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Encyclopedia Britannica 



Author of" The Book Lover" " The Book of Elegies" 
" The Story of Siegfried" etc. 






The Werner Company 

copyright, 1s97, by 
The Werner Company 



ALTHOUGH the Encyclopedia Britannica has long been 
recognized as the greatest of reference works, and al- 
though its possessors may have never consulted it without 
complete satisfaction, yet its full value has seldom been 
recognized. It has usually been regarded simply as a re- 
pository of general information, to be kept ready at hand 
for consultation as occasion should demand. But while 
this is the ordinary use of the Britannica, it has been 
found that it possesses a broader function, and that it may 
be utilized in such manner as to perform the office of a 
great educational agent. The Britannica is a work of 
reference, and much more :%it is a collection of all histo- 
ries, all biographies, all arts, all literatures, and all scien- 
tific, professional, and mechanical knowledge ; but on 
account of its comprehensiveness, extending as it does 
through so many large volumes, it presents such an " em- 
barrassment of riches " that those who consult it fail some- 
times to discover all that is suited to their individual 
needs. It is evident, therefore, that if each reader and 
patron of this great library can have a guide to point out 
to him, according to his vocation, the parts that are the 
most helpful to him, he will be able to systematize his 
reading or his investigations ; and thus, while economizing 



both time and labor, reach the highest results. The pres- 
ent volume has been prepared for that purpose ; and it is 
believed that, recognizing its helpfulness, the many thou- 
sand owners of the Britannica will welcome it as an inval- 
uable addition to their libraries. The plan has been to 
direct each individual how to draw from this great store- 
house of knowledge that which will cover with all desirable 
completeness the line of work in which he is most inter- 
ested, thus assisting him in the knowledge of his particular 
business, and aiding him in its prosecution. 

It being recognized that the Britannica contains a great 
deal of interesting and profitable matter for boys and girls, 
the first part of this GUIDE is directed to young people. 
By the aid of brief but graphic text and copious references, 
the youth is led along pleasant avenues of research, and 
thus aided in acquiring a habit of reading and of investi- 
gation that will continue through life, and add largely to 
his chances of success. 

The second part is especially designed for students. 
The scholar who is desirous of some means whereby to 
supplement the work of the school or the college, will find 
here the very thing that he is seeking. The earnest, am- 
bitious young man or young woman who is being self-edu- 
cated, because unable to secure the aid of instructors, will 
find here a teacher that will point the way to the acquire- 
ment of a thorough knowledge of almost every branch of 
science or art. Numerous courses of study are outlined, 
which may be pursued independent of schools; many 
profitable lines of research are suggested, and the best 


ways of obtaining a fund of general information are 
pointed out. 

The fact that fifty-two text-books used in our leading 
colleges and universities have been drawn from the Britan- 
nica emphasizes its value to students. 

Through our excellent system of common schools, every 
boy or girl in the land is furnished with the rudiments of 
an education. But in the school, the child is only started 
on the way ; the best that can be done is to provide him 
with a few essentials, and give him some slight impetus 
that will keep him moving on in the right direction. If 
he continues his studies beyond the public schools, he may 
be conducted a little farther — but it is only a little. No 
one's education was ever finished in a university. We are 
all, to a greater or less degree, self-educated. A great 
deal of what the schools have foisted on us as knowledge 
has proved to be worthless to us, and is allowed to drop 
from our minds as soon as we are left to ourselves. The 
better part of our education is that which we acquire 
independently — through reading, through observation, 
through intercourse with others — -an ever increasing stock 
of what is called general information. It is the aim of 
this GUIDE to help, not only students, but everybody else, 
to gather this information in an orderly way, without 
unnecessary expenditure of time and labor. 

The third part of this volume is devoted to the busy 
world at large. Its object is to help the busy man, no 
matter what his business may be, to pick out from the 
Encyclopedia Britannica just that kind of information that 


will be of the greatest value to him in his calling. There 
is hardly a trade, industry, or profession in the civilized 
world that is not noticed somewhere in this department. 
A mere glance at the various chapters will indicate their 
practical value. 

On the whole, it is confidently believed that the plan of 
using the Encyclopedia Britannica, as presented in this 
GUIDE, will fill a gap and perform an important service in 
our system of education. It should be a very material aid. 
not only to those whose schooldays have been of limited 
duration, and who wish to continue their studies without 
the guidance of a teacher, but to people of every class 
and condition in life — to students, merchants, farmers, 
mechanics, housekeepers, and professional men of all sorts. 
It should enable boys, girls, men, women, and whole fami- 
lies to spend their leisure hours pleasantly and profitably 
with the great Encyclopedia, thus realizing one of its 
most important aims by making it the most powerful aid 
to home culture or self-education that the world has ever 


The publication of five new volumes of supplementary- 
matter to the Encyclopedia Britannica not only furnishes 
an opportunity for the revision and enlargement of this 
GUIDE, but renders such a revision an absolute necessity. 
Encouraged by the flattering reception accorded to the 
first edition of these systematic readings, the compiler has 
ventured to extend his original plan by the addition of 
twelve new chapters, besides the insertion of many hun- 
dreds of references not previously included in the work. 
Some of the former readings have been entirely re-writ- 
ten, and the chapters in the third division have been 
arranged in more logical order. It is believed that, in 
this revised edition of the GUIDE, there are but very few 
divisions of human thought, or of human activity, which 
have not received some attention. An examination of 
the index at the end of the volume will reveal the compre- 
hensive nature of its contents. 

January, 1897. 




I. To the Boys and Girls, 

II. Home Readings in History, 

III. Home Readings in Biography, 

IV. Home Readings in Science, 

V. Games, Sports, and Pastimes, 




















Three Courses of Reading in History, . . 59 

Five Courses of Reading in the History of Literature, 72 
Readings in Philology and the History of Language, 85 


Readings in Astronomy, 

A General Course of Reading in Biology, 

Readings in Zoology, 

Readings in Botany, 

Readings in Geography, 

A Brief Course of Reading in Meteorology 

Readings in Mathematics, . 

Two Courses of Reading in Physics, 

Readings in the Study of Man, 

Readings in Philosophy, 

Readings for Bible Students , 

1 12 






XX. Readings in Mythology, Legends, Traditions, 

and Folk-Lore, .... 163 

XXI. Readings in the Study of the Supernatural, . 170 

XXII. The Desultory Reader's Course, . .175 




The Manufacturer, 

. 181 


The Mechanic, 



The Machinist, 



The Electrician. 



The Inventor, 



The Architect, . 



The Builder, 



The Engineer, 



The Laborer, 



The Farmer, 



The Gardener, 



The Fruit-Grovver, 



The Woodsman, 



The Stock-Raiser, 



The Miner, 



The Geologist, . 



The Seaman, 



The Railroad-Man, 



The Soldier, 



The American Citizen, 



The Candidate for Civil Service, 



The Political Economist 






XL V. 

The Banker and Financier, 



The Merchant and Trader, 



The Insurance Agent, . 



The Lawyer, .... 



The Magistrate and Policeman, 



The Physician, .... 



The Apothecary, 



The Chemist, .... 



The Mineralogist, 



The Preacher and Theologian, 



The Philanthropist and Reformer, 



The Public Speaker, 



The Bookman, .... 



The Teacher, .... 



The Writer, .... 



The Stenographer and Typewriter, 



The Printer and the Publisher, 



The Journalist, .... 



The Artist, .... 



The Musician, .... 



The Actor and Dramatist, 



The Home-Maker, 


Index, ..... 



" It is ours — this Encyclopedia Britannica — and now 
how shall we use it in order to derive the greatest possible 
benefit from it?" This is probably the question which 
more than one purchaser of the Britannica asks himself 
as he removes the bright new volumes from their wrap- 
pings, and contemplates his lately acquired possession. 
Let us first arrange these thirty volumes side by side on 
their shelf, and take a look at the work as a whole. 

It is the greatest work of its kind in the world, every- 
body says. In these volumes are the elements 
What shall Q f a com pl e te education in any branch of 
with it? knowledge that you may choose. You cannot 
mention a single subject about which men 
think and talk, that does not receive its share of attention 
somewhere in this wonderful work. It contains a rich 
fund of information for everybody, from the school-boy 
or school-girl to the most learned philosopher. It is val- 
uable alike to the farmer and the merchant, to the me- 
chanic and the professional man. Turn over the pages 
of a single volume, and notice the great variety of articles, 
some necessarily brief, others very long and comprehen- 
sive. Notice the numerous illustrations, the maps, and 
the fine full-page plates. See the list of famous specialists 
and well-known writers who have helped to make this 
volume. Surely, this is a work which every man ought to 
be proud to own. 

But unless we know how to use our Encyclopedia, we 



shall fail to get from it as much benefit as we might. No 
book is of value unless its owner knows how to extract 
some pleasure or profit from its pages. It will not be hard 
to get both pleasure and profit from the Britannica, even 
though we should allow it to remain on its shelf and con- 
sult it only when we want to find the answer to some 
question that is asked. Most people use an encyclopaedia 
in that way; and many do not know that it was designed 
for any other purpose. That is the proper and only way 
in which to use a dictionary. But the Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica is a great deal more than a dictionary, and it is 
capable of imparting more knowledge and more enjoy- 
ment than all the dictionaries in the world. 

In order that we may make the most of the rich store- 
house of knowledge that is ours, let us consult our GUIDE 
to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Here a large 
number of the most interesting subjects are arranged 
systematically under appropriate headings or in special 
chapters. The first five chapters refer to sub- 
Young j ec t s that are of interest to young people. 
^ e< There are thousands of older people, too, who 

Department. r r 

will like these chapters. 
The next seventeen chapters are designed to aid stu- 
dents and specialists in the prosecution of their studies 
and investigations. The vast range of the Britannica is 
nowhere better illustrated than in these chapters. Among 
the easier courses in reading here marked out, arc those 
in History (Chapter VI.), in Geography (Chapter XIII.), 
in Bible History (Chapter XIX.), and in Myth- 
Students' ology (Chapter XX.). In Chapter XI. there 
Department, are three courses in Zoology — the first two 
being popular courses, which everybody may 
understand and enjoy; the third, a purel> scientific 
course, intended for only special students. Some other 


chapters, notably that on Mathematics (Chapter XV.), 
refer to subjects and articles in which only scholars and 
specialists usually take an interest. Although they may 
seem of but little use to us now, there will probably be a 
time when some of us shall grow up to them, and find 
them to be exactly what is required to meet our wants. 
Besides this, there are some of our neighbors and friends 
who are now especially interested in those subjects, and 
would not want such articles omitted. 

After the Students' department, there are more than 
thirty chapters showing tradesmen, farmers, 

usy teachers, and others how to derive the greatest 


•no *^~„* q;ood from the Britannica. Some of these 


chapters are sufficiently broad in their scope 

and character to be of interest to every intelligent person, 
no matter what his calling in life. For instance, what 
man in this country will not be benefited by a study of the 
chapter entitled "The American Citizen"? What Ameri- 
can citizen will not find much interesting and valuable 
information concerning the history of money, the conflict 
of standards, and the national finances, in the brief chap- 
ter entitled "The Banker"? To young men and young 
women wishing to enter the civil service of their city, 
state, or country, in any capacity, the chapter for " The 
Candidate for the Civil Service " will give much informa- 
tion and assistance that cannot be easily obtained from 
any other source. Here is a chapter to aid the young 
lawyer in fitting himself to take a higher position in his 
profession. Here is a chapter for the preacher, showing 
him what a complete theological library every owner of 
the Britannica has at his service. Here is a chapter for 
the farmer, telling him where he may learn all about soils 
and crops and fertilizers and farming tools, and the thou- 
sand other things which interest all intelligent tillers of 


the ground. Here is a chapter for the soldier, and for all 
would-be soldiers, directing them to a vast fund of informa- 
tion about wars and battles and fire-arms and military law 
— such as can be found in no other single publication in 
the world. But I need not enumerate further. A glance 
at the pages which compose the latter half of the book will 
show you that no person in all this busy world of ours 
has been forgotten. Surely, with so many hints and helps 
at our hands, we shall not be content to use our Encyclo- 
pedia merely as a dictionary. The GUIDE will suggest 
many ways in which we may begin immediately to make it 
yield us large returns of pleasure and profit. 

Would we engage in some kind of intellectual employ- 
ment during the long evenings of winter? Let us form 

ourselves into a family reading circle, and read 

ami y some of the lighter courses suggested by the 

R ci a r cie. g Guide (see Chapters I , II., III., IV., VI., XII. ? 

XVII.). Would we like to know where we can 
pick up something to read occasionally for pastime rather 
than study ? Let us see if Chapter XXII. will not help us. 
Do we want to improve our brawn and muscle through 
systematic and pleasurable exercise? We may find some- 
thing in the chapter on games and sports that will point 
out the way. Is Tommie troubled about the composition 
that he is to write for the examination at school ? Perhaps 
the chapter for the Writer will be found helpful. Is Mary 
anxious to become a teacher, and yet not ready to begin a 
course of study at the normal school? The Guide will 
direct her to some very complete courses of reading on 
subjects concerning which no teacher can afford to be 
ignorant. Is John, who cast his first ballot last year, deep- 
ly interested in politics and hopeful that he may some 
time become a candidate for public office? Let him de- 
vote his spare time to the study of such articles as the 


Guide indicates for the American Citizen, the Public 
Speaker, and the Political Economist. Is Andrew skilful 
with tools, and handy about making things? The Guide 
has numerous interesting suggestions for the Inventor, 
the Mechanic, the Electrician, and the Engineer. 

And so, for every person and for every occupation in 
life, the Encyclopedia Britannica comes with its inex- 
haustible fund of information, and this trusty GUIDE 
which accompanies it shows each individual just how he 
can best extract the information which he needs. 


The references in the GUIDE are necessarily brief, but 

there will be no trouble in understanding them. 

eferences ^^ & titles of important subjects are frequently 

to the ... , . , , 

Britannica Panted in small CAPS ; but where a number of 

titles occur in a single list, all are generally 
printed in plain lower-case letters. The volume of the 
Britannica is indicated by Roman numerals ; the page by 
Arabic figures. Occasionally the letter a is used to indi- 
cate the left-hand column of a page, and the letter b the 
right-hand column — accents being added to show whether 
the matter referred to begins at the top, the middle, or 
the bottom of the column. When the page referred to is 
found in the New American Supplement (comprising 
five volumes uniform with Encyclopedia Britannica), 
the figures denoting it are preceded by the abbrevia- 
tion snp. 

Examples. — Notice the following references : 

(i) Bracelets, IV. 187. 

(2) Quill pens, IX. 60 a' 

(3) Sea serpent, XXI. 608. 

(4) Bells, sup. 412-413. 

(5) May-day customs, XV. 647 b"' 


It is easy to understand what each one of these refer- 
ences means. An examination of them, in connection 
with the explanations above, shows us 

(i) That the article on BRACELETS is found in volume 
IV., page 187. 

(2) That QuiLL PENS are described in volume IX., page 
60, beginning at the middle of the first column. 

(3) That an account of the Sea Serpent occurs in 
volume XXI., page 608, beginning at the top of the first 

(4) That there is an article on Bells in the Supple- 
ments, pages 412 and 413. 

(5) That an account of MAY-DAY CUSTOMS may be 
found in volume XV., page 647, beginning at the bottom 
of the second column. 

So many special subjects receive treatment in some of 
the chapters, that no mere chapter-headings are sufficient 
to indicate everything that is included within their limits. 
For example, there is no distinct chapter for the shoe- 
maker, the carpenter, the mason, the cook, the fisherman ; 
but each of these busy workers receives his share of 
attention in the Guide. Look for these names, not in 
the table of contents, but in the index at the end of 
the volume. It will be convenient to use this index 

Few persons will have any difficulty in using the Index 
VOLUME of the Britannica. In most cases, if you desire to 
make a complete study of any given subject, it will be best 
to look for that subject at once in the Index volume. The 
word which you are looking for will probably be found in 
its proper alphabetical place. There you will be directed 
to every article or passage in the Britannica wherein any 
important mention of the subject occurs. The first refer- 
ence is usually to the special article upon the subject, or if 


there is no special article, it will direct you to the next 
best thing — the fullest or most complete de- 
The index scription. For example, suppose you want to 
Volume, learn all about the Indians. Turn to the In- 
dex volume, and on page 223 you will find the 
following entry : 

Indians. American, xn. 822, 830 ; 1. 
685 ; displacement of, xxm. 819 ; 
languages of, xvm. 780; dictionaries 
of languages, vil. 192 ; mythology, 
xvii. 14S ; religions, xx. 364; totems, 
xxm. 467; Eliot's work among, vni. 
137; Penn's influence over,xvin.496; 
of Costa Rica, VI. 450 ; of South 
America, 1. S9 ; of Colombia, VI. 155; 
of Peru, xvm. 677. 

Consulting the first reference (" volume XII., page 822 "), 
you will find an article of eleven pages in length, giving a 
concise account of the Indians, their physical traits, tribal 
divisions, customs, etc. The second reference (" I. 685 "), 
directs the reader to the article America, where there is a 
complete history of the aboriginal races, with still further 
notices of their habits, languages, religions, etc. The third 
reference ("displacement of, XXIII. 819"), directs atten- 
tion to a paragraph under the article headed UNITED 
STATES, in which an account is given of the westward 
movement of immigration and the consequent displace- 
ment of the Indian tribes. The remaining references may 
be found with equal facility and are self-explanatory. 
After having consulted as many of these as you think 
necessary, you may still wish to learn the very latest facts 
relative to the status of the Indian tribes in the United 
States. Turning to the Index to the Supplements, see 
whether or not there are additional references of a similar 


character there. By turning to any articles that may be 
thus indicated, you will doubtless find all the information 
on this subject that you desire. 

Any other subject may be studied in a similar way. 

Now, take the word Sea, or LONDON, or COLUMBUS, 
and find all the references to it that are given in the 

Whenever the word for which you are looking cannot 
be found in the first part of the Index, look for it in the 
second part which relates to the Supplements. 

Another important feature of the Index volume, and 

one which is not alluded to elsewhere in this 

Condensed GuiDE> is the Condensed Biographical Die- 

Biographical . . , , . 

Dictionary tionary. ^ or quick and ready reference this 

dictionary will often prove to be of great service. 
It is one of the most complete dictionaries of its kind 
ever published, containing the names of more than 
twenty-five thousand persons, with their titles or voca- 
tions, and the dates of birth and death. Further particu- 
lars with regard to many (but, of course, not all) of these 
individuals may be found by referring to the Index, which 
will point out the exact place in the Britannica where the 
desired information is given. 






" Now, my young friends, this habit of reading is your pass to the 
greatest, the purest, and the most perfect pleasures that God has pre- 
pared for his creatures. But you cannot acquire this habit in your old 
age ; you cannot acquire it in middle age ; you must do it now, when 
you are young. You must learn to read, and to like reading now, or 
you cannot do so when you are old." — A nthony Trollope. 

ALLOW me to introduce you, boys and girls, to the En- 
cyclopedia Britannica. It is, without question, the great- 
est book of its kind that has ever been published 
The m our language. Here we have it in over a score 
Britannica. of huge volumes with thousands of illustrations 
and hundreds of maps and diagrams. The 
amount of matter which it contains is so great that it 
would take you several years to read it through. 

But it is not intended that anybody shall read it 
through. It would be extremely foolish for you to begin 
with the first page of the first volume, and try to read 
everything in the order in which it comes. It would be 
like sitting down at a table loaded with delicacies and 
trying to eat everything from the first dish to the last, 
without considering either your tastes or your needs. No 
person in his right senses would think of doing such a 
thing. You will readily understand, therefore, how im- 
portant it is that you should know, at the very outset, 
what this famous book is, and how it ought to be used in 
order that it may be of the greatest possible assistance 
and value to you. 



What is an encyclopaedia ? 

It is a book which treats of all the various kinds of 

knowledge. In other words, it is a book which contains 

some information concerning everything that 

can be learned by man in this life. If you 
What is it ? 

could know the whole encyclopaedia by heart, 

you would be a very learned person, indeed. 

But, of course, this is impossible ; and it would be very 

unwise for you to think of becoming a great scholar in that 

way. You do not want to make a walking encyclopaedia 

of yourself. 

Does the carpenter carry his chest of tods around on 
his back while he is at work? Of course not. But he 
knows where the chest is, and he knows just 
How to where each tool is placed in it, so that he can 
use it. lay his hands upon it in a moment, even though 
his eyes should be shut. So it should be with 
your encyclopaedia. You don't want to load your mind 
with the millions of facts which it contains, and burden 
your memory with the retention of them all. But you 
want to know your encyclopaedia so well that when it is 
desirable to lay hold of a certain fact, you can do so with- 
out loss of time, and without unnecessary labor. 

Again, among the great variety of tools which the car- 
penter has in his chest, there are some which he uses very 
often, there are others which he needs only on special oc- 
casions, and there are still others which, being required for 
only the very finest work, may not be called into use more 
than once or twice for years at a time. But it is neces- 
sary to have all these tools, and to know how to handle 
them, for there is no telling when they may be called for. 
And so it is with your encyclopaedia. Some of its articles 
will be helpful to you, day by day, as you carry on your 
studies at school or your work at home. Others are, at 


the present, of no interest whatever to you. Indeed, you 
will find not a few that are wholly incomprehensible to 
you. But that which is of no use to-day may be just the 
thing that you will need a year, two years, or five years 
from to-day ; and the articles which you cannot now by 
any means understand may contain exactly what you will 
enjoy and be profited by when you are a little older. And 
so it will be a good thing at the outset to confine your 
inquiries and your readings to those subjects which are the 
easiest for you and in which you will naturally be the 
most deeply interested. 

Now, here are some curious things which you may like 

to read about. They have been selected at random from 

among hundreds of others that will from time 

Curious to time be suggested to you. 

Things. The Bo-tree (the oldest tree in the world), 

sup. 529, IX. 154. 

The Banyan tree, III. 348. 

Great trees of California, IV. 704. 

The Upas tree, XXIII. 859. 

Pygmies (famous little people of Africa), XX. 120. 

Gipsies, X. 611. This is a long article, and a part of it 
may not be interesting to you ; but you will certainly like 
to read the section which describes their modes of life, X. 

Magic mirrors, XVI. 501. 

Poison rings, XX. 561. 

Ancient bottles, IV. 167. 

Great Bells, sup. 412. 

Kites and Kite-flying, sup. 1797. 

Bracelets, IV. 187. 

History of fans, IX. 27. 

History of the American Flag, sup. 1285. 

Flags in ancient and modern times, IX. 276. 


Holidays, sup. 1595. 

The sea serpent, XXI. 608. 

Cataracts and waterfalls, sup. 722. 

Quill pens for writing, IX. 60. 

The great wall of China, sup. 1457. 

The thugs of India, XXIII. 326. 

Wax figures, XXIV. 460. 

Spinning in old times, XXIV. 730. 

Egyptian, Greek, and Roman months, IV. 665. 

Wild horses of India, XII. 741. 

The roc (monster bird of the Arabian Nights), XX. 61 1. 

The honey guide (a curious little bird), XII. 139. 

The cockatrice, VI. 98. 

The hunters and the glutton, X. 696. 

The ichneumon, XII. 629. 

The custom of April Fool, II. 214. 

May-day customs in old times, XV. 647. 

The Nile festival in Egypt, VII. 727. 

The ordeal of fire in the Middle Ages, XVII. 820. 

Deodands, VII. 100. 

The divining-rod, VII. 293, and XI. 549. 

The automaton, III. 142. 

The hornbook, XII. 170. 

The diving-bell, VII. 294-300. 

Balloons, I. 187. 

Every young person likes to read about heroes and deeds 

of heroism. The Britannica tells of a great number. A 

very interesting course of reading ma)' be made 

up from the following and similar subjects : 
Heroes. T .... r „ . . . , 

Leomdas, king of Sparta, who" with three 

hundred men, defended a mountain pass against 
the entire Persian army, XIV. 462. 

Cincinnatus, who was called from his plough to be dic- 
tator of Rome, V. 784. 


Horatius Codes, who defended the bridge across the 
Tiber, and thus saved Rome, VI. 100. 

Regulus, the Roman who suffered death rather than 
break his word, XX. 348. 

William Tell, the mythical hero of Switzerland, XXIII. 


Arnold Winkelried, the Swiss patriot, XXIV. 612. 
Jeanne d'Arc, the heroine who saved France from the 
English, XIII. 695 ; IX. 550. 

Captain John Smith, famous in the early history of Vir- 
ginia, XXII. 173; XV. 301. 

Garibaldi, the Italian patriot, sup. 1368. 

Then there are scores of interesting articles about kings, 
warriors, and statesmen, some of which you will want to 
read. The following are examples : 

Alexander the Great, I. 480. 
Kings and Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, XI, 441. 
Warriors. Julius Caesar, the greatest of the Romans, 

IV. 6 33 . 

Tamerlane the Tartar, XXIII. 399. 

Charlemagne, V. 402. 

Alfred the Great, I. 506. 

William the Conqueror, XXIV. 574. 

Richard Cceur de Lion, XX. 539. 

Peter the Great of Russia, XVIII. 698. 

George Washington, XXIV. 387. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, XVII. 192. 

Or, if you would read of discoverers and adventurers, 
see such articles as these : 

Prince Henry the Navigator, XI. 672. 
Columbus, VI. 171. 
Hernan. Cortes, VI. 441. 


Francisco Pizarro, XIX. 159. 
Ferdinand Magellan, XV. 197. 

John and Sebastian Cabot, IV. 622. 
Discoverers gir Frands Drake, VII. 389. 

Advenmrers. VasCO da Gama > X ' 57- 

Captain Cook, VI. 330. 
Henry Hudson, XII. 332. 
Ibn Batuta (14th century), XII. 607. 
Marco Polo, XIX. 404. 
African Explorations, I. 245. 

Henry M. Stanley and the recent discoveries in Africa, 
sup. 2777. 

Arctic Explorations and Discoveries, II. 133; sup. 
2408 b. 

Sir John Franklin, IX. 719. 
Martin Frobisher, IX. 791. 
Australian explorers, III. 104. 
Captain Kidd, sup. 1788. 

Then aside from this mere reading for pleasure or ordi- 
nary information, you will want to learn from time to 
time how a great many things are done. The 
How to do Britannica will help you. For example, no- 
Things, tice the following : 

How to make liquid glue, X. 134 a. 
How to do gold gilding, X. 594 a. 
How to tie knots, XIV. 128 a. 

How to make gold lacquer for brass work, XIV. 194 a. 
How to make snow-shoes, XXII. 201 b. 
How to make photographs, XVIII. 214 b; sup. 2370. 
How to do sleight of hand tricks, XIV. 414. 
How to collect butterflies, IV. 597 b. 
I low to make putty, XX. 18. 
How to build an ice house, XII. 615 a. 
How to shoe a horse, XXI. 831, 832. 


How bells are made, III. 537 a. 

How matches are made, XV. 624. 

How to do with a magic lantern, XV. 211. 

How nets are made, XVII. 359. 

How to make flies for trout fishing, II. 40. 

How pins are made, XIX. 97. 

How a marble statue is made, XXI. 571. 

How to make a canoe, IV. 811. 

How to rig a ship, XXI. 593. 

How to care for hunting hounds, XII. 315. 

How to make bows and arrows, II. 376 a. 

How to catch fish with a hook, II. 32. 

How to make a bull-roarer, sup. 617. 

How carrier-pigeons are trained, sup. 709. 

And now don't you begin to see what a vast amount of 
entertaining and useful knowledge lies before you in these 
volumes, ready for you to use when you choose ? 

In the chapters that are to follow, an effort will be 
made to classify a few of the subjects which will be of 
most interest to you. In this way the Guide hopes to 
help you to a still further and more intimate acquaintance 
with the contents of the Britannica. If you once acquire 
the habit of consulting it, you will find it a trustworthy 
friend, ready to answer your questions and willing to help 
you on all occasions. 

The Index volume of the Britannica will be of great 
assistance to you in making references to any of the other 
volumes. When you want to find out anything about a 
given subject, it is often a good plan to turn at once to 
that volume. If you do not know how to use the Index, 
refer now to page 18 of this Guide, and read the direc- 
tions that are given ther°. 



" The use of reading is to aid us in thinking." — Edward Gibbon. 

To know one thing well is better than to have a smat- 
tering of many things. It is an excellent plan to choose 
for yourself some particular subject which you like, and 

then to follow a systematic course of reading 
Courses of , , . ., . . 

Reading on tnat subject until you have acquired a com- 
prehensive knowledge of it. Some of you will 
prefer history, some of you biography (which is really a 
branch of history), some of you science, and some of you 
art. In beginning such a course read that which you can 
readily understand ; you will gradually become able to 
understand and enjoy things which now seem very hard 
and totally unintelligible to you. It is not intended that 
a course of this kind should take the place of the miscel- 
laneous reading which you will want to do — of the 
stories, the poems, the sketches, the many excellent and 
beautiful things in literature which every intelligent boy 
or girl takes delight in reading. The aim and object of 
this course is to add to your knowledge, to aid you in 
thinking, to help you to become an intelligent man or wo- 
man. Having once decided to begin it, resolve that noth- 
ing shall induce you to neglect it. Devote a little time to 
it regularly. If you give ten minutes every day to syste- 
matic reading — and you need not give more — you will be 
astonished at the end of a year to note how many things 
you have learned. But if you find the reading pretty diffi- 
cult now and then, you must not give up on that account, 


The hardest reading is very often the most profitable — 
provided always that we make ourselves the masters of it. 

There are a great many articles in the Britannica which 
may be utilized in courses of reading of this kind. If the 
Britannica is the only book to which you have access, 
these articles may be made to comprise a complete course 
in themselves. But if there are at hand other books on 
the same subject, then the readings from the Britannica 
may be made to supplement your study of these other 
authorities. For instance, let us suppose that you have 
undertaken to learn all that you can about United States 
History. Perhaps you have studied a text-book on that 
subject at school. Did it seem dull and dry to you ? Per- 
haps the- writer has made it so by trying to compress a 
great amount of information into a very small space. He 
has given a large number of dates and names, and you 
have been expected to learn these and remember them. 

But history in the true sense of the word is a good deal 
more than dates and names. It is a fascinating 
Historv? story, and people read it because of the pleas : 
ure which it gives no less than for the profit 
which may be derived from it. Take now your school 
history and supplement the lessons which it contains with 
readings from the following articles in the Britannica : 

The story of Columbus, VI. 171. 

The life of Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, VI. 441. 

The life of Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, 
Discoverers xiX. 1 59 : and a particular account of his ex- 

Colonfsts. P loitS in PerU ' XVIIL 6 77- 

The life of Balboa, the discoverer of the 

Pacific Ocean, III. 273; and a particular account of his 

great discovery, X. 182. 

The life of De Soto, the discoverer of the Mississippi, 

VII. 131. 


The life of Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman who 
sailed round the world, VII. 389. 

The life of Sir Walter Raieigh, the great admiral, states- 
man, and courtier, XX. 262. 

The life of Captain John Smith, who figures so promi- 
nently in the story of the settlement of Virginia, XXII. 


The story of Pocahontas, the Indian princess, XXII. 175. 

The story of the Pilgrim Fathers, XII. 726. 

The account of the Dutch settlers in New York, XVII. 


The life of William Penn, the Quaker founder of Penn- 
sylvania, XVIII. 492. 

The story of Marquette, the French explorer, XV. 565. 

The life of La Salle, who rediscovered the Mississippi, 
XIV. 318. 

The story of Pontiac, the Indian chief, XVIII. 504. 

The life of General Wolfe, the hero of Quebec,XXI V. 630. 
The life of Washington, XXIV. 387. 

Great The life of Franklin, America's first philoso- 

Americans. pher, IX. 7 11 - 

The life of Patrick Henry, XI. 676. 

The life of John Adams, I. 141. 

The life of Thomas Jefferson, XIII. 613. 

The story of the Declaration of Independence, XXIII. 


The life of Lafayette, XIV. 201. 

The life of General Greene, XI. 163. 

The story of Benedict Arnold, XXIII. 744, 787. 

The life of Cornwallis, VI. 428. 

An account of Aaron Burr, XI. 413. 

Tlie life of Alexander Hamilton, XI. 412. 

And now, if you wish to continue your historical read- 
ings to the present time, you may do so by reading the 


biographies of the Presidents who have not been named 
in the list above : 

The James Madison, XV. [82. 

Presidents. [anus Monroe, XVI. 760. 
John Quincy Adams, I. 142. 

Andrew Jackson, XIII. 533. 

Martin Van Buren, XXIV. 56. 

William H. Harrison, XI. 495. 

John Tyler, XXIII. 674, 766. 

James K. Polk, XIX. 401. 

Zachary Taylor, XXIII. 96. 

Millard Fillmore, IX. 165. 

Franklin Pierce, XIX. 81. 

James Buchanan, IV. 413. 

Abraham Lincoln, XIV. 658. 

Andrew Johnson, XIII. 719. 

Ulysses S. Grant, XXIII. 788, 776 ; also sup. 1442. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, XXIII. 784; also sup. 1554. 

James A. Garfield, sup. 1368. 

Chester A. Arthur, sup. 250. 

Grover Cleveland, sup. 831. 

Benjamin Harrison, sup. 1532. 

William McKinley, sup. 1959. 

By the time you have read all these biographies you 
will have acquired such a knowledge of American history 
as will be of value to you as long as you live. But to 
some of you this course may seem hard, dry reading. If 
so, it will be no trouble to suggest another — a very differ- 
ent one, which all boys who are fond of the sea and not 
afraid of a little history will turn to with pleasure. 


Ships in former times were very different from those 
which sail the sea nowadays. Read of the first invention 


of boats and ships in volume XXL, page 804. Among the 

earliest war ships of which we have any account 

are the Greek and Roman triremes, described on 

page 806 of the same volume. In the article 

on the NAVY, XVII. 279, there is an interesting 

account of the early war ships used by the English. King 

Henry VIII. is said to have laid the foundation of the 

British navy, and the largest ship of his time, the Great 

Harry, is described, XVII. 281. Queen Elizabeth called 

together the greatest naval force that had ever been known, 

in order to oppose the Invincible Armada of Spain. The 

story of the ARMADA and of its notable defeat is told in 

an interesting article on page 543 of volume II. And in 

this connection you will want to read about Sir Walter 

Raleigh, XX. 262, about Sir Francis Drake, VII. 389, and 

about Sir John Hawkins, XL 535. 

But it is not expected that this course of reading shall 
be exhaustive ; and so you may turn now to the life of 
Nelson, XVII. 321 ; to the battle of the Nile, I. 52 ; and 
to the Battle of Trafalgar, VI. 146. 

Next, read about our own naval heroes : 

Paul Jones, XIII. 738. 

Commodore Decatur, XXIII. 759 also sup. 1008. 

Commodore Perry, sup. 2351. 

Admiral Farragut, IX. 41. 

Finally, by way of concluding this brief course of read- 
ing, you will find it profitable to learn all that you can 

about the United States Navy, XVII. 300, and par- 
ticularly our new navy, its wonderful armament and its 
estimated strength, sup. 2 145-2 1 53. 


1. There are man)' things connected with the history of 
the Middle Ages which give to it the charm of romance. 


We never tire of reading about the KNIGHTS of chivalry, 
XIV. no; about the Castles in which they 
Tales of lived, V. 1 97 ; about the TOURNAMENTS which 
Knighthood, they held, XXIII. 489; and about the CRU- 
SADES in which they engaged, VI. 622. 
Next, let us read the legend of Roland, the peerless 
knight of France, XX. 626; the history of Richard the 
Lion-hearted, XX. 539, and particularly of his exploits 
in Palestine, VI. 628 ; the story of the English outlaw, 
Robin Hood, XX. 605 ; the account of Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon, VI. 624 ; the history of the Children's Crusade, 
VI. 627 ; and finally, the story of Chevalier Bayard, 
the knight " without fear and without reproach," III. 


When you have mastered this course of reading, you 
will have a better knowledge of mediaeval life and manners 
and traditions than you could ever have acquired merely 
by studying an ordinary text-book at school. 

2. A second course — equally interesting, but somewhat 
harder, and, therefore, suited to older readers — may be 
taken from Roman History. Read the legendary story of 

Romulus, the reputed founder of the city, XX. 

Stories of 840 ; the mythical tale of the Horatii and Cu- 

Rome. riatii, XII. 160 ; the account of Horatius Codes, 

the hero who kept the bridge, VI. 100; of 
brave Regulus, who never broke his word, XX. 348 ; of 
Cincinnatus, called from his plough to defend his country, 
V. 784; of Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, VI. 421 ; 
of the Gracchi themselves, and of their services to their 
country, XI. 25 ; of Hannibal, the Carthaginian hero, 
XI. 441 ; and of Caesar, IV. 655, and Pompey, XIX. 451. 
and the downfall of the Roman republic, XX. 763. 

3. The third course is not historical, but entirely mythi- 
cal or legendary, and yet there is, doubtless, some sort of 


historical basis for it. It relates to the story of the TRO- 
JAN War— an event immortalized by Homer, 
Story of the first of the poets, and made the subject of 
Troy. many a tale and poem and tragic drama from 

his time until now. As the basis and starting- 
point of this course, read the Legend of Troy, XXIII. 582 ; 
then refer to the following articles in their order: 

Paris, whose perfidy was the cause of the war and the 
ultimate ruin of his country, XVIII. 295. 

Helen of Argos, the most beautiful woman in the 
world, XI. 629. 

Menelaus, the wronged husband of Helen, XVI. 10. 

Agamemnon, " king of men " and leader of the Grecian 
forces, I. 273. 

Odysseus, the wily hero, chief actor in Homer's Odys- 
sey, XVII. 729. 

Achilles, whose wrath and its consequences form the 
subject of the Iliad, I. 94. 

Hector, the bravest and ablest of the Trojan chiefs, 
XI. 609. 

Ajax Telamon and Ajax Oileus, typical heroes and 
leaders of the Greeks, I. 432. 

And now, if you have become interested in stories of 
this kind, turn to chapter XX. in this GUIDE and find there 
an extensive list of Greek legends and other romantic 
tales, all of which are narrated with more or less fulness 
in the pages of the Dritannica. 




" Lives of great men all remind us, 
We can make our lives sublime, 
And, departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time." 

— Longfellow. 

The biographies of great, and especially of good men, 
will always be found instructive and useful to the young. 
Some of the best are almost equal to gospels. They teach 
right living, high thinking, and energetic action. They 
show what it is in the power of each to accomplish for 
himself. No young man can rise from the perusal of such 
lives without feeling his whole mind and heart made better, 
and his best resolutions strengthened. They increase his 
self-reliance by fortifying his views and elevat- 
Uses of m g ms aims in life. Sometimes, too, a young 
Biography, man discovers himself in a biography, as Cor- 
reggio felt within him the risings of genius on 
contemplating the works of Michael Angelo. " And I, 
too, am a painter ! " he exclaimed. Benjamin Franklin 
was accustomed to attribute his usefulness and eminence 
to his having in youth read a work of Cotton Mather's. 
And Samuel Drew avers that he framed his own life, and 
especially his business habits, on the model left- on record 
by Benjamin Franklin. Thus, it is impossible to say 
where a good example may not reach, or where it will 
end, if indeed it have an end. 

But, to be more precise, it may be well to name a few 


biographies that will illustrate the more desirable elements 
of character. For instance, the most striking lessons of 


are to be found in the lives of certain famous men about 

whom no one can afford to be ignorant. Read, therefore, 

the following biographical sketches : 

Benjamin Franklin, the studious printer's 

Men of -ii i r i -i i r 

Dili ence apprentice, who became the first philosopher ot 

America, IX. Ji I. 

Washington Irving, the " father of American 

literature," XIII. 372. 

Arthur Wellesley. Duke of Wellington, the leader of the 
victorious armies at Waterloo, XXIV. 493. 

Michael Faraday, the distinguished scientist, IX. 29. 

James A. Garfield, the canal-boy, who became President 
of the United States, sup. 1368. 

Richard Cobden, the English political economist and 
reformer, VI. 85. 

Hugh Miller, the stone-cutter of Cromarty, who at- 
tained distinction in both science and literature. XVI. 


Sir Isaac Newton, the son of a small farmer, who 
through his industry became the foremost philosopher of 
modern times, XVII. 438. 

Buffon, the French naturalist, who declared that "ge- 
nius is patience," and whose rule was to turn every mo- 
ment to account, IV. 444. 

Dr. Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, XIII. 622; 
XXIV. 23. 

Daguerre, the inventor of the daguerreotype, and tin 
real founder of the art of photography, VI. 761. 

Gainsborough, the son of a cloth-worker, who became 
one of the greatest oi English painters, X. 15. 


General Grant, who ros from obscurity to be one of the 
most successful military leaders of modern times, sup. 1442. 
Then there have been men who, in the face of 


won their way to success and distinction. Read the story 
of their lives, and learn that, to the boy or man of deter- 
mination and will, there is no. such thing as failure. 
Among scores of such men, it is necessary to mention 
only a few. 

Palissy, the potter, whose life reads like a 
Menof romance, XVIII. 186. 

Galileo, who continued his scientific pursuits 
tion. : 

even after blindness and old age had come upon 
him, X. 30. 

Elihu Burritt, "the learned blacksmith," who, in the 
odd moments of his business, made himself the master of 
fort\- languages, sup. 633. 

Thomas Carlyle, the son of a mason, who, by his own 
perseverance, became one of the most famous men of mod- 
ern times, sup. 701. 

John Bunyan, who wrote the " Pilgrim's Progress " 
while in prison, and at the same time supported his fam- 
ily by making tag laces, IV. 526. 

Sir Richard Arkwright, who worked his way from a 
barber's shop to be the inventor of the spinning jenny 
and the founder of the cotton industry in Great Britain, 
II. 540. 

Samuel Drew, who rose from the shoemaker's bench to 
be a distinguished essayist and preacher, VII. 469. 

Sir Humphry Davy, the distinguished philosopher, who 
worked his way up from the position of a country apothe- 
cary, VI. 845. 


George Stephenson, the colliery engine-man, who in- 
vented the railway locomotive, XXII. 537. 

Matthew Boulton, "the father of Birmingham," IV. 
172; XXIV. 413- 

Andrew Johnson, the tailor's apprentice, who became 
President of the United States, XIII. 719. 

For examples of 


look into the biographies of such men as the following: 

Napoleon Bonaparte, XVII. 19?. 
Men of Peter the Great, XVIII. 698. 
Energy. Saladin, XVI. 588 

Francis Xavier, XXIV 716. 

Lord Clive, VI. 8. 

Oliver Cromwell, VI. 597. 

Andrew Jackson, XIII. 533. 

Robert E. Lee, XIV. 399. 

Henry M. Stanley, sup. 2777. 

For interesting illustrations of the manly qualities of 


study the lives of such noted men as 

Christopher Columbus, VI. 171. 
Men of John Hampden, the English patriot, XL 428. 
Patience. Dante, the great Italian poet, VI. 809. 
Sir Walter Raleigh. XX. 262. 
Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, sup. 1806. 
James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, XXI Y. 

James Audubon, the famous American ornithologist, 
III. 70. 


Sir Austen H. Lav. ml, the discoverer and excavator of 
the ruins of Nineveh, sup. 1S47. 

William Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood, XI. 502. 

Claude Lorraine, the pastry-cook's apprentice, who be- 
came one of the most distinguished of the painters of 
France, V. Si 4. 

John Flaxman, the famous English sculptor, IX. 298. 

If you would like to read of pleasant instances of 


under every variety of fortune, turn to the lives ofmen like 

Dr. Samuel Johnson, XIII. 719. 
Men of Oliver Goldsmith, X. 760. 

Cheerful- _ . , ,,,,,.,. 

ness. Sydney Smith, XXII. 177. 

Lord Palmerston, XVIII. 193. 

Abraham Lincoln, XIV. 658. 

Very interesting and valuable also are those lessons of 


that are shown in the careers of 

Diogenes, the Greek philosopher, VII. 245. 
Men of Edmund Burke, the English orator, IV. 538. 
Integrity, Dr. Thomas Arnold, head master of the school 
at Rugby, II. 626. 

Sir Thomas More, the English statesman, XVI. 815. 

John Howard, the philanthropist, XII. 319. 

William Chambers, the Scottish publisher, V. 380. 

Loyola, the founder of the society of Jesuits, XV. 31. 

William Wilberforce, the opponent of the slave trade, 
XXIV. 565. 

"Stonewall" Jackson, the Confederate general, XIII. 


If you would learn of the rewards which follow 

read the biographies of 

Nicholas Poussin, the French painter, XIX. 649. 
Men of Michael Angelo,the great Italian artist,X VI. 229. 
Precision. Baron Cuvier, the French naturalist, VI. 740. 
Titian, the Italian painter, XXIII. 413. 
William Wordsworth, the poet of nature, XXIV. 668. 
Lord Brougham, lord chancellor of England, IV. $j$. 
Alexander Pope, XIX. 481. 

William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth's prime 
minister, V. 283. 

Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield, VIII. 367. 
And for the supreme lessons of purity of life and 

examine the lives of such men as 

Abraham Lincoln, XIV. 658. 
General Lafayette, XIV. 201. 

Noble . 

Motives. William Lloyd Garrison, X. 85. 

Horace Greeley, XL 160. 

John G. Whittier. sup. 3146, 
and other illustrious persons of our own and foreign lands. 

Some we have here named might be catalogued, indeed, 
as types of every excellence that should adorn human 
character. Such arc our own Washington and Benjamin 
Franklin, but even the youngest student will see how hard 
it is to attempt a biographical classification on these lines. 

Most boys are ambitious. They wish to grow up to be- 
come men of influence and renown. Many of them lose this 
ambition because they are unwilling to wait long enough, 
work Hard enough, and be sufficiently patient in well-doing. 

"The heights by great men rea< hed and kept 
Were not attained by sudden flight," 

Men of 


Ami yet there have been many great men who displayed 
their abilities at a very early age. Perhaps you would like 
t>> read about some of these 


Handel composed a set of sonatas when he was ten years 

..Id, XL 433. 

Haydn composed a mass at thirteen; XI. 541. 

Mozart composed his first opera at twelve, XVII. 8. 

Beethoven's music was beaten into him, but he 

composed three sonatas when thirteen, III. 504. 
Musicians. * . . 

Cherubim composed a mass at thirteen, V. 

Paganini was a great violinist at eight, XVIII. 134. 
Charles Wesley, the great hymn writer, played the 
harpsichord when he was a babe, XXIV. 504. 

Michael Angelo finished his great marble statue of 
"David" before he was twenty, XVI. 229. 

Raphael was an eminent artist at seventeen, XX. 274. 
Canova modelled a lion out of butter when 
only four years old, V. 24. 


Sir Edward Landseer painted one of his 
greatest pictures at sixteen, XIV. 280. 
Cervantes had written several romances before he was 
twenty, V. 347. 

Goethe could write in five languages when he was eight, 
X. 721. 

Victor Hugo wrote his first tragedy when fifteen years 
old, IX. 676. 

Alexander Pope wrote his Pastorals when 
only sixteen, XIX. 481. 

Chatterton, who died before he was eighteen, 
was already a great poet, V. 445. 
Burns began to rhyme at sixteen, IV. 566. 


Thomas Moore wrote verses at thirteen, XVI. 805. 

Shelley published Queen Mab when eighteen, XXI. 789. 

Southey wrote Joan of A re when nineteen, XXII. 289. 

Mrs. Browning wrote poems at ten, IV. 391. 

Tennyson wrote his first volume of poems before he 
was eighteen, sup. 2877. 

Sir Isaac Newton displayed wonderful ability when a 
mere child, XVII. 438. 

Blaise Pascal wrote a treatise on Conic Sec- 
Phiioso- tions when he was sixteen, XVIII. 333. 
phers. Grotius wrote Latin verses when he was 

eight, XI. 217. 

Haller composed a Chaldee grammar at twelve, XI. 396. 

Lord Bacon planned his Novum Organum before he was 
sixteen, III. 200. 

Sir Christopher Wren invented an astronomical instru- 
ment at thirteen, XXIV. 689. 

William Pitt, the younger, entered Parliament when he 
was twenty-one, XIX. 134. 

These were some of the great young men of modern 
times. Ancient history furnishes us with other examples 
of men to whom 


Themistocles, who won his greatest victory at the age 
of thirty, XXIII. 250. 

Alexander the Great, who died at thirty-one, I. 480. 

Pompey, who was a successful Roman general 
Young at twenty-three, XIX. 450. 

Warriors. Hannibal, who, when only twenty-six, was 

made sole commander of the Carthaginian army, 
XI. 441. 

Charlemagne, who was master of France and Germany 
at thirty, V. 402. 


Marshal Saxe, who began his military career at twelve, 
XXI. 346. 

Charles XII. of Sweden, who became king at the age 
of fifteen, V. 420. 

This list might be easily extended ; but here is reading 
enough for several winter evenings. And when you have 
finished it, you will be at no loss to determine whether 
these men attained distinction at a single bound or whether 
they did not rather win by hard and patient labor, begun 
while they were very young. Greatness comes to no man 
simply because he wishes it. It is the reward of deter- 
mined effort. 




" To neglect all the abiding parts of knowledge for the sake of the 
evanescent parts is really to know nothing worth knowing." — Frederic 

The subject of history is not equally attractive to all 
young people. There are some who would prefer to read 
of the great world of nature, and for these it 
Natural would be easy to name very many Britannica 
History. articles which would prove interesting and in- 
structive. Now, here is a course of readings in 
natural history arranged in twelve divisions, each of which 
can be easily completed in a month. You will find some 
of the articles very interesting indeed, while others, per- 
haps, will seem rather hard and at first not so easy to un- 
derstand. But if you begin on this course and hold to it 
for a year, you will find not only that you have gained a 
great deal of information, but that the reading of these 
various articles has increased your capacity for deriving 
the highest pleasure from the perusal of books. 


The Elephant, VIII. 122. 

The Giraffe, X. 618. 

The Beaver and its habits, III. 475. 

Monkeys, II. 148. 


The Chameleon, V. 381. 
The Tiger, Will. 385. 

II. Cl RIl H s BIRDS. 

The Albatross —the famous bird of the South Seas, I. 

The Dodo — a strange bird now no longer in existence, 
VII. 321. 

The Cormorant — how it is taught to catch fish. VI. 407. 

The Dove, VII. 379. 

Migration of Birds, III. 765. 

The Nightingale, XVII. 498. 

The Stork, XXIII. 577. 

The Shark, XXI. 775. 
The Swordfish, XXII. 804. 
Mackerel, XV. 159. 
Codfish, VI. 103. 
Cuttle-fish, VI. 735. Goldfish, X. 759. 


Special article, XX. 432. 
Rattlesnake, XX. 293. 
Cobra, VI. 90. Anaconda, I. 788. 
Boa Constrictor, III. 841. 
Tortoise, XXIII. 455 (illustrated). 
Crocodile, VI. 592. Alligator, I. 585. 

Habits of Ants, II. 94 a. 
Slaveholding Ants, II. 97 a. 
White Ants of Africa, II. 99 a. 
Bees and their Habits, III. 484. 
An interesting description of Spiders, II. 297. 


The Mantis — the curious "subject of many wide-spread 
legends," XV. 503. 


The Mammoth (illustrated ), XV. 447. 
The Megatherium (illustrated), XV. 829. 
The Plesiosaurus, XIX. 220. 
The Pterodactyl, XX. 86. 


The Dragon, VII. 385. 
The Cockatrice, VI. 98. 
The Griffin, XI. 195. 
The Chimaera, V. 626 
The Phoenix, XVIII. 810. 
The Roc, XX. 611. 


History of the Horse, XII. 172. 

The Arabian Horse, II. 240. 

The Camel, IV. 735. 

Dogs (an illustrated article), VII. 324. 

Cats, V. 202. 

The Cow, I. 390. 


Life in the Ocean, VII. 276-281. 
Whales and whale fishing, XXIV, 523. 
Seals and seal fishing, XXI. 580. 
The Walrus (illustrated), XXIV. 337. 
The Dolphin, VII. 346. 
Corals, VI. 369. 



The Housefly, XII. 317. 
The Humble-bee, XII. 342. 
Beetles, VI. 126. 
Gnats, X. 700. 
Mosquitoes, XVI. 866. 
Butterflies, IV. 592. 


Chickens, IX. 491. 
Turkeys, XXIII. 657. 
Geese, X. yy/. 
Ducks, VII. 505. 
Pigeons, XIX. 84. 
Eggs of Birds, III. 772. 


Special article on birds, III. 699. 
Special article on insects, XIII. 141. 
Animals of Asia, II. 695. 
Animals of Africa, I. 258. 
Animals of America, I. 681. 
Article on Amphibia, I. 750. 

Of course this list might have been made very much 
longer — for the Britannica contains hundreds of such arti- 
cles. But the above will be sufficient to start with, and, 
as you proceed with your reading, other subjects will 
naturally suggest themselves which you will be able to 
find from the Index volume without any further help 
from the GUIDE. 




" Up ! up ! my friend, and quit your books, 
Or surely you'll grow double : 
Up ! up ! my friend, and clear your looks ; 

Why all this toil and trouble ? " — Wordsworth. 

THIS would be but a dull world if everybody worked all 
the time, and never took any recreation. And the En- 
cyclopedia Britannica would be a dull book if it were filled 

entirely with information about the different 

Work and branches of scientific knowledge, and said noth- 

Play. ing at all about the games, sports, and pastimes 

which amuse our leisure hours and add to the 
enjoyableness of life. But from these volumes you can 
learn how to play, as well as how to work. Every game 
of any importance, every pastime that is of general in- 
terest receives its proper notice. 


The game of BALL has been a favorite pastime of all 
ages and nations. Read the article on that subject, sup. 


Do you want to know all about BASE-BALL, its history, 
the rules which govern the game, etc.? Turn to volume 
III., page 406, and you will find there a brief 
Games of Dut comprehensive article on that subject, which 
Ball. every boy will want to study; and this is con- 

tinued in a supplementary article, sup. 370, 
which gives a complete history of the game since its first 


introduction in 1857 to the present time. In this latter 
article will be found the rules which govern its playing in 

The English national game of CRICKET is treated with 
equal fulness in VI. 578. See also William G. Grace, sup. 
1434. The leading articles on both cricket and base-ball 
contain not only the rules most generally recognized for 
the government of the games, but carefully drawn diagrams 
of the fields, and full directions for playing. 

Next to base-ball, football claims the greatest attention 
in this country. Indeed, it would be difficult to say which 
is the leading favorite. The article on AMERICAN FOOT- 
B ALL, sup. 1 301, contains the very latest rules regulating 
this exciting game. A history and general notice of 
football as it was formerly played may be found in IX. 

Archery is the subject of an extremely interesting 
article, II. 371. From that article you may learn not only 
the history of bows and arrows, but how to 
Outdoor make them (II. 376), and also the rules which 
Games. govern the popular pastime of archery (II. 377). 
Other outdoor games of almost every kind 
are described with like completeness : 

Golf, X. 765. 

Lacrosse, XIV. 195. 

Bowls, IV. 179. 

Ten-pins, IV. 180 b'". 

Croquet, VI. 608 b. 

Quoits, XX. 189. 

Curling, VI. 712. 

Billiards, III. 674. 

Rackets, XX. 549. 

Polo, XIX. 403. 

Tennis, XXIII. 179. 



All kinds of indoor games are also described, to- 
gether with minute directions for playing them. The 
article on CHESS, V. 592, is interesting for its 
Indoor historical information. The modern changes of 

Games. style in playing chess are noted in sup. 778. The 
article on Draughts (commonly known in this 
country as checkers), VII. 444, and that on Backgammon, 
III. 197, are equally entertaining and instructive. Then 
there are the various games at cards, all of which are 
described in the Britannica. 

Casino, sup. 7J7. 

Bezique, III. 623. 

Cribbage. VI. 575. 

Ecarte, VII. 620. 

Euchre, VIII. 654. 

Loo, XV. 1. 

Napoleon, XVII. 229. 

Picquet, XIX. 1 14. 

Poker, XIX. 282. 

Whist, XXIV. 543. 

Among other indoor pastimes we may mention Riddles, 
XX. 549- 

Legerdemain, or sleight of hand, XIV. 414 ; XV. 207. 

Few sports are more attractive to boys and men than 
fishing ; and to all who are partial to this kind of amuse- 
ment, the article on Angling, II. 32, will prove 
both interesting and instructive. It contains a 
great deal of information about fish and the art 
of taking them with hooks. The life of quaint 
old Izaak Walton, the most famous of fishermen, should 
be read in this connection, XXIV. 342. 


Most boys, even though they are debarred from such 
sports themselves, like to read about hunting; and so they 

will derive much pleasure from the general article on that 
subject, XII. 392. Here, too, they may learn about the 
care of fox-hounds, XII. 315; about fox-hunting, XII. 
395 ; and about horsemanship in the chase, XII. 
195. There is more of the same kind of read- 
ing in VII. 328, 330, where a good deal of in- 
formation is given about sportsmen's dogs, such 
as the pointer, the setter, and the retriever. 

Closely related to these sports is the pleasant pastime 
of rowing or sailing on the water. Several articles now 
claim our attention. As for rowing, read what is said 
further on that subject in XX. 619. An account of inter- 
collegiate boat-racing is given in sup. 2584. The article 
on canoeing, IV. 811, is full of practical information. 
Row-boats are described further over, in XXI. 
825. The article on Yachting, XXIV. 722-725, 

Rowing. . , , ■ r ,, r , . , . 

is very complete, and is full of historical inter- 
est. Practical directions for swimming and 
diving are given in XXII. 768, and these will repay you 
for all the time spent in their study. Skating, XXII. 104, 
is another instructive and interesting article. 

Everybody, nowadays, rides a bicycle ; and so everybody 
will want to read its history, III. 665. A complete descrip- 
tion of bicycle manufacture in the United States may be 
found in sup. 458-460. The laws regarding bicycles and bi- 
cycle riders are noticed in sup. 461. Then in sup. 1848 there 
is a brief history of the organization called the League of 
American Wheelmen, which every bicycler will read. What 
bicycles have done for good roads is related in sup. 2557. 

While learning about the games and sports of our own 


times it is but natural that we should wish to know how 
the people of former ages amused themselves, 
In Greece an< ^ h° w they trained their bodies, and culti- 
and Rome, vated their strength. Here then, to begin with, 
are a few of the many articles or parts of arti- 
cles relating to this subject : 

Greek games, X. 63 ; Olympian games, sup. 2251. The 
revival of these sports at Athens in the summer of 1896 
lends much additional interest to the chapters describing 
them. Read then the following additional references to 
the Olympian games, V. 711 ; VIII. 140; XI. 94; XVII. 

Athlete, III. 11. 

Gymnasium, XI. 347. 

Roman games, X. 65. 

Gladiatorial games, X. 632. 

Secular games at Rome, XXI. 618. 

The Amphitheatre, I. 774; XX. 830. 

The Colosseum, II. 419. 

Roman circus, V. 791 ; XX. 829. 

Chariot races, X. 64. 

Wrestling, X. 64. 

In the middle ages the most popular of all amusements 
were those connected with tournaments, the history of 
which is pleasantly narrated in XXIII. 489. The knights 
who engaged in these contests at arms, often found amuse- 
ment of a lighter character in following the chase in the man- 
ner described in XII. 393. The rearing and training of 
hawks for hunting purposes was called falconry 
Athletic ar >d this is the subject of an interesting article 
Training. in IX. 6-12. 

And now, approaching our own times, read 
the two articles on Athletic Sports, III. [2, and sup. 279. 
Both are full of valuable information, especially regarding 


physical culture. They are so full and exhaustive that 
some of the youngest readers may not care to read them 
through; and yet it will pay to get as. many useful 
hints, and suggestions from them as you can. 

The article on Athletic Training and Apparatus, in the 
supplements, presents the very latest facts and the opin- 
ions of the best authorities on this subject. 

The article on Gymnastics, XL 348, presents some in- 
teresting statements with reference to the training of the 
body by systematic exercises. The best methods of diet- 
ing while attempting to improve one's strength by physical 
training are adequately described in VII. 200. 

See, now, Calisthenics, sup. 658, and Delsarte System, 
sup. 1022. 





" History is philosophy teaching by examples." — Bolingbroke. 

The entire history of man, from the earliest times to 
the present, will be found in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Many of the articles on historical subjects are chiefly 
valuable for purposes of reference, while others are ex- 
tremely interesting when read in course, and if taken up 
and studied systematically will give to the student a mas- 
tery of the subject which he could not well acquire from 
any similar work. 

It is proposed in this chapter to indicate three distinct 
courses of reading, any one of which can be pursued in- 
dependently of the others. In laying out these courses 
the aim has been to select from the great abundance of 
material in the Britannica such portions as are essential 
to an understanding of the march of events, and to pass 
lightly over those periods of history which have been un- 
prolific of events of general and permanent interest. 


The article AMERICA, I. 669, contains a section of 
twenty pages devoted to ancient America. This will serve 
as an excellent introduction to the course of 
Ancient study upon which we have entered. Here you 
America. will find a full account of the aborigines, page 
686 ; their languages, page 688 ; their tribal 
organization, page 690; the ancient remains of the Mis- 



sissippi valley and other localities, page 691 ; an account 
of the native civilization, page 694 ; and a very interesting 
resume of the curious traditional history of Central Amer- 
ica. In the articles Mexico, XIV. 206, and Yucatan, 
XXIV. 759, there is a still fuller exposition of this sub- 
ject. In the article PERU, XVIII. 676, the remarkable 
civilization of the country of the Incas is described in a 
manner that is both pleasing and instructive. 

It is still, in certain respects, a debated point as to who 
was the real discoverer of America. In the article AMERICA, 

I. 706, a full account is given of the voyages 

The of the Northmen to the shores of North Amer- 

Discovery. j ca> anc } following this, we have the story of 

Columbus and his discoveries. Turn now to 
the biography of Columbus, VI. 170. Read, also, the life 
of Sebastian Cabot, IV. 622, and that of Amerigo Ves- 
pucci, XXIV. 192, who, by a singular fortune, gave his 
name to the New World. The conquest of Mexico is 
well told in the article Cortes, VI. 441, and that of Peru 
in the article PlZARRO, XIX. 159. 


Begin with the article United States, XXIII. 729. 
The first part of this article, containing seventy-two pages, 

embraces a history of our country which is not 
General only more complete, but far more readable than 
Views. most of the school text-books on this subject. 

To add to the value of the article, it is illus- 
trated with several maps : 

1. A map of the English colonies. 

2. A map showing the territorial growth of the United 
States from 1776 to 1887. 

3. A map of the United States corrected to date. 


A brief analysis of this article will show us what addi- 
tional subjects may be brought in by way of collateral 

In connection with the history of Virginia, XXIV. 255. 

read the following articles or parts of articles : 

Sir Walter Raleigh, XX. 262. 
Virginia. ^^ ^.^ xxu ^ 

History of Tobacco, XXIII. 423 (one column). 
Introduction of Slavery into America, XXII. 137 (begin- 
ning with " Spanish Colonies," second column, and ending 
at the bottom of page 138). 

In connection with New England, XXIII. 729, read 
about the Puritans, VIII. 340-346, 376-378 ; the 
Northern Pilgrim Fathers, sup. 2387 ; and Roger Wil- 
Colonies. liams, XXIV. 586. 

In connection with Pennsylvania, XXIII. 73c, 
read about William Penn, XVIII. 494. 
With the Revolutionary War, XXIII. 739, we reach 
the period of those great men whom we justly 
The style " the fathers." Let us read the biographi- 
Revolution. cal sketches of a few of these makers of the 
nation : 
George Washington, XXIV. 387. 
Patrick Henry, XI. 676. 
Thomas Jefferson, XIII. 613. 
John Adams, I. 141. 
James Madison, XV. 182. 
James Monroe, XVI. 760. 
Alexander Hamilton, XI. 412. 

These articles will help us to understand not only the 
period of the Revolution, but the equally important pe- 
riods which followed — the formation of the Federal 
CONSTITUTION, XXIII. 744, and the beginnings of the 
government under the Constitution, XXIII. 751. 


Nullification, XXIII. 763. With this read Andrew 

Jackson, XIII. 533, and John C. Calhoun, IV. 683. 

Opposition to Slavery, XXIII. 765. William Lloyd 

Garrison, X. 85. History of Slavery, XXII. 

(beginning near the bottom of page 138 and 
Slavery. V t> t> l & J 

continuing to the middle of the second column, 
page 142). Henry Clay, V. 817; Daniel Web- 
ster, XXIV. 471 ; Stephen A. Douglas, VII. UJ. 

Entering now upon the period of the Civil War and 
the reconstruction which followed it, XXIII. 774-784, we 
may read, for additional information, the articles Abra- 
ham Lincoln, XIV. 658, U. S. Grant, sup. 1442, Jefferson 
Davis, sup. 996, and Robert E. Lee, XIV. 399. 

Read also the article on the Confederate States of 
America, sup. 884. 

Before concluding this course of reading, it will be well 

to notice another very important article, or rather series of 

articles, relating to the history of our country. 

Supplemen- Among the articles comprising the American sup- 

„, . plements to the Britannica there are eighteen 

Chapters. * & 

pages of matter, sup. 2983-3001, which should be 
read, and some of it studied thoroughly. The facts there 
given are of interest and importance to every American 
citizen. Here are the headings of some of the sections: 

The admission of the several States, p. 2985. 

Representatives in Congress, p. 2984. 

Crime in the United States, p. 2986. 

Presidential elections, p. 2987. 

Centre of Population, p. 2988. 

Recent History of the United States, p. 2993. 


In indicating the following course of reading, an attempt 
will be made to cover all the more important periods of 


ancient history, and at the same time not to mark out 
more than can be mastered within a reasonable length of 
time. It is possible that the reader will enlarge it at 
many points by reading entire articles, of which only 
parts are here indicated; but, whether he does this or 
not, In: should find himself at the end of the course pos- 
sessed of a good general knowledge of ancient history, of 
its leading characters, and its more interesting 
Oriental scenes and incidents. 

Countries. EGYPT. — A long and very scholarly article on 
this country is contained in the seventh volume 
of the Britaiinica. Read the following sections with spe- 
cial care : 

Description of Egypt, page 702 ; its ancient inhabitants, 
page 713 ; its chronology, page 728 ; the Egyptian dynas- 
ties, page 730; the twelfth dynasty, page 734; the acces- 
sion of Ptolemy I., page 745. 

Assyria and Babylonia. — Read the entire article on 
these countries, III. 183. Read also the description of 
Babylon, III. 182, and of Nineveh, XVII. 511 ; also, the 
account of Jonah, XIII. 736, and that of Berosus, III. 607. 

Phoenicia. — Read the greater part of the article under 
this heading, and especially the following sections : De- 
scription of Phoenicia, XVIII. 801, 802 ; origin of the 
Phoenicians, page 803 ; navigation, trades, and colonies, 
pages 804-807. Read also the articles Tyre, XXIII. 710, 
and Sidon, XXII. 35. 

PERSIA. — In volume XVIII. of the Britannica, one hun- 
dred pages are devoted to Persia. The history of ancient 
Persia extends from page 561 to page 616. If your time is 
limited, begin with the section entitled Medo-Persian Em- 
pire, page 561 ; read the history of Cyrus, page 564, and 
of his successors, to the accession of Artaxerxes, page 573. 
The account of the expedition against Greece may be de- 


ferred until its proper place is reached in Greek his- 

GREECE. — With the history of this country it is neces- 
sary to spend much more time. Begin by reading the whole 
of Section I. — " Greek History to the Death of 

Alexander the Great" — volume XL, pages 

89-105. For collateral reading, see the follow- 
ing articles : Troy, XXIII. 577-582; Lycurgus 
XV. 95 ; Sparta, XXII. 369 ; Greek Games, X. 64. While 
studying the history of Attica, XL 95, refer to the article 
Athens, III. 1, and read with particular care the descrip- 
tion given of that city by Pausanias, III. 9. Solon's ac- 
count of his own work, XL 97, is supplemented by a 
much fuller account in the twenty-second volume of the 
Britannica, page 253. Here, too, it will be well to read 
the biography of Pisistratus, XIX. 130. The events which 
follow the historic battle of Marathon, IX. 99, bring 
prominently forward the great rival statesmen, Aristides, 
II. 504, and Themistocles, XXIII. 250. Then follows 
the period of Athenian supremacy, XL 100, and in con- 
nection with it the article on Pericles, XVIII. 529, should 
be read. With the Theban supremacy, read Epaminon- 
das, VIII. 456 ; and, with the decay of Greek civic life XL 
103, study the excellent article on Demosthenes, VII. 6j. 
Turn, now, to the article Macedonian Empire, XV. 
138, and read down to the account of the departure of 
Alexander on his great expedition against Persia. From 
this point, continue the story with the article Alexan- 
der the Great, I. 480. The death of Alexander, as 
you will learn, was the signal for the breaking up of his 
empire. Ptolemy, one of his generals, established him- 
self in Egypt, VII. 745 ; Seleucus, another general, 
founded a new Persian empire, with its capital at Seleu- 
cia, on the Tigris, XVIII. 58 ; and Antipater, who had 


been made regent of Macedonia, maintained the integrity 
of Greece, XV. 144. We need not follow now the his- 
tory of these fragments of Alexander's great empire — 
their wars with one another, and their internal dissensions. 
A new empire was about to arise which should overpower 
them all. 

ROME. — The article under this heading, XX. 731-837, 
embraces a complete and very interesting sur- 
Roman vey of the history of the Eternal City from its 
History. foundation in legendary times to the year 1870. 
Read, as a beginning, the first sixteen pages of 
the article, to the section entitled, " Rome and the Medi- 
terranean States." Numerous collateral references present 
themselves, but, if your time is limited, they may be omit- 
ted, and the reading of the principal article may be con- 
tinued. ' The story becomes very interesting now, and you 
need not be told to read it carefully. The second Punic 
War brings to our notice Haxxibal, XI. 441, and the 
elder SciPlO, XXI. 466. In connection with the third 
Punic War we shall read of the younger Scipio, XXI. 
468, and of Cato the Censor, V. 239. Other collateral 
readings will include: Marius, XV. 549; Sulla, XXIII. 
632; Cicero, V. 770; Catiline, V. 338; Pompey, XIX. 
450; and Julius Caesar, IV. 633. 

These readings ought to give you a very complete 
knowledge of the history of Rome, in the palmy and he- 
roic days of the Republic, as well as in the period of that 
Republic's degeneracy. 

The story of the Empire begins on page 769, of the 
twentieth volume ; it ends with the downfall of the West- 
ern Empire (a. D. 476), as described on page 781. Let us, 
however, continue our reading with the Eastern Empire, 
until it, too, is ended with the fall of Constantinople, A. D. 
1453. We shall find this part of the story in the article 


GREECE, XI. 1 10-120. On the thread of these two articles 
the following biographies, each in its proper place, may 
be strung. 

Augustus, III. 79; Tiberius, XXIII. 335 ; Nero, XVII. 
347; Trajan, XXIII. 502; Hadrian, XI. 363; Commodus, 
VI. 207 ; Constantine, VI. 298 ; Justinian, XIII. 792. 

For further collateral reading, add the following arti- 
cles : Goths, X. 846; Vandals, XXIV. 58; Attila, III. 61. 

This course of reading embraces in the aggregate about 

150 pages of the Britannica. By reading an hour or so 

regularly every evening, one may complete it in 

a short time ; and there is no doubt but that 
Conclusion. , , .,, , . . . r . . 

the reader will obtain from it a tar more satisfac- 
tory view of ancient history than can be gained 
from any of the so-called " Universal Histories." The rea- 
son is obvious. Here the subject is presented as in a paint- 
ing, with a distinct background, and the foreground ap- 
propriately filled with lifelike figures. It is no mere 
catalogue of events that you have been studying ; it is 
history itself. 


TJic MoJiammedan Empi?-c. — The first part of the article, 
Mohammedanism, XVI. 545, relates the story of Mo- 
hammed and the first four caliphs. Read this part care- 
fully. Then proceed to .the second part, XVI. 
The Arab 5^5, which gives an account of Moslem con- 
Conquest, quest and dominion down to the capture of 
Baghdad by Jenghis Khan, A. D. 1258. The 
most important event for us during this latter period is 
the conquest of Spain, a full account of which may be 
found in the article SPAIN, XXII. 3 1 2-3 1 5. 

Continental l:urope from a. d. 476 to a. d. 1454. — The 
period of ten centuries which intervened between the fall 


of the Western Empire and the capture of Constantinople 
by the Turks may be briefly studied. The Franks invade 
Gaul, IX. 528; the Goths and Lombards establish them- 
selves in Italy, XIII. 467; the Visigoths gain 

control of bpain, XXII. 308; anew empire is 
Middle : ,. , , , _ , , ~, . 

established by CHARLEMAGNE, V. 402. This 



brings us to the year 814. From this point to 

the close of the period only a few events need be noticed. 
The rise of the feudal monarchy in France, IX. 536; the 
Hapsburg dynasty, X. 491, and III. 124; the house of 
Brandenburg in Germany, XX. 4. Now read the ac- 
count of the Hundred Years' War between France and 
England, IX. 545-551. This prepares us for the study 
of the article on Feudalism, IX. 119, and the various 
notices of CHIVALRY indicated in the Index volume, 
page 96. 

The chief events of this period are connected with the 
Crusades, which are the subject of an interesting and im- 
portant article, VI. 622. In connection with the above- 
named articles there is room for a good deal of collateral 
reading. Study the following articles : 

Venice, XXIV. 141 ; Florence, IX. 333 ; Medici, XV. 
783; Naples, VII. 191 ; Hanseatic League, XI. 449; and 
a part of the article on commerce, VI. 199-201. 

From a. D. 1454 to the French Revolution. — Among the 
important events of this period were the following : 

The discovery of America, X. 179-192. 

The invention of printing, XXIII. 687. 
Modern The Reformation, XX. 319. 

Europe. The invention of the steam engine, XXII. 473. 
The study of the history of this period may 
begin with the RENAISSANCE, XX. 380. In connection 
with this study, refer to the historical portion of each of 
the following articles ; 


Austria, III. 1 24—13 1 ; Prussia, XX. 1-11; Holland, 
XII. 70-82; France, IX. 552-596. 

See also Italy, XIII. 482 ; Spain, XXII. 339. 

The portions of this history which will claim our chief 
attention are: The career of CHARLES V., X. 413; the 
struggle of the Netherlands with Spain, XII. 74-77; the 
Thirty Years' War, III. 125. In connection with these, 
read: Wallenstein, XXIV. 328; Gustavus Adolphus, XL 
333; Louis XIV., IX. 573-583; Philip II. of Spain, 
VIII. 743; Catherine de Medici, V. 235; Peter the 
Great, XVIII. 698; Charles XII. of Sweden, IV. 420; 
Frederick the Great, IX. 735 ; and Catherine II. of Russia, 
V. 233. 

From the French Revolution to the Present Time. — The 
leading article for the study of this period is that on 
FraisXE from page 596 to page 629, volume 
The XlXth IX. Here you may read (i) of the Revolution, 
Century, page 596 ; (2) of the Republic, page 604 ; (3) of 
the Empire, page 615; (4) of the subsequent 
nistory of France to the close of the presidency of M. 
Grevy. A supplementary article, sup. 1323, brings the 
history of France down to date. In connection with the 
above, read the following biographical sketches : Mira- 
beau, XVI. 492; Marie Antoinette, XV. 540; Robes- 
pierre, XX. 601 ; Danton, VI. 815'; Marat, XV. 526. 

The history of NAPOLEON fills thirty-seven pages of the 
Britannica, XVII. 162. In connection with this article, 
read the following: Josephine, XIII. 751; Talleyrand, 
XXIII. 29; Wellington, XXIV. 493. 

These articles alone will give us the best part of the 
political history of Continental Europe down to the year 
181 5. The more important events which have since oc- 
curred outside of France may then be read : 

The liberation of Greece, XL 125. 


The Crimean war, XXI. 102. 

The unification of Italy, XIII. 466. 

The Austro-Prussian war, X. 502. 

The Franco-Prussian war, X. 503-506. 

And now you will no longer need the help of the GUIDE. 
Almost any information that you may desire can be found 
by turning to the proper heading in the Britannica as in- 
dicated in the Index volume. 

For events that have occurred since 1879, as we ^ as f° r 
the biographies of men who were living at that time, it is 
always well to consult the American supplements. For 
example, there is no separate article on Bismarck in 
the main portion of the Britannica; but in the supple- 
ment, page 478, there is a complete biographical sketch, 
and in the Index volume (page 57) there are references 
to still other articles in which he is mentioned. 

Here also are to be found articles relating to many other 
historical events of recent occurrence. See 

Home Rule, sup. 1602. 

Corea and the war between China and Japan in 1895, 
sup. 917. 

The British Dominions — England. — In the article 

Britannia, IV. 352, an account is given of the ancient 

Britons, and of the occupancy of their country 

Early by the Romans previous to its settlement by 

Britain. the English. The historical part of the article 

ENGLAND fills about one hundred pages (VIII- 

263-367), which may be read at your odd moments of 

leisure. The history of England since 1874 is succinctly 

told in sup. 1449. 

From these articles alone you may obtain a good prac- 
tical knowledge of English history. In connection with 
them, however, it will be profitable to read the following 
briefer articles : 


William the Conqueror, XXIV. S74- 
Richard Cceur de Lion, XX. 539. 
Henry VIII., XI. 662. 
English Queen Mary, XV. 592. 

Biography. Lady Jane Grey, XI. 193. 

Queen Elizabeth, VIII. 142. 
Sir Francis Drake, VII. 389. 
Charles I., V. 404. 
Oliver Cromwell, VI. 597. 
William III., XXIV. 578. 
Queen Anne, II. 62. 
Marlborough, XV. 553. 
Lord Chatham, V. 540. 
Charles James Fox, IX. 494. 
William' Pitt, XIX. 134. 

Read, also, Armada, II. 543, and English Costumes, 
IV. 465. 

Scotland. — See an article on SCOTLAND, XXI. 471-520. 
Read also for an account of specially important 
Scottish periods in Scottish history, the following Bio- 
History, graphical sketches : 

William Wallace, XXIV. 326. 
Robert Bruce, XX. 592. 
Mary Queen of Scots, XV. 594. 

Ireland. — The historical part of the article IRELAND, 
XIII. 214-272, is extremely interesting. It includes such 
topics as the following: Legendary history of 
Irish Ireland, page 243 ; Scottish conquest of Ulster, 

History. page 246; early Irish church, page 248; Anglo- 
Norman invasion, page 258 ; Cromwell's cam- 
paign, page 267; James II. in Ireland, page 286; struggle 
for independence, page 270; Fenianism, page 271. 

India. — For a history of the English in India, see 
article INDIA, XII. 796-812. Read, also, the biogra- 


phics of Robert Give, VI. 8, and Warren Hastings, XI. 

Africa. — For an account of the various possessions and 
dependencies in Africa, refer to the Index vol- 
British unie, and read what is said in the Britannica 
Colonies. with reference to each of the several colonies 
or countries. Study particularly the article on 
the present condition of Africa, sup. 59-83. Read, also, 
the special articles on 
Natal, XVII. 239. 
Cape Colony, V. 44-49. 

Rhodesia, sup. 2544; Cecil Rhodes, sup. 2543. 
Jameson, L. S., sup. 1 73 r . 
Stanley, Henry M., sup. 2777. 

Australia. — For the history of the exploration and set- 
tlement of this continent, see AUSTRALIA, III, 103-106. 

There still remain in the Britannica, hundreds of histori- 
cal and biographical articles which have not been men- 
tioned in this chapter. But you can find them, if need 
be, without the help of a guide. Having been 
Other conducted thus far along the road, you will now 
Courses. have no difficulty in making your own way. 
With a little study and care you may even mark 
out another course of historical reading for yourself; for 
the Britannica contains the materials for very many such 





" O strange New World, that yet wast never young, 
Whose youth from thee by gripin' want was wrung, 
Brown foundlin' o' the woods, whose baby bed 
Was prowled round by the Injun's cracklin' tread, 
An' who grew'st strong thru' shifts an' wants an' pains, 
Nursed by stern men with empires in their brains ! " 

Let us begin this study by a review of the history of 
our own literature, for it is in the institutions and produc- 
tions of his own country that the pride and hope of 
every true American should be centered. " The number 
of writers who have acquired some amount of well-founded 
reputation in the United States is startling." In the 
course of study which we shall here offer, we can do little 
more than refer the student to the Britannica 's numerous 
biographical sketches of American writers. The special 
article on American Literature, I. 718-735, written by 
the late Professor Nichol of Glasgow, is worthy of our 
careful attention ; and the first two chapters of that article 
should be read by way of introduction to the course which 
we have before us. The first part of the third chapter (I. 
720) will introduce us to colonial literature and the earliest 
American writers. 


Captain John Smith, whose description of Virginia is 
usually spoken of as the first American book, is the sub- 
ject of a long and interesting article, XXII. 
Colonial l 73- But Smith's book can scarcely be called 
Writers. literature — certainly not in the better sense of 
the term. The first genuine literary work per- 
formed in America was George Sandys's translation of the 
works of Ovid, made on the banks of the James River, 
and published in 1626. See the article, George Sandys, 
XXI. 262 (also Ovid, XVIII. 78). Of other early writers 
in America, there are a few whose biographies should be 
studied. Read the lives of the great theologians and con- 
troversialists of colonial New England : 

Roger Williams, XXIV. 586. 

John Cotton, XII. 726. 

John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians, VIII. 136. 

Cotton Mather, XV. 631. 

Jonathan Edwards, VII. 688. 

Then turn to the article on Benjamin Franklin, IX. 711. 
This, with the first two columns of Chapter III., on page 
720 of volume I. will complete our study of the Colonial 

Concerning the orators, statesmen, and poets who flour- 
ished during the Revolutionary Period there is much 
to read ; and yet of the writings of that period there 
remains to us but little that is of permanent 
Statesmen literary value. Read what is said on this sub- 
and Poets, ject on pages 721 and 722 of the first volume 
of the Britannica. Read the articles on 

Patrick Henry, XI. 676. 

Alexander Hamilton, XI. 412. 

Thomas Jefferson, XIII. 613. 

John Trumbull, XXIII. 592. 

Joel Barlow, III. 377. 


Coming now to the literature of the NINETEENTH CEN- 
TURY, let us read first of the great historians : 
George Bancroft, sup. 334. 
John Bach McMaster, sup. 1061. 

Historians. TT7 .,,. T T „ wr^r 

William H. Prescott, XIX. 702. 

John Lothrop Motley, XVII. 2. 
Francis Parkman, sup. 2296. 
Of the orators : 

Daniel Webster, XXIV. 471. 

Henry Clay, V. 817. 

John C. Calhoun, IV. 683. 

Edward Everett, VIII. 736. 
Of writers of fiction and miscellanies : 
Washington Irving, XIII. 372. 

Nathaniel P. Willis, XXIV. 587. 
Novelists, James Fenimore Cooper, VI. 337. 
etc. Charles Brockden Brown, IV. 383. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne, XI. 536. 
William Dean Howells, sup. 1624. 
Of essayists and theologians : 

William Ellery Channing, V. 393. 
Essayists, Theodore Parker, XVIII. 300. 
etc Ralph Waldo Emerson, sup. 1 195. 

Henry D. Thoreau, XXIII. 313. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, sup. 1598. 
Of poets : 
Henry W. Longfellow, XIV. 860. 

Edgar Allan Poe, XIX. 255. 

William Cullen Bryant, sup. 601. 

James Russell Lowell, sup. 1925. 

John G. Whittier, sup. 3146. 

W^lt. Whitman, sup. 3145. 

Read, next, Chapter IV., pages 722-734, Volume I. 

The new era in the history of American literature be' 


gan at about the time of the Civil War. The products of 
that period, and the characteristics which distinguished 
them, are described in an able article by Prof. F. L. Pattee, 
in sup. 158-165. See, also, American Drama, sup. 1076. 

If the student wishes to continue this course of reading 
so as to include a still more minute survey of our recent 
literature, with a study of the lives and works of some of 
the later writers, he can do so without further direction 

from the Guide. By consulting the Index vol- 

Recent ume ne Wl ^ De aD ^ e m most cases to find any 

Literature, name of real prominence in American literature. 

A course of reading pursued in the manner here 
indicated cannot fail to impart a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of the history of our own literature. If conducted 
in connection with the reading of extracts from the writ- 
ers mentioned, its educative value can scarcely be over- 
rated. The readings may conclude with the " Summary," 

I- 734-735- 


See the special article on English literature, VIII. 403. 

This is a long and valuable contribution by 

Eleven Thomas Arnold, and should be read in parts in 

Periods. connection with the following short articles, or 

parts of articles : 


The Venerable Beda, III. 480. 
Caedmon, the first English poet, IV. 629. 
King Alfred, I. 506; VIII. 404. 
^Elfric, the Grammarian, I. 182. 

Romances and legends of King Arthur, V. 322 ; II. 649 ; 
VIII. 3£Q4 IX. 639. 


Layamon (13th century), XIV. 374. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth (12th century), X. 172. 


Matthew Paris (13th century), XV. 633. 
Duns Scotus, VII. 545. 
Roger Bacon (died 1292), III. 218. 
Ormin's Rhythmic gospels, VIII. 395. 
Robert Manning, XV. 494. 


John Wickliffe, XXIV. 708. 

John Gower, XI. 21. 

Geoffrey Chaucer, V. 449 ; VIII. 41 1. 

John Lydgate, XV. 97. 

The invention of printing, XI. 336; VIII. 413. 

Caxton, the first English printer, V. 279; VIII. 398. 


Sir Thomas More, XVI. 815. 

John Skelton, XXII. 119. 

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, XXII. 694; XXIV. 704. 

Sir Thomas Sackville, VII. 372. 

Roger Ascham, II. 677. 


Sir Philip Sidney, XXII. 35 ; XVIII. 346. 

Edmund Spenser, XXII. 392. 

William Shakespeare, XXI. J^y. 

Ben Jonson, XIII. 741. 

Sir Frantis Bacon, III. 200; VIII. 422. 

Jeremy Taylor, XXIII. 93. 
Edmund Waller, XXIV. 330. 

history OF LITERATURE. J 7 

Abraham Cowley, VI. 532. 
Thomas Hobbes, XII. 31. 

John Milton, XVI. 324; XIX. 267. 

VIII. PERIOD OF -nil - . RESTORATION, 1660-1700. 

John Dryden, VII. 488. 

Samuel Butler, IV. 588; XXI. 319. 

John Bunyan, IV. 526. 

John Locke, XIV. 751. 


Daniel Defoe, VII. 26. 
Joseph Addison, I. 146. 
Alexander Pope, XIX. 481. 
Dean Swift, XXII. 761 ; XXI. 320. 

X. THE GEORGIAN ERA, 1727-180O. 

William Cowper, VI. 533. 
Robert Burns, IV. 566. 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, XXI. 797. 
Samuel Richardson, XX. 543. 
Henry Fielding, IX. 142 ; XXI. 320. 
Laurence Sterne, XXII. 541. 
Samuel Johnson, XIII. 719. 
Oliver Goldsmith, X. 760. 
David Hume, XII. 346. 
Edward Gibbon, X. 572. 
William Robertson, XX. 599. 
Bishop Butler, IV. 582 ; I. 792. 


Sir Walter Scott, XXL 544. 
Lord Byron, IV. 604; XXL 320. 
Percy Bysshe Shelley, XXI. 789. 


Robert Southey, XXII. 289. 
William Wordsworth, XXIV. 668; XIX. 271. 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, VI. 135. 
John Keats, XIV. 22. 
Alfred Tennyson, sup. 2877. 
Robert Browning, sup. 592. 
Charles Dickens, VII. 173. 

William M. Thackeray, XXIII. 214; XXI. 320. 
George Eliot (Mrs. Mary Ann Cross), sup. 951. 
Sir Edwin Arnold, sup. 243. 
Matthew Arnold, sup. 244. 
Thomas Carlyle, sup. 701. 
John Richard Green, sup. 1460. 
John Ruskin, sup. 2589. 
Poet Laureate, sup. 1841. 

Read now the article on Canadian Literature, sup. 


i. Greek Literature. — The article on Greek literature, 
XI. 136, is a comprehensive sketch of the literary devel- 
opment of Greece, showing how its successive 
Greek periods were related to each other, and marking 

Writers. the dominant characteristics of each. It should 
be read in parts, in connection with the separate 
articles relating to the lives and particular works of Greek 
writers. The study of this literature naturally begins 
with the Homeric hymns and with the two great epics, 
the Iliad and the Odyssey. Seethe article Homer, XII. 108. 

After this read the following articles on three great 
poets of ancient Greece : 

Hesiod, XI. jjy. 

Simonides, XXII. 83. 

Pindar, XIX. 98. 


This brings us to the GREEK DRAMA. Read the first 
two paragraphs on the Attic Literature, XI. 
The 14°: then turn to the article Drama, VII. 403, 

Drama. and read the six pages devoted to Greek drama. 
After this take up each of the great dramatists 
separately, the tragedians first : 
iEschylus, I. 208. 
Sophocles, XXII. 271. 
Euripides, VIII. 673. 

Then re-read what is said of GREEK COMEDY, VII. 407, 
and study the article on the great comic dramatist, Aris- 
tophanes, II. 507. 

PROSE writers will next claim our attention, and 
especially the great historians, Herodotus, XI. 
756; Xenophon, XXIV. 720, and Thucydides ? 
XXIII. 322. After these make a short study of 
the Greek orators, XI. 142, and especially of 
Demosthenes, VII. 67, and of Isocrates, XIII. 388. 

The Greek philosophers will then come in for brief men- 
tion. Read the biographical portion of each of the fol- 
lowing articles : 
Philoso- Socrates, XXII. 231. 
phers. PlatO, XIX. 1 94. 

Aristotle, II. 510. 
Attention may now be given to the chapter entitled, 
The Literature of the Decadence, in XI. 142, 
wherein is given a brief survey of the literary history of 
the Alexandrian and Graeco-Roman periods of 
Later intellectual activity. Here a number of inter- 

Writers, esting names present themselves. In the de- 
partment of pastoral poetry, we shall read of 
Theocritus, XXII. 252, and of his disciples and imitators, 
Bion, III. 696, and Moschus, XVI. 855. In the field of criti- 
cism we shall learn of Aristarchus, II. 504, whose studies, 






with those of his disciples, gradually formed the basis for 
the science of grammar. In mathematics we find the 
noted name of Euclid, VIII. 655. In prose fiction we 
have Lucian, XV. 42, the inventor of the art of the story- 
writer. In history we have Josephus, the historian of the 
Jewish nation, XIII. 751. In biography, Plutarch stands 
forth preeminent, XIX. 232. In geography appears the 
noted name of Strabo. In rhetoric we have Cassius 
Longinus, XIV. 864, the reputed author of the still 
famous essay on Sublimity. In philosophy are the great 
names of Epictetus, VIII. 471, and Marcus Aurelius, 
III. 86. 

But it is time to bring these readings in Greek literature 
to a close. It would of course be easy to extend them 
almost indefinitely; and the student who wishes to do so 
may, by referring to the numerous articles devoted to the 
lives of famous Greek writers, continue it to almost any 
desired length. 

2. Roman Literature. — In the department of Roman 
literature we shall take as the basis for our studies the very 
comprehensive and scholarly article on that subject in 
XX. 715-727. This article, which gives a general survey 
of the progress of literature during the different 
First periods of Roman history, should be read in 

Period. sections, with constant reference to the sep- 

arate articles devoted to the lives of the most 
famous Latin writers. In connection with the chapter 
on the first period (from 240 B. C. to about 80 B. C.), read 
the account of the Roman drama, VII. 409, 412. Then 
study the history of the early Roman dramatists : 

N;uvius, XVII. 161. Plautus, XIX. 215. 

Ennius, VIII. 447- Terence, XXIII. 186. 

In connection with the chapter on the second period 
(80 15. C. to 42 B. C.), read the following special articles : 


Second Cicero, V. -~. Caesar, IV, 633. 

Period. Sallust, XXI. 219. Lucretius, XV. 50. 

With the third period (42 B. C. to 17 A. D.) we enter 
upon the study of the AUGUSTAN AGE OF Ro- 
Third MAX LITERATURE, III. 82-84. Here a noble 

Period. list of names is presented, demanding a special 

study of the following biographical articles : 
Virgil, XXIV. 248. Horace, XII. 159. 

Ovid, XVIII. 78. Livy, XIV. 725. 

During the fourth period, extending for more than a 
century (17 A. D. to 130 A. D.), Roman literature continues 
to flow in the old channels, but there is a mani- 
Fourth f est deterioration in almost every department 

Period. of literary effort. And yet among the drama- 

tists we have Persius XVIII. 661, and Juvenal 
XIII. 804; among historians, Tacitus, XXIII. 19; among 
philosophers, Seneca, XXI. 658 ; among rhetoricians, Quin- 
tilian, XX. 187; and among poets, Martial, XV, 577, and 
Statius, XXII. 466. " The last writer who combines genius 
with something of national spirit, is the poet Claudian (V. 
815), who wrote his epics under the immediate inspiring 
influence of a great national crisis and a national hero." 
After him there is perhaps only one Latin writer whose 
life and works are deserving of study in this connection. 
That writer is BoetiusdII. 855), who lived in the fifth cen- 
tury of our era, and who is described by Gibbon as " the 
last of the Romans whom Cato or Tully could have 
acknowledged for their countryman." 


1. Hebrew. — XI. 597. The Bible, III. 634-641 ; Early 
Israelitish literature, XIII. 408 ; the Talmud, XXIII. 35 ; 
the Midrash, XVI. 285 ; the Mishnah, XVI. 502. 

2. Sanskrit. — XXI. 273-286. 


3. Persian. — XVIII. 655. 

4. Greek. — XI. 136. Homer, XII. 108; Xenophon, 
XXIV. 720; Demosthenes, VII. 67. 

5. Roman. — XX. 715-727. Caesar, IV. 633 ; Cicero, V. 
770; Augustan Age, III. 82; Virgil, XXIV. 248; Ovid, 
XVIII. 7 S ; Livy, XIV. 725. 

6. Chinese. — V. 653. 

7. French. — IX. 6$j. Rabelais, XX. 193 ; Montaigne, 
XIV. 767; Corneille, VI. 417; Pascal, XVIII. 333 ; Mo- 
liere, XVI. 624; La Fontaine, XIV. 203; Racine, XX. 
203; Boileau, III. 863 ; Bossuet, IV. 70 ; Voltaire, XXIV. 
285; Rousseau, XXI. 23; Victor Hugo, IX. 676, sup. 
1629 ; Cousin, V. 521 ; Guizot, XI. 268 ; Dumas, VII. 521 ; 
George Sand, VII. 507 ; Emile Zola, sup. 3231 ; the French 
Academy, sup. 31. 

8. German. — X. 522. Luther, XV. 71; Arndt, II. 622 ; 
Wieland, XXIV. 558; Lessing, XIV. 478; Herder, XI. 
727 ; Goethe, X. 721; Schiller, XXI. 395; Novalis, XL 
472; Hegel, XL 612; Heine, XL 625; Paul Heyse, X. 
545; Spielhagen, X. 545, sup. 2768; Fritz Reuter, XX. 
494; Auerbach, 288 sup.; Freytag X. 545, sup. 1343; 
Ebers, sup. 1 1 10. 

9. Italian. — XIII. 498. Dante, VI. 809; Petrarch, 
XVIII. 706; Boccaccio, III. 842; Ariosto, II. 502; Al- 
ficri, I. 502 ; Carducci, sup. 697. 

10. Spanish. — XXII. 252. Lope de Vega, XXIV. 121 ; 
Cervantes, V. 347 ; Calderon, IV. 659. 

11. Russian. — XXI. 102; Turgenieff, XXIII. 488 ; Tol- 
stoi, sup. 2923 ; Gogol, X. 738 ; Marie Bashkirtseff, sup. 


12. — Swedish — XXII. 753. Tegner, XXIII. no; Fred- 
erika Bremer, IV. 256; Runeberg, XXI. 60; Topelius, 
XXII. 758; Rydberg, sup. 2595. 

13. Norwegian. — XVII. 589. Bjornstjerne Bjornson, 


sup. 481. Henrik Ibsen, sup. 1645; Asbjornsen, sup. 

14. Danish.— VII. 89. Oehlenschlager, XVII. 730; 
Hans Christian Andersen, sup. 178. 


Prose Literature. — Let us begin our general study of 
prose literature by reading the article on History, XII. 
19. Numerous collateral and additional references relat- 
ing to the same subject will suggest themselves, and should 
be traced out and studied. Among these are the follow- 
ing: Influence of history upon the development of 
culture, II. 121 ; relation of history to evolution, VIII. 
759: the philosophy of history, XVIII. 796; relation of 
history to archaeology, II. 334, etc. Following the read- 
ing of these, we may make a brief study of the 

distinctive features of the works of certain great 

History. ... „ , , , 7 , , 

historians, ror example, read what is said of 

Herodotus, XI. 758; of Thucydidcs, XXIII. 
325; of Livy, XIV. 726; of Sallust, XXI.. 219; of Tacitus, 
XXIII. 20: of Villehardouin, XXIV. 229; of Robertson, 
XX. 599; of Hallam, XI. 393; of Macaulay, XV. 128. 

Fiction. — Read the special article on Romance, XX. 632 ; 
also the article by Andrew Lang, entitled, TALES, XXIII. 
27. Let this be followed by a study of the romance lit- 
erature of different countries. Observe what is said of 

French romance, IX.63S ; of German}-, X. 527 ; 

of Spanish, XXII. 3^4; of Arabian, XXIII. 5 ; 
Fiction. r ^ . ... 

of Persian, XVIII. 657. As to romanticism in 

English literature, see XX. S57. The influ- 
ence of romanticism upon French literature is described 
in IX. 675 ; and upon German literature, in X. 541. 


The Drama. — Study the very comprehensive article on 
the drama, VII. 391. Read about the drama in the time 
of Shakespeare, XXI. 759 ; about the Greek 
drama, XI. 140; about the French drama, IX. 
644; about the Spanish drama, XXII. 356; 
about the miracle-plays, V. 324. Read the spe- 
cial article on the theatre, XXIII. 222. 

Poetry. — The scholarly article on Poetry, XIX. 256-273, 
is worthy of careful study. It would be well to 
read it by paragraphs, making reference in the 
meanwhile to additional articles on the lives 
and works of the great poets therein mentioned. 
Read Wordsworth's theory of poetry, XXIV. 670. See 
what is said of poetry as a fine art, IX. 207. 

Satire. — Read the article on satire, XXI. 

317. Study the lives and works of the great 
Satire J ' J . & . 

modern satirists : Rabelais, XX. 193 ; Voltaire, 

XXIV. 285; Dean Swift, XXII. 761 ; Thacke- 
ray, XXIII. 214, etc. 


This course may consist chiefly of a study of the two 
important articles on books, XVIII. 144, and libraries, 
XIV. 509. 

The Advocates' Library, sup. 53. 

Astor Library, sup. 272. 

Boston Public Library, sup. 527. 

Libraries in Chicago, sup. 783. 

See " Some Bookish Subjects " in the chapter entitled 
The Bookman, in this GUIDE. 

For libraries in the United States, see XIV. 534, and 
sup. 1873. An interesting account of the Library of Con- 
gress is given in the article beginning on page 2139, 




" They have been at a great feast of languages." — Love's Labour Lost. 

Philoi.< >gv is that branch of knowledge which deals 
with human speech, and with all that speech discloses as 
to the nature and history of man. In the following 
courses of reading it is proposed to give a general survey 
of the principal languages of the world, their history and 
the distinguishing characteristics of each. These courses 
may be considered as either prefatory or supplementary 
to the courses already indicated for readings in the his- 
tory of literature. A fairly good knowledge of general 
history, such as may be acquired from the readings desig- 
nated in Chapter VI. of this volume, will add very much 
to your ability to appreciate and fully understand the 
courses which follow. 


Begin with the article PHILOLOGY, XVIII. 765, and 

read carefully that part which relates to the science of 

language in general, pp. 765-778. This will 

give a general view of the subject, and prepare 
Philology. to , , . _ . , ., 

you lor the more specific study of particular 

languages. The following articles, or parts of 

articles, may then be read : 

History of language (article ANTHROPOLOGY), II. 117. 


Theories of evolution with respect to language, VIII. 

Language and ethnology, VIII. 621. 

Language and thought, XX. 751. 

Language and mythology, XVII. 137. 

Aryan Languages, II. 697 and XVIII. 778 a. To this 
family of languages belong ten groups or sub-families, as 
follows : 

1. Sanskrit.— XXI. 269; XL 841. 

Aryan 2 - Iranian. — XVIII. 134. 
Languages. 3. Armenian. — II. 549. 

4. Greek. — XI. 126. See also Greek litera- 
ture ; and learn about the Romaic dialects which origi- 
nated in the Greek, XL 135. 

5. Albanian.-— XVIII. 784. 

6. Italic. — This group includes the Latin language, for 
a full history of which see XIV. 327. From the Latin 
have sprung the Romance languages, which are the sub- 
ject of a valuable article in XX. 661. The great modern 
Romance languages are each treated in a separate article, 
as follows : 

(1) Italian, XIII. 491 ; XIV. 340. 

(2) Spanish, XXII. 346. 

(3) Portuguese, XIX. 555. 

(4) Provencal, XIX. 867. 

(5) French, IX. 629. 

(6) Ladino, XIII. 492. 

(7) Roumanian, XXIV. 269. 

7. Ccltie. — This group of languages is treated very 
briefly in XVIII. 785, and more fully in V. 297. 

I 1 j The Gaelic language, which is a branch of the Celtic, 
is the subject of a separate article in X. 6. Other branches 
arc treated as follow 

(2) Irish, V. 298. 


Vrmoric, V. 32 |. 

(4) Cornish (dialect), V. 298. 

(5) \\\l>h, V. 298, 314. 

8. Germanic or Teutonic. — This great sub-family com- 
prises two groups, known as the Eastern Germanic and 
Western Germanic languages. In the former group be- 
long the Gothic language, X. 852, and the Scandinavian 
branch, XXI. 366. Of the Scandinavian languages there 
are two subdivisions : (1) the Eastern Scandinavian, which 

Swedish, XXI. 370. 

Danish, VII. 89, and XXI. Z7> 
and (2) the Western Scandinavian, which comprises, 

Norwegian, XXI. 369. 

Icelandic, XII. 627. 

The Western Germanic languages are each treated in a 
separate article : 

(1) English, VIII. 390. 

(2) Frisian, IX. 788. 

(3) German, X. 514. 

(4) Dutch, XII. 84. 

9. Baltic. — This group embraces three unimportant 
groups, the first of which, Prussian, is now extinct (see 
XVIII. 785). The other two are the Lithuanian, XXII. 
148, and the Lettish, briefly referred to in VII. t 88, and 
XVIII. 785 

10. Slavonic. — XXII. 147. Of this group there are two 
divisions, the Southern and the Western. The former in- 
cludes the following languages : 

(1) Russian, XXI. 109. 

(2) Ruthenian, XIX. 309. 

(3) Bulgarian, XXII. 149. 

(4) Servian, XVIII. 544; XXII. 150. 

(5) Slovenish, XXII. 150. 


The latter or Western division includes, 

(i) Bohemian, XXII. 151. 

(2) Polish, XVIII. 785; XXII. 150. 

The GUIDE has presented above a brief outline for the 
study of the Aryan families of languages. The student 
who follows this course of reading carefully will have ac- 
quired no small knowledge of the science of philology, 
and he will be prepared, by way of review, to study the 
second part of the article on that subject, XVIII. 781-790. 


A second and shorter course of study in philology might 
include the Semitic family of languages. To this family 
belong : 

(1) The Hebrew language, XI. 594. 
Semitic ( 2 ) The Phoenician, XXI. 641. 
Languages. (3) The Assyrian, III. 192. 
(4) The Syriac, II. 307. 

(5) The Arabic, X. 595. 

(6) The Abyssinian, XVI. 654. 

By way of supplementing this course, a short time may 
be spent in tracing the history and peculiarities of the 
third great family of languages, the Hamitic (see XVIII. 
778). Here we have : 

(1) The Egyptian language, VII. 721. 

(2) The Lybian languages, XVIII. 778. 

(3) The Ethiopic languages, I. 263. 

A great many other languages and dialects receive no- 
tice in the Britannica. Not only students of philology, 
but many curious readers will be pleased to 

learn something about the language of the Gip- 
neous h & & 1 

Studies sies > X* " ! 3' tnat °f tne P a P uans > XVIII. 231 ; 

that of the Hottentots, II. 312; or that of the 

Kurds, XIV. 157. But we need enumerate no further. 


We have conducted the student to a point whence he will 
now be able to proceed in his researches without tin- help 
o\ ,1 guide. 

Here are a few subjects of general interest, which it is 
well to know about : 

Grammar, XI. 37. 
Of General Dictionaries, VII. 179. 
Interest. Americanisms, sup. 154. 
Volapiik, sup. 3060. 
See now the references in the chapter on TJic History 
of Literature in this Guide ; also those in the chapter en- 
titled The Writer. 




" And let my lamp at midnight hour 
Be seen in some high lonely tower, 
Where I may oft outwatch the Bear 
With thrice great Hermes ; or unsphere 
The Spirit of Plato, to unfold 
What world or what vast regions hold 
The immortal mind." 

—John Milton. 

THERE are two classes of persons who will be helped 
by the courses of scientific reading proposed in this chap- 
ter, and in those which follow: [ \ ). The young man or 
young woman who is attempting to pursue some method 
of self-instruction at home, and is not yet prepared to 
grapple with the most difficult problems of science. (2). 
The student who is already well started on the 
woe asses waVj am | j s anxious to extend and supplement 
Students *-he information which he has acquired from 
teachers and text-books, until he shall have 
gotten down to the very bottom of the subjects which 
he is studying. The first class will, as a general rule, be 
profited most by the shorter and more popular articles in 
the Britannica; the second will often find in the special 
and more technical articles just that kind of thorough- 
and comprehensiveness which scholars admire and 
desire, and from which they alone are able to derive the 


greatest benefit. It is here that the superiority of the 
Britannica over every other work of reference is most 
apparent— it has articles adapted to the needs and com- 
prehension of every class of readers. 

The following readings in astronomy are intended for 
students who have attained to some proficiency in the 
science ; and yet an effort has been made to meet the 
wants of the self-taught home student as well as those of 
the specialist and the scholar. 

The home student should read the historical portion of 
the article on Astronomy, beginning on page 744 of vol- 
ume II., and ending on page 763. He will find this chap- 
ter quite comprehensive, including nearly ten 
istory p a g es f the Britannica, and giving an account 
Astronomy °^ * ne P ro g rcss °f astronomical science from 
the earliest ages down to the present time. 
The college student will find the entire article on astron- 
omy (sixty pages in all), II. 744, to be more complete 
and satisfactory than most school text-books on the sub- 
ject. The fact that it was written by Prof. R. A. Proc- 
tor, the most famous of our later astronomers, is sufficient 
guarantee of its accuracy. The supplementary article, 
beginning on page 273 of the supplement, contains an ac- 
count of all the important discoveries that have been made 
within the past twenty years. 

Still pursuing the study of the history of this subject, 
read the entertaining article on ASTROLOGY, II. 738, and 
see what is said of astronomy in Arabia, II. 264. After 
that, read the biographies of the most famous 
Astrono- astronomers, ancient and modern : 
mers. Thales, XXIII. 217. 

Arista rchus, II. 504. 

Hipparchus, XI. 851. 

Ptolemy, XX. 87. 


Copernicus, VI. 346. 

Galileo, X. 30. 

Tycho Brahe, IV. 200. 

The Herschels, XI. 765, 768. 

John Kepler, XIV. 45. 

Laplace, XIV. 301. 

Richard A. Proctor, sup. 2453. 

Camille Flammarion, sup. 1286. 

Samuel P. Langley, sup. 1831. 

Simon Newcomb, sup. 2169. 

You are now prepared to enter upon the study of de- 
scriptive Astronomy. Begin with the Solar System, and 
read what Professor Proctor says of the sun in II. 768; 
then turn to J. Norman Lockyer's scholarly ar- 
The Solar tide on' the same subject, XXII. 645. The 
System. nebular theory of the origin of the sun and 
planets will next claim your attention ; and of 
this you will find, in XVII. 310, a full exposition and discus- 
sion by Dr. R. S. Ball, the distinguished Irish astronomer. 
The latest discoveries regarding the distance of the sun 
are described in sup. 275. 

And now, before proceeding farther, it will be interest- 
ing to notice some curious facts concerning the manner 
in which people of all ages and different nation- 
Sun alities have regarded the sun. Among other 
Worship. things, we shall learn how it was worshipped by 
the Sabaeans, XXIV. 741 ; by the Phoenicians, 
XVIII. 802; by the Greeks, II. 185; and by the ancient 
Peruvians, I. 697. 

Read what is said of solar myths, XVII. 157, and XV. 
777 a; also the myth of Phaethon, XVIII. 727; that of 
Adonis, I. 153; and that of Apollo, II. 185. 

Festivals to the sun were held at Ileliopolis, see XIX. 
91, and also in Japan, XIX. 92; and one of the most fa- 


mous temples in the world was that of the sun at Baal- 
bec, see III. 177. 

Resuming the subject of descriptive astronomy, and the 
study of the solar system, read next of the PLANETS in 
their order : 

Mercury, II. 777; Venus, II. 782; XIV. 582, XVIII. 
246, and II. 754 and 796 ; the place of the Earth 
The m the solar system, II. 766, and X. 214; Mars, 

Planets. XIV. 46, and II. 776, 796; the Asteroids, II. 
736, 806, and sup. 271 ; Jupiter, XVI. 250 and 
II. 782, 808; Uranus, II. 758, XI. 767, and II. 782 ; Nep- 
tune, XIV. 487, and II. 782, 813. Olbers's theory of the 
origin of the asteroids is given in a brief biographical ar- 
ticle on that great German astronomer, XVII. 752; and 
the most recent facts concerning those interesting bodies 
are stated in sup. 271. 

The article on the MOON, XVI. 798, next claims atten- 
tion. The moon is also described in II. 774, 782. 
The For its motion, see XL 74; for its phases, II. 

Moon. 797 ; for its influence on the tides, XXIII. 353— 

356, 365, 368 ; for its influence on atmospheric 
pressure, XVI. 124. The legends and myths of the moon 
are duly noticed in XL 680, and XVII. 157. 

Many interesting things are told about ECLIPSES. For 
the nature and causes of eclipses, see II. 788 

and 802 ; turn also to XIV. 581, and XXII. 650. 
Eclipses. . .... . , 

borne historical tacts with relation to the obser- 
vation of these phenomena are interesting. 
The Chinese have very ancient records of such observa- 
tions, see II. 745. The Assyrians also kept similar rec- 
ords, III. 191. 

Read what is said about COMETS, II. 813. The article 
on this subject, VI. 182, belongs to mathematical astron- 


omy. Notice Kepler's theories, XIV. 47 ; Leverrier's, XIV. 
486; and Olbers's, XVII. 752. Recent observa- 
tions on comets are described by Professor Simon 

Con.ots. ._, . „ _. , , 

Newcomb in sup. 275. r or Biela s comet, see 

VI. 192, and XVI. III. An account of the ap- 
pearance of twin comets may be found in XVI. ill. 

In the article on METEORS, XVI. 106, there is much 
interesting information. Meteorites, or " falling stars," 
are noticed in XVI. 112, with the theories regarding their 
origin, etc. See also AEROLITE, I. 184. 

Passing now beyond the solar system, read first that 
portion of the article on astronomy which refers particu- 
larly to the fixed stars, II. 744, 823. For the classifica- 
tion of these stars, with reference to magnitude, 
The Fixed turn to XVIII. 840. An interesting notice of 
Stars. new and variable stars is given in XXII. 651. 
For the measurements of the stars, see XVI. 
250; and for their spectroscopic analysis, see X. 215, and 

XXII. 651. 

Among other subjects which are of interest to students 
of astronomy, we may mention the following: 

The Zodiac, XXII. 791. 

The Zodiacal Light, XXIV. 796. 

The Galaxy (Milky Way), II. 818. 

Corona, VI. 428. 

Celestial Photometry, XVIII. 840. 

If you would acquire a knowledge of astronomical in- 
struments, read the valuable articles on the telescope, 

XXIII. 135, and sup. 2871 ; also that on the transit cir- 
cle, XIII. 515; the notice of the micrometer, 
XVI. 242; of the sextant, XXI. 724; of the 
astrolabe, X. 181. There are two articles on 

Observatories which must not be omitted, 

XVII. 708-717, and sup. 2236. See the description of 



Pond's astronomical instruments, XIX. 452, and of Roo- 
mer's, XX. 620; also of the Orrery, sup. 2261. 

Read of the famous American telescope-maker, Alvau 
Clark, sup. 816. 

In connection with the study of Astronomy, we very 

naturally think of almanacs and calendars. The Britan- 

nica gives a good deal of information concerning both of 

these. The articles on the Almanac, I. 590, 

and American Almanacs, sup. 137, are espe- 


daily interesting. So, too, is that on the Cal- 
endar, IV. 664. The different calendars that 
have been, or are still in use, are each fully described : 
The Egyptian calendar, VII. 728. 
The Hebrew calendar, IV. 677. 
The Mohammedan calendar, IV. 679. 
The Burmese calendar, IV. 555. 
The Siamese calendar, XXI. 853. 
The Gregorian calendar, IV. 671. 
The famous Mexican calendar-stone, I. 695. 
The peculiar terms used in almanacs and calendars are 
also explained, as : 

Chronological eras or epochs, IV. 681 ; V. 711. 
Epact, IV. 672. 

Dominical letter, IV. 669, etc. 
The various methods of measuring time are 
described in XXIII. 392. 

Difference between mean time and sidereal 
time, VI. 14. 

Equation of time in astronomy, II. 772. 

Timepieces, VI. 13 ; XXIV. 394. 

Sun-dials, VII. 153. 

Clocks, VI. 13, and sup. 836; Watches, XXIV. 394. 

Standard time, XII. 854. 




" Full nature swarms with life." 

T/iomsoti, The Seasons. 

BIOLOGY in its widest sense is the science of life and 
living things. It therefore includes Zoology and Botany, 
to which separate chapters are devoted in this GUIDE. 
The following general course of reading, although far from 
exhaustive, includes several chapters on subjects relating 
to the foundation principles of the science. It is dis- 
tinctively a course for advanced students. 

Biology III. 679. 

Protoplasm, XIX. 828, 12, 21, 43. 
Morphology, XVI. 837. 
General Histology, XII. 4; III. 681 ; XVI. 840. 

Topics. Differentiation, XVI. 79. 

Taxonomy, 1 1. 49; III. 683. 

Classification, Botanical, XVI. 845, sup. 821-823 ; zo- 
ological, II. 49. 

Distribution, III. 684 ; of animals, VII. 267 ; of plants, 
VII. 286. 

Geological distribution of animals, VII. 281. 

Continuity of life, III. 684. 

Physiology, III. 684. 

Animal physiology, XIX. 10. 
Human physiology, XVII. 667. 
Vegetable physiology, XIX. 43. 
Reproduction, XX. 407. 


Gemmation, XXIII. 617. 

Fission, III. 686. 

Agamogenesis, XIII. 146. 

Hereditary transmission, III. 687. 

I I credity, I. 87. 

Variation and Selection, XXIV. 76. 

Individuality, III. 688. 

/Etiology, III. 688. 

Abiogenesis, I. 49. 

Biogenesis, II. 689. 
Evolution. ° or 

Embryology, sup. 11 86. 

Origin of Species, Darwin on, XXIV. 77, 81 ; 
Lamarck on, XIV. 232. 
Evolution, VIII. 744. 
Neo-Darwinism, sup. 2160. 
Phylogeny, II. 49; III. 690. 

See, also Haeckel, XX. 422 ; Darwin, sup. 989 ; La- 
marck, XIV. 231 ; Huxley, sup. 1639. 

The Vegetable Kingdom. See Readings in Botany, 
in this Guide. 

Limits and Classification, III. 690. 
Vegetable Thallophyta, XX. 430 ; XXIV. 125. 
Kingdom. Cormophyta, III. 694. 

The Animal Kingdom. See Readings in 
Zoology in this Guide. 

Acclimatization, I. 84. 
Animal Breeds and Breeding, IV. 244. 

Kingdom. Hybridism, XII. 422. 

Instinct, XIII. 157. 
Animal Mechanics, XV. 772. 
Longevity of Animals, XIV. 857. 




" I used to believe a great deal more in opportunities and less in ap- 
plication than I do now. Time and health are needed, but with these 
there are always opportunities. Rich people have a fancy for spending 
money very uselessly on their culture, because it seems to them more 
valuable when it has been costly ; but the truth is, that by the blessing 
of good and cheap literature, intellectual light has become almost as 
accessible as daylight." — Philip Gilbert Hamerton. 

The amount and variety of information which the Bri- 
tannica offers on all subjects connected with the natural 
sciences is truly wonderful. The articles on 
Three Zoology, or animal life, are very numerous — 

Courses. some of them brief, descriptive paragraphs, in- 
structive and interesting to every reader, others 
exhaustive treatises designed for the study of specialists. 
The vast range of such subjects can perhaps best be illus- 
trated by reference to the following schemes for courses 
of reading in this science. The first two are of a popular 
character, and are believed to be not too difficult for the 
home student or amateur zoologist ; the third is more 
purely scientific, and will be appreciated only by those 
who have already made considerable progress in the study, 
and arc able to understand its technical difficulties. 


In Volume XXIV., beginning on page 799 and extend- 
ing to page 803, the history of the science of zoology is 


treated in a manner which appeals to the interest of 

every person who cares to acquaint himself 

rogress w ftJi tl ie progress of scientific ideas. After 
of the .. i.i , .,, 11 

Science reading this, the student will naturally turn to 

the biographical sketches of the great men who 

have contributed most to our knowledge of this subject. 

The following articles will be especially interesting and 

instructive : 

Aristotle, the most famous of the ancient 

Biog- writers on this subject, II. 510. 

raphies. Edward Wotton, the first English zoologist 

(1492-1555), XXIV. 803. 

William Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood (1578-1658), XI. 502. 

Conrad Gesner, the eminent Swiss naturalist of the 
XVIth century, X. 554. 

John Ray, " the father of modern zoology " (1628-1705), 
XX. 300. 

Carl Linnaeus, "the Adam of zoological science," XIV. 

Comte de Buffon, the first great popularizer of natural 
history, IV. 444. 

Baron Cuvier, the eminent French naturalist, VI. 740. 

Charles Darwin, the great leader of evolutionary biology, 
sup. 989. 

Ernst Haeckel, the famous German disciple of the doc- 
trine of evolution, XX. 422. 

Alfred Russel Wallace, author of " The Geographical 
Distribution of Animals," sup. 3074. 

Albrecht von Haller, the Swiss physiologist, XI. 396. 

Johannes M Ciller, the German anatomist, XVII. 17. 

Jean Baptiste Lamarck, originator of the theory of 
evolution, XIV. 231. 

Louis Agassiz, the great Swiss-American scientist, I. 274. 


Sir John Lubbock, sup. 1927. 

Thomas Henry Huxley, the English naturalist, sup. 

Ernst von Baer, founder of the science of embryology, 
XXIV. 807. 

Sir Richard Owen, the foremost of the disciples of 
Cuvier, sup. 2270. 

John Vaughan Thompson, the great authority on ma- 
rine invertebrata, XXIV. 808. 

Theodore Schwann, inventor of the cell theory, XXI, 460. 

John James Audubon, the greatest- of ornithologists, 
III. 70. 

Alexander Wilson, the Scottish-American ornithologist, 
XXIV. 590. 

Spencer F. Baird, secretary of the Smithsonian Institu 
tion, sup. 321. 

James Cossar Ewart, founder of marine laboratories, 
sup. 1226. 

G. Brown Goode, director of the National Museum, 
sup. 1423. 

Joseph Leidy, American biologist, sup. i860. 

Lewis Le Conte, American naturalist, sup. 1852. 


As an introduction to these readings it will be interest- 
ing to notice the historical paragraphs in the 

article on ZOOLOGY, XXIV. 799-803. Read 
Mammalia. , . ~ , " .,. . . ,, 

also the nrst section oi the article on MAMMALIA, 

XV. 347, and the last section of the same arti- 
cle, XV. 444. 

Many things in the article on Anthropology, II. 107- 
123, are both curious and instructive; but for the present 
the reader's attention is directed only to the section on the 


Origin of Man, page no, and that on the Races of Man- 
kind, page iii. 

The article on the An:, II. [48-169, by Professor St. 
George Mivart, is a complete popular and scientific de- 
scription of the various families and groups of monkeys. 
The general reader will be interested in the first section, 
page [48-155, and also in the concluding sections relating 
to the geopraphical distribution, etc., of apes. 

The ELEPHANT is the subject of an important article, 
VIII. 122. His prehistoric relatives or progenitors are 
also appropriately described: the Mammoth, XV. 447; 
the Mastodon, XV. 622 ; and the Megatherium, XV. 829. 

Perhaps the most interesting of all domestic animals is 
the CAMEL. See the general article, IV. 735, and also the 
section on the camel in Arabia, II. 242. 

Interesting articles — historical and descriptive, and illus- 
trated — are those on the Dog, VII. 324 ; and the Cat, V. 202. 

Carnivorous animals are represented by the Tiger, 
XXIII. 385 ; the Lion, XIV. 679 ; and the Hyena, XII. 420. 

Some curious animals are: the Beaver, III. 475; the 
Chameleon, V. 381; the Chamois, V. 384; the Sloth, 
XXII. 161 ; the Ichneumon, XII. 629. 

Of the long and very comprehensive article on BIRDS, 
III. 699, the general reader will select the following chap- 
ters as the most interesting: Fossil birds, III. 
728 ; migration of birds, III. 765 ; birds' eggs, 
III. 772. The different classes of birds are 
variously represented and described in a large 
number of separate articles. For the present it is un- 
necessary to call attention to any of these articles further 
than to say that no popular course of reading should omit 
the Ostrich, XVIII. 62 ; the Rhea, XX. 505; the Eagle, 
VII. 589: the Raven, XX. 295, the Hummingbird, XII. 
357; and the Albatross, I. 449. The Dodo, that won- 


derful bird which has but lately become extinct, is the 
subject of an interesting sketch, VII. 321. 

A general study of fishes, such as is contemplated in 
this course, should include a glance at the special ar- 
ticle, XII. 630, and also a portion of the chapter on fish- 
culture, XIX. 126. The article on ANGLING, 
II. 32, will be read and enjoyed by every fisher- 
man. Among the multitude of similar articles, 
the following on food fishes should not be omit- 
ted : Salmon, sup. 2612 ; Mackerel, XV. 159; Herring, XI. 
764; Cod, VI. 103; Sardine, XXI. 307. Fossil fishes art- 
noticed in I.275, and poisonous fishes in XV. 782. See, also, 
Seth Green, the famous fish culturist, sup. 1461. 
David Starr Jordan, the American ichthyologist, sup. 


Aquarial building, sup. 3201. 

As to reptiles, read the following : Distribu- 
tion of reptiles in time, XX. 465 ; Rattlesnake, 
Reptiles. xx ^ 293 _ Cobm) VL 90 - . Asp) n. 714 ; Croco- 
dile, VI. 592; Lizard, XIV. 732. 
Concerning CRUSTACEA, there is a valuable article in 
VI. 632 ; but our popular course will include only the 
chapters relating to the crab, VI. 538, and the lobster, 
VI. 657. 

Ocean life is noticed in an interesting way in VII. 276- 

281. The articles on the Whale, XXIV. 523; 

Ocean the Walrus, XXIV. 337 ; the Dolphin, VII. 346 ; 

Life. the Seal, XXI. 580, and the Oyster, sup. 2273- 

2274, are particularly interesting. 

The above lists include only a very small portion 

of the articles on animals. These are sufficient, however, 

to indicate the great variety of interesting and practical 

information on zoological subjects contained in the pages 

of the Britannica. 


This course of reading might be extended indefinitely 
until it should embrace many hundreds of subjects, and 
require half a lifetime for its completion. Thepurposeof 
the Guide, however, has been not to present an exhaus- 
tive course, but only to indicate that which may be com- 
pleted easily by the amateur student within a compara- 
tively brief period of time. A still briefer and much 
easier course is indicated in Chapter IV. of this GUIDE. 


The principal articles on zoological subjects, written by 
specialists and embodying all the lastest discoveries, are 
particularly valuable to advanced students. They are re- 
markable alike for their comprehensiveness and their ac- 
curacy. Taken together, they would form a complete 
library of zoology in themselves. 

After reading the history of the science as it is related 

in XXIV. 799-803, together with the biographical sketches 

indicated in Course I. above, the student will be 

Classifies- prepared to make some study of the various 

tion. forms of classification that have been proposed 

by great naturalists. Most of these may be 

found in the special article on Zoology, already alluded to : 

Aristotle's, XXIV. 804. 

The Linnaean, XXIV. 805. 

Lamarck's, XXIV. 806. 

Cuvier's, XXIV. 807. 

Owen's, XXIV. 808. 

Huxley's, XXIV. 809. 

A valuable scientific article on classification, written by 
Mr. Huxley himself, maybe found in- II. 49. Keeping 
Mr. Huxley's classification in mind, the student who cares 
to go so deeply into the subject may obtain a general and 


complete view of the science of zoology by studying the 
following articles in the order here given : 

I. Protozoa, XIX. 830 — i valuable article, very finely 

II. Infusoria, XXII. 106. 

III. Ccelenterata, VI. 107 — .1 short article, purely scien- 
tific. Under this sub-kingdom, see Hydrozoa, XII. 547, 
and Actinozoa, I. 129. 

IV. Annuloida — see Echinodermata, VII. 629. 

V. Annulosa. — Under this sub-kingdom there may be 
many references. We give only a few : 

Crustacea, VI. 632. 

Arachnida, II. 271. 

Myriapoda, XVII. 115, and V. 340. 

Insecta, XIII. 141 (see Index, 224). 

Chsetognatha (marine worms), XXI. 148, and II. 52. 

Annelida, II. 65. 

VI. Molluscoida, IV. 188. — Under this sub-kingdom, 
see : 

Polyzoa, XIX. 429. 
Brachiopoda, IV. 188. 
Tunicata, XXIII. 609; II. 53. 

VII. Mollusca, XVI. 632 ; II. 54.— Under this sub-king- 
dom, refer to the following subjects: 

Lamellibranchiata, XVI. 684. 
Gastropoda, XVI. 641. 
Pteropoda, XVI. 665. 
Cephalopoda, VI. 735. 

VIII. Vcrtcbrata, XXIV. 178.— Under this sub-king- 
dom there might be hundreds of references given. The 
following articles and paragraphs will be found especially 
valuable : 

Class i. PISCES. See Ichthyology, XII. 630; distribution 
of marine fishes, VII. 280, XII. 677; freshwater fishes, 


XII. 669; fishes of America, I. 684; geographical dis- 
tribution of fishes, XII. 668; fishes of prehis- 
toric times, XII. 666; Agassiz's researches in 
fossil fishes, 1.-75; angling, II. 32; aquariums, 
II. 217. Several special articles may be of 
interest to the general reader, such as: 
Sea fisheries, IX. 243. 
Mackerel, XV. 160. 
Cod, VI. 103. 
Sturgeon, XXII. 61 1. 

Fish-culture, XII. 664; XIX. 126; sup. 1280. 
Angling, II. ^2. 
Izaak Walton, XXIV. 342. 
David Starr Jordan, sup. 1755. 
Class 2. Amphibia, I. 750. 

Class 3. REPTILIA, XX. 432 ; snakes, XXII. 189; croco- 
diles, VI. 592 ; alligators, I. 585. 

CLASS 4. AVES. See Birds, III. 699; distribution of, 

III. 736, VII. 269; birds of America, I. 684. Turn to the 

special article, ORNITHOLOGY, XVIII. 2. The history of 

this science, as narrated in the first pages of this article, 

is especially interesting. The list of valuable 

works on birds, XVIII. n-19, is very complete 
Birds. ji J r 

and valuable. The titles of hundreds of articles, 
referring to different birds might be given, but 
we quote only a few — for example, in volume VI. are such 
articles as the following: cockatoo, p. 98 ; condor, p. 253 ; 
coot, p. 341 ; cormorant, p. 407; crane, p. 546; crow, p. 
617; cuckoo, p. 685 ; curassow, p. 709; curlew, p. 711 — 
but the student needs no guide to find such articles as 

Class 5. Mammalia, XV. 347 — a very comprehensive 
and scientific article, fully illustrated. 

Classification of Mammalia, XV. 370. 


History of Mammalia in former times, XV. 374. See 
also Palaeontology, X. 319. 
Subclass Echidna, VII. 628. 

Mammalia. _ , . . r .. -,r Tr o • 1 

Subclass Metatheria, XV. 378; marsupials, 

XIII. 838; kangaroo, III. III. 

Subclass EutJicria. Order Edentata. VII. 652 ; sloth, 
XXII. 161; armadillo, II. 543; aard-vark, I. 3; anteater, 
XV. 385, etc. 

Order Sircnia, XV. 389 ; the manatee, XV. 456, etc. 

Order Cetacea, V. 357; whale, XXIV. 523; porpoise, 
XIX. 521 ; dolphin, VII. 346, etc. 

Order Insectivora, XV. 400. 

Order Chiroptcra, XV. 405 ; bats, III. 431. 

Order Rodentia, XV. 415; squirrels, XXII. 437; rab- 
bits, XX. 192 ; hares, XI. 479, etc. 

Order Ungulata, XV. 421; elephant, VIII. 122; rhi- 
noceros, XX. 521; horse, XII. 172; zebra, XXIV. 772; 
deer, VII. 23, etc. 

Order Carnivora, XV. 432 ; cat, V. 202 ; dog, VII. 324; 
bear, III. 461 ; lion, XIV. 679 ; tiger, XXIII. 385, etc. 

Order Primates, II. 108; lemur, XIV. 440; monkey, 
II. 148; man, XV. 444, and II. 107, etc. 


The student who has followed this course of reading 
to the present point will now be prepared to 
Special notice the following important special articles : 
Articles. Anthropology, II. 107. 

Animism, II. 55. 

Biology, III. 679. 

Evolution, VIII. 744. 

Neo-Darwinism, sup. 2160. 

Variation and selection, XXIV. 76. 

Acclimatization, I. 84. 


Reproduction, XX. 407. 

Parthenogenesis, sup. -302. 

Embryology, VIII. 163. A valuable supplementary 
article, giving an account of all the latest advancements 
in this department of science, may be found in sup. 1 186— 
1 195. 

Breeds and Breeding, IV. 244. 

Hybridism, XII. 422. 

Distribution of Animals, VII. 267. 

Longevity of Animals, XIV. 857. 

Animal Physiology, XIX. 10. 

Animal Heat, sup. 189. 

Animal Magnetism, XV. 277. 

Animal Mechanics, XV. 772. 

Sense-Organs, sup. 2682. 

Segmentation of the Vertebrate Head and Brain, sup. 

Instinct, XIII. 157. 

Histology, XII. 4. 

See General Course of Reading in Biology, for a more 
logical arrangement of these subjects. 




" In my garden I spend my days ; in my library I spend my nights. 
My interests are divided between my geraniums and my books." — Alex- 
ander Smith. 

THE reader who wishes to acquire a general knowledge 

of the subject of botany may begin by reading the chaptei 

on the history of Botanical Science, IV. 79. 

Great After this, read the biographies of the famous 
Botanists, men who have contributed most to the advance- 
ment of this science. Among these the follow- 
ing are named as among the most important : 

The elder Pliny, the first who made any extensive cata- 
logue of plants, XIX. 224. 

Andreas Caesalpinus, the great Florentine botanist of 
the 1 6th century, IV. 633. 

John Ray, the originator of the " natural system " of 
classification, XX. 300. 

Tournafort, the foremost French botanist of the 17th 
century, XXII. 490. 

Carl Linnaeus, the real founder of the science, XIV. 

Jussieu, a famous French family of botanists, XIII. 788. 

Robert Brown, the first British botanist to adopt and 
support the " natural system," IV. 385. 

Asa Gray, the well-known American botanist, sup. 1447. 

John M. Coulter, author of many of the articles on 
botanical subjects in the supplements to the Britannica, 
sup. 927. 


After having read these biographical sketches, turn 
again to the special article on Botany, IV. 79-163, and 
notice the comprehensive manner in which the subject 
is there treated. This article comprises much more mat- 
ter than is contained in the ordinary school text-books, 
and, as you will see, is profusely and beautifully illus- 
trated with numerous full-page plates. 

If it is your wish to make a thorough study of the 
anatomical structure of plants, their arrangement and 
classification, their distribution over the globe, and the 
uses to which they are subservient, you will find this ar- 
ticle to be full of just the kind of information 


that you want. We will suppose, however, that 
Botany. you prefer, instead of studying every portion of 
this article, to use it for purposes of reference, 
and in order to supplement the information which you ob- 
tain from other sources. If this be the case, consult the 
" Index of Principal Subjects," IV. 162. But even if you are 
making only a hasty and superficial survey of this delight- 
ful science, you will find several chapters in this article 
worthy of your attention. Here are a few which you 
cannot afford to pass unnoticed : 

Different parts of flowers, p. 126; essential organs of 
flowers, p. 134; respiration of plants, p. 119; pollen, p. 
138; fertilization, p. 147; mosses, p. 107; lichens, p. 107; 
leaves, pp. 108-119; fruit, pp. 148-153. 

One of the most important articles to aid in the syste- 
matic study of this science is that on CLASSIFICATION, by 
Prof. John M. Coulter, sup. 821-823. 

The article on Ecology, sup. uii-1113, a new depart- 
ment of plant physiology, is indispensable to all advanced 

The article on Morphology of Plants, sup. 2105, is 
equally lucid, scientific, and comprehensive. 


Other articles relating to botanical topics are numerous. 
Any lover of flowers who does not care to pursue a course 
of reading, may while away many pleasant hours in perus- 
ing chapters like the following : 

Distribution of plants, VII. 286. 

Propagation of plants, XII. 211, 234. 

Reproduction of plants, XX. 423 ; sup. 2533. 

Ancestry of plants, sup. 176. 

Fertilization by insects, XIII. 142. 

Linnaeus's classification of plants, XIV. 672. 

Morphology, XVI. 841. 

Alternation of generation, sup. 143. 

Assimilation in plants, sup. 269. 

Physiology of plants, XIX. 43. 

Insectivorous plants, XIII. 134. 

Parasitic plants. XVIII. 264. 

The article on the VEGETABLE Kingdom, XXIV. 
125-131, contains a complete classification of plants. 

Read also : 

Botanic Gardens, sup. 529. 

Algae, I. 507, sup. 123. 

Fungus, IX. 827. 

Lichens, XIV. 552. 

Hepaticae, XIV. 718. 

Muscinae, XVII. 65. 

In pursuing the study of botany in a practical way, it 
is of course necessary that you should acquire a knowl- 
edge of plants at first hand, through personal 

The observation. You must, therefore, make a col- 
Herbarium, lection of plants and arrange an herbarium for 
your own use and study. Full directions for 
doing this may be found in XI. 717. 

And now, for further referent- t<> plants, their culture, 


uses, etc., see the chapters in this volume entitled, The 
Gardener, The Fruit Grower, and The Woods- 

Further man. Ill the first will be found a series of read- 
Studies, ings on the propagation and care of flowers and 
vegetables, and in the others some interesting 
and curious matter pertaining to trees, their modes of 
growth, their history, and their uses in the world's econ- 
omy. It is well to remember that all the most important 
trees and plants in existence are the subjects of special 
articles in the Britannica. These may readily be found 
by consulting the Index volume. 




" What a world is this ! " 

— As You Like It. 


No TEACHER of geography can afford to be without the 
Encyclopedia Britannica. In its pages are found a wealth 
and variety of matter pertaining to this science which it is 
impossible to find in any similiar work. By reference to 
its numerous geographical articles all difficult questions 
may be easily solved, and a store of information may be 
acquired which will be of infinite value at times when it is 
needed most. 

The teaching of geography began in very 
History of ancient times. The people of antiquity knew 
Geography, but very little about the earth, it is true ; but 
they were anxious to perpetuate and extend 
that knowledge. And so among the Greeks, we find that 
it was customary to lay particular stress upon the teach- 
ing of the second book of the Iliad, for that book contains, 
in connection with the " catalogue of ships," a brief notice 
of the geography of the countries known at the time of 
the Trojan war. (See Homer, XII. 108 ; Iliad, XI. 137; 
Troy, XX. 6 37 .) 

The first person who attempted to reduce the science to 
a system was Eratosthenes (VIII. 519), and when we con- 
sider how limited was his knowledge of the subject we are 
surprised that he succeeded so well, lie was followed by 


Hipparchus (XV. 516), who proposed a method for deter- 
mining the relative position of places upon the earth. 
Later came Ptolemy, the greatest of all the ancient ge- 
ographers (XX. Sj). His maps are the most ancient that 
have come down to us. (For a copy of his map of the 
world, see XV. 516.) Strabo, who was a little earlier, was 
perhaps even more scientific in his methods and conclu- 
sions than Ptolemy (XXII. 580). 

During the Middle Ages, geography was taught in the 

monastic schools. (See trivium and quadrivium, 

The Middle XX. 5 1 5.) In the course of study it was placed 

Ages. under the head of geometry ; but the "geometry" 
of these schools consisted chiefly of an abridg- 
ment of Ptolemy's or Pliny's geography (X. 177 ; XIX. 
224), to which the definitions of a few geometric forms 
had been added. For a thousand years there was abso- 
lutely no advancement made in either the knowledge of 
geography or the methods of teaching it. 

The first modern impetus to discovery was given by 
the invention of the mariner's compass (VI. 225), and this 
of course was followed by a corresponding extension of 
geographical knowledge. Then came the invention of 
the astrolabe (XVII. 251). Then Prince Henry the Navi- 
gator began his career of exploration (XI. 672) ; Colum- 
bus gave a new impetus to the study of geog- 
° raphy by discovering a new continent (VI. 171). 

Modem ' , , , , & ., , , V ' , 

Geo phy Other bold adventurers sailed the seas and 
added their contributions to mankind's stock 
of knowledge concerning the world and its inhabitants. 
(See Hakluyt, XI. 378, and Purchas, XX. 114.) 

But the history ot the progress of geographical study 
is given in full, and with many interesting details, in the 
Britannica. See Geography, X. 175. 

In obtaining a knowledge of the history of this subject, 


the following articles will be found replete with informa- 
tion : 

Globe, X. 680. 

Maps, XV. 515; earliest forms of maps, XX. 91, 94; 
classes of maps, X. 191 ; Mercator's map, XVII. 253. 

Navigation, XVII. 251. 
Promoters of MarCQ polo> XJX g> 

Geographical . 

Knowledge. Varenius, XXIV. 69. 
Rennell, XX. 399. 
Ritter, XX. 570. 
Petermann, sup. 2356. 

See also Polar exploration since 1880, sup. 2408. 
Henry M. Stanley, sup. 2777. 


On the orthography of geographic names, see sup. 

Every reader of the Britamtica will of course under- 
stand that all articles descriptive of the conti- 

e or nents, and indeed of every place of importance 
Whole m tae wor ld> are to be found in their appro- 
priate places in the different volumes of this 
work. Hence it is not necessary to encumber the pages 
of the Guide with mere lists of such articles. The titles 
of some of these articles may be grouped together, how 
ever, according to topics, in such a way as to indicate a 
number of brief courses of reading on geographical sub- 
jects. Begin, for example with the world as a whole. 
Read the article on Physical Geography, X. 210; then 
take up the following in their order : 

The Globe, X. 680-685 ; the Relief Globe, sup. 1410. 

Maps, XV. 51 5-523- 

The Ocean, X. 211, 221, 282. 

Atlantic Ocean, III. 15. 


Pacific Ocean, XVIII. 114. 

Indian Ocean, XII. 820. 

Ocean Currents, III. 16, X. 283. 

Currents of the Pacific Ocean, XVIII. 117. 

Currents of the Indian Ocean, XII. 821. 

The Continents: Europe, VIII. 680; Asia, II. 683; 

Africa, I. 245 ; Australia, III. 103 ; America, I. 


Land. * 

Seas, XXI. 578 (see Index volume, page 396) ; 
Mediterranean Sea, XV. 819; Red Sea, XX. 
316; Aral Sea, II. 306 ; Black Sea, III. 795 ; Caspian, V. 
176; Baltic, III. 293; North, XVII. 563; Ca- 
ribbean, V. 103, etc. 

Lakes (special article), XIV. 216. 
Rivers, XX. 571 ; The Amazon, I. 654, 674; 
Mississippi, XVI. 518; Nile, XVII. 504, VII. 705 ; Niger, 
XVII. 496; Congo, XXIV. 76$ ; Indus, XII. 847; Eu- 
phrates, VIII. 668; Ganges, X. 68; Rhine, XX. 518; 
Danube, VI. 819. 
Cataracts and Waterfalls, sup. 722. 

Mountains, XVII. 4; Alps, I. 619; Atlas, III. 27; 
Apennines, II. 169; Appalachian, II. 200; Andes, II. 15; 
Rocky, XXIII. 796; Himalaya, XI. 821; Ural, XXIV. 
3 ; Pyrenees, XX. 124. 


To the student of geography, one of the most instruct- 
ive articles in the Britannica is that on the making of maps, 
XV. 515. The account therein given of the first essays 
in map-making is particularly interesting. This is followed 
by chapters on the development of map-making among 
the Greeks, XV. 516; on map-making among the Romans, 
page 517; on map-making in the middle ages, page 517; 
on nautical maps, page 518; on the maps of Ptolemy and 


his successors, page 520; on the period of triangulations 
and geodetic surveys, page 522. In connection with this 
article, the curious reader will find a double-page colored 
illustration comparing Ptolemy's map of the world with 
the actual positions and distances, thus showing that, how- 
ever inaccurate it may have been in details, it was never- 
theless constructed according to strictly scien- 
tific methods, and in that respect was perfectly 
Historical. . .. r , T , . . 

correct. An outline 01 Mercators map 01 the 

world, drawn in 1 569, is another interesting fea- 
ture of this article, XV. 521. The Borgia map, X. 177, 
made in the 15th century, just before the discovery of the 
Western Hemisphere, is not only a great curiosity, but 
worthy of study, as illustrating the ideas of learned men 
in the middle ages concerning the shape and extent of the 
earth. The Lenox Globe, represented in I X. 68 1 , and sup- 
posed to have been constructed in 1506-07, illustrates the 
next step in the advancement of geographical knowledge. 
The maps in the Encyclopedia Britannica, if collected 
in a single volume, would form one of the most complete 
and convenient atlases ever published. But since these 
maps are necessarily somewhat widely scattered through 
the various volumes of the Encyclopedia, few people, 
realize the extent and importance of this feature. In fact, 
there is no country on the globe that is not accurately rep- 
resented in these pages. 


Africa, I. 244. 
Alabama, I. 438. 
Alaska, I. 442. 
America, North, I. 668. 
America, South, I. 712. 
Arabia, II. 240. 


Argentina, II. 489. 

Arizona, II. 538. 

Arkansas, II. 539. 

Armenia XV. 92. 

Asia, II. 682. 

Asia Minor, XV. 92. 

Australia, III. 104. 

Austria-Hungary, III. 120. 

Bengal and Assam, III. 564. 

Boston and Vicinity, XV. 610 ; XX. 524. 

Brazil, IV. 224. 

California and Xevada, IV. 696. 

Canada, IV. 768. 

Cape Colony, V. 40. 

Central America, X. 240. 

Chicago and Vicinity, XII. 704. 

China, V. 626. 

The Coal Fields of Great Britain, VI. 48. 

Colorado — county map, VI. 160. 

Connecticut — count}- map, VI. 288. 

North Dakota — county map, VI. 772. 

South Dakota — county map, VI. 773. 

Denmark, VII. 80. 

Derby, England, VII. 106. 

Devon, England, VII. 136. 

Dorset, England, VII. 372. 

Durham, England, VII. 560. 

Egypt, VII. 704. 

England and Wales — county map, VIII. 216. 

Britain in 597, VIII. 272. 

English Empire in the tenth and eleventh centuric 
VIII. 273. 

England and France, in the time of Henry the second, 
VIII. 304. 


England and France in 1360, VIII. 320. 

Essex, England, VIII. 552. 

Modern Europe, VIII. 680. 

Europe in the time of the Romans, VIII. 714. 

Europe in the time of Charlemagne, VIII. 715. 

Europe in the time of the Crusades, VIII. 716. 

Florida, IX. 338. 

France, IX. 504. 

Georgia — county map, X. 432. 

The German Empire, X. 448. 

Gloucester, England, X. 688. 

Ancient Greece, XI. 80. 

Modern Greece, XI. 81. 

Guatemala, Honduras, etc., XI. 240. 

Hampshire, England, XI. 432. 

Hawaiian Islands, XI. 528. 

Section of the Leadville Mining District, XVI. 472. 

Hayti, XI. 529. 

Hereford, England, XI. 728. 

Hertford, England, XI. 772. 

The Himalaya Mountain Region, XI. 824. 

Holland, XII. 64. 

Hungary — showing political divisions, XII. 360. 

Huntingdon and Cambridge, England, XII. 396. 

Iceland, XII. 616. 

Idaho — county map, XII. 696. 

Illinois— county map, XII. 704. 

India — showing political divisions, XII. 730. 

Indiana — county map, XII. 812. 

Iowa — county map, XIII. 208. 

Ireland, XIII. 216. 

Italy, XIII. 440. 

Jamaica, XIII. 548. 

Japan, XIII. 568. 


Java, XIII. 548. 

Ground Plan of Modern Jerusalem, XIII. 640. 
Kansas — county map, XIII. 842. 
Kent, England,' XIV. 36. 

Kentucky and Tennessee — county map, XIV. 40. 
Lanark, Scotland, XIV. 250. 
Lancashire, England, XIV. 252. 
Leicester and Rutland, England, XIV. 424. 
Lincoln, England, XIV. 656. 
London, XIV. 818. 
Central London, XIV. 819. 
Louisiana — parish map, XV. 20. 
Lycaonia, Lycia, Lydia, XV. 92. 
Macedonia, XV. 136. 
Madagascar, XV. 168. 
Madeira, XV. 136. 
Maine — county map, XV. 296. 
The Malay Peninsula, XV. 320. 
Maltese Islands, XV. 136. 
Ptolemy's Map of the World, XV. 516. 
Maryland and Delaware — county map, XV. 602. 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island — county map, XV. 

Mesopotamia, XVI. 544. 
Mexico, XVI. 216. 
Michigan — count}- map, XVI. 240. 
Middlesex, England, XVI. 280. 
Minnesota— county map, XVI. 474. 
Mississippi — county map, XVI. 520. 
Missouri — county map, XVI. 524. 
The Mohammedan Empire, XVI. 544. 
Monmouth, England, XVI. 752. 
Montana — county map, XVI. 772. 
Morocco, XVI. P32. 


Nebraska — county map, XVII. 306. 

Nevada — county map, XVII. 368. 

New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, XVII. 372. 

New Guinea and New Caledonia, XVII. 376. 

New Hampshire and Vermont — county map, XVII. 


New Jersey — county map, XVII. 396. 

New Mexico— county map, XVII. 400. 

New South Wales — county map, XVII. 408. 

New York — county map, XVII. 450. 

New York City and Vicinity, XVII. 456. 

New York City, on larger scale, XVII. 458, 459. 

New Zealand, XVII. 466. 

The Region of the Nile, XVII. 504. 

Norfolk, England, XVII. 536. 

Northampton and Bedford, England, XVII. 556. 

North Carolina — county map, XVII. 560. 

Northumberland, England, XVII. 568. 

Norway and Sweden, XVII. 576. 

Nottingham, England, XVII. 596. 

Ohio — county map, XVII. 736. 

Ontario — county map, XVII. 774. 

Oregon — county map, XVII. 824. 

Oxfordshire, Buckingham, etc., England, XVIII. 96. 

Pacific Ocean, showing depths and temperature, XVIII. 

Pacific Ocean, showing currents and routes of travel, 
XVIII. 115. 

Palestine, XVIII. 176. 

Paris and its Environs, XVIII. 274. 

Pennsylvania — county map, XVIII. 498. 

Persia— Ancient Iran, XVIII. 560. 

Modern Persia, XVIII. 616. 

Peru — showing political divisions, XVIII. 672. 


Philadelphia (two sheets), XVIII. 736, jtf. 

Philippine Islands, XVIII. yw. 

The Kingdom of Poland, XIX. 288. 

The Polar Regions, XIX. 320. 

Polynesia. XIX. 424. 

Portugal, XIX. 536. 

Prussia in 1 786, XX. 8. 

Prussia in 1866, XX. 9. 

Quebec (Province of), XX. 164. 

Queensland, XX. 172. 

Massachusetts and Rhode Island, XX. 524. 

Roman Empire, third century, XX. 776. 

Ancient Rome, XX. 808. 

Modern Rome, XX. 832. 

Roumania and Servia, XXI. 18. 

Russia in Europe, XXI. 68. 

Russia from 1462 to 1689, XXI. 88. 

Accessions to Russia, 1689 to 1825, XXI. 89. 

The Basin of the St. Lawrence, XXI. 177. 

Saxony, XXI. 352. 

Scotland in the 16th Century, XXI. 498. 

Scotland at the present day, XXI. 520. 

Shropshire, England, XXI. 848. 

Siam, XXI. 852. 

Siberia, XXII. 2. 

Sicily, XXII. 29. 

Somerset, England, XXII. 256. 

South Australia, XXII. 282. 

South Carolina, XXII. 287. 

Spain, XXII. 304. 

Suffolk, England, XXII. 620 

Sumatra, XXII. 640. 

Surrey, England, XXII. 692. 

Sussex, England, XXII. 722. 


Switzerland, XXII. 776. 

Tasmania — county map, XXIII. J2. 

Tennessee and Kentucky — county map, XXIII. 176. 

Texas — county map, XXIII. 202. 

Tibet, XXIII. 336. 

Tripoli and Tunis, XXIII. 576. 

Turkey, XXIII. 652. 

North and South Virginia in 1620, XXIII. 729. 

English Colonies in America, XXIII. 730. 

The United States, XXIII. 790. 

Territorial Growth of the United States, XXIII. 

Rainfall Chart of the United States, XXIII. 804. 

Temperature Chart of the United States, XXIII. 

Uruguay XXIV. 16. 

Utah — county map, XXIV. 18. 

Vancouver's Island, XXIV. 56. 

Venezuela, showing political divisions, XXIV. 140. 

Vermont and New Hampshire — county map, XXIV. 

Victoria, Australia, XXIV. 216. 

Virginia — county map, XXIV. 257. 

Warwick, England, XXIV. 378. 

Washington (State) — county map, XXIV. 384. 

Westmoreland, England, XXIV. 513. 

West Australia, XXIV. 508. 

West Indies, XXIV. 509. 

West Indies — chart of sea depths, XXIV. 509. 

Wiltshire, England, XXIV. 592. 

Wisconsin — county map, XXIV. 616. 

Worcestershire, England, XXIV. 664. 

Wyoming — county map, XXIV. 712. 

Yorkshire, England, XXIV. 746. 




These are so numerous that we shall name only a few of 
the most important : 

Atlantic Ocean (showing currents), III. 16. 

The Bahama Islands, III. 236. 

Baluchistan, III. 299. 

Sketch map of Belgium, III. 514. 

Plan oi Berlin, III. 594. 

Plan of Bristol, IV. 348. 

Map of Burmah, IV. 55 r. 

Plan of Calcutta, IV. 656. 

Maps of great canals, IV. 793, 794; sup. 681. 

Map of Ceylon, V. 359. 

Plan of Chicago, V. 610. 

Plan of Cincinnati, V. 783. 

Map of Constantinople, VI. 305. 

Plan of Copenhagen, VI. 343. 

Sketch-map of Corea, VI. 390. 

Map of Cornwall, England (double page), VI. 424. 

Map of Cumberland, England (double page), VI. 696. 

Plan of Edinburgh, VII. 660. 

Map of Mount y£tna and Vicinity, VIII. 626. 

Plan of Geneva, X. 147. 

Plan of Glasgow, X. 638. 

Map of Guiana, XI. 249. 

Plan of Halifax, XI. 384. 

Plan of Hamburg, XI. 405. 

Plan of Jersey City, XIII. 635. 

Plan of Lisbon, XIV. 691. 

Plan of Liverpool, XIV. 713. 

Norden's map of Tudor London, XIV. 847. 

Map o 
Plan o 

Long Island, XIV. 865. 
Louisville, Ky., XV. 23. 


Plan of Madras, XV. 188. 
Plan of Madrid, XV. 190. 
The Maldive Islands, XV. 328. 
Plan of Manchester, XV. 460. 

M creator's Nova ct Aucta Or bis Dcscriptio, 1569, XV. 

Plan of Marseilles, XV. 571. 

Map of Mauritius, XV. 639. 

Plan of Melbourne, XV. 836. 

Plan of Milan, XVI. 291. 

Map of Montenegro, XVI. 780. 

Plan of Montreal, XVI. 794. 

Plan of Moscow, XVI. 857. 

Map of Naples, XVII. 188. 

Map of Natal, XVII. 240. 

Plan of New Orleans, XVII. 403. 

New York in 1695 and 1728, XVII. 458. 

Plan of Olympia (Greece), XVII. 767. 

Plan of Pittsburg, XIX. 150. 

Plan of Pompeii, XIX. 446. 

Map of the Punjab, XX. 107. 

Plan of the Forum Romanum, XX. 816. 

Plan of the Palatine Hill, Rome, XX. 822. 

St. Petersburgh, XXI. 192. 

Geological map of Texas, XXIII. 203. 

Cotidal lines of the world, XXIII. 372. 

Turkestan, XXIII. 632. 

Map of Venice, XXIV. 157. 

Plan of Verona, XXIV. 171. 

Plan of Washington, D. C, XXIV. 383. 


Some interesting and curious selections worth reading 
in connection with the study of geography: 


Geographic names, sup. 1380. 

The Sahara Desert, XXI. 149. Latest dis- 
interesting coveries in, sup. 60. 
Topics. Dead Sea, VII. 1. 

Sargasso Sea, III. 20, 26. 
Mount Vesuvius, XXIV. 195. 
Volcanoes, X. 240. 
Earthquakes, VII. 608. 
Mammoth Cave, XV. 448. 

Niagara Falls, XVII. 472 ; Yosemite Falls, IV. 697,698. 
The Black Forest, XXIV. 669. 
Gibraltar, English fortress in Spain, X. 583. 
Polar Regions, XIX. 315, 330 and sup. 2408. These 
two articles give a complete history of arctic exploration 
and adventure from the earliest times to the present. 
Recent explorations in Africa, sup. 59. 
Famous Cities and Towns; Aix-la-Chapelle, I. 431; 
Alexandria, I. 493-496; Athens, III. 1; Baden-Baden, 
III. 226 ; Baghdad, III. 231 ; Benares, III. 555 ; Berlin, III. 
593; Boston, IV. /2; Bristol, IV. 348; Brook- 
Famous lyn, IV. 370 ; Brussels, IV. 404 ; Cabul, IV. 623 ; 
Cities. Cairo, IV. 645; Calcutta, IV. 556; Cambridge, 

IV. 728; Chicago, V. 610; Edinburgh, VII. 
658; Havana, XI. 524; London, XIV. 818 (see Index 
volume, page 265); Madrid, XV. 189; New Orleans, 

XVII. 402; New York, XVII. 457 (see Index volume, 
page 312); Paris, XVIII. 274 (see Index volume, page 
332) ; Rome, XX. 833 (see Index volume, page 377) ; St. 
Petersburgh, XX. 190; Venice, XXIV. 141 (see Index vol- 
ume, page 456); Vienna, XXIV. 219; Versailles, XXIV. 
176; Jerusalem, XIII. 636; Ispahan, XIII. 393; Palmyra, 

XVIII. 198; Antioch, II. 130; Tyre, XXIII. 710; Con- 
stantinople, VI. 302; Mecca, XV. 669; Medina, XV. 



See the special article, XXIII. 729-S29, and the index 
on the last page. See also the historical and 
Ur statistical view of the United States, sup. 2983. 

Country. Both of these long articles are interesting and 
comprehensive, presenting a complete exposi- 
tion of the geographical features of the country, together 
with an account of its history, industries, and natural 

Each of the States and Territories is treated in a simi- 
lar manner, both in the body of the Britannica and also 
in the supplements. For example, for Arizona, see II. 
538 and sup. 229; Arkansas, II. 539 and sup. 232. AM 
these may be easily found without any further help from 
the Guide. 




"When it is evening, ye say it will be fair weather: for the sky is 
red. And in the morning, it will be foul weather to-day : for the sky is 
red and lowring." — St Matthew. 

METEOROLOGY, in its later and more strictly definite sig- 
nification, is the scientific study of weather and climate, 
their causes, changes, relations, and effects. In the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica.) there is a comprehensive treatise 
upon this science written by Professors A. Buchan, of 
Edinburgh, and Balfour Stewart, of the Royal Society of 
London. It embraces seventy double-column 
General pages, equal in matter to a duodecimo volume 
Treatise. of more than 350 pages, and is fully illustrated. 
(See XVI. 1 14-184.) The supplementary article 
(sup. 2043) i s equally valuable and comprehensive. 

A short and instructive course of reading in meteor- 
ology would include, besides the main points in these 
leading articles, the following references : 

Air, I. 427. 

Atmosphere, III. 28. 

Ozone, XVIII. 113. 

Temperature, XI. 555. (See general index.) 

Thermometer, XXIII. 288. 

Climate, VI. I. 

Principal causes which determine climate, VI. 2. 

Effect of vegetation on climate, VI. 4. 

Temperature of the sea, XVI. 116, 132. 

Influence of the Gulf Stream upon climate, III. 21. 


Tnfluence of the Kuro Siwe, or Japan current, XVIII. 

Hygienic value of Ocean climate, V. I, 5. 

Distribution of temperature, XVI. 134. 
Tempera- Humidity of the air, XVI. 1 19, III. 32. 

ture. J 

Dew, XVI. 120. 
Diurnal oscillations of the barometer, XVI. 121. 
Barometer, III. 381. 

Atmospheric pressure, III. 28; XVI. 139. 
Influence of the moon upon atmospheric pressure, XVI. 
Winds, XVI. 143. 
Anemometer, II. 24. 
Relation of winds to climate, VI. 6. 
Variation in the direction of winds, XVI. 126. 
Trade winds, XVI. 143 ; influence upon climate, I. 675. 
Monsoons, II. 690. 
Isobars, XVI. 141. 

The simoom, II. 239. 
Winds Cyclones, III. 33; XVI. 155. 

Whirlwinds and waterspouts, XVI. 129. 

Tornadoes, XXIII. 807. 
Blizzards, sup. 499. 
Hurricanes, XVI. 164. 
Prevailing winds, XVI. 143. 
Aqueous vapor, XVI. 138. 
Clouds, XVI. 126. 

Rainfall, XVI. 128, 150; influence upon climate, VI. 6 ■ 
rain-gauge, XX. 256. 

Thunderstorms, XVI. 129. 

Hailstorms, XVI. 131. 

Snowstorms, XVI. 154. 

Hygrometry, XII. 569. 
Weather and weather maps, XVI. 157. 


Weather forecasts, XVI. 158. 

American Weather Bureau, sup. 2043. 

Increase Allen Lapham, founder of the wea- 
Weather , , „ r 

Bureau. ther bureau, sup. 1834. 

Flags used by the weather bureau, sup. 2617. 
Terrestrial Magnetism, XVI. 159. 
The magnetometer, XV. 238. 
The declinometer, XVI. 159. 

The dip circle, XVI. 160. 
'lerrestrial Magnetic poles of the earth, XVI. 163. 
Magnetism. Influence of the sun upon terrestrial magnet- 
ism, XVI. 167, 181. 
Optical Meteorology (see Optics). 
Aurora borealis, III. 90, II. 787. 





" He apprehends a world of figures here.' 

—Henry IV. 
" Inquire about everything that you do not know ; since, for the small 
trouble of asking, you will be guided in the road of knowledge." 

— From the Persian. 

In the Britannica, each of the great branches of mathe- 
matical science is treated under its own head and at con- 
siderable length, and yet it is not presumed that 
any person will attempt to acquire the mastery 


Only °f arithmetic, or algebra, or geometry from 
these articles. Here, if anywhere, the guidance 
of the living teacher and the assistance of specially pre- 
pared text-books are absolutely essential. The mathe- 
matical treatises in the Britannica, therefore, are valuable 
chiefly for occasional reference — they are not intended for 
general study, and certainly not for popular reading. 
Students and teachers, however, will irequently be able 
to derive valuable assistance from them in the solving 
of knotty problems or in the elucidation of difficult prop- 
ositions. It is well, therefore, to remember where they 
can be found. 

The history of mathematics is a subject in which every 
student, whether he be a mathematician or not, must feel 
no little interest ; and it is to a knowledge of this subject 


rather than to the abstruse study of an)- particular branch 

of the science that the present course of reading points. 

It is supposed that the reader has already some 

Ancient general acquaintance with the elementary prin- 

Mathemat- . , . , . ... . ,. .. 

ics ciples of mathematics, derived, as is ordinarily 

the case, from the text-books used at school. 

These readings from the Britannica will supplement his 

present knowledge, and perhaps encourage him to advance 

still farther in his acquisitions. 

The best introduction to this course is the short article 
on MATHEMATICS, XV. 629. Read especially the histori- 
cal parts, and omit, until a future time, such sections and 
paragraphs as seem too technical or too difficult for ready 

Notice what is said of Pythagorean mathematics, XX. 
140, and of Hindu mathematics, XXI. 294. 

Now read the historical portion of the article on ARITH- 
METIC, II. 524-526. The paragraphs relating to the dif- 
ferent methods of notation are especially interesting, and 
may be read in connection with the article on Numerals, 
XVII. 626. The biographies of the following distinguished 
arithmeticians should be read next : 

Archimedes, the greatest mathematician of ancient 

times, II. 380. 

Great Apollonius of Perga, who flourished a little 

Mathema- . . . , . , TT 

.- - later than Archimedes, 11. 187. 

ticians. ' ' 

Diophantus, a Greek writer on arithmetic, 4th 
century, I. 511. 

Maximus Planudes (died 1350), referred to in XVII. 

Robert Recorde (1558), author of an algebra entitled 
The Whetstone of JVi'tte, and of one of the first arithmetics 
published in English, XX. 310. 

Next turn to the history of algebra, I. 51 1-5 18. Notice 


the list of writers on algebra, page 518. Read the follow- 
ing biographies of distinguished algebraists. 

Girolamo Cardan (16th century), author of the second 
printed book on algebra, V. 90. 

Rene Descartes, VII. 115. 
Algebra. T . T VTU 

Joseph Louis Lagrange, XIV. 207. 

Leonard Euler, demonstrator of the binomial 
theorem, VIII. 665. 

Fourier, author of Fourier's theorem, IX. 490. 
Sturm, author of Sturm's theorem, XXII. 612. 
Leonard of Pisa, XIX. 125. 

The history of geometry is very briefly told in X. 376. 
Concerning great geometricians, it will be well 
of course to refer first to Euclid, the greatest 
of them all. Read his biography, VIII. 655. 
Then notice the following : 
Thales, XXIII. 218. 
Theodosius, XXIII. 260. 

Pythagorean contributions to the science of geometry, 
XX. 139. 

Apollonius of Perga, II. 188. 
Boetius on geometry, III. 857. 
Legendre's work on geometry, XIV. 414. 
For the history of Greek trigonometry, see XX. 87, 
' under the article on Ptolemy; a brief notice of 
Trigonom- Indian and Arabian trigonometry is given in 
etry. XXIII. 561, and an account of modern trigo- 
nometry in XXIII. 562. Of biographies, read 
the following : 

Hipparchus, Greek mathematician, XI. 851. 
John Napier, inventor of logarithms, XVII. 177. 
Edmund Gunter, inventor of the terms cosine, cotan- 
gent, etc., XI. 330. 

Sir Isaac Newton, XVII. 438. 


Gottfried Leibnitz, XIV. 417. 

Besides the mathematicians already mentioned, there 
are several others whose biographies are given in the 
Britannica. In order to acquire a complete knowledge of 
the history of the science, you should learn 
Men of something about these men. Here is a partial 
Figures. list which, if you wish, you will be able to ex- 
tend as you progress with the reading: 

Pappus of Alexandria, XVIII. 229. 

Alhazen (nth century), I. 572. 

Henry Briggs (16th century), IV. 343. 

Thomas Allen (16th century), I. 583. 

Simon Stevinus (17th century), XXII. 531. 

Alexander Anderson (17th century), II. 14. 

Gaspard Monge (iSth century), XVI. 738. 

Thomas Simpson, XXII. 866. 

Robert Simson, XXII. 876. 

Jakob Steiner (19th century), XXIL 531. 

George Peacock, XVIII. 443. 

Christiaan Huygens (17th century), XII. 415. 

For a popular course of reading in the history of mathe- 
matics, perhaps the foregoing is sufficient. Besides the 
four branches of the science already mentioned, there are 
others upon which the Britannica contains valuable and 
scholarly articles intended particularly for specialists in 
mathematics. Several additional articles also on mathe- 
matical subjects may be found under their own 
Mathemati- headings or b re f er ence to the Index. The 

cal & J 

Topics Guide ventures to name here the following, 
not that they should be included in any course 
of reading, but simply to remind the student of their pres- 
ence in the Britannica, and to indicate where he may 
find them if occasion should require that he should refer 
to them : 


Abacus (arithmetical device), I. 4. 

Calculating machines, IV. 654. 

Squaring the circle, XXII. 433. 

Annuities, II. 72. 

Astronomy, XXIV. 85. 

The Almagest, I. 589. 

Angles, II. 29. 

Curve, VI. 716. 

Calculus, XIII. 5. 

Functions, IX. 818; XIV. 209,413. 

Geodesy, X. 163. 

Gauging, XVI. 28. 

Logarithms, XIV. yj2. 

Measurement, XV. 659. 

Mechanics, XV. 676. 

Quaternions, XX. 160. 

Surveying, XXII. 695. 

Variations, XXIV. 85. 

Probability, XIX. 768. 

Projections, XIX. 793. 

Surface, Congruence, Complex, XXII. 668. 




PHYSICAL science originally had reference to a knowl- 
edge of whatever exists in the material universe, as dis- 
tinguished from metaphysical science, or a knowledge of 
the laws of mind. In this sense it was synonymous with 
natural science. With the progress of scientific study, 
however, these two terms have come to have, 
Physical each a distinctive meaning of its own. Natural 
Science. science now has reference more particularly to 
the study of organized bodies and their develop- 
ment. Physical science investigates the various phenom- 
ena observed in things without life ; in other words, it is 
a study of the laws of matter. 

Until recently the popular name for physical science 
was " natural philosophy." 

As now generally regarded, it includes two branches, 
mechanics and physics. 

For readings in MECHANICS, see the article on that sub- 
ject in the fifteenth volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica. 
See also the chapters in this Guide entitled The Mechanic 
and The Machinist. 

Since any knowledge of physics implies a study of the 
laws of matter, let us at first take a general survey of some 
of the most important of those laws. 


What is matter ? We do not know. But to gain some 
ideas of the extent of human knowledge on this subject, 
read the articles Atom, III. 56, and Molecule, 
Matter. XVI. 6lO : VII. 2 I 5. 

Some knowledge of the properties which mat- 
ter possesses in itself may be acquired by study- 
ing the following topics : 

Molecules, XVI. 610; III. 38. 

Inertia, XV. 6y6. 

Constitution of Bodies, VI. 310. 

Attraction, III. 63; XI. 66; XV. 702. 

Adhesion, I. 153. 

Elasticity, VII. 796. 

Density, XV. 698; XII. 536. 

Compressibility, VII. 815. 

Divisibility, III. 37 ; sup. 1054. 

The relative properties of different kinds of matter are 
described in such articles as these : 

Diffusion, VII. 214. 

Cohesion, V. 56. 

Gravitation, XI. 66; the law of gravitation II. 780; 
Newton's discovery of this law, II. 755. 

Capillary action, V. 56. 

A consideration of the properties of matter relative to 
different forms of energy leads to a study of the follow- 
ing subjects: 

Conductivity, XI. 578, 586 (thermal), and VIII. 52 

Specific gravity, XII. 536; Specific heat, XI. 576. 

Color, VIII. 823. 

Radiation, XX. 212. 

The laws and phenomena of matter are treated under 
many distinct divisions; and hence in physics we find 
several related sciences, such as: 


(i) Hydromechanics, or the laws of liquids, whether 

in equilibrium or in motion, XII. 435. Here are included : 

Hydrostatics, referring to liquids at rest, 

Hydrome- XIX. 2 ; XII. 440. 

chanics. Hydraulics, or the action of liquids in motion, 

XII. 459- 
Closely related to these subjects is that branch of me- 
chanics called hyrodynamics, which is discussed in con- 
nection with them, XII. 435; XIX. 241. 

(2) PNEUMATICS, or the science which treats of the 
properties of air and of gases in general, XIV. 240. 

Many articles on related subjects might be read in con- 
nection with a study of this branch. The fol- 
lowing will be found interesting and instructive : 
Pneumatics. „ . 

Gases, VI. 310; dinusion 01, Vll. 215; mo- 
lecular theory of, III. 38 ; density of, XII. 460; 
laws of, V. 468 ; elasticity of, VII. 801. 

Air, I. 427; aerostatics, IX. 308; aeronautics, I. 185; 
atmosphere, III. 28. 

(3) ACOUSTICS, or the science which treats of the nature, 
phenomena, and laws of sound, I. 100 (see general index); 

see also Music, XVII. "JJ, and many of the 

references in the chapter entitled The Musician, 
Acoustics. . , . _ 

in this Guide. 

Voice, XXIV. 273. 
Telephone, XXIII. 127. 
Phonometer, sup. 2369; Phonoscope, sup. 2369. 

(4) OPTICS, or the science of light, XVII. 798. In con- 

nection with this subject read the following : 

Light, XIV. 577 ; aberration of light, I. 47 ; 
reflection of light, XVI. 64 ; the velocity of light, 
XX. 620; polarization of light, sup. 2412; the 
theory of light, XXIV. 421, 444-447. 
Mirror, XIV. 587; XVI. 499. 


Lenses, XIV. 593. 

Microscope, XVI. 258. 

Telescope, XXIII. 135 ; Galileo's, II. 753, X. 31 ; Lord 
Rosse's, XX. 855 ; Herschel's, XI. 766; Lick and Yerkes, 
sup. 2871. 

Spectacles, XXII. 372. 

Spectrometer, XVII. 800. 

Spectroscope, XXII. 373. 

Camera, IV. 740, 741 ; XVIII. 839. 

Eye, VIII. 816. 

Aurora polaris, III. 90, 92, 93. 

Rainbow, XI. 399. 

Optical illusions, II. 205. 

Yitascope, sup. 3057. 

Mirage, XIV. 600. 

(5) Heat, XI. 554. The reading of this long and very- 
scholarly article may be supplemented by a study of the 
following references : 

Temperature (see general index). 

Thermometer, XI. 561. 

Theory of heat, XIX. 2. 

Conduction of heat, XX. 212. 

„ Convection of heat, XX. 212. 


Heat as the equivalent of force, XV. 649. 
Power of heat in mechanics, XV. yjT,. 
Steam, XI. 560; properties of, XXII. 483. 

(6) Electricity and Magnetism. See the chapter entitled 
The Electrician, in this Guide. 


The late Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, in the article on phys- 
ical science which he contributes to the Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica, presents a classification somewhat different from 
the above. Physics includes what he calls the secondary 
physical sciences. A study of these sciences embraces 


the acquisition of knowledge relative to the following 
topics, and in the order here named : 

(i) Theory of gravitation (XI. 66; III. 64), 

Weight and with discussions of the weight and motion of 

Motion, bodies near the earth. See Motion, XV. J'^2, 

and particularly XV. 701, 715, 746. 
(2) Theory of the action of pressure and heat in changing 
the dimensions and state of bodies. 

(a) Physical states of a substance — gaseous 
(VI. 310), liquid (VI. 311 ; XII. 459), solid (XIX. 

Elasticity, VII. 796; of gases, VII. 801 ; of 
liquids, VII. 801 ; of solids, VI. 310. 

Viscosity,VII. 801 ; of gases, XVI. 618 ; of solids, XXII. 

Plasticity (of solids), XVI. 65 ; Capillarity, I. 153. 
Tenacity (of solids), XVI. 378. 
Cohesion and adhesion, I. 153. 

(b). Effects of heat in raising temperature (XV. 773), 
altering size and form (XVI. 66, XIX. 2), changing physi- 
cal state (XXIII. 283 ; XXII. 473). 

(c). Thermometry, XI. 558; XXIII. 288. 
(d). Calorimetry, XX. 132; XI. 555. 
(e). Thermodynamics, XXIII. 283; XXII. 479; XV. 649. 
(f). Dissipation of energy (XXIII. 285) by diffusion of 
matter, etc. 

Diffusion of motion (XXIII. 543; VIII. 207) by internal 
friction of fluids (XII. 482; XIX. 247). 

Diffusion of heat (VII. 217) by conduction (XX. 212). 
(g). Theory of propagation of sound, I. 100. 
Vibration of strings, etc., XVII. 105; I. 116. 
3. Theory of radiance. 
(a). Geometrical optics, XVII. 798. 
Theory of conjugate foci, XVII. 799. 


Optical instruments, XVII. 801, 806. 

(b). Velocity of light, II. 797; XXIV. 458. 

(c). Prismatic analysis of light, XIV. 519,612. 

r^w* Spectroscopy, XXII. 373. 

Radiance. vn . , 

fluorescence, XIV. 579, 602. 

(d). Diffraction of light, XXIV. 430, 442. 
(e). The wave theory of light, XIV. 603. 
(f). Polarized light, XIV. 610. 
(g). Theory of primary colors, VIII. 823. 
The spectrum, XIV. 592, 595. 
4. Electricity and magnetism. 
(a). Electrostatics, VIII. 24; VIII. 14. 
(b). Electrokinematics, or distribution of currents in 
conductors (see index VIII. 105). 

Electrolysis, VIII. 106. 
Magnetism, Electro-chemistry, VIII. 13, 112; VI. 846. 
etc. (c). Magnetism, XV. 219. 

Terrestrial magnetism, XVI. 159. 
Diamagnetism XV. 244, 262 ; IX. 285. 
(d). Electro-magnetism, VIII. 66. 



"The proper study of mankind is man." — Pope. 

A COMPLETE study of Man in all his various relations 
to the animal and spiritual world would embrace an in- 
vestigation of many branches of knowledge, 
msions eac h occupying a distinct field of its own, but 
Subject each dependent to a greater or less extent upon 
its kindred sciences. Among these branches 
the following are the most important : 

1. Anatomy, which treats of the structure of the hu- 
man body (see I. 799). 

2. Physiology, which treats of the functions and rela- 
tions of the different parts of the body, XIX. 8. 

3. Psychology, which investigates the operations of the 
human mind (see references in chapter entitled The 

4. Philology, which deals with the general principles of 
language (see chapter on that subject in this GUIDE). 

5. Ethics, which treats of man's duty to his fellow-men 
(see references in chapter on Philosophy in this Guide). 

6. Sociology, which treats of the origin and develop- 
ment of human institutions, VIII. 619; XVIII. 796; 
XIX. 347- 

7. Religion, which deals with man's relations to the 
spiritual world, and his duties to God (see the chapter -en- 
titled The Preacher and Theologian). 

8. Anthropology, the natural history of man. 

9. Ethnology or Ethnography — properly a subdivision 


of Anthropology — which deals with the subdivisions of the 
human race, such as hordes, clans, tribes, nations, etc. 

10. Archaeology and Antiquities, which treat of the 
early history of man, and of the remains of ancient art. 

ii. History (see Chapter VI. in this Guide). 

It is proposed to indicate in the present chapter a few 
courses of reading from the Britannica which shall cover 
only the subjects numbered 8, 9, 10, and 6, above. 


Let us take as the basis of our studies the comprehen- 
sive and scholarly article by Professor E. B. Tylor in 
volume II., pages 107-123. As to man's place 
Origin of m nature, refer to the article Animal Kingdom, 
Man. II. 49. Certain portions also of the following 

articles may be read: Physiology, XIX. 8; His- 
tology, XII. 4. See, also, XV. 444, and the articles on 
Evolution, VIII. 744. 
Heredity, sup. 1568. 
Charles Darwin, sup. 989. 
Ape, II. 148. 

Man and Monkeys, II. 107. 

Concerning the origin of man, see the following : I. 136; 
X. 291 ; II. 333, 341 ; also the myths of his creation, III. 141 ; 
XVII. 157. Read the section on this subject in II. 110. 

The chapter on the races of mankind, II. 1 1 1-1 1 5, maybe 
supplemented by the references under Ethnology, below. 
Concerning the antiquity of man, read the sections in 
X. 368, and II. 115; then see the references under Archae- 
ology, below. 

Read the section on language, II. 1 17-120; 
Language, also the following : 

Evolutionary theories of language, VIII. 769. 
Relation of language to thought, XX. 75. 


Relation of language to mythology, XVII. 137. 

(Sec Chapter VIII. in this volume). 

Study next the development of civilization 

and culture. Read section vi., volume II., 
Culture. , , , . . . . . 

pages 120-123; and also what is said of the 

earliest seats of civilization, II. 342, and of 

Buckle's theory of civilization, IV. 421. 


Read by sections the article entitled Ethnography, VIII. 
613-626. (Observe the distinction between Ethnography 
and Ethnology, p. 613). The following are a few 
of the articles or sections which will be found 
interesting in connection with this study. 
The Family, IX. 17. 
Tribes among Primitive Races, IX. 20. 
Races of mankind, II. 1 1 1. 
Ages of man, II. 122, also II. 336-341. 
Food, VIII. 616. 
Fire, IX. 227-232. 

Religious Development (see chapter entitled The 
Preacher and Theologian, in this volume). 

Myths and Legends, VIII. 623 ; VIII. 837; XVII. 135; 
XXIII. 28; IX. 358. 
Magic, XV. 199. 

Superstitions, VIII. 623 (see also the references named 
in Chapter XX. of this Guide). 

For the characteristics which distinguish man 
Character- m different countries, see under the head of each 
istics. country. For example, for Man in Africa, see 
the article Africa, I. 260 ; so also we shall find, 
Man in Algeria, I. 564; 
Man in America, I. 686 ; 
Man in Arabia, II. 245 ; 


Man in Asia, II. 697 ; 

Man in Australia, III. 118; 
and so on, for every country of importance in the world. 

Some curious races are also described in an entertaining 
way : 

The Natives of the Andaman Islands, II. II. 

The Hottentots, XII. 309. 

The Bushmen, IV. 575. 

The Bongo, IV. 32. 

The Ainos of Japan, I. 426. 

The Dyaks, IV. 58. 

The Czechs, VI. 754. 

The Copts, VI. 354- 

The Cossacks, VI. 448. 

The Natives of Anam (ugliest in the world), VI. 95. 

The Esquimaux, VIII. 543. 

The Natives of Polynesia, XIX. 432. 

The Pueblo Indians, sup. 2473. 

Half breeds of Manitoba, sup. 1509. 

Concerning the origin of justice and morals, and their 
development among primitives peoples, see 
VIII. 624. Also marriage, XV. 565; IX. 18; 

Customs. . . . . 

totemistic marriage ceremonies, AX111. 470; 

marriage among ancient Mexicans, XVI. 213 ; 

myths relating to marriage, XVII. 158. 

Cannibalism, IV. 807. 

Totcmism, XXIII. 467. 

Ghost-dance of Indians, sup. 1392. 

See Frank H. Cushing, sup. 971. 

See also the readings in SOCIOLOGY, suggested in this 

iit. archeology and antiquities. 

Under this head we shall include a brief survey of a few 


of the more interesting antiquities described in various ar- 
ticles in the Britannica. No attempt will be 
made at classification. Read first the brief ar- 

Antiquities. . , .... T , , , 

tide on Antiquities, II. 134, and then turn to 

Archaeology, 1 1. 333. This latter article may be 
studied by sections in connection with the supplementary 
article on the same subject, sup. 2 1 6. See also Egyptol- 
ogy, sup. H27; W. M. Flinders Petrie, sup. 2358. 

Then read, as occasion requires, or as inclination may 
direct, the following articles, which have been selected on 
account of their interest to general readers : 

Antiquity of Man, II. 115. 

Antiquities of America, I. 692. 

The Wound Builders, III. 399. 

Ancient American Architecture, II. 450. 

Ancient Ruins in Yucatan, XXIV. 758. 

Antiquities of Egypt, VII. 767-784. 

Antiquities of Peru, I. 696. 

Wall of Romulus, XX. 812. 

Wall of Servius, XX. 813. 

Wall of Antoninus, II. 139. 

Wall of Hadrian, XI. 723. 

Wall sculptures of Babylon, XVII. 34. 

Wall decorations in Pompeii, XVII, 37-41. 

Great Wall of China, V. 638, 644. 

Baalbec, III. 176. 

The Temple of Bel, III. 183. 

Nineveh, XVII. 511 ; II. 397. 

Schliemann's Researches in Ancient Troy, II. 341 ; sup. 

Olympia, Recent Discoveries at, XVII. 765. 

Mycenae, Ancient Remains of, XVII. 115. 

Cylopean Masonry, II. 346, 401. 

Remains of Masonry in Ithaca, XIII. 517. 


Tiryns, XXIII. 407. 

General di Cesnola, sup. 738, and his discoveries in 
Cyprus, VI. 750, note. 

Temple of Poseidon, XVIII. 133. 

The Palladium, XVIII. 188. 

Painted Tombs of Corneto, VI. 423. 

Mummies, XVII. 20. 

Pompeii, XIX. 444. 

Herculaneum, XL 723. 

Cave Animals and Cave Man, V. 266. 

Prehistoric Stone Circles, II. 383. 

Stone Monuments, Dolmens, etc., XXI. 50. 

Stonehenge, XXII. 576. 

Ancient Monuments in Peru, II. 451. 

Stone Monuments in Polynesia, XIX. 428. 

Animal Mounds of Wisconsin, XXIV. 618. 

Druidic Monuments, XXI. 52. 

Ancient Barrows, III. 397. 

Old Roman Roads, XX. 582. 

The Catacombs, V. 206-216. 

Ancient Stone Weapons, II. 553. 

Ancient Inscriptions, XIII. 1 14-133. 

Ancient Bottles, IV. 167. 

Ancient Bracelets, IV. 187. 

Ancient Bricks, IV. 279. 

Ancient Brooches, IV. 369. 

Ancient Lamps, XIV. 247. 

Ancient Mirrors, XVI. 501. 

Ancient Baths, III. 434. 

Ancient Mosaics, XVI. 850. 

Ancient Relics, XX. 355. 

Relics in connection with Christian thought and prac- 
tice, XX. 357. 

Remains of antique art, II. 134. 

READINGS l\ 1 Hi: ST1 DV 01 MAN. 147 

Ancient rings; earliest existing rings, cylinders, Ro- 
man rings, XX. 560; Episcopal rings, poison rings, XX. 


Ancient Plate (Assyrian, Etruscan, etc.), XIX. 179-182. 

Ancient Writing Materials, XVIII. 143, 232. 

Ancient Pottery, III. 189. 

Ancient Textiles, Weaving in Prehistoric Times, etc., 
XXIII. 206. 

Antiquarian Societies, II. 135. 

Archaeological Societies, XXII. 221. 

Asiatic Societies, sup. 265. 




PHILOSOPHY is a term the meaning and scope of which 

have varied greatly according to the usage of 

different authors and different ages. The aim 
Definition. . ,. ... 1111 

of the courses of reading which we shall here 

attempt to indicate, is to afford a general view 

of the history of philosophic ideas from the earliest times 

to the present, with a brief notice of some of the famous 

schools of philosophy, and of their influence upon modern 

thought. Of the large number of articles in the Britan- 

nica, which may be utilized for this purpose, only those 

will be named which are the most essential to a general 

knowledge of the subject, or which are deemed to be of 

the greatest interest to the young student or the casual 



The special article on Philosophy, XVIII. 791, may be 

made the starting point and basis for these studies. This 

article, leaving controversial details as far as possible in 

the background, attempts to explain generally 

the essential nature of philosophy, and to indi- 
Ethics. . . ,. . . . \ . , 

cate the mam divisions into which, as a matter 

of historical fact, its treatment has fallen. After 

reading the first and second divisions of this article, pp. 

791-793, let us make a brief study of the lives of some of 

the famous ancient philosophers, and of the different 

schools which they founded. 

But first, turn to the article on Ethics, VIII. 574, and 

read the introductory paragraphs defining and giving a 



general account of this division of the subject. Read next 
the article on Thales, the first philosopher ol Greece, and 
the founder of Greek astronomy and geometry, XXIII. 
217. Then read the following articles in their order : 
Pythagoras (580 500 B. C.) and Pythagoreanism, XX. 

Heraclitus of Ephesus (530-470 B. C), XI. 6S1. 
Democritus (470-362 B. C), VII. 59. 
The Sophists, XXII. 263; The Age of the Sophists, 
VIII. 576. 

Socrates (470-399 B. a), XXII. 231 ; Socratic 
Schools. VIII. 578. 

hers Aristippus, II. 506. The Cyrenaic School, 

VI. 750. 

The Cynics, VI. 7+S> VIII. 578; Antisthenes, II. 136; 
Diogenes, VII. 245. 

Plato, XIX. 194. VIII. 579; Platonism, I. 68; Plato 
and Aristotle, VIII. 580; Plato''- school, VIII. 587; the 
Academy, I. 68. 

Aristotle, II. 510; Aristotle's Ethics, VIII. 5? , his 
logic, XIV. 784 ; his metaphysics, XVI. 79 ; the Peripa- 
tetics, XVIII. 545. 

Stoicism, VIII. 583; XXII. 561. 

Epicurus, VIII. 472, 586. 

Marcus Aurelius, III. 86. 

Neoplatonism, XVII. 332; VIII. 587. 

Mysticism, XVII. 128. 

Christian ethics, VIII. 588 ; faith, VIII. 589; love and 
purity, VIII. 590. 

Alexandrian school, I. 498. 

St. Augustine, Christian philosopher, III. 75. 

St. Ambrose, I. 662. 

Scholastic philosophy, XXI. 117. 

Thomas Aquinas, II. 231. 


Albertus Magnus, I. 453. 
Abelard, I. 34. 

Bernard of Clairvaux, III. 601. 
Grotius, XI. 217. 

Hobbes and his " Leviathan," XII. 31. 
Modem The Cambridge Moralists, VIII. 597. 

PhilOSO- TX _, ,ri TT ^ 

phers. Heni T More > XVL 8l 4- 

John Locke, XIV. 751. 

Shaftesbury, XXI. 731. 

Bernard de Mandeville, XV. 472. 

David Hume, XII. 346. 

Adam Smith, XXII. 169. 
. The Intuitional School, VIII. 603. 

Dugald Stewart, XXII. 546. 

Utilitarianism, VIII. 606; sup. 3013. 

William Paley, XVIII. 181. 

Jeremy Bentham, III. 575. 

John Stuart Mill, XVI. 307; sup. 3014. 

Auguste Comte, VI. 229. 

Immanuel Kant, XIII. 844. 

Georg Friedrich Hegel, XI. 612. 

Herbert Spencer, sup. 2764. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, I. 729; sup. 1195. 

Transcendentalism, sup. 2935. 

Finally, this study of ethics may be brought to a close 
by reading the concluding paragraph on that subject in 
XVIII. 796. 


Metaphysic is " the science which deals with the princi- 
ples which are presupposed in all being and 
Definition, knowing, though the}- arc brought to light only 
by philosophy." According to Aristotle it in- 
cludes also theology, the science of God. It is treated at 

RI \i)T\r,s IN PHILOS< mn . 151 

considerable length by Professor Caird of Glasgow, in 
XVI. 79-1 14. 

Sn- the references given above for Aristotle, 

the Sophists, the Socratic school, Neoplaton- 
References. . T _ _ _ . . .. 

ism, Kant, Locke, etc. Read also the follow- 
ing articles : 

Bacon, III, 200; XXIII. 244. 

Descartes, VII. 1 15. 

Fichte, IX. 134; XX. 290. 

Spinoza, XXII. 399. 

Animism, II. 55. 

Realism, XXI. 419 ; sup. 2515 ; see also Hamilton, XI. 
417; Schopenhauer, XXI. 457; and Universals, XXI. 
4 1 8 et seq. 

Idealism, sup. 1649. 

Altruism, sup. 145. 

Analytic Judgments, I. 797. 

Association of Ideas, II, 730. 

Antinomy, II. 130. 


Psychology, "the science of the phenomena of the 

mind," is the subject of a long and very learned article by 

Professor Ward, of Cambridge University, XX. 

Modern 37—85. It may be read by sections with collat- 
Psychology. eral references to the articles treating of the 
lives and works of the men who have done 
most for the development of this science. 

See the references given above for Locke, Hume, Mill, 
and many others. 

Read also the following articles : 

Berkeley, III. 589. 

Bain, I. 223; III. 534. 

Herbart, XI. 718. 


Leibnitz, XIV. 417. 

Herbert Spencer, II. 733. 

Sir William Hamilton, XI. 416. 

Association of ideas, II. 730. 

Analytic judgments, I. 797. 

Belief, III. 532. 

Imagination, XX. 57. 

Feeling, XX. 40, 66, 74. 

Abstraction, I. 58. 

Absolute, I. 57. 

Analysis and Synthesis, I. 796. 

Attention, III. 52, etc. 

Psychology in relation to ethics, VIII. 574; in relation 
to logic, XIV. 780; to metaphysics, XVIII. 848; to evo- 
lution, VIII. 766; to religion, XXIII. 274. 

Aristotle's Psychology, II. 522. 

Plato's, XIX. 201. 

The Stoics', XXII. 565. 

Xenocrates's, XXIV. 719. 

Hume's, XII. 352. 

Cousin's, VI. 525. 

Descartes', VII. 126. 

Hegel's, XI. 620. 

Leibnitz's, XIV. 422. 

Kant's, XIII. 848. 

Lewes's, XIV. 491. 

See additional references to this subject in the chapter 
entitled The Teacher, in this Guide. 


Logic is the systematic study of thought. The subject 
is discussed in a comprehensive and scholarly article by 
Professor Adamson, of Manchester, in Volume XIV. of 


the Britannica, pages 780-803. Hamilton's contributions 
to the development of this science arc briefly 
noticed in XL 410. 

Logic. J 

John Stuart Mill's in XVI. 312. 

Whately's in XXIV. 530. 

Hutchcson's in XII. 411. 

Condillac's in VI. 251. 

Gilbert de la PorreVs in X. 592. 

De Morgan's in VII. 66. 

Hegel's in XL 619. 

Kant's in XIII. 852. 

Leibnitz's in XIV. 422. 

Lully's in XV. 64. 

The various terms and distinctive expressions used in 
the science are defined and discussed, sometimes sep- 
arately, each under its own head, and sometimes in a com- 
prehensive treatise upon some general topic. For ex- 
ample : 

A priori and a posteriori, II. 214. 

Reductio ad absurdum, I. cq. 
Terms. . , > 3? 

Accident, I. 83. 
Analogy, I. 791. 
Reality, XIV. 797, 798. 
Analysis, I. 793, 796. 
Reason, XIV. 780. 
Association of Ideas, II. 730-734. 

See the references given above for Aristotle, Kant, Mill, 
Hegel, etc. 

Read also the following articles or paragraphs: 

Lotze, XV. 12, 

Ueberweg, XXIII. 716. 

Condillac, VI. 249. 

Ulrici, XXIII. 721. 

Analytics, XIV. 785. 


Dialectics, XIV. 786; II. 516. 
Deduction, I 797. 
Induction, I. 797; XIV. 785. 
Syllogism, XIV. 789. 


By Aesthetics is generally meant the science of the 

beautiful, with its allied conceptions and emotions. A 

brief survey of the subject and the various prob- 

The l ems which its study involves is given in a 

Beautiful, special article by Professor James Sully in I. 
212-224. After reading the first two sections of 
this article, see the references given above for Socrates, 
Plato, Aristotle, and the other philosophers mentioned 
under the head of Ethics. Read next the chapter on the 
history of aesthetic systems, pp. 214-224. 

This course of reading may be continued with 
a study of the short section on aesthetics, XVIII. 795. 

Edmund Burke's work on the sublime and beautiful is 
briefly noticed in IV. 540. Jouffray's theory that the 
beautiful when considered apart from utility is valueless, 
is referred to in XIII. 194. See also: 

The nature of beauty, IX. 194. 

Hutcheson on beauty, XII. 411. 

Plato on beauty, XIX. 201. 


Philosophers will agree in telling us that for the content 
of morality we must refer, in great part, to the experience 
crystallized in laws and institutions, and to the 
Human unwritten law of custom, honor, and good 
Society. breeding, which has become organic in the so- 
ciety of which we arc members. Sociology, or 
the science of the development of human society, is 


brought therefore within the scope of philosophy. Insome 

of its aspects it may indeed be regarded as a branch or 
subdivision oi ethics. Many articles in the Britannica re- 

. more or less directly, to this interesting subject. The 
following may be studied with profit : 

Antiquity of .Man, II. I 15. 

Development of Civilization, II. 120. 

Development of Culture, II. 121. 

Family Development, VIII. 618. 

Social Development. VIII. 619. 

Association and Evolution, VIII. 607. 

Relations of sociology to economics, XIX. 347. 

Sociological conceptions of Comte, VI. 235. 

Herbert Spencer's Social Statics, sup. 2765. 

Sociology in relation to Statistics, XXII. 464. 

See also Sociological Societies, XXII. 226. 

In connection with these readings, make use of the ref- 
erences to ethnology given in this GUIDE. 




" This course of reading Scripture and good books will be many ways 
to your great advantage." — Richard Baxter, 1660. 

SUNDAY-SCHOOL teachers, ministers of the Gospel, theo- 
logians, and all students of the Bible will find the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica replete with information con- 
Bible cerning all subjects connected with Bible 
History. history, biography, or geography. There is 
scarcely a proper name in the Old Testament 
or the New that is not the subject of a special article. 
The History of the Bible itself, with that of the critical 
problems connected with the books which compose it, is 
ably and fully discussed by Professor W. Robertson 
Smith in a fourteen-page article, III. 634-648. Many of 
the books composing the Bible are treated separately in a 
similar comprehensive manner. See the following : 

Pentateuch and Joshua, XVIII. 505-514. This article 
embraces a complete survey of the first six 
Books of books of the Bible, with a careful discussion of 
the Bible. the Mosaic law, and a notice of the most recent 
criticisms and opinions. In connection with 
this article it will be interesting to read what is said of 
Philo's " Exposition of the Mosaic Law," XVIII. 763. 

The book of Judges, XIII. 763, and XIII. 400. 

The book of Ruth, XXI. 110. 

The books of Samuel, XXI. 252. 

The First and Second Books of Kings, XIV. 83. 

Chronicles, V. 706. 



The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, VIII. 831. 

The Book of Esther, VIII. 560. 

The Book of Job, XIII. 697, 420. 

The Book of Psalms, XX. 29, and XII. 589. 

The Book of Proverbs, XIX. 879. 

The Book of Ecclesiastes, VII. 623. 

Song of Solomon, V. 32. 

Prophet, Prophets, XIX. 814. 

Lamentations of Jeremiah, XIV. 240. 

The Book of Daniel, VI. 803. 

The Old Testament Canon, V. 1. 

The Gospels, X. 789. 

Acts of the Apostles, I. 123. 

Epistles of St. Paul, III. 642. 

Epistle to the Hebrews, XI. 602. 

Epistle to the Romans, XX. 727. 

Epistles to the Corinthians, VI. 399. 

Epistle to the Galatians, X. 19. 

Epistle to the Ephesians, VIII. 458. 

Epistle to the Colossians, VI.. 164. 

Epistles to the Thessalonians, XXIII. 297. 

Epistles to Timothy and Titus, XVIII. 348. 

Epistle to Philemon, XVIII. 741. 

Epistle of St. James, XIII. 553. 

Epistles of St. Peter, XVIII. 697. 

Epistles of St. John, XIII. 707. 

Epistle of St. Jude, XIII. 761. 

The Book of Revelation, XX. 496. 

The New Testament Canon, V. 7. 

Apocalyptic Literature, II. 174. 

The Apocrypha of the Old Testament, II. 180; the 
Book of Baruch, III. 404; Esdras VIII. 541; Judith, 
XIII. 765 ; Maccabees, XV. 131 ; Tobit, XXIII. 428, 

Israel, XIII. 396. 


Moses, XVI. 860. 

David, VI. 836. 

Miscella- j ewSj xnL ^ 

neous Bible T ... . „ , , rT 

-. . Bible Concordance, VI. 240. 

Topics. ^ 

Bible Glosses, X. 687. 

Versions of the Bible : 

English, VIII. 381 ; Wycliffe's, XXIV. 710; Tyndale's, 

XXIII. 675; Coverdale's, VL 531; Luther's, 

XV. 76 ; Geneva, VIII. 387 ; the Septuagint, 
Versions. , r -.r T /■*■ 

XXI. 667. 

Inspiration of the Bible, XIII. 154. 

Circulation of the Bible, III. 634: sup. 442-456. 

The above-named articles, many of them long and all 
the work of Biblical scholars of high repute, if read in the 
order named will constitute a complete course of study in 
Bible history and criticism. Theologians>and advanced stu- 
dents will recognize at once their great interest and value. 

The Britannica also contains innumerable briefer ar- 
ticles on subjects concerning which every Bible 
Shorter reader desires to be informed. The following 
Articles. is a partial list of such articles arranged alpha- 
betically, according to the volumes in which 
they occur : 

Volume I. — Aaron, the first high priest, p. 3 ; Abel, the 
first man slain, p. 33 ; Abimelech, the title of certain kings 
in Palestine, p. 49 ; Abraham, the " father of the faith- 
ful," p. 52; Absalom, the rebellious son of David, p. 56; 
Adam, the first man, p. 135 ; Ahab, the wicked king of Is- 
rael, p. 420; Ahasuerus, king of Persia, p. 421 ; Amos, 
one of the prophets, p. 747. 

Amalekites, p. 651 ; Ammonites, p. 742, and Amorites, 
p. 747 — tribes at war with the Israelites. 

Abana and Parphar, p. 4; Adullum, p. 166, and Ai, p. 
424 — rivers mentioned in the Old Testament. 


Volume II. — Athaliah, p. 827; Asa, p. 153; Apocry- 
pha, p. 180; Ark of the Covenant, p. 539; Ararat, p. 


Volume HI. — Balaam, p. 258; Baruch, p. 404; Bel- 
shazzar, p. 553. 

Volume //". — Cain, p. 642 ; Canaanites, p. 763 ; Cana of 
Galilee, p. 762. 

Volume V. — Canticles, p. 32 ; Chronicles, p. 706. 

Volume VI. — Daniel, p. 803 ; David, p. 836. 

Volume VII. — Deluge, p. 54; Decalogue, p. 15. 

Volume VIII. — Eli, p. 133 ; Elijah, p. 134 ; Elisha, p. 140 ; 
Emmaus, p. 177 ; Enoch, p. 449; Esau, p. 533 ; Esdras, 
p. 541 ; Esther, p. 560 ; Eve, p. 733 ; Ezekiel, p. 828. 

Volume X. — Galilee, p. 27 ; Gath, p. 108 ; Gilead, p. 594 ; 
Goshen, p. 788 ; Gideon, p. 588 ; Gog, p. 738 ; Bible 
Glosses, p. 687 ; the Gospels, p. 789. 

Volume XII. — Hittites, p. 25 ; Hosea, p. 295. 

Volume XIII. — Isaiah, p. 377 ; Israel, p. 396 ; Jeremiah, 
p. 626 ; Jesus Christ, p. 656; Jesus, son of Sirach, p. 672 ; 
Job, p. 697. 

Volume XIV. — Lamech, p. 238. 

Volume XV. — Manna, p. 493 ; Mark, p. 551 ; Mary, p. 
589; Matthew, p. 633. 

Volume XVI. — Messiah, p. 53; Micah, p. 224 ; Michael, 
p. 226; Midian, p. 284; Moab, p. 533; Moloch, p. 695; 
Moses, p. 860. 

Volume XVII. — Nahum, p. 165; Naphtali, p. 174; Na- 
thanael, p. 242 ; Nehemiah, p. 320 ; Nimrod, p. 5 1 1 ; Nebu- 
chadnezzar, p. 309. 

Volume XVIII. — Paul, p. 415 ; Peter, p. 693 ; Pharaoh, 
p. 730 ; Philemon, p. 741 ; Philip, p. 742 ; Philistines, p. 755. 

Volume XX. — The land of Rameses, p. 265. 

Volume XXI. — Sabbath, p. 124; Samaria, p. 243; Sa- 
maritans, p. 244; Samuel, p. 252 ; Samson, p. 252. 


Volume XXII — Simeon, p. yj ; Simon Magus, p. 78 ; 
Sinai, p. 88 ; Solomon, p. 251 ; Synagogue, p. 811 ; Susa, 
p. 722. 

Volume XXIII. — Thomas, p. 308 ; Timothy, p. 399 ; 
Titus, p. 420; Tobit, p. 427. 

Of the articles which relate to the geography of the 
Bible, the following are a few of the most important : 

Sinai, celebrated as the place where Moses received the 
law, XXII. 88. 

Palestine, the " Promised Land," XVIII. 170, and XIII. 

Jerusalem, the holy city, XIII. 636. 
Dead Sea, together with an account of the two cities, 
Sodom and Gomorrah, which are said to have 

Bible occupied its site, VII. 1. 

Geography. Hebron, the ancient capital of Judea, XI. 

Bethlehem, the city of David, III. 617. 

Bethany, the " town of Mary and Martha," III. 617. 

Beer-sheba, the most southern town of Palestine, III. 

Samaria, XXI. 243. 

Shechem, XXI. 783. 

Nazareth, the town where Jesus lived, XVII. 302. 

Gennesaret, otherwise called the Sea of Galilee, X. 29. 

Gethsemane, sup. 1390. 

Capernaum, V. 54. 

Joppa, XIII. 746. 

Antioch, II. 130. 

Damascus, the oldest city in the world, VI. 790. 

The journeyings of the Israelites from Egypt to the 
Promised Land may be traced by reading the following 


references in their order : Starting from Rameses in Egypt, 

\\. 265, they fled to the Red Sea, XIII. 399. Here 

Pharaoh and his host were overthrown and 

journey drowned, but the Israelites, having crossed in 
from . ... . 111 

E safety, pursued their journey through the wil- 

derness. For three days they had no water to 
drink, and arriving at last at Marah, XIV. 767, they found 
that the water in the springs there was bitter. This water 
was miraculously made sweet, and they continued their 
journey, finally reaching Sinai, XXII. 88, where the law 
was delivered to Moses. From Sinai they passed by va- 
rious stations to Kadesh-Barnea, XXII. 821, and from that 
place sent out twelve spies to view the Promised Land. 
Being afraid to enter the Promised Land, they then turned 
back into the wilderness where they wandered for forty 
years. At Mount Hor, XII. 159, Aaron died. While pass- 
ing around Edom, XII. 699, they were attacked by fiery 
serpents. Arriving at last on the plains of Moab, XVI. 533, 
the Israelite army was reviewed and the law was confirmed 
by Moses. Moses viewed the Promised Land from the 
top of Mount Pisgah and died there. After this the peo- 
ple under Joshua crossed the Jordan, XIII. 746, encamped 
a short time at Gilgal, X. 596, and then marched against 
Jericho, XIII. 629, and Ai, I. 424. At Shechem, XXI. 
783, they again encamped, and there the cursings were 
read from Mount Ebal, X. 444, and the blessings from 
Mount Gerizim, XXI. 244. Returning to Gilgal, a treaty 
was made with the people of Gibeon, X. 583. At Merom, 
XIII. 746, the Northern Canaanites were signally defeated ; 
and at Shiloh, XXI. 803, the twelve tribes were assigned 
to their respective possessions. 

In much the same way we may follow the Apostle Paul 
in his voyage to Rome. He sets sail from Caesarea, IV. 
639 ; touches at Sidon, XXII. 35 ; thence proceeds to 


Cyprus, VI. 747, and to Myra, XV. 93, where he is tran- 
shipped to a corn vessel which coasts along the shore of 
Asia Minor to Cnidus, V. 44. Being caught by 
Paul's t j le w ^ n ^ j-^e vessel is driven to Crete, VI. 569, 

VoVclETC tO 

D and follows the southern coast of that island to 


Fair Haven, VI. 570. Sailing thence to find a 
secure harbor for the winter, the vessel encounters the 
wind Eurokylon, XV. 340, and sup. 1220 ; and, under shel- 
ter of the island Clauda, VI. 570, the sailors prepare for 
the storm by striking sail and turning the vessel's head to 
the wind. For fourteen days they are driven helpless 
across the sea, and are finally thrown upon the shore of 
Melita, XV. 840, escaping only with their lives. After 
three months, Paul sets sail in an Alexandrian corn ship, 
stops at Syracuse, XXII. 813, for three days; then, mak- 
ing circuit, passes Rhegium, XX. 341, and the next day 
lands at Puteoli, XVII, 188, where he rests a full week. 
Then he proceeds by the Appian Way, II. 211, to the city 
of Rome, XX. 807. 

It is safe to say, in conclusion, that the earnest student 
of the Bible will find in the Britannica an answer to al- 
most every question concerning biblical subjects that may 
be asked. From no other single work will he be able to 
obtain a larger amount of useful information at so little 
expenditure of time and labor. The Britannica is, in 
short, the great authority to which readers and students 
of every denomination or creed may turn with full confi- 
dence in"its correctness and impartiality. See the chapter 
entitled The Preacher and Theologian, of this GUIDE. 




" Books are our household gods." — January Searle. 
"Gods and goddesses, all the whole synod of them!" — Antony and 


MYTHOLOGY is the science which examines the myths 

of cosmogony and of gods and heroes. A very scholarly 

exposition of this science is given by Andrew 

Lang in Volume XVII., pp. 135-154, of the 

Definition. _ . . _, , . . 

Britanmca. Students, however, who are not 

already somewhat familiar with the subject will 
prefer to read some of the shorter articles first ; they will 
afterward be able to take up this entertaining and com- 
prehensive disquisition, and read it with appreciation and 
delight. The following list includes a number of interest- 
ing and valuable articles, arranged for the most part in 
alphabetical order : 

Myths of the creation, VI. 446, and XVII. 156. Read 
also the chapter on cosmogonies, I. 460. 
Myths of the gods : 
Apollo, II. 185. 

Athena (Minerva), II. 830; XVI. 437. 
Greek Diana (Artemis), II. 643 ; VII. 167. 

Roman. Hebe ' XL 49°. 

Hephaestus (Vulcan), XI. 679. 
Juno, XIII. 778 (Hera), XI. 679. 


Jupiter, XIII. 779. 

Mars, XV. 569, (Ares), II. 484. 

Marsyas, XV. 575. 

Mercury (Hermes), XL 749; XVI. 530. 

Nemesis, XVII. 331. 

Neptune (Poseidon), XVII. 345; XIX. 558. 

Saturn, XXI. 320. 

Venus (Aphrodite), II. 171. 

Vesta, XXIV. 193. 

Zeus (Jupiter), XXIV. 732. 

The Aesir, I. 209. 

Odin, 11.68; XVII. 156. 

Frey, I. 210. 
Northern. . . TTT 

Balder, III. 275. 

Niord, I. 210. 

Bragi, I. 211. 

Thor, XVII. 156. 

Freya, IX. 7J7. 

Loki, XVII. 474- 

Heimdal, I. 211, etc. 

Asgard, II. 679. 

Bel, III. 175. 

Ashtoreth, II. 735. 
0ther Astarte, II. 735. 
Gods. Merodach, XXIII. 237. 
Ammon, I. 740. 

Anubis, II. 146. 

Bubastis, IV. 408. 

Baal, III. 175. 

Moloch, XVI. 695. 

Ahriman, I. 424. 

Dagon, VI. 761. 


Anoukis, II. 90. 
Athor, III. 13. 
Buto, IV. 590. 

For further references, see the chapter entitled The 
Preacher and Theologian^ in this Guide. 


1. Closely allied to the myths of the gods — in fact, in- 
separable from them — are the legends of the ancient he- 
roes. All are related in the Britaimica, with now 
Old Greek an d then a pertinent inquiry respecting their 
Stories. origin, or a brief discussion concerning their 
interpretation. Here you may find the story 
of Achilles, whose " vengeful wrath brought woes number- 
less upon the Greeks," I. 94; of Acis and his love for the 
nymph Galatea, I. 98 ; of Actaeon hunted by his own 
hounds, I. 129; of Adonis beloved by Venus, I. 163; of 
Adrastus and the war of the Seven against Thebes, I. 164; 
of ^Eacus, famed for his integrity and piety, I. 179; of 
/Egeus, the king of Athens, and of ^Egina, the river- 
nymph, I. 180; of /Egis, the buckler of Jupiter, I. 181 ; 
of /Egisthus, the traitor, I. 181, and his betrayal of Aga- 
memnon, " king of men," I. 273 ; of /Eneas and his flight 
from Troy, I. 182 ; of Ajax Telamon and AjaxOileus and 
their bold exploits, I. 432 ; of fair Alcestis giving herself 
up to death to save the life of her husband, I. 459 ; of 
Alcinous and his Phaeacian people, I. 468 ; of Alpheus, the 
river-god, I. 615, and his adventure with the nymph Are- 
thusa, II. 485 ; of the Amazonian women, I. 655, brave 
warriors of the Colchian shore ; of Amphiaraus, I. 749, 
whose prophetic power did not save him from an early 
death; of Amphion, I. 774, the sound of whose lyre caused 
stones to move and form themselves into the walls of 
Thebes ; of Amymone and the satyr, I. 782. 


This takes us only through the first volume. Of the 
numerous classical legends narrated in the remaining vol- 
umes, it is unnecessary to name all. Any course of read- 
ing on this subject, however, ought to include the following : 
Anchises, the father of /Eneas, II. 3. 

1 er Andromache, the wife of Trojan Hector, II. 



Andromeda, saved by Perseus from the jaws 
of a sea-monster, II. 22. 

Antaeus, giant and wrestler, overcome by Hercules, II. 

Antigone, the heroine of one of the most famous of the 
old Greek tragedies, II. 127. 

The Argonauts and their famous voyage in search of 
the Golden Fleece, II. 497. 

Ariadne, the fair maiden of Crete, II. 501. 

Arion, the Greek bard and player on the cithara, II. 502. 

Atalant-a, the swift-footed huntress of Arcadia, II. 826. 

Atreus, the father of Agamemnon, III. 50. 

Atys, the beautiful shepherd of Phrygia, III. 65. 

The autochthones, aborigines of Greece, III, 141. 

Cadmus, the inventor of letters, IV. 629. 

Calchas, the wisest of soothsayers, IV. 653. 

Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry, IV. 709. 

The centaurs, or " bull-killers," fabled as creatures half 
man and half horse, V. 340. 

Cerberus, the three-headed dog that guards the gates of 
Hades, V. 345. 

Cupid and Psyche, VI. 708. 

The Cyclopes, a lawless race of one-eyed monsters, VI 


Daedalus, the most famous artisan of prehistoric times, 
VI. 760. 

Daphne, beloved by Apollo, VI. 821. 


Danae, the mother of Perseus, VI. 797. 

Danaiis and his fifty daughters, VI. 797. 

Deucalion, the Noah of the Greeks, VII. 134. 

Dodona and its famous oaks, VII. 322. 

Echo and her love for Narcissus, VII. 640. 

Elysium, or the abode of the blessed, VIII. 156. 

Endymion, and his perpetual sleep, X" III. 204. 

The Epigoni, sons of the seven heroes who perished at 
Thebes, VIII. 477. 

The Erinyes, or Furies, VIII. 524. 

The Fauns, IX. 53. 

Ganymede, the cup-bearer of Zeus, X. 72. 

The Giants, X. 571. 

Glaucus, the fisherman who became a god, X. 676. 

The Gorgons, X. 784. 

The Graces, XI. 26. 

The Harpies, XI. 490. 

Hercules, the greatest of the heroes, XI. 725. 

Hero and Leander, XI. 754. 

The Hesperides, daughters of the West, XI. 778. 

Iphigenia, XIII. 211. 

Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, XIII. 596. 

Hyacinthus, the friend of Apollo, XII. 420. 

Laocoon, the unfortunate Trojan, crushed by serpents, 
XIV. 292. 

The Lapithae, ancient race of Thessaly, XIV. 300. 

Linus, who taught Hercules music, XIV. 678. 

Medea, the enchantress, XV. y/6. 

Medusa, the Gorgon, X. 785. 

Midas and the "golden touch," XVI. 278. 

Milo, the wrestler, XVI. 323. 

Minos and the Labyrinth of Crete, XVI. 478. 

The Nymphs, XVIII. 688. 

Nestor, oldest of Grecian heroes before Troy, XVII. 354. 


Orpheus, the sweetest of all musicians, XVIII. 51. 
Odysseus, or Ulysses, XVII. 729. 

Pegasus, the winged horse of the Muses, XVIII. 468. 
Pelias, king of Iolcos by the sea, XVIII. 474. 
Phaethon, son of Helios, XVItl. 727. 
Theseus, the great Athenian hero, XXIII. 294. 
Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome, XX. 840. 
The Trojan war, XXIII. 584. 

2. Of old English legends intimately associated with 
much that is best in our literature, there are several with 

which every student should be familiar. Among 
English these are the following : 
Legends. King Arthur and his Knights of the Round 

Table, II. 649. 
Lancelot of the Lake, XX. 644. 
Merlin, the wizard, XX. 645. 
Guy of Warwick, XI. 341. 
Sir Bevis of Hampton, XX. 653. 
Godiva, the fair lady of Coventry, VI. 530. 
Fair Rosamond, XX. 848. 
Whittington and his Cat, XXIV. 556. 

3. Of Christian legends, some of the most interesting are: 

Saint Cecilia, V. 284. 
Christian Saint Christopher, V. 704. 

Legends. The Holy Grail, XI. 34. 

Saint Nicholas, XVII. 482. 
Saint Denis, VII. 79. 
Saint Veronica, XXIV. 174. 
Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, XXI. 697. 

4. Of other famous legends the number is too great for 
anything like a complete list to be given. Among those 


referred to or narrated in the Britannica the following 
may be mentioned : 

Misceiia- Adam's Peak in Ceylon, I. 140. 

neous. The Tower of Babel, III. [78. 

The story »•!' Lohengrin, XXIV. 314. 

Roland, the great French hero, XX. 626. 

The Cid, famous in Spanish story, V. "$. 

Ogier, the Dane, XX. 652. 

l'rester John, King of Abyssinia, I. 65; XIX. 714. 

The legend of Dr. Fanstus, IX. 54. 

Legends of Atlantis, III. 27. 

William Tell, XXIII. 155. 

The Beast Epic of Reineke Vos, VIII. 838. 

The Pied Piper of Hamelin, XI. 409. 

The Nibelungen Lied, XVII. 474. 

The legends peculiar to different countries are also no- 
ticed in their appropriate places, as : 

Legends of Afghanistan, I. 238. 

Legends of Arabia, II. 255. 

Legends of Central America, I. 703, etc. 

5. Fairy Stories. — For special article, see VIII. 854. See 
also the following sections, paragraphs, and short articles : 

Fairies, II. 203. 

Brownies, II. 204. 

Fairies in Celtic literature, V. 325. 

Morgan, the Fay, V. 325. 

Oberon, XVII. 704. 

6. Fables. — See special article, VIII. 837. 
Sanscrit fables, XXL 287. 

^Esop, the Greek fabulist, I. 212. 

La Fontaine, the French writer of fables, XIV. 204. 

Kriloff, the Russian collector of fables, XIV. 148. 




" To make modern and familiar, things supernatural and causeless." 

— Airs Well that Ends Well. 

IN this chapter it is proposed to point out to the reader 
a few of the most interesting articles in the 
Occult Britannica relating to supernatural phenomena, 
Sciences. the occult sciences, magic, mystery, supersti- 
tion, etc. No attempt will be made towards a 
classification or logical arrangement of the subjects, nor 
is it possible to present anything approaching to a com- 
plete list of the articles and parts of articles which relate 
directly or indirectly to the supernatural. But it is be- 
lieved that every student will find in these readings matter 
that will afford entertainment, and sometimes instruction. 
Before the era of modern science, the belief in the su- 
pernatural held a much larger place in the estimation of 
mankind than it is possible for it to hold again. Alchemy, 
astrology, and magic reigned undisputed, and all knowledge 
of whatsoever kind was tinctured with superstition. Let 
us begin our readings, therefore, with selections from arti- 
cles relating to these defunct sciences : 

1. Alchemy has been very aptly described as "the 
sickly but imaginative infancy through which 
modern chemistry had to pass before it at- 
tained its majority." See the very interesting 
article on this subject, I. 459-467. Read also 
the following articles and selections: 


Paracelsus, XVI II. 234. 
Jakob Bohme III. 852. 
Hermes Trismegistus, XI. 750. 
Alexander of Aphrodisias, I. 486. 
Roger Bacon, III. 218; I. 186. 
Albcrtus Magnus, I. 453. 
Cornelius Agrippa, I. 418. 
Raymond Lully, XV. 63. 
Arnold of Villeneuve, II. 620. 
The Rosicrucians, XX. 852. 
Alembic, I. 477. 

2. Astrology was the forerunner of the modern science 
of astronomy, and, like alchemy, was not altogether un- 
productive of good results. For a general history of this 

interesting subject, see the special article in 
volume II. 739-743. Also, consult the follow- 

Astrology. . , /J ^ ^ J ' 

ing short articles : 

Horoscope, XV. 206. 

Zodiac, XXIV. 791 ; VII. 550. 

William Lilly, XIV. 642. 

Nostradamus. XVII. 596. 

Robert Fludd, IX. 349. 

John Dee, VII. 22. 

Michael Scott, XXI. 470. 

Girolamo Cardan, V. 90; II. 742. 

Napier's belief in Astrology, XVII. 183. 

Astrology among the Parsees, XVIII. 325. 

3. Necromancy : An important article on magic, its his- 

tory and influence, may be found in XV. 199. 
Magic. Magic among Prehistoric Nations, VIII. 623. 

Egyptian Magic, XV. 201. 
Babylonian and Assyrian Magic, XV. 201. 


Greek and Roman Magic, XV. 202. 

Magic among Asiatic Nations, XV. 203. 

The Rosicrucians, XX. 852. 

Magic in Christendom, XV. 204. 

Necromancy in England, VII. 22. 

Divination, or the art of discovering secret or future 

things by preternatural means, VII. 293. 

Supersti- Augury, or the art of discovering through 

Beliefs natural signs the will of the gods, III. 72. 

Palmistry, the art of divining personal history 

from the lines in the palm of the hand, sup. 2285 

Ordeal, or the mediaeval method of discovering the will 

of God, XVII. 820. 

Dreams and their interpretation, VII. 452, 293. 

Lycanthropy, or the metamorphosis of men into wolves, 

XV. 89. 

The mystical arrangement of letters, called 
Mysticism. T 

Abracadabra, 1. 52. 

The mystical word Abraxas, I. 56. 

The mystical ornament or charm, Amulet, I 780. 

The mystical science, Kabbalah, XIII. 810. 

4. Demonology, or the influence of spiritual beings 

upon the affairs of men, VII. 60. 

Sorcery, or familiar intercourse with demons, VII. 63. 

Witchcraft, XXIV. 619. (A history of the 

laws and methods by which different nations 

Witchcraft. , , . . 

have attempted to suppress tins supposed 

Exorcism, or the means by which evil spirits are ex- 
pelled, VIII. 806. 
Evil Devil, VII. 136. 
Sp.nts. Ahriman I. 424; XVII. 858; XXIII. 238. 

Beelzebub, III. 503. 


Asmodous. II. 714. 
Mephistopheles, XVI. 29. 

Faust, the sorcerer of mediaeval legend, XI. 54; X. 539. 
Merlin, the wizard of Britain, XX. 645. 
Apolloniusof Tyana, philosopher and magician, II. 188. 
Reginald Scot, English writer on witchcraft, XXI. 470. 
Cotton Mather, the New England opponent of witch- 
craft, XV. 631. 

5. The history of the belief in supernatural beings and 
in supernatural influences maybe further illustrated by ref- 
erence to the following articles: 

Angels, II. 26; II. 183. 

Super_ Azrael, sup, 305. 
natural ' T' ° J 

Influences. Raphael, XX. 274. 
Gabriel, X. 30. 

Michael, XVI. 226. 

Apparitions, II. 202. 

Astral Spirits, sup. 273. 

Ghosts, II. 205 ; XV. 199. 

Spiritualism, II. 207 ; XXII. 404 ; the Fox sisters, sup. 
1322; Daniel D. Home, sup. 1601 ; Robert Dale Owen, 
sup. 2271. 

Fetichism, II. 45. 

Totemism, XXIII, 467. 

Prophecy, XIX. 814. 

Inspiration, XIII. 154; XIX. 197. 

Second Sight, II. 202. 

Hypnotism, II. 505. 

Mesmerism, XV. 277. 

Augury, III. 72. 

Divination, VII. 293. 

Bibliomancy, sup. 457. 

Divination by Cup, sup. 965. 


The Sibyls XXII. 13; XI. 144. See also Augurs, 
III. 72; Oracles, XVII. 808; XIX. 91. 

ApotheosiSjII. 199. See also Metempsychosis, XVI. 106. 

6. The popular belief in imaginary creatures, as set 

forth in very many of the classical legends, in 

Imaginary the romances of the Middle Ages, and in the 

Beings. fairy tales and folk-lore of almost every nation 

in the world, is the subject of numerous articles. 

The following are especially noticeable : 

Genii, sup. 1379. 

Manes, XV. 477. 

Penates, XVIII. 488. 

Nymphs, XVII. 688. 

Dryads, VII. 487. 

Fauns, IX. 53. 

Chimaera, V. 626. 

Harpies, XI. 490. 

Mermaids and mermen, XVI. 39. 

Griffin, XI. 195. 

Dragon, VII. 385. 

Were wolves, XV. 89. 

Fairies, VIII. 854. 

Oberon and Titania, XVII. 704. 

Morgana, V. 325. 

Elves, VIII. 855. 

See the references to astrology in Readings in Astron- 
omy, in this Guide ; also the references to alchemy in the 
chapter entitled The Chemist. 


THE DESUl roRY reader's course. 

" Read what amuses you and pleases you. "- Robert Lowe. 
" Adjust your proposed amount of reading to your time and inclina- 
tion." — Dr. Thomas Arnold. 

To the person who takes pleasure (and who does not ?) 
in browsing among the good things in books, without un- 
dertaking to read systematically, the Encyclo- 
Reading p a dia Britannica offers advantages which can 
Pleasure ^e derived f rom no other publication. Here 
may be found all kinds of literary nuggets — 
readings on all manner of subjects — short articles, long 
articles — anything and everything to suit the demands 
ot the hour. You need not attempt to follow any spe- 
cial course of reading — only read that which pleases you, 
and you may be sure that, whatever you may select from 
the Britannica, you cannot fail to be improved thereby. 
If your time is limited, choose something that is brief and 
light ; if you are in a studious mood, take up a subject that 
will make you think, and that will be to your mind what 
brisk exercise is to your body. Among the thousands of 
articles with which you may thus occupy your spare mo- 
ments, the following are mentioned merely as examples : 

The Automaton, III. 142. 
Inventions, j/he magic lantern (fully illustrated), XV. 211. 
The guillotine, XI. 263. 
Tunneling, XXIII. 622 (illustrated). 
Wax figures, XXIV. 460. 
Horn-books, XII. 170. 


Perfumery, XVIII. 525. 
Balloons, I. 187. 
Fire engines, IX. 235. 
Hydraulic Clock, V. 826. 
Fire works, XX. 134. 
Flying machines, I. 185. 


The Luray cavern, XV. 67. 

The Mammoth cave, XV. 448. 

Niagara Falls, XVII. 472. 

Whirlpools, XXIV. 540. 
Whirlwinds and tornadoes, XVI. 129. 
Geysers, X. 557. 
Glaciers, X. 626. 
Natural gas, sup. 2140. 
Artesian Wells, sup. 250. 
Giant's causeway, X. 572. 
Tides, XXIII. 353. 

Prehistoric monsters, XII. 695. 
The ichneumon, XII. 629. 
The dodo, VII. 321. 
The honey guide, XII. 139. 
The sloth, XXII. 161. 
Sea-serpents, XXI. 608. 
Mermaids, XVI. 39. 
Dragons, VII. 385. 
Chimaera, V. 626. 

Harpies, XI. 490. 
Trees. Baobab Tree, I. 268, 

Sacred Fig. IX. 154. 
Upas Tree, XXIII. 859. 
Orchids, XVII. 816. 


iv. curious customs, 1 re. 

I leodands, VI I. 727. 

Ordeal of Fire and of Battle, XVII. 820. 
April Fool Day, II. 214. 
Curious May Day in Old England, XV. 647. 

Customs. The Morris Dance, XVI. 846. 

Caste, V. 186. 
Clans, V. 799. 
Saturnalia. XXI. 321. 
The Nile Festival, VII. 727. 
Exorcism, VIII. 806. 
• Fehmic Court (a secret tribunal in Germany, twelfth to 
sixteenth century), IX. 65. 
Pillory, XIX. 95. 


Funeral rites, IX. 824. 
Burial, IV. 537. 
Embalming, VIII, 158. 
Mummies, XVII. 20. 
Wakes, sup. 3070. 
Cremation, sup. 940, VI. 565. 
National cemeteries, sup. 732. 
Tombs, sup. 2923. 
Mausoleum, XI. 383. 
Suttee, XXII. 727. 


History of Flags, IX. 276. 

Guilds, XL 259-262. 
tt . . , The Man of the Iron Mask, XIII. 360. 

Historical. ^ 

History of Newspapers, XVII. 42. 

Piracy, XIX. 1 16. 

Hypatia, XII. 596. 


Semiramis, XXI. 639. 
Aspasia II. 714. 

Field of the Cloth of Gold, II. 480. 
The Spanish Armada, II. 543. 

Great fires: in London, XIV. 826; in Chicago, V. 611 ; 
in Boston, IV. 75. 

World's Fair, sup. 3195. 

International Exhibitions, XVIII. 803. 


James Holman, the blind traveller, XII. 103. 

Zerah Colburn, the mathematical prodigy, 
People VL 4 g 6> 

Things Joseph Scaliger, " the greatest scholar of 

modern times," XXI. 362. 
The Admirable Crichton, VI. 577. 
Kaspar Hauser, the mysterious German youth, XI. 


Christian Heinrich Heinecken, the precocious child, XI. 

Dwarfs, VII. 567. 

Siamese Twins, XVI. 765. 

Heredity, I. 87. 

Animal Magnetism, XV. 277. 

Hypnotism, XV. 277-283. 

The Malthusian Doctrine, XV. 344. 

Darwinism, XXIV. 77-85. 

Cryptography, VI. 669. 

White Magic (sleight of hand), XV. 207. See also 
Legerdemain, XIV. 414; Ventriloquism, sup. 3030. 

Thugs, XXIII. 326. 

Assassins, II. 722. 

Story of the Tichborne Claimant, sup. 2909. 






" Active doer, noble liver, 
Strong to labor, sure to conquer." 

— Robert Browning. 

FEW subjects engage the attention of so large a num- 
ber of busy men as does that of manufacturing. Who, 
indeed, is not either directly or indirectly inter- 
ested in the making of things, either by hand 
Consumer or ^}' machinery ? You may not be a manu- 
facturer yourself, but you are necessarily the 
patron of many manufacturers. You are the consumer of 
the products of various manufacturing industries, and very 
naturally you have a curiosity to know something about 
the processes by which these products have been evolved 
from raw material and made into their present forms of 
usefulness. The Encyclopaedia Britannica will give you 
the desired information. 

If you are engaged in some particular line of manufac- 
turing, the Britannica will add to your knowledge con- 
cerning it. It will tell you what are the best materials to 
be used, the most economical processes to be employed, 
and the most desirable qualities to be sought in the prod- 
ucts which you design to manufacture. Besides this, it 
will probably give you a great deal of interesting histori- 
cal information concerning the origin, development, and 
various fluctuations of the business in which you are en- 
gaged — information which, although not absolutely neces- 
sary to your success, may nevertheless add directly to 
your enjoyment and incidentally to your prosperity. 


This subject covers so wide a field and embraces so 
many different industries that, within our limited space, 
we can do but little more than make bare references to 
some of the most important articles contained in the Bri- 
tannica. Let us first notice some of the manufactures of 


1. Wool and Woolen Manufactures is the title of a spe- 
cial article, XXIV. 653. The first part of this article, re- 
lating to the early history of the woolen indus- 
try, will interest every reader. See next the 

WOOl. J . , , J - • , TT ■ 1 

article on woolen manufactures in the United 
States, sup. 3188, where the very latest informa- 
tion and statistics are given. Now read what is said of 

Wool fibre, IX. 133. 

Bleaching of wool, III. 822. 

Dyeing of wool, VII. 571. 

Cassimeres, sup. 718. 

Spinning, XXIV. 730, XIV. 664. 

Loom, XXIV. 64, XXIII. 206, 210. 

Turn to the illustrated article on TEXTILES, XXIII. 
206, and read the interesting history there given of the art 
of weaving. 

2. For an account of flax and linen manufactures, see 

XIV. 663. 

The manufacture of linen in England, VIII. 


232; in Ireland, II. 143, and XIII. 231; in 

Scotland, VII. 534. 
Cultivation of flax in America, I. 64. 
Bleaching of linen, III. 820. 

3. For a complete history of cotton and cotton manu- 
factures, see VI. 482. 


Cotton in the United States, 824; in India, XII. 

748; in Egypt, VII. 708,786; in Brazil, IV. 


Cotton manufacture in England, VIII. 230 ; 

in India, XII. 761, 763 ; in Russia, XXI. 849. 
Bleaching of cotton, III. 812. 
Dyeing of cotton, VII. 576. 
Cotton-spinning frame, II. 541. 

Robert Owen's improvements in cotton spinning, 
XVIII. 87. 

Cotton yarns, XXIV. 731. 

The spinning-jenny, II. 541 and VI. 490. 

The spinning-wheel, XXIV. 664. 

Calico, VI. 488, 500. 

Calico printing, IV, 684. 

Ginghams, X. 604. 

Gauze, X. 1 18. 

Laces, XIV. 183. 

See Samuel Slater, sup. 2728. 

4. For a history of silk and silk manufactures, see XXII. 
56,61. • 

Manufacture of silk in the United States,- sup. 2717; 
in England, VIII. 2^2 ; in India, XII. 761 ; in 
China, V. 638 , in France, IX. 520; in Italy, 

Sllk - XIII. 442. 

Silk in ancient times, XXIII. 208. 

Bleaching of silk, III. 822. 

The silkworm, IV. 596 and XIII. 151. 

Silk from spiders, II. 295. 

5. Miscellaneous. 

Hosiery, XII. 299, and VIII. 233. 
Knitting, XIV. 127. 


Invention of the stocking frame, XII. 299. 
Cloth, weaving of, XXIV. 463, 466. 
Ancient weaving of cloth, XXIII. 206. 
Improvements in looms, sup. 1916. 

Carpets, V. 127; Persian carpets, XVIII. 626 ; Turkish 
II. 708; Oriental, XXIII. 211. 

Canvas, V. 40; canvas for sails, XXI. 154. 
Straw manufactures, XXII. 593. 
Rope-making, XX, 844. 
Twine manufacture, XX. 845. 
Rhea fibre, XX. 506. 


I. Iron manufactures, XIII. 278. 

Statistics of iron manufacture, XIII. 358; iron industry 
in the United States, XXIII. 813; sup. 1694; 
Iron. i ron as building material, IV. 447. 
Strength of iron, XXII. 603. 

The Blast Furnace, IX. 840; III. 550; sup. 1695. 

Melting-point of metals, sup. 2033. 

Puddling, XIII. 320. 

Pig iron, XIII. 306, 284. 

Cast iron, XIII. 281, 318. 

Manufacture of steel, XIII. 358; strength of steel, 
XXII. 603; rigidity of, VII. 815; manufacture in the 
United States, XXIII. 813 ; sup. 1700; use in ships, XVII. 

Bessemer steel, sup. 1701. 

Steel castings, sup. 1704. 

Nails, XVII. 165. 

Screws, XX. 552. 

Locks, XIV. 744. 

Galvanized iron, XIII. 357. 


Foundry operations, IX. 479. 

The casting of metal, IX. 479. 

Rolling-mills, XIII. 328. 

Wire, XXIV. 614; wire-drawing, sup. 3173; strength 
of. XVI. 65; elasticity of, VII. So, 803; telegraph wire, 
XXIII. 114; wire nails, XVII. [66; wire rope, XX. 846; 
wire netting, XVII. 360; wire fences, I. 310; wire-glass, 
sup. 3173. 

Stoves, XXII. 579. 

Iron pipes, II. 522. 

Pipe-making, sup. 2393. 

2. Copper, VI. 3 47 ; copper wire, XXIV. 615. 

Brass (alloy of copper and zinc), IV. 217; zinc, XXIV. 
Copper Tin, XXIII. 400; strength of, XXII. 603. 

and Tin. Tin-plate, XIII. 357. 

Can manufacture and canner's tools, sup. 684. 

Tin-plate manufacture in the United States, sup. 2916. 

Bronze (alloy of copper and tin), VI. 351, 

Early casting of bronze, II. 348. 

Strength of, XXII. 603. 

Bronze work, XVI. 71. 

3. Silver, XXII. 69. 
Silver plate, XXII. 71. 
Silver plate works, XIX. 178. 
Silvering, XXII. 71. 

Silver wire, XXIV. 615. 

Use of silver in mirrors, XVI. 501. 
Precious Silver lace, X. 753. 

Metals. Silversmiths in Rome, II. 366. 

Gold, X. 740. 
Gold plate, XIX. 178. 


Gold wire, XXIV. 615. 
Gold thread, XXIII. 209. 
Gold lace X. 753 ; gold cloth, XXIII. 210. 
Ancient workers in gold, XXIII. 210. 
See now the chapter entitled The Miner, in this volume ; 
also The Railroad Man, and The Machinist. 

4. Pottery, XIX. 600; burning of, XX. 133; glazing, IV. 


Pottery Industry in the United States, sup. 2431. 

Palissy's pottery, XVIII. 186. 

Wedgwood's pottery, XXIV. 476. 

lapanese pottery, XIII. 590. 
Pottery. * \. ^ il--- £ 

Indian pottery, XII. 763. 

The potteries, sup. 143 1. 

Kaolin, XIV. I. 

Porcelain, clay for, XIV. 1 and XVI 424. 

Chinese porcelain, XIV. 90. 

Japanese porcelain, XIII. 590. 

Limoges ware, XIV. 651. 

Sevres ware, XIX. 6$j. 

5. Glass, history of, X. 647. 
Manufacture of glass, X. 650. 

Manufacture of glass in the United States, sup. 1407. 

Annealing, II. 63. 

Colors of glass, XXIV. 427. 

Painting on, X. 667. 

Venetian glass works, XVII. 48. 

Glass cutting, VII. 167. 

Plate glass, X. 662. 

Wire glass, sup. 3 1 73. 

Window glass, X. 660, 668. 

Glass bottles, IV. 167, and X. 664. 

I 111. MAM FAC 1 I Kl.K. I87 

Glass, wire, sup. 1408. 

Minors, XVI. 4 19. 

6. Leather, XIV. 380. 
Artificial leather, XIV. 391. 
Latest processes, sup. 1849. 
Shoemaking, XXI. 830. 

7. Paper, XVIII. 217. 
Papier-mache, XVIII. 228. 
Parchment, XVIII. 271. 
Linoleum, XIV. 676. 
Lincrusta Walton, XIV. 662. 

8. Flour, sup. 1293 ; IX. 343 ; III. 251. 
Bread, III. 250. 

Cracknels, III. 252. 
Macaroni, XV. 125. 
The Canning Industry, sup. 685. 
Raisins, sup. 3057. 

Sugar, XXII. 622. 
Food Sugar-making machinery, sup. 2818. 

Products. Beet sugar, 1. 382. 

Glucose sugar, sup. 1412. 
Maple sugar, sup. 1988. 
Molasses, XXII. 626. 
Salt, XXI. 228, XXIII. 817. 

Animal foods, see Packing, sup. 2278, and Abattoirs, 
sup. 1 1. 

9. Brick-making, IV. 280. 
Ancient bricks, XIX. 604, 619. 
Glazed brick, XVII. 35. 
Tiles, XXIII. 387, IV. 283. 


Gutta-percha, XI. 337. 

India-rubber, XII. 835, 839; Goodyear's 

Miscella- • ,• , „ „ 

neous. inventions, sup. 1425. 

Rope-making, sup. 2575. 

Straw manufactures, XXIL 593. 

Baskets, III. 421. 

Needles, XVII. 313. 

Pigments — methods of manufacturing paints, XIX. 85. 

Hats, XI. 518 ; straw hats, XXIL 593. 

Gloves, X. 692, XIV. 389 

Pins, XIX. 97. 

Button-making, IV. 599. 

American watches, sup. 3097. 

Fans, IX. 27 

Furniture, IX. 847. 

Very interesting are the accounts that are given of some 
of the great manufacturing centres, such as : 

Manchester, the centre of the English cotton industrv, 
XV. 459- 

Birmingham, noted for its iron and steel 
Manufactur- works, III. 780. 
ing Centres. Sheffield, famous for its cutlery, XXI. 785. 

Philadelphia, and its extensive and varied in- 
dustries, XVIII. 736. 

Pittsburg, and its iron manufacturers, sup. 2396. 

Lowell, and its cotton mills, sup. 1925. 

Lynn, famous for the manufacture of shoes, sup. 1937. 

Boston, IV. 72; Newark, XVII. 370; Wilmington, 
XXIV. 589; Birmingham, Alabama, III. 287; and scores 
of other manufacturing cities of similar importance. 

For statistics and other information concerning manu- 
factures in all the principal countries of the world, see 


the appropriate paragraph under the name of each coun- 
try. For example : 
Statistics. Manufactures in England, VIII. 230. 

Manufactures in Germany, X. 459. 
Manufactures in Arabia, II. 245. 
See World's Fairs, sup. 3195. 

But the intelligent reader will require no further assist- 
ance from the GUIDE in finding such information. 



"Thou art deeper read, and better skilled." — Titus Andronicus. 

What constitutes the difference between the good arti- 
san and the bungler? Knowledge and skill. These may- 
be attained in some degree by practice in the 

Artisan handling of tools ; but that broader knowledge 

or . & » fc. 

Bungler? which leads to success, and that more perfect 
skill which wins distinction, can be acquired 
only through diligent study. The mechanic who would 
rise to a higher position in his calling, must learn all about 
the nature of the materials with which he works ; he must 
know what are the best tools to use, and why ; he must 
understand the philosophy of the forces with which he 
deals; and he must seek to comprehend the natural laws 
which govern or regulate the operations connected with 
his particular handicraft. This is the kind of knowledge 
which enables the humblest workman to develop into 
the foreman, the manager, the inventor, the skilled 

Now there is no other printed publication in the world 
which offers the means of acquiring so much of this kind 
of knowledge as does the Encyclopaedia Britannica. There 
is hardly a single difficult problem connected with the 
laws of mechanics or of machinery which is not clearly 
explained in the Britannica. There is hardly a knotty 


question with reference to tools, materials, or products 
which is not elucidated Or answered in one of these vol- 
umes. The successful mechanic will not always 
Mechanic's wait for these difficulties to present themselves. 

Helper. He will stud)* the principles of his trade and 
every detail concerning it, so as to be read)' be. 
forehand for all emergencies. Instead of running with 
childish questions to his foreman, he is read)' himself to 
give instructions to those who are in need of them. His 
workmanship is of superior character. He is constantly 
improving, while his fellows who work without thought 
remain always on the same level. 1 1 is greater knowledge 
leads to greater ability. His employer recognizes the 
greater value of his services. Promotion comes to him as 
a matter of course. Success and fortune are waiting for 
him — and all because he has made use of the opportunities 
for self-culture which lie within the reach of every one who 
will take the trouble to secure them. 

In these days there are so many kinds of handicrafts 
and so many classes of mechanics, that to mark out com- 
plete courses of study with relation to all would require 
more space than we have at command. But the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica contains a vast amount of valuable in- 
formation concerning every one of them ; and it is the 
object of the GUIDE to help you to get at some of this 
information in a methodical way, and thereby make you 
the better able to carry on these studies independently 
and without aid. 

Your first thought, no doubt, will be to turn at once to 
the article MECHANICS, XV. 676; but it will be better to 
leave this article until we have made a study of some of 
the materials and tools with which you propose to work. 
In this way we shall gradually approach the difficult 
science of mechanics, and by and by we shall be prepared 


to read portions of this exhaustive article with a more 
thorough appreciation than is now possible. 


Are you a worker in wood ? Here are a few articles, or 

parts of articles, which you will read with pleas- 
Wood ure and profit. 
Work. Lumber, IX. 404. 

Strength of materials, XXII. 594, sup. 2799. 
Bending of plank, XV. 744. 
Carpentry, IV. 476. 
Sawing of wood, XXI 345. 
Joinery, IV. 485. 
Fir, IX. 222. 
Teak, XXIII. 103. 
Hemlock, II. 320. 
Spruce, XL 222. 
Oak, XVII. 689. 
Pine XIX. 102. 
Poplar, XIX. 510. 
Rosewood, XX. 851. 
Mahogany, XV. 288. 

The early use of tools, VIII. 617. 

The plane, XL 437. 
Tools ' The auger, XL 438. 

Other hand tools, XL 437. 
Machine tools, XV. 152. 
Turners' tools, XIV. 324. 
The hammer, XL 425. 
The lathe, XIV. 323. 
Glue, X. 133, and IV. 489. 
Veneering, XXIV. 138, and IX. 489. 
Varnish, XXIV. 91. 
Barrel-making, sup. 361. 


Wood-carving, XXIV. 644, and Y. 168. 

These are mentioned here simply as samples of the 
numerous articles wherein the wood-working mechanic 
w ill find practical information concerning the materials, 
tools, etc., of his handicraft. If you are a carpenter or 
builder, turn now to the chapter in this volume entitled 
The Builder, and observe the long and valuable list*of 
references there given. 


The metal-worker will find that most of the above refer- 
ences are of direct importance to him also, and he will 
scarcely be willing to omit any of them from 
Metal his course of reading. Besides these there are 

Work. numerous others which he will regard as having 

a special value, referring, as they do, directly to 
the handicraft in which he is the most deeply interested. 
Here are a few of them : 

Anvil, II. 147; XI. 426. 

Smith-work in building, IV. 510. 

Annealing, II. 63, and XIII. 352. 

Forge, IX. 412 ; its history, XIII. 290 ; forging-machines, 

IX. 413- 

Foundry, IX. 479 ; XIII. 355. 

Bellows for smelting ores, XVI. 60. 

Blast furnace, IX. 840; III. 550: sup. 1696. 

Iron, XIII. 278. 

Iron as building material, IV. 447. 

Iron-work in architecture, II. 466 ; XVI. 71. 

Famous iron-works : at Barrow-in-Furness, England, 
III. 395 ; at Stafford, England, XXII. 442; at Neviansk, 
Russia, XVII. 369. 

Iron bridges, IV. 334. 

Nail-making, XVII. 165. 


Tack-making, sup. 2845. 

Steel, XIII. 278; sup. 1694. 

Tube-making, IV. 218. 

Valves, XXII. 501. 

Wire-making, sup. 3173. 

Wire, XXIV. 614; wire-drawing, IV. 217. 

Arms, II. 588; artillery, II. 655 ; rifles, XI. 282 ; rifling 
of cannon, XI. 294. (See chapter in this GUIDE entitled 
The Soldier.) 

Assaying, II. 724; XVI. 63. 

Boilers for steam engines, XXII. 496; improvement in, 
for abating smoke, XXII. 181. 

Brass, IV. 217. 

Bronze, IV. 366. 

Copper, VI. 347. (See chapter in this GUIDE entitled 
The Miner.) 

Electro-plating, VIII. 116. (See chapter in this Guide 
entitled The Electrician.) 

Metallurgy, XVI. 57. 

Metal work, XVI. 71. 

Tin-plate manufacture in the United States, sup. 2916. 


There are mechanics who work neither in wood nor 

in metal. Of these, one of the most prominent 

Work is the man who works with leather or with the 

Leather prepared skins of animals, For him there arc, 

in the Britannica, such articles as the following : 

Tanning, XIV. 381. 

Tannin, XXIII. 47. 

Leather, XIV. 380. 

Buff leather, sup. 610. 

Cordovan leather, sup. 917. 

Artificial leather, XIV. 391. 


New processes in making leather, sup. 1849. 
Shoemaking, XXI. 830. 
Harness-making and saddlery, XXI. 142. 
Stamped leather for wall decoration, XVII. 37. 
Morocco leather, XIV. 388. 
Book-binding, IV. 41 ; XIV. 538. 


Then there is the worker on paper, who will find the 
following articles brimful of information: 

Paper, XVIII. 217; manufacture of, XVIII. 219; 
bleaching of materials, III. 821. 
Ruling of paper, XXII. 461. 
Paper ' Wall paper, IV. 512; XVII. 38. 

Papier-mache, XVIII. 228. 
Paper pulp, XVIII. 225, 226. 
See the chapter in this volume entitled The Laborer. 


Building-stone, sup. 614; IV. 448. 
Stone cutting and dressing, sup. 2794. 
Strength of building-stone, XXII. 603. 
Plaster-work, IV. 504. 
Cements, V. 328 ; IV. 459 ; XIV. 647. 
Stone pavements, IV. 473. 
Chimney-pieces, IV. 473. 
Limestone, X. 232. 
Marble, XV. 528. 
Marble veneer, XVII. 36. 
Sandstone, X. 237. 
Granite, XI. 48. 

See the references to labor and wages in the chapter 
entitled The Political Economist, in this volume. 




" He that loves reading has everything within his reach." — William 

In addition to the articles already mentioned in the 
chapter addressed to the Mechanic, the practical machin- 
ist will find a great many others which will be 

of direct and special aid to him in his calling. 
Machines. TT ... , r . . c . 

He will want to make a careful study ot that 

portion of the article MECHANICS which refers 
directly to the theory of machines, XV. 752. He will 
want to read what is said about their purposes and effects, 
XV. 771. There may be other portions also of the same 
article which will answer troublesome questions or dif- 
ficult problems that come in his way, and to find what 
he needs he should refer to the index to the article, XV. 
749. The article on Machine Tools, XV. 152, will have a 
special value to him. The supplementary article on spe- 
cial forms of machine tools, sup. 195 1, gives an exceed- 
ingly interesting description of some of the latest inven- 
tions of this class. See, also, Tool-making, sup. 2927. 

The Steam-Engine, XXII. 473 — a very complete and 
comprehensive treatise (fifty-four pages, illustrated) written 
by Professor Ewing of Dundee, one of the most 
Steam eminent of living authorities. Additional mat- 

Engine, ter concerning the invention of the steam-en- 
gine by Watts may be found in XXIV. 412. 
The improvements made by Murdock are briefly noted in 


XVII. 53, and those of Trevithick, in XXIII. 554. See 
also ( rovernors, sup. [433. 

Various applications of the steam-engine arc described: 

Its use in steamships, XXII. 517, XXI. 823, and sup. 

[992; its use in locomotive engines, XX. 205, 244, 

XXII. 537, ami sup. 1905 ; its use in land carriages, 

Ylll. 726; its application to farm machinery, I. 305, etc. 

The article HYDROMECHANICS, XII. 435; the appli 

cation of water to mechanical purposes, as described in 

the chapters on Hydraulic Machinery, XII. 

Hydro- 5 1 9, and sup. 1641. The hydraulic press, XV. 

mechanics. 753, and the history of its invention, IV. 213. 

The article on Calender, IV. 683. 

The description of Montgolfier's hydraulic ram, IV. 


The description of the hydraulic elevator (lift), XII. 520, 
XIV. 574, and sup. 1 1 77. 

Of water motors in general, XII. 519. 

Of water power in mechanics, XV. 773. 

Of water wheels and their action, XII. 438, 522. 

Late improvements in water wheels, sup. 3104. 

Of the uses of air in connection with mechanics, read 
the article PNEUMATICS, XIX. 240; refer also to XII. 439, 


Its special application in air locks is noticed in sup. 104; 

in the air washer for extinguishing fires, IX. 681 ; in the 

pneumatic power transmitter, XV. 753 ; in 

pneumatic tubes, XII. 491; in the air-engine, 

Pneumatics. . 

1. 428 ; in the air-gun, I. 428 ; in the air-pump, 

XVI. 30; XIX. 246; I. 429. 
As to the application of air in propelling machinery, see 
Windmills, XXIV. 599; XV. 773. 
Wind carriages, XXII. 545. 


See also what is said about the wind in navigation, 
XVII. 275. In this connection it will be interesting to learn 
many important facts concerning the nature of air: Its 
composition, III. 32 ; its density, III. 381 ; its weight, III. 
28; its other physical properties, XIX. 240. 

Here, too, you may read of the efforts that have been 
made to navigate the air, I. 187, with a description of all 
the great balloons that have ever been constructed. 
Whether it is possible ever to build a successful air ship no 
one can yet predict. The problem of aeronautics has, 
however, engaged the attention of inventors for many 
years, and the history of their efforts and ex- 
Balloons, periments is in the highest degree interesting 
and instructive. Read of the invention of the 
balloon by Stephen and Joseph Montgolfier, I. 187; of the 
later experiments by Langley, Maxim, Chanute, Lilien- 
thal, and others, sup. 55 ; and of the aeronautic associa- 
tions which have been formed for the encouragement of 
further experiments and inventions. " 

But air is only a gas — or rather the combination of two 
gases, I. 427 — and much that is true with reference to its 
properties applies also to gases in general. And so the 
machinist who finds it necessary to become acquainted 
with the laws of pneumatics will not only study the prop- 
erties of air in motion and at rest, but will learn all that 
he can about gases in general, VI. 310, their physical 
properties, XIX. 240, and their diffusion, VII. 215. 

Of the application of gas to the purposes of machinery, 

see what is said about gas engines, XXII. 523 ; expansion 

of gasus by heat, XI. 574, and XX. 347; elas- 

Gas. ticity of gases, VII. 801 ; dilation of gases, III. 

35 ; their molecular laws, XVI. 61 1. 

Then read about the discovery and use of natural gas 

in the United States, XXIII. 813, and sup. 2140. 


For a list of references relating to applications of elec- 
tricity, see the chapter in this volume entitled The Elec- 

The meaning of the term " horse-power" and its applica- 
tion in practical mechanics, is explained in XV. 772, yj^ ; 
and it is still further noticed in XII. 207, and 
Horse XV. 7 1 5. The signification of the term when 
Power. used in connection with steam-engines is made 

clear in XXII. 476, 491. 
There are still other forces which influence the action of 
machinery, and of whose manifestations and laws the ma- 
chinist cannot afford to be ignorant. There is 
Laws of GRAVITATION, for example, the influence of 
Mechanics, which must always be considered when any 
system of machinery is contemplated. Study 
the article on this subject, XI. 66. 

Then read of the discovery of the general law of gravi- 
tation, II. 755 ; of the various theories in relation to it, 
III. 64; of gravity in mechanics, XV. 701, 729; and of 
the discoveries of Archimedes concerning the centre of 
gravity, II. 380. 

Still pursuing this line of study, read of the laws and 
effects of adhesion, I. 153; of cohesion, V. 56; and of 
elasticity, VII. 796. 

The laws of friction must now claim your attention, 
and these you will find very fully treated in IX. yyy, 
and XV. 702, 765. The action of friction in connection 
with liquids is described in XII. 482, and with gases in 
XVI. 618. 

The expenditure of energy in the overcoming of fric- 
tion is explained in VIII. 208, and the influence of lubri- 
cants in preventing friction receives attention in XV. 35. 
For an elaborate and very practical essay on strength 
of materials, see sup. 2799-2813. 


You are now ready for the article on DYNAMICS, or the 
science which treats of the action of force ; and after that 
for the article on Energy, or the power of doing work, 
VIII. 205. Then read the following : 
Force, VII. 581 

Dynamics. _ , . ,,-,», ^ 

Motion, XV. 676, 752. 
Momentum, XV. 677. 

Velocity, XV. 681, 769. 

Inertia, XV. 676, 748. 

Laws of Projectiles, XXII. 47. 

If you have followed this course of reading faithfully, 
you have acquired a comprehensive knowledge of those 
fundamental principles of mechanics which govern the ac- 
tion and modify the effectiveness of all machinery. Much 
of the reading has been difficult : it has required hard 
study to master it all. But now you will understand what 
is meant when it is said that it is the well-informed mind 
no less than the skilful hand that makes the successful 
mechanic. Knowledge never impairs one's ability to work, 
but it adds to that ability. Of course, knowledge cannot 
supply the place of energy and strength. A good mind 
must be aided by strong arms ; a full memory must have 
the support of steady industry, or no worthy success 
can be attained. The best artisan is he who possesses a 
thorough knowledge of the foundation principles of his 
calling, while at the same time he has the trained hand and 
eye and the obedient muscle which can result only from 
long and patient training and experience. 

See now, for further references, the following chapters 
in this Guide : 

The Architect, The Builder, The Manufacturer, The 
Electrician, The Inventor, and Two Courses of Reading in 




" Every person has two educations, one which he receives from oth- 
ers, and one, more important, which he gives to himself." — Gibbon. 

PRACTICAL electricians will find in the supplementary 
article on Electricity, sup. 1133-1173,3 very comprehen- 
sive presentation of the entire subject as it is now under- 
stood. This article, which comprises forty pages, is very 
fully illustrated, and gives a complete outline of all the 
latest discoveries. It is invaluable to all persons who are 
in any way interested in this subject. 

The leading article on electricity, in the eighth volume 
of the Britannica, comprises over one hundred 
Special pages — equal in amount of matter to an ordi- 
Article. nary i2mo volume of nearly five hundred pages. 
For the sake of non-scientific readers it is intro- 
duced by a brief history of the science, wherein mention 
is made of some of the more striking electrical discoveries, 
and of the steps by which our knowledge of the subject 
has advanced to its present condition. 


In connection with the above-named articles, the fol- 
lowing notices of men who have contributed to the ad- 
vancement of the science will be read with interest : 

Dr. Gilbert (1 540-1603), founder of the science, X. 592. 

Robert Boyle (1627-91), one of the earliest experi- 


Otto von Guericke (1602-80), XI. 245. 
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727), XVII. 438. 

Francis Havvksbee (1705), VIII. 4. 

Galvani, discoverer of galvanism, X. 48. 

Historical. . . - • .. . , . T r 

Benjamin Franklin (1706-90), IX. 711. 

Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), V. 271. 
Coulomb (1736-1806), VI. 509. 
Volta, inventor of the voltaic battery, XXIV. 284. 
Ampere, I. 748. 
Ohm, XVII. 738. 
Michael Faraday, IX. 29. 
Cyrus W. Field, sup. 1264. 
Nikola Tesla, sup. 2882. 
Thomas A. Edison, sup. 11 15. 


Accumulators, I. 92. 

Armatures, sup. 235 ; drum armature, sup. 11 58. 

Batteries: History of VIII. 92, 94; Bichromate, sup. 

1170; Bunsen's, sup. 1169; copper oxide, sup. 1170; 

Daniel's sup. 1169; Grovo's, sup. 1 169 ; Le- 

Reference clanche's, sup. 1 1 jo ; silver chloride, sup. 1170; 

List. Voltaic, sup. 1 168. 

Circuit, Magnetic, sup. 1152. 

Condensers, sup. 1143. 

Conductors and non-conductors, sup. 1 1 34, 1 140, 114'). 

Currents, sup. 1 144, 11 59. 

Diagometer, sup. 1039. 

Dynamo electric machines, sup. 11 56. 

Dynamos, sup. 11 59. 

Electric light in microscopy, sup. 2057. 

Electric meters, VIII. 107, 108. 

Electrification, sup. 1 133. 

Electrodynamic action, VIII. 10, 66, 105. 

mi. ELE< i i<n ian. 203 

Electrolysis, or the decomposition of chemical sub- 
stances by the agency of the electrical current, is dealt 
with in a comprehensive and scientific manner in VIII. 
1 06- 1 14. 

A supplementary article on the same subject (see sup. 
I 174-1 176) gives an interesting account of the latest dis- 
coveries and investigations in this branch of science. 

Electromagnets, VIII. 66; sup. 1 147, 1150. 

Electrometallurgy, VIII. 114. 

Electrometer, VIII. 1 17-122. 

Electromotive force, sup. 1145. 

Electromotograph, sup. 1176. 

Electrophorus, VIII. 101 ; sup. 1136. 

Electroscopes, VIII. 118; diagometer, sup. 1039. 

Fan-motor, sup. 1243. 

Field-magnets, sup. 1158. 

Fluoroscope, sup. 1295. 

Galvanism, X. 48 ; XVII. 524. 

Galvanometers, X. 49 ; VIII. 41 ; sup. 1147. 

Induction, Electromagnetic, sup. 11 52. 

Induction-coils, sup. 1 1 54. 

Influence-machines, sup. 1 1 37. 

Insulators, sup. 11 34. 

Intensity, sup. 11 39. 

Magnetism, XV. 219; sup. 1151 ; I. 749. 

Ohm's law, VIII. 41-43. 

Poles of electromagnet, sup. 1 1 52. 

Potential, sup. 1 141. 

Resonance, sup. 1162. 

Thermoelectric generator, sup. 1378. 

Rontgen Rays, sup. n65, 2574. 

Transformers, sup. 1 1 5 5. 

Volts and Amperes, sup. 1160. 

Voltmeter, sup. 3060. 



Telegraph, XXIII. 112. 

Invention of the telegraph, see Guillaume Amontous, I. 
746; S. F. B. Morse, XVI. 847 ; Sir Charles Wheatstone, 
XXIV. 537- 

Telegraphic devices, sup. 2866. 

The pantelegraph, sup. 2289. 

The The phonophore, sup. 2369. 

Telegraph. Ocean cables and submarine telegraphy, 
XXII. 281, and sup. 1264 (Cyrus W. Field). 

Telegraphs in the United States, sup. 2867. 

Telegraphic statistics, sup. 2868. 

Telautograph, sup. 2866 ; writing telegraph, sup. 3208. 

The telephone, XXIII. 127. 

Long-distance telephones, sup. 2869. 

Alexander Graham Bell, sup. 408. 

Thomas A. Edison, sup. 1115. 

Telephonic apparatus, sup. 2870. 

Theatrophone, sup. 2888. 

Electric motors, XXIII. 496, 508. 

Electric Latest improvements in electric motors, sup. 

Motors. 21 15. 

Electric railways, XX. 249, sup. 2505. 
Trolley systems for electric motors, sup. 21 16, and 
XXIII. 494. 

Trolley railways, sup. 2945. 

Electric car construction, sup. 695. 

Storage batteries, sup. 1171. 

Tesla's oscillator, sup. 2264. 

Lightning arresters, sup. 1 88 5. 

Niagara power plant, sup. 2207. 

Electric elevators, sup. 1 177. 

Electric police and fire-alarm systems, sup. 1272. 


Electric clocks, VI. 25 ; sup. 836. 
Electric alarm thermometer, sup. 109. 
Electric piano, sup. 2 380. 
Electric regulator, sup. 2529. 
Electric lighting, XIV. 630. 
The fluorescent lamp, sup. 1295. 

Electric welding, sup. 31 18. 
Phono- Phonograph, sup. 2368; XXIII. 130, 134. 
graph. Kineto-phonograph, sup. 1790. 

Gramophone, sup. 1437. 

Kinetoscope, sup. 1790. 

Vitascope, sup. 3057. 

See the chapter, in this GUIDE, entitled The Inventor. 


Magnetism, XV. 219; sup. 1151 ; I. 749. 
Terrestrial magnetism, XVI. 159. 
The Com- The compass, VI. 225. 
pass, etc. The dipping-needle, sup. 105 1. 

Variation of magnetic needle, XV. 220. 

Relation of magnetism to electricity, I. 749. 

Electromagnets, VIII. 66; sup. 1147, 11 50. 

Field-magnets, sup. 1158. 

Magnetic iron ore, XIII. 287. 

Animal magnetism, XV. 277. 


Lightning, XXIII. 330. 

Franklin's experiment with a kite, VIII. 6 ; Lightning 
conductor, XIV. 633. 

The cause of thunder, I. 107. 

Natural laws regulating the frequency of thunderstorms, 
XVI. 128. 


Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, III. 90. 
Connection of lightning with the Aurora, III. 92. 
Sun-spots and magnetic disturbances, II. 787. 
Easy experiments to illustrate electrical laws, VIII. 16. 
Animal electricity, sup. 188. 

the inven roR. 207 



" Neither the naked hand nor the understanding, left to itself, can do 
much ; the work is accomplished by instruments and helps, of which the 
need is not less for the understanding than the hand." — Bacon. 

THERE are few persons who have more to gain from 
self-culture than those who aspire to success as inventors. 

It is true that now and then some wonderful 
Knowledge dj scover y has been stumbled upon by accident. 
Guesswork ^ ut a l most every invention that has been of 

any genuine importance to the world has been 
the result of long and patient study and unwearying toil. 
No amount of guesswork will produce a new machine 
possessing the qualities of novelty and utility requisite to 
a successful invention. The man who would bring such a 
machine into existence must devote his days to the acquisi- 
tion of a thorough knowledge of the philosophical principles 
underlying its construction. He will need to understand 
the laws of mechanics; he must be able to perform cer- 
tain necessary mathematical processes ; and he must have 
an insight into the theory of machinery. One inventor 
will probably find it necessary to study the laws of hydro- 
statics ; another will need to have a complete knowledge 
of chemistry, or of mineralogy, or of botany ; still another 
will add to all these branches of knowledge an understand- 
ing of the science of optics, or of acoustics, or it may be 
of meteorology, or of astronomy, or of navigation. 



Then, again, every inventor will find it worth while to 
learn what has been done by other inventors who have 
come before him. Turn to the chronological table on 
page 720, Volume V., of the Encyclopedia Britannica, and 
notice the dates when the great inventions and discoveries 
which have revolutionized the world first made their ap- 
pearance. Read next the HISTORY OF PATENTS in 
XVIII. 354-358, and notice the patent laws 

which are now in force in all the principal coun- 

tries, and particularly in the United States, 

sup. 2309. 

List of models in the U. S. Patent Office, sup. 231 1. 

Business of the Patent Office, 1 837-1 896, sup. 2313. 

New organization of the Patent Office, sup. 2315. 

How to apply for a patent, sup. 2317. 

Fees for patents, sup. 2320. 

Trade-marks, sup. 2321, XXIII. 499. 

Registration of prints, etc., sup. 2322. 

Forgery, IX. 414. 


It will now be both profitable and interesting to read 
the biographies of the famous inventors of various times 
and countries. You might begin with the legendary story 
of Daedalus, the first great inventor, VII. 760 ; then take 
up subjects like the following : 

Roger Bacon, the first English scientist and inventor, 
III. 218; his magical inventions, XV. 208; his theory of 
optical glasses, XXIII. 135. 

Sir Humphry Davy, inventor of the safety-lamp, VI. 
845 ; the Davy lamp, VI. 72. 

Denis Papin, inventor of the- heat-engine, XVIII. 228, 

i in iw i \ roR. 209 

and XXII. 474; his improvements on the air-pump, XIX. 

James Watt, inventor of the steam-engine, XXIV. 412. 

Robert Fulton, inventor of the steamboat, III. 542. 

Oliver Evans, improver of the steam-engine, VIII. 726, 
ami XXII. 475. 

Benjamin Franklin, the first American scientist, IX. 
711 ; his electrical researches, VIII. 6. 

Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton-gin, XXIV. 1627; 

sup. 3145- 

Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph, XVI. .847. 

David Edward Hughes, inventor of the printing-tele- 
graph, sup. 1629. 

Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning-frame, 
1 1. 540; VI. 490. 

James Hargreaves, inventor of the spinning-jenny, VI. 
490 ; XVII. 600. 

Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized india-rubber, 
sup. 1425. 

Robert Hare, inventor of the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe, 
sup. 1526. 

Samuel Crompton, inventor of the spinning-mule, IV. 


Samuel Colt, inventor of improved firearms, VI. 166. 

Richard J. Gatling,inventorof theGatlinggun,sup. 1373. 

Henri de Girard, inventor of flax-spinning apparatus, 
X. 620. 

Sir William Siemens, inventor of the gas-engine, XXII. 
37, 526. 

Elias Howe, inventor of the sewing-machine, XXI. 718; 
sup. 1623. 

Alvan Clark, telescope-maker, sup. 817. 

Cyrus H. McCormick, inventor of the reaping-machine, 
sup. 1945. 


Thomas A. Edison, inventor of many electrical ma- 
chines and appliances, sup. 1115. 

Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the speaking-tele- 
phone, sup. 408. 

Isaac Babbitt, inventor of Babbitt metal, sup. 307. 

Henry Bessemer, " Bessemer steel," sup. 437. 

John Ericsson, inventor of the Monitor, sup. 12 12. 

Oliver Evans, inventor of the steam road-carriage, sup. 

M. W. Baldwin, inventor of locomotives, sup. 325. 

Thaddeus Fairbanks, inventor of platform scales, sup. 



Gunpowder, II. 655 ; XI. 316; VIII. 807; first use of 
gunpowder, II. 655. 

Firearms, history of, II. 655; ancient guns, II. 557; 
gun-making, XI. 278 ; gunnery, XL 297 ; rifle, XI. 2S2 ; 
musket, II. 558 ; naval cannon, XVII. 286. 

Printing-presses, sup. 2448; type-setting machines, sup. 
2969; XXIII. 700; typewriters, sup. 2972; XXIV. 698. 

Air-ships. See the article Aeronautics, I. 185, and par- 
ticularly the supplementary article on the same subject, 
sup. 55, which gives an account of the latest experiments 
and discoveries. Read of flying-machines in the article 
Flight, IX. 317; and of balloons in III. 549, and I. 187. 

Air-compressors, sup. 104. 

Air-engines, I. 428. 

Anemometer, sup. 184. 

Bells, sup. 412. 

Brakes, IV. 211 ; railway brake, XX. 248; sup. 547. 

Buttons, IV. 598. 

Brushes and brooms, IV. 403. 

Calico-printing machines, IV. 685. 

mi: i\vi:\ rOR. 21 1 

Calculating-machines, sup. 651. 

Candle-making, history of, IV. 802. 

Carriages, history of, V. 134. 

Clocks, VI. [3; electrical clocks, VI. 25; sup. 836. 

Coloring-machines, 1 V. 691. 

Compressed air for driving machinery, sup. 104. 

Combs, V I. 177. 

Cutlery, VI. 733. 

Diving-bells, VII. 294-300. 

The eidoloscopo, sup. 11 27. 

Elevators (lifts), XIV. 573; sup. 1177. 

Ferris wheel, sup. 1261. 

Fire-extinguishing apparatus, IX. 235, and sup. 1273. 

Friction matches, invention and history of, XV. 624. 

Furniture, IX. 847. 

Gramophone, sup. 1437. 

Horseless wagons, sup. 296. 

Kinetograph, sup. 1790. 

Kineto-phonograph, and kinetoscope, sup. 1790. 

Locks, XIV. 744. 

Lithography, XIV. 697. 

Photo-lithography, XVIII. 833. 

Microscope, invention of, XVI. 258. 

Milling-machine, sup. 2067. 

Mortising-machine, sup. 21 13. 

Mirrors, XVI. 499; magic mirrors, XVI. 501. 

Pens, XVIII. 483. 

Pencils, XVIII. 489. 

Phonograph, invention of, XXIII. 130, 134. 

Photography, XVIII. 821 ; Daguerre's invention of, VI. 
761 ; Niepce's inventions, XVII. 495 ; electric-flash pro- 
cess, VIII. 636; recent photography, sup. 2370; astro- 
nomical photography, 2376. 

Engraving, use of photography in, sup. 1205. 

Pneumatic-delivery systems, sup. 104. 


Reaping-machines, I. 322; sup. 1538. 

Rings, history of, XX. 560. 

Rope-making, XX. 843. 

Sewing-machines, XXI. 718. 

Slot-machines, sup. 2730. 

Safety-lamp, VI. 487 ; VI. 72, and XVI. 461. 

Spectacles, XXII. 372, and XVI. 258. 

Steam-engine, invention of, XXIV. 412 ; description of, 
XXII. 473. See also sup. 1905 and 1992. 

Steamships, invention of, III. 542; IX. 270, and XXII. 
478 ; description of, XXI. 823. See also sup. 1992. 

Stereoscopes, XXII. 537. 

Stocking-frame, XII. 299. 

Telegraph, history of, XXIII. 112. 

Telephone, history of, XXIII. 127; description of, 130. 

Telescope, history of, XXIII. 135-139; description of, 
139-154. See also sup. 2871. 

Twine-making, XX. 845. 

Vitascope, sup. 3057. 

Watch-making, XXIV. 394. 

Water-tube boilers, sup. 509. 

W r ater-meter, sup. 3101. 

Weaving, XXIV. 463; ancient looms, XXIII. 206; 
spinning-jenny, II. 541, and VI. 490. 

Weighing-machines, sup. 31 16. 

This list might be continued to a very great length, but 
enough has been given to indicate the very complete and 
comprehensive manner in which the subject of inventions 
is treated in the Britannica. 


Now, there are certain special subjects with which al- 
most every inventor needs to have some acquaintance. 
One man will want to know all about the most recent dis- 

mi INVENTOR. 213 

coveries in electricity : for he is seeking to invent some new 
electrical appliance, or to make some improvement on 

former patents. lie should consult the references men- 
tioned in the chapter entitled The Electrician, in this 
GUIDE. Another inventor will find it necessary to inves- 
tigate the phenomena and laws of Heat. Here are some 
references that may be helpful to him : 

Special article on Heat, XI. 554. 
Theory of the action of heat, XIX. 2. 
Heat as energy, VIII. 207. 
Latent law of heat, VIII. 731. 

Diffusion of heat, VII. 207. 

Conduction of heat, XX. 212. 

Convection of heat, XX. 212. 

Power of heat in mechanics, XV. 773. 

Production of heat by different fuels, IX. 807. 

Heat of coal compared with that of oil, XVIII. 240. 

Mechanical equivalent of heat, VIII. 209. 

Transformation of heat into force, XXIII. 283. 

A third inventor will want to understand the theory and 

construction of MACHINES, and perhaps also 

Mechanical the general laws of mechanics. Let such an 

Laws. one consult the references named in the chap- 
ter entitled The Mechanic, in this Guide. A 
fourth inventor is interested in such subjects as the air, 
gases, etc. He will find the Britannica full of information 
of just the sort that he is seeking. For example, in I. 427, 
there is a brief article on air, with references to 

Atmosphere, III. 28. 

Meteorology, XVI. 114. 

Barometer, III. 381. 

Pneumatics, XIX. 240. 

Ventilation, XXIV. 157. 

This is followed by an interesting account of the air- 


engine, I. 428, and this by an article describing the air- 
pump, I. 429. Then, by turning to the Index volume, 
one may find scores of minor references to various items 
of information relating to this particular subject. 

In short, there is no subject connected with the inven- 
tion of machines, or of useful appliances of any kind, that 
does not receive somewhere in the Britanniea the concise 
and comprehensive treatment which its importance de- 

See the following chapters in this book : The Engineer, 
The Architect, The Builder, The Manufacturer, The Rail- 
road Alan, The Farmer, The Printer, The Miner. 

1 111 \ki 111 I I I I. - r 5 


"... When we mean to build 
We first survey the plot, then draw the model." 

— 2 Henry IV. 
" If a man read little, he had need to have much cunning to seem to 
know that he doth not." — Lord Bacon. 

THE work of the architect is closely connected with that 
of the builder. The end of building, merely as such, is con- 
venience or use, irrespective of appearance ; but 

the end of architecture is so to arrange the 
Definitions. , . . . r 

plan, masses, and enrichments of a structure as 

to impart to it interest, beauty, grandeur, unity, 
power. Building is a trade ; architecture is an art. 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica is a mine of valuable in- 
formation for the architect. There is scarcely any ques- 
tion connected with the practical application of his art 
that does not receive notice and discussion somewhere 
within its pages. The history of architecture is treated 
with special fulness. The leading article on this subject 
i in Volume II., pp. 382-475) is a very complete treatise 
embracing as much matter as is contained in an 
Leading ordinary i2mo book of four hundred pages. It 
Article. is enriched with eighteen full-page plates, be- 
sides nearly one hundred illustrations. Follow- 
ing it is a Glossary of Architectural Terms (especially clas- 
sical and mediaeval), filling sixteen double-column pages. 
A supplementary article on AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE, 


sup. 218, contains a number of designs and plans for mod- 
ern dwelling-houses, with much other valuable matter. 

The following are among the numerous subjects of in- 
terest which the architect will find fully described or ex- 
plained in the Britannica. 

Prehistoric structures, II. 383 ; ancient remains at Kar- 
nak, V. 118, XXI. 51 ; Cromlechs, VI. 597; ancient stone 
circle at Stonehenge, XXII. 576; tumuli, III. 397; lake- 
dwellings, XIV. 222 ; crannogs, VI. 562. 

Egyptian architecture, II. 384; pyramids, XX. 122, V. 
582 ; sphinxes, VII. 772 ; the Serapeum, XXI. 674; laby- 
rinth, VII. 774; tombs, VII. 781, XVI. 865; 
History of temples> y IL ;86> 

Jewish architecture, II. 392 ; temple of Solo- 
mon, XXIII. 166; of Zerubbabel, XXIII. 167; 
of Herod, XXIII. 168. 

Indian architecture, II. 394; Taj Mahal, I. 286. 

Assyrian architecture, II. 397. 

Persian architecture, II. 399; Persepolis, XVIII. 557; 
Susa, XXII. 722. 

Grecian architecture, II. 401 ; remains at Mycenae, II. 
346, XVII. 115 ; the Caryatides, II. 407 ; Choragic monu- 
ments, II. 41 1. 

Three orders of Grecian architecture (Doric, Ionic, and 
Corinthian), II. 402; Doric, II. 409; Ionic, II. 417; Co- 
rinthian, II. 407, IV. 709. 

Roman architecture, II. 414; the Pantheon, XX. 828 ; 
Colosseum, I. 774 ; dwellings at Pompeii, II. 420, XIX. 

Pointed architecture, II. 422; Gothic architecture in 
England, II. 425 ; in France, II. 429 ; in Germany, II. 431 ; 
in Spain, II. 432 ; in Italy, II. 434. 

Modern Italian architecture, II. 436; St. Peter's at 
Rome, III. 415 ; II. 438. 


Modern English architecture, II. 442; St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral, XIV. 837; Sir Christopher Wren, XXIV. 689, 
XVII. 442; Ely Cathedral, VII I. 155. 

Saracenic architecture, II. 415; mosques of Baghdad, 
III. 232; of Constantinople, VI. 305; great mosque at 
Damascus, VI. 791 ; at Mecca, XV. 672; the Alhambra, 
I. 570. 

Chinese architecture, II. 448. 

American Architecture, sup. 218. 

Ancient American architecture, II. 450. 
Present position of architecture, II. 452. 
Architecture at the World's Columbian Exposition, sup. 

Richard M. Hunt, sup. 1634. 

Henry Hobson Richardson, sup. 2546. 

Richardson and his work, sup. 222. 

Among the large number of special subjects relating to 
practice of this art, the following will be found both valu- 
able and interesting: 

Abacus, I. 4. 
Special Abbeys, I. 10. 
Subjects. Aisle," I. 430. 

Almshouses, II. 459. 

Apartment houses, sup. 202. 

Apse, II. 215. 

Arcade, II. 325. 

Arch, II. 327. 

Architrave, II. 459. 

Baluster, II. 461. 

Baptistery, III. 352. 

Basilica, III. 412. 

Campanile, IV. 753. 

Caryatides, II. 407. 


Cathedral, V. 226. 
Chantry, II. 462. 
Cloister, VI. 35. 
Column, II. 462. 
Coping, IV. 464. 
Cornice, II. 462. 
Cupola, VII. 347. 
Dome, VII. 347. 
Dormer Window, II. 463. 
Entablature, II. 391. 
Fresco, IX. 769. 
Monastery, I. 10. 
Mosaic, XVI. 849. 
Moulding IV. 487. 
Parapet, II. 469; IX. 421. 


St. Peter's at Rome, II. 438. 
St. Paul's in London, XIV. 837. 
York Cathedral, XXIV. 750. 

Cathedral of Geneva, VIII. 154. 
Famous The Egyptian Temples, II. 388. 
Buildings. The Parthenon, III. 5. 

The Atrium, III. 50. 
The Colosseum, I. 774. 
The Hindoo temples, II. 395. 
Jain Temple, I. 423. 
The Taj Mahal, I. 286. 

The Grand Mosque and the Kaaba of Mecca, XV. 67: 
TheBastile, III. 429. 
Lara Jongram, IV. 214. 
Leaning Tower of Pisa, IV. 753. 
Pyramid <>f Gizeh, XX. 124. 
The Escorial, VIII. 539. 

THE ARCH! iKc T. 219 

The Labyrinth, XIV. 179. 

The Capitol at Washington, sup. 219. 

For additional references, sec the following chapter, 

entitled The Builder. 


For references to articles concerning the construction 
of bridges, fortifications, etc., see the chapter entitled The 
meet) in this Guide. 




" In the elder days of art 

Builders wrought with greatest care, 
Each minute and unseen part, 
For the gods see everywhere." 

— Longfellow. 

THE art of building is in a certain sense supplementary 

to the art of architecture. In its highest application it 

may very properly be called practical architect- 

Practical ure Building, however, is frequently employed 

when the result is not architectural ; and in such 

case it is the exercise of labor to the accom- 
plishment of a certain useful end, and cannot properly be 
styled an art. The successful builder ought to possess a 
scientific knowledge of carpentry, joinery, masonry, and 
all other trades connected with building ; and he should 
have a practical understanding of the fitness, strength, 
durability, and resistance of all kinds of materials. The 
Encyclopedia Britannica offers a vast amount of informa- 
tion on all these subjects; it is, in fact, a library of useful 
knowledge for any person engaged in the building trades. 
The special article on BuiLDIXG, IV. 446-513, is in 
itself a complete treatise on this subject. Each of the 
various divisions of the builder's trade is considered sepa- 

Mason-work, IV. 468. 

Brick, history and manufacture of, IV. 279; ancient 

THE BUH I>ER. 221 

bricks, XIX. 604, 619; enameled bricks, VIII. [82; 
glazed bricks in wall-linings, XVII. 35 ; brick as building 
material, IV. 448; strength of brick, sup. 2799; 
Mason. XXII. 603; brick facings (Roman), XX. 809. 

work. Bricks and brick-making, sup. 563, describes 

the most improved processes now in use in the 
United States. It will be seen that the introduction of 
machinery has revolutionized the industry. 

Use of brick in combination with stone, II. 457. 

Brick architecture in German)-, II. 432. 

Brick-laying, IV. 460. 

Mortar, XIV. 647 ; how mortar is made, IV. 460. 

Calcination of lime, XIII. 296. 

Quicklime, XXI. 166. 

Building-stone, IV. 448, 469, and sup. 614 ; strength of, 
sup. 2799; XXII. 603. 

Granite, XI. 48, X. 230; sandstone, X. 237. 

Limestone, X. 232. 

Marble, XV. 528; marble veneer, XVII. 36. 

Stone cutting and dressing, sup. 2794. 

Concrete, VI. 243, and IV. 453. 

Plaster-work, IV. 504. 

Cements, V. 328. 

Portland cement, IV. 459. 

Hydraulic cement, XIV. 647. 

Stone-pavings, IV. 473. 

Paving in bricks and tiles, IV. 466. 

Paving-tiles, XXIII. 389. 

Mason's tools, IV. 468. 

Scaffolding, IV. 457, 468. 

Chimneys and flues, IV. 466. 

Ventilation by chimneys, XXIV. 159. 

Chimney-pieces, IV. 473. 

Sewers and drains, IV. 467. 


Carpenter-work, IV. 476. 

Carpentry with the use of labor-saving machinery, sup. 

Carpenter's tools, IV. 476. 

Flooring, IV. 452, 482, 493. 

Partitions, IV. 484. 

Timber, IV. 448 ; strength of, sup. 2799; VII. 816, and 
XXII. 603; shrinkage, IV. 486. 

Kinds of wood used for finishing, IV. 486 b. 
Carpenter- Mouldings, IV. 487. 

work. Sawing, XXI. 343, XL 437 ; sawyer-work, 

IV. 476. 

Planing, XI. 437; XV. 155. 

Hanging doors, IV. 491. 

Windows, X. 666 ; IV. 493. 

Ventilation by windows, XXIV. 160. 

Roofer's Work, IV. 484, and VII. 347. 
Slate, XXII. 127; strength of, XXII. 603; 

Roofing. , , 1 ttt 

slaters work, IV. 500. 

Shingles, XXI. 346, and II. 473. 
Thatch, IV. 501. 
Copper, zinc, and tin roofs, IV. 503. 

Plumber's Work, IV. 502. 

Sanitary conveniences of modern houses, sup. 2625. 

Sanitary plumbing, sup. 2402. 

Radiators for indoor heating, sup. 2488. 

Lead, XIV. 374; solder, XXII. 249. 
Plumbing. Lead-pipes and gutters, IV. 502. 

Water-pipes, XII. 484; sup. 2403. 
Cesspools, tanks, and water-closets, IV. 468. 
House drainage, sup. 2403. 
Gas-fitting, IV. 510, 

Nil- Bl n I'l.k 223 

i'i \si erer's Work, IV. 504. 

Painter's and Decorator's Work, IV. 510. 

Plastering Mm . a| (kxoration X y.T ^ 

Painting. Stucco-work, XVII. 36, and IV. 507. 

Paper-hangings, 1 V. 512. 

Japanese paper-hangings, XIII. 591. 

See, also, Taints or Pigments, XIX. 85. 

Body-color, sup. 507. 

Glazier's Work, IV. 509. 

Glass, X. 647 ; window glass, X. 660 ; plate 
glass, X. 662. 
Glazing - Putty, XX. 118. 

Lead-work, IV. 509. 

Stained glass, X. 666, 667. 

Pavement lights, IV. 509. 

.Many other articles of practical value to the builder 
will be suggested to him from time to time, and can be 
found by reference to the Index volume of the Bri- 

The article on BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS, IV. 513, and 
especially that on loan and building associations in the 
United States, sup. 611, is full of practical information, 
not only for the builders, but for all owners and prospec- 
tive owners of houses. 

For a short list of famous buildings, see page 218 of 
this Guide. 

See also the chapters entitled The Mechanic and The 



" Do as I have done — persevere." — George Stephenson. 

Engineering — the art of designing and constructing 
works — embraces a very wide range of subjects, and the 
different departments into which the profession is divided 
do not admit of very strict definition. In this chapter it 
is proposed to indicate a few of the subjects in the En- 
cyclopedia Britannica which have relation to the work of 
the civil engineer. Among these subjects are the different 
branches of mathematics, which the GUIDE has already 
mentioned in the chapter on that subject. To these may 
be added the articles : 

Surveying, XXII. 695, and 

Geodesy, X. 163. 

Both of these, aside from the purely techni- 
cal and mathematical portions of which they 
Surveying. . 

are largely composed, contain much matter of 

interest and practical value. (See also Stadia 
Measurement, sup. 2774.) Of other articles there are 
many, but it is necessary here to name only a few as ex- 
amples of the quality of instruction and information to be 
derived from the Britannica. 

Bridges, IV. 284-341, is a very comprehensive article, with 
numerous diagrams and illustrations. A supplementary 
article on the same subject, sup. 564, contains an alphabeti- 


cal list of the principal bridges in the world, with descrip- 
tive notes on those which are of the most recent 
construction. Many of these famous bridges are 

described in separate articles, of which the fol- 
lowing are examples : 

Brooklyn Bridge, XVII. 465. 

Forth Bridge, XX. 234. 

St. Louis Bridge, XXI. 185, etc. 

Laws governing the erection of bridges, sup. 568. 
Caissons (used in bridge-building), IV. 647. 
River engineering, XX. 571. 

River engineering on the Mississippi, XVI. 520; James 
B. Lads, sup. 1 104. 

Engineering at Hell Gate, sup. 1561. 
Embankment, VIII. 158. 

Aqueducts, II. 219 (chiefly interesting on account of 
the history which it contains of ancient aqueducts). The 
modern methods of constructing aqueducts and tunnels 
are fully described in sup. 211. See also 

Railway tunnels, XX. 233. 

Tunneling, XXIII. 622. 

St. Gotthard tunnel, XXIII. 624. 

Sutro tunnel, XVII. 368; sup. 2835. 

Viaducts, sup. 3038. 

Waterworks, XXIV. 406 (with chapters on 
Water- reservoir dams, conveyance, purification, stor- 
works. age, and distribution). 

Waterworks of London, XIV. 825. 
Of Paris, XVIII. 279. 
Of New York, XVII. 465. 
Of Glasgow, X. 642. 


Coffer-dams, VI. 114. 

Canals, IV. 782-794 (with diagrams and illustrations 1. 

History of canals and canal construction, 

sup. 677-683. 
Canals. £ ' ' _ , __,- , 

Suez Canal, XX. 620. 

Panama Canal, XVIII. 209. 
M. de Lesseps, sup. 1867. 

Harbors, XI. 455-465 (with numerous dia- 
grams). Supplementary article relating spe- 
cially to the harbors and docks of the United 
States, sup. 1520. 
United States Coast Survey, sup. 848. 
Docks, XL 465-472. 

Roads, XX. 582 ; construction of roads, page 582 ; 
stone pavements, page 584; wood paving, page 583; as- 
phalt paving, page 586. 

Telford road, XXIII. 155. 

Macadam, the Scotch road-maker, XX. 582, 

James Nasmyth, sup. 2138. 
Railways (see chapter entitled The Railroad Man, in 
this Guide). 

Lighthouses, XIV. 615. 

The Eddystone tower, page 615. 
Light- Other famous lighthouses, page 616 ; modes 

houses. of construction, page 617. 

Beacons and buoys, page 625. 

Irrigation, XIII. 362 ; sup. 99 and 1707. 
Sewerage, construction of sewers, XXI. 713. 
Sewerage, of London, XIV. 826. 
Of Paris, XVIII. 280. 

THE 1 NGIN1 227 

Fortifications, IX. 421 468 (a comprehensive treatise, 

illustrated with numerous diagrams and plates). I 

daily interesting, even to non-scientific readers, 

Fortifica- ' s the history of improvements in permanent 

tion. fortifications, pages 440 442, and the chapter on 

the fortification of capitals, page 466. So also 

is the account oi the siege of the citadel of Antwerp, IX. 

458, and of the defense of Dantzic, IX. 458. 

Other valuable articles are such as the following : 
Engineering Societies of the U. S., sup. 1202. 
Societies of Engineers, XXII. 226. 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers, XXIII. 50. 

Naval Engineers, duties of, XVII. 95. 
Miscella- Royal Engineers in the British Army, II. 579. 
neous. Strength of materials, XXII. 592. 

Eiffel tower, sup. 1128. 
Gunner}', XI. 297. 
Artillery, II. 655. 
Telegraphy, XL 632. 
Shipbuilding, XXI. 809. 

See, also, the chapters entitled The Builder, The Sea- 
man, and The Machinist, in this Guide. 




" All true work is sacred ; in all true work, were it but true hand-labor, 
there is something of divineness." — Thomas Carlyle. 

" Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." — Eccle- 

Nearly every chapter in this Guide is addressed to the 
laborer in one or another division of the world's 
Who are industries. The man who works with his brain 
Laborers? is no less a laborer than he who toils with his 
hands. Hence the teacher, the lawyer, the 
banker, are as truly laborers as the mechanic, the builder, 
the farmer, the worker on the roads, the employee of the 
mill or the factory. " The life of man in this world," 
says Samuel Smiles, " is for the most part a life of work. 
In the case of ordinary men, work may be regarded as 
their normal condition. Every man worth calling a man 
should be willing and able to work. The honest laboring 
man finds work necessary for his sustenance, but it is 
equally necessary for men of all conditions and in every 
relationship of life. . . . Labor is indeed the price set 
upon everything which is valuable. Nothing can be 
accomplished without it." 

In the present chapter it is the purpose of the GUIDE to 
point out some of the many articles and other passages in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica that may be of general interest 
to all classes of workingmen, and especially to those who 
labor with their hands. The history of labor is identical 
with the history of civilization, for without the one the 


other could not exist. Workingmen of the present day 

may learn much that is both interesting and 

History of instructive by studying the conditions of labor 

Labor. in former times and in other countries. The 

Britannica affords ample facilities for such 

stud)'. See, for example, the following articles or parts of 

articles : 

Labor in early times, I. 294; XIV. 165. 

Slavery, XXII. IJ<> 

Labor in England in the Middle Ages, XIV. 166. 

Day-laborers in the time of Queen Elizabeth, XIV. 169. 

Labor laws in Great Britain, XIV. 171. 

The factory system, sup. 2S37. 

Apprenticeship, II. 212 ; IX. 760. 

Guilds, XI. 259; of London, XIV. 819. 

The following articles will be found of greater or less 
interest to the different classes of workingmen everywhere : 

Labor and Capital, XXIV. 48. 
Labor and Labor and Wages, XXIV. 306. 
Capital. Labor and Wealth, XXIV. 461. 

Labor and Socialism, XXII. 206, 211. 
Labor and Communism, VI. 217. 
The Sweating system, sup. 2836. 

Capital, V. 71. 

Capital and Socialism, XXII. 206, 211. 

Theories concerning capital, XIX. 374. 

Wages, XXIV. 306; XIV. 165. 

Wages in the United States, sup. 3066. 
Wages. Payment of wages, XVIII. 440. 

Lassalle's theory of wages, XIV. 321. 
Marx's theory of wages, XXII. 21 1. 


Enfranchisement of the working classes, XIX. 352. 
Progress of the working classes, XXIV. 312. 
Legal relations of workingmen and employers, XIV. 
170; sup. 1 198. 

Mechanics' Institutes, III. 779. 
Industrial condition of women, sup. 1677. 

Trade guilds and wages, XXIV. 310. 
Unions of workingmen, XXIII. 499. 

American Workingmen's Organizations, sup. 

Labor Or- l8l 4- 

ganizations. Trade Unions in the United States, XXIII. 
American Federation of Labor, sup. 153. 
Knights of Labor, sup. 1814. 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, sup. 177. 
Trade Unions in England, II. 213. 
Workingmen's International Association, XIII. 189. 

Strikes, XXIII. 500. 

Recent great strikes in the United States, sup. 2995. 

Boycotting, sup. 539. 

Co-operation, V. 338. 

Mutual Benefit Societies in the United States, sup. 417. 

Mutual Benefit Orders, IX. 782. 

Building and Loan Associations, sup. 611. 

Agricultural cooperation, I. 416. 

Farmers' Organizations, sup. 1245. 

International Typographical Union, sup. 18 14. 

American Railway Union, sup. 1817, 2996. 

Labor Parties in the United States, 1817. 

United Mine-workers of America, sup. 2995. 

Coxey's " Commonweal Army," sup. 2997. 

rill FARMER. 231 


"Life in the country is full of practical teachings, which richer folk 
are apt sedulously to deny to their children." — A Sussex Idyl. 

"Compare the state of that man, such as he would be without books, 
with what th it man may be with books." — Lord Houghton. 

Farmer A ami Farmer B are neighbors. Their lands 
join, and each has the same number of acres. Twenty 
years ago, when they entered upon these lands, they 
seemed to be on an equal footing in everyway. It would 
have puzzled an expert to tell which of the 
A Common farms had the best soil, or which was the most 
Illustration, favorably situated for the purposes of agricul- 
ture. Both men were industrious, although 
everybody said that Farmer B was the harder worker of 
the two. Yet, from the very start, Farmer A had always 
the best success. His crops were better, the products of 
his farm were of a finer quality, he had fewer losses and 
fewer expenses, and, in short, everything prospered with 
him. But Farmer B, in spite of all his industry, fell con- 
stantly behind. His lands became less and less fertile 
every year. His crops failed, his stock died, every enter- 
prise seemed to end in disappointment or disaster. 

Now, how can we account for the difference in the for- 
tunes of these two men? We cannot explain it by say- 
ing that one was born to good luck and the other to 
misfortune. It is to be explained in this way : Farmer A 





spared no pains to acquire a thorough knowledge of his 
calling. He was a reader of books, and through them he 
availed himself of the experience of others in 
every department of agriculture. On the other 
hand, Farmer B placed his entire dependence 
upon industry alone ; and, in the conduct of his 
business, he had only his own narrow experience to guide 

The day of guesswork in farming has passed. In every 
detail of the farmer's calling knowledge counts for gain. 
Other things being equal, the land-worker who keeps 
abreast of the times has an immense advantage over him 
who is content to plod along in the footsteps of his an- 

To the progressive farmer, the Encyclopedia Britannica 
is a mine of useful knowledge. Containing information 
of the most thorough and trustworthy kind concerning 
every department of his business, it proves itself to be a 
ready helper and adviser on all occasions. 

The article on Agriculture in the United States, 
sup. 89-101, is the work of Hon. J. Sterling Morton, 
ex-Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, and of 
Charles W. Dabney, Jr., both of whom rank among 
the highest living authorities on this subject. It is an 
article of great practical value, giving just that kind of 
information which every intelligent farmer in this country 
wishes to have. The historical portion is particularly 
interesting, while the statistics relative to United States 
farms present many facts that are worth knowing. Tin- 
chapters on crops, sup. 91, ct scq., contain much material 
for thought, and are full of good suggestions. 

The general article on AGRICULTURE, I. 291-416, is 
a comprehensive treatise, covering 125 pages, in which 
every farmer will find much that is both interesting and 


profitable. Although it may be said to present the sub- 
ject from an English point of view, it is nevertheless replete 
with that sort of information which farmers everywhere 
appreciate. To the curious farmer, who would like- 
to know how the work of his craft was done in olden 
times, the chapter on Ancient Husbandry, I. 
Farming 291-295, will be full of interest. The relative 
„ , advantages of " Small Farming " and " Large 

General. ° bo 

Farming" are discussed in I. 411-412, and 

XIV. 268. Truck-farming in the United States is de- 
scribed in sup. 94; and this introduces us to a highly 
interesting article on Land, its ownership, distribution, 
etc., XIY. 259-271. 

An article on HOMESTEADS, XII. 122, contains com- 
plete information concerning the Homestead Law in the 
United States, and the preemption of claims on Gov- 
ernment lands, XII. 123 b". Still later facts in regard to 
the same subject are given in the article on Public Lands 
of the United States, sup. 2472. The chapter on the SUR- 
VEYS OF PUBLIC LANDS in the United States, sup. 2990, 
presents much valuable information. The farm-seeker 
who finds it necessary to lease, instead of buying, or 
otherwise becoming the owner of his farm, will obtain 

many practical hints from the article on 


Owning. will be interested, too, in reading the chapter 

on Tenure of Land, I. 406 b", and the article 
on Rent, XX. 402. The land owner will also find many 
things of interest in these articles, and he will want to 
read still more of the history of land ownership in 

Agrarian Laws, I. 287 a. 
Buildings. The chapter on Farm Buildings, I. 308, will 

save many a farmer much more than the cost 
of an Encyclopaedia ; that on Fences, I. 309, is also replete 


with valuable suggestions. Not many farmers have to 
build bridges, but such as do will find something of inter- 
est to them in sup. 564. The building of fruit-houses is 
described in XII. 223 a", and of plant-houses in XII. 221a". 
Next to the subject of buildings, that of implements 
and tools is of importance to every farmer. 
These are described in detail and at length in 
the chapter on Machines and Implements of 
Husbandry, I. 311-328. See, also, 
Harvesting Machinery, sup. 1538. 
Corn-harvesters, sup. 1542. 
American plows, sup. 2402. 
American threshing-machinery, sup. 2905. 
Improved straw-stacker, sup. 2907. 

The successful farmer must also know something about 
soils. He will find this subject treated in a general way 
in I. 306; the chemistry of soils is noticed in 
XIV. 567 b" ; the soils best suited for gardens 
in XII. 217, 232 ; while the manner in which 
different kinds of soils were originally produced 
is described briefly in X. 265. 

Closely connected with the latter subject is that of fer- 
tilizers. Read what is said of Fertilizers, I. 231; of 
Manures, I. 342, and XII. 232 ; of the value of 

Bone Manure, I. 347; of Lime, I. 350; and of 
Fertilizers. . ._ . . AT T ~, ,< 

Artificial Manures, I. 353. Then turn to the 

special and very valuable article on MANURES, 

XV. 505-512, and to that on Guano, XI. 233. 

In some parts of the country irrigation is 

necessary to the production of crops. Farmers 

in such sections will find it profitable to read the 

general article on [RRIGATION, XIII. ^2, and 

perhaps also which is said about irrigation bysewage, 

XXI. 512. The very latest facts regarding irrigation in th : 

1 111. 1 AKMF.k. 235 

United States arc given in su id sup. 1707. It will 

also be interesting to read about the curious methods of 
irrigation practiced in other countries. For instance, the 
methods pursued in Egypt, VII. ;e~ : in Arabia, i I. 24 \ a ; 
in India, XII. 754 ; and in Spain, XXII. 

After soils, and the preparation of the ground for crops 
(see I. 328 340), we come to the crops themselves. The 
supplementary article on Wheat in America, sup. 3134, is 
particularl}' valuable. A long and valuable article on 
WHEAT, XXIV. 531, is also worthy of every 
farmer's attention. Indian corn is described 
under the head of MAIZE, XV. 309. An in- 
teresting history of the potato is given in the 
general article Potato, XIX. 594, while specific directions 
as to its culture are to be found in XII. 286 a. The dis- 
e ises of the potato are described in XIX. 596, while the 
history and nature of the potato-bug are given in VI. 134 a. 
Passing now to other grains and vegetables, you will find 
each treated in its appropriate place — for example : Bar- 
ley, III. 376, and sup. 355 ; Oats, XVII. 696; Flax, IX. 
293 ; Hemp, XI. 647. 

The special article on COTTON, VI. 482, is interesting 
and exhaustive. The chapters on Cottons in the United 
States, sup. 93, 2990, present the very latest statistics con- 
cerning this industry. For further information concerning 
the growth of cotton in the United States, see X. 435 and 
XXIII. 824. See, also, the reference to textile fabrics in 
this GUIDE, in the chapter entitled T/n* Manufacturer. 

Growers of rice will turn to XX. 538, and they will also 
find pleasure in reading how this grain is cultivated in 
various countries — in India III. 248, 568 ; in Japan, XIII. 
574; in Java, XIII. 603 ; and in Madagascar, XV. 172. 

The culture of tobacco in the United States receives 
due attention in sup. 94, in XIV. 43, and in XXIV. 260. 


Interesting facts concerning the history and nature of 
the weed are given in the general article on TOBACCO, 
XXIII. 424. 

Other farm products are the subjects of valuable 

Broom-corn, sup. 585. 

Buckwheat, sup. 607. 

The farmer who cares for statistics relative to the pro- 
duction of Farm Products, will find a great 
deal of trustworthy information in the article 

Statistics. . . . „ ,, . ,■ , 

on Agriculture, sup. 89, as well as in the chapter 
on Agriculture in the United States, XXIII. 

Has the farmer any enemies ? Yes, many of them ; 
and the successful agriculturist will arm himself against 
them by becoming acquainted with their character and 
habits. The article on INSECTS AND INSECTI- 
CIDES, XIII. 904, will be found to be of great 
practical value. So also will the chapters on 
the Army Worm, sup. 241 ; the various prac- 
tical recipes for insecticides, sup. 1684. If you would rec- 
ognize a friend also, read what is said of the ICHNEUMON 
Fly, XII. 699. It might be well, too, to read about the 
Trichina, XXIV. 206. Vine-growers will find several 
matters of practical interest in the section relating to the 
diseases of the vine, XXIV. 238. 

There is a still further endless variety of topics which 
will claim the attention of the successful farmer. If he is 
interested in the production of hay, he will 
Misceiia- want to read the articles on GRASSES, XI. 53, 
neous. and sup. 1 305. If he cares for honey, he will see 
what is said about BEES, III. 484; about apia- 
rian products, sup. 99; about HONEY, XII. 138, 139, and 

nil i \k\n r. 237 

about Bee Industry, sup. 398. If he has more apples 
than he can cat or sell, he will learn all about ClDER, V. 
775 ; if he owns chickens or ducks or geese, he will want 
to know how to make them profitable, and will read the 

article on POULTRY, XIX. 644. In fact, the number of 
subjects of this kind is so large that it is impossible here 
to enumerate them. 

And now, Mr. Farmer, are you a gardener or a fruit- 
grower? Turn to the next two chapters in this book, 
and notice the references which are given 

Further there. You may not be a stock raiser, in the 
References, strictest meaning of the word ; but we know 
that you want to have the best breeds of horses 
and cattle and swine, and in the care of them to avail 
yourself of the knowledge and experience of others. And 
so we refer you to the chapter entitled the Stock Raiser, 
in this GUIDE. In that chapter also you will find numer- 
ous references to articles relating to milk, butter, cheese, 
etc., and the most approved and profitable methods of 
conducting a dairy. 

Are you interested in what farmers are doing in other 

countries? Do you want to know what kind of soil they 

have, what grains they raise, what implements 

Farming they use ? Do you care to learn about their 

in Other . . ,. . , , _ , . . , 

„ . • modes of living, or about the prohts which they 

Countries. t>» r j 

derive from their labor ? You will find just 
such information in the Britannica. Look under the head 
of the country which you have in mind. For example, you 
will find 

Agriculture in Austria, III. 119. 

Agriculture in Afghanistan, I. 232. 

Agriculture in Arabia, II. 244. 

And so with almost every country in the world. 

Are you interested in the present trend of American 


agriculture? Of course you are. See what ex-Secretary 
Morton says on that subject in sup. 100. Read also the 
brief account which follows of the Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington. 

Are you interested in cooperation with others of your 

calling? Read what is said about Farmers' 

Coopera- ORGANIZATIONS, sup. 1245; about agricultural 

tion. cooperation, I. 416; about Cooperation in 

general, VI. 339 ; and about communities in 
Europe and America, VI. 218, 219. See, also, the article 
on World's Fairs, sup. 3195. 

Nearly all enlightened nations recognize the importance 
of scientific instruction in the practice of agriculture. In 
Europe there were several agricultural colleges nearly a 
hundred years ago. In Germany there are scores of insti- 
tutions in successful operation wherein the sons 
The Educa- Q f f armers are instructed in the best methods of 

^ cultivating the soil. There are also many such 

Farmers. ° ' 

schools in Belgium, France, and England, and the 
result is that the lands in those countries produce almost 
double the amount per acre raised before their establish- 
ment. In the United States, where less attention has been 
paid to this branch of education, the annual crops are 
almost everywhere growing less per acre. It was not until 
1862 that the first national movement was made towards 
the establishment of Agricultural Colleges An article in 
sup. 86 gives a complete history and description of the 
farmers' colleges now in operation in this country. Closely 
connected with these colleges are the agricultural experi- 
ment stations, of which one or more have been established 
in every state. These stations are intended to promote, 
under Government auspices, the methodical study of the 
farmers' problems, and they are very fully described in 
sup. 87-89, The relations of the Government and. its 

llll FARMER. 

agricultural stations to the farmer are very aptly stated in 
sup. too. The chapter on the Education of Farmers, I. 
408, is well worth reading in this connection, presenting 
as it does some valuable thoughts from an English poinl 

^i view. As to the manner in which man}' American 
farmers try to keep abreast of the times, see Farmers' In- 
stitutes, sup. 1245. 

1 1 ere, then, we have indicated enough reading to occupy 
your leisure moments for many a day. And as you pursue 
the stud\ r of these subjects, other topics will naturally fall 
under your eye, and you will see how inexhausti- 
ble is the fund of knowledge before you. Can 

any one now pretend to say that the farmer 

who has made this knowledge his own will not 
be vastly more successful in all the departments of his 
calling than his neighbor whose information is limited to 
that which he has acquired through personal experience 
alone ? The Encyclopedia Britannica is a farmer's library 
in itself, covering every division of agricultural lore ; and 
its articles, being the work of specialists, are not only 
complete and comprehensive, but in the highest degree 
trustworthy and authoritative. 

See the chapter in this Guide entitled The Woodsman. 




" He that lives in his own fields and the habitation which God hath 
given him, enjoys true peace. Nothing should hinder him from the 
pleasure of books." — Antonio Jc Guevara, 1540. 

As a matter of course the gardener's interests are, to a 
large extent, identical with those of the farmer. Every 
successful gardener must know a good deal about soils, 
fertilizers, the preparation of the ground, implements and 
farm machinery, and many other subjects connected with 
that larger branch of agriculture generally called farming. 
And so, Mr. Gardener, if you have come to that store- 
house of knowledge, the Encyclopedia Britannica, for in- 
formation which will help you in the practice of your call- 
ing, we would advise you to turn to some of the articles 
which we have just named in the chapter for the guidance 
of the farmer. When you have obtained such information 
as you wish upon the subjects therein mentioned, you will 
be all the more ready to profit by the courses of reading 
and reference which are now to follow. 

The general article on HORTICULTURE, XII. 211-295, 

will of course claim your first attention. This is a very 

comprehensive chapter, and contains as much 

Gardening m atter as an ordinary I2mo volume of three 

General hundred and fifty pages. Some portions of the 

article may be of greater value to you than 

others. Turn to the Index on page 295, and see what it 

e mtains that is of special interest to you. 

The chapter on the Formation and Preparation of the 

l HE CARD! M -. 241 

Garden, XII. 217, contains some valuable, practical hints. 
rii.u <>n Garden rools, XII. 233 b ; that on Plant-houses, 
XII. 221 a; ami that on the Propagation <>!' Plants, XII. 
234 1), will also be found rich in suggestiveness and in di- 
rect information. 

Is yours a (lower garden? Read the chapter on the 

Flower Garden, XII. 247; that on Kinds of Flowers 

to Cultivate, XII. 248; that on Greenhouse 

The Flower Plants, XII. 261 ; and the chapter on Pruning, 

Garden. XII. 24 1 . The article on Floriculture, sup. 
1290, contains a number of interesting statis- 
tics concerning the progress of this industry in the United 
States, and will be read with profit by every florist. 

The following articles and parts of articles are worthy, 
as you will at once perceive, of the attention of every 
gardener and of every lover of flowers. 

History of the first attempts at the classification of 
plants, IV. 79 a. 

The story of Linnaeus, XIV. 671, and his classification 
of plants, IV. 79 b. 

The account of Robert Brown, the inventor of the natu- 
ral system of classification, IV. 81 a", and IV. 385. 

The chapter on Structural Elements of Plants, IV. 83. 

The special articles on the Rose, XX. 850. 

Then there are innumerable special articles on the dif- 
ferent kinds of flowers, all of which may be found by ref- 
erence to the Index volume. Among these articles it 
may not be amiss to call attention to the following : 

Lily, XIV. 643 

Gladiolus, X. 632. 

Geranium, X. 439. 

Dahlia, VI. 763. 

Pansy, XVIII. 214. 

Phlox, XVIII. 798. 


Honeysuckle, XII. 140. 
Hollyhock, XII. 102. 
1 [yacinth, XII. 419. 
Mignonette, XVI. 2S9. 

But it is unnecessary to name more. These are men- 
tioned only as examples of many articles which lovers of 
flowers will take pleasure in finding and reading. 

There are articles on wild-flowers, too, such as Ranuncu- 
lus (buttercup), XX. 272 ; Violet, XXIV. 241 ; Daisy, VI. 
773 ; and scores of others. And in the general 
Wild article on BOTANY, IV. 79, their structure, 

Flowers. habits, and growth are treated and described 
from a scientific standpoint. 
If you are interested in Landscape Gardening, see the 
article on that subject in sup. 1828, also the article on 
LAWNS, XXI. 248, and that on the parks of the 
Landscape United States, sup. 2296. See William Kent, 
Gardening. XIV. 40. 

Some curious historical facts in relation to 
the subject may be found by reference to the article Laby- 
rinth, XIV. 180. The article Arboriculture will also 
supply some useful hints ; and the account of the Royal 
Botanical Gardens at Kew, XII. 153, and sup. 1785, will 
be found interesting. 

The Vegetable Garden is described in XII. 278; and 
the different kinds of vegetables profitable for cultivation 
are noticed, each in its appropriate place. Mar- 
v bi ^ct gardening in the United States is the sub- 
Garden, jcct of a comprehensive paragraph in sup. 95. 
See what is said about the Potato, XIX. 593, 
;ind I. 364, about its diseases, XIX. 596, and about its 
most destructive enemy, VI. 134. 

The manner of raising other root crops, such as turnips, 
mangel-wurzels, carrots, parsnips, cabbages, kohlrabi, etc., 

l ill. GARDENER. 243 

is described with some minuteness in the chapter begin- 
ning on 1. 346. All the common vegetables raised in the 
gardens receive notice in the Britannica. Special articles 
also are given on the cultivation of these vegetables in 
the United Stales, as : 

Beets, sup. 402 ; Beet sugar, sup. 403, etc. 

But tor the latest information, see the special article on 
Agriculture in the United States, sup. 89-101. 

Market gardens, sup. 95. 

Minor crops, sup. 96. 

Truck-farming in the United States, sup. 2951. 

Truck farms, sup. 94. 

See also the references in the chapters entitled The 
Fruit Grower and The Woodsman. 




" They shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree." — 
The Book of Micah. 

" You only, O books, are liberal and independent. You give to all 
who ask, and enfranchise all who serve you assiduously. Trulv, you 
are the ears filled with most palatable grains — fruitful olives, vines of 
Engaddi, fig-trees knowing no sterility; burning lamps to be ever held 
in the hand." — Richard de Bury. 

For the fruit grower, be he farmer or gardener, there is 

to be found in the Britannica a great variety of practical, 

useful information. As to soils, fertilizers, irri- 

The gation, and other subjects of general interest to 

Orchard. all cultivators of the ground, it may be well to 
consult the references already given in our 
chapter for The Farmer. In the first volume of the 
Britannica, page 284, there is a short chapter on Orchard 
Culture which will repay the reading. Of still greater 
practical interest is a chapter in sup. 95, on Orchard Pro- 
ducts of the United States. An extensive list of standard 
FRUIT TREES, with descriptions of the best varieties, may 
be found in XII. 269, and should be marked for ready 
reference. Further descriptions of fruit and fruit trees 
arc presented in special short articles under appropriate 
headings, for example : 

Apple, II. 211 ; the culture of apples for cider, V. 775. 

Apricot, II. 214. 

Peach, XVIII. 442 ; the peach-house, XII. 224; peaches 
in the United States, sup. 2330. 

Pear, XVIII. 445, sup. 2330. 


Plum, XIX. 230. 
Prune, XI X. 230. 
Quince, XX. 182. 

The article on Strawberries, XXII. 592, is interesting 
and valuable. So also are those on other small fruits : 
Raspberries, XIII. 276. 
Small Cranberries, VI. 45, and XII. 270. 

Fruits. Whortleberries, XXIV. 556. 

Currants, VI. 715, and XII. 270. 
The culture of grapes receives the attention which its 
importance deserves. See the practical chapters on vine- 
yards, XII. 277, and that on vineyards in the 

United States, sup. 96. See, too, Viticulture, 
Grapes. , 

sup. 3050; also the special article on the Vine, 

XXIV. 237. The manufacture of wine from 

grapes is described fully in XXIV. 602. 

The wines of different localities are referred to else- 
where, as : 

Canary wine, IV. 797. 

Catawba, V. 219. 

Madeira, XV. 178. 

Wiirtemberg, XXIV. 700. 

Fruit-houses, for the storing of the products of garden 
and orchard, are described at length in XII. 223. The en- 
tire article on HORTICULTURE, XII. 211-295, is 

Fruit of value to the fruit grower, and should be 

Houses, read and frequently consulted. 

See also the account of the societies that have 
been formed for the promotion of horticulture, XXII. 225. 

Tropical fruits are noticed, and described at length. 

Some of the best known are : 
Tropical _, , , TTT 

Fruits. The date-palm, VI. 831. 

The fig-tree, IX. 153; IV. 121. 
Banana, III. 307. 


Bread-fruit, IV. 241. 

Lemon, XIV. 437. 

Orange, XVII. 810. 

Pine-apple, XIX. 106. 

Pomegranate, XIX. 441. 

Other articles which commend themselves, not only to 
fruit growers, but to large numbers of gardeners and farm- 
ers as well, are the following : 

Grafting, XII. 213, 236. . 

Care of Budding, XII. 237 ; XX. 423. 

Trees. Pruning, XII. 214, 241. 
Garden Trees, XII. 260. 

Fungicides, sup. 1 35 1 . 

Mildew, XVI. 293. 

Diseases of Vines, XXIV. 238. 

The Canning Industry, sup. 685. 

In the chapter entitled The Woodsman, in this Guide, 
the fruit grower may find numerous further references to 
trees, their culture, propagation, and uses. Many of these 
articles, if he will take the pains to consult them, may 
prove to be of genuine value to him. 




" Love of trees and plants is safe. You do not run risks in your affec- 
tions." — AUx. Smith. 

"The love of knowledge comes with reading and grows upon it." 

— Henry Ward Beecher. 

In this chapter the word woodsman will be used in a 
broad and somewhat unusual sense. It will include every 
one who is in an)' way actively interested in trees, and 
especially in the trees of the forest. First, the man who 
regards trees only as objects of trade and profit, and 
views them always from an economical standpoint, caring 
for them only so far as they are of practical use to man- 
kind ; second, those who love trees for their beauty, their 
fragrance, their grateful shade, their friendship ; and third, 
those who take pleasure in studying them in their scientific 
aspects, observing their modes of growth and their influ- 
ence upon climate, soil, and various forms of vegetable and 
animal life. For all these " woodsmen " the Encyclopedia 
Britannica has a variety of entertaining and trustworthy 


As an introduction to the study of trees, read the article 
on FORESTRY, sup. 1309. Then turn to the very compre- 
hensive article, Forests and Forest Administration, IX. 
396-410, and notice the practical character of the informa- 
tion there given. After this, read of the Forests of the United 


States, XXIII. 803-807. Another article of much value is 
that on Arboriculture, II. 314-324. This, of course, 
relates especially to the growing of trees as one branch of 
agriculture. Read particularly the section relating to the 
culture of trees, II. 315, and that on timber trees, IX. 
405, 406. Valuable practical suggestions are also given 
with relation to plantations of forest trees, II. 322 a. For 
an account of the timbered region of the United States, 
see sup. 2390; IV. 704; XXIII. 808. For the forests of 
Canada, see IV. //^. The climatic influences of forests 
are discussed in VI. 4. 

Of especial interest to lumbermen is the article on SAW- 
MILLS, XXI. 344. An account of the lumber 

trade in the United States is given in XXIII. 
Lumbering. . . . 

811. I he trade in Michigan receives notice in 

XVI. 238, as also does that of Canada, in IV. 774. 

The uses of wood as building material are described in 

IV. 448 ; its strength, VIII. 816, and XXII. 603 ; its value 

as fuel, IX. 808. 


It is, of course, impossible in this chapter to name all the 
articles in the Britannica that have reference to individual 
forest trees. It may not be amiss, however, to direct 
especial attention to the following : 

Oak, XVII. 689 — an illustrated article very interesting 
to all lovers of trees ; the strength of oak wood, 

Timber XXII. 603; the use of oak bark for tanning, 

Trees. XIV. 381 ; the oak in the United States, 
XXIII. 808. 

Elm, VIII. 151 b; culture of, II. 317. 

Pine, XIX. 102; strength of wood, XXII. 603; pines 
"t California, IV. 704; pines of the Alps, XIX. 102; cul- 
ture of, II. 316. 


Pine lumbering in the United States, sup. 2390. 
Fir, IX. 222; strength of wood, XXII. 603; Scotch 
pines, XI X. 103. 

BoXWOOd, IV. iSl ; uses of wood, XXIV. 645. 

Rosewood, X X. 851. 

Logwood, XIV. 805 ; XII. 133. 

Mahogany, XV. 288 ; IX. 406 ; strength of wood, XXII. 

Eucalyptus, VIII. 649; XIII. 593: eucalyptus in Au- 
stralia, XXIV. 216, 508. 

The great trees of California are described in IV. 704 
and XXI. 6-5. 

Of the trees that are valuable for their products, but 
not valuable as timber, it may be interesting to 
Valuable note the following : 

Trees. Cinchona (quinine tree), V. 780. Its culti- 

vation in Peru, XVIII. 6jt, ; in India, III. 568, 
and XII. 751 ; and in the Himalaya Mountains, XI. 833. 

Caoutchouc (india-rubber), IX. 154; XVIII. 6y$; IV. 
226; XII. 835, and IV. 88. 


Olive, XVII. 761 ; III. 59. 
Orange, XVII. 810. 
Lemon, XVII. 437. 

Banana, III. 307; XIX. 176, and XIX. 419. 
Mulberry, XVII. 13, and XXII. 58. 

But for the common fruit trees, see the chapter entitled 
The Gardener. 


COFFEE Plant, cultivation of, V. no; in Brazil, IV. 
227 ; in Cuba, VI. 681 ; in Arabia, II. 237 ; in Java, XIII. 
603 ; in Ceylon, V. 369. 


Tea Plant, XXIII. 97, and IV. 738 ; cultivation of, in 
China, V. 636 ; in India, XII. 750, and III. 568. 

Cocoa, or Cacao, VI. 100. 

Date Palm, VI. 831, XVIII, 190 ; of Arabia, II. 237. 

Fig, IX. 153. 

Almond, I. 594. 

Aloe, I. 597. 

Bread-fruit, IV. 243. 

Among the curious trees of the world, mention may be 
made of the Banyan, III. 348; Baobab, I. 268; Bo, or 
sacred fig-tree, IX. 154; Upas tree, XXIII. 859, and this 
list might be extended indefinitely. 

See chapter entitled The Gardener. 

An account of the great parks of the world 

appeals to the interest of every woodsman and 
Parks. J 

every lover of trees. See the following articles : 

National Parks, sup. 2296. 

Parks of the Rocky Mountain region, sup. 2297, VI. 
161 ; XXIII. 796. 

Adirondack Park, sup. 48. 

National military parks, sup. 2297. 

Yellowstone National Park, sup. 3219. 

Washington Elm, at Cambridge, sup. 662. 

Charter Oak, sup. 757. 

In conclusion, the reader's attention is directed to the 
article on Arbor Day, sup. 215, and the additional para- 
graph on the same subject, XII. 848. 

The above references are sufficient to indicate the vast 
amount of curious, interesting, and instructive information 
that may be derived from the Britannica with reference to 
this subject of trees. 

THE STI K K i.RnW ER. 25 I 



" The cattle are grazing, 
Their heads never raising ; 
There are forty feeding like one." 

— IVordswortk. 
" The man who has studied a subject is on that subject the intellect- 
ual superior of the man who has not." — Earl Lyt 'ton. 

The interests of the stock raiser are in many respects 
identical with those of the farmer. Indeed, most farmers 
arc stock raisers, and most stock raisers are by necessity 
also farmers. Hence, the references and readings indi- 
cated in this chapter are intended for the help and guid- 
ance both of farmers and stock raisers, and of all readers 
of the Britannica who are in any way engaged in the 
breeding or care of domestic animals. 

The chapter on stock-raising in the United States, sup. 
96, gives much valuable information that is strictly up to 
date. So also does the paragraph on farm animals in the 
United States, sup. 2989. 

Read the article Breeds and Breeding, IV. 244; then 
see what is said of the breeding of animals, I. 389, 393, 
and XXI. 722. 

The article on the HORSE, XII. 172, is a comprehensive 

one, of great value to every horse-owner. This 

The is supplemented by some later facts in the arti- 

Horse. cle on Agriculture in the United States, sup. 
89-101, and by further information regarding 
the breeding and rearing of horses, I. 384. 


An interesting article on horse-racing in the United 
States maybe found in sup. 1615-1617. After this, see 
Trotting and Pacing, sup. 2948. 

For the Arabian horse, see II. 240. 

For the Persian, XVIII. 625. 

For the Clydesdale, XIV. 251. 

Trotting records, sup. 2948. 

Famous trotters and pacers, sup. 2949. 

For the diseases of horses, see XXIV. 201, 204. 

The art of horse-shoeing is described in XXI. 831 and 
XVII. 166. 

A special article on CATTLE, V. 244, is interesting for 

its historical information. The chapter on 

Bovida.% XV. 4^2, has a strictly scientific value. 
Cattle . 

The breeding of cattle is discussed in I. 


For the diseases of cattle, sup. 97, XVII. 57, XXIV. 
204, and I. 304, and V. 589. See also Fardel-bound, 
sup. 1244; Foot-rot, sup. 1304; Founder, sup. 1320. 

The dairyman will read of the management of milch 
cows, I. 390. He will be especially interested in the long- 
article on the DAIRY, VI. 768 ; in the chapter on Dairy 
Products in the United States, sup. 98; in the article on 
Milk, XVI. 301; Beestings, sup. 402; Butter, IV. 590; 
and Cheese, V. 455. He will also read what is said of the 
freshness and purity of milk, and the directions for its 
treatment in the dairy, XIV. 304. Within recent years 
the methods of making butter have undergone radical 
changes, and these methods are described in sup. 638. 

See, also, artificial butter, sup. 639. 

American process of making cheese, sup. 763. 

The influence of cattle-shows, I. 390, is another subject 
which will claim the cattle-breeder's attention. 

One of the chief objects of the stock raiser is to pro- 

Tin STOi k GR( >WER. 253 

vide beeves, hogs, or sheep for the great markets, where 
they are slaughtered and turned into food products. This 
latter process does not necessarily interest the stock raiser ; 

it concerns rather the butcher and the dealer in dressed 
meats, and to these it maybe a matter of moment to learn 
how every portion of a slaughtered animal may be made 
to realize some profit. The latest improved 
The methods of slaughtering beeves and preparing 
Butcher, the various parts for market are fully described 
in an article on ECONOMICAL System of 
ABATTOIRS, sup. 11. A further and more complete ac- 
count of the processes connected with the manufacture of 
flesh-food products is given in the article Packing, sup. 

The article on SlIEEP, XXI, 784, is one of much value 
to all who have the care of these animals. The 

breeding and management of sheep are further 
Sheep. , 

discussed in I. 391, and IV. 250. The question 

as to what are the best foods in wool-culture is 

discussed in sup. 3189. 

For Southdowns, see XXII. 725. 

For Merinos, XXII. 300. 

For Dorsets, VII. 371. 

The diseases of sheep are described in XXIV. 204, and 
XXIII. 539; Murrain, XVII. 59. 

The proper method of shearing is described in I. 396. 

And in this connection the article on WOOL, XXIV. 
653, should be read, together with the supplementary ar- 
ticle on American manufactures of wool, sup. 3189. 

The American wool-grower will also be interested in 
what is said of wool-growing in Australia, III. 114. (See 
also, the references to Textile Products in the chapter 
entitled The Manufacturer, in this GUIDE. 

Hogs are treated historically and scientifically in the 


article on Swine, XXII. Jji, and notes concerning their 

breeding and management are given in I. 400. 

For the history of hog-raising in the United 

States during the past ten years, see the chapter 

on that subject, sup. 97. 

Their diseases are described in XXIV. 205, 206, and 

XVIII. 270. 

Poultry is the subject of a valuable article, XIX. 640, 

wherein the various breeds of fowls are described at 

length. This is supplemented by an article on Fowls, 

IX. 491. 

The management of poultry receives special 

attention in I. 401. 
Poultry. „ . . . , 

borne interesting tacts about eggs are given 

in VII. 201, and VII. 696; and the latest fig- 
ures about their production in sup. 99. 

The goose is noticed in a special article, X. y/j, and 
the duck in VII. 505 ; while the turkey is described at 
length in XXIII. 657. 

Of course the question of foods and feeding is one in 
which the stock raiser and the farmer are always interested. 

The subject of pastures and pasturage is intelligently 
discussed in I. 370, and I. 402, and is worthy of the care- 
ful attention of every stock raiser. 

Some account of American grass crops for pasturage 

is given in XI. 53-60, and the cultivation of 

American grasses is the subject of an article in 
Pasturage. T 

sup. I. 305. 

The latest facts relating to the production of 

forage crops in this country are given in sup. 94, and sup. 

For the culture of Hay, see I. 378. 
The various grains, vegetables, etc., used in feeding 



domestic animals have already been referred to in our 
chapter for The Farmer. 

Other domestic animals, not mentioned in this chapter, 
are treated of, each in its proper place. But the care of 
them cannot properly be said to belong exclusively to the 
stock raiser or the tanner. (See the Index volume.) 




" Excellence is never granted to man but as the reward of labor." 

— Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

MINING, or the process by which useful minerals are 
obtained from the earth's crust, is treated with great ful- 
ness in the Britannica. The special article on this subject, 
XVI. 440-472, is a valuable treatise, amply 

illustrated with cuts and diagrams, and replete 
Mining. . . . ° it 1 

with interesting information tor all who are 

engaged in this branch of industry. It may be 

read by sections, in connection with collateral references 

to other articles relating to the different branches of the 


1. Manner in which the useful minerals occur in the 
earth's crust, viz., tabular deposits and masses, faults, or 
dislocations, XVI. 440-442. 

2. Prospecting, or search for minerals, XVI. 442-443. 

3. Boring with rods and ropes — diamond drills, XVI. 
443-444; Quarrying machinery, sup. 2481. 

4. Breaking ground — Tools employed — 
Mining Blasting — Machine drills — Driving levels and 
Processes, sinking shafts, XVI. 444-449. See, also, Blast- 
ing, III. 808; XXIII. 662. 

5. Employment of labor, XVI. 449. 

6. Securing excavations by timber, iron, or masonry, 
XVI. 449-451. 

I in: MINER. 257 

7. Working away of veins, beds, and masses, XVI. 

451 455- 

8. Carriage of minerals along underground roads, 
XVI. 455-456. 

9. Raising minerals to the surface, XVI. 456-457. 

10. Drainage of mines, XVI. 457-459. 

11. Ventilation and lighting of mines, XVI. 459-461. 

12. Means of descending and ascending, XVI. 461- 
462. Safety appliances, sup. 2600. 

13. Preparation of ores, XVI. 462-467. 

14. Laws relating to mining, XVI. 466. 

15. Accidents in mines, XVI. 466-467. 

For a general description of the methods of coal-mining 
in the United States, see sup. 841. 

For statistics respecting the product of the world's min- 
ing, and especially the mineral products of 
Mineral the United States, see XVI. 469. 
Products. For a special account and description of the 

minerals of any particular country, see the ar- 
ticle relating to that country ; for instance, if you wish to 
know what minerals are produced in India, see under IN- 
DIA, XII. 764 a. Also note such references as the fol- 
lowing : 

Minerals of the Appalachian Mountains, II. 201. 

Gold and silver in Bolivia, IV. 13. 

Minerals in Borneo, IV. 57. 

Minerals in Burmah, IV. 552. 

Gold in California, IV. 701. 

Minerals in Arabia, II. 244. 

Minerals in Australia. III. 109. 

Minerals in Cuba, VI. 680. 

And hundreds of others of like character. 

For interesting historical notes on the discovery and 
use of certain metals, see Metals, XVI. 6^. 


Special articles are devoted to all the great minerals, as 
follows : 

COAL, VI. 45-85 ; classification of coal, VI. 45 ; origin 

of, VI. 47 ; X. 238 ; anthracite coal of the Unit- 

The Great e d States, II. 106, and XXIII. 811 ; coal-mm- 

Minerals. ing, VI. 61 (see Coalfields, in Index volume, 

XXV. 103) ; analysis of coal, VI. 80 ; area of 

coalfields in the United States, I. 680. 

GOLD, X. 740 ; gold-mining, X. 745, and IV. 791 ; gold 
in the United States, XXIII. 811, 814, and sup. 1416 ; gold 
mines of America, I. 716; Cripple Creek mines, sup. 943. 

SILVER, XXII. 69; description of silver, XVI. 382; 
silver and silver-mining, sup. 2719; how silver is mined, 
XVI. 470. See, also, Metallurgy, XVI. 58 ; and Assaying, 
II. 724. 

IRON, XIII. 278 ; ores of iron, XVI. 58 ; iron-mining in 
the United States, XXIII. 811; rolling-mill product of 
iron, XX. 1352 ; iron industry in the United States, 
XXIII. 813; strength of iron, XXII. 603; sup. 1694. 
(See also Index volume, page 226.) 

COPPER, VI. 347; copper-mining, XVI. 452; copper- 
mining in the United States, sup. 912; production in 
the United States, XXIII. 816; in Michigan, XVI. 239; 
copper pyrites, XX. 129; copper-smelting, XXII. 733. 

Lead, XIV. 374; production of lead in the United 
States, XXIII. 817; in Missouri, XVI. 525 ; lead-mining, 
XVI. 465 ; description of lead ores, XVI. 383. 

ZlNC, XXIV. 784; production of zinc in the United 
States, XXIII. 817; treatment of zinc ores, XVI. 465. 

TIN, XXIII. 400; ores of, XVI. 58 ; production in the 
United States, XXIII. 816; history of mines in Corn- 
wall, VI. 425. 

Quicksilver, mines and reduction works in the Unit- 
ed States, sup. 2990. 


Read, finally, the article on Metallurgy, XVI. 57-62, 
describing the methods used industrially for the extraction 
of metals from their ores. See also : 

Amalgamation of gold, X. 747 ; of silver, XXII. 69; 
mercurial amalgam, I. 652. 

Blast furnace, IX. 840. 

Assaying, II. 724. 

Table of fusibility of metals, XVI. 66. 

See the two chapters, entitled respectively, The Mine- 
ralogist and The Geologist. 




"Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

— As You Like It. 

The practical importance of the work of the geologist 
is now very generally recognized. It is his to investigate 
not only the manner in which the evolution of the earth's 
great surface features has been effected, but, by studying 
the peculiarities of local formations, to discover what im- 
portant minerals are probably concealed within the earth's 
crust in given situations ; what is the nature of the soil, 
and, in general, what are the hidden mineral resources of 
the country. The general article on GEOLOGY, X. 212- 
375, by the celebrated Archibald Geikie, is a very com- 
plete and excellent introduction to the study of this science. 
It is amply illustrated, and the special index, on page 375, 
will assist the busy inquirer in finding the answer to almost 
any question on this subject that may be suggested. 

An article of much practical interest to American read- 
States, sup. 2832. 

The cosmical aspect of geology, X. 213-220, may be 
studied still further by reference to the article Cosmogony, 
VI. 446. For additional curious hypotheses concerning 
the origin of the earth, see I. 460 ; III. 193; XVII. 143; 
and XXII. 564. 

Dynamical geology, especially that portion of the sub- 
ject which seeks to unravel the complicated pro- 
Dvnamical , ... . . ... 

tieolopv cesses by which each continent lias been built 

up, is further treated under the head of PHYSI- 
CAL Geography, X. 210. See also: 


Mountains, XVII. 4, 10, and I. 623. 
Volcanoes, X. 240. 

Earthquakes, VII. 608 (Index volume, page 141). 
Rivers, XX. 571. 

Lakes, XIV. J 1 6. 

Palaeontological geology, or the study of organic forms 
found in the crust of the earth, is the subject of an inter- 
esting chapter, X. 319-325. The subject is treated still 
further in the following articles : 
Distribution, VII. 267. 
Palaeontol- Birds, III. 72S (see special index, III. 777). 

ogy. Ichthyology, XII. 666; I. 275. 

Ichthyosaurus, XII. 695. 

Mammalia, XV. 375 (see special index, XV. 446). 

Mammoth, XV. 447. 

Fossils of America, I. 682. Fossil footprints, sup. 13 17. 

Oldest known fossils, IX. 384. 

Stratigraphical geology is treated very fully in Volume 
X., pages 325-3/O. 

Archaean rocks, or formation, X. 327. 

Palaeozoic, X. 328. 

Secondary, or Mesozoic, X. 352. 

Tertiary, or Cainozoic, X. 360. 

Post-Tertiary, or Quarternary, X. 360. 

A further study of these subjects will involve references 
to the following topics : 

Coal, VI. 45. 

Coalfields and coal-mines (see Index volume, page 103). 
Coalfields of America, sup. 482. 
Practical Caves, V. 265. 

Geology. Glaciers (see Index volume, page 183). 
Artesian wells, II. 644; sup. ■ 1. 

Petroleum, XVIII. 237, 712. 

Natural gas, XXIII. 813. 


Many other articles which will suggest themselves to the 
reader as he pursues this study may be found by reference 
to the Index volume. 

In studying the history of the science of Geology, you 
will find the names of a few distinguished men to whose 
labors and investigations we are indebted for the greater 
part of our knowledge concerning this subject. It may be 
of some interest to you to read the story of their lives. 
Among these, the following are especially noteworthy: 

Sir Charles Lyell, XVI. 101. 

Hugh Miller, XVI. 319. 
William Buckland, IV. 420. 
Geologists. Sjr Roderick Murchison> XVII. 50. 

John Phillips, XVIII. 758. 
William Smith, XXII. 178. 
Alexander Winchell, sup. 3165. 
Sir J. William Dawson, sup. 1000. 
Joseph Le Conte, sup. 1852. 
Jules Marcou, sup. 1990. 
John S. Newberry, sup. 2168. 
Sir A. C. Ramsay, sup. 2508. 
Sir Archibald Gerkie, sup. 1375. 
James Dwight Dana, sup. 983. 
Louis Agassiz, I. 274. 
Alexander Agassiz, sup. 83. 

111K SEAMAN. 263 



" But a great hook that comes from a great thinker — it is a ship of 
thought, deep freighted with truth, with beauty, too." — Theodore Parker. 


The subject of greatest importance to all navigators is 

ships. The history of shipbuilding, from the first rude 

efforts of primitive man to the wonderful 

History achievements of the present time, is a topic full 

Shi s °^ mtercst to both seamen and landsmen. In 
the twenty-first volume of the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica, page 804, there is a readable and very enter- 
taining article on the development of the ship and of the 
art of navigation, particularly in ancient and mediaeval 
times. The ships of the Phoenicians, the first race of sea- 
faring men, are further described in XVIII. 804. The 
ships used by the Greeks in the time of Homer, and also 
the war vessels, biremes and triremes, used in the earli- 
est sea fights, are noticed at considerable length in the 
pages which follow. Mediaeval merchant vessels are de- 
scribed on page 808. 

The very exhaustive article on SHIPBUILDING, XXL- 
809-826, contains much information of general interest. 
Read the introductory paragraphs, page 809, the descrip- 
tion of the " Great Western " and the "Great Eastern.'* 
page 815, the paragraphs on Propulsion, pages 822, 823 ; 
and the section on Boatbuilding, page 825. 


Primitive boat of wicker-work, III. 421. 

Whaleboat, XXIV. 526. 
Boats. Boatbuilding, XXI. 825. 

Rowing, XXI. 29. 
Life-boat, XIV. 570. 
Canoes, IV. 811. 
Catamarans, sup. 722. 
Yachts and yachting, XXIV. 722. 

Yacht-building, sup. 3215. 

Steamboat, XXII. 478. 

Ships, etc. _ .. 

Steamships, XXI. 823; III. 542; sup. 2781. 

Whaleback steamers, sup. 3133. 
Marine engines, sup. 1992. 
The Campania and Lucania, sup. 2782. 
The Great Eastern, IV. 397; XXI. 815. 
The Great Western, IV. 397. 
The Great Harry, XVII. 281. 
Oars, XXI. 30 ; ancient oars, XXI. 807. 
Rowing, sup. 2584. 
Sails and sail-making, XXI. 153. 
Mast, IV. 477. 

Spars and rigging, XXI. 594. 
Rudder and helm, XXI. 602. 

Cable, IV. 621. 
Nautical Capstan, V. 28. 
Subjects. Anchor, II. 3. 

Mariner's compass, VI. 225 ; XV. 518. 
Sextant, XXI. 724. 
Sailors' knots, XIV. 128. 
Bends and splices, XXI. 592. 
Log, XIV. 769. 
Speed recorder, sup. 2764. 
Marine glue, sup. 141 2. 



The article on X \vn; \ HON, or the art of conducting i 
ship across the ocean, XVII. 250-277, next claims our at- 
tention. The first half of this article contains a good deal 
of valuable historical information. The latter half is more 
technical and scientific, and is an exhibition of the theory 
and art of practical or modern navigation. A popular 
course of reading would include the following articles or 
parts of articles: 

Dockyards, VII. 310; wharves, sup. 3133. 

Clearance, sup. 826. 

Sounding, XXII. 49. 

Buoys, IV. 530. 

United States buoy service, sup. 623. 

Naval signals, XXII. 49 ; sup. 2716. 

" Law of the road " at sea, sup. 2556. 

Fog signals, sup. 1296, 2556. 

Search-light, sup. 2670. 

Lighthouses, XIV. 615. 

Lighthouse Board, sup. 1885. 

Life-saving service in the United States, sup. 
Sea 1382. 

Terms. Latitude, X. 198; XVII. 251. 

Longitude, XXIII. 394; X. 187, 198. 
Tides, XXIII. 353. 
Ocean currents, X. 283; XVII. 275. 
Gulf Stream, III. 19. 
Trade-winds, XVI. 143. 
Derelicts, sup. 1031. 
Log, XIV. 769. 
Marine league, sup. 1996. 

Harbors and docks, sup. 1520; harbors, XI. 471. 
Law of ports, XI. 471 ; free ports, sup. 1337. 


Bottomry, IV. 167. 

Tonnage, XXIII. 442. 

Salvage, XXI. 237. 

Marine insurance in the United States, sup. 1995. 

Marine hospital service, sup. 1994. 

Captain, XVII. 292. 

Boatswain, XVII. 293. 

Pilot, XIX. 96. 

Steamship, XXI. 589-605. This article embraces a 

great variety of information relative to the duties and 

labors of a seaman ; how to make knots, bends, 

Seaman- an d splices, page 592 ; how to distinguish and 

ship. name the spars and rigging of different kinds 
of vessels, page 594; how to lower rigging and 
set up stays, page 595 ; how to cast anchor, page 597 ; all 
about mooring swivels, anchors, and cables, page 598, etc. 
At the end of the article, page 603, there is a complete 
glossary of terms used by seamen. 

Laws relating to seamen, XXI. 605-608. 

Shipping laws, sup. 2707. 

International Commission for deep waterways, sup. 3103. 

Commerce on the great waterways — see the chapter 
entitled The Merchant and Trader. 

III. SEA industries. 

Sea fisheries, IX. 243. 

Whale fisheries, XXIV. 526; whale-oil, XVII. 744: 
whalebone, XXIV. 528; XV. 394. 

Seal fisheries, XXI. 580; sealskins, IX. 839; extermina- 
tion of seals, XIX. -126; sup. 428. 
Fisheries. Coral fisheries, XXI. 387; XIII. 455. 
Sponge fisheries, XXII. 428. 
Amber deposits in Baltic Sea, I. 659. 


Oyster fisheries, XVIII. 107. 
Pear] oysters, Will. 446. 
id fisheries, VI. 103; off Newfoundland, XVII. 384: 
in North Sea, IX. 255. 

Mackerel fisheries, XV. 1 60. 
Herring fisheries, IX. 251, 257. 
Sardine fisheries, IX. 253; XIII. 455. 

Salmon fisheries, XXI. 225. 
Shad fishery, XXI. 726; XII. 694. 
Lake fishing, II. 39. 

Fishing-boats, IX. 246. 

Fishing-nets, XVII. 358. 

Fishery Boards and Commissions, XIX. 129. 

Laws relating to fishermen, XXI. 607. 

Fishery laws, IX. 268. 

Fisheries of the United States, XV. 300. 
Fisheries of Newfoundland, XVII. 384. 
Fisheries of England, VIII. 233. 
Fisheries of Canada, IV. 774. 
Fisheries of Russia, XXI. 85. 


Depths of the sea, III. 17 ; XII. 821. 
Deep-sea sounding, XXII. 280. 

Waves, XXIV. 419. 
Descrip- Tides, XXIII. 353. 
tion. Animals in the sea, VII. 276. 

Color of the sea, XIV. 600. 
General description of the sea, XXI. 578. 


Sea-anemones, I. 129. 
Sea-bear, XV. 443. 

Sea-cat, XXI. 614. 
curiosi- Sea-cow, XV. 390. 
ties. Sea-cucumber, III. 477. 

Sea-devil, VII. 138. 
Sea-eagle, VII. 589. 
Sea-elephant, XV. 444. 
Sea-hare, XVI. 656. 
Sea-hedgehog, X. 685. 
Sea-horse, XXI. 579. 
Sea-leopard, XV. 443, 
Sea-lion, XV. 443. 
Sea-otter, XVIII. 69. 
Sea-parrot, XX. 101. 
Sea-pens, I. 129. 
Sea-pie, XVIII. 1 1 1. 
Sea-serpent, XXI. 608. 
Sea-slugs, VII. 639. 
Sea-snakes, XXII. 197. 
Sea-swallow, XXIII. 189. 
Sea-trout, XXI. 222. 
Sea-unicorn, XV. 3.98. 
Sea-urchins, VII. 629. 
Sea-wolf, XXI. 614. 


History of modern navies, XVII. 279. 

The navy of the United States, sup. 2 145-2 153. 

Navy yards, sup. 2150. 

Naval Academy of the United States, sup. 
The Navy. y j 

2142 ; XVII. 300, 301. 

Naval Observatory, sup. 2143. 
Navy Department of the United States, sup. 2153. 


Ironclads, XVII. 284-288. 

Ironclad cruisers, sup. 2149. 

Armored ships of the United States, sup. 21 51. 

The Massachusetts, sup. 2146. 

The Kearsarge, sup. 1775, 2148. 

Torpedo-boats, sup. 1994, 2817. 

Torpedoes, sup. 2929. 

Submarine boats, sup. 2816. 

Turret ships, XVII. 285. 

Marines, XV. 544. 

Naval Reserves, or Naval Militia, sup. 2144. 

Naval lieutenant, XVII. 293. 

Captain, XVII. 292. 

Commodore, XVII. 292. 

Vice-admiral, I. 159. 

Admiral, I. 154. 

Embargo, sup. n 86. 

Blockade, III. 834. 

Privateering, XIX. 764. 

Piracy, XIX. 116. 

Hovering acts, sup. 1622. 

Maritime law, XXI. 583. 
Right of search, XXI. 608. 


Boat-races, sup. 2584. 

Dredges and dredging, sup. 2782. 

For further references relating to ships, canals, and 
commerce, see the chapter entitled The Merchant and 




" What Mr. Robert Stephenson recently said of the locomotive, at a 
meeting of engineers at Newcastle, is true of nearly every other capital 
invention : ' It is due,' he said, ' not to one man, but to the efforts of a 
nation of mechanical engineers.' " — Samuel Smiles. 


NOT only railroad men, but all intelligent readers, will 

be interested in the story of how the modern railway has 

been developed from the old tramways of two 

hundred years ago — a story which is briefly but 

Railway. entertainingly told in the twentieth volume of 

the Britannica, beginning on page 223. 

Other interesting facts relative to the development of 
the railroad maybe learned from the following references : 

George Stephenson, XXII. 537. 

Isambard Kingdom Brunei, IV. 396. 

Development of railroads in the United States, sup. 
2501; XX. 253. 

Latest facts concerning railroads in the United States, 
sup. 2490. 

Railroad pooling, sup. 2497. 

Railroad financiering, sup. 2504. 

Laws relating to railways, XX. 250. 

Law of abandonment, I. 5. 

Use of railways in time of war, XXIV. 349. 
Railways and agriculture, I. 305. 



Railway construction, XX. 232. 

Kails, XX. 241. 

Steel rails, sup. -493. 

resting railway rails, XIII. 354. 

Railway stations, XX. 235. 

Railway bridges, IV. 285. 

.Mountain railways, sup. 21 19. 

Pacific railways, I. 715; sup. 2275, 2492. 

Bicycle railways, sup. 460. 

Street railways, sup. 21 15. 

Electric railways, XXIII. 494, 508. 

Trolley railways in the United States, sup. 2945. 

Tramways, XXIII. 506; early tramroads, XX. 223. 

Cable roads, sup. 644. 

Elevated street railroads, sup. 2500; XX. 240. 

Atmospheric railways, III. 36. 

Switches, XX. 237. 

Switch mechanism, sup. 2839. 

Locking mechanism for railroad switches, sup. 1904. 

Railroad frog, sup. 1345. 

The block system of railroad signals, sup. 500. 


Locomotives, XX. 244; XXII. 520. 
Latest improvements in locomotives, sup. 1905, 
Mogul engines, sup. 2493. 
Mathias W. Baldwin, sup. 325. 
Traction engines, XXII. 522. 
Traction on railroads, XX. 246. 

Electricity as a motor, sup. 2499. (See also references 
in the chapter entitled The Electrician.) 
Application of electricity, XX. 250. 


Electric cars, sup. 695. 

Railroad carriages and cars, XX. 247. 

Latest improvements in passenger cars, sup. 2494. 

George M. Pullman, sup. 2477. 

Freight cars, sup. 2495. 

Railroad speed, sup. 2496. 

Speed recorder, sup. 2764. 

Safety appliances, sup. 2495. 

The Westinghouse brake, XX. 249. 

Railway brakes, XX. 240. 

Standard air brake, sup. 547. 

Snow-plows, sup. 2741. 

American Railway Union, sup. 1005, 18 17. 
John Henry Devereaux, sup. 1036. 
Eugene V. Debs, sup. 1005. 

See, also, the chapters in this volume entitled The In- 
ventor , The Engineer, The Machinist, and The Mechanic. 




" In books warlike affairs are methodized ; the rights of peace pro- 
ceed from books." — Richard de Bury. 


AMONG the many articles in the Britannica which are of 
especial interest to the soldier, perhaps there is none of 
greater practical value than that on War, XX I Y. 
343-366. This is, in short, a comprehensive 
treatise on the effective organization and em- 
ployment of armies in active warfare. To offi- 
cers in the military service its importance will be at once 
apparent. The first section of the article is of an historical 
character, and will appeal to the interest of the non-mili- 
tary reader as well as to that of the soldier. Other sec- 
tions relate to strategy, page 349 ; infantry tactics, page 
354 ; cavalry tactics, page 358 ; and artillery tactics, page 359. 
It concludes with a special chapter on naval strategy and 
tactics, page 363. See Declaration of War, sup. 101 1 ; and 
War Department, sup. 3079. 


The article Army, II. 559-619, is of no less interest. 

The history of the armies of ancient and mediaeval times, 

which occupies the first four pages, is of im- 

The Army, portance to every student. This is followed by 

other historical sections equally valuable — as, 

Modern armies, page 563 ; the British army, page 568. 




After this, the great armies of the world are each described 
in a separate chapter : 

British arm}', II. 572; its present condition, sup. 1450. 

German army, II. 593; " " " 1387. 

French army, II. 600; " " " 1324. 

Austrian army, II. 604; " " " 294. 

Russian army, II. 608; " " " 2592. 

Italian army, II. 612 ; " " " 1719. 

Army of modern Greece, sup. 1458. 

Other European armies, II. 614. 

Army of the United States, II. 619, with a supplemen- 
tary article giving the latest statistics, sup. 238. 

Army regulations, II. 147; sup. 241. 

Arms and armor (an historical article with illustrations), 
II. 553-558. 

History of the sword, XXII. 800. 
Bows and arrows, II. 371. 
Gunnery, XI. 297-315, and sup. 1493. 
Gun-making, XI. 278-296. 

Machine-guns, sup. 148 1. 
Great Improvements in military rifles, sup. 1482. 

Guns. Rapid-firing guns, sup. 1481. 

Small-calibre rifles, sup. 1485. 
Heavy ordnance, sup. 1485. 
Service guns of the United States, sup. 1490. 
The Rodman guns, sup. 2564. 
The Krupp guns, sup. 1808. 
The Maxim guns, sup. 2018. 
Dynamite gun, sup. 1102. 
Gatling gun, sup. 1373. 
Chassepot gun, sup. 759. 
Improvements in gunpowders, sup. 1494. 


Arsenals, sup. 248 ; II. 632. 
Velocity of projectiles, sup. 1493. 
t rreek fire, X I. 159. 
Ammunition, I. 744. 
The range-finder, sup. 2509. 


Roman equitcs, VIII. 509. 
Feudal military service, XIV. 114. 
Knighthood, XIV. no. 
Gentlemen-at-arms, sup. 1379. 
Gendarmerie, X. 142. 

' Condottiere, VI. 256. 
Military Chasseurs, sup. 759. 

Companies. Cuirassiers, sup. 962. 
Militia, sup. 2064. 
The signal service, sup. 2715. 
Coast-guard, sup. 847, 2510. 
The Black watch, sup. 487. 
Aldershot Camp, I. 474. 

Enlistment, VIII. 446. 
Military costumes, VI. 477. 

Barracks, III. 390. 
Military Desertion, sup. 1034. 

Law, etc. Military law, XVI. 295. 

Martial law, sup. 2002. 
Military academy of the United States, sup. 20 
Military colleges and schools, sup. 2063. 
Legion of Honor, XIV. 417. 
Grand Army of the Republic, sup. 1438. 
Pensions, sup. 2344. 
Soldiers' Homes, sup. 2742. 



Militia, XVI. 299. 
Infantry, II. 580. 
Cavalry, V. 261. 

Artillery, II. 655; American artillery, sup. 255. 
Battery, III. 443. 

Battle, III. 443-445- 

Bombardment, sup. 514. 
Battle. l D 

Escalade, sup. 12 15. 

Fortification, IX. 421-468. 

Blockhouse, sup. 500. 

Pontoon, XIX. 456. 

Ambulance, I. 665. 

Forage, sup. 1304. 

Armistice, II. 552. 

Blockade, Law of, sup. 499. 


Trojan War (b. C. 1 193), XX. 637. 
Peloponnesian War, XI. 102 ; XVIII. 533. 
Persian War (B.C. 490), VI. 825, 827. 
Wars of Alexander (b. c. 336-332), I. 480. 
The Punic Wars (b. c. 264-149), V. 161. 
War between Caesar and Pompey (b. c. 48), IV. 6^S. 
Mohammed's Wars (a. d. 623-629), XVI. 546. 
Charlemagne's War (a. d. 775-800), V. 402 ; XIII. 468 ; 
XXI. 351. 

Danish Invasions of England (835-905), I. 506. 

Wars of Jenghis Khan, thirteenth century, XVI. 565. 

The Crusades, 1 190-1250, VI. 622. 

The Hundred Years' War, IX. 545. 

King Edward's War with Scotland, XX. 592. 

War of the Roses (1455-1471), VIII. 327-329. 

The Spanish War (Spanish Armada) 1588, II. 543. 


The Thirty Wars' War (1618-1648), IX. 568. 

Wars of Cromwell (1642 1057), VI. 597. 
The English Revolution of 1688, VIII. 351. 

War of the Spanish Succession (1704-1708), III. 126. 

The Sects' Rebellion (1745-1746), V. 426. 

Seven Wars' War (1756-1763), III. 127. 

American Revolution (1775-1783), VIII. 357; XXIII. 

French Revolution (1 792-1 798), IX. 596. 

Wars of Napoleon (1798-1815), XVII. 192. 

War of 1812 (1812-1815), XXIII. 757. 

Greek War for Independence, XL 102. 

Black Hawk War (1832), XXIII. 763. 

Seminole War (1835-1842), XXIII. 759. 

The Irish Rebellion (1798), III. 271. 

Mexican War (1846- 1848), XXIII. 766. 

Russo-Turkish war (1 853—185 5), IX. 623. 
. Indian Mutiny (1857-1859), II. 591. 

Italian War (1859), XIII. 490. 

American Civil War (1861-1865), XXIII. 772-784. 

Prussia's War against Denmark, X. 502. 

Austro-Prussian War (1866), X. 503. 

Franco-German War (1870), X. 512. 

Italian War for Unification, XIII. 466. 

Chilian War (1891), sup. 789. 

Corean War (1895), sup. 917. 

The Armenian Massacres of 1896, sup. 2961. 


Marathon (b. C. 490), XL 99. 
Thermopylae (b. C. 480), XL 100. 
Salamis (b. c. 480), XXI. 205 ; XL 100. 
Cunaxa (b. c. 401), VI. 753. 
Arbela (b. c. 331), I. 482. 


Caudine Forks (b. C. 321), XX. 742. 
Drepanum (b. c. 249), XXIII. 522. 

Philippi (B. c. 42), XVIII. 746. 

Great Actium (B. C 3 1.), I. 4*8. 

Battles. Siege of Jerusalem (a. d. 70), XIII. 428. 

Adrianople (a. D. 378), XXIV. 36. 
Chalons-sur-Marne (a. d. 451), V. 378. 
Soissons (a. d. 486), IX. 528. 
Tours (732), V. 428. 
Roncesvalles (778), XX. 626. 
Dunsinane (1054), XVIII. 667. 
Hastings (1066), VIII. 291 ; XXII. 725. 
Evesham (1265), XVI. 788. 
Bannockburn (13 14), VII. 683. 
Cressy (1346), VII. 686. 
Poitiers (1356), VII. 686. 
Sempach (1386), XV. 40; XXII. 784. 
Otterburn (1388), XXI. 490. 
Agincourt (141 5), I. 282. 
Flodden Field (15 15), XIII. 557. 
Ivry (1590), IX. 564. 
Naseby (1645), VI. 599. 
Worcester (165 1), VI. 601. 
Boyne (1690), XIII. 268. 
Blenheim (1704), III. 126. 
Pultowa (1709), V. 421. 
Culloden (1746), VI. 696. 
Quebec (1759), IX. 590; XXIV. 630. 
Lexington (1775), XXIII. 740. 
Bunker Hill (1775), XXIII. 740. 
Saratoga (1777), XXIII. 744. 
Yorktown (1781), VI. 428 ; XXIII. 745. 
Hohenlinden (1800), III. 132. 
Austerlitz (1805), III. 132,444. 


Jena (1806), XVII. 210. 

Waterloo (1815), III. 442. 

Vera Cruz (1847), XXIV. 162. 

Balaklava (1855), VI. 587. 

Siege of Lucknow (1857), XII. 810. 

Solferino (1859), HI- ! 39: IX. 524. 

Bull Run (l86l), XXIII. 775, 777 \ sup. 617. 

Vicksburg (1863), XXIII. 778, 780. 

Gettysburg (1863), III. 444; sup. 1390. 

Sadowa (1866), XIV. 138. 

Gravelotte (1870), sup. 1447. 

Sedan (1870), IX. 627. 


Antietam (Sept. 16-17, 1862), sup. 197. 

Ball's Bluff (1861), XXIII. 776. 

Bull Run (July 21, 1861, and Aug. 29, 1862), sup. 617. 

Chancellorsville (May 2-3, 1863), XXIII. 780. 

Chickamauga (Sept. 18-20, 1863), sup. 785. 

Chattanooga (Nov. 23-25, 1863), sup. 761. 

Corinth (Oct. 4, 1862), XXIII. 779. 

Fort Donelson (Feb. 13-16, 1862), sup. 1065. 

Fair Oaks (May 31, 1862), sup. 1239. 

Five Forks (April 1, 1865), sup. 1284. 

Franklin (Nov. 30. 1864), sup. 1329. 

Fredericksburg (Dec. 13, 1862), sup. 1334. 

Gaines Mill (June 27. 1862), sup. 1357. 

Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), sup. 1390. 

Malvern Hill (July 1, 1862). sup. 1977. 

Pittsburg Landing (April 6-7, 1862), sup. 2397. 

Spottsylvania Court House (May 7-12, 1864), sup. 2770. 

Siege of Vicksburg, (May 22-July 4, 1863), sup. 3040. 

Surrender of Vicksburg (July 4, 1863), XXIII. 780. 

The Wilderness Campaign (1864), sup. 31 51. 



Spanish Armada (1588), II. 543. 

Battle of the Nile (1798), VIII. 363. 

Battle of Trafalgar (1805), VI. 146; XVII. 343. 

Monitor and Merrimac (1862), XXIII. jjj. 


Cyrus the Great, VI. 752. 

Alexander the Great, I. 480. 

Hannibal, XI. 441. 

Scipio Africanus, XXI. 467. 

Julius Caesar, IV. 632. 

Charlemagne, V. 402. 

William the Conqueror, XXIV. 574. 

Robert Bruce, XX. 592. 

The Black Prince, VII. 686. 

Earl Warwick, XXIV. 381. 

Oliver Cromwell, VI. 597. 

Gustavus Adolphus, XI. 333. 

Peter the Great, XVIII. 698. 

Frederick the Great, IX. 735. 

Marlborough, XV. 553. 

General Washington, XXIV. 387. 

Napoleon Bonaparte (see Index volume). 

The Duke of Wellington, XXIV. 493. 

Ulysses S. Grant, sup. 1442. 

Robert E. Lee, XIV. 399. 

Count von Moltke, sup. 2088. 

" Chinese Gordon," sup. 1425. 

Lord Roberts, of Kandahar, sup. 2558. 

Lord Wolseley, sup. 3180. 

"Stonewall" Jackson, XIII. 534. 

William T. Sherman, sup. 2705. 




" The worth of a State in the long run is the worth of the individuals 
composing it." — John Stuart Mill. 

It is proposed in this chapter to indicate a few of the 
leading articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica which re- 
late to the science of government, and which arc therefore 
of especial interest and value to every citizen who has a 
voice in the conduct of public affairs, no less than to stu- 
dents, professional politicians, and statesmen. 

Let us take as the basis of our studies the Constitution 
of the United States, the full text of which is given in the 
American Supplements, page 900. Read next the article 
Constitution and Constitutional Law, VI. 309, from 
which you may derive some idea of the English Constitu- 
tion and of the points wherein it differs from our own. 
Then the following courses of reading may be taken up, 
either independently or in the order in which they are 
here mentioned : 


GOVERNMENT, XI. 9-21. This is a thoughtful and in- 
teresting article (1) on the forms of government, (2) on 
the sphere of government. Under the first di- 

orms o v i s i on i s an account of the three standard forms 
Govern- ... 

ment °* g° vernm ent, the monarchy, the aristocracy, 

and the republic. Then follow chapters on : 

The government of Rome, page it. 


Feudalism, page II. 
Parliamentary government, page 12. 
Cabinet government, page 13. 

The relation between government and laws, page 14. 
Under the second division the following topics are dis- 
cussed : 

Judicature, page 15. 

State and Church, page 16. 
Sphere of The laissez-faire theory, page 17. 
Government. Education and labor, page 18. 
Federal government, page 20. 
Among the numerous shorter articles on special divi- 
sions of the subject, the following deserve careful reading : 
Patriarchal government, XVIII. 410. 

Monarchy, XI. 11; monarchy in ancient 

Monarchy. Rome, XX. 732. 

Emperor, VIII. 179; empire, VIII. 181. 

House of Lords, VIII. 259. 

House of Commons, VIII. 260. 

Titles of honor, XXIII. 417. 

Coronation, VI. 429. 

Parliament, XVIII. 302; powers and privileges of par- 
liament, page 310. 

Parliamentary procedure, XVIII. 311. 

Act of Parliament, I. 122. 

British Cabinet, IV. 619. 

Budget, IV. 439. 

Aristocracy. — Nobility, XVII. 524. 

The government of Venice, page 527. 
Aristocracy, The nobility of England, page 529. 
etc. The Polish aristocracy, page 530. 

Peerage, XVIII. 458. 

Republic, XI. 1 1. 

Ancient Roman republic, XX. 735. 

i UK AMI kh \\ CITIZEN. 283 

French republic, IX. 597. 

The republic and socialism, XXI. 221. 

Socialism, XXI I. 205. 
.Anarchism, sup. 175. 


1 . Foundation Principles : 

Declaration of Independence (full text), sup. 1010. 
Articles of Confederation (full text), sup. 252. 
Constitution of the United States (full text), sup. 900. 

2. Political Parties: 
Federalist Party, sup. 1253. 
Anti-Federal Party, sup. 198. 
Democratic Party, sup. 1023 ; XXIII. 755. 
Whig Party, sup. 3137. 

Free-Soil Part)', sup. 1338. 

Anti-Masonic Party, sup. 198. 
Political Native American and Know-Nothing Part)-, 

Parties. sup. 1 65. 

Republican Party, XXIII. 757; sup. 2535. 
Greenback Party, sup. 1461, 181S. 
People's Party, sup. 2345. 
Labor parties, sup. 181 7. 
Socialistic Labor Party, sup. 18 19. 
Mugwumps, sup. 2123. 
Prohibition Party, sup. 2453. 

3. Departments of Government. 

(1). Executive Department, sup. 1228. 
Presidential Elections, sup. 2987. 
Powers of the President, XXIII. 750. 
Department of State, sup. 2779. 
Treasury Department, sup. 2937. 


War Department, sup. 3079. 

Department of the Interior, sup. 1686. 
The Department of Justice, sup. 1843. 

President. Veto, XXIV. 206 ; XXIII. 749. 
Casting vote, sup. 720. 
List of Presidents, XXIII. 787. 

(2). Legislative Department — Congress of the 
Congress. United States, sup. 891. 

History of Congress, sup. 2984. 
Senate and House of Representatives, XXIII. 749. 
The franking privilege, sup. 1328. 

(3). Judicial Department — Supreme Court of 
Supreme the United States, II. 210 ; XIII. 789; sup. 2824. 
Court. See the chapter in this Guide entitled The 


4. Citizenship. 

Citizenship in the United States, sup. 808. 

Immigration into the United States, sup. 1657. 

Naturalization, sup. 2140. 

Allegiance, I. 580. 

Qualifications of voters in the different States, sup. 1131. 

Electors, sup. 1 132. 

Ballot III. 288; Australian ballot system, 

sup. 329. 

Voting-machine, sup. 3062. 

Elections, VIII. 2; election laws in the States, sup. 
1 1 3 1 ; primary elections, sup. 2444. 

State governments, XXII. 458. 

Local governments — the borough, IV. 62 • the town, 
XXIII. 731. 

Civil rights, sup. 81 1. 

Disfranchisement, sup. 1053. 

See especially Civics, sup. 809. 


5. Relations with other Governments. 
Treaties, XXIII. 530. 
Alliance, I. 585. 
Ambassadors, I. 657; sup. 149. 
Ministers, XVI. 472. 
Consuls, V. 315. 
Diplomacy, VII. 251. 
Diplomatic agents, sup. 105 1. 

6. Miscellaneous Topics: 
Archons (Greek), II. 476. 
Exarchs, VIII. 783. 
Ephori, VIII. 469. 
yEdiles (Roman), I. 180. 
Quaestors, XX. 145. 
Comitia, VI. 194. 
Althing, sup. 144. 

Amnesty, I. 746. 

Reconstruction, sup. 2518. 

Finances of the United States, sup. 1267; national 
debts, XII. 889; debt of the United States, sup. 1005; 
debts of various countries, sup 1007. 

See The Banker and Financier, in this Guide. 

Indian affairs of the United States, XII. 822-833; sup. 

7. Important Passages in the Political History of the 
United States : 
Declaration of Independence, XIII. 614. 
Alien and Sedition laws, sup. 126. 
Whisky rebellion, sup. 3138. 
Monroe Doctrine, sup. 2091. 
Dorr's Rebellion, sup. 1068. 
Missouri Compromise, XXIII. 761, 772. 


Annexation of Texas, XXIII. 202. 

Mexican war, XXIII. 767. 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill, XXIII. 770. 

Slavery in the United States, XXII. 141. 

John Brown's raid, IV. 385 ; XI. 490; XXIII. 772. 

Civil War, XIV. 659. 

Draft riots of 1863, sup. 1075. 

Reconstruction, sup. 2518, XXIII. 784-787. 

Credit-Mobilier scandal, sup. 939. 

Clayton-Bulwer treaty (relating to ship canals), sup. 825. 

Chinese Exclusion Act, sup. 792, 2994. 

Behring Sea Question, sup. 428, 2994. 

The "Crime of 1873," sup. 942. 

Electoral Commission of 1877, XXIII. 787; sup. 1132. 

The " Force Bill" (Federal Elections bill), sup. 1307. 

The Fisheries Question, IX. 268, 269; sup. 1280. 

Position regarding Hawaiian independence, sup. 1549. 

The Venezuelan Question, sup. 2999. 

The National Election in 1896, sup. 3000. 


Aristides (B.C.), II. 504. 
Pericles (B.C.), XVIII. 529. 

Cato (B. C. 95), V. 240. 
Patriots Robert the Bruce (14th century), XX. 592. 

Statesmen. Oliver Cromwell (1 7th century), VI. 597. 
Andreas Hofer (18th century), XII. 44. 
George Washington (18th century), XXIV. 387. 
Simon Bolivar, IV. 7. 
Giuseppe Garibaldi, XIII. 487. 

Sir Thomas More, XVI. 815. 
John Hampden, XI. 428. 
Algernon Sidney, XVII. 33. 


Lord Bolingbroke, IV. 4. 

Lord Chatham, V. 440. 

Edmund Burke, XVIII. 538. 

George Canning, IV. 809. 

William Pitt, XIX. 134. 

Sir Robert Peel, XVIII. 452. 

Lord Palmerston, XVIII. 193. 

Benjamin Disraeli (Earl Beaconsfield), sup. 388. 

William E. Gladstone, sup. 1404. 

Mirabeau, XVI. 492. 

Due de Broglie, IV. 359. 

Gambetta, XVIII. 735. 

Prince, Bismarck, XXV. 478. 

Samuel Adams, I. 143. 

Thomas Jefferson, XIII. 613. 

De W T itt Clinton, VI. 75. 

Albert Gallatin, X. 38. 

Andrew Jackson, XIII. 533. 

Thomas H. Benton, sup. 423. 

Daniel Webster, XXVI. 471. 

William Llyod Garrison, X. 85. 

Charles Sumner, XXII. 643. 

Jefferson Davis, sup. 996. 

Abraham Lincoln, XIV. 658. 

Charles Francis Adams, sup. 43. 

James G. Blaine, sup. 489. 

See, also, the chapters in this Guide entitled, respect- 
ively, The Public Speaker, The Lawyer, and The Political 




" I have done the State some service, and they know it." — Othello. 

THE first practical steps toward what is designated as 
Civil Service Reform were taken by the United States 
Congress in 1853, when it passed an act providing for 

competitive examinations as the basis of ap- 

Historyof pointment to any place in the four great classes 

Service °^ clerkships in Washington. Little further 

progress was made towards freeing the execu- 
tive department of government from the abuse of offi- 
cial patronage until the year 1872, when President Grant 
appointed a commission to devise rules and regulations 
for " admission to and continuance in the civil service of 
the United States." But the proposed reform met with 
much opposition from parties who were interested in the 
continuance of the "spoils" system, and it was still several 
years before any practical application of such rules and 
regulations could be made. During the administration 
of President Hayes, in 1879, the system of competitive 
examinations was made applicable to a few of the largest 
post- offices, including the post -office in New York. 
Through the persistent efforts of the opponents of official 
corruption, an act of Congress was passed in 1883 pro- 
viding for the appointment of three Civil Service Com- 
missioners, who should aid the President in prescribing 
rules for admission, by examination, into certain branches 


oi the civil service. This act further empowered the 
President to revise or m >dify the rules from time to time, 
thus enabling him to extend the system of competitive 
examinations as rapidly as in his judgment would conduce 
to the public welfare. (See sup. 2994.) 

On the 9th of May, 1S96, the President extended the 
provisions of the civil-service law to 30,000 additional 
Government employees, thus increasing the number of 
positions on the classified lists to 85,135. 

So many governmental positions being now obtainable, 

not by personal favor or the influence of friends, but by 

absolute proofs of ability to fill them, it has 

Examina- become the laudable ambition of thousands of 

tions. young men and young women to pass the civil- 
service examinations, and thus place their 
names upon the lists of available candidates. Changes in 
the service are constantly taking place ; vacancies in all 
departments are of frequent occurrence. About six 
thousand new appointments to the service of the Govern- 
ment are made every year. As a rule, the candidate 
whose grade in examination is the highest is the first to 
be appointed. 

It is evident that to pass one of these competitive ex- 
aminations even creditably, the candidate must make 
some preparation : he must know what are the subjects 
he will be examined upon, and he must study these sub- 
jects with special care. Now it is a fact well worth 
noticing that there is no other single book in 

e . " „ ri " the world that contains so much information 

Helner on a ^ subjects as the Encyclopcedia Britannica ; 

and it is the purpose of the present chapter to 

show how the candidate for any branch of the civil service 

may utilize its information so as to obtain therefrom much 

practical knowledge in preparing for the examinations. 

T 9 



All persons who assist in the conducting of the govern- 
ment of the United States may be said to be in the 
service of the nation. There are three gen- 
Executive era j b ranc h es or departments of government : 

m ^ nt The Legislative Department, sup. 891. 

The Judicial Department, sup. 2824. 

The Executive Department sup. 1228. 

Read the Constitution of the United States, sup. 900. 

Civil service, as generally understood, has reference 
only to service in the executive department of the Govern- 
ment. In this department there are also two other 
branches of service : 

The military service. (See The Soldier, in this Guide.) 

The naval service. (See The Seaman, in this GUIDE.) 

By an Executive order issued by the President, No- 
vember 2, 1896, the employees of the Navy Yard are 
practically included within the classified service. In the 
War Department, also, about 10,000 employees are now 
subject to the civil service regulations. Half of this num- 
ber are employed under the Chief of Engineers in the 
improvement of rivers, harbors, and fortifications. (See 
The Engineer, in this GUIDE.) 

Members and employees of Congress, ministers, most 
of the foreign consuls, collectors of revenue, postmasters, 
and many others, including more than 100,000 
persons, belong to the unclassified service, and 
are exempt from the civil-service regulations. 
It is of those only who are engaged in the 
classified service that we shall speak in this chapter. 

The classified service, for which examinations are held, 
is divided into five distinct branches: 

(1) The Departmental Service, which includes officers 


and employees (except laborers and persons who have 

been nominated for confirmation) in the several 

Divisions ex ecutive departments of the District of Co- 

of the , , . /TT - -,, N , ., .. 

Service lumbia (\ I. [68; sup. 1054), the railway mail 

service (sup. 2490), the Indian service (sup. 
1667), the pension agencies (sup. 2344), the steamboat in- 
spection service (sup. 2781), the lighthouse service (sup. 
[885), the life-saving service (sup. 1882), the mints and 
assay-offices (II. 724; XVI. 480), the revenue-cutter ser- 
vice, the sub-treasuries of the United States (sup. 2937"), 
the engineer departments, and all officers and employees 
of the executive department outside of the District of 
Columbia who are employed as clerks, physicians, nurses, 
draftsmen, engineers, watchmen, messengers, or firemen, 
or who are in the service of the Supervising Architect's 
Office, or in the service of the Treasury Department (sup. 


(2) The Custom-house service, which includes all offi- 
cers and employees in any customs district whose em- 
ployees number as many as five (VI. 729). 

(3) The Post-office service, which includes all officers 
and employees in any free delivery post-office. 

(4) The Government Printing service, and 

(5) The Internal Revenue service, which includes all 
officers and employees engaged in these branches of ser- 
vice, except such as have been declared not subject to the 
civil-service rules. 

To test an applicant's fitness for a position in any of the 
five branches of service named above, examinations are 
held under the direction of the commission. 
Examina- The examination papers are rated on a scale of 
tion Papers, ioo, and 70 marks or over are considered as 
establishing the candidate's eligibility for ap- 
pointment. But, as already observed, those who receive the 


first appointments are those who stand the highest in the 


There are many positions in this service, the most impor- 
tant of which are the following : Clerk-copyist, messenger, 
watchman, typewriter, stenographer, printer's assistant, 
proof-reader, telegraph operator, special pension examiner, 
state department clerk, bookkeeper, weather observer, 
draftsman, meat inspector, fish culturist, tagger, stock- 
examiner, engineer and machinist, railway mail clerk, and 
teachers, physicians, nurses, and others employed in the 
Indian service. 

What is the character of the examinations for eligibility 
to these positions ? 

How can the Encyclopaedia Britannica aid candidates 
who are preparing for these examinations? 

The clerk-copyist is examined in orthography, penman- 
ship, copying, letter-writing, and arithmetic. 

The examination in orthography includes the writing 

of twenty or more difficult words from dictation by the 

examiner. The mark on penmanship is determined by 

legibility, rapidity, neatness, and general appearance, and 

by correctness and uniformity in the formation 

Clerk- of words, letters, and punctuation marks. In 

Copyist. copying, the candidate is required to make a fair 

copy of a rough-draft manuscript, punctuating 

and capitalizing properly, and writing in full all abbreviated 

words. (See the references to punctuation and capitalization 

in the chapter entitled The Writer, in this Guide; see also 

the lists of abbreviations in the Britannica, I. 26, and sup. 

16.) The letter-writing is intended to test the candidate's 

skill in simple English composition (see The Writer, in this 

Guide). In marking the letter, its errors in form and ad- 


dress (sup. 46), in spelling, and in punctuation arc consid- 
ered. The Utter must relate to some subject given by 
the examiners, as for example, "The advantages of a 
common -school education." (Sec The Teacher, in this 

GUIDE.) The examination in arithmetic consists of prob- 
lems involving the fundamental principles of the science. 
(See references ^\\ page I 3 I of this GUIDE.) 

Nearly all other competitors for employment in the de- 
partmental service are examined in the branches 
named above. Several, such as the typewriter, 

Typewriter. 1111 

the stenographer, and the telegraph operator, 
are required to exhibit practical tests of their 
skill. (See The Stenographer and Typewriter, in this 

The pension examiner is examined not only in the five 
subjects mentioned, but in law and pension law. 

Sample Questions in Laic. What is the difference be- 
tween primary and secondary evidence? (See VIII. 173.) 
What is marriage, and what are impediments to lawful 
marriage? (See XV. 565 ; XII. 400.) 

What is divorce? (See VII. 300-305.) 
Pension (For much information relative to pension 

Examiner. law, see Sup. 2344.) 

The State Department clerk is examined in 
geography, history, international law, government. The 
following are sample questions : 

Between what parallels and meridians does the United 
States extend? (See map, XXIII. 790; Paral- 
lels, XVIII. 254; Meridians, X. 198.) 

What are the boundaries of France (IX. 504), 
of Germany (X. 448), of Ohio (XVII. 736), of 
Vermont (XVII. 392)? 

(Study the references in the Readings in Geography, in 
this Guide. 


What circumstances led to the war with Mexico ? 
(XXIII. 767.) 

Mention the leading facts in the life of Frank- 
lin. (IX. 711.) 
History. . . ... . . 

JName the political parties in the national 

election of i860. (XXIII. 774 ct seq.) 
(Study the Readings in History, Course I., in this Gu 1 DE : 
also The American Citizen?) 

What is international law? (XIII. 190; XXII. 471.) 

Give some account of the origin and mean- 
Intema- m g °f the " Monroe doctrine." (XIII. 192; 
tional Law. XVI. 761 ; XXIII. 762; sup. 209I.) 

What are the rules regulating sovereignty 
over the high seas? (XXIII. 195 ; XXI. 583.) 

What are the functions and powers of the Secretary of 

State? (XXIII. 750.) 
Govern- To what extent are the various States of the 
mem. Union sovereign powers? (XXXIII. 741,746, 

750, 756, 763, 774.) 
What constitutes a treaty? (XXIII. 530.) 
(Study the references given in the chapter entitled The 
American Citizen, in this Guide.) 

The observer in the weather bureau is examined in 
meteorology and physics, as well as in the five general 
branches previously mentioned. Some of the questions 
are similar to the following : 

Explain how a barometer may be used in determining 
the height of a mountain. (III. 381 ; XIX. 241.) 

How are the freezing and boiling points of a thermome- 
ter determined ? (XXIII. 288 ; XI. 563.) 

What is relative humidity, and how is it ob- 
Meteorology. ta . ncd? (m ^ . ^ ^ } 

(See Atmosphere, III. 28, 381 ; X. 211, 220; 
Meteorology, XVI. 114; Winds, XVI. 143; Temperature 


(Hcat». XI. 555 ; Climate, VI. 1 ; Frost, X. 265, 280; Ram. 
XVI. [28; Snow, XVI. 154; Corona, VI. 428; and es- 
pecially the Readings in Meteorology, in this GUIDE.) 

What is meant by the density of a body, and 
what substance is taken as the standard of 
comparison? (XV. 698; VII. 241.) 

State three laws of falling bodies. (XI. 68.) 
(See Readings in Physics, in this Guide.) 
The topographic draftsman is examined specially in 
geography, scale drawing, and geographic projections. 
The scale drawing consists of compiling, on an enlarged 
scale, a chart, a copy of which is furnished at 
the time of examination. (See Cartography, 
XV. 515 ; X. 191 ; Topographic Maps, XV. 
522; Drawing, VII. 446; XV. 628.) Geo- 
graphic projections relate to the theory of polyconic and 
Mercator projections, and to instruments and appliances 
necessary to construct polyconic projections. (See X. 
208, 209.) 

The meat inspector is examined in veterinary anatomy 
and physiology, in veterinary pathology, and in meat in- 
spection. He may be asked many questions similar to 
the following : 

Name and give the situation of the organs which should 
be examined for the detection of tuberculosis in cattle. 
(XXIV. 204.) 

What are the symptoms of milk or parturient 
Meat fever? (XXIV. 204.) 
Inspection. W "hat is pus made up of, and how does it 
appear to the naked eye ? (XXII. 683.) 
What are the characteristics of good, sound flesh meat ? 
(XV. 782.) 

Describe the appearance and give the life history of 
trichinae? (XVII. 325; XXIV. 206.) 


(See, also, Animals, II. 49; Animal Physiology, XIX. 
10; Animal parasitism, XVIII. 258; Beef-measle, XXIII. 
52 ; Poisonous, tainted, or diseased meat, XV. 782 ; Dis- 
eases of Cattle, XVII. 57, etc. Also the chapter entitled 
The Stock Raiser, in this Guide.) 

The fish culturist is examined, in addition to other 
subjects, in geography and fish culture. The questions in 
geography have reference principally to the United 
States, and presuppose an intimate knowledge of the 
lakes, seas, and interways of the western continent. The 
examination in fish culture is intended to test the com- 
petitor's knowledge concerning the geographi- 

F i s h cal distribution of fishes (XII. 668) ; definition 

Culture. and description of varieties (XII. 685); meth- 
ods of reproduction (XX. 409) ; conditions of 
successful fish culture (XIX. 126; XXI. 226); transport 
of fish (IX. 243) ; propagation of different species, etc. 

(See Salmon, XXI. 220, 224, 226; Shad, XXI. 726 ; XII. 
694; XIX. 128; Pike, XIX. 88; Perch, XVIII. 521; 
Trout, XXI. 221, 225, etc. Read the articles on Ang- 
ling, II. 32; on Fisheries, IX. 243 ; on Ichthyology, XII. 
630; on Aquariums, II. 217; etc.) 

The engineer and machinist, besides being examined on 

the five general subjects, is required to answer questions 

in regard to the various parts of an engine (XXII. 473— 

526), and the construction of the boiler (XXII. 

Steam 49^) ; and to exhibit a practical knowledge of 
Engine. packing, repairing and managing engines and 
boilers, (See the chapter entitled The Engi- 
neer, in this Guide.) 

The railway mail-clerk is examined specially in the 
geography of the United States (XXIII. 790); in railway 
and other systems of transportation in the United States, 
and in reading addresses. 


The candidate for this examination will find many arti- 
cles in the Britannica that will be of assistance 1 1 1 

Railway him. See The Railroad Man, in this Gu 1 1 >E ; also 
Mail Clerk. Post-office, XIX. 562. 

International Postal Union, XIX. 584. 

Plan of U. S. postal service, XIX. 578. 

Postal service in the United States, sup. 2425. 

Railways in the United States, sup. 2490. 

His examination in Arithmetic may embrace some such 
questions as this : A railway mail clerk decided to save y^ of 
his salary during one year, but instead, he saved }£, and 
found that during the year he had saved $30 more than 
he had decided to save. What was his salary? 

The Indian Service. The examinations for this service 
are for the most part topical rather than textual. Instead 
of questions, the candidate is given topics upon which to 
write essays or to prepare lessons, and these are intended 
to test his knowledge of the subject, and particularly his 
ability to prepare exercises for teaching. 

The candidate for a position as teacher in the Indian 
schools is examined in penmanship, orthography, peda- 
gogy, arithmetic, geometry, geography, natural history, 
history and government of the United States, drawing, 
American literature, and physiology and hygiene. 

In pedagogy he is required to write an essay 

Indian on some practical pedagogic question, such as : 
Teacher. " The advantages and disadvantages of periodi- 
cal written examinations in the intermediate 
grades of school work." (See The TcacJier, in this GUIDE.) 

In arithmetic, besides solving given problems, he is re- 
quired to write his opinions upon some practical teaching 
point, as : " The proper method of teaching decimal frac- 
tions to children 9 to 12 years of age." (See The Teacher, 
and also references to Arithmetic, in this Guide.) 


In geometry he is required to write an essay of 100 
to 150 words, on some topic assigned. The following 
topic has been used: "The method to be pursued in im- 
parting a knowledge of point, line, surface, and volume, to 
a class of pupils in the intermediate grade." (See Geom- 
etry, page 132, in this Guide.) 

In geography, topics like the following are to be written 
upon: "What plan would you pursue in imparting to 
young pupils a knowledge of the earth's motions and 
the location of the zones of climate?" (See the last of 
the Courses of Reading in Geography, in this GUIDE.) 

In natural history, topics like the following have been 
used : " Your method of imparting to advanced classes a 
knowledge of the habits, characteristics, etc., of the family 
Ovida (sheep)." (See XXI. 784 ; XV. 432. Make use of 
the Readings in Zoology, in this GUIDE.) 

In American history and government, the candidate 
is required to write an essay of 150 to 300 words on some 
such topic as this; "A description of the war of 18 12, 
written in a manner to interest children." (See The Ameri- 
can Citizen, also Readings in History, in this GUIDE.) 

In American literature the following topic has been used : 
"A method of outlining and teaching American litera- 
ture to advanced primary pupils." (See Readings in 
Literature, in this GUIDE.) 

In physiology and hygiene, an essay is required on some 
such topic as this : " The anatomy, physiology, and hygiene 
of respiration, as you would explain them to a class of 
pupils in intermediate grades." (See Anatomy, I. 799- 
908; Physiology, XIX. 8-43; Hygiene, XII. 566, etc. 
Also The Physician, in this GUIDE.) 

The candidate for a position as physician in the Indian 
service is examined specially in anatomy and physiology, 
in chemistry, materia medica, and therapeutics, in gen- 


era! pathology and theory and practice of medicine, in 

surgery, in medical jurisprudence, toxicology, 

inJian and hygiene, and in obstetrics. (Sec The Phy- 

Physician. siciail, \\\ this GUIDE.) 

Sample Question^: Describe the location and 
course of the popliteal artery. (I 904.) 

Give the origins and attachments of the biceps muscle. 

(I. 839.) 

What is iron rust chemically? (XIII. 279.) 

Give the differential diagnosis of rubeola and scarlatina. 
XV. 657; XXI. 576; XVIII. 404.) 

What is dysentery? (VII. 584.) 

How ma)' cicitrization be hastened after a burn in which 
the skin has been destroyed ? (XXII. 680.) 

Give the characteristic features of poisoning by phos- 
phorus. (XIX. 279.) 

The Industrial teacher and farmer in the Indian service 

must pass examination in penmanship, orthography, farm 

economy, keeping accounts, and practical farming. In 

farm economy he must answer five questions on the care 

and use of the more common tools, mechanical 

Indian appliances, etc., connected with farm work. 
Farmer. (See I. 311-328.) In practical farming he must 
answer five questions relative to general farm- 
ing and gardening operations, care of live-stock, etc. 
(See the chapters in this GUIDE entitled, respectively, The 
Farmer, The Gardener, and The Stock Raiser.) 


In the Custom-house service, examinations are held for 
clerks, law clerks, day and night inspectors, inspectresses, 
messengers, weighers, gaugers, examiners, and samplers. 
All are examined in orthography, copying, penmanship, 
and arithmetic. 


The candidate for clerk is examined specially in the Ele- 
ments of the English language (VIII. 390, 
XVIII. 782, 787); in letter -writing (see The 
Writer, in this Guide); in the elements of 
geography (see Readings in Geography, in this 
Guide); and in the history and government of the United 
States (see The American Citizen, in this GUIDE.) 

The candidate for customs law clerk is examined spe- 
cially in the elements of the English language ; in letter- 
writing; and in law questions. (See The Lawyer, in this 

The candidate for inspector or inspectress is examined 
specially in the elements of the English lan- 
guage, and in the geography of America and 
Inspector. „ . _, °, _ .... 

Europe (see Readings in Geography, in this 

The candidate for gauger, examiner or sampler, must 

show his fitness for the position by answering 
Gauger. practical and theoretical questions, and by 

performing practical tests in gauging, etc. 

See Custom-houses, VI. 729. 
Gauging, XVI. 28. 
Commerce, VI. 196, 203. 
Tariff legislation, sup. 2853. 
Imports and Exports, XVII. 247. 


See the follwing articles : 

Post-office, XIX. 578, 579. 

Postal service of the United States, sup. 2425. 

Post-office Department, sup. 2428. 

Free-delivery system, sup. 2426. 

Universal Postal Union, sup. 2427. 

The classified postal service embraces only clerks and 


carriers. To test the fitness of a candidate for this service, 
examinations are provided, which include tin- 
Letter following subjects: Orthography, copying, pen- 

Carriers. manship, arithmetic (fundamental rules, frac- 
tions, and percentage), elements of the geogra- 
phy of the United States, local delivery, reading addresses, 
and physical tests. 

See references relating to above subjects, already given 
for examinations for the departmental service, page 292. 


Candidates for any of the trades positions in this ser- 
vice must show that they have had five years' experience 
at the particular trade for which they desire to be exam- 
ined. The examination embraces the following subjects : 
Orthography, penmanship, letter-writing, arithmetic, prac- 
tical questions. (See remarks on the examination of clerk- 
copyist, page 292 of this Guide.) Under the 
Printers. head of practical questions, the candidate is re- 
quired to perform four exercises : 

(1) Correcting proof — in the same manner as in ordi- 
nary proof in a printing-office (see sup. 2455 ; XXIII. 701). 

(2) a. Writing from incorrect copy, correcting errors in 
syntax and orthography, and properly punctuating and 
capitalizing. This exercise is for book and newspaper 
printers only. (See The Writer in this GUIDE.) 

(2) b. Arrangement of a title-page and a business card. 
The candidate is furnished with the matter, and he is re- 
quired to arrange it properly, indicating the size of type 
in which each line should be printed. (See The Printer, in 
this GUIDE.) This exercise is for job printers only. 

(3) Tabulating, or the proper arrangement of facts and 
figures in a table, with appropriate general heading and 


(4) Abbreviations. Writing out in full ten words for 
which the abbreviations on the sheet stand, and also giv- 
ing the corresponding correct abbreviations for ten other 
words printed on the sheet. See I. 26 ; sup. 16, and 
sup. 23.) 


The classified internal revenue service includes clerks, 
storekeepers, and gaugers employed in the collection of 
internal revenue. To test fitness for admission to this 
service, examinations of a practical character are provided 
on such subjects as the Commission may from time to 
time direct. 

(See National Revenue, IX. 171. Also that part of the 
chapter entitled The Banker and Financier, in this GUIDE, 
which refers to public finances.) 


Civil-service rules, similar to those in force in the exec- 
utive department of the federal government, have been 
adopted in three states — in Massachusetts and 

Illinois by legislative enactment and in New 
State Laws. , T ....... . , . 

York by constitutional amendment. As a gen- 
eral thing, the requirements, the questions, and 
the tests do not differ materially from those prescribed 
for candidates for similar posts of duty in the national 
service. In New York, nearly all the state offices below 
that of deputy and the officials whose relations to the 
head of the department are of a fiduciary character are 
placed on the competitive list. In the other States, the 
rules apply especially to the selection of employees in the 
cities which are included under the provisions of the civil- 
service law, and in a more limited manner to the appoint- 
ment of sub-officials and assistants in the executive dc- 


partment of the Government. In Wisconsin, a legislative 
enactment provides for the application of civil-service 

rules in cities of the first class; but Milwaukee being the 
only city of that description, the law is inoperative rise- 
where. Movements have already been inaugurated (De- 
cember, (896), for the introduction of civil-service bills in 
the legislatures of other States, as Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Minnesota, and Colorado. It is therefore probable 
that, within a few years, civil-service rules will be in force 
quite generally in all the State governments. 


Civil-service rules have been adopted and are now in 

effect in all the cities of New York and Massa- 

uies av- c ] luse tts ; in Chicago and Evanston, Illinois; 

ing Civil . 1 at ^-\ 

Service m Milwaukee, Seattle, and New Orleans ; and 
to a limited extent in Louisville, Kentucky, 
and Portland, Maine. Movements are on foot towards 
the adoption of such rules in many other cities, as St. 
Louis, San Francisco, Denver, Wheeling, and Galveston, 

In New York City, only deputies, private secretaries,' 
and the holders of a few important positions 

are excepted from the application of these 
Nsw York 

rules. Indeed, in a total of nearly 15,000 posi- 
tions, all but about 75 are subject to the regu- 
lations of civil-service laws. 

Of the other cities in which the rules are 
now in force, Chicago and Boston may be se- 
lected as examples. In Chicago the classifica- 
tion includes the following divisions : 

A. Medical service. (See The Physician, in this Guide.) 

B. Civil engineering. (See The Engineer, in this 


C. Clerical service, comprising copyists, recorders, 
bookkeepers, stenographers, pages, messengers, etc. 

D. Police service. (See The Magistrate and Policeman, 
in this Guide.) 

E. Electrical service. (See The Electrician, in this 

F. Fire service. 

G. Mechanical engineers — persons who require a knowl- 
edge of steam engines, boilers, and other machinery. (See 
The Machinist, and Readings in Physics, in this Guide.) 

H. Bridge service. 

I. Inspection service. 

J. Janitor and Elevator service. 

K. Library service. (See The Bookman, in this GUIDE.) 

L. Labor and miscellaneous service. 

In Boston the civil-service list includes nearly the same 
classes of workers. Here, besides (1) the clerical service, 
are (2) all persons doing police duty in prisons, 
reformatories and other public institutions of 
the State and city; '(3) members of the fire de- 
partment ; (4) members of the police depart- 
ment doing permanent duty; (5) engineers and draw- 
tenders ; (6) foremen and sub-foremen of laborers ; (7) in- 
spectors of work ; (8) engineers and janitors employed in 
school buildings ; (9) truant officers, and several others. 

The questions for examination in the various cities re- 
late to about the same branches and are of about the 
same grade of difficulty as those used in examinations for 
the national service. A very few examples will be suf- 

Candidates for health inspector are asked questions on 
contagious diseases (XVIII. 401); on fumigation and puri- 
fication, deodorants and disinfectants (VII. 258; XII. 
569, etc.). 


Candidates for the similar position of medical inspector 

arc supposed to be the possessors of medical 

Examina- diplomas, and to have had sonic experience in 

tions. hospital practice. They may be asked to name 

all the infectious diseases that may become epi- 
demic in certain localities; to describe bacteria (XXI. 
398) ; to state methods for the suppression of tuberculosis 
(XVIII. 405, 855, etc.); to give the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of diphtheria, etc. 

To such candidates, the references named in The Phy- 
sician, in this Guide, will be of no little interest. 

The candidate who aspires to the position of assistant 
engineer is examined, among other things, upon his 
knowledge of the various systems of sewerage (XXI. 711 ; 
IV. 467, etc.); of coffer dams (XXIV. 406); of the con- 
struction of pavements ; of masonry, of piling (IV. 327), of 
waterworks, etc. (See the chapters in this Guide en- 
titled The Engineer and The Builder. 

Applicants for positions in the detective force of district 
police, besides being examined in writing and the elemen- 
tary English branches, are asked questions relative to crime, 
detection of criminals, legal papers, and methods of proced- 
ure in criminal cases. (See the references in the chapter, 
in this GUIDE, entitled The Magistrate and Policeman.) 

Men wishing to be employed as drivers in the fire ser- 
vice or other service of the city, may be examined as to 
their knowledge concerning the proper care of horses, the 
diseases of horses, the shoeing of horses, etc. (See refer- 
ences in the chapter entitled The Stock Raiser.) 

Candidates for positions in the public libraries are ex- 
amined upon their acquaintance with general literature 
and periodical literature, and their general knowledge of 
books. (See in this Guide, Five Courses of Reading in 
Literature, and The Bookman.) 


The limits assigned to this chapter forbid any further 
details concerning the requirements and examinations for 
the numerous positions procured only through competi- 
tive examination in the cities we have mentioned. Enough 
has been said to point out the way whereby the candidate 
for a position in any department of the civil service may 
so utilize the vast store of information in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica as to make it a convenient and useful aid in his 
efforts to prepare himself for the ordeal of examination, 
no matter in what branch or under what division of the 




" This is that noble Science of Politics, which is equally removed from 
the barren theories of utilitarian sophists, and from the petty craft, so 
often mistaken for statesmanship by minds grown narrow in habits of 
intrigue, jobbing, and official etiquette— which, of all sciences is the most 
important to the welfare of nations — which, of all sciences, most tends 
to expand and invigorate the mind — which draws nutriment and orna- 
ment from every part of philosophy and literature, and dispenses in re- 
turn nutriment and ornament to all." ' — Macaulav. 

Political ECONOMY, in its historical aspects, is the 
subject of an important article by J. K. Ingram, 
Political m the nineteenth volume of the Encyclopaedia 
Economy. Britannica. The earliest expressions of thought 
on economic subjects have come down to us 
from the Oriental theocracies, and of these Mr. Ingram 
gives an interesting account in XIX. 348. This is fol- 
lowed by a survey of Greek and Roman notions of eco- 
nomics, with quite a full exposition of Plato's ideal system. 

The economy of the Middle Ages is described at length 
(pages 353-355), with some notice of the origin of trade 
corporations, and their influence upon the industrial forces 
of those early times. The three successive phases of mod- 
ern economics are then treated with great fulness (pages 
352-401). This latter and larger part of Mr. Ingram's 
article may be read by sections, with collateral references 
to other articles, as follows: 

First Modern Phase — Transitional, XIX. 354. 

Second Modern Phase — Mercantile, XIX. 354-358 ; Co- 


pernicus, VI. 346; Sir William Temple, XXIII. 171 ; John 
Locke, XIV. 751. 

Third Modern Phase— Natural Liberty, XIX. 358-401. 

1. Wealth and Currency. Adam Smith, XXII. 169 ; 
his " Wealth of Nations," 364-370. 

Wealth in economics, XXIV. 461. 

Capital, V. 71. 

Money, XVI. 720; depreciation of currency, IX. 178. 

Bullion, IV. 518, 519. 

Exchange, VIII. 784-796. 

Silver, XXII. 69-74. 

Coinage Laws, sup. 857. 

Crime of 1873, sup. 942. 

Finances of the United States, sup. 1267. 

Jeremy Bentham, III. 575. 

Locke on money, XIV. 754; Ricardo on money, XX. 
534. (See references to money in the chapter entitled, 
The Banker and Financier.) 

2. Banks and Banking. (See especially the chapter 
in this GUIDE entitled, The Banker and Financier.) Sav- 
ings-banks, XXI. 327. 

3. Population. Population considered in its statical 
and dynamical aspects, XIX. 513. 

The Malthusian theory, 371 ; Thomas Malthus, XV. 343. 
Immigration into the United States, sup. 1657. 

4. TAXATION. See the special article on taxation, 

XXIII. 85. 

Ricardo, XX. 533. 

Taxation and protection, IX. 755; sup. 2461. 

nn: POLITICAL economist. 309 

Henry ( reorge, sup. 1381. 

1 ncome tax, sup. 1^62. 

[nheritance tax, sup. [681. 

Single tax, sup. 2725. 

(See other references, page 319.) 

5. Pauperism. See Poor-laws, XIX. 462. 
Robert Owen, XVIII. S6. 

English Poor-law Parish, XVIII. 296. 

Poor-law Relief, XIX. 468, 473. 

English Charities, V. 401. 

See The Philanthropist and Reformer, in this Guide.) 

6. LABOR AND Special article on Labor, XIV. 
165 ; special article on Wages, XXIV. 307. 

Lassalle, XIV. 321. 

Industrial Condition of Women, sup. 1677. 

Apprenticeship, I. 213. 

Guilds, XI. 259. 

(See the chapter in this GUIDE entitled, The Laborer?) 

7. COOPERATION. Communism, VI. 211, Socialism, 
XXII. 205 ; Cooperation, V. 338. 

Oneida Community, XVII. 773. 
Amish or Ammonite Community, sup. 169. 
Brook Farm Association for education and agriculture, 
XX. 567. 

The Community at Economy, sup. 11 13. 

Shakers, XXL 736. 

Fourier, IX. 489. 

Saint-Simon, XXI. 197. 

Robert Owen, XVIII. 86. 

Plato's Republic, VI. 212. 

Sociological conceptions of Comte, VI. 235. 


Modern Clubs, VI. 41. 
Poor-laws, sup. 2417. 

8. TARIFF. See the special article, Free Trade and 
Protection, IX. 752. 

Custom duties, VI. 729. 
Protection, sup. 2461. 
Tariff, sup. 2853. 
Warehousing, sup. 3084. 

9. Political Economists. A few famous economists 
not named above : 

John Stuart Mill, XVI. 307. 
J. E. Cairnes, IV. 643. 
Walter Bagehot, XIX. 396. 
Arnold Toynbee, XIX. 397. 
Benjamin Franklin, IX. 711. 
Harriet Martineau, XV. 583. 
Nassau Senior, XXI. 663. 
Edward Atkinson, sup. 280. 
Henry C. Carey, sup. 698. 

For further references, see the chapter entitled, The 
A mcrican Citizen. 




" Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before 
kings." — Proverbs of Solomon. 

In this chapter it is proposed to point out a few of the 
articles in the Britannica which relate to the kindred 
topics, money and banking, with a brief notice of national 


In the earliest ages of the world all business was carried 
on, and all man's needs were satisfied, by trading or barter. 
The man who had wheat and wanted beef had 
The First to find some one who had a cow and was will- 
Money, ing to exchange her for his grain. See VI. 196. 
But this method was so inconvenient that men 
finally began to try to find something that would serve as 
a medium of exchange. Different races, peoples, and 
tribes tried different mediums. 

The Greeks used cattle, VI. 197; 

The Chinese used tea, XVI. 723 ; 

Salt was used in some countries, XVI. 723 ; 

Tobacco was used by the colonists of Virginia, XXIII. 
729, the Indians used wampum, sup. 3078. 

Cowry shells were used in some maritime countries, VI. 
535- 766; 


And in other countries various other articles were used, 

XVI. 723- 

But whatever the article may have been, it was money, 
and was so called. Why? What is money? See XVI. 
720. W 7 hat are the causes which determine the value of 
money? See XVI. 721. 

Why were these ancient forms of money unsatisfactory ? 
Why were metals preferable, and when were they first 
used for money? See XVI. 723. 

Why was iron unsatisfactory ? 

Why were silver and gold finally selected? What are 
the special advantages of these two metals ? See XVI. 

7^3. 724. 

What is coinage? See XVI. 724; sup. 856. 

The science of coins is called Numismatics. See the 

long and very interesting article on this subject, XVII. 

628-661. Here under distinct headings are 

chapters on the history of Greek coins (page 

631) ; of Roman coins (page 652) ; of mediaeval 

and modern coins (page 654) ; and of Oriental 

coins (page 659). See Coins of the United States, sup. 857. 

The substance to be used in coinage being determined 

upon, the next thing was to select a standard 

unit of value. Every country naturally fixed 
Standards. , , . . T _ . . . , 

upon a standard of its own. In England this 

standard is the pound ; in France it is the 

franc. See XVI. 730. In the United States it is the 

dollar. See sup. 856. 

What are the standards of other countries ? And what 
are the principal gold and silver ( coins used in all the 
countries of the world ? See XVI. 732, 733. 

How are coins made? A complete description of the 
processes employed in the making of gold and silver coins 
may be found in the article entitled Mints, XVI. 480-490. 


In this article there is also a concise and very interesting 
history of the methods of coinage among all nations from 
the earliest stages of civilizations to the pres- 
ent time. See United States Mint, sup. 2075. 

Mints. .. . . r . , , . 

Since the coins of a country consist of two 

metals, gold and silver, how shall the ratio of 

one to the other be fixed? 

In other words, of how much more value is a certain 
quantity of gold, by weight, than an equal quantity of 
silver? This brings us to a consideration of the relative 
values of the two metals. Read what is said about the 
conflict of standards, XVI. 735-738, which you will find 
to be a masterly presentation of the whole subject. 

In the United States, the first Congress fixed the ratio 

at 15 to 1 ; that is, it was decided that fifteen pounds of 

silver should be considered worth as much as one pound 

of gold. A complete history of the coinage 

Sixteen to laws of this country since that time, written by 

One. Senator John Sherman, may be found in sup. 

856. Used as money, gold has some advan- 
tages which silver has not, and silver has some advantages 
which gold has not. This matter is carefully discussed in 
XVI. 723. 

The reader of Senator Sherman's article will find that 
the ratio of the two metals did not long remain at 15 to 1. 
Silver becoming more and more plentiful all the time, it 
followed the inevitable law of demand and supply, and be- 
came cheaper and cheaper until finally it took 16 ounces 
of silver to buy one ounce of gold. 

Did the ratio stay at 16 to 1 ? It would have done 
so if silver had not continued to become more and more 
plentiful. This whole question is ably discussed in XVI. 
736-737, and in Senator Sherman's article. See also the 
"Crime of 1873," sup. 942. 


As to the relative increase in the world's annual prod- 
uct of gold and silver, see XVI. 731, 735; XXII. j^. 
Read also the article on Bullion, IV. 518, and the chapter 
on the economic production of the precious metals, XVI. 
728-730. See also the account of the Monetary Confer- 
ence of 1892, sup. 2994. 


In its simplest form, a bank is an institution where 
money may be deposited for safe-keeping. See the his- 
tory of the origin of banking, II. 316, 317. 

But banks usually lend money as well as receive it ; and 
their profits accrue from the excess of the inter- 
est received over that which is paid out. See 
Banks. , ,, 

the following articles : 

Interest, XIII. 188. 

Interest in the United States, sup. 1685. 

How interest is calculated, II. 536. 

Usury, XXIV. 17. 

American law on usury, sup. 1686. 

When money is deposited in a bank on a current or 
drawing account, the customer may draw it out, as he re- 
quires, by means of orders called cheques. Sec Cheques, 
V. 583. 

Bankers also undertake the business of collecting money 

for cheques, for bills, and for other securities, which they 

may have received from their customers. The labor of 

collection is much facilitated by means of bills of exchange. 

See the following articles : 

Exchange, VIII. 784. 

Bills of exchange, III. 673. 
Exchange. _ , , ° ^._ rTT _ 

Rates of exchange, XXIV. 52. 

Interest on bills of exchange, VIII. 791. 

In England, bills of exchange are made payable in 


Ion. In the United States every country banker has 
a correspondent in one of the banks of New York. The 
common centre of exchange, established by the bankers 
of these cities to further facilitate this branch of their busi- 
ness, is called a clearing-house. See the following: 

Clearing-house, III. 328. 
Clearing- London Bank Clearing-house, I. 91. 
house. Clearing-house in New York, etc., sup. 826. 
Clearing-house certificates, sup. 827. 
Modern banking originated with the money-dealers of 
Florence, Italy, as early as the nth century. See IX. 334. 
It was introduced into England by the goldsmiths of 
London, in the 17th century. See Bank of England, III. 

A history of banking in the United States is given in a 
very ably written article in sup. 337. Another article on 
the same subject, giving an account of the rise of state 
banks and their transformation into national banks, is 
found in III. 339-341. Still other interesting historical 
information upon this subject is given in XXIII. j66, 776. 
See also : 

Paper currency in the United States, XXIII. 

United __ c 

Currency. Greenbacks, XXIII. 775. 

Bank-notes, sup. 341. 

Legal tender, sup. 1858. 

Banking system of the United States, III. 203. 

Greenback Party, sup. 1461. 

With the development of commerce and the increase of 
exchange, the business of banking has been variously sub- 
divided. The different classes of bankers are distinguished 
from one another by differences in the rules which they 
observe in the management of their business. Hence 
arise the different classes of banks. 


(i) Banks of deposit, III. 328. The article on bank 

vaults, sup 344, is an interesting description of 

Classes of the latest improved burglar proof vaults. 

Banks. (2) Land-mortgage banks, III. 328. See, also, 

XVI. 848; XXIII. 596. Mortgage on land, 

XIV. 265, 270. 

(3) Credit companies, or credit banks: In Germany, 
VI. 214, 339. Credit Foncier and Credit Mobilier, VI. 


(5) Discount banks, III. 328. See also Brokers, V. 
360; Brokers in America, sup. 581; accommodation pa- 
per, sup. 36. 

(5) Banks of issue — national banks (sup. 338), state 
banks, etc. See bank-notes, sup. 341; United States 
Bank, sup. 3001 ; Banking system of the United States, 
III. 203; Bank-note manufacture, sup. 341. 

(6) Savings-banks, XXI. 327. 
Post-office savings-banks, XIX. 572. 
Savings-banks in the United States, sup. 2636. 
Law of savings-banks, sup. 2637. 

In order that the genuineness of the coins of a govern- 
ment or of its paper currency may be preserved, stringent 
laws have been passed in most countries for the preven- 
tion of counterfeiting ami the punishment of counter- 
feiters. See sup. 928. 

The Influence of the Stock Exchange upon 

Stock the financial stability of the country will be 
Exchange, better understood after reading the article on 
Stock Exchange in XXII. 556. See also Ac- 
count, I. 91 ; bulls and bears, I. 92. 

For accounts of the great financial crises that have 
occurred at various times, sue Banking, III. 319; sup. 
339, 340; and Panics, sup. 2288. 


Some of the most famous bankers of the world deserve 

to be noticed here. A stud)- of the methods 

Famous by which they acquired preeminence and 

Bankers. boundless fortunes may help to a clearer un- 
derstanding of the business principles that are 
at the basis of success in every enterprise. 

The greatest banking and mercantile houses in Europe 
in the 14th century were the Bardi and Peruzzi of Flor- 
ence. See III. 316. 

William Patcrson was the chief projector of the Bank 
of England, XVIII. 359. 

The Rothschilds have long been known as the greatest 
family of bankers in the world, XXI. 3; sup. 2580. 

An American banker, whose name should always be 
mentioned with reverence, because of his great services to 
our country, was Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, XVI. 846. 

Other famous bankers and financiers might be named, 
such as : 

Baroness Burdett-Coutts, sup. 624. 

Lyman J. Gage, sup. 1356. 

Hetty R. Green, sup. 1459. 

Baron Hirsch, the Jewish philanthropist, sup. 1588. 

Sir John Lubbock, sup. 1927. 

In connection with these studies, see also : 

Pawnbroking, sup. 2327. 

Pledge, XIX. 220. 

Broker, V. 360. 

Safe-deposit Companies, sup. 2599. 

Payments, XVIII. 441. 

Legal Tender, sup. 1858. 


In Great Britain, the Bank of England transacts the 
whole business of government. " She acts not only," says 


Adam Smith, " as an ordinary bank, but as a great engine 
of state. She receives and pays the greater part of the 
annuities (see II. 72) which are due to the cred- 
Bank of i tors °f tne Public ; she circulates exchequer 
England. bills (see IX. 182; XI. 386); and she advances 
to the Government the annual amount of the 
land and malt taxes which are frequently not paid till 
some years after." This bank, therefore, occupies a place 
of very great importance in the finance of Great Britain. 

But before going further, let us define finance. By 
the finances of a country we generally understand the 
ways and means by which the expenditures of govern- 
ment, local and national, are met. Under this 
History of head, therefore, all methods of taxation are to 
Finance. be considered. 

The most ancient forms of finance were taxes 
on produce, IX. 171. See 

Taxation in Athens, IX. 172; in Rome, IX. 173. 

English exchequer, VIII. 297; history of, IX. 174. 

Finance a science in England, IX. 180. 

Land taxes in England, IX. 181, 182. 

Taxation of the American Colonies, IX. 185, 186. 

The English Stamp Act, VIII. 357 ; XXIII. 7^7. 

Income tax in Great Britain, IX. 187-189. 

Tariff legislation, sup. 2853. 

The corn laws, IX. 189, VI. 408; their repeal, VI. 84,- 
XVIII. 457. 

Notorious financial schemes : South Sea scheme, IX. 
183 ; John Law's Mississippi scheme, XIV. 367, IX. 584, 
XV. 22 ; schemes of Baron von Goertz, sup. 141 5. 

History of taxation in England, IX. 1 74-191. 

After having read the foregoing articles, we are pre- 
pared for the article on TAXATION, XXIII. 85, where we 


shall find an analysis of the economical theory in accord- 
ance with which taxation is shown to be just and equita- 
ble, or unjust and oppressive. Here, also, are considered 
the various species of taxes: 

Direct taxes, and indirect, XXIII. Sy. 

Taxes on rent, XXI 1 1. 87. 


iaxes on profits, XXIII. 87. 
Taxes on capital, XXIII. 88; see, also, Pitt's 
income tax, IX. 187; income tax in the United States, 
sup. 1662. 

Taxes on wages, XXIII. 89; see Wages, XXIV. 306. 

Tax sales, sup. 2858. 

Taxes on commodities, XXIII. 89. This leads us to a 
consideration of export and import duties. Read, there- 
fore, the article on Free Trade, IX. 752-762 — a masterly 
presentation of the whole question as viewed from a Brit- 
ish standpoint. Then follow with 

Taxation and protection, IX. 755. 

Protection in the United States, XXIII. 754, 761, yj6, 
sup. 2461. 

Warehousing, sup. 3084. 

History of tariff law r s, sup. 2853. 

Finances of the United States, sup. 1267. 

Treasury Department of the United States, sup. 2937. 

The monetary problem, sup. 2997. 

The other side of this subject of public finance relates to 
expenditures and the national debt. A number of valu- 
able articles are presented for consideration : 
National National debt, XVII. 243. 

Debt. Debt of the United States, XXIII. 747 ; sup. 


Receipts and expenditures of the United States, sup. 

Debts of various nations, sup. 1007. 




" I will buy with you, sell with you." — Merchant of Venice. 
"Many times the reading of a book has made the fortune of a man — 
has decided his way of life." — R. IV. Emerson. 

COMMERCE, in its broadest signification, is traffic in 
goods. This traffic may be on a large scale or a small 
scale ; it may be conducted entirely within one's own 
country or it may extend to foreign lands. To the mer- 
chant who is engaged in such traffic, the Encyclopedia 
Britannica affords information which it would be difficult 
for him to obtain from any other source. In the first 
place, there is no commodity in which he deals 
Dry that it does not fully describe. If his specialty 

Goods. is dry goods, he has but to turn to the Britan- 
nica to learn all about silk, XXII. 56; satin, 
XXIV. 464; calico, VI. 488; gingham, X. 604; woolens, 
XXIV. 653; thread, VI. 502; and the hundreds of other 
articles on his shelves. If he is a grocer, he 

may iearn with equal facility all about coffee 

VI. 1 10; tea, XXIII. 97; spices, XIX. 97; su- 
gar, XX. 622 ; and the numberless commodities 
of his trade. And so, no matter what department of mer- 
chandise may be his, he will find that the pages of the 
Britannica are teeming with information for him. It is 
unnecessary for the GUIDE to specify further in this direc- 
tion. Any desired article having reference to the various 
kinds of merchandise may be readily found by consulting 
the Index volume. It is rather with the general features 


of trading or of commerce that we propose to deal in 
this chapter. 

Even' merchant (and thousands of people who are not 
merchants) will be attracted by the very inter- 
History of esting article on COMMERCE in the sixth vol- 
Commerce. umc of the Britannica. 'I nis article is largely 
historical in character, and embraces, among 
other topics, the following : 

Antiquity of commerce, p. 196. 

Free trade in Great Britain, p. 205. 

Tariffs, p. 203. 

Increase of International trade, p. 203. 

Now, as to the antiquity and history of commerce, we 
may learn still more by referring to the chapter on com- 
merce and industry, VIII. 617, and to sections relating to 
trade under the heads of Arabia, Phoenicia, etc. 

For additional information concerning free 

Free trade and tariffs, together with a full discussion 

Trade. of the questions relating to them, see the fol- 
lowing articles : 

Free Trade, IX. 752. 

Customs duties, VI. 729. 

United States tariff legislation, sup. 2461, 2853. 

Economic System of Free Trade, IX. 721 ; Colonial 
System, sup. 868. 

For the history and present status of international 
trade, see the section relating to trade under the head of 
each country. For example ; 

Trade of Algeria, I. 565. 

Trade of Arabia, II. 245. 

Trade of Argentina, II. 495. 

Trade of Austria, III. 121, etc. 

See, also, Imports and Exports, XVII. 247. 


Foreign Commerce of the United States, sup. 2998. 
Reciprocity and retaliation, sup. 2998. 
In any system of commerce the question of transporta- 
tion is an important factor. This is clearly illustrated in 
the chapter relating to defective conditions of 
Transporta- commerce in the ancient world, VI. 198. 

tion. Transportation by means of camels in cara- 

vans (V. 83) is the most ancient method known 
to us. Transportation by boats, along rivers and the 
shores of inland gulfs and seas, dates also from a very 
early period (XXI. 804). See such articles as 

Ancient and mediaeval ships, XXI. 804. 
Modern ships, XXI. 809. 
ipS ' Shipping of the United States, XXIII. 826. 

Whaleback steamers, sup. 3132. 
Notice the references in the chapter entitled, The Sea- 
man, in this Guide. 

Water transportation in modern times has been vastly 

facilitated by artificial water-ways called canals. The Bri- 

tannica contains a variety of chapters relative to 

these highways of trade. 
Canals. _ , , . , . . . 

Canals, a historical and descriptive article, 
IV. 782. 
Ship canals, IV. 787. 

History of canals and canal-construction — a valuable 
article, fully up to date, sup. 677-683. 

The Panama Canal, XVIII. 209; sup. 2286. 

The Nicaragua Canal, XVII. 1136; sup. 2208. 

The Suez Canal, XXII. 620. 

The St. Lawrence Canal, XXI. 179. 

The Erie Canal, sup. 12 13. 

Statistics of canals in the United States, sup. 683. 

Shipping, United States laws, sup. 2707. 

Shipping on the Great Lakes, sup. 2707. 


Commerce on Deep Waterways, sup. 3103. 
But by far the most important method of transporta- 
tion is that by railroads ; and here we must refer the reader 
to the chapter in this GUIDE entitled, The Railroad Man. 
In connection with this same topic of trans- 
portation, there are certain related subjects 


which arc of practical interest to the trader or 
merchant. We mention only a few : 

Carrier, V. 138. 

Common carrier (in the United States) and his liabilities, 
sup. 709 

Charter-party, shipping contract, V. 433. 

Freight and freight-carriers, sup. 1338. 

Grain elevators, sup. 1436. 

Bill of lading, III. 674; sup. 470. 


Other subjects of a more or less practical character are 
constantly claiming the attention of every man of business. 
The Encyclopedia Britannica discusses all of these sub- 
jects in a lucid and comprehensive manner, thus answering 
many difficult questions, and giving much information that 
cannot be found elsewhere. Here are some of the topics: 

Account, I. 91 ; sup. 36. 

Adjustment, I. 154. 

Agent, I. 280. 

Arbitrage, II. 311. 

Average, III. 145. 

Bill of credit, sup. 470. 

Bill of exchange, sup. 470. 

Bill of sale, III. 674. 

Company, VI. 221. 

Contraband, VI. 320. 

Exchange, VIII. 783. 


Excise, VIII. 797. 

Insurance, XIII. 161. (See the chapter in this GUIDE 
entitled, The Insurance Agent.) 
Partnership, sup. 2303. 
Trade-marks, XXIII. 498; sup. 2321. 
Corn trade, VI. 413. 
Cotton trade, VI. 487. 
Silk trade, XXII. 64. 
Chambers of Commerce, sup. 743. 
Commercial Law, sup. 876. 

Commercial Museum of Philadelphia, sup. 876. 
Trusts, sup. 2952; XXIII. 600. 
Business Colleges, sup. 635. 
Mercantile Agency, sup. 2037. 
Mercantile Law, sup. 2038. 
Laws affecting merchant seamen, XXI. 650. 
Trade-unions, XXIII. 499. 

History of money, VI. 196; cowry shells 

Money. used for money, VI. 535. (See the chapter in 

this Guide entitled, The Banker and Financier.) 


The following subjects are also of more than passing 
interest to persons engaged in mercantile pursuits : 
Merchants of the Steelyard, London, XXII. 528. 
The Company of Merchant adventurers, XXL 826. 
South Sea Company, VI. 221. 
John Law and the Mississippi scheme, IX. 584; XIV. 


Hudson's Bay Company, XII. 333. 

East India Company, II. 701 ; sup. 1107; X. 185,186. 

Dutch East India Company, X. 186. 

For reading in leisure hours, there are few subjects 
more interesting than the lives of famous men who have 


achieved success in their respective callings. There have 
been man\- great merchants whose biographies are well 
worth perusal. Read the accounts given in the 
Leisure Britannic a, of 

Reading. Sir Richard W'hittington, "thrice lord mayor 

of London,' - XXIV. 555. 
Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange, 
XI. 186. 

John Jacob Astor, the great fur merchant of America, 

II 737- 

Stephen Girard, the merchant philanthropist of Phila- 
delphia, X. 621. 

Robert Morris, the American patriot, XVI. 846. 

George Peabody, merchant and philanthropist, XVIII. 




" He commands us to provide and give great gifts." — Timoii of 

INSURANCE is the term applied to any organized method 

of providing against pecuniary losses from fire, shipwreck, 

accidents to the person, or premature death. 

Insurance is usually conducted by a company 
Definition. ... . , . , 

or corporation having ample means, which guar- 
antees the insured, under certain conditions and 
to a specified extent, against loss from one or the other 
of these contingencies. The business of insurance is very 
extensive, employing a vast amount of capital and engag- 
ing the services of great numbers of men in every civilized 
country in the world. It is evident that to be a success- 
ful manager, or agent in any capacity, for an insurance 
company, a person must not only possess a fair business 
education, but he must know a good deal about the his- 
tory, the objects, and the internal methods and economy 
of the special business in which he proposes to engage. 
No other single publication in the world contains more 
well-digested information on these subjects than is to be 
found in the Encyclopedia Britannica. 

A general history of insurance in its different branches 
is contained in the article INSURANCE, XIII. 161-187. 

Other topics with which every manager or agent will 
wish to make himself acquainted, are as follows : 

Company, VI. 221 ; XVIII. 330. 


( Corporation, VI. 432. 

Corporations in the United States, XXIII. 785. 

Contracts, VI. 322; XXI. 305. 
General Partnership contracts, XVIII. 330. 


Interest. XIII. 188; calculation of, II. 536. 
Premium, XIII. [62. 
Commission, II. 536. 
Warranty, XXIV. 373. 
Assignment, II. 729. 

Fire Insurance, XIII. 161-168. 

Fire Insurance in the United States, sup. 1276. 

Fire Insurance in Great Britain, XIII. 164. 
Fire. T 

Insurance companies in Canada, XIII. 168. 

National Board of Underwriters in the United 

States, XIII. 168. 

Marine Insurance, XIII. 184-187. 

History of marine insurance, III. 145. 

Marine Insurance in the United States, sup. IQQS- 
Marine. A . . . l ** J 

Average in maritime commerce, III. 145. 

Average in marine insurance, XIII. 187. 

Lloyd's marine insurance, XIV. 741. 

Life Insurance, XIII. 168-1S4. 

Life Insurance in the United States, sup. 1879. 
Life. Annuities, II. 72. 

Endowments, XIII. 168. 
Expectation, or mathematical probability, XIX. 775. 
Longevity, XIV. 857. 
Tables of mortality, XIII. 169. 
Average death-rate in different countries, XIX. 517. 


Causes of death, XVII. 686. 

As to suicide, XIII. 179; XXII. 629. 

The bonus system, XIII. 178. 

The Tontine system, XIII. 183 ; IX. 181. 

Lorenzo Tonti, XXIII. 444. 

Non-forfeiture laws in the United States, XIII. 182. 

Accident or Casuaetv Insurance, XIII. 161. 
Accident Insurance in the United States, sup. 34. 
Minor forms of insurance, XIII. 161. 

Friendly Societies, IX. 780. 

Cooperation, V. 338. 

Mutual benefit orders, IX. 782. 
Societies. _ ,, . . . T .. _ 

Collecting societies, IX. 783. 

Mutual Benefit Societies in the United States, 

sup. 417. 

Fraternal societies, sup. 418. 

Oddfellows, XVII. 723; sup. 417. 

Order of Foresters, IX. 782 ; sup. 418. 

See also, in this GUIDE, the chapters entitled, The Me- 
chanic, The Banker and The Financier, and The Lawyer. 



" Points more than all the lawyers in Bohemia can learnedly handle." 
—A Winter's Tale. 

WHO is there who does not need to know something 
about law ? It is, of course, not to be presumed that 
every man can be his own lawyer, for there are times 
when the advice and assistance of trained members of the 
legal profession are indispensable. Nevertheless, there 
are certain legal terms and processes with which every 
person ought to be familiar. Questions are constantly 
arising concerning various matters connected with the 
operation and enforcement of the laws, and it frequently 
happens that much depends upon one's ability to answer 
these questions readily and correctly. You might not deem 
it worth your while to consult a professional lawyer about 
such matters, and yet if you should have a book at hand 
to which you could turn at once for the desired informa- 
tion, you would not remain in ignorance concerning them. 

The man who has a law library, however small, has often- 
times no little advantage over the man who has neither 
the library nor the legal education. The Encyclopedia 
Britannica is itself, within certain limits, an extensive li- 
brary of legal lore, wherein every important sub- 

A Law ject connected with this branch of knowledge 

Library, receives appropriate attention. To the man of 

business it is better than a law library, because 

he can refer to it so much more readily. Then, too, its 



articles have none of that redundant verbiage which so 
often makes the ordinary law-book so tiresome and un- 
satisfactory. They crystallize the topics ; they show the 
gift of brilliant minds in making principles clear above 
everything else. 

To the young man who is desirous of following the pro- 
fession of law as the business of his life, these 
Law articles are worth many times the entire cost of a 

Students. set 6f the Britannica. The student who makes 
himself thoroughly familiar with all these articles 
in their proper sequence, will know more law than many 
a graduate from our law colleges. Almost any man of in- 
telligence, by following the courses of reading here indi- 
cated, may lay the foundations for a successful legal career. 


Read the special article on Legal Education, sup. 
1856. Then keeping well in mind the points therein 
mentioned, study the article on Law, XIV. 354, which is 
of itself "as good as a condensed Blackstone." 

Then read, as occasion may permit, the following ar- 
ticles or parts of articles : 

The origin of law, VIII. 624. 

Plato on law, XIX. 210. 

Roman schools of law, XIV. 164. 

Roman law, XX. 669. 

Justinian's codification, XIII. 792 ; VI. 105 , 
Codes. _-.. 

XX. 712. 

Early English law, VIII. 276. 

Administration of law in England, VIII. 261. 

English codes of law, VI. 104. 

Codes of Roman law, XX. 710. 

Code of Napoleon, IX. 614; XVII. 205. 

Inns of Court, XIII. 87. 

in i lawyer. 331 

Jurisprudence, XIV. 354. 


Laws of Moses, III. 634; XVI. 860; XIII. 397. 

Laws of Confucius, VI. 258. 

Laws of Mohammed, XVI. 591, 594. 

Laws of Lycurgus, XXII. 370. 

Agrarian laws, I. 287. 

Salic laws, XXI. 212. 

Brehon laws, IV. 252; XIII. 218. 

American blue laws, sup. 504. 


Moses, XVI. 860; XIII. 397. 

Confucius, VI. 258. 

Buddha, IV. 424. 

Mohammed, XVI. 545. 

Zoroaster, XXIV. 822. 

Lycurgus, XV. 95. 
Solon, XXII. 353. 
Justinian, XIII. 792. 
Alfred the Great, I. 506. 

Savigny, XXI. 326. 
Thibaut, XXIII. 300. 
Zachariae, XXIV. 762. 
Grotius, XL 217. 
Vico, XXIV. 211. 

Sir Edward Coke, VI. 1 19. 
Sir William Blackstone, III. 800. 
Sir John Fortescue, IX. 420. 
Daniel Webster, XXIV. 417. 



Common Law, VI. 208. 

Constitutional law, VI. 309. 

Criminal law, VI. 587 ; IX. 124. 

Canon law, V. 15 ; XIX. 499; V. 551. 

Ecclesiastical law, VII. 627. 

Military law, XVI. 295 ; IV. 587. 

Martial law, VI. 517. 

Mercantile law, sup. 2038. 

Maritime law, XXI. 589. 

International law, XIII. 190; X. 161; XII. 152. 

Foreign laws, sup. 1309. 


Laws of agriculture, I. 298. 

Laws relating to the tenure of land, XIV. 259 ; I. 406. 
Homestead laws of the United States, XII. 123. 
Landlord and tenant, XIV. 272. 
Leases, I. 341. 

Laws concerning real estate, XX. 304. 
Law of fences in the United States, sup. 1257. 
Private International Law, and Interstate Commerce 
Laws, sup. 1687. 

Laws concerning husband and wife, XII. 400 ; sup. 1998. 

Marriage laws, XV. 565. 

Marriage laws in the United States, sup. 1998. 

Laws of divorce in the United States, sup. 105$. 

Laws relating to women, XXIV. 637. 

Laws regarding infants, XIII. 1. 

Laws concerning personal estate, XVIII. 664. 
Exemption laws of the United States, sup. 1228. 
Laws of intestacy, XIII. 197. 


Laws relating to wills, XXIV. 570. 
Laws of primogeniture, XIII. 733. 
1'. u tn< rship laws, XVII. 3-9; sup. 2303. 
Bankrupt laws, III. 341-345 ; sup. 342. 

Labor laws, sup. 1198; XIV. 165. 

Factory laws in the United States, sup. 1234. 

Factory laws, VIII. 844. 

Laws of apprenticeship, I. 212. 

Corporation laws, VI. 432. 

Port laws, XIII. 462. 

Press laws, XIII. 710. 

Corn laws, VI. 408. 

Corn laws in the United States, VI. 413. 

Election laws in the United States, sup. 11 30. 

Elections, VIII. 2. 

Ballot — Australian ballot laws, III. 288; sup. 329. 

Laws relating to public health, XX. 96. 

Public health laws in the United States, XV. 798. 

Lunacy laws, XV. 798. 

Quarantine laws, XX. 153. 

Burial acts, IV. 537. 

Medical laws, XV. 798. 

Liquor laws, XIV. 

Liquor laws of the United States, sup. 1892. 

Sumptuary laws, XXII. 643. 

The Army Act, XVI. 297. * 

Riot laws, XX. 564. 

Laws of treason, XXIII. 525-530. 

Pension laws of the United States, sup. 2344. 

Passport laws, XVIII. 344. 

Passport laws of the United States, sup. 2307. 


Patent laws, XVIII. 354; of the United States, sup. 

Copyright laws, VI. 356. 

Copyright laws of the United States, VI. 365. 
Recent revision of copyright laws, sup. 913. 
English laws of copyright, XIV. 546. 
International copyright, I. 720. 

Municipal laws, VI. 435. 

Riparian laws, XX. 265. 

Sea laws, XXI. 589. 

Fishery laws, sup. 1281. 

Game laws, X. 61 ; of the United States, sup. 1362. 

Laws of the road, sup. 2555. 
Laws of auctions, III. 68. 
Laws relating to gambling, X. 66. 
Laws relating to lotteries, XV. 11. 
Laws relating to travelers, sup. 2936. 
For additional references, see the chapter in this Guide 
entitled, The American Citizen. 


Administration of justice in primitive communities, 
VIII. 624. 

Judicial combat, VII. 511 ; XVII. 820. 
Areopagus, II. 481. 

Supreme Court of the United States, II. 210; 
XIII. 789; sup. 2824. 

Courts. T ,. . . ... , 

Judicial courts, VI. 516. 

Courts of the United States, sup. 930. 

Federal courts of the United States, XXIII. 750. 

United States court of claims, sup. 814. 

Court of private land claims, sup. 930. 

the LAWYER. 335 

Courts of appeal, II. 209 ; VI. 516; XIII. 765. 
Criminal courts, VI. 516. 

Justices' courts, XXII. 641. 

English courts of justice, VIII. 261 ; XX. 311. 
Quarter sessions, XX. 159. 
Courts of summary jurisdiction, XXII. 641. 
High court of justiciary, XII. 790. 
Courts of oyer and terminer, XVIII. 106. 
Courts of chancer)', V. 389; XX. 31 1. 
High court of admiralty, I. 158. 
Vice-admiralty courts, I. 160; XXI. 607. 

Judge, XIII. 762. 

Prerogatives of judges, XIX. 673. 
Officers. . - 

Judicial costume, VI. 370. 

Justice of the peace, XXIII. 789. 

Grand jury, sup. 1439. 

Trial by jury, VIII. 298 ; XIII. 783 ; XXIII. 555. 

Trial by court-martial, VI. 517. 

Contempt of court, VI. 318. 

Barristers, III. 344. 
Attorney, III. 52; sup. 284. 
Sheriff, XXI. 800; VI. 513. 
Constable, VI. 294 ; sup. 899. 
Advocates' Faculty in Scotland, sup. 53. 
For additional references, see the chapter in this GUIDE 
entitled, The Magistrate and the Policeman. 


The following is a partial list of law TERMS and 
legal processes explained in the Britannica, to which it 
maybe necessary at some time to refer. 


Abatement, I. 5 ; sup. 10. 
Abduction, I. 31. 
Abettor, I. 48. 
Abeyance, I. 48 ; sup. 27. 

Abstract of title, sup. 30. See, also, Con- 
Law Terms, veyancing. 

etc. Acceptance, I. 82. 

Accession, I. 83. 
Accessory, I. 83. 
Accident in law, sup. 33. 
Accomplice, sup. 36. 
Accord and satisfaction, sup. 36. 
Acknowledgment, sup. 39. 
Acquittal, sup. 40. 
Act of God, sup. 40. 
Ademption, sup. 47. 
Action, I. 132 ; sup. 41. 
Adjudication, I. 154. 
Administrator, I. 154; sup. 50. 
Adoption, I. 163. 
Adulteration, I. 167. 
Adultery, I. 177 ; sup. 51. 
Advancement, sup. 51. 
Advocate, I. 178. 
Advowson, I. 179. 
Affidavit, I. 226 ; sup. 57. 
Affinity, I. 226. 

Age, Legal, sup. 84 ; of Consent, sup. 84. 
Agent, I. 280. 
Agistment, I. 283. 
Agreement, sup. 86. 
Agnates, I. 283. 
Aiding and abetting, sup. 102. 
Alias, I. 574. 


Alibi, I. 574 ; sup. 126. 
Alien, I. 574. 
Aliment, I. 576. 
Alimony, I. 576; sup. 127. 
Allodium, I. 576. 
Amendment, sup. 152. 
Annuities, II. 72. 
Appeal, II. 208; sup. 206. 
Apportionment, sup. 209. 
Appraiser, II. 212. 
Apprenticeship, II. 212. 
Appropriation, sup. 209. 
Arbitrage, II. 311. 
Arbitration, II. 311 ; sup. 215. 
Arraignment, II. 628. 
Arrest, II. 629 ; sup. 247. 
Arrest of judgment, sup. 248. 
Arson, II. 635. 
Assault, II. 724. 
Assets, II. 729 ; sup. 268. 
Assignment, II. 729. 
Assize, II. 729. 
Association, II. 730. 
Attachment, III. 50; sup. 283. 
Attainder, III. 52. 
Attorney, III. 62; sup. 284. 
Barristers, III. 344. 
Bench warrant, sup. 415. 
Blasphemy, III. 805. 
Bigamy, III. 668. 
Bill of exceptions, sup. 470. 
Bona fide, sup. 514. 
Bounty, sup. 533. 
Breach of promise, sup. 554. 


Bribery, IV. 278 ; sup. 563. 
Burden of proof, sup. 624. 
Burgage, IV. 532. 
Capias, sup. 689. 
Casuistry, V. 203. 
Certiorari, sup. 737. 
Contract, VI. 322. 
Costs, VI. 451. 
Conveyancing, VI. 324. 
Codicil, sup. 853. 
Conspiracy, VI. 292. 
Company, VI. 221, 434. 
Contraband, VI. 320. 
Conveyancing, sup. 905 
Crime, VI. 582. 
Damages, VI. 787; sup. 122S. 
Deodand, VII. 100. 
Deposition, sup. 1030. 
Descent, sup. 1033. 
Desertion, sup. 1034. 

Domicile, VII. 351. 

Divorce, VII. 300-305. 

Duel, VII. 511 ; XVII. 820. 

Duress, sup. 1096. 

Embezzlement, VIII. 159. 

Employer and employee, sup. 1198. 

Equity, VIII. 510. 

Entail, VIII. 450. 

Estoppel, VIII. 563. 

Eviction, sup. 1224. 

Evidence, VIII. 738. 

Emigration, VIII. 173. 

Exchange, VIII. 783. 

Execution, sup. I 228. 


Executors and administrators, VIII. 800. 

Ex post facto, sup. 1231. 

Extradition, VIII. 813; sup. 1231. 

Factors, VIII. 843. 

Felony, IX. 68. 

Flotsam and Jetsam, IX. 342. 

Forgery, IX. 413. 

Franchise, sup. 1325. 

Fraud, IX. 726; sup. 1332. 

Games and gaming, X. 66. 

Gavelkind, X. 1 19. 

Garnishment, sup. 1370. 

Genealogy, X. 142. 

Gift, X. 590. 

Guilds, XI. 359. 

Habeas corpus, sup. 1502. 

Hiring, XII. 1. 

Holidays in the United States, sup. 1595. 

Homestead, XII. 122. 

Homicide, XII. 124. 

Hotch-potch, XII. 308. 

Impeachment, XII. 717. 

Indictment, XII. 842. 

Infamy and infamous crime, sup. 1679. 

Information, sup. 1679. 

Insurance, XIII. 161. 

Infant, XIII. 1. 

Infringement, sup. 1680. 

Inheritance, XIII. ;•/. 

Injunction, sup. 1682. 

Insanity, XIII. in. 

Intestacy, XIII. 197. 

Kidnapping, XIV. 69. 

Legacy, sup. 1856. 


Libel and slander, XIV. 505 ; sup. 1872. 

Lien, XIV. 569. 

License, sup. 1878. 

Limitation, statutes of, XIV. 65. 

Limitation of actions, sup. 1887. 

Misdemeanor, XVI. 502. 

Monopoly, XVI. 757. 

Mortgage, XVI. 848. 

Murder, XVII. 52. 

Outlaw, XVIII. 75. 

Oyer and terminer, XVIII. 106. 

Pardon, XVIII. 271. 

Partition, XVIII. 328. 

Partnership, sup. 2303. 

Patents, XVIII. 354. 

Payment, XVIII. 440. 

Penalty, sup. 2335. 

Perjury, XVIII. 548. 

Petition, XVIII. 703. 

Pension, sup. 2344. 

Pleading, XIX. 217. 

Penitentiary, XIX. 748. 

Poor, XIX. 462. 

Prescription, XIX. 704. 

Prisons, XIX. 747. 

Primogeniture, XIX. 733. 

Quarantine, XX. 153. 

Quare impcdit, XX. 158. 

Quo warranto, XX. 189; sup. 2487. 

Quorum, sup. 2486. 

Receivers, sup. 2516. 

Recognizance, XX. 309. 

Records, XX. 310. 

Registration, XX. 342. 


Rent. XX. 402. 
Replevin, XX. 404. 
Rights, Personal, XX. 555. 
Riot, XX. 564. 

Sale, XXI. 20t;. 

Sea laws, XXI. 583. 

Settlement, XXI. 692. 

Simony, XXII. 84. 

Smuggling, XXII. 185. 

Solicitor, XXII. 251. 

Stamp, XXII. 448. 

Subpoena, XXII. 642; XXIV. 696. 

Succession, XXII. 616. 

Summons, XXII. 642. 

Sumptuary, XXII. 643. 

Surrender, XXII. 692. 

Taxation, XXIII. 85 ; IX. 117. 

Theft, XXIII. 231. 

Threats, sup. 2904. 

Treason, XXIII. 525. 

Tort, XXIII. 454; VI. 587. 

Trespass, XXIII. 552. 

Trial, XXIII. 555. 

Trust, XXIII. 595. 

Usury, XXIV. 17. 

Venue, XXIV. 162. 

Wills, XXIV. 570. 

Witness, XXIV. 623 ; VIII. 743. 

Wreck, XXIV. 687. 

Writ, XXIV. 692. 


Justinian's Institutes, XIII. 794. 

Hunter's Exposition of Roman Law, XIV. 362. 


B-lackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, 
III. 801. 

Littleton on Tenures, XIV. 704. 

Coke's Institutes ("Coke upon Littleton"), VI. 120. 

Austin's Province of Jurisprudence Determined, XIV. 


Sir Henry Maine's Early History of Institutions, XIV. 


Hobbes's Leviathan, VIII. 422. 

Jeremy Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence, III. 

Hallam's Constitutional History of England, XL 30,3. 

See, also, the chapter entitled The American Citizen, 
in this Guide. 




" Your scope is as mine own, so to enforce or qualify the laws." 

— Measure for Measure. 

THAT branch of criminal justice which comprises a 
methodical system for the prevention and de- 
Criminal tection of crime is very appropriately called 
Justice. The Police. The object of the police system, 

however, extends beyond the mere suppression 
of crime, and includes the regulation of whatever is in- 
jurious to the peace, morality, and welfare of the com- 
munity. It is very evident that the person who is invested 
with authority to enforce the observance of law and order 
should have at least some general knowledge of the ob- 
jects, aims, and methods of police justice. The history of 
crime and of the public efforts constantly necessary for 
its suppression presents many problems for the considera- 
tion of lawmakers, while at the same time it affords much 
food for thought to those who are entrusted with the duty 
of enforcing the laws. The following references will 
direct readers of the Britannica to a vast amount of inter- 
esting information relative to crime and its punishment 
and the various duties of the policeman. The policeman 
himself will find these readings not only entertaining, but 
in the highest degree profitable. 

/Edile, Roman public officer, I. 180. 

Quaestor, Roman magistrate, XX. 145. 

Sheriff, XXI. 800. 


Constable, VI. 294. 

Magistrate, XV. 216; XIII. 762, 789. 

Police Commissioners, XIX. 337. 

Policemen in the United States, XIX. 341. 
Officers. . . ,, T , r 

Police in various countries, XIX. 341-344. 

Detectives, XIX. 337. 

Pinkerton laws, sup. 2392. 

Gaoler, XIX. 747. 

Arrest, II. 629. 
Warrant, XXIV. 371. 

Subpoena, XXII. 642. 

Summons, XXIV. 696; XIX. 220. 


Trial, XXIII. 955. 

Jury, XIII. 783. 
Justice of the peace, XIII. 789. 
Court of justice, XXII. 641. 
Witnesses, XXIV. 623 ; VIII. 743 ; XIX. 777. 
Plea, XIX. 219. 
Advocate, I. 127. 
Judgment, XIII. 764. 
Habeas corpus, XI. 358. 
Corpus delicti, sup. 922. 
Pardon, XVIII. 271. 

Crime, VI. 582. 

Roman laws in relation to crime, XX. 675. 

Criminal law, VI. 1587. 
Crime. . . ' / ' 

Criminal courts, VI. 510. 

Criminality, sup. 942. 

Criminal anthropology, sup. 196. 

Identification of criminals, sup. 943. 

Bertillon system of identification, sup. 436. 

Vidocq, the famous French detective, sup. 3045. 


Burglary, sup. 625. 

("rime in the United States, sup. 2986. 

Punishment of crime, XIX. 747. 
Punish- Punishment under Roman law, XX. 675. 

ment. Stocks, XXII. 560. 

Branks for scolds, sup. 550. 
Torture, XXIII. 460. 
Drowning for punishment, sup. 1083. 
The garrote, sup. 1 37 1 . 
The knout, XXI. 91. 
Whipping-post, sup. 2138. 
Capital punishment, sup. 689. 
Imprisonment, XIX. 747. 
Prisons, sup. 2451. 

Prison reform, IX. 307, 805 ; XII. 320. 
Prison discipline, XIX. 747. 
Reformatory schools, XX. 338. 
Reformatories, sup. 2525. 
Transportation of convicts, XIX. 748, 750. 
Ticket of leave, convicts on, VI. 590. 
Penitentiaries, XIX. 748. 

Prison discipline in the United States, XIX. 763. 
Work-houses, XIX. 468, 476. 

For further references, see the chapter entitled, The 
Lawyer, in this GUIDE. 




" Then give place to the physician, for the Lord hath created him: let 
him not go from thee, for thou hast need of him." — EccLsiaslicus. 

Medicine, the subject-matter of one of the learned pro- 
fessions, includes a wide range of scientific knowledge and 
skill. In the Encyclopedia Britannica it receives 
a large share of attention, both in its historical 
and scientific aspects. The special article on 
this subject, XV. 794-817, gives first a synopti- 
cal view of medicine, and then, in the second part, traces 
its history from its small beginnings in Greece down to 
the present time. Let us reverse this order, and present 
first a series of readings or references on 


Among the ancient Greeks the actual organization of 
the healing art was ascribed to yEsculapius (or Asclepius), 
of whom we have a special notice in I. 209. We are now 
ready to read the section on medicine as portrayed in the 
Homeric poems, XV. 799, after which we shall take up the 
following subjects in their order: 

Hippocratic medicine, XV. 800. 

Hippocrates, "the father of medicine," XI. 852; his 
surgery, XXII. 674. 

Alexandrian school of medicine, XV. 800, and XXII. 

nil. PHYSICIAN. 347 

Roman medicine, XV. 802; Asclepiades of Prusa, II. 
Galen, X. 23; Aretaeus, II. 485. 
antine School of Medicine, XV. 804. 

Arabian medicine, I. 805, XV. 805 ; Avicenna, III. 152 ; 
Averroes, III. 149; Maimonides, XV. 295. 

Medicine in the Middle Ages, XV. 806. 

The Period of the Renaissance, XV. 807. See, also, 
Linacre, XIV. 652 ; Rabelais, XX. 193 ; Paracelsus, XVIII. 
234, and XXII. 6j6 (see, in this volume, the references to 
Alchemy, pages 137, 138). 

Revival of ancient medicine, XV. 809. 

Medical Associations in the United States, sup. 2024. 
American Academy of Medicine, sup. 32. 
Medical education in the United States, sup. 2025. 


John Kaye, founder of Caius College, IV. 648. 

William Harvey, and the discovery of the circulation of 
the blood, XI. 502. 

Van Helmont, XI. 638. 

Borelli, and the Iatro-Physical school, IV. 53. 

Francis de le Boe, and the Iatro-Chemical school, XV. 

Thomas Sydenham, "the English Hippocrates," XXII. 
805. He was the intimate friend of John Locke," the great 
sensational philosopher," who was also a thoroughly trained 
physician, and practiced medicine privately, XIV. 751. 

Hermann Boerhaave, the organizer of the modern 
method of clinical instruction, III. 854. 

George Ernest Stahl, originator of the theory of " ani- 
mism," XXII 444; II. 55. 

Morgagni, who was the first to make morbid anatomy a 
branch of medical research, XVI. 821. 


William Cullen, VI 694. 

John Brown, " the last systematizer of medicine" — origi- 
nator of the Brunonian system — IV. 384. 

Hahnemann, founder of the Homoeopathic school, XI. 
373; XV. 814. 

Rudolf Virchow, the German pathologist, sup. 3050. 

Edward Jenner, discoverer of vaccination for smallpox, 
XIII. 622 ; XXIV. 23. 

Leopold Avenbrugger, inventor of the method of rec- 
ognizing diseases of the chest by percussion, III. 100, 

Laennec, inventor of the method of physical diagnosis 
by the stethoscope, XIV. 200. 

Erasmus Darwin, VI. 830; XV. 816. 

Richard Bright, discoverer of the disease known by his 
name, sup. 571. 

William C. Rontgen, discoverer of the Rontgen rays, 
sup. 2574. 

John Abercrombie, I. 36. 

John Abernethy, I. 47. 

Erik Acharius, I. 94. 

Sir J. F. E. Acton, I. 133. 

Alexander of Tralles, I. 486. 

Prospero Alpini, I. 619. 

Charles Alston, I. 638. 

Johann Conrad Amman, I. 739. 

John Arbuthnot, II. 325. 

Neil Arnot, II. 627. 

Aspasius, II. 714. 

Andrew Combe, VI. 179. 

John Elliotson, VIII. 148. 

Austin Flint, sup. 1289. 

Robert Koch, discoverer of the " lymph " remedy for 
consumption, sup. 1803. 

i in: physician. 349 

Sir Morell Mackenzie, the great throat specialist, sup. 

Louis Pasteur, discoverer of the cause and cure of hy- 
drophobia, sup. 1642, 2308. 

But it is unnecessary for the Guide to go farther in 
this direction. To give a complete list of the men who 
have distinguished themselves in this profession would 
transcend the limits assigned to this chapter. 


See the special article on this subject, XV. 794. The fol- 
lowing articles, or parts of articles, may also be consulted 
as occasion requires : 

Relation of medicine to the body politic, XV. 797. 

Subdivisions of Medicine as an art and discipline, XV. 

Surgery, XXII. 672. 

Surgical pathology, sup. 2826. 

Obstetrics — Gynaecology, XV. 797. 

Dermatology, XXII. 120; XVIII. 269. 

Ophthalmology, XVII. 780. 

Laryngology, XXIII. 319. 

Otology, VII. 591. 

Dentistry, VII. 95 ; artificial teeth, XIII. 523 ; teeth, 
XXII. 107; human teeth, VII. 232. 

PATHOLOGY, the doctrine of disease, XVIII. 361-407 
(very fully illustrated). 

See Miscellaneous Topics, below. 


ANATOMY, I. 799-908. This is a very complete treat- 
ise, describing the special anatomy of the human body in 
a state of health. It is amply illustrated with diagrams 
and full-page plates. 


Skeleton, XX. 105. 

Muscles, XIX. 8. 

Vascular system, or organs of circulation, XXIV. 95. 

Digestive organs, VII. 221. 

The skin, I. 897. 

Nervous system, XIX. 23. 

Physiology, XIX. 8-43. This valuable article is in 
two parts (part I., general view; part II., the nervous 

Comparative Physiology, III. 684. 

Digestion, VII. 221. 

Circulation, XXIV. 98 ; XI. 503. 

Nutrition, XVII. 675. 

Absorption, I. 58 ; XVII. 677. 

Animal heat, XVIII. 393. 

Vivisection, sup. 3058. 

HYGIENE, XII. 566. This is a short article of a popular 
character, referring to (1) climatic conditions, (2) site of 
dwellings, (3) sanitation of dwellings, (4) ventilation, (5) 
cleansing, (6) water supply, (7) work and exercise, etc. 

Dietetics, VII. 200. 

Athletic training and exercise, III. 12 ; XXI. 60. 

Ventilation, XXIV. 157. 

Sanitation of dwellings, XXI. 714. 


The general article on this subject, XXII. 672-692, is a 
complete treatise of great interest and practical value. It 

History and (1) The history of surgery, XXII. 672. 
Practice. (2) Practice of surgery, XXII. 6jy. 

Treatment of injuries, XXII. 680. 
Process of repair, XXII. 682. 
Treatment of diseases, XXII. 683. 

mi PHYSICIAN. 351 

Operative surgery, XXII. 688. 

The supplementary article on American surgery, sup. 

2826 2832, describes the recent wonderful advancements 
made in the practice of this art. 

Inflammation and ulceration, sup. 2827. 

Fractures, sup. 2828. 

Tumors, sup. 2S28. 

Operative surgery, and the brain, sup. 2829. 

Abdominal surgery, sup. 2830. 

Surgical treatment of appendicitis, sup. 2831. 

Surgical treatment for kidney diseases, sup. 2832. 

Several other related topics are treated specially, each 
under its own title. Among them are 

Blood-poisoning, XXI. 666. 

Tracheotomy, sup. 2933. 

Detection of blood-stains, sup. 501. 

Artificial limbs, sup. 255; Surgeon's tools, sup. 2825. 


Allopathy, sup. 134. 

American Eclectic School of Medicine, sup. 153. 

Homceopathy, XII. 126. 

Hydropathy, XII. 542; III. 438. 

Isopathy, sup. 171 7. 

Massage, or Swedish Movement, see Ling, sup. 1889. 


Schizomycetes- — the germ theory of disease, XXI. 
39S-407 (illustrated); Bacteriology, sup. 311. The latter 
is an exceedingly valuable article, presenting the results of 
the latest researches. 

Embryology, VIII. 163. 

Anaesthesia, I. 789; sup. 174. 

Apoplexy, II. 193. 


Antidotes, XIX. 276. 

Auscultation, III. 100. 

Bronchitis, IV. 362. 

Catarrh, V. 218, XVIII. 377; of the stomach, 
Miscella- xxn ^ 

„ Cholera, V. 682. The latest discoveries and 

Topics. ' 

theories relating to this disease are described 
in sup. 795. 

Croup, VI. 616; XXIII. 320. 
Dietetics, VII. 200. 
Digestive organs, VII. 221. 
Diphtheria, VII. 249. 
Drowning, VII. 473. 
Enteritis, sup. 1207. 
Fever, IX. 125. 
Goitre, X. 739. 
Gout, XI. 5. 

Heart diseases, XI. 552. 
Hip-joint diseases, sup. 1585. 
Hydrophobia, XII. 545. 
Hysteria, XII. 600. 
Insanity, XIII. 95. 
Jaundice, XIII. 598. 
Leprosy, XIV. 468. 
Longevity, XIV. 857. 
Malaria, XV. 316. 
Measles, XV. 657. 
Neuralgia, XVII. 363. 
Nutrition, XVII. 667. 
Ophthalmology, XVII. 780. 
Paralysis, XVIII. 255. 
Parasitism, XVIII. 258. 
Pharmacopceia, XVIII. 730. 
Phrenology, XVIII. 842. 


Phthisis, XVIII. 855. 

Plague, XIX. 159. 

Pleurisy, XIX. 222. 

Pneumonia, XIX. 249. 

Poisons, XIX. 275 ; XVIII. 406. 

Public health, XX. 96. 

Quarantine, XX. 153. 

Quinine, XX. 184. 

Rabies, XX. 190. 

Scarlet fever, XXI. 376. 

Smallpox, XXII. 162. 

Stammering, XXII. 447. 

Stomach, Diseases of, XXII. 574. 

Stricture, sup. 2813. 

Sunstroke, XXII. 666. 

Throat diseases, XXIII. 319. 

Tuberculosis, see Phthisis. 

Typhus, typhoid, and reiapsing fevers, XXIII. 676. 

Vaccination, XXIV. 23. 

Vascular system, XXIV. 95. 

Vesical diseases, XXIV. 188. 

Veterinary science, XIV. 197. 

Yellow fever, XXIV. 734. 

Of shorter and less important articles on medical sub- 
jects, the number is so great that we cannot 
Diseases, undertake to name them here. The mention of 
etc - a few, as below, will serve to indicate the vast 

amount of medical lore contained in the Bri- 
taniiica : 

Abortion, I. 52. 
Achor, sup. 38. 
Ague, IX. 126. 
Acupressure, I. 133. 


Anchylosis, II. 9. 
Aneurism, II. 26. 
Angina pectoris, II. 29. 
Asphyxia, II. 716. 
Asthma, II. 736. 
Ataxy, Locomotor, II. 826. 
Auscultation, III. 100. 
Bright's Disease, IV. 345. 
Cancer, IV. 800. 
Cautery, sup. 727. 
Clubfoot, VI. 42. 
Colic, VI. 140. 
Corpulence, VI. 435. 
Cramp, VI. 572. 
Croup, VI. 616. 
Diabetes, VII. 147. 
Endemic diseases, sup. 1200. 
Epilepsy, VIII. 479. 
Erysipelas, VIII. 531. 
Glanders, X. 634. 
Hydrophobia, sup. 1642. 
Paralysis, XVIII. 255. 
Meningitis, XVI. 1 1. 
Rheumatism, XX. 516. 
Rickets, XX. 548. 
Whooping-cough, XII. 154, etc. 


Remedies are treated in a like comprehensive manner 
only a few are named, merely as examples : 
Antitoxin, sup. 201. 
Arnica, II. 623. 
Calomel, IV. 71 1. 
Cod-liver oil, VI. 104. 


Emetics, VIII. 171. 
Epsom salts, VIII. 496. 
Galbanum, X. 22. 

Goa-powder, X. 707. 
Merc ui}-. XV. 34. 
Quinine, XX. 184. 
Tuberculin, sup. 2954. 
Antagonism of drugs, sup. 193, etc. 

See the references in the chapter entitled, The Apothe- 
cary, in this Guide. 


Stethoscope, III. 100. 

Eophone, sup. 1208. 

Enucleator, sup. 1208. 

Haemocytometer, sup. 1504. 

Surgeon's tools, sup. 2825. 

Surgeon's illuminating apparatus, sup. 1657. 

Sphygmograph, sup. 2768. 

Trephine, sup. 2941. 




"By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death will seize the doctor 
too. ' ' — Cymbcline. 

The word apothecary is derived from the Greek apo- 
the'kc, the name which Galen (X. 23 ; XV. 803) applied to 
the closet or room in which he kept his medicines. In 
America an apothecary is often called a druggist ; but in 
some sections of the country the term pharma- 
cist, or pharmaceutical chemist, is frequently 
Definition. ..... _ .. . . , 

applied to him. Generally speaking, an apothe- 
cary is a person who compounds and sells drugs 
and medicines. 

In 1868 an act was passed by the British Parliament 
prohibiting any person from engaging in this business 
without being registered. Since that time many of the 
States of the American Union have passed similar laws. 
In most parts of our country an apothecary is now obliged 
to pass an examination before a State Board of Pharmacy 
before he is permitted to compound medicines or fill 
physicians' prescriptions. In some of the States this ex- 
amination is very rigid, and only such applicants as are 
thoroughly conversant with the principles of pharmacy 
and its related subjects can reasonably hope to pass the 
ordeal. To persons looking forward to an examination of 
this kind, the following references to the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica will be of much valuable assistance : 

I ill ATol HECARY. 357 

Short history of the business of apothecary in England, 
II. [98. 

Pharmacopoeia, XVIII. 730. 

International pharmacopoeia, XVIII. 73 1 . 

Dispensary, sup. 1053. 
Pharmaceutical chemists, XV. 799. 

Materia Medica, XVIII. 730-731. 
Forensic Medicine, XV. 778-783. 
Organic Chemistry, V. 444. 
Practical botany (see Index, IV. 162). 
Chemical affinity, I. 153, 226. 
Poisons, XIX. 275 ; XVII. 231. 
Intoxicants, VII. 482. 
Narcotics, XVII. 230. 
Stimulants, VII. 205. 
Tonics, sup. 2927. 
Anaesthetics, XVII. 230. 
Anaesthesia, I. 789. 

Alcohol, I. 469. 
Quinine, XX. 184. 
Opium, XVII. 231, 787. 

Morphia, XVII. 231, 792. 
Some Things chloroform, V. 680. 


cary's Stock.- Chlora1 ' V ' 6 7 6 > 6 ?7- 

Cocaine, VI. 685 ; sup. 851. 

Acetylene, or ethine gas, sup. 37. 

Antacids, sup. 193. 

Antipyrin, sup. 199. 

Antitoxin, sup. 201. 

Aromatic vinegar, sup. 246. 

Bromide of ethyl, sup. 582. 

Ethylamine, sup. 12 18. 


Fungicides, sup. 1350. 

Hippuric acid, sup. 1587. 

The above list might be indefinitely extended, but 
enough is here given to show the variety of information 
that the Encyclopedia Britannica offers to the apothecary 
or pharmacist. 

Consult carefully the references given in this GUIDE, in 
the chapters entitled The Physician and, The Chemist. 

mi CH] MIST. 359 


"You arc an alchemist. Make gold !" 

— Shakespeare. 


The advancement of the science of chemistry during 

the past quarter of a century has perhaps been greater 

than during any preceding period of similar length. The 

article in the American supplements to the Britanuica, 

pages 767-775, describes in a brief but comprehensive 

manner all the more important discoveries made since the 

year 1875. The complete history of the science is told in 

the fifth volume of the Britanuica, in the very scholarly 

article on that subject, beginning on page 459. 

The first mention of chemistry is found in 
History. .... 

the dictionary of Suidas, who nourished in the 

nth century (see XXII. 631). He defines it as 

" the preparation of silver and gold," and all the efforts of 

the early chemists (whom we now call alchemists) seem to 

have been directed toward the finding of some method for 

making gold and silver. 

From the nth to the 15th century, alchemy was dili- 
gently studied by the philosophers of Europe. 

This period marks the " sickly but imaginative infancy " 
of modern chemistry (see Alchemy, I. 459). It was Para- 
celsus who declared that " the true use of chemistry is not 
to make gold, but to prepare medicines " (see XVIII. 234). 

Van Helmont (1 577-1644), XL 638. 

Glauber (1604-1668), the discoverer of Glauber's salt, 
X. 675. 


Robert Boyle (1627-1691), IV. 184. 

F. Hoffman, XII. 46. 

Sir Isaac Newton, who was the first to indicate the 
nature and modes of formation of gases, XVII. 438 (see 

Dr. Stephen Hales (1677-1761), who was the first to 
describe the air as "a fine elastic fluid," XI. 382. 

Dr. J. Priestley (1733-1804), the discoverer of oxygen 
gas, XIX. 730. 

Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), the inventor of the pneu- 
matic trough, V. 271. 

Lavoisier (1 743-1 794), XIV. 252. 

Dr. Dalton, originator of the atomic theory, VI. 784. 

Gay-Lussac, discoverer of the laws of the combinations 
of gases by volume, X. 121. 

Alexander Von Humboldt, XII. 343. 

Robert Hare, sup. 1526. 

Justus Liebig, XIV. 565 (see Index). 

Michael Faraday, IX. 29. 

William Crookes, sup. 950. 

Robert Ogden Doremus, sup. 1067. 

The following supplementary articles will be found 
interesting to every chemist : 

Animal Chemistry, sup. 188. 

Azotized bodies, sup. 305. 

Physiological Chemistry, sup. 2379. 

Stereochemistry, sup. 2785. 


All of the more important " elementary or simple 
bodies " met with in nature are described in special arti- 
cles in the Britannica. Among these are : 

Aluminium, I. 647. 

Antimony, II. 129. 


Arsenic, II. 634. 

Barium, V. 525. 
Bismuth. III. 700. 

Elements. ' J 

Boron, V. 520. 

Bromine, I V. 631. 

Calcium, XIV. 647. 

Carbon, V. 86. 

Chlorine, V. 678. 

Cobalt, VI. 81. 

Copper (see Index volume, page in). 

Gold (see Index volume, page 184). 

Hydrogen, XII. 433. 

Iodine, XIII. 202. 

Iron (see Index volume, page 226). 

Lead, XIV. 374. 

Magnesium, XV. 217. 

Mercury, XVI. 31. 

Nickel, XVII. 487. 

Nitrogen, XVII. 515. 

Oxygen, V. 479. 

Phosphorus, XXIII. 815. 

Platinum, XIX. 189. 

Potassium, XIX. 588. 

Silicon, V. 521. 

Silver (see Index volume, page 405). 

Sodium, XX. 240. 

Sulphur, XXII. 634. 

Tin, XXIII. 400. 

Zinc, XXIV. 784. 

Argon, a new gaseous constituent in the atmosphere, 
sup. 227. 

A complete list of the elements, so far as now known, 
is given in sup. 768. The discovery of several new ele- 
ments is described in sup. 771. 



Atomic theory, V. 465. 

Molecular weights, V. 471. 

Chemical notation, V. 472. 

Organic Chemistry, V. 544; sup. 775. 

Animal Chemistry, sup. 188. 

Formulae of Organic Compounds, V. 547. 

Classification of Organic Compounds, V. 551, 

Hydrocarbons, V. 556. 

Haloid ethers, V. 565. 

Ethers, V. 566. 

Aldehydes, V. 567. 

Ketones, V. 568. 

Organic acids, V. 569. 

Ethereal salts, V. 572. 

Organo-metallic bodies, V. 573. 

Amides, V. 577. 

Unclassified organic compounds, V. 578. 

liii. MINERALOGIST. 363 


" Stones whose rates are either rich or poor, 
As fancy values them." — Measure for Measure. 

A COMTLETE description of mineral species, illustrated 
with numerous diagrams and cuts, is given, XVI. 380-429. 

Very many of the minerals so described are no- 
Mineral ticed at still greater length in special articles. 
Species. The following are a few of the most important : 

Alabaster, I. 439. 
Alum, I. 643 ; XVI. 402. 
Aluminum, I. 647. 
Amber, I. 659. 
Amethyst, I. 736. 
Anthracite, II. 106. 
Antimony, II. 129. 
Arsenic, II. 634. 
Asbestos, II. 675. 
Asphaltum, II. 715. 
Barytes, III. 406. 
Beryl, III. 613. 
Bismuth, III. 790. 
Bitumen, XVI. 428. 
Borax, IV. 50. 
Calcite, X. 228. 
Calc-spar, IV. 653. 
Calomel, IV. 711. 
Carbuncle, V. 89. 
Carnelian, I. 277. 
Chalcedony, I. 277. 


Chalk, V. 372. 

Cinnabar, V. 785. 

Clays, X. 237. 

Coals (see reference given in The Miner.) 

Cobalt, VI. 81; XX. 23. 

Copper (see references given in The Miner.) 

Copperas, VI. 352. 

Diamond, VII. 162; diamond mining, XVI. 455; in 
South Africa, V. 42 ; in Brazil, IV. 224; in India, XII. 
766; cutting diamonds, XIV. 298. 

Emerald, VIII. 170. 

Emery, VIII. 171. 

Feldspar, X. 227. 

Flint, IX. 325. 

Fuller's earth, IX. 816. 

Galena, XIV. 375. 

Garnet, VIII. 640. 

Gold (see references in The Miner.) 

Graphite, XVI. 381. 

Gypsum, XI. 351. 

Hornblende, X. 228. 

Hornstone, XVI. 389. 

Ice, XII. 611. 

Iceland-spar, IV. 653. 

Iron (see references in The Miner.) 

Jasper, XIII. 596. 

Jet, XIII. 672. 

Kaolin, XIV. 1, 90. 

Lead (see references in The Miner.) 

Lignite, VI. 46. 

Limestone, X. 232. 

Loam, XVI. 424. 

Magnesia, XV. 218. 

Manganese (red), XVI. 398. 


Marble, XV. 528. 

Marl, IV. 281. 

Meerschaum, XV. 825. 

Mercury, XVI. 31 (see Index volume, page 288). 

Meteoric iron, XIII. 285. 

Mica, X. 228. 

Naphtha, XVII. 174. 

Nickel, XVII. 487. 

Opal, XVII. 777. 

Petroleum, XVIII. 712 ; as fuel, IX. 809. 

Platinum, XIX. 189. 

Pyrites, XX. 128. 

Quartz, XX. 160. 

Rock-salt, X. 228 ; XXI. 230. 

Ruby, XXI. 47. 

Salt, XXI. 228; mines in Austria, III. 120; on Caspian 
Sea, V. 178 ; production in the United States, XXIII. 817. 

Saltpetre, XXI. 235. 

Sapphire, XXI. 302. 

Sappirite, XVI. 409. 

Shale, XVI. 424; bituminous, XVIII. 240. 

Silver (see references in The Miner.) 

Slate, XXII. 127 ; quarries of, XVI. 454. 

Sulphur, XXII. 634; mines in Sicily, XXII. 30 ; in For- 
mosa, V. 636. 

Talc, X. 228. 

Tin (see references in The Miner.) 

Topaz, XXVIII. 446. 

Tourmaline, X. 228. 

Umber, XVI. 425. 

Zinc (see references in The Miner.) 




" I preached as never sure to preach again, 
And as a dying man to dying men." 

— Richard Baxter, 1650. 

" The altitude of literature and poetry has always been religion — and 
always will be." — Walt Whitman. 

The Encyclopedia Britannica, embracing as it does the 
whole range of human knowledge, must neces- 
Religious sarily devote a large amount of attention to 
Knowledge, subjects connected with the religious history 
and religious thought of the world. The num- 
ber of articles which it contains of this kind, their com- 
prehensiveness, and the breadth of scholarship which they 
display, are alike amazing. Few private theological libra, 
ries contain so much matter of a quality that is so uni 
formly excellent. To the minister, the pastor, the churcl- 
official, and the theological student, the Britannica offers 
a fund of information and a wealth of knowledge which 
can be derived from no other single publication in the 
English language. It is not the intention in this chapter 
to locate or point out all the articles that relate to theo- 
logical or religious subjects. To do so would oblige us to 
go beyond all the limitations assigned to this volume. 
It will be sufficient to name a few of the most important 
subjects, as the reader, when once fairly introduced into 
this department of knowledge, will be able readily to 
refer to others of a similar character. 



The special article on the religious beliefs and modes of 
divine worship peculiar to different tribes, na- 
tions, and communities, written by Professor 
Religions ^' ^' Tiele, of the University of Leyden, XX. 

358-370, will be an excellent introduction to 
this course of study. It may be followed by the reading 
of such additional articles as these : 

1. Christianitv, V. 688-702. A comprehensive sur- 
vey of the history and influence of Christianity. By Pro- 
fessor T. M. Lindsay, of Free Church College, Glasgow. 

2. Judaism. See the two articles, Israel, XIII. 369- 
431, and Jews, XIII. 679-687. These articles are chiefly 
historical, the first by Dr. Julius Wellhausen, of the Uni- 
versity of Halle ; the second by Israel Davis, of London. 

Jews in the United States, sup. 1 757-1 760. 

3. BRAHMANISM, IV. 201-21 1. By Dr. Julius Eggel- 
ing, of the University of Edinburgh. 

4. Buddhism, IV. 424-438. By Dr. T. W. Rhys Da- 
vids, of London. 

5. Mohammedanism, XVI. 545-606. A very compre- 
hensive article in three parts : 

Part I. Mohammed, by Professor Wellhausen. 
Part II. The Eastern Caliphate, by Professor Stanislas 

Part III. The Koran, by Professor Noldeke. 
Besides the above, there are special articles on all other 
religious beliefs and systems that have ever 
Other exerted any considerable influence upon the 

Beliefs. thought of mankind. The following articles 

will be of interest to many readers : 
Druidism, VII. 477. 
Zoroastrianism, XXIV. 822. 


For an account of the religion peculiar to any given 
country, see the article devoted to that country ; for ex- 
ample : 

Religion in Mexico, XVI. 211 a. 

Religion of Hottentots, XII. 311b. 

Religion in India, XII. 782 a. 

Religion in Abyssinia, I. 63. 

Religion in Africa, I. 65. 

Religion of gypsies, X. 616, etc. 


Closely allied in thought to the articles mentioned 
above are such as the following : 

THEISM, XXIII. 234-249. This embraces a survey of 
primeval religious ideas, with notices of polytheism, mono- 
theism, trinitarianism, unitarianism, deism, mysticism, ag- 
nosticism, etc. 

Deism, VII. 33. 

Theosophy, XXIII. 278 ; sup. 2893 ; Madame Blavatsky 
sup. 495 ; William 0. Judge, sup. 1761. 

Kabbalah, XIII. 810. 

Rationalism, XX. 289. 

Agnosticism, sup. 85. 

Idolatry, XII. 698. 

Fetichism, IX. 1 18. 

See also God, in Index volume, page 184. 


Read the special article on THEOLOGY, XXIII. 260- 
276; also the following: 

Apologetics, II. 189; sup. 1224. 

Christian Evidences of Christianity, sup. 1224. 

Doctrine. DOGMATICS, VII. 332-342, " a branch of theo- 

logical study which treats of the doctrine of 


HERMENEUTICS, XI. 741-749, "which treats of Scrip 
ture interpretation." 

Harmony of the Gospels, sup. 1528. 

ESCHATOLOGY, VIII. 534-538, " the doctrine of the last 

Immortality. See Butler, IV. 584; Plato, XIX. 199, 
209; Vedanta, XXIV. 118. 

CREEDS, VI. 558-565, "authorized formularies of Chris- 
tian doctrine." 

To these longer articles many others might be added, 
such as : 

The Holy Ghost, sup. 1600. 

Predestination, XIX. 668. 

Atonement, sup. 282. 

Imputation, sup. 1661. 

Justification, sup. 1763. 

Inspiration, XIII. 154. 

Sanctification, XVIII. 425. 

Prophecy, XIX. 814. 

Anthropomorphism, II. 123. 

Transubstantiation, VIII. 653; sup. 2567. 

Perfectionism, sup. 2348. 

Antichrist, II. 124. 

Christian Apocalyptic, II. 179. 

Apostasy, II. 189. 

Heresy, XI. 732. 

Arminianism, sup. 236. 

Apostolic Succession, sup. 205. 

Indulgence, XII. 846. 

Immaculate Conception, XII. 715. 

Consecration, VI. 291. 

Beatification, sup. 391. 

See, also, the references to Christianity and Church 
history below. 



Christianity, V. 688; creeds of, VI. 558; doctrines of 
VII. 332 ; ethics of, VIII. 588 ; theology of, XXIII. 239. 

Christ, V. 687. 

The testimony of the Gospels to Jesus Christ, XIII. 659. 

Christology, sup. 799. 

The Church, V. 758. 

Views of Christianity by famous writers and philoso- 
phers : 

Origen's, XVII. 841. 

Irenseus's, XIII. 274. 

Clement's, V. 820. 

Lessing's, XIV. 482. 

Locke's, XIV. 756. 

Rousseau's, XIII. 670. 

Voltaire's, IX. 669. 

1. Roman Catholic Church, sup. 2566-2573, an im- 
portant and very comprehensive article by Cardinal 
Gibbons, should be read in connection with the general 
article on the same subject, XX. 628-631, by P. L. 
Connellan, of Rome. See also POPEDOM, XIX. 487 - 5 10. 

This latter article is designed to give the main outlines 

of the history of the Papacy as an institution. 
Christian So- A Hst q£ th( , pQpes j g -^ ;U the effd . &nd 
cieties and . . 

churches reao -ers wishing to extend their knowledge ot 
this subject by becoming acquainted with the 
personal history of the pontiffs may do so by referring to 
the special articles in the Britannica relating respectively 
to the different popes. The method of electing a pope is 
described in sup. 2568. The following articles may also 
be read : 

Catholic, V. 227. (For the first use of this name, see V. 9.) 
Catholics in America, sup. 2569. 


Titles in the Catholic Church, sup. 2919. 
Archbishops, II. 569. 
Bishops. III. 788. 

. 'but, I. 22. 
Acolyte, I. 98. 
Celibacy, V. 293. 
Propaganda, XIX. 809. 
Ultramontism, sup. 2977. 

History of Monasticism, I. 14-21, to be read in connec- 
tion with 

Monachism, XVI. 698. 

Asceticism, II. 6j6. 

Religious Brotherhoods, sup. 586. 

Franciscans, IX. 698. 

Dominicans, VII. 354; XIII. 93. 

Benedictines, III. 558 ; VIII. 372; sup. 417. 

Carthusians, V. 163 ; I. 20. 

Jesuits, XIII. 645 ; XVIII. 430 ; sup. 1742. 

Passionists, sup. 2307. 

Paulist Fathers, sup. 2326. 

Trappists, XXIII. 522. 

Acoemetae (sleepless monks), I. 98. 

Sisters of Charity, sup. 754. 

Old Catholics, XVII. 754. 

2. Greek Church, XI. 154. 
Stundists of Russia, sup. 2814 ; XXI. 82. 

3. Armenian Church, II. 548. 

4. PROTESTANTISM, XX. 319. Of the sects of Protest- 
antism a very large number are noticed in separate 
articles in the Britannica. The following will indicate 
the scope and character of these articles : 


Adventists, XVI. 320; sup. 52. 

Baptists, III. 353 ; Freewill Baptists, IX. 762; Baptists 
in the United States, sup. 346. This article includes brief 
accounts of all the different bodies of Baptists now in this 

Catholic Apostolic, V. 237. 

Christian Brethren, XIX. 238. 

Dissenters, sup. 1053. 

Christian Alliance, sup. 797. 

Congregationalists, VI. 268; in the United States, sup. 

Episcopal: Church of England, VIII. 370; Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States, VIII. 493. 

Disciples of Christ, sup. 1052. 

Evangelical Association, VIII. 725; sup. 1221. 

Free Church of England, sup. 1335. 

Friends, sup. 1344 (see Quakers), XX. 147. 

Independents, XII. 722. 

Lutherans, XV. 84 ; in the United States, sup. 1932. 

Mennonites, XVI. 1 1 ; sup. 2036. 

Methodists, XVI. 185 ; in the United States, sup. 2045. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church, sup. 83. 

Moravian Brethren, XVI. 811 ; sup. 2101. 

Mormons, XVI. 825. 

Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, sup. 1837. 

New Jerusalem Church, sup. 2177; XXII. 759. 

Presbyterians, XIX. 676; sup. 2437; Cumberland Pres- 
byterians, sup. 963. 

Protestant Episcopal Church, sup. 2464. 

Reformed Church, XX. 339; Alliance of Reformed 
Churches, sup. 132; Reformed Church in America, sup. 

Salvation Army, sup. 2616. 

Spiritualists, XXII. 404; II. 207. 


United Brethren, XXIII. 726; sup. 2982. 

Unitarians, XXIII. 725 ; sup. 2980. 

Universalists, XXIII. 831 ; sup. 3001. 

To these might be added an extensive list, embracing 
such names as the following : 

Abecedarians, sup. 24. 

Antinomians, II. 129. 

Aquarians, II. 217. 

Annihilationists, VIII. 538. 

Annunciada, sup. 191. 

Hussites, XII. 407. 

Illuminati, XII. 706. 

Latitudinarians, sup. 1837. 

Christadelphians, sup. 796. 

The Arminian Nunnery, sup. 1259. (See Ferrar.) 

Winebrennerians, sup. 804. 

But it is unnecessary to attempt a complete list. The 
reader who so desires will now be able to continue the in- 
vestigation of this subject without further assistance from 
the Guide. 


As an introduction to another valuable course of read- 
ing, take the article entitled CHURCH AND CHURCH HIS- 
TORY, V. 758. 

The number of special articles, biographical and histori- 
cal, relating to the history of the Christian church may 
be estimated from the following incomplete list of sub- 
jects which receive treatment in the first volume alone : 

Volume 1 : — Saint Adalbert, p. 134; Adam of Bremen, 
p. 138; Adiaphorists, p. 153 ; Adoption Controversy, p. 
163; Popes Adrian, p. 165; ^Etius, p. 356; Archbishop 
Agelnoth, p. 279; Johannes Agricola, p. 290; Bishop 
Aidan, p. 424; Aired, p. 475 ; St. Alban, p. 446; Cardinal 


Albert, p. 451; Albigenses, p. 454; Bishop Alcock, p. 
469; Alcuin, p. 471; Bishop Aldred, p. 475; Cardinal 
Aleandro, p. 476 ; Alesius, p. 478 ; Popes Alexander, p. 
486; Joseph Alleine, p. 581 ; Felix Amat, p. 653 ; Amal- 
ric of Bena, p. 652 ; Saint Ambrose, p. 662 ; Nicolaus 
Arnsdorf, p. 778 ; Moses Amyrant, p. 782. 

Instead of continuing this list so as to cover in the same 

way the remaining twenty-three volumes of the Britannica % 

the GUIDE deems it sufficient to name merely a 

Select List ^ ew °f the most important subjects. 

ofTopics. The history of the Christian church may be 

said to begin with the preaching of St. Peter on 

the day of Pentecost. See, therefore, St. Peter, XVIII. 

693 ; Pentecost, XVIII. 514; Acts of the Apostles, I. 123. 

After these, read : 

Saint Paul, XVIII. 415. 

Saint John, XIII. 706. 

Saint Andrew, II. 20. 

Revelation, XX. 506. 

Apollos, II. 189. 

Apostolic Fathers, II. 195. 

Saint Anthony, II. 107. 

Saint Augustine, III. 75. 

Justin Martyr, XIII. 790. 

The four Saint Gregories, XI. 775-781. 

Arius, II. 537. 

Saint Fulgentius, sup. 1349. 

Saint Athanasius, I. 828. 

Basil the Great, III. 412. 

Chrysostom, V. 755. 

Eusebius, VIII. 721. 

Irenaeus, XIII. 273. 

Cyril of Alexandria, VI. 751. 

Nestorius, XVII. 355. 


Polycarp, XIX. 414. 

Saint Barbara, sup. 350. 

Saim Agnes, sup. 85. 

Saint Epiphanius, XVIII. 482. 

Saint Alban, I. 446. 

Sylvester, XXII. 74. 

Bede, III. 480. 

Saint Bridget, IV. 342. 

Saint Bernard, III. 601. 

Crispin and Crispinian, VI. 590. 

Saint Boniface, IV. ^^. 

Lanfranc, XIV. 282. 

Anselm, II. 91. 

Arnold of Brescia, II. 625. 

Thomas a Kempis, XIV. 316. 

Saint Benedict, III. 557. 

Saint Dominic, VII. 353. 

Saint Francis, IX. 692 ; Franciscans, IX. 698. 

The Jesuits, XIII. 645. 

History of Monasticism, I. 14. 

Capuchins, V. 79. 

Carthusians, V. 163. 

Carmelites, V. 1 16. 

Celestines, V. 291. 

Flagellants, IX- 280. 

Cloister, VI. 35. 

Asceticism, III. 6/6. 

Saint Dunstan, VII. 359. 

Manichaeism, XVII. 124. 

The Albigenses, I. 454. 

The Lollards, XIV. 810. 

The Waldenses, XXIV. 322. 

The Council of Basil, III. 409. 

The Inquisition, XIII. 91. 


Francis Xavier, XXIV. 716. 

John Wycliffe, XXIV. 708. 

Zwingli, XXIV. 832. 

Erasmus, VIII. 512. 

Martin Luther, XV. 71. 

John Huss, XII. 404. 

John Calvin, IV. 714. 

The Huguenots, XII. 337. 

The Reformation, XX. 319. 

Council of Trent, XXIII. 543. 

Thomas Cranmer, VI. 548. 

John Knox, XIV. 130. 

William Laud, XIV. 346. 

Puritanism in England, VIII. 340. 

George Fox, IX. 500. 

John Bunvan, IV. 526. 

John Wesley, XXIV. 504; VIII. 355. 

Emanuel Swedenborg, XXII. 758. 

Leo XIII., sup. 1864. 

James Freeman Clarke, sup. 819. 

Alexander Campbell, sup. 667. 

Phillips Brooks, sup. 584. 

Henry Ward Beechcr, sup. 400. 

Lyman Abbott, sup. 15. 

F. W. Farrar, sup. 1249. 

Charles H. Parkhurst, sup. 2296. 

William Booth, sup. 522. 

Christian Missions, XVI. 511. 

Sunday-schools, sup. 2823. 

Epworth League, sup. 12 10. 

Christian Endeavor, Society of, sup. 797. 

Young Men's Christian Association, sup. 3223. 

Young Women's Christian Association, sup. 3224. 


Woman's Christian Temperance Union, sup. 3182. 
Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 
sup. 798. 


The Seven Sacraments : 
Baptism, III. 348. 
Confirmation, V. 258. 
Eucharist, VIII. 650; sup. 1619. 
Penance, XVIII. 484. 
Extreme Unction, VIII. 813. 
Holy Orders, sup. 2567 ; II. 90. 
Matrimony, sup. 2567. 

Ecclesiastical costume, VI. 461. 
Ablution, I. 50. 
Rituals, sup. 2554. 
Mass, sup. 2572. 
Apostles' Creed, II. 194. 
Apostles' Canons, II. 194. 
The Litany, XIV. 695. 
The Catechism, V. 219. 
Confession, VI. 257. 
Anointing, II. 90. 
Holy water, XII. 105. 
Adoration, I. 164. 
Incense, XII. 718. 
Rosary, XX. 848. 
Breviary, IV. 263. 
Missal, XVI. 508. 
Absolution, I. 58. 

Excommunication, VIII. 798; Bell, Book, and Candle, 
sup. 410. 

Stigmatization, XXII. 548. 


Fasting, IX. 44. 

Sacrifice, XXI. 132. 

Pilgrimage, XIX. go. 

Love Feasts, XVI. 188 ; V. 274. 

Vows, XXIV. 300. 

Hymns, XII. 577. 

Dies Irae, sup. 1046. 

Kyrie Eleison ! sup. 1812. 

Peter's Pence, sup. 2357. 


Sunday, XXII. 653. 
Christmas, V. 704. 

Lent, X. 446. 

Feas ; s Palm Sunday, XVIII. 198. 

and * y 

Holy Days Passion Week, XVIII. 343. 
Good Friday, X. 774. 
Easter, VII. 613. 

All Saints' Day, I. 578 ; sup. 132. 
All Souls' Day, sup. 135. 
Atonement Day, VIII. 806. 
Candlemas, IV. 804. 
Corpus Christi, VI. 436. 
Feast of the Annunciation, II. 90. 
Feast of the Assumption, II. 734. 
Epiphany, VIII. 483. 


Pope (see Index volume, page 353). 
Cardinal, V. 96; sup. 696. 
Crnclave of Cardinals, sup. 880. 
Roman Congregations, sup. 888. 
Patriarch, III. 788. 


Bishop, III. 787. 

Tics!)} ter, X. 075. 

Clergy, \". 828. 
° fficers Dean, VII. 13. 
church. Acolyte, 1. 98. 
Abbe, I. 9. 

Abbess, I. 9 ; abbot, I. 22. 

Abbreviators, I. 29. 

Advocatus diaboli (devil's advocate), sup. 54. 

Catechumen, V. 220. 

Canon, V. 15. 

Defender of the marriage tie, sup. 1013. 

Parson, XVIII. 327. 

Vicar, XVIII. 296. 

Curate, VI. 709. 

Legate, XIV. 412. 

Archbishop, III. 369. 

Priest, X. 724. 

Deacon, VII. 1 ; deaconess, VII. 1. 

Archdeacon, III. 370. 

Almoner, I. 595. 

Nun, XVI. 699; monk, XVI. 698. 

Neophyte, XVII. 332. 

Canon law, V. 1-23. 

Apostolic canons, II. 194. 

The Thirty-nine Articles, II. 653. 


For a general discussion of questions relating to the 
Bible and its circulation to the year 1875, see Bible, III. 
634-650. For a comprehensive account of its circulation 
since 1875, see sup. 442-456. This latter article contains 
specimen extracts from Bibles printed in 242 languages 
and dialects. It is followed by a list of the Bible Societies 


of the world, sup. 456, giving the number of Bibles issued 
by each society since its organization. 

Inspiration of the Bible, XIII. 154. 

Wycliffe's Bible, XXIV. 710. 

The Douay Bible, sup. 1069. 

Tyndale's Bible, XXIII. 76. 

The Geneva Bible, VIII. 387. 

The Breeches Bible, VIII. 387. 

The Septuagint, XXI. 667. 

King James's Version, VIII. 381. 

Bible Societies, III. 649. 

Bible glosses, X. 687. 

Spinoza on Biblical Criticism, XXII. 402. 

Higher Criticism, sup. 944. 

Origen on Biblical Criticism, XVII. 840; Baur, III. 448 ; 
De Wette, VII. 144; Morinus, XVI. 824. 

Revision of the Bible, sup. 2539. 

See the chapter in this GUIDE entitled, Readings for 
Bible Students. 

See Theological Education, sup. 2889-2892. 




" Love all, trust a few; do wrong to none." 

— A 11 ' s Well That Ends Well. 

PHILANTHROPY, in its broadest sense, is love of man- 
kind manifested in deeds of kindness to one's fellows. 
While the ultimate object of all philanthropists 
Philan- is the same— the mitigation of misfortune and 
thropy. the consequent betterment of all conditions of 
life — the methods which they pursue are widely- 
different, and the immediate ends toward which they aim, 
are many and various. Some labor in missions, believing 
that in the spread of the Gospel of Christ there is the surest 
means of promoting human happiness. Some devote their 
energies to measures of reform, hoping that by effecting 
certain changes, whether in the political or the social world, 
mankind may be elevated to a higher plane of existence. 
Some have been fearless antagonists of slavery and other 
forms of oppression, and their voices have always cham- 
pioned the cause of the weak, the downtrodden, and the 
poor. Some labor in behalf of prison reform, and strive 
to bring about better and more humane methods of dealing 
with criminals. Some are active in deeds of charity and 
in the promotion of means to improve the condition of the 
poor. And so each philanthropist works in his own field, 
but all are actuated by the same impulse — the impulse of 
sympathy and love, the impulse to do good to suffering 
humanity. To all who are interested either directly or 


indirectly in any form of philanthropical effort, the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica offers a mine of valuable information. 
The following lists of references, although by no means ex- 
haustive, will be of assistance to every one who seeks to 
know more about the active benevolences of the world. 

For a comparison between Pagan and Christian philan- 
thropy, see VIII. 590. 


List of missionary societies, XVI. 515. 

Christian missions, XVI. 511. 

Missions in China, XIX. 810; XVI. 517. 

Missions in India, XIX. 81 1 ; XXIV. 716. 

Missions in Japan, XVI. 517; XIII. 652. 

Roman Catholic propaganda, XIX. 809. 
Mission- The Jesuit system of missions, XIII. 651, 

aries. 654; XX. 536; in North America, sup. 1742. 

Baptist missions, III. 356. 

Methodist missions, XVI. 517. 

Moravian missions, XVI. 811 ; XVI. 516. 

The McAll mission in France, sup. 1940. 

Francis Xavier, the Apostle of the Indies, XXIV. 716. 

John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians, VIII. 136 ; XVI. 
514: XVII. 243. 

Robert Morrison, missionary to China, XVI. 846. 

William Carey, the father of Protestant missions, V. 101. 

Adoniram Judson, missionary to India, XIII. 766. 

Father Jogues, Jesuit missionary among the Mohawks, 
sup. 1745. 

John Williams, missionary, XXIV. 586. 

Henry Martyn, missionary to Persia, XV. 586; XVIII. 

Thomas Gage, first missionary to Mexico, sup. 1 356. 

Robert Moffat, African missionary, XVI. 543. 


David Livingstone, XIV. 720; I. 247. 

William Goodell, missionary in Turkey, sup. 1423. 

Stephen Grellet, French Quaker missionary, sup. 1467. 

Robert W. McAll, founder of the McAll missions, sup. 

Samuel Marsden, the Apostle of New Zealand, XVII. 

William A. P. Martin, president of Tungwcm College, 
Peking, sup. 2004. 


Thomas Joseph Barnardo, " father of the don't live 
anywheres," sup. 357. 

Clara Barton, founder of the Red Cross So- 
Philanthro- Ciety, Slip. 367. 

pists. Charles Loring Brace, sup. 541. 

Baroness Burdett-Coutts, sup. 624. 

Mary Carpenter, sup. 706. 

George W. Childs, sup. 789. 

Peter Cooper, sup. 910. 

Elizabeth Fry, English Quakeress, IX. 804. 

Edward Denison, originator of " university settlements," 
sup. 1026. 

Sarah Piatt Doremus, sup. 1068. 

Henry Towle Durant, founder of Wellesley College, 
sup. 1096. 

Abigail Hopper Gibbons, sup. 1393. 

Stephen Girard, founder of Girard College, X. 621 ; sup. 
1 40 1. 

Baron Hirsch, the Jewish philanthropist, sup. 1588; 
Philanthropies of American Jews, sup. 1760. 

Johns Hopkins, sup. 1612. 

Dr. Samuel G. Howe, sup. 1624. 

James Lenox, founder of Lenox Library, sup. 1864. 


James Lick, founder of Lick Observatory, sup. 1878. 

Sir Josiah Mason, founder of almshouses and orphan- 
ages, sup. 2009. 

Sir Moses Montefiore, sup. 2096. 

Geo. Miiller, founder of orphans' homes, England, sup. 

Florence Nightingale, sup. 221 1. 

George Peabody XVII. 442; sup. 2329. 

Samuel Plimsoll, "the sailor's friend," sup. 2401. 

Enoch Pratt, founder of Pratt Library, sup. 2436. 

Charles Pratt, founder of Pratt Institute, sup. 2435. 

Matthew Vassar, philanthropist and founder of the So- 
ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, sup. 3025. 

George Williams, founder of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, sup. 3157. 

Sisters of Mercy, sup. 2039. 

Sisters of Charity, XVI. 713. 

John Howard, the father of prison reform, XII. 309. 
Elizabeth Fry, IX. 804. 
p . , Theodore Fliedner, German philanthropist, 

Friends. IX. 307. 

Enoch Cobb Wines, founder of the National 
Prison Association, sup. 3168. 

The Prison Discipline Society, XIX. 749. 

The Howard Association, sup. 1623. 

The following references may be found interesting and 
valuable in connection with any study of human benevo- 
lence : 

The Sanitary Commission, sup. 2624. 

Woman's Relief Corps, sup. 3183. 

Red Cross Society, sup. 2521. 

The education of defective, dependent, and criminal 
classes, sup. 2658. 

Reformatories, sup. 2525. 


University settlements, sup. 3005. 
Charity organizations, sup. 751. 

Law and Order societies, sup. 1843. 

Societies tor the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 
sup. 788. 

Almshouses, sup. 138 ; XIX. 465. 

Almsgiving in relation to Poordaws, XIX. 463. 

The Montyon Prizes (rewards for signal instances of 
philanthropy), sup. 2099. 

Poordaws, XIX. 462 ; sup. 2417. 

English Poordiouses, XIX. 468. 

Nursing, sup. 2231. 

Hospitals, XII. 301. 

Bellevue Hospital, sup. 411. 

Guy's Hospital, sup. 1499. 

Foundling hospitals, IX. 481. 

Ambulance associations, sup. 151. 

Hospital ambulances, I. 665. 

Tenement life, sup. 2873. 


Abolitionists, XXII. 141 ; sup. 28. 

Abolition of slavery in the United States, XXIII. 752, 
763, 767, 781. 

Abolition of slavery in England, VIII. 365. 

Clarkson on slavery, V. 813. 

The Quakers' opposition to slavery, XVIII. 492. 

John Woolman, sup. 3 191. 

President Jefferson's opposition to slavery, XIII. 615. 

Emancipation in the United States, XXIII. yyj. 

William Wilberforce, XXIV. 565. 

William Forster, sup. 13 13. 

William Lloyd Garrison, X. 85 ; XVII. 432 ; XXII. 145. 

Joshua R. Giddings, sup. 1395. 


Wendell Phillips, I. 723 ; sup. 2366. 

Samuel May, sup. 2020. 

Elijah P. Lovejoy, XXII. 142 ; sup. 1922. 

Owen Lovejoy, sup. 1924. 

Benjamin Lundy, sup. 1931 . 

James G. Birney, sup. 476. 

Elizur Wright, sup. 3206. 

Anna Dickinson, sup. 1043. 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, sup. 2797. 

John Brown, IV. 365 ; XI. 490. 

Henry B. Stanton, sup. 2779. 

John Greenleaf Whittier, I. 734. 

John C. Fremont, sup. 1339. 

Abraham Lincoln, XIV. 658. 

Frederick Douglass, sup. 1071. 

See, also, the following articles : History of Slavery, 
XXII. 129; Ancient Slavery, XIX. 348; the Slave-trade, 
XXII. 137; British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 
sup. 576; Freedmen's Bureau, sup. 1336. 


i. The Woman Suffrage Movement. 

The first convention in the United States to advocate 
Woman's suffrage was held at Seneca Falls, N. Y., in 
1848. Four women were present. 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, sup. 2778. 

Lucretia Mott, sup. 21 18. 

Lucy Stone, sup. 2793. 

Susan B. Anthony, sup. 195. 

Mary A. Livermore, sup. 1899. 

Antoinette Brown Blackwell, sup. 488. 

Amelia Bloomer, inventor of the " Bloomer costume," 
sup. 502. 

Emily Faithfull, sup. 1240. 


Millicent Garrett Fawcett, sup. 1251. 

Ellen II. Foster, sup. 13 18. 

May Wright Sewall, sup. 2694. 

Women's clubs, sup. 838. 

Education and enfranchisement of women, sup. 31 80. 

2. The Temperance Movement. 
Liquor laws. XIV. 688; sup. 1892. 
Temperance legislation, XIV. 688. 
Prohibition laws, sup. 1892. 
Option laws, sup. 1893. 

South Carolina dispensary system, sup. 1894. 

The Gothenburg system, sup. 1895. 

Raines liquor law, sup. 1 894. 

The Prohibition Party, sup. 2453. 

Temperance societies, XXIII. 158. 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union, sup. 3182. 

Temperance legislation in the United States, sup. 1892. 

Father Mathew societies, XV. 631. 

Good Templars, XXIII. 159; sup. 1892. 

John B. Gough, sup. 143 1. 

Frances E. Willard, sup. 3155. 

3. Social Reformers. 

Felix Adler, founder of the Society for Ethical Culture, 
sup. 49 ; sup. 1 2 18. 

Charles Bradlaugh, English agitator and social reformer, 
sup. 544. 

Anthony Comstock, champion of social purity, sup. 879. 

Elbridge T. Gerry, president of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Children, sup. 1389. 

Society for Ethical Culture, sup. 12 18. 




" Mend your speech a little, 
Lest it may mar your fortunes." — King Lear. 

He who would excel as a public speaker must in the 
first place possess a thorough mastery of words. He 
must be able to express his thoughts in a manner which 
is, at the same time, pleasing, forcible, and convincing. 
He must have a minute and comprehensive knowledge of 
everything pertaining to the subject which he undertakes 
to discuss ; and he must understand the secret influences 
and methods by which the minds of his hearers may be 
moved and their actions determined. A mastery of 
words and of correct and elegant language may be ac- 
quired by the study of rhetoric and its kindred branches 
(see the chapter entitled, The Writer, in this GUIDE). A 
knowledge of the subject to be discussed must be obtained 
by careful investigation, by personal experience, and by 
the study of books. One's understanding of the human 
mind and its motives may be improved by the study of 
philosophy, and especially that division of the science 
which is usually called psychology (see the references in 
the chapter entitled, The Teacher, in this GUIDE). 

Very much may be learned by studying the methods 

of famous orators of former times. Would you 

Greek and j^ now t i lc methods by which Demosthenes made 

Roman . , ,, . . .. . 

Oratory himself the greatest orator of all time, and 

would you understand something of the distinc- 
tive qualities of his oratory ? Read the article in the 


Britcin>iicc7, VII. 72; then read of the characteristics of 
Greek oratory in general, XI. 142. Read of Antiphon,the 
most ancient of Greek orators, II. 134 a; of Isa-us, XIII. 
376; of Hyperides, XII. 596 b; of Lysias, XV. 118; of 
Isocratcs, XIII. 388; and of Andocides, II. 18. 

Then see what is said about Roman oratory, XX. 719. 
Read of Cicero, V. 770, and XX. 514; of Hortensius, XII. 
210; of Marcus Antonius, II. 140; of Domitius Afer, I. 
225 ; of Julius Caesar, IV. 633 and XX. 720. 

Then coming down to the oratory of modern times, 
read of Lord Chatham, V. 440; of Burke, IV. 544; of 
Fox, IX. 500; of the younger Pitt, XIX. 134; 
British of Grattan, XI. 63 ; of Brougham, IV. 374; of 

Oratory. Lord Derby, VII. 112; of Robert Hall, XI. 392. 
Finally, arriving at the study of our own 
American orators, read I. 7^1 b', and I. J22 b". Then 
turn to the article on Patrick Henry, XI. 6,6; and after- 
ward to those on Fisher Ames, I. 735 ; Daniel Webster, 
XXIV. 471 ; Henry Clay, V. 817 ; John C. Cal- 
American houn, IV. 683 ; Edward Everett, VIII. 736. 
Oratory. The rules that govern argumentative bodies 

should be thoroughly understood by every 
public speaker. Hence refer to 

Parliamentary law, sup. 2298. 

Parliamentary procedure, XVIII. 311. 

Quorum, sup. 2486. 

Once started in this course of reading, you will be sur- 
prised at the large number of additional subjects which 
will suggest themselves ; and if you are actually in earnest, 
you will need no guide to point out their whereabouts in 
the Britannica. You will be able to depend upon and 
help yourself. 

As an example of the manner in which a single subject 
may be studied with a view to its discussion in public, let 


us suppose that you are preparing a lecture on temperance. 

What help can the Encyclopedia Britannica give 

you ? Let us see. That the wisest of ancient 
Temperance ... . . . _ r .„ TT 

Lecturer philosophers advocated temperance, see XXII. 

237, and II. 677; and that they declared it to 

be one of the cardinal virtues, see VIII. 580. 

Read of Bacchus, VII. 248, and XVII. 839. 

Then, coming to later times, study the valuable article 
on Drunkenness, VII. 481 ; also Liquor Laws, XIV. 688 
and sup. 1892 ; Temperance societies, XXIII. 158 ; Good 
Templars, XXIII. 159. 

Prisons, XIX. 747. 

Poor-houses, XIX. 468. 

Other articles and sections which may be read at pleas- 
ure are : 

John B. Gough, sup. 1431, 

Prohibition laws, sup. 1892. 

Option laws, sup. 1893. 

South Carolina dispensary system, sup. 1894. 

The Gothenburg dispensary plan, sup. 1895. 

Raines liquor law, sup. 1894. 

Prohibition Party, sup. 2453. 

Father Mathew societies, XV. 631. 

Alcoholic beverages, sup. 117. 

Distillation of spirits, VII. 264 a. 

Brewing, IV. 294; fermentation, XXIV. 602. 

Brewing in the United States, sup. 560. 

Brandy, IV. 216. 

Whisky, XXIV. 542. 

Effects of whisky, XVIII. 407. 

Wine, XXIV. 601. 

Ale, I. 476. 

Absinthe, I. 57. 

Arrack, II. 628. 


Gin, X. 602. 

Liqueurs, XIV. 686. 

Perry, XIV. 557, 
and in like manner, through the entire list of intoxicating 
beverages. To these may be added such articles as 

The Keeley Gold-cure, sup. 1775. 

Delirium tremens, VII. 50. 

Insanity, XIII. 95 ; in relation to crime, VI. 584. 

Heredity, VIII. 60S ; XI J I. 96, and XI. 837. 

The list of books and other publications which advocate 
the cause of temperance, XXIII. 160, will be found of 
much value in directing you to further research. 

So much for the lecturer on temperance. The political 
speaker will find a selection of references for his special 
use in our chapter entitled, The American Citi- 
Other zen ; the pulpit orator will find an extensive 

Speakers. array of references in the chapter for The 
Preacher and Theologian ; and, generally speak- 
ing, the various subjects adapted to public presentation 
and discussion receive due notice in this GUIDE, each 
under its especial heading. Hence it is unnecessary to 
multiply examples here. 

The would-be orator, however, no matter what may be 
his theme, is recommended to follow out the course of 
reading suggested in the chapter entitled, The Writer. 




" Come, and take choice of all my library." 

— Titus A ndronicus. 

" We turned o'er many books together." 

— Merchant of Venice. 

To the lover of books the Encyclopedia Britannica is 
itself a great and inestimable treasure, the companion of 
leisure hours, the helper in time of need, the one indis- 
pensable portion of his library. No other single 
The Book collection of volumes in the world furnishes so 
Lover. complete an equipment for all the business of 
life. Without the Britannica no scholar's libra- 
ry is complete ; without it no bookman's house can be fully 
furnished. It is not only in itself a book to be consulted 
and admired and cherished, buf it is rich in information 
concerning other books that deserve to be admired and 
cherished. It is par excellence the bookman's book about 

Would you like to learn something about the greatest 
books that the world has ever produced — something about 
the character of their contents ; — something about their 
origin ? 

The following list of references will help you to find the 
information you desire : 


The Bible, III. 634; sup. 442. 

The Vedas, II. 698; Rig-Veda, XII. 780. 

The Koran, XVI. 597. 


Mahabharata, XXI. 281. 
Ramayana, XXI. 280. 
Shah-Nameh, XVIII. 656; IX. 225. 
Zend Avesta, XXIV. 775. 

Homer's Iliad, XII. 117. 

Homer's Odyssey, XII. 119. 

Aristotle's Ethics and Politics, I. 215 ; XIX. 349. 

Demosthenes on the Crown, VII. 71. 

yEschylus's Tragedies, I. 209. 

Sophocles's CEdipus, XXII. 272. 

Euripides's Medea, VIII. 675. 

Aristophanes' the Knights, II. 508. 

Herodotus, XI. 756. 

Xenophon's Anabasis, I. 787. 

Cicero's Orations, XX. 514; V. 770. 

Virgil's ^Eneid, XXIV. 253. 

Plutarch's Lives, XIX. 232 ; XVII. 334. 

Malory's Morte d'Arthur XV. 337; X. 173. 

The Eddas, VII. 649 ; XXII. 201. 

Nibelungenlied, XVII. 474. 

Gesta Romanorum, X. 555. 

Arabian Nights, XXIII. 316. 

Lucian's "True History," XV. 43. 

Dante's Divina Commedia, VI. 815. 
Spenser's Faerie Queene, XXII. 394. 
Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, II. 503. 
Shakespeare's Tragedies, VII. 430. 
Milton's Paradise Lost, XVI. 336-339. 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, IV. 529. 

Locke On the Human Understanding, VIII. 423. 
Smith's Wealth of Nations, XIX. 366. 


Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, X. 

Mill's Logic, XVI. 312. 

Darwin's Origin of Species, XXIV. 77. 

Boswell's Life of Dr. Johnson, IV. 77. 

Don Quixote, V. 352. 
Gil Bias, XIV. 472. 
Robinson Crusoe, VII. 28. 
Gulliver's Travels, XXII. 766. 
The Vicar of Wakefield, X. 672. 
Voltaire's Zadig, XXIV. 285. 
Goethe's Faust, X. 539. 
The Waverley Novels, VIII. 434. 
Victor Hugo's Les Miserables, sup. 1629. 
Thackeray's Vanity Fair, XXIII. 215. 
Dickens's David Copperfield, VII. 177. 
George Eliot's Romola, sup. 951. 

St. Augustine's Confessions, III. 75 ; VIII. 592 ; I. 216. 

Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ, XIV. 32. 

Pascal's Pensees, XVIII. 335. 

Keble's Christian Year, XIV. 26. 

Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Holy Dying, XXIII. 

93; VIII. 421. 

Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, XII. 151. 

Bacon's Essays and Novum Organum, III. 210. 

Lewes's History of Philosophy, XIV. 491 ; VIII. 765. 

Addison's The Spectator, I. 148; VIII. 427. 

Macaulay's Essays, XV. 125. 

Emerson's Essays, sup. 1195- 

Carlyle's French Revolution, sup. 701. 

We have named more than fifty. The list might be 
greatly extended, but it is unnecessary. 

nil. BOOKMAN. 395 


Album, I. 456. 

Aldine — Aldus Manutius, XV. 512. 

Almanacs, I. 590. 

Ancient forms of books, XVIII. 144. 

Anonymous, III. 657. 

Alexandrian MS., I. 496. 

Bibliography, II. 658; III. 654, 655. 

Bibliomania, III. 655 ; sup. 457. 

Bindings, IV. 41 ; XIV. 538 ; the " Arminian Nunnery," 
sup. 1259. 

Block-books, III. 652 ; XXIII. 683. 

Black-letter, XXIII. 686, 694. 

Books, IV. 37; III. 651. 

Book-cases, XIV. 536. 

Book-house, XIII. 152. 

Book-plates, sup. 519. 

Book-scorpion, sup. 520. 

Books for the Blind, sup. 496. 

Books in the British Museum, sup. 577. 

Bowdlerizing, sup. 536. 

Broadsides, XVIII. 204. 

Catalogues, XIV. 537, 539. 

Copyright, XIV. 541. (See chapter entitled, The Printer 
and Publisher.) 

Censorship of books, III. 639, 658. 

Chap-books, XVIII. 204. 

Classification of books, III. 661. 

Cleaning of books, III. 821. 

Condemned and prohibited books, III. 658. 

De Morgan's Bibliography, VII. 6y. 

Dibdin, VII. 172. 

Dictionaries, VII. 179-193; sup. 1044. 


Ducykinck's Cyclopaedia of Literature, sup. 1099. 

Egyptian books, XIV. 510. 

Folk-books, XVIII. 204. 

Grolier, IV. 41 ; sup. 1473. 

Grub Street, sup. 1475. 

Harleian Collection, sup. 1527. 

Illuminated manuscripts, XII. 707; XVI. 437. 

Incunabula, III. 653. 

Indexes, XII. 729. 

Index Expurgatorius, XII. 730 ; XIX. 714. 

Macaronics, IX. 355. 

Magliabechi, XV. 217; XIV. 530. 

Manuscripts, VII. 253; XVIII. 144; XXIII. 682. 

Pamphlets, XVIII. 204; XVII. 413. 

Prohibited books. III. 658 ; XII, 730. 

Pseudonyms, III. 657. 

Rare and curious books, III. 654. 

Xylographic books, XXIII. 682. 


Libraries (general article), XIV. 509-551. 

Libraries of the United States, XIV. 534; sup. 1873. 

Library Management, XIV. 536. 

Library Catalogues, XIV. 539. 

Library of Congress, sup. 1874, 3139; XIV. 535. 

State Libraries, XIV. 535. 

The Advocates' Library, sup. 53. 

Astor Library, sup. 272. 

Tilden Library, sup. 2914. 

Boston Public Library, sup. 527. 

Libraries in Chicago, sup. 783. 

Libraries in Philadelphia, sup. 2364. 

Lenox Library, sup. 1864. 

Pratt Library, Baltimore, sup. 2436. 


National Library, sup. 2139. 

Assyrian libraries, 111. 191. 

Egyptian libraries, XIV. 510. 

Chinese libraries, XIV. 534, 549. 

Arabian libraries, XIV. 514. 

Library of the British Museum, XIV. 514. 

Monastic libraries, XIV. 513, 527. 

Bodleian Library, XIV. 519. 

Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris, XIV. 524. 

Biblioteca Vaticana, XIV. 529. 


Magliabechi, XV. 217. 

Richard de Bury, XIV. 514. 

Melvil Dewey, sup. 1038. 

W. F. Poole, XIV. 540 ; sup. 2417. 

A. R. Spofford, sup. 1874, 2769. 





" The true university of our day is a collection of books." 

— Thomas Carlyle. 

Valuable as the Encyclopedia Britannica is to persons 

of all callings and professions, there is no one who can 

derive greater benefit from it than the teacher. To the 

man or woman actively engaged in education, its worth is 

beyond all estimation. It is an exhaustless mine 

of knowledge, offering information on every 
Teachers' . .,.,. * . .... , 

Book imaginable subject. It is an obliging friend, 

answering the thousands of perplexing ques- 
tions that are daily and unexpectedly presented, and never 
making a mistake. It is the teacher's vade mecutn, the in- 
dispensable companion to which he turns for help and 
guidance in every time of need. If one were asked to 
point out the articles of greatest value to the educator, he 
could not answer; he could only say, "All are valuable." 
To the teacher of sciences, the articles on scientific sub- 
jects will be referred to most frequently (see the references 
on pages 90-129 of this volume). The teacher of mathe- 
matics will derive aid from the numerous chapters and 
treatises on mathematical subjects (see page 130). And 
so, whether you are a teacher of geography, or of philoso- 
phy, or of literature, or of history, or of music, or of art, 
or of any other department of human knowledge, you will 
find the Britannica always ready to supplement your in- 
struction, and to aid you in the work which you have in 


This is the day of educated teachers — of teachers who 
are learned not only in the branches which they teach at 
school, but in the principles which underlie the 
practice of their calling. Pedagogy has become 
g ° gy ' a distinct science. School-teaching is no longer 
a haphazard business, but it is a profession con- 
ducted on lines as exact as those which determine the 
practice of law or of medicine or of theology. The teacher 
who neglects or refuses to recognize this fact is already on 
the road to failure, and his successor is knocking at the 

In the present chapter it is proposed to mark out two or 
three brief courses of professional reading for teachers — 
courses which may be pursued at odd moments at home, 
and which will in no small measure take the place of simi- 
lar courses of study in teachers' institutes and normal col- 
leges. The teacher who follows them out faithfully will 
not only be better equipped for examinations, but will be 
possessed of a broader and deeper knowledge of his pro- 
fession, and consequently much better prepared to grap- 
ple with its difficulties and avoid its perplexities. 


Let us take as the starting point and basis of this 
course of reading the article EDUCATION, in the seventh 
volume of the Britannica. This article, which covers ten 
double - column pages (671-681), is the work of Oscar 
Browning, of Cambridge University, well known in this 
country for his work on Educational Theories. The ob- 
ject of the article is mainly to outline the history of edu- 
cational theories in the chief crises of their development, 
and no attempt is made to discuss the science of teaching, 
or to describe the practical working of any particular 


method or theory. Let us, then, study the history of edu- 
cation from the following references : 

Old Greek education, VII. 671. 
Education p j XIX . 

in Greece 
and Rome Old Roman education, VII. 671. 

Quintilian, XX. 187, 514. 

Early Christian education, VII. 671. 

Clement, V. 819. 

Origen, XVII. 839. 

Tertullian, XXIII. 196. 

Augustine, III. 75. 

Education in the Middle Ages, VII. 671. 
See also Knighthood, XIV. 110. 
Charlemagne, V. 402. 
-_ " Alcuin, I. 472. 

Middle ™ 

Ages. Bede > HI. 480. 

John Scotus Erigena, VIII. 522. 
Gerhard Groot, XI. 207. 
Thomas a Kempis, XIV. 31. 
Brethren of the Common Life, XVI. 711. 
Education at the time of the Renaissance, VII. 672. 
See also Erasmus, VIII. 512. 
Luther, XV. 71. 
Melanchthon, XV. 833. 

Twelve famous teachers : 
Sturm (1507-89), XVII. 673. 
Roger Ascham (1515-78), II. 677. 

Comenius (1 592-1671), VI. 182. 
Famous Ignatius Loyola, XV. 31. 

Teachers. Arnauld, II. 62O. 

Pascal, XVIII. 333. 
August Hermann Francke, IX. 701. 


Pestalozzi, VII. 677. 
Froebel, IX. 792. 
Jacotot, XIII. 539. 
Thomas Arnold, II. 626. 
Horace Mann, XV. 492. 
Lindley Murray, sup. 2128. 
Mary Lyon, sup. 1937. 
James B. Angell, sup. 186. 

Writers on Education: 

Roger Ascham ("The Scholemaster "), II. 677. 
Montaigne, XVI. 767; VII. 674. 
Books John Locke, XIV. 751. 


Writers John Milton ("Tractate on Education"), 

XVI. 324. 
The Port Royalists, IX. 661. 
Rousseau (" Emile "), XXI. 26. 
Pestalozzi (" Leonard and Gertrude "), VII. 677. 
Jean Paul Richter (" Levana "), XX. 546. 
Goethe (" Wilhelm Meister "), X. 712. 
Herbert Spencer, sup. 2764. 
Alexander Bain, sup. 319. 
F. A. P. Barnard, sup. 357. 
William T. Harris, sup. 1532. 

Plato's Academy, I. 68 ; other famous academies, I. 69. 
The Athenaeum, II. 831. 

Universities, XXIII. 831. (This extensive article ex- 
hibits the universities in their historical development, each 
being brought under notice, as far as practica- 
Universities ^ {n the order of itg original foundation.) 

Colleges. Oxford University, III. 317 ; XXIII. 837. 

Cambridge University, III. 579; IV. 728; 
XXIII. 838. 


Aberdeen University, sup. 26. 

Edinburgh University, XXIII. 846. 

University of Leipsic,- XIV. 429; XXIII. 841. 

Gresham College, sup. 1468. 

Newnham College, sup. 2182. 

Public schools in England: Charter House, sup. 757; 
Eton, VIII. 632 ; Christ's Hospital (" Blue-coat School"), 
sup. 800; Harrow, sup. 1534; Westminster School, sup. 

Musical conservatories, VI. 291 ; XVII. 83. 
Technical schools, XXIII. 105. 
Schools for the blind, III. 816, 826. 

Schools for the deaf and dumb, II. 722 ; 
Special VII. 5. 

Schools. Industrial schools, XX. 338. 

Kindergartens, XIV. 79. 

Schools in England, XIV. 834. 
Schools in France, IX. 513. 
Schools in Germany, X. 470. 
Schools in Russia, XXI. 71. 


A comprehensive and exceedingly interesting article 
on the history of Higher Education in the United States 
is contained in sup. 11 16-1122. This article is the work of 
Dr. B. A. Hinsdale, of Michigan University, and 
Higher should be read not only by every American 
Education, teacher, but by every person who would be 
informed concerning the progress of education 
and of educational ideas in this country. It is a worthy 
companion article to the very complete history of Uni- 
versities, XXIII. 831. 


Statistics, showing the number of colleges and univer- 
sities in each State in 1840, sup. 11 19. 
Adelbert College, sup. 47. 

American University at Washington, sup. 167. 
Amherst College, sup. 169. 

.American School at Athens, sup. 277. 

Antioch College, sup. 198. 
Colleges. _, , TT . r> 

Baylor University, sup. 385. 

Beloit College, sup. 414. 

Boston University, sup. 528. 

Brown University, sup. 593. 

Bryn-Mawr College, sup. 602. 

Catholic University of America, sup. 724. 

Chicago, University of, sup. 3003. 

Clark University, sup. 821. 

Colgate University, sup. 862. 

Colorado College, sup. 871. 

Colorado University, sup. 871. 

Columbia University, sup. 874; XVII. 456= 

Columbian University, sup. 874. 

Cornell College, sup. 920. 

Cornell University, sup. 920. 

Dartmouth College, sup. 988. 

Depauw University, sup. 1029. 

Dickinson College, sup. 1044. 

Earlham College, sup. 1105. 

Fisk University, sup. 1283. 

Franklin and Marshall College, sup. 1330. 

General Theological Seminary, sup. 1378. 

Georgetown University, sup. 1382. 

Georgia, University of, sup. 1385. 

Girard College, sup. 1401. 

Hamilton College, sup. 1 5 1 5. 

Hamline University, sup. 1516. 


Hampden-Sydney College, sup. 1518. 

Harvard University, sup. 1538. 

Radcliffe College, sup. 1538, (under Harvard Univ.). 

Haverford College, sup. 1547. 

Howard University, sup. 1623 ; XL 500. 

Illinois University, sup. 1656. 

Indiana University, sup. 1675. 

Iowa College, sup. 1693. 

Iowa, University of, sup. 3005. 

Johns Hopkins University, sup. 1746. 

Kansas, University of, sup. 1771. 

Kenyon College, sup. 1783. 

Knox College, sup. 1802. 

Lafayette College, sup. 1822. 

Lake-Forest University, sup. 1824. 

Lawrence University, sup. 1847. 

Leland Stanford Junior University, sup. 1861. 

Miami University, sup. 2053. 

University of Michigan, sup. 2057. 

Military Academy at West Point, sup. 2061. 

Military Colleges and Schools, sup. 2063. 

Minnesota, University of, sup. 2075. 

Mississippi, University of, sup. 2080. 

Missouri, University of, sup. 2083. 

Montana, University of, sup. 2095. 

McKendree College, sup. 1957. 

Maine State College, sup. 1974. 

Manhattan College, sup. 198 1. 

Mount Holyoke College, sup. 2 121. 

Muhlenberg College, sup. 2123. 

Nashville, University of, sup. 2138. 

Nebraska, University of, sup. 2156. 

New York, University of, sup. 2205. 

University of New Mexico, sup. 116. 


Niagara University, sup. 2207. 
North Carolina University, sup. 2219. 
Northwestern University, sup. 2224. 
Notre Dame, University of, sup. 2228. 
Oberlin College, sup. 2235. 
Ohio State University, sup. 2244. 
Ohio Wesleyan University, sup. 2245. 
Oklahoma University, sup. 2247. 
University of Pennsylvania, sup. 2342. 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, sup. 2435. 
Princeton University, sup. 2447; XIX. 742. 
Purdue University, sup. 2478. 
Randolph-Macon College, sup. 2509. 
Rochester, University of, sup. 2562. 
Rutgers College, sup. 2594. 
St. Louis University, sup. 2606. 
South Dakota, University of, sup. 2759. 
Syracuse University, sup. 2843. 
Tennessee, University of, sup. 2877. 
Texas University, sup. 2886. 
Trinity College, sup. 2944. 
Tufts College, sup. 2957. 
Tulane University, sup. 2957. 
Union College, sup. 2979. 
University of the South, sup. 3005. 
Vanderbilt University, sup. 3021. 
Vassar College, sup. 3025. 
Vermont, University of, sup. 3035. 
Virginia, University of, sup. 3053. 
Washington, University of, sup. 3095. 
Washington and Lee University, sup. 3097. 
Wellesley College, sup. 3 119. 
Wesleyan University, sup. 3123. 
Western Reserve University, sup. 3125. 


Williams College, sup. 3158. 

Yale University, XVII. 394; sup. 3216. 

College Fraternities in the United States, sup. 863. 

University settlements, sup. 3005. 

University Press, sup. 3005. 

Technical schools in America, sup. 2862. 

Business colleges, sup. 635. 
Special Scientific schools, I. 70. 

Schools. Smithsonian Institution, sup. 2738. 

Scientific societies, sup. 52. 
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, sup. 762. 
University Extension, sup. 3002. 
Examinations, VIII. jyy. 
Fellowships, sup. 1256. 

Private schools in the United States, sup. 2648. 
Public schools in the United States, sup. 2650. 
High schools in the United States, sup. 2656. 
Manual training in the public schools, sup. 1985-2659. 
Normal schools in the United States, sup. 2215,2657. 
Evening schools, sup. 2657. 
Rural schools, sup. 2660. 
Kindergartens, XIV. 79; sup. 1790. 
School system among the Indians, sup. 1672. 
Schools in Indian Territory, sup. 1676. 
Compulsory education, sup. 2661. 
Legal education in the United States, sup. 1856. 
Medical education in the United States, sup. 2025. 
Theological education in the United States, sup. 2889. 
Union Theological Seminary, sup. 2980. 
Education of Women in the United States, sup. 31 80. 
National Bureau of Education, sup. 2658. 

At Home 

I III' l I \< HER. 407 


Generally a full account of the educational institutions 
of any country may be found in the article referring to 
the country in question. 

United States, XXIII. 828. 

France, IX. 5 12. 

Institute of France, XIIL 160. 

German)', X. 470. 

Great Britain, VIL 679 ; XIV. 834. 
Abroad Scientific academies, XXII. 221 ; sup. 32. 

Italy. XIIL 460. 
Russia, XXI. 71. 
Austria, III. 118. 
Iceland, XII. 619. 
India, XII. 774. 
Arabia, II. 253. 


The article on PSYCHOLOGY, by Professor James Ward, 
of Trinity College, Cambridge (Volume XX.) fills 
nearly fifty pages of the Britannica, and contains more 
matter than the ordinary school text-books on this sub- 
ject. The teacher who cares to go so deeply 
into the study as to master this entire treatise 
Mind w ^ probably not desire a more extended course 

of reading. It may be preferable, however, to 
read only selected portions of the article, and to supple- 
ment the knowledge thus gained with collateral readings 
from other sources. In such case the following subjects 
may be included : Definition, page 37 ; standpoint of psy- 
chology, page 38 ; constituent elements of mind, page 39 ; 
feeling, page 40 ; attention, page 41 ; dependence of ac- 
tion on feeling, page 43 ; relativity, page 49 ; sensation 



and movement, page 50; perception, page 52; intuition 
of things, page 55; imagination or ideation, page 57; 
obliviscence, page 61 ; expectation, page 63 ; feeling, page 
66 ; intellection, page 75, etc. 

Evolution of mind, VIII. 70. 

Mental association, II. 730. 

Mental powers of man, II. 109. 

Apperception, sup. 207. 

Attention, III. 52. 

Relativity of knowledge, I. 58. 

Sense distinguished from understanding, VIII. 1. 

Locke on this subject, XIV. 758. 

Faculties of perception, XVIII. 845. 

Kant on imagination, XIII. 852. 

Memory — mnemonics, XVI. 532. 

Optimism and pessimism, XVIII. 684. 

The following biographical notes should also be read : 
Aristotle, II. 522. 
Xenocrates, XXIV. 719. 

Democritus, VII. 59. 
Great Plato, XIX. 201. 

Psycholo- Th Brown, IV. 388. 

gists. ' J 

Bishop Berkeley, III. 589. 
Pierre Charron, V. 431. 
Etienne de Condillac, VI. 251. 
Victor Cousin, VI. 525. 
Descartes, VII. 126. 
Kant, XII. 848. 
Leibnitz, XIV. 422. 
Herman Lotze, XV. 14. 
Schleiermacher, XXI. 411. 
Schopenhauer, XXI. 457. 
Hegel, XI. 620. 



Herbart, XI. 719. 
Samuel Bailey, II I. 242. 
1 >avid I [ume, XII. 352. 
G. H. Lewes, XIV. 491. 


Plato's, VII. 671. 
Socratcs's, XXII. 236. 

Quintilian's, VII. 671. 

Brethren of the Common Life, XI. 207. 
Education Theories of Erasmus, VII. 672 ; VIII. 512 

Theories of Sturm, VII. 673. 
Theories of Comenius, VI. 182 ; VII. 673. 
The Jesuits', theory, XIII. 645. 
The Port Royalists', XIX. 533. 
Rousseau's, VII. 675. 
Pestalozzi's, XIV. 79; XXII. 798. 
Froebel's, IX. 792. 
Herbart's, XI. 798. 
Locke's, XIV. 757. 
Milton's, XVI. 330. 




" Certainly, the art of writing is the most miraculous of all things man 
h is devised." — Thomas Carlyle. 

" There are two duties incumbent upon any man who enters on the 
business of writing — truth to fact, and a good spirit in the treatment." 
— Robert Louis Stevenson. 


First, as to the manual exercise of penmanship, what 
is there in the Britannica which commends itself to the 
writer, or to him who is interested in the art of writing? 
Let us see. 

Without implements and materials there can be no writ- 
ing. The history of these and the description of their 

manufacture cannot fail to be of interest. 
Writing Read the article PEN, XVIII. 483, which is 

Materials. replete with interesting details concerning the 

manufacture of modern steel pens; Ink, XIII. 
79; then an account of the invention of paper, IV. 38; of 
its invention by the Chinese, V. 662 ; of the uses made of 
it in ancient times, XVIII. 144; and, finally, the special 
article PAPER, XVIII. 217. Read also of the Papyrus. 
XVIII. 231 ; and of Parchment, XVIII. 271 ; XIV. 390, 
and IV. 37. The earliest writing materials are described 

in XVIII. 231 b. 
Hand- A concise history of the art of writing may 

writing. be found in sup. 3207. The history of ancient 

handwriting is related in a very interesting ar- 
ticle on Palaeography, XVIII. [43-165; the ancient 
system of Hieroglyphics, XI. 794; cuneiform writing, VI. 


707, and XI. J 17; Mexican picture writing, XVI. 212; 
Chinese writing, V. 653-659; Sanskrit, XXI. 269-272. 

A comprehensive history and description <>f Alphabets 
is given in I. 600-614. 

The alphabets of different nations also receive separate 
notice. For example : 

The Phoenician, XI. 807, and XVIII. 802, 806 ; Egyp- 
tian, XI. 807; Greek, XI. 597; Roman, XIII. 125; San- 
skrit, XXI. 270; the old Norse Runes, XXI. 366, 370. 

The deaf and dumb alphabet is described in VII. 8 ; the 
phonetic method in XVIII. 812, and XXII. 381, and the 
phonographic in XXI. 836. 

(See, also, Archaeology, II. 342, and the chapter in this 
GUIDE, entitled, The Stenographer and Typewriter^) 


The mental processes of writing are closely related to 

the various branches of language study, such as grammar, 

rhetoric, prosody, etc. Hence the inquiry may 

Composi- De made, " What are the principal articles in 

tion. the Britannica which will be interesting and 

useful to the busy man who wishes to acquire 

correctness and facility in English composition?" Let us 

briefly notice a few. 

The special article RHETORIC, XX. 509, is interesting 

and comprehensive, and in large part historical. Notice 

the section on rhetoric in ancient Greece, XX. 

509 ; that on rhetoric in the Middle Acres, XX. 
Rhetoric. J J , , , . & ' 

515 ; and that on modern writers on rhetoric, 

XX. 515- 
Still pursuing the history of this subject, read the notice 
of Aristotle's rhetoric, II. 517 ; of Lysias's, XV. 118 ; and 
of Quintilian's, XX. 187. Read also the brief account of 
Whately's famous work, XXIV. 530. 


Being fairly introduced into this study, you are now pre- 
pared to consult the Britannica for the large number of 
separate articles relating to the terms, expressions, and 
rules of rhetoric and its kindred branches of study. Here 
are some that are found in the first two volumes ; they are 
mentioned simply as examples, trusting that the reader 
will be able to find all other articles of the kind without 
further directions : 

/;/ Volume I. Acrostic, Alcaics, Allegory, Alliteration, 
Alexandrine Verse, Anacoluthon, Anachronism, Ana- 
gram, Abbreviations, etc. 

In Volume II. Anecdote, Anticlimax, Antithesis, An- 
tonomasia, Aphorism, Apologue, Apothegm, etc. 

In the American supplements many additional articles 
may be found, such as : 

Blank Verse, sup. 494. 

Climax, sup. 833. 

Apostrophe, sup. 205. 

Hexameters, sup. 1577. 

Prosody, sup. 2459. 

By observing the list of terms and expressions used in 
any text-book in rhetoric, you may complete this list ; and 
then, by finding the various articles in the Britannica, you 
will observe how much more fully they are treated there 
than in any of the smaller manuals. 

The article GRAMMAR, XI. 37, belongs rather to the 

philologist than to the writer, and more to the student than 

to the busy man. The section on school gram- 

mars, XI. 43 a, is interesting, and well worth 

your reading. 

Every writer will find certain articles in the 
Britannica very valuable for reference in case of any dis- 
pute or lapse of memory regarding best usage, etc. For 
example, the articles on ABBREVIATIONS, I. 26, and sup. 


16, contain a correct list of all the more common abbre- 
viations used by reputable writers. The latter article is 
very complete. It is followed by a list of Abbreviatory 
Signs, sup. 23, showing the marks and symbols employed 
in commerce and in the various arts and sciences. A list of 
Forms of Address employed in letter-writing is given in 
sup. 46. 

The methods pursued in correcting printers' proofs are 
fully explained in sup. 2454. If the date of any important 
event has been forgotten, it may very likely be found by 
referring to the Chronological Table, V. 720. In short, 
the Britannica is always ready to aid one's memory, and to 
no other individual does it give more assistance in this 
way than to the writer. 

But, after all, it is chiefly through the study of the 
works of the best writers that one can hope properly to 
improve his own style, and to acquire facility and elegance 
in the use of language. Hence the busy writer is urged 
to make a special study of the references in the chapter 
on Literature in this GUIDE; also the chapter entitled, 
The Public Speaker. 


The following list is designed chiefly to aid teachers 
and pupils at school in the selection of subjects for es- 
says, some of the materials for which may be acquired 
through the systematic study of certain articles in the 
Encyclopedia Britannica. A good rule, which every writer 
should attempt to observe, is this : " Never undertake to 
write upon any topic until you have made a careful study 
of that topic. Store your mind with knowledge, so that 
your writing will be the visible expression of your thoughts. 
Always have something to say before you attempt to 
speak." The various references mentioned or pointed 


out will indicate some of the places in the Britannica where 

information regarding those subjects may be 

Subjects found. But they are intended only as hints, 

for Essays, and are not designed to relieve the student 

from the very necessary labor of independent 


i. Temperance. See the references given in the chapter 
entitled, The Public Speaker. 

2. The Wonders of Electricity. See VIII. 3 ; XV. 773; 

XX. 249. The references in the chapter for The Elec- 
trician, in this Guide, will be helpful. 

3. Ancient Oratory. See the references to famous 
speakers, in the chapter entitled, The Public Speaker. 

4. American Poetry. Study the article on American 
literature, I. 731-734. Read also the biographical sketches 
of the great American poets : Henry W. Longfellow, 
XIV. 860; John G. Whittier, sup. 3146; William Cullen 
Bryant, sup. 601 ; James Russell Lowell, sup. 1925 ; Edgar 
Allan Poe, XIX. 255 ; Walt Whitman, sup. 3145. 

5. True Greatness in Man. See biographical sketches 
of such men as Joseph, XIII. 749; Moses, XVI. 860; 
Confucius, VI. 258; Buddha, III. 375 ; Elijah, VIII. 134; 
Socrates, XXII. 231 ; Cato, V. 239; Charlemagne, V. 402 ; 
King Alfred, I. 506; St. Louis, XV. 18; Savonarola, 

XXI. 333; Galileo, X. 30; John Milton, XVI. 324; 
George Washington, XXIV. 387; and many others. 

6. The Earth. See references in the Courses of Read- 
ing in Geography, in this GUIDE. 

7. Mountains. Refer to special article, XVII. 4. 

8. The Ocean. Water of, XXI. 6li; waves. XXIV. 
419; depths, III. 17; temperature, VI. 4; tides, XXIII. 
353 ; fishes, XII. 684. 

9. Great Cities of the World. See London, XIV. 818; 
Paris, XVIII. 274; New York, XVII. 457; Berlin, III. 


598 ; and others that will readily be suggested. Consult 
the Index volume. 

10. Ships and Sailors. See chapter in this GUIDE, 
entitled, The Seaman. 

11. Progress of Inventions. See in this Guide, the 
readings in " Archaeology," and also the chapter entitled, 
The In veil to?-. 

\2. The Steam Engine. Consult the Index volume; 
refer also to the chapter in this GUIDE entitled, The 

13. War and Peace. Refer to the chapter entitled, The 
Soldier. See International Peace, XIII. 197. Consult the 
Index volume. 

14. Slavery. See special article, XXII. 129; ancient 
slavery, XIX. 348; negro, XVII. 319. Consult Index 
volume. Read about Wilberforce, XXIV. 565 ; Clark- 
son, V. 813 ; Garrison, X. 85 ; Wendell Phillips, sup. 2366 ; 
John Brown, IV. 385 ; and the anti-slavery leaders named 
in the chapter entitled, The Philanthropist a?id Re- 

15. Socialism. Consult Index volume. Read about 
Robert Owen, XVIII. 87 ; Fourier, IX. 489 ; Saint-Simon, 
XXI. 197; Rodbertus, XX. 616; Proudhon, XIX. 867 ; the 
Shakers, XXI. 736; the Oneida Community, XVII. 772. 

16. Taxation. See references in this Guide, in the sec- 
tion on Finance in the chapter entitled, The Banker and 

17. The Origin of Language. See VIII. 769; consult 
Index volume under the headings Language and Philol- 
ogy. See references in this GUIDE, in the Readings in 

18. Land Tenure. Consult Index volume. See Adam 
Smith, XIX. 367; Ricardo, XIX. 374; Henry George, 
sup. 1381. 


19. Law in Ancient Times. Consult the references in 
the chapter entitled, The Lawyer. 

20. Feudalism. Consult Index volume. See Knight, 
XIV. no; Castle V. 197; Tournaments, XXIII. 489; 
Chivalry (Index); Homage, XII. 107, etc. 

21. The Revival of Learning. See Renaissance, XX. 
380. Consult Index volume 

22. The Art of Printing. See references in the chapter 
entitled, The Printer and the Publisher, in this GUIDE. 

23. Newspapers. See references in the chapter enti- 
tled, Th e J on ma list. 

24. Perseverance Leads to Success. For illustrations of 
this truth, see the biographical references in this GUIDE, 
page 38. 

25. Education in Greece and Rome. See the references 
in the chapter entitled, The Teacher. 

26. Great Educators. See the references in the chapter 
entitled, The Teacher. 

27. The Science of Education. See the references in 
the chapter entitled, The Teacher. 

28. Famous Institutions of Learning. See the refer- 
ences in the chapter entitled, The Teacher. 

29. The Progress of Medical Science. See the histori- 
cal and biographical references in the chapter entitled, The 
Physician, in this GUIDE. Consult Index volume. 

30. Music and Musicians. See the references in the 
chapter entitled, The Musician, in this GUIDE. 

31. The Discovery of America. See VI. 173; X. 180; 
XI. 171 ; Icelandic discoveries, XII. 624; early knowledge 
of, X. 178 ; original inhabitants, XVI. 206 ; origin of name 
America, X. 182, and XXIV. 192. See also references in 
this GUIDE, in the Readings in History. 

32. Great Americans. See the biographical references 
in this Guide. 


$5. Washington and Lafayette. Consult Index volume. 
See references to great Americans, above. 

34. Hamilton and Burr. See XI. 412; XXIII. 756; 
XIX. 384; XI. 413. 

35. Great American Orators. See the biographical ref- 
erences in the chapter entitled, The Public Speaker. 

36. The Invention of the Telescope. Consult Index 

2~. The Telegraph and the Telephone. See the refer- 
ences in the chapter entitled, The Electrician, in thisGuiDE. 

38. Astrology. See the references given, in this Guide, 
in the chapter on Astronomy. 

39. The Philosopher's Stone. See the references given, 
under Alchemy, in this volume, page 170. 

40. The Progress of Chemistry. See special article, V. 
459. Consult Index volume. 

41. The Air We Breathe. Consult Index volume; also 
see Atmosphere, Oxygen, Respiration, Ventilation, As- 

42. Water and its Uses. Consult Index volume. 

43. Curious Facts About Trees. See the references 
in the chapter entitled, The Woodsman. 

44. The Solar System. See the references on page 91, 
of this Guide. 

45. The Moon. Consult the Index volume. 

46. The Worship of the Sun. By the Greeks, II. 185 ; 
by the Phoenicians, XVIII. 802 ; by the Sabseans, XXIV. 
741 ; at Heliopolis, XIX. 91 ; at Baalbec, III. 177. 

47. The Fire Worshipers. See XXIV. 193 ; XVII. 
158; XI. 679; XIX. 807. 

48. The American Indians. Consult Index volume. 

49. African Explorations. Consult Index volume. 

50. The Arctic Regions. See II. 478; XIX. 315; X. 
190 ; IX. 721. 



51. The Gulf Stream. Consult Index volume. 

52. Great Cities. See the references on page 125 of 
this Guide. 

53. Our Government. See the references in the chap- 
ter entitled, The American Citizen. 

54. Monarchy. Consult Index volume; also see refer- 
ences on page 282 of this GUIDE. 

55. The Mongol Races of Asia. Consult Index volume. 

56. China and Japan. Consult Index volume. 

57. Buddha and Buddhism. Consult Index volume. 

58. Missions. See the references on page 382 of this 

59. Idolatry. Sec XII. 698, 710. 

60. Mohammedanism. Consult Index volume. 

61. The Jews. Consult Index volume. See also Read- 
ings for Bible Students. 

62. The Gipsies. Consult Index volume. 

65. The Moors in Spain. See, in Index volume, the fol- 
lowing subjects : Spain, Arabs, Moors, Alhambra, Gra- 
nada, Ferdinand and Isabella. 

64. The Turks. Consult Index volume. 

65. The Battle of Hastings. See the following subjects 
in Index volume : William the Conqueror, Normans, Har- 
old, Hastings, Battle. 

66. Trial by ordeal. See XVII. 818. 

6y. Trial by jury. Consult Index volume. 

68. The Knights Templars. See Templars, in Index 
\ olume. 

69. Poetry. Consult Index volume. 

Consult Index volume, and also this Guide, for valuable 
refi rences to the following subjects : 

70. Chaucer, the father of English poetry. 

71. Milton and Dante. 

J2. Shakespeare s Dramas. 


75. The Greek Drama. See also references on page 
442, of this Guide. 

74. Pope and Dryden. 

75. Addison and the Spectator. 

76. Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

~J. Dictionaries. See also references in the chapter 
entitled, The Bookman, in this GUIDE. 

-->. History of Agriculture. See the chapter entitled, 
The Farmer, in this GUIDE. 

79. Patents. See the chapter entitled, The Inventor, in 
this Guide. 

80. Copyright. See The Printer and the Publisher, in 
this Guide. 

81. Books and How they Are Made. See the chapter 
entitled, The Printer and the Publisher, in this GUIDE. 

82. On Costume. 

83. On Commerce. See also the chapter entitled, The 

84. On Exercise. See Athletic Sports, Health, Gym- 
nastics, Calisthenics, etc. 

85. On Games and Amusements. See also the chapter 
on Sports and Pastimes. 

86. Domestic Animals. See Horse, Dog, Cat, Sheep, 
etc.; also the references on page 48, of this GUIDE. 

87. The Animal Kingdom. See the readings about 
animals, page 47, of this GUIDE. 

88. Labor and Capital. See the references in the 
chapter entitled, The Laborer, in this GUIDE ; also XXIII. 

89. Great Guns. See the references in the chapter 
entitled, The Soldier, in this GUIDE. 

90. Invention of Gunpowder. 

91. War. See also the chapter entitled, The Soldier, in 
this Guide. 


92. Stories of Old Greece. See Legends, page 165, of 
this Guide. 

93. Myths of the Old World. See the references on 
page 163, of this GUIDE. 

94. The Greatest Books. See the references in the 
chapter entitled, The Bookman. 

95. The World's Great Thinkers. See the biographical 
references on page 149, of this Guide. 

96. Great Reformers. See references on pages 383— 
387, of this Guide. 

97. The Work of the Farmer. See the chapter en- 
titled, The Farmer. 

98. Famous Merchants. See references on page 324, of 
this Guide. 

99. The Trade of the World. See references on page 
321, of this volume. 

100. Superstition. Seepage 170, of this volume. 




"For your writing and reading, let that appear when there is no need." 

— Much Ado About Nothing 

The successful stenographer and typewriter should be a 
person of many accomplishments. He should, in the first 

place, be a thorough master of the art of short- 

Qualifica- hand writing, alert in mind, quick with the hand, 

tions. accurate, ingenious. In the second place, he 

should understand thoroughly the construction 
and manipulation of the type-writing machine, should be 
a good speller, should know how to punctuate correctly 
and when to use capital letters, and should have a practical 
acquaintance with the rules of English grammar and com- 
position and with the forms to be observed in letter- 
writing. Besides all this, a general knowledge of business 
forms and methods is often of great benefit, sometimes 
indispensable. If, in addition to all these qualifications, 
the stenographer has at command a stock of information 
regarding history, politics, the sciences, and the arts, he 
may be quite sure that he will never want for a good posi- 
tion and a comfortable salary. 

Young men and young women who are obliged to help 
themselves to an education of this kind will find no surer 

guide than the volume which they now hold in 

General their hands ; they will find no better or more 
Informa- , , . 

j trustworthy assistant than the hncyclopcedia 

Britannica. As regards that sort of general 

education to which we have just alluded, let the student of 


stenography and type - writing consult the references 
named in various chapters of this GUIDE — for example: 
.the Readings in History ; the Readings in Geography; the 
Readings in Physics ; the chapters entitled, The American 
Citizen, The Lawyer, The Merchant and Trader, The 
Banker and Financier, The Builder, etc. As regards the 
special kind of knowledge which is indispensable to the 
practice of his art, he will find much that is helpful and 
instructive in such articles as the following: 

History of the English language (modern), VIII. 399- 


Phonetics, XVIII. 811. 
Phonetic spelling, XVIII. 812. 

Language. , 

hpeech sounds, XXII. 381. 

Alphabet, I. 601. 

Abbreviations, I. 26, and sup. 16. 
Abbreviatory signs, sup. 23. 

Tachygraphy, or ancient systems of shorthand, XVIII. 

Shorthand in English-speaking countries, XXI. 836. 
The a b c systems, XXI. 836. 
Pitman's phonography, XXI. 838-840. 

Foreign shorthand systems, XXI. 841. 
Shorthand. Sir Isaac Pitman, sup. 2396; XXI. 834. 
Benn Pitman, sup. 2395. 
Parliamentary reporting, XXL 841. 

Forms of address in letter-writing, sup. 46. 

Type-writers, sup. 2972-2975. 
Type-writing machines, XXIV. 697. 




" Once invent Printing, you metamorphosed all Universities, or super- 
seded them." — Thomas Carlyle. 


One of the most interesting articles in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica is that which relates to the history of printing, 
Volume XXIII., pages 681-696. Here we have 
'ention an account f the first attempts at printing, 
Print- which antedated the time of Gutenberg and of 

Caxton by many years, if not by many cen- 
turies. Then follow chapters on block-printing, page 682; 
on the old block-books of German origin, page 683 ; on 
the work of Gutenberg at Mainz, page 684 ; on the inven- 
tion controversy, page 687 ; on the history of the earliest 
types, with fac-similes, page 693, etc. In connection with 
the reading of this article, references may be made to the 
following articles : 

John Gutenberg, XI. 336. 
Johann Faust, IX. 853. 

William Caxton, V. 279 ; books printed by 
Great him, VIII. 413. 

Printers. Aldus Manutius, XV. 512, 514. 

Christopher Plantin, XIX. 176. 
Elzevir, VIII. 156. 
Jodocus Badius, III. 228. 
Stevens, or Estiennes, XXII. 534. 
The history of modern types, XXIII. 695, next claims 


our attention. The Italic type, first used by Aldus 
Manutius, is said to be an imitation of the hand- 
writing of Petrarch. The origin of all other 
Types. . & 

types in common use is explained in this chap- 
ter, which closes with a complete list of works 
on the invention, progress, and process of printing. Some 
notice of early English typography is given in XIV. 705, 
and also in the article on Caxton referred to above. 

The latter half of the article on typography, XXIII. 
697, is devoted to the discussion of practical printing. 
Here are separate chapters on type-setting or composing, 
page 700 ; on stereotyping or electrotyping, page 702 ; on 
press-work and presses, page 704; on color-printing, page 
708 ; on artistic printing, page 709 ; on the departments of 
a printing establishment, page 710. 

In connection with this part, refer to the articles, En- 
graving, VIII. 439; and Lithography, XIV. 697. The 
following articles also contain additional information on 
subjects connected with the printer's art : 
Old Wine-press of Gutenberg, sup. 2448. 
The Stanhope Press, sup. 2448. 

The Adams Press (1824), sup. 2448. 

The Washington Press (1820), sup. 2448. 
Presses. v y x 

Job Presses, sup. 2449. 

Cylinder Presses, sup. 2449. 
Illustrated-work Printing Machines, sup. 2450. 
Perfecting Presses, sup. 2451. 
.Mammoth Presses, sup. 2451. 
Lithographic Presses, XIV. IOI2. 
( !oIor Printing, sup. 871. 
Richard M. I [oe, sup. 1 592. 
University Press, sup. 3005. 

. especially, Proof-readers' Marks, sup. 2455. 
International Typographical Union, sup. 1814. 


Type-founding, XXIII. 699. 

Type-setting machines, XXIII. 700; sup. 2969. 

The linotype, sup. 1889. 

Invention of stereotyping, X. 127. 

Electrotypes, VIII. 115. 

Type for the blind, sup. 496; III. 827. 

George Bruce, type founder, sup. 596. 

Theodore L. De Vinne, sup. 1037. 


See the special article on Books, IV. 2,7- 
Constituent parts of books, III. 652. 

Ancient forms of books, XVIII. 144. 
Old Material of ancient books, IV. 37, 38. 

Books. Early printed books, III. 652. 

Rare and curious books, III. 654. 
Anonymous and pseudonymous books, III. 657. 
Condemned and prohibited books, III. 658. 
Bookbinding, IV. 41. 
Albums, I. 456 ; almanacs, I. 590. 
Annals, II. 60; anthologies, II. 103. 
Encyclopaedias, VIII. 190. 
Libraries, XIV. 509 ; Sir Thomas Bodley, III. 

Libraries. J J : 

848 ; Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, VI. 509 ; Maglia- 
bechi, XV. 217; Dibdin, VII. 172; biblioma- 
nia, III. 655. 

Bookselling, IV. 39 ; book-trade in Europe, X. 472. 
Baron Tauchnitz, sup. 2858. 
Copyright, VI. 356; English laws of copy- 
right, XIV. 541 ; international copyright, I. 720. 
History of copyright since 1877, sup. 913. 
For other references, see the chapter entitled, The 




" We read nowadays in the market place — I would rather say in pome 
large steam factory of letter-press where (.lamp sheets of new print whirl 
round us perpetually." — Frederic Harrison. 

An entertaining and valuable article on newspapers is 

contained in the seventeenth volume of the Britannica, 

pages 412-437. The history of journalism in Great Britain 

is given at length, and is followed by an account 

History Q r ^ Q newspapers of other European countries. 


the subject of an interesting and appreciative 

chapter, XVII. 433-437. In a supplementary article on 

the same subject, sup. 2 186-2 195, a complete account is 

given of the methods pursued in the publication of a great 

American newspaper, and some hints are presented with 

reference to the qualifications of the successful journalist. 

This article is illustrated with views of many of the great 

newspaper buildings. 

Methods of gathering the news, sup. 2188. 

Editorial departments of a great newspaper, sup. 2189. 

Mailing of newspapers, sup. 2189. 

The Sunday paper, sup. 2189. 

Journalism as a profession, sup. 2191. 

Associated Press organization, sup. 2194. 

Several other articles in the Britannica relate directly 
or indirectly to this important subject. Among li 
tin- following arc especially interesting : 

Acta 1 )iurna, I. 1 28. 

nil. JOURNALIST. 427 

Reporting, XX. 404; XXI. 841. 

Advertisements, I. 177, 17S. 

The article on ADVERTISING, sup. 52, is full of interest- 
ing facts relating to this important department of jour- 
nalism, especially in .America. 

Printing of newspapers, XXIII. 703, 709. 

Laws relating to newspaper press, XIX. 710. 

Periodicals, XVIII. 535. 

History of British periodicals, XVIII. 536; of French 
periodicals, same volume, page 539; of American maga- 
zines and reviews, page 544. 

American magazines, sup. 1967. 

The Associated Press, sup. 269. 

Censorship of the Press, III. 658, 659. 

Press Laws, XIX. 710-714. 

See Typography, in this GUIDE. 


Benjamin Franklin, IX. 71 1 ; his connection with Ameri- 
can journalism, XVII. 433. 

Horace Greeley, XI. 160; XVII. 434. 
Newspaper George Ripley, XX. 567. 

Men - John Walter and the " London Times," sup. 

Thurlow Weed, sup. 3 114. 

William T. Stead, of the " Review of Reviews," sup. 

Granier de Cassagnac, sup. 1440. 
Charles A. Dana, sup. 983. 
Joseph Gale, sup. 1358. 
Edwin L. Godkin, sup. 1414. 
Joseph Pulitzer, sup. 2476. 
James Gordon Bennett, III. 574. 
James Gordon Bennett, Jr., sup. 421. 


John W. Forney, sup. 131 1. 
Henry T. Raymond, sup. 2514. 
Whitelaw Reid, sup. 2530. 
Joseph Medill, sup. 2029. 
Henry Watterson, sup. 3107. 
Allen Thorndyke Rice, sup. 2545. 
John Russell Young, sup. 3223. 

See The Writer, The Printer, The American Citizen, and 
Readings in the History of Literature, all in this GUIDE. 




"In framing an artist, art hath thus decreed 
To make some good, but others to exceed." 

— Pericles. 


A GENERAL examination of the place of painting among 
the Fine Arts will be found in the article under that 
heading, Volume IX., page 206. But the most interesting 
and by far the most valuable article on this 
Schools subject is that entitled : SCHOOLS OF PAINT- 
Painting. ING > XXI - 433-44§- This article may be read 
by sections, with collateral references to 
other articles and to the notices of individual painters, as 
indicated below : 

1. Classical School of Painting. 

For the early history of painting among the Greeks and 
Romans, see Volume II., pages 353, 358, 363, 366. 

See also Zeuxis, XXIV. 783 ; Parrhasius, XVIII. 321 ; 
Sicyon, II. 349; Apelles, II. 169. 

2. Italian School of Painting, XXI. 433 ; Giotto, X. 609 ; 
Masaccio, XV. 605 ; Fra Lippo Lippi, XIV. 685 ; Sandro 
Botticelli, IV. 165 ; Michelangelo, XVI. 229; Andrea del 
Sarto, XXI. 315; Giorgio Vasari, XXIV. 94; Raphael 
Sanzio, XX. 274; Leonardo da Vinci, XIV. 455 ; Salvator 
Rosa, XX. 846; Titian, XXIII. 413. 

3. German School of Painting, XXI. 438 ; Hans Hol- 
bein, XII. 53 ; Albrecht Diirer, VII. 554; Hans Holbein, 
the younger, XII. 54; Anton Raphael Mengs, XVI. 


10 ; Julius Schnorr, XXI. 416; Johann Fried. Overbeck, 
XVIII. 76; Wilhelm von Kaulbach, XIV. 16. 

4. Flemish School of Painting, XXI. 438; Van Eyck, 
VIII. 814; Van der Weyden, XXI. 439; Hans Memling, 
XV. 846 ; Ouintin Matsys, XV. 620 ; Antonio Moro, XVI. 
840; Rubens, XXI. 41 ; Vandyck, XXIV. 59 

5. Dutch School of Painting, XXI. 439; Ruysdael, 
XXI. 114; Vandevelde, XXIV. 59; Paul Potter, XIX. 
600 ; Hobbema, XII. 30 ; Rembrandt, XX. 375. 

6. Spanish School of Painting, XXI. 440; Zurbaran, 
XXIV. 829; Velasquez, XXIV. 132 ; Murillo, XVII. 55 ; 
Goya, XI. 22 ; Fortuny, XXI. 443. 

7. French School of Painting, XXI. 440; Nicolas 
Poussin, XIX. 649; Claude Lorrain, V. 814; Watteau, 
XXIV. 414; Claude Vernet, XXIV. 168 ; Prud'hon, XX. 
1; Horace Vernet, XXIV. 169; Delaroche, VII. 41; 
Rousseau, XXI. 22; Millet, XVI. 321 ; sup. 2066; Meis- 
sonier, sup. 2031; Regnault, XX. 346; Rosa Bonheur, 
sup. 517. 

Impressionism in French Art, sup. 1661. 

8. British School of Painting, XXI. 441 ; Hogarth, XII. 
47 ; Sir Joshua Reynolds, XX. 502 ; Gainsborough, X. 15 ; 
Richard Wilson, XXIV. 593 ; Paul Sandby, XXL 257; 
Sir Henry Racburn, XX. 218; William Blake, III. 804; 
Eastlake, VII. 615; Sir Edwin Laridseer, XIV. 280; 
Holman Hunt, sup. 1634; J. M. W. Turner, XXIII. 663 ; 
Dante Gabriel Rossctti, XX. 857; E. J. Poynter, sup. 
2434; Burne-Jones, sup. 628; Sir Frederick Leighton, sup. 
i860; Sir John Millais, sup. 2064 ; George F. Watts, sup. 

9. American Painters: Thomas II ill, sup. 1583; Win- 
slow Homer, sup. 1602; William M. limit, sup. 1635; 
George [nness, sup. 1683; Eastman Johnson, sup. 1747; 
John La Farge, sup. 1821; Will II. Lowe, sup. 1924; 


F. D. Millet, sup. 2067; Washington Allston, sup. 136; 
John Singleton Copley, VI. 347; Benjamin West, XXIV. 
505 ; John S. Sargent, sup. 2632. 


Materials used in Painting, XVIII. 137. 

Painting in water-colors, XVIII. 139, and 
Kinds X j X g6 

Painting Enamel — On metal, VIII. 182; in jewelry, 

XIII. 679 ; in pottery, XIX. 601. 

Encaustic painting, VIII. 185. 

Genre -painting, sup. 1379 

Fresco, IX. 769. 

Raphael's frescos, XX. 278. 

Glass-painting, X. 667. 

Aureola, III. 89. 

Tempera, XXIII. 157. 

Illumination, XII. 707. 

Mural Decoration, XVII. 34-48 (a beautifully illus- 
trated article). 

Wall-painting, XVII. 39-48. 

Miniatures, XVI. 437. 


For the history of Greek and Roman sculpture, see the 
Hlstory also Phidias, XVIII. 733 ; Polycletus, XIX. 
Sculpture 4*6; Scopas, II. 360 ; Praxiteles, XIX. 660; 
Lysippus, XV. 120; Arcesilaus, II. 326. 
Assyrian Sculpture, III. 190. 
Etrurian Art, VIII. 639. 
Early Christian Sculpture, XXI. 556. 
English Sculpture, XXI. 557; John Flaxman, IX. 298; 
Francis Chantrey, V. 395 ; Alfred Stevens, XXI. 561. 


French Sculpture, XXI. 562 ; Jean Antoine Hou- 
don, XII. 314; Francois Rude, XXI. 50; David, VI. 

German Sculpture, XXI. 564; Vischer, XVII. 633 ; 
Schluter, XXI. 566; Albert Wolff, XXI. 566. 

Spanish Sculpture, XXI. 566. 

Italian Sculpture, XXI. 567; Pisani, XIX. 122 ; Dona- 
tello, VII. 350; Orcagna, XVII. 814; Ghiberti, X. 566; 
Michelangelo, XVI. 230; Raphael, XX. 281; Giovanni 
da Bologna, XXI. 569 ; Benvenuto Cellini, V. 294; Ber- 
nini, III. 604; Canova, V. 24. 

Venetian Sculpture, XXIV. 156; Veronese, XXIV. 172. 

Scandinavian Sculpture, XXI. 570; Thorwaldsen, 
XXIII. 315. 

American Sculpture : Hiram Powers, XIX. 650 ; Thomas 
Crawford, VI. 554; Horatio Greenough, XI. 173; Henry 
Kirke Brown, I. 352, sup. 588; W. W. Story, sup. 2796; 
Harriet Hosmer, sup. 1618; John Rogers, sup. 2565 ; Lar- 
kin G. Mead, sup. 2022 ; Augustus St. Gaudens, sup. 2603 ; 
R. S. Greenough, sup. 1464; Clark Mills, sup. 2067; Fred- 
crick McMonnies, sup. 1962. 

Technical methods of sculpture (how a piece of statuary 
is made), XXI. 571. 

Alto relievo, I. 643. 

Relief, IX. 205; relief in wall decorations, XVII. 34; 
relations of sculpture to the Fine Arts, IX. 205. 


The special article on this subject, XIX. 600-643, is one 
of much interest, amply and beautifully illus- 
trated. The article on Ceramic Art, sup. 734, 
Porcelain describes the development of this art since 1880, 
and is replete with interesting facts. 
Prehistoric pottery, XIX. 602. 


Egyptian pottery, XIX. 603. 

Assyrian, XIX. 604. 

Phoenician, XIX. 605. 

Hellenic. XIX. 611. 

Etruscan, XIX. 615. 

Graico-Roman and Roman, XIX. 617. 

Persian and Moslem, XIX. 619. 

Teutonic and Saxon, XIX. 623. 

Mediaeval, XIX. 624. 

Majolica-ware, XIX. 624. 

Spanish and Portuguese, XIX. 628. 

French, XIX. 629. 

Bernard Palissy, XVIII. 186. 

Mediaeval German-ware, XIX. 630. 

English, XIX. 631. 

Josiah Wedgwood, XXIV. 476. 

Ancient Mexican-ware, XIX. 633. 

Chinese porcelain, XIX. 633. 

Japanese pottery, XIII. 454. 

Sevres-ware, XIX. 637. 

Dresden-ware, XIX. 639. 

English porcelain, XIX. 640. 

Terra-cotta, XXIII. 190; Assyrian terra-cotta, II. 399; 
Etruscan, VIII. 641 ; Japanese, XII. 599. 

Tiles, XXII. 387; encaustic tiles, VIII. 187; for wall- 
linings, XVII. 36. 

Mosaic-work, XVI. 849 ; of Egyptians and Romans, 
XVI. 850; of the Middle Ages, XVI. 852. 


Metal-work as an ornamental art, XVI. 71. 
Metal-work of Greece, XVI. 73. 
Of Italy, XVI. 74. 
Of England, XVI. 76. 



Of Germany, XVI. yy. 

Brasses, IV. 219; VII. 694. 
Brasses Bronze-work, XVI. 71. 
Bronzes. Japanese bronze-work, XIII. 591. 
Chinese bronze-work, IV. 366. 
Venetian bronze-work, XXIV. 156. 
Iron-work in architecture, II. 466. 
Hammered metal-work, XVI. 72. 
Damaskeening, VI. 793. 


Wood-carving, XXIV. 644 (a six-page illustrated article 
treating mainly of ancient and mediaeval work). 
Wood- Wood-carving in Switzerland, XXII. 779. 

carving. Buhl-work, IV. 446. 

Inlaying, XIII. 81. 
Marquetry, IX. 849. 


Special article on Photography, XVIII. 821-840, with 

supplement giving an account of the most recent 

Progress improvements and discoveries, sup. 2370. See 

of Phctog- , 1 ' f J/ 

. also : 


Daguerre, VI. 761. 
Niepcc, XVII. 495. 
Photogravure, XXII. 717. 
Photo-engraving, XVIII. 834. 
Photolithography, XVIII. 833, 834. 
Camera, [V. 740, 741 ; XVIII. 839; sup. 664. 
Instantaneous photography, sup. 2371. 
Photographs in natural colors, sup. 2372. 
Woodburytypes, sup. 3186. 
Albertypes, sup. 1 15. 
Artotypes, sup. 258. 


Photochronograph, sup. 2370, 2377. 
Dry plates, sup. 2373. 
Plantinotypes and kallitypes, sup. 2376. 
Astronomical photography, sup. 2376. 
Rdntgen or X rays, sup. 2372, 1166. 


Special article on Engraving, VIII. 435. A valuable 

supplementary article on engraving, giving an 

istory account of the latest advancement made in the 

Engraving. art ' may be found in sup. 1204-1207. Wood- 

engraving, VIII. 436 ; early engraving on wood, 

V. 99; in time of Albrecht Durer, VII. 554; Bewick, III. 


Copper and steel plate engraving, VIII. 439 ; Mantegna, 
XV. 501 ; Audran, III. 70; Ferdinand Gaillard, VIII. 


Half-tone process, sup. 1205. 
Wax process, sup. 1206. 
Etching, VIII. 443. 
Mezzotint, VIII. 445. 
Lithography, sup. 1897. 


Drawing, VII. 446-451. Beginning on page 448, the 
article is an interesting and very readable 
Drawing. critique on the art of delineation as practiced 
by different artists and in different countries. 

Illumination of written or printed texts, XII. 707 ; illu- 
minated borders of books, XXIII. 696. 

Illuminated manuscripts, VI. 45 ; XII. 797. 

Caricature, V. 103. 

Arabesques, I. 233. 

Embossing, VIII. 160. 


Stamped leather for wall-decoration, XVII. 37. 

Embroidery, VIII. 160. 

Gilding, X. 593. 

Etching, VIII. 443. 

Lacquer-work, XIV. 194. 

Lapidary, XIV. 298. 

Cameo, IV. 738 ; cameos of mediaeval times, 

Ornamen- IV. 739. 
tation. Work in ivory, XIII. 520. 

Jewelry, XIII. 675-679. 
Decalcomania, sup. 1007. 


George Cruikshank, sup. 956. 
Frank O. Darley, sup. 986. 
Gustave Dore, sup. 1067. 
George du Maurier, sup. 1092. 
Mary Hallock Foote, sup. 1304. 
"Alfred Crowquill," sup. 13 12. 
Harry Furniss, sup. 1353. 
Charles D. Gibson, sup. 1394. 
William Hamilton Gibson, sup. 1394. 
Bernhard Gillam, sup. 1398. 
Kate Greenaway, sup. 1461. 
Augustus Hoppin, sup. 161 3. 
Thomas Nast, sup. 2138. 
Joseph Pennell, sup. 2337. 
Charles S. Reinhart, sup. 2530. 
Frederic Remington, sup. 2531. 
See Art Unions, sup. 258. 




" Such sweet compulsion doth in music lie." — Milton. 

ALTHOUGH America has not yet produced a great com- 
poser of music, it has nevertheless a copious and impor- 
tant musical history. The article on MUSIC IN AMERICA, 
sup. 2128, wherein this history is narrated, will therefore 
be read with great interest, and doubtless also with profit, 
by every American musician who wishes to know anything 
about the origin and progress of music in. his own country. 

In the seventeenth volume of the Encyclopedia Britan- 
nica (pages 77-102), Professor Macfarren, of the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, presents a scholarly and comprehensive 
history of music, tracing its progress through western civ- 
ilization, and showing how it has been changed from an 
artificial or calculated form to a natural or spon- 
taneous. This article not only appeals especial- 
Music ^ to musicians and students of music, but it 
contains much that will interest the casual 
reader. It may be taken as the basis of a short course of 
study on this subject. It may be read in sections in con- 
nection with other special articles, as follows : 

Origin of musical instruments, page yy. (See list of 
musical instruments below.) 

Musical intervals, XVII. 78, 103. 

Affinity of music to astronomy, XVII. 78. See Pythago- 
ras, XX. 137. 

Antiphony, XVII. 79; also II. 134. 

Scales, XVII. 80. 


Time in music, sup. 2915. 

Tone in music, sup. 2926. 

Harmon)-, XVII. 81. Special article on, VII. 593. The 

principles of harmony are treated still further 

in part IV. of the article Acoustics, I. 107. 
Harmony. . 

Counterpoint, XV11. 02. 

Academies of music, XVII. S3. See also 

Academy, I. yS, and Conservatory, VI. 291. 

Troubadours, XVII. 83 ; also VII. 413 ; Minstrel, XVI. 


Madrigal, XV. 192. 

Oratorio, XVII. 85-100; also Handel's XI. 435 ; Hay- 
dn's, XI. 549; Mendelssohn's, XVI. 8; in America, sup. 

Hymns, XVII. 85 ; also the special article on this sub- 
ject, XII. 577. 

Psalmody in America, sup. 2129. 

Choral tunes, XVII. 85. 

Opera, XVII. 87, 99. See Scarlatti, XXI. 375 ; Lully, 
XV. 6$ ; Wagner, XXIV. 313. 

Cantata, XVII. 88. 

Symphony, XVII. 95. 

Among the many other articles on musical subjects the 
following are of especial interest: 

Voice, and vocal music, XXIV. 273. 

Plain song or chant, XIX. 168. 

Vocal Anthem, II. 102. 
Music. Agnus Dei, I. 284. 

Almai (Egyptian singers), I. 592. 

Glee, X. 677. 

Minuet, XVI. 492. 

Scientific basis of music, XVII. 102-106 (a scholarly 
article by Professor Bosanquet, of the Royal College of 
Music, London). 



Drum, VII. 479. 

Flute, IX. 350. 

Transverse flute, XXII I. 519. 

Flageolet, IX. 351. 

Bassoon, III. 425. 

Lyre, XV. 1 13. 

/Eolian harp, I. 182, and sup. 54. 

Harp, XL 488. 

Lute, XV. 70. 

Violin, XXIV. 242. 

Banjo, sup. 337. 

Hornpipe, XII. 171. 

French horn, XII. 167. 

Dulcimer, sup. 109 1. 

Oboe, or hautboy, XVII. 705. 

Trumpet, XXIII. 592. 

Trombone, XXIII. 586. 

Ophicleide, XVII. 705. 

Organ, XVII. 828-839. 

Barrel-organs, sup. 361. 

Pianoforte, XIX. 64-78. 


These are so numerous that we shall attempt to name 
only a few of the most famous. Reference to others may 
easily be made by consulting the Index volume. 
Jenny Lind, XIV. 662, sup. 1419. 
Adelina Patti, sup. 2325. 
Singers. Parepa Rosa, sup. 2576. 
Emma Eames, sup. 2795. 
Clara Louise Kellogg, sup. 2798. 
Nellie Melba, sup. 2032. 


Beethoven, III. 504. 
Mendelssohn, XVI. 6. 
Handel, XL 433. 

Haydn, XL 538. 
Composers. Franz Liszt, sup. 1896. 

Moscheles, XVI. 222. 
Czerny, VI. 755. 
Lully, XV. 63. 
Johann Strauss, sup. 2798. 
Meyerbeer, XVI. 6. 
Wagner, XXIV. 313. 
Weber, XXIV. 467. 
Brahms, sup. 546. 
Scarlatti, XXI. 375. 
Rubinstein, sup. 2586. 

Paderewski, sup. 2279. 
Pianists. Tschaikowsky, sup. 2954. 

Gottschalk, sup. 143 1 , 2132. 
Antonin Dvorak, sup. 1100. 
Moritz Rosenthal, sup. 2578. 
Lowell Mason, sup. 2009, 2129. 

Theodore Thomas, sup. 2 131, 2897. 
Directors. Leopold Damrosch, sup. 2131,983. 

Dudley Buck, sup. 605, 2132. 
Reginald de Koven, sup. 1016. 
Anton Scidl, sup. 2678, 2132. 
Remenyi, sup. 2531. 

Paganini, XVIII. 134. 

Corelli, VI. 394- 

VlOliniStS. _ TTTTT 

Ernst, VIII. 527. 
Ole Bull, sup. 615. 
Violin-makers: Stradivari, XXIV. 245; Amati, I. 654. 
See Cremona, VI. 507, and XVII. 98. 



" The best actors in the world, either for tragedy, comedy." — Hamlet. 

THE word drama is from the Greek drao, meaning 
action. The invention of dramatic art is the direct out- 
come of a universal quality of human nature — the desire to 

imitate. Aristotle says that this desire is in- 

Xhe stinctive in man from his infancy. Children are 

Drama. perpetually going out of themselves ; it is one 

of their chief amusements to represent those 
grown people whom they have had an opportunity of ob- 
serving, or whatever strikes their fancy ; " and, with the 
happy pliancy of their imagination, they can exhibit all 
the characteristics of any dignity they may choose to 
assume, be it that of a father, a schoolmaster, or a king." 
Here, then, is the first step towards the invention of the 
dramatic art. Imitation of action by action, however 
simple and unpremeditated, is a drama in embryo. The 
business of the dramatist is to invent this action and to 
mould it into a form sanctioned by the laws of literature. 
It is the business of the actor to present this action in its 
concrete form, agreeably to the laws of histrionic art. 
The actor is only the temporary interpreter of the 

The history of the drama, which includes both dramatic 

literature and its presentation on the stage, is 
History. a subject very interesting not only to all actors 

and dramatists, but to students of literature and 
art and humanity, and even to "the general reader." 
The Encyclopedia Britannica presents that history in a 


form adapted to the convenience of all who care to peruse 
it, while its various related topics are so grouped and ar- 
ranged as to afford every convenience for ready consulta- 
tion. The following references, including the entire his- 
tory of the drama and of dramatic representation, will 
point the way to several courses of systematic reading : 


Egyptian drama, VII. 403. 

Chinese drama, VII. 400. 

Hindoo drama, VII. 396. 

The Sakuntala of Kalidasa, XIII. 828 ; VII. 397. 

The Greek drama, VII. 403, comprised two great divi- 
sions, tragedy and comedy. 

The traditional inventor of tragedy was Thespis, VII. 
404 ; hence the expression Thespian art, so often used to 
designate dramatic art. 

Tragedy was defined by Plato as an imitation 
Greek °f the noblest life. 

Drama. Comedy had its origin in sport; it was "the 

village song," the rustic jest, and formed the 
most complete contrast to tragedy. 

Origin of tragedy, XI. 140. 

The great masters of Greek tragedy were /Eschvlus, 
I. 208, VII. 403 ; Sophocles, XXII. 271 ; and Euripides, 
VIII. 673, XL 140. 

The construction of the Greek tragedy was essentially 
different from that of the modern play. See VII. 406. 

Origin of comedy, VII. 407. 

The master of Greek comedy, although by no means 
its inventor, was Aristophanes, II. 507. He was the rep- 
ntative of the Old Comedy, the distinctive features of 
which are described in VII. 407. 


Of the Middle and the New Comedies, the greatest 
names are those of Eubulus and Menander, XVI. 2. 

The Attie drama, represented by the great names just 
mentioned, had its origin in religion, VII. 408. Its reli- 
gious character had much to do in modifying its rep- 
resentation upon the stage. 

The Roman Drama — its origin, VII. 409. 

Livius Andronicus, who was both dramatist and actor, 
produced the first regular Roman tragedy and the first 
great Roman comedy, XIV. 723, VII. 410. Other trage- 
dians were : 

Cna_>us Nsevius, XVII. 161. 
Roman Quintus Ennius, VIII. 447 ; XX. 717. 

Drama. Lucius Accius, I. 83. 

Lucius Annneus Seneca, XXI. 658. 
Of the writers of Latin comedy the greatest names are 
T. Maccius Plautus, XIX. 215. 
Terence, XXIII. 186; XVI. 2. 

With the triumph of the Christian Church in the 4th 
century, the Roman drama came to an end, VII. 412. 

The Christian drama had its origin in dramatic com- 
positions written doubtless for educational purposes as 
early as the 5th century. 

St. Gregory Nazianzus, XI. 179; VII. 412. 
Hrotsvitha, XII. 326. 

Mystery-plays, VII. 412. 
Mediaeval Miracle-plays, V. 324. 

Plays. Moralities, VIII. 41 6; VII. 413. 

Passion-play of Oberammergau, XVII. 703. 

The English drama was the offshoot of the miracle- 
plays and moralities which survived even after the regular 


tragedy and comedy of the modern stage had begun 

their course. 
English The first tragedy proper in the English 

Drama. tongue was Gorboduc, by Thomas Sackville, 

Lord Buckhurst, VIII. 416. 

The earliest English comedy now extant was Ralph 
Roister Doistcr, by Nicholas Udall, XXIII. 716. 

" Out of such promises as these the glories of our 
drama were ripened by the warmth and light of the great 
Elizabethan age." Of the Elizabethan dramatists, the 
following are the most famous : 

John Lyly, VII. 429 ; XV. 103. 

Thomas Kyd, XXI. 463. 

Christopher Marlowe, XV. 556. 

George Peele, XVIII. 457. 

Robert Greene, XI. 163. 

Thomas Lodge, XIV. 767; XVIII. 346. 

Thomas Nash, XVII. 236. 

William Shakespeare, XXI. jij. (See Index, page 

Ben Jonson, XIII. 741. 

John Webster, VII. 432. 

Francis Beaumont, III. 469. 

John Fletcher, XVIII. 347. 

Philip Massinger, XV. 618. 

The Puritans and the Drama, VII. 434. 

Milton's Com us, XVI. 526. 

Sir William Davenant, VI. 835. 

Drama of the Restoration, VII. 434, 435. 

John Uryden, VIP 488; VIII. 423. 
William Wycherley, XXIV. 705. 


William Congreve, VI. 271. 
Sir John Vanbrugh, XXIV. 54. 

Drama of the Eighteenth Century, VII. 435-438. 

Addison's Cato, VIII. 425, 426; VII. 435. 

Home's Douglas, XII. 107. 

Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd, XX. 266. 

Gay's Beggar s Opera, X. 119. 

Henry Fielding's comedies, IX. 142 ; VIII. 430. 

Goldsmith's comedies, X. 760; VII. 435. 

Sheridan's comedies, VII. 438 ; XXI. 797. 

Drama of the Nineteenth Century, VII. 438, 439. 
Byron's Manfred, IV. 604 ; VII. 438. 
Shelley's The Cenei, VIII. 433; XXI. 789. 
Buhver-Lytton's Richelieu, XV. 121. 

Modern Italian Drama, VII. 416-417. 
Cinthio's Heeatommithi, X. 620. 

Marquis S. Maffei, XV. 196. 
Italian Alfieri, I. 502. 

Drama. Manzoni, XV. 5 1 4. 

Ariosto's comedies, VII. 418. 
Guarini's Pastor Fido, XI. 236. 
Goldoni, X. 759; XIII. 513. 

The Spanish Drama, XXII. 356, 358; VII. 419. 
Cervantes, XXII. 356 ; V. 347. 

Lope de Vega, XXII. 357; VII. 420; 
Spanish XXIV. 121. 

Drama. Calderon de la Barca, XXII. 359 ; IV. 659. 

Moreto, VII. 422; XVI. 821. 
Cienfuegos, V. 775. 
Bartolome Torres Naharro, XXII. 356. 


The French Drama, VII. 423. 

Bible-plays, IX. 647; miracle-plays, IX. 648. 

Stephen Jodelle, VII. 423 ; XX. 841. 

The Classical Drama, IX. 654. 

Robert Gamier, VII. 423. 

Corneille, VII. 424; IX. 655. 

Racine, IX. 663. 

Voltaire, XXIV. 285 ; IX. 670. 

Moliere, IX. 659; XVI. 624. 

French Victor Hugo, VII. 427; IX. 676. 

Drama. Minor dramatists, IX. 660. 

Dramatists of the Empire, IX. 676. 
Victorien Sardou, sup. 2631. 
Theatre Francais, sup. 2{ 

The German Drama, X. 529; VII. 440. 
Lessing, VII. 441 ; X. 536. 
German " Sturm und Drang," VII. 442 ; X. 540. 
Drama. Goethe, X. 537, 72 1 ; VII. 442. 
Schiller, XXI. 395 ; X. 538. 
Hans Sachs, X. 528 ; Gustav Freytag, X. 541. 
The Romantic School, VII. 443 
Later dramatists, X. 545. 

The Dutch Drama, XII. 91,96. 
Dutch Hooft, XII. 93, 146. 

Drama. Van den Vondel, VII. 444; XII. 94. 

Maurice Maeterlinck (Belgium), sup. 1966. 

The Scandinavian Drama, XX I. 754; XVII 590; VII. 92. 
Holberg, XII. 56. 
Ochlenschla;., r, XVII. 730. 
Bjdrnstjerne Bjornson, XVII. 591. 
Henrik Ibsen, XVII. 591. 



By this word we have reference to a place specially 
devised for dramatic representations. See the following 
articles or parts of articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica : 

The Greek theatre, its invention and plan, XXIII. 222 ; 


Dionysiac Theatre at Athens, III. 3. 

The Roman theatre, VII. 411 ; XXIII. 223 ; II. 419. 

Amphitheatre, X. 65 ; I. 774. 

Colosseum, II. 419; XXIII. 420. 

Early English theatres, VII. 428; XXIII. 



Blackfriars Theatre, VIII. 419. 
Globe Theatre, XXI. 761. 
Theatres of Paris, XXIII. 225 ; XVIII. 277. 
Drury Lane Theatre, XXIII. 226. 
Theatres of New York, XVII. 461. 
Chinese theatres, V. 666. 

The stage in Greek theatres, VII. 408. 

In Roman theatres, VII. 411. 

In early English theatres, VIII. 420. 

In modern theatres, XXIII. 226. 
Costumes and scenery, XXIII. 225. 
Masks in Greek tragedy, VII. 408. 
The cothurnus, VII. 408. 
The Coventry-plays, VII. 414. 
Pageants, VII. 416. 
Masques, VII. 431. 


The Histrionic Art, VII. 396 ; IX. 209. 
Actors: Greek, VII. 408; Roman, VII. 411 ; Hindu, 
VII. 399; English, VII. 434, 439 ; Chinese, VII. 402. 
Livius Andronicus, XIV. 723. 


Richard Burbage, XXI. 761. 

David Garrick, X. 83. 

Mrs. Sarah Siddons, XXII. 32. 

JohnKemble, XIV. 31. 

Fanny Kemble, sup. 1778. 

Edmund Kean, XIV. 21. 

William Charles Macready, XV. 167. 

Barton Booth, IV. 48. 

Edwin Booth, sup. 521. 

Lawrence Barrett, sup. 362. 

Dion Boucicault, sup. 531. 

Ernesto Rossi, sup. 2579. 

Anna Cora Mo watt, sup. 2553. 

Edwin Forrest, sup. 13 12. 

Joseph Jefferson, sup. 1738. 

Charlotte Cushman, sup. 971. 

Mary Anderson, sup. 2144. 

Richard Mansfield, sup. 1984. 

Maggie Mitchell, sup. 2085. 

Fanny Davenport, sup. 992. 

Clara Morris, sup. 21 10. 

Sir Henry Irving, sup. 1 7 1 5. 

Ellen Terry, sup. 2881. 

Helena Modjeska, sup. 2087. 

Lilian Neilson, sup. 2158. 

In general, the names and biographies of all the most 
popular actors on the American stage may be found by 
consulting the American supplements to the Encyclopedia 


See VII. 39O-396. 

In the first place, a drauiati. action must possess unity. 
See VII. 390; XVI. Si. 


It must be complete. See VII. 391. 
Prologues and epilogues, VII. 392. 
See Chorus in Greek Drama, XVII. 79. 
Climax and catastrophe, VII. 393. 
Characterization, VII. 394. 
Consistency, VII. 394. 
Tragedy and comedy, VII. 395. 
Gesture, speech, costume, VII. 396. 




"Our books, gardens, family, scenery, might all bring forth to us 
far greater wealth of enjoyment and improvement if we tried to squeeze 
the very utmost out of them." — Charles Buxton. 

" A home without books is like a room without windows." — Henry 
Ward Beecher. 

The Britannica would be lacking in completeness if it 
did not contain a number of practical articles on topics 
of domestic interest and utility. An examination of any 
single volume will show that it is not in the least deficient 
in this respect. To any person having in charge the af- 
fairs of a home or a family, this great work offers a variety 
of useful information that is not to be found in any simi- 
lar publication. 

A. THE household. 

Do you think of building a house for yourself ? See the 
article on Building, IV. 447. Consult, also, the 
House- supplementary article on American Architec- 
building. ture, sup. 218 ; and notice the practical refer- 
ences in the chapter entitled, The Builder, in 
this GUIDE. Then refer to the following valuable arti- 
cles, or parts of articles : 

Sanitation of the house, XII. 567. 

Progress in American sanitary science, sup. 2402. 

Ventilation of the house, XII. 567; ventilation by 
chimneys, XXIV. 160. 

Sewerage, XXI. 71 1 ; sup. 2403. 

Plumbing, IV. 502 ; sup. 2402. 


Water-closets, XXI. 716. 

Water-pipes, XXII. 484. 

Paper-hangings, IV. 512. 

Japanese paper-hangings, XIII. 591. 

Tapestry, XXIII. 211. 

Heating apparatus, XI. 590; XXIV. 161; sup. 1352. 

Stoves, XXII. 579. 

The latest improvements in cook-stoves, sup. 2796. 


After the house has been built, other questions will pre- 
sent themselves, and the following articles in the Britan- 
nica will be read with interest : 

Furniture, IX. 847. 

Bed, sup. 396. 

Chairs, IX. 849. 

Carpets, V. 127. 

Mural decoration, XVII. 34. 


The busy housewife, upon whose wisdom and discretion 
so much of the family happiness depends, will find a vast 
fund of information, and often some valuable practical 
suggestions, in such articles as these : 

Cooking-stoves, XXII. 579. 

Cookery, VI. 331. 

Adulteration of foods, I. 169. 

Cookery among the Arabs, II. 251. 

Baking, III. 250-258. 

Baking-powder, sup. 323. 

Food, sup. 1298. 

Dairy foods, VI. 768. 

Table showing the composition of different foods, sup. 


Milk, XVI. 301. 

Cream, XVI. 303. 

Butter, IV. 590. 

Cheese, V. 455. 

Coffee, VI. 1 10. 

Tea, XXIII. 97. 

Chocolate, V. 680. 

Lard, XIV. 312. 

Use of salt in food, sup. 1301. 

Sugar, XXII. 622. 

Sugar in the United States, sup. 1988, 2818. 

Honey, XII. 136. 

Gelatine, X. 130. 

Gluten, X. 695. 

Preserved foods, XIX. 707. 

Jelly, as conserve of fruit, XIII. 564. 

Tinned foods, XIX. 708. 

Arrowroot, II. 631. 

Canning industry, sup. 685. 

Macaroni, XV. 125. 

Flour, IX. 343. 

Nutritive lichens, Iceland moss, etc., XIV. 559. 

Curry, VI. 715. 

Cinnamon, V. 785. 

Nutmeg, XVII. 666 (illustrated). 

Allspice, XIX. 97. 

Pepper, XVIII. 516; cayenne, V. 280. 

Confectionery, VI. 256. 

Aerated waters, I. 184. 

Mineral waters, XV. 431. 

Ice, XII. 611. 

Read the valuable article on dietetics, VII. 200. 
Digestion of foods, sup. 1299. 


Diet in sickness, VII. 205. 

The uses of water in dietetics, XXIV. 399. 
Dietetics. Meals, VII. 209. 

Plutarch on dietetics, VI. 181. 
Lord Combermere's rules, VI. 181. 


Candles, IV. 802. 

Lamps, XIV. 244. 

Sewing-machines, XXI. 718. 

Needles, XVII. 313- 

Pins, XIX. 97. 

Thread, VI. 502. 

Combs, VI. 177. 

Brushes, IV. 403. 

Looking-glasses, IX. 849. 

Pottery (see page 432, of this Guide). 

Cups, XIX. 180. 


What to do in case of asphyxiation, II. 716. 

Antidotes to poisons, XIX. 276. 

What to do in case of burns, XXII. 681. 

Burns and scalds, sup. 629. 

Some rules for the care of the sick, VII. 205. 

Other topics will suggest themselves to every intelligent 
housekeeper, and these may generally be found by refer- 
ring to the Index volume. 

See, also, the chapters in this Guide entitled, respec- 
tively, The Farmer, The Gardener, The Physician, and 
The Fruit Grower. 



A long list of articles on subjects connected with the 
social life of the home might be given here. The follow- 
ing will be sufficient to indicate their number and variety : 

Costume : In Volume VI., page 453, there is a complete 
history of dress, with illustrations. 

Gloves, X. 692. 

Girdles, X. 622. 

Shoes, XXI. 830; boots, sup. 522. 

Hats, XI. 518. 

Ribbons, XX. 531. 

Rings, XX. 560. 

Jewelry, XIII. 675. 

Gems, X. 136; XX. 560. 

Diamonds, VII. 162. 

Laces, XIV. 183. 

Parasols, XXIII. 722. 

Sachets — perfumes, XVIII. 527. 

See the chapter in this Guide entitled, The Musician. 

See the chapter entitled, The Artist. 


Billiards, III. 674. 
Chess. V. 592 ; sup. 778. 
Checkers, VII. 444. 
Dice, sup. 1042. 
Backgammon, III. 197. 

Games at Cards: Kuchrc, VIII. 654; poker, XIX. 
282; whist, XXIV. 543, sup. 3139; cribbage, VI. 575; 


casino, sup. 717; bezique, III. 623 ; loo, XV. 1 ; picquct, 
XIX. 114; ecarte, VII. 620 ; Napoleon, XVII. 229; faro, 
sup. 1248; baccarat, sup. 308; seven-up, sup. 2693. 

Riddles, XX. 549. 

Charades, V. 398. 

White magic, XIV. 414 ; XV. 207. 

Dancing, VI. 798-801; jig, VI. 799; hornpipe, XII. 
171 ; waltz, VI. 799; schottische, VI. 800; reel, VI. 801 ; 
Spanish bolero, sup. 511; fandango, sup. 1242. 

Calisthenics, XI. 350. 


Tennis, XXIII. 179, 181. 

Croquet, VI. 608. 

Golf, X. 765. 

Cricket, VI. 578. 

Football, sup. 1 301 ; IX. 367. 

Polo, XIX. 549. 

Baseball, sup. 370. 

Horsemanship, XII. 195. 

Fox-hunting, VII. 329; XII. 314. 

Shooting, XXI. 832. 

Archery, II. 371. 

Fishing, II. 32. 

Bicycling, sup. 458. 

Skating, XXII. 104. 

Swimming, XXII. 768. 

Rowing, XX. 619. 

Canoeing, IV. 81 1. 

Yachting, XXIV. 722-725. 


Autograph collecting, III. 141. 
Stamp collecting, XIX. 588. 


Crocheting, XIV. 127. 

Amateur photography, sup. 2370. 

Hammered metal-work, XVI. 72. 

Embroidery, VIII. 160. 

Decalcomania, sup. 1007. 

Ceramics, XIX. 600, sup. 734. 

Reading (see the chapter entitled, The Bookman). 

Cigars, V. 776; XXIII. 426. 
Wine, XXIV. 601. 
Coffee, VI. no. 
Tea, XXIII. 101. 

Clubs, sup. 837 ; VI. 38. 
Women's clubs, sup. 838. 


Acoustics. 137, 139. 

Actor, The, 441. 

Adventurers, 28. 

Agriculture, 231. 

Alchemy, 170. 

Algebra, 132. 

Almanacs, 95. 

American citizen, The, 281. 

American history, 59; literature, 
73; politics, 282; colleges, 402- 

Amusements, 50, 52, 454. 

Ancient art, 146. 

Ancient history, 62. 

Ancient literature, 78. 

Animals, 46, 100. 

Antiquities, 144. 

Apothecary, The, 356. 

Archaeology, 144. 

Archery, 51. 

Architect, the, 215. 

Arithmetic, 131. 

Arms and armor, 274. 

Artist, The, 43, 429. 

Aryan languages, 86. 

Astrology, 91, 171. 

Astronomy. 90. 

Athletic games, 53. 

Authors, 43. 

Ball, Games of, 50. 

Balloons, 198. 

Banker, The, 311. 

Banks and banking, 308, 314. 

Battles, 277. 

Bible — History, 156 ; geography, 
159; circulation, etc., 379. 

Bible student, The, 156. 

Bicycling, 53. 

Biographies : adventurers 28 ; al- 
chemists, 171; Americans great, 
32 ; American writers, 73 ' anti- 
slavery leaders, 385 ; asirolo- 
gists, 171; astronomers, 91, au- 
thors, 73, 75; bankers, 317; B ble 

characters, 158; botanists, 108; 
chemists, 359; colonists, 31; de- 
termination, men of, 39; dili- 
gence, men of, 33; discoverers, 
28 ; dramatists, 443 ; electri- 
cians, 202; energy, men of, 40; 
Englishmen, great, 70 ; English 
writers, 75; financiers, 317; ge- 
ologists, 362 ; illustrators, 436 ; 
integrity, men of, 41 ; inventors, 
208 ; journalists, 427; kings, 27; 
lawyers, 331 ; librarians, 397 ; 
logicians, 153 ; mathematicians, 
x 3 r > x 33 ! merchants, 324 ; mis- 
sionaries, 382 ; musicians, 440 ; 
noble motives, men of, 43 ; ora- 
tors, 389; painters, 429; patience, 
men of, 40 ; patriots, 2S6 ; phil- 
anthropists, 383 ; philosophers, 
149 ; physicians, 347 ; political 
economists, 310; preachers, 3^4; 
precision, men of, 42 ; presi- 
dents, 33 ; printers, 423; prison- 
ers' friends, 3S4 ; reformers, 
386 ; psychologists, 408 ; religi- 
ous leaders, 376 ; scientists, 99 ; 
sculptors, 431; social reformers, 
387 ; soldiers, 281 ; statesmen, 
286 ; teachers, 400 ; temperance 
advocates, 3S7; theologians, 374; 
warriors, 27; woman suffragists, 
386; young men, great, 43. 

Biography, Home readings in, 37. 

Biology, General course of read- 
ing in, 96 ; great biologists, 99 ; 
miscellaneous topics in, 106. 

Birds, 105. 

Blacksmith, The, 193. 

Boatman, The, 53. 

Bookish subjects, 395. 

Bookkeeper, The, 292, 300. 

Bookman, The, 392. 

Books and libraries, 84. 

Books, Fifty great, 392. 




Books for lawyers, 341. 

Books of the Bible, 157. 

Bookseller, The, 425. 

Botany, 108. See Plants. 

Boys and girls, To the, 23. 

Brewer, The, 390. 

Brick-layer, The, 220. 

Brickmaker, The, 187. 

Bridges, 225, 450. 

Builder, The, 220, 450. 

Buildings, Famous, 218. 

Burial customs, 177. 

Butcher, The, 253. 

Calendars, 95. 

Canals, 226, 322. 

Carpenter, The, 192, 222. 

Carrier, The public, 322. 

Ceramic art, 432. 

Chemist, The, 359. 

Christianity, 370. 

Christian legends, 168. 

Church history, 373; government, 

Civi; service, 288. 
Classification in zoology, 103 ; in 

botany, 109. 
Clerk-copyist, The, 292. 
Clerk, The, custom-house, 300. 
Climate, 127. 
Colleges, 402-406. 
Clothier, The, 454. 
Composer, The musical, 439. 
Cooperation, 238, 309, 32S. 
Criminal, The, 344. 
Curious customs, 177. 
Curious inventions, 176. 
Curious people, 178. 
Curious races, 144. 
Curious things, 25. 
Curious things in the sea, 267. 
Custom-house service, 299. 
Dairyman, The, 252. 
I >eath and burial, 177. 
Debater, The, 389. 
Desultory reader's co urse, 175. 
Detei live, The police, 305. 
Disi overers, 28, 31. 
Divon e, 144, 332. 
Draftsman, The, 295. 
Drama, The, 84 ; history of, 441. 
Drama) ist, I he, 441. 
Drawing, 436. 
Press, 454. 

Druggist, The, 356. 

Dynamics, 200. 

Education, 399 ; theories of, 409. 

Electrician, The, 201. 

Electric machinery, 204. 

Emergencies, 453. 

Encyclopaedia, What it is, 24. 

Engineer, The, 224 ; steam en- 
gineer, 296. 

English drama, 442; history, 67 ; 
legends, 16S; literature, 75. 

Engraver, The, 435. 

Essays, Subjects for, 414. 

Ethics, 148. 

Ethnology, 143. 

Evil spirits, 172. 

Explanations of references, 17. 

Expressman, The, 322. 

Fabled animals, 48. 

Fables, 169. 

Fairy stories, 169. 

Farmer, The, 231. 

Farmer, The Indian, 299. 

Fiction, History of, 83. 

Financier, The, 311, 317. 

Fireman, The, 305. 

Fisherman, The, 52, 102, 266. 

Fish culturist, The, 296. 

Fishes, 102, 104. 

Florist, The, 241. 

Flowers. See Botany and Gardener. 

Foods, 451. 

Forestry, 247. 

Fortification, 227. 

Free trade, 310, 321. 

French language. 86; literature, 82. 

Fruit-grower, The, 244, 2711. 

Funeral director. The, 177. 

Furnishing, 451. 

Games, Outdoor, 50; indoor, 52. 

Gardener, The, 240. 

Geography — History of, 112; maps 
in the Britannica, 115; geograph- 
ical topics, 124 ; geog.„ K hy of 
United States, 126. 

Geologist, The, 260. 

Geometry, 132. 

( rerman language, 87; literature, 82. 

Girls, To the boys and, 23. 

( rlass-maker, The, 186. 

Glazier, The, 223. 

Goldsmith, The, 185. 

Government, 281, 



Grammar, 412. 

Greek drama, 442 ; history, 64 ; 
language, S6 ; literature, 7S ; 
mythology, 163. 

Grocer, The, 320. 

Gymnastics, 55. 

Harbors, 226. 

Health inspector. The, 304. 

Heat. 213. 

Hebrew language, 88; literature, 81. 

Heroes, 26. 

History: Home readings in, 30; 
naval history, 33 ; romance cf, 
34; three courses of reading in, 
59; American, 59; Ancient, 62; 
Greek, 64; Roman, 35, 65; Mod- 
ern, 66. 

How to do things, 28. 

Home-maker, The, 450. 

Huntsman, The, 53. 

Hydromechanics, 136, 197. 

Ichthyology, 104. 

Illustrator, The, 436. 

Imaginary beings, 174. 

Indian teacher, 297 ; physician, 
299 ; farmer, 299. 

Index volume, How to use the, 18. 

Insurance agent, The, 326. 

International law, 294. 

Inventions, Famous, 210. 

Inventor, The, 207. 

Israelites, Journey of the, 160. 

Italian language, S6; literature, 82. 

Jeweler, The, 454. See Mineralo- 

Journalist, The, 426. 

Justice, Administration of, 334. 

Kings and warriors, 27. 

Knighthood, 35. 

Labor and capital, 229. 

Laborer, The, 228, 309. 

Labor organizations, 230. 

Language, History of, 85. 

Latin language, 86; literature, 80. 

Lawyer, The, 329. 

Leather-worker, The, 194. 

Lecturer, The, 390. 

Legends, 165. 

Letter-carrier, The, 301. 

Librarian, The, 305. 

Libraries, 84, 396. 

Light-houses, 226. 

Liquor-dealer, The, 390. 

Literature — Five courses of read- 
ing in, 72; American, 73; Eng- 
lish, 75 ; Greek, 78; Roman, 80; 
Hebrew, 81 ; French, 82 ; four- 
teen great literatures, 81 ; fic- 
tion, 83 ; the drama, 84, 441 ; 
poetry, 84. 

Logic, 152. 

Lumbering, 248. 

Machinist, The, 196. 

Magic, 171. 

Magistrate, The, 343. 

Magnetism, 140, 205. 

Mail-clerk, The railway, 297. 

Man, Readings in study of, 141. 

Manufacturer, The, 181. 

Manufacturing centres, 188. 

Maps in the Britannica, 115. 

Marriage, 144. 

Mason, The, 220. 

Mathematics, 130. 

Meat inspector, The, 253, 295. 

Mechanic, The, 190. 

Mechanics, Laws of, 199, 211. 

Medical inspector, The, 305. 

Medicine, 346. 

Merchant, The, 320. 

Metal-worker, The, 193; art metal- 
work, 433. 

Metaphysic, 150. 

Meteorology, 127. 

Milkman, The, 252. 

Miner, The, 256. 

Mineralogist, The, 363. 

Mineral manufactures, 184. 

Minerals, 257. 

Missionary, The, 382. 

Money, History of, 311. 

Municipal service, The, 303. 

Musician, The, 43, 437. 

Mutual-benefit societies, 328. 

Mythology, Readings in, 163. 

Natural history, 46. 

Natural philosophy, 135. 

Navigator, The, 265. 

Navy, The, 33, 268. 

Necromancy, 171. 

Norse mythology, 164. 

Occult sciences, 170. 

Ocean life, 102. 

Optics, 137, 140. 

Oratory, 388. 

Ornithology, 105. 



Painter, The, 429. 
Paper-maker, The, 195. 
Parks, 250. 

Parliamentary rules, 389. 
Pastimes, 50, 52, 455. 
Paul, Journeys of, 161. 
Pauperism, 309. 
Pension examiner, The, 293. 
Pharmacist, The, 356. 
Philanthropist, The, 381. 
Philology, S5. 
Philosophers, 43. 
Philosophy, Readings in, 148. 
Photographer, The, 434. 
Physician, The, 299, 346. 
Physics, Readings in, 135. 
Plants, 108, 240, 247, 250. 
Plasterer, The, 223. 
Plumber, The, 222. 
Pneumatics, 137, 197. 
Policeman, The, 305, 343. 
Political economist, The, 307. 
Politics, American, 283. 
Population, 308. 
Post-office service, 300. 
Potter, The, 186, 432. 
Pottery, 432. 
Poultryman, The, 254. 
Precious metals, 185. 
Printer, The, 301, 423. 
Prisoners' friends, 384. 
Psychology, 151, 407. 
Preacher, The, 366. 
Publisher, The, 425. 
Quarry man, The, 256. 
Races of men, 141. 
Railroad-man, The, 270. 
Religions, 367. 
Reptiles, 102. 

Revenue service, The, 302. 
Rhetoric, 411. 

Roads, 220. 

Roman history, 65 ; language, 86; 
literal lire 

Rome, Stories of, 35. 
Rowing, 53. 
Sailor, The, 263. 

S< hoolmaster, 1 he, 400. 
S< hoots, A^ri* ultural, 238. 
s< ien< <-, I Ionic readings in, 40 
S« ulptor, 1 1><-, 1 11 
Seaman, The, 263. 
Semitic languages, 88. 

Ships, 34, 264. 

Shoemaker, The, 187, 194. 

Slater, The, 222. 

Slavery, 385. 

Social lite, 454. 

Sociology, 154. 

Soldier, The, 273. 

Speaker, The public, 388. 

Special schools, 402, 406. 

Spinner, The, 182. 

Spiritualism, 173. 

Steam engine, 196. 

Stenographer, The, 421. 

Stock-raiser, The, 251. 

Stone-cutter, The, 195, 221. 

Sun worship, 92. 

Supernatural, Readings in the, 170. 

Surgeon, The, 350. 

Surveyor, The, 224. 

Tanner, The, 194. ' 

Tariff, 310. 

Taxation, 308. 

Teacher, The, 398. 

Teacher, The, in Indian schools, 

Temperance, 387, 390. 
Textile products, 182. 
Theatre, The, 447. 
Theologian, The, 366. 
Trader, The, 320. 
Transportation, 322. 
Trigonometry, 132. 
Truck-farmer, The, 242. 
Typewriter, The, 293, 421. 
Universities, 401-400. 
Vintner, The, 245. 
Wages, 229. 
Wars, 276. 
Waterworks, 225. 
Wealth and currency, 308. 
Weather bureau, 128, 294. 
Weaver, The, 182. 
Weight and motion, 139. 
Winds, 128. 

Witchcraft, 172. 
Woman suffrage, 3S0. 

Woman's household work, 450. 

Wood-carving, 434. 
w oodsman, The, 247. 

Wood-worker, The, 192. 
Writer, The, 410. 

ZoOlogy, 46, 98. 



Baldx>dn, James 

A guide to systematic reading 
in the Encyclopaedia Britannic a 
1 ew and rev, ed. 

For use in 

the library 






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