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TIIK 

NEW YORK TEACHER: 

A 

MONTHLY JOURNAL 

OK 

SCHOOL ANEUflOMB EDUCATION. 



"IlavTa thxuML^STS' ro xctXov xarij^pTS.*' — Paul. 



JAMES cruiksiiakk:, ll. d., 

RKSIDKNT EDITOR. 



volume XV. 

NKW SERIES — VOLUME SEVEN. 
From Oot. 1865, to Sept. 1866. 



ALBANY: 

NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

82 STATE STREET. 

i8r>n. 









iv '.>^ 



■•■••.|/, I-. 



J\.VO0li^lr> 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS: 



JOHN W. BULBXEY, Brookl}ii, 
EDWARD NORTH, Cllaton, 
8. G. WILLIAMS, Ithaca, 
JOHN U. FRENCH, Albany, 
THOMAS K. B££CII£R, Elmira, 
ANDRBW J. LANG, Wavorl/, 



EDWARD A. SHELDON, Oswego, 
JAMES H. UOOSE, Oawcgo, 
A. G. MERWIN, Port JeflVreon, 
MARY A. RIPLEY, Albany, 
JOHN C. LONG, Wentfleld, 
EDWARD DANFORTH, Troy. 



INDEX. 



Address of Prcsidont Atwater, 355. 
A Little One's Glco, 57. 
American Wonders, 218. 
American Institut e of InstnictioDi 878. 
Ancient Trees, 377. 
Architecture, Scliool House, 291. 
Association of School Commissioners, 

27, 318, 343. 
At Klmcliffc, 21>7. 
Boarding Ilonnd, 134. 
Book Notices, 63, %, 124, 150, 225, 

255, 287, 323. 386. 
Books of Reference, 110. 
Brain Moldcrs, <)7. 
Bulklcy, J. W., 307. 
Commissioner's Note Book, Leaves 

from, 73. 
Controversy, 112. 
Dea<l Heads, 103. 
Denominate Numbers, 299. 
Drifting Home, 10. 
Education, Condition of, Reports on, 

18, 320. 
Educational Exchange, Report on, 

330. 
Educational Intelligence Offices, 77. 
Enthusiasm, Power of, 1. 
Etiquette, the Child's, 243. 
Formality in Teaching, 97. 
Greek Civilization, Defects of, 239. 
How Much shall we Demand, 42. 
How to Study, 4. 
Imagination, the, 262. 
Imperfectly Trained Teachers. 6. 
In Memoriam, 44 
Influence of the Beautiful, lo. 
Intelligence. Foreign, 32. 02. 91, 

120. l.'u, 251, 281, ;>1 
Intollijrencc, Home, .".0. •".(» *-l ll«;. 

15r,/222. 249, 280. 
Judgment Hyiim. 27 1. 
Lake Superior, 627. 



Language, How shall Pupils Learn to 

Use it Correctly, 265. 
Lessons from a Shoemaker's Stool, 

139, 212, 230. 
Liberia and America, 145. 
LiTKBAiiY NoTKS, 94, 122, 158, 225, 

254, 286, 323, 385. 
Literature for Young Folks. 78. 
Mag^nitude and Mensuration. 262. 
Mental Processes, let Pupils Observe, 

137. 
Miscellany, 29. 58, 81, 113, 150, 220, 

244, 278, 318, 354, 380. 
My Ships, 267. 

Natural Sciences, Claims of, 65, 210. 

*• '• the Study of, 377. 

N. Y. State Teacuers' Association, 

277, 316, 323. 
Normal Schools, Function of, 369. 
Ocean, the, 147. 
Oldest City, 316. 
Oral Teaching, 99. 
Oswego Normal and Training School, 

129. 
Periodicals, 123. 
Personal, 59, 83, 115, 154, 221, 240, 

279, 321, 383. 
Physiology, Classification in, 36. 
Quack Education, 295. 
Query Box, 153. 
Questions, a Few, 227. 
Rational Instruction, 314. 
Reading and Voting. 109. 
Reference, Books of, 110. 
Report of Supt. Pub. Ins., 102. 
Respectfully Submitted, 228. 
Responsibility of Teachers, 6. 
Rhine and Hudson, 311. 
Rocky Mountain Lake.-?, 8i». 
Ruins in Mexico, 112, ;l5o. 
.'xlionl Commissionort^, As?sucialion 

ot. 27. ai8 



Index. 

School Exeroises, Programme of, The Beautiful, Influence of, 15. 

271. The Thinker, 237. 

School House Architecture, 201. Thoroughness in Teaching, 2G0. 

Shoemakcr'8 Stool, Lessons from. True Ideal, 12. 

130, 212, 280. University Convocation, r,0. 

Standards of Measure, 71. Vocal Music, as a School Exercise, 

Superintendent's Annual Report, 45. 

102. We are not Made, but Grow, 235. 

Teachers' Institutes, Organization Wind, as a Musician, 149. 

of, 800. Winter Scliools, 33. 

Teaching, Oral, 99. Words, 810. 

" Formality in, 97. Young Folks, Literature for, 78. 

Thanatopsis, Author of, 241. 



NEW YORK TEACHER. 



New Series.] JANUARY, 1866. [Vol. VII, No. 4. 



Formality in Teaching. 



All teachers tend to become formal in their methods — to work 
on from month to month, and year to year with no new plans, new 
thoughts, new truths, or new enthusiasm — each presentation of a sub- 
ject being just like that which preceded it. Teachers oflon travel 
on in the ruts, not only failing to improve, but actually degene- 
rating. 

There are few who do not feel this anti-progressive tendency of 
teaching, — who do not need an occasional waking up to what is 
going on in the educational world around them. 

If we reflect we shall sec why teachers are so liable to become 
formal. All progress has its law. Isolation b always opposed to 
progress. This must be so because human activity is the result of 
motives. There can be no niotive to change or progress till we see 
something that is, or appears to be better than we now possess. To 
see such better thing necessitates that mingling in different scenes 
which is the opposite of isolation. Hence, commercial nations have 
been progressive, while isolated nations have remained nearly 
stationary. Hence, the action and reaction of the institutions, man- 
ners and customs of one country upon those of another. 

What is a law of progress must hold true with individuals as well 
afl communities; with teachers as well as with all other classes. 
Teachers are so cut off from observing the work of other schools 
that they have comparatively little influence upon each other. 

Again, the oftener any given act is done, the less thought is re- 
quired to govern the doing. We at length come to do our work 
[Vol XV, No. 4.] • 7 



98 Formality ill Teaching. 

from habit alone. This acting from habit is necessarily opposed to 
progress. It assumes that wc have ceased to reflect upon what we 
are doing, and to observe the results of our acts. The isolation of 
the teachers, and the necessary routine work of the school are 
always tending to make them regard the forms of teaching more 
than the spirit. Systems, forms and methods should be the servant 
of the teacher, not his master. He should not obey these but create 
them. 

How shall the teacher counteract this tendency to follow forms ? 
How shall he constantly keep the spirit of a teacher — of a progres- 
sive teacher — in spite of all adverse influences ? Every teacher 
must for the most part answer these questions for himself. A few 
things none should forget. Let every teacher acknowledge and 
act upon the truth that we are far below the highest excellence — 
the possibilities in teaching ; that notwithstanding all advancement 
yet made in educational science and art, we have misunderstood, 
overlooked, or misapplied many of the most important truths. 
Further, let him be always watchful to discover what has been 
overlooked by others ; by this means he will find much that has 
been overlooked by himself. 

The contact of mind with mind is the best means of gaining new 
inspiration, and gathering new energy for the teacher's work. Next 
to this is the printed page. Here are recorded the best thoughts of 
those who have thought most, — the. charts and soundings which, 
carefully studied, may save from many dangers, and indicate the 
course to higher excellence and more extended usefulness. Educa- 
tional books and periodicals afford the teacher the means of compar- 
ing, his work with that done by others, and suggest to him new 
motives as well as new methods. 

Above all, the teacher should seek association with those of his 
own profession. " Forsake not the assembling of yourselves 
together," was as much the direction of a philosopher as a Christian. 
By none should this direction be more strictly regarded than by 
teachers. As they are more separated from each other in their work, 
80 much the more is it important that they should associate to- 
gether. Teachers lose the spirit of their calling by working alone ; 
let them renew that spirit by association. " The letter killeth but 
the spirit maketh alive." Are we teachers by the letter or with 
the spirit ? — of forms or realities ? a. g. ^^. 



Oral Teaching. 99 



Oral Teaching. 



BT MISS FLORA F. BOLCOM. 



In this age a living thought is not only a desolating denunciation 
to error, but may become as potent in rearing the temples of the 
future as the slave of Aladdin was in building the brilliant palace of 
his master. The only magic left of all the necromancy and astro- 
logy of the past, is ever-living, ever-electrifying, beaming human 
thought. But this thought lies in the youthful mind unseen and 
hidden from view until summoned up by the hand of the teacher, 
the cunning magician of our time. 

There are no magical inculcations in vulgar fractions, or over- 
powering charms in the spelling book ; they furnish nothing but 
that golden sand which he who summoned up spirits in the olden 
time cast upon the floor, and in which he drew his magic circles and 
characters, and set the limits to the march of his ghostly visitors. 

The great magic wand, potent as the rod of the great Israelite in 
the hall of Pharaoh, over the Red sea, or in the wilderness, and 
which sways the heart and spirit and soul of the scholar is not to 
bo found in any school book which has yet been written. And as 
the rod of Moses was the hope and deliverance of Israel long ago, 
so now that wand which the teacher may wield and with which he 
may call forth the latent and dormant energies of the pupil's mind, 
must work the deliverance of the youthful Israel of the present. 

The pupil may learn by rote, and like the parrot repeat his set 
phrases, and yet be stupid and ignorant. He may be able to render 
correctly each and every rule of any text book of the school room, 
and still be far from educated. Repeating words and comprehend- 
ing the thoughts which they express are by no means synonymous. 

The same words in which Webster uttered his sublime and mighty 
thoughts had long been known to his countrymen ) but few, if any, 
could 80 charge them with the electric fire of thought; and happy 
were those who fully comprehended their force and meaning when 
they heard them uttered. 

The human mind is often like the old lamp of Aladdin with its 



100 Oral Teachiug. 

base outward coating, and like it requiring friction, and often much 
of it, to bring out its virtues, and the irritating process, when properly 
applied, often produced as wonderful results upon the mind as it is 
said to have done upon the wonderful lamp. It may bring from the 
dark, still domain of the human soul, the hitherto dormant and un- 
seen germ of thought which sways the world. 

The education of the school room fails in its office and purpose if 
it does not perform this miracle of grace upon the mind, if it does 
not rouse and electrify the thoughts and send them coursing like & 
winged Pegasus through the universe. The learning of school 
books is not an end, it is only the means which may or may not be 
be made of great service in attaining a higher excellence and 
reaching a more elevated realm of thought, and which may or may 
not adorn the future life with its value and usefulness. The 
teacher has much to do. He stands at the threshold of intellectual 
life, with his finger pressing upon the dooi; spring to the temple of 
thought, and it is his duty to open wide the portal and exhibit to 
the young mind the wonders and riches within ; to carry that mind 
through lofty aisles and up winding stairs to the great dome where 
the vast majesty and eternal harmony of wisdom break like a 
morning sunlight on a gorgeous scene. 

To accomplish such a purpose successfully, great tact and know- 
ledge of human nature are required. A love for the work and a 
firm resolution to accomplish it are indispensable. Above all else, 
a genial, cheerful nature, which, like a never-clouded ray of sunshine, 
brightens and illumines every spot on which it falls, is essential to 
this work. If these exist the exercises of the school room can 
hardly go wrong. Nothing will then seem dull or irksome to the 
scholar. 

The sunshine of a pleasant smile, or of a kind, tender and loving 
word, may warm the cold, sterile, and hitherto unbroken soil of a 
gloomy nature, into life and usefulness, when sour looks and bitter 
words might make it colder and more barren than before. The 
surly boy, who will not be moved by whipping and severe remon- 
strances, may feel his heart throb strangely when he finds you have 
a deep, pure sympathy with him, and may waken from his stupidity 
or overcome his lawlessness, if only to show that he is grateful to 
you for your kind words and generous thoughts. 

If the teacher approaches and conducts the exercises of the school 



Oral Ibaching. 101 

. room in this spirit, his coarse can but be pleasant and profitable to 
ftll concerned; the rest will be plain and easy. 

These general ideas should be the governing principles in all the 
exercises of the school room. Every act and deed should be tested 
by a high standard. No passion or prejudice should be allowed a 
moment's rule. The highest and noblest sentiments should alone 
find expression or bear sway. Exaudple here or elsewhere is worth 
more than precept. The first is ever present, and its influence con- 
stant upon all ; the last may, and oflen does pass unheeded, and at 
least is frequently forgotten. 

The example of the teacher is therefore of much importance. 
Affability and courtesy should also clothe the teacher as with a gar- 
ment, and pride and affectation be sent into perpetual exile. 

To attempt to point out the precise oral exercises which should be* 
practiced in the school room would beyond doubt be both an unsuc- 
cessful and useless task. However good any system might seem to 
be, if continued for a great length of time without change, it would 
be sure finally to become irksome and tiresome. The old and the 
young become alike weary to satiety of the best the world affords, if 
it is unvaried, and dullness and monotony are nowhere to be more 
avoided than in the school room. The teacher, like the philoso- 
pher, must be constantly trying experiments and testing new modes. 
That which delights to-day may seem old and worn out a year from 
now, and when it becomes so it should be abandoned. That which 
has ceased to be interesting you may be sure will soon cease to be 
profitable. It may not be true that everything which delights a 
child is therefore useful, but it can hardly be that that which is 
irksome and dull is profitable in teaching. You must awaken and 
maintain an interest if you would succeed, and you will fail without it. 

The oral exercises of the school room should be so conducted that 
the teacher is sure the pupil fully understands the principle or fact 
under discussion. 

The repetition of the language of the school book should never 
be accepted as evidence that the principle is fully comprehended 
and understood. The pupil should be frequently required to give 
explanations in his own language, and should be questioned in such 
a manner as to test his comprehension of the subject. When he 
comes to face the world, in the active pursuits of after life, the 
language of books will not suffice ; he must then find words of his 



102 Oral Teaching. 

own to express his ideas. He should begin to do this at school, 
and the practice of it will be found useful, not only in enriching 
his knowledge of words, but in giving vitality to his ideas, and in- 
creasing his intellectual powers. 

Originality will be promoted, self reliance insured, and a better 
and stronger class of minds given to the world. The power of ex- 
pressing ideas with great force, beauty and precision, is extremely 
rare, even in this educated age. One who is a complete master of 
words (if indeed such can be found), and who is possessed of a fair 
sh^re of ideas, may consider his future as almost made. He may 
aspire to high position with great hope, if not with the certainty 
of success. 

The British parliament is one of the most exalted and august 
bodies in the world, and its highest honors have long been borne 
by the most eloquent men of the nation. Mirabeau, with the 
burning eloquence of his tongue, swayed the head and the heart of 
the French people, and bore them whither he would. Luther, for- 
tifying himself behind his mighty words, as behind great rocks, in 
a dark age, dared to assail the power of a corrupt ecclesiasticism, and 
hurl the denunciation of speech into the face of Antichrist him- 
self. Cicero, possessed of a silver-tongued eloquence, assailed cruelty 
and depravity in an age when they were universal, and from judges 
bribed against him extorted the judgment of guilt — in every age> 
whether characterized by ignorance or intelligence, the power next 
to impossible to attain. 

The oral exercises of the school room may, to a great extent, aid 
the acquirement of such a power, although it must be admitted 
that it has done little in producing such results in the past. The 
oral exercises of the school room should not be too closely coufined 
to the lessons of the day. The teacher should, it is true, see that 
the principle of each lesson is thoroughly understood. There is 
much else that may generally be drawn in during the recitation, 
immediately or more remotely connected with the subject of the 
lesson, which may afford pleasant themes for discussion, or happy 
opportunities for illustration. These the teacher may lay hold of, 
and clothe the subject, which otherwise might be dry and dull, with 
all the colors of romance, and adorn it with the jewels of thought. 
Suppose the class to be in geography, and Rome the subject of 
the lesson. Two thousand years' history of mingled glory and 



DeadrHeads. 103 

shame are before you. Rome the republic, Kome the empire, 
Home the dominion of the Pope, Rome struggling for liberty and 
crushed to earth, Rome with her victorious legions sweeping to the 
ends of earth — her triumphal arches and processions celebrating vic- 
tories, her stately palaces, her trophies and her memorials, her perse- 
cutions of the early Christians and her elevation of the banner of the 
cross, her amphitheatres, her temples and statues, float in a vision 
before us. Vesuvius is above us, and the ruins of cities around. 
About upon every hand are the golden republics of the middle 
ages, now lifeless and dead. The mind and soul may be moved 
with the thrilling memories of the past, the sense may be delighted 
with the sunny skies and historic scenes of the present, and sad- 
dened with the dreams of the future. 

These are but a few general hints concerning the sources from 
which glowing illustrations may be drawn, to illustrate a single 
lesson. Each teacher may study them out for himself at his 
leisure. He will find there is no end to the variety. These may 
be studied and made to do your bidding in the cause of education. 

The pale spirits of departed empires and dead kings may thus 
be brought, at the waving of your wand, to whisper the secrets of 
the long past, as they are said to have done at the call of the ma- 
gician of another age. 

That was fable; this may be made reality. That was for the 
gratification of a gloomy superstition ; this for the advancement of 
true knowledge. 



Dead-Heads. 

If each individual of the one thousand millions that inhabit this 
earth did an honest life work — threw into the accumulating mass of 
accomplishment his earnest effort, no matter how small it might be — 
what a towering mountain of achievement would grow, day by 
day, before the wondering eyes of the thoughtful watcher ! One 
would bring his contribution of material wealth, his gold and silver, 
the product of toiling years ; another would bring his thought, over 
which he had labored while the duller masses slept, giving it a 
polished beauty which would secure it a niche in the temple where 
the gods are throned ; another would bring a nature exalted by 



104 Dead-Heads. 

self-sacrifice, nntil it shone like a guiding star to the nplooking 
wanderer, — all would bring manifold treasures which should make 
the world a millionfold wealthier than it is to day. 

Let one investigate the successful efforts, nay, the thorough, 
though unsuccessful efforts of his own acquaintance, and he shall 
find that the larger portion of labor is attempted because goads of 
one kind or another are behind the drudges. For these narrow- 
brained men and women, who go to their daily tasks like driven 
slaves, seeing not that labor is honored and crowned of God who 
worketh always, are drudges. They do not honor their vocation — 
how can their vocation honor them ? They do not feel that the 
world needs them more than they need its rewards ; that from every 
department of life the cry is for vitalized effort. They do not 
believe in the progress of the world ; they are blind to the fact 
that humanity stands to day upon a higher level than it did a cen- 
tury ago; and having no aspirations to help the good cause forward, 
are contentVith asserting that the world owes them a living, forgetting 
to ask whether they themselves have first earned it. Miserable 
dead-heads! they never realize that the grand old earth, rolling 
onward in its appointed path, ought to grudge them the graves they 
will fill after they have wasted lives that might have been blessings ; 
that might have been like wayside fountains, where the toiling, thirsty 
worker would have quenched the consuming fever of life, and 
gained fresh strength for frCish encounters. 

Labor is a blessing. Undoubtedly many would have it an unmiti- 
gated curse ; but will they say what the world would have been 
without it ? Suppose for a moment that a life of tropical idleness 
were att^iinable by all; or, that by some moans, the merely animal 
wants of our nature were to be satisfied without man's effort ; where 
would be the intellectual growth of the ages? where the moral 
elevation ? 

Look back over your own individual life ! Has not hard work — 
work that drained your very life — done more for your character 
than any other force ? Has it not given you self-reliance ? Has 
not the conciousnessof enrmng your position given you a security 
therein that you could not otherwise have possessed ? Can you not 
look the crowd more firmly in the eye, feeling that you give them 
more than they give you ? 

Doubtless this sentiment should be gniven upon our hearts — 
*' I mean to leave the world better for my life.'' It is not conceit 



Dead-Heads. 105 

to cherish such an intention ; it is a lack of duty not to do it. Per- 
haps some weakling may think it presumption to feel that one is a 
force in the world. Each one may be a force ; each one may bring 
his peculiar power, and apply it to the elevation of society. No 
one person can do eyerything, but each is a part of that brother- 
hood upon whom the whole burden rests. And can any shrink 
from the task, and wear upon his soul the seal of accepted service f 

It seems to me that a school is the place, of all others, for suc- 
cessful labor in helping on the masses towards a loftier summit 
And these uneducated masses we shall always have, so long aa 
America shall keep her doors wide open, and, over the portal, the 
oppressed shall, with eager eyes and eager soul, read the words-— 
" Liberty and Welcome." Is not this the mission of our country, 
to reach continually down to the very dregs which European insti- 
tutions cast upon our shores, and lift these down -trodden from the 
deep ruts into which they have been crushed by the golden chariots 
of royalty, and set them upon their feet, and teach them how to use 
this l^eedom which we deny to none? For however slowly it is de- 
veloped, the central idea of American politics is the equality of 
ALL MEN. It is the cornerstone of this government ; and based 
upon that principle, we may defy tyranny in all its forms, whether 
it reach threateningly over the ocean, or rear a rebellious front within 
our own territory. The teacher, more particularly if he be in a 
public school, comes into contact with these lower classes ; he may 
instruct in the love of country ; he may awaken sluggish minds to a 
sense of desirableness of knowledge, of the supreme beauty of truth. 
And the school room may be a source whence shall flow a stream of 
intelligence towards many a lowly, miserable home, that else would 
be wholly barren of such influence. So do not go to your crowded, 
may be unpleasant school rooms, as though you were drudging life 
away ! feel the true nobility of your work, and honor your position 
by a fidelity that shall act upon character when your heart lies still 
in your bosom. 

Workers despise dead-heads most thoroughly. They are the 
dreaded nuisance of railroad men; of steamboat men; of all sorts 
of agents, from him who has the power to pass them around the 
world, wishing most heartily that he could pass them out of it, to 
him who exhibits a fat woman or a dwarf. These dead-heads spend 
time enough waiting for an opportunity to beg, to earn much toward 
independently paying their way. And with brazen face reaching 



106 Dead-Heads. 

to the sublimity of eflFrontery, tbey ask for this, that, or the other 
favor, as if it were their right. Transportation companies, undoubt- 
edly, run a line of steamers for their convenience, although they do 
not thus advertise ; thousands of miles of iron track are laid for 
their pleasure ; and for their pleasure the weary engineer drives his 
iron steed through valleys and over hills. What will not these 
persistent dead-heads take from the men who by their energy keep 
the world moving ? " Those that will work may work*' is an old 
adage, and is based upon the traditional existence of these dead- 
heads. Unambitious sons drain the purses of weak fathers ) sisters, 
with too little self-respect, hang upon the willing arms of brothers 
who are struggling for a mere foothold from which to operate for 
the prizes which the world holds up before them. Thousands 
among us seem to be ever absorbents, taking in all the material, 
physical benefits they can gain from any source; giving out an 
amount that may be represented by zero. 

Miserable debtors all ! never caring to balance accounts, the day 
of their death will find them buried beneath mountains of obligation. 
The great, impartial sun has poured its golden tides through etherial 
channels for them ; the pure, invigorating air has reddened their 
blood, and sent it burdened with health, through their veins ; for 
them have the fields waved with yellow grain, and ocean and conti- 
nent wrought unceasingly ; and they have lived, a shame, and a dis- 
grace, amid all this unresting toil. 

If there is one truth that, more than another, should be impressed 
upon the young, it is this — that labor is honorable. Let those who 
are in daily contact with the developing mind of this country seek 
to root out the least degree of the feeling that work is somewhat 
of which to be ashamed. Teach the girls that there are beauties 
more to be desired than white hands and delicate faces ; that under 
certain circumstances, red, mis-shapen hands may speak more elo- 
quently and presuasively for the possessor, than the opposite could 
do. I remember such a pair of hands, belonging to a patient-faced 
woman whose life was passing away amid the cares of a sick room, 
by the bed-side of a paralyzed, aged mother. To be sure a sculptor 
might not desire to carve such an one ; bul there is a moral expres- 
sion about it, which, somehow, is not gotten from diamonds and 
amethysts and snowy fingers. 

And teach the boys not to seek the laziest life ; make them feel a 



Claims of the Natural Sciences. 107 

little too manly to take the girls' bread and butter, by taking the 
situations that they might fill, if only the boys did not think it was 
HO pretty to stand behind a glass show-case, and sell ladies trim- 
mings and worsteds. Make them feel that the foundry and 
the forest are better places for their manhood than variety stores. 
The teachers of this country have a tremendous power which should 
aid in social revolution, and with this power they are invested with 
a tremendous responsibility. Let them not prove false to the 
trust. &f. A. R. 



Claims of the Natural Sciences. 

Second Artiolb. 

Recollection, or the power which the mind has of recalling into 
conciousncss our former experiences, depends upon certain princi- 
ples of association, viz : congruity of time and place, resemblance or 
contrast, and the relation of effect to cause. Any study which 
calls into activity these associative principles and thus tends to make 
their action habitual, necessarily^cultivates the power of recollection. 
Passing over temporal and local associations which are the lowest 
in rank and most commonly possessed of the associative principles, 
of the remaining ones this may be remarked, that while several 
departments of study cultivate them in a greater or less degree, it 
is in the very nature of scientific studies to bring them into constant 
activity; for here the student is constantly required to note the 
resemblances and diversities of bodies, to form them into groups 
according to their resemblances, or to separate them where they 
are diverse, to trace effects to their proper causes, and to be able to 
predict the effects which will be likely to result from the operation 
of a given cause. Thus while an exclusive efficiency can by no 
means be ascribed to scientific study in developing the power of 
recollection, still a high rank may justly be ascribed to it among 
the studies fitted to discipline this important department of the 
intellect. 

As a discipline for the representative faculty, which is commonly 
termed conception when confined to the actual^ and imagination, 
when engaged about the ideal^ the natural sciences are probably 
less useful than some other studies that may be employed : though 
surely, descriptive astronomy, conversant about those vast and un- 



1 08 Brevity of Life. 

iinmbered worlds which people the reahns of space, kept each 
within its appointed bounds by the unerring hand of Omnipotence ; 
and geology, ranging in its investigations over an almost eternity 
of past time, contemplating the gigantic forces which have from 
time to time rent the earth's rocky framework aud heaped high its 
mountain chains, and describing the remains of those unique, long- 
extinct races which in due succession have thronged the surface 
of our planet, and which this inquisitive age has disinterred from 
their stoay sepulchers to excite the wonder of men and change the 
current of long-received opinion, — may in proper hands, afford no 
mean instruments for cultivating the imagination. 

It may, however, justly excite our wonder that the natural sci- 
ences are not more largely used in all classes of schools, to cultivate 
what may be termed the faculty of comparison, in all its various 
modes of operation, — furnishing as they do, in several respects, 
the most natural and elegant aids for that purpose. For these 
sciences furnish continual occasions for the exercise of abstraction 
and generalization in the study of the special qualities of objects 
and phenomena, and in the classification of these according to the 
agreement of their qualities and properties; for the exercise of 
judgment in all the varied processes of observation and investiga- 
tion; for the use of induction, in mounting from particular 
facts of experience to general truths; and for the use of deduction 
in the extension of general laws and preexisting classifications to 
particular phenomena, and newly-observed objects. 

In this statement it is not intended to underrate the worth of 
other studies as a discipline for the reasoning power ; but merely 
to call attention to the fact that the eflSciency of the natural sci- 
ences, in this respect, has been strangely undervalued. Let mathe- 
matical and lingual studies be pursued, as they long have been, but 
let the sciences go hand in hand with them as their worthy and 
coordinate fellow-worker. s. G. w. 



Brevity of Life. — At best, life is not very long. A few more 
smiles; a few more tears; some pleasure; much pain; sunshine 
and songs; clouds and darkness; hasty greetings; abrupt fare- 
wells — then the scene will close, and the injurer and the injured 
will pass away. Is it worth while to hate each other ? 



Beading and Voting. 109 



Beading and Voting. 

It is a wise and generous provision, that the common schools of 
our state are practically free and open to all. In a government like 
ours, it is well that the rudiments and first stages of learning should 
be brought within the reach of the poorest. Politically speaking, 
a little learning is not only not a dangerous thing, but it is essential 
to an independent, honest discharge of the duties of citizenship. 
The jealous, narrow-minded Athenian who was tired of hearing 
Aristides called " the just," could neither write nor read his own 
ballot ; and in courteously complying with the request to write a 
vote for his own ostracism, Aristides revealed his enjoyment of that 
personal supremacy that rests on high intelligence and conscious 
integrity. 

Ought the state to be satisfied with a provision that simply makes 
it possible for all voters to be able to read their vot^s ? Is there not 
need of further stimulus and incentive to the gaining of the lower 
forms of culture ? In 1858 it was made one of the laws of Con- 
necticut that no one should be admitted to the privileges of an elect- 
or who was not able to read publicly any clause of the constitution 
of that state. It is said that this law has had a marvelous effect in 
increasing the number of adult pupils at evening schools, and that 
many politicians have become school masters, with an irrepressible 
zeal to introduce freshly imported foreigners into Noah Webster's 
temple of knowledge. It need not be doubted that a similar law 
in our state would be attended with desirable results ; that evening 
schools for adults would be increased in number and more largely 
attended; that many day laborers would be withdrawn from the 
beer saloon and the low dance ; that the right of suffrage would 
acquire a higher value in the esteem of our foreign population, and 
that its exercise would be more independently exercised. It need 
not be doubted that such a law would act as a kindly incentive to 
the pursuit of knowledge, and would lessen the evils that embarrass 
the working of our republican system. In time such a law would 
almost remove from our census tables that ill-omened column of 
'^ adults unable to read or write." 



110 Books of Reference. 

It is not a creditable fact, or a comfortable fact to contemplate, that 
our state has 400,000 children between the ages of 5 and 21 who 
are not sent to school. It shows that many parents are too ignorant 
or too indifferent, or too mercenary, to secure for their children the 
blessings of knowledge. It shows that too many children of tender 
years are kept at work on the farm or condemned to the factory. It 
reveals an unseemly haste to put children where they will earn 
money, when they ought to be busy with the rudiments of know- 
ledge. It shows that in too many cases education is placed after 
money, and that the safeguards of popular intelligence should be 
still further strengthened by legislative authority. E. N. 



Books of Beference. 



Few ordinary mortals can attain to such perfection of memory as 
to retain for use, even in their principles, all the material of know- 
ledge which the duties of their daily work may require ; and many 
things are, of necessity, of such nature, that to know where infor- 
mation touching them may be found must suffice for most persons. 
This is specially true of teachers; for whilst on the one hand, there 
should be such a familiarity with the great leading principles of the 
branches they essay to teach, as to give independence in statement, 
and felicity in illustration, yet every day's experience in the class 
room, and in the processes of the teacher's own thought, demands 
that the best means shall be at hand for aid in special cases, and on 
disputed points. Books of reference — cyclopaedias, dictionaries, 
compends, as of history, chronology and grammar, gazetteers, maps, 
etc., become a necessity. Among the noted works of this class 
Goold Brown's Grammar of Grammars'*^ holds honorable place. 
It was the work of years, and its preparation seems to have been a 
labor of love. 

As early as 1824 the author had formed a purpose of preparing 
such a work, and in 1836 he completed an elaborate essay on Lan- 
guage, which appears as an introduction to this grammar, and occu- 
pies 143 closely printed royal octavo pages. The titles of the 
chapters of this introduction are as follows : 1. Of the science of 

♦ The Grammar of English Grammars, with an Introduction historical 
and critical, etc. By Goold Brown, with a complete Index of matters by 
S.U. Berrian, A.M. New York : William Wood and Co. 



Boohs of Reference. Ill 

grammar ; 2. Of grammatical authorship ; 3. Of grammatical suc- 
cess and fame ) 4. Of the origin of language ] 5. Of the power of 
language ; 6. Of the origin and history of the English language ; 
7. Changes and specimens of the English language; 8. Of the 
grammatical study of the English language ; 9. Of the best method 
of teaching grammar; 10. Of grammatical definitions; 11. Brief 
notes of the schemes of certain grammars. 

Of this introduction it may be said that the evidence it gives of 
critical study, and a large acquaintance with the writings of the 
leading men of past time who had given any attention to the subject 
of language, shadows forth the more minute and detailed examples 
to be foumd in the grammar itself. For the general English reader, 
the sixth chapter, whose title is given above, will be found to contain 
a brief, concise, and intelligent statement of the history and develop- 
ment of the language. The seventh chapter gives 55 specimens of 
English exhibiting the characteristic changes, from the 11th centu- 
ry, at short intervals, to the present. 

The 926 pages of the grammar proper would seem sufficient to 
embrace all that can be said of the grammar of our mother tongue, 
and without doubt embraces many things that are irrelevant or 
merely curious ; yet in order to due completeness, it seems essential 
that the very fullness of citation even of authors of little note or 
authority, should be preserved. It is a rare thing to find in the 
development of any scheme, such unity of plan coupled with full- 
ness every where abounding. The author is seldom diverted from 
his purpose ; and even his severest strictures and most caustic hits 
at the smaller (and some respectable) grammarians, serve to place 
his own methods in a stronger light. 

Whilst we cannot accept his choice of terms, classifications, and 
definitions, as in all cases the best that have been devised, yet no 
work, as a whole, is throughout more consistent than this. In Syn- 
tax he especially excels, and when we consider the multiplicity of 
" Systems of Analysis" that prevail, it is refreshing to read his 
clear and comprehensive digest of the leading schemes, and his own 
common sense methods. 

It may here be remarked, as in parenthesis, that Mr. Kiddle's 
additions to the " Institutes " supply a want many teachers had 
felt in the author's own edition, and give additional value to the 
severe and orderly presentation of the subject. 

Mr. Berrian's verbal index of 32 double column pages completes 



112 Mexican Euins. 

what was necessary to make the Grammar of Grammars available to 
all teachers, and students as a work of easy reference. 

Such books as this, and, in the present state of grammatical study, 
this book especially, should be on the desk of every teacher, in 
every school room. Trustees can not do a better service than to 
procure it for the use of their schools, and its purchase with the 
library funds would be of more value, than to expend them for the 
worthless volumes so generally found in school libraries. 

Brief notices of other works of reference will occupy succeeding 
articles. 



The Ruins of an extensive Mexican aboriginal city, which have 
just been discovered, are in the forest of Jicorumbo, in the province 
of Tlaxicala. The temples are of immense size, some with vaulted 
roofs, and so well preserved that ancient paintings appear fresh. The 
courts are filled with hideous and grotesque idols, and pyi^amids 
surmounted by the same. The whole is enveloped in a dense forest 
of cedar and ebony trees. Some of these cedars are of such im- 
mense size, that eight men taking hold of hands together could not 
reach around one of them. These forests are on healthy table-lands, 
about fifty miles from the port of Tuxan. 



CoNTROVERST. — This very good reason for avoiding controversy 
is taken from Dr. Holmes' ^' Autocrat of the Breakfast Table : ^^ If 
a fellow attacked my opinion in print, would I reply ? Not I. Do 
you think that I don't understand what my friend, the Professor, 
long ago called the hydrostatic paradox of controversy? Don't 
know what that means ? Well I'll tell you. You know if you had a 
bent tube, one arm of which was the size of a pipe stem, and the 
other big enough to hold the ocean, water would stand in the same 
bight in the one as the other ? Controversy equalizes fools and 
wise men in the same way ; and the fools know it." 

The Beloved of the Almighty are the rich who have the 
humility of the poor, and the poor who have the magnanimity of the 
rich. — Sadde. 

The Law of Labor. — No one will consider the day is ended, 
until the duties it brings have been discharged. — Booker, 



Resident Editor's Department 



MISCELLANY, 

Wahtbd.— No2 (Nov. 1864), of Vol. 6, New Series, of N. Y. Teacher. 
Any of our friends who do not preserve the numbers, will greatly oblige us 
by sending us copies of the above named number. 

State Superintendents. — During the session of the National Teachers* 
Association, at Harrisburg last summer, the State Superintendents pres- 
ent held a meeting, and voted to form a national association composed of 
State Superintendents of schools, and of Superintendents of the larger 
cities. The first regular meeting is to be held in Washington, Feb. 6, 1866, 
at 3 p. M. A committee on organization will report. Subjects have been 
assigned to different gentlemen as follows : Hon. C. R. Coburn (Pa.) — 
School Statistics ; Hon. L. YanBokkclen (Md.) — Uniform School Systems 
in the different States, Hon. E. E. White (Ohio) — National Bureau of 
Education: Hon. J. White (Mass.) Free High Schools — Hon. L. Van- 
Bokkelen, Baltimore, was Secretary of the last meeting. 

Earthquake in California. — They had a *' shaking up " (or down) on 
the Pacific coast, the 8th of October. The Teacher is jolly over it. Couldn't 
keep down that irrepressible, although types were knocked into ** pi." 
The State Teachers' Institute met Sept. 19, for ontf week. We can not see 
but the proceedings were very proper and very good, and perhaps the 
earthquake is premonitory of the shaking the same Institute and the 
Teacher, have in store for ignorance and other things that won't keep out 
of the way. 

Natural History for the Young. — ** For many years it has been one of 
my constant regrets that no school-master of mine had a knowledge of 
Natural History, so far, at least, as to have taught me the grasses that 
grow by the wayside, and the little winged and wingless neighbors that are 
continually meeting me, with a salutation which I can not answer, as things 
are! Why didn't somebody teach me the constellations, too, and make me 
at home in the starry heavens, which are always overhead, and which I 
don't half know to this day ? I love to prophesy that there will come a 
time, when not in Edinburgh only, but in all Scottish and European towns 
and villages, the school-master will be strictly required to possess these two 
capabilities (neither Greek nor Latin more strict!) and that no ingenious 
little denizen of this universe be thenceforward debarred from his right of 
liberty in these two departments, and doomed to look on them as if across 
grated fences all his life."— T'Aomax Carlysle, 

[Vol. XV. No. 4.] 8 



114 Resident Editor's Department. 

Thb Newbpapeb Press and Education. — We are glad to notice, that since 
the close of the war there is evidence of an increasing interest on the part 
of the weekly press on the subject of public education. The Utica Herald 
in a notice of our September number, which contained a record of the pro- 
ceedings of our annual meeting, speaks some encouraging and comforting 
words. It says: **The convention at Elmira was highly successful. A 
large number of educators from all parts of the state were present. The 
proceedings were of a character indicating the large liberality, and the 
earnest, progressive, yet practical spirit of the profession whose relations 
with the state, with society, with the family, and with individuals are so 
vitally important. A noticeable feature in the Conventions, and . Convoca- 
tions which occurred during the past season, was the individualized pro- 
fessional tone manifested. Teachers are evidently beginning to recognize 
the distinctive character, requirements, aims, rewards and dignity of the 
calling. Men and women are coming to regard it not so much as a tempo- 
rary expedient — a means to obtain a few dollars to enable them to get out 
of town — or as a stepping stone to a permanent position. It is true that to 
the class who have and do yet thus regard their occupation, the discipline 
of teaching proves an efficient agent of mental and moral culture. Not 
many years ago a tutor was selected to instruct the two lower classes of 
one of our colleges, in the Latin language. By aid of the pullings of 
' "ponies" and the pushings of considerate and friendly upper classmen, 
he contrived without positive disgrace, to reach the goal of his up-hill 
course, — the end of the term. Of course the students who recited Livy to 
him received no profit from his instructions: the most of them knew the 
language better than he did. But the time was not lost on the tutor. He 
afterwards made the shameful but naive confession that he had <' learned a 
great deal of Latin during his tutorship." One example may illustrate a 
thousand instances. But happily, teachers are beginning more thoroughly 
and carefully to prepare themselves for their duties, and, heeding the les- 
sons of experience, earnestly to press forward to their chosen work. To 
this end their Associations and Conventions are furnishing much needed 
stimulus and encouragement. They are fast crystallizing and organizing 
teaching into a profession." It gives us pleasure to say, that we rejoice 
in welcoming such co-laborers, and that the Herald is a live newspaper 
doing a noble work. 

Rensselaer PoLTTEUHiNio Institute. — We are indebted to Prof. Charles 
Drowne, for a copy of the Annual Register of this institution. It main- 
tains its established reputation as a school of theoretical and practical 
science. The present number of students is 152. 

Trustee Meetings. — These are becoming an established institution in 
Indiana, why can not our school commissioners inaugurate them in this 
state ? 



Resident Editofs Department 115 



PERSONAL, 

Mr. Jambs Atwateb, for many years superintendent of the Lockport 
Schools, and now President of State Teachers' Association, recently re- 
signed his position at Lockport, to become resident principal of Bry- 
ant and Stratton's Commercial College at Syracuse. We learn that upon 
his resignation, the 1st of October, the Lockport schools presented him a sil- 
ver set, and an ** easy chair " (rather a luxury for a school master), at a cost 
of $175. The pupils connected with the Union School have had Mr. Atwa- 
ter's portrait suspended on the wall of the school room. All who know him 
need not be told that the cost of these gifts and of this memorial are no 
measure of the *'loTe sincere and reverence in their hearts they bear him.*' 

Mr. James Ferguson, for many years a teacher in Lockport in a private 
school, succeeds Mr. Atwater, To say that Mr. F. is a Scotchman is to 
vouch for his scholarship and integrity ; we hope to meet him some day. 

Prof. B. M. Reynolds, still fills with ability the post of principal of the 
Union School. There arc 260 pupils in the senior department, and 225 
in the junior. 

Prop. James H. Hoose, for many years, an earnest and zealous friend of 
the Tbacber, has obtained the past autu-nn in various institutes, one hun- 
dred and forty-five (H5) subscribers. We had a pleasant call from him 
a few weeks since, on his way to Massachusetts, Conn., N. Y. City and our 
own normal school, on a tour of visitation, preparatory to reorganizing 
the English Department in Genessee Weslyan Seminary. Appreciation of 
the value of his services, has induced the trustees to increase his salary. 

Professor Aqassiz is exploring the Amazon river, and has already dis- 
covered sixty new species of fishes. 

M. V. B. Shattuck, formerly of this state, has been fippointed superintend- 
ent of schools in Lacon, III. 

Dr. Charles Richardson, of England, author of ** a new Dictionary of 
the English language," died October 6, 1865, at the age of ninety-one 
years, preceding Dr. Worcester by only a little over two weeks. Dr. 
Richardson's Dictionary, in two large 4to volumes, had, we believe, not a 
very large sale, but, as a compendium of English literature, full in its 
quotations, and especially rich in early examples, it has always been prized 
by scholars. 

Prop. E. L. Youmans, of New York, has, it is said, accepted the pro- 
fessorship of Natural Philosophy, in Antioch College. 

Robert E. Lee, late of the Confederate army, is President of Wash- 
ington College, at Lexington, Virginia. This Institution was founded in 
1778, and endowed by General Washington. The College of William and 
Mary, and the University of Virginia, are to resume operations suspended 
by the war. 



116 I Resident Editor^a Department 



INTELLIGENCE.— HOME, 

The Chautauqua Couhtt Teachers' Inbtitute held at Frcdonia, New 
York, has just closed a most interesting and memorable session, one which 
will give a new impulse to the cause of education in western New York. 
For years this county has been distinguished for its successful institutes. 
Each has been a triumph, but it was reserved for this, in attendance, order 
enthusiasm and successful teaching to eclipse them all, and to establish 
beyond all oaTil the great practical benefits of a well conducted institute. 
There were four hundred and fifty live, earnest, working teachers in attend- 
ance ; and Chautauqua challenges the proudest of her older sisters of the 
east to make as noble an exhibit. The motto inscribed in large capitals 
upon the walls of the school room was '* Chautauqua the toe of the state 
mubt be ahead in its educational interest," and whatever ability, zeal and 
indefatigable labor can do to elevate Chautauqua county to this proud posi- 
tion will be done by Messrs. McNaughton and Miller, her school commis- 
sioners. In system and order this Institute contrasted most favorably with 
any we have ever attended. Order, Heaven's first law, was never violated. 

Dr. French (late of Syracuse), now of the State Normal School bad 
charge of the teaching. He is so well known it is almost superfluous to 
speak in his praise. He is a master in every department of education and 
teaching. He was ably assisted by N. B. Barker, principal of public school 
number seven of Buffalo, and by Alanson Wedge, principal of the Fredonia 
Union School, and who as a thorough teacher has no superior in western 
New York. The evenings were occupied by lectures and by discussions of 
the most interesting character upon the modes of teaching. The most 
capacious church in the place was taxed to hold the audiences. 

The lecturers were Rev. H. M. Jones, Rev. Mr. Rouse, Dr. French, Mr. 
Wedge, 0. W. Johnson, Esq., Dr. Lambert and Professor A. Bradish. The 
community was highly gratified by the intellectual treat brought to it by 
the Institute. 

Finally we say to commissioners of schools every where, if you would 
know bow to get up and manage a teachers' institute successfully, come to 
Chautauqua and learn of Messrs. Miller and McNaughton, J. 

Fredonia, Oct. 18, 1865. 

Delaware County — Second District. — A brief account of the Insti- 
tute in the First District appeared in our last. We have now to add that 
the Institute atRoxbury was equally successful, Commissioners Bouton and 
Cable aiding each other, and the utmost good feeling prevailing. There 
were one hundred and twenty-five teachers present, and the exercises and 
resolutions evince intelligence and progress. The commissioners were 
Assisted by Prof. Townsend, Prof. E. B. Knapp of Homer, Mr. A. A. Knapp 



Resident Editor's Department. 117 

of Hobart, snd MisB Olive A. Pond. Evening leotures were delivered by Dr. 
Lambert, Prof. Townsend, Rev. Mr. Terry, and Wm. H. Steele, Esq. The 
commissioners are awake, and the teachers emulate their spirit. 

Gbnbseb Countt. — We attended the Institute in this county and cheer- 
fully testify to the increasing interest manifested. Mr. Rumsey's zeal as 
a school officer is above all praise. Prof. Hoose, of Lima, and Prof. Wright 
of Batavia did most effective service. Two hundred and forty teachers 
were in attendance — 125. first day ! We have received no regular report, 
hence our silence in last number, as we waited for a promised notice till 
too late to prepare one. 

Livingston County. — Commissioner Lusk writes us: Our Institute was 
really successful, we have never had so much interest manifested among 
the teachers of our county before ; and I trust the teachers are better 
prepared than ever to' do good service in the school room. 

Messrs. Lusk and Tozer are doing a noble work. Their Institute held 
for six weeks — the only one in the state for so long a term this year — was 
made a school of practical instruction. 

MoN&oB County Institute — First District. — This Institute com- 
menced at Fairport on Monday 23d. Prof. J. H. Uoose, of Lima, was present 
the first three days and conducted the exercises with marked ability. His 
lecture was highly instructive, full of practical thoughts of great value to 
teachers. Prof. C. Townsend of Rochester was present two days and taught 
civil government, a subject highly important which should be introduced into 
our schools. His lectures on *' Signs of Character and School Qovernment ** 
were well received. Miss Delia Curtice and Miss Flora T. Parsons gave 
interesting instruction in methods of ** object teaching ;" Prin. E. V. DeQraff 
gave lessons in intellectual arithmetic, and Dr. Mcintosh taught elocution, 
and gave some fine specimens of reading poetry ; Prof. £. H. Griffith gave 
lessons in punctuation. Dr. Cruikshank, Editor of the Nbw York Tbachbb, 
was with us the second week, and every teacher felt that they owed a debt 
of gratitude to him for the many valuable ideas which they received and 
which will be of great service to them in their schools ; and the unaminous 
expression was the hope that the good Lord would preserve his life and 
health to meet us again another year. Dr. T. S. Lambert of Peekskill was 
present a part of two days and lectured on Physology, which was highly 
appreciated by all. Dr. Cruikshank lectured on the Philosophy of Education, 
and on Man and Nature, or the Geographical track of History ; J. D. 
Husbands, on Authority ; S. W. Clark ; on " Philosophy of Language, " and 
Rev. Dr. Anderson, on the Senses. The Institute were favored during the 
entire session with excellent singing, particularly the last week, when Prof. 
Wm. Tillinghast was with us and added much to the interest. The attendance 
It the Institute was large and more regular, and the interest and earnest- 



118 Besident Editor's Department 

nes8 manifested by the teachers beyond that of any former year. The 
distinctiye feature of the instruction was that it was practical — adapted to 
the special wants of the teachers and their schools, and we think the cause 
has received an impetus that will elevate our schools to a higher level — that 
we may see in our methods of teaching, what is manifest in almost every 
other art or science — progress. 

When the time arrived for Dr, Cruikshank to take the cars for another 
field T>f labor, he was accompanied to the depot • by the members of the 
Institute in a body. Thus ended one of the best Institutes ever held in 
this district. A. M. Holden, Clerk. 

Otsego County. — A very interesting session of the Teachers' Association 
of the Second District was held at Milford, Dec. 14. 

Elegant and appropriate essays were read by Misses Cora 0. Smith, 
Clemma Wright, Flora R. Young, Mrs. J. N. Parshall, and Mr. Patten. A 
well composed poem by Miss Mary Estes ; also one recited by Miss Clem- 
ma Wright. 

An excellent and appropriate Lecture was given by B. C. Gardner, School 
Commissioner. Subject, — The Teacher. The exercises were enlivened 
by a quartette of excellent music, which received the merited thanks of 
the Association. The day passed pleasantly, and at its close the Associa- 
tion acyourned to meet at Laurens on the second Saturday in January 
next. 

OswEOO County — Third District. — The Institute for the district under 
the direction of commissioner W. S. Qoodell, Esq., was held at Sandy 
Creek the two weeks ending with Oct. 6, 1865. Eighty-one teachers were 
in attendance. 

The faculty consisted of Prof. Madison, N. S. Graduate — in mathemat- 
ics; Prof. N. White, St. Law. Univ. — vocal culture; Prof. Owen, Pulaski — 
grammar ; Miss Parkhurst, Mexico — geography; Miss Dickinson — read- 
ing and spelling. The instruction in each branch is reported as having 
been of the most valuable and practical kind. Lectures were delivered by 
Prof. J. S. Lee, of St. Law. Univ. — Americanisms of the JSnglith Language; 
Rev. Mr. Burgess, of Prattville — TAc Teacher' s Life ; Prof. White, of Can- 
ton — History in Language i J. W. Grant — The Teacher's Mission^ and his 
Reward, The last evening was occupied with literary and social exercises. 
The efforts of Commissioner Goodell to promote the success of the Insti- 
tute are spoken of in most eulogistic terms. 

We learn that Messrs. Nutting and Storms held Institutes in their respect- 
ive districts, — at the former, 50 teachers ; at the latter, 84, — both most 
interesting and successful. 

SoHBNEOTADY CouNTY. — The Institute commencing Nov. 20, was not 
largely attended, but the exercises were full of interest and profit. Rev. 
J. W. Armstrong of Watertown, Miss H. L. D. Potter, Prof. Townsend, 



Beaident Editor's Department. 119 

and the Editor of the Teacher were present most of the time, each haying 
the charge of certain branches. Brief practical lectures by the gentlemen 
named above, and class drills in reading and recitations by Miss Potter, 
occupied the evenings. Much praise is due to Supt. Charlton, of the citj 
schools, for his earnest labors on behalf of the Ihstitute. 

Watnb County. — Our Institute was held at Marion, commencing Oct. 16. 
The attendance was quite large and remarkably regular. The interest 
manifested by the teachers was gratifying to the commissioners andinstruot- 
ors, and commendable to this system of normal instruction. 

Rev. J. C. Moses gave very acceptable instruction in reading, orthogra- 
phy, geography, and gprammar during the first week. His earnestness and 
scholarly zeal did most to awaken the minds of teachers to the importance 
of a thorough preparation for their great work. 

Prof. Elisha Curtiss of Sodus Academy was with us the second week. 
He proved himself a zealous worker and able teacher. 

Prof. Townsend was present three days and evenings, and presented in 
a masterly manner the claims of civil government as a subject of study in 
common schools. 

Mental and practical arithmetic were taught throughout the entire ses- 
ion by Commissioner Sherman, who presented their principles with gpreai 
clearness and to the entire satisfaction of all. 

Commissioner Winchester also contributed much to the success of the 
Institute. 

There were lectures each evening : two by Rev. Mr. Moses ; three by 
Prof. Townsend ; one by Prof. Steele of Newark Union School, illustrated 
by experiments ; and a public reading by Commissioner Winchester. 

Prof. £. Brown of Macedon Academy enlivened the evening exercises 
with appropriate and finely executed music. 

On Friday evening there were rhetorical exercises by the members of 
the Institute which were creditable to all who took part, after which was 
the annual sociable. 

The Institute was a decided success. Deep interest was awakened on the 
the first day of .the session, and kept increasing until the close. The citi- 
zens of Marion manifested their sympathy by filling the large hall to its 
utmost capacity at the evening exercises. 

Brookltn. — The tenth annual report of the Superintendent of schools 
(Mr. J. W. Bulkley) of this city, should have received earlier attention. 
There are in the city, 66 grammar schools, and 57 primaries. There are 
27 male and 467 female teachers. Children registered, 50,837 ; of these 
740 are colored children. The average attendance has exceeded that of 
any former year. Evening schools have been kept up, as for the several 
years last past, with encouraging success — seven having been in operation 
for three months, and 66 teachers employed. Registered pupils, 4,179 — 
aterage attendance, 1,996. A graded course of instruction has been 



120 Beaident Editor's Department. 

adopted for the sohools, and improyed methods haye been introduced. The 
report giyes, at length, the studies of the different grades. Oral lessons 
and exercises in thinking (Socratio method) are used in the primaries, 
with marked success. The report abounds in yaluable suggestions touch- 
ing examination, the teacher's office, etc., which the large experience of 
Superintendent Bulkley enables him to put with peculiar force. Among 
the hard working, earnest educators he occupies no second place. 



INTELLIGENCE.— FOREIGN. 

Maryland. — The schools of this new-born state haye before them a pros- 
pect of great usefulness. We haye just receiyed from the State Superin- 
tendent, a neatly printed pamphlet, containing a code of by-laws for 
the goyernment of school commissioners, rules and regulations for teachers 
and pupils, and forms and instructions for transacting all public school 
business, prepared by Hon. L. Van Bokkelen, and issued under authority 
of the State Board of Education. In a few eloquent prefatory words, 
the superintendent sets forth the free school ideal, and urges the most 
strenuous efforts to carry it into effect. He sums up the elements which 
constitute a good primary school as follows : 1. A suitable school site, 
remote from noise and that routine work which attracts the attention of 
children. 2. A conyenient school house, neatly built with architectural 
proportions, furnished comfortably, with reference to physiological laws ; 
equipped with black-board, outline maps, text books, and cheap educa- 
tional apparatus ; well warmed, lighted, and yentilated. 8. The teacher — 
his qualifications : a thorough knowledge of the subjects to be taught ; 
skill in the art, and loye for the work of teaching ; capacity to goyern ; 
cheerful temper ; of good manners. 4. Superyision: earnest, by some gen- 
tleman interested in public schools ; intelligent, by some gentleman capable 
to judge of teaching ; yigilant, by some gentleman who will devote time to 
the work. 

No pupil is admitted under six years of age, and all must enter school at 
the beginning of the term. Parents must exercise strict yigilance over 
their children ; see that they attend school punctually and regularly, and 
are responsible for school property destroyed or injured. Written excuses 
for tardiness or absence are required. All the regulations look toward 
securing the co5peration of parents, and exacting strict obedience and 
proper conduct firom the pupil. 

Text books, uniform throughout the state. All school houses after 
models prepared by the Superintendant. 

The county boards of education are thoroughly organized, and m^et 
quarterly. 



Beaident EdUcn^a Department. 121 

Teachers salaries are graded according the number of pupils, and a 
mininum is in each case established by law. 

A state meeting of the commissioners was held in August, and the dis- 
cussions on questions touching the new school policy of the state were 
animated, and the meeting was very harmonious. We hope to chronicle 
from time to time the evidences of advancement. 

Upper Canada. — The number of children of school age, 1864, is 424,000. 
Of these 333,000 were in the public schools. The amount of money ex- 
pended for schools was $1,440,006. School libraries haye been established 
OTer all the proyince. Maps, apparatus and books are sent out from the 
Education Office, and are judiciously distributed. 

Nbw Brunswick. — There are upward of 800 schools in operation, and 
in 1863 there were 580 trained teachers. For the term ending Sept., 1864, 
there were in attendance upon the schools, 45,133 pupils — 30,303 males 
and 18,830 females. The number of male teachers is slightly in excess 
of the number of females. 

Connecticut. — This state has now a Board of Education organized on a 
plan similar to that in Massachusetts. Prof. Daniel Gilman of Tale Col- 
lege is Secretary. Hon. D. N. Camp, formerly Superintendent of schools 
and principal of the State Normal School, is to devote himself to the duties 
of the latter office. We learn that he is also to have charge of the Common 
School Journal. 

Omaha Aoenot.— We learn from a recent letter from our old friend 
8. Orlando Lee, formerly of Long Island, that a school is in ^active opera- 
tion at the Omaha (Indian) agency, of fifty pupils. The ** nation " num- 
bers about 1,000, living partly by agriculture, and partly by hunting. 
About half of them live in wooden houses, the rest in turf houses. The 
reservation is on the west bank of the Missouri, just north of the 42d 
parallel, and contains about 450 square miles of territory About one- 
third of it has been sold to the Winnebagoes. 

New Jersey. — A free German American Academy in Hudson City is 
among the recently projected enterprises ; and a grand concert was recently 
given in its behalf by the "Qemischter Choir," in that city. 

The Colored People of Baltimore have recently purchased a hall at 
an expense of $16,000, and dedicated it to education and literature. 

Tennessee. — Freedmen's Schools. — Colonel John Ogden, formerly of 
Ohio, is doing a good work in the organization of these agencies in our 
new civilization. The pupils evince an eager desire to learn and are 
making rapid progress. Twenty teachers will be employed this winter at 
Clarkesville. Schools are established at Nashville, Gallatin, Franklin, 
Columbia and other places. 



122 Besident Editor's Department. 

Missouri. — One year ago Prof. James H. Robinson was presented to 
the grand jury of Montgomery county for teaching negro children to read. 
He in now State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Holland. — Ample provision is made for education, and eyery induce- 
ment is offered to secure regular attendance. There are many normal 
schools, and the teachers are generally, well trained. It is rare to find a 
person who can not read and write. 

Bkloium. — The instruction given is, for the most part, most elementary, 
and its direction is almost entirely under the control of the church. 



LITERARY NOTES, 



P&or. G. B. AiBT, Astronomer Royal of England, is about to publish a 
<* Popular Astronomy," — a series of lectures recently delivered at Ipswich. 

Cha&lbs Lamb. — It is said that ** Barry Cr on wall (Mr. Proctor) is 
writing a life of the *' Gentle Elia." 

Wbbstbb's Mammoth Impebial Folio. — Messrs. G. & C. Merriam, Spring- 
field, have just issued from the Riverside Press a splendid edition, on 
large paper, sized and calendered, ten by fifteen inches, of the **New Web- 
ster." Only two hundred and fifty copies have been printed, and it is sold 
only by subscription, at $25 a copy. Two volumes, paper covers. 

Lambbbt's New Putsioloot, advertised in our pages, has already, since 
August, passed through two editions, and preparations are in progress for 
a third. It is received with great favor, and the practical features it pre- 
sents are appreciated. 

The Autocrat at the Bbeakiast Table, by Dr. Holmes, is going 
through repeated editions in England. 

Judge Dean, of Albany, is preparing for publication a History of Civi- 
lization, which, in philosophical perception and research, promises to b« 
of superior merit. 

Lamabtine is writing a life of Lord Byron. 

Elf OKE, the famous Prussian astronomer, has recently deceased, at the ag« 
of 78 years. 

A HiSTOBT OP Scotland, from Agrioola's Invasion to the Revolution of 
1688, is announced by the distinguished Scottish antiquarian, Mr. John 
Hill Burton. Its appearance will be looked for with much interest. 

Goethe's House, at Frankfort has been restored to the condition in 
which the author of Wilhelm Meister left it, and has become an object of 
great interest. 



Resident Editor's Department. 123 

OxTORD H0HOR8 TO AH AMERICAN. — The Chancellor's Prise, for the best 
English Essay, the oldest and highest prize of Oxford Uniyersity, was re- 
cently awarded to Francis Alston Channing, son of Rey. William Henry 
Channing, of Washington. 



PERIODICALS. 

Harper's Maoaeinb. — This popular fayorite commenced a new yolume 
with the number for December. Its first article, How the Magazine is made, 
is fully illustrated with beautiful outs, and giyes an elaborate description 
of eyery part of the process, and of the machinery employed in it ; type 
setting, stereotyping, printing, folding, eto., etc. The **New Monthly" has 
done more, probably, than any other journal for the culture of the masses ; 
and the biographies, histories and travels it contains are themselyes worth, 
per annum, far more than the price of the work. Four dollars a year. We 
will furnish it to our subscribers at $8.50. Teacher and Harpers, for $4.50. 

Harper's Weekly needs no encomium. It has taken its place among 
the necessities of the household. Its illustrations, so elegantly engrayed, 
its large range of subjects, and its spirited editorials — all entitle it to first 
rank. Geo. W. Curtis, Esq., has charge of the editorial department. 
Price, same as the monthly. 

Clark's School Yisitor. — This popular day school monthly, is now 
in its tenth yolume, and is a magazine for girls and boys of sterling minds. 
It may be used to adyanrage as a reading book* in schools. J. W. Daugha- 
day, Philadelphia, price 75 cents a year. 

The Pulpit and Rostrum. — This series containing stenographic reports 
of current speeches, sermons,' and occasional addresses, and published 
by Schermerhorn, Bancroft & Co., New York, has reached its thirty sixth 
number. The two last (that have come to hand) contain Mr. Bancroft's 
oration pronounced at the obsequies of President Lincoln ; Mr. Bryant's 
Funeral Ode ; President Lincoln's proclamation ; his last inaugural, and 
a sermon by Rey. Henry P. Thompson. Price 15 cents a number. 

The Sunday Magazine — Edited by Thomas Guthrie, D.D., and pub- 
lished by Strahan and Company, 178 Grand St., New York; 56 Ludgate 
Hill, London ; and 50 St. Peter St., Montreal — is a royal 8yo of 72 pages, 
filled with choicest literature, chiefly of a moral and religious character. 
Bach number contains soyeral full page illustrations ; seyeral serial articles, 
that promise to be of more than usual interest, comnlence in the October 
nomber : Our Father's Business, by the Editor ; Journal of a Tour through 
Palestine, by William Hanna, D.D.; Annals of a Quiet Neighborhood, by 



124 Besident JEditor's Department. 

the Vicar. $8,00 a year, now in second volume. Messrs. Strahan & Com- 
pany also publish Good Wordt, edited by Norman MacLeod, D.D. It takes 
a high rank among standard periodicals $3,00 per annum. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



A Common School Gbammab of The English Language, By Simon Eebl, 

A.M., Author of *^ Comprehensive Grammar" etc., New York: Ivison, 

Phinneyy Blakeman ^ Co., l2mo.jpp. 350, J roan. 

The many excellencies which this book contains entitle it to a place 
among the standard elementary works on the English language. Among 
these yaluable features may be noticed the following : 1. An introductory 
presentation of the grammatical and logical development of the sentence, 
with copious illustrations and exercises for practice ; showing the oonnec* 
tion between thought and language, and how the relations in the latter are 
developed from a few fundamental ideas ; 2. As a general thing, whenever 
a new definition or technical term is to be introduced, the formal expres- 
sion of it is preceded by a familiar case embracing it, and so the meaning 
of the term or force of the definition becomes obvious ; 8. The syntax is 
peculiarly full and discriminating, and more care seems to be bestowed 
upon giving a practical direction to the critical use and meaning of language, 
than to the elaboration of fine theories whose application is as far oflf f^om 
the apprehension of the student as ever. 

The book has faults, but as a whole will stand the test of candid 
criticism. 

A Hand Book of Latin Pobtet. Containing selections from Ovid, Virgil 
and Horace, with notes and Grammatical References. By J. II. Hanson, /Vm- 
eipal of the Classical Institute, Waterville, Me., and W. J. Rolfe, Master of 
the High School, Cambridge, Mass., Boston: Crosby S^ Ainsworth, 1865, 
Svo,pp. 776, J roan. 

We have, at last, the school book long needed containing in convenient 
form an amount of Latin poetry equivalent to that usually required for 
admission to college. The selections are judicious, and the brief biogra- 
phies and notes seem all that could be desired. The notes are progressive, 
those on Ovid being of a more elementary character, and upon Virgil and 
Horace, successfully more critical — embracing critical grammatical ques- 
tions, with copious references to the grammars of Andrews and Stoddard, 
Harkness, Zumpt, and others. Historical and Mythological allusions are 
explained, and the peculiar idioms in the structure of the text pointed out. 
The notes inspire the pupil to self-helpfulness, rather' than lift him oTtr 



BeaiderU Editor's Department. 125 

(he rough places in the way# In typographical execution and paper it is all 
that could be desired — the clear old-style letter being suggestiye of the 
old times. 

Ajk American Dictionart of the Eiiolish Language. By Noah Webster, 
LL.D. Thoroughly revised j and greatly Enlarged and Improved, by 
Chaunget a. Goodrich, D.D., LL.D., late Profeator of Rhetoric and 
Oratory, etc., in Yale College, and Noah Porter, D. D., Clark Prof eetor of 
Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics in Tale College, Springfield, Mass. : Pub- 
lished by G. and C. Merriam, 1864. Royal ^to, pp. Ixii — 1,768. 
The recent issue of a ** large-paper*' edition of this Standard Dictionary, 
renders this a fitting time to speak more at length of the distinguishing 
features of the New Illustrated Edition, than our space has heretofore 
allowed. As early as 1783-5, Dr. Webster had published a Grammar of 
of the English Language, and had gained much celebrity as a forceful 
political writer. He has the credit of having for the first time, in the 
public press asserted the yalue and foreshadowed the necessity of a 
new constitution of the United States. In 1786, he deliyered, in the Uad- 
^ing cities of the United States, a course of lectures on the English language. 
He is the author of one of the first, if not the first pamphlet, after its 
adoption on the leading principles of the Federal constitution. After 
scTeral years spent in public life, as conductor of "The Minenra," a 
daily paper in New York, during which time he produced many yaluable 
{mpers on political and other subjects, iie published, in 1807, a *< Philo- 
sophical and Practical Grammar of the English Language." He com- 
menced during this year the great work of his life, and one for which his 
tastes and previous experience peculiarly fitted him, the American Dic- 
tionart or the English Language. In the preparation of his compilation 
entitled the "Compendious Dictionary" published in 1806, he had become 
swflkre of serious defects in many extant works, and determined to remedy 
them, by a more complete work. He soon found it necessary to commence 
sn extended series of philological investigations, which occupied him for 
ten years. His synopsis of words in twenty languages, the first fruit of his 
labor, has never been published, but its substance is found in the critical 
etymologies of his great work. He was, in this particular field, an origi- 
nal investigator, and the results of his researches have since that time 
enriched many vocabularies. After seven more years of assiduous labor, 
he went to Paris and Cambridge, where he had access to the best libraries, 
and the opportunity of consultation with the most learned philologists. 
After nearly a year, he returned to complete the work, which appeared 
in 1828, in two volumes 4to. A revised edition, edited by Dr. Goodrich, 
was published, in one volume 4to, in 1847. This edition is, probably, 
more largely known 'than any other. In 1859, Dr. Goodrich added a table 



126 Beaident EdUor's Department. 

of synonyms, an appendix of new words, pictorial illustrations, etc. — the 
body of the work, however, being printed from the plates of 1847. 

The progress of philological study, so accelerated within the last few 
years, and the demand which this book hitherto had created for something 
better, stimulated the publishers to reproduce the great masterpiece, with 
such emendations,, improvements, and additions, as to place it far in ad- 
vance of any competitor. The amount of talent employed in the revision, 
the systematized division of labor, and the careful editorial scrutiny to 
which the whole has been subjected, could not but produce, on the old 
foundation, a work of singular fullness and accuracy. 

In the present edition, the etymologies have been most minutely traced, 
and reduced, as far as possible, to a consistent system. Where there are 
two or more spellings sanctioned by competent authority, all are given, 
but the original radical, and the sundry forms through which it has passed, 
are in most cases carefully preserved. To Dr. Mahn, of Berlin, this most 
important work was committed. The original purpose of Dr. Webster, to 
reduce the definitions to order, giving the radical meaning first, and the 
others in the order of their development, has been more completely car- 
ried out than in the author's own edition ; and so careful have been the 
editors that there seems little further to be desired in this respect. A 
most careful system of examination of classic authors, ancient and modern, 
was instituted to obtain proper illustrative citations, and this department 
is especially rich in usages of the old dramatic writers. The vocabulary 
comprises upward of 114,000 words, many thousand having been added in 
this edition. Prof. James D. Dana, assisted by other eminent scientists 
has contributed most satisfactorily to the large class of terms in science, 
which the discoveries of recent times have made a necessity. The results 
of the labors of Dr. Goodrich in the preparation of a table of synonyms, 
have been incorporated into the body of the work, and such additions 
made as to^ive measurable completeness. In pictorial illustrations, there 
is, if any fault, a redundancy. They are finely engraved, and in the depart- 
ments of mechanics, engineering, natural history and anatomy, are espe- 
cially full and discriminating. The appendixes have been carefully 
reSdited, and several new ones of practical value have been added. A 
vocabulary of the names of noted fictitious persons, places, etc., can be 
supplied to the general reader from no other source. A table of nearly 
1,200 words gives the pronunciation of Webster, Perry, Walker, Knowles, 
Smart, Worcester, Cooley and Cull. Another table exhibits more than 
1,600 words spelled in two or more ways. 

Of the few classes of words whose orthography is most in dispute, the 
Boyal Quarto follows Webster's established usage: 1. Defense, offense, 
etc., following analogy of other words similarly derived from Latin verbs 
with supines in t; 2. In derivatives from dissylables not accented on the 



Resident Editor's Department. 127 

second sjllable, it follows the general rule in such words as counselor, 
trayeler, worshiper; 8. In center, fiber, theater, and a few others, the 
analogy of the hundreds of others of their class is followed. 

It is a source of pride to Americans, that Webster has long been acknow- 
ledged t?i€ standard abroad, and that his editors retaining all the golden 
fruit of his labors, haye added such rich stores from more modern sources ; 
80 that the Great Unabridged is a Thesaurus of knowledge, full, critical, — 
a compendium of the philogical researches of the age. 

LiiB or HoKACE Mann. By His "Wife. Boston: Walker j Fuller i^ Co. \2mo, 

cloth, gilt top, pp. 602. Price $3.00. 

Aside from those peculiar elements of character which gave Horace Mann 
his power, and have enshrined him in the hearts of thousands, his relations 
to the Massachusetts Board of Education, of which he was the first Sec- 
retary, would make the record of his life one of peculiar interest. That 
relation, however, served only to give a new direction to his energies, and 
in a wider sphere to organize into the future of the Commonwealth the 
large-hearted purposes, wisely inaugurated and earnestly pursued, that 
were characteristics of his unselfish life. It can not be doubted that his 
would, in some respects, have been a more symmetrical character, had fewer 
struggles and griefs environed him ; yet even when most morbid, he never 
lost sight of noble projects for the welfare of society ; and if he was ex- 
acting of others, he never spared himself. A great merit in the biography 
of a man so singularly pure and honorable, is to give a glimpse at the every 
day incidents of his life ; and this we have in the present volume, in the 
numerous letters and extracts from his diary, whilst letters from his friends, 
and extracts from their testimony serve to reveal phases of noble minded- 
ness, generosity and unselfishness, which were else hidden from the public 
eye. Another might have written more freely of what were the chief excel- 
lencies in his character, but the tenderness of a profound sympathy with 
his great life expresses itself in the simple words of affection with which 
his wife connects the incidents set forth in the work. It is not without 
blemishes, in some things that might have been ^withheld, and others that 
might have been given ; but the friends of public education and public 
morality will thank Mrs. Mann for giving wider influence to the life of a 
large-hearted worker in the cause of truth, who being dead yet speaketh. 
The Cottaob Library. 1. Home Ballads, by our Home Poets. 2. The 

Song of the Shirt, and other Poems, by Thomas Hood. 3. Uhder Green 

Leaves. Collected by R. H. Stoddard. 

The publishers of the above, Messrs. Bunco & Huntington, New York, 
have commenced, under the title of the Cottage Library, the issue of a 
series of attractive hand-volumes, containing choice selections from the 
best poets, and standard productions of the great authors, issued in elegant 
style, but at a low price, and designed for popular circulation. Each 
volume is handsomely illustrated, and printed on fine paper. Price 80 
cents. 



128 Resident Editor's Department. 

BiXT St. Bbmt ; or the Boy in Blue. By Mrs. C. H. Gildbrslbsyx. New 
York; James O'Kane, 126 Nassau St., 1866. Umo.pp. 362. 
The central history in this story is told in a few words. Remy (Miss St. 
Remy) becomes a soldier and aid to Colonel Berry, whom she tenderly loves, 
and is brave and self sacrificing in her new character as she is constant 
and devoted. A "secesh" lover is discarded, and after many perils peace 
comes and joy crowns the years of waiting and of care. The language, 
and indeed the incidents are sometimes extravagant, but as a whole the 
book shows genius and tender sympathy, and a woman's heart. It will 
repay the reading. 

Pbi^on Life in the South : at Richmond, Macon, Savannah, Charleston, 
Columbia^ Charlotte, Raleigh, Ooldsboro* and Andersonville, during the years 
1964 and 1865. By A. 0. Abbott, Late Lieut. Ist N. Y. Dragoons. With 
Illustrations. New York: Harper ^ Brothers, 1865. 12mo., pp. 374/ 
The public have become so familiar with incidents similar to those relat- 
ed by Lieut. Abbott, that any report of the subject matter of this book is 
unnecessary. The story is well told, and embraces thrilling scenes of 
oruelty and privation, captures and escape, with a very fair insight into 
the life of the people, white and black, with whom the author oamd 
in contact. It will be long before such barbarities as here narrated will 
be forgotten. 

Husbands AND Hombs. j?y Marion Harland, Author of ** Alone, " ** Ridden 

Path,'' etc. New York: Sheldon ^ Company, 1866. 

A good moral story well told. We have not read it through but our 
wife likes it, and we presume therefore it takes many a poor Benedict to 
task and says to refractory ones, ** This is the way ; walk ye in it.'* Miss 
Harland's reputation as a pleasant story feller is well established. 
Humorous Poems. By Oliver Wendell Holmes. With Illustrations by Sol, 

Eytinge, Jr. Boston : Ticknor ^ Fields^ 1865. Small ito, paper, pp. 100, 

Price 60 cents. 

This beautiful little volume is uniform with the recently published 
*< Companion Poets," — Tennyson, Browning, Longfellow, and Whittier. It 
contains most of Dr. Holmes' poems which have appeared in the Atlantic 
Monthly, and some others that have been favorites for years. Among the 
latter we notice ** The Ballad of the Oysterman," «« The September Gale," 
** The Specter Pig," and others. Of the later poems there are mixed with 
the serio-comic, enough of the tender and pathetic to give them a xest. 
"The Deacon's Masterpiece, or the Wonderful one Hoss Shay " will never 
grow old. ** The Old Man of the Sea" is a happy conceit, and a perpetual 
protest against all ** buttonholders, " and other bores. ** Contentment " and 
** The Old Man Dreams," are among the gems. But nothing further is 
necessary than to say that these are by Holmes, and that the illustrations 
are fine, and the paper and printing in the best style of the University 
Press. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 

# - 

SOMETHING ENTIRELY NEW. 



A BOOK FOR BYERT TEACHER IN ARITHMETIC. 
A BOOK FOR EVERY SCHOLAR IN ARITHMETIC. 

aUESTIONS 

ON THE 

PRINCIPLES OF ARITHMETIC 

DESIGNED TO 

Indioate an Outline of Stady* to Exoite anions Pupils a Spirit of Inde- 
pendent Inquiry, Bspeoially Fitted to Facilitate a Thorough 
System of BeTiews, Adapted to any Text-Books and to 
all Qrades of Iieamers. 

BY JAMES S. EATON, M.A., 
Author of a Series of Arithmetics, &c. 

** It thould he the thief aim in teaching Arithmetic to lead the learner to a clear 
undtrftandin^ o^ the PRINCIPLES cf the ScUnce, — Hojr. John D. Phil- 
8BICK, Superintendent of the Public Schools in Boston. 



THE ADVANTAGES OF USING THESE QUESTIONS. 

1. Thev are separate from any text-books, and equally w ell adapted to all 
text-books, and on this account they present all the benefits of the Question 
Method, and none of its defects. 

2. They indicate a definite outline of study, and afford a substantial guide 
to the pupil in the preparation of his lesson. 

3. They incite the pupil to inquiry, awakening that thirst for knowledge 
which is the best motive to its acquirement. 

4. They open up the several subjects by such short and suggestive steps, one 
qnestiou following upon another in the chain, that the pupil is thus led to 
follow out and develop the subject for himself. 

6. By inciting the pupil to inquiry, and guiding him in developing the 
suljeot for himself, they observe the highest and only true style of teaoliinff ; 
namely, to dsaw out and develop the faculties, and thus lead the pnpil, 
insteaa of dictating to him or driving him. 

6. Thej afford the best means for frequent reviews and examinations, since it 
is the Pnnciplesof Arithmetic that should be reviewed, and not the mechanical 
operations. 

7. The use of these questions will not fail to ground the principles of Arith- 
metio in the mind of the pupil, and thus give him the Key which will command 
all pmctioal operations. 

8. For those teachers whose time is closely occupied with large classes and 
large schools, the use of these questions will save much labor, while they will 
produce the best results in scholarship. 

0^ These Questions are published in the form of a Pamphlet, and sold at a 
very low price, to render it easy for all schools to supply themselves with them. 

As they are not in the form of, nor designed for a text-book, they do not 
require to be formally adopted by Boards of Education, but the use of them, 
like cards or other illustrations, will depend on the option of teachers. 

FOB SAI.E BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

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New Series.] FEBRUARY, 1866. [Vol. VIT, No. 5. 
Oswego Norxaal and Training School. 

The frontispiece of this numher presents a view in perspective 
of the building recently purchased and fitted up by the Oswego 
Board of Education for il' StSU- Normal School. The building is 
located in the most delightful part of the' city and overlooks the 
entire town, the lake,ri?er and harbor, and adjacent ooantry. It is 
surrounded by ample grounds, and in its internal arrangements is 
happily adapted to the porposo for which it is designed. 

The main part and'oiii^ro of the building is constructed of a 
beautiful limestone, foil|ld..pn the shores of Lake Ontario. The 
wings are of wood and-ii^ largo and spacious. It is designed to 
accommodate from 250 *» 800 pupils in the Normal Department, 
and GOO children in the Iftpdel and Practicing Schools. 

Its entire length in fr^t^'^from east to west, is 153 feet, and it 
extends back 130 feet. Tpejgroaad plan of each floor is presented 
herewith. 

The building is an ornament to the town and an honor to the 
Board of Education and citizens of Oswego, who have so liberally 
provided for the professional education of the teachers of the state — 
a provision certainly, very much demanded. 

This school, which has been in operation since the spring of 1801, 
and for the last two years under the patronage of the state, is to 
occupy the new building on the 28th day of February next. At that 
time it is to enter upon a much more extended curriculum than 
heretofore, embracing all that is usually taught in the best Normal 
Schools in the country, in addition to a thorough course of instruc- 
tion and training in methods of teaching. The teaching of the 

[Vol. XV, No. 5.] 9 



130 Oswego Normal and Tmiriing School. 



Tarious branches is regarded rather as a necessity than as the appro- 
priate work of the school. It is desighed as a preparation for the 
more legitimate work, of instruction in the principles and philosophic 
of education, and trainin(ji in methods of teaching. 




FIRST FLOOR. 

1. Hall and main entrance to Normal School. 3,2. Recitation rooms for Normal School. 

8. Laboratory and chemical apparatus. 4. Philosophical apparatus and cabinet. Be- 
tween the rooms S and i), 8 and 4, arc sliding; doors, so that two rooms can be thrown 
into one when required. 6. OtBce. 6, 6. Assembly rooms of practicing schools. 7, 7, 7, 
7, 7. 7. 7, 7, 7, 7. Recitation rooms for pupil tcacners, 8. Model graded school room. 

9. Girls* hall and main entrance to Model and Practicing Schools. 10. Bovs' hall and 
main entrance to Model and Practicing Schools. 11. Entrance Arom court yard. IS. Cov- 
ered passage way to water closets. 18, 13, 13. Girls' cloak rooms. 14, 14, 14. Boys' 
cloak rooms. 16, 16, 16, 16, 16. Teachers' closets. 16, 16, 16, 16. Piazzas. 17, 17. Sinks 
f^f foft watfr. 



Oswego Normal and Training School. 131 



The school is to be arranged in two distinct departments, Ele- 
mentary and Higher. The ''Elementary Training Coarse" will 
occupy two terms of twenty weeks each. The first term is to 
be devoted to instruction in the principles and philosophy of educa- 
tion, methods of teaching, school organization and government. 
Special attention will be given to the best methods of teaching and 
managing Primary Schools. The methods pursued will be those 




SECOND FLOOR. 

1, 1, 1, 1, 1. Halls. 8. Assembly room and hall, capable of seatinf from 800 to 1,000 
Penons. 8. Lectare room. 4. Natural history room. 6. Ladies* dressinir room. 6. 
Teachers* dressing room. 7, 7, 7, 7, 7. Recitatian rooms for papil teachers, with children 
from practicing schools. 8. Model nnCTaded school room. 9. Cloak room for girls. 10. 
Qoak room for bors. 11, 11, 11, 11. Teachers' closets. 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12. Ven- 
tilators (Bobinson^s). 18, 18, 18, 18, 18. Piazzas. 14. Stairway and covered passage. 15, 
16. Janitor*! rooms. 



132 Oswego Normal and Training School. 

sometimes termed " intuitive " or " objective," but more popularly 
known as " Object Teaching." 




THnU) FLOOR. 

1, 1. Halls. 8, 2. Recitation rooms. 8. Library and reading room. 4. Gentlemen^s 
dressing room. 6. Apnaratns room. 6, 6. Janitor's rooms. 7, 7, 7, 7. Rooms for the 
solitanr confinement ox refiractory children. These rooms are properly warmed and 

The subjects considered will embrace all those usually pursued in 
the common schools of the state. 

Instruction will be given as to the best methods of teaching these 
branches at every step of the child's progress, from the time of first 
entering school to the completion of the subjects, illustrated by 
frequent model and criticism lessons. The second term will be 
devoted to observation and practice in the Model and Practicing 
Schools undieir the dirpctioi^ of the most competent critics. One 



Osweyo Normal and Training School. 133 

hour each day will be devoted to instraction in methods of giving 
object lessons, lessons on form, size, color, weight, sounds, animals, 
plants and moral instruction. 

Pupils having completed this course will receive a diploma, which 
will serve as a certificate of qualification to teach in any of the com- 
mon schools of the state. 

Pupils to enter this class must bo able to pass a satisfactory 
examination in all the common English branches. Those not prop - 
erly qualified may enter the '^ Elementary Preparatory Class," which 
occupies one term of twenty weeks, and is designed to give thorough 
drill in reading, spelling, writing, analysis of words, grammar, geo- 
graphy, history, arithmetic, book-keeping, drawing, and elementary 
algebra. 

No pupil, however, will be admitted into this class who has not a 
fair knowledge of all except the three last named branches. 

The " Higher Training Course " occupies one term, and is devoted 
to a consideration of the best methods of teaching the branches 
usually pursued in the high schools and academies of the state. 
Much time will be devoted to teaching under criticism, to model and 
criticism lessons, sub-lectures, and to the study of the history and 
philosophy of education, school laws, school organization and dis- 
cipline. On completing this course an appropriate diploma will 
be conferred. To enter this class pupils will be required to sus- 
tain a competent examination in higher arithmetic, algebra, geo- 
metry, grammar, rhetoric, geography, history, natural philoso- 
phy, chemistry, botany, astronomy, mental and moral philosophy, 
and drawing. 

Pupils not properly qualified in these branches, may enter the 
" Higher Preparatory Course," which covers three terms of twenty 
weeks, and pursue such branches as may be necessary to fit them 
for the " Training Course." The time necessary to spend in the 
" Preparatory Course " depends entirely on the proficiency and abil- 
ity of the pupil. To a pupil conversant with none of the branches, 
three terms, of twenty weeks each, will be required. 

To enter this department a pupil must be able to pass a thorough 
examination in all the branches of the '^ Elementary Course." 
Full courses of lectures will be given in the various branches of 
natural science, throughout both departments. 

The Model and Practicing Schools are separate and distinct in 



134 Boarding Round. 

their design and character. The former are designed as models of 
excellence in organization, teaching and discipline, and are taught 
exclusively by paid teachers. 

The latter are employed as schools of practice, as the name im- 
plies, for the pupil teachers. 

Each class of scholars embraces every grade from the Primary to 
to the High School. 

The school is free to all who are properly qualified to enter, and 
who, on recommendation of the School Commissioner or Board of 
Commissioners of the county in which they reside, receive the 
appointment of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

There is no charge for books or tuition, and the traveling expen- 
ses of the pupils in coming to the school are refunded at the close 
of each term. 

An able and efficient corps of teachers has been employed, and 
no effort will be spared to make the school one of a high order. 

Circulars giving full information in . regard to the school may 
be obtained through the State Superintendent, or E. A. Sheldon, 
of Oswego, the Superintendent of the school. 



Boarding Bound. 



BY AMOBT H. BBADFOBD. 



I shall not attempt a critical discussion of merits and demerits of 
Boarding Bound, but rather a few recollections of that peculiar cus- 
tom which looms up dark and dread to the novitiate in teaching. 

There is no peculiarity of the teacher's life more abused than this. 
Prejudice has arrayed itself against it. The over-fastidious taste of 
many is ** shocked at the idea." Those who instruct simply for 
pecuniary benefit are drawn up in determined and unrelenting hos- 
tility to a system which necessarily deprives them of much time 
that is desired for personal advantage. Examine the reasons assigned 
by the opponents of boarding round, and you will find that generally 
they are purely selfish. 

The desire of innovation also, of making our 6wn age distinct from 
every other, has had its influence with our common school teachers. 



Boarding Bawnd. 135 

In our desire for advancement we often seek simply change. A 
determination to be peculiar is frequently mistaken for a genuine 
love of progress. Here is this principle manifest. Our fathers 
boarded round when teaching ; hence we must not. 

We love the pcood old custom. Here is found some of the dis- 
comforts, but just as truly much of the joy of the teacher's life. 
Around the hearth-stones of humble firesides cluster the fondest 
recollections of many who year after year have taught the district 
school. To be sure, here as everywhere, the bitter is mingled with 
the sweet. Yet who shall say it is not better for the teacher and 
those whom he instructs, that after a "long, long weary day's" 
unceasing; toil, he is obliged to walk a mile or two, have his mind 
diverted by new scenes, and his soul warmed and expanded by the 
goodly cheer of the farm house. The fare may not be such as Del- 
monico recently set before the great British capitalist. The dinner 
may be served without dessert. You may even be asked, — perhaps 
bluntly, — but nevertheless kindly, — to " take right hold and help 
yourself" What matters it? we should look at the spirit, and not 
the letter of the invitation. 

After tea, suppose the father does want to talk politics? It is not 
unlikely that there may be some things learned about the various 
political struggles in our country of which we never thought before. 
The choicest diamonds are often imbedded deepest in mire. There 
are elements of power beneath the rough exterior of many Ameri- 
can farmers, which, if occasion demanded it, would exert a command- 
ing influence upon the history of our republic. A tanner has become 
a lieutenant general ; a rail-splitter both the nation's president and 
martyr. There may be something yet to be learned from our obscure 
citizens. But perhaps I am straying. Yet I wanted to show that 
some of the grandest lessons possible to be learned are gained by 
boarding round. We may hear and read of men who are poor, yet 
rich ; obscure, yet noble ; but we truly realize the fact only when 
the iron pen of experience has written it upon our minds. He who 
has boarded round knows that many of our " small-fisted farmers " 
in strength of character, extent of essential political and general 
knowledge, are the peers of the proudest courtiers of Europe. By 
association with such minds our own characters are strengthened, 
our perceptions sharpened, our experience enlarged. I do not claim 
that this practice is always pleasant, but that it may be usually both 
pleasant and profitable. 



136 Boiirding Hxmnd, 

But I was simply intending to relate some recollections of board- 
ing round. The real value of the system is best proved by the 
pleasautcat reminiscences that veteran teachers are fond of rehearsing. 

Many happy hours docs the faithful teacher spend in living over 
these joyous scenes. Willingly does he bid memory summon back 
the departed years of happiness and youth. To-night those thoughts 
are sweeter than ever to me, as I sit all alone looking at the embers 
which are fast crumbling into ashes, and watching a flickering flame, 
whose shadowy fingers are painting shapes fantastic upon my chamber 
walls. Yes, those were joyous days. IIow kind -those old faces 
seem, peering familiarly at me from the coals on the grate. Those 
scenes are nacred to me ; are they not to you, brother teacher ? 

There was one fireside which a brother had just left to join in 
the wild unrest of the metropolis. The mother, oh ! how her 
motherly heart yearned for his welfare ! She looked to the teacher 
for sympathy and comfort. How one is ennobled when a mother, 
another's mother turned to him for consolation. A difierent recollec- 
tion arises at the thought of that large white house in the valley. 
There was a young woman, beautiful, accomplished, beloved. One 
worthy to be loved bad sought and won her love. He heard his 
country's call and went manfully forth to engage in the good fight 
for freedon and T nicm. A bullet pierced his young heart, and now 
at Gettysburg he sleeps in a grave unmarked, unknown. The 
teacher's welcome here was kind, but sad ; his recollection of it is as 
sweet as sad. 

But I almost forgot that wedding at the trustee's. Did you ever 
attend a wedding in the country '{ They are indescribable, inimita- 
ble, natural. Not so much display, not so much refinement, if you 
please ; but vastly more of heart than often belongs to similar occa- 
sions in the city. 

But my tenderest, saddest welcome was in that quiet little cottage 
under the hill, from which the hope, the flower of a little family 
flock bad, soft as a sun beam, passed to the land where sorrow never 
comes. At eventide the father, half forgetful, would call ; and as 
his little pet came not would go aside to weep. The mother was a 
Christian. The same invisible hand that guides the movements of 
the spheres sustained her. She believed that this afliictiou would 
work out a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory ; that 
when together they should tread the gold-paved street of the New 



PapUs Metital Processes. 137 

Jerusalem, the voice of her dead yet living Anne would ring out 
the anthem of praise, full, clear and joyous as in days of yore. 
Who believes that association with such scenes is not beneficial ? 
Who believes that in a circle where heart meets heart, we are not 
ennobled ? 

The last scene comes after the others have retired, and you are 
left alone in the parlor to seek, when you please, your bed in the 
parlor chamber. How reverie claims you. You look at the expir- 
ing fire and dream. The years glide by. You follow that family 
down the dim and uncertain future. Relentless time bears you 
onward. The family, your school, yourself, are rolled hither and 
thither by succeeding years. The last spark in the fire-place glim- 
mers and expires. You sleep. Soon the barking of the bouse dog 
arouses you ; you retire and all is still. 

I have thus written down some recollections of my experience as 
a teacher. I loved boarding round. In my heart I say, blessed be 
that good old custon ! Twice and three times blessed be memory, 
that golden clasp, which unites the living present with the dead 
past. 



Ixet Pupils Observe Their Own Mental Processes. 

It is the duty of the teacher as his pupils advance in knowledge 
to direct their attention to their difierent studies as illustrating 
different mental operations. Though mental philosophy may not 
be taught in school as a distinct branch of study it may be so illus- 
trated, and the attention so directed to what the mind does, that the 
knowledge gained may be as useful as that acquired in regular 
recitations. Formal statements and many metaphysical terms are 
not necessary. Let the pupil observe his own mind — how he per- 
ceives, how he remembers, how he compares, and generally, how he 
gains knowledge. As each mental process is observed he may safely 
be trusted with its name. 

The pupil knows vaguely what it is to compare. After some 
recitation, when a few minutes can be gained, cause him, by means 
of weights, colors, or other things, to observe that, in comparing, we 
discover the relation between things of the same kind, or between 
things that have some common property. Give him two weights, 



138 Papild' Menial Processes. 

and let him observe how his mind passes from one to the other, in 
order to note which is the heavier. Place two marks of nearly the 
same length at some distance from each other, and let him observe 
how he looks first at one and then at the other to determine which 
is the longer. Illustrate till he observes what the mind does in 
comparing. Cause him to discover that we do not really compare 
objects themselves, but only certain qualities or properties which 
objects have in common. Let him notice that in stating the result 
of comparison, we always take one tiling as a standard, unitor known 
quantity, and state the relation which some object before unknown 
bears to this known quantity or unit. " John is taller than James." 
The tallness of James is here the known quantity or standard ; it 
only means that John possesses the quality of tallness indefinitely 
in excess of James. Notice, also, that where we only wish to state 
relations, the statement may be made in two ways : we may say " John 
is taller than James," or " James is shorter than John." We may 
say one is one half of two, or two is two times one. 

Now let the pupil observe language and see how whole classes of 
words are merely expressions for the result of the mental process 
of comparison. ** A large tree." Since nothing is absolutely large 
or small, the tree is relatively large ; that is, it is large when com- 
pared with other trees. " A cold day " — not absolutely cold, but 
cold when compared with other days of that season. A large class 
of descriptive adjectives as well as many nouns are seen to be 
expressions for relations determined by comparison. If now the 
pupil observes the comparison of adjectives, it is no longer an 
unmeaning repetition of wise, wiser, wisest. Wiser means that two 
characters being compared, one is found to possess more of the 
quality, wisdom, than the other, while wisest tells us that one char- 
acter, being compared with a definite number of other characters, 
is found to possess more of the quality wisdom, than any of them. 
In this way language comes to have a new meaning and value — to 
be really and truly the expression of thought. 

In arithmetic much of all that is done is to compare. To 
weigh or to measure is to compare. A fraction is such only by 
its relation to some assumed unit. To ask what part one thing 
is of another, is to compare those things. Ratio is nothing but 
the comparison of one number with another taken as a standard, 
while in proportion we only compare ratios. Indeed, number 



Leasons from a Shoemaker a Stool. 139 

itself seems to be only an expression for the two ideas of indi- 
vidualitj and relation. 

If pupils are thus caused generally to recognize the operations of 
their own minds, it must happen that the knowledge gained shall 
have greater unity, and become more fully a part of themselves. 
Tbey finally recognize mind and the external world as two factors 
whose product is knowledge. A. G. M. 



From Chod Words, 

Lessons from a Shoemaker's Stool. 

BT JOHN KERB, H. M. INSPECTOR Of SCHOOLS. 

In the course of my wanderings I had the good luck not long ago 
to fall in with a very remarkable and interesting old man, James 
Beattie, of Gordonstone, a village of about a dozen of houses in 
the parish of Auchterless, in the northeast corner of Aberdeenshire. 
He is a shoemaker, but has conjoined with his trade the teaching of 
all the children in hb neighborhood. It is remarkable how largely 
the shoemaking profession bulks in the public eye in this respect. 
John Pounds, the Portsmouth cobbler, was the founder of ragged 
schools in England ; and George Murray, of Peterhead, also a shoe- 
maker, formed the nucleus from which the Union Industrial Schools 
of that town have sprung. Many others might be mentioned. 
Probably scientific investigation may hereafter explain this afiinity 
between leather and philanthropy. 

Mr. Beattie is now eighty-two years of age. For sixty of these 
he has been carrying on his labor of love, and he means to do so as 
long as he can point an awl or a cnoral, adorn a tale or a piece of 
calf-skin. He has sought no reward but that of a good conscience. 
None are better worthy of a recognition in Good Words than the 
systematic, unobtrusive doer of good deeds, and probably few will 
grudge James Beattie the honor. 

While in this neighborhood a friend of mine gave me such an 
account of him as made me resolve to see him if possible. By 
making a start an hour earlier than was necessary for my regular 
duty, I had no difficulty in making out my visit to him. His 



140 Lessons from a SJvoemaker's Stool. 

workshop being pointed out to me — a humble, one-storied house, 
with a thatch roof, and situated in quite a rural district — I went up 
to the door and knocked. 

I hope the three hundred and odd school managers with whom I 
am acquainted in the north of Scotland will excuse me for saying 
here that this ceremony — the knocking — ought always to be gone 
through on entering a school. It is not, perhaps, too much to say, 
that, so far as I have observed, it is almost invariably neglected. 
The door is opened, and an unceremonious entrance is made, by 
which not only is the teacher made to feel — I know he feels it — 
that he is not the most importjint person there, which is not good ; 
hut the 2>fipif^ (ti"c made to sec iV, which is very bad. I am aware 
that this is sometimes due to the fact that the teacher and managers 
are on the most familiar terms. It is not always so; and even when 
it is so I venture to think that the courtesy of a knock should be 
observed. I have never once, when I was alone, or when it de- 
pended on me, entered a school without knocking. This, however, 
by the way. 

I had got the length of knocking at James IJeattie's door, which 
was almost immediately opened by a stout-built man under the 
middle size, with a thoroughly Scotch face, square, well-marked 
features, eyes small and deeply sunk, but full of intelligence and 
kindliness. The eyes, without having anything about them pecu- 
liarly striking, had a great deal of that (juiet power for which I 
can not find a better epithet than sympathetic. They are eyes that 
beget trust and confidence, that tempt you somehow to talk, that as- 
sure you that their owner will say nothing silly or for show ; in 
short, good, sensible, kindly eyes. His age and leathern apron left 
me in no doubt as to who he wa.s. I said, however, " You are JMr. 
Beattie, I suppose ?" 

" Yes,** he replied ', " my name's James Beattie. Wull yc no 
come in oot o' the snaw ? It's a stormy day.*' 

" Perhaps," I said, "when you know who I am you won't let me 
in." 

" Weel, at present I dinna ken ony reason for keepin* ye oot." 

I then told him who I was ; that I was on my way to Auchtcrless 

Female School (about two miles off), that his friend, Mr. C , 

had been speaking to me about him, and that, as I was almost pass- 
ing his door, I could not resist calling upon him, and having a 



\ 



Lessons from a Shoemaker's Stool, 141 

friendly chat with one who had been so long connected with educa- 
tion. I added that I did not wish to see his school unless he liked, 
and that if he^had any objections he was to say so. 

" Objections," he replied, " I never hae ony objections to see ony- 
body that has to do wi' education. It has aye been a hobby o* 
mine, and I daursay a body may hae a waur hobby. You that's 
scein' aae mony schules will be able to tell me something I dinua 
ken. Come in, sir.'' 

In his manner there was no fussiness, but a most pleasing solidity, 
heartiness and self-possession. He did not feel that he was being 
made a lion of, and he evidently did not care whether he was or 
no. I went in, and, as a preliminary to good fellowship, asked him 
for a pinch of snuff, in which saw he indulged. The house, which 
does double duty as a shoemaker's stall and school room, is not of a 
very promising aspect. The furniture consists of a number of rude 
forms and a desk along the wall. So much for the school room. In 
the other end are four shoemaker's stools, occupied by their owner's 
lasts, straps, lap-stones, hammers, old shoes, and the other accompa- 
niments of a shoemaker's shop. Two or three farm servants, whose 
work has been stopped by the snow storm, had come in, either to 
pass an idle hour in talk or in the way of business. 

There were only ten pupils present, a number being prevented by 
the snow and long roads. When I went in some of them were con- 
ning over their lessons in a voice midway between speech and 
silence, and one or two were talking, having taken advantage of the 
•' maister's" going to the door to speak to me, and the noise called 
forth from Mr. Beattie the order, *• Tak' your bookies, and sit 
peaceable and dacent, though there's few o' ye this snawy day. 
Think it a', dinna speak oot ; your neebours hear ye, and dinnamind 
their ain lessons." 

This is, I think, very good : " Although there's very few o* ye 
this snawy day," your responsibility is individual, not collective. 
Many or few, the object for which you are here is the same, viz : 
to learn your lessons and behave properly. The snow storm has 
kept many away, but it furnishes no excuse for noise or idleness. 
The old man's ** though there's few o' ye " thus involved a great 
principle that lies at the root of all true teaching. 

The order was obeyed to the letter. James pointed out a seat for 
ffle on one of the forms, took up his position on hi^ stool, and he 



142 Lessons from a Shjoemahers Stool. 

and I began to talk. I am tempted to give it, to the best of my recollec- 
tion, in his simple Doric, which would loose much by translation. 

" You will not be very well pleased" I remarked, by way of 
drawing him out, ^^ about this fine new school which has just been 
opened at Badenscoth. It will take away a great many of your 
scholars." 

'* man ! " he replied, '* ye dinna ken me, or ye wudna say that. 
I hae just said a hunder times, when I heard o' the new schule, 
that I was thankfu' to Providence. Afore there was ony talk o' the 
new schule, I hae stood mony a time wi' my back to the fire look in' 
at the bairnies when they were learnin' their lessons, and whiles 
takin' a bit glint up at my face — for I think some o' them like me 
— and I've said 'Oh, wha*ll mind thae puir creatures when I'm 
awa'?' Ye ken," he continued, '^I canna expect muckle langer 
time here noo. Ay, even if I werna an auld dune man, as I am, I 
wud hae been thankfu' for the new schule. I hae maybe dune as 
weel's I could, but a' my teachin', though it's better than naething, 
is no' to be compaerd wi' what they'll get at a richt schule." 

'^ It is quite true," I said, 'Hhat you labor under great disadvan- 
tages, having both to teach and to attend to your work at the same 
time." 

^' Weel, it's no sae muckle that, as my ain want o' education." 

" You have had a long education^" I replied. 

** That's just what a freen o' mine said to me ance, and I mind I 
said to him, ' That's the truest word ever ye spak. I've been learnin' 
a* my days, and I'm as fond to learn as ever.' " 

'^ But how do you manage to teach and work at the same time ?" 

" Ye see," he replied, " when I'm teachin' the A B C, I canna 
work, for I maun point to the letters; but when they get the length 
o' readin', I ken fine by the sense, withoot the book, if they're readin' 
richt, and they canna mak' a mistak but I ken't." 

Well said by James Beatiel He has discovered by common 
sense and experience the only true test of good reading, *' by the 
sense, without the book." 

" In spite of your want of education, however," I said, " I under- 
stand that you have old pupils in almost every quarter of the globe, 
who are doing well, and have made their way in the world through 
what you were able to give them. I have heard, too, that some of 
them are clergyman." 



Lessons frvm a Shoemakers Stool. 143 

" Ay, that^s true enough/' he replied ; " and some o* them hae 
come back afler being years awa', and sat doun among the auld shoon 
there whar they used to sit. And IVc got letters frae some o' them 
after ganging a far away that were just sae fu' o' kindness and gude 
feelin', and brocht back the auld times sae keenly, that I micht 
maybe glance ower them, but I could na read them oot. Ah, sir ! a 
teacher and an auld scholar, if they're baith richt at the heart, are 
buckled close thegither, though the sea's atween them. At ony rate 
that's my experience." 

** See sir," he continued, holding out a point of doer's horn, 
" there's a' I hae o' a remembrance o' ane that's in Canada, a pros- 
perous man noo, wi' a great farm o' his ain. While he was at the 
Bchule here, he saw me making holes wider wi' a bit pointed stick, 
and he thocht this bit horn wud do't better — and he wasna far 
wrang — and he gied it to me. Weel, he cam back years and years 
after, and I didna ken him at first. He had grown up frae %eing 
a bairn no muckle bigger than my knee to be a buirdly chield. I 
made oot wha he was, and as I was workin' and talkin to him, I had 
occasion to use this bit horn. * Gude hae me,' says he, ^ hae ye that 
yet ? ' * Ay, ' said I, * and I'll keep it as lang as I hae a hole to 
bore!'" 

Returning to the subject of teaching, I said — "How do you 
manage after they have got the alphabet, and what books do you use ? " 
" Weel, I begin them wi' wee penny bookies, but its no lang till 
they can mak' something o' the Testament, and when they can do 
that, I choose easy bits oot o' baith the Auld and New Testaments, 
that teach us our duty to God and man. I dinna say that it's maybe 
the best lesson-book, but it's a book they a' hae, and ane they should 
a' read, whether they hae ithcr books or no. They hae ' collections ' 
too, and I get them pamphlets and story books, and when I see them 
gettin' tired o' their lessons, and beginning to tak' a look aboot the 
house, I bid them put by their ^ collection,' and tak' their pamphlets 
and story books. Ye ken' bairns maun like their books." 

Well said again ! " Bairns maun like their books " — a necessity 
far from universally recognized either by teachers or the makers of 
school books. Many a healthy plant has been killed by being trans- 
planted into an ungei^ial soil and kept there, and many a promising 
school career has been marred qr cut short by books that " bairns 
couldna like." 



144 LesBonis fnym a Shoemakers Stool. 

" You teach writing, arithmetic and geography too, I suppose, 
]\Ir. IJeattic V 

" I try to teach writin' and geography, hut ye^ll believe that 
my writings naething to brag o', when I tell ye that I learnt it a^ 
mysel'; ay, and when I began to mak' figures, I had to tak doou 
the Testament, and look at the tenth verse, to sec whether the or 
the 1 cam' first in 10. I can learn them to write a letter that can 
be read, and, ye ken' country folk's no very particular aboot its 
being like copperplate. Spellin's the main thing. It doesna mak' 
(matter) if a bairn can write like a clerk if he canna spell. I can 
learn them geography far enough to undcrstan' what they read in 
the newspapers, and if they need mair o't than I can gie them, and 
hae a mind for't they can learn it for themsels. I dinna teach 
countin'. Ony man in my humble way can do a' that on his tongue. 
At onv rate I've aye been able. Besides I couldna teach them 
counfln'. It wud mak' sic an awfu' break in my time. When my 
ain grandchildren hae got a' I can gie them, I just send them to 
ither schules." 

"What catechism do you teach ? " I asked. 

" Ony ane they like to bring," he replied. "I'm an Episcopalian 
mysel', but I hae leeved lang enough to ken, and, indeed, I wasna 
very auld afore I thocht I saw that a body's religious profession was 
likely to be the same as his father's afore him; and so I just gie 
everybody the same liberty I tak' to mysel'. I hae established Kirk 
and Free Kirk, and Episcopal bairns, and they're a' alike to me. 
D'ye no think I'm richt ? " 

" Quite right, I have no doubt. The three bodies you mention 
have far more points of agreement than of diflference, and there is 
enough of common ground to enable you to do your duty by them, 
without offending the mind of the most sensitive parent. I wish 
your opinions were more common than they are." 

Daring the conversation the old man worked while he talked. He 
had evidently acquired the habit of doing two things at once. 
[To BE Continued.] 



Happiness and Wisdom — There is this difference between 
happiness and wisdom. He that thinks himself the happiest man, 
really is so; but he that thinks himself the wisest, is generally the 
greatest fool. 



JAberia and America. 145 



Liberia and America. 

At the annual meeting of the National Teachers' Association in 
Harrisburg, a notable feature, comporting well with the catholicity 
of the proceedings, was the presence of Prof. A. Crummcll, a gradu- 
ate of Cambridge (Kng.) University, and President of the College 
in Liberia, Africa. Prof. Crummell is a negro, with no tinge of 
white blood. He was introduced by Mr, Northrop, of Mass., the 
State Educational agent, and briefly addressed the Association. 

The lUtnois Teacher says : 

" Those who heard the speech and saw the professor will also 
bear testimony to the gentlemanly, dignified, and modest bearing 
that marked him. The speech was extemporaneous, — there had 
been no time for preparation, — and it was delivered with an ease, 
a grace, a fluency and a modesty that would have done credit to any 
man on the floor. Words seemed to fall from his lips with a furce 
and an elegance that wo rarely see attained.'' 

He spoke as follows : « 

THE BLACK PROFESSOR'S SPEECH. 

<*I thank you, sir, aud the gentlemen of this Association, for the 
honor you have conferred upon me. I take it as an evidence of 
American interest in the Republic of Liberia, and as a compliment 
to the College with which I am connected in that country. I need 
not say, sir, how deeply interested I have been in the two reports 
which have been read this, afternoon ; and in the zeal which has 
been manifested io. behalf of my brethren in your Southern States. 
I am an Amerieaa negro ; and I feel the deepest interest in every 
thing which pertains to the welfare of my race in this country. A 
citizen of that iBifant Republic which has been planted by American 
beneficence on the west coast of Africa, my heart and all its sympa- 
thies still linger with the deepest regards upon the welfare and 
progress of my brethren who are citizens of this nation. More 
especially am I concerned just now by the great problem which 
comes before you in, tihe- elevation and enlightenment of the 4.000,000 
of my brethi'cn wJu>- have just passed from a state of bondage into 

[Vol. XY,. No. 5.] 10 



146 ZAheria and America. 

the condition of freedmen. The black population of this country 
have been raised by a noble beneficence from a state of degradation 
and benightedness to one of manhood and citizenship. The state 
upon which they have entered brings upon them certain duties and 
obligations which they will be expected to meet and fulfill. But in 
order to do this they must be trained and educated by all the appli- 
ances which are fitted to the creation of superior men. The recom- 
mendations which have been suggested in the report just read are 
the best and most fitting. Colored men are, without doubt, the 
best agents for this end. Teachers raised up from among them- 
selves — men who know their minds — men who have a common 
feeling and sympathy with them — these are the men best adapted 
to instruct, to elevate, and to lead them. And it is only by such 
teaching and culture that the black race in this country will be 
fitted for the duties which now devolve upon them in their new 
relations. These people are to be made good citizens. It is only 
by a proper system of education that they can be made such citizens. 
The race, now made freedmen among you, owes a duty to this coun- 
try — a duty which springs from the great privileges which have 
been conferred upon them. Some, perhaps, would prefer to use the 
word * right' instead of privileges, and I have no objection to that 
word; but I am looking at the matter father in the light of the 
divine mercy and goodness. As a consequence of receiving such a 
large gift and boon as freedom, my brethren owe great obligations 
to this country, which can only be met by becoming good, virtuou's, 
valuable citizens, willing and able to contribute to the good and 
greatness of their country. For this is their home. Here they are 
to live. Here the masses will likely remain for ever. For no rea- 
sonable man can suppose it possible to take up four millions of men 
as you would take up a tree — one of your old oaks or an old elm, 
stems, roots, stones and earth — tear it up from the sod and trans- 
plant it in Europe or Asia. The black race in this country are to 
abide, and to meet the obligations which will for ever fall upon 
them in this land, and to prove themselves worthy of the privilege 
to which they have been advanced; they need schools, instruction, 
letters, and training. But not only do the black race in this coun- 
try owe duties to this country ; they owe a great duty to Africa 
likewise. Their fathers were brought to this country and placed in 
bondage; and their children, in subsequent generations, notwithi 



The Ocean. 147 

standing all the evils they have endured, have been enabled to seize 
upon many of the elements of your civilization. Fourteen thousand 
of my brethren. American black men, have left this country and 
carried with them American law, American lircrature and letters, 
American civilization, American Christianity, and reproduced them 
in the land of their forefathers. We have gone out as emigrants 
from this republic to the shores of heathen Africa, and re-created 
these free institutions and a nation modeled after your own. 

"Sir, I might stand here and speak of wrongs and injuries, and 
distresses and agonies, but I prefer rather to dwell upon those ad- 
justments and compensations which have been graciously evolved 
out of Divine Providence ; and which have fitted them to a great 
work for good, not only here in this country, but likewise in Africa- 
The black race in this country, as they increase in intelligence, will 
have to think of Africa; will have to contemplate the sad condition 
of that vast continent; will have to consider their relation to the 
people of Africa; must per force do something for Africa. And 
thus it will be that, while you are educating my brethren for their 
duties in America, you will be benefiting Africa. The black men 
in Ainerica are an agency in the hands of the American people, by 
whom they are enabled to touch two continents with benignant influ- 
ences. For not only through them will they be shedding intelligence 
and enlightenment abroad through this country, but they will also 
in this manner raise up a class of men as teachers and missionaries, 
who will carry the gospel and letters to the land of their forefathers ; 
and thus the American people will be enabled to enlighten and 
vivify with the influence of Christianity the vast continent of 
Africa." 



The Oc an. 

The whole globe is none too large for the dwelling place of man- 
kind. While animals are confined to certain zones or meridians 
man claims for his residence and harvest-field no less than all the 
surface of the worM. Now it is somewhat remarkable, that in 
teaching children, many virtually deny this ennobling distinction, 
and, by their instruction, intimate that man ought to be pent up in 
that same scanty area not at present covered by the ocean. It is 
not, indeed, a slander to affirm, that a geography is an imposture, 
if, purporting to be a description of the surface of the earth, it 



148 The Ocean. 

turn out to be only a description of certain fragments of the surface 
while no description at all is given of that larger portion, which, 
from day to day, is renewing to us all the benefits of climate and 
healthful atmosphere. In fact, the water seems to be considered 
merely as a good means of getting about among the continents and 
islands, which is about as if one should say that the ellipse is chiefly 
of use in puzzling the student of the " conic sections," passing by 
the fact that it stands the model of the planetary orbits. In taking 
our scholars a journey on the map, we have many things to tell 
them concerning the regions we visit ; but, being smitten with 
silence as soon as we get in sight of the sea, do not regain our for- 
mer loquacity until land is reached. A body of water big enough 
to swallow several Americas we probably dismiss in this sort of a 
sentence : " Having crossed the Pacific Ocean we come to China;" 
and once within that unhealthy empire, it is likely enough that we 
may find time to speak of the Ming dynasty, or tell a story of 
Timour or Confucius. 

How much, let us ask, does a tolerably bright class in Warren's 
Intermediate Geography know about three quarters of the earth's 
surface ? Though it may be aware that the oceans are bodies of 
salt water containing whales, it is doubtless ignorant of other as 
plain facts, such as that great quantities of vegetation grow upon 
them, and that myriads of birds hover over them. Still less would 
the class probably tell of the winds that never wander beyond the 
tropics, or of the river that rises in the Gulf of Mexico. Keeping 
in mind the highest object of education, I can not see why it is not 
as well to study fronds of kelp, as those of a land plant; or to fol- 
low the course of the equatorial drift three thousand miles across, 
as of some obscure river in Tartary. Surely, the evolution of cur- 
rents, and the tides, and the trade winds, and the Sargasso Sea, are 
more suggestive of a kind providence, than to learn the cause of the 
Peloponnesian war, the number slain in Braddock's defeat, or 
wheter Hannibal really did split rocks with vinegar when he crossed 
the Alps. 

More than the reader may at first imagine can be urged in favor 
of the statement that we have exhausted the land. We have de- 
scribed its configuration, its rivers, its mountains and its plains ; 
have told of its inhabitants and their customs, the forefathers of 
these and their customs ; narrated all the wars that have happened, 
besides several very bloody ones that we suspect never did happep ; 



The Wind as a Musician. 149 

and, moreover^ have on hand a rich assortment of false religions and 
exploded philosophies. Then, having been thus regardful of the 
countries on top, we descend into their bowels, and presently emerge 
with a parcel of unutterable names, with which to scatter the wits 
of our pupils : meanwhile, the ocean (without which we could not 
live a day) is scarcely noticed by any, unless a sailor, or a merchant 
hurrying from dry land to dry land, or a few sick men, thinking 
only of their aches and coughs. 

It is the fashion, I know, to laugh at the sea. N. P. Willis says 
it is tiresome, and Henry Ward Beecher, likewise, does not think 
it beneath him to get up little jokes against it. A good teacher, 
nevertheless, soon sees through all these witticisms, and will take 
pains to explain to his classes, that it is only the map-maker who 
paints the sea as an irregular patch of vacancy. For God has not 
only made it the fountain of comfort, with its incessant streams of 
refreshment for the land, but He has also here established the king- 
doms of animals and plants, and filled it with other marvels, which 
would preach powerfully of His goodness, if we would only listen. 

Sonoma, in California Teacher, 



The Wind as a Musician. 



The wind is a musician by birth. We extend a silken thread in 
the crevices of a window, and the wind finds it and sings over it, 
and goes up and down the scale upon it and poor Paganini must go 
somewhere else for honor, for lo ! the wind is performing upon a 
single string. It tries almost anything on earth to see if there is 
music in it: it persuades a tone out of the great bell in the tower, 
when the sexton is at home and asleep ; it makes a mournful harp 
of the giant pines, and it does not disdain to try what sort of a 
whistle can be made out of the humblest chimney in the world. 
How it will play upon a tree until every leaf thrills with the note 
in it, and the wind up the river that runs at its base in a sort of 
murmuring accompaniment ! And what a melody it sings when it 
gives a concert with a full choir of the waves of the sea, and per- 
forms an anthem between the two worlds, that goes up, perhaps, to 
the stars, which love music the most and sung it the first. Then, 
how fondly it haunts old houses; mourning under eaves ; singing 
in the halls, opening the old doors without fingers, and singing a 
measure of some sad old song around the fireless and deserted 
hearths. — California Teacher. 



Resident Editor's Department. 



MISCELLANY, 

The Teacher and Greenbacks — Special Notice. — We presume our 
readers have expected month by month, for four years, the announcement 
we have to make herewith. Herafter the subscription price of the Teacher 
will be one dollar and fifty cents a year. We have borne the burden of its 
publication at the most exorbitant rates which hare ruled for the two or 
three years last past, in hope that the day of high prices for material and 
labor would pass by. But, on the contrary, since the commencement of 
the present yolume, paper has advanced more than 30 per cent, and is now 
nearly three times as high as before the war. Labor also has correspond- 
ingly advanced. But we need only say that a paper in the style of the 
Teacher can't be published in this year of grace, 186C, for one dollar. 

We solicit the cooperation of all teachers, school officers and friends of 
education, to increase the circulation and usefulness of this organ of the 
teachers of the state. 

Agents wanted in every town. See second page of cover. 

Teachers' Institutes. — During the year 1865, institutes were held in 
fifty-four counties (sixty-three sessions), with an aggregate attendance of 
8,887 teachers. The whole number of days' attendance, was 68,718. The 
largest number of teachers enrolled was in Chautauqua county, 487. Herki- 
mer had 812; Wyoming, 290; St. Lawrence, 262; Genesee, 232; Monroe 
840 : Broome, 213; Oneida, 222 ; Delaware, 290 ; Livingston,. 272. The In- 
stitute in Livingston county was held for six weekn. Commissioner Lang 
of Tioga county held two sessions of two weeks each. The average at- 
tendance has been good, and it is believed that the Institutes have been 
more thoroughly organized and more efficiently instructed than in any 
former year. Full returns by counties will appear in our next number, 
in the annual report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

It is the purpose of the Superintendent to systematize the institute work 
more thoroughly, and during the coming year, to put into the field a corps 
of thoroughly qualified instructors, to be employed regularly for the 
greater part of the year. The value of this agency for the training of 
teachers is amply vindicated, and its necessity is apparent to all friends of 
education. 

Vassar Female College, at Poughkeepsie is now in full operation, 



Resident Editor's Department. ' 151 

with a President, Dr. Kobert H. Kaymond, nine professors, with several 
assistants, and nearly 400 pupils. The course of study is thorough, and 
after the most approved plan. The building is 500 feet front, with a 
depth of 171 feet in centre, and 165 in the wings. The chapel will seat 
500. There are rooms for 400 pupils, art gallery, professors' rooms, chapel, 
etc. A gymnasium is in process of erection. 

The Public ScnooiiS in the United States number about 60,000, of 
which more than one sixth are in the State of New York. 

The Homestead or Henry Clat was sold the 12th of January ultimo, 
to the Regents of the University of Kentucky for $90,000. The farm 
consists of 325 acres, and is to be used for the State agricultural college. 

Java. — It is asserted that a photographer, who has been employed by the 
Dutch Government to take views of the most beautiful points on the island 
of Java, has discovered the ruins of an entire city buried beneath the lava 
of a volcano close by, which has been extinct for several centuries. 

A New Color, called << green cinnabar,'' is stated, by a foreign contem- 
porary, to be prepared in the following manner: — Prussian blue is dis- 
solved in oxalic acid, chromate of potash is added to this solution, which is 
then precipitated with acetate of lead. The precipitate, well washed, / 

dried and levigated, gives a beautiful green powder. By varying the 
proportions of the three solutions, various shades of green may be procured. 
Chloride of barium, or nitrate of bismuth, may be used in place of sugar of 
lead. 

SoMETHiNQ GooL.— The following anecdote is told of Daniel 0*Connell: 
Meeting a prolific pamphleteer, whose productions generally found their 
way to the butterman, he said, "I saw something very good in your pam- 
phlet this morning." "Ah!" replied the gratified writer, "what was it?*' 
*'A pound of butter," was the reply. 

Logical Paradox.— Epimenides said *MW Cretans are./tar«.*' 

Now Epimenides was himielf a Cretan, therefore Epimenides was a liar^ 

But, if he was a /wr, then the Cretans were not liars. 

Now, if the Cretans were no4 liars Epiminedes was not a liar. 

But if he was not a liar, the Cretans were liars. 

BsroRM. — As the world was made so it must be subdued, not by matter 
clawing at matter, but by the calm dominion of spirit over matter. Until 
intellect percolates the soil, the soil will not yield its hidden hoards. We 
shall have effort, struggle, wear and weariness, but no victory. It is the 
strife of clod with clod. — Oail HamUtor,, 

Teachers' Licenses. — While attending the Monroe County Teachers* 
Institute last autumn, we were present o^ some of Commissioner Tozier's 
examinations, conducted mostly in writing, and carried away with us not 



162 Resident Editor's Department. 

only suggest ivo hints, but a copy of the blank of his report rendered to 
each teacher of his standing in each of the following particulars: Reading, 
arithmetic, geography, grammar, orthography, algebra, penmanship, 
general information, ability. The slip of paper handed to each applicant 
closed with the following counsel: 

Above is a statement of the per cent, of your standing in each branch 
of study in which you have been examined. By it you will learn wherein 
you are most deficient, and what you most need to review, in order to fit 
yourself more perfectly for the great work of teaching. 

I wish to urge upon you the duty of constantly advancing in general 
culture. This can be done only by determined and persistent effort. 

No teacher is worthy of the name, who is satisfied with present attain- 
ments, and whose labors for self-culture cease the moment an examination^ 
is successfully passed. It would be welUto adopt and follow some system- 
atic plan of study. 

I would also urge you while teaching to review critically previous to 
each day's session, the lessons of the day. This will enable yon to be 
more prompt in the school room, and will prevent your forgetting any 
special subject that should be discussed during class exercise. 

Let me further advit^e that you read most thoroughly one or all oi the 
following works: — Wickersham's Methods of Instruction; AVickef sham's 
School Economy ; Page's Theory of Teaching ; Holbrook'4 Normal 
Methods ; and Northend's Teacher and Parent ; — and also thst you take 
some educational journal. 

By all means, when possible, attend Teachers' Institute*^, Associations, 
and other gatherings where the subject of education is presented^and dis- 
cussed. 

It is possible for persons to be well qualified in scholarship and yet 
utterly fail as teachers. 

Education alone is not sufficient ; for if teachers lack />rmci)>/«; if they 
lack self-rfspeetf self-cnntrol, sflf-rrliance, decision, ^stem, (actf earnestness, 
or ENERGY ; if they fail to have some appreciption of the nobility and 
worth of their work, then they are out of tbeir place, and the quicker they 
retire, the better for the cause. 

In a word, if you desire to advance the profession of teaching, you 
must honor it by your educational skill, aid ennoble it b3' -your personal 
character. 

In granting you a certificate, I have expressed my confidence in your 
ability as a teacher. It is my earnest hope that your school jmay prosper; 
and to further this end I shall gladly assist to the extent of my power. 

The Connecticut Common Schoo* Journal commences a new volume 
(vol. xiii), with the number for January. Hon. D. N. Camp, late state 
superintendent, is editor. He succeeds Mr. Charles Northend. The Jour- 
nal is full of good things ; and Mr. Camp's long experience as a practical ed- 
ucator will enable him to make it valuable. 



Resident Editors Department. 153 

CoNCBRKiKo Hoops. — However much opposition an article of dress may 
have met, when first brought into notice, let it once be established as a 
necessity, and every one of course desires to "get the best.*' Our lady 
friends insist that Bradley is the prince of *' Ingins" — can beat any other 
man on " (w)hoops." The dupcx elliptical spring skirt is deservedly 
popular, and for lightness, elasticity and durability and ease in ** manag- 
ing " takes the lead. 



TUE QUERY BOX. 



Query 1. What are the ''Seven Wonders of the World V 
The Seven Wonders of the world is a name given to the following re- 
markable objects of the old time : 

1. The pyramids of Egypt, of which the largest, the " Great Pyramid," 
near Gizeh, was 764 feet square at the base, and 408 feet in vertical height, 
containing 89,028,000 cubic feet of stone ; 

2. The Pharos of Alexandria, a famous lighthouse built by Ptolmey 
•Fhiladelphus, opposite Alexandria, 300 years B. C. The hight was 
about 550 feet. It stood for 1,600 years, and is supposed to have been 
destroyed b^in earthquake ; 

3. The walls and hanging gardens of Babylon ; 

4. The temple of Diana at Ephesus ; 

5. The statue of the Olympian Jupiter ; 

7. The Mausoleum of Artemisia at Halicarnassus, erected over the re- 
mains of King Mausolus, 353 years B. C. — one of the most gorgeous struo - 
tares ever built, and which was still standing in the 12th century. (See 
Appleton's Cylopsedia, art. IlalicarnatsuB ) ; 

8. The Colossus of Rhodes, a brazen Statue of Apollo erected by the 
citizens in gratitude for the service of Ptolemy Soter, King of Egypt, by 
whose aid they repulsed the King of Macedon. It was 70 cubits high, 
and occupied 12 years in building. 

Qc. II. If the piston-rod connects midway between the center and circum- 
fernce of the driving wheel of a locomotive, what figure is described by 
the connecting point when the engine is running 30 miles per hour on 
a level rail; and has this point a uniform velocity ? 

Qr. III. A man six feet high wishes to know how much farther his head 
moves than his feet during a complete revolution of the Earth, if he stands 
■erect and stationary during the requisite time? 

Qu. IV. If a man were standing at the North pole, where it is full moon 
on the 24th of May, where would the moon first appear to him, what would 
be its direction from him, and what would be its apparent motion? 

Qu. V. At the bombardment of Fort Fisher, the Ironside* yt as 1,000 yards 
f^om the fort. If her projectiles had an initial velocity of 1,200 ft. per 
lecond, at what angle must they have been discharged in order to have 



154 Resident Editor^a Department 

hit a mark on the fort 20 feet above the horizontal plane of the gun's axis ? 
Supposing its balls to be 15 inches in diameter, what Telocity would they 
have at the middle point and at the end of their path ? 

Qu. VI. What is the mechanical effect produced by the evaporation of a 
cubic inch of water at 50® Fah.? 

Qu. VII. How shall we explain the equality of ratios expressed in the 
proportion, 2 : — 2 : : — 2 ;2 ? 



PERSONAL, 

Pbof. a. S. Welch of the Michigan Normal School has resigned his 
position, on account of failing health, to engage in the lumber trade in 
Florida. Hon. J. M. Gregory, late Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
has been elected to succeed him. 

J. M. B. Sill has resigned the oflBce of Superintendent of Schools in 
Detroit, and has established a seminary for young ladies in that city. 

James H. Hoosb, now of Lima, has accepted the principalshijibf one of the 
Oswego Senior Schools, and is also to have charge of a department in the 
Training School. 

Pbof. James J. Mapes. — In the recent decease of this eminent man 
practical science has lost one of its most faithful disciples ; yet the labor 
of his life will be felt in the improved conditions of living for generations 
to come. He was born in New York, and died on the 10th of January, 
186G, in the 60th year of his age. For the last 17 years he had been culti- 
vating a model farm in New Jersey, with most triumphant success. A 
barren sand plain in 1848, it is said, under his scientific culture, to have 
yielded recently an annual revenue of $20,000. 

John S. Fosdick, for many years principal of one of the Buffalo public 
Schools, has been elected Superintendent of Schools of that city, and 
entered upon his duties the 1st of January. 

J. W. Barker, is teaching a Union School at Lancaster, £rie county. 

Geoboe Beck, for several years teacher of the Natural Sciences in 
Lookport Union school, resigned at the opening of the fall term, to take 
charge of a grammar school in Cleveland, 0., at a salary of $1,200. 

Geoboe W. F. Buck, formerly of Rushford • Academy, succeeds Mr. 
Beck in the Lockj>ort school. 

Rev. G. W. Pobteb, for several years principal of the junior depart- 
ment of the Union School at Lockport, has resigned his connection there- 
with, to take effect at the close of the present term. 

AsHEB B. EvAKs, for some time at Nunda and Penfield, has taken 
charge of the Wilson Collegiate Institute, in Niagara county. 



Besident Editor^ a Department. 155 

Eev. John W. Armstbono, well known to many of our readers as a ripe 
scholar, and genial and suoceesful Institute instructor, has been appointed 
professor of Natural Science in the Oswego Normal School. 



INTELLIOENCE. — HOME. 

Columbia County. — We have received a neatly printed pamphlet con- 
taining a report of the proceedings of the annual Teachers' Institute held 
in this county, under the direction of Commissioners Reynolds and Woodin. 
Mrs. H. B. Hewes of Albany, formerly a teacher in ' the State Normal 
School, was present during the entire session, and had principal charge of 
the literary exercises. She gave special attention to reading and mental 
arithmetic. Occasional exercises in different branches were conducted by 
H. K. Smith of Taghkanic, Rev. Wm. Isaac Loomis of Martindale, Charles 
8. Davenport, S. D. Barr, Dcp. Supt., Albany, Miss McElroy, Prof. A. 
Flack, George Card, A. L. Bailey, Miss Alzina P. Bruce, M. P. Cavert of 
Albany. Evening addresses were delivered by S. D. Barr, J. H. French, 
M. P. Cavert, Prof. A. Flack, Com. Woodin, Rev. Mr. Loomis, Rev. Wm. 
Ostrander, Dr. W. H. Bligbton, Rev. M. R. Lent, Rev. P. Felts, Martin H. 
Dorr, Esq. The session closed with a literary and social festival. 

CoBTLAND County — We received the official report of the Institute held 
in this county too late for notice (Dec. 27) in our last issue, and brief ref- 
erence must now suffice. The session of two weeks was held at Cortland 
village, commencing Oct. 10. *' Commissioners Whitmore and Pierc^, by 
their affability and zeal in in the cause of education, proved themselves 
worthy of the exalted positions which they hold.'' Class exercises were 
conducted daily, as follows ; orthography — Prof. C. W. Sanders ; reading 
—Prof. Beach, of the academy; grammar — Prof. S. W. Clark; geography 
—Prof. Dodd; written arithmetic — Commissioner Whitmore; mental 
arithmetic — Prof. Beach. The evening exercises consisted of the discus- 
sion of practical questions (in which leading citizens heartily joined), and 
of lectures by the following gentlemen: Professors Sanders, Clark, Beach, 
Ttrbell, Dodd, Park, Sandford, Reverends Torrey and Beman and Dr. T. 
. S. Lambert. The best feeling and most intense interest prevailed. There 
were 180 teachers in attendance. The exercises closed with a genial liter- 
ary, musical and social festival, at which appropriate resolutions were 
adopted. 

St. Lawbencb County. — A most interesting session of the Teachers' As- 
«ociation was held at Lawrenceville, Dec, 27, 28 and 29, 1866. Report of 
proceedings in our next. 

Hamilton Collsoe. — The annual catalogue of this institution for 1865-6 
gives the names of 51 Seniors, 42 Juniors, 50 Sophomores, 50 Freshmen — 
ia all 198. 



156 Resident Editor's Department. 

The following Asteroids were first discovered at the Hamilton College 
Observatory : 
Feronia, No. 72, May 29, 1861. Eubydice, No. 75, September 22, 1862. 
Friqga, No. 77, November 12, 1862. To, No. 86, September 19, 1866. 
We copy a list of the prizes established in this college. 

1. The interest of a prize fund of $700, founded by Charles C. Kingsley, 
Esq., of Utica, will be awarded in the form of valuable books to the two 
students in each of the three lower classes who excel in Elocution ; valuable 
books will also be given to the two in each class who excel in English Com* 
position. 

2. The interest of a Prize Fund of $500, founded by the late Hon. Aaron 
Clark, of New York, will be given, in one prize, to the student of the Senior 
Class who excels in Oratory. 

8. The interest of a Prize Fund of $500, founded by Hon. J. V. L. Pniyn, 
LL.D., of Albany, Chancellor of the University of the state of New York, 
will be given in a gold medal, to any student of the Senior Class, except 
the successful competitor for the head prize, who shall write the best 
oration on "The Duties of the Educated Young Men of New York to their 
own Institutions of Learning.'' 

4. The interest of a Prize Fund of $500, founded by Franklin H. Head, 
Esq., of Kenosha, Wis., will be given to the student of the Senior Class, 
who will write the best oration on << Alexander Hamilton as an Expounder 
of the Constitution." ^ 

6. The interest of a Prize Fund of $500, founded by the late Hon. 
George Underwood, of Auburn, will be given in two prizes, to members of 
the Senior Class who excel in ChemUtry. 

6. The interest of a Prize Fund of $600, founded by Horace D. Kellogg, 
Esq., of Bridgewater, will be given, in two prizes, to members of the Junior 
Class, who excel in Classical Siudies. 

7. The interest of a Prize Fund of $600, founded by Martin Hawley, 
Esq., of Baltimore, Md., will be given, in silver medals, to members of the 
Junior Class who excel in Classical Sludies. 

8. Two prizes will be given to members of the Sophomore Class who 
excel in Mathematics. 

9. At the close of the collegiate year 1860-67, the interest of a prize 
Fund of $1,500, founded by Charles C. Kingsley, Esq., of Utica, will be 
given in two prizes, to members of the Senior Class who excel in Extern- 
poraneous Speaking. 

Genesss County Teachers' Assooiation. — A meeting of this body was 
held at the Union School House in this village on Saturday, December 80. 
After the address of the president, the following officers were chosen for 
the coming year, viz: — President, N. P. Wright, Batavia; 13 Vice-Presi- 
dents; Secretary, Miss Mary D. Tyrrell; Treasurer, M. A. Williams. Exec- 
utive Committee, viz: — D. C. Rumsey, Chairman ; J, D. Schiller, Miss 



Reddent Editor's Department. 157 

Mary £. Cook, Miss Grimes and Miss Alice Benham. A. J. Rumsey recited 
the spirited poem'* Sheridan's Ride/' in a manner that reflected great 
credit upon himself. Essays were read by Miss Mary E. Cook, Miss 
Grimes, Mr. Arthur Collony, Mr. John G. Johnson, Mr. F. A. Baker. — 
All of these essays were highly creditable to the heart and mind of the 
writers, and were listened to with interest by all present. Mr. Atchinson 
delivered a declamation, subject, ** Water,'* which was very interesting. 
Com. D. C. Rumsey presented several matters of interest. His report, 
financial and statistical, of the conditions of the schools of this county for 
the years 1864-65, was highly instructive. Prof. N. F. Wright contrib- 
uted much to the interest of the Association by giving portions of his 
experience as a teacher. We are inclined to think no assemblage of 
teachers would be complete without him. About sixty teachers were in 
. attendance. Several new members were received, among whom was Mr. J 
F. Stutterd, who cordially responded to the call from the President for 
some remarks. The day was pleasantly and profitably spent. It is only 
to be regretted that the session was so short. 

Mart D. Ttrbsll, Secretary. 



INTELLIGENCE.--' FOREIGN. 



CoNiCECTiciTT : — The Journal for January prints the act of the legislature, 
creating a state board of education. The board consists of the governor 
and lieutenant governor, and four other persons appointed by the general 
assembly (legislature), one from each congressional district, to hold office 
for four years, one member retiring each year, and another elected in his 
ftead. This board has entire control of the schools of the state, manage 
the normal school, direct wh^t text books shall be used, etc., report annual- 
ly, appoint a secretary, who performs the duties formerly devolved upon 
the. state superintendent. 

The board have recommended a uniformity of books in each town, and 

that a copy of Webster's last Revised Dictionary be placed in every school. 

Qovemor Buckingham is president, and Prof. D. C. Gilman of Yale Coljlege 

secretary. 

Norway. — A recent report states that one hundred thousand children 
are educated in that country, in public schools, at an annual cost of eighty 
thousand pounds. 

Dacota Territory. — The Annual report of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction (Hon James S. Foster), made Dec 21, 1865, shows that even in 
that sparsely settled region, strenuous efforts are in operation for the 
organization and support of free schools, and, so fast as the local popu- 
UUon will warrant it, districts are organized. A number of private 



158 Beddent EdUor'a Department 

schools are in successful operation. The Superintendent recommends the 
territorial legislature to memorialize Congerss to extend the benefits of the 
land script for agricultural schools to the territories. 



LITERARY NOTES. 

The Michigan Txacher comes to us with the new year, fresh and spirited, 
a fit successor to the Journal of Education, which suspended because it was 
doing more for education than education was willing to do for it. William 
H. Payne, of Niles, is resident editor of the Teacher, assisted by C. L. Whit- 
ney, of Dowagiac. We welcome our new friends, and wipe our eyes from 
the sorrow of the old Journals demise. 32 pages, $1.25 a year. 

Gcyot's Wall Maps. — Europe. — The most valuable feature in maps 
for school use, is their suggestiveness. Naturalness, accuracy of outline, 
correct location of places, relative size, are all essential ; but the pupil needs 
that the map be, so far as possible, a living picture. This Prof. Guyot 
has realized, and among the maps of his excellent series there is no one 
more admirable than this. The reliefs stand before the eye so clearly that 
it needs hardly the imagination to fill up the picture. By means of color 
and shading arc represented the lowlands, the lowest, and those subject to 
overflow, the highlands, the mountains sloping to their summits — and their 
relative hights and massiveness may be guessed — whilst the snow line 
stands out sharp and clear. The marvellous history of this land is un- 
folded ; for the last factor, the inexorable decree of nature, reveals what, 
had there been eyes to read it, might ages ago have been forecast. The 
map is by 5 feet, and the profiles at the bottom show relative hights from 
the north-east to the Gulf of Genoa, and across the sea to the great desert; 
across the Scandinavian peninsula ; the Spanish peninsula ; and the 
British islands. It will be a happy day for the schools when charts such 
as these shall supplant the flat political maps of the old time. Charles 
Scribner & Co., 124 Grand street. New York,%re the publishers. 

LossiNG. — The first volume of Mr. Lossing's History of the Civil War is 
announced to be issued in February. Judging from the popularity of his 
Field Book of the Revolution, this new work will be in great demand. Mr. 
Lossing is an artist, and not his pen alone, but his pencil gives life and in- 
terest to his books. 

Gerald Massey, the poet, has just completed a work on ** Shakespeare 
— his Sonnets and his Private Friends." 

John Ruskin has anew work in press entitled ** The Ethics of Dust: 
Ten Lectures to Little Housewives, on the Elements of Crystallization." 

Tub Arqost is the title of a new monthly, the first number of which 
has appeared, published by Messrs Strahan & Company, New York and 
London. The same publishers also issue Oood Words^ and the Sunday 
Magazine, Notices of these in our next. 



Resident Editor^ a Department. 159 

BOOK NOTICES. 

HiSTOEY OF Frivdrich THE SECOND, Called Frederick the Great. By TnoMAS 

Carlisle. In tix Volumet. Vol. V. New York: Harper ^ Brothers, 1865. 

12mo,/>/». 516, with maps. 

It may be seriously questioned whether any other one man, not even 
Napoleon, was a more important factor in working out the destinies of 
Europe than Friedrich. Certain it is, that the history of his life covers 
an era whose influence has been felt over all Christendom, and will be 
for ages. To the American reader, therefore, who would know of the 
mighty forces that have moved the world's past, an intelligent history of 
the latter half of the 18th century, in European affairs, is of more than 
ordinary concern. The four preqeding volumes of Mr. Carlisle's great 
work bring us down to the opening of the year 1757, the hight of the 
seven year's war, which had commenced the year preceding. A coalition 
of the great powers had been formed to crush him. He forms an alliance 
with England, while France, formerly his ally, joins Austria. With (m\y 
6,000,000 subjects, and an army of 160,000 men he confronts 600,000, 
Austrians, French, Russians, Saxons, Swedes. The present volume follows 
his fortunes down to April, 1760, the commencement of the 5th campaign. 
fie 18 now at the crisis of his fate. Of Mr. Carlisle's force and sagacity as 
a writer, as well as of his dogmatism and cynic contempt for the opinion of 
other men we will not now speak. He at least compels a hearing, and, 
whether just or unjust, his opinions are of weight in forming a proper esti- 
mate of his hero, and the stern old times in which he lived. The conclud- 
ing Tolnme is looked for with interest. 
EvBRT Saturday, a Journal of Choice Reading selected from Foreign Current 

Literature, , 

The above is the title of a new weekly published by Messrs. Ticknor 
A Fields, Boston, whose first issue bears date January 6. It is only 
necessary to quote the title and add, that the selections are most critically 
and judiciously made, and contain the cream of the English reviews and 
other literary journals, rejecting what is heaviest and least interesting, on 
the one hand, and what is too light and ephemeral on the other. The 
reputation of the publishers is guaranty of the value of their new venture. 
Price $5.00 a year. 
Amsrioan History. By Jacoh Abbot. Illustrated with numerous Maps and 

Engravings. Vol. vii. War of the Revolution. New York : Sheldon ^ 

Company. 16mo, pp. 288. 

The author of the *< RoUo Books " is too well known to the public to 
need from us any introduction : and his name, in connection with a new 
series of juvenile works on American history, is guaranty not only of their 
worth, but that they will be sought after with eagerness. The story of 
the revolutionary struggle is happily told in simple language : and thq 
earnest patriotic spirit that runs through it is most wholesome. No Apierici^i^ 



160 Resident Editor's Department. 

boy can read this book without a new zeal for his country's honor, and eTen 
to those who have many a time read the record of our glory, these pages 
are refreshing. 

History of the United States Cavalry, /rom the Formation of the Federal 
Oovernment to the lat of June^ 18C3. To which is added a list of all the 
Cavalry Regiments, with the names of their Commanders, which have been in 
the United States Service since the Breaking Out of the Rebellion, By 
Albert G. Brockett, Major \st U. S. Cavalry, ^c. New York: Uctrper 
^Brothers. 1865. \2mo., cloth, pp. ^Zl. 

The title page tells the whole story, when it is added that the author is 
a gallant and experienced officer, who has borne a part in the exploits he 
chronicles, and that he enters con amore into the work of setting furtii the 
claims to recognition of his favorite arm of the service. The book abounds 
in valuable practical hints ; the descriptions are easy, graceful and life- 
like, never " stilted, " and too full of vigor to be prosy. The pulishers have 
done their work well. 

Questions on the Principles of Arithmetic. Detiyned to indicate an 
Outline of Study f especially fitted to facilitate a thorough System of Reviews f 
adapted to any Text Books and all grades of Learners. By James S. Eaton. 
Boston : Taggard ^ Thompson, Publishers. Price 12 cents. Specimen, 
copies sent on receipt of ten cents. 

We have already several admirable series of arithmeticed text-books ; 
but until all our teachers arc educated to a higher point, pupils will need 
aid to independent thinking and judgment. This little book seems admira- 
bly adapted to that purpose. We endorse heartily the following statement 
of the advantages to be derived from using the ** Questions." 

'* 1. They are separate from any text-books, and equally well adapted 
to all text-books, and on this account they present all the benefits of the 
Question Method, and none of its defects. 2. They indicate a definite 
outline of study, and afiford a substantial guide to the pupil in the prepara- 
tion of his lesson. 3. They incite the pupil to inquiry, awakening that 
thirst for knowledge which is the motive to its acquirement. 4. They open 
up the several subjects by such short and suggestive steps, one question 
following upon another in the chain, that the pupil is thus led to follow 
out and develop the subject for himself. 6. By inciting the pupil to 
inquiry, and guiding him in developing the subject for himself, they sub- 
serve the highest and only true style of teaching ; namely, to draw out 
and develop the faculties and thus i«ead the pupil, instead of dictating 
to him or driving him. 6. They afiford the best means for frequent reviews 
and«examinations, since it is the principles of Arithmetic that should be 
reviewed, and not the mechanical operations. 7. The use of these ques- 
tions will not fail to ground the principles of Arithmetic in the mind of 
the pupil, and thus give him the Key which will command all practical 
operations. 8. For those teachers whose time is closely occupied with 
large classes and large schools, the use of these Questions will save much 
labor, while they will produce th0 best results in scholarship." 



TEXT-BOOKS ON BOTANY, 

By Prof. ASA GRAY, of Harvard University. 



The COV SERVATORT OF FLOWERS in the NATIONAL FROFAOA- 

TIHO GARDENS at WASHINGTON is arranged according 

to the Classification of these Text-books. 



These Books present the latest and most accurate principles and develop- 
ments of the science, and have been recommended by almost every eminent 
Botanist in the country. 

For comprehensiveness of scope, exactness and clearness of description, 
accurate and scientific analysis of Plants, and beauty of illustrations, they have 
no equal. 

TUE 8EItIE8 CONSIST OF 

BaVD PlaUtH Grow. — Containin^^ a Popular Flora, or an 
Arrangement and Description of Common Plants, both Wild and Cultivated. 
Illustrated by more than oOO Drawings from Nature. 

I^eHHonH in Botany and Vegetable Phyniology.— 

Illustrated by over 300 AVood cuts; to which is added a copious Glosnan/j or 
Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 

Jtfanuai of Botany. — A comprehensive Flora of the Northern 
States east of the Mississippi, including Virginia and Kentucky, arranged 
according to the Xatural Si/stem. To which is added Gardkn Botany, and 
Fourteen beautiful Plates illustrating the Genera of Ferns, Grasses, &c. 

M^eSSOns and, Jtfanuai. — This work, in one volume, is the one 
most used as a complete Class-book, by Students of Botany. 

Structural and Systematic Botany and Vegetable 

PHYSIOLOGY. — Being a nffh revised edition of the *• Botanical Text-book, 
illustrated by over 1,300 Wood cuts, to which is added a full Glossary, or 
Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 

Jtlanual of Botany ^withJftosseH and Ijirerwcort.— 

With Twenty-two Plates, illustrating the Genera of Cryptogamia. 

Flora of the Southern States.— By A. W. Chapman, M.D. 

The Plan of this work is nearly the same as that adopted by Prof. Grat, 
and presents a systematic arrangement of the Phsenogamous and higher 
Cryptogamous Plants of all the States south of Kentucky and Virginia, and 
east of the Mississippi. 
The undersigned are the publishers of — 

Sanders' Series of Headers, 'Wilson's Histories, 

Robinson's Series of Mathematics, Bryant & Stratton's Bookkeeping, 

Kerl's Series of Orammars. Fasquelle's French Series, 

Oolton's Series of Qeofi^^apnies, Woodbury's (German Series, 

Wells' Natural Sciences, Spencerian Penmanship, Etc. 

I®* Also Manufacturers of the Celebrated SPENCERIAN 
STEEL PENS. 

Ijn»eral terms ^iven on books furnished for examinncion or Introduction. 
Send f<oxr at Oataloirue. 

Address the Publishers, 

IVISOX, FHIXNET, BLAKEMAN A CO., 

48 df f^O Waiker Street, JT. Y*. 

vii-6.2. 



TJSMM8 CASH. 



S. E. UKBDfO'S 



AoMMt, J9*>« 1«M. 



QATALOQUE OF STAISASD EDUOAHOITAL WOSKB, lOS THE 
STUDY OF FOBEIQN LAHQTJAGES. 



0TT0*8 TBSNCH GONTERSATION GRAMMAR. 

R«TiBed by Wvrdivahtd BdcnSB, Instmctor in 

French at Harvud Coltogv. 12mo, cloth. fl.TS. 
Key to the aboTc. 90 cents. 
L'HISTOIBE DE FRANCE. Par M. LamA 

Flxubt. 16du>, cloth. 91JS0. 
SLEMENTART FRENCH READER. By Mad. M. 

GXBXBT. 12mo, boards. 40 centa 
LUCIE: FRENCH AND ENOUSH CONYEBSA- 

TIONS. 12rao, cloth. 90 centa. 
LI PETIT ROBINSON DE PARIS. Par Madame 

VOA. lamo, oloth. 90oents. 
C0NTS8 BIOGRAPHIQUES. Par Mmb. 1. Foa. 

Cloth. 91.00. 



SADLER; COURS DE VERSIONS; or, Ezerdaei 

fbr Trenalathig English into French. Annoteted 

and rerieed by Prof. Oili.sttk. 16mo. 91.25. 
L'INSTRUCTEUR DE L'ENFANCE. (AflretBook 

for Children.) By L. BoNCOSUB. 12mo, cloth. 90c. 
LE CLOS-POMMIER. Par AxXDfix Acuard. 

12mo, cloth. 90 cents. 
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translation into French. 16mo. 80 cents. 
Ext to the abore. 26 cents. 
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Nesw Series.] MARCH, 1866. [Vol. VII, No. 6 

Twelfth Annual Beport 

07 THS 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, 



STATE OP NEW TORE: ^ 

Depaetmsnt of Publio Instkuotion, I 
Albany, F^truary 1, 1866. J 
To the Legitlature of the State of New York : 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, in oonformitj to the proTi- 
aioiM of the statute, respectfully submits the following 

REPORT. 

The tables and documents herewith presented are designed to show : 

let. The yaluation of property in each of the seTeral counties, as equal- 
ised by the State Assessors, with the amount of school tax in 1860, and 
the Ux of 1865. 

2d. The amount of the three-fourth mill tax for the support of schools 
paid by each county; and the amount apportioned to each county f^om 
the ayails of that tax and from the Common School Fund ; and the entire 
amount of school moneys apportioned to each county. 

8d. Apportionment of school moneys for the year 1866 ; showing the 
population of each county, by cities and rural districts ; the number of 
teachers employed at the same time for twenty-eight weeks or more; the 
amount apportioned for teachers' wages, as *< district quota," and accord- 
ing to population ; and the amount apportioned for libraries. 

4th. Abstract from the statistical reports of the School Commissioners^ 
showing : 

1. The number of school districts in each county; 

2. The number of teachers employed at the same time for twenty-eight 
weeks or more ; 

[Vol. XV, No. 6.] 11 



162 TvodfOi Annual Report of the 

3. Number of children between the ages of five and twenty-one years, 
residing in the districts ; 

4. Number of free schools ; 

6. Number of private schools ; 

6. Number of pupils attending private schools ; 

7. Time district schools were in session ; 

8. Teachers : by whom licensed, and the number of each sex ; 

9. Number of children, the average daily attendance, and the whole 
number of days' attendance during the year ; 

10. Number of inspections by School Commissioners ; 

11. Number of volumes in district libraries, and their value ; 

12. School houses, classified as to structure, and their value. 

5th. Abstract from the financial reports of the School Commissioners, 
showing ft'om what sources moneys have been received, and for what pur- 
poses expended : 

Receiptt — 

1. Amount of money on hand at the commencement of the last school 
year, October 1, 1864; 

2, Amount apportioned by the State Superintendent ; 
8. Proceeds of gospel and school lands ; 

4. Amount raised by tax ; 

5. Amount raised by rate bills ; 

6. Received from all other sources ; 

7. Total amount of receipts. 

Payments — 

8. For teachers' wages ; 

9. For libraries ; 

10. For school apparatus ; 

11. For colored schools ; 

12. For school houses, sites, fences, out houses, repairs, etc. ; 
18. For all other incidental expenses ; 

14. Amount forfeited in the hands of supervisors on the first Tuesday 
of March, 1866 ; 
16. Amount remaining on hand October 1, 1865 ; 
16. Total amount of payments. 
6th. Statement, showing the increase and diminution of the Common 
School Fund for the year. 

7th. Showing the investment of the capital of the Common School 
Fund at the close of each fiscal year since its establishment. 

8th. Comparative statistics of the schools for the years 1859 - 60 and 
1864-65. 

[A.] List of academies in which teachers* classes are to be organised in 
1865-66. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 163 

[6.] Lib! of School Commissioners and City Superintendents. 
[C] Report of the trustees of the Thomas Asylum for orphan and des- 
titute Indian children. 
[D.] Report of the Superintendents of Indian schools. 
[£.] Statistics of Indian schools. 
[P.] Statistics of Teachers' Institutes. 
[0.] Special reports of School Commissioners and City Superintendents. 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND SCHOOL HOUSES. 

The number of school districts in the State as reported was : 

In 1865 A 11,780 

In 1864, 11,717 

Showing an increase of, 63 

The number of school houses and their designation according to the 
lA&terial of which they are constructed, is as follows : 

Log. Framed. Brick. Stone. Total. 

In 1865, 202 9,874 1,010 682 11,618 

In 1864,... 226 9,941 1,002 548 11,712 

It is certain that there has been no such actual decrease as would appear 
from this comparison. The trustees were this year, for the first time, 
i^^^uired to report the yalue of the school houses and lots. It is, therefore, 
probable that the returns for 1865 excluded nearly all of those which were 
"^^^ and not owned by the districts. 

^be reported value of school houses and school house sites is: 

In the cities, $5,041,061 00 

^^ the rural districts 4,904,862 00 



Total, $9,945,923 00 

The ayerage yalue of the school houses and sites is, therefore : 

^ the cities, $17,323 23 

^ the rural districts, 433 02 

The amount of money expended for school house sites, for building, re- 
Pairing, purchasing, hiring and insuring school houses, and for fences, 
ottt-houses, etc., was: 

Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

^^ 1866, $516,902 04 $282,258 66 $799,160 70 

^ XS64, 370,815 34 276,485 89 647,801 28 

$146,086 70 $5,772 77 $151,859 47 

The proyision of the consolidated school law for the condemnation, by 

^^ commissioner and supervisor, of school houses unfit for use and not 

^<^rth repairing, has resulted in tl^e erection or preparation for erection of 



164 Twelfth Armual Report of the 

many comfortable and commodious school buildings; and tbe power 
granted by the same law to trustees to repair school houses, within the 
limit of twenty dollars in any one year, without the Tote of the district, 
has improTed the condition of many more. 

By chapter 210 of the laws of 1863 an appropriation of fiye hundred 
dollars was made for the preparation of designs and specifications for 
school houses. The designs and specifications haye been completed, and 
the frequent calls for them from school districts in yarious parts of the 
State induce me to suggest the propriety of an appropriation for their pub- 
lication in pamphlet form. 

The necessity of well-built, commodious, clean and airy school honaes, 
has been so often urged upon public attention, that it would seem almost 
superfluous to mention it here ; but so long as the evils arising from ill- 
constructed, uncomfortable, unwholesome and dilapidated houses exist, so 
long must the demand for improyement be reiterated till reform be consum- 
mated. Not only should the prime laws of health be regarded and obeyed 
in this matter, but the moral obligation to furnish all rational means to 
correct, purify and cultivate the taste of the young should be recognized. 
The love of beauty in one or other of its myriad forms is inherent in every 
human breast not vitiated by corrupt surroundings ; hence the philosophy 
no less than the propriety of making our school houses temples of beauty, 
as they are temples of knowledge. 

There is a golden link between beauty and utility, and the expense of 
embellishing school rooms and school grounds is trifling, compared with 
the beneficial and refining influence of such care upon those plastic na- 
tures which must be molded into the men and women of future generations. 
Every *< live" teacher knows the pleasure with which even the smallest 
pupils greet a rich bouquet on the desk, or the joy with which a cherished 
bud is watched as it unfolds its hidden glories to the light, or their ab- 
sorbing interest in the disposition of festooned evergreens for a holiday or 
a gala occasion, or the rapture which the inaugural of the new school 
piano awakens when it breathes a simple school ballad, or thrills all 
hearts with the inspiration of the Star-spangled Banner. Who has not, 
in the most cherished dreams of childhood, the memory of some flower- 
laden, clambering vine, some favorite tree or shrub, or some loved green 
spot around which cluster the holiest associations. If such testimony be 
universal, and such influence potent for good, what so proper to deoorate 
with trees and flowers as the school house grounds, or where so appropri- 
ate to bestow works of art and taste as the school room, or what more im- 
portant to the happiness and improvement of the young, than the school 
house built with a strict regard to beauty and utility, and made peculiarly 
attractive by such surroundings and embellishments. 



Superintendent of Public Instructmi. 165 

SITES FOR SCHOOL HOUSES. 

It ifl both reason and law thai the rights of individuals to private pro- 
perty must yield to public necessity. Therefore the sovereign people, 
through the action of the Legislature, may rightfully assume the control 
and ownership of private property for public use, providing therefor a just 
eompensation to the owner. 

The State of New York knowt that the education of her children is a 
matter of great public concern, and a sacred duty which she can not inno- 
cently neglect. The children must therefore have school houses, and the 
property of the people is taken to provide them ; these school houses must 
have sites — grounds whereon to stand — and the property of the people is 
taxed to pay for them. It is also a matter of public concern that the site 
of the school house should be central, in a healthy location, and conve- 
niently accessible for the attendance of the children ; but in very many 
instances, as reported to this Department by those seeking relief, such de- 
sirable situation is owned by some gruff old bachelor who has spent his 
lonely years in inconsiderately repeating by word and by deed '* Tou take 
eare of yourself, and PU take care of myself;" or, by some unenlightened 
and parsimonious landlord, who, to avoid the payment of a few dollars to- 
wards building a new school house, utterly refuses for any consideration, 
or at least for any reasonable consideration, to part with the spot of 
ground which would best accommodate his own and his neighbors' children. 
The old school houses, rudely built forty or fifty years ago by our fathers 
and our grandfathers, are now very generally unfit for any use ; and owing'to 
the changes which have taken place in the boundaries of districts, and in 
the number and location of residences, many of these sites, originally ae- 
leeted with little care as to their fitness, have ceased to be acceptable to the 
people ; and others, which were well chosen, and which, with some addi- 
tions from adjoining lands, might be made to accommodate the many, have 
as yet no play grounds, and are of too small dimensions to admit even of 
the erection of the out-buildings demanded by propriety and decency. 
This last deficiency must greatly enhance the present urgent demand for 
the acquisition and appropriation of suitable sites for new school houses, 
uid for the enlargement of the grounds of old ones. The difficulty of 
getting possession of suitable grounds for these purposes will probably 
teiaain insurmountable, unless a law be passed, by which, for a just com- 
pensation, such lands may be taken and appropriated to such public use. 
The sites of our school houses should be chosen in places that are both 
<iOQTenient and pleasant ; and where any land owner plants himself in the 
^ay of obtaining such, the law should lay hands on him and remove him ; 
Ihug enforcing the conviction that there is, for the children of this country, 
^ Kfaud highway to learning which no man may obstruct. 



166 Tiodflh Annual Report of (he 

LIBRARIES. 

The number of Tolumes in the district libraries was : 

Cities. « Rural Districts. 1 

In 1865 96,914 1,181,209 1,; 

In 1864, 89,446 1,036,992 1, 

It will be seen that there is an apparent increase in the number o 
oyer those of the preceding year ; it is probable, on the contrary, th 
haye diminished. The trustees haye, for the first time, been requ 
report the yalue as well as the number; and those trustees — 
thousand — who failed to make these returns to the School Commif 
were, subsequently, required to report directly to this Department, 
than sixteen hundred supplementary reports haye thus been re 
giying an additional number of 98,531 books, which are included 
i^ggregi^te above, as is also their reported yalue of $54,618 in the agj 
total below. 

It appears from all the returns that the value of the libraries 
State is: 

In the cities, , $ 

In the rural districts, • 

Total $ 

It is belieyed that in most cases the trustees haye under-estima 
yalue of the books. From inquiries made of the trustees of many d 
since their annual reports, for the purpose of ascertaining the cause < 
making so low an estimate, this belief is confirmed ; and the opi 
entertained that the district school libraries, eyen in their neglect 
dition, are worth nearly a million of dollars. 

The amount of money reported as haying been expended for 111 
was: 

Cities. Rural Districts. 1 

In 1866, $9,808 28 $17,607 80 $26 

In 1864, 5,409 26 21,481 26 26 

The amount expended for school apparatus was : 

Cities. Rural Districts. ^ 

In 1866, $165,745 84 $10,011 36 $175 

In 1854, 128,447 79 8,165 70 187 

The whole sum expended for libraries and apparatus during the y 
$202,572 78. 

The $55,000 appropriated from the United States Deposit Fi 
library purposes was diyided between the cities and rural districts 
ing to their population, as follows : 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 167 

To the cities, $20,142 14 

To the rural districts « 84,867 86 

Total, ^ $56,000 00 

The number of districts reporting book cases for their libraries was 7,980. 

Under the provisions of the new law there need be no apprehension that 
the library money will be wasted. When not expended for books it makes 
up a fractional part of the aggregate amount paid for teachers' wages and 
school apparatus, which are, certainly, of equal importance, in view of the 
fact that thousands of families now have priyate libraries, and that a yery 
large proportion of all are liberally supplied with meritorious newspapers 
and periodicals. 

CHILDREN AND TEACHERS. 

The number of children reported between the ages of five and twenty- 
one years, was : 

Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

In 1865, 507,009 891,760 1,398,759. 

In 1864, .'. 447,469 860,363 1,307,822. 

An actual enumeration of the children of school age is annually made, in 
the rural districts, and the figures for them are accepted as correct. In 
several of the smaller cities, also, an annual enumeration is made, but in 
the larger cities an estimated number is given. The number of children 
over five and under twenty-one years of age in fact forms in each of the 
counties and cities pretty nearly the same uniform per cent, of the entire 
population of the respective counties and cities, and, holding this fact in 
mind, a careful examination and comparison of the number of children es- 
timated for the respective cities, shows them to approach very near to ac- 
curacy. 

Of the number of children reported, 916,617 are represented to have 
been, during some part of the year, attendants of the schools. The num- 
ber reported as having attended school during the year 1863-4, was 
881,184. This shows an increase for the past year of 36,438. 

The average daily attendance for the year (excluding fractions) was : 

In the cities 136,515 

la the rural districts, « 258,962 

Total, 895,617 

The number of free schools reported, including union f^ee schools, and 
Bchools in the cities and in some of the villages made free by special acts, 
Vft8 734, which shows an increase of this class of schools of 71. 

The number of private schools is 1,481, with an aggregate attendance of 
K845. 



168 Tuodfih Armadl BepoH of the 

The whole number of pupils attending the fte&demies during the year 
was 85,855, and the ayerage attendance for each of the seyeral terme was 
20,884. No record of the average daily attendance can be obtained. Of 
the whole number registered 20,448 were academical students, and 14,912 
were primary pupils. > 

The following is a summary of the whole number of pupils reported as 
receiving scholastic instruction, as distributed among colleges, academies, 
private schools and common schools : 

Colleges, 1,420 

Academies, 85,855 

Private Schools, 54,845 

Common Schools, 916,617 

Total 1,007,737 

The percentage of attendance in each of these various classes of schools, 
is, therefore : 

In the colleges, a little more than fourteen hundredths of one per cent. 
(.001409). 

In the academies, a little more than three and a half per cent. (.085074). 

In private schools, a little more than five per cent. (.053927). 

In the common schools nearly ninety-one per cent. (.909580). 

The average time the schools were in session during the ^ear, not in- 
cluding the cities, was thirty weeks and four days ; in the cities, fbrty- 
three weeks. 

The whole number of teachers employed was : 

Male. Female. Total. 

In 1865 4,452 22,017 26,469 

In 1864, 5,707 21,181 26,888 

As these members include all qualified teachers who have been employed 
for any time, however short, during the year, the *< number of teachers 
employed at the same time for twenty-eight weeks or more," will give a 
clearer view of the number required at any time to supply all the schools. 

That number was : 

Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

In 1865 8,410 12,068 15,478 

In 1864 8,408 12,899 15,807 

The amount expended for teachers* wages was : 

Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

In 1865, $1,932,488 26 $2,048,655 17 $8,976,098 48 

In 1864, 1,554,212 18 1,589,248 28 8,098,460 46 

These figures show an increase of money paid for teachers' wages dur- 



Sn^perirdcndefni of PMio Instruction. 169 

ing the year, of $882,682.97 — in the ciiies, $878,226.06; in the rural 
districte, $604,406.89. This increase is atiribated chiefly to the faoU: 

First, that during the year, the schools in the rural districts were in 
session much longer than they were in the preceding year ; thereby in* 
creasing the sum total paid to their teachers ; 

Second, that there is, this year, included in the amount paid for teachers 
wages, the estimated yalue of the board of teachers who ** boarded 
round ; " 

Third, that in both city and country, there has been a Tery generous 
increase in the salaries of teachers aboye those of the preceding year, 
showing a growing appreciation on the part of the people of the seryices 
of their teachers. 

The ayerage annual salaries of teachers, as shown by those figures, is : 

In the cities, $668 70 

In the rural districts, 169 84 

This will giye for the ayerage wages per week, of teachers in the rural 
districts about $6.46. 

The amount raised by local taxation for school purposes was : 

Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

In 1866, $2,666,644 46 $846,626 76 $3,601,070 20 

In 1864, 1,998,479 67 674,699 62 2,668,079 29 

The sum raised by rate bill, $666,168.78, in the rural districts should be 
mdded to the amount raised by tax, which makes the whole sum raised in 
the rural districU $1,600,684.68. 

PUBLIC MONEYS. 

The reyenue from the Common School Fund during the year was : 

Balance in Treasury, Sept. 80, 1864, $66,806 60 

From the Fund proper, 186,462 20 

From the U. 8. Deposit Fund 166,000 00 

$408,267 70 
Paid during the year, 826,660 79 

Balance in Treasury, Sept. 80, 1866, $81,706 91 

The amount of school money for the school year 1866-6 is deriyed as fol- 
lows: 

From the Common School Fund proper, $166,000 00 

U. S. Deposit Fund, 166,000 00 

State School Tax, 1,126,000 00 






$1,446,000 00 



170 Twdfih Annual Report of the 

The monej is apportioned as follows : 

For salaries of School Commissioners, $56,000 00 

" Libraries, 66,000 00 

" Indian Schools 1,714 47 

" District Quotas, 488,721 82 

<* Papil and Ayerage Attendance Quotas, $877,564 21 

" and on account of superyision in cities, 15,000 00 

«' separate neighborhoods, from Cont. Fund,.. 67 62 

892,681 88 

Balance of Contingent Fund, 1,982 88 

$1,446,000 00 
The following is a more specific statement : 

The sum of $155,000, derived from the Common School Fund proper, is 
apportioned : 

For District Quotas, $51,661 89 

** Pupil and Ayerage Attendance Quotas 108,888 11 

$156,000 00 

The sum of $166,000, deriyed from the U. S Deposit Fund, is 
apportioned : 

For salaries of School Commissioners, ^ $56,000 00 

'* and on account of Supervision in cities, 15,000 00 

" Libraries, 55,000 00 

" District Quotas, 12,998 80 

*< Pupil and Average Attendance Quotas, 26,001 20 



$166,000 00 



The sum of $1,126,000, appropriated from the proceeds of 
the State Tax, is apportioned : 

For a Contingent Fund, $2,000 00 

<* Indians, as Equivalent of Library 

Money, $59 40 

** Indians, as Equivalent of District 

Quotas, 707 25 

** Indians according to population... 947 82 

1,714 47 

<< District Quotas, r. 874,060 68 

" Pupil and Av. Att. Quotas, 748,224 90 



$1,126,000 00 
$1,446,000 00 



Superintendent of PiMic Instruction. 171 



SUMMARY OP SCHOOL STATISTICS. 

The following Uble is a summary of the statistical and financial reports 
of the common schools for the year ending September 80, 1865 : 

Statistical. 

Cities. Bnral DietricU. Total. 

Number of dlBtricts, 291 11,489 11,780 

Number of teachers employed at the same time for 

twenty-eight weeks or more, 8,410 lt,088 16,478 

Nomber of children between flye and twenty-one 

yeawofage 607,009 891,750 1,898,760 

Aggregate number of weeks* school by qualified 

teachers, 19,540 865,468 868,008 

Number of male teachers employed, 843 4,110 4,463 

Number of female teachers employed, 8,113 18,906 22,017 

Number of children attending school, 310,666 606,061 916,617 

Average daily attendance 186,515 369,103 806,617 

Number of times schools haye been yisited by 

Commissioners, 18,700 18,760 

Number of volumes in district libraries, 96,914 1,181,309 1,278,128 

Number of school houses, • 291 11,827 11,618 

Number of log houses, 303 303 

Number of frame houses, 69 9,815 9,874 

Number of brick houses, 380 780 , 1,010 

Number of stone houses, 3 680 683 

Financial. 

Receipt* — 

Cities. Bural Districts. Total. 

Amount on hand October It 1864^ $876,319 05 $99,328 88 $474,447 88 

Apportionment of public moneys, 448,745 55 935,517 28 1,379,362 78 

Proceeds of gospel and school lands, ........ 125 89 18,705 22 18,831 11 

Baisedby tax, 3,665,644 45 845,626 75 8,601,070 20 

Baised by rate bill, 665,158 78 656,158 78 

From all other sources, 14,044 20 300,427 59 823,47179 

Totals, $3,488,679 14 $3,768,663 40 $6,263,342 54 

Etpendituret — 

For teachers* wages, $1,082,488 36 $3,048,655 17 $8,976,093 48 

ForUbrarics, 9,808 38 17,607 80 26,816 08 

For school spparatus 166,745 84 10,01186 175,756 70 

For colored schools, 81,66130 5,060 96 86,622 36 

For sdiool houses, sites, &c., 616,902 04 282,268 66 799,160 70 

For all other incidental expenses 428,402 47 291,866 63 720,259 09 

Forfeited, in hands of Supervisors, 751 98 761 98 

Amount on hand October 1, 1865, 404,321 45 112,460 85 516,783 30 

Totals, $3,488,679 14 $3,763,668 40 $6,353,943 54 

Deducting from this total amount of $6,252,242 44, the amount on hand 
October 1, 1866, and the actual expense of maintaining the schools during 
the year is shown to be : 

In the cities, .•. $3,084,857 69 

In the rural districts, 2,651,102 65 

Total, $6,736,460 24 

The corresponding total last year was $4,549,870.66. 



172 



Twdffh Annual Report of the 



ATTENDANCE. 

The StaiiBties reoeiyed at this Department relatiye to attendance, haye 
neyer until this year been such as to show the actual aggregate number of 
days' attendance of children, or the ayerage daily attendance. Those 
gathered the past school year, and embraced in this report, are reliable, and 
are of great yalue, for the reason that they throw a flood of light on thii 
subject of attendance. They show a total attendance of 78,401,749 days ; 
being for the cities, 80,020,155, and for the rural districts, 43,881,594 days. 

The ayerage daily attendance shown is, for the cities, 186,515 pupils, 
and for the rural districts, 259,102 pupils; making a total of 895,617 pupils. 
That is, the attendance at the public schools in the State, for the school 
year closing with September 80th, 1865, was equal to the attendance of 
895,617 children attending school through the school year, eyery day on 
which the schools were in session. This will appear from the following : 

Tabular Synopsis of School Attendance, 



GOUNTtll Aim 

CrriES. 



Albany (towns),». 

" city „ 

Allegany, .,,**...,. 
Broome, ...«.,.,,,«. 
Cflitaragus, ........ 

Cayuga (towns),.. 

Auburut 

€hautaui|UA, 

Chemung,. ......... 

Chen an go^ .->,.»•«, 
Cihi ton, ....... ...... 

Coltimbift(town»), 

Hudsoti,.. .,...,.. 

CoHland, 

Delaware,.. 

Dutchess { towns )t 

Poughkespsiei^ 
Erie (towDs),...... 

Bufflalo,. ...... 

Sh«x, 





ill 



* q i * . _ 



82.24 

28.89, 
51.11 

52.81 
50. G3 
50.09! 

ri.Toj 

47.371 
49M\ 
55.31 
S6.34 
87.75 
40.06 
52.46 
51. 3S 
85:12 
28.25 
40.5fi 
■IH.lg 
42.52 



a 

85.30 
60.27 
110,8S 
113.05 
123.7(1 
1I7.&7 

mm 

111.113' 
110.18 
120.75 

m.u 
ne.70 

117.74 
83.SB 

mA2 
mM 

111.15 



m 

Hi 
III 

III 

Ilia 



7. 

46.11 
4^.71 

43.2n 

74.20 

42.32 

45.31 

S7.52 

60.14 
44.^ 
4S.64 
4113 
AIM 
43.17 
45.01 
8&M 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 173 



Tabular Synopsis of School Attendance, — CoQtinued. 



L 2. 

Fmnlclm, - .- 07.93 40 JO 

Pulton,, .,« 80.05 55.03' 

Otneaed, .. . ». «, tlM 46. 5 1 

Qreen UM AZM 

BimikoD ..< 34.78 2B.87 

Herkimer, 64,52 44,85' 

Jefferson, „, 59 J8 41,06 

KingB (town*) 1641,71 1069 J7 

BroAlyn... 21L64 145,41 

UffU, 53.26 86.61 

LiTmg«ton,...»,,„ 6g.27 46.98 

Madison 5^.82 40,43 

Monroe (lowui),,, 78.fS8 64.08 

Eocheeler ,. 186.71 127.66 

Montgoroery,, ..,„ 89-17 6l,a0 

New York,,. 136.06 94.14 

Hiftfitra,. ,„« 83.90 6767 

Oneida (toirms).^ 66.57 45. 76 

Otica* ...-.,. 159.65 lOfl.67 

OnondAga (towns ) 69.42 47,72 

Syrscmae, 114.71 78.86 

OnUrlo, 6&.E2 44.90 

Orange ,.„..... 111.27 76.49 

OrJeani 73.6S 60.44, 

04wego (lDwns),» 0^.86 47.82; 

** fity,.. i 127.44 87,00 

Otsego, ,....,...,„ J 61.92 36.69 

Fntnam, .«,., ...«. 81.91 56.80' 

Qua«iia, ,...,. 141.17 97.04 

BeuftselAer (t'ufl], 87.70 60.28 

Trov.'."""*"'" 186.47 03.12 

Richmond, 220.86 151,82 

Rockland,.,. 169;42 116,46 

St. Lairrenee...... 6^.16 48.41 

Baratoga,.,, ,..,.... 73.56 50.56 

Scbeneo'dy {t'ns), 72,94 50.14 

oitj,... 100.00 68.74 

S^hofa&rie „.. 61,11 42.01 

Scbujler, 67.10 39.26 

Beii«€&, ...*.. 82.62 66.79 

%teiibfiD,, 63,99 43.99 

Suffolk, « 88,42 60. 

^ulliTftn 76.36 62.49 

^joga,.. ,..,... 61.89 42.54 

^ompkini, .....,-.. 59.98 41.23 

Xjlater, , 110.78 76.11 

^»rron„„... 68,21 40.01 

X^&abmgtt^tip, 62,38 42.88 

>rayiie 66.86 45.27 

"^estcliestftr........ 125.72 86.42 

^^jomiag, 65.30 38,01 

^»U», .„*,.„ I>7.83 39,41 

^t*te, -.„. 90.37 61.12 

^uml dIstHois,.,, 73.89 60,79 

^::!iiitg^ ].4S,iS im.m 



d. 

16.»' 
2L82 

22.73; 

18.76 
10.06 
19.76 
19.86 
33.37 
44,58 
lfiw82 
21.96 
20.24 
28.71 
49,09 
24.29 
39.48 
26,26 
21,05 
37,92 
24.57 
40.9^ 
22.01 
26.26 
23,74 
24.34 
48.07 
18,88 
22 22 

mM 

22.78 
82.66 
40.96 
32.00 
21.67 
20,68 
19.93 
87.68 
19.95 
18.08 
24.63 
20.66 
23.02 
19.64 
22.17 
20,81 
27,99 
17.79 
20.W 
21.40 
32,76 
19,26 
21,60 
26.55 
21.47 
40.03 



4. 

24,^48 
26.23 
38.59 

29.61 
28.94 
80.68 
33,19 
2.16 
27,88 
81.58 
32.18 
84.38 
30.17 
26.47 
27.26 
28.88 
31.31 
31.62 
23.77 
35.40 
85.72 
33,70 
22.64 
32.29 
36.45 
37.72 
36.37 
27,12 
20.23 
26.8a 
24,11 
18.54 
18,89 
34,15 
28,05 
27,33 
37.62 
32.65 
81,6' 
29.70 
32,29 
26.03 
26.71 
36.B0 
34.70 
26.28 
80.66 
32.16 
82.62 
26,06 
34.86 
37.67 
28.28 
29.06 
26.92 



a. 

36.34 
88.16 
48.87 

43,88 
42.10 
44.66 

mm 

3.24 

40.66 
46.94 
46,82 
60.02 
43,89 
88.61 
39.84 
41,94 
46.55 
46,00 
34,68 
61.60 
61,97 
49.08 
83.94 
46.98 
61.67 
6487 
62.91 
39.46 
2<».43 
37,58 
35.07 
26.97 
27.48 
48.68 
40.80 
39,76 
64.78 
47.50 
46,07 
43.21 
46.98 
37.87 
87.60 
62.23 
60.48 
86,78 
44.46 
46,77 
47.31 
37.89 
50.70 
54.80 
41.14 
42,28 
39,16 



e. I 

98.46! 

102.73 

104,40 

109.92 ' 

98.67 

108.96 

8.47 

71.20 

106,34 

10180 

111.44 

101.91 

66.62 

95.88 

101.34 

106.66 

111.07 

57.99 

108.89 

83.48 

106.52 

83.68 

99,39 

116.68 

96.19 

111,76 

97.60 

76.48 

93.S^J 

78.83 

64,29 

71.07 

116,80 

97.89 

97.41 

99,29 

114.41 

111.30 

100,41 

110.81 

92,41 

103.38 

113,29 

111.97 

94.06 

108.81 

114,96 

111,56 

87.56 

111,16 

111,09 

95.85 

98.89 

89,12 



7* 
36.41 

88.70 
47.57 
42.08 
88.30 
46.17 
44J2 
88.26 
56.96 
48.20 
44.67 
44.88 
48.06 
67.81 
41.34 
41.SS 
42.71 
41.41 
59.68 
47.30 
63.06 
46 46 
39.39 
47.27 
44.58 
67.64 
47.34 
40.42 
38.99 
40.27 
44.77 
41.96 
38.67 
41.68 
41.89 
40.82 
65,12 
41.62 
41.89 
4S.0S 
42.39 
40,98 
36.37 
46.10 
45.08 
39.10 
40.86 
4069 
42.47 
48.27 
46.61 
49.38 
43.14 
42.76 
43.94 



174 Tivelfih Annual Report of the 

This Table contains a Tast fund of useful information, and, I trust, will 
receiye from you, and from the people in different sections of the State, 
that careful study which its importance demands. 

The first column of the table shows the average number of children, OTer 
5 and under 21 years of age, residing in each county, part of a county, or 
city, fqf each qualified teacher employed for 28 weeks, or during the time 
school was taught. These numbers, for each county and city, are found 
by dividing the whole number of children over 6 and under 21 years of 
age residing in the county or city, by the number of qualified teachers 
employed as aforesaid in such county or city. 

It will be seen that this number Taries largely, ranging from 84.78 in 
Hamilton county, to 220.86 in Richmond county, 221.72 in this city, and 
1541.71 in the towns of the county of Kings. The average number for the 
State is 90.87 ; for the cities, 148.68, and 78.89 for the rural districts. In 
the rural districts the variations extend from 84.78 in Hamilton county, 
to 220.86 in the county of Richmond. 

The second column shows the average number of children over 6 and 
under 17 years of age, residing in the respective counties and cities, for 
each qualified teacher. By comparison and approximate calculation, it is 
ascertained from census statistics, that that portion of the population of 
the State consisting of persons over 6 and under 17 years of age is very 
nearly 68.74 per cent, of that portion embracing persons over 5 and under 
21 years of age. Hence the figures in column 2 may be obtained from 
those in column 1, by multiplying them by the decimal .6874. I need not 
remark that the numbers in column 2 will, when compared one with 
another, show the same ratios as the numbers in column 1. Compara- 
tively few children under 6 years of age, and also of those over 17 years of 
age, attend the common district school for any considerable portion of the 
school year ; and hence it has been deemed best to make calculations and 
compare results, including in one case the number of children over 5 and 
under 21 years of age, and, in the other, those over 6 and under 17 years 
of age. 

The average daily attendance of pupils during the school year is found, 
for each school district, by dividing the total number of days' attendance 
of all the pupils attending school during the school year, by the actual 
number of days the school was in session. The average daily attendance 
for each district, in each county and city, is thus found; and these num- 
bers, being added, give the total average daily attendance of pupils for 
each county and city in the State. Such average daily attendance for any 
county shows that the actual aggregate number of days' attendance, in the 
county, is equal to what the number of days* attendance of the pupils, 
indicated by the figures placed in this column, would be, in case they at- 
tended regularly every day on whieh school was in session during the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 176 

year. By dWiding the aTerage daily at ten dance for any county or city by 
the number of qualified teachers for such county or city, we ascertain the 
ayerage number of pupils, for each qualified teacher, in daHy attendance 
at the schools for the whole time school was in session during the school 
year. 

The third column in the table shows the proportionate average daily at- 
tendance of pupils in each county and city, for each qualified teacher. 
These numbers again differ Tery widely ; ranging, in the cities, from 
28.45 in Poughkeepsie, to 68.67 in Auburn ; — in the rural districts, from 
10.05 in Hamilton county, to 40.95 in Richmond. The attendance of chjld- 
ren has been equivalent, in the whole State, to an average number of over 
25 (25.55) pupils for each qualified teacher, attending school through the 
year, every day on which school was in session ; in the cities, a little over 
40 (40.05) pupils; and in the rural districts, over 21 (21.47) pupils. 

The figures in the fourth column are obtained, for each county and city, 
by dividing the average daily attendance by the number of children resi- 
dent therein, over 5 and under 21 years of age. This column, therefore, 
shows what per cent, the actual aggregate number of days' attendance, for 
each county and city, is of what the full attendance, of all the children 
over 5 and under 21 years of age residing in the county or city, would be, 
if they had attended school every day on which school was in session 
through the year. In other words, it shows how large an average daily 
attendance at school, during all the time school was in session, there was 
for every 100 children over 5 and under 21 years of age, residing in the 
county or city. 

The figures in the fifth column are obtained by dividing the average 
daily attendance, for each county and city, by the number of children 
resident therein, over 6 and under 17 years of age. Hence it shows what 
per cent, the actual aggregate number of days' attendance is of what the 
full attendance of all the children over 6 and under 17 years of age would 
be, if they (and they only) had attended school, through the year, every 
day on which school was in session. 

The numbers in these last mentioned two columns are of great interest, 
and of peculiar significance, — for the reason that they show pretty accu- 
rately the educational status of the various counties and cities, and indi- 
cate the degree of efficiency of the public schools, and of the interest in 
them shown by the people. Leaving the towns of Kings county out of the 
question, which give only 2.16 per cent., we find that the per cent, varies in 
the fourth column, in the rural districts, from 18.54 per cent, in Richmond 
county, to 88.02 per cent, in Chenango county ; — in the cities, from 19.42 per 
cent, in Poughkeepsie, to 49.29 per cent, in Auburn. The general average for 
the rural districts is 29.06 per cent.; for the cities, 26.92 per cent.; for the 
entire State, 28.28. Thus we see that the total attendance of all the child- 



176 TwdfOi Annual Report of the 

ren ftttending the public schools in th« SUte Is about 28.28 per cent, of 
what the full attendance of all the children OTor 5 and under 21 years of 
age would be, if they had attended erery day on which school was in ses- 
sion through the year. 

The numbers in the fifth column, compared with each other, show the 
same ratios as those of column 4. We find the aggregate attendance in 
the whole State to be 41.14 per cent of what the attendance would be if it 
consisted of the full attendance of all those children only over 6 and under 
17 years of age, attending every day on which school was in session. In 
the»rural districts this per cent, is a little greater, being 42.28 ; while in 
the cities it is 89.16. 

The sixth column shows how many children, orer 5 and under 21 years 
of age, attend the public schools some portion of the year, for each 100 
children over 6 and under 17 years of age. It will be obserred that in a 
majority of the counties the whole number thus attending school is 
greater than the number residing in such counties respectively, over 
and under 17 years of age. It must not be inferred from this that all the 
children over 6 and under 17 years of age attend the public schools some 
portion of the school year. Probably they do not in any case ; but none, 
in any case, are reported as attending, except such as are over 5 and un- 
der 21 years of age. To explain more definitely : for each and every 100 
children in the State, over 6 and under 17 years of age, there are nearly 
148 (mathematically 147.62) children over 6 and under 21 years of age. 
Now the tabular number [in the sixth column for Cattaraugus county is 
128.70 ; which shows that for every 100 children over 6 and under 17 
years of age, or, what amounts to the same thing, every 148 children over 
5 and under 21 years of age, residing in Cattaraugus county, 128 (128.70) 
children attend the public schools during some portion of the school year. 
It will be seen that there is a great disparity in the numbers given for the 
different counties and cities. The number of children attending public 
school is comparatively smaller in the cities than in the rural districts. 
After making all due allowance for private schools in the cities, it still 
remains true that the number of children growing up in ignorance is com- 
paratively much greater in the cities than in the rural districts. The 
average number attending school some portion of the year, for every 100 
children over 6 and under 17, or every 148 over 6 and under 21 years of 
age, ranges in the several cities from 68 (57.99) in Utica, to 99 (99.29) in 
Schenectady — while the average number for all the cities is 89 (89.12). 
In no city, except New York, does the number attending school some por- 
tion of the school year equal the number over 6 and under 17 years of age. 
Leaving the towns of Kings county out of the question, where the number 
is only 8.47, the numbers range in the rural districts ft-om 64 (64.29) in 
Richmond county, to 124 (128.70) in Cattaraugus county ; while the average 



Superintende7it of Public Instmction. 177 

number for the rural districts is 99 (98.89). The aTerage number for the 
entire State is 95 (95.35). 

This shows that the whole number of children over 5 and under 21 years 
of age, attending the public schools some portion of the year, is 95.85 per 
cent, of the whole number of children over 6 and under 17 years of age 
residing in the state. There are 38 counties, in each of which the number 
attending school some portion of the year is greater than the number orer 
6 and under 17 years of age. This is a fact very gratifying to the friends 
of popular education, and one which will encourage them to higher and 
more earnest efforts in the future, and re-assure them in their hopes of 
final and complete success in this the great cause of the people. 

The seventh column is obtained by dividing the average daily attend- 
ance for each county and city, by the corresponding whole number of 
children attending school during some portion of the year. The numbers 
in this column will, therefore, vary from two causes : First, not all the 
children attended the same fractional part of the time during which 
school was in session ; and, second, the children did not all attend with 
the same regularity. The numbers will consequently show irregularity of 
attendance ; and for this purpose, more particularly, is this column de- 
signed. The nearer the per cent, approaches to 100, the greater is the de- 
^ee of regularity of attendance, and the greater the average portion of 
the time during which school was in session that the children have at- 
tended. If in any county or city the children attending school some por- 
tion of the year, all attended regularly every day school was in session, 
€ben the average daily attendance of pupils would be, for such county or 
<:ity, equal to the whole number of children attending school at all, or en- 
rolled on the register of attendance ; and this average daily attendance 
Ibeing divided by the number registered, the dividend and divisor being 
^qual, would show 100 per cent.; that is, the attendance at school of those 
attending at all would be perfect, each one of the pupils registered at 
^he school having attended regularly every day during the time school was 
open. The numbers in this column show, also, precisely how large the 
average daily attendance of pupils is for each 100 children registered at 
^lie schools as having attended during some portion of the year; or, in 
other words, what percent, the actual attendance, for the school year, of 
*-lio*ae children attending school at all, is of what their attendance would 
***Ve been had they attended through the year, regularly, every day on 
''^^ich school was really in session. These numbers also vary considera- 
"'^- Leaving out the towns of Kings county, they range from 36.37 per 
^^*^t. in Sullivan county, to 74.20 per cent, in the city of Auburn. It will 
^ observed from these numbers, that while thp number of children at- 



t^^ing school some portion of the year forms 'm the cities a less per cent, 
^he whole number over 5 and undei 
CVoi,, XV, No. 6.] 12 



^ he whole number over 5 and under Zl ^e^Fa of age, than in the r^r^l 



178 Twdfih Annual Report of the 

districts ; yet the attendance of those actually going to school is more 
regular, and for a greater portion of the year, in the cities, than in the 
rural districts. 

Some of the counties and cities have a fair standing in some of the co- 
lumns, while in others they do not appear in so enviable a light. Hence, 
to find the proper educational status of any county or city, the numbers 
relating to it, standing in all these columns, should be examined and com- 
pared. 

From the Tabular Synopsis of Attendance and the foregoing remarks in 
regard to it, it will be seen that there was an immense loss of time from 
school during the past school year. Let us ascertain, so far as we may, its 
precise amount. That the estimate may be fair and reasonable, we will 
compute the loss for those children only who are over 6 and under 17 years 
of age. The number of children in the State over 5 and under 21 years of 
age, as reported by the school officers, was 1,398,759. The number over 6 
and under 17 years of age being, as previously stated, about 68.74 per cent, 
of these, would consequently, be very nearly 961,618. 

Now, every day during the year some of this last number were in school 
and others out of school ; and if we knew the average number of those in 
school, then, by subtracting it from 961,518, we should ascertain the 
average number of those who were out of school. The average number of 
children over 5 and under 21 years of age in school every day during the 
year, as reported by the school officers, was 395,617. Some of these were 
under 6 and others over 17 years of age. Hence, were these subtracted 
from the whole number in school (396,617), evidently we should find the 
number of those over 6 and under 17 years of age, who were in school, to 
be less than 896,617. If we subtract 395,617 from 961,618, we obtain for 
a remainder 666,901. But the number of children over 6 and under 17 
years of age every day in school being less than 396,617 (the number pre- 
viously subtracted), if we subtract it from the same number, 961,518 
(which represents the whole number of children in the state over 6 and 
under 17 years of age), we shall obtain for the remainder (which, as before 
stated, must represent the number of those children every day out of 
school), a number greater than 566,901. Therefore, there were, during the 
past year, in the State, on an average, more than 665,901 children over 6 
and under 17 years of age every day out of school. This amounts to an 
annual loss, by children of this age only, of over 565,901 school years' in- 
struction. Thus more than half a million of years' instruction have been 
lost in a single year ! 

Let us compute this loss from a pecuniary stand-point. The sum paid out 
in the State for public schools for the last school year, was $5,735,460.24. 
The schools were open to all these children during the whole time school 
was in session ; and hence, those failing to attend, lost the benefit of this 



Superintendent of Public Instrriction. 179 

money. The children over 6 and under 17 years of age in the State are 
about 68.74 per cent, of those over 5 and under 21 ; consequently G8.74 per 
cent of this sum ($5,735,400.24) is the portion properly applicable to 
their instruction, audit amounts to $3,942,555.36. Those attending school 
are, as shown by the 5th column in the Tabular Synopsis, 41.14 per cent, of 
the whole number over 6 and under 17 years of age; consequently (100 — 
41.14) 58.86 percent, of these children were out of school. Having been 
out of school, they have lost the benefit of their share of this money, which 
(being 58.86 per cent, of it) amounts to $2,320,588.08. 

This is the loss for a single year ; but it is comparatively a small share of 
the total loss. The loss of a single year's instruction, viewed pecuniarily, 
is a great loss to the child so losing it. *' Knowledge is power," and gives 
an individual increased ability to earn and accumulate money. Let us sup- 
pose that the loss of each child losing a year's instruction, as above stated, 
was equivalent to $50.00 over and above the loss previously estimated. 

This sum multiplied by 565,901, the number of children over 6 and 
under 17 years of age every day out of school, gives $28,295,050; which, 
added to $2,320,588.08. the other sum lost, gives $30,615,638.08. 

This is the loss for one year. Were this state of things to continue, the 
loss would increase from year to year in the same ratio with the increase 
of population. But were only this loss to occur annually, in a single 
decade it would amount to $306,156,380.80. In 50 years it would reach 
$1,530,781,904, which exceeds by $14,925,475 the total valuation of the 
taxable property in the State, as given by the local assessors in the year 
1865! 

Great as this loss appears, thus estimated, it is infinitely greater when 
regarded in a mental and moral point of view. What is lost is of too 
precious a nature to admit of measurement by any commercial standard of 
value. It is personal and direct to the children losing the instruction and 
its power for usefulness, and it subtracts just so muoh from the sum total of 
what should be the united power and wisdom of the future. The harvest 
time of youth is lost, and often times supplanted by damage and mischief. 
Human happiness, all the beneficial results which must surely flow from a 
knowledge of their political duties as citizens of a free country, from a 
proper appreciation of the principles of social ethics, and from a conscien- 
tious understanding of the obligations of obedience to the wholesome 
restrictions and directions of laws, both human and divine — all are 
jeopardized, or lost, or worse than lost. 

In whatever light presented, the fact of this non-attendance at the schools 
should command the serious attention of the Legislature. To the State and 
to the world this is of greater importance than all the canals, rail roads and 
banks which deservedly occupy so much attention. *< Instruction is the 
good seed sown, which yieldeth some fifty and some an hundred fold." 

But the question arises. What are the practical remedies ? I answer 
that the time may come when the Qtate will be oblfged to make attendanqe 



180 TwdfOi Annual Report of (he 

obligatory for her own safety. She may be obliged to do so, compelled by 
her sense of duty to protect, in the enjoyment of their right in the schools, 
those who are too young and dependent to protect themselves. Surely, 
she can allow neither the minds nor the bodies of her children to stanre, 
when herself blessed with abi^ndance. 

Granting that every child has a right to only so much instruction as shall 
fit him for the most ordinary duties of the citizen and the man ; then the 
school, and the use of the time of his life when his activities are in full 
play, are for him also ; they are the means necessary to the end, and no 
parent or guardian can justly deprive him of either. No guardian is 
excusable for starving the mortal body of his ward: if he does so, the 
law steps in and deals with him, and no one complains of the humane 
interference, nor doubts the rightful authority of the law. How much 
more reprehensible is the wrong when, through thoughtlessness, parsimo- 
niousness or malevolence, such starving process is inflicted upon the im- 
mortal mind ! And if this starving system be persisted in after persua- 
sive and every other corrective measures have been tried and failed, who 
will question the just expediency of a law to compel attendance upon school 
instruction ? 

Such a law, however, should be the last resort. Invitation and per- 
suasion are more in accordance with the genius of our institutions, than 
the exercise of compulsory power ; and it seems to me that the wisdom of 
the state should first undertake to make the schools so attractive, and 
mental application so pleasant and its results so desirable, that the multi- 
tudes of absentees and truants will voluntarily and cheerfully seek the 
school-room with punctuality. A resort to measures requisite for such a 
purpose is so unquestionably within the jurisdiction of legislative power, 
that objection could not be raised. 

First, then, the State should make ample provision for the preparation of 
teachers, who will, by all their words and deeds, command the attention 
and gain the confidence and love of both parents and children. To secure 
such preparation, many more normal and training schools should be es- 
tablished and provided with an efficient support ; teachers' institutes and 
associations should be encouraged ; and the appropriation for the former 
should be so increased, that two or more corps of skillful teachers can be 
constantly employed in the different counties in giving instruction to the 
local teachers. A comparatively small appropriation for this purpose 
would be of invaluable service. The salaries of the School Commissioners, 
also, should be so increased, as to enable them to devote their entire time 
to their noble work. 

Finally, the proposition that " the property of the State should educate 
the children of the State,'' should be carried out, by making the schools 
at once and forever FBSB. From the inception of our school system, the 
support of schools by taxation of property has been sanctioned by suooee- 



Superintendeni of Public Instruction. 181 

11 re legiBlatire enactmenU. Since that early period, by authority of sta- 
tute law, the property of school districts has been taxed for the purchase 
of sites, for erecting and furnishing school-houses, and for the payment of 
exemptions from and deficiencies in rate bills. The Constitution of 1822 
dedicated to the common school fund all the proceeds of the lands be- 
longing to the State, and the income therefrom to the support of schools. 
The Constitution of 1846 confirms that dedication by declaring that the 
capital of that fund shall be preserved inviolate, and its revenues applied to 
the support of common schools ; and the provision is included, that $25,000 
from the revenue of the United States deposit fund shall be annually added 
to the common school fund. The Legislature of 1851, after the people 
had declared by an overwhelming vote in favor of taxation for the entire sup- 
port of the schools, or, in other words, that the property of the State should 
educate the children of the State, authorized a state tax of $800,000 for 
this purpose ; and the Legislature of 1856 increased this amount by 
making the tax three-fourths of a mill. Numerous special acts, based on 
the same just and wise policy, have been passed from time to time, by 
means of which the schools of our cities and of many of our villages are 
supported wholly by taxation upon property. Under authority of law, 
the people of other villages and thickly populated districts, have organized 
union free schools ; thus by voluntary action sanctioning this policy, and 
acknowledging its justice. 

If the hundreds of thousands intellectually starved by the operation of 
the adiout rate bill could rise up in contrast with those generously nour- 
ished by the free system, the revolution in favor of the latter would be- 
come an "irrepressible conflict,'* which would result in the total over- 
throw of that slavish love of gain, which denies the common brotherhood 
of man, and ignores the divine command, "Love thy neighbor as thyself." 
I can conceive no higher legislative obligation than that of making provi- 
sions by which the portals to the school shall be thrown more widely open ; 
because I know of no other one mode by which attendance can be so 
4|enerally encouraged in the rural districts. 

I may be allowed, in this connection, to manifest a special anxiety for 
tiie children of those soldiers and sailors who have died or been disabled 
while serving in the army or navy of the United States, by recommending 
that provision be made by which the public schools shall be required, and 
all other institutions of learning that participate in the distribution of 
tiny of the public moneys be induced, to give them instruction free of 
tuition. It is believed that this boon should be generously and freely ex- 
tended and made an inheritance^ a right, recognized and secured by the 
'ttijesty of law^ Surely a manifestation of an earnest gratitude for the 



182 TwdfiJi Annual Report of the 

Bervioes and sacrifices of their fathers would be worthy of a grateful peo- 
ple. How 80 touchingly manifest that gratitude, as by such a provision 
for their children. If in other times the life of this nation shall be again 
imperiled, where so hopefully look for the loyal and the braye, as to these 
foster-children whose incentiye shall be, not only to imitate the manly and 
patriotic deeds of their fathers, but to shield the Protectress, who, In their 
early years, folded them in her arms with a loving kindness second only to 
that of Him who gave to us the victory ? 

INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

The Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the New York Institu- 
tion for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, for the year ending Decem- 
ber 81, 1865, will exhibit the increasing efficiency and usefulness of that 
noble institution, which for nearly fifty years has done such signal service 
in the interest of a most unfortunate class ; opening before them a new 
world of effort and enjoyment, and advancing them to usefulness and 
honor. 

This institution was incorporated in 1817, and its management was ves- 
ted in a society which now numbers 669 life members, representing differ- 
ent parts of the State. At their annual meeting in May, the Society 
elect a Board of Directors, composed of gentlemen of high standing and 
intelligence, who devote gratuitously much time to the trust committed to 
them. 

The buildings occupied by the institution, which were finished in 1856, 
are situated oi;^ Washington Heights, in a commanding position on the 
Hudson river. The site is peculiarly attractive and salubrious, and the 
buildings are admirably adapted to the purpose for which they were erected. 

The grounds owned by the institution comprise 87} acres, and are in a 
high state of cultivation. 

This institution is now the largest of its kind in the world ; and the 
system of instruction is believed to embrace all that is valuable in other 
similar institutions, and to present additional features, the value of which 
experience has successfully demonstrated. The venerable and accom- 
plished Principal, Dr. Peet, is assisted by a full corps of able and experi- 
enced teachers. 

In the intervals of study the pupils are exercised for two or three hours 
each day in mechanical trades, that they may thus be prepared to support 
themselves by their own industry, when they pass from the care of the in- 
stitution. 

The aggregate number of pupils the past year has been 402 : 284 males, 
and 168 females ; of these, 267 are supported by the State, 81 by the 
counties, 13 by the State of New Jersey, 2 by the Institution, and 89 by 
their friends. The whole number of pupils the preceding year was only 
854, of whom 266 were State pupils. 

The Annual Report of the Institution will exhibit in full the state of its 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 183 

finances, and as in 1865, will show an insufficiency in the appropriation to 
^eet expenses. The per capita allowance by the State is only $180; a 
sum obTiously inadequate, in yiew of the peculiar care necessary to be be- 
stowed upon these pupils, and of the present and prospectiye high prices 
of all the means of living. These necessities, it is almost superfluous to 
say, call most urgently upon the Legislature to grant a more efficient re- 
lief — a relief demanded on the score of justice as well as of charity — to 
these our unfortunate fellow creatures, thus doomed to pass their Uycs in 
the dreary realms of silence. 

It is also suggested, that the amount to be paid by counties sending 
pupils under 12 years of age, as provided by chapter 325 of the Laws of 
1868, which is fixed at $150 per annum, should be correspondingly 
increased. 

NEW YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND. 

The number of pupils in the New York Institution for the Blind, on the 
30th day of September 18G5, was 121 : of these, 108 are supported by the 
State of New-York; 8 by New-Jersey; and 5 by their friends. There 
are twenty-one teachers: seven in each department, literary, musical and 
mechanical. 

The course of study comprises the common English branches, together 
with natural philosophy, algebra, geometry, history, the use of the globes, 
music, and mechanical pursuits. In all of these, the progress of the pupils 
for the past year is reported as satisfactory. 

No special changes mark the history of the Institution for the year. 
The same successful methods of instruction are pursued as heretofore. 
Full particulars will be found in the Annual Report of the Institution. 

I still retain the conviction of the duty of the State, to provide for all 
the blind who shall desire it, a Home, where intelligent and benevolent 
hands may minister to their culture and happiness, and where the com- 
petent may be employed in some industrial vocation, for the purpose of 
attracting their attention from the dismal prospects of their hopeless 
afflictions, and of enabling them to contribute to their own support. It is 
not enough to provide for their scholastic education. They are, for the 
most part, dependent after they have passed creditably the examination of 
the schools, and ought not then to be committed to the uncertain and fickle 
charity often grudgingly awarded by the sympathy of individuals. 

INDIAN SCHOOLS. 

The Annual Reports of the local Superintendents of the Indian Schools 
on the several reservations, presented herewith in Appendix marked (D), 
will show the condition of those schools, and justify the provision made by 
the State for their support. The average time during which they were in 
session in the school year ending with the 30th day of September 1865, 



184 Tvodflh Annual Report of the 

was 28f weeks, witb an aggregate attendance of 971 pupils. The pre- 
scribed time for attendance was greater ; but owing to the rise of prices* 
and the smallness of the appropriation authorized, the time was reduced, 
and the necessary repairs of the school-houses were deferred. Nearly all 
the school-houses need either slight repairs or additional apparatus, 
and two or three new school houses are wanted. These much needed im- 
proyements may be made at an expense of a few hundred dollars, in ad- 
dition to the proffered voluntary contribution of the Indians themselves; 
still the Superintendent cannot direct them to be undertaken without an 
increase of appropriation, unless by yet further reducing the school terms, 
which in his judgment ought not to be done. 

The following extract from a letter written by the Rev. Asheb Wbiobt, 
Missionary on the Cattaraugus and Allegany reservations, is of interest in 
this connection : 

'* The progress and natural growth of the system begin to call for a 
larger amount of means. The Indians are very generally becoming inter- 
ested in the education of theif children. Neighborhoods entirely indif- 
ferent, if not actually opposed, a few years ago, are now earnestly plead- 
ing for schools. The Seneca Council has appropriated, within a few 
months, nearly six hundred dollars for the erection of school-bouses; and 
another will probably be built during the coming year, requiring further 
aid from the State. When these four houses are built, there will be eleven 
schools on this reservation (Cattaraugus), and only one small neighbor- 
hood not accommodated. * * * The Indians here will doubtless come up 
more and more into the work of sustaining their own schools, so that ere 
long the Slate will be able to withdraw gradually from the work. For the 
present year, however, and perhaps the next, the starting of these new 
schools seems to make it very desirable — I ought to say necessary — that 
the State should increase its appropriation, notwithstanding all that the 
Indians have done, or may be induced to do, for helping on the enterprise." 

The following is an abstract of the receipts and disbursements on aoconnt 
of Indian schools during the year : 

Receipts, 
1864. 

Oct. 1. Balance $ 927 62 

" Appropriation (chapter 280, 1864), 4,000 00 

1866. 

Jan. 27. Free School Fund, 1,647 04 

April 28. Extra Appropriation (chapter 668, 1866) 1,000 00 

$7,474 66 



SuperirUendeni of Public Instruction. 185 

Paid during the year, 

Cattaraagus and Allegany, $4J72 45 

Oneida, 832 02 

Onondaga, 199 77 

Tonawanda 219 01 

Tuscarora 610 08 

Saint-Regis, 486 00 

Shinecock, 118 00 

6,981 28 

Balance October 1, 1865, $1,498 28 

Paid since October to January 712 28 

$781 05 
Appropriation (chapter 851, 1865), 4,000 00 

Balance January 1, 1866, $4,781 05 

Against January 1, 1865 : $3,467.88. 

The Digest of Statistics, Appendix E, will show the census of Indian 
children of school age, the number of weeks' school in each district, the 
whole number of children attending school, their ayerage attendance, and 
the amount expended on each of the reserrations. 

These schools have been in operation during the last nine years, and their 
benign influence is already made apparent in a variety of ways. The 
Talue of intellectual culture is better perceived and more clearly ap- 
preciated by both adults and children. The Indian youth are taught to 
read understandingly, and to find enjoyment and iobproyement in the peru- 
lal of well- written books of entertainment and instruction : they thus 
acquire rapidly a knowledge of the practical habits and refined manners 
of civilized society, and become qualified to occupy a more respectable 
and useful position in the general community. 

I need only inyite your attention to the fact, that, to support these or 
any other schools, the appropriation must be nominally greater than in 
former years. 

THOMAS OHPHAN ASYLUM. 

The Report of the Trustees of this Institution will be found in Appendix 
marked (C) ; and your special attention is invited to the facts therein 
stated, in the confident belief that their economical management will meet 
your approval, and that an institution so worthy, and so modest in its 
claims, will not be neglected when you shall make provision for the sup- 
port of those who are so unfortunate as to be dependent upon the charity 
of the State, for shelter, food, clothing and education. 

It will be observed with compassion, that the fathers of some of the 
children supported in this asylum, generouily sacrificed their lives in the 



186 Tvcdfth Annual Report of the 

late war, to defend and perpetuate the goTernment ; leaving their children 
in iheir tender years, ** without where to lay their heads." 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

During the past year, embracing the forty -first and forty- second terms, 
one hundred and seventy-nine candidates for admission were examined, 
and one hundred and sixty-seven passed the examination and entered 
upon the prescribed course of study. Of these, seventy-eight had pre- 
viously taught school for an average of seventeen and one-third months. 
The average nge of those, when admitted, was nineteen and one-fourth 
years. The whole number of pupils who were in attendance was two 
hundred and seventy-eight, of whom fifty-one were males and two hundred 
and thirty-seven were females. Fifty pupils completed 4he full course of 
instruction, and received diplomas ; of whom five were males and forty- 
five were females. Thirty-one of the counties were represented in the 
graduating classes. 

The whole number of graduates since the commencement of the school 
is one thousand four hundred and eighty-eight: the whole number admitted 
to the school, during the same time, is four thousand one hundred and 
fourteen. Over thirty-six per cent, have, therefore, graduated; a fact 
which, in view of the severity of the course, the infirmities of some and the 
limited pecuniary ability of others, is deemed creditable to the general 
conduct of the school. 

During the late war there was a marked diminution in the number of 
male puj>ils, and since its close an increase ; and there may now be seen 
in the school young men who bear honorable marks of the desperate con- 
flict in which they were courageous actors. That the number of this 
honored class will increase during this year is confidently anticipated ; for 
teaching is one of the occupations in which they may hopefully engage 
among a grateful people — though they may be maimed and ** bear the 
empty sleeve or wooden leg" — the unmistakable symbols of our ** legion 
of honor." But it is not anticipated that the number of male pupils will 
be again as large as in former years ; they have a larger field than woman 
from which to choose their vocation ; and of those in whose veins the life 
blood flows full and free, there are but few so modest, philanthropic and self- 
sacrificing as to choose a vocation to which is attached comparative secla* 
sion and a precarious reward, rather than one giving a greater sphere of 
activity and more frequently crowned with riches and honor. Woman 
already has charge of the primary departments in graded schools, and, to a 
very great extent, the sole charge of the schools of the rural districts, 
Of this I am heartily glad; for she is, by nature, better qualified for the 
delicate and often difficult task. She is, also, taking an honorable position 
in the higher schools, showing herself competent to perform successfully 
the duties heretofore assigned almost exclusively to her brothers. When to 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 187 

her shall be awarded an equal remuneration for equal serrioes, she will 
more studiously and cheerfully qualify herself for the good work. 

The forty-third term (the first of the twenty-second year of this school) 
commenced on the third Monday of last September ; and the number of 
pupils now in attendance is 223. This number, notwithstanding many of 
the undergraduates are teaching winter schools, and the high price of board 
prerents the attendance of others, is greater than that of the corresponding 
term for several years past. 

Long needed repairs and improTements in the school building have been 
made, which contribute to the health, conyenience and instruction of the 
pupils. They have cost something, but they have so increased the capacity 
of the Experimental and Primary departments that the increase of receipts 
for tuition from those departments, during the first year, will nearly equal 
this necessary and imperative expenditure. 

Fac}dtif, 

Oliver Arbt, A.M., 
Principal, and Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy. 

Rev. Frederick S. Jewell, A.M., 
Professor of the English Language and Literature. 

KoDNET G. Kimball, A.M., 
Professor of Mathematics. 

Lb Rot C. Coolet, A.M., 
Professor of Natural Sciences. 

John H. French, LL.D., 
Professor of Theory and Practice of Teachint^, and Superintendent of tht 
Experimental and Primary Departments. 

Albert N. Husted, 
Teacher of Mathematics. 

T. Spencer Lloyd, 
Teacher of Vocal Music. 

Louisa Ostrom, 
Teacher of History and Drawing. 

Mart E. Butler, 
Teacher of Reading and Mental Arithmetic. 

Mart E. Howell, 
Teacher of Arithmetic and Grammar. 

Sylvia J. Eastman, 
Model Teacher in the Experimental Department. 

Amanda P. Funnbll, 
Model Teacher in the Primary Department. 

'^ may be observed that there have been^ since the last report, some 
^"^tjges in the Faculty. At the close of the forty-second term, Professor 
^^^Hams D. Huntley tendered his resignation as the Superintendent of the 
^^perimental department, and John H. French, LL.D., received from the 

^otnmittee the appointment as '* Professor of the Theory and Practice of 



188 Tvodfih Annual Bejpart of the 

Teaching, and Superintendent of the Experimental and Primary Depart- 
ments.*' Mr. Huntley had filled the position he resigned for the nint 
preceding years with ability and fidelity ; and, without detracting from his 
superior merits, it is due to the reputation of the school to award to hia 
successor very high qualifications — the result of ripe experience as a 
practical teacher, of long years of close study of the modes by which intel- 
lectual and moral power may be developed and knowledge acquired^ and 
classified and applied with facility to useful purposes. 

In consequence of an increase in the number of pupils in the Experi- 
mental department, and the necessity of superTising more carefully tha 
practice of the pupil-teachers from the Normal department, a model 
teacher was employed for that department. A short experience has already 
shown the propriety of this addition to the corps of teachers. 

The well-earned reputation of the Principal of this school as a successful 
teacher, and a pure and high-minded Christian gentleman, has attracted 
many pupils to the school ; and that he will greatly increase its popularity 
and usefulness, is confidently believed. 

For a detailed account of the expenses, you are respectfully referred to 
the Report of the Executive Committee, who have the management of this 
school. 

OSWEGO NORMAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL. 

This Normal and Training School was established April 15, 1861, by the 
Board of Education of the city of Oswego, and has hitherto been mainly 
devoted to the training of teachers for primary schools. Its projectors 
contemplated the preparation of teachers for the Oswego schools only; 
but the popularity of the methods of instruction adopted, and the urgent 
general demand for teachers, soon brought so many applications for ad- 
mission from other parts of the State, that the Legislature of 1863 was 
induced to make an annual appropriation of $8,000 for the support of the 
school, on condition that suitable buildings and accommodation should be 
furnished for its use ; that not less than fifty teachers should be taught 
therein each year for a period of at least forty weeks ; and that each Sena- 
torial district should be entitled to send thereto annually, free of tuition, 
two first class teachers. 

The Board of Education selected one of the best school-houses in the 
city for the use of the school, and furnished all the necessary means for 
conducting the business of instruction ; and the institution was opened, 
under the patronage of the State on the 17th day of April, 1864. But 
experience soon disclosed, what those who drew the act did not perceive, 
that compliance with the provisions for the payment of the appropriation 
and the selection of pupils were impracticable. Therefore the Legislature 
of 1806 so amended the act, that except for the first year, the appropria- 
tion for its support should be six thousand dollars annuaUy for two 



Saperintefndent of Public Instruction. • 189 

jearsy on the conditions that each county should be entitled to as 
many pupil-teachers therein as it has representatives in the House of As- 
sembly ; and that the citizens, or the board of education, of the city 
of Oswego should proTide a suitable building for the accommodation of 
the school. This last condition has been accepted, and generously com- 
plied with by the purchase and appropriation for the purpose of a large 
and commodious edifice with ample grounds, located in one of the most 
prominent sections of the city, commanding a fine view of the entire town, 
lake and surrounding country. The main part of this building is con- 
structed of cut limestone, and the wings of wood ; it is three stories high, 
153 feet in length, 130 feet in depth, and is yalued at $50,000. It contains 
ample and most convenient accommodations for 600 children in the model 
and practicing schools, and for 260 or 800 pupils in the normal depart- 
ment. Another term will commence on the 28th of February next, when 
the building will be completed and appropriated to the use of the school. 

The whole number of pupil teachers wjio have received instruction in 
this school since its organization is 185, of whom 106 have graduated, and 
most of them are doing efficient work in the schools at remunerative sala- 
ries. 

Board of Instructors. 

Edwaed a. Sbsldon, A.M., 
Superintendent, and Professor of Didactics. 

John W. Armstrong, A.M., 
Head Master, and Professor of Natural Science and Moral Philosophy. 

Isaac B. Poucher, 

Superintendent of Model and Practicing Schools, and Teacher of Higher 

Arithmetic and Algebra in Training School. 

Herman Erusi, 
Teacher of Form, Drawing, Geometry and History, and Philosophy of 

Education. 

Emerson J. Hamilton, A.M., 
Teacher of Rhetoric, Composition, History and Higher Mathematics. 

ViRoiL C. Douglass, 
Teacher of Writing and Book-keeping. 

James H. Hoosb, A.M., 
Assistant in the Department of Natural Science. 

Mart H. Smith, 
Teacher of Geography, Geometry and Mental Philosophy. 

Matilda S. Cooper, 
Teacher of Elementary Arithmetic and Grammar. 

Ellen Seavbr, 
Teacher of Botany, Methods of giving Object Lessons and Moral Instruc- 
tion, and Critic in the Junior Practicitfg School. 



190 Twdfth AnrmoU Eeport of the 

Mart Perkins, 
Aisistant Teacher in Form, Drawing, Geography, and Critic in Practicing 

Schools. ' 

S. C. Bancroft, 
Teacher of Vocal Music. 

Leonora T. Clapp, 
Principal and Critic of the Primary Practicing School. 

Kate Davis, 
Assistant Critic in Primary Practicing School. 

LoisE Brant, 
Assistant Critic in Junior Practicing School. 

.Kate Whitney, 
- Teacher of Model Graded School. 

Sarah M. Haskell, 
Teacher of Model Ungraded School. 

The following courses of instruction have been prescribed, in yiew of 
the design of the school : 

The Elementary Preparatory Course, which is limited to one term of 
twenty weeks, is devoted chiefly to instruction in spelling, reading, writ- 
ing, single-entry book-keeping, linear and object drawing, physical and 
political geography, oral and written arithmetic, history, analysis of words, 
impromptu composition, and essays. Pupils found not qualified in the 
subjects and exercises here named, are required to become so before being 
admitted to a higher course. 

The Elementary Training Course is limited to one year of two terms, each 
twenty weeks, and includes instruction in the methods of teaching the 
branches named in the preceding course, and also in the philosophy of 
education, school economy, physiology, zoology, botany, mineralogy ; 
with daily exercises in impromptu composition, oral and written, and the 
weekly preparation of written essays. Another division of pupils in this 
class devote a part of their time to observation in the model schools, and 
to teaching in the practicing schools under the supervision of competent 
critics. Two hours each day are given to methods of teaching form, site, 
measure, color, weight, sounds, objects, animals, plants, ethics, and to 
exercises in impromptu composition. Criticism lessons and essays weekly. 

To those who master these courses of study, and show themselves quali- 
fied in general knowledge, in moral character and natural aptitude to 
govern and to give instruction, a diploma will be given, duly signed, spe- 
cifying the subjects in which the holder is deemed qualified, and serving as 
a certificate of qualification to teach common schools. 

Students to be admitted to the higher course — the Advanced Preparatory 
Course — are required to pass satisfactorily a critical examination in the 



Supeiintendent of Public Instrvction. 191 

primary courses. Those admitted are diyided and arranged in three 
classes according to their acquirements. 

Subjects of C Class. 

Higher Arithmetic, Algebra, Grammatical Analysis, Khetoric, English 
Literature, Double- entry Book-keeping, Linear and Object Drawing, 
Botany and Impromptu Composition. Rhetorical Exercises and Essays 
weekly. 

Subjects of B Class. 
Algebra continued. Geometry, History, Natural Philosophy, Perspectire 
Drawing, Chemistry and Impromptu Composition. Rhetorical Exercises 
and Essays weekly. 

Subjects of A Class. 

Astronomy, Algebra completed, Trigonometry, Surveying and Mensuration, 
Mental and Moral Philosophy, Geology, Mineralogy, and Impromptu 
Composition. Rhetorical Exercises and Essays weekly. 

The next higher course, ihQ Advanced Training CoursCf occupies one term 
of twenty weeks, and ia devoted to instruction and practice in the methods 
of teaching the subjects of the next preceding course, and also to instruc- 
tion in the philosophy of education, school law, science of government, 
school organization and discipline, and to the theory and practice of 
school economy generally. 

To those who satisfactorily complete this course, a diploma is given as a 
testimonial of their general qualifications and ability to teach the English 
branches usually pursued in high sehools and academies. 

These courses of study were prescribed after a careful consideration of 
the urgent call for teachers, of the limited time which they can devote to 
preparation for their work, of the laws which are to be observed in the 
healthful development and control of all the faculties, and after a full 
comparison of the views of the most successful educators. That they are 
perfect is not claimed, but it is believed that experience will soon develop 
and remove any imperfections. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to speak in . commendation of the 
prompt and liberal provision made by the citizens of Oswego, by which all 
parts of the State may participate in the benefits of this school ; and, in 
view of this praiseworthy action on their part, and of the good policy of 
giving a generous support to such schools, the conviction is irrepressible 
that it is both the duty and interest of the State to make the appropriation 
for its support permanent, and suf&cient to givo to it a vigorous existence. 



192 IwelfOh Annual Beport of the 



TEACHERS CLASSES IN ACADEMIES. 

Schedule (A) contains a list of the academies that haye been selected 
under authority of the Act of April 18, 1855, to give instruction to teachers' 
classes, in the science of common school teaching, during the academic 
year 1865-6. 

The following course of study has been prescribed for these classes, yix : 
Reading and Orthography ; Writing ; Arithmetic, in\ellectual and written ; 
English Grammar ; Geography : and the obligation is inyiolable, that 
'<the time required by the statute," four months, **must be wholly occu- 
pied with it." * 

** With these studies must be combined the theory and practice of teach- 
ing, either by recitation from a text-book, or by lectures, or, which is 
preferable, by both combined. These subjects are to be regarded as in- 
dispensable." 

The most thorough instruction in the elementary parts of these several 
subjects is required ; and in addition to these, with English grammar, 
*' frequent exercises in composition" must be connected ; and with geo- 
graphy, the drawing of maps on the black-board, the use of globes and 
'* mathematical geography." It is further required that the class shall 
« be recognized and taught as a distinct class, and not merged in the 
' other classes of the Academy." It appears from the returns, that teach- 
ers* classes have been formed in seyenty-eight of the ninety academies 
selected for the year 1864-5, and in ten, the entire number of those pro- 
yisionally appointed, making a total of eighty-eight. 

The whole number of teachers thus instructed was 1,598; of whom 804 
were males, and 1,294 were females. The reports show that separate in- 
struction was given to these classes in all the academies selected for the 
purpose, and that comparatively few of the pupils were permitted to pur- 
sue studies outside of the course prescribed. 

The reports further show that at least seventy-iiTe of these academies 
have organized and conducted the classes in the spirit of the statute, and 
have labored honestly and earnestly to properly fit their pupils for teach- 
ing. 

That these classes have done, and are doing good, none can doubt. But 
the training of a proper corps of teachers requires something more per- 
manent, more continuous and more effectiye than these fragmentary efforts, 
howeyer faithfully they may be made. 

teachers' institutes. 

During the calendar year 1865, sixty-three institutes have been held in 
fifty-four counties, with an aggregate attendance of 8,887 teachers. The 
whole number of days*attendance, as reported, is 68,718. The number of 
teachers enrolled the preceding year was 7,524. The following table will 
show the counties in which they were held, the places, number of weeks' 
session, number of teachers and aggregate number of days' attendance : 



Superintendent of Puhlk Instrvctixm. 193 



Teachers' Institutes for the Year 1865. 




Albany, 'Clarksville, . 

»* Eaet Berne,. 

»» ' Watervilct, . 

Allegany,' Belmont 

Broome B inhamton, 

Caiuraagua, Kllicottville, . 

Caynga, xf...:^,.... 



, Meridian, 

,\|iH-JlMU 

l'"rK'rl.>i,1ji, . . . 



Chaatauqna, 

Chemung 

Chenango ■ ^ • ^ 

Clinton, PlatUburgh, . . 

Colnmbia, Hlllwiale, 

Cortland Cortlandville, . 

Delaware, Walton, 



Erie, " hLHnr,-. ....... 

K9«ex 1-- J^ 1 1 M. Mtiowo.. , 

Franklin, 1^' rt ( nvtugton, 

Fnlton Uiuvcrflvilk, _ . . 

Genesee Bat4»v1a, . ., ..... 

Greene, Cm^klll 

Hamilton, Wells, 

Herkimer^ . . . . ^ Herkimer, 

Jeffenson, Watertown, — 

Lewia Tnriu 

»* Lowville 

Llvinjiston, Monut Morris, . . 

HadlHon, Morrlsviile, 

Konroe, Falrport, 

Montgomery, 



]--.Mr 3'lii^ii. ., 
Arri-;! iT'iiun... . 

27iagara L-rkp-n, 

Oneida k^mu-, 

Onondaga, I^ibridKi?, . . = . 

Ontario, ' ?ii]aHcliiI^&, -, 



Orange, . 
Orleans, . 
Oflwego, 



. Albiou, ^ n, .... 

, Fulton, 

. Central Square,. 
Sandv Creek,... 
. iCherfy Valley, . . 
. MorrlH,... 
. Flutfhinjr, 



Otaego, 

Sneen» 
ensaelacr, ;South Petersburgh, . 

iPoestenkill 

^^ l^wrcnce, iBra^her Falls, 

^Swtcif^ jBallston Soa, 

fl^hiBQfectadj.. . iSchenectaay, 

^^chokarleL . , . . Mlddleburgh, 

iCoblesklll 

IS^hnyler, Havana 

^S^neca, Waterloo 

laieubcn, iBath 

Suffolk, iRiverhcad,. 

" Patchogue, 

Tioga, :^ 



^l^ 

^Mhlngton, 
^*J^ne. 



S^^tchester,' 



Monticello, . 

Owego 

Waverly, ... 

Ithaca 

Kingston,... 
Caldwell, . . . 
Argvlc,. 
pIoi 



Marlofl 

Bedford, . . 

I Wyoming, 

<v^ Arcade 

^**e«, iPcun Yan, 



CToL. XV, No. 7.] 



13 





118 


518 




106 


467 




173 


535 




UA 


1215 




213 


2216 




(iO 


521 




102 


831 




7« 


501 


2 


4^ 


32H0 


9 


73 


650 


2 


153 


1223 


2 


99 


639 


2 


131 


(i79 


2 


1-10 


1133 


2 


150 


1443 


2 


120 


10:38 


2 


19fi 


1188 


2 


m 


Wi 


2 


fi5 


581 


2 


167 


1(>41 


2 


2:« 


1617 


2 


98 


790 


4 


30 


258 


2 


312 


3127 


2 


129 


1416 


2 


VA 


802 


o 


41 


356 


6 


272 


3«J70 


2 


146 


lf»55 


2 


146 


1194 


2 


1<M 


1122 


i' 


116 


413 


168 


1145 


2 


222 


2077 


2 


58 


529 


2 


167 


1053 


2 


129 


1004 


2 


86 


710 


2 


S5 


874 


2 


69 


773 


2 


81 


858 


2 


121 


957 


2 


95 


788 


2 


106 


931 


2 


i:« 


9(i8 


2 


92 


621 


2 


252 


2210 


2 


140 


651 


2 


95 


585 


S 


132 


886 


2 


183 


1822 


2 


l')6 


768 


2 


160 


127-1 


2 


162 


1139 


1 


72 


275 


1 


88 


347 


2 


148 


lorn 


2 


104 


1078 


2 


72 


687 


9 


171 


1395 


2 


163 


1352 


2 


63 


458 


2 


95 


699 


2 


122 


951 


1 


65 


2»4 


1 


133 


630 


1 


167 


760 


2 


72 


628 




8887 


G8718 



194 Twelfth Anmud Report of the 

Since 1854 these institutes haye been surely and rapidly gaining in 
public favor, and there is now no question of their necessity in the minds of 
any one competent of judging. The schools ought to have teachers 
specially and thoroughly trained for their work. The normal schools and 
teachers' classes in academies can not furnish one for a hundred that is wanted 
of such teacher?. It is not claimed that the institutes which are in operation 
only two or three weeks each year can make accomplished scholars ; but it is 
claimed, and proved by experience, that they assist the great number of 
young teachers who resort to them, in acquiring a certain amount of valua- 
ble knowledge of their practical duties which they have not otherwise an 
opportunity to learn ; that without this knowledge they would not produce 
results, as teachers, so honorable to themselves or so beneficial to the 
schools. 

These institutes have, in short, the advantage of giving instruction, at a 
comparatively small expense, to a very large proportion of the teachers of 
the State, who immediately carry back the information and ability derived 
therefrom into the schools of the counties in which they are held. 

Table (F), appended to this report, gives the statistics of the institutes 
held in this State since the organization of this department ; and jt affords 
me pleasure to state that the progress therein exhibited should be attribut- 
ed chiefly to the meagerly rewarded but zealous labors of the School 
Commissioners. 

teachers' associations. 

Teachers' Associations, in the various counties and commissioner districtSy 
and in some of the towns, continue to do effective work, and a healthful- 
public sentiment in regard to education is created and fostered through 
these instrumentalities. Many of the commissioners hold school examina- 
tions in the various towns, and meet classes of teachers for instruction and 
counsel. To the voluntary action of intelligent and zealous teachers is 
justly due much of the growing prosperity of the schools. 

The State Teachers' Association, which celebrated its twenty-first anni- 
versary last summer, is an exponent of the most approved methods in 
education, and an invaluable auxiliary to our school system. The official 
organ of this association, 

THE NEW YORK TEACHER, 
notwithstanding the embarrassments incident to the times, is performing 
effectively the work to which it has for years been devoted. The approval 
of the Legislature, in former years, of its object and services, has resulted 
in its increased efficiency. Copies subscribed for by the Superintendent 
have been sent to school officers and inexperienced teachers, and proved 
most valuable — especially its instructions and suggestions to young 
teachers, and as a medium of communication between the Superiqtendeni 
and school officers and teachers. It is due to the eminent teachers who 
havo long sustained this periodical simply for the public good, thai the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 195 

State should manifest her appreciation of them, and of their enterprise, bj 
continuing the appropriation heretofore annually made for its support. 



PROaRESS AND PROSPECTS OF THE CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

Letter from Senator Cornell to the Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Albakt, January 29, 1866. 
Dear Sir : At your request, I submit the following statement of the 
progress of the Cornill Uniysbsitt. The trustees organized fully at 
their meeting at Ithaca in September last. 



Timstees. 



His Excellency Got. R. E. Fenton, 

Lieut. Got. Thos. G. Alvord, 

Hon. V. M. RicB, Supt. of Pub. Instr. 

** Horace Grbelet, 

" Edwin D. Morgan, 

'* Erastus Brooks, 

" William Kellt, 
J. Meredith Read, Jr. 
Hon. G. H. Andrews, 

" A. B. Weaver, 

•* A. D. White, 

*• C. J. Foloer, 



^on. E. B. Moroah, 
" J. M. Parker, 
" T. C. Peters, 

Hiram Sib let, 

Hon. Lyman Tremain, 
" Ezra Cornell, 
" J. B. Williams, 
" G. W. Schuyler, 

William Andrus, 

John McGraw, 

Francis M. Finch, 

Alonzo B. Cornell. 



Officers. 
Ezra Cornell, Pres. G. W. Schuyler, Treas. F. M. Finch, Sect'y. 



Executive Committee, 



William Adams, 
Hon. J. B. Williams, 

" G. W. Schuyler, 
Alomzo B. Cornell. 



Hon. A. D. White, 
** William. Kellt, 



Hon. J. M. Parker, 
** Ezra Cornell, 
** Thomas G. Alvord, 
** Horace Greeley. 
Edwin B. Morgan. 

Building Committer. 

Ei^RA Cornell, 
Hon. A. B. Weaver, 
Francis M. Finch. 



Finance Committee. 

Hon. Edwin B. Morgan, John McGraw, 

'* J. B. Williams, Hon. Wm. Kellt, 

A. B. Cornell. 

The Trustees received from Ezra Cornell his donation of $500,000, and 
iQTested the same in a fund bearing seven per cent, interest payable semi- 
^lumally. The annual interest of this sum, $85,000, constitutes our 
^i^ly building fund ; as the Trustees adopted the policy of not impairing 
^lieir capital for any purpose. Ezra Cornell also donated to the trustees 
•farm of 200 acres and site for the University, valued at $600,000, and 
1^0,000 paid for the Jewett cabinet of the Pf^lKontology of New Tork^ 



196 Twelfth Annval Report of the 

The law of last winter, under which the University is organixed, proTides 
that the institution shall have the income from the fund realized from the 
sale of the college land scrip. This land scrip amounted in the aggregate 
to 990,000 acres, of which about 90,000 acres had been sold by the Comp- 
troller prior to the passage of the act of last winter, bringing about $70,000 
which is inyested in N. Y. 7 per cent. State stocks. Of the balance I pur- 
chased 100,000 last fall for $50,000, agreeing with the State authorities to 
locate the land for the benefit of the University. This scrip is now being 
located in Wisconsin and Minnesota, leaving in the possession of the Comp- 
troller scrip for 800,000 acres of land, which we hope to be able to purchase 
and locate for the University. If all my plans and efforts are successful, 
I expect to lay the foundation of an endowment fund that will, within ten 
years, amount to three millions of dollars, and be adequate, in all respects, 
to give an education to at least the number of students provided for in the 
act (one from each Assembly district each year), free of all expenses. 
And this freedom of the University shall not be regarded in any light as a 
charity to indigent scholars, but as a reward of honor, tendered to those 
scholars who shall win the highest laurels of our public schools and acade- 
mies, as provided in the act. 

The Building Committee have several architects at work on the plans for 
the buildings of the University, to commence their erection by the first of 
April. 

A meeting of the Trustees will be called at the Agricultural Rooms in 
Albany, on the 13th day of February next. 

Yours Respectfully, 

£. Cornell. 
V. M. RiCB, Esq., 

Supt, of Public Imiruciion. 

Prospective Educational Advantages. 

The present opinions and hopes entertained as to the future of the Cob- 
rill University are of the most encouraging description, both as regards 
its speedy completion and arrangement for the commencement of educa- 
tional operations, and as to the benefits which it can not fail to confer upon 
the cause of popular education, at the same time that it holds out the noblest 
opportunity yet proposed in our country for the pursuit of the higher and 
more persistent efforts in classical study, physical investigation, and philo- 
sophical research ; thereby surely leading the advancement of the Ameri- 
can mind to a more elevated station in the literary and scientific world than 
has hitherto been its award. 

The leading object of the institution is announced, in the fourth section 
of the act {quoted in the foregoing letter), to be the promotion of the liberal 
and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 197 

professions of life, by proriding instruction in the agricultural, mechanical, 
and militarj sciences ; admitting also such other branches of science and 
knowledge as the trustees may deem useful and proper. A wise provision, 
at the outset, forestalls all sectarian or religious preferences, as well as 
distinctions of rank or previous occupation, respecting eligibility to 
appointments or offices. 

But a more conspicuous and essential feature is unfolded in the ninth 
section of said act. The University is pledged to accept and instruct gra- 
tuitously, students from each assembly district in the State, selected by the 
proper officers of each county or city (under subsequent examination and 
applroval by the faculty of the University), as being the best scholars; 
giving preference, however, in the selection, to the sons of those who have 
died in the military or naval service of the United States, and having con- 
sideration likewise to the physical ability of each candidate. 

If this design be fully carried out, as it most assuredly will be, the Cor- 
nell University becomes the very Crown of our Public School St/slem. Its 
students, being selected from the million because of superior mental and 
physical capacity, should (and will) be superior to those of any other 
university in the world. 

Let us for a moment anticipate the influence that the opening of the Uni- 
versity will be likely to exert upon the schools and the people. Emulation 
will be kindled among the teachers of different schools in each county and 
city, to urge forward the efforts of pupils in qualifying themselves to take 
part in the competition for the highest award of scholarship ; to the scholar, 
the prize of an appointment to the Cornell University will be one of the 
strongest incentives to studious exertion, not forgetting the very essential 
complementary condition of a due attention to healthful physical regimen 
and exercise; the friendly contest going on in every school district will 
awaken the general public to regard with increased interest the aspiration 
to a higher sphere of education ; the system of primary instruction will be 
affected by the examination and selection of candidates for the university 
an action which will lead directly to an investigation of the modes of teach- 
ing adopted, alike in the particular schools where the competitors fail and 
where they succeed in the race ; and, finally, to take a more familiar view, 
how lively will be the talk among the people of the several cities, villages 
and rural districts, each year, before, after, and while the examination is 
progressing ! 

Under the auspices of the distinguished names embodied in the letter to 
which these few remarks are subsidiary, we may anticipate that the 
Cornell University will become substantially a College of the People — 
ike college of all the people ; for the boy of poverty shall participate in 
ita benefits equally with the boy of riches ; the question for admission, and 
the only question will be : Have you distanced your rivals in the pursttit 



198 Twelfth Annual Report of the 

of knowledge under diffiouUies, and hsTe you persevered in the practice of 
good moral and wholesome physical habits ? 

And now to conclude with a word of homage to the Hon. Ezra Cobnell, 
the munificent donor of nearly a million 9f dollars to this prospectiyely 
beneficent institution ; a perpetual donation, as it were, whose benefits to 
posterity will increase in arithmetical ratio in all time to come, and serve 
to place the State of New York in the foremost rank among the nations of 
the earth, as prompting a benign cultivation of the humanities and a true ad- 
vocacy of human welfare and happiness. Ranking with the highest patrons 
of learning the world has yet seen, New York in the person of her Cornell 
can now look with emulation and complaisance upon the Sister State 
Pennsylvania with her Girard, upon the centralized Washington with her 
Smithson, upon the intellectual pioneer, New- England, with her admired 
and flourishing school system ; and it earnestly behooves us and our 
children to see to it that there shall be left no excuse for the American mind 
hereafter to follow in the wake of Prussia, of France, of England, on the 
shoreless ocean of Science and Philosophy ; but, with an abiding faith in 
the resources, physical and intellectual, of our own country, work on 
patiently, but earnestly, for the exaltation of knowledge and virtue among 
men. 

COMMON SCHOOL FUND. 

Table No. 6 will show the increase and diminution of the capital of the 
Common School Fund during the year ending September 30, 1865. 

It is not my intention, in this place, to give a detailed history of this 
fund. I have, with considerable care and trouble, prepared an article of 
the kind, but I have found it too lengthy to be inserted in this report. In 
connection with this table, I desire, however, very briefly to call your at- 
tention to two transactions affecting the capital of the fund, as illustrative 
of the losses to which it has been subjected, and to which it is likely to be 
subject in the future, unless some action shall be taken on the part of 
the Legislature to prevent the same. 

The first of these transactions is as follows : 

In the month of June 1861, the State of New York, in consideration of 
the sum of $300,000, conveyed to the corporation of the City of New York 
certain lands owned by the State and situated ,in the City of New York, 
known as the ** West Washington Market," the <* Watts-street Pier/' the 
** Hubert-street Pier," and a portion of the "Lowber property." The 
proceeds of this sale were, by the then Comptroller of the State of New 
York, Hon. Robert Denison, acting by the advice of the Attorney General, 
passed to the credit of the General Fund. A protest against this proceeding 
was entered at the time by the then acting Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, Emerson W. Keyes, Esq.; which protest, in the shape of a 
memorial, addressed to the Comptroller, may be found in the Appendix to 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 199 

the Eighth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
marked " A." 

It is claimed that the proceeds of this sale should have been placed to the 
credit of the capital of the Common School Fund, under sec. 10, art. 7, 
Constitution of 1822, and art. 9 of the Constitution of 1846. Sec. 10, art 
7, Constitution of 1822, is as follows : 

'* The proceeds of all lands belonging to this State, except such parts 
thereof as may be reserved or appropriated to public use or ceded to the 
United States, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, together with 
the fund denominated the Common School Fund, shall be and remain a 
perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated and 
applied to the support of common schools throughout this State." 

This provision was embodied in the Revised Statutes of 1827, in almost 
the exact language above quoted. 
Article IX of the Constitution of 1846 reads as follows : 
** The capital of the Common School Fund, the capital of the Literature 
Fond, and the capital of the United States Deposit Fund, shall be respect- 
ively preserved inviolate. The revenue of the said Common School Fund 
shall be applied to the support of common schools ; the revenue of the 
said Literature Fund shall be applied to the support of academies ; and the 
sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States 
Deposit Fund shall each year be appropriated to and made a part of the 
capital of the said Common School Fund." 

The lands in question originally lay under water, forming a part of the 
bed of the Hudson and East Rivers, opposite the City of New York. The 
State assumed ownership of one of these tracts of land on the 24th of 
April, 1858. 

It wai^claimed by the Comptroller, at the time of the transfer of this 
property from the State to the city of New York, that the land in question 
was not owned by the State at the time of the adoption of the Constitution 
of 1822; and that, therefore, the act of the legislature passed in 1827, 
embodying the constitutional provision, does not apply to this property ; 
in other words, that the constitutional provision affected only such lands 
as were, at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, actually owned by 
the State. 

But there are no words of limitation in the constitutional provision, con- 
fining its operation to lands then owned by the State ; nothing but the broad, 
ill embracing and positive declaration, that the proceeds of all /andi belong- 
ing to the State should, as a part of the capital of the Common School Fund, 
be preserved inviolate. The provision being unlimited, and being a por- 
tion of the supreme law of the State, and having been substantially repro- 
duced in the Constitution of 1846, it is difficult to see wherein it was less 
binding in the year 1861, when this transaction took place, than in 1823, 
when the old Constitution became the supreme law of the State. If the 



200 Tuoelfth Annual Report of the 

proYision applied only to lands actually owned bj the State at the time of 
the adoption of the Constitution, then it may be said, with equal force, that 
Boe. 1, art. 1, of our present Constitution, which declares that '* No member 
of this State shall be disfranchised, or depriyed of any of the rights or pri- 
Tileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land or the 
judgment of his peers," applies to those persons only who were «* members 
of the State" at the adoption of the Constitution in 1846. 

But it is claimed that the title of the State to these lands extendi far back 
beyond 1823. 

In 1777, the State of New Tork assumed and thereafter sustained inde' 
pendent sovereignty, and succeeded the British goYernment as owner of all 
unoccupied lands within her boundaries. These lands were at that time 
unoccupied, and consequently they belonged to the State. It is true, they 
were under water ; but that fact in no way affected the title of the Slate. 
Ownership is limited neither by bight nor depth. By the common law rule, 
the owners of lands lying along and bounded by riyers not navigable, own 
to the centre of the stream, including all islands and the bed of the stream. 
So, also, by the common law rule, which has been repeatedly declared 
adopted in this State, where lands adjoin navigable riyers, the State owns the 
land from ordinary high water mark^ including the bed of the stream. 

The second transaction affecting the Common School Fund, to which 
jour attention is inyited, is as follows : 

September 6, 1858, pursuant to chapter 075, Laws of 1857, the Comp- 
troller loaned to the Susquehanna Seminary, located at Binghamton, 
$11,000 out of the Common School Fund, and took a mortgage on said 
Seminary to secure the payment of the debt. The law authorizing the 
loan directed that it should not bo made until it was secured by a bond 
and mortgage on unencumbered real estate, worth at least double the amount 
loaned. 

No part of ihe principal or interest of said loan was eyer paid ; and 
December 30, 1861, the mortgage was foreclosed, and the property bid in 
by the State for principal and interest then due, $13,668.83. Subsequently, 
by direction of the Commissioners of the Land-Office, it was sold to John 
Mack and William M. Waterman, for the sum of $10,550, or $450 less than 
the amount of principal loaned in 1858, and, including interest, incurring 
a loss of about $4,000 to the Common School Fund. Of the sum which 
Mack and Waterman are to pay the State for said Seminary, $7,910 still 
remains unpaid, secured by their bond. 

I have corresponded with a gentleman residing at Binghamton, who is 
A competent judge of the value of said Seminary, and am informed by 
him that the building and grounds arc worth $20,000. 

I have called your attention to these transactions, fully impressed with 
the belief that the Common School Fund is smaller, by more thfta $800,000 « 



Superintendent of Public Inatruction. 201 

than it would haye been had the constitutional proTision guaranteeing its 
inyiolability been regarded. In the opinion which I haye giyen in regard 
to the first mentioned trnnsaction, I am sustained by seyeral gentlemen 
eminent in the legal profession, to whom the case has been stated ; while 
the loss occasioned to the fund on account of the loan made to the Susque- 
hanna Seminary is too apparent to need comment. 

I respectfully, yet earnestly, request a careful inycstigation of these 
matters at your hands ; and would recommend the appointment of some 
competent person to examine into the history of the fund, who shall report 
to the next Legislature whether, in his opinion any, and if any, what sums 
are due to the Common School Fund from the general or any other fund. 

I would also recommend the passage of an act fully defining the con- 
stitutional proTision in regard to the Common School Fund, and providing 
that the proceeds of all lands now owned, or which shall hereafter be owned 
by the State, be placed to the credit of that Fund, in accordance with the 
manifest intention of the Constitution. 

FREE SCHOOL FUND. 

The following is a statement of the receipts and disbursements on account 

of this fund for the last fiscal year : 

Receipts : 

Balance in Treasury, Oct. 1, 1864 : 

Appropriated to Common Schools, $819 70 

" Indian School, 904 07 

** Institutes 2572 66 

$4,296 42 

Ayails of f mill tax, exclusiye of the county of New York, 683,749 78 

Borrowed from the Commercial Bank, 226,695 99 

Paid subsequently by New-York, in part, 360,896 82 

Interest on deposits 183 92 

Moneys returned from counties 329 72 

$1,286,162 66 
Payments : 
For support of Common Schools : 

Regular apportionment $1,123,296 48 

Supplementary, 1,375 28 

Paid for Indian Schools, 2,116 36 

For support of Institutes, 2,331 40 

Paid Commercial Bank, 165,592 69 

Balance in Treasury, Oct. 1. 1866, 1,440 46 

$1,286,162 65 

The condition of the Free School Fund on the 1st day of February, 

1866, ahowing its aeaeta and liabilities, including the tax leyiedfor the sup. 



202 TwdfOh Annual RepoH of the 

port of schools for the current year, sDd its apportionment, is exhibited in 
the following table : 

Condition of the Free School Fund, 
Aateta : 

Balance in Ti'casury, $1,440 45 

Due from City of New York, Tax of 1862, 11,086 52 

Interest on the above to February 1, 1866, 2,752 53 

Balance due from New York, Tax of 1864, 71,103 30 

Interest on the above to February 1, 1866, 8,036 63 

Tax of 1865 1,163,159 76 

$1,267,578 19 
Liahiliiiet : 

Balance due Auditor, for moneys borrowed ' $16,000 Oq 

Interest to February 1, 1866, 4,829 20 

Balance due Commercial Bank, 71,103 30 

Interest to February 1, 1806, 8,036 63 

Appropriated to Institutes, 241 16 

«* to Indians (balance), 1,334 76 

Apportionment of 1800, 1,120,000 00 

$ 1,226,046 05 

Balance: $31,533 14 

There is now due from the city of New York, as per annexed statement in 

appendix marked (9), on account of } mill tax : 

Tax of 1864 $71,108 30 

Tax of 1862, 11,085 52 

On account of interest paid on various sums borrowed to 
supply deficiency caused by non-payment of } mill tax 
by said city 10,899 42 

Making the total due from New York city, 93,088 24 

By chapter 240, Session Laws of 1863, all moneyed corporations doing busi- 
ness in this State were made taxable on an amount equal to their capital 
stock together with their surplus earnings, after deducting ten per cent, of 
such surplus. 

By virtue of this provision, all such corporations located in the city of 
New York were assessed by the local authorities in the years 1863 and 1864; 
and including the assessments thus made, the total assessed valuation of 
the county of New York, as equalized by the board of state assessors, was, 
in 1863, $547,416,031, and in 1864, $676,000,161 ; and upon this valuation 
the } mill tax for the support of schools was collected. « 



Superinienderd of Public 203 

The question of the constitutionality of said act haying been carried to 
the Supreme Court of the United States, that tribunal decided that the act, 
so far as it affected those corporations whose capital was wholly or in part 
inyested in United States securities, was in conflict with the acts of Congress 
exempting those securities from taxation, and was therefore to that extent 
Toid. The city was also directed by said court to refund to all such corpo- 
rations respectively the amount improperly collected. 

Upon examining the returns of the ward assessors, it is found that in 
the year 1863, United States securities, exempt from taxation as aforesaid* 
were assessed to the value of $57,963.456 ; and in the year 1864, to the 
value of $44,791,620.88; upon which valuation a } mill tax for the support 
of schools, amounting in the aggregate to $77,066,31, had been collected, 
and that portion for the former of those years paid into the State treasury. 
Being obliged to refund to the corporations this sum, the city of New York 
looks to the State for reimbursement. The Comptroller of that city refuses 
to pay over the unsettled amount of the } mill tax of 1864 due from that 
city for the support of schools, until the above mentioned claim shall have 
been satisfactorily adjusted. It is believed, however, that he has no legal 
right to withhold, for any cause, any portion of the tax for that year. 

It will not be claimed that a private citizen, having by mistake overpaid 
his tax for one year, has a legal right to withhold any part of the tax 
assessed against him for the next year; and I am not aware that a corpo- 
ration is entitled to more consideration, in this respect, than a private 
individual. 

The true theory, in my judgment, is, that every tax stands entirely by itself. 
Every tax is made out for a fixed purpose and a definite sum, and without 
reference to any unsettled claims of those against whom it is levied. Every 
dollar of it has been appropriated by law for specific objects. Hence, if 
it were within the power of local officers to retain a portion of this tax, on 
account of some real or alleged over-payment at some former time, the 
public treasury might very frequently be empty at the very time when 
demands upon it should be met : appropriations made by the legislature 
would fail of payment; thus greatly injuring the credit of the State, 
and, in a measure, stopping the wheels of government. 

Such are some of the consequences which would follow, were such a 
power placed in the hands of the local officers. 

Every assessment made by the State authorities upon any county is an 
order to the county authorities to cause to be collected and paid into the 
State treasury the exact amount called for, without any deduction for any 
OBUBe whatever. 

The county of New York has mistaken her remedy. Her officers should 
promptly pay into the State treasury the amount assessed against their 
couQ,ty, and then apply to the Legislature for reimbursement on account 
^^ ^Ue over-payment made by them for the years 1868 and 1864. The 



204 Tvodfth Annual Report of (he 

treasury may thus have funds sufficient to meet the appropriations of the 
Legislature ; Texatious litigations will be prevented, aud the county be 
fully reimbursed. 

I wish to present to your consideration the fact that there are, every 
spring, from sixteen to twenty thousand teachers, who, for senrices ren- 
dered, expect their pay from the school moneys apportioned by the Super- 
intendent and School Commissioners to the several districts; that there 
are more than twenty thousand school district officers who are responsible 
for this payment to the teachers ; that these district officers look for the 
money to nearly a thousand supervisors, and they, in turn, to the county 
treasurers, and these to the State Treasurer. If the county of New York 
or other counties, fail to pay their school tax in season, the State can not, 
pay the county treasurers, and the county treasurers fail to pay the super- 
visors, and these town officers the orders given to teachers. 

The trouble, great as it is, which this delay causes to State officers and 
county treasurers, is, perhaps, matter of minor importance ; but it is not 
a small matter which causes annoyance to 40,000 persons, half of whom 
are also subject to other delays in getting wages which they have, in many 
cases, contracted to pay out as soon as received. A great multitude of 
people are thus subjected to much unnecessary trouble and expense. A 
remedy can be secured only by legislative action. I recommend, therefore, 
that a law be passed, requiring every county whose school tax shall not 
be paid on or before the first day of March in each year, to pay interest 
thereafter, at the rate of twelve per centum per annum, on all sums due 
until the whole amount shall be paid. 

. REPORTS OF COMMISSIONERS AND CITY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

I refer to Appendix C for these reports, which I have given in full for 
the purpose of placing before the Legislature, and the people generally, 
a practical exposition of the working of our School System in all parts of 
the State; the hindrances in some localities to its full development and 
the noble way in which, in others, the people exert themselves for the edu- 
cation of their children. 

A perusal of these reports will exhibit the difficulties frequently en> 
countered by the Coaimissioners in the performance of their duties; the evils 
resulting from the employment of poorly qualified teachers, occasioned 
chiefly by the odious rate bill system, which compels the trustees often to 
accept the alternative of employing a cheap and consequently poorly quali- 
fied teacher, or a withdrawal of children from school to avoid an onerous tax ; 
and what is equally serious, thedetailcd accents of the deplorable condition 
of the school houses in many places throughout the State, the dilapidated, 
buildings requiring to be repaired or replaced with new ones, the want 
of enclosed yards and suitable outhouses, and the discomfort arising from 
the lack of proper seats and desks and furniture within doors. It is 



Superintendent of Puhlic Inatrticticfn. 205 

impoBBiblt to read these reports without becoming impressed with the 
couyiction that every facility of law should be aflforded for the improve- 
ment of the school houses, and the embellishment of their surroundings. 

Old things are passing away, and the character of the new will depend 
somewhat upon the law, and more upon the depth of parental solicitude 
and the faith of the people in universal education as the best inheritance 
for their posterity. In many cases, the feeble interest manifested for the 
mental Improvement of youth is attributable to the fact that the people 
are very generally, and almost constantly, occupied with matters wherein 
pecuniary considerations are paramount, and thus come to acquire the 
sentiments and habits of an extreme parsimony in all the concerns of life, 
not even excepting what is due to the intellectual interests of their child- 
ren. 

These reports confirm an opinion long entertained by those who have 
devoted careful attention to the subject, that whatever other means may 
be employed to secure the education of all the youth of the State, the Free 
School, at least, is absolutely essential to the accomplishment of that all- 
important end. I commend them to your special attention, also in the 
confident belief that by an examination of them, you will be convinced 
that the office of School Commissioner is no sinecure ; that the schools 
should be as free to all of proper age as are the sunlight and the air ; that 
immediate measures should be taken to establish more Normal and Train- 
ing Schools for the preparation of teachers, who will illuminate the school 
rooms and make the way of knowledge plain ; and, finally, that the success 
of the Teachers' Institutes, or Temporary Normal Schools, held in the se- 
veral counties during the year, is a full vindication of their utility and 
popularity. 

SCHOOL LAW. 

The consolidated School Act, passed in 1864, and in a very few partic- 
ulars amended in 1865, has proved acceptable to the people, and has im- 
parted a greater degree of efficiency to the working of ourschool system than 
was anticipated even by those most confident of its superiority over former 
acts in the simplicity and scope of its provisions. 

The provision requiring a part of the public moneys to be apportioned 
on the basis of average daily attendance took effect on the first day of 
October, 1864 ; and the statistical and written reports of the Commissioners 
show, that during the school year ending with the 80th day of September, 
1865, the aggregate of attendance had been thereby largely increased, not- 
withstanding many of the districts did not fully comprehend the pecuniary 
consideration involved in it. This is now more generally and clearly un- 
derstood, and it is anticipated that the returns for the current school year 
will show a still more favorable result. In some of the counties, the aver- 
age daily attendance thus far for this year, as reported by Commissioners, 
is more than eight per cent, larger than for the same portion of the year 



206 Twdfih Annual Report of Ove 

preceding ; indicating that the people in these districts are now congciousljr 
aware of the fact their award of public money for the next school year 
will be thus increased. 

To carry into effect the proTision just referred to, to secure proper sta- 
tistical information in regard to attendance, and correctness on the part 
of trustees in recording the names, ages and birthplaces of pupils, I pre- 
pared suitable registers for the then current school year, and caused them 
to be distributed. These registers were got up in a cheap practical form, 
composed of only a few sheets of paper properly ruled and stitched together, 
and of a substantial paper coyer on which were printed full and explicit 
instructions to teachers and trustees as to the proper manner of using them. 
The law had for many years required the trustees themselves to proyide a 
book for this purpose; but they hadyery generally failed to do so, and the 
record of attendance was for the most part kept on loose sheets of paper, 
which were often lost, occasioning disputes and costly litigations concerning 
rate-bills, and unreliable reports to be made to the School Commissioners 
and to this department. 

This is in fact the first time, since our School System went into opera- 
tion, that the Superintendent could make a reliable expose in figures of 
the number of children participating in the priyileges of the schools, and 
the proportion they bear to the whole number of school age. It is the first 
time that the average daily attendance, and the average number of pupils 
per teacher, could be given. The guessing pystem has heretofore been 
very generally resorted to by trustees in making their reports, and its results 
have each year been reported to your honorable body. The most reliable 
means of determining the progress of public instruction in this State for 
previous years is unfortunately wanting, and that in consequence of what 
I deem inexcusable neglect to provide for proper registration. This neglect 
is deemed to have been inexcusable, because the registration was a matter 
of public importance, unwisely entrusted by the law to forty thousand 
unpaid school district officers. I may be allowed here to suggest that it 
is neither right nor expedient to require any man, whether he be a school- 
district officer or any other officer, to serve without compensation, except 
in cases of extreme public necessity. Better that the letter and spirit of 
the law inculcate the principle that every man be rewarded fairly for what 
he does for the public ; because every one in this country is interested in 
the public business, and should contribute to it according to his ability. 

The opinion expressed in former reports from this department is still 
entertained, that provision should be made for supplying each district with 
a register substantially bound and properly ruled, and of sufficient site to 
include the registration of pupils at school for several years. I have not 
deemed myself authorized to incur so considerable an aggregate expense 
as would be requisite for this purpose, without your approval manifested 
by specific sanction. 

For many years the law has siade it the duty of trustees to procure such 
a book for their respective districts ; but, for the most part, they haye failed 



Superintendent of Public Instrvctian. 207 

to do it. They have yentured the historical loss, and the contcnlions inci- 
dent to their neglect, rather than pay what is truly an exorhitant price. 
The limited and precarious demand for a book of this peculiar form will 
not tempt manufacturers to supply the market at wholesale prices ; and 
orders from trustees for single copies can only be filled each time at a rate 
which will not only indemnify the maker for his expenses in new machinery, 
materials and labor, but also yield a round additional profit as compensa- 
tion for interruption of his regular business. But even were the retail 
price brought down to a reasonable status, it would still be difficult to find 
twenty or thirty thousand men to attend to a matter of this kind, without 
compensation for time or personal expenses. The experience of the last 
thirty years amply refutes the expectation ; and if our schools are really 
to be conducted with any thing like system, by which the public moneys 
may be properly apportioned, and the facts preserved by which the condi- 
tion of public instruction may be determined in any given year, the forms 
of registration must be prescribed by this department, and the necessary 
books supplied by the State. 

It is certainly bad economy to suffer one hundred thousand dollars to be 
expended by the trustees for any kind of necessary books or school appa- 
ratus, when the same could be obtained for half that sum by wholesale con- 
tract on the part of the State. By such a policy, more than half a million 
of dollars might be annually saved in the purchase of books, maps, globes, 
etc., for the use of the schools. Why has not this economic policy been 
adopted ? The answer is, that the aggregate of the appropriation requisite 
to supply such books and apparatus to 1,200 school districts has loomed so 
large as to deter legislative action. 

The provision of law fixing the salary attached to the office of School 
Commissioners at $500, ought to be amended. This sum is not 8uffi(:ient, 
in these times, to pay a competent aud faithful man for a year's service ; 
and School Commissioners are not absolved from the necessity of food and 
clothing for themselves, and the family which most of them have. Nor is 
it deemed unreasonable to claim for them a salary which will keep them in 
good working condition, and encourage constant and zealous devotion to 
their important duties. Some of these officers, the value of whose services 
to the public can not be measured by dollars and cents, have been compelled 
by the inadequacy of this salary, to resign the office; while others equally 
meritorious, continue in it at a personal sacrifice of time and money, 
which nothing but true devotion to the good work could induce them to 
make. 

The Union Free School Law incorporated in the law to which I have 
referred, also meets with very general favor. Its importance may be in- 
ferred from the fact that many of the. thickly populated districts are 
organixed under its authority, and that there is a growing public senti- 
>tient in favor of free schools. Should you deem it wise to offer to all of 
School age so great a boon as free instruction, you can do so by amending 
^ tew sections of the general law. These sections were drawn in view of 



208 Twdfih Anntud Report of the 

that sentiment, and in the confident belief that, at the close of the war, 
the rate bill would be *< weighed in the balance and found wanting." 

It will be recollected, that prior to the passage of that act, the boards 
of superTisors were annoyed almost eyery year by school district officers 
who had, in behalf of their districts, incurred expenses in defending suits 
instituted against them for acts performed in their official capacity, and 
which district meeting^ had refused to pay. The law of 1864 transferred 
the settlement of such accounts from the board of superrisors to the 
county judge, who is required to *< examine into the matter and hear the 
proofs and allegations propounded by the parties, and to decide by order 
whether or no the accounts, or any or what portion thereof, ought justly to 
be charged upon the district; and his decision is final.'' I am more than 
gratified in being able to report that this transfer of authority has given 
Tery general satisfaction, and induced district officers to act more nearly 
in conformity to law. Comparatively few cases have been brought before 
the judges of the several counties. If the trustees present an equitable 
account, for expenses legally incurred, the districts very generally order 
a tax to be levied to pay it ; and thus disputes and contentions are generally 
avoided, which formerly occupied no inconsiderable time and attention 
of the boards of supervisors, often involving a large expense to the coun- 
ties and to the parties interested. 

Sections 66, 75, 78, of title 7, chapter t555, Law of 1864, as amended 
by chapter 647, Lawss of 1865, authorized the taxation of the shares owned 
by individual stockholders in National Banking Associations, organized 
under the laws of Congress. Those parts of the sections above referred 
to, authorizing such taxation, are copied from chapter 07, Laws of 1865, 
usually known as the " Enabling Act. " They provide for the taxation of 
all shares, whether owned by residents or non-residents, in the town or 
ward where such bank is located. But there is no provision of [law com- 
pelling the officers of such associations to furnish to assessors or district 
officers a list of the stockholders; and without such list, it is frequently 
impossible for assessors and district officers to ascertain the names of 
stockholders, especially where they are non-residents, for the purposes 
of taxation. In many instances, the officers of these Banking Associations 
positively refuse to furnish a list of the stockholders ; and in this way a 
large amount of property, made taxable, escapes from the burden. 

I would respectfully suggest the passage of such amendments to the 
present law as will make it the duty of (he officers of these associations 
to furnish to assessors and school district officers, when required for the 
purposes of taxation, a list of all persons and corporations owning or 
holding stock in such Banking Association, and the number of shares 
owned or held by each such individual or body corporate ; and imposing 
a penalty in case of refusal. 

I consider the law further defective, in that it provides, in case of the 
non-payment of the tax assessed against the shares of any nonresident 



SuperirUenderU of Public Inatruction. 209 

stockholders, that such unpaid tax, with seTon per cent, in addition thereto, 
shall be a lien on any future diyidends upon such stock. In manj of 
these associations, no dividends will be declared for years to come. There- 
fore, the propriety of a law anthoriiing a sale of the stock upon which 
taxes shall remain unpaid for a certain length of time, is suggested. 

I Tenture to suggest that section five of title one of the General School 
Act be so amended that the Superintendent may be allowed to employ more 
than three clerks. With every step taken in the improvement of school 
houses, sites, teachers and schools, comes an increase of clerical labor in 
this department, the proper performance of which, during the fall and 
winter months especially, demands a larger clerical force. The corres- 
pondence of this department is believed to be greater than that of any other 
office in the State Hall; and the name of the duties which the law now 
prescribes for the Superintendent of Public Instruction is Legion, because 
they are many. The calls upon him to go into different parts of the State 
to settle school district difficulties, to encourage improvements in school- 
houses and in the schools, and to attend and aid in the instruction of Insti- 
tutes and the examination of teachers, are more than he could respond to 
h&d he nothing else to do. Add to this, that he settles questions brought 
before him on appeal, the written decisions of which fill annually a large 
Volume; that he is required to visit schools, to make appointments to 
•N'ormal Schools, to grant certificates, to apportion the school moneys, to 
pv'^pare and furnish blanks for school officers, and to digest all returns ; 
&Ki.<lyoa will perceive tl^at three clerks, to whom he is now permitted to 
p9.jr only three thousand dollart^ are not sufficient. 

Hn conclusion I earnestly and hopefully invite your attention to the 
following recommendations : 

^iBST : That the general State tax for the support of schools be increased 
^^2r the addition of one fourth of a mill on every dollar of valuation for the 
P ^^ Tpose of diminishing local or school district taxation for the same purpose . 
SECOND : That every county which shall fail to pay its school tax into 
^-^ ^ State Tre%Bury on or before the first day of March of each and every 
y ^^r, be required to pay interest on any amount of such tax thereafter due, 
^'^ the rate of twelve per cent, per annum, until the whole shall be paid. 

TXhibd : That the general school laws be so amended, that the odious 
T^^«-bill shall no longer prevent children from going to school ; that the 
AC^la ools shall be as free to all of proper age and condition, as the air and 
t^^ sunlight. 

PoDKTH : That a commission be appointed, to locate three or more 
nox-mal and training schools for the special preparation of teachers, in such 
eligible places as shall offer the greatest inducements by way of buildings, 
flcHool apparatus, etc., and that an appropriation be made for their efficient 
support. 

^iVTH : That provision of law be made, by which the public schools shall 
^® required, and all other institutions of leiMHing, which participate in the 
CVoL. XV, No. 7.] 14 



210 Claims of the Natural Sdences. 

distribution of the public moneys, shall be induced, to give free instruction 
to the children of soldiers and sailors who shall have died or been dis- 
abled while in service in the army or navy of the United States. 

Sixth : That an act be passed for the appraisal of, and acquiring title to 
lands designated for school house sites. 

Sbventh: That provision be made by which the salary attached to the 
office of School Commissioner shallbe increased. 

VICTOR M. RICE, 

Supt. of Public Instruetion, 



Claims of the Natural Sciences. 



THIRD AND LAST ARTICLE. 



Besides those faculties of the intellect terbereby we perceive, re- 
tain, recollect, imagine and compare, there is anotber, wbicb, in a 
manner, limits and controls tbe action of them all. Hamilton calls 
it tbe regulative faculty, Cousin and others, reason. It might 
be termed the faculty of intuition, for, by virtue of it, the mind 
overleaps the individual facts which alone experience can afford, 
and evolves in its own mysterious depths those universal principles, 
or truths, which underlie and condition all the facts of the universe. 
This still uncatalogued body of principles becomes laws of investiga- 
tion, laws of thought, laws of belief. Any cultivation of which the 
faculty is susceptible can be attained only by the application of the 
principles which it furnishes to their proper subject-mJttter. 

For the application and consequent cultivation of some of these 
— as, for example, of the necessary relation of effect and cause, and 
of the uniformity of nature — the natural sciences furnish an ef- 
ficient means. For the cultivation of others, recourse must be had 
to ethical and political science and to theology. 

It may thus be seen that the natural sciences furnish the best 
available means for cultivating the faculty of external perception, 
while they furnish no mean preparation for observing the operations of 
the mind itself; that they furnish pleasant matter for the exercise 
of memory ; that they afford an excellent discipline for those asso- 
ciative principles on which Vecollection depends ; that they have a 



Claims of the Natural Sciences. 211 

co-ordinate efficiency with logic and the pure mathematics in train- 
ing the faculty of comparison or reasoning, with this advantage, 
that their subject-matter, methods and conclusions are more closely 
allied to those matters in which the course of worldly affairs calls 
upon men to use their reason ; and that they are far from useless as 
a discipline of the imagination, and as furnishing occasion for the 
application of intuitive principles. 

Even in the cultivation of the aesthetic capabilities, for which the 
student is usually and very properly remitted to the study of rhetoric 
and of standard literary works, especially tnoseof the ancient writers 
— ^getting therefrom, but too often, no more than a lifeless catalogue of 
accents, idioms and dry grammatical forms and rules, or useless de- 
scriptions of the tools with which taste works — the study of natural 
history has a great, though somewhat indirect efficacy. For since 
nature is the ulcimate standard of taste, and since it must be appar- 
ent that a correct knowledge of the standard is a condition precedent 
to its proper application, it is certainly not unreasonable to conclude 
that the study of nature would have a very considerable value in 
the cultivation of taste. When Goldsmith, on his travels, under- 
took to teach English to the Dutch, he found it would have been 
prudent for him first to learn a little Dutch. 

To save the labor of transcription, permit a reference to the 113th 
p&ge, present volume, of this magazine for a quotation from Carlyle 
W'liich is not without its point, as showing the felt necessity of a 
k Knowledge* of natural history on the part of a man whose labors are 
Daostly in the realms of taste. 

The sole purpose of these few and too brief articles has been to 

^^laim for the natural sciences their rightful place in the ranks of the 

disciplinary studies. At present it is but too true that they are 

l^>CDked upon as the guerrillas of the school-room, barely tolerated be- 

^^1186 of the demand for their services in the every day affairs of life, 

^"^xt denied admission into the noble army of studies which train as 

^•'^11 as furnish the faculties for future use. It is also true that this 

^*^*»wi8e course is bringing the natural sciences, in the minds of many 

X^^rsons, whose number is daily increasing, into an unnecessary an- 

^'^^onism with certain other most salutary forms of disciplinary 

^t-udy. They very naturally, and with some show of reason, ask 

"^hy 80 large a portion of a young man's life should be spent in the 

®tudy of dead languages, leaving him still to learn , when his school 

^^ys are ended, those very things on which the success of his strug- 



214 Leaaonsfrom a Slwemaher'a Stool. 

and was no longer in disgrace; that was evidently a far better 
thing. 

The Bible-class was then called up. 

*^ That creature there, Jean/' he said, putting his hand on a little 
girl's head, and looking kindly in her face, *^is a gude scholar, 
though she's but sma'/' 

Jean, reassured by the remark, and prepared for the ordeal, gave 
a smile, and commenced reading the twenty-sixth chapter of Num- 
bers. It was difficult, and even Jean halted now and then as a 
proper name of more than ordinary difficulty came in her way. 

*^ I doot it*s a hard bit that, Jean," he said ; ** is't a' names V* 
Na, nae't a\ " she replied, with an emphasis on the a', which left it 
to be inferred that a good part of it was names. 

'* Well* do the best ye can. Spell them oot, when ye canna read 
them. Come here, Jessie," he said, addressing the biggest girl 
present, probably eleven years of age, " and see if they spell them 
richt." Turning to me, he said, " I'm no sae fond o' chapters fu* o' 
names as o' them that teach us our duty to God and ane anither, 
but it does them nae harm to be brocht face to face wi' a difficulty 
noo and then. It wad tak' the speerit oot o' the best horse that 
ever was foaled to mak' it draw aye up-hill. But a chapter like 
that makes them try themselves in puttin letters thegithcr, and 
naming big words. I daursay ye'll agree wi' me that to battle wi' 
a difficulty and beat it is a gudc thing for us a', if it doesna come 
ower often." 

" I quite agree with you," I replied. 

<< Weel, when it's a namey chapter like that, I get my assistant" 
(with a humorous twinkle of his eye) — " that bit lassie's ray assis- 
tant — to look ower't and see if they spell't richt. I couldna be 
sure o' the spellin o' the names withoot the book." 

After the Bible lesson, and as a supplement to it, Jessie, the assist- 
ant, was ordered to ask the Shorter Catechism. She ranged pretty 
nearly over it all, and received, on the whole, surprisingly correct 
answers. Meantime the old man went steadily on with his shoe, 
all eye for his work, all ear for blunders. Once he heard one girl 
whispering assistance to another, which he promptly and almost 
severely checked by " Dinna tell her; there's nae waur.plan than 
that. If she needs help, I'll tell her mysel' or bid you tell her." 

A boy who stumbled indifferently through an answer was pun- 
ished with, *' Ay, ye're no very clear upon that, lad. Try't again. 



Leaaonafrom a Slwemake^s Stool. 215 

I doot ye haena stressed your e'en wi' that ane last nicht/' Ho 
tried it again, but not much better success. " Oh, tak, care ! ye*re 
no thinkin'. If ye dinna think o' the meanin', hoo can ye be richt ? 
Ye micht as weel learn Gaelic." 

After several other correct answers, I had a very good example 
of the quickness of preception which long experience gives. A 
little girl having broke down, opened the catechism which she held 
in her hand, and carefully began reading instead of repeating the 
answer. The shoemaker's ear at once caught it up. He detected 
from the accuracy of the answer, and at the same time from the 
hesitating tone to which it was given, the effort of reading, and 
said, in a voice of considerable severity, "What ! are ye keekin'? 
Hae ye your catechiss in your han ? Hoo often hae I telt ye 
o' the dishonesty o' that ? Ye're cheatin', or at ony rate ye* re 
tryin' to cheat me. Do I deserve that frae ye? Did I ever 
cheat you ? But ye're doing far waur than cheatin' me. Oh, 
whatever ye do, be honest. Come to the schule wi' your lessons 
"weel by heart if ye can, but if you've been lazy, dinna mak' your 
faut waur by being dishonest." 

It will be seen from this sketch of his teaching that Mr. Beattie 
is a man of no ordinary type. I have succeeded very imperfectly 
S.II convening an adequate notion of his kindliness and sympathy with 
everything good. I was surprised to find in a man moving in a very 
narrow circle such advanced and well-natured theories of education. 
H\s idea of the extent to which difficulties should be presented in 
^he work of instruction — his plans of selecting passages, instead 
^f taking whatever comes to hand — his objection to whispering 
assistance, '* Dinna tell her ; if she needs help, I'll tell her mysel', 
«r bid you tell her" — his severe but dignified reproof of dishonesty, 
** Ye're cheatin me, but ye're dping far waur than that. Oh, 
"whatever ye do, be honest,". etc. — his encouragement to thoughtful, 
:3iess and intelligence. "If ye dinna think o' the meanin', hoo can 
3e be richt ?" seemed to me most admirable, well worthy the atten- 
tion of all who are engaged in similar pursuits, and certainly very 
remarkable as being the views of a man who has mixed little with 
^he world, and gained almost nothing from the theories of others. 

It was evident from the behavior of the children that they all 
^ear, respect, and love him. 

I sat and talked with him on various subjects for a short time 
longer, and then rose to bid him good-bye. 



216 LesBonafrcm a Shoemaker's Sfool. 

" But sir/' he remarked, " this is a cauld day, and, if ye're 
no a teetotaller, ye'U maybe no object to gang up to my house wi' 
me and * taste something V " 

I replied that I was not a teetotaller, and should be very glad to 
go with him. We went accordingly, and " tasted something," and 
had a long talk. 

He has, for a country shoemaker, a remarkably good library. 
The books generally are solid, some of them rare, and he seems to 
have made a good use of them. His opinion of novels is 
perhaps worth quoting: 

" I never read a novel a' my days. I've heard bits o' Scott that I likit 
very weel, but I never read any o* them mysel*. The bits I heard 
telt me some things that were wor,th kennin', and were amusin', into 
the bargain ; but I understan' that's no the case wi' the maist o' 
novels. When a body begins to read them he canna stop, and when 
he has dune, he kens nae mair than when he began. Noo it takes 
a' my time to read what's really worth kennin'." 

I asked him what had first made him think of teaching. 

'^ Mony a time, he replied,'' hae I asked that at mysel'; and it's 
nae wonner, for I never was at the schule but eleven weeks in my 
life, and that was when I was a loon (laddie) about eleven years auld. 
I had far mair need to learn than to teach, though I'm no sure but 
to teach a thing is the best way to learn't. Amaist a' that I ken, 
and it's no muckle to be sure, but I got it by learnin' ithers. But 
ye'vc asked what made me begin teachin'. Weel, sir, it was this : 
when I was a young lad, there were seven grown-up folks roun' 
about' here that oouldna read a word. Some o' them were married 
and had families, and there was nae schule nearer than twa mile, 
and in the winter especially the young things couldna gang sae far. 
Ane o' the fathers said to me ae day : 'Ye ken, Jamie, I canna read 
mysel', but, oh, man' I ken the want o't, and I canna thole that 
Willie shouldna learn. Jamie, ye maun tak' and teach him.' 'Oh, 
man' I said, hoo can I teach him ? I ken naething mysel'.' *Ye 
maun try,' he said. Weel, I took him, and afler him anither and 
anither cam, and it wasna lang till I had aboot twenty. In a year 
or twa I had between sixty and seventy, and sae I hae keepit on for 
near sixty years. I soon grew used wi't, and custom, ye ken, is a 
kind o' second nature." 

** But how did you find room," I asked, " for sixty in that little 
place?" 



Lesacmafrom a ShoemcJcer's Stool. 217 

" Weel, sir, there was room for mair than ye wnd think. Wherever 
there was a place that a creator could sit, I got a stoolie made and 
every corner was filled. Some were at my back, some were in the corner 
o' the window, and some were sittin' amon^the auld shoon at my feet. 
But for a' that there wasna room for sixty, and so a woman that lived 
across the road had a spare corner in her house, and when the bairns 
got their lessons, they gaed ower and sat wi' her, and made room for 
the ithers. Ye see, the faithers and mithcrs were aye in gude nee- 
bourhood wi' me. They were pleased and I was pleased, and when 
folks work into ane anither's ban's they put up wi' things that they 
wudna thole at ither times.'' 

"You must have great difficuly," I remarked, " in keeping so many 
of them in order. What kind of punishment do you use ?" 

" Oh, sir, just the strap. "That^s it," he said, pointing to one ly- 
ing among the old shoea. 
"And did you need to \ise it often?" 

" Ou ay, mony a time, when they were obstinate. But I maun 
aay, it was when the schule was sae close packit that I had to us't 
laaist. When they were sittin' just as close as I could pack them. 
Some tricky nackits o' things wud put their feet below the seats, and 
kick them that were sittin' afore them. Order, ye ken, maun be 
keepit up, and I couldna pass by sic behaviour. I've seldom needit 
to chasteese them for their lessons," he continued; " the maist o' them 
axe keen to learn, and gie me little trouble." 

" Have you any idea," I asked, "of the number of pupils you have 
passed through your hands during these sixty years?" 

" Weel, I keepit nae catalogue o' names, but some o' them that 
t^ak' an interest in the bairns made oot that they canna be less than 
fourteen or fifteen hunder. I weel believe they're ritch.' 
" And you have never charged any fees, I understand." 
" Fees ! Hoo could I charge fees ? I never sought, and I never 
'^'anted a sixpence. But I maun say this, that the neebours hae 
been very kind, for they oflfered to work my bit croft, for me, and 
it wouldna hae been dacent to refuse their kindness. And they 
S^ed, me a beautiful silver snuff-box in 1835. That's it," he said, 
taking it out of his pocket j " wull ye no tak' anither pinch?" 

I did, and then said that I was glad to learn from his friend Mr. 
^- that, a year or so ago, he had been presented with his portrait 
^"^^ a handsome purse of money. 

*' Deed it's quite true, and I was fairly affronted when they gied 



218 American Wonders. 

me my portrait and eighty-six pounds, and laudid me in a' the 
papers. Some o't came frae Canada and ither foreign pairts, bat I 
ken't naething aboot the siller till they gied it to me, for they cam 
ower me, and got me to tbll them, without thinking o't, where some, 
o' my auld scholars were leevin*. I said to myseP when I got it, 
that I was thankfu' for't, for I wud be able noo to buy the puir 
things books wi't." 

" You supply them with books, then ?'' I inquired. 

<< Weel, them that's no able to buy them,'' he said, with a pecu- 
liar smile. 

I have not succeeded in analyzing this smile to my own satisfac- 
tion, but, among other things, it expressed commiseration for the 
poverty of those who were not able to buy books, and a depecating 
reproof of himself for having been unwittingly betrayed into an 
apparent vaunting of his own good deeds. 

^^ You must have great pleasure," I said, ^^ in looking back to the 
last sixty years, and counting up how many of your old scholars 
have done you credit." 

" Oh ! I hae that," he replied. " I've dune what I could, and 
there's nae better wark than learnin' young things to read and ken 
their duty to God and man. If it was to begin again, I dinna think 
I could do mair, or at ony rate mair earnestly, for education than I 
hae dune, but I could maybe do't better noo. But it's a dreadfu' 
heartbreak when ony o' them turns oot ill, after a' my puir wark to 
instil gude into them." 

To BE COHTDrOlD. 



American Wonders. 



The greatest cataract in the world is the Falls of Niagara, where 
the water from the great Upper Lakes forms a river of three quar- 
ters of a mile in width, and then, being suddenly contracted, plunge 
over the rocks in two columns to the depth of 170 feet each. 

The greatest cave in the world is the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, 
where any one can make a voyage on the waters of a subterranean 
river, and catch fish without eyes. 

The greatest river in the world is the Mississippi, 4,100 miles in 
length. 

The largest valley in the world is the Valley of the Mississippi. 
It contains 500,000 square miles, and is one of the most fertile and 



Proverbs. 219 

profitable regions of the globe. [The Amazon drains an area of 
one and a half million square miles]. 

The largest lake in the world is Lake Superior, which is truly an 
inland sea, being 430 miles long, and 1,000 feet deep. 

The greatest natural bridge in the world is the natural bridge 
over Cedar Creek in Virginia. It extends across a chasm 80 feet 
in width and 250 feet in depth, at the bottom of which the creek 
flows. 

The greatest mass of solid iron in the world is the Iron Mountain 
of Missouri. It is 350 feet high and two miles in circuit. 

The largest number of whale ships in the world is sent out by 
Nantucket and New Bedford. 

The greatest grain mart in the world is Chicago. 

The largest single volume ever published in Webster's Unabridged 
Dictionary, an American work — the best of the language — contain- 
ing as much matter as six Family Bibles. 

The largest aqueduct in the world is the Croton Aqueduct in 
New York. Its length is forty miles and a half, and it cost twelve 
and a half millions of dollars. 

The largest deposits of anthracite .coal in the world are in Penn- 
sylvania — the mines of which supply the market with millions of 
t^ns annually, and appear to be inexhaustible. 

All these, it may be observed, are American ^'institutions.'' In 
oontemplation of them, who will not acknowledge that ours is a 
**^eat country." 



I*h6 chief principle of education shall be, man must train him- 
®®^^; must develop himself. But other men, without him, can and 
®«ould promote this self- training, by external influences. 

Reinhard. 

^VIan should raise himself, by instruction, to a state pleasing to 
^"^dj and of true freedom; and to a condition of mind desiring 
^'^ what is good. 

^te truly educated man enjoys the most beautiful and delightful 
^^^Its; passionlessness, fearlessness, freedom. 

Tlose who have enjoyed education and instruction arc truly free 

Epictetus. 



Resident Editor's Department 



MISCELLANY. 

Double Number. — Our next issue will appear May 1. The extreme 
length of the Superintendent's Report has made it necessary for us to issue 
the Teacher for March and April in one number. 

Superintendent Rice's Report. — Our readers will need no apology 
that so much of our space is taken up with this admirable and elaborate 
report. It presents facts, figures and suggestions in which all friends of 
education will be interested, and gives great encouragement that this great 
State is by degrees coming to a proper appreciation of universal education 
and of the means for securing it. 

N. T. A. — Proceedings and Lectures. — The record of proceedings 
and lectures of the National Teachers' Association, at Harrisburg, 1865, 
have been published in a pamphlet of upwards of 100 pages, and may be 
obtained for 50 cents on application to the undersigned. Educational 
journals please copy. James Cruikshank, 

Chairman Publishing Committee. 

National Teachers' Association — The meeting of the National Teach- 
ers' Association, for the year 1866, will be held at Indianapolis in the 
State of Indiana commencing on the 15th of August. 

Full programmes will be published in due time. 

All educational journals are requested to copy this notice. 

J. P. WicKERsuAM, President. 

National Bureau of Education. — A bill has been introduced in Con- 
gress to establish a National Bureau of Education. It provides for a com- 
missioner, who shall make an annual report exhibiting the condition of ed- 
ucation in the states and territories, and diffusing such information as will 
promote the cause of education. 

Commissioners' Salaries. — Some of the most intelligent and e£Beient 
of our School Commissioners have been compelled by the meager pittance 
they receive from the state, and the refusal of supervisors to increase their 
salaries, and in some instances, to audit their just claims, to enter the 
schools as teachers, or engage in some other incidental business, to keep 
soul and body together. For shame, that this great state can not afford to 
pay her servants for such important services, a sum which a wood sawyer, 
or an ordinary farm hand would scorn to receive. Let all right-minded 
men give their influence in favor of reform. We need prudent men in our 
boards of supervisors; but not such little souls as value the present gleam 
of the people's money above the welfare of their children's bouIb. 



Resident Editor's Department. 221 

Anotheb Polab Expedition. — London papers say that an expedition 
is being organiied in Prussia for another exploration of the Arctic ocean, 
with the design of getting as near as possible to the north pole. Two ships 
will be proTisioned for three years, and their crews will consist of scientifi- 
cally educated men from the Prussian schools. 



PERSONAL. 

President Nott. — Our readers are already apprised of the decease of 
this eminent man, who, for more than sixty years, had held the position of 
president of Union College. A biographical sketch will appear in our next. 

Pbof. Agassiz is to return home from his South American tour in May. 

Prof. Tatleb Lewis, of Union College, has, we understand, recently 
receiTed a donation from some of his friends, of $2,500. 

Rot. Dr. Laurens P. Hiokok, has been elected to the presidency of Union 
College. He has been yice-president for a number of years, and acting 
president for several years prior to the decease of the Tenerable Dr. 
Kott. 

John Stuart Mill has, it is announced, accepted the o£Eice of rector 
of the t^niversity of St. Andrew. 

M. Henri Martin, the historian, and M. Thierry are candidates for 
the yacancy in the French academy. 

Miss Emilt A. Rice has resigned the position so long heldas preceptress 

in the Buffalo Central School, to accept a leading position in the Oswego 

Normal and Training School. Her loss at the former place will be deeply 

felt, while her influence will do great good in building up the Oswego 

<School. Few teachers in the State have a more enviable reputation. 

Miss Mart A. Riplet, late of the Buffalo Central School, has accepted 
a position in the State Normal School, in place of Miss Mary £. Howell, 
^^signed. Miss Ripley brings with her a well-earned reputation as an ac- 
OompUshed and successful teacher. 

Pbof. James H. Hocsb may hereafter be addressed at Oswego, whither 

b^ has gone to accept the position of assistant in the natural sciences in 

t.]:M.e Oswego Training School. He will do efficient work there as elsewhere. 

W. A. Bbownell, Esq., late of Red Creek Seminary, has accepted the 

X> osition of professor of the Latin language in Falley Seminary. 

^REDEBiOA Bbemeb, recently deceased, was born in 1802, at Abo, Fin- 
l^md. In her early years she wrote much for periodicals, and at the age of 
^^> published a novel in two volumes, which was well received at home, and 
"^as also published in French and English. Miss Bremer had traveled 
*■> *icb, and was an acute observer. Her remarkable conversational pow- 
®^s ikiade her welcome among the intelligent. ** A peculiarity of j^iss 
'"^xner," as a cotemporary well remarks, "was her high regard for pure 



222 BesiderU Editor's Department 

morality, for the domestic virtues, for everything Ihat Christian sentiment 
teaches men to regard as sacred. She had none of the mawkish sentiment- 
ality which poisons too much of our modern popular literiiture ; none of 
that sympathy with sensualism and profligacy which has rendered so many 
widely-read authors ministers of evil. In all her writings, she sought the 
best interests of those whose teacher she became. In Europe and in 
America she will be remembered at thousands of hearth stones, in circles 
which have been made happier and better by the influence of her gentle 
presence." She is perhaps best known by "The President's Daughters " 
and •* The Neighbors, " — two romances that have met with very general 
favor. She was most fortunate in such an appreciative translator as Mary 
Howitt. 



INTELLIGENCE, — HOME, 



Albany County. — The annual Teachers' Institute was organized at 
Chesterville, Jan. 29, for the Ist and 8d districts, under the direction of 
commissioners Nott and Dyer. Prof. M. P. Cavart of the Department 
of Public Instruction, was present the firEt two days. He was followed by 
Dr. French, who remained through the week. Each of these geqtlemen 
gave very acceptable practical instruction, and evening lectures. Over one 
hundred and fifty teachers were present. 

The session for the second week was held at Van Vrankin's Corners, in 
the 2d district — Dr. Witbeck, commissioner. Dr. French was present the 
entire session, and both he and the commissioner, were unwearied in their 
efforts to give practical success to the meeting. The president and other 
officers of the board of education of Cohoes participated in the exercises, 
manifesting a most commendable spirit. Of Dr. French's labors, no enco- 
m.um is necessary ; he is too well known. Dr. Witbeck adjourned the' 
institute after some well timed and spirited remarks. Albany county may 
be safely counted in. 

Clinton County. — We can not omit some mention of the most interest- 
ing session of the institute held at Plattsburgh, in October. In the newer 
and sparsely settled counties, especially in the Adroindack region, none 
know the difficulties in the way of awakening a general interest in educa- 
tion, but those who have been on the ground ; and it is not too much to say 
that great credit is due to Messrs. Smith and Corbin for the increasing in- 
terest in educational affairs. The commissioners themselves conducted the 
exercises the first week. The second week they were assisted by the editor 
of the Teacher. Much interest was excited among the citizens, and 
assurances have been given of active cooperation in institutes to be 
held hereafter. Lectures were delivered nearly every evening. 

Livingston County. — ** Schools in a fine condition, and show the effects 
of institute instruction." 



Resident Editor's Department 223 

Oswego County. — The quarterly meeting of the Teachers* Association 
of the 3d district was held at Mexico, in January. Prof. McLaughlin and 
Prof. Smith deliTered very practical and interesting addresses. Es- 
says were read by Misses L. £. Babcock, and Annie £. Wing. Class exercises 
which haye always been a prominent and most valuable feature in this as- 
sociation, were conducted : in geography, by Mr. L. B. Cobb ; grammar, by 
Mr. J. W. Ladd ; mental arithmetic, by Mr. D. T. Whyborn. The audience 
was good, and the exercises showed that the interest in public education is 
on the advance. 

Otskoo County. — The eleventh regular session of the Teachers' Associa- 
tion for the second district was held at Laurens, Jan. 12 and 18, 1865. 
The exercises were spirited and several essays and addresses were deferred 
for want of time. Lectures were delivered by Rev. G. Phelps — Modem 
Common Sense ; George W. Wenthworth — Scraps and Facts about Teaching ; 
Mr. Melville Keyes — America,' her Glory and her Shame. Rev. H. H. 
Fisher read a poem — The Book of Esther, Essays were read by Mr. Henry 
B. Potter, Misses Delia Bartlett, Clemma Wright, Nettie Lee, Emma Howe 
Eva Scott, Cornelia Hecox, and Mary Leonard. Commissioner Gardner was 
present and assisted in the exercises. 

St. Lawrence County. — The session of the St. Lawrence county Teach- 
ers' Association held at Lawrenceville, Dec. 27, 28, and 29, was largely at- 
tended. Commissioner Whitney writes : ** It is pronounced as the best 
meeting ever held in the county. The essays were able, the discussions 
animated and to the point, and the best feeling pervaded the entire session. 
The citizens took a lively interest in the proceedings. The association is 
becoming an acknowledged necessity. He says further : ** I find the teach- 
ers generally doing a good work ; have never before found an equal num- 
\>eT of schools visited in as successful operation, as during the present 
term." The President, Rev. J. S. Lee, of Canton, addressed the association 
on the Helps and Hindrances to Education in St. Lawrence county. Ad- 
d-resses were also delivered by Rev. C. T. Roberts, of Malone, — Success 
^Tid Failure in Life; and by Prof. W^hite, of Canton, — Science of Lan- 
guage. The following are among the subjects discussed. ** Higher culture 
of teachers and the expediency of teaching the higher branches in com- 
Z0OO schools ;" *' Best method of teaching, reading, and geography, andsecur- 
ixa£ order in schools;" ** Marking the standing of pupils in recitation;" 
** Compulsory attendance." The discussions were very spirited. A number 
of ^ell written essays were read by A. S. Blake, Ellen Alverson, Miss L. 
-^.- Cross, Helen M. Leslie, Miss L. U. Dinsmore. The commissioners re- 
ported the condition of the schools in their respective districts. School 
oflio^rs, people, teachers and children are awake. 

^'*'. Lawrence County. — Commissioner Baker of the second district is 

^^^ing school examinations (conventions), in each of the towns of his dis- 

''"'*^^^« At Lisbon Center 328 children were present. He says, **Ihave 



224 Resident Editor's Department. 

neyer before known so great an interest manifested in behalf of our sohoolfl. 
The good work is going on/* 

Washington County. — The Annual Institute for the county was held in 
the village of Argjle, commencing October 9, and continuing two weeks. 
The commissioners were assisted by Prof. C. W. Sanders, the yenerable 
author of the **School Readers/* the first week. The course of instruction, 
discussions and lectures giTen by him were eminently practical, and were 
well receired hy the teachers, and as a just appreciation of his labors 
resolutions were unanimously passed highly commendatory of the efficient 
services he had rendered and expressive of profound gratitude for the 
many valuable precepts inculcated. 

During the second week instruction was given by Mr. A. M. S. Carpenter 
of New Tork City and Prof. C. F. Dowd of North Granville Female Semin- 
ary. Their instruction was well received, as was manifest by the deep 
interest awakened and increasing until the members were compelled to 
separate. 

Lectures were given before the Institute by Prof. C. W. Sanders, Prof. 
C. F. Dowd, Prof. T. S. Lambert of Peekskill, N. Y., and Mr. A. M. S. 
Carpenter. All the lectures delivered were of a very high order, instruc- 
tive and entertaining, to those teachers in attendance, and were listened 
to by large and intelligent audiences. Essays, select reading and discussion 
were intermingled during the se^ion, by the members of the Institute. 

The Institute was pronounced by all who attended a success, establish- 
ing beyond doubt the practical utility of a well managed Institute. 

Wtominq County. — My Dear Sir : You will be glad to hear that the 
midwinter session of the Wyoming county Teachers' Association, held at 
Attica on the 26th instant, was a grand and substantial success. Our ex- 
cellent commissioners conceived a superior programme for the occasion; 
and, iu the main, carried it fully into effect. The good people of Attica 
had just successfully completed the work of organizing their new Free 
School, and they were in that happy mood which enables and disposes men 
to accomplish any good thing they please. Every heart and every house 
seemed open for the large attendance from every part of the county. Hos- 
pitality, abundant and free, was extended to every guest. The official 
welcome, the *♦ eloquent music," the essays, the rehearsals by Dr. Mcintosh, 
the presid.nt'^ excellent address, the spirited discussions — in short, all 
the parts, and exercises, and circumstances of the occasion seemed to blend 
into one general impulse of kindling, glowing enthusiasm. And when this 
good mantle falls on all our teachers greater things than ever will be un- 
dertaken ; and they will be accomplished, too. 

I have been intimately assoc ated with educational matters in this county 
for fully nineteen years, and I am very sure I am not in error when I say 
•that at no previous time during that long period has there been so general 
and so marked an interest in these matters as there is this very day. Is 
this revival in the work of education universal ? Or are we especially 
favored? Of one thing I am very confident, and that is, that the Yiaita of 



Resident Editor's Department. 225 

yourself and Dr. French in Western New York haye been greatly helpful in 
our work. We thank you a thousand times over. You see I write as if I 
were a teacher in the common school. I know no great gulf of distinction 
between the various grades. Success, prosperity in one department, should 
be prosperity for every other. Our academies are all well filled this win- 
ter. 1^0 face is more welcome in the schools everywhere than the face, 
scarred or unscarred, of the returned soldier. Old Middlebury has sent 
out 63 good men and true. Her sons have taken every rank, from the 
faithful pritate to the brigadier. At this date some of her most successftil 
members are those who illustrated the highest qualities of manhood in the 
tented field. * » » » Yours, very respectfully, 

M. Wbed. 
^Wyoming, N. Y., January 29, 1866. 



LITERARY, 

PuiKTTNO FROM Photogbapbs. — Among the most recent improvements 
in photography, is a process by which a raised surface is produced. A 
plate of mica is coated«in a dark room with a warm solution of bicarbonate 
of potassa and gelatin. The plate as prepared is sensitive to light. The 
action of light upon the coating makes it insoluble in proportion to the in- 
^nsity of the light. When fully prepared, prints taken from it have light 
and shade as in the ordinary photographs. 

Antioch College. — The new subscription for the endowment fund of 
^liis institution, of which the lamented Horace Mann was formerly Presi- 
dent, amounts to more than $120,000. The friends of the college arehope- 
i^ul of increasing it to a quarter of a million. 

The English CTCLOPiEDiA. — A new edition of this valuable work is 

0OO11 to appear, edited by Mr. Charles Knight, the original editor of the ' 

^enny Cyclop»dia. Each volume (they are'arranged by subjects), geog- 

^ssj^ljy, natural history, biography, arts and sciences, will contain a supple- 

naodt bringing the discussions of the various subjects down to date of pub- 

Uc^tion. 

^K^HB Round Table is publishing a series of very interesting Fketches of 
T>is.T>li8hers. Appletons, Ticknor and Fields, and George P. Putnam have al- 
"^^^ <3y received attention. * 



BOOK NOTICES, 



^^OOKS Rbobived. — Notices of a number of valuable books on our table 
""^^^^t, for ^ant of room, lie over till next issue. 

**^JrbEBiAN Key to Pbactical Penmanship. Prepared for the Speneerian 

"^ dehors, by H. C. Spenceb. New York: Ivison, Phinney^ Blakeman ^ Co, 

^h.^ Speneerian System of Penmanship has been too long before the 

***^1^U^^ ^d ig too well and favorably knowtt, to need from us any specifio 

15 



226 Resident Editor's Department. 

description or exemplification, Nearly fifty years ago its lamented author, 
Platt R. Spkhckb, recently deceased^ commenced the labor, noir crowned 
with triumphant success, and so /aitbfuly and graphically giTcn in this 
Key, of perfecting a system which combines symmetry, utility and beauty 
in such matchless form that the system may be said to be practically and ^ 
artistically perfect. In 1848, Mr. Spencer, in conjunction with the Honor- 
able Victor M. Bice, now Superintendtnt of Public Instruction, first gave 
to the wjorld the Spencerian system. From that time till the present, 
these gentlemen, assisted by Mr. Spencer's sons, and by thelat# Mr. James 
W. Lusk, and Mr. M. D. L. Hayes and others, have labored assiduously ta 
embody in the perfection of form and completeness of method the graceful 
ideal of the author's early dreams. The book before us is the authorized . 
expression of that ideal, and contains a complete deyelopmcnt of the sts- 
tem, with clear and explicit directions for teaching, and is accompanied by 
elegantly engraved illustrative plates. The two chapters on the forms of 
the letters are particularly felicitous. After the general classification and 
discussion, each letter is taken up, analysed (cuts representing the ana- 
lysis), probable faults pointed out, also with cuts (better here than across 
the boys' knuckles), and suggestions made as to the best methods of mas- 
tering the forms. A chapter on drawing is of special value, and a brief 
resume of the history of penmanship will be read with interest. Attention 
has been amply given to material and implements, position, movements, 
etc. The book was much needed, and will meet with favor as a desidera- 
tum in the teaching of penmanship in every school. 
The Abqost: A Magazine for the Fireside and the Journey. No. 2, February 

1866. 
The Sunday Magazine, Edited by Thomas Gutbbib, D.D. Part F, Feb* 

ruary, 1866. 
Good Wobds : An Illustrated Monthly Magazine^ Edited by Nobman Maglsod, 

D.D. 

Messrs. Strahan & Co., 178 Grand St., New York, send us the abov« 
named standard periodicals ; and aside from the sterling merits of theHnag- 
azines themselves, the enterprise in which they have engaged will meet 
with favor, in view of the most contemptible combinations of paper mo- 
nopolies, encouraged by our virtuous and patriotic (?) law makers to in- 
flate the prices of books, and impose a perpetual tax on knowledge. These 
are published e»ch at $3.00 a-year — the Argosy containing in each^asue, 
96 octavo pages, and each of the others, about 72 royal octavo pages in 
double columns. All of these take rank with the best carrent magazines, 
iniilst the Sunday Mligazine in its genial catholicity fills a place heretofore 
unoccupied. ** Good Words" has been before the public for several years, 
and has won its position. The Argosy is a new adventure, and if it keeps 
on as it has commenced, favoring breezes must ever waft it to a pleasant 
haven. Charles Reade, Matthew Browne, William Allingham, Mrs* Oli- 
phant, and Robert Buchanan are among its regular contri\>utors; and Jason 
Jdnes mobt skillfully manages the *' Log." Messrs. Strahan & Co., are 
now established in New York as a branch of the London house. Suocera 
Po ihiB new Anglo-American enterprise. 



SUCCESS THE -POPULAR TEST OF MERIT. 



« • > » » 



JFrof* .Miphonso Wood^s Ohjeet Ettssons in Botany.-^ 

•• Leases and Flowrers," with a Flora. ProparoJ^for Beglnaurs in Aca- 
demies and Public schools. 665 Illustrations ; 822 pp. ; 12mOy cloth. 
Price, 1.60. 

Ihrof* irv»«€i'8 JITew Ciaas'Book of Bolanyg : Being Out-, 

lines of th« Structure, Physiolojjy and Classification of Plants. With 
a Flora of the United States and Canada. 745 Illustrations ; 832 pp.; 
8ro, cloth. Price $8.50. 

These works are the mo^t popnlar pabltshed In thlB conntryon this topic. For the use 
of Schools, Academies and ColIe?e3, ther are confessedly uarlvalled. While equally ex- 
hsastive and aocarate with other treatises, their systematic arrangement and pecallar . 
adaptation to the jroaa?, roaders them pre-eipinently successful. As text books no others 
are to be compared with them. 

The last annual report of the Board of Resrents of the UnlrerflUy of the State of New 
Ifbrk, sets forth that out of 14*2 Academies in the state, pursuing the studv of B9tanv, 
W, 'or more than thres-Jl/tfu of the whole number use Wood as the standard Text-book. 
A llk9 prouDrtion prev ills ehewh3re. T'ls annail sale of thi b> A* is bjllayed to ex- 
ceed that ot all competing works combined. No recommend itlon in their favor can be 
more conclastve than this — especially when it is considered that the new CfaMB Book 
was first issued in 1861, and the '' Object Lessons'' in 1808. 



JUST ISSUED, 

Manteith's Intennefliate & Physical Geography; 

Or JlTo. 4 of ihe JITationai €^ogrraphieai Series. In fire 
yolumes.' By Montbith & MoNallt. 

This beautiful yolume fills the only gap in the gradation of this most 
successful series. 

The subject is treated as a sclence^etfireefh>m detail .and all technical terms which 
would perpi^ the young lecturer. The illustrations, which are numerous and beautiful, 
are adapted to the text 

ON THE FLAN OF OBJBOT TEA.OaiNa. 

It combines the Perceptive, the Analytic and the Synthetic. The earth Is first pre- 
sented as the abode of man. affjrdln? ail the miterlaU, conditions, productions, &3., n^ 
ce«ary to his existence and enjoyment; then these parts are considered separatelr, and 
In regard to their mutual depsnddQce and Influences ; after which is i?lTen a description 
of the earth's formation from chaos, of its gradual development, and of its wonderfhl 
completion. This process Is likened to an ezz, whose fluid substances, in accordance 
with certain laws, become a beautiful living bfrd. 

EFFECTS ARE TBAOBD TO THEIB OA.USES. 

Principles are considered. Inferences are drawn and sui^s^ested, vet such familiar lan- 
goage and impressive illustrations are employed, that what has been heretofore so dry 
and obscure to pupils is here made clear and interesting even to the youngest M<^i>~ 
tain ranges, oceanic currents, rivers, & 3., are view^fd in connection with their origin, 
abd are ahowa to be so placed and so organized as to furnish indUpensable aid to the 
earth's Inhabitants. 

The text of that pirt devoted to Physical Qso^raphy is in narrative form, divided into 
paragraphs, which are so constructed that the commencement of each appears m promi- 
nent type, to sn^^est the questions. This part may be used, therefore, both as a Text 
Book and as a Reader. 

The Local Geography contains Maps and Map Exercises, peculiarly adapted to each 
other and to class recitations. ^ 

For terms for first introduction into SchooFs, an<l fdr a full descriptire 
OAtalogue of all their issues, address 

A. S. BABNE3 & CO., Educational Fablishers, 

61 63 & 55 John Street, New York. 

vll-6-l 



WESTERN SCnOOL FURNITiaG VORIS. 

JESTABLISHEIJ IN 1854. 
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Embracing over Efty Different Styles. 
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Gymnastio apparatus for' this popular system, sucU as 

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Manufactured and for sale to Schools, Colleges, &c., at reasonable 
prices. 

We also offer to the Public the following articles :— 

DE. LEWIS'S NEW BOOK HOLDER. 

Which is considered to be the' best means yet devised to correct 
the stooping posture so common to all classes of readers. 

DB. LEWIS'S SPIROMETER, 

For enlarging and strengthening the Pulmonary Organs. 

A simple, yet compkte Gymnastic apparatus, by which over one 
hundred beautiful and profitable exercises can be performed ; this 
wonderful invention has found its way to all parts of the Globe, 
and is everywhere spoken of in the highest praise. 
For terms of the above, address 

DR. DIO I.EWIS, 
_.«^,^ P.O.Box 12, Boston. 



SI 3^ .A. AC X Sr £] 

THB NBW BDIWON OP 

BROWN'S ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

* BBVISBD, WITH ADDITIONS IN 

ANALYSIS AND PARSING, 

BY HENRY KIDDLE, A.M., . 

Aflsistant Superintendent of Common Schools, New York City. ^ * 

TkU Series is the most perfect and complete exposition of English Grammar 
^ extant^ and consists of 

TIRST LINES OF ^NGLISH GRAMMAR, 

l2mo, half boiind, 122 pages. Price 35 cents, Net. 

INSTITUTES OF ENGLISH iSRAMMAR, 

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III. 

THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

With an introdaction, Historical and Critical; the whole methodicallj 
arranged and ampljr illustrated, eto., etc., etc. ; and a Key to the Oral Exer- 
cises, with Appendixes, etc. Seventh Edition, Revised and Improved. 
(With a fine portrait of the author engraved on steel). Enlarged by the 
addition of a copious Index of Matter:-!, by SAMUEL U. BERKIAN, A.M. 
1,102 pages, large octavo, handsomely bound. Price $5.00 net 

This POPULAR AND STANDARD Series of English Grammars has long 
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Is coubidered by thefti more clear ^ s<mnd and practical than any other series. 

BROWN'S GRAMMARS— REVISED 

Are up to the times. 
. Are Methodical. 

Are Simple and Progressive. 

Are Acctirate and Comprehensive. 

Are Bigidly Exact in rules and definitions. 

Have Twenty-five difiierezit models of Analysis. 

Do not confuse the pupil. 

Have very Practical and Interesting examples of False 
Syntax. 

Are more Strongly Bound than others. 

Teach English Grammar Thoroughly. 

Have borne the Test of Time and the School Room, 
and are confiantly increasing in favor and wide- spread use. They are the re- 
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^nafl;e remains what it is." — (8. u. B.) 

[f^Send for specimen copies for examination, enclosing 16 cents for the 
Firiit Lines, and 38 cents for ttie Institutes. 

Q:^ The Publishers will be happy to correspond with teachers and all others 
interested. 

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OTTO*S FRENCH C0NTER8ATI0N GRAMMAB. 

ReriMd by Perdinakd BdcHEB, Instractor in 

French at Harrajrd College. ISmo, eloth. •1.76. 
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Fu£UB'# 16mo, cloth. fl^fiO. 
SLEMRNTART FRENCH READER. By Mad. U. 

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and revised by Prof: Gxllbtts. 16mo. Sl^. 
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omroTi's 



Physical and Political Wall Maps 



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Series No. I. 

Hip of the United States^ $S 00 

•* North America 6 CO 

'* 8oath America 6 50 

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MapofThe.United States.' 

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Africa... 

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Any Map, or any uomber of Maps of the Series, (except Series Na 3X cin 
^ lekcted if a full set is not required. 

'Bj the admirable system of coloring adopted, the plateaus, mountains, yalleys, rtyexs, 
^ndea, hi &ct all the physical characteristics of the Earth*s sur£eu;e, are clearly and 
*<iQtifiiUy expressed, as also the poUtical features, boundaries, names of dties etc, eta 



TSSTIMGNIAIL PRQM PRQPCSSeei AQASSIZ. 

fttm what I know of Pro£ Guyot's Wall Maps, etc., I have no hedtation hi saying 
both as to method and execution they are incomjMxrably superior to any thing of the kind 
published ; and in connection with the series of text-books by the same author, 
Uidi, I understand, are soon to be published, they wHl form the most valuable means for 
t itndy of geograi^y, in which department there is urgent necessity for new books adapt- 
^ the present adranced state of the science, In fs^ it is the simple truth, that no 
^gtogrophtr living undergtands the relations of the physical fwtmre of our earth so well, or knows 
*^ present them to students with such simplicity and clearness as Prof, Gvyot, 

L. AQASSIZ. 
Ombrit^ Mass., March 27th, 1865. 

^IK PRES8.--T0 be published during the Fall, the first two of ProC Guyot^s G[e}ie8 of 
tphies. 

CHARLES SORIBNER & CO. 



' Send for Circnlar with taH desci^tkm. 



TEXT-BOOKS ON BOTAliTY, 

By Prof: ASA OBAY, of Harvard University. 



The COVSERVATORT OF FLOWERS in the VAUOVAL PBOPAOAp 
TING OARJDEVS at WASHINGTOV is arranged according * 
to the Classification of these Text-books. 



These Books present the latest and most accurate principles and derelop- 
ments of the science, and ha^e been recommended by almost erery eminent 
Botanist in the country. 

For comprehensiveness of scope, exactness and clearness of description, 
accurate and scientific analysis of Plants, and beauty of illustrations, they hsTt 
no equal. 

THE SERIES CONSIST OF 

JVotr JPtaniS Grow* — Containing a Popular Flora, or in 
Arrangement and Description of Common Plants, both Wild and CultiTated. 
Illustrated by more than 600 Drawings frtfm Nature. 

Mt€S8on8 in Botany and Vegetable PhyHology.-- 

Illustrated by over 800 Wood cuts ; to which is added a copious Glotsarjff or 
.Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 

Jnanual of Botany • — A comprehensive Flora of the Northern 
States east of the Mississippi, including Virginia and Kentucky, arraagod 
according to the Natural Systtm. To which is added Qard<n Botaht, aal 
Fourteen beautiful Plates illustrating the Genera of Ferns, 'Qraasea, &0. 

MjeHHonn and Jfianuah — This work, in one volume, is the one 
most used as a complete Class-book, by Students of Botany. 

Structural and Systen^atie Botany and VegetaHU 

PHYSIOLOGY. — Being a fifth revised edition of the «♦ BoUnioal Text-book, i 
illustrated by over 1,300 Wood cuts, to which is added a fkill Glossary, « 
Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 

jnanual of Botany, with JfioHMH and JLiverwort.-^ 

With Twenty-two Plates, illustrating the Genera of Cryptogamia. 

Flora of the Southern States.—Bj A. W. Chapman, H.I). 

The Plan of this work is nearly the same as that adopted by Prof. Gbat, 
and presents a systematic arrangement of the Pheenogamous and hightf 
Cryptogamons Plants of all the States south of Kentucky and Yirginia, aaA 
east of the Mississippi. 

The undersigned are the publishers of — 

Sanders' Series of Readers, "Willson's Histories, 

Bobinson's Series of Mathematios, Bryant A Stratton's BoolkkMfftmgg 

Keri's Series of Orammars. Fasquelle's French Series, 

Colton's Series of Oeograpnies, Woodbury's (German Series, 

Wells' Itf atural Soienoes, Spencerian Penmanship, mo. 

Also Manufacturers of the Celebrated SPENCERIAS 
STEEL PENS. 



lilberal terms slTen on books Itarnlshed for ezamlnatleB er tatreda 
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48 * OO Wtaiker Birtei^ JT. T. 

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XVBRT TEACHKB AND FAMILY SHOULD HATS 

WEBSTBB'8 NBUT DICTIORTARY. 

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The best Eni^ish Dictionanr,(l ) in its 
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■ton and Pine Blndlas** 
" GET THE LATEST.** " GET T«E BEST.** ** GET WEBSTER.** 
Published by G. & G. MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass. Sold by ali. Bookseli^ers. 
S^Heimen pages of MUutraiions ami other new jeatmei %HU be sent on applietuion to the pwblisherM. 
** Etymological part remarlcably well done. * * We have had no English Dic- 
tionary nearer so good in this respect.**~A<)r(A Am. Beriew, Jan,, 1605. 

** In our opinion, it is the best Dictionary that either England or America can 
hotaL^—Natumal QuarUrly RttHew, Oct, 1864. 
** No English scholar can dispense with this work.**— AtftfibfAfca Sacra, Jan , 1865. 
" Truly a Maanum Ojmu, a monument of industry, research, and erudition, worthy 
the most cordial recognition and the highest praise of all who write, speak or study 
the English language.** — Eoang. Quarttrty Rtvitw, Jan., 1865. 

** Inits general accuracy, completeness, and practical utility, the work is one which 
none teho can read or tm'te can hence/oncard ajord (o duptnttwitk,^* — Atlantic Monthly, 
No9,, 1864* 

^ Viewed as a whole, wc are confident that no other living langnogo has a Diction- 
anr which so fullv and faithfully sets forth its present condition as this last edition of 
Webster does tliat ofour written and spoken English tongue.*' — Harper' » Mag, Jan. ,'65. 
" Thb New Webster is glorious— it is perfect — it distances and defies competition 
— it leaves nothing to be desired. As a monument of literary labor, or as a business 
enterprise, magnificent in conception and almost faultless in execution, I think It 
equally admirable.**— >/. H, Raymond, LL.D., Pre$. Vattar OtUegt, 

WEBSTER'S 8CHOOI. DICTIONARIES, Tlz.t 
I. THE PRIMARY. IIL HIGH SCHOOL. V. COUNTING HOUSE. 

U. COMMON SCHOOL. IV. ACADEMIC. VI. UNIVERSITY. 

These popular School Dictionaries, having been thoroughljr revised, being extensive- 
ly regaroed as the standard authority in Orthography, Definition, and Pronunciation, 
and as THE BEST Dictionaries in use, are respectfully commended to teachers and 
others. They are much more extensively sold and used than all others combined. 

Q:^Webster*s School Dictionaries are published by J. B. UPPINCOTT & CO., 
Phihulelphia; MASON BROTHERS, New York, and sold by them and aU Booksellers. 
Q^Twenty-five copies of WEBSTER'S NEW ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY have 
ju st bee n placed in as many of the Boston public scho(ds by the school bonrd of that city. 
Q^The State of Maryland having recently established a Free School system, its 
State Board of Education has just adopted Webster*s series of Dictionaries at the 
st andar d, and for exclusive use In the Public Schools of that State. 

O^^Neariy every State Superintendent of Public Instruction in the Union, or cor- 
respondiiur ofilcer, where sucn an one exists, has recommended WEBSTER'S DIC- 
TIONARY in the strongest terms. Among tnem are those of Maine. New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, (^necticut, New York. New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland. Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Olinois, Missouri, Michigan, Iowa, Wis- 
eonain, MlnnesoU, North Carolina, Alabama, Califbmia, and also Canada— T WENT Y- 
THREbinaD. 

sorALors PURCiiALSSs. 

The State of NEW YORK has placed 10.000 copies of Webster's Unabridged in as 
many of her Public Sehoob. The State of WISCONSIN, over 4,000— nearly every 
SehooL The State of NEW JERSEY, 1.600— nearly every School. The State of 
MICHIGAN made provlsioo for aU her Schocds. The SUte of MASSACHUSETTS 
has supplied her Scwxds— neariy aU. 

More than fca times as many are sold of Webster's Dictionaries, as of any other series 
in tfrls country. At least /ow--jl/Nb of all the School Books published in this country 
own Webster as their itandard, and of the remainder, few acknowledge my standard. 
MJI it* ALL tttUCMUilM T8E0OMOUT THI MMITID tTATBI ^ iRlTltB PMVUMIt* 



.--v^" 



<X>1S1I£ 



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HUMAN PRYSIOLOGY. 

Aiiatoiiii' and llyiricne. 

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I\ S. LAMBKUT, M.D. 

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PlAtei» Coataitilng very taatiy Pifiures; In one 

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61 WiOliS'lllvfi, Nv«r Turk 



NEW YORK TEACHER. 



New Sebies.] MAY, 186G, [V^l. VII, Xo. 8. 

A Few Questions. 

It is now generally believed that all our knowledge except intui- 
tions 18 received through the senses. In gaining and using knowl- 
edge, there is first, the external world, second, thoughts and ideas 
in the mind, third, language, naming ideas by words and naming 
or expressing related ideas or thoughts, by related words. The 
outward world is made up of objcot^ and relations, thcreiore the 
mind must engage in the study of objects and relations, and lan- 
guage must name or express ideas of objects and relations. 

The order of acc|uisition appears to be, from objects or relations 
to thoughts, from thought to language. There must be an outward 
wqrld before there can be thought, and there must be thought be- 
fore there can be language to express thought. This appears to be 
the natural order of acquiring knowledge. Can this order ever be 
inverted? Does the man of sixty years learn by a process really 
different from that by which the child of six years learns ? Does 
the child require peculiar instruction because he learns by a different 
mental process, or because of his limited experience ? 

If children are to learn that the sum of the three angles of a 
triangle is equal to two right angles, they cut off the three corners 
and place them together so that they see that these angles occupy 
the space of two right angles. If older children are to learn the 
same thing, they observe the relations of certain lines and angles 
till they also perceive that the sum of the three angles is equal to 
two right angles. Both reach the same result by observing that 
tbe three angles occupy the space of two right angles. Neither 
can be said to know the truth stated in the theorem till the final 
perception of equality between the sum of the given angles and 
two right angles. If in the primary school, it is a violation of the 
natural law of acquiring knowledge to give the above statement or 
[Vol. XV, No. 8.] 16 



228 Beaipectjuay SubmUted. 

theorem before the perception of its truth, \a it any less a yiolation 
of that law to give the same theorem in the high school before its 
truth has been perceived ? 

Words or names that do not suggest ideas are worthless, but ideas 
without names or words which shall suggest these ideas must be of 
great value. This is evident when we reflect that we name but very 
few of our ideas. Of the vast number of geometrical forms around 
us, scarcely one in one hundred is ever named. Of the almost 
innumerable shades of color, comparatively few are definitely named. 
What then is the value of names ? How much wiser or more edu- 
cated is the child who can name his ideas of plants, animals, oolors 
or forms, than he who has the same ideas without their names ? 

Since ideas must ever be in excess of words or names, so that wc 
can not name all of our ideas, is there any danger that, in teaching 
children, we may give too many names ? a. q. m. 



Bespeotfully Submitted. 



The commercial schools, '^ colleges" so called, advertise largely 
that they tench by actual business transactions, carried on by the 
students. We can not say to what extent the facts justify the 
advertisements, for we are are not familiar with any of these schools 
of special training. But of this we are certain, that all schools may 
profit by the suggestion thus advertised. We count it a funda- 
mental canon, that every good school will deal largely with actual 
transactions. By this we mean, that every accomplished teacher 
will be prepared to bridge over the gulf between school questions, 
and the problems of active life, in such a way that his graduates 
will not be so green and inexpert as they now seem to be, when put 
upon using any of their school learning. 

Not many months since, we put into the hands of a graduate of 
an excellent school, three notes which we were about to take up by 
payment in full. We were hurried for time, and wished the creditors' 
computations verified. Wc asked the graduate, ^^ what's to pay on 
those notes t " and left her. She stood petrified, and in ten minutes 
came to us asking, "Why, what do mean ?" We answered briefly, 
'^ I want to pay those notes to-day. Tell me what I must pay, for 
I am hurried ! " She retired, and in an hour brought them in, 
with a resi^lt some three hundred dollars wide of truth. 



Bespec^fiaiy Submitted. 229 

This graduate was a leading pupil in a good school, a graduate 
of first standing, but was absolutely at fault when a problem came 
to her in a new form. We invite any of our professional readers to 
try the experiment, by way of examination, thus : go to some farmer 
or banker and borrow a genuine bona fide note of hand. Put it into 
the hands of the learners one by one, with the simple question, 
'^What's that note worth," and see whether there is not need of a 
bridge across the gulf between school work and real work. 

The canon we propound is briefly this : All studies in school 
should be so taught as to equip the learner fbr the actual problems 
of af^er life. The canon applies to all studies quite as pertinently 
ma to arithmetic and commercial mathematics. Thus e. g. : 

The use of geography among lettered men and scholars, is not 
the transforming of memory into a plethoric gazetteer, full of out- 
landish names : but is to practice a ready reference to books and 
atlases, which are always near by a well trained man. Therefore, in 
school, we should train the learners of geography to an apt use of 
their books, as books of reference and not as books to be memorized. 
Local geography, — the geography of the county and state, — every 
intelligent man should have in his head. But 'tis no discredit to a 
scholar to be unable to tell where Bayou Teche is in Louisiana or 
Bayou Sara. It is a discredit to a man not to be able to find out 
promptly an answer to such a question. The pupil needs training, 
in sehooi, to a habit of ready reference. Thus : Teacher (to class) 
Boys, I was reading this morning that copper from Detroit lake 
sells at 80 cents. Where is Detroit lake ? And my brother is mate 
on the bark Kobert Murray, and the Herald says she was at Mira- 
goane, Dec. 80, look it up and tell me where my brother is. Prac- 
tice a class with one question per day, to train habits of ready 
reference^ for this is the main use of geographic attainment in afler 
life. 

The limits of a readable article forbid detailed illustration . Suffice 
it to say, that every study that comes in to school affords an oppor- 
tunity to a live teacher to bridge over the space between the school 
artificial and the live actual. 

Oo down cellar and see how much coal there is left. 

How many thousand shingles must we get to cover our roof? 

Ho^ many rolls of paper do we need to fix up our class room ? 

They say that Samuel Adams ought to have a statue instead of 
JohD Adams, and I've forgotten about them both ; look it up. 



2S0 Lessons from a Shoemaka^s Stool. 

Write me a letter ordering a ream of paper, a grou of pens, a 
groBS of chalk, two dozen first readers, and a half gallon of ink. 
Tell 'em to send it by Adam's express, and I'll pay in thirty days. 

When yon want good soup shall the meat be '*pat on" in eold or 
hot water I wonder ? &c. &c. 

We end as we begun. *^ Actual transactions carried on by the 
student" bridge over the gulf between school days, and life's work. 
There is a place for teachers to do good work. At institutes, and 
associations let teachers swap questions, and keep up a stock of live 
questions. 

Try the plan once, and you will never be content with any other. 
X ^' Respectfully submitted," t. k.b. 



Prom Good Words. 

Lessons from a Shoemaker's Stool. 

BY JOHN KBBa, H. M. IHSFBOTOK OF SCHOOLS. 
COMGLUDXD. 

I led him by degrees to take a retrospect of the last half centory. 
He told me, in his simple unafifected Doric, the history of some of 
his pupils, keeping himself in the background, except where his 
coming forward was necessary, either to complete the story, or put 
in a stronger light the good qualities of some of his old scholars. 
He paused now and then, sometimes with his hands on his knees 
and his head slightly lowered, sometimes with his head a little to 
one side, and his eye looking back into the far-off years, and I saw 
by his quiet, reflective look that he was scanning the fruits of his 
labors, his expression varying from gaiety to gloom, as the career of 
a successful or " ne'er-do-weel" pupil passed in review before him. 

I complimented him on his haleness for his years. 

" Yes," ho replied, " I should be thankfu', and I try to be't, but, 
I'm feared, no sae thankfu' as I should be. Except hearing and 
memory, I hao my faculties as weel's when I was ten years auld. 
Eh I what a mercy ! hoo many are laid helpless on their back long 
afore they're my age, and hoo few are aboon the ground that are 
sae auld." t 

Here the old man's voice faltered, and tears of genuine gratitude 
filled his eyes. 



Lesmmsfmm a Shoemaker's SlooL 231 

*< Of a' them ihut began life wi' me, X just ken ane that's no ta'en 
awa'. There were twelre brithers and sisters o' ns, and I'm the 
only ane that's left. Mj faither dee'd when I was sixteen. My 
aulder brithers were a' oot at service, and as I was the only ane that 
was brocht up to my faither's trade, my mither and the yonnger anea 
had to depend maistly on me, and I thocht I was a broken reed to de- 
pend on, for I hadna mair than half learned my trade when my faither 
dee'd. I mind the first pair o' shoon I made ; when I hung them up 
on the pin, I said to mysel', ^Weel, the leather was worth mair afore 
I put a steek (stitch) in't.' Ye ken they werena sae particular then 
as they are noo. If the shoe didna hurt the foot, and could be worn 
at a', they werena very nice about the set o't. Mony a time I thocht 
I wud hae lost heart, but regard for my mither keepit me frae tle- 
spairin'. Whiles I was for ownin' beat, and askin' the rest to 
help us, but my mither said, ^Na Jamie, my man, we'll just work 
awa' as weel's we can, and no let the rest ken.' Weel, I wrought 
hard at my trade, and when I should hae been sleepin,' I wrought 
at my books, and I made progress in baith. Ah, sir," said the old 
man, with a pathos I can not reproduce, " naebody that hasna had to 
fecht for the best o' mithers can understan' my feelings when I saw 
at last that I was able to keep her and mysel' in meat and claes r^ 
spectably. I've had mony a pleasure in my lang life, but this was 
worth them a' put thegither. Ay," he said, and his voice became 
deeper and richer, '* it's grand to win a battle when ye've been fech- 
tin' for the through-bearin' and comfort o' an auld widow-mithei 
that ye like wi' a' your heart. For oh, I likeit my mither, and she 
deserved a' my likin'." 

Here he broke down, his eyes filled, and, as if surprised at his 
own emotion, he brushed away the tears almost indignantly with his 
sleeve, saying, '^ I'm an auld man, and maybe I should think shame 
o' this, but I canna help being proud o' my milher." 

'* I think I can understand both your perseverance and your 
pride," I replied ; '^ you must have had a hard struggle." 

" Ay, I cam through the hards, but if I was to be laid aside noo, 
it wud be nae loss to my family, for they're comfortable, and could 
keep me weel enough, and I'm sure they wud do't.'^ 

" Ton were well armed for the battle," I replied, " and it was 
half won before you began it, for you evidently commenced life with 
thoroughly good principles and strong filial affection." 



232 LeuoMfrom a Shomaker'a JSUxd. 

'' Tea, Tve reaaon to be t^iaiikfa' for a gad« np-bringu'. Mony 
a caliant is rained by bad example at home. I canna say that for 
myser. Whatever ill I hae done in my life eanna be laid at my 
Adther or mither's door. No, no I they were a dacent, honest, God- 
fearin' oonple, and everybody respected them." 

<^ Their example seems not to hare been lost upon yon, for yon, 
too, have the respect of every one who knows you." 

" Weel, I dinna ken," he replied ; " everybody has enemies, and 
I may hae mine, but I dinna ken them ; I really dinna ken them." 

'* Have you always lived in this village ?" I asked. 

" Tes ; and, what's curious, I've leeved under four kings, four 
bishops, four ministers, and four proprietors. And for mair than 
six^y years I've gane to the chapel at least ance a week, and that's 
a walk o' eight mile there and back. That's some traveling for ye. 
I never was an hour ill since I was fourteen years auld." 

He still looks wonderfully hale, but he says that, for some time 
past, he has felt the weight of years coming upon him. 

"Sometimes," he said, *^ I grow dizsy. I dinna ken what it is to 
be the waur o' drink, but I think it maun be something like what 
Fve felt, just sae diuy that if I was to cross the floor, and tramp 
on a bool (marble) I wud fa'." 

Judging, however, from his halencss, one would think him not 
much above seventy, and even strong for that, and with probably 
years of good work in him yet. He expresses himself clearly, 
methodically, and without an atom of pedantry, though in the 
broadest Scotch. He is, as I have said, an Episcopalian, and says, 
" when it is a saint's day, and the bairns are telt no to come to the 
schule, for I maun gang to the chapel, if I have occasion to gang 
doon to the shop a wee in the morning afore chapel time to finish 
some bit job, I catch mysel' lookin' roun' for the bairns, though 
there are nana o' liiem there. Na," he continued, <* I couldna do 
without my bairns noo at a' ; I cAna maybe do them muckle gude, 
but I can do them nae harm, and as lang as I can try to do them 
gude I'll no gie't up." 

Thus ended my first morning with James Beattie in February, 
1864, and I felt as if I had been breathing an atmosphere as fresh, 
bracing, and free from taint, as that which plays on mid-ocean, or 
on the top of Ben Nevis. 

I saw him a second time in January last, and though it was again 



LBBacmsfrom a Shoemah&r'a Stool. 233 

s snowy day, I found twenty pupils present The shoemaklng and 
sehoolwork go on as before. The awl and the hammer are as busy 
as ever, and his qare for his bairns unabated. I had scarcely sat 
down before I asked for << Bell," whose " dreadfu' memory" had 
surprised me the previous year. I saw, from the grieved expression 
that passed over his countenance, that something was wrong. 

'' Eh, man, Bell's deed. She dee'd o' scarlatina, on the last day 
o' September, after eighteen hours' illness. There never was a 
frem'd body's * death that gie'd me sae muckle trouble as puir 
Bell's." 

Evidently much affected by the loss of his favorite pupil, he 
went on to say, " She was insensible within an hour after she was 
taen ill, and continued that way till a short time afore she was taen 
awa'y when she began to say a prayer — it was the langes tane I had 
learned her — and she said it frae beginning to end withoot a mistak'. 
Her mither, poor body, thocht she had gotten the turn, and was 
growing better, but whenever the prayer was dune, she grew insen- 
sible again, and dee'd aboot an hour after. Wasna that most 
extraordinar ? It behooved to be the speerit o' God workin' in that 
bairn afore ho took her to himsel'. Ay, it'll be lang afore I forget 
Bell. I think I likit her amaist as if she had been my ain. Mony 
a time I said she was ower clever to leeve lang, but her death was 
a aair grief to me nane the less o' that. I'll never hae the like o' 
ber again. I've a sister o' her here. Annie McKenzie," he said, 
addressing a little girl, ^^ stan' up and let this gentlemen see ye." 
Turning again to me, he said, '^ She has a wonnerfu' memory too, 
but no sae gude as Bell's. She's just aboot six years auld. She has a 
prayer where she prays for her faither and mither, and brithers and 
sister. Puir Bell was the only sister she had, and I said to her ae 
day that she shoaldna say 'sister' ony mair in her prayer ; and wud 
ye believ't sir ? the tears cam rinnin' doon the creatur's cheeks in a 
moment, and I couldna help keepin' her company. Ye wudna 
expect that frae ane o' her age. She has a brither, too, aboot three 
years auld, that will come to something. He has a forehead stickin 
cot, just as if your ban' was laid on't" 

Jamie had made good progress during the year, and earned an- 
other sweetie easily. He had been promoted to* the dignity of 
pointing for himself, and no longer requires the awl. 

Mr. Beattie seems as vigorous as when I saw him a year ago. 

* A person not a relation. 



234 Lessons from a Shoemaker's Slooi. 

The only indication of greater feebleness is, that he has taken rega* 
larly to the nse of a staff. He walks, however, nimbly and well ; 
bnt he says the dizziness comes oyer him now and then, and he feels 
more at ease when he has a staff in his hand. 

He asked me if I couM not come and see him next day. I said I 
was sorry I coald not. " I am awfa' vexed at that," he said, *' this 
is the last day o' my eighty-first year. The mom's my eighty-se- 
cond birthday, and I thocht I micht maybe never see anither, and I 
made up my mind to gie the bairns a treat. They're a' coming and 
they get a holiday. I'm awfu' vexed ye canna come." 

" I wish very much I conld," I replied. 

'* A' the neebors,"he said, ** are takin' an interest in't, and the 
Colonel's lady has se nt|me a cake to divide among the bairns — that's 
a sma' thing compared wi' a' her gude deeds, for she's a by-ordnar 
fine woman. Ye maun come up to my house and get a bit o' the 
cake." 

I objected that it was scarcely fair to break it before to morrow. 

" Oo, ay, ye maun taste it. She'll no object to you gettin' a bit 
o't afore the bairns." 

'^ I yielded, of course, and spent another pleaaant hour with him 
during which I had my first impression confirmed as to his single 
hearted benevolence, and altogether fine character. I snook hands 
with him, and as I was leaving said I had some intention of sending 
a short sketch of his labors to Good Wordt, I asked if he had 
any objection to his name being mentioned. 

" Weel, sir," he said, " I'm real gratefu' for your kindness in 
coming twice to see me, and takin' notice o' me the way ye've done. 
It's far mair than I deserve. I dinna think the readers o' €hod 
Words will care muckle aboot the like o' me, and I've never been 
fond of makin' a show; but if ye think an article wi' my name in't 
wud encourage ithers in my humble way to do a' they can for the 
up-bringin' o' puir creaturs that hae nae ither way o' gettin' educa- 
cation, I'll no forbid ye to do just as yc like." 

" Well, then, I'll do it. Good bye !" 

" Wull ye gie me anither shake o' your han' afore ye go ? I may 
never see ye again." 

" Most willingly," I replied. 

He took my hand in one of his, and lay ing his other on my shoul- 
der, said, '' I'm no a man o' mony words, but I wud like ye to 
believe that I'm gratefu', real gratefu' for your kindnen, aa gniefu' 



We are not Made^ but Orow. 235 

as an auld mao that kens weei what kindness is can be, and I wad 
like ye to promise, if ye're hereaboots next year, and me spared till 
that time, that ye'll no gang by my door. WuU ye promise this V* 

I gave the promise, and was rewarded by, two or three kindly 
claps on the back, a hearty squeeie of the hand, and " God bless ye 
and keep ye." 

. The moral of James Beattie's life requires no pointing. A life 
that has been a discipline of goodness, and to which benevolence 
has become a necessity — " I canna do without my bairns noo at a', 
and as lang's as I try to do them gude Til no gie't up'' — has a sim- 
ple eloquence that needs no aid and admits of no embellishment 
from well balanced phrases. 

May the life which has already far exceeded the allotted span, be 
continued for years to come, to a man who has been diligent in 
business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord. 



We are not Made, but Orow. 



A very wise educator exhorted his brethren to grow in grace and 
knowledge. He evidently recognized what other teachers have 
sometimes forgotten, that character, physical, intellectual, and moral, 
is the result of growth. Though they had been instructed by in- 
spired apostles he very well knew that knowledge could not be put 
on like a garment. 

We grow in knowledge. All that we can do in educating, is to 
place the pupil in such relations as shall be most conducive to his 
growth. 

The teacher may cultivate, but he can not create. The index of 
good teaching must be in the effect upon the pupil. The teacher 
should watch his class as carefully as he does himself. This may 
not be done solely to see how well a lesson has been learned, but rather 
to see what power has been acquired to reach forward from the 
known to the unknown. That teaching under which there has 
been intellectual growth is always shown by the pupil's increased 
ability to help himself. The teacher who does most for his pupils 
is he who gets them to do most for themselves. 

Growth to the pupil is an incident rather than an end. This 
may be universally true, for in the course of time all the sciences 



236r Extracts. 

have grown out of the wants of society. In its relation to educa- 
tion, this is a truth that should not be disregarded. The child does 
not eat that he may grow, become strong, and weigh two hundred 
pounds; he does not run and shout, because he thinks exercise of 
any other value than for his present enjoyment. The philosopher 
sees beyond, and knows that food and exercise are necessary to the 
growth of the child ; the child himself is seldon conscious that he . 
grows at all. Is not the law of intellectual growth exactly parallel 
to the law of physical growth ? If so, the growth of the intellect 
should be purely incidental. Before the child enters school he uses 
his mind as he does his body. One grows by exercise the same as 
the other. He learns for his own gratification just as he eats and 
plays for his own gratification. And how much he learns I Before 
the age of five years, he learns as much of a language as he ever 
learns after that age, not because he cares anything about language, 
but because he wishes to talk and to understand others. He learns 
the more obvious properties of a large number of substances ; to 
abstract, generalize, and classify. He has taken thousands of lessons 
in form, size, color and weight, and has never been a " failure." 
He has examined numberless plants and flowers and can call many 
of their names at sight. He is familiar with a large* number of 
animals, birds and insects, and has made such progress in physical 
education as no subsequent five years of his life can equal — all this 
he has done and much more, without having once been told to << pay 
attention," or having once thought about learning. 

Without denying that habits of persistent study should be acquir- 
ed as pupils advance in age, it would aeem that in order to yitellectual 
growth, tasks should be nearly if not quite unknown. We must 
wait for children to grow in mind as they grow in stature, we may 
direct and present the proper subjects of thought, but their own 
minds must do the work that shall result in mental growth. 

A. a. M. 



If you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like, 
serve yourself. — Franklin, 

I was surprised, just now, to see a cobweb round a knocker, for 
it was not on the gate of heaven. — Hare. 

Wisdom is ofttimcs nearer when we stoop, than when we soar. — 
Winrdsworth, 



The Thinker. 237 



The Thinker. 

0, my friend, the ourUined palaoo is aflood with fiery light, 
And the brightsome, billowy surges OTerflow the banks of night. 
Under all the biasing splendors, purples float, and diamonds flash, 
And the smitten cords are yibrant ; wares of sound together clash. 
Art looks down from Aretted columns gleaming fair with costly gold. 
And her wondrous forms are liTing, all their meaning now unrolled 
Stem old heroes lift their weapons, frosen pulses wake and glow. 
And their subtle, soomftil spirits, look upon the throngs below. 
Woman's beauty, manhood's glory, sway within the princely hall ; 
Wreaths of rarest blossom-fragrance, crown this lordly festiyal. 

What haTC I to do with revel 1 Though the fountain leap and shine, 
Though the crystal goblet crimson with the sun-rich, ruby wine ; 
Tho* the palace-door stand open for my weary pilgrim-feet. 
Though the dreamy air enfold me, and the master's welcome greet ; 
Thgugh my senses haste to bathe them in this fairy-haunted sea, — 
1 I know its siWer waters gleam not, murmur not, for me I 
Not for me the shallow words that dwell on lips of haughty calm ; 
Not for me the syren singing, drowning youth's prophetic psalm ; 
Not for me the tinsel folly, draining strength and truth Arom lifis ; ^~ 
I would rather arm and struggle in the never-ending strife 1 

Better is the solemn silence reigning in my secret tower, 

Where I hear the centuries treading with a grand, majestic power. 

There I summon all their columns ; there I bid the dead to speak ; 

And I glean from their strong utterance, wisdom that the world doth seek. 

All the early builders bring me their sublime and costly lore. 

And their legends tell the story of the far sea-beaten shore. 

In the gray old granite quarry, wrought they in the years agone. 
Planting deep the rook-foundation, resting not till life was done ; 
Falling on the field of slaughter, where their triumph could not die ; •— 
Victory shone above them, radiant, at their last, loud battle-cry. 
Life goes out, and blood is shed, whene'er we climb to loftier hights ; 
And the steps our feet are treading, are Truth's faithful, fearless knights. 
But the dead are not defeated, and cold lips are eloquent, . 

And the strength one craves, he gathers where decay and dust are blent. 
Nay I I cannot seek the palace, and forsake my throned kings, 
For they wear a crown and sceptre that will shame your gilded thingi. 



238 The Thinker. 

Hither stride the grim-browed barons, Arom the fields of Rannjmede, 
With uplifted Magna Charta won from grasping, kingly greed ; 
And I see fair English freedom springing from the fertile sod^ 
Smiling oTer English hillsides, raising manhood nearer God. 
Ah I the holy seed they scattered, fell on furrows deeply ploughed; 
Liberty stood up more proudly, wise, and grand, and lofty -browed. 

Hither comes the Silent William, with his ranks of Flemish knights ; 

For the Fatherland they struggle, holding fast their ancient righta. 

Flemish life sinks in the waters ; Flemish blood flows o*er the dykes ; 

Sterner stands good Father William, as the Spanish tyrant strikes. 

Flemish cities lie in ashes ; palace-portals drip with gore ; 

And the princes leaye their pageants for the battle's crash and roar. 

Then I grasp the hands toil-hardened, that withstood the gathered might 

Of the terrible Armada, strong, and thirsting for the light. 

He whose slaves were homage-laden, in the proud Escorial, 

Thought to make the maiden -monarch bow a serrile, conquered thrall. 

But that host was tempest-scattered, worn, and smitten, and dismayed; 

Homeward sailed the ships dismantled, which came mightily arrayed. 

Slowly march the earnest pilgrims, with their brows of holy calm, 

Wearing trailing robes of triumph, in their hands, the yictor-palm ; 

And their spirit lights the faces growing pale at Valley Forge, 

Stirs the hearts whose crimson current sanctifies the gloomy gorge ; 

Crowns with glory, proud and peerless, him * we celebrate to-night, 

Whom the world lifts up with reverence, to a purer, saintlier hight ; 

And it falls, a benediction, on the men of later days, 

As we stand to see their bravery, in a wondering, wild amaze, 

Stand to see their ranks transfigured in the cannon^s awfUl blaie. 

On our rifted fields of battle, here again the fight is won, — 

This old fight, come through the ages, f^om the father to the son. 

It is nought where armies gather, whether on the foam-wreathed sea, 

Whether on the dykes of Holland, whether on the English lea ; 

Whether in Italian valleys, pressing back the tyrant horde. 

Charging for a last encounter, flashing out a sheathless sword ; — 

'Tis the same old wrong that festers ; 'tis the same old fight that glows; 

And each new-born generation stands to deal its manliest blows. 

Underneath the surging tumult, sits the Thinker, with his Thought, 
Stirring up the slumbering spirits till the mighty work be wrought. 
Eagle-eyed he watches nations, from his narrow-windowed tower. 
And his clarion wakes the peoples, when he sees the dawning hour. 
Down he gpropes among foundations, down among the roots of things; 
Probes the source of royal fictions, shakes the rotten thrones of kings. 

•Written for Washington's Birth-day, 1880. 



Defects of Greek OivUiz^iHon. 289 

ETermore he pleads for manhood, eTermore he Bhames the wrong ; 
ETermore he lifts the lowly, breaking fetter, whip, and thong. 
All unseen he sows his Thought, but when the valleys wave with gold. 
When into the starred world's granaries, richest wealth is freely rolled ; 
When the slave leaps from his bondage, and the nations juster cprow. 
When Humanity regenerate, casts aside its weary woe ; 
Then the Thinker wears his laurel ; sits among the lordliest ; 
Shines among his throned monarchs, in his royal jewels drest, 
And within Truth*s hallowed temple, finds his glory and his rest. 

M. A. B. 



The Defects of Qreek Ciyilisation. 

BT DAYID BIDDLB BBIXD. 

The winds whistle among the Tuins of Palmyra. The sands of 
the desert cover the broken monuments of Thebes. The Pyramids, 
those piles of stone over the tombs of kings, stand a monumental 
symbol of the departed glory of ancient £gypt. The grim demon 
of destruction is enthroned upon the fallen walls of the Coliseum ; and 
the forum where Cicero spake, with the senate chamber where Csdsar 
fell, are remembered only in the literature of the golden age. The 
fall of these nations was brought about by the defects of their civili- 
sation. But of all the great nations that once ruled the world, 
Greece attracts the most attention. She was once the cradle of arts 
and sciences, the mother of poets and orators. But even when the 
nationality of Greece had reached its zenith, and when the reign 
of Pericles had adorned Athens with all the embellbhments of 
master minds, there was a secret something at work in the state 
which was doomed to ultimately undermine and destroy it. This 
something was the defective civilization of the state. 

#When Paul stood in the midst of Mars hill and declared to the 
Greeks a new religion, but yet a true one, they sent him away 
with the assurance, ^* we will hear thee again of this matter." Even 
then, Greece was waning in its power, and the rejection of the religion 
of the " unknown Ged" was all that was needed to bring ruin. But 
the cross was odious to the Greek, and God destroyed the nation. 
What makes England and the United States to-day the most 
powerful nations of the world, unless it is that they are the 
Christian nations ? What makes France so volcanic and Russia so 
barbarous, Spain so degraded and Rome so oorrapt nnlesB it is their 



240 De/ecta of Greek OivUizoaum. 

perversion and abuse of this religion ? Where is Turkey to-^ay 7 
She is under the millstone of Mohammedanism. Where are Tyre 
and Sidon, with their merchant princes and their trafio in the 
treasures of the Indies? Where are those once populous and 
powerful cities of antiquity, Gush and Damascus and No F They 
have all, like Egypt, Greece and Rome, withered away before the 
Lord, because they despised or abused his heavenly religion. 

So the religion of Greece was not the religion to benefit a people 
or to raise them to a higher state of happiness or permanent 
prosperity. 

The worship of Bacchus and Venus was conducted in lewdness 
and debauchery. Jove was represented as an arbitrary ruler, hav- 
ing all the passions and whims of mankind. The religion of Greece, 
even in its best phases, was all of the head, while there was no 
heart in it They had no whole-souled benevolence, no heari-felt 
sympathy with human suffering. Did man desire to attain a high 
office in the state, to become better or nobler ; then did the phan* 
toms of the triform fates arise in his dreams to assure him that 
there was a Divinity which shaped his ends rough-hew them as he 
would. What inducements were held out to any sincere reformer 
or ardent philanthropist ? The few smiles of a voluptuous god, or 
the approbation of a people in the shape of a decree banishing him 
for life. For the Greeks were apt to be jealous of one who greatly 
excelled in any point. 

But if the Greeks envied a man who wviBpreemtnerUy they treated 
with equal injustice one who was not at all eminent. He who pos- 
sessed not the title of a Grecian citisen through a line of Grecian 
ancestors, was deemed almost as great a villain as a oommon thief. 
In one of the great levees of the badly celebrated Aspasia, there 
was only one lady who wore the symbolical grasshopper — the 
emblem. of a pure-blooded Greek. She was the most highly favored 
of all the company ; for the others were all Grecian citiiens. 

Everywhere the native Greek was exalted at the expense of aliens 
and bondmen, and the individual was sacrificed for the state. The 
Greeks either forgot or never knew that the strongest element of 
power in a state was an enlightened and intelligent yeomanry. All 
else was forgotten in their pride of state. They decked the temples 
of their gods, and crowned their public buildings with costly woiks 
of art, while the homes of the people and the comfort of the popu- 
lace were forgotten. The will of the people was mad^ altogether 



The Author of Thanaiopna. 241 

sabflorrient of tbe extravagance of the state, and the pablio treasa- 
ries were drained to purchase costly statues for the Acropolis. 

Ivory was voted for public statues, and gold was commanded to 
adorn the place where silver would have been extravagant. Thusy 
while outwardly the state was beautiful in the extreme it was rotten 
at the core. It was beautiful to the eye, but painful to the pene- 
trating glance of the eKperienced statesman. 

Among the minor defects of the Greek civilization was the degrad- 
ation of women. True, the seats in the theatre were sometimes 
reserved for ladies of rank, but very seldom. While the men 
were enjoying intellectual conversation with distinguished guests, 
the unfortunate women were doomed to the dreary drudgeries 
of the kitchen. There they plied the loom, while their life passed 
away with as little variation as the shuttle which they guided. 

America may well learn a lesson from the fate of other nations 
that despised the true Ood and trampled in scorn upon the weak 
and lowly. 



The Author of Thanatopsis. 



Wm. Cullen Bryant was born in Cummington, Massachusetts, on 
the third day of November, 1794. He gave early indications of 
superior talents, and received the instruction of his father. Dr. Peter 
Bryant. When ten years of age, he felt an inclination for poetry, 
and several of his very creditable translations from some of the 
Latin poets, were printed in the Hampshire Gazette at Northampton. 
He wrote several pieces in verse which were also publbhed. At 
thirteen he wrote the Embargo, a political satire which was never 
surpassed by any poet of that age. In 1810 he entered an advanced 
chu» of Williams College, and soon became distinguished for his 
general attainments, especially for his proficiency in the ancient 
classics. 

He was admitted to the bar at Plymouth in 1815. After passing 
ten years with good success, in the courts of Oreat Barrington, in 
one of which, he obtained his wife^ he determined to turn his atten- 
tion exclusively to literature. With this view he removed to New 
York city in 1825, where in company with a friend he established 
the New York Review and Aihenaum Magazine^ in which were 



242 The Author of ThmuxiopBia. 

published several of his finest poems. The next year he assumed 
the editorship of the Evening Po$t, one of the best gasettes in the 
ooontry, with which he has ever since been connected. Bryant, in 
company with his family, has made several visits to Europe. From 
the first in 1836, he was obliged to return suddenly, on account of 
the illness of his cherished friend and partner, the late Wm. Leggett 
After his visit in 1844, being strongly desirous of a country residence, 
he sought in the vicinity of New York a place to satisfy his ideal 
of a home. Sailing up Long Island sound eighteen or twenty 
miles, a beautiful bay meets his gaze : he is incited to explore it : 
above its head are three ponds, which rise successively one above 
the other, supplied by the various springs that issue from the tower- 
ing hills on the west, south and east. The latter, Harbor Hill is 
the highest on the coast between Maine and Florida. 

A road sweeps along the sides toward the sound. Two churches 
adorn the hill sides, their steeples apparently striving to overtower 
the surrounding trees. Houses are scattered hither and thither 
rather to command a fine prospect than to constitute a village. Along 
the western shore the hills are so regular and so clad in various forest 
trees, as to seem artificial. The road, nearly half way up their sides, 
running parallel with the bay, is so shaded, that but small portions 
of it are seen from the water. 

The eastern coast on the contrary, is quite irregular. In som^ 
places it rises nearly perpendicular to a considerable hight; in 
others it retreats back, gradually upward for a short distance, 
whence up it rolls into a lofty hill. In such a place, nearly a mile 
from the village, is the residence of Mr. Bryant. 

The old fashioned light brown house with its broad projecting 
roof would not in itself be very attractive, were it in a less favorable 
spot. It is connected by an archway to a square tower, which standi 
on the edge of the road. On the south it fronts two beautiful 
circular ponds ; a lattice bridge spans their junction. Around these 
is a white pebble walk skirted on either side with a row of red 
cedars. A small outlet flows through an artificial channel obstructed 
with rocks. Over these, violently rushes this small foaming stream 
down under a little rustic bridge. What a picture to behold I 
Even the untrained eye looks on with wonder. Here too is a Swiss- 
fashioned building, with water power to force a supply to the foun- 
tain of the Swiss cottage, the farm house on the summit of 4h6 hilL 



Ten Oomma/ndments of Etiquetle. 243 

The garden is abandantly freighted with fruit, and richly apices the 
atmosphere with odors of sweet flowers. 

An extensive panoramic view is pictured to the beholder from 
the western or northern porches of the mansion. About fifteen miles 
distant, is plainly seen the northern shore of the sound, together 
with a large surface, which is seldom free from many vessels in 
full sail. Here Mr. Bryant lives and writes as one ^^ who in the love 
of nature holds communion with her visible forms." 

J. D. c. 



The Child's Etiquette in Ten Commandments. 

• 
The following hints on Education, Etiquette and Morals, from 
the pen of George Francis Train, are worth publishing: 

I. Always say, Yes, sir. No, sir. Yes, papa. No, papa. Thank 
you. No, thank you. Good night. Good morning. Never say 
How. or Which, for What. Use no slang terms. Hemembor good 
spelliut^, reading, writing, and grammar are the base of all true 
education. 

II. Clean faces, clean clothes, clean shoes and clean finger nails 
indicate good breeding. Never leave your clothes about the room. 
Have a place for everything, and everything in its place. 

III. Rap before entering a room, and never leave it with your 
back to the company. Never enter a private room or public place 
'Wi^h your cap on. 

IV. Always offer your seat to a lady or old gentleman. Let your 
companions enter the carriage or room first. 

y. At table eat with your fork ; sit up straight ; never use your 
tooth pick (although Europeans do) and when leaving ask to be 
excused. 

VI. Never put your feet on cushions, chairs or table. 

YII. Never overlook any one when reading or writing, nor talk or 
read aloud while others are reading. When conversing listen atten- 
tively, and do not interrupt or reply till the other is finished. 

VIII. Never talk or whisper aloud at the opera, theatre or public 
places, and especially in a private room where any one is singing or 
playing the piano. 

IX. Loud coughing, hawking, yawning, sneezing and blowing are 
ill-mannered. In every case cover your mouth with your handker- 
chief (which never examine — nothing is more vulgar except spitting 
on thefioor'), 

X. Treat all with respect, especially the poor. Be careful to 
injure no one's feelings by unkind remarks. Never tell tales, make 
faces, call names, ridicule the lame, mimic the unfortunate, or be 
cruel to insects, birds or animals. 

[Vol. XV, No. 8.] 17 



Resident Editor's Department. 



MISCELLANY, 

Thb N. T. Statk Tbacrebh' Association will meet at Geneva, the last 
Tuesday in July next. The President is busy perfeoting arrangements. 
Programme in our next. 

MotiB Normal Schools. — ProTision has been made by the legislature 
at its present session, for the establishment of four Normal Schools in addi- 
tion to those now in operation. The GoTemor, Lieutenant GoTemor, Sec- 
retary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, are appointed a commission to receiTe pro- 
posals in writing, from supenrisors of towns, corporate authorities of 
cities and Tillages, trustees of colleges and academies, or from one or more 
individuals, for the establishment of such schools, containing specification 
for the purchase of lands, erection of buildings, furnishing of apparatus* 
books, etc. The act appropriates $12,000 per annum for the support of 
each of such schools. This is a move in the right direction, and from 
present indication, there will be a spirited contest, attested by most liberal 
offers Arom different localities, for the honor of locating the schools. 

Another act gives the Board of Education of the city of New York, 
authority to establish a Normal School in that city. 

Japan. — The English language has been officially adopted by the goT- 
•mment of the Japanese Empire, and it is taught publicly. 

Thb National Teachers' Association will meet in Indianapolis, Indiana, 
on the 16th day of August next. We hope to announce a programme of the 
exercises in our next. 

SoBOOL House Sites. — The new law for the appraisal of and acquiring 
title to lands for School house sites, will, we are persuaded, speedily result 
in the selection of commodious sites and play-grounds, in very many dis- 
tricts, where, heretofore, the road Side on some bleak comer, or in some 
sink-hole, has been the only site, and the highway, the only play-ground. 
It will stimulate the people to some regard for such ornapientation, by trees 
and flowers, as will make the school one of the pleasantest spots in the 
district, and the joys it will offer, a compensation for even the most irk- 
some of school tasks. Any eligible site may be taken, on appraisal, by a 
vote of the district, except cemeteries and gardens. 

National Bureau or Education. — At a meeting of State Superintend- 
ents, in Washington, in February last, several valuable papers were read, 
mmong which were the following : School ^taiiMtict, by Hon. C. R. Gobom 



lieeident EdUor^a Department — 246 

of Pa . ; Uniformity in (he School SyBtem of the different States, by Hon. L. 
Van Bokkelen of Md. ; National Bureau of Education, by Hon. E. E, White 
of Obio ; Model State School System, by Hon. N. Bateman of 111. ; Defects 
in the Existing Systems in the Several States, by Hon. C. M. Harrison of New 
Jersey. 

Great interest was manifested in all these papers, which ably set forth 
the respective subjects. The chief interest, howeyer, centered in that of 
Mr. White, and a memorial was drawn np, and after full and earnest de- 
bate presented to Congress, together with the draft of a bill to establish a 
-National Bureau of Education. Mr. Bateman, in the Illinois Teacher, says : 

It was the unanimous opinion of the Association that the interests of 
education would be greatly promoted by the organization of such a Bureau 
at the present time ; tbat it would render needed assistance in the estab- 
lishment of school systems where they do not now exist, and it would also 
prove a potent means for improving and vitalizing existing systems. 

This it could accomplish : 

1. By securing greater uniformity and accuracy in school statistics, and 
so interpreting them thiU they may be more widely available and reliable 
as educational tests and measures. 

2. By bringing together the results of school systems in different commu- 
nities, states, and countries, and determining their comparative value. 

8. By collecting the results of all important experiments in new and 
special methods of school instruction and management, and making them the 
common property of school officers and teachers throughout the country. 

4. By diffusing among the people information respecting ^e school 
laws of the different states ; the various modes of providing and disburs- 
ing school funds ; the different classes of school officers and their relative 
duties ; the qualifications required of teachers, the modes of their exami- 
nation, and the agencies provided for their special training; the best 
methods of classifying and grading schools; improved plans of school- 
houses, together with modes of heating and ventilation, etc. — information 
now obtained only by a few persons and at great expense, but which is 
of the highest value to all intrusted with the management of schools. 

6. By aiding communities and states in the organization of school sys- 
' tems in which mischievous errors shall be avoided and vital agencies and 
well-tried improvements be included. 

6. B/the general diffusion of correct ideas respecting the value of edu- 
cation as a quickener of intellectual activities ; as a moral renovator ; as 
a multiplier of industry, and a consequent producer of wealth ; and, finally, 
as the strength and shield of civil liberty. 

We trust this movement may result in some effective measure for the 
advancement of the interests of education, throughout the Union. 

New Volcanic Island. — In the month of January last, commencing the 
8th, there occurred an eruption of a submarine volcano, accompanied b^ 



246 



Resident Editor's Department. 



heavy earthquake demonstrations, at New KaimenS, near Santorin, in the 
Qrecian Archipelago. A portion of Kaimeni has sunk, forming pools of 
fresh water, whilst a new promontory at its eastern extremity appeared 
Feb. 6, and from the 15th to the 17th a new island arose. The detailed 
account of the phenomena is full of interest, and we hope to lnak« room 
for it hereafter. 



PERSONAL. 



CnABLis F. Childs, Principal of the High School in St. Lonia, and 
recently Principal of the model department of the Illinois Normal Uni- 
Torsity, died Feb. 15. He had CTer been among the first in oTery moTO- 
ment for the adTaneement of public education, and, as says the lUinoii 
Teacher^ *<the tidings of his untimely death, will eause many a heart on 
the prairies to beat sadly." 

M. M. M^RBKLL, for many years principal of the Naples Academy, 
where he has earned an enyiable reputation, has accepted the position of 
Principal of the High School at Watertown, whither he goes in September. 
The Neapolitans are in distress, and cry for help. A good man it wanted in 
Mr. Merreirs place. It will pay not less than $1,200. Address Mr. 
Merrell at Naples. 

Pbof. J. P. WicKEBSHAM, of the Millersville (Pa.) Normal School, pro- 
poses to take leave of absence next July, to be gone six months or more in 
visiting Europe, especially for the purpose of examining into systems of 
instruction. We know of no man better fitted to do such a work intelli- 
gently, and to organize judiciously the results of his inquiries. 

HoBjrx TooKS. — At the end of his speech against Home Tooke, the Attor- 
ney-General, [Sir John Scott, afterwards Lord Eldon,] fell into his habitnal 
error of justifying his character. ** It is the little inheritance I have to 
leave to my children, and by God's help I will leave it unimpaired !" Here 
he shed tears, and to the astonishment of the court, the Solicitor-General 
(Mitford,) began to weep in concert. * Just look at Mitford,' said a by- 
stander to Home Tooke, * what on earth is he crying for ?* 'He is crying 
to think of the little inheritance Scott's children are likely to get.' 

Edward Damfobth, Esq., as will be seen by the proceedings of ths board 
of education, published elsewhere, was reelected Superintendent, last 
evening, by an almost unanimous vote. As Superintendent of our public 
schools, Mr. D. has, by his prompt and efficient service, won the high 
esteem of all who are interested in our public schools. The excellence of 
our present school system is owing in no small measure to his labors. 
The board did a wise act in reelecting him to the position which he is in 
every respect so well qualified to ftU.— TVoy Ptea, Marph IS. 



•■'ie 






-•PI 



Besident EdiUn^s DepartmenL 247 

Mr. William Kemp, who for a number of years has been President of the 
board, was reelected. He is an earnest and enlightened school man and 
does honor to the position. 

JoHir W. BuLKLMY, whosc serrices in the educational work for more than 
85 years, are known to all our readers, has, of course, been reSleeted 
Superintendent of the Brooklyn schools. They are to haye an assistant 
Superintendent. No man has labored more faithfully than he ; and for 
more than a third of a century he has been an educational leader. The 
labors Mr Bulkley has discharged for many years are too arduous for 
any one man to perform. Success to the new enterprise. 

J. DoBMAN Stibli, late Principal of the Newark Union School and 
Academy, where he had gained an enyiable reputation, has accepted the 
principalship of the Elmira Free Academy, at a salary of $1,600, to be in- 
creased. Miss Marshall, of the Conn. State Normal School is to be pre- 
ceptress — salary $700. 

Hon. Henbt Barnard, LL. D., Editor of the American Journal of Educa- 
tion has become President of St. John's College, Annapolis Ind. 

H. J. SuERRiLL, for several years Principal of the Hamilton Union 
School, has removed to Belvidere, III. We presume a larger salary had 
something to do with it. Well, he is worthy of it. 



OBITUARY. 

Eliphalett Nott, D.D., LL.D. — Dr. Nott was one of the marked men 
of the age in which he lived. From early childhood he exhibited a great 
desire for knowledge and made remarkable progress in its acquisition. 
He had not, of course, extended school advantages, but this lack was 
supplied by the faithful training of his mother, a woman of well*stored 
mind, whose teachings he always remembered, and often mentioned with 
heartfelt gratitude as the real source of all his success in life. But at 12 
years of age he Idst this best of teachers — and Arom thenceforth he was 
compelled to rely mainly upon his own efforts, as well to supply his phy- 
sical as his intellectual wants. On the death of his mother, he found a 
home with his brother, Rev. Samuel Nott, at Franklin, where he worked 
at wages during the spring, summer and autumn, and studied under the 
direction of his brother during the winter. 

At the age of sixteen he commenced his career as a teacher, yet still 
pursuing his studies, sometimes alone, sometimes under the guidance of 
a preceptor ; but always steadily advancing toward his goal — an hono- 
rable admission to college as preparatory to the studies of the profession 
he had long since chosen for life — th« Christian ministry. Ha entered 



248 Eeaident Editor's Department 

Brown UnWersity at twenty years of age, and graduated in 1796. After 
leaTing college, he read Theology under Rot. Joel Benedict, of Plalnfield, 
Conn., for a time; receiTcd a license to preach from the Congregational 
Association of New London county ; placed in his saddle bags his little 
stock of books and clothing, and took his departure, on horse back, as a 
missionary to Cherry Valley, N. Y., then a destitute field. Here he soon 
gathered around him a little flock, started a school afterwards known as 
Oherry Valley Academy, and thus entered upon his life work at the age 
of twenty-three, doing double duty : a preacher on the Sabbath, a teacher 
on secular days — at ■ all times a minister of the Cross. But talents like 
his could not be **hid under a bushel ; ^* his fame as a preacher reached 
the capital, and in 1798 he receiyed and accepted a call to the first Presby- 
terian church of Albany. While here, he preached his celebrated sermon 
on the *< Death of Hamilton." This at once gave him a national reputa- 
tion. A single fact in this connection will show at once the vigor of his 
mind and his power of physical endurance. He was waited upon by a 
committee charged with the duty of inyiting him to preach the sermon, 
accepted the invitation, commenced and wrote it out in full, and committed 
it to memory before he slept. 

In 1804 he was elected President of Union College, a corporation then 
destitute of all the necessary appliances for the students' proper adrance- 
ment, and of all means for procuring them. Yet he accepted the post, and 
entered upon his work with that courage which a strong sense of duty is 
wont to inspire, and in a short time placed the college among the first in 
the land. 

Dr. Nott was an original thinker, a profound scholar, and a great 
teacher. There have been those who have spoken lightly of his scholar- 
ship: But either their own acquirements were not such as to fit them to be 
judges of his, or they knew not the man, and gave opinions at second 
hand. Few men, very few, have mastered so many of the groat subjects 
of human study. But ho never afli'ected a display of learning — not even 
in the class room, where men are sometimes in this respect thrown oflf 
their guard. His manner of studying language, known to very few of the 
thousands who have received instruction from his lips, will show the 
thorough way in which he pursued all his studies. He translated several 
books of Homer's Iliad from the Greek into Latin, ft'om the Greek into 
English, and from each of these back again into Greek, comparing each 
with other, and both with the original. It was thus that he acquired 
that facility in the use of language for which he was so remarkable. But 
he did not bestow the highest praise on scholarship alone. In speaking 
of teachers he expressed his estimate of qualities in this form : ** We want 
ffreaf teachers and ffood scholars, rather than great scholars and poor 
teachers." 



Beaidmt Editor's Department 249 

As a teacher he was suggestiTe rather than dogmatical — waking up and 
eliciting thought, rather than imparting positive knowledge — striTing at 
earnestly to secure true manhood as mere scholarship. His success as a 
teacher is not yindioated by his popularity alone, but also by the large 
number of his pupils who haTC acquired distinction, and CTen eminence — 
as statesmen, in the professions, in literature and the arts. 

But he taught outside of the lecture room and the college. He is spoken 
of as an iuTentor ; and his well known face may be seen in the state 
library, in an engraring representing a convention ef iuTentors. But Dr. 
Nott really ncTcr invented anything of personal utility to himself. 

True, he iuTcnted a stoTe for burning anthracite coal. But he only 
taught by his base-burning stove and movable grate what was wanted, and 
scores, at once profiting by the lesson, soon outstripped their teacher in 
its practical application. 80 too, long years after, and after costly expe- 
riments, he succeeded in running the steamboat Novelty, from New York 
to Albany as a swift passenger boat, using anthracite coal as fuel. Tet in 
this he only taught what was the element of success in burning coal on 
steamboats ; and his expensive air syringes of polished brass, which fan- 
ned the fires of the Novelty, soon gave place to the inexpensive blower 
now in common use. As an inventor, he simply taught us to bum anthra- 
cite coal — a priceless lesson, blessing millions. 

Few men, especially of those connected with the schools, hare wielded a 
wider influence on education in its broadest sense, on commerce, on the 
church and state, than Dr. Nott. 

He was bom at Ashford, Conn., June 25, 1778. He died at Schenectady, 
N. T., January 29, and was buried Febmary 2, 1866, 'neath the murmuring 
pines in the beautiful ** Cemetery of the Vale." 

"They bore the venerable man to his grave — not with tears and grief 
— for his long life had more than filled the measure of expectation, and 
his death was but its fulfilment — but with reverence and awe. No words 
spoken in eulogy or in commemoration could add to the solemnity of the 
scene. He himself had been one of the most eloquent of men. Those who 
have ever listened to his words will never forget the impressiveness of his 
pauses, or the emphasis of his half-hushed undertones. Nothing could 
surpass them except the mute eloquence of this his last appearance on 
earth, his voice hushed to silence, its pause bounded only by Eternity.*' 

M. P. 0. 



INTELLIOENCE,— HOME, 



St. Lawrence Go. — Below find a brief statement of school examina- 
tions and lectures held in the Second Assembly District as follows: At 
Russell, Feb. 8th; Edwards, Feb. 9th; Hermon, Feb. 10th; Rensselaer Fnlls, 
Feb. 12th; Flackville, Feb. 18th ; Lisbon Center, Feb. 14th; Waddingion, 



250 BeMent EdUar'a Department. 

Feb. 16th; Norfolk, Feb. 17tb ; Colton, Feb. 2]8t; Pierrepont, Feb. 22d ; 
and at Canton, Feb. 26th. Rots. Waugh, Lee and Lyford, Profk White 
and Ball of Canton ; Rev. Lent of Russell ; Harper and Shaw of Lisbon, 
and James Cruikshank, LL.D., of Albany, gave interesting leotnres to 
attentlTe and appreoiatiTe audienoes. The lectures were generally practical 
and all well calculated to awaken a deeper interest in the common schools. 
There were 1,503 children from 55 schools, who participated in the exami- 
nations, and their recitations, selected by the Commissioner after the 
classes were called, usually exhibited thorough drill on the part of teachers. 
As reported by them, 815 parents', 82 trustees' and 81 clergymen's yisitt 
were made in the above named schools during the winter term, preTions t-k 
the examinations. These are eyidences of an awakened educational inte- 
rest among the patrons, and they give encouragement to teachers and 
school officers of higher attainments in our district schools. Allow me to 
recommend, to the readers of your Tkachbb, these examinations, belicTing 
they are, when rightly conducted, a means by which much good may be 
accomplished in the education of the young. 

Truly yours, 
Clabk Bakbb, School Commissioner. 
Hermon, April 2d, 1866. 

Hamilton. — The Board of Education of the Free School of this Tillage 
are by an act of the legislature, authorized to adopt the Hamilton Academy 
as the higher department of said school. 

Thi Nkw Tobk Fbbb Academy has been erected into a college, to be 
known as the College of the City of New York — the members of the Board 
of Education to the ex-officio trustees. 

MoNBOE County. — The Teachers' Association of the Third district met at 
Spencerport, Feb. 28 and 24. Notwithstanding the Tery unpropitious 
weather, about 90 teachers were in attendance. The meeting was enli- 
Tened by the presence of Profs. McVicar of Brockport, Clark of Parma, 
and other friends of education who dispensed to us a variety of good things, 
both witty and grave. Dispersed throughout the entertainment were 
essays, orations, and poems from members of the association. The annual 
lecture was delivered by Rev. Dr. Seager of Batavia ; the subject presented 
was ''American Scholarship, and the mission of the American Scholar," 
and was handled in a masterly style, fully justifying the enviable reputa- 
tion of the doctor. Geobge Simms, President. 

Ma BY Flowers, Secretary. 

Delaware County. — Commissioner Bouton writes us: ** I think I may 
safely say, there never was a time in the history of old Delaware, when so 
much teal was manifest in the cause of education. The mi^or part of the 
teachers seem to feel the responsibility resting upon them, and the com- 
miiaionersare relieving the balance of any responsibility ia tk« matter." 



Besident JEdUor^s Department. 251 

#BAKKLiN County. — The spring session of the Teachers' Institute in this 
county was held at Malone, for two weeks, commencing March 19. The 
literary exercises were under the direction of the Editor of the Teaohbr, 
assisted during the second week by Miss £llen Seayer of the Oswego Nor- 
mal and Training School. Miss Seaver presented some of the most yaluable 
features of the system taught at Oswego, and her lessons and discussions 
awakened a very deep interest. More than one hundred teachers were 
enrolled and the attendance was yery regular. The commissioners regard 
the session as the most successful one ever held in the county. There were 
lectures nearly every evening. 

The citizens of Ghateaugay have voted to raise $8,000 to build an addi- 
tion to their school house. 



INTELLIGENCE.— FOREIGN, 



Kansas. — The State Normal School is in flourishing condition. The 
number of students the past year (its first), has been 78. 

The Normal School at Salem, Mass. — We are indebted to D. B. Hagar, 
Esq., now principal of this institution, for a copy of the proceedings at 
the close of last term. The school numbered 124 pupils, of whom 16 
graduated. It can not but prosper under its present management. 

Michigan. — The teacher ^ which we are glad to see revived, and which 
is genial, able and full of interest, gives us in February number, an account 
of the 15th Annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association, held during 
holiday week, at Battle Creek. The addresses, essays and discussions as 
reported, evidence that our Michigan friends are awake. Richard Ed- 
wards of the Illinois Normal University was present, and delivered an 
address. He also stirred up the association on the subjects of educational 
tests as the basis of suffrage, and a National Bureau of Education. The 
formal addresses were delivered by President Abbot of the Agricultural 
College; W. H. Payne, the editor of the Teacher, and President of the 
Association; Mr. Edwards; Mr. Bliss of Chicago (on music); Prof. Griffith, 
of Batavia, III. ; Prof. Gregory, of Kalamazoo College ; and Prof. Mark 
Bailey, of Yale College. 

During the present year there have been 1,195 students in the Michigan 
University. It is the largest Universi^ on the Continent, and its influ- 
ence is widely felt in fostering public education in all the schools of the 
state. 

Nevada has wheeled into line, and has a school system, with a Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction (Hon. A. F. White). There are of white 
children, between 6 and 18 years of age, 2,601 ; under 6 years, 1,918 ; 



262 Besident JEditar's Department. 

under 21, bom in NcTada, 989; attending public schools, 1,848: Tie 
average monthly wages paid to teachers is, for males, $89.76 ; for females, 
$85.20. A most encouraging state of education is reported. 

West Viboinia. — The second annual report of the Superintendent of 
Free Schools is on our table. The Superintendent, Hon. W. R. White, is 
doing all in his power to organize an effective system in this hitherto 
destitute region. There are 183 school houses in the state, valued at 
$40,841.75. There are 5 high schools, 39 graded schools, and 887 com- 
mon schools. The children of school age (C and 21) are 68,458 ; attending 
schools, 15,972 ; average daily attendance, 7,771 : Teachers, 887 — 171 
males, 21G females. Besides the number above, there are 20,960 children 
of school age in counties where the school system is not Ailly in operation. 
A general willingness to build houses and provide for public education is 
manifest. The foundation of a permanent school fund has been laid, and 
the state tax yields nearly sixty thousand dollars. Mr. White recom- 
mends county superintcndency. Institutes and Normal Schools, and regards 
the establishment of a school journal as a necessity. 

Wisconsin. — We welcome the Journal of Education which has resumed 
its labors, under the editorial charge of William II. Peck, and is published 
at Mineral Point. The State Superintendent reports an increase over the 
previous year of 11,948 pupils in the public schools. The enrolled at- 
tendance is 66 per cent, of all the children over 4 and under 20 years of age. 
There were 7,582 teachers employed. The average wages of male teachers 
is $86.45 (per month?) ; of female teachers $22.24. 

Ths Irish National Schools. — The report of the Commissioners of 
Education for Ireland, for 1864, states that the average number of child- 
ren in daily attendance was 815,108, at an expense of £1 2t, M. eacb. 
The teachers received £284,467; monitors, £18,875. Inspection cost 
more than £23,238 ($116,000). Compare this last sum with the paltry 
amount of $56,000 paid in the state of New York,— that for 0,200 schools; 
ours for 11,700. 

Indiana. — The Legislature at their recent session, voted to establish s 
Normal School. 

Wisconsin. — The Board of Regents of Normal Schools are to establish 
one or more such institutions. More than $30,000 annually, are at the 
disposal of the Board. 

Pbnnsylvania. — The February number of the School Journal conUini 
the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Soldier's Orphans (Hon. 
Tho. H. Burrowes), and the Annual Report of the Superintendent of 
Common Schools (Hon. C. R. Coburn). From the former of these we 
learn that the destitute children of tho deceased soldiers of the common- 
frea]th, **have been massed together in their schools in considerable nam- 



BeaiderU UdUof^s Department. 253 

l>er8; they haTO been exempted from suffering, withdrawn from many of 
the contaminating influences of their preyious conditions and are acquir- 
ing to the full as much of knowledge as the very best of our Common 
Schools could afford, were they still at home, and in constant attendance 
thereat." The first year's experiment is considered as eminently success- 
fuL The applications receiyed were 1846 ; allowed 1582 ; actually rcceiyed 
into the schools, 1242 ; discharged on application of relatiyes, 16. To 
entitle to benefits, the father must have served in a Pennsylvania regiment, 
or, being a Pennsylvanian, in the regular army or navy, during the rebellion 
must have died in service or by reason of wounds received. Or disease con- 
tracted, during such service, and indigence of the applicant, and of the 
mother or guardian must be shown. Children of four years and upward 
have been received. Of the younger children, between four and eight years 
of age, 519 have been cared for in houses and asylums that were already 
in existence. Eight other schools have been established and others are 
contemplated. Care is had for their religious as well as physical and 
intellectual training, and the children are sent to those schools of the same 
denominational cast as that of their deceased father. Dr. A. G. Egbert 
of Mercer County has given a farm of 200 acres, and is to erect buildings 
to cost not less than $100,000 for an asylum. Another liberal gentleman 
offers $50,000. From June 16, 1804, to Dec. 1, 1805, the expense has 
been $103,817,64. This is a noble charity. God speed the large hearted 
benevolence that gives and labors for it. 

Dr. Burrowes, the Editor of the School Journal^ animadverts severely 
upon the tone of Supt. Coburn's report, and the ** ultra-conservAtivcS 
spirit of his administralion. He complains not only that little progress has 
been made, but that no plans are suggested, and the paramount importance 
of the claims of public education are not urged with any adequate spirit. 
The report shows, certainly, no very encouraging results. Some leading 
statistical items are as follows ; the items of increase and decrease are in 
comparison with the previous year, excluding the city of Philadelphia : 

School districts,* 1837, increase 12 ; Schools 12,648, decrease 18; Whole 
attendance 629,587, decrease 8,198 ; Average attendance 396,701, decrease 
2,821 ; Average term of school, 5 months 14 days increase 2 days. Whole no 
teachers, 14,286, decrease 382 ; Average salaries, males, $31.82, increase. 
$6.40; Average salaries, females $24.21, increase $4.05 ; state appropriation 
$269,889, increase $12,029,50, ; Total cost of system,t $2,792,076.87, 
increase $410,003.17 ; There are 5,641 male teachers, — decrease of, 2,232 ; 
and 8,645 female teachers, an increase of 880. 

YiRaiNiA is to have an educational journal, the precursor, we hope of 
free schools. Let the good work go on. Nothing so well as schools will 
further the labor of ''reconstruction." 

* Townships and parte of townships under one boaid, not as in New York, 
tlnclndlng Philadelphia. 



254 Reddent Editor's Department. 

Rhode Island Institute of Instruction. — The 'Uwentj-seeond annual 
meeting" (the elerenth was held in Jan. 1856 — gained one year in ten?) was 
held in ProTidence, commencing Jan. 26. Lectures were dellTered as fol- 
lows: Prof. Dunn of Brown University, on The Study of EngliMk lAUrti^ 
ture ; Prof. S. S. Oreene, on Teaching at antwering an Internal Want of the 
Pupil; Prof. J. Lewis Diman, on Political Education in Public Schools f 
Col. T. W. Higginson, on Educational Mimont at the South ; S. H. Taylor, 
LL.D., of AndoTcr, on the Topography of Rome; Josiah P. Cooke, Jr., of 
Harrard College, on The Value of Scientific Studiet ae a Meant of DitcipUne, 

Schools for the Freedmen. — The consolidated report of the Freed, 
man's Bureau, shows that there are at present 631 schools, with 1,240 
teachers and 65,834 scholars, In the southern states. There are 67 schools 
with about 7,000 scholars in North Carolina. In the District of Columbia, 
and the surrounding stations, there are 45 schools, with 100 teachers, and 
about 4,000 pupils. In Louisiana, the schools for colored children have 
all been suspended for want of funds. The agent of the Freedman's 
Bureau in Alabama writes that he has established a school for the poor 
whites. — Am. Ed. Monthly. 

Tennessee. — The Free School Bill has been defeated. There are in the 
State 80,000 white people who can neither read nor write. 

Vermont. — The sixteenth annual meeting of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion was held in Brattleboro, commencing Jan. 30. The attendance was 
not large, but the work was earnest* The first eyening waa occupied with 
the address of welcome, by Rot. Mr. Frothingham, and some remarks on 
The Proper Aim of School Education, and by a reply from General Phelps as 
presiding officer pro tem. Prof. Bingham supplemented the chairman's 
remarks. Discussions, on arithmetic ; the proper time to commence the study 
grammar ; reading ; miscellaneous exercises for the younger scholars, 
were engaged in with much spirit. Addresses were deliyered by Prof. 
M. H. Buckham ; Prof. Atkinson (? W. P. of Mass. Teacher), U. N. Abbott 
of Burlington, Hon. Hampden Cutts, Addison Brown, B. F. Bingham, and 
Hon. J. S. Adams, Secretary of the Board of Education. It is reported as 
one of the pleasantest and most successful meetings eyer held in the state. 



LITERARY NOTES, 



The Little Corporal continues to be as racy and f^ll of interest as 
eyer. See advertisement. 

Grace Greenwood's ** Little Pilgrim" has lost none of its yiracity, and 
its pure and wise teachings will bring peace and joy into oar homes. 
Leander K. Lippuioott, Philadelphia. Price 60 cents a year. 



Beeident Editor's Department. 265 

Wm. Wood & Co., New York, haye commenoed the publication of **Tlie 
Medical Record; A Semi-monthlj Journal of Medicine and Surgery." 
24 pp. royal 8yo. The initial numbers promise a journal of much merit. 

SiLLiM AV. — Meesrs. C. Scribner and Company announce an elaborate 
biography of the late Professor Silliman, by Professor Fisher, of Yale 
College. 

Applkton k Co. haye in press a Manual of Composition and Rhetoric, by 
Prof. Baine, of the Uniyersity of Aberdeen, edited by G. P. Quackenbos. 

Miss Mabtikbau's Ehqland is completed by the issue of the fourth yol- 
lime, (Walker, Fuller & Company, Boston). It embraces the period from 
1816 to 1846. 

Habpbr's Maqazini for April is unusually rich in capital literature. 
This is much to say for a magazine that is always first class, and a uniyer- 
sal fayorite. 

Thb Covtbmpo&abt Rkyiiw in the title of a new English monthly, 
edited by the Dean of Canterbury, and published by Strahan and Co., Lon- 
don and New York, at $10 a year. 

Thb Cbbscbbt Monthly is the title of a new magazine, deyoted to Lite- 
rature, Art, Science and Society, published in New Orleans, by William 
Eyelyn. Vol. 1, No. 1, April. 1866, is on our table as we go to press, and 
will reoeiye notice in our next. Meantime we welcome this attempt, 
which promises so well, to reyiye a genial literature in the South-land. 
The spirit of the Crescent is good, the Editorial Notes racy. The leading 
articles promise well, and the list of contributors is guaranty of a first- 
elasB magazine. Wm. Eyelyn, 90 Camp street. New Orleans. $5.00 a 
year. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



HiSTOBT OF FaiXDRicH THB Sbcond, Called Frederick the Oreat. By Thomas 
Cabltlb. In fix volumes. Vol. vi. New York : Harper and Broihert, 
1866. 12mo, cloth, PP- 608. 

This concluding yolume of Carlyle's great work, contains a complete 

index of matter to the entire work. No historian probably, oyer wrote 

Bore earnestly, or made his subject so completely a hero. He has at 

eng^h followed him through alf his ambitions, his trials, his triumphs. 

le sees nothing but Friedrich. He says : ** I define him to myself as hither, 

> the Last of the Kings ; — when the Next will be is a yery long ques- 

>n!'' The chief /ac/« in Friedrich's career are matter of common history, 

d you may read them in any cyclopadia. Our author's estimate of 

character, and of the concurrent eyents of his reign, — the inimitable 



256 Beeident EdUat^a Departnwnt. 

deification of his illustrious King,— will furnish new material to the his — 
torian and philosopher, in working out the picture of the ciTilixation of^ 
the century last past. All maj not become Carlyle's disciples : no one^ 
will regret that he has written. 
The Alphabet made East. Introduttory to any Series of ReaderM, Bt Wm. 

R. Wbite, State Superintendent of Public Inetruction^ Wett Virginia. Pub^ 

Hiked by Saryent, WiUon j* JTinckle, Cincinnati. 

This is a little book of 80 pages, designed to teach by words, combining 
them in phrases and sentences as fast as learned ; and after the first thir- 
teen lessons the words already used are tabulated to be spelled, and other 
lists are introduced to give a wider scope to the reading. It seems Terj 
judicious, and the illustratiye cuts make it attractire. 

A Text Book on Phtsiologt. For the uee of Schools and Colleges, Being 
an Abridgment of the Author^ s Larger Work on Human Physiology, By 
John William Draper, M. D., LL. D. Ulustraled with nearly 150 Wood 
Engravings. New York: Harper and Brothers^ 1866, 12mo. eloth^ pp, 876. 
A Text-Book on Anatomt, Phtsiologt ahd Htoienb. For the use of 
Schools and Families. By John C. Draper, M, D., Prof, of Natural JUs- 
tory and Physiology in the New York Free Academy, and Prof, of Anatomy 
and Chemistry in the University of New York. 170 Illustrations, Svo. cloth 
pp. 300. Harper and Brothers. 1866. 
Phtsiologt and Laws of Health. For the use of Schools, Academies and 
Colleges. By Edwar^ Jarvis, M. D., New York: A. S. Barnes ^ Co. 
1866, \2mo. \ roan, pp. 427. 
Ststematio Human Phtsiologt, Anatomt and Htgiene. Being an Analy^ 
sis and Synthesis of the Human System, with Practical Conclusions, Many 
new and complete Illustrations. By T. S. Lambert, M. D. Second Edition, 
New York: William Wood ^ Co. 1866. 12»io. J roan, pp. 420. ZOfuUpage 
Plates. 

Our present limits will not allow the extended and critical notice these 
books deserve. We have cited their titles, first, to give our readers some 
notion of their scope, and where they may be had, and, secondly, to indi- 
cate the Talue we place upon physiological studies, which of late are at- 
tracting considerable attention. 

The two first named are more properly college or academic text books. 
Dr. J. W. Draper's is an abridgment of his larger work, and contains in 
condensed form the author's most yaluable original contributions to the 
science. Many of the topics embrace the moro recondite features of the 
science, and have less to do with evident mechanical action, than with 
theories of their primordial causes, and the laws that govern them. He is 
the author of the •'Electrical Theory of Capillary Attraction.*' Value is 
given to the discussions, by the introduction of forcible illustrations in 
comparative physiology. 



Besideni Editor's DqpartmerU. 257 

The second of these books is a formal statement in fifty -four lectures of 
the subjects embraced in its title. The style is, however, easy and familiar. 
Some new and Taluable features are presented, and the diyision relating 
to Uygiene can not fail to interest and benefit the general reader. The 
chapter on epidemic deseases is peculiarly suggestiTc at this time. The 
book is beautifully illustrated and well printed. Each of these books is 
rendered more valuable by a copious index of matters. 

Dr. Jarris announces in his preface, that, ** The great and' sole object 
of this work is to teach the laws of health, the powers of the several or- 
gans, the limit of their strength, the way in which they are to be develop- 
ed and sustained, their proper uses, and the certain and evil consequences 
that follow their misapplication.*' Its scope may be gathered from the 
titles of its different divisions I. Digestion : and Food ; II. Circulation of 
the Blood and Nutrition; III. Respiration; IV. Animal Heat; V. The 
Skin ; VI. Bones, Muscles, Exercise and Rest ; VII. Brain and Nervous 
System. It is not therefore a treatise on physiology, but a work on prac- 
tical hygiene, introducing physiological facts and laws, as they are neces- 
sary to further the main purpose of the work. These are judicious, and 
the manual will be found of great value. 

Dr. Lambert's book is simpler and more elementary than either of the 
two first named, and more comprehensive than Jarvis'. A marked feature 
will be found in the skill with which its classifications are made, whilst 
the practical remarks occurring on almost every page give significance 
and point to the formal discussions. For popular use as an elementary 
text book in the subjects named in its title it must take high rank. 

We commend these books to teachers who would fit themselves for the 
work which this age demands of them in the schools, and whilst they will 
each be found of value, and having peculiar merits, Dr. Lambert's will, 
perhaps, be most suggestive of methods, and aid injudicious classifications. 

A Plea fob the Queen's English: Stray Note* on Speaking and Spelling, 
By Henrt Alford, D.D., Dean of Canterbury. Second Edition — Tenth 
Thoutand, Published by Strahan, London, and Alexander Strahan ^ Co., 
New York. Small Svo.,pp. 287, vellum clothe Price $1.76. 
This is not a formal work on philology, but a familiar running com- 
mentary on usages in language, especially noting corruptions of English in 
spelling, pronunciation, structure ; vulgarisms, idioms, conventional forms, 
etc. In his introductory pages, the author happily justifies the attention he 
has given to these *' little things." He says : *' But the language of a peo- 
ple is no trifle. The national mind is reflected in the national speech. 
If the way in which men express their thoughts is slipshod and mean, it 
will be very difficult for their thoughts themselves to escape being the 
same. ♦ « ♦ Every important feature in a people's language 
is reflected in its character and history." In a truthful comparison of 



268 Ee^ideni Editor's Departmrnt. 

England and America, we think there will hardly be found jaetiBeafion 
of the following, which by implication says, Thank God that v« (Englif<h) 
are not as they : " Look * * * at the process of deterioration 
which our Queen's English has undergone at the hands of the Americans. 
Look at those phrases which so amuse us in their speech and books ; at 
their reckless exaggeration, and contempt for congruity ; and then com- 
pare the character and history of the nation — its blunted sense of moral 
obligation and duty to man ; its open disregard of conventional right where 
aggrandizement is to be obtained ; and, I may now say, its reckless and 
fruitless maintenance of the most cruel and unprincipled war in the history of 
the world.'* We are, it is true, not always OTer-nice in Language, %ik^perhap$ 
the speech of our common people will not compare with that of the English 
peasantry ! We hare not yet learned the art of such Christian warfare, as 
that which history chronicles in the Sepoy rebellion, nor can we show a 
spectacle like the Jamaica massacres ! We are so ** cruel and unprincipled '* 
as to show mercy to prisoners and captives, and mete out pardon to tho8« 
who sought our Nation's life to destroy it. , 

The book is on the whole very readable ; written in a pleasant and raoy 
style, and very suggestive. It catalogues most of the common errors, and 
shows them up very neatly. Frequent reference to a controversy provoked 
by the former edition, or of which it formed a part, is to American read- 
ers of little interest. It is, however, a valuable and necessary book. 
A Tbxt-Book on Chemistry. For the ttse of Schools and CoUeget. By 
IIk5BT Draper, M. D., Professor Atf/unct of Chemistry and Natural His- 
tory in the University of New York. With more than three hundred iUuttra. 
tions. New York: Harper ^ Brothers y 1S6G, 12mo., pp. 607. {Copious 
index). 

Professor Draper claims for this work, with characteristic modesty, that 
*' it embodies the valuable parts of the work on the same subject published 
by my father in 1846, etc." A careful examination of it shows, however, 
that the instructions he received from his father have been put to such 
good account, that the present work is a statement of the real condition of 
the science to-day, with the marvellous advance it has made in these twenty 
years. Of its matter and manner we must speak more fully hereafter. 

The Student's Practical Chemistry. A Tfxt-Book on Chemical Physics 
and Inorganic and Organic Chemistry. By Henry Morton, A.M., and Al- 
bert R. Leeds, A. M., Professors in the Philadelphia Dental College and 
the Franklin Institutr. of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia : J, B, Lippineott f 
Co., 1860, 12mo, pp. 311. 

The principles of the science are clearly stated, and the suggestions are 
practical. Many valuable tables and a full index make the work a desira- 
ble vade mecum. It is not exhaustive, but presents the usual range of 
topics, with some ** valuable novelties." The Chemical Physios is pecu- 
liarly fine. 



Beeidmt EdUoi^a Department. 259 

A Third Rbadkb, of a grade between the Second and Third Readers ej the 
School and Famify eeriee. Bff Maboivs Willbov. New York : Harper j* 
Brothers. 

This beautifal little book, as happy in the nature and arrangement of its 
articles as it is apt and elegant in its pictures, riTals in attractiveness even 
the books of the regular series. The prose pieces are allegories, simple 
stories in natural history, descriptions of country life, etc. The poetic se- 
lection, of which there are about fifty, are gems. We haTe not seen a 
prettier. 

Classical ahd Scixntifio Studies, and the Great Schools of England, By 
W. P. Atkiwsoh. Cambridge : Sever and Francis, ^vo.^ pp. Ill, pamphlet. 
Price 76 cents. 

This is in part a review of the late report of the Parliamentary Commis- 
sion, to investigate the condition of the great classical and some of the 
more famous of the grammar schools of England. The lecture was origi- 
nally read before the Society of Arts of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. It now appears with additions and an appendix ; and for the 
important facts in the history of the English Schools, so clearly stated, 
and a calm, dispassionate discussion of the claims of the Sciences, in those 
schools almost wholly ignored, it more than merits the beautiful dress the 
publishers have given it. The author, in his preface, says: <*Butnei« 
ther will it, I hope, be laid to my charge, because I have undertaken here 
to defend the interests of Science, that I ^n insensible to the gloty and 
beauty of the literatures of Greece and Rome, or to the splendor of their 
immortal story.'* We believe the perusal of this admirable essay will aid 
many of our educators in forming juster notions of the relations of the 
studies in a liberal course. 



ITEMS. 

Qbhiral Bubnsidx is Governor of Rhode Island. 

Thi *< Abraham Lincoln School," for freedmen, New OrleanSy was 
opened Oct. 8, 1865, in one of the buildings belonging to the University of 
Louisiana, under the auspices of Rev. Thomas W. Conway, assistant com- 
missioner of the Bureau of refugees, freedmen, etc. It soon had 800 
pupils, and an average attendance of 750, with 14 teachers. From 70 t^ 
SO per cent, of ( he pupils are of mixed blood. The school was at first ft*9e. 
Pupils now pay $1.50 per month, and the number has decreased to about 
400, with 8 teachers. Mr. £. F. Waven, a native of N. T. SUte and a grad- 
uate of Yale, was the first principal. He has been succeeded by Mr. M. A. 
Warren. 

A Sfbimq or Natubal Ink. — It is said that a spring of natural ink has 
been discovered in the vicinity of Buena Vista Lake, and a company has 
been formed to test the discovery. 

18 







PRACTICAL 

PENMANSHIP. 



» fl/ Teaehmv, V^tpUt, tmd profeMionai Penmen, containing one 
9eventff'Hm pagee, and hundreds of lUustraHone, is now readff, 

TNK rOLLOWINQ IS TNt TAM.K OP OQIITtRTS. 



DITRpDUClTON. TBEOBT OF FKNMAMBHIP. 

MATCRIAI^ AND IMPLEMENTS. 

POSITION. MOVEMENTS. 

CLASSIFICATION OF LETTEBS AND FIGURES. 

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nouREs. spacIno. shading. 

BUBIHKSS WBlTUfO. LADIES' BAND. 



VARIETY OF STYLE. BLACK-BOABD 
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OgMaUy adopted and %ued in ail the JPritteipal Citiee from New Yorh to Mam JFVvMcil 

Taught in aii the Cotnmereial Coilegee. 

h has bMA M-angnTwl in BNOLAND, and if used In the model Ooonting-roomi of LOBOMN, LITEBFO 

and MANCHESTER. 

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A SERIES OF DRAWING LESSONS 

b ako r e p ree i led upon the Chart*, vhieh, with the Letters, make them b j ftr the most ATTSAOfi 
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Mrs. Markliam^s History of France. 

A History of France, from the Conquest of Gaul by Julias Cesar, to the 
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Parker^s Aids to Engrllsli Composition'. 

Aids to English Composition, prepared for Students of all Grades, em- 
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Among the leading and most popular books of the above Serieii, the 
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Sanders' Beaden and Spellen— con- Serl'a ComprahanslTe Gnunmar— 

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to the latest editions of Webster's Die- Spencerian Copy Books-«imp1e, prac- 

tionary. tical and beantlM. Newly engraved 

The Union Seriea of Beadam and and improTed. 

Spellers, entirely new in matter and Spenoerian Charta of Writing and 

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Aiyor by the best teachers in the conntry. by ao inches, on three cards. 
Bobinson's Seriea of Arithmetica— Spenoerian Key to Fraotical F«n- 

very popular ^ith all teachers who have manship for the use of Teadiera and 

tested them in the class-room. Pupils. 

Bobinson'a Algebras and Higher Bryant, Stratton ft Faokard'aBook- 

Mathematica — entirely re- written ; Keeping Series— beavtiftally printed in 

Aill, complete, Bcienttflc and practical. Colors. 

Kerl'a New Seriea of Grammars— Gray's Botanical Seriea— These books 

unsurpassed In simplicity, clearness, present the latest and most aecoiate 

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consists of enoe, and have been recommended by 

A book forbeginnen, and Introdnctoty country. 
Kerl's First Lesson in Grammar- almost every eminent Botanist In the 

to the Common School Orammar. Oolton's Seriea of Geographiee— The 

Kerl'a Conmion Soliool Granmiar — New Quarto Geography, Just published 

A thorough, complets and practical work and added to this series, surpasses any- 

for Conmion Schools and Academies. thing of the kind before the public 

Willson's Historiea, Woodbnry'a (German Seriea, 
Vaaqoelle's French Seriea, Bradbury*a School Muilo-Books. 

THE SPENCEBIAN STEEL PENS 

Are regarded by the best penmen of the country as superior to all others. 
I. P. B & Co. also do a general Book Burtiuess, keeping constantly on 
hand a complete stock of School and College Texl-Books and IStationery, 
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j|g^ Those desiring to know more of our publications are requested to 
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duction. 
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XI 3c .A. nc X lor El 

THE NEW EDITION OF 

BROWN'S ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

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ANALYSIS AND PARSING, 

BY HENBY KIDDLE, A.M., 

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This Seriet m the mott perfect and complete exposition of English Orammar 

extant, and consists cj 

FIRST LINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

l2iD0, half bound, 122 pages. Price 35 cents, Net 

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12mo, Btrou^ leather biudiDg, 835 p*ge«. Price 80 cents, Net. 
III. 

THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

With an introdaction, Hiatorioal and Critical ; the whole methodioallj 
snranged and amplj illnstxmted, etc., etc., etc. ; and a Key to the Oral Bzer- 
oiset, with Appendixes, etc. Seventh Edition, Revised and Improved. 
(With a fine portrait of the author engraved on steel). Enlarged by the 
addition of a copions Index of Matters, bj SAMUEL U. BERiUAN, A.M. 
1,102 pages, large octavo, handaomelj bound. Price $5.00 net 

This POPULAR AND STANDARD Series of English Grammars has long 
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is considered bj them more clear, 9om^d and praetiaU than any other series. 

BROWN'S GRAMMARS— REVISED 

Are up to the times. 

Are Methodical. 

Are Simple and Progrestdve. 

Are Accurate and Comprehensive. 

Are Bigidly Exact in rules and definitions. 

Have Twenty-five different models of Analysis. 

Do not confuse the pupil. 

Have very Practical and Interesting examples of False 
Syntax. 

Are more Strongly Bound than others. 

Teaoh English Grammair Thoroughly. 

Have borne the Test of Time and the School Boom, 
and are constantly incrsasing in /asfor and wide-spread use. They are the re- 
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class never to die. At present of anapproachable excellence and the highest 
possible authority, we doubt if ever they <y\TL be superseded, at least whilst our 
language remains what it is."— (s. u. b.) 

1X7* Send ibr specimen copies for examination, enclosing 15 cents for the 
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[t^ The Publishers will be happy to correspond with teaohers and aU otheis 
interested. 

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The site is about that of a oommercial note sheet, which makes them 
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By using these in place of slates, all the noise caused by the latter 
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Children will also find them much more convenient to hold in the hand 
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Those who have discarded slates, and use pencil and paper instead i 
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For Spelling Exercises 

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vii-8-lt. 



OUTOT'S 



Physical and Political Wall Maps 

FOR SCHOOLS. 



Series No. I. 

[ftp of theXTnited States, $8 00 

** North America. 6 50 

«« South America 6 60 

" The Worid, (Mcnx Projec), ..12 QO 

«« Europe, 8 00 

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" Africa 6 60 

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•« Ooeanica. 6 00 



Ciassioai Maps. 

lap of the Roman Emphe $15 00 

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Anj Map, or any number of Maps of the Series, (exoept Series No. 8), can 
le selected if a full set is not required. 

"By the admirable system of coloring adopted, the plateaus, mountains, yaUeys, itrers, 
Itifcodes, hi fiict all the physical characteristics of the Earth's surface, are clearly and 
mnMiQj ciqpressed, as also the political features* boundaries* names of dtiies etc. etc. 



Series No. 2. 

Map of the United States $8 00 

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Series No. 3. 

Map of The United States. 

" North America 

" South America 

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*' Asia } $15. per set 

" Africa. 

" Europe 

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TESTIMOniAL FROM PROFESSOR AQASSIZ. 

From what I know of Prof Ouyot's Wall Maps, etc., I have no hesitation in saying 
hftt both as to method and execution they are inoomparably tuperior to any thing of the kind 
his fiff published ; and in connection with the series of text-books by the same author, 
Vldch, I understand, are soon to be published, they wiU form the most yaluable means for 
he study of geography, in which department there is urgent necessity for new books adapt- 
ift to the present advanced state of the science. In fact, it is the simple truth, that no 
tktr ffeo^rqphm' living undtrttandi the reloHonM qftktp^sical/kUure of our earth to welly or hunce 
law topreeent them to ttmkmU with euch nmplicity and cleanets as Prof, Gwfot, 

L. AQASSIZ. 

Cambridge, Mate., March 21th, 1865. 

IN PRESS.— T6 be published during the Fall, the first two of Prof Ouyot*s Scries of 
ftscgraphies. 

CHARLES SORIBNER & CO. 



* Send fas Circular with fhll descriptian. 



' THE NEW LATIN COURSE. 



HANSON'S LATIN FBOBE. 

Preparatory I«atixi* Frose Book, Contaiuin^ all the I^tin Piono neeeMSxy for 

ouUrring (.:o]k'ij;c\ with licfcrcuevfii to IlurkiicKg' and Andnrwi* and Stoddard*i} Latin 
OrniiiiiiurH ; Noten, (.'ritical aud Kxplaiiatory : a Vocabulnry. and a Geographical and 
II[r>turicai Iridox. Ij}' J. II. IIanbok, A.M. Fifteenth editiun, culai^^'d and impEUVcd, 
ISnio. Price fuj.OO. 

Till* f:irt tliAt lliLoi work Iulo alri'iuly p:u«H«d thmugb fifl<vti oditiniiii Ih ffuffldcnt erldence of Ita 
Rrent \:iluo nii<l uevd. Te^timouialrt frcim rnunfiit Prt'fvMioni and TrarberH In all |iarU of tiM 
c(iuntr>. (x-riirjiiiK to itH xreatnuTit. iind tu ili< iicrfeut lulnptatioa to Um want* of studenta, 
have I.M>ii rMvivt^i in Krvat numtwm. 

l'Rr>ini:NT L iiAMi>u.>. uf Walt:rTilie ('oIleKf^ pronouucei* it '* A work of creat merit . . . 
The iKKik rminot fuil of lielox faTorably rect^iTMl by clawinai tMirbera.*' 

UR. .\sDERn'».x. I'rrjsidt-Hl t^' ifu Vnirt-rtUy of iiochckttr. A. J'., jwyn: — "I haTe known Mr. 
Ilanfon, the ttalilnr, for many yfnni, ai< a rip*- iiml conmh-nttouR wbolnr, and waii ]»re|»red to 
find hi(i work well ilone. Hut it rt'rtainly exixt^N my vxiMtctaUnnn. The Mfleclion* an ifood : 
the Tiiiten tftrsc i*rhi>lariy. aud admirably put 1\w whnli* work Phowh thr pracnoe of Che aouna 
icchulHr and tlie itkiliful tmeber. li Hcvma to me a book movt ailmirably adapted to Uut purpoanf 
uf studcntH preparing for a>lleK«." 

I'Khsni'KNT LiNi>sLt.Y, «{/* Utt CtUrtrfUv. LuliinoH, 7}'jiN.,myi«: — " You will accept my tfaanka 
for Uonntn'i Latin I^mh^, and lluuwn cC HiJ/f'n Ijitin l'o«'try, with which, aii reganlp plan and 
«>Xi'«'u(i<»ii. I am dK>itle(Jiy i>leaf>nl. Very nttntctive tuIudh'n in apiN-arance. they vupply- a want 
quite oxti!nf*ivolv felt, in dlniiuLibintf the exiKUKK of Mtuduubs while, as 4(nR-(«dLi, tbej an 
admirnblu, auit the Ugt Kwncn to mr." 

A. It. KvANs, l'rind|uil of th«* Wilmn ColloKlnte Institute, X. Y.. Myn : — "I introduced ronr 
l^'purat'-ry l^tin I'nuie lii.-ok. ai.d um^ it in my ehmreii with inrrctu^ ntii<faction. It in, 
wiiiiuut iloubt, the Ix-st drilMiaok for HtuilentH In l^tln Vtwv with which the publle hai been 
favon"!." 

U. V. .>loK(»o.v, Prof, of lAnpuatten in White«town Seminary. N, Y.. rays : — ** I oonaiilflr the 
llandlKXik^ by fur Ibu l>e.'t nilBpted to my u.«e of any ediliousi of tlie eUu^-icw extant" 

A. if. ItuoK. rritM-ipiil of Hoxlniry Latin S*ho«>l, f<ayi*:— " He aro UDing the Latin Tn§9 
Jiook with Kfi'ut ^uti■>fiu.•tion aud extvlleut n'sulii'." 

M^. M. (;\i'Hiix. l>riii<i|ial of the IIi;;b .ochoi>l. Ilnrtfnnl. t'onn., Mya :— '*It Wi altogether tha 
mo!4t pr;.<-tirul iiud ."euflMti edition of i'ieero whi<-h liai* yet appeared, for the claas and tbi 
iK^bfK'l-riM'ni The wleriions from "lewir and S>alliir;t are KO->l, noieM excelteut" 

S. IL Tatlor. Trinrinul of i billipx Ai*;Mloiny. Hiiyn: ~ " No Ux)k of the kind ha« appeared 
whic-h ii) butter a«iaplvd to lay iho riKht fuuuduliun for a thorough knowledge of the Latin lan- 

KUUKC." 

HANSON AND ROLPE'S LATIN POETRY, 

A Handbook of Ijatln Poetry, Containing «('loctiunis fW)zn Ylrgll, Ovid and 
Ilorane ; with Nuk-h, and liefcrtaiiu!i« to IlHrkuoM* and Audrvwi) and Stoddard^a Latin 
(rrunun.'irH. By .1. II. Hanhon. I*rinci])al of the ClasHical Institute, Waterville, Mo., and 
W. J. Uoi.pK, Mnhtcr of the Hit'li Sch(x)l, Cambridyo, Masa. 12mo. Price $2.60. 

Like the l<ntin Pro«e Book by Mr. Ifanidm, thin work rommejided Itaelf at once to the attm- 
tion of rliiMxi. Ill K-boiiir»<, and buji n-ceiviil tbo nioHt flatteriuK commeudationa fh>m Teacbera In 
all pnrtH of llie country. 

A .1. ruiiM>?«. SNfvnutrmL'ut uf PnUn' S-hf^-l^t. /x^f/v//. Mtiff., «aj-|i:— "Thcfelertiona, both In 
quimtity HUd qun ity, Mt'Ui l«> Imve U-eu iu:iil<> with Kieiir. diiHrriuiinatiou, the Nutee ant jui4 
fiieh iis ri.e ii)iiii>; .-tinleiit liittN. mhI jiiiIm-iI all lb'' «-li'<inul liitn.r !<« wliat we mlgh I expect 
lr»»ui tin* exiK'ii' ui-itl iiuil surt-ewful leHrl.er> whoH- iianKf nre HrM^-iiiied in the work." 

A. n. W AiKix**. I*fif'iii<f,r f/ tirr^k ami Fj-Min in l-'i\ir,fi'hl Simmnry^ y. J', aaya: — " I think 
tbii •iliiion of rbe Ijitin I'lK'tH by fur tlie N'^i yet i^><uell In thb eouutry for the uec of atndnita 
in our i'nMK>riiiiiry Si'IkmiI;!. nml even in nur Colleueii." 

Ir\ W. Ai.IJN. Prhf'iinn iu Ihtt (\'J'fjittU hifHtnh: hi hhyrtW. ImL, myg : — ** It lua beautintl 
l^NXik. I nni liMer |> <-ii.««-<| uiib it tltnn I frXiieerMl to Iv. We hliali Uhe it In nnr luatltute.** 

.T, H. Kf'ii'.nT"'. .sV//»ffiiJ^H»'»/»/ I'f J*nf^fi' Mitu J:', fiirJr^ctfuru, Ht.,Myn:^** The hoc!k\Mwbaf9 
nil prHi-e in it> x'lt><iiiiiiK aiiil bi-ljo. ti» well iii> in iln iii- ebunienl exveulion.'* 

Tin' .\'in Ji/*-j;- /Wo/,. J- fv\s: - " We Imve at hst the M-lifiri|.}M)ok Iouk nnnled. rontalnlnic. In 
n fniiviM.ieui foriii. nil iiiiiiiiiiM ot'l.iiiin I'm-I'v (i;uiv ilrnt titibal iipunll) n^tulred fi^r lutinlmioB 
to riil.ci:!'. The M*li-i-tiunH me juiii'iouN iin>t the btiif biouraphimi and noten neem all that 
oiuld U' ill' in-.l." 

cir^'uliirH. runtiiiniiiK fulU-r ileoeriiiliimK of tbei*o worko. and mi»n? extended notletm, will bt 
forwur-li'd It ilesired. t'lipie'' of tl e lx>iik will Ih* fitmiKlml fur cxamluatita on receipt of ma- 
hult ilie jirire, with ihirJy ei-ntn p«T vobniie for p'»."<ts»;e. 

CRDSBY & AINS WORTH, PubUshers, 

117 Waahinfcton Btreot, BOSTON. 

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New Series.] JUNE, 1866. [Vol. VII, No. 9. 

Thoroughness in Teaching. 

''A few lubjeots, thoroughly taught, form the basis of a good education." 

This maxim is one that every teacher should constantly bear in 
jnind. Great results in teaching are not secured in a few days, or 
weeks, or months even. They arc to be attained only by long-con- 
tinaed patient, systematic labor. Uence, teachers who would 
fnlfill the high responsibilities of their calling, must be content 
** to kbor and to wait." 

Bat it is systematic, as well as patient, long-continued labor that 
is required to accomplish the best results in teaching. No matter 
how patiently a teacher labors, or how long the labor is continued, 
if the teaching is not based upon a previously arranged plan founded 
upon philosophical principles, and is not pursued upon the same 
plan, the desired result will not be accomplished. It is therefore 
evident that preparation for the work is as essential to success in 
teaching as in any other profession or occupation. 

Not only should a teacher, by study, qualify himself in all the 
branches of learning in which he proposes to give instruction, but 
he should improve every opportunity of acquiring knowledge of the 
eTery-day affairs and business transactions of life. It is a lack of 
knowledge of this kind on the part of teachers, that causes so muf h 
of the valuable time of the pupils to be wasted in studies that 
neither discipline the mind to correct habits of study and investiga- 
tion, nor have a practical bearing upon the concerns of business 
life. 

The time was when a teacher who possessed a fair knowledge of 
the bruiches of study pursued in common schools, considered 

[Vol. XV, No. 9.] 18 



260 Ihoroughneaa in Teackvag. 

himself, and was considered by others, well qualified for the 
responsible position of teacher. But this is no longer the case- 
The teacher who wishes to keep pace with the progress of the times 
in the Educational world, must make himself familiar with the phi- 
losophy of mind, that he may fully understand the natural order of in- 
tellectual development He must also acquaint himself with systems of 
education, and the best and most approved methods of imparting 
instruction. 

If there is any one fault more common than another, or more 
frequently to be found in schools than all others — any one evil that 
more than all others needs to be banished from schools — it is, that of 
permitting a pupil to leave any subject of study, before he has 
thoroughly mastered it, zo thoroughly that the principles become his 
own for future use. Teachers of little experience are apt to consider 
the amount of matter passed over by their classes in a given time, as 
the measure of their success in imparting instruction. But in this 
they are mistaken. Their true standard is to be determined, not 
by the number of pages their pupils have passed during a term, ' 
but by their thoroughness in the subjects which they have studied. 
Make a pupil thorough in whatever he attempts, and he acquires 
mental strength and vigor that will enable him to master, without 
the aid of a teacher, those other portions of his studies that he 
would &il to comprehend even with the aid of a teacher, if he had 
not previously been made thorough in the elementary prineiples of 
the subject. " Not how much but how well,'' should be the govern- 
ing rule of instruction. 

It is quite as important that pupils be taught how to study, as 
that they be instructed in particular subjects or branches of study. 
They should be so instructed in methods of study as to be able to 
continue a course of reading and investigation with profit, after they 
leave school. This can be done only by giving them correct habito 
of'thought and logical methods of analysis. Give them these, and 
they will acquire habits of self-reliance more valuable to them in 
afler life, than all the knowledge they will acquire of books while 
at school. 

In his efforts to be thorough, the teacher must not lose sight of 
the well established fact that the greatest amount of talking to a 
class is not always the greatest amount of instmotton ; but that, on 



ThorougJmeaa m Toaching. 261 

the contrary, it often results in a want of thoroughness in the sub- 
ject under consideration, and a want of mental power in the pupil 
to grasp and master new subjects and principles. Many teachers 
talk too much. They mistake the desire they feel to tell the class 
what they know about the lesson or subject, for the true spirit of 
teaching. *' Pouring in" facts by the page, till the mind is full to 
contusion, — for the mind, like the stomach, will receive only a 
giyen amount of mental food at a time, which must be digested 
before more can profitably be taken, — is in no sense thorough teach- 
ing. Pupils do not need to be instructed in what they already 
know ; but they do need to be assisted to discoTcr how to OTcr- 
come the obstacles they encounter in studying their lessons. 
Therefore in imparting instruction, teachers should '^ Talk to the 
pointy" remembering that " Plain statements oft repeated " will do 
more towards securing thorough scholarship, than can ever be 
secured by confusing the mind of the learner with a great amount 
of talking and a diffuseness of ideas. 

£very lesson should be studied by the teacher as well as by the 
class, that he may mark out the general course he intends to pur- 
sue in conducting the recitation, and in giving the instruction that 
may be required by the pupils. He should make notes of leading 
points in the lesson, and of the illustrations and references he 
intends to make use of. This course will enable him to dispense 
with the use of a text-b'obk at recitation, and to inspire his pupils 
with life and enthusiasm, which he can not do when confined to a 
text-book. That teacher who is obliged to keep a text-book open 
before him, with finger pointing to '^ the place," is yet far from hav- 
ing attained that standard of thoroughness which is beginning to 
to be required in first class schools. Freedom from text-book at 
recitation should be striven for by every teacher. 

''But" say our readers, "how is thoroughness to be attained?" 
Weam^wer; 

1. By employing teachers who are well qualified in the subjects 
of study and the methods of presenting them to others ; 

2. By thorough classification in school ; 

d. By insisting upon regular and correct habits of study ; 

4. By reviewing lessons in advance of recitations ; 

5. By independence of books at recitation; 



262 Magnitude and MsniwaHim. 

6. By assisting pupils only when they need assistance ; 

7. By showing the practical application that may be made of the 
knowledge acquired at school ; 

8. By being earnest and yet patient ; 

9. By using familiar illustrations, explanations, and applications, 
to reach the comprehension of the diflPerent minds in the class ; 

10. By fixing every point before learning it ; 

11. By neyer letting pupils get discouraged ; 

12. By frequent reviews, requiring them in the form of abstracts 
or synopses written by the pupib whenever the subjects will admit 
of it. 



The Imagination. 

The beautiful faculty of the imagination, when it has been pro- 
perly trained, is a perpetual well-spring of delight to the soul; but, 
when foully or improperly trained, is a source of constant uneasi- 
ness. Its functions are mixed up with all our joys and our miseries. 
The words Fancy and Imagination are often used as if they meant 
the same thing. Fancy is the punter of the soul. Imagination 
has an ampler mission, and does more than mirror outside objects 
to the soul. It takes up the conceptions we havo formed, and 
improves on them; arranges them in novel combinations; and, 
from the exact delineation or portrait of things transmitted through 
the senses and retained by ipemory, it works up new ideas. Imagi- 
nation is the poet of the soul. 



Magnitude and Mensuration. 

Knowledge to be available must be arranged and classified. The 
different parts of any given branch of science, as presented in the 
text-book, do not usually present themselves to the learner in their 
true relations ; each statement appears as an unrelated fact. 

Though each lesson may have been well recited, the pupil has 
failed to get any clear conception of the limits of the subject or of 
the different topics which it includes. To present the oulines of a 
subject to the eye, and through the eye to the mind, I have found 
schedules of great value. When correctly prepared they present at 
a single glance the different topics, their relation and classification. 
By causing pupils to produce these schedules for themselves, they 



Motgnitude <md li/bnm/raiicm. 



263 



form habits of arranging and classifying their knowledge — ^habits 
without which no great excellence can be attained. Snch sched- 
ules also appear to be the only true basis of a topical recitation. 

The schedule here presented exhibits only those points usually 
brought out in our common arithmetics. It is neither full nor per- 
fect, but it illustrates my meaning. In a topical recitation by this 
schedule the method of measuring should be given immediately after 
the definition of the form requiring measurement. It should be 
remembered, however, that no topical recitation should be attempted 
till the pupil is familiar with all the things classified — first, things, 
then relations. 

Points r Straight 

Acoording to direction I Curved 
( Broken 



H 

Q 
P 

B 



a 



According to relations 
' Parts f Tertex 
(Sides 
(Right 
Classi- i Acute 
fication ( Obtuse 

Triangles 



ii 



Vertical 

Parallel 

Perpendicular 

Oblique 

Horiiontal 



Plane 
Curved 



5 r 



Base 
Altitude 



Classification 



CO 



o S 



Equilateral 

Isosceles 

Scaline 



SS rRight 



fKigl 
\ObU 



Oblique 



Quadri- 
laterals 



l{ 



Base 
p^ t Altitude 

Classification 



Pentagon 
Hexagon 
Heptagon 
Octagon, etc 
Circle — parts 



p 
larle 



(Trans 
verse 
Coign- 
gate 
{Triangular 
Square 
Pentagonal, ete. 
Cylinder 

Pyramid — Slant height — Altitude 
Cone 

Frustrum of a Pyramid or Cone 
Sphere — Diameter — Circumference 



s 

'Paral- rBectangli 
lelo- I Square 
gram 1 Rhomboid 

I Rhomb 
Trapeioid 
Trapesium 

Circumference 

Arc 

Radius 

Chord 

Diameter 

Segment , 

Sector 

Secant 

Tangent 



A. G. M. 



264 Lomgwxge. 



Lazigaage: How shall our Pupils learn to use it oorreotly. 



BT AUBOBA H. TURHIB. 



What is language? Webster's definition is lengthy, but it is 
satisfactory and to the point. He defines it to be : 1. Human 
speecJi; the expression of ideas by words or sifpiificant artiadatt 
soundsy for the communication of thoughts. Language connsis in the 
oral utterance of sounds, which usage has made the representatives of 
ideas. When two or more persons customarily annex the same sounds 
to the same ideas, the expression of these sounds hy one person com- 
municates his ideas to another. Hiis is the primary sense of language, 
the use of which is to communicate the thoughts of one person to can- 
other through the organs of hearing. Articulate sounds are repre- 
sented by letters, marks, or characters, which form words. Hence, 
language consists also in words duly arranged in sentences^ written, 
printed, or engraved, and exhibited to the eye. 

This* precious gifl is from the Creat()r. By it, we contribute 
immensely, either to the happiness or misery of others ; and in so 
using it, render ourselves happier, or more miserable. A cutting 
sarcasm works mischief untold upon the sensitive spirit, while a 
kindly disposition manifests itself in loving, cheering words,' the 
influence of which goes far to encourage the weak and desponding. 
Language enlivens the social circle, cements friendships, and en- 
hances the pleasure of home. How animated the countenances of 
that little group, among whom, one stands, long absent, bat now 
returned to tell of past adventures and hair-breadth escapes. 
Through the medium of language he is enabled to afford so maeh 
gratification, and to this he is indebted for the expressions of inte- 
rest and affection which he receives. The infant's prattle is an 
additional link to the chain which binds parent and child so oloeely; 
as, also, Heaven is brought nearer, and a re-union more certain, by 
the parting words of departed friends. Christianity imposes upon 
man the right use of this divine trust, for we are to be held accoun- 
table for every idle word. 

The lower animals have their language, also; each species, its own. 



Langtioge. 265 

How gentle the cooing of doTea; — and at nightfall, as the twilight 
shadows deepen, the traveler through the lonely woods, hastens 
onward, knowing hy the distant roar of beasts of prey, that as night 
advances, his dangers will multiply ) and happy he, when safe within 
his own abode. 

Again, Webster says : '^ Any manner of expresiing ihoughU." 
This expression is somewhat ambiguous, and will allow a. liberal 
construction. In this connection, he speaks of the language of the 
eye. Who doubts it ? Words without soul are meaningless ; and 
there are expressions made by the eye and by actions more em- 
phatic than words. A deep sympathy is fully expressed in those 
two simple words : — '^ Jesus wept " — but the act of weeping ex- 
pressed the sympathy more fully still. Flowers talk to us by the 
wayside, and pouting lips say kiss, before they have learned to talk. 

Sometimes, as Talleyrand has it :— : '* Language is the art of con- 
cealing the thoughts," — Masks are not fitted for ordinary life, and 
should be thrown aside. Passing from this view of the subject, we 
arrive at another. 

Objects with which we hold converse through the power of assodct- 
Hon. In front of the State House in Boston, stands a statue of 
Daniel Webster. The majestic form is there, and the noble fore- 
head 'y and the passer-by will pause to gaze upon it ; — and after the 
lapse of years, this bronzed block calls back in thunder tones, the . 
patriotic sentiment so nobly uttered : — " Liberty and Union — one 
and inseparable — now and forever" Gentle breezes from the bay 
oome laughingly to caress him, then hie away, whispering, to play 
hide-and-seek amid the leaves of the old elm trees on Boston com- 
mon. Bunker-hill monument brings vividly before us the severe 
struggle of Revolutionary times; and, from the memory of the 
lamented Warren, and others who fell, fighting for liberty, we turn, 
mlas I to our own fire-sides. The vacant chair and silent hearth-stone 
speak more audibly than words, the absence of the loved one, and 
bear record of him who sacrificed his life in our recent struggle 
for liberty ^and the right. Again, the still, small voice which comes 
to many so frequently, and, as a welcome guest, lightens earth's 
cares, is the voice of the Almighty, which promises to the faitHfU 
and true, a glorio^us immortality. 

How shall our pupils ham to tMc correct language f Were this 
question addressed to mothers, how delightful would be my task. 
That she should be the model, all will agree. The young imitator 



26A Lomgwf/gt. 

oopiet her ezprearioiu ftni, and if tliej are oorreet and elegant, 
surely the little bark has been lannohed upon a plaoid sea. It ia 
her priTilege, and should be her pleasure, to aid the child, from 
the earliest lispings of in&ncy, in forming a habit of correct expres- 
sion. Outside influences and associations may embarrass her, bat her 
discouragement need be but temporary ; her final suocess is snre. 

The .children of cultivated parents reveal at an early age the 
advantages they enjoy in this respect, over their lees fortunate mates ; 
and bright and glorious will be the day, when civilisation shall be 
thrown so thoroughly broadcast over all the earth, that die masses, 
being rightly educated in youth, shall use correct language them- 
selves, and thus save the teacher of that period, this most discourag- 
ing part of our work. Till then, let us take heart, and try to do 
for parents what many are incapable of doing themselves, or, being 
indifferent to the importance of right training in this matter, are 
constantly undoing for us. 

Children will not rise in the correctness of their conversation 
above their associations. Birds, whose wings are clipped, fly with 
difficulty, and never so high as their more fitvored companions. 
Here, the mother's 4abor of love comes in. She should be on the 
alert to notice and correct the child's errors, however simple they 
may be, and choose for its associates, not necessarily from the 
wealthy, but from among those who, by their conversation, prove 
themselves to be of refined parentage. How rough and ungainly 
seem the surroundings of poverty to the child of aflluenoe. How 
can it be otherwise ? Architecture lends its aid to educate the eye 
in form ; ornaments and paintings develop the idea of color, while 
music cultivates the ear and refines the soul. And language, cor- 
rectly spoken, becomes at once, the child's habitual method of 
expression. 

What then is the teacher's province? It is to give the pupil an 
understanding of the grammatical construction of our language. So 
far, all is right. Receiving this baptism, he plunges into the waters 
of practical, every-day life. Struggling amid the waves of the 
great ocean of incorrect expressions, he manages to keep his head 
above water, unless some devouring shark, whose embodiment 
represents the difficulty of overcoming the habits of a false, early 
education, comes along, and finishes him most thoroughly. Pifl- 
couraging as this view of the subject is, we find it less so in proper- 



MyShipe. 267. 

iion as the pupU leoeives from homa and friendsy the aid whioh 
will buoy him up to high-water-mark. 

A lovely face and form are prepossessing; bat if with these, is 
oombined the use of faulty expressions, we are disappointed. The 
habitual use of correct language implies a cultiyated mind, and 
lends an additional charm to social enjoyment. 

True democracy is struggling here, and will be victorious; and 
the aristocracies of the old world, and of the new, who monopolise 
wealth and learning, will give place to the enlightened masses, who 
are coming up to usher in the millennial dawn. Ignorance, and its 
oompanion, vice, will flee away. Education will eradicate false and 
incorrect expressions, and hmguage will express not only correctly, 
but kindly and lovingly, the '' abundance of the heart.'' 

Syraease. 



• ••» » 



My Ships. 

BT J. W. BARKSB. 

I have ships that went to sea, 

Tears ago, jears ago, 
With what tidings I opuld learn, 
I've been waiting their return, 
While the homeward galei to me 
Never blow, neyer blow. 

In the distance they are seen, 
On the deep, on the deep, 
Plowing thro' the swelling tide. 
With the dim stars for a guide. 
But the angry wayes between, 
Never sleep, never sleep. 

There are breakers setting in 

For the qliore, for the shore, 
And it may be, in their frown. 
That mj ships will all go down, 
With their precious fireight within, 
Evermore, evermore. 

There is little oheer for me, 
Waiting so. waiting so, 
Waiting through the starless night, 
For the eoming of the light, 



288 Ibach Oe GkUdrm to Sing. 

For 1117 ships th§i wsnt to 10% 
Tears ago» jears ago. 

I'to a ship that went to sea, 

Long ago, long ago, 
And the gallant little craft, 
Beat the tempest fore and aft, 
And the homeward gales to me, ' 
Eyer blow, oTer blow. 

Lone and weary haye I been, 

Who can tell, who can tell 
All the angnish of the soul, 
While the billows round me roll, 
'Till my ship comes sailing in, 
Freighted well, freighted well T 

Then I'll keep my little craft 

Sailing on, sailing on. 
For I know she'll bear me o'er, 
Far beyond the billows roar, 
With her cargo all secure. 

To MT BOMB, TO MY HOMK. 

Buffalo. 



Teaoh the Children to Sing. 

The benefits attending the study of geography and history, English 
reading and grammar, are seen and admitted by all intelligent 
people. The utility of mathematics and philosophy, and the ancient 
and modem languages, is quite generally understood and oonoeded. 
But what are the claims of music as a regular branch of education ? 
Is there any cogent reason why — to say nothing at present about 
instrumental music — children should not be univer$aUy taught to 
sing ? Upon this interesting as well as important question we have 
a few words to say. 

1. Music is a science, as well as an art. Johnson gives it a place 
among the seven liberal branches of knowledge. The abstract and 
speculative principles upon which it depends have been fVilly and 
plainly elucidated, and satisfactorily tested in practice. From the 
Bible, and Grecian classics, and Egyptian antiquities, we learn that 
music was a science in very ancient times. No doubt it was then in 



JkuA ihe OhUdrm to Sing. 269 

a very crude and imperfect state. But the first elementary princi- 
ples were tben understood ; and since that it has progressed, until 
now it is developed as a most beautiful branch of knowledge. As 
such it should be taught, and no person's education is complete who 
is not acquainted with its fundamental principles. 

And here, we remark, is a great defect. While in our public, 
and many of our private schools, music is taught as an art, it is not 
usually taught as a science. Perhaps a few lessons are given upon 
the first rudiments, but for the most part, children in this country 
are only taught to sing by rote. They hear the melody, and easily 
catch it ; and if they have a good ear, and ordinary musical talent, 
they may put in the subordinate parts, and complete the harmony. 
If, in this loose way, they learn to sing, how much more proficient 
they would become if early inducted in this beautiful science ! 

2. Every chUd, except the unfortunate mute, is endowed with 
musical powers. He or she has a voice, and that voice is capable of 
making different intonations. It can make high sounds and low 
sounds, hard sounds and smooth sounds. It can indicate anger and 
joy, hatred and love. And it is reasonable to suppose, that the 
child that can talk and shout, laugh and cry, can also if properly in- 
structed, learn to sing. 

Nor is this a mere theory or sapposition. In certain parts of 
Germany as great care is observed in teaching children to read 
music, as to read writing or printing, and lack of natural ability for 
the one performance is no more complained of than for the other. 
And in our own country, distinguished musicians, life Professor 
Hastings, declare that they have never met with a person, young or 
old, who, if he had a voice, could not learn to sing. 

No doubt, some have a greater talent, and are more likely to be- 
come proficients in the science, than are^ others. So it is in all 
departments of learning. But he who has but one talent should 
not be permitted to bury it, — he should be taught to use it. 
Every child who can articulate, can, with some pains, learn to sing 
— to sing correctly if not beautifully. His wise and beneficent 
Creator means that he shall sing, or He would not have thus 
endowed him. And if we do not teach our children to glorify their 
Maker in noble song, the warbling birds and bleating flocks will re- 



270 Teach (he Children to Sing. 

proaoh us and them, and the choirs of heaven will look down in 
pity and astonishment. 

3. Mnsic has ever heen regarded as a great and innocent amuse- 
ment It is such to those who listen, but still more to those who 
participate intelligently and correctly in the song. It not only 
affords relaxation for the weary mind, but likewise relief for the 
burdened spirit. It re-assures the desponding, elevates the down- 
cast, cheers the drooping. It acts like an angel of mercy to the 
mourner. The heart that is almost broken with sorrow is comforted 
as it Ibtens to the sweet and plaintive melody ; and if the voice can 
be controlled so as to join in the strain, how great and indescribable 
is the relief I The gentle Kirke White well said : 

** Oh, Burely melody from heaven was sent 
To oheer the soul, when tired of human strife ; 
To soothe the wayward heart by sorrow rent, 
And soften down the rugged road of life. 

4. But music does more. It exerts a most salutary influence upon 
human character and conduct. 

It soothes the passions. When a tempest rages in the soul, and 
' conflicting waves leap fViriously, one upon another, the soft strain 
of melody, as it approaches, and is more distinctly heard, subdues 
the storm, and at once there is a great calm. 

Music operates favorably upon the affections. Every thing like 
asperity it removes. The mind, which naturally inclines to in- 
difference, it fills with generous emotions. It renders pliable the 
feelings. It dispels selfishness and promotes benevolence; and 
thus its influence is in the highest degree ennobling. 

Mark its effect also upon the taste — how refining! Upon the 
energies — how animating ! It fVowns upon all that is low and 
grovelling — upon all that is dull and stupid; and produces lofty 
aspirations and lively movements. 

Upon these and other points we might dwell at considerable 
length, but our object is not to write a lengthy and elaborate article. 
We simply wish to suggest to professors and teachers, and trustees, 
throughout our land, the importance of a more thorough and com- 
plete instruction of this great and delightful science. We hope to 
see the day when it will be placed beside grammar, arithmetic, and 
geography, and be taught efficiently in all our schools. — Am, Ed, 
Monthly. 



I^vgramme of Sch(K)i Exerci^ 271 



Programme of Daily School ExerolBes. 

What are the adTaniages of a programma of dailj exareiiai, aUowiiig a 
definite amount of time to eaoh exercise ? What are aome of the diffioolties 
encountered in arranging such a programme for ^ ungraded school t 
Whj is it better to diyide the school into three or more ffrades, and arrange 
the programme for each grade. What is the adyantage of a study table in 
which the work of the pupils at their desks is marked out and directed t 
What is jour plan of regulating the study of your pupils ? How would you 
proTide for oral instruction, slate exercises, etc., in your daily programme? 
'^Questiant on the Theory and Praetiee of Teaching, 

In compliance with the request of a number of oar readers, we 
snbmit what we regard a practical answer to the questions above, 
selected from the series officially recommended to boards of exam- 
iners. 

The multiplicity of the duties which make up the day's labor of the 
teacher renders it necessary that these duties be reduced to as eom- 
plete a system as possible. System lengthens the teacher's hours. 
It enables him to pass from one duty to another without unneces- 
sary waste of time, and to give to each the relative attention which 
its importance demands. But there can be no system in the school- 
room without the proper division of the teacher's time. He must 
not only know the order of his duties, but also the amount of time 
that can be devoted to each. This will enable him to use each mo- 
ment to the greatest possible advantage. But the advantages of a 
definite programme of school duties are not confined to the teacher. 
Such a programme aids the pupils in the preparation of their les- 
sons, and promotes diligence and good order. To this end it should 
not only prescribe the time and order of the recitations, but it should 
regulate the work of the pupils at their desks. In other words, it 
should include a ztuSly table as well as an order of recitations, and 
the whole should present a plan of school work so simple that it may 
be easily carried out by the teacher. 

In arranging such a programme for an ungraded school, the 
teacher will, however, meet with serious practical difficulties. The 
multiplicity of the recitations and exercises to be provided for 



272 Ptogramfme of School Exerdsea. 

renden it exoeedingly difficult to allow to each a definite amount of 
time. The sab-divisions are to small to be easily marked, even 
when the school is supplied with a dock. It is true that this diffi- 
cnlty is heightened in many schools by an unnecessary number of 
classes. But when the teacher has properly classified his pupils 
he will still find it difficult thus to *' time " his recitations. 

This difficulty may be overcome, in a good degree, by dividing the 
the school into three grad€$, and allowing a definite amount of time 
to the exercises and study of each grade. Grade A may include, 
for example, all pupils in written arithmetic or above the Fourth 
Reader ; Grade B all pupils in the Third and Fourth readers, and 
Grade C all pupils below the Third reader. This gives a general 
idea of what is meant by three grades of pupils. Each grade, may 
and usually will, contain two or more classes in each branch of 
study. This arrangement will also classify the pupils for oral 
instruction and general exercises — a matter of great practical import- 
ance. 

With a view of aiding inexperienced teachers in preparing a pro- 
gramme of school work upon this plan, we submit the following 
RECITATION AND STUDY TABLE. 

GeXdb a. Grade B. Grade C. 

To 9 : 10. Calling Boll and DeTotional Exeroitos. 

9 : 80. Arithmetic, Mental Arithmetic. Numbers. 

9 : 60. Spelling. Mental Arithmetic, Spelling. 

10 : 10. Do. Spelling. ^eUmg and Nmmbm, 

10 : 20. Spelling. Do. Beading. 

10 : 80. Written Exercises. Spelling^ Do. 

10 : 40. BeoesB for the whole School. 

11 : 00. Geography. Reading. Reading, 
11 : 20. Do. Reading, Sentence-making. 

11 : 80. Do. Sentence-making. Oral LeesonM, 

12 : 00. Geography. (Grades B and Cdismissed at 11:80.) 

aptiehoon. 

To 1 : 40. Calling Roll, etc. 

2 : 00. Reading, Reading. Printing. 

2 : 20. Written Exercises. Reading, Reading. 

2 : 40. Writing. Writing, TlShting or Printing. 

8 : 00. Do. Drawing. Reading. 

8 : 10. Recess for the whole SchooL 

8 : 80. English Grammar. Oral Leeeont, Spelling. 

8 : 46. Do. Spelling. ' " 



4 : 00. Do. Spelling, Drawing. 

4 : 80. Englieh Grammar, (Grades B and C dismissed at 4:00.) 

The words in italics in the above programme indicate the order 



Programme cf St^ool Etordses. 278 

of redtationsy and the words Id Boman the leeeona to be studied or 
the work to be done by the pupils at their desks. While, for exam- 
ple, the different classes in grade A are reciting their lessons in 
arithmetic, the classes in grade B are preparing their leasons in men- 
tal arithmetic, and the classes in grade C are learning to coont 
small numbers or to add the smaller digits by means of marks upon the 
slate, kernels of com, or other objects. The number of classes in 
arithmetic in grade A will determine the amount of time that can 
be devoted to each class. The programme only regulates the time 
to be devoted to each grade. At the close of the twenty minutes, 
the classes in grade B are called, and the pupils in grades A and C, 
commence preparing their spelling lessons, the latter by printing 
the words upon their slates. 

The advantages of such a programme are evident. It divides the 
teacher's time into intervals of sufficient length to be easily marked 
by reference to a time-piece — a clock being preferable for the pur- 
pose. It affords the smaller pupils the necessary variety and change 
of employment, and enables the teacher to see, at a glance, that the 
proper duty is receiving attention. By appointing a monitor in 
each of the lower grades to distribute and collect the slates, the 
teacher may, with little trouble, examine every slate exercise of his 
little pupils in drawing, printing or writing, sentence-making, etc. — 
exercises that should receive early and constant attention. 

The '^ oral lessons " of grades B and C may include lessons in direc- 
tion, home geography, number, color, form, qualities of familiar 
objects, etc. The exercises in '' sentence-making " should receive 
careful attention with a view of preparing the pupil, at an early age, 
to write a neat and creditable letter. The pupils in grade A may 
prepare their written exercises in the forenoon and copy the same in 
^ the afternoon. 

No mention is made in the table of moral lessons, physical exer- 
cises, and music. Singing may be made a part of the opening 
exercises of the school, forenoon and afternoon. A half hour each 
week may also be set apart for an additional exercise. Moral 
instruction may be imparted as a regular exercise once or twice a 
week, and also whenever a Jit opportunity occurs. Brief physical 
exercises should occur at the close of each hour not broken by a 
recess, and one or two regular exercises each week may be provided 



274 



The Judgmfenl Hymn. 



tot. The teacher's weekly programme, if not hit daily, should pre- 
sent a oomplete and harmonious sjrstem of instruction and dismpline. 
The above programme, though more specially adapted to ungraded 
oountry schools, may be suggestive to primary teachers in towns 
and cities. In many of our graded schools too little attention is 
paid to the study of pupils — their desk or seat work. Every 
twenty minutes should bring a change of employment to young 
pupils. — Ohio Ed.Monthhf. 



The Judgment Hymn* 



The following beautiful hymn is supposed to have been composed 
by a monk who lived in the thirteenth century. It is a fine exam- 
ple of a class of poetry, which combines the smoothness of rhyme, 
with the gravity of Latin verse. 



1. 

Bits ira, dies iUa 
SoWet Bttolum in favillA, 
Teste David onin SibyllA. 

2. 
Qaantos tremor est futnms, 
Quando Judex est venturui, ' 
Canota strict^ disoassamsl 

8. 
Tuba minun spargens sonnm 
Per sepulohra regionom, 
Goget omnes ante thronum. 

4. 
Mors stupebit, et natura, 
Quum resurget creatura 
Judioanti responsura. 

6. 
Liber scriptus proferetur, 
In quo totum continetur, 
De quo mundus judioetur. 

6. 
Judex ergo quum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet apparebit, 
Nil inultum remanebit. 



Day of wrath, that day of burning. 
Seer and Sibyl speak oonceming. 
All the world to ashes turning. 

2. 
Oh, what fear shall it engender. 
When the Judge shall oome in splendor, 
Striot to mark and just to render I 

8. 
Trumpet, eoatterlng sounds of wonder, 
Rending sepulchres asunder, 
Shall resistless summons thunder. 

4. 
All aghast then Death shall shiyer. 
And great Nature's frame shall quiyer, 
When the grayes their dead deliyer. 

6. 
Book, where actions are recorded, 
All the ages haye afforded. 
Shall be brought and dooms awarded. 

6. 
When shall sit the Judge unerring, 
He'll unfold all here occnrring. 
No Just vengeance then dtferring. 



The Judgment Hymn. 



275 



Quod sum miser tunc dioturus, 
Quem patronam rogaturus, 
Quum yix Justus sit securus ? 

8. 
Rex tremends majestatis, 
Qui saWandos salyas gratis, 
Salya me, fons pietatis ! 

9. 
Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tuss yis, 
Ne me purdas 1114 die ! 

10. 
QnsBrens me sedistl lassus, 
Redemistl crucem passus : 
Tantus labor non sit cassus I 

11. 
Juste Judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis, 
Ante diem rationis ! 



12. 
Ingemisco tanquam reus, 
Culp& rubet yultus meus : 
Supplicanti parce, Deus ! 

13. 
Qui Mariam absolyisti, 
£t latronem exaudisti, 
Mihi quoque spem dcdisti. 

14. 
Prsces me» non sunt dignea, 
Scd tu, bonus fac benign^, 
Ne perenni cremer igne ! * 

15. 
Inter oyes locum prsBSta, 
£t ab btedis me sequestra, 
Statuens in parte dextr4! 

16. 
Confutatis maledictis, 
Flammis aoribus addictis, 
Toca me cum benedictis ! 
[Vol. XV, No. 9.] 



What shall / say, that time pending, 
Ask what adyocate's befriending, 
When the just man needs defending ? 

8. 
Dreadful King, all power possessing. 
Saying freely those confessing, 
Saye thou me, Fount of Blessing ! 

9. 

Think, Jesus, for what reason 

Thou didst bear earth's spite and treason. 

Nor me lose in that dread season ! 



10. 
Seeking me Thy worn feet hasted. 
On the cross Thy soul death tasted ; 
Let such trayail not be wasted ! 

11. 
Righteous Judge of retribution ! 
Make me gift of absolution, 
Ere that day of exeojution ! 

12. 

Culprit-like, I plead, heart-broken, 
On my cheek shame's crimson taken : 
Let the pardoning word be spoken ! 

18. 
Thou, Mary who gay'st remission, 
Heard'st the dying Thiefs petition, 
Cher'st with hope my lost condition. 

14. 
Though my prayers be yoid of merit. 
What is needful. Thou confer it. 
Lest I endless fire inherit ! 

15. 

Be there. Lord, my place decided 
With Thy sheep, from goats diyided. 
Kindly to Thy right hand guided ! 

16. 
When th' accursed away are driyen, 
To eternal burnings giycn,. 
Call me with the blessed to heayen ! 
19 



276 Lake Superior. 

17. 17. 

Oro supplex, et accliniB, I beseech Thee, prostrate lying, 

Cor contritam quasi cinis, Heart as ashes, eontrite, sighing, 

Gere curam mei finis ! Care for me when I am djing ! 

18. ' 18. 
Lachrymosa dies ilia, Day of tears and late repentance 
Qua resurget in favilU, Man shall rise to hear his setnenoe : 
Judicandus homo reus: Him, the child of guilt and error, 
Huio ergo parce, Deus ! Spare, Lord, in that hour of terror ! 



Lake Superior. 

In the northern part of Minnesota is the greatest elevation of 
what geologists denominate the eastern water-shed of our continent; 
lying almost exactly in the centre of North America, here the 
streams that flow to the north, east and south, find their source. 
Lake Superior, that joins this section on the east, is the chief of 
those magnificent lakes that empty from one another into the St 
Lawrence, and finally wash the coast of Labrador. 

Lake Superior, with a surface of six hundred feet above, and a 
bottom three hundred feet below the level of the sea, stretches put, 
in vastness and splendor, five hundred miles long by nearly two 
hundred broad, and holds in its bosom, islands that would make 
respectable kingdoms in the old world. On the southern shore its 
sandstone rocks are worn, by the waves and storms, into fantastic 
shapes, imitative of ancient castles or modern vessels, or are hol- 
lowed out into deep caverns ; on the north the bolder shore rises 
into rugged mountains, whose face has been seamed by the moving 
ice-drifte of former ages. In the country bordering upon the south, 
are located inexhaustible mines of copper and iron, of immense 
value ; and along the northern coast are found agates and precious 
stones. 

A hundred streams pour their contents into the great lake, which, 
from its enormous size and d^pth, retaining the temperature of 
winter through the summer months, empties its clear, cold, trans- 
parent waters into the river Ste. Marie. Not producing a large 
variety of fish, those that dwell in its bosom are the finest of their 
species." 



Resident Editor's Department. 



* ♦♦» » 



NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 

TWENTY-FIRST MEETING. 

Change of Time. — We present herewith a partially arranged pro- 
gramme of the exercises for the Annual Meeting to be held at Geneya, 
commencing July 81, 1866. 

It was found necessary by the Board of Officers to change the time of 
meeting, so as not to conflict with other bodies, and it is belieyed that 
this action will be receiTed with general fayor. 

Circulars will be issued in due time, and a full scheme will be published 
in July number of the Teacher. 

Tuesday, July 81. At 4 o'clock p. m. — Organization, &c. 

At 4} o'clock. — President's Inaugural Address. 

At 7} o'clock?. M. — Report of Standing Committee on Condition of Edu- 
cation. 

Address on by Wm. C. Wisner, D.D., of Lookport. 

Wednetday, August 1. At 9 o'clock a. m. — Report on Curriculum of 
studies for Common Schools. Discussion of the Subject. 

At 10 o'clock. — Report on Amendments to the Constitution proyiding 
for Auxiliary Associations. 

At 11 o'clock. — Lecture by John H. French, LL.D., of Albany, on The 
Geography of the State of New York. 

Miscellaneous business. 

At 2} o'clock. — Report on English Language and Literature. Disous- 
flion of the subject. 

At 8} o'cloiik. — A Paper upon the Importance of the Study of the' 
Natural Sciences, by Prof. Williams, followed by discussion of the subject. 

At 4} o'clock. — Report on ** The appointment of a State Board of Ex- 
aminers to issue higher grade of certificates to professional teachers." 

At 7} o'clock. — Address by Rey. L. Merrill Miller, D.D., of Ogdensburgh. 

Poem by Miss Mary A. Ripley of Albany. 

Thursday, August 2. At 9 o'clock. — Appointment of nominating com- 
mittees. 

A paper on by B. M. Reynolds of Lookport. Report 

upon Improyed methods in Education. 

Remarks upon *'The Functions of the Normal School," by Messrs. Kid- 
dle and Arey. 



278 Resident EdUon^a Department 

At 11 J o'clock.— Poem by Rbt. A. T. Pierson of Waterford. 

At 2^ o'clock p. M. — Reports of officers. Report of committee on time 
and place of next meeting. 

At 8 o'clock. — Address 

At 4 o^clock. — Election of officers. 

At 7 o'clock p. M. — Miscellaneous business. Report of Committee on 
Resolutions, etc. 

A Business Meeting of the officers and committee of arrangements will 
be held at 2 o'clock p. m. of Tuesday. 

Fare at the hotels will be reduced. Ladies attending the meeting will 
be entertained by the citizens of Geneya. 



MISCELLANY. 

Thb Statk Assooiation of School Commissionies and City Superin- 
tendents will meet at Geneya, on Monday July 80 — the day preceding the 
Annual Meeting of the Teachers' Association. Fuller notice hereafter. 

The Unitebsitt Coryocation or the State of New York will celebrate 
its third anniversary by a meeting at the Capitol in Albany, commencing 
August 7, and continuing three days. The Secretary, Dr. Wool worth, is 
preparing an interesting programme of exercises. 

The National Association of School Sufeeintbndbnts will meet at 
Indianapolis, Ind., the 18th day of August next. 

Amebioan Institute of Instruction. — The annual meeting of this body 
will be held at Burlington, Yt., commencing August 7. 

The National Teachers' Association will hold its annual meeting 
in Indianapolis, Ind., commencing August 15. Fuller particulars in 
our next. 

The Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association will hold its annual 
session at Gettysburg, commencing July 81, and continuing in session 
three days. 

The Indiana Normal School is a fixed fact, at last. It only remains 
to locate it. It is said that Terre Haute bids $50,000, the amount required 
by law. 

The Kansas Educational Journal is sent to eyery school district in 
the State. 

The Sheffield Scientific School at New HaYen, has reoeiyed a new 
impetus. Mr. Joseph £. Sheffield, the founder, whose original donation 
was $100,000,^ has recently expended $40,000 more. The building has 
been enlarged and improyed, and a new telescope is to be mounted. It 
participates in the U. S. land grant. 

New Theory of the Earth. — Mr. John Calvin Moss, of England, pro- 
pounds a theory that the interior of the earth may be composed of fold or 
platinum. He urges that, in the process of cooling the dense mass would 
sink toward th^ center, and that the ayerage density of the earth being from 



lUsideni Mitof^s Department. 279 

4.96 to 6.46, whilst that of the rooks compoBing its orust is not more than 
2.5, it needs that we assign a high specific grayity to some of the substances 
in its interior. Gold, platinum and some precious stones alone, he sajs 
satipfj the conditions. *<One fifth of the earth may be composed of gold 
and platinum. * » # Certainly no safer place of deposit could be 
found than the heart of the earth.'* 

Saturn's Rings. — The London Spectator says : A new English astrono- 
mer, Mr. R. Proctor of St. John's College, Cambridge, who has just pub- 
i shed an elaborate book on the planet Saturn, belieyes Saturn's rings not 
to be continuous bodies, either solid or fluid, but a multitude of loose 
planets, grouped like a bead necklace round his equatorial regions, just as 
if we were furnished not with one moon, but as many moons as would 
span the whole earth. Mr. Proctor asserts that this hypothesis explains 
more completely the whole phenomena of the case than any other. This 
supposition somehow gives a larger idea of the opulence of the ufllyerse in 
worlds than any other known fact. To have such a multitude of little 
worlds strung close together round one planet, produces (illogically enough) 
a more yiyid impression on the mind, than many times the same number of 
fixed stars distributed oyer the infinitude of space. 

The Chabitibs of the War. — A careful statement made of the amount 
contributed by the people of the loyal states for philanthropic purposes 
connected with the war, not including the donations for religious or edu- 
cational objects, gives the following noble record. The total contributions 
from states, counties, and towns, for the aid and relief of soldiers, amounted 
to $187,209,608.62; the contributions of associations and indiyiduals for 
the care and comfort of soldiers were $24,044,865.96 ; for sufferers abroad, 
$880,040.74 ; for sufferers by the riots of July, for freedmen and white 
refugees, $639,688.13 : making a grand total, exclusive of expenditures of 
the government, of $212,274,248.45. 

Queens of France. — France has had 67 queens. Miserable lives they 
led. Eleven were divorced. Two executed. Nine died young. Seven 
were widowed early. * Three cruelly treated. Three exiled. The rest 
were either poisoned or died broken hearted. 



PERSONAL. 

Miss Haebibt N. Marshall. — The Conn. Comnum School Journal says 
of this lady, who has accepted the position of preceptress in the Elmii^a 
Free Academy : i^ In this change, Connecticut loses one of her most accom- 
plished teachers." 

C. HoLOOMBE, A. M., formerly of Troy, and more recently Prof, of 
Mathematics in the Connecticut Normal School, has been appointed Prin- 
cipal of Washington Avenue public school, Brooklyn, N. Y., at a salary of 
$2,000, and has entered upon his duties. He has the reputation of being 
an accomplished scholar and sueoessful teacher. 



280 Beaident Editor's Departmmt. 

Bit. Br. Fishee is reported to hare resigned the Presidency of Ham- 
ilton College ; and it is said that Professor Upson is spoken of as his 
probable successor. 

Mb. W. W. Raymond, formerly an associate editor of this Journal, and 
for many years a successful teacher has left the profession, with the 
ultimate design of taking orders in the Church. Success attend him. 

David N. Camp, Principal of the Connecticut State Normal School has 
resigned. He is to go to Europe, in hope of improving his health, and to 
Tisit some of the educational institutions in Qreat Britain and on the 
Continent. 



INTELLIGENCE.— HOME, 



Thb Suftolk County Tiachebs' Association met at Riyerhead, 
Wednesday, April 11, 1866, and was called to order by the President, 
Wm. H. Clark, Jr., of Sag-Harbor. Educational reports were receired 
from S. T. Badgley, of Patchogue, C. T. Chester, of Shelter Island, Mr. 
Moore, of Orient Point, I. H. Gillette, of Brentwood, ^. H. Benjamin, of 
Riyerhead, Mr. Williamson, of Franklinyille, E. F. Preston, of Patchogue, 
Miss Adelia Dains, of Blue Poiot, Mr. Hulse, of Bellport, and D. B. 
Beale, of Sayyille. 

Eyening session 7} p. m. Essay by Miss P. W. Pike, Subject, ♦♦ Sow- 
ing and Reaping.'' Poem by C. T. Chester, Subject, *< Putting on Airs." 
Lecture by Thomas Emmette, Esq., Subject, *<More worlds than one." 
Adjourned. 

Thursday Morning Session, 9} a. m. I. H. Gillette, Esq., £^ye an 
explanation of his method of teaching Geography. S. T. Badgley opened 
the discussion, ** Should Civil Government be taught in our public schooli," 
and was followed in debate by C. T. Chester, H. H. Be^jsmin, E. F. Pres- 
ton, and Commissioner Mount. 

Afternoon Session, 2 p. m. Vice President H. H. Benjamin in the 
chair. The question of civil government was again resumed, and debated 
by Jhomas Emmette, A. G. Merwin, and H. Markham, Editor of Inde^ 
pendent Presi. S. T. Badgley and Miss I. J. Penny, were appointed a 
Committee to procure subscriptions for the New Yobk Teacheb. Essay 
by Miss A. E. Clark, Subject, "Humbugs." 

A Discussion, ** The prominent defects in our Text Books," was opened 
by A G. Merwin and discussed by Commissioner Mount, A. V. Dayif, C. 
T. Chester, B. Saxton, and II. H. Benjamin. 

Evening Session, 7} p. m. The Query Box was placed in charge of Com- 
missioner Mount, and the questions answered by different members of the 
Association. Music by the Philharmonic Society of Riverhead. A con- 
tributed article to the Rddiator^ entitled *' Woman's Mission," was read by 
the Editor, Thomas S. Mount, followed by music. Essay, Subject, " Long 
Island," was read by Miss Sarah A. Hallock. Music, and a Lecture froai 



Hmdent Editor's Depa/rtmeni. 281 

£. F. Preston, Subject, « The History of Creation geologioallj considered." 
Critic's report, music, and adjournment. 

Friday Morning Session, 9} a. m. B. Saxton gaye an explanation of 
the Oulf Stream. Discussion opened by Thomas Emmette, on **The 
prominent causes of failures in Teaching ; *' debated by A. G. Merwin, 
Editor Markman, Commissioner Mount, and E. F. Preston. 

Afternoon Session, 2 p. m. ** The best method of teaching Percentage," 
was presented by H. H. Benjamin, followed by a discussion by D. B. 
Beale, Subject, **The good morals of a community depend upon its intelli- 
gence," which was further debated by A. G. Merwin, and Commissioner 
Mount. A number of new members were received. 

Eyenlng Session, 7} p. m. Music, followed by an Essay, Subject, 
*♦ Love," read by A. V. Davis. Lecture by Commissioner Mount, Subject, 
**Law, its Nature and Tendencies." Comic song by W. Slade. Critic's 
Report, music and acyournment. 

Saturday Morning, 9 a. m. President in the Chair. The Committee on 
resolutions reported a series which were adopted : 

The following officers were elected: President, H. H. Benjamin, of 
Riverhead ; 1st Vice President, L. Homer Hart, of Babylon ; 2d Vice 
President, Miss Mary H. Jagger, of Westhampton ; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Thomas S. Mount, of Stony Brook ; Recording Secretary, L H. Gil- 
lette of Brentwood ; Treasurer, S. T. Badgley, of Patchogue. 

The newly elected President was conducted to the Chair, by S. T. 
Badgley, and made a brief address. On motion adjourned co meet in 
connection with the Teachers' Institute at its next session. 

Wm. H. Clark, Jr., President. 
L. Homer Hart, Secretary. ' 



INTELLIOENCE,^ FOREIGN, 



California. — The April number of the Ttachtr is entirely taken up 
in the publication of the Revised School Law. We regret that our licnits 
will not allow a full synopsis of this law ; but we condense and give briefly 
the following particulars : It provides for : 

A State Board of Education, to consist of the Governor, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Principal of the ^tate Normal School, Superinten- 
dent of Public Schools of San Francisco, Superintendents of the counties 
of Sacramento, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, and two professional teachers, 
to be nominated by the Superintendent, and confirmed by the Board. 

The Board have power to adopt a course of study, rules and regulations 
for the schools ; prescribe books for libraries and text-books for the 
schodls ; grant diplomas, etc. 

The Superintendent to be elected at special election for Judicial officers, 



282 JReddeni Mitt^s Department. 

and hold office for four years. The other duties of State Saperintentent, 
and those of the Comptroller, State Treasurer, and County Treasurers, 
are similar to those imposed upon these officers in this State. 

County Superintendents, elected by the people, hold office for two 
years. They may enforce proper repairs on school houses and out-build- 
ings. Trustees shall require teachers to attend the county Teachers' 
Institute. 

Union grammar schools may be established-by concurrence of adjoining 
districts. 

The powers of trustees are not so limited as in New York. 

Schools are divided into three grades, and teachers must hold certifi- 
cates corresponding. 

Children under eight years of age, not to be kept in school more than 
four hours daily, and if the average age of the pupils is less than eight 
years, the session shall not exceed four hours. 

Teachers report to County Superintendent on blanks prepared for that 
purpose. 

Teachers to hold pupils accountable for conduct on the way to and from 
school, and to suspend pupils and report the same to trustees. On appeal 
the decision of the County Superintendent is final. 

The State Superintendent is to subscribe for copies of a monthly Journal 
of Education [We congratulate you. Brethren of the California Teaeher'\, to 
supply each County Superintendent, City Superintendent, District Clerk, 
and district school library. 

There is to be annually a State Teachers' Institute, under the direction 
of the State Superintendent. 

A State Board of Examiners grant professional certificates. 

The State tax for schools is' eight-tenths of a mill on each dollar of 
valuation. There is in addition an ample county tax, not less than $3 
for each child, nor more than 35 cents on eaclT hundred dollars valuation. 
School districts may by vote raise additional tax. 

Schools to be free five months, and rate bills may be assessed thereafter. 
But; if the estimated State and county school moneys will not in ihe opi- 
nion of the trustees, sustain a free school five months, they shall [without 
vote of the district], levy a tax to make up the deficiency. 

State and county funds are to be apportioned on the basis of the number 
of children between the ages of 6 and 15. 

We believe this law wisely adapted to the State of California. Its pro- 
visions are liberal. It may and doubtless has defects, but, judging ftrom 
he past of this now State, these will be removed as occasion demands. 
Some of its provisions we should like to see adopted in New York. Our 
readers will not fail to mark them. 



JBesident EdUxn^a D^Hxrtmeni. 283 

Edvoatiohal Mattbbs in Wisoonbin. — The following note from our Wis- 
consin correspondent will speak for itself. 

Mb. Editor : How are you all in the Empire State ? In this far-off 
region, amid the bustle of this smart little capital, it has occurred to me 
that there is an older and more staid community of which I was once 
proud to consider myself a member, and a fraternity of teachers many of 
whom I remember with highest pleasure; and it has further occurred to me 
that to some of that band of my fellow- workers, a word or two relating to 
the educational affairs of this part of our country may not be wholly un- 
interesting. 

We are progressing. The motto of this state is <* Forward," and the 
schools and school system, more than anything else pertaining to the state, 
justify the use of this word on our excutcheon. The Report of Hon. J. 
Q. McMynn, our efficient State Supt., submitted to the present session of 
the Legislature, is the most practical and perfect document of its kind that 
I haTO ever had the pleasure of reading. Its distinguishing characteristics 
and great accuracy and minuteness, and suggestions which render it a 
document yaluable to both teachers and people. The plan of publishing 
the names of all teachers holding certificates, of the first grade inaugurat- 
ed in the present Report, must, if persisted in, result in alaudable emulation 
on the part of teachers and a large increase in the number of the holders 
of this grade. Another commendable feature is the special mention of 
each Teachers' Institute with the most prominent matters, statistics and 
names of acting participants — reported in connection with it. And not 
the least conspicuous nor the least important part are the reports trans- 
mitted to the Department by the county superintendents. Many of the 
facts and suggestions contained in these render them well worthy of the 
place they occupy. 

The present yeair will mark an era in the Normal School system of the 
state. The grants of public lands by the General Government have pro- 
duced a fund sufficient to endow and support at the present time seyeral 
schools in different parts of the state, and ultimately, it is thought, one 
in each Congressional Dist. At least three will be in operation before the 
close of the present year. The nearest approximation to a training school 
for teachers which this state has yet contained is the Normal Department 
of the State UniTersity ; a department organized some three years since 
and now oyerflowing with students. No field was oyer riper for the har- 
▼est, and now that the sickle is about to be thrust in, an abundant yield 
may be looked for. Effectiye as is our common school system ; excellent 
as may be its results in our cities and yillages — and the school of such 
localities haye no superiors in our country — among the mass of teachers, 
the rank and file, there is a lamentable absence of the esprit de eorpt essen- 
tial to the fullest success. Notwithstanding that the school edifices of 
eyery considerable village are creditable to their localities, and would be 
no less so to any similar ones in the whole country, log houses and repul- 



284 Besident EdiUn^a Department. 

Biye nnpainted wood stroctores prodominate in the rural diitriots. All 
these defects, it is hoped, our Normal Schools will do much to remedy. 

Agricultural education too is exciting attention, and the paramount 
interests of the culture of the soil may secure the institution of a school 
for farmers with less difficulty and delay than is experienced in older states 
where other pursuits are more extensiyely followed. The political as well 
as the educational men of influence are hasteuiug forward the enterprise. 
Should their efforts ayail there is strong probability that this institution will 
be an appendage to the State Uniyersity located here. 

The burdensome taxation incurred by the war has produced no diminu- 
tion of the expenditures for school purposes. Aside from the public fund, 
the expenses of common schools are met wholly by taxation, and neyer has 
greater liberality been shown in assuming burdens of this character than in 
this state during the past year. Whateyer sacrifices may be rendered nec- 
essary by the stringency of the times, little disposition is shown to curtail 
the educational priyileges of the youth. And yet, with all the facilities 
we haye, there is here, much of the same apathy, the same disregard of 
proffered opportunity that eyerywhere detracts from the beneficial results 
which the yarious systems of instruction are designed to effect. A large 
proportion of all the youth of the state refuse or neglect to ayail them- 
selyes of the means of instruction placed within their reach, and made ftree 
of cost as the air they breathe. In this one fact our zealous educators see 
a subject requiring much attention ; and this and kindred other eyils, no- 
where as yet remedied, and perhaps neyer to be wholly disposed of, present 
material for the labors and the yigilance of a long future. Yours, J. 

Madison, Wit., March 14, 1866. 

Idaho. — The first Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, J. A. Chittenden, gives the number of children between four and 
twenty-one years of age, at 1,242. Number of school houses in the Terri- 
tory, three. The Superintendent refers to the difficulties that must 
necessarily arise in laying the foundations of an efficient school system in 
a new country, just being reclaimed from the dominion of the sayages ; 
recommends the erection of school houses by district taxes ; the increase 
of school funds ; greater attention to the examination of teachers ; a uni- 
form system of text books ; and dwells at length on the importance of yooal 
music, military drills, and gymnastics in public schools. — Pa. Seh, Jour. 

Boston, Mass. — The School Board of Boston, Massachusetts, recently 
raised the salaries of the teachers of the public schools, to the following 
figures : Superintendent, $4,000 ; Masters (Principals) of Latin, High and 
Normal Schools, $8,500, Sub-masters, $2,800, Ushers, $2,000; Masters 
(Principals) of Grammar Schools, $2,500, Sub-masters, $2,000, Ushers, 
$1,600; Music Teachers in Primary Schools, $2,000; Gymnastic Teacher 
in all the schools, $8,000; Female Teachers — Head Assistant in Normal 
School, $1,000, Assistant, $700: Head AssisUntin Grammar Schools, $700, 



Beaident EdUcn^a Bepartment. 286 

AssisUntg, $600; Teacheni in Primary $460 first year, $600 second year, 
$650 third year, and $600 fourth year. The schedule fixes the salaries of 
each of the male teachers for the first year, $400 less than the aboTe 
figures, $100 being added yearly until the fifth year, when the maximum 
salary is reached. — Pa, School Journal. 

Ohio. — In compliance with a resolution passed by the General Assem- 
bly of the State, £. £. White, Commissioner of the Common Schools, has 
made a Report upon the organization and results of the best Normal 
Schools in this country; and also the best plan of organizing one or more 
efficient Schools in this State. He yisited the State Schools of New Jersey, 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and Michigan. He also had inter - 
Tiews with Mr. Richards, Principal of the Illinois State Normal Uniyersity, 
and Mr. Wickersham of the Pennsylvania Normal School at MillersYille. 
In this country, Normal Schoois are now established, under State direction 
and support, in sixteen States, — all the States that haye maintained, for 
any considerable length of time, a free school system, except three, namely. 
New Hampshire, Yermont and Ohio. 

He recommends that the organization and management of the entire 
Normal System, including the Normal School, the Normal Institutes, and 
the County Institutes, be entrusted to a Board of Trustees; — the Governor 
and Commissioner of Common Schools, as ex officio members, and three 
other persons to be appointed by the Goyernor. It is nearly thirty years 
since the Hon. Samuel Lewis, then State Superintendent of the Common 
Schools, submitted to the General Assembly of Ohio, a ** Report on State 
Institutions for the training of Teachers and Others," in which he recom- 
mended the establishment of a State Institution for the professional 
training of teachers. Since then, Normal Schools have been established 
in tixteen States — Ohio being outstripped by States that have not a tithe 
of her wealth or population. 

The Twelfth Annual Report of the State Commissioner of Common 
Schools, £. £. White, Commissioner, states that the schools of Ohio have 
not only participated in the general progress of the country, but have 
also made special advancement. Number of schools in the State, 11,742. — 
Average number of weeks in session, in cities and towns, 26,78. Total 
number of teachers employed, 20,828. Number of youth between 6 and 
21 years of age, 944,852; number of pupils enrolled in the schools, 702,552. 
Average number in daily attendance, 391,547. Statistics indicate, that 
the school-going years of city youth are from six to sixteen, and of country 
youth from five to eighteen. Truancy and absenteeism, he attributes to 
the ** criminal indifference and neglect of parents, too many of whom have 
no just appreciation of the inestimable practical value of a good education 
to their children. Truancy is on the increase, and is of the deepest 
concern to every citizen. Depravity and rowdyism are at fiood^tide, and 



286 Beaidml EdUor'a Department. 

thousands of our youth are being swept into the surging sea of rice and 

crime. These yiotims of parental negleot and eyil influences must be 
rescued from the perils of ignorance and vice which threatens their de- 
struction. The rising tide of juyenile depravity must be stayed. All 
good influences and agencies must unite in the task. The State must 
interpose and by wise legislation secure to every child born within its 
borders, the boon of a practical and yirtuous education." The retarding 
causes to a satisfactory progress of all the schools yet preyailing are : 
1. A want of efficient superyision. 2. Inferior and inadequate High 
Schools. 8. Party spirit in school elections. — Pa. School Journal, 

Massachusetts. — Nearly 90 per cent, of the children of school age are 
enrolled in the public schools, and the cost per scholar the past year has 
been $7.28. The ayerage wages of male teachers is about $55 per month ; 
of female teachers, $22. The last yery able and elaborate report of 
the Board of Education is said to be the work of John D. Philbuck, Esq., 
Superintendent of the Boston Schools, and a member of the State Board. 

Tennessee. — ^ince the close of the war, the educational institutions 
of Nashyille haye been reyiyed, and are now in actiye and effeotiye ope- 
ration. 

CoLOSBD Normal Sohool. — A Normal School for the training of colored 
teachers has been opened in New Orleans, under the direction of Mr. 
Mortimer Warren, late Superintendent of the school for freedmen in that 
city. 

Iowa. — The last Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Hon. Oran Fayelle, gives the number of children of school 
age (5-— 21) as 824,828, an increase of 29,426 in a year. The pupils attend- 
ing school were 217,698 ; male teachers employed, 2,853; female teachers, 
6,467 ; total 8,820. The average monthly wages of* male teachers was 
$81.84; of female teachers, 22.80. Fifty-nine Teachers' Institutes were 
held, with most gratifying success. 

Kansas. — Institutes have been successfully held in eleven counties, and 
the statistics, show large gains in school privileges, attendance, expendi- 
tures, etc. 

Colored Schools South. — Gen. Howard reports that there are over 
70,000 colored children in the schools in the Southern States. 



LITERARY NOTES. 



Napoleon's CjEsar. — The second volume of this work has at length 
appeared. Messrs. Harper and Brothers will have their translation ready 
at an early day. 

BuLWER is engaged in the preparation of an autobiography. 

Queen Victoria is preparing for publication a series of essays, upon 
subjects in which Prince Albert was specially interested. 



BesiderU Editof^s Department 287 

Thx GALAXT.-*-Thi8 is the title of a new fortnightly magaxine, pub- 
lished by W. 0. and F. P. Church, New York, the second number of which 
has appeared. The papers speak well of it. It is all that could be desired 
in paper and typography, and numbers among its contributors some of 
oar best writers. f6 a year. 

Gharlbs Sc&ibner & Co. haye removed f^om Grand St., and opened 
spacious ware rooms at No. 654 Broadway, New York. In addition to 
their educational department, they are among the largest importers of choice 
foreign books, in America. 

Thb Nation, published by J. H. Richards, 130 Nassau St., New York, 
which during the few months of its existence, has won an enyiable repu- 
tation as a first class literary and political journal, has (commencing with 
May) become a semi-weekly. Its condensed ** Topics of the Day," Lite- 
rary Notes, Reyiews, Correspondence, Art Criticisms, and standard articles 
on current matters, are all of a high order. The new management will 
secure it increased patronage. $5,00 a year. 

LippiBMOTT^s Pbonounoino Gazettber of thb^ World. — Messrs. Lip- 
pincott & Co. haye issued a new, enlarged and improyed edition of this 
work, bringing it down to the present time. It takes its place side by side 
with Webster's Dictionary. 

The New York Tribumb recently celebrated the 25th anniyersary of its 
establishment. 

Mbssrs. Strahav & Co., New York, announce Familiar Lectures on 
Scientific Subjects, by Sir John F. W. Herschel. 

Applbtoe's Aenual Ctolopjsdia for 1865, will soon be issued. 

The Empress Euctbeia is preparing a memoir of Marie Antoinette. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



The Lost Tales of Miletus. By the Right Hon, Sir Edward Bulwer 
Lttton, BarL, M. P. New York: Harper and Br other 8 y 1866. 12mo., 
pp. 182. 

The legends upon which our author grounds these tales, are borrowed 
from some of the oldest of the Classic authors, but so recast and expanded, 
that they are practically new creations. They are in rhymeless ycrse, after 
classic models, and show some mechanical skill ; yet too frequently they 
seem stiff and unnatural. That the meter comports better with the themes 
presented than with modern subjects will, no doubt, howeyer, be confessed. 
They are of considerable merit, and haye already met with favor. 

Barnard's Amerioan Journal of Education. — This admirable journal 
for* March, 1866, contains artioles on the following named subjects: I. 



288 Beeident EditoT^a Department. 

Pnblfo Instraotion in the Austrian Empire; n. The Nature and Value of 
Education (a prise Essay) ; III. The Dignity of the Schoolmaster's Work ; 
,IV. Documentary History of Normal Schools in the United States; V. The 
Original Free or Town School of New England ; YI. Glimpses of the 
Means and Conditions of American Education prior to 1860 ; VII. Schools as 
they were ; VIII. Female Education as it was ; IX. American Educational 
Biography ; X. History of Educational Associations in Illinois (with por- 
traits of Presidents); Virginia Educational Conventions; XI. National 
Bureau of Education; XII. Adyice on Studies and Conduct. $4.00 a 
year. H. Barnard, Hartford, Conn. 

The North American Review, Ko, CCXI^ April, 1866. Boston : Tieknor ^ 

FieUh, Quarterly, $6.00 a year. 

The Old << North American/' under the editorial charge of. Professor 
James Russell Lowell and Charles Eliot Norton, Esq., maintains its high 
reputation — the growth of more than half a century. It grapples fear- 
lessly and most ahly with the great questions of the day, and is unques- 
tionably the exponent of American Literature and Criticism. Even its 
briefer and less formal book notices show profound dealing with current 
subjects, and they would alone commend it to all people of any pretensions 
in literature. The contents are : I. The Error of De Tocqueville ; II. Mili- 
tary and Martial Law; IIL Character; IV. The New York Herald; V. 
Carlyle*s Frederick the Great ; VI. Our Diplomacy during the Rebellion ; 
VII. International Arbitration; VIII. Dante, and his latest English 
Translators; IX. The President on the Stump; X. Critical Notices (24 in 
number). 
First Lessons in Numbers, in the Natural Order: Firet, Vitible Objeettf 

Second, Concrete Numbers, ' Third, Abstract Numbers, By John H. 

French, LL.D. New Fork ; Harper and Brothers, 1866. pp. 120. 

If primary arithmetic can be taught at all from books, we are persuaded 
that this little work will inaugurate new successes. It deals with the 
common experiences of the child, and illustrates the facts of numbers by 
cuts of homo scenes beautifully drawn and artistically engraved. The 
appendix contains suggestions of methods of teaching, to which reference 
is repeatedly made im the text. The work comes as we go to press ; hence 
this brief notice. 

Harper's Library of Select Novels. — For those who have leisure and 
need the style of culture to be derived from reading the better class of 
modern romances, this series will especially commend itself. The list 
embraces already nearly 800 volumes, by many of the most graceful and 
fascinating of current and recent writers. Among the names are. Miss 
Bremer, Bulwer, William Howitt, Miss Sewell, Mrs. Ellis, Anderson, 
Dumas, Mary Howitt, Mrs. Hall, Mrs. Gore, Mrs. Gaskell, Mrs. Marsh 
Wilkie Collins, Miss Mulock, Amelia B. Edwards, Dickens, and a host of 



Beaident Mitar^a Department. 289 

others of equal merit. We acknowledge the receipt of the following: 
«' Sans Meroi; or Kestrels and Falcons;" '^Miss Migoribanks" and 
''Agnes," by Mrs. Oliphant; **The True History of a Little Ragamuffin;" 
"Under the Ban;" «Can Tou Forgiye Her," and «The Belton Estate," 
by Anthony TroUope; ** Wives and Daughters," by Mrs. Qaskell; and 
** Walter Goring," by Annie Thomas. 

Social Lira or the Chinksk : With toms Account of their RtUgiout^ Oovem- 
mental, Educational and Business Customs and Opinions. With special but 
not exclusive Reference to Fuhchau. By Rev, Justus Doolittlb, Fourteen 
Years Member of the Fuhchau Mission of the American Board. With over One 
hundred and Fifty Illustrations. In two Volumes, New York: Harper j- 
Brothers, 1856, 12mo. cloth, pp. 469, 490. 

As a pioneer, work in the particular field of description the author 
assigns to himself, these volumes will be received with favor. They make 
no pretentions to literary excellence, but are in fact a plain straight- 
forward statement of the particulars named in their title. They will give 
to many readers their first glimpse of this ancient land, hitherto a terra 
incognita, and invest with peculiar interest the history and manners of the 
most ancient and populous nation on the globe. 

Evert Saturday. — On the first appearance of this new weekly, whose 
19th number (May 12) has just reached us, we heartily commended the 
enterprise, and looked forward hopefiiUy to the reproduction at small cost, 
and in the interest of the masses of those of our people who appreciate 
standard literature, of the choicest things in foreign periodicals. 

This weekly is precisely what it claims to be, — a journal of choice read- 
ing. The editor has the range of all the English and Continental Reviews, 
Magazines, and first class Weeklies, which press into their service the 
ablest, wisest, and wittiest writers of Europe. From this almost immense 
storehouse, he selects that which he judges best adapted to suit the taste 
and intelligence of the American people. 

The selections in the numbers already issued, have embraced a wide 
variety of topics, — all of interest to cultivated minds, and nearly all of a 
character to be highly attractive to the majority of American readers. 
There have been excellent short stories, thrilling adventures, exquisite 
poems, graphic historical sketches, popular scientific articles such as 
appear originally only in English and French periodicals, racy essays in 
biography, criticism and anecdote. In fact, it contains the cream of 
foreign current literature, and is offered at a price that brings it within 
the reach of all. 

Whoever wishes the freshest and choicest foreign periodical literature, 
must get •* Every Saturday." It is published by Ticknor & Fields, Boston, 
at $5.00 a year. 



/ 







WAS AWARTHKB TO 



FAT80N, DCHTON ft SCSIBNER'S . 

NATIONAL PENMANSHIP, 

At Till Tewth EscHiistrrox or tttb Mass. Gharttablb Mkcha^o ABSOciA-niMf, 

September* Ififlft. 



TJte Jadgtt, in ikeir i?«^por*t *ij^ — " This npijeari to be tlie moat pnetlnKl ^ywtem tiiugl , 
t^tntng ill dcfllrablo clcpmcj?, nt-'Atnefib, and dffitjiicta«#«. It H th^ itftt^m taukfit In oar icboota^ 
tnil it )$ cnmmf'.nded by iu Almpl icily iindi AflAptabllitT to eoTnTncTcifi! juid uUfiineM poipotei^ 
Thti Commlttrc rocommcnd, us a ri>co^itioo of it* meiHtfi, a ^rorei^e Me^tal.^* 

So weU iQiowii itf ttda A^atcmt and eucb Ja JtB populnrlty, that the iidUalii 




«ni at ttnlv^Tftnllf tmdf^rntotMl, Rt al^lit, ai iini tho lottcri< U» fl. A,; and beisf? the BTvtera xnort 
Tidplf iiitrodiifi«lf and tbff most tjctc-n^lvplf uKd In tbe Unllod Btstei, tho pabUibsn Hwl that 
thaf can li^btly ctftlm for It tlic title of llio 

K^O]? Is lt« Fame oonflned. *o tills COTintry* 

The ^temniKl for Jt Jn the Rrttlnh Provinces 1i no ^nvJit, thut nn Mltfon of thi" prrnoimrd P<Tl«i 
wan mfinuractuTtMUrt Kmjirtud rurthrBritJih- Amdrlfaii mzirkf^t, dfl irt^Fnl tinparnilfled inlhe hiifUynf 
o/Ctxp^ Bfioirx * Sid shomng €fmclu»ii-€iff thui U h con^tdm-ed Ihtre b^Ur thai% mijf *34ker Amff^ 
Glinor English system. 

%• Atl jwrBons interofltod hi thli important branch of edwcation, uro Incited to ex&Euliie till* 
tyatam. Circnliira Jind apedosmH will be $«nt on applicAtlou, 



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For aale bj all agimta fbr P, D. ^ H, 

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SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, AND COLLEGES. 

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UFEOTOOTT'S NEW FBONOUHQJjErO OAZETTEEB. 

Brery mrtioii of the text of the flonntr work hM been thoroagfalr revised, a rery larg* 
portion Off the artldee wholly rewritten, with an appendix of nearly 10,000 new artidea, 
relating, tor the moat part, to the United States. 

One VoL. over 2,300 Imperial 8vo. Faces. Sheep, $8.00. 

Tn Kbw QAtamaM present! : 
I. A descripttre notice, with the most recent and authentic inlltnmation respecting the 

coontriea, ialandb, rivers, monntains, cities, and towns in every part of the globe. 
n. The names of all important places, both in their native and foreign langnages, with 

the pronunciation of the same : a feature never attempted in any other work. 
HL The classical names of all andent places, so Ikr as they can be aocorately ascertained 

from the best anthorities. 



rV. A complete etymological vocabulary of geographical i 

y. An daborate exposition of the jprindples of pronundadon of names in the Danish, 

Dutch, French, German. Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, 

RnssiaoD, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsn lang^nages. 

This great work embodies a wealth of knowledge, in its department, not accessible 
Bram any other book extant, nor le^s important, as a promoter of sound learning, tlum 
the best dictionary of the English language, by the side of which it merits a place on the 
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^ir* Not allowable by mail, but will be sent any reasonable distance, at our expense, 
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THE STUDENT'S PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY. 

Br HENBY MORTON, A.M., and ALBERT M. LEEDS, A.M., 

A text-book on Chemical Physics and Inorganic and Orjganic Chemistry, presenting all 
the valuable new flu^ts in the branches discussed, bringing the wortc down to the pres- 
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LOOMIS'S NEW ARITHMETICS. 

IiOomiB's New Analytical Arithmetic. 25 oenti. A'First Book combining Intel- 
lectual and Written Exercises. 

XfOomit's Vew Nonnal Arlthaetio, 40 cents. Complete Pnetical Treatise ftv ad- 
vanced classes. 



WOBKS ON THE SCIENCE AN0 ABT OF TEACHIKG. 

BT JAMBS PYLE WICEERSHAM, A. M., 
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'Wiokersham'a School Economy, 00 cents. A Treatise on the Preparation, Organ- 
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Wiokeraham's Methods of Instmction, $1.06. That part of the Fhlloeophy of 
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LIPPINCOTT'S GEOGBAFHICAI. SEBIES. 

I* Allen's Oral Geography, 85 cents. Pictorial Maps and Natural History 
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H. Allen's Primary (Jeosraphy, 35 cents. Based on the Object Method of 
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m. Shaw and Allen's Comprehensiye Geography, $1.00. Combining Geo- 
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IV. Smith's New Geoffraphy, $1.10. Synthetical, Analytical, and ComparaUve. 

V. Carl Bitier'sGomparatiye Geography, 90 oents. Translated by Wjluam L. 
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AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SERIES, 

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JNfo Series of School-Books ever offered to the public have cUtained 
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in aU parts of the United States as this. 

The large and increasing sale of these books — the emphatic oommenda- 
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dence of every thorough and practical teacher. 

Among the leading and most popular books of the aboTe Series, the 
following may be named, yiz : 

Sanders' Beaders and Spellers— con- KerPs OomprehenBiye Grammar— 

forming in Orthofrraphy and Orthoepy To be used as a book of reference, 

to the latest editions of Webster's Die- Spenoerian Copy Books— simple, prac- 

tionary. tical and beaatiftil. Newly engrayed 

The Union Series of Beaders and and improved. 

Spellers, entirely new in matter and Spenoerian Charts of Writing sad 

illnstratioDS, and received with great Drawing— six in nmnber. In slxe, M 

fiivor by the best teachers in the country. by dO inches, on three cards. 

Bobinson's Series of Arithmetics— Spenoerian Key to Fraotioal Fen- 
very popular with all teachers who have msnship for the use of Teadien and 
tested them in the class-room. Pupils. 

Bobinson's Alcebrss and Higher Bryant, Strstton&Faokard's Book- 
Mathematics — entirely re- written ; Keeping Series— beautilblly printed in 
Ml, complete, sclentiflc and practical. Colors. 

Kerl's New Series of Qrammars — Gray's Botanioal Series— Theae books 

unsurpassed in simplicity, clearness, present the latest and most accurate 

research, and practical utility. The series principles and developments of the ad. 

consists of ence, and have been rcconunended by 

A book for beginners, and introductory country. 

Ke9).'s First Iiesson in Grammar— almost every eminent Botanist in the 

to the Common School Grammar. Oolton's Series of Gtooffrsphiee— The 

Kerl's Common School Grammar — New Quarto Geography, Just published 

A thorough, complete and practical work and added to this series, surpasses any- 

for Common Schools and Academies. thing of the kind before the public. 

Willson's Histories, Woodbury's German Series, 
Fasanelle's Frenoh Series, Bradbury's Sohool Musio-Books. 

THE SPENCEBIAN STEEL PENS 

Are regarded by the best penmen of the country as superior to all others. 
I. P. B. & Co. also do a general Book Business, keeping constantly on 
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duction. 
Address the Publishers. 

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OUTOT'S 



Physical and Political Wall Maps 



FOR SCHOOLS. 



I < I i< > I 



Series No. I. 

Hap of the United States, $8 00 

" North America 6 60 

" South America 6 50 

" The Worid, (Merc Prqiec), ..12 00 

" Bupope, 8 00 

" Airia 10 00 

«* Ajfrica 6 60 

" Central Europe 8 50 

•« Oceanica. 6 00 



•15. peraet. 



Classical Pffaps. 

Hap of the Roman Empire $15 00 

« Ancient Greece 15 00 

«* Italia..- 15 00 

" City of Ancient Rome 2 00 

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Any Mi^, or any number of Maps of the Series, (except Series No. 3), oan 
be seleoted if a fiill set is not required. 

By the admirable system of coloring adqpfted, the plateaus^ monntains, TaUeys^ xi?en^ 
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Series No. 2. 

Map of the United states $8 00 

" North America 4 6C 

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*' the Hemispheres. 7 50 

Series No. 8. 

Map of The United States. 

" North America 

*' South America 

<* Central Europe 

" Asia 

" Africa. 

" Europe 

" The World. 

** Oceanica 



TESTtnONIlAIL PROM PROPESSOR ASASSIZ. 

From what I know of Pro! GuyoC's Wall Maps, etc., I have no hedtation in sayfaig 
that both as to method and execution they are inarnqxarably tnpericr to any thing of the kind 
thoB &r published ; and in connection with the series of text-books by the same author, 
which, I understand, are soon to be published, they will form the most yaluable means for 
the study of geography, in which department there is urgent necessity for new books adapt- 
ed to the present advanced state of the science, In fact, it is the simple truth, that no 
other geographer living widerstandt the reiaiiont ofthephyncalfiatmrt qfowr eaaih so well^ or heoum 
haw to present them to students with such nrnplidty and clearness as Pr^. Ouj/ot. 

L. AGASSIZ. 

Qsmbric^e, Mass., March 27th, 1865. 

IN PRESS.— To be publidied during the Fall, the first two of Prof Guyot's Series of 
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CHARLES SORIBNER & CO. 



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SI ac .A. 3IC z xr SI 

THE NEW EDITION OF 

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BEYIBRD, WITH ADDITIONS IN 

ANALYSIS AND PARSING, 

BY HENRY KIDDLE, A.M., 

AmUtant Saperlntendeiit of Common Schools, New York C^ty. 

Th'^ Series it the mott perfect and complete expoeition of English Cframmar 

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FIRST LINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

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INSTITUTES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

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THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

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Are Methodical. 

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interested. 

WILLIAM WOOD & CO., 

61 Walker Street, N. T. 

m 



!W BOOK ! A NEW BOOK f ! 



a "V « V 3B 3MC .A. « XO 

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. 

Anatomy and Hfgieuem 

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NEW YORK TEACHER. 



New Series.] 



JULY, 1866, 



[Vol. Vn, No. 10. 



Sohodl House Arohiteotore. 



The reports that come to im from dl portions of the State, of the 
newlj-awakened interest on the part of the people, in fumishiiig 
improved achool accommodatlcmaj are most obeering. Old, onsightJy 




hovels are giving place to commodious and, in some cases, elegant 
structures, built for comfort, and evidencing a better appreciation of 
the means for public education. 
There is no longer a question in the minds of any, except the 
[Vol. XV, No. 10.] 20 



292 School House Architecture. 

ignorant or the selfish, that no better investment can be made than 
in supplying for the education of our children, the best facilities in 
the way of sightly and healthful school houses, ample grounds 
adorned with trees and flowers, the best books and apparatus, and 
intelligent and skillful teachers. 

In the matter of school architecture, we venture a few sugges- 
tions. The difference in cost when a new house is to be built, is so 
inconsiderable, between one constructed with due regard to elegance, 
comfort, health and stability, and one that ignores all these, that 
few, knowing the conditions, will hesitate in making the additional 
outlay of a few dollars. 

1. The Site. — This should comprise sufficient ground for play- 
room for all the pupils, without danger of trespass upon adjoining 
fields, and away from the dust and danger of the highway. The loca- 
tion should be healthful, on high ground, with good drainage, but if 
possible, sheltered from the blasts of the bleak hill-top. Trees, 
shrubs and flowers should be planted and cared for, and the whole 
should be enclosed by a tasteful fence. 

2. The Housb* should be in architectural style, and the material 
of which it is built, a model of taste, and in no whit inferior to 
the accepted notion of a first class edifice ; of brick or stone if 
practicable, and if of wood, substantial and warm, with firm founda- 
tion, sufficiently elevated to secure against dampness. The hight 
of the school room should not be less than twelve feet in the clear, 
and if containing two or more school rooms, it should be more. 
The windows should be large, and arranged to slide from the top aa 
well as from the bottom, with weights and cords. Proper ventila- 
tion should be supplied by ventilators in the walls, chimney-flues, 
or ceiling. It need hardly be added that closets furnished with 
hooks and shelves arc indispensable, and that a wood-house is a 
necessity. 

3. Furniture. — The desks and scats should be of the best ma- 
terial, and if of pine or whitewood, painted ; strength, neatness and 
adaptability to ease and comfort should be studied. Not more than 
two pupils should occupy one desk. There should be ample elbow 
room, and regard should be had to the size of the pupils to be 
accommodated. Seats are generally made too high ; and it is a com- 
mon spectacle to see little ones perched upon them with feet dangling 



Economy. 



293 



in the air. No adult would long endure such torture. Outline 
maps, globes and other apparatus will be found in every well ordered 
school room. There should be much blackboard room, and thtft of 
the best that the facilities of the district will allow. 



^ iF^^fin^T^HlH- — ^ 



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We present, herewith, plan and elevation of a house with a single 
school room, calculated to accommodate 108 pupils on one floor. 
The plan is drawn to allow a second story, but the staircase may be 
loft out, and the vestibule can be used for a recitation room. The 
general plan of the house may be preserved, and such few changes 
made as are desirable. The scale of the plan is one-sixteenth of an 
inch to the foot. Three ordinary windows may be substituted on 
each side for the mullioned windows. The house may be framed 
without altering the general plan. 



Economy. 

When a Spaniard eats a peach or pear by the roadside, wherever 
he is^ he digs a hole in the ground with his foot, and covers the 
seed. Consequently, all over Spain, by the roadsides and elsewhere, 
fruit in great abundance tempts the taste, and is ever free. Let 
this practice be imitated in our country, and the weary wanderer 
will be blest, and bless the hand that ministered to his comfort and 
joy. We are bound to leave the world as good or better, than we 
found it, and he is a selfish churl who basks under the shadow, and 
eats the fruit of trees which other hands have planted, if he will 
not abo plant trees which shall yield fruit to coming generations. 



294 Qaojck Education. 



Qoaok Edaoation. 

A recent number of the Round Table contains a flippant editorial 
with the above caption, knnched at what the writer is pleased to call 
" This new absurdity '' — " object teaching/' The chief point of 
the article is, that it has no point, and deals in sweeping generalities 
of accusation, without specifying who, what or where. For our- 
selves, we believe that, subject to criticism as some of the principles 
and perhaps many of the methods adopted by the '^ object teach- 
ers " may be, the purpose to inaugurate a much needed reform, 
honestly conceived, it is entitled at least to candid criticism. We 
quote at length : 

" The latest device for opening a royal road to learning is *■ object 
teaching,' which — like Bottom's Dream, so called, *• because it had 
no bottom ' apparently derives its title from the fact that it is pur- 
suit without any ascertained object. But it has astounding results. 
After months of it, you shall find your child unable to read or 
write, and utterly innocent of the multiplication table ; but he has 
mastered the * elementary sounds,' can draw triangle^ and parallelo- 
grams, and set forth the properties thereof. He oan not spell his 
name ) but if you allude to green as a color, he wiU assure you that 
it is only a secondary color, overwhelm you with the rudiments of 
optics, and beg for a prism that he may expound refraction. He is 
exuberant with unsuspected physiological lore, and takes you aback 
with the names of your bones and position of the various organs. 
He destroys your appetite at meals by unpleasant information respect- 
ing the composition of your food and the prevalence of trichiniasis. 
He demolishes your parlor ornaments with boomerangs, aiid your 
windows by experimental study of the principles of incidence and 
reflection." 

We do not know whose <' object teaching" leaves a child, <' after 
months of it" unable to read or write, for it is not only the purpose 
of this system, but the practice of those who use it, to teach these 
accomplishments as well as the <^ multiplication table " at an earlier 
stage than we have usually found them in the old me^ods, and if any 
just objection can be made to the teaching of color, form, and common 
mechanical principles, it is rather, surely in the misapprehension of 



Qaa/dk MuocOion. 295 

the teaoheT than in, anything radically wrong in the principle that 
a child may properly be inatracted in the properties and naea of 
things that enter into his every day experience. Familiarity with 
apparatna for instnuytion is certainly no more dangerous to parlor 
ornaments than the os^ of equally dangerous toys as auxiliary to 
the ordinary sports of youth. 

^ '* fie wishes bean-bags, Indian clubs, and a trapeie, that he may 
practice home gymnastics, and a 'pen' out of doors, that he may 
relapse into barbarism in ^ sun-baths,' as counseled by Dr. Dio Lewis.'' 

Dr. Lewis can fight his own battles, but it seems as if the adroit 
mention of his '< bean-bags " were here an attempt to add a little 
cheap ridicule upon a subject that neither actually nor by implica* 
tion has anything to do with this unlucky <' object teaching.'' 

*' He is an orator before he can read ; can map the world in 
variegated crayons before he can put the names of its nations upon 
his slate ; is learned in chemistry, physiology, telegraphing, arts and 
sciences innumerable, before he knows his alphabet; is, in short, an 
Admirable Crichton before he is qutliiied to graduate from an old 
style district school. Nice as it all seems, suspicion gradually 
dawns upon the observant spectator. It early becomes obvious that 
however geography, surveying, physics, and zoology may thrive 
undfcpie stimulus of < objects,' history, language, and other snb- 
jecVpMi susceptible thereof make little progrcBS. Tour infant phe- 
ncnnenon may win laurels in an examination adroitly adapted by his 
teacher to his capacity of display, but he bids fair to stand con- 
fessed a booby in ordinary life. ' Objects ' will turn out to be but 
poor help when applied to Ate, Aaee, hoc and rMrrcj, ru-^/Cj, Wru9a; 
and have but a remote connection with ledgers, Blackstone, and the 
early Fathers, though they may accord well enough with machinery, 
architecture, surgery, or dilettanteism." 

Our philosopher having commenced his catalogue, allows his 
imagination to supply what is wanting in &ct, for the sake we sup- 
pose of rhetorical completeness. If the first count in the preceding 
paragraph is tn&in any degree, or ever becoines so, it is certainly 
some gain. And our readers may decide for themselves whether 
with the benefit of his own statement, the crific has left the ''old 
way" anything to boast of. Many a one has spent^years in tiie 
memcMsing of geographical names, scarce conscious timtrthefe wtur 



296 Quack EchuxiMan. 

a world, while the glories of earth and sea and sky had never 
awakened an emotion or excited a thought. 

<< Like every other extravagance, this new absurdity started with 
legitimate premises. It was well enough to infuse into children's 
minds a spirit of investigation, analysis and inquiry ; and the object 
teachers argue, like Mrs. Jarley, their possession of the original and 
only means of doing so. In competent hands, and conducted with 
moderation and discretion, the object system might be beneficial ; 
but it has been appropriated by that class of educational mounte- 
banks and impostors which clusters about second-rate normal schools, 
promulgates its empiricbms in mutual admiration conventions, and 
is deluging the country with half-educated ' normal graduates,' the 
living evidence of the danger of a little learning. Under these 
auspices there b no perception of the true capabilities of the study, 
which is valued chiefly as an attractive addition to those delusive 
public examinations which have the various adzantages of gratui- 
tously advertising schools and their teachers, of imposing upon their 
patrons a belief that their children's proficiency in their studies is 
commensurate with their readiness of response to previously 
'crammed' interrogations, and of rendering the children them- 
selves bold, superficial and deceitful. Such is object teaching as 
now practiced." v- 

If " started with legitimate premises," it is surely competoK for 
our critic to say in what respect they have been vacated, and how 
the method may be improved. 

Seriously, there is no greater need in our system of education, 
than a thorough reform in the methods of primary education, and 
the preparation of competent teachers to inaugurate and supervise 
the work ; and he is a public benefactor who, regardless of systems, 
or of those who are their exponents, shall show us a more excellent 
way. If a subsequent number of the Round Table is to be trusted : 
" As a general rule the teachers are persons who have adopted their 
pursuit in consequence of failure to succeed in any other. They 
are accepted by incompetent examining committees who make no 
effort to ascertain their capability for imparting instruction. And 
they receive such wretched pittances as are of themselves sufficient 
assurance of their worthlessness. In the schools children attend or 
not, as themselves or their parents please, and the indaoements 



At ElnuMffe. 297 

offered are usually so small that their parents fireqnently do not 
please; lax discipline, irregolar attendance, and a hap-hazard 
selection of text-books prevent any approach to good scholarship ; 
and there is nothing to call forth either the interest or emulation of 
the pnpils/' 

We cannot accept entire the method of object teaching derived 
from the Home and Colonial School Society, and organised at 
Oswego. It is susceptible of improvement, and some of its fhnda- 
mental principles may be found defective. Let it be discussed, and 
its faults pointed out that they may be remedied. We shall surely 
do better by aiming at reform as Mr. Sheldon and his oo-laborers 
are doing, than by resting ingloriously in the shadows of the past. 



At Elmoliffe. 



I have seen hours when I have wished to die, ' 
And thought it good to lay my throbbing heafU 
Beneath the growing grass. The weary path 
Stretching before me, seemed a desert plain, 
And all my hopes, like to the mocking lakes 
That gleam afar to torture dying men. 
But here, beneath these boughs, where every breath 
Is changed to melody ; where mossy trunks 
Grow old and die, yet give their parting life 
To Yiolets clustered round the gnarled roots ; 
Where notes of woodbirds mingle with the sound 
Of the bright, tinkling waters ; and the sun, 
Looking upon the glade, smiles through the leaves. 
And flecks the greensward with its kiss of love — 
Oh I here I feel that earth is beautiful, 
That God is good, and life a mysUo wine 
Poured by a Father's hand. My fainting clasp 
Shall tighten round the goblet, and my lips, 
Fevered with struggling, drain the holy draught. 
Voices are calling from the shadowed hills. 
Does Undine haunt yon river? Are the trees 
Strong prisons for some dainty Ariel 
Who cries to be set free ? Have these green vines. 
These velvet mosses, all these living things, 
Some life within the life that greets our eyes ? 



298 Denomiruae ^umbers. 

SomMhing tliai is in bondage, hidden, seaUd 
From our imperfeot vision ? Let me bow. 
Veiling my face before these mysteries, 
These myriad miracles that Qod hath wronght ! 
Ay, this is holy ground I No burning bosh 
Lifts up its flaming banner, but my feet 
Shall tread with rererenoe these cathedral aisles, 
Fragrant with odors, solemn with the train 
Of nature's royal priests. God passes not 
While I api worshiping. His presence stays 
In this dim forest temple. My worn soul 
Shall gather strength, and gird tried armor on. 
Then plunge anew among the anointed hosts 
That battle, not for kingly crowns and thrones. 
But for the broader brotherhood of man. 
Aug. 6, 1860. M. A. B. 



Denominate Numbers. 



The following, or some similar analysis of denominate numbers 
may be produced, under the guidance of the teacher, by any olass 
of intelligent pupils. 

After the classifications, denominations, and tables, the pupil 
should be made familiar with descending and ascending redactioii, 
so as to describe and analyse the processes readily. He should also 
observe, that the reductions of denominate, vulgar, and decimal 
fractions, are merely the applications of reduction to fractions. 

In changing denominate numbers to vulgar fractions, besides 
reducing the quantities, the pupil must be taught to compare them. 
To teach the process of comparing quantities, such exercises as the 
following will be found useful : Compare 12 with 20, in which the 
pupils must observe that 12 is |f of 20, or 20 is f^ of 12. In 
changing denominate numbers to decimals of a higher denomina- 
tion, the pupil should see that there is involved, first, the expres- 
sion of each denomination as the fraction of the next higher; 
second, the changing of this vulgar fraction to a decimal. 

Changing fractions to denominate whole numbers, involves de- 
scending reduction, with the additional process of changing impro- 
per fractions to wJiole or mixed numbers. 

In the combinations, the elements of addition ara simple addition 



DmomatMUNwaAesn^ 



299 



and Teduotion ascending. Subtraction inyolyes rimple subtraction 
where the scales differ. Multiplication is simple multiplication, 
ascending reduction, and simple addition. Division is simple 
division, descending reduction and simple addition. All the com- 
binations require more or less of the reduction of fractions. 

It should be kept in mind, that the more operations we can refer « 
to one principle, the less the memory is burdened and the more 
comprehensive is the knowledge. The aim of the teacher should 
be : first, to let the pupil observe all the fiicts and operations ; 
second, to let him arrange, classify and refer these facts and operar 
tions to principles already known. Knowledge newly acquired 
should be interwoven with what is already known — should be seen 
to grow out of principles and facts with which the pupil is already 
fiuniliar. 

1. Simple 

2. Compound 







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Sterling Money, etc 

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2. Avoirdupois 

^ 8. Apothecary 

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2. Of Surfaoe— Square 
8. Of Volume— Solid 

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5. To change Quantities from one Current Weight or 

Measure to another 

a«».*»»««i^« f 1. Of Entire Quantities 
4. Division 



A. G. M. 



300 Orgamzmg Thacheri Instiiutea. 



Best Method of Organizing and Ck)nducting Teachers' 

Institutes. 

BT J. M. OLOOTT. 

[A Paper read before the Bzaminere* State Convention."] 

To ^point out the best method of organizing and conducting 
Teachers' Institutes, it will be necessary first to consider briefly 
the objects and aims of such Institutes. These I conceive to be 
three-fold. * 

1st. And perhaps most important, to make the teachers acquainted 
with method, and the best methods, of imparting knowledge and 
instruction, and of securing an easy and perfect control of iheiT 
schools. 

2d. To inspire them with more elevated and more perfect notions 
of the magnitude of the teachers' profession. 

3d. To develop or crecUe a thirst for more culture and refinement 
with respect to Literature, Science, Society, and the art of teaching. 
Incidental to these objects and aims, Academic Instruction in 
the Common School Branches may be obtained; also a general 
interest in the community may be awakened with respect to educa- 
tion, and general information difPused in regard to Educational 
facilities and appliances. But all these are tncidentaL The 
lack of system, of method, in imparting instruction and in managing 
schools, notwithstanding the subject has been extensively dwelt 
upon in many of the numerous Institutes held in the^tate during 
the past two or three years, is still one of the most common causes 
of inefficiency or failure. Numerous methods have been suggested 
or hinted at,^ as a part of Institute Instruction, but for the mostpctrt 
only "hinted^ at," seldom developed into living forms, or made suffi- 
ciently definite and clear to be of any practiced use to the learner. 
Many who undertake to present << improved methods of instruction 
or discipline," having taken them at second hand and without 
application or experience, wholly ignorant of the minutisB, exhibit 
merely a rude outline, a nondescript, without form or comeliness, 
and call it method. Handreds of eamesfi young teadieni are thus led 
to iptroduco a failure into their first school, to darken their Aiture 



Orgtimsmg Tkacheri Biatitutea. 301 

prospeota, in the shape of an abnormal new method of instruction or 
discipline obtained at the late Institute. The masses of the teachers 
attending a County Institute look upon the Instructor as though he 
were nearly infallible. Hence the more need of caution and defin- 
iteness. This error in our Institute instruction arises principally 
from two causes : want of experience and a desire and consequent 
effort to accomplish the work of many institutes in one — a failure to 
do one thing at a time. The inexperience of Institute holders coupled 
with the innate novelty of the members of the Institute, causes them 
to undertake too much. The consequence is every thing b learned 
in general and nothing in particular, Definiteness of instruction, as 
in the school or college, is the first thing to be considered by way 
of reform in our Institutes. A Method of Instruction or a Mode of 
Discipline worthy of introducing before an Institute of teachers, 
ought to be something more than a myth, it ought to be worthy of 
considering in detail, and should be so presented. The minuti» 
should be pointed out and as far as pdssible illustrated by example, 
until so thoroughly woven into the understanding as to become a part 
and parcel of every individual's own method molded anew in the 
pattern of their respective individualities. The tendency of teachers 
aa a class is to be easily satisfied with the presentation of new 
things and to turn quickly from one subject to another, hence readily 
thrown under the influence of pedantry. As a general rule they 
ask few questions and answer less. Normal Instruction should 
therefore take a much narrower range, and correspondingly be made 
more definite. It should not be merefy theoretical (the range of 
theory and practice in school-keeping are by no means parallel) but 
such methods of Instruction and modes of discipline onfy should 
be given, as have been thoroughly tested and illuminated by the 
light of the steady lamp of experience. 

The second object, to inspirit teachers with a more perfect notion 
of the magnitude of their profession, should not be hastily passed by. 
In this direction there is need of reform. A great many teachers 
actually put forth but little effort to make a success of their calling. 
They seem to have an intuition that it is nothing to teach ; act 
aooordingly, and fiiil on account of it. In a few instances I have 
said to teachers, who were about to be relieved for incompetency. 



302 Orffmnmng Ibac^s' InstiffiskB. 

by way of caution, yoa seem to haye forgotten tiiat i^$ Bcmeikmg 
to teach, when the effect was electric. They seemed to spring 
into new life at once, and since then their schools have taken rank 
among the best. Most teachers it is true seem to possess a yagne 
notion of the importance of the business of *' training immortal souls/' 
of '* operating upon imperishable material/' ftc, as this is the lan- 
guage usually employed by ministers et al in referring to the teacher's 
yocation, but thcU's not it. The magnitude of which I desire to speak 
consists in the power to Jructify — to make fruits, — to render prd- 
ductiye, — as God causeth the earth to fructify. The power to 
moye against resistance, and to energize enery where and at all times, 
that which competely makes the teacher master of his situation. 

The third object of an Institute proper, to create a thirst ibr more 
culture and refinement as it respects Literature, Science, Society and 
the art of teaching, needs careful attention. The backwardness of 
teachers in this respect is truly astonishing when we yiew them as 
teachers, so few can read well enough to be imitated with safety, or 
exhibit taste in the choice of language with which to oonyerse with 
their own pupils. Careless penmansk^, bad spelling, indifforent 
compositions, may be noticed eyery where, in the notes sent to 
parents, reports made to Trustees, and eyen on the black-boarda 
in their own school-rooms. This culture so much needed can not be 
obtained to any great extent in a County Institute, but such presen- 
tations, such eicamples of culture, should form an important part of 
the Institute work, as will tend to create a thirst for it. Teachers 
of no cfdiure gain influence rather than instruction at the Institute. 

With these objects in yiew, we will proceed to the organisation 
of an Institute. As a preliminary measure it is necessary to arrange 
for a Board of Instruction. The Examiner is supposed to know 
something of the pressifig wants of his teachers before orgamnng 
the Institute, which will enable him to arrange a catalogue of suit- 
able topics or branches of study to which he can adapt his Instruc- 
tors by selection* With a prospectiye attendance of Mtj teaoherSy 
two permanent Instruoton are sufficient, one if help at home oan be 
had. These, by all means, should be permanent, and selected with 
reference to their adaptation to each other; one of whom ought to be 
(must be) skilled in School Tactics, or Theory smA Praotice. It is 
well to arrange for two or three good eyening lectures. This done, 



Orgamzmg Tkachera' MstUutea. 303 

let the Examiner arrange a programme on paper for his first day's 

work before hand. It might ran thus : 

From 9 to 10 A. M., Preliminaiy Organization, 

« 10 to 10.45, An Exerobe in Reading, by Prof. A. 

<^ 10.45 to 11.15, Recess for the purpose of getting acquainted. 

'* 11.15 to 12, Theory and PraoUoe or School Tactics, by 
Prof. B. 

<' 12 to 1.30 or 2, Adjournment. 

" 2 to 2.30, Arithmetic, by Prof. A. 

« 2.80 to 3.15, Penmanship, by Prof. 8. 

<' 3.15 to 3.30, Rest, &c. 

" 8.30 to 4, Geography and History. 

" 4 to 4.30, Physiology. 

'< 4.30 to 5, Amusement or Discussion. 

Something of this kind will answer to put the Institute in motion, 
and while moving the first day a suitable programme for the second 
day will readily suggest itself. 

By preliminary organization is meant, fint, a short, pointed 
address by the examiner, setting forth the objects of the Institute, 
manner of conducting, &c. Second, Enrolling the names of mem- 
bers, always alphabetically. Third, Electing officers, viz.. President 
ttnd Secretary. Fawth, Announcing programme. 

In counties where city teachers and country teachers come to- 
gether for the first time, as is often the case, the harmony of the 
Institute will require that some effort be put forth the first day to 
make them acquainted with each other. In this, the examiner is 
the proper one to lead off. The object of thus preparing for the 
first day, is clear. No time will be lost with preliminaries. Half 
a day lost in getting ready for work is one-tenth of the whole time 
of an Institute gon^ besides it is important the first session to 
arrest the attention, and to impress fayorably as far as possible. 
Institute work, well begun, may truly be considered half done. 
Once set &irly in motion, an Institute runs so easily that the man- 
ager finds ample time to foresee and remove firietion after the first 
day. 

There should be one Superintendent or manager, and only one. 
He may consult with both the instructors and instructed, relative 
to any alterationa or change of programme, but at the same time 



804 Organismg Tecickera* Instituies. 

he should hold a firm and poeitive control of tihe entire Institnte 
with regard to decorum, order, promptness, punctuality, dispatch, 
submission, diligence, &c. To secure regular and prompt attendance, 
call the roll in some form at the opening of each session. To effect 
a change of exercises promptly (which is of the first importance in 
an Institute), strike a warning gong, two or three minutes before 
the time, and at the second stroke let the class rise to their feet 
Cut off all exercises at the appointed time. This will secure dispatch 
in business. While the work of the Institute is regularly progress- 
ing, the Superintendent, if a practical teacher, can accomplish great 
good by devoting a part of his time to a kind of individual inspection, 
by which means he will become acquainted with personal defects or 
individual excellencies; he may measure, to some extent, the 
length, breadth, and hight of the professional dimensions of every 
member of the Institute, — a kind of data very necessary for one 
aiming to arrange instruction suited to their best improvement^ and 
at the same time, by exhibiting this personal regard for the success 
of every individual member of the Institute, the Superintendent 
will gain the confidence of ally hence the power to control. 

INSTRUCTION. 

As we have already indicated, Institute instruction should, in the 
main, be normal, yet a great many^nnctjp^ maybe developed, 
truths unfolded, facts made known and ideas obtained, relating to 
academical education ; but this should not be the aim. Each lesson 
should be given with special reference to the best method of inool- 
cating the subject matter upon children of different dispositions 
and capacities, and various intellectual habits. The art of teaching, 
or the principles on whicl\ it is based, should be clearly developed 
and theoretically, if possible, illustrated, at avery step in the Insti- 
tute course. The adaptation of different methods to children of 
different dispositions and intellectual habits should receive the most 
careful attention. There is a great variety of methods for inculca- 
ting the same truth, and the diversities of mind are quite as numer- 
ous as the varieties of method. One mind can be best approached 
by one method, and another mind by another method; and in re- 
spect to the teacher, one of the richest treasures of hb profession is 
a knowledge of the adaptation of the different methods to different 



Xyrgcmissmg Toachers^ MsHtutea. 305 

minds. If the teacher never studteM his profession in this light, he 
learns this part of his duties only by the slow and wasteinl process 
of experimenting on mind, and thus in all probability, ruins many 
before he learns how to deal with them. The theory, at least, of 
adaptation should receive attention. 

WORK THE COUNTY TEACHERS. 

Working the leading teachers of the county, by way of topical 
discussions, when judiciously managed, has many beneficial influ- 
ences. Ist. It teaches them to think and to act independently in 
the investigation of matters pertaining to their profession, — to 
develop and to use what force there is within them. It gives them 
self-reliance and self-confidence. 2d. It adds variety and interest 
to each day's proceedings. 3d. If the i;eachers themselves are 
allowed to suggest the topics of discussion from day to day, the ten- 
dency will be to elicit thought upon the very subjects which are 
of the most importance to them, and in this way they may avail 
themselves of so much knowledge vnid experience which would not be 
gained under other circumstances. By these discussions thought 
is awakened, investigation provoked, and the natural tendency to 
enter the chrysalis averted. Another method of working teachers to 
advantage is to assign topics to several each day, calling for a written 
report of five or ten minutes' length. As an example of power 
awakened, (unknown even to its possessor), I read the following 
Report (obtained in this way) upon the question " What can be 
done in school to strengthen the moral character of children ? " 
Miss L. read thus before the Institute : 

<< The basis of moral character is to ^eak the truth, to act the 
truth, and to live the truth. This can not be taught by precept ; it 
must be communicated by example. There is that in the heart of 
childhood which responds to the same quality in another. Every- 
thing noble and generous, as well as everything base and selfish in 
a teacher, may awaken an echo in the hearts of his pupils. To 
make a child truthful, we must be truthful, not because it is the 
best policy, but because it is right. Moral education consists in 
leading one to act from conscientious motives, and not from policy. 
Let a conscientious teacher (and there should be no others), daily 
and earnestly address the conscience of a scholar, and he soon awak- 



306 Orgcmiemg Ibcu^ars' Instthdee: 

ens it to aotioii, and it beoomes stronger and stronger Uie more it 
is exercised. Let that ground be taken and maintained, — the habit 
of acting from a sense of right will be formed and strengthened 
nntil it beoomes a fixed habit, — a hahit of U/e. To offer a reward 
is to address a selfish principle, and an imperfect motive is oohi- 
vated. The love of tmth exists to some extent in every child's 
character, bat, like every other faculty it most be educated and 
strengthened by exercise. One reason why the moral standard is 
so low, is that w^are ignorant of home influences, — know little of 
the teihptations to which children are exposed, and in all our delib- 
erations we seldom plan a campaign so as to shield them against 
temptation. It does little good to punish one boy for truancy or 
profanity, when we know it to be a prevailing evU, Better tax our 
ingenuity to devise some means to prevent or remove the tempta- 
tion, and watch its workings with as much interest as we woiild a 
game of checkers." &c., &c. This extract is given as a sample of 
ability to write upon practical school questions, found where least 
expected. I have found it a good plan to call out teachers in thb 
way. 

HOW TO BRING OUT THE TEACHERS. 

A simple announcement in the county paper, that an Institute 
will bo held at such a place, and at such a time, will seldom secure 
a large attendance. Personal application must be made to country 
teachers, in order to arrest their attention. They wait to be arretted. 
This can easily be done by sending a printed letter or circular to 
each teacher, through the Trustee and Directors, signed by the 
Examiner. It seems thus to come backed by authority, and answers 
the purpose of a mbpcema served by a Sheriff. 

THE TIME or HOLDING INSTITUTES. 

r can not leave this subject without alluding to the vexed ques- 
lion of the time for holding a Oounty Institute under the law. 
The law provides that schools shall be closed during Institute week ; 
from which we infer they are to be held during term time, or while 
schools are in session. In some respects this provision is unfortn- 
nate, for legally teachers are not entitled to pay during the suspen- 
sion, while there is seeming injustice in dismissing schools and sub- 
jecting individuals to actual expense of both time and money, with- 



John White BuOdeff. 307 

(rat Temnneration. It tends to prodnoe friction in both eity and 
country districts, in the administration of the School Law. The 
better plan, I think, would be to hold Institutes out of term time, 
and, if possible just before the commencement of a new term. The 
idea that County Institutes must be held at different times to ac- 
commodate itinerant Institute holders, is not only theoretically wrong, 
but impracticable. As well might the District Schools of a town- 
ship be taught at different seasons, to accommodate an itinerant 
schoolmaster. On the contrary, the schools of a township or county 
should commence as nearly as possible on the same day. So I 
would set apart the months of August and September as the time 
for holding County Institutes. I deem it important for this Con- 
vention to indicate, by resolution or otherwise, the proper time for 
holding Institutes. Also, whether teachers should or should not 
expect their wages to continue during Institute week. — Ind, Sch, 
Jour. 



John White Bulkley, A. M., 

SUPEBINTENDSNT OF SCHOOLS, BKOOKLTN, K. T. 



The subject of this sketch was bom in Fairfield, Conn. The 
earlier years of his school life were spent in a New England public 
school, where his devotion to study gave promise of high culture 
and usefulness. Compelled at an early age, however to depend 
upon himself, he engaged for some time in mechanical pursuits, 
which he soon abandoned for the more congenial labor of a student's 
life. He prosecuted his studies with a view to the Christian min- 
istry, for which calling his inclination and habit of mind seemed 
alike to give unusual fitness. Ill health soon compelled him to 
abandon his chosen purpose, and he entered soon after, at the age 
of about twenty years, upon what proved to be his life work, the 
calling of a Teacher. A sea voyage taken shortly after the com- 
mencement of his educational career so restored his vigor, that his 
work has since been almost uninterrupted. He had found his place, 
and the high honor he has attained as an educator, is but the legiti- 
mate fruit of the devotion of an earnest, active nature, with con- 

[VoL. XV, No. 10.] 21 



308 John White BulJOey. 

scientious and antiriDg energy to a vocation that engrossed hia 
every thought. 

In his native State, he first gave promise of becoming a leader in 
the crnsade, which in the last third of a century, has created edu- 
cational systems and appliances looking towards universal education, 
in accordance with the laws of mind, and the needs of a free people. 
To accept the fruits of this growth and apply them is now com- 
paratively easy, to have had part in the great Educational Reform, 
when no immediate honor or emolument waited upon conscious 
success, and when the way was little trod, often dubious and dark, 
fighting against ignorance and opposition as well, misunderstood by 
friends and traduced by foes, required no ordinary energy, and no 
easy virtue. Old traditions and failures were behind, and to the 
chosen few alone was there a ray of promise ahead. 

During the years of his initiate, Mr. Bulk ley devoted his leisure 
from the active duties of the school room, to a careful examination 
of the various school polities and philosophies of education, and 
made himself familiar with those most approved. He was in cor- 
respondence with the most eminent educators of the time, and his 
association with the foremost minds of the age, in his profession 
helped a mind naturally independent and creative to such self 
culture and achieved for him such eminent success as to place him 
in the front rank of the profession of his choice. 

After eight years of labor in Fairfield, he removed to Troy, N. 
Y., and opened a private seminary, which he managed with eminent 
success, until he was appointed Principal of a new Grammar School 
in the city of Albany. During his service of about nineteen years 
in these two cities, he was one of the leading spirits in those early 
efforts, which after repeated failures, contending with apathy and 
ignorance, resulted at length in the organization of the N. Y. State 
Teachers' Association. 

As early as 1836, we find him prominently identified with a 
Teachers' Convention '^ called for the purpose of increasing the pay 
and influence of those engaged in this arduous and honorable pro- 
fession.'' This convention met in Albany, Sep. 20 and 21, 1836. 
About this time, so earnest was the purpose of giving a new im- 
pulse to public education, that in company with several other gen- 
tlemen, he employed an agent to lecture in different parts of the 



John White Bulkier/. 309 

State, the services and expenses being defrayed from their private 
resources. An adjourned meeting of the convention was held in 
Utica, May 11, 1837. At this meeting Mr. Bulkley delivered a 
stirring address on tJie Responsibilities of Teachers. The meeting 
resulted in the organization of " the New York State Society for 
the Improvement of Schools/' Hon. Jabez D. Hammond was 
chosen President, and Mr. Bulkley was made Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Acting on behalf of the Committee, he 
subsequently prepared a circular, urging the formation of county 
associations throughout the State. The association failed to hold 
another meeting, probably in consequence of the commercial dis- 
tresses of 1837. 

But the pioneers were not disheartened. Through the active 
exertions of such men as Mr. Bulkley, Mr. Valentine and Mr. 
Anthony and others, associations had beei^ organized and main- 
tained at Albany and Troy, and the next movement, in 1845, for 
the creation of a State Association, originated in a movement of the 
Albany County Association, March 29, 1845. A committee to call 
such convention was on motion of T. W. Valentine, Esq., now of 
Brooklyn, unanimously adopted, and Mr. Bulkley as chairman of 
the committee issued a circular on the 14th of April, " setting forth 
in a masterly manner the necessity of a State organization, and the 
advantages to accrue therefrom." The convention met July 30 
and 31, 1845, and Mr. Bulkley was chosen President. After a 
most interesting and spirited session, a constitution was adopted, 
and the convention was formed into " The Teachers' Association 
of the State of New York." He has since that time, attended 
most, if not all the meetings, and devoted time, pen and money to 
the advancement of its interests. He was subsequently elected 
President of the association and prepared an elaborate history of its 
transactions. He has been a member of the Board of Editors of 
the New York Teacher since its establishment in 1852, and has 
contributed largely to its usefulness. 

In 1850, Mr. Bulkley received the appointment of Principal of 
one of the largest of the Williamsburgh public schools, now known 
as No. 19, Brooklyn E. D., and brought to the administration of 
its affairs, enlightened views, and a sound policy. Upon leav- 
ing Albany, a public dinner was given in his honor, at which 



310 Words. 

the Mayor of the city presided. At the time of hb removal to 
Brooklyn he had been elected Prinoipal of one of the most flourish- 
ing academies in the State, but declined the appointment. He 
entered heartily into schemes for reform in his new relation, and 
was made prinoipal of the Saturday Normal School, which he had 
been the chief instrument in organizing. 

In the consolidation of Brooklyn, Williamsburgh and Bush- 
wick, it is no marvel that the fruits of five years labor pointed to 
him as the first Superintendent. The estimation in which he is 
held is best attested by the fact, that he is now in the midst of his 
twelfth year of service, as Superintendent of a system of schools 
whose excellence is so largely the result of his labors. 

To those who know him it need hardly be said, that in every 
national movement for the encouragement of sound learning and 
universal education he has borne a conspicuous part, — a member 
and officer for many years of the American Institute of Instruction, 
one of the founders of the National Teachers' Association, and its 
president in 1860, he is known as an untiring zealous workman. 

Mr. Bulkley's success, and the estimation in which he is held 
may be taken as an index of those personal traits of character, 
which have always commended him to the friendship of the wise 
and noble-minded, and given him influence as a counsellor and 
guide. ^ 



WordB. 

BT J. G. HOLLAND. 

The robin repeats hig two beautifal words, 
The meadow-lark whistles his one refrain ; 
And steadily, over and over again, 

The same song swells 'from a handred birds. 

Bobolink, chickadee, black bird and jaj, 
Thrasher and woodpecker, cuckoo and wren, 
Each sings its word, or its phrase, and then 

It has nothing farther to sing or say. 

Into that word, or that sweet little phrase, 
All there maj be of its life must crowd ; 
And low and liquid, or hoarse and loud. 

It breathes its burthen of joj and praise. 



The Ehme and Oe Budson. 311 

A UtUe ohUd sits in his father's door, ^ 

Chatting and singing with careless tongue ; 

A thousand musical words are sung. 
And he holds unuttered k thousand more. 

Words measure power ; and they measure thine ; 

Greater art thou in thy childish years 

Than all the birds of a hundred spheres ; 
They are brutes only, but thou art diyine. 

Words measure destiny. Power to declare 

Infinite ranges of passion and thought 

Holds with the infinite only its lot, — 
Is of eternity only the heir. 

Words measure life, and they measure its joy ; 
Thou hast more joy in thy childish years 
Than the birds of a hundred tuneful spheres, 

80 — sing with the beautiful birds, my boy ! 



The Bhine and the Hudson. 



Whatever is old and bears marks of the past has a charm about 
it entirely wanting in anythiog fresh and new. This is the chief 
advantage that the scenery of Europe has over that of our own land. 
The crumbling ruins of antiquity, with their various associations 
added to the natural beauties of rock and river, ghe the latter a 
double interest in the eyes of the present generation. 

Herein lies the only advantage that the river Rhine has over our 
own Hudson. We are apt to claim, with pardonable pride, that the 
Hudson, with its Palisades, its Highlands, and its glorious views of 
the many-hued Catskills 3 its banks rock-ribbed and forest-crowned ; 
its mighty waters, broad and deep and clear, is the most beautiful 
river in the world. But the scenery of the Rhine, though not 
superior in natural beauty, makes much the pleasantest impression 
on the mind of the tourist. This is because the past, with its 
memories, its mysteries and its legends, has left its relics here, and 
enshrined itself in every mile of the banks that line the noble river, 
because history and tradition mingle thdir peculiar charms with those 
of nature. 



312 The Rhine and tike Hudaon. 

Perhaps the first mention made of the Rhine is that which we 
puzzled over in our dog's-eared copies of Caesar : " Rhenus oritur, 
antque longo spatio per fines," et cetera. Here was the scene of 
many of the Roman conquests and defeats; the chivalrous deeds of 
the feudal ages were enacted on these hanks, and in modern times 
its waters have flowed hetween hostile armies, and run red with the 
hlood of Europe's host and nohlest. 

The ruins that now crown the banks of this classic river and the 
legends that are told respecting them and their occupants, are relics 
of the warlike days of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when 
every lord in Germany had his castles, his vassals, and his petty 
strifes. They fortified themselves on every rocky headland and pre- 
cipitous clifi', in frowning castles, whose impregnable turrets, over- 
hanging the waters of the river, hurled to the world the defiance of 
their defenders. The traveler of to-day, landing here, ascends the 
rock and lingers for hours among ivy-clad walls and mossy pillars, 
unable to tear himself away from scenes so pregnant with reminders 
of the past. 

On one of the highest clifiis, stands " like a monk," the castle of 
Drachenfels, in his "hood of mist." Below is Wolkenburg — the 
Castle of the Clouds ; and still farther down the ruin of Stolzenfels 
" looks at one with its hollow eyes, and seems to beckon with its 
gigantic finger." On turning almost every point can be seen on 
the sun-lit headland beyond, one of these ruins, perched phantom- 
like on a barren rock, or nestled on the slope of a vine-clad hill. 

The poets of all ages have found ample inspiration in, the roman- 
tic scenery of the Rhine. Byron thus describes it in " Childe 
Harold": 

** Its breast of waters broadly swells 

Between the banks which bear the vine, 

And hills all rich with blossom'd trees, 

And fields which promise com and wine, 

And scattered cities crowning these, 

Whose far-white walls along them shine. 

And peasant girls with deep blue eyes. 

And hands which offer early flowers. 

Walk smiling o*er this paradise ; 

Above the frequent feudal towers. 



The Rhine and the Hudson. 818 

Though green leaves lifl their walls of grey, 
And many a rock which steeply lowers, 
And noble arch in proud decay. 
Look o'er this vale of yintage bowers ; 
The riyer nobly foams and flows, 
The charm of this enchanted ground, 
And all its thousand turns disclose. 
Some fresher beauty yarying round." 

Longfellow carries his hero in ^' Hyperion " down its banks, 
and stops with him to give his readers some idea of the ^' rocks and 
ruins, the echos and legends, and the castles grim and hoar, that 
have taken root as it were, on its o'er-hanging cliflfe." What says 
he : " The pride of the German heart is this noble riyer. And 
right it is ; for, of all the rivers on this beantiM earth, there is 
none so beautiful as this. There is hardly a league of its whole 
course, from its cradle in the snowy Alps to its grave in the sands 
of Holland that boasts not its peculiar charms. To describe it well, 
one should write like a god, and his language flow onward royally, 
with breaks and dashes, like the waters of that noble river, as it 
reels onward through vineyards in a triumphant march, like Bacchus, 
crowned and drunken." 

Such is the river consecrated through so many ages, alike by 
nature and art — poetry and eventful history, which the Germans 
love and reverence almost as did the ancient Romans the Tiber. 

The Hudson, however, is not without a few of the associations 
that are the most attractive features of the Rhine. The voyagers 
on its waters cannot but recollect its brave discoverer and his tragic 
end. On its banks Major Andre was captured, and suffered his sad 
but merited fate. Here stands the old fort of the Revolution, 
with scarcely one stone left upon another, and right beneath it is 
West Point, where were educated the men who have won such 
never-fading laurels in our war for the union. Already a historic 
interest attaches itself to vine-clad Sunnyside, and long years hence 
the tourist will pause to catch a glimpse of the spot that was so dear 
to America's most gifted author. Irving has done much also, to 
perpetuate many of the legends of the early settlers on the banks of 
the Hudson. Who can ever forget the story of " Rip Van Winkle" 
or the ^' Legend of Sleepy Hollow," or does not gaze with a strange 



314 BcMonai iiatrucHon. 

interest at the shores on which these quaint adventnres are fabled 
to have occurred. 

And 80, as each new year prints on these romantic shores such 
traces of the past, the Hudson will seem more lovely, and grow 
more dear to every American, until our admiration for it shall rival 
even that of the Germans for their Rhine. s. n. d. n. 

Hamilton College, May 17, 1866. 



Hational Instruction. 



We go to school and learn that words are spelled and pronounced 
peculiarly, and that these peculiarities are entirely arbitrary. And 
when beginning, we learn no other reason for pronouncing the same 
vowel or consonant differently in different words, than our teacher's 
say so. And as our first school days are spent entirely at memo- 
rizing these arbitrary sounds, or changes of names for the same 
letter, it becomes a habit with us by the time we are able to study 
any thing ourselves, to take all things second hand, and our know- 
ledge of grammar, arithmetic, etc., consists chiefly of memorised 
definitions, which we forget soon after leaving school. 

Nor does this taking things second hand cease with our going to 
school, but we go in leading strings all our days, and are never 
able to give a reason for the faith that is in us. 

K the tyro on going to school could be interested by the teacher 
evety moment he is in the school room, and be taught a philosophi- 
cal reason for each conclusion } as for instance, that go is go, and 
though is though, and thou is thou, &c., for the same reason that 
the iron box on which the cook fries the meat, is stove; i. e., that 
words have names as much as objects, and each word is called by 
its particular name, because that is its name, and not because it is 
spelled in this particular manner; — I say if he could be exercised 
in such manner as to keep the spirit of inquiry alive in his breast, 
until he is sufficiently advanced to interest himself in the study of 
his lessons, he would continue, not only the balance of his school 
days, but through life, more of a thinking man than if he had 
spent the first part of his school days learning not to think, 

I submit this to the consideration of teachers, believing there is 
a better method of teaching beginners tiian is now practiced, hoping 
a spirit of inquiry may lead to improved methods of inducting 
children into study. * t. h. 



Oldest OUy m ihe World. 315 



Oldest City in the World. 

Pamascus is the oldest city in the world. Tyre and Sidon have 
crumbled on the shore ; Baalbec is a ruin ; Palmyra lies buried in 
the sands of the desert 3 Nineveh and Babylon have disappeared 
from the shores of the Tigris and Euphrates. Damascus remains 
what it was before the days of Abraham — a centre of trade and 
travel, an island of verdure in the desert, a '* predestinated capital," 
with martial and sacred associations extending beyond thirty cen- 
turies. 

It was near Damascus that Saul of Tarsus saw the light from 
heaven " above the brightness of the sun ; " the street which is 
called Straight, in which it is said " he prayeth," still runs through 
the eity -, tbe caravan comes and goes as it did one thousand years 
ago; there is still the sheik, the ass and the water-wheel; the 
merchants of the Euphrates and the Mediterranean still occupy 
these with the " multitude of their wares." The city which Ma- 
homet surveyed from a neighboring height and was afiraid to enter, 
because it was given to man to have but one paradise, and for his 
part he was '' resolved not to have it in this world," is to this day 
what Julian called the " Eye of the East," as it was in the time of 
Isaiah the " Head of Syria." 

From Damascus came our damson, our blue plums, and the deli- 
cious apricot of Portugal, called damasco; damask, our beautiful 
fabric of cotton and silk, with vines and flowers raised upon a 
smooth, bright ground } damask rose introduced into England in 
the time of Henry VII ; the Damascus blade, so famous the world 
over for its keen edge and remarkable elasticity, the secret of the 
manufacture of which was lost when Tamerlane carried off the 
artists into Persia; and that beautiful art of inlaying wood and 
steel with silver and gold — a kind of mosaic and sculpture united, 
called damaskeeing, with which boxes and bureaus and swords and 
guns are ornamented. 

It is still a city of flowers and bright waters ; the streams from 
Lebanon, the "rivers of Damascus," the "rivers of goW still 
murmur and sparkle in the wilderness of " Lyria Gardens." 



Resident Editor's Department 



# «»»» » 



NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 

TW1NTT-PIB8T ANNIYERSABT. 

The Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the New York Statb Tsachsbs' 
AssooiATiON will beheld at Genera, in Linden Hall, conunenoingat 4 o'eloek, 
p. M ., on Tuesdaj, July 81; 1866. The Executiye Committee have arranged 
for the following Order of Exercises : 

Taesday, July 31, 1866. 

At 4 o'clock p. M., Organization. ' 

At 4} o'clock, President's Inaugural Address. 

At 7} o'clock, Report of Standing Committee on Condition of Edaeaiian. 
Jambs Cbuikshank, Jambs W. Babkbb, Chablbs Hutohiks, Committee. 

At 8 o'clock. Address by Rev. Wm. C. Wisnbb, D.D., of Lockport 
Wednesday, August 1, 1866. 

At 9 o'clock A. M., Report of Committee on A Curriculum of Studies for 
Common Schools. John W. Abmstboxo, M. McYioab, Chablbs T. Poolxb, 
Committee. Discussion of the Subject. 

At 10 o'clock, Report on Amendments to the Constitution, proyiding for 
Auxiliary Associations. J. W. Dunham, S. D. Babb and B. M. Rbtnolds, 
Committee. 

At 11 o'clock, Lecture by John H. French, LL.D., on Tht Physical 
Geography of the State of New York. 

Miscellaneous Business. 

At 2 J o'clock. Paper by M. P. Cavbbt, Esq., English Language and Lite- 
rature as an Educational Force. 

Discussion of the Subject. 

At 8} o'clock. Papers on the Importance of the Study of the Natural 
Sciences, by Prof. W. B. Rismo, of Michigan UniTersity, and Prof. 8. Q. 
Williams, of Ithaca. Discussion. 

At 4} o'clock. Report of Standing Committee on Improved MethodB in 
Education, Edwabd Danfobth, Jambs H. Hoosb, and Miss Ellbn Sbatbb, 
Committee. 

At 7} o'clock, Address by RevL L. Hbbbill Millxb, D.D., of Ogdens- 
burgh. 

Poem by Miss Mabt A. Riplbt, of Albany. 

Thursday, August 2, 1866. 
At 9 o'clock, Appointment of Nominating Committee. Unfinished 
BoBiness. 



Resident Editoj^a Deparlment. 317 

Paper on the EBtablishment of an Educational Exchange. 

At 10 o'clock. Report on the Creation of a State Board of Examiners to 
issue High Grade Certificates to Professional Teachers. Johji H. Fbbnoh, 
Prof. N. F. Wright and Mbs. Dr. Gallup, Committee. 

At 10} o'clock, Remarks on the Functions of Norn^al Schools, by Hshrt 
Kiddle, Esq., of New York, and Prof. Olivbb Arst, of Albany. 

At 11 J o'clock. Poem by ReT. A. T. Pikrson, of Waterford. 

At 2\ o'clock, p. M., Reports of Officers. Report of Committee on Time 
mnd Place of Next Meeting. 

At 8 o'clock, Address by President Jaoksoh, of Geneva. 

At 4 o'clock, Election of Officers. 

At 7 o*olock, Miscellaneous Business. Report of Committee on Resolu- 
tions. 

Sociable, Addresses, etc. ^ 

Hon. Charlss J. Folobr of Geneva, and Prof. Wilson of Hobart Col- 
lege, will also address the Association. 

Music will be furnished by an Association under the direction of W. H. 
Vboomah, Esq., of Geneva. 

The Franklin, International, and American Hotels, have been named as 
places of rendezvous. 

Hotel fare will not exceed $2.00 per day. 

Ladies will be entertained free by the citizens of Geneva. 

Mr. Georob H. Ellis will open his music room to the Association and 
provide a piano. 

An excursion on Seneca Lake is proposed for Friday, to visit the Wat- 
kins Glen. Persons desiring further information in regard thereto, will 
address Wm. H. Yrooman, Esq., Geneva. 

There will be a meeting of the Officers and Committee of Arrangements 
at Linden Hall, at 2 o'clock p. m., on Tuesday. 

Local Committee. 
C. C. YouKO AND Lady, F. E. Smith and Ladt, 

Hon. Geo. B. Dusenberre and Ladt, C. Wheat and Ladt, 
Col. F. W. Prince and Ladt, S. H. Parker and Ladt, 

I>K. G. CONOER AND LaDT, Wm. H. YrOOMAN AND LaDT, 

Db. Geo. W. Field and Ladt, Prof. A. Whalen, 

Charles D. Vail, Miss S. Lewis, 

C. C. Eastman, Miss C. W. Porter, 

£ Wood, Miss Mart Conger, 

Miss F. Young, and others. 

JAMES ATWATER, President^ 
Jajcss Cruikshank, Corresponding Secretary, 



318 Resident EditoT^s Department. 



ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS AND CITY 
SUPERINTENDENTS, 

AHNUAL MUSTIHQ. 

The Association of School Commissioners and Superintendents of City 
and Graded Schools, will meet in the Village of Qeneya, on Monday, June 
80, at 4 o'clock p. m. 

Mtmday, Jvly 80, 1866. 
At 4 p. N., Organixation. 
At 4.80, Address by the President. 
At 7.80, Report of Committee on Constitution and By-Laws. 

Tuesday, July 31, 1866. 

MoKNiNQ S1SSI05. — The following questions will be discussed : 1 . Should 
common school teachers in the rural districts report directly to Commis- 
sioners, and npon what points ? 

2. Can a course of study be prepared that shall be adapted to the ma- 
jority of all the common schools in the State ? 

8. How should school examinations be conducted ? 

4. Should not rate-bills be abolished ? 

AvTiBNOON Sbssioh. — 6. How should examinations of teachers be con- 
ducted? 

6. What permanent records should be kept by teachers, other than those 
now required by law ? 

7. Does not the interest of common schools m this State demand the 
passage of a law creating a State Board of Education ? 

8. Miscellaneous Business. 

JOHN W. BULKLEY, PrmidmL 
C. T. PooLES, Corresponding Secretary. 



MISCELLANY, 

Anbbioan Instituti or Instbuotion. — The Thirty-serenthAnnnal Meet- 
ing of the Amirioah Instituts of In stsuctiok will be held in Busuxinoiit 
Yt., at the Citt Hall, on the 7th, 8th and 9th days of August, 1866. 

The Board of Directors will meet at the Ambbioan House on the 7th, at 
11 o'clock, A. M. 

The public exercises will be as follows : 

Tiusday^ Auguti 7, — At 2^ o'clock p. n., the meeting will be organised, 
and the customary addresses will be made ; after which there will be a dis- 
cussion upon the following subject: ** Our Schools — (JUtr u^btmce on 1. 
Agriculture; 2. Commerce f 8. Manufactures ; 4. Civil P9Ut^$ 6. Morals." 



BeMent Ediiat^s Depa/rtment. 319 

At 8 o'clock p. M., a Leotare, by Mosss T. Bbowh, of Gineinnati, on 
" Readmg om a Fine Art,*' 

Wednesday, Auffiut 8. — At 9 o'clock A. m., a Discussion. Subject: 
** Advantages of Graded Schools.** 

At 11 o'clock, a Lecture by Milo C. Stsbbihs, of Springfield, Mass. 

At 2^ p. M., a Discussion. Subject: ** Education and Reconstruction.** 

At 8 p. M., a Lecture, by Prof. W. S. Ttlee, of Amherst College. 

Thursday, August 9. — At 9 o'clock a. n., a Discussion. Subject: 

At 11 o'clock A. M., a LectuA, by Prof. S. S. Gbeehb, of Brown UdI. 
▼ersity. 

At 2} p. M., a Discussion. Subject : ** Place of the Sciences and the Clasiics 
in a Liberal Education,** 

QoTemor Bullock will be present on Thursday. 

A liberal reduction in their rates will be made by the hotels at Burling- 
ton. The charges will not exceed $2 per day. 

The citizens of Burlington generously proffer gratuitous entertainment 
to lady teachers in attendance. 

Tickets from Boston to Burlington, and return, Tia Lowell and Vermont 

Central Railroad, at $8.00 (one-half the usual rate). Excursion Tickets 

to Montreal and Indianapolis, at a low rate. The precise terms will soon 

bo announced. Tickets may be had only of Lansing Millis, 5 State Street, 

Boston. 

BIRDSEY GRANT NORTHROP, President. 

G. A. MoBBiLL, Secretary. 
Boston, June, 1866. 

TJnivbbsitt Convocation. — The Third AnniTersary of ** The Univeb- 
siTT Convocation of the State of New Yobk " will be held at the Capitol, 
in the city of Albany, on Tuesday, the seventh day of August next, at 10 
o'clock A. M., and is expected to continue three days. 

The Membebsuip, as originally constituted, includes 

1. The members of the Board of Regents. 

2. All Instructors in Colleges, Academies, Norm&l Schools, and the 
higher departments of Public Schools which are subject to the visitation 
of the Regents. 

8. The President, First Vice President, and the Recording and Corres- 
ponding Secretaries of the New York State Teachers' Association. 

Members who expect to attend are requested to inform the Secretary in 
advance, by post, and to call immediately on their arrival, at the Regent's 
Office (adjoining the State Library), and enter their names on the Register. 

Board will be furnished at reduced rates, by several of the Hotels, in- 
eluding Congress Hall, the American Hotel, &c., and by priTate. families. 
The terms will range from $2.00 to $3.00 per day. Membership cards, 
entitling holders to such reduced rates, will be furnished by the Secretary 
to thoBO who desire them. 



320 Besident Editor's DqMrtmeni. 

It is to be hoped that members will appreciate the important ef attend- 
ing promptly, and oome prepared for a session of three days. Eyery rea- 
sonable effort will be made to secure an interesting and instntctiTe meeting 
of the Conyocation. 

S. B. WooLWOBTH, Sicretary. John V. L. Pbuth, 

D. J. P&ATT, Aatisiant Secretary. Chancellor of the Univertity. 

Flthto Ship. — Dr. Andrews has made two ascents in New York with 
his new aerial ship, and has achieved but partial success. The machinery 
is yet very imperfect and requires much improvement before the purpose 
of its construction will be accomplished. 

Albaxt. — The new board of School Commissioners have elected Mr. 
Henry B. Haswell, Secretary. Mr. Haswell was an efficient secretary 
when he held that post some years ago. We regret, however, that the new 
law does not provide for thorough and efficient supervision, and provide 
for the election of a superintendent with ample powers. 

National Bubbau of Education. — The House has reconsidered the bill 
establishing a Department of Education, and passed it by a large majority. 
— Washington Telegram^ June 19. 

MoBB Abotic Explobation. — At the late anniversary of the Royal 
Geographical Society, in London, Sir Roderick Murchison referred to a 
project for the exploration of the northern coast line and interior of 
Greenland. One of the society's youngest associates, Mr. Whymper, 
already distinguished by his courage and self-reliance in surmounting the 
highest peaks of the Alps, has conceived the bold idea of penetrating along 
the surface of the Greenland glaciers into the interior of this snow-olad 
continent, he being convinced, from the great number of deer that find 
their way to the coast, that there are within the glaciers well grassed val- 
leys and recesses. Mr. Whymper believes it is also possible to trace by 
land the extent of Greenland to the north, which was one of the main 
geographical objects of the late projected Polar expedition. He would be 
accompanied only by a well-trained Danish guide, who was ready at Copen- 
hagen. A preliminary trip would be made next summer. This enterprise 
Sir Roderick ^considered as truly the ne plus ultra of individual British 
geographical adventure. 

This is very nearly the plan devised by Dr. Kane for his last attempt. 

Inspibation. — ** There are times when the unknown reveals itself in a 
mysterious way to the spirit of man. A sudden rent in the veil of dark- 
ness will make manifest things hitherto unseen, and then close again upon 
the mysteries within. Such visions have occasionally the power to effect a , 
transfiguration in those whom they visit. They convert a poor camel- 
driver into a Mahommed ; a peasant girl tending her goats, into a Joan of 
Arc. Solitude generates a certain amount of sublime exvltatlon. It is 



Beddent Editor's Depa/rlment 321 

like the smoke ftrislAg from the barning bueh. A mysterious lucidity of 
mind results, which oonyerts the student into a seer, and the poet into a 
prophet." 

The Atlantic Cablx expedition will set sail about the 1st of July. 
Four steamers are to be engaged in the enterprise — the Qreat Eastern, as 
on the previous Toyages, carrying and paying out the cable, and the others 
acting as tenders to her, or looking after the submerged cable, which it is 
hoped may be recoyered. 

iKSiifCEiLiTT. — ** To live a life which is a perpetual falsehood, is to 
suffer unknown tortures. To be premeditating indefinitely a diabolical act ; 
to haye to assume austerity; to present a perpetual illusion, and never to 
one's self — is a burdensome task. To have to dip the brush in that stuff 
within, to produce with it a portrait of candor ; to fawn, to restrain one's 
self, to be ever on the qui vive ,* watching without ceasing, to mask latent 
crimes with a face of healthy innocence ; to transform deformity into 
beauty ; to fashion wickedness into the shape of perfection ; to tickle, as 
it were, with the point of a dagger, to put sugar with poison, to keep a 
bridle on every gesture and a watch over every tone, not even to have a 
countenance of one's own — what can be harder, what can be more tor- 
turing ? The odiousness of hypocrisy is obscurely felt by the hypocrite 
himself. Drinking perpetually of his own imposture is nauseating." 

A Mammoth. — A letter has been received from M. de Baer, of St. Peters- 
burgh, announcing the most interesting fact that a mammoth has been 
found in Arctic Siberia, covered with its skin and hair. The animal must 
have been literally kept packed in Arctic ice from one epoch to another. 
The discovery had been made so early as 1804 by a Samoyedc in the envi- 
rons of Taz Bay, the eastern branch of the Oulf of Obi. The news 
reached St. Petersburgh at the close of 1865. With culpable slowness the 
Academy of St. Petersburgh has only just sent the distinguished paleon- 
tologist, M. Schmidt, to investigate the matter,^ and especially to examine 
the contents of the stomach in order to discover what was the animal's 
natural food. 



PEESOJ^AL. 

The Editob of the Teacher has removed from Albany to Brooklyn. Cor- 
respondents will please take notice and address accordingly. 

Mb. Geobqe Cruikshank, the veteran artist, for whose benefit a testi- 
monial is on foot in England, has received the homage of French art and 
literature in the matter by the subscriptions of MM. Dord and Nadar and 
MM. Fourier and Michel. 



322 Resident Editors Department. 

jAjfEU GBT7IKSHANK, LL.D., of ihiB oitj, has been appointed by the 
Brooklyn Board of Education, Assistant Superintendent of Schoola for 
that city, at a salary of $2,600 a year. This is a capital selection for Brook- 
lyn ; but it takes from Albany a yaluable citizen and one of its best edu- 
cational minds. He has, as Editor of the New York Teacher and as a di- 
rector in Teachers' Institutes, by study and experience, acquired a peculiar 
Atncss for the duties of the position; which, added to his natural aptness 
for the work, his business tact, and gentlemanly bearing, giyea assurance 
that the interests committed to him will be guarded with industry and skill. 
The Doctor leaves for his new field of labor to-day. Success attend 
him. — Albany Evming Journal, June 14. 

Mrs. Somebyille. — Miss Frances Power Cobbe writes in the Pall Mall 
Gazette the following note : 

** Sib : Permit me to add another and peculiarly interesting case to 
those cited by Dr. Forbes Winslow of intellectual vigor in adyanced age. 
The Tenerable Mrs. Somerville, now in her eighty-seventh year, has jnat 
completed a vast work, embodying all the latest results of science in rela- 
tion to the ultimate particles of matter. Those who have seen the MS. 
are assured that when the book appears this summer it will be found to 
surpass rather than fall short of the merits of the ' Physical Geography ' 
and * Connection of the Sciences ' which half a century ago gave her the 
first rank among intellectual women." 

AuarsTus G. Cole.-» We are pained to record the decease of one who 
gave promise of such great usefulness, and whose many excellent qualities 
had endeared him to a large circle of friends. Mr. Cole was not less sue- 
cessftil as an instructor than beloved and honored by those who enjoyed his 
fHendship. He had been for several years principal of one of the public 
schools of the city of Albany. 

At a meeting of the Principals of the Public Schools of the city of 
Albany, held at the rooms ortho Board of Public Instruction, June 11, 
1800), the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, our beloved friend and co-worker, Augustus G. Cols, has 
been removed from our midst by an All-wise Providence ; and 

Whereas, we, cherishing tender recollections of his many endearing 
qualities, and sorrowing that in the prime of his usefulness he has been 
taken from us, do earnestly desire to manifest our love for our departed 
friend and our respect for his memory: therefore 

Jienolvedf That we most heartily sympathise with his bereaved family ia 
the irreparable loss they have sustained, and with the large circle of 
friends who share it with them. 

Restdvedy That we will attend his funeral in a body. 

Iit«olredf That these proceedings be published in the city papers and a 
copy thereof be transmitted to the father of the deceased. 

Wm. B. Sims, Chairman. 

A. F. Ondkrdonk, Secretary. 



BesiderU Editor's Department. 323 

Bit. Wasbih Bubtov» well known m the author of *< ffe^ to SductUum," 
and other Tiloable works, died last month at Salem, Mass., after a long 
and painful illness. His memory will be cherished. 



LITERARY NOTES. 



GnxiLiT's Amxbioak CoHruoT. — The second Tolume of this work is 
expected to appear in August. Subscriptions are receiyed by Mr. C. H. 
Oildersleeve, No. 1 Spruce street, New York. 

Oun YouNo Folks, for July, sustains the well-earned reputation of this 
standard juYenile magazine, whilst there is such adaptation both of subject 
matter and manner as to meet the wants of the young. There is a careful 
aToidance of little nothings in <* By-baby-buntin " style. 

Journal dxs Say ants. — There is a paper published in Paris — the Jour- 
nal dn Savants — which is two hundred years old, having been established 
in January, 1666. It is one of the most able and successftil organs of sci- 
ence in the world. 

AnuoAN Explorations. — A new book on Africa by Mr. Sam usl White 
Babgir, said to be of very great interest, has just appeared in England. 
Mr. Baker belieyes that he has ** completed the Nile sources, by the dis- 
eoyery of the great reseryoir of the equatorial waters, the Albert N'yanxa, * 
from which the riyer issues as the entire White Nile." The republication 
of his yolumes in this country will be looked for with great interest 



BOOK NOTICES, 



LsssoNS ON the Qlobe, Illustrated by Pereses Magnetic Globe and Magnetic 
Objects. By Mart Howe Smith, Teacher of (hogrcq^hy in the Oswego 
Normal and Training School. New York: Charles Scribner ^ Co., 1866, 
12m 0,^. 64. 

The fayor with which Perce*s globes have been receiyed, and the new 
interest they are calculated to awaken among young students of geogra- 
phy, make some manual for teachers a necessity. Mrs. Smith bas pre- 
pared a most acceptable book. In easy familiar style, and after the man- 
ner of object lessons, she leads the child (rather the teacher, in the child's 
interest), step by step to the recognition of the phenomena which the ter- 
restrial globe is intended to illustrate. This little book will commend 
itself to general fayor. 

22 



the: XATIOllirAL SERIES 



STANDARD SCHOOL-BOOKS 

Includes, among upwards of Three Hundred Vol- 
umes of Standard Educational Works, 



THE FOLLOWING : 



National Pictorial Primer. Parker & 
Watson. 

National Serifit of Sch. Readers. 6 Nob. 

Sherwood's Writing Speller Series. 4 Nos. 

Smith*s Sch. SpelUrs and Definers. 4 Nos. 

Wright's Analytical Orthography. 

Northend's Dictation Ezercises. 

FowWs False Orthography. 

Foiole's Bible Reader. 

Davies* New Series of Arithmetics. 6 Nos. 

Daviey New Series of Algebras, 3 Nos. 

Davies* Higher Mathematics — a completo 
course. 

Monteith ^ MeNaUy*s Seh, Geographies. 
6 Nos. 

Clark's Diagram System of English Gram- 
mar. 2 Nos, 

Beers' System of Penmanship. 12 Nos. 

Self'instructing Writing Books. 8 Nos. 

Willard*s American ^ Universal Histories. 

Berard's History of England. 

Monteith' s History of United States. 

Hannahs Bible History. 

Boyd's Annotated BrUish Poets. 5 Vols. 

Northend's School Speakers. 3 Nos. 

Raymond's Patriotic Speaker. 

Smith 4* Martin's Book-keying' 



Watts on the Mind. 
Boyd's Composition and Login. 
Karnes' Elements of CriUeism, 
Day's Art of Rhetoric. 
Cleveland's Compendium*. 3 Vols. 
Beers' Geographical Dratcing^Book. 
Norton ^ Porter's First Book of Seienet, 
Peck's GanoCs Natural Philosophy. 
Porter's School Ckemtstries, 2 Nos. 
Wood's Botanical Text-Books. 2 Nos. 
Emmons' Manual of Geology. 
Chambers' Elements of Zoology. 
Jarvis' Text-Books in Physiology, 
Hamilton's Vegetable and Animal Pkyn' 

ology. 
Mansfield's Political Manual. 
Ledon's French Series. 8 Vols. 
Pujol 4" Van Norman*» French Clasi' 

Book. 
Brookes Annotated Cheek j* Ztotin Jkxts. 
Dwight's Heathen Mythology. 
Brooks' Tracy^s S^ Carter* s Seh. Reeoris, 
Marcy's Eureka Alphabet Tablet 
Scofield's National School TabUU. 
Brooks' School Manual of Devotion. 
The School-Boy's Infantry Tactie$, 
Root's Silver Lute. 



THE 



SCHOOL fSlOHSR'S lIBRiRT, 

In Twefnty-four Volumes^ 

Inolnding Page's "Theory and Practice of Teaobing;" Holbrook's 
" Normal Methods of Teaching/' and kindred works. 



JUSf^ Teachers and others interested in the selection of Text-Books, areinTited 
to send to the publishers for their Illustrated Descriptiye Catalogue, where may 
be found detailed descriptions of all their issues. The publishers wiU issue about 
July Ist, the first number of the *' Illustrated Educational Bulletin." Sent free to 
any address. Subscriptions invited. 

A. S. BABNES S& CO., Educational Publishers, 

lU Si US WiUialn Street, New Tork. 

vii-lO-lt. 



NEW BOOKS, ETC. 

Bullions's & Morris's New Latin Grammar, *8 i 60 

This new book is founded on Ballionss Latin Grammar, and gives a new 
treatment of the vowel qnautitifs— of tho Noan and the Verb with a different aiTle of type for the ter- 
minationH in the DeciciiirioiiH aud Coi\ju);atioa£i — of the third Declonsiun, — of the meaning and nae of 
the Moods and Tcn«K;9, particularly the sal^ouctive Hood with a ftill discusBlon of the Mac>dB of tht 
Verb— ,1 new arrHupeincnt of tho Active and Pawivc Voices of the Verb— a ftill treatment and dis 
cn^sion of Pronounu and tliclr usea— an aualyssis of the four coi^agatione— a new cliUBsiflcadon of 
Irrejrtilar Verbs— a new chapter on Derivation and Compoeltlon— a re-di«tribntlon of the Syntax, 
briu;;in^ to^ifether the uses of the various cases, etc, under separate heads—a trauslation of all 
tlic Examples quoted in tl>c Syntax.— a careful revision of the Prosody, etc, etc 

Bullions's and iVIorris's Latin Lessons, 81 OO 

A convenient sized tx)ok for beginners, and a synopsis of the B. & M. Gram- 
mar with Bxercises in trantjlations of LaUn, dso varied **Keadin^" and a Vocabulary. 

Bullions's & Kendrick's Creek Grammar, 82 OO 

This book is a careliiUj revised edition of Bullions's Greek Grammar, bj A. C. 
Kendrick, D. D.. LL. D„ of Rochester Univerftity, N. Y. In the chancres and additions, much 
relating to Accents, Preposi lions. Particles and tho Third Declension nas been rewritten, and 
also much on the Verb uiul in the Syntiix has been recast. In simplicity and siae it is believed 
that this will be the most convenient and useful Greek Grammar published. 

Bullions's Latin Eng. Lexicon,(with Synonyms,) 84 60 
Long's Classical Atlas, quarto, 62 Maps, 84 60 

Edited by Geo. Long, A. M. Constructed by Wm. Hughes. The maps are 
finely eui^n-avcd and colored and In a tbrm very convenient fiir classical students. 

Balrd's Classical Manual, .... 90 cts. 

An epitome of Ancient Geography, Mythology, Antiquities and Chronology. 

Kaitschmidt's Lat. Eng. and Eng. Lat Dict'y, 82 60 

A convenient, condensed, and cheap Lexicon for beginners. 
Thew book? iire i)rin:od in the laie!*t approved typography and are part of 

Bullions's Series of Grammars and School Classics. 

Th« other books of the porics* being Uullions's Cotnnmn School Grammar or Intro, to Ana^ 
iytieal ihHttnvtnr, &0 cts. Analytical Grammar $1.00. ExerriMea in AnayUiB 
and, J^arsing, 2S rts. Zatin Grammar $1,S0, Latin Header, $1.50. JSxereiaea 
in Latin Com,po»ition, $1,S0. Ctrsar'a Commentaries with vocabulary, $1.30. 
Cicero's Orations, $1.50. SaUHSt,$1.50, Greek Lesson, $1,00, GreeJb Gram^ 
fnar, $1.75. Greek Header, $'J.25. Coopers rirffU,$3,00. 

Alden^s Scie^ice of GovernfnefU, - - - $1 50 

SJiaw^s English Lit*^'atui'e, - - - ^ 1 75 

Hooker ^s Humnn l^hj/siology, - - - 1 75 

JBrocklesby ^s Astronomy f - - - - ^ 1 75 

JPeissner^s Germain Grammar, {revised,) - - 1 75 

JPalmsr'8 Book-Keeping, - - - - - J 00 

Bolmar's French Series. 

In improved style ; consisting of Levisaos French Grammar. $1.50. Book of 
French Yerhs, $1.12. GoU. of Oolloquial FhraseSi 75 cents. Adventures de 
Tokmaque, $1.25. Key to ditto, $1.00. 

Stoddard's Series of Arithmetics, revised, etc. 
With larger type, and modern business methods. 

Stnddard's tXtivenile Mental Arithntetie, 25 cents. Ajmerioan Intellectual ArUh^ 
fnt^flc. 50 cents. Key to ditto, 50 cents. — Hudimentm of Arithmetie. 50 cents. 
J^ractical Arithmetic, 90 cents. Netr I*ractlcal Arithmetie, $1 .OO . Key to ditto, 
$1.00. Stoddnnl ct- Hen kUs* Klomen tary Algebra, $1.25. Key to diUo, $1.25, 
8. & H.'s Vniversity Algehrtt^ $2.00. Key to ditto, $2.00. 

Copies for ixaminatioD of the above, excepting Loiig*a Classical Atlas, and Ballioxui*B and 
Kaltschmidt*s Latin Dictionaries, sent by mnll. po^t paid, to teachers, on receipt of half the an- 
nexed price, by 

SHELDON & CO., Fablishers, 

498 tB SOO Broadway, yew York. 



8ool£S fbr tlio IStudL^^ or Foreiisrii XjSLWkf^JKSLggen 



LEYPOLDT & HOLT, 

451 Bromne St.^ JYtw ITork^ 

Hato made amngements to publish the following books of Mr. S. B. UKBIHO, of Boston, doling his 
temporsiy residenee In Suropa 



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OTTO'S FRENCH CONVERSATION GRAM- 
MAR. Reyised by Fkkdinamd B6giixb, In- 
etnietor In French at Harrord College. '12mo., 
doth. $1.75. 

KxT to the above. 65 centa. 

LUCIE; FRENCH AND ENGLISH CONVER- 
SATIONS. 12mo.. cloth. 90 cents. 

LE PETIT ROBINSON DE PARIS. Par Ma- 
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CONTES BIOGRAPHIQUES. Par Mmx. R Foa. 
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riNBTRUCTETTR DE KENFANCE. (A flrst 



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cloth. 90 cents. 
LIS CLOS-POMMIER. Par AMAoii: Achaux. 

12mo.. cloth. 90 cents. 
NEW YEAR'S DAY (with Vocabnlary). For 

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KxY to the above. 25 cont«. 
LE ROMAN D'UN JEUNE HOMME PAUVRR 

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BROWN'S ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

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ANALYSIS AND PARSING, 

BY HENBY KIDDLE, A.M., 

ABei»taiit Saporintcndcnt of Common Schoolu, New York City. 

7%»f Series it the most perfect and complete exposition of EngUek Orammar' 

extant, and consiate of 

FIRST LINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

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INSTITUTES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

liimo, BtroDg leather binding, 335 pages. Ptioe 80 oenta. Net. 

III. : 

THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS, * 

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(With a flue portrait of the author engrayed on steel). Enlarged by tha 
addition of a copious Index of Matten, by SAMUEL U. BERRIAN, A.1C. i 
1,102 pages, large octavo, handsomely bound. Price $5.00 net. J 

This POPULAR AND STANDARD Series of English Grammars has lonf - 
been the established favorite with many of our most successftil teachers, ana 
is considered by them more tkar^ ww^d and prattieal than any other aeiiea. 

BROWN'S GRAMMARS— REVISED 

Are up to the times. 
Are Methodical. 
Are Simple and Progressive. 
Are Accurate and Comprehensive. 
Are Rigidly Exact in rules and definitions. 
Have Twenty-five diffidrent models of Analysis. 
Do not confuse the pupil. ^ 

Have very Practical and Interesting examples of False '\ 
Syntax. ' 

Are more Strongly Bound than others. 
Teach English Grammar Thoroughly. 
Have borne the Test of Time and the School B.00111L, 



and are constantly increasing in favor and wide-spread «m. They are tlw vb> 
suits of a life-time devoted to the study of English Grammari and " are of a 
class never to die. At present of unapproachabfe excellence and the UghMt 



possiblt* authority, we doubt if ever they cnn be superseded, at least whilst our 
ianguaf;:e remains what it is."— (s. u. b.) 

q;^ S«^nd for specimen copies for examination, enclosiDg 16 cents for the 
FifHt Lines, and S8 cents for the Institutes. 

D:^ The Publishers will be happy to correspond with teachers and all othsfS 
interested. 

WILLIAM WOOD ft CO., 

61 Walker Street, N. Y. 







^B Vol VII, : 


^H 


KEW YORK TF.ACIIER. 


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NEW YORK TEACHER. 



New Series.] AUGUST, 1866. [Vol. VIl, No. 11. 

New York State Teachers' Association. 

TWENTY-SEOOND ANNUAL MEETING. 

Flrac Day. 

GsNBVA, July 31, 186G. 

The State Teachers* Association mot in Linden Hall, at 4 p. m., and waa 
called to order by Jambs Atwater, Esq., President. An opening ode was 
beautifully and eloquently rendered by the Qeneva Musical Association 
under the direction of Professor Munson of the Rochester Musical Insti- 
tute. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. W. H. Goodwin, of Geneva. 

The Association was then most heartily welcomed by Hon. George B. 
DussKBBRRB. He spoko as follows : 

MR. DUSENBERRE'S WELCOME. 

Mr. Pruidenty Ladiet and Oentlemen of the State Teachers* Association. 

In behalf of our President and Trustees I tender you the use of this 
beautiful hall during your stay with us, and in their behalf I welcome yon 
to this, the queen Tillage of the Empire State. And you, ye patrons and 
flriends of this Association, dedicated to the advancement of the great 
educational interests of the proud old loyal State of New Tork, I greet you 
well. 

In behalf of the Board of Education, of which I have the honor of being 
President, and of which I have been many years an humble member, I 
bid you God-speed in your high mission as American teachers ; and when 
I say American teachers, I mean in the broadest and truest sense of the 
term, those who are to develop American ideas, such as shall tell upon our 
destiny for weal, whether individual or national. , 

Bom the child of liberty, baptized in the world's best blood, and I trust 
regenerate, America is, and I hope must ever be, the friend of the scholar- 
Christian and the Christian-scholar. 

In the name of our country, then, I bid yon take a higher stand than 
ever before, and in the name of humanity and of God, I bid yon look aloft. 
Let your motto be, as it appropriately ought to be. Excelsior. Take 

[Vol. XV, No. 11.] ' 22 



324 Anniversary of the New York 

higher ground in the work before you, in the deyclopment of the American 
man and woman — phy«ica1» intellectufil, moral and religious. And 
whether it be your mission to educate a thiril Uly^>ses or a future Florence 
Nightingale, or whether il be yours to take the lowly up but one step on 
the ladder, that leads to honor, and glory, and God, I bid yon abate **no 
Jot of heart or hope, but still bear up and steer right onward.*' 

While the husbandman is gathering in the fruits of his yearly toil, and 
while the harvester's song is joyou?, it is meet that you should bring up 
hither the fruits of your yearly toil, and see whether it chance to be of 
wheat or some other grain. 

I trust that the pure seeds of learning and education may be taken f^om 
this place, and that they shall bear fruit an hundred fold in the future 
deyelopment of the American mind. 

I bid you then, one and all, be friends of liberal education. I do not 
mean this in the ordinary sense of the phrase, but I mean that you should 
be friends of educating all liberally, but well. 

Do not be of that narrow, bigoted class that would have one kind of 
education for persons of one color, and another kind for those of another 
color ; or of that other meaner class that would have one kind of education 
for males, and another kind for females. AVho belicTes in a diyision of the 
mental faculties according to the sexes? A female memory, imagination 
or reason would be singular indeed (although perhaps a female icill might 
not). And I haye yet to learn the name of that true philosopher who has 
dared to make such distinctions, although many fools haye tried in yain. 

No, we say, let the entire range of the sciences, mathematics, and the 
classics, even, be open to all. Let women bo many tongued, though the 
blind old Milton did think one tongue was enough for a woman. 

The study of the classics and mathematics is not to make learned men 
and learned women of our school boys and school girls, it is simply to 
educate them. 

The true mission of the American teacher is to educate, not to cram. 
The former Implies a drawing out, the latter, if I may use the term, a 
stufling in, a clogging. 

The late Dr. Stephen Olin who occupiiMl a high position as an American 
educator, and whose presence was always to me a conscious culture, once 
remarked that ''if he had but one year to spend in an academical coarse, 
he would spend that year in the study of the Latin language and Geo- 
metry." 

But ** eMi 6ono," *< what good " says our utilitarian age, and dashes along 
heedless of the wisdom of the past. 

I believe that the wisdom of the past extends beyond the line of the 
present, and that sometimes the voices of the great teachers, it may be of 
the ages past, should be heeded. 

If you were to believe that you were teaching only for the present, I 



State Teacher^ Asaodation. 325 

imagine that your inoentlTOS would be few and not of the high character 
Vrhich I suppose them now to be. 

Pingo in etemitatem. ** I paint for eternity, '' said the old artist, and so 
should Tou say, as yon daily pencil lines of light and shade upon the 
human wind. 

But I am opening the discussion of a theme as wide as all feeling and 
all thought, and although I would be pleased to discuss the true mission 
of the American teacher, the proprieties of the occasion forbid. 

With a simple heartfelt greeting to you all, with the hope that your 
present may be useful and your future bright, that to do good in your day 
and generation may be your highest ambition, and that in the great here- 
after myriads may rise up and call you blessed — I bid you perfect your- 
seWes in every good word and work. 

Welcome, as you are by us, to our beautiful village, I hope you will ever 
be welcomed by every lover of letters wherever your lot may be cast. 

President Atwater in a few well chosen words returned thanks. Ho 
said that it seems fitting that among the places of our annual meetincc, a 
village such as this — noted for the beauty of its location, the hospitality 
of its people, and above all its high literary renown — should have been 
chosen. We received early assurances of the liberal hospitality we might 
expect to meet, and all the most generous pledges made are more than 
redeemed. He expressed the hope that in future years, we may all recall 
this meeting as one of the most pleasant and profitable of our lives. 
President Atwater then delivered his inaugural address. 
The use of the reading room of the Young Men's Association, and of 
Professor Ellis' music room, was tendered to the members of the association. 
After another piece of music, acyourned till evening. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The association met at 7} o'clock. President Atwater in the chair. 

After singing by the Geneva select choir, the chair appointed the fol- 
lowing committees : 

Finance Committee : Edwabd Daj? fouth, of Troy ; James B. Thomson, of 
New York ; John S.' Fosdick, of Buffalo. 

Committee on Teachers and Schools : Samuel D. Babr, of Albany ; Edward 
A Sheldon, of Oswego ; Mrs. Dr. Gallup, of Clinton. 

Committee on Resolutions: A. G. Merwin, of Port Jefferson; Oliver 
MoRBnousB, of Albion ; Mi'ss Mary A. Riplet, of Albany. 

Committee to nominate a Board of Editors : John W. Bulklbt, of Brook- 
lyn; Edward North, of Clinton; James Cruikshank, of Brooklyn ; Edward 
Smith, of Syracuse ; Miss Emilt A. Rioe, of Oswego ; N. F. Wriqht, of 
Batavia ; S. Arnold Tozkr, of Geneseo. 

On time and place of next meeting: W. H. Vbooman, of Geneva; A. Z. 
Barrows, of Buffalo ; Miss Ellin Seaybb, of Oswego. 



326 Anniversary of tJie New York 

Dr. Cruieshank from the Standing Committee on the Condition of Edn* 
cation, presented the following report : • 

REPORT ON THE CONDITION OF EDUCATION. 

The Standing Committee on the Condition of Education, r«||BectfulIy 
report : 

The latest statistics of Education in this state cover the school year 
ending September, 30, 18C5, and embrace the last six months of the war 
for the Union. Any data drawn from them therefore, can not be taken as 
•Tidence of the legitimate condition of education in the state, nor as evidence 
of the sentiment of the people in regard thereto. It remains, therefore 
for your committee to cite only such items of these statistics, as will show 
advance even under the most unfavorable circumstances ; to state such facts 
as they have been able to glean in regard to the current working of the 
schools, and make suggestions touching such points as they deem demand 
the attention of this association. 

The school system of the state, though still lacking in several important 
points, is ample enough to secure education to every child, whilst in state 
beneficence it may challenge comparison with that of any of oar sister 
states. It fails chiefly in two particulars. 1st, That it practically leaTsa 
to incorporated institutions and to private beneficence and private enter- 
prise the work of providing for the higher education of our yonth; and 
2d, Whilst nearly a million and a half of dollars are annually drawn from 
the public treasury, it fails to exact of the people of the local districts, the 
performance of their part of this implied compact to furnish free education 
to every child, and see that none are necessarily debarred, by the criminal 
neglect, indifference or parsimony of parents, from the enjoyment of this 
inestimable boon. 

The system of academic instruction under the management of the Regents 
of the University, has for seventy years done noble service in the educa- 
tional cause, and given our state a proud preeminence. The free high 
school would perform a better service now^ and be more in harmony with 
the views of public education entertained by the wisest of our educators. 
We arc not, however, of the number, who counsel the inauguration of meas- 
ures of doubtful utility, and we would deprecate any policy which would 
impair their usefulness, without supplying more effective agents to do tiieir 
work. In regard to some of them, the question has already been solved by 
their reorganization as union Free Schools ; and the University ConTocation 
will do much, in its annual sessions, towards enlarging and liberalizing the 
policy of academical institutions. If wise counsels prevail, the day is not 
distant when they will all be free ; and it is believed that no precipitate 
action on the part of this association is now needed. It is only a question 
of time, and of the removal of such disabilities as stand in the way of the 
expression of the most enlightened policy. 

The time is ripe for the final blow that shall strike away forever that 
relio of selfishness and barbarism — the rate bill. The neoesaity of ihia 



/Sfazfe Teachers' Associatiofi. 327 

BOtion is no longer an open question. It has long enough been a clog upon 
our system of public education. No teacher who has had any experience 
in our rural schools, or who knows any thing of their history need be told 
how affectually it dampens the most earnest spirit of educational enterprise, 
standing in the way of enlightened and liberal policy in the employment of 
competent teachers, and is a perpetual bid for cheap and inefficient teachers ; 
whilst it is the rule rather than the exception, that it withdraws attend- 
ance, or makes it irregular and fitful, and operates directly to abbreriate 
the term of school. Let the influence of this association be but exerted to 
secure the enlistment of a few earnest men in our next legislature in favor 
of Free Schools, and we shall take our place side by side with our most 
enlightened sister states. It will bo a day of glory and of joy, to every 
earnest and sincere educator, when the jubilee of free schools is ushered in. 

The record of attendance upon the means of instruction shows, that the 
average daily attendance of pupils is less than 50 per cent, of those 
enrolled during the year, and, making due allowance for those young child- 
ren who from any cause are prevented from attending, and those over 16 
or 17, whose common school education is completed, or whom necessity 
compels to forego further instruction, it is notorious that a large namber due 
at the schools, never enter their doors. 

Non-attendance, irregularity, and tardiness are evils, public as well as 
individual in their efi'ects, that demand remedy. Other means have failed, 
and are likely to fail until there is the general appreciation of the value of 
our schools, which universal education alone can create. — Wo must try 
compulsion. If the state has a right and if it is her duty to provide the 
means of free education, she surely has the right and it is her duty to 
protect, against themselves and against the injustice of parents and guard- 
ians, the throng of truants who run our streets in idleness, and the 
army of little ones pressed into labor to save a paltry pittance to the hand 
of grasping avarice, that would barter their souls for gain. 

The new school law of California provides that children under eight years 
of age shall be confined to the school room but four hours a day, and that 
the sessions of all schools, the average ages of whose pupils do not exceed 
eight years, shall be restricted to four hours. A provision similar to this 
might safely be adopted in this state, and the sessions of the primary 
schools in our cities should certainly not exceed three or four hours. If it 
be thought that this will give the primary teachers too little work to do, the 
classes might be divided and alternate by half days. There would then be 
none too much room, nor would the classes be too small. 

The legislature of last winter passed two important school acts — one 
providing for the taking of sites for school houses on appraisal. This will 
result in the securing of commodious sites in many districts, where for- 
merly not a foot of available ground could be obtained. Under its auspices, 
new school houses are springing up, with comfortable play grounds, and 
the taste and liberality of the people, as well as the comfort and welfare 
of the children can not be but largely improved. 



SI ^ .^ nc z IT SI 

THB NEW EDITION OF 

BROWN'S ENGLISH GRAMMARS, 

BBYISBD, WITU ADDITIONS IN 

ANALYSIS AND PARSING, 

BY HENBY KIDDLE, A.M., 

ABelfltant Sapcrintendcnt of Common SchoolB, New Toik City. 

7^ Series is the most perfect and complete exposition of EngUsk Chrammar 

extant^ and consists of 

FIRST LINES OF ENGLISH GMMMAE, 

l2mo, half bound, 122 pages. Price 35 oentB, Net 

INSTITUTES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, ' 

12mo, strong leather binding, 335 pages. Ftioe 80 oants. Net. \ 

III. \ 

THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS. ' 

With an introdaotion, Hiatorical and Critical; the whole methodioal^ 
arranged and amply illustrated, etc., etc., etc. ; and a Key to the Oral ExM- 
cises, with Appendixes, etc. Seventh Edition, Revised and Improrad. \ 
(With a flue i>ortrait of the author engraved on steel). Enlarged hj tlit ^ 
addition of a copious Index of Matters, by SAMUEL U. BERRIAN, A.M. 
1,102 pages, large octavo, handsomely bound. Price $5.00 net. j| 

This POPULAR AND STANDARD Series of English Grammars has long ^ 
been the established favorite with many of our most successful teachera, anl 
Is considered by them more dtar^ somnd and practical than any other seifet. 

BROWN'S GRAMMARS— REVISED 

Are up to the times. 

Are Methodical. 

Are Simple and Progressive. 

Are Accurate and Comprehensive. 

Are Bigidly Exact in rules and definitions. 

Have Twenty-five different models of Analysis. 

Do not confuse the pupil. i 

Have very Practical and Interesting examples of Talae * 
Syntax. 

Are more Strongly Bound than others. 

Teach English Grammar Thoroughly. 

Have borne the Test of Time and the Sohool Booniy 
and are constcmtly increasing in favor and wide-spread hm. They are tlw i^ 
suits of a life- time devoted to the study of English Gramnuur, and " are of a 
class never to die. At present of unapproachable excellence and the highMC 
possible authority, we doubt if ever tney gmi be superseded, at least whUKoar 
languaf^e remains what it is." — (s. n. b.) 

Di^ S^iid for specimen copies for examination, enclosing 15 cents for tbo 
Pirflt Lines, and 88 cents for the Institutes. 

D:^ The Publishers will be happy to correspond with teaohera and all otlian 
interested. 

WILLIAM WOOD ft CO., 

61 Walker Street, N. Y. 







> J 


^^^A. NE-"' 


^OOE 1 A NSW BOOK 1 1 ^M 


^^P «( 's- 9 v s as .^ •r X o ^H 


[hum A 


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NEW YORK TEACHER. 



Nbw Series.] AUGUST, 1866. [Vol. VII, No. 11. 

New York State Teachers' Association. 

TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 

First Day. 

GsNBVA, July 31, 18G6. 

The State Teachers* Association met in Linden Hall, at 4 p. m., and was 
ealled to order by James Atwateb, Esq., President. An opening ode was 
beautifully and eloquently rendered by the Geneva Musical Association 
under the direction of Professor Munson of the Rochester Musical Insti- 
tute, Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. W. H. Goodwin, of Geneva. 

The Association was then most heartily welcomed by Hon. George B. 
DvaiKBBRBS. He spoke as follows : 

MR. DUSENBERRE'S WELCOME. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Oentlemen of the State Teachers* Association, 

In behalf of our President and Trustees I tender you the use of this 
beautiftil hall during your stay with us, and in their behalf I welcome yon 
to this, the queen village of the Empire State. And you, ye patrons and 
fHends of this Association, dedicated to the advancement of the great 
educational interests of the proud old loyal State of New Tork, I greet you 
well. 

In behalf of the Board of Education, of which I have the honor of being 
President, and of which I have been many years an humble member, I 
bid you God-speed in your high mission as American teachers ; and when 
I say American teachers, I mean in the broadest and truest sense of the 
term, those who are to develop American ideas, such as shall tell upon our 
destiny for weal, whether individual or national. , 

Bom the child of liberty, baptized in the world's best blood, and I trust 
regenerate, America is, and I hope must ever be, the Ariendof the scholar- 
Christian and the Christian-scholar. 

In the name of our country, then, I bid yon take a higher stand than 
ever before, and in the name of humanity and of God, I bid yon look aloft. 
Let your motto be, as it appropriately ought to be, Excelsior. Take 

[Vol. XV, No. 11.] 22 



324 Anniveraary of the New York 

high or ground in tho work before you, in the (levelopment of the American 
man and woman — physical, infcllecfual, moral and religious. And 
whether it be your mission to educate a third Ulysses or a future Florence 
Nightingale, or whether it bo yours to take the lowly up but one step on 
the ladder, that leads to honor, and glory, and God, I bid you abate "no 
jot of heart or hope, but still bear up and steer right onward." 

While the husbandman is gathering in the fruits of his yearly toil, and 
while the harvester's song is joyous, it is meet that you should bring up 
hither the fruits of your yearly toil, and see whether it chance to be of 
wheat or eomc other grain. 

I trust that the pure seeds of learning and education may be taken f^om 
this place, and that they shall bear fruit an hundred fold in the future 
deyelopment of the American mind. 

I bid you then, one and all, be friends of liberal education. I do not 
mean this in the ordinary sense of the phrase, but I mean that you should 
be friends of educating all liberally, but well. 

Do not be of that narrow, bigoted class that would have one kind of 
education for persons of one color, and another kind for those of another 
color ; or of that other meaner class that would have one kind of education 
for males, and another kind for females. AVho believes in a division of the 
mental faculties according to the sexes? A female memory, imagination 
or reason would bo singular indeed (although perhaps a female unll might 
not). And I havo yet to learn the name of that true philosopher who has 
dared to make such distinctions, although many fools have tried in vain. 

No, we say, lot the entire range of the sciences, mathematics, and the 
classics, even, bo open to all. Let women be many tongued, though the 
blind old Milton did think one tongue was enough for a woman. 

The study of the classics and mathematics is not to make learned men 
and learned women of our school boys and school girls, it is simply to 
educate them. 

The true mission of the American teacher is to educate, not to cram. 
The former implies a drawing out, the latter, if I may use the term, a 
stuffing in, a clogging. 

Tho late Dr. Stephen Olin who occupied a high position as an American 
educator, and whose presence was always to me a conscious culture, once 
remarked that <'if he had but one year to spend in an academical coarse, 
he would spend that year in the study of tho Latin language and Geo- 
metry.*' 

But " euibonOf'* *< what good " says our utilitarian age, and dashes along 
heedless of the wisdom of the past. 

I believe that the wisdom of the past extends beyond the line of the 
present, and that sometimes tho voices of the great teachers, it may be of 
the ages past, should be heeded. 

If you were to believe that you were teaching only for the present, I 



State Thachera' Asaodation. 325 

imagine that your inoentiveB would be few and not of the high character 
Vrfaich I suppose them now to be. 

Pingo in etemitatem. " I paint for eternity," said the old artist, and so 
should vou say, as yon daily pencil lines of light and shade upon the 
human wind. 

But I am opening the discussion of a theme as wide as all feeling and 
all thought, and although I would be pleased to discuss the true mission 
of the American teacher, the proprieties of the occasion forbid. 

With a simple heartfelt greeting to you all, with the hope that your 
present may be useftil and your future bright, that to do good in your day 
and generation may be your highest ambition, and that in the great here- 
after myriads may rise up and call you blessed — I bid you perfect your- 
selves in every good word and work. 

Welcome, as you are by us, to our beautiful village, I hope you will ever 
be welcomed by every lover of letters wherever your lot may be cast. 

President Atwater in a few well chosen words returned thanks. Ho 
said that it seems fitting that among the places of our annual meetincc, a 
Tillage such as this — noted for the beauty of its location, the hospitality 
of its people, and above all its high literary renown — should have been 
chosen. We received early assurances of the liberal hospitality we might 
expect to meet, and all the most generous pledges made are more than 
redeemed. He expressed the hope that in future years, we may all recall 
this meeting as one of the most pleasant and profitable of our lives. 
President Atwater then delivered his inaugural address. 
The use of the reading room of the Young Men's Association, and of 
Professor Ellis' music room, was tendered to the members of the association. 
After another piece of music, adjourned till evening. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The association met at 7} o'clock, President Atwater in the chair. 
After singing by the Geneva select choir, the chair appointed the fol- 
lowing committees : 

Finance Committee: Edward Damfobtii, of Troy; James B. Thomsoii, of 
New York ; John S.' Fosdick, of Buffalo. 

Committee on Teachers and SchooU : Samubl D. Babb, of Albany ; Edwabo 
A Sbsldon, of Oswego ; Mbs. Db. Gallup, of Clinton. 

Committee on Resolutions: A. G. Mbbwin, of Port Jefferson; Olivbb 
MoBBnousB, of Albion ; Miss Mary A. Riplbt, of Albany. 

Committee to nominate a Board of Editors : John W. Bulklbt, of Brook- 
lyn; Edward North, of Clinton; James Cbuikshank, of Brooklyn ; Edward 
Smith, of Syracuse; Miss £ milt A. Rioe, of Oswego; N. P. Wbiqht, of 
Batavia ; S. Arnold Tozkr, of Geneseo. 

On time and place of next meeting: W. H. Vbooman, of Geneva; A. Z. 
Barrows, of Buffalo ; Miss Ellih Siaybb, of Oswego. 



326 Anniversary of the New York 

Dr. Cruikshane from the Standing Committee on the Condition of Eda- 
oation, presented the following report : • 

REPORT ON THE CONDITION OP EDUCATION. 

The Standing Committee on the Condition of Education, rflKectfiilly 
report : 

The latest statistics of Education in this state cover the school year 
ending September, 30» 1805, and embrace the last six months of the war 
for the Union. Any data drawn from them therefore, can not be taken as 
•Tidence of the legitimate condition of education in the state, nor as oWdence 
of the sentiment of the people in regard thereto. It remains, therefore 
for your committee to cite only such items of these statistics, as will show 
advance even under the most unfavorable circumstances ; to state such facts 
as they have been able to glean in regard to the current working of the 
schools, and make suggestions touching such points as they deem demand 
the attention of this association. 

The school system of the state, though still lacking in several important 
points, is ample enough to secure education to every child, whilst in state 
beneficence it may challenge comparison with that of any of our sister 
states. It fails chiefly in two particulars. 1st, That it practically leaves 
to incorporated institutions and to private beneficence and private enter- 
prise the work of providing for the higher education of our youth ; and 
2d, Whilst nearly a million and a half of dollars are annually drawn fVom 
the public treasury, it fails to exact of the people of the local districts, the 
performance of their part of this implied compact to furnish free education 
to every child, and see that none are necessarily debarred, by the criminal 
neglect, indifference or parsimony of parents, from the enjoyment of this 
inestimable boon. 

The system of academic instruction under the management of the Regents 
of the University, has for seventy years done noble service in the educa- 
tional cause, and given our state a proud preeminence. The free high 
school would perform a better service now^ and be more in harmony with 
the views of public education entertained by the wisest of our educators. 
We arc not, however, of the number, who counsel the inauguration of meas- 
ures of doubtful utility, and we would deprecate any policy which would 
impair their usefulness, without supplying more effective agents to do their 
work. In regard to some of them, the question has already been solved by 
their reorganization as union Free Schools ; and the University Convocation 
will do much, in its annual sessions, towards enlarging and liberalizing the 
policy of academical institutions. If wise counsels prevail, the day is not 
distant when they will all be free ; and it is believed that no precipitate 
action on the part of this association is now needed. It is only a question 
of time, and of the removal of such disabilities as stand in the way of the 
expression of the most enlightened policy. 

The time is ripe for the final blow that shall strike away forever that 
rclio of selfishness and barbarism — the rate bill. The neoesaity of thia 



Staie Tsachers' Associadon. 327 

action is no longer an open question. It has long enough been a clog upon 
our system of public education. No teacher who has had any experience 
in our rural schools, or who knows any thing of their history need be told 
how affectually it dampens the most earnest spirit of educational enterprise, 
standing in the way of enlightened and liberal policy in the employment of 
competent teachers, and is a perpetual bid for cheap and inefficient teachers ; 
whilst it is the rule rather than the exception, that it withdraws attend- 
ance, or makes it irregular and fitful, and operates directly to abbreriate 
the term of school. Let the influence of this association be but exerted to 
secure the enlistment of a few earnest men in our next legislature in favor 
of Free Schools, and we shall take our place side by side with our most 
enlightened sister states. It will bo a day of glory and of joy, to every 
earnest and sincere educator, when the jubilee of free schools is ushered in. 

The record of attendance upon the means of instruction shows, that the 
average daily attendance of pupils is less than 50 per cent, of those 
enrolled during the year, and, making due allowance for those young child- 
ren who from any cause are prevented from attending, and those over 16 
or 17, whose common school education is completed, or whom necessity 
compels to forego further instruction, it is notorious that a large number due 
at the schools, never enter their doors. 

Non-attendance, irregularity, and tardiness are evils, public as well as 
individual in their effects, that demand remedy. Other means have failed, 
and are likely to fail until there is the general appreciation of the value of 
our schools, which universal education alone can create. — We must try 
compulsion. If the state has a right and if it is her duty to provide the 
means of free education, she surely has the right and it is her duty to 
protect, against themselves and against the injustice of parents and guard- 
ians, the throng of truants who run our streets in idleness, and the 
army of little ones pressed into labor to save a paltry pittance to the hand 
of grasping avarice, that would barter their souls for gain. 

The new school law of California provides that children under eight years 
of age shall be confined to the school room but four hours a day, and that 
the sessions of all schools, the average ages of whose pupils do not exceed 
eight years, shall be restricted to four hours. A provision similar to this 
might safely be adopted in this state, and the sessions of the primary 
schools in our cities should certainly not exceed three or four hours. If it 
be thought that this will give the primary teachers too little work to do, the 
classes might be divided and alternate by half days. There would then be 
none too much room, nor would the classes be too small. 

The legislature of last winter passed two important school acts — one 
providing for the taking of sites for school houses on appraisal. This will 
result in the securing of commodious sites in many districts, where for- 
merly not a foot of available ground could be obtained. Under its auspices, 
new school houses are springing up, with comfortable play grounds, and 
the taste and liberality of the people, as well as the comfort and welfare 
of the children can not be but largely improved. 



328 Annivereart/ of the New York 

The other law, proYiding for four new normal Bcbools, has already met 
with answering response from a number of localities, vying with each other 
in the liberality of their proposals for the location of a new school. When 
the commission shall have decided upon their locations, they will with- 
out doubt speedily go into operation, augmenting greatly the educational 
force of the State. It appears to your committee that such an arrangement 
should be made that at stated times during the year, the normal school 
faculties should be employed in giving instruction in institutes, thus afford- 
ing to inexperienced teachers, and such others as have not had the benefit 
of professional training, some notion of the more improved methods those 
schools are designed to foster. 

The annual report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction givei a 
most encouraging account of the influence and value of Teachers* Insti- 
tutes; and the observation of your committee, as well as the reports they 
have received from other sources, corroborates his statement. There are, 
however, disabilities still in the way, some of which may be remedied, and 
doubtless will be in part the present year. Among these may be named : 

1. That the expense of attending the annual institute draws so largely 
upon the miserable pittance which teachers receive for their services, that 
many who desire to attend are compelled to forego the privilege. 

2. The institutes are hold for the most part during the months of Sep- 
tember, October and November, when skillful instructors, who are in 
charge of regular schools can not be spared in the work, except (as is the 
case in a few honorable instances), in their own county. 

8. The salaries of School Commissioners are too meager for any one to 
expect from them that amount of preparatory labor and personal effort 
with school officers and teachers necessary to give the best efficiency, and 
it must regretfully be added, there are many whom no influence short of 
compulsion can avail to enlist in any public measure for their own im- 
provement or the good of the cause. 

During the years of the war, there was a marked decay in County 
Teachers' Associations, partly from the general absorption of the public 
mind in the great question of our national existence, and partly from the 
fact, that in many counties the most active and intelligent of our yonng 
men were drawn away to the field. It is believed that the associations 
have commenced to exhibit new vigor, and it is hoped that they may 
speedily attain to more than their former efficiency. 

In Indiana and several other of the states, conventions of school trus- 
tees have been established, much to the advantage of the schools, and 
have achieved a good degree of popularity. It is believed that no other 
measure could be recommended whose realization would be fruitful of 
more salutary reforms. We trust that teachers and school commissioners 
will use their influence for the organization of such associations. 

The revised school law touching the establishment of Union Free Schools, 
has given a great impulse tu this movement. Your committee Lave no 



State TBOjchers' Asaociation. 329 

sUtisties at hand, but it is believed that within the past year, nearly as 
many such schools have been organized as in all of the twelve years pre- 
ceding; and the oiting of such statistics is unnecessary (o show their 
efficiency. 

The wages of teachers have increased, but from a change in the basis of 
reporting, and firom the manifest inaccuracy of the statistics themselves, 
no perfectly reliable figures can be given. Accepting such as we have, 
and the average, in cities is $13.17 per week; in rural districts, $5.49. 

We regret that the fact must still be reported, that small as are the 
wages of male teachers, those of females are beyond all reason compara- 
tively much smaller. It is not the province of your committee to report 
at length upon this topic, but we note it as an evil, which wc believe to be 
both the effect and the continued cause of almost innumerable evils and 
iigustice. 

There is a steady comparative increase in the number of female over 
that of male teachers, the figures of 18G4 and 1805 being as follows : 

Males. Females. Total. 

1864, 5,707 21,181 26,888 

1865 4,452 22,017 26,469 

It is much to be regretted that there is no uniform system of reporting. 
Indeed, taking into account the wholesome emulation, which evidences of 
progress in one city or state is calculated to produce in others — it is one 
of the serious drawbacks to educational progress that few reliable statis- 
tics can be obtained, and we have come, and sometimes with reason, to look 
upon the crude generalities the annual reports afford as at least highly 
oolored statements of the facts they affect to give. And when this is not 
the case, the bases of the statistics differ so widely, that comparative sta- 
tisiics are out of the question. 

We look forward hopefully to the passage by Congress of the ordinance 
for the establishment of a National Bureau of Education, which whilst it 
shall encourage and promote universal education, shall also provide for 
uniformity in methods of reporting. The bill before the present Congress 
was defeated in the House, but subsequently reconsidered and passed by a 
Tote of 80 to 44. We have not thought proper to make a digest of the 
provisions of this bill, as they are doubtless well known to the members 
of the association and should command our united support. 

It is matter of serious concern, that while there is a growing appreciation 
of the necessity for the culture of the schools to fit our young men for the 
Tarious pursuits of business, the tendency is strongly utilitarian ; and 
schools of special training have rapidly multiplied, and are liberally sup- 
ported. Not a few among our leading men, are advocates of this so-called 
practical education, and one of our most influential public journals has 
for years been its champion. The material demands of business swallow 
up all other interests. Boys long to be men, and dreams of wealth and 
the charm and bustle of business put aside all hope of thorough culture. 
The law school turns out ambitious disciples of Blackstone in a single 



330 Anniversary of the New Ywk 

term ; the Medioal College in six months transforms the rustio lad fresh 
from the plow and the farm yard, into a disoiple of Ghilen, and the Com- 
mercial College cheats the world of scholars to make quick accountants and 
elegant penmen. Tlie tendency of the American mind is already so decided 
in this direction, that restraint rather than stimulus is needed, and iu 
many-sidedtkess would seem to indicate that more than any other people 
we need a style of public education that shall give breadth, solidity, rather 
than the superficial culture, whose interest can beforehand be reckoned at 
a stated income. 

Chief of all, must be noted the fact, that such utilitarian education pro* 
duces, and from the nature ot things must produce imperfect, one-sided 
deyelopment, instead of the broader manhood which is the fhiit of 
enlarged and liberal culture in all the branches of learning — or we might 
say, of the culture in due degree of all the faculties of our complex and 
mysterious being. 

A wide spread eril in connection with our schools, complicated in Its 
nature, and for which wo can look for no immediate remedy, is found in a 
very general employment of cheap and unqualified teachers. There is nerer 
a dearth of this class, — some too ignorant to know the nature of their 
duties, and scarcely, in a knowledge of the subjects, in advance of those 
whom they are employed to teach ; some too indifferent of success or reputa- 
tion, and too recreant to their trust to seek for any personal progress. 
These last are content to rest in the past, and no generous professional 
spirit ever seems to animate them. 

After making all due allowance for influences brought to bear upon 
examining officers to deal leniently with such, we believe it is in their 
power, as it certainly is their duty to refuse licenses to the notoriously 
incompetent, and to continue licenses to those only whose professional seal 
and growth clearly entitles them to be recognixcd as live teachers. The 
ultimate remedy will be found, however, in supporting the means for the 
training of a better class, and in the creation of a public sentiment that shall 
demand the best. We presume that thin and its related subjects will receive 
attention at the hands of the committee on professional certificates. 

It is the opinion of your committee, aAer careful inquiry, that great dis- 
parity exists in different and even neighboring counties in the examination 
tests of candidates, and we respectfully suggest that the school commis- 
sioners, or the Superintendent of Public Instruction should establish a 
uniform metliod and a standard scale of qualification for different grades 
of certificates. We are not prepared to suggest any means other than the 
thorough organization and support of institutes and normal schools, and 
the issue, upon examination and proof of creditable success in teaching, of 
professional certificates to remedy the evil so justly complained of, of the 
transient and non-professional character of our teachers. Nevertheless we 
do not desire that the vocation should be dragged in among the other pro- 
fessions to meet with like dishonor, and be represented so largely by those 



State Teachers' ABdociatkm. 331 

whose sole title to rank is found in the sheepskin that bears their name, 
and the cabalistic *' Omnibut h<u UteroM,** 

The fearfiil ciyil war through which we have passed, and out of which 
has come a growth of national strength and honor, has thrown upon 
educators a stupendous work. We have not only failed in our full duty at 
home, but the area of our field of labor has been widening, and Areedmen, and 
freemen too now also for the first time made free, call for light. We must 
heed this call, and in what way we may labor with hands, head and hearts, 
till shall be realized that glorious ideal, the true corner stone of a Aree 
republic, universal education. 

Amid all the discouragements in the way of public education in our 
state, we are unquestionably making great gains, and the amount actually 
spent during the last fiscal year (nearly $6,000,000), for the maintenance 
of public schools, is a proud record for our noble state« 

In conclusion, by way of recapitulating some of the views presented in 
this report, your committee respectfully submit the following resolutions : 

1. Ueaolved, That it is -the duty of the state to provide for the free edu- 
cation of all the children within her borders, by the establishment of a 
system of free schools, from the primary school to the university. 

2. Resolved, That a judicious law should be euacted and enforced for the 
prevention of truancy and irregularity of attendance upon the schools, and 
.t^t parents should not be permitted, unless for the most cogent reasons, 

to withdraw their children from school. 

8. Resolved^ That this association recommends the incorporation of 
academical institutions with the common schools, as the free high school 
departments of the same. 

4. Resolved^ That the number of school hours for the younger children 
in our schools should be lessened, and that we recommend frequent re- 
cesses, and the most ample provision for healthful recreation. 

5. Resolved, That we heartily commend the action of the legislature for 
the establishment of more normal schools, and that we believe that a part 
of the public funds, especially the $55,000 now annually appropriated for 
libraries, might be judiciously expended for the support of teachers' in- 
stitutes and the encouragement of associations. 

6. Resolved, That the salaries of the school commissioners should be largely 
increased, and that the entire time of those officers should be devoted to the 
specific duties of their office. 

7. Resolved, That the practice of paying our teachers, especially our 
female teachers so meagerly, is due in great degree to the usurpation of 
the post of instructor by so many young persons of insufficient qualifica- 
tion who underbid those of culture and experience, and that we urge upon 
examining officers the creation of a higher standard in the examinations, 
and a more rigid enforcement of its demands. 

8. Resolved, That we approve of the establishment of a National Bureau 
of Education, and that a committee of three be appointed to prepare a suit- 
able memorial addressed to the senators and representatives of this State 
in the National Congress, urging their support of the uoasure. 

9. Resolved^ That we recommend telchers to use their influence to pro- 
mote conventions of school officers nnd parents, in behalf of public 
instruction. 



332 Avmwer&Oiry of the New York 

10. Retolved^ That we deprecate the growing tendency of the iimM 
towards special education, to the neglect of regular and systematic training 
in all the branches of a liberal culture. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James Cruikshank, \ 

Jambs W. Barker, > Committee. 

C. M. HUTCUINS, j 

On motion the report was accepted and laid on the table for sabseqaeni 
discussion. 

Professor Munsom was called, and rendered very cffectiTely a serenade 
with piano accompaniment. 

Rey. William C. Wirnee, 1>.D., of Lockport was then introduced, and 
deliyered an address on The Great Responsibility of Teachers at the Pressni 
Crisis in the Republic, 

Mr. Clark then sang **The world would be the better for it." 

Adjourned. 

Hecond Day—Morninv ScmIob. 

The association was called to order by the President at 9 o'clock. After 
the singing of a hymn by the audience, the Rey. Mr. Rogers of Geneya 
offered prayer. 

A class of young ladies then sang a "Good Morning Song.** 

The report on curriculum of studies was passed oyer for the time, an8 
on motion, the report of the Committee on condition of Education was 
taken up. 

The resolutions were read. 

The first resolution was adopted. 

The second resolution was taken up for discussion. Mr. Barrihuib 
inquired, if there is not already a truant law. 

Mr. Barr moyed to strike out all that part after ** irregularity of attend- 
ance." 

Mr. Barrinoer spoke in support of the second part of the resolation. 
But the truant law is not now enforced. 

Mr. Cruttendbm endorsed the resolution. The state may not compel 
me to pay for the support of schools, if my neighbors fail to send their 
children. It is necessary for my protection that the children should 
attend. Gaye an instance of the effect of such a power to preyent traancy. 

Dr. TaoMSON spoke in support of the resolution. 

Laid on table to be taken up after regular order of business. 

Mr. DuNiiAM, from the Committee on Auxiliary Associations, reported 
as follows: 

The committee to whom was assigned the duty of reporting amendments 
to the constitution proyiding for auxiliary associations, respectfully pre • 
sent the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary of this Association be and 
is hereby requested to prepare and send a circular to each school com- 



Slate Ibachera' ABsodation. 333 

miBsioner throughout the state, urging the formation of oountj or oommis- 
sioner district associations. 

Eeiolved, That all persons holding unexpired certificates of qualification 
to teach public schools in this state, should be entitled to membership in 
such associations. 

Retolvedj That the president and secretary of each such association 
should be considered as entitled to seats in this association with the right 
to participate in tlio dclibcrationH thereof, except that they should . not 
have the right to yoto or serve as members of any committee thereof, until 
after signing the constitution thereof, and paying the annual fee pre- 
scribed therein. 

IsAAo W. Dunham, 

S. D. Barb, 

B. M. Kktnoldb. 

Mr. Reynolds of Lockport was elected assistant secretary. 

Persons present from other states were on motion invited to seats in tliis 
body. 

The report of Mr. Dunham was accepted. The report was taken up by 
articles. 

The first resolution was adopted. 

The second resolution was after discussion laid upon the table. 

The third resolution was laid upon the table. 

Song by a class of little girls. 

Prof. Baksr of Buffalo, on invitation, favored the association with a 
piece on the piano. 

Dr. Fbknoh's lecture was on ziotion postponed till 2 f. m., and the reso- 
lutions attached to the report of the committee on Condition of Bducation 
were taken up. 

The second resolution was adopted. 

Mr. Babb offered the following substitute for the third resolution : 

Resolved^ That this Association recommends the formation of academical 
departments in the public schools of this state, in all cases where the 
number and advancement of the pupils shall render it practicable. 

The substitute was adopted. 

The fourth resolution was taken up. 

Dr. TowNSBND advocated three hours for primary pupils. 

Discussions ensued participated in by Messrs. Townsbnd, Cbuikshank, 
Babbingbb. 

Mr. Babrbr spoke eloquently of the necessity that teachers should be in- 
formed on the laws of health — to educate mentally, morally and physi- 
cally, teachers must be intelligent upon the subject themselves. 

Mr. BisBEE of Chenango favored the resolution. 

Mr. BuLKLEY gave a picture of the packed condition of the primary 
schools in cities and the evils arising therefrom. He argued that no de- 
finite time or manner can be established that shall suit all cases. It is murder 
outright that these little ones should be so long compelled to breathe 
a tainted atmosphere. We ought to pass this resolution unanimously. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 



334 Anniveraary of the New York 

On motion of Dr. Cruikbhaxk debfttoB were limited during the remainder 
of the session to five minutes, and no one to speak more than once to the 
same question without permission. 

The fifth resolution was taken up. 

Mr. Smtpeb offered as a substitute, that the library money be appropri- 
ated to the purchase of school apparatus. 

Mr. Gbuikshamk spoke in support of the original resolution. 

Mr. Barb offered the following as a substitute: 

Resolved, That we commend the action of the legislature at its last ses- 
sion, in relation to normal schools, and heartily approve of all the provi- 
sions of law adopted by it for the formation and support of such schools, 
and further, that we urge upon the Board of Commissioners appointed for 
the location of such schools, the importance of acting decisively upon the 
subject at as early a day as shall be practicable. 

Resolved, That this Association commends the action of the legislature 
in mailing appropriation for the support of Teachers* Institutes, and that, in 
our judgment, the appropriation for such purpose should, in the future be 
very largely increased. 

Mr. Clabk, of Ganandaigua, favored Mr. Babe's resolntion. 

Prof. Jewbll believed a great mistake had been made in the matter of 
normal schools. We should understand the action of the legislature before 
we commend it. Normal Schools should be only gradually increased. 

Mr. Barb compared Massachusetts with her four normal schools and 
meager population with New York that has only two. The twenty or thirty 
applications already received and the liberal sums offered are evidence that 
more schools are needed. 

The substitutes were adopted. The remainder of the resolutions were 
laid on the table for the present. Adjourned. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Association met at half past two, the president in the ohair. 

The exercises were opened with a song by Miss Fbamkie Kbllooo — " Con- 
sider the Lilies." 

Dr. John H. Feenoh, of Albany, delivered a lecture upon the Physical 
Geography of New York.* 

At the conclusion of the lecture, on motion of Dr. Woolwobth, the thanks 
of the association were returned. 

Song by a quartette of the choir. Followed by a Duet, <*She sleeps in 
the Valley." 

Prof. W. B. Rising, of Michigan University, read a paper on the Claima 
of the Natural Sciences. 

Prof. S. G. Williams, of Itna^a, then presented a paper on the same 
subject. 

Miss H. L. D. PoTTEB of I'acker Institute, Brooklyn, on invitation, 
recited '* May Morning," and "The Boatman's Song." 

Acyourned. 

* Tblt lecture will appear in oar next. 



SUxte Teacheri Asaodation. 335 

SYENINO 8S88ION. 

The assooiation met at 7\ o'clock, and was opened by Solo and Choras — 
** I will set Watchmen upon thy Walls *' — by the seleot choir. 

The Rev. L. Mkbbill Miller, D.D., of Ogdensburgh, was then intro- 
duced and delivered an address on DefeeU in our Common School Teachers, 

In the midst of the Address a false alarm of fire disturbed the audience, 
when Prof. Munson sung ** Star of the Eyening." 

Miss Potter, by request, read High Tidcy by Jean Ingelow. 

A Poem, entitled Faith, by Miss Mart A. Riplet, of Albany, was read 
by Dr. Crttikshaivk. 

Singing — Quartette. 

Mrs. A. T. Rahoall of Oswego, then read ** The Burning Prairies," and 
was followed by a Song — Quartette. 

Adyourned. 

TUrd D«7 — Bf emiliiv SeealoB. 

The Association met at 9 o'clock. Opened with singing — chorus, **I 
will lift up mine eyes unto the hills." 

Prayer was made by Rot. A. B. Richardson. 

" When the morning first dawns," by a class of young girls, was very 
sweetly and finely rendered. 

The President read a letter from Dr. Dayies, regretting his inability to 
attend. 

An announcement was made touching the proposed excursion to Freer's 
Glen, near Watkins. 

The minutes were read and approved. 

Mr. Bulklet reported a board of editors for the Teacher as follows : 

John W. Bulklet, Brooklyn, A. G. Merwin, Port Jefferson, 

Edward North, Clinton, Mart A. Riplet, Albany, 

Samuel G. Williams, Ithaca, John S. Fosdick, Buffalo, 

Edward Smith, Syracuse, David Beattie, Dunkirk, 

Thomas K. Beecher, Elmira, Edward Dahforth, Troy, 

Andrew J. Lano, Waverly, Joseph Jones, Dansville, 

Emilt a. Rice, Oswego, John C. Moses, Dundee, 
James U. Hoose, Fulton. 

The chair appointed the following committee to nominate officers for the 
ensuing year : 

James B. Thomson, J. G. Gallup, S. Arnold Toerr, 

James Cruikshane, Edward Smith, James W. Barker. 

Samuel D. Barr, Alviras Sntdeb, 

Mr. Bulklet made an earnest appeal to the association, urging that the 
members were morally bound to the publisher to use every effort to sustain 
the N. Y. Teacher. 



336 Annweraary of the New York 

Dr. CBTTiKflnANK followed in a few remarks, stating its condition, and 
asking that it be suspended altogether or else liberally sustained. 

Mr. HoosB eloquently put the case of the relations of the association to 
their own organ. 

On motion, the following committee to canvass for subscribers was ap- 
pointed : M. M. Merrell, of Watertown ; W. W. Ilean, of Pike ; Miss Rice, 
of Oswego ; Miss Ripley, of Albany ; Miss Elisabeth Stevens, of Uoneoye* 
and Mr. Lang, of Waverly. 

Mr. Patchin said he would be one of twenty to raise $100. Volunteers 
were called for, and paid as follows ; 

Iba Patchim, (Erie county), $6 00 Edward Danfobtd, Troy, $5 00 
JoHW W, BuLKLET, Brooklyn, 6 00 David Beattie, Dunkirk, 6 00 

Samuel D. Bare, Albany, 5 00 Wm. N. Baeeimqer, Troy, 6 00 

James W. Barker, Buffalo, 5 00 James Atwaier, Lockpori, &.00 
James H. Hoose, Fulton, 5 00 Victor M. Rice, Buffalo, 6 00 

James B. Thomson, New York. 6 00 A. G. Mebwih, Port Jefferson, 6 00 
Alviras Snyder, Etna, 5 00 Tuomas McKindlt, Saratoga, 5 00 

Andrew J. Lang, Waverly, 5 00 D. S. IlErFRON, Utica, 6 00 

Samuel Q. Williams, Ithaca, 5 00 Charles T. Pooler, Deansvillc, 6 00 
M. M. Mkrrell, Watertown, 6 00 Warren IIioley, Aurora, 6 00 

J. C. Gallup, Clinton, 6 00 Hon. G.B.Dusenberre, Geneva, 6 00 

The association was then favored with music on the harp by Mr. William 
A. Miles, of New York. 

A paper in nature of a report, on the Ettahlishment of an Educational 
Fichanfff, wns read by Dr. Cbuikshane. — The report was accepted and its 
recommendation adopted. 

AN EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE. 

The value to the Present and the Future of the events and achievements 
of the Past, is, in an important sense in proportion to the accuracy with 
which those events and achievements are chronicled and the care with 
which they are preserved. The esteem in which ancient books and mana« 
scripts are held, attests this ; yet we are so apt to forget the recent past 
in the stirring.demand8 of the present, that, ere we are aware, its records 
are lost, and the future becomes sadly a loser by this neglect. 

The author of this paper, while endeavoring during the past year to com- 
plete files of educational documents for the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, and for his private library, has been amazed to find how completely 
certain numbers of almost every series of school reports and school Journals 
have been exhausted, and how impossible, with the means at his command, 
to complete files. Of the District School Journal, it may be questioned 
whether there are five complete files in the State. I know of but one. 
The Teachers' Advocate and Journal is also scarce, and even a complete 



Stale Tea/cJierd Aseociatian. 837 

set of the Teachib is difflenU to be obtained. Horace Mann*8 Reports as 
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education hare commanded as 
high as $25, and I know of no copy which can now be obtained at that 
price. The Department of Public Instruction of this State had no com- 
plete file of its own reports, ftirther back than 1868, until by great effort 
and expense a single set from 1840 was obtained in the way before indicated. 

It is the object of this paper, to propose the establishment of an Educa- 
tional Exchange for the collection and distribution of odd numbers and 
Tolumes of rare educational books and pamphlets. Many such are in 
single numbers or broken volumes scattered throughout the country, and 
are of little comparative value to most persons into whose hands they havo 
Ikllen. These might, through such an Exchange, be collected, collated 
and preserved, and held subject to such orders as should bring together 
complete sets for permanent preservation. 

Had a movement of this kind been inaugurated before the war, thou- 
sands of valuable pamphlets might have been preserved, which have found 
their way to* the paper-makers. 

It is also suggested that the Exchange might be a depositary of old 
school books, and of current educational publications. 

There miglit also, as shall seem judicious, be added something in the 
nature of an agency to supply teachers with schools, and schools with 
teachers — free to those who are members and contributors to the Ex- 
change. 

It is proposed that this Educational Exchange be connected with the 
office of the corresponding Secretary, and under the management of the 
Board of officers of this association, and that its public business be carried 
on through the New York Teacher. 

The Corresponding Secretary, charged with the care and duties of tho 
business, shall report annually in detail. His accounts shall be audited by 
the finance committee, and he shall be allowed such compensation, aocord- 
ing to the services performed, as the auditing committee shall determine. 

Regular membership shall be fifty cents per annum, and shall entitle to 
simple announcements of books wanted and for sale, and to exchange 
(including necessary correspondence) without commission. A fixed rate 
shall be charged for general advertising, for books or pamphlets wanted 
or offered for sale or exchange. 

Donations shall be solicited, and the officers, in their discretion shall 
make such collections as in their judgment will further the object herein 
set forth. 

From time to time, shall be published lists of books and pamphlets on 
hand, and such measures shall be taken as to awaken and keep alive an 
interest in matters of this nature. 



338 Anniveraary of the New York 

It is recommended that the oorresponding Secretary be empowered to 
make such arrangement with the University ConTOcation, or with a com- 
mittee of that body as to secure their cooperation. 

Miss PoTTEBthen read from St. PauVs ''Charity ;" Reading Class in 
•« Gray's Elegy." She finished by reading «* Anabel Lee." 

The committee on Improved Methods in lieu of a formal report, presented 
an object lesson, conducted by Miss Ellen Seaveb, of Oswego. 

The following is a sketch of the lesson : 

LESSON ON THE MUSTARD AND CATNIP PLANTS. 

PoiHT — The differences of the two plants. 

Method — The teacher presented several specimens of each kind. The 
class named them and stated the fact, that differences existed between 
them. They were then required to find any difference. The difference in 
color of the blossom was observed and stated as found in the summary. 

They examined the stems next and found one to be four sided, and cov- 
ered with short white fur or 'down. The terms down and fur were given 
by the class. The other stem was found to be round and sniDoth. These 
ideas were embodied in sentences as found in the summary and written 
on the board. 

The leaves of one were found to bo scalloped and downy, those of the 
other were said to be pointed. These points were represented on the board, 
and the class said they looked like the edge of a saw ; that those points in 
the saw are called teeth, after which, they said these points of the leaf 
might be called teeth. The term toothed was obtained f^om this idea. 
They found these leaves to be smooth. Teacher represented on the board 
the stems of the plant with one leaf, and desired the class to say where the 
leaf nearest to that should be placed. The position was given correctly and 
the arrangement said to be opposite. The same was done to obtain the 
arrangement of the leaves in the mustard. Statements containing the 
ideas developed were given and written on the board. The summary wai 
read Arom the board and the class required to give any difference that had 
been discovered. The teacher talked with the class about the probability 
of finding other plants resembling these, and desired to look for such 
examples. 

The reason for the name catnip being given to the plant was given by 
class. 

The children said they had read about the mustard plant in the bible 
and gave the substance of the parable. 

The Summary stood thus on the Board. 
The mustard and catnip plants. 

The blossoms of the mustard plant are yellow, but those of the catnip 
are purple and white. 
The mustard stem is round and smooth. 
The catnip stem is four sided and downy. 



State Teacherff Asaociation. 339 

The eatnlp leayes arc soalloped, downy and grow opposite. 

The mustard Icayes are smooth, toothed and grow one above the other. 

These plants differ in taste. 

Duet by two young ladies, aocompanied by Prof. Baker on the Piano. 

On motion of Dr. Cruikshamk a committee was appointed to prepare 
suitable resolutions on the decease of C. H. Gildkrsleeve. 

The Chair appointed J. W. Bulklbt, J. S. Fosdick, and Miss Emily A. 
Rice. 

Mr. Cavert then read a paper on The English Language and Literature as 
an Educational Force. 

Aiyoumed. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The exercises were opened at 2} o'clock, with a song by Prof. Munsoic. 

The Treasurer reported the condition of the finances. 

Dr. Thomson offered the following resolution which was adopted. 

Resolvedy That a committee of three be appointed to memorialize the legis- 
lature of the Coramonwealth for an annual appropriation of $200, to aid in 
tbe accomplishment uf the important objects of this Association. 

The report of Committee on condition of Education was taken up and 
the 6th, 7th, Slli au«l U(h resolutions were adopted. 

Mr. Baru offered the following as a substitute for the tenth resolution : 

Resohed, That while wo would encourage special education for the pur- 
pose of more fujly preparing our youth for usefulness in the various fields 
of active duty, we do nevertheless, most sincerely and decidedly deprecate 
the gprowing tendency of the times towards special education to the neglect 
of thorough and systematic instruction iu the branches of a liberal English 
Education. 

Mr. KiCE defended business colleges, and special education. 

Dr. Cruikshank spoke at length, urging the original resolution. 

Mr. Barker supported the same views. 

Mr. Barr explained the nature of this resolution. 

The substitute was adopted. 

The sixth resolution was reconsidered, and Mr. Barb offered the follow- 
ing substitute which was adopted : 

Rtsolvedy That the best interests of common school education impera- 
tively demand that school commissioners should devote all their time and 
energies to a thorough and faithful discharge of the duties of their ofiice ; 
and that we recommend to the legislature as an indispensable pre-requisite, 
that the salary attached to the office of school commissioner be immediately 
and largely increased. 

Mr. Veooman from committee on time and place of next meeting reported 
that the association meet at Auburn the 3d week of July. 

Tbe question was divided and the 4th Tuesday was fixed as the time. 
Auburn was adopted as the place. 

The resolutions (2d and 3d) respecting auxiliary associations wero taken 
ap and after discussion were both lost. 

Song by a little miss, Lillie Anthony. 

Miss Potter recited ** Sheridan's Ride." 

[Vol. XV, No. 11.] 23 



340 Anniverfiary of tfie New York 

Mr. Denison moyed that James Q. Clark be reqaested to sing. 
The motion was laid on the table. 
Mrs. Randall read ** Roger and I/' 

Mr. BuLKLET from the committee appointed for that purpose, submitted 
the following resolution commemorative of our late associate, Chablxs U. 

QlLDBBSLBEVE S 

Whebeas, God in the mysterious dispensation of his providence, has sud- 
denly called from the bosom of his aflfcctionate family, from a large circle of 
appreciative friends, and from the activities of an engrossing business, 
our oo-laborer, friend and brother, C. H. Qildersleive, therefore. 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Gildebsleeve, the affectionate hus- 
band, the loving father, the warm-hearted and earnest Christian, the intel- 
ligent and successful teacher, and the honorable man of business, has 
passed away from earth, and all its cares and sorrows, to a better world, 
where all is joy unspeakable and full of glory. 

Resolved, That while we mourn the loss of our loved firiend, we rejoice in 
the bright example he gave of all that is lovely and of good report; that 
this providence should stimulate us to emulate his virtues, that through 
grace, we may with him receive the benediction of the Gbjcat Tbachbb, of 
** Well done, good and faithful servant." 

Resolved, That to the family of our brother, we tender our sincere oob- 
dolenoe on their bereavement, and pray that God will be the husband of 
the widow and the father of the fatherless. 

Resolved, That a certified copy of these resolutions be sent to the family 
of the deceased, and published in the N. Y. Teacher, and that the committee 
prepare a biographical sketch to be published in the same. 
The report was adopted. ' 

Pending the adoption of this resolution, Mr. Bulkley paid a Just and 
elegant tribute to the memory of the deceased. 
The resolutions were adopted. 

Mr. Cbuttekden by unanimous consent offered the following : 
Whebbas, The Atlantic Cable has been successfully relaid, is now, and 
bids fair to continue to be, the connecting nerve between the nations of the 
old and those of the now world, and 

Whereas, Every new achievement in the arts leads to new diseoveries 
in the sciences, and thus enlarges the domains of knowledge, therefore. 

Resolved, That we, the members of this Association, and teachera of the 
Empire State, do most cheerfully accept the new responsibilities devolved 
upon us. 

Resolved, That in humble reliance on Divine aid, we will endeavor so to 
work, and so to influence others, as to make this new exhibition of hnmaa 
skill a new step toward that Millenial Period, for whioh our raoe is fitted, 
and to which it is destined. 

Resolved, That we hereby tender our sincere congratnlationa to those 
who planned and those who executed this most wonderful of human 
achievements. 

Resolved, That the genius exhibited in its designs, the skill shown in its 
coustruction, and the high courage displayed in its execution, are noble 
examples of the capabilities of our race ; should be powerful incentives to 
men in all human pursuits, to plan and to labor as the sure means by which 
under Providence, all human enterprises are brought to suocessful issues. 

The resolutions were adopted. 



Slaie Toachera^ AsaodaMon. 341 

ProfetBor Olivir Arbt of Albany, then read a papev upon the Funo- 
tions of the Normal School. 

Prof. JiWELL moved that the thanks of the Association be presented to 
Prof. Arey and the endorsement of the report. 

He supported his motion by a reference tq the imperfect preparation of 
candidates. 

The resolation was adopted. 

Dr. Thomson, fpom the committee to nominate officers reported as follows ; 

Fretident, 
S. G. WILLIAMS, of Ithaca. 

Vice Presidents, 
D. S. HEFFRON, of Utioa, A. G. MERWIN, of Port Jefferson, 

WM. N. BARRINGER, of Troy, D. C. RUMSBY, of Batavia. 

Corresponding Seeretart/, 
JAMES CRUIRSHANK, of Brooklyn. 

Recording Secretaries, 
JAMES W. BARKER, of Buffalo, J. DORMAN STEELE, of Elmira. 

Treasurer. 
M. P. CAVERT, of Albany. 

A ballot was ordered and the Chair appointed as tellers Messrs. Bakrin- 
OER, Pooler, Hoose and MoRSHOuaE. 

During the ballot Dr. Thomson offered the following : 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed by the Chair, to report 
on the importance and practicability of adopting a decimal system of 
weights and measures, as standards for business and scientific purposes 
throughout our country. 

On motion of Professor Jewell, the Committee on Curriculum of studies 
was continued, to report next year. 

The chair appointed on Decimal system. Dr. J. B. Thomson, J. W. 
Barker and Mr. Harrison of New York. 

Dr. Cruikshank invited the members to attend the meeting of the Na- 
tional Teachers' Association at Indianapolis. 

The President read a letter of invitation from Rev. B. G. Northrop, the 
President of the American Institute of Instruction to attend the meeting of 
that body at Burlington. 

Messrs. V. M. Rice, M. P. Cayert and Oliver Aret were appointed a 
committee to memorialize the legislature for pecuniary aid to this Asso- 
ciation. 

The persons named in the report of the committee were on counting the 
ballots, severally declared elected as officers of the Association. 

Messrs. Babr and Tozeb conducted the President elect to the Chair. 

Mr. Williams in a few fitting words thanked the Association for the honor 
conferred, and gracefully alluded to the princely munificence of I|oi|. Ekra 
Cornell, in the establishment qf ^hp Cornell Uniyersytt. 



342 Anniversary of the Teachers' ABSodaiion. 

The Corresponding Secretary road a letter f^om Profeseor Datim, 
enaloBing one f^om Mrs. Emma Willard, which was also read. 
Adjourned. 



EVENING SESSION. 

Met at 1\ o'clock. 

Mr. Mkrwih, from the standing committee on resolutions, reported the 
following : 

[General resolutions, and resolutions of thanks, to Trustees of the Til- 
lage, Citizens, Speakers, Clergy, Prof. Munson, Choir, Mr. Ellis, and 
others. We regret that wo have received no copies of the resolutions, and 
cannot give them entire. Ed.] 

Mr. Barb offered the following resolution, which was unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, The Hon. Ezra Cornell has, by the gift of five hundred thoa- 
sand dollars, established upon a permanent basis the Cornell University, 
and, by so princely an endowment i«ccured it against all future financial 
disaster, thus heralding the advance of free education in the highest de- 
partments of intellectual, culture, encouraging and strengthening the 
friends of popular education ; therefore, 

Rr.9olvcdy That we hail the Hon. Ezra Cornell as our brother and friend 
in the great cause of free popular education, and do hereby tender him 
our sincere and deepest thanks for the great and benevolent work which 
he has wrought for the Empire State ; and do assure him that he has 
thereby enrolled himself for all time among the noblest sons of New York, 
and enshrined himself in our hearts as one of the warmest and wisest 
friends of humanity. 

The reading of the minutes was dispensed with. 

A song and chorus, ** Like as a father pitieth his children" were most 
effectively rendered. 

Rev. Dr. Jackson, President of Hobart Free College, then addressed 
the Association, on The Moral Atmosphere of the School Room, 

Quartette — ''Beautiful Hills.'' The piece was loudly encored, and 
repeated. 

Quartette of gentlemen — "The Two Roses." 

The chair appointed as committee to memorialize Senators and Repre- 
sentatives on National Bureau: S. G. Williams, president; James Cbuik- 
shank, Corresponding Secretary ; J. W. Barker, Recording Secretary. 

Mb. Sweet, of Syracuse, read a poem, *« Boarding Round." 

Solo and chorus — ''The Stone which the Builders refused." 

The thanks of the association were extended to Dr. Jackson for his 
address and to Mr. Sweet for his poem. 

Senator Folger having been loudly and persistently called for, 
spoke brietly, but eloquently of the importance of this convention —> the 
glorious purposes of which it is the exponent. 



AsaodcUion of School Oommiaaionera. 343 

On motion of Mr. Barker, the following resolution was adopted unani- 
moiislj. 

RetolvSlly That the thanks of this association are eminently due, and are 
hereby tendered to our retiring President, Mr. Jam as Atwatsb, for the 
able and impartial manner in whioh he has presided in this body during 
its session now closing. 

Thanks were tendered to the N. Y. Tribune^ Rochester Democrat^ Syra- 
cuse Standard, and Buffalo Courier, for the full and correct report, of the 
proceedings of the association which have appeared in their columns. 

On motion of Mr, Bulkley, the hearty thanks of the association wore 
extended to Mr. W. H. Vrooman, for his untiring labor in making prepa- 
ration for the meeting and for his constant efforts during its sessions to 
provide for the comfort and entertainment of its members. 

Mr. Vrooman was called upon and spoke briefly. 

Mr. Bulkley upon invitation spoke with his usual fire and spirit, recount- 
ing the history and influence of this association. 

The President made some appropriate closing remarks. ' 

The vast audience then joined in singing Old Hundred, when the Bene- 
diction was pronounced by Rev. Dr. Jackson, and the association was 
declared adijourned. 

The next meeting will be held in Auburn, commencing the fourth Tues- 
day in July, 18G7. 



Association of School Commissioners and Superintendents. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

Gehbva, Julj/ 80, 1866. 

The Association met in the Union School Hall, Geneva, at 4 p. m., and 
was called to order by the President, John W. Bulklet, of Brooklyn. 

Prayer was offered by Supt. D. S. HsrrBON of Utica. 

W. H. Vroomam, Esq., chairman of the local committee, introduced a 
large company of young misses, pupils of the Union School, who gave a 
Bong of welcome. 

On motion of Supt. Danforth of Troy, the President's address was 
postponed till evening. 

On motion of Supt. Oruikshank, of Brooklyn, the foUowiug question, 
from the printed order of exercises, was taken up for discussion : 

Should Common School teachers in the rural dietricts report directly to eofn- 
mieeioneri, and upon tchat points f 



344 AsaocicUion of School 

Suptk Cbuikshank belicyed that much greater accuracy would be se- 
cured, in the reports now required by the State Superintendent, if teachers 
were required to make up a record of such statistics as fall within their 
own knowledge, and to assist trustees in others. Facts of attendance, 
studies pursued, and a detail of the classification of the school, and other 
particulars should be given. Experience has shown that in many instances 
trustees fail to report correctly the few items now required ; but it is be- 
licTed that any competent teach^ caii report correctly in regard to any 
matter of Which he can find the data. 

The subject was further discussed by Mr. Button of Geneya, Supt. 
Heffron of Utica; and Commissioners Moon, of Herkimer; Wright, of On- 
ondaga; Rum sey, of Genesee; Pooler, of Oneida ; and Wilkinson, Of Cayuga. 

Laid on table for further consideration. Adjourned till eyening. 

EVENING SESSION. 
The ABsociation met at 8 o'clock. President Bulklbt deliyered an able 
and earnest address on The Dutiet and Reaporuibilitiet of School ojfficert, 

PRESIDENT BULKLEY'S ADDRESS. 

He said : We represent power. We are to perform the functions of our 
office, not merely according to the letter of the law, but in the interest 
of an enlightened and progressiye public sentiment. We are, in onr 
intercourse with teachers, not to exercise authority alone. Our office 
is in some senee, parental. The majority of teachers are young and 
inexperienced. They need sympathy, counsel and guidance. It is, we 
shall find, one thing to haye a technical knowledge of a subject ; quite 
another thing to teach it well. More have failed Arom lack of skill, than 
f^om want of learning. **The letter killcth, but the spirit maketh aliye." 
How shall wo most efifcctually magnify our office ? We must haye the 
right spirit ourseWes, and must be able to enter into the details of the 
teacher's work. There is dancror that the fundamental things be neglected. 
If the child is not well-grounded in spelling, reading and other such 
things, no after culture can make up for the neglect, and our teachers 
must bo made to insist upon these. 

Our reading must not be mere word calling. A single sentence is 
better than a page, £^rery word and thought should be analysed and 
made vital : nor must there be too many studies. We can afford to make 
haste slowly. Bishop Potter had said that it only needed the introduction 
of Hebrew into our common schools, to make the *' cramming process'* 
complete. 

Sometimes the influence of the school officer is vitiated from his manner. 
Toung and diffident teachers need encouragement ; and many a one's pro- 
fessional prospects are ruined through the Iiarshness and want of sympathy 
of the examining officer. Mr. Bulklcy gave instances in which a wise dis- 
cretion had transformed a diffident, and hence an apparently incompetent 
girl into a first class teacher. 



Oommiseionera aivA Superi7Uend€nt8. 345 

We haye met for a comparison of riews and experiences — without pre- 
judice, to develop the highest truth. Acting as earnest seekers for the 
right, wo shall kindle a flame upon our altars, that Will neyer go out. 

Commissioner Smtdsr of Tompkins, from the committee on Constitution 
rendered a report, whi«h with little modifications was adopted as fallows : 

PREAMBLE. 
We the undersigned, Commissioners and Superintendents of schools of 
the state of New York, in order to secure unity and efficiency cf action, 
and to elevate the standard of public education in this State do form our- 
selves into an association and adopt the following : 

CONSTITUTION. 

Articlb 1. This society shall be known by the name of the Association 
of School Commissioners and Superintendents of the state of New York. 

Article 2. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, Deputy Superin- 
tendent, School Commissioners, Superintendents, Clerks of Boards of Edu- 
cation or other persons performing the duties of supervision under the 
direction of any Board of Education in this State shall be considered mem- 
bers of this Association by signing the Constitution and paying an annual 
fee of fifty cents. 

Article 8. The officers of this Association shall be a President, Vice- 
President, Secretary and Treasurer, who shall severally discharge the duties 
usually devolving upon such officers. 

Article 4. All officers of this Association shall be elected annually as 
the first order of business at the afternoon session of the second day, but 
shall not enter upon their official duties until the close of the session. 

Article 6. The annual meeting of this Association shall be held on the 
day previous to the annual meeting of the New York State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation. 

Article 6. Any person having once held the office of Commissioner or 
Superintendent, but whose term of office has expired, shall be regarded as 
an honorary member of this association. 

Article 7. No money shall be paid by the Treasurer, except by the 
order of the President, countersigned by the Recording Secretary. 

Article 8. This Constitution may be altered or amended at any annual 
meeting of the Association by a vote of two thirds of the members present. 

Dr. James B. Thomson of New York, was on motion invited to sit with 
the Association as an honorary member. 

On motion of Supt. Crdikshank, the question. Should common school 
teachers in the rural districts report directly to commissioners, and upon 
what points ? was referred to a committee of three. The chair appointed 
Messrs. S. D. Barr, A. Sntder, J. 0. Wriout. 

On motion of Supt. Sheldon, the chair appointed a business committee 
aa follows : E. A Sheldon, A. J. Lano, W. N. Babbingir. 



346 Asaodation of School 



Hec«Bd Day — Mornlnc 8cMt«B. 

The Associalion met at 9 a. m., President Bulklky in the chair. IVayer 
by the Rer. Israel Wilkiksoit. A song was rendered Yery effectively by 
the young ladies of Mr. Vrooxan's school. 

The minutes were read by the Secretary. 

Supt. Sheldon from the business committee, reported an order of exer- 
cises. 

Dept. Supt. Barb, from the special committee on reports of common 

school teachers, reported the following resolutions : 

Resolved, Thnt common school teachers in the rural districts should, at 
fixed intervals, make and forward to the School Commissioner a report, 
stating the number of pupils registered as attending the school; the ave- 
rage daily attendance of pupils during the time embraced in the report; 
the number and nature of the departments in the school ; the programme 
of exercises adopted and followed by the teacher or teachers in each ; the 
branches of study and practice pursued, and the names of the authors of 
the text-books used, the number of clas9es in each branch, and the grade 
of advancement and the number of pupils in each claHS ; the number of 
visitations by school ofticers and patrons respectively; the methods of 
instruction pursued in the branches respectively; the date of com- 
mencement of service of the teacher, the time for which the teacher is 
engaged, and the time at which the term will probably close ; the wages 
to be paid the teacher; an answer to the question — ** Does the teacher 
board around?" — the grade of license held by the teacher, the date of 
such license, the time at which it will expire, and the authority by whom 
it was given ; and many other matters of importance. 

Resolved^ That the form of such report should be prescribed by the 
School Oommif«flioner, and approved by the Superintendent of Publie 
Instruction ; or, what is preferable, that the nubstance and mode of report 
should be uniform and general for ull tlio several districts, and should be 
prescribed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

S. D. Barb, ^ 
A. Sktiier, >Com 
J. 0. Wright. J 
The first resolution was taken up for discussion. 

Supt. FuHDiCK believed that the resolution required too much of the 
teacher. There would be no end to reports. 

Com. Snyder said that few teachers have any just idea of their duties, 
and the actual condition of the school can not bo ascertained by the com- 
missioner from personal visitation, in time to circumvent erroneous methods 
and practices. Ho urged the adoption of the resolution. 

Dcp. Supt. Baur said that instead of embarrassing the teacher, the spe- 
cific form of the report suggested would indicate exactly what to do. 
Teachers should be required to give an account of their stewardship, and 
should be amenable to the Commissioner. Each commissioner should meet 
his teachers by towns, and the instruction ho gives them in methods should 
be carried out in their schools. The adoption of this plan would produce 
some degree of efficiency in the schools, and those reports and drills will 
become an efficient means to this end. If any teacher is too indolent for 
these duties, let bis license be withheld. 



Ccmimisswvhera and Sufpermtendents. 347 

Supt. Sheldon believed that a full and elaborate report should be made 
upon this subject, reducing it to form. He moved that the subject be re- 
committed to same committee to report at next meeting. 

Mr. Lavo believed that there was no propriety in deferring the matter. 
Let us try so much as has been suggested, and give results next year. 

Hon. Supt. RicB said that few teachers know how to make such reports. 
Their practical business education has been neglected. Teachers deteriorate, 
and after twenty years of service they are less competent than when they 
began. The imposing of this duty will be of great value, and educate them 
to business habits. Ho also recommended that pupils be required to write 
impromptu compositions to the end that they become ready. We need this 
practical culture to make men of force — the agents of the world's pro- 
gress. He (the speaker) might have been something himself, with two or 
three commissioners behind him whipping him up. [The chairman said, 
*• No doubt you would have been smarter under it."] 
The motion to re-commit was lost. 

Supt. Cruiksuark moved to recommit with instruction to report at an 
adjourned session during the present week. 

Mr. Beattib, of Dunkirk, belioved that the plan of such reports was 
more in favor of the teachers than the commisiiiouers. 
Com. Wilkinson advocated the motion. 
The motion was adopted. 

Mr. Sheldon was on motion added to that committee. 
Committee ordered to report Thursday morning at 8 o'clock. 
The question on a course of studies for common schools, was passed over 
in view of a report to be rendered at the Teachers' Association. 
school examinations. 
The question, ** How should school examinations be conducted?" was 
taken up. 

Commissioner Wilkinson gave the results of several examinations in 
arithmetic, grammar, geography and reading. On visiting a school he 
was accustomed to inquire, how far have they advanced ? Where did they 
begin? Teachers to examine within the limit at his suggestion. The 
average in the town of Cato was 55 per cent. In another town 43 per cent. 
He is able to trace these averages to their proximate causes. By making 
such examinations, the relative standing of the schools can be ascertained ; 
an interest is created. 

Commissioner Tozsb, of Livingston, said, when he visits a school, he takes 
notes of the things to be criticised, and on leaving presents them to the 
teacher for review, and the results are most salutary. It is justice to the 
teachers not to flatter them, but to deal honestly even if severely. 

Commissioner Moon of Herkimer, did not believe in a system of marks 
and figures, but in giving practical illustrations according to the circum- 
stances of thp case. 

Commissioner Ellebt of Cayuga, found great diversity in his schools, 



348 A99(xAaiiofi\ of School 

and oan follow no slated system, but makes saggestions toaohing the 
points of most evident failure. 

The President haying loft the chair, said that the examiner must be 
gOYerned in great measure by the evident wants of the school. The school 
should also be taken in its every-day dress, so as to get at the actual facts 
of attainment, and not at those prepared for the special occasion. He 
gaTe several practical instances of the evil he complained of. The teacher 
should not bo ignored. We want to see their methods in actual operation, 
and let our own examinations and suggestions be often incidental. Exer- 
cises should as far as possible, be written. It might indeed be well, if the 
results of all the pupils* study were required to be written out. 

Supt. FosDiCK endorsed Mr. Bulklet's views. He sometimes gives a 
question, and all who within two minutes think they can answer the ques- 
tion, stand. The question is then answered by some one designated. He 
also adopted a novel method. Says to class : A week from to-day I will 
examine you in mental arithmetic. I will ask you a question, and you may 
ask me one. The interest was intense. He gave a very amusing account 
of the results. 

Com. Wright of Onondaga, believed that at different times, as the begin- 
ning and end of term, different ends should be kept in view — in the first 
case, as to methods of conducting recitations, and in the second, the results 
attained. The examiner should never embarrass the teacher in the presence 
of the school. He recommended teachers' meetings, and the conducting of 
a recitation with pupils of the place, as the teacher assigned to the duty 
does at home. 

Supt. Abbot of Kingston, desired to know what kind of record the 
examiners should keep, and to whom, if any one, they report. 

Com. Pooler remarked that the object should be: 1, To ascertain the 
condition of the school (could thus recommend a proper teacher). 2, To 
see the skill of the teacher (could thus recommend her for a better position, 
if competent). Teacher to examine. The examiner makis suggestions to 
class of methods and says I will ask your teacher to try this plan. This 
generally secures its trial. He talks to children for the benefit of the 
teacher, so that she is compelled to give attention. In reply to Mr. Abbot 
he said : I allot a page of a blank book to each district, and after examina- 
tion, state facts of attendance, order, recitation, etc., and have in such 
recordalwaysa standard of comparison with itself and with other districts. 

Com. Wilkinson road a sketch of such report. 

Supt. Sheldon believed examinations to be a necessity. In the country 
the commissioner must have two classes of visits '— the ** every day dress'* 
visits — and one to ascertain thoroughly the actual progress and condition 
of the school, the amount passed over, with test questions thereon — com- 
missioners to mark the questions desired, and teacher to make the exami- 
nation. 

Principals of schools should make staled examinations and report results 
to superintendent. 



Oommisaionera and Superintendents. 349 

RATE BILLB. 

ihe discussion of the question " should not rate bills be abolished ? " was 
i4ken up. 

Com. Sntder offered the following resolution : 

Retolvedy That rate bills should be abolished. 

Reiolvedy That every school district as a condition to its sharing in the pub- 
lic money should raise by tax an amount at least equal to one-half the 
publie money it receives from the state. 

Supl. Heffbon spoke earnestly in favor of the abolition of rate bills, 
aspeoially of the iigustice to teachers from delay in payment. 

Commissioner McKindly of Saratoga, found the best schools where 
here are the largest rate bills. What we pay for we value. He does not 
believe a local tax will ever work. 

Hon. Supt. Rice favored the passage of the resolution for the abolition 
of rate bills. He said his friend from Saratoga was a bachelor and did not 
believe in educating other people's children. The property of the state 
should educate the children. Make the full amount as far as possible, say 
a mill and a half, a state tax. This he enforced at length, and gave many 
instances from the experience of the Department. We must make the 
schools all free. Mr. Rice then went into an elaborate argument for free 
Bohools and the justice of state taxation. 

Dr. Thomson spoke of the liberality of the city of New York in recogni- 
tion of the great system of state taxation for the support of schools. 

Dep. Supt. Barb offered the following substitute : 

Resolved, That rate bills should be abolished by legal enactment. 

Resolved, That the state tax for the support of schools should be at once 
increased to at least 1\ mill on each dollar of the valuation of taxable 
property in the state as equalized by the state assessors, and that in each 
district where the public money should prove insufScient for the payment 
of teachers' wages, the balance should be raised by tax levied on the 
property of the district. 

Pending its discussion, adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The association met at 2 o'clock. Song by the class of young ladies. 

Com. Lamo fVom (he committee to nominate officers reported as follows. 

Pretidenty Supt. James Cbuikshank, Brooklyn. 

Vice President, Com. A. Snydeb, Tompkins Co. 

Secretary, Com. S. Arnold Tozee, Livingston Co. 

Treasurer, Com. Israel Wilkinson, Cayuga Co. 

The report was adopted, and the gentlemen named were declared the 
officers Of the association for the ensuing year. 

The discussion of the question on rate bills was renewed. 

Commissioner Snyder believed it was wise that the local districts should 
pay some direct tax. He believed it injudicious to apportion a large 
amount of public money to the district. All interest is lost. The tax has 
lost its personal character. When the people feel the tax with reference 



350 Asaociation of Sdiod 

to its uliimato application, they appreciate that object. lie beliered thai 
such local taxation should be a condition precedent to the receiying of the 
public money. The result of state taxation alone would be the employ- 
ment of teachers at an amount not to exceed the public money. 

Dr. TuoMsoN urged, from the argument ** what costs nothing is worth 
nothing," that the whole people should bo taxed, and then all will be in- 
terested. 

He placed the argument for free and liberal education on the benefit to 
be derlTed to society. 

Dep. Supt. Barr said : It is settled we must have free schools, and the 
question is whether we haye local or state taxation. He said the greatest 
source of litigation, as seen in the records of the Department, arises from 
cases of local taxation. 

Commissioner Lamq has changed his mind since he has been a school 
commissioner, and beliejes in free schools. The rate bill shortens the 
term of schools, and induces the employment of cheap and inefficient 
teachers. 

Commissioner McKindlt retorted somewhat sharply to the remarks of 
Mr. KicE this morning. 

Commissioner Pooler instanced seyeral cases, showing that loeal taxa- 
tion in many instances operates even to the dissolution of districts, and 
depriying the children, through no fault of theirs, of the means of edoca- 
tion. 

Commissioner Ellsrt farored state taxation. 

Commissioner Miller, of Chautauqua, took the same gronnd. 

Superintendent Danforth was understood to adyooate loeal taxation. 

Commissioner Curtice referred to the injustice, where, by the mere acci- 
dent of district lines, a wealthy man is one district rather than another, 
if the scheme of local taxation is adopted. 

Commissioner Lamq offered the following as a substitute. 

Resolved, That in the estimation of this association, the rate bill system if 
a great obstacle to popular education, and, therefore, we would recommend 
the immediate abolition of the same. 

Mr. Cruttenden, of Michigan, (formerly of this state), detailed some of 
the customs of that state (which is practically a colony of New York), and 
where the rate bill still exists. He fayors Mr. Sntder's resolution. Be- 
lated an amusing instance of the establishment of a union free school and 
the success. 

Dep. Supt. Barr and Supt. Cruikshank spoke at length of the facts 
and statistics to which they have had access, and adyocated state taxation 
and free schools. 

Cominisdioncr Lang's substitute was lost. 

Mr. Baru's substitute for Mr. Sntdkr's resolution was accepted. 

Adjourned. 



Ocmmijmoviers a/nd Stipermtendents. 361 



Wednesday Menibi*, 

Association met at 8 o'clock. President Bulklbt in the chair. The 
minntes were read and approved. 

The following subject was then taken up, *< The Examination of Teachers." 

Commissioner Pooleb belicTed that both the oral and written methods 
should be practiced — the written for knowledge of subjects in the books, 
and oral touching other matters of general intelligence and skill in pre- 
senting. 

Commissioner Cttbttce favored the same view, and that the candidate 
should be required to exhibit methods of teaching. 

Commissioner Lako gave some valuable experiences. He believed that 
the test of qualifications is found in the practical knowledge of the teacher, 
and his skill to use it. It is difficult to do this in the case of a stranger. 
Much can be told by the manner and general appearance of the applicant. 
Has granted certificates to those who sustained a poor examination, but 
were successful. 

Commissioner Sntdeb believed that the true philosophy of leaching was 
found in creating a want of knowledge. He examines with a list of ques- 
tions and requires written answers ; concurred with other gentlemen in 
reference to the matter of general knowledge and skill. Answers, given 
vacantly, in the words of the book, are no test. 

Commissioner Snydeb offered the following resolution: 

Retolwd, That every grade of school should have a teacher who pos- 
sesses a thorough and exact knowledge of all the branches taught in any 
common school. 

Commissioner Ellery insisted that the commissioner should correct faults 
observed in teaching, and that candidates should be apprised of the 
purpose. 

Commissioner Suebman of Wayne, believed that no other consideration 
can atone for lack of knowledge of the subject to be taught. 

Adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow evening at the union school 
room. 

Thursday Moraine 

President B ulklet in the chair. Opened with prayer by Superintendent 
Heffbon. 

Mr. Babb from special committee on reports of Teachers, rendered the 
following : 

Mr, Pretident and Oentlemen of the Association : Your Committee have seen 
no reason to change, but are confirmed in the opinion expressed by some of 
them at the time of their appointment — that the committee would not 
be able at any time during the present session of the Association to make 
and submit to you a report embracing ftiUy the substance and form of a 
proper report to be adopted by School Commissioners and City Superintend- 
ents of schools for general use by the teachers under their supervision, in 
rendering to them reports. The pressure of other duties has prevented a 



352 AB9(xsioUi(m of Schod O^ 

thorongh consideration of the subject, and therefore yonr Committee 
recommend the adoption of the following resolutions: 

1. Resolvedf That common school teachers in the rural districts shoold 
each report to the School Commissioner inyested by law with the power and 
duty of superrision of the schools taught by them respectirely, at the 
expiration of the first month's school of each term so taught by them, 
and also at the close of each term. 

2. Eetolvedf That we recommend to School Commissioners tbat for the 
purpose of experiment, they use until the next annual session of the Asso- 
ciation the following form of report, yiz : 

REPORT 

Made by as teacher of School Dist. No in the town of 

for the commencing with the day of 186..., and end- 
ing with the day of 186.... 

The names and number of days' attendance of each pupil attending the 
school, the arerage daily attendance of pupils for said (write month or 
term), and the number of pupils in attendance for each day are correctly 
and fully stated in the schedule hereto annexed, and marked A, The 
branches studied or practiced in the school, and the No. of classes in each 
branch, the number of pupils in each class, the text books used in each 
class, the page at which each class commenced at the beginning of said 
(write month or term), and the page to which they had adyanced at the close 
thereof, are correctly and fully stated in schedule hereto annexed, and 
marked B, 

The programme of exercises now in use by me in the school is correctly 
set forth in schedule C, 

I have written out and annexed hereto a statement marked Z>, showing 
correctly the method pursued by me in the management and instruction of 
each class. 

To the following questions I have written in the blank spaces (in the 
printed form) following them respoctiyely, true, full and correct answers. 

(The Com. have no time to add the list of questions, and the remainder 
of form of Teachers' Report). 

The committee recommend the appointment of a committee to which 
shall be committed the whole subject matter now in charge of this com- 
mittee, and that such committee be instructed to inyestigate the subject, 
and report to this Association at its next annual session a form of report 
embracing items of common importance in both cities and rural districts 
and to supplement such form, by adding in the one instance such other items 
as shall be more particularly adapted to the wants of city Superintendents, 
and in the second instance, by adding such items as shall fully adapt the 
form to the wants of School Commissioners. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

S. D. Bare, ] 

A tvfn.^p''''''* \ Committee. 
A. Snydeb, I 

Geneva, Aug. 2, 1866. J, 0. Weight, J 

The first resolution was adopted. 



A Lost City Diaoovered. 353 

On motion of Sunt. HBrf bon, after some discussion and explanation, the 
remainder of the report was recommitted to the committee to report to 
State Superintendent for his use and action during the coming year — and 
more elaborately at next meeting of this association. 

Commissioner Sntdkk called np the resolution relatlTC to the qualification 
of teachers offered by him yesterday. 

Commissioners Pooleb and Lanq gare instances of cases where prudence 
required the employment of teachers not really qualified in scholastie 
studies. 

Supt. HErrnoN believed the spirit of the resolution correct. 

Com. WiLKiHSON said : We need the best teachers in the primary depart- 
ments. 

Mr. Babr belieyed that teachers of limited qualifications must for a long 
time to come be employed in our smaller schools. 

Supt. BuLKLEY giTes second grade licenses to teachers whose skill he has 
not seen tested. 

After further general discussion, Mr. Babb offered an amendment which 
was lost. 

Mr. Sntdeb's resolution was lost. 

On motion of Supt. Abbot, a committee was appointed to prepare busi- 
ness for next meeting. The chair named Messrs. HErreoN, Lakq and 
Tozbb. 

Mr. Cbuikshank by request made an appeal in behalf of the N, 7, 
Teacher. 

On motion of Com. Lang, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted: 

Betolvedf That it is the duty of each commissioner in his district to make 
all laudable efforts to secure subscribers to the New Yobk Teacheb, and 
contribute to its columns. 

The thanks of the association were extended to the Board of Education for 
the use of the Union School Hall ; to Mr. Vrooman for kind attentions, and 
to the young ladies for their inspiring songs. 

After appropriate closing remarks by President Bulklet, the association 
adjourned, sine die. 



A Lost Mexican Citt Dihcovbbed. — It is said that the ruins of another 
ancient city have been discovered about one hundred miles west from 
Tuxpan, in Vera Cruz. Trees, hundreds of years old, are growing among 
the ruins. The walls of many houses are standing, and on them are 
paintings and other ornaments. Carved doorways and images abound. 
Several temples were found, and in one of them a statuette on which was 
carved a cross. 



Resident Editor's Department 



Glosb or THB VoLUMX. — The September number will complete the present 
Tolume. It will be published early, snd will contain essays and addresses 
presented at the annual meeting. 

Such arrangements have been made as, we hope, will gire increased 
facilities for rendering the Txaghek in the next Tolume more than ever the 
exponent of the best educational ideas and progress of the times. We tmst 
our readers will renew their subscriptions at an early day, and seoore 
those of their friends. Liberal terms will be offered to agents. 

Items, Book Notices, etc., crowded out. 

Prizs Essat — $600. — The American Popular Life Insurance Company 
of New York, offers a prize of a paid-up Life Policy for 9500, for the best 
Essay on the Physical Sigru and other Indications of Longevity. Essays 
mny bo written in any language, and forwarded to the company at their 
central office 419 and 421 Broadway, corner of Canal street, N. T., with 
the writer's name separately enclosed in a sealed cnrelope, preyioas to 
January 1, 1867. In connection with the aboTo may be considered the 
signs to be found in parents, brothers, sisters, etc., and the influence of 
Tocation, residence, etc. — whatever will serre as a guide in equitably 
insuring lives. 

Aside from the prise offered, the important nature of the snljeet itsdf, 
in its bearings upon human welfare, will stimulate thought and endeavor. 

Prof. Pbrrt Bbmj. Pibrob, a graduate of one of our New Tork colleges, 
goes in September to the Rectory Military School, near New Haven, Ct., 
as professor of mathematics and first assistant in the school. Prof. P. if 
from St. Lawrence Co. in this state. 

GiLDERSLBBVB. — Died in the city of New York, Sunday, July 8, 1886, 
after a short illness, Charles Henry Qildersleeve, aged 45 years. 

Prof. J. P. Wickbrsham has resigned the principalship of the Normal 
S chool at Millcrsville, Pa. 

NationalA ssooiations. — The annual meetings of the National Teachers* 
Association, Normal School Association, and Association of State and City 
Superintendents, were held in Indianapolis, Indiana, the third week in 
August, inst. They were of unusual interest. A report of their proceedings 
will appear in our next. 

Hon. Charles R. Coburn was recently re-appointed Superin tendon t of 
Common Schools of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 



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New Series.] SEPTEMBER, 1866. [Vol. A^1I,No. 12. 

President Atwater's Annual Address. 

Felloio Teachers of the New York State Teachers' Association: 

Another jcar has flown on time's swift wings bearing away its 
train of joys and sorrows, its hopes and fears, and we arc again 
assembled from the different sections of this widely extended com- 
monwealth to exchange our annual greetings; to grasp the friendly 
hand; look into the earnest face; hold sweet counsel together, and to 
thus strengthen ourselves for coming labor. To some of us the work 
of the last year has been wearisome indeed — care and toil and un- 
remitting anxiety have sometimes made us almost wish to be relieved 
from our chosen work ; and we sorely needed this opportunity to 
strengthen our faith, renew our broken vows and consecrate our- 
selves once more to the cause whose interests lie so near our hearts. 
Many are the new faces which each successive year brings to our 
meetings. Many of the old familiar ones we yearly miss from our 
midst; they are detained by unavoidable circumstances; have re- 
tired from the honorable business of teaching and taken up 
some more lucrative calling ; have grown weary and faint by the 
way, or have passed over the dark river and gone to dwell with the 
Great Teacher on high. We miss their friendly greetings, their 
words of lofty cheer, and their example of noble Christian heroism. 
Change, constant change, is impressed on our association as on 
every thing else of earthly origin. IIow few remain of those who 
assisted in the organization of this a.ssociation twenty-one years ago. 
And how many of w«, think you, will mingle in its meetiugs twenty 
years hence ? Ah I the number might soon be counted. What 3'ou 
and I are to do, here or elsewhere, to honor Qod or bless mankind, 
[Vol. XV, No. 12.] 24 



356 President Atvxtter's 

as teachers, must be done quickly — death will soon remove ns from 
these scenes ; or if perchance we escape his iron grasp, for a time, 
the stern decree of public opinion, not less inexorable than the dread 
monster himself, which .pronounces the unfitness of age for the work 
of teaching, will drive us into that retirement for which during 
our active labors, it has given us no means to make adequate pro- 
vision. 

It becomes us as we come up to these meetings, from year to year, 
to review our work for the year just past — to ask ourselves indi- 
vidually as well as collectively, in all seriousness, what have we done 
since we last met I' — not, how many pupils have we instructed — 
not, how many days have we labored in school — not, how many 
dollars have we put in our pockets ? — No, No I But, what good have 
we done to those young immortals intrusted to our special care? 
What noble thoughts, what high resolves what exalted aspirations 
have wo awakened in their minds ? What bad habits — what strong 
temptations have we helped them to overcome ? What sacrifices 
have we made for their good ? What mighty warfare have we 
waged, and what great victory have we gained over ourselves that 
we might be worthy exemplars to them — that we might make our 
every look and action as well as our every word a messenger of truth 
and hope and joy, to their young and impressible hearts? What 
have we done to exalt education and make it honorable in the com- 
munity where our lot is cast — to sustain all those agencies through 
which success is to come to our cause? Happy, indeed, is the 
teacher to whom questions like these bring no disquiet, who can say 
truly: " I have, according to my ability, done my whole duty!" 
Thrice mUerahh he who can neglect duties so high and holy without 
compunction or regret. 

It seems proper, at a time like this, to glance at the progress of 
education in the state during the last year. Many good and true 
men feared, on the breaking out of that great struggle that so con- 
vulsed the country during four years, that it would prove fatal to 
the interests of our schools. Subsequent events showed the fear to 
be wholly unfounded. Again it was predicted that the close of the 
war would be followed by general financial depression and universal 
stagnation of business which must involve our educational interesta 
in the common ruin. Here again a kind Providence has proved 



AnrmoU Address. 357 

better to us than our fears. No such general depression has ob- 
tained, and if any fact has been clearly established it is that the 
people are determined, in every emergency, to sustain and support the 
schools. 

In many respects our schools have never been more prosperous 
than during the last year. We learn from the very able report of 
the State Superintendent that the number of free schools in the 
state was increased during the year ending with the 30th of 
September last by 71 ; the number nf pupils instructed in the 
common schools by 35,433 ; the amount paid for teachers salaries by 
more than half a million, and the amount raised by local taxation 
for school purposes by nearly a million of dollars. There is reason 
to believe that the results for the year ending with the 30th of 
September next, will be much more satisfactory, especially in the 
item of teachers' salaries. In all these respects the success of our 
colleges and academies has been equally marked with that of our 
common schools. It is indeed one of the most gratifying signs 
of the times that there is everywhere increasing liberality in the 
matter of expenditures for public education. 

I can not but congratulate the educators of the state upon the 
progress made in the preliminary arrangements for the establish- 
ment of Cornell University. You are all aware that during the 
year 1865 the lion. Ezra Cornell donated $500,000 as an endow- 
ment of this Institution, which was chartered during the same 
year. During the last year he has donated other property valued 
at 8500,000 more, for the same purpose, making the munificent sum 
in all of a full million of dollars. The institution is also entitled 
by law to the proceeds of the sales of the college land scrip, which 
Mr. Cornell believes he can so manage as to make the endowment 
fund, within ten years, reach the princely amount of $3,000,000. 
The trustees have initiated measures for the erection of the 
building from the interest of the fund alone, lenving the principal 
intact, the entire income of which is to be devoted to the noble, 
benevolent and patriotic end proposed by the founder. One of 
the most interesting facts connected with the establishment of this 
University is that it i? pledged to accept and instruct gratuitously 
students from each assembly district in the state selected by the 
proper officers of each city and county as being the best scholars. 



358 President Atwater's 

The effects which the annual examinations for this purpose are to 
have upon our lower grades of scliools must be salutary indeed. I 
am fully impressed with the belief that Cornell University is to be 
a greater blessing to the state than any other educational Institution 
ever projected within its borders. 

Vassar College, too, has during the last year gone into successful 
operation under circumstances which seem calculated to work a 
complete revolution in the public mind in reference to the educa- 
tional capabilities and wants of woman — a revolution which can not 
be hastened too rapidly. Not less significant in a general point of 
view and more interesting to us as teachers, is the establishment 
upon a liberal and permanent basis of the Oswego Normal and 
Training School, which has already become the Mecca of the 
Pcstalozzian system of education in this country. Nor can we 
overlook, in our general estimate of progress, the provision made 
by our last Legislature for the establishment in different parts of 
the state of four new normal schools, thus bringing the means of 
special proiessional training to the very doors of our teachers, and 
leaving them without excuse if they do not prepare themselves for 
the proper discharge of their high duties. The old and honored 
agencies for the training of tea'chcrs — the County Institutes, 
teachers classes in academies, and the State Normal School at 
Albany — have been at least as successful as in former years. This 
hasty summary shows that the year has been unusually prolific in 
beneficent educational results. 

While there are numerous and gratifying evidences of the pro- 
gress of our higher and graded schools during the last few years, it 
may be questioned whether the common schools of the smaller 
villages and the rural districts have, as a rule, kept pace with that 
progress. It is doubtful whether in many localities they have not 
been retrograding, so that the opportunities for obtaining a good 
common school education are inferior to those of fifteen years ago. 
This statement may seem strange and startling to some, but it is 
made after considerable observation, upon mature deliberation, and 
with a settled conviction that it should receive immediate and care- 
ful attention from those most interested in the educational affairs of 
the ptate. 

There are many reasons why these schools have fallen behind 



A^mval Address. 359 

the others in the general advance. Through circumstances, perhaps 
unavoidable, they have hardly been affected at all by those 
diflcu.'isions carried on in teachers' associations, and educational 
periodicals, which have been the chief instrumentalities employed 
in promoting the elevation of the higher and graded schools. For 
it may be safely assumed that the largest portion of the teachers 
in these schools, during the last ten years never attended a teachers' 
meeting outside the limits of their own town, and were never con- 
stant readers of any educational paper. It is to be hoped that the more 
general attendance upon the Institutes for the last few years will, 
to some extent, prove a remedy for this deficiency. Would that 
the increased subscription list of the New York Tkacuer could be 
pointed to as another favorable indication in the same direction. 
The difficulty, however, can never be fully obviated so long as the 
salaries of these teachers, male and female, amount on an average 
to only $169 per year, out of which generous sum they are required 
to pay for their board. But the chief cause of the want of progress 
on the part of these schools, is to be found in the relations existing 
between them and the academics planted in their midst. 

The question has ofton been asked, whether something could not 
be done to give unity, harmony, and symmetry to our educational 
system — if, in fact, that can properly be called a system, some of 
whose parts have, at most, but an incidental connection, and are 
subject to independent control. Whether some plan could not be 
devised by which our academies and common schools, instead of 
being independent, and often antagonistic, could be systematiEcd, 
subjected to the same supervision, and made to minister to each 
other's success. 

The number of academics in the state has increased more 
rapidly than the legitimate demand for academic instruction. 
Sectional rivalry, individual cupidity, and other causes have often 
conspired to establish two or more of these institutions, where one 
was quite sufficient. Forced to resort to some extreme measure, to 
save themselves from financial ruin, and being under no restriction 
as to what they should teach, they have undertaken to do, to a 
very large extent, the appropriate work of the common schools, to 
the great injury of the latter, and, in the long run, of themselves. 
No sooner, under this state of things, have Esq. A/s, Dr. B.'s, or 



360 President Ahmter'a 

Lawyer C.'s children mastered the ground rules of arithmetic 
(T do not at all exaggerate), than they are hurried off to the 
academy. Injurious as is this course to them, giving them false 
and exaggerated notions of their own importance, it is still more 
injurious to the common school. One after another the older and 
more advanced pupils follow their pernicious example, until finally 
only the lowest classes remain. The trustees, reasoning as trustees 
always will under such circumstances, that, " any hody can teach 
little children to read,'* employ teachers of more and more slender 
qualifications from year to year, till what was at first the result of 
aristocratic pride, or vain ambition, becomes finally a necessity. 
The common school do longer affords more than the veriest elements 
of knowledge, and those who are unable to incur the expense of 
the academy must forego such an education as would fit them for 
the most ordinary duties of life. While our common schools are 
thus degraded, and the educational facilities of the people at large 
greatly impaired, the academies are very far from gaining any 
thing but a temporary advantage — an advantage which like all 
others founded upon a false basis, ultimately recoils upon their 
own Leads. They may for a time gain something in numbers, by 
thus lowering the standard of admission, but it is only for a time. 
On the other hand what do they not lose in character, in thoroughness, 
and systematic training? Disdaining in their teaching to descend 
quite to the level of the primary schools, they attempt to build 
the stately and beautiful fabric of a higher education, and more 
exquisite culture, upon the most precarious and uncertain foundation 
of a half-completed common school training — with what success 
recently developed facts will enable us to judge. 

Of about 35,000 students educated in the academies of the stale 
the last academic year, for which reports have been received, about 
20,000 were reported as properly academic^ the remaining 15,000 
as primary — common school, if you please. But this is by no 
means a fair statement of the case. Under the new and more 
searching tests applied by the Regents of the University, and for 
instituting which they deserve the highest commendation, the 
examinations for the current year, thus far, disclose the fact that 
seldom one-half and in sonic instances not one-tenth of the students 
in our academies can pass a respectable examination in the purely 



Anniuil Address. 361 

oommoQ fschool studies, grammar, geography and arithmetio. 
That the great majority of all our academic students ovghf to have 
tarried a while longer in the common schools, — and that when this * 
work is assumed hy the academies it is very imperfectly done ; for 
many of these rejected students have made considerahle proficiency 
in the mathematical and natural sciences, and the ancient and 
modern languages. 

Tho question which here arises, and which has heen in part 
answered is, '^ What is the remedy for this unsatisfactory state of 
things ?'' Simply to place these two classes of schools under the 
same control — give the one a course of study preparatory to the 
other — allow no pupil to enter the latter except upon a satisfactory 
examination upon the preparatory course — exclude tho academic 
studies from the common schools except the graded ones, and thus 
confine each rigidly to its own legitimate work. Let us away with 
this farce of allowing the teachers in our common schools to launch 
out into the (to many of them) unknown regions of algehra, 
philosophy and astronomy, while the weightier matters of the law, read- 
ing, spelling, writing, kc, are quite neglected, and at the same time 
admitting to our academies those whom we refuse to acknowledge 
as academic pupils, in greater number, five to one, than the academic 
students themselves. An able committee of your bodj is to report 
at this meeting a curriculum of studies for common schools. I 
trust it will be considered with such care as its importance demands. 
That the proper authorities will fix upon a suitable course of studies 
for academies at an early day, and that if legislative action is needed 
to prevent hereafter the admission of any but properly qualified 
pupils into the academies of tho state, it will be speedily invoked. 
Scarcely any other measure that could be devised seems to me to be 
BO full of promise for the schools of the rural districts as this ; and 
let us not forget that one member of our educational system can not 
suffer without all the members suffering with it. Let us not forget. 
in our laudable efforts to elevate the standard of education in the 
state, the class of schools from which, during the whole history of 
the republic, have sprung a large proportion of our wisest and best 
men. 

The public schools of the cities and larger villages of the state 
are free, while in those of the rural dbtricts the rate bill system 



362 Preeideiit AtuxUer'a 

everywhere prevails. If the experience of the last twenty yetni 
has settled any thing, apparently beyond reasonable controverpy, it is 
H^ the justice, expediency and economy of free schools. The proposi- 
tion that '^ the property of the state should educate the children of 
the state '' seems too thoroughly established to need further argu- 
ment. Property is but the result of labor, directed, it is true, by 
the combined intelligence of the employer and laborer; and shall 
capital longer grudge to labor so small a pittance from its surplus 
earnings as will give the children of the laborer a good common 
school education ? When state after state has taken rank in the 
free school column, does it comport with the dignity or the generosity 
of the imperial state of New York to stand longer in opposition f 
Should she not hasten to so amend her laws in compliance with the 
recommendation of the State Superintendent, ^^ That the odious 
rate bill shall no longer prevent children from going to school; 
that the school shall be as free to all of proper age and condition 
as the air and the sunlight;" and should not this association 
reaffirm its former testimonies upon this subject, and throw the 
entire weight of its influence in favor of a wise and salutary measure 
of public justice too long delayed ? 

There has never been a period in our national history when a 
vigorous application of all our educational agencies was more 
necessary than now. All the teaching talent of the country will 
need to be brought into activity to supply the rapidly increasing 
demand. New fields are opening on every hand which must be 
occupied, or serious consequences will ensue. In the south we have 
four millions of people suddenly transformed from chattels personal, 
into men, and invested with the rights and responsibilities of 
citizens — literally a nation born in a day. These must be educated 
and fitted for their now relations, or their emancipation will prove a 
curse rather than a blessing to themselves and the country. Then 
there are the millions of poor whites of the same section to whom 
knowledge has hitherto been a sealed book, who are hardly less 
ignorant and degraded than the blacks themselves, who are to be 
|n like manner fitted to act intelligently their part in the recon- 
structed order of things. 

Again ,thcre is a greatly increased tide of foreign immigration now 
settling upon our shores which is likely to be still more augmented 



Annual Address. 363 

on account of the unsettled aspect of affairs in Europe. All tbese 
must be brought under the iufluence of our schools, made 
acquainted with our language, customs, and laws, before they can 
be in any true sense naturalized and fitted for an intelligent dis- 
charge of the new duties devolved upon them in this land of their 
adoption. It becomes the people of the country, in view of the 
vastness and increasing importance of this work, to hold out much 
stronger inducements than heretofore to men and women of talent, 
ability and worth, to enter this great field where the harvest truly is 
plenteous, but the skilled laborers are comparatively few. It becomes 
us, too, as educators to prepare ourselves for the increasing circle of 
our opportunities and duties. The work we have taken upon us is 
a most arduous and responsible one. It requires men of clear heads, 
true hearts, and noble, generous impulses, ready, if need be, to make 
sacrifices for the promotion of a great and good cause. If circum- 
stances or our own inclinations will not permit any of us to make 
these sacrifices, let us give way to those who can and will do so. 
Teachers, of all men, should bo well paid for their services, but the 
fact that they are not thus paid, will not in the least excuse them 
from the faithful and conscientious discharge of their voluntarily 
assumed duties. 

While our calling is one of cares, and trials, and perplexities, and 
has its tendencies against which we must constantly guard if we 
would maintain a true and vigorous manhood, it has also its com- 
pensations to which in darker hours we must turn for consolation 
and encouragement. Nor let us ever forget that this life is but 
a point upon the boundless circle of our existence, and that the 
dictates of sound philosophy, not less than the teachings of the purest 
Christianity, bid us endure for a season, that we may reap unending 
joys on the elysian fields of an eternal hereafter. 

Nor let the good man's trust depart, 

Though life its common gifts deny ; 
Though with a pierced and bleeding heart, 

And spurned of men, he goes to die. 

For God has marked each sorrowing day, 

And garnered every bitter tear, 
And heaven's long age of bliss shall pay, 

For all his children suffer here. 



364 President Atwaiei^a 

There is mucb in the every day life of the tme teacher — all 
repulsive, as it may seem to the mere hireling, or to the uniDitiated — 
to soften its asperities, and render it quite tolerable, nay, ofttimes 
attractive. The real educator, whose heart beats in sympathy with 
the great heart of humanity, whose affections are warm, and hia 
nature buoyant, enters upon all the duties of his vocation with a 
life, spirit, and energy, that quicken the pulses of his pupils, and 
make them something more than mere passive recipients. The 
new life that he thus awakens in them, reacts upon himself, and he 
learns from blessed experience that there is that scattereth and yet 
increaseth. Again, it is not enough that the teacher knowz a 
'thing ; he must be able to impart his knowledge to others, henee 
that thoroughness of study, which is discipline. 

*< Thoughts disentangle passing o*er the lips ; 

Speech spreads the beauteous images abroad, 
Which else lie ftirlcd and clouded in the soul ; 

Aye! tpeech is morning to the mind." 

The teacher is no exception to the proposition of an eminent writer 
that, " every man is debtor to his profession." 

As you go forth from this place, fellow teachers, be not unmindAil 
of the dignity of your high calling; seek just reward for your 
services ) for it is indispensable to your proper support, and is, more- 
over, in the present perverted state of public opinion, to some extent 
the measure of your influence, but subordinate this at all times, as a 
motive to exertion to those higher and nobler impulses, which are 
derived from a contemplation of your responsibility to your pupils, 
to the communities in which you dwell, to our common country, 
and to God, the Father of us all. Strive* by patient study, by 
constant self-control, by lofty and heroic endeavor to fit yourselves 
to become the dispensers of all good and holy influences, and if due 
appreciation of your labors does not immediately follow, patiently 
abide your time. 

You may receive inadequate reward for valuable services, — you 
may not occupy the chief seats in the synagogues, nor the uppermost 
rooms at feasts — you may be, as was the world's Great Teacher, 
despised and rejected of men ; but your memory will live in the 



Annual Address. 365 

deepest recesses of many a young heart, and will continue to be an 
active force in human affairs long after you shall have passed away 
from earth ) and when the scroll of eternity shall be unrolled, high 
up among the benefactors of the race will be found the names of 
those who have intelligently, earnestly, hopefully, patiently, prayer- 
fully, "taught little children to read." 

The educator, especially one who has followed the vocation from 
youth to middle age, and who is hopeful, and trustful, as he must be, 
if he at all succeeds — is an enthusiast — is ever tempted to pass 
from the real to the ideal — from the positive and actual to the 
possible and mythical — ever and anon he glides into a fanciful 
realm, whose landscapes, fairer than the fairest of earth, enliven the 
eye of the poet, whose forms almost angelic enrapture the artist — a 
realm where parents are always prudent and faithful, and children 
ever reverent and obedient — where teachers know every thing, and 
pupils in a very little time know more than their teachers — where 
school houses rise as if by magic, adorned after the similitude of 
palaces — where no rate-bills are ever known, and the dread form of 
the tax-gatherer never overshadows the vision. Delightful as it seems 
to dwell in this realm, the sober realities of this day and age forbid. 
And yet, as the ideal ever precedes the actual — as the successive 
achievements of the ages are but the gradual elimination of errors 
and deformities from the actual, causing it constantly to approximate 
to the ideal, may we not reasonably hope that this yearning after 
something higher and better in this department of human endeavor 
is but a# earnest of better things in a brighter future. May this 
hope stimulate us to exertion — may each of us strive to hasten 
forward this educational millenium; to see that the approximation 
be not like that of the asymptote to the curve of the hyperbola, 
terminated only at an infinite distance. 

Men are immortal on earth, only as they live in their works 
and the memory of those who do great things; to promote the 
welfare and happiness of the race is not willingly permitted to die. 
We commemorate our military and naval heroes, by rearing marble 
columns, pointing heavenward, and inscribing thereon the records 
of their mighty deeds, and we do well, for they deserve nobly at 
our hands ; but how much more worthy of a nation's reverential 
regard and undying remembrance, are those who inaugurate or 



366 PreaiderU AtwcUer^s 

Buccessfully carry forward great educational enterprises? What 
nobler monument can men and women rear to perpetuate the memory, 
than an organized system of schools, exerting a controlling influence 
upon the manners, customs, habits, and destiny of a great en- 
lightened and christian people ? 

Be it ours, unitedly and harmoniously, to sustain, strengthen, and 
perfect the educational system of this great state, and make it 
worthy to be one of the co-ordinate elements in a system of natwnal 
education, which, while it shall make America the glory of all 
lands, shall also carry healing in its wings to the remotest nations, 
and the most distant times. So that when the effete systems and 
the crumbling dynasties of the old world shall have tumbled into 
ruins, the land of Washington and Lincoln may give back to it 
the civilization they gave to us, increased in value an hundred fold, 
and clothed with more than oriental splendor. 

Education is a unit. We may talk of different kinds of schools — 
common schools, academies, schools of special training, and 
colleges — but in the highest sense, all are one. The true end of 
all education, is to train individuals for an immortal destiny, and 
nations for the highest and holiest purposes of a Christian civilisa- 
tion : to this end, if we are true men and women, we are all 
co-workers, whether we labor in the highest or lowest grades of 
schools. The work of all is alike dignified and noble, and all will, 
here or hereafter, receive their just reward. 

Pleasant memories and kindly sympathies, require me to say a 
word in passing of our late lamented friend and associate, G. H. 
Gildcrsleeve, intelligence of whose decease has so recently reached 
us. He was among the earliest and firmest friends and supporters 
of this association, always actively and warmly attached to its 
interests, and ready to labor for it where labor was most needed. 
He was an ardently devoted and eminently successful teacher, and 
though circumstances had drawn him aside from the duties of his 
chosen profession, we remember him with the liveliest feelings of 
gratitude for the elevating influences of his pure and noble life, 
mingled with the deepest emotion of sorrow for his early death. 

** He rests from his labors and his works do follow him." 

So must you and so must I, pass sooner or later from these 



Anmiol Address. 367 

earthly scenes, to reap the reward of our doings. May we too be 
also ready. 

As in the visions of the night we live over again, in imagination, 
our daily lives, so there is reason to believe, from the narrated 
experience of those who have been rescued from a state of 
unconsciousness allied to death, that at the instant of dissolution 
the whole of life, like a grand panoramic picture, passes before 
the mind's eye, and we are made the unwilling, perhaps, yet 
conscious and impartial judges of our own acts. 

Historians tell us that when the conqueror of Europe, upon his 
lone rock in mid-ocean came to his last hours, and his body was 
sinking in death, his spirit was mingling in the most stirring scenes 
of his eventful life. Again he was at the head of his legions, 
" struggling beneath the Pyramids — on the banks of the Danube — 
on the plains of Italy — the thunder of cannon smote upon his 
ear." 

** Again Marengo's field was won 
And Jena's bloody battle : 
Again the world was overrun 
Made pale by his cannon's rattle." 

And thus in the midst of battle and of conflict he breathed out his 
life. Not less instructive as a moral lesson, illustrative of the 
undying interest, the educator should have in his work; and infinitely 
more touching and beautiful is the story of a teacher, who after 
having seen successive little flocks go out and in before him in the 
same place, for more than thirty years, was finally brought to the 
limit of his mortal existence, and as life waned apace and earthly 
things receded, he was again in the school room, familiar faces 
gathered about him — familiar tones fell upon his listening car — 
imaginary ideal forms of the loved ones he had taught, from both 
worlds, mingled about his couch. Again he was monarch of all he 
surveyed, and the willing subjects of his sway lent attentive ear to 
the words of wisdom that fell from his lips, and as the shadows of 
the dark valley grew thicker, and those ethereal forms faded one 
by one, from his failing vision, he called his wasting energies and 
whispered, '* It is getting dark — the boys may go out — school is 
dismissed." 



368 Faiih. 

May you so labor, as teachers, that your last hours may be as 
peaceful, and your last earthly visions as bright and beautiful as his. 
May you so labor and 

**So liTe, that when your summons comes 

To join the innumerable carayan which moves 

To that mysterious realm where each shall take 

His chamber in the silent halls of death — 

You go not like the quarry slave, at night. 

Scourged to his dungeon, but slistained and soothed 

By an unfaltering trust approach the grave 

Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him 

And lies down to pleasant dreams." 



Faith.' 



BT MISS MABT A. EIPLBT OF ALBANY. 

Green summits lie in light and shade, 
And forest arches rear their pride, 
Gleaning their pomp from things that died, 

And moldered in the summer glade. 

The soil is rich beneath my feet. 
With dust that lived in years agone, 
Whose grandeur towered, whose beauty shone. 

Whose bravery breasted cold and heat. 

The ancient glory perished ; here 
Life roots itself in death, and feeds 
Upon the crumbled past ; nor heeds 

That its own throne rests on the bier. 

And as these olden forms decay, 
To give their beauty to the new. 
The later standing where they grew. 

So is it with the world for aye. 

The Present for the Future strives ; 
Not for themselves the ages roll. 
Wasting proud blood for goodly spoil ; 

Not for to-day men give their lives. 

•Bead before the New York State Teachers' Aieodation at Genera. 



Faith. 369 

Not that old bounds may be restored. 

Do gathering armies tread the plain ; 

Not for a field is crimson rain 
Upon the stainless blossoms poured. 

Nay, not for these the word goes forth; 

Not for a proTinoe or a throne 

Is the loud battle trumpet blown 
Through continents from south to north. 

But that the manhood, crushed beneath 

A million hoary-headed wrongs, 

May burst its chains, break into songs, 
And with a fresher gladness breathe. 

The people shake the palace towers; 

Kings plot against the people's life ; 

The mountains heave with giant strife ; 
At Freedom's feet the tyrant cowers. 

Above this cloud-wrapped surge of war, 

She sits to watch the world progress ; 

And seers and prophets all confess 
Her light to be their guiding star. 

earth, roll toward thy perfect state I 

Put on thy garb of liberty ! 

Call forth thy sons, the pure, the Aree, 
About thy radiant throne to wait. 

We know the sleeping centuries lie 

Beneath the days wherein we walk ; 

Old wisdom flavors our new talk ; 
We may not fling the ancients by. 

For their great thoughts come flowing down 

From misty heights so far away, 

We, in our foolish, childish play, 
Forget whence all their balm is blown. 

Ay, the old thinkers for us thought ; 

For us the seers their visions told ; 

For us the prophesies unrolled ; 
For us the warriors armed and fought. 

Men's lives were cheap and pauper toys, 

If their great deeds were left unsown ; 

We have to loftier stature grown. 
When, with a self forgetting poise, 



370 Fumcticn of Normal Schools. 

We can work oSt nor heed the eyes 
That Arigidly our labor Bcan ; 
Uncaring, if we may but plan 

A scale by which the world may rise. 

Thus wrought the man whose rererend dust 
In Mississippi's Talley rests ; 
Whose brightness dims the tyrant-crests, 

That, shameless, glow with princely lust ; 

Who wrought through sad, distrustful hours. 
Who saw through darkness into light, 
Whose Faith beheld the conquering Right, 

Whose brave life blossomed into flowers ; 

Who sits above the mitered priest. 
Above the purple-vestured king ; 
Whose simple teachings yet shall bring 

The world toward its millenial feast. 

And when these passing years are old. 
When mosses cling to our new domes. 
Where'er our purer freedom comes. 

The fame of Lincoln shall be told. 

O earth, roll into golden light! 

Let sunshine pierce the battle-gloom ; 

Roll forward, giye the people room; 
Roll into day, roll out of night I 



Hemarks on the Function of Normal Schools. 

Tbc original idea of the work of a normal school, seems to haye 
been, at least on the part of some, to traia teachers, solely in 
methods of imparting instruction. The intention, on the part of 
those starting with this idea, has been to take pupils who had 
completed, or nearly completed, their academical studies (and were 
thus fitted, as far as the furnishing of the mind is concerned, to 
become teachers), and to give them, in connection with a review of 
their studies, a course o/ pro/ess ton a! training^ to which is added in 
many schools, a certain amount of practice, or observation in experi- 
mental or model schools under the criticising eye of experienced 
teachers. A programme of study, starting from this point, would, 
as we should naturally expect, be a programme of reviews, arrange 



Function of Normal Schools. 371 

ing for a sufficient amount of work, in a given time, for the 
occupation of students who had, already, attained a fair knowledge 
of the subjects laid down : and here I would give the absolute or 
whole time devoted to each study in one of these programmes. 

Arithmetic, llf Algebra, 8| 

Grammar 9J Natural Philosophy, 8} 

Geography, 3| Physiology, If 

Reading 3f Geology If 

Writing, IJ Trigonometry, If 

Composition, 1| Surveying, 1^ 

U. S. History, 2f Mental Philosophy IJ 

General History, 2f Moral Philosophy, If 

Bookkeeping, If Rhetoric, If 

Geometry, 8f Chemistry, 2f 

That such a course would be wholly unfit for pupils who had failed 
to receive the previous preparation, will be perceived at a glance. 
Yet, we find, in point of fact, that the pupils who present them- 
selves as candidates for seats in our normal schools possess no such 
previous preparation. With by far the greater proportion of them, 
1^ is with much difficulty, that we find sufficient preparation, 
vven in the elementary branches, to admit them to a foothold in 
our classes, at a point, from which they must work their way up 
through studies taken at first sight, and into which they have 
never looked before, it is easy to see what we demand, when we 
attempt to force such pupils as these through a programme of 
reviews, and to secure, not only thoroughness, in the most abstruse 
branches of an academical course, but to give them also an aptitude 
to impart to others in the best manner, a knowledge of branches over 
which they are forced to skim, as rapidly, and at as little depth, as 
a petrel skims the water. If experience really teaches us that this 
is the point at which the provision of the state normal schools 
meets the requirements of the future teachers of the state for 
instruction in their profession, it is evident that there is a gap 
between the 2wovmon and the demand^ which needs to be filled up, 
by some device or other. But, I believe, it is the office of the 
normal schools^ rather than the teachers, to fill this gap. The object, 
in establishing normal schools, is, if any, to provide the best 
possible teachers for our free schools — to give them some such 

[Vol. XV, No. 12.] 25 



372 Fwnction of Normal Schools. 

preparation as is considered necessary in every other profession, — 
to give to the schools, such teachers, as will render them worthy of 
the great efforts the state has made to estahlish them, worthy to 
belong to the best system of schools that the world has yet known. 
A main object in providing a seminary for the preparation of candi- 
dates for this profession, is, to prevent quackery, in this, as in other 
professions. 

The appointments for seats in the normal school are made, as is 
well known, by the school commissioners of the different counties; 
and it is stipulated, that these candidates shall possess an unblem- 
ished moral character, sound bodily health, good natural abilities, 
and the best acquired preparation fur the office of teacher that can 
be found. Thus far, the state has done its duty, wisely considering 
that the natural and acquired abilities of candidates for the office 
of teacher are quite as important as those of candidates for positions 
in the army. We consider them far more important. We are con- 
vinced, also, that the school commissioners do their dutj/ faithfull^^ 
and return to these seats the best material that can be found for this 
purpose. It becomes evident then, from an experience of many 
years, that the requirements of the state in this respect need to be 
met, at a point for which vl proyramme of revietcs does not by any 
means provide. It is a fact patent to all, that the profession of the 
teacher, is one that never will bring wealth to those engaged in it 
If wealth ever comes to those thus engaged, it is through some 
means which no chain of human logic could have foretold, and for 
which no human philoFophy can account. Those, therefore, who 
look to wealth as the reward of toil, arc pretty certain not to engage 
in this profession. Those who fill its offices, must be drawn from 
a class, who are ready to content themselves with a moderate supply 
of this world's benefits ; and they are, consequently, likely to origi- 
nate among those who are in the middle walks of life. From this 
point of view, it is clear, that the candidates for this office, really 
need the assistance of the state at a point where a certain amount 
of academical, as well as of professional training is required. 
The state secures for this work, the best material it can obtain; 
and it needs to do its part of preparimj the pupils thus obtained far 
their profession^ in such a wui/ that their normal training shall nof 
dp them more harm than good. But, it does do them more haim 



Functio7i of Normal Schoola. 373 

than good, if it teaches them to be superficial in things which they 
profess to understand, if it obliges them to skim along so rapidly 
as to obtain only the merest smattering of a subject, and to 
fall at last into such a habit of doing this, that they lose all 
knowledge of what thoroughness is, and come, finally, never to 
expect to hear a perfect recitation, either in their own class rooms, 
or from the pupils, they are called to teach. It does them more 
harm than good, if, with a natural desire on their part, for thorough- 
ness and faithfulness, in all that is required of them, it urges them 
beyond their strength, so that before they come to the discharge of 
their professional duties, the health is broken and the nervous 
system ruined, as has often been the case. We may form our 
theorie*^ but if we w'sh to put them into practice, we must bring 
them down to practical facts as they exist. We can not change 
these facta by a sweep of the imagination to fit our theorirs. If 
then, experience has shown us the only possible point at which the 
provisions of the state for the preparation of its teachers can, 
(for the present at least), meet the requirements of those who pre- 
sent themselves as candidates for this profession, we have received 
so much light on what are now the proper functions of a normal 
school. But we are prepared to go farther than this, and give it as 
our opinion that this is the best point at which the requirements 
of these candidates for preparation can be met. Is it not better 
that the mind should be pruned and fitted for its special work at 
the same time that it is receiving to it.^elf the knowledge it must 
afterwards impart? The mind grows less plastic as it approaches 
mature age. The mobility, the ease with which it is molded in 
childhood is lost gradually. It hardens, so to speak, upon the 
knowledge it receives, imbedding, often, with it, many forms of 
error, so that in the pruning which must afterwards be given, it 
re(juires the work of the chisel which removes the solid marble, 
rather than the milder instrument by which the yielding clay is 
molded to its uses. 

We all know the difference in the work of the skillful nursery- 
man, when he enters a nursery of young trees, and prunes and 
trains them into forms of beauty, that will both please the eye, an4 
bring about the best results ', and when he enters an old orchard, 
with boughs twisted and gnarled, with tops filled with caterpillars. 



374 FiMicHon of Normal Schools. 

or black knots and trunks covered with crocodile Rcales, which 
only the utmost patience can remove. lie enters with saws and 
pruning knife; but he grows heartsick at the first glance, and 
though he sets about his work with tireless energy, lopping off 
here, and straightening there, and letting in the light in all direc- 
tions, he meets discouragement at every step, and knows that with 
his best endeavors, he will secure but doubtful results. The yowtg 
orchard is incomparably more valuable than the old, for the 
purposes he desires to reach. 

It is with a greater keenness of appetite, that the mind seizes 
upon the details of a new study, and the modes of imparting it, 
than that, with which it accepts instruction in new methods of 
imparting that, with which it holds itself already familiar. Let iu 
have then, for the young, the best culture, which it is possible to 
obtain, and as the pupil approaches mature age, if he intends to fit 
himself for the profession of the teacher, let him put himself, at 
once, into a course of training /or this special object And let us 
give, in our normal schools, such a programme of study as the 
candidates for seats iu them, can master thoroughly, in the time 
allotted, in connection with the instruction, in modes, and the 
practice in teaching, that these schools must give. The elementary 
branches must have the first place, aud no pupil should be passed 
to higher studies, who is not thoroughly rooted and grounded in 
these. These will, of themselves, fit teachers, in a measure, fur 
our common district schools, and it is only after they are thus 
fitted thoroughly, that they should expect to go up higher. If thiB 
work of training is well done, its influence will be re&ctionaiy, 
and we may expect each new set of candidates for seats in our 
normal schools, coming from the hands of teachers, already trained 
in them, will be better prepared for the work which these schools 
will do for them. It may be said, that the time usually given to 
normal school training is not sufficient, under these conditions, for 
a complete academical course. This may be true; but the 
argument does not militate, at all, against the necessity of 
thoroughness in whatever the pupil undertakes. He had better 
}earn two or three things, so that he knows them, than to a have a 
ppaattering of a dozen topics, poured in utter confusion into his brain. 
IJnleas the mind haa time to systematise the knowledge it obtainf 



Fwnction of Normal Sohools. 375 

as it goes on — to sort it out, and label it, in its specific depart- 
ments — this knowledge will be likely to be of very little use to its 
possessor. 

If jou attempt to ask questions of a pupil, who has been through 
this kind of cramming process, you are introduced, at once, to the 
state of confusion which exists in his mind. He glares at you with 
frightened eyes, and casts about desperately in the vortex of his 
mind, to sec if he can fish up the required item. He knows 
that there has been a vast deal of information poured into this 
vortex, and he thinks it quite likely, there may be something there, 
on the very topic about which you are inquiring. But floundering 
without a compass, he grows more and more desperate, and finally 
seizes the first thing that comes to hand, and presents it to your 
astonished eyes, no matter how remote or irrelevant it may be to 
the matter sought. (If it was of American history you asked ; it is 
most likely, Pocahontas, that has been drawn up. Her black hair 
is usually floating, amidst the foam of these mental whirlpools, and 
the poor, kind hearted squaw is dragged to light, on the most 
absurd, and incongruous occasions). 

There is no one who needs to be more exact in his knowledge^ 
and to have it more completely systemaUsed, and ready for use, at 
any moment, than a teacher. If he has not his knowledge thus 
at his command, the golden moment when he needs to impress 
important points upon his pupils, will slip from him, day after 
day, and his services will be of comparatively little use to him. 

One of the highest functions of the normal school is to give ease 
and power of expression to those to whom readiness of expression 
is of such fundamental importance. The academical student seeks 
his alma mater for the purpose of acquiring scientific and literary 
facts, and for the discipline of his mental powers. The normal 
student includes these objects in his purpose, and more. He must 
not only be well disciplined and well informed upon points which he 
professes to understand, buthc must be able to express them, readily 
and directly. The illustration or statement, which is clear and 
forcible to one person is not clear and forcible to another. The 
intellect of one pupil will grasp a thought almost intuitively when 
suggested, while the intellect of the other will grasp only its 
most indefinite outlines, so that he who would teach well must be 
able to express his ideas readily, directly and in a way adapted to 



376 Function of Normal Schools. 

the capacities of those he instructs, and in such a manner as to 
kindle that glow of intellectual sympathy which always accompanies 
all right teaching. It is very true that clearness of knowledge 
tends to clearness of expression ; but, for all this the two things 
are ({uite distinct. It is one thing to know a thing, and another, 
to be able to express this knowledge clearly and forcibly. Who 
that has ever seen a student, with but little readiness of language, 
hammering away upon a point which he evidently understood, and 
yet which he found it impossible to clothe in proper language, 
can doubt that this is a point, upon which, direct instruction and 
constant ]}r actio' is necesaart/? If any one doubts the very common 
deficiency, in this respect, let him ask persons unaccustomed to give 
exact definitions, to define words with whose meaning they are as 
familiar almost as with their own names, and see if they will defiae 
them correctly, or if they will not in many cases fail to give any thing 
that can be called a proper thfinition of tM words. Our works on 
orthography are frequently filled with the most absurd blunders 
of this kind j and even in more pretentious school-books — those per- 
taining to the exact sciences —^ when the authors had doubtless 
aimed especially at correctuess, we often find definitions and 
explanations open to the most marked criticism. Now no 
teacher is willing to make mis-statemcDts on the subject he teaches, 
or to teach in such a way that even mischief-makers can accuse him 
of making mis-statements with any show of reason : and he will find 
the time he spends in securing exactness and ease, in these respects, 
will pay him well ; for he who always miikes exact statement to 
his pupils, holds an immense power over them. 

Another work of normal schools, is to familiarize the pupil 
with the machinery of the school-room, with the best method of 
controlling, of systematising and arranging, and with the means 
that are most likely to interest his pupils in their schools. 

It is greatly to be hoped that the opportunities offered in oar 
normal schools for professional training, will tend to t/ive p^r- 
mane.nrt/ to the profesaion of the teacher. It is of no trivial 
importance to the welfare of the pupil, that teaching shall be made 
a permanent employment. If, with three-fourths of the teachers 
in the state, it is to be a mere temporary affair, then is professional 
training aU the more necessary, for if they undertake their work 
without this, the time they spend in the school room, will be 



Aiicimt Trees. 377 

spent almost wholly id learning how to manage a school. If, as 
soon as they have gained a fair understanding of their work, they 
are to vacate the pedagogical chair, and let in new and inex- 
perienced teachers upon the schools, it will be very much like the 
fable of the fox and the flies. 

If, in addition to this, the work of our normal schools shall tend 
to throw quackery entirely out of the profession — shall secure for 
its position persons, of thorough moral worth, and shall send them 
out earnest and devoted to their work, with a full appreciation of 
its importance — a knowledge that it Kes at the foundation of our 
republic; that they are daily in their teachings, building the 
bulwarks of the state ; if they stand as they should, as students 
upon the watch-towers of the age, overlooking the ocean of time, 
and learning what freight its waves are bearing to our shores, and 
thus preparing their pupils for the shock which they must meet 
then the value of these schools is not to be over-estimated, and we 
shall hail with pleasure the day when the state of New York shall 
boast her seven state normal schools — when she shall be the empire 
state in the cause of common education as well as in commercial 
progress. o. a. 



Ancient Trees. 

The celebrated chestnut on ^tna must be a thousand years old at 
least. The Baobab trees of the Green Cape demand of us, according 
to their thickness and the number of zones in some of their branches, 
an age of four thousand years, or thereabouts. The gigantic Cypress 
at Santa Maria del Tule, six miles east of Oaxaca, in Mexico, has a 
a circumference of 124 Spanish feet, about 40 feet in diameter. 
Now, suppose that every annual zone measured one line, the tree 
must be nearly three thousand years old. it is historically certain 
that it is older than the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards. The 
age of the great dragon tree at Orotava, in Teneriffe, is supposed 
to be five thousand years. These examples are quit« sufficient to 
prove the possibility of a compound plant living on without end. 



Resident Editor's Department 



* 1^ » » » 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION. 

THIBTT-SEVINTH ANNUAL MUTING. 

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American Institute of Instruc- 
tion commenced at the City Hall, Burlington, Vt., Tuesday, August 7th, at 
half past 2 o'clock, p. m. Some three hundred teachers, male and female, 
were present, besides many eminent college professors and distinguished 
educators. 

Prof. Buckham, of the Uniyersity, welcomed the Institute to Burlington 
in a short and genial address. He was responded to by the President of 
the Institute, B. Q. Northrop, of Massachusetts. 

The Treasurer's report was submitted by William E. Sheldon, of Boston. 
The receipts amount to $824.82, which includes $&00 donated by the State 
of Massachusetts, The expenses are $033.80, which leaves a balance in 
the treasury of the Institute of $101.52. 

A discussion then ensued on the following subject: ** Our Schools — their 
influence on, 1st, Agriculture; 2d, Commerce; Sd, Manufactures; 4th, 
Civil Policy ; 5th, Morals." A. P. Stone, of Portland ; Rev. A. A. Miner, 
D.D., President of Tuft's College; Dr. Absalom Peters, formerly editor of 
the American Journal of Eilucation and College Review ; Mr. Sheldon, of Bos- 
ton ; Mr. Crosby; Rev. Daniel W. Stevens, Superintendent of Schools at 
f'all River, Mass., and Mr. Ladd, of Providence, took part in this discussion. 

The Institute then adjourned until evening, when a fine lecture was 
delivered by Moses T. Brown, of Cincinnati. 

Wednesday^ Aug. 10, the exercises opened with prayer by Rev. Dr. Miner. 
A discussion then ensued upon the subject of ** Reading as a fine art." 
Messrs. Lewis B. Monroe (a fine elocutionist), of Boston; Moses T. Brown, 
of Cincinnati ; Mr. Crosby, of New Hampshire, and Rev. Dr. Miner, took 
a prominent part in the discussion. Hon. Joseph White, of Williamstown, 
closed the debate in an elaborate and eloquent plea for natural reading. 

John D. Pbilbrick, of Boston, addressed the Institute at length upon the 
subject of '* Graded Schools." It was an exhaustive disquisition, and was 
listened to attentively. Mr. Milan C. Stebbins, of Springfield, followed 
in an address upon ** Practicality in Education." 



Bemdent Editor's DepartmenA. 379 

The President announced as committee on resolutions: Messrs. Glaflin, 
of Mass. ; Kiddle, of N. Y. ; Hoyt, of B. I. ; Read, of Mass. ; and Richards, 
of Washington. 

The Institute then proceeded to the discussion of the question, ** Edu- 
cation and Reconstruction,'* which was opened by Thomas D. Adams, of 
Newton, Mass., who contended that the only way to ** reconstruct " was to 
«* educate." Theremainder of the afternoon discussion was upon *' reading," 
in which Messrs. Slade, Monroe and Claflin, of Massachusetts, and Prof. 
Buckham, participated. 

In the erening Prof. Tyler, of Amherst College, gave an able and learned 
lecture. 

Thursday, Aug. 11, the subject of Schools was discussed at length by 
the Institute, and Rcy. J. R. Conrcrse, and Messrs. Hoyt, of Vermont ; 
Ladd, of Rhode Island; Sawyer, of Connecticut; and White, of Massa- 
chusetts, engaged in the discussion. 

Resolutions of respect to the memory of the late President Wayland 
were adopted. 

At 11 A. M., Senator Edmunds delivered the fine and scholarly address 
just made by him at Middlebury. It was received with applause. 

At the afternoon session, after the reading of letters from distinguished 
personages unable to attend, the following officers were elected. 

President — William E. Sheldon, Boston, Mass. 

Vice Presidents — [The customary list.] 

Recording Secretary — Charles A. Morrill, Boston, Mass. 

Assistant Recording Secretary-^Qeorge T. Littlefield, Somerville, Mass. 

Corresponding Secretaries — T. D. Adams, Newton, Mass. ; J. J. Ladd, 
Providence. 

Treasurer — Granville B. Putnam, Boston, Mass. 

Curators — J. E. Horr, Brookline, Mass. ; Samuel Swan, Boston, Mass. ; 
Henry C. Harden, Boston, Mass. 

Censors — James A. Paige, Boston, Mass. ; C. Goodwin Clark, Boston, 
Mass. ; Edward Stickney, Newton, Mass. 

Counsellors — Charles Hutchins, and others. 

Resolutions of respect to the memory of deceased members were adopted- 
Prof. Ilarkness, of Brown University, and Wm. P. Atkinson, of Boston, 
fully considered the '* place of the sciences and the classics in a liberal 
education." 

Miss Seaver then gave a wonderful and satisfactory exhibition of ** Ob- 
ject Teaching," which closed the afternoon's proceedings. 

The Institute formally adjourned last evening, but contemplate a trip to- 
day to Crown Point and Plattsburgh and return, upon the fine Steamers 
R. W. Sherman and Canada. Complete arrangements have been made for 
the excursion. 



380 Resident Editor's Department. 



MISCELLANY. 

The Tracheb for 1866 - 7 will contain many new and valuable features. 
Among which, in addition to a more than usually interesting aeries of 
articles, by the various members of the Board, will be the following: 
Editorial notes, on current matters in Science, Art, Biography, Geog- 
raphy, History, Education; and, in each issue, a "Note and Query" 
Department ; school anecdotes, &c. Correspondence on these points is 
solicited. 

Agents Wanted in every town and county, to canvass for the Tsachib. 

School Commissionebs who have not sent in the names of young 
teachers for our free list, will please do so at once. Each commissioner it 
entitled to send six names. 

Defebbed. — The press of matter incident to the annual meeting of the 
State Teachers' Association, compels us to defer our customary digest 
of educational news, book notices, &c. 

Teachers' Institutes. — As we go to press we are able to announce 
the following, with times and places of holding : 
Allegany, Angelica, Sept. 17, Orleans, South Barre, Sept. 24, 

Broome, Binghamton, Oct. 1, Oswego, Fulton, Sept. 24, 

Cattaraugus, Waverly, Sept. 10, ** Central Square, Sept. 17, 

Cayuga, Moravia, Sept. 24, " Sandy Creek, Sept. 24, 

Chautauqua, Jamestown, Oct. 1, Otsego, Morris, , 

Chenango, Oxford, Oct. 15, ** Cooperstown, Sept. 10, 
Clinton, Plattsburgh. Sept. 18, Rensselaer, So. Peter8burgh,Aug. 20, 
Columbia, Copake Flats, Sept. 4, St. Lawrence, Canton, Oct. 15, 
Cortland, Homer, Oct. 22, Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, Sept 17, 
Delaware, Roxbury, Oct. 14, Schuyler, Watkins, Oct. 15, 
Walton, Oct. 29, Seneca, Waterloo, Sept. 24, 
Erie, East Aurora, Sept. 10, Steuben, Corning, Oct. 16, 
Essex, Wcstport, Sept. 17, Suffolk, Riverhead, Sept. 10, 
Qcnesee, Batavia, Oct. 2, Sullivan, Liberty, Oct. 16, 
Greene, Windham Centre, Oct. 29, Tioga, Camden, Oct. 10, 
*• Catskill, Nov. 9, Tompkins, Ithaca, Oct. 1, 
Herkimer, Herkimer, Oct. 8, Ulster, Kingston, Aug. 13, 
Jefferson, Watcrtown, Sept. 17, Warren, Caldwell, Sept. 17, 
Madison, Morrisville, Sept. 18, Washington, Fort Ann, Sept. 24, 
Monroe, Fairport, Oct. 22, Wayne, Sodus, Oct. 1, 
Oneida, Rome, Oct. 1, Westchester, Mt. Vernon, Nov. 12, 
Onon'Jaga, Onondnga Valley, Oct. 1, Wyoming, Warsaw, Sept. 24, 
Outario, Canandaigua, Oct. 1, »« Pike, Oct. 1, 
Orange, Chester, Aug. 13, Yates, , Sept. 17. 



Beaident Editors Department. 381 

Statr Normal School. — The closing exercises of the forty-fourth term 
of this institution took place Thursday afternoon, July 12. We regret 
that absence from Albany preyented us from witnessing them. We present, 
however, the following brief report from the Eoentn^^ Journal: 

**The closing exercises of the State Normal School took place yesterday 
afternoon, at Tweddle Hall,, in the presence of a large and intelligent 
audience. The exercises were of a highly interesting character, and 
every way creditable to pupils and teachers ; indeed, we do not recollect to 
have ever known them more free from fault. The essays were sound and 
well thought, and the reading was of marked naturalness and force : we 
do not believe one failed to be distinctly heard thoughout the hall. 

** The music, under the direction of Professor Lloyd, was, as to bo ex- 
pected, admirable, and appealed not less charmingly to the ear, than did 
the appearance of the school to the eye. lu intelligence of look, in 
personal attractivcucss, in simple good taste in dress and manners, our 
** country boys and girls,'* for such most of them are, showed themselves 
not a whit behind their some times more aspiring city cousins. We verily 
felt proud of them. 

** One peculiar excellence of the exercises was their unity and brevity. 
The absence of a formal address, and the condensation of the Principal's 
remarks to a simple, pertinent and feeling sentence or two of good will 
and farewell, relieved them of all over-length, and concentrated the whole 
interest, where, indeed, the audience always places it, upon the graduating 
class. 

Essays were read by Henry C. Bowen, on ** Concentration of Purpose ; " 
Victoria M. Herring, on "The Beautiful susceptible of being acquired; " 
Francis M. Bromley, " The Eloquence of Decay ; " Henrietta Boy ce, " Let 
here be Light ; " N. Flotilla Watson, '» The Pursuit of Happiness ; " Helen 
M. Bowen, *» Night brings out the Stars;" Jane J. Jewell, ** Noble Deeds — 
the Noblest Monuments ; " Edward A. Bowser, **The End of Progress is not 
yet." 

The following is a list of the graduates : 
Ettie E. Bishop, Warsaw. Julia A. Reed, Otisville. 

Ella A. Blakeman, Greenbush. Cordelia E. Robinson, Fairville. 

Helen M. Bowen, Aurora. Mary L. Streeter, Albany. 

Henrietta Boyce, Dover Plains. Julia F. Tibbals, Windham Centre. 

Frances M. Bromley, Medina. Sophia E. Van Sickle, So. Livonia. 

Julia A. Carr, Albany. N. Flotilla Watson, Machias. 

Florence E. Griggs, Fleming. 

Emily Harper, Greenbush. Henry C. Bowen, W^illett. 

Victoria M. Herring, Moscow. Edward A. Bowser, Brooklyn. 

Jane J. Jewell, Machias. George H. Quay, Knox. 

Sarah R. Morris, So. Trenton. George AV. Weinnt, Flora Falls. 

Arabella McCoy, Peekskill. Richard W. White, Genesee. 

Lavina Parkhurst, North Elba. Leonora L. Perry, New Castle. 



382 Eesident EdUor's Department. 

Thi Perrt H. Smith Libbart Hall of Hamilton Collxob.— The 
corner stone of the new Library Hall was laid with appropriate ceremonies, 
on the 18th of Julj» The following was the programme for the occasion : 
1. Prayer, by President Fisher; 2. Oration, by Col. Edwin L. Buttrick, 
Milwaukee, Wis.. (Class of 1842) ; 8. Music ; 4. Poem, by Col. 0uy K, 
Cleveland, Saint Paul, Minn., (Class of 1850) ; 5. Music; 6. List of Docu- 
ments in the Casket, by Rov. N. W. Goertner* D.D.; 7. Laying of the Comer- 
Stone, by Hon. Perry H. Smith, Chicago, III., (Class of 1846) ; 8. Music ; 
9. Address of Congratulation, by Hon. Horatio Seymour, LL, D, ; 10. 
Benediction. 

Hon. Perry H. Smith, is the largest donor to the fund. The building 
will cost probably $5,000. The library consists of the college library^ 
12,000 Tolumes, to which is added the priyate library of the late Professor 
Edward Robinson of Union Theological Seminary including in addition to 
fourteen hundred and twenty volumes and about one hundred maps, a 
complete apparatus for the study of Biblical Exegesis and Scripture 
Geography, together with the law library of the late Hon. William Curtiss 
Notes, LL. D., with its five thousand volumes. 

The Great Sunken Lake. — This great natural curiosity is situated in 
the Cascade mountains, about 75 miles north-east from Jacksonville, 
Oregon. It rivals the famous valley of Sinbad the Sailor. It is thought 
to average two thousand feet down to the water all round. The walls 
are almost perpendicular, running down into the water and leaving no 
beach. The depth of the water is unknown, and its surface is smooth and 
unruffled, as it lies so far below the surface of the mountain that the air 
currents do not affect it. Its length is estimated at twelve miles, and its 
width at ten. There is an island in its center having trees upon it. No 
living man ever was, nor probably even will be, able to reach the water's 
edge. It lies silent, still, and mysterious, in the bosom of the **eYerlastiiig 
hills,*' like a huge well scooped out by the hands of the giant genii of the 
mountains in the unknown ages gone by, who around it in the primeval 
forests watch and ward are keeping. The visiting party fired a rifle 
several times into the water at an angle of forty-five degrees, and were 
able to note several seconds of time from the report of the gun until the 
ball struck the water. Such seems incredible, but it is vouched for by 
several of our most reliable citizens. The lake is certainly a most remark- 
able curiosity. — Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel. 

The Weight op a Million Dqllabs. — To the question •* What is the 
weight of a million dollars in gold V* an officer of the mint answers as 
follows: The weight of one million dollars United States currency in gold 
is 63,750 troy ounces. This makes 4,4701bs. 2ox., or nearly two tans and 
a quarter, reckoning 2,000lbs. to each tun. 

Schools for Freedmen. — Over 10,500 children are under instruction in 
the freedmen's schools, in the cities of Alabama. In Georgia, there were 
for the month of April ,71 schools, 103 teachers, and 6,991 pupils. There 



Resident Editor'e Department. 383 

is an increasing interest in many places, and the people are here and 
there awaking to the importance of fostering an enterprise which at the 
first they bitterly opposed. 

The New Pobt-Office in New York, is to be erected on the south end of 
City Hall Park. 



PERSONAL, 

Albert N. Husted, teacher of Mathematics in the N. T. State Normal 
School, received the honorary degree of Master of Arts at the recent 
commencement of Hamilton College. A similar accident happened to Mr, 
Isaac B. Poucher, Superintendent of the model and practising schools, 
Oswego. We trust both these gentlemen will recover, and live long to wear 
the honors they have fairly earned by long and faithful service in the cause 
of public education. 

Miss Jsrnette L. DoroLASs, of this State, formerly a teacher in New- 
burgh, has received a legacy of $100,000 from a relative in Scotland. In 
I860 she had a school in Washington, but the rebellion breaking out, her 
patrons generally refused to meet their obligations, leaving her in some 
embarrassment. She was employed during the war in one of the depart- 
ments at Washington and also at the hospitals for wounded soldiers. 

Appointment of a State Historian. — Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania 
has appointed Samuel P. Bates, LL. D., to the position of State Historian, 
in accordance with the act of Assembly of 18C5, authorizing the appoint- 
ment and appropriating five thousand dollars to the work of collecting and 
writing a complete history of the Pennsylvania Regiments in the service of 
the United States during the Rebellion. Mr. Bates is eminently adapted to 
the performance of this work, and his selection will give general satisfac- 
tion. He is a graduate of Brown University, and has served with much 
efficiency as the Deputy Superintendent of Common Schools of Pennsyl- 
vania for the past six years. Mr. Bates has resigned his position as 
Deputy Superintendent. 

Rev. F. D. Huntixoton, of Boston, author of that admirable address 
on "Unconscious Tuition " has been elected Episcopal Bishop of Maine. 

George Lillie Craik, LL. D., the distinguished author, and Professor of 
History and English Literature in Queen's College, Belfast, died the 28th 
Inst. He wrote the " Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties/' for the 
Library of Entertaining Knowledge ; then the " Pictorial History of 
England," " Sketches of Literature and Learning in England, from the 
Norman Conquest to the Accession of Elizabeth," "History of British Com- 
merce," "Spenser and his Poetry," " Outlines of the History of the English 
Language," "The English of Shakespeare," and "The Romance of the 
Peerage." His "English Language and Literature," republished recently 
by Scribner and Co., in two large octavo volumes, is a work of much merit. 



384 Rcsid^ent^ Editor's Department. 

Mr. John Rusein has been inyited to stand for the Chair of Poetry at 
Oxford, soon to be vacated by Matthew Arnold. 

Mb. Froudi, the historian, is spoken of as successor of Goldwin Smith, 
in the Professorship of Modern History, at Oxford. 

GcoBOK W. BuMOAY has assumed editorial charge of the Herald of 
Healthy published by Miller, Wood and Company, New York. 



INTELLIGENCE.— FOREIGN, 

Boston. — Superintendent Philbrick receives a salary of $4,000, and-^ 
he earns it. 

Italy — Public Librariis. — There are in Italy 210 public Libraries 
with un aggregate of 4,140,281 volumes. 

Ohio.— The annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association, was held 
in Zanesville, July 8, 4 and 5, l^CO, Eli T. Tnppan, of Athens, presiding. 
Addresses were delivered by the president ; and by Col. S. S. Fisher, Pres- 
ident of the Cincinnati Board of Education — Teaching as a profession, 
A Beport was rendered upon the following subjects : Object Lessons^ by 
Rev. J. F. Reinmund, which gave rise to an animated and practical 
discussion. Much time was also given to the discussion of Normal Schools, 
Higher Arithmetic and County Supervision. Phonographic reports of these 
discussions are published in the Ohio Journal of Education^ which show 
them to have been of very high and practical character. A committee was 
appointed to report in regard to the proper place of object lessons in the 
course of common school studies; and further as to the claims of object 
teaching, as a method of instruction. A report was also presented for the 
enactment of a general law for the prevention of truancy. Our Ohio neigh- 
bors are heartily nt work. It may be added that much of the new and earnest 
spirit now manifested is due to the faithful and intelligent labors of Hon. £. 
E. White, late State School Commissioner, and now Editor of the Journal. 

North Carolina. — The Raleigh Sentinel reports that several colored 
schools have recently been opened in that city, by " colored teachers who 
are competent, and who were born and raised amongst us." There are in 
the State IIW schools. 155 teachers, and 10,800 pupils. 

South Carolina.— Mr. Tomlinson, the superintendent of the schools for 
freedmen, reports 75 schools with 0,017 pupils, and an average attendance 
of 0,574. There are 148 teachers, of whom 58 arc natives (? whites), and 
60 colored. The interest of the colored people in the school continnea 
unabated, and that of the white people is growing ; yet there arc some 
places where it is said no school could be e.stablished, nor tolerated after 
the garrison has been withdrawn. A very successful examination of the 
colored school held in the Normal School building, took place in Charleston, 
May 30. 



Resident Editor's Department. 385 

ViBOiwiA. — There are reported in ihia State 225 teachers of colored 
schools, and 17|589 pupils whose average attendance is 12,980. 

Vermont. — There are in this state 86,795 children between the ages of 
4 and 18. Of these, 73,259 were in the schools during the the past year — 
more than nine-tenths attending public schools. The number of teachers 
was 4,841 ; average wages of male teachers, $20.48; of females, $8.1G per 
month. 



LITERARY NOTES, 

A. S. Barnes & Co. issue Jewell's ** School Government." 

Bbtan Waller Procter (Barrt Cornwall) has completed his ** Memoir 
of Charles Lamb." 

Books ON OUR Table. — Harper & Brothers send us ** Homes without 
Hands," Goldwin Smith's "Study of History," Napoleon's "Caesar,'* 
second volume, and several other valuable works which shall receive 
notice in our next. 

D. Appleton & Co. have got out Harkness' Introductory Latin Book, It 
comprises an Outline of Latin Grammar Exercises for double translation, 
suggestions to the learner, notes and vocabularies. 

Francis Turner Palorave is writing the Life of Sir Walter Scott. From 
the culture and celebrity of Mr. Palgrave, much is expected. 

From J. B. Lippincott & Co., we have Halleck's ** International Law and 
Laws of War." 

GuizoT. — The seventh volume of Guizot's " Memoirs" is to appear next 
spring, and will bring his life to the eve of the revolution in 1848. His 
correspondence, comprising, it is said, twelve hundred letters from Louis 
Philippe, will not be published until after his death. 

HuRD & Houohton's new edition of Macaulay's worns will appear the 
first of next month. 

Herbert Spencer has concluded to go on with his "System of Philoso- 
phy," of which he recently announced the discontinuance. 

Our Youno Folks. — The publishers of Our Young Folks, announce that 
they have completed arrangements for adding as a new feature to their 
Magazine a series of Full Page Illustrations. These will be drawn by the 
first artists, engraved in the best manner, and printed upon fine tinted 
paper. Each number of the Magazine will contain one or more of them. 
The first picture of the series, to be given with the September number, is 
" The WandererSf" designed by W. J. Hennessy. 

The Colored Illustrations^ which were promised for the year, are now 
printing, and will be given in the November and December numbers. The 
first of these will be entitled *• Florinda and Florindel ; " the second ** The 
Old Man of the Mountain,'' designed by Alfred Fredericks. 



386 Besident JEditor'a Department . 

Ths North American Review, for July, contains m Tery interesting paper, 
giying a clear analysis of '* The Mahabharaia/' the great Hindu Epic. 
This poem is about ten times as long as the Iliad. No complete translation 
has ever been made into any European language. M. Hippolyte Faucbe 
has, howeyer, commenced one, expected to fill sixteen Tolumes, the first of 
which has already appeared. 

Thb Pinnstlvamia School Journal commenced its fifteenth Tolnme 
with the number for July. It comes in a new dress which Tery much 
improTes its appearance. It is one of the most useful and practical of our 
School Journals. 



BOOK NOTICES, 

TuK Science of Government in Connection with American Inttitutiont, if 

Joseph Alden, D.D., LL. D. New York: Sheldon j- Co., l2mo,j}p. 248. 

This is not a dry commentary on historical events and governmental 
forms, but a treatise on human government as a part of the Divine order in 
worldly affairs and a necessity for the development of the physical, intellec- 
tual, social, and moral nature of mankind. As God creates man a social 
being, men have no right to abjure society, lead solitary lives, be brutes or 
be anything but men and to be such they must be subject to law. 

The author's arrangement, in concise and simple form, of the argumenti 
for, and against, the ** right of suffrage" ** universal suffrage" and 
** limited suffrage*' is admirable and by a beautiful analogy it is shown that 
it does not follow because every man has a right to be gcverned justly he 
has the right to be a governor. 

The chapter on Liberty and Law, etc., should be read by every teacher in 
the State. The author's remarks on the Constitution of the United States 
in connection with the constitution and his comparison of our fundamental 
law with the British constitution are entertaining to the general reader and 
would prove profitable to the pupils of the schools of our country who 
will liereafter be the source of the legislative, executive and judicial 
departments of the government. 

If the subject of this book were taught generally in our schools they 
would more surely win the esteem of the whole people. 

The Teacher's Encyclopedia. — Teachers, as a class, cannot provide 
themselves with encyclopedias, or such other books of reference as would 
aid them in their labors, but in the latest edition of Webster's magnificent 
Quarto Dictionary they have a worthy substitute. Whenever I meet 
teachers in their associations or institutes, or in private, I earnestly present 
to them the great advantage they would derive Arom having this work near 
them. It will tend to make them accurate, while the definitions and illus- 
trations will suggest many new ideas for elaboration among their pupils. — 
W. R, Whitey State Superintendent of Free Schools for West Vtrffimia, 
Wheeling, March 21, 1866. 



THE AMERICAN 

POPULAR 

LP mmmi mm of iw yorr. 

Central Office, 419 & 431 Broadway, 

OOBNBB OANAIi 8TBBBT. 

DISECTOSS: 

How. K, D. MORGAN, EDWARD B. BULKLEY, 

[U. S. Senator,] New York City. LRawaon, Balkley A Co.,] N. Y. City. 

Hot. HORATIO SEYMOUR, JUSTUS O. WOODS. 

[Bx-Goveruor N. Y.,] Utica. [With Wheeler & Wilson,] Staten Island. 

Hon. H. H. VAN DYCK, J. W. BRADLEY, 

[Aast. U. S. Treasurer,] New York City. [West^ Bradley & Cary,] New York City. 
HoH. NATH'L WHEELER, JAS. CRUIKSHANK, LL.D., 

[Wheeler & Wilson, New York City,] [Ed. " New York Teacher."] Brooklyn. 
Bridgeport, Ct. 

HoH. ERASTUS BROOKS, JOHN H. FRENCH, LL.D., 

[Editor N. Y. Express,] Staten Island. [Prof. Suite Normal School,] Syracuse. 

Hon. WM. T. COLEMAN, HENRY SALISBURY, Esq., 

[W. T. Coleman & Co., N. Y. City,] No. 173 Broadway. New York CMty. 
Tonkers. 

Hon. V. M. RICE, GEORGE L. BULKLEY, 

[Supt. Pub. Ins. N. Y. State,] BufBilo. [Rawson, Bulkley & Co.,] N. Y. City. 

A. N. GUNN, M. D., JOHN F. TROW. 

[Ex-Health Off. of Port,] New York City. [J. F. Trow & Co., Printers,] N, Y. City. 

T. S. LAMBERT, M. D., EMERSON W. KEYES, Esq.. 

[Auihor An., Pliys., Hyg., &c.,] Peekskill [Dep. Supt, State B'k Dept.,] Albany. 

B. F. BANCROFT. WM. H. WOOD, 

[Cash. Nat. Bank, Salem,] Salem. [W. Wood & Co., Publlsh's,] N. Y. City. 

CHARLES H. FROST, GEORGE BLISS, Jn., Esq., 

[Frost & Southard, N.Y.City,] Peekskill. [Bliss & Cadwaihider, C. & Atts.,] N. Y. 

City. 



EXECUTIVE BOAIiD. 

How. VICTOR M. RICE, Prei^ident. A. N. GUNN, M. D., Surgeon In Chlet 

T. S. LAMBERT, M. D. Agent in Chief B. F. BANCROFT, Esq., Treasurer. 
[Vice Pres.J 

J. PIERPONT, Jr., Secretary. Prof. JOHN PATERSON, Advisory Actuary. 

GEORGE BLISS, Jr., Counsellor. 

Prof. ALONZO CLARK, Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, Prof. ALFRED C. POST. 

Consulting Surgeons. 

This Company is now prepared to issue all the varieties of Life and Endowment 
Policies, some of them with unuensl advantages, (:si>ecially to " Bc»t Lives." 

It will also i-jHQe scvenil now varieties, embracing uistlnctivcand verv valuable features. 

Organized for the purpose of presenting these new plans to the Public, it Is anxious to 
have them examined. 

Fourth New B'eatuue.— The Company will chnrce a premium according to a// the 
circumgtance^ of each Life, not alone those of age and health. A favorable constitution^ 
inteUigtuce, particularly in tiygionic matters, retfuhna, vocation and habits, being very 
essential elements of longevity, diminish the cost of insurance : the possession ofthem 
by the Insured should not accrue entirely to the advantage of a Company. 

Relative tendencies to longevity are, to a degree, detorminab'e. and, so far, the Insured 
la entltJed to the benefit of tnose he may possess : and this Company proposes to allow 
them to him by rating him younger than he is. thus lowering his premium. If his health 
la imiKiired, the Company will insure him, but rate him older than he is, thus raising hli 
premium. How long ishcto live/ Is the important question, and the Company desires 
to charge as a premiiim what the answer will justly indicate. For example, a person of 
!e5 may l>e rated as -i>2. '20, or younger, which will lower his premium, or as '^, 80, or 
older, which will rai^e it. 

Fifth Nbw Feature.— If when the Insured dies, he has lived beyond his rated " expec- 
tation," and it is proved to the satisfaction of the Company that he has lived in 
a manner tending to longevity, a bonus, at the discretion of tae Ctmipauv, will be added 
to his Assurance. This is fair, and for the interest of the Company : for, if by temperance 
and other habits, vocation, residence. Intelligence, care of health, etc., life shall be pro- 
longed, the Company will be benefited. This bonus and the Seductions In premiums, 
made on account of tendencies to lougevltv, will prove that the Company insures the 
btt livtt on unusually favorable terms : it also insures the liveB of all, at correspondingly 
eouitable rates. 

17. B. Insorance can be effected by correspondence. 

Extra terms to Teachers.— Agents wanted. 

OaU or send for a dr^nlar. y^VLAX. 



QUACKENBOS'S 

STANDARD SCHOOL DOOKS, 

PUBLISHED BT 

D. APPLETON & CO., N. Y. 

" The best in (heir respective departments." 

'* The singular excellence of all Qaackenbos^s school books is well known 
to the educational community. They are generally admitted to be the bett 
manttcU on the subjects of which they respectively treat." — J. W. BrucLxr, 
City Superintendent of Schools, Brooklyn. 

" I have taught for more than twenty years, and am familiar with most 
of the works that have been issued by different authors within that period, 
and I consider Quackenbos's text-books the most unezcfptionabU in their 
seyeral departments." — Bekjamik Wilcox, A. M., Principal Rirer FiJlf 
Academy. 

"All the works of this excellent author are characterized by clearness, 
accuracy, thoroughness, and completeness ; also by a gradual and continu- 
ous deyelopment of ulterior results from their previously taught ele- 
ments." — Kev. HvBBABD WiNSLOw, Author Intell. Philos. 

7IBST BOOK IN ENQIiISH QBAMMAR : 16mo, ISO pages. Clear, mtj, 
aud Interesting ; the book for beginners. Price, 60 cents. 

AJT ENOIilSH QBAMMAB : 13mo, 388 pages. Price, $1.20. 

Clear, well condensed, and consistent throughout; brief in its rules and 
definitions; happy in its illustrations; practical in its application of 
principles ; inductive and philosophical in its arrangement ; original in its 
views ; bold in its reforms ; every way adapted to the school room ; inte- 
resting to the pupil, labor-saving to the teacher ; full and ingenious in its 
explanations of perplexing constructions ; makes the learning of Grammar 
easy ; makes the teaching of Grammar a positive pleasure ; the best as 
it is the latest text book on this important subject. Such is the verdict 
pronounced on Quackenbos's Grammar by our best educators. Hosts of 
recommendations published in our circular. 

FIB8T IiBSSONS UT COMPOSITION : in which the principles of the Art 
are developed in connection with the principles of Grammar. 12mo, 188 pages. 
Price, 90 cents. 

▲DVANOBD COUBSE OF COMPOSITION AND BHSTORIO : A 

Series of Lessons on the Origin, History, and Pccaliarities of the English Langiuge, 
PaactnatioD, Taste, Pleasures of the IniaginatloD, Figures, Style, Cntldsm, andue 
varioas Departments of Prose and Poetical Composition. IIluBtratcd with copious 
Exercises. 12mo, 460 pages. Price, fl.TS. 

These works have supplanted almost all others on the same sub- 
ject. The late State Superintendent of Schools in Wisconsin, reflecting 
the opinion of our best teachers, says : ** It would be difficult to point out 
in these admirable books any thing that we would desire to have altered; 
they meet our wants in every respect.'* 

FBIMA.BY HISTORY OF THJl UNITSD STATBB : Made easy and 

inierestlng for beginners. Uhlld's Quarto, splendidly Ulastrated. ISmo, 18S pages. 
Price, 75 cents. 

UjIiUBTBATIDD SOHOOIi HISTORY OF THE ITNITBD 8TATS8: 
Bmbraclng a Inll Account of the Aborigines, Biographical Notices of Distlnsvished 
Men, numerous Maps, Plans of Battle fields, and lUustrations. limo, 473 pasea. 
Price, $S.00. *^ 

Everywhere used and everywhere commended. It is the text book 
officially adopted and used by the State of California, the cities of Balti- 
more, Cleveland, New Orleans, Lexington, Jersey City, etc., etc. 

A history of the Late Rebellion has been added to this work, and the 
prMmt edition eontaim epery tkmg^ brought fuU up to date. 



▲ IfATURAJM FHHiOSOPHY : Embracing the most raoent dlsooreriM In 
PhTstct. Adapted to ase with or without Apparatn», and accompanied with l*racti- 
cal Exercises and 885 Ulastrations. 12mo, 450 pages. Price, $8.00. 

This work is pronounced unqualifiedly the beat text book on Natural 
Philosophy, by such men as Rev. Dr. Scott, Pres. South Gibson College ; 
Dr. Gko. R. Pebkins, author of the Mathematical Series ; Rey. Prof. 
Duncan, University of Louisiana; L. R. Bauohxb, Princ. of Public 
School, Gettysburg; A. H. Fitch, Princ. of High School, Peoria, 111.; 
A. J. RicKOFF, late Sup't. of Schools, Cincinnati; Prof. Clifford, 
Northern Indiana College ; Geo. W. Hewison, Princ. High School, Salem, 
Mass.; Prof. J. W. Stewart, State Female College, Memphis; Prof. 
Sheldon, Griswold College, Iowa; Pres. Chase, Brookyille (Ind.) College, 
Rev. Dr. Ransom, Pres. Shelbyville University, etc., etc. 

AFPIiBTONS' ABITHMBTIOAIi BERHBB : On the basis of the works of 
Geo. R. Pkbkoib, LL.D. By G. P. Qcackexbos, A.M. 

No labor has been spared to make this series exactly what is required 
for the purpose of mental discipline, as well as for practical ase in the 
daily business of life. It is clear, simple, thorough, comprehensive, 
logically arranged, well graded, is supplied with a great variety of ex- 
amples, AND TEACHES THE METHODS ACTUALLY USED BY BUSI- 
KESS MEN. 

The Series consists of a Pbimaky, an Elementakt, a Pbactioal, % 
Hioheb, and a Mental. The Primary, Elementary, and Practical are 
now ready, and the others will speedily follow. 

Teachers interested in using the best books are solicited to examine this 
series, which we claim possesses many advantages over those heretofore 
published. 



Also published Ij the nndenigned. 

OOBNBIiIi'S OBOOBAFHIE8 : Everywhere received with nnqnalifled approval. 

TOUMAN'S JSTESW OHSMISTBY: Entirely rewritten and mncfa enlarged, 
with 810 Engravings. 12mo, 460 pages. Price, $2.00. 

AN USTBODUOTORY IiA.TIN' BOOK : intended as an elementary drill- 
book, on the inflectionB and Principles of the Language, and as an Introdnctlon to 
the Author's Grammar, Reader, and Latin Composition. By Albert Habxniss. 

HABKNBBS'S IiATIN OBAMMAB : ISmo. 865 pages. Price, $1.75. 

Although this work has been but a short time published, it has gone into 
use in a large number of colleges and schools throughout the country, and 
is recommended by our leading scholars as a decided advance on the old 
Latin Grammars. 

HABKITBBB'S IiATIK BBADBB : A companion to the Grammar, bj the 
same author. 13mo. Price, $1.50. 

▲ OBAMMATIOAIi ANAIiYZEB : or, the derivation and definition of 
English words with their grammatical dassiflcations. By W. J. TamntT. (Just 
Published). 

XXiBMESTS OF INTBIiXiEOTUAIi PHTTiOSOPHY ; By Bev. Josxfh 
Aldxn, LL.D. 12mo. Price, $1.50. 



Specimen copies of any of the above works mailed post-paid to teachers and 
school officers f on receipt of one-half the retail price. The mast favorable terms 
made for introduction, 

D. AFPLETON & CO., Fnblishen, 

443 and 446 Broadway, New York. 

vU-lMt. 



APPROVED SCHOOL BOOKS, 

PUBLISHED BT 

. SC. DBXTVXjiElZl ct3 OO.y 

No. 137 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. 



]n[IT€HEI.I.'S NEW SCHOOI. GEOGRAPHIES. 

Entirtbj New — Ttxt^ Maps, and Engravings, 

MitoheU*8 First Iiossons in Oeo^raphy. For young children. Designed u an 
intruductiou to the author*^ Primary Geography. With mapD and engraviDgs. 

Mitchoirs New Primary Oeography. Iliuetrated by Twenty colored Mape, and 
One Uundrcd Engraviugd. Detilgueu ad an introduction to the. New Intermediate 
Geography. 

Mitoheli's New Intermediate Geography. For the use of Schools and Acade- 
miea. Iliuetrated by iwcuty-ihree copper-plate Maps and numerous eni^ravings. 

Mitoheirs New School Qcography and Atlas. A system of Modem Geography— 
Physical, Political, and Deecriptive, illustrated by Two Hundred Engravings, and 
accompanied by a new Atlas of forty four copper-plate Maps. 

Mitchell's New Ancient Qeography. An entirely new work, elegantly lllat- 
truted. 



JIIITCHEI.I.'S SCIIOOI. GEOGRAPHIES. Old Series. 

MitcheU's (Old) Primary Geography. An Easy Introduction to the study o' 
Geograpiiy. Illustrated by eogravlugH and sixteen colored maps. 

Mitchell's (Old) School Geography and Atlas. New Bevised Edition. A 
system of Modern Geography, comprisiug a description ol the present state of the 
World, and ilsgraud dlvlt»ious. Eiubdiistied by numerous cngraviugs, and accom- 
panied by au Atlas containing thirty-iour Maps. 

Mitcheirs [Old] Ancient Geography and Atlas. Designed for Academies. 
Schools, and Families. A system of Classical and Sacred Geography, embellished 
with engravings. Together with au Ancient Atlas, containing maps Ulustrating the 
worlc. 



GOODRICH'S SCUOOI. HISTORIES. 

Goodrich's Pictorial History of the United States. A Pictorial History of the 

United States, with notices of other purllons of America. By S. G. Goodrich, author 

of •• Peter Parley's Tales.** 
Goodrich's American Child's Pictorial History of the United States. An 

introduction to the author's "IMctorial History of the United States." 
Goodrich's Pictorial History of England. A Pictorial History of EngUnd. By 8. 

G. Goodrich, author of "Pictorial History of the United States," etc. 
Goodrich's Pictorial History of Rome. A Pictorial IHutory of Ancient Borne, with 

slcetches of the lliatury of Modern Italy. By S. G. Goodrich. 
Goodrich's Pictorial History of Greece. A Pictorial History of Greece. Ancient 

and Modern. By S. G. Goodrich, author of " Pictorial History of the United Stnieif." 
Goodrich's Pictorial History of France. A Pictorial History of France. For 

the use of Schools. B> S. G. Goodrich. Kevised aud brought down to the prceent 

time. 
Goodrich's Parley's Common-School History of the World. A Pictorial 

History of the World, Ancient and Modern. By S. G. Goodrich. Illustrated by 

engravings. 
Ghxidrich's Pictorial Natural History. Elegantly Illustrated with more than 

two hundred engravings. 



Coppee's Elements of Iiogio. Elements of Ix>gic. Designed as a Manual of 
Instruction. By Henry Coppee, LL.D.. President of the Lehigh University. 

Coppee's Elements of Rhetoric. Elements of Khetoric. Designed as a Manual 
ol instruction. By Henry Coppee, LL.D., author of "Ejcmcntsol Logic," etc. New 
edition, revised. 

Coppee's Academic Speaker, l Vol., 8vo. 

Ormsby's Guide to Geography. Embracing Primary Heading Lessons, Written 
and Oral Methods c<imbiijed, Map Exercises, syhteniaiicaJly arranged, a Chart of lati- 
tude and Lc>n«.'itude and Crtlcnl.uiont! in MnthcmHtical Geo^jraphy, designed to accompany 
the Maps of Mitchell's New Intermediate Geography. By George S. Ormsby, Supu 
Public bchools. Xenla, O. With numerous engravings. 

School History of Maryland. To which are added brief BiogFaphiee of distln- 
gulsheil Statesmen, Philanthropists, Theologians, Ac. With numerous engraTingt. 
Prepared for the schools of Maryland. 

Bingham's Uatin Grammar. A Grammar of the Latin Languaffe, for the ate of 
Schools and Academies, with Bxcrciscs and Vocabularies. By Wililain Bingham, A 
M., Supt. of the Bingham School, Mcbaneville, N. C. fU-lMt. 



THE NEW LATIN COURSE, 

The oniw ediiians of the CiasHen vMh refereneeM 
to the new Gramvnar hy Harhness* 



A Preparatory Latin Prose-Book, containing all the Latin Prose 
neceMarr for entering College, with References to HarkneM^s and Andrews and 
Stoddard's Latin Grammars; Notes, Critical and Explanatory; a Vocabolary, and a 
Geographical and Historical Index. A Nkw Edition, containing, in addition to the 
above, a quantity of Easy Prose Selections, dcsigced to supply the place of a Latin 
Reader; also Additional Prose Matter, especially prepared tor and adapted to the 
Introductory Course of Latin Prose at Harvard University. Sixteenth Edition, Enlarged 
and Lnproved. By J. H. Hanson, A.M., Principal of the Waterville Classical Lisd- 
tnte. 12mo. Price, 8.00. 

Probably no work has for a long time been issued which has so com- 
pletely met the wants of students as this happily conceived volume of Mr. 
Hanson. Comprising in one book all the Latin Prose required for entrance 
into any of our Colleges ; the Text, the most approved ; References, to 
the two best Grammars in use ; Notes, brief and to the point, giving aid 
where it is needed, and yet not doing the pupil's work for him ; a full 
VocvBULAUY, with other great merits. It has received the approval of a 
large number of eminent professors and teachers, and has been introduced 
into many of our best schools and colleges. 

S. H. TAYLOli, LL.D., Principal of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massa- 
chusetts: — '• The book seems to me very happily adapted for the course of 
study for which it i» intended. The selections are all good ones, most of 
them such as huve been well tested and approved in our schools; the 
grammatical references are unusually full, and give a special value to the 
work; the notes are brief and to the point, giving aid where it is needed, 
and yet not doing the pupil's work for him. 

"No book of the kind has appeared whicii is better adapted to lay the 
right foundation for a thorough knowledge of the Latin language. It is 
fully "vrhat the author intended it — a drill-book." 

A Handbook of Latin Poetry, containing Selections from Virgil, 
Ovid, and Horace ; with Notes and References to Hnrkncss's and Andrews and Stod- 
dard's Latin Grammar. By J. H. Hanson, Principal of the Classical Institute, Water- 
ville, Me., and W. J. Rolfe, Master of the High School, Cambridge, Mass. 12mo. 
Price, $3.00. 

Like the Latin Prose Book, by Mr. Hanson, this work commended itself 
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A. J RICKOFF, Esq., late Superintendent of Schools, Cincinnati, 0., 
after giving a full account of the contents of the ** Handbook of Poetry," 
says: — ''We have taken considerable pains to inform the interested reader 
as to the contents of this volume, because of its intrinsic worth and the 
vast labor which must have been required in its preparation, and because 
its companion, the Prose Jiook, has been so generally adopted as a text-book 
in the schools of this country, and still further, because both books are far 
better adapted to the use of the solitary student, who must pick up a 
knowledge of the Latin language hy his own unaided efforts, than any 
other book of this class that we have ever seen." 

Selections from Ovid and Virgil, a shorter Handbook of Poetry, 
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J. H. Hanson, A. M., and W. J. Roltk, A.M. 12mo. 

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English, mid L^atin Vocabulurv, containiut' the most common Words in French which 
are U^^rivid from L.atin. By Ldward H. Magill, A.M., Sub-Master in the Boston Latin 
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The English of Shakespeare. Illustrated in a Philological Commen- 
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General Reader, by W. J. Koltb, Master of the High School, Cambridge, Mass. 16fflo. 

CBOSBY & AINSWOBTH, Publishers, 

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Union Pictorial Primer* 48 pp.. heauHftdly iUustraied. It is 80 arranjfed 
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Union Reader, dumber One* 9G pp. The large type, open page, and 
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Sanders' and McElligoWs Analysis of English Words. 

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BeINi! ax ANALY.SrS ANn SvXTirKSIS OV THI 

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Fightins flgainsi Wrong, and for the Good, the Trnr ind the BraiitifnU 



THE LITTLE CORPORAL 

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS. 

Ackiiowlod^cd bj the IcailinjifpApiri* t«i he ihcs 

HKST JUVKNILK PAI'Kli IX AMKKICA. 
fie-w Volniue Beg^lns -with July and Janunry. 



ii:t:i.isiiKi> MONTHLY nv 

ALFIJEI) L. SKWKLL, 

ririrAcin, Illino-s. 

fl.tVi r« Vrur ♦♦» ini'fWCf. SitHjKf ('>,pj/ M 'Vii/... 

Ail pofl:c*i rlortrotypc'd. and b:u k nuinlMT!* 
MU .ilwnyH hv fiirniHiicd. 

TIIK T.IT'II.K court )IJ\L 

Cnritnin:* Si\t<»«.'n «|nartt> p:iir«*rt of ilr>'t c^h** 
Htorarv :nfi!trr, writt.'ii ♦•vprt-j-ly fur it* n»l- 
omnri l»y ihftbfxt jiiVi'iilN' >\ririi:-of th«* I>ay. 
Dnririir'ltH llr^t vf.ir it. lui" n'<oivfd ihc* iin- 
qoalifi<;d ••ndfir-iMiuiil of tin' Ir«diiij:i»:ip«'r-', 
and hill* nttaiiiod a (irr.ulHtioii urthiryAvo 
iboa-tind. 

lirati irhot the JAipcrs *SV7 // ; 

Foni-'vV I'hiliidt'ipliia Az/V// /V» v* any- «.r 
it: " 7'fii' fJf'f'' I'tiifit't-ii ii'dnttitutf (»' /«• 

iCd." 

» • r»-.r f., I , ..• II) rvi-ry lioinc it r«'uclii"f,~ 

4h/»;. '.'•, .'•/.•••" Ttt'-'ii. 

Ii it'unc|u.->irirtiijilily the Ikwi piTcdic.nl for 
rhihlfi'. in :Ij«* I nitZ-d St.iti'K. It *n\'j\v i«» 
Imrv a t^mis-' md pntriMi- in «;p':;i»u.— /*(/'\/lV 
Cff. .4 ••/"••■•'■'•*. '<»r"ijnn.» 

// «?•'••/ ./" / • »•• thrift 1/ r/i'iftf'f: fiaiif r s hnt 
nt* kf-i ':' I! f'ii'i rft/'.fr;/." I't.'f.Kj-: K,-- 
mnrf ./. »/r/r'»/. 

Jf'- L, . .' • ' , I'nrnL— K\x\l\\\i\\ '».• M'l •• 

fiTi: I'o'liii _' i!i '\\K'. -Ii:i|.«- iif a rhi'd". \y\\» r 
ft-hiMi «-ii;M v-.nipnrr' "wi'li tlii- wliuli 
etiui'- lo li- l>Miii ii\<>rili«' pr.iirivH.— /lr/// 
/a/>'/ • Maim-- h'ltbj /'rfsji. 



Th' LVtW i 'Vi^irul in i-«'nduct«Mi with ii 
jn-if d":il cif t!ir\ t.-.;*!*' and caro. Kitlior thip 
[laiMT or nur Yom'fj /'•>/^x— and It would i>« 
hard to i-lioti».o hi-tuM-rn t]i«Mn- would proT© 
a wcUomc prc^<•ll^ lor Ihi- ttiiidrvii.— ?'A# 
S.iti...>. 

It -hoiiM K In ivory ho «- "hold.— A". T, 

Thr« br.i^i.-. hcr.ntiful and irood Li*tif Cur- 

/Mi/-.// ron<{Mi:ri* Mrl.- V' UtiOiit Stof.' Jif-nttl/. 

TluTe- ntf\or wjis- a l«-tt"r js-ipi-r printed for 
rhitdrrn. Wr -hmild d^biro noli»MriTinonn- 
ni«'»! to !"»tv<« li«-!:ind u« in \\u* world thr.n 
th*- !:r}it!iiidf o( \\n^ liif'.t* ImJIc* who n»jid this 
p:ipfr. nil iIh* wiy trc'fii Maine to Orejfon. — 
IV'HtUiiu'^h'it illi.'i hi/ I'm/n.'j'ft . 

H I.- I'll- cl«vi.r.j*t 'iLnt; of its' kind yrl 
re'ili/fd in AiinrKa - Ilt-xfji/ry lMu^«.i 
.hntrnnl. 

Tt'f' IMtlf C'ttTnriji sparkb.*** ai' ov<t wiih 

• v'va«it\ and '•i:f-r!.'«inn—nt. It i-. witluiUl 

d»»uht, th«' ho-r am! • he :jp<!«t rliildrfn'- ira- 

zi'lU* jMihlinhcd iH} w UK'ri\'-Miir.*fijl/ <'MicL.> 

•-•/r/Z/Tf///;'/!, 

77^ /.;'»'/» 'v»;7*.ir'/. --Thoiiirh niodc»tlv 



a!Iiuu' i!-»«f I'V 
n-allv a • : ry Msij 
ohildn«!iV MaV.i.dr'- 
( Norwiih. .N. ^ . 

AM<-r a rar-:-;! p>' 
lully say of />.. /.;. 
i M-n-j* :•!! thf pral-«- 
HI" Ml it l»y iht pr*— 
',./,;/r /••/,; Mi ;...'/ li.r..},s*t 

Ai* l'«:nisjiul a* <\« r, and Hdl^f rii-p. rich, 

•lai'iiv iliiFi.'" ii- fli" ri-p; M ii fprcad;* for tht 

l;ttl«-to'.k---/*j^/.'/ ".'//• '■/• i^/;./- J./torvf^. 

If o.>j);inucd'ioi-i>niuicn<*t'd. it niu-it ftot-iiin* 

•.«. pi.-n!'!'- a- Till r [*fir!»-> in > i* p:iiiniC9l 



'Uhordinaif titk*, it U 
r (iei.'Tal jinio*,'^ the 
.— i'htttutifjtj T*-!r.:jrapU 

". ination. wt» ran che«- 

■V r t'H'Ofti.'. that it de- 

tfiat h:i- i«o»n lavijihed 

vtTywhtrv.- I'ftiladel- 



,;..// 



\\> miiihi sjivf hnndnnlsof snrh TioiIOMlf 
\T«' Itad -pact". 



\Vi; wihli to ra'.l yrsrr af'rn'if n ?«» 7/./ /.;.'.7» ' » ?;# rc/a^rn Ediiuitor. In :h:5repac!t7 
it rlalni"* to I'f a ro"-lal I ri r ^\i!li >'.u. .M.d !«ir ih:- '••n^^•n wc m tif.driitJy i^oJidt \(-ur aa- 
Kiiiian'. i' in t i.J:irj;iit' ll.«' in )d <d liH iJ.-«.'U:in«r-*. \\ c «tl. r a 

LlliKKAL (M>.M MISSION, 

with olh« r 'ndi.MMiMTi:-.. !<i Ti a* l.«»r.-«. and »•«! • r-* %^l.o will a:d luin I'Xtcj diim »:iir rfrcii- 
t«tion. 

Ii B. Sj <;«',n*«'ij • ••I'V and rlrc nlar nMM /,)»/.'«■* to y-/;.AffA»n n crijjt «)f t) cir addrctft. 
KJt."W VOIiUMB BEGINS WITH JULY AND JANUARY. 



\:»i '»{»>-;. 



TI1-&ISI .ii.dM 



ALi?RED L. S»WELL, 

Chicago, Illinois. 




THE NEW YORK TEACHER 

AND 

By matiial ajn^cmcnt between the Committ»?o of the State Apsociatlon niid the rnMlshora of the 
Monthly, thei^; jounialB are nuw conHolidtttcd, and will commi'itce a Nkw Volume with the uunibor 
for Janimnr, IMIS, under the above title. 

It ii( lhcj)iirpoAC of the Editors and l^ibliKhen> that the consolidated Joumnl chall combine tho bent 
flmtares oibotn Journal;*, and merit and receive the Dupi)ort of those to w ho2>e giH)d oflU'es their former 
pacci'M was bo (^reatly due. 

For the n'mainder of the current volume the Axekican Educational Monthly will be sent for un- 
expired isabscriptlouB of the Ttac/icr. 

(Sigued) JA^ES CRUSK81IAXK, 

I'OK 'JHK GOMMITTKE. 

(Signed) J. lt^ H€lIER!HERlIORX & CO., 

430 liltOOMK ST., NKW YOKK. 



Aids to Bmooh BmciBMm. 

"REA\^^KDS" DEDUCED 

TO A 

Useful iVXD Perfect Syste:m. 

The good cfltect of an accurate rei^istcr or dejiortment and scholarship in promotins: a healthy eitirlt of 
emulation Is acknowlcd;7ed. Yet such a re;;ister Is mrely kept. Teachers have no time to record each 
recitation as it occurs. Other duties crowd, so that the record mu^t be U(;(lected fur the tim**. and 
afterward made trom memory. Ptrftd accuracy bein<; inii>o6sib]e, cof{fi*lenct in tJte rtcvrd is trtakund 
ami U* tfwralfori* hU. 

The AIDS eccure thc{|;fK>d results of accurate reconls and reports, with less expeut*e of time, and 
natnrally awaken active jmreutal interet>t. 

Tlic AIDS may be used in various ways. This is convenient : In the niominL' ^ive each pupil n C'.\.I{I> 
(flro merits), repri'sentiu'; a i^rftct dinj^ to be forfeited for misdemeamir, or failure in recitation. 
SINGLE MEUITS and HALK-MKUITS are for pupils who fail to rolaiu their CAHD.S and yet are 
worthy of sottu credit. Five Cards held by any pupil are exclian;i:ed for a (.:I1EC'K (i") Merit?), n-pn?- 
feniln;r a ]>crfuct School Weik. Four l^hecks are exchan«^*d for a C'EU'lIFICATE OF MEKIT. reijre- 
•cntlng: 100 Merits, or a perfect Month. These Certificates bear the pupil's name, and are t^ij^nied 1>y the 
teacher. TIic number held shows the pupil's standln^^ 

If prizes are awarded a tclosu of sessiou, there ran be no mistake in detennluin;; to whom they l>c- 
long: the deciflon beiu^ made by each pupil exhibit in*; his Cards and Cerlillcules, no Misplciou of fa- 
Toritiffm can arise. 

They are ucat in de8ig:n, beautifully printed in BEST Colors. The Certificates are prize?* wlilch pupils 
irill cherish. Single Merits and Ilalf-Mcrits arc printed on cord-boanl ; Cards and C*hecks on heavy 
paper, and may be used many times. This makes the system CHEAP. The AIDS are put up In sets of 
SOO, there beiuR SO CERTIFICATES, 120 CHECKS, aOO CAKDS, and lUO SINGLE MERITS aud 
HALF MEUITS. Price per set, |l.iB. By mail, prepaid, fl.a-i. 

MEDALS— for Rewards, silvered, new and appropriate designs, each, 25 cents. 

New Ami:iucan School Dlvlogue lk)OK 

Contabi*— I. Tut Schoolboys* Tuibuxal— II. The Stuaioht Mauk— III. Fashion.vble Epucation; 
on. The AuoPTKD Child— IV. The Eta Pi Society— V. The Kockville Petition— VI. Pi:ci<jE— 
VIL UirrrKit, the Bt»KE— VITI. Examination Day at Maoaxe Savante's- IX. The Puizk 
Poem— X. William Kay's IIistouy LE.'*^o^•— XI. Slanu-XII. IIominitic Ueoukaimiy— XUI. 
Not at Home— XIV. The (Jueen's Enolish. 
rrice by mall— Paper, 40 cents ; Flexible Cloth, 50 ceuts. 



Watson^s Hand^Book of GjmamiBUu, 

A NEW AND REVISED EDITION-JUST PUBLISHED. 

One Tol.f SvOf tinted paper* with Beanttfnl Illnstratlonfly from OrislBal De«icB% 

and Mnsfc to accompany the exercioeo* Elesantlr 

printed and honnd* 

Part FIrHt— I'nder " Vocal Oymnaotics,'' proM>nti a comprohenslve and practical Treative on Se^ratka. FV 
nctic#, and KIi>cution. The exKini»IeH for illustratioiiB. both lu pnise and rene, are the choloett getnt of Eapit^ aM 
American llterHture. Spirited pm.Mus in octiisvllahic verse— narrative, descriptive, and lyric ; national odei, and baitli 
pieces are introtluced, witli Rpecial reference to a combination of Toetic Recitation vith Calisthenics and GjKoasdOw 
tliiis rendering tliis a complete Klocntituiary Reader (or advanced classes in public and private scbo«>l8,aBd a nipert« 
Manual of Kliicution and Oratory fur individiinls and families. 

Part Second— Under "OaliKihcntcs** exhibits the most extended and varied conne of exerdiM, iriih««t cbi 
nid of apparntus. ever puhll«hed. NIXETEE.S PIECES OF APPR0PRI.4.TE PIANO-FORTE MUSIC ars in- 
troduced, aflfordint; a (tumctent variety, botli for Calisthenics and Gymnastics. Tills part of the work will casMt 
teachers to firlve pliy^ical culture its due prominence in primary in»tniction, and afford an Inexhanstlble Mpfdj cf 
pleaAinp:, healthful, and invif^orrUini; games and exercises for the parlor and the nnrsery. 

Pnrt Third— "OunuHRtics," presents more exercises for Wands, Damb-1>cl]s, Indian Chibs^ and Handrinpk 
than all other Ijooltii. While the t>ing\o exercii»es, for each piece of apparatus, are sufficiently numeroas and varied ts 
becure the requisite iinnult:inc»u<i activity of the mental and physical powers, and call into play all the mnscles nf tW 
body, their cla^^iftcaiion ii< so perfect that, in«tead of Intcrferini;: with, they mutually support and reoommead cad 
other. ThiK is a complete gymnastic drill-book, with words of command and classes of movements sjstematicaOy sr- 
ranged, embracing all necessary exercises, for the lungs, voice, organs of speech, Joints, sinews, and musdca. It » 
adapted to schnolti and Tmulies, individuals and clASses. The wooD-ccra are numeroas and excellent. 

Price, poMtpnid, by mail, 8:2.00. 

J. T¥. NCHERHERHORIV Sc CO., 

430 BROOME ST., NE^V YORK. 



Our pYyVLNASTIC ApPAI^ATUS 

Is made of well-seasoned wo<id, vamiKhed and polinhed. Dumb-bells and Indian Clubs are nsoally- made of aiapiev 
beech, or birch ; Wandti, of nhite akh *, Iland-ringx, of cherry, birch, or mahogany. 

There arc four sizes of Dumb-bells. Nos. 1 and 2 are intended for boys and glris ; No. 3 for women and 7011th ; Xa.4 
for men. Price, per pair, of Nos. 1 and 2, &) cents ; of Nos. 3 and 4, 75 cents. 

Two sizes of Hand-rings. No. 1 is for boys and girls ; No. 2, for men and women. Per pair, 75 cents. 

There are eight sizes of Indian Clubs— four of long clubs, and four of short ones. Nos. 1 and 2 are for wamea sad 
youth ; Nos. 3 and 4 for men. Price of Clubs, per pair, $1.75 to $6. 

The Wand has eight plain, equal faces. It is hcven-eighths inch thick for men and women, and thrae-fbaiths iach 
for boys and giris. Price 30 cents ; with metallic balls, 75 cento. 

J. W. SCHERMERHORN & CO., Manufacturers, 

430 RBOOnE ST., NKVT YORK. 



Watson's Manual of Calisthenics 

Contains a complete course of physical exercises, wiTUOinr apparatus. It has all needftal directions, rales, and czpb* 
nations, with sections on phonetics and respiration. The exercises are arranged in accordance with weU-knova pxiact 
pies of anatomy, physiology, and hygiene. They have been thoroughly tested, securing the happiest resalta. These o- 
rrcises, practised habitually and energetically, cannot fail to yield grace, aglUty, suppleness, a ready hand, as well ss re- 
bust health and power of endurance. Almost any school-room or parlor will suffice for the exercises^ For those whs 
use the piano to enliven the exerci!M;s, thero is music, prepared by the best masters. 

The lNK)k is richly IlIustrHtod ; is printed on superior paper, and bound In best style. A reviewer writes : **TUs is 
the tnost elulHTrate and satisfactory attempt yet made to apply practically to educational purposes the great trathi «f 
pliysiology, relating to phynical cidture and training. To those in autliority it Is a positive duty to promote the dreabir 
tion of this book by every means in their power. All who have the physical welfare of the human race at heart, and an- 
(lerstand how powerless the intellect is to contend against the burden of a feeble frame, are equally Interested la iti 
teachings, and answerable, each in his own sphere, however small it be, for the consequences of neglecting tbeai.'* 
Copies for examination mailed on receipt of fl.UO. 

J. W. SCHERMERHORN & CO., Publishers, 



Object Teaching Aids. 



» m 



sTu: 



MERAX. FEAMES, OF SUPERIOR STYLE. 

No. 1 has 100 balls Pi-ice, *1 25 

No. 2 has 144 " '. " 1 60 

yUBE ROOT BLOCK, 

In neat Box Price, 15 

Sent prepaid by mail, letter postage " $1 25 

This is an accurately dissected block, and is an indifipensable aid in illustrating the Rnlo of Cub« 
Boot. It should be in the hands of every teacher who attempts to instruct a pupil in tliat 
usually troublesome part of Arithmetic. 



ToRMS AND SOLIDS, COMPLETE SET: 

CONSISTINa OP SIXTY-TWO PIECES, 

Two each of the Plain Figures and one each of the Solids. 

JEa<:h is /Stamped with Us Ntimher in the Idst. 



1. Equilateral Triangle. 19. Quadrant 

2. Isosceles do. 20. Sector. 
8. Bight-angled do. 21. Segment 
4 do. do. 22. Crescent 

5. Obtuse-angled do. 23. Ellipse. 

6. Square. 24. Oval. 

7. Parallelogram. 25. Spberical-trianglo, 

8. Rhomb. 26. Kite. 

9. Rhomboid. 27. Cube. 

10. Trapezoid. 28. Sphere. 

11. Trapezium. 29. Hemisphere. 

12. Pentagon. 30. Spheroid. 

13. Hexagon. 31. Cylinder. 

14. Heptagon. 32. Prism, (Square.) 

15. Octagon. 33. do. (Triangular.) 

16. Circle. 84. Pj-ramid, (Square.) 

17. Ring. 35, do. (Triangular.) 

18. Semicircle. 36. Cone. 

PRICE, IN ^ rOO^ BOX, BY EXPRESS $3 25. 

J. W. SCHERUIERHORN & CO., ISanafactarers, 

430 BROOME ST., Now York. 

ALSO, FOR SALE BY 

I BANCBOFT & CO., San Francisco, California. 

SPEAKHAN & PROCTOH, 6 Custom House Place, Chicago, lU. 
SHELDON & CONNOR, Atlanta, Geor^a. 
B. MALLAN, Savannah, Geoi^a.] 

J W. BOND & CO., Baltimore, Md. 

WOODMAN & UAMHETT, 87 and 89 BratUe St, Boitoi, Van, 



rUBLIBHED BT 

IVISON, PHINNEY, BLAKEMAN . & CO., 

47 and 4U Greene Street, Neiv York. 

*l'hc larpe and incrc.TiinK sale of these books — the emphatic commendations of hundreds of th« be« 
teachtfM of the country who have tt'sffJ ihcm in the cLiss-room, and know whereof tl»ey affirm, amply a- 
test their re,il merits, and fully commend them to geneial favor, and the confidence of every theroui^k iaA 
pmcticai teacher. * 

Atnong the Uadhig and most popular books of the ab<^»ve Series, the following may be named, sxx. :• • 

UNION READERS, 

Ry C. \V. SAXhERS. A.M.. and J. N. McELIJUOTT, LL.D. 
The Union Rrnderi* are not a revision of any former Series of 8nnder»» IleAdcirs. TVr 

are entirely neu* in matter Zkwd iiinst rat ions, and have been prepared with gicat care ; no time, labor, V 
expense havinj- been spared to make them equal if not superior to the very best Series in use. 

The I'liioii FIftU Ucncler. a newand superior book, just published, as an Intermediate Re vJfl 
between the Union Fourth and the /»r///«'r Union Fifth Reader; the latter having its title changed ti» 
*'Thi Rhetorical, or Union Sixth Keader.^^ 

Robinson^s Complete Mathematical Series. 

With the improvements and atldilions recently made, this Series is the most oimplete, scientittr, vA 
prac'.ical cf the kind published in this country, llie lKH>ks are graded to the wants of Primary, liiicrxw 
diate, Clramrnar, Normal and High Sch(»ols, Academies, and Colleges. 

Clr * K 1:YS to the A rithmeticsy Algebras, Geometries, and Surveying, are published for thi a« cf 
Teachers only. 

THE METRICAL SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASOm 

Full, practical, and adapted t.> the wants of business men, lias been added to Iloblti«oii*« R»dl« 
nieii*H, Priieticnl and Hielicr Aritliuivtic«. . 

Th..ie has been also inserted .in Per Unlage, in the HKMIKR ARITHMETIC, several paijesor.lk 
different kinds of U. S. Securities, Bonds, Treasury Xotes, Gold InvestnteHts, Currency^ etc., wiih Fn:- 
tieal Exainples. 

This change and addition will not interfere in the use of the book with previous editioos of the sams, 
and will fully meet with the present wants of the schools, and of business men. 



Eerl's New Series of Grammars, 

Ry SIMON KERL, A. M. 
F«r simplicity and clearness, for comprehensive research and minute analysis : for fineshnesa, sdencac 
method and practical utility, this berics ol English Granimars is unrivalled by any other yet published. 

Webster's School Dictionaries. 

This popular Scrie< is very justlv regarded as the only National standard authority in OrthoC"**]P*'3r» 
Defluitloii, and Pi oiiu'nri at ion. At least four-fifths of all the School Books published uuM 

country own Werstek as their stautlard ; a»d of the remainder, few acknow!ed;se <im/ standard. 

SPENCEKIAN COPY BOOKS, 

IX FOUR DISTINCT SKRIES. 
Common School Series, I Ri'sinf..ss ij^ERiRs, I Ladies* Seiubs, | ExsicasE Sekiks 
Nos. I, 3, 3, 4 and 5. | N(>s. and 7. j Nos. 8 and 9. |. Nos. 10, 11, and 12. 

These NEW BOOKS, on account of their Simplicity. Arrangement, Accuracy, Unifonnity, and Rdi^ 
make the System the most easy to leadi of any before the public. 

WE ALSO INVITK ATTENTION TO TUB FOLLOWINQ — 

WELLH' SCIENTIFIC SERIES, \ BRYANT * STRATTON'S BOOK- 

GRAY'S BOTANICAL SERIES. KEEPING, 

FASQUELLE'S FRENCH SERIES, \ fVILLSON'S HISTORIES, 
WOODBURY S GERMAN SERIES. HITCHCOCK'S SCIENTIFIC SEBIES, 
PROGRESSIVE SPANISH READERSA AMERICAN DEBATER, 
SILL'S SYNTHESIS, GOODISON'S DRAWING BOOK, ^ 

COLTONS GEOGRAPHIES. I SCHOOL RECORDS, VOWE^ ACTIOS, 

BRADBURY'S SCHOOL MUSIC BOOKS, EU,, Etc. 

ZJS^ J'cachcrs and School Officeis are invited to correspond' with, us freely, and t« send f»r our A^^i^ 
tive Catalogue and Cinular, which will be promptly sent upon, application.^ _ 

{TJT^ Liberal terms given on Books fumislied for Examinaiiou or InstrucdoD. Address the -PubltilMrk 



THE NEW AMEBICAN 

SCHOOL DESK AND SETTEE, 

CONSTBUCTED ON <<PUTSiOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES.'* 

(GEORGE MUNGER^S PATENT ) 
Bjr far the best De$k ever made. Illustrated Circulart tent on application. 

J. W. SGHERMEBHOBN & CO., Manufacturers, 

430 Sroome Street, New YorJt. 



HEW PATENT INK WELLS FOR SGHOOL& 




FIjC. 1 r«Dre5entt top rlew of corer ; 2. Jop view «if well without cover S, boitoin of cover ; 4. edjre of eoT«r ; 
6. well complete ; 6. key to cover. The Ink Well \b) in liiHorlcd into desk throngh hole Uoretl Tur the parpoa^ 
■o Ihnt the flAnge renU on siirrHce of desk, nnd is secured In phice by ifcrewti in counter*nnk hole*. Klnnxe m 
well liai on its outer edfre a lip, which Alone icsta on de-tk, leavinc space within below interior pnrt of (iMn^ 
Thie epace allows room In which nin« projectinjc downward from lower tide of cover mny freely more. Fine 
oare heads (aa seen In 4), and are first inserted thronffli ap«rliires largre enonirh to ailmit them freely in flnnse 
•f well (as In 2). From these apertnres extend, concentrically in opposite directions, cnrred slots, Jnst wide 
•nongh to allow necks of pins lo pass freely. I<ower edges of these slots have slight Inclination downward from 
apertures, so that as cover is tarned the heads of pins become wedged against inclined surfaces, and draw covei 
closelv npon well, on which It fits tiKhtly. Cover is fahtcned l>y key (Fie 6). 

This new well is simple, and wliile it contains the combined excellences of the beat wells now in nse, U 
remedies the defects of all. 1st. We have a neat and secure fiurteuing for the cover, which can only be removed 
with the key, which should be kept by the teacher or Janitor. 

2d. The well itself, after being fastened by two common screws, never need be removed.; the glass lining 
OiJy being removed for cleaninj;, which can be done by unscrewing the cap with the* key. 

3d. It will not get out of order,— by its simplicity of arrani^ement therre is no lining to corrode. It cannot 
Imrst and spill the ink, and cannot be removed and loKt by the pupUs. 

4th. It can be used In the holes made for other wells. 5ih. It is economical. 

Price of Ink Wells per dozen, $3.90 ; JLeym for Mime, no charge. 

HENRT M. SHERWOOD, 107 Mokroe Street, Chicago, Ilt«. 
J. W. SOHERMEREORN & CO., 430 Broome Street, New York. 

They manufacture and sell Henvy Plnlii Glass Fonts or Ink VTells, per doien, $1 )iO| 
Japanned Covers fdr same, $1 20; Urass Covers, very neat and elegant, $1 )A3« 

HALL'S 6REiT 6E0L06IGAL CHART, 

Size 6ft Gin. by 5ft., finely engpraved and superbly colored, 

Kxhiblts the order in which the succduiive strata of rocks ate arrantreil, and the chnrncteriHtlc fo!•^ila which 
bare mainly alTorded the key to tlil» Hrran;;eniont. It itIvck '.he ai>pearnnco llinl would be piej»cnte«l if a sec- 
tion were made from the surfncc toward* the ventre of the earth. ox|>u»iiiK the eii^c.<« of the dillecent Uyem. It 
is. In fact, such representation as rany be >ccn in llio bitnks of m>inv livni-s, a.1 the Nia};rtra. or In ths high 
rockv cllflrs of the lake or ocean shmes. only It is much more extfiidi"!. 

This beautiful chart was prepared by iVofohiior IIhII, that It niittht render a Mudy so dellKhtfui iu itself 
and so nractlcnily useful, more extensively intnxiuced. rimI more eiL-iilv nndersiood. 

Only a limited numlier of the?te charu were produced from the lithographic Moncs. The stiUcrSbers ha^ 
Isr sale a few of them, fre^ilt and perfect. 

Price, Momiled on (Holh and Rollers, Sltf 00 ; WboleMle price, for Teachers $ I *4 00 

Rey to lUIIs Geologica.l Chan ..7 '. 1 00 

J. W. 80HER1ISRH0RN & CO., 430 Broome Street, New York. 



Articles for Every School. 



MD8 TO SCHOOL DISCIPLINE. BOO Certificates, Checks, Cards, etc ..$1« 

(They eave time of Record-Keeping, and reduce " Rewards'* to perfect System.) 

BLACK-BOARDS, uUJi perfect date surface^ neatly fhimed : 

No. 1. Size 2 feet by 8 feet $8 50 No. 4. Size 8* feet by 4* feet 9 50 

2. " 2t feet by .3* feet 6 23 5. " 4feetby5feet 12 i« 

3. " 3 feet by 4 feet 7 00 Any size to order, per square foot . in 

Same sizes in black-walnut ft*amee, each board extra 1 .00 

BraERicAL Black-Boards, for Mathematical Geography, etc.— See '*8p«;ial Geographical List."" 

BLACK-BOARD RUBBERS : 

No. 0. Sheep-Bkin, stnaU size, per dozen 2 00 No. 3. Lamb-skin, fine long bleached wool 5 00 

1. " resriilar Hize, " .... 3 00 4. Brussels, NEW and neat 5 00 

2. " longer wool, better finish 4 00 5. Cu a Moia-SKwr, paten ted, very superior 6 OO 
BLACK-BOARD SUPPORT— Hammond's. Complete and substantial, each 5 00 

BOOK-CARRIERS— Manchester's. For boys and girls, very popular, each 3o 

Large size, sntncicnt for containing largest school atlas . OO 

CALL-BELLS, for Teachers' Desks, varied styles, silvered ^. . $1 85 to S 20 

CLOCKS, for School-rooms. Duplex movement, black-walnut, very superior 15 tt) 

Drop octaffon. oak 9 00 

COMPOSITIOX-PAPER— " An Educational Novelty."— 3 Nos.. per quire » 

CRAYONS— '• Eureka." Dui?tle8S aud economical (somewhat like Talc), per 100 30 

Chnlk from Waltham, per gross, 40 ctp. Colored, per gross 1$ 

CRAYON-nOLDER. Just invented and patented, each S5 

CROQUET. Complete set, and book, in box— excellent style for schools .- 10 50 

" " " Cheaper style 7 50 

CUBE-ROOT BLOCK. In neat paper box : "3 

DESKS. New Axebicak School Desk and Settee— "on Physiological Princlplca.'* (See 
Ulnstrated Circular.) 

GYMNASTIC APPARATUS— Dumb-bells, Rings CTubs, Wands, etc.: 

Dumb-Bblls.— Nos. 1 and 2. For boys and girls, per pair 00 

No. 3. For ladies and youth, per pair, 75 cts. No. 4. For men, per pair "S 

IIand-Rinos.— No. 1. For boys and girls, per pair, 75 cts. No. 2. For men and women, per pair "S 

Indian ('lubs.- Four sizes short clubs, and four of long. Per pair $1 75 to 6 00 

Wands.— Eight plain equal faces, each, 30 cts. Same, with metallic balls, each '3 

GLOBES, all kinds and sizes. See '' Special Geographical List." 

INK-WELLS— Sherwood's. Iron, lined with glass, patent locking cover, doz 8 SO 

Britannia, lined with glass, per dozen 3 00 

Heavy glass sockets, per dozen 1 00 

Japanned iron covers, for same, per dozen 90 

INK-VENTS— Scarlett's Patent, for filling Ink-wells, etc., each « 

"KINDER GARTEN BLOCKS," with patterns, per box ISO 

MEDALS— for rewards, silvered, new and appropriate designs, each S5 

MICROSCOPES.— Students' No. 1. Simple, brass mounted, adjustable magnifier, for Botany, Ge- 
ology, etc : . . 1 80 

No. 2. Compound, for minute or mounted objects, in box, pliers and glasees.. 5 00 

MOTTOES (20), for School-room Walls, on flue card-boards, in packet 15 

MULTIPLICATION WALL-CARDS, 20 inches by 26 inches -3 

NUMERAL FRAMES, superior style, 100 balls 1 95 

144 " 160 

"OBJECT-TEACHING BLOCKS"— 62 Forms and Solids, in box 8S 

SLATE-PENCIL SHARPENER, self-sharpening, very simple 10 

SLATING, " EUREKA LIQUID" (Mnngcr's), for making an enduring and nnrivalled Slat* Sm- 

FACB on old or new ooards and wall, per quart (one quart coven about 100 aqnare feet) 8 00 

SLATED LEAVES, convenient and economical, per 100 8 00 

SLATE RUBBERS, to erase without water.— No. 1. Per 100, $3. No. 2. Lqiger 6 00 

SPELLING-STICKS, or " Word-making" Sticks for Primarians, each 15 

Fonts of letters and figures, on card-board, for same IS 

SENTENCE-STICKS, for Primarians " to build up sentences" 15 

Sets of small words, on card-board, for same fiO 

J. W. SCHERMERHORN & CO., Manufacturers, 

430 BROOMB ST., NJBUT YORK. 

WOODMAN dD HAMMETT, 37 BratOe Street, BosUm, 

. Are re^ulsr Agent$for New Englaud^ and Jill all Order* at Nfto Twrkftim, 



"TilAWlR ill SCHOOL ROOM." 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 

iFrom Hon. A. C. Oibbt^ Governor of Ortffon,} 
•* It is wortli its weight in gold." 

[From Han, E. A. Apgar, State SupL PuUie Instruction, New Jenejf.} 
" A most excenent Work. ' * 

[From Hon. L. Van BoJekelen^ State Supt, Public Instruction, Maryland,} 

*'I havo read with interest and profit your volume* entitled 'Tho Lawyer in the 
School Boom/ and will cheerfully recommend it for use in our public and private schools 
not only by teachers and school officers, but by more advanced pupils. We need some guido 
amid the intricacies and perplexities of school management, some light by which to discern 
the true intent of the various legal enactments connected with the work of public 
instruction. These the teacher will find in your well written manual." 

iFrornHon, Jamss L. Orr, Oovemor of South Carolina,] 

" I am satisfied the work will prove invaluable in instructing teachers, parents, end 
pupils in their relative rights, duties, and obligations. It is the pioneer publication upon tho 
subject, and the laborious collation c f tho lavs s of tbis and other countries upon matters 
treats therein ^viil be an enduring monument to your industry, research, and dis- 
crimination. ' ' 

{From Hon, John O. McMynn, Slate Supt, Public Instruction, Wisconsin.} 

*• I have read your * Lawyer in the School Room,' and desire to express my appreciation 
of your efforts to instruct school cfiiccrs and teachers in the law i elating to educational 
matters. Were your book iu tho hands of those wLo manage our school afi'sirn, it would 
prevent much of that misunderstanding that leads to serious diificulty, and bo of grea* 
advantage to tho community in preserving harmony." 

iFrom Hon, D. Franklin WeUs, Statf. Supt. Public Instruction, lowcu} 

** On my accession to office as tho successor cf Hon. Oran Favillc, I found on tho table 
your excellent little work entitled 'The Lawyer in the School llocm.' . . . I have 
given tho work a favorable notico in the Iowa School Journal for Juno, a copy of which I 
have directed to you." 

" Wo havo read the book with much interest, and believe the positions taken by the 
writer to bo soimd. No teacher can rise from its perusal without having clearer views of his 

rights as well as of his duties The consdousnass of increased strength which ho 

wiU ieel in consequence of the better understanding of his position, will be worth to him ten* 
times the cost of the hook."— lowa^School Journal, June, 1867. 

[From Prof. Wm. F. Phelps, A. M., Principal of the Minmtota State Normal SehooL} 

** It seems to mo that this book must supply a want long felt in our educational work. 
Eoth teachers and parents are notoriously deficient in a knowledge of their reciprocal rights 
und duties in respect to tlio school, and I believe this little book of vours wUl do much 
toward bringiDg about a hotter uudcrstinding among them and a more harmonious working 
of our school machinery everywhere. I hope ' The Lawyer in the School Boom' may find its 
way into every school room and family in tho land." 

iFrom Hon. E. E. White, late Stcie Commissioner qf Comimnn Schools, Ohio.} 

** Mr. White being much pressed by correspondence has requested me to answer your 
note. . . . ' Tho Lawyer in the School Boom' has been received and examined 
with great interest. It will receive a favorable notice, as it so wcU deserves, in the next number 
of the Educational Journal. — T. £. Suuor. " 

''This book ably supplies a want that must often be ludnfuUy felt by teachers, school 
directors, and parents in cases of perplexity. By its dear, lively, and forcible treatment of 
every branch of tho subject, it will serve to popu^rizo correct legal ideas on several imj^rtant 
cducatioual points, about which there yet prevails much miscMevovis ignorance." — Ohio Edur 
eational Monthly, Hay, 1867. 

l?RICia 0]SE XyOJ^T^SJEt. 

J. ¥. SOHEBHEBHOBN k 00., Publishers, 430 Bioome Streeti N. T. 



GjBMJL»:m: 



©cliool 



& SON'S 

F'xLriiitiire. 




No other is eo extensively uhciI. or gives puch univerwil patinf^ction. Sinple and double, iu»»re 
tlian twenty different varietiei* now ready. Made only from the best kiln-drie<l lumber. 



ARTICIiES F®R EVERY S4€HOOIi. 

AIDS TO SCnOOL DISCIPTJNE. 500 Certiflcateg, Cheeks, Cards, etc |1 25 

(They eave time of Itecord-Keepintf, and n»duee ** Kewardrt" to perfect syt«tcm.) 
BLAOK-BOARDS. teifh mrpci Oate svr/ace, neatly framed, always on hand. 
BLAgK-BOARD RUBBEKS : 

No. 0. Sheep-fkin, fnvtll t-ize, per (Tozen $2 00 I No. H. Lamb-Bkin, line long bleached wool.. Tt nO 

1. »' rejnilar nize, " 3 00 4. Brupseln, NEW and neat 5 00 

3. ** longer wool, better finirth 4 Ot) | 5. Ciiamois-skin, patente«l,ver}' puiwrior O (0 

BLACK-BOARD SUPPORT— I lammond's. Complete and Substantial, each G fO 

BOOK-CARRIERS— Manchester's. For boys and girls, very popular, each M 

COMPOSITION-PAPER—" An Educati(»nal Novelty^'— 3 Nos., per quire 60 

C'RAYONS— " Eureka." Dustless and ectmomlcal (somewhat like Talc), per 100 M 

CRAYOX-UOLDER. Just invented and j)ateuted, each 25 

CROQUET. Complefte set, and hook, in nox— excellent style for schools 10 W 

CUBE-ROOT BLOCK. In neat pap »r box T3 

GYMNASTIC APPARATUS— Dumb-bells, Rings, aubs. Wands, etc. 
INK-WELLS-All kinds. 

INK-VEXTS— Scarlett's Patent, for filling Ink-wells, etc., each , « 

•'KINDER GARTEN BLOCKS," with ijattenis, per box 1 50 

M EDALS— for rewards, silvered, new and appropriate de^iirns. each S> 

NUMERAL FRAMES— superior style, 100 balls, $1 25 : 144 lialls 1 » 

" OB.JECT-TE ACHING BLOCKS"-r.t> Forms and Solids, in box 3 » 

SLATE.PEN(^IL SHARPENER -self-sharpening, very simple 03 

SLATING, " EUREKA UQUID"— (Munper's)— for making an enduring and unrivalled Slatb Suii- 

FACK on old or new boards and wall, per quart ^one quart covers about 100 square feet) 3 00 

SLATE RUBBERS— to erase without water. -No. 1. Per 100, $3 00 ; No. 2. Larger 5 « 

SPELLING-STICKS, or " Word-making" Sticks for Primarians, each 15 

Fonts of letters and figures, on card-board, for same 25 

SENTENCE-STICKS, for Primarians " to build up sentences" 15 

Sets of small words, on card-board, for samei. 60 

SPEAKMAN & PROCTOR, 

6 CUSTOM HOUSE PLACE, Chicago, Illinois. 

ALL ORDERS FILLED AT EASTERN PRICES. 



AMERICAN 

EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY. 

Vol. IV. OCTOBER, 1867. No. 10. 

FACTS AND THOUGHTS ABOUT REFORM SCHOOLS. 

IV. 

CONTINUING our rehearsal of the means employed for moral edaca- 
tion, we find that employment constitutes another stronghold of hope 
for the eradication of evil habits and formation of new ones. Constant 
employment is aimed at There is to be a duty for every hour and moment. 
Something fbr the mind to be exercised upon is provided for each division 
of the time. Manual labor is pursued during seven or eight hours of the 
day by those old enough to be employed. A knowledge of some mechanical 
trade is acquired by many of the boys ; the girls are engaged in household 
labors, and in learning the various arts of the needle and the scissors. 

Again, literary instruction is of paramount importance. Four hours a 
day are devoted to intellectual improvement. And though few enter the 
House with any knowledge of letters, few leave it unable to read, write, 
and perform ordinary business transactions in figures. 

There are occasionally instances of uncommon talent and capacity for 
literary acquirement. Some intellects under favorable auspices would 
develop rarely, and bring great credit upon the foster parent, the institu- 
tion. When nature has thus bestowed superior abilities, the duty of the 
teacher, and beyond him, of the institution, is to foster and provide for the 
development of them, not dooming the child to the monotony of rudimcn- 
tal studies and dull class-mates month after month. It is a weak excuse 
to say that distinctionis must not be made. God has made a distinction,. 
and we sin if we do not recognize it. Unusual mental gifts bestowed 
upon children are solemn responsibilities to parents. Are they less so to 
the institution which adopts these ''little ones ?" 

Though comparatively so little time is given to mental culture, there are 
strong evidences that children in these schools may improve as rapidly as 
in those entirely devoted to literary acquirements. These children have 
been led to early exercise of their faculties, to use ingenuity and reflection 
in carrying out their schemes of fraud and trickery. Their minds are fre- 
quently more precocious than those of children carefully reared. The 



816 The Educational MorMy. [October, 

intricacies otfradUms and proportion are nothing to a boy wio has solved 
the knotty questions of supply and demand for his physical nature, day 
after day, under the most perplexing combinations. 

It is required mainly to change the direction of their faculties, and the 
same abilities that made them apt rogues will create creditable scholars. 
A habit of reading formed in the House will be a strong safe-guard after 
leaving it. It has saved many a youth from fierce temptation. This fact 
has been recognized, and in all these schools we find well-eelected libraries 
of attractive books. Keligious instruction is also provided for, as it should 
be. Cheerful and tasteful chapels are connected with each school, and 
Sunday-schools are carried on regularly. The children are usually carefully 
instructed in sacred music. After the existence and providential care of 
God are thoroughly understood, religious teaching should be direct, pomted, 
personal. The nature of sin, the necessity of the atonement, should be 
carefully explained and pressed close upon the individual experience of each 
young heart. The Saviour must appear as theur personal friend and ex- 
ample. They must feel that religion is not only a general system of truth, 
but an individual experience of heart and life. 

Another means of promotmg reformation is considered to He in the pro- 
viding of food and clothing of suitable nature. Hunger is no doabt a 
great demoralizer ; and neat, comfortable clothing is a decided promotive 
to self-respect. Among the gu'ls dress may be inade an important agent 
by making the distinction between pride and proper self-respect clearly 
apparent. Neatness should be enforced, while individual taste should be 
encouraged and subjected to critical comment. After acquiring exquisite 
neatness, they should be allowed to make themselves look as pretty and 
attractive as possible. It is woman's prerogative, the title to which she 
has in no way forfeited. The difference between this and weak vanity or 
foolish gayety should be msisted upon. But it is not well to reprove if one 
trains a curl or two to fall on neck or brow, or wishes to wear a knot of 
bright ribbon at her throat. An instance is in memory where a young 
girl was as severely reproved by a teacher for placing a bit of green vine 
in her hair, ** to attract attention,^ as if she had told a falsehood. The 
art of economical purchase, neat and tasteful making up, and careful a^ 
rangement of dress, should be taught. Many gu*]s go astray for want <^ 
proper ideas on these points. It is not enough, as we are sometimes told, 
that clothing should be whole and clean. It should be well shaped, well 
made, and well put on. And this may be done as well in the coarse and 
durable material prescribed by reform-school regulation as in any other. 

Exercise and amusement come in for a due share of the day. These 
children are, or should be made, if they are not, like others, full of a vivadiy 
which finds an outlet in active, noisy play. The more childlike the dispo- 
sition evinced, the more easily will its owner be led as other children are. 



1867.] Facts and Thoughts about Seform SchoclB. SIT 

While natural and innocent gayety need not be restrained, it is yet very 
necessary to watch over their sports, for indications of selfishness, injustice, 
and anger will be very frequent. The separation of each child from all 
others at night, by placing it in a room of its own, and the separation of 
the sexes during the entire time of their stay in the House, are looked 
upon as wise and beneficial measures. The former certainly is, as prevent- 
ing plots or evil communications, and might be wisely introduced in our 
boarding-schools. The latter has been the result of careful study of the 
subject, and is doubtless a just conclusion. But it would seem that the 
mutual good influences resulting from the meeting of the sexes in society, 
might be provided for in these schools also, by appomting lady teachers 
and judicious matrons among the boys, whenever practicable, and male 
teachers, of undoubted Christian integrity, for the gu*ls' school-rooms. 

And lastly, good nursing and attentive care of the sick, the strengthen- 
ing of weak and enfeebled constitutions by the regularity and healthful 
habits of the inmates, are found to be worthy of classification as reforma- 
tory powers. This needs no demonstration. The strongest moral and 
spiritual impressions are often made in sickness, and disinterested care and 
kindness are appreciated. Sometimes too, a feeble, suffering child is mor- 
bidly unruly and vicious, and discovers quite a different nature on restoration 
to health. Yet these institutions are not hospitals, and children thoroughly 
diseased or requiring special treatment for long-continued disorders, should 
not be retained. For the application of these principles to the end de- 
sired, there are in this country, as in Europe, the congregated and family 
systems. A congregated school, if carefully classified and abundantly sup- 
plied with, officers, must approach, practically, very near the family one, 
while a large family would resemble one division of the congregated insti- 
tution. If the question be the comparative efficiency of a system which 
gathers the chiliken into crowds of hundreds, governs them in masses by 
fixed regulations, and trains them by overseers, and one which divides 
them into small companies, placing each under the constant and affection- 
ate care of parents, elder brothers and sisters, so far as position, age and 
tenderness can assume those relations, and seeking constantly to act 
upon individuals, not masses, no one can hesitate as to the answer. If 
punishment and restraint merely, be proposed, strong walld and few offi- 
cers will do. But the work is reformatioa and establishment in habits 
of purity, vurtue, and industry, lookmg to a higher result still, that of 
Divine love upon the heart. No series of formal services can accomplish 
this. The work must be individual. Each child presents a distinct pro- 
blem of weakness, perversity and ignorance, and must be addressed as its 
own peculiar necessities require. They must be led by infinitely varied 
ways to the knowledge which maketh " wise unto salvation." 

The New York and Philadelphia Houses of Refuge are einmples of 



318 The Mucaiwnal 3Io)Uhly. [Octobo; 

the congregated system. In proportion to the perfection of their system 
of classification, will be the reasonable hope of success. It is at present 
far from what it should be, as we have shown in speakmg of classification. 
They do not suflBcieutly provide for personal approaches to the childrea 
Their officers are too few, and find it sometimes too difficult to learn even 
the names of their charges. Reformation must be from its very nature, a 
work of close individual culture, and just so far as we assunilate institu- 
tions to the warmth, nearness, and limit of families, we increase the pro- 
babilities of success in it. Yet congregated institutions, with careful 
classification, are and may be productive of good results. Even in their 
present state they are so, but there must be a great waste of moral forces 
and energies to overcome the evils resulting from crowded divisions, and 
still leave a balance upon the right side. 



PALAFITTES, OR LACUSTRIAN HABITATIONS OP THE 
LAKE OF NEUCHATEL 

II. — ^The Bronze Age. 

THE differences between the palafittes of the stone age and those of 
the bronze are very marked. The latter are larger, more numerous, 
and at a much greater distance from the shore. Tlie piles are smaller, 
seldom more than six inches in diameter, and project one or two feet above 
the bottom. They are simply sunk into the ground, and can easily be 
withdrawn if not too much decomposed. They occur in great numbers, 
and in rows trending toward the shore, which leads to the belief that they 
were not artificial islands, like the Steinbergs, but the bases of lacustrian 
constructions joined to the shore by bridges. 

Between these piles occur accumulations of the ntensila and pottery 
characterizing this ago. The latter, though still prepared by hand, and 
baked in the open air, is much more regular in outUne, and distinguished 
by a greater variety of patterns than that of the previous age. The paste 
of the larger vessels contains siliceous pebbles, but that of the smaller 
ones is homogeneous. The latter are frequently coated with a glaze of 
graphite. On many vessels there occur simple designs, snch as parallel 
lines or triangles, traced with some pointed tool. The vases of moderate 
size have usually a conical base, and must have been supported either by 
earthen rings or by insertion into cavities in the ground. Porringers are 
often found, and sometunes sieve-like vessels, which M. Desor supposes 
were employed in the manufacture of cheese. From one vessel, M. Desor 
obtained apples, cherries, wild plums, and a quantity of hazel nutai 
Spindle whirls, made of baked earth, are quite common. 



1861] PdqfiUes. 819 

The metallic ntensils found in Lake Neuchatel are usually well pre- 
served. Many hatchets, weighing from three hundred to seven hundred 
and fifty grammes, bear no signs of use, and show only marks of hammer- 
ing by which the edge was widened. Instead of a socket, some have ears 
on each side, curved so as to receive a forked handle ; at the top the points 
are bent over to hold a rivet passing through the handle. Occasionally a 
hatchet is found having a perfect socket, round or square. Knives are 
numerous, usually small, but always elegantly finished. At two stations, 
reaping-hooks, and at one station curiously shaped instruments, resembling 
the razors of the iron age, were found in considerable numbers. Chisels, re- 
sembling those now used by carpenters, are of frequent occurrence. There 
are also fish-hooks, usually small, although here and there one of very 
large size is found. One from Gauderon is four and one-half inches long. 

Swords are rare. The first was discovered nearly forty years ago, and 
was deposited in the museum of Neuchatel. It was regarded as a curi-. 
osity, but the discovery led to no new investigations. This weapon is 
nearly two feet long ; the hilt is less than three inches long — much 
smaller than the smallest yet found in India. If the swords were not sim- 
ply ornamental, the bearers must have been exceedingly diminutive. 
Poniards, too, are rare. The blades were fastened to the hilt by riveted 
nails. The lance-points are skillfully made, and measure from four to six 
inches. Arrow-heads are not numerous. Those found are barbed, and are 
from one to two inches long. 

Ornaments and articles of luxury are as common as arms or utensils. 
Hair-pins, bracelets, car-rings and pendants, and amulets, testify to the 
prosperity and cultivation of the tribes. The hahr-pins are always orna- 
mented. Some have a round head, open-worked, with circular holes into 
which gems or studs of the metal in relief were fitted. Others have a flat 
head or button, while others have several buttons, or rather enlargements 
of the stem. Bracelets are of every variety, from the simple*ring to the 
large bracelet covered with elegant designs. Some are made of twisted 
strands of bronze, while others are massive cylinders, probably intended as 
anklets. The ear-rmgs are variously-shaped — sometimes triangular, and 
made of a thm plate, narrowing toward the point of suspension. Some 
of these are covered with enamel, the composition of which has not been 
precisely ascertained. The amulets are usually small, triangular metallic 
plates, supposed to have been suspended from the neck. Crescents, sup- 
ported upon a stem, and some articles composed of several branches, are 
supposed to have had a similar use. 

The composition of the bronzes of this age is not fixed. The propor- 
tion often varies from four to twenty per centum, according as the people 
found more or less difficulty in procuring that metal. Lead, u:on, and 
nickel are sometimes found in the alloy, but in such insignificant quantities 



880 Uie Educational Mc/nOdy, [October, 

that they can be considered only imparities in the metal Among the 
palafittes of this age are found specimens which most hare been wozked 
when cold. The art of annealing bronze most, therefore, be almost as 
ancient as the art of preparing the alloy itself. 

Along with the stones for grindiog cereals, common to this and the pre- 
ceding age, are found discoidal stones, four oV fire inches in diameter, 
haviDg, in most cases, a groove on the circumference. The use of these is 
undetenmned. Some regard them as pullies — others think they were 
weights to support the warp in weaving. M. Troyon maintains that the 
discoids were used in games, and relies upon the fact that in Pinelli's col- 
lection an engraving represents a man holding between his hands a similar 
disc, on whose circumference a cord was wound to a^ist in throwing. Thus 
far these stones are found in no place except palafittes of the bronze age. 

The arrangement and preservation of the antiquities within the pala- 
fittes is of value in deciding the character and uses of the bnUdings. The 
objects have not been thrown carelessly into the water, nor are they dis- 
tributed irregularly. The collections occur in masses, frequently consist- 
ing only of articles of one kind. Some have asserted that these remains 
were hoarded beneath the water. Others think the buildings were maga- 
zines for utensils and provisions, and that they were destroyed by fire, as 
is indicated by burned beams, and by traces of fire upon some of the ves- 
sels. At all events the remains found in the palafittes are usually new, 
and few show any signs of use. The hypothesis of destruction by fire is 
strengthened by the experience of investigators, who maintain that it is 
useless to seek for valuable antiquities except in places where the wood is 
charred. It is highly improbable that these consfructions were the cmly 
habitations. In the Canton of Zurich there have been discovered what are 
believed to be genuine dwellings on the mainland. These contain the same 
characteristic utensils as the lacustrian stations. Mounds of erratic stones 
are of frecjuent occurrence in the Canton of Neuchatel. In these Dr. 
Clement found bracelets and reaping-hooks like those of the palafittes. 
The bronze in both instances is of the same composition. All these 
mounds contain many objects which have evidently been exposed to fire. 
M. Qerlach has discovered in the alluvion of the Sionne, in Valais, brace- 
lets of the age of bronze, accompanied by calcined bones, which would 
tend to prove that the tribes of that epoch were accustomed to bum their 
dead, and might serve to explain the rarity of human remains. 

As yet nothing has been discovered respecting the religion of these ante- 
historic tribes. No idols are found, although the so-called lacustrian cres- 
cents may be regarded as religious emblems. These are of considerable 
size, in most cases measuring eighteen inches. They are rudely made, the 
paste is coarse, and the ornamental designs are very harsh. It is sup- 
posed by many that they were talismans, hung up at the doors of dwell- 



1867.] Tnsbrudion cf the People in the NineteerUh Century. 881 

ings. That international commerce existed daring this period is abun- 
dantly attested by the presence of tin, which is never fonnd in Alpine 
countries. What the people could offer in exchange for it is uncertain ; 
nothing resembling a coin has ever been found. 

M. Desor thus sums up the characteristics of the age in Eastern Switz- 
erland : 

1. The presence of metal under the exclusive form of cast bronze, 
more or less pure, but with no intentional alloy of lead or zinc. The 
seams of the moulding are seen on most of the objects. The cutting in- 
struments only have undergone hammering, and the articles of dress have 
sometimes been retouched with the graver. 

2. A considerable improvement in the pottery, notwithstanding the 
absence of the wheel. The finer utensils are generally conical, and pro- 
vided with a glass of graphite. 

3. The presence of rings of baked earth to support the conical ves- 
sels. 

4. The appearance of discoid stones and lacustrian crescents. 

5. Spindle whirls of baked earth, replacmg the stone weights of the 
preceding age. 

6. The greater depth of the palafittes, and hence their greater dis- 
tance from the shore. 

7. The piles are sunk in the ground, and to this end are always hewed 
to a point ; the strokes of the axe are still easily recognized. 



THE INSTRUCTION OF THE PEOPLE IN THE NINE- 
TEENTH CENTURY. 

V. — Popular Education in American Schools — (Continued.) 

In the matter of instruction, as in many others, the main question is 
expense. In Europe, the short-sighted economy of governments, so lavish 
for their armies, is the chief, if not the sole, obstacle to the diffusion of 
education. We can easily understand that in the United States, where 
working men receive at least a dollar a day, so many millions of children 
cannot be instructed, so many hundreds of thousands of teachers paid, 
and so many thousand school-houses annually erected, without very great 
sacrifices. In truth no expense is spared, for they are aware no invest- 
ment is more profitable. Here again the course pursued by America is 
precisely the opposite of the European plan. In Europe, where aristo- 
cratic ideas prevaO, a system has been organized at great expense to furnish 
to the children of the wealthier classes the education which they need, 
while the instruction of the masses has been left to the zeal of the clergy 



882 The JEduccOioncd Monthly. [October, 

or to private charity. In America, where democratic principles rule, pro- 
vision has first been made for the instruction of the people at the pablic 
expense, and the care of founding the mstitutions demanded by the 
superior culture of the upper classes has been left to the liberality <^ pri- 
vate citizens. On this side of the Atlantic the State has paid for those 
who were able to pay for themselves ; on the other, it has paid for those 
who were unable. We cannot fail to award the preference to this last 
system. The Americans have thoroughly understood it, and very lai^ 
sums have been voluntarily bestowed by different individuals upon the 
higher institutions of learning. They have nothing of that exaggerated 
regard for hereditary right wliich makes a man thmk that he wrongs his 
heirs by bequeathmg a part of his fortune to some pubhc charity. They 
believe, on the contrary, that it is right to devote a part of their property 
to promoting the progress of society. As in ancient times, the love of 
country is strong enough to overcome the selfishness and narrowness of 
family feeling. Thanks to the generosity of individuals,* the interests of 
hberal education are making commendable progress, but we are consider- 
ing here the cost of elementary instruction only. 

The average annual expense for this purpose in the free States is estima- 
ted at $1.12 for each person. Thus Massachusetts, with 1,231,066 
inhabitants, expends for her common schools, without counting the cost 
of building and repairing school-houses, $1,413,600 ; New York, with a 
population of 3,880,000, spends $4,557,000, or $1.20 for each individual ; 
Ohio, with 2,339,502 inhabitants, $2,548,200 ; Michigan, with 749,113 
inhabitants, $2,046,000 ; Iliiuois, with a population of 1,711,951, expend 
$2,046,000 ; California, with 379,994 inhabitants, 34,919 of whom are 
Chinese, $465,000. If we consider the cities by themselves, the results 
are still more noteworthy and commendable. Thus, 1861, the city of 
New York, with a population of 900,000, devoted to her public schools 
$1,488,000, or about $1.67 per individual. The total appropriation of 
the French government for the same purpose amounted to $1 ,202,300 in 
1863. 

When th^ civil war broke out, when the sources of public property 
threatened to fail amid the din of arms and the convulsions of that fearful 

• Without speaking of well-known institutions, as Girard's College, in Philadelphia, or the Smith- 
sonian Institute, in Washington, we might mention a very large number of colleges, seminaries, and 
academies of every grade supported in large measure by voluntary contributions. Within forty years 
the University of Cambridge, near Boston, has received donations amounting to nearly a million dol- 
lars. A Mr. Bussy, for example, gave over ^150,000 to the Law School, and Mr. Phillips a hundred 
thousand for the Observatory. Witliin a comparatively short time, a Mr. Putnam has given $75,000 
to endow an Academy in Newburyport ; a New York merchant has devoted 5400,000 to found a Female 
College at Poughkeepsie, on the Hudson River, and an inhabitant of Utica has offered lialf a million 
dollars to establish an agricultural school in that city. If it is desired to found a new professorships 
or to secure the services of some distinguished savant, several individuals unite, and the fund is sub- 
scribed, the income insured. Even the common people arc interested in the progress of sdenoe : an 
Observatory has been built by means of penny sul>saiptions. 



186T.] Instruction of the People in the nineteenth Century, 383 

straggle for national existence, in spite of the enormous increase of expenses 
occasioned by the enrolment of forty regiments of soldiers, whose families 
were supported in many cases at the public cost, at the very time when 
the rebellious States took possession of the funds devoted to mstruction, 
New York [city] largely increased her appropriation for public schools. 
Mr. Randall, superintendent of public instruction in New York, could say 
with just pride recalling these figures : " We may be proud of the sacri- 
fices which we iiave made in behalf of our schools, especially under 
existing circumstances. What other nation, compelled to exert all its 
strength to defend its most sacred rights and its very existence, and to 
impose the heaviest taxes to mamtain in the field a large army composed 
of all ranks in society, — what other nation has appropriated to educational 
purposes so large an amount of money amid so terrible trials ? And what 
motive has induced as to make these sacrifices, but the conviction that the 
diffusion of intelligence is indispensable to the maintenance of free institu- 
tions, and that the education of all is the fundamental principle of that 
glorious constitution which the heroes of the revolution bequeathed to us ? 
The people have understood that the surest way of securing the ultimate 
triumph of the cause to which they have pledged themselves with unani- 
mous resolution and heroic courage, was to extend education still more 
widely, and to labor earnestly for its advancement." Brave words, noble 
confidence in the power of truth I The sword was not sufficient to subdue 
the slaveholders' rebellion, the book was needed ; more than force must 
be employed : intelligence must be diffused, to eradicate iniquity from the 
land. 

The money provided for public instruction comes from several different 
sources. There is, first, the school fund. The Americans have preserved 
that ancient tradition which considers a public charity, as an individual, 
needing for its maintenance an endowment, the income of which is expend- 
ed for its support. Those benevolent institutions in Europe, hospitals and 
charitable boards, which date back to the middle ages, are generally 
maintained in this manner ; thus also the established churches were for- 
merly supported, and are still supported in those countries in which they 
yet exist. In America, instead of establishing a fund for the relief of the 
poor, a certain appropriation is made for the promotion of education, 
which prevents pauperism. A professorship is endowed in a college, 
rather than a bed in a hospital, and more bequests are made for the ad- 
vancement of knowledge than for the distribution of alms. 

The funds are furnished by an original endowment of the State, or by 
the sale of public lands. Congress, lading aside in this matter its habits 
of economy, has decided that one thirty-sixth of the lands shall be devoted 
to the school fund. In the Western States, where the surveyor can trace 
In the unbroken prairie those lines at right angles so dear to the logical 



884 The EducaJtimd Monthly. [October, 

mind of tbe American, the township forms a sqnare, thirty-six English 
miles in extent. This square is subdivided into thirty-six lots, of a mile 
each, and the central one, called the school section, is reserved to meet the 
expenses of education. As the population becomes more numerooa, the 
lands increase in value. They are sold in their turn,* and the price re- 
ceived, often increased by the accumulation of interest, constitutes the 
school fund, which is, in course of time, still further augmented by dona- 
tions, bequests, and endowments. Some statistics will give an idea of 
the value of this fund in the different States in 1863. In Massachusetts, 
it amounted to $1,580,000 ; in New York, to $2,800,000 ; in Ohio, to 
$2,800,000 ; in Michigan to $930,000 ; in Indiana, a state more recently 
settled, which has been able to profit largely by the sale of the public 
lands, to $t,250,000 ; in Illinois, to $5,000,000 ; in Wisconsin, to $2,230,- 
000, not including the value of lands yet remaining unsdd ; in California, 
to 6,622,200 acres of land. 

The second source of school income is the appropriation made by all the 
States. The towns, on their part, are obliged to raise either an equal sum 
or one specified by law ; but most of them far exceed the required amount. 
Thus in Massachusetts, to receive a part of the income of the school-fund, 
the towns must obtain by taxation the amount of a dollar and a half for 
every child of school age, that is from five to fifteen years. No town has 
fallen below the specified sum, and all but thirty-nine have raised two or 
three times as much as the requh-ed appropriation. Every State exerts 
itself to find means for the promotion of this important object. Thus in 
one we find a bank-tax specially appropriated to schools ; in another, a tax 
upon rail roads ; but the chief source of income is a durect tax upon pro- 
perty, levied by the ordinary collectors at the same tune as the other taxes. 
The voters of the township themselves, assembled in a general yearly 
meeting, decide what amount they will raise, and it is a fact worthy of 
commendation that the tax-payers rarely think it too large. The more in- 
telligent a nation is, the better it appreciates the advantages of education, 
and the more cheerfully it submits to the requisite sacrifices. An ignorant 
community will always think that the money spent for its instruction is a 
superfluous expense, and it is probable that in a village where no one could 
read or write, there would not be found a majority to vote the salary of a 
schoolmaster. Every one feels the wants of the body, but all do not ex- 
perience those of the mind, because some cultivation is needed even to 
perceive one's deficiencies. Therefore the authority of government most 

* Unfortunately these sales sometimes take place under unfavorable circumstances. Would it not 
be desirable that all the lands should not be alienated ? The example of European endowments shows 
how the value of land increases, and this advance would be a hundred times more rapid in America. 
If our hospitals originally received their capital in money, their income would be hardly anything at 
the present time, and if the schools of America retained a part of theirs in land, it wou)d triple itself 
every ten years at first, every twenty years subsequently. 



1861] Indrudion (f(be Peopk in the Mndeenih Century. 885 

give the first impalse to edacation in coantries where the majoritj are 
Ignorant. For want of sach an impalse, the people would continue to 
lire in ignorance as in their natural element. 

If now we consider the sTstem of education in the United States as a 
whole, we shall be impressed with its difference from the methods which 
preraQ in Europe. Instead of masters grown old in the serrice, young 
girls from eighteen to twenty-five years almost everywhere, — the corps of 
teachers renewed on an average every five years, — instead of separate 
schools for the sexes, boys and girls together in the same classes, — no 
priestly influence, no action of the central government ; — as motive powers, 
only free discussion and the authority of public opinion, — the appropria- 
tions for education specially, directly, and freely voted by the very men 
who are to bear the burden of taxation, — the higher institutions of learn- 
ing left to individual enterprise, elementary education, on the contrary, 
liberally provided for by the community, — ^religious instruction systema- 
tically excluded from the school, — these are the characteristics which 
distinguish the American system, and which are precisely the reverse of 
our educational institutions. Is there a country in Europe which could 
adopt this system with advantage ? I doubt it ; for schools would be- 
come entirely disorganized under this incessant change of teachers, if all 
the citizens did not appreciate theur importance. But if the methods could 
not profitably be copied, the principle which lies at the foundation of all 
is worthy of universal adoption. From their origin the States of- New 
England have considered the education of the people, as M. Dumy*^ rightly 
insists, as a great public duty, as a debt due from the community to all its 
members. To instruct, to enlighten, has been the chief duty of govern- 
ment and its chief cause of expense. While other governments have 
lavished the millions obtained by taxation to create powerful fleets, ihain- 
tain numerous armies or embellish capitals, they have reserved their money 
to build school-houses and pay teachers. 

Centralization of power is everywhere opposed, and that form of ad- 
ministration termed self-government is continually demanded. "^ In many 
countries doubtless, and especially in France, it is time to loosen the too 
narrow trammels which restrain the voluntary action of the people and 
make then: movements dependent npon the single will of the sovereign ; but 
let it be clearly understood, decentralization will produce great results and 
will lead to liberty, as the example of America shows, only when educa- 
tion shall be widely diffused, even to the lowest ranks of society. For- 
merly, war and conquest were the chief objects of the State, because they 
secured wealth and glory to the sovereign and nobles, who were of su- 
preme importance. Now the chief object of the State is, or should be, to 
secure to all its citizens the full and free development of their faculties. 

* MuuBtcr of Public InstrocUon in Fnzice 



886 The Educational Monthly. [October, 

The only means of securing this desideratum, together with freedom from 
all tutelage, is to found numerous scliools and provide a thorough, attrac- 
tive course of study, which shall be complete in its sphere. The United 
States have understood this more readily and clearly than any other na- 
tion. The Federal government, the States, the towns, and private citizens 
rival each other in zeal to advance the interests of education, and they 
shrink from no sacrifices. Hardly is a State founded, as Kansas or Ore- 
gon, hardly is a territory organized, as Dakota or Nebraska, before 
aiTangcments are made to multiply schools as fast as the population shall 
increase. The instruction of the people is a national work, in which every 
one aids, in which all are interested. This is the noble example presented 
to us by the American Union, which ought to awaken more and more the 
emulation of Europe. 



THE SCEPTER OF KING SOLOMON. 

" Ferulaque triMtet, tceptra padagogonan 
CuunU'—iUAKT. Epigk. x. 62.) 

IN the Jewish, Arabian and Persian legends, much is said of the wonde^ 
ful throne of King Solomon, or Suleiman, as the Arabians call him. 

I wish to say a few words about the scepter of the same king, understanding 
by the word, the pedagogical scepter, the rod. I use the word scepter in 
the sense of rod, because in the Hebrew as well as in the Greek language, 
rod and scepter are represented by the same word, and because the two 
have^ in more senses than one, an affinity for each other. 

According to an article in the June number of the Monthly, the word 
rod, when used by Solomon, is to be taken in a purely figurative sense. 
From Philo down to our own times, there have been those who have 
explained the Bible in an allegorical way ; while even those, who insist that 
every word is to be taken literally, must admit that the language of the 
Bible is often highly poetical, that is to say, metaphorical. We find, for 
example, the word rod unquestionably used in a figurative sense in Isaiah 
xi. 4 : And he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth. Accord- 
ingly, as Hamlet says, " I will speak daggers, but use none," so we might 
say that Solomon will only speak rods, but use none. But let us first con- 
sider this scepter of Solomon. Was it a mild scepter f merely a symbol of 
power f Was it a real golden scepter without any alloy of iron ? Did he, 
like that other descendant of Jesse, smite his subjects only " with the rod 
of his mouth V Was it only figuratively that Adonia, Joab, and Simei 
were slain? (1 Kings ii. 25, 34, 46.) Did that grievous yoke, of which 
the people so bitterly complained, exist only in allegory ? (ibid xii. 4) and 



1867.] The Scepter of King Solomon. 381 

is that too to be taken allegorically, when his son says, My father has cha&. 
Used you with whips f (ibid ys. 61.) It seems not; and if we most 
admit that the scepter of Sang Solomon was sometimes, at least, an iron 
scepter ; that in spite of his name (which is of the same root as the Hebrew 
word for peace), he made use of the sword ; we must also admit that in 
the rules for education — itself a kmd of reigning — Solomon would unhesi- 
tatingly employ the rod in the literal sense of the word. We must admit 
that he means a real rod and a real punishment when he says (Prov. xxiii, 
14), Thou heaiest him with the rod, hut thou delivered his soul fnmi the 
Sheol (perdition) ; or (xix. 18), Chasten thy son while there is stUl hope, 
and do not take to heart his crying ; which may and has been explained, 
" Chasten thy son while there is still hope (to correct him), but do not 
wish to kill hhn.'' Besides, in order successfully to iurestigate the ^rue 
spirit of the book of Proverbs, it must be studied in connection with the 
other books of the Bible. If we refer to the five books of Moses, 
we shall there find on every page mention made of corporal punish- 
ments, and even of the penalty of death in various forms. Esj^ecially 
with regard to education, we find (Deut. xxi. 18) that a stubborn and 
rebellious son was to be " stoned with stones '^ — ^an expression that certamly 
can not be taken figuratively. 

As a proof that the old Hebrews did not educate their children by 
words merely, we adduce as witness a single letter, the Greek Lambda, 
This Lambda is nothing else than the Hebrew and Phoenician letter 
Lamed, so called because its figure resembled that of a goad used in driving 
cattle. From the same root as Lamed are derived the Hebrew words for 
exercise, accustom, learn, teach, etc.; and hence in Isaiah xxLx. 13, where 
the word is employed in the Hebrew text, the meaning seems to be " Their 
fear toward me is a precept of men inculcated by force." Another proof 
that the old Hebrews did at times actually chastise their children, may be 
found in the passage, As a man chasteneth his son, so the Lord thy Ood 
chasteneth thee (Deut. viii. 5). According to this and another passage 
(Psalms cxix. 11), pain and suffering are not to be considered as evils but 
visitations,* and the parallel drawn between divme and paternal castiga- 
tion, shows that in like manner corporal punishment of a child is certainly 
not to be considered as cruelty, as is asserted in the article mentioned. 
The word used in the original of all these passages to express chasten, 
chastise, chastisement, etc. {jassar, m Hebrew), has various significations. 
Where, for instance, the translation uses the word chastise, as in the above 
mentioned passages, or reprove (Prov. ix. 1), or instruct (Job iv. 9, 
Psahns xvi. 1, Isaiah viii. 11), or teach (Prov. xxxi. 1), the Hebrew word 

• It is highly characterUtic that at a later period (see Buxtorf Lex., p. 965X ^^ «*»»^ ^^^rd for 
bodily pain (yisntn'm) means properly chastisement, which implies that all pains and snfferings ai« 
tent as corrections by God. 



888 The Educational ManOJy. [October, 

is always the same {jassar). An analogy to this we find (as Geserins 
remarks in his Thesauros, p. 604), in th$ German Ziehen, to breed, to cal> 
tivate ; erziehen, to bring np, to educate ; zucht, discipline, correction ; and 
r&chHgenf to chastise, to sconrge. All these words have the same root, 
only that zUchtigerif as harder in itself, is a stronger term than zidien. 
These examples sufficiently attest, that among the Hebrews as well as 
among the Teutonic nations, the idea of education is more or less connected 
with that of chastisement. 

Had the origmal text of the above mentioned passages in proverbs em- 
ployed merely the usual word for castigation (jassar), there might be some 
room for doubt as to the true meaning. But the author of the book uses 
the word for rod (Schebeth), and that he means a real rod, may be judged 
of from the fact that, in speaking of children, he always uses the same 
word, while hi speaking of a horse (Pro v. xxvi. 3), he uses the word for 
whip or scourge (Hebrew, Schoiy which, by the way, still exists in the 
Spanish word azotes whip, formed from the Arabic Saui and the article). 

The author of the article in review may be right, however, when he 
says that the application of the rod ought, according to Proverbs, to be 
restricted within narrow limits. It is said distinctly, Fodishneas is bound 
in the heart of the child, the rod of correction shaU remove it from him 
(Prov. xxii. 15). The rod is only for the fool, and a fool (kesUJ m the 
Old Testament, means a person who deviates from the right path. Thus 
an old French Bible transktes, " I erred not from thy precepts" (Psahns 
cxix. 10), by " <fe fes commandemanz non fdiaiP A wicked person is a 
foolish one, an idea, which by the way, is also expressed m the Greek arri 
(Horn. II. vi., 356). The rod is to be employed only in case of the fool, 
or, what is nearly the same, the serf, that is one who is a slave to his pas- 
sions, a brutish person, or in case of those who will not be corrected by 
words (Prov. xxix. 19). But for one who is not a fool, words are to be 
used. A reproof enters more into one who is sensible (mdnnj than a 
hundred stripes into a fool (Prov. xviL 10) : and, the words of wise men 
are as goads (Eccl. xii. 11), which, as in Eccl. ix. 17, certamly means that 
the wise man, one who knows how to train a child according to his dispo- 
sition and turn of mmd (Prov. xxii. 6), will use words which will have the 
same or even a better effect than the rod in the hands of others. 

We may therefore say that the rod is to be used as " ultima raiio,^ when 
there is no other means of correction. If, however, we want a figurative 
passage, we might perhaps find it in the story of Moses (Numb. xx. 12, 24, 
xxxii. 14), who was punished for having smitten the rock with the rod 
instead of speaking to it, which would have -been an example of forbear- 
ance and patience. This rod, according to an oriental legend, was taken 
from a tree m Paradise, and was not to be used to strike with. 

Every one knows what Cervantes has said concemiii^ translations^ and 



1867]. The Scepier of King Sermon. 889 

what the Italians in a shorter way express by their " Traduttore Traditore/' 
Howsoerer correct a translation may be, still an insight into the original 
will give a better understanding. There is no translation withont also some 
dislocation of the original sense, in the case of entire sentences as well as 
in single words. 

The modem languages express scepter and rod by two different words. 
The Hebrew Schebethf however, and the Greek Skeptron (allied to Schebeth, 
and the Latin Scipio)^ signify in the primary sense a rod, in the 
secondary, a scepter. This at once shows us the difference between olden 
and modem times. We talk much and write still more ; we use words and 
words only ; the ancients did not talk so much and wrote even less ; but 
they had another language, that of symbols. We read of the coronation 
of the Austrian emperor as king of Hungary, and all those ceremonies 
appear to us a vain and idle show ; but in former times those symbols bore 
an obvious and striking unport. And thus we find throughout all 
antiquity the rod an eloquent symbol, a necessary attribute. Shepherds 
bore a rod (Psalms xxiii. 4, Micah vii. 14), so also kings, the shepherds 
of nations — notfiive^ Xadov — as Homer calls them, and it is certainly 
characteristic that the Romans of old used a spear mstead of a scepter. 
The same seems also to have been a custom of Saul's (1 Sam. xviiL 10, 
xxii. 6). From this use of the rod, originated in all likelihood the crozier, 
the pastoral staff of the bishop. 

The different Latin words Bacatus^ lituus^ pedum, Tirgaj and the 
Greek pafiSoVy fiaHXpoVy isxr^nrpovy and theur compounds, show 
that nearly every occupation had a certain rod as a distinguishing mark. As 
in many other instances where the words are still in use while the thing itself 
is obsolete, the German language has retained the expressions Zduberstab, 
magic wand ; BeUdstab, an den Bettdstdb bringenj to reduce to beggary ; 
Heroldstabf herald's staff ; den Wanderstab a^greifen, to take the staff for 
wandering ; and, den Stab vber Etwas Irechen, to break the staff at some- 
thing, an expression of utter condemnation, originating in the custom of 
breaking a staff when sentence of death was pronounced. Suppose now 
that the pedagogue, too, had a staff in his hand, as indeed the Septuaginta 
translates the passage (Judges v. 14), not " with the pen of the writer," 
but "with the rod of the scribe" {pd/3Sco ypa/iparicoS — dnj-yriaeao^ 
seems to be a later emendation), he certainly must have used it sometimes, 
or else it would have been a mere sign without signification, and there is 
nothing more ridiculous than the symbol of power without the power itself. 

It is not my intention to speak about corporal punishment ; that is an 
independent subject. My purpose is merely to show that the author of the 
Proverbs speaks no< in a figurative sense, and that just as we find corporal 
punishment in the laws of Menu and among other nations of old, so the old 
Hebrews did not abhor an occasional chastisement. Be^des, we must not 



890 The Educational Monthly. [October, 

forget that in those times it was only in exceptional cases that we find a 
man devoting himself to the life of a petlagogue, and have a special word 
for that occupation (as Numbers xi. 12, Jer. xl. 23, 2 Kings x. 15). 
Generally it was the father — ^this " incorruptissimus custoSf" as Horace 
calls his own father (Sat. I., 6, 81) — who had the charge of the child, and 
it is to the father that Solomon addresses his words. Solomon, as a wise 
man, knew that a father would not readily go too far in whipping his child, 
and that he rather needs an admonition not to spare him, than an exhorta- 
tion not to whip too hard. 

In conclusion, I cannot refrain from another remark. There is, perhaps, 
no other country where we find so many biblical reminiscences, especially 
of the Old Testament, as in America. In no other country do there exist 
80 many biblical names derived from the Old Testament, and no other 
literature abounds in so many biblical expressions and allusions. People in 
this country are indeed what the Germans call " hibd/est,^ and the above 
mentioned article is an instance of this. One may read the whole of 
Locke's *' Thoughts concerning Education," or of Rousseau's " Emilc,'' 
or the book " DeW Educazione^^^ of the renowned Italian author Tom- 
maseo, or any of the German books on education, without finding a single 
biblical passage quoted. But as the old Hebrews certainly did much in 
the cause of education, since the mstruction of the children forms part of 
the law, and as a pedagogical idea pervades the whole of the Bible, this 
book may, in some parts, be considered a kind of pcedagogopcedie, in- 
structing us how to educate. We must take care, however, always to 
elicit the right meaning, and to find in those passages nothing but what is 
really contained in them, else we risk being reckoned among those con- 
cerning whom GOthe says — 

'* Legt ihrM tUehl out, «o Ugt ihr*a unter,** 



Industrial Education. — No boy should bo allowed to grow up to man- 
hood, and no girl to womanhood, without havhig become skilled in some 
department of manual labor. No matter how rich of poor, no matter how 
learned or how ignorant, every one should know how to earn a subsistence 
by bona fide hard work. Your lawyer, doctor, clergyman, heiress, teacher, 
actress, may live to see the day when he or she will not be wanted in bis 
or her chosen vocation, yet be in urgent need of board and clothes. Such 
cases are constantly occurring. Most of those who plead for something to 
do, know not how to do anything that others want. " I am willing to do 
anything," they say ; but they really know how to do nothmg. It is a 
enme to rear a child to such helplessness, though he were to inherit the 
wealth of Croesus. 



186t.] OramnuUicd Notes. 891 

GRAMMATICAL NOTES, 
in. — Tee Tossessive Cask op Nouns. 

THERE is, to say the least, much want of simplicity in English Gram- 
mars, in stating how the possessive case of nouns should be written. 
We are told, perhaps, 1st, '^ The possessive singular is formed by annexing 
an apostrophe and the letter s to the nominative ;" 2d, ** The possessive 
plural is formed by annexing an apostrophe and s to the nominative plural, 
nuless it already ends in s, in which case the apostrophe only is annexed f 
3d, " Nouns ending in the sound of s usually form their possessive case by 
annexing an apostrophe only, especially if the next word commences with 
an 8 sound.'' Now this is exceedingly conihsing, in a great measure incor- 
rect, and altogether unsatLsfjEU^tory. Some fifteen years ago we adopted a 
simple rule, which we have since stated at two or three different Teachers' 
Conventions, and in the class-room again Sad again. We have tested it by 
comparing it with the practice of standard writers, and have seen, as yet, 
no good reason for changing it. It is applicable as well to the plural as to 
. the singular, to nouns ending in a as to nouns not ending in s. It is this : — 
Annex to the nominative an apostrophe,* dways ; then, if, in pronouncing 
the possessive, you give to the word the sound of a final s or z not heard 
in pronouncing themominative, annex an s ; if not, do not. 

Examples. 

1. Apostrophe and s annexed. 2. Apostrophe only annexed! 

The wwn's hat, The hoy^ hats ; 

MerCs shoes, Archimedes screw ; 

For triUh^8 sake. For conscience^ sake ; 

The schoolmistress story, In his highness^ favor ; 

An Esquimau's hut. The Esquimaiuc^ habits ; 

Our corpus [sing.] commander, The ten corpse [pi] commanders fell ;; 

Langloit^s experience. The power of JesuS name ; 

To Douglas's obscure abode, They shout the Douglas^ name ; 

And in Melros^s holy pile. Sought Melrose^ holy shrine. 

The law for the possessive case, whether singular or plural, is one. It 
should be written as pronounced. This is almost invariably done with 
reference to the plural,t for the simple reason that the nominative gene- 

* This rnle, be it observed, is for timifit , not for personftl pronouns, which should never- 
be written with an apostrophe,— Aer«, U$, our$, youn, theira, being the true form for* 
these words. 

t There is a misspelling of the possessive ploral which does not affect its pronuncia- 
tion, bnt which is palpable enough to the eye. It occurs continnally among writers of 
all grades. The foUowing are instances of it ** ControTcrsy is not seldom excited iui 



392 The Educaiional Monthly. [October, 

rally ends with the sound of 8/ and as an additional 8 is not heard in pro- 
nouncing the possessive, an additional s is not appended after the apostro- 
phe. Where this sound, howerer, is heard, as in children^ chervbim\ 
genii's, sons-dn-iaufSf the § is annexed, just as in the singular. 

Some may be disposed to say, If the last four of the above exam^^es 
are correct, then we can pronounce and write the possessive as we please, 
either with or without the apostrophe. It may, at first glance, seem so ; 
but if the reader will follow us patiently through, we will endeavor to 
show that, in this apparent irregularity, there is, notwithstanding, a 
conformity to law and usage, as well as a certain usage to which we 
are to conform. 

If Sir Walter Scott, or any other poet, for the metre's sake, says, in one 
place, " the Douglas^ name," (and " the law allows it,") and in another, 
" the Douglases command," does it therefore follow that you or I, in unam- 
bitious prose, may, at our pleasure, write, on one page, " WiUis^s Poems" 
or " conscience^ sake," and on the next, contraiy to established usage, 
" WUli^ Poems " or " conscience's sake ?" This would argue either our 
ignorance of the true pronunciation of these words, or our indifference to, 
perhaps contempt of, general usage. The laws of poetical composition in 
all languages allow certain licences which are not tolerated in prose. It is 
only by one of these licences that the poet is allowed to clip the pronund- 
ation of Douglass and Mdros^s to Douglas^ and Metros^, and even to 
transfer the accent in the latter from the second syllable to the first. 

The only real difficulty seems to be in regard to nouns ending with an s 
sound. If they are to be written as pronounced, when shall we pronounce 
them with an additional s, and when not ? We will endeavor, if possible, 
to clear up the matter somewhat, if not altogether. 

1. When a proper (or any other) noun is prefixed, as a designating 
term not implying possession and without any change of pronunciation, to 
another noun, it should not be written with the sign of the possessive. It 
is not a noun in the possessive case at all, but an adjective. Examples : — 
Phillips Academy, Bulgers College, Adams Express Co., James Street, 
Coenties Slip. There is no reason why these, and such as these, should 
have the sign of the possessive any more than the leading word of any of 
the following expressions : — Yale College, Manhattan Life Ins. Co., Hudson 
River, Clinton Place, Feck Slip, Catharine Farrj ; much less that that * 
sign should be improperly used, as we have seen it used, and that, too, by 
" respectable people," thus ; Phillips? Academy, Bulger's College, Jam^' 
Slip, etc. Under this head come such expressions as " Mars Hill," '' The 

conseqaence of the duputantt attaching each a different meaning to the Bame word."*- 
Coleridge. ** In moft cases, the people who talk abont a man's wrilMft being light 
know nothing abont severe thinking."—.^. K, B. Boyd. DupuUmU aad writingB 
should have been dUpuianU* and writingt* — i. e. With the apostrophe. 



18C7.] Grammalicd Noies. 893 

IKmes Office," "The CoUina Steamers," "Swings Bank,'' **D6bb8 Ferry." 
Lippincott's Gaz. has it Dobb% and Losslng, Dobb^a I 

2. Proper noans ending with the sound of sharp s, as Brooks, Cox, NoT' 
ris, Pc^f Prentice, Tantalus, Titus, should, as a general rule, have their 
possesaiyes sounded and written with an additional s, '* Toss's hobby- 
horse."— ^ancn^. "St Vitus's dance."— t/; E. Worcester. "PhiUip^s 
dictionary." — Do. "Mr. Burgesses discovery." — K Tooke. ''Tantalus's 
kingdom."— Pc)pe. " WiUoe^s liberation."— jV. A. Bev. " Horace's canon."— 
Bisradi. " Dr. TTotfs's sermons." — Southey, " Clarenoe^s Plantagenet." — 
ScoU. "King Bagdegamuf^s psLrtj.^^-BvJfinch. "Sir Leungs Swiss 
porter." — Macaulay. "St. Dennis^s.^* — Do. " Erasmuf^s dialogues." — 
Do. '*EUi^s reprint."— ff. P. Marsh. '' Dyc^s edition."— Z>o. "TTi^ 
lis^s Scripture pieces." — Cheever. ** Brooks^s integrity." — E. Everett 
" Douglases original poetry." — HaUam. The word Jesus, however, is am 
exception to this rule. The form for the possessive of this word, as estalh 
lished by custom, is Jesu^; — ^not Jesu% (pronounced as we have some- 
times heard it from the pulpit, Je-zhooz,) nor yet Jesuits. This last form 
may possibly be tolerated, but barely tolerated, in verse. It was thus 
Charles Wesley wrote, "When my heart first believed, what a joy I 
received, — ^what a heaven in Jesus^s name." In poetry we may expect to 
find, "A Tihju^ noble charities." "Aurdiu^ countenance," ** Cocytiuf 
brink," "PAcrfnis' steeds," " At Ajax' hosom,^ "5acc/ii^ blessings." The 
additional s is omitted here, not to avoid the recurrence of unpleasant 
sounds, as we are sometimes told, but to fit the syllables to the procrustean 
bed of verse. The recurrence of s sounds in these cases is really no objec- 
tion ; for numberless instances of harsher combinations than any of these 
possessive forms with the additional s, occur all through the language, and 
are used without the slightest objection. Nay ; we hold that, with all its 
s's, the expression " Sir Lewies Swiss porter," or "KeaU^s St. Agnes' Eve," 
is positively more easily pronounced and more melodious than " Sir Lewis? 
Swiss portCT," or " K&M St. Agnes' Eve," properly pronounced, would be. 
The same is true of " Phosbus^s steeds" as compared with Pope's "Phoobuf? 
steeds," and of other examples innumerable. Away, then, with this paltry, 
meaningless objection I 

3. Surnames like Adams, Johns, Peters, Bichards, WiUiams, should 
receive the additional s in pronouncing as well as in writing their pos- 
sessive, if for no other reason, to distinguish it from the possessive of the 
corresponding Christian name, Adam, John, etc The only seemingly 
plausible, though not real, objection that we can conceive of being urged 
against this, is the unusualness of some of these forms. Here, we have no 
doubt, is just where all the trouble lies. While Adam^s and WUliama^s, 
and others of them are familiar enough to the eye and the ear, some that 
are less frequently met with, we admits " seem odd " if written and pro- 



S91 The Educational AtanMy. [October, 

nounced as we beliere they should be. Take "Samudt^a Ornithology.*' It 
was only a day or two ago that we met this in the Nation of Angust 
8tb. And thongh unusual, we think it right, and to be pronounced 
sam-u^z-ez, ^ 

4. In fact, perhaps most proper names endmg in «, even when that letter 
has the sound of z, should receire an additional 8 in pronouncing as well as 
m writing. — *' Bay^s monster beast.** — Pope, ** Stykf^s Register."— 
Macavlay. " Mrs. Siddms^s Milton."— 2>o. " CcUins^B Odes."— Sbu^. 
" Edward^ B Works."— CTiannin a " Dichenf^s Works."— Day's Punchh 
atimt. " Mrs. Hemans^s poetry." — N. A. Bev, "Dr. Eawe^s church."— 
K Barnard. " King Jameses translation." — O, P. Marsh. " CharMs 
aJBTairs."- Pre8co«. *' Stephens's Incidents of Travel."— ^y. A. Bev. 
" Sandys writings."— P. W. GrisuxM. " Welles Grammar."— ft Brovnu 
" Tlcknor and Fidd^s latest publications." — T. and FJs Adv'L The 
Appleton's publish Edios^ Readers, as the books themselves say on the 
back. But with all deference we would submit whether Ebws^s would not 
be the true form for the possessive case of this name, leaving Eow^s in 
undisputed possession of its own pronunciation as well as orthography. 
Eows^s is certainly no harder to pronounce and no harsher to the ear than 
houses. Besides, it speaks the truth, while the pronunciation of Hauxf 
carries a wrong impression. It naturally calls up How^s^ which Hovo^i 
can not do. 

5. From the above class we unhesitatingly except, and write without an 
additional s in the possessive, all names ending in rs, as Ayre^, Been^^ 
Manners^ f Waters^, Withers^; also names ending with an qnaocented sylla- 
ble terminating in the sound of ir or ez, as Humphrey^, Mose^^ Johei^ 
Hedged ; also names ending with an unaccented syllable terminating in the 
sound of eez, as Davief^, Socrale^^ AchiU&f. This we do on the score of 
euphony, sustained as it is by usage. " Lord Bemen^ Froissart." — O. P. 
Marsh. " Jfoses* minister." — Josh. i. 1. "Dr. CTurfmcrs* knowledge." — 
a Knighi. *' MUhridale^ flatterers."- Do. ^'Aldde^ club."— Zamft. 
"Archimedes^ screw." — J. E. Worcester. The repetition of two similar 
unaccented syllables in succession is harsh^ and our best q)eakerB and 
writers, if they can, generally avoid it. 

6. We should also write without the additional 9, 

a. All common nouns ending in unaccented anoe or enoe^ followed by a 
word beginning with s; as, acquaintance^^ teny)eranc^, conscience, 9cieno(^. 
This is the form established by usage. " AMano^ sake." — Shak. " Sciena^ 
self." — Byron. " For convenience^ sake."— ifaa? MuUer. Followed by 
other words, they take the s. " Your reverences mule."— /iwnAoc. Proper 
names in these terminations follow the general rule ; Adrumoe^Sf Severances, 
Clarences, Terences, etc. 

b. All common nouns in unaccented ess, that have no plural ; as, good- 



1867.] John Boyd. 895 

ness^, holiness f'prowes^. Noans having a plural readUj and usually admit 
the additional s ; (thongh sometimes, for the measure's sako, it is omitted 
in poetry ;) as, mistrest^s, princes^ s, witness's. 

We conclude with giving a few examples of possessives improperly 
written. 1. "As regards o^Aer«^s opinions." — Century, 2. **Ladie^s bon- 
nets."— ^oZcA's Led, 3. " Who thirst for scribbling' sake."— Pc^. 4. " For 
distinction^ sake." — Anthon. 5. " For independences sake." — F, A, March. 
6. " For truth's sake and his conscience,^ — Shak. This needs the apos- 
trophe, — conscience^. 1. " For knowledge sake." — Hooker. 8. " For tens' 
sake." — Lennie. Say, "for ten's sake?' 9. "For peace and quiet's 
sake." — CoicpeTf as published by C. Wells, 1835. " For peace and quieC 
sake."— Coi^per, as published by Appleton^ 1869. The omission of the s 
from peace, is an allowable poetic licence ; but the omission of the ['] from 
that word is an error, as is also the omission of s from quieCs in the last 
instance. 10. " Next came the ladies turn." — N. Y. Daily. 11. " Slieep^ 
wool." — LippincotCs Oaz. Brown says the possessive plural of sheep should 
be written steps', to distinguish it from the possessive singular. Kerl 
remarks, " This is a questionable rule." It is more. It is contrary to all 
analogy, unnecessary, and most vicious. 12. "St. Janie^ coffee-house." — 
Disraeli. 13. "Davies's Algebra." 14. *' Socrales's life." — Lennie. 15. 
" Verre^s trial"— ifocauZay. 16. " Mr. Harris^ services." 11. " In Fdiaf 
room." 18. "The sound of horses feet." 19. '* Holme's Am. Annals." 
The nominative here is Holmes, not Holme. The possessive should there- 
fore be Hotme^s. 20. "Descartes^ views." This requires the additional s, 
the nominative (Descartes) being pronounced de-kart. 21. *^ Ladi^^s 
Roohl" — R. E. Depot, Jamaica, L. L 



JOHN BOYD. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

ON the Monday morning after the Professor's Comfort lecture, the 
Wye Morning News Letter contained the following paragraph : 
" Professor Beelen lectured at Comfort last Friday evening before a 
crowded and intelligent audience, which manifested their interest by giving 
to the learned lecturer the profoundest attention. The popularity of the 
Professor as a lecturer is, we are informed, bringing upon him a pressure 
of invitations, thus multiplying his engagements to such an extent as to 
render it extremely difficult for him to fulfill them. This state of things 
renders it, no doubt, desirable that applications for his services as a lec- 
turer should be made without delay." 

The impudent vitality denoted to the initiated by this newspaper para- 



896 The EducaHorud MorUKty. [October, 

graph prodaced upon them rather a ladicroas effect. The paragraph would 
deceive many unsophisticated readers, who woald regard it as purely edito- 
rial, and as indicating the importuice of the Professor. While the initiated 
chafed at this reflection, thej disdained to do more than laugh oyer the 
statement. The man who has a constituency is strong, even though the 
constituency consist of the unsophisticated. With a sense of the strength 
gathered to him by his newspaper statement, the Professor entered school 
again. He was wont to compare himself to the moon that sailed tran- 
quil in the heavens above the dogs that barked at it ; and doubtless it 
was upon this principle that he determined still to act. Yet for all his 
strength, and for all his tranquil indifference, his look of suspicious alert- 
ness had become intensified ; and a hard look darkened the expression of 
benignity which, according to custom, he assumed, when presently he stood 
at his desk before his assembled pupils. He detained them awhile after 
the opening religious exercises to tell them about his lecturing experiences 
at Comfort. It was a means of advertising himself which he was not 
likely to neglect. Self-complacent and undulatory in tone, he indicated 
with great clearness and accuracy the remarkable success which had 
attended his efforts, and finally drew the moral that if they would only 
give close attention to their studies, some of the pupils might eventually, 
perhaps, rise also to distinction in the higher walks of literary life. The 
disgust and uneasiness with which the school sat under these remarks had 
no effect upon the Professor's paternal complacency while delivering them. 
Elsewhere he assumed the role of the charitable Christian. Charity be* 
came the burden of his prayers and exhortations. If a brother was 
charged with a fault, he would strive to allay the bitterness of feelmg 
against him. A prominent politician was decried for some act of immo- 
rality, and he found in the Professor an indefatigable defender, going about 
palliating the fault, or explaining it away. And all the while he would 
manage to drop softly, here and there, poisonous words concerning his 
own personal enemies, and he would show how the justice which had been 
wrought upon Miss Woodstock must needs fall ultunately upon all who 
would array themselves against the Christian. 

Meanwhile Boyd had become thoroughly repellant to all demonstrations 
of a social kind coming from the Professor, never seeming to notice 
him excepting when the of the school required it. When the warm 
weather came on, John would go occasionally to the neighboring beach 
with parties of boys. One day Beelen, inviting himself, joined them. 
While Boyd was walking on the sand, Beelen approached and took his 
irm in a sociable way ; nor did he withdraw his arm, though Boyd by not 
locking it, failed to encourage him. The Professor held on, and opened 
with a glowing appeal to his companion to look upon the sea and to ad- 
mu*e it in its grandeur. 



1861} John Boyd. 89t 

'' Excnse me," said John, " there are some of my boys awaiting me. I 
mast join them." " Ah— yes — well," ejaculated the Professor, clinging to 
Boyd. "I wished to say something confidentially, if yon could spare a few 
minutes. Shall we go to those rocks where we may be alone?" " No, I 
think not," said John, looking at the huge pile of rocks indicated, ** I fear we 
should be rather too lonely." " 0, 1 guess not. We can have a good 
bath together there without fear of interruption ; and I can tell you what 
I wish to." " Perhaps," said Boyd, " if we should go to bathe so far 
away from the rest, the undertow or something else might be the death of 
one of us, and then the competition for the principalship of the Institute 
and the Saturday School would be brought to too sudden an end — a me. 
lancholy result, you know, that is by no means to be invited." Beelen 
lifted back momentarily with a glare, but he at once recovered his smooth- 
ness of manner. Boyd had withdrawn and was confronting him. 

" I have been talking with Tilden Boyd," said Beelen, with a slightly 
sinister pucker. John tarried to listen. " I have been talking with him 
confidentially," said the Professor, " he has told me of that affair of yours." 
Beelen waited, and John eyed him. " I told him," continued Beelen, " that 
I did not see that you were blame-worthy. You simply invested Miss 
Pragge's money, by her own request, in the manner which seemed to you 
best. You only committed a mistake, I told him, such as any one was 
liable to commit. You, nor any one could ever have foreseen the failure of 
the company. You acted honorably. You have, I fear, been over sensitive 
lest dishonorable motives might be imputed to you. I can, I think, judge 
of your feelings from my own under similar circumstances. Our tempera- 
ments, I thmk, are much alike. I have defended you — I have defended 
you to the last." " The affair needs no defending, and when it does I will 
hire one of my own selection to it do ." John was turning away again. ** As 
to the matter of the will," continued Beelen, and John lingered, — " I — I 
told your cousm that I thought the Welford Boyd property belonged by 
good rights to you, and that the story of the drawing of another and a 
later will must be true ; that if he had purchased your old homestead 
with the money he would most probably have to quit it, for the later will 
would most surely turn up — ." " Humph I" Boyd ejaculated, and he 
turned and walked away, leaving Beelen alone on the beach. John, indeed, 
desired to be alone awhile. He stood and looked out upon the sea. "What 
if it be true," he thought. The bare possibility of his repossessing the 
old homestead suggested itself. He stood and looked and thought. The 
boys were having a fine time on the sand. Their shouts, however, hardly 
rose above the roar of the waves. He felt like joining them, but his revery 
held him. His mind began to reason out the case. This uncle of his, 
WeMbrd Boyd, had always regarded him with special kmdness until Tilden 
came to him. That was a shrewd play of Tilden's to get the money by 



898 The Edticaiional Monthly. [October, 

coDciliating the old man to himself, and alienating him to his fayorite 
nephew. Tilden was poor. It was a way for him to get rich. An eagj 
way. That explained why Welford Bojd had torned cool. John could 
not understand it before. Tes, that was the explanation. John had taken 
no pains to reconcile his nncle. He had discontinued his visits upon the 
discovery of the coolness. One day, however, not long before the uncle's 
death, John had chanced to meet him, and at that interview the old pre- 
ference for John had plainly manifested itself. Then came a paralytic 
stroke which prostrated the uncle, and he sent for John. When tiie latter 
arrived there were present in the room Tilden Boyd and Pragge. These 
two withdrew from the bedside to a comer, and Welford Boyd took John's 
hand and glanced uneasily at the others. " What can I do for you V 
whispered John in his ear, for a burden seemed to be resting upon hia 
uncle's mind. The latter could not speak, but he turned his eyes to a little 
closet that was set high in the opposite wall. He glanced from the closet 
to John and back again until John looked thither ; and then Welford 
Boyd's eyes grew dim. He was dead. Now what was in that closet? 
The new and last will ? 



CHAPTER XXII. 

It was clear from Tilden's manner that if such a will had been made, he 
had not possessed himself of it. John determined to look for it upon the 
first opportunity. On the following Friday he took the cars for Barbridge 
where his uncle had lived. He would first of all look for it in the closet 
Ever since his uncle's death the house had been untenanted. The key had 
been entrusted to a neighbor, from whom Boyd readily got it ; and he 
borrowed a candle and proceeded at once to the house. The sun had set 
a half hour, and the twiUght was fading. The old house, long unpaiuted, 
presently stood before him, dark and uninviting. The neglected garden 
was rank with weeds. Just as his hand touched the gate, a clump of shrub- 
bery, that stood by the comer of the house, was shaken, and something 
^rang from it and darted round the comer out of sight. The thing was 
white whatever it was, so that he discerned it the more clearly. But the 
movement was so sudden that he got but a glimpse of the object. He 
opened the gate and went in. He walked up the path and around the 
house, but there were visible no signs of the presence of any one. Reach 
ing the door he unlocked it and stepped in, and lighted the candle. Then 
he closed and locked the door. The house evidently had not been opened 
for a long while. The air was damp and stagnant ; and that peculiar 
odor which belongs to old houses was strangely palpable. As he wai 
ascending the staircase a sound fell on his ear, from what direction he 
could not tell, but certainly from somewhere within the house. He 



1867.] JWin Boyd. 899 

stopped to listen. The stillness was so profound that he began to 
think he had been deceived. He hardly permitted himself to associate the 
eonnd fancied or otherwise with what he had seen ontside. He was bent 
upon the accomplishment of his errand ; but he stepped more sbwly when 
he went on. The noise had seemed like that of one moring quickly but 
softly out of a room. It was a slight rushing sound. It might have been 
the wind rising among the trees about the house. With that reflection 
he again dismissed the thought of it from his mind. 

The door of his uncle's chamber was ajar. He pushed it open and en- 
tered. The bed was made up, and was just as it had been left after the 
funeral. A door at the side of the room leading to another chamber was 
wide open. Access in that direction was had to the back part of the 
house. The windows and blinds were closed. The circumstances and 
associations of the place were depressing. Puttmg the candle on a table, 
he stepp^ upon a chair and pulled open the door of the closet. Instinc- 
tively he slammed it to again, and jumped to the floor and stared around 
him and then up at the closet door. But that was only for an instant. 
Immediately he stepped into the chair again and pulled open the door and 
looked in. A fading phosphorescent light revealed itself from the wall in 
the depth of the closet, assuming the shape of a grinning skull. '* That 
was done by human fingers," he thought, " and but just now. There 'a 
some one in the house." At that instant something rushed through the 
room — something white ; he caught a glimpse of it as it flitted tlorough 
the door leading to the next chamber. '' Now that is neither ghost nor 
devil," he thought as he stood on the chair looking in the direction whither 
the thing had disappeared. " Being visible, it is flesh and blood." He 
turned and ransacked the closet hastily. There was considerable rubbish 
in it, old books and newspapers, bottles and manuscripts. He must ex- 
amine thoroughly. He removed all the bottles first and held them to the 
caudle to see whether they contained anything. Each and all were empty. 
Then he looked through the leaves of all the books, and finally he came 
to the manuscripts. These were the most likely to contain the thing he 
sought. He went to the chamber door and drew it to, and just then a 
loud, vacant, horrible laugh resounded through the house. ''Human 
lungs," he muttered. " This is the nineteenth century, and I hope Fm 
of it. Nothing worse than a tussle, perhaps, unless it be a bullet. But 
that's not likely. No suflScient motive. No? Tilden? — ^His point 
would hardly be to prevent my getting the will, but to get it himself. 
Perhaps he thought of the closet at the same time — by Pragge's sug- 
gestion, it may be. Fll keep the doors closed." He rose and closed to 
the door that led to the hall. He had no sooner taken his seat when the 
door was flung wide open again. He started to his feet. Standing 
motionless in the doorway was a figure clad in white. '' Pragge 1" John 



400 The Mucatimud ManMy. [October, 

ejaculated. At once the figure stepped one side and 'Dlden Boyd walked 
into the room. And yet it could hardly be said that he walked. His 
posture and gait would have reminded one rather of the act of creq>ing. 
His face was white and distorted, and he rubbed his hands as he ap- 
proached to where John stood. " I have come to look for the will," he 
chattered. " Yes, I would have justice done. Let's look these over — 
look these over together. Ha, ha, it's strange, isn't it, we should have 
hit upon it at once. These are the papers 7 I've brought a candle, too. 
Pragge, bring the candle, won't you ?" All the while he kept his eyes 
turned up under their brows toward John, as though he feared that to 
remove them would be to lose some advantage. And meanwhile John 
continued his search among the manuscripts. Pragge flitted in with a 
candle after the traditional ghostly way, and then retired to the bed, in the 
middle of which with a leap he settled himself, and glowered at the two 
will-seekers. " You tried my nerves somewhat," said John, honestly, " but 
you did not succeed in frightening me away." " Ha, ha — ^he — e," chat- 
tered Tilden, with ghostly jollity, "we didn't want to frighten you away, did 
we, Pragge ? We are glad of your assistance." " Very much obliged to 
you for your appreciation of my services," replied John, " you '11 find them 
valuable, for I shall hunt with inexorable tenacity." Hereupon he drew a 
larger manuscript from the file. Tilden made a sudden movement of his 
hand as though to clutch it. John drew it away, eyed him, and then pro- 
ceeded to look at the manuscript. He had examined everything thoroughly 
but this. Tilden kept his eyes still turned to him from under his brows, 
while John read. Presently John folded up the manuscript, and was put- 
ting it in his side coat pocket when Tilden on a sudden clutched at it. His 
face was ghastly white, and so distorted that he showed his teeth. John 
strove to push hira away, but with this horrible expression he held on. 
Pragge stood up on the bed. Tilden seized a chair. It was a threatening 
movement. John caught the chair, and in the struggle the table was 
upset and the candles were put out. " Come," was whispered in John's 
ear. The voice had a friendly sound, and he allowed himself to be thrust 
from the room and accompanied to the door. " Pragge," said he, there, 
" I could have taken care of myself, — but this convinces me that you are 
fiiendly." " I would not be hung," was the cold reply. 



The common school is that means which enables men to be educated, 
which unseals their eyes, and opens their faculties, and give? them the 
liberty to think and to acquire. To read and write is not much ; a pair 
of eyes is not much ; but the amount of a man's seeing is a great deal in 
Ills lifetime ; and the intelligence which is gathered by reading and writing 
is immeasurable. — Beecher. 



THE MOISTTHLY-OCTOBER. 



Reunion. 



YARIETY is certaiolj one of the prime sources of human delight 
The seasons in theur order pass and repass oyer the sympathizing 
surface of the globe, and we, its tenants, honor each in its dae rotation. 
We reflect with pleasure, in the icy Winter, on the coming flowers of the 
Summer, and, whilst gathering the golden harvests of Autumn, long for 
the bracmg airs and cool green glories of the Spring. 

In like manner pass the erer-Tarying changes in the periods of our lires. 
The joys of infancy yield to the sports of youth ; these are absorbed in 
the toils of manhood, destined to be superseded by the sober reflections of 
age. But there are wheels within wheels, and eren these changes hare 
alsJ their variations. The toils of manhood need the relaxations of rest 
and of recreation ; and a renewed association with the delights of infancy 
is not unfrequently resorted to as a pastime and solace by declinmg age. 
But pleasure soon cloys, and is rarely or never found totally unalloyed 
with sorrow ; whilst toil, when freely accepted and rightly honored in its 
performance, is not unfrequently found to be the true zest of life, the 
supreme charm of existence. 

So Hafl I once more to the f&miliar path, the play grounds and the 
school house. Hail to the well-known hall, the reception room, the chair 
of office, and the old familiar desk. Hurrah I for the map^tand, the 
black-board and the sacred pianoforte. Welcome I to the cheerful saluta- 
tion of the janitor, and the steady clang of the old morning bell ; to the 
oft heard pattering of little feet and the music of cheerful voices gathering 
volume with each fresh arrival. Thrice welcome to the dear ^miliar faces 
as they throng around, with their hearty congratulations depicted in truth- 
ful characters in their sparkling eyes and pouring forth in chorus from their 
ruby lips. Farewell I to the past glories of the se