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** Liverpool 


















Dr. J. E. TAYLOR, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S.I , 







Hontion : 


\_All rights reserved.] 






IN writing a few lines by way of Preface to the Annual volume of 
Science-Gossip, the Editor calls to mind that this is the twenty- 
eighth yearly presentation to the world of a Magazine founded and 
edited in the interests of popular Science. The period in question is 
a long one, even in the life of a man ; it is comparatively longer in that 
of a Magazine. Within its lifetime what hosts of new discoveries 
have been made ; what myriads of original observations have been 
chronicled ! The entire history of Science has no more eventful period. 
The twenty-eight volumes of our Magazine constitute the best popular 
encyclopaedia of this eventful time. No wonder, therefore, they are 
constantly in demand among our newer subscribers ; and inquired for 
in publishers' and booksellers' Catalogues, in the " Original blue 
cloth." SCIENCE-GOSSIP stands alone in the fact that its earlier 
numbers fetch more than their original price. Even its own publishers 
offer double for certain numbers, to make up sets ; and those from 
the first to the two hundred and twenty-eighth issues are stated at 
eightpence instead of fourpence. 

Within its literary lifetime, SCIENCE-GOSSIP has had to compete 
with numerous rivals ; but it has succeeded in keeping its place in 
spite of able and keen competition. We would point out that each 
annual volume has been marked by distinct scientific features. In the 
present volume, for example, we would call attention to the able and 
original papers of Messrs. Lord, B. Thomas, Bryce, Nunning, Harcourt- 
Bath, P. Thompson, H. Friend, A. Bennett, T. V. Holmes, Tansley, 


Griset, T. D. Cockerell, and others, in illustration. 

All the chief events 

in Natural Science have been discussed with an open mind. Nothing 
of importance in this department of modern research and observation 
has been left out. 

Men's lives wear out, and old and zealous contributors die off. New 
ones take their places, and one of the chief pleasures of the Editor's 
experience is the geniality displayed by his numerous correspondents. 
The price of SCIENCE-GOSSIP is not likely to bring its publishers a mine 
of wealth, but the Editor can testify to their zealous co-operation and 
sympathy with its aims and work. On this account alone, therefore, 
he asks the individual aid of every one of its present subscribers to 
introduce the Magazine they evidently like so well to their friends, so 
as to ensure a still larger circulation. The hands of both Editor 
and Publishers would be much strengthened thereby, and the fame of 
the now familiar old " Gossip " would be spread wider than ever. 

Christmas is the season for greetings, and although the apparently 
official task of writing a few lines of Preface for twenty-two years 
successively at length approaches the nature of a task, it is not 
because of the lack of sympathy manifested by readers and con- 
tributors. Their name is Legion. Christmas comes but once a year, 
but it enables the Editor to shake cordial hands, metaphorically, 
with all his unseen friends, and wish them all a warm 

Christmas Greeting. 


ActinospJierium Eicfifiornii, page 29 

ActtJiophrys sol, 28 

. Eschna cyanca, 205 

Agrion puella, 204 

Alloboplwra longa, 161 

Amoeba, showing contractile space, etc., 

AmpluZeptus fasciola, 135 
Ancient Cromlech, 249 
Anisonema sulcata, 101 
AntJwphysa Mulleri, xor 
Astasia limpida, 81 

Buff-Tip Moth, Egg of, 229 
Eutterwort, 104 
Butterwort, Calyx of, 104 

Cabbage Moth, Egg of, 229 
Calopteryx virgo, 204 
Calyx of Butterwort, 104 
Capnia nigra* 37 
Cercomonas acuminata, iot 
Ck&tonotus larus, 148 
Chtstoglena volvocinea t 100 
Chalk Cliffs in Sussex, 248 
ChUodon cucullus, 136 
Chloroperia grammatica, 37 
Chlorophyll Eodies of the "Scum" Glo- 
bules, 90 
Clathrulina elegans, 115, 126 
CoUps /izrtus, 148 
Common Encrinite, 152 
Conium maculatum, Fruit of, 84 
Cotknmta maritima, 232 
Cyclops quadricornis, -z-zi 
Cypris tristriata, 268 

Daisy, Hen-and-Chickens, 163 
Dapknia pulex t 245 
Dapknia Scluzfferi, 245 
Diagram Section from Barking to Plum- 
stead, 181 
Dictyopteryx inicrocepliala, 37 
Distyla agilis, 272, 273 
Distyla'clara, 273 
Doxococcus ruber, 100 

Effects of Sirocco Abrasion on 

Ruins, 9 
Elephant's Tooth, Fossil, 24.8 

Enckelys nodulosa, 137 
Encrinite, Common, 152 
Ephippiger selligere, 5 
Euglena longicauda, 100 
I Euglena pynem, 100 
Euglena -uiridisy 100 

Fairy Flv, 176 
Fenestella plebeia, 152 
Fenestella nodulosa, 152 
Filaria, Head and Tail of, 12 
Fossil Bird, Jaw of, 248 
Fossil Elephant's Tooth, 248 
Fowl, Head of, 113 
Fruit of Coniuiu maculatuvi, 84 

Glass Tubes, 93 

Gozo Hills, from the Sea, 8 

Green Worm, 108 

Halteria grandinel/a, 137 
Head of Fowl, 116 
Hedriocystis pelhicida, 124, 125 
Hen-and-Chickens Daisy, 163 
Hilara pilosa, 86 
Hydra viridis, 156 

Isogenics nubecula, 27 
Isopteryx tripunclata, 37 

Jaw of Fossil Bird, 248 
, J linger mannia biscuspidata, 142 

Leucocytes, 12 
Leuctra/usciventris, 37 

Macrotracliela multispinosa, 5 3 
\t acrotrackela papillosa, 58 
Magpie-Moth, Egg of, 229 
Mason's Lantern, 236 
' Meadow-Brown, Eye of, 229 
Monkshood, Section of Flower of, 
Monostyla bifurca, -zyz 
Monostyla galeata, 273 
Monsters, 61, 62, 63, 64 

Napiform Roots, 84 

Nemoiira variegata, 37 

New Microscopical Lamp, 113, 114 

' Observations on Primulace.e, 225 
Odynerus murareus, 196, 197 
On the Underground Geology of London , 

Paramecium aurelia, to 
Paramecium Bursaria, 136 
Paramecium linetum, 10 
Parasitic Rotifer, 220 
Perla maxima, 36, 37 
P/iacus pleurotiotes, 100 
Phallus impudicus, 16, 17 
Pieris brassicce, Eggs of, 229 
Pinguictela lusitanica, 105 
Polyommatits corydon. Egg of, 229 
Primulace^e, Observations on, 225 

Red Admiral, Egg of, 229 

Sand-Tots along the Somersetshire 

Coast, 76 
Sarcophaga carnaria, 86 
Sarcoptes, 12 
"Scum" Globules, 90 
Scyphodia, 233 

Section of Flower of Monkshood, 84 
Section through Ancient Earth-works, 

Hastings, 33 ' 
Small Copper, Egg of, 229 
Spirosto7/ium ambiguum, 137 
Stentor Miilleri, 174 
Stentor viridis 3 173 
Structure of Yellow Archangel, 183 
Stylonychia ?nytellus, 149 

Tceniopteryx nebulosa, 37 

Trichoda lynceus, 172 

Trichodina pediculus, 233 

I'rilobite, 153 

Tway-blade, Remarkable Specimen ot, 

Vaginicola crystallina, 23 2 
Vorticella nebulifera, 175 

Yellow Archangel, Structure of, 182 
Zoothamnium spirale, 232 



HE nineteenth cen- 
tury is an age of 
transition. There 
is little that has es- 
caped signing with 
the mark of change. 
Scientific develop- 
ment has invested 
most things with a 
modern air of im- 
provement and 
utility that contrasts 
violently with the 
staidness and slow- 
pacedness so cha- 
racteristic of the 
age of our grand- 
fathers. Then 
people had leisure 
to be sentimental, 
now the stern demands of the business of life de- 
nominate sentiment unprofitable, and we sigh in 
vain for the more credulous and less curious days 
of yore, when the earth yet possessed hidden 
corners and the ocean unfathomed depths, in which 
the imagination might roam at will, peopling land 
and sea with grotesque fancies of curious birds and 
flowers, strange animals, and still stranger fishes. 
But all this is changed. Geographical exploration 
and research have very materially circumscribed the 
confines of the district where the possibilities of nature 
were existent, and instead of revelling among the 
luxuriant idealisms of the might-be, we must perforce 
content ourselves with the more prosaic knowledge 
of that which absolutely is. Long after the teachings 
of travel had dispelled the old illusions 

" Of the cannibals that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders," 

popular belief still loved to inhabit the recesses of 
the ocean with monsters, traditions of which had 
No. 325. — January 1892. 

been handed down from the very earliest ages. It is 
a melancholy fact that such creations do not survive 
the irresistible advance of modern science. The 
blast of the steam-whistle seems fatal to romance, 
and the endless procession of steamships that join in 
the bonds of commerce the nations whom the seas 
divide, will soon tend to reduce ocean voyaging to 
the practical level of a railway journey. But there is 
one belief deep-rooted in the nautical mind, and 
equally accepted by landsmen, that probably will 
never be effectively eradicated. The great sea- 
serpent always has and always will be a denizen of 
the ocean. Why should not the mighty sea produce 
a creation worthy of itself? "The wisest palaeon- 
tologists deny its existence," say the sceptics. They 
are able to find no definite data upon which to assign 
the monster a place in the ranks of animated nature. 
"Never mind positive proof," argue the believing 
ones, " prove conclusively that the creature does not 
exist, and then, and not till then, will we give up 
our faith in its being." And so it has come to pass 
that the sea-serpent lives on, and will continue to do 
so until its existence is disproved — a task admittedly 

The widespread belief in the existence of some 
great ocean monster has been common among all 
maritime nations from the very first ages, and the 
prevalent faith in the great sea-serpent is no doubt 
traceable to the myths of our Aryan ancestors. It is 
worthy of note that the popular notion of the sea- 
serpent is decidedly Miltonic. In " Paradise Lost" 
the description of the arch-fiend is the exact 
prototype of the sea-serpent as seen by captains of 
merchantmen and others. 

" With head uplift above the wave, and eyes 
That sparkling blazed ; his other parts besides 
Prone on the flood, extended lone and large, 
Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge 
As whom the fables name of monstrous size." 

The Kraken, so minutely described by Pontop- 
pidan, the good Bishop of Bergen, goes on all 
fours with the account of the serpent alluded to 



above. The sea-serpent of his day was seen to rise 
from the sea in undulations, the visible portions 
looking like islands covered with seaweed, while it 
waved in the air mast -like arms, capable of dragging 
ships beneath the waves ; its sudden sinking caused 
a whirlpool credited with the power of engulfing 
the stoutest vessels. It is unjust to the memory of 
the good and pious Pontoppidan toi think that such 
a keen observer of nature is exaggerating, but in all 
probability the Kraken was one of the gigantic 
cephalopods which occasionally make their appear- 
ance off the Norwegian shore. The Atlantic Ocean 
is, however, par excellence the home of the sea- 
serpent. This is not as might be expected, for it is 
a well-known fact that certain parts of the Indian 
Ocean, especially those adjacent to India and the 
East Indian Archipelago, swarm with veritable sea- 
serpents, members of the genus Hydrophis or 
Hydrus. These creatures, which resemble eels, 
being keeled on their under sides, are but from two 
to five feet in length ; and it is no doubt owing to 
their smallness of size, and the fact that they occur 
near land and in considerable numbers, that they 
have never been magnified into real " great sea- 

In mentioning a few of the best authenticated 
instances of the sea-serpent placing itself in evidence, 
it must be remembered that the monster appeared 
most frequently when the ocean was much less 
traversed than it is at present, when wind-power 
reigned supreme, and the size of merchant-vessels 
was far below their present dimensions. Many a 
ship-master then had the tedium of a long sea voyage 
agreeably enlivened by a cursory view of the great 
leviathan whose existence his sympathies and training 
forbade him to doubt. 

In 1818 we have the solemnly-attested evidence of 
the master and one of the crew of the American 
schooner Adamant that they saw a gigantic sea- 
serpent not far from the Atlantic littoral of the 
States. At first it was guessed to be a half-submerged 
wreck, but this illusion was dispelled by the creature 
uncoiling itself and rearing its head above the waves. 
The description of this monster is graphic and 
very detailed. Its colour was black, and its length 
130 feet, while its neck was upwards of six feet in 
diameter. Bullets rebounded from its scaly encase- 
ment ; and for upwards of five hours it was on view 
to the schooner's crew. 

The Atlantic sea-board of the United States would 
seem to be the favourite haunt of the sea-serpent, for 
in June, 1815, and in August, 1S17, he is said to 
have been frequently seen disporting himself off 
Gloucester, some thirty miles from Boston. This 
specimen appears to have been of the Pontoppidan 
type, for he looked like a number of buoys placed in 
a line. His length was variously estimated from 
90 feet to 250 yards, a rather marked difference 
between the two limits. Once again, in 1S19, he 

was seen off Nahant, also in close proximity to 
Boston, this time making curves perpendicular to the 
plane of the water. He paid yet another visit to 
this locality, being seen in almost the same [spot in 
the summer of 1833. The latitude of Boston is 
42J N., yet this does not mark the northern limit of 
the sea-serpent's peregrinations. In June, 1834, he 
was encountered by the ship Robertson, of Greenock, 
in 47 N., 59 W. On this occasion he moved 
through the waters at a speed of nine miles an hour, 
keeping up with the vessel and exposing his head 
and shoulders, which were covered with a thick 
fluted skin of a green colour. In 1835 the great 
serpent was encountered twice, each time by vessels 
voyaging between Boston and New Orleans. He is 
next seen by Captain Blyl, of the barque Hendrix, 
this time south of the line, in 27 S., 15 E. They 
sailed in company for nine days, when it dropped 
astern and finally disappeared below the horizon. 
There is something very peculiar in the behaviour of 
this specimen, for he allowed upwards of one hundred 
bullets to penetrate his skin and tinge the sea with 
blood, without it occurring to him that he could 
escape from his foes either by submerging himself in 
the water, or putting a greater distance between 
himself and his tormentors. For nine days he 
withstood their annoyance, and then was left behind 
by the vessel increasing its pace. 

Perhaps the most important case on record of the 
appearance of a sea-serpent is that reported by the 
officers and crew of H.M. Frigate Daedalus in 184S. 
The vessel was 24° 44' S. and 9 20' E., in the South 
Atlantic Ocean not far from the coast of Africa, when, 
according to the account forwarded by the captain 
to the Admiralty, a huge monster was encountered 
swimming rapidly ; " an enormous serpent with head 
and shoulders kept about four feet constantly above 
the surface of ithe sea. The diameter of the serpent 
was about fifteen or sixteen inches behind the head, 
which was without any doubt that of a snake, and it 
was never during the twenty minutes that it con- 
tinued under the view of our glasses once below the 
surface of the water. Its colour was a dark brown 
with yellowish white about the throat. It had no fins 
but something like the mane of a horse, or rather a 
bunch of sea-weed washed about its back." It is a 
matter of great pity that the exact position of this 
particular specimen in the scale of nature was not 
ascertained. It approached as near as 100 yards to 
the vessel, and the gunnery staff of the Dcedalus 
must have made very indifferent practice could they 
not have struck so large a target as the monster pre- 
sented to them. Drawings of this sea-serpent appeared 
in the " Illustrated London News," and a controversy 
was provoked relative to the existence or non-existence 
of great sea-serpents, which caused much ill-feeling 
and which took long to subside. One theory sug- 
gested that to account for the animal seen by the 
Dcedalus it was only necessary to suppose it was some 


member of the seal or walrus family. It is a well- 
known fact that such creatures are often found afloat 
on fragments of ice which are detached from the 
parent ice-field. These detached portions travel from 
the pole, equatorwards, and melting away as they pass 
into warmer latitudes, deposit their living freight in 
the ocean, where they must swim for dear life to the 
nearest land to procure rest and food. If the sea 
monster under discussion were of this class, he was 
apparently fated to meet with a watery grave, for 
in the words of the report : " It did not either in 
approaching the ship or after it had passed our wake 
deviate in the slightest degree from its course to the 
south-west, which it held on at the pace of from twelve 
to fifteen miles an hour, apparently on some determined 

It is rather a coincidence that some six weeks later 
the Daphne, an American brigantine, reported passing 
in 4 S., 10° E. a gigantic creature of the snake family. 
It appeared about loo feet in length and had the 
stereotyped appearance of the serpent or snake with a 
dragon's head. From the locality where the Dcsdalus 
monster was observed to where the crew of the 
Daphne descried theirs is, roughly speaking, some 
1,500 miles ; and assuming, as has been suggested, 
that the animal w as one and the same creature, then 
it must have followed pretty closely the trend of the 
African littoral. Assuming this supposition to be 
feasible, it is rather peculiar to note the nomenclature 
of the more salient features of the coast along which 
the creature would pass. 

Great Fish Bay, Little Fish Bay, Walvisch (Whale- 
fish) Bay, Nourse River and Whale 'Head, all show 
that great fish and seal-like animals abound off the 
coast, so that it is quite within the bounds of possibility 
that the "sea-serpent" was some huge fish whose 
visible parts presented the appearance ascribed to the 
"great sea-serpent." 

Some nine years subsequent to this, the crew and 
officers of the ship Castilian were entertained with the 
sight of some ocean monster when navigating close 
to the island of St. Helena. Some ten or twelve 
feet of the creature's head were visible above the 
waves, and the total length of the "serpent" was 
variously estimated at from 200 to 450 feet. It seems 
strange that there should be such disparity in the 
estimates of the creature's length, for the monster lay 
extended on the ocean and the distance of the vessel 
was but thirty yards. 

Navigators of the present day think twice before 
reporting the seeing of a "sea-serpent." Superstition 
and with it the belief in the " great sea-serpent " are 
fast being banished from the British Mercantile 
Marine, and a master who reports seeing anything of 
the kind is certain to bring down upon his head a 
torrent of ridicule. But the monster is not yet 
defunct. America, which in the opinion of a section 
of its inhabitants enjoys a monopoly of all that is 
great and marvellous in nature, has still some three 

or four of these gigantic snakes cruising in their 
waters, and each season they considerately raise their 
heads above the surface of the sea in the neighbour- 
hood of some fashionable watering-place, and the 
imagination of the visitors and the press fill in the 
details with a graphic minuteness of detail that leaves 
nothing to be desired. To the remainder of the 
world the " sea-serpent " is almost extinct. It has 
died out like the dodo, and even its prior existence 
is now regarded as extremely mythical. But in 
1S90 at such a well-crossed spot as 42° N., 29° 
W., a sea-serpent presented itself to the astounded 
gaze of the master and crew of the Thomas Hilyard. 
It is matter for regret that this monster of the deep 
did not choose to reveal itself to some Atlantic liner, 
for then, among the many eyes that would have gazed 
upon it, some might be relied upon to observe the 
creature with a quiet and scientific scrutiny and to 
convey to the rest of mankind a true picture of the 
creature, founded upon what really is and not upon 
preconceived notions of the appearance an orthodox 
sea-serpent should present. From a few words of 
alternative description in the account of the monster 
encountered by the Thomas Hilyard we may draw 
our own conclusions as to the decadence of popular 
belief in the existence of the great sea-serpent. The 
creature is not represented as being a sea-serpent and 
" nothing more," it is a sea-serpent or a gigantic fish 
of the conger-eel species. There is much virtue in 
the "or," and the hardy skipper of the Thomas Hilyard 
has placed on record a pretty accurate estimate of 
the state of nautical opinion regarding the sea- 

Yet one more manifestation, this time off the coast 
of North Island, N.Z. The account given of the 
monster, as seen by the chief officer of the Rotomahana, 
is singularly lucid and circumstantial. It runs as 
follows : — 

"On the morning of the 1st of August (1891), 
about 6.30 o'clock, we were' off Portland Light, 
between Gisborne and Napier. I was on deck, look- 
ing over the weather-side for land, when I saw the 
object, whatever it was, rise out of the water to the 
height of thirty feet. Its shape was like a huge 
conger-eel, with the exception of two fins about ten 
feet long. The creature was not more than 100 
yards away, and I estimated its girth at between ten 
and twelve feet It was broad daylight at the time, 
and the sun was shining brightly ! " 

This statement is substantially corroborated by the 
quarter-master of the same vessel, who saw the 
creature first and drew the chief officer's attention to 
it. If further evidence were wanting that a sea 
monster of some kind or other has placed itself on 
evidence in New Zealand waters, it is to be found in 
the parallel testimony of a surveyor resident at 
Gisborne, who wrote to the New Zealand papers that 
while on another of the Union Company's steamers, 
the Matiapouri, on July 24th, he and several others 

B 2 


saw a sea-serpent resembling the one seen from the 
Rotomahana off Portland Island. The monster was 
also seen by the officer in charge of the vessel. It is 
difficult, indeed, to properly assess the value of this, 
the latest contribution to sea-serpent lore. 

Now the question very naturally occurs to all : What 
is the exact value attachable to the minute accounts 
of the sea-serpents reported by actual eye-witnesses ? 
To say that they were sheer fabrications, nautical 
twisters, invented to feed a popular prejudice, would 
be to throw a doubt on the character of the seaman 
for veracity that is most unjust and unreasonable. 
Yet to admit in toto the infallibility of any one 
of the accounts of the "great sea-serpent" is to 
accept as a tangible fact the existence of a creature 
which the major portion of humanity are agreed to 
regard as purely mythical. Probably those who have 
helped most largely to feed the at one time wide- 
spread belief in the ubiquitous monster of the deep 
but reported accurately what they thought they saw. 
Granted that a seaman has a traditional notion of 
what a sea-serpent should be like, he will mould 
anything which resembles that appearance to his own 
ideal and hence no doubt the marked agreement 
between the leviathan of poetry and art and Jack's 
sea-serpent. At sea the most keen-sighted may 
easily be deceived, and a floating log, festooned with 
sea-weeds and enveloped ever and anon with the 
spray that flashes from the ocean swell, would present 
an appearance quite analogous to a bemaned sea 
monster : 

" A great serpent of the deep, 
Lifting his horrible head above the waves." 

It is but sufficient to premise a belief in the 
existence of the great sea-serpent and the ever- 
changing sea-scape of an ocean voyage will present 
abundance of visible phenomena that may well be 
read as "sea-serpent." The eye often deceives itself 
and may often see objectively that which the ima- 
gination conjures up and which the mind is quite 
prepared to encounter. No doubt this tendency has 
much to do with recorded appearances of the sea- 
serpent, for it is remarkable that in the majority of 
cases one observance is generally followed by corro- 
borative appearances. 

Despite all this, however, despite the teachings of 
science, the sea-serpent belief dies hard. The great 
leviathan that takes his sport in the great waters is 
one of the sights that they who go down to the sea in 
ships will continue to see for some time to come yet. 
But as far as popular belief in the existence of the 
great sea beast is concerned its knell is already rung 
and one of the most poetical and grandest conceptions 
of ocean's inhabitants is fast passing away before the 
unsympathising realism of the nineteenth century. 
But even its bitterest opponents must admit that 
little is gained by the expurgation of the belief from 
the popular mind. The loss may be an abstract one 

but it is a great one notwithstanding, for in the words 
of " Nature's poet : " 

" But yet I know where'er I go, 
That there hath passed away 
A glory from the earth." 


By A. H. Swinton. 

OCTOBER, that has embroidered the vineyards 
of La Vendee with a cloth of gold, has 
commenced to paint the greenwood with fiery yellow 
and vermilion ; and as it were by magic the rows of 
aspens which have so long pattered fretfully in the 
sighs of the west wind, are dropping their amber 
leaves around our hamlet, where the round copper- 
coloured gourds are reddening to orange. Besides 
its glory of situation among tumbling crags and 
knolls, our loveliest of villages does not appear to 
satisfy the longing, except the fancy should suggest a 
broth of garden snails with a dandelion salad, and an 
exhilarating scamper up to the round tower among 
the vines in the wheelbarrow drawn by the two 
trusty house-dogs ; for as for the feudal horse-pond 
mantled with its frog's-bit, and the yoke of beautiful 
cows that are pawing on the threshold, they have 
well-nigh broken our hearts and caused us to com- 
miserate the patriarch in his ark. But the maiden is 
straying over the meadows and singing at her 
distaff, the children have just run out shouting, with 
their pieces of bread and bunches of grapes ; there 
dwells a gladness in the blue sky,'and we, like them, 
will betake us to the solitude and sweet converse of 
the lanes and woodlands, and gaze with them on the 
magnificent decorations of the expiring year. 

How strange it appears that the delightful summer 
should so suddenly vanish ! While September lasted 
it was pleasant to sit in the urban gardens and listen 
to the tinkle of the bells, as the carriage drawn by its 
four goats in blue tags with two dogs in leash, swept 
past on the grand tour, and disappeared among bright 
lights, deep shadows and startling contrasts of colour, 
due to a diversity of trees there massed together and 
interspersed with ponds and rockeries. The Gmko 
biloba was then covered with its maiden-hair foliage, 
the Desviodium pendulifolium still drooped in 
fasciculated bunches of purple, the more lowly 
MatHola incana was dotted over with its red plant- 
bugs, the shady magnolia walks from time to time 
disclosed their fleshy nectarious blossoms, and the 
widely spreading cedar was only just commencing to 
put forth its mealy flowers : whereas the fitful rustle 
of the bamboos, papyrus, and sturdy fan-palms, 
seemed to bespeak the monotony of an eternal 
summer. It seems but quite lately too that long, 
narrow barges came floating down with their hay- 
ricks into that modern Babel, situated on the rivers ; 


when man, woman and child were out on the sloping 
bank disporting with pitchforks and sticks, as though 
it were a hayfield : and it seems but as yesterday 
that a heavy smoke rolled up at evening from the 
spontaneous ignition of the damp store. It appears 
but quite lately that the little livid cockroaches, 
forewarned by the chill of an impending change, 
attempted to establish their colony in the hinge of the 
hospitable door, and when ousted by the housemaid's 
broom, that its minute progeny hid away in the hair 
brush. It lastly seems but quite recently that the 
house-ants, made aware by scent and by touch of the 
onslaught on the cockroaches, appeared like ghouls 
from some unknown regions, to banquet upon the 
dying and the dead. 

Let us go down by the way of the vineyards and 
behold the gnarly vines rejuvenescent with fragrant 
and tender grapes. Many of the autumnal butterflies 

well willows and frequented the Westminster haw- 
thorns, that was dodged over the mere and run down 
on the wolds ? No longer smitten with withering 
beauty disclosed by the haze of the morning, our 
thoughts ofttimes in their plenitude become a 
weariness and a burden : let us then 'seek a solace in 
the discovery of new horizons. Over the brambles 
along which the big dragon-fly is hawking trail 
beaded clusters of fruit as large as raspberries, whose 
fragrant juice hornets and plant-bugs are tippling, 
and just within reach among the prickles there 
depends a sparkling object resembling a choice pear 
carved out of malachite. A sly sidelong glance 
suffices to show that this dainty morsel is a tree-frog 
who is breathing softly, and no artist could have 
conceived a happier idea of comfort than that 
presented by his contemplative profile as he squats 
huddled together with half-shut eyes. 

Fig. i. — Ephippiger selligere (the songster of La Vendue), c, its musical comb ; E,; its ears. 
The bald-headed man in the horizon is supposed to be the moon. 

flutter past us in fresh array, and some of them may 
be accounted a prize, but until the verdant green 
species described in some unprocurable Russian work 
becomes the rage, or those which are phenominal 
and semi-extinct be sought for, it will be difficult, 
methinks, to estimate the value of a butterflyion these 
vasty acres. What superlative charm for the curioso 
is to be found in the waste of cherry blossom flaming 
with scarce swallow-tails, in the lucern-field ghostly 
with Bath whites, in a patch of dwarf furze fluttering 
with Arion-blues, in a heathery tract where the 
Meliteas are glaring like the Guernsey lilies, in the 
bed of pansies silvery with Queens of Spain, or in a 
wilderness of agrimony golden with large coppers. 
Is this, you nice Londoners will be prone to exclaim, 
that thing so new, so beautiful and so rare, that was 
embroidered in needlework and described so 
vaguely ; that was heard of out at Hampstead and 
believed in at Epping, that used to visit the Camber- 

Now you who love the violin and the serenade, 
come hither, for the hedge-bank has become an opera- 
house that is rattling and roaring to the orchestra. 
The drama is entitled the " Martinmas Summer, or 
all for love," and the performers are the grass- 
hoppers, Stenobothrus, and the leaf-crickets, Dec- 
ticus, Locusta and Ephippiger. The choregraphy of 
the one, as you will quickly perceive, is a warning 
trill of suppressed emotion and defiance, interspersed 
with tender passages composed of low and grating 
notes that fall somewhat harshly on the enamoured 
ear : that of the other is a whistling shrill of hasty- 
passion interspersed with staccato notes that trip it 
lightly on the understanding. In both cases the 
lovers are fiery and boisterous, and their lady loves 
are from habit or from nature, silent, coy and 
distrustful ; just like Madam Locusta now, who leans 
so caressingly on one side to catch the sunbeams 
with a leg akimbo. But the Signor garbed in green, 


whose voice is as the rush of a cataract, has already- 
stepped out into the vacant field of glory. See, after 
having flung out a defiance to his rivals, how meekly 
he sits upon the twig over the head of Madam, to 
whom he plays, and who from time to time feels 
hesitatingly for him with her thread-like feelers. 
Come, that was a gentle touch now, and none of the 
smart boxing which the little wood white butter- 
flies indulge in when they buffet with their nose-pads, 
but Madam she won't endure it, and so she has 
prudently hopped aside, just as the Signor comes 
down with his impromptu leap and occupies her 
vacant place. Of course at the outset it is a little 
novel to be the witness of a performance where the 
grasshoppers who play the bass are industriously 
utilizing their legs as fiddle-bows, which, instead of 
being. rubbed with rosin, have from sheer hard usage 
acquired a row of ivory knobs ; and where the leaf- 
crickets who undertake the treble, are employing an 
ebon black comb concealed beneath the wing. And 
do you not remark a superb and echoing ring in the 
notes of Signor Locusta, who seems to chatter in 
absolute despair ? And then as to ears, does it not 
strike you that such frantic love-making must needs 
set the whole body a trembling like the lustres of a 
chandelier? and it is for this very reason that the 
grasshoppers have theirs hidden away behind their 
legs ; and as for the Signor and Madam, why they 
carry a brace sticking into the first pair like a couple 
of mushrooms. Our play, as you will recall, is All 
for love. 

During the interlude the grasshoppers rattle on, 
and the little Dectici whirr dizzily in the hedge-roots 
with the tremulous sound of a watch that is being 
wound up. Such music becomes a trifle monotonous, 
predisposing you to slumber, but it finds a harmony in 
the dull murmur of the meadows, and what seems 
most strange, all the performers consider the roll of 
the passing cart-wheel to be a cry of encore, even 
saluting with a salvo the fitful chiming of the clock 
on the grey church tower. Perchance the wish occurs 
at the outset to seize and imprison one of our troop : 
should you think proper to do so, he would then no 
longer shrill his noon-tide reveries, but his ardours 
would kindle and flash at the evening star, increasing 
at the witching hour to a fusee of half a thousand 
notes or so. Darkness, prithee, would then acquire 
a new and melancholy sweetness. Meanwhile the 
scene has changed, for the two rival Ephippigers of 
the vine come stalking over the tops of the brambles, 
pausing as they advance to snip-snap defiance at each 
other, like two clicks of a steam engine, or two 
jingles of the horse-bells. Very elegant are these 
portly, hunched-backs with their white-ringed green 
or brown bodies, that recall the cricketing flannels 
and suggest a man-tiger corded with stays. Those 
who have chanced to catch a glimpse of the cinerous- 
coloured Thamnotrizon that chirps hidden in the ivy 
of an English hedge-bank, and which during the 

prevalence of the opal mist that dims the morning 
sun, is often out sunning in companies, will at once 
recognize the kettledrum wings set awry, which have 
conferred on these clowns the nickname of the 
cymbal players. But come, now, one is silent and 
the other is posed like an oil-beetle and executing 
a solo. The notes they clash arid they tinkle as it 
were the bound of a tambourine, and their refrain is 
ever sweep-sweep or sweet-sweet, just as the air 
pulsates, and the sentiment prompts ; one would 
think that the grape-gatherer who is reposing 
beneath the vine-leaves must have fairly mistaken 
this charming overture for the drawing of wine-corks 
and a rain of coin gilt with the yellow leaves. By 
referring to the racy scores that Yersin noted down 
on the solitude of his Alpine crags, it will be noticed 
that he assigns to these musical orthoptera an idea 
of number and pitch, but although this brilliant 
music fairly moves at the rate of a beat every two 
seconds, it becomes quite an open question whether 
the performers distinguish between a six and an eight. 
Apart from their marionettes they seem decidediy to 
be what our servant-girls would call sillies, for they 
are always ready to walk with a mincing and dainty 
pace on to the extremity of your walking-stick or 
umbrella. In regard to our programme, we find it 
further stated that Madam Ephippiger will perform 
a duet with the object of her choice among the 
gently waving vine-leaves, but for all that she is 
sitting on there in saucy silence, like a crocodile, and 
now one of her admirers — would you believe it ? — has 
actually jumped down and bestowed on her a kiss or 
a bite; but Madam, after producing a squeal in 
imitation of that of a vindicative weasel, she has 
waddled off as if insulted. One would say that she 
was one of those who can sing and wont sing. 

But do you not see, are you blind ? Hist ! now hist ! 
this saddle-backed creature who is disguised in marine 
green, is evidently the great gun of our performance. 
See how dignified he holds himself aloof, embowered 
among the interlacing thoms, and only notice that 
strange rosy glow that overshadows his flattened 
winglets of bronze and ebon black. Hark as he 
spreads them like a cherub, and draws with his 
fiddle-bow that long, powerful and steamy note, that 
appears to strain in the execution like a cord that is 
about to snap. Hist ! oh hist ! Surely he must have 
been the apt pupil of Apollo's darling, the cicada, if a 
comb can be said to twang like crinoline hoops. It 
would seem, as he leisurely climbs to the topmost 
twig, that you might hear him sound his old and 
mellow violin fifty yards away in a fog. The 
Ephippigers welcome their champion, and their 
tambourines they dash around, and then far remote, 
from the tops of the pollard oaks there echoes back 
that Hist ! oh hist ! Indeed the notes of Locusta 
were quite overpowering at the outset, as it were the 
whistling gush of a waterfall after the downpour, but 
those of this new hunchback resemble most the 


measured purl of the bubbles on the deep and 
strong current. Do they not inspire an absolute terror 
now, that would alarm the guilty conscience on a 
lonely heath more than the churr of the fern owl and 
the rattling and puffing of a thousand snakes ? Fill 
up the cup with red wine and white wine, for he is a 
merry prophet of a clearing shower, and old Hesiod 
believed that such majestic notes, when presided 
over by the dog-star, betokened a heavy crop of figs 
and a cheerful vintage. Let us drink success to the 
year, and no longer carp and cavil concerning the 
phylloxera, the hail, and the driving cyclones. 
Does the new wine inspire^ a moody sadness, the 
flowers are sparse upon the meadows, the chestnuts 
are scattering their husks, and this requiem of the 
summer must indeed conclude with the literal death 
of the performers. " Caesar," they seem to shout, " we 
die." It would be quite useless under such absolutely 
trying circumstances to cry Bravo, but if you seize a 
hair-comb and sweep along it your finger-nail, the 
chief musician will be sure to understand, for this 
strange being is so quick of hearing. 

But why this dull and leaden silence ? The sports, 
you see, are done, for the sun is sinking low, and a 
sudden storm of dust and rain drives hitherward, 
deadly, damp and cold. It will shake the pears from 
off the bough, and quench, oh horrors, the last 
sparkles of summer merriment. But what the deuce 
can the matter be with Madam Locusta, the star of 
our troop, who now dances out of the foliage for an 
ovation, so sleek and so plump ? You would be 
inclined to say that she had eaten her Signor from 
sheer vexation or because he was by nature so very 

Madam, who is more unassuming than a sheep, 
and yet more cruel by far than a tiger, will now 
improvise our epilogue, which runs as follows. In 
happy ignorance, you mortals have too long con- 
cluded that your vices were your own and that 
innocence was to be learnt of us, the humbler works 
of the creation, for man, conscious of his manifold 
imperfection, has been ever ready to assume that 
perfection, exists in everything around him. It is not 
then surprising that we leaf-crickets, who can claw 
and can bite, have by your popular writers been 
confused with the harmless cicadse, for this mistake 
might have originated in the occasional similarity of 
our croaking, which is yet readily distinguishable in 
its staccato notes ; but when, as sometimes happens, 
you behold a portrait of myself, who indeed possess 
no violin, but have all the feminine weakness 
exemplified in a long ovipositor, presented to the 
public gaze as that of the beloved one whose food is 
ambrosia ; we players can but ridicule the artist who 
has never witnessed our rural play of All for love, 
which is enacted every year during the prevalence of 
the Martinmas summer. 

It may interest the naturalist to observe that 
Walckenser — who, in his " Faune Parisienne," alludes 

to the coupling of gnats, dragon-flies, ephemera and 
scolopendras, as likewise to that of spiders, Cyclops, 
crustacete and hydrachnae, and who'has so graphically 
described the female flea reposing on the breast of her 
partner, her mouth applied to his mouth, and her 
feet intertwined with his — makes indeed no mention 
of the equally fantastic coupling of the subjects of 
this article. It is droll, to say the least, since, owing 
to the presence of the afore-mentioned long oviposi- 
tor, Nature has ordained that the female should have 
the uppermost ; and as a consequence the happy 
possessor of her who has inspired his lays, is either 
hoisted into the air like a leg of mutton or ignomini- 
ously dragged along on his back. It may be 
likewise added that those few species of leaf-cricket 
which inhabit Europe are easily kept in cages or 
boxes covered with green gauze, since whatever may 
be their habits when rambling at will over the 
hedgerows, they, or at least their ladies, appear quite 
content to dine, when in confinement, on a leaf of 
lettuce or blade of grass, as the case may be. 

A word in recapitulation. That two things should 
be alike and yet not alike is not mathematical, but it 
is the case in point with Ephippiger vitium and 
selligera. We notice a saddle-shaped thorax. The 
notes of the male are heard every two seconds, and 
the female, when in the proximity of her male, squeals 
like a mouse or weasel ; but although the notes of 
either move with like rapidity, those of setfigertz are 
a sound of winding up, lasting for about two seconds, 
whereas those of vitium are momentary and dashing. 
Although formed alike, vitium is cast in the more 
delicate mould, and perhaps, we might add, the 
most specialized. Their sense of hearing is most 
strange ; I once heard one of these creatures respond 
to the laugh of a saucy girl who was passing. 


By John H. Cooke, B.Sc, F.G.S. 

WIND as an agent of denudation now takes its 
place among the most potent of those forces 
of Nature that are at present operating on the earth's 
crust, and assisting to modify the contour of its 

The extent of the work which it is capable of 
effecting, however, is not to be measured by the 
amount of violence or power that it exerts ; for the 
most stupendous changes are often brought about by 
the instrumentality of the most insignificant causes, 
and what the hurricane with all of its might is 
powerless to effect, the zephyr, if it be but allowed a 
sufficiency of time, can do without appreciable efiort. 

Of the most unobtrusive, and at the same time the 
most effective of the numerous agents that are engaged 


in planing down and moulding the hills and valleys 
of the islands and shores of the Mediterranean, the 
sirocco, a south-easterly wind that blows from the 
dry, arid regions of Africa is, perhaps the most 
remarkable. All of the districts situated within the 
Mediterranean are affected, more or less, by it. Its 
blighting influence on plant-life, and the depressing 
and debilitating effect that it has upon the human 
constitution, are but too well known to all .those 
whose misfortune it may have been to have had to 
spend the sultry days of a Mediterranean summer 
within the sphere of its influence. Organic and 
inorganic matter are equally affected by it, but while 
the effect of its attacks on the former make them- 
selves rapidly apparent, on the latter the processes 
that it employs in its work are slow though effective, 
and therefore the results to which they give rise are 
proportionately retarded. This is even more apparent 
in countries in the Mediterranean area which, like the 
Maltese Islands, have a comparatively small rainfall ; 
and where the catchment basins are restricted in size. 
In such districts a large proportion of the denuda- 
tion to which the surface contour of the district owes 

rounded masses are the dun-coloured marls, the 
taluses of which often descend the slopes to distances 
that are double, and even treble the real thickness of 
the bed. These marl outcrops are a characteristic of 
Maltese hill scenery. They owe their origin to the 
percolation of water through the upper beds, whereby 
the marl is rendered sodden, and then, being more 
susceptible to the weight of the superincumbent rock 
than when dry, it is pressed from out the strata, and 
is precipitated down the hill-sides. 

The bases of the hills, therefore, have a cloak of 
marl which effectually protects them from aerial waste, 
while the upper portions, being without this protec- 
tive influence, rapidly waste away before the humid 
winds, and thus the slopes of the valleys are seldom 
precipitous, and the isolated hills assume a distinctly 
conical form. 

The hills and plateaux are thus shielded below by 
their own ruins, while the wasting away of the upper 
portions causes them to gradually assume the tapering 
shape with which the student of Maltese scenery is so 

Unlike the Globigerina Limestone, the Upper 

Fig. 2. — Gozo Hills, from the Sea. (N. side.) 

its diversified character, is to be attributed to the 
slow and intermittent, though powerful, agency of 
this wind. 

It is along the escarpments of the hills and valleys, 
and in the cliff exposures that have a south-easterly 
aspect, that its powers of erosion are to be studied to 
the best advantage. 

The flat-topped conical hills that form such a 
distinguishing feature in Malta and Gozitan scenery, 
owe their origin, in a great measure, to its influence. 
The Globigerina Limestone, the fourth bed from the 
top, formation forms the base of all of these hills, and 
on account of its homogeneity and softness of texture, 
it readily disintegrates before the rapid alternations of 
dryness and humidity that are the usual concomitants 
of the Sirocco. 

This bed may be traced from the bottoms of all of 
the valleys in the Binjemma and the Gozitan plateaux, 
falling back in long-drawn swellings and gentle 
undulations ; and covered with a rich and productive 
soil, in which the crimson sulla (clover), and the 
golden rye for which the islands are noted, grow 

Capping this bed, and still falling back in softly 

Coralline rock is not equally susceptible to the in- 
fluences of this wind. But certain portions of the 
strata, situated in the middle of the formation, 
weather much faster than do the layers either above 
it or below it. 

In the majority of cases this formation is found 
capping the hills of both islands, and forming table- 
lands, the sides of which are bounded by precipitous 
cliffs that attain a height which is dependent upon 
the local thickness of the formation. It also forms 
the surface deposits of several undulating plains, and 
it frequently occurs as shapelesss hummock-like 
masses. These diversities of form are due in a 
measure to the unequal waste that the rock undergoes, 
as its mineralogical composition varies considerably, 
some parts of the strata being so hard as to be 
capable of withstanding the combined action of the 
atmosphere for centuries, while other portious readily 
disintegrate on exposure. 

It is to this unequal action that the formation owes 
the craggy contour of its cliff outlines ; and it is this 
that causes it to offer such marked contrasts to the 
gentler undulations of the softer beds beneath. It 
is from this formation, too, that the rock boulders 


that strew the slopes and beds of the valleys of the 
islands, are derived. 

The action of the sirocco and the rain upon the 
sand-bed that serves as the foundations of the forma- 
tion, by gradually wearing it away, thus deprives the 
upper bed of its support, and causes the cliffs to 
break away in cyclopean masses, and to strew the 
slopes of the hills and valleys with their debris ; while 
other masses are detached and are tilted so perilously 
out of the perpendicular that they appear — 

" As if an infant's touch could urge 
Its headlong passage down the verge." 

Such are a few of the effects 'that this powerful 
eroding agent is, in part, accountable for ; but it has 
been assisted in its work by other and equally 
powerful auxiliaries, without whose co-operation its 
efforts could not have been so effective. The main 
features of the country, the hills, valleys, and gorges 
have had their direction and extent largely influenced 

and on every rock, boulder, or other rock-surface. 
The irregular blocks of which the walls that serve 
as boundary -partitions between the fields, and the 
tooled stones of which the edifices in the towns and 
casals are built afford equally striking evidences of its 
powers of erosion ; and by their means both the rate 
and the amount of the denudation may be estimated. 
It is a noteworthy feature in the exteriors of Maltese 
walls and houses that the side that is exposed to the 
sirocco always presents a very eroded, time-worn and 
dilapidated appearance, whereas the other sides, in 
comparison, are fresh and unworn. 

It is no uncommon occurrence to find the softer 
stones in the sides of the houses that have a south-east 
aspect, almost completely worn through, and sur- 
rounded by other blocks, the harder portions of which 
such as the fossil contents, echinoides, pectens, etc., 
stand out in bold relief from their worn and wasted 
matrices. In the old fortifications that were erected 
by the Knights of St. John, such phenomena as these 

'^y^^^^^^^ :: - 

Fig. 3. — Effects of Sirocco abrasion on ruins. 

by the lay of the strata ; while the minor ones, such 
as the honey-combed and fretted appearances presented 
by the cliff-faces and rock-surfaces, have been in- 
fluenced by the lithological characters of the rock. 
These are some of the assistants that have co-operated, 
add to which the heat and drought of summer, and 
the wet and cold of winter. 

But effective as they are as helpers in the work of 
waste, no single one of them can be pointed to as 
being more potent, more active, more irresistible than 
the sirocco. 

Both in Malta and in Gozo the principal valleys 
lay in a north-west and a south-east direction ; that is 
to say, they lie in a line with the direction of this 

Marsa Sirocco, an extensive bay on the east coast 
of Malta, so called because this wind blows directly 
into it, owes its origin and extent to its agency. It is 
the largest bay in the islands, and has four valleys 
abutting on its coast-line, each of which lies in the 
same direction. But it is not only in the general 
moulding of the country that the sirocco is concerned. 
Its effects may be traced in every crag and cavern, 

are of frequent occurrence, and are very typical of 
sirocco denudation. 

From a series of calculations that I have made of 
the rate of the erosion of the Globigerina limestone 
blocks in a number of buildings and fortifications of 
known ages, I estimate that the rate of sirocco 
denudation averages $ z of an inch per square foot per 
year ; that is about 16 cubic yards per acre per year ; 
or about 22 tons of material are annually wasted from 
every acre of surface. 

In calculating this, numerous examples were taken, 
some being in proximity to" the coast, while others 
were obtained from the centres of both islands. By 
so doing I believe I have obtained a fair average 
rate, for there can be no doubt, but that the rate of 
erosion is more rapid near the coast than it is inland. 
The moisture-ladened winds that sweep over the 
islands impregnate all that they come in contact 
with ; and the Globigerina rock being very porous, 
is therefore highly susceptible to its influence. 

The duration of time during which the sirocco 
lasts is seldom long enough to enable it to do more 
than affect the surface, and then the period of 


moisture is usually followed by conditions that are 
diametrically opposed to those that prevailed while 
the sirocco was blowing. 

The frequent and rapid changes that the stone thus 
undergoes, causes an abnormal expansion and con- 
traction of the superficial molecules, and so tends to 
make the surfaces readily disintegrate and peel off in 
large flakes. 

The work of erosion is greatly assisted also by the 
crystallization of the salt contained in the moisture 
that this wind takes up in its passage across the 

This moisture renders the stone surfaces highly 
saliferous. Under the influence of the heat of a 
semitropical sun, the moisture passes off, and the 
salt crystallizes and pushes out the superficial particles 
of the limestone, thus facilitating the paring down 
process which so rapidly wastes the rocks, and causes 
them to break up. 



THE following paper consists merely of extracts 
from my diary and notes made at the time of 
observation and experiment. I do not claim any 
great originality for them, as most of the experiments 
were made to prove statements made by more dis- 
tinguished workers than I, but still, perhaps they 
will be found interesting and probably new to some 
readers. The larva which I kept for observation was 
one of the commonest I could procure, both as 
regards itself and its food. The cages were made 
of fine gauze with glass fronts, which are easily and 
cheaply constructed, filled to the depth of about two 
inches with fine mould, in the middle of which was 
fixed a small glass, about four inches high, half-filled 
with water. Into this the branches of food-plants were 
put. For isolation I obtained some ordinary card- 
board starch-boxes, cut out an oblong hole from the 
lid and fixed on the under surface with " Kay's 
coaguline," a quarter-plate negative glass (cleaned of 
course) ; a number of holes were then pricked in all 
over the box, for the free admittance of the vital 
principle, air. 

On April 24th, I went out in quest of the cater- 
pillars of the tiger-moth (Arctia caja), and after 
traversing several miles and getting splendidly 
nettled, I brought home about thirty, principally 
taken from the nettle {Lamium album) and the dock. 
I also took several from a small patch of moschatel 
(Adoxa moschatdlina), which was in flower at the 
time. I have never met with any lepidopterous 
larvae on this plant before, nor do I remember 
having heard of anyone else finding larva; on it, but 
on this point I should like to hear other correspon- 
dents' experiences. At first I thought I had several 

different species, as in some the* hair was extremely 
short and in small tufts, but to make up for this short- 
coming, as it were, the spiracles were very visible. 
In others the hair was very long and of a silky ap- 
pearance. I placed them all together in a cage and 
left them withJ some food. Next morning when I 
came to examine them, I found scarcely any with the 
short tussocks of hair and large spiracles, but the 
cast-off skins were plentifully strewed about the sides 
of the cage. Later in the day I saw several more 
change their skin. Just before changing it they 
invariably attached themselves to the side of the cage 
by a silken thread, and the empty skin would remain 
there after the larva had escaped and assumed its- 
new coat. After they have done so they look wet 
and miserable, and their hair seems matted together 
as it would be if they had been dipped in water. But 
they soon dry (.themselves, when Jhey appear very 
handsome in their silky coat. In about a week they 
had all been through the operation — painful it would 
seem — of changing their skin. During the earlier 
stages of their voracious life, and just before changing, 
they would scarcely eat anything, but when they 
reached what 1 'may term the long-hair stage, they 
ate ravenously, comfrew, nettle, dock, horse-raddish, 
Mentha rotundifolium, and in fact nearly anything I 
could supply them with. I fed them sometimes twice 
and three times a day, such was their insatiable 
appetite. Burmeister mentions the fact that beetles- 
and their larvae never consume the leaf from the 
margin, like the caterpillars of Lepidoptera, but bite 
a hole in the centre, round which they feed, thus dis- 
tinguishing the destroyer merely by the appearance 
of the leaf. This certainly must be a fallacy. 
Lepidopterous larva; not only feed from the edge of 
the leaf, but as often as not will commence in the 
middle, though generally a'rom beneath. This must 
be a common occurrence to those who have kept larva? 
in confinement. As to the beetles they certainly do 
feed from the middle of the leaf, but they are fre- 
quently to be seen feeding from the edge. Go out 
some summer evening with a lantern and examine 
the leaves of any common plant, and you will be able 
to verify this statement. So that the appearance of 
the leaves is in no way calculated to apprise the stu- 
dent of their respective invaders. Another item of im- 
portance is the following. Most entomologists agree 
that there are few lepidopterous larvae, if any, which 
prey upon each other. But while I kept Chelonia I 
found that when a larva had just pupated, and while 
the external skin was soft and moist, the larvae would 
gather round it, bite pieces out of it, and apparently 
eat them, leaving afterwards a dry, deformed, 
shrivelled up shell. This occurred while the cage 
contained plenty of food, so that hunger cannot be 
thrust in as an excuse. Not only this larva, but a 
number of others which I have kept at various times, 
particularly the common tumip-moth, have exhibited 
the same propensities. If, however, the skin of the 


pupa has hardened before it has been noticed, it 
remains perfectly safe. Here, I know some of my 
readers will say, " How could they get at them when 
they are enclosed in a strong web ? " Eut numbers 
of mine changed amongst their food on the floor, con- 
trary to their usual habit ; but if a weak place appeared 
in those that did spin a web. it was quickly attacked 
by several of the larva:, and an inroad soon made. 
The following trait is also interesting, as bearing on 
their sense of smell. I found when I gathered fresh 
food for the larvae in the early part of the morn- 
ing, and placed it ia their compartment, that they 
flocked eagerly towards it, leaving their stale food, on 
which most of them were feeding before. But if I 
fed them later in the day, the majority of them stayed 
on the stale food, although the fresh food was re- 
peatedly placed in close proximity to them. It may 
be that the dew has something to do with this by 
drawing out the scent of the plants, especially as I 
fed them mostly on Mentha (principally rotundi- 
folium), horse-raddish, and comfrey. 

July 1st. The imagos appeared and I found that 
I had a number of very fine specimens. By mishap 
I allowed several to remain in the cage, which was 
put away in an old cupboard. Going to the cup- 
board, nearly five weeks after, I found that one was 
still alive, but the other four had succumbed — and 
remember, there had been no food in the cage during 
this period, nothing but the layer of soil on the 
bottom. How the one lived I cannot imagine. On 
the gauze at the top, I found ova had been deposited 
in a considerable quantity, and further — that they 
emerged in a few days after. The small larvae were 
not undersized or weakly either, as one would expect 
from the treatment the imagos received, ' but were 
rather over the ordinary size at this period. I send 
specimens to the Editor of the larvae at one day old. 
The influence of light on their development I tested 
in the following way. I enclosed the young larvae 
with the food-plant in a dark box, with holes for the 
free admission of air, and stored it in a " dark room " 
used for photography. They were kept well supplied 
with food. The development of each stage was con- 
siderably retarded, so that specimens in the, last stage 
(I cannot call them imagos) were not obtainable till 
the September following. Not one, however had its 
wings fully developed, some barely the eighth of an 
inch in length. The longest was half an inch, and I 
believe, if growth had continued, the wings would 
have been entirely dark brown. For this experiment 
I selected strong, healthy-looking caterpillars, so that 
it is all the more conclusive as to the bad effects of 
darkness on their perfect development. The influ- 
ence of heat on the wing at the time of expansion is 
also, it would appear, decidedly bad, drying up the 
juices as fast as they can be formed, till the wing is 
made dry and brittle, and incapable of attaining its 
full size. I reared some over a hot mantel-shelf; 
few of these but whose wings did not present the 

appearance of shrivelled deformity. The great 
strength in a few cases had endowed several for this 
struggle for existence, it is true, but they were cer- 
tainly not perfect specimens. Most Lepidoptera you 
will thus find emerge from their chrysalis in the cool 
of the evening, so as to escape the hot sun and dry 
air. Those I kept emerged about eight or nine in the 
evening or during the earliest hours of the morning. 
A red liquid, acid substance is found plentifully 
sprinkled about the cage after such emergences, and 
is used in softening the hard, dry case, so that it can 
easily be parted by the moth, and a passage made 
when it wishes to appear. In one case only did the 
pupa case remain attached to the imago's body ; it 
did not, however, survive, but died shortly after 


IT has been suggested to me that I might bring 
together in a note the materials I have collected 
regarding the Filariae found in human blood ; and 
the more so as circumstances have admitted of my 
obtaining several living specimens of the parasite, 
from some of which my sketches have been made. 
So far as I have been able to ascertain, the subject 
has not been illustrated in Science-Gossip ; my 
note may, therefore, serve to fill a vacant place. 

In 1870 Dr. T. R. Lewis, formerly of Calcutta, 
and since deceased, found nematoid worms in 
chylous urine. In the beginning of 1S72, whilst 
examining the blood of a native of India — a patient 
in the Calcutta Medical College Hospital — who was 
suffering from diarrhoea, Dr. Lewis observed no less 
than nine minute active worms on a single slide, and 
identified them with the Nematoids previously ob- 
tained by him in cases of chyluria. From this time 
onwards he paid considerable attention to the 
subject ; and he sent a slide containing some speci- 
mens of the worm to Professor Parkes, at Netley, 
who showed them to Mr. Busk. The name Filaritz 
sanguinis hominis appears to have been then con- 
ferred on this organism. During the course of the 
two following years Dr. Lewis continued his investi- 
gations, with the result that he traced Filariae directly 
to the blood in ten, and detected them in various 
tissues and secretions in at least thirty cases ; the 
parasites were always associated with chyluria, 
elephantiasis, or some closely allied pathological 
condition. In one case (of chyluria) the patient had 
been [a leper for fourteen years : several slides con- 
taining active Filariae were obtained from his fingers 
and toes. . 

Dr. Cooke in his instructive and popular little 
book on " Ponds and Ditchesi" appears to suggest 
that Filariae are pathogenetically associated with 
leprosy, a view which scarcely derives support from 


Lewis's investigations, who doubtless found them in a 
case of leprosy, but the patient was also suffering from 
chyluria. The Nematoids are admittedly closely 
related to the latter disease ; and seemingly only 
accidentally so to the former. Here we may note 
that leprosy was known to the Greeks as elephan- 
tiasis, and to the Arabians as lepra ; but that it 
differs from the lepra of the Greeks, and from the 
elephantiasis of the Arabians. E. Arabum, or 

lymph-scrotum, and chylous dropsy of, the peri- 
toneum and tunica vaginalis testis, than with leprosy. 
The presence of the Filarial, whether in the blood, 
the tissues, or the secretions, points to abnormalities 
in the '• lymphatic system, the result of long-continued 
residence !^inj[tropical climates. They utilize the 
mosquito as an intermediate bast ; and ]in one of 
his papers on the subject, Lewis described the 
changes undergone by[the Nematoid in the alimentary 

Fig. 5. — c. Filaria, head and taij 
of b more highly magnified. 

Fig. 4.— a. Leucocytes (stained with ro=eine); one with three nuclei. 
b. Filaria, with tail retracted in sheath. 

Fig. 6.— d. Filaria, head and tail of another 
specimen ; both ends retracted. 

Fig. 7. — e. Crenated red 
corpuscles associated 
with the Filarial de- 
lineated above. 


Fig. 8.— -f. Sarcoptec, moult obtained from 
same blood. 

N.B. — a and b were draw n under an $ in. objective, and to one scale : c, (fand e under a 
under a £ in. at 10 in., and magnified 320 diameters. 

in. and to another ; /, was drawn 

Barbadoes leg, is a tropical disease prevalent in 
Arabia, Africa, and India, and causes the legs to 
swell to an enormous size, hence its name ; but its 
symptoms differ from those of leprosy. While, then, 
the evidence indicates that elephantiasis is closely 
associated with Filarial, leprosy seems to be related 
pathogenetically to the bacillus discovered by Hansen, 
B. lepra. It may, therefore, be safer to associate 
the Filaria with chyluria, elephantiasis, soft tumi- 
faction of the inguinal glands, haematochyluria, 

canal of that insect. Is it possible that the mosquito 
is instrumental in introducing the worm into the 
capillary system of men and other animals, whence 
it passes into the lymphatics, where it finds a lodg- 
ment ? That it is not injured by the poison 
peculiar to the mosquito is proved by its passing 
alive and continuing its developmental changes in the 
body of the mosquito. It must also be remembered 
that Filarice have been found in diseased conditions 
of the human body alike in the East and West Indies., 



in China, Africa, the Mauritius, Bermuda, Brazil, 
etc., all mosquito countries.* 

The organism described in this note is a filiform, 
parasitic Nematoid, about i z in. in length, and j^jj in. 
in transverse diameter ; it resembles the familiar 
Anguilluke found in stagnant water, damp moss, 
etc. It, however, differs from these in being en- 
closed in a hyaline sheath, in which the worm can be 
seen to elongate and contract itself. It is difficult to 
make out the internal organization of the Filarise, the 
alimentary canal is not distinctly traceable, and the 
contents are mainly granular with a marked conden- 
sation in parts. Dr. Lewis considered the jSTematoid 
as he found it in man, to be an embryo, and his later 
investigations brought the adult form to light. The 
mouth-parts have puzzled me ; my sketches from two 
worms, both obtained alive, indicate differences of 
structure, or of position ; but the examination of 
other specimens has not cleared this up. The 
hyaline external sheath is often markedly apparent ; 
and in dead and stained specimens, the body is 
generally contracted in it at one or both ends : my 
drawings illustrate this feature. The person from 
whom I obtained my specimens suffers from general 
debility and haemorrhoids, and occasionally from a 
mild form of eczema ; but in all other respects he 
can be said to be in fair general health. The mode 
of obtaining the worm from the blood is simple 
enough. The end of the finger is tied round with 
twine or pack-thread, and when slightly congested is 
lightly pricked' with a sharp sterilized dissecting 
needle. The droplet of capillary blood thus secured 
is taken up on one or more clean cover-glasses, and 
pressed out as thin as possible on a cleaned slide. 
A half-inch objective suffices as a finder ; but a 
Zeiss D, or an Economic 1 in. is necessary for the 
detailed examination of the worms. These were the 
powers used by me ; though my drawings were made 
under a student's \ in., and a Seibert's ^ in. w.i. In 
all cases the .illustrations have been drawn with the 
paper at a greater distance from the eye-glass than 
the normal ten inches. This has been done merely 
to get larger figures and details. The Filarise con- 
tinue in active motion for many hours. As a stain 
roseine will be found to answer the double purpose 
of killing the worm, and also of staining it. In 
blood from the same person I have twice, on separate 
occasions, found what I took to be the moult of one 
of the Sarcoptes. There was no itch present, and it 
was denied that there was any previous history of the 
complaint. Are these Sarcoptes to be regarded as 

* The Filarise come to the surface of the skin between five 
and six o'clock in the evening, and seven or eight o'clock in 
the morning, so that they are handy for mosquitoes during the 
hours when those insects are most numerous. The worms 
retreat into the tissues during the day. Though eyeless, they 
seem to possess a ligktsense, and to avoid light. What effect 
would the long Polar day have on these parasites, in which 
periodicity is such a marked characteristic? Would it puzzle 
them out of existence ? — W. J. S. 

pathogenic to the form of eczema which does occa- 
sionally trouble the patient ? 

The prevalence of the latter disease at times in 
Bengal, leads one to enquire if some skin complaints 
distinguishable from itch, and termed eczema, may 
not be contagious, and caused by a parasite ? 

Numerous red blood corpuscles in the case I have 
in view are crenated, a few curious abnormal forms 
being delineated in my drawings ; but for this feature 
the Filariae may not be responsible. 

Dr. Lewis's investigations led to his examining 
other animals, with the result that he obtained allied 
Nematoids from the Indian pariah (or native street-) 
dog, and the Indian crow. More than one-third of 
the dogs he examined were thus affected, the 
Nematode in them being smaller than in the case of 
the human parasite ; while the blood of one half the 
crows he examined also swarmed with Filarise, which 
were about one-third the length and one-half the 
width of the human parasite. In the Nematoids from 
both the crow and the dog there were no indications 
of an enveloping hyaline sheath ; and m the canine 
worm the internal structure was in his opinion 
slightly more advanced in respect to differentiation 
etc., than in the human worm. Lewis also examined 
mosquitoes, and was able to obtain a constant supply 
of these insects in a filarious condition from a room 
occupied by five servants, one of whom harboured 
Filariae in his blood. This man had been in the 
place for several years, and was not known to have 
suffered from any special disease. I have myself 
succeeded in finding filarious mosquitoes, but under 
circumstances which, as in the case of Dr. Lewis's 
servant, readily explained their presence. He 
repeated the experiments of Dr. Manson of Amoy 
(China), and discovered that fourteen per cent, of the 
mosquitoes he caught at random had Filariae, which 
he considered a proof that in Bengal filarious blood 
cannot be very uncommon. As he points out, it is 
necessary in examining mosquitoes for these Nematoids 
to observe whether the blood in them is mammalian 
or avian. The following details are based on Lewis's 
papers, and may be useful. 

Embryo guinea- 
worm . 

Trichina . . 






Blood . . 

' Cellular 

Muscle . 


(Head round, 
t tail pointed. 


/Head pointed, 
I tail blunt. 

A few sentences in conclusion with regard to the 
milder forms of Filariosis (the term applied by 
Lancereaux to the deceased condition caused by the 
Filarise), may be interesting and appropriate. 
Lancereaux, who has given a complete resume of the 
whole subject, considers the parasite enters the 
system by the alimentary canal, and he recommends 



the use, as a prophylactic measure, of boiled and 
filtered water. Others hold that the parasite finds its 
way into the body through the skin of bathers. To 
what, if any, extent is the mosquito to be regarded as 
an infecting agent ? In this connection, too, does 
food count as a factor? Both the pariah dog and 
crow are foul feeders ; though it should be added 
that in our hot tropical climate, they are both 
bathers, and both drinkers of stagnant and other 
possibly contaminated water. Moreover nematoid 
helminths, as Lewis showed, have been found by 
other observers in the blood of the carp, hawk, jack- 
daw, jay, frog, seal, and whale. The dog seems, 
however, to take the first place, and has been 
observed to be thus affected in nearly all parts of the 
world, but notably so in China, India, and Southern 
Europe. Is the dog an infecting agent in this case, 
as he is believed to be in the case of tape-worm ? 

It is satisfactory to be able to add that in man the 
prognosis is favourable, even though the disease be 
of some standing. Removal from the source of 
infection is said to result in a spontaneous cure. As 
remedies, inunctions of mercurial ointment, in con- 
nection with hydrotherapy, and the injection of 
certain parasiticides into the lymphatic ganglia, have 
been recommended. A writer in Ceylon considers 
that the administration of bisulphide of carbon gives 
satisfactory results, owing, in his opinion, to the 
sulphur ingredient, and its power to prevent the 
multiplication of the worm in the body. 

On the other hand, Dr. Manson's views with 
regard to the pathological significance of the Filarise, 
which receive support from the observations of Dr. 
Lewis and others, are opposed by Dr. Rake of 
Trinidad, who failed to find Nematoids in cases of 
elephantiasis and chyluria ; and by Dr. Sibthorpe, 
who examined the blood of patients affected with 
hard elephantiasis, and did not meet with Pilaris;. 
The doctors evidently differ as to the pathogenetic 
value of the worm ; but its existence as a parasite in 
the blood of man has been proved, and it remains to 
be ascertained definitely, how it gains a footing in 
the body. Those who wish to prosecute the subject 
further will derive valuable aid from Dr. Lewis's 
papers republished in Part lit. of his " Physiological 
and Pathological Researches" (1S8S), and also in 
Dr. Sajou's "Annual of the Universal Medical 
Sciences," Issue of 1S89, vol. i., F, page 13, and 
vol. v., A, page 145 ; and the various papers therein 
referred to. One cannot read up the subject without 
being impressed with the value for diagnostic 
purposes of a microscopical examination of the 

W. J. Simmons. 

We commend to the notice of our natural history 
book collectors, Messrs. Dulau's Catalogue of Zoo- 
logical and Palreontological books, just issused. 

By W. H. Youdale, F.R.M.S. 

HAVING read with great interest the two 
articles by the Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., 
on Silloth in April and June, 1SS9, (Scienxe-Gossip, 
vol. xxv. pages 125 and 156), I was led to imagine 
that some of your readers might be interested in 
knowing what can be found in that apparently for- 
saken-by-naturalists district in the month of August ; 
perhaps, also, these articles may be the means ot 
inducing some other botanists and naturalists to take 
some interest in working up the flora and fauna of 
this seemingly neglected and barren neighbourhood. 

It is needless to repeat the descriptions given by 
the Rev. H. Friend of the sand-dunes, general 
appearance, and situation of this charming little 
sea-port and watering-place combined ; therefore I 
will proceed to describe and enumerate the chief 
objects, of interest to be found there, or likely to be 
found there, during the month. 

My visit commenced on the nth and ended on 
the 24th ; one or two days were very stormy, and 
rain fell on most days — only two, I believe, were 
exempt — so that, on the whole, the weather was 
most unpropitious for insect-life, and I cannot in 
consequence add anything worth recording to what 
has already been given in the articles above referred 

The plant-life, however, was a pleasant surprise, as 
many as 1 16 varieties being found by my wife and 
myself — sixty-one of which are not to be found in the 
neighbourhood of my residence on the border of the 
Lakes District. Some of the chief finds were, Aster 
tripolium, (found near Skinburness), Convolvulus 
septum, C. arvensis, Brassica monensis, Silent mari- 
tima, Gnaphalium minimum, G. uliginosum, Rumex 
crispus, Eryngium marilimum, Galium mollugo, 
Chenopodium ficifolium, Medicago lupulina, Arte- 
misea vulgaris, Atriplex angustifolia, Viola curtisii, 
V. canina. Behind the sheds built near the docks I 
found a solitary specimen of wild chicory (Cichorium 
intybus), two or three specimens of Echium planta- 
gineum, and large numbers of Eckium vulgare. A fine 
Ranunculus hirsutus was considered a " good find," 
on account of its rarity in the district. The round- 
leaved mallow (Maha rotundifolia) is here in great 
plenty, as is also jPasione monlana and the beautiful 
hare's-foot trefoil, (Trifolium arvense). 

A walk to Skinburness proved most interesting, 
and resulted in finding Geranium sanguineum in full 
bloom and great profusion, the Burnet rose [Rosa 
spinosissima) and its curious irregular red galls, caused 
by Rhodites spinosissima, were most entertaining, a 
single specimen of corn marigold - (C. segetuni), and 
the following in plenty : Sedum anglicum, Spergula 
arvensis, Armeria maritima, Cakile maritima, Are- 
naria peploides (on the sands), Sagina maritima, 



Persicaria lapathifolium, Erodium cicutarium, and 
Geranium disseclum. 

A walk in the direction of Allonby, past the " Con- 
valescent," added these to the list: Calamintha 
officinalis, Lamium album, Polygonium rayii, Stachys 
palustris, Plantago coronopus, P. maritima, Senecio 
aquaticus, Ononis procurrens, 0. spinosa, Crithmum 
mantimum, Salsola kali, Tanacetum vulgare, and 
Anthyllis vulneraria. 

Taking a journey from Silloth to Bowness-on- 
Solway proved most delightful and added some grand 
finds, amongst which was Typha latifolia, growing in 
water near a brickfield by the railway side at Xirk- 
bride. On reaching Solway Moss, Hirsutum vagi- 
natum, Hieraceum paludosum, Nasturtium terrestre, 
and Eleocharis palustris were observed. Both sides 
of the railway were lined with Epilobium angustifolium, 
which grows to the height of six feet and upwards, 
looking very lovely when passing it in the train. I 
was told by a "native " that it rejoiced in the local 
name of " Blooming Sally," and at Silloth is known 
as " French Willy " (an evident corruption of 
" Willow"). The thyme-leaved speedwell, Veronica 
serpyllifolia is perhaps the greatest gem to be found 
at Bowness. I also found by the railway-side Vicia 
hirsutum, Dianthus plumarius, and Sedum telephium ; 
the last two have probably been planted and allowed 
to become wild, or perhaps seeds may have been 
blown by the wind from some garden not far away. 

To return to the Silloth flora, the plants met with 
in greatest number are Bartsia odontitis (very large 
specimens), Matricaria inodora, Euphrasia officinalis, 
Lamium furpureun, Senecio vulgaris, S. Jacobtea, 
Plantago major, P. media, Thymus serpyllum, Trifolium 
pratense, T. repens, Campanula rotundifolia, Capsella 
bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Mysotis palus- 
tris, Bellis perennis, Veronica beccabunga, Vicia 
saliva, Papaver dubium, Ranunculus acris, Galium 
verum, Potentilla anserina, P. reptans, Arctium 
lappa, Cytisus scoparius, Ulex europaus, Calluna 
■vulgaris, Erica cinerea, E. tetralix, Taraxacum 
dans-leonis, Lotus corniculatus, Cerastium vulgatum, 
Tussilago farfara, Achillea millefolium, and the in- 
evitable Sisymbrium officinale (hedge-mustard). 

The two most observable peculiarities of the Silloth 
flora are, first, the very large preponderance of blue 
flowers, such as hare-bells, viper's bugloss, sheep's 
scabious, vetches, speedwells, and violets, growing in 
such large numbers as to make quite a blue carpet ; 
second, the way in which each variety of flower seems 
to appropriate a little piece of ground to itself, to the 
exclusion of all others, so that a plant may be in great 
profusion at one place and yet not be met with again 
within a distance of two miles. 

The seaweeds are of the very commonest descrip- 
tion. All I found were Fucus canaliculars, P. 
vesiculosus, F. nodosus, and its usual parasitic Poly- 
siphonia fastigiata, Melobesia po/ymorpha, Griffithsia 
corallina, Ulva latissima, and Enteromorpha com- 

pressa. I also found the zoophyte Flustra chartacea, 
but not in abundance. 

The best finds among the Diatoms were Pleuro- 
sigma astuarii, Navicula crassinervis, Surirella 
gemma, Nitzschia sigma, and N. valuta, all on or near 
the pier. 

A word in conclusion about the grasses ; the three 
principal ones are Carex arenaria, Triticum juitceum, 
and Aminophila arundinacea, protected by Act of 
Parliament, first in Scotland, and then in England 
also. Heavy fines and penalties were imposed on 
anyone gathering the spikes or leaves of the plant, or 
having any part of it in their possession. These laws 
have not been repealed, but they have long fallen into 
disuse, for now various articles for domestic purposes 
are made from the stems of this plant, every stem 
thus used is a direct infringement of the law. 


SOME time ago (September 1890), I contributed 
an article to Science-Gossip with the above 
title. In that paper I described two new species of 
Cathypnse, which, when fully extended, had so many 
of the characters of the genus Distyla, as drawn by 
Mr. Gosse, that it gave rise to a suspicion which I stated 
in the following words : " It is of course possible 
that Distyla may be a good genus, but I think it is at 
least probable, that some, if not all, the species of that 
genus have been described from extended Rotifera 
of the genus Cathypna." At that time, although I 
was familiar with several species of the latter genus, 
I had never seen any of the recorded species of 
Distyla, and my notes were written in the hope 
" that those microscopists who have the opportunity 
will take up the investigation of the subject ; and, 
whether the result be to confirm the genus, or my 
suspicions as to its non-existence, my purpose in 
writing these notes will have been accomplished." 
In your September number, 1S91, Mr. D. Bryce has 
a courteous criticism of my article, to which I should 
have replied earlier but for a press of other work. 
There are so many points upon which Mr. Bryce and 
myself are agreed that I only propose touching lightly 
upon one or two, in which there is a difference of 
opinion. I am glad that Mr. Bryce "is inclined to 
deny credence to the remarkable position" of the 
supposed "inability of the species of Distyla to 
withdraw its head between the plates of the lorica," 
because I expressed equal incredulity. At the same 
time, I think I was justified in concluding that Mr. 
Gosse by the phrase " habitual profusion of the 
head," intended to convey the idea that in Distyla 
the corona was never retracted. I was confirmed in 
this interpretation, unaccountable as it appeared, by 
Mr. Gosse's known precision in the use of language ; 
by referring to his figures, where all the six species 



are drawn with the "head" protruded ; and by the 
significant remark of Ehrenberg, that his D. Home- 
manii was "capable of retraction," showing to my 
mind that he also understood that the other species 
of the genus were incapable of retracting the head. I 
quite think that under such confirmatory coinci- 
dences I was justified in my assumption. I am now 
quite convinced, both from Mr. Bryce's experience 
of the genus, and my own subsequent acquaintance 
with it, that Mr. Gosse could only use the phrase in 
the sense indicated by Mr. Bryce. With reference 
to my omission of the word "lengthened" in my 
quotation, it was, as he suggests, quite unintentional, 
and I cannot understand how it occurred, as I find it 
in my original paper. There is one point in which I 
am sorry to have to differ from Mr. Bryce, but I am 
still of opinion that my two new species are Cathy- 
pme ; the lorica being "sub-circular," or as he puts 
it, " ovate," and not of the form of a " long ellipse." 
Another critic of my paper has to some extent mis- 
understood my point, and most certainly misjudged 
the spirit in which my notes were written, and as he 
is quoted by Mr. Bryce, I reply to his chief criticism 
here. In the first place, he makes the statement 
that, "The distinction (between the two genera) is 
plain enough." Now while I readily admit that 
typical species of any of the genera, may easily be 
distinguished from typical species of even closely 
allied genera, yet with those species near the border- 
line it is frequently " not plain " on which side they 
ought to be placed. In this very genus, the only 
new species Mr. Gosse admitted into the body of the 
work was D. flexilis, and of this, he says in one 
place, "I add doubtfully" and in another, "I am 
not by any means sure that this is entitled to specific 
rank ; nor, if so, whether it ought to be placed in 
the genus Distyla." My critic then points out the 
distinctions between the two genera in the words 
quoted in Science-Gossip by Mr. Bryce. "In 
Cathypna the whole trunk is loricated, but in Distyla 
only the hinder-portion of the trunk is loricated, the 
fore part having a membranous covering." It is a 
very strange circumstance that in no place does Mr. 
Gosse mention such a distinction, never even hints at 
it ; and if my critic means anything more than that 
Distyla can exert rather more of its frontal part than 
most loricated Rotifera, then his distinction is not a 
fact. Mr. Gosse does say that the lorica is "mem- 
branous before," but he figures it as having a well- 
defined anterior margin, and it will be noted, he 
designates the whole of this "the lorica." However, 
through the kindness of Mr. Bryce and another 
valued London correspondent, I have had the 
pleasure of studying two undoubted species of 
Distyla, both, however, new forms, and I am per- 
fectly satisfied that the genus is a good one. These 
two species were very characteristic, and no mi- 
croscopist who had any experience in this class of 
animals could for a moment have mistaken them for 

Cathypna. They had the " lengthened and flattened 
form," and the activity so unusual with other Rotifera 
of the family Cathypnadse. The chief and most 
obvious distinction, however, is the form of the 
lorica, which in Distyla is a long oval. In con- 
clusion, while candidly admitting that I was wrong 
in my supposition, I think that my previous notes are 
of value, as showing that there are some species of 
Cathypna which, when fully extended, so strongly 
resemble Distyla, when fully extended, that great 
caution is necessary in assigning them their place, 
and before doing so they ought to be studied in 
both conditions. 

J. E. Lord. 


THIS fungus, Phalhcs impudicus, the stinking 
morell, or stink-horn (Fig. 9), may usually 
be found amongst the roots of chopped-down trees 



Fig. 9.— Phallus impudicus. 

and shrubs, especially the beech and hornbeam, in 
damp, shady woods and copses ; less frequently I have 



found them on shady and grassy banks, on heaths in 
ihei vicinity : they are very abundant in some woods, 
for;instance in Bury Woods, Epping Forest, they may 

Fig. 10.-— Phallus impudicus before the bursting of the 

Fig. 11.— Phallus impudicus (SectioD;. 

be found growing in clusters under the hornbeams ; 
and also in several other woods near London. 

They first appear as an oblong, whitish, transparent 

ball (Fig. 10), which will soon burst ; from out of 
this gelatinous covering (volva) rises the tubular 
column, which has a spongy texture of a milk-white 
colour ; on the apex of this column or stipe is the 
common receptacle or pileus, at the summit of which 
is a small white bordered pore, marking the conju- 
gation with, and opening into the column. At first 
the sporiferous head is green, without any traces of 
the laminae, but when ripe the spores escape in a 
yellowish-brown mucus, leaving the common re- 
ceptacle and lamina; quite clean. It has a very 
strong fetid smell, especially when the peridium 
bursts and the column expands, by this smell it may 
often be found. 

They are most abundant about July and August, 
growing in clusters of threes and fours, which are 
generally from six to eight inches high, and smelling 
very intense ; however, later in the season (October), 
the individual specimens are fewer and much larger, 
often nine and ten inches high, with a very slight 
smell. I think this must be due to the weather being 
more favourable to the growth of fungi. 

The following is an account of a very large speci- 
men which I found in October this year, growing on 
the borders of a wood at Highgate : — height thirteen 
inches, pileus three and a half inches long, column 
two inches in diameter, and volva four inches long 
and half an inch thick. 

Henry E. Griset. 


By the Author of " An Illustrated Handbook of 
British Dragon-flies," "A Label List of British 
Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


THE New Forest, in Hampshire, is probably the 
"happy hunting-ground " most-frequently pa- 
tronised by entomologists in the British Islands. From 
the earliest dawn of entomological history this district 
has been regarded as the principal store-house ot 
insect-life in this country, whose boundless expanse it 
is the desire of every enthusiastic entomologist to 
explore. It constitutes the headquarters of all the 
"brethren of the net," and, as in times of yore, it still 
continues to yield its multitudinous winged treasures 
to the patient and persevering student. 

Nowhere else in the United Kingdom is such a 
veritable paradise for dragon-flies to be found as in 
the New Forest, and everywhere through its vast 
length and breadth we may hope to meet with these 
gorgeous gems, provided only that we pay it a visit 
in the proper season. 

The neighbourhood of Brockenhurst, which is in 
the very centre of the Forest, and exceedingly 
convenient to reach from either Southampton or 


Bournemouth, is a very good collecting-ground for 
these majestic creatures ; it abounds in ponds and 
clay-pits, some of which are situated on the common, 
others in the surrounding woods, while there are 
several first-class streams and brooks in the immediate 
district, all of which teem with dragon-flies. 

The neighbourhood of Lymington, Ringwood, and 
Lyndhurst also, are famous habitats for many kinds, 
while several species swarm on the reedy river at 
Beaulieu, between which village and Lymington 
there is a very large pool called Sowley Pond, which 
may also be visited with very successful results. 

The following species of dragon-flies have been 
known to occur within the boundaries of the New 
Forest, namely, Platetrum depressum (very common), 
Lepletrum quadrimaculata, (very abundant), also its 
beautiful austral variety pnentibila (which is very 
common as well), Libellula fulva (very rare and 
local), Orthetruvi c&rulesccns (plentiful), Sympetrum 
vulgaium (exceedingly abundant, occurring in thou- 
sands in certain seasons), S. sanguineiim, Cordulia 
anea, (not uncommon, principally found in the 
neighbourhood of Brockenhurst and Beaulieu), 
Oxygastra Curtisii (occurs at Brockenhurst, but is 
rare) Gomphus vulgatissimus (not uncommon in the 
vicinity of Brockenhurst), Cordulegaster annulatus 
(very plentiful on most of the rivers and brooks), 
Anaso formosus (rare), Brachytron pratense (local), 
sEsckna cyanea (abundant everywhere), jE. grandis 
(not uncommon), AL. rufesccns (very rare), Calopteryx 
virga (exceedingly abundant on all the rivers and 
streams), C. splendcns (ditto), Lestes viridis (a single 
specimen only of this pretty insect has been taken in 
the New Forest, which, however, was many years 
ago, and formerly adorned the famous private 
collection of Mr. Evans, the well-known entomo- 
logist ; this species has been captured nowhere 
else in this country), L. nympha (rare), L. sponsa 
(common, but local), L. virens (only two specimens 
of this species have hitherto been taken in this 
country, both in the New Forest ; they were formerly 
included in the rich cabinet of Mr. J. F. Stephens, 
the celebrated author), Platycnemis pennipes (local), 
Enallagma cyastrigerium (common), Agrion mer- 
curiale (common, but very local ; it is only known 
to occur in one other locality in this country, namely, 
at Epping Forest, in Essex). A . pulchellum (common), 
A.puella (exceedingly abundant everywhere), Ischnura 
pumilio (very rare and local), /. elegans (very common 
everywhere), Pyrrhosoma minium (exceedingly abun- 
dant everywhere), and P. tenellum (local and rare). 

The neighbourhood of Christchurch is a very good 
one for dragon-flies, particularly on the river Avon 
and the river Soar, both of which abound with reeds 
and rushes. Heron Court, not far from hence, is the 
headquarters of that very rare and .local species 
Oxygastra Curtisii, which is only found in two or 
three other localities in this country, namely, in the 
adjacent counties of Dorset and Devon (in addition 

to the New Forest, as previously mentioned). It has 
been captured near Heron Court on several occasions, 
but is always rare. 

Parley Heath and Heron Common, about five 
miles from Christchurch, situated between the rivers 
Avon and Stour constitute two of the best collecting- 
grounds for dragon-flies in the country. They both 
contain a great number of ponds and clay-pits, and 
abound in damp spots filled with reeds and other 
marsh-loving plants. Here one may meet with 
almost as many kinds of dragon-flies as in the New 
Forest itself, while certain species occur in even 
greater numbers than in the wooded area. The very 
local Libellula fulva, which is rare in the New Forest, 
occurs not uncommonly on Parley Heath, but it is a 
very difficult species to procure, as it has the habit of 
keeping nearly the whole of its time out of reach, in 
the centre of the ponds it is pleased to frequent, and 
only 'by means of a very long net may we hope to 
secure it. For this purpose a bamboo fishing-rod 
with telescopic joints, having the topmost joint 
removed (as described in my " Illustrated Hand- 
book of British Dragon-flies ") would constitute the 
most convenient kind of handle. The beautiful variety 
of Libellulafulva, namely fasciata, which possesses the 
apices of the wings brown, also occurs in this de- 
lightful district, from whence I have two very fine 
female specimens in my collection. 

The very rare and local Ischnura pumilis has been 
taken on Parley Heath as well as, by myself, at Bourne- 
mouth, five miles distant on the sea coast. The 
latter locality also is a very good one for dragon- 
flies, particularly round the ponds on Canford Heath, 
at the back of the town. This pretty common, how : 
ever, is unfortunately being rapidly encroached upon 
for building purposes, and the habitat of many good 
species will consequently be destroyed in a few years 
hence. The local Lestes sponsa occurs very plentifully 
at Bournemouth, which town, by the bye, is a very 
convenient place to stop at, as all the localities men- 
tioned above may easily be reached from it by either 
rail or road. 


A HOST valuable paper for marine zoologists 
appeared in the December number of the " Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History," entitled "Natural 
History Notes, from H.M. Indian Marine Survey 
steamer Investigator, Commander R. F. Hoskyn. 
Series II., No. I, 'On the Results of Deep Sea 
Dredging during the Season 1890-91,' by J. Wood- 
Mason, Superintendent of the Indian Museum, etc., 
and A. Alcock, Surgeon I. M.S., Surgeon-Naturalist 
to the Survey." 

We are glad to welcome another of Mr. Dugald 
Bell's capital and original papers on glacial geology. 



The latest issued is entitled " The Great 'Winter : a 
Chapter in Geology," and was read before the 
Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 

We gladly welcome the first part of the " Journal 
of the Institute of Jamaica," doubtless edited by 
the newly -appointed . secretary (an old correspondent 
of Science-Gossip). Mr. T. D. Cockerell. He has 
not been long in'getting into harness, for this number 
contains two original papers by him. 

The rights for the patent of Larranga's Photo- 
Phonograph have been abandoned by the inventor, 
who "gives them to the world." A pamphlet on 
this subject has been issued by Dr. J. Maier (London : 
Whitehead, Morris & Co., Fenchurch Street). 

The Norwich " Science Gossip " Club was founded 
by the present editor of the magazine two years 
before he became editor. It has endured ever since, 
and is now one»of-the strongest and healthiest of 
popular science clubs in England. Their present 
"Report" will] give people a good idea of this 
typical social and scientific club, inasmuch as it 
contains capital abstracts of the papers read during 
the past year. 

W e would draw the attention of our microscopical 
readers to Mr. Hesketh Walker's interesting catalogue 
f " Microscopic Sundries, ".and Specialities Labora- 
tory, 12 Church St., LiverpooL 

The -sixth number of the " Mediterranean 
Naturalist" (edited by Mr. J. H. Cooke) has 
reached us. This periodical is a real gain to natural 
science, as it correctly collects for us the geology, 
zoology, and botany of the coasts of the most 
interesting and!most historic sea in the world. 

The Institute of Marine Engineers held a very 
successful conversazione in the Town Hall, on 
December nth. A capital programme was issued, 
and one sent to us ; but we would suggest that 
another time a better- correlation of gold lettering 
with a different colour tone is required from a 
scientific society, so that people may be better able 
to read the programme. 

We have received from Mr. F. L. Dames, natural 
history and scientific bookseller, 47 Tauben Strasse, 
Berlin, a series of his catalogues, comprising 
pamphlets, books, etc., on every department of 
natural history, botany, zoology, geology, palaeon- 
tology, mineralogy, chemistry, physics, etc. The 
latest issued includes 350 works on diatoms and 
desmids, and 250 on algology and microscopy alone. 

We cordially welcome M. Tempere's 7th, or 
December part of " Le : Diatomiste." This will 
prove the best work of its kind yet issued. The 
illustrations are of an unusually high-class character 
(London : Bailliere & Co.). 

We are glad to draw attention to Mr. F. V. 
Theobald's Part II., "Account of British Flies" 
(London : Elliot Stock). This will prove a most 
useful book for intending students of British Diptera. 

A FUND is very properly being raised under the 
auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society, for the 
benefit of the widow and nine children left by the late 
Mr. John Mayall jun., the active, well-known, and 
highly esteemed secretary of the Society. Scientific 
men work frequently for anything but money, and 
this is an instance where our wealthier scientific 
brethren have the opportunity of being helpful. 

Dr. A. Irving read an interesting and very sug- 
gestive paper at the early December Meeting of the 
Geologists' Association, on " Organic matter as a 
Geological Agent." 

The "Geological Photographs" Committee ap- 
pointed by the British Association in 1889, have 
issued another Report, in which they state that as yet 
not one half of the British counties are represented in 
the collection. Here is a good and useful opening for 
our increasing army of amateur photographers. 

Our Geological readers should procure Dr. Charles 
Ricketts' paper (Presidential Address to the Liverpool 
Geological Society) on " Some Phenomena which 
occurred during the Glacial Epoch." No English 
geologist is better posted in our British glacial geology 
than Dr. Ricketts. 

We commend to all those interested in the subject 
of Technical Education (and suggest they should 
procure it), the Syllabus of the Nicholson Institute, 
Leek, Staffordshire. It is the best programme of 
good work we have seen published. 

Mr. Edward Wilson, the well-known and able 
curator of the Bristol Museum, recently published in 
the " Geological Magazine," a paper " On a Specimen 
of Waldhtimia perforata, showing Original Colour- 
marking." This interesting specimen was discovered 
by Mr. J. W. Marshall, of Bristol, an enthusiastic 
collector of Jurassic Brachiopoda. We have fre- 
quently found near Castleton, Derbyshire, specimens 
of Terebratula hastata, retaining their original colour- 

A CAPITAL and most useful brochure has just been 
written by Mr. Edvyard Whimper, and published by 
John Murray, on " How to use the Aneroid Baro- 

The last issue of the Guernsey Society of Natural 
Science and Local Research is a capital number. It 
contains papers on " The Correlation and Relative 
Ages of the Rocks of the Channel Islands," by Mr. 
C. G. De la Mare; an account of "A Dredging 
Excursion off Guernsey " (we should like above all 


things to have been in it), by Mr. R. L. Spencer ; 
"Notable Oral Equipments in Vertebrata," by Mr. 
Fred Rose ; " The Sea Urchin," by Mr. W. Sharp ; 
" Instinct, Reason, and Reflex Action," by the same ; 
"The Flora of Jethon," by Mr. G. T. Derrick; 
"Submarine Breathing Animals," by Mr. J. Sinel ; 

An adaptation of the telephone to existing telegraph 
lines has recently been successfully completed between 
Grangemouth and Glasgow by Mr. A. Erskine Muir- 
head. The telephones used are the French type, 
with microphones. The line has two intermediate 
stations, one at Port Dundas and the other at Kirkin- 
tilloch, but this in no way impaired the speaking. It 
is proposed to add two other intermediate stations, 
making six telephones served by a single line. 
Though the telegraph insliuments were employed 
simultaneously, there was no interruption, and it is 
intended that the telegraph instruments shall be 
discarded. Another feature of the adaptation is 
that as the wire runs along the canal, the barger 
can fix a portable telephone on it at any place, and 
speak to the termini. 

We are pleased to see that a Fourth Edition of 
Mr. Worsley-Benison's "Nature's Fairy-Land " is 
required, and was issued last week by Messrs. Elliot 

The following are the lecture arrangements made 
by the Royal Institution before Easter : — Professor 
John G. McKendrick, six Christmas lectures to 
juveniles, on "Life in Motion; or, the Animal 
Machine ;" Professor Victor Horsley, " Twelve 
Lectures on the Structure and Functions of the 
Nervous System (the Brain) ;" Mr. A. S. Murray, 
"Three Lectures on Some Aspects of Greek Sculp- 
ture in Relief;" Professor E. Ray Lankester, " Three 
Lectures on Some Recent Biological Discoveries ;" 
Professor W. P. Ker, three lectures on "The Pro- 
gress of Romance in the Middle Ages ;" Dr. B. 
Arthur Whitelegge, three lectures on "Epidemic 
Waves ;" Professor J. A. Fleming, three lectures on 
"The Induction Coil and Transformer;" the Right 
Hon. Lord Rayleigh, six lectures on "Matter: at 
Rest and in Motion ;" Professor J. F. Bridge, three 
lectures on "Dramatic Music, from Shakspeare to 
Dryden (the Play, the Masque, and the Opera)," 
with illustrations. The Friday evening meetings 
will begin on January 22nd, when a discourse will be 
given by the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh on "The 
Composition of Water." Succeeding discourses will 
probably be given by Sir George Douglas, Bart., 
Professor Roberts- Austen, C.B., Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Professor Percy F. Frankland, Sir David Salomons, 
Bart., Professor L. C. Miall, Professor Oliver Lodge, 
Mr. George Du Maurier, Mr. John EvaDs, Mr. F. T. 
Piggott, Professor W. E. Ayrton, and other gentle- 


Cleaning Slides. — Canada balsam may be 
cleaned from slides by moistening a rag with spirits 
of turpentine ; if the balsam is very hard, it may be 
just warmed over the spirit-lamp. I find this the 
best way, being very quick. — H. E. Griset. 

Mounting Butterflies' Probosces. — Will any 
of your readers kindly tell me the best way to mount 
a butterfly's probocis ? I have tried a good many in 
Canada balsam, but the two halves always become 
separated. Is it usual to mount only the one half, or 
is there some way of mounting it whole, without the 
two halves separating ? — R. H. Yapp. 

Males of Cladocera. — During the months of 
September, October, and November last, the com- 
paratively rare males of the Entomostracan order 
Cladocera seemed to be fairly abundant in the south 
Epping Forest district. Males of fourteen species in 
all were seen by me during the period mentioned, 
belonging to the different genera as follows : Cerio- 
daphnia (4), Scapholeberis (1), Simocephalus (1), 
Daphnia (4), Bosmina (i), Acroperus (1), Campto- 
cereus (1), Pleuroxus (1). I do not know whether 
to consider this as an exceptionally good list for one 
season or not, but it is certainly far better than my 
records for the two preceding years, and it would be 
interesting if collectors of pond-life in other localities 
would give their experience in this matter. — D. J. 

New Slides. — We have received from Mr. A. 
Flatters, o£ Oldham, three most interesting and 
botanically useful slides. One is the transverse sec- 
tion of old pine-wood (Finns sylvestris), cut the 
gLj in. ; another is a tangential transverse section 
of the same, cut the same thinness ; and the third is 
the radial transverse section cut down to ^ in. Mr. 
Flatters' slides are accompanied by a very ingenious 
explanatory diagram. 


The Butterflies of Jamaica. — In the article 
on this subject in the October number, I desire to 
correct one or two misprints in the list of names. 
For Synchloe jopparead SynchfdeJ. For " (Boridv.) " 
read "(Boisdv.)" For Kricogonia terina read K. 
terissa, and for Callydryas senna read C. senna. All 
these belong to Jamaica ; and they and their larvse 
(apparently a second brood) swarmed there from May 
to July, as so graphically described by Dr. Plaxton. 
Indeed the great number of larvse, chiefly of Noctua? 
(erebidse). and Geometrse (e.g. the beautiful black 
Melanochroia (?) with white-tipped wings) swarming 
sometimes in masses a foot and more wide, on the 


trunks of Pithecolobiuvi saman, and other of their 
food-supplying trees, was a more remarkable feature 
of the earlier months of this year in Jamaica — and is 
the more remarkable when considered in connection 
with the alleged rarity of insect-life in more temperate 
regions during the same period. — Henry Strachan. 

Supposed Breeding of the Scoter near 
Chichester. — Mr. Anderson's communication at 
p. 256 under the above heading is hardly so cir- 
cumstantial and full as to place the breeding of the 
scoter at Earnley beyond doubt, and I hope in a 
matter of so much interest he will publish all the 
particulars in his possession. Will Mr. Anderson 
kindly say whether any of the seven Scoters seen were 
procured, their presumed age, and what reason there 
was to suppose they had been hatched in that neigh- 
bourhood? Mr. Anderson is of course aware that 
scoters may be found on the coast in every month of 
the year, and that they not unfrequently in summer, 
visit inland sheets of fresh water. I think I have 
evidence even stronger than that given by Mr. Ander- 
son in favour of the probability of the scoter having 
nested in Norfolk in 1S75, for a brood of young birds 
was seen on Hickling Broad throughout the summer 
of that year, and the late Mr. Booth saw fourteen or 
fifteen of these birds flying over the same Broad in- 
wards at the end of July. I should hesitate to claim 
the scoter as having bred in Norfolk on this unsup- 
ported evidence, but if Mr. Anderson can show 
strong probability of its having done so at Earnley, 
I think the two cases would lend mutual support to 
each otter. — Thomas Southwell, Norwich. 

Black-Veined White Butterfly. — I am glad 
to be able to give Mr. Waters the following informa- 
tion respecting the capture of this insect by a friend. 
In the neighbourhood of Sewerby, Hull, in May 1885, 
two larvae of this butterfly were found feeding on a 
species of thorn. It was not known what they were 
until the perfect insect appeared, when a further 
search was immediately made and six pupae were 
found in the same place, all of which emerged in the 
course of a day or two. Three of these are now in 
my possession. As many of the young trees and 
thorns about there were newly planted varieties from 
the Continent, might it not be possible that the ova 
or young larvae might have been brought over into 
this country with them ? — C. E. Rockett. 

Shells with Double Mouths. — Mr. Ashford, 
in his interesting account of the various records of 
double-mouthed monstrosities of Clausiliae, remarks 
that, "Judging by the absence of records, shells with 
large and simple mouths are not liable to such an 
accident." Allow me to state that in Mr. William 
Nelson's magnificent collection of Limnaeidae, there 
are a number of specimens of Limn&a peregra with 
two and three apertures ; and if I remember rightly, I 
have also seen examples of double-mouthed L. peregra 

in the beautiful collection of Mr. J. Maddison of Bir- 
mingham. — IF. E. Collinge, St. Andrews, N.B. 

Clausilia with two Apertures. — The corre- 
spondence on this subject in recent numbers of 
Science-Gossip, induces me to put on record the 
occurrence of a similar monstrosity in Bedfordshire. 
The species is Clausilia rugosa, and was found at the, 
foot of an old willow-tree, in the hamlet of Limbuiy, 
by my son Edgar. The two apertures were well 
formed, and similarly situated to those shown on p. 
257 for 1S91. The specimen was presented to Mr. 
Taylor of Leeds, and probably is still in the posses- 
sion of that gentleman. — yames Saunders, Luton. 


Moths and Sallows. — Every entomologist 
knows that the male catkins of the sallow are very 
attractive to moths, and that the liquid which they 
imbibe partiallystupifies them. Now, I often wondered 
how, the sallow being anemophilous, the plant could 
be in any way advantaged by the visits of insects ; 
and why, if it is not advantaged, an attractive 
secretion was developed at all. It occurred to me 
that the insects shook the catkins and so facilitated 
the dispersion of pollen. But if this were the ex- 
planation, the stupifying nature of the liquid would 
seem a positive disadvantage, as it makes the insects 
remain quiet. The only explanation I can offer is, 
that when heavy moths become intoxicated and fall 
off, the elastic rebound of the stem of the catkin may 
shake off the pollen ; but this seems very unsatis- 
factory, and possibly one of your readers may be able 
to give a better, explanation. — J. R. Holt, Dublin. 

Abnormal Orchid Flowers. — The following 
abnormal orchid flowers have come under my observa- 
tion during the present year. One flower of Cattlcya 
mossice with three sepals and two petals ; the superior 
petal was adherent to the column.* One flower of 
Cattleya mendelii with two sepals and only one petal, 
the lower sepal bearing rudiments of the labellum in 
the form of a narrow ridge running from the base of 
the column down the centre of the sepal and terminating 
in a deep purple-coloured contorted appendage. One 
flower of Cypripedium Lawrencianum in which the 
shield-like staminode was contorted. The labellum 
was larger and longer than usual, measuring exactly 
one inch longer than the inferior sepal. The two 
lateral petals were curved. The inner side of the 
right lateral petal was slightly lobed and inflected, 
bearing the markings and colours on frontal and 
dorsal sides exactly like the labellum, while on the 
outer side all the characteristics of the opposite petal 
were present. Two abnormal flowers of Cypripedium 

* I am indebted to Mr. H. Sams for kindly sending me the 
first five specimens. 


sedeni : (I.) Having a median fertile stamen occupy- 
ing the normal position of the staminode. There 
was no median sepal. The two lateral sepals were 
distinct. No lateral petals were present, but a petal 
occupying the position of the median sepal. (2.) 
The corolla of this flower was composed of four 
petals, the lateral petals were half-curved, and the 
lower petals assumed the saccate form of the labellum. 
The two lower sepals were concrescent ; the andrce- 
cium and gynaacium were normal. The first flower 
affords an example of a Cypripedium in a dimerous 
condition, and the second an example of pleiomery 
or plurality of parts. Seven malformed flowers of 
Phagus grandiflora, three of which had two of 
their petals adhering to and forming a hood over the 
column. Four flowers in which the dorsal sepal was 
united to the column. The flowers of Ophrys apifera 
are very variable. This year I have seen several 
flowers in which the two pouches of the rostellum 
were more or less distant from each other, and I 
have frequently observed flowers with their pollinia 
differing in shape.— J. H. A. Hicks, F.R.H.S. 

Curious Growth of Fungi. — During one of 
my rambles in November, through a wood near 
Croydon, I collected a large number of specimens 
of fungi ; many of them exceedingly beautiful, and 
all full of interest to the student of natural history. 
In one instance a common variety which abounded 
among the fallen leaves of the oaks and beeches, 
presented a growth so curious that perhaps an 
account of it will interest some of your numerous 
readers. Three plants, belonging to a light brick- 
red-coloured variety of Agaric, with gills of a paler 
and more delicate shade, had sprung up close to one 
another and were connected together by their epi- 
dermis, the stems and gills of each individual being 
distinct and separate. There were no marks of suture 
at the juncture of the three caps, and the largest of 
the group was pulled over sideways by its smaller 
neighbours. These facts seem to show that the three 
plants came into existence in this condition, thus form- 
ing a sort of botanical Siamese triplet which I believe 
is very uncommon in this class of fungus. I naturally 
wished to preserve such a curiosity, but on examina- 
tion at home I found the plants to be infested by 
small white, footless, black-headed maggots, the 
larvae, I suppose, of a species of fly. Closer scrutiny 
revealed a minute puncture in each cap, by means of 
which the ova had been deposited by the parent-fly, 
in the plant that was to supply food to the larvae 
when hatched, and thus an organism that is, in a 
sense, parasitical upon decaying vegetation, was in its 
turn preyed upon by another. A few days later, when 
walking over the downs, I disturbed a flock of rooks, 
which proved to have been feeding on maggots 
similar to those just described, for the ground was 
strewn with fragments of fungi pecked to pieces by 
them in prosecuting their search. I noticed here 

another curious fact with regard to fungi. Wherever 
the turf had been taken up and removed, the place 
was marked by a ring of toadstools that had sprung 
up along the circumference of the part bared. I was 
unable to discern any cause for this, but the occur- 
rence was too marked and frequent to have been 
accidental. — F. G. Bing. 

"Sporting" Clover and Rare Plants. — 
Apropos of Mr. G. H. Bryan's note in your issue of 
this month, it may perhaps not be without interest to 
record that I also found the proliferous state of 
Trifolium repenson the bank of the Midland Railway, 
near Mill Hill, N.W., this summer, and not far from 
it a similarly monstrous form of Plantago major. Close 
to these, and evidently introduced in ballast, I found 
what an eminent botanical authority stigmatised, 
when I showed them to him, as "a bad lot" viz: 
Bartsia incana, Camelina sativa, Anthemis tincloria, 
a Potentilla (I think, hirta), and a Dracocephalum. 
These five were all growing within the space of one 
square yard. Bartsia incana I subsequently found 
again in abundance on the Great Northern Railway 
near Finchley, in company with a blue labiate, which 
I have not been able to identify. On the Midland 
line near Hendon, I found a solitary plant of Erysi- 
mum orientate, whilst Nasturtium sylvestre was grow- 
ing in abundance beside the Great Northern near High- 
gate. Ranunculus lingua still grows in the Totteridge 
ponds, and though Teucrium botrys has for the last 
few years been extinct at its former station near Mill 
Hill, Polygonum officinale (or multiflorus ■?) still exists 
in the neighbourhood, but is so persistently eaten 
down by cattle before it has time to flower that its 
identification is difficult. I may add that I found a 
very fine albino bloom of Centaurca scabiosa in Sep- 
tember, at Cromer, while taking a fine haul of the 
larva of the privet hawk-moth, which always seems 
most abundant by the sea. If you think these notes 
of any interest, pray make what use you like of them. 
— A. E. Hudson. 


Colouring of Flowers. — While the white- 
flower question is being noticed by the many botani- 
cal and other readers of Science-Gossip, I will 
mention a few which I think will be useful to its long 
list of notices. Plants of Campanula rotundifolia I 
have several times found quite colourless, or, on the 
other hand, coloured to excess "blue purple." 
Orchis pyramidalis is often very variable in colouring ; 
on a hedge-bank in Kent I jaw a large cluster of 
these plants, perhaps fifty, amongst them was a pair 
with light cream-coloured flowers ; others of the same 
group were of a deep rose-purple or madder colour. 
Of Gentiana amare/la, an albino specimen sent to me 
by Mr. A. Pickard, of Wolsingham ; this is the first 
" albino " of this plant I have seen, although I saw 
a great many of them normally coloured in Kent and 
Surrey this year. Of Gentiana campestris I found 
five cslourless specimens growing in a group on Box 



Hill. Specimens of Scabiosa succisa may be found 
of shades from white to purple ; and Scabiosa 
columbaria from white to dark blue, but the latter 
very rare. It may be noticed, at least in many cases, 
that the want of colour is usually due to the ex- 
clusion of light and poorness of soil, while the excess 
of colouring (as the purple Pyramidal Orchis just men- 
tioned) is caused by excess of light and nourishment ; 
but this does not account for the cream-coloured 
form in the same situation : plants having been 
placed in an air-tight bottle, and kept in the dark for 
a few days, will, as a rule, lose more or less their 
colouring. While speaking of abnormalities, I may 
mention some plants of Geranium violle; they were 
all above a yard long, and bore double flowers 
(November 14) of half to an inch in diameter, with 
from fifteen to thirty parts of all the whorls. — Henry 
E. Griset. 

Toad-Spaw.v. — On August 1st, while visiting 
some small ponds, which had been dried up for some. 
weeks, I found some spawn similar to that of the 
toad, but as I never knew toads to spawn there, and 
the ponds were a great resort of natterjacks, I 
suppose it was their spawn. Can you account for 
their late spawning? 

Edwards' " Reptiles." — Can any reader tell me 
if I could procure a copy of the paper which Thomas 
Edwarrts wrote upon the " Reptiles of Banffshire," 
and also what preparation is used to prevent the 
skins of such reptiles as frogs, newts, etc., from 
shrinking when bottled. — M. A. Smith. 

The Solar Year. — The Solar Year consisting of 
365 days 6 hrs. 9 min. 9 "6 sec, and the 6 hrs. being 
accounted for by leap-year, I shall feel much 
obliged if any one could inform me how the remain- 
ing 9 min. 9 '6 sees, are allowed for; whether in 
1900 a.d. an extra day will be inserted in the 
calendar. — T. R. Joties. 

Late Swifts. — On the 13th last November, I 
saw a swift. Had it been a swallow or martin I 
should scarcely have deemed it of sufficient interest 
to send to your paper, but that it was a swift I am 
quite sure, as it crossed the road I was on three or four 
times, flying low down ; once being chased by one 
of our small native birds. This year I saw several in 
the early part of September. — Chas. Law. 

Animated Oats. — My cousin having sent me 
some of these oats, I followed out her instructions by 
dipping one in some cold water and then lightly 
throwing it on a piece of paper. In a few seconds 
the awns began to move, and after some struggling 
the oat lifted itself up and turned over. After it had 
performed many gyrations the oat again became 
inanimate. I should be greatly obliged if some 
reader of Science-Gossip, could explain the cause 
of these movements. — Clara Kingsford, Canterbury. 

The Plague of Flies. — Whilst botanizing in 
■woods during last summer and autumn, I was on 
several occasions almost driven mad by the constant 
attack of flies and other insects, and although I en- 
deavoured to ward off the same and keep them at a 
respectful distance by smoking and sprinkling my hat 
and clothes with camphor or carbolic, I found that 
my rude remedies were quite unsuccessful. Thinking 
that some of your esteemed contributors could suggest 
an efficient remedy for this plague, I have ventured to 
ask your kind assistance, not only for myself, but many 
others who have suffered in the same way. — C. Rea. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers m natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the " exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (oi 1 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers. — We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

A. E. Boycott. — We shall be very pleased to have your 
paper for Science-Gossip. 

J. A. W. — See Dr. Taylor's book on "Our Common British 
Fossils," for descriptions and illustrations of the crag shells 
found in the Walton-on-Naze cliffs. 

J. H. B. Green. — Many thanks for the unusually large and 
fine specimen of abnormal growth of cabbage-leaf. It well 
illustrates the origin of Pitcher plants. See the papers on 
"Vegetable Teratology," in Science-Gossip vol. for 1890. 

F. G. Bing.— Many thanks for your pretty sketch of the 
three funguses growing together by their caps. 

J. E. K. — Apply to Messrs. Wesley & Son, or Messrs. 
Dulau, for works on Natural History, &c, of Brazil. 

H. W. Bishop. — You can procure a simple section-cutting 
machine from any dealer in microscopic materials. 

A. W. Richardson. — Coloured plates were only issued with 
Science-Gossip during 1884 and 1885. 

Alfred Tarner. — Get Mr. English's (of Epping) little book 
on how to preserve fungi. Mr. Maynard, of Saffron Walden, 
prepares them beautifully. 

H. E. Craven. — The only mineral resembling iron-ore 
(specular iron) in the very small specimen sent, is the dark 
transversely striated mineral " Black Jack," or zincic sulphide. 

"Hussar." — Get the "Collector's Handbook," published 
by W. H. Allen & Co. There is no little book on marine life 
correspnding to Cook's Ponds and Ditches." Pennington's 
"Zoophytes," and Dr. Landsborough's ditto are good. 

Joseph Smith. — See chapters on "Sponges," by Professor 
Sollas, in 1884 vol. of Science-Gossip; also on "Shore 
Collecting," in Science-Gossip vol. for 1888. All the works 
on the subject are expensive. 


Geological works by Geikie, Woodward, Dawson, Green, 
8rc, wanted, in exchange for foraminifera named and mounted, 
or for foramini feral material. — J. H. C, Highland House, St. 
Julian's, Malta. 

Tertiary fossils. Wanted, tertiary fossils, named and 
located, in exchange for Mediterranean shells, Iepiduptera, &c. 
State desiderata.— J. H. C, Highland House, St. Julian's, 

Humboldt's "Kosmos," 2 vols., 1845-48, cloth gilt, scarcely 
soiled. Offers. — Joseph Wallis, Deal. 

Wanted, fertile eggs of vapourer moth {Orgyia antiqua), in 
exchange for eggs of gipsy moth. Address — A. Witt, Hale 
Parsonage, Salisbury. 

I shall be glad of any named British shells to start a 
collection. Can offer a few species of British lepidoptera. — 
Miss E. M. Pepperell, 5 Park Street, Bristol. 

Science-Gossip wanted, cheap (Nos. 241-288, both in- 
clusive), to complete set. State lowest price.— H. J. Barber, 
Brighouse, Yorkshire. 

Wanted, good micro, slides up to the value of 4/., in ex- 
change for an aquarium 24 X 12 X 12 inches, glass slides.— 
W. Davis, 48 Richmond Road, Cardiff. 

A fine gathering of Batracheosperma moniliforfna, suitable 
for mounting, in exchange for good slides, preferably of marine 
hydrozoas and polyzoas. — J. E. Lord, Rawtenstall. 

Eggs to exchange for others n>t in collection: sheldrake, 
spoonbill, red grousej quail, wcodchat, shrike, common shrike, 

2 4 


ring-ousel, red-lesged partridge, Arctic tern, black-headed 
bunting, black guillemot, kittiewake, herring gull, and coote. — 
K. H. Jones, St. Bride's Rectory, Manchester. 

Electrical. — Frictional and galvanic apparatus, good as 
"new. Will exchange for good magic-lantern and part cash, 01 
offers.— G., 35 Caversham Road, N.W. 

A good collection of British and foreign land, freshwater, 
and marine shells, consisting of over three hundred species, 
and many varieties, including fifty lots of shells, neatly 
mounted, in glass tubes. For full particulars apply to — P. R. 
Shaw, 48 Bidston Road, Birkenhead. 

Tate's "Land and Freshwater Molluscs," coloured plates, 
clean copy, good as new. What offers — geological ? Also 
Science-Gossip for 1886, unbound.— G. H. Corbett, 13 Church 
Road, Nechells, Birmingham. 

Desiderata. — Testacella haliotidea, maugei ; Zonites 
glaber, radiatuius, excavatus, purus, futvus ; Helix aspersa 
var. exalbida, arbusiorum var. jlavescens, sericca, fusca, 
virgata, var. uigrescens, tessellata, eruetorum var. instabilis, 
Pygjn&a ; Clausilia. laminata, Acme lineata. Oblata. — H. 
ritfescetis var. alba, rubens, and minor, kispida, concin?ia, 
rezielata, pisana, virgata, and vars. ?najor, minor, albicans, 
ru/ula, luiescens, submaritima, alba, caferata, and vars. 
obliterata, alba, Julva, ornata, ericetontm, and vars. lutescens, 
leucozofia, major, minor, rotundata, rupestris, lapicida; 
Bulimus obscurus, Pupa secale, umbilicata,'marginnta ; Balea 
perversa, Clausilia rugosa, and var. tumidula, dubia, Cyclo- 
stoma elegans. — S-, 40 Braybrooke Road. Hastings. 

Wanted, back numbers of Science-Gossip for 1866, 1868- 
1871, 1873, 1879, 18S2-1884, in exchange for micro, slides or 
cash. Also, would like to exchange a few slides for others.— 
F. S. Morton, 158 Cumberland Street, Portland, Maine, 

Wanted, freshwater, sea shells, and corals, in exchange for 
chalk polyzoa, flustra, lituola, rotalia, serpula, spicules, geodes 
(flint), crystals of selenite from London clay. — W. Gamble, 
2 West Street, New Brompton, Kent. 

Helix vittata^t) large, and far flatter than type; H. tran- 
quebarica, Velosita cyPrinoides, Neritina orialanensis, Nassa 
Jacksoniana and Tympauotomus Jluviatilis, from Tra van- 
core ; also various marine shells from Cape Comorin (un- 
named), for foreign helices.— Rev. J. W. Horsley, Woolwich. 

Herbarium. — Offered, British, Norwegian, and North 
American plants, for those of other countries. Printed list of 
duplicates. — H. Fisher, 26 Stodman Street, Newark, Notts. 

Science-Gossip (unbound), for 1867, 1887-89. What offers 
in foreign postage-stamps for same? — W. Harris, 136 Drayton 
Park, Highbury, London, N. 

Wanted, back numbers of Science-Gossip. "Zoologist," 
" Naturalist," " Naturalist's Gazette," and " Field Club " ; 
bound vols, preferred. Will exchange books, eggs, &c. Also 
wanted, works by Hewitson and Morris. — W. R. Riley, 
Savile Lea, Halifax, Yorks. 

Foreign land and marine shells, offered in exchange for 
orchids or foreign birds. — Miss Linter, Arragon Close, 

Exchange. — Fine Lingida scotica, lower carboniferous, in 
ironstone nodule; photo free. Pnotographic books or offers 
to value of 50s. — W. J. Heslop, West View, Lemington, 
Newcastle, 1 

Exchange. — Side-blown eggs of capercaillie, sociable plover, 
Canada goose, ring-ousel, eider duck, ptarmigan, twite, gold- 
crest, teal, Manx sherewater, &c. Desiderata, other eggs or 
insects. — J. Ellison, Steeton, Keighley. 

Exchange fine series of crag fossils ifor eggs, insects, or 
offers.— J. Ellison, Steeton, Keighley. 

Wanted, micro, slides showing organs of generation in 
thallophytes, and sections of seeds. Will give good botanical 
slides. Address — T. B., Conservative Club, Hinckley. 

Wanted, to correspond with collectors who may have rare 
British shells to offer in return for other very rare British 
shells. Mutual exchanges. — Thomas E. Sclater, Strand, 

Wanted, a few specimens of the following : labradorite, 
crocodolite (from the Congo), and any other good bright 
crystal minerals, about two or three inches in size and up- 
wards, in exchange for British shells, micro, objects, fossils, 
polished madrepores. — A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., Natural 
History Stores, 43 Northumberland Place, The Strand, 

Wanted, British mammals, alive or in the flesh (fresh 
killed), particularly bats, mice, shrews, voles, wild cat, pine 
and beech marten, badger, otter; also varieties of mole, hedge- 
hog, &c. ; must be in good condition for stuffing. Apply to — ■ 
W. Harcourt Bath, Ladywood, Birmingham. 

Science-Gossip, Nos. 241-264, having four numbers missing, 
and a deal cabinet containing about one hundred British wild 
bird and gull eggs, in exchange for curios.— G. Waters, 
21 Westbourne Park Road, Bayswater, W. 

What offer for a splendid collection of Helix nemoralis, 
including eight named vars., and forty variously banded, 
nearly all named : also ten various H. arbusiorum, including 
var. alba. — H. Blaby, Brackley, Northants. 

Tertiary and cretaceous fossils wanted. Sends lists to— 
J. A. Ellis, 1 Pomona Place, Fulham, London, S.W. 

Offered, Ramsbotham's " Obstetric Surgery " {published at 
22s.), Nicholson's ''Zoology" (7s. 6d.), Orme's "Heat" 
(3s. 6d.), Cleland's "Animal Physiology" (2s. 6d.), Saarner's 
" The Microscope." Wanted, good minerals and fossils. — 
W. H. Olver, 2 Adelaide Terrace, Truro. 

To naturalists in India. Wanted, pupa; or ova; of wild silk 
moths: A. alias, A. sclene, A. cynt/u'i, A. tnytitla, C. tri~ 
fenestrata, &c. Will give cash or full exchange, as desired. 
Correspondence invited. — Mark L. Sykes, F.R.M.S., 31 Derby 
Street, Moss Side, Manchester. 

Offered, British land, freshwater, and marine shells for 
others, or offers. — A. H. Shepherd, 81 Corinne Road, 
London, N. 

Eocene fossils for exchange, named and localised, also 
Cornish rock and mineral specimens. Wanted, named speci- 
mens of minerals, micro, rock sections, or perfect terebratula; 
from any formations, or offers. — E. H. V. Davies, 46 Upper 
Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wanted, fossils from various localities, especially British 
and foreign tertiaries. — Thomas W. Reader, 171 Hemingford 
Road, London, N. 

I wish to dispose of thirty 8X6 photographs of locomotive 
engines (cost 2s. each), for which I will take offers in exchange. 
Wanted, a microscope, clarionet, violin, safety, or other useful 
thing. — Reginald E. M. Bleasdall, Dale End, Birmingham. 

Vol. 41 of "Nature," clean, unbound, in exchange for 
anything entomological. — W. S. Rolfe, Hazeldene, Tooting 
Junction, S.W. 

Duplicates. — Fine stuffed specimen of cormorant in first- 
class preservation, from the Isle of Wight, also P. ovale, L. 
siagnalis, L. glabra, S. elegans, H. arbttstorum, H. cantiatta, 
H. nefescens, H . pisana, and var. alba, H. virgata, and var. 
albicans, H. capcrata, H. cricetorum, H. rotundaia, B. 
acutus, B. obscurus, P. umbillicata, C. rtigosa, C. lubrica, 
C. elegans, Sec. Desiderata, many varieties of common species 
and offers, birds' eggs, or British butterflies and moths. — 
W. Hewett, 12 Howard Street, York. 

Offered, Pis. amuicum, Pal. vivipara, Byth. ientaculata, 
Plan, carinatus, H. nemoralis, H. kortetisis, H. arbusto-rum, 
Bui. obscurus, Vert, pygmwa, Coc/i. tridens, in exchange for 
British land and freshwater shells not in collection; also for 
foreign shells. Foreign correspondence invited. — H. E. Craven, 
Matlock Bridge. 

For exchange, P. co?itecta, V. piscinalis, V. crisiaia, Lim. 
glabra, L. tnmcatula, L. palustris, P. spirorbis, P. glaber, 
P. dilatatus, S. putris, H. sericea, C. tridens, C. minimum. 
Wanted, Pis, nitidum, Z. excavatus, H. cartusia?ia, CI. 
biplicata, &c. — F. C. Long, 32 Woodbine Road, Burnley, 

Wanted, B. monianus, P. nitidum, P. roseuvz, A. lineata* 
Offered, P. secale, Gonisbasis plicifera, Neritina pupa, H. 
strigella, H. umbrosa, H. obvia, CI. papillifera, CI. itala, 
Pupa avenacea, CI. parvula. — G. H. Gude, 5 Giesbach Road, 
Upper Holloway. 

A splendid series of nearly fifty animal hairs, in return for 
six well-mounted micro, slides.— Arthur H. Williams, Hythe. 

Wanted, Turton's "Manual of the Land and Freshwater 
Shells of the British Islands," Gray's Ed. of 1857; Reeve's 
"Land and Freshwater Molluscs," 1363 ; and Tate's " Land 
and Freshwater Molluscs," 1866.— H. W. Kew, 5 Giesbach 
Road, Upper Holloway, N. 

"Delagoa Bay: Its Natives and Natural History," by Rose 
Monteiro {London: Philip & Son). — "Annals of British 
Geology," 1890," by J. F. Blake (London: Dulau & Co.). — ■ 
" Larranga's Photo-Phonograph," by Julius Maier. — "Report 
of Norwich Science-Gossip Club, 1890." — "Journal of the 
Institute of Jamaica." — " Proceedings of the Geologists* Asso- 
ciation." — "The Essex Naturalist." — Wesley's "Nat. Hist, 
and Scientific Book Circular." — "American Microscopical 
Journal." — "American Naturalist." — " Canadian Entomolo- 
gist." — "The Naturalist." — "The Botanical Gazette." — "The 
Gentleman's Magazine." — "The Midland Naturalist." — 
" Feuilles des Jeunes Naturalistes." — "The Microscope." — 
" Nature Notes," &c.» &c. 

Communications received up to the izth ult. from : 
A. H. S.— J. W. S.— H. G. W. A.— J. R. H.— E. W.— H. S. 
— T. L.— J. H. C— O. W. J.— A. E. B.— W. J. P.— R. H. Y. 
—J. H. A. H.— G. H. W.— J. A. E.— J. E. L.— H. E. G.— 

F. S. M.— F. V. T.— W. D.— C. K.— A. G. F.— H. I. B.— 
T. S.— E. M. P.— C. L. S.— C. J. L.-G. H. C— J. A.— 
P. R. S.-R. H. T— F. L. J.— F. L. D.— W. G-— T. R. J.— 
R. B.— E. H. V. D.— C. E. R.— W. H.— T. W. R.— A. E. H. 
— W. S. R— T. S.— A. F.— H. E. C— J. E. K.— E. P.— J- 
W. H.— H. F.— W. H.— W. E. C.—A. H. S.— J. A. E.— G. 
K. G.— F. C. L.— J. H. B. G—M. L. S — W. H. O.— H. B.— 

G. W.— G. L. R-— W. H. B.— D. J. S.— A. J. R. S.— T. E. 
S.— F. G. E.— W. R. R.— A. H. S.— C. P.-C. R-— W. P. H. 
T. S. B.— J. E.— T. S.— F. E. H.— P. F. T.— C. D. S.— J. A. 
R.-T. S. M.-J. H. C.-J. A. S.-A. H. P. W.— A. J. S.- 
J. w. F,— H. W. K.— Dr. A. M. C— &c, &c. 




RECENT lecture 
by Dr. Taylor, 
the editor of 
is reported as 
follows, in the 
"East Anglian 
Daily Times." 
The lecture was 
delivered at the 
Athenaeum, Bury 
St. Edmunds. 
]^jg| j^ The Right Hon. 
Earl Cadogan, 
K.G., occupied 
the chair, and 
there was a large 

The noble 
Chairman in in- 
troducing Dr. 
Taylor, said the subject which that gentleman had 
chosen for his lecture was of the greatest possible 
interest to all who dwell in the Eastern Counties. 

Dr. Taylor opened his lecture by referring to the 
numerous mistakes made by people who knew 
nothing of the matter, concerning the probable 
occurrence of coal in East Anglia. He had seen in 
the newspapers letters stating that coal had been 
discovered in various well-borings throughout the 
county, but this simply meant that an occasional pebble 
of coal had been found in the drift beds among 
thousands of other pebbles which had been brought 
down and strown about by glacial agencies. It was 
easy to understand that from places in the Midland 
and Northern counties, where the coal cropped out, 
fragments were brought down to this district by the 
moving sheet of ice which at one time covered the 
Eastern counties. But these incidental findings of 
coal had nothing to do with the great argument he 
had to lay before them that evening, and he asked 
No. 326. — February 1892. 

them, in the first place, to disabuse their minds of 
any such idea.* 

What he wanted to ask them was, to imagine — 
and science had to appeal largely to the imagination 
— what the appearance of the Eastern counties would 
be if they could strip off, like the clothes from a bed, 
all the overlying strata, including the chalk* He did 
not hesitate to say that, if they did so, they would 
find a continuation of the same primary rocks 
extending underneath London and into the South- 
Eastern counties as those which occupied the surface 
in North Wales, Lancashire, Cheshire, and York- 
shire, only perhaps in a more or less parallel series of 
folds, running nearly west and east. On the ridges 
of these the lower Primary rocks would be found, and 
in the hollows of the folds, perhaps, coal-basins. It 
was with this fact that his lecture would have to deal. 
It could not be a so-called popular lecture, therefore, 
but must of necessity be more or less scientific, and 
the issues involved in it were so important to the 
Eastern counties that he did not hesitate to place 
these scientific arguments before them in as clear and 
lucid a manner as he was capable of. [It may be said 
here that the lecturer was largely assisted by specially- 
made diagrams, covering the walls, as well as black- 
board sketches, which enabled his hearers the more 
clearly to follow his closely-reasoned line of 

The first point to be established was that between 
the Somersetshire coal-field and possibly the South 
Welsh coal-fields in the west, and the coal-fields of 
Northern France and Belgium to the east, there was 
an underground continuation. The rocks were tied 
on, so to speak, from one end to the other, only they 
were like a chain which had been bellied down in 
the middle during the secondary period of geology, 
covered by the sea to a great depth, and strown over 

* [Since the above lecture was delivered I had recently- 
found specimens of "coal" sent me from well-borings passedi 
through the boulder clay. They were not coal at all, but 
fragments of black Kimmeridge shale. — Ed. S.-G.l. 




with the deposits of that particular age. On the 
south there were thick strata of Oolitic formations, 
which in the famous Sussex Wealden boring were 
found to be nearly 2,000 feet in thickness. At Dover 
they were 600 feet thick, but there they had bored 
through the chalk, through this underlying 600 
feet thick of oolite, and had struck the Carboni- 
ferous rocks. Five different seams of coal had been 
pierced, he believed, so that a shaft was following 
the boring at the present time, and before long there 
would be a Dover Coal-Field added to those already 
existing in England. 

By means of a sketch on the blackboard, Dr. Taylor 
showed that this easterly and westerly extension — 
that is to say, between the west in England and the 
east in Belgium and Northern France — was an anti- 
clinal axis or series of axes, along whose flanks 
different rocks of the primary period rested upon 
each other in such a way that if they could be moved 
to their relative positions, those furthest away from 
the main ridge would be uppermost and latest 
formed, while those close to the centre of the run 
of the axis would be the oldest. Therefore, he 
contended, it was along the outer flanks of this 
main axis that the coal-beds would be found, 
if anywhere. These flanks had themselves been 
much contorted, so that the coal would be in the 
form of narrow basins of no great width, although 
of considerable length, running along the trend of 
the underground primary ridge. For instance in 
Somersetshire, the basins from which coal was at 
present worked were very narrow in comparison with 
their length. The Liege Coal-Field in Belgium was 
not more than eight miles wide although it was 45 
miles long. At Charleroi the coal-field was 'eight 
miles broad and 35 miles long. Narrow as they 
were, however, these coal-fields were rich in seams. 
At Liege 35 different seams had been discovered ; in 
Westphalia 117; and in all of the basins he had 
mentioned coal was worked abundantly and profitably, 
although at a great depth. It had been thought by 
geologists in fonner years that it would be impracti- 
cable to work for coal underneath the chalk. The 
first intimation that this was not necessarily the case 
was given by a deep artesian well-boring near Calais, 
some years ago, in which the primary rocks were 
struck just beneath the chalk, all the other secondary 
strata being more or less absent. The Valenciennes 
Coal-Field, which was only 30 miles away from 
Calais, was now being very largely worked beneath 
the chalk, and this gave encouragement to him (Dr. 
Taylor) many years ago to believe that similar conditions 
might prevail immediately under the chalk and tertiary 
strata in the Eastern counties. 

The lecturer then directed attention to an artesian 
well-boring made at Harwich in 1859, by Mr. Peter 
Bruff, of Ipswich. That well had a depth of less 
than 1,200 feet, but the Lower Carboniferous Rocks 
were struck and penetrated to a depth of 70 feet. 

He pointed out, however, that these were not the 
real coal-bearing rocks, and that every foot deeper 
they went down at Harwich might take them further 
away from the proper position where the coal-bearing 
strata would be found, unless the strata were inverted, 
as was the case in some parts of the Belgium coal- 
field. The latter had doubtless been peeled off 
by denudation during the period when the rocks 
were exposed to atmospherical wear and tear, 
and were depressed to become the bottom of the 
cretaceous sea. The one important fact to geo- 
logists in connection with the Harwich well-boring 
was that none other of the secondary formations 
were present beneath the chalk, but that the chalk 
went bang down upon the old floor of primary rocks. 
Reasoning on this point, and believing that to the 
north the upper coal-measures — the higher coal- 
measures, that was to say — would be found in 
successive order resting upon the flanks of the 
Harwich carboniferous foundation, he • had thought 
that trial borings to the south of Suffolk, and 
possibly to the north in Essex, might penetrate some 
of the upper measure containing the crumbled, 
narrow, and elongated coal-fields he had referred to. 
A few years ago at Combs, near Stowmarket, the 
chalk was pierced in a deep well at a considerably 
less depth than had been anticipated — a little under 
900 feet ; but unfortunately the boring-tool did not 
proceed any further, so geologists were left in dark- 
ness as to what remained underneath. The primary 
rocks in Suffolk had never really been bottomed until 
a few months ago, when at Culford, five miles from 
Bury St. Edmunds, in an artesian well-boring upon 
Lord Cadogan's estate, the chalk and the few beds 
of underlying cretaceous strata were passed through, 
and what were now believed to be the primary rocks 
were reached. These .had only been pierced, how- 
ever, for a distance of a few feet, and none of the 
characteristic fossils of the carboniferous formation 
had been brought up. Instead of that, the process 
of boring had somehow or another carried down, 
from the lower cretaceous beds, into the soft shales 
of the primary rocks beneath, some of the lower 
greensand microscopic fossils. The gault was repre- 
sented by a comparatively hard bed, and a fragment 
of an ammonite had been brought up which resembled 
a liassic species. It was thought by geologists, 
however, to be very unlikely that the lias strata 
should occur at such a high level without any trace 
of the oolitic rocks above, and the conclusion had 
been arrived at, therefore, that the occurrence of this 
fossil there in a fragmentary state must have been as 
a derivative one. The bottom rocks at Culford, near 
Bury St. Edmunds, the seat of Earl Cadogan, were 
believed by Mr. A. Jukes-Brown, Mr. Whitaker, Mr. 
Holmes, and others, to be primary ; and Dr. Taylor 
expressed his conviction from the microscopical exa- 
mination he had made of a few fragments, that they 
were from the lower coal-measures of the carbonifer- 



ous formation. However, he hoped Earl Cadogan 
would come to the aid of scientific men, and allow 
the boring to proceed another hundred feet into 
these interesting Primary rocks. They must re- 
member that this was the first time the underlying 
Primary floor had been bottomed in Suffolk, and 
that a boring through these soft carboniferous shales 
might be of practical benefit even if coal were not 
found. He had submitted specimens of these soft 
shales to analysis by Mr. J. Napier, of the Museum 
Laboratory, and, as he (the lecturer) anticipated, 
they were found to contain strong traces of petroleum. 
It would not be a bad thing if a deep boring 
through these soft shales yielded petroleum instead 
of coal. 

What he should like to see was trial-borings a little 
further to the north of Culford. Taking a line from 
Southwold through Eye to Mildenhall, he thought 
that would be the best district along which to make 
such efforts to reach the upper coal-measures which 
probably lay synclinally along the northern flanks of 
these underground primary rocks. He had much 
faith in the districts of Brandon, Lakenheath, and 
Mildenhall, because the Memoir of the Geological 
Survey, so carefully mapped and measured by Mr. 
Woodward, showed that the oolitic rocks thinned out 
in that direction, and that very deep borings would not 
be required, therefore, in order to reach the primary 
rocks beneath. The most remarkable thing to geo- 
logists was, that at Culford these oolitic beds were 
absent. The thinnest set of the overlying beds had 
been previously bored through at Ware, in Hertford- 
shire, at a depth of 800 feet, but at Culford the depth 
was only 650 feet. What they wanted, therefore, in 
the future, with regard to experiments in search of 
coal, was to institute a set of borings somewhere in 
the region he had just mentioned. He should prefer 
the waste lands about Mildenhall, which now grew 
nothing but peasants and pheasants, as the site, for if 
coal could be found there, it would save the sylvan 
lanes of Suffolk from a destruction, which, however 
much he valued the importance of coal, he should be 
sorry to see brought about. 

In conclusion, Dr. Taylor said they must remember 
that at present this inquiry was in the scientific 
stage. In any undertakings that might be made for 
the discovery of coal, he wished it to be distinctly 
understood that they were scientific experiments. He 
thought that some might prove successful, but he 
should be very sorry to have it go forth that the 
enterprise was as yet, in a purely commercial stage. 
He had been writing on this subject for nearly twenty 
years past.' Hitherto, he had piped and nobody had 
danced : now, there was a tendency to dance too 
much. Nevertheless, without public support and 
public spirit, this important inquiry could never be 
carried on, and he appealed to all patriotic residents 
in East Anglia for assistance towards a solution of 
the problem. He was delighted that that night he 

had been honoured with the presence of a wealthy 
and enterprising English nobleman, known and hon- 
oured by the English people, and he would venture 
to ask his powerful aid and influence towards the 
decision of a question, upon which science was bring- 
ing to bear the weight of logical facts. In the opinion 
of the people of East Anglia no current subject was 
of greater importance than the one he had been 
privileged to lecture upon that night, and remem- 
bering how coal had been discovered under similar 
conditions in France and Belgium, as well as at 
Dover, he thought that residents in this part of the 
country could not sit contented with their hands in 
their laps, without allowing some trial-borings to be 
made in the manner he had suggested. 
The lecture occupied an hour. 

At the close, Earl Cadogan, in proposing a vote of 
thanks to the lecturer, spoke of the eloquent and very 
interesting manner in which Dr. Taylor had dealt 
with a subject, which might otherwise had been con- 
sidered dry, and as President he felt that he might 
become the interpreter of the audience in thanking 
Dr. Taylor. He (Earl Cadogan) had never heard 
the theories and facts of so abstruse and scientific a 
subject treated in a more interesting manner. Dr. 
Taylor had made certain points as to strata perfectly 
clear to his audience. ' Earl Cadogan said he had 
specimens of the various strata, through which there 
had been boring at Culford, sent to eminent geolo- 
gists. He gathered from Dr. Taylor's lecture that 
the chances of finding coal in the neighbourhood 
of Culford were somewhat remote, but understood that 
petroleum might possibly be found beneath his estate. 
Such a subterranean arrangement was a contingency 
which hitherto had not presented itself to his mind. 
He understood from Dr. Taylor's remarks that it 
was desirable to prosecute boring researches further. 
Mineral wealth was of the utmost importance in a 
district like that of East Anglia. If coal was dis- 
covered in the Eastern counties, undoubtedly the ' 
wealth of the residents would be much increased, and 
the prosperity of the kingdom enhanced. He should 
be glad if such a prospect could be foreshadowed, 
and might add that although he could not undertake 
to incur very great expense, yet possibly the boring 
would be continued some distance further. It was 
highly desirable a subject so full of interest and in- 
struction should be continued some extent further. 
If Dr. Taylor's well-considered lecture proved instru- 
mental in enlightening the inhabitants of the Eastern 
counties in the direction indicated, he thought all 
present would agree that a very agreeable and 
profitable evening would have been spent. 

A heaTty vote of thanks having been accorded to 
Dr. Taylor by acclamation, in acknowledging the 
compliment, he expressed his pleasure in hearing that 
Earl Cadogan would permit the boring at Culford to 
be extended 50 to 60 feet further for the benefit of 

c 2 



No S. 

IN our previous papers we have treated upon the 
Rhizopods belonging to the order Protoplasta, 
which is divided into two sub-orders, Lobosa and 
Filosa ; in the present article we arrive at the order 
Heliozoa. This contains nine genera, and sixteen or 
more species. The Rhizopods of this order differ 
widely, in many important particulars, from those of 
the previous one. Some of them are very beautiful, 
from the presence of chlorophyll as a permanent 
constituent of their bodies ; others are, perhaps, 
more curious than beautiful ; while a considerable 
number are very obscure, and in some cases offer 
considerable difficulty to a successful identification. 
The animals of this order are essentially swimmers, 
and are most commonly found among Algre and duck- 
weed. They consist generally of a more or less 
spherical mass of naked, foamy protoplasm. 

In one genus, Clathrulina, there is a beautiful 

Fig. 12. — Actinophrys sol. 

latticed, globular, stalked, silicious test. In Vampy- 
rella, the spherical body can assume ameboid forms, 
and in addition to the ordinary pseudopodial rays, 
there are others which are Acineta-like, and the 
periphery of the body can be thrown into conical and 
lobose extensions. The species of Diplophrys are 
mostly minute, and generally associated together in 
numbers, each having fine pseudopodia radiating 
from its opposite poles, and an interior coloured 
(amber or red) spot. 

Acanthocystis has many both curious and beautiful 
species, which are characterised by the body being 
invested by a layer of protoplasm densely crowded 
with minute linear particles, and by the presence of 
simple, pin-like, or furcate silicious radiating spines. 
In Raphidiophrys there is also an exterior layer of 
protoplasm extending in tapering processes on to the 
pseudopodial rays, and densely pervaded with minute 

spicules tangentially arranged ; the Rhizopods of 
this genus are generally compound, being found [a 
groups of variable numbers joined by isthmus-like 
bars. The genus Heterophrys is Actinophrys-like, 
but the body is invested with a layer of granular 
protoplasm, having a villous surface. In Hyalolampe, 
the protoplasmic body is covered with a layer ot 
minute, colourless, silicious globules. Although I 
have seen several species belonging to at least three 
of the above genera, it is quite evident that they are 
somewhat rare forms in this district, and as in the 
instances mentioned I was unable to devote time to 
their study, I do not propose in these articles to 
describe any of the above genera, confining my notes 
to the two genera, Actinophrys and Actinospherium. 
I think it probable that the Rhizopods of the order 
under consideration are southern forms, delighting in 
the genial warmth of a less rigorous climate than that 
of Rossendale. I know that, with the exceptions to 
be stated presently, none of my microscopical friends 
have been more fortunate- than myself in the 
collection of the Heliozoa ; while, on the other hand, I 
have frequently come across them in tubes of the 
Rotifera sent me by kind correspondents from various 
parts of the Midland counties and the south of 
England. Actinophrys sol,* or, as the older micro- 
scopists termed it, "The Sun Animalcule," appears 
to be as common here as elsewhere, being found 
in all our waters, particularly those well supplied 
with duckweed and other aquatic plants. Few 
possessors of microscopes, I should imagine, have 
not frequently had this Heliozoan Rhizopod under 
observation. It presents itself generally as a colour- 
less, globular, more or less cellular-looking body, 
covered with long, delicate, hair-like rays. As it 
placidly floats in the water, it seems entirely unfitted 
to cope with its more active neighbours ; but obser- 
vation proves it to be able to look well after its 
commissariat. Although it is to some extent at the 
mercy of the slightest current, it is able to anchor 
itself to some stationary or floating object. It is a 
somewhat sluggish, and apparently a stationary 
animal, but if carefully watched it will be noticed to 
slowly glide along by some obscure movements of its 
pseudopodial rays. The body, as stated above, is 
generally colourless, but coloured food-balls, red, 
green, or brown, may sometimes be observed 
embedded in some part of its substance ; these, after 
digestion has continued some time, appear as coloured, 
cloudy patches. The body is granular, and seems in 
some individuals so vesicular as to present the appear- 
ance of cellular tissue, though not often as definitely 
so as in Actinospherium. The pseudopodia are very 
numerous, but variable in different specimens ; they are 
as long, or even twice as long, as the diameter of the 
body, and are very delicate, and capable of retraction. 

* The vesicles in the figure of A. sol ought to have been 



The animal multiplies by division, and may occasion- 
ally be observed in various stages of the process. Its 
food consists of Rotifera, Infusoria, and Microscopic 
Alga:. When one of the Rotifera, or 
other active animal, swims against the 
pseudopodial rays, they lay hold of the 
object, and if successful in retaining it, 
contract to the surface of the body, 
drawing down the prey with them, 
which is then surrounded by a portion 
of the body protoplasm, after which 
the mass is drawn in. There is a large 
central nucleus, generally indistinct, and 
a large bubble-like contracting vesicle, 
situated at the periphery of the body. 
Size variable, my specimen from ^ to 
3J5 of an inch in diameter of body 
Actinophrys picta, the only other species, 
closely resembles A. sol, differing only 
in the colourless granular protoplasm 
having numerous green chlorophyll 
granules scattered through its sub- 
stance. I have found only one or two 
specimens of this species, and it re- 
quires no further description for its 
identification. I now come to the last 
of the Heliozoas for which I can fairly 
claim a Rossendale habitat. 

Actinospherium Eichhomii was for- 
merly placed in the previous genus, but 
was eventually separated on account of important 
differences. It is large, and not nearly so common 
here as Acti?iophrys sol ; indeed, I only know one pond, 
a mill-lodge, from which I occasionally get specimens ; 
in this the water is somewhat warm from the waste 
steam which, on condensation, runs into it. It differs 
from Actinophrys, as I have said, in being larger, but 
its most obvious distinction is the fact of its being 
separable into two layers — an outer, composed of a 
single or double row of well-marked vesicles, some- 
what regularly placed — the interior not so well- 
defined. The outer vesicles are in the form of 
short, six-sided columns, and the broader end out- 
ward, in order to form the sphere. The animal is 
spherical or oval, colourless and hyaline as regards 
the marginal vesicles ; interior frequently clouded. 
The pseudopodial rays may be numerous or few, 
granular, tapering, and radiate as in Actinophrys, 
though not so long proportionately,* and in this genus 
there is an axial thread -of more solid protoplasm in 
each of the rays, which, though spine-like, and not 
rigid, yet give strength and support to them. These 
threads arise from the surface of the interior mass, 
and reach nearly to the tip of each pseudopodial ray. 
Food, habits and habitat same as Actinophrys ; 
nuclei numerous, brought out by reagents ; con- 
tracting vesicles two, on opposite sides, bubble-like. 

* Rays rarely as loDg as in the figure. 

Size of body from ^5 to tJ, of an inch. Rays about,- 
or not quite equal in length, to diameter of body. 
In my next I propose to figure and describe the new 

Fig. 13. — Actinospherium EicJtliornii. 

forms which have come under my observation, 
though many particulars are wanting before they can 

be correctly placed. 

J. E. Lord. 

P.S. I regret, that owing to^the excessive wetness 
of 1 89 1, and other causes, I shall have to defer a 
description of my new forms until a future occasion. 
—J. E. L. 



[Continued from No. 324, p. 277.] 

N my way from Neuchatel to Zermatt I stopped 
the night at Sierre, where three years ago I 
got a fine series of Daplidice in the grounds of that 
most comfortable hotel, the Belle Vue. Podalirius 
abounds here at the proper season, and Didyma is 
quite as abundant. Here, too, is to be found in the 
roads that run through the vineyards to the north of 
the town, in greater numbers than I have ever seen it 
elsewhere, three, four, even five specimens on one 
plant of Eupatorium caimabinum being by no means 
unusual, and this in the full sunshine. I once caught 
it there at, and got some magnificent examples 
of this strikingly beautiful insect. In the morning, 
before starting for Zermatt, I took a saunter round 
the rather extensive grounds of the hotel (once a. 



chateau belonging to the noble family De Courten, 
and containing some beautiful oak-panelled rooms). 

Just at the south of a wood which consists chiefly 
of pine-trees, and which covers a small hill in the 
grounds (by the bye, these pines are infested by 
mistletoe, some trees having a score or more of plants 
on them), I saw a large bright blue butterfly start 
from a plant of Colutea arborescens, and fly up into 
the wood. That it was something that I had never 
seen before was certain, and f ran back to the hotel 
for my net. On my return I was very gratified to 
find that the butterfly had returned too, and in a 
trice I had him in my net. It turned out to be a 
perfect male of Iolas, so rare as a Swiss insect — 
though abundant enough in southern France — that 
only three previous captures in Switzerland are on 

These were all taken near Sierre, so that if the 
neighbourhood were carefully worked at the begin- 
ning of July (mine was taken on the 2nd), I have no 
doubt other specimens might be got there. 

We reached Zermatt on the 2nd of July. The first 
two or three days were very wet indeed, and my 
excursions during this time were confined to con- 
stitutionals down and up the high road, which was a 
couple of inches deep in mud. However, the weather 
cleared at last, and for the remaining ten days of our 
stay it was beautiful. 

My first search for butterflies was made down the 
valley towards Randa. I got on this occasion, 
besides commoner kinds, the following species : 
Sinapis, Hippothoe (var. Eurybia), Simplonia, 
Bryonia;, Eumedon, Arion, Maera, and last, but not 
least, a nice specimen of that fine insect Gordius, the 
first I had ever seen alive. 

I was surprised to find Cardamines still in good 
condition. A few days later on I got in the same 
direction some Dictynna and Athalia, and two more 
Gordius, together with a very fine series of Delius. 
These last occurred close to where some strong 
springs issue from the mountain side, on the right 
bank of the river, about a mile below Zermatt. These 
springs saturate the ground just below the place 
whence they issue, and here grow a good many 
plants of Saxifraga ahoides on which the larvse feed. 
Delius is a very easy insect to capture, as in fact are 
all the Swiss species of the genus. 

Eumedon was one of the most plentiful of all 
butterflies in i the valley, and was sure to be seen 
wherever Geranium 'sanguineum occurred. The 
imago is as partial to the flower of this plant as 
"the caterpillar is to the seed. 

My most successful day was that on which I made 
an excursion to the Riffel Alp. The path thither 
leaves the village at the south end. Just beyond the 
village the path runs alongside the river, and I there 
saw several Apollos floating about, up and down the 
steep bank on the left, but having rarer species in 
view I did not attempt to make any captures. 

Soon after the path enters the wood there is a 
small piece of grass on the left, where I saw several 
Crataegi, and apparently in fine condition. A little 
beyond this, in a moist pasture to the right and close 
to some chalets, I took Dictynna and one or two 
Pales ; the latter, however, is much more abundant at 
higher elevations. 

Between the first and second refreshment-chalets 
there is a considerable extent of broken rocky ground 
more or less covered with rhododendron scrub, and 
having fir-trees thinly scattered over it. Here I saw 
two or three Palaanos careering about in the rapid 
style peculiar to the genus Colias. After a time one 
alighted, and I succeeded in netting it ; it turned out 
to be a very fine male. 

Keeping on and up, I took a short cut across a 
meadow or alp lying behind the second refreshment- 
chalet. Here Phicomine was to be seen in dozens, 
and in one corner of the meadow I found quite a 
colony of Orbitulus, a pretty little greyish-blue butter- 
fly which is rather local than rare. Leaving the 
refreshment-chalet, I did not keep to the mule-path, 
which here turns sharply to the left, but kept to the 
gully through which the old path to the Riffel Alp 
used to run, as I thought I might there meet with 
Delius ; not seeing any, however, I crossed the stream 
— which was on my right — and passed up the opposite 
bank to the Alp above. Here Phicomine literally 
swarmed, and as it flew low and steadily over the 
short herbage, I could easily have taken scores if I 
had been so inclined. I did not, however, see any- 
thing else at all noticeable, so I re-crossed the stream 
and made the best of my way up some very steep 
slopes to the Hotel Riffel-Alp, capturing on my 
way a few examples of Cassiope. 

After taking some refreshment I made for the ridge 
of the Riffel-Alp, which lies behind the hotel, and 
on my way up I quite unexpectedly found three 
examples of that rare plant Anemone Halleri, and a 
few late blooms of A. alpina. 

When I reached the ridge I could see flying about 
over a higher part of it to the left, and very rapidly, 
some light-coloured butterflies which I could not 
identify, but I deferred making a closer acquaint- 
ance with them until I had visited a somewhat boggy 
corner of the Alp, which I could see some distance 
away in the direction of the Riffel-Berg. 

Passing down to this corner, I saw on my way 
Phicomine in greater profusion than ever ; but though 
one would expect to see one or two good varieties 
where a species is so abundant, I failed to detect any 
here. Orbitulus, too, was plentiful, and I secured one 
Areas, the only example that I saw of a very local, if 
not rare, butterfly. 

Some little time before I reached the swampy 
ground, I saw an occasional Merope, but close to 
and flying over it the insect was in plenty, and a few 
minutes sufficed for capturing all that I wanted. 
Why Merope is not allowed specific rank I cannot 



imagine ; it is hardly more like Aurinia than the latter 
is like the female of Cynthia, the distinctness of 
which no one doubts for a moment ; and the same 
remark applies quite as (or even more) strongly to 
Provincialis and Desfontanii, two other very beautiful 
varieties of Aurinia, though they are very unlike the 
type, and still more unlike Merope. Moreover, the 
food-plant of Merope is said to be Primula viscosa, 
(though, by the way, I have great doubt as to this 
being so), whereas Aurinia usually feeds on Scabious 
and Plantain, and never, I believe, on any kind of 
Primula. Having done with Merope, I turned my 
steps towards the place where I had seen the white 
butterflies. On my way thither I passed over a large 
space of ground where B. hmaria was growing in 
such profusion as I never saw elsewhere : the plants 
stood so thickly that it was almost impossible to put 
one's foot down without treading on one ; they were, 
too, unusually large and robust, and oh ! how different 
from the few puny examples I have seen growing in 
England of this curious little fem. 

About half-way between the swamp and the ridge, 
my eye suddenly fell on a beautiful male Cynthia 
settled on the ground a yard or two away, its white 
checkered wings outspread after the manner of the 
genus. I had never seen this insect before, but there 
could be no mistake about its identity, for no other 
Swiss Melitea has any white on the wings. 

Approaching carefully, I struck too hurriedly, the 
net hit the ground, and the prize was gone ! I wasted 
more than an hour about the spot, but I did not get 
a glimpse of another specimen there. The white 
butterflies turned out to be Callidice, a very restless 
insect and a very rapid flyer, but by quietly waiting 
at one spot and making a rapid dash as one passed 
near me, I managed to net four or five, and I got 
two or three more by stalking them, when they 
settled on the ground as they occasionally did. 

All the specimens were males, and in good con- 
dition. (A day or two later, I got half-a-dozen more 
above the Riffel-Berg Hotel, one of which was a 
female.) Whilst I was catching Callidice, I saw 
another Cynthia, and secured it, and subsequently I 
found a spot where a brood had evidently just 
hatched out. I got a number of fine fresh specimens, 
but unfortunately only one of them was a female. 
The white checkers are wanting in this-sex. 

On another occasion, I made an excursion to the 
Schwartz-See for the purpose of getting Gorge, but I 
only saw two specimens, and one of these escaped me. 
I took some fine Tyndanis and Lappoda, however, 
and saw a few Palseno and Callidice, but on the 
whole this was not a successful day. My attention 
was turned chiefly to butterflies, but I observed a 
number of plants of Lloydia. serotina, and of Jianun- 
culus ruttzfolia on the alps round the Schwartz-See 

We left Zermatt on the 14th July for Berisal, where 
I found Gordius quite plentiful. I may say here, 

that this insect is far finer in colour and larger on the 
Italian side of the pass. A German gentleman stay- 
ing at Berisal made an expedition to Crevola, and 
returned with a fine series caught there ; it was very 
interesting to notice the marked difference between 
these, and those he had taken at Berisal. All the 
Swiss species of Parnassus are to be obtained here. 
Mnemosyne is fairly common quite close to the hotel, 
and is extremely abundant on the alp high above the 
second refuge, where I also saw Eurybia, Lathonia, 
Carthemi, etc. 

The male of Goante is by no means uncommon on 
the roadside just beyond the bridge (which is about 
ten minutes below the hotel), but the female is rare. 
Hylas, Eros, Pheretes, Donzelii, Damon, Alcon, 
Escheri, the rare Lycidas, Parthanie, Didyma, Her- 
mione, and numerous commoner species maybe taken 
on or near the roadside, between the bridge and the 
second refuge, but every fine day in the season 
witnesses several nets going all along this road, so 
that it would seem almost a wonder that anything 
should escape ; nevertheless, the species do not appear 
to diminish in numbers from the annual raids made 
on them. 

Both Hippothoe and Virgaurex are plentiful all 
about Berisal, the latter being especially abundant in 
the rough valley which runs up from the bridge to 
the Bortel-Alp. 

Here, too, Apollo and Dolius are common, and a 
few Areas occur. High up above Berisal, on very 
rough stony slopes near the snow-line, I caught about 
a dozen Gorge, but it is a very wary insect and by no 
means easy to take on its favourite ground. I only 
saw one Cynthia, but I believe it is sufficiently abun- 
dant on some of the high alps above the hotel. 

Besides the butterflies I have mentioned above, 
and the commoner kinds, I got specimens (more or 
less) of each of the following species : Euphemus, 
Asteria, Melampus, Stygne, Medusa, Celo, Euryale, 
Lavaterre, and the pretty little Sao, which is rather 
common almost everywhere. 

One day I explored the ground round the Hospice, 
but with small results ; I saw a marmot, one or two 
Palasno, and a few Lappona, but nothing else. 

When returning to Berisal I took the low, and in 
some places extremely narrow, valley which runs nearly 
straight down from the fourth to the second refuge; 

The old mule-road over the pass went through this 
valley; this road after eighty-five years' disuse is still 
plainly marked in many places, but portions of it are 
nowadays extremely rough, avalanches having indeed 
carried it away altogether in places, and in others 
covered it with a chaos of withered fir-trees and 
enormous boulders, so that it is anything but an easy 
matter to get down the valley at all. 

The venture was not repaying, nevertheless I got 
a good series of Arcania, var. Darwiniana, and a few 
commoner kinds. 

I devoted one day to a visit to the Bel-Alp for 



Paljeno, which I had seen there in iSoo. It occurs 
abundantly on the slopes just below the Bel-Alp 
Hotel. The east side of these slopes incline steeply 
towards the Aletsch Glacier, which is in full view of 
them, and require cautious walking, They are 
covered with the Rhododendron scrub which Palteus 
so affects. The day was not altogether auspicious, 
but I caught a fine series, including two lovely 
females. On my way down I did not keep to the 
path, but at first bore a good deal to the left, passing 
over some very broken and undulating ground where 
were scattered here and there a few large fir-trees. 
Just as I reached a little rough hillock which lay in 
my way, a great black wood-pecker got up from the 
other side, and flew leisurely to one of the fir-trees, up 
the trunk of which it climbed, keeping the trunk, 
however, between itself and me, and peeping curiously 
round at the stranger who had ventured to trespass 
on its lonely fastnesses. I think it was an old bird, 
for the brilliant crimson crest was very conspicuous. 

Another excursion was to the Pfyn-Wald, a wood 
of pine-trees — interspersed with grassy spaces — which 
lies between Leuk and Sierre. Meleager and Sebrus 
are both taken there, but I was not fortunate enough 
to find either the one or the other. Four years ago 
I got a pair of Meleager there, the female being the 
brown variety named Steveni. The true home of 
this butterfly is Digne and its neighbourhood. I got 
one good Camilla (greatly to my surprise, as I never 
saw any honeysuckle in the Pfyn-Wald), a few fine 
Arion, some Dia and Dryas, and two or three Stella- 
tarum. This last insect is very abundant in the 
Rhone valley. 

As to plants at Berisal, I saw there the rare and 
curious Campanula excisa ; it was abundant within a 
short distance of the hotel. I have never seen the 
plant elsewhere. All four of the Swiss species of 
Pyrola, too, occur close to the hotel, and Secunda is 
very plentiful and fine on the Alp ; to the left — a 
short distance beyond the Simplon Hospice — it grows 
amongst the low bilberry bushes. 

When we left Berisal at the end of July, we went 
to Aigle. Here I obtained a few Camilla, Sibylla, 
Quercus, W. album, Ilicis, iEthiops, lone Althaea?, 
(this insect in the proper season is abundant at Aigle, 
but I was too late for it), and about a dozen Aetata 
var. Cordula. I saw two Iris, a butterfly which is 
generally abundant here, but I was not lucky enough 
to take any. From what I saw and heard, I think 
Aigle — or perhaps better still Sepey, higher up the 
valley towards the Diablerets — would be a capital 
centre for Lepidopterists ; but at Aigle itself mus- 
quitos are very troublesome to new-comers in July 
and August. 

There is an exceedingly rare- fern to be found near 
that place ; I refer to Asplenium fontanum, which 
grows abundantly on the rocks that bound the road 
on the left, on the way up to Sepey. To see such a 
ccarce plant as this in situ would repay any botanist 

for the trouble of a visit to this — in spite of mus- 
quitos — very charming place ; moreover, the hotel 
(Beau Site) is one that can be honestly recommended, 
for its comfortable arrangements and very moderate 

R. B. P. 

By T. V. Holmes, F.G.S. 

IN the present day the additions yearly made to our 
larger towns consist of habitations and work- 
shops, built on sites of very various degrees of merit or 
demerit. Here a healthy plateau becomes covered 
by " desirable villa residences ; " there, on marshes 
below high-water mark, appear factories and streets 
of small dwellings, adjoining newly-excavated docks. 
But an ancient town owed its existence to its natural 
advantages of soil and situation over all other spots 
in the district. The site of ancient London, for 
example, consists of a gravel-capped plateau close to 
a navigable river ; water for domestic use being 
easily obtained from shallow wells, and the elevation 
of the ground obviating any fear of floods, and being 
comparatively advantageous for purposes of defence. 
And the more ancient the town the more heed did its 
founders pay to defensive strength, either in the 
shape of a strong site for the town itself, or in the 
proximity of a naturally strong position, which might 
become a refuge for women and children, and a place 
for the storage of valuables, during the inroad of some 
hostile tribe or nation. 

Though the site of Hastings is very different in 
character from that of London, it is yet, as evidently 
as the great city on the Thames, a place which must 
have been occupied as a town from the earliest times. 
But the record of Hastings is not one of gradual 
development as that of London has been. Starting 
as a mere fishing-town or village, Hastings became, 
eight hundred years ago, the Premier Cinque Port. 
Centuries of decline, the result of physical changes, 
followed, yet during the last half-century it has so 
greatly extended and developed itself, that it is now 
much more decidedly the Premier Cinque Port than 
it was in the days of the Norman kings. Yet it 
cannot be said that the importance of Hastings 
Castle tended to counterbalance the destruction of 
its harbour, and preserve a continuity of existence to 
the town. For while the castle of another of the 
Cinque Ports, Dover, is now the centre of extensive 
modem fortifications, Hastings Castle was allowed to 
fall into decay as early as the fourteenth century. 

In order to get some knowledge of the geological 
structure of the district immediately surrounding the 
town, we cannot do better than take our stand on the 
massive stone groyne which juts into the sea under 
the East Cliff of Hastings. The East Cliff is seen t o 



be composed of massive sandstone, and to rise to a 
height of about 200 ft. Rock of a similar kind is 
visible in the Castle Hill, west of the valley in which 
the old town lies. As we look eastward, however, 
we notice that the sandstone beds, which form almost 
the whole of the East Cliff, rise gently in the direction 
of Fairlight Glen and Lover's Seat, while below 
them a walk along the shore will reveal a greater and 
greater thickness of strata of a mainly clayey nature. 
Below Lover's Seat there is much undercliff, and the 
only rocks visible are 1 massive sandstone capping the 
hill and mottled clay on the foreshore. 

In this mottled clay, which belongs to the series of 
beds known as the Fairlight Clay, we have the lowest 
strata belonging to the Hastings Sands, and the 
lowest visible in this south-eastern district except the 
Purbeck Beds near Battle. The overlying sand- 
stone beds of the East Cliff and Castle Hill belong to 
the Ashdown Sands. But a little eastward of 
Hastings Pier a fault, having a downthrow to the west, 
throws down sandstone belonging to the higher 

which comes out to sea at Folkestone. Westward, 
beyond Pevensey Level, we see the South Downs 
jutting into the sea at Beachy Head ; for we are now 
on the highest point of the coast between the North 
and South Downs. In addition to the enjoyment of 
a magnificent panoramic view, we also attain to a true 
perception of the proportions of the great anti- 
clinal of the Weald, in the centre of which we are 
standing. It is seldom indeed that so good an 
opportunity occurs of noting the true nature of an 
important anticlinal as compared with the figures 
given in geological manuals.* 

The second spot is Hastings Castle Hill. But the 
best place for a view is not within the walls of the 
castle, but at a point sixty or seventy yards northward. 
The Castle Hill, at the southern or seaward end of 
which the castle stands, broadens and also increases 
gently in height northwards. But on the southern 
end there is a little knoll, the sides of which become 
steeper and steeper towards the sea, and on this 
knoll is the castle. Examination of the ground 





Fig. 14.— Section through ancient Earth-works and Castle, Hastings. 

Tunbridge Wells series against the Ashdown Beds. 
This fault is known as the White Rock Fault. Thus, 
while Hastings stands upon Ashdown Sands, its 
modern suburb, St. Leonards, is built chiefly on 
Tunbridge Wells Sand. 

Two spots in this district are worthy of special 
mention as affording views of unusual extent and 
interest. The first is the coast-guard station at 
Fairlight. The view from this point is not so well 
known as might be expected, because most of the 
visitors to the bold and picturesque cliffs east of 
Hastings, whether driving or on foot, seldom go 
beyond Lover's Seat. Nevertheless, the most 
•extensive views are those obtainable after cross- 
ing the glen beyond jLover's Seat, and ascending 
to the coast-guard station beyond. From St. 
Leonards to this point the cliffs gradually rise, 
while they sink with much greater rapidity hence 
towards Dungeness. Close . to the coast-guard 
station the new ordnance map shows a height of 
478 ft. Gazing eastward, we look down on Rye and 
-ilsea, and across the broad fiat of Romney 
Marsh to the long chalk ridge of the North Downs, 

shows that while the mediaeval castle occupies only 
the southern half of the knoll, the whole of it 
was fortified in prehistoric times. A bank of earth 
of considerable height still surrounds its northern 
end, where the natural strength of the position is 
least, and dies away as the slopes steepen on the 
eastern and western flanks. The builders of the 
mediaeval castle, not wishing to occupy so much 
ground as the owners of the prehistoric entrench- 
ment, cut a deep and broad ditch across the rock 
from east to west, so as to separate the portion they 
required from the rest of the ancient stronghold, in 
the manner shown in the diagram section above. 

From the northern edge of the ancient fortress the 
spectator can survey, looking eastward, the " old 
town " of Hastings in the valley and the East Cliff 
beyond. Gazing westward we may see the rest of 
Hastings and St. Leonards, and in the distance the 
long chalk ridge ending at Beachy Head. Northward 
the ground gradually rises, but for three or four miles 

* For a full account of the geology both of Hastings and of 
the Weald district generally, see the " Geological Survey 
Memoir." by Mr. W. Topley. 



appear the rolling, well-wooded hills of Hastings 
Sand around Ore and Hollington. 

As we stand on the edge of the prehistoric fortress, 
and, surveying the sheltered valleys on each side, 
remember that in addition to dry sandy soil and a 
little stream in both, there was also an excellent 
natural harbour in one of them, from some very an- 
cient prehistoric period down to the twelfth century, 
it becomes evident that Hastings must have been the 
site of a town from a very ancient date — a date 
compared with which the landing of Julius Cresar is 
but a modern event. That we find no mention of 
Hastings as a' place of importance during the Roman 
Occupation is only what might be expected. For 
we must not forget that Anderida (or Pevensey), 
which certainly was a Roman port, must have once 
possessed a very much more extensive harbour than 
that of Hastings, and as the two places are only 
eleven or twelve miles apart, if Anderida was a kind 
of Roman Portsmouth, Hastings is very unlikely to 
have held any equivalent rank. 

But it also appears that, at a later date, the east- 
ward drift of the shingle in the English Channel had 
injured the more westerly harbour of Pevensey before 
it had begun to damage that of Hastings. This is 
evident from the fact that, shortly after the Norman 
Conquest, Hastings became the Premier Cinque 
Port, while Pevensey's importance had been so much 
reduced that it figures simply as a " Corporate 
Member" of Hastings, its head port. William the 
Conqueror is said, by some historians, to have landed 
at Pevensey ; by others, at Bulverhithe.* It appears 
to me that all probability is in favour of the latter 
spot. For to have disembarked at Pevensey would 
have meant the landing of the Norman army at a 
spot separated from the higher and drier ground 
around Battle and Hastings, by a breadth of three 
miles or more of marsh and water. The exact pro- 
portions of marsh and water at that time cannot be 
ascertained, but neither could have been desirable. 
Then, as just noted, the harbour at Pevensey had 
much degenerated in the eleventh century, a fact 
which must have been known to the wary and saga- 
cious William. But the haven at Bulverhithe, only 
two or three miles west of Hastings, began to de- 
teriorate about the same time as that of Hastings, 
and was probably in a better condition than Fevensey 
Harbour in the year 1066 ; and Bulverhithe was 
not separated by swamps from the higher ground on 
which the subsequent movements took place. 

The decline of Hastings seems to have begun very 
soon after the Norman Conquest, for in the time of 
Henry II., Rye and Winchelsea were practically 
added to the Cinque Ports, to " complete the num- 
ber of the twenty Hastings ships."t I have already 
mentioned that the harbour which gave Hastings its 

* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle leaves this point uncertain. 
t "The Cinque Ports" (Historic Towns Series), p. 70, by 
Professor Montagu Burrows. 

position as a port during the reign of the] Norman 
kings was in the valley west of the Castle, commonly 
called the Priory Valley. Its former position may 
easily be detected in the present day. At White 
Rock Place on the west, and at the Castle Hill east- 
ward, the cliffs come close to the beach. Between 
the spots just named, there is a broad, flat shingle- 
covered area, occupied by Carlisle Parade, Robertson 
Street, Trinity Church, the Memorial Clock-tower, 
etc. The streets which diverge from the Clock- 
tower in a north-easterly or north-westerly direction 
begin to rise at a very short distance from that monu- 
ment, the rise in the ground marking the limits of 
the shingle flat. But if we go due north of the Clock- 
tower to the cricket-ground, we enter an open space 
of six acres,'a few feet below the level of the shingle 
flat, and see at once that we are standing on the site 
of the silted-up ancient harbour of the Premier Cinque 
Port. The broad shingle flat southward must have 
covered a considerable breadth of ground soon after 
the Conquest ; for on it a Priory of Austin Canons 
was founded in the reign of Richard I., and dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity, from which it would seem that 
at that time the shingle was considered to be a per- 
manent addition to the land. But we learn, that in 
consequence of the gradual encroachments of the sea, 
the Priory buildings were inundated and their inmates 
compelled to abandon them. Sir John Pelham, how- 
ever, gave them lands at Warbleton, near Heathfield, 
to which they retired in the reign of Henry IV. No 
doubt, a long period in which the deposition of shingle 
had been slow and gradual was succeeded by others 
of alternating gain and loss of land, the former, on 
the whole, predominating. The effect of the action 
of the sea on the coast is, speaking generally, to 
reduce the prominence of promontories, and to fill up 
bays with silt and shingle. But a result of storms is 
occasionally the sweeping away of large quantities 
of shingle from a spot where it has been gradually 
accumulating, and its deposition elsewhere. The 
material thus removed is, 'however, usually soon 
replaced by fresh deposits from the same quarter. 

The history of any considerable breadth of coast 
is sure to offer some striking examples of the changes 
which may be suddenly produced after a long period 
of comparative quiescence. For example, the old 
ordnance map of the coast of West Hampshire and 
East Dorset, on which the work of the Geological 
Survey has been done, shows the mouth of Christ- 
church Harbour as nearly the same distance from 
Hengistbury Head, on the south, as from the land 
on the northern flank of the harbour. But in 18S0, 
owing, I believe, to the (then) recent removal of 
masses of ironstone from Hengistbury Head, I saw 
that shingle had come round the promontory in such 
abundance as to deflect the mouth of the harbour 
about a mile and a half eastward. In iSSS, the 
mouth was almost in the position it had occupied 
when the map was made, storms having combined 



with the natural tendency of the channel of the Stour 
and Avon, to breach the shingle bank near the former 
place of outfall. 

In the case of Hastings, it is evident that during 
the ages when it possessed an excellent harbour in 
the Priory Valley, scarcely any shingle could have 
been deposited about the harbour's mouth. This 
was probably due chiefly to two influences. Firstly, 
the deposition of immense quantities of eastward- 
travelling shingle in Pevensey Bay. Secondly, the 
retention of a large proportion of the rest by the 
island (about one-and-half miles long, and half a 
mile broad), shown on Norden's map of Sussex (1616) 
and on Morden's map half a century later, as existing 
off the coast of St. Leonards. This island has since 
gradually disappeared. But if, as is highly probable, 
it was, previous to the Norman Conquest, both larger 
and closer to the mainland than in Norden's time, 
vast quantities of shingle must then have been re- 
tained on its western side. At a later date, the 
shingle, instead of being retained by the island or 
progressing round its southern coast to places east- 
ward of Hastings, would pass between the island and 
the shore, and be deposited largely in the Priory 
Valley. The effect on the harbour of Hastings of 
the reduction in size and ultimate destruction of this 
island, must have been similar to that which would 
occur at Portland Harbour as the result of a breach 
in the Chesil Bank. 

At the time of the Domesday Survey, the town in 
the Priory Valley had dwindled almost to nothing, 
while the New Burgh of Hastings, in the Eastern or 
Bourne valley, had begun to flourish. But the 
Boume Valley evidently never possessed a natural 
basin comparable to that which once existed west of 
the Castle Hill. So generally does the importance 
of the earliest of the harbours of Hastings seem to 
have been forgotten, that in Horsfield's " History of 
Sussex," (1835), t Qe Priory Harbour is not men- 
tioned, but we read that in ancient days Hastings is 
said to have had a good harbour formed by a large 
wooden pier, which projected from the centre of the 
Marine Parade in a south-east direction. (The 
Marine Parade is a little east of the Castle Hill.) 
But in Queen Elizabeth's reign this pier was de- 
stroyed by a storm. As late as the year 1834, it was 
proposed that a harbour should be formed westward 
of the Priory Bridge, which, judging from a map 
showing Hastings about the year 1820, must have 
stood close to the site of the Clock-tower. But 
nothing was done. 

The visitor to Hastings, who now looks down from 
the old entrenchment on Castle Hill, must then re- 
member that the western valley, in which all the 
buildings are more or less new, is the site of oldest 
Hastings, while the much more ancient-looking town 
in the eastern valley is, nevertheless, the "New 
Burgh." But though the former existence of the 
oldest town is almost forgotten, and though Horsfield, 

speaking of the parish of Holy Trinity, says that the 
Priory Farm forms the greater part of this district, 
and that up to the year 1S00 the remaining part was 
waste and unoccupied, yet in the revived site of old 
Hastings, and not in the New Burgh, are now to be 
seen the most attractive shops, and the densest 
throngs of visitors. Nor is any place of amusement 
more popular in the summer months than' the 
cricket-ground on the site of the once-famous harbour 
of the Premier Cinque Port. 


By W. H. Nunney. 

THE insects forming the subject of this short 
essay are a transition group of the Perenni- 
branchiate division of the Pseudo-Neuroptera, con- 
necting the cockroaches and crickets of the Orthoptera 
with the neuropterous Ephemeridse or May-flies. 
Christened Perlidte by systematic naturalists, they 
are popularly known in this country by the collective 
names of stone-flies, pearl-flies, and water-crickets, 
this last name, however, being of American origin. 
Popular names have also been given to the better- 
known species by anglers, who frequently utilise 
these insects as an attractive bait for trout and other 

In Britain, at least, the Perlidse have attracted 
little attention, the Neuroptera generally having but 
few students. This neglect is doubtless, in a measure, 
accounted for by the habits of the creatures them- 
selves, their mostly small size and sombre colour. 
No really trustworthy guide to the native species has 
been published in English ; indeed, the literature 
relating to the group is comparatively meagre, and, 
with the exception of Professor Pictet's fine but 
costly work on the subject in French, is widely 
scattered in various general entomologies and 
periodicals. Such being the case, it is hardly neces- 
sary for me to offer any apology for the present paper, 
written as it is with the idea of providing a ready 
index to the indigenous species of this family, and 
thus inducing British entomologists to elucidate much 
that in the history of the group is still obscure. 

The difficulties which stand in the way of a student 
of the group are, unfortunately, not few. The non- 
existence of good typical collections open to general 
view, and the want in our public libraries of several 
of the most important works of reference, as well as 
minor difficulties, combine to render research much 
harder than should be the case. The present author 
has, so far as possible, worked out the synonomy of 
species (this is, however, not given here for fairly 
obvious reasons) ; but, in some instances, not having 
been able to refer to the original types, errors must 
almost unavoidably have crept in. As Mr. McLachlan 
(the British authority on all matters neuropterological) 



remarked to me some while since, nothing of any 
permanent value in this direction can be done, unless 
Professor Pictet's types at Geneva, and the types of 
other nomenclators of the Perlidae elsewhere, undergo 
a most searching examination. I had hoped that 
Mr. McLachlan himself would render the scientific 
world still more deeply indebted to him, by mono- 
graphing the British species of the family, but as he 
has published no such work, he probably thinks that 
the time is not yet ripe for such a performance. 

The Perlidae have been found in Britain in a fossil 
condition, specimens having occurred, though some- 
what rarely, in the strata of the Upper Eocene forma- 
tion. In all probability they will at some future 
period be proved to be of far earlier origin than is at 
present supposed, as their anatomical structure points 
to a primitive organization. 

The earlier naturalists confounded the Perlidae with 

many respects bear a great resemblance to the 
perfect insects, are usually found in running water ; 
some species prefer that which is almost or quite 
stagnant, and others find rapidly-moving streams 
more suited to their mode of life. Their elongated 
bodies terminate usually in two many-jointed fila- 
ments, which, however, become atrophied in certain 
species, as they attain their adult state. The large 
head is scaly, and is but poorly provided with masti- 
catory organs, these serving but little for purposes 
either of attack or defence. Their forms vary slightly 
in the different sections. 

These larvae breathe usually by means of sacs 
attached to the underside of the thorax, these sacs 
having some resemblance to the organs performing a 
similar function in Sialid, Phryganid, and Ephemerid 

The Perlina lame do not, as was once thought, 

Fig. 15. — Ferla maxima, X 4 : c, ccsta ; s.c, sut-costa ; m, medius ; s.m., sub-medius ; a, anal vein. (Original. 

the caddis-flies, with which, however, they have but 
little in common. The larvae were supposed to 
possess a like economy to that of Phryganid larvae, 
long after one Muraldt gave in 1683 a detailed 
account, accompanied with figures, of the transforma- 
tions of Perla marginata, in a now rare Latin book 
entitled, "The Ephemeris of Natural Curiosities." 
Even the illustrious Linne classed the Perlidae with 
Phryganidae. The perfect insects of the Perlidae may 
at once be distinguished from the caddis-flies by the 
non-possession of any decided hairy covering to the 
wings, and by the very distinct segmentation of the 
thorax, which islof greater comparative width than is 
usual with the Phryganidae. Other distinctive 
characters are — the possesssion of mandibles and 
three-jointed tarsi in the Perlidae, whereas the caddis- 
flies are without mandibles and have tarsi composed 
of five joints. 

The larvae, which, together with the pupae, in 

construct cases wherein to perform their transforma- 
tions, and from which they may seize the unwary 
larvae of May-flies and other aquatic insects which 
form their food-supply. Their habit is to lie in wait 
behind stones arid water-reeds, "on murderous 
thought intent," to surprise and secure their prey. 
The more brightly-coloured of them effectually con- 
ceal their whereabouts from most of their enemies 
by covering their bodies with a layer of mud. 

The pupa resembles the larva, except that it is 
possessed of rudimentary wing-scales of a leathery 
texture. When the time arrives for.the final change to 
take place, it leaves the water, and seeks a suitable spot 
in which to undergo its transformation. With its sharp 
claws it takes firm hold of the stone or other resting- 
place pro tern., and, the skin splitting along the back, 
the insect emerges, having, with the possession of four 
reticulated wings, obtained its highest development. 

The perfect insects of both sexes are very inert, 



flying seldom, and then but heavily, and only for 
short distances, the wings, especially those of the 
males (which are usually very short, and in some 
species reduced to mere rudiments), being of little use 
for purposes of aerial locomotion. The female, after 
coupling, deposits her eggs, which remain for a time 
attached to the end of her abdomen, in stagnant or 
running water, this being according to the predeter- 
mined habits of the species. She then, together with 
the male, does not survive the commencement of the 
new developmental cycle entered upon by the 
extruded ova. 

Now, as to collecting. Search should be made for 
the larvae and pups with a water-net — at weir-heads 

Fig. i5. — Perla maxima. 

Fig/:7. — Chloroperla grammafica. 

Fig. iS. — Dictyopteryx microcephala. 

and slight falls of water where the flow is rapid, on 
stones by the water-side, and in any place that may 
suggest itself to the collector as a likely haunt for 
these insects. The imagines may be readily captured 
both whilst in flight, and when at rest on the ground 
or on palings, or trunks of trees in the immediate 
vicinity of the water in which the previous portion 
of their existence was passed. Beating, as for Coleop- 
tera, may also be employed, with every chance of 
making captures. 

A few words on rearing and preservation. The 
majority of the Perlina are difficult to rear in captivity, 
as many of the insects in their earlier states require a 
constant supply of running water. Some species of 
Xemourinae may, however, be bred through in an 

ordinary aquarium, or failing that, in a jar, provided 
there be a plentiful store of suitable food. 

Larvae and pups may be preserved for the cabinet in 
phials or test-tubes filled either with pure or carbo- 
lized glycerine, or the microscopist's mounting 
medium known as " Goadby's Fluid," as this mode 
of treatment prevents the alteration of form and 
colour so prevalent when these larva? are allowed 
to dry. Kerosene and benzoline are also useful pre- 
servatives. I do not advocate the use of spirits of 
wine, as by it the delicate colours of the insects are 
modified or entirely destroyed, though the form 
remains unaltered. As regards the perfect insects, 
the ordinary modes of preservation may be adhered 

Fig. ig.—Isogemis nubecula. 

Fig. 20. — Isopteryx tripuuctata. 

Fig. 21. — Capuia jtr'gra. 

Fig. 22. — T&niopteryx nebulosa. 

Fig. 23. — Nemonra va-riegata. 

Fig. 24. — Lencira fusciventris. 

to. Some specimens of each species should, however, 
be put up in phials filled with glycerine or other pre- 
servative fluid, to prevent as much as possible the 
fading of the colours. A supply of test-tubes should 
be taken to the collecting-ground, so that individuals 
of each species may be placed in fluid as soon as they 
are captured. 

In labelling these tubes, it is advisable to prepare 
two labels, bearing parallel information relating to 
name, date, and place of capture, etc. One of these 
labels should be attached to the outside of the tube, 
and the other enclosed with the specimens. 

All pinned specimens intended for the cabinet 
should be set as soon as possible after capture. The 
wings of some species, if allowed to become dry, cling 



so around the body, on the insects being relaxed, that it 
is almost impossible to separate them without doing 
considerable damage to their delicate membranes. 

Having now given the above general information, 
and as it will be necessary to explain the application 
of the technical names given to the various portions 
of the wings of the Perlina, I cannot do better than 
reproduce, at this place, the note on the subject given 
in Mr. F. Walker's " Catalogue of Neuroptera in the 
British Museum." This will enable the intending 
student to understand the synopsis and descriptions of 
genera that follow. 

" The five principal veins of each wing are : — I, the 
costa, which forms the fore-border ; 2, the sub-costa, 
which is parallel to the costa and not far from it ; (3), 
the medius, which springs directly from the side of 
the sub-costa, is in juxtaposition with it for a small 
space, then diverging, divides the wing into two 
almost equal parts, and is bifurcate at two-thirds of 
its length ; (4), the sub-medius, which springs near the 
internal angle of the wing, and terminates in the 
middle of the hind-border, and is bifurcated very 
near its beginning, its fore-branch forming the anterior 
sub-medius, and its hind-branch the posterior sub- 
medius ; (5), the anal vein, which is near the base, 
has a short course, and of which it is often difficult 
to distinguish between the principal and secondary 
branches. These veins divide the wing into four 
principal regions, which are thus named: (1), the 
marginal region, comprised between the costal and 
sub-costal veins ; (2), the sub-marginal region, 
between the medius and the anterior sub-medius ; 
(3), the median region, between the medius and the 
anterior sub-medius ; (4), the anal region, which 
contains all the internal part of the wing between 
the lower sub-median vein and the anal angle, and in 
which the vein of the same name ramifies. There is, 
besides, the sub-median areolet, between the branches 
of the sub-median vein. The principal line of trans- 
verse veins, or Parastigma, divides the first, second, 
and third regions into two parts, the basal and ter- 
minal part. The basal part of the marginal region is 
divided longitudinally into parts by the vein accessory 
to the costal, and thus contains three principal 
areolets, the external basal areolet, the internal basal 
areolet, and the terminal areolet. In the hind-wings 
the sub-marginal region is divided longitudinally by 
a vein accessory to the median-vein, not by one 
accessory to the sub-costal." This description is 
a general one, including all the members of the 
group. The several generic variations are shown in 
the accompanying illustrations, a reference to which 
will greatly assist a right understanding of the text. 
The venation is perhaps the most useful character 
upon which to base a classification of the Perlid:e, 
notwithstanding individual variations, but a closer 
comparison than has yet been made of the anal and 
other appendages might possibly afford sure points 
for the identification of species. Mr. McLachlan 

considers Pictet's terminology defective, and holds 
that "the nervure accessory to ,the costal" is the 
true sub-costal. As, however, Pictet's nomenclature 
amply serves my purpose in the present paper, I 
merely note the disparity and pass on. 

The following synopsis of sub-families, genera, and 
species, although of course not absolutely perfect, is, 
I venture to think, sufficiently reliable for the purpose 
of enabling the student to identify with certainty, 
and with but little trouble, any of our native stone- 
flies of which descriptions have been published. 
Although I am confident of there being several 
undescribed British species in collections to which 
I have access, and elsewhere, I prefer not to publish 
descriptions of them until my knowledge of the group 
is augmented. 

In the following table capitals refer to sub-families 
and genera ; italics indicate species, which follow 
under their respective generic heads. 

General Characters. — Eody depressed, elongated ; sides 
parallel, or nearly so ; prothorax large ; antennas long, seta- 
ceous ; wings unequal, posterior ones broader than the 
anterior ; tarsi three-jointed ; two abdominal setae usually 
present : Perlid^e. 

Characters of Families, Genera, and Species. 

A. Tail bristles present. 

B. ,, „ long. 

C. Palpi setaceous : Sub-Fam. 1, PERLINA. 

D. Anal region of hind-wings large. 

E. Terminal part of submarginal region divided by cross 

veins: Dictyopteryx. 
Veins of submarginal region very regular, forming 

square cells : Rcctangula. 
Veins of submarginal region irregular ; cells seldom 

square : Microcephalci. 
EE. Terminal part of submarginal region not divided by 

cross veins. 

F. Marginal terminal areolet with at least two cross 

• G. Accessory veiniof sub costa much branched and very 
irregular: Isogenus. 
Front wholly black : a brown costal cloud above 
middle of wings : Nubecula. 
GG. Accessory vein of subcosta without branches or with 
one or two regular bifurcations: Perla. 
Prothorax spotted with black : Maxima. 
„ unicolorous brown. 

„ large, wider than the head : Marginata. 

„ small, narrower than the head: Cepkalotes 

FF. Marginal terminal areolet with but one cross- vein, 

beyond which the accessory vein terminates at the 

costal vein : Chloroperla. 

V-mark on head with a transverse band behind : 

V-mark on head isolated, without band: Grammatica. 
DD. Anal region of hind-wings almost wanting: Isopteryx 
No spots between the ocelli : Torre?itium. 
Small black spots between the ocelli : Burmeisteri. 
Prothorax small, wholly yellow : Apkalis. 

,, medium-sized, caudal setae entirely yellow: 

CC. Palpi filiform. 

BB. Tail bristles long: Sub-Fam. CAPNIINjE. 
Tips of wings without cross veins : Capnia. 
Dark shining brown, with middle of abdomen yellow : 
AA. Tail bristles rudimentary or wanting : Sub-Fam. 
I. Veins of parastigma not forming an X. 
BBB. Tail bristles rudimentary : T.eniopteryx. 

Wing fasciae indistinct, or less in number than three. 
Femora brown ; wings opaque : Nebulosa. 
Wing fasciae never less than three ; distinct in female, 
faint in male: Trijasciata. 
H. Labial palpi very short, placed far apart : Leuctra. 
Prothorax long, constricted in front and behind ; 

abdomen pale, yellow above: Geniculata. 
Prothorax with three elevated longitudinal lines; an- 
tennae wholly blackish, feet and wings brown: 
BBBB. Tail bristles wanting. 



II. Veins of parastigma forming an X. 
HH. Labial palpi short, near together: Nemoura. 

Prothorax a little longer than wide ; meso and meta- 

thorax with central notch ; antennae yellow at base ; 

wings brownish grey, veins darker; Variegata. 
Antennae wholly black ; wings white, clouded with 

grey : Meyeru 
Prothorax as Wide as long, shining; wing veins edged 

with dark grey : Nitida, 
Prothorax longer than wide ; head and antennse light 

brown ; feet pale : Cinerea. 
Posterior femora wholly dark brown ; wings opaque 

with the base yellow: Humeralis. 
Shining black ; prothorax rugose, with a dorsal fur- 
row; legs and feet dark; wings brownish with 

darker veins : Sulcicollis. 
Dark shining brown ; antennae with a slight pile ; feet 

pale ; wings semi-transparent, veins pale : Inco?i- 


(To be continued.} 


By A. G. Tansley. 

IV. — The Hypothesis of Continuity apflied 
to the Solution of the Problem of "Here- 
ditary Transmission. 


E must now consider more fully Mr. Galton's 
and Professor Weismann's theories of 
heredity — the two theories which explain the problem 
of transmission by supposing that the substance which 
is the specific bearer of hereditary tendencies is 
continuous from generation to generation. And it 
must be again insisted that Mr. Galton's theory is 
not practically identical with Professor Weismann's, 
as has been stated * ; nor is it a mere modification of 
Mr. Danvin's, as has also been stated. + 

To put it briefly, it differs from the former by its 
" preformational " character, and from the latter by 
its substitution of continuity for redevelopment. 
Hence, though it stands intermediate between these 
two theories, it differs from both in important 

It occupies an extremely important place in the 
development of thought on the question of the 
mechanism of heredity, through having first stated in 
a precise manner this idea of continuity. 

Mr. Galton's profound anthropological studies 
convinced him that the phenomena of the trans- 
mission of inherent or congenital characters were the 
important phenomena of heredity which required 
explanation, and this caused him to formulate the 
hypothesis of the continuity of residual gemmules as 
the main idea of his theory. Mr. Darwin, it is true, 
was compelled to suppose that certain of his 
gemmules remained latent for many generations, in 
order to explain the facts of atavism, but the 
phenomena which Pangenesis was especially devised 
to explain were, as we have seen, the supposed 
transmission of acquired characters. Mr. Galton, on 
the other hand, while accepting the Pangenetic 

* Wallace's "Darwinism," p. 443. 

i" Poulton. Note in Weismann's "Essays on Heredity,' 
p. 173; and Lloyd Morgan's "Animal Life and Intelligence, 1 
p. 135- 

explanation of the few cases in which he thinks such 
transmission probable, relies on the theory of con- 
tinuity to explain the main facts of heredity. It is 
obvious indeed that the assumption of the continuity 
of a certain amount of germ-substance is necessary 
to explain the latency of characters for one or more 
generations. Darwin, as we have seen, recognised 
this in his atavistic gemmules. But the question 
which we have to face now is, whether this assump- 
tion cannot and ought not to be carried farther, so as 
to make it the central idea of our theory of hereditary 

Mr. Galton goes so far as to say that it is 
" indeed hard to find evidence of the power of the 
personal structure to react upon the sexual elements 
that is not open to serious objection;" and "we 
might almost reserve our belief that the structural cells 
can react on the sexual elements at all." Nothing 
can be clearer than his recognition of the ability of 
the theory of continuity to explain the main facts- of 

Professor Weismann was led to exactly the same 
conclusion from general biological evidence, but his 
theory took a different form, partly from its having 
been promulgated nine years later than Mr. Galton's 
— during which time the ceaseless activity of research 
had brought to light many new facts — and partly 
from his attention not having been chiefly concen- 
trated on anthropological phenomena. 

Mr. Galton conceives of the body as consisting of 
" organic units," each of which he thinks must have 
had a separate origin. Hence he conceives of the 
germ substance (stirp), of every fertilised ovum as 
consisting of an enormous number of gemmules, and 
each " organic unit " of the body as being represented 
by one or more of these gemmules. In this way 
only does he conceive it possible to understand how 
a child can inherit minute features, some from one 
parent and some from the other (particulate inherit- 
ance). But it is not clear that Mr. Galton is correct 
in arguing from such phenomena to the existence of 
separate organic " gemmules." It is doubtless true 
that the separate " potentialities " (using this term 
in its widest sense) of the various minute features 
must exist, but since the features themselves are only 
the final outcome of a long course of ontogenetic 
development, it is quite possible that they may all 
exist in the germ simply as differences of mutual 
arrangement and as differences of motion of the 
parts of a specific substance (the germ-plasm of 
Weismann). Still, there is no doubt that Mr. 
Galton's gemmules are very much easier to deal with, 
and much clearer conceptions can be formed of the 
manner in which they are supposed to behave. 
Nevertheless, as we shall see presently, it seems on 
the whole more probable that they do not really 
exist, but that we must conceive of the " germ- 
plasm " as containing the potentialities of the 
organism. Admitting, however, for the present, the 



existence of Mr. Galton's gemmules, let us see how 
he explains the processes of heredity. 

Of the whole collection of gemmules in the stirp of 
any organism, derived from various ancestors in 
various proportions, comparatively few achieve de- 
velopment. Of the few which do, each develops 
into an organic unit of the adult. The conditions 
which determine the development of the individual 
gemmules are many and complex, and a great 
number of struggles between and rearrangements of 
the different varieties of gemmules representing the 
same unit take place before a position of equilibrium 
is attained. Obviously, on the whole, the process 
will result in a natural selection of the strongest and 
most suitable gemmules. The residue of gemmules, 
after this segregation has been effected, remains 
latent during the life of the individual, and from this 
residue the sexual elements are derived. 

Professor Weismann's idea of heredity is that it is 
" brought about by the transference, from one gene- 
ration to another, of a substance with a definite 
chemical, and above all molecular, constitution."* 
This fundamental substance, the germ-plasm, has a 
very complex structure. At the beginning of the 
process of segmentation in the development of each 
individual a certain portion is segregated and remains 
■unchanged, to be handed on to the next generation 
(Galton's residual gemmules) ; the rest undergoes 
such changes during the process of growth of the 
developing organism that it directs and determines 
the construction of the body of the latter. Thus 
each generation has an identical starting-point, and 
would be expected under the same conditions to give 
rise to an identical result. 

Here we recognise the same idea of continuity that 
we find in Mr. Galton's theory. But we must next 
inquire what Professor Weismann means by germ- 
plasm, and we soon discover that his conception of 
this substance differs essentially from Mr. Galton's. 
The idea of particulate inheritance did not compel 
Professor Weismann (as it had done Darwin and 
Galton) to suppose that separate gemmules, each 
giving rise to an organic unit of the body, existed in 
the germ-cells. " The germ-plasm is that part of a 
germ-cell of which the chemical and physical 
properties — including the molecular structure — 
enable the cell to become, under appropriate con- 
ditions, a new individual of the same species." f As 
it appears that the essential feature in fertilisation is 
the fusion of the male and female pronuclei, we must 
localise this germ-plasm in the nucleus of the germ- 
cell. Indeed, in the case of flowering-plants the male 
nucleus only enters the egg-cell. Professor Weismann 
further takes over Niigeli's conception of idioplasm 
which we have already explained. He does not, 
however, follow Nageli in regarding the idioplasm as 

[ Essays on Heredity ' 
' Ibid., p. 174. 

(first edition), p. 16 

a solid network extending throughout the organism, 
but considers that it, like the germ-plasm, is confined 
to the nucleus. There is a great deal of evidence 
accumulated during the last ten or fifteen years to 
show the supreme importance of the cell-nucleus in 
the nutrition and general economy of the cell. This 
would hardly be the place to enter into a considera- 
tion of this evidence, but it certainly seems sufficient 
to justify the hypothesis that the substance which 
determines the specific character and functions of the 
cell resides in the nucleus, and this conception is 
likewise supported by the fact that the nuclear 
substance of all the cells of the body is directly 
derived from the nuclear substance of the fertilised 
ovum, and as we have already seen, it is almost 
certainly this nucleus which contains the hereditary 
tendencies. The term idioplasm then, in Weismann's 
sense, is applied to the whole of the controlling 
substance of the organism. This is situated in the 
nuclei, and gradually changes during the course of 
ontogeny from the small amount of very complex germ- 
plasm to the very much larger amount of relatively 
simple idioplasm of various kinds situated in the cells 
of the fully differentiated parts of the adult organism. 
At each cell-division during the course of develop- 
ment a simplification and differentiation of its 
structure takes place, till from possessing, as germ- 
plasm, all the complex potentialities of the entire 
organism, the idioplasm of the adult comes to consist 
of as many different varieties as there are different 
kinds of cells in the body. The idioplasm of each 
ontogenetic stage is of such a molecular structure 
that it not only contains the potentialities of all those 
tissues to which it will ultimately give rise, but that 
it also must undergo the differentiation and simplifica- 
tion at the next cell-division necessary to transform it 
into idioplasm of the next stage. Thus, for instance, 
the germ-plasm of the first segmentation-nucleus 
(nucleus of the fertilised ovum) not only contains the 
potentialities of the whole organism, but is also of 
such a structure and in such a condition that it must 
undergo a certain differentiation at the first nuclear 
division, a differentiation which gives to the first two 
daughter-nuclei the potentialities of the ectoderm and 
endoderm, or of the front and hinder part of the 
body, respectively.* This process goes on in 
precisely the same manner throughout ontogeny, 
until finally we arrive at the characteristic cells of the 
various tissues with their relatively simple but widely 
differentiated idioplasms. 

The divisions of the nuclei corresponding to those 
cell-divisions which only result in the production of 
two daughter-cells similar to the mother-cell, may be 
distinguished as equivalent . nuclear divisions, as 

* It should be mentioned that it has been found that by 
destroying one of the first two segmentation spheres of the 
frog, only the front or hind part of the body, as the case may 
be, has been able to continue development (which has, of 
course, soon been arrested), thus proving the separation at the 
first cell-division of the potentialities of these regions. 



opposed to those we have been considering, which 
maybe called differentiating divisions. In the former 
case we have no differentiation or simplification of the 
idioplasm, but only simple division. 

This luminous conception of Professor Weismann's 
enables us to understand, much more clearly than has 
hitherto been possible, the nature of ontogenetic 
development and its control by the cell nuclei. It 
is certainly a much more satisfactory conception 
than that of the successive giving off during the pro- 
cess of development of the preformed gemmules of 
structure corresponding to different parts of the body. 
For, if we admit that we must look to the nucleus for 
the actual germ-substance (taken in its widest sense), 
the conception of separate gemmules becomes 
meaningless as well as unnecessary. 

There can be no doubt that the hypothesis of the 
controlling idioplasm gradually being differentiated 
as the tissue development proceeds, is much more in 
accordance with what is known of the facts of nuclear 
and cell division. 

On the other hand, it must be admitted that the 
gemmules of Mr. Darwin and Mr. Galton are easier 
to manipulate and enable us to explain certain 
special problems of heredity more easily. But I must 
reserve a consideration of this point, and an attempt 
to explain some of these problems on Professor 
Weismann's lines, for my next article. 

{To be continued.) 



NY book by Dr. M. C. Cooke, on any group of 
fungi, is sure to be welcomed by botanists. 

tinguish Tliem and How to Cook Them (London : 
Kegan Paul & Co.), appeals to a wider class of 
readers. Our fields and meadows are full of good 
things, but nobody, dare eat them. We are in the 
position of the man who resolved never to go into 
the water until he had learned to swim. It is a real 
pity that our ignorance should have built up such a 
strong wall of prejudice against all but two or three 
kinds of fungus, which latter we have apotheosised 
under the name of "Mushrooms." All the rest, 
scores in numbers, are damned under the term of 
" Toadstools." Dr. Cooke is a bold man, and a 
good gastronome. He has cooked most of our 
British funguses, and likes most of them. In this 
beautifully and artistically got-up work, he tells us 
how to recognise the "good kinds" unmistakably 
from the "bad" ones. Moreover, he tells us — in lan- 
guage that is appetising — how to cook them ! Many 
people willing to try the experiment of cooking them 
are in the position the Irishman said the dog was 
that stole his pennyworth of liver — " the beggar 
after all had not got the resate." Dr. Cooke is a 
delightful, not to say a rollickingly delightful, author, 

and he is at his best in this useful book. It contains 
thirty-five chapters, on everything connected with 
British fungi and their culination, and is illustrated 
by about thirty exquisitely coloured figures of the com- 
monest and best-eating of our British species. The 
man who would make a mistake in mis-identifying a 
fungus with this book in his hand puts himself out- 
side the pale of argument. Even if the reader do 
not enjoy the new kinds of fungus herein described, 
he cannot fail to enjoy reading the book which 
describes them. 

Delagoa Bay, its Natives and Natural History, by 
Rose Monteiro (London : G. Philip & Son). Mrs. 
Monteiro remained in the country her husband had 
been such a successful collector in, after his death, 
and she appears to have carried on his work. She is 
a brave, self-possessed little woman, with a keen eye 
for humorous situations, «and well capable of taking 
care of herself even among the roughest and rudest of 
Kaffirs and settlers. Her book is adorned with 
charming chapter-headings, of flowers and insects, 
artistically if sketchily combined. It is further 
adorned by well got-up plates. But the interest of 
the book is its natural, graceful, and unpretending 
narrative of an entomologist's life in Portuguese 
South Africa. Everybody who gets the chance 
should not fail to read this very pleasing little book. 

The Story of the Hills, by the Rev. H. N. Hutchin- 
son (London : Seeley & Co.). The success which 
attended the publication of Mr. Hutchinson's first 
book on geology has very properly led to the appear- 
ance of the present vol., for which we predict an 
equal if not a greater success. The author is a man 
of wide geological and physiographical reading, pos- 
sessed of the gift of clearly interpreting the writers he 
reads, and of reproducing their facts and conclusions 
in easily understood and even attractive language. 
The illustrations, sixteen in number, are highly 
artistic, and much embellish the book, which contains 
ten chapters, and runs to 350 pages. The last chapter 
on "The Ages of Mountains," is one of the best. 
That on "Mountain Plants and Animals" is hardly 
less interesting. We cordially commend this book. 

The Field Club : A Magazine of General Natural 
History, edited by the Rev. Theodore Wood (Lon- 
don : Elliot Stock), Vol. ii. Many of our readers 
will be acquainted with Mr. Wood's highly interest- 
ing little magazine, devoted almost entirely to natural 
history. We can only say that in its annual volume 
form it makes an attractive work of reference, as far 
as it goes. Most of its contributors are not unknown 
in the pages of Science-Gossip. 

British Tungi. Phycomycetes and Ustilagineiz, by 
George Massee (London : L. Reeve & Co.). 'Mr. 
Massee is an old contributor to Science-Gossip, and 
most of our readers are acquainted with the careful 
and accurate, not to mention the artistic, finish of his 
illustrations, as well* as his conscientious statement of 
facts. The present well got-up volume fully sustains 



his reputation in this respect. It brings up to date a 
revision of the two orders of fungi above mentioned, 
and forms a capital handbook and guide for students 
desirous of pursuing further researches in this, as yet, 
only partly-worked department of botanical study. 

The Plant World, by George Massee (London : 
Whittaker & Co.). This is a popular work on 
botany, very properly considered from the stand- 
point the editor of this journal has always advocated, 
viz., that of plants as Living Organisms, subject to 
similar vicissitudes to those which affect animals. It 
is a highly readable and instructive little book. 

Annals of British Geology, 1890, by J. F. Blake 
(London : Dulau & Co.). Professor Blake is to be 
congratulated on the patience and industry which 
have made this highly useful volume a success. If any 
evidence were required to indicate the intellectual 
activity of British geologists, this summary of one 
year's work would be sufficient. It is a most useful 
handbook to geological literature, inasmuch as it is not 
only a catalogue of all the books published, papers 
read and printed, etc., but a critical digest of the same 
by perhaps the best geological critic in England. 

The Physical Geology and Geography of Ireland, by 
Edward Hull, F.R.S., etc. (London : Edward Stan- 
ford). We had much pleasure in drawing attention 
to this highly valuable work when it first appeared, 
and we congratulate the author that a second edition 
has been so soon called for. Professor Hull has 
taken the opportunity to revise and improve this use- 
ful handbook, which we thoroughly commend to all 
students of Irish Geology. 

Handbook to the Geology of Derbyshire, by J. 
Magens Mello (London : Bemrose & Sons). This 
is a second and vastly improved edition in every 
respect of Mr. Mello's " Geology of Derbyshire." 
The latter is the most interesting county in England 
for geology, and no other man is so capable of 
writing a guide to it as Mr. Mello. Our readers, 
therefore, will take this straightforward hint. 

Geodesy, by J. Howard Gore (London : Heine- 
mann). This small but attractively got-up manual 
is the best we could recommend to all geodetic 
students. It is full and clear, thoroughly accurate, 
and up to date in all matters relating to earth-mea- 
surements. The author possesses the gift which 
Burns desired, of seeing as others see us — or rather, 
he enables his readers to see geodetic science as he 
sees it himself. 

Colour- Blindness and Colour-Perception, by F. W. 
Edridge-Green, M.D. (London : Kegan Paul & Co.). 
This vol. is one of the well-known and highly-prized 
" International Scientific Library " series. It cannot 
be'doubted that the subject is one of supreme interest. 
The present vol. is illustrated by three coloured 
plates. Dr. Green tells us he wrote his book for the 
benefit of those who may have to test for colour-blind- 
ness. He also advances an ingenious theory of his 
own, worth considering, of colour-perception. Never- 

theless, Dr. Green does not seem to have grasped the 
theories of Helmholtz and Young. Dr. Green's book 
is a very practical one, although there are strange 
omissions in it of works and workers in this depart- 
ment of physics. 

A Cyclopcedia of Nature Teachings (London : Elliot 
Stock). A very tastefully got-up volume, but one 
cannot help wondering why a book like this is got up. 
Nobody wants it ; it teaches nothing. It is simply 
a very pleasant hash from "goody" scientific 
books, many of which we never heard of before, and 
which are preserved in these pages from obscurity. 
The few really good books quoted makes this remark 
all the more annoying. 

Moral Teachings of Science, by Arabella B. Buckley 
(London: Edward Stanford). This pretty little 
volume is quite of a different class. Whatever Miss 
Buckley has to say on natural history subjects is sure 
to be said well, and will be listened to. So now that 
she occupies the pulpit, we are prepared for a good 
sermon ; and a better we have not read for some time 
than that now before us. 


In view of the failure, by experiments, of an old- 
world notion (our readers will find it in Dr. Dick's 
" Christian Philosopher ") that atmospheric explosions 
would cause rain, it is necessary to point out that no 
rain could possibly fall unless there was sufficient 
watery vapour present in the atmosphere. Also, as an 
American Professor (Blake) has recently shown, there 
must also be sufficient dust present in the air. This 
agrees with the current idea of the origin of fogs. 

THE doyen of British Science, Sir George B. Airy, 
late Astronomer-Royal, has died at the ripe age of 
91 years, intellectually, robustly, and humourously 
alive till a short time before his death. 

We are glad to welcome and recommend Mr. F. 
V. Theobald's Part 3 of " An Account of British Flies," 
well printed and illustrated. Parts, one shilling each 
(London : Elliot Stock). ' 

THE small snow-ball and the painted dome of the 
Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton^ California, con- 
tains the largest telescope in the world. It is no less 
than sixty feet long, with a thirty-six inch lens. The 
huge instrument is so skilfully adjusted that it can be 
moved at will with one hand. It is supported on a 
lofty stand, which is ascended by a splendid spiral 
staircase. From the upper platform the astronomers, 
at the end of every two hours during observations, 
wind the huge weight— 600 pounds— of the driving 
clock with 320 turns of the handle, so that the lens of 
the telescope may cover the star with mathematical 
accuracy as it moves through space, and enable the 
worker to make observations with rigid exactitude. 



A necessary adjunct to these observations is the 
movable floor, which rises and falls by means of 
hydraulic pressure. A simple but ingenious con- 
trivance, invented by Professor Holden, closes and 
opens the great shutters as easily as though they were 
a pair of curtains. The whole of the astronomical 
establishment and observatory is an isolated com- 
munity, miles from any sign of life. Frequently in 
winter the mail stage is delayed from a few days to a 
week, and no communication or food can be carried 
to the inmates of the observatory, the snow being 
many feet deep and the roads impassable. ,The 
colony of astronomers and workpeople number be- 
tween thirty and forty persons, and eight or nine 
families. Food supplies have to be transported by 
stage from San Jose, twenty-eight miles distant. 
Water is supplied by four reservoirs situated within 
walking distance of the observatory. 

The oddest expedition that ever set out for the 
interior of Africa is probably the one Professor Garner 
is undertaking with a view to studying monkey talk 
scientifically. His outfit includes phonographs, tele- 
phones, photographic apparatus, an electric telegraph, 
and a set of taxidermist's tools ; but the queerest 
thing of all is an aluminium cage, in which the Pro- 
fessor intends to ensconce himself in the midst of a 
gorilla forest, in order to hold court among the 
monkeys. Knowing their fondness for admiring their 
reflections in mirrors, he is taking some along with 

The United States Consul-General at Frankfort, 
in a recent report, describes what he calls the most 
momentous experiment in technical electricity ever 
made since electricity has been rendered serviceable 
to mankind. The object was to create a current of 
200 or 300 horse-power by a dynamo driven by 
water-power at Lauffen, on the Neckar, 10S miles 
south of Frankfort, " convert it into a current of in- 
tense pressure by specially-devised transformers, trans- 
mit it to the Frankfort Exhibition, there re-transform 
it to a current of ordinary pressure, and in that form 
apply it to motive and lighting purposes." It is said 
that fully seventy -five per cent, of the energy created 
in Lauffen is available in Frankfort; part of the 
current thus secured is used to illuminate 1,200 arc 
lights, while the remainder drives a rotary pump 
which draws water from the Main and forces it to the 
top of an artificial hill, whence it tumbles as a waterfall 
on the Exhibition grounds. 

The 'medals and funds given at the anniversary 
meeting of the Geological Society, on February 19th, 
were awarded as follows : The Wollaston Medal to 
BaronFerdinandvonRichthofen; the Murchison Medal 
to Prof. A..H. Green, F.R.S. ; and the Lyell Medal to 
Mr. George H. Morton ; the balance of the proceeds 
of the Wollaston Fund to Mr. 0. A. Derby ; that of 
the Murchison Fund to Mr. Beeby Thompson ; that 

of the Lyell Fund to Mr. E. A. Walford and Mr. J. 
W. Gregory ; and a portion of the Barlow-Jameson 
Fund to Prof. C. Mayer-Eymar. 

We confess to a ;weakness for second-hand book 
catalogues, and none comes more welcomely than 
Messrs. Pickering and Chatto's " Book-Lovers' Leaf- 
let." No. 50 (December) is delightful. 

Sir Robert Ball, in an article on the new astronomy 
in the Fortnightly Review, is justifiably enthusiastic on 
the triumphs of spectroscopic photography in extend- 
ing our knowledge of the heavens. The movements 
of the stars in a direct line to or from us, which were 
not noticeable on merely telescopic examination, are 
now measured with wonderful exactness. Stars at 
such a distance that if they were brought ten times 
nearer us they would still be too far away for 
measurement iby the ordinary processes of the ob- 
servatory, have now their diameter guaged. It is a 
noteworthy epoch in the history of astronomy when, 
for the first time, we are able to apply the celestial 
callipers to guage the diameter of a star. Who would 
have predicted, some few years ago, that the spectro- 
scope was to be the instrument to which we should be 
indebted for the means of putting a measuring-tape 
round the girth of a star ? Of the dark satellite of 
the variable star Algol so much has been deduced by 
the aid of the new spectroscopic methods that Sir 
Robert Ball is able to say : " Here is an object which 
we have never seen, and apparently never can expect 
to see, but yet we have been able not only to weigh 
it and to measure it, but also to determine its 

THE experiments with sulphate copper as a remedy 
for potato disease are described in full in the last 
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society. 
So, likewise, are the experiments of Sir John Lawes 
and Dr. Gilbert relating to the origin and preparation 
of nitrogen, etc., in the soil. 

Dr. Pfeiffer, son-in-law of Prof. Koch, is stated to 
have discovered the microbe of Influenza. Let us 
hope he will be more successful in dealing with it than 
his marital relative was with that of Tuberculosis, of 
which we now hear very little. 

Dr. Marey, the eminent French physiologist, has 
been studying the flight of insects by photochrono- 
graphy, an arrangement which allows the exposures 
of the photographic plates to be made so short as 
I "25,000 of a second. His observations indicate that 
the wings of insects in flight, by meeting obliquely the 
resistance of the air in to-and-fro movements, act in a 
very similar manner to the sculls used to propel 

Science is looking up. In Sir William Thom- 
son's worthy elevation to the Peerage, the nation has 
at length recognised the fact that science is worth as 



much as even politics — although any fool can play at 
the latter ! 

Read the report by Mr. Haly, curator of the 
Colombo Museum, in " Nature," December 31st, on 
his discovery of a medium for preserving the colours 
of fish and other animals. 

We are very pleased to keep our readers to good 
things. There is nothing better for them than good 
catalogues of books, papers, magazines, etc., they 
may be requiring. Messrs. Dulau & Co. have lately 
" gone in " for scientific literature. There is now on 
our table a couple of handy catalogues of " Works 
on Geology," including Crystallography, Mineralogy, 
Mining, Petrography, Boulders, Vulcanology, etc., 
" What d'ye lack ? " 

We strongly advise all of our readers who are 
interested in the subject to read the report of Dr. 
Marshal Ward's paper on " The Ginger-Beer Plant," 
in "Nature," December 24th. Dr. Ward shows it is 
mainly a symbiotic association of a specific Saccharo- 
mycetes and a Schizomycetes. 

The last number of " The Entomologists' Record 
and Journal of Variation" (edited by J. W. Tutt) is 
a double one, and is crowded with detajls interesting 
to entomologists, particularly to those who are pre- 
pared to understand the biological value of " varia- 

Professor Victor Horsley, F.R.S., on January 
19th gave the first of a course of twelve lectures on 
" The Brain " at the Royal Institution. Mr. A. S. 
Murray, LL.D., on January 21st gave the first of a 
course of three lectures on "Some Aspects of Greek 
Sculpture in Relief"; and Prof. J. A. Fleming on 
January 23rd gave the first of a course of three 
lectures on ".The Induction Coil and Alternate Cur- 
rent Transformer." The Friday evening meetings 
began on January 22nd, when the Right Hon. Lord 
Rayleigh, F.R.S., gave a discourse on "The Com- 
position of Water." 

We have received from the " Youths' Companion " 
Boston, U.S. A — a capital weekly paper, in which 
popular science finds a prominent place — a lovely 
chromolitho strip of various kinds of roses, about two 
feet by six inches, sent out with the New Year's 
number, which latter promises even a more lively 
volume than ever. 

The "Child Life" Almanack and Calendar for 
the current year (G. Phillip and Son) is one of the 
best got-up we have seen for the use of young 

We have received a reprint of Mr. Arthur Bennett's 
valuable paper entitled " Contributions towards a 
Flora of the Outer Hebrides," published in the Annals 
of Scottish Natural History " for January. Babington 

and Balfour's estimate of the flora was 349 species 
and varieties. The present list adds 143 species and 
varieties, and Mr. Bennett thinks it probable that 
at least fifty or sixty species will be added, and 
eventually found to occur. 

We are sorry to announce the death of the veteran 
French Naturalist, Professor Quatrefages, at the ripe 
age of eighty-two. 

Mr. Murray announces a new and cheaper edition 
of the late Professor Moseley's " Notes by a Naturalist 
on Board the Challenger," one of the most delightful 
books in the world to read. 

At the last meeting of the Institute of Marine 
Engineers, a paper (part 2) on Stability, or the 
"motion of a vessel among waves" by Mr. J. A. 
Rowe, was read. In the course of a very interesting 
paper, the author dwelt upon Static and Dynamic 
Stability, and the oscillations of a vessel among the 
waves. The action of the waves upon vessels at 
different angles of rolling was illustrated by diagrams, 
showing the direction in which the force of buoyancy 
tended to make a vessel roll. The. question of con- 
trolling and regulating the heavy rolling of vessels 
was only touched upon, Mr. Rowe pointing out that 
from the experience of several nautical men to whom 
he had spoken, bilge and side keels for this purpose 
had been found of great value. In the course of his 
remarks the author suggested that shipbuilders would 
be greatly aided in designing stable craft if, when a 
vessel was ordered, they were informed in which trade 
the vessel would be employed and the nature of the 
cargo to be carried, inasmuch as a vessel designed to 
carry one |special cargo might not be adapted for 
carrying grain for example. 


Journal of the Royal Microscopical. 
Society. — The December part of this welcome 
and well-edited journal contains, in addition to the 
useful summary of current researches relating to zoo- 
logy and botany, the following papers : — " Notes on 
New Infusoria from the Fresh Waters of the United 
States," by Dr. Alfred C. Stokes (illustrated) ; and 
one on "An Improved Method of making Micro- 
scopical Measurements with the Camera lucida," by 
Sir Walter Sendall (also illustrated). 

How to Mount Tongue of Moth or Butter- 
fly. — First take a fine-pointed pair of scissors and 
carefully cut out the tongue as close up to the mouth 
of the insect as possible, and see that the tongue is in 
a nice flat spiral form. Put it into spirits of wine for 
a few days ; take out and put into good clear turpentine, 
in which it will have to stay for some time, to take 
out a little of the dark colour, or you will not be 



able to see the tracheal tubes nicely. After you have 
taken out sufficient colour, place the tongue in benzol 
for a couple of days ; then into oil of cloves, to make 
transparent. Now take a 3 X I glass slip, on which 
you have fastened a tin cell of sufficient depth to take 
the tongue. Fill up the cell with balsam and benzol 
until it is nicely rounding on the top, f put in the tongue, 
place on the cover glass, but do not press the glass 
circle close on to the tin first off; give the benzol 
time to evaporate, after which you may press the 
circle down, and when the edge of balsam is hard, 
ring with shellac cement, finishing off with any fancy 
colour you like. — J. Boggust. 


Yellow-crested White Cockatoo. — An in- 
genious device of one of these birds is, perhaps, worthy 
of record. To take advantage of a heavy, straight- 
down, warm shower of rain, the bird holds [on to the 
cross-bar of his stand with his beak, lowers himself 
on the opposite side to his chain (so that the chain 
hangs over the bar as if over a pulley), grasps both 
pieces of chain to prevent its running, and then, 
letting go with his beak, throws himself back down- 
wards, horizontally, wings open, and enjoys himself 
to the full. His strong beak breaks the links of 
ordinary parrot-chain, forces open thick rings, and 
unscrews swivels. This occurs sometimes several 
times a day ; at first he used to bite, and that 
severely, when he was re-fastened ; but after having 
been well beaten he now contents himself with peck- 
ing with sharp blows the perch upon which he is 
standing. The natural parrot says " Bite I must " ; 
the chastened parrot says "but not my dear (?) 
master." If two or three persons are talking near 
him, he will break out into a "jabber without words," 
accompanied by appropriate gestures, imitating the 
general resultant of the conversation in a very ludi- 
crous manner. Such things as having mock-fights 
with the dog, sneezing, dancing, etc., are, I suppose, 
common accomplishments of these amusing birds. — 
T. D. S., Blakiston, S.A. 


The Coloration of Flowers. — Mr. Griset 
(on page 23) states that plants kept in air-tight and 
dark bottles will, as a rule, lose their colouring 
more or less. I also have noticed that on a plant of 
Geum coccineum, which in the open air was producing 
flowers with scarlet petals, which, however, in the 
bud were yellow, when moved into a semi-dark 
cellar the flowers when fully expanded got no further 
than the yellow or, at best, orange stage. In face 
of these facts, I hope that the statement that lack of 
light, whilst altering the colour of leaves, has no effect 
on that of flowers, will henceforth be omitted from 

botanical works. I should also like to call attention 
to a fact, which, as far as I know, has not hitherto 
been put on record, namely, that whilst the green 
parts of plants are coloured by granules of chlorophyll, 
and many yellow flowers by chromoplasts, i.e. 
granules of colouring-matter, blue flowers are more 
often coloured with blue cell-sap, and red by coloured 
cell-sap, sometimes mixed with granules. These facts 
seem to confirm the evolutionary theory that blue 
flowers have been develqped from green through 
various gradations of yellow and red. This rule 
holds good, I believe, in roots as well as in flowers, 
since beetroot is certainly coloured by sap, and 
carrots, I think, by chromoplasts. — Henry St. A. 
Alder, Gt. Malvern. 


The Geology of Barbados. — At a recent meet- 
ing of the Geological Society, the second part of 
an important paper by A. J. Jukes-Browne, B.A., 
F.G.S., and Professor J. B. Harrison, M.A., F.G.S., 
was read. They stated that the Oceanic deposits rest 
unconformably on the Scotland Series, with which 
they contrast strongly in every respect. They are 
divisible into five portions : — (1.) Grey and buff 
calcareous marls (Foraminiferal). (2.) Fine-grained 
red and yellow argillaceous earths. (3.) Pulverulent 
chalky earths (Foraminiferal). (4.) Siliceous earths 
(Radiolarian). (5.) Calcareo-siliceous and chalky 
earths (Foraminiferal). The whole series is more 
calcareous in the northern than in the southern part 
of the island, and layers of volcanic dust occur in it 
at various horizons. There is everywhere a passage 
from the more siliceous to the more calcareous earths. 
From the pakeontological and lithological, evidence 
the Authors conclude that the depth of water in which 
the Oceanic beds were deposited varied between 1000 
and 2500 fathoms. The microscopical and chemical 
evidence shows that the Radiolarian earths are 
similar to modern Radiolarian ooze ; that the cal- 
careo-siliceous earths are similar to what is called by 
Professor Haeckel "mixed Radiolarian ooze " ; that 
some of the Foraminiferal earths are comparable to 
Globigerina-ooze from 1000 fathoms, and that others 
greatly resemble European Chalk ; and, finally, that 
the coloured clays bear a strong resemblance to the 
so-called " red-clays " of modern oceanic areas. 
Hence the raised oceanic deposits of Barbados seem 
to present us with an epitome of the various kinds 
of deposits which are found on the floors of warm 
seas at the present day. Equivalent deposits are 
known in Trinidad and Jamaica ; and it is inferred 
by the Authors that the whole Central American and 
Caribbean region was deeply submerged during the 
Pliocene period, leaving free communication at that 
time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An 
Appendix by Mr. W. Hill treats of the minute 

4 6 


structure of the Oceanic earths and limestones, and of 
the Foraminiferal muds and detrital earths ; and this 
is supplemented by a Report from Miss Raisin on 
the inorganic material of certain Barbados rocks. 
In the discussion which followed, the Chairman said 
that since the late Mr. Brady wrote on the " so-called 
Soapstone of Fiji," there had been no communication 
on the subject of oceanic deposits of such importance 
as Mr. Jukes-Browne and Professor Harrison's paper, 
which dealt with them ;from a physical, chemical, 
and biological point of view. In both cases the 
deposits were held to be of late Tertiary age, and 
this conclusion made the excessive depths > at which 
the Barbados earths were supposed to have been 
deposited all the more startling. Possibly the species 
of Archaopncustes described by Mr. Gregory might 
point to shallower waters. Dr. Blanford asked for 
further evidence as to the red clay being a deep-sea 
deposit. The mammalian fauna of South America, 
as he had pointed out on a previous occasion, could 
not be explained unless North and South America 
had been united at times during the Tertiary era. If 
it was urged that Barbados was on the edge of the 
oceanic era, the same remark would assuredly not 
apply to Jamaica. The discovery in Barbados of 
both Globigerina- and Radiolarian ooze, intercalated 
between shallow-water deposits, was clear evidence 
that portions of the continental area might be depressed 
to oceanic depths and re-elevated. Professor Sollas 
said it could no longer be put forward as an assured 
fact that deep-sea deposits never enter into the con- 
stitution of land-masses. Still, the evidence of the 
excessive depths claimed by the Authors did not 
amount to demonstration ; it was of the nature of 
analogy, which was sometimes misleading. It was 
to be hoped that additional fossils of the Metazoa 
would be discovered in the chalky beds. A vastly 
larger number of observations are required to define 
the bathymetrical limits of a species or group 
than in many cases we at present possess. Striking 
examples to general rules are numerous enough to 
give us pause ; even so characteristically a deep- 
water group as the Hexactinellida has afforded one 
instance of a comparatively shallow-water species, 
Cystispongia svpersfes, having been dredged from 
eighteen fathoms off Yucatan. Professor Harrison 
pointed out that the evidence upon which the red 
and mottled argillaceous earths of the oceanic series 
were considered by Mr. Jukes-Browne and himself 
to be deep-sea deposits were the close resemblance 
in physical properties and chemical composition 
which they present to certain of the modern deep- 
sea oozes which have been termed "red clays," and 
that the only organisms found in them were purely 
siliceous, being principally the remains of radiolaria 
with a few sponge-spicules. The " clay " occurring 
in the pure radiolarian marls was also separated, 
and upon comparison was found to be similar to the 
argillaceous earths. The term "red clay" appears 

to have been used in the " Challenger Expedition 
Reports" in a very comprehensive manner, as under 
it are included not only argillaceous deposits con- 
taining but few organisms, but also deposits consisting 
in some cases of radiolarian and in others of ffora- 
miniferal organisms. Mr. J. W. Gregory remarked 
that as the new echinoid occurred in a limestone at 
the extreme top of the oceanic series, it in no way 
disproved the deep-sea origin of the radiolarian 
marls. He fully agreed with Dr. Blanford in. 
doubting any considerable submergence of the Isth- 
mus of Panama in Upper Cainozoic times ; Dr. 
Maack's collection proved only, an eocene or miocene 
submergence, and the surveys of Lieutenant Wyse 
and the French engineers of the canal had not 
revealed any considerable elevation of the recent 
marine deposits. He exhibited specimens of radio- 
larian marls from Cuba, which were identical in 
characters, variation, and mode of occurrence with 
those of Barbados, and he maintained that this 
completed the authors' case, and disproved the 
objection that had been advanced that these deep- 
sea deposits only occurred on the margin of a volcanic 


The Solar Year. — Your correspondent T. R. 
Jones should consult "Weights and Measures" in 
Weale's Series, where he will find the Calendar fully 
explained. He has, however, created his own diffi- 
culty by confusing between the Sidereal and the Solar 
Year. The Solar Year contains 365-24222 days, or 
365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 47 '808 seconds. Accord- 
ing to the present method the mean length of the 
year is 365 '2425 days, which is slightly in excess of 
the Solar day. As this excess amounts to one day 
in about 3600 years, it may clearly be disregarded for 
the present. — Clijford E. F. Nash. 

Gold Fish. — A few weeks since, I had two gold 
fish in a small glass globe. Late one night I noticed 
one of them vainly trying to lift up a shell ; I thought 
nothing more about it at the time. A few days 
afterwards I noticed it again trying to lift the shell 
up ; putting my hand into the water, and lifting the 
shell up, one of them came slowly to the top — dead. 
A few days after, the remaining one died ; whether 
from grief or not, I cannot say. — W. R. Riley. 

The Solar Year. — Your correspondent T. R. 
Jones has perhaps been misled by some inaccurate 
astronomical treatise, or perhaps by his own too- 
hasty reading. The year of 365 days 6 hours 9 min. 
9/ 6 sec. is called the Sidereal Year, and denotes the 
period in which the sun completes his apparent 
course through the Zodiac, measuring his position 
with respect to the stars. It does not correspond to 
the Solar Year, or period elapsing between two 
vernal equinoxes, because owing to the sun's own 
motion through space, the position of the vernal 
equinoctial point is continually changing. The 
length of the true Solar Year is, I believe, 365 days 
5 hrs. 48 min. 49-7 sec. Leap-year, therefore, is so 
far from failing to cover the whole deficiency in the 
length of the calendar year that it covers too much ; 



and a day will be omitted, not inserted, in the year 
1900. The omission of the 29th of February in a 
leap-year is made three times in ever)' four centuries. 
The recognition of this necessity was the celebrated 
Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, accepted by 
England in 1752 — the non-adoption of which by the 
Greek Church accounts for the fact that Russia and 
Greece are now twelve days behind the rest of 
Europe. — C. B. Moffat. 

Song of the Wagtail. — Both the pied and the 
grey wagtail are among the songsters whose vocal 
powers often pass unnoticed : the same remark, I think, 
applies to the rich bell-like melody of the stonechat, 
and the inward warble of the spotted fly-catcher. In 
my experience all these birds sing for a very short 
season in spring, resuming their notes (with perhaps 
the exception of the stonechat) for a few days in 
autumn. The pied wagtail's song is not always 
"subdued" ; at times it is so loud and shrill as to 
recall rather the canary than the robin-redbreast. 
— C. B. M. 

Migrants and Hiberxants, 1S91. — The swift 
seen by Mr. Law on November 13th (as noted in 
Science-Gossip for January), was, I think, unpre- 
cedented ; but there seems to be ground for believ- 
ing that the swift as a species has lengthened the 
period of its sojourn with us since the time of 
Gilbert White, who in 1767 remarked that these 
birds "leave us before the middle of August 
invariably." At Oxton, in Cheshire, swifts last year 
continued numerous and ubiquitous until September 
5th, on which date I altogether missed them ; 
stragglers may have stayed behind, but I saw none 
during the few days longer that I remained in the 
neighbourhood. It will be remembered that White 
drew a comparison between the swift and the great 
bat (Noctula altivolans), which last, he said, " retires 
or migrates very early in the summer," adding that 
he saw them most commonly in June, but never after 
July. At Lyndhurst, in the New Forest, however, I 
saw a group of these large bats hawking on the 
evening of the 23rd of August last, a sight that would 
probably have somewhat surprised the old naturalist. 
I doubt not that similar appearances are frequent 
enough, and many correspondents of Sciex'CE-Gossip 
have perhaps seen the bat later ; but never having 
been in the haunts of that animal myself except for 
one delightful fortnight last summer, I think it is as 
well to note the fact of its appearance on August 23rd. 
Of creatures supposed to be more or less dormant at 
the present season, I may mention having seen a 
wasp on the wing on the 16th of December, a frog 
(only half awake) attempting to struggle across a 
grass-field on the 29th, and a spotted slug (Limax 
antiquorum, I think) in full activity on the last day 
of the year. Of the partial nature of squirrels' 
hibernations, the following observations during the 
week following Christmas Day may afford some 
evidence. I saw here — in woods at Ballyhyland, Co. 
Wexford — one squirrel on the 26th of December, 
three on the 28th, two on the 31st, and two more on 
the 1st of January. Of these eight, two were 
probably appearances of the same animal on different 
days ; but I am pretty sure that I saw seven different 
squirrels during the week. These were all feasting 
on the growing cones of larch and pine, so that 
evidently they have no need as yet to resort to their 
winter hoard, if they really possess anything of the 
kind. The season, though not severe, has not been 
exceptionally mild ; and the food-supply on the trees, 
far from being particularly abundant, is less than 
the average. — C. B. Moffat. 

British Orthoptera. — As I contemplate writing 
a popular handbook on the above as a companion 
volume to my "Illustrated Handbook of British 
Dragon-flies," I shall be very glad to communicate 
with all who are interested in these insects. Local 
lists and specimens for figuring would be very ac- 
ceptable. — W. Harcourt Bath, Lady wood, Birming- 

British Dragon-flies. — Will readers who are 
interested in the above kindly supply me with local 
lists of same, as I am desirous of elucidating their 
distribution in this country? — W. Harcourt Bath, 
Ladywood, Birmingham. 

Papers on Flints. — Being much interested in 
the subject of flints, the cause of their peculiar 
deposit in the chalk, and their formation in this and 
other strata, I should be glad if any of your readers 
could direct me to any recent papers or books 
referring to this form of silex, or to any specimens of 
siliceous sinter, concretional flints, or anything else 
likely to help. I find it difficult to obtain such from 
the dealers, or would not trouble you. — G. Abbott. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others.— We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the " exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous 
insertion of " exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials} and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers. — We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

F. G. Bing. — If not too large or heavy, send us your 
specimen for identification, with stamps to cover expenses of 

I want to procure the reed meadow grass [Glyceria. 
aquatica). Will any reader of Science-Gossip kindly let me 
know where it is grown? — S. C. Hincks. 

J. Boggust.— Accept our best thanks for the beautiful 
mount of tongue of privet hawk moth. We are pleased to call 
the attention of our readers to your method in our microscopical 

W. Mackie. — Messrs. Allen & Co., Waterloo Place, London, 
purchased Mr. Bogue's stock, including, we believe, the 
"Catalogue of British Mosses." We are of opinion it is now 
out of print. Wheldon's " Catalogue of York Mosses " would 
serve your purpose. Why not get Hobkirk's "Synopsis of 
British Mosses," latest edition! It is more expensive, but will 
serve for life as a handbook, giving structural characters, 
localities, &c. We are surprised that publishers of these and 
similar works do not advertise more in our columns, as we are 
constantly being asked about them. 


Will send collections of two hundred named specimens 
(sixty species) Victoria shells, in return for same number 
named recent shells of any other country. — F. L. BUIinghurst, 
National Bank of Australasia, Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia. 

Wanted, correctly named British land and freshwater 
shells, to start collection. British birds' eggs or dried British 
plants, many rare — Carex irregna, Utricularia minor t &c. — 
in exchange. — J. Corrie, Moniaive, N.B. 

Machaon betula, Papkia polychloros, Sylvanus hyper- 

4 8 


antkus, Corydon galaihea, Ligustri caja, Dlspar chy., Bctu- 
iaria vinula, Silago lanestris, Jacobs pudibunda, and others, 
for side-blown birds' eggs, one hole. — F. J. Rasell, 61 St. 
James Road, Northampton. 

Will anyone help me to obtain some male crickets [Acheta 
domestica), say, three or four dozen or more? I will'arrange 
with correspondents about exchange. — A. Witt, Hale Rec- 
tory, Salisbury. 

A few novels (Kingsley's, Scott's, &c.) to exchange for 
geological specimens correctly named, and with locality, &c. 
List on application.— Walter C. Shields, 36 Garturk Street, 
Crosshill, Glasgow. 

Wanted, any fossils not in my collection, also violin, 
clarionet, microscope, &c. Exchange photos of locomotive 
engines (including Stephenson's "Puffing Eilly," Hedley's, 
and Treverick's engines). — Reginald E. M. Bleasdale, 104 Dale 
End, Birmingham. 

Offered, minerals, fossils, shells, micro, objects and mate- 
rial, Devonian polished and rough corals and sponges, and 
rock specimens, as quartzites, quartz royalites, Murchisonites 
and granites, and other porphyretic specimens, in exchange 
for any of the following: good microscope with accessories, 
telescope, opera glass, secondhand watch that will keep time, 
or a collection of stamps in album, or any of the following 
shells: — Vertigo] Moidinsiana, V. pusilla, Isocardia cor, and 
Livtfura involuta. Good exchange guaranteed. — T. E. Sclater, 
Northumberland House, Teignmouth. 

A large number of school and text books offered in ex- 
change for fossils, shells, rocks, minerals, or slides. The 
subjects embrace Greek, Latin, French, German, science, 
divinity, history, geography, mathematics, and English. List 
of any subject from — Mr, A. E. Salter, 8 Venetia Road, 
Finsbury Park, N. 

Offered, a complete set of entomological apparatus, in- 
cluding setting house with perforated zinc door, ten setting 
boards and drawer for pins ; also collecting tin store boxes,P&c. 
Will sell cheap, or exchange for good trout rod. — W. C. 
Wright, Lauriston, Derrievolgie, Belfast. 

Offered, variety of specially mounted first-class micro, 
slides for oxyhydrogen microscope. Desiderata, foraminifera, 
polycistina, diatoms, sponges, &c. — H. W. Case, F.R.M.S., 
Cotham, Bristol. 

Wanted for a museum, a few cut and polished ammonites 
in halves or pairs, not less than six inches in diameter — larger 
ones preferred — for which I shall be pleased to send in return 
thirty nice named specimens of minerals (not rocks) from 
Devon and Cornwall. Also wanted, large fossil ammonites, 
unpolished, from the district in Yorkshire where they are 
plentiful, and other large fossils and large minerals of crystal- 
lisation, or any of the following books: — Tate's "Land and 
Freshwater Molluscs," Turton's "Manual of the Land and 
Freshwater Shells of the British Islands," Reeves' "Land and 
Freshwater Molluscs," in exchange for fossils, British and 
foreign shells, rock specimens, micro, objects, and Devon 
corals. — A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., Natural History Stores, 
43 Northumberland Place, Teignmouth. 

Offered, Bythinia tentaatlata, B. Leachii, Hydrobia 
ventrosa, H. Jenhinsi, Valvata piscinalis, V. cristata, 
Planorbis comeus, Physa hypnorum, Limnea glutinosa, 
Succinea putris, Hyalina cellaria, Helix arbustorum, H. 
cantiana, H. ru/escens, H. pisana, If. virgata, H. virgata 
var. submaritana, H . ericetorum, Pupa umbilicata, Clausilia 
rugosa, &c. Wanted, other land and freshwater shells not in 
collection.— C. Baldock, 21 Chapel Street, Woolwich. 

Wanted, European dragonflies, British locusts, field cock- 
roaches, male crickets, field crickets, British hawk moths and 
British mammals (stuffed or in the flesh), particularly bats, wild 
cat, marten, polecat, otter, badger; also varieties of common 
species. Offered, natural history books and pamphlets, British 
butterflies, dragonflies, land and freshwater shells, marine 
shells, and geological specimens; also small cabinet suitable 
for eggs, shells, &c— W. Harcourt Bath, Ladywood, Birming- 

Wanted, good illustrated works relating to European 
odontata, orthoptera, and rhopalocera, also first-class aneroid 
barometer, and combined opera and field-glass. A good return 
will be made in natural history books or specimens, &c. — 
W. Harcourt Bath, Ladywood, Birmingham. 

Duplicate clutches of sooty tern, golden-winged wood- 
pecker, little grebe, mute swan, moorhen, bullfinch, pied wag- 
tail, Manx sherewater, tits, and others, side-blown and with 
data. Wanted, turnstone, divers, ducks, and offers. — F. W. 
Paple, 62 Waterloo Street, Bolton. 

Wanted, British or foreign shells or fossils, in exchange 
for others. Foreign correspondence specially desired. — Rev. 
John Hawell, Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Middlesbrough. 

Duplicates. — A large number of correctly named and 
perfect specimens of British coleoptera, also a few hemiptera, 
and a few land and marine shells. Desiderata, lepidoptera, 
coleoptera, and other orders, and named types of British and 
foreign shells, or offers. — A. Ford, Claremont House, Upper 
Tower Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 

Wanted, L. C, 8th ed. : — 21, 22, 27, 45, 143, 155, 193, 259, 
354, 368, 402, 405, 459, 470, 492, 533, 559, 611, 626, 634, 676, 
700, 726, 729, 739, 789, 805, 875, 879, 885, 898, 1011, 1025, 1040, 

1043, 1045, ins, ^S 1 * T 3 8 °> 1606, 1771, 1800, &c. Send 
complete desiderata to — H. Fisher, Stodman Street, Newark, 

Wanted, bound volumes of "Great Thoughts," novels by 
J. M. Barrie, Thomas Hardy, or " Q." Good exchange given 
in fossils and minerals from all formations. — James Marsden, 
3 Schleswig Street, Preston. 

Wanted, minerals or fossils in exchange for carboniferous 
fossils or emu's eggs. Address— John Millie, Echobank, 
Inverkeithing, Fifeshire, N.B. 

Birds' eggs. Duplicates of red grouse, puffin, lesser red- 
pole, sandpiper, black-headed bunting, whinchat, yellow 
wagtail, &c. Desiderata, swift, hobby, merlin, barn owl, 
buzzard, and many others.— W. G. Clutten, 19 Berkeley 
Street, Burnley. 

Offered, Pis. amnicum, Pal. vivipara, Byih. tentacidata > 
Plan, carinatus, H. nemoralis, H. hortensis, H. arbustorum. 
Bid. obscurus, Vert. pygm&a, Coch. tridens, in exchange for 
British land and freshwater shells not in collection ; also for 
foreign shells. Foreign correspondence invited. — H. E. Craven, 
Matlock Bridge. 

Wanted, fossils from the London clay, Woolwich and 
Reading, and Thanet sands. Good exchange given from 
other strata. — T. W. Reader, 171 Hemingford Road, Earns- 
bury, London, N. 

Wanted, minerals and terebratula in exchange for eocene 
fossils, Cornish metallic minerals, and rock specimens. — 
E. H. V. Davies, 46 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

The following numbers of Science-Gossip, clean and 
perfect — Nos. 73, 119, 151, 173-178 inclusive, 220, and 253. 
The lot for $s. 6d., post free, or any single number sent by 
post for yd. each.— H. Allingham, The Mall, Eallyshannon, 

.Offered, microscopic objects — entomological, polar, &c. — 
three dozen professionally mounted. Wanted, fly-rod, tackle, 
&c, or books. — G. Barker, 24 Avenue Villas, Cricklewood, 

Offered, "The Microscope," by Hogg (sixth edition), 
Davies' " Practical Microscopy" (second edition), and Balfour's 
" Manual of Botany, 1 ' all in good condition. Wanted, volumes 
of Science-Gossip, bound or unbound, for 1867, 1870-1872, 
1875, 1876, 1S78-1881, or works on cryptogamic botany. — 
W. P. Quelch, 8 Eccleston Road, Ealing Dean, London, W. 

What offers for Science-Gossip for about twenty years, 
also last edition of " Micrographic Dictionary"? — A. Draper, 
179 Cemetery Road, Sheffield. 

For exchange, Plan, complauatus, Zonites cellarius, var, 
albinos, Z, glaber, Z. nitidulus, Helix nemoralis, H. hor~ 
tensis and var. lutea, H. arbusiorum, H. rufescens, H. 
hispida, H. virgata, H. ericetorum, H. rotundaia. Wanted, 
Limnwa, vars. Umax, succi?iea, "vertigo, &c, or offers. — 
A. H. Shepherd, 81 Corinne Road, London, N. 

Wanted, a few good specimens of malachite and rock 
crystal ; must be in crystals. Will give Alston Moor minerals 
in exchange. — William Hetherington, Nenthead, by Carlisle. 

Offered, XylopJtaga dorsalis. Wanted, Terebratula cra- 
nium, Argiope (all), Anomia striata, Pinna nudis, Lima 
Loscovzbii, L. Sarsii, Modiolaria nigra, Nucula sulcata, 
Limopsis aurita, Area obliqua, A. pectimculoides, Lepton 
(all), Axinus crouliensis, Diplodonta rotundata > Catdium 
aculeatum, C. nodosum, C. ?iod. var. papillosum, Astarte 
var. clliptica, Tapes, var. samiensis, Tellina balaustiana, T. 
Pusilla, Psammobia costulata, Donax politus, D. trunculus, 
Donax var. magna, Lutraria oblonga, Trochus amabilis, T. 
Dunningi, T. montacuta, T. occidentalis , T. striatus, Lit- 
iorina neritoides, Scalaria Trevelyana, lanthina, Natica 
Islandica, Velutina plicatilis, Tropiwn muricaius, Fusus 
Norz'egicus, F. Islandicus, F. propinqnus, F. buccinatus, F. 
Berniciensis, F. Jenestratus. — J. Smith, Monkredding, Kil- 

"The Realm of Nature: an Outline of Physiography," by 
Dr. H. R. Mill (London: John Murray).— "Power and Force, 
Spiritual and Natural," by J. E. Keene (London: T. Fisher 
Unwin).— "An Account of British Flies," Part 3, Vol. 1, by 
F. V.Theobald (London: Elliot Stock).— "The Microcosm," 
Nov. (New York). — "The Entomologist's Record," No. 12, 
Vol. 2. — "Manipulation of the Microscope," by E. Bausch 
(London: W. P. Collins).— " The Collector's Monthly."— 
" Gentleman's Mag." — "Midland Naturalist." — "American 
Naturalist." — "American Microscopist," &c. ( &c. 

Communications received up to the 12TH ult 
J. M.— H. E. C— W. G. G.— R. A. P.— T. W. R.— J. 
E. H. V. D.-M. A. A.— A. D.— A. H. S.— H. S. 
G. B.— W. P. Q.— H. A.— A. J. H.— J. M.— W. H.. 
— H. G. W.— D. R.— W. M.— J. B.— A. J. T.— T. 
A. F.— H. F— J. M.— J. E. T.— G. A.— J. H .— J. 
C B. M.-J. E-— J. C— T. L. B.— C H. J. B— W. 
R. E. M. B.— H. W. C— A. E. S.— T. E. S.— A. J. 
W. C. S.— W. C W.— F. J. R.— S. C. H.— J. C— F. 
H. G. W. A.— A. G. T.— E. E. G.— C. E. T. N.—. 
T. B.— A. E. B.— R. F.— T. S. B.-S. C. S.— &c, &c. 

from : 
G. E.— 
A. A.— 
-W. A. 

D. S.— 
W. P.— 

E. H.— 
R. S.— 
G. B.— 
A. B.— 





[Continued Jrom p. 39.] 

T will be seen from 
the table (p. 38) 
that the British 
Perlidae may pri- 
marily be divided 
into three sub- 
families : — Per- 
lin^E, including 
those genera in 
which the species 
have setaceous 
palpi and long 
tail-bristles — Cap- 
NIINvE, the species 
of which possess 
filiform palpi and 
long tail-bristles — 
— and lastly Ne- 
MOURIN/E, includ- 
ing all species with 
filiform palpi and 
tail-bristles which are merely rudimentary or are 
entirely wanting. Some systematists may possibly 
raise objections to such a division of the family, but I 
am convinced that the distinctions between the groups 
I have named are something more than mere generic 
ones. Not, however, having space at my disposal in 
which to enter at length into my reasons for such 
belief, I will now proceed to give notes relating to 
the various species mentioned in the synopsis. 

Dictyopteryx microcephala, Pictet. This insect 
appears to be widely distributed. It is common in 
the south of England, and in Ireland, and is found 
somewhat sparsely in Scotland. It frequents the 
borders of streams from early spring until autumn. 

The wing venation is not constant, the cross-veins 
beneath the costa especially varying in number in 
individuals. In a specimen in my own collection, 
No. 327. — March 1892. 

the left upper wing has only five cross-veins, whilst 
the right upper wing has eight. In Pictet's drawing 
of this species, in Vol. 26 of the " Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles," he shows seven sub-costal 
cross-veins. The size also varies slightly, the average 
length of the body with the wings closed being nine 
lines, and with the wings expanded, one inch five 
lines. The wings are considerably shorter in the 
male than in the female. 

Dictyopteryx rectangula, Pictet. This species has 
the wings somewhat broader and of a darker tint, 
with very dark nervures. It is rather common, and 
widely distributed in the south, along the banks of 
streams in June. Its length is nine lines, wing 
expanse one inch four lines. It differs from micro- 
cephala in its smaller size, the greater width of the 
hinder margin of the prothorax, and the slightly 
different reticulation of the sub-marginal region ;in 
microcephala the cellules are small, irregular, hexa- 
gonal or pentagonal, whereas in the present species 
they are rectangular. 

Isogenus nubecula, Newman. This insect, the 
only European species of the genus, is a connecting 
link between Dictyopteryx and Perla, and Perla and 
Chloroperla. It is found in the neighbourhood of 
running water, and is apparently widely distributed, 
except towards the north, where it is somewhat 
scarce. This species is easily distinguished from 
allied species of other genera by its wings having 
a small oval dark-brown spot on the costal margin, 
about two-thirds of the distance from the base to the 
tip. Length nine lines ; wing expanse fifteen 
lines. The male is less in size than the female. It 
appears in April. 

Laboulbene states that specimens of this species, 
when laid upon their backs, remain perfectly motion- 
less, excreting at the same time a yellowish liquid at 
the joints of the legs. 




Pa-la maxima, Scopoli ("the stone- fly " par ex- 
cellence). In point of size this species and the one 
following run very close, but maxima is generally 
considered to be somewhat the larger, some speci- 
mens measuring nearly three inches across the 
expanded wings. The usual length is about twelve 
lines, the wing expanse in the female being about 
two inches eight lines, and in the male about 
one inch nine lines. The wing nervures are very 

As regards the present species, Dr. Brandt has 
raised a point of great interest to biologists. After 
having noticed rudimentary ovaries, etc., in a male 
larva, he was greatly astonished to observe the same 
structures in a male imago, from a different locality. 
He asks, can he have observed only a monstrous 
individual in each case, or is rudimentary hermaphro- 
ditism a rule with the species? 

Perla margiiiata, Muraldt. Individuals of this 
species are found of large size. One specimen in 
the British Museum measures two inches eleven 
lines across the expanded wings. The length is 
usually about eight lines, and the wing expanse ( 9 ) 
about two inches. The measurements of the male 
are much less, the wings being often atrophied. The 
male is generally lighter in colour than the female, 
but the markings vary but little. Both sexes are 
fairly common along the banks of streams at the end 
of spring. The Rev. J. G. Wood says: "The egg 
cluster of this species is as large as a swan-shot, and 
nearly as black." According to Curtis, the cast 
pupa-skin is beautifully spotted. 

Perla cephalotes, Curtis. This insect is remarkable 
for the extreme disproportion that exists between the 
male and female ; moreover, the wings in the male 
are reduced to mere rudiments. This species is 
somewhat like the last, both in size and colour, 
though cf specimens of marginata usually have the 
wings long. The colour of the prothorax will 
separate them. It appears in summer. 

Chloroperla rivulorum, Pictet. This species is to 
be distinguished from the next by the generally 
distributed brown tint, by the head being brown 
in the middle, with a well-marked blotch in the 
form of a horse-shoe. Appears in summer by 
the sides of mountain streams. Transformations un- 
known. ■ 

Chloroperla grammatics, Poda. Mr. Parfitt says 
of this insect, "Very abundant aloDg our rivers and 
streams (in Devonshire) from May to October. It 
varies greatly in size and colouring, so as to lead one 
to think that there are two or three species collected 
under one head." Of these varieties, the reddish 
rufescens is the most aberrant. This species also 
bears a horseshoe-shaped blotch on the head, but 
it is isolated. The palpi are prominent. The 
imagines emerge in April, and are widely dis- 
Isopteiyx torrentium, Pictet. Somewhat rare ; 

frequents wood-stacks ; emerges about May. Larva 
and pupa unknown. 

Isopteiyx Burmeisteri, Pictet. Abundant in the 
north " by the side of every water " (Mr. J. F. X. 
King) ; common in Ireland ; probably mixed in 
cabinets with /. tripunctata. 

Isopteryx tripunctata, Scopoli. Smaller than the 
preceding. The palpi are very prominent. This 
is the "yellow Sally " of anglers. Larva unknown. 

Isopteiyx apicalis, Newman. The smallest species 
of the genus. The palpi are very prominent. Larva 

Capnia nigra, Pictet. There is a record in the 
" Canadian Naturalist," of enormous numbers of 
this species appearing on the snow on the Riviere 
du Loup, Canada, in the month of March a year or 
two ago. Bethune, also, in the " Canadian Ento- 
mologist," speaks of the occurrence every spring, of 
swarms of this small perlid on the River Credit, in 
Canada, and of its frequently being found on the 
surface of snow. I believe the same thing occurs to 
some extent in Scotland. 

This species, the only British one of the genus, 
rolls its wings into a half-cylinder around its body, 
thus mimicking certain Nemourae. It is difficult to 
capture without damaging it in some way. It flies 
but seldom, and then swiftly for short distances 
among the stones at the water's edge. It is ap- 
parently confined to northern limits, and does not 
seem to occur in Britain in any great numbers. 

Ttzniopteryx nebulosa, Linne. This is the largest 
of the known species of the genus. Anglers have 
named it the "red upright." Parfitt, speaking of 
this species in Devon, says, " very scarce." He also 
writes, "The larvae of this species live among the 
stones, of which the weirs on the Exe are built, and 
where the water rushes over with great force. When 
about to undergo the last change, or rather the 
emergence of the imago, the subimago creeps up 
the wood-work of the weir or the sluice-gates, and 
grasps the wood very firmly, with its legs out- 
stretched, and the sharp claws of the tarsi firmly 
pressed into the wood. The head is first ruptured ; 
the skin then parts along the back from the pressure 
within, as far as the base of the wing-cases ; the 
insect gradually emerges, leaving its old skin to dry 
on the wood-work. The difference in the colouring 
in the subimago and the perfect insect is very striking. 
In the former, it is shining black-brown. The face 
is ornamented with a white mark in the form of a 
Greek or an Egyptian vase, having two curved 
cornutoe for the handles, mouth white, with ferruginous 
jaws, antennce yellow. The thoracic region is macu- 
lated with white, the tips of the wing-cases are 
whitish ; the abdomen has two rows of angular white 
spots on each segment, setae pale yellow, legs whitish, 
femora dusky beneath. All the tibiae, and especially 
the posterior, are provided with a row of long ciliae 
on the outside, to assist them in swimming." The 



femora in this species are wholly blackish. The 
bands on the wings partially disappear after the 
death of the insect. The females of this species, 
which appears during the spring, are usually found 
with a glutinous egg-cluster at the extremity of the 

Ttzniopteryx trifasciata, Pictet. Palpi very promi- 
nent. Femora blackish only at the extremities. Of 
this insect, Parfitt remarks, "This very distinct 
and apparently rare species I captured by Exwick 
Weir (Devon). The fasciae on the wings are very 
distinct when the insect is fresh. The posterior 
wings have a beautiful delicate purple tint, except 
along the anterior edge, where it is, as Mr. Stephens 
remarks, ' fuscescent. ' The body and legs vary a 
good deal in colour, from reddish yellow to pitchy 

The females of this species appear more often met 
with than are the males. The pupa undergoes a 
slight change when it nears the time for becoming an 
imago. The thorax becomes rounded instead of 
square ; the body tapers more, and the wing rudi- 
ments, previously yellowish, become deeper in colour, 
as does the entire body. 

Ltuctra geniculate, Stephens. This appears to be 
widely distributed ; it is taken somewhat sparsely in 
the south, but it is very common at many places in 
the north. It may be looked for in June. The 
wings are generally rolled round the body in a half- 
cylinder. Mr. McLachlan has recorded in the " Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine," his having observed a 
female of this species carrying her eggs upon the back 
of her abdomen. 

Leuctra fusciventris, Stephens. This species also 
rolls its wings in a semi-cylinder. It is, at times, 
found on flowers in fields. It may be taken in June 
and July, and, although somewhat uncommon in the 
south of England, is abundant in the north. The 
larva of this species has no respiratory sacs. 

Nemoura variegata, Olivier. This is, perhaps, the 
most common of our stone-flies, appearing from April 
to August. Anglers call it the " willow-fly." True 
to its specific name, it varies greatly in colour, speci- 
mens occurring even of a reddish hue ; these latter 
form the variety Fuliginosa. The larv:e, in which 
respiratory sacs are not .visible, are found both in 
stagnant and running water. 

Nemoura Meyeri, Pictet. The male and larvae are 
unknown. Rare. 

Nemoura nitida, Pictet. This, the largest of the 
genus, is a very pretty species, the wing nervures 
being edged with yellowish-grey. It seems confined 
to the north, the larva; frequenting mountain rills. 
These larvse have respiratory sacs. Rare. March 
to October. 

Nemoura cinerea, Olivier. As regards colour this 
is the most variable species of the genus, and much 
confusion has arisen on that account. It is common 
in the north in May. 

Nemoura humeralis, Pictet. This species is dis- 
tinguished from all others by the contrast of the 
almost opaque colour of the wings and the light 
colour of the feet. It is, however, sometimes con- 
founded with N. cinerea, which has the prothorax 
wider than long. Common in the north in May. 
Larva unknown. 

Nemoura sulcicollis, Stephens. Generally dis- 
tributed. June to October. Larva unknown. 

Nemoura inconspicua, Pictet. This is the most 
minute species of the group. Its pale colour persists 
throughout its life. The larva bears thoracic respira- 
tory sacs. Rare. 

The foregoing species being enumerated, I have 
nought to do but to draw speedily to a finish. 

In this short paper, no attempt could be made to 
treat the subject exhaustively, or even to give a full 
description of each species, and indeed the present 
contribution is but a series of notes on the known 
British species of the family. However, as I fully 
recognise its defects, I hope to remedy them at some 
future period, by the publication of a series of articles 
in some other periodical entirely devoted to the con- 
sideration of entomological subjects. 

A few words as to the best books and papers treat- 
ing of the Perlina. These are : — By Pictet : " His- 
toire Naturelle de la Famille des Perlides " ; Paper in 
the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles," 1833, (Zoo- 
logical section); Paper in the "Memoires de la 
Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Geneve," vol. vii. By Stephens : " Illustrations of 
British Entomology," vol. vi., Mandibulata. By 
Newman : " Magazine of Natural History," 1S39 ; 
" Entomological Magazine," vol. iv., 1837. By 
Burmeister : " Handbuch der Entomologie," ii. By 
Curtis : " British Entomology." By Brauer : "Neu- 
roptera Austriaca, " 1857- By Rambur : "Histoire 
Naturelle des Insectes Nevropteres," 1842. By 
Walker : " Catalogue of Neuropterous Insects in 
the British Museum," Part I., 1S52. (Descriptions 
in Latin.) For other references the student should 
obtain the " Catalogue of British Neuroptera," pub- 
lished by the Entomological Society of London, in 

In conclusion, I may say that I shall be pleased to 
help anyone, by naming specimens or giving other 
information relating to the Perlina.* I shall also be 
very glad to receive contributions of insects of this 
group for my own cabinet, with the usual data relating 
to place of capture, etc., from which to gain a better 
knowledge of the distribution of the Perlina in the 
British Isles. Communications may be addressed to 
me, at 29, St. Philip's Road, Dalston, London, 

* All specimens should be sent securely packed, and the 
address written on a label fastened to the string with which 
the package is tied. In the case of an answer, or insects being 
required to be returned, stamps sufficient to cover postage 
should be sent to me, 

D 2 

5 2 



By Bernard Thomas. 

I.— The Amceba. 

THE Amoeba is often chosen as a type of the 
animal cell. It is a single cell without 
modifications. For this reason and also because its 
study is, perhaps, the best introduction to the 
Infusoria, it is here introduced. 

The Protozoa forms the lowest group of the animal 
series, and correspondingly the Protophyta that of the 
plant series. These two groups, although differing 
in some ways, resemble each other in several other 
particulars, so that it may be doubtful in which 
kingdom to refer a particular organism. Thus we 
may draw a letter U, one limb of which represents 
the vegetable and the other the animal kingdom, 
while the connecting piece, in like manner, represents 
the unicellular organisms common to both. Professor 
Hackel's Protista* was intended to include that class 
of organisms intermediate between the two large 
biological kingdoms, but it unfortunately included 
multicellular as well as unicellular forms. 

The Amoeba (Fig. 25), the Protean animalcule, is 
to be found in almost all collections of ditch or pond- 
water, and when a familiar object the microscopist has 
usually not long to search for it. To those who 
have never seen it, it may be mentioned that it can 
usually be found in the water where dead flowers have 
been left to stand. With a fair instrument, and a 
magnifying power of two or three hundred diameters, 
its form and movements may be readily examined. 

In size it varies, some specimens may be so large as 
to be visible to the unaided eye, but this is by no 
means common, and others, again, require a power of 
three hundred diameters before they can be observed 
with any satisfaction. Its very irregular outline is 
constantly changing (Fig. 25 l>). The general sub- 
stance (described as protoplasm) is transparent, 
colourless and in places more or less granular. 
Sometimes it contains spaces filled with a more fluid 
material or with food, consisting of organisms, etc., 
it has "swallowed." Usually one of these spaces is 
contractile and known as the contractile vesicle, and 
somewhere in the protoplasmic mass a roundish body, 
the nucleus or endoplast, is to be distinguished. 

The protoplasm may be divided into two areas ; 
an internal, more granular endosarc, and an external, 
more hyaline ectosarc. The appearance may be 
compared to that of ground glass, fine in the former 
and coarse in the latter region. Some Amoeba are 
niore hyaline throughout, others more granular. 

The semi-fluid nature of the protoplasm is best 
understood by observing the formation of the pseudo- 
podia or processes which the Amoeba ever and anon 

* Hackel's Protista : i. Monera ; ii. Flagellata ; iii. Labrin- 
thula ; iv. Diatomese ; v. Phycochromaceas ; vi. Fungi ; vii. 
Myxomycetes; viii. Protoplasta ; ix. Noctiluca; x. Rhizo- 

thrusts forth. This phenomenon takes place in the 
following order : — 

(1.) A bulging of the ectosarc. 

(2.) The granules of the endosarc run rapidly into 
the process so formed. 

Sometimes, however, only the first part of this 
process is performed. The more fluid part of the 
protoplasm is the internal endosarc, and its fluidity is 
demonstrated by the quicker performance of the 
second stage than of the first. 

Apart from the formation of pseudopodia, however, 
there are movements constantly visible in the en- 
dosarc, which may be described as a kind of 

Fig. 25. — a, Amceba, showing contractile space [c. s.), nucleus 
(«.), food-vacuoles \f. v.), and pseudopodia. The endosarc is 
clearly marked from the ectosarc ; in the latter granules are 
seen, b, Amoeba, showing change of form after a few seconds. 
c, nucleus and contractile space very highly magnified. 

rotation similar to, but not so regular as, that seen in 
certain vegetable cells. 

With respect to the granules, these seem to be of 
two kinds, either coarse with well-defined outline, or 
small and faint. The pres*nce of the latter is 
explained by the theory that the protoplasm is a 
delicate network with a fluid substance filling its 
insterstices. The strands of the network are neither 
rigid nor constant, and it must not be supposed that 
they are arranged with any regularity. In places 
their absence is denoted by a vacuole, and the 
junction of the meshes by a granule (node). The 
contractile vesicle, if observed for any length of time, 
is seen to expand and contract. It has been supposed 
by some to represent a heart driving the fluid in all 
directions through the organism. It may be, perhaps, 
a rudimentary respiratory organ, by which the aeration 
of the protoplasm is brought about. But at present 
its function is uncertain, and it may simply be a mani- 



festation of the changes in the protoplasm or of the 
movements that are seen to take place within the 
organism. In some Amceba this organ appears to be 

The nucleus is not always easily seen in the Amceba, 
in some specimens none is discoverable, but when 
present it is seen to differ but slightly if at all in the 
refractive power of the general protoplasmic sub- 
stance. It is provided with a delicate membrane 
and internally is composed of a network, called 
intranuclear and somewhat similar to that of the 
general protoplasm. The nucleus (with few exceptions) 
is present in every cell, and plays an important part 
in the process of reproduction. It divides previously 
to the cell in simple asexual reproduction, and in the 
sexual method fusion of the two nuclei takes place. 

This short account of the morphology of the 
Amceba leads us to consider, briefly, what is known 
of the physiology of this interesting organism. 

The problem of how to introduce into its interior 
the food on which it subsists is answered by the 
Amceba readily and simply. At any part of its 
surface the food may enter ; the protoplasm flows 
round it, slowly engulfs it, and thus produces a food 
vacuole directly in contact with the protoplasmic 
substance. The digestion apparently without the aid 
of gastric juice, without, as far as we know, any 
special ferment for converting insoluble into soluble 
substances, is hard to understand. And we reach a 
very difficult problem in physiology when we try to 
solve how the matter is absorbed and converted into 
living material. In our own bodies the gastric juice 
and other ferment-containing substances are required 
to bring food directly in contact with the protoplasm 
of the cells of which we are built up ; but here we 
have food directly in contact with endosavc, dead 
protoplasm in contact with living ; and yet, though we 
have reached the most primitive form of assimilation 
in the animal kingdom, we are at a explain how 
it takes place. I have previously mentioned the con- 
tractile space and its supposed function, and the 
movements of protoplasm visible in the endosarc as 
well as the formation of pseudopodia by which 
locomotion is effected. 

■\Ye mnst consider the whole substance of the 
Amceba capable of performing the various functions 
of life ; and this teaches us an important lesson, that 
in spite of the absence of differentiation, nevertheless 
the cell is enabled to perform its various functions, 
and this we shall see later is not the case among the 

The eminently contractile nature of the protoplasm 
and its response to electrical, thermal and mechanical 
stimuli give us, perhaps, the first indication of a 
nervous and muscular system. The apparently pur- 
poseful movements of the Amceba, and still more of 
the higher Infusoria, their behaviour when they meet 
an obstacle or food, makes us almost fancy that they 
have at least the sense of touch and the will to act 

on that sensation. This may only be, however, the re- 
action of the protoplasm to a stimulus, non-intelligent, 
the result of a law due to the complex nature of the 
substance. Protoplasm is so complex, indeed, that 
in spite of the great advance of chemistry within 
recent years, we are unable to form an estimate 
of its composition. We know that the chief elements 
that compose it are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, 
oxygen, and a little sulphur and phosphorus, besides 
traces of other substances, and we have to remain 
satisfied with that. How these are built up, it is 
impossible to ascertain accurately, perhaps because 
of their complex arrangement into several groups and 
sub-groups loosely connected, and certainly because of 
the great practical difficulty of examining chemically 
a living material. 

This protoplasm is constantly being broken down 
and as constantly renewed. It resembles the cloud 
which clings to the mountain-top, remaining the same 
in form, but the individual particles that compose it 
ever changing. 

The study of the protean animalcule is the study of 

protoplasm ; and now with this introduction we will 

turn our attention to some members of the large class 


( To be continued.) 


MANY of my readers, geological and otherwise, 
have doubtless in the course of their ex- 
perience been frequently diverted by ideas, both 
curious and amusing, prevalent in regard to their 
particular fields of research, among those with whom 
they have come into contact as they sought for fossils, 
plants, or other objects of natural history ; but this is 
more particularly the case, I believe, with those who 
like myself have " woo'd the gentle fossil from his 
native rock." May I offer a selection of such as have 
come under my own notice, in the hope that the 
perusal may call up a smile to faces that are so 
generally weighted by nature's many-sided problems. 

It seems hardly possible that in these enlightened 
days the existence of the fossils in the rocks should 
remain a mystery, yet in many benighted districts, 
where I am compelled to suppose the foot of the 
geologist has seldom trod, people may still be found 
to whom the riddle is quite insoluble, and who 
remain provokingly sceptical in spite of explanations, 
which very often they themselves have called for. 
Such an one it was who enquired of me if my 
specimens were not more likely the result of the 
Deluge, some of the "wicked fishes" in fact, that 
perished by that catastrophe. 

A complete list of the names applied to fossils by 
the workmen in pits and quarries would form of itself 
an article of very considerable length : those given 
below are a few culled from the many. The heart- 
shaped Micraster is a "toad," a "snake's-heart," 



occasionally a "five-finger," and once I have heard it 
referred to as a " thunderbolt." The Galerites are 
" sugar-loaves," or "shepherd-crowns," and I have 
it on the authority of an old workman in a gravel-pit, 
that if done over with black-lead they are capital 
ornaments for the mantelpiece. The spines of Echi- 
noderms are generally "rolling-pins," but sometimes 
" graters" : Belemnites are " bolts," with " thunder" 
as an affix occasionally thrown in free gratis. Every 
variety of bivalve rejoices in one of two names, 
" cockle " or " oyster," although sometimes in the case 
of the former a distinction is drawn between the 
smooth and the ribbed. Palatal teeth are generally 
known as "slugs," on account of their resemblance 
to a brown wrinkled individual who may be seen 
wending his slimy way across the meadows after a 
heavy shower. Turritelbe and other spiral shells are 
known as "screws." 

At a small seaport, the name of which is usually 
associated with oysters, the cliffs are formed of the 
London clay, and large masses of this deposit are 
annually brought down by the waves and carried out 
to sea. . Many of the fossils from this formation may 
be found upon the beach, or upon the mud-flats left 
exposed at low tide, and conspicuous among them 
are numbers of reptilian teeth, the fangs of which are 
usually covered by a rounded nodule of hardened clay. 
With the natives these pass as " cramp-stones," and 
are said to be certain preventives of cramp, if worn 
about the person. Unfortunately there appears to be 
some difficulty experienced in keeping them upon the 
person when bathing. 

On one occasion, when hunting in a chalk-pit, I 
was accosted by a workman who had found several 
broken nodules of iron pyrites, and who also offered 
the original suggestion that they would look very nice 
under a glass case with some stuffed birds. The 
idea of stuffed birds as a background to a mass of iron 
pyrites struck me as being particularly happy, and not 
having been copyrighted, it is herewith offered to 
taxidermists and others, who may make any use of it 
that they think fit. At another time I had succeeded 
in disinterring irom a gravel-pit lying within the 
outworks of an old Roman fort, a tile and several 
fragments of pottery, undoubtedly Roman, which I 
found associated with a quantity of wood-ashes, the 
remains apparently of an ancient camp-fire. Sceptical 
friends, however, suggested "a Roman dust-heap," 
(sarcasm vulgaris.) The family washer-lady having 
once seen me cleaning and mounting a number of 
chalk-fossils, informed a crony that I was "making 
little ornaments with pipe-ciay." Hearing me refer 
to several specimens as Ammonites, caused a school- 
boy to enquire if they "were the things that fought 
against the children of Israel in the desert." And so 
on, ad libitum. I should only exhaust your patience 
by multiplying examples, so with the following 
anecdote I will close. A geologist had been absent 
from home for several days on a fossil -hunting ex- 

pedition, and on his return exhibited his specimens 
and narrated his adventures to a circle of friends, 
which included a native of Bedfordshire. None of his 
audience being acquainted with his favourite science, 
our geologist made a point of using the simplest 
language, and gave his account in the most lucid 
manner possible ; but inadvertently falling into a 
style that was to him quite as familiar, he spoke of 
the formations he had been studying as "arenaceous 
deposits," immediately afterwards adding that he had 
meant "sandy beds." " Ah," exclaimed the Bedford- 
shireman, " Sandy, Beds ; I know the place very weD, 
I was born there." The point is obvious, but the 
moral requires searching out, and will probably be 
found in the paradox, that if you are not compre- 
hended you are little likely to be misunderstood. 

But I have said enough to show that the study of 
science may often be rendered less tedious by 
occasional meteoric flashes of humour, and the path 
to knowledge made pleasant and cheerful by a due 
appreciation of their value. 

F. G. BlNG. 


By A. H. Shepherd. 

THE following notes are' compiled with a view to 
assist young naturalists who may not as yet 
have visited the above locality. They are intended 
not so much to form a list of species actually taken 
at one time ; but more as hints concerning such 
species as may be met with on the S.E. coast during 
the month of August. The district worked over 
extends from Ramsgate, by way of Sandwich, Deal, 
Walmer, and Dover, to Folkestone, and includes 
a considerable extent of the coast-line, with some 
variety of soil, producing its natural effect upon the 
botany of the district, and consequently upon the 
entomology also. All the places mentioned can be 
reached by rail, that is, within a reasonable walking- 
distance ; therefore the young naturalist, whatever 
may be his hobby, has only to proceed to that part of 
the route which he thinks may be most remunerative 
in his own particular branch of study, and begin 
collecting on the spot. 

Part I. — Ramsgate to Deal. 

From Ramsgate to Pegwell Bay is a pleasant walk, 
but there is little, if any collecting to be done until 
the naturalist reaches the latter place, where, how- 
ever, he may begin in earnest. If a conchologist, he 
may obtain, by searching the banks, roadsides, and 
broken ground, plenty of specimens of such species as 
Helix nemoralis, H. virgata, H. ericetorum, H. 
caperata, H. catitiana, and H. aspersa ; this latter 
species I have met with in great numbers on the road- 



sides after a shower of rain, but there did not appear 
to be a variety amongst them. A lepidopterist can 
do but little here, as only a few of the common 
species of butterflies and moths have been noticed ; it 
is possible, however, that something might be done in 

Following the path along the top of the chalk 
cliffs, which gradually descend, we arrive at a place 
called Cliffs End, which is correctly named, seeing 
that at this place the cliffs do end, and we stand 
nearly on a level with the bay itself. If we retrace 
our footsteps a short distance, only this time walking 
along the beach, instead of upon the cliffs, we shall 
observe that the strata are here composed of a kind 
of sandstone, of the formation known as Thanet 
Sands, in which may be noticed a very interesting 
layer of fossil shells. They appear to consist chiefly 
of only two or three species, of which one, a species 
of Cyprinidae, is by far the most common. From 
the loose and friable nature of the strata, it is almost 
impossible to obtain these fossils in a perfect condi- 
tion. It is also to be observed that where masses of 
the strata in question have fallen upon the beach and 
become subjected to the action of the sea-water, they 
have been converted into a very hard stone, without 
any trace of the fossils, which are apparently 
dissolved by the same action which hardens the 

Turning our attention to the beach itself, the 
young collector may obtain many specimens of the 
more common species of marine shells, but these are 
unfortunately in most cases empty or dead shells. I 
am informed that the spring months are the best 
times in which to collect marine species round this 
part of the coast. However, there is plenty to 
occupy a youDg collector on this beach. 

Returning to Cliffs End, we proceed to make our 
way round the bay. There is but little collecting to 
be done until we reach a point where the river Stour 
passes under the road to Sandwich ; here we turn 
aside from the road, and crossing the river by a ferry 
boat, follow a path through the fields, which after a 
long and somewhat uninteresting walk, brings us to a 
part of the beach called Shellness, where the young 
conchologist may obtain a great variety of species of 
marine shells, some of them rather rare ; the more 
common species are very plentiful. For a full list of 
the species to be taken here, I refer the reader to 
Mr. S. C. Cockerell's interesting paper in Science- 
Gossip for September 1883. Several species of 
Coleoptera may be obtained on the sands, in particular 
that rather local species Cicindela maritima, which 
sometimes occurs in considerable numbers, flying 
over and settling upon the hillocks of blown sand, 
through which the scanty grass and herbage makes 
its way. After proceeding a mile or more along the 
beach, the lepidopterist may enjoy some sport. By 
turning to the right he will find himself upon a wide 
expanse of nearly level ground, known as the " sand- 

hills," covered with coarse grass and various low- 
growing plants, where he may obtain several local 
species of moths, such as Aspilates citraria, Euiolia 
lineolata, and others, as well as the more common 
species of butterflies, such as Lyccena agrestis, L. alexis, 
Hesperia Hnea and others. After proceeding some 
distance to the right, the collector will reach a road 
or cart-track leading to Deal, on reaching which 
collecting ceases for the present. By following the 
track to Sandwich some good collecting in Lepidoptera 
may be done, in particular near the brackish drains 
or ditches where the herbage is most rank. Some 
local species of Coleoptera may be obtained here. 
The district near Deal has been, I believe, care- 
fully worked of late years by several experienced 
lepidopterists, particularly of a night, with good 
results. The writer's ill-health has, however, 
prevented him obtaining practical knowledge as to 
the results of night-work ; if, therefore, the young 
naturalist desires further information on this point, he 
is referred to several papers on this subject which 
have appeared from time to time in the pages of the 
entomological and other magazines. As regards 
botany there are many very interesting species to be 
obtained in this district ; for lists of plants and other 
information, see Science-Gossip for 1880. 

Part II. — Deal to Dover and Folkestone. 

After leaving Deal, the next good hunting-ground 
for the naturalist is Walmer, where much collecting 
may be done. The sloping chalk-banks on the right, 
which extend to the village of Kingsdown, are 
covered with various flowering plants, and on a fine 
day seem alive with various kinds of insects, com- 
prising Lepidoptera and Coleoptera in fair proportion. 
Of the former, I have met with representatives of 
nearly every family, some of the species being local, 
such as Liparis chrysorrhcea, which flies freely at dusk, 
the larvae web of the same being also found on the 
stunted hawthorn and blackthorn bushes. Acidalia 
ornata, Aspilates gilvaria, Emmelesia unifasciata, 
and many more. On the bedstraw (Galium mollugo), 
growing on the shingle, may be found the pretty 
larvae of Macroglossa stellatarum, the "humming- 
bird hawk -moth." In conchology most of the same 
species of Helix as before mentioned occur here, with 
the addition of Helix hispida var. nana under low- 
growing plants, and H. hispida var. albida, once found 
in the web of a moth, Liparis chrysorrhcea. 

On reaching Kingsdown the young naturalist will 
no doubt require rest and refreshment, and for this 
purpose he cannot do better than enter the " Rising 
Sun," which stands close to the road, and is there- 
fore convenient for those whose excited feelings 
prompt them to run out every time they think they 
see a rarity fly by. 

After leaving Kingsdown the cliffs begin to increase 
in height till we reach the coastguard station, near 



which is a gap or opening in the cliffs. The collecting 
here does not differ much from that on the other side 
of Kingsdown, but Gnophos obscurata and Mclanippe 
galiata are not uncommon, although rather local. 

From the coastguard station the cliffs again rise, 
becoming as we advance more and more abrupt, and 
in some places rising to a considerable height. 
Great masses of chalk occasionally fall,- blocking up 
the path and making the walking somewhat rough, 
but much good collecting may be done here — as before, 
mostly among the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The 
young botanist will, however, here find many small, 
but very interesting flowering plants ; the yellow- 
horned poppy (Glaucium luteum) also occurs on the 
beach. The young lepidopterist, too, will find plenty 
of Arge Galathea, Lyccena Corydon, Callimorpha 
dominula, and Aspilates gilvaria, besides numerous 
other species more or less common. 

The collecting along this portion of the route 
derives additional interest from the beauty of the 
surrounding scenery, having as we walk a fine view 
of the Channel and vessels of all sizes continually 
passing on the one hand, and the lofty chalk cliffs on 
the other. 

As we approach St. Margaret's Bay, a fine view 
opens out of the cliffs and downs which extend from 
the other side of the bay towards Dover, the white 
tower of the lighthouse being just visible above the 
hills. If the young naturalist has had tolerable sport, 
he will be glad to rest and refresh himself when he 
reaches the " Green Man Inn," St. Margaret's Bay. 
Leaving St. Margaret's Bay and working directly 
over the Downs towards the lighthouse, the collecting 
does not differ much from that on the other side of 
the bay, except that in Lepidoptera several species 
are wanting here that occur there, while on the other 
hand a few, such as Satyrus Semele and Eremobia 
ochrohuca occur here more commonly. 

The wind over the Downs is somewhat of a draw- 
back to the lepidopterist, taking the insects, as they 
rise, often quite out of the reach of the collector. I 
do not think there is very much collecting to be done 
near Dover, although such rare species as Argynnis 
lathonia and Driopeia pulchella are sometimes taken, 
yet they cannot be counted upon. 


By Percy G. Thompson. 

WITHIN the last few years the attention of 
rotifer-workers has been directed somewhat 
specially to the numerous forms of Rotifera frequently 
met with amidst damp moss. These are often quite 
characteristic of such habitat, many of them are 
seldom or never met with from the more open 
conditions of ponds, ditches, etc., and it is scarcely 
an exaggeration to say that a veritable series of forms 

exists — a sort of rotiferous moss-fauna — eminently 
typical of this chosen place of abode. 

Nor is it alone among aquatic moss, the Sphagnums 
and Fontinalis, that these moss-loving rotifers are to 
be found ; quite a goodly number of species frequent 
the terrestrial Hypnums and other of the more 
delicate and feathery genera growing upon old tree- 
stumps, or upon damp ground, and manage to find 
sufficient water for their active existence in the slight 
film retained between the thickly-clustered leaves. 
A fragment of such growing moss, taken almost at 
random from a promising tuft, and placed in a trough 
with added water, will usually within a few minutes 
be found to be the home of several, perhaps many, 
distinct species of Rotifera. 

Of the latter, it may be at once stated that a 
very considerable proportion belong to the Order 
Bdelloida, comprising those rotifers which (like 
Rotifer vulgaris) have a leech-like mode of locomotion 
by alternate elongation and contraction of the body, 
taking hold by turns with the head and foot at each 
stride. This predominance in numbers is, of course, > 
related to the well-known power of resisting drought 
which the Bdelloids possess in such eminent perfection, 
and which must very often be called into requisition 
during dry weather, in the peculiar habit at which 
the moss frequenters have chosen. But not only 
Bdelloids, but also many of the true " free-swimmers " 
( Ploima), are of frequent occurrence under like condi- 
tions, and subject to the same variations in, or even 
temporary failure of, the supply of the important 

Probably as a direct consequence of such vacilla- 
tion in their water-supply, nearly all the forms of 
moss-haunting rotifera are of noticeably small size, 
and of comparatively insignificant, unattractive 
appearance, and in many cases require very consider- 
able study, with high microscopic powers, to 
satisfactorily elucidate their specific characters. We 
do not get among them the fine handsome forms, the 
Brachions, or the Asplanchnas, or the Euchlanis, 
which love to rove at large in the infinitely greater 
waters of ponds ; and perhaps for this very reason, 
and the difficulty experienced in making out their 
distinctive points, most workers at this class of 
animals have hitherto more or less avoided the study 
of the moss-dwellers. But it is just among these 
insignificant forms, that often will not fit in with the 
published descriptions so exactly as the observer 
could wish, that most work remains to be done in the 
determination of new species, and I need only refer 
to the recent articles in this paper by my friend 
Mr. Bryce, to show what is possible in this direction. 

The following short list of Rotifera will serve to 
indicate those forms which, in my own experience, 
are most typical of the above habitats. Among 
damp terrestrial mosses and Jungermannia may be 
found Macrotrackela conslricta, M. elegans, M. muscu- 
losa, M. quadricornifera, Adineta vaga, Digletia 



rnustela, Stepkanops stylatus, Monostyla arcuata, and 
Mr. Bryce has even seen several impoverished- 
looking Floscules living under these, for a Rhizotan, 
remarkable conditions of environment. Amongst 
the water-loving Sphagnum are to be met with, in 
addition to the forms already mentioned, Philodina 
macrostyla, Rotifer vulgaris, Macrotrachela Roeperi, 
M. reclusa (these last two parasitic within the cortical 
cells of the Sphagnum-stems), Notops hyptopiis, 
Diaschiza pceta, Dislyla plexitis, D. depressa, Mono- 
styla lunaris, M. cornuta, Colnrus caudatus, and 
Anuria serrulate. 

With these introductory remarks, I proceed to the 
description of two new forms which have occurred 
to me from among terrestrial mosses during the past 
few months. 

Macrotrachela multispinosa. 

The genus Macrotrachela was instituted by Mr. 
Milne,* to include those three-toed Callidina; in 
which, besides the general absence of eye-spots, the 
whole of the post-intestinal portion of the body (i.e. 
from the cloacal orifice to the extremity of the foot) 
is constantly of less length, often very markedly so, 
than the pre-intestinal region (i.e. from the mastax to 
the extreme front of the body) ; the foot is therefore 
necessarily very short, and its spurs are of notably 
minute size. All are oviparous species. Dr. Hudson 
does not (or did not up to 1SS9) recognize this genus, 
and refuses to separate it from the older Callidina, 
under which latter generic name several of Milne's 
species of Macrotrachela are included in the " Sup- 
plement"! It is true that no better generic distinc- 
tion between the two has yet been diagnosed than the 
seemingly arbitrary one of relative lengths above 
given, but it is no less true that all the species of 
Macrotrachela agree closely with each other in 
regard to general appearance and structure, and in 
habits, and appear to constitute a very satisfactory 
and distinct genus by themselves. The mere non- 
presence of eyes is no longer a sufficient character on 
which to base a rotiferous genus, as was done with 
Callidina. One of the Macrotrachelas (M. Roeperi) 
has itself a pair of distinct frontal red ocular spots, 
and the neighbouring genus, Adineta, originally 
instituted from the knowledge of a single species 
with the generic character "eyes absent," now 
presents the anomaly of a second species, since 
discovered, possessing very conspicuous visual 

While it is thus apparent that the present genera 
of Bdelloida will need revision in the future, when 
further discriminating characters may have been 
detected, the general, and I think the increasing, 
feeling among rotifer-workers is that the genus 

'Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgow," 1883-6. 

' The Rotifera; Supplement, 1889." Longmans. 

Macrotrachela is a good one, and for these reasons I 
adopt it here. 

The present species occurred to me amongst some 
Jungermannia gathered from damp ground in a 
swampy, wooded hollow at Wanstead Park, Essex, 
in October last. It is, for its genus, a large bulky 
species, and is rendered very distinct from any of its 
fellows by the curious long chitinous spines or bristles 
with which its integument is furnished, and which, 
when the creature is retracted, (Fig. 26), give it a 
very unapproachable aspect. These bristles are not 
scattered haphazard over the surface of the body, but 
are arranged in definite order at particular spots. A 
half-whorl of eight spines occurs upon the ventral 
surface of the thicker basal portion of the neck ; of 
these eight (Fig. 30), the outer or most marginal pair 
are very long and directed downwards, the next pair 
are shorter, and the central four mere tiny points ; 
together they, form a spinous half-collar round the 
neck, and possibly aid in locomotion by catching on 
to the surface over which the animal is crawling. No 
trace of spines is seen upon the dorsal surface of the 

Upon the trunk the spines are all confined to the 
dorsal and lateral surfaces, the venter being quite free 
from these appendages — unlike the neck, where, as 
just stated, the reverse is the case. Numerous 
bristles, those nearest the front of great length, occur 
towards the lateral aspects of the trunk, arranged 
along two longitudinal submarginal ridges on each 
side ; a third, more ventral, and less distinct ridge, 
runs parallel with these, on each side, and bears 
several very minute blunt projections. Across the 
middle of the back runs transversely an elevated 
ridge, which bears four short conical blunt spines at 
the points where the longitudinal ridges of the trunk 
meet the cross-ridge— in addition to those longer 
lateral spines where it joins the lateral longitudinal 
ridges. The transverse ridge, and its spines, are 
best observed in a retracted individual (Fig. 26), 
when the points are seen to project stiffly upwards as 
a defence to the back ; when the creature is fully 
extended, as when crawling, the ridge itself is almost, 
though not fully, obliterated, and its spines likewise 
become less distinct. A couple of small spines, close 
together, occur upon the median line of the back, in 
front of the ridge. Further back, the trunk presents 
an always conspicuous transverse fold of the integu- 
ment at a point where, in retraction, a sudden 
diminution in its width sets' in. This fold bears 
dorsally some five minute, pointed projections, 
sometimes placed at unequal intervals, as well as a 
pair of larger spines on each side terminating the 
lateral longitudinal ridges. 

Yet more to the rear, upon the narrower portion of 
the trunk, occur, also dorsally, two cross-rows of 
short, sharp, conical spines, five spines to each row, 
the outer or most lateral one on each side being 
slightly larger than the median three, in each case. 






. \ 

t Ml t 



.- -^ -i - 

Fig. 26.— .17 ' acrotrachcla imiltispinosa, n. sp., retracted, 
dorsal view. 

Fig. 27. — Ditto, retracted, ventral view. 


>T ^ 

Fig. 28.— Ditto, optical section Fig. 29.— Ditto, foot-spurs, 
through neck, showing spin- dorsal and lateral views, 

ous half-collar. 


Fig. 33.—^ ' acroirachela fapillosa, foot-spurs, 
dorsal view. 

Fig. 30. — Macroirachda fapillosa, n. sp., dorsad 
view, corona expanded. 





Fig. 3T. — Ditto, dorsal view, retracted. 


' ■ . . ■ ■ 


Fig. 32.— Ditto, ventral view, retracted. 

All {except Figs. 29 and 33} are drawn to uniform scale, viz. X 300 diam. 



Between the two rows are a pair of sharp spines 
occurring close together, side by side, upon the 
mid-dorsal line. The anus 'opens just behind the 
more posterior of the two rows, whose spines are 
always conspicuous from apparently terminating the 
body as the animal lies back upon its retracted foot. 
All the dorsal spines upon the trunk project upwards 
in a formidable manner as the creature crawls, but 
incline backwards when the animal is retracted. 

Upon the foot itself at least two rows of small 
spinous points exist, crossing the dorsal surface 
transversely, as "well as probably a few scattered 
spines ; but as this appendage is usually quite hidden 
within the trunk, except when the animal is crawling, 
the exact number and position of the foot-spines is 
not easily arrived at, nor is this at all important. 

The longest bristles upon the body equal in length 
the dorsal antenna ; they are swollen at their bases so 
as to remind one of a nettle-hair seated upon its 
basal bulb. 1 have met with specimens in which the 
spinous appendages were not provided with the long 
terminal setae usual in other individuals, but this is 
evidently a mere unimportant variation, the result 
of accident, for I have seen, on another specimen, a 
spine evidently (from its unsymmetrical condition to 
its fellow) broken off above the swollen basal portion, 
and another bent sharply at right angles at the same 

The only Macrotrachela hitherto known as possess- 
ing spinous processes is M. aculeata (Milne), but in it 
these are all wide scale-like processes resembling 
those of Philodina aculeata, and very different from 
the long bristles of the present species ; curiously 
enough, Mr. Bryce has found a third spine-bearing 
form, distinct from either of the preceding, which 
he has described at a recent meeting of the Quekett 
Club, under the name of M. sfinosa. 

The general shape of the body when the coronal 
lobes are expanded, bears a resemblance to that of 
M. quadricornifera, but with, of course, the addition 
of the spines ; the coronal wheels also resemble that 
species, except that they are narrower. In M. mul- 
iupinosa, the moderately wide corona expands 
scarcely wider than the neck, and consists of two 
distinct lobes, separated by a noticeably deep square 
sinus, in width equal to half that of each "wheel." 

The neck is but little more than one-third the 
greatest width of the trunk, and the fully-expanded 
coronal wheels less than one-half the latter. 

The frontal column is thick, cylindrical, moderately 
long (about same length as the dorsal antenna), and 
terminated by strongly developed cilia beneath a 
minute hood. 

The dorsal antenna is rather more than three- 
quarters neck-width in length, stout, two-jointed, and 
with three terminal tufts of parallel-projecting setse : 
it can be slightly nodded, in a similar manner to 
what is seen, very much more evidently, in Rotifer 

Eye-spots are entirely wanting. The mastax 
exhibits two prominent thick teeth crossing each 
ramus, and numerous fine striae. 

The food within the stomach is not moulded into 
pellets, as is constantly done in some allied species ; a 
host of small spherical globules do occur within the 
body, and are liable to be mistaken for food-pellets, 
especially as they are frequently seen moving about 
en masse. These globules represent, I think, the 
highly sacculated, thick, glandular wall of the 
stomach, beneath which the minutely granular food 
may be seen turning over and over locally within the 
central lumen, by the action of the lining cilia. The 
intestine wall is thin and non-glandular. 

A large opaque brown ovum within one individual 
bore witness to the oviparous mode of reproduction. 
The foot-spurs, seen dorsally, appear as very small, 
blunt cones, as figured, with an interspace between : 
in side view, they are seen to be very slightly 
decuived. The toes, apparently three in number, 
are thick, fleshy, and truncate, with distinct ducts 
running through them. 

All the specimens of this form that I have seen have 
been extremely sluggish creatures, lying in the retracted 
condition, with both the fore-parts and the foot with- 
drawn within the trunk, in the manner customary 
with Bdelloids, often for many hours at a time. For 
this reason, it is considerably difficult to hit upon an 
individual nicely expanded and feeding, with rotating 
wheels, so as to secure a sketch of the animal in that 
state ; especially as specimens are few and far 
between. The body is much flattened from dorsum 
to venter and broad in its central part, both in 
retraction and when expanded. The animal varies 
in colour from a scarcely perceptible yellow tinge, 
almost colourless, to a decided brownish yellow, in 
different specimens, probably according to age. 

When fully outstretched, the trunk is seen to pass 
backwards gradually into the foot, which is very 

The individuals of this species have a characteristic 
mode, when feeding, of sitting up upon their retracted 
foot, supported by the five small spines upon the rear 
of the trunk, and with their bodies held upwards in 
the water at an angle, and wheels rotating. 

The length of the animal, as retracted, varies from 
r.' m inch to T J 3 inch in different specimens ; when 
sitting back upon the foot, rotating, about ^ inch. 

Sf. Chars: — Body broad and flattened, yellowish 
or brownish, furnished with numerous long bristles 
and shorter spines arranged along definite lines, the 
longest bristles with slightly bulbous bases. Corona 
moderately wide, scarcely wider than the neck, of 
two distinct lobes, with a deep square dorsal gap 
between. Dorsal antenna rather more than three- 
quarters neck-width, with three terminal tufts of 
parallel setEe. Rami with two prominent teeth. 
Food in stomach not in pellets. Foot-spurs minute, 
blunt cones. 



Macrotrachela papulosa. 

As long ago as July 1S89, amongst the beautiful 
feather moss, T/iuidium tamariscinum, growing in a 
thicket at Hindover, in Sussex, I met with a Callidina 
which presented the peculiarity of being covered, 
about its foot, wilh conspicuous blunt papillae. But a 
solitary individual was seen, and a rough sketch and 
a few notes were all that could be secured of the 
unfamiliar form. I never came across a second 
specimen until in September last, when examples of 
what is evidently the same creature occurred to .me 
from similar moss taken from old tree-stumps in 
Epping Forest, near Chingford ; and I have since 
seen numerous other specimens from near Epping, 
again amongst Thuidiicm, and also from Wanstead 
Park. These more recent examples I now proceed 
to describe. 

The most obvious characteristic of this form, next 
to the possession of the tubercles already referred to, 
is that the greater portion of the integument is very 
beautifully marked wilh fine raised dots, giving a 
shagreened appearance to the skin. This dotting is 
most evident upon the dorsal surface, but occurs also 
upon the ventral face both of the trunk and the neck- 
base, only those portions of the foreparts and foot 
being destitute of the shagreening which are not 
exposed during complete retraction of the creature. 
Even the tubercles themselves are covered with dots. 

The general disposition of the papilla; follows that 
of the spinous processes of the last described species. 
Indeed, so similar in this respect, as well as in the 
broad, flattened outline of the body, and the pro- 
portions of the corona, are the two species, that I 
have hesitated between regarding them as distinct 
forms, or as merely extreme varieties of one species. 
But, in addition to the fact that I have not found the 
two intermingled in one gathering, the constant 
differences in the form of the foot-spurs, and the 
number of teeth upon the rami, and the presence of 
the peculiar skin-marking in the present form (which 
is never seen in multispinosa), make it clear that we 
have to deal with distinctly separate species. 

The integument is, in M. papulosa, evidently of 
considerable firmness of texture, since it resists 
decomposition long after the removal of the soft 
internal tissues. I have seen empty skins, with their 
tubercles and dotting complete ; the stiffened in- 
tegument thus approaching in character the fully 
chitinized lorica of Dinocharis. 

Upon the neck, at the level of the dorsal antenna, 
and close behind the position of the infolded coronal 
lobes, occurs a blunt angular projection upon each side, 
wilh a half-circlet of small rounded papilla; ventrally. 
The succeeding, basal neck-segment bears two con- 
spicuous, down-curved, blunt or acute, conical 
lateral protuberances, having very wide bases. These 
processes upon the neck project from and serve to 
guard the anterior opening of the body in complete 

retraction of the animal. The thick basal neck-joint, 
though itself fully of as stout consistence as the tiunk 
and similarly shagreened, has its anterior border of 
membranous texture, and this frilled edge covers in 
and protects the more frontal parts during retraction. 

The bold lateral skin-corrugations of the trunk 
bear several usually prominent blunt projections 
corresponding to the bristle-like appendages of M. 
multispinosa. The dorsal longitudinal folds of the 
integument are indistinct in retraction, but usually 
very conspicuous when the creature crawls. The 
rearmost segment of the trunk, just above the cloacal 
orifice, bears a dorsal row of five conspicuous 
tubercles arranged transversely ; these vary in differ- 
ent individuals from mere hemispherical knobs to 
quite elongated digitiform processes, but are always- 
prominent objects, since they form the apparent 
termination of the body as the creature lies with foot 
retracted within the trunk. In some specimens, if 
not in all, an extra papilla, smaller and less notice- 
able, occurs upon each side of the obvious five. 
Immediately in front of this cross row, the same 
hindmost trunk-segment bears a pair of tubercles, 
closely approximated side by side upon the median 
dorsal line, and further forward, a single median 
pimple ; all these are plainly shagreened, like the 
general surface of the body. No ventral papilla; 
exist upon either trunk or foot. 

The very short foot, of four joints, carries two 
cross-rows of small tubercles dorsally, six papilla; to 
each row, those of the hinder row very irregular and 
truncated projections. The third foot-joint bears the. 
usual spurs, which are very small, blunt, obliquely 
apiculated processes, with no interspace ; in shape 
they somewhat resemble those of AT. guadricomi/era.. 
The foot ends in three very short, thick, truncate,, 
fleshy toes. 

The expanded corona is identical with that of 
multispinosa, of two distinct lobes, with a deep 
median sulcus equal in width to half each wheel ; the 
whole being a little wider than the neck, and just 
half the greatest widlh of the trunk. 

The frontal column is fairly long and stout, ter- 
minated by the usual decurved membranous hood, 
appealing hook-like in side aspect, beneath which are 
strong active cilia, forming the anterior disk foe 
attachment of the animal when crawling. 

The dorsal antenna is long, equalling in length the 
column, and very nearly or quite equal to the neck- 
width ; it is two-jointed, constricted below its- 
summit, and bears thereon three diverging tufts of but 
slightly radiating long seta;. 

The mastax is rond-ovate, and each ramus is. 
crossed by three prominent teeth, with a fainter 
fourth. The salivary gland apparently unilobed, 
and very granular in one specimen. 

Food in stomach not moulded into pellets. Paired, 
gonads and moderate contractile vesicle normal. 
Lateral canals not detected. 



The trunk and basal neck-joint have a brownish 
hue, while the retractile foot and fore-parts are quite 

Several individuals were noticed surrounded by, 
and dragging about, small masses of adherent 
floccose, but the majority are quite clean. One 
specimen remained healthy and active for days, 
while infested with some schizomycetous fungus 
growing from its integument. Length, when re- 
tracted, S55 inch to t^ inch. 

Sp. Chars. Body broad and flattened, brownish, 
with prominent tubercles upon the trunk and foot. 
Xeck with angular lateral projections. Integument 
shagreened. Corona moderately wide, a little wider 
than neck, of two well-separated lobes. Dorsal 
antenna equal to neck-width. Rami with 3 promi- 
nent teeth, and a fainter fourth. Food not in pellets. 
Foot-spurs small, apiculate, without interspace, 
resembling those of quadrkomifera. 

By F. Edward Hulme, F.L.S., F.S.A. 

THE love of the marvellous is deeply engrained in 
human nature. We may see abundant proof 
of this in such classic myths as the Sirens, in the 
monstrous forms carved or depicted in the temp'es 
of Egypt or Mexico, in the popularity of such books 

as the Arabian Nights' Tales, or the adventures of 
Gulliver, down to the fearful joy of the youngsters in 
the nursery in the sanguinary giant whose food was 
the blood of Englishmen. 

" Far away in the twilight time 
Of every people, in every clime, 
Dragons and griffins and monsters dire, 
Bom of' water or air or fire, 
Crawl and wriggle and foam wilh rage 
Through dark tradition and ballad age.'* 

The fell harpies, the monstrous roc, the- death- 
dealing basilisk, the phcenix, the chimaara, the mon- 
strous kraken, the deadly cockatrice, the fire-drake, 
Dagon (half-man, half-fish), the vulture-headed Nis- 
roch, the treacherous Lorelei, sweet Queen Mab of 
.fairyland, fiery dragons, ghastly wehr-wolves, mer- 

Fig. 36. 

maids, centaurs, together with the great sea-serpent,, 
the toad embedded for countless centuries in the rock, 
and other wonders that still turn up from time to 
time during the dull season in the newspapers, are 
but a few examples that at once occur to one's, 
thoughts. Ovid and Pliny in their day went to very 



considerable lengths to satisfy this love of the mar- 
vellous ; in the middle ages writers not a few dis- 
coursed of dog-headed men, of pigmies, of "the 
anthropophagi, and men whose heads do grow beneath 
their shoulders," while no country fair in this present 
year of grace would be considered by its patrons at . 
all up to date unless it included a giant and a dwarf, 
together with a two-headed calf or some such 

To deal at all comprehensively in the limits of an 
article with a subject so far-reaching is a manifest 
impossibility. We propose, therefore, to touch upon 
but a few mediaeval examples, being more especially 

struck by the impossibility of producing anything 
really original in the way of monsters. The Chinese, 
perhaps, have come as near to it as any people, 
in their strange grotesques, but all the various 
modifications, no matter how weird and bizarre they 
may be, have no absolute originality ; they are 
merely the combination, addition, suppression, or 
exaggeration of various natural forms, or possibly 
owe their wonder to a mere alteration of scale. 
Thus the chimcera slain by Bellerophon had the 
head and body of a lion and a tail like a serpent, 
while from its back rose the head of a goat ; while 
another well-known combination is the human head 

Fi S- 37- 

Fig. 38. 

inspired to do so by a book open before us, the 
" Historia Monstrorum " of Aldrovandus. With one 
exception (Fig. 37), we have derived our illustrations 
from this work. The book in question is of folio 
size and full of engravings of the quaintest description ; 
it was published at Bologna in 1642 and is one of a 
series of books on natural (or in this special case 
unnatural) history, written by this old author and 
published sometimes at Bologna, sometimes at Venice, 
sometimes at Frankfort. As all alike were written in 
Latin and appealed to the cultured of all Europe, the 
actual place of their production was a matter of but 
little moment. 

In looking into the whole matter one is at once 

and body and the piscine extremities that go to build up 
a mermaid. As examples of addition, the unicorn is 
but a horse plus a horn ; while the cyclops, with his 
one eye, or the headless men, are instances of mon- 
strosity springing from suppression. The Fanesii, a 
tribe said to live in the far north, were credited with 
ears so long and pendulous that they could wrap 
themselves up in them, a charming arrangement of 
Nature to supply the overall or great coat that the 
climatic conditions rendered so necessary ; while the 
author of " Guerino Meschino " writes of Indians 
with feet so large that they raised them over their 
heads to avoid sunstroke, another interesting illus- 
tration of the adaptability of Nature to the needs of 



her children. Each of these latter examples clearly 
falls into our section of monsters developed by the 
exaggeration of forms in themselves natural. The 
mere alteration in scale gives us dwarfs, pigmies, 
fairies and giants, or such an imagining as the kraken, 
or the creature mentioned in the Arabian Nights, a 
fish so immense that mariners take it for an island, 
and land thereon, only finding out the error of their 
view as the increasing heat of the fire they have 
kindled produces the sudden submergence of what 
they had deemed terra-firma. 

The wondrous creatures of Aldrovandus are divisible 
into three classes : — creatures that are absolute im- 
possibilities, such as (Fig. 35), " homo ore et collo 
gruis," a man having the head and neck of a crane ; 
secondly, various species of malformation and abnor- 
mal growth, which do undoubtedlv occur from time 

knees, a man with the head of a wolf, the lady 
(Fig. 34), who is distinctly of harpy type, a ram- 
headed individual, and a boy with the head of an 

This notion of the substitution of heads has a great 
charm for Aldrovandus. He gives us elsewhere a 
bird-headed dog, and horses, goats, pigs and lions, 
all with human heads ; while the " Monstrum 
triceps capite vulpis, draconis et aquilre " is, we 
venture to think, a creature that neither Aldrovandus, 
nor anyone else, ever did see or ever will see. 
According to the picture it had a human body and 
legs, differing, however, from those of ordinary 
humanity in being clothed with large scales. One arm 
was like that of a man, the other was the wing of an 
eagle, and a horse's tail in rear was another distinctly 
abnormal growth, while surmounting all were three 

F'g- 39- 

to time ; and thirdly, other forms suggested by this 
second class, but altogether carried to impossible 

It is of course easy, having realised that a lizard 
with a forked tail is somewhat of a curiosity, to make 
a much greater wonder by representing a ten-tailed 
lizard ; and while a boy born without arms is a painful 
possibility, the wonder is undoubtedly greatly increased 
by also cutting off his legs and replacing them with 
the tail of a fish. 

The creature he calls hippopos, having the head, 
arms, and body of a man, but terminating below in 
the legs and hoofs of a horse, was, though here only 
two-legged, probably suggested by the centaur myth. 
Amongst the other impossibilities, which, it must be 
borne in mind, the old writer brings forward in the 
most perfect good faith, is a man of normal growth, 
except that he has elephantine ears that reach to his 

heads, those of a wolf, a dragon, and an eagle. There 
are many other such atrocities ; while they are curious 
as showing the depth of credulity our forefathers 
could reach, it will readily be seen that they are the 
dullest things possible. Anyone with a slight know- 
ledge of zoology could create them by the score, 
placing, for instance, on the neck of a giraffe the 
head of an elephant, giving it the body of an alii 
gator, and finishing off all neatly with the tail of a 

The multiplication or suppression, or distortion of 
various parts is a very strong point with Aldrovandus. 
He illustrates for our benefit four-legged ducks and 
pigeons, and two-headed pigs, sheep, cows, and 
fishes ; calves, dogs, hares, each walking erect on 
their hind-legs and having no front ones, and pigs, 
cats, dogs, chickens, double-bodied but single-headed. 
He also tells us of headless men, and gives us a draw- 

6 4 


ing of one, neckless, having the ears rising from the 
shoulders, mouthless, the nose a proboscis, a foot or 
so long ; this and the eyes are on the back of the 
figure. Fig. 36 we may fairly include as an example 
of distortion, while Fig. 40 is a monstrosity produced 
by suppression. In another place he gives a drawing 
of a man having two eyes in their natural position, 
and beyond each of these another. 

One quaint picture shows us two men wearing 
large ruffs and habited in quite the costume of " the 
upper ten" of the seventeenth century, but their faces 
are covered with thick hair, their eyes peeping out 
like those of a Skye terrier. This idea k was too 
grotesque not to utilise to the utmost, so the next 
picture is that of a young lady in the same plight. 

It was a favourite mediaeval theory that all creatures 
■of the land had their marine counterparts. " There 
is nothing," says the comparatively modern writer 
Camden, " bred in any part of Nature, but the 
same is in the sea " ; while Claus Magnus affirms 
that " there be fishes like to dogs, cows, calves, 

Fig. 40. 

liorses, eagles, dragons, and what not." These 
mysterious denizens of the deep were an unfailing 
resource in the romances and poems of the middle 
ages, and an article of faith with the writers on 
natural history. On the Assyrian slabs we see the 
"monster, upward man, and downward fish," while 
the mermaid we all recognise !as a most familiar 
instance of this belief in the presence of creatures at 
least semi-human in the broad and mysterious expanse 
of ocean. Bcewolf, the Saxon poet, writes of " the 
sea-wolf of the abyss, the mighty sea-woman." The 
•quotation is not altogether complimentary in its 
sentiment : no lady of one's acquaintance would feel 
flattered on being addressed as a sea-wolf. But 
while a certain halo of romance has in these later 
days gathered round the idea of the mermaiden, 
those who really believed in her gave her credit for 
deeds considerably more heinous than combing her 
flowing hair in the sunlight, since her beauty was a 
snare and destruction to those who came within its 
fatal influence. 

This belief in sea-monsters of all kinds was 
naturally not a chance that a man like Aldrovandus 
would miss. He gives his imagination full scope, or 
perhaps we should rather say his credulity, as he 
introduces these creatures to us as things as real as 
a rabbit ; his sea-monk, for instance, with tonsured 
human head, arms replaced by fins, and legs by fishy 
tail, being as matter-of-fact as one's vicar. Fig. 41 
is given in all good faith as the true presentment of 
a sea-bishop, though not at all our notion of a bishop 
in his see. The right hand, it will be seen, is giving 

the benediction. The dragon of the deep (Fig. 37) 
aims at being terrible, but merely succeeds in being 
feeble. We cannot but feel that the draughtsman 
here failed to reach our ideal. One has certainly 
seen many representations of land-dragons far more 
fear-inspiring than this bloated monster with ears 
like a king Charles spaniel, and tail like a rat. 
This illustration is from another source, the work of 
Ambrosinus on the same subject, published " per- 
missu superiorum " in the year 1642. While the 
book is as quaint and grotesque as any of its rivals, 



the skill of the engraver has in divers cases not 
paralleled the gifts of description of the author. 

The monstrosus sus marinus, or terrible sow of 
the sea, or more especially perhaps of Aldrovandus 
(Fig. 3S), will surely come up fully to everyone's 
expectation of what a marine pig should be like. 
Catching a weasel asleep should be a comparatively 
easy task to circumventing sus marinus : it seems such 
a peculiarly wide-awake animal. Possibly in the 
struggle for existence in the watery depths its tooth- 
some flesh may place it in jeopardy, and Nature may 
have bestowed on it these numerous eyes to enable it 
to evade dragons and other foes having a penchant for 
pork ; a rather unexpected addition to the various 
better-known examples of that comfortable doctrine 
for the well-to-do, the survival of the fittest. 

Another of the strange creatures of ocean is shown 
in Fig. 39. It is somewhat startling to reflect that 
our ancestors had at least the expectation that such a 
monster might at any moment rise alongside their 
vessel and address them in the imperious tones that 
the figure suggests ; and it must be borne in mind 
that these illustrations are not a tithe of the strange 
imaginings that even thisone old book sets forth, though 
it is needless to further multiply examples. We have 
carefully drawn our figures in facsimile from the 
originals, and have nought extenuated, nor set down 
aught in malice. They are fairly typical examples of 
the sort of thing that is encountered on page after 

Apart from these various monsters and the hundreds 
of others that keep them company, Aldrovandus seems 
to have been always accessible to anyone who could 
bring him one wonder the more ; hence he also figures 
a bunch of grapes terminating in a long beard ; 
representations of cloud-warriors in conflict in the 
sky ; comets like flaming swords, and many other 
wonderful things that set our ancestors wondering in 
fear and amazement as to what such portents should 

While we may wonder at the credulity of those 
who wrote and read such books, the love for the 
marvellous — witness spiritualism — has by no means 
died out amongst us. Barnum's stuffed mermaid was 
a wonder not by any means to be missed by thousands 
of people who were born centuries after Aldrovandus, 
while a book on natural history in our possession, 
that was published in London in 1786, gravely 
describes the unicom, the several kinds of dragons, 
the lamia, the manticora, and other fabulous creatures 
in the same matter-of-fact way that it deals with the 
horse or the cow. 

The whole world has now been so ransacked that 
there is little room in these times for the imagination to 
play ; but in mediaeval days travellers brought back 
such wonderful stories — some of them true, and 
others, perhaps, a little wanting in that respect — of 
the things that they had seen, that almost anything 
then seemed a possibility. 


By the Author of " An Illustrated Handbook of 
British Dragon-flies," " A Label List of British 
Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


SITUATED in the South-East of England and 
adjacent to the Continent, this district, as may 
be expected, constitutes one of the richest for insect 
life in this country. More species of Dragon-flies 
have probably been recorded within its area than in 
any other in the British Isles. 

That delightful domain Epping Forest certainly 
ranks second to none in England, for the richness of 
its dragon-fly fauna, combined with sylvan scenery 
which is of the most delightful description imagin- 
able. Every enthusiastic London entomologist ought 
certainly to be thankful that he has at his doors such 
a treasure-house of insect life as this vast forest con- 
stitutes itself to be. 

The following are the names of some of the dragon- 
flies which have been recorded as having occurred in 
Epping Forest : — Leptetrinn quadrimaadata and 
variety pmnubila (plentiful), Sympetnt-m vidgatum 
(very abundant), Gomphus vidgatlssivms, Anax 
formosus, Brachytron pratense, j&schna mixta, /E. 
cyanea, Calopteryx virgo, C. splendens, Lestes nympha, 
L. sponsa and Agrion mercurlale, (the latter very local 
species has been taken here, I believe, by Mr. W. II. 
Nunney. It is only known to occur in one other 
locality in the British Isles, namely in the New 

The following is a complete list of the species of 
dragon-flies which have been known to occur in the 
metropolitan district, with the localities where they are 
found (excluding Epping Forest) : — Platetrum 
depressun (very common), Leptetrum quadrimaadata 
(common, the variety pnenubila occurs at Godalming, 
in Surrey), Libclhda fidva (marshes in the vicinity 
of Bermondsey), Orthetrum candescens (found not 
uncommonly in the metropolitan district, particularly 
in the vicinity of Godalming, and used to occur plenti- 
fully in some marshy ground at Hampstead, where, 
however, it is probably now extinct), 0. cancellation 
(Croydon canal and neighbourhood abundant, marshes 
in the vicinity of Crayford and Dartford, also Peck- 
ham and Honour Oak Wood), Lcucorrhinia pectoralis 
(this species is included in the British list on the 
strength of one specimen only, which was captured on 
a boat at Sheerness in January i860, and subsequently 
exhibited at a meeting of the Entomological Society 
of London. It ,had most probably been conveyed, 
over here from the opposite shores of Belgium, and I 
may remark thafit was described by Dr. H. A. Hagen 
in 1S57, in the " Entomologist's Annual " of that date, 
as a species which was likely to occur in this country, 



although it had not previously been turned up on this 
side of the English Channel. The specimen under 
consideration was most probably a hibernated 
example), Sympetrum vidgatum (very common, I have 
seen this in great abundance at Heme Bay and else- 
where), .S. meridionale (only two specimens of this 
insect have ever been taken in this country, both in 
the metropolitan district ; they were formerly included 
in the celebrated collections of Messrs. Evans and 
Wailes), S. Fooscolombii (this species has only been 
captured in this country on three occasions, one of 
which happened in the metropolitan district, a second 
one occurring at Deal), .S. flaveolum (this has been 
taken in several places in the vicinity of London. In 
the year 1871 several examples were seen in the 
Strand by Mr. McLachlan ; in the year mentioned 
it was exceedingly common in the metropolitan 
district), S. sanguineum (Birch Wood, Colney Hatch, 
Coombe Wood, Deptford and Dover), Cordulia tznea 
(occurs at Godalming in Surrey, and Woodford in 
Essex ; several specimens have also been taken in the 
neighbourhood of Hampstead), Gomphusvulgatissimus 
(has been taken at Highgate, Coombe Wood, Dartford 
and Dinmore Hill), G. Jlavipes (this magnificent 
insect has never been known to occur in the metro- 
politan district proper ; the only specimen which has 
occurred in the British Isles was captured by Mr. 
Stephens near Hastings, on the 5th of August 1818), 
Cordidegaster annulatus (this large species is rare in 
the neighbourhood of London), Anax formosus (has 
occurred near Hertford, also at Southgate, Wands- 
worth and Wimbledon Commons) Brachytron pratense 
(not uncommon but local, Hertford, Hastings, etc.), 
Aischna mixta (this very rare insect has been taken 
at Godalming and Norwood in Surrey), ^£. cyauca 
(common everywhere), sE. grandis (not uncommon 
but local), AL. ritfcscois (the occurrence of this grand 
insect in the metropolitan district is exceedingly 
doubtful), Calopteryx virgo and C. splendens (abun- 
dant everywhere), Lestes nympha (Wanstead in Essex, 
etc.,), L. sponsa (Plaistow in Essex, etc.,), Platycnemis 
pennipes (local), Enallagtna cyathigerutn (common), 
Agrion pidchellum (very abundant), A. fiuella (very 
plentiful everywhere), Ischnura elegans (very 
common), Pyrrhosoma minium (very plentiful every- 
where) and P. tcnrflum (local). It will be seen from 
the above that the dragon-flies of the metropolitan 
district present a very fine array of species, although 
a vast deal has yet to be ascertained respecting their 
distribution in this rich collecting-ground, as well as 
in the rest of this country. 


THE importance attached to the report of Messrs. 
Jukes-Browne and Professor Harrison on the 
above subject, induces me to send you the following 
notes bearing upon the same. 

For some years prior to the lamented death of 
Mr. H. B. Brady, it was my good fortune to be in 
constant contact with that gentleman by both inter- 
views and correspondence, and it was no unusual 
occurrence to receive consignments of material from 
time to time for the purpose of examination, thus 
assisting him in the mechanical part of the work, and 
at the same time considerably benefitting my collec- 
tion of Foraminifera. It was in this way the material 
collected by the above-named gentleman came into 
my possession. 

I do not think I shall be committing any breach of 
etiquette if I give an extract from a letter received 
with these deposits, as it throws a side-light on 
the matter which probably would not otherwise be 
known, it bears date August 16th, 1SS9, and is as 
follows : 

"My friend Mr. Jukes-Browne, late of the Geo- 
logical Survey, has been visiting Barbados and 
brought home a large collection of rock specimens, 
deposits, etc., of which it is of some importance to 
trace the history. 

" He asked me to furnish him notes on the Fora- 
minifera, and I, not quite knowing how far I was 
committing myself, pretty much promised to do so. 
Thereupon he sent me a dozen specimens, and I set 
to work washing them, etc. etc. They were disin- 
tegratable under treatment, but ! — but this is all that 
can be said ; for the most partjhey were the most 
refractory material I ever took in hand. I worked 
at them more or less, I think, every day for a fort- 
night — reducing ten of them to moderately satis- 
factory conditions. But some of these, though 
reduced in bulk from three or four ounces to less 
than a drachm, still would be the better for further 
washing. They are much more interesting, I sus- 
pect, for their siliceous organisms than for their 
calcareous remains, but with the former I have 
nothing to do ; Mr. Hill, of the Geological Survey, 
I believe, has worked at these. It is quite possible 
some of these deposits contain no Foraminifera 
at all." 

I received altogether nine packets of these deposits, 
and on referring to my notes I find three samples 
yielded fairly good results, three a very few specimens, 
and the remainder were without any trace of Forami- 

Since reading the report of the late meeting, as 
published in Science-Gossip for January, I have 
re-examined the type-slide I have of these mounts. 
They are grouped as a whole without reference to the 
particular beds from which they were taken, and the 
subjoined list includes all the species which can be 
clearly distinguished. The relative frequency of the 
species is indicated by the letters c, common ; R., 
rare ; v. R., very rare. I have also given the maxi- 
mum and minimum depths at which similar species 
were taken during the Challenger's survey, as given 
in Mr. Brady's report. If we exclude the three 



pelagic forms (Globigerinidas) and take the mean 
average of these figures, the result shows that the 
entire group of forty-two species may be stated to 
give in round figures S90 fathoms. The fact this 
list teaches is, I think, that a very fair percentage of 
the species present are of undoubtedly deep-water 
habits, in our present seas, and that about twenty-four 
per cent, only fail to attain a maximum depth of 1000 

On the other hand it is only fair to acknowledge 
that a considerable mixture of deep and shallow- 
water forms frequent some localities. Thus Challenger 
station 209 affords an example. Dredgings from Cebu, 
120 fathoms, present a very strange assortment of 
species, but it is as a whole we must be guided in 
forming an opinion on what must, to a very lar^e 
extent, be after all only conjectural. 


Xubecularia lucifuga 

Bigenerina pennatula 

Gaudryina pupoides 

,, rugosa 

Bulimina inflata 

Pleurostomella rapa 

„ altemans .... 

Bolivina punctata 

Cassidulina crassa 

„ subglobosa .... 

Ehrenbergina serraca 

Lagina striata 

„ forinosa 

„ gracilis 

„ trigona marginata . . 
Xoaosaria (GlanduJina) laevigata . 
„ (?) abyssorum .... 

„ filiformis 

,, hispida var. subii.eata . 

„ mucronata 

„ obliqua 

„ inflexa [fragments) . . 

Frondicularia interrupta .... 

Cristellaria rotulata 

„ cultrata 

,, gemmata 

Polymorphina rotundata .... 
,, longicollis .... 

„ lactea 

Uvigerina angulosa 

,, asperula uar. auberiana . 

Sagrina striata 

„ raphaous 

„ columellaris 

»» . virgula (monomorphous var.) 

Globigirina bulloides 

„ cretacea 

„ bulloides var. triloba . 

Pullenia quinqueloba 

Trcncatuiina wuellerstorfi . . . 

Pulvinulina auricula 

„ crassa 

,, repanda 

„ pauperata 

Rotalia soldanii 


V. R. 

V. R. 

V. R. 

V. K. 
V. R. 


Maximum and 


350 to 675 
50 to 1450 

1 1 to 670 
95 to 2435 

1375 to 2350 
2 to 2750 
40 to 2760 

12 tO 295O 

150 to 2350 

2 tO 600 

littoral to 1S50 
129 to 2775 
go to 2300 
50 to 1360 

50 to 450 
95 to 435 
620 to 2600 
1500 to 2000 
95 to 1400 

littoral to 2200 
38 to 2435 
95 to 210 
50 to 1850 
1 100 to 2425 
shallow to 2350 
50 to 1375 
580 to 610 

3 to 350 
2 to 260 
6 to 1125 
12 to 2075 


20 to 2750 
350 to 2435 
littoral to 500 
420 to 2740 
littoral to iooo 
675 to 2350 
300 to 2000 

There were also present fragments of a very thin 
outspread Calcarina, but not a single perfect form 
could be obtained from the material at my disposal. 

"W. H. Harris. 



Professor Duner, a Swedish astronomer, has 
just made known an important work which has led 
to important results concerning the rapidity of the 
sun's rotation. Ey observing the displacement of the 
lines of the solar spectrum, Professor Duner has 
obtained a hitherto unknown exactitude in the 
measurement of the movements of the sun, and found 
that that body moves on its axis at a rate of a mile 
and two hundred and forty-two feet in a second of 
time. The sun's day lasts therefore at its equator 
twenty-five days and twelve hours of our reckoning. 
Duner's measurements result in a different length of 
rotation in different parts of the body of the sun, 
regularly increasing in length from the equator to the 
poles, so that those parts of the sun's surface lying 
near the two poles have a day as long as forty-six of 
our days. This is only possible with a movable and 
gaseous surface like that of the sun. 

M. Locard has completed a census of the shell- 
fish of France, and finds that there are 1,500 marine 
and 1,250 odd non-marine (that is to say, fresh-water 
and land) species of molluscs within the bounds of 
the mother country. This, of course, is vastly more 
than England can boast. But that is only to be 
expected, as our shores are chillier than hers, and our 
area much more limited. Thus the Mediterranean 
alone yields nearly 1,200 species — all our British 
molluscan fauna is about 550 marine and 150 non- 
marine forms. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., on 
Thursday, February nth, began a course of three 
lectures on "Recent Biological Discoveries" ; and 
the Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S., on Saturday, 
February 13th, a course of six lectures on " Matter : 
at rest and in motion." 

The Editor has to appeal to the patience and good 
feeling of his correspondents if he has not answered 
all of them up to date, as he has been a severe 
sufferer from what is now known as the ' ' prevailing 

At a recent meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club of 
Victoria (Australia) the distinguished botanist, Baron 
Von Mueller, advocated the protection of insectivorous 
and native birds, by putting a comparatively heavy 
tax on guns. He thought naturalists should form a 
union for the purpose of suppressing bird-slaughter, 
and that each member should wear a badge. 


Natural History Postages. — Though natu- 
ralists make much use of the post in the matter of 
exchanging specimens, I find that both local postal 
authorities and naturalists themselves are often 



ignorant of a valuable concession lately made to them 
by the General Post Office. In course of exchanging 
helices with a correspondent in France, I found that 
it cost me a shilling to return boxes that he had sent 
for a penny. Our local officials assured me this was 
all right, but I wrote to the General Post Office, and 
have received the following letter, which will be 
useful to those who, like myself, want to get foreign 
helices by exchange. It runs thus : — 

General Post Office, 
Si/i February, 1892. 

Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 27th ultimo, I 
beg to state that the packets in question containing 
conchological specimens are, in strictness, only 
transmissible to the colonies and foreign countries at 
the letter or parcel rate of postage ; but in compliance 
with the earnest desire expressed in a memorial 
recently addressed to the Postmaster General by a 
number of persons engaged in scientific pursuits, 
instructions have been given for such specimens to be 
allowed to pass at the sample rate, viz., id. for a 
packet weighing under 4 oz. The Department 
cannot, however, guarantee the due delivery abroad 
of packets so prepaid, inasmuch as they do not come 
within the definition of sample packets as prescribed 
by the Postal Union. I am, sir, your obedient 

J. E. Sifton. 

Re Rev. J. W. Horsley. 

I presume I am right in'deducing from the above 
that a box of specimens weighing, say, six ounces 
would cost a comparatively large amount, but if the 
contents were divided into two boxes or parcels 
weighing three ounces each, they could be sent to 
any country in the Postal Union for two pennies. I 
do not think the last paragraph of the letter need 
frighten us ; for if, as I find, France has no objection 
to send us a box for 10 centimes, I do not suppose 
she would refuse to receive it back for a penny. — 
J. W. Horshy. 

Neo-Darwinism, etc. — Although I think that 
discussions on the highly-contentious and quibble- 
evoking problems of evolution are rather to be 
deprecated in the present state of science, yet it is 
hard to resist offering a few remarks on the various 
matters so clearly put forward in the series of con- 
tributions entitled " Neo-Darwinism " published in 
last year's volume. Let me distinctly observe that I 
am not an evolutionist, so that all that concerns me 
here is to endeavour to discover which theory of 
evolution is a scientific one and which is not. With 
this proviso, and commencing with Lamarck's views, 
it may be broadly asserted that of the three means of 
transmutation viewed subjectively, so to speak, the 
first is not so unscientific, nor the second quite so 
preposterous as is stated ; while again, after a very 
fair translation of his second law, an objection is 

raised that it offers no explanation of the phenomena 
of adaptation, the first law, which does do so in the 
only possible scientific way, is not even mentioned. 
Further on, after recalling that Lamarck's laws are 
"a mere a priori speculation not supported by a 
single fact of observation or experiment " — a statement 
which, to say the least of it, is not a bit too mild — 
the luminous principle, theory, vera causa, process, 
factor, etc., of natural selection is held to rest secure 
on the threefold " factors " of variation, of heredity, 
and of the struggle for existence. Of these three the 
first two are not, properly speaking, factors at all, 
while the last, viz., the struggle for existence, is the 
primary factor in the Darwinian hypothesis, and, as 
originally conceived, a more utterly baseless, 
imaginary, and loosely indefinite conjecture anent 
the phenomena of life was never foisted on the world 
in the name of science. It would be absurd to deny 
that Sir C. Lyell was very nearly right when he 
declared Darwin's doctrines viewed fundamentally to 
be a "modification of Lamarck's doctrine of develop- 
ment and progression." The "modification" simply 
consisted in adopting mechanical forces in lieu of 
physiological ones, and in introducing the element of 
fighting and contention where Lamarck merely 
indicated the needs and habits of the organism, the 
latter being again more subjective, as it were, and 
getting nearer the life of the process. It seems pretty 
certain that if the late C. Darwin had been a true 
scientist, the phantom of analogy between artificial 
selection and natural selection would never have been 
raised. Moreover, the not very astounding preva- 
lence of Darwinism in this country can be most 
adequately explained by considering that it was found 
to accord well and fitly with the character, not the 
ideas, of those individuals who rushed so eagerly to 
embrace it. Finally, as to whether the Lamarckian 
or Darwinian views is more in accordance with the 
highest, best, most scientific and sympathetic idea of 
animate life, I leave to the judgment of the intelligent 
reader. The question of heredity is a very difficult 
one, and the science of embryology, which bears upon 
jt, is only in its infancy. The various views and 
theories anent this subject are, so far as my know- 
ledge goes, very fairly and clearly explained, and 
described in the papers under review. The very 
useful table annexed will show that out of the six 
theories four and a half are in favour of, and only one 
and a half are against the doctrine of the transmission 
of acquired characters, a proportion that does not 
much magnify the importance of the statement that 
"no one doubted, until quite recently, that characters 
acquired during the life of the individual were 
hereditary." The point of paramount interest here 
for an outstander is not so much as to which theory 
of heredity is right or wrong, but as to which theory 
if carried out would effect the transmutation of 
species, etc., most readily and thoroughly. Certain 
learned professors have held that upon Weismann's 



principle we can explain inheritance, but not evolu- 
tion, an extremely important consideration which is 
notjeven hinted at in these papers. It seems to me, 
however, that if our theory of evolution so far as it 
goes rests on a scientific basis, our theory of heredity 
also so far as it goes can be safely left to take care of 
itself. For instance, if it can be shown that through 
use'or disuse a muscle has or can be transformed into 
a ligament or vice -versa, we -may rest assured that 
the offspring of that organism will share the same 
change, i.e. the mechanical or organic causes which 
induced the modification in the parents will be bound 
under similar conditions of life, etc., to work to the 
same effect in the immature offspring, so that 
practically it will come to the same thing in the end 
whether this acquired character was hereditarily 
transmitted or not. This is apparently all that the 
Neo-Lamarckians claim when they hold that acquired 
characters tend to reappear in some degree in the 
offspring ; and as all logical evolutionists are bound 
to believe in pantheism, spontaneous generation, and 
Haeckel's law, who knows but that in the course of 
time such changes actually take place in the uterus 
itself, without the primary action of external con- 
ditions of existence, etc., being any longer necessary? 
Finally, it may be insisted that if acquired characters 
are not inheritable, there is no possible logical stand- 
point between the doctrine of special creation, i.e. of 
many different independent types, and the doctrine 
that each germ-unit of the lowest organisms contains 
within itself all the potentialities that are actually 
developed in the highest vertebrates. — Dr. P. Q. 


Ornithopus roseus. — On July 15th last year I 
found the above plant growing on the bank of the 
Severn, close to Dowles Church, about one mile 
above Bewdley. It is well established there, growing 
in quite a wild state in great profusion. This is a 
continental species. I am not aware of its having 
been cultivated in this country ; it has, I believe, 
been tried in France, but without much success. I 
am at a loss to find a reason for its occurrence there, 
unless the seeds have been brought over among 
foreign grain, and somehow got deposited there. — 
Jno. E. Nowers. 


More about Hastings. — It is generally con- 
sidered probable that the greater .portion of the 
invading Norman army landed at Bulverhythe — 
I am referring to Mr. Holmes' interesting article, 
" Notes on the Site of Old Hastings." The sluggish 
stream which winds through the marsh-land, com- 
monly termed " The Salts," still bears the name of 

the Haven. The site of Bulverhythe, as it existed at 
the date of the invasion, is now submerged, about 
three miles from the present high-water mark. Bul- 
verhythe is now only represented by a few modern 
cottages, the dilapidated walls of an ancient chapel 
or oratory, and a roadside inn denominated the 
" Bull," which there is some reason to believe stands 
on the site of an old hospitium. It is, however, of a 
discovery made a few years ago in the immediate 
vicinity of the ruins of Hastings Castle that I would 
now make particular mention. It may interest some 
of the readers of Science-Gossip to know that a 
little door, close to the entrance-gate of the castle, on 
the left side as it is approached, leads to some 
torture-chambers in a wonderful state of preservation, 
apparently of Roman origin. An order is required 
to view them, a wise precaution to prevent the 
defacing of the walls, which are hewn in the solid 
sandstone rock. On passing the door there is a 
small chamber a few feet square. This had previously 
been used by the caretaker of the ruins as a coal- 
cellar. One day, when moving some rubbish, he 
came upon a steep flight of steps leading to a narrow 
arched passage — but I will endeavour to describe the 
place as I saw it. Having obtained a candle, for the 
darkness of the vault is intense, I passed down the 
steps, which are curiously grooved in the centre, to 
the passage. This passage is not cut in a direct line 
but winds in certain places, and consequently the 
arches of the roof — about eleven feet high — are 
formed on the skew. Proceeding a few yards, I 
came to a recess in the wall raised by a step about 
seven inches high. In the wall were holes where 
staples had evidently been fixed to fasten the necks 
and extended arms of the victims, who were crucified 
there and left to die, in the darkness, of starvation. 
There were several of these recesses, and all bore the 
same marks in the wall. One was evidently arranged 
so that merely the toes of the victim could touch the 
ground, and I could not only see where they had 
worn smooth the sandstone steps, but on the candle 
being held to throw a light sideways against the wall 
the distinct impression of the human form, where no 
doubt victim after victim had worn and darkened the 
sandstone in the agony of his dying struggles. On 
proceeding further, the passage turned abruptly to 
the left and widened into a chamber about twelve feet 
square. This, from marks in the wall, had evidently 
been partitioned off from the passage. In it was a 
small hollow in the wall, near the ground, about 
eighteen inches square. It was blackened by the 
action of fire, and as there was no flue connected 
with it, it was probably used for asphyxiating those 
who had been enclosed in the chamber. I may add 
that the rough groove in the steps at the entrance of 
the dungeon, may probably have been made by the 
heavy fetters or chains of the victims who were 
dragged down into the dreadful darkness never to 
return alive into the light of day. — W. E. W. 



Papers on Flint. — Mr. G. Abbot will not find 
anywhere a complete bibliography of papers on 
" Flint " : he will have to seek them out by searching 
in all likely periodicals and serials, amongst which 
let him not forget the " Proceedings of the Geologist's 
Association." Several papers on the subject appear 
therein, but two will be specially helpful — Professor 
T. Rupert Jones "On Quartz, Flint, etc.," in vol. 
iv., p. 439 et seq,, and Professor Judd " On the Un- 
making of Flints," in vol. x., p. 217 et seq. In both 
these papers abundant reference to the writings of 
others is made. Articles published between 1874 
and 1S84 will, of course be found in the " Geological 
Record." The list annually published by the Geo- 
logical Society in their " Quarterly Journal " should 
also be gone through. — B. B. Woodward, British 
Museum, {Natural History.') 


Some Famous Collecting-grounds for 
Dragon-flies. — Errata : page 18, first column, for 
Lepletum quadrimaculata read Leptetrum quadrimacu- 
lata ; for Anaso formosus read Anax formosus ; for 
Enallagma cyastrigerium read Enallagma cyathi- 
gerum ; for river Soar read river Stour. Second 
column : for Ischnura pumilis read Ischnura pumilio. 

A Snake-stone. — Can any reader of Science- 
Gossip inform me of the monetary value of a scorpion 
or snake-stone one inch long, half an inch wide, and 
about as thick as a bean, which it very much resembles ; 
brought from India ; there used to absorb the poison 
from snake-bites. — Enquirer. 

A Dog as Station-Master— The death is 
announced of a popular member of the staff of the 
Great Eastern Railway, namely, the black-and-tan 
collie dog long familiar to passengers at the Lowes- 
toft station. This well-known animal appears to 
have originally appointed himself to fulfil the duty 
of starting the trains, but time and habit seem to have 
fully ratified the appointment. By a marvellous 
instinct the collie, it is said, seemed to know the 
exact time at which a train should begin its journey, 
and a restless excitement characterised him as the 
appointed moment drew near. As the bell uttered 
its first sound, he would scamper down the platform, 
and, planting himself close to the engine, bark 
furiously until the wheels began to move. Satisfied 
apparently in this respect, he would next make a 
move for the guard's van, and hurry the guard to his 
post. As the train passed out of the station he 
retired, and no more was seen of him till a similar 
operation had to be repeated on the departure of 
another train. No other bell than that used for 
starting purposes would bring the animal to view. 

Death of the American Aloe. — A Parsonstown 
correspondent writes : — The close of the year has 
seen the death of the celebrated specimen of the 
American aloe, that completed its century of ex- 
istence in the conservatory of Birr Castle last August. 
On that occasion the beautiful plant threw out great 
clusters of yellow flowers about the size of 'the large 
double chrysanthemums that took the prize at the 
recent Dublin show. On blooming — an event that 
only occurs when the specimen reaches one hundred 

years of age — the plant gave a loud report like the 
sourid of a rifle-shot, and an hour later the flowers so 
rare were found on its stem. The pecularity of this 
rarity was its abnormal height : it rose to an altitude 
of 23 feet, a point never reached out of tropical 
climes. The Earl of Rosse and his astronomer (Dr. 
Boeddicker), both distinguished botanists, watched 
the progress of the plant with great diligence and 
made frequent observations of its development that 
will be an invaluable record to botanists. There are 
numerous specimens of the aloe in Ireland, but mostly 
of dwarfed or stunted growth and no authentic in- 
formation has been obtained as to their exact age. 
In the case of this one, its history has been traced 
back to the time it was planted in the Castle, and in 
its three leading characteristics — blooming only once 
in its life, living to its hundredth year and then dying 
■ — all the traditions of its species have been verified, 
and can now be accepted as ascertained facts. Con- 
current with its death was the growth of a group of 
seedlings at its base, and these have been carefully 
transplanted to perpetuate the memory of the interest- 
ing centenarian plant from which they sprang. 

Intelligence of the Cat. — There are many 
wonderful stories told of the doings of the cat, chiefly 
regarding their progeny and other unusual associates. 
The late Dr. Maxwell of Glasgow, when taking a 
walk one morning in Glasgow Green, near Nelson's 
Monument, saw a cat going towards the river Clyde. 
When it came to the river it went up some distance, 
then took to the water ; but before reaching the 
opposite side the current had carried it a considerable 
way down, and it landed at the only place near where 
a landing could be made. The Doctor fully believed 
that the cat had calculated on the distance that the 
stream would carry it down, so that it could gain the 
proper landing. — D. R. 

A Swan's Feat. — Mr. T. Midgley, the well- 
known curator of the Bolton Museum, writes to the 
" Manchester City News " as follows : — Among the 
many interesting accounts which one finds recorded in 
your Natural History Notes, perhaps a feat of one of 
the swans belonging to the Bolton Corporation will 
bear recording. On Monday morning, as I passed 
along the side of the snow-covered greensward which 
skirts the large lake, I noticed a group of three swans 
standing about ten yards from the water. One of 
them deliberately laid its body on the surface of the 
snow, used its legs, after the fashion of boys when 
tobogganing, to give its body a start, and away it slid 
down the bank, gaining speed as it went ; and, the 
water's edge being a little below the ground, 
performed a half-somersault on to its back into the 
water. Whether all three were enjoying themselves 
in this playful manner or not my duties did not 
permit me to stay to watch, but it struck me as one 
more instance of the peculiar habits of these birds. 

Approaching Extinction of the Lapwing. — 
Plovers' eggs are sought for more diligently every 
season, the finders being well paid for them by 
dealers, who sell them at a good profit. The bird 
is becoming scarce in consequence, and farmers 
complain that insect-life is becoming intolerable It 
is believed that nothing but stringent legislation will 
prevent the wholesale destruction of the eggs and the 
eventual annihilation of the bird. The eggs are very 
difficult to procure, the nests being scattered up and 
down a wide extent of ground, the site being selected 
where the colour of surrounding objects approaches 
as closely as possible to that of the eggs. When 
human intruders approach the nest, which is of the 



simplest construction, the parent birds dash and 
whirl about in the air with noisy, plaintive cries, 
often descending and reeling along the ground in 
front of the egg-seeker, as though both win»s were 
broken. Dogs often become expert in finding the 
eggs. Those of the sparrowhawk, the moorhen, the 
coot, and the black -headed gull are often sold as 
plovers' eggs. 

Barbaric Slaughter of Larks. — The "Vege- 
tarian" says: — During the late heavy fall of snow in 
Sussex, many hundreds of men employed themselves 
in catching larks. The way in which they catch 
them is the following : On the ground is spread a 
net something like a tennis-net, only not so heavy. 
It is fixed at the ends by stakes in the ground, and a 
rope, fastened at one end, is held by the operator. 
As the larks in cold weather fly very low (about two 
feet from the ground), they pass across the net and 
immediately as they do so the cord is pulled, and the 
net falls over and catches them. In this manner 
hundreds and thousands of larks are killed every day. 
As soon as the lark is under the meshes of the net, 
the man (or more generally, the boy with him), runs 
forward and crushes the lark's head between his 
thumb and forefinger. Between Newhaven and 
Brighton, it is estimated that on Friday and Saturday 
there were between 200 and 250 men entrapping 
these birds, each, on an average, catching as many as 
five dozen, making in all about 1,250 dozen, or about 
15,000 beautiful songsters thus slaughtered to be sent 
up to the London Markets. 

The Solar Year. — I see that in my note under 
this heading I carelessly wrote of the precession of 
the equinoxes as if it were caused by the sun's actual 
progress through space — which, of course, would 
give quite a fabulous idea of the rate at which our 
system travels. I should rather have said " an 
apparent progress," really due to certain checks on 
the earth's motion, described in every astronomical 
manual.— C. B. Moffat. 

A Bees' Nest in a Block of Stone. — Two 
men in the employ of Mr. Shepherd, builder, of 
Cardiff, recently made an extraordinary discovery in 
the Royal Hotel building-yard. They were engaged 
sawing a huge block of stone, from the quarries near 
Bath, when the saw cut through a bees' nest almost 
in the centre of the stone. Some of the bees were 
crushed to death, but the living ones came swarming 
out, frightening the stone-cutters, who beat a retreat. 
The stone is about 6ft. square, and how the bees got 
there and lived in such quarters seems rather a 
mystery. There is, however, a hole about 6 in. 
across running through the stone. This hole seems 
to have been once occupied by the root of a tree. 

"European Butterflies." — There are a few 
printer's errors in my notes on "European Butter- 
flies " in your February number, but the only one 
that need be noticed is that which occurs at p. 29. 
The third paragraph begins " Here" but this word 
should be Hera, the scientific name of the Jersey 
tiger-moth, an insect not noticed in Newman but 
undoubtedly British, it having been first taken some 
years ago in Devonshire (by Mr. Jager), where it has 
since been found annually. — R. B. P. 

Cuckoo in Confinement. — While having holi- 
days last summer (1891) I made the acquaintance of 
a gentleman who possessed a small collection of live 
birds, caught in the neighbourhood. Among the rest 
he had a cuckoo, taken from the nest in the season 
1850. In winter it lived in the kitchen, and in 

summer hung outside, being taken into an outhouse 
during the night. They feed the bird on raw beef, 
sometimes roasted, eggs, potatoes, etc. The bird can 
be very savage at times, especially when strangers go 
near the cage. Since last Christmas one of the sons 
has kept it in a saddle-room. During the whole of 
its confinement it has not been known to utter a 
single cuckoo. — IV. R. Riley, Halifax. 

A Provident Field-Mouse. — It is, I suppose, 
well-known to most field-students that rats and mice 
cart out their rubbish at the back-door of their 
burrow. At the entrance to a field-mouse's hole 
this winter there is accumulated a great quantity of 
the husks of beech-mast, evidently cast out recently 
by the mouse. But it is a curious circumstance that 
no beech-mast was produced in my neighbourhood 
this year. Therefore the stores which have apparently 
lasted this animal till January 1892 must have been 
collected in the autumn of 1890. Some rats which I 
have lately been watching carry ivy-leaves into their 
holes at one side of a wall, and soon afterwards toss 
them out at the other.— C. B. Moffat. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the " exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of out gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers. — We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

R. B. Postans. — Will you kindly send us your address, so 
that proofs of your articles may be sent you ? 


Will send collections of two hundred named specimens 
(sixty species) Victoria shells, in return for same number 
named recent shells of any other country. — F. L. Billinghurst, 
National Bank of Australasia, Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia. 

Aprilina, rufina, protea, ferruginea, oxyacanthse, cerago, 
silago, pyrimadea, meticulosa, gothica, spadicea. What offers? 
Northern insects wanted. — A. E. Gibbs, "Herts Advertiser" 
Office, St. Albans. 

Wanted, some secondhand entomological store-boxes, $s. 
size preferred.— A. E. Gibbs, "Herts Advertiser" Office, St. 

Melicerta, floscularia, and other living rotifers ; infusoria, 
rhizopoda, entomostraca, algs, and insectivorous plants, offered 
in exchange for micro, slides, books, pamphlets, or magazines 
containing articles on pond life. — C. Lord, 34 Burlington 
Crescent, Goole. 

Offered, Helix pygmena^ Pupa ringens, Planorbis nau- 
tilus var. crista, and many other local species. Wanted, 
Clausilia Rolpkii, C. biplicata, Helix revelata, H. lamellata, 
Zonites Draparsiatdi, Pisidium uitidum, and varieties of land 
shells. — A. Hartley, 14 Croft Street, Idle, near Bradford, 

Wanted, Cole's "Methods of Microscopical Research," 
Marsh on "Section Cutting," and good interesting micro, 
slides, in exchange for slides of brittle star {Ophiocoma neg- 

7 2 


lecta), palate of limpet, &c. — H. McCleery, 82 Clifton Park 
Avenue, Belfast. 

Wanted, mounted or unmounted parasites, parts nf insects, 
&c, unmounted preferred. Will give slides or unmounted 
objects in exchange. — George T. Reed, 87 Lordship Road, 
Stoke Newington, London, N. 

Wanted, Braithwaite's " British Moss Flora," Parts 9 and 
12. Exchange mosses and books.— J. A. Wheldon, 9 Chelsea 
Road, Walton Vale, Liverpool. 

Duplicates, L. C, 8th ed. : 73, 189, 356, 620, 923, 11723, 
I 3 I 5» J 397 c t *44i> 1669, 1838. Desiderata, 74, 106, 117, 160, 
354> 374. 55 1 - 5 6 o, 619, 716, 731, 745, 760, 824, 932, 980, 1136, 
1403, 1431, 1574, 1591, 1593, 1603, 1625, and many others.— 
E. D. Bostock, Stone, Staffordshire. 

"Field Club," 1890, "Nat. Gazette," 1891, Science-Gossip, 
1889, 1891, unbound, clean ; exchange or offers. — W. Turnbull, 
1 Home Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Wanted, rook and rabbit rifle, rare birds' eggs and micro, 
slides. Will give in exchange treadle fretwork machine, 
almost new, by Trump Bros., two model yachts, cutter about 
3 feet 4 inches, and yawl about 4 feet long, with sails, masts, 
and spars complete, clinker built and sail well, duplicate birds' 
eggs (blown, two holes), book of crests about 200, including a 
few of the peerage, military and naval, thirty-five different 
war-ships, and eleven different offices, hospitals, &c, Oxford 
and Cambridge colleges; also several unbound vols, of "Boys' 
Own Paper." — A. J. B., Frogmore Cottage, Tregony, Gram- 
pound Road, Cornwall. 

Wanted, a treadle fret-saw, in exchange for good specimens 
of British land and freshwater shells, correctly named and 
localised, or for young plants of some of the best varieties of 
the cactus tribe.— M. A. O., 82 Abbey Street, Faversham, 

Exchanges desired in British mosses — about eighty dupli- 
cates. Lists exchanged.— Miss E. Armitage, Dadnor, Ross. 

"Natural History of Insects" (Murray, London, 1830}, in 
two vols., published at 5s. each, second edition, numerous 
woodcuts. Will exchange for a few good foreign shells.— 
W. J. Jones, jun., 27 Mayton Street, Holloway, London. 

What offers in fossils or minerals for yellow copper, grey 
copper ore, biotite, atocamite, etannine, cassiterite, wolfram, 
calcite, gabbro, steatite, &c. ; Hamblin Smith's '"Algebra," 
Angel's "Animal Physiology," Ahn's " German Method," 
Wrightson's" Agriculture," and Burton's "Anatomy of Melan- 
choly"?— W. H. Olver, 2 Adelaide Terrace, Truro. 

Wanted, micro, slides; will exchange good microscope.— 
Palmer, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton. 

What offers for Science-Gossip vols, for 1885-91, complete, 
1880, 1881, 1884, incomplete; all coloured plates complete; 
also "The Naturalist," vols, for 1889-9:, complete, and the 
" British Naturalist for 1891, complete — Lionel E. Adams, 
Penistone, Yorks. 

Wanted, British coleoptera and lepidoptera, or books on 
entomology, in exchange for periodicals. — Ihos. W. Wilshaw, 
455 Shoreham Street, Sheffield. 

Wanted, any of the following varieties of Helix aspersa — 
nigrescetis, conoidea, globosa, grisea, Helix arbustoruni var. 
albinos, Pisidium nitidum, Helix nemoralis vars. albescens 
and studeria. Offered, Planorbis glaber, Helix sericea, H. 
rupestris, Pupa secale, Zonites glaber.— Rev. W. Eyre, 
Swarraton Rectory, Alresford, Hants. 

Arctic tern eggs, perfect, for which I should be glad to 
exchange lesser and common terns* eggs, jackdaws', sparrow- 
hawks' (number for value), &c— T. R. Clephan, Middleton 
St. George, near Darlington. 

Offered, Scibnce-Gossip for 1S90 and iSgr, also last two 
vols, of "Science and Art" (iv. and v.), unbound, in perfect 
condition. Wanted, birds' eggs, one hole. — Geo. Nicholson, 
3 Crown Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Jardine's " British Birds," Waterton's "Essays on Natural 
History," Galton's "South Africa," Rennie's "Insect Mis- 
cellanies." Exchange lepidoptera, or offers. — F. Emsley, 98 
West Street, Leeds. 

Offered, South African coleoptera and lepidoptera (unset) 
in exchange for other coleoptera and lepidoptera (unset, and 
foreign to Europe). — O. West, Poplar Villa, Lansdowne Place, 
Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 

Wanted, cabinet to hold 200 or 300 micro, slides. State 
requirements to— R. de H. St. Stephens, 25 Fordwych Road, 
West Hampstead, London, N.W. 

Wanted, shells not in collection. Offered, other shells. 
Foreign correspondence invited, especially in India or China. — 
E. R. Sykes, 13 Doughty Street, London, W.C. 

What offers for " British Fungi," by M. C. Cooke, 2 vols., 
newly bound, half-calf, nicely tooled ; set of plates of Cooke's 
" Freshwater Algze," and " British Lichens," by W. C. Lindsey, 
half-calf. — X., 28 Hampton Road, Bristol. 

Wanted, Johnston's "Non-Parasitical Worms," and Dal- 
zell's " Powers of Creation." Exchange store-boxes and 
British insects. — R. Clark, 21 Grove Street, Retford, Notts. 

Offered, Micro, slides, animal hairs, stomach and gizzard 
of beetles, &c. Wanted, slides, materials, or offers. — John 
Moore, 223 Great Russell Street, Birmingham. 

Small lathe for lens and object grinding, several lens tools, 
laps, slitting discs, emery wheels, &c. ; also " Carpenter on 

Microscope," 18S1, air-pump, and materials for mounting. 
Binocular or other exchange wanted. — Dr. Taylor, patent 
expert, 57 Chancery Lane, London. 

Ceylon butterflies. Will exchange a collection of 150 for 
good microscope or camera.— E. J. Woodward, Selwyn Road, 

Helix Bourcieri, Orthalicus Bensoni, Bulimulus arbuslrts 
B. Mastersi, Succinea Australis, Hyria corrugatus, &c, 
offered in exchange for land-shells from Java or New Guinea, 
or offers. — Miss Linter, Arragon Close, Twickenham. 

Back numbers of Science-Gossip for exchange: 271-276, 
282-287, 292-301, also "Naturalists' Gazette," complete, fur 
1889 and 1850, all in good condition ; also quantity of minerals. 
Wanted, Taylor's book on "British Fossils," or secondhand 
cabinet for minerals, or what offers? — William Hetherington, 
Nenthead, by Carlisle. 

Wanted, trilobites or fossil fishes in exchange for car- 
boniferous fossils or igneous rocks of this district. — John 
Millie, Echobank, Inverkeithing, Fifeshire, N.B. 

Wanted, foreign stamps in exchange for fossils. — Fred. 
Cartwright, 20 Eldon Street, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

British land and freshwater shells to exchange for exotic 
species not in collection. Foreign correspondence invited. — 
R. Wigglesworth, 13 Arthur Street, Clayton-le-Moors, Ac- 
crington, Lane. 

Wanted, numbers of Science-Gossip previously to 1874, 
parts of "Thesaurus Conchyliorum," and Tate's "British 
Molluscs," with coloured plates. Exchange in fossils, shells, 
&c. — Rev. John Hawell, Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Middles- 

Hooker's "Student's Flora," "Naturalist" for 1878, &c, 
in exchange for GremH's " Flora of Switzerland." — Rev. W. W . 
Flemyng, Clonegam Rectory, Portlaw, co. Waterford. 

Unio ■margaritifer'wi exchange for lepidoptera, or offers.— 
Rev. W. W. Flemyng, Clonegam Rectory, Portlaw, co. 

Have a few dozen minerals which I want to give to school 
museum. Would any geologist kindly name them for me? — 
Jas. Ellison, Steeton, Keighley. 

Wanted, good books on marine algse and zoophytes, and 
other seaside studies, in exchange lor Dolland telescope, 
micro, slides, or other books.— J. T. Neeve, 68 High Street, 

Wanted, British and foreign star-fishes, sea eggs and crabs, 
sea-horse, and a good specimen of arragonite mineral, in return- 
for fossils, British and foreign shells, microscopic objects and 
material, polished geological specimens of corals and spongy- 
forms, or state wants. — T. E. Sclater, Northumberland House, 

Wanted, Lutraria oblonga, Terebratula caput-serpentis , 
Crania a?iomala, Pholadidea papyracea, Sp/uenia Bingltami, 
Dipiodonta rotundata, Cardium papillosum, pinna, Lima, 
hians, Pecten Da?iicus, Pecten niveus, Trochus millegranus, 
Trochus granulatus, Styli/er Turtoni, Eulima stenostoma, 
Natica lielicoides, Lamellaria fierspicua, Aplysia depilans, 
Qvula patula, Akera bullata, Bulla kydatis, Acme lineata, 
in exchange for other rare British shells, &c — A. J. R. Sclater, 
M.C.S., Natural History Stores, 43 Northumberland Place, 
Teignmouth, South Devon. 


"United States Geological Survey," Tenth Annual Report, 
1888-89, part i., Geology (Washington : Government Printing 
Office). — "The Optics of Photography, and Photographic 
Lenses," by J. Trail Taylor (London: Whiitaker & Co.).— 
"Dumaresq's Daughter," by Grant Allen (London: Chatto 
& Windus).— "The Idler" (Chatto & Windus).— " The Ento- 
mologist's Review," No. 1, vol. iii. (London: Elliot Stock & 
Co.).— "The Essex Naturalist" (Chelmsford : Durrant & Co.). 
— "W. P. Collins's Monthly Catalogue of Books" (London: 
W. P. Collins). — "The Journal of the Queckett Microscopical 
Club" (London: Williams & Norgate). — "The Essex Re- 
view " (Chelmsford: E. Durrant & Co..) — "Health at Home 
Tracts," by Alfred Schofield, M.D., M.R.CS. (The Religious 
Tract Society).—" The Victorian Naturalist " (London : Dulau 
& Son). — *' Contributions towards a Flora of the Outer 
Hebrides," by Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. — "The Collectors 
Monthly," &c, &c 

Communications received up to the 12TH ult. from : 
H. E. G.— O. M. M.— H. M.— A. S. O. S.— H. B.— K. H. J. 
—J. B.— R. B. P.— H. J. R.— M. D.— C. B.-G. E. H.— 
G. T. R.-B. W. W.— T. R. C— H.— S. W. W.— G. N.— 
A. B.— W. L. W. E.— L. E. A.— J. J. C.-W. J. J— A. 
W. St. C— A. B.— M. A. A.— J. A. W.— W. T.— Dr. P. Q. K. 
—A. C— S. M.— J. H.— A. B.— E. D. B.— E. G.— A. E. G.— 
W. E. W.-C. L.— R. B. P.— W. E. S.— A. C. S.— R. H. J.— 
R. J.— P. G- R.— A. J. C— S. M.— F. C— R. W.— J. M.— 
W. H.— F. E.— C B. M.— J. H.— O. W.- J. T. N.— A. J. R. S. 
— T. E. S.— R. C— R. D. H. S.— R. C. R.— M. D. D-— C. R. 
— E. R. S--W. J. (good).— Dr. T.— J. W. H.— F. C. K.— 
J. M.— J. C. N.— J. E. L.— W. R. R.— Miss L.— J. E.- 
W. W. F.-&C, &c 





there is no group 
of animal?, which 
has been so much 
neglected by col- 
lectors and field- 
naturalists, as that 
of the spiders. 
The reason, I be- 
lieve, is not so 
much their repul- 
siveness or com- 
monness and ap- 
parent lack of 
interest, though 
for my own part I 
consider them far 
from repulsive or 
uninteresting, but 
the difficulty there 
is in preserving 
and storing them when collected. It is my intention 
here only to set down such things as have come 
under my own personal notice, therefore I shall be 
obliged to omit any attempt at a description of the 
very complicated structure of the spider, external 
or internal. 

I am certain that very few of my readers are not 
aware, that the spider is not an insect. However, 
for the benefit of those who may never have given 
the point consideration, it may be remarked that a 
spider is at once distinguished from an insect by the 
facts that it has eight legs, and that its head and 
thorax are fused together. There are about five 
hundred and twenty-five species of spiders at present 
known in the British Isles, from which it is my 
intention to pick out some of the commonest, for the 
purpose of describing their mode of life and habits. 

The first on the list is Agalena labyrinthica. 
This spider is exceedingly ccmmon on heaths and 
No. 328. — April 1892. 

commons in the southern counties, out of which I 
have not yet observed it. The animal is of a greyish 
brown colour, approaching to a chestnut hue in the fore- 
part of the body, while the hinder portion or abdomen 
is crossed transversely by dark bands. It spins a 
web which in the greater part of its area is fiat, and 
very closely woven, being suspended from point to 
point of the heather or ling. But above this, crossing 
and recrossing in endless confusion are numerous 
single strands of the spider's silk, not unlike the 
rigging of a ship, while from one corner of the flat 
portion of the web, an exceedingly closely woven 
funnel of silk runs into the heather and down to the 
ground, in which the spider sits to await its prey, and 
down which it takes flight when attacked. At first 
sight it looks as if this funnel were merely a more 
closely woven portion of the web generally, but 
my humble opinion is that it is more than this. I 
observed that on dropping a grasshopper or other 
fair-sized insect into the web, in any part, no matter 
how far from the hole, the spider immediately dashed 
out, and, guided obviously by the vibrations of the . 
threads, caused by the struggles of his captive, made 
at once, not to the insect, but close to it ; here he 
stopped a moment, and feeling with his two front 
legs, came at once to his prey. I think this pretty 
effectually proves two facts, first, that these seemingly 
untidy, aimless webs, are arranged radially ; just as 
carefully as those of the garden-spiders, which people 
think so beautiful, and that all the radiating threads, 
or at any rate the main ones of the web, are concen- 
trated in the lower half of the network tunnel, to 
which all vibrations are, so to speak, telegraphed at 
once from the -most distant part of the web, whither 
the spider immediately proceeds. The second thing 
I think proved by this is that a spider has but very 
limited powers of vision, otherwise it would rely less 
on its power of appreciating vibrations and more 
on its power of sight, in the capture of its prey. I 
made several experiments on the mode in which 




this spider kills the prey which becomes entangled in 
its snare, and as I consider it curious, will describe it 
as well as I can. The spider on coming up to its 
victim, instead of going to, and fixing itself on it, 
and remaining there to suck its juices, as most of its 
species seem to do, makes a series of short dashes at 
its intended meal, pausing a few seconds between each, 
and at each rush inserts its poison-fangs. These 
dashes become slower and slower, or to speak more 
correctly, the pauses between them longer and longer, 
as the attack goes on, until the object of them at 
length lies motionless ; when, if it be not too large, it 
is seized and dragged into the hole or tunnel men- 
tioned above, and devoured at leisure. If, however, 
it is too large to be removed bodily, the spider 
detaches a limb at a time, and carries it away piece- 
meal. From this method of procedure I cannot help 
thinking that the poison causes moto-paralysis, — 
perhaps (it is to be hoped so) sensory as well, for I 
cannot say whether the animal which has been 
subjected to it is dead when removed. If two or 
three insects, or small spiders, are placed in the same 
web together, the owner dashes at them alternately, 
so as to make sure of losing none of them, and if 
any of them are small enough, they are carried off, 
struggling, down the tunnel, whilst their brothers in 
misfortune are dealt with. 

I once put a specimen of Dolomedes mirabilis, the 
next spider I shall have to deal with, into a web of 
the species we are now considering, and was rather 
surprised to find that it was as much disabled and 
incapacitated by the net as any insect ; it, however, 
defended itself bravely and after a couple of rushes, 
the tenant of the snare gave up its usual tactics and 
pursued another method of attack, which I had not 
seen the species use before, though it is common in 
some other genera. It ran round and round the 
unfortunate and unwilling intruder, carrying a thread 
of silk with it as it did so, until the poor wretch was 
simply swathed in a silken shroud, the maker of 
which was just going to produce the final scene of the 
tragedy, when I released the condemned martyr to 
science, and set him free. If two of the species are 
placed in the same net, they fight and chase one 
another, until one of them is either killed or takes 
refuge in flight. 

Dolomedes mirabilis, the spider I have just men- 
tioned as having been placed in the web of Agalena 
labyrinthica, does not appear quite so interesting as 
that species, perhaps because I have not observed 
it quite so closely ; it is, however, far from lacking 
in interesting and peculiar habits, to a few of which 
I should like to call attention. This spider does 
not spin a snare. It is in fact a hunting-spider, 
obtaining its living by means of its powers of speed 
and leaping, which are very great, and its wonder- 
ful skill in stalking, in which no animal, I feel 
sure, can surpass it. Neither this, nor any other 
spider, however, is unprovided with silk and when 

the breeding-season comes round, which is in August 
and September, it spins a kind of thin net-work 
basket, connecting the tops of half-a-dozen grasses or 
blooms of heather, in which is placed a thick silken 
cocoon of a yellow colour, containing the eggs. But 
here comes the most interesting point about this 
creature : no one, I think, would imagine that any- 
thing approaching parental affection would be found 
in an animal so low down in the scale of creatior. 
as a spider, yet what I am going to relate looks 
uncommonly like it. The mother remains with the 
cocoon until the eggs are hatched, and if the nest is 
ruptured she immediately bolts off with it, (the 
cocoon), and sooner than part with it, allows herself 
to be caught and bottled, only loosing her hold when 
intoxicated by the spirit. Even when the young 
spiders are hatched, although generally not in the 
net, she is always close at hand, and the least disturb- 
ance of the nest brings her at once on the spot, which 
seems to prove that she must have communication 
with it by a thread. Having put in an appearance, 
she exposes herself so carelessly and with so little 
regard for personal safety that she can be captured 
with the greatest ease. The male on the other hand, 
so far as my personal observation goes, does not 
assist in these efforts for the safety of the family. 

This reference . to sex brings before us another 
interesting question ; why is it that the males are so 
much scarcer than the females among this group 
of animals? I think the answer is two-fold. In 
the first place the spider is, I believe, a very amorous 
creature, and I am pretty sure that a youthful male 
at an age when he would be caressing an incipient 
moustache, were he homo sapiens, having put on his 
very best appearance, that is, having just cast his skin, 
goes off to start a courtship, probably with the first 
representative of the opposite sex and of his own 
species that he may meet. Now the lady spiders, not 
unlike some other animals a great deal higher up in 
the" animal kingdom, object to the advances of 
"puppies," to use a figurative expression, but in 
place of treating the aspirant with cold contempt, they 
pounce upon him, and first murder and then eat him. 
In the second place, there is no doubt that most of 
the male spiders are considerably smaller and weaker 
than females of the same species, and this renders the 
above idea only the more probable. It will also be 
noticed by any observant person in the autumn 
months, how careful the male is in approaching the 
female, and at what a respectful distance he always 
keeps from her. 

The spider which next comes before us is Salticus 
cupreus. Salticus cupreus is a true hunting-spider, 
the commonest British representative of the genus, 
and a pretty, clever, comical little rascal he is. He 
is nearly always found on walls in the hot sunshine, 
plying his , vocation with untiring zeal and energy ; 
he can run and jump like an acrobat, sideways as well 
as forwards, and his colours, which are black and 



grey in stripes, are too conspicuous to permit his 
being easily forgotten when once seen. He stalks his 
prey, which consists of small flies, very small ones, 
for he is not much over a quarter of an inch in length 
himself. I have called him clever ; and so he is, as 
far as the stalking goes. Yet I once saw one of these 
little creatures most awfully taken in, in the exercise 
of this power which they possess of stalking their prey. 
It was on a rather rough stone wall in Warwickshire, 
last year ; the Saltici were hunting about in all direc- 
tions for game, which was plentiful enough. On the 
wall some one had squashed a fly, so that the wings 
and the empty chitinous membranes which enclose 
and protect the legs and thorax, remained sticking to 
the wall by means of the dried contents of the body. 
Presently the wing, or some other portion of these 
melancholy remains, caught one or more of the eight 
eyes of our friend the Salticus, and he immediately 
made up his mind to dine off it. So he began with 
extreme caution to stalk the supposed fly, creeping, 
with his legs bent to their utmost extent, from point 
to point of the stone. Taking advantage of every 
little roughness and prominence, he at last arrived 
quite close and then sprang like a tiger (at least as I 
suppose a tiger would spring, and I am glad to say 
I have not seen it done), upon his prey. He took 
his disappointment very philosophically and went off 
in search of better luck at once. This I take to be 
another proof of the short-sightedness of spiders. 

The last example of this highly interesting group of 
invertebrates is our large and common garden-spider 
(Epeira diadema), the white cross on whose yellow 
back is familiar to nearly every one. Epeira diadema 
is one of our largest spiders, and also one of the 
handsomest inhabiting this island ; it belongs, more- 
over, to a large genus and one which has been 
remarkable for ages for the beauty and ingenuity of 
their webs. Diadema is found commonly enough on 
furze-covered commons and in gardens and lanes, in 
fact nearly everywhere, during the autumn months. 
This spider spins the well-known polygonal web, 
with its transverse spinal thread, which everyone 
knows, and which can be told from that of smaller 
members of the same genus from the size of the 
meshes. It has a curious habit of shaking its web 
violently ; and so rapid are its oscillations in this 
act, that the spider cannot be seen at all ; whether 
this is to clean the web from adhering particles or 
whether it is for concealment, I do not know. But I 
scarcely think the former, because the same move- 
ment which shook off the adhering particles would 
surely scatter the little glutinous globules, with which 
the threads are studded, and which hold the prey ; 
neither do I think the latter is the probable cause, for 
on alarm being taken, the spider immediately drops 
to the ground by a thread. This spider has a habit 
with all its larger victims, of surrounding them with a 
shroud of silk, by spinning them round and round, 
before beginning to feed on them. In fact I have 

seen wasps so completely shrouded in this way that 
they were perfectly helpless. This spider either lies 
in wait head downwards in the centre of its web, or 
else lies concealed close at hand with its front pair of 
legs on one of the main supporting threads of the 
web, so that the least movement in it is communicated 
to its guardian. 

I could write much more on this interesting and 
almost inexhaustible topic, but I am afraid of taking 
up too much space, and moreover of tiring your 


THE geological history of blown sand is one of 
much interest. It plays an important part in 
the present phase of earth history, and opens up a 
variety of interesting avenues of fact and speculation 
in connection with the past history of the crust of our 
globe. Sand differs a good deal in quality and com- 
position, being locally more or less abraded, and 
more or less mixed with organically derived and 
other matter, but in the main consists of quartz. It 
is coarse or fine generally according as it has travelled 
a short or long distance ; for sand is a considerable 
traveller, and its origin has to be looked for often at 
great distances from where we find it. Wherever we 
find it, it has travelled ; whether in the quiet bays of 
mountain brooks or on stretches of sea-shore, it has 
generally proceeded a greater or less distance from 
the rocks which produced it. How, then, is it pro- 
duced ? By water eroding the rocks in which it was 
originally more or less massive, and by the subsequent 
wear and tear of friction in water-channels. How it 
accumulates is at first sight not quite so obvious ; but 
the process is nearly the same whether the accumula- 
tion be small or great. It is in the main a process 
of sifting ; and the sifting is done by water-currents. 
Wherever rills trickle into streams, streams into 
rivers, and rivers into the ocean, the currents are 
constantly carrying off the finer and softer particles 
first, and redepositing these as muds or clays in quiet 
waters ; leaving behind at first the larger fragments, 
whether soft or hard, until trituration has reduced 
the softer of these to fine particles. These again are 
removed and the harder parts are left behind in the 
form of sand, gravels and pebbles, to be again 
abraded and again carried down. This process has 
been ever going on, and we find sand in one form or 
other, in tremendous accumulations as rock, or sand- 
stone in every known formation, and in some forma- 
tions to the comparative exclusion of mud-rocks or 
shales. The estuary of the Severn illustrates the 
formation of sand in a very good way. The strong 
tidal currents sift the eroded and triturating material 
continually. New sand-banks form, the channels 
alter and immense quantities are carried down and 
deposited in the sea. 

E 2 



Quartz is one of the hardest minerals. Steel 
cannot scratch it. So that it follows as easy 
corollaries that quartz sand has resisted trituration 
longer than softer rock substances, and therefore as a 
rule has not travelled so far from its original site as 
softer and less dense rock material. Geologists, 
recognising this fact, are accustomed to say, whenever 
they meet sandstone in the earth's crust, that it 
indicates proximity to ancient shores ; when they 
meet with grit and gravel-beds, that they are nearer 
still ; with pebble beds (conglomerates), nearer still ; 
and when the fragments are (generally) larger and 

posure to the prevailing westerly or south-westerly 
winds. In Sand Bay the distance occupied by sand- 
tots is a mile and a half, from Woodspring to Kew- 
stone. The soil inland is alluvium, lying upon 
liassic limestones and shales. In Weston Bay the 
distance occupied by sand-tots is a mile, from "the 
Beach " to Uphill. Here also, the soil inland is 
alluvium resting upon the lias. In the next bay, 
Bridgwater Bay, the distance is five miles from 
Brean Down to Bromham, and from Start Point to 
Stolford, four miles. Here also there is a fringe of 
sand-tots ; and here also the land is alluvium, resting 

Cleve on»^„ |m , 

limestone ridcc ''iwiw 
Nailsea Moor 

Kenn Moor ^-* 


Tote J 

Locking Moor 
f. Uphill 

i+Brean %/,„.,„ 


«<o CE I 

w// '"!iiai«\»«»:i 



___^-*-'<'«ntHf Tl 

Polden Hills 


Fig. 42. — Sand-tots along the Somersetshire coast. 

angular, that they have the debris of sea-cliffs them- 
selves (breccias). 

Following the coast of the Channel until we reach 
the harder cliffs of more ancient rocks on the north 
and south, we have local deposits of sand derived 
in part from the cliffs themselves, especially from 
those older volcanic rocks which are largely com- 
posed of quartz ; but we may pretty safely conclude 
that in most sedimentary rocks there is an admixture 
of quartz, although it may be so finely abraded as to 
escape naked eye observation. 

In the formation of sand-tots, we have to consider 
a few fresh facts. We find them in the Severn 
Estuary in certain favourable places ; where the 
tidal range is great, in deep bays, and with an ex- 

upon the lias. Beyond this point the shore rises into 
low liassic cliffs, and the sand-tots cease. 

Inland of the tots at Weston the soil is very sandy 
and poor for a distance of some fields ; but inland 
of this again, the soil improves as the underlying 
alluvium gets freer from sand. 

The gradual growth of bent, seawards, furnishes the 
barrier against which the sand is blown, and it is to 
this grass that we are indebted for safety against 
inundation of the low-level alluvium that occupies 
large areas in the county between parallel mountain 
limestone ridges. 

In the formation of the tots shorewards we have a 
double sifting process, a sifting of the waves in the 
formation of the sandy beach, and a sifting of the 



winds in driving the lighter particles of sand shore- 

In Weston Bay at low water the tide recedes for 
three miles, leaving an immense area of mud exposed. 
This is seen to be furrowed by the receding tides, 
channels of drainage in which much of the finer 
sediment is carried off. At times the mud appears to 
gain upon the sand, at others the sand upon the mud. 
In rough weather more sediment of all kinds is 
deposited, in fine weather the finer sediments are 
carried away, and in all weathers powerful tidal 
currents disturb the muds, and alter and sift the 

The sandy beach is, I think, in the main formed by 
waves acting upon already deposited sediments. 
Every wave as it breaks pounds the beach, and the 
undertow carries away the finer and lighter material, 
leaving the coarser and heavier behind. The former 
is redeposited as muds of varying degrees of fineness, 
the fineness beiDg greatest at the greatest distance 
from the shore, the latter is left to form the beach 
of sand, the finer particles of which are driven by the 
winds inward to form the tots. Dig below the sand 
and you will find clay, over mud, and therefore more 
remote from a former shore. Dig when you will in 
the alluvium, and if you dig deep enough for a few 
miles inland, you will find clay, a tolerably easy and 
convincing proof that the flat area between Cundon 
and Worle, and again between Worle and Banwell, 
was formed by the slow deposit of estuarine and 
marine sediments, that the land now cultivated was 
a muddy shore with probably an enormous tidal 
range, and that the process now seen to be goiDg on 
in the formation of the tots has been going on for an 
incalculable period of time, and it may be assumed 
that they have not yet reached their maximum. 

If a glance be taken at any ordinary map exhibiting 
the coast-line of Somersetshire (see sketch-map 
appended) between Clevedon and Stolford, the extent 
of alluvium (or soil deposited as the estuary has been 
gradually silted up) may be approximately measured 
by the extent of the moors and their number. Be- 
ginning at the north we have Nailsea Moor, and 
Kenn Moor, in which is the hamlet of Seymour (a 
common place and surname in Somersetshire, mean- 
ing most probably sea-moor) ; between the next two 
mountain limestone ridges, Locking and Weston 
moors ; and between the Mendips and the Polden 
Hills, an extensive moor, bearing locally different 
names, as Glastonbury Moor, Godney Moor, Mark 
Moor, etc. Altogether the area of alluvium, or land 
gained from the sea, as silt has been deposited and 
the tidal waters have receded, may be stated at about 
fifty square miles. In many places in this district 
peat overlies the clay to a thickness of several feet ; 
but what evidence of blown sand there may be in 
that area I am at present unable to state. Its com- 
parative scarcity or absence inland must of course be 
attributed to the configuration of the land and the 

nature of its formation. As the bays gradually 
silted up, it is tolerably certain that the process 
began along the flanks of the bounding E. and W. 
limestone ridges ; and as the sediment accumulated, 
the sides would expand and present a greater area to 
the prevailing winds, and thus favour the gradual 
accumulation of the ridges of sand which now form 
such a striking feature in the shore scenery of the 
Severn Estuary on the Somersetshire or eastern side. 
No doubt cultivation has obliterated some traces of 
inland sand ; but as the tides recede and the bays get 
silted up, the sand-tots will grow seawards, as they 
have already done and are doing at the present time 
where the conditions are favourable. 

T. Stock. 


HEREFORDSHIRE is but a little known 
county, and so it is little to be wondered at 
that there is no list of its mollusca, even moderately 
complete. Not that the following list is meant to be 
complete by any means, but I trust that it will serve 
as a basis for further records, and also interest some 
of your readers who pay attention to the distribution 
of British mollusca. 

Messrs. Taylor and Roebuck's list (as given in Mr. 
Williams' smaller work) comprises only thirty-six 
species, most of them, curiously enough, being the 
rarer ones, e.g., Helix . fusca, Clausilia lamina/a, 
while one, i.e., Helix Cantiana, I have not yet found 
at all : it also excludes many of our commonest and 
most widely distributed species, e.g., Succinea pulris, 
Spharium corneum : so far, that is in the last two 
years, I have, with the invaluable aid of Mr. E. W. 
Bowell increased the list to eighty-seven species. The 
slugs I have not yet studied particularly, but I hope 
to do so in future, and many species are recorded in 
the list above referred to. Of course, I have not yet 
worked nearly the whole of the county, and no doubt 
many new species will be added by further search. 

[Those marked (*) are recorded by Messrs. Taylor 
and Roebuck.] 

Sph&rium corneum. Very common. " 

Sph. rivicola. Not common and small. The Lugg 
at Mordiford, the Wye at Symond's Yat. 

Sph. lacustrc. Formerly very common in the 
Hereford and Gloucester Canal, which is now, un- 
fortunately, drained, for the most part at any rate. 

Pisidium fcmtinalc. Abundant where it occurs : 
Tupsley : near Leominster. 

* Pisidium pusillum. Common. 

Pisidium roseum. Rare : but abundant near Stoke 

Unio tztmidus. Fairly common. The Wye speci- 
mens are small. Abundant, very fine and large in 
the Canal. 

Unio pictorum. A few specimens in the Wye. 



Unio margaritifer. Extremely abundant in the 
Wye, especially near Hereford. 

Anodonta cygnaa. Common. The largest I have 
measures 6| X 3J in. The immature specimens seem 
somewhat to resemble A. anatina. 

Anodonta anatina. Local : the Wye at Symond's 
Yat, abundant : also, but very rarely at Hereford. I 
have one very curious specimen, which has two teeth, 
one on each valve, about the centre of the shell. 

Dreissena polymorpha. Formerly very abundant 
in the canal at Hereford. 

Neritina fluviatilis. Very local. Abundant in 
Wye at Symond's Yat. 

Paludina co7itecta. " Hereford,'" De Boinville. 

Paludina vivipara. Formerly abundant in the 

Bythinia tentaculata. Very common. 

Valvata piscinalis . Common : Canal : Staunton-on- 
Wye, etc. Frequently on Caddis-cases. 

Valvata cristata. Rare : Tupsley. On Caddis-cases. 

Planorbis nitidus. By no means abundant : 
Devereaux Park : Bartestre. 

Planotbis nautileus. In a shallow pond at Bulling- 
ham, on oak leaves (in a similar situation near 

Planorbis albus. Common. Often on Caddis-cases. 

Planorbis parvus. Locally abundant : Burton 
Court, near Leominster. 

Planorbis spirorbis. Abundant in a brook at Moccas, 
with many sub-scalariform specimens. 

Planorbis vortex. Not uncommon : the canal : 
Tupsley, etc. 

Planorbis carinatus. Not very common : the 
Canal : Tupsley. 

Planorbis complanatus. Common : I have observed 
it eject red-coloured fluid on being put in boiling 

Planorbis corneas. " Hereford," De Boinville : 
"near Leominster" (?) : Hereford canal, but only 

Planorbis contortus. Very common. 

Physa hypnorum. Formerly very abundant in one 
pond near Hereford, but fhe late drought seems to 
have destroyed it. 

Physa fonlinalis. Common : var. in/lata at 

* Limnaa peregra. Abundant : a very ' ' palustroid " 
variety near Hereford : var. labiosa not uncommon. 

Limnaa auriatlaria. Two distinct forms ; one, 
smaller and squarer, very abundant at Burton Court, 
near Leominster : the other larger, flatter, in many 
cases labiate, many others, again, tending towards 
L. peregra, with which it formerly abounded in 
Hereford Canal. 

Limnaa stagnalis. Two distinct forms ; one, very 
abundant in Hereford Canal, slender, thin, and small, 
whereof I have found the mons. scalariforme ; the 
other, at Tupsley, much larger, stouter and finer. 

* Limnaa truncatida. Common. Very abundant 

in the Wye at Hereford : var. elegans (but usual 
colour) in the Frome. I have found it on the 
Ffwddog on the Black Mountains in very tiny rills : 
doubtless these are the hosts of the sheep-fluke. 

Limnaa glabra. Rare near Tupsley : (very common 
near Hay, just over the Herefordshire border). 

* Ancylus fluviatilis. In nearly every stream. 
Ancylus lacustris. Widely distributed, but nowhere 

very abundant. 

[Testacella haliotidea. Very rare: " Burghill," 
T. A. Chapman. 

* A rion ater. Very common. 

* Arion hortensis. Very common. 

* Arion bourguignati. 

* Amalia gagates. 

* Amalia marginala. 

* Limax agrestis. Common. 

* Limax maximus. Not very common : Doward 

* Limax arborum. Not very common : Doward 

Succinea putris. One of our commonest and most 
widely distributed species. Sometimes near to S. 
virescens on horse-radish at Ross, vide Helix rufescens 
and H. hortensis. 

Succinea elegans. Very common. I have seen 
this species floating. 

* Vitrina pellncida. Common. Seems more abun- 
dant in spring. Does it ibury itself to grow during 
the summer and autumn ? Very little, if at all, 
affected by the cold. 

* Zonites cellarius. Very common. 

* Zonites alliarius. Rather rare : Ross : Llanwarne. 
Zonites glaber. Not very common. 

* Zonites nilidulus. The commonest species ; also 
var. nitens. 

* Zonites purus. Common. Also var. margaritacea. 
Zonites radiatulus. Under bark on willow-trees. 

Doward Hill. Dormington. 

* Zonites crystallinus. Not uncommon among dead 
leaves. Rotherwas, Backbury Hill. 

Zonites fulvus. Not uncommon among dead leaves. 
Rotherwas ; Backbury Hill. 

Helix aculeata. Not uncommon. Among dead 
leaves, especially on stones among dead leaves. 
Backbury Hill ; Rotherwas: Dormington : Breinton. 

* Helix aspersa. Very common. 

* Helix nemoralis. Very common ; also vars- 
castanea (especially on the limestone), carnea, libellula, 
bimarginata (rare). 

* Helix hortensis. Very common, but apparently 
not on the limestone ; with vars. albina (on horse - 
radish, vide H. rufescens), pallida incamata, lutea 
(very common), arenicola. 

* Helix arbustorum. Not uncommon : Doward 
Hill : near Hereford. 

* Helix Cantiana. 

Helix rufescens. Very common. Apparently not 
on the limestone ; with vars. alba (very common ; the 



only form at Ross on horse-radish, vide H. hortensis, 
Succinea putris), rubens (Hereford, not very common), 
minor (common). 

* Helix hispida. Common. Many forms lead to 
the var. concinna. 

* Helix fusca. Very local. Doward Hill. 

* Helix caperata. Very common ; with vars. 
obliterata,fulva, Gigaxii. 

Helix ericetorum. Local, but abundant at Burghill. 

Helix rotundata. Very abundant. 

Helix rupestris. Very local, but abundant at 
Doward Hill in cracks in the cliff, among grass, 
dead leaves, etc. 

Helix pygmcea. One specimen among dead leaves 
at Rotherwas. 

* Helix pulchella. Not uncommon. Dinedor, Back- 
bury Hill, etc. Mostly among dead leaves. 

* Helix lapicida. Local and uncommom. Doward 
Hill : Dormington. 

* Bulimus obscurus. Fairly common. Doward 
Hill : Breinton : Dormington. 

Pupa seeale. Local, but very abundant on the 
Doward Hill : also at Dormington. 

* Pupa ringens. Not very common : Doward Hill. 
Pupa umbilicala. Not uncommon. Doward Hill : 


Pupa marginata. Not uncommon. Doward Hill : 

(Note. — The Doward Hill and Dormington are 
both on the limestone.) 

Vertigo. This genus seems conspicuous by its 
absence. Doubtless there are more than two species. 
Can any reader give me any hints to find them? 

Vertigo edentula. Dinedor : Dormington. 

Vertigo antivertigo. Dormington. 

* Clausilia rugosa. Very common ; also vars. 
gracilior, tumidula. 

* Clausilia laminata. Very rare. Doward ; Dor- 
mington; "Leominster;" only single specimens. 

* Cochlicopa lubrica. Very common. 1 
Cochlicopa tridens. Rare. Backbury Hill, among 

Mercuriale perennis. 

* Achatina acicula. Very rare. Among dead 
leaves on Backbury Hill (only two specimens). 

* Carychium minimum. Common among dead 
leaves. I have found this and many other species' 
in abundance by shaking dead leaves over a sheet of 
paper or a cloth, or by bringing home bagfuls of 
rubbish for more leisurely examination. 

* Cyclostoma elegans. Common. 

In conclusion I may mention that the localities 
quoted are either parishes, or well-known woods, hills, 
or houses ; also, if any reader would care to know the 
more exact locality of any species, I shall be most 
happy to render all the assistance in my power ; and 
should be glad if anyone would inform me of any sins 
of commission and omission he may know of. 

[A. E. Boycott. 

The Grange, Hereford. 


rj^HE HORSE, a Study in Natural History, 
J- by William Henry Flower, C.B. (London : 
Regan Paul & Co.). This is one of the now 
famous modern-science series of books, edited by 
Sir John Lubbock, and issued by the above firm. 
They are all well got-up, printed with clear good 
type on good paper. The horse is a favourite animal 
all over the world, but nowhere more so than in 
England, and there is nobody more capable of writing 
about its anatomy and zoological history than Pro- 
fessor Flower. Its genealogical descent is better 
known than that of any other mammal, so that the 
horse is the animal most referred to in support of the 
theory of Evolution. The bones of its legs are a 
museum of ancestral organs, many of them now 
disused, others having been extraordinarily developed 
at their expense. Into all these matters Professor 
Flower enters in detail in the book before us, which 
is practically a little monograph upon the horse. The 
student of natural history could not study a move 
delightful book. It is written in plain and practically 
untechnical language. It contains only four lengthy 
chapters, which are as follows : " The Horse's Place 
in Nature — its Ancestors and Relations"; "The 
Horse and its nearest existing Relations"; "The 
Structure of the Horse, chiefly as bearing upon its 
Mode of Life, its Evolution, and its Relation to other 
Animal Forms — the Head and Neck " ; " The Struc- 
ture of the Horse — the Limbs." The work is em- 
bellished by twenty-six telling illustrations. 

The Realm of Nature, an Outline of Physiography, 
by Dr. H. R. Mill (London : John Murray). This 
is by far the best handbook to physical geography in 
our language. It contains nineteen coloured maps, 
and sixty-eight illustrations, and appendices which 
give an account of the most important instruments 
used in determining physiographical questions. The 
last appendix is very usefully devoted to explanations 
of the derivations of scientific terms. There are 
seventeen chapters, at the end of each of which is a 
list of books of reference. The wide range of Dr. 
Mill's book may be gathered from the titles of the 
chapters, which are as follows : " The Study of 
Nature"; " The Substance of Nature"; "Energy, 
the Power of Nature"; "The Earth a Spinning 
Ball " ; " The Earth a Planet " ; " The Solar System 
and Universe " ; " The Atmosphere " ; "Atmospheric 
Phenomena"; " Climates of the World " ; "The 
Hydrosphere " ; " The Bed of the Oceans" ; "The 
Crust of the Earth"; "Action of Water on the 
Land " ; " The Record of the Rocks " ; " The Con- 
tinental Area"; "Life and Living Creatures"; 
"Man in Nature." Dr. Mill's manual ought to be 
in every library. It is a work not only to be read, 
but to be referred to at all times. 

Manipulation of the Microscope-, by E. Bausch 
(London : W. P. Collins). We are glad to see this 



little manual circulating in this country. It is just 
the book we are often asked to recommend : full and 
clear in its detailed explanations. The headings of 
the chapters are as follows : " Simple Microscopes" ; 
" The Compound Microscope"; "Objectives and 
Eye-pieces"; "Requisites for Work"; "How to 
Work " ; " Advanced Manipulation " ; "To select a 
Microscope " ; "Sub-stage Illumination " ; " Care of 
a Microscope," and Appendix. 

The Optics of Photography and Photographic Lenses, 
by J. Traill Taylor (London: Whittaker & Co.). 
The author has for many years been editor of the 
" British Journal of Photography," so that no other 
man is better capable of writing such a useful manual 
as that before us. It is eminently practical, and all 
users of photographic lenses, both professionals and 
amateurs, will be thankful to possess it. Indeed 
there is scarcely a single detail which photographers 
of all classes have to be acquainted with in the 
prosecution of their art, which is not here clearly and 
fully set forth. The following enumeration of the 
chapters will give our readers some idea of Mr. 
Taylor's praiseworthy little book : " What consti- 
tutes Photographic Optics — Nature and Properties of 
Light " ; " Photographic Definition, Real and Ideal — 
Forms of Single and Achromatic Lenses"; "The 
Cause of an Inverted Image " ; " Spherical Aberra- 
tion " ; " The Nature and Function of the Diaphragm 
or Stop " ; " Properties of Deep Meniscus Lenses — 
Compensating Single Lenses ; " "The Optical Centre 
of Single Lenses" ; " The Optical or Focal Centre of 
a Combination"; "Single Achromatic Lenses"; 
"Distortion, its Nature and Cure"; "Non- 
distorting Lenses"; "Wide-angle Non-distorting 
Lenses"; "Portrait Lenses;" "Rapid Landscape, 
Group, and Copying Lenses " ; " Universal Landscape 
Lenses" ; " Flare and the Flare Spot." The book 
contains sixty-eight illustrations, and is usefully sup- 
plied with a copious index. We cordially commend 
it to all those of our readers who are interested in 
the science and art of photography. 

Air and Water, by Prof. Vivian B. Lewes (London : 
Methuen & Co.). This is a well-written, interesting 
little book, one of the university extension series. 
The author very successfully brings before his readers 
the wonderful changes going on in our atmosphere, 
and the still more marvellous work which water 
performs in our nature. Prof. Lewes writes very 
largely from a hygienic point of view. Readers will 
find this little work useful at any time as a handy 
book of reference on subjects connected with air and 
water. The contents are as follows : "The History 
of the Atmosphere " ; " The chief Constituents of the 
Atmosphere " ; " The minor Constituents of the 
Atmosphere " ; " The local Impurities of the Atmo- 
sphere " ; "The Causes which tend to keep the 
Composition of the Atmosphere constant"; "The 
Air of enclosed Spaces and Ventilation" ; " Water 
and its Composition" ; " The Determination of the 

Composition of Water " ; " The Properties of 
Water"; "The Circulation of Water in Nature" ; 
" The Impurities of Water " ; " The Purification of 

Tenth Annual Report of the United States' Geological 
Survey, 188S-89 (Washington : Government Printing 
Office). We have to acknowledge two more large 
and handsomely got-up volumes, sent us by the 
American Government, in striking contrast with the 
beggarly niggardliness with which our own hides 
the lights of its geological surveyors under a bushel. 
Besides the Report of the Director, these volumes 
contain the following memoirs : — " General Account 
of the Fresh-water Morasses of the United States, 
with a Description of the Dismal Swamp District of 
Virginia and South Carolina," by Professor N. Shaler 
(this paper is profusely and excellently illustrated) ; 
" The Penokee Iron-bearing Series of Michigan and 
Wisconsin," by R. D. Irving and C. R. Van-Hise 
(numerous coloured maps and rock-sections) ; "The 
Fauna of the Lower Cambrian or Olenellus Zone," 
by C. D. Walcott (illustrated by fifty excellent plates, 
besides woodcuts). This is one of the handsomest 
volumes the Survey has hitherto published. One 
volume of the Tenth Annual Report is entirely de- 
voted to the subject of " Irrigation." 

Fifth Report of the United States' Entomological 
Commission, on "Insects injurious to Forest and 
Shade Trees," by Dr. A. S. Packard (Washington : 
Government Printing Office). This is another of the 
valuable volumes issued by the American Government, 
the work of one of the most distinguished entomolo- 
gists of the day. It is illustrated by 360 woodcuts 
and 40 full-page plates, many of them coloured. All 
the insects, chiefly Lepidoptera, which injuriously 
affect forest-trees are here figured and described in 
every stage of their development. The trees whose 
insect enemies are described are the oak, elm, 
hickory, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, locust- 
tree, maple, cotton-wood, lime, birch, beach, wild 
cherry, plum, thorn, crab-apple, mountain ash, ash, 
willow, hackberry, alder, sycamore, pine, spruce, fir- 
tree, larch, juniper, cedar, and Cyprus. It is one of 
the most admirable volumes in every respect the 
U.S.A. Commission has ever turned out. 

Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution, 
vols. 1887-S9 (Washington: Government Printing 
Office). These bulky volumes, which run to over 
seven hundred pages each, are exceedingly useful to 
a scientist, on account of their admirable progress in 
scientific work for each year, as well as their full and 
useful bibliography. In addition, each volume con- 
tains a well-written review of some particular subject, 
or translations of papers and addresses from the most 
important foreign papers of each year. No more 
entertaining and useful scientific annual appears. 

Systematic List of British Oligocene and Eocene 
Mollusca in the British Museum of Natural History, 
by B. B. Newton ; Catalogue of British Hymenoptera 


in the British Museum, second edition, part i., 
Andrenidfe and Apidce (London : printed by order 
of the trustees). We are proud of these two volumes. 
The trustees of the British Museum are the only 
authorities who recognise what the Americans have 
long found out, that science is democratic and not 
oligarchic. They distribute their valuable volumes 
with a free hand to every free library and scientific 
journal. Mr. Bullen's volume will be found of 
especial value to geologists. It deals practically with 
the late Mr. Edwards' collection of mollusca. Mr. 
Edwards was one of the members of the "London 
Clay Club," founded in 1S3S for the purpose of 
collecting and describing and illustrating the eocene 
mollusca. His collection is now in the British 
Museum, and Mr. Bullen's work is an account of it. 
The volume on British Hymenoptera is accompanied 
by a " Catalogue of the British Bees in the British 
Museum," by Frederick Smith, a new issue. Very 
few people are aware that the total number of species 
of British bees known at present is 211. It is 
hardly necessary to say that Mr. Smith's catalogue 
is accurately and well done. 

The Medical Annual and Practitioner 's Index, 1 892 
(Bristol: John Wright & Co.). This volume has 
gained immensely both in bulk and value since its 
first appearance ten years ago. It now runs to 
close upon 700 pages, is abundantly illustrated both 
by woodcuts and coloured plates, and is contributed 
to by most of the chief medical writers of the day. 
Dr. Buffer's paper on "Recent Advances in Bac- 
teriology " will be read by many other than medical 
men. We have looked in vain in it for a paper on 
the "Natural History of Influenza." The volume 
contains a list of the principal medical books of last 


By Bernard Thomas. 

II. — Flagellate Infusoria. 

THE Infusoria proper consists of a single group 
of unicellular animals. The Diatoms, Desmids, 
Rotifers and others, either plant-forms or multicellular 
animals, have been rejected by the zoologist, and 
referred to their respective classes in the animal or 
vegetable kingdoms. 

Unicellularity is the leading character of the 
Protozoa, and while the Arnceba represents the lowest 
class, the Infusoria is the highest class of that sub- 
kingdom. The latter are therefore described as a 
class of the Protozoa furnished either with one or two 
long motile filaments (flagella), with several delicate 
vibratile filaments (cilia), or with non-vibralile fila- 
ments furnished with suckers (tentacles). 

The following is adopted as a good working 
classification : — 

(1.) Flagellata.* 

(2.) Cilio-flagellata. 

(3.) Ciliata. 

(4.) Suctoria (Acinetoe). 
(1.) The Flagellata have one or two long delicate 
filaments called flagella; when two exist, they usually 
arise from the same, end, and the region from which 
these organs spring is usually called the oral or 
anterior end. There is often no mouth, but only 
an oral region, usually placed near the base of the 
flagellum, at which the food is introduced. Very 
generally there is a nucleus, a contractile space, and 
sometimes a little red pigment body (the so-called 
eye-spot or red ocellus). 

We may roughly divide the Flagellata into two 
groups ; firstly, the free-swimming isolated forms, 
and secondly, those that live in colonies. 

1. Astasia limpida (Fig. 43). The length of the 
species is given in the " Micrographic Dictionary " 
as the five-hundred-and-fiftieth of an inch. While 
swimming, fully extended, it glides along with its 
long flagellum stretched out in front of it, and this 
organ may be seen to move about as it swims. It 
may now be described roughly as shaped like a pear, 
of which the flagellum forms a somewhat long stalk. 
The anterior or oral region, from which the fligellum 

Fig. 43 — Astasia limpida. A, extended, showing flagellum (t), 
vacuole (v), and eye-spot (r o); b, contracted. 

springs in a slight notch, is pointed, the posterior 
part blunt. The protoplasm in the former region is 
clear and contains a vacuole, while the remaining 
substance is granular, sometimes with large well- 
defined particles crowded close together. In some 
specimens there is a little reddish body at the 
posterior end, similar to the eye-spot found in certain 
of the Alg;e. The flagellum is very long, and seems 
to be used as a tactile organ, feeling everything that 
comes in its way. 

From the observations of Butschli t it appears that 

* Clapaiede and Lachmann. 

f "Carpenter on the Microscope," p. 506. 



this organism has a true mouth for the reception of 
food. Sometimes it stops swimming and rapidly 
changes its form and becomes irregular in outline 
(Fig. 43 b) while the long flagellum is seen to wave 
about in the water. The ectosarc seems eminently 
contractile, like that of the Amceba or Euglena. We 
shall see that the contractility of the ectosarc varies 
greatly in the different species of Infusoria, in 
Paramcecium it is not contractile, though not very 
resistant to objects that may be pressed against it, 
while in Coleps the ectosarc is cuticular. 

The resemblance of Astasia to Euglena, presently 
to be described, is very striking indeed. Ehrenberg 
and Dujardin classed both forms together into the 
same family. 

2. Euglena viridis is by many considered a plant, 
by others an animal. Like a plant, it contains green 
chlorophyll, and it may be noted that it bears a 
general resemblance to the free-swimming Zoospores 
of certain Algae. 

Its length varies from the thousandth to the two- 
hundred-and-fiftieth of an inch. It is exceedingly 
common in pond-water and may often be found in 
great multitudes in the green water found at the 
bottom of manure heaps. When fully extended, it is 
seen to be somewhat spindle-shaped; one end is clear, 
and contains a minute red angular body, the red 
ocellus or eye-spot. It is difficult to say what is the 
function of this bright particle, but it is found in the 
Zoospores, as well as in many of the free-swimming 
green Flagellata which may be grouped collectively 
as Flagellate Algce. The rest of the protoplasmic 
cell contains chlorophyll corpuscles. This green 
colouring-matter is not diffused throughout the 
general substance, but collected in little green masses 
of protoplasm (chlorophyll corpuscles) as in the 
higher plants. In the centre of the cell there is 
sometimes a large round body, resembling in appear- 
ance the pyrenoids seen in Desmids, Zygnemaceae, 
and also probably in the Zoospores. Although it 
occupies the centre of the cell it seems too well- 
defined for a nucleus, and if it be so, is green 

The anterior end is slightly notched, the posterior 
end is prolonged into a tail and is clear and colourless. 
Sometimes the protoplasm is stuffed with granules 
which look like starch grains but do not stain blue, 
but a deep brown, with iodine. The motile filament, 
•springing from the notch before mentioned, is longer 
than the body, and furnished with a small knob at 
the free extremity. 

Euglena is seen to frequently change its form in a 
manner somewhat similar to Astasia, only there may 
be noted this difference : in Astasia the anterior 
extremity participates less than the remaining proto- 
plasm in this change, while in Euglena the anterior 
and posterior ends both seem the less motile. Unlike 
many other Flagellate Alga;, Euglena viridis has no 
cell- wall as have its allies Phacus and Euglena pyrum 

There are other allies of Euglena viridis which will 
only be briefly mentioned ; among these are Euglena 
acus, E. pyrum, and E. longicauda. 

3. Euglena longicauda, sometimes called Phacus 
longicauda, is of somewhat larger size than the pre- 
ceding. In the " Micrographic Dictionary" it is 
said to be from the one-hundred-and-eightieth to the 
one-hundred-and-twentieth of an inch. Its move- 
ments are slow, and it has a peculiar habit of twisting 
its body. The ectosarc is marked obliquely with 
lines resembling the myophan striae of the Ciliata. 

4. Euglena pyrum, unlike the two other Euglena, 
is furnished with a firm cell-wall formed from the 
ectosarc. This case is sometimes found empty, and 
then delicate spiral markings can be seen. In size it 
may vary from the thousandth to the eight-hundred- 
and fiftieth of an inch, so that it is much smaller than 
E. viridis. 

5. Phacus pleuronotes is about the six-hundredth of 
an inch in length. In one aspect it is broad, roughly 
oval, but broader near the base, in another view it is 
thin and narrow, so that it may be described as plate- 
like. It rolls lazily round on its long axis as it swims, 
presenting alternately the broad and narrow aspect to 
the observer. The anterior part is cleft, and from 
this a delicate flagellum arises. The posterior end 
is prolonged into an obliquely directed tail. The 
cell-wall is marked with striae, the strongest of which 
radiate from the cleft to the tail. 

In the interior there is an eye-spot, situated near 
the origin of the flagellum. There are usually two 
vacuoles, which do not appear to be contractile, the 
smaller of which is near the red ocellus. Chlorophyll 
corpuscles more or less fill the rest of the interior. 
Sometimes there are one or two oval, colourless, 
highly-refractive bodies with concentric markings, 
and which do not stain with iodine. 

The two little organisms Doxococeus and Chaeto- 
glena are often found together in pond-water. 

6. Doxococeus ruber, something bigger than the 
two-thousandth of an inch in diameter, is round and 
rolls over and over as it swims. The thick cell- 
wall is of a reddish-brown hue and hides the proto- 
plasm with its green corpuscles. Through a hole in 
the case surrounded by a ring the flagellum protudes. 
By the pressure of the cover-glass we may easily 
crush the brittle cell-wall, and in this way expose the 
protoplasm with its corpuscles and red eye-spot. 

TThe other figures will appear in next paper. — 


CONSIDERING the extent of our native flora, 
we are happily exempt from many poisonous 
species, and those plants that are known as injurious 
are either not very common, or are easily recognised. 
In our immediate neighbourhood, with the exception 
of some scattered plants of Solatium dulcamara, 



whose] scarlet berries have certainly a very tempting 
appearance, there is no poisonous plant to whose 
questionable attractions children would readily fall 
victims, for even their inveterate curiosity would 
scarcely lead them to experiment upon hemlock or 
foxglove, at any rate in their own persons. Yet, 
although the species usually regarded as British 
poisonous plants, are neither numerous nor very 
common, if we except those of the Umbellate family, 
many tribes contain species that are more or less 
poisonous, it being rather a question of the intensity 
of certain noxious properties than their entire absence, 
and families that are known to be distinctly poisonous 
in other parts of the world may well be looked upon 
here with suspicion, and treated accordingly. 

The Euphorbiacea:, a very poisonous tribe in 
warmer countries, is represented in our flora by 
species too insignificant to be injurious in any marked 

The Leguminoseae, again, areas a whole (according 
to Lindley) to be reckoned poisonous, and strange 
though it may seem, those species that form such 
important articles of food for man and animals as 
the pulse and fodder plants are just so many excep- 
tions to the rule, yet amongst our native species 
there are none that are injurious. It would appear 
that the active principles of plants gain or lose in 
intensity according to the climate in which they 
naturally grow, and for this reason plants whose 
home is in warm and tropicardimates where light as 
well as heat is so much stronger than with us, are 
characterised by more powerful secretions, whether 
for good or evil ; their flowers are more strongly- 
scented, and their fruits are more full of flavour and 
sweetness than ours. It is said that when such 
plants are grown in our hothouses, their peculiar 
properties suffer considerable diminution, the reason 
being chiefly that the light, that all-important factor 
in the production of secretions, is so much less intense 
than in their native habitats. Many powerful poisons 
are to be found in the Figwort order (Scrophularineae-), 
but with the exception of Digitalis and Scrophularia 
our native plants are probably harmless. 

Our truly poisonous plants are met with principally 
in the Orders Ranunculacea;, Umbellifera;, Solanacece. 
To begin with the Ranunculacea? ; — all the plants of 
this family are full of an acrid principle, but Ranun- 
culus acris is specially distinguished by name for the 
virulence of its blistering sap. Though it abounds in 
rich pastures, and is popularly supposed to impart its 
own deep yellow to the butter produced by the cows 
grazing there, it is really left entirely alone by them, 
and with reason, for it is the most acrid plant of the 
genus ; yet its injurious properties are dissipated 
when it is dried with the hay. 

Anemone nemorosa is also refused by both horses 
and cows because of its acrid juice ; but goats, who 
seem able to find "good in everything," eat it, as do 
sheep, though it sometimes disagrees with them. 

But how much wider is the discretion exercised by 
animals than that of human beings in respect of what 
is good and wholesome for food. Cows, as we have 
seen, eschew the tempting golden buttercups; and 
animals, especially in a wild state, are able, in virtue 
of their wonderful gift of instinct, to feed unharmed 
amongst vegetation that would cause injury, or even 
death to them if they partook of it. Their instinct 
seems to lead them unquestioningly to refuse the evil 
and choose the good ; while man, with his higher 
endowment of reason and intelligence, must perforce 
prove all things by experience before he can be 
satisfied as to their character. The instinct of 
domesticated animals, however, does not always 
serve them as an unerring guide, or we should not 
hear now and then of cattle and horses being 
poisoned by eating the foliage of the yew, or the 
leaves of the more deadly cowbane. 

But to return. The two Hellebores have no very 
good repute, though once accounted specifics for 
madness. Their generic name comes to us from the 
Greek, and though the species that was accounted 
poisonous by the'ancients is not included in our flora, 
the two that are must be looked upon with suspicion. 
But the poisonous plant par excellence of the Ranun- 
culus family is Aconitum napellus. It was considered 
by the ancients as the most prompt of all poisons, 
one indeed that 

" Swift as quicksilver, courses through 
The natural gates and alleys of the body." 

Its generic name is thought to have been derived 
from aconitos, without a struggle, while napellus 
alludes to the form of the roots. Its popular appella- 
tion of wolfsbane indicates its virulent nature, as it 
was formerly used to poison wolves, by scattering or 
sprinkling the acrid juice over pieces of raw flesh. 
The whole plant, but especially the root, is poisonous, 
and deaths have frequently occurred through the 
latter being mistaken for horse-radish, though the 
two bear little resemblance to each other. The 
singular flower of A. napellus, not inappropriately 
named monkshood or friar's-cap, is known to all who 
possess a garden. We have probably been familiar 
from childhood with the appearance of the overarching 
sepals that form the " hood," and with the long- 
stalked nectaries into which the hindmost petals are 
transformed, for what child does not love to discover 
the pair of doves yoked to the pretty chariot within ? 
The rootstock of A. napellus is black, and shaped 
something like that of a carrot. By the way, does 
Keats's epithet, "tight-rooted," refer to the hard 
texture of the root, or to the tenacity with which it 
holds to the ground ? 

"Go not to Lethe, neither twist 
Wolfsbane, tight rooted, for its poisonous wine." 

One may well inquire what it is that makes this 
plant such a deadly, acrid poison, and how and why 
some plants form out of the elements that are the 

8 4 


common food of all, the starch, sugar, gum, etc., 
that are good and wholesome, and others the alkaloids 
and bitter, acrid principles, the "poisonous wine" of 
the poet ? Alkaloids, of course, partake somewhat 
of the nature of the alkalis soda and potash that are 
found in all vegetables, and mostly occur in com- 
bination with the acids of the plant ; they are said to 
be the most remarkable substances discovered by 
modern chemistry, and are the active principles of 
those plants in which they are found. But although 
they are, so to speak, the very essence of the plant, 
they are not necessary to its life and well-being, but 
are waste products, substances that the plant wants 
to get rid of, for they take no part in the formation 
of its tissues. They are, therefore, usually removed 
from, the younger and most active parts, and are 
stored up as secretions in bark, fruit, seeds, etc., in 
the case of Aconitum chiefly in the root. Vegetable 
alkaloids are composed essentially of carbon, hydrogen , 
and nitrogen, the greater number also contain oxygen, 
but nitrogen is invariably present. These poisonous 
principles are most energetic in their action on the 

Fig. 44. — i, fruit of Conium maculatum (enlarged}. 2, longi- 
tudinal section of one carpel and seed ; 3, transverse section 
of same, showing the deeply-furrowed albumen. 

human system, and many are used as medicines 
which in large doses would be poisonous. They are 
named after the plants in which they are found : 
Belladonine, Atropine, Morphine, Nicotine, Theine, 
etc., and the very powerful alkaloid that is obtained 
from Aconitum napdlus is called aconitia or aconitine. 
Aconite is, it scarcely need be said, one of the most 
valuable of medicines, and has been called the 
" homoeopathic lancet" on account of its wonderful 
power of reducing fever, indeed it is to the introduc- 
tion of this drug into the modern practice of medicine, 
that we are largely indebted for the more rational 
treatment of fevers that now prevails. It is to be 
noted that alkaloids in their most concentrated form 
are crystalline and colourless — can the Raphides that 
abound in some plants of the Lily tribe be of this 
nature, for the Scillas and Colchicums have an 
undoubtedly poisonous character ? Aconitine belongs 
to the class of narcotic irritant poisons. 

Next in order, and not less pernicious in their 
effects upon man and animals are the three or four 
members of the Umbellate family that possess 

noxious qualities : these are Conium maculatum, hem- 
lock ; Cicuta virosa, water-hemlock or cowbane, and 
CEnanthe crocata, hemlock dropwort, or dead- 
tongue. (Ethusa cynapium is also poisonous, and 
from having been mistaken and eaten for a most 
useful and wholesome member of the same family 
has been named "fool's-parsley." Conium macu- 
latum is indigenous, and has long been used in 
medicine ; its nauseous smell when bruised ought to 
be enough to warn any one from it. Unlike Aconi- 
tum napdlus, it is in the fruit that the poisonous, 
properties of hemlock are concentrated, and con- 
sidering that it is an annual plant, it is only to be 
expected that they would be stored up in the albumen 
of the seed. The fruit, though resembling that of 

Fig. 45. — Section of flower of Jlonkshoad. 

Fig. 46. — Napiform roots. 

cowbane and celery-apium, differs from them in its 
deeply-furrowed albumen. The active principle is- 
Conia, an oily alkali with a peculiar mouse-like 
odour. Hemlock being the state poison of Athens, 
was that used to compass the death of " that best, 
wisest, and most just of men," Socrates. The 
action of this narcotic irritant poison is to paralyze 
the muscles of respiration so that death is compara- 
tively painless. Plato relates in the Phaedo how the 
servant who brought the poisoned cup to Socrates 
told him to walk about until his legs felt heavy, and 
then lie down, — " the drink," said he, "will do the 
rest ;" and how gradually he grew cold and stiff from 
the feet upwards, and said to those around him that 
when the cold reached his heart, he should depart ; 
then, uncovering his face, he gave that famous last 



command to Crito, " We owe a cock to -Esculapius, 
discharge it and do not neglect it ;" and in a little 
time had ceased to breathe. 

The Solanum or Potato order is made by Bentham 
to include Datura stramonium, the thorn-apple, 
Hyoscyamus niger, henbane, Solatium dulcamara, 
bittersweet or nightshade, 5 1 . nigrum and Atropa 
belladonna, dwale or deadly nightshade. All the 
plants of the order possess narcotic properties, and 
some are very poisonous ; one of their marked 
characteristics is that of causing dilatation of the pupil 
of the eye, hence the specific name of Atropa bella- 
donna, "fair lady," as it was, and possibly still is 
used to enhance the beauty of the eye. As Datura is 
scarcely to be considered as naturalized in England, 
though sometimes met with in the southern counties, 
we will pass on to henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, with 
the purple veinings on its pale yellow corolla and 
its pretty box-like fruits set within the persistent 
calyx, and its large hairy irregularly pinnatifid leaves. 
Perhaps it is just as well that this plant confines 
itself for the most part to the neighbourhood of 
ruins, and frequents stony and waste places. Listen 
to the estimation in which it was held by the ghost in 
" Hamlet ! " 

" Thy uncle stole 
With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial, 
And in the porches of mine ears did pour 
The leperous distilment." 

The properties of Hyoscyamus, like the rest of its 
family, are decidedly narcotic, and it is a valuable 
soother of pain and aid to sleep when judiciously 
administered. Solanum dulcamara is a more common 
plant. Its tufts of purple blossom with their cone of 
yellow anthers are like miniature potato flowers, and 
the bright red berries the " ruby grapes of Proser- 
pine " that succeed them are very attractive ; accord- 
ing to Bentley they are in rare cases poisonous, and 
Balfour declares that the berries of S. nigrum are 
edible. They are eaten in the Ukraine, and in 
Ascension Island are used in the making of plum- 
puddings for the soldiers of the garrison ! It is 
certain, however, that an alkaloid called Solanine is 
present in both plants, as indeed it is, in a less 
degree, in the potato plant. Some derive the name 
of Solanum from solor, to assuage or comfort (the 
tobacco plant belongs to the order), but it is perhaps 
wiser not to seek too much consolation from members 
of this family. The ominous name of Atropos, that 
one of the three fatal sisters whose office it was to cut 
the thread of life has been bestowed upon its most 
dangerous member, Atropa belladonna, dwale or 
deadly nightshade. Dwale may signify mourning 
and woe (Fr. deuil), or perhaps the sleep that- it 
induces, while nightshade suggests the temporary 
blindness caused by its juice. Each designation 
sounds a warning note, and indeed the alkaloid 
Atropine is a most powerful poison, that forms itself 
into innocent-looking, white, silky crystals, devoid of 

smell, but with a bitter taste. The cherry-like 
berries of the deadly nightshade have too often proved 
a fatal temptation to children, so that one cannot be 
sorry that it is not a common plant in the north. 
The flower is of a lurid purple, and the berry, like 
that of henbane is surrounded by the persistent 

The foxglove healeth all wounds, " Aralda tutte le 
piaghe salda," says the Italian proverb ; nevertheless 
it must be classed amongst our poisonous plants, 
though it is a valuable medicine, and was much used 
in the middle ages for staunching wounds. The fox- 
glove, Digitalis purpurea , belongs to the Scrophularia 
family, and is certainly too well-known to need 
description. Its poisonous, bitter principle is called 
Digitaline, and on account of its narcotic properties 
is much used as a sedative in diseases of the heart ; 
indeed the great value of the poisonous principles 
of plants in medicine seems to afford an answer to 
the question one is at times ready to put as to why 
there should be poisonous plants at all. Their real 
danger is, of course, only to the ignorant, and 
children ought always to be warned against eating 
tempting-looking berries that they may happen to 

Lactuca virosa and L. scariola may be named as 
highly-poisonous members of the Composite family, 
whose milky juice acts like opium. 

Daphne mezereum, spurge laurel, of the order 
Thymelacere, is yet another highly-poisonous plant to- 
be added to the lis'. Daphnin is found in all 
parts of the plant, but especially in the root, bark, 
and bright red berries. In a paper on poisonous 
plants the Fungi must not be overlooked, as the 
number of poisonous species are many, and their 
dangerous properties extremely virulent. They con- 
tain much nitrogen, and aie rich in phosphates. 
Bright-coloured fungi should, as a rule, be avoided, 
also those whose juice is milky, or .that have a power- 
ful odour, or an acrid, astringent, salt or bitter taste. 
With regard to fungi, it might be well to follow the 
example of the young French lady who, when invited 
to partake of some strange dish, declined, remarking 
that she only "ate her acquaintance," for even the 
common mushroom may be sometimes poisonous, 

and is avoided both in France and Italy. 

M. D. D. 
Hawkshead, Ambleside. 


IN warm summer weather myriads of small flies, 
of the genus Hilara, may be seen in constant 
motion over streams of water ; their movements are 
various and very difficult to follow. The males of 
these insects have the first, and in some species the 
second joints of the anterior tarsi much dilated. The 
first joint is the largest, and varies both in size and 



shape, the most common shape being somewhat of an 
oval. Usually in flies the first tarsal joint is well 
supplied with muscles, nerves, tracheal vessels, and 
an apodeme, this latter extending to the terminal 
joint of the tarsus, but in the same joint, in Hilara 
pilosa, muscles are absent, the space which they 
should occupy being filled with large glands, from 

hairs with which its under surface is covered." 
Having tried to confirm this statement, I have failed 
to convince myself of its correctness, though the 
attempt has resulted in bringing out other facts which 
may be of some interest. The minuteness of the 
parts prevents satisfactory results being obtained by 
dissection, I have therefore made sections in various 

Fig. 47.— Hilara Jiilosa, longitudinal section through first joint of anterior tarsus of male ; a, outer wall ; I, inner wall ; 

gg, glands ; d, ducts. 

which well-defined iducts extend to the integument, 
on the inner side of the foot (Fig. 47). Some of the 
ducts in their course turn upon themselves, forming 
loops before penetrating the integument, which they 
do immediately above each large hair. The orifice 
of the duct is circular, and placed so close to the 
base of the hair that the minutest drop of fluid 
exuded would necessarily come in contact with it. 
I have not had an opportunity of examining the 
secretion, but it is most probably of a viscid nature, 
and like that given off from the pulvilli of flies. 
Similar glands I have found in the anterior tarsi of 
the water-beetle, Asilus sulcatum, which are in 
intimate connection with both the large and small 
so-called sucking discs. The use of this fluid has 
not been absolutely determined, but it is thought to 
be of service to the insect during the act of co- 

The idea that the pulvilli or pads on the feet of 
flies act as suckers to enable the insect to walk in an 
inverted position on ceilings, etc., has not yet been 
eradicated from the minds of some people, though a 
sufficient proof has long been established showing 
that an adhesive fluid, exuded by the pulvilli, enables 
them to perform this feat. But where, and by what 
means, is this fluid elaborated? In Mr. Lowne's 
Monograph on the Blow-fly, it is stated that "a close 
sac fills the whole of the last four tarsal joints, and 
is lined with pavement epithelium ; it secretes a 
perfectly clear, viscid fluid, which exudes from it 
into the pad and fills its cavity, as well as the hollow 

directions through both the tarsal joints and pulvilli 
of numerous flies, and have invariably found in the 
posterior portion of the pulvilli a number of secreting 
glands, but in no instance have I met with glands in 
any of the four last tarsal joints. The number of 
glands varies much in different species of flies, the 
most numerous I have met with are in the pulvilli of 

Fig. 48.— Longitudino-vertical section of pulvillus of 
Sarcophaga carnaria. 

Sarcophaga carnaria, a troublesome fly of medium 
sire with abnormally large flat pulvilli. Fig. 48 
represents a portion of a longitudino-vertical section 
of S. carnaria. The upper wall (a) is arched, and 
formed of semi or half-tubes of pigmented chitin laid 
lengthwise close together, with the round side upper- 
most. The lower wall (/>) is not parallel with the 
upper, but forms continuous curves in both longi- 
tudinal and transverse directions, causing the fine 
transparent hairs with which it is closely beset, to 
assume various angles. This irregular contour of the 



under surface of the pads adapts them to any uneven 
surface on which the fly may alight, thus, only a 
portion of the sticky hairs would be brought into 
contact with the support at one and the same time. 
The structure of the upper wall is well suited to give 
both strength and elasticity to the pads. Internally, 
the posterior half of the pulvillus is nearly filled with 
a homogenous substance that stains with carmine and 
is partially separated into distinct portions by clear 
spaces [c c). In the midst of these partially isolated 
masses appear one or more glands, the nuclei of 
which take a deep stain [g). The ducts are very 
transparent, and not easily defined, except where 
they happen to cross a clear space. The anterior 
half of the pulvillus is broader and shallower than 
the posterior half, and contains no visible substance ; 
if it has contained fluid, the alcohol used in pre- 
paration has possibly withdrawn it, or otherwise it 
does not take carmine stain. In similar sections 
from the pulvillus of the blow-fly, the fluid has 
become consolidated, fills about two-thirds of the 
depth of the pad, and takes a faint stain with 

The hairs appended to the lower wall of the pul- 
villus are devoid of pigment, and so transparent that I 
have been unable to detect any lumen, though I have 
tried to coax air into them, neither have transverse 
sections revealed any opening. 

From the examination of the feet of many flies 
with similar results, I am led to the conclusion that 
the viscid fluid used by the fly for its support, either 
in an inverted or vertical position, is elaborated in 
the pulvilli, and in them alone. 

Wm. Jenkinson. 


We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr. 
Henry Walter Bates, F.R.S., who died recently 
from influenza and its complications, at the age of 
sixty-six. He was distinguished as a traveller and 
naturalist, and very well known for his twenty-seven 
years' secretaryship of the Royal Geographical Society. 
As a youth he was an enthusiastic botanist and ento- 
mologist, and the country around Leicester — his 
birthplace — was well known to him through his 
frequent expeditions. At the age of twenty-three he 
went off to the Amazon, and during eleven years 
continued his study and collections among the natural 
history riches of that region. In 1863 he published 
" The Naturalist in the River Amazon," and for the 
Linnsean Society's ''Transactions" he wrote "Con- 
tributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon's 

Another leading scientist has joined the majority 
in Professor Thomas Sterry Hunt, who died in New 
York on February I2th, after an attack of influenza. 

He was born in 1S26, and began his scientific career, 
at the age of twenty, in the laboratory at Yale. As 
chemist and mineralogist to the Geological Survey of 
Canada he rendered valuable service. In 1S72 he 
was appointed to a chair in the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology; in 1S59 he was elected F.R.S., and 
in 1SS1 received the LL.D. of Cambridge. His best 
known writings are " Chemical and Geological 
Essays," "Mineral Physiology and Physiography," 
and " Systematic Mineralogy. " 

At a meeting of the Edinburgh Royal Society, 
held recently, Dr. Ralph Copeland, Astronomer 
Royal for Scotland, read a communication on the 
new star in the constellation "Auriga." Dr. Cope- 
land said a feature of the new star was its rapid rise 
to its maximum of brightness and its equally sudden 
decline. Of two temporary stars discovered in recent 
years one had broken out in "Nebula?," and was 
comparatively little observed, but the second, which 
appeared in 1885 in Andromeda, was thoroughly 
examined. There was very little of any distinctive 
features in it, and they might argue that these new 
stars were spectra not unlike those represented in 
"Nebula Andromeda." No full data had yet been 
got as to the suddenness of the appearance of the 
present new star. It was generally considered that 
the telegram which had been received from America 
on the subject did not mean that the star had 
actually passed through a maximum of brightness 
on 20th December last, but that on that date it was 
brighter than on the 10th or 1st of the month. iThe 
writer of the anonymous post-card on the subject 
was Dr. Thomas D. Anderson, Edinburgh, who was 
almost certain he had seen the star at 2 oclock a.m. 
on 24th January last. At that date it did not occur 
to him that it was a new star, but on February 1st it 
flashed on him, and the discovery was made, and he 
hoped Dr. Anderson's success would be the means of 
making amateurs persevere in their endeavours. On 
the 1st inst. a spectroscope had revealed bright lines 
on the star. The tackle of the Observatory here had 
been taken to Dunecht, and observations made there, 
and he had also made observations. On the 9th inst. 
he obtained the positions of the lines. They were 
656-2; 595-0; 562-0; 533-6; 518-0; 502-3; and 
500-5. 500*5 was the place where the great Nebulas 
lay. 502-3 was one of the best measurements he 
made. Other positions were 494-0, 486-1, 449-6, 
and 447 ■ 6. Three of these lines pointed to nebulous 
matter burning in the star, but as a matter of fact 
that was not the case. He had that morning received 
satisfactory results' from Dunecht. Observations had 
been made there, and 30S measures of 71 lines in the 
spectrum had been secured, and there was no doubt 
of the positions of the lines. They saw at once from 
his measurements that hydrogen was represented by 
three lines, and they knew that nebulee lines were 
wanting. The lines at 494 and 502 were not due to 


nebula;. 518 was perhaps due to magnesium oxide. 
It was thought the new star was closely allied to 
others, and was probably colder and older than them, 
From February 1st a set of estimates of its brightness 
on various dates up to the nth had been made. 
There was a very marked increase in its brightness, 
and it fell down to the fifth magnitude on the 
Tuesday. He was fairly confident of its maximum of 
brightness on the Sunday. The observations of bright- 
ness tended to show a relationship more to a variable 
star than to a "Nova" burning itself out within a 
few weeks of its appearance. The most remarkable 
feature about it was the 502 line being so near the 
great nebula line. That had not been seen in spectra 
of variable stars. 

At the last meeting of the Society of Marine 
Engineers, a paper was read on " Initial Condensa- 
tion," after which the fullowing propositions were put 
before the meeting : I. That range of temperature 
does not cause, but permits condensation ; 2. That 
the increased initial condensation found with higher 
rates of expansion is due to increased work, and not 
to increased range of temperature ; 3. That initial 
condensation may occur not only when steam is used 
at full pressure throughout the stroke, but even when 
no useful work is performed ; 4. That the lessened 
initial condensation generally found with stage 
expansion engines is largely due to reduced range 
of temperature, but notwithstanding reduced range of 
temperature a stage expansion engine may condense 
as much steam as a single stage engine ; 5. That 
conducting-cylinders do not of themselves cause 
initial condensation, the actual cause being the dis- 
appearance of heat and consequent liquefaction of 
steam in the performance of work ; 6. That discord- 
ant results are almost certain to arise when the 
condensive surfaces are active up to their full capacity ; 
7. That instead of it being necessary to consider why 
initial condensation exists, it is often necessary to 
enquire why it is not greater. 

We have received from Professor Prestwich his 
admirable and suggestive paper illustrated with maps 
and specimens " On the Primitive Characters of the 
Flint Implements of the Chalk Plateau of Kent, with 
Reference to the Question of their Glacial or Pre- 
Glacial Age," with notes by Messrs. B. Harrison and 
De Barri Crawshay. 

We are pleased to receive the fourth report of the 
"Microscopical Society of Calcutta," which, owing 
to the possession of an active president, and an 
equally active secretary, J. Wood Mason Esq., and 
W. J. Simmons, now commands attention. 

The increasing interest in natural history is best 
shown by the new periodicals required to deal with 
its manifold questions. We have to announce and 
welcome the advent of another competitor for popular 

favour in "Natural Science," price Is. An admirably 
printed and well got-up magazine, in which we are 
glad to see the names of several esteemed contributors 
of Science-Gossip appearing. 

We have received a pamphlet, beautifully printed 
and tastefully got up, entitled, " A Review of the 
work of the Leeuwenhoek Microscopical Club, Man- 
chester, 1867-91." The title-page is illustrated with 
a beautiful photograph of Leeuwenhoek, from the 
engraved portrait by Anker Smith, in the 1800 
edition of Leeuwenhoek's works, of Hoole, London. 

The " International Journal of Microscopy and 
Natural History " for January is unusually interesting. 
It is crowded with good matter, and has some ex- 
cellent illustrations. 

One of the most important natural history associa- 
tions in this country is the " Transactions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union." Nothing more tho- 
rough has ever been turned out by any society. The 
parts deal with the botany, geology, climate, physical 
geography, entomology, &c. , of the premier county, 
in addition to which there is a separate part by Mr. 
Robert Kidston on the Yorkshire carboniferous flora. 
These parts are published by Taylor Brothers, Leeds. 

We beg to call attention to the following second- 
hand scientific book catalogues, as very likely to 
prove useful to our readers : — Messrs. Wesley's 
No. 115 Catalogue of Works relating to Meteorology, 
Physical Geography, and Aeronautics ; Messrs. Du- 
lau's Catalogue of Works on Geology, 108 pages ; 
and Mr. W. P. Collin's Monthly Catalogue of Books 
on Science and Natural History. 

The last number of the "Journal of the New 
Jersey Natural History Society" contains a useful 
paper on the "Molluscs of the Atlantic Coast of the 
United States South to Cape Hatteras," by Austin 
C. Aggar. 

Baron Felder, formerly Burgomaster of Vienna, 
has sold his great collection of butterflies to Lord 
Rothschild for 5000/. The collection is said to be 
destined for the British Museum. Baron Felder, 
who is seventy-eight years old, has parted with it for 
fear that otherwise after his death it would be broken 
up. The price is considered very low. 

Mr. Ludwig Mond, the brilliant Swiss Chemist, 
has not only discovered how to dispose of ordinary 
coal smoke, but how to turn it into a highly profitable 
commodity. The statement is that by burning 125 
tons of coal, at a cost of 31/., and making full use of 
it for steam raising purposes, he can at the same time 
secure, by a simple process he has invented, four tons 
of sulphate of ammonia from the smoke produced by 
the coal. The money value of this will be 48/. 

An American astronomer, Professor Chandler, of 
Harvard, has started the theory that the variable star 



Algol — alpha Persei — owes its variableness to the 
fact that, together with a dark satellite, it revolves 
round a third and central body, which is also dark, 
in one hundred and thirty years. The orbit of the 
shining star Mr. Chandler calculates to be two 
thousand five hundred times as large as that of the 

At the suggestion of Dr. Cesare Lombroso, the 
present distinguished occupant of the chair of Forensic 
Medicine and Psychiatry in the University of Tuf°in, 
a " Psychiatrico-Criminological Museum" is about 
to be formed in that seat of learning. It is proposed, 
says the "British Medical Journal," to form a col- 
lection illustrating as far as possible the mental and 
physical characteristics of lunatics and criminals, and 
supplying the necessary materials for the scientific 
study of the various types of mental or moral abnor- 
mality. Among the objects collected will be skulls, 
skeletons, and brains of criminals, preparations of 
diseased and malformed organs, instruments for the 
study of insanity and remedies used in its treatment, 
plans of prisons and lunatic asylums, autographs of 
lunatics and criminals, materials for the geographical 
distribution and statistics of crime, &c. 

We are pleased to welcome the ' ' First Report of 
the Southport Society of Natural Science." The 
president's address is an excellent one, and the report 
contains papers on the "Geology of the neighbour- 
hood," by E. Dickson ; "A List of the Mollusca of 
the District, by G. W. Chaster; "A Paper on the 
Botany," by Henry Ball; and "A Report on the 
Local Foraminifera " (illustrated), by G. W. Chaster. 

At the anniversary of the Royal Microscopical 
Society, the president's address was postponed until 
the next meeting. The president, Dr. Braithwaite, 
is ODe of the most distinguished of living muscolo- 
gists, and he very appropriately selected as the 
subject of his address the impregnation and modes of 
reproduction in ferns and mosses. Diagrams in 
illustration were exhibited and explained, and speci- 
mens were also shown under microscopes in the 


The Approaching Extinction of the Lap- 
wing. — The remarks under the above heading in the 
March Dumber of Science-Gossip recalled to me 
Mr. J. Cordeaux's statement before the Select 
Committee on Wild Birds' Protection, and which I 
have since looked up, and it runs as follows : — 
" Questioned by Sir D. Wedderburn — You mentioned 
the lapwing just now among the birds which have 
increased in your part of the world (Lincolnshire) ? — 
Yes; it has increased greatly. I attribute the increase 
of the lapwing to the more general cultivation of 

turnips and green crops ; they feed on the Agrotis 
segetiim and other grubs that are found in turnip- 
fields. Is it not the case with the lapwing that while 
the bird itself is unmolested, its eggs are taken in very 
large numbers ? — Yes ; the lapwing's eggs are taken 
very largely ; but much larger numbers are destroyed 
by the various operations of agriculture, harrowing, 
rolling and so on ; yet in spite of all this the lapwing 
has very greatly increased. Does not that bear out 
the theory that improved conditions of existence are 
far more important than any protection for increasing 
the numbers of birds — Yes, I think so to a consider- 
able extent." Lord Lilford, on the other hand, in his 
evidence before the same committee says his own 
experience is that the peewit is less common in 
Northamptonshire than it used to be. He further 
states that he thinks there is a large importation 
of plovers' eggs into this country from Holland. 
Probably quite as many are imported as are taken in 
this country. In those parts of England where this 
bird is on the increase, it is no doubt due, as Mr. 
Cordeaux states, to the more general cultivation o 
suitable crops ; and where it is on the decrease, it is 
owing to .the absence of these conditions and the 
improved drainage of the land. As regards the eggs 
of the sparrow-hawk, moor-hen and coot being often 
sold for plovers' eggs, why should not those of the 
common fowl be also included ? They are more 
easily obtained and have quite as much claim to 
resemblance as those above named ! Only last year 
I saw the eggs of the black-headed gull, which had 
been picked out of a consignment of plovers' eggs 
and laid aside in a poulterer's shop in London. 
These, however, though more closely resembling the 
eggs of the plover, are easily detected from their 
greater size, shape and colouring — A. P. L. 

The Black Scoter {Oidemia nigra) breeding 
in Britain. — In reply to Mr. Southwell's request 
(Science-Gossip No. 325, p. 21) for further 
particulars respecting this interesting ornithological 
fact, at my request Mr. Fowler has been good 
enough to furnish me with the following additional 
details. "At last (Feb. 24th) I find time to answer 
your enquiries re Black Scoter nesting on the 
Earnley Marshes. The brood this year was seven, 
and I purposely shot the old drake for specimen for 
my cases. I am sorry now that I did not get any of 
the young. I could easily have done so. When I 
saw the young birds first they could just fly, but only 
a short way. I saw the two old birds off and on all 
the summer, without thinking of the probability of 
their nesting, or caring much about it. In August 
I flushed the family, and killed the old male. If 
they had been mallards I could have killed most of 
them with two barrels of my 12-bore. I have made 
enquiries since first writing to you, and find that the 
Black Scoter nests here every year ; and if this be so, 
I will try and find the nest this coming season, when 

9 o 


you will hear from me again." Mr. Southwell's 
communication with regard to the broods of young 
birds seen on the Hickling Broads is of much 
interest, and, as he says, this evidence lends support 
to Mr. Fowler's discovery. — Joseph Anderson, Jim., 


Scum at the Pilot Station, Saugor. — On the 
8th January last, .a bucket of sea-water was sent to 
me, in order that I might examine "some curious 
things contained in it." Saugor is at the mouth of 
the Hooghly, the river on which this city stands ; 
and it is about eighty miles from here. The "curious 
things " were hollow, spherical organisms, of a 
greenish and greenish-yellow colour, eminently 





Fig. 50. 

Fig. 49. 

Chlorophyll bodies from the membrane of the "scum" globules. 
A, Seibert's jj in. w. i. ; b, Student's J. 

suggestive of grapes in general appearance. They 
were filled with sea-water. Lifted out of the water, 
they collapsed like bubbles, leaving only a thin, 
greenish film on the hand, or glass. I placed one in 
a beaker with sea-water, and gently let fresh water 
into the vessel from a tap, until the whole of the salt 
water was displaced. This caused the sphere to 
grow flaccid ; but in the course of about thirty-six 
hours it resumed its normal form, though it was now 
paler in colour, and eventually became a dirty white. 
The globules varied from about three-quarters of an 
inch to half that size in diameter. From information 
obtained by me from persons who observed the scum, 
I gather that the stuff floated from six to nine inches 
below the surface, that it extended over several miles 
of surface, and was of some depth ; it was so dense 
in parts that the water seemed nearly black ; when 
first gathered it had a fine bright, but rather light- 
brownish or yellowish colour ; the shades of colour 
in the scum as it floated in the water varied; the 
darker-coloured specimens were at the surface, sinking 
when they got lighter-coloured ; that the natives and 
fishermen in the creeks of the adjacent (Soonderbun) 
country, say the scum breeds in the grass and jungle 
which grow in the water on the banks of the creeks, 
and thence floats away with the tide, though the 
person who told me this added that he doubted if it 

was so, because the gelatinous-looking scum was far 
more abundant in the open water of the sea and river 
between the Sandheads (Saugor) and Diamond Har- 
bour than it was anywhere in or near the creeks ; 
and that it has been noticed in small patches in 
previous seasons, but never in such enormous quanti- 
ties as it was this year. The scum has always been 
regarded as a fish-spawn ; it was supposed to be that 
of the cat-fish. The batch sent to me, including the 
specimen removed as above-described to fresh water, 
remained intact for about three weeks ; on the 
morning of the 28th January all the glassy spheres 
had collapsed, and only a thin, dirty-green scum lay 
at the bottom of the vessels in which I had placed 
the stuff. Examined under the microscope, I found 
numerous chlorophyll bodies embedded in a delicate, 
hyaline, gelatinous membrane (matrix), which forms 
the sphere, and which is all that remains when the 
globules are removed from the water, and collapse. 
An idea of the general appearance of these chlorophyll 
bodies may be obtained by reference to PI. 5> fig- 5 
{Apiocystis Brauniand) in the " Micrographic Dic- 
tionary." These bodies readily take a deep stain if 
roseine is used, while the membrane is but slightly 
tinted ; I cannot say that anything is gained by 
staining them. They are about -^ of an inch in 
length, and t^ in breadth. It seems to me that the 
organism is allied to the Nostocs, and that it is 
probably only an intermediate life-stage in the de- 
velopment of some other form. The question remains 
— what is it ? Several to whom the matter has been 
referred here have been unable to throw any light on 
the subject, though they are agreed as to the vegeta- 
ble character of the gelatinous-looking spheres. Will 
any of your numerous and widely-scattered readers 
tell us something about the scum over which we have 
been puzzling our heads ? — W. J. Simmons, Calcutta. 

The Royal Microscopical Society. — The last 
Journal of the above society contains the following 
papers, in addition to the summary of current re- 
searches relating to zoology and botany : — " Further 
Notes on the Monochromatic Illuminating Appa- 
ratus," by E. M. Nelson; and "Freshwater Alga; 
and Schizophyceae of South-West Surrey," by A. W. 

The Quekett Club. — The last number of the 
" Quekett Journal " contains the following papers : — 
" On Notops Minor," by C. Rousselet ; " On a New 
Cysticercus and a New Tape-Worm," by F. B. 
Rossiter; "On Two New Rotifers," and "On the 
Sense of Vision in Rotifers," by C. Rousselet ; " On 
Two Undescribed Male Rotifers," by G. Western ; 
"Further Note on the Sense of Vision in Rotifers," 
by C. Rousselet; "On Two Rotifers from Epping 
Forest," by F. A. Parsons; "On the Diffraction 
Theory of Microscopic Vision," by E. M. Nelson ; 
"On Mounting Media of High Refractive Indices," 
by J. E. Ingpen. 




Botanical Monstrosities, 1S91.— Primula vul- 
garis — coloured variety, five blossoms, which consisted 
of one whorl of gTeen leaves, with aborted organs in 
the interior after the fashion of an ovary ; they 
evidently came from more than one peduncle, as they 
occurred on both sides of the plant. One of the 
coloured flowers on the same plant had but four 
corolla divisions. Another specimen of the yellow 
type had a leaf-like calyx enclosing a very diminutive 
corolla ; while some gigantic blossoms were also seen, 
whose calyx and corolla had six and eight divisions, 
one possessing two pistils. Anemone nemorosa — with 
pink flowers. Plantago lanceolata — a lot of spikes 
having many heads, some with small leaves inter- 
mixed between the sessile heads ; one also had a 
double fasciated stem. Scilla nutans — white speci- 
mens. A/uga reptans — white specimens. Chrysan- 
themum leucantkemum — several having yellow disc 
flowers only, with no rays. Garden geranium — in 
which the peduncle was suppressed, leaving a cluster 
of flowers in the axil of a leaf. Trifolium pratense — 
two-headed. Scabiosa arvensis — several flowers with 
leaf-like involucre. Potentilla reptans — with four 
instead of five petals. Sisymbrium officinale— stem 
aborted, so that instead of the inflorescence being 
elongated with blossoms extending all the way up, 
they were all produced in a bunch. Plantago major — 
a number of spikes having several leaves at base of 
each. Bartsia odontites — fasciated stems after the 
fashion of a cockscomb. Centaurea nigra — fasciated 
two-headed stem. Achillea ptarmica — being a mass 
of flocky material somewhat like a miniature cauli- 
flower, possibly caused by insects; about a dozen 
specimens. The above list comprises the abnormal 
forms found in the above season, which were new to 
me ; others were also seen for the third or fourth 
time, which have been recorded in earlier years. — 
Edwin E. Turner, Coggleshall, Essex. 

Diseases of the Primrose Family. — Two years 
ago I examined the flowers of the primrose (Primula 
■vulgaris) and cowslip (Primula veris), and found in 
my investigations that the former is more subject to 
disease than the latter. Last year I was not able to, 
but hope to resume my examinations this year ; and 
I should like the readers of Science-Gossip to aid 
me in doing so, and to help me to answer the 
questions at the end of this letter. The following 

are some of my notes on the subject that I took : 

(i.) that out of thirty-two (taking this as an average) 
specimens of Primula vulgaris, two-thirds of them were 
diseased, (ii.) As regards same number of Primula 
veris, only one-third of them were diseased, (iii.) That 
the thrum-eyed Primula vulgaris was more liable to 
disease than the pin-eyed, (iv.) That in both cases, if 
one flower on a plant was diseased, all were, (v.) The 

disease was in the tube of the corolla and seemed 
to be of a fungous nature, but I did not take particular 
note of it at the time. My specimens were all, with 
one exception, found in hedges, copses, and woods of 
Shropshire and Cheshire ; the exception was got in a 
garden, but in all cases I found the same result. All 
specimens seemed from external appearances more or 
less perfect and healthy, in size varying from J to I J 
inches in diameter. I shall be glad and beg your 
readers to furnish me with any notes on this during 
the spring and summer, and I give my address 
below. The questions are : — I. Are Primula 
vulgaris flowers more liable to disease than those of 
Primula veris, and in what ratio ? II. Is the Thrum- 
eyed Primula vulgaris more so than the Pin-eyed ? — 
J. H. Barbour, 1 Hamilton Villas, Ballyholme, 
Bangor, Co. Down, B-eland. 


Notes on Trees. — We are very glad to steal 
the following notes from a short paper, communicated 
by W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S., to the Hampshire 
Literary and Philosophical Society : — The labour of 
a field-geologist leads him much into out-of-the-way 
places that are rarely seen by others than those who 
are employed in them ; so that he has chances of seeing 
notable things outside his own special line of work. 
Moreover, in the detailed mapping of the various 
formations, he has often to depend on indirect 
evidence, the direct evidence of sections being absent. 
Besides the character of the soil, the form of the 
ground and the outbreak of springs, he may note 
the general character of the vegetation, though 
perhaps having but the smallest amount of botanical 
knowledge. These notes, therefore, must be taken 
as those of a geologist, not of a botanist, and con- 
sequently as in great part from a geologic point of 
view, referring somewhat to the connection between 
soil and growth. They are written in the hope that 
they may be of interest to that large class, lovers 
of trees, and that they may lead to other records of a 
like kind. (1). Beeches on London Clay. — On the 
higher parts of the escarpment of the London clay 
northward of Southampton and in some other places, 
there are very fine beeches, often in groups, as may 
be well seen in the eastern and western parts of 
Ampfield Wood, where one spot indeed is named 
The Beeches. These sites are at or near the 
junction of the London clay with the overlying 
Bagshot sand, or rather one should say about the 
passage of those beds into one another, and in other 
cases the beeches are also on the uppermost loamy 
part of the former formation. Now beeches, it is 
well known, grow best on a calcareous soil, oaks 
and elms being more proper to clays and loams ; and 
so, seeing so many fine beeches at this particular 
geologic horizon, one is led to think that the beds on 



which they grow must be more calcareous than 
the rest of the London clay : the beeches having, 
as it were, made a rough analysis of the soil and 
found therein a proper amount of calcic carbonate, 
have elected to settle. We know that there is always 
a certain amount of calcic carbonate in the London 
clay, though not enough to tempt beeches to grow, 
but it is usually collected together for the most part 
into nodular masses of earthy limestone, known as 
septaria. Perhaps in the beds in question this 
segregation of calcic carbonate has not taken place, 
the material being more diffused through the loam, 
and so being more available for beech-use. A little 
south of Ampfield Wood, by the high road through 
South Holmes Copse, some two miles as the crow 
flies (but rather more as the Field Club goes) from 
Romsey Station, is another group of fine beeches, 
in this case near the base of the clayey Bracklesham 
Beds. (2.) Varying Fall of Leaf in Oaks. — Down 
the south-easterly slope on the road just eastward 
of Woodley (E. of Romsey) are some rather fine 
oaks. Having occasion to pass by these a few times 
in the autumn of 1889, I was struck by the difference 
in the relative state of some of them. Three of the 
finest trees were selected for observation, all being of 
much the same size. One of these is close to the top 
of the slope and on the northern side of the road ; the 
second is just eastward and slightly lower ; whilst 
the third is to the S.E., on the other side of the road, 
and still lower. On October 31st, the first had 
its foliage green, in general effect at all events ; the 
leaves of the second had turned yellow ; the third 
was bare of leaves. On November nth, the leaves 
of the first were turning yellow. This difference 
in the state of the foliage was very striking, and 
there seemed to be nothing in the trees themselves 
to account for it ; all were strong and healthy. All 
too are on the same geologic formation, clayey 
Bracklesham Beds ; but it occurred to me that the 
first being a little below the edge of the gravel that 
caps the hill, may perhaps be more plentifully 
watered, and so may have the power of holding 
its leaves longer. This, however, does not seem to 
account for the difference between the second and 
third, and one is led to think that the difference of 
level, though not great, is the cause (or the chief 
cause) of the difference in the state of the trees ; 
those in the lower, more sheltered sites being more 
affected by the frost or chill of night, which acts 
more strongly where the leaves are more covered 
with moisture than when they are cleared by evapora- 
tion in a more open spot. It is to be hoped that 
some local observer will watch these trees and see 
if the above-noted appearance is recurrent. (3.) 
Double Trees. — Something having been said of beech 
and of oak separately, attention is now drawn to a 
strange combination of the two, of which beech-oaks, 
however, I have seen only two examples. The first 
seen is on the high ground in the eastern part of 

Cranbury Park, at the edge of the wood that clothes 
the escarpment of the London clay above Otter- 
bourne, and near the junction of that formation with 
the Bagshot Pebble Beds. The other is but a little 
way in Ampfield Wood, by the side of the road to 
Hursley Park, a little northward of Knap Hill ; it is 
on Bagshot sand, near the outcrop of the London 
clay, and is a remarkably fine tree, which ought to 
be seen by the Hampshire Field Club and photo- 
graphed. The peculiarity of these trees is that they 
consist of a beech and of an oak, the stems of which 
grow up together closely, so as practically to form 
one tree. In both cases beech and oak are equally fine, 
and in the second each would separately form a notable 
tree. The effect in each case is strange (when the 
trees are in leaf), and at first perhaps unexpected. 
One might think that the branches of oak and of 
beech would intermix, but they do not in the least ; 
or that beech would grow on one side and oak 
on the other, but neither is this the case. Then 
perhaps the national weakness of an Englishman for 
the oak would lead him to expect that tree to conquer 
and to suppress the beech. Not so has it happened, 
however : the oak is nowhere in the contest, the 
beech takes the whole space at first, so that an 
observer underneath the tree and standing on the 
side of the beech-stem, would have no suspicion of 
the existence of the oak, not a leaf, not a branch of 
which is to be seen ; but let him walk away from 
the tree and he will see that, when the beech has 
grown upward and outward to its full content, 
then the oak branches out above and has the top 
part to itself, so that no one seeing the top alone 
would expect to find a beech-tree underneath. 
Probably the fact is that the beech is the strongest 
of trees, as surely it is the most beautiful. 

The Correct Identification of Deep Sea 
Soundings. — In the ordinary way it would appear 
that a rough description of the nature of a bottom 
from the specimen brought up in the sounding- 
tube or snapper, would be an easy matter. But 
this I have found to be extremely erroneous in the 
hands of the majority of observers. To take for 
instance such simple cases as one constantly sees 
marked on the charts where the bottom is recorded 
as crl. (coral) ; the uninitiated would at once 
associate this sounding with the ccelenteratse, and 
would, in the majority of cases, be wrong; for the 
crl. noted is more frequently either fragments of 
calcareous seaweeds or of polyzoa, which in places 
cover the bottom of the sea over large areas and to 
great depths. Another case is that caused by con- 
stantly mistaking the larger foraminiferre for sand- 
grains, the rubbing of a small piece of the sounding 
between the lingers making it appear sandy, though 
an ordinary pocket lens would at once show the 
difference. Cases such as the above might be 
multiplied considerably. It is almost unnecessary 



to point out what a loss it is to oceanography that 
such descriptions should be erroneously made, and in 
the majority of cases there would be no difficulty in 
giving a more correct description. It may be said 
that the soundings can always be overhauled after- 
wards and the results given to the world ; but this is 
only done in isolated cases, and the results are not 
very accessible. Again the descriptions recorded in 
the charts are generally taken from those noted when 
the sounding is taken, when observations as to colour, 
scent, and stratification should also be noted. I 
would like to suggest that soundings taken with the 
' ordinary tube sounders, should be preserved in glass 
tubes closed at both ends by corks. The soundings 

from the ossiferous deposits of the true caves) are held 
to be representatives of the " rubble-drift," which 
is of a variable character. The author discusses the 
views of previous writers on the origin of the accumu- 
lations, which he classes together as " rubble-drift," 
and points out objections to the various views. He 
considers that they were formed on upheaval after a 
period of submergence which took place slowly and 
tolerably uniformly ; and that the absence of marine 
remains and sedimentation shows the submergence to 
have been short. This submergence cannot have 
been less than iooo feet below present sea-level, 
and was shortly brought to a termination by a series 
of intermittent uplifts, of which the "head" affords a 

Fig. 51. — A f b, c, d, glass tube (can easily be cut to any length with a file) ; k k, corks closing ends ; s, s', s", s", sounding 

from tube. 

being forced directly from the sounding-tubes into 
the glass tubes ; their preservation is then much more 
perfect than in the ordinary way. A label affixed to 
the tube gives locality of sounding, notes as to 
colour, scent, stratification, and surface of sounding, 
etc. The figure illustrates this. — D. Wilson Barker, 
66 Gloucester Crescent, N. W. 

The following papers were read at a recent 
meeting of the Geological Society. " The Raised 
Beaches, and ' Head,' or Rubble-Drift, of the South 
of England : their Relation to the Valley-Drifts and 
to the Glacial Period ; and on a late Post-Glacial 
Submergence. — Part II." by Joseph Prestwich, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. The ossiferous deposits 
of the Caves of Gower are shown to be contem- 
poraneous with the raised sand-dunes between the 
beaches and the "head," and reasons are given for 
supposing that the elevation of land which preceded 
their formation need not necessarily have been greater 
than 120 feet. The mammalian fauna of these caves 
is the last fauna of the glacial or post-glacial period, 
and the head, or "rubble-drift," marks the closing 
chapter of glacial times. Evidence is given for con- 
sidering that the "rubble-drift" has a wide inland 
range, and that to it are to be referred the "head" 
of De laBeche, the subaerial detritus of God win- Austen, 
the angular flint drift of Murchison, and in part the 
"trail" of Fisher and the "warp" of Trimmer, 
as well as other deposits described by the author. 
The accumulation is widespread over the South of 
England, and occurs in the Thames Valley, on the 
Cotteswold Hills, and on the flanks of the Malverns. 
The stream-tin detritus of Cornwall, and the ossiferous 
breccia filling fissures (which must be distinguished 

measure, sufficiently rapid to produce currents radiat- 
ing from the higher parts of the country, causing the 
spread of the surface-detritus from various local 
centres of higher ground. The remains of the land 
animals killed during the submergence were swept 
with this debris into the hollows and fissures on the 
Surface, and finally over the old cliffs to the sea and 
valley levels. Simultaneously with this elevation 
occurred a marked change of climate, and the tem- 
perature approached that of the present day. The 
formation of the 'head ' was followed in immediate 
succession by the accumulation of recent alluvial 
deposits ; so that the glacial times came, geologically 
speaking, to within a measurable distance of our own 
times, the transition being short and almost abrupt 
In this paper only the area in which the evidence is 
most complete is described. The author has, how- 
ever, corroborative evidence of submergence on the 
other side of the Channel. "The Pleistocene De- 
posits of the Sussex Coast, and their Equivalents in 
other Districts." By Clement Reid, Esq., F.L.S., 
F.G.S. The gales of last autumn and early winter 
exposed sections such as had not before been visible 
in the Selsey Peninsula. Numerous large erratic 
blocks were discovered, sunk in pits in the Brackle- 
sham Beds. These erratics included characteristic 
rocks from the Isle of Wight. The gravel with erratics 
is older, not newer, as is commonly stated, than 
the Selsey " mud-deposit " with southern mollusca. 
Numerous re-deposited erratics are found in the mud- 
deposit, which is divisible into two stages, a lower, 
purely marine, and an upper, or Scrobicularia mud, 
with acorns and estuarine shells. At West Wittering 
a fluviatile deposit, with erratics at its base and stony 
loam above, is apparently closely allied to the mud- 



deposit of Selsey ; it yields numerous plants, land 
and freshwater mollusca, and mammalian bones, of 
which lists are given. The strata between the brick- 
earth ( = Coombe Rock) and the gravel with large 
erratics yield southern plants and animals, and seem 
to have been laid down during a mild or interglacial 
episode. A similar succession is found in the Thames 
Valley, and in various parts of our eastern counties. 

The Geologists' Association. — We have to 
acknowledge the February issue of the " Proceedings 
of the Geologists' Association," containing reports of 
ordinary meetings, and the following papers: — 
" Organic Matter as a Geological Agent," by the Rev. 
A. Irving; "Supplementary Observations on some 
Fossil Fishes of the English Lower Oolites," by 
A. Smith Woodward ; " The Geology of the Country 
round Stirling," by H. W. Monckton, with Appendix 
by J. G. Goodchild; "The Geology of Devizes, 
with Remarks on the Grouping of Cretaceous De- 
posits," by A. J. Jukes-Browne (to be continued). 


The White Flower Question. — The questions 
raised at page 263, November number, by Mr. John 
Corrie may be tentatively and provisionally answered 
as follows: — (1.) Is it the case that when flowers 
change from one colour to another it is in an unchang- 
ing order from yellow to white, from white to red, 
and finally to blue ? — reversions, ot course, in inverse 
order. The view that all flowers were originally 
yellow, etc., is a merely gratuitous hypothesis 
specially designed to bolster up the utterly false 
assumption that flowers have been rendered con- 
spicuous and beautiful in order to attract insects, 
a doctrine which has proved to be one of the most 
mischievous of the Darwinian chimeras. Yellow 
flowers are the least liable, even less liable than 
orange flowers, to change into white ; and the purest 
blue flowers are those which are most frequently 
found colourless or nearly so. (2.) If this is so, why 
is it that blue flowers revert directly to white instead 
of to red, the colour from which they have more 
recently been evolved ? The researches of scientists 
have shown that in most cases, the blue and the red 
colouring-matter is due to one and the same sub- 
stance. The normal colour is, 1 believe, red, and the 
blue colour (only about sixty species in our flora are 
of this colour) may at any time " sport " into red, as 
it entirely depends upon the coexistence in the petals 
of other substances which precipitate or neutralise 
the aids or oxidising agencies which help to produce 
or deepen the red tint. Some gardeners can arti- 
ficially change the red to blue by using artificial 
solutions for watering, etc. ; but this can only be done 
in the case of flowers whose tints are slight, and 
where the pigment is normally produced in compara- 
tively small amounts, otherwise the artificial strain 
would almost certainly be green, or yellow, i.e. in 
this case a very light tint of red brown. Hence, also, 
it would follow that the purer the colour, the more 
liable it is to vanish and fade into pure white. (3.) Is 
it the case that lessened vegetative vigour tends to 
check the development of colour, and if so, to what 

extent does the check operate ? Unquestionably this 
is so ; but we must endeavour to get at the life of the 
process a little nearer than what is implied when it is 
said that " colours are a result of nutrition." Per- 
sonally I am fully satisfied that the colours of petals 
are the result of certain changes which the tannins 
and glucosides originally evolved in the leaves, buds, 
roots, seeds, etc., undergo, and the structure of the 
petals is just the very thing most eminently calculated, 
if not to help in evolving the tints, at least, to show 
them off to the best advantage. Hence it follows 
inevitably, that whatever tends to check the produc- 
tion of tannin and glucoside will also indirectly lessen 
the formation of pigment. These bodies are the 
result of the processes of metabolism which are con- 
stantly carried on more quickly or more slowly 
according to the general vegetative vigour of the 
particular plant. It would be needless to enter into 
detail ; but there is one agent that can be fastened on 
with great confidence, and perhaps, therefore, may be 
mentioned here. The size and brilliant colouration 
of the Arctic and Alpine flora have been frequently 
admired, and the latter feature has been attributed to 
two causes, viz., an increase of chlorophyllous tissue, 
or their comparative leaf-surface, and the vast quantity 
of light which is shed on these plants during their 
short period of growth. Now these two factors are 
precisely the same as what other independent investi- 
gators have found to be principally concerned in the 
increased production of the special cell-contents 
(tannin and glucoside) which, as it were, metabolise 
into the bright pigments. — P. Q. Kecgan. 

Birds and Fruit. — A very heavy crop of dam- 
sons was grown in this district last summer, with the 
result that a large proportion of the fruit was left on the 
trees, as it was found that it only paid to pick the best 
of them. In the autumn the plantations were visited 
by immense flocks of fieldfares and redwings, which 
appear to have migrated to Kent for the sole purpose 
of feeding on the damsons. Besides these two species 
there was a considerable number of blackbirds and 
thrushes. Only once before have I heard any noise to 
compare with the "chatter" emitted by these birds 
— this was at the roosting-place of one of those 
immense flocks of starlings that are seen in the 
autumn. On being disturbed, the fieldfares would 
rise, uttering their peculiar "chuck-chuck-chuck," and 
fly some distance, only to return again in a few 
minutes, while the redwings, blackbirds, and thrushes, 
being less shy, would merely fly to a short distance 
from the intruder. Day after day thousands of these 
birds were to be seen, until they had eaten up all the 
pulp of the fruit, leaving the ground strewn with the 
bare stones. And now (January) an altogether 
different noise may be heard. Large flocks of haw- 
finches have arrived to complete the work commenced 
by the soft-billed thrushes. If one walks quietly 
through the plantations, he will hear a distinct crack- 
ing noise, caused by the hawfinches splitting the 
damson stones with their powerful beaks, in order to 
get at the kernel : already a considerable proportion of 
the stones have been thus cracked. I believe this bird 
is a good deal commoner than is generally supposed. 
On account of its shyness, it is not often seen, but its 
"robin-like" note may frequently be heard as it 
flies over at a great height. Bullfinches, too, come 
to the plantations in large numbers at this time of the 
year, to feed on the blossom-buds of various fruit- 
trees. I have frequently induced these birds to come 
quite near, and occasionally have had the pleasure of 
hearing their beautiful natural song, which is so low, 
that it can only be heard at a very short distance. — 
Edward Goodwin, Wateringbury , Kent. 



A Marsh Garden. — In your May 1S91 Number 
(No 317) you have an article entitled "A Marsh 
Garden." As I am desirous of trying this, could any 
reader kindly tell me where I could get a piece of 
marsh as therein described, either to purchase or 
exchange ? — C. Pcmbcrtcni. 

Flents ix Chalk, &c — As county Antrim is 
probably the best county in Great Britain to study 
such objects, many articles have been written on 
them. The county is full of flints ; they are very 
plentiful in our "Cretaceous Limestone," which is 
exposed on fine cliffs along a coast-line of about 
seventy or eighty miles, and in sectioos everywhere 
through the county. During the British Association's 
visit to Belfast in 1S74, a Society to which I belong 
(the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club), and which has 
always taken the greatest possible interest in the 
Cretaceous Limestones of Antrim, and the banded 
flints, sponge spicules and Foraminifera which are so 
common in hollow flints in some districts, published 
a complete Nat. Hist. Guide of some hundred pages, 
for the use of members of the B.A. This is still the 
standard guide, although only a very few copies are 
now to be had from the Sees, of the club (Museum, 
Belfast), and contains all information about the chalk 
flints of Antrim. It was on the Cave Hill Lime- 
stone Quarries at Belfast that the late Dean Buckland 
saw those long-shaped peculiar flints, with hollow 
tube running through them, that he called " Para- 
moudras " and got so much laughed at for so calling, 
on the word of a quarryman. I have many geo- 
logical photos of county Antrim Basaltic rocks and 
Cretaceous. The views I have of the Cave Hill 
Quarries show the flints in regular stratified layers or 
bands. If, however, any reader would like to have 
a list of the best papers written on the subject, 
address Mr. S. A. Stewart, F.L.S., Museum, Belfast ; 
he will doubtless give a list. The B.N.F.C. Guide, 
I may say, is now reduced to 2s. each. It was the 
first thing ot its kind so elaborately done for a B.A. 
visit to any city, and has formed the standard for 
every guide published since 1874 for the B.A. visits 
to other towns. Wm. Gray, Esq., C.E., M.R.I.A., 
oneof its principal compilers (along with Mr. Stewart), 
could give any special information on Antrim flints 
that may be wanted. He contributed a very scholarly 
paper on "Rudely-worked Flints of County Antrim," 
giving the cliff sections from which the flint material 
came, to the Journal of the Royal Hist, and Archceolog. 
Society of Ireland (now the Royal Soc. of Antiquaries, 
Ireland). I have just hunted through the back vols. 
in my Antiq. bookcase, and I find that it is con- 
tained in vol. 5, 4th Series, in 1879-82. Mr. Gray's 
address is Mount Charles, Belfast, and he probably 
could send a " reprint," as the society furnishes all 
readers of papers with, I think, fifty reprints. Mr. 
Thos. Plunkett, F.G.S., M.R.I.A., of Enniskillen, 
could give you any information about the bands of 
cherty flints that occur in the great inland limestone 
cliffs (Carboniferous) of Knockmore, county Fer- 
managh, if he has none of the reprints from his 
papers contributed to the Royal Irish Academy, of 
which he is a member. — R. Welch. 

" What Offers ? " — Will you allow me to suggest 
that those correspondents who make use of the "Ex- 
change " column, in Science-Gossip, should give 
some indication of tbe kind of exchange they desire. 
" What offers?" is very indefinite, but " What offers 
in " — say — " birds' eggs ? " " shells ? " or " insects ? " 
or " cash ?" would afford information which would 
very often save other people's time and trouble. I 

have found recently that these indefinite gentlemen 
want to sell — usually at good prices — and it seems to 
me that such offers ought not to be classed under the 
heading of ' ' Exchanges, " as they are misleading. I 
would suggest that you should start a separate column 
for the benefit of those who wish to effect exchanges 
for coin of the realm. Whether you should make a 
charge, or not, to those who 'use it, is your affair and 
no concern of mine, but the present system of lumping 
the two classes together is inconvenient and mis- 
leading. I do not wish my name to appear in con- 
nection with this suggestion, as I have no doubt the 
people to whom I refer would resent it. 

Extinction of the Lapwing. — I note in the 
February number a paragraph speaking of the pro- 
bable extinction of the lapwing, owing to the rapacity 
of egg collectors and dealers, and in the same number 
I noticed no fewer than five advertisements (including 
exchanges) of these gentry. These are the pests who 
are rapidly bringing about the extermination of all 
our rare birds, and preventing the breeding here of 
any occasional visitors from other regions. It is 
absurd to dignify such an occupation by the name of 
science ; it is mere sordid greed, which all good 
naturalists should discourage to the utmost, and it 
would be a good deed if Science-Gossip and all 
other respectable publications were to refuse such 
advertisements. — W. Ward. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the Sth of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the "exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers. — We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised. Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

R. B. Postans. — Will you kindly send us your address, so 
that proofs of your articles may be sent you? 

A. Launder.— *' Flowers: their Origin, Perfume, Shape, 
Colours," can be obtained of Messrs. W. H. Allen & Co. 
Masters' work on Teratology is now getting scarce ; it was 
published by the Ray Society. You had best apply to Messrs. 
Wesley & Son, Essex Street, Strand, for a secondhand copy, 
or to Messrs. Dulau, 37 Soho Square. 

W. Palmer.— Get Bennett's work (fully illustrated), pub- 
lished by Longmans at, we believe, 4s. 6d. Other good books 
are Prantl and Vine's "Botany" (Macmillan), and Hooker's 
" Botany" (same publisher). 

A correspondent from the Isle of Wight, whose note we 
have mislaid, sends us a box containing teeth and bony scales, 
under the impression that both are fossils. This is not the 
case. The teeth are recent, but the bony scales" are plates of 
siluroid fishes from the Eocene strata. 

F. J. Bing. — The snake-like fossil in flint is undoubtedly a 
Serpula. They are not unfrequent. We have seen them coiled 
like a basket of snakes on the surface of flints, and penetrating 
their interior. The Norwich chalk and chalk flints are famous 
for them. 

9 6 


A. J. Adams.— Obtain Dulau's Catalogue of Works, &c., 
on Geology, just published, 37 Soho Square, London, W. 

H. E. Griset. — Get Bausch's "Manipulation of the Micro- 
scope" from W. P. Collins, 157 Great Portland Street, 
London, W. 

J. K • — The lichens are correctly named. 

C. L. R.— You had best advertise in Science-Gossip. 

A. J. Shaw. — We were at a loss for some time to identify 
the ''green bags," found on the sea-shore. We have tracked 
them down. They are the outer skins of green melons which 
have been in ^ea-water some time, so that all the interior pulp 
has been dissolved out, and only the external hardy pericarp 
lei't as an empty "green bag." The microscope sho*s the 
characteristic hairs. 

W. Wilson. — The "Science Made Easy" was published by 
D. Bogue. You can get copies, we believe, of Messrs. W. H. 
Allen & Co., Waterloo Place. 


Will send collections of two hundred named specimens 
(sixty species) Victoria shells, in return for same number 
named recent shells of any other country. — F. L, Billinghurst, 
National Bank of Australasia, Castlemaine, Victoria, Australia. 

Will give two beautiful micro, slides for each of the following 
eggs: ke-trel, sparrow-hawk, kite, marsh harrier, redoing, 
fieldfair, ring-ousel, cirl-bunting, brambling, hawfinch, g. wood- 
pecker, nuthatch, golden plover, heron, curlew, ruff, corn- 
snipe, dunlin, water-rail, puffin, g. crested grebe — Batty, 
Corby, Grantham. 

Wanted, Zw. Jaossi and bisuffarcinaia, Watd. kumeralis, 
and Rhyn. Sutkerlandi, also any Brachiopoda from the Noith- 
ampton, Lincolnshire, or Yorkshire oolites. Offered in ex- 
change, good specimens of yur. brachiopoda from the W. and 
S.W. of England.— J. W. D. Marshall, 16 Peter Street, 

Offered, eggs of cuckoo, nuthatch, nightingale, marsh-tit, 
cole-tit, great tit, stonechat, whinchat, red-backed shrike, 
bullfinch, yellow wagtail, nightjar, &c, all in clutches. Wanted, 
clutches of many other species. Please send lists to— W. Wells 
Bladen, Stone, Staffs. 

Offered, 270 species and varieties of British mosses, named 
and localised. Wanted, natural history books, especially on 
freshwater algae, or apparatus. — R. V. Tellam, Bodmin. 

Wanted, to correspond with entomologists in the United 
States, Australia, &c, with a view to exchanging aculeate 
Hymenoptera. — G. ' E. Frisby, 27 Hedley Street, Maidstone. 

Wanted, back parts of "Journal of Postal Microscopical 
Society," also back vols, of Science-Gossip, and any works 
treating on the microscope. — L. Francis, 38 Aldred Road, 
Kennington Park, London, S.E. 

Wanted, micro, turntable and dissecting case, and other 
micro, sundries. — L. Francis, 38 Aldred Road, Kennington 
Park, London, S.E. 

Wanted, cuckoos' e^gs, with clutches of the following 
species: garden warbler, rcd-tart, reed warbler, common, 
red-backed shrike, nightingale, chitfehaff, woodlark, common 
bunting, house sparrow. Good eggs offered in exchange. — 
W. VVclIs Bladen. Stone, Staff's. 

Slide of flea of mole, in exchange for other slide of interest ; 
coal sections preferred. — J. Boggus, Alton, Hants. 

Offered, Tapes decussatus. Wanted, Pecten stria tus, 
Mytitus uugulata, Nucula sulcata, Area obliqua, A.pectun- 
culoides, Cardium aculcatum, C. papillosum, Astarte sulcata, 
■ Venus casina, V. striatuta, Tellin-t balaustrina, Psammobia 
costulata, P. vespertina, Donax politus, Lutraria oblonga, 
Mya Bittghami, Panopea plicata, Saxicana arebica, Trochus 
amabilis, Duminyi Occident alts, Littortna sinistrorsa, Sca- 
laria 'Prcvelyana, I ant in a communis, Natica Istandica, 
Nassa ?iitida, Tapes aureus, Triton vodijer, cutaceus, Ovula 
Patula, Accra bullata, Bulla hydatis, utriculus, Aplysia 
punctata, Spiralis retroversus, Clio pyramidala, Melampus 
myosotis, Assiminia littorina.— J. Smith, Monkredding, Ki.- 

A large assortment of dredgings from known localities, 
containing rare forms, to exchange for similar material from 
stations not a'ready possessed. Correspondence invited prior 
to exchanges being forwarded. — W. H. Harris, 42 St. Bran- 
nork's Road, Ufracombe. 

Wanted, minerals, fos>ils, or rocks in exchange for novels 
(Scott, Kingsley, &c.) and a large reptile cage with glnss 
sides, hot-water draw, and wood top with glass windows. — 
A. C. Binns, 114 Bramhall Lane, Stockport. 

An album containing over 403 arms, crests, and monograms, 
with space for 360 more, in good condition. Will exchange 
for any description of entomological apparatus. 

Wanted, foraminiferous material and insects from all parts 
of the world. Will give good exchange in micro, slides or un- 
mounted objects. — George T. Reed, 87 Lordship Road, Stuke 
Newington, London, N. 

Science-Gossip lor 1883 bound, 1884-86 unbound, plates 
complete, clean ; "Science for All," 5 vols, bound, first edition. 
Wanted, 4-inch condensers, and offers. Address — B. H., 
113 Grange Road, E. Middlesbrough. 

Offered, Mackay's "Flora Hibemica" (contains full de- 
scriptions of cryptogams by Taylor), also some loose plates 
with illustrations of mosses. Wanted, Backhouse's " H ieracia," 
and back numbers of "Journal of Butany." — Rev C. H. 
Waddell, Saintfield, Co. Down. 

Wanted, diatom earth from Atlantic City, N.J. Will give 
other deposits. — W. Ward, 31 Hill Lane, Southampton. 

Wanted, Cornish or other minerals in exchange for Wear- 
dale spars and minerals. — T. V. JJevey, Wohingham, Dar- 

Wanted, to exchange carboniferous fossils for fossils from 
other formations. — D. Firth, Dukinneld. 

Eocene fossils, named and localised, also minerals and 
Cornish rocks. Will exchange for other minerals and rock 
specimens, terebratulas from chalk (perfect), ur offers.— E. H. V. 
Davies, 46 Upper Belgrave Koad, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wanted, a microscope and good botanical slides, in return 
for British and foreign shells, and rare polished geological 
corals and sponges, or state wants. Good. exchange sent. — 
A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., Natural History Stores, 43 North- 
umberland Place, Teignmouth. 

I can offer rare microscopic objects and material, fossils, 
minerals, shells (of which I have a large number), in exchange 
for a quantity of foreign stamps, watch that will keep time> 
telescope, field-glass, or anything scientific. — T. E. Sclater, 
Northumberland House, The Strand, Teignmouth. 

Scotch examples of the following shells in exchange for 
others not in collection, eggs or insects : Heix arbustorum, 
erectorum var. lutesctns, H. nemoralis var. libeltu/a, rubella, 
bimarginata, H. kortensis, S. corneum var. pisidoides, J/ydr. 
ulv&, V. piscinaiis, S. elegans, V. pellucida, Zon. nitidulus 9 
M. incurva, pellucida, T.fabula, T. p/iasiolina, tesfudinalis, 
F. antiquus, V. gallina, U. polilis, M. sol ida,stultorum, &c. 
— VV. Turnbull, 1 Home Terrace, Edinburgh. 

British and exotic lepidoptera in exchange for pupa; andt 
good microscopic slides.— Joseph Anderson, jun., Aire Villa, 
Chichester, Sussex. 

Wanted, "Photo-Micrography," by A. Pringle, F.R.M.3. 
Will give in exchange "Botanical Micro. Chemistry," by 
Poulsen and Trelease, "Postal Micro. Society's Journal," 
vol. hi., "Science Monthly," vol. i., and good microscopic 
slides.— P. Kilgour, 164 Lochee Road, Dundee, N.B. 

Offered, Cassell's "Electricity in the Service of Man," 
half roan, new ; also lady's silver watch. Wanted, works on 
literature, especially Craik's "Manual of Engl. Lit." (1883); 
Morley's "hirst Sketch of Engl. Lit." (18—?), and "Engl. 
Lit. of Victoria" (1882); Richardson's "Primer of Amer. 
Lit." (1S78); Saintsbury's "Primer of French Lit." (1880); 
Hallam's" Lit. of Europe" (1882), &c— Chas. Leigh, 47 Sydney 
Street, London, S.W. 

Wanted, Pis. nitidum, Pis. roseum, L. involuta, Test, 
kaliotidea, Succ. oblonga, H. obvoluta, several species of 
vertigo, Acme lineata. Offered, many species and varieties 
of British land and freshwater shells.— H. E. Craven, Matlock 

Wanted, Cooke's "British Hepaticse," or "Science Gossip 
Guide to Hepaticae." — J. H. Salter, University College, 

Student's microscope for sale— Newton, Fleet Street — 
lenses, object slides, new. — C., 15 Aliwal Road, Claphara 
Junction, S.W. 

"Bulletin of the United States' Geological Survey, Nos. 62, 
65,67-81 (Washington: Government Printing Office). — "The 
Medical Annual," 1892 (Bristol: Wright).— *' Modern Science," 
edited by Sir John Lubbock, Bart. — " The Horse," by William 
Henry Flower," C.B. (Lonnon: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner 
& Co., Ltd.). — ''Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists* 
Union," parts 10-16. — "Fifth Report of the United States* 
Entomological Commission on Insects injurious to Forest and 
Shade Trees," by A. S. Packard, M.D. (Washington : Govern- 
ment Priming Office). — "Annual Report of the Smithsonian: 
Institution," vols. 1887-89 (Washington : Government Printing 
Office). — " Gentleman's Magazine." — "The Idler." — "The 
Mediterranean Naturalist." — "The Midland Naturalist." — 
"The Garner." — "The Naturalist." — "Journal of the Royal 
Microscopical Society." — " Natural Science." — *' Collectors* 
Monthly.' — "Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Shells 
hitherto recorded as found in the County of Suffolk," by 
Carleton Gieene, M.A.— " American Microscopist," &c, &c. 

Communications received up to the 12TH ult. from: 
W. W. B.— J. W. D. M.— G. C— A. E. H.— R. V. T.— 
S. B. C— J. A.— W. T. S — J. C. W.— W. W.— G. R. T.— 
G. T. R.— C. H. W.— B. H.— W. I. H.— W. P.— T. V. D.— 
D. F.— E. H. O. D.— A. L.— W. T.— E. E. T.— J. E. S.— 

A.J. R. S.— J. H. S.— A. P. L.— H. E. C— C. L.— J. A 

P. K— F. G. B.— H. F.— C— W. J. S.— F. G. B.— L. F.— 
W. W. B.— J. H. B.— D. W.— D. W. B.— A. H. W.-H. D,— 

A. C. B.— J. S.— J. B.— W. D. R.— G. E. F.— E. E. G 

F. A. F.— W. S. P.— M. D.-M. L.-W. H. H.-J. E. T.— 
A. A. C— W. W.—T. G. B.— &c, &c. 




By the Author of "An Illustrated Handbook of British Dragon-flies," "A Label List of British 

Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


\X , asISs 8 *^ HIS area, which com- 
prises the marshy 
districts of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambridge, 
Huntingdon, and 
Lincolnshire, is, 
next to the New 
Forest, probably the 
best hunting-ground 
for dragon-flies in 
the British Isles. 

Although of late 
years large tracts of 
marshland in each 
of the above coun- 
ties have been 
drained, there still 
remain , thousands 
and thousands of 
acres which will 
probably take centuries to reclaim. This is par- 
ticularly the case in Norfolk, where, owing to tidal 
influences, many of the fens are incapable of being 
converted into cornfields, as they have been done so 
extensively in the adjoining county of Cambridge. 

Dragon-fly hunting in the fens possesses many 
charms for those who delight to revel in the midst of 
nature. The most enjoyable way of spending a 
holiday in this manner, would be to hire a yacht — 
one built on the "wherry" plan, which is a very 
comfortable craft and easily managed, would be found 
the most suitable. A few days and nights spent on 
the water in this way by a small party, would not 
fail to prove a very pleasant occupation in the summer 

The rivers and broads of Norfolk and Suffolk 
No. 329. — May 1892. 

afford an inexhaustible field for operations by the 
dragon-fly collector, as do also the extensive un- 
drained fens of Cambridge, particularly Whittlesea 
Mere, Burwash Fen and Wicken Fen. 

In the county of Norfolk the vicinity of Great 
Yarmouth will be found a very good one for these 
grand insects, as also will the neighbourhood of 
Norwich, which is a very good centre of operations 
for Wrexham Broad, Horning, and Fritton Decoy, all 
of which are well-known happy hunting-grounds for 
these "winged gems." 

The following is a list of the species of dragon-flies 
which have been known to occur in the Fen District 
of the East of England : Platetrum dcpressum 
(common). Lilellula fulva (Burwash Fen and 
Whittlesea Mere in Cambridgeshire, and Sprowston, 
in the neighbourhood of Norwich ; in the latter 
locality it is abundant in certain seasons). The 
variety fugax (also has been taken in Whittlesea 
Mere), Leptetrum quadrimaculata (common). The 
variety pmnuiila (has been taken in Burwash Fen). 
Orthetrum carulescens (not uncommon). O. can- 
cellatum (Whittlesea Mere, also Horning and Faken- 
ham in Norfolk, but very local). Leucorrhmia dubia 
(Glandford Brigg in Lincolnshire, very local). Sym- 
pelmm vulgatum (abundant everywhere). S. fiaveolum 
(Whittlesea Mere, where it may always be met with 
during favourable seasons). .S'. sanguincum (local). 
S. scoticum (doubtful). Cordnlia anea (Wisbeach, 
also Starston and Costessy Woods in Norfolk, but 
very local). Comphus vidgatissimus (rare). Cor- 
dulegaster annnlatus (scarce). Anax formosus (doubt- 
ful). Brachytronpratense{yexy\oa\). sEschna juncea 
(very local; I have had a specimen sent me from the 
Devil's Dyke, in Cambridgeshire). ^£. cyanea (very 
common). sE. grandis (common). sE, rufescens (the 

9 8 


idea is prevalent that this species is becoming extinct ; 
it used to be taken at Yarmouth, Halvergate, and 
Whittlesea Mere). Calopteryx virgo (abundant every- 
where). C. splendcns (ditto). Lestes nympha (has 
been taken in Suffolk, and elsewhere in the Fen 
District, but very local). L. sponsa (not uncommon). 
Platycnemis pennipcs (not uncommon, but local). 
Enallagma cyathigcrian (common). Agrion pulchellum 
(ditto). A. puclla (exceedingly abundant). Ischnura 
pumilio (rare and local). I. elegans (very plentiful). 
Pyrrhosoma minium (exceedingly plentiful). P. 
tenellum (doubtful). Erythi-omma najas (has been 
taken in Lincolnshire, but very rare and local ; it 
used also to be found formerly in Cambridgeshire). 

The foregoing localities are taken from my " Illus- 
trated Handbook of British Dragon-flies," * to which 
little work I beg to refer the reader in quest of 
information concerning the time of appearance and 
habits, etc., of the species enumerated in the above 

By G. W. Bulman, M.A., B.Sc. 

THE theory that bees confine themselves to one 
particular species of flower, during at least a 
single journey, seems to be one of those which 
manage to survive to old age on a minimum of 
observed facts. Copied from one book to another, it 
has become an integral part of the received ideas 
about bees : it forms part of the stock in trade of 
everyone who aspires to write about them. Not to 
go back too far, the following statement is found in a 
work on insects, published in 1829, ("The Natural 
History of Insects," London, Murray) : 

"Now, it has been remarked by a great number of 
naturalists, that the bee, when it collects pollen from 
one plant, does not go to a different sort of plant for 
more, but labouring to collect the same kind of 
fertilizing dust, it seeks only the same kinds of flowers. 
. . . . ' I have frequently,' says Dobs, ' followed a 
bee loading the farina-beebread or crude wax on its 
legs, through part of a great field in flower, and on 
whatever flower it first alighted and gathered the 
farina, it continued gathering from that kind of flower, 
and passed over many other species, though very 
numerous in the field, without alighting on or loading 
from them, though the flower it chose was much 
scarcer than the others : so that if it began to load 
from a daisy, it continued loading from the same, 
neglecting clover, honey-suckle, and the violet.' " 

The same idea is expressed in one of the most 
recent and authoritative works on bees : 

" The curious habit of the Apidne of visiting one 
kind of flower only during any single excursion." 
(" Bees and Bee-Keeping," Frank Cheshire.) 

* It is published by Mr. E. W. Alien, 4 Ave Maria Lane, 
London, E.G., price 2s. 6d. 

Grant Allen, too, makes use of the same theoretical 
constancy of the bee in the development of his 
various honey-bearing plants. Thus, speaking of ants, 
he says, " They do not go, like flying insects, straight 
from one plant to another of the same species, but 
being guided by scent alone, climb up different stems 
indiscriminately, wherever the smell of honey lures 
them on. " 

And this, he continues, is the reason why ants " do 
not aid cross-fertilisation, but rather prevent it." 

Sir John Lubbock's statement is more guarded and 
nearer the truth : 

" They fly readily from one plant to another, and 
generally confine themselves for a certain time to the 
same species." (" Ants, Bees, and Wasps," p. 50.) 

It is certainly a fact that bees very often make a 
large number of visits to a single species of flowers ; 
it is probable that they often confine themselves to 
one for a whole journey. Presumably, then, a limited 
and casual observation of the habits of bees, such 
as one who considers the question authoritatively 
settled naturally gives, simply confirms the received 
opinion ; any divergence is looked upon as a chance 
exception. More extended and careful observation, 
however, shows that these exceptions are too 
numerous to permit the existence of a rigid rule. Such, 
at least, is my experience. When I first observed a 
few instances of bees changing from one species to 
another, I looked upon them rather as chance excep- 
tions to a general rule, than as facts of any impor- 

More careful watching, however, has revealed the 
fact that the exceptions are really very numerous. 
During the year 1888, I scarcely ever watched the 
bees for more than a few minutes without seeing some 
examples of changeableness. The fact that the 
watching not infrequently ended in the disappearance 
of the bee when a few visits had been noted, suggests 
that these examples may really be more numerous 
than the recorded cases imply. 

Thus during an afternoon walk a bee is noted 
busy on a flower of water-avens {Geum riz/a/e). It 
visits other two of the same, and then two or three 
blossoms of herb Robert (Geranium Robcrtianum). 
Further on three bees are busy on some vetch in the 
corner of a field. One of them, a very large humble- 
bee, after paying a good number of visits to the vetch 
flowers, flies off and alights on a head of scabious. 
After working this, it passes on to yellow charlock 
among the corn. And this is no exceptional occur- 
rence, but one which may frequently be observed. 
I will now give a few examples, premising that they 
are not the results of prolonged periods of watching, 
but of short intervals of from ten to thirty minutes. 
On one occasion I observed the following changes : 
Bee No. I was busy on the blue flowers of Veronica 
Buxbaumii, from which it passed to chickweed. Bee 
No. 2 passed from little celandine to scilla, and 
thence to celandine again. Bee No. 3 passed from 



Veronica Buxbaumii to chickweed, and then back to 
Veronica. Bee No. 4 passed from celandine to 
scilla. On another occasion : Bee No. 1 visits 
Sowers in the following order : hyacinth, l'ero?iica 
Buxbaumii, sweet violet, hyacinth, Veronica Bux- 
baumii. Bee No. 2 goes from red dead-nettle to 
hyacinth. The bee which has obtained the highest 
place on my record behaved as follows : 

Geranium Robertianum . . 2 visits 

,, nemorum . . . 3 ,, 

„ Robert 3 „ 

,, lucidum .... I visit 

,, Robert 1 ,, 

„ lucidum . . . . 1 ,, 

,, Robert 6 visits 

,, sanguineum. . . I visit 

, , Robert .... 4 visits 

., nemorum . . . 2 ',, 

„ Robert 3 „ 

That is to say, 10 changes for 27 visits. 

On one occasion I watched some bees visiting 
campanulas growing near a bush of syringa. During 
a few minutes' observation, six bees passed from the 
blue flowers of the former to the white flowers of the 
latter. Presumably many of them also returned to 
the blue, but I only watched their movements in the 
one direction. 

These facts are not brought forward simply to 
correct an error which in itself seems of little 
importance : they have an important bearing on the 
bee-selection theory. It may be said, indeed, that 
the erroneous conception of the bee's strict constancy 
forms one of the pillars upon which the superstructure 
of that theory rests. Now it seems quite evident 
that the facts here brought forward are sufficient to 
deal a death-blow to the above theory of the bee's 
selective action. If the bee of to-day passes freely, 
in many cases, from one species to another, then, 
surely, a fortiori, would the bee of bygone ages pass 
freely from variety to variety : the result of its visits 
would be to obliterate the incipient species by crossing 
it with the parent stock and with other varieties. 

The necessity of this assumed constancy of the bee, 
as a factor in the evolution of the flower by its 
selection, is admitted by Mr. Grant Allen in the words 
already quoted. If bees fly from flower to flower of 
different species, they too will " not aid cross-fertilisa- 
tion, but rather prevent it." When, however, the 
species are incipient, that is to say mere varieties, the 
result of the bees' action will be to blend them 

We are sorry to see that Professor Williamson, 
F.R.S., has retired from the Chair of Botany, at Owens 
College, Manchester, after more^than half a century's 
long, faithful, and enthusiastic services. Professor 
Williamson was a bom teacher, capable of enlisting 
hosts of recruits in botany, both recent and fossil. 


By Bernard Thomas. 


v-^ f, g) is somewhat larger than the preceding, 
as it is a little less than the thousandth of an inch 
in its longest diameter. It is about twice as long as 
broad. From the anterior part of the cell-wall there 
is a projecting rim surrounding the hole through 
which, as in ^Doxococcus, the flagellum protrudes. 
The cell-wall is dark olive-green in colour and the 
contained protoplasm resembles the previously de- 
scribed species. There seem to be two varieties, both 
similar in shape, but in one the cell-wall is rough 
externally, in the other smooth. 

The forms Euglena, Phacus, Doxococcus, and 
Chsetoglena belong most probably to the Alga?, and 
are hence plants. Several of their near allies, 
furnished with flagella, live in colonies, among which 
we might mention Valvox, Gonium, Pandorina, and 
several others. It is not here intended to enter into 
a description of these forms, as they, even more 
evidently, belong to the plant circle. Indeed the 
preceding are only here introduced to contrast them 
with the Flagellate Infusoria. We may briefly group 
these relations as follows : — ■ 

A. Principal resemblances to the Infusoria (Flagel- 

lata). — Presence of flagellum in- all species. 
Unicellularity. Contractile nature of ectosarc 
in some species (e.g. Euglena viridis). Eye- 
spot present in some Infusorians (Dinobryon). 

B. Principal differences from the Flagellata. — 

Presence of green chlorophyll. Presence of 
eye-spot. Absence of food -vacuoles, and 
perhaps of contractile vesicles. Nature and 
manner of life. 

8. Cercomonas acuminata (Fig. 54 a) is usually 
found in large numbers in putrifying pond-water. It 
is exceedingly small, so small, indeed, that it requires 
a high power with good definition to make out 
anything of its structure. In its interior a few 
granules can generally be distinguished. From two 
opposite ends there arises a delicate process, one of 
these is a flagellum but the other is described as a 
delicate protoplasmic thread or tail, incapable of 

This little organism is a representative of the 
Monads, whose life-history has been so well worked 
out by Drs. Dallinger and Drysdale ; and it was 
then shown that these Monads reproduced not only 
by fission but also sexually, by conjugation. 

The term Monad was at one time applied to all the 

9. Anisonema (Fig. 54 b), which seems to be 
identical with Bodo grandis, is an infusorian of con- 
siderable size, larger even than Astasia. Besides the 

F a 


flagellum it has a long trailing filament which can be 
retracted into its interior. By this organ, and by its 
slow gliding movement, it can be readily recognised. 
Granules can be seen in its clear protoplasm as well 
as a contractile space, placed posteriorly, and the 
Diatoms it has swallowed as food. 

Codosiga and Pinobryon ; in the former, Uvella and 

io. Uvella (Fig. 54 c, d, c) is free swimming. I 
have found quantities of it in water where flowers 
had been left standing a long time. In all probability 
the spores were on the flower-stalks and had developed 

CBHTIUL BCDY ,i ' !\ ' fl 

Fig. 52. — A, Euglena viridis extended, showing flagellum, red spot, chlorophyll, central body ; B, Eugtena viridis^ contracted ; 
c, Euglena viridis filled with granules ; d, Eugletta longicauda ; E, Euglena pyrum ; F, Euglena-like organism. 

Fig. 53.— /Viaotf pleuronotes, front view ; B, Pliacus pleuronotes, empty case ; c, Phacus pleuronotes, side view ; r>, Doxococcus 
ruber; e, Doxococcus, crushed; F, Chatoglena volvocinea with spines; G, Oustogima without spines. In neither of these 
is the flagellum represented. (See last Number.) 

We now pass to those members of this family which 
are found in groups or colonies, and although these 
are clustered together they have no organic connection. 

Among these there may be mentioned those whose 
protoplasm is naked, and those which are furnished 
with a case or cell-wall. In the latter we have 

in the water. Little transparent masses, resembling 
bunches of grapes, were seen actively moving among 
Bacteria and Amcebse, with which the water was 
crowded. Each mass is composed of little oval in- 
fusorians or zobids, sometimes of only a few, often of 
very many. 


Fig. 54. — a, Cercwionas acuminata; b, Anisonema sulcata; c, Uvella group; d, ditto, stained with iodine ; e, ditto, higher 
power ; f x Antkophysa Miilleri; g, ditto, higher power ; /:, ditto, single zooid ; j, Peridinium cincintn, low power. 



Fig. 55. — Paramecium aurelia. 1, front view ; 2, side view ; 3, contractile space ; a, diastole ; b, systole, showing two canals ; 
4, posterior end, showing posterior cilia ; ect, ectosarc ; cu, external layer ; ci, ciliary layer ; t, deepest layer ; ci and t make 
up the cortical layer. In all the figures: c, cilia; d t cilia of gullet; ect, ectosarc; end, endosarc; c.v, contractile spaces; 
jf.v, food vacuole ; m, mouth ; g, oesophagus or gullet ; g J , dilation of gullet ; a, anterior, and p, posterior end. The arrows 
in j represent the direction of the current. 



Each zooid is pear-shaped, with a slightly pointed 
tail. The anterior part, the broader, is slightly 
indented, and from this the flagella spring. Usually 
there is one large granule in the interior. Stained 
with iodine, these organisms are seen to have ;two 
flagella, often of unequal length. The vibrations of 
these organs produce in the colony a rotatory move- 
ment. The zooids may be often found free. 

11. Anthophysa Miillcri (Fig. 54/, g, h). The 
zooids of Anthophysa resemble those of Uvella, but 
have only one flagellum. They are formed on a 
branching stalk of a brownish hue, and occasionally 
they get free from this and are then seen swimming 
freely about. The stalks are sometimes so numerous 
that they give a brown colour to pond-water. 

12. Bodo socialis is also another small sociable 
infusorian found in pond-water. 

With regard to the two forms Codosiga and Dino- 
bryon, I have never properly examined them, and so 
will omit them here. 

13. Noctiluca miliaris is the largest of the Flagel- 
lata. It is the common cause of the beautiful phos- 
phorescence of our sea in summer-time. The organism 
is easily visible to the naked eye. It is somewhat 
kidney-shaped, one end is cleft, and from the top of 
this there issues a large thick flagellum, striated 
transversely. At the base of this is a tooth, and 
below the tooth a delicate tiny flagellum. The net- 
work of protoplasm is very distinct, and the nucleus 
may be seen, together with large food-vacuoles or 
"stomachs," which often contain large diatoms. 


Of this division of the Infusoria, which may be 
supposed to be a transition-stage between the Flagel- 
lata and the Ciliata, only one representative is here 
briefly introduced. 

14. Peridinium cinctum (Fig. 54 ;') is a member of 
this family. It is divided by a constriction into two 
halves, each furnished with a case or lorica, which, 
like the silicious covering of the diatom, is beautifully 
sculptured. From the constriction appear the cilia, 
and from the apex the flagellum. This organism is 
gTeen in colour, and resembles to a certain degree the 
larval form of some of the worm family. 

Glenodinium and Ceratium also belong to the Cilio- 
flagellata. The former is brown in colour and inhabits 
fresh water, and the latter is phosporescent and marine 

The higher members of the Infusoria now occupy 
our attention. This forms the third family, and is 
known as the Ciliata. 


The large size of these organisms and their common 
occurrence render them admirably suited for micro- 
scopic study. They exist in great diversity of form, 
and they may be classified, as will be shown later, 
according to the arrangement of the cilia. 

Instead of noting their general characters, however, 

it will suffice to first describe a typical species. 
Accordingly we will begin with Paramecium aurdia, 
merely mentioning that it is one of the holotrichous 

15. Paramecium aurelia (Fig. 55) — the slipper-ani- 
malcule — is a large free-swimming species ; its length 
is about the hundredth of an inch. It is found in 
pond-water, and though by no means uncommon, the 
other Ciliata must not be mistaken for it. It is oval 
in shape, slightly narrower in profile than front view. 
At the anterior end it is folded near the mouth, and 
this gives it its slipper-like shape. 

The cilia are strong and arise from depressions in 
the ectosarc, which is fairly thick and tough. The 
roots of these cilia can be seen ,for some distance 
piercing its outer layer, and this gives it a striated 
appearance. When in motion they move so rapidly 
that they cannot be seen, their rate is slackened or 
accelerated, and often some are moving while others 
are at rest. 

At this point it may not be out of place to define 
briefly what a cilium is. It is a lash-like organ, a 
fine filament, difficult often to see both from its 
motility, and also from the slight density of its 
substance, which seems little greater than that of 
water. If we watch a row of cilia in action we see a 
wave produced. This is because the cilia do not 
move quite at the same time, but follow each other 
after an imperceptible interval. The action of a 
cilium is like that of a lash which moves sharply 
downwards and then returns more slowly back 
to an upright position. Hence, by their united 
action, a current is produced which may be used 
either for locomotion — as in the cilia which cover 
the surface — or to produce a current for food — as in 
those which line the cesophagus. 

The most superficial layer of the ectosarc is the 
firmest and in some Ciliata becomes a hardened 
cuticle or exudation layer (Fig. 55). Beneath this 
the remainder of the ectosarc is called the cortex and 
divided into three layers. First the layer which gives 
rise to the cilia known as the ciliary layer, next the 
muscular or myophan layer, lastly, the deepest layer, 
which in some Infusoria contains thread-cells similar 
to, but much smaller than the thread-cells (trichocysts) 
of the Hydra. The ectosarc, then, is by no means so 
simple as in Amceba, but it must be understood that 
these layers are not clearly defined one from another. 
The inner protoplasm or endosarc is more fluid and 
exhibits a rotation or streaming of the particles which 
it contains. This is best studied in Paramecium 

There are two contractile spaces situated one near 
each end, probably in the deepest layers of the 
ectosarc. At first one is inclined to confuse these 
with the numerous food-vacuoles present in various 
parts of the endosarc, but by carefully watching, the 
spaces are seen to disappear and then slowly reappear. 
The disappearance of the vesicle is called its systole, 



and its reappearance its diastole. The contraction 
and expansion are rhythmical, occurring at regular 
intervals, like the systole and diastole of the heart. I 
have noted the phenomenon, and seen that, when 
the space disappears, two small triangular canals are 
seen (Fig. 55), then gradually the vesicle reappears, 
growing larger and larger, and the canals vanish. 
When the space has reached its full size, it remains 
for a short time and then suddenly vanishes. The 
sequence of events, as well as the rhythm, remind 
one forcibly of the cardiac cycle. In a Vorticella the 
time occupied from systole to systole was about half 
a minute.* 

There are usually numerous food-vacuoles in the 
endorsarc, sometimes filled with fluid, sometimes 
with solid particles. Somewhere near the centre of 
the cell is a round endoplast with a smaller endo- 
plastule attached to it. 

The mouth commences in a fold or involution 
which passes into a short ciliated gullet or oesophagus 
(Fig. 55^). This last ends blindly in a round sac 
which, in some views, may easily be mistaken for a 
large food-cavity. The food enters this sac, drawn 
in by the action of the cilia, which seem to be con- 
stantly working. Carmine particles introduced into 
the water will be drawn into the body in the same 
way, so that Paramecium does not select its food, but 
takes whatever may come within the current. How- 
ever, it makes longer delays where there is most food. 
The food or particles of matter having entered the 
dilatation of the gullet become drawn with surround- 
ing water into the semi-fluid protoplasm, where a 
food-vacuole is formed. At one time the Infusoria 
were called Polygastria, because it was supposed 
that the vacuoles were connected by a delicate canal, 
and each space formed a stomach. The vacuoles 
have no such connection with each other, although 
they may he very closely together. When the film 
of endosarc separating them becomes too thin, it 
gives way, and they fuse into one large vacuole. The 
nutritive material having been extracted from the 
food, it is expelled at a definite region near the mouth 
(anal area), but there seems to be no permanent orifice. 

We thus see that Paramecium is a very complicated 
cell and very different from the Amceba or the cells 
that form our own tissues. Indeed, in the Ciliata the 
cell attains morphologically its highest place, and cell 
differentiation (a process in which the various parts 
are differently developed for different purposes) is 
nowhere seen to greater perfection. 

It is not intended to occupy much space in con- 
sidering the reproduction of Paramecium, but it is 
interesting to know that it either reproduces itself 
asexually by simple division of its substance into two, 
or sexually by the more uncommon process of con- 
jugation observed and described by Balbiani. 
(To be continued?) 

" Thirty-two seconds. 


IN the boggy ground that is so frequent upon our 
mountain sides, there is one little plant that 
cannot fail to attract the notice of those who wander 
thither. Its rosette of shining yellowish leaves is 
closely pressed down upon the mosses amongst which 
it chooses its home, in company with the sundew, 
bog pimpernel, asphodel, and such-like moisture- 
loving plants. If it be the early summer-time, one . 
or more flowers somewhat resembling the violet in 
form and colour will be seen, each rising on a long 
elegant scape from the centre of the rosette o leaves. 
This is the butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), and it is 
to the peculiar greasy appearance of the leaves that it 
owes its generic name (pinguis = fat) ; of the com- 
mon English name, something will be said further on. 
The plants that compose the order to which it belongs 
(Lentibularineae) are, for the most part, dwellers in 
marshes or water, but the only other genus of this 
order in our country is the bladderwort ( Utriadaria), 
so named from the little bladder-like pitchers that 
buoy it up in the water, and possibly serve other 
purposes not yet satisfactorily defined. The Lentibu- 
larinere have strong affinities with the Scrophularinese, 
and these are specially shown in the personate or two- 
lipped corolla, and the spur of the lower lip as well 
as in the axile placentation of the ovary, but it has 
also peculiarities of structure that will appear as we 

We will first examine the leaves, which are oblong 
and obtuse, with a broad, short, sheathing petiole. 
The margins are strongly curved inwards, especially 
towards the tip, and make the leaf into a sort of little 
spoon, a form which is said to have its use in detaining 
small insects, for the consumption of this so-called 
carnivorous plant ! If a lens be used to inspect the 
texture of the leaf more closely, we find that it is 
thickly dotted over with minute oil-glands, which 
impart the greasiness that is as perceptible to the touch 
as to the sight. The flower-scape rises erect from the 
centre of the plant to the height of several inches, 
and like the leaves is thickly studded with glandular 
hairs. The calyx is small ; and the five sepals, three in 
front and two rather longer behind, give it somewhat 
the appearance of a claw holding the corolla in place. 
The flower is not unlike a violet at first sight, but the 
two-lipped corolla is gamopetalous, and a little careful 
manipulation will bring it off in one piece, when the 
short tube by which it is attached below the ovary 
(hypogynous) is to be seen, like a hole cut in the 
upper lip at the back of the lobes. The lower lip is 
broad and three-lobed, and the throat is densely 
covered with a perfect forest of jointed white hairs 
turning inwards. Looking full into the face of this 
pretty flower, one can at first see neither stamens nor 
pistil, so cunningly are they concealed ; but just 
underneath the upper lip there is something that 
looks like a fold or scale, and by tearing down the 



lower lip the funniest little apparatus comes into 
view, and we find that this fold is the leaf-like expan- 
sion of the stigma. The two stamens are placed in 
front of the ovary, as shown in the drawing, the anthers 
being tucked under the curling leaf of the stigma, the 
upper part of which has a sort of upright tail, which 
is its second lobe. If a somewhat older flower be 
examined, the stamens will be found in exactly the 
same position, but the anthers having burst trans- 
versely, the pollen will be seen exuding from beneath 
the enfolding lobe of the stigma, ready to be trans- 
ferred to the sticky portion of the same stigma, or a 
different one should some insect visitor arrive betimes. 
On removing the stamens with a needle, the ovary is 
seen, dotted over, like the rest of the plant, with 

Fig. 56.— Butterwort [Pinguicula vulgaris). 

shining glands on its pale green surface, and a very 
pretty object it is with the delicate purple stigma 
curling over its summit and the little tail cocked up 
pertly behind. So much for the structure of the 
flower ; and now a few words as to the measures 
adopted by the plant for ensuring the efficacy of those 
possible or probable insect visits just alluded to. 

There is a tribe of hard dry-leaved plants called 
Bromeliacea;, natives of the continent and islands of 
America, and capable of enduring great drought 
without inconvenience, of which the pine-apple is a 
familiar example. Professor Kerner says that the 
structure of the butterworts reminds him of this tribe, 
in which a rosette of leaves forms a basin, and out of 
its middle rises a slender flower-stem. The basin 
gets filled with rain or dew, and the flower-stalk 

being thus isolated, creeping insects are prevented 
from climbing up the stem and getting at the honey 
which the plant reserves for those only that are useful 
to it. In the butterwort, this rosette-like basin (or 
what answers the same purpose) is covered with a 
tenacious, viscid slime, which is secreted by the thickly 
crowded glandular hairs. This secretion is so tena- 
cious that no small insect can get free from it, and 
the writer [has often counted ten or a dozen lying 
dead upon a single leaf, some of their bodies being 
transparent, as if the juices had been sucked out. 
The larger insects can, of course, free themselves, but 
they always make for the outer edge of the leaf, and 
avoid climbing up the flower-stalk. It is generally 
allowed that the butterworts are able to subsist with- 
out absorbing the juices of insects after the manner of 
the sundews, but we may well believe that the sticky 
rosette of leaves and the glandular scape effectually 
prevent small insects from creeping up after the honey, 
while the broad lower lip of the corolla affords a 


n s 

fig- S7> — *» Calyx, with stamens seen in front of ovary, leaf- 
hke stigma overarching them; 2. pistil ; 3, longitudinal sec- 
tion of same ; 4, 4, stamens in different states ; 5, glandular 
hairs of leaves ; 6, club-shaped jointed hairs of corolla. All 
much magnified. 

convenient landing-place for those welcome guests 
who come to it on the wing, and do not try to enter 
by the back door ! 

In early June the writer had the pleasure of finding 
the pale butterwort (Pingziicula lusitanica) in the New 
Forest. It is a plant that is confined to our extreme 
southern and south-western counties, having a range 
from Hants to Cornwall, where it seems to occupy 
the position of its sister-plant in the more northerly 
parts of the kingdom, P. vulgaris being rare in the 
south. The pale butterwort is an altogether smaller 
and more dainty little plant than the latter ; its rosette 
of leaves is yellower, and its pale lilac flowers are 
variously streaked and stained with deep purple and 
orange markings. The corolla has not the peculiar 
flattened appearance of the common butterwort, nor 
is the spur so pointed. The roots, as is commonly 
the case among bog-plants, are small, and are chiefly 
useful for anchorage, as the leaves, being so closely 



pressed down on to the damp moss, must absorb at 
least as much moisture through their delicate surfaces 
as the roots take up ; they are remarkably thin in 
texture, with rolled-in edges and a net-work of rami- 
fying purple veins, but they are not as greasy-looking 
as in P. vulgaris. It may also be remarked that no 
dead flies were found upon them. On the freshly 

Fig. 58. —Section of flower of Pinguicula lusilanica (enlarged 

Fig. 59. — Pinguicula lusitanica. 


Fig. 60. 

Fig. 61. 

Fig. 62. 

Fig. 60. — Jointed white hairs on lobes of corolla. 

Fig. 61. — Projection of mouth of Pinguicula lusitanica. 

tig. 62. — Projection and hollows (highly magnified). 

gathered specimens there were numbers of tiny beetles 
that seemed to walk about with great ease ; perhaps 
their hard covering and little wiry legs enabled them 
to set at defiance the cloggy stickiness that might 
have been fatal to more delicately-formed insects ; 
sometimes, however, the horny beetle-cases were 
transparent and empty, but since the plants have 
been living in captivity the old leaves have died and 

with them their little denizens have departed, so that 
special observations have not been made on this point. 
The flower of P. lusitanica has not the personate 
appearance of P. vulgaris, the corolla is rather 
inflated than compressed, and the spur instead of 
being acute, is obtuse and almost inclined to be lobed 
at its saccate base. The enlarged section of the 
flower shows a projection that rises near the entrance, 
covered with a short velvety pile of fine clubbed hairs. 
It is tucked up from the outside, like the lip of a snap- 
dragon, and a ridge beyond it continues still further 
into the throat, crested with orange-tipped hairs. 
There is a hollow on each side of the ridge perfectly 
free from hairs, and their opposite sides are bounded 
by two more ridges, with hairs reaching still further 
into the throat. The position of the stamens and 
pistil is similar to that which obtains in P. vulgaris : 
and the arrangement of hairs within the corolla sug- 
gests that they are intended to act as guides to those 
insects who may visit the flower in search of the 
honey contained in the spur, for no insect of the 
proper size could possibly reach it without at the 
same time touching both stamens and pistil in suc- 
cession. In default of this agency, the flower can 
doubtless fertilize itself; for the pollen oozes out 
plentifully from under the pistil-lobe, and might 
easily overflow on to its upper stigmatic surface"; 
indeed this must be the case, for the plants that for 
the last six weeks have been living in a make-believe 
bog in a soup-plate, have blossomed and set their 
seed, and are now scattering it from their ripe cap- 
sules, as if they were quite at home, and are only a 
trifle paler than they were in the bog at Lyndhurst. 
The flowers lasted a long time without withering, and 
as this is usually a question of fertilization, the little 
butterworts probably waited as long as possible for 
the insects who never visited them in their captivity, 
and at last were obliged to dispense with their ser- 
vices. It is pleasant to see the capsules split and 
scatter the pretty seeds upon the moss. The leaves 
of P. vulgaris have the remarkable property of giving 
consistence to milk, and preventing it turning into 
whey or cream. The product is a sort of solid sour 
milk, not at all unpleasant to the taste, especially in 
hot weather. It is much used in Norway and 

M. D. D. 
Hawkshead, Ambleside. 


IT was about six o'clock in the morning when 
the S.S. Orontes dropped anchor in the , Grand 
Harbour at Malta ; and shortly afterwards we re- 
ceived the welcome intelligence that pratique had 
been given, and that we were at liberty to go on 
shore to amuse ourselves, as best we could, in the 
Fior del Mondo for the space of twenty-four hours. 



Here was an opportunity that was not to be missed. 
I had long ago done the usual round of the "lions" 
of Valetta, and therefore neither Strada Reale, the 
Palace, nor the Armoury had any further charms for 
me. My desire now was to visit Citta Vecchia, the ■ 
old capital of the islands, the crumbling walls and 
deserted palaces of which are situated on the summit 
of one of the spurs of the Binjemma Hills, at a dis- 
tance of about seven miles from the present capital. 

After the usual amount of bargaining with several 
Maltese cabmen, whose custom, by the bye, is always 
to ask the tourist three times what is legally due to 
them, and double what they expect to receive, I 
hired a carrozza, and was soon rolling along at a brisk 
pace through the noisy, dusty streets of Floriana and 

None of the resources of modern science or of 
modern architecture appear to have been called into 
requisition in the planning of these ill-built and 
badly-drained suburbs, and it was, therefore, with 
a feeling of relief that I left them behind, and turned 
to welcome the sight of the picturesque little villages 
of Lia and Attard, that shortly afterward* loomed in 
sight. Had time permitted, I should have paid a 
visit to the palace, with its lovely gardens and 
spacious orange-groves, which is situated on the out- 
skirts of Lia, and to which the Governor and his 
family usually go in the summer months, to escape 
the suffocating heat of the town. But my anxiety to 
reach my destination, and to spend as long a time as 
possible among the ruins of the old city on the hill, 
induced me to put'off my visit to St. Antonio's Palace 
until some more fitting occasion. 

After leaving the village, a bend in the road 
brought us within full view of the old capital. It 
crowns the summit of a small tableland, the top of 
which is about 600 feet above the sea-level. The 
original portion of the city seems to have been 
built on the north and north-western edge of the 
plateau ; but of late years considerable additions 
have been made, and the town and its suburbs now 
cover a much larger area. The cathedral, a lofty 
and imposing structure, is built on the edge of the 
cliffs ; and from the bottom of the hill it forms the 
most striking feature of the place. The hospital, 
too, that stands by the side of it, and which 
formerly served as an auberge for the Knights 
of Malta, is scarcely less remarkable ; while the 
number of elegant buildings that are ranged around 
are so grouped as, in the distance, to form a scene, 
the general effect of which is very impressive. 

The position and physical surroundings of a place 
play a part in the enhancement of its beauty such as 
no number of superb buildings can supply. In Citta 
Vecchia this is particularly exemplified. Owing to 
its unique position, the old town is capable of making 
a picture from any point of view whatever. It cer- 
tainly looked very beautiful in the grey morning light, 
when I saw it from the foot of the hill near St. 

Salvatore ; but it is from the Musta Road that it 
must be viewed to catch it in its most charming 
aspect. There the contrasts in art and nature are 
alike more detailed, more striking ; there the scene 
that is presented is more comprehensive, more pic- 

Nor is the charm dispelled on a closer acquaint- 
ance. As the old walls are approached, the city, as 
a whole,, fades from the mind j and the particular 
then takes the place of the general. The ramparts, 
the bastions, the fosse, each in turn engage the 
attention ; and thus what is lost in picturesque 
effect is fully compensated for by the suggestions that 
each stone, as it passes in review, gives rise to. 
There are two principal gateways whereby entrance 
to the city may be obtained, both of which are 
situated on the southern side of the city. That at 
the south-western end, is a fine specimen of the 
engineering and architectural skill of the Knights. 
It is approached by means of a drawbridge that spans 
a wide, deep moat, the bottom of which has been 
converted into a flower-garden. The facade of the 
gate is still in a good state of preservation ; but the 
walls on either side of it are sorely weather-beaten 
and time-worn. Within the entrance, and situated 
on the left hand of it, there is a niche containing a 
statue in a sadly dilapidated condition. But muti- 
lated as it is, the graceful lines of the human formi 
that the skill of the artist had impressed on the stone 
are yet discernible. Of its origin little is known, but 
it is supposed to be a specimen of Roman sculpture ;. 
and it is said to represent the Queen of the Roman 
Pantheon. Almost immediately opposite, and situated 
on the right-hand side, is the old auberge, which is 
now used as a sanitorium. Within the quadrangle 
which faces the building, there is a bust of one of 
Malta's heroes, of one of that order of brave spirits who 
devoted their lives to the protection of their more help- 
less co-religionists ; one of that order who, while de- 
fending the faith of their fathers, succeeding in inflicting 
upon the infidel Turks, a series of blows, from the 
effects of which, even to this day, they have never 
recovered. The Grandmaster Manoel was not the 
least of the galaxy whose genius shed such a lustre 
on the " Order of St. John." 

The hand of Time has been laid but lightly upon 
the old building. It walls are somewhat greyer, and 
here and there the sirocco has wasted its facade, but 
besides this there is but little else to testify to the two 
centuries that have passed over them. But what are 
two centuries ? In comparison with some relics that 
the city contains, this auberge is but as of yesterday. 
The foundations of the old city are a very embodiment of 
antiquity. Phoenician hands have reared their dwellings 
on its site ; and Romans, Greeks, and Carthaginians 
have alike left evidences of their departed glory 
in its precincts. The voice of one of Rome's greatest 
orators was raised in its defence against those of his 
own countrymen who should have protected rather 



than have despoiled. Cicero, in a torrent of fierce 
invective, denounced the confiscations of Verres, and 
called for justice for the Maltese people. The Sara- 
cens, too, have left their mark upon its walls ; while 
in the more modem name of " Notabile," which has 
been given to the suburbs that have sprung up around 
the old town, we have an evidence of the estimation 
in which it was held by Alphonse the Castilian. 

Of the times of the Knights what need is there to 
speak ? Do not the grim old battlements tell their 
own tale ? Do they not conjure up scenes of its 
history, scenes of bloodshed, of suffering, of death? 
No one, methinks, could enter that old gateway, 
and ramble among those ruined ramparts, without 
calling to mind some of the bloody incidents that have 
been enacted within them. 

At the northern extremity of the bastions stands 
the cathedral church, a noble edifice, built in the 
Corinthian style of architecture, and embellished 
within and without with all that art and money can 
•supply. Its interior is impressively grand. The 
reliquaries of ancient Christendom that are contained 
within its walls, are numerous and of the greatest 
interest. A picture of the Madonna, said to have been 
painted by St. Luke, and several relics of the Apostle 
of the Gentiles, are among some of the most precious 
of them. Within the tabernacle of the high altar are 
the paten and chalice with which St. Paul and his 
asserted successor St. Publius administered the sacra- 
ment to the converted Maltese. 

The paintings, carvings, and other works of art 
lave all been made subservient to one end, namely to 
divert the attention of man from the vanities of this 
world, and to divert his attention to the glories and 
happiness of the next. The very stones with which 
the floors are paved, with their inscriptions and 
symbols of death, preach monitory sermons to their 
readers, and serve to remind them how fleeting is 
man's existence here. 

From the belfry of the cathedral a splendid view of 
the island is to be obtained. If the day is clear and 
fine, even Etna may be seen in the distance. 
To the west and south-west a curtain of hills shuts 
in a scene that is made up of an undulating and freely 
diversified country, studded with the cultivated patches 
-of the husbandman, and bespeckled with the churches 
and dwellings of the peasantry. Looking eastwards 
the undulating freestone surface of the south-eastern 
portion of Malta is bounded by the blue waters of the 
Mediterranean ; while to the south several spurs of 
the Einjemmas jut forth on the plain, and encompass 
s. series of rich and fruitful valleys. 

Turning to the north, we see the bay of St. Paul, 
the scene of the Apostle's shipwreck ; while beyond 
lies the tutelary genius of the island — the sea — 
dancing and glittering in the sunbeams that move 
merrily over it, and almost hiding in their silvery 
sheen the islet of St. Paul, which lies in the back- 
ground. Villages, churches, farmsteads, and isolated 

cattle-sheds lie scattered in all directions over the 
landscape beneath. 

Near Maddalena the variegated rock surfaces of 
the "Grand Fault" of the island lie exposed, and 
serve as an effective foreground to the water behind. 
These rocks afford us an excellent example of the 
influence that the internal structure of a formation has 
upon the scenery of the country. Wherever the soft 
freestone, that is the formation upon which the town 
of Valetta is built, crops out, there low undulating 
plains and long smooth slopes are formed ; and the 
result is scenery of a tame and monotonous character. 
But wherever rocks of a harder consistency appear, 
such as those that occur at Maddalena, on the northern 
shores of the island, there the scenery is characterised 
by rugged hills, and scarped and precipitous valleys. 

The differences between the district around Mad- 
dalena and the plain beneath are more striking in 
summer than in winter. In winter-time the monotony 
of the plain is relieved by the vegetation that then 
covers it. The stone walls partly hidden in a profuse 
covering of verdure ; the blending of rich-coloured 
soils with the richer colourings of the produce that 
they bear, the crimson sulla and the golden rye, the 
brilliant green of the ivy-encircled walls ; it is the 
presence of these that tends to soften down those 
harsher features that make themselves so painfully 
apparent in the summer-time. In winter the scene is 
as pleasing, as in summer it is intolerable. 

But though all around is constantly changing, yet 
the city itself appears to be but little affected. It is 
true that Time's hands have been laid somewhat 
heavily upon the bastions and towers ; but yet there 
they still stand, as sturdy and as strong as ever. Its 
buttresses know not decrepitude ; and were the con- 
ditions of war but the same now, as when the fortifi- 
cations were designed, there is little doubt but that 
they would still be able to prove themselves to be 
capable of doing yeoman service. 

But the times and the manners have changed ; and 
Citta Vecchia has been relegated to the limbo of the 
past. Its streets are now deserted ; its glory has 
departed. But the place will ever remain green in 
the memories of those who cherish tradition and its 
heroes. The city is rich in historical associations, 
and every stone, had it a tongue, could recount a 
history as thrilling as any romance of mediaeval times. 
It is rich also in its traditions of by-gone ages ; but it 
is the richest of ally in the melancholy memories of 
the brave hearts that reared its walls, and who os 
heroically fought and died in its defence. 

John H. Cooke. 

The actively peripatetic Geologists' Association made 
their annual Easter Excursion this year to Devizes, 
Swindon, and Farringdon, under the directorate of 
Professor Blake, Dr. Hinde, Messrs. H. B. Wood- 
ward, Bell, and Bennett. 




By the Rev. Hilderic FRiENto, F.L.S., Author 
of "Flowers and Flower Lore," etc. 

EVERY naturalist is aware of the fact that there 
is scarcely a plant or animal in existence which 
is not liable to some peculiarity or other. Among 
the highest animals we have dwarfs and Siamese 
twins, not to mention other deformities ; while 
chicks and calves seem especially fond of appearing 
with two heads or a pair of caudal appendages. 
Worms are no exception to the rule ; but so far as I 
am aware no popular account has ever yet been given 
of these freaks of worm-life as a whole, such as we 

brought from the Cotswold Hills, in Gloucestershire, 
which leads me to infer that there is yet a good deal 
to be learned about the influence of habitat, soil, 
climate, height above sea-level, and other factors, 
upon the development of worms. This tendency of 
the girdle to occupy the centre of the worm's body is 
quite unlike that which we find in the green worm 
(Allolobophora chloroltca),-¥ig. 63 . 1, where the numbev 
of segments behind the girdle is usually double that 
in front. Owing, however, to the hinder segments 
having a much narrower diameter longitudinally than 
those in front of the girdle, the girdle here falls nearly 
in the centre of the body. 

A very striking peculiarity has often presented itself 
in the study of the brandling {Allolobophora foztidd), 


mp z 

. ¥ r m 


Fig. 63.— 1, Green Worm {Allolobophora chlorolua) with girdle {cl) normally near centre of body; 2, abnormal worm with tail 
shortened; 3, Brandling {Allolobophora /(Etida) with male pores {mp) on alternate segments, instead of being normally on 
segment 15 ; 4, Brandling, showing bands splitting {a) in two ; 5, typical Lumbricus head, pr prostomium, peri peristomium ; 
6, typical Allolobophora head ; 7, abnormal form of long worm {Allolobophora lo7iga) with double tail. Nos. 3-6 magnified two 
diameters, the rest natural size. 

have been favoured with in relation to other animals, 
as well as plants. During my researches into the 
habits of earth-worms I have had ample means of 
studying a number of these peculiarities, some of 
which are now submitted for the benefit of our 

There are several ways in which earth-worms 
depart from the type. In some instances there is no 
deformity, but the full-grown worm shows a curious 
tendency to limit the number of segments. In this 
way a species which should normally have sixty rings 
behind the girdle, will have only thirty (Fig. 63.2), so 
that the girdle comes just in the middle of the body. 
I have found this tendency in more than one species 

This worm, like the great majority of our native 
species, has the male pore on the fifteenth segment. 
If a worm is examined carefully, it will be found that 
a pair of papillae, or white swellings, occupy the 
under surface of the fifteenth ring, counting from the 
head backwards. These swellings carry a pore, and 
serve as an important character in the diagnosis of 
genera. We have one small genus in Britain 
(Allurus) which carries the male pore on segment 13. 
Now the brandling is the most variable of all our 
species, and seems to be in a transition state, for it 
may be found sometimes with pores normally dis- 
posed, at other times with both pores on segment 
14, and not infrequently with one pore on the 14th 



and the other on the 15th segment (Fig. 63.3). Ihave 
found this latter peculiarity also in the gilt-tail {Alio. 

Another remarkable tendency of worms is better 
observed in this species than in any other, owing to 
its bright, well-defined colour-band. The brandling, 
as its name implies, is brindled or streaked with 
brown and gold, and it is no uncommon thing to see 
the brown bands bifurcating (Fig. 63 .4), and splitting 
up, thus giving a very characteristic zebra-like 

The girdle, or clitellum, of earth-worms is very 
liable to abnormal development. I found a brandling 
in Sussex some time ago which was quite a study, on 
account of its bilateral asymmetry. On the left side 
the male pore occupied segment 15, and the tubercula 
segments 28, 29, 30 ; while on the right side the 
pore was on segment 16, and the tubercula on 29, 
30, 31. Another worm found at Bolton Woods, in 
Yorkshire, displayed the girdle bulging out at one 
side of the body, instead of forming a saddle on its 
dorsal surface. 

These, and many other little freaks of nature, 
however, which might be mentioned in connection 
with the colour, shape, and development of worms, 
sink into insignificance in presence of the forms now 
to be described, although the facts are not new. I 
received early in March a curious specimen of the 
long worm (Allolobophora longa), a worm which has 
all along been confused with the common earth-worm 
(Lumbricus iertesiris, L.). The two may be easily 
distinguished by the shape of the head or prostomium, 
the colour of the body, and the position of the girdle. 
In the earth-worm, which is a true Lumbricus, the 
prostomium cuts (Fig. 63.5) the first segment entirely 
in two, the colour is purplish-red with lighter-coloured 
tail, and the girdle begins on segment 32. The long 
worm has a prostomium only partially inserted in the 
first segment (Fig. 63.6) ; it is usually a very dark 
sienna-brown, and has a girdle extending from 
segments 28 to 35. 

My specimen of the long worm was found at 
Hungerford, in Berkshire, and was sent to me by 
Mr. Winkworth of London. It is a sample of the 
"double monster," very similar in every respect to 
several which have been described in various scientific 
journals within the last few years. I will first of all 
describe the specimen, then give some details as to 
earlier specimens. 

The worm is about five inches in length, and would 
be described by the angler as a maiden dew-worm. 
It has no girdle, the anterior portion of the body 
when living was the usual deep sienna, the posterior 
nearly flesh-coloured. Three-fourths of the body, from 
the head backwards, are perfectly normal, and consist 
of no segments. From this point the tail becomes 
twice the usual size, assumes a somewhat quadrangular 
shape, and gives off a branch which, like the thickened 
portion, is a quarter the length of the worm's body. 

The drawing (Fig. 63.7) will make the matter clearer 
than any mere verbal description. The thickened 
tail and the branch alike consist of 60 segments. 
The total number of segments therefore in one axis is 
170, and this is the average number for the long 
worm. An exactly similar specimen was described 
by Mr. Broome in 1888 ("Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
of Glasgow," p. 203), but it is erroneously named the 
common earth-worm. The worm was about four 
inches long, and at a distance of three and a quarter 
inches from the mouth the body divided into two 
unequal parts, each furnished with an anus. The 
longer of these two parts lay in the same axis as the 
rest of the body, while the shorter branch projected 
from the main trunk. Other specimens are on 
record as follows : — In the catalogue of the Teratologi- 
cal specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, published in 1872, is a description of an 
earth-worm with the posterior third of the body 
symmetrically double. This specimen was presented 
to the College in 1810, by W. Clift, Esq. In the 
"Quart. Journal Mic. Soc," 1867, vol. vii. p. 157, 
we find a note on a double earth-worm by Mr. 
Robertson. He calls it Lumbricus terrestris, but in 
those days every worm bore this title, and it would 
be interesting to know what species is really intended. 
It is now in the University Museum, Oxford. In 
1 87 1, Mr. Breese, as President of the "West Kent 
Nat. Hist. Soc," made use of this paper and its 
accompanying illustration, but threw no further light 
on the subject, so far as one can gather from the 
abstract of his presidential address. Professor Jeffrey 
Bell has a notice of two Lumbrici with bifid hinder 
ends in "Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.," 1885, vol. xvi. p. 
475. In February, 1891, Mr. Foster exhibited to 
the " Hull Scientific Club " a specimen of the common 
earth-worm (query species) " which possessed an 
appendage appearing like a double tail." 

When I was at the Zoo the other day, Mr. 
Beddard, our leading authority on worms, showed 
me a specimen of the long worm in every way like 
the specimen from Hungerford now in my possession. 

The foregoing exhausts all the references I have at 
present to this form of monstrosity in British earth- 
worms'. To attempt an explanation of these peculi- 
arities here would involve both space and technicalities 
and I must be content to refer the reader to the 
articles already named for a discussion of this branch 
of the subject. 


THE flora of the Isle of Man is not numerous in 
species, nor are there many rare plants to 
encourage the specimen-hunter. Its isolated position 
even shuts out some quite plentiful on the other side 
of its boundary waters. Yet there is no lack of 
flowers in Man, and some beautiful and interesting 



■plants do their utmost to make up, by their abun- 
dance for the lack of others. Some notes on the 
characteristics of the island's botany may not be 
unwelcome, especially in view of the number of your 
readers who annually visit our shores. 

Perhaps the most striking features of our plant-life 
are to be seen on the sea-coast. This consists of 
rugged cliffs for the greater part of its circuit, and 
these, especially on the bold and picturesque western 
side of the isle, often present a luxuriant vegetation. 
On their dry tops, or on the earthen fences which 
shut off the cliff-edge from the cultivated land, 
Sedum anglicum, our only common stone-crop, opens 
its myriads of starry spotted flowers. From the 
broken ground spring the kidney-vetch (Anthyllis 
■vulncraria) and hare's-foot trefoil {Trefolium arvemc). 
Where the rock splits into ledges, and water drips 
through its crevices, Cochlcaria officinalis covers it 
with a snowfall of blossom. The common companion 
•of the scurvy-grass is the sea-feverfew (Matricaria 
inodora, var. maritima), with its flowers so like dog- 
daisies. On both rock and earth is the straggling 
bushy growth aiSpergidaria marina. Great cushions 
of sea-pink (Armeria maritima), crowned with their 
many rosy clusters, sprout from the cracks, mingled 
with the pale-green foliage and reticulated calyces of 
the sea-campion (Silenc maritima). Beds of samphire, 
recognised far off by its strange glaucous hue, cover 
here and there long ledges, usually out of reach. 
But the loveliest sea-plant of all is the vernal squill 
(Scilla verna) abundant on all our rocky coasts, and 
sometimes, as at Cronk Moar in Rushen, straying a 
little inland. Often ;the grassy sea-margins are ^so 
profusely sprinkled with these faintly-scented dwarf 
"hyacinths, that they give the prevailing colouring to 
the brows. On the west, steep and stony ground 
is sometimes covered by a huge and rank growth of 
the common nettle. Below, where boulders and 
fragments fallen from above form a rough kind of 
beach, overhung by the great rock-masses, vegetation is 
scarcer. Bits of sea-spurrey still grow wherever they 
can find a rooting-place. The stones are thinly sown 
with the straggling mealy stems of a slender and not 
ungraceful form of atriplex ( ? dcltoidea). Sometimes 
there is a little yellow stonecrop (Sedum acre). 
Sometimes the pretty foliage of the sea-milkwort 
(Glaux maritima) turning a beautiful yellow in 
autumn, carpets the ground between the boulders, 
and in some stony spots, which it has nearly 
•completely to itself, the common silverweed (Potentilla 
■anserina) has a singularly delicate appearance. A 
plant very common, on these strands, or, as they are 
called in the Isle of Man, " Traics," where a stream 
trickles from the rock, is the tall, rough hemp- 
agrimony (Eupaiorium canuabinum), its dull flower- 
heads and abundant foliage not unpicturesque amid 
its surroundings. Trace up the water a little further, 
if the ascent be not too steep, and you will find 
brookweed (Samolus valerandi), and perhaps, for it is 

not very frequent in Man, a few of hart's-tongue fern 
(Scolopendrum vulgare), or the high stem and golden 
lamp-like flowers of the tutsan (Hypericum andro- 
sccmum). But where the cliff is hollowed out into 
a cavern, or a long recess slopes away into blackness, 
you will see in profusion the rich glossy fronds of the 
sea-spleenwort (Asplenium marinum). Sometimes a 
mossy projection jutting from the darkness of a great 
cave is completely draped with this fine fern. Great 
tufts of it, somewhat ragged .and stunted from 
exposure, and mixed with immense growths of sea- 
spurrey, spring from the ruinous walls of Peil, "a 
castle like a rock upon a rock." By careful search a 
rarer fern may be found. The maiden-hair, though 
sadly thinned, still lingers in some dripping cavernous 
places, on the west coast. Asplenium adiantum- 
nigrum is frequent on the coast also, more out of 
reach of the tide than A. marinum. The sea-kale 
grows in a few localities ; and among the debris of the 
low rocks, on the south, the flaunting flowers of the 
horned-poppy may be gathered, and even the hen- 
bane, though that is uncommon in Man. Euphorbia 
Portlandica is found on stony rubbish at a wild strand 
on the east coast. The extreme north of the island 
is a sandy and comparatively level district, with a 
coast sometimes flat, but usually rising into cliffs of 
sand and clay. This has its peculiar flora, but most 
of the plants are those to be found on every similar 
shore in Britain. The gay carpet of the sandy 
pastures is [largely composed of bird's-foot lotus (L. 
comiculatus), and rest-harrow (Ononis arvensis), the 
form seeming to be always repens, sometimes with 
the addition of Ornithopus perpusillus, and dotted with 
the common pink stork's-bill (Erodium cicutarium). 
On the sands sea-rocket (Cakile maritima) and salt- 
wort (Salsola kali) are abundant, and on the shingle 
above high-water mark, sea-purslane (Honckenya 
peploides). Eryngium maritimum adds to the prevail- 
ing blue-green of the great masses of sea-reed. The 
field-borders are brighbwith the common vetch ( Vicia 
angustifolia. The rare Brassica monensis, which 
seems to have been named by John Hay from 
specimens gathered on the " Mooragh," at Ramsey, 
is still found there and at other spots ; and in the 
neighbouring salt-flats tidally overflowed, the glass- 
wort (Salicornia herbacea) flourishes in the bare, 
muddy spaces between tufts of sea-pink. 

The deep glens which seam the mountain-land so 
prolusely have a rich vegetation, often in strong con- 
trast with the bareness of the hill-masses among 
which they are hidden ; but here, too, few prizes will 
be found. On very damp stony places, under the 
deep shade of rock and wood, are great clusters of 
yellow-green Chrysosplenium (oppositifolium), and 
wood-anemones thickly star the stream-sides along 
the branches of the Glass and Groudle brooks, and in 
some of the northern glens, and complete the spring 
charm of hyacinth, primrose, and dog-violet. Wood- 
sorrel is wonderfully abundant, and golden-rod 



(Solidago virgaurea) and tutsan frequently spring 
from the rocky sides. Ferns of course there are in 
profusion, and from them the ravines derive their great- 
est beauty. On the ledges the common polypody 
often attains a great size. The mountain-buckler fern 
(Lastrea oreopteris) is very noticeable by its frequency 
and luxuriance. The royal fern (Osmimda regalis) 
is found in glens, on bog-land, and even on wet sea- 
side rocks (as at Fleshwick), and cart-loads of these 
fine plants are taken from the northern "Curraghs" 
to Douglas, for sale on market-days in summer. 

The stony rubbish of the South Barrule granite 
quarries is green with parsley . fern (AUosorus 
crispus), which inhabits some other spots also, but 
is not common. Gorse is specially abundant and 
luxuriant in Man, the large kind (Ulex Europeus) 
brightening the high sod fences which form the field- 
boundaries, "never out of blossom," the Manx saying 
tells us, " while kissing is in fashion," and the smaller 
(Ulex nanus) combining with the heather to cover 
great tracts of land. The three common kinds of 
heath are all, of course, plentiful, but perhaps the 
most striking is the profuse and brilliant Erica cinerea, 
which, however, is becoming rusty by the time the 
less showy ling is at its best. Common accompani- 
ments of heather and gorse are the milkwort, its 
varied-coloured flowers thick in the springy hill-side 
turf, eyebright, and, along fences and dry-stone walls, 
foxglove. 'Where wet spots occur amid the heathy 
ground, the seeker will be rewarded by a more exten- 
sive range of plants. One such place recurs to my 
memory while I write, and 1 will describe it as an 
example of many similar. A strip of waste land fills 
the bottom of a sequestered valley, not a quarter of a 
mile broad. On the left-hand side, looking up the 
valley, and close to the bounding hill, here shaded 
by a plantation, rises a rocky natural eminence, rough 
with bramble and bracken, its top surrounded by the 
grassy mounds of a prehistoric fort, from among 
which springs a clump of Scotch firs. On the right 
is a long and broken dry-stone wall, below which the 
ground falls rapidly to the rushy borders of an old 
watercourse, now almost choked by weed. On this 
ground the mountain sweet fem grows, its nearest 
station to Douglas. Further off in the same direc- 
tion is the river, a swift hill-stream whirling down 
over its gravelly bed, a pair of sand-pipers flitting 
along its margin, the heavy flight of a heron moving 
lazily up the valley overhead. Between the river and 
the watercourse the ground is covered with gorse and 
rank grass, and the low bushes in early summer are 
rich with the creamy blossoms of the bumet-rose 
(R. spinosissima), a most abundant species here. All 
over the waste, and on every rough hedge-bank for 
miles, are the golden flowers of the St. John's wort, 
well-named "pulchrum," one of the commonest and 
loveliest of Manx wild plants. It is the "Luss-y- 
chialg " of country people, who still use it as a tonic. 

But just before us a little stream, oozing from the 

hill, finds its way into the watercourse, and before 
reaching the dry-stone wall soaks a bit of the heath- 
land. Looking closer at this spot, we are aware 
of its gorgeous colouring : rose, crimson, orange, and 
cream-colour. There are the waxen bells of the rose- 
heather (Erica tctralix), there the spikes of the bog- 
asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum), and the curious 
strong-scented heads of Hypericum elodes. The 
spotted palmate orchis (Orchis maculata), is abun- 
dant ; it is the only orchis at all common in Man, and 
strives, by its appearance in every marshy spot, to- 
make up for the absence of its relatives. The marsh 
red-rattle (Pedicularis pahistris) rises near the 
stream-side, less common than the smaller species, 
which is very abundant in the island. The common 
butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris) rears its graceful 
flowers like long-stalked violets, from the unctuous 
leaves, and the pale butterwort (P. lusitanica), a by 
no means unfrequent plant with us, shows its thinner 
foliage and lighter-tinted flowers near the trickling 
water, scattered here and there. There is a plentiful 
undergrowth of sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), and of 
the marsh-pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris), the sup- 
posed effects of which have suggested the curious 
Manx saying, " Cha nee tra ta'n sheyrrey gee yn ouw 
te cheet ree." "It's not when the sheep eats the 
' ouw ' that it (that is, the harm) comes to her." What 
is intended to be illustrated is the certainty of the 
evil effects of wrong-doing, though their working may 
be slow. Bog-pimpernel also, not less delicate in its- 
foliage than in its blossoms, mixes with the red of the 
sundew leaves. 

In the northern " curragh" or fen, where the wet 
land is extensive, other and some rarer species might 
be noted. In anything like a pond or piece of still 
water the bog-bean is sure to be found. Wet places 
usually yield Viola pahistris, often Epilobium pa lustre 
and Scutellaria minor, sometimes Veronica scutellata 
and Campanula hederacea, and it is said, Radiola 
millegrana, and Centunculus minimus ; but the plants 
just described are the most ubiquitous and conspicuous. 

Amidst our roadside vegetation the English botanist 
will miss Lamium album and Sisymbrium alliaria,. 
but he will be struck by the abundance of tormentil 
(Potenlilla tormentilld), wild sage (Teucrium scoro- 
donia), Pepperwort (Lepidium campestre), and wall- 
penny wort ( Cotyledon umbilicus). Here and there the 
rose-bay willow-herb (Epilobium angustifolmm) decks 
the hedges. The ivy-leaved toad-flax, another stray 
of cultivation, grows frequently on walls and cottage- 
roofs. Quite a feature of Manx roadside waste 
places, especially in the south, is Smyrnium olusa- 
trum ; its vivid and glossy foliage is luxuriant in the 
neighbourhood of the old abbey of Rushen, and 
along the straggling high-road streets of the Soulhside 
villages. In this part of the island, where limestone 
takes the place of the prevailing schist rock, the 
vegetation somewhat changes. Potentilla repians, 
scarcely seen about Douglas, becomes plentiful by 



the foot-paths ; the hemlock, found also in the sandy 
north, reappears on the waste ground ; and the fields 
are rich with scarlet poppies. The great hairy willow- 
herb [Efiilobium kirsutum) appears by the stream, 
the water-plantain (Alisma plantago) in still water, 
the burdock {Arctium lappa) is more frequent, and 
Scandix peclen-veneris springs on cultivated ground. 

It is noticeable that the cowslip is not found in 
Man except where planted. Lamb's-lettuce (Vale- 
rianella olitoria) and yellow toad-flax (Linaria vul- 
garis) are local, and seemingly recent. Veronica 
Buxbaumii, however, which must be a late introduc- 
tion, is abundant, and has spread to remote corners 
of the isle. The white meadow-saxifrage (Saxifraga 
granulata) I have seen only on one spot, a grassy 
brow on the western coast. 

Something might be said, did space permit, on 
Manx plant-lore ; as the use of the mountain-ash 
(Manx, " Cuirn ") in connection with May-eve super- 
stition, of the elder (Manx, "Tramman") as a 
protection against charming, and of many wild plants 
as rustic medicines. Some curious information on 
these subjects will be found in the recently published 
"Folk-lore of the Isle of Man," by Mr. A. W. 

P. G. Ralfe. 


One of the greatest modern scientific satires is that 
"Water finding," by means of a hazel wand, is 
revived! It is so much easier than studying geology, 
and receives, as a rule, more of ecclesiastical support. 

The Council of the Wesley Scientific Society met 
in London on March 31st, under the presidency of the 
Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., and resolved to canvass 
the members and subscribers with a view to the re- 
organization of the Society, and the monthly issue of 
a superior Journal, to contain illustrated articles, 
original memoirs, summaries of work done by other 
Societies and individuals, and other matter of interest 
to students of science and natural history. Great 
regret was expressed at the injury sustained by the 
Society, owing to the unwarranted amalgamation of 
the "Wesley Naturalist " — the former official organ of 
the Society — with another periodical, and the mind 
of the members is now being ascertained respecting 
the reconstruction and more efficient working of what 
has proved itself to be a very useful, and necessary 

The following are among the Lecture Arrange- 
ments at the Royal Institution, after Easter : Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney, Two Lectures on "The Sculp- 
turing of Britain — its later stages," (the Tyndall 
Lectures) ; Mr. Frederic E. Ives, Two Lectures on 
"Photography in the Colours of Nature; Professor 
Dewar, Four Lectures on " The Chemistry of Gases ; 
Professor H. Marshall Ward, Three Lectures on 

"Some Modern Discoveries in Agricultural and 
Forest Botany " (Illustrated by Lantern). The 
Friday Evening Meetings were resumed on April 
29th, when a Discourse was given by Dr. William 
Huggins, on the " New Star in Auriga ; " succeeding 
Discourses will be given by Captain Abney, Dr. 
B. W. Richardson, Mr. J. Wilson Swan, Professor 
Dewar, and other gentlemen. 

Messrs. Tempere and Dutetre announce the 
publication of a series of slides, to be accompanied 
by Explanatory Text, on " The Micro-Fungi of 

The latest news from the newly discovered Dover 
coal-field, is that 762 feet of coal-measures have 
been penetrated beneath the cretaceous and oolitic 
rocks. At the depth of 1, 140 feet, a coal-seam 2 ft. 
6 in. thick, was passed through. The depth now 
reached, is 1,875 ^ eet > an( i mne seams of coal have 
been pierced. 

We are pleased to draw attention to M. Tempere's 
" Memento du Catalogue de Preparations Micro- 
scopiques " (168 Rue St. Antoine, Paris). Micro- 
scopists will find it very useful. 

A descriptive pamphlet has been issued relating 
to the programme of the Edinburgh Summer 
Meeting of Art and Science in August next. It 
is a delightful programme — botanical rambles, 
zoological .dredgings, microscopical investigations, 
demonstrations, conversaziones, and lectures galore! 

Mr. G. Viney says : — " A splendid specimen of a 
female great northern diver has been captured at St. 
Anne's-on-Sea, Lancashire, lately, and is now in the 
possession of Mr. Oldfield, Church Road. There has 
not been one seen here for a dozen years till now." 

We heartily welcome another magazine, " The 
Irish Naturalist," edited;by Messrs. G. H. Carpenter 
and R. Lloyd Praeger, the first number of which has 
just been published (London : Simpkin & Marshall), 
price 6d. It will be devoted mainly to Irish geology, 
botany, and natural history generally. 

We have received a copy of Mr. Arthur Bennett's 
valuable paper entitled " Records of Scottish Plants 
for 1 So, 1," an addition to "Topographical Botany," 
reprinted from the " Annals of Scottish Natural 

Mr. J. A. Ellis, i Pomona Place, Fulham, writes 
as follows : — " Last year, through the kindness of 
several subscribers of Science-Gossip, I was enabled 
to form several natural history collections for the 
schools in our vicinity. I desire to do the same this 
year, and should be greatly obliged to readers having 
duplicate Botanical, Entomological or Geological 
specimens, if they would forward them to me. 
Specimens of foreign and colonial seeds, fibres, etc., 
used commercially and medicinally, are especially 




A New Microscopical Lamp. — The micro- 
scopical Lamp which I have designed, and of which 
I send a rough sketch, has, I venture to think, some 
distinctive advantages. (1) The form of base gives a 
good support, and by allowing a foot of the micro- 
scope to rest^between two of its feet, admits of the 

Fig. 64. — a, base, with four feet which have cork or caoutchouc 
studs underneath, the base to be of somewhat larger diameter 
than the oil container. This base can be fitted with a 
sliding gear, as_ Figs. 66 and 67, giving the lamp a lateral 
movement of i inch on each side of the centre of the base, 
thus facilitating exact centering of light without moving the 
base. B, pillar. To prevent rotation of lamp the pillar 
could be made square, or have a narrow and shallow slot 
cut in it, and a pin could be passed through the collar into 
the slot, c, ring at top of pillar for carrying lamp. D, oil 
container; diameter 6 inches, with filling hole (e). c, ro- 
tating burner with }-inch wick : half a revolution, by means 
of a_ revolving collar with stops, can be given to burner, to 
admit of the use of the flat flame or of its edge. H, metal 
chimney; dull black inside. K, box or wider part of chimney 
surrounding flame, L, projection from box for holding glass 
slips. M, glass slip in place. N, pinching collar with screw 
at side, p, arm for carrying condenser ; it rotates. Not 
drawn to scale, but drawn too long. R, condenser (not 
drawnto scale), s, screw arrangement for fixing condenser. 
T, horizontal section of pinching collar, v, another form of 
collar which could be substituted for the pinching collar. It 
has a screw acting on a brake, which, being a segment of a 
circle, does not damage the pillar, w, horizontal section of 
same, showing brake worked by screw. Scale 1 = 2 (about). 

flame (which is at the outer circumference of the oil 
container) being brought close to the stage of the 
microscope. (2) The screw motion sliding gear 
fixed on top of the base, admits of a lateral move- 
ment of half an inch on each side of the centre of the 
base, thus facilitating exact centering of the light. 
(3) The oil container, having the pillar passing 
through its centre, causes the lamp to be more evenly 
balanced all round ; if necessary, the oil container 
could be slightly weighted on the side opposite to the 
burner. (4) The container being shallow, and the 

Fig. f5. 

Fig. 66. — Vertical section at middle of sliding gear for fitting 
over the base ; showing the pillar. Not drawn to scale. 

Fig. 67. — Sliding gear showing screw stem, which can be made 
long enough to project just outside the feet of the base to 
facilitate turning the screw. Not drawn to scale. 

foot also being shallow, the light can be brought 
close to the table, or it can be raised above the stage 
for use, with a condenser above the stage. (5.) The 
pinching collar provides a very efficient and facile 
control over the vertical movements of the lamp. 
The letters on the sketch with the accompanying 
description give a full explanation of the lamp. — 
J. A. Ross, M.D., Folkestone. 

Tylar's Micro-Photographic Camera. — Mr. 
\V. Tylar, 57 High Street, Aston, Birmingham, has 
kindly forwarded to us an ordinary specimen of the 
above apparatus. It is neatly packed into a well 
arranged case, and is accompanied with all the 
accessories necessary for micro-photography. The 
price, even in these days, is marvellously cheap, and 
it can only be due to the number demanded of Mr. 
Tylar that the instrument can be turned out at the 
price. With it, anybody who is even only slightly 



acquainted with the ordinary use of the microscope can 
successfully turn out micro-photos after a very little 
practice. The apparatus sent out with Mr. Tylar's 
Micro-photographic Camera is accompanied with a 
prettily got up brochure containing full instructions 
how to use every appliance included. This has been 
written purposely for beginners. Naturalists, as a 
rule, are not people of enormous incomes or 
bloated fortunes, and to them this twenty-seven and 
sixpenny fully equipped instrument, which will enable 
them to photograph microscopic objects, is a decided 
help-meet, and cannot fail to intensify their quiet 
delights in natural history pursuits and studies. The 
camera itself is an elegantly and artistically turned out 
bit of work, made of polished mahogany. Mr. Tylar 
has decidedly made a hit in bringing out at so 
moderate a price, an instrument which hundreds of 
ardent but impecunious microscopists have long 

Watson's Illustrated Catalogue. — To a 
microscopist and naturalist, the perusal of such a well 

Fig. 68.— This microscope lamp is fitted with a metal chimney, 
having extra large body allowing of free combustion, and 
fitting to receive ordinary 3 in. by 1 in. slips. The trouble 
of broken glass chimneys is thereby avoided, and as the 
inside is blacked, double reflections are prevented. The 
container being very flat, the light can be brought down 
very near to the table ; the stopper is built up from the 
reservoir, thereby obviating the unpleasant leaking usually 
found in flat lamps. The supporting bar being square, the 
lamp is very rigid and has no tendency to swing round as on 
a circular tube. It burns for ten hours. Best paraffin oil 
should be used. 

got up catalogue as the present is as enjoyable as a 
first-class catalogue of rare and valuable books is to a 

bibliophilist. If he cannot afford to purchase them,, 
nevertheless he is happy that there are such things in 
existence, ready for him, if he only had the money. 

Fig. 69.— Achromatic Condenser. This is specially designed 
for use in photo-micrography, but it is also efficient for 
visual work. It does the work of the Abbe Illuminator, and. 
transmits a rather larger aplanatic cone of light. It is 
strongly recommended where critical photographic work is 
to be done. It may be used with the highest power objec- 
tives, and by removing the top lens can be used with the 
lowest powers. The new Schott glass is employed in its 

Fig. 70. — New Aplanatic Bull's Eye or Stand Condenser (as 
suggested by Mr. E. M. Nelson). This form is designed to 
minimise the large amount of spherical aberration given by 
ordinary stand condensers; with it a considerably increased 
brilliance of illumination is obtainable. It is composed of 
two lenses. Its use is specially indicated in photographic 
work, and it will be found to not only shorten the exposure, 
but materially improve the image. 

Messrs. Watson & Sons, 313, High Holborn, have just 
sent out their " Illustrated Catalogue of Microscopes, 
Objectives, and Accessory Apparatus." The latter 



:is a very comprehensive term, and the microscopic 
student cannot fail to be both interested and instructed 
by the full and clear accounts and pictures of hosts of 
" Accessories," of many of which he was probably 
ignorant before. The letter-press runs to 68 pp., and 
there are about one hundred illustrations, all well got 
up, as will be seen by the accompanying figs, from 
blocks used in the catalogue, and kindly lent us by 
Messrs. Watson. The first thing for students and 
intending purchasers, is to obtain one of Messrs. 
Watson's Catalogues, and, after going over it, to use 
their own judgment. 

Microscopic Pond-Life in Winter. — In Sep- 
tember 1S91, while out in search of micro-organisms, 
I dipped my collecting-bottle in a ditch at Hook, 
near Goole, and was rewarded by at once perceiving 
numerous tubes of Melicerta on the under side of the 
leaves of duckweed. The ditch was broad and deep, 
protected on one side by a high, but straggling 
and open hedge, and on the other by a raised portion 
of the field. It had been partially cleaned out by the 
farmer ; possibly harvest operations had prevented 
the completion of the work — very fortunately for me, 
for it proved rich in interesting forms of life. For 
one half of its length the ditch contained clear water 
only ; the other half was covered with a dense sheet 
of the ivy-leafed duckweed {Lemna trisulca). Some 
of the leaves of duckweed had as many as six 
specimens of Melicerta ringens on their lower surface, 
and examination under the microscope also revealed 
the presence of Floscularia ornata and F. cornula in 
great abundance. Arcella aculeata, A. vulgaris, and A. 
dentata were also present, the latter species being the 
most numerous. From time to time throughout the 
winter, in all kinds of weather, I made occasional 
visits to the ditch. As the autumnal rains increased, 
it gradually filled up, and finally overflowed ; but the 
Lemna kept together in considerable masses, and 
only on one occasion was my search for organisms 
unsuccessful. Late in October, after a fortnight or 
more of very heavy rain which had flooded many 
parts of the country, in addition to M. ringens and 
the Floscularise, I obtained Mastigocerca carinata, 
Pterodina patina, Colurus deftexus, Kerona ?nytilus, 
Actinosphtzrium Eichornii, Actinophrys sol, Stentor 
Mulleri, Euglena viridis, and the Arcellje previously 
mentioned. Hydra viridis, Entomostraca, and minute 
Infusoria (Peridinium and others) were very plentiful. 
Throughout November the same species continued to 
flourish in undiminished numbers. On the 20th Decem- 
ber, after three days' keen frost, the ditch was covered 
with a coating of clear ice about three quarters of an 
inch thick. The duckweed, still in dense patches, could 
be seen beneath the ice ; not frozen into it. On break- 
ing the ice, and transferring a quantity of duckweed to 
the collecting-bottle, the pocket lens showed that the 
water was simply teeming with microscopic life. On 
examination with the inch objective, the field was 

seen to be crowded with Eosphora auriia ; next in 
abundance was Mastigocerca carinata ; and then, also 
in considerable quantity, M. ringens, the Floscularise, 
Tardigrada, and a species of Synchjeta, possibly 
the form described in " Prit chard's Infusoria" as 
S. tremula. I may mention that a friend to whom 
I sent a portion of this " dip " observed an adult 
specimen of M. ringens swimming freely without a 
sheath ; a most unusual thing. During a sharp frost 
in January, or early in February, the duckweed was 
frozen into the ice, and when a slow thaw ensued, 
was left lying on the top of the partially melted ice- 
sheet, in a semi-moist condition. Under these 
circumstances tube rotifers were hardly to be expected, 
nor did I find them. The tubes of Melicerta were 
there, but they were evidently old ones, and of 
Floscularia there was no trace. A few Rhizopods 
and common Infusoria were present. Fragments of 
ice containing Lemna only yielded the common 
Vorticella nebulifera and numerous lively Nematoids. 
Towards the end of February Entomostraca became 
more numerous, and Dioptomus castor made its 
appearance. As the mild weather approached, the 
ditch again teemed with Infusoria, sometimes one 
type predominating, sometimes another. M. ringens 
is now present but very sparingly, and Floscularia 
has not reappeared. In the above record only the 
more noticeable and interesting organisms are men- 
tioned. Other Infusorians were collected in almost 
every "dip," and on two occasions species were 
observed by a correspondent to whom portions of the 
gatherings were sent, which were not described in 
either Pritchard or the Micrographic. Had collec- 
tions been made throughout the whole district, 
instead of from one single locality, no doubt the list 
would have been very much extended ; but enough 
has been said to show that " pond naturalists " 
should not relax their researches during the inclement 
months of the year. — C. L. Lord. 


Extinction of the Lapwing. — Your corre- 
spondent, Mr. Ward, appears to have quite mis- 
apprehended the paragraph he refers to, which related 
to the great numbers of lapwings' eggs which are 
taken for consumption at the breakfast-table, but 
which did not state that naturalist dealers and col- 
lectors sell or take any considerable number of 
lapwings' eggs. Surely it is quite absurd to suppose 
that the comparatively small number of lapwings' 
eggs taken by egg collectors and naturalist dealers 
affects the numbers of the bird to any appreciable 
extent, as it is so generally distributed throughout the 
country. Such absurd attacks are only likely to 
bring ridicule upon those who make them, and to do 
harm to the cause of bird protection in the end. In 
my opinion it is the desire of collectors to possess 



British killed specimens of rare birds, and eggs taken 
in Great Britain, that has to answer for the rarity and 
extinction of some of our birds, and as long as men 
can be found willing to give long prices for such 
specimens, so long will the birds be slaughtered 
directly they reach these shores, or their eggs taken 
directly they attempt to nest. If men must collect 
birds and eggs, let them be content to obtain their 
specimens of British rarities from foreign places 
where the particular species is abundant, then there 
may be some chance for such beautiful visitors as the 
golden oriole and hoopoe to live and nest after they 
have reached England.— E. IV. H. Blagg, Cheadle, 

and that they differ in some important particulars 
from the members of the genus Lumbricus on the- 
one hand, and Allolobophora on the other. These 
researches are being laid before the Linnean Society 
of London, and will probably form the subject of a 
paper to be read at the forthcoming meeting of the 
British Association in Edinburgh. 

Malformation of Periwinkle. — I send you 
herewith sketches of, a curious malformation in the 
shell of a periwinkle. Having noticed more than one 
record of similar monstrosities in land-snails, in your 
journal recently, I thought that this might possibly 
prove of interest. The second mouth appears to be 

Fig. 71. — Head of Fowl with curved upper beak. 

Singular Beak of Fowl. — I take the liberty to 
send you a rough sketch of the head of a fowl, 
showing the curved and hawk -like shape of the 
upper mandible of the beak, giving the head the 
appearance of a bird of prey. — y. Boggitst, Alton. 

Ivoryine Tablets. — We beg to call the attention 
of working naturalists and curators generally to the 
Ivoryine Tablets recently brought out by Mr. W. 
Tylar, 57 High Street, Aston, Birmingham. They 
are specially prepared for labelling cabinets, boxes, 
drawers, and natural history specimens. Pencil- 
marks are easily removed from the Ivoryine label by 
a damp cloth. The tablets are very useful and very 
cheap — is. 6d. per. dozen. 

A New British Worm. — A new British worm, 
known as Tetragomcms pupa, Eisen, has recently 
been discovered by the Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., 
who has also been able to settle a moot point in 
relation to a group of tree-worms (Dendrobsena), 
whose exact position among the Lumbricidi has 
hitherto been but imperfectly defined. It is now 
found that some half-dozen species of worms live 
largely among decaying timber and vegetable refuse, 

somewhat clumsily attached to the shell, and the 
original one is somewhat damaged. Is it possible 
that the periwinkle preferred making a new orifice 
to repairing the old one ? — y. Holloway. 


Fall of the Leaf in Trees. — I have been very 
much interested in Mr. Whitaker's notes on trees. 
In respect to the " Varying Fall of Leaf in Oaks," I 
may remark that I noticed parallel cases in this 
neighbourhood last year, but the trees were ashes. 
In more than one place I observed trees within a few 
hundred yards of each other, one retaining its full 
foliage, having a slight yellow tint as the only sign of 
approaching winter, some quite bare of leaves, with 
others in intermediate conditions. I have never seen 
the contrast so marked in any previous year. — W. A. 
Cain, Newark. 

Prickly Holly. — Being but a young beginner of 
the study of Botany, I should be pleased if the follow- 
ing matter could be explained. It is said in most books 
treating on the subject, that the prickles on the edge of 



the holly leaf are caused by the parenchyma not being 
£0 fully developed between the extremities of the veins, 
thereby causing the leathery and tough edge to project 
further at the venation, and thereby developing 
spines ; and that when grown in rich luxuriant soil 
this prickly character of the leaf is suppressed by the 
extra flow of sap, causing the parenchyma to fill out 
the leaf to its entirety. I herewith send you a 
specimen of a holly leaf, that I gathered this morning, 
with the blade of the leaf covered almost entirely with 
prickles, as is usually developed at the edge ; in my 
humble opinion, sir, placing the above theory among 
the "non-positives." — W. J. Pollard. 

Peculiar Crocus. — I have noticed single snow- 
drops with four petals ; but never before to day have 
I noticed a crocus with eight. We have one in 
bloom this morning, (a white one) with eight distinct 
petals, four perfect stamens, and the style divided 
into four stigmas. I thought possibly this might 
intere st your readers. — Joshua J. Ashley. 

The Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus). — 
Mr. Clement Reid, F.G.S., has a very suggestive note 
relating to this most interesting plant in the last num- 
ber of " Natural Science." He states that it usually 
" flowers in March, but in the years 1884-7, I 89°i 
1891, it was flowering freely in November, in Sussex 
.and Hampshire. In November, 18SS and 1S89, I 
was in London and could not observe it. Is this an 
instance of the premature opening of flower-buds that 
should be dormant till next spring, or has the plant 
two flowering seasons in the year ? Only a small 
number of the plants, perhaps one in fifty, produce 
any fruit, and it is difficult to find a bush bearing as 
many as a dozen berries. The November flowers 
seldom if ever produce fruit, the November ripening 
berries being formed by the March flowers. Is the 
scarcity of fruit in this country connected with the 
premature opening of most of the flowers ? What- 
ever may be the reason of this double flowering 
season, it seems to be a marked instance of the non- 
adaptation of a plant to present climatic conditions." 


Geological Society of Glasgow. — At a recent 
meeting of this 'Society Mr. Dugald Bell, F.G.S., 
read a paper on " The Alleged Submergence in 
-Scotland during the Glacial Epoch," with special 
reference to the so-called " high-level shell-bed " at 
Chapelhall, near Airdrie, 5 12 feet above the sea. 
This "bed" had been first brought into notice by 
Mr. Smith of Jordanhill, about forty years ago, and 
had since been generally accepted as proving a 
submergence of the land to at least that extent. Its 
existence, however, rested on very imperfect evidence. 
It was said to have been found in digging a well near 

the summit of one of the high ridges of boukler-clay 
in the district ; and was described as a bed of fine 
reddish clay, about two feet thick, and thinning away 
rapidly on all sides, lying in a hollow of the boulder- 
clay, which was fourteen feet or more in thickness, 
both above and below it. The well seems to have 
been built up before Mr. Smith had an opportunity of 
examining the section or the clay, though he got some 
of the shells that had been found in it, and which 
were all of one species, Tellina calcarea. From that 
day to this no geologist had seen the clay, though it 
had been sought for all around, and though another 
well had been sunk within a few yards of the old one 
for the purpose of finding it. At the very utmost it 
seems to have been a limited strip or patch of shelly- 
clay, intercalated in the boulder-clay, such as had 
been found in many other localities, and could not 
fairly be taken as a sufficient proof of submergence. 
Mr. Bell commented on the many improbabilities 
which the theory of a submergence and re-emergence 
to this extent at the period referred to involved, 
alluding to the highly Arctic character of the shells 
found, the absence of marine remains from the upper 
boulder-clay, &c. He pointed out that the locality 
was quite in the path of the old ice-sheet, and 
immediately in front of a tract of high ground to the 
east, which would form a considerable obstacle to its 
progress. It was in such localities that anything 
being carried forward by the ice was most likely to be 
left. This seemed to be in every way the more 
probable account of this' Chapelhall clay, and it 
ought no longer to be cited as a proof of submergence. 
An animated discussion followed. 

A very important paper has just been read before 
the Geological Society, by Mr. Edw. Wethered, 
F.G.S., on" The Microscopic Structure, and Residues 
insoluble in Hydrochloric Acid, in the Devonian 
Limestone of South Devon." Microscopic examina- 
tion of the Devonian Limestones of South Devon 
shows that they have been built up by calcareous 
organisms, but that the outlines of the structure have 
for the most part become obliterated by molecular 
changes, and the limestones are often rendered crystal- 
line. In connection with this the author alludes to 
the disturbances which have affected the limestones. 
He finds occasional rhombohedra of dolomite, and 
discusses the probability of their derivation from 
magnesian silicates contained in the rocks. A de- 
scription of the insoluble residues follows. The micas, 
the author considers, may be of detrital origin, but 
this is by no means certain ; he is disposed to consider 
that the zircons, tourmaline, and ordinary rutile were 
liberated by the decomposition of crystals in which 
they were originally included. Minute crystals, referred 
to as " microlithic needles," resemble " clay-slate 
needles," but are not always straight : they occur in 
every fine residue, and as inclusions in siliceous and 
micaceous flakes. The siliceous fragments which en- 



close them frequently contain many liquid inclusions, 
which does not necessarily imply any connection 
between the two, though there may possibly be some 
connection. Micro-crystals of quartz occur, and have 
been derived from decomposing silicates. In the 
discussion which followed, Dr. Sorby said that he 
was probably the first to study the microscopical 
structure of the Devonian Limestones of Devonshire, 
but did so chiefly on account of the valuable evidence 
they afford in connection with the cause of slaty 
cleavage. Probably on the whole no group of lime- 
stones presents a greater range of characters. Not 
only must their original nature have varied much, but 
the amount of the changes due to chemical reactions 
and mechanical squeezing has been very variable and 
great. He congratulated the author on having done 
so much to elucidate the structure of such interesting 
rocks Prof. Bonney expressed his sense of the great 
interest of the author's observations. Through the 
generosity of the latter he had had the opportunity of 
examining some of these residues, and could fully 
confirm several of the author's conclusions. He 
thought that the quartz crystals, which had often a 
nucleus of silicate, must have been developed rather 
slowly in the rock. He considered that these 
investigations were of great value as illustrating the 
history of mineral growth and development. 


Butterflies in N. France. — I spent a few days 
last summer at Compiegne (Dept. Oise). In the 
forest from June 3rd to June loth I observed A. Selene 
in great abundance ; P. Dorilis also abundant, but 
I only took males ; C. Palamon, a few worn 
specimens ; M. Cinxia a few fresh specimens ; 
Athalia very abundant and three Aurinia. These 
Melitfece were very local. In a small reed-covered 
opening of the forest I took E. Medusa, five 
specimens, just emerged. On the 6th June Arcania 
■was first seen, and three days after was very abundant. 
On the 8th I took three .J. Carthami in a dry sandy 
clearing. The weather was very unfavourable ; on 
the 15th I went to Fontainbleau and remained there 
four days, and took the following : M. Cinxia and M. 
Parthenia, in abundance and good condition, Crai&gi, 
Sinapis, P. Maera, Pahemon, S. sao and serratnlce 
(or alveus ?), a few of each ; two females of P. 
Dorilis and a few Euphrosyne, Alsus and Bellargus. 
The weather was cloudy most of the time. — D. 

European Butterflies. — I want to spend about 
a fortnight on the Continent this summer, to collect 
the above, but I do not wish to go very far ; would 
one of your readers kindly tell me a good place to 
stop at, where the forests and mountains are acces- 
sible, say in the Ardennes or Lower Rhine district. — 
Z>. Wright. 

LEPIDOPTERA in 1891. — It was a curious fact that 
although we had so much wet weather last year and 
the general temperature was so much below the 
average, lepidoptera did not seem to be in much if 
any diminished numbers ; they were later in their 

usual time of appearing, that was all. Moths seemed 
to have been adapting themselves to a sort of aquatic 
existence, for I saw them, on one occasion at least, 
flying about apparently unheeding amidst the rain- 
drops just as a heavy thunderstorm was on the point 
of leaving off. — Albert H. Waters, B.A., Cambridge. 

Neo-Darwtnism. — Apparently evolution is not 
a science at all, it is a belief and a matter of common 
observation. There are no types, but objects have a 
character. No two trees of the same species are one 
bit alike. Entomology is evolution depicted, and 
when Darwin was the popular idol, I had a chance 
interview with the late Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, a very 
eminent entomologist. He was quite aware of what 
was wanting in Darwin's propaganda, for he said 
suggestively, it is a question of adaptation, that is, 
of the organism to its environment, a view now 
claimed for Herbert Spencer. Entomology is like- 
wise evolution in operation. Last October I found a 
full-fed caterpillar of the red admiral butterfly at 
Nantes, in France. Just before the final change the 
colours of the wings showed through the chrysalis, 
and revealed that the wings were folded like those of 
a moth, or, in plain English, that the evolution of 
the butterfly was in progress. — A. H. Swinton. 

The American Aloe. — Perhaps some one 
who has had practical experience of the manners 
and customs of this plant will favour us with some 
comment upon the note thereupon on page 70. 
"Chambers' Encyclopaedia" tells us of the agave: 
" In Mexico these plants usually flower in the seventh 
and eighth, sometimes even fifth or sixth year, and 
even in poor soils or exposed situations seldom later 
than the twelfth year, but in our hothouses not until 
they have reached a very advanced age (forty to sixty- 
years) ; whence arises the gardeners' fable of their 
flowering only once in one hundred years. After 
flowering, the plant always dies down to the ground, 
but new plants arise from lateral buds." Doubtless- 
some of your readers, like myself, look to Science- 
Gossip for reliable information, and for the explosion 
and not the perpetuation of popular errors. The 
rep'ort like a rifle-shot, and the apparently rapid 
development of blossoms thereupon, seem to require 
scientific explanation. — W. J. Horn. 

Icicles formed from Exuding Tree-sap. — 
During the recent frosts a number of trees over- 
hanging a public foot-path were cut back, and on the 
6th of March I noticed that the sap which had 
flowed in consequence had formed icicles of con- 
siderable size. The largest were from six to nine 
inches long, but the average length was not more 
than three or four inches. — F. G. -Ping, Croydon. 

Natural History Specimens by Sample Post. 
— May I be allowed to correct a wrong impression 
formed by the Rev. Mr. Horsley, from the ambigu- 
ously-worded document received by him from the 
Post Office, on the above subject? A letter referring 
to the. same matter, which I have just received from 
the secretary of that department, informs me that 
"the ordinary limits of weight and size for sample 
packets are applicable " in this case. These limits 
are not the same for all places ; for countries in the 
Postal Union they are as follows : length, eight 
inches ; width, four inches ; depth, two inches ; and 
weight, eight ounces ; except in the case of Belgium, 
Canada, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, 
Portugal, Switzerland, the Argentine Republic, and 
the United States, when all limits are raised by 
one-half. For non-union countries the limits are the 



■same as for book packets. It should be remembered 
that sample packets must not be sealed in such a way 
■as to prevent examination if necessary, and that no 
writing of any description may be enclosed, although 
printed papers are allowed. The postage, to any 
part of the world, is now at the rate of one halfpenny 
per two ounces, except that the lowest charge is one 
penny. Sample packets are accepted for registration, 
■and by this means safe delivery may be ensured. — 
F. G. Bing, Croydon. 

A Natural Phenomenon, Fireballs at the 
Cape. — E. S., Cape Town, writes : — " I am glad 
to be able to say that I saw the phenomenon men- 
tioned by your correspondent H. in Monday's 
issue of your paper. The first sight I had of the 
aerolite would be at an angle of about 50 degrees, 
and bearing roughly east, and vanished at about 10 
degrees above horizon in a south-easterly direction. 
The sight of this falling aerolite was most brilliant — 
a full sapphire flame of light accompanied by a 
hissing noise. I saw this phenomenon from the 
back verandah of a house at Muizenberg, and my 
time corresponds with H.'' W. G. writes from 
112, Sir Lowry Road : — " With reference to a letter 
written by H., which appears in your issue of the 
1st instant, I may remark that on the day in question 
I distinctly saw this natural phenomenon. A flash 
as from a great mirror struck my eyes, and looking 
towards from whence it came, I saw a ball of fire 
shoot through the sky and disappear behind the 
mountains to the east." Mr. S. Riach, Triangle 
Station, writes : — "As to the paragraph signed H. 
in your issue or yesterday, I and another here saw 
the phenomenon on Sunday, 24th ultimo ; in appear- 
ance it was like a ball of fire slightly elongated. 
There was no noise when it was first seen, but it 
seemed to pass through a damp atmosphere when a 
hissing noise was heard, and a streak of vapour was 
left in its track. A little further on it appeared to 
enter a much damper atmosphere, as the sound 
resembled the noise made when plunging a hot 
piece of iron into water, and left a large cloud of 
vapour. The noise then made could have easily been 
mistaken for a distant peal of thunder. It continued 
its course afterwards without further trace or noise 
until it disappeared on the horizon. The time the 
noise was heard at Worcester was exactly the time 
the object was seen here, direction was also same." 
{Caps Argus.)— W. IV. Black, Edinburgh. 

Dr. Leefman has just contributed a valuable paper 
on the important subject of the purification of water. 
The system has only been tried on a large scale in 
the city of Antwerp, where the water-supply could 
only be obtained from the turgid and impure fluid of 
the river. The water there is now purified by cast 
iron and steel borings, placed in cylinders so arranged 
that by a slow rotation the iron may be continuously 
showered through the water, whilst the latter is being 
passed through the same cylinder at a moderate speed. 
The cylinder is provided with pipes, by which, if 
necessary, the air may be introduced into direct con- 
tact with the iron. The iron sometimes, with the 
carboniferous acid in the water, forms a ferrous car- 
bonate. On exposure to the air it is converted into 
ferric hydroxide, which settles down rapidly, and 
carries down with it and oxidises the organic matter. 
Dordrecht and Paris are now having parts of their 
water-supply purified in a similar manner. Iron is 
Nature's chemical filterer, just as chalk and sandstones 
are her mechanical filterers. It is equally destructive 
to microbes and germs generally, and the finest water 

in England is that obtained from the new red sand- 
stone of Cheshire and elsewhere. 

Is it not a pity the newly-appointed Professor of ■ 
Astronomy at Cambridge should be attached to 
sensational astronomy ? His latest prophecy is that 
the light and heat of the sun will not be available for 
more than ten millions of years at the most, and 
possibly not for more than four. This sounds very 
much like a scientific parody of the Rev. Dr. Cummins 
and the Rev. Mr. Baxter's Apocalyptic annunciations 
of the "Speedy coming," etc. The fact is, no con- 
clusions like those of Sir R. Ball can be accepted as 
having scientific value unless astronomers first know, 
and are certain, about the actual temperature of the 
sun. Numerous attempts have been made to deter- 
mine the latter, and the results have varied from 
1,500 to 5,000,000 degrees ! Even Sir Robert Ball 
allows a range of from four to ten million years for 
the sun's future duration. That gives a very fair 
margin. M. Chatelier recently demonstrated before 
the Paris Academy, that the enormous differences in 
the estimates of the sun's temperature, result from the 
fact that different laws have been assumed to repre- 
sent the rate of radiation. He thinks from his own 
experiments, that the temperature of the sun's actual 
body (the photosphere) is higher than 7,600 degrees 
centigrade, but that the effective solar temperature 
may be put down at 7>6oo degrees, owing to the 
cooling effects of the outer solar atmosphere. Geo- 
logists calculate that life has been existing on the 
earth in past ages for about one hundred million 

The following is a patent recently taken out which 
all railway companies interested in the comfort of 
their passengers will at once adopt, especially as a 
whole carriage can be fitted up with it at a cost of only 
£4. It is a railway indicator, which puts up the 
name of every station in successive order as each is 
passed, in all and each of the compartments at the 
same time. This simple plan would be a great con- 
venience to travellers, who would be no longer obliged 
to strain itheir eyes to catch the name' of a flying 
station, or to stretch their ears to understand the 
jargon howled out by indolent porters, or run the risk 
of being carried past the station they have booked 
for. It will also abolish those fidgety passengers who 
seldom travel, and who are continually bothering you, 
without being satisfied, as to which is the next 

Once more, says the "Daily News," we are 
promised photography in colours, but not, we under- 
stand, coloured photographs, for it is said that the 
colours which are taken by the plates need to be 
projected on to a screen by artificial light. Mr. 
Frederic E. Ives, of Philadelphia, the inventor of the 
new process, who has been invited to give two lectures 
on it before the Royal Society, is on his way from 
America for this purpose. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonvmous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 


To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the "exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers. — We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

Dr. S. (Grimsby). — Enquire about the Lists of Diptera, of 
Mr. G. H. Verrall, Clerk of the Course, Newmarket. 

C. J. P.— You cannot do better than procure Newman's 
"British Butterflies and Moths." It contains excellent wood- 
cuts of each species. Messrs. W. H. Allen & Co., Waterloo 


Offered, micro, slides, collection of 200 to 250, chiefly 
insect mounts. Wanted, polariscope and other objects, or 

Echinoderms. — Wanted, northern forms, as astronyx, goni- 
aster, astropecten, luidia, amphidotus, &c. ; also the stone- 
crab {Lithodes) and Norway lobster {Nephrons). Will ex- 
change any specimens or micro, slides named in my lists. — 
Sinel, Biological Laboratory, Jersey. 

Quadrant tandem bicycle, No. 15, balls, dress-guards, and 
all accessories; also lady's bicycle, new, balls and all acces- 
sories. Wanted, microscope, camera, fret-saw, or offers. — 
W. Kirk, 20 Lombard Street, West Bromwich. 

To Lepidopterists. Companion- wanted for a visit to Digne 
(S. France), for alexanor, scipio, &c, in July next.— R. B. 
Postans, 14 Enys Road, Eastbourne. 

Wanted, a small collection of mosses and micro, fungi, 
accurately named; two or three of each species if possible. 
Good slides given in exchange, or state requirements. — Philip 
Vancesmith, Ulawarra, Bath. 

Will exchange about thirty-six birds* eggs (three red grouse, 
nightingale, partridge, &c.) for insects ; elateridce, Cicada 
Anglica, especially desired. Please write— C. J. Powell, 137 
King's Road, Canton, Cardiff. 

I can offer a few duplicates {Lond. Cat., 8th ed.) as follows : 
189, 356, 620, 923, 1172^, 1315, 1441, 1669. Desiderata, 20, 86, 
106, 243, 371, 492, 560, 604, 623, 900, 1431, 1574* 1597. I 7°4» 
1763, 1841, and many others. — E. D. Bostock, Stone, Stafford- 

Wanted, to exchange "The Naturalist," from August 
1884 to December 1891, for " The Midland Naturalist," 
conchological books, or shells. — W. A. Gain, Tuxford, Newark. 
Exotic butterflies. Brilliant wings Jof Morj>ho Jilenelaus, 
Papilio Paris, Urania fulgens, &c. ; also fine cabinet speci- 
mens in great variety. — J. C. Hudson, Railway Terrace, Cross 
Lane, near Manchester. 

Wanted, Beulley's "Manual of Botany," Foster's "Phy- 
siology Primer," Oliver's " Lessons on Elementary Botany," 
and Balfour's "Botany," in exchange for good specimens of 
British land and freshwater sheds, correctly named and 
localized, or for young plants of some of the best varieties of 
the cactus tribe, and exotic greenhouse ferns. — M. A. O., 
82 Abbey Street, Faversham, Kent. 

Wanted, small British coleoptera ; must be named. Will 
give micro, slides or material in exchange. — George T. Read, 
87 Lordship Road, Stoke Newington, London, N. 

Valatine's knife in good condition. What offers in exchange 
in micro, slides? — George T. Read, 87 Lordship Road, Stoke 
Newington, London, N. 

Will N. Lincoln botanists kindly favour me with records of 
cryptogamia (lichens, musci, and hepatic^) for publication?— 
T. Larder, Mercer Row, Louth. 

Offered, J. G. Wood's "Field Naturalist's Handbook" 
and "Common Moths," with coloured plates, &c. Wanted, 
any of Richard Jeffery's works, or what offers? — E. Hodder, 
40 Wimborne Road, Nottingham. 

For exchange, larvae preserving-tubes, with instructions 
how to use; eggs of puffin, guillemot, black-headed gull, and 
others (send for list, free). Wanted, lepidoptera, entomological 
apparatus, or offers. — S. B. Chandley, Latchford, Warrington. 
Wanted, Cornish or other minerals in exchange for Wear- 
dale spars and minerals. — T. V. Devey, Wolsingham, Dar- 

Wanted, Science-Gossip for 1872, bound or unbound ; 
good exchange given in shells, fossils, &c. — John Hawell, 
M.A., Ingleby Greenhow Vicarage, Middlesbrough. 
Offered, Partula iignaria, P. Otalieitana, P. gibba, 

Goniobasis livensis, G. virginha, Paludastrina antipoditm r 
Gibbuli?ia palanga, G. sulcata, G. Ncivtoni, and many others. 
Wanted, foreign helices. Exchange lists.— G. K. Gude, 
5 Giesbach Road, Upper Holloway. 

What offers for " Val d'Arno," by Ruskin ; Kohler's 
" Medicinal Pflanzen," folio, eighty-four coloured plates ; 
"Journal of Botany" for 1890, 1891, bound half-calf, new, and 
various pamphlets and excerpts from scientific periodicals, 
containing papers on conchology? Wanted, books on con- 
chology, and papers on foreign helices. — G. K. Gude, 5 Gies- 
bach Road, Upper Holloway. 

Science-Gossip from January 1883 to March 1885, in- 
clusive, and February to September, 1891, inclusive. Will 
exchange anything useful or curious to a naturalist. — W. 
Balmbra, Warkworth, Northumberland. 

Cuckoos' eggs wanted, with those of their foster-parents. 
Many other varieties of eggs wanted. Rare eggs offered in 
exchange. Correspondence invited. — W. Wells Bladen, Stone, 

Will exchange Bulimus oblonga, B. zebra, B. exilis* 
Stenogyra octona, Achatina panthera, for helices, bulimi, or 
marine shells not in collection.— J. Burman Rosevear, Roselea, 
Si Crouch Hill, N. 

Wanted, slides of selenite, and good polariscope objects. 
Offered, micro, slides, parts of insects, &c. — W. E. Green, 
24 Triangle, Bristol. 

Offered, //. pomatia (sinistral), H. Bourcieri, H. morleti. 
If. Iignaria, H. Iloronensis, H. Gaberti, H. Hombroni, H. 
Mackenzii, H. coma, H. inccqualis, H. Josephine, H. Lowii 
(semi-fossil), H. turricula, H. Michandi, H. laciniosa, Buli- 
mus Ouveanus* B. scarab&us, B. fibratus, B. Dantzenber- 
giana, B, Mastersii, Cho?idropoma Poezi, C. crenulata, 
Czilomorpha /Java, &c. Offers solicited in other land shells. 
— Miss Linter, Arragon Close, Twickenham. 

Offered, 100 mosses, named and localised; Buxbaumia 
apkylla, Amblysdon dealbaius, Bryum IVarmtm, lacjistre, 
Macrattii calophyllum, uliginosum, intermedium, and Cato- 
strpium migritum, for micro, slides of animal matter. — G. 
Forbes, 7 Grahame Place, Dundee. 

Wanted, works by Hewitson, Yarrel, Morris, or Seebohm. 
Offered, rare lepidoptera, Newman's " British Butterflies and 
Moths," vols. 14, 16,17, an d 24 of "The Entomologist," unbound 
and vols. 1 and 2 of the " Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer." 
— C. C. Wood, 8 Barlow Terrace, Richmond Grove, Manchester. 

Science-Gossip from commencement, 1865 to 1889, inclusive, 
bound and in excellent condition, for offers. — Edward Wright, 
89 Shepherdess Walk. 

Eocene fossils, named and localized, also minerals and 
Cornish rocks. Will exchange for other minerals and rock 
specimens, terebratulas from chalk (perfect), or offers. — E. H. C. 
Davies, 46 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 


" Laboratory Practice," by Josiah Parsons Cooke (London : 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co.).— "The Oak," by H. 
Marshall Ward, M.A. (London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner 
& Co.) — " Foods for the Fat," the scientific cure of corpulency, 
by Dr. Yorke Davies (London : Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly). 
— "On the Modification of Organisms," by David Syme 
(London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.). — "Catalogue of Zoo- 
logical and Palseontological Books" (London: Dulau & Co.)* 
— "Island Life," second and cheaper edition, by Dr. Alfred 
Russel Wallace (London: Macmillan & Co.). — "A Summer 
School of Art and Science," summer meeting, Edinburgh 
(vacation studies), sixth session, August 1-31, 1892 (University 
Hall, Edinburgh).— "The Conchologist," a quarterly journal 
for conchologists, edited by Walter E. Collinge (London: 
Swan Sonnenschein & Co.), — " Catalogue of Works on Natural 
History," part i. Zoology (offered by Bernard Quaritch).— 
" The Naturalist," a monthly journal of natural history for the 
North of England, edited by W. Denison Roebuck and Edgar 
R. Waite (London: Lovell Reeve & Co.).— "The Botanical 
Gazette," edited by J. M. Coulter, C. R. Barnes, and J. C- 
Arthur (Wisconsin: Tracy, Gibbs & Co.). — "Nature Notes," 
the Selbourne Society's Magazine (London: H. Sotheran & 
Co.). — "The Journal of Conchology," conducted by J. W. 
Taylor, F.L.S. (Leeds : Taylor Bros.). — "The American 
Monthly Microscopical Journal " (Washington : Chas. W. 
Smiley).— "The Victorian Naturalist," edited by A. H. S. 
Lucas (London : Dulau & Co.). — " Natural Science," a 
monthly review of scientific progress (London: Macmillan & 
Co.).—" The Irish Naturalist," No. 1, &c, &c. 

Communications received up to the 12TH ult. from : 
W. E. G-— B. T.-J. A. R.— W. G. B.— W. H. N.— C J. P.— 

D. B.— E. W.— F. A. F.— G. R. R.— W. B.— F. E. H.— 
W. W.— R. B. B.— J. S.— W. A. T.— P. V.— E. D. B.— 
C. L. L— B. P.— J. H.-E. W. H. B.-W. B.— T. S.— 

E. W. W. B.— E. A. M.— W. W. B.— T. B. R.— W. E. G.— 
J. E. L.— G. P.— C. C.W.— S. B. C— E. H.— J. L.— G.T. R. 
— M. A. A.— W. A. G.— H. E. S.— J. E. H.— H. E. G.— G. V. 
— W. J. N.— &c, &c. 





$ HERE is no more 
certain fact revealed 
by geological sci- 
ence than that Great 
Britain has experi- 
enced all kinds of 
climate since life 
first appeared on 
the globe. This 
took place long be- 
fore the appearance 
of Man. Climates 
have swung, per- 
haps alternately, 
from one extreme 
to another — from 
tropical heat to 
glacial cold, with 
all the variations 
between, known as 
temperate. The rocks of the British islands contain 
unquestioned evidences of this fact. 

But these climatal changes have been exceedingly 
slow — not violent or cataclysmic. They have been 
largely due to external cosmical causes, as any 
reader will see who turns to the works of Dr. James 
Croll, "Climate and Time"; Dr. James Geikie's 
" Great Ice Age," or Sir Robert Ball's recent book 
on "The Cause of the Glacial Period." Such 
physical changes as were brought about by these 
almost imperceptibly slow astronomical aberrations 
and influences required periods of time, which 
neither traditional nor written history knows anything 
about. And to cause a distinct swing of the climate 
pendulum from the Eocene Period, when the London 
Clay was formed, to the Glacial Epoch, when the 
Boulder Clay accumulated, may have required a 
couple of millions of years at least, judging by the 
great physical geological changes which took place 
all over the world in the meantime. 
No. 330. — June 1892. 

Therefore, when we think of discussing the subject 
as to whether our English climate is altering or has 
altered within comparatively modern times, we must 
dismiss the direct geological or astronomical influ- 
ences afore-mentioned. The question becomes 
narrowed almost to the "memory of the oldest 
inhabitant." Apart from the well-known and easily 
comprehended fact that even highly intelligent old 
people regard the period of their youth as distinctly 
superior in every respect to that they are privileged 
to spend their latter days in (every generation of 
elderly people has always done the same), the 
question remains as to whether, by any other causes 
than those directly geological or astronomical, the 
climate of this country has recently altered. Of 
course, when we compare the charms of the ordinary 
modern First of May (we had nothing to complain of 
this year) with the descriptions of the weather of that 
time in the older poets, we must remember that the 
Calendar has been altered since then, and that our 
First of May is twelve days earlier than it was in the 
days of Charles II., when Pepys wrote his Diary. 

In a notable book published by the Hon. Mr. 
Marsh, then American Ambassador at Florence, 
twenty-five years ago, entitled " Physical Geography 
as influenced by Human Action," we have the only 
true key to the explanation of the rapid local changes 
of climate brought about within living but extended 
memories. Mr. Marsh showed how the cutting 
down of ancient forests to make clearings for 
emigrants and settlers "out West" affected the 
periodicity of the rainfall, the floods of the rivers, 
droughts, rainy seasons, etc. "Woods and forests 
are the divinely-appointed " governors " of the 
climate of any country. I use the word "governors " 
not in any political sense, but in that employed by 
engineers, who understand thereby the " throttle 
valve," which regulates the force of steam admitted 
to work the machinery. All over the world, Mr. 
Marsh's views are now not only accepted but acted 



upon. Many countries are re-planting or replacing 
wickedly-destroyed forests and woods. A tree is a 
sacred thing. No wonder it entered so largely into 
the mythology of our Norse ancestors. Time can 
make a tree, man cannot. Hence the cutting down 
of any tree ought not to be a matter of sport or 
pastime (pace Mr. Gladstone), but of thought and 
deliberation, for the absence of a living tree has by 
so much affected the atmosphere, even if it has been 
for only a few hundred feet raeius. A landowner 
possessed of ancient trees is as such a responsible 
steward of them as if he owned rare ancient manu- 
scripts. There is a higher authority than even 
ownership, and that is public opinion. 

Modern scientific research is always springing new 
surprises upon us. One is now being much discussed 
within inner circles which may have an important 
bearing on the question as to whether our English 
climate is changing. Thus, Mr. Angus Rankin has 
pointed out 'that a new factor has been introduced 
into the study of modern meteorology — that which 
treats of the Just particles in the atmosphere, as well 
as the number present at any given time, and their 
effects on climate and weather changes. It would 
seem as if the study of dust and its behaviour would 
henceforth be the stepping-stone to the study of most 
of the meteorological problems which deal with 
clouds and precipitation, and solar and terrestrial 
radiation, as well as the diurnal and annual variation, 
in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere. 
In the famous Ben Nevis Meteorological Observatory 
(founded and worked twelve years ago by my zealous 
friend Mr. Clement L. Wragge and his wife) now the 
most noted place of its kind in the whole world, Mr. 
John Aitkin's ingenious dust-counting apparatus is 
used for the purpose of constantly estimating and 
recording the number of dust-particles present in the 
atmosphere. One of the conclusions pointed out by 
Mr. Rankin as being arrived at thereby, is that when 
there is much wind there is little dust in the atmos- 
phere, and when there is much dust there is little 

It will surely be evident to all intelligent people 
now that the presence of dust in the atmosphere 
affects its condition. Professor Lodge, nine years 
ago, at the British Association meeting held in 
Montreal, in his lecture on "Dust," showed that 
without the presence of dust in the air we should 
have no clouds. Perhaps we should have neither 
rain nor snow. Clouds are only microscopical drops 
of distilled moisture, condensed around millions of 
dust particles. Consequently, we see that the more 
dust particles there are thrown into the atmosphere 
(all other things being equal) the more clouds are 
likely to be formed. An increasing tendency to form 
clouds means drawing a screen across the sky to shut 
out both the sun's light and heat. Such a result 
must produce a colder series of seasons — a less 
vigorous and less meteorologically influential growth 

of vegetation. Clear skies exist where there is little 
dust, except that produced by nature's own effects, 
such as dust-storms, etc. It is where man congregates 
in his millions, erects his manufactories, unconsumes 
his smoke, pours uncountable millions of myriads of 
coal-dust and other particles into the atmosphere, 
that the blue sky and the bright warm sunshine get 
shut out and the weather locally alters, becomes 
chillier and more cheerless, until, among the toiling, 
underfed classes, gin takes the place of the sun. 

Yes, physical geography is undoubtedly affected by 
human action even more injuriously than by the 
vastly slower changes ascribed to geology and 
astronomy. Perhaps (who knows ?) even in this 
newly disturbed region of fog, rain, and cloud, due to 
increasing industries and ill-arranged furnaces, and 
the fearfully increased volumes of minute particles of 
unconsumed fuel thrown into the atmosphere, the 
very fact that coals have become dearer may have a 
redeeming effect. Manufacturers will not allow coals 
at 3or. per ton to be consumed as lavishly as they 
were at ten. The atmosphere will be the gainer. 
The sun will get a chance of breaking through 
artificially formed clouds, and every now and then of 
reminding us of the Old Testament saying that "it is 
a good thing for a man to look upon the sun ! " 
Perhaps Professor Lodge's original scheme to disperse 
the atmospheric dust by discharges of electricity, 
given freely and generously to the world some years 
ago, but'only recently practically and successfully tried 
in Boston Harbour, may come to our help, and assist 
us not only to forecast the weather, but help to make 
it ! All things are possible to those who not only 
believe, but work and wait ! 


By the Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., Author 
of "Flowers and Flower Lore," etc. 

I WAS called away from home on business towards 
the end of March, and found myself afterwards 
in need of a little ruralizing. Being in town, I 
determined to run down to the south of England for 
a few days, and explore the country for worms. My 
tour proved a great success. Travelling from 
London to Hastings by the South-Eastern Railway 
I availed myself of the opportunity of alighting at 
Tunbridge Wells, for the purpose of examining the 
outskirts of the town. I found here more than one 
species of earth-worm which had not been recorded 
for Kent before, and had an opportunity of noting 
some peculiarities respecting the gregarious instincts 
of this class of animals. Reaching Sussex, I devoted 
my limited leisure to working the corner of the 
county which is enclosed by the Channel on the 
south, the railway from Robertsbridge to Hastings 
on the north, and a line drawn by the main road 



from Robertsbridge to Hurstmonceux and Pevensey 
on the west. 

Geologically speaking the conditions did not seem 
hopeful. Clayey soil abounds, and the little 
streamlets are red with iron held in solution, but no 
longer worked as of yore at Ashbumham Forge. I 
had examined portions of the same district on a 
former occasion with only moderate success, but a 
wider experience in the art of collecting had borne 
fruit, and suggested pastures new even for this branch 
of science. I commenced operations immediately on • 
alighting from the train at Robertsbridge ; and though 
I did not leave the high-road, I bagged several 
fine specimens belonging to the most interesting 
species indigenous to this country. The little 
square-tail (Allurus tetmdrus) was soon discovered 
in a ditch, well developed under its covering of 
damp, decaying leaves. This curious species is semi- 
aquatic, and must always be sought in damp places, 
such as the banks of streams, the edges of gutters or 
the margins of ponds. It frequently lies buried in 
the soft mud at a considerable depth, and uses its 
utmost endeavour to elude the collector's grasp by 
hurrying away tail first to a safe retreat. It is so 
earthy in its colour that it needs a practised eye to 
detect it in many cases. I found the same species in 
every part of the county visited, for it is quite a 
ubiquitous little creature. It is widely distributed on 
the Continent and elsewhere, as well as in Britain. 

Other species found on the way to Dallington 
included the red worm (Lumbricus rubellus), the 
purple (L. purpureas), and the green (Alio, chlorotica). 
My next explorations were carried on in the pastures 
and woodlands at Dallington, a quiet little village 
half-a-dozen miles from Battle, and three miles north 
of the Earl of Ashburnham's picturesque domain. 
Here my labours were abundantly rewarded. I 
found the common earth-worm (Z. terrestris), which, 
by the way, is not nearly as common as we generally 
suppose. What we have usually taken for this 
species is an aggregate group including two or three 
species, which have only recently been put through 
their facings and made to tell their story. One of 
these is the long worm (Alio, longd), with a dark 
sienna-brown body, sometimes approaching black, on 
which account the anglers have named it the black- 
head. This is far more frequently found in the 
different counties of England than the true earth- 
worm, and Sussex proved no exception to the rule. 
A good deal still remains to be done, however, in 
working out the species found in rich soil, especially 
such as is under high cultivation, and I solicit the 
favour of consignments of worms from my readers 
in order that I may determine the species and 
distribution of worms as yet unidentified as British. 

Under the shelter of a pine forest I was able, 
though a keen wind prevailed, to startle some worms 
from their resting-place by shaking the soil with my 
fork, and to my surprise and joy among the rest I 

found specimens of the new worm (Z. rubescens) 
which I have recently added to our lists. This 
worm being new to science, proved of special interest, 
both because I was able to form a better idea of its 
distribution, and also because it bore upon its ventral 
surface a number of spermatophores, which I had not 
formerly found on any true Lumbricus. March and 
April are months of special value for the worm 
collector because of the condition of the essential and 
accessory organs of the animals"; and I was able on 
this account to make several notes of importance on 
various species in relation to this branch of natural 
history. I have now taken the ruddy-worm 
(Z. rubescens) in Yorkshire (Idle, near Bradford) 
Middlesex (Hornsey), Kent (Tunbridge Wells), and 
Sussex (Dallington). It is about the size of the red 
worm (Z. rubellus), but has the girdle on segments 
34-39, whereas in the latter that organ covers 27-32. 
Turning from the pasture-land to tl e adjoining 
wood, I hunted carefully for a dead tree lying on the 
ground. At last I found just what I wanted. In 
such habitats several very beautiful little worms 
abound which have hitherto been entirely unknown 
in England, though all the species at present found 
in this country are already on record for sundry 
continental districts. I have found that they really 
form a subgenus midway between Lumbricus and 
Allolobophora, and propose to revive the very 
accurate term Dendrobsena, introduced by Eisen 
twenty years ago, but allowed to fall into disuse, 
owing to the subject being insufficiently understood. 
To enter fully into a discussion of all the points of 
interest involved would here be impossible, and is 
the less necessary seeing that I have placed the whole 
subject before the Linnean Society. One new fact, 
however, has just come to light. In 1873 Eisen 
named a tree-haunting species Allolobophora arborea, 
failing to recognise that the worm truly belonged to 
his new genus Dendrobsena. This species is plentiful 
in the north of England, where I have taken it in 
very typical form. Hitherto it has, however, passed 
unobserved in Italy and other countries, so far as I 
can find ; but another closely related species (Alio, 
coustiicta, Rosa), takes its place. Now in the South 
of England these two species meet and overlap. To 
what extent this occurs can only be proved by re- 
peated investigation, but I am glad to be able now to 
place Rosa's worm on record for the first time as a 
British species. The distribution of some of these 
species is very instructive. The so-called Lumbricus 
Eiseni, Levinsen, is a case in point. It is one of the 
dendrobsenic species with certain lumbricoid affinities, 
and has been found in Copenhagen, Carlisle, Gloster- 
shire, Sussex, and Italy. The true Dendrobcena 
Boeckii, Eisen has been repeatedly confused with the 
gilt-tail (Alio, subrubicunda, Eisen), and so a wide 
distribution has been assigned it. But while the 
gilt-tail is ubiquitous in Europe apparently, the other- 
species is rare. I have found it only oncej and , 

G 2 



believe it to be a northern species, which dies out, 
or gives place in the south to other species. Another 
species (A. cellica, Rosa) was first found in Brittany. 
A couple of years ago I found it in Scotland, then in 
Glostershire and Lancashire, and now find it in my 
decaying tree-stump in Sussex. 

A journey from Battle vid Sedlescombe to St, 
Leonards yielded the red, purple, green, and turgid 
worms, and the little square-tail. Others might 
have been found, but the wind was so intensely cold 
that it was with difficulty I could carry out my 
pursuits. My explorations ended with a tramp from 
Pevensey to Hurstmonceux on the 30th. The 
square-tail was plentiful in ditches down to sea-level, 
the ibrandling was found in old manure-heaps, and 
inside the castle-grounds I found the green and 
purple worms. To these during the day I added 
the mucous worm (Alio, mucosa, Eisen), the typical 
common earthworm {£. terrestris, L.), and the long 
worm, while a rich harvest was gleaned among the 
fresh-water and allied species. I regret to say that 
most of the latter were devoured by leeches before I 
reached my home in Yorkshire so that I shall have 
to replace them before I can give a complete list of 
captures on the strength of living materials. The 
following list will perhaps be serviceable to future 
workers. There are almost certain to be two or 
three other continental species in Sussex yet unre- 
corded, and I shall be grateful to any collector either 
in the south or elsewhere who will send me living 
specimens from different parts of the kingdom. Much' 
yet remains to be done in Scotland, Ireland, and 
Walesf as well as the Shetland, Orkney, and Channel 
Islands. Worms should be placed in tin boxes with 
soft moss, and addressed 4, The Grove, Idle, Brad- 

List of Known Sussex Earth-worms. 

[terrestris (Linn.) 



Liimbricus . 

\rubellus (Hoffm.) 


\rubescens (Friend) 


(purpureas (Eisen) 


llonga (Ude) . 


Iturgida (Eisen) . 




{chlorotica (Sav.) 


I mucosa (Eisen) . 


ycetida (Sav.). 


tsubrtibicimda (Eisen 


\Eiseni (Levinsen) 



Dendrobccna . 

Xceltica (Rosa) 


\arborea (Eisen) . 


\constrictdQRos3.) . 



Allunis . 

tetnzdrits\{Sax.) . 



IT has been my good fortune during the past three 
months to discover two rare Actinophryan Rhi- 
zopods in the waters of one of our Calcutta tanks. 
In- November last I found Clathrulina elegans, and 
in January last Hedriocystis pellucida. In a paper on 
Clathrulina, which was read before the Microscopical 

Society here on the 14th December last by its. Presi- 
dent, Mr. Wood Mason, he said : "This remarkable 
genus of the order Heliozoa, in the lower grade 
(Gymnomyxa) of the Protozoa, was first introduced 
to the notice of zoologists in 1867 by the Russian 
naturalist Professor L. Cienkowski, of Odessa, who, 


Fig. 72.— Hedriocystis pellucida. (A), as seen under a 
A-in. Economic. 

Fig- 73* — H. pellucida. (B), an average specimen. 

Fig. 74.—//. pellucida. (C), the organism with numerous 
protoplasmic threadlets. 

in a paper remarkable for the numerous valuable 
observations that it contains, fully described it, with 
two of its three methods of multiplication, under the 
name of Clathrulina elegans. Cienkowski found it 
first at St. Petersburg, and afterwards at Dresden 
and Franzensbad in Germany, in fresh-water ponds, 
attached singly or in bunches to various aquatic 



plants. In the same year, apparently at a somewhat 
earlier date, it was discovered in Ireland, and de- 
scribed under the name of Podosphara Haekeliana, 
by the British naturalist W. Archer, who subse- 
quently recognised it as the C. elegans of Cienkowski. 
Later on it was met with, and carefully studied, by 

Clathrulina belongs. Finally it was found in New 
Jersey and in Pennsylvania, in North America, and 
figured with diagrammatic clearness by the American 
naturalist, Dr. Joseph Leidy. In 1879, a second 
species of Clathrulina was described by C. von Me- 
reschkowski, and named C. Cienkowski, after the 

Fig 76. — Clathrulina elegans. (A), as viewed with a 
one-sixth objective. 

Fig. 75.— (D), a finely-developed, but not unusual form of 
H. pellucida. 

Fig. 77.— C. elegans. (E), a dark and probably old specimen. 

Professor Haeckel at Jena, Professor R. Greef, and 
Professors Hertwig and Lesser at Bonn, all of whom 
have published valuable observations upon it, and 
upon its relations to other Protozoa, especially the 
three last named, whose papers are most valuable 
contributions to our knowledge of the group to which 

Fig. 78. — C. elegans. (C), an active organism with a 
protoplasmic veil and numerous threadlets. 

original discoverer and describer of the genus. This 
truly beautiful and elegant species, which was found 
in the Lake of Onega, near Powenetz, is readily dis- 
tinguishable from its congener by its spiny shell, 
which gives off from the small triangular area be- 
tween every three of its holes a short, blunt, and 



erect cylindrical spine, every hole being consequently 
surrounded by a circlet of six spines ; by the perfect 
regularity of the lattice-work of its shell ; and by its 
comparatively thick and unbranched pseudopodia. 
The little-known Hedriocystis pcllucida of Hertwig 
forms in all probability a third species of the same 
genus. The class Heliozoa has been divided into 
four orders : Aphrothoraca, Chlamydophora, Chala- 
rothoraca, and Desmothoraca, to the last of which 
Clathrulina belongs. . . . C. clegans is here for the 
first time recorded from the continent of Asia." 

My sketches which illustrate this paper will suffi- 
ciently show the main features of Clathrulina. It is 
a delicate unicellular organism allied to the sun ani- 
malcule, but is enclosed in a siliceous sphere ; in 
my experience the carapace is not always absolutely 
spherical. The organism bears a close resemblance to 
the marine Radiolaria. In young specimens the sphere 
is hyaline ; in the older specimens it is a yellowish 
brown. Unlike Actinophrys sol, the sarcode body 
of Clathrulina is irregular in form. It has a nucleus, 


Fig. 79. — C. clegans. (D), Protoplasmic contents undergoing 
encystment at>; all threadlets withdrawn. 

contractile vesicles, and food vacuoles. The pseudo- 
podia, which are of great tenuity, radiate as in Figs. 
76, 77, 78, A, B, and c, through the latticed openings 
of the shell in all directions. In an active specimen, 
like C, the protoplasmic body appears to invest the 
sphere with a delicate veil, beyond which the ordi- 
nary pseudopodia extend. Assimilation of food par- 
ticles has been observed to be occasionally performed 
outside the siliceous capsule, by an afflux of proto- 
plasm to the pseudopodia on the side where the par- 
ticle may be arrested ; but as a rule the observations 
show that this function is carried on within the sphere. 
Specimens are frequently met with in which, as in E 
(Fig. 80), the sarcode body is retracted on all sides 
into the capsule. Reproduction is carried on in three 
ways : (1) By fission into two parts, which on quit- 
ting the shell, put forth pseudopodia, develop a stem, 
and finally silicify the protoplasmic foundations of 
the capsule and stem, siliceous salts being apparently 
taken up by the organism, and deposited on the 
exoplasm ; (2) By fission into several parts, which 
instead of quitting the shell as amcebulce, become 
encysted ; after the winter's rest, each) cyst de- 
velops a free-swimming zoospore, furnished with two 

flagella, which is ultimately transformed, as men- 
tioned under the succeeding head, into the perfect 
organism ; (3) By fission into three parts, one of 
which again subdivides into two ; these latter force 
their way through the lattice-work of the capsule, 
swim about as free flagellula; for a short time, 
and thereafter fix themselves, take on a globular 
form, develop pseudopodia, and later on a siliceous 
capsule and stem, the sarcode being ultimately with- 
drawn into the body-substance of the core. The 
second and third methods are obviously best suited 
to secure dispersal of the species. I am indebted for 
these particulars to Mr. Wood Mason's paper already 
referred to, and which has been mainly drawn up from 
the memoirs of Cienkowski, Greef, and Hertwig and 
Lesser, and from Biitschli's account of the Heliozoa. 
In Fig. 79, D I have represented what I believe to 

Fig. 80. — C. elegayis. (E), protoplasm retracted. In this and 
the preceding figure the objective is focussed on the proto- 
plasmic core of the organism, and the carapace is seen in 
outline, the lattice-work not being in focus. 

have been a reproductive process in course of pro- 
gress, in one of the specimens secured by me. The 
pseudopodia were withdrawn on all sides, while a 
portion of the protoplasmic contents were protruded 
in a dense stream, the further extremity of which 
seemed to be encysting itself outside the capsule at y. 
A large vacuole had formed near the point of origin 
of the stream, and the contractile vesicle was in vigo- 
rous action. I could not detect the nucleus, though 
there were four or five small patches of condensed 
granular matter in the body of the specimen. 

The water in which I found my specimens had 
been drawn from the General's Tank quite a month 
previous to my discovery. The Clathrulinas were 
attached to decaying portions of Anacharis and 
Vallisneria, and were also mixed up with the debris at 
the bottom of the glass bowl containing the weeds. 
In all my sketches I have shortened the stems, which 
in length are from six to seven times the diameter of 
the capsule. The scale appended to the sketches 



which illustrate the species found by me, applies only 
to figs. 7S and So, c and E. 

Later on, in the course of our cold season I obtained 
in the same glass bowls and water, numerous speci- 
mens of "the little-known Hedriocystis pellucida of 
Hertwig." Four sketches of this rare organism 
accompany : A (Fig. 72) was drawn under a J-inch 
Economic objective ; B, C, and D (Figs. 73, 74, 75) 
under a jg-inch w. i. of Seibert ; D being projected 
at about double the normal distance in order to get 
clear details of a well developed, favourably placed 
specimen. In B (Fig. 73) we have an average He- 
driocystis, while in C (Fig. 74) there is an abnormally 
irregular and abundant development of pseudopodial 
threadlets. The scale which accompanies these 
sketches applies only to B and c (Figs. 73, 74). Mr. 
"Wood-Mason has kindly let me have the following 
note descriptive of this organism : " Stalked shell, 
round to oval, perforated by numerous holes drawn 
out into pointed bases ; small (o - 02 to 0*03 mm.) : 
protoplasmic body only partially fills the shell, with a 
central nucleus, and several contractile vacuoles in 
its peripheral parts. Pseudopodia not branched, and 
not anastomozed. Multiplies by simple fission ; 
encystment observed. Stalk 0^05 to 0*075 mm - 
long ; lower end broadened for attachment ; upper 
passes without sharp boundary into contours of shell." 
It will be noticed that this description does not quite 
correspond to my sketches ; e.g. the stalk in my 
illustrations seems to be cut off by the sharp contour 
of the lower part of the "shell." This may be 
explained by my having sketched organisms in which 
the stalk merged into the " shell " behind the plane 
under observation. In two specimens killed with 
osmic acid solution the stalk was distinctly seen to 
pass without a sharp boundary into the "shell." 
Then, again, as regards the " shell," I will not say it 
is, but it looks very like a delicate membrane ; and 
this leads me to enquire whether or not Hedriocystis 
may be a stage in the development of Glathrulina ? I 
am bound to add that I have not been able to detect 
any silicifying process, or any approach to the forma- 
tion of the lattice-work, which is so conspicuous a 
feature in Clathrulina ; but while I frequently meet 
with the empty carapaces of Clathrulina in the debris 
at the bottom of my bowls I have not yet found the 
empty " shells " of Hedriocystis, though I have looked 
for them. One noteworthy circumstance in connection 
with the two stalked Actinophryans described above 
is that they were both obtained after the water had 
been drawn from the General's Tank for some weeks ; 
tie loss by evaporation having been meanwhile kept 
up by occasional additions of pure water, while the 
supply of oxygen was maintained by the weeds in the 
bowl : when first drawn neither Clathrulina nor 
Hedriocystis was detected. So far as I am aware, 
this is also the first record of the discovery in this 
country of Hertwig's Hedriocystis. 

Calcutta. W. J. Simmons. 


THE shells of Glossophora exhibit a wide variety 
of forms, but are as a rule merely variations 
on the simple spiral. Now, since in these days 
we are not accustomed to consider variations at 
mere "freaks of nature," but try to elicit their 
meaning and bearing on past history (on the hypo- 
thesis that "nature " is not given to making meaning- 
less freaks for the fun of it), it seems rather strange 
that we so seldom hear of any attempt to elicit 
evolutionary facts from the shapes of the shells which 
we study. I should like therefore to suggest the 
following series of hypotheses to the attention of con- 
chologists. (I.) That the earliest form of shell was 
probably a bilaterally symmetrical cone. Of this there 
seems little doubt : but subsequently, as it seems to 
me, the shell became tapering and cylindrical, and 
next (II.) became incurved, probably from reasons of 
mechanical convenience, which it is easy to imagine. 
Something of this sort is to be observed in certain 
existing shells (by "reminiscence" probably) and 
the geologists will be able to give us instances from 
the Cephalopoda. (HI.) Next comes the flat-coiled 
spiral, of which, instances from the Cephalopoda of 
past ages are numerous, and we see the same kind of 
thing to-day in a typical Planorbis, e.g. P. spirorbis. 
(IV.) After this stage we find the peristome placed a 
little sideways (cf. Planorbis comeus), which arrange- 
ment, as well as the other steps to a certain extent, 
I think I could demonstrate to be due to reasons of 
anatomical convenience. Here usually we find the 
principle of carination most evident, i.e. in the 
majority of forms : it seems to be due to compression, 
and to be the same thing in principle as babylonism. 
(V.) Next we come to the forms in which the spire 
begins to be more prominent, either, as in our three 
common Helices, by the enlargement of the last 
whorl (possibly a sort of reversion), or by depression 
of the peristome below the preceding whorl, as in 
Bythinia Leachii or Limnaa tritncatula ; the begin- 
nings of which process in these cases are suggested by 
Valvata piscinalis and Planorbis dilatatus * respec- 
tively. Eventually either the last whorl predominates, 
as in extreme L. auriadaria, or the spire, as in 
Turritella and many others. 

Of course this is not intended in any sense as a 
classification ; indeed, a certain amount of experience 
has taught me to regard as artificial any too 
regularly formulated scheme of arrangement. But 
the above suggestions may be of service to those who 
are investigating the phylogeny of any group of 
mollusca. For instance, the valvatiform young of 
Paludina vivipara would be perfectly intelligible to 
one who regarded as probable the precedence given to 
flat uncompressed spirals in the above " fistular 

* But better by some other foreign Planorbes. 



theory," if I may call it so. I have collected a large 
number of facts relative to Glossophora — more espe- 
cially Paloearctic land and freshwater species and 
varieties — which seem to me to be well explained 
thereby, but it will be better to produce these after 
I have heard the criticisms of other conchologists. 

As I have mentioned varieties, I may as well add 
that the occurrence or non-occurrence of certain 
forms as varieties, has a most important, and I think 
confirmatory, bearing on the above hypotheses. The 
colours of shells also help us considerably ; and by 
comparing a series arranged primarily according to 
shape (with deductions, of course, for obvious rever- 
sions) and consisting of various British and foreign 
Valvatidse and Paludinida:,* I arrive at a sequence of 
colours, which agrees in a wonderful way with one of 
the colour sequences noticed in insects, for which see 
Mr. Tutt's " British Nocture and their Varieties," 
vol. ii. Introduction, especially p. vi ; also the papers 
on "Melanism and Melanochroism," (by the same 
author), afford some interesting parallels (to the 
genus Melania especially). On the whole, I should 
think that there are more variations of colour-sequence 
than he mentions, but the agreement in this particular 
case is satisfactory. 

E. W. W. Bowell. 


By the Author of "An Illustrated Handbook of 
British Dragon-flies," "A Label List of British 
Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


THE Lakes of Killarney are without doubt the 
most beautiful and attractive district in the 
Emerald Isle. Every natural beauty that can please 
the eye exists here in rich profusion. Nature is 
everywhere in various garbs of beauty, awfully im- 
pressive and awe-inspiring ; as, for instance, in the 
gloomy Black Valley stretching away among the 
fastnesses of the majestic MacGillicuddy's Reeks, 
the noisy streams from their rugged sides but inten- 
sifying the solitude — " A valley secluded as the heart 
of the sternest recluse could desire, where ever- 
brooding melancholy reigns ; " or the Gap of Dunloe 
— that wild, lonely, magnificent defile, lying between 
the Reeks and the Toomies, four miles long, in 
which the lofty mountains, apparently rent asunder 
by some strange convulsions of nature, overhang the 
pathway, fearfully casting their gloomy shadows on 
the murmuring stream below ; or the picturesque 
romantic loneliness of Glena Bay — " the Bay of Good 
Fortune ;" the shores and the lofty Glena Mountain, 

* Is there any sufficient reason for dividing these two 
families? I can find nothing very cogent in the anatomy, and 
think on the whole they should be ranged together. 

which are covered with a luxuriant growth of trees — 
the oak, ash. pine, hazel, etc. ; with that never- 
failing accompaniment of Killarney scenery — the 

The celebrated lakes are of course the chief centre 
of attraction to the enthusiastic dragon-fly hunter in 
this delightful domain, and well indeed will a careful 
search after these winged treasures repay him for 
the trouble. Nearly all the kinds of dragon-flies 
which occur in Ireland may be found here, a 
complete list of the different species indigenous to 
the Emerald Isle being as follows : — Platetrum 
depressum (not uncommon), Lepletrum quadrimacidata 
(common), Sympetrum vulgatum (ditto), S. Scotiaim 
(very plentiful), Cordulia cenea (this elegant insect 
has not for certain been captured in Ireland, but is 
believed to occur there), Gomphus vulgatissimits 
(there is some doubt also respecting the occurrence of 
this pretty species in the Emerald Isle), Condulegaster 
annidatus (common, particularly among the mountain 
streams, for which it seems to possess a special 
predilection), Brachytron pratense (very local, but 
generally common whenever it occurs), /Eschna 
juncea (common, particularly in the north of Ireland) 
sEscyanea (chiefly occurs in the south of the island), 
SE.grandis (not rare, but local), Calopteryx virgo and 
C. splendens (very plentiful everywhere), Lestes 
nympha (rare and very local), L. sponsa (common, 
but local), L. barbara (no example of this species 
has ever been known to have been captured in 
Ireland, but it is included in the British list on the 
strength of a single specimen in the Dublin Univer- 
sity Museum. If it occurs in the Emerald Isle at all, 
the district of Killarney would probably be the most 
likely place for it). Enallagmacyathigerum (plentiful) 
Agrion ptdchcllum (local), A. puella (exceedingly 
abundant everywhere), Ischnura elegans (very com- 
mon), Pyrrhosoma minium (very plentiful every- 
where), and Erythromma najas (very local and 

In addition to the district of Killarney there are 
many other good hunting-grounds for dragon-flies in 
the Emerald Isle which would well repay a visit; 
this country, however, has hitherto been so sadly 
neglected by entomologists, that it is uncertain what 
" good species" may be made to turn up after a little 
diligent research and investigation. The district in 
the extreme south-east of the island ought to be 
productive of many good species of dragon-flies, 
from whence indeed, I have received Brachytron 
pratense, Sympetrum vulgatum, Scoticum, and Lepe- 
trum quadrimacidata, in addition to many other sorts 
from correspondents at various times. 

THE " Book-Lovers' Leaflet " is always the firs 
thing we select for perusal each month. The 
" Easter Number " is as good as a holiday, and much 
cheaper. (London : Pickering and Chatto : 66 




No. 9. 

]\/T^ previous papers on the above subject, have 
■*■ ' J- chiefly been written with a view to assist the 
young student in the identification of his finds ; but 
they have the additional value of furnishing a record 
of the species found in a locality, which, so far as I 
am aware, has been previously unworked. In order 
to make this record as valuable as possible, I append 
a complete list of my captures, many of which have 
been discovered either during the time my former 
articles were going through the press, or since. 

Protoplasta lobosa. 

Amceba proteus 
A. verrucosa 
A. radiosa 
A. villosa 
Pelomyxa villosa 

DuUugia pyriformis 
D. urceolata (rare) 
D. acuminata 
E>. globulosa 
D. constricta 
D. spiralis 


Hyalosphenia tincta (rare) 
H. papilio (rare) 
Nebela collaris 
N. flabellulum 

Arcella vulgaris 

A. discoides 

A. mitrata (rare) 

Centropyxis aculeata 
C. ecomis 

Protoplasta filosa. 

Parophagiis hyalinus Euglypha alveolata 

Pseudodittlngia gracilis E. ciliata 

Trinema acinus 
Cyphoderia ampulla 


Protoplasta heliozoa. 

Actinopbrys sol 
.Actinospberium Eicbbornii 
Acanthocysris sp. (with 

simple spines) 
Clathrulina elegans 

Diplophrys Archeri 
Vampyrella laterita 
Hyalolampe fenestrella 
Heterophrys myriopoda 


New species 7 

Protoplasta lobosa 20 

P. filosa 6 

P. beliozoa 8 



In the above list it will be noticed that there are 
twenty species of Protoplasta lobosa, six species of 
Protoplasta filosa, and eight species of the Heliozoa. 
The Protoplasta lobosa are very common in our ponds, 
ditches, small reservoirs and wells, with the exception 
ef the two species of Hyalosphenia, which are ex- 
clusively of sphagnous habitat, and are, as far as my 
experience goes, exceedingly rare. As will have been 
noticed from my papers, all, or nearly all, the testaceous 
forms of the lobose Rhizopods, even of the same 
species, are very variable, not only in size, and to a 
less extent in form, but also in the character and dis- 
tribution of the various elements which go to make 
up their tests. All the filose Rhizopods I have 
enumerated are fairly plentiful, but have been found 
only in the clearest pools and wells. The Heliozoans, 
with the one exception of Actinophrys sol, are ex- 
ceedingly rare, one or two specimens only, of each 
species recorded, having as yet rewarded my search. 

This may perhaps be accounted for by the sparseness 
of our floating vegetation. "We have three of the 
four species of Lemna (minor, major, and trisulca), 
but these are only found in a very few of our waters, 
and as far as I am aware are the only floating pond- 
weeds found in Rossendale. Possibly, as the 
Rhizopods of this order are more or less surface-forms, 
or at least swimmers, the excessive rain-fall of the 
past year may have had the effect of thinning their 
numbers. From the frequency of their appearance 
in tubes of the Rotifera, sent me by numerous corre- 
spondents, I should imagine that the Heliozoa are more 
plentiful in the south of England, than in our cold, 
bleak northern district. In addition to the above, I 
have discovered seven new species, all testaceous, 
making forty-one species altogether, but as these 
were unfortunately represented only by empty tests, 
I regret that I shall have to defer a detailed descrip- 
tion of them until a further study has supplied this 
important deficiency. Several correspondents in the 
vicinity of London have sent me drawings of other 
forms, not described in " Leidy," and I feel con- 
vinced that if microscopists in various parts of the 
country were to take up the systematic study of the 
Rhizopods, science would soon be enriched by the 
acquisition of numerous new species, in a class which, 
so far as the fresh-water forms are concerned, appears 
to me only meagrely represented, by about seventy 
species. The classification of the order Heliozoa, is, 
perhaps, as good a one as could possibly be contrived 
under present circumstances, but it soon becomes 
evident to any one who has studied this order, and 
who has had a fair number of forms under observa- 
tion, that many of his specimens cannot be made to fit 
into any of the genera of Professor Leidy ; and there 
have not been wanting indications that some of the 
obscurer forms of the order present themselves at 
different times, under widely different aspects. Even 
the authority named himself has been content in 
many cases to indicate only the genus to which some 
of these puzzling forms apparently belonged. This 
change of aspect has especially characterised some 
specimens (presumably of Heterophrys) kindly sent 
me by Mr. Scourfield, from the Victoria regia tank, 
Regent's Park. I hope subsequently to be in a 
position to refer to this matter again when further 
study has made me acquainted with additional facts 
in the life-history of this interesting order. I have 
hitherto said nothing as to the reproduction of the 
class ; indeed, in this early stage of my enquiry, all 
my energies have been directed to the discovery and 
determination of the various species occurring in the 
district ; and although some phases of the reproduc- 
tive process have been witnessed, yet these have been 
of a too fragmentary character to prove of much value 
until supplemented by further research. In addition to 
the discovery of new forms, and the elucidation of the 
modes of development, there is, it appears to me, a 
wide and interesting field of enquiry in relation to the 



formation of the tests of the Rhizopods. What 
a variety of elements are utilised in their formation ! 
Mud, minute, rounded sand-grains ; comparatively 
large, angular blocks of sand ; linear, fusiform, and 
oval Diatom frustules ; round, oval, and rod-like 
plates of silica ; chitine, either as a simple and 
homogeneous, variously-formed box ; plain, hexagon- 
ally pitted, spinous or hairy ; or in the form of square, 
oval, hexagonal or vermiform plates. These elements 
are used singly or variously combined, frequently 
exhibiting a charming arrangement, which much 
increases the interest with which we view these 
humble Protozoa. What a number of problems 
crowd upon the mind and demand solution, as we 
contemplate the intricate structure of the Rhizopodian 
test ! How are the extraneous matters collected and. 
built up ? How are the intrinsic elements secreted 
and placed in position ? Do these " shells," increase 
in size ? Are they formed only during the hours of 
darkness ? I cannot answer these questions, nor many 
others which will readily suggest themselves to the 
thoughtful mind ; nor am I aware that any answer 
has been given, but they are surely not unanswer- 
able. If this is the case, then here is work await- 
ing those who burn to distinguish themselves, to 
help on the march of Science, and to have their 
names inscribed in its annals. I hope some of our 
younger men may be induced to take up the study 
of this lowly, but interesting class of the animal 
kingdom. My next article, which will be the last of 
the series, will deal with " The collection and 
examination of the Rhizopods." 

J. E. Lord. 


HAVING made up my mind to take my holidays 
among the Pyrenees, in July 1 8SS I took passage 
by the good steamship Cotopaxi, bound from Liverpool 
to Bordeaux on her way to South America. Leaving 
Liverpool on a cold, drizzling afternoon, we steamed 
away for the sunny south. Next morning we passed 
Land's End, and bid farewell to the shores of Old 
England, which probably many of those on board 
would look upon no more. The same evening we 
passed by the rocky coast of Brittany, and entered 
the celebrated Bay of Biscay. The Fates being on 
this occasion propitious, we were not troubled with 
the horrors of sea-sickness, in fact this proved the 
smoothest part of the passage, and at 3 p.m. on 
the afternoon of the third day we were steaming 
slowly up the noble river Garonne, past vineyards, 
(strange sight to English eyes) and quaint villages 
among tall poplars, till at last we came to a halt at 
the small village of Pauillac, where the passengers for 
Bordeaux are transferred to the tender, which takes 
them up to the great French seaport. About 9 p.m. 

we came in sight of the lights of the city extending 
far along the river-bank, and shortly afterwards 
landed amidst a host of land-sharks, and after being 
half torn to pieces, we gathered our remains, and 
made for our several quarters. 

Next morning I set out to view the city, a very 
interesting one, with its old cathedral (built by the 
English during their possession of the place, and 
where our Richard II. was christened), with its fine 
old churches, and Roman amphitheatre called the 
Palais Gallien. 

In the evening I strolled away across the magni- 
ficent stone bridge over the Garonne, to the suburb 
of La Bastide, and continuing along the Avenue 
Thiers, till a bit of country was reached, I had a 
foretaste of good things to come. Samhccus ebulus, 
and Eryngium campestre were common along the 
road-sides, and in a ditch I found Azolla Caroliniania 
in abundance ; farther on was Centaurea calcilrapct 
with its pink spiny heads, and Myagrum perfoliatum 
with its curious top-shaped pods. As the evening 
closed in it became too dark to see more, and so I 
returned to Bordeaux, and took the midnight train 
from the St. Jean station for the happy hunting- 
grounds of the Pyrenees. It is 169 miles from 
Bordeaux to Laruns, a terminus in the department of 
the Basses-Pyrenees, and to accomplish this distance 
we took ten hours by direct train to Pau, and thence, 
after an hour's waiting, the remaining twenty-four 
miles to Laruns. 

After breakfast at the comfortable and good hotel 
near the station (Hotel de l'Europe, I think), I set 
out for a day's hunting in a valley running up from 
the main valley, and leading to the Col d'Aubisque 
(5610 feet). The first finds were Sedums (or Seda per- 
haps more correctly), Sedum micranthum (Bast.), S. 
dasyphyllum (L.), and S. rubens (L.), Campanula 
patula was common by the road-sides and in fact all 
through the Pyrenees ; [Campanula rapunculoides, and 
C.glomerata also were not uncommon. Lamium macu- 
latum, var. hirsutum, a hispid Variety with green 
leaves was observed in the hedge bottoms. The rusty- 
back fern ( Ceterach qfficinarum) occurred here and there 
on walls. Farther up the valley, the lower parts of. 
which are densely clothed with oak and beech, I came 
on Stachys recta (L.), a yellow-flowered species j 
Carduus medius (Gouan), like a small C. nutans ; 
Hypericum Burseri (Sp.), a very glandular, large- 
flowered species, in habit like our H. montanutn ; 
Prunella gi-andiflora (Monch), : a fine large-flowered 
species; and Dianthus monspcssulanus (L.), var. 
Walstcinii (Sternb.). The underwood consists almost 
entirely of box (Buxus sempervirens), and the heath 
of this part is Erica vagans (L.). Crossing the valley, 
I came across Trifolium ochroleucum (L.) ; Teucrium 
pyrenaicum (L.), a beautifuhlittle creeping plant, with 
yellow and purple flowers in dense heads, and 
roundish leaves, very common in this valley, though 
I never happened to meet with it again ; and 



Anthyllis vulneraria, var, rubrijlora (DC.) ; Dilleitii 
(Schultz), also very common here. A peculiar form 
or variety of Malva moscAata, with crenate and 
reniform leaves [var. Ramondiana (G. G.)], was 
noticed here. Eckium vulgare, var. pyrenaicum, 
grows in great profusion all about. Returning in the 
cool of the evening through one of the quaint old 
stone-built villages, I encountered the female portion 
of the community, all busily engaged at Blind Man's 
Buff, and having to pass through the midst was made 
prisoner by the Blind Man (or Woman) amidst shouts 
of laughter from the other players. The look of 
dismay on the woman's countenance, on discovering 
whom she had captured, was worthy of being photo- 
graphed. However, I was not obliged to serve, and 
was allowed to pass on my way without further 

Next morning, the weather continuing all that could 
be wished, I set out for the Pic du Midi d'Ossau, 
about ten miles farther up the Val d'Ossau. The way 
from Laruns to Eaux Chaudes commences in a splendid 
cutting between overhanging mountains, with a torrent 
foaming along some hundreds of feet beneath, the 
old road, now disused for wheel traffic, being on the 
opposite side of the valley about 300 feet or so higher 
up, but looking almost directly down on the new 
road. In one place the old road passes through a 
tunnel in the rock. Three miles up the valley lies 
the watering-place or Spa of Eaux Chaudes, a small 
but fashionable resort. On the way I found 
Bupleurumfalcatum ; Hypericum nummularium (L.), 
a very pretty trailing species ; Belonica alopecuros 
(L.) a large yellow-flowered plant ; Adiantum capillus- 
Veneris, on damp rocks ; and Ononis natrix, a species 
with large yellow flowers, beautifully marked with 
reddish veins. Eight miles past Eaux Chaudes is the 
poor hamlet of Gabas, the last village in France on 
this route ; here the carriage-road ends, but a good 
horse and mule track goes on over into Spain. The 
village contains a curious old church, dated (if I 
remember rightly) 1120 ; it has four slits for windows 
about 4 feet by 1 foot. Past Gabas, in a small wood 
by the stream (whither I adjourned for the mid-day 
repast), I found Veronica ponce (Gou.), something 
like our V. montana, only the flowers are larger 
and in a loose terminal raceme ; Crepis lamp- 
sanoides (Froel.), a tall leafy species, like a large 
hirsute C. paludosa ; Thalictrum aquilegifolium ; 
Meconopsis cambrica; Lilium Marlagon ; Erucastrum 
obtusangulum (Reich), Adenostyles albifrons (DC), 
like a cordate-leaved Eupatorium ; Hypericum Bnrseri 
(Spach) ; Polygonatum vertkillatum (All.), in fruit 
Galium rotundifolium and Ranunculus nemorosus. 
Higher up the valley, at about 4000 ft., the Saxifrages 
began to be common. S. Geum, S. hirsuta, S. aizoon 
(Jacq.), all on rocks by the road-side. On a stony 
bank I found Carlina acaulis (L.), and var. subacaulis 
(DC), large-headed Carlinas with white, silvery 
inner bracts; and Carlina cynara (Pourr.), with 

yellow inner bracts, and very large acaulescent 
heads. Linaria alpina, with its beautiful purple and 
orange flowers, and glaucous foliage, now began to 
appear, showing the higher altitude, also Erinus 
alpinus, with its bright rose-purple flowers. Eryngium 
Bourgati (Gou.), a blue-flowered Pyrenean species, 
with an almost simple stem, about a foot high, was 
common on the grassy slopes, together with Merendera 
bulbocodium (Ram.), a lovely rose-flowered colchi- 
cum-like plant, this latter in places so thick that it 
coloured the slopes that it grew on. I had good 
reason to remember this plant, for, in digging up 
some of its corms, I broke my good root-knife, and 
was unable to replace it for nearly a week, when I 
got a formidable-looking vine-dresser's knife instead. 
Suddenly, on turning a corner in the road/there burst 
upon the astonished sight the view of one of, if not 
the most picturesque peaks in the Pyrenees, the Pic 
du Midi d'Ossau ; round the base and some way up 
the rocky sides were dark pines, then towering away 
above for about 3000 feet is a precipitous, pinnacled 
mass of bare rock. The sight viewed from this point 
is simply magnificent, and in my experience is only 
equalled by the Matterhorn. The weather up to this 
point had been beautifully clear, but lower down the 
valley I had noticed a few light fleecy clouds blowing 
up ; presently some arrived in the part where I was, 
and in ten minutes the crags of the giant mountain 
had disappeared, and the whole valley was filled 
with a cold mist. As it was getting late and the fog 
prevented farther progress, I set out to return, and 
on the way, on some inaccessible rocks above the 
road, I saw some splendid specimens of Valeriana 
pyrenaica, about 6 ft. high, and some Ranunculus 
platanifolius (L.), a large, white-flowered species. 
Having carefully looked over the rocks, and finding 
no way of ascending, not to be done I fastened a 
sharp penknife on a long tree-branch, and soon 
fetched them tumbling down. A little way on again 
Arabis alpina appeared, and last but not least, 
Aquilegia pyrenaica (DC), a lovely plant, more 
slender than A. vulgaris, with flowers as large or 
larger, of a pure light blue, stems simple, 8 in. to 
I ft. in height. This wag the last find for the day, 
and a few hours' walk brought me back to the hotel 
at Laruns. Next morning was cloudy, but fine, and 
bidding farewell to Laruns, I set out to walk by the 
Route Thermale, a splendid road made by Napoleon 
III. to connect the watering-places in the Val 
d'Ossau with those in the Argeles valley, and save 
the long detour by Pau and Lourdes. After passing 
the watering-place of Eaux Bonnes, the road passes 
up the valley to the end, and then mounts up by 
long zigzags through a pine wood to a grassy region 
beyond. In the pine wood I found Pinguicula 
grandijlora (Lam.), and beyondit Horminum pyrenai- 
cum (L.), a beautiful, low-growing labiate plant, 
with a single erect many-flowered spike of largish 
purple flowers, and radical leaves only. Higher up 



I got into the mist and the view vanished ; in a few 
miles the Col d'Aubisque was reached, 5610 ft. ; and 
now began a series of finds enough to make any 
botanist's mouth water. First, in grassy spots, 
Trifolium alpinum (L.), Hieracium auricula (L.) ; 
Carex Davalliana (Sm. ) ; Tofieldia calyculata ( Wahl.) , 
a larger species than our Tofieldia ; then, on rocks 
above the road, Reseda glauca (L.), a common species 
in the Pyrenees, but peculiar to them, it has finely 
divided glaucous leaves ; Sideritis hyssopifolia (L. f.), 
a yellow-flowered labiate ; Hieracium saxatile (Vill.) ; 
Carex frigida (All.) ; Saxifraga aizoon ; S. muscoides ; 
S. cotyledon (L.), the last a splendid plant, with 
curious calcareous seratures round the thick fleshy 
leaves, which form a dense rosette at the crown of 
the root ; Helianthemum vulgare, var. tomentosum 
(Dun.); Asperula hirta (Ram.), another Pyrenean 
plant, like a small Galium, with flesh-coloured 
flowers and ciliate leaves; Erinus alpinus (L.), 
plentiful; Rosa fyrenaica (Gou.) ; Cardamine resedi- 
folia (L.), a very small species, about 2 in. high ; 
Antennaria leontopodium (Gart.), very plentiful 
here, but not observed again ; this is the famous 
Swiss "Edelweiss"; Nigritella angustifolia (Rich.), 
( = Orchis nigra), a little orchid with dark crimson 
flowers ; Armaria ciliata (L.) ; Valeriana montana 
(L.) ; Sempervivum Boutignianum (G. and G.), a 
very pretty, rose-flowered Sempervivum ; Salix pyre- 
naica (Gou.), a low, silky species ; Trifolium badium 
(L.), with largish brown-yellow heads; Kernera 
saxatilis, a crucifer with white flowers, and roundish 
pods, placed by Eentham and Hooker under Coch- 
learia ; Cryptogramma crispa, Polypodium calcareum ; 
Betonica alopecuros (L.) ; Hypericum Burseri (Sp.) ; 
Gypsophila repens (L.), a caryophyllaceous plant, like 
a small Silene ; and Rumex arifolius (L.), very like 
R. scutatus. Past the Col d'Aubisque the road 
turns to the right, past the head of another valley on 
to the rocky side of the Pic de Gabizos, and here it 
enters the department of Hautes-Pyrenees. The 
road here is a magnificent piece of work, having been 
blasted out of the steep smooth rocky slope of the 
mountain for more than a mile, and in one place 
passing through a tunnel in, the solid rock ; at some 
distance off it looks like a shelf cut in the side of the 
mountain. The rocks here abound in rare plants, 
•but as it was now five o'clock, and I had some six 
miles to walk to Arrens, the nearest village, before I 
could get anything to eat, I had not much time to go 
over them ; however, I got a few rare ones, e.g. 
Potentilla alchcmilloidcs (Lap.), the loveliest Poten- 
tilla I ever saw ; it has leaves like Alchcmilla 
conjuncta, only rather smaller, beautifully silvery- 
white and silky beneath, with a silver edge showing 
above, the flowers are white, and achenes silky ; 
Lychnis pyrenaica (Berg.), with glaucous ovate 
leaves, and smallish white flowers ; Genista hispanica 
(L.), very like a small Ulex ; Ononis striata (Gou.), 
a minute yellow-flowered species ; Linaria origanifolia 

(Ait.), var. grandiftora, a purple almost bell-shaped> 
flower with a patch of yellow on the one side - r 
Onobrychis montana (Gaud.) ; Antirrhinum sempcr- 
vireus, a small white-flowered species with grey 
fleshy leaves ; Silene Saxifraga (L.), with greenish 
flowers ; Dcthawia (= Wallrolkia) tenuifolia (Endl.),. 
a fine-leaved Umbellifer ; Potentilla fruticosa (L.); 
Aquilegia pyrenaica (DC), very fine, with flowers 
much larger than in A. vulgaris, and lastly, in fruit 
only, a most curious-looking Ranunculus {Ranunculus 
thora, L.), with a simple, very wiry stem, and a 
single large reniform leaf in the middle ; it has, as I 
afterwaids ascertained, a yellow flower. The shades 
of night drew rapidly on, as I descended the long zig- 
zagsjwhich carry the road down the 1840 feet from the 
Col de Courel to Arrens, in the Val d'Azun. Before 
reaching the bottom, dark clouds gathered, and in. 
the pitchy darkness, the very road beneath my feet 
was invisible, except when lit up by occasional flashes 
of lightning : at last at 9 p.m. I reached the village, 
and had to ask a woman to show me the inn, for I 
should never have found it in the darkness. A few 
minutes after getting in, the rain began to come 
down in torrents, so I was only just in time. After 
a good supper of chicken, chops, and coffee, (about a. 
teacupful of strong black coffee, and a pint jug of 
boiling milk, and a basin to drink it out of), I was 
glad to get between the sheets, after the best day I 
ever had except one, and that was on the St. 
Gotthard and Furka passes, in the Alps of Switzer- 
land. Of course the plants, I have mentioned do not 
include all I saw, but only the rarer, and non- 
British plants. Next day rose bright, sunny and 
clear, after the storm of the preceding day, and I set 
off to walk to Pierrefitte, at the junction of the two 
valleys leading to Luz and Cauterets, a walk of only 
twelve miles ; eight down the Val d'Azun, and four 
up the Argeles valley. Before leaving Arrens, I had a 
look at the curious old church with its battlemented 
wall around the churchyard, and the chapel of the 
Virgin on the little isolated hill of Poey-le-Houn, 
or Hill of the Fountain. The walk down the Val 
d'Azun was through a broad fertile valley, with chest- 
nut, walnut, and cherry-trees bordering the road, and 
in the adjoining fields. In the south of France, and 
in the warmer valleys of the Pyrenees, the maize is 
extensively cultivated, to a much greater extent than, 
the ordinary corn, and looks very handsome, with its 
broad, deep green leaves and branched spikes of male 
flowers. Along the road from Arrens to Argeles, on 
the banks and walls by the roadside, Sedum miens 
(L.), .£. cepa-a (L.), a brittle, much-branched, broad- 
leaved, and white-flowered species, S. micranthum 
(Bast.), .S. dasyphyllum (L.), and S. albescens (Haw.), 
are plentiful. Also, in less quantity, Linaria pyre- 
naica (DC), a sub-species of Z. supi'na, from which 
it is distinguished by the rather larger flowers with, 
greenish veins on the corolla. After dining in Ar- 
geles, a fairish-sized town at the junction of the 



valleys of Argeles and Azun, I strolled on to Pierre- 
fitte, called at the station for my luggage, which had 
been sent by rail from Laruns, and turned in to the 
Hotel de la Poste, a very comfortable and reasonable 
one, and a good centre for expeditions. Between 
Argeles and Pierrefitte, I had not come across much : 
Cynosurus echinatus, Dianthus armeria, Cynodon 
dactylon, and Cucuialus bacciferus. Next day I set 
off to visit one of the grandest sights of the Pyrenees, 
the Cirque de Gavamie, a walk of twenty-five miles. 
After leaving Pierrefitte, and taking the valley on 
the left hand, the road enters a magnificent, beauti- 
fully-wooded gorge, with the mountains towering 
above on both sides, and the Gave de Pau, foaming 
along sometimes 200 or 300 feet below. In many 
places the road has been blasted out of the rocky 
side of the valley, and is all the way to Gavarnie in 
splendid condition ; in many plaees there is a stream 
of water running along the side, from which men 
water the road with long-handled ladles. Eight 
miles from Pierrefitte is the watering-place of Luz, 
and across the river a mile farther on, the more 
fashionable one of St. Sauveur, one long street of 
white hotels and lodging-houses. At Luz the road 
to Bareges branches off to the left, and there is one 
of the most interesting churches of the Pyrenees to 
be seen here. It is fortified by a high battlemented 
wall, has a covered porch containing curious old 
frescoes of dragons, two open belfries — one contain- 
ing two, the other three bells — and a doorway, now 
walled up, where the Cagots entered and left the 
church, so that the faithful should not be contami- 
nated by contact with the outcast race. This church 
was originally built by the Knights Templars at the 
time when they had the task of guarding the French 
valleys against the incursions of the Spaniards and 
Saracens. A little distance past St. Sauveur is the 
Pont Napoleon, a splendid bridge of a single arch, 
216 feet above the stream ; the first stone was laid 
by Napoleon III., and the cost of building 300,000 
francs. Past St. Sauveur the road continues up the 
valley, in some places carried along the precipitous 
side 300 or 400 feet above the stream, and in others 
almost on a level with it, till eight miles farther it 
reaches the pretty little village of Gedre, where the 
valley of Heas branches off from that of Gavarnie. 
A little before reaching Gedre, a splendid view of the 
great rock-wall separating France and Spain becomes 
visible, and conspicuous in the outline is a square 
gap called the Breche de Roland, immediately above 
the Cirque de Gavarnie, but invisible from it, which 
the legend says was carved out by the Paladin Roland 
with his sword Durandal, to make a passage while 
in pursuit of the Moors. At the village of Gedre 
lives Mons. Bordere, the botanist of the Pyrenees. 
I paid him a visit, and found him surrounded by piles 
of plants in various stages of drying. Pie and his 
son collect, while his wife and another person do the 
drying. He makes expeditions along the whole 

length of the chain, and across into Spain ; and I can 
strongly recommend anyone, who wishes for a set of 
good Pyrenean specimens, to apply to him. Up to 
Gedre I had found very little of interest, except 
Lathyrus pyrenaicus (Jord.), a variety of L. silvestris 
(L.) ; Cystisis supinus ; Asplenium septentrionale ; and 
Cirshtm monspessulano-palustre ; but on an old tower 
at Gedre I saw a fine patch of Antirrhinum sempervi- 
rens (Lap.). At Gedre I had dinner, and one of the 
courses consisted of izard, the name for the chamois 
in these regions. The remaining four miles to Ga- 
varnie proved better than all the rest of the way for 
good plants, Ligusticum pyrenaum (Gou. ) ; Crepis 
albida (Vill.), with white-bordered phyllaries ; Aco- 
nitum napellus (L.), var. vulgaris (DC.) ; Campa- 
nula rapunculoides ; Paronychias erpyllifolia (DC.) ; 
and P. polygonifolia (DC), the former silvery-white, 
with its scarious bracts ; Ononis natrix (L.) ; Scro- 
phularia Hoppii (Koch), with small dark purple 
flowers on almost naked branches ; Trifolium mon- 
tanum (L.) ; Sideritis hyssopifolia (L. f. ) ; Hieracium 
saxatile (Vill.), var. sericeum (Loret.) ; and last, but 
not least, one of the most lovely plants of the Pyre- 
nees, the Ramondia pyrenaica (Rich) ; here it was 
gone to fruit, but higher up it was in flower. In 
habit it resembles a primrose, but the flowers are 
purple, and in shape and anthers resemble potato 
flowers somewhat ; the leaves (radical only) are deep 
bright green, densely covered with long shaggy rusty- 
brown hairs, especially beneath ; its habitat is in 
shady crevices of the rocks, particularly of the huge 
boulders, fallen from mountains around. Leaving 
the village of Gavarnie on the right, I took the bridle- 
path leading straight on to the Cirque, here fully 
visible, and apparently close to, but really two miles 
farther on. A little past the village were a number 
of plants of Carduus carlinafolius (Lam.), and on a 
large flat space before mounting to enter the Cirque, 
Alsine tenuifolia, var. Barrebieri (DC.) ; Alchemilla 
pyrenaica (Duf.) ; Potentilla splendens (Ram.), a small 
plant, something like P. fragariastrum, but with 
larger flowers; Aquilegia pyrenaica (DC), var. sub- 
alpina (Bot.) ; and Arenaria grandiflora (All.) And 
now I came to the entrance of the far-famed Cirque 
de Gavarnie, the most wonderful piece of scenery in 
the range (though this is not the only Cirque, it is 
much the finest one). Fancy a vast perpendicular 
wall of black rock forming three parts of a circle, the 
remainder of the circle being formed of a low mound, 
as it were, where the stream breaks through ; and 
these walls of rock tower up above for 1500 feet, 
nothing being visible above but the sky, and, on one 
side, the edge of a glacier. On the left, and almost 
opposite the entrance, are two waterfalls, the higher 
falling almost unbroken for 1300 feet, the highest fall 
in Europe, except one in Norway. From the entrance 
across the Cirque is a good mile or mile-and-a-half, 
the floor being covered with snow and debris from 
the rocks, the snow forming a bridge across the 

1 34 


stream. At the entrance is a small cabane or inn, 
and as it was now 7 p.m., I decided to pass the night 
there. Next morning I rose early, while the mist 
was still thick, and crossed to the foot of the water- 
fall ; on the way I found Sinapis montana (DC); 
Crepis pygmcea (L.), a small one-headed plant, with 
stems running down among the loose stones ; Gera- 
nium cinereum (Cav.), with light rose-lilac coloured 
flowers, very large for the size of the plant, which is 
only a few inches high; Vicia pyrenaiea (Pourr.) 
(= V. fagonii (Lap.)), a small erect species, a few 
inches high, with a large purple flower ; Scrophirfaria 
alpestris (Gay), very like S. aquatica, but pubescent 
and fewer -flowered ; Doronicum grandifiorum (Lam.), 
a plant with fine large flowers ; Soldanclla alpina 
(L.), a very pretty little primulaceous plant, with 
light blue bell-shaped and fringed flowers, and reni- 
form leaves; Arabis alpestris (Schleich) ; Anemone 
Hepatica (L.) ; Gentiana verna (L.) ; Pedieularis pyre- 
naica (Gay), very like P. rostrata of the Alps ; Pin- 
guieula longifolia (DC.), a long-leaved var. of P. 
grandiflora ; Geum pyrenaicnm, with large yellow 
flowers and lyrate leaves; Salix pyrenaiea (Gou.), 
and S. retusa (L.) ; Erigeron alpinus (L.) ; Myosotis 
alpestris (Schmidt); Arenaria ciliata (L.) and A. 
grandiflora (All.); Lotus corniculatus (L.), var. alpinus 
(Jord.), a very small variety ; Potentillafrigida (Vill.), 
a hirsute, acaulescent species, with yellow flowers ; 
Saxifraga ajugecfolia (L.), something like small- 
flowered hypnoides ; Sedum atratum (L.), Ranun- 
culus Gouani (Willd.) ; Globularia nudicaulis, (L.), 
and G. nana (Lam.). Now suddenly the mists cleared 
away, and the warm sun shone out, tingeing the rocky 
peaks down the valley a lovely orange-pink, and 
showing out the dazzling white snowy ledges up 
above. Crossing over the Cirque, and over the 
stream by a snow-bridge, on the hill near the 
entrance I came across Androsace villosa, a beautiful 
little plant of the primrose order, with flowers like 
tiny white primroses, and hairy leaves, stems, and 
calyx ; Androsace carnea, with flesh-coloured flowers 
and glabrous pointed leaves ; A T igritella angustifolia 
(Rich.) ; Aspcrula hirta (Ram.) ; Paronychia serpylli- 
folia (DC.) ; Gentiana acaulis (L.), Thcsium alpinum 
(Vill.); Bartsia alpind (L.) ; Rhododendron ferrugi- 
neum (L.), the " Alpine rose" ; and Plantago alpina 
(L.), like a small form of P. maritima. By this 
time I was ready for breakfast, and returned to the 
small inn, demolished an omelette, some bread and 
butter and coffee, and then set out to walk back to 
Pierrefitte by the way that I came. Just leaving the 
Cirque, I found Hclianthemmn piloselloides (Lap.), a 
variety of H. canum, and a little farther on Potentilla 
alchemilloidcs (Lap.), and Ramondia pyrenaiea (Rich. ), 
on the huge boulders which were strewed around 
among the pines, and last, but not least, the magni- 
ficent iris of the Pyrenees (Iris xiphioides (Ehrh.) /. 
pyrenaiea (Bub.), with splendid blue-purple flowers 
streaked with light orange down the claws of the 

petals. The leaves are rather peculiar, being fistular. 
The walk back to Pierrefitte was uneventful, not 
much of interest turning up ; the chie'f being Iberis 
amara (L.) var., Forestieri (Jord.) ; Nasturtium 
pyrenaicnm (Br.) ; Lasiagrostis calamagrostis (Link.) ; 
Melica magnolii (G. G.), a very beautiful grass ; 
Linaria pyrenaiea (DC. ) ; and Libanotis montana 
(Cr.), var. pubescens (Mat.). After a good night's rest, 
I set out to walk to the Lac de Gaube, a small lake 
among the mountains past Cauterets. The way from 
Pierrefitte to Cauterets lies through a grand gorge, 
and begins to rise immediately behind Pierrefitte by 
zigzags, before entering the gorge itself. The six 
miles between Pierrefitte and Cauterets afford one of 
the finest drives in the Pyrenees, the carriage-road 
running all the way along the bottom of a deep 
narrow valley with wild savage mountains Sooo and 
9000 feet high towering up on either side, clothed 
almost to their rocky summits with dark pines, 
while the torrent foams and rushes madly along just 
below. A little before arriving at Cauterets this 
valley widens, and the small town appears in a basin 
as it were among the mountains. Cauterets itself is 
quite a fashionable place to find in the heart of the 
Pyrenees at over 3000 feet elevation, having above 
1700 inhabitants, besides numbers of visitors in the 
season. There are numerous mineral springs in the 
neighbourhood, and when I arrived there, the visitors 
were just returning in troops from taking their 
morning glass, (not of alcoholic liquors, but of a 
strictly teetotal drink). Each person takes his own 
glass, which is carried in a little case, like a puff-box, 
fastened to a coloured cord, and slung over the 
shoulder. Outside the baths or drinking-halls are 
wooden booths for the sale of bon-bons, etc., and I 
have no doubt but what they are much in request to 
take after the waters, to judge by the face I saw a 
corpulent old cure pull over his glass, as he drank off 
his dose in the porch of the bath-house. About 
a mile past Cauterets is the spring of La Railliere ; 
here the carriage-road ends, farther on there is only 
a horse-track, which passes up the Val de Jerez, 
through a pine wood, close to the stream. There are 
several good waterfalls in this valley, the finest being 
one just above the Pont d'Espagne ; here the whole 
volume of water from the Lac de Gaube dashes down 
into a rocky chasm, and rushes down a narrow 
passage between the rocks, beneath the new stone 
bridge. The old bridge, the original Pont d'Espagne, 
is a structure of tree-trunks thrown across the 
stream a little lower down. 

The Pont is about six miles from Cauterets by a 
very steep stony path, with grand scenery of rocky 
peaks, pine-clad cliffs, and here and there patches of 
snow showing on the higher mountains. Hitherto 
there has not been much to record in the botanical 
line for this day, excepting Lychnis coronaria (L.), 
and Hypericum nummularium (L.) ,but on leaving the 
Pont d'Espagne, and strikirg up the valley to the 



left by a steep path among pines, at an elevation of 
over 5000 feet the rarer plants began to appear ; 
Potent ilia splendens (Ram.), Erigeron glabratus 
(Hoppe), Veronica saxatilis (I-.), V. fruticulosa (L.), 
Vicia pyrenaica (Pourr.), Ccrastium arvense (L.), var. 
Pallasii (Vest.), Carex pallescens and C. ornithopoda, 
were the first finds. A little way from the path in 
some wet grassy ground, I caught sight of a con- 
spicuous lemon-yellow flower, and going up to it 
found it was the rare Gentiana Burscri (Lap.), a 
beautiful plant with large light-yellow flowers 
in whorls in the axils of leafy bracts, and 
growing about 2 feet high ; higher up, not far 
from the lake, grew Angelica fyrenea (Spr.), 
a little umbellifer with dissected leaves, very 
unlike our Angelica (Nyman places it under 
Selinum) ; Cart/a/nine resedifolia, Scleranthus 
uncinatus (Schur.), and S. perennis (L.). 
The Lac de Gaube is only a small one, being 
but 2\ m. in circumference, but the scenery 
round is very wild and grand ; close to it 
is the Vignemale, the highest mountain on 
the French side of the range, I0,S20 feet, 
on which there is a fine glacier. Unfor- 
tunately on this occasion it was invisible on 
account of the clouds which covered it. By 
the lake is a white marble monument in 
memory of an English couple, Mr. Pattison 
and his wife, who were drowned while 
boating on the lake during their honeymoon. 
Ey the lake I found, Senecio adonidifolins 
(Lois), Sinapis montana (DC), Rkododen- 
dron ferrugineum (L.), Saxifraga muscoides 
(Wulf), and Carduus carlinoides (Gou.). 
Climbing up a narrow cleft in the rocky 
bank, I came on Geicm pyrenaicum (Willd.), 
Adenostyles albifrons, Scilla bifolia (L.), 
Trollius europeus (L.), and last, but not least, a 
splendid Saxifrage, S. aquatica (Lap.), a plant about 
2 feet high, and a mass of white flowers, something 
like S. granulata in shape, but in a dense spike. As 
the time was now getting on, and I had a good walk 
before me to get back, I left the lake and its wild 
and rugged grandeur behind, and made the best of 
my way back to Pierrefitte. 

( To be continued.) 


By Bernard Thomas. 


THE Ciliata have been classified by Stein into — 
Hololrichous, where the cilia are distributed 
evenly over the surface, and are of one kind ; 
Heterotricha,, unevenly, and of different kinds ; 
Hypotricha, in which they are confined to the under 
or oral region of the body ; 

Peritricha, in which they form a zone round the 

The remaining forms belong to the holotrichous 

16. Paramecium bursaria (Fig. 82 a) is about the 
same size as P. aurelia. As the preceding species was 
called the slipper animalcule, so this, from its rough 
resemblance, is called the purse animalcule. Its 
protoplasm contains chlorophyll corpuscles, which 
are situated in the deepest layer of the ectosarc. 

Fig. 81. — I, Amphileptiis fasciola ; h. hyaline protoplasm, neck ; £-, granu- 
lar protoplasm, body ; n, nucleus ; v, contractile space ; 2, Amphileptus 
stained with methyl violet, showing double nucleus ; 3, Dileptus folium, 
letters the same ; 3', neck wisted. 

They are round, and resemble in chemical reaction 
the green corpuscles of plants. But do they subserve 
the same function ? If so, we have an organism 
which is in one sense physiologically plant as well as 
animal. We will study the composition of these 
bodies when we come to Euplotes. 

It was in Paramechim bursaria that Balbiana 
worked out the sexual reproduction by conjugation. 
In this process the nucleus played the part of sexual 
organs, and it is interesting to note that the young 
are described as acinctiform and quite different from 
the parent. When we come to Aspidiocus we shall 
see that it is supposed to be the larva of quite a 
different form known as Oxytricha. 

17. Bursaria vernalis is represented in Fig. 82 b. 
It is a form similar somewhat to P. bursaria, and like 
it furnished with chlorophyll corpuscles, which in the 
figure are clearly seen to be placed in the deepest 
layer of the ectosarc. It differs in its round form, 
whereas the latter is flat, and in the mouth, which is 
funnel-shaped and large in P. bursaria, but small, 
slit-like in B. vernalis. Both these forms are well 



suited for the observation of cyclosis (circulation of 
the protoplasm), in which the;nucleus, granules, and 
corpuscles are seen to participate. 

in shape, the anterior part hooked over or beaked, 
and here the protoplasm is thinner. The myophan 
layer of the ectosarc is well developed and seen by 



Fig. 82.— a Paramecium \bursana ; my, myophan striation ; b, Bursaria vernalis ; m, mouth ; /, ood (diatom) ; «, nucleus : 

c, chlorophyll corpuscles : v, contractile space. 

Fig. 83. — a, Ckilodon cucullus front view; n, nucleus; rs. red spot; d, diatom; ph, pharynx; my, myophan striation; 
v, contractile space ; — b, ditto, side view ; c, ditto, with long vacuole containing diatoms ; d, nucleus, high power ; e, myophan 
striation ; /, granules of endosarc, showing Brownian movements. 

18. Chilodon cucuttus (Fig. 83) is a very common 
species. It is of fair size though not so large as the 
preceding, and varies from about the thousandth to 
thelone hundred and fiftieth of an inch. It is oval 

slightly altering the focus. The appearance then 
presented (Fig. 83 e) is called myophan striation. 
We have here the essentially contractile or function- 
ally muscular layer of the ectosarc. By careful 



focussing still deeper, the granules of the endosarc 
are seen. In the specimen drawn they exhibited 
what [is known as the Brownian movement. This 
molecular motion is seen when minute particles are 
suspended in water, and here we may take it as a 
further proof of the fluidity of the endosarc. There 

thin at the anterior end. The protoplasm may be 
divided into two parts, that in the anterior region is 
hyaline, narrow and flat, and constitutes the neck ; 
the posterior body is more granular, broader and 
fatter, it tapers *o a blunt tail, which is again less 
granular. The neck is turned up at the end, forming 

Fig. 84. — Spirostomitm ambiguum ; 1, m, mouth ; t, striated tail ; A, anterior ; p, posterior end ; 2, n.iddle portion 
my, myophan striation ; 3, with spirally marked tail, T. 

are two contractile spaces which here again exhibit 
systole and diastole. 

The nucleus is round and seen to consist of a 
delicate membrane (Fig. 83, d memb.) and the 
faintly granular {nuclein, gr. in Fig. 83 d) and 
hyaline material enclosed therein. 

There is a red spot frequently seen near the 
posterior end (Fig. S3 r.s.). There is here, there- 
fore, a common resemblance between this member 
of the Infusoria and the Alga? before mentioned. 

The oesophagus instead of being ciliated, as in 
many of the Infusoria, is raised into folds which have 
been described as chitinous rods forming an apparatus 
known as the pharynx, which is supposed to seize 
hold of diatoms and force them into its interior. 
The food of chilodon seems to be diatoms, which 
may usually be seen in the endosarc. I have seen 
several occupying one large cavity (Fig. 83 c), pro- 
ducing a distortion of outline. 

19. Amphileptusfasiola (Fig. 81, I, 2), length given 
in the Micrographic Dictionary is from the seven 
hundred and twentieth to the one hundred and forty- 
fourth of an inch. This infusorian appears in front 
view somewhat pear-shaped ; side view, it is especially 

a kind of snout. The cilia can be seen, with care, to 
cover the surface, and at the snout and tail to present 
the appearance of a tuft. In the posterior region 
there is a triangular contractile space. The position 
of the nucleus is marked out by granules which 

Fig. 85. — a, Enchelys nodulosa (d.) ; b, Halteria graildinella. 

surround it, and staining shows a double endoplast 
situated in this position. The mouth is placed at the 
junction of the neck with the body. 

20. Dileplus folium (Fig. 81, 3), the swan animal- 
cule, is somewhat similar to, but much larger than 



the preceding. It has a very long and narrow neck, 
which it moves now in one direction, now in another. 
In the species figured the neck is leaf-like, and often 
becomes folded on itself. This organism is clothed 
with cilia. The length is from the one hundred and 
sixtieth to the one hundred and twentieth of an inch. 

21. Spirostomum ambiguum (Fig. S4) suggests a 
very strange animalcule. It is of large size, about 
one twelfth of an inch in length, but very narrow, 
more so than in the figure. It is obtuse or somewhat 
rounded in front, and truncate behind. It is clothed 
with cilia. The endosarc is granular, the ectosarc 
shows a myophan striation. Posteriorly these striae 
are strongly marked, and run parallel to the length. 
The " tail," however, may be so twisted up that the 
marking appears spiral (Fig. 84, 3). The mouth is 
situated near the anterior end, it is lateral, and 
surrounded with cilia. The oesophagus is said to be 
spiral and the arms (or anal area) terminal. 

22. Enchelys nodulosa (Fig. 85 a) is a very small 
infusorian. It is of oval shape, truncated in front and 
rounded behind. The interior contains a nucleus 
and a contractile space, and there are also food- 
cavities and granules. The cilia are different from 
those of other infusoria ; they are long and seta-like. 
Locomotion is ! effected by jerks, now forwards and 
now backwards, due to the sudden action of the 
cilia. It is a very common species. 

23. Halteria grandinclla (Fig. 85 b) should perhaps 
be classed with the Heterotricha, but the similarity of 
its movements to the preceding is the excuse for here 
introducing it. When it moves, it does so by sudden 
leaps and bounds, at one jump vanishing out of the 
microscopic field, and covering very much more 
ground than Enchelys. This renders it difficult to 
make a careful drawing of this species. 


We are much pleased to quote the following 
paragraph from the " Stalybridge Reporter." — A 
very pleasant afternoon may always be spent at the 
exhibition of the Ashton field-naturalists. Here is 
the substance of a little talk with one of them. On 
a previous occasion he had exhibited a live nightin- 
gale, and we asked if the sweet songster was still in 
the flesh. The reply came in a resigned voice, that 
the favourite bird had been taken out to a concert on 
a foggy night and had died as the result. What is 
the cost of one of these birds? we asked. The reply 
was that when they were properly acclimatised they 
cost as much as £$, but one might be had for less if 
the purchaser would take all risks with a bird which 
had not been kept long enough by the dealers to be 
guaranteed against all reasonable casualties. Then 
our informant observed that at the present time there 
were people in London keenly scanning the morning 
papers every day for one particular kind of announce- 

ment. If a gentleman in the country happens to 
hear the nightingale on his grounds, he is irresistibly 
tempted to write to the Times in order to make the 
world aware of his own existence and the nightin- 
gale's. Immediately such an intimation appears, a 
lot of bird-catchers take train for the spot, and the 
voice of melody is no more heard in that region. 
The bird is easily captured, it|is carried to the bird- 
dealers in London, and readily fetches 25^. So 
much for nightingales. Our friend had only an old 
robin to show, a patriarch of seven or eight years, 
which he was keeping just to see how long a robin 
would live. 

The geology and mineralogy of "other worlds 
than ours " is becoming familiar to scientific research. 
Real diamonds, black and white, have already been 
found in meteorites — that is, those shooting stars 
which have fallen to the earth. Now the news 
comes that gold has been found in a meteorite picked 
up at Cave City, Calaveras County, California. 
This stony celestial visitor was about the size of a 
man's fist, and, it is stated, was found more or less 
coated or gilt with real gold. One space a square 
inch in area was continuously gilded. 

A NEW photographic process has recently been 
brought out, called papyrotint. It is specially 
adapted for all sorts of drawings in single color, or 
monochrome, and is said to be inexpensive. A 
transfer can be taken in greasy ink for transfer to 
stone or zinc, direct from any negative, however 
large, without the aid of a medium, the grain being 
obtained simply by a chemical change. The prints 
are sharper than by the ordinary processes, while the 
same negative answers either for a silver print, 
platinotype, or stone or zinc transfer. 

An electrical organ-blower is in operation at Holy 
Trinity Church, Upper Chelsea. It is worked from 
the electrical mains of the Chelsea Electricity Supply 
Company, and the current can be turned on at will 
by the organist. 

The second edition of Dr. J. E. Taylor's 
"Tourist's Guide to Suffolk" (London: Edward 
Stanford, 2s.) has just been issued, brought up to 
date : it contains a short but reliable sketch of the 
geology, botany, entomology, archceology, etc., of 
that very interesting county. 

Mr. Angus Rankin points out that a new factor 
has been introduced into the study of meteorology — 
that which treats of the dust-particles in the atmos- 
phere, as well as the number of them present at any 
time, and the effects of such dust-particles on climate 
and weather changes. . Indeed, it would seem as if 
the study of dust and its behaviour forms the stepping- 
stone to the study of nearly all the meteorological 
problems which deal with clouds and precipitation, 
solar and terrestrial radiation, as well as the diurnal 



and annual variations in the temperature and pressure 
of the atmosphere. Mr. John Aitkin's "dust- 
counting " apparatus is used at the meteorological 
observatory on the top of Ben Nevis, for the purpose 
of constantly estimating and recording the number of 
dust particles present in the atmosphere at any given 
time. One of the conclusions arrived at is that when 
there is much wind there is little dust, and when 
there is much dust present there is little wind. 

The astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope, Dr. 
David Gill, in a communication to the Paris Academy 
of Sciences a few days ago, presented a photograph 
he had recently taken in the southern hemisphere. 
It embraced an area of only two degrees by two 
degrees, and yet on this very limited sky-space from 
30,000 to 40,000 stars had left their impression, 
besides two nebulae. An exposure of three hours 
and twelve minutes had been given to the plate. If 
this exposure were possible for the whole photographic 
map of the heavens, about 300,000,000 of stars 
would be recorded. 

Most people are acquainted with those curious 
leaf-insects which are common in many parts of the 
tropics. Their wings mimic leaves both as respects 
the veins and the green color, and on the ground 
they resemble leaves so closely that even the ants are 
deceived thereby. It was pointed out at a meeting 
of the Linnean Society the other day by Dr. Sharp 
that this leaf-resemblance of the wings is accompanied 
by a similarity, amounting almost to identity, of 
minute structure. The colouring-matter is undis- 
tinguishable from the plant-green of actual leaves. 
Even their eggs partake of this striking resemblance 
to vegetable products. 

A Lady correspondent of the "Spectator " writes 
as follows : — " Some attention has been aroused by 
the recent attempt to reproduce monkey-talk by 
means of the phonograph. It is perhaps not 
generally known that in a little book, published 
nearly a hundred years ago, at the sign (strangely 
enough) of the Tour de Babel, on the Quai Voltaire, 
Paris, a French writer made an endeavour to reduce 
the chatter of the tiny marmoset to articulate 
translatable language. The whistle, or ouistiti, from 
which this little creature has its French name, he 
describes truly as a long, sharp, piercing sound, 
repeated two or three times, signifying the want of 
something or some one. I would add to this, that it 
is evidently the call used 'by one to the other. A 
very' young one that I had always cried '■ Ouistititi, 
ouistitititi,' to the older one for help, if it thought 
itself in danger. 'Ghriii,' a loDg-drawn high tone, 
he translates into 'come.' All those that I have 
possessed have thus called me to come to them. 
'Guenakiki' expresses, he says, terrible fear; 
' Trouakki,' violent, despairing grief; 'Trouagno,' 
intense pain, 'save me.' One that had broken its 

leg thus warned me of it. ' Krrrreoeoeo,' often 
repeated, means very happy indeed ; ' Keh,' a little 
better; 'Korrie,' annoyed, disturbed; ' Ococo,' 
deep terror ; ' Anic, ' feebly and melodiously uttered, 
means help ! protect ! ' Quih,' ' I want something 
very much ; ' ' Quoueee', ' despair of escaping some 
danger, — this sound I have often heard all my 
marmosets make at the sight of anything strange to 
them, or which reminded them of some known 

The April number of the Journal of the Royal 
Microscopical Society, in addition to Dr. Braith- 
waite's excellent Presidential address on " Reproduc- 
tion in Ferns and Bryophyta," has a short paper by 
Mr. J. W. Gifford on "The Resolution of Amphi- 
pleitra pellucida' ' (illustrated) . 

The Ipswich Scientific Society (President : Mr. 
E. P. Ridley) held its triennial Conversazione at the 
Town Hall on May 4th when lecturettes were de- 
livered by the president, and by Dr. J. E. Taylor, 
(illustrated by one of Mason's splendid lantern micro- 

The Annual Exhibition of the South London 

Entomological and Natural History Society was 

held on May 6th, at the Bridge House Hotel 

Mr. H. W. Barber. Hon. Secretary, and Mr. C. G, 

Durrett, the distinguished entomologist, President. 

Professor Trelease, the Principal of the 
Missouri Botanical, Garden, is almost offensively 
energetic. Here is another capital brochure from 
his pen-^" The species of Rumex occurring north of 

"Insect Life" (appearing in serial numbers, and 
published at the Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, by the U.S. Department of Agriculture), is 
always welcomed. Numbers 7 and 8 are devoted to 
the study and description of the economy and life- 
habits of insects in their relations to agriculture. 
The illustrations are all and always excellent. 

At the last meeting of the Geologists' Association, 
Professor J. L. Lobley read a paper entitled " The 
Gold of Quartz Veins — an aqueous hypothesis." 
We should liked to have heard it. 

No science like geology can be named for inform- 
ing us of the wonderful changes which have taken 
place on our globe. We know that within the period 
called Tertiary, gum-trees, banksias, Moreton Bay 
pines, and other now distinctly native Australian 
trees grew in England. During the Secondary 
period the only warm-blooded mammals in Europe 
were marsupials, resembling those peculiar to Aus- 
tralia. Australia, indeed, is a sort of outlier — a 
remnant of the Secondary and Tertiary periods. 
Every now and then some new fossil mammal turns 
up in the old rocks, but it is almost certain to be of 



the Australian type. For instance, a large number 
of fossil mammalian bones have just been discovered 
in the Tertiary strata in Patagonia, and they have 
been proved to be nearly related to the pouched or 
marsupial wolf (Thylacinus) of Tasmania. 

It seems as if the dream of photographers will soon 
be realised, and photographing in colours will shortly 
be realised. M. Lippmann has never despaired of it, 
in spite of disappointments, and he has succeeded in 
obtaining a more sensitive film than ever. He shows 
that the complex colours which adorn natural objects 
should be photographed just the same as the simple 
colours of a spectrum. M. Lippmann has just sub- 
mitted four naturally-coloured photographs to the 
Paris Academy of Sciences, which faithfully represent 
a stained-glass window of four colours, a group of 
draperies, a plate of oranges surmounted by a red 
poppy, and a many-coloured parrot. These showed 
that the shape is represented simultaneously with the 
colours. The draperies and the parrot required from 
five to ten minutes' exposure to the electric light or 
the sun ; the other objects were only obtained after 
many hours of exposure to a diffused light. On one 
of M. Lippmann's photos the blue of the sky comes 
out rather as indigo, but the green of the foliage is 
accurately rendered. There is no lovelier thing in 
the world than the solar spectrum, and M. Lippmann 
has succeeded in photographing this in all its beauty 
after an exposure of half a minute ! At the Royal 
Society's recent conversazione some of these natu- 
rally-coloured photos were exhibited. 

Hitherto the savages of Central Africa have been 
the only real and original " rain-makers." Now the 
scientific white men are copying a leaf from their 
books. We remember reading of the possibility of 
rain being artificially produced when bitten by 
love of science by Dr. Dick's " Christian Philo- 
sopher " many years ago. Dr. Dick's scheme for 
artificial rain-making has recently been revived. In 
the United States and India, dynamite explosions in 
the upper atmosphere have been tried by balloons. 
Some have been partially successful ; but it is evident 
that all the explosions in the world would not pro- 
duce rain unless the air contained sufficient watery 
vapour. M. Faye, a French scientist of fame, is 
rather sanguine about the matter. We should not like 
to throw cold water on artificial rain-making (although 
that literally might help it), for if it could be effected 
it would be a grand thing for many parts of Australia 
and Africa. M. Faye thinks that all the experiments 
hitherto made have been based on a false theory. 

The Neuroptera form a well-known and familiar 
order of insects all the world over, including dragon- 
flies, white ants, etc. Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S., 
etc., in the last number of the " Geological 
Magazine " figures and describes a British white ant 
under the name of Falreotermes, which lived in 

Leicestershire many millions of years ago, when the 
lower lias limestone of Barrow-on-Soar was being 
deposited along the then existing bed of the sea. It 
seems to have been an unusually large specimen of its 

In a recent number of the " American Naturalist," 
there is an account of the work of earth-worms in 
Yoruba county, West Africa. It appears that here 
the worms do the work of digging (or turning the 
soil over), and not the lazy niggers. It would not be 
a bad idea to introduce these earth-worms to other 
places — they constitute the cheapest form of labour. 
The above article, in speaking of their work, says 
that if we estimate one square yard of dug earth by 
2 feet deep as weighing one ton, we have an animal 
movement of earth per square yard to the depth of 
2 feet amounting to 45 pounds. From this it appears 
that every particle of earth in each ton of soil to 
the depth of 2 feet is brought to the surface once in 
every twenty-seven years. This kind of earth-worm 
also exists in rich alluvium soils of the Nile Valley. 
How much does Egypt owe to its earth-worms ? 


Indian Toads. — I was stationed in Gorakhpur, 
N.W. Provinces, India, in 1882 or 1883. The then 
forest officer had just built a new bungalow, with a 
plinth Dine feet high, at Ramgarh, in a clearing in 
the forest, and I lived with him in it during the hot 
weather and rains. During the rains the bungalow 
was invaded every evening after dark by swarms of 
small toads. This puzzled me, as I naturally thought 
they gained admission by hopping up the steps ; and 
as these toads cannot hop well, I was surprised at so 
many getting inside. One night I had occasion to 
go round the outside of the bungalow with a lantern, 
and I found that the toads were making their way in, 
and that they did not hop up the steps ; they climbed 
up by the aid of the right angle formed between the 
plinth and the steps, placing their backs in this 
angle and shoving with their hind-legs until they 
reached the top, when they fell in on the plinth on 
their backs. They were in such numbers that they 
formed a complete column reaching from the ground 
to the surface of the plinth, and I found a similar 
column in the angle at the other side of the steps. I 
suppose they were attracted by the lights, either 
directly, or in the hope of finding insects ; but from 
where they commenced their ascent, at the bas'e of 
the plinth, the lighted doors were invisible, and, on 
looking up, merely a diffused glow could be seen. 
Were the toads attracted by this glow, or do they 
climb every obstacle they meet? — J. R. Holt. 

The Legs of Moths. — When using my micro- 
scope and examining parts' of moths, etc., I often 



wondered what was the use of the spikes projecting 
rom underneath the different legs, but could not find 
anything about it in any book or paper I came 
across. A few days ago, while sitting near a window 
and watching (with a pocket-glass) a gnat as it 
crawled up and down the glass, I saw it place its 
antennce between the spikes in question and its leg, 
and draw it along and thus plume it. — Herbert H. 

"Aphides and their Monuments." — In the 
October number of "Science-Gossip," page 236, is 
a note of mine with the above heading. At its con- 
clusion I asked for information from some of your 
entomological correspondents, concerning the beauti- 
ful and interesting objects described, but, alas ! got 
none. One good old friend, however, to whom I had 
written privately, and who is an excellent naturalist 
and microscopist, knew nothing of the matter, but 
set to work and soon referred me to Buckton's mag- 
nificent monograph published by the Ray Society 
(four large volumes, beautifully illustrated, and all 
about a plant-louse, please ! ! ! *) and as, I take it, 
there are many of your readers who know the happi- 
ness of having a great deal to learn, or at least of not 
knowing everything, I refer them to Vol. 2, page 85, 
Plate 64 ; but as that book is not within everyone's 
easy reach, I will tell, in short, what it says : — A 
certain minute parasitic fly of the family Ichneu- 
monidae pierces the body of the living Aphis and 
deposits its eggs therein. The egg is hatched, the 
grub thrives, and when full fed ' ' perforates the hard 
aphis-shell at the belly and commences to spin a 
double-walled tent between the space comprised by 
the six legs of the insect. The floor of the tent is 
attached to the leaf on which the aphis originally fed, 
the web being carried up to its skin, which then 
partially forms its roof. Subsequently the edge of 
the web is reflected downwards so as to form a 
chamber with double walls .... In this cocoon 
the change into Pupa takes place ; and after an 
interval of about nine days the winged parasite eats 
its way out of the silken envelope .... Not un- 
frequently the empty skin of the winged Aphis may 
be seen mounted on the summit of one of these 
parasitic cocoons." Instead of" not unfrequently," I 
would say very frequently, judging from my experi- 
ence of last year, and now is the time for searching 
the sycamore leaves. In the same volume, page 236, 
will be found an interesting description of the fan- 
insect (the abnormal Aphis larva), which I alluded 
to in your October number. The bundles of stalked 
eggs are those of the lace-winged fly, more usually 
found singly. — Thomas E. Amyot, Diss, Norfolk. 

* The notes of admiration were suggested by the good- 
natured if rather contemptuous smile of a horticultural friend 
who has no sympathy w;th plant-lice, but who saw the book 
on my table. 


The Mexican Agave. — As to the Mexican agave, 
concerning which a paragraph appears in the May 
number of Science-Gossip, I have made inquiries 
at Kew Gardens, and am told that in England this 
plant does not flower till it is thirty, forty, or sixty 
years old, that is, not till it has completed its growth. 
When it is full grown it flowers. After flowering 
the plant always dies, but new plants grow from the 
base. The " report like a rifle-shot " is an exaggera- 
tion, but each flower-bud as it opens makes a slight 
noise of the kind, like ripe fuchsia-buds do when 
pressed. This, in the agave, is caused, I am told, 
by the fact that the bud before opening contains no 
air, and it is the inrush of the air which causes the 
noise. — Frank Sick, pin. 

Notes on the Additions to the British 
Flora since the publication of the last 
editions of Babington's Manual and Hooker's 
Student's Flora. — I have been repeatedly asked, 
and urged to give a list of the above additions, with 
short characters to separate them from our other well- 
known species. But they have become so numerous, 
if we take in the hybrids and varieties, that it has 
become no light task to compress such an account 
into anything like a reasonable length. What I here 
propose to do is to go through the principal additions 
only, leaving out hybrids, and perhaps some varieties. 
I would refer all those w.ho seek for further informa- 
tion to the forthcoming supplement to the 3rd edition 
of English Botany, edited by Mr. N. E. Brown of 
the Kew Herbarium. Here the additions will be 
figured and described fully, at the same time the 
matter of the original work will be brought up to 
date as far as possible. Good progress has been made 
in the study of the distribution of our Flora since the 
publication of the 2nd edition of Watson's Topo- 
graphical Botany, and if some means could be found 
to cheapen that work so as to make it accessible to a 
larger number of our botanists, it would be a great 
advantage. A large mass of additional matter has 
been accumulated, especially as to Scottish botany, 
and I should like to say that I should be glad to see 
specimens of any species unrecorded for any county 
in Topographical Botany. There is still much work 
to do in this department of British Botany, as to 
verification of doubtful localities, etc. ; while the 
subject of the life-histories of our plants is hardly 
yet touched. I have adopted the nomenclature and 
sequence of the Sth edition of the London Catalogue 
of British Plants as being available to all, giving 
however, a second name where it seemed needful, 
and to give more help. It will be seen that I 
attempt no technical characters, but merely such as 
are usable in the field, and what may be termed off- 



hand differences, etc. In Rubus and other genera, I 
do not attempt any descriptions (merely a list), as 
even with full descriptions it is very difficult to make 
them out, which can only be done by the aid of 
actual specimens named by specialists in the genus. 
Sets of British Rubi are now being published by 
Messrs. Linton, Murray, and M. Rogers. For the 
Characea;, reference must be made to the papers of 
Messrs. Groves in the " Journal of Botany," and to the 
sets of dried specimens they are now issuing. — Arthur 

Preserving Hepatic/E. — A very good way of 
preserving the more minute species of the Hepaticce, 
especially the Jungermanniaceae, as dry specimens is 
as follows: — First select your specimens, the most 
normal possible, and wash their roots well in water 
with a small brush ; now remove them on to a clean 

Fig. 86. — Jungcrmannia bicrespidata. 

X 10. From a dried 

glass slide with a drop of some preservative fluid 
(dilute corrosive sublimate in spirits of wine), take a 
clean folded piece of thin shiny paper, and write the 
date, etc., on one side, now reverse your slide and 
float as it were the plants on to the paper ; this may 
now be placed between sheets of absorbent paper in 
the ordinary way. When they are thoroughly dry 
they may be gummed on pieces of fine white paper, 
and the paper pinned in the drawers of a cabinet, or 

gummed as herbaria. I thought it might be useful to 
those who study this beautiful class of cryptogamous 
plants, it being the most advantageous, the fluid not 
only preserving them, but allowing them to assume a 
very natural and therefore graceful position. — Henry 
E. Gris'et. 


The Probable Coal-Fields of East Anglia. — 
One of the most important meetings ever held in 
Ipswich, took place on May 6th at the Town Hall. 
For some time past, in his public lectures and in 
articles contributed to the newspapers, Dr. J. E. 
Taylor, of the Ipswich Museum, has stated his 
opinions as to the probability of coal-fields occurring 
in the Eastern Counties, and the intense interest 
which has been aroused in the question was evidenced 
by the attendance at this gathering. Mr. Whitaker, 
F.R.S., etc., had travelled all the way from South- 
ampton to attend the meeting. This gentleman was 
in charge of the Government Geological Survey for 
Suffolk and Norfolk for eleven years, and his 
memoirs on the subject are published by the Govern- 
ment, as are also those of Mr. T. V. Holmes, F.G.S., 
etc., who had also come up from Eastbourne to attend 
this meeting. Reports were read from Messrs. 
Whitaker, Holmes, and Taylor, on the possibility of 
coal-measures occurring in Essex and Suffolk, and 
Mr. Whitaker prefaced the reading of his own, which 
was the longest and most-elaborately prepared paper, 
by stating that none of the experts present had con- 
sulted together, so that their reports were purely 
personal. The one fact that struck the meeting was 
the wonderful unanimity of opinion of the scientific 
experts as to the probability of finding coal in East 
Anglia. The various questions arising were severely 
criticised and discussed from a practical point of view, 
the chief difficulty evidently forefronting those who 
regarded the subject from a business aspect being 
the position of the landowners. Unfortunately, no 
representative of the landowning class was present to 
speak on this question, although it was felt by the 
commercial gentlemen present that the landowners 
might eventually be those most profitably interested. 
The meeting afterwards resolved itself into a General 
Committee to take action in the matter, and to call 
in the aid, if necessary, of the scientific experts — 
Messrs. Whitaker and Holmes, and Dr. Taylor — for 
advice in their future deliberations. In the end a 
sub-committee was formed for the purpose of con- 
sidering the advisibility of selecting the best probable 
sites for coal-search borings in Essex and Suffolk. 
The subject was thoroughly discussed, aad,there can 
be very little doubt, now that the enterprise has been 
publicly started, that some means will be devised of 
bringing this problem to a practical solution. 




Herr F. S. Archenhold has published in the 
" Astronomische Nachrichten " his discovery, by 
means of photography, of a large nebula in the 
constellation Perseus, which showed about the same 
intensity in the photograph as the nebula in Andro- 
meda. In the centre of the nebula there is an empty 
space, the nebulous matter seeming there entirely 
missing. Its length from the south-east to the north- 
west is about three degrees. What is remarkable in 
this discovery is that no nebula in that place is 
marked in old astronomical maps, and in the latest 
a very weak nebula is marked, while the one photo- 
graphed by Herr Archenhold is one of the very 
brightest, though, when looked at through the 
strongest telescopes, it is barely visible. 


Who has homy beetles found, 
Scratching, crawling on the ground, 
That with Diptera can compare, 
Diptera dancing in the air? 

Floating on transparent wing 
Where the rippling waters spring, 
Dipping here and dipping there, 
Pretty dancing Diptera. 

Flitting with melodious hum 
O'er the sugar mixed with rum ; 
Humming here and humming there, 
Dreamy, dreamy Diptera. 

Swarming o'er the stagnant lake 
For the water-lilies' sake.] 
Whirling, rising in the air, 
Countless, countless Diptera. 

Frying in the pitch-dark night, 
Basking in the broadjsunlight, 
Here and there and everywhere, 
Omnipresent Diptera. 

Sea-spinach. — During a recent shott visit to 
Littlehampton, I was offered at dinner some sea- 
spinach, as my friends called it, which the children 
had gathered on the shore at some little distance 
from the town, and which differed but little in taste 
from ordinary spinach. I had no opportunity of 
examining the plant, which I presume was Atriplex 
portulacoules, or (as it is sometimes called) sea purs- 
lane. Do any of your readers know whether this is 
ever called sea-spinach ? — W. T. Lynn, Blackheath. 

Fogs. — Eight years ago, in the lecture he delivered 
before the British Association meeting at Montreal, 
Professor Lodge showed the possibility of dispersing 
fogs by means of electricity, and even went so far as 
to suggest the manner in which it could be done. 
The suggestion at length appears to be on the 
eve of practical trial in the city of New York. 
Indeed, secret experiments are stated to have been 
already carried out at Sandy Hook and in Boston 
Harbour with such success as to warrant the rest 
being undertaken on a more extensive scale. The 
largest area of fog stated to have been cleared at one 
discharge was a radius of 150 ft., or 70,500 square 
feet. The atmosphere of the cleared area had 
washed the fog dowrr. It is suggested that this fog- 
clearing electrical apparatus shall at once be applied 
to the great transatlantic liners. Why not experi- 
ment with it in tunnels and underground railways, 

and in purlieus of large stations and complex 
junctions where dense fogs produce so much danger 
and anxiety ? 

The Sun's Reflection in Still Water. — 
Have you ever noticed the sun's reflection in still 
water ? This afternoon I saw through a small tele- 
scope what seemed to me a discovery, water mag- 
nified, and with the telescope I saw the flame around 
it, and, as it appeared to me, its motion ; also the 
corona appeared to be of a deep purple. I do not 
know whether you or anyone else has observed the 
sun in this manner : it is my opinion you would be 
able to see something wonderful with a powerful 
telescope. I may or may not have made a discovery. 
I am not a scientist, so I cannot be expected to 
know, or expect you to notice this from me ; but, if 
you don't mind, I should be pleased for you to notify 
it if you would not deem it presumptuous. — D. F. 

The American Aloe. — In response to W. J. 
Horn (page 118 of this volume), I can say that for 
many years I have had the American aloe growing 
under my observation in South China. Writing from 
memory only, I should say that the plant, under the 
climatic conditions there prevailing, flowers about 
the eighth or tenth year of its growth, and then dies. 
In the meantime, indeed during the greater part of 
the eight or ten years, numerous suckers (I know 
nothing of "lateral buds") have sprung from the 
ground within a radius of three to four feet from the 
parent plant, and these, if transplanted, rapidly 
develop into full-grown plants. At Canton the 
Chinese name of the plant is Manila hemp, because, 
it is said, in the Philippine islands the fibres of the 
leaves are used to make coarse textile fabrics. — Theo. 

Vertigo pusilla in Lancashire. — While col- 
lecting at Silverdale, Lancashire, in July last, I took 
several specimens of the rare Vertigo pisilla. This is 
the first record of it for Lancashire. I got them from 
among moss at the bottom of a wall, in company 
with H. rupestris, H, pulehella, V. pellucida, and 
other commoner species. — F. C. Long, Burnley, 

Piophila casei. — Will some reader kindly answer 
the following questions about the fly {Piophila casei). 
(1) How many eggs is this fly able to lay ? (2) How 
long does it take for the eggs to develop into the 
grub ? (3) Does the winter kill the grubs if not fully 
developed ? (4) How long does it take from the egg 
to produce the fly ? I find in several books I have 
looked up about this fly, the description of it is very 
poor.— J. C. Wright. 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists. — We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bear the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the "exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of out gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 



We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers.— We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

C. Pemberton. — We do not think he could either "buy or 
get a piece of marsh in exchange." He will have to collect 
the marsh plants, taking each up carefully with a good portion 
of the wet soil attached to it (just as he would transplant in his 
garden), placing them side by side in a shallow pan, filling up 
the interstices, as described in the "Marsh Garden," with 
marsh moss (sphagnum). I shall be happy to give any further 
information asked for, but think C. Pemberton will find no 
difficulty in making a "marsh" such as described in Science- 
Gossip. I never heard of or saw one till I made that experi- 
ment. If C. Pemberton sends his address to I. Grierson, 
17 Bentinck Street, Manchester Square, London, W., I will, if 
possible, procure some marsh plants for him. 

Dr. B. and Other Enquirers. — Mr. F. V, Theobald's 
"British Flies (Diptera) " is published by Elliott Stock, 62, 
Paternoster Row. 

M. B. Underhill. — "The Cockroach," by Professor Miall 
(illustrated), was published in Science-Gossip, vols, for 1884 
and 1885, and afterwards republished in the volume form by 

W. K. writes as follows : Herts, May 2, 1892, " I should be 
much obliged if any of your readers could tell me if there is 
such a thing as a botanist of approved capacity who undertakes 
to name (and return) British plants sent to him (especially 
during August and September). I have often felt the want of 
such a resource, when bicycling, and unable to preserve doubt- 
ful specimens till again reaching the sphere of books and 

Aramis. — Johns' "Flowers of the Field," 5J., published by 
S.P.C.K. "Illustrations of the British Flora," by Fitch and 
W. G. Smith, ioj., published by L. Reeve & Co. 

A. Launder. — Taylor's "Flowers, their Origin, Shapes, 
Perfumes, and Colours," is now published by W. H. Allen & 
Co.; Dr. Master's "Vegetable Teratology," by the Ray 


Ross microscope, latest pattern, swing arm sub-stage, ro- 
tating stage, 1 inch and i inch objectives, double nose-piece, 
paraboloid, spot lens, live cage; also a Beck's Star and 
accessories, offered in exchange for high-class works on 
mechanics' or ships' chronometer. — Dr. Purcell Taylor, 57 
Chancery Lane, London. 

Wanted, British and foreign marine curiosities, as star- 
fishes, Crustacea, sea-urchins, and any of the following shells, 
as Isocardia cor, Cochlodesma prcetenne, Clio pyramidata, 
Alactra hclvacea, Limn&a hivoluta, Vertigo moulinsia?ta, 
V. pusilla, Acme lineata, Tapes a urea, Cardium papillosum, 
Diplodonta rotundata, Lima hians, Terebratuta caput- 
serpent is, Ovula patula, Akera bullata, Aplysia depilans, 
Helix aculeata, H. pulchella, or any rare varieties of helix, in 
return for minerals, fossils, microscopic material and objects, 
or rare British shells, viz., odostomias, rissoas, Scalaria 
clathratula, cecums, Mangelia turricula, Defrancia Line- 
aris, Lac/iesis minima, tapes, psammobia, cerithiopsis, Bar- 
leeia rubra, etc.— A. J. R. Sclater, M.C.S., Natural History 
Stores, The Strand, Teignmouth. 

Wanted, to correspond with collectors who may have 
foreign stamps to offer in exchange for shells. — T. E. Sclater, 
Northumberland House, Teignmouth, Devon. 

Offered, British marine shells in exchange for shells not in 
collection, or insects and micro, slides ; will also give exchange 
for the " Life of Thomas Edwards, Banff Naturalist." 
— W. D. Rae, 17 Strafford Street, Millwall, London, E. 

Offbred, Newman's "British Moths," Kirk's "Physi- 
ology," Ganot's "Physics." Wanted, "Carpenter on Micro- 
scope," works by Gosse, or offers. — G. A. Barker, 24 Avenue 
Villas, Cricklewood, N.W. 

Wanted, scientific apparatus in exchange for Cornish rocks, 
minerals, and fossils. — W. H. Olver, 2 Adelaide Terrace, 

Wanted, a clean, unmarked copy of "The London Cata- 
logue of British Mosses and Hepatics," 2nd ed., 1881. Will 
give good exchange in plants or slides. — W. Mackie, 77 Napier 
Street West, Oldham. 

Will exchange first-class anatomical and botanical micro, 
slides for good foraminiferous material, dredgings, etc. — W. 
White, 17 York Street, Nottingham. 

A few duplicates of rare British flowering plants (dried), 
British and foreign marine shells, British fossil shells, British 

land and freshwater shells, and British mosses, all correctly 
named, offered in exchange for foreign land shells.— T. R., 
27 Oldham Road, Manchester. 

Wanted, any of the vars. of unios or anodontas, for Vertigo 
pygmeca. — John Radcliffe, in Oxford Street, Ashton-under- 

British marine shells. — Pectcn tigrmus (small), Cyanium 
minutum, Tectum testudinalis. Lacuna pallidula, Lacuna 
divaricata, Kissoa ca?icellata, R. parva, R. striata, Otina 
otis. Wanted, British marine shells not in collection. — James 
Simpson, 6 North St. Andrew Street, Aberdeen, N.B. 

Offered, Acme lineata. Vertigo substriata, V. edentula, 
Zonites excavatus, and var. vitrina, Z. glaber, Helix lamel- 
lata, H. aculeata, and several other shells, for nests and eggs 
of goldfinch, hawfinch, nightingale, and fire-crested regulus, or 
other rare nests. — Joseph Whitenham, 82 Cross Lane, Marsh, 

Science-Gossip for 1888 and 1889, also " Naturalists* 
World" for 18S6 and 1887, unbound, perfect. Should be glad 
to exchange for a few micro, slides, botanical or entomological 
preferred. — F. C. Long, 32 Woodbine Road, Burnley, Lanes. 

New student's microscope, with rackwork sub-stage, by 
Baker, also lamp, Cathcart microtome, Cole's section cutter, 
and other micro, apparatus; Such's "Physiology of Plants," 
De Barry's "Anatomy," Bower's "Practical Botany," and 
other scientific works. — J. H., 19 Lambert Villas, Brixton 
Hill, S.W. 

Duplicates. — Cwcwn trachea, Homalogyra atomus, circe, 
ScroHcularia tenuis, Odostomia spiralis, O. pallida, etc. 
Wanted, mollusca not in collection. — E. Tomlin, The Green, 

The last twelve volumes of Science-Gossip, in numbers, 
clean and complete; exchange offers. — Jas. Hedworth, Dun- 
ston, Gateshead. 

Offered, "Natural History of Insects" (London: Murray), 
second edition, 1839, in two vols., published at 5s. each, un- 
soiled and perfect; Science-Gossip for 1887, "Naturalists' 
Gazette" for 1888. Wanted, any good foreign shells not 
already in collection. — W. Jones, 27 Mayton Street, Hollo- 
way, London. 

Flint implements and flakes wanted from localities near 
London.— G. E. M., 5 Warwick Place West, London, S.W. 

Wanted, diatoms and other good slides. Offered, micro. 
mounts of larvae of ant-lion, stained forams, etc., also set of 
diptera and other micro, material. — W. E. Green, 24 Triangle, 

Duplicates : 40 species of British butterflies, about 500 
specimens in all. Desiderata, British dragonflies, fresh and 
unset preferred : also British orthoptera, particularly mole- 
crickets, field-crickets, and locusts. — W. Harcourt Bath, Lady- 
wood, Birmingham. 

What offers for a small six-drawer cabinet suitable for birds* 
eggs and shells. — 112 Rann Street, Birmingham. 

Wanted, cuckoos' eggs with clutches of the following species : 
garden warbler, redstart, reed warbler, common wren, red- 
backed shrike, nightingale, chiff-chaff, woodlark, common 
bunting, house-sparrow ; good eggs offered in exchange. — W. 
Wells Bladen, Stone, Staff. 

Lot of novels and other books for exchange. Wanted, fossils 
from any formation except carboniferous ; lists exchanged.— 
Walter C. Shields, 36, Gartusk Street, Crosshill, Glasgow. 

Voluta musica, Ncritina viridis, Tellina radiata, T. 
{strigilld) Rombergii, Planaxis lineaiis, Bulimusexilis, Helix 
aspersa, and H. lactea (from Gibraltar), Echinus sp/uzra, and 
others, for land or marine shells, fossils or minerals not in 
collection. J. Burman Rosevear, Roselea, 51, Crouch Hill, 
London, N. 

"The Idler," (London: Chatto & Windus).— "English 
Botany, or Coloured Figures of British Plants," (London: 
George Bell & Sons). — "Journal of the Royal Microscopical 
Society," (Williams & Norgate). — "The Apodidss," by H. M. 
Barnard (London: Macmiilan}.— "1 Transactions of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union," parts 10-16. — "Gentleman's Maga- 
zine." — " The Mediterranean Naturalist." — " The Midland 
Naturalist." — " The Naturalist." — " Natural Science." — 
"American Microscopist." — "American Naturalist." — "Nature 
Notes."— " Essex Naturalist." — "Journal and Proceedings of 
the Essex Field Club," etc., etc. 

Communications receive up ti the 12TH ult. from": 
J. A. S.— W. H. N.— A. J. 'S.- T.— J. E. S.— S. G.— 
W. T. L.— W. D. R.— H. f a -D. 1 . W.— I. H.— J. F. H.— 
F. G. S.— W. K.— T. R.— / P.— F. S.— W. W.— H. H. C— 
W. M.— D. W.— T. S.— H. R.— W. H. O.— H. W. B.— C C— 
I. S.— E. M. B. U.— I. R— G. A. B.— I. G.— R. D. P.— A. B.— 
T. E. A.— F. C. L.— R. D. P.— W. E. G.— W. J. J.— J. H.— 
B. P.— Q. B.— G. E. M-— Dr. P. -J. H.— W. H. L.— W. H. 
B.— B. T.— F.— R. B. P.— E. H. J. B.— J. B. R.— W. K.— 
M. E. A— W. C. S.-B. P.-W. W.-Lord H— A. W. L.— 
B. T.— H. B. W.— etc., etc. 





Author of "Glimpses into Nature's Secrets," 
Realms," etc. 

' Amidst Nature's 

£$ HE town of Seaford 
is by no means an 
unknown seaside 
place of resort. 
Many a one, tired 
and bored by the 
constant calls which 
are made on one's 
energy at fashion- 
able sea-side places, 
has found in this 
town, nestling, as it 
does, in a hollow in 
the chalk downs, 
the place which had 
long been sought 
for as likely to con- 
tain those re-ener- 
gising requirements 
of the busy city- 
man, which are in vain looked for in the mighty 
and busy rivals of Hastings, Eastbourne, Brighton, 
and the like. Even now, quietly and with little of 
that public light which is thrown upon the doings 
of the greater sea-side towns, Seaford is preparing 
to welcome, nay, is already welcoming the early 
season comers, who, tired and out of sorts by reason 
of the severe winter — or by the influenza, are hurrying 
off to catch the first summer channel-breezes, irre- 
spective of whether it be now the " season " or no. 
What have people in pursuit of health to do with the 
" season " ? Season, indeed ! Cannot they live without 
a "season"? can't they enjoy the benefits of the sea 
without having a sight of the same bores who were 
30 terrible during the last London " season " ? But 
we don't go to Seafc ^fo e " season " ; we go, if 
you like, to wear out' oui oiy clothes, for no one will 
be any the wiser in this early summer which we are 
choosing, and after all, there is a comfort about 
familiar things which is not exactly possessed by the 
No. 331. — July 1S92. 

first-class tourist suit just turned out by the tailor. 
Seaford is reached by means of a delightful journey 
on the Brighton line, during which it is guaranteed 
that one needn't change more than three times. As 
Seaford is the teminus of the branch line, the amount 
of traffic is not very great, and consequently the 
visitor experiences but little disturbance from this 

Sitilhted like so many of its sister-towns on the 
south coast, in a "gap" in the cliffs, there is little 
doubt that at a former time, probably before the 
town commenced to exist, the hollow of the valley 
was the estuary of one of those many rivers which 
flowed through the chalk area, draining the uplands 
and in many cases the Weald beyond them. Geolo- 
gists tell us that the final denudation of the chalk 
hills could only have taken place by means of innu- 
merable streams and rivers intersecting one another 
and flowing in the hollows which now intersect the 
Downs in every direction. The site of Seaford was 
probably the outlet of some of these streams, besides 
being supplied, at least until recently, by the river 
Ouse, although this now makes its entry into the sea 
at Newhaven. 

In front of the town lies a stretch of land known 
locally as the " Bemblands." The original entry of 
the river was evidently made here, for we read of a 
deed executed in Elizabeth's reign granting all the 
land known as the " Beamelands," extending on both 
sides of the mouth of the river, to two gentlemen 
mentioned by name. Since the time of this grant, 
the river has shifted its mouth more and more to the 
west, probably in part owing to the silting up of its 
ancient bed, until finally it was left no more to its 
own sweet will, but was secured to make its entrance 
into the sea at what was thenceforward known as 
" New Haven." 

Seaford was one of the ancient Cinque Ports. 
Although not one of the original, it was certainly not 
the least important of those subsequently added. 


i 4 6 


Looking at the town as we now see it, we can 
scarcely imagine it ever to have been a port at all. 
But when we find that the river Ouse originally 
entered the sea in front of the town, and that 
Seaford Cliff formerly was the eastern boundary of 
the river, the fact that it was at one time a port is 
easily understood. Instead of debouching at New- 
haven, as it does now, the main body of water passed 
to the east and extended along the front of the town, 
where it mingled with the sea probably by numerous 
shallow mouths. Its former course is now marked 
by the stretch of stagnant water which lies just 
within the shore between Newhaven and Seaford, 
and which, presumably influenced by the tides, gave 
the water-power by which the mills at Bishopstone 
were worked. 

Seaford, we read, sent a large complement of ships 
and men to join the British fleet opposed to the Great 
Armada, so that it was far from being an insignificant 
port so recently as Queen Elizabeth's reign. Geolo- 
gical changes as a rule extend over a long lapse of 
time, but here we have an important instance of a 
river changing its mouth within a comparatively 
short period. 

Those who have visited the town have doubtless 
noticed the high cliff on the east of the town, and 
perhaps have experienced the bracing air which is to 
be found at the head of the cliff. Should the town 
extend thus far at some future time, what a magnifi- 
cent site it would afford for an hotel or a hydropathic 
establishment. There would, however, be one draw- 
back, and that would be the soil. The chalk here is 
covered by the relics of a formation similar to, and 
probably identical with, those found on the Castle 
Cliff at Newhaven: (I have no idea why it is called 
Castle Cliff ; the fort there is no more like a castle 
than a cathedral). Here are found a series of strata 
of tertiary age belonging to the eocene formation, 
similar to those strata on which London is situated. 
At Brighton, again, a patch of eocene clay is 
existent at Furze Hill, and it would appear that these 
are all remains of one wide sheet of tertiary ac- 
cumulations which once covered the whole of the 
chalk of the south of England, and were continuous 
one with another. 

Immediately above the chalk of the Seaford cliff 
there appears a thick layer of flints, rolled by the 
action of the sea in times long past into the various 
shapes we find on the beach at the present day. The 
sand which was then deposited above the layer of 
volled flints very naturally filled up all the crevices 
left between the flints. Very possibly the sand, 
which is of a ruddy colour, was derived from some 
source where it was mingled with iron ore, for we 
find both sand and flints have now been cemented 
together by the action of peroxide of iron, and form 
a reddish-brown conglomerate, or pudding-stone, so- 
called from the fanciful appearance which the flints 
present to the plums in a pudding. This con- 

glomerate is very hard and lasting, and would, I 
imagine, if capable of being dressed, make a durable 
building-stone. Large boulders of it were seen piled 
in a heap, and were evidently to be used for some pur- 
pose, possibly for road-making. Immediately above 
this conglomerate of the Seaford cliff is a thick bed of 
sand, which probably corresponds with that formation 
known in the London basin as the Thanet sands. 

Above this occurs in some parts a bed of stiff clay, 
which it would be necessary for the speculative builder 
to remove before he established his sanatorium on the 
hill. The clay-bed is found also in the Newhaven 
cliff, where it is full of casts of shells, and sometimes 
the shells themselves, of the genus cerithium. So full 
is it that a piece of the shell-clay which I have in my 
collection, has, after becoming thoroughly dried, 
assumed the aspect of an unpolished piece of Sussex 
marble, except that of course the shapes of the shells 
contained are different. 

The change in the course of the river which once 
entered the sea at Seaford, has left the town with a 
task before it. What will the town authorities do to 
make the Bemblands a little more presentable, and 
more a credit to the town? Might not this waste 
land be laid out as ornamental gardens, with perhaps 
a band-stand therein ? Seaford is far from being an 
unknown place to seaside visitors. What is being 
done to attract them to the town ? Such gardens 
would prove a great attraction, and would serve as a 
promenade which would be close to the bracing air 
of the sea, and at the same time would be sheltered 
by the sea-wall from the powerful south-west winds. 
It may be said there is an objection to the 
utilization of the land for these purposes. There is in 
some places a quantity of stagnant water which it is 
difficult to keep out, rising and falling as it does with 
the tide. If a thing is to be done at all it should be 
done properly, and means no doubt would be found by 
which the water could effectually be kept out. The 
surface of the ground could be raised upon piles, or, 
better still, upon rent-paying arches, or a thick layer 
of impervious concrete could be laid down. A natural 
concrete is ready to hand. The conglomerate of which 
I have before spoken is sufficiently indurated to be 
used at least as a foundation for such a purpose. The 
difficulty of preventing the water from rising is surely 
one which could be easily surmounted, and the town 
would possess a most potent addition to its attractive- 
ness. The sea-wall is not in very good condition. 
All it serves to do at present is to show the inferior 
quality of the materials with which it was made, for it is 
breaking out on all sides. And the Martello Tower, 
which many sea-side towns would be glad to possess, 
appears to be falling to pieces. What a pity it is not 
in the hands of the town authorities! 

There are many advantages which the town possesses 
which should be made the most of, but if Seaford is 
ambitious to shine as a watering-place, it must quicken 
itself, and pursue a more active policy in the future. 




/SLAND LIFE, by Dr. A. R. Wallace 
(Macmillan & Co.). We are delighted to 
welcome a cheap edition of this noble and most 
suggestive book. We know of nothing in natural 
history literature to equal it, except Darwin's 
classical Voyage of the Beagle. In its two volume 
form, Mr. Wallace's splendid book was practically 
unobtainable to naturalists, the most distinguished 
of whom, are as a rule the poorest. Hence we 
regard it as a real boon that Messrs. Macmillan, the 
publishers, have now issued a cheaD edition of this 
work which Dr. Wallace has taken considerable and 
careful pains to bring up to date, so as to say the 
latest words on the subject. 

On the Modification of Organisms, by David Syme, 
(Melbourne : George Robertson & Co. London : 
Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.). This is a difficult 
book to notice. The author makes some clever 
points, although his style is neither classical nor 
attractive. He evidently thinks that Darwin knew 
nothing about Darwinism, as will be seen by the 
following quotation, which is on the fifteenth page of 
the book. " Summary. — We have seen that Darwin's 
language is wanting in precision, and his definitions 
and theories are variable and contradictory. In one 
place natural selection is the ' struggle for existence,' 
in another, the ' struggle for existence ' is said to 
' bear on ' natural selection ; in a third place he 
speaks of the ' struggle for existence, and natural 
existence,' as if they were independent principles ; 
in one place, again, he defines natural selection as 
' the survival of the fittest,' thus confounding cause 
with effect, and in another place he says that natural 
selection ' depends on ' the survival of the fittest ; 
while to add to the confusion he tells us in another 
place that ' the conditions of life include natural 
selection,' inasmuch as they determine whether this 
or that variety shall survive. In numerous places he 
explains that the function of natural selection is 
merely selective, as the term implies, that it operates 
on variations which are provided for it, and is 
absolutely powerless to effect anything without them ; 
in other places he insists that variations are created 
by natural selection, and that, in fact, every change 
in structure and function is within the power of 
natural selection." 

Laboratory Practice ; a series of Experiments on the 
Fundamental Principles of Chemistry, by Josiah 
Parsons Cooke, LL.D., (London : Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd.). It is a mighty jump 
from 1874, when Dr. Cooke, the distinguished 
American chemist wrote one of the most suggestive 
volumes of the International Scientific Library series, 
entitled " The New Chemistry." No other book has 
done more since then to suggest new lines of thought 
to thoughtful chemistry students. It is therefore with 
sincerest pleasure we draw our readers' attention to 

this practically valuable book. Its aim and scope 
will be best gathered from the following quotation 
from the introduction. "The educational value of 
such a course as is here outlined, depends entirely on 
the manner in which the work is directed and super- 
vised. The student should be instructed, by con- 
tinued reiteration, if necessary, I. To observe the 
minutest particular in regard to every experiment. 
2. To distinguish essential from non-essential 
phenomena. 3. To draw correct inferences from the 
results. 4. To express concisely but clearly in writ- 
ing the facts observed and conclusions reached." 

Mineralogy, by Frederick H. Hatch, Ph.D., 
F.G.S., (London : Whittaker & Co.). We cordially 
recommend this cheap little book of Dr. Hatch's as 
one of the best that students could purchase. It is 
abundantly illustrated, and Dr. Hatch is one of the 
few scientific teachers who possess the gift of 

Tlieorelical Mechanics, Elementary Stage, by J. 
Spencer, B.Sc, etc. (London : Percival & Co.). Mr. 
Spencer is one of our most active workers in educa- 
tional science, but we are sorry to find it necessary, 
and that the science and art department of South 
Kensington is constantly requiring such hosts of 
victims, under the title of preparatory books. How- 
ever, if students require a cheap and good manual on 
Theoretical Mechanics, they cannot do better than 
get the one above referred to. 

Farmyard Manure, its nature, composition, and' 
treatment, by C. M. Aikman, M.A., etc. (London : 
William Blackwood & Sons). We think Prof. 
Aikman has done perfectly right in publishing this 
little brochure, which is in substance a chapter from 
the larger work he is preparing on soils and manures. 


By Bernard Thomas. 

V. — Heterotrichous Ciliata. 

IN this group some of the cilia are modified into 
hooks, styles or bristles, and are unevenly dis- 
tributed over the body. 

24. Coleps hirtus (Fig. 87), is about the five hun- 
dredth of an inch long. It is often found feeding on 
dead Entomostraca. Unlike the preceding ciliata, it 
is symmetrical ; that is, the body might be divided 
by a longitudinal line into two halves. Another 
peculiarity of Coleps is the possession of a chitinous 
cell-wall, which can be seen separated from the 
protoplasm during division (Fig. 87, 3). In shape 
Coleps is oval, rounded behind, more truncate in 
front ; sometimes it is somewhat pear-shaped, 
(Fig. 87, 2) at others separated into two halves by a 
more or less deep transverse constriction (Fig. 87). 

The cell-wall is marked by strong longitudinal 
and transverse grooves, which go from end to end and 

11 2 



right round the body, like the lines of latitude and 
longitude on a globe. From these depressions the 
cilia appear to arise and there is also a small tuft of 
cilia at the anterior end, and one or two cilia spring 

It is interesting to note that this mode of asexual 
reproduction is similar to that observed in some 
Desmids {e.g. Cosmarium). 

25. Chcetojiotiis lams (Fig. 88) was placed by 

Fig. %l.—Coleps hirtus — 1 and 2 highly magnified; 3, dividing. 

from the posterior end, where there are three tiny 
hooks easily overlooked from their minuteness ; they 
probably are modified cilia. 

In the endosarc there are usually one or two round 
green or brown bodies, perhaps the food swallowed 
by this organism. There is also, often, a large, 

Fig. 88. — Chatonotus larus — 1, front view 2, side view ; m, 
mouth ; is, gullet ; end, endosarc ; ect, ectosarc ; k. tail 
process. (Highly magnified ) 

highly refractive, colourless body near the centre. 
When fission takes place, the organism divides into 
two equal halves by a transverse constriction, each 
half thus separated developing a protoplasmic portion 
devoid at first of cel'.-wall, but furnished with cilia. 

Ehrenberg among the Rotifera. Indeed its general 
appearance is suggestive of a higher place than among 
the Infusoria. Its size varies from about the seven 
hundredth to the two hundredth of an inch. Like 
Coleps, it is symmetrical, and the body is three or four 
times longer than broad ; on the dorsal surface there 
are long bristles pointed backwards, and on the ventral 
or oral surface very minute cilia. It is an exceed- 
ingly rapid swimmer, and darts along, head foremost, 
so quickly that it is difficult to make out its structure. 
The anterior region or head is marked with one or 
two elevations, or tubercles, it is ciliated, and on the 
under-surface a round mouth may be seen furnished 
with movable lips. As the head moves about it is 
" telescoped " into the neck in much the same manner 
as is the head and tail of the Rotifer. The neck is 
thick and long, furnished with cilia, it passes, almost 
imperceptibly into a slightly broader body. At the 
posterior extremity there are two short, pointed pro- 
cesses, separated from each other by a short interval 
covered with cilia. 

The outer layer of protoplasm is hyaline, and the 
granular inner substance is very clearly marked off from 
it. The mouth leads to a long oesophagus, traversing 
the neck, with transversely striated walls, and this 
ends in the inner substance. I have never discovered 
the nucleus. The terms endosarc and ectosarc are 
avoided, because it seems difficult to refer this very 
interesting organism to its true place in the animal 
kingdom ; if it be one of the ciliata, it is probably 
the highest member of that series. 

26. Stylonichia mytdlus (Fig. S9) of Ehrenberg 
(Kicrona mytdlus of Dujardin) is from the two hun- 
dredth to the one hundreth of an inch long. It 
is heterotrichous, the cilia being of very different 
kinds. In the oral region, fringing the mouth, the 
cilia form a comb ; posteriorly they are modified 
into styles, two of these point outwards at an angle 
with the body and a few between these point 
directly backwards and arise from the under-surface. 



In Fig. Sg,J, the posterior extremity is represented, 
and two large styles are seen. 

Cilia can be modified into — I, Flagella ; 2, -Re- 
tracting filament ; 3, Sets or bristles ; 4, Styles ; 
5, Uncini or hooks. 

than the anterior part and with a small hooked 
process. From the anterior neck three or four cilia 
sprung (Fig. S9, c). In one case also I saw a similar, 
but not identical, organism attached near the posterior 
end of a mature Stylonichia (Fig. 89, b). In the 

Fig. 89.— a, Stylonichia mytellus; b, S. mytellus with infusoria ; c, larval forms, perhaps o(S. mytellus 1 d, larval forms of Para- 
mecium ? e, S. pustutata ; _/, nucleus of S. mytetlus, high power ; g, contractile space diastole, 6". mytellus ; h, contractile 
space systole;/, posterior extremity, S. mytellus; cs, contractile space; ch, chlorophyll corpuscle; m, mouth; s, styles; 
n, nucleus ; a, anterior ; /, posterior end. 

The flagellum and retracting filament have already 
been described. Seta or bristles are strong straight 
filaments which are movable, but do not vibrate. 
Styles resemble them, but are thick with broad base. 
Hoohs are curved, usually thick at the base, and 
short. It is said that the styles in Stylonichia are 
moved by the well-developed myophan layer. In 
the interior there are food vacuoles and only one 
contractile space. In the figure (Fig. 89, g h) the 
vesicle is seen in systole and diastole, surrounded by 
chlorophyll corpuscles. Once when examining this 
organism I found a curious little infusorian, which I 
thought might perhaps be a larval form. It was 
composed of faintly granular protoplasm, the 
posterior part of the body was devoid of cilia, broader 

illustration I have also figured what I take to be the 
larval Paramecium figured by Balbiani in the account 
he gave of conjugation in that organism. 

In the last article the following corrections should 
be made : — retsie reproduction of Paramecium, instead 
of " the young are described as acinctiform,"i read 
"the young are described as acinetiform ;" n?[Spiro- 
stomum ambiguum, instead of " the arms,(or anal area) 
terminal," read " the anus- (or anal area) terminal." 
(To be continued.) 

We strongly recommend our readers who have the 
time not to miss an opportunity of visiting Mr. 
William Bull's Grand Annual Orchid Show at"536 
King's Road, Chelsea. 




[Continucdfrom p. 135.] 

NEXT day was- Sunday, and was practically a 
day of rest, as I went by train round to 
Luchon in the department of Haute-Garonne, in the 
centre of the range, stopping a few hours on the 
way at the quaint old town of Monrejeau, where I 
saw in the principal street, on a good Sunday (Oh ! 
shade of John Knox), a family playing cards. Luchon 
or Bagneres de Luchon, is a largish, and very fashion- 
able resort, and seems to consist of hardly anything 
but hotels and lodging-houses. It is the best centre 
in the range for excursions, the middle portion of the 
Pyrenees being the highest. The situation is most 
picturesque, being apparently quite shut in on all 
sides by high mountains, though the part where it is 
built is quite flat. The following day after my arrival 
I set out to visit the Val du Lys, so-called, not from 
its lilies, but from an old or provincial form of the 
word "eau," water, from the number of its streams 
and waterfalls. The end of the valley is about seven 
miles from Luchon. The road passes up the valley 
through fields of maize for a short distance, then, as 
the valley narrows, through the woods ; in about an 
hour the point where the road turns off to the right 
to enter the Val du Lys is reached, and in about 
another half-hour a fine open part of the valley, shut 
in at the end by wooded precipices, is reached. The 
upper end of the valley is very fine and looks quite 
inaccessible : above the wooded region appear the 
rocky peaks and glaciers of the Crabioules. On 
entering the valley I found Digitalis lutea (L.) in the 
woods, a species with cream-coloured, smallish 
flowers, and at the head of the valley, by the Cascade 
d'Enfer, the rare Cardamine latifolia (Wahl.), with 
its round lobed-leaves and rose-lilac flowers. At 
the small inn, or cabane, near the lowest waterfall, the 
carriage-road ends, but a good horse-road zigzags up 
through the steep woods to the Rue d'Enfer, a deep 
cleft in the slaty rock, filled up at one end with snow, 
under which the stream from the glaciers higher up 
comes rushing down. On the ascent through the 
woods I found Mulgedium Plumieri (DC.) something 
like a large glaucous Sonchus arvensis, with blue 
flowers, and much branched ; Geranium nodosum 
(L.), a beautiful species with largish flowers of a 
light lilac veined with purple, and five-angled and 
lobed leaves ; Rubus glandulosus (Bell.) ; Ranun- 
culus Gouani (Willd.) ; Epilobium montanum, white- 
flowered ; and, on wet rocks, Hicracium neo-cerintke 
(Fr.), and Saxifraga Clusii (Gou.) {= S. leucanthemi- 
folia (Lap.)), a species like i - . stcllaris, but larger, and 
very viscid, only three of the petals being spotted, the 
other two being smaller and unspotted. Higher up, 
above the region of the pines, near the Rue d'Enfer, 
the ground was carpeted with flowers. Aconitum 
pyrenaicum (DC), a sub-species of A. lycoctonum, 

covered with yellow pubescence; Aquilegia vulgaris; 
Stachys alpina (L.) ; Senecio adonidifolius (Lois.); 
Arnica montana (L. ), a composite with large orange- 
yellow heads ; Potentilla pyrenaica (Ram.), very like 
P. alpestris ; Tkalictrum aquilegifolium (L.) ; Senecio 
dorouicum (L.) ; Euphorbia hibema (L.) ; Crepis 
lampsanoides (Froel.) ; Dianlhus barbatus (L.) ; 
Gnaphaliuin norvegicum (Koch) ; Hicracium pyre- 
naicum (Jord.) ; and Euphorbia angulata (Jacq.), 
were the principal finds. The view above the Rue 
d'Enfer was magnificent : below was all the valley 
stretching away towards to Luchon, and the moun- 
tains around, while just beneath was a rocky chasm 
half filled with snow; a little higher up were the 
glaciers from which the stream flowed, and above all 
the bare and jagged mountain peaks against the blue 
sky. After climbing nearly to the foot of one of the 
glaciers, I was stopped by the descending mists, 
which suddenly came on, and I judged it wisest to 
return ; so I made the best of my way down again, 
and in the evening got back safely to Luchon. Next 
day I had fixed for going by the Port de Venasque 
across the frontier into Spain, and returning by 
another pass, the Port de la Picade, a walk of abou: 
thirty miles, including an ascent of over 7000 feet 
from the altitude of Luchon (2063 feet). Starting at 
6 a.m. from Luchon, and passing along the valley 
of the Pique in a south-eastward direction, past the 
Val du Lys, till the Hospice de France (or de 
Luchon), 6\ miles, was reached, I commenced the 
real ascent. At the Hospice, a substantially built 
stone inn, the last house in France on this route, the 
carriage-road ends, and the horse-road over the pass 
commences. From here to the summit of the pass 
is a good three hours' steady ascent among rocks, 
loose debris, and, higher up, over patches of snow. 
The surroundings are very wild and picturesque : 
jagged peaks, patches of snow, blue mountain tarns, 
and strings of Spanish mules with their ragged 
muleteers coming winding down the zigzag path, 
their bells making music in the solitude. The 
weather was all that could be desired, not a cloud 
in the blue sky, and just enough breeze to cool the 
heat from the sun's rays. At about an hour's walk 
from the Hospice the rareties commenced to appear : 
Euphrasia minima (Schleich) ; Myosotis pyrenaica 
(Pourr.), very like M. alpestris; Arenaria ciliata 
(L.) ; Erysimum ochroleucum (DC.) ; Aquilegia pyre- 
naica (DC.) ; Gentiana nivalis (L.) ; Phyteuma 
Jicmispharicum (L.), a small species with linear leaves; 
Saxifraga ajugafolia (L.) ; (by the stream) S. aquatica 
(Lap.) ; S. capitata (Lap.), intermediate between S. 
ajugafolia and S. aquatica, and said to be a hybrid, 
and judging from their positions in this locality, not 
an unlikely supposition ; Senecio adonidifolius (Lois.) ; 
S. Tournefortii (DC.) ; a species with lanceolate 
entire leaves ; Scleranthus uncinatas (Schur.) ; 
Paronychia polygonifolia (DC.) ; Silene rupesfris 
(L.) ; Cardamine alpina (L.), a very small species 



with ovate entire leaves, and small white flowers ; 
Hutchinsia alpina (R. Br.) ; Armeria alpina (Willd.), 
very like A. maritima, but with larger heads and 
flowers a brighter rose colour; Linaria alpina (L.) ; 
Sisymbrium pinnatafidum (DC.) ; Oreochloa disticha, 
a pretty little grass, like a Sesleria ; Luzula spadicea 
(DC), a common alpine species ; L. pediformis 
(DC), a rare plant, like a large L. spicata ; Veronica 
alpina (L.) ; Carex pyrenaica, a little sedge, with a 
single spike of a brownish colour, and three stigmas 
to the fruit ; and Poa minor (Gaud.). 

After climbing for nearly three hours, the path 
appears to be about to end in a cul-de-sac of rocky 
precipice, when suddenly turning a corner to the 
left the Port de Venasque itself appears, a narrow 
opening in the rock-wall, at the summit of the 
ridge. The Port is only fourteen feet wide, and 
through this natural doorway, one passes from 
France into Spain, the boundary being marked 
by an iron cross. At this point, the first view of 
Spain bursts on the sight, a wild sea of barren rocky 
mountain tops, prominent among which, and only 
separated by the intervening valley d'Etangs, is the 
Maladetta, the monarch of the Pyrenees, (11,600 
feet), which viewed from this point (8100 feet) does 
not appear very much higher : it is a huge mass of 
mountain, with glaciers near the summit and black 
peaks of rock sticking up here and there out of the 
snow and ice. The view on the Spanish side is 
much wilder and grander than that on the French 
one, the mountains [being higher, more rocky, and 
barer. On the rocks in the Port, I found a densely 
glandular dark green little Saxifrage, S. mixta (Lap.) 
in very small quantity. A little way down the path 
on the Spanish side, there is a path leading to the 
right, up to the summit of the Pic de Sauvegarde, 
(9164 feet), from which may be seen what is said to 
be the finest view in the whole range. It is only an 
hour's walk from the Port/and having plenty of time, 
I decided to try it, and was amply repaid for the 
trouble by a truly magnificent view. I could see 
Luchon lying far below in the valley, and in the blue 
distance the plains of France stretching away as far 
as the eye could reach ; immediately beneath were 
three deep indigo-blue mountain lakelets, whose 
waters sparkled in the bright sunlight. Turning 
round to the Spanish side, instead of the verdant 
valleys and plains of France, the picture of wild 
desolation forms a striking contrast, as the eye ranges 
over the bare mountains of Catalonia and Aragon, 
extending for miles away in the distance. After 
resting awhile at the top enjoying the view, and 
replenishing the inner man, I started to go down again, 
finding on the way Leontodon pyrenaicus (Gou.), 
Asterocarpus sesamoides (Gay), which grew in dense 
patches by the path ; it is a small resedaceous plant, 
with a procumbent much-branched stem and densely- 
flowered spikes ; Veronica bellidioides (L.) ; Ranun- 
culus pyreneus (L.) a small plant with white flowers 

and linear leaves; Angelica pyrenca (Spr.), Armeria 
alpina (Willd.) ; and lastly an old Scotch friend, 
Giuzphalium supinum. Leaving the Port de Venasque 
to the west, the path leading to the Port de la Picade 
passes along the Spanish side of the ridge for about 
two miles, then turns north and crosses by another 
opening into France again, then going along the 
narrow edge of the ridge, here not above six feet 
wide, with precipices on both sides, it descends to 
the grassy Col de Mountjoie, almost the only large 
stretch of mountain pasture that I saw in the Pyrenees, 
in this respect differing greatly from the Alps. On 
the Col de Mountjoie I found Carduus carlinoides 
(Gou.) ; Senecio adonidifolius (Lois.) ; Gentiana acaulis 
(L.) ; Festuca spadicea (L.) ; Gentiana lutea (L.), the 
medicinal gentian, a large plant, three to five feet 
high, with whorls of yellow flowers, and large 
ribbed sessile leaves ; and Asphodelus alius (L.), 
(Liliacea:), with dense verbascum-Iike spikes of white 
flowers, and linear leaves. By the path down to the 
Hospice de Luchon (which by this route is ap- 
proached from the upper end of the valley of the 
Picque, from which valley the path to the Port de 
Venasque goes off at a right angle), I found Dianthus 
deltoides (L.), var. glaucus ; Avena montana (Vill.) ; 
Biscutella laevigata (L.), a crucifer with spectacle- 
shaped pods, and yellow flowers ; Genista sagittalis 
(L.), a species with winged stems ; and Viola coruuta 
(L.), with lilac-blue, long-spurred flowers, and 
cordate leaves, not unlike V. lutea, var. amcena, in 
habit and size of flowers. By the time I reached the 
Hospice it was about 7 p.m., and I was getting 
pretty tired, and so did not trouble about looking out 
on the way back to Luchon, where I arrived a little 
after 9 p.m. well satisfied with the day's work. The 
next day was to be the last one in the Pyrenees, and 
I decided to' go to see the Lac d'Oo, a small lake up 
in the mountains, ten miles from Luchon. The day 
proved very hot, and being tired with the previous 
day's walk, I did not get there till about 3 p.m. 
The first six miles, as far as the village of Oo, is 
pretty, but not very striking ; the road passes through 
several villages, but after passing the village of Oo, 
it enters the Val d'Oo, a very fine one, with the snow 
peaks near the Port de Venasqne at the head of it. 
Three miles up this valley the road ends, and a path 
winds up a steep slope, through a pine-wood, till at the 
top of a kind of dam across the valley, one reaches 
the Lac d'Oo, a most beautiful lake surrounded by 
frowning precipices, and with a fine waterfall 800 
feet high at the head, and scattered pines clothing 
the ledges of the rocks. On the way up to the lake 
I found Meconopsis cambrica (Vig.) ; Reseda glauca 
(L.) ; Cochlearia pyrenaica (DC), a sub-species of 
C. officinalis ; Sisymbrium acutangalum (DC.) ; and 
Campanula patula (L.), this last not uncommon in 
the hedges all through the part I visited. Above the 
lake grew the Pyrenean iris in plenty ; Asphodelus 
all/us (L.), here on account of the lower 'elevation, 



about 3000 feet, gone to fruit ; Crepis lampsanoides 
(Froel.). After spending a short time by the lake, I 
strolled quietly back to Luchon, and so ended my last 
day in the Pyrenees. Next morning early I took train 
for Bordeaux via Tarbes and Mont Marsan, and from 
thence returned through Paris to Liverpool, having 
had a most enjoyable holiday. Now, if anyone, 
induced by these few notes, be tempted to take a 
holiday in the Pyrenees, I am certain they will not 
regret it ; the scenery is lovely, the people and places 
interesting, charges moderate, and as far as my 
experience of the weather went, it could hardly have 
been improved on ; lastly the botanist will find a mine 
of wealth to work at, which will take him some time 
to exhaust, and will afford him, I am sure, a most 
enjoyable botanist's holiday in the Pyrenees. 

A. E. Lomax. 


THE locality known as the Banks is pleasantly 
situated near the river Ribble. Starting from 
Clitheroe railway station, we go along the road lead- 
ing to Waddington until near Brungerley Bridge, 
then turn to the left along the footpath over Knunck 
Knowles, noticing the pretty flowers of the vernal 
whitlow grass (D. vulgaris) which are very abundant. 

Fig. 90. — Fcnestella plebeia. 

Behind the hill I have seen the barren blade of the 
adder's tongue (O. vulgatum) but have not succeeded 
in getting the fertile spike in this locality. From 
here we are soon on the top of the quarry, and with 
another step we are in the Banks. It is a pretty 
place consisting of miniature hills and dales caused 
by quarrying operations in former years. These 
during four months are carpeted with treasures of 
the floral world. Standing on one of these hills 
the view is fine, green fields and pretty woodlands 
stretching from the bank of the river, away to a 
long line of moorland. 

Referring to page 14, "Geology of the Burnley 
Coal-field," I find : " The Carboniferous limestone of 
the Clitheroe anticlinal is concealed or very obscure 
all along the northern border, and the many folds 
into which it has been thrown, have rendered its 
boundaries difficult to map with accuracy. On the 
south of the arch, however, we have a succession 

Fig. 91. — Fcnestella nodulosa. 

Fig. 92. — Common Encrinite {Poteriocrhtus crassus). 

of very good rock exposures, which afford facilities 
for its study. It contains two very distinct members. 
The lower consists of very black and pure bituminous 
limestone, and sometimes contains beds of black 
calcareous shale. It is almost always very distinctly 
and evenly bedded, and forms in its range a very 
straight and very well-marked ridge, which com- 


J 53 

mences at Horrocksford quarries, and continues in an 
east-north-easterly direction by Ridding Hey and 
Bold Venture Limeworks and then along the north 
-side of Downham Hall demesne and Twiston lane 
to the old lead-mines at Skelhorn or Skeleron. 
Immediately above the Black Limestone is a band 
of shales containing fossils, of which Fenestellce are 
the most abundant. The shales at Knunck Knowles 
by the road cutting going down to Brungerley Bridge 
near Clitheroe are probably the same." 

On the top of the quarry Ranunculus repens, 
fcaria, and bufoosus, Bellis perennis, Cerastium 
zulgatum, Tussilago farfara, Senecio vulgaris, Stel- 
l-aria media, Potentilla anserina, Anagallis arvensis ; 
in 1SS7 I gathered a specimen of Erysimum orientate. 
Leaving the quarry, we enter the Banks, and can 
wander at our own will among the hills and dales, 
noticing the bright yellow flowers of the mouse-ear 
hawkweed {Hieracium pilosella), Primula vulgaris 
and veris, Leontodon hispidics, Taraxacum officinale, 
Ajuga reptans, Polygala vulgaris, Veronica chamcedrys, 
Alchemilla vulgaris, Saxifraga tridactylites, Tri- 

'Fig. 93. — Trilobite (Phillipsia). {All these are very common 
lossiis near Clitheroe.) 

folium pratense-repens, Potentilla tormentilla, reptans, 
Lotus cornkulalus, Bunium flexuostan, Chrysan- 
themum leucanthemum, Plantago lanceolata, media, 
major, Achillea millefolium, Chcerophyllum temelum, 
Rosa canina, arvense, Arabis hirsuta, Prunella vul- 
garis, Medicago hipulina, Linum catharticttm, Eu- 
phrasia officinalis, Viburnum opulus, Lamium macu- 
latum, Senecio jacobcea, Heracleum sphondylium, 
Pimpinella saxifraga, magna, Poterium sanguisorba, 
Thymus serpyllus, Centaurea nigra, Campanula 
rotundifolia, Calamintha clinopodhim, Anthyllus 
vulneraria, Galium verum, Agrimonia eupatoria, 
Origanum vulgare, Matricaria inodora, Ononis ar- 
vensis, Scabiosa arvense, stcccisa, Gentiaiiia amarella, 
Arenaria Serpyllifolia, Erigero7i acris, Lychnis dioica, 
Stachys betonica, Fraxinus excelsior, Crcetagetis 
exyacantha, Ribes grossularia, Reseda luteola, 
Myosotis arvense. Returning the lower way to 
Brungerley Bridge, the sloe (Prunus spinosa) is very 
abundant in the hedge ; in a swamp near the river we 
notice the bright golden balls of the globe-flower 
{Trollius Europeus), Cardamine pratensis, Ra7iun- 
culus flamula. Among the waste material at the foot 

of the quarry there is Viola hirta, a very rare species 
in this district, Cnicus lanceolatus, arvensis, Potentilla 
fragariastrum, Fragaria vesca, Aspei ula odorata ; on 
the river bank, Cochlearia officinalis. In another 
swamp at the other end of the quarry there are a few 
plants of Menyanthes trifoliata, CEnanthe, crocata ; 
still keeping close to the river a few plants of 
Lathyrus macrorliizus, Myrrhis odorata, Lysima- 
chia nemoricm and Scilla nutans may be noticed. 
— M. Demain. 


ASSOCIATED with the Hedriocystis described 
by me in a previous paper, I obtained the 
minute organisms figured in A and B, and in profile 
in c. In A I have represented the normal appearance 
under a -^-inch w.i. of this Rhizopod ; in B the 
details brought out by using roseine as a stain. The 
organism glides almost imperceptibly along the slide, 
or the cover-glass, and generally, though not always, 
without the emission beyond its periphery of any 
pseudopodia. Its carapace is hyaline, and only 
faintly takes up the stain I used. It has no hexa- 
gonal, punctate, or other" markings ; is apparently 
structureless ; and is slightly folded in on its under - 


Fig. 94.— a, living organism ; b, stained and killed with 
roseine ; c, side view of organism. 

surface as represented in B and c. This fold is best 
brought out in stained specimens. I have only in 
two or three instances found faint blunted pseudopodia 
projected beyond the margin of the carapace, and 
having regard to the great number of these forms 
which I have had under observation, this percentage 
would be very small. The carapace varies in diameter 
from about j^-inch to -^jj-inch, while an average 
Arcella taken at random from the same water 
measured ^g-inch. The abundance of the organism 
coupled with its association with the stalked Actino- 
phryans recently described by me, and its minuteness 
are my reasons for recording this note. 

W. J. Simmons. 




By the Author of "An Illustrated Handbook of 
British Dragon-flies," "A Label List of British 
Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


THE best hunting-ground for dragon-flies in the 
North of England is undoubtedly the Lake 
District of Cumberland and Westmoreland. Here 
we may meet with these grand insects in all their 
glory, combined with the most charming and diversi- 
fied scenery. 

Ambleside, which is situated at the top end of the 
beautiful expanse of Windermere, will be found a 
very convenient place where to fix our headquarters, 
as it is in the centre of this delightful district. From 
hence we may make short expeditions to Lakes 
north, south, east and west with great facility. 

The following is a list of the various kinds of 
dragon-flies which may be met with in this far-famed 
district of mountain, lake and stream : Platetrum 
depressum (not uncommon). Leptetrum quadrimacu- 
lata (common). Orthctrum carulescerts [(local and 
scarce). Leucorrhinia dubia (on extensive moors in 
the north of England,* but very local). Sympetritm 
vulgatum (abundant): S. flaveolum (local). S. 
scoticum (plentiful). Cordulia anca (very local ; has 
been taken at Windermere). Cordulegastcr annulatus 
(abundant on all streams). Brachytron pratense 
(doubtful). ALschna juncia (not uncommon). A. 
cyanca (ditto). AZ.grandis (local). Calopteryx virgo 
(abundant). C. splendens (ditto). Lestes sponsa 
(local). Platycnemis pennipes (ditto). Enallagma 
cyathigerum (abundant ; on August 1st, 1887, I met 
with this species in immense numbers at Windermere; 
they were probably a second brood, produced by the 
abnormal heat and fine weather of the summer of that 
season). Agrion pulcluilitm (doubtful). A. puella 
(abundant). Ischnura clcgans (common). Pyrrkosoma 
minium (plentiful). 

The preceding is a very meagre list of the Odonata 
of the English Lake District, which is accounted for 
by the fact that it has been so little explored by 
collectors of these beautiful insects. There is no 
doubt that anyone who would assiduously apply 
himself to the task could easily add several species to 
the dragon-fly fauna of the delightful domain in 
question. Among the lakes and mountains of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland there ought to be several 
good species yet to be discovered which have hitherto 
remained unrecorded. 


To those dragon-fly hunters whose intention it is 
to spend their holidays in the Highland Lake District 

* Vide my " Illustrated Handbook of British Dragon-flies." 

this summer, the following information may not prove 

The best locality in this extensive area is at 
Rannock, in Perthshire, where two species are found, 
namely, Somatocklora melallica, and Aschna borcalis, 
which occur nowhere else in the British Isles. Both 
of these beautiful insects will be found fully described 
in my little work entitled "An Illustrated Handbook 
of British Dragon-flies," which has been previously 
alluded to. 

In addition to the above two rare and local species, 
the following may be found in the Scotch Lake 
District : Platetrum depressum (rare). Leptetrum 
quadrimaculata (abundant). Orthctrum carulescens 
(very local). Sympetrum vulgatum (plentiful). S. 
flaveolum (very local, but usually abounds wherever 
it occurs).* S. scoticum (abundant everywhere). 
Cordulegastcr annulatus (frequents all the mountain 
brooks and streams). Brachytron pratense (very 
local). sEschna mixta (occurs in Scotland on the 
authority of Dr. Hagen). Aschna juncca (abundant 
everywhere). AZ. cyania (rare and local). A. 
grandis (ditto). Calopteryx virgo (common, but 
local). C. splendens (ditto). Lestes sponsa (common). 
Platycnemis pennipes (common, but very local). 
Enallagma cyathigerum (very plentiful). Agrion 
pulchellum (very local). A. puella (common). Isch- 
nura pumilio jvery local and rare). /. elegans 
(plentiful). Pyrrkosoma minium (abundant). 

The number of species of dragon-flies, hitherto 
recorded as occurring in Scotland, is twenty-four, but 
there is no doubt that after a little exploration and 
investigation this number could be increased. Several 
species which have been known to occur in the north 
of England, have at present not been found in North 
Britain, so there is plenty of scope for those who 
wish to add to the list of the Odonata of the latter 


I HAVE been much interested in papers discuss- 
ing "Vegetable Teratology" during the last 
three years in Science Gossip. From the vari 
discussions on the subject, I take it to be the pre- 
valent scientific idea that plants showing any vagaries 
and abnormal methods of growth are endeavouring 
to return more or less to a primitive form. 

How many of the scientific writers have examined 
carefully into the position, health and surroundings 
of those plants supposed to be discontentedly reach- 
ing back to their ancestors ? I think those who do 
so will find in almost every case a more simple and 
natural reason for the curious deformities so often 

* Vide my " Illustrated Handbook of British Dragon-flies." 



In wild flowers, I have on strict examination 
scarcely ever failed to detect the cause to be the 
work of some small insect, often the eggs of a tiny 
fly", which, in laying them, burrowed into the plant : 
not always close to the monstrosity, but rendering 
the plant unhealthy. An accidental cut with a spade 
at the base of the stem will often cause abnormal 

A very large number of my back numbers of 
Science Gossip were burnt accidentally last sum- 
mer, so I am unable to state the date of the number 
in which there was a beautifully-executed illustration 
of a cabbage-leaf, which had fashioned itself into 
something like the shape of an old-fashioned cham- 
pagne glass. There was, to the best of my recollec- 
tion, a slight idea put forward that the progenitors 
might have been some of the cup-bearing plants of 
South America. 

Allow me to give you the history of a bed of cauli- 
flowers in my own garden. The ground was pre- 
pared as usual and the plants set, when the gardener 
showed me some half-dozen left over, and informed 
me that they were all very " poor plants," pointing 
out a small wart about the size of a pea on the root 
of each close to where the stalk started ; he pro- 
ceeded to pull off the wart, and show me a small 
insect inside, and finished by giving me the pleasing 
information that every plant he had put down had the 
same; but assuring me he had constantly "seen the 
like," and it was "no harm." When the time for 
cutting cauliflowers came, it would have puzzled any- 
one to pick out to what primitive type they were 
retrogressing, as not one of them presented the same 
appearance, or resembled a respectable cauliflower 
plant. Four or five of them were long-stalked plants, 
with a bunch of small leaves at the top, and soon 
withered away without any appearance of flowers ; 
others were short and stout, with a cauliflower the 
size of a walnut at the base of each leaf ; one outgrew 
all the others, and developed leaves more than two 
feet long, one of the outside leaves being similar to 
the illustration in Science Gossip — a large funnel- 
shaped monstrosity — but no attempt at a flower. 
The whole plot produced but a couple of cauliflowers, 
and those half-diseased and unfit for use ; had I not 
seen the insect mischief at the root, the abnormal 
growth would have been a mystery to me ; as it was, 
I could attribute it to nothing else. 

I have seen a whole row of auriculas, with fascicu- 
lated stems produced by over manuring. They be- 
longed to an old gentleman who was devoted to 
them, and he fed them so assiduously that the flower- 
stems at last reached the dimensions of nearly an 
inch across, flat and striated, with very crowded 
heads of very small blossoms, curiously distorted. 

A young rose-tree in my garden, during two sea- 
sons a healthy and stalwart bloomer, began in the 
third to produce small bunches of leaves in the 
middle of the blossoms, and many other eccentrici- 

ties, and continued to do so the following year ; it 
was pruned and doctored, but to no purpose. It 
occurred to me that perhaps it wanted more air, as I 
had set other plants quite close to it. These were 
removed, and from that out there were no more 
sprouts of green leaves in the blossoms, no buds 
half leaf half corolla, etc., etc. 

In wild plants it is of course far more difficult to 
account for abnormal growth, but it can be dis- 
covered in most cases by close scrutiny, so as to war- 
rant the belief that such growth is always caused by 
some insect or other damage. 

I have found several times patches of the common 
birdseye growing in a way sufficiently different to 
the usual habit to attract attention, with softer and 
more downy leaves, and a larger and more straggling 
growth ; at first I could see nothing to account for 
it, and thought it was a variety. However, after 
many attempts I found the difference was caused 
by minute soft protuberances here and there on the 
plant, generally at the base of a leaf-stalk, locking 
quite like a part of the stalk's growth ; but on open- 
ing them there was to be seen the reason for the 
unusual form of the plant, a bunch of minute eggs, 
or the insects just ready to emerge. 

I. G. 


TTYDRA VIRIDIS— taker's Binocular, ij in. 
J. J. A eye-piece. The Hydra was divided in 
the live-box in which it had been living for three 
days. It was apparently in good health. The section 
was performed with a sharp, curved knife, and at the 
site of junction of "head "and body. In the same 
live-box were Cypris, Cyclops, Vorticellse, Daphnia 
and Duckweed. The experiment began on March 
27th, 1892. Before division the Hydra had eight 

1.40 p.m. — Firmly fixed ; stump actively con- 
tracting and extending. 

Tentacles moving actively ; no attempt at fixation ; 
3J tentacles have disappeared. 

2.30 p.m. — Apparently one arm is fixing cephalic 
fragment to the trough ; the other arms are moving 

The body is swaying about and extending with 
great vigour. 

3.30 p.m. — No alteration in body, A Cyclops 
became motionless for a while after contact ; the 
cephalic fragment is now free, and moves very 
actively. One of the tentacles has been apparently 
wounded in process of section ; it is swollen and 
twisted, and is not nearly so active as are the others. 

6 p.m. — During the last 2I hours but very slight 
alteration has taken place. The cephalic fragment 
is unchanged ; the tentacles (or stumps) on the body 
seem a little longer. The only noteworthy point is 
that a swelling has developed at the junction of the 



middle and lower third of the body. This I take to 
be traumatic, as it is symmetrical. 

9 p.m. — The microscope having been in darkness 
since the last observation, the point as to whether 
any details of interest would occur on exhibition of 
artificial light was now investigated. The two frag- 
ments were known to be separated by ij inches. 
By means of a pin-hole diaphragm a pencil of light 
was suddenly projected on to the body. It was seen 
to be in a state of moderate contraction, but absolutely 
motionless ; and although the light was continued on 
it for ij minutes, no movements occurred. By 
gently moving the mechanical stage, I now placed 
the cephalic fragment in the field. As it approached 
the centre it was seen t:> be absolutely quiet, but 

less active, and shows no signs of fixation to glass or 
debris at the bottom of the trough. The body, on 
the other hand, is firmly fixed, and very active. The 
tentacles certainly appear longer ; the swelling, too, 
has disappeared. I think this proves that it was 
only the effect of injury. 

5 p.m. — Body active : arms certainly longer. A 
foreign body is to be made out in the alimentary 
canal, which was not there this morning. As the 
Hydra is on the distal side of the box I cannot get 
any power higher than § to bear on it ; but from 
the outline it looks like a small Cyclops. Anyhow 
there is something in the alimentary canal, and the 
probability of its being food I should think was 
great. As for the cephalic fragment, it is shrunken. 

Fig. 95.— Eody (1.40 p.m.) 

Fig. 97.— (2.30 p.m. J 

Fig. 9 3. 

Fig. 99.— (6 p.m.) 

Fig. roc— (9 p.nO 

Fig. iox.— (March 28th.) 

Fig. 102. 


Fig. 103. 

instantly it arrived in the central bright spot active 
contractions occurred. The body was again brought 
under the influence of light and left there, and it was 
not till a Cyclops came hurrying by that any con- 
tractions took place. As a control experiment, a 
budding Hydra v. in the same trough was treated in 
a similar way. Active contractions occurred in the 
parent at once, but not till some time had elapsed in 
the budding Hydra. As regards the condition of the 
two fragments, practically no alteration has taken 
place ; perhaps the swelling on the body is not 
quite so large. 

March 2Sth, 10 a.m. — This morning the fragments 
were found to occupy the same position as on the 
previous evening. The cephalic fragment is certainly 

up, only extending and contracting at different 
intervals. It shows no sign of active growth, but 
the wounded tentacle is longer and straighter. 

10 p.m. — The experiment of stimulation with light 
was repeated to-night with practically the same 
result. The body did not respond at all to the 
stimulus, whilst the head did, certainly not so 
strongly. I fear it will not live long. 

March 29th, II a.m. — On examining the contents 
of the live-box this morning no Hydra, or at any rate, 
no divided Hydra, was to be seen. Nor was the 
body found, although I made observations for the 
two succeeding days, and on the third examined 
every few drops contained in the trough in a "pond " 
slide. Nor was it to be found adhering to any 



duckweed. The only explanation I could offer was 
that it had been devoured by a Cypris ; thus turning 
the tables on the decapitated Hydra. The cephalic 
extremity is shrunken to a mere speck, and evidently 
dead. I have never known a Cypris devour a Hydra 
before, but taking into consideration the weakened 
state of the polype, I see no season why any other 
explanation should be sought for the disappearance 
of the subject of the experiment. It had certainly 
gone from the live-box. 

The chief point of interest in the experiment is, I 
think, the effect of light on the two fragments. Of 
course one knows that there are many more hema- 
tocysts on the tentacles than on the body, but one 
has always considered that their purpose was specially 
that of paralysing prey seized. Whether the smaller * 
capsules mentioned by some authorities are in any 
way concerned in the reception of external stimuli 
would, I take it, be mere speculation. Anyhow, it 
is evident that the tentacles are more easily stimulated 
than the body, and it is chiefly with the object of 
noting this fact I have ventured to send in the record 
of this experiment, unfortunately brought to an 
abrupt termination, to the readers of Science- 

Herbert J. Frederick, L.S.A. 



AN old botanist wishes to draw attention to the 
country round Vevey as a most interesting 
and prolific collecting-ground, and one not much 
resorted to. 

In early spring, long before the higher pastures are 
accessible, the meadows about Elonay are carpeted 
with the poetic narcissus and tufts of the beautiful 
Fiimaria densifolia ; every little rock peeping up 
through these hilly meadows is decked with the red, 
white, or blue Vinca minor, sometimes all three 
growing together. 

In damp woody places near Jilamont, the lily of 
the valley is plentiful. The vineyards are full of 
various species of hyacinth : the grape hyacinth 
perfuming the whole country where the vineyards, 
bathed in the sun, slope down to the lake. The 
feather hyacinth, and many other curious and rare 
plants, grow amongst the vines, and round the edges 
of the vineyards a great variety of linaria. 

In the woods on Mont Chardon is found the 
Cypripedium calceolus, the lady's-slipper. 

The hill rising behind Blonay, the Pleiades, is 
nexhaustible in its variety of botanical treasures 
— Myosotis rupicola and alpina amongst others being 
plentiful — and in the little marshy spots formed at 
intervals by the rills running down the mountain side, 
there is a rich and beautiful harvest to be gathered. 

* Griffith and Henfrey. 

In the valley behind Villa Jilamont, and running 
parallel to the Freiburg Road, the steep river-banks- 
on either side are full of a great variety of orchidaceous 
plants, and also a small variety of the Anthevicum. 
liliastrum ; and on the higher ground between Jila- 
mont and Maison Lavade may be found the spider 
and fly orchids in considerable quantity. I several 
times found the Epipactis latifolia, the E. grandifolia 
and the pink Epipactis all growing together in the 

I have never myself collected in the marshy places, 
at the head of the lake, but they are known to be 
homes of many botanical treasures. 

The "Dent de Jaman" is another delightful place 
for a day's botanizing. Besides the variety of 
gentians (amongst them the medical gentian), there 
are many plants not usually found so low down 
on the mountains, and close under the mass of 
rock forming the "Dent," amongst the debris are to 
be found the sweet-scented cyclamen, and sparingly, 
the Rose des Alpes. On the roadsides, where it seems 
to love the dust, a sweet perfume leads one to the 
pretty Dianthus Galliais. 

Anyone who wishes for a more distant ramble can 
cross the lake and climb one of the mountain paths 
close to the bridge that marks the Piedmontese 
frontier, and there find the Aquilcgia alpina and the 
curious yellow monkshood, looked on with terror by 
the peasants as the most poisonous plant in existence. 
They used to tell awful stories of tourists being 
poisoned by carrying bunches of it in their hands. 

I have given but a very faint sketch of the advan- 
tages of Vevey for collecting purposes, and I hope 
some botanist will try it this year, and give us his 
experiences. I have never seen noticed the distinct 
difference between the Swiss and Italian Op/irys 
apifera and ours. Independently of the much larger 
size of the foreign plant, there is a very marked differ- 
ence in the form of the blossom. The middle segment 
of the calyx, which in the English apifera is always 
bent back so as to be little visible in the front, in 
the Swiss and Italian flower stands upright and often 
bends slightly over the lip when in full blossom, the 
small triangular petals are much larger in proportion, 
and the green bands on the pink sepals more pro- 
nounced ; added to which, the foreign plant has a 
very disagreeable smell, not the flower alone, but the 
whole plant, which is not the case with ours ; also, 
the foreign plant is generally found in marshy places, 

while ours loves dry, chalky downs. 

I. G. 


A new and ingenious instrument has just been 
invented for roughly indicating the amount of dust in 
the atmosphere. It is called the Koniscope. It 
consists of an air-pump and a tube provided with 
glass ends. The dusty air to be tested is drawn into 



the tube, where it is moistened and expanded. The 
depth of colour seen on looking through the tube 
indicates the degree of impurity in the air. It takes 
an immense number of particles of dust to produce 
any visible colour. Thus, 80,000 per cubic centimetre 
only produce a very faint tint It requires one million 
and a half of dust particles to give the air a fine blue 
colour, and four millions of such to produce a dark 
blue. By means of this instrument it is easy to 
trace the pollution taking place in rooms, as well as 
the pure and impure currents of air. 

Entomologists have this year been much con- 
cerned with the influences of temperature on the 
development of insect life. The days have recently 
been brilliantly sunshiny and hot, but there has 
seldom been a night without a frost. In consequence 
butterflies have been very plentiful, and moths com- 
paratively scarce. Easterly winds, with frost at 
night, are injurious to moths, but do not appear to 
affect butterflies so long as there is plenty of sun- 
shine and blue sky. 

It can hardly be wondered at that our chief 
scientific journals feel a trifle bitter at the manner 
in which the University of Cambridge has conferred 
honorary degrees on the occasion of the installation 
of the new Duke of Devonshire as Chancellor. 
Nature remarks that " culture, and especially 
scientific culture, goes for very little among the 
classes of distinction recognised by the university. 
Eminence in the political world and in society, seems 
to be the claim chiefly recognised." 

In the United States the naval people are now 
concerned with experiments on armour plates 10A in. 
thick. Some are all steel, some nickel steel. Is the 
world's available supply of iron to be used up in 
this stupid manner ? The nickel steel, we are told, 
proved the best defence. But why should defence 
be required, unless you have nations who want to 
attack ? An attacking nation is an international 
burglar, and ought to be handled by the scruff of the 
neck, as you would your neighbour's cat when it 
disturbs your rest. 

Transactions of the Guernsey Society of Natural 
Science and Local Research for 1891 contain the 
following papers : — " The Flora of Guernsey," by 
Mr. E. D. Marquand ; " On Mica Trap Dykes in the 
Channel Islands," by the Rev. E. Hill, F.G.S. ; 
" A List of the Neuroptera inhabitating the Island 
of Guernsey," by Mr. W. A. Luff, etc. 

We have received a copy of the Transactions of the 
Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Archaeological 
Society, containing the following papers : — '-' The 
Lepidoptera of Burton-on-Trent and neighbour- 
hood," Part II., Micro-Lepidoptera "compiled 
by J. T. Harris, F.E.S., and Philip B. Mason, 
M.R.C.S., etc. ; " The Functions of a Local Natural 

History Society, with Special Reference to the Study 
of Plant Galls," by Philip B. Mason, M.R.C.S., etc. ; 
"Some Varieties of Huskless Barley from Thibet," 
by Horace T. Brown, F.R.S., etc.; "The Irish 
Aran," (with seven plates) by Philip B. Mason, 
M.R.C.S., etc. ; " Notes on a Salt-Marsh at 
Branston," (with one plate), by J. E. Nowers and 
J. I. Wells ; " Trout and Grayling," by G. Mor- 
land Day ; " Notes on a Summer Tour in Norway," 
by Horace T. Brown, F.G.S. , etc. ; " Some Ancient 
Burton Manuscripts," by T. Knowles, M.A., etc. 

We are pleased to draw attention to a cleverly 
written essay, bearing on Systemisation, published by 
Williams and Norgate, entitled, "The Organisation 
of Science." It is cleverly written, and bristles with 
numerous points of scientific interest. 

THE report for 1892 of the " Parents' National 
Education Union " is well worth reading. We 
know of no other educational association that is doing 
better work for the present generation, or more 
work for the generation to come. It has been the 
dream of educationalists that some day or other 
education might grow into a possible science. Could 
there be a science of greater importance ? Miss 
C. M. Mason of Ambleside has to be credited with 
splendid work done in this direction. 

Thank Heaven, bread is cheap. In a new book 
just published by Dr. Goodfellow, on " The Dietetic 
Value of Bread," the author gives his reasons for 
holding that the ordinary wholemeal bread is not a 
desirable food, and that it is much inferior to good 
white bread as regards the weight of actual nourish- 
ment, and the thoroughness of the diet. White 
bread, he says, is one of the cheapest foods, not only 
with regard to the actual weight of nourishment 
obtained from it, but also with regard to the variety 
of nutrient constituents it contains. A purchaser 
who spends i\d. on a two-pound loaf cannot spend 
his money to better advantage. 

The juvenile and too accurate reporter stated of a 
shower which fell at a horticultural fete, that " the 
drops varied in size from a shilling to eighteenpence." 
Mr. E. J. Lowe, the well-known meteorologist, has 
recently shown that the sizes of raindrops do vary 
very considerably. He made 300 sketches of them. 
Sheets of slate in a book form, which could be 
instantly closed, were employed. These were ruled 
in inch squares, and after exposure the drops were 
copied on sheets of paper ruled like slates. Some 
drops produce a wet circular spot, while others, 
falling with great force, have splashes around the 
drops. The same-sized drop varies considerably in 
the amount of water it contains. The size of drop 
ranges from an almost invisible point to one of 2 in. 
diameter. Occasionally large drops fall which must 
be more or less hollow, as they fail to wet the whole 



surface inclosed within the drop. Besides the 
ordinary raindrops, Mr. Lowe exhibited diagrams 
showing the drops produced by a mist floating along 
the ground ; and also the manner in which snow- 
flakes, on melting, wet the slates. 

We are pleased to note that Dr. John Evans, 
F.R.S., etc., the distinguished archaeologist, etc., has 
been made K.C.B. Science is looking up. 

The Second Annual Exhibition of the Field 
Naturalists' Society of New South Wales, was held 
recently. This Society was formed two years ago, 
and during that time has carried out a number of 
excursions, intended to assist those who were study- 
ing certain branches of science. A great number of 
exhibits were received, so that the hall had been 
converted into a very attractive museum. A col- 
lection of shells sent by Mrs. G. J. Waterhouse, were 
amongst the most beautiful of the displays, being 
representatives of Fiji, Mauritius, and Australia. 
The exhibition was opened by Mr. J. H. Maiden, 
F.L. S., and microscopic slides were exhibited, with 
the aid of the oxyhydrogen microscope, by Mr. W. J. 
J. Mundy, and a lecture, " A Marine Excursion by 
Limelight," was given by Mr. Cyril Haviland, 
illustrated by photographic transparencies. Among 
other exhibitors were Messrs. A. Sidney Olliff, 
E. P. Ramsey, LL.D., F.R.S.E., F. A. A. Skuse, 
Thos. Whitelegge, F.R.M.S., etc., etc. 

THOSE who find themselves at Eastbourne during 
July, August, and September, should visit the 
Devonshire Park, to inspect the " Tanganyika Exhi- 
bition," and hear the demonstrations of Captain 
Hore, the brave missionary who for eleven years 
lived and worked on and about the shores of the 
lake. The natural history specimens are - very in- 

AVe are very pleased to draw attention to the 
" Supplement to the Third Edition of English 
Botany," (uniform with the latest edition of Sowerby). 
This supplement has been in preparation for several 
years, and four parts are ready for immediate issue. 
Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Royal Herbarium, Kew, 
has carried it as far as "Dipsaceje." The continua- 
tion and further revision has been undertaken by 
Mr. Arthur Bennett, whose name is sufficiently well- 
known to English botanists to guarantee the satisfactory 
completion of the work. The third and last edition 
of " English Botany " was published 1863-1S72. 
Since the date of its completion, many new facts of 
importance, and the general increase of knowledge 
of the science of botany have necessarily made it 
advisable to once more bring the work fully up to 
date ; hence the reason of this new volume. 

There is hardly a disease to which humanity is 
heir with so ominously sounding a name as cancer. 
Is it an organism growing like a fungus, or merely 

an abnormal growth of tissue ? The natural history 
of cancer is as yet little understood. Investigation 
strongly suggests it is something of a fungoid growth ; 
or rather that the abnormally-formed tissues are due 
to the presence therein of some specific organism. 
An eminent Austrian physiologist has been operating 
on canceroid growths by injecting alcohol into their 
circulation. He has just published an account of his 
experiments, which appear to have been mostly 
successful, although time and patience are required 
by the process. 

If water-power is to be used in generating 
electricity, it is natural that cataracts should suggest 
themselves, and, of course, the Niagara first of all. 
The utilisation of the mighty energy of the latter, 
now entirely wasted, has been talked of, speculated 
about, and almost "boomed" for several years past. 
Mr. Tesla's recent discovery of generating swift, alter- 
nating currents promises to throw a new and practical 
light on the subject. A Niagara Cataract Construction 
Company is in existence. Mr. Forbes, the well- 
known electrician, is at the falls, and suggests the 
employment of Tesla's alternating currents to utilise 
the power, with the same kind of motor as that 
employed by him. The power is to be transmitted 
to Buffalo, there to be split up and used for lighting 
electric tramcars, etc. This is probably the begin- 
ning of a new era in mechanics. The old-fashioned 
water-mills utilised the force of running streams with 
such rude machinery as was available — the miller's 
water-wheel is the veritable ancestor of the Niagara 

Is there a defect of the human countenance better 
known than the popular "squint," which is practi- 
cally due to the fact that one or more of the muscles 
which ought to adjust and focus the eye are defective ? 
Some oculists devote special attention to this subject, 
for "squinting" most frequently occurs when people 
have otherwise beautiful eyes. Dr. Stevens has been 
studying the changes of these muscles by the aid of 
photography, and he has taken 2000 portraits of people 
so affected. In the majority of cases careful observa- 
tions have been repeated many times over, and photo- 
graphs taken at various stages of modification of the 
muscles of the eye, so that a comparative study of 
the human face under their varying conditions is now 
possible. The result of Dr. Stevens' investigations is 
to demonstrate that certain well-defined types of facial 
expression are both associated with and dependent 
upon certain relative tensions of the muscles of the 
eyes, which latter movements are, of course, intended 
to adjust the eyes for accurate sight, as you would in 
focussing an opera-glass. 

This is the time of year when even botanists take 
holidays. To such who have not made up their 
minds to go, we would strongly recommend the 
brochure of our earnest and valuable contributor, 



Mr.j E. D. Marquand, " The Flora of Guernsey," 
reprinted from the transactions of the Guernsey 
Society of Natural Science, for 1891. 

The last number of the "Essex Naturalist" for 
May includes, in addition to the account of the 
ordinary meeting, the follQwing valuable articles : 
" Notes, Original and Selected ; " " Ancient Remains 
at Epping, Essex," by C. B. Sworder ; " Epping 
Forest Rubi," by J. T. Powell; "Notes of Two 
Days' Trawling and Dredging in the River Crouch," 
October 10th and 15th, 1891, by Walter Crouch, 

We are very pleased to call the attention of our 
botanical and microscopical readers to No. 9 of 
M. Tempere's " Le Diatomiste" (London: II. P. 
Collins), perhaps the best work on Diatoms yet 

The amiable Professor James Thompson, brother 
of Sir William (now Lord Kelvin, a new invention, 
that is a "scientific peer," created as such), has just 

We strongly advise our readers to carefully and 
«njoyably peruse the Report of Professor Percy 
Frankland's Lecture at the Royal Institution on 
" Micro-Organisms in tlfeir Relation to Chemical 
Change," published in " Nature " of June 9th. 

The annual Conversazione of the Royal Society 
was held on June 15th. We hardly need to say it 
was at high-water mark. 

The total number of licensees under the Vivisection 
Act in 1891 was 152, of whom forty-three, however, 
made no experiments. There were fifty-nine licensed 
places in forty different institutions in England and 
Scotland. It is further stated in the report that 
licences and certificates are only granted and allowed 
upon the recommendation of persons of high scientific 
standing. The total number of experiments per- 
formed in 1S91 was 2661, of which S75 were 
performed under licence alone, the remainder being 
performed under certificates. In 9S6 experiments the 
animals operated upon suffered no pain, complete 
-anaesthesia being maintained from the beginning until 
the end, when the animal was killed. In other cases 
ihe animals were anesthetized during the operation, but 
were allowed to recover. In these cases the animals 
were operated upon with as much care as human 
beings. In the bulk of the cases the operations were 
very simple. Among the diseases the causation of 
and protection from which occupied the attention 
of the licensees during 1S91 were tubercle, cholera, 
cancer, erysipelas, diphtheria, influenza, rabies, 
glanders, distemper, blood-poisoning, lead-poisoning, 
goitre, and cretinism. 

The collection of butterflies belonging to Mr. 
Naish, of Bristol, sold last month, fetched as follows : 
Seven examples of Lycxna dis/ar, an extinct British 
butterfly, realised 16/. Ss., or an average of 2/. "]s. 

each. A "lot" of four Polyommalus acis was 
knocked down for \%s. Eight Latlia ciinosa (appa- 
rently recently extinct) brought 3/. 17.?. 6d., and one 
fine example of Noctua subrosea, no longer a native 
of Britain, and the continental form of which is 
very different in appearance, fetched 2/. ior. 

Isoprene, a hydro-carbon, discovered among the 
products of the destructive distillation of india-rubber, 
was in 1SS4 found by Dr. W. A. Tilden, F.R.S., 
among the volatile compounds obtained from the 
action of moderate heat on oil of turpentine. When 
isoprene is brought into contact with strong aqueous 
acids, for example hydrochloric acid, it is converted 
into a tough elastic solid, pronounced to be true india- 
rubber. Not long ago Dr. Tilden observed that some 
isoprene made from turpentine and kept in bottles had 
become thick and syrupy in appearance, and on exa- 
mining it found lumps of a solid substance floating 
in it. These proved to be caoutchouc of a yellowish 
colour. He accounts for the spontaneous formation of 
the rubber by supposing that a small quantity of acetic 
or formic acid had been produced by the oxidising 
action of the air. The artificial rubber, like natural 
rubber, appears to consist of two substances, one 
more soluble in benzine or carbon bisulphide than the 
other. When dissolved in benzine the evaporation 
of the solution leaves a residue agreeing in all 
respects with a similar preparation of Para rubber. 
The artificial rubber unites with sulphur to form 
vulcanite. It is obvious that if the artificial rubber 
can be made at a sufficiently low price, there is 
a great field before it. 

In these days of scientific culture it is difficult for 
an artist to avoid marring the effect of his work by 
some error of science ; and Professor Norman 
Lockyer, Professor Du Bois Reymond, and others 
have been strongly urging artists to study science — 
not merely anatomy, but physics. The day appears 
to be coming when lectures on these sciences will 
form part of the training of an artist. Ruskin is 
opposed to science teaching for the artist, although 
Professor Du Bois Reymond considers this ridiculous. 
The artist should have a knowledge of science, but 
he should work in the spirit of art. 


The Quekett Microscopical Club. — A con- 
versazione, attended by about 600 or 700 persons, 
given by the officers of this club, was held at Free- 
mason's Hall, Great Queen Street, W.C. Among 
the many and various objects exhibited we may 
without invidiousness mention the following. Living 
and mounted specimens of cattle ticks (larva? and 
adults) from Natal {Amblyomma hebrczum) and not 
previously exhibited in this country, Mr. R. T. Lewis ; 
scale insects (Aspidotus conchiformis) on apples im- 
ported from Tasmania, Mr. J. E. Mainland ; Volvox 



stellatus, Mr. J. D. Hardy; a curious spiny spider 
(Gasterocantha cancrifirmis) from Trinidad, Messrs. 
Watson and Son, who also exhibited some specimens 
of fertilized seeds of the sugar cane, only recently 
discovered, the canes having been always propagated 
by cuttings ; Bacilli of influenza, Mr. Beck ; a 
plumed mite (Glyciphagiis plumigcr), Mr. Oakden ; 
circulation in Valisneria under T Uh objective, Mr. 
Powell. There was, as usual, a large show of pond- 
life by Messrs. Andrew, Byrne, Dadswell, Hind, 
Rousselet, White and others. Foraminifera were 
shown by Mr. Earland, and Diatomaceae by Mr. 
Wynne E. Baxter, Mr. Rohr, Mr. Soar, and others. 
Mr. C. Lees Curties projected a large number of 
microscopic slides on the screen at intervals, with the 
lantern microscope. A good selection of music was 
given by Drs. Guthrie, Leonard, and Dundas Grant, 
Mrs. Grant, Messrs. Fenigstein, G. and W. Goss, and 
other friends of the members, during the ivery pleasant 
evening which was spent. 


Curiosities of Worm-Life— One of the most 
peculiar abnormalities which I have ever seen has 
just come to hand from Perth, in the shape of a worm 
with two heads. As I showed in my article on page 
10S, double tails are by no means rare. I have, 
however, never yet heard of a worm such as I have 
figured here. It is, as usual, a specimen of the long 
worm (A. longa, Ude), and when in motion the second 
head had all the appearance of a snail's feeler, or 
antenna. I received the specimen, with a collection 
of Scottish worms, from Mr. Ellison, the genial 

Wexford, on the 1st of May, and has been placed in 
the Zoological Gardens, Dublin, by its captor, Mr. 
Arthur Ruttledge. The marten is an animal now 
very little known in Ireland, and this occurrence is 
of great interest, inasmuch as it was previously an 
open question whether the species survived or not in 
Co. Wexford. A year ago I had indeed strong 
suspicions that such an animal was committing 
depredations among the lambs and poultry at Bally- 
hyland, about four miles from Coolbawn ; and there 
can be little doubt that a specimen was trapped at 
Ballyhyland nine or ten years ago, and released by 
some of the labourers, who mistook it for a young 
fox. But Mr. Arthur Ruttledge's specimen is, so 
far as I know, the first authenticated marten taken 
in this country for a long time ; and from the fact 
of the capture having been, as Mr. Ruttledge tells 
me, quite accidental (the trap having been set only 
for rabbits, and the marten having committed no 
damage to lead to suspicion of its presence), it seems 
highly probable that other martens remain in the 
vicinity. I may add that Wexford is not one of the 
counties mentioned by Thompson in his enumeration 
of those in which the marten was known to exist. 
In saying this, however, it is proper to recall the fact 
that Thompson's notes on the mammalia were very 
incomplete at the time of his death, and are only 
known through the medium of a posthumous publi- 
cation. — C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 

A Plague of Caterpillars in Epping Forest. 
— At present the oak-trees on that side of Epping 
Forest which extends from Chingford Station towards 
Sewardstone, as well as in the neighbouring lanes 

Fig. 104. — Allobophora longa, tide. Nat. size. 

curator of the Perth Natural History Museum. The 
embryology of this species has never yet been studied, 
but the constant recurrence of such peculiarities 
suggests some interesting lines of thought, with 
which I hope to deal more fully when I have cleared 
some of my field-studies away. I take this oppor- 
tunity of thanking my numerous correspondents for 
their encouragement and help, and shall be glad if 
others will favour me with consignments addressed 
4, The Grove, Idle, Bradford. — Hilderic Friend. 

The Pine Marten.— A specimen of this rare 
animal was taken in a rabbit-trap at Coolbawn, Co. 

Fig. 105. — Twin head of A. longa, enlarged. - 
pr. prostomium ; peris., peristomiun 

. gullet, 

and hedge-rows, are being devastated by an army of 
small caterpillars (mostly Geometry) which dangle in 
strings from the twigs of the trees. Meantime the 
sparrows, which abound in the gardens of the neigh- 
bouring farms and cottages, keep aloof from the 
scene of mischief, finding elsewhere food which they 
prefer. To-day (May 23rd), whilst traversing nearly 
two miles of the trees infested, I may safely say that 
I did not see a single sparrow. The blue-tits are 
doing their best against the enemy, but their numbers 
are quite insufficient. This is one of the many cases 
which the advocates of the sparrow would do well to 
take into fair consideration. — J. W. Slater. 



Re " Secreting Glands in the Feet of 
Flies." — We are sorry the following reached us too 
late for insertion : " I am requested by Mr. Jenkinson 
(who has been seriously ill, but is now much better) 
to inform you that the numbers, viz., 47 and 48 
affixed to illustrations in Science-Gossip should be 
transposed for each to apply to its proper illustra- 
tion."—^ F. Bell. 

New Zealand Bumble-Bees and Clover.— 
Some years ago an interesting fact was laid before 
the public by the late Charles Darwin, namely, that 
red clover could only be fertilised and produce seed 
through the agency of bumble-bees. On the New 
Zealand plains the red clover grew with a rank 
luxuriance, such as we know nothing of in this 
country. But it could produce no seed, because there 
are no bumble-bees in New Zealand, so the colonists 
had to send every year to England for red clover 
seed, which was both annoying and expensive. A 
great many attempts were made by naturalists to 
convey bumble-bees to New Zealand from this 
country, the late Frank Buckland taking great in- 
terest in this important work. The chief difficulty 
lay in crossing the equator. There the bumble-bees 
literally died off " like flies." They could not stand 
the intense heat. But when vessels were fitted up 
with freezing chambers, about ten years ago, it was 
found possible to transfer British bumble-bees in a 
hibernating state to the Antipodes. The bumble- 
bees went into what they thought was their winter 
sleep in England, and woke up in New Zealand. 
Now the red clover in the latter country is fertilised 
by them and produces seed. The bumble-bees have 
multiplied abundantly, [even within the few years 
since they were introduced. Indeed, there seems to 
be looming a danger ahead lest they should become 
as great a pest as rabbits. In a recent article in the 
"New Zealand Journal of Science," Mr. G. M. 
Thompson gives an account of the introduced bum- 
ble-bees in New Zealand, as well as a list of the 
plants and flowers visited by these bees. He states 
that, with a few exceptions, he has never heard of 
the introduced bumble-bees visiting the flowers of 
New Zealand native plants ; that they have become 
so extraordinarily abundant that the question has 
arisen in his mind as to whether they would not be- 
come as serious a pest to the apiarist as the rabbits 
have proved to the farmer and cultivator, on account 
of their [absorbing ' so much of the nectar of the 
flowers. He also points out the fact in connection 
with the life of the bumble-bee in New Zealand, 
that in many parts of the colony it does not 
hibernate at all, but is to be seen on flowers all 
the year round. In parts of Australia the intro- 
duced hive-bees are ceasing to store up honey, 
having already found out there is no need for the 
habit in countries where flowers blcssom all the year 
round ! 

Protection of Birds. — The committee of the 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society are very 
desirous of bringing under the notice of landowners 
and agriculturists the great desirability of affording 
more efficient protection to useful birds, particularly 
those which, as destroyers of vermin and injurious 
insects, render immense service to the farmer and the 
community at large. Frequent comments and letters 
have recently appeared in the public journals as to 
the disastrous effects resulting from the indiscriminate 
slaughter of many useful species, not only in this 
country, but also on the continent, and it is hoped 
that the publicity given and the attention drawn to 
the subject will lead to a ;more judicious [course of 
action. The importance of this matter, in view of 
the great devastation caused by the plague of field- 
voles (mice) in some parts of Scotland, and past 
experiences in Lincolnshire, cannot be overlooked, 
and the opinions of the Scotch farmers in the districts 
affected, quoted from the reports to the Board of 
Agriculture, point to the folly of destroying owls, 
hawks, and weasels. The barn owl, a true farmers' 
friend, is much persecuted, but a more useful bird, as 
a destroyer of vermin, does not exist. It has been 
computed by competent observers, that when it has 
young it will bring a mouse to its nest every twelve 
or fifteen minutes, and as many as twenty good-sized 
rats, perfectly fresh, have been counted in a single 
nest. A recent communication to the daily papers 
states that a nest containing five young ones, being 
taken and placed under a hen-coop about a mile 
distant, no less than twenty-four rats, large and small, 
brought there by the parent birds, were found lying 
outside the coop the following morning. The owlets 
were at once returned to the place from whence 
they were taken. The kestrel hawk, a great 
killer of mice, is another bird which merits protection, 
and it is much to be desired that game-preservers 
would give their keepers stringent orders not to 
molest it. It is greatly to be wished that some steps 
could be taken by those who have the control of the 
rivers and waterways of Norfolk to check the cruel 
and dangerous practice of: shooting swallows and 
martins, which has of late become so frequent in this 
country, more especially in the neighbourhood of 
Norwich. To such an extent is the destruction of 
our native birds carried on, that it is not improbable 
further legislation in the matter will be called for, 
and it is to be hoped the Board of Agriculture will 
continue to prosecute their enquiries into the 
pecuniary loss accruing from such destruction. My 
committee earnestly trust that all lovers of nature 
will, by their own example and influence with others, 
not only extend their protection to these our feathered 
friends, but will also do their best (in accordance with 
one of the fundamental objects of this society) to aid in 
" the circulation of information which may dispel pre- 
judices leading to their destruction." — IV. A. Nichol- 
son, Hon. Sec. A T orfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. 




Hex-and-Chickens Daisy. — I have to record 
another curiosity in the shape of a "hen and 
chickens " daisy, which I found growing on the lawn 
in our garden here on the 23rd of May. The plant 
had then ten heads of flower on it, all of which, 
except three, showed a "chicken'' growth. Round 
the edge of the largest head, just above the involucre, 
grew thirteen small heads, five of which had distinct 
stalks, while the rest were sessile, or nearly so. The 
florets of the central head of this flower were greenish- 
brown and imperfect ; some of the bracts had de- 
veloped into small leaves, and its stem was thickened 
but not fascicled. One of the other flowers had 

Fig. 106. — Hen-and-Chickens Daisy. » 

twelve small heads growing round it, four of which 
had distinct stalks, and another head bore six small 
heads, all nearly or quite sessile. The central florets 
of the heads, both primary and secondary, were, for 
the most part, smaller, greener, and more slender 
than in ordinary daisy flowers, the stamens imperfect, 
and the lobes of the corollas deformed and concave 
at the tips. I could not find any normal "central" 
florets ; and of the " ray " flowers one had three, 
another two rays, and the corolla of a "central" 
floret had six lobes and two opposite scales growing 
from its base, looking like pappus. In the more 
normal heads there were four or five rows of ray 
florets, and these rays on nearly all the flowers were 
pure white. — Frank Sich,jun. 

Liverpool Naturalists' Club. — The second 
field meeting of this club was held at Brynypys and 
Erbistock on May 22nd. The morning was fine, and 
fifty-eight members and friends left for "Wrexham, 
where on arrival wagonettes were in waiting to con- 

vey the party by Bangor, Isycoed and Brynypys to 
Overton. Here all walked two miles by the banks 
of the Dee, which brought the company to Erbistock 
Ferry, on crossing which the wagonettes were again 
in requisition, the return journey being by way of 
Marchwiel to the Wynnstay Arms Hotel, Wrexham. 
Many interesting and uncommon plants were noticed 
on the route, amongst which may be mentioned 
Chrysospleniimi alternifolium, Paris qtiadrifolia, Carex 
pendala, and Saxifraga granulata. The prize for the 
best basket of wild flowers was awarded to Miss 
E. M. Davies. 


The Underground Circulation of Water. 
— In an address to the Meteorological Society, Mr. 
Baldwin Latham (perhaps the best authority on the 
subject — he and Mr. De Ranee) observed that at 
certain particular seasons of the year it was possible 
to indicate the direction and volume of the flow of 
underground streams, even when they were at a con- 
siderable depth, owing to the formation of peculiar 
lines of fog. Upon comparison with underground 
temperatures, which were taken at the same period, 
it was found that in the temperature of the ground 
there was for most months in the year an effectual 
check against the escape of the vapour arising 
from water in the ground ; the temperature of the 
ground acted as a condenser, for, as a rule, except 
between September and November, there is always 
some strata of the ground within 25 ft. of the surface, 
which is colder than is due to the tension of the 
vapour given off by the ground-water ; but about the 
month of September or October there are limited 
periods when no part of the ground between the 
ground water-line and the surface is colder than 
the ground-water. Consequently, in these short 
periods vapours readily escape from the ground, and 
when accompanied by cold air and a clear sky, as 
often happens in September and October, then it is 
that those particular fog-lines appear which indicate 
the presence of ground-water. It appears that in 
nature there are constant checks supplied against 
the inordinate loss of water from the surfaces which 
receive it, and very dry surfaces are often com- 
pensated to a considerable degree by the moisture 
which is condensed in them owing to the difference 
of temperature between their surface and that of the 
atmosphere ; whilst with deeper waters, as long as 
the vapours can serve the uses of vegetation, an 
effectual check by the temperature of the ground 
is provided, so that these vapours are condensed 
within a limit from the surface sufficiently near to 
be brought up by capillarity to serve the require- 
ments of the growing plan ; and possibly it is by 
reason of this provision in nature that our great 



chalk downs that contain the subsoil water at con- 
siderable depth below the surface do not suffer so 
much in a dry season as other lands in which there is 
no subsoil water. 

West Indian Geology.— At the last meeting of 
the Geological Society, an important paper on " The 
Tertiary Microzoic Formations of Trinidad, West 
Indies," was read by Mr. R. J. Lechmere Guppy. 
After giving an account of the general geology of the 
island, and noticing previous memoirs devoted to 
that geology, the author describes in detail the 
characters of the Naparima beds, to which he assigns 
an Eocene and Miocene age. He considers that the 
Nariva Marls are not inferior to but above the 
Naparima Eocene Marls, and are actually of Mio- 
cene date. The Pointapier section is then described, 
and its Cretaceous beds considered, reasons being 
given for inferring that there was no break between 
the Cretaceous and Eocene rocks of the Parian area. 
The author observes that the Eocene molluscan 
fauna of Trinidad shows no near alliances with other 
known faunas, thus differing from the well-known 
Miocene fauna of Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, Trinidad, 
and other localities. Only one mollusk is common to 
the Eocene and Miocene of the West Indies. The 
shallow-water foraminifera are found in both Eocene 
and Miocene, whilst the deep-water foraminifera are 
nearly all of existing species. It would appear that 
during the Cretaceous and Eocene periods a sea of 
variable depth (up to 1000 fathoms) occupied the 
region now containing the microzoic rocks of Trini- 
dad, whilst a mountain-range (which may be termed 
the Parian range) extended continuously from the 
north of Trinidad to the littoral Cordillera of Vene- 
zuela, forming the southern boundary of the Carib- 
bean continent, and possessing no large streams to 
transport mechanical sediment into the Cretaceo- 
Eocene sea which opened eastward into the Atlantic. 
In the discussion which followed, the president said 
the Society had lately heard the paper by Messrs. 
Jukes-Browne and Harrison on the deep-sea deposits 
of Barbados, and the present paper would be useful 
for comparison with the results of those authors. 
Mr. J. W. Gregory stated that the conclusions as to 
the truly deep-sea origin of some of the Trinidad 
rocks stated in an appendix to the paper agreed with 
those just announced by Dr. Hinde. He remarked 
on the great interest of the geology of Trinidad, 
as that island occurs at the intersection of the 
two main Caribbean lines of movement, viz., that 
along the Cordillera of Venezuela, and the later 
one along the Antillean chain. It was from Trinidad 
that evidence as to the exact correlation of the 
Cainozoic deposits of this area might be expected, for 
a series of shallow-water beds containing mollusca 
there occurred below deep-sea beds almost identical 
in character with those of the Oceanic series of 


North Kent Natural History Society. — 
The biennial meeting of this society was held on 
Wednesday, May nth, 1S92, Mr. Woodward, the 
President, in the chair. It was unanimously resolved, 
that the annual subscription to the Society for 
members residing within the radius of ten miles, 
should be reduced to $s. payable quarterly, and for 
country members (those living beyond the radius) 
should be 2s. 6d. payable in advance. Exhibits were 
shown during the evening by several members. A 
small library is connected with the Society, and 
monthly journals are taken. It is earnestly hoped 
that Naturalists residing in this neighbourhood and 
the metropolis will join the Society, which meets 
on alternate Wednesdays. Donations and gifts of 
Books to the library will be thankfully received, 
as will also the names and addresses with the 
Entrance Fee, Is., of any person wishing to become 
a member, by Mr. C. H. J. Baldock, I Chapel 
Street, Woolwich, S.E., or by the Secretary, Mr. 
H. J. Webb,. - 3, Gunning Street, Plumstead. 

Professor Frank Clowes has adapted the or- 
dinary miner's safety-lamp as a fire-damp tester. 
Ordinarily when there is fire-damp in the air a 
luminous "cap" appears over the flame, and the 
height of the cap increases as the percentage of 
inflammable gas in the air increases. But when the 
percentage is small the cap is not very apparent, 
unless the flame is feeble. To remedy this defect, 
Professor Clowes places a small tube between the 
wick and the case, and introduces hydrogen by it 
from a steel reservoir. When the air has to be tested 
the hydrogen is allowed to enter and ignite at the 
ordinary flame of the lamp, which is then turned 
down. It burns with a pale light, and the luminous 
cap over it due to fire-damp is readily measured. 
When the test is made the ordinary flame is re-lit 
and the hydrogen one extinguished. 

The importance of keeping the surface and ex- 
tremities of the body warm during brain-work has 
long been recognised in a general way ; but Professor 
Mosso, of Turin, has demonstrated that when the 
brain is active much more blood is sent to it from the 
peripheral parts of the body. He has also found that 
the circulation of the blood in the brain is subject to 
fluctuations which are apparently not dependent on 
physical activity. Fatigue, caused by brain-work, 
acts as a poison which affects all the organs, espe- 
cially the muscular system. The blood of dogs 
fatigued by long racing also acts as a poison, and 
when injected into other dogs makes them exhibit all 
the symptoms of fatigue. Sense of fatigue seems to 
be due to the products of the nerve-cells rather than 
to deficiency of proper substance. 

"To the Curious Observers of Natural 
Phenomena. — T. Hall, well known to the virtuosi 
as the first artist in Europe for stuffing and preserving 
all kinds of Birds, Beasts, and Reptiles, so as to 
resemble the attitudes and perfection of life ; respect- 
fully informs the public, that by a method peculiar to 
himself, he now makes the stuffed birds to sing as 
though they were alive. Specimens of his surprising 
Art maybe seen at his Museum, opposite The terrace, 
City Road, Finsbury Square, London ; where a 
capital collection of Stuffed Birds, Beasts, and 
Insects, are to be sold, in the highest state of 
preservation, well adapted for Tea Gardens and other 
public places, by which a great profit may arise to 



the purchaser's advantage, he also buys and sells all 
sorts of curiosities. Admission to the Museum 61/. 
each." Written by a lad} 7 on seeing Hall's Grand 
Zoonecrophylagium. (Here follows some verses too 
long to quote.) S. Bailey, printer; 50, Bishopsgate 
AMthin (added in ink, March 1S00). Can any reader 
tell us something about Mr. T. Hall and his singing- 
birds, in this what must have been a wonderful 
Zoonecrophylagium ? — W. E. Harper. 

Intelligence OF A Cat. — Sixteen or seventeen 
years ago, I had a very intelligent tom-cat. When 
out at night, he used to knock by lifting up the 
splash-board of the hall-door, and letting it fall ; 
after knocking a couple of times, he would wait a 
reasonable time to allow the door to be answered, 
and if it was not he would knock again. He taught 
this trick to our other cat also. I have seen him try 
to open a locked cupboard by springing at the key, 
and throwing his weight so as to turn it ; he did turn 
it to some extent, but not enough to open the lock. 
He rarely stole anything in our house, but was a 
daring robber from the neighbours, and he generally 
brought his booty to me. On one occasion he 
brought me a half-cooked chop, quite hot, which 
looked as though it had been taken from the frying- 
pan ; but as he was not burned at all, I can hardly 
believe that possible. At that time I was reading 
hard, and used to take a glass of milk with some 
bread for my supper ; if I had occasion to leave the 
room I used to put my bread and milk in his charge ; 
not only would he not touch it himself, but he would 
not allow the other cat to do so ; and on my return, 
if I indicated with my thumb on the outside of the 
glass, how much he might drink, he would drink 
down to my mark, and then leave off. I could 
mention many more things about him, similar to 
these, but there is nothing specially remarkable 
about them ; they evince intelligence, but that intelli- 
gence is directed to objects ordinarily coming within 
the scope of a cat's mind ; but one circumstance 
seems to me remarkable, and difficult to account for. 
I was once playing chess with a friend ; we were 
using small bone men, red and white, and I had 
white. The cat was sitting on the table beside the 
<:hess-board, and was watching the game very 
intently ; once when it was my turn to move, I 
pondered for some time ; the cat suddenly advanced 
one of my pawns a square with his paw, removed one 
of my adversary's men from the board with his teeth, 
dropped it along with the captured men, and finally, 
seized the end of my nose with his teeth very gently, 
as though to call my attention to what he had done. 
As might be expected, the move made by the cat, 
although possible, was a very bad one ; but it seems 
to me strange that a cat should show any interest at 
all in the subject, and his action seems to show that 
he had observed with sufficient attention to notice 
the alternation of moves, the fact that my men 
were white and my adversary's red, that a move of 
a man of one colour was frequently followed by the 
removal of a man of another colour, and that the 
division of the board into squares regulated the 
moves (because he advanced the pawn exactly one 
square). The idea which occurred to me at the time 
was that the cat was puzzled by the various shapes 
and different moves of the men, and believed he had 
found a uniformity in the moves of the pawns, ac- 
cordingly when he got an opportunity he moved one 
in the way which he believed to be correct, and 
then drew my attention to see if it was so. But on 
later consideration I saw that the facts did not 
amount to proof of this. The move was the ordinary 
-one, not the capturing move of the pawn, and the 

piece removed had no connection other than being 
near it, with the pawn moved.— J. R. Holt. 

Strange Conduct of Cats and Hens.— In a 
loft, a few days ago, I had two hens sitting upon 
their eggs ; also a cat nursing her kitten a few days 
old in an open box (she had had four, the others 
being taken from her). One of the hens had started 
to bring out her birds with the usual chirping and 
cheeping— this was too much for her neighbour 
whose eggs had given no signs. She left her nest 
and attacked puss in all her fury and frightened her 
down the ladder, returned to the kitten, adopted it 
as her own, chucking and nestling it with all the 
fondness of a mother. By-and-by the cat was seen 
making for the loft accompanied by her old mother 
(a much larger and fiercer cat than herself). Then a 
great uproar was heard, and, on my appearance, the 
two cats had got possession of the box and kitten, 
and were defending themselves from the attacks of the 
enraged hen. Getting a hold of her, she was put 
upon her own eggs and a chick taken from her 
neighbour's brood put under her, she quietened down. 
After this both hens with their eggs and chicks were 
removed to an outhouse, to be their abode for a time. 
Yesterday the girl whose duty it was to look after 
them, discovered one of the chicks wanting, which 
was afterwards discovered in the box in the loft ; the 
cat fondling aud nursing it beside her kitten. To 
take it there she must have leaped five feet to an 
aperture in the outhouse, descending as far, carrying 
it some distance and taking it up the ladder ; all of 
which she accomplished without injuring the chick 
in the slightest.— .P. IV., Ayrshire. 

The Murder of a Spider by Ants.— On Whit 
Monday I witnessed a strange and curious sight : 
The murder of a spider by ants. I was scanning 
a small bed in the garden when presently here trots 
across it an uncommonly large and sluggish spider 
pursued by a few ants. He had probably trespassed on 
their domain and done some damage to their passages 
in passing over. However, they soon overcame him, 
and began to attack him ferociously. Some would 
cling tenaciouly to his limbs, and a number would 
overrun and bite him in his bulky abdomen, while a 
few, more daring than the rest, attacked him in the 
head. Now and again they tried to arrest his pro- 
gress by clinging fast to the end of his limbs by their 
jaws and planting their own, with all energy, in the 
ground. By and by the emmetic army grew stronger 
by fresh arrivals, and they completely overhauled 
their victim more than once ; while in this position 
he would, by dint of muscular strength, heave his 
legs in the air like the jib of a crane, carrying 
with them a load of ants. To berid himself of them 
in this manner proved an utter failure, they seemed 
to enjoy such aerial rides. Still adhering by their 
jaws they would at whiles ply their limbs with such 
rapidity as to become quite invisible. This, perhaps, 
was a measure of their anger. At last the poor spider 
got entangled in a piece of waste, and here he was 
held down much like Gulliver by the Lilliputians, and, 
more unfortunately, slain. — G. Rees, Aberystwyth. 

We have received from Mr. F. L. Dawes No. 19 
of " Bibliotheca Zoologica " (Berlin) ; also Messrs. 
Wesley and Son's No. 112 Catalogue of his "Natural 
History and Scientific Book Circular," advertising 
important works on Geology. 

Climbing Hermit-Crabs. — I have never heard 
of hermit-crabs climbing bushes, but a few days ago 
I was walking along one of the valleys here when my 



attention was drawn to a white object hanging on to 
one of the bushes which — contrary to general opinion 
— can be found on these barren rocks. I thought it 
was a cocoon of some kind, but found it was a hermit- 
crab, and on looking around I found several more on 
the bush. They had climbed from I ft. to 3 ft. from 
the ground, and seemed to be feeding on the leaves 
or berries ; and so many more were crawling about 
below, that their shells, knocking against the stones, 
made a pattering noise like hail. The sea was quite 
two hundred yards off, and the sand and stones must 
have made the journey inland a laborious one for the 
crabs. It was so curious to see these uncouth crea- 
tures " up a tree," that I wondered if this was a well- 
known habit of theirs. — S. F. Clark, M.B., Surgeon- 
Captain, Medical Staff (Aden, Arabia). 

The Vole Plague. — This creature, which is at 
present devastating whole districts in Scotland, gene- 
rally described as a "field-mouse," is nearly con- 
nected with the water-rat, and allied to the beaver. 
The fact that they are water-loving animals may 
perhaps suggest some method of destroying them. 
They always suffer severely during the long-con- 
tinued droughts, and they delight in ditches. The 
wet seasons are thought to have had something to do 
with their enormous increase. It appears inconceivable 
that their superabundance can be entirely due to the 
destruction of their natural enemies. It may be 
stated that the vole, or short-tailed field-mouse, is 
found in the colder extremes of three northern con- 
tinents, while the true field-mouse affects the warmer 
regions. In Greenland there are voles and no true 
mice ; in the Tropics there are true mice and no 
voles ; and there are none in South America, South 
Africa, or Australia. There is no other mammal in 
Europe, Asia or America so numerous as the vole, 
and so prone to petty depredations. Its evil doings 
have been reported to several Governments besides 
our own, and in Germany, where this rodent had 
suddenly increased enormously in numbers, it was 
officially condemned end executed — in one year— to 
the number of 1,000,000 or 2,000,000. 

Photographing Flying Bullets. — The "Ama- 
teur Photographer " contains some details of the ex- 
periments which Mr. G. V. Boys has been making in 
photographing flying bullets by the aid of an electric 
spark. These experiments, it will be remembered, 
were briefly touched upon by Captain Abney in his 
presidential address at the Camera Club Conference. 
The spark, it is said, is generated by the discharge of 
a Leyden jar, there being in the conductor from it 
two breaks, which together the electric fluid has not 
pressure sufficient to jump. But when the bullet or 
flying object makes contact with one, the spark 
is instantly emitted from the other. As then the 
duration of this spark may be even less than the one- 
millionth of a second, it is far and away in excess of 
the speed of the bullet, which consequently appears 
to be stationary, and a very precise view is accom- 
plished by the camera. This view records the form 
of the bullet, its direction and inclination, the balling 
up of the air in front of it, the long-drawn-out vacuum, 
and the various other vortices and contortions of the 
surrounding atmosphere through which it is passing. 
Photographs of actual experiments were then enlarged 
into gigantic pictures on the screen, and made per- 
fectly clear in all their singular details^to the audience. 
Some of the most remarkable were those which 
showed the passage of a bullet through a sheet of 
plate glass. In one the head of the bullet was seen 
protruding, carrying what seemed to be a dark cloud 
of lead vapour, caused by fusion in the impact, and 

another showed the storm of dust from the smashed 
up glass ; while others gave views of the strains set 
up in the glass plate around the clean perforation the 
bullet had made. Clean perforations of this nature 
have long been known, but the reason is rendered 
additionally clear in that the speed of the bullet ex- 
ceeds the speed at which cracks in the glass can 
progress. The result, consequently, is that the round 
portion of glass in front of the bullet is locally pounded 
into powder before the exterior portions have time to 
start into motion. Some notice was also taken of 
the effects of the dust and vapour envelopes of the 
bullet in the transmission of sound, and also how, by 
a series of differently-inclined diagonal perforations 
through the bullet, and the capacity of light being 
seen through them, the effects of rotation might be 
observed, and details of the differences of spin effected 
between that given by the barrel and those produced 
in the rapid passage of the missile through the air. 

Stockport Naturalists at the Isle of Man. 
— A number of the members of the Stockport Society 
of Naturalists during Whit week spent an enjoyable 
time at the Isle of Man. On arriving at Douglas, 
where they were met by the President, Mr. P. 
Kendal, they took train to Port Erin, where they 
took part in the opening of a Biological Institute, a 
ceremony which was performed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Island. They took up residence at 
Port Erin, and Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday were 
spent in proceeding with their study of geology, etc., 
in the island. Much interest was centred in the 
dredging-vessels which were stationed at Port Erin. 

Kingfishers and the Mayfly. — A correspon- 
dent in the " Field " asks, Do kingfishers hawk flies 
or butterflies? I picked up the other day, outside 
my dining-room window — which is a bay, and can be 
seen through from side to side — a kingfisher quite 
dead, with a white butterfly also dead close to it. 
The bird had no wound of any kind, nor was its 
plumage hurt. It seems to me it must have flown 
against the plate-glass, and killed itself by concussion. 
The butterfly had one wing damaged. I am the 
more sorry, for, beyond losing the beautiful bird, it 
was one of a pair which had a nest in the bank of a 
stream near my house, which my son has since dis- 
covered had been rifled. We had noticed these birds 
frequently passing by the house in going to and fro 
from watercourses in my meadows to the main stream. 
I cannot help also mentioning the most wonderful 
mayfly appearance I have ever known. It began 
last Friday afternoon, and continued up to yesterday. 
I approach my premises by a bridge across the stream 
called the Bourne or Burn, an affluent of the Wey, 
and on Sunday and Monday, in its immediate vicinity, 
the air was positively clouded with these flies. Every 
small spray of leaves had flies on it ; they lay about 
on the ground, and over the stream itself there were 
swarms. Without exaggeration, I may describe them 
as being in thousands. I never saw such a sight, and 
I have been a fisherman off and on for fifty years. 
Alas ! our stream has no trout to partake of this 
aldermanic banquet. Yesterday I saw several of the 
flies at least a mile away from the stream, but there 
was a high wind. 

Strange Site for a Robin's Nest. — The en- 
closed cutting is from the "Bradford Observer," 
May 16th. I can vouch for its authenticity, as the 
Bowling Club is only a few hundred yards from my 
residence : — A few weeks ago a pair of robins built 
themselves a nest in the letter-box of the Manningham 
Bowling Club. The box is in a door leading into the 



bowling-green from Cunliffe Road, and having a 
circular orifice inside, the birds were able to get in 
and out without trouble. The postman, finding what 
was going on, left his letters in another place, and 
the birds were left undisturbed except by the opening 
and closing of the door, which after a time ceased to 
concern them much. Four eggs were laid, on which 
the mother had sat for a fortnight, when some ruth- 
less person stole them, much to the regret of the 
members of the club, who had felt quite proud of 
their feathered guests. The nest has now also dis- 
appeared, so that the eviction is complete. — Harry 
B. Booth. 

Spontaneous Combustion. — Professor Vivian 
Lewes, of the Royal Naval College, who has given 
special attention to the matter, recently drew renewed 
attention to the subject of spontaneous combustion in 
coal cargoes in a paper read before the Society of 
Arts. The conclusion which Professor Lewes has 
come to, and the recommendations which he has 
made to obviate the loss of life and property arising 
from this cause, are engaging attention, and may 
probably be the subject of legislation. The Royal 
Commission appointed in 1S75 to inquire into this 
subject came to the conclusion that the presence of 
iron pyrites among coal was the primary, and the 
absorption of oxygen by the coal a subsidiary cause 
of spontaneous combustion. Professor Lewes exactly 
reverses the position of these causes, and fixes on the 
absorption of oxygen by coal as the principal and 
almost only cause of combustion. To bring about a 
condition of possible combustion it is necessary that 
sufficient oxygen should be absorbed. Coal will 
absorb about twice its volume of oxygen. A ton of 
coals will stow in a space of about 42 cubic feet, of 
which space the coal itself occupies only about 30 
cubic feet. Hence about 300 cubic feet of air are 
required to completely saturate a ton of coal with 
oxygen ; and Professor Lewes maintains that with 
the ventilation that can be applied in a large cargo 
hold, the amount of air will only, roughly speaking, 
be about sufficient to place the coal in its most 
dangerous condition, -and have no effect in cooling 
the mass or carrying off the dangerous gases. The 
contributory causes of combustion Professor Lewes 
finds to be the increase in the weight of coals carried 
in one hold, usually accompanied by fine subdivision 
due to the method of loading ; the pressure of mois- 
ture, which increases the action of the absorbed 
oxygen ; ventilation, and the presence of external 
causes of heating, such as the proximity of a boiler or 
steam pipe to a bulk -head against which the coal is 

Wild Duck's Xest. — A wild duck, which recently 
built its nest in a tree near the mansion, in Wilder- 
mere Park, Sevenoaks, forty feet above the ground, 
has hatched her young and returned to the lake. The 
young 'ducks, eight in number, followed, running 
along the branches and alighting on the ground from 
the nest without the slightest injury. This was 
witnessed by Mr. Burroughs and two or three mem- 
bers of the household, and a few days ago our repre- 
sentative saw the mother sitting on the eggs in the 
tree. — The Kent and Sussex Courier, May 2"jlh, 1892. 

Electricity guards many of the treasures of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In the 
room containing the Moses Lazarus collection of 
miniatures, painted porcelain, and other rich and 
valuable objects of art, there are %vires running 
underneath the lid of each case. If anybody tried 
to lift the cover or disturb it in any way, a bell 

would ring in General Di Cesnola's office, and also 
give warning on the ground floor by ringing a big 
gong. There is a similar arrangement in use with 
other valuable cases. 

A wind apparatus for generating electricity and 
charging secondary batteries has been patented in 
Canada by Mr. James M. Mitchell, of Atlanta, Ga. 
The device consists of a dynamo mounted on high 
tubular standard or staging and driven by a wind 
wheel, the current generated by this dynamo is 
stored in a secondary battery ready for use, the 
generating circuit is automatically opened when the 
secondary battery is charged to its full capacity. 
The current generated at different times and in 
different quantities, owing to the variable force of 
the wind, is safely stored and may be used for every 


To Correspondents and Exchangers. — As we now 
publish Science-Gossip earlier than formerly, we cannot un- 
dertake to insert in the following number any communications 
which reach us later than the 8th of the previous month. 

To Anonymous Querists.— We must adhere to our rule of 
not noticing queries which do not bea-r the writers' names. 

To Dealers and Others. — We are always glad to treat 
dealers in natural history objects on the same fair and general 
ground as amateurs, in so far as the ** exchanges" offered are 
fair exchanges. But it is evident that, when their offers are 
simply Disguised Advertisements, for the purpose of evading 
the cost of advertising, an advantage is taken of our gratuitous 
insertion of "exchanges," which cannot be tolerated. 

We request that all exchanges may be signed with name (or 
initials) and full address at the end. 

Special Note. — There is a tendency on the part of some 
exchangers to send more than one per month. We only allow 
this in the case of writers of papers. 

To our Recent Exchangers.— We are willing to be helpful 
to our genuine naturalists, but we cannot further allow dis- 
guised Exchanges like those which frequently come to us 
to appear unless as advertisements. 

W. W. C. (Wolverhampton).— The specimen sent us is the 
Chimes {Allium schoinoprasum). 

T. H. — It is the Silvenveed [Potentiila argentea), not a 
common plant. 

R. S. T. — The Saw-fly {Sirex giganteus). See a good figure 
of it in " Playtime Naturalist." 

W. J. S. — The New Zealand caterpillar with the clubbed 
fungoid growth at the tail was figured and described under 
the common name of the "Vegetable Caterpillar," in Science- 
Gossip for 1865. It has long been a popular wonder, and 
thousands of them have been sent over to England by colonists 
to their natural history-loving friends. 

F. J. R. (Clifton). — Many thanks for the specimens of 
abnormal flowers of foxglove. No other order has its members 
so likely to "go wrong" than the Scrophulariaceai, and no 
other order has such a wide range of. external floral structure. 
The foxglove is especially guilty in this respect. The peculiar 
form of aberration in the specimen sent is described by Dr. 
Masters in his notable and rare book, "Vegetable Tera- 
tology," under the name of synanthy— that is, several flowers 
growing together, the number of which can be ascertained by 
counting the stamens. The synanthic flower measured 4$ 
inches across — an unusual size. 

J. E. W.— The limitation you suggest as to the price of the 
book you require rather ties one's hands. The best and 
cheapest book on minute organisms is Dr. M. C. Cooke's 
"PondiLife" (2$. 6d., published by the S.P.C.K.). Another 
capital and more advanced, is Professor Jeffry Parker's " Bell's 
Manual of Biology" (Macmillan & Co., 10s. 6d.). Claus' 
work (translated and edited by Professor Sedgewick) runs to 
more money still. 

Illustrations. — We should feel obliged if contributors of 
illustrated papers would kindly send their sketches separately, 
instead of sketching or inserting them in the text of their MSS. 
There would then be no danger of misplacement. 

MiSS S. — The plant is Salsify {Tragopogon po?-rifoHum). 

1 68 


E. Dixon. — The shining black flakes in granite are horn- 
blende— although there is occasionally black mica present. 
Hornblende or schorl is not actually black, but of a very 
blackish green colour. 

The Earth-worms of Norfolk and Suffolk. — The Rev. 
H. Friend, F.L.S., Idle, near Bradford, Yorks., advises us 
that the earth-worms of Norfolk and Suffolk are absolutely 
unknown. Here are chances for young naturalists, who 
should communicate with Mr. Friend. Mr. Friend is anxious 
to get the important subject of the distribution of earth-worms 

P. S. — You cannot do better than procure a copy of Stark's 
"British Mosses" (coloured plates and capital verbal descrip- 
tions). Doubtless Messrs. Dulau, of 37 Soho square, or Messrs. 
Wesley, Essex Street, Strand, could supply you with a copy. 

T. E. T. — The rock specimen is in the mechanically meta- 
morphic condition known as foliation. The rock constituents 
are almost in the semi-mica-schist stage. You will see the 
entire rock district about Ben Lomond is in this foliated, con- 
torted, and semi-metamorphosed state. 


Wanted, back numbers of the "Midland Naturalist," first 
six volumes. Send list of the numbers, with the desired ex- 
change, to— W. B. Grove, 136 Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

Slides of algK-washings from Mauritius, containing, among 
many other forms, some of that beautifut diatom, Actinocychts 
confluens, Greenow. Send list of diatoms, or other objects.— 
Rev. A. C. Smith, Woodside, Crowboro', Sussex. 

Offered, Newman's " British Moths," Kirke's " Physi- 
ology," Ganot's "Physics." Wanted, "Carpenter on Micro- 
scope," works by Gosse, or offers. — G. A. Barker, 24 Avenue 
Villas, Cricklewood, N.W. 

Wanted, collections of foreign stamps, and rare species of 
British land and freshwater shells. Offered, lepidoptera and 
exotic shells.— Miss M. E. Pepperell, 5 Park Street, Bristol. 

Wanted, birds' eggs of rare species; can offer shells and 
lepidoptera. — W. K. Mann, Wellington Terrace, Clifton, 

Wanted, any volume of Sowerby's "English Botany," 
3rd ed., except 7, 8, and 9. Books or herbarium specimens 
offered in return.— E. F. Linton, Crymlyn, Bournemouth. 

Offered, Science-Gossip for 1886 (except January), 1887 
(except December], and parts 239-242 ; also fossils from the 
Gault and carboniferous. Wanted, lignite, peat, anthracite, 
native alum, native nitre, and Cornish rocks and minerals. 

Eggs of sooty and noddy terns, Bartram's sandpiper, etc., 
for exchange. Send offers to — W. Wells Bladen, Stone, 

Mounted leaf of enchanter's nightshade (Circcea alplnci), 
showing crystals in sitfi, in exchange for other slides of interest. 
Parts of insects or parasites preferred.— George T. Reed, 
87 Lordship Road. Stoke Newington, London, N. 

Science-Gossip from 1885 to 1S91, both inclusive ; also 
"The Naturalist's World" for 1884 to 1887, complete, but not 
bound. Wanted, micro, slides or offers. — W. E. Harper, 
Norfolk Road, Maidenhead. 

Wanted, living paludina and cyclostoma; also ipirit speci- 
mens of taenia, distomum, scolopendra, and scorpio, in ex- 
change for anything in my various catalogues.— J. Sinel, 
Biological Laboratory, Jersey. 

Offered, A.Jluviatilis, B. acutus, C. minimum, C. rugosa 
P. fontinale, P. pusillum, S. comeum var. pisidiodes, S. 
elegans, V. piscinalis, and V. pygmtea. Wanted, Acliatina 
acicula, C. Rolphii, C. biplicata, S. oblonga, S. Pfeifferi, S. 
•virescens, or any foreign helices.— T. W. Paterson, 59 Hazel- 
bank Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Three Tapes decussatus will be given for any one of the 
following shells: — Area tetragona, A. obliqua, Cardium pa- 
pillosum, Tellina bala?tstina, Lutraria oblonga, Nucula cus- 
fidata, Mya BingJiami, Pa?u>pea plicata, Acera bullata, 
Pecten striatus, P. niveus, P. Danicus, Terehratula (any), 
Scalaria Trevelyana, Ianthina communis, I. exigua, I. 
pallida, Trochus granulatus, Clio Pyramidata, A ply 'sia punc- 
tata.— -T. E. Sclater, Natural History Stores, 43 Northumber- 
land Place, Teignmouth. 

Offered, fifty foreign stamps — U.S.A., British Honduras, 
Columbian and Argentine Republics, etc., all different. What 
offers in exchange? — Richard B. Corbishley, Breck Road, 
Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire. 

L. Cat., Sth ed. Wanted, 5c, 29b, 61, 68, 71* 72, Si. 133, 
j66b and c, 232, 389, 390, 484, 584, 750, Sio, 838-850, 891^, 932, 
1144, 1312, 133S, 1460, 1483, 1508, 1509, 1515, 1706, 1818. 
Offered, 19, 21, 41, 84, 101, 107^, 108, 1090, 123, 141, 1C1, i6xb, 
i~o> 175. 193. 2°°- 212, 229, 240, 291, 33s, 335<$, 336, 339, 341, 
353. 372, 393. 483. 53°» 53 8 » 562, 576. 6«» 692, 698, Hierac. 
angitstum and auratum, 928^, 969, 970, 973, 1187, 1194* 1255, 
1410, 14S3, i5iS£, 1629, 1630, 1753. 1772, 1813, 1845.— J. A. 
Wheldon, 9 Chelsea Road, Walton, Liverpool. 

Wanted, entomological cabinet, store-boxes, and setting 
boards, in exchange for secondary and tertiary fossils, birds' 
eggs, etc.— W. D. Carr, Lincoln. 

I have a number of Gault fossils for exchange, principally 
ammonites and belemnites, and shall be glad to hear from 
collectors who require same. — Edward A. Martin, 21 Carew 
Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey. 

"American Geology," with plates, by E. Emmons, 4 vols. : 
" Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom," 
with plates, 9 vols., 1849-1861 : " Pal^ontographical Society," 
with plates, 6 vols., 1848-1874; "Catalogue of Shells," by 
F.Paetal, 1883, offered in exchange for rare shells or offers.— 
Miss Linter, Arragon Close, Twickenham. 

Duplicates. — About forty species British butterflies, twenty 
species British marine shells, and thirty species land and fresh- 
water shells. Desiderata, British dragonflies, fresh and unset 
preferred : also grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets, especially 
mole and field-crickets. — W. Harcourt Bath, Ladywood, 

Spluzrium comeum, Pis. pitsillum, Unio pictorum, Neritina 
Jluviatilis, Byth. acutacutata, Hydrobia ulva, Physa /on~ 
tiualis, Lim. palustris, Lint, glabra, Helix Jiortensis, vars. 
lutea, lilacina, arenicola, Clausiliz rugosa, Clausilia Ralphii, 
Clausilia lajninata, Carychium minimum, etc, offered in 
exchange for good specimens of land and freshwater shells noC 
in collection. — C. Baldock, 21 Chapel Street, Woolwich, S.E. 

Will any cryptogamic botanist join me in a ten days' 
exploration of the Cairngorms (from Speyside) about the 
middle of July, for mosses, hepatic^, and lichens? — William 
Smith, Addison Place, Arbroath, N.B. 

Duplicates. — Pupa of Liparis dispar. Desiderata, nume- 
rous ova, larva, and pupa. — Ernest Piatt, West Street, Chip- 
ping Norton. 

Foreign shells, chiefly marine, for exchange. Please send 
lists to— J. E. Cooper, 93 Southwood Lane, Highgate, N. 


" Farmyard Manure," by C. M. Aikman (Edinburgh and 
London: William Blackwood & Sons). — "Theoretical Me- 
chanics," by J. Spencer (London: Percival & Co.). — "The 
Flora of Guernsey," by E. D. Marquand.— " On Geological 
Zones," by Horace B. Woodward, F.G.S. — "The American 
Monthly Microscopical Journal " (Washington : Chas. W. 
Smiley). — " The Entomologist's Record " (London : Elliot 
Stock). — "The Microscope " (Washington : Microscopical 
Publishing Companv). — "In Starry Realms," by Sir Robert S. 
Ball, D.Sc, LL.D.,"F.R.S. (London: Isbister& Co.).— " Mine- 
ralogy." by F. H. Hatch, Ph.D., F.G.S. (London: Whittaker 
& Co.) — "Mediterranean Naturalist," by May (London: W. 
P. Collins). — "The Physiology of the I nvertebrata," by A. B. 
Griffiths, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. {London: Reeve & Co).— 
"Res Judicata?," Papers and Essays, by Augustine Birrel 
(London: Elliot Stock).— " Transactions of the Burton-on- 
Trent Natural History and Archaeological Society " (London : 
Bemrose & Sons, Limited). — " Tanganyika," by Edward Coode 
Hore (London: Edward Stanford). — "The Organisation of 
Science," by a Free Lance {Covent Garden : Williams & Nor- 
gate). — "The Optical Indicatrix," by L. Fletcher, M.D. 
(London: Henry Froude). — "Nature Notes" (London: H. 
Southeran & Co.). — "The Entomologist" London: West, 
Newman, S: Co.). — "Geological Magazine" (London: Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner, & Co.).— "Magazine of Natural 
History" (London: Taylor & Francis). — "Essex Naturalist" 
(Chelmsford :iDurrant & Co.). — " Le Diatomiste," par J. Tern- 
pere (Paris: 16S, Rue St. Antoine ; London: W. P. Collins, 
157, Great Portland Street). — "Sponge Remains in the Lower 
Tertiary Strata," by G. Jennings Hinde, Ph.D., and W. Mur- 
ton Holmes (London: Taylor & Francis}.— " On the Age, 
Formation, and Drift Stages on the Darent Valley," by Joseph 
Prestwich, D.C.L., F.R.S., etc.— «* Healthy Households," by 
Guy Cadogan Rothery (London: J. S. Virtue & Co.).— 
"Annual Report of the Wellington College Natural Science 
Society " (Wellington College : George Bishop). — " The Idler," 
(London: Chatto & Windus). — "Gentleman's Magazine."— 
" The Mediterranean Naturalist." — '* The Midland Naturalist." 
— " The Naturalist." — " Natural Science." — " American Micro- 
scopist." — "American Naturalist." — "Nature Notes." — "Essex 
Naturalist." — "Journal and Proceedings of the Essex Field 
Club," etc., etc. 

Communications received up to the 12TH ult. from: 
F. A. F.— J. P.— E. D. M.— F. G. B.— F. S.— P. J.— H. S. F. 
— P W.— F. J. P.— C. H. O.— J. W. S.— P. T.— F. E.— M. 
E. P.— E. F. L.— W. H. M.— A. B.— H. P.— H. E. G.— T. W. 
P — T. E. S.— W. W. B.— F. S.— W. S.— J. R. H.— E. D.— 
P. L S.— R- B. C— J. A. W.— C B. M.— W. E. H.— G. T. R. 
W. W. C— G. R.— J. S.— H. F.— B. P.— W. S.— \V. D. C— 
E. P.— T. D. A. C— A. B.— E. D.— C H. G. B.— J. E. L.— 
E A. M.— W. S.— A.— C. L. R.-Prof. W.— R. G. M.— H. F. 
A . E . L.— F. G. K.— J. E- C— W. H. S.-T. E. J.— R. H. M. 
T . R , t._k. M. W. T— M. P. S.— F. W. W.-T. E— J. E. 
E — R. S— C. C. S.— T. H. H.— Dr. B.— W. S. S— Prof. M. 
— T. J. K.— T. W.— T. B. G.— T. S. B.-W. S.— A. J. K— 
R. S.— etc, etc. 





volume of the 
late Mr. Thomas 
Gamett, of Low 
Moor, Clitheroe, 
was printed for 
private circula- 
tion, and some 
notice of it will 
be of interest to 
many outside the 
narrow circle for 
whom it ■ was 
originally pre- 
p a r ed. 'Mr. 
Thomas Gamett 
was one of three 
brothers. Mr. 
Richard Gamett 
himself as a phi- 
lologist, and became an assistant keeper in the 
British Museum ; Mr. Jeremiah Garnett was for 
many years the editor of the "Manchester Guardian," 
and Mr. Thomas Garnett settled at Clitheroe, 
where he passed an active life as a manufacturer, 
but instead of allowing business to absorb all his 
attention he found pleasant and healthful recrea- 
tion in agricultural and scientific observation. The 
results are now gathered in this volume — "Essays 
in Natural History and Agriculture, by the late 
Thomas Gamett of Low Moor, Clitheroe. London : 
printed at the Chiswick Press, 1883." Only 250 
copies were printed. The editing has been the 
work of the author's nephew, that accomplished 
scholar and friend of all students, Dr. Richard 
Garnett of the British Museum. The first paper 
contains a number of facts and observations relating 
to the salmon, chiefly based on Mr. Gamett's ex- 
perience in Lancashire. Written as long ago as 1834, 
it contains a plea in favour of a wise and not vexatious 
measure for the protection of the salmon fisheries. 
No. 332. — August 1892. 

He believed that the salmon enters and ascends- 
rivers for other purposes than propagation. In sup- 
port of this view he cites what in Lancashire is called 
" streaming." Thus in winter the fish not engaged 
in spawning, trout, grayling, chub, dace, etc., leave 
the streams and go into deep water. Another reason 
is their impatience of heat, which leads the grayling, if 
the weather is unusually hot at the end of May or 
beginning of June, to ascend the mill-streams in the 
Wharfe, by hundreds, and to go up the mill-races as 
far as they can get. The " salmon " par he holds to' 
be neither a hybrid, nor a distinct species, but a state 
of the common salmon. In 185 1 he wrote some 
papers describing his own experiments in the arti- 
ficial breeding of salmon. His interest in the fish is 
shown by the following quotation : — 

" I have had fish sent from two different gentle- 
men living on the banks of the reservoirs belonging 
to the Liverpool waterworks ; these were beautiful 
fish, three in number, more like the sea trout than 
the salmon, and the largest of them weighing two 
pounds. I had put them into the brooks running 
into the reservoirs three years before. I also learn 
that a beautiful specimen of the Ombre chevalier 
(French char) was taken out of Rivington reservoir. 
About a thousand had been put in by me two years 

It should be mentioned that Mr. Garnett's experi- 
ments on the artificial impregnation of fish ova were 
made without any knowledge of previous attempts of 
the same kind. In answer to a suggestion made by 
Mr. Garnett, the late Sir G. C. Lewis observed : 
" You might as well propose to shoot partridges only 
three days a week as to restrict the netting of salmon 
to only three days.". In 1859 Mr. Garnett .wrote 
some papers on the possibility of introducing salmon 
into Australia, and addressed a communication to the 
authorities of Tasmania and New Zealand on the 
subject. He had some doubts as to success, but 
thought that the experiment should be made, and 
that New Zealand was the likeliest place for the 
experiment. In 1843, 1844, 1845, and '84S, he 




made experiments in the cultivation of wheat on the 
same land in successive years, and the results were 
communicated to the "Manchester Guardian." He 
also advocated the growing of a short-strawed wheat 
as peculiarly suitable to the conditions of farming in 
Lancashire and Yorkshire. The gravelling of his 
clay soils elicited some amusing comments from his 
neighbours, one of whom remarked that he had seen 
land tilled (manured) in various ways, but had never 
before seen a field tilled with cobble-stones ! The 
cultivation of cotton in India, and in Peru, was 
another project in which he took a warm interest. 

Mr. Garnett was a keen observer of natural history. 
Some excellent authorities had asserted that the 
common wren never lined its nest with feathers, but 
he showed conclusively that this was a mistake. The 
nest in which eggs are laid, is profusely lined with 
feathers, but during the period of incubation the male 
frequently constructs several nests in the vicinity of 
the first, none of which are lined. The existence of 
these " cock-nests," as they are called by schoolboys, 
was doubted, but Mr. Garnett fully made out his 
case. The grey wagtail (Motacilla sulphured), some- 
times looks at its own image in a window, and 
attacks it witli great vivacity. A superstitious 
neighbour was alarmed by this conduct in a " barley 
bird (Motacilla Jlava), and thought it a portent of 
evil. Her alarm was cured by the young naturalist, 
who secured the bird of evil omen. Having caught 
a colony of the long-tailed titmouse, Mr. Gamett and 
his brother attempted to rear the half-fledged young 
ones, but of the six old birds, five died in confine- 
ment. The survivor was allowed to escape in the 
hope that it would come back to rear the young ones. 
This it did, and by the most unwearied exertions 
supplied the whole brood, sometimes feeding them 
ten times in a minute. Mr. Garnett took some pains 
to establish the identity of the green with the wood- 
sandpiper. The courage of the stoat, and the per- 
tinacious manner in which the marsh-titmouse for a 
time resisted attempts to drive her from her nest are 
amongst his curious observations. The creeper, he 
noticed, associated with the titmouse in winter. 
The language of birds has not yet been mastered, 
either by philologists or ornithologists, but it appears 
that the alarm note of one is readily understood by 
those of other species. Mr. Garnett desired to make 
some young throstles leave a nest which was in 
danger of visitation from mischievous lads. He took 
one from the nest and made it cry out. Its brethren 
quickly disappeared, the old bird set up a shriek of 
alarm, and blackbird, chaffinch, robin, oxeye, blue 
titmouse, wren and marsh-titmouse, and even the 
golden-crested wren, which usually appears to care for 
nothing ; in fact all the birds in the wood, except the 
creeper, came to see what was the matter. Mr. 
Garnett did not share the prejudice felt by some 
farmers against the rook, which he held to be service- 
able to man. He reckoned that one rookery in 

Wharfedale destroyed 209 tons of worms, insects and 
their larva;. The rook also, he notes, relieved the 
farmers from the apprehension caused by a flight of 
locusts in Craven. Contrary to Waterton's opinion, 
Mr. Garnett describes the process by which birds dress 
their feathers with oil from a gland. The sedge- 
warbler owes its local name of "mocking-bird " to its 
imitative powers in copying the notes of the swallow, 
the martin, the house-sparrow, spring-wagtail, whin- 
chat, starling, chaffinch, white-throat, greenfinch, 
iittle redpole, whin-linnet and other birds. Of the 
water ouzel he says : "A pair had built for forty 
years, according to tradition in a wheel-race near to 
where I was born, and had never been molested by 
anybody, until a gentleman in the neighbourhood, 
who was a great ornithologist, employed his game- 
keeper to shoot this pair. I think the natives of 
Calcutta were not more indignant when an unlucky 
Englishman got one of their sacred bulls into his 
compound, and baited him, than was our little 
community at what we considered so great an out- 
rage. The gamekeeper narrowly escaped being 
stoned by myself and some more lads, any one of 
whom would have shot fifty blackbirds or fieldfares 
without any misgiving." Mr. Garnett once shot 
what he afterwards believed to have been a Sabine's 

His interest in the river was not confined to the 
salmon, and he made some interesting observations 
on the propagation of lampreys, the spawning of 
minnows, and the breeding of eels. A short note on 
the last-named topic, by Mr. Jeremiah Garnett is also 
printed. On the formation of ice at the bottom of 
rivers, there are two papers, one by Mr. Thomas 
Garnett, and the other by his brother, the Rev. 
Richard Garnett. A shower of gossamer, the thread 
produced by the aeronautic spider, is recorded as seen 
on the hills near Blackburn. One of Mr. Garnett's 
friends was the unfortunate Mr. Joseph Ritchie, of 
Otley, who accompanied Captain Lyon's expedition to 
Fezzan, and died there in 1S19. To this there is an 
allusion in the following passage : " In conclusion, allow 
me to say, that the leisure hours which a somewhat 
busy life has enabled me to spend in these pursuits, 
have been some of the happiest of my existence, and 
have awakened and cherished such an admiration of 
nature, and such a love of the coi'ntry and its scenes, 
as I think can never be appreciated by the inhabitants 
of large towns, and which I cannot describe so well 
as in the words of one of my friends, in a beautiful 
apostrophe to England, when leaving it, never to 


" To thee 
Whose fields first fed my childish fantasy; 
Whose mountains were my boyhood's wild delight, 

Whose rocks, and woods, and torrents were to me 
The food of my soul's youthful appetite ; 

Were music to my ear — a blessing to my sight." 

Why do not more of the dwellers in rural districts 
employ their often abundant leisure in natural 
history studies ? 




THAT there is nothing new under the sun we 
know, and we may seriously inquire if there 
is anything that is new in the universe. That a 
planet at dewy moming looking in at a window 
should assume the form of a patriot in the flush of 
victor)- or a woman in child-birth, was the savage 
yearning of the desert child who craved for sympathy, 
and found it in the gems that shone ; and still as the 
rule of our day-star is replaced by the distant twinkle 
of the night-watches, an idea possesses us that the 
seeds of passion are sown broad-cast in worlds un- 
seen, and should a sparkle brighten or grow dim, we 
experience a thrill of joy or shudder as if a powder- 
mill had exploded. When it is our own sun that 
kindles or tarnishes, we instinctively feel and more 
fully realize that the joys and sorrows, or actual 
calamities in our companionable planets, are then in 
unison with our own, and our sympathy might even 
raise a clamour that the columns of our daily news- 
papers ought to extend to their coasts their categories 
of eruptions, cyclones, and famines ; so far as rigid 
statistics show these visitations to be coincident or 
dependent on the state of the sun's disk : for in any 
case in so doing we should not incur the stigma of 
Chaucer's scholar, who predicted Noah's flood at 
quarter night from the adage of the mighty San 
Isidro : " Luna si summo comiculo maculas nigras 
habuerit in primis mensibus, imbres ait fore." One 
such deluge prophecy, however, on recent lines, it is 
true, has the repute of being realized. It is singular, 
says Raikes in his journal, that the old astrologers, 
prophets, and almanack-makers, all agree in repre- 
senting tie year 1S37 of the Incarnation as one of 
the most calamitous. Galeotti, who lived under 
Catherine de Medicis, says: "In that year the sun 
will show itself weak, as if in continual languor, 
which will prevent it ripening the fruits of the earth." 
The clear-sighted James Scott also talks of copious 
inundations that will drown the west, and Vavoust, 
in his " Spectaculum Mundi," writes in a similar style. 
M. Arago, taking for his basis the last eclipse of the 
moon, is of opinion that the bad weather will con- 
tinue until October. It is needless to add that this 
being an epoch of a maximum of sun-spots, the sun 
was actually in the condition foretold ; but as regards 
rain, the previous year in England, according to 
Symons, had been proverbially wetter. The price 
of wheat rose. 

The transcendental idea in such predictions is, how- 
ever, the old venerable notion of periods of work and 
cessation, of kalpas and millenniums, and thus the 
legendary Christmas-tree, with its bowls, knops, 
lilies and pomegranates, as it stood obliquely south- 
east and north-west against the southern wall of the 
Arab tabernacle, sustained the dignity of the number 
seven; while its Druid priest, as he contemplated 
its seven branches perpetually glowing, one by one, 

like the moon and then known planets with the sun 
in their midst, mentally reckoned up six days of 
labour and a Sunday of rest, the seven years of 
apprenticeship Jacob underwent for a Rachel, and 
the seven times seven years, hard on the allotted ter- 
mination of our earthly labours. The astrologically 
incomplete notion of the harmony of the spheres, and 
of the metallic globes coursing around the ring of the 
zodiac to the seven notes of the diapason, modern 
astronomers have transferred in idea to the central 
sun-spots, which they suppose to resound with the 
roar of the typhoon, the crash of the thunder, and 
the groaning of the earth-throe ; a mighty engine at 
work to prick out a telegram in Stenheil's alphabet, 
which comes our way to decipher in the form of 
many-coloured light, heat, and magnetism ; which 
spelt out by the magnet and spectroscope, may allow 
us to grasp peradventure the switch that sets in 
motion the universe of lights, that our pioneer tele- 
scopes have not yet fathomed. Since we have no 
idea but length, breadth, and depth, what can be 
beyond ? 

As regards the magnets working in observatories, 
their general movements are undeniably responsive 
to the degree of spottiness of the sun, but as for the 
magnetic storms and chronic shakes, they appear to- 
remain as intrinsically a wonder as when commented 
on by Professor James Forbes in the Dissertation 
appended to the Encyclopaedia Britannica ; for while 
they are known to be simultaneous with earth cur- 
rents that go forth to course over some considerable 
portion of the globe, it is by no means absolutely 
clear whether they come on directly responsive to a 
big spot, a flash in sun, or to the slower progress of 
a cold or hot wave over the earth's surface. Though 
apprised of this incertitude, fondly hoping to catch 
the faint melody of the spheres concerning which we 
read, I took down the book of Observations at 
Greenwich for a certain year during the spring of 
which the sun-spots, as seen through my small tele- 
scope, had dotted off a word on the face of the sun 
very suggestive of the Mahdi ; and I thereupon 
imagined the magnets to prick off their summer 
caprice on a scale of music as a piano exercise for 
certain young ladies, commencing at a rest that 
coincided with the earthquake at Ischia, and termi- 

Adagio 1 


Fig. 107. 

nating in a dead stillness indicative of the Jovian 
blowing up of Krakatoa. I was, however, vexed to 
discover that the first two thermo-electrical bars, un- 
fortunately for the infinities, droned over two coinci' 

I 2 



dent weeks of summer thunderstorm in England and 
Europe, and that the carnation glows that came with 
the yellow leaf were left con amore. I will not send 
the score, but rather recommend to the notice of the 
composer the enclosed passage, which presents on the 
lines of Messrs. Wolf and Ellis the sun-spots and 
responsive magnetic variation, from the year 1750 
until the well-remembered London aurora of 1S70 ; 
a general jotting of a necessarily processional music, 
with sudden tremulous and devil-may-care shrieks, 
that, sweetly tinkling in the delicately pillared shades 
of Winchester at a harvest festival, might startle 
aghast the ghost of St. Swithin. 

It is at least consoling to suppose our fits of 
momentary chagrin to be portion of the burden of 
the spheres ; and once when the skaters were figuring 
on the crisp ice in the London Parks, I fairly came 
to believe that a black spot that had come round the 
sun's edge on the sly had been the signal for the 
thaw and vapoury breathing of the violet-scented, 
south-western gale. It is an old carp of the salt sea, 
for Hakluyt quotes the log of the ship ' Richard' of 
Arundel], bound in the year 1590 for Guinea, to the 
effect, "that on the seventh, at the going down of 
the sun, we saw a great blacke spot in the sunne, 
and the eighth day both at rising and setting we saw 
the like, which spot to our seeming was about the 
bigness of a shilling, being in five degrees of latitude, 
and still there came a great billow out of the souther- 
board." The cave of Neptune is no longer known, 
though some tell us it is in the West Indies, and 
others say it_ is in the Rocky. Mountains, that these 
whirlwinds gather that rush forth eastwards to attack 
our American Liners. Having drawn up what Mr. 
Capron pronounced to be quite a number of coin- 
cidences, I ventured to address the managers of the 
Cunard, Allen, and White Star packets, and sug- 
gested that their captains might observe the ingress 
and departure of the macula; on the sun's disk as a 
weather omen. In reply, I received very courteous 
and practical answers, and a little subsequently I 
learnt from a leading nautical publisher at Liverpool, 
that it was thought the gales could be anticipated by 
telegram. That a sun-spot is calculated to draw a 
cold line on our atmosphere, maybe gathered from 
the circumstance that when an image. of the. sun was 
thrown upon a screen from a telescope in a darkened 
room by Professor Henry, a spot that happened to 
be on it, when brought upon the surface of a thermo- 
pile, proved to be perceptibly colder than the sur- 
rounding light surface. But methinks to fully realize 
what is transpiring in the sun it would be needful to 
be transported in a waking vision to the planet Mer- 
cury, where eighty-eight of our days close in a rather 
short year, to rove over its mountains among chromo- 
landscapes so full of colour, to stray through its 
vajleys of golden amyrinths banqueted on by hum- 
ming-birds ; and dance beneath its dark shadows, or 
bathe in its misty rivers. As the great dilated sun 

arose shimmering in the east, we should then per- 
adventure start at the huge black pits crawling over 
its surface, and commence to prattle about its 
wrinkles of light and its willow diaper : nay, we 
might argue from the inverse squares of the distance, 
whether gravitation were not magnetism, and mag- 
netism the motive power of the universe.* Sad it is 
to think that while it is possible to learn, and it may 
be possible to see, what is passing in the planets, we 
cannot hope through a telephone to interchange a 
message of kindly greeting. Perhaps in recognition 
of our unknown brethren we should keep the jubilee 
festivals of the sun and strike star decorations. 

A. H. SwiNTON. 


By Bernard Thomas. 


HYPOTRICHA have the cilia springing from 
the under or oral surface of the body. 
27. Euplotes patella is in size about the two 
hundred and thirtieth of an inch. Front view it 
is oval, truncated anteriorly, side view it is narrow ; 
it thus somewhat resembles a plate. It has already 
been remarked that some of the Ciliata have the 
exudation layer of the ectosarc converted into a cell- 
wall, but in this species, as well as in Aspidiscus, the 
transformation is only partial, and we have a chitinous 
layer on one side protecting the protoplasm and 
forming a shield or carapace, which is grooved, 
the lines extending longitudinally. . Two of these 
grooves are very distinct, and are seen just above 
the cilia which guard the mouth. Around the edge 
of the carapace there is a row of elevations like 

Fig. 108. — Trklwda lyttceus. 1, Aspidiscus; 2, Oxytricha. 

buttons, seen best under a high power. In the 
posterior region there are four styles. All the cilia 
are on the under, ventral or oral surface, and 
can be seen through the transparent carapace. In 
the anterior region a portion of protoplasm is pro- 
truded beyond the dorsal shield, and is covered with 
cilia. The contractile space is situated in the pos- 

* Professor Huxley, in one of his Darwinian orations, states 
that the harmony of the stars is gravitation ; but this is cause, 
not effecr. It will, perchance, explain how the "morning 
stars sang together/' but possibly not why "all the sons of 
God shouted tor joy." 



terior region of the body. By the use of stains a 
nucleus, in the form of a bent rod, can be brought 
into view. Euplotes patella is one of the Infusorians 
that have- chlorophyll corpuscles, and as they are few 
in number they can be easily studied. Each consists 
of two parts ; first, a green cup of chlorophyll con- 
taining protoplasm enclosing a colourless ball of the 
same substance. This is the structure of the green 
bodies of most, if not all, of the Infusorians. 

It is obvious, from a glance at the figure, that 
Euplotes is asymmetrical. Thus the nucleus is on the 
left side, and the contractile space and food vacuoles 
on the right, as viewed from the dorsal surface. 

2S. Before turning to the Peritricha we will notice 

Peritrichous Ciliata. 

We now come to a very interesting group of the 
Ciliata, known as the Peritricha. These fix them- 
selves by a stalk (a prolongation of their body) or by 
a sucker-like arrangement. Vorticella is one of the 
most common genera, and may be taken as a type. 
There is a disc above the mouth fringed with cilia, 
and a peristome or wall which surrounds the disc and 
mouth, and which also bears cilia. The mouth is 
situated below the disc, where this structure rises 
highest. The oesophagus is sometimes ciliated, and 
in certain species it is spiral. There is one large 
contractile space and a nucleus. 

Fig. 109. — Slenlor viridis. aa, attached and expanded; B, free swimming; c, t, tail; «, segment of nucleus; ck, chlorophyll 
corpuscles ; D, inyophan striation ; e, part of crushed specimen, to show protoplasmic network [ptl) and vacuole [v). In 
all figures — c, cilia on expanded end; c', on body; d, disc; ch, chlorophyll corpuscle; «, segment of moniliform nucleus ; 
oe, oesophagus ; p, peristome ; t, hyaline tail ; v, vacuole. A and B, 1 inch ; c and e, i inch ; d, i inch. 

Aspidiscus, which we have previously mentioned. 
The life-history of Trichoda lynceus was worked out 
by M. Jules Haime. The larval form is known as 
Oxytricha (Fig. 10S, 2), and is heterotrichous. It is 
somewhat oval in outline, with stiff bristles and cilia. 
This becomes encysted, that is, it forms a cell-wall 
round itself, and rests. When the resulting organism 
escapes from the cyst it is hypotrichous, and was 
called by Ehrenberg Aspidiscus (Fig. 108, 1) and 
supposed by him to be a different organism. Like 
Euplotes, Aspidiscus is furnished with a carapace, 
from the under surface of which cilia are seen to 
protrude. The figure gives a better idea of the form 
of this curious organism than can be furnished by any 

It must not be supposed that the Vorticellinse 
are all permanently attached ; on the contrary I 
have seen a detached vorticella, moving by the aid 
of its long stalk across the microscopic field. Tri- 
chodina can swim easily about by the aid of its 
long basal cilia, and a Vorticella, recently produced 
by fission and detached, swims about in a similar 

29. Stentor viridis (Fig. 109), when swimming 
covered with its short cilia, resembles one of the 
holotrichous Ciliata. It is the largest of the Ciliata, 
and can be easily seen by the unaided eye. 

S. Miilleri (Fig. 1 10) of Ehrenberg, is of about the 
same size as the chlorophyll-containing species, that 
is, about one twenty-fourth of an inch long. 



S. niger is a black species, and smaller than either 
of the preceding. 

Unattached, Stentor is ovoidal in form. The 
upper portion, which bears the peristome and closed 
disc, is broader than the opposite extremity, which 
ends in a hyaline sucker, by means of which the 
organism fixes itself to a weed. When Stentor has 
thus anchored itself it expands, the posterior end 
lengthening, the anterior broadening, and the peri- 
stome opening out, so that it assumes a form which 
has aptly been compared to a trumpet, and gained 
for it the name of the trumpet animalcule. 

The ectosarc is furnished with short cilia, which 
cover the whole surface, a small tuft springing from 
the tail. At the upper expanded portion there is a 
circle of strong cilia springing from the peristome and 
ending at the mouth in a spiral. 

The myophan striation, readily visible under a low 
power, is yet more clearly analysed under a higher 

Wu- 1 

Fig. no. — Stentor Mtilleri. I, free swimming; 2, Stentor 
expanded ; f, foot ; cv, contractile vesicle ; m, mouth. Low 
power (1 inch). 

(Fig. 109, D). We can then study its nature, and 
see that it does not merely consist of grooves, but 
bands of less hyaline alternating with more hyaline 
protoplasm. A grouping together of the more con- 
tractile elements, we may say. 

A large contractile space is situated near the 
peristome, and as in other Infusoria there are here 
digestive vacuoles and granules, large and small, 
scattered through the endosarc. Fig. 109, E shows 
how, by squeezing one of these organisms between slide 
and cover-glass, an appearance highly suggestive of 
the network arrangement of the protoplasm, was 
brought into view. The spaces between the meshes 
seem to have been widened out. 

The chlorophyll corpuscles of 5. viridis resemble 
those of Euplotes and the other Ciliata; some are 
figured. The nucleus is composed of several separate 
segments placed in a line like a row of beads, and 
each component resembles an ordinary endoplast 
(Fig. 109, c, «). 

Stentor is, I believe, sometimes classed apart from 
the Vorticellinae. 

30. Vortkella nehllifera (Fig. m) might be well 
chosen as an example of the whole group. A more 
detailed description of several interesting particulars, 
will shorten and facilitate the description of the 
remaining species. 

The bell animalcule consists of an essential portion 
or bell attached to a long stalk, whose other extremity 
is fixed to some weed, very often to the stalks of the 
duckweed. The bell is surrounded at the summit 
by a wreath of strong cilia. These cilia are placed 
on a ridge running completely round, and called the 
peristome (Fig. Ill, /) ; inside this there is a disc 
(Fig. in, d) also fringed with cilia. At a certain 
point between the disc and peristome there is the 
mouth, and it is above this orifice that the disc rises 
highest when the bell expands. 

If we look down on to the expanded bell, we see a 
groove between the disc and peristome which leads 
to the mouth, and is known as the vestibule. 

The ectosarc is not very thick or dense, for the 
outer surface is seen to slightly alter in form. 
Sometimes one may see a transverse barring or 
wrinkling similar to the myophan striation before 
mentioned. A filmy or exudation layer is occasion- 
ally observed secreted by the ectosarc. This 
phenomenon is, I believe, known as " ecdysis." In 
the specimens in which I observed this feature, the 
exudation layer was transversely wrinkled and brown 
in colour. A trace of the myophan striae is nearly 
always observed where the bell joins the stalk 
(Fig. Ill, my). The endosarc is faintly granular, but 
sometimes filled with large, strongly refractile bodies 
(Fig. III. g), which have been called spores, but 
probably they have nothing to do with reproduc- 
tion. The nucleus may be easily observed by 
staining, or by the use of dilute acetic acid ; it is a 
bent rod like a horse-shoe or letter S. In many 
individuals it is evident without the use of re- 
agents. The stalk consists of a delicate cuticular 
sheath, through which runs a slender filament of 

Having thus studied the general morphology of 
Vorticella, we will consider the various movements 
that take place in the different parts of its structure. 
We may conveniently divide these into — 

1. Ciliary movements. 

2. Movements that result in the opening and 
closing of the bell. 

3. Movements by which the bell is drawn down. 

4. Movements that take place in the internal 

I. The cilia produce a very powerful current, 
which draws food into the mouth and also whirls 
digested particles away that have escaped from the 
anal area. Elsewhere we had occasion to study the 
general principles of ciliary motion, and it is un- 
necessary to enter into them again. 



2. With regard to the movements which result in | becomes globular. This is effected by the disc being 
opening and closing of the bell, we have a very | drawn inwards {i.e. towards the centre of the cell) by 

Fig. in. — Vorticella nebulifizra. aa, expanded; b and c, contracting ; d, stained with methyl violet and more highly magni- 
fied; c, cilia of disc; d, cilia of peristome; d, disc; cs, contractile space; ect t ectosare; end, endosarc;./^, food vacuole; 
g, large granules ; m , muf cle of stalk ; «, nucleus ; oe, cesophagus : p, peristome ; s, sheath of stalk ; s£, stalk ; a, b, and c, 
i inch ; d, i inch. 

Fig. 122. — Vorticella nebulifcra. a, stages in division ; b, free-swimming species ; b, basal cilia ; c, formation of basal cilia ; 

d t encysted species surrounded by bacteria, etc. 

complex mechanism. If you watch you will notice I the contraction of the protoplasm below it. At the 
that when the stalk shortens, the bell closes and | same time the peristome closes over it and the cilia 



may now be seen vibrating somewhere near the 
centre of the organism. When the stalk begins to 
unwind, the disc and peristome come slowly out. If 
while the bell is opening it come into contact with 
any obstacle, it immediately closes again. There is 
another movement which takes place when the bell 
closes, and this is the contraction of the cone-shaped 
portion of protoplasm which unites the bell to the 
stalk, and here, as was mentioned, we usually see 
myophan striae. 

3. The stalk consists of a cuticular sheath, con- 
taining a delicate, finely granular thread of proto- 
plasm. When the thread shortens, 'the sheath is 
thrown into a close spiral. Contraction is usually 
effected very quickly, but expansion more slowly. 
The protoplasm inside the sheath has been called a 
muscle, and although, of course, it has no muscular 
structure (properly so called), it is muscular in 
function and so also are the other essentially con- 
tractile portions of the protoplasm, which move the 
disc and peristome. Perhaps we may look upon 
these "muscular" portions of protoplasm as due to a 
collection of the more specially contractile elements 
in these regions. 

4. The internal movements are similar to those 
seen in other Ciliata. There is a single large 
contractile space. In a sessile species the interval 
from systole to systole was thirty-two seconds, and 
it may be mentioned that a strong furrow was pro- 
duced in the ectosarc when this organ contracted. 
The mouth leads into a short, non-ciliated 
oesophagus, which ends blindly in the pro- 
toplasm. Particles drawn into the gullet, 
sink into the endosarc, and there form food 
vacuoles. In short, the same description 
applies to Vorticella as to Parameceum. 
Vorticella as well as other Infusorians be- 
comes encysted (Fig. 112, d). The bell 
closes and a firm cell-wall is secreted. These 
encysted bells are free from their stalks, and 
may be found as little balls of protoplasm, 
surrounded by a firm cell-wall. A repro- 
ductive process by division of the nucleus has 
been described in connection with encysta- 

Reproduction is, however, most commonly 
effected by fission. In this case the division 
takes place longitudinally (Fig. 112, a). 
When two bells are thus produced, one of 
them develops a ring of cilia at the base. 
The cilia are seen springing from a con- 
striction as small processes. As time advances 
the basal cilia become stronger and more distinct. 
Apparently from their first appearance they are 
vibrating. The new Vorticella furnished with these 
extra cilia now swims freely about until it finds a 
spot to fix itself (Fig. 112, b). 

These basal cilia may be produced in a Vorticella 
that has not divided (Fig. 112, c). Another method 

of reproduction, in which a small, free-swimming 
Vorticella (the male) attaches itself to a fixed form 
(the female), is described as sexual. As a result of 
the fusion of these and of their nuclei, other smaller 
individuals are produced. 

There are other representatives of this genus, 
among which may be mentioned : 

31. Vorticella chlorostignia, whose bell contains 

32. Vorticella microstomum, a small and fairly 
common species. 


AS I do not remember to have seen the family 
of "Fairy-flies" noticed in your columns, I 
venture to trouble you with this paper, hoping that 
the subject may attract the attention of abler 
naturalists than I can claim to be, and lead those of 
your readers who can boast no higher degree than 
that of S.G., or "Science Gossip," to many hours 
of delightful investigation. 

The very existence of these tiny beauties, who, 
however, are our most constant companions in the 
summer months, is unknown to many who will be 
delighted to make their acquaintance ; so I will at 
once proceed to introduction by telling them how 
to discover and catch them, which will at the same 
time explain something of their nature and habits. 

Well, then, being armed with a pair of good 

Fig. 1 

13. — Fairy Fly. Nat. order, Hymenoptera ; family, Mymaridae; 
genus, Anaphes, £. From "Nature" (not Macmillan's). 

eyes, or a pair of good " specs.," as your age or youth 
may determine, a very small white wide-mouthed 
phial containing a teaspoonful of pure turpentine 
or oil of cloves in your left hand, and a light 
pen-holder or stick) terminating with half an inch 
of a coarse hair or fine bristle, proceed to examine 
the panes of a sunny window, the lower sash of 
which is partly open, and if a gentle wind be 



blowing towards you so much the better. Very 
well, you look sharp — but you see nothing ! Look 
sharper still — and you see a tiny entity as small 
as any dot I could make on this paper with the 
pen I am holding ; — and "it moves,'" as Galileo once 
said of something rather larger, and it may be more 
important. Xow hold the wide mouth of your 
phial about half an inch below him, moisten your 
bristle with your turpentine or oil, and lightly touch 
the little creature. If he adhere to the point, at 
once immerse him : but he may possibly elude your 
touch and spring backwards into your bottle : or, 
thirdly, he may justify his claim to the name of 
"Fairy-fly" by playing you the old fairy-like trick 
of vanishing altogether "into thin air " or, at any 
rate, in some direction where you are little likely 
to find him again. But we will suppose you have 
secured your prize, or, by good luck, half-a-dozen 
prizes as good as he. You can examine them at 
once ; or better still, after a mere lookat the pretty 
creatures with a platyscopic or Coddington lens (the 
former is preferable on account of its longer focus), 
leave them in the fluid for three or four days, .when 
they will have become more transparent ; pour them 
out into an old-fashioned watch-glass with a flattened 
bottom placed on a sheet of white paper, and fish 
them out one by one for microscopical examination 
— using a two-inch, one-inch, and half-inch objec- 
tive, and a spot lens, if you have one. Now that 
you can see your fly, we will set about describing 
him. As to his family history, it is of the shady 
description. He is a true parasite of the Hymenop- 
terous group (flies with four wings, two on each side, 
which are united in flight), having sprung from an 

egg which his mother had deposited inside the egg 
of a totally different insect — a butterfly perhaps : a 
decided liberty to take, surely ! However, he 
emerged in the handsome figure you see him, with- 
out any transitions through the grub and pupa 
stage. Here he is then : Order, Hymenoftera. 
Family, Mymurida. Genus, Anaphes — though what 
this word may mean, or what may be the meaning 
of many other bad words which I shall indulge in 
by-and-by, please don't ask me. The nearest I 
can get to Mymar is a Greek word meaning "some- 
thing to eat," but as many millions of Mymars would 
make but a small mouthful, it can hardly be that. 
His head is slightly broader than his thorax, and 
furnished with two antenna;, each of thirteen pieces 
(the females have fewer joints) ; two large com- 
pound eyes ; three simple eyes placed in a triangle 
at the back of the head, and a horizontal band 
running between the compound eyes and above 
the origin of the antennae. 

The thorax gives attachment to the six legs, the 
tarsi or ankles of which are four-jointed, and to the 
beautiful wings without veins or nervures. The 
anterior wings are larger than the posterior, and 
all are studded with minute hairs, and have much 
longer hairs on their margins, which are sometimes 
beautifully iridescent. The hooklets for uniting the 
wings in flight, and which show so prettily in some 
of the Hymenoptera (the Bee and Wasp* for ex- 

* In these insects the margin of the anterior wing is folded 
so as to form a trough in which the strong hooklets on the 
posterior wing are received, and glide in flight. Were they 
received into holes, laceration would occur, because the two 
wings arise from different centres, and of course describe 
different circles when in action. 

Hymenoptera— Mymarid.e. 

Tarsi. i Abdomen. ] No.^fToTrits , Mar S ; nal Branch or Sub-coital Vein 
I in cf and 5 . situated at base of larger Wings. 

Wings, &c. 

Tarsi \ 


Mymar 'dae 

or " Fairy- 


Abdomen i j rj 10. 2 9 . 
petiolated i * cf 13, c. n . 


( Tarsi 1 


Abdomen I 
-petiolated ( 

d" 10, 9 

<S 13. 9 

/NFarginal branch 'extending 

I middle of co ta 

/Marginal branch not extending 
I middle of casta . . . . 
Ditto, ditto 

b two-i J M ."TB i ."?.' ora . nc1 } ,on ? ; tars ! ° r f° u ' \ 


Club not 


o* 13, 

6 10, 

\ • ■ 
9 9 ■ 
J 12, 

9 9 • 

2 9 • 

9 9 • 

( I hind-legs shorter than tibiae 

(Marginal branch short; tarsi offuiiri 
I hind-legs./o /^rihaii .tibiae . .J 

Marginal branch punctlf. nn . 
Marginal branch elorg .tecL , 


I - orew ngs 
|< widened 
I the top . 

enert tlirout-h- 

||Lasr 3 'jo 5 in?v l ,J Mar2 | 1 nal bra " ch linear : no * ^ 
1 1, £j \ \ tne " near the. top .... 

1 v orcwiiigs wtd- 
< ened 

( out . . . . 
f.Mctalhorax with 
t 2 keels . ■ ■ 
fMctathurax not 
\ keeled . . • 

/Marginal branch elongated; 
ened near the top 

thick i 


Can ploptera. 
I Coctoiius. 


; Alaptus. 







X. D. — d means Male, and $ Female. 

17 s 


ample) are nearly absent in the Mymars, or only 
represented by three convergent spines or bristles, 
which receive the thickened margin of the anterior 
wing between them. The abdomen in this Anaphes, 
is sessile ; but in many genera of the Mymaridce it is 
petiolated, i.e. attached to the thorax by a very slim 
waist, such a waist in fact as some of our doctors 
are always preaching against (and rightly too) as 
displacing the hearts and livers of our wives and 
daughters. Underneath, in the female, the power- 
ful ovipositor is placed. 

These beautiful insects should be mounted in 
balsam and are so small and slight that many of 
them require no cell ; but beware of pressure when 
the mount is completed, as they have a very tiresome 
way of parting with their heads on the slightest 

It is related that the good Bernardin de St. Pierre 

sat himself down to write a comprehensive history of 
animated nature, but that happening to look up from 
his work, he saw on his window-panes such a number 
of minute flies, about which he knew nothing, that he 
gave up the idea. I wonder if our little Mymars were 
among them to enjoy the joke ? 

I append a short synopsis of the Mymaridre. It is 
no doubt very imperfect, but may, I think, prove 
useful, and in it will be found all the " bad 
words " which I promised at the beginning of my 

The figure of Anephes is drawn from a beautiful 
mount by Mr. F. Enock, which I have before me. 

In compiling this table I have made free use of 
Foerster's "Synopsis;" and am greatly indebted to 
Mr. F. Enock, and to my friend Dr. J. W. Gooch 
of Windsor, for valuable information. 

T. E. Amyot. 



By W. Harcourt Bath, Author of "An Illustrated Handbook of British Dragon-flies," "A Label 

List of British Dragon-flies," etc., etc. 


1. Plate /rum depres- 


2. Leptetrum quadri- 


3. Libellula fulva 

4. Orthetrum carules 


5. 0. canecllatum . 

6. Leueorrhinia pec- 


7. L. dubia . 

8. Sympetrum vulga 


9. S. meridional! . 

10. S. Fonscolombii 

11. S. Jla-ueohtm . 

12. S. sanguincum 

13. S, Scoticum 

14. Somatochlora me- 


15. Condulia anea . 

16. Oxygaslra Curtisii 

Geographical Distribution. 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common, but local in the 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common, but local. 
England, in the south and 

south-east ; local. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

England ; local in the south 

England ; one specimen at 

Sheerness in i860. 
England ; very local 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very abundant. 

England ; twice only in the 
Metropolitan district. 

England ; thrice only in the 

England, Scotland ; very 

England ; south, local . 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common, but local. 
Scotland ; very local (Ran- 

nock Wood in Perthshire) 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very local, but not rare. 
England ; very local in the 



Ponds, marshes, canals, 
fields, lanes, gardens, open 
spaces in woods, etc. 


Ponds and marshes . 

Ponds, marshes, gravel-pits, 
roads, etc. 

Ponds, gravel-pits, brick- 
holes, canals, and marshes. 

Pools and pits on moors 
Ponds, canals, gravel pits, 

open spaces in woods, 

roads, &c. 

Ponds and marshes, etc. 

Ponds, paths in woods, and 

on roads. 
Ponds and marshes, etc., 

particularly on moors. 

Marshes, ponds, and moist 

Rivers and streams . 

Time of Appearance. 

End of April to end 
of August. 

Middle of May to 

Middle of May to 

end of July. 
May to September. 

End of June to 
middle of August. 

July and August. 
May to October. 

May to August. 
June and July. 
June to August. 

End of May to middle 

of July. 
Beginning of June to 

middle of July. 





Geographical Distribution. 


Time of Appearance. 

1 7. Onycho-gomphus 

iS. Gomphus tntlgatis- 

19. G.flavipes . 

20. Condulegaster an- 


21. Anax formosus 

22. Brackytron pra- 


23. sEschna mixta 

24. sE. borealis 

25. JE. juncea . 

26. sE. cyanea. 

27. sE. grandis 

28. sE. ru/escens . 

29. Calopteryx virgo . 

30. C. splendens 

31. Lestes barbara . 

32. Z. vire?is . 

33. L. nympha. 

34. Z. sponsa . 

35. Z. viridis . 

36. Platycnemis pen- 


37. Enallagma cyathi- 


38. Agrion mercuriale . 

39. ^4. pulchellum . 

40. A.puella . 

41. Ischnura ptimilio . 

42. Z elega.7is . 

43. Pyrrhoso?na mini- 


44. Z^. tenellum , 

45. Erythromma najas 

England ; one specimen only 

England, Ireland ; very local Streams and rivers 

England ; one specimen at 

Hastings in 1S1S. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

local, but not rare. 
England ; local in the south 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very local. 
England, Scotland ; very 

local and rare. 
Scotland ; very local and 

rare (Rannock in Perth- 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common, particularly in 

the north. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common in the south. 

England, Sc Uand, Ireland ; 

local, not uncommon in 

the south. 
England, in the south and 

south-east, local and very 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very common everywhere. 


Ireland (?) 

England ; twice only in the 

New Forest. 
England, Ireland ; very 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

local, but not uncommon. 
England ; once only in the 

New Forest. 
England, Scotland ; not un- 
common, but local. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common everywhere. 
England ; very local in the 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very common everywhere. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very local and rare. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

common everywhere. 
England, Scotland, Ireland ; 

very common everywhere. 
England ; very local in the 

England, Ireland ; very local 

and rare. 

Streams and rivers . 

Streams and ponds . 
Ponds, gravel-pits, marshes, 


Ponds, marshes, woods, etc. 

Open spaces in woods, fields, 
lanes, ponds, heaths, gar 
dens, etc. 

Ditto .... 

Marshes'and ponds 

Rivers and streams 
Ditto ..... 

Ponds and marshes 
Ditto . . . . 

Ponds, rivers, and moist 

Ponds, lakes, and moist 

Ponds, marshes, and moist 



End of May to 

August 5th. 

June to August. 

June and July. 


June and July. 

July and August. 

June to October. 

June to August. 


June to August. 


July and August. 

June and July. 
June to August. 
June and July. 

May to July. 
May to August. 
May to July. 
April to July. 
May to July. 

Note. — The author of the above will be glad to correspond with anyone who is interested in dragon- 
flies. He will also be pleased to render assistance at any time to readers of Science-Gossip in the 
identification of specimens, provided stamps be sent for the return postage. His address is Ladywood, 




By T. V. Holmes, F.G.S., etc. 

MOST persons interested in geology must have 
been asked the question — " Is there any 
truth in the old tradition that there is coal under 
Blackheath ? " and have wondered both at the ex- 
istence of this notion and its wide diffusion. To the 
geologist the antiquity of this tradition adds much 
to its strangeness, as it was more or less believed 
in not merely long before the publication of the 
views of Godwin Austen on the coal-fields probably 
lying beneath the Secondary and Tertiary strata 
of south-eastern England, but long before the very 
existence of geology as a science. 

Many may remember the appearance of subsi- 
dences on Blackheath a few years ago. The first 
disclosed itself on the morning of April 12th, 1878, 
and in November 18S0 two others appeared. That 
of 1S78 and the more easterly of the two later ones 
were almost identical in size and shape, being shaft- 
like holes nearly 20 feet deep and 7 to 8 feet in 
diameter, except near the bottom, where they 
broadened considerably. The third pit was less 
deep, and might be briefly described as having 
a shorter shaft and broader bottom than the two 
others. An attempt to explore one of the deeper 
holes was made in 1881, by the Lewisham and 
Blackheath Scientific Association, but the great 
expense attending the work compelled its cessation 
before any decided result could be obtained. The 
Report of the Exploration Committee was published 
by the Association in July 1 881, no decided con- 
clusions being put forward by the Committee as a 
whole. To it were appended some Observations 
by the present writer, pointing out the immense 
difficulty of any explanation of the subsidences 
through the mere agency of water alone, unaided 
by artificial excavations, and showing that the falling 
in of the shafts of dene-holes such as that discovered 
in 1878, at Eltham Park,, would naturally, tend to 
produce results precisely similar to those presented 
at Blackheath. It may be useful to add that an 
account of a visit of the Geologists' Association to 
Blackheath during the exploration appears in the 
Record of Excursions published by that Society last 
year, and that it is illustrated by a map and sections. 

The Blackheath Subsidence Committee, during 
its deliberations, was favoured with communications 
from all parts of the country, containing such ex- 
planations as commended themselves to the writers 
as the results of their observations in various districts. 
In addition to descriptions of geological or engineer- 
ing experiences, the Committee heard of vague popu- 
lar traditions of underground passages connecting 
the palaces of Greenwich and Eltham, but no re- 
ference was made to any legendary coal-sinkings. 

Nor were the latter alluded to by the lord of the 
manor of Blackheath, with whom the Committee 
was in communication, and who was a subscriber 
to its Exploration fund. Yet of all persons the lord 
of the manor was the most likely to have some 
record of old borings or sinkings in search for coal, 
had any been made. 

However, in 18S3, nearly two years after the 
publication of the Report of the Subsidences Com- 
mittee, a gentleman who (with many others) applied 
to the Secretary of the Lewisham and Blackheath 
Association, Mr. H. W. Jackson, for a copy of the 
report, mentioned the coal tradition. He wrote r — 
"It is curious that when I was a boy at school there 
was some talk of a coal-mine being found on Black- 
heath which had been forbidden to be worked, as it 
was said it would interfere with the city dues on coal 
coming by sea." He added that he first heard of 
dene-holes in 1819 or 1820. And an archaeological 
friend of my own, Mr. R. O. Heslop of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, lately called my attention to the following 
note in Mackenzie's "History of Northumberland" 
(vol. i., p. 161 ; 1S25) : — 

" It is a vulgar error that coals might be dug at 
Blackheath, near Woolwich, and on other commons 
near London, if Government had not prohibited 
their being dug, for encouraging the nursery of 
seamen, etc. The search for coals in the southern 
and eastern parts of England has been uniformly 
unsuccessful. From the immense number and 
thickness of the known strata which intervene, and 
which contain no coals or other very valuable 
matters, it is of no consequence whether coal veins 
may exist or not in these parts below practicable 
mining depths. The very open and porous state 
of some of these strata, the chalks (more than 50 
fathoms thick), for instance, occasion them to be 
so powerfully supplied with water, as to render the 
prospect of sinking even one shaft through them at 
London utterly hopeless." 

In the above note we have evidence not only that 
the tradition was known in the north of England 
early in the present century, but that Government 
interference was popularly supposed to be the real 
hindrance to successful coal-mining at Blackheath. 
The writer in Mackenzie's History, however, pos- 
sessed sufficient general knowledge of south-eastern 
geology to prevent him from sharing the view, 
though his remark that the chalk is more than 
50 fathoms thick implies that his information about 
its thickness was derived simply from the deeper 
well-sections of his time ; for the average thick- 
ness of the chalk in the district around London is 
considerably more than 100 fathoms. Anyhow, the 
geology of the district seems to have been sufficiently 
understood in mining circles to have prevented any 
rash attempts to engage seriously in a search for 
coal at or near Blackheath, and this, in conjunction 
with the silence on that subject of the lord of the 


manor, gives a strong presumption that no such 
attempts have, ever been made. The "other 
commons " alluded to by Mackenzie may well have 
been the; others on the Blackheath-Erith plateau, 
of which those of Woolwich and Plumstead are the 
nearest to Blackheath. 

The supposed interference of the Government to 
check coal-mining is a tradition, doubtless, of many 
districts. I remember meeting with it in Cumber- 
land three or four miles S.W. of Carlisle, when 
endeavouring to trace the boundaries of the Lias 
outlier there, the district being entirely covered by 
a considerable thickness of Glacial Drift. A farmer 
of whom I made enquiries as to wells, etc., told me 
that he had heard of the discovery of coal at a spot 
close by his farm, but that it was said that mining 

But at Blackheath and the district around it there 
can never have been any mystery as to the general 
geological structure, such as may exist where the 
older rocks are uniformly covered by a considerable 
thickness of Glacial Drift, and the surface features 
throw no light upon the arrangement of the under- 
lying rocks. Few districts, indeed, have a more 
obvious general structure than that of Blackheath. 
The plateau, of which Blackheath forms the western 
end, extends along the course of the Thames from 
Greenwich to Erith, a variable breadth of alluvium 
or river gravel lying between its northern edge and 
the river. On its northern edge sections, here and 
there, show Chalk at its foot, covered by Thanet 
sand and the sands and clays of the Woolwich series, 
the surface being composed of the Blackheath pebble 



RG foyer GtclvcL .A A« T T^^tStvruL B. R Blffikhtalli. 

^ The. FcuisW* ejraj:th.oSL,tu}Tvcs do uX>lfoL,l>, 
iC /uxs 'u. do w ruutrow Q> Chcffortiu 

had been stopped there by the interference of Govern- 
ment. This patch of Lias consists mainly of dark 
shales with thin bands of limestone, and, apart from 
its fossil contents, would naturally be supposed to be 
Coal-measures coming up from beneath the red 
Triassic rocks around it rather than Lias (a formation 
not elsewhere known in the district) resting upon 
the Triassic beds ; for there are plenty of Carboni- 
ferous rocks on all sides beyond the red beds. The 
Lias outlier appears to have been bored for coal at 
various times during the last 250 years, one boring 
in 1781, having penetrated through it to the Tri- 
assic rocks beneath. And the popular view as to 
the affinities of its dark shales is attested by the 
name "Coalfeli Hill," applied to a slight eminence 
within its borders about two miles west of Carlisle. 

beds, except where these last-named strata are them- 
selves covered by London clay, as at Shooters Hill. 
It is indeed the immense improbability that a skilled 
miner of any period could ever have been deceived 
into thinking coal attainable beneath Blackheath 
which makes the existence of the popular tradition so 
remarkable, and so worthy of an attempt to explain it. 
In the Woolwich beds which underlie the Black- 
heath pebble beds, thin bands of lignite sometimes 
occur, one being now visible at Loampit Hill, 
Lewisham (about a mile from Blackheath), from 
three inches to six inches thick. But as the forty 
feet of pebble beds at Blackheath are represented 
at Loampit Hill by a pebble band of a few inches 
only, the natural inference would be that the Black- 
heath plateau was one of the least likely places any- 


where at which a great development of lignite might 
be expected, the lignite-bearing strata being there 
represented by pebble beds. 

Indeed, it seems to me that no theory based upon 
the natural inferences of a geologist will explain the 
existence of the popular tradition. Yet we should 
certainly expect to find, as in the case of the Cum- 
berland Lias, that it is by no means without an 
apparent basis in facts, the errors in it arising from a 
misinterpretation of the facts, not from a disregard for 
them. And I have little doubt that the true explana- 
tion of the tradition is to be found in the following 

Long before the geology of the district was under- 
stood, the attention of large numbers of persons must 
have been drawn to the excavations made for various 
purposes in the alluvium of the Thames in and near 
London. These always reveal the existence of large 
quantities of peat and drift-wood in the mud of the 
marshes, and as the alluvium must have been dug 
into from time to time, here and there, during many 
centuries, wherever the construction of docks etc., 
etc., made it necessary, the existence of a very con- 
siderable thickness therein of more or less coal-like 
material would be manifest. And not only does the 
quantity of this material vastly exceed that visible 
anywhere in the Woolwich beds, but excavations in 
the marshes must have always been much more 
numerous and the nature of the beds exposed much 
better known than those of the other formation. 

Of course to the geologist of the present day, who 
knows that the alluvium of the Thames marshes is 
confined to the river valley, and that its thickness 
seldom exceeds thirty to forty feet, the notion that 
any persons once thought this peaty alluvium a 
deposit of much greater thickness, not confined to 
the Thames Valley, and with coal in its lower and 
more consolidated beds, does not readily occur. But 
the very difference of our stand-point, in this as in 
other questions of folklore, is the chief hindrance to 
onr understanding of the way in which the matter 
would naturally present itself even to the intelligent 
in the prescientific ages. It is, indeed, generally 
recognised that the only way of obtaining insight into 
the meaning of the customs, etc., of primitive man is 
to learn in what way they are regarded by those who 
observe them. And as regards the case before us, I 
was fortunate enough to be able to look through a 
paper sent to the secretary of a scientific society on 
coal in south-eastern England, in which the writer 
dwelt largely on the evidence of the drift-wood, etc., 
of the Thames marshes, as an indication (if I 
remember rightly) that coal was, in all probability, 
to be met with lower down, in the more consolidated 
beds. I could not get from the paper any definite 
notions as to the writer's views with regard to the 
relations between the Thames marsh deposits and 
the Chalk, but it appeared to me that he did not look 
on the alluvium as confined to the Thames Valley, 

but as having a much broader lateral extension. 
And though he said nothing about Blackheath, it at 
once occurred to me that this paper incidentally 
threw much light on the way of looking at things 
which had given Blackheath its popular reputation 
as a probable coal-bearing locality. 

For if we grant, for the sake of argument, an 
increased lateral extension to the alluvium of the 
Thames Valley, both northward and southward, it 
seems evident that under the high ground of the 
plateau extending from Blackheath to Erith we might 
fairly expect to find the southerly continuation ot 
the marsh beds specially well preserved and con- 
solidated. If, on the other hand, we look at the 
Essex side of the river opposite, we see that on the 
northern edge of the marshes there is a broad, low flat 
of river gravel extending to a distance of four or five 
miles from the Thames. But residents at Plaistow, 
Barking, Ilford or Romford would know that beneath 
this river gravel there was nothing but London clay, 
as their well sections would plainly show. Residents 
on the Blackheath-Erith plateau, on the other hand, 
would get their water-supply from the lower part of 
the Blackheath pebble beds, and never penetrate 
deeply enough to ascertain whether the drift-wood 
deposits existed beneath them at the level of the 
river or not. And as beneath the gravel of London 
there is London clay at a moderate depth, just as 
beneath the gravel flat east of the river Lea, it would 
be evident that if the drift-wood deposits of the 
marshes, thickened, consolidated and coal-like, were 
to be met with anywhere under the higher ground 
bordering the Thames, the most likely spot was 
decidedly the plateau between Erith and Blackheath. 


THIS plant, Lamium galeobdoloii or Galeobdolon 
liitm m, Huds., the yellow archangel, is one of 
the most interesting and representative of the British 
Labiatai. The annexed description is from my note- 
books, and may be useful and instructive to those 
who might be unfamiliar with this beautiful "dead 

Ordinal character, Labiata?. Usually hairy herbs, 
with stoloniferous root-stocks, stems quadrilateral, 
leaves opposite decussate, aromatic. Flowers ani- 
somerous, in axillary whorls or verticillasters. Calyx 
gamosepalous persistent inferior, 5-fid, often bilabiate. 
Corolla gamopetalous, deciduous, irregular, labiate. 
Stamens four, or less by imperfection or suppression, 
didynamous, epipetalous, I anthers 2-celled. Ovary 
deeply 4-lobed, 4-celled, or less by abortion. Style 
slender, gymnobasic, stigma furcate, ovules solitary, 
erect, anatropous, fruit constituting indehiscent 
achisnia composed of the component lobes of the 



Generic character, Lamiiim, L. Annual or peren- 
nial, more or less hairy herbs ; root-stock short ; stems 
square, ascending or erect ; leaves petioled. Flowers 
sub-sessile in axillary whorls ; bracteoles linear. Calyx 
sub-campanulate, 5-fid, sub-2-lipped, teeth spread- 
ing, triangular, with cuspidate apices. Corolla 
bilabiate, ringent, upper lip galeate, lower lip 3- 
lobed, mid-lobe broad or narrow, lateral lobes 
smaller, tube straight or ascending ; faux dilated, at 
the base of which is usually the oblique ring of hairs. 
Stamens four, inner shortest, connivent under the 

longer petioled. Flowering stems erect, ten to 
eighteen inches high, often sub-terete at the base, 
and a little sulcate below the nodes : leaves narrower, 
teeth more distant, and less hairy than those of the 
prostrate stems, ovate narrowing into the leafy bracts 
which are almost lanceolate, sub-acute. Flowers in 
distant whorls, usually 10-flowered, or less by non- 
development of the rudimentary buds ; bracteoles 
linear subulate, as long as or shorter than the calyx. 
Calyx Jsub-campanulate, faintly 10-ribbed, teeth tri- 
angular cuspidate, superior one sub-erect. Two 

*»a ft th/ ,jVar*-Ciw OV tSu. 

Fig. 115. — Structure of the Yellow Archangel. 

upper lip, which they arejas long as, anthers 2-celled 
confluent, pollen yellow elliptic. Ovary 4-lobed, 
lobes truncate, triquetrous, style slender, bifurcate, 
lobes subulate. 

Specific character, Lamium galeoidolon, Crantz. 
A perennial hispid or sub-glabrous herb ; root-stock 
very short and nodose. Barren stems prostrate, one 
to two feet long ; leaves ovate cordate, coarsely and 
irregularly, doubly crenate serrate, accuminate, some- 
times cordate, petioles as long as or shorter than the 
laminse, lowest leaves sometimes sub-orbicular and 

lateral divergent, two inferior reflexed. Corolla 
yellow bilabiate, upper lip oblong galeate, finely 
pubescent above, and ciliate at its edges : lower lip 
spotted and streaked with yellow brown, 3-lobed, 
lateral angular and reflexed, mid-lobe narrow elongate 
ascending ; tube pink, as long as the calyx, faux 
slightly dilated, and constricted J the corolla's entire 
length from the base by the oblique ring of hairs. 
Stamens four, anthers 2-celled, brown, glabrous ; 
filaments villous below, 'adhesion obscure after the 
ring of hairs. Ovary 4-lobed, style slender, pink, 



2-lobed, upper lobe short, lower twice as long, re- 
flexed ; ovules erect, funiculus distinct half way up 
the ovule, micropyle turned towards the dorsum of 
the cell. Achaenia £$ to \ of an inch in length, 
brown, wrinkled. Flowers May and June ; seeds 
ripe about one week after flowering. Hedgebanks, 
■woods, and copses, and other damp shady and chalky 
places ; local. 

Hairs simple or compound consisting of from one 
to three cells. Stomata small, about fifteen to the 
square j^ of an inch, and from xrnny '° TTtrcr of an 
inch in length, oblong or sub-orbicular ; epidermal 
cells of the upper surface of the leaf irregular and 
destitute of stomata ; epidermal cells of the lower 
surface more regularly and deeply sinuose. Pollen 
bright yellow, dehiscent by lateral slits (usually three) ; 
extine coloured, twice as thick as the hyaline intine ; 
when immersed in water they become distended 
(mostly on one side), burst, dehisce their contents, 
sometimes producing papillae in the slits, and after 
the dehiscence and great distension of the membranes 
the extine is ruptured and thrown off. 

Henry E. Griset. 


Mr. \V. Jerome Harrison tells us that, (thanks 
to the negatives obtained by the Bros. Henry) we 
are better acquainted with the geography of the 
visible parts of the moon, than with those of the 
polar regions, &c. Mr Harrison forgets there are no 
polling-stations at the north pole ! 

Dr. Leslie Keeley, gave an address at St. 
James's Hall on the 5th of July, on " Drunkenness : a 
curable disease." Dr. Keeley depends upon his 
double chloride of gold remedies, boih for the treat- 
ment of drunkenness and opium-eating. 

Part II. of the additions to " English Botany ; or 
Coloured Figures of British Plants," (supplement to 
the third edition), has been issued by Messrs. George 
Bell and Sons, York Street, Covent Garden. It 
deals with the orders XXIII. to XXVI., and has 
been well compiled and arranged by Mr. N. E. Brown, 
of the Royal Herbarium, Kew. 

The Museums Association met this year at Man- 
chester from July 5th to 7th, under the Presidency 
of J. Willis Clerk, M.A, Registrary of the University 
of Cambridge, and appeared to have a good time of 
it. The President for the next year is Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Geology in 
the Owens' College. 

Holiday seekers with natural history tastes need 
not be hard up either for companions or localities. 
For instance, that popular society the Geologists' 
Association goes this year, under the direction of 

Professor Blake, for a week's geologising to North- 
West Carnarvonshire and Anglesea. A jollier party 
could not have been gathered together. 

The last number of the "County of Middlesex 
Natural History and Science Society," contains the 
following capital paper, entitled, "On Rabies; its 
Natural History, and the Means of Extinguishing it," 
by Arthur Nichols, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. We are sorry 
to see that the council of the above society were 
obliged to suspend their meetings until further notice. 

That active society, the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, held their ninety-eighth meeting at Penistone, 
for Dunford Bridge and the upper valley of the Don, 
on Saturday, 9th July. The geologists were under 
the leadership of Mr. James W. Davis, F.G.S., etc. 
The naturalists, under the guidance of Messrs. Alfred 
Clarke, J. S. Dransfield, and S. L. Mosley, visited 
the Dunford Bridge Reservoir. 

Percy Bysshe Shelley- was born at Field Place, 
near Horsham, Sussex, on August 4th, 1792. The cen- 
tenary of his birth is, therefore, close at hand. As 
Shelley was the foremost man Sussex has given to the 
world ;of letters, the county has naturally taken the 
lead in organising a Centenary Celebration. Meetings 
have been held at Horsham, and an influential com- 
mittee, fully representative of the town and neigh- 
bourhood, has been appointed. At a meeting of this 
committee, it was decided that, both on general and 
local grounds, the most fitting memorial to the poet 
would be a " Shelley Library and Museum," to be 
established at Horsham. 

The July number of " The Journal of Microscopy 
and Science," edited by Alfred Allen, contains the 
following interesting papers : — " The British Fresh- 
water Rhizopods," " The Bacillus of Diphtheria," 
" Notes on the Collection and Examination of Pond 
Life," " Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of the 
Domesticated Animals," "Methods of Preparing 
Sections of teeth," etc., etc. 

Scientific Book Catalogues are always interest- 
ing, as well as those which deal with old books other 
•than Scientific. We confess to the additional en- 
joyment of a pipe when we peruse " The Book- 
Lover's Leaflet," published by Pickering and Chatto, 
66, Haymarket, London. Scientific literature is 
now assuming an historic form, and early works are 
being sought. We strongly recommend our readers 
who are thus-wise inclined, to apply for the " Cata- 
logue of Mathematical Works," offered for sale by 
Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37, Soho Square, London. 
We have also received Messrs. Wesley & Sons, No. 
117, "Natural History Circular," always welcome. 

Is it not Grant Allen who has sketched for us a 
toothless and hairless descendant ? Fancy the house 



of Commons, 1000 years hence, full of such people ! 
Anyhow, men get bald sooner than women, soldiers 
and policemen sooner than civilians, and long before 
sailors. Is this not attributable to the difference in 
their head-dresses ? Nothing has produced premature 
baldness among young men more than deer-stalkers 
and chimney-pot hats. When the head is not con- 
fined within such a limited area of ventilation, as in 
the delightful aerality of women's bonnets, it grows 
all right, or, at any rate generally keeps on. 

Nevertheless, even on women's heads, the hair 
is not always strong, nor does it always keep on, if 
we are to judge by the profusely illustrated advertise- 
ments in the " Queen " (which inform men so literally 
and almost shame-facedly how women are made up !) 
Hair is evidently getting thinner on people's heads — 
men's first, but on women's also. The purer (as we 
call it) we make our bread, which literally means the 
whiter, the less nutriment remains for teeth and hair. 
Sir James Crichton Browne has just delivered an 
address on "Tooth Culture," in which he showed 
that dental caries was related to the change in our 
method of making bread. Teeth require fluorine (so 
does hair), and it is only the bran, or husk, of wheat 
which supplies it. Therefore our modern method of 
carefully getting rid of this must result in a hairless 
and toothless race of men and women. Whilst teeth 
are forming in children it is especially essential that 
whole meal or brown bread, or oatmeal porridge, be 
given them. It is " Scotia's halesome food," and in 
what other country do you find men with such bushy 
locks, flowing beards, or sound teeth ? 

There is a " red spot " on the surface of our big 
brother-planet Jupiter which for a dozen years past 
has much exercised the attention of astronomers. 
The fact is, Jupiter is a world which has not cooled 
down sufficiently into the "black heat" stage, but 
still glows in places, chiefly near its equator, with 
natural fires. The " great red spot " is a demonstra- 
tion of this fact. It moves about like an iceberg, 
and has an area perhaps equal to that of the earth's 
surface. Recently a French astronomer very in- 
geniously employed one of Jupiter's satellites or 
moons to measure the "red spot" by. 

Some sparrows have again taken advantage of the 
shelter afforded by the recesses in the statues erected 
in the gardens fronting the National Liberal Club on 
the Thames Embankment to build their nests. Not 
only has the armpit of the Bartle Frere statue been 
utilized this year, but another family has a home 
behind the legs of the gallant Outram. 

The Suez Canal is capable of admitting other 
things through its monotonous eighty miles than 
ships and steamers. Cholera uses that short and 
narrow watery highway as well to pass from the 
tropics and equator to Southern Europe. Last 
January a conference was held in Venice to prevent 

cholera from penetrating into Europe through the 
canal. This year we are in for a hot summer 
evidently, and much suppressed fear is entertained 
lest cholera should take advantage of it. The Venice 
Conference of January last wisely adopted a system 
chiefly advocated by the French delegates. This 
system was practically tested on the Pyrenean frontier 
during the terrible outbreak of cholera in Spain two 
or three years ago. On that occasion passengers' 
linen was disinfected in heating-ovens by steam under 
pressure, and all the cholera patients (teal and 
suspected alike) were isolated. It has been demon- 
strated that it is practically impossible for a vessel to 
pass the Suez Canal in quarantine without contact 
with the shores. Consequently, it was resolved that 
no vessel should be allowed to pass into the Medi- 
terranean unless it was either free from infection or 
had been completely disinfected. Therefore, vessels 
from the East are to have a perfectly free voyage if 
they have no cases of cholera on board. Those 
which have had choleraic cases, but none for seven 
days before arrival, will be allowed to pass the canal 
in quarantine if they have a medical officer and a 
disinfecting stove on board. If not, they will be 
retained at the entrance to the canal, where a 
sanitary station is being erected, and where disinfec- 
tion will take place. The patients will be dis- 
embarked and isolated, and the vessels will be dis- 
infected. During the last five years about 16,000 
vessels have passed through the Suez Canal. It is 
satisfactory to know that science is the watch-dog of 

Naturalists invariably find that in countries 
where the struggle for existence is less severe, they 
may expect to find early types of animals surviving, 
which elsewhere, where the battle has been most 
bitterly fought, are extinct. Thus lemurs aud civets 
are not uncommon in Madagascar — a large island 
early separated from the African continent — whereas, 
as long ago as the Eocene period (which must have 
been nearly two millions of years back), they were as 
abundant in France, and are found fossilised in that 
country. In Madagascar there still lives a peculiar 
rare bird called after a distinguished naturalist, 
Hartlaubia, which possesses a remarkably inter- 
mediate position among groups of birds widely 
separated. A similar fossil bird has also lately been 
discovered in France. It lived there ages ago, and 
for ages has been extinct all over the world except in 

" Peace hath its victories no less renowned than 
war," and its heroes also. Science is dogged as well 
as courageous, and it is the doggedness that does it. 
Last year a valorously brave attempt was made to 
establish an observatory on the top of Mont Blanc. 
The difficulty is inconceivable ; likewise the hardships 
which the voluntary scientific martyrs living there 
would have to endure. Longfellow's youth in 



"Excelsior" would hardly do for such a situation. 
Last year's efforts failed, but a second attempt is 
being made under the direction of the veteran French 
astronomer, M. Janssen, who is determined to erect 
a wooden building on the frozen snow of the 
mountain. It is to be about 26 ft. long, 17 ft. wide, 
and will consist of two rooms. This building will 
rest on six screw-jacks, so as to restore any dis- 
turbance caused by changes in the snow. Indeed, 
the building is now actually being made in Paris, and 
will shortly be transferred thence in sections to 
Switzerland, and hauled up to the place appointed 
from Chamounix. On the top of Mont Blanc the 
astronomer will be 15,000 ft. nearer the stars, and 
above the lower strata of the earth's atmosphere, in 
which clouds and rains are manufactured. 

Mr. Sutton, the well-known grass seedsman, and 
Dr. Frankland have been investigating the relative 
amount of nourishment of the best kind contained in 
grasses. The results will be received with some 
surprise by agriculturists generally. They find that 
the best hay is made from grass that is only seven 
or eight inches high. It contains the richest store of 
nutriment at that stage. Moreover, the grass cut, 
tends to grow better and stronger. Even when grass 
is in the flowering state only, the experimenters 
found a very great difference in the nutritious proper- 
ties of the hay made from it and that from the young 
grass above mentioned. Of course when the grass 
has passed into its seeding stage, its nutritious 
properties have considerably decreased, whilst it has 
become very much more indigestible. 

Professor Frankland in his lecture at the 
Royal Institution on micro-organisms connected with 
the soil, showed not only their power of nitrifying it, 
but also, quite contrary to hitherto accepted beliefs, 
that some of them can undergo enormous multiplica- 
tion even in ordinary distilled water. The process of 
nitrification in the soil is the work of two in- 
dependent organisms, one of which converts ammonia 
into nitrous acid, and the other nitrous acid into 
nitric acid. Professor Frankland appears to think 
that the immense deposits of nitrate of soda in the 
rainless districts of Peru and Chili represent the 
result of a gigantic nitrification progress. Close on 
half a million tons of nitrate are annually imported 
into Europe, all of which may have been rendered 
possible through the existence of these nitrifying 
microbes. What does the great Nitrate King 
(Colonel North) say to this scientific statement of 
the origin of that vast wealth which enables him to 
spend so much money in trying and failing to win 
the Derby. 

A VERY interesting and profitable paper on 
English climatology has been read at the Meteoro- 
logical Society by Mr. F. C. Bayard. He proved 
(what has long been known) that seaside places are 
warm in winter and cool in summer, whilst at inland 

stations the reverse is the case. The highest 
temperature both inland and along the coast is in 
July and August, and the coldest in December and 
January. Contrary to what many people would 
suppose, seaside places are not so humid as inland. 
The cloudiest district in England is the south-west, 
and the least cloudy (during the summer months) is 
the southern. Again, contrary to general opinion, 
April is the least rainy month in the year, and 
November the heaviest. The amount of rainfall 
is greatest in the west and least in the east, and 
gradually decreases across England from the former 
to the latter coasts. 

Of all the artificial manures the farmer has to 
employ in the growth and development of the plants 
he takes under his charge, nitrate of soda is the one 
which ought to be most specially studied. It depends 
upon the intelligence of the farmer as to whether it 
should do service as an enemy or as a friend. At 
present these nitrates come from South America, 
where it is believed they were accumulated under 
special climatal conditions by the action of microbes, 
and subsequently leached out into beds. This 
suggests the idea that it is possible for a farmer to 
grow his own nitrates without buying any from his 
manure merchant. For many years past it has been 
an established rule of fact amongst English farmers 
that cereal crops always grow best on land which had 
previously been occupied by clover, trefoil, peas, or 
some other leguminous crop. After the latter had 
been cropped, the soil was found to be actually 
richer in nitrogen than it was before. This led the 
late Professor Ville, the distinguished scientific 
agriculturist, to believe that the lugiminosa had the 
direct power of tapping and assimilating the nitrogen 
of the atmosphere. The clever idea is now known 
to be correct. It is not the leaves of leguminous 
plants, but the roots, which do the work of nitrifica- 
tion. The latter are crowded with minute wart-like 
lumps, which are simply so many nests of bacteria. 
It is the latter which nitrificate the soil, and somehow 
or another they and the luguminous plants get on 
better than any other. It is just on the cards, there- 
fore, to be possible for a scientific farmer to grow his 
crops in such a successive order that he need not buy 
any nitrate of soda, but artificially produce it on his 
own land instead. In a most thoughtful and sug- 
gestive paper by Mr. F. W. Burbidge, the distin- 
guished curator of the Dublin Botanic Gardens, 
recently read at a meeting of the Horticultural Club, 
he says, speaking on this subject, " especially should 
the cultivator take note of the modern observations 
as to the storage or fixation of atmospheric nitrogen 
by bacteria that inhabit the root-nodules of many 
leguminous plants, such as peas, lupins, clover, etc., 
for we may some day grow our own nitrogen far 
cheaper than we can buy it from Colonel North or 
the vendor of manures." 




Sectionising Hydra viridis. — It seems rather 
singular that Mr. H. J. Frederick has been unsuc- 
cessful in his experiment. Perhaps if he had taken 
the precaution to put the sections in a small bottle 
or test-tube, being careful to exclude any of the 
Hydra's enemies, he might have reared his colony. 
About five years ago I tried the experiment of grow- 
ing the Hydra from sections. I cut a large and 
vigorous specimen into about ten pieces, and placed 
them in a small test-tube with water drawn from the 
household tap ; in two or three weeks, eight out of 
the ten pieces had developed in full-grown vigorous 
Hydne. Of course I was careful to exclude all such 
things as Cypris and Cyclops, and everything that 
seemed likely to prey upon the undevoloped sections, 
and also allowed plenty of water, so that there was 
no risk of the oxygen becoming exhausted, a rather 
important feature where animal life is concerned, 
either in development or prolongation. Did Mr. 
Frederick omit to take note of that consideration ? — 
F. J. George, Chorley, Lane. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical 
Society. — The June number of the above journal, in 
addition to its valuable summary of current researches 
relating to zoology and botany, contains the following 
original papers (illustrated) : " On a series of Lantern 
slides, Photomicrographs and Photographs of Photo- 
micrographic Apparatus," by A. Clifford Mercer, 
F.R.M.S., "The Foraminifera of the Gault of 
Folkestone," by Frederick Chapman, F.R.M.S., and 
"The Penetrating Power of the Microscope," by 
Edward M. Nelson. 


The Natural History of Bedford Park. — 
The Bedford Park Natural History Society