of 38° 40' N., about 600 miles east 
of Japan, and continued cast for other 300 miles on the 
parallel without discovjring anything On October 15 
the navigators decided to return, and, after toiuliiiig at 
Japan, anchored at Taiwan-fu, Formosa, No\cnibur 21. 
After this, Tasman was engaged in operations in the 
Indian seas until 1G42, when he set cut on his first great 
ex[>edition.' Several Dutch navigators had already dis- 
covered various portions of the west coast of Ai^stralia, 
and the Dutch East India Company wore anxious to 
obtain a more accurate and extended survey of that land. 
Sailing from Batavia on August 14, 1642, with two 
vessels, the "Hcrmskirk" and "Zeehaan," Tasman on 
November 24 sighted the land to which he gave the name 
of Van Diemen, in honour of the governor-general, but 
which is now named Tasmania. He doubled the land, 
which he evidently did not know was an island, and, run- 
ning up Storm Bay, anchored on December I iu the bay to 
which lie gave the name of Frederick Henry. There he 
set up a post on which he hoisted the Dutch flag. Quit- 
ting Van Diemen's Land on December 5, Tasman steered 
eastwards with a vague idea of reaching the Solomon 
Islands, and on December 13 he discovered a "high 
mountainous country," which he called " Staaterdand " 
(New Zealand). Cruising along the west coast of the 
South Island, he anchored on the 18th in 40° 50' S. lat., 
at the entrance of a " wide opening," which he took to be 
a " fine bay," but which was no doubt" Cook's Strait. He 
gave the name of Mcordenaars (Mas.^cre) Bay to the 
bay, at which he attempted to land, and where several 
of his men were killed by the natives. Leaving New 
Zealand, and pursuing an irregularly north direction, but 
never coining in sight of Australia, he discovered, on 
January 21, 1643, two islands belonging to the Friendly 
group, to which he gave the names of Middelburg (Eova) 
and Amsterdam (Tongatabu). After discovering several 
Other islands in the Friendly group and their neighbour- 
hood, Tasman steered north and west, reaching the neigh- 
bourhood of New Britain on March 22. On the 24th he 

' See Siebold's paper in Le MoniUur da Jiidti-Orientala ct 
OcctdtnlaUi, 1848-i8. i>t i. p. 390 



passed Morghen Islands, and, sailing roui... 
and along the north coast of New Guinea, ^e clea 
the straits between New Guinea and Jilolo, arriving at 
Batavia on June 15, after a ten months' voyige.^ The 
materials for an account of Tasman's important second 
voyage in 1644 are extremely scanty; they consist of 
Tasman's own chart and some fragmentary notes by 
Burgomaster VVitscn in his work (1705) on the migrations 
of the human race (translated in Dalrymple's collection). 
Further information as to authorities' will be found in Mr 
R. H. Major's Hakluyt Society volume on Early Voyages 
to Australia, where also will be found the "Instructions " 
given to Tasman for his voyage to New Guinea. He is 
instructed to obtain a thorough knowledge of Staten 
and Van Diemen's Land, and '• whether New Guinea ia 
a continent with the great Zuidland, or separated by 
channels and islands," and also "whether the new Van 
Diemen's Land is the same continent with these two great 
countries or with one of them." In this voyage Tasman 
had three vessels under his command. His discoveries were 
confined to the north and north-west coasts of Australia, 
and his chart gives the soundings for the whole of this 
line of coast. He discovered the Gulf of Carpentaria, and 
established the continuity of the north-west coast of the 
land designated generally " the great known south con- 
tinent," as far south as about the 22d degree. The 
fullest details as to maps of the voyage and other 
authorities will be found in Mr Major's Hakluyt Society 
volume referred to above. Tasman rightly ranks as one 
of the greatest navigators of the 17th century. He died 
at Batavia in October 1659. 

For personal details, see paper on Tasman by Ch. M. Dozy in 
Utjdragcn tot dc Taat-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van ^ederlandsch- 
Indie, 5th series, vol. ii. p. 308. 

TASMANIA, formerly Van Diemen's Land, is a com- Pl»w t 
pact island, forming a British colony, wdiich lies to the 
south of Australia, in the Southern Ocean. It has an area 
of 24,600 square miles (about three-fourths of the size 
of Ireland), and some fifty islets belong to it. Most of 
these lie between it ai>d the' southern shore of Victoria, 
in Bass's Strait. It is a land of mountain and flood, with 
picturesque scenery. The centre is a mass of hills, gene- 
rally covered with forest, with large lakes nearly 4000 feet 
above the sea ; and this high land is continued to the west 
and north-west, while southward are other elevations. Ben 
Lomond in the east rises to a height of 5020 feet ; in the 
north-west are Dry's BluflF (4257 feet) and Quamby (4000) ; 
while westward are Cradle (5069), Hugel (4700), French- 
man's Cap (4760), and Bischoff (2500). Wellington, near 
Hobart, is 4170 feet. Among the rivers flowing northward 
to Bass's Strait are the Tamar, Inglis, Cam, Emu, Blyth, 
Forth, Don, Mersey, Piper, and Ringarooraa. The Mac- 
qnarie, receiving the Elizabeth and Lake, falls into the 
South Esk, which unites with the North Esk to form the 
Tamar at Launceston. Westward, falling into the .ocean, 
are the Hellyer, Artljur, and Pieman. .The King and 
Gordon gain Macquarfc Harbour ; the Davey and Spring, 
Port Davey. The central and southern districts are drained 
by the Derwent from Lake St Clair^ — its tributaries being 
the Nive, Dee, Clyde, Ouse, and Jordan. The Huon falls 
into D'Entrecasteaux Channel. The chief mountain lakes. 

- The best English translation of Tasman's Journal is in Buiney'l 
Collection, vol. iii. The Dutch original was published at AmsterdaW 
in 1860, edited by Jacob Sw^rt, and contains the chart of the second 
voyage. 

• The subject 19 thoroughly discussed by P H. L«ape in th» 
Bijdragen van ket kon. Inst, vovr Taat-, Land; en Volkenkunde v, 
d. Ind. Archipcl, ser. i. pt. iv. up. 123-140 , in JSijd. mor Voder- 
Inndsche Geschiedenis en Oudhtid Kunde, 'by H. Fruin, new series, 
pt. vii. ]• 254 ; and in the same writer's work De Rctzen dcr yedfr* 
landers naar A'lcuw Ouihm (The Hague, 1S75) ; also Col. A. Higa^ 
^Hederlaiidsch i\'ievvi Ouintn (The Hague, 18S4). 



hub 
the ~ 



hr 



TASMANIA 



73 



arc the Great Lake (50 miles in circuit), Sorell, St Clair, 
Ciescent, and Echo. The colony is divided into eighteen 
counties. The princi^ial towns are llobart, the capital, on 
the Derwent, with a population of 21,118 in ISSl (25,041 
in 18S6), ai\d Launceston (12,752 in ISSl ; 19,379 in 
1886), at the head of the Tamar. The rugged western 
half of the island has only a few small settlements, while 
the eastern country is increasing in population on account 
of the mines. 

Climate. — This small colony has a far greater range of 
climate than can be experienced throughout the Australian 
continent. The eastern side is dry ; the western is very 
wet. Tin and gold minors are partially arrested in their 
work during summer from want of water in the northeast. 
Dense forests and impracticable scrubs result in the west 
from deposition of a hundred or more inches of rain in the 
year, while other -parts to the cast occasionally suffer from 
drought. Tasmania docs not escape the summer visit of an 
Australian hot wind. Hobart and Launceston, being near 
the sea, have greater equability of temperature, with rare 
frosts. The mean temperature of Hobart is 5-1°, of Waratah 
in the north-west 44°. Hobart averages 22 inches of rain, 
less than Jfelbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane. Inland, in 
the settled part.*, cold is severe in winter, but only for a 
sbort period. The wooded north-west shore has no cold 
and no excessive heat, but plenty of showers. Up in the 
lake country tlio climate rather resembles the Highlands 
of Scotland. On the west and southern coasts the winds 
are usually strong, and often tempestuous. 
t Like New Zealand,Tasmania is very healtliy. No miasma 
is retained in its forests. Rheumatism and colds may pre- 
vail, but little fever or dysentery occurs. Perhaps no part 
of the world can show relatively so many aged people. 
Children generally display the robustness of English village 
life. As a retreat for Australians, Tasmania in the summer 
has strong claims. Cool and strengthening airs, magnifi- 
cent forest solitudes, and secluded fern-tree vales may be 
enjoyed along with all the comforts of modern civilization. 
^ Geolo'jy. — The comparatively recent conne.xion of Tas- 
mania with Victoria is evidenced not less by rocks than by 
flora and fauna. The granitic islands of Bass's Strait are 
as so many stepping-stones across, a depression having con- 
verted the loftier districts into islands. The want of simi- 
larity, however, between the tufted-haired Tasmanians and 
their Australian neighbours would indicate that the dis- 
ruption took place before the advent of the younger race 
on the northern side. While doubts e.\ist as to the pres- 
ence of rocks older than the Silurian, a Palaeozoic floor 
exists north, east, south, and west, though often thrown up 
into irregular ranges, sometimes over 5000 feet, by igneous 
irruptions. Convulsions have distinguished the history of 
the little island from one end to the other. Not only is 
granite in all its varieties very prevalent, but' there is an 
immense amount of mctamorphism in different directions. 
Then, at another period, not merely porphyries, but basalts 
and greenstones, were widespread in their ravages. They 
consumed or deranged beds of coal, and overflowed enor- 
mous tracts. Earthquakes were busy, and tremendous 
deluges denuded great areas to depths of thousands of feet, 
leaving mountains of Primary rock, with peaked or plateau 
summits of basalt or greenstone. There are prismatic 
walls several hundreds of feet in height, and 4000 feet 
above the sea-level, as at Mount Wellington, looking down 
upon " ploughed -fields "of greenstone blocks. Still, unlike 
Victoria, there are not the extinct craters to tell the tale 
of more modern lava flows. The lake district, up to over 
4000 feet, is a tangled mass of granitic and metamorphic 
rocks. Quartz is so common a feature that the western 
stormbound cliffs reflect a white light to passing ships; 
while luica, taicose, dolerite, and siliceous schists are 



common over the island. Contorted slate and the tessel- 
ated pavement of Tasman's Penin.sula are effects of that 
transmuting period. Granite is strong at eastern and 
northern points, at western localities, in the interior, and 
in the straits. Greenstone is exhibited southward in enor- 
mous field.*, as well as in the western and lake districts, 
and alternates often with basalt. Silicified trees are seen 
standing upright in the floor of igneous rock. The Prim- 
ary rocks have more casts of former life than fossils in 
ordinary condition. The Hobart clay-slate abounds in 
Fciiesltl/ii or lace coral, and trilobites occur in limestone. 
Slate is abundant on the north-we.st coast, tlie South Esk, 
and westward. New Red Sandstone near llobart is marked 
by the presence of salt-beds. The Carboniferous forma- 
tions are not much exhibited on the western half of the 
iiland, but are prominent along the Mersey and other 
northern rivers. The southern fields are torn by igneous 
invaders. Anthracitic forms are conspicuous on Tasman's 
Peninsula. Inland, on the eastern side, the formations 
spread from near Hobart northward for scores of miles, 
and even to a thousand feet in thickness. The Fingal 
and' Ben Lomond north-eastern districts are remarkably 
favoured with Carboniferous sandstones and crinoidal 
limestones, bearing excellent scams, and like strata are 
noticed in islands off the cast coast. Carbonaceous non- 
coal-bearing beds by the Mersey are 500 feet thick. 
Tertiary rocks are not extensive, save in the breccia and 
coarse sandstone south of Launceston, over Norfolk plains, 
and along some river valleys. Alluvial gold deposits belong 
mainly to the Pliocene formations, — the ancient Primaries 
containing the auriferous quartz veins. Greenstone and 
basalt belong to various^periods, the latter being specially 
apparent in the Tertiary epoch. Travertine, near IJobart 
and Richmond, is from freshwater action. The Pleistocene 
development was characterized by overwhelming denuding 
forces. Raised beaches are noticed along .some of the 
larger rivers, and westerly moraines would imply a greater 
elevation of the country formerly. Caves and recent beds 
exhibit marsupial forms analogous to existing ones. Not 
far from Deloraine are limestone caves, with passages two 
miles in extent. The density and intricacy of the island 
scrubs have interfered with the investigation of its geology. 

jl/iiicra/s.— Tasmania has failed to take a very important position 
as a gold producer. Still, when tie crushing of 1300 tons in one 
mine produced £11,523, adventurers may well be hopeful. From 
Benconsfield mine, west of the Tamar, gold was obtained to the 
value 01" £615,330 from July 1878 to January 1, 1887. In 1886 
there were fire districts under commissioners of mines. Westward, 
Kold is found from Arthur river to Point Hibbs ; north-westward, 
from Blyth river to Cape Grim. In the north-east are Scottsdale, 
Ringar.joma, Mount Victoria, and Waterhousc fields; east, Fingal 
and St George river. Arsenic and silver are found with gold in the 
north-cast; and iron, arsenic, copper, and lead with it at Beacons- 
field. ForlSSS the gold export was 37,498 oz., worth £1-11,319. 
Silver occurs at Penguin, Jlount Ramsey, and TrVaratah (Jlount 
Bischoff), combined with lead. Coppei- is met with at Mount 
Maurice, kc, but not in paying rjuantities. Bismuth at Mount 
liamsey is ricb, but the country is difficult to reach. Antimony, 
zinc, manganese, copper, plumbago, and galena arc known west of 
the Tamar, where also asbestos iu SL-rpeutine hills is plentiful Tin 
is well distriliuled in Tasmanian granite. Mount Bischoff, in the 
scrubby, rorky, damp west, lias tnc richest lodes; other mines aro 
in the north-east and west. In ten years the product came to two 
and a half million pounds sterling. Bischoff district in 1885 gave 
2871 tons of ore, much being found in huge blocks. Want of 
water in the northeast prevents much hydraulic working. An- 
thracite coal is pretty abundant at I'orl Artluir. Near Hobait are 
workings of poor quality. Around Ben Lomond are bituminous 
seams, but difficult of access. Fingal district hxs coal e(pial to 
that of Newcastle, with a seam of 14 feet, but carriage is difficult. 
Mersey river coal mines yielded 60,000 tons in the course of over a 
duzeu years. Iron was worked near the Tamar, but did nut pay, 
excess of chromium making it brittle; its steel was very malleable. 
All varieties of irou ores are known. Hobart freestone is larg.ly 
exported to other colonies. Tasmanite or dysodile in the Mersity 
district is an inflammable resinous substance. During 18S4 there 

xxin. — 10 



74 



TASMANIA 



•were raised 41,240 02. of gold, 5461 tons of tin, and 5u34 tons of 
coal The total export of gold and tin during tlie live years 1S50 
to 1S85 was of the value of £2,591,320,— being £642,230 more thai. 
for the ten years. preceding. The export of tin averaged 79,CS2 cwt. 

Agriculture.— The island has not a large area fit lor cultivation. 
A great part is very mountainous ; and dense scrubs, with ^cavy 
forests, are impediments to the farmer. The west siJo is too wet, 
stormy, and sterile for settlement. Almost all the farms lie in the 
line between Hobart and Launceston and between Laimccston and 
Circular Head. ThS climate being cooler and nioistcr than in most 
parts of Australia, the productions are of an English character, 
hops, barley, and oats being freely raised. Cropping land for many 
successive years «ith wheat has lessened the produce of what was 
fertile country, as little manure had been used. In later times 
there has been a great improvement in agriculture. .For some time 
Tasmanian growers did well, supplying Australia and New Zealand 
with flour, potatoes, and fruit ; but, as their customers became in 
their turn producers, the old markets failed in all but apples and 
stone fruit. Fresh and preserved fruit, with jams, together with 
excellent hops, continue to afford the islanders a good trade. In 
1885-86 there were 417,777 acres in cultivation ; in crop, 144,761 ; 
in grasses, 181,203. AVheat occupied 30,266 acres, barley 6S33, 
oats 29,247, pease 7147, potatoes 11,073, hay 41,693, turnips 36S0, 
and gardens and orchards 81 98.' 

So large a part of the island is covered mth thicket, rock, and 
marsh that it appears le.ss pastoral than eastern Australia. The 
total number of sheep in 1SS6 amounted to 1,648,627, the horses 
to 28,610, and the cattle to 138,642. Of 16,778,000 acres only 
4,403,888 have been sold or granted. 

Flora.— This differs but little from that of south-eastern 
Australia, with which it was formerly connected; • Over a thousand 
species are represented. The eucalypts are gums, stringy bark, 
box, peppermint, ironwood, &c. The celebrated blue gum {Euca- 
lyptus Globulus), so eagerly sought for pestilential places in southern 
Europe, Africa, and America, flourishes best in the southern dis- 
tricts of the island. For shipbuilding purposes the timber, which 
grows to a large size, is much prized. Acacias are abundant, and 
manna trees are very productive. Sassafras (Ath£rosj)cnna t/jos- 
chata) is a tall and handsome tree. . Pines are numerous. Tho 
Huon pine {Dacrydiu.n atprcssinum), whose satin-like wood is so 
sought after, flourishes in Huon and Gordon liver districts. The 
celery pine is a Fhyllocladus, and the pencil cedar an Athrotaxis. 
The pepper tree is TasTnania frmjrans. The Myrlaccse are noble 
trees. The lakes cider tree is Eucalyptus rcsini/cra, whose_ treacle- 
like sap was formerly made into a drink by bushmen. Xanthor- 
roeas or grass trees throw up a flowering spike. The charming red 
flowers of the Tasmanian tulip tree {Tclopca) arc seen from a great 
distance on the sides of mountains. Tlie so-called rice plant, with 
rice-like' grains on a stalk, is the grass IUcJica. Of Boronia, Epac- 
ris, and Orchis there are numerous species. Tlie Bland/ordia, a 
Liliaceous plant, has a head of brilliant crimson flowers. Tho 
Casuarina, Eiocarpus, £anksia, and tree fern resemble those of 
Australia. Tasmanian evergreen forests are very aromatic. At 
one time the island had an extensive timber trade with Sydney, 
Melbourne, and Adelaide, and it still exports £50,000 to £80,000 
worth annually of planks, shingles, paling. Sic 

Fauna. — Animal life in Tasmania is similar to that in Australia. 
The dingo or dog of the latter is wanting ; and the Tasmanian devil 
snd tiger,or wolf, are peculiar to the island. The Marsupials include 
the Macropus or kangaroo, Didclphys or opossum, Petaurus or flying 
phalanger, Perameles or bandicoot, Hyp^iprymnus or kangaroo rat, 
Phascolomys or wombat ; w hile of MonotrcJimla there are the Echidna 
or porcupine anteater and the duct-billed platypus. The marsupial 
tiger or Tasmanian vioU (Thylacimis cyiiQccphalus), 5 feet long, is 
yellowish brown, with several stripes across the back, having short 
stirt' hair and very short legs (see vol. .xv. p. 380). Very few of 
these nocturnal carnivores are now alive to trouble flocks. The 
tiger cat of the colonists, with weasel legs, white spots, and uocttirnal 
habits, is a large species of the untameable native cats. The devil 
{Dasyurus or Sarcophilus ursinus) is black, with white bands on 
neck and haunches. The covering of this savage but cowardly little 
night-prowler is a sort of short hair, not fur. The tail is thick, and 
the bulldog mouth is formidable. Among the birds of the island 
are the eagle, hawk, petrel, owl, finch, peewit, diamond bird, fire- 
tail, robin, emu-wren, crow, swallow, magpie, blackcap, goatsucker, 
quail, ground dove, jay, parrot, lark, mountain thrush, cuckoo, 
wottlebird, whistling duck, honeybird, Cape Barren goose, penguin 
duck, waterhen, snipe, albatross, and laughing jackass.^ Snakes 
are pretty plentiful m scrubs j the lizards are hannless. Insects, 
though similar to Australian ones, are far less troublesome ; many 
are to be admired for their great beauty. 

Pishcries..^}a the early years of occupation the island was tlie 
resort of whalers from the United Kingdom, the United States, and 
France. Both sperntaud black oil, with whalebone, were important 
articles of export till the retreat of tho whales to other seas. Seal- 
ing was carried on successfully for many years in Bass's Strait, 
Oiltil the seals were utterly destroyed. There has recently been a 



revivalof whaling, the product of the island fishery for 1885 being: 
£12,6C9). The bays contain some excellent fish, much esteemed in 
the neighbouring colonies, particularly' the trumpeter, found on 
the soutlici n side of the island. Of nearly 200 sorts of fishes a third 
can be considered good for food. The outer fisheries extend to 16 
miles from shoic, being from 20 to 80 fathoms deep. The species 
include the trumpeter (Latris, found up to 60 lb weight), the 
"salmon " of the old settlers [Arripi£), the flathead {Plcdyccphalus\ 
ti evilly {Xcptonci)ius), garfish (Ncvdrhamphus), barracouta and 
kin^lish (both Tliynitcs). There are thirteen sorts of perch, and 
live ol, jieani. The anchovy is migratory. Eng ish macKcrel have 
been sien oil the east coast ; and some of the her ings are much liko 
the English. Rock cod and bull-kelp cod are favourites. Jlud 
oysters arc nearly worked out; artificial oys.er-beds are being 
forme.l. English trout {Salmofario) are more Cirtainly found than 
the true salmon {Salmo salar) \ the last are douDtful, though num- 
bers have been raised in hatcheries on the Derwmt Among fresh- 
water fish are a so-called freshwater herring (.Frototroctcs), various 
kinds of what the old settlers called trout [Galaxias), blackfish 
XOadopsis), and fine perch. 

Commerce. — Soon after the colony was foiinded there was a great 
trade ir whale oil, as well as in the oil and siiAs of seals. When 
this declined, merchants d.d well in the expo-tation of breadstuffs, 
fruits, and vegetables to the neighbouring and more recently estab- 
lished colonies, not less than to New South Wales. Timber was 
also freely sent to places less favoured with forests or too busy 
with other employments. When the trade with England in oil 
fell off, the export in wool and then of metals succeededl Tasmania- 
has now an active commerce with Victoria, tut has a competitor 
rather than a customer in New Zealand. The shipping during 
1885 was 342,745 tons inward, 335,061 outward. The imports 
for that year came to £1,757,486; the exports to £1,313,693. Of 
the exports, £1,299,011 were of Tasmanian products and manu- 
factures,— including wool, £260,480; tin, £357,687; gold, £141,319; 
fruit, £105,363. The banks of the colony at the end of 1885 
showed assets £3,754,226 and liabilities £3,814,631. The savings 
banks early in 1886 declared £455,774 to the credit of depositors. 
Attempts have been recently made to draw Tasmania into closer 
commercial and fiscal relations with Victoria, 

Manufactures. — Numerous industries are practised, though not 
to the extent of exportation, excepting from the working of 28 
tanneries, 62 sawmills, 13 breweries, 7 manufactories of jam, and 
a rising wool factory. 

Hoods and Jiiilways: — No colony, for its area, was ever so 
favourjd with excellent roads as Tasmania has been. There, are 
now about 5000 miles of good roads. The principal line of railway 
is that from Hobart to LauncestoiL ^Altogether, 260 miles of rail- 
way were open in 1887. 

Post-Office. —In early years letters wefc carried by runners on foot 
across the island. In 1SS5 there were 243 post offices, and the 
telegraph had 1579 miles of wire. A submarine line connects 
Tasm.inia with Victoria. 

Ad.ninistration. — The governor is appointed by the British 
crown. The legislative council has eighteen members, and the 
asseo bly thirty-si.x. The revenue for 1885-86 was £571,396, the 
expeiditure £585,766. The public debt, contracted for public 
works, amounts to three and a third millijns. The customs pro- 
vided £276,100. The oSicial machinery s as extensive as for a 
colony with seven or eight times the population. 

Education. — At first the state made grants in aid to schools 
establishdfl by private persons and religuus denominations, but 
ultimoteh, as in Victoria and New Zealand, education was made 
secular ai d compulsory, religions teaching being out of school 
hours, or dependent on Sunday schools, which are to be found all 
over the-jsland. There are 204 public schools maintained out of 
a fund £32,793. In eight grammar and collegiate schools a 
higher standard of instruction is reached. Thi degree of Associate 
of Arts is conferred on deserving scholars in the state schools ; and 
exhibitions (up to £200 a year for four years) enable pupils to 
study at the higher schools qr colonial or European universities. 
No state grant is now made for the support of any religious deno- 
mination. 

Population. — The whites have entirely displaced the blacks." 
Outrages and cruelties led to conflicts; and now the last individual 
of the tribes has passed away. There are, however, some half- 
castes on islands in the Straits. The coloaists in Tasmania are 
more concentrated than in other settlement:. In 1818 there were 
2320 men, 432 women, and only 4S9 chililLen. At the census of 
1881 the population numbered 115,705 61,162 males, 54,543 
females); in 1886 it was estimated at 133,7.91. The births in 1886 
averaged 34 6 per thousand, the -deaths 15'2. 

ffw/ory,— Tho Dutch navigator Tasman (7. i'.) sighted the island 
November 24, 1642, and named it Van Diepcn's Land, after the 
Dutch governor of Java. He took possession at Frederick Henry 
Bay in the naie of the stadtholdcr of Holland, and then passed 
on to '.ho discovery of New Zealand. The French Captain Marion 
in 17:2 came to Mows with the natives. Cajitaj'n Cook was at. 



T A S — T A S 



ys 



Adrenmre Bay, to Uit Math, in 1777. His companion, CapUin ' 
ruroeini. hij entO-CTl the b»y four years previously, assuring t 
Cook thit Van Ditmen's Land »-as joineil to New Holland. 
Admiral Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, with the naturalist La Billardiire, 
entered the Derwtnt, calling it North River, in 1792. Two years 
after. Captain Hayes named it Derwent. Mr Bass and Lieutenant 
Finders pased through Bass's Strait, and 6rst sailed round the 
island, in 179S. The high terms in which they spoke of Sullivan's 
cove, at the mouth of the Derwent, afterwards led to the settle- 
ment of Hobart there. The French discovery ships, "Geographe" 
and " Natnraliste," under Commodore Baudin, were off the coast in 
1801-2. The island was settled from Sydney. A small party was 
sent to the Derwent, under Lieutenant Bowen, in 1803, and another 
to Port Dalryniple next year under Colonel Paterson, who was 
removed to tauncestou in 1S06. Captain Collins, who had been 
tent with a large number of convicts from England to form a penal 
colony in Port Phillip, thought proper to remove thence after three 
months, and establish himself at Hobart Town, February 1S04. 
The early days were trying, from want of supplies and of good 
government ; and conflicts arose with the natives, which led to the 
celebrated Black War. In 1S30 nearly all the settlers, with 4000 
soldiers and armed constables, attempted to drive the aborigines 
into a peninsula, but caught only one lad. Mr George Robinson 
afterwards succeeded in inducing the few hunted ones to surrender 
and be taken to Flinders Islaai Beatbs rapidly followed. The 
last man died in 1S62, the last female in 1872. Bushranging was 
common for years in this scrubby land. The colony was subject 
to New Sonth WaleS til] 1 S25, w heu independence was declared. 
On free settlers being permitted to go to Van Diemen's Land, they 
endeavoured to get freedom of the press, trial by jury, and a popular 
form of role. After long struggles, the liberties they sought for 
were gradually granted. A responsible government was the last 
boon received. Oppressed by the number of convicts thrown into 
the countr}-, the free iuhabitints petitioned again and again for the 
cessation of ti^ansportation, which was eventually allowed. Among 
the governors was Sir John Franklin^ of polar celebrity. The first 
newspajior, 7'hi Dcnc€iU Siar^ came out in ISIO. Literature ad. 
vanccd from that humble beginning. At tirit the Government 
entirely supported schools and churches, .iml for many years state 
aid was rttforiled to the Church of England, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, 
»nd Roman Catholic churches, but this aid is now withdrawn. The 
isl.ind proving too small for a large population, numbers swarmed 
off to the neighbouring settlements, and Fort Phillip, now Victoria, 
receiveii its first inhabitants from Tasmania. Though not so 
prosperous Ad Victoria, the little island enjoys an amount of ease 
and comfort which few, if any, settlements elsewhere have been 
known to experience, (J. BO.) 

TASSIE, James (1735-1799), gem-engraver and mod- 
eller, was born of humble parentage at PoUokshaws, near 
Glasgow, in 1735. During his earlier years he worked 
as a stone-mason, but, having visited Glasgow on a fair- 
holiday, and seen the collection of paintings brought 
together in that city by Robert and Andrew Foulis, the 
celebrated printers, he was seized with an irresistible 
desire to become an artist He, removed to Glasgow, 
attended the academy which had been established there 
by \he brothers Foulis, and, applying himself to drawing 
with indomitable perseverance, seconded by great natural 
aptitude, he eventually became one of the most distin- 
gui.shed pupils of the school. When his training was 
completed he visited Dublin in search of commissions, 
and there became. .acquainted with Dr Qnin, who had 
been experimentiiig, as an amateur, in imitating antique 
engraved gems in coioared pastes. He engaged Tassie as 
an a<«istant, and together they perfected the discovery of 
a vitreous paste composition, styled "enamel," a substance 
admirably adapted, by its hardness and beauty of te.xture, 
for the formation of gems and m.cda.l!:ons. Dr Quin 
encouraged his assistant to try his fortune in London, 
and thither lie repaired in 17G6. At fii-st he had a hard 
struggle to make his way, for he was modest and diffident 
in the extreme, and without influential introductions to 
amateurs and collectors. But he worked on steadily with 
the greatest care and accuracy, scrupulously destroying 
all impressions of his gems which were in the slightest 
degree inferior or" defective. Gradually the beauty and 
artljtic character of his productions came to be known, 
lie received a commission from the empress of Russia 
for a collection of alx>nt 15,000 examples; .ill the richest 



Cabinets in Europe were thrown open to him for purposes 
of study and reproduction; and his copies were freq^uently 
sold by "fraudulent dealers as the original gems. He 
exhibited in", the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1791. 
In 1775 he published the first catalogue of his works, a 
thin pamphlet detailing 2S56 items. This was followed 
in 1791 by a large catalogue, in two volumes quarto, with 
illustrations etched by David Allan, and descripti-ve text 
in English and French by Rudolph Eric Raspe, F.S.A., 
enumerating nearly 16,000 pieces. Materials exist in 
MS., in the possession of a descendant of Tassie'a, for a- 
list of more than 3000 further items. 

In addition to his impressions from antique gems, 
Tassie executed many large profile medillion portraits of 
his contemporaries, and these form the most original and 
definitely artistic class of his works. They were modelled 
in wax from the life or from drawings done from the life, 
and — when this was impossible — from other authentio 
sources. T'liey were then cast in white enamel paste, the 
whole medallion being sometimes executed in this material ; 
while in other cases the head only appears in enamel, 
relieved against a background of ground-glass tinted of a' 
subdued colour by paper placed behind. His first large 
enamel portrait was that of John Dolbon, son of Sir 
William Dolbon, Bart., modelled in 1793 or 1794; and 
the series possesses great historic interest, as well as 
artistic value, including as it does portraits of Adam 
Smith, Sir Henry Raeburn, Drs James Eeattie, Blair, 
Black, and Cullcn, and many other celebrated men of the 
latter half of the 18th century. 

At the time of his death, in 1799, th? collectiotf-of 
Tassie's works numbered about 20,000 pieces, i (j. m. g.) 

TASSIE, "VViLLi.tM (1777-1860), gem-engraver and 
modeller, nephew of the above, was born in London on 
the 4th of December 1777. He succeeded to the business 
of his uncle, to whose collection of casts and medalliotis 
he added largely. His portrait of Pitt, in particular,- 
was very popular, and circulated widely. When the 
Shakespeare Gallery, formed by Alderman Boydell, was 
disposed of by lottery in 1805, William Tassie was the 
winner of the prize, and in the same year he sold the 
pictures by auction for a sum of over ,£6000. He died at 
Kensington on the 26th of October 1860, and bequeathed 
to the Board of Manufactures, Edinburgh, an extensive 
and valuable collection of casts and medallions by his 
uncle and himself, along with portraits of James Tassie 
and his wife by David Allan, and a series of wate^-colo^^ 
studies by George Sanders from pictures of the Dutch arii 
Flemish schools. (J. m. g.) 

TASSO, ToEQUATO" (1544-1595), who ranks witi 
Dante, Petrarch, and Ariosto «mong the first four poets 
of Italy, was the son ol Bernardo Tasso, a nobleman of 
Bergamo, and his wife PorXia de' Rossi. He was born at 
Sorrento in 1544.' His father had for many years been 
secretary in the-service of the prince of Salerno, and his 
mother was closely connected -with the most illustrious 
Neapolitan families. The prince of Salerno came into 
collision with the Spanish Government of Kaples, was 
outlawed, and was deprived of his hereditary fiefs. Li 
this disaster of his patron Tasso's father shared. He was 
proclaimed a rebel to the state, together with his son 
Torqnato, and his patrimony was sequestered. These 
things happened during the boy's childhood. In 1552 he 
was living with his mother and his only sister Cornelia at 
Naples, pursuing his education under the Jesuits, who had 
recently opened a school there. The precocity of intellect 
and the religious fervour of the boy attracted general 
admiration. At the age of eight he was already famous. 
Soon after this date he joined his father, who then resided 
in great indigence, an exile and without occupation, ' in 



76 



T A S S O 



Borne. News reached them in 1556 that Porzia Tasso had 
died suddenly and mysteriously at Naples. Her husband 
was firmly, convinced that she had been poisoned by her 
brother with the object of getting control over her pro- 
perty. As it subsequently happened, Porzia's estate never 
descended to her son ; and the daughter Cornelia married 
below her birth, at the instigation of her maternal relatives. 
Tasso's father was a poet by predilection and a professional 
courtier of some distinction. In those days an Italian 
gentleman of modest fortunes had no congenial sphere of 
society or occupation outside the courts of petty ecclesi- 
astical and secular princes. When, therefore, an opening 
at the court of Urbino offered in 1557, Bernardo Tasso 
gladly accepted it. The young Torquato, a handsome and 
brilliant lad, became the companion in sports and studies 
•of Francesco Maria della Eovere, heir to the dukedom of 
Urbino. The fate which condemned him for life to be a 
poet and a courtier like his father was sealed by this 
early entrance into princely palaces. ' At Urbino a society 
of cultivated men pursued the cesthetical and literary 
studies which were then in vogue. Bernardo Tasso read 
cantos of his Amadigi to the duchess and her ladies, or 
discussed the merits of Homer and Virgil, Trissino and 
Ariosto, with the duke's librarians and secretaries. Tor- 
quato grew up in , an atmosphere of retined luxury and 
somewhat pedantic criticism, both of which gave a per- 
manent lone to his character. At Venice, whither his 
father went to superintend the printing of the Amadiyi, 
these influences continued. He found himself the pet and 
prodigy of a distinguished literary circle. But Bernardo 
had suffered in his own career so seriously from addiction 
to the Muses and a prince that he now deterpiined on a 
lucrative "profession for his son. Torquato w;,s sent to 
study law at Padua. Instead of applying himself to law, 
the young man bestowed all his attention upon philosophy 
and poetry. Before the end of 1562 he had produced a 
narrative poem called Einaldo, which was meant to com- 
bine the regularity of the Virgilian with the attractions 
of the romantic epic. In the attainment of this object, 
and in all the minor qualities of style and handling, 
Eincddo showed such marked originality that its author 
was proclaimed the most promising poet of his time. The 
flattered father allowed it to be printed ; and, after a short 
period of study at Bologna, he consented to his son's 
entering the service of Cardinal Luigi d'Este. In 1565, 
then, Torquato for the first time set foot in that castle at 
Ferrara which was destined for him to be the scene of so 
many. glories and such cruel sufferings. After the publica- 
tion of Rinaldo he had expressed his views upon the epic 
in some Discourses on the Art of Poetry, which committed 
him to a distinct theory and gained for him the additional 
celebrity of a philosophical critic. The age was nothing if 
not critical; but it may be esteemed a misfortune for the 
future author of the Gerusalemme that he should have 
started with pronounced opinions upon art. Essentially a 
poet of impulse and instinct, he was hampered in produc- 
tion by his own rules. 

The five years between 1565 and 1570 seem to have 
been the happiest of Tasso's life, although his father's 
death in 1569 caused his affectionate nature profound pain. 
Young, handsome, accomplished in all the exercises of a 
well-bred gentleman, accustomed to the society of the 
great and learned, illustrious by his published works in 
verse and prose, he became the idol of the most brilliant 
court in Italy. The princesses Lucrezia and Leonora 
d'Este, both unmarried, both his seniors by about ten 
years, took him under their pro' jction. He was admitted 
to their familiarity, and there is some reason to think that 
neither of them was indifferent to hirapersonally. Of the 
celebrated story of his J"ve for Leonora this is not the 



place to speak. It ia enongb at present to observe that" 
he owed much to the ton^ant kindness of both sisters. 
In 1570 he travelled to Paris with the cardinal. Frank- 
ness of speech and a certain habitual want of tact caused 
a disagreement wi^h his worldly patron. He left France 
next year, and toot service under Duke Alfonso II. of 
Ferrara. The most important .events in Tasso's biographyl 
during the following four years are the publication of the' 
Aminta in 1573 and the completion of the Gerusalemme 
Liberata in 1574. The Aminta is a pastoral drama of 
very simple plot, but of exquisite lyrical charm. It ap- 
peared at the critical moment when modern music, under 
Falestrina's impulse, was becoming the main art of Italy. 
The honeyed melodies and sensuous melancholy of Aminta 
exactly suited and interpreted the spirit of its age. We' 
may regard it as the most decisively important of Tasso's 
compositions, for its influence, in opera and cantata, was' 
felt through two successive centuries. The Gerusfilemme 
Liberata occupies a larger space in the history of Euro- 
pean literature, and is a more considerable work. Yet 
the commanding qualities of this epic poem, those which 
revealed Tasso's individuality, and which made it imme- 
diately pass into the rank of classics, beloved by the people 
no less than by persons of culture, are akin to the lyrical 
graces of Aminta. It was finished in Tasso's thirty-first 
year ; and when the JfS. lay before him the best part of 
his life was over, his best work had been already accom- 
plished. Troubles immediately began to gather round 
him. Instead of having the courage to obey his own 
instinct, and to publish the Gerusalemme as he had con- 
ceived it, he yielded to the critical scrupulosity which 
formed a secondary feature of his character. The poem 
was sent in manuscript to several literary men of eminence, 
Tasso expressing his willingness to hear their strictures 
and to adopt their suggestions unless he could convert 
them to his own views. The result was that each of these 
candid friends, while expressing in general high admiration 
for the epic, took some exception to its plot, its title, its 
moral tone, its episodes, or its diction, in detail. One 
wished it to be more regularly classical ; another wanted 
more romance. One hinted that the Inquisition would 
not tolerate its supernatural machinery ; another demanded 
the excision of its most charming passages — the loves of 
Armida, Clorinda, and Erminia. Tasso had to defend 
himself against all these ineptitudes and pedantries, and 
to accommodate his practice to the theories he had rashly 
expressed.- As in the Rinaldo, so also in the Jeru- 
salem Delivered, -he aimed at ennobling the Italian epic 
style by preserving strict unity of plot and heightening 
poetio -diction. He chose Virgil for his model, took the 
first crusade for subject, infused the fervour of religion 
into his conception of the hero Godfrey. But his own 
nafur; 1 bias was for romance. In spite of the poet's in- 
genuit)\and industry the stately main theme evinced less 
spontaneity of genius than the romantic episodes with 
which, as also in Rinaldo, he adorned it. Godfrey, a 
mixture of pious /Er.eas and Tridentine Catholicism, is not 
the real hero of the Gerusalemme. Fiery and passionate 
Rinaldo, Ruggiero, 'melancholy impulsive Tancredi, and 
the chivalrous SaraoSns with whom they clash in love and 
war, divide our interest and divert it from Goffredo. On 
Armida, beautiful witch, sent forth by the infernal senate 
to sow discord in the Christian camp, turns the action of 
the epic. She is copverted to the true faith by her adora- 
^tion for a crusading knight, and quits the ?cene with a 
phrase of the Virgin Mary on her lips. Brave Clorinda, 
donning armour like Marfisa, fighting in duel with her 
devoted lover, and receiving baptism from bis hands in 
her pathetic death; Erminia seeking refuge in the shep- 
herd's hut,-^these lovely pagan women, so touching in 



T A S S 



77 



their sorrows, so romantic in their adventures, so tender 
in their emotions, rivet out^ttention, while we skip the 
battles, religious ceremonies, conclaves, and stratagems 
of the campaign. The truth is that Tasso's great inven- 
tiin as an artist was the poetry of sentiment. Sentiment, 
ni|t sentimentality, gives value to what is immortal in the 
Gfrusalemme. It was a new thing in the 16th century, 
something concordant with a growing feeling for woman 
acd with the ascendant art of music. This sentiment, 
rtfned, noble, natural, steeped in melancholy, exquisitely 
graceful, pathetically touching, breathes throughout the 
episodes of the Gerusalemme, finds metrical expression 
in the languishing cadence of its mellifluous verse, and 
sustains the ideal life of those seductive heroines whose 
names were familiar as household words to all Europe in 
.the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Tasso's self-chosen critics were not men to admit what 
the public has since accepted as incontrovertible. They 
vaguely felt that a great and beautiful romantic poem was 
embedded in a dull and not very correct epic. In their 
uneasiness they suggested evety course but the right one, 
which was to publish the Gerusalemme without further 
dispute. Tasso, already overworked by his precocious 
studies, '.by exciting court-life and exhausting literary 
industry, now grew almost mad with worry. His health 
began to fail him. He complained of headache, suffered 
from malarious fevers, and wished to leave Ferrara. The 
Gtrusalemme was laid in manuscript upon a shelf. He 
opened nsgotiations with the court of Florence for an 
escharge of service. This irritated the duke of Ferrara. 
Alfonso hated nothing more than his courtiers leaving him 
for a rival duchy. He thought, moreover, that, if Tasso 
were aUi-wed to go, the Medici would get the" coveted 
dedication of that already famous epic. Therefore he bore 
with the poet's humours, and so contrived that the latter, 
should have no excuse for quitting Ferrara. Meanwhile, 
through the years 1575, 1576, 1577, Tasso's health grew 
worse. Jealousy inspired the courtiers to calumniate and 
insult him. His irritable and suspicious temper, vain and 
sensitive to slights, rendered him only too easy a prey to 
their malevolence. He became the subject of delusions, — 
thought that his servants betrayed his confidence, fancied 
he had been denounced to the Inquisition, expected daily 
to Be poisoned. In the autumn of 1576 he quarrelled with 
a Ferrarese gentleman, Maddalo, who had talked too freely 
about some love affair; in the summer of 1577 he drew 
his knife upon a servant in the presence of Lucrezia d'Este, 
duchess of Urbino. For this excess he was arrested ; but 
the duke released him, and took him for change of air to 
his country seat of Belriguardo. What happened there is 
not known. Some biographers have surmised that a com- 
promising liaison with Leonora d'Este came to light, and' 
that Tasso agreed to feign madness in order to cover her 
honour. But of this there is no proof. It is only certain 
that from Belriguardo he returned to a Franciscan convent 
at Ferrara, for the e.xpress purpose of attending to his 
health. There the dread of being murdered by the duke 
took firm hold on his mind. He escaped at the end of 
July, disguised himself as a peasant, and went on foot to 
his sister at Sorrento. 

The truth seems to be that Tasso, after the beginning of 
1575, became the victim of a mental malady, which, with- 
out amounting to actual insanity, rendered him fantastical 
and insupportable, a misery to himself and a cause of 
anxiety to his patrons. There is no evidence whatsoever 
that this state of things was due to an overwhelming 
passion for Leonora. The duke, instead of acting like a 
tyrant, showed considerable forbearance.' He was a rigid 
and not sympathetic man, as egotistical as a princeling of 
that age was wont to be. But to Tasso he was never 



cruel, — hard and unintelligent peraaps, but far from being 
that monster of ferocity which his been' painted. The 
subsequent history of his connexion with the poet, over 
which we may pass rapidly, will corroborate this view. 
While at Sorrento, Tasso hankered after Ferrara. The 
court-made man could not breathe freely outside its 
charmed circle. He wrote humbly requesting to be taken" 
back. Alfonso consented, provided Tasso would agree to 
undergo a medical course of treatment for his melancholy. 
When he returned, which he did-with alacrity under those 
conditions, he was well received by the ducal family. All 
might have gone well if his old maladies had not revived. 
Scene followed scene of irritability, moodiness, suspicion, 
wounded vanity, and violent outbursts. In the summer 
of 157S he ran away again ; travelled through Mantua, 
Padua, Venice, Urbino, Lombardy. In September he 
reached the gates of Turin on foot, and was courteously 
entertained by the duke of Savoy. WTierever he went,' 
'• wandering like the world's rejected guest," he met with 
the honour due to his illustrious name. Great folk opened 
their houses to him gladly, partly in compassion, partly in 
admiration of his genius. But he soon wearied of their 
society, and wore their kindness out by his querulous 
peevishness. It seemed, moreover, that life was intoler- 
able to him outside Ferrara. Accordingly he once more 
opened negotiations with the duke ; and in February 1579 
he again set foot in the castle. Alfonso was about to 
contract his third marriage, this time with a princess of 
the house of Mantua. He had no children ; and, unless 
he got an heir, there was a probability that his state 
would fall, as it did subsequently, to the Holy See. The 
nuptial festivals, on the eve of which Tasso arrived, were 
not therefore the occasion of great rejoicing to the elderly 
bridegroom. As a forlorn hope he had to wed a third 
wife ; but his heart was not engaged and his expectations 
were far from sanguine. Tasso, preoccupied as always 
with his own sorrows and his own sense of dignity, made 
no allowance for the troubles of his master. Rooms 
below his rank, he thought, had been assigned him. 
The princesses did not want to see him. The duke was 
engaged. Without exercising common patience, or giving 
his old friends the benefit of a doubt, he broke into terms 
of open abuse, behaved like a lunatic, and was sent off 
without ceremony to the madhouse of St Anna. This 
happened in March 1579; and there he remained until 
July 15S6. Duke Alfonso's long-sufi'erance at last had 
given way. He firmly believed that Tasso was insane, 
and he felt that if he were so St Anna was the safest place 
for him. - Tasso had put himself in the wrong by his 
intemperate conduct, but far more by that incomprehen- 
sible yearning after the Ferrarese court which made him 
return to it again and yet again. It would be pleasant to 
assume that an unconquerable love for Leonora led him 
back. Unfortunately, there is no proof of this. His 
relations to her sister Lucrezia were not less intimate and 
affectionate than to Leonora. The lyrics he addressed to 
numerous ladies are not less respectful and less passionate 
than those which bear her name. Had he compromised 
her honour, the duke would certainly have had him 
murdered. Custom demanded this retaliation, and society 
approved of it. If- therefore Tasso really cherished a 
secret lifelong devotion to Leonora, it remains buried in 
impenetrable mystery. He did certainly not behave like 
a loyal lover, for both when he returned to Ferrara in 
157S and in 1579 he showed no capacity for curbing his 
peevish humours in the hoi)e of access to her society. 

It was no doubt very irksome for a man of Tasso's 
pleasure-loving, restless, and self-conscious spirit to be kept 
for more than seven years in confinement. Yet we must 
weigh the facts of the ca.=!C rather than the fancies which 



J 8 



T A S S O 



have been indulged regarding them. After the first few 
mouths of liis incarceration he obtained spacious apart- 
ments, received the visits of friends, went abroad attended 
by responsible persons of his acquaintance, and corre- 
sponded freely with whomsoever he chose to address. 
The letters written from St Anna to the princes and cities 
of- Italy, to warm well-wishers, and to men ofHhe highest 
reputation in the world of art and learning, form our 
most valuable source of information, not only on his then 
condition, but also on his temperament at large; It is 
singular that he spoke always respectfully, even affection- 
ately, of the duke. Some critics huve attempted to make 
it appear that he was hypocritically kissing the hand which 
had chastised him, with the view of being released from 
prison. But no one who has impartially considered the 
whole tone and tenor of his epistles will adopt this opinion. 
What emerges clearly from them is that he laboutecJ under 
a serious mental disease, and that he was conscious of it. 
He complains that his disorder at times amounted to 
frenzy, after which his memory was "weakened and his 
intellectual faculties enfeebled. He saw visions and heard 
phantom voices. Puck-like spirits made away with his 
books and papers. The old dread of poison, the old terror 
of the Inquisition, returned with greater violence. His 
iiodily condition grew gradually worse ; and, though he 
.does not seem to have suffered from acute attacks of 
illness, the intellectual and physical constitution of the 
man was out of gear. Meanwhile he occupied his uneasy 
leisure with copious compositions. The mass of his prose 
.dialogues on philosophical and ethical themes, which is 
very considerable, we owe to the years of imprisonment in 
St Anna.. Except for occasional odes or sonnets — some 
written at request and only rhetorically interesting, a few 
inspired by his keen sense of suffering and therefore 
.poignant — he neglected poetry. But everything which 
fell from his pen during this period was carefully preserved 
by the Italians, who, while they regarded him as a lunatic, 
somewhat illogically scrambled for the very offscourings 
of his wit. Nor can it be said that society was wrong. 
Tasso had proved himself an impracticable human being; 
but he remained a man of genius, the most interesting 
personality in Italy. Long ago his papers bad been 
sequestered. Now, in the year 1580, he heard that part 
of the Gerusalemme was being published without his per- 
mission and without his corrections. Next year the whole 
poem was given to the world, and in the following six 
months seven editions issued from the press. The prisoner 
.of St Anna had no control over his editors ; and from the 
masterpiece which placed him on the level of Petrarch and 
Ariosto he never derived one penny of pecuniary profit. 
A rival poet at the court of Ferrara undertook to revise 
.-and re-edit his lyrics in 1582, This was Battista Guarini ; 
.and Tasso, in his cell, had to allow odes and sonnets, 
poems of personal feeling, occasional pieces of coinpliment, 
to be collected and emended, without lifting a voice in 
the matter A few years later, in 1585, two Florentine 
pedants of the Delia Crusca academy declared war against 
the Gerusalemme They loaded it with insults, which seem 
to those who read their pamphlets now mere parodies of 
criticism. Yet Tasso fell bound to reply , and he did so 
with a moderation and urbanity which prove him to have 
.been riot only in full possession of his reasoning faculties, 
but a gentleman of noble manners al.so. Certainly the 
history of Tasso's incarceration at St Anna is one to 
make us pause and wonder. The man, like Hamlet, was 
distraught through ill-accommodation to his circum.stances 
and his age; brainsick he was undoubtedly, and this is 
the duke of Ferrara s justification for the treatment he' 
.enjincd. In the pri.son he bore himself pathotically, 
peevi.slily, but never ignobly. IJe showed a singular 



indifference to the fate of his great poem, a^rare magna- 
nimity in dealing with its detractors. His own personal 
distress, that terrible malaise of imperfect insanity, 
absorbed him. What remained over, untouched by the 
malady, unoppressed by his consciousness thereof, dis- 
played a sweet and gravely-toned humanity. The oddest 
thing about his life in prison is that he was always trying 
to place his two nephews, the sons of his sister Cornelia, 
in court-service. One of them he attached to the duke 
of Mantua, the other to the duke of Parma. After all his 
father's and his own lessons of life, he had not learned 
that the court was to be shunned like Cijrce by an honest 
man. In estimating Duke Alfonso's share of blame, this 
wUf ul idealization of the court by Tasso must be taken 
into account That man is not a tyrant's victim who 
tooves heaven and earth to place his sister's eons with 
tyrants. 

In 1586 Tasso left St Anna at the solicitation ' of 
Vincen^o Gonzaga, prince of Mantua. He followed his 
young deliverer to the city by the Mincio, basked awhile 
in liberty and courtly pleosuies, enjoyed a splendid recep- 
tion from his paternal town of Berganjo, and produced a 
meritorious tragedy called Torrismondo. But only a few 
months had passed when he grew discontented. Vincenzo 
Gonzaga, succeeding to his father's dukedom of Mantua, 
had scanty leisure to bestow upon the poet. Tasso felt 
neglected. In the autumn of 1587 we find him journeying 
through Bologna and Loreto to Rome, and taking up his 
quarters there with an old friend, Scipione Gonzaga, now 
patriarch of Jerusalem. Next year he wandered off to 
Naples, where he wrote a dull poem on Mcmie Oliveto. In 
1589 he returned to Rome, and took up his quarters again 
with the patriarch of Jerusalem. The servants found him 
insufferable, and turned him out of doors. He fell ill, and 
went to a hospital The patriarch in 1590 again received 
him. But "Tasso's restless spirit drove him ■ forth to 
Florence. The Florentines said, "Actum est de eo." 
Rome once more, then Mantua, then Florence, then Rome, 
then Naples, then Rome, then Naples — such is the weary 
record of the years 1590-94. We have to study a verit- 
able Odyssey of malady, indigence, and misfortune. To 
Tasso everything came amiss. He had the palaces of 
princes, cardinals, patriarchs, nay popes, always open to 
him. Yet he could rest in none. "To rest would have 
been so easy, had he possessed the temperament of Berni 
or of Horace. But he was out of joint with the world. 
No sensuous comforts, no tranquillity of living, soothed 
his vexed soul. Gradually, in spite of all veneration for 
the sacer vales, he made himself the laughingstock and 
bore of Italy. 

His health grew ever feebler and his. genius dimmer. 
In 1592 he gave to the public a revised version of the 
Gerusalemme. It was called the Gervsalemme Conqnistata. 
All that made the poem of his early manhood charming 
he rigidly erased The versification was degraded , the 
heavier elements of the plot underwent a dull rhetorical 
development. During the same year a prosaic composition 
in Italian blank verse, called Le Selte Gtornale, saw the 
light. Nobody reads it now We only mention it as 
oiie of Tasso's dotages — a dreary amplification of the first 
chapter of Genesis. 

It is singular that just in these years, when mental 
disorder, physical weakness, and decay of inspiration 
seemed dooming Tnsso to oblivion, his old age was cheered 
with brighter rays of hope. Clement VIII. ascended 
'the papal chair in 1592. He and his nephew. Cardinal 
Aldo.brandini of St Giorgio, determined to befriend our 
poet. In 1594 they invited him to Rome. There he was 
to assume the crown of bays, as Petrarch had assumed it, 
on the Capitol. Lean and worn out with sickness, ready to 



T A S — T A S 



70 



totter into the tomb, where rest might ;n>s.^ibly be found, 
Tasso reached Horuc in November The ceremony of his 
■coronation was deferred because Cardinal Aldobrandini 
had fallen ill. But the pope assigned him a pension ; and, 
under the pressure of pontifical remonstrance, Prince Avel- 
lino, who held Tasso's maternal estate, agreed to discharge 
a portion of his claims by payment of a yearly rent-charge. 
.\t no time since Tasso left St Anna had the heavens 
apparently so smiled upon him. Capitolian honours and 
money were now at his disposal. Yet this good fortune 
came too late. It seemed as though fate had decided 
that this man, in all his weakness of character and 
pathetic grace of genius, should win the stern fame of 
martyrdom. Both laurel wreath and wealth must be 
withdrawn from him. Before the crown was worn or the 
pensions paid he ascended to the convent of St Onofrio, 
on a stormy 1st day of April in 159.^. Seeing a cardinal's 
coach toil up the steep Trasteverine HiJI, those good monks 
came to the door to greet it. From the carriage stepped 
Tasso, the Odysseus of many wanderings and miseries, the 
singer of sweetest strains still vocal, and told the prior he 
was come to die with him. 

In St Onofrio he died, on the 25th of April of that year 
1595. He was just past fifty-one ; and the last twenty 
years of his existence had been practically and artistically 
ineffectual. At the age of thirty-one the Germnlemme, as 
we have it, was 8iccomplbhed. The world too was already 
ringing with the music of Aminta, More than this Tasso 
had not to give to literature. But those succeeding years 
-of derangement, exile, imprisonment, poverty, and hope 
deferred endear the man to us. Elegiac and queridous as 
be must always appear, we yet love Tasso better because 
he suffered through nearly a quarter of a century of slow 
dechne and unexplained misfortune. 

Taken altogether, the best complete edition of Tasso's writings 
is that of Rosini (Pisa), in 33 vols. The prose works (in 2 vols., 
Florence, Le Mourner, 1875) and the letters (in 5 vols., same pub- 
lishers, 1853) have been admirably edited by Cesarc Guasti. fhis 
edition of Tasso s Letters forms by far the most valuable source for 
his biography. No student can, however, orait to use the romantic 
memoir attributed to Tasso's friend Marchese Manso (printed in 
Rosini's edition of Tasso's works above riled), and the important 
P'iUi di T(rrqu/it<i Tasso by Serassi (Bergamo, 1790). To give any- 
thing like a complete account of more recent critical and bio- 
graphical Tasso Utcrat"' ,• is impossible within the limits of this 
srticle (J A. S ) 

TASSON'I, AuESSANDRO, Italian poet, was a native of 
Modena, where he was bom in 1565, and where he died 
in 1635 From 1.^99 till 1608 he was secretary to 
Cardinal Ascanio Colonna, and in this capacity saw some 
diplomatic service , he was afterwards employed for some 
time in similar occupations by Charles Emmanuel duke of 
Savoy His best-known hterary work is a burle.«que epic 
entitled La Searhia RrijnUj, or " The Rape of the Bucket ' 
(1622), the reference being to a raid of the Modenese upon 
the people of Bologn.^ in 1325, when a bucket was carried 
off as a trophy. As in Butler's ffudibras, many of the 
personal and local allusions in this poem are now very 
obscure, and are apt to seem somewhat pointless to the 
general reader, but, in spite of Voltaire's contempt, it 
cannot be neglected by ai.y systematic student of Italian 
literatuij (compare vol. xii. p. 512). Other characteristic 
works ol Tassoni are nis Peiisirri Direrst (1612), in which 
he treats philosophical, literary historical, and scientific 
question? with unusual freedom, and hia Cons<derazioni 
sopra il Petrarcha (1609), a piece of criticism showing 
great independence of traditional views. 

TASTE is the sensation referred to the month when 
certain soluble substances are brought into contact with 
the mucous membrane of that cavity. The sense is located 
almost entirely in the tongue. Three •distinct sensations 
ore referable to the tongue— (1) taste, (2) touch, and (3) 



temperature The posterior part of its surface, where 
there is a A-sh,\pcd group of large papilla;, called cirrum- 
vallate papill.e, supplied by the glosso-pharyngeal nerve, 
and the tip and margins of the tongue, covered with 
filiform (touch) papilla; and fungiform papilla;, are the 
chief localities where taste is manifested, but it also exists 
in the glosso-palatine arch and the lateral part of the soft 
f)alate. The middle of the tongue and the surface of the 
hard palate are devoid of taste. The terminal organs of 
taste consist of peculiar bodies named taste-bulbs or taste- 
goblets, discovered by Schwalbe and Lovtnin 1867. They 
can be most easily demonstrated in the papilUe foUalse, 
large oval prominences found on each side near the base 
of the tongue in the rabbit. Each papilla consists of a 
series of lamina; or folds, in the sides of which the taste- 
bodies are readily displayed in a transverse section. Taste- 
bodies are also found on the lateral aspects of the circum- 
vallate papillae (see fig. 1), in the fungiform papilla;, in the 




Flo. 1.— Transveme section of a clrcniEvallato paplUa : W, the papilla. 9, c, the 
wall In section , R, R. the drcalar sUt or fossa ; K, K, the taste-bulbs lo posi- 
tion , N. N, the nerves The figures are Irom Landois and Stirling s PhyiwJogy. 

papilla? of the soft palate and uvula, the under surface oJ 
the epiglottis, the upper part of the posterior surface of 
the epiglottis, the inner 
sides of the arytenoid car- 
tilages, and even in the 
vocal cords 

The taste-bulbs are min- 
ute oval bodies, somewhat 
like an old fashioned Flo- 



rence flask, about 



inch 



in length by ^-^ in breadth. 
Elach consists of two sets of 
cells, — an outer set, nucle- 
ated, fusiform, bent like 
the staves of a barrel, and 




arranged side by side so as "Urou^uT.S!'"^'^' 
to leave a small opening at " 



D, sapponlng 
K under end E fre^ 
Dd. open with the vrr^iec'ini: .ipices of 
.1 ,., ^, [ ^, the taste-cells 

the apex (tbe mOUttl ol tbe Fig .3 -</. isolated protective ten «, tajte- 

barrel),callcd the gustatory "" 

pore ; and an mner set, five to ten in number, lying in 
the centre, pointed at the end next the gustatory pore, 
and branched at the other extremity The branched ends 
are continuous with non-medullated nerve fibres from the 
gustatory nerve. These taste-bodies are found in immense 
numbers: as many as 1760 have been counted on one 
circumvallale papilla in the ox. They are ab.sent in rrp- 
tilea and birds F. E. Schultze slates that they exi>t in 
the month of the tadpole, whilst the tongue of the frog 
18 covered with epithelium resembUng that of tbe gu-tatory 
bodies- Leydig has described organs having a ,-imilar 
structure in tbe skins of freshwater fishes and the tadpole 
these may possibly be widely distributed taste organs Tbe 
proofs that these are the terminal organs of taste rest on 
careful observations which have shown (1) that taste is 
only experienced when the sapid substance is allowed t-o 
come into contact with the taste-body, and that the sensa 



80 



T A T — T A T 



13 absent or much weakened in those areas of mucous 
membrane where these are deficient ; (!') that they are 
most abundant where the sense is most acute ; and (3) 
that section of the glosso phiryngeal nerve which is known 
to be distributed to the areas of mucous membrane where 
taste is present is followed by degeneration of the taste- 
bodies. At the same time it cannot be asserted that they 
are absolutely essential to taste, as we can hardly suppose 
that those animals which have no special taste-bodies are 
devoid of the sense. 

Taste is no doubt closely allied to smell ; lience in 
invertebrates organs are found that may be referred to 
either of the senses (see Smell). Tastes have been vari- 
ously classified. One of the most useful classifications 
is into sweet, bitter, acid, and saline tastes. To excite 
the sensation, substances must be soluble in the, fluid of 
the mouth. Insoluble substances, when brought into 
contact with the tongue, give rise to feelings of. touch 
or of temperature, but excite no taste. The specific mode 
of action of sapid substances is quite unknown. The 
extent of surface acted on increases the massiveness of ths 
sensation, whilst the intensity is affected by the degree of 
concentration of the solution of the sapid substance. If 
solutions of various substances are gradually diluted with 
water until no taste is experienced, Valentine found that 
the sensations of taste disappeared in the following order — 
syrup, sugar, common salt, aloes, quinine, sulphuric acid; 
and Camerer found that the taste of quinine still con- 
tinued although diluted with twenty times more water 
than common salt. Von Viiitschgau found that the time 
required to excite taste after the sapid substance was 
placed on the tongue varied. Thus .saline matters are 
tasted most rapidly ('l" second); then sweet, acid, and 
bitter (-253 second). This is probably duo to the activity 
of diffusion of the substance. No relation between the 
chemical constitution of the substance and the nature of 
the taste excited by it has yet been discovered, and there 
are many curious examples of substances of very different 
chemical constitutions having similar tastes. For example, 
sugar, acetate of lead, and the vapour of chloroform have 
all a sweetish taste. A temperature of ifrom 50° to 90° 
F. is the most favourable to the sense, water above or 
below this temperature either masking or temporarily 
paralysing it. Taste is often associated with smell, giving 
rise to a sensation of flavour, and we are frequently in 
the habit of confounding the one sensation with the other. 
Chloroform excites taste alone, whilst garlic, asafa'tida, 
and vanilla excite only smell. This is illustrated by the 
familiar experiment of blindfolding a person and touch- 
ing the tongue successively with slices of an npple and of 
an onion. In these circumstances the one cannot be dis- 
tinguished from the other when the no<^e, is firmly closed. 
No doubt also experience aid.s in detfctin^ ^light differ- 
ences of taste by suggesting to the mind/ what may be 
expected ; it is not easy, for instance, to distinguish the 
tastes of red and white wine when the eyes are Mind- 
folded. Taste may be educated to a rcmarkablo extent ; 
and careful observation — along with tlie practice of avoid- 
ing all substaiices liaving a very pronounced l.iste.or 
liaving an irritating effect — enables tea tasters and wine- 
tasters to detect slight differences of taste, more especially 
when combined with odour so as to produce llnvonr. which 
would be quite inapjireciablc to .in ordinary palate. As to 
tlie action of electrical currents on taste, observer.s have 
arrived at uncertain results. So long ago as IT."!- Sulzer 
stated that a constant current caused, more especially at 
the moments of opening and of closing the current, a ,sen- 
Bation of acidity at the anode (-t- pole) and of alkalinity 
at the katode (- pole). This is in all probability due to 
electrolysis, the dL'comi>osition products exciting tlic taste- 



bodies. Oriinhagen found that tapidly intatrhpted cilrrents 
fail to excite the sense ; Von Vintschgau, who liaa directed 
much attention to the sense of taste, says that when the 
tip of his tongue is traversed by a current there is only a 
tactile sensation. Again Honigschmied,' on the contrary,' 
found that a current excited the metallic or acid taste at 
the anode placed on the tip of tlie tongue, whilst the alka- 
line taste of the katode was absent. The writer of this 
article has found that this is the experience of most persons 
examined by him. 

Disease of the tongue causing unnatural dryness may 
interfere with taste. Substances circulating in the blood 
may give rise to subjective sensations of taste. Thus 
santonine, morphia, and biliary products (as in jaundice) 
usually cause a bitter sensation, whilst the sufferer from 
diabetes is distressed by a persistent sweetish taste. The 
insane frequently have subjective tastes, 'which are real 
to the patient, and frequently cause njuch distress. In 
such cases, the sensation is excited by changes in the 
taste-centres of the brain. Increase in the sense of taste 
is called hypergeusia, diminution of it /ii/pogcusia, and its 
entire loss ageusia. Rare cases occur where there is a 
subjective taste not associated with insanity nor with the 
circulation of any known sweetish matters in the blood, 
pos.sibly caused by irritation of the gustatory nerves or by 
changes in the nerve centres. 

As to tlie compnr.itive anntoiny^of the tongue, sec Owen's Com- 
pnnUivc ylunt0}ntj (ind r/njsioforri/ of I'crtcbratcs (London, 18G8). 
Tor i> full account of llic pliy-iology of t.iste, see Von Vintschgau'j 
nrticle "Ccsehiuackssiiiii," in J/a-maHii's JIuiidbuch dcr Physiologic, 
vol. iii. part ii. (J. G. M.) 

TATAKS. See Tartars. 

TATi;, Nahum (1C52-1715), poet-laureate, -was born 
in 1C52 in Dublin, and was educated at Trinity College 
there. Ho afterwards removed to London, and adopted 
literature a.s a profession, succeeding Sliadwe!' as poet- 
laurcate in 1G02. He died with.. i the precincts of the 
Mint, Southwark (whither he had taken refuge from his 
debtors), August 12, 1715. 

His name is still roniembcred in iiunncsion with the A'cw Version 
of Die PMims nf Pm-id, wliioli, in conjunction with Nicholas 
liuAiiv (.;.!■.), lij jiubiish.'.! in 1690 (si-e HvM.vs, vol. xii. p. 590). 
Tate was also tlic .author of some tni dramatic jiieccs (sec Biogr.' 
])iamnlicn, i. 703) and a gre.it nnuibir of poems, including ona 
entitled The liutoaid Ejiiewe, or The Arlof Jnijling (1697). 

TATIAN, one of the earliest Christian apologists, whose 
personality and work had an important influence on the 
liistory of the church during the period of ihe Antonires. 
He w.as by birth an Assyrian (according to Zahn of Sem- 
itic descent), but received a Greek education, and, after 
acquiring a very extensive knowledge of Greek literature, 
began to travel about the Konian empire as a wandering 
teacher or "soptiist.", But his inquiring disposition and 
his earnest spirit remained unsatisfied alike with the 
religions and the philosophies he encountered, while the 
doirigs of men, their greed for amusement and pleasure, 
their vanity .and treachery, disgusted him. In this tem- 
per, about l.'iO .\.n., he readied Rome, where the Old Testa- 
ment fell into his hands; aiid at the same time he came 
into clo.ser relations with the Christians ; their firm faith, 
cha>te morals, fearless courage, and close fellowship dee|ily 
impressed him, and in the end the spectacle of their life 
and their monotheistic doctrine founded upon proiihetic 
revelation completely conquered him. Henceforward the 
whole unchristian world, with all its philosophy and 
culture, presented itself to him as mere darkness and the 
decci.ti.ui of demons, but the " barbarian philosophy " (for 
so he called Christianity) as the wisdom of God. He 
became a convert, and soon afterwards (l.'i2-l.')3) w^rote 
(most probably in Greece, where he stayed for some time) 
his Oralio ml GrMos, which gained liini great repute 



T A T I A N 



81 



&moag the Christians, and is still extant. This discourse 
is distinguished from the other apologies oi that century 
by the brusqueness with which its author repudiates the 
culture of the Greeks ; his scorn, however, does not forget 
to avail itself of the resources of Greek philosophy and 
rhetoric. His polemic often reminds the reader of the 
Cynics and of such scoffers as Lucian ; his view of things, 
however, is very different from that of the las^named 
writer, for with Tatian the " barbarian philosophy, " on 
behalf of which he speaks, which teaches a monotheistic 
cosmology and inculcates rigid asceticism and renunciation 
of the world, is indisputably cert;.' In many details, 
and even in the general outUne of his philosophy, Tatian 
the Christian continued without knowing it to be a Plalon- 
izing philosopher ; but that he had undergone a radical 
change is shown by his views of history and civilization, 
his faith in one living God, his conviction that truth is 
contained nowhere else than in the Christian Scriptures, 
his attitude of trust towards the Logos, made man in Jesus 
Christ, and finally by his earnest and world-forsaking 
expectation of judgment to come. The Oratw, which is 
polemical rather than apologetic in its character, has a 
special importance in the history of Christian dogma, inas- 
much as it gives an elaborated exposition of the doctrine 
of the Logos ; it was also read by subsequent writers, as, 
for example, by Julius Afncanus, for its chronological 
data. Tatian was the first apologist to undertake, on be- 
half of Christianity, a work of the class which afterwards 
'developed into the numerous "world-histories" written 
from the Christian point of view. Tatian's diction is 
often rough, harsh, and abrupt, his sentences involved 
and inelegant. He has the art, indeed, of expressing him- 
^If with uncommon freedom and independence, and can 
put things also in a very graphic way, but at the same 
time he is a careless stylist, or rather, as an apostate from 
the Greek view of things, he has tried to accentuate his 
breach with classical traditions by elaborate carelessness 
and deliberate eccentricity. 

Tatian soon returned from Greece to Rome, and came 
into close relations with the famous apologist Justin, 
whom he reverenced greatly. He himself established a 
«chool, to which the afterwards celebrated ecclesiastical 
writer Rhodon belonged for a time. So long as Justin 
lived (i.f., till 166) Tatian's doctrines excited no feelings 
of offence in the Christian community, although even in 
his Oratio there are germs of questionable and unorthodox 
views. These germs, however, he continued to develop 
until about 172 , and, as about this very time the Roman 
church became severely opposed to everything Gnostic 
and heretical, a rupture was inevitable , the date of the 
breach is given by Eusebius (doubtless following Julius 
Afncanus) as having been 172. But the teaching of 
Tatian had really become open to challenge. He drew a 
distinction between the supreme God and the demiurge, 
cooaidering the latter to be good in his natore indeed, 
but quite a subordmate being ; he accepted the doctrine 
of a variety of aeons ; he utterly rejected marnage and the 
use of animal food ; he denied the blessedness of Adam ; 
he began to abandon the allegorical interpretation of the 
Scriptures and to see genuins difficulties and contradic 
tions in them ; he sought to demonstrate from the epistles 
of Paul the indispensableness of the most rigid asceticism ; 
but indeed all his " heresies " (and he has also been charged 
with docetism) have their explanation in this desire of his 
to establish a theoretical basis for his doctrine of the 
Christian duty of complete world-renunciation. He joined 
the " Encratites," a sect which indeed had existed before 
tilis time, but which received new life from his presence. 
Of his numerous writings belonging to this period nothing 
ias survived the hostility which sought their repression 
2.i— 6 



save a few titles {/Si^SA/oe TrpopKrjfjidTuiv, wtpl toO xara tov 
o-tuT^pa KarapTurfiov, &c.) and one or two very interesting 
fragments iu the works of Clemeut of Alexandria, Origen, 
and Jerome. Clement of Alexandria seems personally to 
have known Tatian, and even to have been his pupil for a 
time. Soon Taiian began also to be assailed in writing by 
the teachers of the church, and to be set aside as a very 
prodigy among heretics, and as a man who united the errors 
of Marcion with those of Valentine. Musanus, Rhodon, 
Irenseus, the author of the Muratorian fragment (see 
below), Tertullian, Hippolytus. Clemeut of Alexandria, 
and Origen all took part in refuting him. 

Towards the end of his 'life, or perhaps even between 
152 and 172, Tatian went from Rome to Mesopotamia, 
and there — probably in Edessa — wrought a great deal. 
It is probable that he was in Rome about the year 172, 
but whether he died there or in his native country is not 
ascertained. It is very possib.j that in Syria, where 
ecclesiastical matters had not been developed so far as in 
the West, the doctrines of Tatian met with toleration 
within the Christian communities, but neither of this 
can we be certain.' But this we do know, that a work 
of Tatian's not yet mentioned, the DiaUssaron, held its 
ground in the Syrian churches and even in ecclesiastical 
use for two whole centuries. 

The Ihatessaron is a gospul very freely and boldly constructed by 
Tatian out of the four Gospels kno^vn to us. It cannot have been 
produced during bis latter years, for all traces of dualism ar© 
absent. On the other hand, however, it exhibits certain peculiar- 
ities of the theology of iti compiler. Probably one would not be 
far wrong in assigning it to the first years of the reign of Marcus 
Aurelius. It was written by Tatian in Greek, not in Synac as 
Zahn has tried to make out. this is shown — (1) by the title, it 
being known eveii among the Syrians as Dialessaron , (2) by a few 
Greek fragments which still survive; (3) by the Latin redaction 
which it received in the 6th century; (4) by its rejection in the 
Muratorian fragment— for that the word " m-tia-i," carelessly cor- 
rected by the transcriber, stood originally " tatiani " may be 
regarded as certain. ^ In estimating the work scholars were formerly 
entirely dependent on certain meagre notices in Eusebius, Theodoret, 
Enhraem Syrus, Epiphanius, and the later Syrians,' but we have 
recently become possessed of large portions of it, and are now in 
a position to form for ourselves an idea of its character and plan. 
In 1877 there was published* a l,atin translation, by Aucher the 
Mechitarist, of Ephraem's gospel commentary, which had been pre- 
served in Armenian, and it then became apparent that Ephraem 
had taken the Dialessaron as his basis. This led to further research.' 
Recognizing with other scholars that other Syrian writers also, 
down to the middle of the 4th century, had used the Diatessaron 
(Theodoret tells us that in his diocese alone he caused more than 
300 copies to be withdrawn from use), Zahn undertook the labo- 
rious task of restoring the work with the help of Ephraem's com- 
mentary and other sources.' In details much of what Zahn has 
given as belonging to the text of the Diatessaron remains problem- 
atical,-— m particular he has not been sufficiently careful in his 
examination of the work of Aphraates,— but in all the main points 
his restoration has been successful. The rediscovery of such a 
work is in a vanety of ways of the very highest importance for 
the early history of Christianity. (1) It is of interest for the history 
of the canon. It shows that in 'Tatii.n's time there was still no 
recognized New Testament canon, and that the texts of the Gospels 
were not regarded as inspired. He could not possibly have treated 
them with such freedom had they been held to be otherwise. But 
the ecclesiastical use made of his work in Syria shows that Tatian 
intended it fur the church, and, as we are informed further by 
Eusebius that Tatian also edited the Pauline epistles, we are entitled 
to conclude that, like Marcion, he wished to frame a special New 
Testament canon. (2) It is of importance for the Gospels as we 
now have them. We learn from the Ihatessaron that about 160 
A D our four Gospels had already taken a place of prominence in 
the church and that no others had done so; that in particular the 
Fourth Gospel haJ taken a fixed place alongside of the three 

' The author of the Acta Archtlai treats him as a heretic. 

' See Zeilschr /. d. luth. Theol., 1874 and 1875, ZeiUchr./ wist. 
Theol., 1877; Zeilschr /. Rirchengtsch, , m. p. 400. 

' See Credner, KM., i. 437 sq.\ Semisch, Taliani Diatessaron, 
1856 

* Evangdii ConcordarUis Exposiiio facta a S. Bphraemo, Ventee. 

' See Harnaik, ZUchr. /. Kirchengesch., iv. p. 471 sq. 
* Zahn, Tatian's DvUessoron, 1881. 

XXIIL — u 



82 



T A T — T A U 



synoptics. (3) As regards the text of the Gospels, we can conclude 
from the Dkdcisami that the texts of our Gosiiels about the year 
160 already ran essentially as we now read tliem, but that inten- 
tional ghaufcs were not wanting about the middle of the 2d century. 
Thus, for example, Tatian in his Gospel according to Matthew found 
nothing about the ' ' church " and about the buildiKg of the church 
upon Peter the rock. These sentences therefore are very probably 
of later interpolation. (4) It is of importance for tlio light it throws 
on Talian's Christianity. The Syriac translation of the Diatessaron 
still falls within the 2d ce-ntury, but Zalin was mistaken in assum- 
ing it to presuppose a prior Syriac translation of the separate 
Gospels (the so-called Syrus Cun-toiiianus) ; Baetiigen has shown 
the latter to be the later. It was only gradually that the 
"evangeliura der Getrennteu" superseded the " evangehum Ocf 
Geniischten."' 

Tlie best editions ot tlie Oralio ad Orxcos are ttiose of Worth (Oitford, 1,00), 
Marinus (Paris, 1742), and Otto <Jena, 1851). See Daniel, T.^''''l'J"wP'Z''- 
1837; Zahn, TaJian'. ili<i(«s<.ron, .ErlaiiRcn, 1S31 (compare a^o his Eiang.- 
Cmm. des TMopMus. Erlaneen, 1883, p. 286 ,,,.); Ha.nack, Telle u Vnter- 

«nd Tatians Rede an die Oruchen UbersetU u e,«gele,el. Giessen, 1884 , Hllgen- 
ield. Kettergeseh., Leipsic^ 1884; Mijller, art. -Tut.an m Herzog-PUtt s BnyU.. 
Tol IV -. and Donaldson. Uiit. oj Christ. Lit., lii. p. 3-62. (A. HA.) 



TATIUS, Achilles. SeeRoMANi;E, vol. xk. p- 635 sq. 
TAULER, JbHANN (c. 1300-1361), was born about the 
year 1300 in Strasburg, where his father was a wealthy 
burgher. It is probable that he entered the Dominican 
convent in his native city about the year 1313, while 
Meister Eckhan was still professor of theology (1312- 
1320) in the monastery school. From Strasburg he went 
to the Dominican college of Cologne, and some believe that 
his superiors sent him a few years later to St James's 
College, Paris. After his theological education was 
finished he returned to Strasburg. In 1324 the pope 
placed under an interdict these parts of Germany, including 
Strasburg, which supported the excommunicated emperor 
Louis of Bavaria. It was one of the privileges of the 
Dominican and Franciscan orders to be allowed to perform 
religious services when the secular and all other regular 
clergy were silenced by an interdict. The Dominican order, 
however, had taken the side of Frederick, and in most 
places refused to say mass ; but in Strasburg they remained 
in the deserted city, kept their churches open, and admin- 
istered to the citizens the consolations of religion. It is 
supposed that this conduct of the Strashurg Dominicans 
was due to the influence of Tauler. In 1339 the heads of 
the order interfered, and commanded the monks to close 
their churches. The town council in return banished the 
Dominicans from the city. Tauler, with some of his 
brethren, found refuge in Basel, although that city, like 
Strasburg, sided with the emperor. During theSe years 
Basel was the headquarters of the " Friends of God " 
{Gottesfreunde, see Mysticism, vol. xvii. p. 133), and 
Tauler was brought into intimate relations with the 
members of that pious mystical fellowship. He returned 
to Strasburg probsibly in the year 1346. It is somewhat 
difficult to trace his later life. The Black Death came to 
Strasburg in 1348, and it is more than probable that, when 
the city was deserted by all who could leave it, Tauler 
remained at his post, encouraging by sermons and personal 
visitations his terror-stricken fellow-citizens. His corre- 
spondence with distinguished members of the Gottes- 
freunde, especially with Margaretha Ebner, and the fame 
of his preaching and other work in Strasburg, had made. 
him known throughout a wide circle of pious people. He 
seems to have made preaching journeys, in the later years 
of his life, to Cologne and to other places in the Rhine- 
land. He died in the year. 1361. 

> EvangdieiifragmmU:: Der Oritchische Text des Curetontchen 
Syrers, Leipsic, 1865. 

« On the Diatessaron, ita later history and vanous editions, see 
(besides Zahn, as cited above) the Coilex Fuklmsis, ed. Ranke, 186a ; 
Schmeller, Anvionii Aim. gti/e ct Tatiani diritur Hanrwma hmng., 
18«! ^w-^ett, Tatian, Lat. andGer., Paderborn, 1872; Martin, Ue 
Tatiani Diatessaron Arabioa Veraione," in Viii^aAnalecta. Sacra, vol. 
iv. (1883), pp. 4G6, 487. 



It is somewhat difficult to form an estimate of the- religious life 
and opinions of Tauler. For many years the chief modern authci ily 
upon the subject was the late Prof. C. Schmidt of Strasburg, ^^hose 
views had been introduced into England in Miss Winkv ortli's 
book upon Tauler. According to Schmidt, Tauler's religious life 
divides into two parts, before and after what may be called his 
second conversion. In the first period Eckliart rules his religious 
life ; iu the second he is under the inlluence of the mysterious 
"Friend of God in the Oberland," whom Schmidt asserts to be 
Nicholas of Basel. Denifle doubts the historical character of lliis 
episode and the genuineness of the book, ttliile Preger admits Iho 
fact of the fconverbion, but refuses to identify tlie mysterious stranger 
with Nicholas of Basel. 

It is still fiiore difficult to determine the precise nature of the 
theological opinions of Tauler. Denifie maintains tliat the only 
genuine remiiins of Tauler are the eighty well-knowu Sermons in- 
cluded in the earliest edition and tour others in two manuscripts, 
all of which bear Tauler's name; Preger seems inclined to admit ill 
addition the Sermons in the account of Tauler's conversion ; both 
critics exclude the famous Book of Spiritual Poverty. Schmidt, 
on the other hand, while admitting the authenticity of all thS 
above-named sermons, calls the Book of Spiritual Poverty Tauler's 
masterpiece. , - - 

If we take the Sermons by themselves, then Tauler s teachers in 
theology were the Pseudo-Dionysius, Augustine, Gregory, Bernard, 
the two abbots of St Victor, Thomas Aquinas, and, above al , 
Theodoric of Freiburg and Meister Eckhjrt. His theology will 
represent the purest and highest type of German mysticism (see 
Mysticism), and, by insisting upon personal relationship to God, 
freedom from the thraldom of authority, and the worthlessncss of 
mere good works without the renewal of the inward life, will re- 
present a tendency in theology which found full expression in the 
reformation of the 16tli century. If, on the other hand, the Book 
of Spiritual Poverty bo included among the genuine wiitings of 
Tauler, then undoubtedly his views have more distinct conufxion 
with, that doctrine of the appropriation of tlio benefits of Christ s 
work of redemption by an imitalio Ohrislt findiog expression in a 
life of evangelical poverty which is such a characteristic of the 
religious life of the century to which he belonge-f The problem 
is a very difficult one, and it may be questineu whether wc are 
vet in a position to solve it. Denifle is undoubtedly correct in 
his statement that we need critical texts of 14th-century mystical 
wiiters, and that very great uncertainty exists with reference to 
the authors of the individual mystical writings of that period. It 
may be added that it is very probable, when the organization and 
method of work among the "Friends of God" are taken into con- 
sideration, that majiy mystical books of devotion were the work, 
not of one, but of several authors, and that ;the conditions ot the 
problem concerning the authenticity of Tauler's writings are not 
unlike those which exist among the books and tracts asoribed to 
Wickliffe. This at all events may be safely asserted, that Tauler 3 
sermons are among the noblest in the German language. 1 hey 
are not so emotional as Suso's, nor so speculative as tckharts, but 
they are intensely practical, and touch on all sides the deeper pro- 
blems of the moral and spiritual life. 

Tauler's Sermms were printed first at Lcipsic In 1498, and reprinted wltb 
addSns'frorETkhart an^d o.here at Basel (1621 1,.«) and at Cologne (1M3). 
Thprp i, a recent edition by Julius Hambergcr, Frankfort, 1864. See uenine, 
OafLrt v™ s°.'»™ r^rm.-(A.I877; Carl &ci,n,mMannTaukT vc„ ilras.- 
i/a5 ouc'i t(» yi ■> TCtnkworth Tauler s Life and Sermons; R. A. 

Jl5HS2£S^/?^'-^s,=wh:sf ^^^ 

Tauler, is In the press. 



TAUNTON, a municipal borough and market-town of 
Somerset, England, is situated in the beautiful and fertile 
vale of Taunton Dene, on the river Tone, on the Taunton 
and Bridgwater Canal, and on several branches of the 
Great Western Railway, 45 miles south-south-west of 
Bristol 31 north-east of Exeter, and 163 west-south-west 
of London. The river is crossed by a stone bridge of 
three arches. The town is well buUt, the three mam 
streets being wide and regular, and meeting in a triangular 
space in the centre called the Parade, where there is a 
market cross. The castle, .now occupied by the museum of 
the Somerset Archaeological and Nu'.ural History Society, 
is reputed to have been founded by Ine, king of the West- 
Saxons. The earliest portion of the present building was 
erected by Walter Giflard, bishop of Winchester, "> the time 
of Henry I , but the whole building was repaired in 149ti, 
and an embattled gateway erected by Bishop Langton. 
The church of St Mary Magdalene, a spacious building 
with double aisles both north and south of the nave, is 
chiefly Perpendicular, but haa remains of Norman work in. 



T A U — T A y 



83 



the chancel arch, and ot Early English- in the north aisles 
and transepts. It possesses one of the finest of the 
chsuucteristic towers of Somerset, but only a facsimile 
reproduction (erected 1857-62) of the old one. There 
are still some remains of the Augustinian priory founded 
by Bishop Oiffard, and there are also two modern convents. 
Taunton is an important centre of education, the principal 
institutions being the grammar school (founded in 1522 by 
Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester), Huish's schools, the 
Independent college (1841), and the VVesleyan collegiate 
institution (1847). The other principal public buildings 
are the old market-house, the assembly rooms, the new 
market in the Ionic style, and the shire hall in the Eliza- 
bethan style, opened in 1858 at a cost of £28,000. The 
charitable institutions include the Taunton and Somerset 
hospital (opened in 1809 and extended in 1870 and 1873), 
the eye infirmary (1816), Gray's almshouses and chapel 
(1635), St Saviour's home for boys (1870), and theservants' 
training home (1882). The town possesses manufactories 
of silk, collars and cuffs, and gloves, iron and brass found- 
ries, coach-building works, and breweries. There is also 
ft considerable agricultural trade. The population of the 
municipal and parliamentary borough (area 1249 acres) 
in 1881 was 16,614. The population of the same area in 
1871 was 15,466. 

Taunton has played a prominent part during tbe troubled 
periods of English history. Various Roman remains prove it to 
nave been occupied by the Romans; but it first obtained historical 
notice when Ine, king of the West-Saxons, made it the border 
fortress of his kiugdom. It takes the name 'Taunton, or Thoneton, 
from its situation on the Tone or Thone. The castle was razed 
by Ethelburg after expelling Edbricht, king of the South-Saxons. 
About the time of William tlje Conqueror the town and castle 
were granted to the bishop of Winchester, and for many years the 
castle was the bishop's piincipal residence. In the reign of William 
it possessed a mint. In 1497 the town and castle were seized by 
the impostor Perkin Warbeck. Taunton rfas made the se.it of the 
suffragan see of Taunton and Bridgwater in 1538, but, on the death 
of William Finch, the first bishop, in 1559, the Act had no further 
operation in reference to Taunton. Like tbe other towns of Somerset, 
Taunton was strongly Puritan in its sympathies. Situated at a 
point where the main roads of the county met, it was during the 
Civil War almost constantly in a state of siege by one or other of 
the rival parties. Having been garrisoned by the Parliamentary 
forces, it was captured by the Royalists in the summer of 1643, but 
on 8th July 1644 it was, after a long siege, taken by Blake, who 
held it with heroic pertinacity till relieved by Fairfax on the 11th 
May 1645, and again after it was invested by 10,000 troops under 
Goring till the siege was finally raised on the Sd July. Still constant 
to its Puritan traditions, Taunton welcomed Monmouth in 1685 with 
acclamation, and he was proclaimed king there on the 20th June, 
f?Ie maidens of the town presenting him with a standard. As a 
consequence, Taunton was made the chief example of tlie fearful 
verSgeanoe of Jeffreys, who, at the assizes iield in the castle, con- 
demned no fewer than 134 inhabitants of the town and neighbour- 
hood to death, and a much larger number to transportation. Taunton 
obtained a municipal charter from Charles I. in 1627, which was 
revoked in 1660. A second charter, granted by Charles II. in 1677, 
was permitted to lapse in 1792 owing to the corporation allowing a 
majority of their number to die without filling up the vacancies. 
From this time until it again reeeived municipal government, 17th 
April 1877, it was under the care of two bailiffs appointed at the 
court leet of the lord of the manor. Formerly the town returned 
two members to parliament, but in 1885 the number was reduced 
to one. 

See ToQlmln's History 0/ Taunton, edited by Savage, 1822; and several papers 
In tbe Proceedings of the Somerset Archseologlcal Society for 1872. 

TAUNTON, a city of the United States, the county 
Beat of Bristol county, Massachusetts, lies some 31 miles 
nearly south from Boston. The town proper, sometimes 
called Taunton Green,, stands on the right bank of the 
Taunton river, at the head of navigation, about 17 miles 
above its mouth. The entire area enclosed within the cor- 
porate limits is 37 square miles. Taunton is traversed 
by the main line of the Old Colony Railway, which con- 
nects it with Boston and Fall River, Mass., and Pro- 
vidence, R.I. Owing to its situation and its connexions 
by rail and sea, Taunton has become a supply point for the 



greater part 01 south-eastern Massachusetts. The popula- 
tion of the city was 18,629 in 1870, 21,213 in 1880, and 
23,674 in 1885, showing an increase somewhat in excess of 
that of tbe State at large. Fully one-fourth of the popu- 
lation are of foreign birth, and the proportion is increasing. 
The State lunatic asylum is in Taunton. The leading 
industries are the manufacture of cotton goods, iron and 
steel products (particularly locomotives, machinery, nails 
and spikes), and silver-plated table ware. Taunton waa 
incorporated as a town in 1639, and received a city charter 
in 1864. 

TAURIDA, a government of southern Russia, includes 
the peninsula of Crimea (q.v.) and a tract of mainland 
situated between the lower Dnieper and the coasts of the 
Black Sea and the Sea of AzofiE, and is' bounded by these 
two seas on the S., while it has on the N. the governmenta 
of Kherson and Ekaterinoslaff. The area is 24,540 square 
miles, of which 6990 square miles belong to the Crimea; 
its continental part consists of a gently undulating steppe 
of black earth, with only a few patches of salt clay on the 
banks of the Sivash or Putrid Sea, and sands in the lower 
course of the Dnieper. It is watered by the Dnieper, 
which flows along the frontier for 180 miles, and by two 
small rivers, the Molotchnaya and Berda. Many small 
lakes and ponds occur in the north, especially among the 
Dnieper sands, as well as on the Kinburn peninsula, at the 
mouth of the Dnieper, where salt is made. There are no 
forests except the artificial plantations in the colonies of 
the Mennonites. The climate is continental, and resembles 
that of central Crimea and Kherson. The population in 
1883 was 940,530 (247,780 in Crimea). The continental 
portion, although less mixed than that of the peninsula, 
consists of Russians (Great, Little, and White Russians), 
who constitute 83 per cent, of the population, Germans (11 
per cent.), Bulgarians (5 per cent.), and Jews (1 per cent.). 

Agriculture and cattle-breeding are the leading occupations, 
, 'Wheat is the chief product, and by the Germans and Russian Non- 
conformists on the Molotchnaya agriculture is carried to a high 
degree of perfection. . In 1882 there were within the government 
356,270 horses, 485,800 cattle, and 3,985,300 sheep (2,891,700 
merinos). Salt is made both on the mainland and in the Crimea, 
and the fisheries along the coast supply an export trade. Manu- 
factures are insignificant, but there is a brisk export trade in 
grain, salt, fish, wool, and tallow. The main centres of trade are 
the Kakhovka port on the Dnieper, Berdyansk 00 the Sea of AzofT, 
and the seaports of Eupatoria, Sebastopol, Sudac, and Theodosia. 
The government is divided into eight districts the chief towns of 
which (with populations in 1881) are Simferopol (29,030)', capital 
of the government, Eupatoria (13,420), and Theodosia (10,800) in 
Crimea, and Aleshki (8915), Berdyansk(18,180),Melitopol (13,310), 
Perekop (4280), and Yalta (3000) on th£ continent. Several villages, 
such as Bolshoy Tokmak (8000) and Andreevka (7360), have each 
a population of more than 6000. 

TAUROMENIUM. See Taoemina. 

TAURUS. See Asia Minor, vol. ii. p. 704-5. 

TAVERNIER, Jean Baptiste (1605-1689), the cele- 
brated traveller and pioneer of' French trade with India, 
was born (1605) at Paris, where his father Gabriel and 
uncle Melchior, Protestants from )intwerp, pursued with 
reputation and success the profession of geographers and 
engravers. The conversations he heard in his father's house 
inspired Jean Baptiste with an early desire to travel, an<J 
in his sixteenth year he had already visited England, the 
Low Countries, and Germany, and seen something of war 
with the imperialist Colonel Hans Brenner, whom he met 
at Nuremberg. Four and a half years in the household 
of Brenner's uncle, the viceroy of Hungary (1.624-29), and 
a briefer connexion in 1629 with the dnke of Rethel and 
liis father the duke of Nevers, prince of Mantua, gave hitn 
the habit of courts, which was invaluable to him in later 
years, hnd at the defence of Mantua, in 1629; and in Gei'- 
many in the following year vrith Colonel Walter Butler 
(afterwards notorious through the death of Wallenstein). 



84 



T A V — T A V 



he gained some military experience. When he left Butler 
to view the diet of Ratisbon m 1630, he had seen Italy, 
Switzerland. Germaoy, Poland, and Hungary, as well as 
France, England, and the Low Countries, and spoke the 
principal languages! of these regions. He was now eager 
to visit the East, and at-.Ratisbon he found the oppor- 
tunity to join two French-fathers, M. de Chapes and M. de 
9t Lieban, who bad received a mission to the Levant. In 
their company he reached Constantinople early in 1631, 
and here he spent eleven months, and then proceeded by 
Tokat, Erzerum, and Envan to Persia. His farthest point 
m this first journey was Ispahan ; he returned by Baghdad, 
Aleppo, Alexandretta, Malta, and Italy, and was again in 
Paris in 1633. Of the next five years of his life nothing 
la known with cerfainty, but it is probable that it was 
during this penod tnat he became controller of the house- 
hold of the duke of Orleans. In September 1638 he 
began a second journey (1638-43) by Aleppo to Persia 
and thence to India as far as Agra and Golconda. His 
visit to the court of the Great Mogul and to the famous 
diamond mines was, of course, connected with the plans 
realized more fully in his later voyages, in which Tavernier 
travelled as a merchant of the highest rank, trading in 
costly jewels and other precious wares, and finding his 
chief customers among the greatest princes of the East. 
The second journey was followed up by four others. In 
his third journey (1643-49) he went as far as Java and 
returned by the Cape ; but his relations with the Dutch 
proved not wholly satisfactory, and a long lawsuit on his 
return yielded but imperfect redress. In his last three 
Journeys (1651-55, 1657-62, 1664-68) he did not proceed 
Oeyond India. The details of these voyages need not 
detain us here, and indeed are often obscure ; but they 
completed an extraordinary knowledge of the routes of 
overland Eastern trace, and brought the now famous 
merchant into close and friendljr communication with the 
greatest Oriental potentates. They also secured for him 
a large fortune and great reputation at home. He was 
oresented to Louis XFV., " in whose service he had 
travelled sixty thousand leagues by land," received letters 
of nobility (16th February 1669), and in the following 
■•ear purchased the barony of Aubonne, near Geneva. 
In 1662 he had married Madeleine Goisse, daughter of a 
Parisian jeweller. 

Thus settled in ease and affluence, Tavernier occupied 
himself, as it would seem at the desire of the king, in 
publishing the account of his journeys. He had neither 
the equipment nor the tastes of a scientific traveller, but 
in all that referred to commerce his knowledge was vast 
and could not fail to be of much public .service. He set 
to work therefore with the aid of Samuel Chappuzeau, a 
French Protestant litterateur, and produced a Nouvelle 
Relation de VInteneur du Serail du Grand Seigneur (4to, 
Pans, 1675), based on two visits to Constantinople in his 
first and sixth journeys. This was followed by Le .S?-r 
Voyages de J B Tavernier (2 »ols. 4to, Pans, 1676) and 
by a supplementary Recueil de Plwnenrs Relations (4to, 
Pans. 1679), in which he was assisted by a certain La 
Chapelle. This last contains an account of Japan, gathered 
from merchants and others, and one of Tong-king, derived 
from the observations of his brother Daniel, who had 
shared bis second vovage and settled at Batavia ; it con- 
tained also a violent attack on the agent.s of the Dutch East 
India Company, at whose hands Tavernier had suffered 
more than one wrong. This attack was elaborately an- 
jwcred in r)utch by H. van Quellen burgh ( Vmdicise Bala- 
»»e», Amst.. 1C841, but made more noise becan.se Arnanld 
drew from it tjOntt material unfavourable to Protestantism 
for his Apologu p'lnr lea Caltiolvfuet (1681 ), and so brought 
..OD the troveUer a ferocious onslaught in Jurieu's Esprit de 



M. Arnanld (1684). Tavernier made no reply to Jorien ; 
he was in fact engaged in weightier matters, for in 168* 
he travelled to Berlin at the invitation of the Great Elector, 
who commissioned him to organize an Eastern trading com- 
pany, — a pro.ect never realized. The closing years of Ta- 
vernier's life are obscure , the time was not favourable for 
a Protestant, and it^as even been supposed that he passed 
some time in the Bastille. What is certain is that he left 
Pans for Switzerland ^n 1687, that in 1689 he f^sea 
through Copenhagen on his way to Persia through Mus- 
covy, and that in the same year he died at Moscow. It 
appears that he had still business relations in the East, and 
that the neglect of these by his nephew, to whom they were 
intrusted, had determined the indefatigable old man to a 
fresh journey. 

Tavemier's travels, though often repnnted and translated, have 
two defects : the author uses other men s material without dis- 
tin^ishmg it from his own observations; and the narrative is much 
confused by his plan of often deserting the chronological order and 
giving instead notes from various joiimeys about certain routes. 
The latter defect, it is true, while it embarrasses the biographer, is. 
hardly a blemish in view of the object of the writer, who sought 
mainly to furnish a guide to other merchants. A careful attempt 
to disentangle the thread of a life still in many parts obscure has 
been made by Charles Joret, Jean Baptiste Tavernier d'apres des 
Documents Nouveanx^ 6vo. Pans, 1886, where the literature of the 
subject is fully given. 

TAVIRA, a seaport of Portugal, in the province of 
Algarves, at the mouth of the Seca, 21 miles east north-east 
of Faro. It is regularly built, and has an alcazar, used as 
an ofEcial residence, besides other public buildings. It 
has sardine and tunny fisheries, and carries on a consider- 
able coasting trade. Excellent fruit is grown in the 
neighbourhood The population in 1878 was 11,459. 

TAVISTOCK, a town of Devonshire, England, is finely 
situated m the valley of the Tavy, on the western border 
of Dartmoor, and on the South Devon Railway, 15 miles 
north of Plymouth, 14 south-east of Launceston, and 213 
west-south-west of London. The town has been greatly 
improved since 1845, chiefly at the expense of the duke 
of Bedford, by the construction of a system of sewage and 
the erection of many new dwellings suitable for the work- 
ing classes. There are some remains (including a portion 
in the square, now used as a public library established in 
1799) of the magnificent abbey of Sts Mary and Rumon, 
first founded in 961 by Orgar, earl of Devon. After de- 
struction by the Danes in 997 it was restored, and among its 
famous abbots were Lyfing, friend of Canute, and Aldred. 
who crowned Harold II. and William, and died archbishop 
of V'ork The abbey church was rebuilt in 1285, and the 
greater part of the abbey in 14.'i7-58 The church of Si 
Eustachius possesses a lofty tower supported on four open 
arches Among the principal public buildings are the guild- 
hall (1848), the corn market (1838), the market buddings 
(1858), and the new hall for concerts and public entertain- 
ments. Near the town is Kelly College, opened in 1877, 
founded by Admiral Benedictus Marwood Kelly, with a 
preference for the founder's kin Mines of copper, man 
ganese, lead, silver, and tin are in the neighbourhood, and 
the town possesses a considerable trade in cattle and corn, 
as well as a brewery. The population of the township in 
1881 was 6914. The parliamentary borough (area 11,450 
acres), which had a population in 1871 of 7725 and in 
1881 of 6879, was merged in the county m lb85. 

The town owes its origin to the foundation of the abbey in 9f.l 
From Henry I- the abbots obtained the entire jurisdiction of the 
hundred of Tavistock, with a weekly market. A school f'>r .Saxou 
literature was established by the monks, which Hounshed tiU the 
Reformation The Koyalists were quartered at Tavistock after 
the defeat of the Parliamentarians on hradock Down m 1643, and 
Charles I visited it on his way to Cornwall It returned members, 
to parliament from the time of Edward I till 1885, among its 
representatives having been John Pym, thf great opiwiser of the 
policy of Charles I., and William, Lord Russell, beheaded ib the 



T A V — T A X 



85 



jtlgn of Ch.irles II. Among tlie-famous natives of Tavistock are 
Sir Jo!in GUnville, judge under James I., William Brown, the 
author of Brilatinia'i Pastorals, and Sir Francis Drake, of whom a 
<oIo5sa1 stntii£ by Boehsi was prescutcd?Jo,_the_to»'nJ)y_the;duke 
of Bedford ill 18SJ. 

TAVOY, a, British distt-ict in the Tenasserim division 
of Burmah, lying between 13° 15' and 15° 11' N. lat. and 
between 97' 48' and 98° 4-t' E.' long. It has an area of 
7"-0D square' miles, and is bounded on the- N. by Amherst 
idistrlct, E. by the-Yoma Jlountains, ' S. by Mergui 
'district, and W. by the Bay of Bengal. The district is 
enclosed by mountains on three sides, viz.', the main chain 
of the Yomas on the east, rising in places to 5000 feet, 
'which, with its densely wooded spurs, forms an almost 
impassable barrier between British and Siamese territory ; 
the Xwahlabo in the centre, which takes ^ts name from its 
loftiest peak, (5000 feet) ; and a third range, under the 
Viame of Thinmaw, between the Nwahtabo aiid the sea- 
'coast. The chief rivers are the Tenasserim and Tavoj', the 
former being formed by the junction of two streams which 
unite near Met-ta ; for the' greater part of its course it is 
^dangerous to navigation. The Tavoy is navigable for vessels 
of any burden. It is interspersed wilh many islands, and 
^"B'itli it^ numerous smaller tributares affords easy and rapid 
communication over the country. .The climate is on the 
Jwhole pleasant'x'fhe- rainfall averages about 190 inches 
a year. 

, The census'of ISSl returned the population of Tavoy .it 84,983 
<m:.lcs41,7S5, females 43,203), of whom 82,187 were nmldhists, 823 
were Jloliammedans, and 1368 were Christians. The headquarters 
»n'l capital is Tavoy town, which is situated on the left bank of 
the river of the same name, and contained a population of 13,372 
ill ISSl., Of the total area, only 83.7^0 acres are (1885-86) culti- 
vated. Rice is the principal product ; the betel-nut is extensively 
firown for homo consumption ; and tlie district is pirlicularly rich 
in fruit trees. With its only port difficult of access, and with no 
means of internal communication, the trade of Tavoy district has 
always been small and almost entirely confined to' .Siam' and the 
Straits Settlements. The principal imports arc piece goods aijil 
other cotton manufactures, raw silk, tea, crockeiy, \rincs and 
spirits, metals, and provisions. The chief ■manufactures are salt 
and earthen pots. The gross revenue gf the district in 1885-S6 was 
£20,235, ofwhich the land contributed £12,663. Tavoy was handed 
over to the British at the end of the first Burmese war in 1824. 
A revolt broke out in 1829, headed by Moung Da, tha former 
governor, which was at once quelled, and since then the district 
has remained in undisturbed possession of the British.-^ 

TAWING. See Leather. 

TAXATION. With regard to taxes in general Adam 
Smith lays down four maxims which have been briefly 
described as the maxims of equality, certainty, convenience, 
and economy. The treatment of the general principles of 
taxation by subsequent writers consists in the main of the 
development and criticism of these celebrated canons. 
Equality. Equality of Taxation. — The subjoined passa^ge from 
Adam Smith contains the germs of several distinct theories 
of ■what constitutes just or equal taxation : — 

"The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the 
Support of its government as nearly as possible in proportion to 
their respective abilities, that is, in proportion to the revenue which 
they respectively- enjoy under the protoction of the state. The 
expense of government to the-individuals of a, great nation is like 
the expense of management to- the joint tenants of a gieat-ekatc, 
who are all obliged to contribute in. proportion to their respective 
interests in the estate. -In the observation or neglect of this 
maxim consists what is called the equality or inequality of tixation.v 
Every tax, it must be observed once for all, which falls linally 
ui>on one only of the three sorts of revenue above-mentioned (viz., 
Knt, wages, profits] is necessarily unequal in so far as it ihies not 
affect the other two. In the following examination of different 
taxes I shall seldom take much further notice of Ibis sort of- 
inequality, but shall in most cases confine my observations to that 
inequality which is occasioned by a particular tax fidlin;; unequally 
npon that particular sort of private revenue which is affected by it." 

The first sentence implies (a) that every Government has 
the rijht to exact contributions for its support from all its 
subjects. -_ According to this view, the right of taxation is 



aerived directly from the conception ' of sovereignty, 'ji 
was the determination to insist on this principle which 
led to the retention of the 3d. per fi> duty on tea^ thai 
" figment of a tax, that peppercorn rent," which lost 'the 
British their American colonies. The Americans Qpfiosedto 
this Absolute doctrine the masim that taxation oughitO'be 
coincident with representation, — that only those who shared 
in the powers should have the burdens of government. -If 
the latter opinion is' strictly construed it would follow that 
all taxes on articles of universal consumption are unjust 
except in a country where all who have the natural have 
also the legal capacity of voting. The doct'rine of sove- 
reignty as the basis of taxation; pushed to its logical 
extreme, results in -the maxim that a Government should 
impose such taxes as are "most easily assess'ed and 
collected, and are at the same time most conducive to 
the public interests" (M'Culloch). Just as a general looks 
to the eflicie'ncy of his army as a ■n'hole, and is prepared 
to sacrifice any po'tion if necessary, so, it may be said, 
the state should not regard the particular interests of 
individuals, but should rather consider the nation as an 
organism, or, to adopt older phraseology, a leviathan. ' So 
far as the political existence of a state is concerned, this 
view seems to meet with general acquiescence even, in 
modern times, when patriotism is often classed amongst 
the doubtful virtues, but no ideal of a perfect state has 
yet met with such acceptance in any nation as to render 
popular a complete neglect of private interests. 

Accordingly, U second basis of taxation (6) is~ found in 
the expansion of the term "abilities" used by, Adam 
Smith which leads to the position that taxes ought to be 
Icvief ."SO as to involve equality of sacrifice on the part of 
the cbntributor.^. This is the ideal of taxation which was 
advocated by .Nfill and Fawcett. - " Equality of taxation 
as a maxim of politics," says the former, " means equality 
of sacrifice. It means the apportioning the contribution 
of each person towards the expenses of government, so 
that he shall feel neither more cor less inconvenience from 
his share of the payment than every other person expcri 
e'nces from his." It is admitted that this standard cannot 
be completely realized, but it is thought to furnish a 
proper foundation of remission in some cases and of pro- 
portional increase of taxation in others. . It is generally 
on'thi.s ground that it is proposed to leave incomes belo« 
a certain amount untaxed, — a plan which, so far as direct 
taxes arc concerned, has been adopted' in the United 
Kingdom. It is clear, however, that any taxes on com- 
modities in general use must infringe this.-canon, ■whilst 
the distinction between " necessaries " and "lu.xurics," as 
Adam .Smith pointed out, is difficult to draw in com- 
munities advancing infcivilization ; and certainly a con- 
sideraWe portion of the taxes on stimulants is, as t- 
matti'ir of fact, derived from persons whose incomes an 
below what is generally considered a reasonable minimun 
for the standard of comfort, and such persons would proh 
ably consider enforced abstiaeuce a greater ^sacrifice than 
the payment of a direct tax. It is also principally... en 
the ground of equality of sacrifice that the proposal for 
graduated or progressive taxation rests. - It is argued thai 
a person with £10,000 a year can pay 10 per cent, (foi 
example) as easily as a person with XIOOO can pay 5 pet 
cent. It is to be observed, that the principle of equality 
of sacrifice regards the payment of taxes as duty imposed 
on the subjects of a state independently of the advantages 
they may deri^ve individually from the expenditure of the 
amount levied. 

A third basis of taxation7 however,' is found in the 

principle (c) that taxes ought to be considered as payment 

for valuable services rendered by the state to individuals, 

1 and this seems'to be the position Adam Smith had in view 



86 



T A X A T ION. 



in introduciiig tlib cliude "ander tfie'protecfion of the 
state," and ia comparing the individuals of a great nation 
to the joint tenants of a great estate. , It is easy to show, 
as Mil] does, that,'if protection is taken in its narrowest 
signification, as -a matter of fact the poor need piore, 
protection than the rich, but the, argument becomes mora 
plausible,. and mor?' consonant with the general teaching 
of Mill, if stress is' laid on the protection and assistance 
afforded by the state in thfe process of acquisition of indi- 
vidual fortunes — a -view of taxation sometimes called the 
sociul dividend iJieory (cf. Walker, Helferich). It is really 
on this ground that Mill proposes that the ■'unearned 
increment " from land should be taken by the s^ate, and, 
as has often been pointed out, "unearned increments" 
are by no means confined to land. Without much exag- 
geration the state may be regarded as. a partner in all 
industrial undertakings, " and is therefore entitled to a 
share in the proceeds. In a somewhat similar manner, 
poor rates, education rates, 'ic, have been regarded as of 
the nature of insurance paid by the rich against the care- 
lessness of the poor. '.The principle under consideration 
has been generally applied in cases in which the' service 
rendered by the state and the benefit accruing to indi- 
viduals are easily discovered aud estimated, especially in 
connexion with local taxation. 

The object of taxation is in general to provide the" stale 
Jvith an adequate revenue, but in all cases the indirect 
effects are important, and son^etimes ;jrovision of revenue 
is considered of secondary importance. Accordingly it has 
been maintained (d) that the state ouglit to use its powers 
of taxation for the promotion of \a.nous social ends.~' Adam 
Smith remarks that "it has for some timo'jiist been the 
policy of Great Britain to discourage the consumption of 
spirituous liquors, on account of their supposed tendency 
to ruin the health and corrupt the morals of the' conunon 
people," and in our own times the falling off in the revenue 
fron;i alcoholic drinks often furnishes a subject for apparent 
congratulation in "budget" speeches. German writers with 
socialistic tendencies (e.y., Wagner) have emphasized this 
social point of taxation ; and Mill, although disapproving 
of graduated taxation of income, advocated the imposition 
of extremely heavy succession duties, with the object of 
promoting a better' distribution of national wealth and 
compelling individuals to rely on themselves.' "Many 
nations again have imposed duties on imports with the 
view of protecting and encouraging home industries, n'nd 
most of the import duties levied in England before the 
great reforms of Peel were of this nature. Accordingly, 
both theoretically and practically, the promotion of social 
or moral ends may be considered as a fourth basis of ta.\a- 
tion. It is worth, noticing that in early times the fines 
received in the courts of justice were an important source 
of revenue. 

Vrhatever basis of Vexation be adopted, the elementary 
principle of justice noticed in the conclusion of A. Smith's 
first canon must be considered. If it is just to tax A, it 
is-.just to tax B under precisely similar circumstances. 
TJius .stated, the principle seems almost formal, but /or 
piractical purposes small differences in circumstances niay 
bij neglected, and it is clear that in any great nation the 
taxpa'yers may be arranged in a limited number of groups, 
Within each of which the constituent individuals niay be 
regarded as similarly situated. ■ A tax on rent, or wages, 
or profits would be obviously unequal if those in one place 
or employment were taxed while- those in another were 
left free. The practical difficulty is to discover what cases 
may fairly be regarded as similar, especially if equality of 
sacrifice be taken as theadeal. 

As.a matter of fact, in evetjr civilized community a 
tcmpUx Bjisi^nl'Of, taxfitiflnas adopted, the different parts 



of whicli xest in diflereut; degrees tipun the various (prin- 
ciples just noticed.,'' Some' taxes are justified on the 
grounds of their convenience to the sovereign power, and 
others are 'increased-. or diminished in certain cases in 
accordance with the' 'principle of equality of "sacrifice; 
some are regarded as payments for, services rendered by 
the state, others partake of the nature of sufliptuary' 
regulations or are approved on various social or moral 
grounds; and sometimes the imposition of one productive 
tax involves, on the ground of simple equality, the adop- 
tion of similar taxes which are hardly worth collecting. ■ ' 
, The remaining canons of Adam Smith are partly, like the 
first, ethical in character partly purely economic. ■ Of' the *'^^*^" 
second — the canon of certainty — Adam Smith remarks : — -^ 
"The time of payment,"the manner* of, "payment,; '.he 
quantity to be paid, otight all to be clear and plain to the 
contributor and to every other person [on the ground of 
the otherwise arbitrary powers which are given to the tax- 
gatUerer] ..,.., -The certainty of what each individual 
ought-to pay is in taxation a matter of so great impoi-tanca 
that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears,' 
I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not neai; 
so great an evil as a very small degree of uncertainty.'^ 
Perhaps the best example of the infringement of this caOor 
is furnished by the taxes levied from ..the miserable pro< 
vincials by their Roman governors.^ 

The third rujc — the canon of cox'ii'nience^^wh'ich enjoirrsXon..., 
that "every tax ought to be levied at the time or in the vcniepce; 
manner to which it is mo-st likely to be' convenient for 
the contributor to pay it,''.may be justified, not merely, 
on general grounds of good government, but^'also on thf 
special •economic ground of the increase in the jiroductlve- 
ness of taxes ■which satisfy the conditionJ^^lt- has been 
found possible to rai.se a considerable revenue by tax6s oi 
commodities, tlie, payments of which by the oon.sumers arc 
made in insensible jjortions,' when- it would have been im- 
possible to collect the same amount l>y direct taxation ai 
comparatively long intervals.. Taxation is in this respect 
like bleeding. 

The fourth rule^he'canoh of^ecojiojiiy— states^as its EcoKortif;. 
general principle that "every tax ought to be so contrived 
as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the 
people as little as possible over and above what it brings 
into the public treasury of the state.'c,, Taxes may, accord- 
ing to Adam Smith, break this rule by requiring a large 
number' of officials for", their Collection, by restraint of 
trade and production, by encouraging smuggling, and by 
causing unnecessary vexation ; .."and, though vexation is 
not, strictly speaking, expense,' it is certainly equivalent 
to the expense at which every "man" would be willing tc 
redeem himself from it." On smuggling Adam, Smith 
elsewhere remarks that.!' to pretend to ha've any scrupl? 
about buying smuggled goods would in, most countries be 
regarded as one of those pedantic pieces of hypocrisy which 
serve only to expose the penson Vho alTects to practise 
them to the suspicion of being a' greater knave than his 
neighbours." It may be observed that in practical politici 
it is generally taken for granted that a tax which can be 
evaded will be evaded, and indirect methods of taxation, 
are to a great cxtent_devicesjjy_which possibilities, of 
evasion are restricted. 

_ To these general rules of tlTxation explicitly giveri'by other 
Adam Smith, the following may be added, most of which ^,j.f|Jif*Jigj 
are implied in different passages'of his treatment of taxa- 
ti.on, but have been expounded end emphasized. by subse- 
quent i^'riters. A convenient siimmary is given by Hcl- 
fcrich ill Scliiinberg's I/andbuch der Puliiisclicn 0(l:onoini( 
(vol! ii. p. 138). ' (a) A given amount of revenue is, as t 
rule, both from the point cf view of the Government and 
its bubietts.niOrecouvemently raised frOrn a small numljeL 



TAXATION 



87 



3f •very proJuctivo taxes than from a larger nombsr with 
iinaller returns per unit. This was one of toe principal 
iuancial reforms advocated by Adam Smith with reference 
;o the customs duties, and has been carried out in the 
United Kingdom by Sir Robert Peel and his successors. 
The inextricable confusion of the customs duties levied 
before these reforms were effected can only be realized by 
those who study the details of the history of taxation. A 
similar process of simplification has been partially applied 
to the direct taxes, but in many cases (especially in local 
taxation) the rule is more honoured in the breach than in 
the observance. (6) A good system of taxation ought to 
provide for a self acting increase iii the revenue in propor- 
tion as the population and the consequent demands for 
governmental expenditure increase. It has been found by 
experience that an. old tax causes less inconvenience than 
i new tax of smaller amount, a fact which is so striking in 
some cases as^to have given rise to the saying that an old 
tax is no tax. (c) Those taxes are best which yield a. 
steady and calculabia return, instead of a return fluctuat- 
ing in'character and difficult to estimate, (d) Those taxes 
are best which in case of need can be, most conveniently 
increased in amount. - It is this characteristic .of the 
jncom* tax ■which renders it so' popular ivith, chancellors 
of the exchequer, and, it waa partly, on this ground that 
Mr Gladstone substituted a tax on beer for the tax on 
malt, (e) Regard must alwavs be paid to the real inci- 
dence of taxation, and care take^i that the real burden of 
the tax falls on those aimed at by the legislature. ■ No 
part of the theory or practice of taxation has given rise to 
80 much controversy as the incidence of particuiar taxes, a 
1 subject indeed of so much difficulty and importance as to 

■ occupy the greater- portion of the treatment by systematic 

writers. 
Direct Incibence OF TAXATION. — Taxes are generally divided 
»!id into direct and indirect. A direct tax is defined by Mill 
^~"' as one' "demanded from the very persons who it is in- 
tended or desired should pay it." Others(e.<7., M'Cnlloch) 
define it as a tax taken directly from income or capital 
In the former definition non-transferable taxes on expendi- 
ture would be included (e.ff., a tax on livery servants), but 
not in the latter. Mill's definition has been generally 
adopted (e.ff., by Wagner, in the German Handbuck, 
voL ii. p. 152); but in any case the most important direct 
taxes practically are those levied on income or capital 
directly, and the most important indirect the customs and 
excise duties. In examining the incidence of taxation the 
order of arrangement adopted by Adam Smith seems best. 
He discusses separately taxes on the three great 'species 
of income, — rent, profits, and wages (appending to the 
articles on the first two an examination of taxes upon the 
capital value of land, houses, and stock), and taxes intended 
to fall indifferently upon every species of revenue, viz., 
capitation taxes and taxes upon consumable commodities. 
Tueaon Taxes ore Rent. — What is commonly known as rent 
**""• consists in general of two parts, which may be termed 
economic rent and profit rent. Economic rent arises from 
the superiority of advantage of any source in the produc- 
tion of a certain amount of utility over the least productive 
source which the conditions of demand and supply (includ- 
ing transmission to market) render it possible to employ. 
Thus, in the production of food, some lands have an 
advantage in fertility or situation ; again, in furnishing 
amenities of accommodation or facilities for business, some 
houses have f.'om their situation a similar advantage; and 
again, different processes in the arts and manufactures are 
superior to others (giving rise to patents). In all these 
aases where the amount of the superior sources is limited 
(naturally or artificially )p and recourse must be made to 
inferior sources of supply, economic rent is paid for the 



superior advantage. Any tax imposed on this species of 
revenue falls on the owner. If levied in the first instance 
from the lessee, he will pay so much less rent,and any new 
taxes imposed during the currency of leases ought, if 
intended to fall on the owner, to be taken directly from 
him. It may be assumed that every owner of a superior 
source has exacted the highest price obtainable for its use, 
so that he cannot transfer the tax to the tenant, nor 
through the, tenant to the consumer. If, for example, a 
tax is imposed ou the economic rent of agricultural land, 
the landlord cannot exact it from the tenant (for if the 
tenant could, afford more rent, why -under competition was 
he not forced to do so before?) nor from the consumer of 
the produce, fur the price is obviously determined inde- 
pendently of rent. Similarly a tax on the ground rent of 
houses, if it be assumed that the land is useless for other 
purposes, must fall on the owners ; although a certain 
portion will be transferred to the occupier if the landlord 
could use it otherwise and escape the tax (cf. Mill, bk. v. 
ch. iii. §6). Taxes on economic rent of various kinds, stf, 
heavy as to absorb the whole amount, have been advocated 
by some theorists on grounds noticed under Adam Smith's 
first canon. It is said they would impose no burden on 
the state as a whole, that they would not affect production 
or accumulation, and even that the substitution of the 
state for private owners — who are simply luiti ccmsionen 
fruges — would really increase the wealth and power of 
the cation by compelling these unproductive consumers 
to work, and by lightening the pressure of taxation on 
industry. -It is, however, obvious that thac6nSscation of 
rent would, seeing that land has for generations been in 
the circle of exchangeable commodities, strike at the roots 
of the institution of private property. Apart from this 
general objection, there would in the case of agricultural 
land be great difficulty in separating economic from profit 
rent, and any exceptional tax on the latter would obviously, 
teed to check agricultural improvements. 

Taxes on Profits.- — Profits, as commonly used, is a term Taxes on 
embracing three elements which, from an economic and V>^^^- 
financial point of view, are quite distinct in character, viz., 
interest (pure and simple), insurance against risk, and 
earnings of management. The interest on capital in any 
industrial area, lent on the same security, tends to equality,' 
If, then, a tax is imposed on interest in every form, the 
incidence'. in the first place will be on the owners of cap-^ 
ita!. But two indirect consequences will follow. (1) As 
Adam Smith remarks, " the proprietor of stock is properly 
a citizen of the world, and is not necessarily attached 
to any particular country. He would be apt to abandon 
the country in which he was exposed to a vexatious 
inquisition in order to be assessed to a burdensome tax, 
and would remove his stock to some other country, where 
he could either carry on his business or enjoy his fortune 
more at his ease." In this case the ultimate result would 
be that the country in which the tax was imposed would 
possess less capital, and thus would yield ahigher rale of 
interest sufficient to counterbalance the burden of the tax. 
(2) The tax would tend to check the accumulation of 
capital within the country, so far as the interest received 
is a cause of -accumulation, with the same ultimate result 
as in thQ former case. It must, however, be observed 
that the rate ot interest is only one of the causes affecting 
the accumulation of capital. 

A tax on some particular form of interest (security still 
being supposed perfect), for example on raoitgages on land, 
would obviously fall on the borrowers. In the same way 
a tax on that part of the profit rent of houses which is 
interest on capital tends to fall on the occupier. In gene 
ral, however, the security is more or less imperfect, and 
the insurance against risk is allowed for in the rato oi 



k 



88 



TAXATION 



interest charged 00 borrowed capital. Thus a tax which I 
took equal percentages .'rom all species of interest would 
be in part a tax oo insurance against risk, and the 
teudeucy must be for such a tax to fall on the borrowers 
of capital. Suppose at any time a perfect security yields 
3 per cent, and one with greater risk 6 per cent., then 3 
per cent, represents the estimated value of the insurance 
against risk. A tax which reduces the net yield on the 
first to -2 per cent, would reduce the net yield on the 
latter to 4 per cent In order, then, for the insurance 
against risk to remain the same, the rate yielded by the 
latter must rise from 6 to 7^ per cent. It follows, then, 
that a tax levied on all forms of inter^t (no allowance 
being made for risk) would tend to check investment in 
proportion as risk was involved, and would thus check 
industrial enterprise. This result would foJlpw even 
although the rate of interest on perfect security, owing to 
the causes mentioned above, were raised in proportion to 
the tax 

A tax on that part of profits known as earnings of 
management would, if imposed generally, fall in the first 
instance on the encepreneurs or employers of capital, and 
with similar indirect consequences to those just noticed 
in regard to interest. -Capital would tend to flow abroad, 
and accumulation would be checked, since in general the 
employers of capital are also to a large extent the owners. 
So far as profits, in this sense, are of the nature of rent (a 
view recently advocated as regards all profits by Prof. 
Walker), a tax on profits would be analogous to a tax on 
rent. If the differences in the net advantages of diflerent 
methods of employing capital are supposed to remain 
i-onstant (according to Prof. Marshall's view of earnings of 
management), a proportional tax on profits must be in 
part transferred to the consumers of the articles produced, 
in the same way as a tax on interest with risk was shown 
K) fall on the borrower. It will be seen from this general 
survey that the incidence and efi'ects of a tax on profits 
(taking bhe term n its common acceptation without 
analysis) are extremely difficult to determine, and the 
practical difficulty is still greater than the theoretical. 
For, as M'Culloch and others have shown, profits are 
ulways fluctuating and diSicult to estimate. So great, 
for example, is this difliculty felt to be as regards farmers' 
profits that m the income tax it is assumed that such 
profits bear a certain proportion to the rent paid for land 
on a purely empirical rule, which may happen to hit the 
mark in a majority of cases, but is much more Likely to be 
unequal and unjust m its operation. 

A tax on some particular form of profits (a.s distinct 
from a general tax on profits) will, it is generally said, fall 
on the consumer of the article produced, on the ground of 
the tendency of profits to equality. This view will be 
noticed below under taxes on consumable commodities, 
vw iin' Taxei un Capital. — In early English history taxes 
SBpitiii upon capital of a very simple kind played an important 
part. A. grant, for example, of certain fractional parts of 
movables, commencing with me famous Saladin tithe (on 
both rent and movables) in IISS, and gradually settling 
down to a fifteenth for the counties and a tenth for the 
towns, prevailed for more than three centui.es. In 1334 
a fifteenth and tenth was fi.\ed at a certain sum for each 
township, and after this date a grant of one or more 
"fifteenths and tenths" meant simply a grant according 
to the scale thee fixed (Dowell, vol. iii-. p. 75). But in 
our own times taxes on capital are levied principally when 
property changes hands, and may be divided, as they are 
b> Adam Smith, according as they are levied when pro- 
perty passes (a) from the dead to the living, (6) from the 
living to the living. 

It IS obvious, as regards iucidenue, that taxes of the 



first class (a) are the most direct of all taxes, in the sense 
that they cannot be transferred to other persons by the 
benericiarie.s The principal difficulties connected with the 
" death duties," as they are often called, arise in connexion 
with the canon of equality of taxation. Opinion is still 
divided on the proportions which ought to be paid by 
personal and real estate respectively, as well ai on the 
advisability of the taxes being made progressive according 
to the value of the property, and there are atiU greater 
difficulties in connexion with life interests in settl'.'d pro 
perty. Mill was strongly in favour of making the death 
duties very heavy and also graduated. " I conceive," he 
says (Pol. £c(m., bk. v ch, 11. 5 3), " that inheritances and 
legacies exceeding a certain amount are highly proper 
subjects for taxation, and that the revenue from these 
should be made as great as it can be made without giving 
rise to evasions by donation during life, or concealment 
of property, auch as it would he impossible adequately to 
check. The principle of graduation, that is, of levying 
a larger percentage on a largei suni. though its applica- 
tion to general taxation would be 111 my opinion objec- 
tionable, seems to me both just and 'xpedient as applied 
to legacy and inheritance duties. ' The principal objec- 
tions urged against such taxation are, that a stimulus 
would be given to personal extravagance and a check 
placed on accumulation, aud that in consequence indirect 
production would be lessened, partly by want of capital 
and partly by the check placed on production on a 
large scale. As regards the want of capital, apart from 
the check placed on saving, there would be a tend- 
ency to send it abroad A heavy tax on large capitals 
at home will place a premium on investments abroad, 
m which evasion would be easy. Perhaps, with the 
present rate of accumulation, the objection may be 
made light of, as it is by Mill , but the second, if 
less obvious, is more important. All our great staple 
manufactures are necessarily conducted on a large scale, 
and in many respects also large agricultural capitals are 
most productive In nanufactures, as a rule, the larger 
the scale of operations the more extended will be the 
division of labour in production, and the greater the 
facilities for ready sale in foreign markets. Of all the 
causes which contribute to our commercial prosperity, 
perhaps the most important is the large scale on which 
our operations are cocducted. We are able to employ 
machinery where the foreigner, working on a smaller 
scale, 13 obliged to use manual labour. There can be 
little doubt that graduated taxation, even on the modi- 
fied form proposed by Mill, would tend to check produc- 
tion on a large scale. Indirectly it might aruficially foster 
joint-stock companies. (A) Taxes on the transference of 
property from the living to the living cannot, as Adam 
Smith points out, be very easily taken directly, as such 
transactions for the most part actually are or might be 
secret. This has led to the invention of stamp and regis- 
tration duties. The penalty of invalidity attaching to 
unstamped documents of various kinds has proved a very 
effective deterrent to eva-MOn. A tax on sales will vary 
in its incidence according to the nature of the commodity 
and the degree of competition or monopoly (c/. H. Sidg- 
wick s Pnjtci/ilea u/ Pot Ecun., bk 11. ch. x.). • The most 
important case is that of taxes on the transfer of lai.d 
Tlieoieticrilly it seems that, just as the fanner who takes 
laod Oil rent offers more or less rent according to the 
burdens imposed on the land by rates, ic, so the 
ptirchuscr of land will consider any expenses connected 
with it.'i acquisition a.-- part of the capital value, and thue 
any taxes on transfer v\ ill really fall on the sellers. K, 
however, the taxes are imposed in such a way as to fall 
less heavily ou hiud when sold in larjjer than in small 



T A X — T A X 



89 



■quantities, it is clear that the tendency will be for the 
differential portion of thb tax at least to fall on the 
purchaser of a small amount , and practically at present 
this feature is characteristic of the Eiigljsh system! A 
tax en the transfer of stocks and shares is generally held 
to fall on the seller, as in case of repeal he would obtain 
30 much more ; but in this case the same considerations 
npply as in the case of interest noticed above. A curious 
example of legal evasion is furnished by, time-bargains ; and 
the imposition 6f the tax directly on the contracts of sale, 
instead of as at present on the actual transfer, has_been 
strongly urged.'^ 
TaMs on Tajres on Wagesr^Xt is clear^fhat the" treat ment'of 



wages.. 



Capita- 
tion 
taxes. 



Taxes 
oa con-, 
nunaMf 

COIHTUO; 

Jities. 



taxes on wages will depend on tha general view taken of 
the determination of the rate of wages. 'Adam Smith 
appears to lay undue stress on the price of provisions, and 
to think that in most cases taxes on wages must fall on 
the employer of labour (bk. v. ch. ii. art. iii.). There seems, 
however, to be no sufficient reason why a tax on labour 
should be transferred to the employer, except in the case 
where the wages are really at a minimum below which 
the supply of efficient labour could not be kept up. Even 
in this case, as Prof. Walker shows, there would probably 
be a degradation of labour before the rise in wages was 
effected. Certainly no practical statesman at the present 
time would venture to propose a direct tax; on wages, 
under the idea that it would be transferred to the em- 
ployer. In Germany it was found necessary to abandon 
the system, owing to the hardship inflicted on the poor. 
At any rate, in all cases in which the rate of wages is 
above the " necessary " minimum, a tax on wages must 
fall on the labourer. A differential tax on some particular 
species of employment would, unless it partook of the 
'nature of a monopoly, tend to fall on the consumer of the 
article produced or the person who enjoys the service 
rendered. '; In every case, speaking generally, the incidence 
of the tax will depend on the conditions of the demand 
and supply of the labour in question, and no further 
analysis can be given without entering intothe_ general 

principles governing wages. See Wages. ., 

: Capitation faxes are chiefly of interest historically, as 
illustrated in England by the poll-taxes imposed at various 
times. p The income tax as at present levied is in reality 
not a single uniform tax, as might at first sight appear, 
but a tax on the various species of rent, interest, profits, 
and wages. ' The anomalies which arise from practically 
taking income as uniform have often been pointed out and 
acknowledged, but the authority of Mr Gladstone may be 
quoted in support of the view that the practical difficulties 
in the way of a readjustment more in accordance with theo- 
retical principles are insuperable. The objections noted 
above to a graduated property tax apply, mutatis mvtandis, 
to a graduated income tax, which appears, however, to find 
increasing favour on the Continent. A full discussion of 
the anomalies of the income tax would involve a repetition 
of the analysis of the taxes on the various species of income. 
^ Taxes on Commodities. — The general principles appli- 
cable ir. Ihis case are that, where production takes place- 
under free competition, the tax will, owing to the tendency 
of profits to equality, be transferred to the consumer, bu.t 
that, when the article is practically monopolized, a tax must 
fall on the monopolist, on the assumption that he has 
already fixed such a price for the article as will, consider- 
ing the law of demand and the expenses of production, 
yield him a maximum revenue. The practical difficulties 
connected with thft^ssumption of equality of profits have 
been well exposed by Cliffe Leslie {Financial Reform: 
Qobden Club Essays, 2d series, 1871-72). 

Xhs incidence of export and import duties is peculiarly 
diffi^t^t to ascertaip even theoretically. The prevailing 
23—6* 



opinion that an 'import, duty necessarily^ falls oii the 
con.<umer of the import necessarily involves as its couiitcr- 
part the position that an export duty must fall on the 
consumer of the export. If the latter view is upheld it is 
curious that export duties find such little favour witli 
practical statesmen. It is clear, however, that the real inciA 
dence of export anti import duties will depend partly on 
the conditions of production in various countries, partly 
on the variations in demand due to changes in price, partly 
on the indirect 'influence on the general balance of trade,' 
and partly on the possibility of using substitutes for the 
article taxed (<■/. H. Sidgwick's Prmi-iples of Vol. .ffiofi.,' 
bk. iii. ch. v. ; Cournot, Revue Sommaire dfs Doctrines 
£conomiques, sects. 5 and 6). A fuller examination is 
not possible in the limits assigned to this article. In con- 
clusion, it may be pointed out that a thorough investigation 
of the general principles of taxation must presuppose tbe 
principles of political philosophy, whilst a full inquiry into 
the incidence of particular species of taxes must pre-i 
suppose the principles of politicabeconomy. (J. s. Nf.) 

TAXIDERMY, the art of preserving the integumentj 
together with the scales, feathers, or fur, of animals.' 
Little is known of the beginnings of the practice of the 
"Stuffing" or "setting up" of animals for ornament or for, 
scientific purposes ; and it is highly probable, from .what 
we gather from old works of travel or natural history, that 
the art is not more than some three hundred years old. It 
was practised in England towards the end of the 17th 
century, as is proved by the Sloane collection, which in 
1725 formed the nucleus of the collection of natural history 
now lodged in the galleries at South Kensington.. 

It was not until the middle of last century that any 
treatise devoted to the principles of the then little under- 
stood art was published in France, Reaumur's treatise^ 
(1749) being probably the first. This was followed at 
intervals by others in France and Germany, until the be-j 
ginning of the present century, when the English began 
to move in the matter, and several works were published,' 
notably those by E. Donovan,^ W. Swainson,'' Capt. Thomas 
Brown,^ and others. These works, however, are now in-j 
adequate; and since the Great E.xhibition of 1851, when 
the Germans and French taught British taxidermists the 
rudiments of scientific treatment of natural objects, several 
works have appeared upon the subject from the pens of 
American and English authors, such as_J._H.J3atty,^ R.^ 
Ward,^ and Montagu Browne.^ ._ 

The first principle governing the'art is that, after the 
specimen has been procured, in as fresh and clean a state 
as may be, it should have the skin stripped from the body 
in such a manner as not to disturb the scales if a fish or 
a reptile, the feathers if a bird, or the fur or hair if a 
mammal. To do this correctly requires a small stock of 
tools, as well as a great amount of patience and perj 
severance. The appliances comprise several sharp knives 
(some pointed and some obtuse), a pair of scissors, a pair 
of pliers, a. pair of nippers or "cutting-pliers," some tow,' 
wadding, needles and thread, also a " stuffing-iron," some 
crooked awls, a pair of fine long flat-nosed pliers, and a 
camel-hair brush. The preservative compound is often the 
original (Becoeur's) "arsenical soap," made by cutting up 
■ and boiling 2 tt) of white soap, to which 12 oz. of salt of. 
tartar and 4 oz. of powdered lime (or whiting) are added 

^ Instruciions for Collecting and Preserving Varimis Subjects ofj 
NatiLToX History, London, 1794. 

^ 27i« Naturalist's Qui de for Collecctng and Preserving Subjects o/^ 
Natural History and Botany, London, 18?2. 

^ Taxidermist's Manual, Glasgow, 1833. 

* Practical Taxidermy and Home Decoration', .New YorR, 1S8U. 

" Spcrrlsmav.' s Handbook of Practical Collecting and Preservingi^ 
London, 18801 

• Pi-aciical Taxidermy, London, 1879 , 2d edition, 1834. 

Otxm. — ^la 



90 



TAXIDEEMY 



>Iieii dissolved ; to this mixture, when nearly cold, 2 lb 
of powdered arsenic and 5 oz. of camphor (the latter pre- 
\'«ously triturated in a mortar with spirits of wine) are 
added. The mixture is put away in small jars or pots for 
Use. Like all arsenical preparations, this is exceedingly 
(dangerous in the hands of unskilled persons, often causing 
jshortness of breath, sores, brittleness of the nails, and other 
jsymptoms ; and, as arsenic is really no protection against 
the attacks of insects, an efficient substitute has been in- 
Vented by Browne, composed of 1 lb of white curd soap and 
3 tt>-of whiting boiled together, to which is added, whilst hot, 
li oz. of chloride of lime, and, when cold, 1 oz. of tincture 
of musk. This mixture is perfectly safe to use when cold 
(although when hot the fumes should not be inhaled, 
pwing^to the chlorine given off), and is spoken of as doing 
$ia work efficiently. Solatipna'. of. corrosive sublimate, 
(bften recommended, are,'B.v6aif -efiScient, dangerous in the 
(extreme. Povrders consisting of tannin, pepper, camphor, 
fend burnt alum are sometimes used for." making skins," 
lut they "dry ■ them too rapidly for the purposes of 
"' mounting." Mammals are best preserved by a mixture 
■of 1 S) of burnt alum to -J 3b of saltpetre; this,. when 
Jntimately mi^ed, should be well rubbed into the skin. 
IFishes and reptiles, when not cast and modelled, are best 
preserved in rectified spirits of vnne ; but this, when eco- 
nomy is desired, can be replaced by " Moller's solution " 
^bichromate of potash 2 oz., sulphate of soda 1 oz., dis- 
tilled water 3 pints) or by a nearly saturated solution of 
pblorider of zinc,^ The "cleaning of feathers and furs is 
perforri^d, by rubbing them lightly with wadding soaked 
in benzoljne, afterwards dusting on plaster of Paris, which 
is beaten; out, when dry, with a bunch of feathers. 

The pi'eparation and mounting of bird specimens, tie objects 
taost usually selected by the amateur, are performed in the follow- 
ing manner. • The specimen to be operated npon should have its 
'Xostrils and throat closed by .plugs of cotton wool or tow; both 
Kv'ing-bones should be broken close to the body, and the bird laid 
.upon a table on its back ; and, as birds — especially white-breasted 
ones — should seldom, if ever, be opened on the breast^ an incision 
should be raado in the skin under the wing on the side most 
damaged, from which the thigh protrudes when pushed up 
slightly ; this is cut through at its junction with the body, when 
the knife is gently.used to separate the skin from this, until the- 
.wing-bone is seen on the open .side. .This is then cut through by 
scissors, and by careful manipulation the skin is further freed from 
'the back and breast until the neck can be cut off The other side 
jiow remains to be dealt wth ; from this the wing is cut by 
travelling downwards, the remaining leg is cut away, and verv 
careful skinning over the stomach and upon the lower back brings 
the operator to the taU, which is cnt off, leaving a small portion 
of the bone (the coccyx) in the skin. The body now falls off, and 
nothing remains in the skin but the neck and head. To skin these 
out properly witTiout unduly stretching the integument, is a task 
trj'ing to the patience, but it can bo accomplished by gradually 
."working the skin away from the back of the head forward, taking 
caro to avoid. tutting the eyes or the eyelids, but, by ca.utious 
management, to cut the membranous skin over those parts, so that 
the eyes are casUy extracted from the orbits without bursting. 
The skin should bo freed down nearly to the beak, and then the 
back of the he.-(d', with neck attached, should be cut off, the brains 
extracted, all the flesh cleared from the skull and from the bones of 
jthe wings, legs, and tail, the skin painted with the preservative, and 
Ultimately turned into its proper position. When '.'skins" only 
are to be made for the cabinet, it is suflicientto fill the head and 
Jjeck with chopped tow, the body with a false one made of tow, 
lightly packed or loose according to the genius of the preparer, to 
flew up the skin of the stomach, and to place a band of paper 
lightly pinned around the body over the breast and wings, and. 
allow it to remain in a warm position, free from dust, for several 
days or weeks, according to the size ^of the specimen. It should 
Ithen be labelled mth. name, sex, locality, and date, and put away 
^th insect powder around it. 

f When, however, the specimen is to bo "mounted," the opera- 
lions 8ho(i)d be carried up to the pointof returning the skin, and 
l^ien.a false body of tightly wrapped tow is made upon a wire 
jpointed at its upper end. This is inserted through the indsion. 
under the wing, the pointe'd end going up the neck and thtough' 
t,he skull to (hf! outsidot When" the imitation body rests witliin 
llie-»kin, pointed wires arejthrust through tha soles of the feet, up 



the skin of the back of the legs, and are finally clenclied in tka 
body. Wires are also thrust into the butts of the wings, follow- 
ing. the skiu of the under surface, and also clenched through into 
the body. A stand or perch is provided, and the bird, being 
fixed upon this, is, after the eyes have been inserted, arranged 
in the- most natural attitude which the skill of the taxidermist can 
give it. 

Mammals are cut along the stomach from nearly the middle t^ 
tlie brc.ist, and are skinned by working out the 'hind legs first,' 
cutting them off under the skin at the junction of the femur with 
the tibi.a, and carefully stripping the skin off the lower back and 
front until the tail is reached, the flesh and bones of which are 
pulled out of the skin, leaving the operator free to follow on up the 
back and chest until the fore legs are reached, which are cut off 
iu like manner. The neck and head are skinned out do\vn to the 
inner edges of the lips and nose, great care being exercised not to 
cut the outer portions of the ears, the eyelids, the nose, or the lips. 
The flesh being cleared off, and the brain" and eyes extracted, the 
skull should adhere to the skin by the inner edges of the lips. All 
the flesh should be trimmed from the bones of the legs. The head, 
being shaped, where the flesh was. removed, by tow and clay, is 
returned into the skin. A long wire of sutficient strength is 
tightly bound with tow, making a long, narrow body, through 
which wires are thrust by the skin of the soles of the feet The 
le.g wires and bones being wrapped with tow and clay into shape, 
the points of the wires are pushed through the tow body and 
clencned. They and the body are then bent into the desired posi-. 
tion, and modelled up by the addition of more tow and clay, until 
the contours of the natural body are imitated, when the stomach 
is sewn up. A board is provided upon which to fix the specimen, 
artificial eyes are inserted, the lips, nose, and eyelids fixed by 
means of pins or "needle-points." and the. specimen^ is then placed 
in a warm situation to dry. 

Reptiles, when small, have their skin removed by cutting away 
the attachment of the skull to the cervical vertebrs, and by tum- 
' ing the decapitated trunk out at the mouth by delicate manipula- 
tion. "When large, they are cut along their median line, and 
treated in the same manner as mammals. 

Fishes, after being covered on their best side with paper oi 
muslin to protect the scales, are cut along the other side from the 
tail to the gills, and are skinned out by removing "cutlets," as 
large as is possible without cracking the skin, which, indeed,i 
should be kept damp during work. After being cured with a pre- 
servative, they are filled with sawdnst or dry plaster of Paris, sewn 
up, turned over on a board, the fins pinned out, and the mouth 
adjusted, and, when perfectly dry, the plaster may be shaken out. 

A new school of taxidermists, with new methods, whose 
aim is to combine knowledge of anatomy and modelling 
^^ith taxidermic technique, are now coining to the front, 
and the next generation will discard all processes of 
" stuffing " in favour of modelling. Within the limits of 
an article like the present it is impossible to do more than 
glance at the intricate processes involved in this. In the 
case of mammals, after the skin has been completely 
removed, even to the toes, a copy is made of the body, 
posed as in life, and frcn this" an accurate representation 
of form, including delineation of muscles, &c., is built up 
in light materials; the m'odel is then covered with the 
skin, which is damped, and pinned in to follow every 
depression and prominence ; the study is then suffered to 
dry ; and, models having been made, in the case of large 
animals, of the mucous membrane of the jaws, palate, 
tongue, and lips, these are truthfully reproduced in a 
plastic material. The ordinary glass eyes are discarded,' 
and hoUow globes, specially made, are hand-painted from 
nature, and are fixed in the head so as to convey the exact' 
expression which the pose of the body demands. Birds, 
if of any size, can be modelled in like manner, and fishes 
are treated by a nearly identical process, being finally 
coloured as in a " still life " painting. 

To give a life-like representation, attention is also paid 
to artistic " mounting." By this is meant the surrounding 
of specimens with appropriate accessories, and it is well 
exemplified by the new work shown in the natural history 
"museum at South Kensington, where, for example, birds 
AreJirranged as in a state of nature, feeding or fljnng to 
their' young, sitting on their eggs, swimming in miniature 
pools, or preening their feathers whilst perched lovingly 
side by side, and Kiirrounded by exquisitely modelled 



T A X — T A Y 



91 



foliage and flowers. This, with correct modelling of the 
specimens, which, except in rare instances, is not quite so 
striking in the new groups, indicates the future of the art, 
the hope of which lies in the better education of taxi- 
dermists as designers, artists, and modellers. (m. b.) 

T.A.XILA. See Rawal Pi.ndi. 

TAY, The, the longest river in Scotland, has its source 
on the northern side of Ben Lui, on the borders of Argyll- 
shire and Perthshire, being known in its earlier course as 
the Fillan, and, after forming Loch Dochart, as the Dochart, 
until entering Loch Tay, 25 miles from its source, at an 
•elevation above sea-level of 553 feet. Its course through 
Perthshire is described in the article on that county. Its 
total length to the town of Perth is about 05 miles, and 
it drains a total area of about 2400 square miles, while its 
estuary extends for about other 25 miles. The navigation 
of the estuary is somewhat impeded by sandbanks. The 
only important port is Dundee, but vessels of 100 tons 
can pass up to Perth, the river being tidal to 2 miles above 
it. The salmon fisheries on the river and its estuary are 
among the most valuable in Scotland. A railway bridge 
over the Tay at Dundee, designed by Sir Thomais Bouch 
(see Bridges, vol. iv. p. 340), was opened for traffic 31st 
May 1878, but was blown down during the crossing of a 
passenger tram 2Sth December 1879. Some distance to 
the west a new bridge, designed by W. H. Barlow, was 
commenced in 1882, and was opened for general traffic 
20th June 1887. 

TAYLOR, Bayakd (1825-1878), one of the most pro- 
lific among American authors, was born at Kennett Square 
io Chester county, Pennsylvania, on January 25, 1825. 
The son of a well-to-do farmer, he received bis early in- 
struction "i an academy at West Chester, and, later, at 
Unicnville. At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed 
to a printer in West Chester. A little volume, published 
in 1844 under the title Ximena, or the Battle of the Sierra 
iforena, and other Poems, brought its author a little cash ; 
and indirectly it did him better service as the means of 
his introduction to The New York Tribuw. With thiJ^ 
money thus obtained, and with an advance made to him 
on account of some journalistic work to be done in Europe, 
" J. B. Taylor " (as he had up to this time signed himself, 
though he bore no other Christian name than Bayard) set 
sail for the East. The young poet spent a happy time 
in roaming through certain districts of England, France, 
Germany, and Italy ; that he was a born traveller is 
evident from the fact that this pedestrian tour of almost 
two years cost him only £100. The graphic accounts 
which he sent from Europe to The New York Tribune, 
The Saturday Evening Post, and The United States Gazette 
were so highly appreciated that on Taylor's return to 
America he was advised to throw his articles into book 
form. In 1846, accordingly, appeared his Views Afoot, or 
Europe seen with Knapsack and Staff. This pleasant book 
had considerable popularity, and its author now found 
himself a recognized man of letters ; moreover, Horace 
Greeley, then editor of the Tribune, placed Taylor on 
the staff of that journal, thus securing him a certaja if a 
moderate income. His next journey, made when the gold- 
fever was at its height, was to California, as correspondent 
for the Tribune ; from this expedition he returned by way 
of Mexico, and, seeing his opportunity, published (1850) 
a highly successftil book of travels, entitled Eldorado, en- 
Adventures in the Path of Empire. Ten thousand copies 
were said to have been sold in America, and thirty thou- 
sand in Great Britain, within a fortnight from the date of 
issue. Bayard Taylor always considered himself native to 
the East, and it was with great delight that in 1851 he 
found himself on the banks of the Nile. He ascended as 
far as 12° 30' N. lat., and stored his memory with count- 



less sights and delights, to many of which he afterwards 
gave e.\'pression in metrical form. From England, towards 
the end of 1852, he sailed for Calcutta, proceeding thence 
to China, where he joined the expedition of Commodore 
Perry to Japan. The results of these journeys (besides 
his poetical memorials, to which reference will be after- 
wards made) were A Journey to Central Africa, or Life 
and Landscapes from E'jypt to the Negro Kingdoms of the 
Nile. (1854) ; The Land of the Saracens, or Pictures of 
Palestine, Afin Mim/r, Sicily, and Spam (1854); and A 
Visit to India, China, and Jopnn tn the Year 1863 (1S55). 
On his return (1854) from these various journeyings he 
entered, with marked success, upon the career of a public 
lecturer, delivering addresses in every town of importance 
from Maine to Wisconsin. After two years' experience oi 
this lucrative profession, he again started on his travels, on 
this occasion for northern Europe, his special object being 
the study of Swedish life, language, and literature. The 
most noteworthy result was the long narrative poem LarB, 
but his " Swedish Letters " to the Tnbune were also re- 
published, under the title Northern Travel (1857). In 
October 1857 he married Maria Hansen, the daughter of 
the well kcown German astronomer. The ensuing winter 
was spent in Greece. In 1859 Taylor once more traversed 
the whole extent of the western American gold region, the 
primary cause of the journey lying in an invitation to 
lecture at San Francisco. About three years later he 
entered the diplomatic service as secretary of legation at St 
Petersburg, and the following year (1863) became charge 
d'affaires at the Russian capital. In 1864 he returned to 
the United States and resumed his active literary labours, 
and it was at this period that Hannah Thurston, the IJrst of 
his four novels, was published. This book had a moderate 
success, but neither in it nor in its successors did Bayard 
Taylor betray any special talent as a novelist : some of his 
characters are faithful studies from life, and he could 
describe well the aspects of nature, — but a good deal more 
than this is necessary for the creation of noteworthy 
romances. In 1874 he went to Iceland, to take part in the 
ctintenntal celebration which was held in that year. In June 
1878 he -was accredited United States minister at Berlin. 
Kotwithstanding the resistless passion for travel *-hich 
had always possessed him. Bayard Taylor was (when not 
actually en route) sedentary in his habits, especially in the 
later years of his life , and at Berlin he aggravated a 
constitutional liver affection by too sedulous devotion to 
literary studies and pursuits, m the intervals of leisure from 
his diplomatic duties. His death occurred on the 1 7th of 
December, only a few months after his arrival in Berlin. 

The mam drawback to the widespread acceptance of Bayard 
Taylor's poetry as a whole is its perpetual difTiiseness. His most 
ambitious productions — his Masque of the Gods (1872), Prince 
Veukalwii (1877), The Pkltm of St John (1865), Lars (1873), and 
The Prophet (1874) — are marred by a ceaseless elTort to overstrain 
his power. Lars is the least likely of his longer poems to survive 
any length of time: it lacks the gi-andiose eloquence and inipressiTB 
'* adjuncts " of the Masque or Prince Deukalwn, vhile in theme and 
treatment it is, at r^ost, only sedately agreeable. The Poems of 
the Orient contains his most genuinely satisfactoi^ poetic m-itings. 
But probably long after even the most faraihar of the poems just 
mentioned have ceased to be popular, when even the Views Afoot 
and Eldorado no longer hold the attention of the numerous public 
interested in vividly narrated experiences of travel. Bayard 'Taylor 
will b« remembered by his poetic aud e.tcellent translation oi 
Faust. Taylor felt, in all trutli, '* the torment and the ecstasy of 
verse"; but, as a critical friend has written of him, "his nature 
was so ardent, so full-blooded, that slight and common sensations 
'ntoxicated him, and he estimated their eUect, and his power to 
transmit it to others, beyond the true value." He felt life as 
perhaps only tho poetic temperament can expeiicncc ihe beauty nf 
the world; single wordii thus became for mm so charged with 
poetry that he overlooked the fact that to most people these were, 
simply in themselves, mere abstract terms — sunshine, se.i, spring, 
morning, night, and so forth. Thus a stanza having absolutely 
nothing original or striking or even poetic in it nould, because 



92 



TAYLOR 



born of him, seem to be poetry unadultcrate : to his mind, each 
line each word, was charged with deliglitful si^ificance, thcrefom 
—so he felt-would be so also to the sympathetic reader. He had, 
from the earliest period at which he began to compose, a distinct 
lyrical faculty : so keen indeed was his ear that he became too 
insistently haunted by the music of others, pre-eminently of 
Tennyson. Rut ho had often a truo and fine note of his own. 
His best short pocins are "The Metempsychosis of the Pine" and 
tlie well known Ccdoum love-sonp!, tho latter a stirring lyric that 
ought assuredly to endure. In liis critic.il essays Bayard Taylor 
had himself in no inconsiderablu decree what he wrote of as "that 
pure imctin insight which is the vital spirit of criticism " The 
most valuable of those prose dissertations aic the Studies m German 
LitcralUTC. 

TAYLOR, Brook (1685- 1731), a distinguished mathe 
matician of Newton's school, was the son of John Taylor, 
of Bifrons House, Kent, by Olivia, daughter of Sir Nicholas 
Tempest, Bart., of Durliara, anj was born at Edmonton 
in Middlese.x, August 18, 168.') He entered St John's 
College, Cambridge, as a fellow-commoner in 1701, and 
took degrees of LLB. and LL D. respectively in 1709 and 
1714. Having studied mathematics with apidause under 
Machiu and Keill, he obtained in 1708 a remarkable 
solution of the problem of the "centre of oscillation," 
whiA, however, remaining unpublished until May 1714 
{I'liil. TraiiS; vol. xxviii. p 11), his claim to priority was 
unjustly disputed by John Bernoulli. Taylor's Methodus 
Incrementorum. Directn et Inversa (London, 1715) added a 
new branch to the higher mathematics, now designated the 
"calculus of finite differences." Among other ingenious 
applications, he used it to determine the form of movement 
of a vibrating string, by him first successfully reduced to 
mechanical principles. The same work contained (p. 23) 
the celebrated formula known as "Taylor's theorem." It 
is of extensive use in almost every analytical inquiry ; but 
its full importance remained unrecognized until pointed 
out in 1772 (Berlin Memoirs) by Lagrange, who later 
termed it " le principal frndement du calcul diff^rentiel." 
In his essay on Linear Perspective (London, 1715) 
Taylor set forth the true principles of the art v\ith much 
originality, and in a more general form than any of his 
predecessors The little work suffered, however, from the 
brevity and obscurity which affected most of his writings, 
and needed the elucidation bestowed on it in the treatises 
of Joshua Kirby (1754) and Daniel Fournier (1761). 

Taylor was elected a fellow of the Royal Society early in 
1712, sat in the same year on the committee for adjudi- 
cating the claims of Newton and Leibnitz, and acted as 
secretary to the society January 13, 1714, to October 
21, 1718 During a visit to Paris in 1716 he made 
acquaintance with Bossuet and the Comte de Caylus, and 
knit a warm friendship with Bolingbroke, whom he visited 
at La Source in 1720. From 1715 his studies took 
a philosophical and religious bent He corresponded, in 
that year, with the Comte de Montmort on the subject 
of Malebranche's tenets ; and unfinished treatises, "On the 
Jewish Sacrifices " and " On the Lawfulness of Eating 
Blood," written on his return from Aix-la-Chapelle in 
1719, were afterwards found among his papers. His 
marriage in 1721 with Miss Brydges of Wallington, 
Surrey, led to an estrangement from his father, a person 
of somewhat moro temper, which terminated in 1723 
after the death of the lady in giving birth to a son The 
enswing two years were spent by him with his family at 
Bifrons, and in 1725 he married, with the paternal appro- 
bation, Sabetta, daughter of Mr Sawbridge of Olantigh, 
Kent, who, by a strange fatality, died also in childbed in 
1730; in this case, however, the infant, a daughter, 
survived. Weighed down by repeated sorrows, Taylor's 
fragile health gave way , he fell into a decline, died 
December 29, 1731, at Somerset House, and was buried 
at St Ann's, Soho By his father's death in 1729 he 



had inherited the Bifrons estate. Socially as well as fiT< 
tell&tually gifted, he possessed a handsome person and 
engaging manners, and was accomplished to an uncommon 
degree in music and painting. As a mathematician, he was 
the only Englishman after Newton and Cotes capable of 
holding his own with the Bernoullis ; but a great part of 
the effect of his demonstrations was lost through bis failure 
to express his ideas fully and clearly. 

A posthumous work entitled Contemptatio Philosophica was 
printed for private circulation in 1793 by his grandson. Sir William 
Young, Bart, prefaced by a life of the author, and with an appendix 
containing letters addressed to him by Boliogbioke, Bossuet, &c 
Several short papers by him were published in PhU. Trans., vols, 
xxvii. to xxxii , including accounts of some interesting experiments 
lu magnetism and capillary attraction He issued in 1719 an 
improved version of his work on perspective, with the title New 
ProicipUs of Linear Perspective, revised by Colsoii in 1749, and 
printed again, with portrait and life of the author, in 1811 A 
French translation appeared lu 1753 at Lyons. Taylor gave {Me- 
thodus Incrementorum, f. 108) the first satisfactory investigation of 
astronomical refraction 

See Watt, Bibliolheta Uruamiica ; Hutton, P/itl and Math Dtcltonanj , F6ti&, 
Bto<j des Musician, Tli Tliomson, Hist of the R, Societt/, p 302, Granc Hist 
Phys Astronomy, p. 377; Marie. Hist, da Sciences, vil p 231 

TA'VLOR, Sir Henry (1800-1886), poet and colonial 
statesman, was born October 18, 1800, at Bishop-Mid- 
dleham, in the county of Durham His ancestors had 
been small landowners for some generations, and both his 
studious father, who late in life emerged for a time from a 
recluse existence to make an efficient secretary to the Poor 
Law Commission, and his original warm-hearted mother 
were interesting persons. His mother died while he was- 
yet an infant, and he was chiefly educated by his father, 
who, finding him less quick and deeming him less intel- 
ligent than his two elder brothers, allowed him to go to 
sea as a midshipmaa Eight months summed up his 
naval career , it had taken much less to disgust him 
with it After obtaining his discharge he was appointed 
to a clerkship in the storekeeper's oflice, and had scarcely 
entered upon his duties ere he was attacked by typhus 
fever, which carried off both his brothers, then living with 
him in London. In three or four years more his office was 
aboli.shed while he was on duty in the West Indies. On 
his return he found his father happily married to a lady 
whose interest and sympathy proved of priceless value to 
him. Through her he became acquainted with her cousin 
Isabella Fenwick, the neighbour and intimate friend of 
Wordsworth, who introduced him to Wordsworth and 
Southey Under these influences he lost his early admira- 
tion for Byron, whose school, whatever its merits, he at 
least was in no way calculated to adorn, and his intel- 
lectual powers developed rapidly. In October 1822 are 
article from his pen on Moore's Irish Melodies appeared 
in the Quarterly Rem^w A year later he departed for 
London to seek his fortune as a man of letters, and met 
with such rapid success, though not precisely in thia 
capacity, as has but rarely attended an unknown young 
man He became editor of the lyOndon Magazine, to 
which he had already contributed, and in January 1824 
obtained, through the influence of Sir Henry Holland, an 
appointment in the Colonial Office, insuring him, not only 
an ample salary, but considerable influence in this depart 
ment of public affairs The general standard of the offico 
was probably at that time low ; at all events Taylor was 
immediately entrusted with the preparation of confidential 
state papers, and his opinion soon exercised an important 
influence on the decisions of the secretary of state. He 
visited Wordsworth and Southey, travelled on the Con- 
tinent with the latter, and at the same time, mainly 
through his friend and official colleague, the Hon. Hyde 
Villiers, became intimate with a very different set, the 
younger followers of Bentham, without, however, adopting 
their opinions, — " young men," he afterwards renjinded 



{ 



TAYLOR 



93 



Stuart Miil, "who every one said would be ruined by 
their independence, but who ended by obtaining alJ their 
hearts' desires, except one who fell by the way." The 
reference is to Hyde Villiers, who died prematurely, and 
for whose sister, afterwards Lady Theresa Lewis, Taylor 
was an unsuccessful suitor. He actively promoted the 
emancipation of the slaves in 1833, and became an in- 
timate aUy of Sir James Stephen, then counsel to the 
Colonial Office, afterwards uuder-secretary, by whom the 
Act of Emancipation was principally framed. His first 
drama, haac Comnenns, was published anonymously in 
1827. Though highly praised by Southey, it made little 
impression on the public. Philip van Arteveld^ lie sub- 
ject of which had been recommended to him by Southey, 
was begun in 1828, published in 1834, and, aided by a 
laudatory criticism from Lockhart's pen, achieved extra- 
ordinary success. Edwin the Fair (1842) was less warmly 
received. In the interim he had married (1839) the 
daughter of his former chief Lord Monteagle, and, ia con- 
j'utnction with Stephen, had taken a leading part in the 
tbolition of negro apprenticeship in the West Indies. The 
Statesman, a volume of essays suggested by his official 
position, had been published in 1836, and about the same 
time he had Nvritten in the Quarterly the friendly adver- 
tisements of Wordsworth and Southey, subsequently pub- 
lished under the somewhat misleading title of Noi&sfrom 
Pooh. In 1847 he was otfered the under-secretaryship of 
state, which he declined. Notes from Life and The Eve of 
the Conquest appeared in this year, and Notes from Books 
in 1849. An experiment in romantic comedy. The Virgin 
Widow, afterwards entitled A Sicilian Summer, was pub- 
lished in 1850. "The pleasantest play I had WTitten," 
says the author ; " and I never could tell why people would 
not be pleased with it." His last dramatic work was St 
Clenu/ifs Eve, published in 1862. In 1869 he was made 
K.C.M.G. He retired from the Colonial Office in 1872, 
though continuing to be consulted by Government. His 
last days were spent at Bournemouth in the enjoyment of 
universal respect ; and the public, to whom he had hitherto 
been an almost impersonal existence, became familiarized 
with the extreme picturesqueness of his appearance in old 
age, as represented in the photographs of his friend Mrs 
Cameron. He died on March 27, 1886. 

Sir Henry Taylor is pre-eminently the statesman among English 
poets. When ho can speak poetically in this character he is 
impressive, almost great ; when he deals with the more prosaic 
aspects of policy he is dignified and weighty, without being alto- 
gether a poet ; when his theme is entirely unrelated to the conduct 
of public affairs or private life he is usually little mora than an 
accomplished man of letters. An exception must be made for the 
interesting character of Elena in Philip van Artevelde, and for 
Arteveldc s early love experience, which reproduces and transfigures 
the writer's own. The circumstance of Philip van Artevelde being 
to a great extent the vehicle of his own ideas and feelings explains 
its great superiority to his other works. It is subjective as well as 
objective, and to a certain extent lyrical in feeling, though not in 
form. Though more elalwrate than any of his other dramas, it 
seems to smell less of the lamp. He has thoroughly identified 
himself with his hero, and the only fault to be found with this 
noble picture of a consummate leader and statesman is the absence 
of the shadow required for a tragic portrait. The blame allotted 
to Artevelde is felt to be merely conventional, and the delineation 
of uniform excellence becomes monotonous. The hero of Edimn 
the Fair, Dunstan, the ecclesiastical statesman, the man of two 
worlds, is less sympathetic to the author and less attractive to 
the reader. The cnaracter is nevertheless a fine psychological 
study, and the play is full of historical if not of dramatic interest, 
/sooc Comnen-us is more Elizabethan in tone than his other dramas. 
Coinuenus is like a preliminary sketch for Van Artevelde; and the 
picture of the Byzantine court and people is exceedingly lively. 
The idea of the revival of romantic comedy in The Virgin Widmo 
is excellent, but the play lacks the humour which might have 
made it a success- The length of the speeches, even when not set 
speeches, is a drawback to all these dramas. Taylor's lyrical work 
is in general laboriously artificial. It is therefore extraordinary 
that he should have produced two songs ("Quoth tongue of neither 



maid nor wife" and "If I had the wings of a dove") which it 
would hardly bo aa exaggeration to call worthy of Shakespeare. 
His character as an essayist repeats his character as a drainatisL 
The essays published under the title of The Statcsvian occupy a 
peculiar place in literature. They have serious faults, especially 
the too obvious imitation of Bacon, but they nevertheless aro 
ori^nal in their point of view, and their wisdom is the result of a 
dillerent kind of observation from that which qualifies tlie bulk of 
essayists on human life. When writing as one of these Taylor is 
less removed from the commonplace, though many of his remarks 
are admirable. As a literary critic he seems unable to -get beyond 
Wordsworth and the select circle of poets admired by tlie latter. 
His essays on Wordsworth did much to dispel the conventional 
prejudices of the day, but will not advance the study of the poet 
where his greatness is already recognized. His strictures on ByroD 
and Shelley are narrow and not a little presumptuous. • Presump- 
tion, indeed, the last fault to have been expected in so grave and 
measured a writer, is one of those of which he most freely accuses 
himself in the autobiography published a year before his death. 
It is not otherwise apparent in this highly interesting book, which, 
sinning a little by the egotism pardonable in a poet and the 
garrulity natural to a veteran, is in the main a pleasing and faithful 
picture of an aspiring youth, an active matuiity, and a happy and 
honoured old age. (R. G.) 

TAYLOR, Isaac (1787-1865), a voluminous writer on 
philosophical and theological subjects, was born at Laven- 
ham, Suffolk, in 1787, and was trained by his father to 
be an artist, but early adopted literature as a professiotL 
From 1824, the year of his marriage, he lived a busy but 
uneventful life at Ongar, in the parish of Stanford Rivers, 
Essex, where he died on June 28, 1865. 

He early became a contributor to the Ecleclio Review, when it 
was conducted by Robert Hall and John Foster, and in 1822 h« 
published a small volume entitled EUin^nts of Thought, This wai 
ibllowed by a translation of Theophrastus with original etchings, 
a History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Titnes, 
Memoirs and Correspondence of Jane Taylor (his sister, who died 
in 1824), and a translation of Herodotus. None of these works 
attained very great popularity ; but in 1829 he published anony. 
mously a work bearing upon the religious and political problems 
of the day, entitled Th£ ^'atnral History of Enthusiasm, wnich wa» 
eagerly read and speedily ran through eight or nine editions. The 
success of this publication encouraged him to produce, also anony. 
mously. The Natural History of Fanaticism, Spiritual Despotism. 
Saturday Evening, and The Physical Theory of Another Life, all 
of which commanded a large circulation. Among his subsequent 
works may be mentioned Ancient Christianity, a series of disserta- 
tions in reply to the "Tracts for tho Times," a volume entitled 
The Restoration of Belief, and a course of lectures on The Spirit of 
Hebrew Poetry. 

TAYLOR, Jeremy (1613-1667), •was a Dative of Cam- 
bridge, and was baptized on the 15th August 1613. His 
father, Nathaniel, though a barber, was a man of some 
education, respected by his townsmen, and lineally de 
scended from Dr Rowland Taylor, Craamer's chaplain, who 
suffered martyrdom under Mary. Jeremy, after passing 
through the grammar school, was entered at Caius College 
as a sizar in 1626, eighteen months after Milton had 
entered Christ's, and while George Herbert was public 
orator and Edmund Waller and Thomas Fuller were 
undergraduates of the university. He was elected a fellow 
of his college in 1633, but the best evidence of his 
diligence as a student is the enormous learning of which 
he showed so easy a command in after years. Accepting 
the invitation of Risden, a fellow-student, to supply hia 
place for a short time as lecturer in St Paul's, he at once 
attracted attention by his remarkable eloquence as well as 
by his handsome face and youthful appearanca Arch, 
bishop Laud, ever on the outlook for men of capacity, sent 
for Taylor to preach before him at Lambeth, and, discern- 
ing that his genius was worth fostering, dismissed him 
from the overpressure of the metropolis to the quiet of a 
fellowship in All Souls, Oxford, and at the same time, by 
making him one of his own chaplains, showed his desire 
to keep him in permanent conne.xion with himself At 
Oxford Chillingworth was then busy wth his great work, 
the Religion of Protestants, and it is possible that by 
intercourse with him Taylor's mind may have bew turned 



94 



TAYLOR 



towards the liberal movement of his age. After two years 
in Oxford, in March 1638 he was presented by Jtixon, 
bishop of London, to the rectory of Uppingham, in Rut- 
landshire. In the autumn of the same year he was 
appointed to preach in St Marys on the anniversary of 
the Gunpowder Plot, and apparently used the occasion 
to clear himself of a suspicion, wliicb, however, haunted 
him through life, of a secret leaning to the Romish com- 
munion. This suspicion seems to have arisen chiefly from 
his intimacy with Christopher Davenport, better known as 
Francis a Sancta Clara, a learned Franciscan friar who 
became chaplain to Queen Henrietta , but it may have 
been strengthened by his known connexion with Laud, as 
well as by his ascetic habits and ritualistic propensities. 
More serious consequences followed his attachment to the 
Royalist cause, when in 18<t2 the livings of the loyal clergy 
were sequestered by decree of parliament. Tbe author of 
Episcopacy Asserted against tlie Aerians and Acephali New 
and Old, ineffective as that work seems in the light of 
modern research, could scarcely hope to retain his parish. 
Along with Puller, Chillingworth, and others, he found 
temporary refuge with the king at Oxford. His two little 
boys must have been cared for by friends, for his wife, 
Phoebe Langsdale, whom he had married the year after 
his settlement at Uppingham, had died with her third 
child in that disastrous year 1642. 

During the next fifteen years Taylor's movements are 
not easily traced. Sometimes he appears with the king, 
from whom at his last interview he received, in token of 
his regard, his watch and some jewels which had orna- 
mented the ebony case in which he kept his Bible. He 
is supposed to bs the Dr Taylor who was taken prisoner 
with other Royalists while besieging Cardigan castle. In 
1646 he is found in partnership with two other deprived 
clergymen, keeping a school at Newton Hall, in the parish 
of Llanvihangel. It was while resident hero that he 
attracted the friendship of one of his kindest patrons, 
Richard Vaughan, earl of Carbery, whose hospitable 
mansion. Golden Grove, is immortalized in the title of 
Taylor's still popular manual of devotion, and whose 
countess had the greater distinction of being the original 
of the " Lady " in Milton's Comus. It was also while 
resident in Wales that Taylor married his second wife, 
Joanna Bridges, who was generally understood to be a 
natural daughter of Charles I., and who owned a good 
estate, though probably impoverished by Parliamentarian 
exactions,, at Mandinam, in Carmarthenshire. From time 
to time he appears in London in the company of his 
friend Evelyn, at whose table he met such men as Boyle, 
Berkeley, and Wilkins. Thrice he was imprisoned : in 
1653-4 for a well-intended but injudicious preface to his 
Golden Grove ; again in Chepstow castle, from May to 
October 1655, on what charge does not appear, and a 
third time in the Tower in 1657-8, on account of the 
indiscretion of his publisher, Royston, who had adorned 
his " Collection of Offices " with a print representing 
Christ in the attitude of prayer. This un.settled life, with 
its interruptions, harassraents, and privations, would seem 
rather to have stimulated than to have stinted the pro- 
ductiveness of his genius. In 1647 appeared his most 
important work, Tlie Liberty of Prophesying, and in the 
following year the complete edition of his Apology for 
Authorized and Set Forms of Liturgy against the Pretence 
of the Spirit, as well as his Life of Christ, or the Great 
Exemplar, a book which at once won a popularity it still 
in large measure retains. Then followed in rapid succes- 
,8ion the Twenty-seven Sermons, "for the summer half-year," 
and the Tiventy-fivc " for the winter half-year," Holy Living, 
Holy Dying, a controversial treatise on the Real Presence, 
the Golden Grove, and the Unum N^ecessarivm, which by 



its Pelagianism gave great offence. During these years he 
was also busy with his Ductor Diibitantium (published in 
1660), which he intended to be the standard manual of 
casuistry and ethics for the Christian people. 

In 1658 settlement was at length reached through the 
kind offices of the earl of Carbery, who obtained for 
Taylor a lectureship in Lisburn. At first he declined a 
post in which the duty was to be shared with a Presby- 
terian, or, as he expressed it, " where a Presbyterian and 
myself shall be like Castor and Pollux, the one up and 
the other down," and to which also a very meagre salary 
was attached He was, however, induced to take it, and 
found, near his patron's mansion on Lough Neagh, so 
congenial a retirement that even after he was raised to 
a bishopric he continued to make it his home. At the 
Restoration, instead of being recalled to England, as he 
probably expected and certainly desired, he was appointed 
to the see of Down and Connor, to which was shortly 
added the small and adjacent diocese of Dromore. He 
was also made a member of the Irish privy council and 
vice-chancellor of the university of Dublin. None of 
these honours were sinecures. Of the university he writes, 
"I found all things in a perfect disorder . a heap 

of men and boys, but no body of a college, no one member, 
either fellow or scholar, having any legal title to his place, 
but thrust in by tyranny or chance." Accordingly lie set 
himself vigorously to the task of framing and enforcing 
regulations for the admission and conduct of members of 
the university, and also of establishing lectureships. His 
episcopal labours were still more arduous. There were, 
at the date of the Restoration, about seventy Presbyterian 
ministers in the north of Ireland, and most of these were 
from the west of Scotland, and were imbued with the dis- 
like of Episcopacy which distinguished the Covenanting 
party. No wonder that Taylor, writing to the duke of 
Ormonde shortly after his consecration, should have said, 
" I perceive myself thrown into a place of torment." His 
letters perhaps somewhat exaggerate the danger in which 
he lived, but there is no doubt that his authority was 
resisted and his overtures rejected. His writings also 
were ransacked for matter of accusation against him, "a 
committee of Scotch spiders being appointed to see if they 
can gather or make poison out of them." Here, then, was 
Taylor's opportunity for exemplifying the wise toleration 
he had in other days inculcated. These Presbyterians had, 
like himself, suffered under Cromwell for their loyalty, 
and might have been expected to evoke his sympathy ; 
but the new bishop had nothing to offer them but the bare 
alternative — submission to episcopal ordination and juris- 
diction or deprivation. Consequently, in his first visita- 
tion, he declared thirty-six churches vacant ; and of these 
forcible possession was taken by his orders. At the same 
time many of the gentry were won by his undoubted 
sincerity and devotedness as well as by his eloquence. 
With the Romanist element of the population he was less 
successful. Ignorant of the English language, and firmly 
attached to their ancestral forms of worship, they were yet 
compelled to attend a service they considered profane, 
conducted in a language they could not understand. As 
Heber says, " No part of the administration of Ireland by 
the English crown has been more extraordinary and more 
unfortunate than the system pursued for the introduction 
of the Reformed religion." At the instance of the Irish 
bishops Taylor undertook his last great work, the Dis- 
suasive from Popery (in two parts, 1664 and 1667), but, 
as he himself seemed partly conscious, he might have mora 
effectually gamed his end by adopting the methods of 
Ussher and Bedell, and inducing his clergy to acquire the 
Irish tongue. 

Nor were domestic sorrows awanting in these later years. 



TAYLOR 



95 



la 1661 he buried, nt.Lisbarn, Edward, the only surviv- 
ing son of bis second marriage. His oldest son, an officer 
in the'army, was killed in a duel; and his second son, 
Charles, intended for the church, left Trinity College and 
became companion and secretary to the duke of Bucking- 
ham, at whose house he died. The day after his son's 
funeral Taylor sickened, and, after a ten days' illness, he 
died at Lisburn on the 13th August 1667, in the fiftyjif^h 
year of his life and the seventh of his episcopate. '. ^ 

Taylor's fame has been maintained by the popularity of his 
BermoDS and devotional writings rather than by his infliieiice as a 
theologian or his importance as an ecclesiastic. . His mind was 
neither icientific nor speculative, and he was attracted rather to 
questions of casuistry th.m to the deeper problems of pure theology. 
His wide reading and capacious memory enabled hirt to carry in 
his mind the materials ot"a sound historical theology, but these 
materials were unsifted by criticism. His immense learning served 
him rather as a storehouse of illustrations, or as an armoury out 
of which ha could choose the fittest weapon for discomfiting an 
opponent, than as a quarry furnishing him with material for build- 
ing up a completely designed and enduring edifice of systematized 
truth. Indeed, he had very limited faith in the huni.iu mind as 
an instrument of truth. " Theology," he s.iys, " is rather a divine 
life than a divine knowledge." His great plea for toleration is 
based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable 
science. " It is impossible all should be of one mind."- And what 
is impossible' to be done is not necessary it should be done." 
Differences of opinion there must he ; but " heresy is not an error 
of the understanding but an cnor of the mil.", His aim in life 
was practical ; his interests were in men rather than in ideas, and 
his sympathies were evoked rather by the experiences of individuals 
than by great moveme«ts. Of a decidedly poetic temperament, 
fervid and mobile in f*Ung, ^nd of a prolific fancy, he had also 
the sense and wit that come of varied contact with men.* All his 
gifte were made available for influencing other men by liis easy 
command of a style rarely matched in dignity and colo)ir. With 
oU the majesty and stately elaboration and musical 'rhythm of 
Milton's finest prose, Taylor's style is relieved and, brightened by 
an astonishing variety of felicitous illustrations, ranging from the 
most homely and terse to the most dignified and elaborate. His 
sermons especially abound in quotations and allusions, which have 
the air of spontaneously suggesting themselves, but which must 
sometimes have b.iffled his bearers. This seeming pedantry is, 
however, atoned for by the clear practical aim of his sermons, the 
noble ideal he keeps before his hearers, and the sVill with which 
he bandies spiritual experience and urges incentives to virtue. 
But, through all his gorgeous eloquence and genial interest in 
human nature, there breaks from time to time some dead and 
laboured irrelevancy, the growth of his training in ' scholastic 
dialectics; for. " like some other writers of the 17th century he 
seems almost to have two minds, — one tender, sweet, luxuriant to 
excess, the other, hard, subtle,^ formal, prone to definitipn and 
logomachy.'" _ _ _ 

The first collected edition oT'his works was published*by"Bishop 
Heber (with a life) in 1822 'reissued^after careful_revision by 
Charles Page Eden, 1852-61, ' -^" ' "-(M. "D.) "^ 

TAYLOR, John (1580-1654), commonly called V The' 
Water Poet," was born al Gloucester in August 1580. Of 
his parentage and early boyhood very little is known^and 
that little is mainly to be gleaned from various scattered 
personal allusions in the numerous short writings of this 
prolific wit and rhymster. After fulfilling his apprentice- 
ship to a waterman, he seems to have served (1596) in- the 
fleet under the earl of Esses,' and to have been -present at 
the naval attack upon Cadiz.' ■ On his return to England 
he took up the trade of Thames waterman, and for a time 
at any rate was a colle(;tor of the dues exacted by the 
lieutenant of the Tower on all wines destined for London. 
The title of " 'Water Poet," which he owes to his occupation 
on the river, is a misnopier. Taylor vi^as no poet, though 
he could string rhymes together with'-facility ; his wit, 
which was vigorous and vulgar, found best expression in 
rollicking 'pro'se. He shows a broad sense of rough fun, 
occasionally of humour ; but for the most part his comi- 
calities wovdd now meet with scanty appreciation. , He 
had a very good opinion of himself, his writings, and his 
importance; and it was he himself who set forth that he 
was the " king's water poet " and the " queen's water- 
fiiatLll^ His literary performances can most easily and most 



satisfactorily be studied in the handsome quarto, contain- 
ing all his productions, edited by Mr C. Hindley, and pub- 
lished in 1872. His "works," sixty-threajn number, first 
appeared in one large' volume — now a rarity sought after 
by collectors — in 1630. / He delighted in eccentric freaks^ 
calculated in narration to astound both the sober country- 
folk and the somewhat sceptical Londoners.'^^^ThuS, with 
a companion as feather-brained as himself, he once started 
on a voyage from London to Queensborough in a paper 
boat, with two stockfish tied to two canes for oars; before 
the journey's end was 'reached the frail boat collapsed, 
as might have been expected, though a qualified success 
finally met Taylor's' efforts." ' The spirit of the bargee- 
was, in' him,'" and he delighted in rough give-and-take!; d 
rude lanipoon^was one'of his favourite verbal weaponsj 
•Thus' Thomas' Coryat, the author of Cnidities, having 
excited the literary waterman's ridicule, was rewarded 
with, a-ludicrous dedication 'in the production entitled 
T.aylor's Travels in Gerwian/e ;' again, ; the "water poet'i 
indulged in abusive' satire, to his heart's content' in ait 
" effusion "^ which he tailed A Kichey-WirKey, or a Lerry, 
Come-Twang — a' literary ''castigationj; which he inflicted 
upon those subscribers to a certain .' -(y-ork " of his who> 
omitted to' substantiate* theij promises.' This'productioif 
was .entitled The_ Penniless Pilgrimage,''or' the Moaeylesi 
Pei-amliitlation'ufJolin Taylor,&xi.6. consisted of an account 
of" its author's pedestrian tour from London to Edinburgh; 
and to' tIiis'w-crk._^sotne' sixteen hundred persons are said 
to' have 'promised^, their' support." 'Another wagering ven- 
ture ;.was a journey to Prague,' where he is said to have 
been "received and entertained by the queen of Bohemia in 
1 620. \1yio years later Taylor made "a very merry, Vvherry 
ferry voyage, or Yorke for^ my money," and in the ensu-j 
ing year another \vater-journey, which he subsequently 
described in' proje and verse as A Neio^Discovery by Sea 
with a Whef-rij from London to Salisbury."': At the out- 
break of the Civil 'War Taylor forsook the river and retired 
to Oxford, where he tempted fortune by keeping a'public- 
house. His." sympathies.were, wholly with^the^Eoyalists^ 
— the Roysterists, as he called them once; andj'-n-hen the 
town "surrendeired, the ^' water poet " returned to London 
and kept a public-house under the sign of The Crown, fn 
Phosnix Alley, Long Acre.'., , He incurred some odium from 
his loyal^observance of the king's death in the placement 
above his door of the sign of The Mourning Crown, and 
he was forced to take the latter down. ^With characteristic 
readiness he substituted for it his' own portrait, with some 
doggerel lines underneath.,,^ It was here that in December 
1 654 he died, and in the neighbouring churchyard of St 
Martin's-in-the- Fields his remains were laid. '^_ J 

At the. most, Taylor can only be called an amusing and vulgarly 
clever pamphleteer; he wrote nothing worthy of remembrance save 
by the historian of the period in which he lived, by the antiquarj', 
and by the enthusiastic student of the many straggling little by- 
ways of literature.. 

. TAYLOR,. Tom (1817-1880),'clramatist'and-art critic,' 
was born at Sunderland in 1817." After attending school 
there, and studying for two'sessions at Glasgow university,^ 
he in 1837 entered Trinity College, Cambridge, of ■which 
he became a fellow.'. Subsequently he held for two years 
the professorship of English literature at "University CoU 
lege; London.' He was called to the bar (Middle Temple)! 
in November 1845,"and W"ent on the northern. circuit until; 
in 1850, he~ became,' assistant secretary" of the Boardj6| 
Health. On 'the reconstruction of the board in 1854 Jbe 
was made secretary, and on its abolition his services were 
transferred to the Local Government Act Office, a depart^ 
ment of the Home Office created by the Sanitary' Act Tbfi 
1866. , In his very early years Tom Taylor showed a prM 
dUection for the drama, and was in the habit of performing 
dramatic pieces along with a number of children in a loft 



96 



T A T? — T C H 



over a brewer's stable. His first dramatic composition was 
a rhjTucd fairy tale or extravaganza, written in conjunction 
with Albert Smith and Charles Kenny, and performed in 
1846. From this time he wrote for the stage continuously 
till the close of his life, his dramatic compositions or 
adaptations numbering in all over 100, amongst the best 
known of which are Siill Water Buns Deep, Victims, the 
Contested Election, the Overland Boute, the Ticket of Leave 
Man, Anne Boleyn, and Jioan of Arc. He may perhaps be 
regarded as the first dramatist of his time, so far as general 
appreciation goes; and, if his chief concern was the con- 
struction of a popular acting play, his dramas possess at 
the same time considerable literary excellence, while the 
characters are clearly and consistently drawn, and the 
dialogue is natural, yet nervous and pointed. In his blank. 
verse historical dramas, such as Ajine Boleyn, and Joan of 
Arc, he was not so Successful. Taylor was also a very 
frequent contributor to the light magazine literature of 
the day. ' In 1872 he withdrew from public life, and, on 
the death of. Shirley Brooks in 1873, he became editor of 
Punch. ■ He occasionally appeared ■nith success in amateur 
theatricals, more especially in the character of Adam in 
'As Yoii Like It and. of Jasper in A S/teep in, Wolf's Clot/i- 
ihg. He had some talent for painting, and for many years 
Was art critic to the Times. . He died at Lavender Sweep, 
Wandsworth, 12th July 18S0. 

Apart from the drama, his chief contributions to literatnre are 
kis biographies of painters, v\z., Autobiography of B. S. Sa/ydon 
(1853); Aulobiogrnphy and Correspondence of C. R. LcslUyR-A. 
(■1859); ani Life and Times of Sir Joshita ii^/noMs (1865)VVhich 
had been left iu a very incomplete state by Mr LesUe. His Historical 
J)ramas appeared in one volume in 1877. He also edited, with i/ 
tnera'orial preface, Fen Sketches froyn a Fanishcdff and, selected from 
J'qpcrs of the late Mortimer Collins. 

"-XA.YLOR, Zachaky (1784-1850), president of the 
United States, was born in Orange county, Virginia, 
November 24, 1784. He entered the army as lieutenant 
in 1808, and rose to the rank of major in the war with 
Great Britain which followed. At the outbrealc>of the 
Mexican War he was in command of the American forces 
in Louisiana and Texas, and was directed to make the 
advance into the disputed territory which brought on the 
war. Beating the Mexicans in two battles, he followed 
them into Mexico, and there defeated Santa Anna in the 
crowning battle of his campaign, Buena Vista (1847). 
Dissatisfied with his treatment by the administration, he 
re.signed and returned to the United States, where the 
Whig party nominated him and elected him president 
(1848). The struggle over the question of the admission 
of slavery to the territory taken from Mexico occupied his 
terra of office, and he died at Washington, July 9, 1850. 

TCHAD, TsAD, or Chad, Lake. See Africa. voL L p. 
255, and Soudan. 

TCHEREMISSES, or Cheremisses.^ See FofLAlfD, 
vol. ix. p. 219, and Russia, vol x.xi. pp. 79-80. 

TCHERKASY (Polish Czerkasy), a district town of 
Russia, in the government of Kieft, and 190 miles by 
rail to the south-east of Kieff, on the right bank of the 
Unieper. , It is poorly built, mostly of wood ; the popula- 
tion has rapidly increased lately, and has doubled since 
1846, reaching 15,740 in 1883. There are now two 
gymnasiums for boys and girls, and several lower schools. 
The inhabitants (Little Russian) are mostly employed in 
agriculture and gardening. There is a brisk -export trade 
in corn, refined sugar, tobacco, salt, and timber ; raw sugar 
ami manufactured goods are imported, principaUy by Jewish 
merchants. 

Tcheikasy, fonncrly Tcberka.wk, \v.as an important town of the 
Uliraine in the 15tl» century, and remained so, under Polish rule, 
uptil the revolt of Hmelnitiiki, when it became free. AVlien "West 
Ukraine was taken again by Poland, most of itsinliabit.ants migrat.(d 
ici the left bank of tlie Dnieper. 1 1 was annexed by Russia iu 1/95. 



TCHERNIGOFF, a government of Little Russia, on 
the left bank of the Dnieper, bounded by Moghilefi and 
Smolensk on the N., Orel and Kursk on the E., Poltava 
on the S., and KieS and Minsk on the W., has an area of 
20,233 square miles. Its surface is an undulating plain, 
650 to 750 feet high in the north, and from 370 to 600 
feet in the south, deeply grooved by ravines and the 
valleys of the rivers. In the north, " beyond the Desna," 
about one-third of the area is under wood (which is rapidly 
disappearing), and marshes occur along the courses of the 
rivers ; while to the south of the Desna tl>e soil is dry, 
sometimes sandy, and assumes the characters of a steppe- 
land as one proceeds southward Chalk deposits prevail 
in the north, and Eocene in the south. The government is 
watered by the Dnieper (which forms its western boundary 
for 178 miles) and its tributaries the Soj and the Desna. 
The latter, which flows through Tchernigofi for nearly 350 
miles, is navigable, and timber is brought down its tribu- 
taries. Corn, linseed, timber, brandy, hemp, and sugar 
are shipped on the Dnieper, Soj, and Desna, and salt im- 
ported. The climate is much colder in the woody tracts 
of the north than in the south ; the average yearly 
temperature at the town of Tchernigofi is 44°'4 (January, 
23°; July, "68°-5). 

The population, which is rapidly increasmg, reached 1,996,250 in 
1883. Itischiefly Little Russian (85-6 per cent); Great Russians 
(6"1 pei- cent), mostly Raskolniks, and White Russians (5'6 per 
cent) inhabit the northerti districts. Jews have spread rapi.ily 
since last century, and now number more than 45,000. There are, 
besides, some 20,000 Geftnans as wcU as Creeks at Nyczhin. Agri. 
culture is the principal occupation; in tlie north, however, many 
of the inhabitants are engaged in the timber trade and virions 
domestic industries. Cattle-breeding is carried on in the central 
districts, and there were in 1883 572,200 horses, 515,300 cattle, 
and 9'!S,000 sheep. Beet is extensively cultivated, and in 1S84 
2 million cwts. of beet-root were delivered to the thirteen sugar- 
works within the government Tlie culture of tobacco is also in- 
creasing, upwards of 500,000 cwts. being produced annually. Hemp 
is widely cultivated in the north, and the milder climate of the 
south encourages gardening. Bee-keeping is extensively carried 
on by the KasKolniks. Tar, pitch, and a large variety of wooden 
manufactures are largely produced in the forest districts, as also 
are woven fabrics, felts, and leather wares. Limestone, grind- 
stones, chiua-claj', and building stone are quarried. Jlanufactures 
have begun to develop rapidly of late; by ISSl their yearly produc- 
tion reached £1,340,000 (£860,000 from sugar-works and distil- 
leries). Trade is active, especially since the opening of the railway 
between Kieff and Kursk,'which runs, through Tchernigoff. The 
government is divided into fifteen districts, the chief towns (with 
populations in 1885) being Tchernigoff (19,000), Borzna (13,700), 
Glukhoff (16,450), Gorodnya (3.550), Konotop (16,420), Kozclets 
(4430), Krolevets (9190), Jlglin (10,880), Novgorod-Syevcrsk (8020), 
Novozybkoff (11,920), Nyezhin (43,020), Oster (3550), Sosnitsa 
(5650), Starodub (23,590 in ISSO), and Surazh (3770). . A number 
of unimportant towns (14 posads and 49 myestccltJci') possess muni- 
cipal institutions. 

TCHERNIGOFF, capital of the abovQ ' government, 
stands on the right bank of the Desna, nearly half a mile 
from the river, 476 miles from Moscow. Far removed 
from the great channels of trade, iU sole importance is 
as an administrative centre. Its houses are poorly built, 
and the streets are unpaved. The population (19,000 in 
1885, one-third being Jews) is almost stationary. The 
ruins of its fortress, and the old cathedrals of Preo- 
brazhenie and Borisoglebsk, founded in the 11th and 12th 
centuries, bear witness to the former importance of .the 
town. Numerous graves scattered about, and now partly 
explored-; speak of the battles which caused its. decay. 

Tchernigoff is known to have e.tistcd before the iMIoduction of 
Cliristianity info Russia. In 807 it is mentioned ill .V'le' treaty °^ 
Oli'ff as nest to Kielf, and in the Ilth century it b(tcanfe. the capital 
of the priniipality of Syevcrsk aud an important cbmntercial city. 
The Jlougolian inv.ision put an end to its growth. Lithuania 
annexed it in the 1411i century, but it was soon seized by Poland, 
wliich held it until the 17lli century. The great rising in 1048 
rendered it iiidei-tndent until 1054, whni the Cossacks accepted 
Vhc protcclor.ite of tho czars of JlcSscow. In 1CS6 it was definitely 
annexed to Kus>9ia. 



J 



T C H— T E A 



97 



I 



TCHERNOMORSK, a government of Caucasia, Russia, 
consisting of a narrow strip of land between trie main 
Caucasus chain and the Black Sea, formerly inhabited by 
the Adyghe mountaineers of Caucasus. This strfp, pro- 
tected by the mountains from the cold winds of the north, 
is in respect of climate one of the most favoured parts of 
the Black Sea littoral. Owing to extensive emigrations of 
jtsinhabitants to Turkey since the Russian conquest of 
1S64, it is very thinly peopled, the population numbering 
but ':!5,9S0, mostly Russians, on an area of 2S24 square 
miles'. The steep slopes of the Caucasus, whose summits 
range from 2000 to 10,000 feet, are furrowed by narrow 
gorges, and bear a lu.xuriant vegetation. The wild vine — 
a reli: of former gardens — grows freely in the forests, which 
are almost impassable on account of the underwood and 
dec«j-ing trees. The moistness of the atmosphere contri- 
butes to the spread of the Caucasian fever, which is char- 
acteristic of the littoral. Notwithstanding the pro.xiniity 
of the mountains to the sea, a road is now being con- 
stTDCled along the coast, — for military reasons. 

Agriculture is carried on, but only in the south, — gardening and 
the culture of the vine and tobacco beint; the chief occupations 
besides fishing and hunting. Some manufactures are rising up at 
Kovorossiysk (3330 inhabitants) and Anapa (53o0), the two prinr 
cipal towns, which alsc have some foreign trade. The region is 
a -separate province under a military governor re.siding at Novo- 
lossiysk, where a new harbour is being constructed. 

TCHISTOPOL, a district town of Russia, in the govern- 
ment of Kazan, 90 miles to the south-east of that ton-n, on 
the left bank -of the Kama. Before 17S1 it waj a mere 
village'.,(Tchistoye Pole), founded by runaway serfs ; at 
present it is extending rapidly and becoming an industrial 
town, with flour-mi!ls, distilleries, and a few cotton-mills. 
The merchants cany on a brisk trade in corn brought in 
from the fertile tracts of- Ufa, and shipped down the 
Kama ; manufactuH;d wares are imported. The popula- 
tion in 1S.83 was 18,200. 

f TCHIT.\, capital of Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia, 
stands 5S5 miles east of Irkutsk, on the Tchita river, half 
a mile above its junction with the Ingoda. It was founded 
in 1851 ; and military considerations led to the selection 
of this very small village to be the capital of Tran^^baikalia. 
Steamers on the Amur and Shilka do not penet-ate so far 
as the upper Ingoda ; they usually stay at Sryetensk, 320 
miles distant. But the military supplies sent every year 
from Transbaikalia to the Amur region usually start 
from Tchita, — the forest-covered hills on the b'.nks of 
the Ingoda supplying material for the construction of the 
barges (from 100 to 200 in number) on which these sup- 
plies are carried as soon as the melting of the snows in the 
mountains temporarily raises the water in the river to a 
sotBcient height. Tchita is built of wood, with unpaved 
streets and wide open spaces. The dryness of the Buriat 
steppe close by prevents snow from accumulating to any 
depth, even when the cold is extreme ; the merchandise 
accordingly ■ which "is forwarded from ^ Irkutsk to the 
Nertchinsk district is brought to. Tchita on carts, and is 
there loaded on sledges for the continuation of the journey 
down the. frozen rivers. The population of Tchita in 
18S3 was 12,600. The inhabitants support themselves 
by agriculture, by tradein furs, cattle, hides, and tallow,. 
•which are bought from' the Burials, and in all kind of 
manufactured wares imported fr'Jm Russia and Western 
Siberia. 

TE.\. This important food auxiliary, now in daily use 
as a beverage by pro!febly one-half of the -population of 
the worfd, is prepared from the leaves of. one or more 
plants belonging to the natural order femstriimiacex. 
The order includes the well-known ornamental genus of 
shrabs Camellia, to which indeed the tea-plants are so 
ctoaelv allied that by many systematic writers they are 



included in the same genus. The tea-plajats have been; 
cultivated in China for at least a thousand years. 

As is commonly the case with plants which have been JSotanjr 
long under cultivation, there is much doubt as to specific"' 
distinctions among the varieties of tea. Under the namq 
of Thea sinensis, Linnreus originally, described tea as a 
single species ; but with fuller knowledge of- the Chines? 
plants he established .two species, Thea Bohea and Tlieci 
viridis, and it was assumed that the former was the sourc^ 
of black teas, while Thea viridis was held to yield thQ 
green varieties. In 1813, however, Mr Robert Fortunq 
found that, although the two varieties of the plant e.xist 
in different parts of China, black and green tea are made 
indiffereutly from the leaves of. the same plant. The tea; 
plant is cultivated in China as an evergreen shrub, which 
grows to a height of from 3 to 5 feet. The stem is bushy, 
with numerous and very leafy branches ; the leaves are 
alternate, large elliptical, obtusely serrated, veined, and 
placed on short channelled foot-stalks. The calyx is 
small, smooth, and divided into five obtuse sepals. The 
flowers are. white, axillary, and slightly fragrant, — Kjfteo 




Fio. 1. — TfA-VlaiA {Thea sinensis). 

two cr; three together on separate pedicels. The corolla 
has from five to nine petals, cohering at the base. The 
filaments are short, numerous, and inserted at the base of 
the 'corolla ; the anthers are large and yellow, the style 
trifid, and the capsules three-celled and three-seeded. 

The viridis varieties are hardier, and possess larger and 
brighter green leaves, than belong to the Bohea variety. 
No strictly wild tea-plants have been discovered in China, 
but an indigenous tea-tree {Thea assamica) is found in 
Assam, which botanists now incline to regard as the 
parent species of all cultivated varieties. It differs in 
many respects from the Chinese plants. The indigenous 
Assam tea-plant is a tree attaining a height of from 15 to 
20 feet, growing in the midst of dcnse_ moist jungle and 
in shady sheltered situations. Its leaves vary considerably 
in size, form, and venation, being usually smooth, thick, 
and feathery, lanceolate, ovate lanceolate, or oblong lanceo- 
late. They are variously dotted with pellucid cells con- 
taining essential oil, and the nuibber of such cells shown 
by the leaf is held to be an indication of the quality of tea 
it will yield. The leaf of the Chinese plant never exceejla 
4 inches in length, while that of the Assam tree reach^ 

XX ITT. — 13 



98 



TEA 




9 inches and upwards. The Chinese plant is hardy, and 
capable of thriving under many difiFerent conditions of 
climate and situation; while the indigenous plant is tender 
and difficult of cultivation, requiring for its success a close, 
hot, moist, and equable climate. The characteristic vena- 
tion of the leaf of the Chinese tea-plant is delineated in 
fig. 2. In minute structure the leaf presents highly 
characteristic appearances. The 
under side of the young leaf is 
densely covered with fine one 
celled thick-walled hairs, about 1 
mm. in length and -015, mm. iri 
thickness. These hairs entirely 
!disappear with increasing age. 
The structure of the epidefmis' of 
!the under side of the leaf, with 
'its contorted cells, is represented 
( X 160) in fig. 3. A further char, 
acteristic feature of the cellular 
structure of the teu-leaf is the 
abundance, especially in grown 
leaves, of large, branching, thick-, 
walled, smooth cells (idioblasts),, 
which, although they occur in' 
other leaves, are not found in such 
as are likely to be confounded^. 
with or substituted for tea.. The, 
'minute structure of the leaf^.in 
■' section is illustrated in fig. 4.- v 
Ratige of The cultivated varieties of tea7 
growth, being comparatively hardy, possess p^^ 2. — T«a-Leaf— full size, 
an adaptability to climate excelled . ^ _ 
among food plants only by the wheat. . The limits of actual 
tea cultivation extend from 39° N. lat. in Japan, through 
the tropics, to Java, Australia, Natal, and Brazil in the 
southern hemisphere. The tea-plant will even live in the 
open air in the sonth of.England, and withstand. some 




Fio 3.— EpidermisTr Tea-Lcaf (uncler side).. 




amount of frost,'' when it receives. sufficient, summei; heat 
-.0 harden its wood. But comparatively^ few^regions are 
suited for practical tea-growing. 
CUmate A rich and exuberant growth •ofjhe plantys a first 
and loiU es.sential of successful tea cultivation. This iSytSnly cbtain- 
^blei in warm, moist, and comparatively eqilable climates, 
where rains are frequent and copious. ,> The climate indeed 
which favours tropical profusioii of jungle growth— still 
steaming heat— is that most favourable for the cultivation 
of tea, and such climate, unfortunately, is most. prejudicial 
to the hcaltli of Europeans. It was formerly supposed 
that comparatively temperate latitudes and steep sloping 
ground a9"rdcd Uie most favourable situations for iea- 
planting, and iiukIi of the disaster which attended ".the 
.early stages of the tea enterprise in India is traceable to 
[this (jrroneou.s conception. Tea thrives best in light friable 



soils of good depth, through which water percolates freelyr 

the plant being specially impatient of marshy situations 

and stagnant water. Undulating well-watered tracts, where 

the rain escapes 

freely, yet without 

washing away the 

soil, are the most 

valuable for tea gar- 

dgDS. As a matter 

of fact, many of the 

Indian plantations 

sje established on 

Sill-sides, after the 

example of known -—— „ -. — — , _,^_ . ..r 

,7,.'^, . r^\.■ Fio. 4.— Section through Tea-Leaf. 

districts in China, 

where hiU slopes and odd corners are coMmonly occupied, 
with tea-planti _ 

According to Chinese .legend, the virtues of tea {cfi^mstary. 
pronounced In the' Amoy dialect te, whence the English, 
name) were discovered by Ihe mythical emperor Chin- 
nung, 2737 B.C., to whom all agricultural and medicinal, 
knowledge is traced. It is doubtfully referred to in the 
book of ancient poems edited by Confucius, all of which 
are previous in, date to 550 B.C. A tradition exists in 
China that a-kndwtedge of tea travelled eastward to anci. 
in China, having been introduced 543 a.d. by Bodhidharma, 
an ascetic \tho came from India on a missionary expedition,' 
but that legend ■ is als.o mixed with mythical and super-; 
natural details. But it is quite certain, from the historicalj 
narrative of Lo Yu, who lived in the Tang dynasty (618-1 
906 A.D.). that tea was already used as a beverage in the 
6th century, and that during the 8th century its use had 
become so common that a tax was levied on its consump- 
tion in the 14th year of Tih Tsung (793). The use of teaj 
in China in the middle of the 9th century is known fromi 
Arab sources (Reinaud, Rdation des Voyages, 1845, p. 40). 
From China s, knowledge of tea was carried into Japan,', 
and there the cultivation was established about the begin- 
ning of the ISth century. Seed was brought from China 
by the priest Miyoye, and planted first in the south island,' 
Kiushiu whence- the cultivation spread northwards till it 
reached the high limit of 39° K. To the south tea cultiva- 
tion also spread into Tong-king and Cochin Chma, but the 
product in these regions is of inferior quality. Till well 
into the 19th century it may be said that Chma and Japan 
were the only two tea-producing countries, and that the 
product reached the Western markets only through the 
narrowest channels and under most oppressive restrictiona. 
In .the year 1S26 the Dutch succeeded in establishing 
tea gardens in Java. At an early period the E^t India 
Company of Great Britain, as the principal trade iiiterme-! 
diary between China and Europe, became deeply interested^ 
in the question of tea cultivation in their Eastern posses-, 
sions. In 1788 Sir Joseph Banks, at the request of the, 
directors, drew up a memoir on the cultivation of economic, 
plants in Bengal, in which he gave special prominence to^ 
tea, pointing out the regions most favourable for its, 
cultivation. About the year 1820 Mr David Scott, one, 
of the Company's servants, sent to Calcutta from thi, 
district of Kuch Behar'and Raugpui— the very district 
indicated by Sir Joseph Banks as favourable for tea-^ 
o-rowin"— certain leaves, with a statement that tliey wero^ 
said to° belong to tlie u-ild lea-plant. Tiic loaves were 
submitted to Dr Wallich, Govcromcnt liotani.t at Calcutta 
wlio pronounced them to belong to a speCKS of '.„„i,lh(. 
and no result followed on .Mr Scutfs communirntion. 
These very leaves ullimntcly can-.e into the licrbaiuuu c 
ihc Linnoau Society of London, and have authontatucly 
been pronounced to belong to the indigenous Assam tc» 
plant Dr Wnllich's attribution of tliis and other spccunom. 



TEA 



99 



subsequently sent in to the genus Camellia, although 
sciontidcally defensible, unfortunately diverted attention 
from the significance of the discovery It was not till 
1834 that, overcome by the insistence of Captain Francis 
Jenkins, who maintained and proved that, called by the 
name Camellia or not, the leaves belonged to a tea plant, 
Dr Wallich admitted " the fact of the genuine tea-plant 
being a native of our territories in Upper Assam as 
incontrovertibly proved"" In the meantime a committee 
had been formed by Lord William Bentinck, the governor 
general, for the introduction of tea culture inlu india, 
and an official bad already been sent to the tea districts 
of Chiua to procure seed and skilled Chinese workmen 
to conduct operations in the Himalayan regions The 
discovery and reports of Captain Jenkins led to the 
investigation of the capacities of Assam as a tea growing 
country by Lord William Bentinck's committee Evidence 
of the abundant existence of the indigenous tea-tree was 
obtained ; and the directors of the East India Company 
resolved to institute an experimental establishment in 
Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the 
industry to be developed by private enterprise should its 
(iracticability be demonstrated. In 1 836 there was sent to 
London 1 DE) of tea made from indigenous leaves , in 1837 
5 ft> of Assam tea was sent ; in 1838 the quantity sent was 
twelve small boxes, and ninety-five boxes reached London 
in 1839. In January 1840 the Assam Company was 
formed, and thenceforward the cultivation of tea in India 
was carried on as a private commercial undertaking. The 
tea districts of India include, in the order of their priority, 
Assam, Dehra Dun, Kumaun, Darjiling, Cachar, Kangra, 
Hazaribagb, Chittagong, Tarai, and the Nilgiris (Madras). 
Attempts were repeatedly made to introduce tea culture 
in Ceylon, under both Dutch and British authority No 
permanent success was attained till about 1876, when the 
disastrous effects of the coffee-leaf disease induced planters 
to give serious attention to tea. Since that period the tea 
industry has developed in Ceylon with marvellous rapidity, 
and it has every prospect of taking the first rank among 
Singalese productions. Tea-planting has also been suc- 
cessfully established in NataL But beyond the regions 
above enumerated the industry has never taken root. It 
has been tried in the West Indies, the Southern States of 
America, Brazil, Australia, and the south of Europe , but 
cheap labour is a sine qua non of success. Tea can be 
picked in China and the British East Indies for two or 
three pence a day of wages, and it is on such exceedingly 
moderate outlay that the margin of profit depends. 

Tea Tea is more or less cultivated for local consumptioD in all pro- 

industry vinces of China except the extreme north, but the regions from 
in China, which it is exported are embraced within the provinces in the 
south-east — Kwangtung, Fuh-keen, Keang-se, Che-keang, Keang- 
6U, aud Gan-hwuy. Black-tea manufacture belongs to the more 
sontherly portion of these regions, the green tea country lying to 
the north. The methods employed in cultivating the plants and 
in making tea in China differ widely in various districts, and the 
teas retained for native use — especially the high-class fancy teas 
which are never seen abroad, and would probably not bear ex- 
portation — nndergo special manipidation. The teas exported are 
of three principal classes— black tea, green tea, and brick tea. 
Cnltiva- In cultivation, the young plants are not ready for picking till 
tioa. they are three years old, by which time they should be well 
established, throwing out young shoots or " fiushes'" with vigour 
and profusion. It is these tender shoots, with leaf-buds aud exp.iud 
ing leaves, which alone are gathered for tea manufacture, and the 
younger the leaf-bud the better is the quality of the tea. Accord 
ing to Chinese statements there are four gatherings of leaves in the 
year. The first is made early in April, when the young leaf-buds 
»rc jnst unfolding, and these, covered below with their 6ne silky 
hairs, are taken for making pekoe or young hyson The second 
gathering bikes place about the beginning of May, another in Jnly, 
and the fourth in August aud September On each succeeding 
occasion the in'ijduct is less fragrant and valuable, and the final 
gathering is said to consist of large leaves of little value. These 
Vtateraeuts do not, however, accord with Indian experienca 



The following brief outline of the Chinese tea-niaking processes 
is given by Mr Ball (Cultivation and ilanufaclurc of Tea) — 

"The leaves of hiack tea are exposed to llie sun nnd aii on circular trays end Black 
tr\;ated as hay, duiing which an incipient saccharine fermentation is supposed to [g^ 
take place in conjiincnon with ft volatile oil Various modificaiions of flavour 
are thus produced by the management of this fernieniatioil , a loss of tannin 
takes place hy the conveision of part of the tannic acid Into suj^r Dui ing this 
change the leaves become flaccid, and slightly tinged or spotted with red or brown 
colouring matter, and give out a peculiar (idour. appioximating to, or as some 
think, identical with, the odour of ten A certain cliangc in this odour is carefully 
watched by the workmen, this being an indication that the loasting must not be 
delayed. It is not necessary ro wait till the leaves are spotted with red ' They 
are then roa.sted in an iron vessel, and afterwards rolled with the hands, to 
express their juices. The roasting and rolling are repeated so long as any juices 
can be expressed from the leaves in the act of rolling. Finally, they are dried 
in sieves placed over a charcoal tire in drying tubes, during which the leaves aie 
occasionally taken fi'om the file, and turned until completely dried, it is in this 
last stage of the prrrcess that the leaves tum black, though this change of colour 
Is -mainly due to the process of manipulation previously to roasting and not to 
the action of heat ^ 

"The leaves of green tea are ro.-i.sted also m an iron vessel, but as soor. as GreaB 
gathered, without any previous manipulation, all heating or fermentation of the tea 
leaves being studiously avoided; they are then rolled as black tea. and finally 
dried in the same vessel in which they have been roasted, by constantly stirring 
and moving them about They are also fanned to hasten evaporation, and the 
drying and formation of the peculiar characteristic colour of this tea, which it 
gradually acquii^s id this process, and which resemblea the bloom qd some 
fruits " 

The colour of genuine green tea Is entirely due to the rapid drying 
of the fresh leaves, which prevents the chlorophyll from under, 
going any alteration The green tea sent out of Chiua is almost 
invariably faced or glaied with artificial colouring matter, princi- 
pally with a powdered mixture of gypsum and Pnissian blue 

The names distinguishing commercial qualities of tea are almost Coin- 
entirely of Chinese origin In general they indicate a gradation mercial 
of qualities from the fine and delicate product of the young leaf- varieties 
bud up to the hard and woody expanded and partly-grown leaf. ' 
The following list represents the ordinary series of qualities, begin- 
ning with the finest: — 

Black Tea. — Flowery pekoe, orange pekoe, pekoe, pekoe souchong, 
souchong, congou, bohea 

Green 7"ca. —Gunpowder, iinperial. hyson, young hyson, hyson. 
skin, caper 

Of these names, pekoe is derived from pakho (white hairs), tho 
pekoes showing the fine downy tips of the young buds ; souchong 
is from siacm-chung, little plant or sort , congou {kung-fu), labour , 
bohea (MTu-i), the mountains in Fuh-keen, the centre of the black- tea 
country , auii hyson iyu t^ien), before the rains, or tn-chun, flour- 
ishing spring. Many other names occur in the trade denoting teas 
of special qualities or districts, such as oolong (black dragon) and 
twankay,-from the district of that name in the pro\'ince of Keang- 
siL Scented teas also form a special class of Chinese produce. In 
scenting the finished tea, either black or green is intimately inter- 
mixed with odoriferous flowers and left in a heap till the tea is fully 
impregnated with the odour, when the two substances are separated 
by sifting, and the tea so scented is immediately packed aud ex- 
cluded from the air 

Brick tea is the special form in which tea is prepared for use Bricfc 
throughout the vast tracts of Central Asia. It is made principally tea. 
from broken leaves, stalks, and fragments of large leaves, com- 
pressed into blocks of various sizes. The bricks are of various 
degrees of compression, some being lightly squeezed into a loose 
mass and sewed up in cowhide bags, while others form compact 
resonant cakes, in which all trace of the oiiginal leaf structure is 
lost, with gdt characters impressed in their surface Brick tea is 
much in demand over an area greater than the whole of Europe, 
and by many tribes it is stewed with milk, salt, and butter or other 
fat and eaten as a vegetable. The Russian factors established in 
Hoo-pih prepare two sizes of brick tea, which they send off in great 
quantities through the Kalgan Gate of the Great Wall. 

Under European supervision the cultivation and especially the Tea to- 
manufacture of tea have in India undergone remarkable improve- dnstry 
ments Indeed, the traditional and empirical teachingand processes in India, 
of China proved a most serious stumbiingblock to the pro^:p-ess of 
the tea industry under Western auspices The tea-plants now 
cultivated in India are of three principal classes— the indigenous 
Assam the Chinese, and a hybrid between the two By much 
crossing and intermixture the gradations from one extreme to the 
other are almost imperceptible The best qualities of black teas 
are made from indigenous and high-class hybrid plants, but these 
are compai-atively tender and require a close humid climate The 
hardiness of the Chinese plants is their most important character, 
for, favourably situated, the Assam plant gives a larger yield of 
delicate young leaf during the season than any other 

In favourable circumstances the tea plant "flushes or sends Picking 
forth a fresh crop of tender young shoots from twenty to twenty- 
five times in the course of its growing and picking season of about 
nine months The average annual yield per plant is very variable, 
but may be stated at about one-fifth of a lb of finished tea; and, as 
each acre of a garden holds LIOO to 1600 mature plants, the yield 
per acre may be from 300 to 350 lb per annum. The diagram 
(fi^ 5) from Col Money's valuable practical treatise on tho CuUp- 



100 



TEA 



mtjm und Manufadurr. of Tm illtistrates the method in which a 
eush or aboot us pinked, and the portions winch go to make special 
classes of tea The lines in the diagram show the poinLi at which 
the shoot oia; be picked, and it is important that the lowest leaf 
taken shoolJ h« no nipped off »» to leave the bud in it£ ainl 
nninjnred on th« branch as rrom it the uejtt flash will then develop. 
The thre. leave, at the growing point \n. b. c) yield pekoe and 
th« whole shoot down to »nd including / gives pekoe sonchong. 
In the order of their age. the individual leaves manufacttue into 
a flowery pekoe » orange pekoe, c pekoe, d pekoe soachong, « 
souchong, and / aingou. Were the flush farther developed another 




Fio. 5 —Mode of Picking Tea. 

uaf might be Wkeu. which would be classed as hohca. but that Is 

not a quality recognized by Indmn growers. It is not, however, 

the practice to pick or treat leaves separately, the whole flush being 

manipulated together, and the tea is only separated into qualities by 

Biftino after the uianofacturing processes have been completed 

Manu- The manufacture of black tea is found to be an essentially simple 

factore. matter Many of the processes employed by the Chinese are quita 

Black superfluous, and several of the manual operations which bnik 

tea largely in the Chinese manufacture. It is found, can with advantage 

be supplanted by mechanical agency. The whole object of the 

black-tea manufacturer is to ferment, roll, and dry the leaf, and 

for that purpose the leaves undergo— (1) withering, (2) rolling, (3) 

fermenting, and (4) finog or dholing. Between the fermenting 

and the firing operations it is desirable to expose the leaves to the 

" direct sunlight for an hour or thereby. This caiinot always be 

done, as it is impossible to keep the fermented leaves after they 

have' attained their proper state , nevertheless the best result is 

always attained m bright weather, when it is possible to expose 

the fermented leaves to the sun. 

The fresh leaves from the garden, as they are brought in to the 
factory, are withered by being spread evenly over square wi-cker- 
work trays— leaf challanies— thickly or thinly as the weather is 
bot or cool Thus they are left exposed to the air till they become 
auite soft and flaccid, folding together when pressed in the hand 
into a clammy mass without crackling or rebound. In cloudy or 
rainy weather it becomes necessary to wither by machine, acting 
on the leaves with artificially dried and heated air. Withering is 
a preliminary to rolling, in which the flaccid and velvety leaves are 
kneaded, twisted, and rolled back and forward over a table till the 
whole comes into a mashy condition by the exudation of juice. 
While ID Chinesetea-makingthat juice IS squeezed ont of the leaves, 
in India it is most carefully lapp«i up and absorbed in the spongy 
mass In hand-rolling as much as can be worked between two 
hands Is operated on, and passed from man to man along the table 
till fully worked, when it is made up into a compressed ball and 
«o put aside for fermenting. This process is the distinguishing 
feature of black-tea making, and on its sufficient accomplishment 
depends much of the character and quality of the tea made. The 
progress of the fennentation must be carefully w<itclied, and at the 
point when by the colour it is known to be sufficiently advanced 
the tea is in favourable weather sunned by exposure, thinly spread 
out to the sunlight for about an hour It is immediately thero- 
efter hred, either by the fumes of burning charcoal or by a current 
of dried and heated air from one of the numerous machines now 
kn use With this single firing the process is completed, and the 
tea su finished is sifted by machinery into commercial qualities 
iccoriiiiig to the size of the leaf 

I''or the "-utile range of manuf.-M;tuiing operations numerous foniis 
•f machinery and mechanical devices have been ad.ipted «nd intro- 
duced in Indian gardens, so that, apart from picking the leaves, 
ttj-making hns become practically a factory industry. 
Green The manufacture of green t«a is cniiipaiatively little prosecuted 

tea. in lu^ia In Europe the demand h.is greatly fallen .aw.iy, and, 

though the consumption is considerable in the Uniteil States, the 
Mipply is principally drawn from Jajnu, where its preparation is 



extensively practised. The manufacture as carried on iii the North- 
western Provinces resolves itself into a rapid rolling and dryinpof 
the leaf. Without permitting the leaves to wither after gatheniig, 
they are, if free from moisture, at once by exposure to a brislt"faeat 
sweated and softened for rolling. They are tnen without delaj 
rolled as in black-tea tfiannfacture, next spread out m the sun till 
they take a blackish tinge, then agam rolled, and this rolling and 
exposure may be repeated yet a third time- When the rolling is 
completed the tea is placed in a highly heated pan, in which it Si 
stirred about briskly till the whole mass hecomes too hot to be 
worked by hand. Then it is tightly packed in a strong canvas 
bag, in which it is beaten by a heavy Hat stick to consolidate it, 
and in this condition left for a night Next day it is fired off ia » 
pan. beginning with a high heat, which is gradually reduced daring 
the nine hours or thereby of the operation, an incessant stirring 
and tossing being kept up the whole time. During this firing off 
the green colour of the tea is developed; and Indian green tea 
never owes any of its colour to " facing " with foreign substances. 

The qualities of a sample of tea and its commercial value can Qualities 
only with accuracy be determined by actual infusion and trial by of tea 
a skilled tea-taster- Certain general and external appearances 
which indicate the class of a tea are obvious enough ; but, aUhough 
a pekoe may be readily distinguished from a souchong, the 
souchong of certain planters or districts may be more valuable than 
other pekoes. While it is impossible to define the conditions 
which deterrnine the commercial value of an ordinary black tea. 
Col. Money lays down the following rules the darker the liquor 
the stronger the tea, and the nearer the approach of the infused 
leaf to a uniform salmony brown the purer the flavour. Black tea 
of good quality should in infusion yield a clear bright brown liquor 
emitting a subdued fragrance, and in taste it should be nmd, 
bland, and sweetish, with an agreeable astnngency. Green tea 
yields a light^coloured liquor of high fragrance, but thin, sharp, 
and somewhat rasping in taste as compared with black tea. 

The chemical components of tea leaves are essential oil, theine, Chemls. 
tannin, boheic acid, qnercetin, quercitannic acid, gallic acid, oxalic try. 
acid, gum, chlorophyll, resin, wax, albuminoids, colouring matters, 
cellulose, and mineral ash. Of these the first three— essential ofl, 
theme, and tannin — are of importance in the infused beverage. 
The essential oil. on which the flavour of tea depends, is present to 
the extent of from 06 to 1 per cent Theiire (CgHijN.Oj) is ail 
alkaloid identical with the caffeine obtained from cofl'ee, and it,i8 
remarkable that the same substance is yielded by the mat* oi 
Paraguayan tea and the guarana of South America, and by the 
kola nut of Central Africa. The theobromine of cocoa is also 
closely allied to theine, and the characteristic components of tliB 
extract of meat similarly show certain points of contact with these 
stimulant bodies. To the tannin of tea infusions is due what is 
known as the strength of the tea. Prof. Dittmar has recently 
examined a number of China and Indian teas in regard to the pro- 
portions of theine and tannin in their infusions and to the depend- 
ence of these proportions on the time of infusion. The general 
result was that Chinese tea yields more theine and less tannin than 
Indian tea, and that ill both cases 10 minutss' infusion, extracts 
practically all the theine. Longer infusion adds only to the tannin 
that passes into the solutiou, and, as excess of tannin impede»4iges- 
tion,- prolonged infusion is hurtful and ought to be avpid^i. 

TUe quantitative composition of — 

tea IS of course subject to great 
variation. The analyses by Mul- 
der given 10 the accompanying 
table furnish a general idea of the 
proportion of constituents. 

A series of investigations into 
a large number of teas has been 
earned out by Mr G. W Wigner 
(Pharm. Jour.. 3d series, vL 261, 
281, 402). lu tea as imported 
ho found large proportions of 
moisture which could be expelled 
on exposure to a temperature of 

212° F In a range of thirty-five samples the average moisture was 
equal to 7 07 percent, the lowest— in a Chinese young hyson- 
being 4 84. while in several congous it exceeded 10 jper cent The 
ash in si.Mty-seveu specimens of ordinary and special (undried) teas 
he found to .average 578 per cent, the maximum being 7'02 and 
the niininiuni 517 ; and of that ash 54 50 per cent was soluble in 
water The proportion of extractive subsunces in twenty-four 
teas varied from 26 15 in a congou to 44 85 in Moyune young 
hyson. The total average nitrogen tioin sixty green teas, slightly 
faced, was 376, from sixty black teas 326, from six Assam teas .J 

3 -64, and from exhausted leaves 3 80 jier cent 
So long ,as the Western world remained almost exclusively Adulteni» 

• Uoo. 

» Tbc theme is cci tftinly ondsrstaUid ; more rectnt obsci veis obtalD flora 1 8 to 
3 per rent., luij occ.ismnally more. 

2 The niinei nl sulta (ash) partly Included In Ihcse uHula oinoi-nltd lo 6 M liul 
5-2-1 icspt;ctivcjy- 



\ 





Hyson. 
Green. 


Congou- 
Black. 


VolatllooiU 


0-79 
2-22 
0-28 
2-22 
8M 

1780 
0-43 

22-80 

23-60 
3-00 

17-08 


0-60 
1-84 
O-OO 
8-64 
7-28 

12^ 
0-46 

21.36 

1912 
2-80 

28-32 


waiT. .....:;::::."'. 




Gam. 


Theine' 


Extractive maitci . 
Colouring matter. - 


Woody fibre. 


98-78' 


98-30' 



TEA 



lOJLJ 



dcMndenf on- China for ic3 tea supply, adiJteration was rampant 
»7ii multiform in the trade. Especially among green and fancy 
teas there was scarcely such a thing as an unsophisticated sample 
to b« obtained. The Chinese were also expert in fabricating an 
•rtificial gunpowder — appropriately kno\vn as "lie tea," — which 
poDsisted of the sweepings of tea warehouses artfully made up with 
a paste of rice water. Paddy husks and many kinds of leaves faced 
with China clay, soapstone, catechu, and black lead also found 
thcif way abundantly iuto tea. On the European side, exliaustod 
loaves were again dried, impregnated with catcclui and gum, and 
need up to do duty as fresh tea, and the leaves of numerousjilanta 
—sloe-thorn, hawthorn, willow, beech, plane, Epilobium aiujusti- 
folium, ic. — were freely worked up as tea. Adulterated tea is now, 
liowever, comparatively rare, largely owing to the watchfulness o£ 
the customs authorities, lloreover, as it is nearly as cheap to make 
tea from the leaves of the tea-plant as from those of any other herb, 
there is not much incentive to substitute the false for the real. 

At a ver)' early period in the European history of tea the prob- 
iible effects of its-nse on the health and morals of the population 
attracted jealous attention, and a gi'cat deal was written, mostly 
in a hostile sense, on the subject In 167S we find Mr Henry 
Savile writing to his. uncle, Mr Secretary Coventry, in sharp 
reproof of certain friends of his "who call for tea, instead of pipes 
and bottles after dinner, — a base unworthy Indian practice, which 
I must ever admire your most Christian family for nof admitting." 
And he adds, with an audible sigh, "the truth is, all nation's are 
growing so mcked as to have some of these filthy customs I " 
Some of the writers, however, although i-esolute for its banishment 
from the caddy, \Y«r9' willing to give it a place in the medicine 
chest "Among many other novelties," says a medicaL writer in 
1 722, " there is one which seems to be particularly, the cause of tlja 
hypochondriac disorders,- and is generally known by the name of 
thca, or tea. It is a drug which of late years has very much 
iBsinuated itself, as well into our diet as regales and entertain- 
ments, though its occupation is not less destructive to the animal 
economy than opium, or some other drugs'which we have at 
present learned to avoid."' Dr Lettsom was- the first medical 
writer who gave the public'a reasonable and scientific account of 
the plant ; but even he let the fear of its abuse run away with^us 
judgment, asserting that "the first rise of this pernicious custom 
[that of drinking spirits to excess] is often owin^ to the weakness 
I and debility of the system brought on by the dailyliabit of drinking 
'tea ; the trembling hand seeks a temporary relief in some cordial, 
in order to refresh and excite again the enfeebled system, whereby 
such persons almost necessarily fall into a habit of intemperance." * 
Jonas Hanway {Essai; cm Tea, 1756) was among its most vigorous 
assailants. "Men," he says, "seem to have lost their stature and 

comeliness, and women their beauty What Shakespeare 

ascribes to the concealment of love is in this age more frequently 
occasioned by the use of tea." To these complaints echoes were 
not wanting, but after a while the tea-drinkers had it all their 
own. way. In the meantime, however, tea was not without its 
apologists.' To say nothing of our own familiar poets and essay- 
ists, its praises have been sung by Herricheu and by Francius m 
Greek verses, by Pechlin-in Latin epigrams, by Pierre Petit iq a 
Latin poem of five hundred lines, and by a German versifier, who 
celebrates; in a ■fashion of his own, its " burial and happy resurrec- 
tion. " ' Hnet, bishop of Avranches, has also paid liis graceful 
tribute" to a stimulant tp which, probably, no scholar was ever 
more indebted, and which he continued to enjoy at the ago of 
ninety. Dr Johnson draws his own portrait as " a hardened and 
blameless tea-drinker, who for twenty years diluted his meals 
with only the infusion of this fascinating plant ; whoso kettlehad 
scarcely time to cool ; who with tea amused the evening, with tea 
solaced the midnight, and with tea welcomefl the morning." '> 
• Authorities ara not yet by any means agreed as to the exact 
physiological inBoence and -value of tea. The very striking fact 
that theme is precisely the characteristic constituent of cofi'ee, 
mat^, gnarana, and the kola nnt, all substances eagerly sought after 
in different quarters of the globe, serves to show that tho alkaloid 
satisfies some craving of "the human system, although what its effect 
is has not yet been certainly determined. The quantity of theine 
consumed even by the most hardened tea-driaker is oxcefedingly 
minute, and there are not wanting aUthdritieS who assert that it 
U practically inert, an assertion surely- contradicted by thd general 
instinct of the race. What is indisputable about tea drinking is 
that it forms an agreeable means of-. imbibing, the proportion of 
water necessary, in human nutrition, which, being taken hot, com- 

^ An Essay on tU Nature, Use, and Abiae 0/ Tea, H, 15»- 

* Lettaom, Hataral History of the tea-Tree, 78. 

• Der Thee 'Bigratmiss und gtucJtticfie Wkderaii/erstehun^ [16^07}, 
4-10 the verses be^niog — 

* I paer, I, Tlieam ccDrestini In pocnla misce ; 
Urgct non aolitus lumina noati-a Bopi,r; ^ 

Mens srupet ; obtuse lun^oicnt in corpore vires ; 
LangUMrcm aolvet vivida Tliea novum." — 

Uiiettl Commenlarius de rebus ad eum pertinentibus, 304. ■ 
Ulerarii Uaaatine, toL IL No. 13 (1767). 



municates to the system a diffused warm glow! Further, as used! 
by Western communities, it is a medium of taking, iu tho form' 
of sugar and cream, no inconsiderable. amount of real niltrinunti 
The other effects of tea are more a matter of general impression than' 
of ascertained scientific reality.' Its virtues have nowhere beeu) 
better summarized than by tlio earliest Chinese writer on the sub- 
ject, tho above-mentioned Lo Yu, who says, " It tempers the spirits' 
and harmonizes 'the mind, dispels lassitude and relieves fatigue,; 
awakens thought and prevents drowsiness, lightens or refreshes the 
body, and clears the perceptive faculties." The gentle exhilaration' 
■which accompanies the moderate use of tea is not followed by the: 
depression which succeeds tho use of alcoholic stimuli. Experienca' 
has proved that it sustains tho frame under severe muscular or 
mental exercise without causing su bsequent exhausdon and collapse.^ 
Tea is frequently found to' be bereficial to sufferers from nervous 
headache, -and it counteracts to some extent the effects of alcohol 
and of opiates. Taken in excess it produces cerebral excitement,' 
sleeplessness, and general nervous irritability. 'The tannin con», 
tained in its infusions also interferes with the flow of the saliva,\ 
diminishes the digestive activity of the stomach, and impedes tha 
action of the bowels. In this view the large quantity o£ strong 
tea used by tho poor—and especially by the sedentary poor,— iwhlle 
serving to blunt the keen tooth of hunger, Jnust work incalculable 
havoc With the digestive and nervous systems of the consumers. 

It 13 a reinarkable fact that no mention of tea is made by Marco Com- 
Polo, and that no knowledge of ithe substance appears- to have merco 
reached Europe till after the establishment of intercourse between and eta- 
Portuijal and China in 1517. ■ The Portuguese, hoy?ever, did little tistics. 
towards the introduction of the hert into Europe, and it was not 
till the Dutch established themselves at Bantam early in the 17th 
century that these adventurers learned from the Chinese the habit 
of tea drinking and brought it to Europe. 

The earliest mention of tea by au Englishman is probably that" 
contained in a letter from Mr Wickham, an agent of the East India 
Company, written from Firando in Japan,.on the 27th June 1615, 
to Mr Eaton, another officer of the company, resident at Macao,' 
and asking for "a pot of the best sort of chaw." How the com- 
mission was executed does not appear, but in Mr Eaton's subse- 
quent accoullts of expenditure occurs this item— ."three silvei; 
porringers to drink chaw in.'' 

It was not till the middle of the century that the English began 
to use tea, and they also received their supplies from Java till .in 
1686 they were driven out of the island by the DutcL—zAt first 
the price of tea in England ranged from £6 to £10 per Ib.^^rn the 
Mcrcuruts Politicxts, No. 435, 6f September 1658, the following 
advertisement occurs; — "That excellent and by'all Physitians 
approved China Drink called by the Chineans Tcha, by otiier 
■ nations Tay, alias Tee, is soldat the Sultaness Head, a cophee.liousel 
in Sweetings Rents, by the iloyal Exchange, Loudon. Thomas 
Garway, tho first English tea dealer, and founder of the well-known 
coffee-house, " Garra way's," in a curious .broadsheet- An Exact Be- 
seriptimi o/the Orowth, Quality, and Virtues of the Leaf Tea, issued 
iu 1659 or 1660, writes, " in respect of its scarceness and deariiess, , 
it hath been only used as a regalia in .high treatments and enter- 
tainments-;' and presents made thereof to princes and grandees." In 
that year he purchased a quantity of the rare and mncli.prized com- 
modity, and, offered it to the public, in the leaf, at fixed prices vary- 
ihg from 153. to 6O3. tbo &, according to quality, ^nd also in tho 
infusion, "made according'^to the directions of the most knowing- 
merchants and travellers into those eastern countries," In 1660' 
an Act of the first parliament of the Restoration imposed a tax on' 
" every gallon of chocolate, sherbet^ and tea, made and sold, to b« 
paid hy the maker thereof, eightpence" (12 Car.. U. c. 28). . .; 

Popys's often-quoted mention of tho fact that on the 25th 
September 1660, I did send for a cup of tee, a China drink, of 
which. 1. never had drunk before," proves the novelty of tea in 
England., at that date. In 1664 we find that the East India 
Company presented the king with 2 ft and 2 02. of "thea," which 
cost 403. per lb, and two years afterwards with another parcel con- 
taining 223 tti, for which the directors paid 6O3. per lb. Both parcels- 
appear to have been purchased on the Continent. Not until 1677 
is the Company recorded toiave taken any steps for the importa- 
tion of tea. The order then given to their agents was for " teas of 
the best kind to the amount of 100 dollars. Bat their instruc- 
tions were considerably exceeded, for the quantity imported ill 
1678 -was 4713 lb, a quantity -which seems to have glutted the! 
market for several years. The annals of tti'e Company record that,' 
in February 1684, the directors wrote thus toMaaras: — "In regard' 
thea is grown to be. a commodity- here, and we have occasion t6? 
make presents therein to our grtat friends at court, we would have] 
yoa.to send us yearly five or six canisters of the very best and' 
freshest thea." Until the 'Revolution no duty was laid on tea 
other than that levied on the infusion as. sold in the coffee-houses. 
By 1 William and Mary c. 6, a duty of 5s. per lb and 5 per cent 
on the value was imposed. For several years the quantities im- 
jiorted were very small, and consisted escluaively of tho finer sorts. 
The first direct purchase in Chica was made at Amoy, tiie teas 



102 



TEA 



previonsly obtained by tfee Compauy's factors having been purchased 
in Madras and Surat, whither it was brought by Chinese junka 
after the expulsion of the British from Java. During the closiug 
years of the century the amount brought over seems to have been, 
on the average, about 20,000 ^ a year. The instructions of 1700 
directed the supercargoes to send home 300 tubs of the finer green 
teas and 80 tubs Of boheo. In 1703 orders were given for 
*'75,000 tb. Single (green), 10,000 tb in^perial,' and 20,000 lb 
bohea" The average price of tea at this penod was 16s. per tb. 

During the 100 years from 1710 to 1810 the aggregate' sale of 
tea by the East India Company amounted to 750,219,016 lb, worth 
£129,804,595, of which 116,470,675 lb wasre-exp6rted. The duties 
during that century (excepting a period of eleven years, 1784-^5, 
when they were only 12^ per, cent.) were excessive, amounting to 
about 200 per cent, pn the value of common teas. The results of so 
enormous a tax were the creation of a gigantic smuggling ^trade, 
extensive adultei-ation of imported teas, and much fabrication of 
counterfeit tea within the country. Rrobably the duty-'paid tea 
did not represent mote than half what was consumed under thb 
name of tea. The following table exhibits the principal facts con- 
nected with the trade daring tlie period of the Company's monopoly, 
which terminated on the 22d of April 1834, when the trade was 
thrown open to all, the prices quoted being those of good qualities 
in the Company's wareliouse or in bond :■ — 





Average Price per tb 


Rules of Dnty 


Home Con 

sumprioii 

lb 


1728 
I7C0 
1782 
1783 
1784 
1786 
1786 
1795 
1801 
1821 
1833 


[32/6 (duty Included)]. 

5/coniiOu: 9Ao(iy8bo 

4A0 congon : 8/3 hyson. . 
4/3 congou; 6/9 byson.... 
4^6 congou : 7/1 by&on.... 
3/9 congou; 6/4 hyson.... 
3/5congou; 5/6 hyson.... 
3/ congou; 5/4 l^son.. .. 
2/6 J congou; 4/2 hyson. 


4/ per It), and £13. 18/7J Z ... 
1/ perm. andi:;3. 18/74 %.. .. 
lyl J per lb, and £56. lS/10 X 

£12. 1(1/ per cent. 

£20 per cent 

£50 pel cent., £20 under 2/6.. 
£100 and £96 percent. 


l,493,(i26' 
3,860,976 
6.202,257 
4,741,622 
10.160,700 
14,800,982 
15,861,747 
21,342,846 
23,780,100 
26,754,637 
31,829,620 



The progressive increase in the consumption of tea in tlie United 
Kingdom durlng,.50 yeirs from 1836 till 1886 is instructively shown 
in the accompanying diagram constracted by Messrs J C. Sillar and 
Co., of London. The dotted iine represents the average monthly 
consumption in each year ; the fluctuations in price of good sound 
congou are traced by the blacW line; and the years in which reduced 
customs duty como into operation are indicated along the base. 
From 1860 omvards the amount of Indian tea entered for home 
consumption is shown in monthly average by a black column. 
This column "brings out the remarkable fact that the Indian teft 
consumed in the United Kingdom in a year now exceeds the total 





N>o*»fl»t*ffl a o -ftiO-j >e> tffffl'fto- t* k t mo MILL 
S S -ON ' 








,T/- , , . 




u 




X 




-^ x ■ ^ 


^ — 15 


■^4 


^ -r ••■ '" 1 4 




_ ™ - ■• ■■- "" 13 


-ZJ^ t X 


,2 


-^ f ^ 


fl 


r 


10 


'/s \ \ ■ 


.... ^ -.. 9 


a 4 4% 


■^•- ^8 


"^ ^ • A h 3j 


..-- _T _ ^ 7 


,/- ■ \ /, 1 /l,. '■■ vf^l 1 hi /VM,I. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 il 1 1 1 1 1 I.I »l 


-^ ^-, r^^i^-- i i 


^gz^^ I'v 55r _Tr .jy^ 5 


■ * • . ^-v-...i^fc\2 ^^ 


*=^ us 5:ja + I. 4 


1^ „-•-- ^-J T 


^'Y' ^ T- I 




■ ----J.J.. 2 




_n_4.4-4 I + ' 




i ■ j^- P ±111111 II Tt . 


p"r:B. '/''- u '/3 '/= 


•/- 6° 



consumption of all kinds in 1860, and is more than double the 
whole quantity used fifty years ago. 

The following table shows the growth of the British tea trade 
for five years ending 1885 :— 





India. 


Ceylon. 


China. 


Hong 
Kong. 


Total 
Imports. 


Home Con- 
sumption. 


1881 
1S.S2 
1 833 
1884 
1885 


45,434,130 
63,576,690 
69,252,435 
63,208,309 
63,794,025 


171,676 

607,081 

2,005,510 

2,210,983 

4,242,244 


151,749,592- 
142,706,457 
145.249,136 
134.297-.091 
131,234,354 


10,445,758 
10,820,916 
10,863,695 
9,411,477 
8,353,829 


209,801,622 
210,663,133 
222,262,431 
213,877,759 
212,143,820 


160,226,911 
106,069,339 
170,828,431 
175,090,875 
162,443,215 



The consumption of tea in the United Kingdom per head was in 
1840 1-22 tb, which irlcreased in 1850 to 1 86 tb ; in 1860 it 
reached 2 67 lb, in 1870 3 81 16, in 1880 4 06 ft, and now (1887) it 
is about 5 tb.' 

Next to the United Kingdom, the greatest tea-importing nation 
la the United States. Not- 
withstanding that tea has 
from 1873 been duty free 
(duty25centsper lb in 1870, 
17-72 in 1871, and 15 in 
1872). the habit of tea 
drinking does not grow in 
America as it is found to 
do in the British Isles, as is 
shown by the accompanying 
table Of the 72,104,956 tb 
of tea imported into the 
United States in the year 
«nded June 1885,35,895,836 
tb was Chinese, 32,156,032 
came from . Japan, ami 
8,540,148 lb came from England 
«xpo,rted, principally to Canada. 



Year ending 


tb entered for 


Per Head 


30th June. 


Consumption. . 


1870 


40,812,189 


1 06 


1871 


46,972,788 


1 19 


1872 


84,224,494 


84 


1873 


106,423,570 


2 55 


1875 


64,708,079 


1 47 


1880 


7-^, 159,266 


1 44 


1881 


81,949,796 


159 


1882 


79,030,854 


1 50 


1883 


70,771,225 


1 31 


1884 


65,774,234 


1 18 


1686 


69,820,172 


1-22 



Nearly 6,0D0,1D00 lb was re- 



Next to the English, the Dutch are the greatest consumers of tea 
outside of China ; and the only other considerable tea-using nation 
is Russia. The following table gives the amount of tea imported 
in the year 1884 by the principal tea-drinking countries:— 



Russia 


35,600,000 ft = iS tb 


per head 


Holland 


3,900,000 „ = -91 




Denmark 


820,000 ., = -04 




New South ■Wales. 


8,437,981 ,, = 9 15 




Victoria. 


11,524,205 „ = 11 99 




South Australia 


2,229,993 ,, - 7 00 




Queensland. 


2,757,277 ,, = 8 75 




Cape of Good Hope 


1,295,042 ,. = 5 00 





By this table the Australian colonists come out as the most 
inveterate tea-drinkers in the world The quantity received by 
Holland in 1884 was 2,250,000 !b less than the imports of 1883. 
but the average of recent times has been 4 5UO.00O tb 

The quantity consumed in China has been fstitiinted as nigh as 
2000 millions of pounds annually, being at the late of a little more 
than B lb per head of tlie population , and. (.onsideiing the tea- 
drinking habits of the people, the estimate is by no means extruva 
gnnt. In this light it may be safe to affiini that the amount of 
tea used yekrly throughout the world reaches the gigantic tutil 
of 2500 millions of pounds. 

Bibtioffrapfiif.— The litcrnture of tea is very copious but maoh scaiteicd Tho 
following works may be named: — Bontekoe. Traetat van bet exe^llenstf Rruyd 
Thee, Tlie ll^guc, 1079 ; Sylvestre Du/uut , T^aiia ti!ouvt:aux et Cut itui rfu Caf^ 
du The, et du Chocofat, 2d ed,. Lyons. \Ci>t> (uoiislalion of Ist cdi'lon by John 
Cham-beriayne, London, 1085; translations nlso In Spunlsh and LiitinJ ; J O 
Houssaye, MonoQraphie du The, P«iis, IM3. Robert Fortune. Thtee tcait 
if'andernufs in C/iiiia, London, 1S17 , Id . i4 Journey to the Tea CoutUrtfs oj 
China, London. '\'^W1 ; S. BhII. Tea Cullimtiomn China, London. 184»,-J J. L I. 
JacobsoD, Uandboek voor de Kultuur tn Fabitkaite vau Ttu-t, 3 vols , 1843 , S A 
Sch\varzkoj)f. Die narkotischen Ge\ntss7ntltet—i. Der Thee. Hallu. 1881. Lleui Col 
E. Money. Cullivadon and Alanu/aciure o/ Tea, 3d ed , London, 1878. F T It 
Deaa, Youtig Tea Planter's Companion, Lonfloii, 188G See also p8iliiinienldr> 
papers and ofRcial publications of Indian Oovernmen' . Jour hoy ' Aiiatic Soc _ 
Jour. Agri. and Ilorti. Soc, qf India, Soc oj Arts Jvum .Ac (J PA > 



TEAK 



103 



TEAK' may justly "je called the most valuable of all 
Known timbers. For use in tropical countries it has no 
equal, and for certain purposes it is preferable to other 
jvoods intemperate climates also. Its price is higher than 
that of any other timber, except mahogany.- Great efforts 
have been made to find substitutes, but no timber has been 
brought to market in sufficient quantities combining the 
many valusble qualities which teak possesses. 

The first good figure and description of the tree w'as 
jliven by Rlicede.* The younger Linna;us called it Tedona 
yiaiulis. It is a large deciduous tree, of the natural order 
Wrbcitwex, with a tall straight stem, a spreading crown, 
the branclilets four-sided, with largo quadrangular pith. 
It is a native of. the .t^'O Indian peninsulas, and^is.also 




I 



'T«ak {Tedona grnndis). 
found in the Philippine Islands, Java, and other islands 
of the Malay Archipelago. In India proper its northern 
limit is 24° 40' on the west side of the Aravalli Hills, and 
in tlie centre near.Jhansi, in 25° 30' N. lat. In liurmah 
it extends to the Mogoung district, in lat. 2.5° 10'. In 
Bengal or Assam it is not indigenous, but plantations have 
been formed in Assam as far as the 27th parallel. In the 
Punjab it is grown in gardens to the 32d. 
^^Teak requires a tropical climate, and the most important 
forests are found in the moister districts of India, where 
during the summer months heavy rains are brought -by 
the south-west monsoon, the winter months being rainless. 
In the interior of the Indian peninsula, where the mean 
iirtnual rainfall is less than 30 inches, no teak is found, 
And 'it thrives best with a mean annual fall of more than 50 
! • — :■ 

^ The Sanskrit name of teak is sahz, aud it is certain that in India 
te.nk li.is been known and used largely for considerably ninre than 2000 
ye.irs. In Persia teak was used nearly 2000 years ago, and the tov/n 
ofSiraf on the Persian Gulf was entirely built of it. ■ Saj is the name 
in Arabic and Persian ; and in Hindi, Mahratti, and the other modern 
languages derived front Sani^krit the tree is called sat^, sagican. In the 
Dravidia'n languages the name Hickay and the Portuguese, adopting 
this, called it icke^ teca, whence the English name. 

* The rate in the London market since 18G0 has Huctuated between 
iClO and £15 per loail of 50 cubic feet. 
"^^t/wlits MoIaharir.us, vol. iv. tab. 27, 1683. 



inches. The mean annual temperature which suits it best 
lies between 75° and 81° Fahr. . Near the coast the tree 
is absent, and the most valuable forests are on low hills 
up to 3000 feet. It grows on a great variety of soils, but 
there is one indispensable condition — perfect drainage or 
a dry subsoil. On level ground, with deep alluvial soil, 
teak does not often form regularly shaped .stems, probably 
because the subsoil drainage is imperfect. 

During the dry season the tree is Ieatie!?.3;'"in "not 
localities the leaves fall in January, but in moist places 
the tree remains green till March. ■ At' the end of the dry 
season, when the first monsoon rains fall, the fresh foliage 
comes out.' The leaves, which stand opposite, are from 1 
to 2 feet in length and from 6 to 12 inches in breadth. 
On coppice shoots the leaves are' much larger, and not 
rarely from 2 to 3 feet long. In shape they somewhat 
resemble those of the tobacco plant, but their substance is 
hard and the surface rough. ^ ^The small white flowers are 
very numerous, on large erect cross-branched panicles, 
which terminat"e the branches.' They appear during the 
rains, generally in July and August, and the seed ripens in 
January and February.' On the east side of the Indian 
peninsula,'-the teak flowers during the rains in October and 
November.' In Java the forests are leafless in September,' 
while during March and April, after the rains have com- 
menced, they are clothed with foliage and the flowers open. 
During the rainy season the tree is readily recognized at. a 
considerable distance by the whitish flower 'panicles, which 
overtopthe green foliage, and during the dry season the 
feathery seed-bearing panicles distinguish it from all other 
trees. The small oily seeds are enclosed in a hard bony 
1-4 celled nut, which is surrounded by a thick covering,' 
consisting of a (ionse.felt of matted hairs. The fruit. is 
enclosed by the enlarged membranous calyx, in appearance 
like an irregularly plaited or crumpled bladder. The tree 
seeds freely every year, but its spread by means of selfJ 
sown seed is impeded by the forest fires of the dry season', 
which in India generally occur in March and April, after 
the seeds have ripened and have partly, fallen. Of the' 
seeds which escape, numbers are washed^ down the hills 
by the first heavy rains of, the monsoon. These collect 
in .the valleys, and it is here that groups of seedlings and 
young trees are frequently found. A portion of the seed 
remains on the tree; this falls gradually after the rains 
have commenced, and thus escapes the fires of the hot 
season. The germination of the seed is slow and uncer- 
tain ; a large amount of moisture is needed to saturate the 
spongy covering ; many seeds do not germinate until the 
second or third y^ar, and many do not come up at all. 

The bark of the stem is about half an inch thick, grey or 
brownish grey, the sapwood white; the heartwood of the 
green tree has a pleasant and strong aromatic fragrance and 
a beautiful golden-yellow colour, which on seasoning zoan 
darkens into, brown, mottled with darker streaks. The 
timber retains its aromatic fragrance to a great age. 'On 
a transverse section the wood is marked by large pores, 
which are more numerous and larger in the spring wood,' 
or the inner belt of each annual ring, while they are less 
numerous and smaller in the autumn wood or outer belt. 
In this manner the growth of each successive year is 
marked in the wood, and the age of a tree may be_ 
determined by counting the annual rings. 

The principal value of teak timber for use in\vavm countries is 
its extraordinary durability. In India and in Burmah beams of 
the wood in good preservation are often found in buildings several 
centuries old, and instances are known of teak beams having lasted 
more than a thousand years.' Being one of the few Indian timbers 

' In one of the oldest buildings among the ruins of the old city of 
Vijayanagar, on the banks of the Tungabhadra iu southern Indi.i, the 
superstructure is supported by jibinks of teakwood 1^ inches thick. 
These plauks were exajnined in 1881 ; they were in a good state of 



104 



TEAK 



which ^ire leally dural.le, teak has always been used for buildings 
particularly for temples, and in India it has been the chief timber 
employed for shipbuilding. When iron commenced to bo exten- 
sively used for the last-named purpose, it was supposed that the 
demand foi teak would decrease. This, however, has not been the 
case for the »ood is still very largely used for the backing of iron- 
clad's and for decks oi large vessels. It is also used for furniture, 
for door and window frames, for the construction of railway car 
riag-3. and for many other purposes White ants eat the sapwood, 
but rarely attack the heaitwood of teak It is not, however, proof 
against the borings of the teiedo, from whose attacks the teak piles 
of the wharves in the Rangoon river have to be protected by a 
sheathing ol metal 

Once seasoned, teak timlwr does not split, crack, shrink, or 
nlur Its shape In these qualities it is superior to most timbers 
In couUct with lion, iieitlier the iron nor the teak sutfer.", and 
in this respect it u far superior to oak. It is not very hard, 
is easily worked, and takes a beautiful polish it has great elas- 
ticity and strength, and is not very heavy. The average weight 
of perfectly seasoned *ood fluctuates between 38 and 46 tb per 
cubic foot.' Its weight, therefore, is a little less than that of 
English oak Green teak timber, however, is heavier than water, 
and unless thoroughly seasoned it cannot be floated In Burmah, 
therefore, where the rivers are used to float the timber to the sea 
purts. a peculiar, mode of seasouing teak by girdling has been 
practised fioui time immemorial Girdling consists in making a 
deep circular cut through bark and sap into the heartwood, so as 
completely to sever communication between bark and sapwood 
above and below the cut In teak, as in oak and other trees with 
'well marked heartwood, the circulation of the sap only takes place 
in the sapwood, and the girdled tree therefore dies after a few days 
if the operation has been efl'ectually performed But if even the 
smallest band of sapwood is left connecting the outer layers of 
wood above and below the girdle, the tree is not killed, and often 
recovers -completely The girdled tree is allowed to stand one or 
two- years, and longer if a very large-sized tree. Being exposed to 
the wind and to the action of the sun, the timber of a girdled tree 
seasons more rapidly and. more completely than that of a tree 
felled green , The teak produced in the presidencies of Madras 
and Bombay and in the Central Provinces is as a rule felled green, 
and even when dry it generally is a little heavier than the timber 
from Buiniab.^ For a long time to come, the rivers of Burmah 
and Siam will continueto alford the most convenient and most 
«conomir..il routes for the transport of timber Indeed the forests 
drained by the Salwfn and its feeders are not likely ever to be 
worked otherwise than on the present jilan, under which the logs 
are floated singly over the rapids and are caught and rafted lower 
down, at the kyodan or rope station, 70 miles above Maulmain. 

As already mentioned, teak wood contains an aromatic oil, winch 
(rives it a peculiarly pleasant smell and an oily surface when fresh 
cut. To this oil may probably with iusticc be ascribed its great 
durability In Burmah oil is extracted from the limber on a small 
scale, for" medicinal purposes, by filling an earthen pot, which is 
placed inverted upon another, with chips of wood, and putting fire 
round it. upon which the oil runs down into the lower vessel. 

Accordipg to the colour and texture of the wood, several vanetics. 
of teak are distinguished in India, Burmah, and Java; in the 
timber trade, however, these distinctions are of no importance. 
Teak as well as other trees, when standing isolated, forms side 
branches far down the stem, and the wood of such trees is more 
knotty and wavy, and generally heavier and darker-coloured than 
the timber of trees which have grown close together in a dense forest 
Apart from the manner in which the tree had grown up in the 
forest, soil, elevation, and climate have a great influence upon the 
grain and' the mechanical qualities of teak as of other timbers. 
Most of the larger logs brought to market have an irregular crack 
or hollow in the centre, which commences at the butt and often 
runs up a long way. There is little doubt that this is generally 
due to the action of the fires, which scorch and often destroy the 
bark of young trees. Such external injuries are apt to induce 
decay in the wood Moreover, most teak seedlings which come up 
naturally are cut down to the ground by the fires of the hot season ; 

preservat.on and showed the peculiar structure of le.ak timber in a 
very niarked manner They had beeu in the building for 600 years 
{lr)dian FoTtsier. vol vii p 260). In the wjll of a palace of the 
Persian kings near Baghdad, which was pillaged in the 7th century, 
two Americans found in 1811 pieces of Indian leak which were 
perfectly sound (Ouseley. TravtU in Varioits CouiUnes of the East, 
vol II p 280, note 67). In the old cave temples ol Salsettc and 
elsewhere in western India pieces of teak have been found in good 
pres»rr»ti.jn which must have been more than 2000 years old. 

' Ai 14 8 lb per cubic foot a load of 50 cubic feet weighs a ton 
(2240 lb). lieDce in the Bunnali ports a ton of teak timber is taken as 
equivalent to a load of 50 c-ibic feet 

• It has been erroneously 5Ul'!<i that the tree In Burmah is lapped 
for lU oil before felllug 



some are killed, but many sprout again during the rains, and rtii» 
is generally repeated ypar after year, until a sapling is produced 
strong enough to outlive the fire. Such saplings have a very larga 
pith, "which dries up, causing a hollow in the heart. Or a piece of 
the old shoot killed by the fire is enclosed by the new wood, and 
this also is apt to give rise to a hollow. 

The leaves of the teak tree contain a red dye, which in Malabar 
was formerly used to dye silk and cotton. Natives of Burmah use 
the leaves as plates, to wrap up parcels, and for thatching. 

In its youth tb^ tree grows with extreme rapidity. Two. year- 
old seedlings on good soil are 5 to 10 feet high, and insUncts of 
more rapid growth are not uncommon. In the plantations which 
have been made since 1856 in Burmah, the Uak has on good soil 
attained an average height of 60 feet in 15 years, with a girth, 
breast high, of 19 inches. This is between 16" and 18° N. lat., with 
a mean annual temperature of 78° F. and a rainfall of 100 inches. 
In the Burmah plantations it is estimated that the tree will, 
under favourable circumstances, attain a diameter of 24 inches 
(girth 72 inches) at the age of 80. Timber of that size is market- 
able, but the timber of the natural forests which is at present 
brought to market in Burmah has grown much more slowly, tho 
chief reason being the annual forest fires, which harden and im. 
poverish the soil. lo the natural forests of Burmah and India 
teak timber with adiamcter of 24 indies is never less than 100 anil 
often more than 200 years old In future, the timber grown ia 
plantations and in forests under regular management may be ex- 
pected to grow much faster , and there is no grouud for anticipating 
th.it rapidly grown timber will be less valuable than that of slow 
growth, which is at present brought to market. 

Like the other trees of the dry deciduous forest, teak does not 
attain any extraordinary size. The trees are not generally more 
than 100 to 150 feet high, even under the most favourablo 
circumstances, and stems more than 100 feet to the first branch 
are not often found Exceptionally ull trees were measured in 
1861 in the Gwaythay forest in Pegu, east of the Silang river, OD 
gneiss The stems had IflS to 114 feet to the first branch, with a 
girth, at 6 feel off the ground, from 7 to 16 feeU Larger girths, 
up to 25 feet, are not uncommon 

The tcik tree does not usually form pure forests. It is asso- 
ciated with bamboos and a great variety of other trees, which have 
little market value, and, as a rule, thrives best in such company. 
Hence in the plantations established in Burmah, the object has 
been to raise forests of teak mixed with bamboos and other trees. 

Most of the teak timber produced is consumed in India. 
The produce of the magnificent forests of Travancore, Cochin, 
the Madras presidency, Coorg, Mysore, Bombay, Bcrar, and the 
Central Provincas is all so cousiinied. Formerly there was a 
considerable export from the ports of the western coast, — Malabar, 
Kanara, Sural, and Broach,— but the countiy at present requires 
all the teak which its forests can produce ; indeed tho demand is 
in excess of the supply, and large quantities are imported from. 
Burmah to Calcutta, Madras, "Bombay, and other Indian ports. 
Small quantities are still exported from the ports of the westcru 
coast to Aiabia and the coast of Africa. The chief exjiorl is 
from Burmah, principally from Rangoon aud Maulmam. Of the 
other teak producing countries, Java exports a little ; there have 
also been exports from Saigou ; and since 1S82 Bankok has sent 
considerable quantities to Europe. But the Burmah coast is the 
chief source of supply at present Rangoon has for a very long 
time been an important place for shipbuilding, teak being the chief 
timber used: between 1786 and 1825 111 European vessels were 
built at Rangoon, aggregating 35,000 Ions At the same time 
timber was exported, and, when the place was taken by the Bntish 
in 1852, teak was the chief article of exfmi t. Maulmain became 
British territory at the close of the first Burmese war m 1826. At 
that time the place was a large fishing village, and it was mainly 
through the export of teak timber and the shipbuildmg trade 
that it attained its present importance. From 1829 to 1841 
upwards of 50,000 loads of teak timber were exported, and, lo 
addition, 68 vessels were built during that period, aggregating 
15 680 tons, and estimated to have lequned for their construction 
24 000 loads of teak timber. The forests from whic.i Mauliuam 
first derived its supplies are situaled on the Altaian river, a feeder 
of the Salwin. In 1836, however, timber began to come dowa 
from more distant forest', and in 1841 onefourth only of the 
supply was brought from the Altaraii forests. 

The increase in the export of timber from the Burmah ports was 
slow at first, but has gone on rapidly since Rangoon became a. 
British port Since that time the timber brought to the Burmab 
ports has come from the following sources;-(l) from the forests 
n the British coast provinces, Pegu and Tenasserim ; (2) frona the 
forests in the former kingdom of Burmah, floated to Rangoon down 
the SiWng and Irrawaddy rivers ; (3) from the foresU in the Shan 
states formerly tributary lo Burmah, from the harenn. country, 
and from Siam, which is all floated to Maulmam ly the Sa win 
river. Since 1356 the increase of the supply denved from these 
three sources has been large, as will be apparent from the following 



T E A — T E G 



105 



«vcrag«s for tho eight years 1S56-57 to 1863-64 and for the two 
vcars 1SS3-S1 and 1S84-85 :— 



FYom rhe British coast provinces, Pegu and Tenftsseritn. 

From Burmah by Stuini; and Irrawaddy nvers 

From Sban states, Karenni and SJam, by Satwin liver... 



Total supplies... 



Exports by sea 

Locai consumption in Rangoon and Maulmain. 



1S56-7 to 
1863-4. 



Loads. 
22,675 
6,S90 
55,491 



85,056 



76,763 
8.233 



1SS3-4. 
18S4-5. 



Loads. 
44,228 
66,663 
163,751 



274,643 



153,192 
121,450 



Of the quantities exported, between 3S,000 and 65,000 loads ' have 
gone beyond India during this period, the balance liaving been 
sent to Calcutta, Bombay, and other Indian ports. The qunntitiea 
here stated do not incliide the timber consumed in Upper Burmah, 
nor that brought from the forests drained by the Menam and 
Mekliong rivers on the cast side of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, nor 
the teak produced in Java and the other islands of tho Malay 
Archipelago, and in the extensive forests of the western peninsula- 
of India. No data ace yet available for a precise estimate ; but 
the total amount yielded by.these forest^ and consumed locally or 
exported, appears to be not less than 500,000 loads or tous a year. 

iu British India a large portion of. the teak-producing tracts 
have since >856 been placed under conservancy management, and 
sfinilar meastires will doubtless be extended to . tho forests in 
Upper Burmah, now anrie.tcd to the British empire, as well as to 
the forests of the feudatory native states. In British India, the 
area of state forests demarcated m order, to be permanently con- 
served' was in 1885 (in round fibres) 33,000 square miles, and 
the teak-producing tracts included in this area may be estimated^ 
to cover about 12,000 square' miles, or 7,680,000 acres. Large 
additions will be made to this area, especially in Upper Burmah, 
Of teak plantations, 12,000 acres have been formed in Burmah, 
563 acres in Coorg, 3436 at Nilambui' in M.ilabar, and about 2000 
acres in other districts. There are good'grounds for estimating 
the future yield of plantations at the rate of 50 cubic feet (one 
ton) per acre annually. The natural forests will, in their present 
impoverished condition, not furnish more than one cubic foot per 
acre annually, but, as protection against fire is gradually extend- 
ing, the proportion of teak is everywhere being increased by cultural 
operations in the forests, and the effect of' these measures will 
eventually manifest itself by a considerable increase in the yield. 
In their present condition, the natural forests demarcated in India 
up to 1887 may be expected to yield 150,000 tons a year, while 
the produce of the plantations will eventually add 18.000 tons 
more. The teak forests in J.ava were surveyed in 1871, and their 
area was found to be 2280 square miles, while the plantations in 
that island in 1880 amounted to 24,710 acres. These figures will 
serve to show that, if the system commenced in India aud Java 
is maintained, there is no reason to apprehend a diminution of 
the teak supply. (D. BR.) 

TEAL (Old English Tele), a word of uncertain origin, 
but doubtless cognate with the Dutch Taling (formerly 
Talingh and Telingh), and this apparently with the Scandi- 
Tiayiao- AUeling-And (Briinnich, Omitkol. Borealis, p. 18) 
and Atling, which it seems impossible not to connect with 
the Scottish Atteile or Atteal, to be fdund in many old 
records, though this last word (however it be spelt) is 
generally used in conjunction with Teal, as if to mean a 
different kind of bird ; and commentators have shewn a 
marvellous ineptitude in surmising -what that bird was. 

The Teal is the Aiias erecca of Linnrens, and the smallest of the 
European Anatidm, as well as one of the most abundant and highly 
•esteemed for the table. It breeds in many parts of the British 
Islands, making its nest in places^ very like those chosen by the 
Wild Duck, A. boscas ; but there is no doubt that by far the greater 
number of those that are taken in decoys, or are shot, during the 
autumn and winter are of foreign origin. While the female pre- 
nents the usual incoaspicnous mottled plumage of the same sex in 
most species of Analirue, the male is one of the handsomest of hi^ 
kind. Hia deep chestnut head and throat are diversified on either 
aide by a line of buff, which, springing from the gape, runs upward 
to the eye, in front of which it forms a fork, one prong passing 
l)ackward above and the other below, enclosing a dark glossy. green 
patch, and both losing themselves in the elongated feathers of the 



* Of the teak exported to foreign countriea from India in 1883-84, 
■27,358 tons went to Great, Britain, 8594 tons to Egypt, 2066 tons to 
Ceylen, 1984 tc«9 to Japan, and 1823 tons to the Cape of Good Hope. 
The total- quantity exported was 46,471 tons. 

* Not including 16,000 aqoare miles of second class reserrea in the 
Central ProvincSB 



I 



hind-head and nape. The back and sides of the body appear to b» 
grey, an effect produced by delicate transverse pencillings ol black on' 
a diill white ground. The outer lanceolate scapulars have one-half 
of their webs pure white, forming a conspicuous stripe along the 
side of tho back. The breast is of a pale salmon or peach-blossom' 
colour, each feather in front bearing a roundish dark spot, but 
these spots lessen in number and size lower down, and the warm 
tint passes into white on the belly. The tail-coverts above and 
below are velvety black, but those at the side are pale oiange. 
, The Teal inhabits almost the whole of Europe aud Asia,— from 
Iceland to Japan,— in winter visiting Northern Africa and India. 
It occasionally occurs on the western shores of the -Atlantic; but 
its place in North Anieiica is taken by its leprescntativc, A. 
earolincnsis, the male of which is easily to be recognized by the 
absence of the upper buff line on the side of the head and of the 
white scapular- stripe, while ho presents a whitish crescentic bar 
on the sides of the lower neck just in front of the wings. 

Species more or less allied to these two are found in 
most other parts of the world, and among such species are 
some (for instance, the A. gihberifrons of the Australian 
Region and the A. eatoni.ol Kerguelen Island) in which 
the mule wears almost the same inconspicuous pluraag* as 
•the female. But the determination of the birds which 
should be technically considered " Teal.'i, " and belong 
to the subgenus jS\ltium (generally misspelt Nettion), as 
distinguished from other groups of Anatina:, is a task not 
yet successfully attempted, and much confusion has been 
caused by associating with them such species as the 
Gaeganey (vol. X p. 80) and its allies of the group Quer- 
quedula. Others again have not yet been discriminated 
from the. Wigeons (q.v.), the Pintail-Ducks, Dafita, or 
even from the typical form of Anas' {cf. Duck, vol. vii. p, 
505), into each of, which subgenera the Teals, Nettium,' 
seem to pass without any great break, . In ordinary talk 
"Teal " seem's to stand for any Duck-like bird of small 
size, and in that sense the word is often applied to the 
members of the genus Neilopns, though systematists will 
have it that they are properly Geese. In the same loose 
sense the word is often applied to the two most beautiful 
of the Family Anatidse, belonging to the genus jEx 
(commonly misspelt Aix) — the Carolina Duck of North 
America, ^. sponsa (not to be confounded with the above- 
named Anas carolinensis or NeUium carolinense), and the 
Mandarin-Duck of China, jE. galericulata. Hardly less 
showy than these are the two species of the subgenus 
£unetta,—th^ Falcated Duck, £. falcata, and the Baikal 
Teal, E./ormosa, — both from eastern Asia, but occasionally 
appearing in Europe. Some British authors have referred 
to the latter of these well-marked species certain Ducks that 
from time to time occur, but they are doubtless hybrids, 
though the secret of their parentage may be unknown ; and 
in this way a so-called Bimaculated Duck, Anas bimaculata, 
was for many years erroneously admitted as a good species 
to the British list, but of late this has been properly 
discarded, (a. n.) 

TECHNICAL EDUCATION. The special education, 
the object of which is to train persons in the arts and 
■sciences that underlie the practice of some trade or pro- 
fession,- is technical education. Schools in which this 
training is provided are known as technical schools. In 
its wiSest sense, technical education embraces all kinds of 
instruction that have direct reference to the career a person 
ia following or preparing to follow; but it is usual and 
convenient to restrict the term to the special training 
which helps to qualify a person to engage in some branch 
of productive industry. This education may consist of 
the explanation of the processes concerned in production, 
or of instruction in art or science in its relation to in- 
dustry, but it may also include the acquisition of the 
manual skill which production necessitates. The term 
technical, as applied to education, arose from the neceasif.y 
of finding a word to indicate the special training which 
was needed in consequence of the altered conditions of 

XXIII. — 14 



106 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION 



production during ths present century. Wtilst the changed 
conditions of production, consequent mainly on the appli- 
cation, of st.>am power to machinery, demanded a special 
trainfhg for those who were to be engaged in produc- 
tive industry, the- prevalent system of education was not 
adapted to the requirements of these persons, and schools 
were wanted in which the necessary instruction could 
be obtained. Other circumstances resulting mainly from 
the application of steam power to machinery have rendered 
technical education necessary. Production on a large 
scale led to a great extension of the principle of the 
division of labour, in consequence of which it was found 
economical to keep a man constantly engaged at the same 
kind of work, since the more he practised it the quicker 
and more skilful he becarne. Thus employed, the workman 
learned little or nothinjg of the process of tire manufacture 
at which he assisted, or of other departments of the work 
than tlie particular one in which he was engaged, and his 
only opportunity of acquiring such knowledge was out- 
side the workshop or factory in a technical school. The 
economy effected by the division of labour led to the 
extension of the principle to other industries than those in 
which machinery is largely employed. There are many 
trades in whjch manual skill is as necessary now as ever, but 
even in these the methods of instruction prevailing under 
the system of apprenticeship are now almost obsolete. 

In many industries, including trades in which machinery 
is not as yet extensively employed, production on a large 
scale has increased the demand for unskilled labour, 
numbers of hands being required to prepare the work 
to be finished by a few artisans. Rapidity of execution 
is attained by keeping a workman at the same work, 
which after a time he succeeds in mechanically perform- 
ing, and continues to do until some machine is invented 
to take his place. In most trades, as formerly practised, 
the master employed a few apprentices who assisted him 
in his work, and who learnt from him to understand the 
details of their craft, so that, when the term of their appren- 
ticeship was over, they were competent to practise as 
journeymen. But now the master has neither time nor 
opportunity to instruct young lads, and the old relation 
of master and apprentice is changed into that of capitalist 
and workman. In consequence of these altered relations 
between employer and employed, there is an acknowledged 
tvant of properly trained workmen in a number of trades 
in which skilful hand work is stiir needed ; and in these 
trades a demand has arisen for technical schools, or some 
other substitute for apprenticeship, as a means of suit- 
ably training workmen and foremen. The ever-increas- 
ing competition in production has led to the employment, 
in many trades, of children to do work of a mechanical 
kind requiring little skill ; but, whilst thus employed, 
these young people have little opportunity of learning those 
parts of their trade in which .skill and special knowledge 
are needed ; and when they are grown up, and seek higher 
wages, they are dismissed to make room for other children. 
Numbers of young men are thus thrown upon the labour 
market, competent to do nothing more than children's 
work, and to earn children's wages; and knowing no trade 
to which they can apply their hands. To remedy this, 
by creating some substitute for the old apprenticeship, is 
one of the objects of a system of |technical education. 

A complete system of technical education should provide 
necessary instruction for the different classes of persons 
engaged in productive industry. It is usual to divide 
these persons into three classes : — (1) workmen or journey- 
men ; (2) foremen or overseers ; (3) managers or masters. 

The industries in which they are employed may be 
grouped under four beads :— (1) those involving the use of 
Bxl'jnsivo machinery, such as iron and steel manufacture, 



machine making, the textile industries, and some of the 
chemical trades ; (2) those which mainly require the use 
of hand tools, as cabinet-making, brick-work, plumbing, 
and tailoring ; (3) those depending on artistic skill, as wood 
and stone carving, metal-chasing, decorative work, and 
industrial designing generally ; (4) agriculture in all its 
branches. These industries will be referred to as manu- 
factures, handicrafts, art industries, and. agriculture. The 
foregoing classification comprises groups which necessarily,' 
to some extent, overlap one another. Every factory con- 
tains a carpenter's and smith's shop, and handicraftsmen 
of group (2) are required in every manufacturing concern.' 
Whilst the industries in which hand labour is exclusively 
employed are becoming fewer aud fewer, there are many 
trades which, owing to the frequent invention of labour 
saving appliances, are passing gradually from the class oi 
handicrafts to that of manufactures. In these trades, of 
which watch and clock making and boot and shoe making 
may be taken as examples, there is still a demand for goods 
largely if not entirely produced by hand work. In such 
trades, owing to the absence of facilities for instruction in 
the ordinary shops, there is a want of skilled hand labour 
which there is an increasing difficulty in satisfying, and to 
supply this want technical schools of different kinds have 
been established. Then, again, there are many branches 
of manufacturing industry which greatly depend for their 
success upon the designer's art, and it is necessary that the 
industrial designer should possess a knowledge of the pro- 
cesses of the manufacture in which his designs will be 
utilized, as well as of the properties and capabilities of the 
material to which they will be applied. Indeed, it is the 
possession of this knowledge which mainly distinguishes 
the industrial designer from the ordinary artist. To 
determine the best training for such designers is one of 
the problems of technical education. There are' many 
trades, too, in which the handicraftsman and the designer 
should be united. This is the case in such industries 
as wood-engraving, metal-chasing, and silversmith's work. 
In these and other trades the true artisan is the artist 
and handicraftsman combined. 

- In order to reconcile some of, the different views which 
are held as to the objects of technical education, it is 
necessary to keep in mind the broad distinction, above 
referred to, between the conditions of production on a 
large scale, as in those industries in which goods are manu- 
factured by the use of extensive labour-saving machinery, 
and in those trades in which hand "work is chiefly em- 
ployed. Much of the diversity of opinion regarding the 
objects of technical education is due to the difference 
of standpoint from which the problem is regarded. The 
volume of the trade and commerce of Britain "depends 
mainly on the progress of its manufacturing industriesj 
It is these which chiefly affect the exports and imports. 
The aim of manufacturers is to produce cheaper and better 
goods than can be produced by other manufacturers at 
home or abroad ; and technical .education is valuably to 
them, in so far as it enables ,them" to do so. But the 
artisan engaged in hand induaries looks to technical 
education for the means by which, he may acquire a know- 
ledge of the principles of his l'iifde» which the absence of 
the systerii 6f apprenticeship prevents bim from acquiring 
in the shop. Hence the artisan and, the manufactiirer 
approach the consideration of the qnestion. from different 
sides. To the spinner or weaver who almost exclusively 
employs women to tend his machinery, or to the manu- 
facturing chemist •■vhose workpeople are little more than 
labourers employed in carrying to and fro materials, 
knowing little or nothing of the scientific principles under- 
lying the complicated processes in which they are engaged, 
the technical education of the workpeople may seem to 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION 



107 



be a matter of little mooient What such manufacturers 
require are the services of a few skilled engineers, artistic 
designers, or scientitic chemists From the manufacturer's 
|)oint of view, therefore, technical instruction is not so 
much needed for the hands he employs in his work as for 
the heads that direct it. But in trades in which machi- 
nery plays a subsidiary part, technical teaching supplies 
the place of that instruction which, in former times, the 
master gave to his apprentice, and the workman looks 
to it to supply him with the knowledge of the principles 
and practice of his trade, on the acquisition of which his 
individual success greatly depends In the former class 
of industries, technical education is needed mainly for 
the training of managers , in the latter, for the training 
of workmen. Hence has arisen a double cry, — for the 
teaching of art and of the higher branches of science, 
with a view to their application to manufacturing industry, 
and for the teaching of trades, and of the scientific facts 
which help to explain the processes and methods con- 
nected with the practice of these trades. This double cry 
has led to the establishment of technical universities and 
of trade schools. 

Owing to the conditions under which manufacturing 
industry is now carried on, it is difficult to select com- 
petent foremen from the rank and file of the workmen. 
The ordinary hands gain a very limited and circumscribed 
acquaintance with the details of the manufacture in which 
they are engaged,' and have little opportunity of acquiring 
that general knowledge of various departments of work, 
and of the structure of the machinery in use, which is 
essential to the foreman or overseer. It is in evening 
technical classes that this supplementary instruction, 
which it is the workman's interest to acquire and the 
master's to encourage, can be obtained. The history of 
invention shows how frequently important improvements 
in machinery are made by the workman or minder in 
charge of it, and adds weight to the arguments already 
adduced for giving technical instruction to persons of all 
grades employed in manufacturing industry. To these 
advantages of technical education, as affecting the work- 
men themselves as well as the progress of the industry in 
■.vhich they are engaged, must be added the general im- 
provement in the character of the work produced, resulting 
from the superior and better-trained intelligence of those 
who have had the benefit of such instruction. 

In order that the different classes of persons who are to 
be engaged in productive industry may receive a fitting 
preparatory training, the programme of elementary and 
secondary as well as of the higher education must be 
organized with reference to their special requirements. If 
the demand for technical instruction is to "be fully satisfied, 
a great part of our existing system of education must be 
reconstructed, and the training provided in our several 
schools must be made a more fitting preparation for indus- 
trial work than it is at present. 

Schools in which the course of instruction is not special- 
ized with a view to any particular indu: -.ry, but is so 
arranged as to form a general preparation for manufac- 
turing or other trade pursuits, are often spoken of as 
professional, technical, or trade schools ; but such schools 
must be distinguished from apprenticeship schools, the 
object of which is to teach trades. Of the former class 
of schools there are excellent examples in the different 
countries of Europe as well as in the United States, and 
some few have recently been established in the United 
Kingdom. Of the latter class the best examples are 
found in France and Austria. The study of these schools, 
and of the means of providing fitting education for the 
different classes of producers, may be simfrtified by a state- 
ment of the following propositions -■ — 



1. The ordinary education of all persons who are likely 
to be engaged in productive industry should be determined 
by the general requirements of their future work. This 
proposition affeetia the curriculum of all schools^in which 
different classes of producers are to be trained, i.e., of 
primary, secondary, and higher schools, and involves the 
consideration of the extent to which, in such schools, 
modern languages, science, drawing, and manual instruc- 
tion should take the place of literary and classical studies. 

2. Special schools or classes should be established (a) 
for instruction in art, and in those sciences which serve 
to explain the processes of productive industry, including 
agriculture, manufactures, and engineering, as well as in 
the application of art and science to these departments of 
industry; (6) for the teaching of, and in certain cases for 
practice in, various handicrafts or trades. 

3. The special schools should be adapted to the require- 
ments of the different grades of workers, and to the 
different kinds of work in which they are or are likely to 
be engaged. 

A survey of the technical schools in different countries 
shows how these different requirements are met. Owing 
to th6 complexity of the problem, a complete or an ideal 
system of technical education is nowhere to be found. 
Schools have been established to meet local and present 
wants, and the greatest variety exists in the attempts that 
have been made to establish schools in accordance with the 
foregoing propositions. 

1. Worhmen. — Many attempts have been made to provide a 
substitute for apprenticeship, but hitherto with do great 'success. 
Two classes of workpeople have to be considered — {]) those engaged 
in inauafacturijig iodustriea, and (2) those engaged in handicraft 
industries. The education of all classes of workpeople begins in 
the public elementary schools ; and, in view of the futiire occupa- 
tion of the children, it may be taken for granted that primary 
instruction should be practical, aud should include drawijig and 
elementary .science, with some amount of manual training for boys, 
and with needlework, cookery, and domestic econoruy for girls. 
In nearly every country of Europe, and in the United States, 
primary instruction includes drawing, in addition to reading, 
writing, aud reckoning. In England this is not yet the case, 
drawing being taught in very few schools outside of the jurisdiction 
of the London school board. In "France, Belgium, Holland, and 
Sweden handicraft instruction is generally included in the cur- 
riculum of elementary schools. Rudimentary science is also taught 
in nearly all the primary schools of Europe. Modelling is taught 
both to boys and girls in many Continental schools ; and in 
Sweden '*slojd," or elementary woodwork, in which simple and 
useful articles are constructed with the fewest possible tools, is 
taught with considerable success to chililren of both sexes. 

In Germany and Switzerland there exists an excellent system 
of evening coutinuation schools, known as Foribildutigs- or Ergdnz*- 
UTigs-Schulen, in which the instruction of the children who leave 
school before fourteen, and of those who leave at that age, is con"" 
tinned. In most of these schools drawing is taught with special 
reference to local industries. In England an attempt is Iwing 
made to attract children to evening schools by means of recreative 
classes. These classes are intended to continue the child's general 
education, and to supplement it by some amount of practical 
teaching between the time that he leaves the elementary school 
and is prepared to tike advantage of evening technical instruction. 
The training of most workpeople, and of nearly all those who ar& 
engaged in manufacturing industry, consists of — (1) primary teach- 
ing in elementary schools ; (2) practice in the factory or shop ; (3) 
evenin" technical instruction. 

In all the principal towns throughout Europe evening classes 
have been established for teaching drawing, painting, and design- 
ing, and the elements of science in their application to special 
industries. On the Continent these classes arc mainly supported 
by the municipalities, by tlie chambers of commerce, by industiial 
or trade societies, by county hoards, and in some cases by the fees 
of the pupils. They receive little or no support from the state. 
They are well attended by workpeojilo of all grades, who aie en- 
couraged by their employers to profit by these opportunities of 
instruction. In Eugbud evening technical instruction is more 
systematically organized than in any other country. It is under 
the direction of the committee of the council of education known, 
as the Science and Art Department, and of the City and Guilds of 
London Institute for the advancement of technical education, an 
institute founded aud supported by the corpoiatiou aud by a large 



108 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION 



oumber of the livery companies of London. The department 
fincourages instruction in pure science and in art , the institute 
in the application of science, and to some extent of art also, to 
different trades. 

Botli the department and the institute make grants on behalf of 
properly registered teachers on the results of the examination of 
their pupils. The directory of the department contains a detailed 
syllabus of the twenty-five different subjects on the teaching of 
which grants are paid, and in the programme of the institute are 
found syllabuses of instruction in the technology of fifty different 
trade subjects. In the evening classes organi^^ed by the depart- 
ment, as well as in those in connexion with the institute, the 
■workman or foreman engaged in any manufacturing industry has 
the opportunity, by payment of a very small fee, of studying 
art in all its branches, science theoretically and practically, and 
the technology of any particular industry. Provided his early 
education enables him to take advantage of this instruction, no 
better system has been suggested of enabling workmen, whilst 
earning wages at an early age, to acquire manual skill by continuous 
practice, and at the same time to gain a knowledge of the principles 
of science connected witTi their work and explanatory of the pro- 
cesses of the manufacture in which they are engaged. 

For those engaged in handicraft trades this eveuing Instruction 
is equally valuable, and in many parts of Europe there exist 
evening tiude schools in which the workman is able to supplement 
the " sectional" practice he acquires in the shop by more general 
practice in other branches of his trade. In Vienna, for example, 
and in other parts of Austria, there are foUnd practical evening 
classes for carpenters, turners, joiners, metal-workers, and others; 
and similar classes, some of which are subsidized by the City 
and Guilds Institute, have recently been established in England. 
Throughout Europe schools for weaving, with practical work at 
the loom and pattern designing, have existed for many years. 

To provide a training more like the old system of apprenticeship, 
schools have been established xn many parts of Europe which are 
known as professional, trade, or apprenticeship schools {ecoles pro- 
/essionctlcs, icoles des apprentis, Fachschulen). The object is to 
train workmen ; and the pupils, after completing their course of 
instruction in such a school, are supposed to have learnt a trade. 
The school is the substitute for the shop. In such a school the 
pupils have the advantage of being taught their trade systemati- 
cally and leisurely, and production is made subsidiary to instruc 
tion. Under such an artificial system of production, the pupil is 
less likely to acquire excellence of workmanship and smartness of 
habit than in the mercantile shop, under the strain of severe com- 
petition. Moreover, the cost of maintenance of these schools 
renders it impossible to look to them as a general substitute for 
apprenticeship. By sending into the labour market, however, a 
few highly -trained workmen, who are absorbed in various works 
and exert a beneficial influence on other workmen, these schools 
serve a useful purpose. Schools of this kind have been tried with 
more or less success in different countries. In Paris there is the 
well-known ficole Diderot for the training of mechanics, fitters, 
smiths, &c. , and similar schools have been established in other 
parts of France. A furniture-trade school of the same category 
has recently been opened in Paris, and for many years a society of 
Christian Brethren have directed a large school in which several 
tlifferent trades have been taught. In this establishment, situated 
in the Rue Vaugirard, all the secular and general instruction is 
^ven gratuitously by the brothers, and in the several shops 
attached to the school skilled workmen are employed, who in 
«truct the pupil apprentices, and utilize their labour This 
system combines many of the advantages of shop work and school 
>T^ork, but it dcpccds financially for its success upon the religious 
spirit which actuates its promoters and supporters. The Artane 
school, near Dublin, is conducted on somewhat similar ^iriuciples, 
but is intended for a lower class of children In Aus*''»a, particu- 
larly in the rural districts, there are numerous schools for the 
training of carpenters, joiners, turners, cabinetmakers, workers in 
stone and marble, in silver and other metals, &c. Schools of the 
same class are found in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere. It is oaly 
in certain cases, however, that apprenticeship schools can be said 
to satisfactorily answer the purpose for which they have been 
established. "Where a new industry, especially in rural districts, 
has to be created . where decaying industries need to be revived , 
Avhcre machinery is superseding hand work, and, owing to the 
demands for ordinary hands, there is a dearth of skilled workmen . 
•where through the effects of competition itnd other causes the trade 
is carried on under conditions in which competent workmen cannot 
"be properly trained in the ordinary shop. — in these cases, and in 
■various art industries, an apppenticcship school may prove to be 
the best means of training workmen, and of advancing particular 
trades. Generally, an apprenticeship school should be looked upon 
as a temporary expedient, as a form of relief applied at the birth 
cr during any temi>orary depression of a particular industry The 
|)ropcr training school for workmen is the factory or shop. 

2. Foremen. — The foreman must be familiar with the various 



branches of work he is to overlook, and the training which th^ 
workman receives in the factory or shop affords him but scanty 
opportunities of obtaining this general knowledge. The foreman 
needs also a generally superior education. How then are foremen 
to be trained ' The problem is somewhat easier than that of train- 
ing workmen, because the number required is fewer The variety 
of schools in Europe devoted to this purpose is very great There 
are three distinct ways in which foremen are being trained. 

(a) The evening technical classes in Britain and on the Contmenl 
offer to ambitious workmen an opportunity of acquiring a know- 
ledge of other departments of the trade than those in which they 
are engaged, as well as of the scientific principles underlying their 
work. These classes serve the double purpose of improving the 
workpeople and of affording a means of discovermg those who art 
best fitted to occupy higher posts. 

(6) Special schools have been established for the training of fore- 
men There are many trade schools of this kind in which selected 
boys are received after leaving the elementary scbool The best 
known are those at Chalons, Aix, Nevers, Angers, and Lillo in 
France. These schools are intended for the training of fortmeji in 
engineering trades. They are state institutions, in which practical 
mechanical work In the shops is supplemented by theoretical 
instruction The first of these schools was founded in 1803. The 
course lasts three years, and the number of students in each school 
must not exceed three hundred The students spend fiom six to 
seven hours a day in the workshop, and are trained as fitters, 
founders, smiths, and pattern-makers. As in all such schools, 
saleable goods are produced, but, as production is subordinated to 
instruction, the school does not bind itself to deliver work at a 
given date, and therefore does not compete with any manufacturing 
establishment. The students on leaving these schools are com* 
petent at once to undertake the duties of foremen, managers, or 
draughtsmen. At Komotau, Steyr, Klagenfurt, Ferlach, and many 
other places schools have been established on somewhat similar 
principles. In Germany there are special schools for the training 
of foremen in the building trade, which are chiefly frequented in 
the winter, and numerous schools are found in all parts of th« 
Continent for the training of weavers. At Winterthur in Switzer- 
land a school has been established the thain purpose of which is 
the training of foremen. In Italy there are numerous technical 
institutes, the object of which is to traiu young men for inter- 
mediate posts in industrial works. In the United States the 
manual training schools, the number of which is rapidly increasing, 
have somewhat similar objects. In London, the Finsbury technical 
college of the City and Guilds of London Institute has a day de- 
partment, the main purpose of which is the training of youths as 
foremen, works managers, &c. , but in this school, as well as in 
those last mentioned, the character of the instrucripn deviates 
considerably from that given in French schools, and aims rather at 
preparing youths to learn, than at teaching them, their trade. 

(c) A third method adopted for the training of forenicn is by en 
couraging selected childreu of the ordinary elementary schools to 
continue their education in schools of a higher grade of a technical 
character. It is thought that, by developing to a higher degree 
the intelligence and skill of those children who show aptitude for 
scientific and practical work, they will be able, when they enter 
the shop, to learn their trade more quickly and more thoroughly, 
and to acquire that general knowledge of their work, and to exnibit 
those special aptitudes, which may qualify them for the position 
of foreman or manager. The education given in these schools, 
although having direct reference to the future career of the pupil, 
is disciplinary in character, and consists of the subjects of primary 
instruction further pursued, — of drawing, modelling science, 
mathematics, and manual exercises The curriculum is varied to 
some extent according to local requirements, the technology of the 
staple industries forming in many cases part cf the instruction 
Such schools, under varied forms, have been established in most 
Continental countrie.s, some of the best examples of them being 
found in Paris, Lyous, Kheims, Rouen, and in other towns of 
France. The want of similar schools in Britain has been frequently 
pointed out. One of the oldest of these schools is the Ecole 
Martiniereat Lyons. The school was founded in 1820 b^ a bequest 
from Major-Gcneral Martin, who had fought against the English 
under Tippoo Sahib. In' this school, in which the education is 
gratuitous, as in nearly all the higher elementary schools of Fiance., 
instruction is given in drawing, modelling, chemistry, mechanics, 
and physics, in the working of wood and iron, and in Geiman"and 
English in aJdirion to the subjects of an ordinary school education. 
Surveying is also taught to some of the pupils, and the instructioij 
generally is of a very practical character The students visit fac- 
tories under the guidance of the masters, and on their return they 
write out full descriptions of their visits The school hours are from 
seven till eleven in the morning and fi-om one till seven in the 
aftcinoon. The boys from this school rapidly obtain places in the 
commercial and industrial houses of Lyvms, and many of them, 
after a time, succeed in obtaining high position.^. A very similsi 
school, OD more modern lines, has been established at KheimS| and 



T E E — T E G 



is accommodated in a bnilding especially adaptad..fo the purpose. 
la this school instruction is directed towards the staple indnstries 
of the district, naniply, weaving, dyeing, and engineering. There 
are many other similar schools in France, the object of wbich is to 
give the children of artisans and small shopkeepers a higher practi- 
cal education in order to fit them to occupy the posts of foremen, 
overseers, and superior clerks in manufacturing and commercial 
firms. A largo number of poor children sliowing talent are 
selected from the primary schools and receive scholarships ; and 
the objection sometimes urged agninst the establishment of higher 
elementary schools,— that the better classes only are able to 
benefit by them— is thus obviated. In Germany the real-schools 
in which Latin is not taught, known as Ohndalein KealschtUm, 
have very neariy the same objects ns the higher elenjentarv schools 
of France. The instruction in these German schools is notr yet so 
practical as in the schools of France. Drawing is always well 
taught, and the scbools generallv contain good chemical labora- 
tones, as well as collections of physical apparatus and mnseums. 
From the children of these schools the ranks of foremen are largely 
recruited. They receive no special trade instruction, but the 
general training is so arranged as to qualify them for higher posts 
m industrial works. The cost of this higher education seldom 
exceeds £3 per annum. In Bavaria it is two shillings a month. 
In most of these schools, as well as in the chief intermediate com- 
mercial schools, the exit certificate exempts a lad from two of the 
three years' compulsory military service, and this regulation, to 
■which nothing corresponds in England, is an incentive to parents 
to allow their children to receive higher instruction, which operates 
very forcibly m largely increasing the njmber of well-educated 
youths in Germany. In these opportunities for higher cdncation 
Englaud u still very deficient, and the complaint is generally heard 
of the difficulties of obtaining competeut foremen. 

3. ifaslcrs.—The best special schools fcr the tr.-iining of future 
masters, managers, engineers, manufacturers, and industrial chem- 
ists are in Germany, and are known as technical high schools or 
polytechnic schools. Schools of a similar character are found in 
other countries, and in England the facilities for higher technical 
education have within the last few years greatly improved. 
:_ In Germany the polytechnic or iechnixhe HixJischule is an 
institution of university type in which the education has special 
reference to industrial purposes. In many respects the teaching 
coincides with that given in the universities. The chief distinction 
consists in the arrangement of courses of instruction in the several 
departments, in the admission of students having a non-classical 
preliminary training, and in the absence of certain faculties found 
m the university and the addition of others. It is not correct 
to say that the polytechnic is a professional school as distin- 
guished from the university ; for the faculties of law, medicine 
and theology give to the university as distinctly a profcssionai 
character as the faculty of engineering gives to the polytechnic. 
^o^ can it be said that the scientific studies at the universities are 
less practical than at the polytechnic. For, whilst workshopa for 
instruction m the nse of tools aro found in very few of the 
polytechnic schools, the laboratories, for the practicar study of 
cnemistry and physics, are perhaps better fitted and under more 
eminent professoiB at some of the Gern.an universities than at the 
polytechnic schools.-. At the same time, engineers of every deicrip- 
tion, arehitecfe, and bnilders, besides a great number of raanufac- 
turing chemists, find in the polytechnic the scientific and technical 
framing which tha lawjer or physician, . and in many cases the 
industnal chetnist, seeks in the university. 

_ In some of the large cities— in Berlin, Vienna, and Munich for 
insunce-the university and polytechnic coexist ; and in certain 
cases, in which a very special training is required to fit a youth 
for his career the German student, after spending three or four 
years at a Polytechnic school, passes on to another institution 
such as a dy<:ing school, in which his studies are further special 
ized with a view to his future work. ' 

Taking the technical high school of Munich as a type of other 
simaar institutions, we find the cost of the building and of the 
TanouscoUeotions it contains to have amounted to nearly £200 000 
and the annual cost of maintenance to be about £20 MO 'The 
institution consists of six schools :-(l) the general: (2) the civil 
engineering; (3) the building; (4) the mechanical engineering; (5) 
the industrial chemical ; and (6) the agricultural. A departrnent 
for electncal technolo^ is now being built. In other institutions 
there are architectural, pharmaceutical, and mining schools The 
programme of the Munich school gives a list of about 180 different 
cOTrses of instruction distributed over the several departments . A 
"^^ tK^^^°'' *' engaged to lecture on that particular subject 
with which he is specially conversant, and the number of such rio. 
lessors attached to a polytechnic school is very large. In the 
enguieenng department there are six or seven distinct courses of 
iectnres under the direction of thirteen professors. The largest and 
^K!i,rTB ^v°°^'^'l^ °^ *•" "'«"' institutions is the polytechnic 
S\^nr?n r ?■' '''"^^'^ completed in 1884 at a cost of about 
*4SQ.000. In Iranc* tie inafctutions in which the highest teohtii. 



109 



cal instruction is given are concentrated in the capital. There artf 
a large number of provincial colleges where the education is some- 
wh.it more practical, but where the mathematical and scientific 
teaching is not cirried to so high a point (the icole Centrale at' 
Lyons, the Ecole des Mineurs at St Etienne, and the Institot duj 
Nord at Lille, &c.). The &ole Centralo of Paris,' in whichthol 
n ajority of French engineers who are not employed in the Govera-j 
rient service are trained, is a rare instance of an institution for 
ligher technical instruction which is selS-supporting and inde-J 
pendent of Government aid. 

In Switteriand the federal polytechnic of Zurich is similar tol 
the polytechnic schools of Germany and Austria. Italy has three' 
superior technical institutes,— one at Milan, one at Turin, and one 
at ivaples, in which technical education is given on the same lines 
as in German polytechnic schools. Holland has an e.Nccllent 
institution at Delft, which was opened in 1864 ; and in Russia th& 
imperial technical school at Moscow is a high-class engineering 
school, in whi:h the theoietical studies are supplemented, to a 
greater ;xtent than in the German s. liools, by workshop practice. 

In some of the German schoois the fees charged vary according 
to the number of lectures and to the number of hours of practical 
work which the student takes per week. Thus at Jliini.h the 
entrance fee for each student is 10s., and the lecture fee is 2s. Ud. 
for each hour's lecture per week, including the use of materials. At 
Zurich She cost of a student in. a chemical department, including 
laboratorj' practice, does not exceed £12 per annum, and in otlier 
departments it does not exceed £4 per annum. At Delft the 
student pays about £16 per annum for a complete course. 

In England there is a growing tendency to associate technical 
With university education. This is mainly owing to the fact that 
the colleges which have recently been csUblished to give univer- 
sity eduation are poorly endowed, and have found it necessary to 
attract students by meeting the increasing demand for technical 
instruction. Mostof the provincial colleges may indeed be regarded 
as technical schools with a literary side. In order that they may 
provide university education in addition to sound technical in- 
stniction. It is necessary that they should be placed on a sound 
and satufactory footing by means of state endowment. Of tha 
more recently erected English colleges, the Owens College at Man- 
chester 13 the most important, combining the faculties of a Germaii 
university vnth those of a polytechnic school ' The Yorkshire 
College, Leeds, possesses a special school for the- teaching of weav- 
ing and dyeing. Other somewhat similar institutions are found 
in Birmingham, Newcastle, Sheffield, Nottingham, Dundee, Caidifff 
and elsewhere. The university of Edinburgh has a good school of 
chemistry, physics, and engineering, and the university of Glasgow 
has been long distinguished for the excellence of its physical 
laboratories. In University College and King's College, London 
tho metropolis possesses two institutions each of which may be 
likened to a university and a polytechnic combined. In the uni- 
Tereity of Cambndge there are mechanical workshops in connexion 
Witt the chair of en^ncering. The Royal School of Mines and the 
normal schools of science and art in South Kensington aro the only 
technical institutions in Eneland supported by state aid. The 
central institution in London has more in common with the German 
pol/technic school than any other institution in Britain. This 
school 13 designed for the technical teaching of engineers, architects, 
r,\n n/S' J ' ^^^ industrial chemists. It wa.^ built at a cost of 
£100/100, and is matntamed by an annual grant from the City 
and Guilds of London Institute of '£10,000, in addition to the 
students fees. 

Such is a -brief ovttline of the means provided for the technical 
education of masters in different parts of^ Europe. It will be seen 
from the_ foregoing statement that efforts are now being made to 
bring Britain more nearly on a level with other countries in the 
proviswn of those kinds of instruction which are best aci.-ii ted to 
the diflerent classes of producers. But as yet only a beginning has 
been made, and m England technical students can be counted by 
hundreds, whilst those of Germany are numbered by thousands 

Eor further information the reader is referred to the itcport of 
the royal commissioners on tschnical instruction, published in 
1884. (p jj, J 

TEETH. See Mammalia,' vol." xv. p. 349; Digestive 
Organs, vol. vii. p. 232; Ivory; and Dentistry. 

TEGEA, one of the chief cities of Arcadia,- of which its 
territory occupied the sonth-eastem corner, being bounded ' 
on the S. by Laconia, on the E. by Cynnria and Argolis, 
on the N. by the territory of Mantinea, and on the VV. by 
Msenalia Its. legendary founder wa3 Tegeates, soir of 
Lycaon. Like many other cities of ancient Greece, Teges 
■was' formed by the union of a population wbich had 
previously lived ■ dispersed in villages. The people wer« 
divided into four tribes,— the Clareotis, Hippothceti-s' 
Apolloniatis, wid Athaneatis. Tcea offered a stubborn 



110 



T E G — T E G 



resistance to the encroachments of Lacedasmon, and on 
more than one occasion defeited its ambitious neighbour. 
About 560 B.C., however, the Lacedfemonians found the 
bones of Orestes in Tegea and conveyed them to Sparta ; 
and henceforward Spartan valour, backed by this powerful 
fetich, proved too much for the merely carnal weapons of 
.Tegea. At Platsea (479 b.c.) 3000 Tegeans fought the 
good fight of freedom, and were the first to enter the 
breach which the Athenians had made in the Persian 
redoubt Between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars 
hostilities again broke out between Tegea and Sparta, in 
the course of which Tegea was twice defeated. However, 
in the Peloponnesian War (431-404), and afterwards in 
the Corinthiaa War (395-387), Tegea sided with Sparta. 
But after the battle of Leuctra (371), when the star of 
Sparta began to decline, Tegea concluded an alliance with 
the victorious Thebans, and fought on their side against 
Sparta at the great battle of Afantinea (362). - In the 
■Macedonian period Tegea joined the jEtolian League, but 
Cleomenes, king of Sparta, having won it over to his side, 
the city was besieged and taken by Antigonus Doson, king 
of Macedonia, the ally of the Achsan League (222). In 
218 the city was retaken, except the acropolis, by the 
Lacedaemonians under Lycurgus. After the defeat of 
Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, by Philopoemen in 207, Tegea 
passed into the hands of the Achaean League. In the time 
of Strabo it was the only town of any importance in Arcadia. 
In the 2d century it was visited by Pausanias, who has left 
a fairly full description of it (viii. 45-53). 

XDf its buildings much the most famous was the great temple of 
Athene Alea, which had often afforded sanctuary to fugitives from 
Sparta. The old temple was burned down in 394 B.C., ond 
Pausanius speaks of the newer temple as by far the finest and 
largest in tn6 Peloponnesus {that of Zeus at Olympia, however, 
occupied nearly double the area). Thq architect was Scopas ; and, 
as the recent German- excavations have proved, the temple was a 
Doric peripteros, with six columns at each end and fourteen at 
each side. Of the columns which Pausanias mentions in addition 
to the Doric, the Corinthian may have stood in the pronaos and 
posticum, the Ionic in "the interior of the temple" (for ^kt6^ we 
should prob.%b]y read 4vt6s in Pausanius, viii. 45, 5). The ancient 
image of Athene Alea was carried off by Augustus, and placed at 
the entrance to his new forum at Rome. The statues of iEscu- 
lapius and Health, which in Pausanias's time stood on the two 
eidcs of the image of the goddess at Tegea, were by Scopas. On 
the front pediment of the temple was sculptured the hunt of the 
Calydonian boar, on the back pediment the combat between 
Telephus and Achilles. Some fragments of these pedimental 
sculptures (comprising the head of the boar and two human heads, 
onB helmeted) have been discovered ; and, as they are the only 
ejdsting sculptures which can be referred with some certainty to 
the hand of Scopas himself, they are of the highest importance for 
the history of art. The site of the temple, at the modern village 
of Piali, was partially excavated under the auspices of the German 
archaeological institute in 1879 and 1882. It appears that the 
foundations of the temple measured 49-90 metres (uearly 164 feet) 
by 21-30 (70 feet). As Tegea-stood on a plain surrounded by 
mountains and liable to inundations, its site has been covered by 
an alluvial soil which has been favourable to the preservation of the 
ruins, and a thorough excavation might yield important results. 

On the excavations, see Atittheilungm des dcittschen archdolotfischen Ifixtiltites 
in Alhrn, 1879, p. 131 jj., 168 sj.: ibid., 1880. p. 52 sf.; ibid., 1883, p. 274 s?. 
On tlie artiBtic value of the sculptures, see t-6id.,1881, p. 393 59.: Jour Nell. Stud.. 
188C, p. 110 sq. 

TEGNfiR, ESAiAS (1782-1846), the most celebrated 
of Swedish writers, was born November 13, 1782, at 
Kyrkerud in Wermland. His father was a pastor, and his 
grandparents on both sides were peasants. His father, 
whose name had been Esaias Luoasson, took the surname 
of Tegnerus — altered by his fifth son, the poet, to Tegn^r 
— from the hamlet of Tegnaby in Smilland, where he was 
born. In 1799 Tegnir, hitherto educated in the country, 
entered the university of Lund, where he graduated in 
philosophy in 1802, and continued as tutor until 1810, 
when he was elected Greek lecturer. In 1812 he was 
named professor, and continued to work as a lecturer in 
liUod until 1824, when he was made bishop of Wexio. At 



Weiio he remained Until his defltb, twenty-two years kter. " 
Tegn^r's early poems have little merit. He was com- 
paratively slow in development. His first great success 
was a dithyrambic war-song for the army of 1B08, which 
stirred every Swe.dish heart. In 1811 his patriotic poem 
Svea won the great prize pf the Swedish Academy, and 
made him famous. In ,the same year was founded in 
Stockholm the Gothic League (Gotiska forbundet), a sort 
of club of young and patriotic men of letters, of whom 
Tegn^r quickly became the chief. The club published a 
magazine, entitled Iduna, in which it printed a great deal 
of excellent poetry, and ventilated its views, particularly 
as regards the study of old Icelandic literature and history. 
Tegn^r, Geijer, AfzeliuS, «nd . Nicander became the most 
famous members of the Gothic League. Of the very 
numerous poems written by Tegn^r in the little room at 
Lund which is now shown to visitors as the Tegn^r 
museum, the majority are short, and even occasional lyrics. 
His celebrated Song to the Sun dates from 1817. He 
completed three poems of a more ambitious character, on 
which his fame chiefly rests. Of these, two, the romance 
of Axel and the delicately-chiselled idyl of Nattvards- 
bamen ("The First Communion," 1820), translated by 
Longfellow, take a secondary place in -comparison with 
Tegner's masterpiece, of world-wide fame. In 1820 he 
published in Iduna certain fragments of an epic or cycle 
of epical pieces, on which he was then working, Frithiofs- 
saga or the Story of Frithiof. In 1822 he published 
five more cantos, and in 1825 the entire poem. Before 
it was completed it was famous throughout Europe ; the 
aged Goethe took up his pen to commend to his country- 
men this "alte, kraftige, gigantisch-barbarische DichtarV' 
and desired Amalie von Imhoft to translate it into 
German. This romantic paraphrase of an ancient saga 
was composed in twenty-four cantos, all differing in verse 
form, modelled somewhat, it is only fair to say, on an 
earlier Danish masterpiece, the Helge of Oehlenschlager. 
Frilkiofssaga is the best known of all Swedish produc- 
tions ; it is said to have been translated nineteen times 
into English, eighteen times into German, and once at 
least into every European language. It is far from satisfy- 
ing the demands of more recent antiquarian researcl], but 
it still is allowed to give the freshest existing, impression, 
in imaginative form, of life in early Scandinavia. In later 
years TegnSr began, but left unfinished, two important 
epical poems, Gtrda and Kronhruden. The period of the 
publication of Frithiofssaga (1825) was the critical epoch 
of his career. It made him one of the most famous poets 
of Europe ; it transferred him from his study in Lund to 
the bishop's palace in Wexio ; it marked the first break- 
down of his health, which had hitherto been excellent ; 
and it witnessed a singular moral crisis in the inner 
history of the poet, about which much has been written, 
but of -which little is known. Tegn^r was at this time 
passionately in love witli a certain beautiful Euphrosyne 
Palm, the wife of a town councillor in Lund, and this 
unfortunate passion, while it inspired much of his finest 
poetry, turned the poet's blood to gall. From,, this time 
forward the heartlessness of woman is one of Tegm^r's 
principal themes. It is a remarkable sign of the condi- 
tion of Sweden at that time that a man not in holy orders, 
and so little in possession of the religious temperament as 
Tegner, should be offered and should accept a bishop's 
crozier. He did not hesitate in accepting it . it was a great 
honour ; he was poor ; and ho was anxious to get away 
from Lund. No sooner, however, had he begun to study 
for his new duties than he began to regret the step he 
had taken It was-nevertheless too late to go back, and 
Tegner made a respectable bishop as long as his health i 
lasted. But he became moody and melancholy ; as early'' 



T E H — T E H 



lU 



6s 183o lio complained of fiery heats iri his brain, dtid in 
IStO, d'uitig a visit to Stockholm; he suddenly became 
in; ano. Hj was sent to an asylum in Schleswig, and early 
,in VAl he was cured, and able to return toAVexiij. ^ It 
[was during his convalescence in Schleswig that he \vrote 
Kronbniden.' He wrote no more of importance; in 1843 
•ie had a stroke of apoplexy, and on the 2d di November 
'1S46 he died in Wexiii. From 1819 he had been a mem- 
ber oi the Swedish Acadeiny, wliere he was succeeded by' 
hh biographer and best imitator Bottiger.' In prose Tegner 
ivrote letters, which have been collected, and which are 
considered the best of their kind in the Swedish language.. 
As a poet he will scarcely be preferred to Bellman or to 
Runeberg by Swedish verse amateurs, but he still'..exceeds' 
these and all other writers in popularity.' 

See Bottiger, Teckning af TegrUrs Lcfnadi .Geofg'Brandes, 
Esaias Te^rUr; Thomander, Tankar oeh Lojm. (E. 'W. G.) ., 

_ TEHERAN, or, more properly, Tehkan (lat. 35° 40' N., 
long. 51° 25' E.), for about a century the recognized 
'capital of Persia, has little to distinguish it, in general out- 
'ward appearance, from other large cities of the country, 
though in quite recent years Parisian streets or boulevards, 
and even "Western architecture for single houses, in the 
iridstof mudbrick palaces or plain mud hovels, have been 
in'-ongruously introduced. ■ Formerly a kind of 'polygon 
Boce 4 miles in circumferehce^^with its mean "shahr 
Wnah " or wall, its clumsy and uneven ditch, and, its six 
gates, two facing north, two south, one east, and one west, 
— Teheran has now been extended to an outer ditch and 
wall, thrown out on each side beyond the ancient limit. 
The bazaars are good, though hardly of th^ first class ; the 
euravanserais deserve honourable mention ; and the tele- 
graph and arsenal are respectable' institutions. The streets 
are for the most part narrow and wretchedly paved. The 
" Ark," or citadel, contains the royal and better description 
of public buildings, and connecting its encircling wall with 
the city gates are four principal thoroughfares, of which.the 
parallel avenues from the NiSsiriya and Daulat' entrances 
are the more notable. Between/these two gates, in a 
parallelogram extending from one to the other and in- 
cluding both, is the gas-lighted Top Maidan, or "Place 
des Canons," in the centre of which is a large reservoir. 
European professors are to be found in the king's college, 
where some 250 students, more or less,' are taught mathe- 
matics, engineering, military tactics," music, telegraphy, 
painting^ together with the Arabic, English, French, and 
Russian , languages, --Among the not very remarkable 
mosques — to some of v^VKh madrasahs, ox colleges, are 
attached — 'may be specially mentioned the Masjid-i-Shah, 
or king's mosque, with its handsome enamelled front, and 
the Masjid-i-ilidar-i-Shah, or mosque of the king's mother. 
■Water is freely supplied to the town by means of the 
nnderground canals, or Aa«4<si from the near mountain 
ranges. Public baths abound, • but the' Europeans use 
those of the Armenian and not of the Mohammedan 
community. The British legation stands in a handsome 
garden of great size, in which are placed the houses of the 
secretaries, which resemble English villas. ■ In the summer 
season the representatives of "Western powerd and other 
Europeans move out to the slope of the mountain range 
north of Teheran, — the British residents to Gulhab, a 
village about 7 miles from the city. A prominent feature 
in the landscape at Gulhak and the nei^ghbouring summer 
quarters, as at Teheran itself, is Demavend, the noblest 
and most graceful of Persian mountains.', 
f- The present population of Teheran may be taken at 
160,000 at most. According to a late authority (Bassett, 
1887) the European inhabitants are reckoned at about 
100 only ; the Jews number Bome 2500 ; and there are 
150 Gabrs or Parsis, a sorry remnant of. the old fire- 



worshippers, Ih 1872 there were"" said to be 1000 Arme- 
nians, mainly traders and artisans. In 1872 there wers 
but four, legations in Teheran — those of England, France,' 
Russia, and Turkey!-' Since that year representatives have 
been added 'from Holland, Austria, ■ Germany;" and the 
United States, ' The' French have summer quarters at 
Tejrlsh and the Russians at Zargandahj at no great dis; 
tance from the English Gulhak.-. 

'Jtorier supposes Teheran to be tho Tahors of the Theodosian 
^-ables, and recognizes it also in the account of the journey. of the 
Castiliau ambassadors to Timur. Porter, too, relates that in 1637 
the secretary of the Holstein ambassadoi-s mentions Teheran as 
"onf of the towns which enjoy the privilege of maintaining no 
soldiers." Again, in the 17th century, it was visited by Pietro della 
Vails and by Sir 'Thomas Herbert, — the latter spelling it "T3'ioan." 
Most writers aflirm that Teheran, though not of recent origin, can 
barely be lield of repute till Agha Muhammad made it his residence 
in about 1788, taking to himself the title of shah, as first of the 
Kajar kings, in 1-796. ■'Yet there is evidence that in the previous 
century it was a royal resort, it nothing more, in Herbert s state- 
ment that " the Touuo is most beautified by a vast gaiden of tho 
kings, succinct with a great towered mud-wall larger than the circuit 
.of the city." Du Pre (who visited it in 1808) states that it had been 
pillaged and nearly destroyed by the Afghans, — evidently at their 

.asion of Persia in 1728. Since Agha Muhammad's time Teheran 
has been the usual seat of the Knjar dynasty, a circumstance to be 
attributed to tli!> political advantages of its geographical position.-.J 

See, besides 'the authorities cilcd, Tekgvaphand Tt-avel (1S74) ; Dr Wills's land 
o/the lion aud Svrt (I8S3) ; nod Mr Bassctt's Innd 0/ the Imdmi (1867). 

, TEHUANTEPEC, an isthmus in' Mexico, comprising 
the western extremities of the states of Vera Cruz and 
Oajaca, and limited eastwards by the states of Tabasco and 
Chiapas, thus lying between 16° and .18° N; lat. and 94° 
and 95° W. long. Betw'ceu the Bay of Campeche on the 
north or Atlantic side and that of Tehuantepec on the 
south or Pacific side the distance in a bee line is only 125i 
miles. Here also tho Sierra Madre falls rapidly from over 
6000 feet in Chiapas to about 730 feet in the ridge skirting 
the Pacific coast; and leaving the rest of this district some- 
what level, with a ris'e from the Atlantic of not more than 
60 feet in the mile except at the Chivela Pass, where for 
8 miles the gradients are about 116 feet per mile^ 

- This favourable condition of the relief, combined with a relatively 
healthy climate subject only to dangerous insect pests in summer, 
has. naturally attracted attention to the Tehuantepec isthmus, as 
ofi'ering peculiar advantages for interoceanic communication either 
by a navigable canal, a railway, or a ship railway. A first conces- 
sion was made in 1841 by tho Mexican Government to Don Jos4 
d* Garay, who had the land surveyed with a view to a canal, but 
who, after the war with the United States, surrendered his rights 
to Mr P. A. Harsous of New 'York. ' The company then organized 
to give effect to the Garay grant caused a fresh survey for a railway 
to be made in 1851, under the direction of the late General J. G. 
Barnard. But nothing came of this or of another railway jjroject 
in 1857, when a third survey was executed, under the direction of 
Col. 'W. H. Sidell., Then the "Tehuantepec Railway Company,", 
formed in 1870 in New ITork, and reorganized in 1879, obtained 
a concession frorti the Mexic.in Government to construct the 
"Tehuantepec Railway"; but, after ft few miles were made, the 
work was suspended, and in 1882 the Government contracted with 
private individuals for the completion of the line, which was to be 
190 miles long, and to run from the mouth of the Goatzacoalcos 
(Coatzacoalcos) river on llie Atlantic to tho port of Salina Cruz on 
the Pacific. 'The work, was carried to'Minatitlan, a distance of 25 
miles, in 1884, and was to have been completed in 1885; but sines 
then operations ai)pear to have been suspended for want of means. 
A Tehuantepec ship railway is also projected, as it is expected that 
most of the trade between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the 
United States will be attracted to this route, which shortens the 
distance between New York and Saa Francisco by 1477 miles, and 
between New Orleans and the same place by 2334 miles, as com- 
pared with that by the Panama railway and future canal. 

Tehuantepec, the town which gives its name to the isthmus, bay, 
and neig"hbouring lagoon, stands on the river Tehuantepec, 15 miles 
above its mouth on the Pacific; where it develops a shallow and 
somewhat exposed harbour. Of the population, estimated at 
14,000, a large number are civilized and industrious Indians en- 
gaged in cotton-weaving and on the salt-works. Indigo is grown 
m the district, and there are productive pearl-fisheries in the bay. 
Amongst the exports are cochineal and a purple dye extracted from 
a ahelUsh abounding on the coast ' 



112 



T E I — T E L. 



TEIGNMOUTH, a seaport and market town of Eng- 
land, in Devonshire, consisting of the parishes of East and 
West Teignmouth, and situated on the English Channel, 
at the mouth of the Teign and on the Great Western 
Railway, 14 miles south of Exeter and 209 west^south- 
west of London. It is somewhat irregularly built, partly 
on a projecting peninsula and partly on the acclivities 
rising behind the river. The Teign is crossed by a bridge 
1671 feet in length, built of wood and iron in 182-1. St 
Michael's church, in East Teignmouth, erected in 1822-23 
in the E)ecnrated style, was enlarged in 1875. The other 
buildings include St Scholastica's abbey (erected for Bene- 
dictine nuns in 1862), the East Devon and Teignmouth 
club-house, the mechanics' institute (1840), the temperance 
hall ( 1 879), the sailors' home (1881 ), the baths (1883), and 
the pubUc market (1883). There are two commodious 



quays and a pier 600 feet in length. Fine pipe and potters' 
clay (from Kingsteignton) is shipped to Staflordshire 
Coal and culm are imported, and there is also a trad 
with Newfoundland Fishing is extensively carried on. 
The town, which is not incorporated, was formerly governed 
by portreeves. It now forms an urban sanitary district 
which was extended on 29th September 1881. The popu 
lation of the former^area'(L238 acres) in 1871 was 6751, 
and in 1881 it was 7120 ; that of the extended area (234T 
acres) in 1881 was 8496. ' 

Tei"nraouth is of very- ancient origin. It received a grant of 
a market from Henry III East Teignmouth was forineily cilkJ 
Teignmouth Regis, and. West Teignmouth, Teignmouth Episcopi,— 
the manor having belonged to the see of Exeter until alienated by 
Bishop Vesey. -fcignmoutli was burned by French piiatcs io 1340, 
and was again devastated by the Fieueh OQ 26th June 1690. 
TEINDS. See Tithes. 



T E L E R A PH 



TELEGRAPH (from t'iKi and ypi4>w) signifies an 
instrument to wTile at a disUnce. The term is 
speciBcaJly applied to apparatus for communicating in- 
telligence to a distance in unwritten signs addressed to 
the eye or ear, and has only recently had application to 
those wonderful coujbinations of inanimate matter which 
literally write at a distance the intelligence coraipitted to 
them The chief object of the present article is to ex 
plain the principles and practice of the electric telegraph, 
and we shall allude to other telegraphic systems only to 
illustrate the general principles of signalling. 
Signalling a word expressing an idea may, according to a pre- 
generaLy. ^j^anged plan of signalling, be communicated by voice, by 
trumpet, calls, by gun 6re, by gesture or dumb signs, by 
lamp signals, by flags, by semaphore, or by electric tele- 
graph. The simplest system of word -signalling hitherto 
practised is that of the nauticjal flag telegraph, in which 
each hoist represents a word by a combination of four 
flags- in four distinct positions (see Signals, Naval). If 
n denote the number of flags, supposed all diflerent, out 
of which the four to be sent up may be selected, the num^ 
ber of difl'erent ideas which can be expressed by a single 
hoist k'n(n- !)(«- 2)(n - 3), since there are n varieties 
out of which, the flag for each of the four positions may 
be independently chosen. To commit to memory so ^eat 
a ilumber'of combinations, which amount to 358,800 if 
n = 26, would be a vain etfort , the operators on each side 
must therefore havn cou; tant recourse to a dictionary, or 
code, as i' i.'* called. For the sake of convenient reference 
each Hag is called by the name of a letter of the alphabet, 
and all that the operato-- has to bear in mind is the letter 
by which, each Hag is designated. Sometimes the words 
to be expressed are spelled oni by means of the flags as 
in ordinary language; but, as in ruost words there are 
more than four letters, as scarcely any two consecutive 
words are spelled >vith four or less than tour letters, and 
as more than four Hags at a time cannot be conveniortly 
used, the system of alphabetic signalling frequently re- 
quires the use of two hoists for a word, and scarcely ever 
has the advantage of expressing two words by one hoist. 
It IS therefore much more tedious than code signalling in 
the nautical telegraph 

In point of simplicity spoken words may be considered 
as almost on a par with the nautical telegraph, since each 
word is in reality spoken and heard almost as a single 
utterance. Next in order comes the system of spelling 
onl words letter by letter, in which— instead of, as in the 
nautical telegraph, 358,800 single symbols to express the 
same number of ideas — 26 distinct symbols are n.sed to 
express by their combinations any nnnibej- whatever of 



distinct ideas Next again to this may be ranked the- 
system by which several distinct successive signals are- 
used to express a letter, and letters thus communicated 
by compound signals are combined into words according 
to the ordinary method s>( language It is to this last 
class that nearly all practical systems of electro-telegraphic 
signalling belong But some of the earliest and latest pro- 
posals for electric telegraphs are founded on the idea of 
making a single signal represent a single letter of the 
alphabet , as insUnces we may name those early forms in 
which separate conductors were used for the different 
letters , a method suggested by Professor W. Thomson ' 
in 1858 in which difl'erent strengths of current were to be 
employed to indicate the letters ; and the various forms 
of printing telegraph now in use 

I Historical Sketch of Early Telegraphs. 
Although the history of practical electric telegraphy Early 
does not i'nclude a period of more than half a century, the forms- 
idea of using electricity for telegraphic purposes is much 
older It was suggested again and again as each new dis- 
aovery in electricity and magnetism seemed to render it 
more feasible. Thus the discovery of Stephen Gray apd 
of Wheeler that the electrical influence of a charged Lcyden 
jar may be conveyed to a distance by means of an insulated 
wire gave rise to various proposals, of which peihaps the 
earliest was that in an anonymous letter ^ to the ScoU 
MayaniK (vol XV. p 73, 1753), in which the use of aa 
many insulated conducU.rsas there are letters in the alpha- 
bet was suggested Each wire was to be used for the trans- 
mission of one letter only, and the message was to be senii 
by charging the proper wires in succession and received by 
observing the movements of small pieces of paper luarked 
with the'^letters of the alphabet and placed under the ends 
of the wires A very interesting modification was also 
proposed in the same letter, viz., to attach to the end of 
each wire a small light ball which when charged would be 
attracted U.wards an adjacent bell and strike it Soma 
twf^nty years later Le Sage proposed a similar method in 
which each conductor was to be attached to a pith ballj 
electroscone An important advance on this was proposed 
in 1797 b'v Lomond,^ who used only one line of wire and 
an alphabet of motions. Besides these we have in the same 
period the spark telegraph of Reiser, of Don SiKa. and oF 
Cavallo the pit h bail telegraph of Ron alds, and_sevei;a> 



• See bis i!jlhrmatu.<d and rhysuul /'ape's, vol ii p 105 
' From correspondence found among Sir David Brewster- papers 
after his deulh it s«,ns highly probable that the wnter of this lelUr,^ 

which was si;; 1 ''C M.", "as Charle^ Morrison, a surgooD and k 

native of Uiero.nk. but at that lirne re»ideut in Beljfrew 
' See Arlluir Vooiig. TravcU, in France, p 3 



TELEGRAPH 



others. Next came the discovery of Galrani and of Volta, 
and as a consequence a fresh set of proposals, in which 
voltaic electricity w-as to be used. The discovery by 
Nicholson and Carlisle of the decomposition of water and 
the subsequent researches of Davy on the decomposition of 
the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to 
•tcount in the water voltameter telegraph of Somciering 
and the modihcation of it proposed by Schweigger, and in 
a similar method proposed by Cose, in which a solution of 
salts was substituted for water Then came the discovery 
by Romagn^i and by Oersted of the action of the galvanic 
current on a magnet, Th« application of this to tele- 
graphic purposes was suggested by Laplace and taken up 
by Ampere, and afterwards by Triboaillet and by Schilling, 
whose work forms the foundation of much of modern tele- 
graphy. Faraday's discovery of the induced current pro- 
duced by passing a magnet through a helix of wire forming 
part of a closed circuit was laid hold of in the telegraph of 
Gauss aod Weber, and this application was at the request 
of Gauss taken up by Steinheil, who brought it to consider- 
able perfection. Steinheil communicated to the Gbttingen 
Academy of Sciences in September 1833 an account of his 
telegraph, which had been constructed about the middle 
«f the preceding year. The currents were produced by a 
magneto-electric machine resembling that of Clarke. The 
receiving apparatus consisted of a multiplier, in the centre 
of which were pivoted one or two magnetic needles, which 
either indicated the message by the movement of an index 
or by striking two bells of different tone or (recorded it by 
making ink dots on a ribbon of paper. Among other 
workers about this time we may mention Masson, BrSguet, 
Davy, Deval, Billon, Soudalot, and Vorsselman who pro- 
posed to use the physiological effects of electricity in work- 
ing an electric telegraph.* 

Steinheil appears to have been anticipated in the matter 
of a recording telegraph by Morse of America, who in 1835 
constructed a rude working model of an instrument ; this 
within a few years was so perfected that with some modi- 
fication in detail it has been largely used ever since (see 
below). In 1836 Cooke, to whom the idea appears to have 
been suggested by Schilling's method, invented a telegraph 
in which an alphabet was worked out by the single and 
combined movement of three needles. Subsequently, in 
conjunction with Wheatstone, he introduced another form, 
in which five vertical index needles, each worked by a separ- 
ate multiplier, were made to point out the letters on a dial. 
Two needles were acted upon at the same time, and the 
letter at the point of intersection of the direction of the 
indexes was read This telegraph required six wires, and 
was shortly afterwards displaced by the single-needle system, 
•till to a large extent used on railway and other less im- 
portant circuits. The single-needle instrument is a vertical 
needle galvanostope worked by a battery and reversing key, 
the motions to right and left of one end of the index corre- 
sponding to the dashes and dots of the Morse alphabet. 
To increase the speed of wc.king, two single-neMle instru- 
ments were sometimes used (double-needle telegraph). This 
system required two lines of wire, and, along with all 
multiple-wire systems, soon passed out of use. Similar 
instruments to the single and double needle ones of Cooke 
and ^Vheatstone were about the same time invented bv the 
Rev. H. Ilighton and his breather Edward Highton," and 
were used for a considerable time on some of the railway 
lines in England. Another series of instruments, intro- 
duced by Cooke and WheatstoAe in 1840, and generally 
known as " Wheatstone's step-by-step letter-showing " or 

* Tbe reader interested in the early history of the el^tric telegraph 
may consult Edward Highton, Tht Eltdric Td^aph, London, 1852; 
Moigno, TraUi de TeUgraphxt tUetrique, Paris, 1849; and Sabine, 
Bittory of the EUeLnc Td^aph, London, 1869." 

23—7 



113) 

"ABC instruments," were worked out with great Ingenuity 
of detail by Wheatstone in Great Britain and by Br^guet 
and others in France. They are still largely used for pri- 
vate wires, but are being rapidly displaced by the telephone.' 
Wheatstone also described and to some extent worked out 
ap interesting modification of his step-by-step instrument, 
the object of which was to produce a letter-printing tele- 
graph. But it never came into use ; some years later, 
however, an instrument embodying the same principle,' 
although differing greatly in mechanical detail, was brought 
into use by Royal E. House of Vermont, U.S.. and was 
very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph 
lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by 
the Phelps combination telegraph. The House instrument 
is not now in use, but various modifications of it are still 
employed for private lines and for stock telegraph?, such 
as Calahan's and the universal stock telegraphs, Phelps'* 
stock printer, Gray's automatic printer for private lints, 
Siemens's and Phelps's automatic type printers, ic. (se« 
infra, pp. 120-121) 

n. General Description of Electeic Telegbaphs 
FOR Lasd and Sea. 

The first requisite for electro-telegraphic communica- Essenijai 
tion between two localities is an insulated conductor ex- appara 
tending from one to the other. This, with proper apparatus ""• 
for originating electric currents at one end and for dis-; 
covering the effects produced by them at the other end, ' 
constitutes an electric telegraph. Faraday's term " elec- 
trode," bterally a way for electricity to travel along, might 
be well appUed to designate the insulated conductor along 
which the electric messenger is despatched. It is, how-; 
ever, more commonly and familiarly called "the wire" or 
"the line." J 

The apparatus for generating the electric action at one 
end is commonly called the transmitting apparatus or in- 
strumertt, or the sending apparatus or instrument, or some- 
times simply the transmitter or sender. The apparatus 
used at the other end of the line to render the effects of 
this action perceptible to any of the senses — eye, ear, or 
taste, aU of which have been used in actual telegraphic 
signalling — is called the receiving apparatus or instrument. 

In the aerial or overground system of land telegraphs Over- 
the main line consists generaUy of a "galvanized" iron g«»"iJ 
wire from one-sixth to a quarter of an inch in diameter, ^^ 
stretched through the air from pole to pole, at a sufficient 
height above the ground for security. The supports or in- 
sulators, as they are called, by which it is attached to the 
poles are of very different form and arrangement in different 
telegraphs, but consist essentially of a stem of glass, por- 
celain, coarse earthenware, or other non-conducting sub 
stance, protected by an overhanging screen or roof. On« 
end of the stem is firmly attached to the pole, and th» 
i0ther bears the wire. The best idea of a single telegraphi* 
insulator may be got from a common umbrella, with it» 
stem of insulatmg substance attached upright to the top 
of a pole and bearing the wire supported in a notch on the 
top outside. The umbrella may be either of the same 
substance as the stem — all glass or all glazed earthenware, 
for instance — or of a stronger material, such as iron, with 
an insulating stem fitted to it to support it below. Very 
good insulators may be made of continuous glass; but 
well glazed porcelain is more generally used," or rather 
earthenware, which is cheaper, less brittle, and lees hygro- 
scopic, and insulates weU as lopg as the glazing is sufficient 
to prevent the poroUs substance withm" from absorbing 
moisture. ' 

One of tne.best forms— Varley'a double cup insulator 



I For the different forms, see Prescotfs EkctTidCy and tht Siectne 
Telegraph, pp. 562-602. 

xxni - IS 



•114 



TELEGRAPH 



Uniler- 
ground 
lines 




Sut>» 

morhte 

csbW 



— is showTi in fig. 1. It consists ol two distinct cups (c, 
C), which are moulded and fired separately, and afterwards 
cemented together. The double cup gives 
great security against loss of insulation 
due to cracks extending through the in- 
sulator, and also gives a high surface in- 
sulation. An iron bolt (4) cemented into 
the centre of the inner cup is used for 
fi.xing the insulator to the polo or bracket. 

In the underground systeiii the main 
line generally consists of a copper wiia, 
or a thin strand of copper wires, covered 
with a continuous coating df gutta jjercha, 
india-rubber, or some equivalent insulat- 
ing substance, served with tarred tapo 
and enclosed in earthenware, iron, or lead 
pipes laid below the surface of the ground. 
This system is largely used for street and 
tunnel work, and to a considerable extent, 
especially in Germany, for ordinary lines, rio. i. — variey'a 
Each tube generally contains a number of t^^l onc-fpuitS^fuii 
wires, which are either laid up into a cable ^^■ 
and covered with a serving of tarred tape or hemp before 
J)eing drawn into the tube, or — as is more commonly the 
case in the United Kingdom — simply laid together in a 
parallel group and tied at intervals with binders, which 
are removed as the vrijres are drawn into the tube. On 
some long underground line's in Germany the insulated 
wires are laid up into a cable, served with jute or hemp; 
and sheathed with a continuous (Joveriug of iron wires, 
precisely similar to the, stibmarin'e cables described below. 
The cable is laid in a deep trench ahd coated with bitumen. 
This 'form of cable is easily 'laid, land if properly manu- 
factured is likely to be very durable. 

Submwrine Cables.'— A submarine cable (figs. 2-4), as 
usually manu- 
factured at 
present, con- 
sists of a core 
a in the centre 
of which is a 
strand of cop- 
per wires vary- 
ing in weight 
for different 
cables between 
70 and 400 lb 
to the mile. 
The -stranded 
form 'was sug- 
gested by Prof. 
W. Thomson 
at a meeting 
of the Philo- 
sophical So- 
ciety of Glas- 
gow in 1854, 
because ■ its 
greater flexi- 
bility renders 
it less likely 
to damage the 
insulating en- . .^ , ^ ,, 

1 J ■ Fios. 2-4.— Sections of Ihrco tyjios of subraanno cables, 

vclope durmg f„n size.- I'lg. 2.— Type or sliore end. Kig. 3.— Inter- 
the manipula- medjat^pe. Fig. 4.-Dccp sea type. 

tion of the cable. T* central conductor is covered vrith 
several continuous coatings of gutta percha, the total 
weight of which also varies betwepn 70 and 400 ft) to 
the mile. With 'a light core the weight of the gutta 
i)crcha generally exceeds that of the copper, while in some 




Fi^. 8. 



heavy cores the copper is heavier. The different coatmgs 
of gutta percha and of the conductor are usually separated 
by a thin coating of Chatterton's compound (a mixture of 
gutta percha, resin, and Stockholm tar), in order to make 
them adhere firmly together. This practice has recently 
been departed from by Messrs Siemens' Brothers, who have 
succeeded by an improved process of manufacture in getting 
perfect adhesion \rithout the use of the compound. The 
core is served vs-ith a thick coating of wet jute, yarn, -or 
hemp (h), forming a soft.bedjor theisheath, which consists 
of soft iron, or of homogeneous iron, \vire3 of the best 
quality. The sheathing wires are usually covered with 
one or two servings of tarred canv^a tape lt),.or of tarred 
hemp, laid on alternately with coatings of a mixture of 
asphaltum and tar. The wei^t of tie irop ^heath varies 
greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of 
the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, atid so pn. 
Fig. 2 shows! the intermediate type ^gain' sheathed With 
a heavy armour to resist, wear in the- shallow water near 
shore. In many caseis a still heavier type is used for the 
first mile ortwo from' shore, and several intermediate types 
are often introduced, tapering gradually to the thin deep- 
water type. Captain S. Trot and Mr F. A. Hamilton have 
proposed! to abandon the iron sheath and substitute a 
strong double serving of hefaip, laid on in such a way as to 
prevent twisting when the cable is under "tension. This 
suggestion, which is a reyival with some modifications of 
an old idea, is, however, still in the experimental stage. 

We will now describe very briefly a few of the most 
important processes in the manufacture and submergence 
of submarine cables. 

In manufacturing a cable (fig. 5) the copper strand is passed Their 
through a vessel A containlug-melted Chatterton's compound, then manu- 
througli the cylinder C, in which a quantity of gutta percha, pun- factorti 
fied by repeated wash- l. ing in hot water, by mastica- 

tion, and by filtering \] through wire-gauzo filters, is kept 

1- ^ k_ 



warm by a steam- 
through, a coating of 




jacket. As the wire is pulled 
"^5 gutta percha, the thickness oi 



^^^^ii^:(,.,^tmmmi!!m^ 




Fij.S. 
which is regulated by thf die D, is pressed out of the cyliader by 
appljang the requisite pressure to the piston P. The newly coated 
wire is passed through a long trough T, containing cold iwater, " 
until it i& sufficiently cold to allow it to be^ safely wound on a bob-' 
bin B'. This operation completed, the »ixe is wound from the 
bobbin B' on to another, and at the same time carefully examined 
for air-holes or other flaws, all of which are eliminated. The 
coated wire ii treated in the same way as tho copper strand, — 
the die D, or another of the same size, being placed at the back 
of the cylinder and a larger one substituted at the front. A second 
costing is then laid on, and after it passes through a similar pro- 
cess of examination a third coating is applied, and^so on until 
thel requisite number is completed. The finislicd dore, cliaiiges 
rapidly in its electric qualities at first, and is generally kept for a 
stated inteiTal of time before being subjected to the specified tests. 
It is then placed in n tank of water and kept at a certain fixed 
temperature, usually 75° Fahr., ivntil it assumes approximately a 
constant electrical state. Its conductor and dielectric resistance 
and its electrostatic capacity are then measured. These tests are 
generally repeated at another temperature, say 50° Fahr.> for tlw 
purpose of obtaining at the same time greater certainty of the 
soundness of the coie and the rate of variation of the conductor 
and dielectric resistances with temperature. Should these tests 
prove satisfactory tho core is served with jute y.irn, coiled in uHter- 
tight tanks, and surrounded witli salt water. The insulation is 
again tested, and if no fault is discovered the served core is passed 
through the sheathing machine, and the iron sheath and the outer 
covering are laid on. As the cable is sheathed it is stored in large 
water-tigiit tanks and kept at a nearly uniform temperature by . 
means of water. 

Tho cable is no* transferred to a cable ship, provided with w.itor- Submcrt | 
tight tanks similar to those used in the factoiy for storing it. The niou. 
tanks arc nearly, cyUndric.il in form and have a tnmcatcd cone 

'Jourii. Soc. Tdtijr. Eng., voL xii. p. 495. 



TELEGHAPH 



*JH,ouU.daoftl>.UnkandcoUedtowaniBthecentre. The Xont [ CA'*^?"u iTimpi'r^:!? t^ o^iZT.TZl^lttZ:' 

obyiated by the increasing slai k 

_ paid out, except in so far as ths 

'' tui^putuy amount of sliding which the- 

strength of the cable is able to 

^ . , \L/ \U \.\ J \^ "-CT^ r^ U produce at the poinU of contact 

Fio. e—Diagnun of cablo tank and parinc ont aonaistn, nr .I-.1. — Z T"^ "^ , ground may be therebj 

"'"P'^SoMapparatiia or sibmartne cable. increaaed. The speed of the shit 

must therefore be so regulated 




coUs are prevented from adhering by a coat- 
ing of whitewash, and the end of each 
nautical mile is carefully marked for future 
reference. After the cable has been again 
found tn K» i„ „ f ™t'Jef.'«a to the proper electrical teats and 
Zv .V V "" P"/"' "°<iit«>n. the atip^^ taken to the olaca 
where the shore end is to be Unded. A sufficient "ength of Sbll 

on a rait or lafts, or on the deck of a steam-launch in orH^r fn 

^^. ^ the cable- house and the coudoctor connected with thf 

S "hSrnn?'"^,f ""^^ '^^ ^^^'^^ '^^ continue aatt 
li^Tonf tti'^ . f °° V''^ P^P^ "^""^ ^'i ««^°>^ s'o'^'y ahead, 
^ying out the cable oyer her stem. The cable must not be orer^ 

^r ^"^ to^irr °' ^bmeraion. and must be paid out atX 
proper rate to give the requisite alack. This involves the intro- 
aactioo of machinery for measuring and contro^C the g~S ^ 
vrhich it leaves the shin and for measuring the p2 on thlTblt 
m essential ^ of tfis anparalua are aho^ in 6^6 m kwer 
end J of the cable in the Uni T is taken to the tesUSg room so that 
continuous tests for electrical condition can l«Wle. 'nle upwr 

quad^iSSl'zT ' ^"^f '^-^-^^ to » set of wheeU or ffi 
quaurants 1, 2, 3,^. then to the paying, out drum P from it t^ 

'X^mr r-L^- the^i^feirFi ¥ '^''- -" -H^ 

2. 4. 6 . c^ be „i3e4 or 7owetV»''af •;;-^eTh:rbfeti''oJ 
with bi^ket "•^^.'"r^^" *•"='"• "'^o '• 3^. • a^^fl^rh^l' 

vJn the same 



that t>ifl on«]a «f - • - ™'^*^ therefore be so regulated 

a^eUtrpf ^aL^eH^r^Suderor^"'" '''^ inclination W. 
ofilmers^i^t^^Twee'i^^^^^^^^ 




, . -- —— - 1"" ~ ^"<= uaoiB lo maKe it gnp the 
,?,» ■' P^^^aevei^I times to prevent s^mg 
shaft with P ,3 fixed a brafce-wLel fumislied ii.h a pow'erfol 



nHth o ««-. -f 1 ,. snait 01 V can be readily put in pear 

^^.^^ft^.-::.:^\^i7^^_ "Kn^^'^dttS 

h^?„ ^ t C^^ engines; it is more accurately obtained 

ofsla^ Theamol^.ffl u ""^ °^ ^t^^ °°* K*'™ t''^ ^■"onnt 
anH fJt; ^ ^"oint of slack vanes in different cases between three 

cable at the surlc'e' rand^Al^Btn^V^"; t'uv^'^ ^"^ °" *"« 

^=*{'"-s-iri/("-''«>so} (aj 

and w cos i= B/(» sin i ) . 

};?u^T^-^"'>'' ?F^eVs"h:u"ldTe^^et?triow'^ "ThH'T- 
'ur"fS'^f^^e^^A^ tttTm^-T'^?.^^^^^^^^ 



of electnc potentials," is maintained between ita two La ^"^^^ ^°*^"'- 
^ most naturally, and is in po.nt\f frcTgetX e—^J 

^T^^^:^il7l^T^t::-^^ -• endstp-dU^ 
^o\o^:^lfSlX:^;:^''\^^- ^y is the resistance Insula. 

oi passing through the line and producing effect at the other enrt 
W?th^ ""^"^ "" f""^ " ""-l '^forthe Sode of wo kfng adoD^ 
™rt of l^^'^K'^r"^"""" "'^""^ in a submarine line, rof nd ev^ 

mmsmm 

nail of It 13 found to havs pqfnT^o/^ eC .u ,. mucn a: 

familiar " cou^poLi ^^LT''S^We^,Tt at^^a^'ttm^ 

£ourhp^q^b^T,sCre;;£-t:T^^ 
rri^te;;^:::^^:^?^^^?^:^^^^^ 

to light many remarkable phenomena and pointing out thf 
•inductive" embarrassment to be ejected in .Jorking^long sub- 
marine telegraphs In letters » to Professor Stokes in November 
and December of the same year, Prof. W. Thomson gave the mSh" 
mabcal theory of these phenomena, with formula; and dis^ms of 
Pv.T; '^""^"■"'g '>>« '^'^■n^ts of synthetical investiga^on for 
every nossible case of practical operations. Some of the re^uks of 
this theory are given at the end of the present article. The con 
ductor of a submanne cable has a very largo electrostatic capac?^ 
he inaC?o°n TV^^r °^/ land telegrap^h wire in conseque^nce S 
the mauctmn, a.s of a Leyden phial, which takes place Across ita 
gutta percha coat, between it and its moist outer WfacT^Uch 
may be regarded as perfectly connected with the earth.-tharu t„ 
say, at the same potential as the earth. The mathemalicalerprei^ 
smns for the absolute electrostatic capacity C, per unit?/ !^^- 
in the two cases are as follows. j . i^ >^ ui lengio,. 

cir™L?c"roiTerHn„°^'^'f°°"T!''"='"' "^IV"'^ ^ ''^that of a gubm»>. 
cumscribed^boutr;,^ / T^^ mappreciaWy less than one cir- ine li«. 
cumscribed about the strand which constitutes a mode m submarine 

• Pubhaljal in froc Hay. Soc. lor 1355. 



TELEGRAPH 



116 

«ntoctor--D'= outer diameter of the insulating c<at; 1= specific 
nS^pacitT of tl»e guttj percha or other substance consU- 
tating the insulating coat. Then 

^= 2 log, VjU 

its capacity sensibly— _ 1 

^-21og,4A/D' , 
Example 1. In a submarme cable in which D'= 1 centunrtre ; 
D = 0-4 centimeti-e ; and 1 = 3-2— 

I 3-2 X -4343 

C = 



^ = 175. 



21og.D7i3'" 2 X -3979 
Example 2. In a land line in which D = 0-6 centimetre and 
A=600 centimHres— i -4343 1 

^ = 21og.4A/D~7-204"'l6-6' 
The canacitv therefore, is in this case less than one-twenty-ninth of 
SS oTthelibmarine iable of example 1 for the same length 



Telegraph Testing. 
6^„d- ^to«A.r<f5o/J/««™««^^-AbriefconsiderationofthesU^^^^ 
^.'^fo, acceding to which the electr.^lquaht,e^^^^^^^^ 1-t 

'^-r- sfctrn Z S!" iutde? rrtrnls'of those quaUti^ and 
"""*' ouantities more definite. A complete and universally coniparable 
?;sC of sundards for physical f^rr^''^? wth mass aa5 
adootine arbitrarily as fundamental units those of length, mass, ana 
toe and Expressing in terms of these in a properly defined manne 
thTunTtsoPall the^ther quantities. The units now adopted a, 
over the world for electriqal measurements take the cent m«re as 
?he un it of lenrth, the gramme as the unit of mass, and the mean 
Slar slnd as^he uni\of time^ There are two Bystems in use 
the electrostatic and the electroruagnetic In the f»rmer the 

mutual forces exerted by two bodi*, .«\<=\ '^^f [f fv^ ^ttef t^e 
«lectricitv are taken as the starting-pomt, and in the 'atier ine 
mutu" o;ces exerted between a current of ^l^.^tnci ty and a mapet 
The units accordlnff to these two systems are definitely related , but 
S^weTaHntiie present article Vith the electroma^etic system 
we eivo the following brief account of it only. ^„„_,„ 

'Kldyne or unit force is that force wiich, acting on a CTamme 
„ . .f mattef free to move, imparts to it a velocity of 1 centimetre per 
"'"'"■ ZST UnU quaniity of,>mgnetism or unit magnetic poU^st^^t 
Quantity of ma^tism which, when placed at a distance of 1 c^^t'^ 
K from a^ equal and similar quantity of magnetism or a 
Sa^et c pole, repels it with unit force. UnU nmgnau field x^j. 
fidfwT^icfi wOien a unit quantity of magnetism or a unit magnetic 
o^le Ts Saoed in it, is acted on by unit force. UnU carrentjs a 
STent which, when made to flow round a circ e of unit radius 
STces a ma^etic field of 2» units' intensity at the centre of the 
S or acts on a unit quantity of magnetism placed at the centre 
ofthe circle with 2. units of force. bnU quantity of dccinatyjB 
tRfl nuantitv conveved by the unit current m one second. U'lU 
merZfZoZSliB tl diirerence of potential between the ends 
ofa conductor of unit length when it is placed with its length at 
right angles to the direction of force in a unit magnetic field and 
fcfpt moving with a velocity of 1 centimetre P" b<=<:°"^ .f^f « 
direction at right angles to its own length and *» the direction of 
the magnetic force. VnU elcclronwtive force is produced in a closed 
fkcu^tlx any unit of its length is held in the man i^r and moved 
to the direction and with the velocity, described m he last section 
Unit resistanee is the resistance which, when acted on hy unit 
electromotive force, transmits unit current Uml «'P«f; f_ i,the 
capacity of a body which requires ">"t quantity of electricity to 
raise its potential by unity, the units above specified are f"^'^[\y 
referred to as the absolute C.G.S. electromagnetic units of tTie ditfer- 
ent quantities. In practice their rnagnitudes were fo""'> ">""• 
venient. and certain multiples and submultiples of them have 
been adopted as the practical units of measurement : thus tho 
^,H is equal to 10» C.G.S, units of resisunce ; the wit is enual 
. to 10' C G.S. units of electromotive force ; the ampere is equal to 
10-' C G.S. units of current ; the coulomb is equal to 10" O.O.s. 
units of quantity ; the farad is the capacity which is charged to a 
volt by a coulomb, and is equal to lO"' C.G.S. muts of capacity ; 
fte microfarad is the milUonth part of the farad, and is equal to 
10-" C.G.S. units of capacity. , , , .•„„ 

■We are hero chiefly concerned with the muts of electromotive 
Ibrco, resistance, wd capacity. No universally recognized standard 
of electromotive force lias yet been estabhslicd, but the want has 
been to a gi-eat extent supplied by the potentia galvanometers, 
S-cstatif voltmeters, standard cells, and other i^strumenU 
devised by Sir W Thomson and others. The work of Lord R.ayle.gh, 
Dr. Fleming, and other experimenters on the Clark and Darnell 
ttandard ceUk baa shown conclusively that an elettromotive force 



:^^;^t:^si^s:r^FtS>r-9^££ 
B^^^^^ (*i?-tv:^.^=^» 

canbereUed on.^if properly taken care of, to "^^ ''^^J^^^y 
^^cnrate from vear to year. Similar specimens of the standard unit 
rf capacityTr mi rofa^rad which remain very "early, constant hav« 
been successfully produced. For a fuller treatment of this subject 
and of the rnethoSs of determining the difi-erent units, see Elec- 

'''S:v^ Ibe'te^stbglonsists mostly of comparisons of the re- 
sistancTof the conductor and the insulator with sets of standard 
rSnces, and of comparisons of the inductive capacity rf tho 
Unror cab e with standard condensers of known capacity. When 
^ is somettoes the case, the strength of the cmrent fiowing through 
?^eUnror through a particuUr instrument is to be determmed it 
is measured by an electrodynamometer, or by a current gava. 
nometer properly constructed for indicating currents in absolute 
me^ure '^In the absence of such an instrument it may be obUmed 
^c^urate'lv by he use of a standard galvanometer in a known or 
dSermined magnetic field, or, taking advantage of. Faraday s d^- 
coveryof theele^ro.chemikl equivalents, by measurmg the amount 

S^k^gh-^et^rfin^n:^«^ 

to do more than simply refer to these ^^^ods ^e fi^?^^^^^^^ 

''';^i'^z':tT^T^^^'"f^f^^^^^^^^ 

Let zTfig 1) be the line with its distant end connected with the meot^.t 
earth,aand 6 known resistances, yr I gistan. i 

X a resistance which can be varied, VYO r-Hbv 

GagaWanometenKasiuglekver^__K.^ S^^ [iJ wheal 

stone's 
bridge 



key, K, a reversing key, and B a 
battery. Put the zinc pole of the 
battery to the line and adjust 
the resistance x until the gal- 
vanometer G shows no deflexion 
when K, is depressed. We then 
have, assuming no electroinotive 




■ Ffg. 8. 



foVceilTthl linl l=ax,jb. Next put the copper pole to the hne and 
epi theterindsupVseinthircaseZ=ax^i; ifthese 
oU nearlv agree the true value may be taken as 2ax,aWi(x, + 3^). 1 he 
effectTf anflectromotive force in'the line itaelf is nearly elimmatcd 

^")Tefthettten'(fig. 9) be connected through the keys K, By dir... 
and K^nd the iSmLf cUh the Une i, whiehhas its^^^^^^ 
end to the earth as before; shunt the galvanometer by a shunt » 
untU a convenient deflexioi is obtained, ind then take as qm^k y 
as possible a series of readings with zinc and copper alternately to 
the line Next substitute for I a set of resistance coils and vary 
the resistance untU the same series of readings is obtamed. Tho 
esistlncrhitroduced for the reproduction of each reading indicate* 
the appSent resistance of the ^Une when that reading was taken. 
The reldin-s wiU generally difl-er because of the existence of a yari- 

in i'0!7?i^<^f^^»»<^f' ^A'jJ'pl^'iBieofSaDlral Effect tothe 

m art. TELEOEArn i" »» "'' 'j'.,.f' ''^f Sofu^ „^^m"nt lo telegraph 

tion of tlie whole line were Krfe='>,"'° f '"^°Sf" " r and amlranotnctor 
jero ;.b..t, »l,en looked for ".th a battery of 8ait«Wer«'"cra^^^ .^ .^ ^ 

ofsuit.ible sensibility, indications of a cumnt are aljajs^oun ■ j, .^^ 

very short length of very pcrteetly ">' '^^.'J^, '1°^ ''J?' 'g^blS fte measu.0 of the 
measure of the strength of this cun;ent divided by tl.eab^^^^^^^ i„sidatioD 

electromotive fo