(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute"



C C C C . 

Cc C ^ ^ 



ccc ccc, 

CSC ccc^ 

C3I c Co 






?: 11^ 






<rrr ^ 



cc c o r c 



c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


< 


cc 


c 


c 






"^^ ^sr c 



CC <7 cr 



C <C c^cc 

- c:<rc 

^. Cc?c 

"T ecu 







€^ 



GENEALOGY 
973.001 
AAINAVI 
1891 














( 




< 
C 



c& c 



^c dec <r < 



SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 
EDWARDSVILLE 



^^'^ SCIENCE. BUSINESS 



LIBRARY 



d 



./ 



PROCEEDINGS 



UNITED STATES 



NAVAL INSTITUTE 



VOLUME XVII. 




EDITED BY 

J. B. Briggs and H. G. Dresel. 
PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE INSTITUTE. 

ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



Copyright, 1891, by H, G. Dresel, 
Sec'y and Tr'as., U.S. Naval Institute. 



PRESS OP ISAAC FRIKDENWALD CO. 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



The writers only are responsible for the contents of their respective articles. 



CONTENTS. 



Prize Essay for 1891. The Enlistment, Training, and Organiza- 
tion OF Crews for our New Ships. By Ensign A. P. Niblack. 
U. S. N., 3 

Notes on an Experimental Ammunition Cart, constructed for 
THE Ordnance Department. By Lieutenant W. W. Kimball, 
U. S. N., 51 

SiACCi's Ballistic Equations. By Prof. Wm. Woolsey Johnson, U. S. 

Naval Academy, 57 

On the Angle of Elevation in order, that the Trajectory in Air 
SHALL pass through A GIVEN PoiNT. By Piof. Wm. Woolsey 
Johnson, U. S. Naval Academy, ........ 61 

Target Practice. By Lieutenent J. F. Meigs, U. S. N. With Discus- 
sion, 67 

Lieutenant J. C. Wilson, U. S. N., 82.— Lieutenant W. F. Fullam, 
U. S. N., 83 — Lieutenant Kossuth Niles, U. S. N., 87. — Com- 
mander C. M. Chester, U. S. N., 87.— Captain L. A. Beardslee, 
U. S. N., 89. 

Electrical Counter, and Shaft Revolution and Direction Indi- 
cator. By W. D. Weaver, Assistant Engineer, U. S. N., . . 91 

Professional Notes, 95 

The Organization and Duties of Trial Boards for our new Cruisers. 

Reviews, • ... 99 

Bibliographic Notes, , . . . 100 

Prize Essay Notice. 

Advertisements. 



The writers only are responsible for the contettts of their respective articles. 



CONTENTS, 



Instructions for Infantry and Artillery, United States Navy. Pre 
pared under the direction of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Depart 
ment, by Commander C. M. Thomas, U. S. N., Lieutenant C. E. Colahan 
U- S. N., Lieutenant W. F. Fullam, U. S. N., Ensign F. J. Haeseler 
U. S. N., and First Lieutenant L. W. V. Kennon, U. S. A. 

Prize Essay Notice. Advertisements. 



569 



The writers only are responsible for the contents of their respective articles. 



CONTENTS 



Disposition and Employment of the Fleet : Ship and Squadron 

Drill. By Lieutenant R. C. Smith, U. S. N., 121 

On a Method for Calculating the Stability of Ships. By Naval 

Constructor D. W. Taylor, U. S. N., 157 

High Explosives in Warfare. By Commander F. M. Barber, U. S. N. 231 

Proposed Day, Night, and Fog Signals for the Navy, with Brief 
Description of the Ardois Night System. By Ensign A. P. Nib- 
lack, U. S. N., 253 

Electro-Metallurgy. By Joseph W. Richards, A. C, Ph. D., . . 265 

The Samoan Hurricane of March, 1889. By Everett Hayden, U. S. N. 283 

Discussion of Prize Essay for 1891. The Enlistment, Training, 
and Organization of Crews for our New Ships. By Ensign A. 

P. Niblack, U. S. N 297 

Commander G. H. Wadleigh, U. S. N., 297.— Lieutenant C. B. T. 
Moore, U. S. N., 301.— Lieutenant R. C, Smith, U. S. N., 301.— 
Lieutenant-Commander E. H. C. Leutze, U. S. N., 306. — Comman- 
der J. B. CoGHLAN, U. S. N,, 308. — Lieutenant W. F. Fullam, 
U. S. N., 312.— Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. N., 318. 

Professional Notes 321 

Target Practice at the Naval Academy. — Naval Messenger Pigeon 
Service. — Naval B. L. Guns.— The Harvey Armor Plate: Results 
of the Recent Trial at Annapolis. 

Bibliographic Notes, 331 

Names of Members who Joined since January, 1891, . . . 353 

Prize Essay Notice. Advertisements. 



The writers only are responsible for the contents of their respective articles. 



CONTENTS. 



Explosives and Ordnance Material. By Stephen H. Emmens, . 355 

The Effect of Waterline Damage on the Stability of Unarmored 

War-ships. By Charles Hemje, 447 

Naval Reserve and Naval Militia. By Lieutenant J. C. Soley, U. S. N. 469 

The Final Improvement of the Steam-Engine. By Dr. R. H. Thur- 
ston 497 

Professional Notes, 529 

The Test of the Brown Segmental Wire Cylinder. — On Determining 

the Inclinations of Non-Algebraic Curves from their Ordinates. 

Bibliographic Notes 537 

Prize Essay Notice. Advertisements. 



NOTICE. 

It has been deemed advisable to print the Prize Essay at once in the present 
number of the Proceedings, and to publish the discussions thereon in the next 
number, in order to allow ample time and full opportunity for the preparation 
of criticisms or remarks. 

It is earnestly desired that all MSS. of discussions be forwarded to the 
Secretary and Treasurer not later than May 20th, 1891. 
By direction of the Board of Control. 

H. G. Dresel, Ensign, U. S. Navy, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Annapolis, Md., February 13, 1891. 
Having carefully read the five essays submitted in competition for the prize 
offered by the Institute for the year 1891, we have the honor to announce that, 
in accordance with Section 2, Article XI, of the Constitution, the prize is 
awarded to the essay bearing the motto "A man's a man for a' that," by 
Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. Navy. 

Honorable mention is accorded to the essay bearing the motto " Occasionem 
cognosce," by Lieutenant R. C. Smith, U. S. Navy. 
C. S. Sperry, 

Lieutenant- Commander, U. S. Navy, 

H. O. RiTTEN HOUSE, 

Lieutenant, U. S. Navy. 
R. G. Peck, 

Lieuteiiant, U. S. Navy. 
N. M. Terry, 

Professor, U. S. Naval Academy. 
J. K. Barton, 

P.- Assist. Engineer, U. S. Navy. 
C. M. Knepper, 

Ensign, U. S. Navy. 
H. G. Dresel, 

Ensign, U. S. Navy, 

Members, Board of Control. 



THE PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE 

UiinTED States Kaval Iiststitute. 



Vol. XYII., No. 1. 1891. Whole No. 57, 



[copyrighted.] 

Prize Essay for 1891. 

Motto : — "^ man^s a man for a' that,^^ 

THE ENLISTMENT, TRAINING, AND ORGANIZATION 
OF CREWS FOR OUR NEW SHIPS. 

By Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. Navy. 



The Navy offers at present a respectable and inviting- career to 
only a few enlisted men, and to those only in such special ratings as 
ship's writer, yeoman, printer, master-at-arms, and machinist. Petty 
officer's billets of the seaman class are thoroughly unattractive, and 
are filled throughout the service to-day by men who, however efficient 
they may be as seamen, have had very little modern training in the 
theory and practice of gunnery, have seldom been entrusted with the 
handling or drilling of a squad of men, and have very little idea of 
their duties and responsibilities as petty officers in a military sense. 
This is more the fault, however, of imperfect enlistment laws and 
defective methods of organization and training, than of any lack of 
intelligence or capability on the part of the petty officers themselves. 

A modern ship, being a complicated machine, requires the most 
intelligent kind of men to handle and fight her effectively. On account 
of the cramped living space, the number of men on each new ship 
must be reduced to the lowest margin. Each man being thus a 
most valuable unit, we must proceed on the theory of picking our men 
and building up a trained nucleus of American men-of-wars-men, 



4 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 

capable of meeting the demands that will necessarily be made upon 
each individual in our organization in case the service is suddenly 
expanded to meet the exigencies of war. With the improved type 
of enlisted men now demanded by modern conditions, we need new 
Watch, Quarter, and Station bills, adapted to modern and improved 
types of cruisers and battle-ships. To man and fight these ships 
effectively, we need better methods of recruiting and training. 

The holding out of a more attractive career to enlisted men is 
not so much a question of increased pay and emoluments as we 
would like to believe, nor are their shortcomings due as much to 
want of intelligence on their part as to the lack of military purpose 
in their training. Aside from this and from the evils in the system 
of rating, promotion and rewards, there are positive faults in the 
internal arrangements of our newer ships which will neutralize the 
allurements of any pay-table that can reasonably be devised, and in 
the end drive out of the service the very class of men and boys that 
we are now so earnestly endeavoring to attract into it. The more 
modern the ship and the greater the need for intelligence in her crew, 
the more and more objectionable she seems to become in point of 
quarters for the men, until we have about reached the point where it 
is well to call a halt on certain disastrous tendencies in the direction 
of the utter disregard of what intelligent men are capable of putting 
up with. In the smaller cruisers, flesh and blood will not stand any 
further sacrifice to illusive offensive power, particularly in the craze 
for phenomenal speed and great battery power on small displacement. 
Before taking up the consideration of the problems of recruiting, 
training, and organization, it will be best to point out some changes 
which are needed in the internal arrangements and discipline of our 
ships, in order to secure the creature comforts to the men under 
all conditions of service, and thus render the ships habitable and 
attractive. 

New Ships and Old Methods. 

There is not a new steel ship built or designed for the navy since 
1884 that can carry her full complement of men as intended, or that 
has berthing arrangements and general accommodations which intel- 
ligent men have a right to expect. Fortunately we give much more 
attention to such matters than they do in foreign services, but that is 
no reason why we should stop half-way. In the Chicago, Boston, 
Atlanta, and Dolphin, designed before 1884, the berthing accom- 
modations are not so bad. On the Chicago, which seems to be the 
only gun-deck ship we are to have, the hammock-hooks are 14 inches 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR IbQI. 5 

apart, and the men swing " high and low." The rows of hammocks 
dovetail in with those forward and abaft them, and this, the usual 
arrangement, represents luxury compared to the newer ships. The 
Boston and Atlanta have fair quarters in the superstructure, but, 
commencing with the Yorktown, we find nothing but evil in the living 
accommodations of the men. In the last named, below the spar-deck, 
there are billets for twenty men in the bow compartments, for forty- 
four on the berth-deck, for twenty-two in the passageways, and for 
five in the alcoves and workshop. At sea, in any weather, the heat 
is almost intolerable, and on long passages the berth-deck is barely 
habitable. The men who sleep under the forecastle are not so badly 
off. On the Philadelphia and Baltimore it was found necessary at the 
Navy Yard, New York, to put up hammock-hooks in every available 
compartment on the protective decks, to accommodate even the 
reduced complement which each carries. The Charleston is admitted 
to be a failure in her original berthing arrangements, but it is only 
fair to state that the last four ships mentioned are built more or less 
on English models. The tendency of our own constructors and their 
attitude is shown by the following extract from the report of the Chief 
Constructor for 1889, relative to the two 3000-ton cruisers, Cincin- 
nati and Raleigh, building at New York and Norfolk respectively : 

"The forward berth-deck, with the exception of the paymaster's 
ofifice, dispensary and prison, is given up to the crew. There are 
also roomy quarters for the men under the forecastle." 

It is a good thing that the forward berth-deck is surrendered to 
the men, for in the roomy space under the forecastle are located the 
galley, crew's water-closets, the distiller, ice-machine, refrigerators, 
the steam capstan, vegetable lockers, scuttle-butt, bitts, harness cask, 
and hawser reels. This type of ship, begun in the Yorktown, is the 
general style of all the newer ones with uncovered gun-deck. On 
the Philadelphia, with an unusually " roomy " forecastle as far as 
dimensions go, only eighteen men can billet under the forecastle. 
What can we look for in cruisers Nos. 9, 10 and 11, of 2000 tons dis- 
placement, where the design calls for water-closets, crew's wash-room, 
the brig, capstan, galley, ice-machine, refrigerators, engineer's work- 
shop, hawser reels, bitts, etc., under the forecastle ? This, of course, 
means that the crew-berths are entirely below the spar-deck. In 
port in a cool climate, with an inspection board pronouncing on the 
fitness of such ships for distant and prolonged service as cruisers, the 
air-ports are not closed, the ice-machine is not rattling away, the 
blower engines are not humming, the ash-hoists are not buzzing, the 



6 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 

dynamos are interesting, and the distiller is temporarily out of use. 
Put all these in the living spaces, add the phenomenal heat of modern 
fire-rooms, and the noise, oily smell, cramped berthing space, bad 
air, and consequent loss of sleep, and the picture is that of ordinary 
cruising at sea. Prolong this for months and it means sickness, dis- 
comfort, and inefficiency of the crew. The remedies for all this are 
simple enough. 

I St. Group as far as practicable all heat-producing objects and 
auxiliary engines, such as blowers, dynamos, galley, ice-machine, 
distillers, etc., in one compartment, or in adjacent compartments, as 
remote as possible from living spaces, with carefully arranged 
separate ventilation. 

2d. Substitute electric motors for all auxiliary engines doing 
constant work in or about living spaces and that cannot be grouped 
as above. 

This is only, in a measure, forestalling the inevitable substitution 
of electric for auxiliary steam power. Aside from saving miles of 
piping, with the inevitable leaks and the expensive water-tight joints 
at each bulkhead that is pierced, there are the additional advan- 
tages in the less danger of having the supply cut off in action, and of 
compartments flooded with steam ; in the reduction in heating and 
oily smell all over the ship ; in being able to use motors for ammuni- 
tion-hoists, thereby reducing the need for so many men in the powder 
division; in economy of power over present arrangements ; in ability 
to splice a break readily ; in the ease with which the wires at vital 
points can be protected with steel tubing ; and finally, in the reduc- 
tion of the engineer's force by the number of men now required to 
look out for auxiliary engines, and the substitution of seaman-gunners 
to run the motors, thereby increasing the number of trained com- 
batants on board by that many. 

3d. Reduce the ship's- complement of men and officers to a mini- 
mum, especially in small ships. 

The necessity for a certain amount of entertainment by the officers 
in time of peace calls for a considerable table space in a mess-room, 
which should be, where practicable, separate from the living space, 
and it should be made a regulation that all commissioned officers, 
below the commanding officer, shall constitute one mess. In the 
smaller ships of 2000 tons and under, junior and warrant officers' 
quarters should be abolished, and if the exigencies of the service 
really require the assignment of one or more cadets, they also 
should mess in the ward-room. In larger ships the necessities for 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 7 

reduction in officers' quarters are not so great, but still the tendency 
must be towards " surrendering " to the men more living room, even 
in the best of them. 

4th. In smaller ships already built or designed, add a light spar- 
deck, worked over the space between the poop and forecastle, to give 
additional berthing space. 

If the weights do not admit of adding the covered deck, then do 
away with the auxiliary sail-power, which is of less importance than 
the comfort and efficiency of the crew. The best plan is to stop 
designing, and sending people to sea in small vessels of enormous 
horse-power. It is a delusion and a snare to attempt to get high 
speed on small displacement in cruising vessels, and expect to beguile 
intelligent Americans into accepting, as a profession, life in such 
sweat-boxes, with no place to stow clothes, and with every unsani- 
tary condition carefully observed. There is almost a criminal side 
to the case in the sacrifice of safety to speed in these so-called 
cruisers. In the Yorktown, which has not phenomenal speed, a 
double bottom was not possible. In the extremes of the type, like 
the Serpent, we have a lesson that we should not be slow to learn. 
The tendency is too much towards sheet-iron shells, light steel 
frames, and linoleum bulkheads as they have abroad in such so-called 
cruisers as the French Forbin, where only conscription can keep a 
crew in her. The physical condition of the men, when it comes to 
action or to conditions of war, is of greater moment than the one or 
two knots extra about the twenties for which we are asked to 
sacrifice so much. Great speed is all right on great displacement, 
and is all wrong in small vessels really intended as cruisers. 

More stowage room should be provided on board ship for the 
men's clothing and outfit. Each man is required to haVe the follow- 
ing, valued at a total of $56.35 : 

2 suits of blue. $12.36 i white hat $ .33 

2 white mustering suits... 5.32 i neckerchief. 1.06 

3 white working suits 3.18 i pair leggings 60 

2 blue undershirts 2.58 i pair blankets 4.36 

2 pairs drawers 2.30 i mattress with covers.... 4.32 

2 pairs socks 66 i suit oil-skins 2.20 

1 pea-coat... 10.00 i pair rubber boots 2.50 

2 pairs shoes 2.28 

2 caps (one mustering)... 1.80 $56.35 

I watch cap 50 



8 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 

This simply represents what a man requires to be presentable 
under the conditions of service. Many men have four or five work- 
ing suits, white hats, etc., and they certainly ought to be encouraged 
to dress well ; but, for instance, on the Chicago the average capacity 
of the forty-four wire lockers in which the same number of appren- 
tices are required to stow all their belongings is 1.8 cubic feet. The 
other men have lockers of about 2.2 cubic feet average capacity, but 
the engineer's force are allowed an extra locker each for soiled 
clothes. Considering that this ship is the roomiest and most 
comfortable of the new ships, the first-class petty officers, who 
usually wear white shirts, collars, cuffs, etc., should have more than 
3.7 cubic feet for their clothing. The result is that rain-clothes are 
stored where they deteriorate rapidly, pea-jackets are lashed in the 
hammocks, the clothing all shows the result of tight packing, the 
locker doors are sprung, and a premium is placed on shiftlessness. 
In the newer ships the lockers are larger, but from four to six cubic 
feet is reasonable. Separate lockers should be provided for rain- 
clothes, with pigeon-hole subdivisions capable of holding a pair of 
boots, southwester and oil-skins, to be stored by gun's crews, with 
a separate locker or two for those watch petty ofiicers who require 
them. Oil-skins of the prescribed pattern should be kept in the 
paymaster's stores for issue, for it is useless to attempt to have a 
boat's crew in uniform, a thing which is desirable and easily enough 
accomplished if properly looked out for. Living out in all kinds of 
weather, oil-skins are certainly an essential part of a man's outfit ; 
and, as they are prescribed as a uniform, some official attempt 
should be made to protect the men from the harassing unreasonable- 
ness of requiring them to have everything of a uniform pattern and 
then providing no place to stow the things they are required to have. 
It is such policy as this that drives more men out of the service than 
questions of life career, more pay, or seamen's savings banks, etc. 
Ditty boxes are part of men's outfit, yet few ships go into commission 
with any racks provided for their stowage. The holds of ships are 
now so small that a great deal of the gear formerly stored there, such 
as deck-buckets, stages, wash-deck gear, boat-gripes, sea-painters, 
stage-ropes, etc., are crowded out. Places must be provided for 
these, as well as for cleaning-gear for brightwork ; gun, hatch, 
canopy, steering wheel, binnacle, search light, and other covers ; 
boat cushions and cloths ; watch-tackles, straps, heaving-lines, lash- 
ings, old canvas, steaming-covers, etc., which are required to be 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 9 

handy for routine purposes. Top-chests and channel-chests cannot 
be carried now, yet there is no allowance to take their place. The 
regular allowance for ships should include deck-chests, boatswain's 
mates' chests, and spar-deck lockers for the stowage of gear that 
is in more or less constant use. Neglect to provide proper stowage- 
room leads to tendencies on the part of the men to surreptitiously 
stow gear in ventilators, guns, field carriage boxes, air ducts, capstan 
barrels, hammock nettings, wash-rooms, and all the nooks which 
supply the lucky bag with its daily haul. There is nothing so time- 
honored as a lucky bag, and yet few ships have any place provided 
for its stowage. 

The ordinary conditions of cruising bring out, of course, many 
defects which cannot be foreseen, but there are many things which 
an inspection board should be charged with ascertaining, which are 
considered trivial, but which make the difference between a happy 
and an unhappy ship. 

Proper drying-rooms for clothing should be provided, particularly 
for the engineer's force. Standing, as they do, in three watches, 
there is no such thing at sea as a chance to wash clothes in the morn- 
ing watch, and opportunities should be given them at other times. 
With practically mastless ships, the facilities for drying clothes for 
all hands are not what they should be, and it would be of immense 
advantage to have a large drying-room to be used in bad weather, 
care being taken to locate it apart from the living space of the men, 
on account of the heat it gives out. 

In a sanitary way men have very little idea of the question of the 
proper ventilation of a ship. Improved appliances are useless unless 
properly looked out for. So much depends on it now-a-days that 
it seems worth while to provide blowers that will work either way, 
so as to force or exhaust as required. The direction of the wind in 
steaming forms draughts through a ship independent of the currents 
set up mechanically, and differences of temperature come somewhat 
into play. It thus happens that a certain compartment of the ship 
may, under certain circumstances, require both a force and an ex- 
haust draught to clear it of foul air, while, under others, it would have 
to have the forced or exhaust system only. If it is worth the expense 
of putting in the elaborate appliances now provided, it is certainly 
worth the while of some one to look after the subject carefully. This 
will be spoken of later. 

In thus calling attention to the necessity for providing increased 



lO PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

comforts for the men and for improving the sanitary condition of 
ships in the matter of berthing and ventilation, it is aimed to lay- 
down the proposition that it is the small annoyances in life which 
make the difference between happy and unhappy ships ; but there 
is one other thing which is more important than even this, or than 
the question of increased pay and emoluments tor faithful service, and 
that is the administration of firm and even-handed justice. An idea 
is prevalent that the discipline in our navy is very harsh, and, like 
most popular ideas, is founded on the glaring exceptions which prove 
the other rule. Fact is that, through one cause or another, the gen- 
eral system of punishment has been so relaxed that for certain 
offenses there is now no adequate punishment, which, coupled with 
the entire lack of uniformity throughout the service, earnestly calls 
for an inquiry into the subject by a board of officers with a view to 
tautening up the whole system. Plenty of work, many privileges 
and comforts, and rigid adherence to fixed, swift and well-graded 
punishments, means good discipline and hence general contentment. 
In each new ship designed the brig is given a more and more choice 
location, until in cruisers 9, 10 and 11 it is under the forecastle in the 
6-inch gun support. The fundamental principles of confinement in 
a brig are restraint and removal from intercourse with others, and 
solitary confinement becomes a farce when the prisoner can con- 
stantly see his messmates passing to and fro, and where the noise 
and bustle of the ship's routine work is interesting and diverting to 
the prisoner. The light is generally good, the ventilation is excel- 
lent, and the confinement admits of rest and recreation. If the brigs 
were put below, where they were intended to go, and were kept dark 
and isolated from all noise and intercourse with the crew, then five 
days' solitary confinement would mean something. Non-intercourse, 
restraint, and silence are the very elements of solitary confinement, 
and its purpose is defeated in the new ships. In the Philadelphia 
and Baltimore there are small brigs — one on each side of the berth- 
deck in the 6 inch gun supports. To properly enforce a sentence of 
bread and water there should be a sentry on each brig, as they are 
separated by a fire-room trunk. This means eight sentries to prop- 
erly enforce the sentence of two men. The Yorktown's brig is 
under the forecastle. That of the Chicago is on the berth-deck for- 
ward, where people are constantly passing to and fro. The punish- 
ment of double irons is now no punishment at all. Not only do the 
hand and leg irons now furnished ships admit of the greatest freedom 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. II 

of motion, but such confinement becomes a rather welcome opportu- 
nity for the idle, lazy and shiftless to escape work for five days or 
so. The messmates of the prisoner do his work for him while he 
eats the bread of idleness, and dozes away his time. To be a punish- 
ment, confinement in irons should primarily imply retirement from 
the public gaze, and should be made as irksome and uninviting as 
possible. What is needed is the old-fashioned leg-iron with sliding- 
rod through staples in the deck, and lilly-irons for the wrists. In the 
interests of good discipline and in economy of sentries, the brig 
should be located below the berth-deck, away from the temptation 
and opportunities of the men to pass in food ; it should be as remote 
from the noise and bustle of active life as possible ; it should be well 
ventilated but not lighted ; and, in the passageway outside of it, leg- 
irons should be fitted to the deck as described above for prisoners 
.confined in irons as a punishment. The present style of irons is 
admirable for the confinement of men for safe-keeping, but it is mani- 
festly unfair to treat a man awaiting trial or sentence of a court-mar- 
tial to the same punishment as a man confined in irons for an offense 
of which he has been adjudged guilty. The man awaiting trial may 
be acquitted as innocent, yet he is punished the same as the man 
adjudged guilty of some minor oflTense. There should be a wide 
distinction. With proper fittings in a ship for punishing men, and 
with certain and unvarying punishment for specific offenses, with 
additional penalties for repeated infractions of the same regulation, it 
is possible to carry out the purpose and spirit of the navy regulations. 
The whole subject needs investigation and revision by proper 
authority, and it is just as important as questions of increased pay 
and rewards. 

In nothing so much as in the messing arrangements on board ship 
is there more pressing necessity for a radical change. The interests 
of the service demand the establishment of a general commissary 
system, in place of the antiquated, uneconomical, and cumbersome 
mess organization which we now have. Under any other arrange- 
ment than that which now obtains on board sea-going ships the 
ration of thirty cents a day would be ample, and the usual assess- 
ment of from $1.50 to $3 per month in addition, which the caterers 
of messes exact from each member, represents the correct measure 
of the wastefulness, poor economy, and failure of the present system. 
To exact such sums of money from apprentices getting $9 or $11 
per month, or from landsmen getting $16, is nothing short of out- 



12 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 

rageous. Nor is this in any way the fault of the men themselves, 
but simply demonstrates that the separate mess system is funda- 
mentally wrong. To illustrate its workings let us examine into 
details. Each mess consists of from eighteen to twenty-three mem- 
bers, some more, some less. Each has its separate cook, caterer, 
vegetable-locker, mess-locker and mess outfit. In the mess outfit 
the government furnishes a coffee, tea and sugar-tin, molasses and 
vinegar-breaker, a scouse-kettle, bread-kid and a mess-cloth. Each 
mess buys in addition a coffee-kettle, knife, salt and pepper-boxes, 
carving-knife and fork, knives, forks, spoons, coffee-tins, plates, butter- 
dish, oil table-cloth, meat-dishes, frying-pan, and three baking-pans. 
The rations as issued and the fresh provisions, not perishable, are 
stored in tins, boxes, etc., in the mess-lockers. Each mess has its 
slop-buckets, dish-pans, swabs, etc., for cleaning gear. Multiply 
each outfit by the number of messes; crowd the cooks around a 
galley ; see the lack of economy in space, the wastefulness in food, 
and the character of the cooking; see the liability to confusion, diffi- 
culties and conflicting interests that must bring constant trouble, and 
then try and find one good reason for continuing a system that 
stamps itself on its own face as a monumental failure. There are 
always difficulties in getting men who are willing to serve as cooks ; 
they must be paid extra money by the messes; confusion reigns 
when a cook is absent on liberty, or sick, or confined as a punish- 
ment; caterers abscond now and then with the mess funds; and 
finally, the berth-deck cook is an unmitigated nuisance in the ship's 
organization that causes more difficulties than any other class of 
men in the ship's company. The remedy for all this is simple 
enough. 

Abolish separate messes; cook the issued rations as for one large 
mess ; with the commuted ration-money purchase such extras as 
with the fresh provisions issued by the pay department in port will 
insure good living, reserving, however, some of the money as a sea- 
store fund ; set aside a separate compartment or enclosed space as a 
pantry, containing lockers and racks for storing the general mess- 
gear, the stores for immediate use, and the various appliances and 
gear needed in the preparation of food for cooking; locate here, also, 
sinks with hot and cold fresh and salt water, with hand and steam- 
pump connections for washing mess-gear ; merge all the vegetable 
lockers into one general system of lockers ; and finally, set aside a 
store-room and a space in the hold for the men's provisions and 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. I3 

Stores. The rate of baker, abolished in 1883, should be revived, and 
those of ship's steward, pantryman, messman and ship's cook's assist- 
ant created. The pay of steward should depend on the class or rate 
of the ship, but should be, at least, from $75 to $100 per month. He 
should be a man of experience as a caterer and the very best man 
that can be gotten for the money. He should select and order mess 
supplies, and render bills to be paid in such way as will insure the 
safety of mess money, or the protection of the mess against loss by 
any method of fraud or dishonesty. The whole messing arrange- 
ments should, however, be under the supervision of an officer whose 
function will hereafter be described. The ship's cook should be 
required to qualify as such at a naval rendezvous before transfer to 
a sea-going ship, and for thus qualifying should receive increased 
pay. It should be the duty of the pantryman to receive and have 
charge of all stores, mess-gear, etc., in immediate use, and, assisted 
by the assistant ship's cook and such messmen as may be needed, to 
prepare the food in the pantry ready for cooking. It should be the 
duty of the baker, under the direction of the pantryman, to prepare 
and bake all bread and pastry. It should be the duty of the assist- 
ant ship's cook to assist the pantryman in the preparation of food, 
and the cook in such ways as may be necessary. It should be the 
duty of the messmen to wash all mess-gear, spread mess-tables, help 
in the preparation of food, clear up, clean and keep in order the 
pantry and store-rooms, and in every way assist the pantryman, 
baker and cook in their duties. It is confidently believed that eight 
messmen could do the work now done by eighteen cooks, or that 
six or seven could do that of from twelve to sixteen, being a clear 
gain to the effective deck force of at least fifty per cent. The ship's 
steward could certainly do the work of all the mess caterers not only 
more economically, but with better judgment and intelligence. The 
ship's cook, his assistant, and the baker could cook or bake all that 
is required by a general mess much better than the ship's cook can 
now alone cook for some sixteen separate messes. As for the pan- 
tryman, the gain in economy and in time in the preparation of food 
for a general mess, as contrasted with the go-as-you-please style of 
preparing all sorts of dishes for a number of messes, is too apparent 
to need practical demonstration. The number of messmen could 
be reduced to the lowest limit b}' having a certain number of men 
detailed for a week at a time to go below when mess-gear is piped, 
to help set and serve tables from the galley or pantry. After meals 



14 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

they could help clear off the tables and sling them overhead. Such 
services would not be required for more than from fifteen to twenty- 
minutes altogether, and need not in any way interfere with their 
duties on deck. The ship's company should mess by gun's-crews 
or divisions as now, excepting that apprentices should be organized 
into separate messes presided over by first or second class petty 
officers. Men going on watch should all be served at the same 
table, thereby saving over the present arrangement of having half a 
dozen tables or mess-cloths going for half an hour before each meal. 
Petty officers' messes could very easily be furnished with extra dishes 
through extra money paid into the mess fund, provided they wished 
to live better than the regular mess. This general system here out- 
lined is, with some necessary modifications, carried on for the cadets 
bn the practice cruise, and is entirely feasible. On the receiving-ship 
Independence at Mare Island it was inaugurated several years ago 
by Captain Frederick Rodgers, U. S. N., under the supervision of 
the executive officer. Lieutenant Daniel Delehanty, U. S. N., and 
was described in the Naval Institute Proceedings about that time. 
It certainly commends itself on every possible ground, and it is 
worth at least a trial on a sea-going ship. 

In the latest types of ships, cold storage and refrigerating rooms 
are provided. These add very much to the efficiency of the ships 
in the ability it gives them to carry fresh provisions for long periods 
of time at sea, thereby reducing the necessity for such large store- 
rooms below, and adding to the healthfulness and comfort of the 
crew. It would certainly add to the efficiency of all ships now in 
commission, to put in cold storage rooms as a compensation for the 
reduction in store-room and hold space for the stowage of provi- 
sions. Cruisers 9, 10 and 11 will be fitted with Allen's dense air ice 
and refrigerating machine, capable of making 200 pounds of ice a 
day, and of cooling a 60-gallon scuttle-butt, besides keeping a meat- 
room of 350 cubic feet at a temperature below 34° F. It is a suffi- 
cient commentary on our present system of having numerous messes, 
to point out that with twelve to eighteen different cooks running to 
a cold storage room to get out from twelve to eighteen different 
pieces of meat, with the consequent confusion and the admission of 
hot air to the room, the cold storage would be apt to prove a failure. 
With a general mess and a large cold storage room there is no 
reason why fresh provisions "should not be carried for thirty days as 
in ocean steamers. 



Plate I. 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. I, 

r- 




ttniasting Oven 



Inside View of Ui-n 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. I5 

The liberality of the present ration, the extra dishes prepared, the 
provisions purchased with commuted ration-money and by extra 
assessments, the issue of fresh provisions in the pay department, all 
lead to overcrowding the galleys now furnished ships, and bring 
failure upon any type of range that can be adopted. There are many 
pertinent reasons for abolishing the present type of galley. The 
work required of one can best be performed by steam heat. In all 
modern ships it is required that steam be kept up constantly on an 
auxiliary boiler for the various purposes of electric lighting, distilling, 
heating, pumping, etc. All roasting and boiling in large quantities 
is best and most economically accomplished by using steam heat. 
The steam roasting ovens and boilers are perfect in their operation, 
convenient for shipboard, and possess every advantage over a range. 
As for the self-feeding copper urns for making coffee and tea, noth- 
ing can more highly commend itself to our consideration. The 
present method of making coffee is for the berth-deck cook to drop 
an uncertain amount of ground coffee into a big tin bucket and pour 
a still more uncertain amount of hot water in with it. The water 
may or may not be boiling, but that is hardly material. The coffee 
steeps for ten or twenty minutes, and the result is an insipid drink 
in which a great amount of excellent coffee has literally gone to pot. 
In the steam self-feeding urns, on the contrary, the coffee is made on 
the drip principle, and the water feeds in automatically. Unless the 
coffee water is actually boiling, it will not feed over into the urn. A 
sketch of such an apparatus is shown in Plate I, where the centre 
urn is for hot water and the end ones for tea or coffee. They can, 
of course, be made any size collectively or relatively. The opera- 
tion of the coffee urn is shown in a section in the same plate. The 
drip-basket, C, in which the coffee or tea is placed, is made of copper. 
The bottom, D, is pierced with small holes, while below it is the 
flannel strainer, E, which can easily be replaced. The cast-iron 
vegetable boiler is also shown in section. The live steam enters at 
A and passes around to B, being cut off by the partition C ; E is a 
galvanized iron steam-pipe, perforated for steaming purposes ; G is 
the strainer and outlet to the faucet. Galvanized iron baskets go in 
the boilers to separate different things that may be boiling at the 
same time, such as meats and vegetables. A small steam oven could 
also be provided for keeping warm the meals of men away at meal 
hours. 

For baking bread or pastry, a sheet-iron bake-oven, burning coke 



l6 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

or coal, should be provided. It would only be needed for a few 
hours in the day, and requires very litde fuel. With such an oven 
and any sort of a baker there would be no need for buying fresh 
bread on shore in any of the officers' or men's messes. 

For a crew of 450 men, a galley or range of the present type 
furnished with all the accessories costs fully $1500. For $1200 the 
following outfit, as shown in Plate II, can be placed in the same 
amount of space as now occupied by a regular galley : 

5 oblong seamless cast-iron steam roasting ovens with hinged 

covers, each 24 inches by 33 inches, at $75 $375 

3 seamless cast-iron steam vegetable, stew, meat, or soup 
boilers, of 70 gallons capacity, with galvanized iron hinged 
covers, at $75 each 225 

One set of self-feeding copper urns on iron stands, with 
gauges, faucets, strainers, etc., complete, of the following 
sizes : water urn, 100 gallons ; coffee urn, 80 gallons ; 
tea urn, 40 gallons 400 

One sheet-iron bake-oven, 3 feet square, with three compart- 
ments 200 

Total $1200 

The roasting ovens and boilers should be lagged with asbestos to 
prevent radiation and to keep down the temperature of the galley 
space in hot climates. The above outfit would easily go in a space 
twelve feet by ten, with ample room to get around in. Whether it is 
used for a general mess or a separate mess system, the advantages 
of this outfit over the galley or range may be stated as follows : 

1. To " start fires " requires turning on a valve or so, and in 
twenty minutes the plant is in full operation. 

2. If desired, only a part of the plant need be operated on occa- 
sions when it is desired to practice economy. 

3. The heat given off by such a plant in the tropics is much less 
than by a galley, and the noise about it is very much less. 

4. The oddest kind of shaped space can be utilized for erecting 
such a plant, as remote from living spaces as possible, on account of 
ability to fit any shaped space to order. 

5. No immense and expensive bed-plate is required as in the case 
of a galley. 

6. The danger from fire is reduced to a minimum. 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. I. 



Plate II. 




Roasting Ovens 



Sealed' 



STEAM PLANT FOR MAN-OF-WAR'S GALLEY. 
In space 12 ft. x 12 ft, 

For Crew of 560 Men. 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 17 

7. Cooking by steam gives the best results in a culinary way, and 
is more economical than burning coal in a range. 

8. Once set up, a steam plant will outlast several galleys, as there 
is little to get out of order, and can be replaced in part as it wears out. 

9. Steam cooking plants are in successful operation at the general 
recruiting depot of the army at David's Island, at Snug Harbor, and, 
to a certain extent, in all the leading hotels in New York City. 

The following named people are a few of the firms which are pre- 
pared to make bids on erecting such a plant in whole or in part on 
different men-of-war: John Ashcroft, No. 73 Gold street. New York ; 
Duparquet, Huot and Moneuse Co., No. 43 Wooster street. New 
York ; Bramhall, Deane & Co., No. 274 Front street, New York ; 
Van & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

This system of messing should be supplemented by a co-operative 
bumboat system on the canteen principle. The profits of bumboat- 
ing are enormous, and should properly accrue to the men themselves. 
The economy of buying fruit, beer, etc., by wholesale instead of by 
retail is a sufficient argument for undertaking such a system, at least 
in large ships. 

The general commissary and canteen system here briefly ouriined 
is perfectly feasible and certainly desirable. The more minute 
details will in a measure work themselves out in practice if the idea 
is once adopted in the service. 

In thus looking out for the physical comforts and welfare of the 
men there need be no fear of coddling them. There is too much 
routine work for every one aboard a modern ship to admit of men 
being spoiled, in the ever-recurring necessity of overhauling, cleaning, 
painting, scraping, and caring for the hull and armament of a cruiser 
or battle-ship. The chief difficulty is to find sufficient time to 
devote to drills and exercises without neglecting too much of that 
attention to smart appearance which has always characterized the 
vessels of the American Navy. 

Recruiting. 

Having called attention to several needed improvements in the 
internal organization, arrangements, and discipline of our new ships 
as affecting the comfort and best interests of the men, it is well to 
now inquire into what special inducements we should offer, in the 
shape of rewards and emoluments, as will not only attract into the 
service more of the better class of Americans, but retain them in the 



l8 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

navy for life. This we can only accomplish by excluding^ aliens from 
the service, and by offering to the men advantages and rewards as 
substantial relatively as those which officers now receive, and equal 
to those offered by corresponding occupations in civil life. We 
have in the service now, (i) a practically working continuous-service 
system, providing a small longevity increase of pay for each three 
years of service ; (2) a system of conduct grades with corresponding 
monthly money allowance; (3) improved rations far better than 
issued in any other service in the world ; (4) a good quality of 
clothing of more or less uniform pattern, and small stores in variety 
and at the lowest market prices ; (5) a government savings system 
paying 4 per cent interest on money deposited ; (6) two pension 
laws, one providing help from the Naval Pension Fund for disability 
after ten years' service, on recommendation and finding of a board 
of officers, and the other providing a regular pension, or, in lieu of 
it, maintenance at the Naval Home, for disability after twenty 
years' service ; (7) a fairly good apprentice system ; (8) an allow- 
ance of $45 to apprentices on enlistment for clothing ; and (9) a 
system of instruction for seaman-gunners which is not yet, but soon 
will be, in thorough working order. These represent, outside of the 
pay tables, the principal inducements now held out to enlisted men 
to make a career in the navy. The results are not encouraging. It 
is not that we do not get many good, bright, excellent men, but that 
we do not seem to be able to retain them in the service longer than 
one or two enlistments. To endeavor to remedy this, and to sup- 
plement what has already been done towards making a life career 
for men in the service, the following provisions should be enacted 
by law : 

I. No alien should be accepted for either special or continuous 
service, excepting to fill vacancies in special service billets for the 
remainder of a cruise on a foreign station. 

In the matter of restricting all enlistments to Americans, some 
difficulties may seem to present themselves in the case of getting 
men for certain special service billets, such as stewards, cooks, ser- 
vants, and bandsmen. Fact is, it is in these billets that we most of 
all need Americans. The day has passed when foreign messmen 
and bandsmen can be relegated to the powder division. The ques- 
tion of the rapid supply of ammunition is serious enough without 
complicating it with thoroughly non-combatant foreigners, unused 
to manual labor and ignorant of our language. If we cannot get 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. I9 

American servants for the pay allowed, then it will be time enough 
to increase the pay. If we cannot get American bandsmen for the 
same reason, let us put up with inferior music. As each non-effec- 
tive man in a ship takes up as much room as an effective one, and as 
few ships can carry their effective complement, it certainly follows 
that in the matter of messmen and bandsmen we have a long way to 
go to arrive at a satisfactory solution of the problem. Once pass 
the law and the difficulties will in time vanish. The exception noted- 
above, in the filling of vacancies in special service billets abroad by 
foreigners, is a necessary one. As for general and continuous-service 
men, there can be no doubt as to the wisdom of restricting enlistment 
to Americans, or to those who have declared their intention of 
becoming naturalized, as it is the height of folly for a rich and 
powerful nation to have to rely on mercenaries and hirelings in the 
exigencies of war, through neglecting in time of peace to train up a 
picked body of her own citizens to bear arms for the national defense. 

II. Unless having had previous naval experience, no men other 
than effective, able-bodied men, between the ages of eighteen and 
thirty-five, shall be enlisted. 

III. The term of enlistment shall be for a period of four years. 
Section 1418 of the Revised Statutes, enacted as far back as 1837, 

provides that men " may be enlisted to serve for a period of not 
exceeding five years, unless sooner discharged by direction of 
the President." Three years has come to be the customary 
service, and the laws relating to continuous service (Rev. Stat. 
1426 and 1573) have been enacted on a three years' basis. This 
change to four years will require corresponding changes in the 
laws relating to honorable discharges, allowances for re-enlistment, 
and increase of pay for each re-enlistment. A four years' enlistment 
will enable ships to make full three-year cruises without having to 
pay so much extra compensation to men held over after expiration 
of enlistments, and, best of all, will permit of recruits being put 
through some preliminary training at recruiting stations before they 
are drafted off to cruising ships. Such modifications of the present 
continuous-service laws as are needed are outlined in IV, V, VI and 
VII, which follow. 

IV. Every person re-enlisting for a period of four years within a 
period of four months after having been honorably discharged, shall, 
on presenting his honorable discharge, or on accounting in a satis- 
factory manner for its loss, be entitled to pay during the said four 



20 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

months, equal to that to which he would have been entitled had he 
been employed in actual service. 

V. Every person who, having been honorably discharged from the 
navy, re-enlists within four months thereafter for a period of four 
years, shall be further entitled, after four years' service, including his 
first enlistment, to receive, for the period of four years next there- 
after, two dollars per month in addition to the ordinary pay of his 
rating; and for each successive period of four years of service, so 
long as he shall remain continuously in the navy, a further sum of 
one dollar per month ; the past continuous service of enlisted men 
now in the navy, not to exceed four years, shall be taken into account, 
and shall entitle such men to additional pay according to this rule. 
Provided that one dollar per month shall be retained from the pay 
of the re-enlisted men, of whatever rating, during the whole period 
of their re-enlistment, to be paid to each man on his discharge, but to 
be forfeited unless he shall have served honestly and faithfully to the 
date of discharge. 

VI. To the rates of pay which may from time to time be fixed 
upon by the President, there shall be added, (i) in the case of men 
enlisted for a period of not less than four years, for the third year of 
enlistment one dollar per month, and two dollars per month for the 
fourth year; and (2) to the rates of pay so fixed in the case of appren- 
tices and boys, enlisted to serve until they shall arrive at the age of 
twenty-four years, there shall be added for the second year of such 
enlistment, after they shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, 
one dollar per month, and two dollars per month for the last year of 
such enlistment. But this increase in every case shall be considered 
as retained pay, and shall not be paid to such enlisted person until 
his discharge from the service, and shall be forfeited unless he serves 
honestly and faithfully to the date of his discharge. 

VII. Continuous-service men shall be entitled to one month's 
leave for each year of service, to be granted at the convenience of the 
Navy Department, and to be cumulative up to four months, which 
may, however, be commuted in whole or in part on re-enlistment, if 
leave is not desired, to cash payment of four m.onths' pay, or in 
accordance with amount of leave surrendered. A continuous-service 
man thus entitled to leave may, if he so elect, report on board any 
convenient receiving-ship or any recruiting station, and, under such 
rules as may hereafter be prescribed by the Navy Department, may 
enjoy his leave of absence, with privilege of residence on board such 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 21 

ship, or at such recruiting station, in the quarters provided for 
enlisted men, 

VIII. Boys between the ages of fourteen and eighteen shall here- 
after be enlisted to serve until they shall arrive at the age of twenty- 
four, instead of twenty-one as now provided. 

IX. Any apprentice serving in either a training or a sea-going ship 
may, at any time in the first three years of his enlistment, on the 
finding of a board of three officers, be discharged for inaptitude or 
undesirability for the service, but due notice shall be given the parent 
or guardian of such apprentice, at the expiration of which time, with 
the approval of the Navy Department, said apprentice shall be trans- 
ferred to the nearest receiving-ship and there discharged. The dis- 
charge of an apprentice for any cause before he shall reach the age 
of twenty-four, shall work forfeiture of the $45 originally received for 
outfit. Notification of the vacancy at any time created shall be 
promptly sent to the commandant of the Apprentice Training Sta- 
tion, in order that the total complement of apprentices shall be kept 
full. 

X. In the appointment of warrant officers, preference shall here- 
after be given to graduated apprentices who, after having reached 
majority, shall have served at least two years as a seaman, petty 
officer, or special class petty officer on a sea-going ship, and shall 
have subsequently qualified as a seaman-gunner. 

XI. All enlisted men serving in the Coast Survey and Fish Com- 
mission shall be called in by executive order, and authoritj' granted 
these services to enlist their own men for their own purposes. 

Under section 4397 of the Revised Statutes, "The heads of the 
several executive departments shall cause to be rendered all neces- 
sary and practicable aid to the Commissioner (of Fish and Fisheries) 
in the prosecution of his investigation and inquiries." The navy prac- 
tically furnishes the steamers of the Fish Commission with their men 
and officers. That it is not " practicable " now to longer spare this 
force from the naval service is sufficient grounds for the withdrawal 
of it. That such service is of no military benefit to the enlisted men 
is certain. That the men in it are a dead loss to the navy as men- 
of-wars-men is of necessity a good reason for calling them into active 
military service. Under section 4685 of the Revised Statutes, " The 
President is authorized .... to employ all persons in the land or 
naval service of the United States" to carry out the provisions of the 
acts establishing the Coast Survey service; and under section 4687, 



22 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

" Officers of the Army and Navy shall, as far as practicable, be 
employed in the work of surveying the coast of the United States, 
whenever and in the manner required by the Department having 
charge thereof" This is subserving the military to the civil branch 
of the government with a vengeance. The fact that the army has 
dropped out of any share of the work under the Coast Survey, and 
that the navy bears most of the drudgery and a large share of the 
annual expense of the hydrographic work, is not in itself a hardship, 
but from a military point of view it represents a grave mistake. 
Untrained merchant and coasting sailors are the class of men from 
which the crews of Coast Survey vessels are recruited, and they 
are well adapted to such service. That so many man-of-war petty 
officers and seamen are diverted from a military service where they 
are absolutely needed, into a non-military service to furnish it with 
the means of doing the only work for which it was originally created 
and now has any nautical claims for existence (viz., surveying the 
coast) is, to say the least, a queer state of affairs. The annual appro- 
priation for the support of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is over a 
half-million dollars, of which sum about $50,000 is for the expenses 
of hydrographic work carried on by some ten or more vessels 
manned and officered from the navy, and about $25,000 for the 
maintenance and repairs of these vessels. The annual appropriation 
for the publication of charts representing this hydrographic work, of 
so much value to mariners, is less than $20,000. In other words, less 
than one-fifth of the total appropriation goes to do the work for 
which this branch of the government was organized, and for which it 
gets the credit with the country at large. The merchant marine is 
benefitted by all this superb work, and the annual appropriations for 
the support of the Coast and Geodetic Surv'ey are cheerfully granted. 
How many people in the United States know that the navy with its 
officers and men do the work, and that it pays annually some 
$200,000 for the salaries of the sixty officers and the men diverted 
from military service to do this work for a civil branch of the gov- 
ernment? This service undoubtedly enables the naval officers in 
it to become familiar with our coast and harbors, and a moderate 
amount of duty in the Coast Survey service may possibly be of great 
value, but for enlisted men, drawn from an already depleted allow- 
ance, such diversion is unjust to the navy, uneconomical, unmilitary, 
and unnecessary. The sooner the enlisted men are called in, the 
sooner a grave mistake will be rectified. 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 23 

XII. The total number of persons who may at one time be 
enlisted in the navy shall not exceed 10,000, of whom 1500 shall be 
apprentices and boys. 

XIII. When an enlisted man absents himself frorn his ship on the 
eve of her sailing for a foreign port, and then gives himself up as a 
" straggler " on board some receiving or other ship, he shall forfeit 
three months' pay, and be further required to serve three months 
beyond the regular expiration of his enlistment, before he can acquire 
the right of discharge and the benefits of continuous service in case 
of re-enlistment. 

XIV. Whenever it is discovered that a person who has been dis- 
honorably discharged from the navy has eluded detection and 
re-enlisted, he shall be immediately discharged in the nearest avail- 
able port, at home or abroad, and forfeit all pay that may be due 
him on the books, excepting $10 for immediate expenses. 

XV. The Navy Yard, New York, shall be designated as the 
Central Recruiting Station for the Atlantic Coast, and the Navy 
Yard, Mare Island, on the Pacific Coast. All recruits enlisted on 
either coast at the various other recruiting stations now or hereafter 
established shall be concentrated, as hereafter provided for, at these 
two central stations, for instruction and preliminary training before 
drafting them off for service. 

The ordinary receiving ships at different points should serve 
merely as conveniendy distributed posts for recruiting under special 
conditions. At stated intervals a transport should make the rounds 
and gather in recruits, concentrating them at New York for inspec- 
tion and training, leaving, however, the continuous-service men on 
the various receiving-ships, for such disposition as the bureau may 
see fit. This system of inspecting recruits at the central stations 
would lead to the detection of deserters and dishonorably discharged 
men who might try to enlist. There shall be attached to the stations 
at New York and Mare Island a corps of experienced and trained 
petty officers, rated in such billets as master-at-arms, yeomen, and 
gun-captains, constituting a body of what may be termed recruiting 
and drill sergeants, and composed of men who had made excellent 
records in the service on sea-going ships as petty officers. While 
gaining valuable experience in drilHng and handling men, they would 
aid in examinifig and keeping records of recruits and would become 
personally acquainted with them. By this means and by a good 
system of descriptive lists, in the course of a short period of years. 



24 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

it would be almost impossible for a deserter or dishonorably dis- 
charged man to escape detection on presenting himself at or on 
being transferred to New York or Mare Island. By changing a few 
commissioned and petty officers occasionally between New York and 
Mare Island, it would not only contribute to uniformity in duties and 
methods at the two stations, but would lessen the possibility of such 
men as described changing their base of operations from one coast 
to the other. It is notorious that men now desert and re-enlist, or 
are dishonorably discharged and come right back into the service 
by re-shipping at remote stations, and this evil should be put down 
at once. Let men once understand that dishonorable discharge and 
desertion mean severance with the service for good, and that 
deserters will be followed up and brought to justice wherever pos- 
sible, and there will be a great falling off in both. By going even 
further and requiring men to bring certificates of good character 
when they present themselves for enlistment, and by raising the 
physical and mental standard in the requirements for enlistment, the 
good effect would be shown in fewer desertions. Make it harder to 
get in and recruits will not be so anxious to get out. 

Coal-heavers and second-class firemen for the entire service should 
only be enlisted at New York, where a uniform and rigid standard 
should be established. There is no difficulty in getting plenty and 
the best at this one station. It is easy enough in case of a scarcity 
or extra demand to order special enlistment at other stations. The 
enlistment of coal-heavers on this coast is now confined to New 
York by recent orders, and the improvement in this class of men is 
most marked. Of course, continuous-service or honorably discharged 
coal-heavers and second-class firemen should be allowed to re-enlist 
at the nearest recruiting station. In Section XII it is sought to 
increase the total force of enlisted men to 10,000. This is admittedly 
more men than we need just at present for our ships, but to be able 
to keep a lot of men at New York or Mare Island for six months or 
so in training, it is necessary to increase the total allowance. Where 
the allowance is small, a sudden emergency might arise and a draft 
of recruits be ordered off, to the breaking up of any systematic 
attempt to drill them properly. With a larger total force, the pres- 
sure would never be so great as to call for raw recruits who had never 
received any instruction. 

XVI. Any seaman or seaman-apprentice who shall hereafter qualify 
as a seaman-gunner, or any seaman who, having heretofore qualified 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 25 

as a seaman-g-unner, shall re-qualify by attaining excellence in small- 
arm and great-gun target practice, and shall be able, as a leading 
man aboard ship, to drill a squad of men in the usual routine drills, 
shall receive in any rating as a petty officer of the seaman class an 
increase of pay of 30 per cent over that provided in the regular pay 
tables, as authorized by the President from time to time for such 
rating, and in any rating of either the special or artificer class he 
shall receive an increase of 10 per cent. 

This will have the double effect of encouraging men to become 
seaman-gunners, and of adding dignity and importance to billets of 
the seaman class. To further improve the status of the seaman class 
of petty officers, a considerable increase in their pay is both wise and 
desirable. This class of petty officers bear the brunt of the routine 
work about decks, of the military duties, and of the fighting in 
action, and on their efficiency largely depends the character of the 
discipline of the ship. It is through them that we must accomplish 
some needed reforms in the organization and general discipline of 
the service, yet these billets are now doubly unattractive through the 
drudgery of their work and the small pay and great responsibility 
of their position. This is so much the case that seaman-gunners and 
graduated apprentices generally try to get the billets of ship's writer, 
painter, oiler, or yeoman — anything, in fact, to keep out of a rating 
of the seaman class or as a watch petty officer. This is admittedly 
all wrong and a great misfortune to the service. 

XVII. Cooks, stewards, servants, and ship messmen shall be 
enlisted for special service, and on board the ships in which they are 
to serve. 

XVIII. Pensioners who become inmates of the Naval Home shall 
hereafter be paid their pensions under certain restrictions, to be held 
in trust by the Governor of the Home, or allotted to a wife, or child, 
or parent living. 

The fact that a pensioner takes advantage of the privileges of the 
Naval Home is no reason why he should surrender his pension, 
particularly if there are others dependent on him. 

XIX. Transportation at government expense shall be furnished, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, to such persons as 
may be authorized to enter the Naval Home as beneficiaries, and 
who shall be unable to pay for their transportation to the same. 

XX. After thirty years' continuous service as an enlisted man or 
as an appointed petty officer in the navy, any person shall be entitled 



26 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

to retirement on three-fourths pay of the rank or rating held by him 
at the date of retirement, by making application to the President ; 
or, after having served thirty years, but not continuously, any person 
shall be entitled to retirement on half-pay. Provided also, as in 
case of enlisted men in the army and Marine Corps, under Act of Sep- 
tember 30, 1890, active service, either as a volunteer or regular during 
the War of the RebelHon, shall be computed as double time in com- 
puting the thirty years necessary to entitle him to be retired. 

XXI. Dishonorable discharge in any case shall work forfeiture of 
all subsequent benefits of pay, pension, or retirement due to previous 
honorable service. 

XXII. Officers and enlisted men of the Marine Corps shall be 
withdrawn from service afloat, and serve as a garrison for naval 
stations and in the sea-coast defenses of the United States. 

Section 1616 of the Revised Statutes reads: "Marines maybe 
detached for service on board the armed vessels of the United States, 
and the President may detach and appoint for service on such vessels 
such of the officers of said corps as he may deem necessary." This 
would seem to imply that when no longer necessary they should be 
withdrawn. Section 1619 says : " The Marine Corps shall be liable 
to do duty in the forts and garrisons of the United States, on the 
sea-coast, or any other duty on shore as the President, at his discre- 
tion, may direct." It is certainly in keeping with the march of 
progress abroad to follow the example of foreign powers and place 
our sea-coast defenses in the hands of a semi-naval branch of the 
government. The record of the Marine Corps certainly merits the 
confidence of the country, and in taking this step we are but follow- 
ing out the dictates of wisdom in officering our sea-coast garrisons 
ultimately with graduates of the Naval Academy, and for the present 
with officers whose sea experience would be of the utmost value in 
the defense of our coast. 

As to the wisdom of withdrawing the marines from service afloat, 
the subject has so recently been discussed that little argument is here 
necessary. If, however, no other arguments were forthcoming, it 
would be sufficient to show that it is demanded by the reduced 
complements of our recent ships. The newer vessels exact such care 
for their hull, armament, and machinery; the coaUng of them is such 
a task, and the routine work required of the men is such that the 
marine " who toils not " takes up too much valuable room. The 
Yorktown has a guard of 18, the Baltimore and Philadelphia each 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 2^ 

36, the Boston and Atlanta 40, and the Chicago 56. Of course 
some one has to do the poHce duty of a ship, and the marine does 
the work acceptably enough, but he is not sufficiently versatile. In 
a modern ship a man must be something more than a soldier ; he 
must be a sailor besides, and a man with only one talent is out of 
place on a man-of-war. Aside from the desirability of having the 
police work done by the men themselves, it makes a ship's company 
more homogeneous, and is more in keeping with the system which 
requires our officers to perform a wider range of duties than any 
similar body of men in the world. Primarily this demands intelli- 
gence on the part of the individual, and, secondarily, thorough 
training in all the qualifications which make a modern man-of-wars- 
man. In adopting this system for the men we are simply taking a 
step necessary to place our naval service at least theoretically ahead 
of any other in the world. There are other immediate reasons for 
the withdrawal of the marines from service afloat. The infusion into 
our men of a proper military spirit, now believed to be so necessary 
in modern training, is an impossibility as long as the marine guard 
exists on board ship. It is idle to say that we cannot trust the men 
themselves with police duty. If we cannot, then we have the 
strongest argument that can be advanced for beginning at once to 
remedy a defect that stamps any organization a failure in which the 
fighting force is untrustworthy. If we are to make any progress in 
increasing the respectability and sense of responsibility of enlisted 
men, we must take this step as a fundamental one. Such police duty 
is essentially military, and a proper spirit can never be cultivated in 
the men as long as the marine guard, by its mere presence on board 
ship, is a notice to the men that they are not trusted and respected ; 
that they are incompetent to perform military duties, and that they 
do not possess the confidence of the officers. The military spirit is 
not difficult to acquire, particularly if exacted of men by the officers 
themselves. Most of the average marine guard sent on board a ship 
are raw recruits. One sees very few continuous-service stripes 
amongst them, and in the annual report for 1890 the number of re- 
enlistments is given as 85, while there were a total of 948 enlistments 
and 520 desertions, and this in a total force of 1950, with five years 
as a period of enlistment and with 918 of the total force serving on 
board ship. 

A full marine guard of the newer ships will never in the future, 
even for a flagship, consist of more than forty men, of which one 



28 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

will be orderly sergeant, two or three sergeants, four corporals, two 
music, and about thirty men. The detail in port consists usually of 
four admiral's and four cabin orderlies, and some three to five posts, 
each taking some four men, or about twenty in all. Then there are two 
cooks and a mail orderly. On gun-deck ships and the larger battle- 
ships there would be needed four corporals for the gun or battery 
deck, besides. In case the marine guard is withdrawn from service 
afloat, it is here proposed to perform their present duties in the ship 
as follows : We have now on board each ship a master-at-arms, a ship's 
bugler, and a ship's corporal, with an additional ship's corporal for 
a gun-deck ship. Add one more ship's bugler and four to six ship's 
corporals to the ship's complement. On flagships have in the 
commander-in-chief's complement an allowance of four men for flag 
orderlies. On flagships and other than flagships, select four men for 
cabin orderlies ; these and the flag orderlies to serve for three months 
as such. Assign one man also to act as a mail orderly in port and 
as a sentry at sea. Select from four to six men as compartment men 
for the protective deck and lower compartments, to keep them clean, 
to preserve order, and to be responsible for them in every way, 
serving practically as sentries in the compartments to which they are 
assigned. They should have important duties in connection with 
closing water-tight doors, rigging hand-pumps, and opening or 
closing proper valves for fire or other purposes; regulating the ven- 
tilation under the general direction of an ofiicer, whose functions will 
hereafter be described ; and above all, in being held strictly respon- 
sible for the police of the compartments to which they are assigned. 
They should sleep there, and only leave it for " all hands." Assign 
the master-at-arms, corporals, orderlies, and compartment men to 
the Powder Division, and the two buglers to the Navigator's Divi- 
sion. Detail from the deck force each day a sufiicient number of 
men to act as sentries for the three, four, or five posts which may be 
necessary, just as they do in the army, where sentry duty is legiti- 
mate military service. Aboard ship it might be well to make a detail 
last for a week at a time, but not longer. The master-at-arms and two 
corporals should make the rounds, and be on duty continuously from 
"all hands" in the morning, or from daylight, to 10 P. M., alter- 
nating in inspecting below, to suppress or report all infractions of the 
regulations. The master-at-arms should occupy the same relation 
to the entire force that the orderly sergeant does to the marine guard, 
excepting that his duties should be more active in policing the ship 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 29 

and less in drilling the men under him. He would of course have also 
to do what constitutes his important duties at present as master-at-arms, 
excepting that with a general mess system he would have no berth- 
deck cooks to look after. The other three or four corporals should 
be on the spar-deck in port, to assist the officer of the deck, some- 
what as a corporal or sergeant at the gangway does now, in over- 
hauling boats and looking out for details of discipline, etc. For a 
quarterdeck guard in port where necessary, use as now certain men 
off post, with the addition of one or more machine-gun's crew from 
deck as needed, or detail a boat's crew from one of the boats that are 
hoisted, with the coxswain as sergeant or corporal of the guard. 

XXIII. The following table gives the present monthly pay and 
ratings in the navy, and also the new ratings and new rates of pay 
here proposed. The new ratings are in italics, and the new rates of 
pay in the second columns. The old ratings to which stars are pre- 
fixed should be abolished. Any man holding a certificate as a sea- 
man-gunner (having qualified in target firing or gunnery) shall be 
entitled to receive 30 per cent increase over any rate of pay shown 
in the proposed table for a petty officer's billet of the seaman class, 
and 10 per cent in a petty officer's billet of the special or artificer 
class. 

With regard to certain new rates here proposed it may be well to 
make some explanation. 

The rate of gun-captain should be established, and to qualify in 
it a man should be able to drill a squad of men at any regular routine 
drill, such as infantry, artillery, great guns, machine guns, etc. ; should 
be required to pass an examination in the " duties of a gun-captain" 
as laid down in the hand-book hereafter mentioned ; and should 
have made at four successive quarterly target practices a prescribed 
percentage hereafter fixed upon by the Navy Department. Gun- 
captains should rank as second-class petty officers of the seaman 
class. In case a man is rated as gun-captain without qualifying, he 
shall receive $35 a month. A gun-captain, qualified, shall receive 
$45 per month. The same explanation applies to ship's cooks and 
machinists. To qualify in those rates requires that the candidate 
shall have passed through the prescribed training at the central 
recruiting station as hereafter described. 

The rates of electrician and dynamo-tenders seem to be demanded, 
as distinguishing them from the engineer's force in official designa- 
tion. 







o 


o o 












o 


"^ o o 


o 


00 


1 


vo \n 




•pasodojj 


r^oo r^ 


•pasodojj 


^ -f ^^O 'T col -pasodoij 






o 




O to O O O 00 
\0 -^ xrvo T CO 




VO VO 




•quasgjj 


^ 


•jnasajj 


•JU3S3JJ 


Tf COCO 


i 




























u 




























« 


S 






u 










2 










^ 


o 






o 




















!J 


e 






Ifi 










i£ 










fa 


o 


• 1 




O 





















>. 






>< 










>, 












f^ 
"& 


;;■ 


3 I 


(^ 




• rt \ 






(^ 












u 


•£ -S '^ 




s 



















!£►$>» 




Boiler 
Armoi 
Carpe 
Black! 
Sailm; 
Water 
Dyiiai 




u ^ in 






^^^ 
§^^ 






Pi Dm 






i^O O O OiniriN C 




inioin 









•pasodojj 


VOVOVOVOVO -^Tj-u^c 


•pasodojj 


CO CO Tl- 


•pasodoj^j 


s 






"^OOOOiOiON 




00 to vo 









•JU3S3J<J 


^vo VO VO \0 tT •* lO 


•jnsssjj 


^CO CO 


•juasajj 


& 


'•J 


K 




: : : 


















s 






< 


o 

iE 
O 




• • c 










o 




:^ : 




i 






fin 


1 

u 


: £ 

11 


ecaries . ... 
ister's Yeoi 
eer's Yeom 
Writer.... 


E 






u 

•a 


L 

o 




I 


to 

.s 






(U Q.-S S c ^<« o C ;, 




^tn cfi =, ^ 




c3 






1'3 o f^.^%1\ 




'o-3>^« 




G. 






t« 0-CUrtCj3o rt.^ 




'.c '.S -^ ^ 




RS 






SM<cum55i^mco 




c« crt i^i u 




U 








o o o 




uo "^ lo "-1 in lo 








•pasodojj 


Coin in 


•pssodojj 


CO CO CO CO TT CO 

%9= 


•pasodojj 








lOiO u^ 




O O O "^ 




000 




•4U3S3J5 


--co 


•juassid: 


COCOCO CO 


•jussajj 


^^^ 










: 




• !n 












3 


m 






.; 


: 


















S2 

O 


If 

j2 t^ 


4) 
"l-i 

c 


1 

o 

1 


i 


ill. 


60 





"0 "0 


a 


1 

"o 








rt rt C 
O 3 S 


u 


atswain 
arternia 
nner's I 

n Capta 
xswain 




•a 


to »1 <» 

ceo 

■(< 'rt 'rt 






u u u 






H. 0- cL 












J^ Rl «t 






',3 )S 
uu 














^c 


>oG<v 


a 


1 




k- 


v 


^ 





•pasodojj 



2 S2 



>= C 4; CJ 

4) 0, ^ g 

J^ t. 3 -^ 

^ rt rt >? 

;r u u ,« 



•pasodoij 



•pasodojj 



•pasodojj 



CO o 
•p9S0dOiJ ^ <^ 









•pasodojj 






•pasodojj 



•pssodoJtj 



•pasodojj 



\0 ^0 M ON O 



O t^ O I^ 



\0\0 « ON o 



^< 



\o S 



ess 






s « 



Ooi 



^u3 

tn t3 TJ 
w N CO 



.Q k, >-. 1- „j 
2 C &, D. >-, 
rt a A O, O 



32 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

Our signal corps on board ship is inferior to what it should be. 
Something must be done to bring it up to a proper standard. It is 
proposed to establish the rate of signalman, with the pay of $27 per 
month ; any ordinary seaman, seaman, or apprentice of correspond- 
ing rates being eligible, where specially fitted for the position. A 
hand-book for quartermasters and signalmen should be officially 
gotten up for their instruction and to prescribe the duties of quarter- 
masters and signalmen, and the rating of quartermaster should be 
held out as an inducement to signalmen to become thoroughly pro- 
ficient. 

By the system of messing here proposed it is hoped to restore to 
the deck force at least 50 per cent of the berth-deck cooks now 
allowed. By having all commissioned officers (other than the com- 
manding officers) in one mess, and by not assigning warrant officers 
and naval cadets to small ships, we can do away with warrant and 
junior officers' stewards, cooks and servants. By transferring the 
marine guard to a higher sphere of usefulness on shore we can 
largely increase the available working force on deck. The need of 
doing this in new ships with their crowded living spaces is sufficient 
warrant for hoping that sentiment will not stand in the way of com- 
mon sense. 

With increased pay, comforts and respectability, and with a fairly 
attractive career offered to enlisted men, we can hope to attract 
intelligent Americans into the navy. With more intelligent men we 
can secure a wider range of duties from each individual. With good 
raw material everything depends on training. The handling and 
fighting of a ship's armament is the true modern basis of the educa- 
tion and training of our men. We give too much importance to the 
paint-pot, holy-stone, active-topman type of man on the one hand, 
and leave all the military training to the marines. The modern 
effective unit, the seaman artillerist, must be somewhat of both types, 
and very much more than either, not only in military spirit and 
exactness, but in professional attainments to a degree not as yet fully 
realized. The improvement in the status of our men can and should 
end only in placing our service in harmony with the spirit and pur- 
poses of our republican institutions. This we can never do as long 
as we widen the gap between the officers and men by exacting the 
highest standard in the former and the very lowest in the latter. 
The new types of ships have done much to emphasize this, but we 
must train the men to the ship, not strive by conservatism to check 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 33 

the development of the viaieriel simply because it involves radical 
changes in methods of training. 

Training. 

There is neither sufficient time nor room aboard the new ships, in 
the exigencies of cruising, to conduct the drilling of recruits system- 
atically and thoroughly, particularly in the first few months of a com- 
mission when there are so many other things to be looked after. It 
would tend, moreover, to secure uniformity, continuity, and thorough- 
ness in the preliminary training of men, and would result in the 
greater economy in time and labor, if certain drills, up to fixed 
standards of efficiency, were given recruits at the central recruiting 
stations at New York and Mare Island before drafting them off to 
cruising ships. The most serious faults to be contended with in our 
service to-day are: first, lack of homogeneity in the crews of ships ; 
second, lack of uniformity in drills, routines, etc. ; and third, the 
absence of a strictly military purpose in the training of men. The 
duties of commissioned and petty officers, and the routine and 
details of drills should be thoroughly systematized. What we need 
are hand-books on different drills, accessible to officers and men 
alike, and a series of short and condensed text-books outlining the 
duties of petty officers and what they should be required to know 
to qualify in the ratings they hold. In the French service such books 
are prepared under government supervision, and sold for a nominal 
sum to the men. One gives, for instance, instruction to quarter- 
masters and signalmen and all that they ought to know to qualify in 
such ratings ; another, instructions to quarter-gunners and gunners' 
mates, etc. The application of these books to the practical exami- 
nation of candidates for ratings, or to men or boys advanced from 
one rating to another, would tend to secure uniformity in the qualifi- 
cations for ratings throughout the service. At present it is largely 
a matter of the individual ship, and the qualifications demanded are 
un-uniform, vague, and not at all thorough, except in special cases. 

At the central recruiting stations the preliminary training of 
recruits should include setting-up exercise, gymnastics, swimming, 
school of the soldier and company, pistol and cutlass drill, single- 
sticks, boxing, bayonet exercise, field artillery, machine-gun drill, 
aiming and pointing, knowledge of accounts with paymaster, sewing, 
care of clothing, and familiarity with routine naval and police duties. 
Enclosed pistol-ranges for target practice should be erected at New 



34 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

York and Mare Island, and in the preliminary drill in aiming and 
pointing of small arms, air guns or parlor rifles should be used to 
illustrate the principles of aiming and firing. At Sandy Hook, near 
New York, and at the Mare Island Navy Yard, rifle ranges should 
be erected, embodying the latest ideas and suited to the requirements 
of individual, skirmish and company firings. Systematic firing over 
the ranges should be carried on until the men attain a fair ability to 
hit a target at various distances. Every endeavor should be made 
to familiarize the men with the care, preservation, and use of the 
arms they are called upon to handle aboard ship. The course of 
instruction at the station should last some three months or more, and 
should embrace from four to six hours a day. 

Attached to the New York station should be four vessels to be 
used in the training of recruits. One should be a transport, to make 
the rounds of the recruiting stations at stated intervals, to gather in 
the recruits and to take drafts of men to ships along the North 
Atlantic coast. The second should be a small steamer of some sort, 
mounting a six-inch rifle, and having a small secondary battery con- 
sisting of a three- or six-pounder Hotchkiss, a revolving cannon, 
and a Gatling, to be used as a gunnery training ship for target prac- 
tice for recruits at the station, to cruise out to sea or in Long Island 
Sound for a day or so at a time. The third should be either a 
sailing vessel, like the Saratoga, or a steamer with practically full sail 
power, like the Yantic, to serve as a training ship for recruits. From 
time to time recruits should be transferred to her for a cruise of from 
three to four months, for instruction in seamanship, alacrity, heaving 
the lead, signals, compass, log, knotting and splicing, handling boats, 
and the usual duties of a seaman as distinct from the military and 
gunnery duties of a man-of-wars-man. The incidental routine gun- 
nery drills on board should be somewhat the same as at the station 
on shore, such as school of the soldier, small arms, machine-gun drill, 
single-sticks, field artillery, etc., to familiarize the men with the drills 
in service afloat. Great attention should be paid to boat drill as a 
most valuable professional exercise and a most necessary training for 
seafaring men. They should be taught to handle and bring boats 
alongside in all weather under oars or sail, and to expose themselves 
in bad weather in order to give them that confidence which only 
comes with a great deal of experience, and with a real knowledge of 
how to handle a boat under all conditions. They should be exer- 
cised in righting a capsized boat, in jumping overboard to pick up 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 35 

Other persons in the water, and in every way encouraged to that fear- 
lessness which comes with trained courage rather than heedless 
daring. It is easy to exaggerate the virtues of the old system of 
training men aloft as compared with the really thorough, athletic and 
professional training which men can be given in ordinary ships' boats 
under intelligent guidance. It should be as important to train men 
to handle a boat as to train a cavalryman to ride a horse. 

The fourth ship, more or less attached to the central training 
station at New York, should be some modern ship like the Mianto- 
nomah or Terror, for the training of the recruits for the engineer's force. 
A vessel of this kind, to have routine target practice, must needs put 
to sea each quarter anyway, and it is certainly of sufficient import- 
ance in the training of the engineer's recruits to justify frequent short 
trips to familiarize men with their duties. As all coal-heavers for 
the coast are enlisted at New York, and all second-class firemen 
should also be so enlisted, it follows that a regular course of training 
in steam engineering and preliminary military training should be 
established for such recruits. It should go even further. A school 
for machinists should be added, and all who qualify in it should 
receive the increased pay provided for qualified petty officers. There 
is quite as much, if not more call for improvement in the character 
and training of men in the engineer's force than in the deck force, 
and if we are wise we will wake up to an acknowledgment of the fact. 

Another advantage of having thoroughly equipped recruiting 
stations at New York and Mare Island is in the ability to provide 
for drilling the naval reserve forces at stated periods. 

With a large total allowance of 10,000 men in the service, there will 
be no difficulty in carrying out this scheme. With a small allowance it 
will be impossible, as unexpected demands will be made on the central 
station, and men drafted off with little or no training to meet emergen- 
cies that are always arising. There must be a wide margin to enable 
men to receive proper training. With regard to whether or not' 
recruits in service on shore should live in barracks or on receiving- 
ships depends entirely on the efficiency of the ships, and whether or 
not they can accommodate as many men as may be necessary. The 
ships possess many advantages in respect to training, but in the course 
of time barracks will have to be built. In that case, the life of the 
recruit in barracks should be assimilated as nearly as possible to 
service conditions. This whole scheme of preliminary training is 
nothing more nor less than the application of the Apprentice Training 
System to general service recruits. 



36 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

As regards the apprentice training system itself, special efforts must 
be made to enlarge and develop it. With the total allowance of 
apprentices increased to 1500, and an earnest effort made to retain 
the best products of the system in the service, it would become a 
most important factor in Americanizing the navy. Modern guns and 
appliances, and increased accommodations and facilities for training 
are very much needed. The attachment of the Richmond to the 
station is a great step in the right direction. The enlargement of the 
course for apprentices to qualify in special and artificer class ratings 
is demanded by new service conditions. 

The seaman-gunners.of to-day are the poorest paid, most seriously 
discouraged, and yet the most important class of men in the navy. 
Right here must begin a new departure, as this class of men must 
form the keystone of our organization. Not only should as many 
men as possible be thoroughly trained, as seaman-gunners, but the 
course of training should be constantly enlarged and improved, until 
our petty officers shall be, as far as possible, recruited from men who 
have first qualified in the rating of seaman-gunner. 

The present custom is to send continuous-service men just after 
re-enlistment to the Navy Yard, Washington, to qualify in ordnance 
and gunnery, and to Newport to qualify in torpedoes and electricity. 
The applicant must be a seaman or petty officer of the line, under 32 
years of age, and be able to read, write and cipher. He is also 
required to take out naturalization papers if not already a citizen of 
the United States. The course at Newport is very far from what it 
ought to be, and is irregular and unsystematic. The working force 
at the station is so small that the men are too often utilized for 
routine work for it to be profitable to the men in the way of general 
training. Certain men make a specialty of learning printing, others 
make torpedo fuzes and detonators, and still others run the electric 
plant. All this is valuable in its way, but the course, to be a course, 
must be uniform, thorough and systematic. More officers are needed 
at the station, or else a good deal of the training now given can be 
better accomplished at Washington in connection with the advance 
and gunnery course. Men frequently qualify at Newport who have 
had only a few hours' lecture on electricity and a most theoretical 
course in torpedoes. After the men are transferred to sea-going 
ships the present pay tables begin to cause mischief. One man gets 
the rating of machinist at $70 a month ; three others become oilers 
and get $36 ; while others become gunners' mates at $30, armorers 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 37 

at $45, printers at $40, yeomen at $60, and writers at $45. The pay 
of petty officers of the seaman class, from which these men are 
selected or recruited, is so much smaller than that of the special and 
artificer classes that the deck force receives little or no benefit from 
the seaman-gunner course. The past training has had the effect of 
fitting the men best for civil life, and the discouragement of the out- 
look in the service has operated to the effect of driving most of them 
out of the service at the expiration of their enlistments. 

At the Washington Navy Yard great strides have been made 
towards the establishment of a proper school for seaman-gunners. 
With the target practice on board the Alarm with machine-guns and 
six-inch rifle, and the establishment of a rifle range on the Bellvue 
magazine reservation, we will soon have in the service a class of 
seaman-gunners who are, as they should be, expert artillerists. The 
standard should be high, and when a man qualifies he should receive 
largely increased pay, especially in ratings of the seaman class. The 
shops at the navy yard aflbrd every facility for the mechanical and 
technical training needed, and the system of drills carried on by the 
seaman-gunners themselves, under supervision of commissioned 
officers, gives them the training they need as petty officers. The 
discipline is excellent and the results are very promising. The 
facilities should, however, be increased and the classes enlarged. 
The whole course of instruction of seaman-gunners needs thorough 
systematizing, and hand-books should be gotten out as soon as 
possible, to aid in the instruction not only of those at Washington 
and Newport, but those out in the service who need to freshen up 
from time to time and to keep up with the improvements and 
changes that are constantly being made. 

The circulars of the Bureau of Navigation in relation to target 
practice, money prizes, etc., leave nothing to be desired in that 
respect excepting that they may be rigidly carried out in the 
service. The principal extension of this practical training in prize 
firing should now be in the application of the whole system to the 
apprentice training squadron and station, the central recruiting 
stations for recruits, and the seaman-gunner course at Washington. 
Special preliminary training both of recruits and petty officers, with 
a view to securing uniformity in the service and of freeing ship's 
routine of the elementary drills, is earnestly demanded by modern 
conditions. 



38 prize essay for 189i. 

Organization. 

A consideration of the recent tendencies in naval construction 
leads inevitably to the conclusion that sail-power cannot play an im- 
portant part in the navy of the future. With twin screws which do 
not uncouple and cannot trice up, the most we can look for is 
auxiliary sail for storm purposes. The Newark is the only square- 
rigged vessel of the more recent ships, and every tendency, as shown 
by the report of the Policy Board and the plans of vessels contracted 
for, is in the direction of restricting sail to a very limited area. The 
Squadron of Evolution, in its recent cruise of 16,000 miles, had 
every opportunity of testing the utility or futility of square sails, 
and a study of the logs of the ships will furnish no grounds for a 
return to the Brooklyn or Pensacola types of cruisers. It is not that 
sails are obsolete, or that the training of officers and men with spars 
and sails must be given up, but it is sacrificing too much to handicap 
swift cruisers with sail-power that is only an incumbrance. Officers 
and men should be trained aboard sailing ships or auxiliary steamers 
at the Naval Academy, Newport, and at the central training stations, 
but it is going backwards to put useless sails on swift cruisers for 
doubtful advantages in training that can be infinitely better accom- 
plished on regular training ships. Strong, reliable and not too com- 
plicated engines, good accommodations for the men, strong hulls 
with double bottoms, handy and roomy coal-bunkers, increased 
ammunition capacity, and improved methods of handling the same — 
these are questions alongside of which the importance of the question 
of sail-power in a modern swift cruiser dwindles into insignificance. 
Indeed, in the matter of coaling ship we have a long way to go. 
The demand for water-tight compartments and the continuity of the 
armored deck lead not only to most unhandy coal-bunker arrange- 
ments, but to difficulties in getting out coal fast enough to maintain 
high speeds for considerable runs, and, most important of all, to 
utter inability to coal ships in anything like reasonable time. The 
spectacle of a swift cruiser like the Philadelphia or Baltimore taking 
some three or four days to coal, or even one day, is in itself startling. 
If those last quarters of knots of speed which are added for cases 
of emergency are worth to the country $50,000 each, at what are we 
to value the hours wasted through absurd coaling arrangements at 
a critical juncture, when each hour means a loss of 18 knots or so 
underway ? Fact is, in any new organization we must frankly come 
to it that the coal-bunkers and the means of filling them demand a 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 



39 



place in our new station bills under the heading " Coaling Ship," just 
as " Making Sail " or " Reefing " were of importance in the past. The 
coal-shovel, the ammunition-whip, and the lock-string must all have 
live men on the ends of them, and alacrity is just as great a factor 
as it ever was in naval discipline and efficiency — some think greater. 
Probably nothing can show more clearly the tendency of modern 
ships in the reduction of living space than the following comparison 
of the complements of the Chicago and Philadelphia, each repre- 
senting epochs in naval development, and each carrying a crew up to 
the full limit of her berthing capacity. The full complement of the 
Chicago is 442, and of the Philadelphia 368, both being flag-ships. 
The men are distributed as follows : 



Watch Petty Officers. 

Chi. 

Chief boatswain's mates. . . i 

Chief quartermasters I 

Boatswain's mates 3 

Gunner's mates 2 

Quartermasters 3 

Quarter gunners 6 

Ship's corporals 2 



Phil. 
I 



18 17 

Petty Officers and Idlers. 

Masters-at-arms i 

Equipment yeomen i 

Engineer's yeomen 2 

Paymaster's yeomen 2 

Apothecaries i 

Captains of hold 2 

Ship's cooks I 

Baymen 2 

Ship's writers i 

Barbers i 

Jack-of-dust i 

Tailors i 

Buglers 2 

Steward to com.-in-chief.. . i 
Cook to " " ..I 

Servant to ** " . . i 

Cabin steward i 

" cook. I 

" boy I 

Ward-room steward i 



Ward-room cook 

" " boys 

Junior officers' steward. . . 

" " cook 

" " boys 

Warrant officers' steward. 
'* «' cook.... 
" " boy 



44 35 

Engineer's Force. 

Machinists 8 8 

Water-tenders 5 3 

Oilers 12 12 

Boilermakers o i 

Blacksmiths 2 2 

PMrst-class firemen 12 14 

Second-class firemen 15 14 

Coal-heavers 36 36 

90 90 

Deck Force. 

Captains of forecastle 2 2 

" " tops 4 2 

Coxswains 11 9 

Seamen 57 36 

Ordinary seamen 54 36 

Landsmen 26 36 

Apprentices 43 4° 

197 161 



40 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 



Mechanics and Dynamo Tenders. 

Chi. Phil. 

Armorers 2 i 

Blacksmiths i i 

Carpenter's mates i i 

Sailmaker's mates i i 

Painters 2 i 

Carpenters and caulkers,. . 4 3 

Dynamo machinists i i 

Oilers for dynamo 3 3 

Printers 1 i 

16 13 



Marines. 

Chi. Phil. 

Orderly sergeant i i 

Sergeants 3 2 

Corporals 4 3 

Bugler I I 

Drummer i i 

Privates 46 28 



Band 



56 36 
.21 16 



Total 442 368 



This comparison needs some explanation. In the first place, the 
regular additional allowance for commander-in-chief is 34, distributed 
as follows : 



Seamen 6 

Ordinary seamen 6 

Landsmen 2 

Band 16 

Coxswain... i 



Cook I 

Steward i 

Printer i 



Total. 



■34 



On the Chicago there are 21 in the band, and an engineer's yeoman 
is allowed for admiral's writer, making the total allowance 40. On 
the Philadelphia, on the other hand, the allowance of six seamen and 
six ordinary seamen is disallowed, and the total is only 22. On the 
latter, therefore, the barge's crew comes out of the ship's complement. 
The Chicago being a gun-deck ship has an extra boatswain's mate 
and ship's corporal. 

In the revised organization here proposed for our new ships of 
from 1200 to 10,000 tons displacement, the principal change is in 
basing the organization on the gun instead of on the sail power. 
The parts of ship are abolished and gun divisions substituted. The 
gun's crew is preserved intact in the entire watch, quarter and station 
bill, and constitutes, with the machine-guns' crews of the division, a 
section at artillery, a platoon at infantry, a running boat's crew, and 
going in the same boat at " arm and away " and " abandon ship." 
No special-duty men or excused men should come out of the gun 
divisions, which last comprise the entire deck force. All special- 
duty men are in the powder or navigator's division, and there are as 
few such men allowed as possible, every eifort being made to have a 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 4I 

large working deck force. In case the marines are not withdrawn 
from service afloat, they should be reduced in numbers and regarded 
as special-duty men, which means that they would constitute a divi- 
sion of the powder division in the quarter bill, but otherwise be under 
the command of their <ewn officer. However, it is assumed that the 
marines are to be withdrawn. The important factor to be first dealt 
with in adapting our organization to modern conditions is the powder 
division. The character and distribution of the chains of ammuni- 
tion supply make it obvious that a large number of men are required 
to deliver the same to the numerous guns now constituting a modern 
ship's battery. Men at the guns are more or less protected 
by shields ; men in the ammunition supply are mostly on or above 
the protective deck and entirely exposed, as the coal protection 
is only furnished the boilers and engines, hence the principal 
casualties will be in the powder division. On them will devolve also 
largely the care of the wounded passed below in action, yet at all 
times the rapid supply of ammunition is of vital importance. This 
fact, coupled with the necessity for closing water-tight doors when 
about to ram or in any danger of being rammed, just when ammuni- 
tion is also most needed with rapidity, leads to the necessity for 
drawing on the engineer's force for the reserve for the powder 
division in action. Under ordinary circumstances the powder 
division must be organized without counting in any of the engineer's 
force, which should constitute the reserve, but of all things this 
division must not be short-handed. The automobile torpedoes are 
mostly handled in the region of the ammunition supply, and the 
torpedo division is here included as a division in the powder division. 
This brings us to a very important and very necessary change in 
the assignment of commissioned officers to divisions. 

A consideration of the burden imposed upon an executive officer 
of a modern cruiser of large displacement, by the care of the hull 
and below decks, and the ever-increasing duties of looking out for 
the complicated needs of such a ship, leads inevitably to the con- 
clusion that he should in a measure be indirectly relieved by a com- 
petent assistant from some of the duties which now bear so hard 
upon him. The senior watch officers, from their age and experience 
in the service, are entitled to share in these duties, and it is here pro- 
posed that, on first and second rates, the officer now corresponding 
to senior watch officer hereafter be designated as first lieutenant, and 
the executive officer as executive officer only. The first lieutenant 



42 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 

shall have charge of the powder division, but shall not keep a watch. 
He shall, under the executive officer, be charged with the discipline 
of the lower decks, and of the special-duty and other men who clean, 
paint, and police the compartments and inside hull of the ship. He 
shall have charge of the general messing system and its inspection ; 
shall regulate the ventilation of the ship below decks ; shall have 
charge of the water-tight doors, traps, valves, pumps, and drainage 
system of the ship ; and shall have charge of the police and sentries 
of the ship in the preservation of discipline and in the faithful and 
efficient discharge of their duties. He shall serve as senior member 
of boards of survey and inspection, summary courts-martial, board 
for the examination of seamen and petty officers for ratings to higher 
ratings than those held by them ; and shall have personal and direct 
supervision of the instruction of landsmen, ordinary seamen, and 
apprentices to fit them for higher ratings. The executive officer 
shall continue to discharge the same duties as at present. The first 
lieutenant is simply to be a well-qualified assistant on whose knowl- 
edge and judgment, founded on experience in the service, the execu- 
tive officer can rely. The work put on a modern executive officer 
simply means that he does as much as flesh and blood can accom- 
plish and the rest must be more or less neglected. In most cases 
nothing is neglected, but the physical strain is too great and should 
be shared by a competent assistant. This is the custom in other 
services that might be named, and it is founded on reason and com- 
mon sense. 

With a modern powder division twice the size of a gun division, 
with the care and manipulation of automobile torpedoes added, and 
with the various chains of ammunition supply cut off from one 
another by the water-tight subdivisions, not to mention the exposed 
position of most of the powder division in even armored ships, it is 
not too much to say that the first lieutenant should have the assist- 
ance of one or more of the junior watch officers, or ensigns not 
standing watch, to properly carry out the complicated duties of the 
officer in charge. There being no marine officer in the ship, the 
duties of such could be incidentally performed by the first lieutenant 
as far as supervision and inspection of sentries, etc., is concerned. 
Any officer specially qualified in torpedoes should be assigned to the 
powder division as assistant in charge of the torpedo division. The 
more this scheme of having an officer of rank in charge below decks 
is considered, the more it will commend itself to the service at large. 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 43 

It is not a new idea in any sense, but we need to adopt it. In view 
of the enormous amount of clerical work required at present in the 
executive and navigation departments of a ship, two writers should 
be allowed, one for the executive officer as now, and the other for 
the navigator and first lieutenant, between them. 

With regard to the allowed complement of ships there are certain 
ratings which should be increased in number. A chief gunner's 
mate should be allowed each ship carrying automobile torpedoes, 
whether there is a gunner aboard or not. The allowance of quarter 
gunners should be one for each large gun of eight inches or over, 
one for each pair of five or six inch guns, and one for the secondary 
battery. The armorer should also serve with the secondary battery. 
Two painters should be allowed to large ships, and the carpenter's 
gang increased to six carpenters and caulkers, in addition to the 
carpenter's mate, as the duties now required in the iron work and 
valves, pumps, etc., are quite additional to the former work of the 
gang. The commander-in-chief's additional allowance for new ships 
should be as follows : 

Coxswains i Cooks i 

Seamen, for orderlies 4 Band 16 

Landsmen 2 — 

Printers i 26 

Stewards i 

As to the new watch, quarter, and station bill adapted to modern 
cruisers and battle-ships of from 1200 to 10,000 tons displacement, a 
consideration of the present allowed complements of vessels shows 
that the crews are distributed about as follows : 

550 to 400 men. 400 to 300 men. 300 to 200 men. 2ootoioomen. 

Petty officers, mechanics 

and idlers i6perct. iSperct. 22 per ct. 28perct. 

Engineer's force 20 " 24 " 26 " 28 " 

Marines 10 ** 10 " 10 " 10 " 

Deck force 54 " 48 " 42 *' 34 " 

Transferring the marines to service on shore and doing away with 
as many special-duty men as possible, the new percentages should 
be as follows : 



44 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

550 to 400 men. 400 to 300 men. 300 to 200 men, 200 to 100 men. 

Petty officers, mechanics 

and idlers 22perct. 24 per ct. 28perct. 34perct. 

Engineer's force 20 " 24 " 26 " 28 " 

Deck force 58 " 52 " 46 " 38 " 

These figures are of course approximate, but indicate at least the 
relative needs of large and small ships. Special conditions will of 
course call for a modification of these allowances to suit peculiar 
types of ships. 

As the gun divisions take the place of parts of the ship, it may be 
well to first outline the changes needed in the present watch bill of our 
ships. In gun-deck ships, or in turret or barbette ships also carrying 
guns in an armored casemate, central citadel or superstructure, there 
should be four gun divisions. In all other ships there should be 
three. As these gun divisions are to constitute the parts of ship, the 
watch numbers of the first division should run from loi to 200 in- 
clusive, which would give for the fourth division 401 to 500 inclusive. 

The numbers from i to 100 inclusive should be given to petty 
officers, mechanics and idlers. Those from i to 24 inclusive should 
be for petty officers, mechanics, and idlers who do not stand watch, 
and should run as follows : 

I. Master-at-arms, 2. Ship's steward, 

3. Electrician, 4. Apothecary, 

5. Equipment yeoman, 6. Pay yeoman, 

7. Chief gunner's mate, 8. Engineer's yeoman, 

9. Ship's writer, 10. Ship's writer, 

II. Chief quartermaster. 12. Printer, 

13. Captain of hold, 14. Captain of hold, 

15. Bugler, 16. Bugler, 

17. Painter, 18. Painter, 

19. Bayman, 20. Bayman, 

21. Sailmaker's mate, 22. Tailor, 

23. Jack-of-the-dust, 24. Barber. 

The watch numbers from 25 to 80 inclusive should embrace the 
petty officers, mechanics, and idlers who stand watch at sea, or in 
port, or both, as follows : 

25. Chief boatswain's mate, 26. Boatswain's mate, 

27. Boatswain's mate, 28. " " 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1891. 



45 



29. Gunner's mate, 

31. Armorer, 

33. Quarter gunner, 

35- 

37. 

39. " 

41. 

43. Quartermaster, 

45- 

47. Signalman, 

49. 

51. Ship's corporal, 

53. " 

55- " 

57- " 

59. Dynamo tender, 

61. 

63. Carpenter's mate, 

65. Carpenter and caulker, 

67. 

69. 

71. Seaman, steam launch, 

73. Side cleaner, 

75. " 

77. Messenger, 

79. 



30. Gunner's mate, 

32, Armorer, 

34. Quarter gunner, 

36. " 

38. " 

40. 

42. 

44. Quartermaster, 

46. 

48. Signalman, 

50. 

52. Ship's corporal, 

54- " 

56. " ■ " 

58. " 

60. Dynamo tender, 

62. 

64. Carpenter and caulker, 

66. 

68. 

70. Coxswain of steam launch, 

72. Ordinary seaman, steam launch, 

74. Side cleaner, 

76. " 

78. Messenger, 

80. 



The numbers from 81 to 100 should include the ship's messmen, 
as follows : 



81. Ship's cook, 


82. 


Sh: 


ip's cook's assistant, 


83. Pantryman, 


84. 


Baker, 


85. Messmfen, 


86. 


Messmen, 


87. 


88. 






89. " 


90. 






91. " 


92. 






93. " 


94. 






95. " 


96. 






97. 


98. 




... 


99. 


100. 




... 



46 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

The watch numbers from 501 to 600 inclusive should be distributed 
as follows : 

From 501 to 550, the marine guard, or, in case the guard is with- 
drawn, those having corresponding duties should be here enrolled. 
In the latter case this group should contain numbers for four flag 
orderlies, four cabin orderlies, and one mail orderly. The other 
numbers should be reserved for the compartment men. From 551 
to 570 inclusive should be the band numbers, and from 571 to 600 
inclusive the cooks, stewards and servants, exactly as in the present 
watch bill. 

The numbers from 600 upwards should be the engineer's force. 

The quarter bill should be, in respect to names, a copy of the 
watch bill for the gun divisions, with one quarter gunner added for 
each division. The remainder of the crew, exclusive of the engineer's 
force, should be in the powder, navigator's, or torpedo division. 

There it no necessity in a modern man-of-war for a large navi- 
gator's division. In action everything is now controlled from an 
armored fighting-tower, and the handling of the ship is confined to 
very few people. The custom now is to assign one or more machine 
guns to this division. It is here proposed that the following men 
compose the navigator's division : the chief boatswain's mate, chief 
quartermaster, carpenter's mate, and one carpenter and caulker, four 
quartermasters, four signalmen, four messengers, one ship's writer, 
two buglers and an armorer, in all nineteen men as a maximum. It 
will be found that these are the men most needed on the spar-deck 
in emergencies likely to arise in action. The allowance of four 
messengers is meant to cover the necessity in large ships for two 
for the officer-of-the-deck and two for the executive officer. An 
armorer should be handy in case of accident to the mechanism of 
guns or gun-carriages. The carpenter's mate and assistant should 
be on the spar-deck under the control of the commanding, executive, 
or navigating officer, to receive directions as to trimming the ship, in 
case of accident, by pumping out or letting water into certain com- 
partments, under the supervision of the carpenter, who should also 
be attached to the navigator's division as an aid. 

The torpedo division should be incorporated in the powder divi- 
sion, under the immediate control of the torpedo officer, but under 
the command of the first lieutenant, as being on the protective deck. 
It should consist of the following men: chief gunner's mate, one 
ship's writer, two dynamo tenders, two ship's corporals, and all the 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1 89 1. 47 

special compartment men, including also the mail orderly and four 
side-cleaners, in all about eighteen men. While in a special way this 
division will be called upon in action, at more or less close quarters, 
to manipulate torpedoes, yet their general duties at all other times 
should also be to close water-tight doors, rig pumps, close air-duct 
valves, etc., on signal from deck, or by order of the first lieutenant, 
where necessary in cases of emergency, as best determined by those 
below. This division will also act as aids to the wounded sent 
below or belonging to the powder division. This implies that the 
torpedo division will be scattered throughout the length of the ship 
on the protective deck. That is as it should be, as by special signal 
the men can be called together when about to discharge one or more 
torpedoes. Men in the powder division whose stations in action are 
on the protective deck should also be detailed to close water-tight 
doors, etc., on special signal, as it is important that two men be 
assigned to perform one duty of this kind, to decrease the chances of 
failure through the absence of one or the other. In case there are no 
torpedoes furnished the ship, the men here named as constituting the 
torpedo division would, of course, be assigned directly to the powder 
division. 

The powder division should be composed of those men whose 
watch numbers range fromi i to 100 and 500 to 600 not otherwise 
assigned to the navigator's or torpedo division. The coal-heavers 
and first and second-class firemen of one division of the engineer's 
force should constitute the reserve of the powder division, to be 
drawn on in case of necessity. The steam launch's crew, though 
assigned to the powder division, are only nominally in it. In port 
the steam launch is generally busy, and at sea and in action this 
crew should be stationed in the steering-engine compartment. At 
sea they should stand in three watches, to oil and tend the steam- 
steering gear, and to stand by to shift from steam to hand gear in 
cases of emergency. In action all three should be there for the same 
purpose, with the additional duties of connecting up the preventer- 
tiller ropes or relieving tackles, or in assisting to ship the spare tiller 
in case of accident to both the ordinary hand and steam gear. 

The engineer's division in the new watch and quarter bills should 
be assigned more space than is now given in the present bills. 

In relation to the fire bill, only one remark seems called for in the 
arrangement and running of steam hose. The latter is kept in racks 
usually some Uttle distance from the fire-plugs on the steam-main, 



48 PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 

and in the course of numerous drills the threads are stripped in 
coupling up hastily. It is here suggested that the pipe leading from 
the fire-main to each fire-plug be branched, with a valve on each 
branch. To one fire-plug the fire-hose should always be kept 
coupled and neatly made up, but handy in case of fire, with nozzle 
attached ready for running. The other plug should be used for 
washing decks, etc. 

One boat bill should answer for " Running boats," "Arm and 
away," and "Abandon ship." The same crew should go in each boat 
under all three circumstances, but in other than running boats the 
additional men should be indicated by watch numbers under the 
sub-headings "Arm and away " and "Abandon ship." A boat's 
crew should be picked from each watch of a gun division, which is 
practically the same thing as assigning a gun's crew to a boat. The 
steam launch and sailing launch should be manned from the powder 
division. The gig's, barge's and dinghy's crews should come from 
the gun divisions equally, preferably from the machine-guns' crews. 
Ships should be furnished with small boats pulhng double sculls for 
purposes where they readily take the place of larger boats during 
drill hours and after dark. The life-rafts, etc., for abandoning ship 
should belong to the navigator's, powder, and torpedo divisions. 

In the organization of the battalion, the powder division should 
constitute the artillery and the ammunition supply; the navigator's, 
the color guard ; and the pioneer's should be taken from the 
mechanics and engineer's force. Each gun division should consti- 
tute a company of infantry. 

In the station bill such changes in the watch numbers should be 
made as to make it correspond with the new watch bill. To what 
are already given in the station bill as evolutions, should be added 
" Closing water-tight doors " and " Coaling ship." In coaling ship with ' 
the ship's company, as few should be excused from work as possible. 

In summarizing what has been here proposed, it may be stated in 
a general way that the object sought is to secure for our ships (i) 
homogeneous crews composed of men who are Americans, or who 
have declared their intention of becoming citizens of the United 
States ; (2) uniformity in the organization and drills of ships, in the 
training of men, and in the requirements for advancing men from one 
rate to another ; (3) such improved comforts and consideration as will 
increase the real efficiency of the crews, and render the service more 
attractive than at present ; (4) the retention of men in the service for 
life by making a career for them as men-of-wars-men. 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 189I. 49 

Much remains to be done in raising the tone of first-class and other 
petty officers, by weeding out and getting rid of untrustworthy and 
dissolute men, and by granting to those deserving it, every privilege 
consistent with the maintenance of efficiency and discipline. In the 
case of second-class petty officers, their mustering uniform should be 
the same as for first-class petty officers, excepting, of course, the devices 
or rank marks. Men on sentry duty should wear a belt and cutlass. 
This applies equally to ship's corporals at all times, and to coxswains 
and quartermasters on watch. Men in the gun divisions should wear 
on the sleeve, corresponding to their watch, the figures i, 2, 3, or 4, in 
white, according to the number of the division they are in, and this 
in place of the present white tape watch-mark. Men on the sick list 
should be required to wear the white band with red cross as prescribed. 

In any discussion of the needs of the service, due regard must be 
had to the quiet revolution that is going on in our profession. 
Whether we close our eyes or not to the inevitable, we will never have 
an efficient navy until we infuse more of a military spirit into it, and 
until we recognize that we must provide a career for the men, with 
rewards and pensions for service as substantial relatively as those 
provided for officers. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART, 

CONSTRUCTED FOR THE ORDNANCE 

DEPARTMENT. 

By Lieutenant W. W. Kimball, U. S. Navy. 



The cart was designed to illustrate an attempted solution of the 
problem of " How, in these times of rapid-firing arms of precision, 
shall the infantry fighting line be supplied with ammunition?" 
Before discussing the device, it will be well to briefly glance at the 
main limiting conditions of the problem, and incidentally at the way 
they are generally met. 

On the march there is, of course, no more difficulty about trans- 
porting ammunition by animal draft than about moving any other 
weights ; but after the fight begins, animals cannot be depended 
upon to get nearer than 2000 yards to the enemy's position, while 
the ammunition will be wanted well up to the front — wherever the 
line may be when the regular person-borne supply begins to run out 
— anywhere from 600 to 1200 yards from the hostile lines. 

The Systems of the French and German armies may be quoted as 
examples of the generally approved methods for supplying the 
fighting lines. In these armies, apart from the ammunition regu- 
larly issued to the troops, the entire field supply transported in the 
battalion ammunition wagons, company baggage wagons, ammuni- 
tion columns, and park reserves, amounts to 99 and 97 rounds per 
man, of which 18 rounds for the French and 20 rounds for the 
Germans are carried in the battalion ammunition wagons. 

The German regulations provide that, " Before action is com- 
menced, the ammunition wagons of a regiment are united under a 
mounted officer, in a secure position about 900 yards in rear of the 
fighting troops. In case of need they must be taken to the fighting 



52 NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART. 

line regardless of loss. The cartridges are taken to the front by 
men from each company ; and supports sent on to the fighting line 
should take with them cartridges for those already engaged." 

In the French army the rule is, " In action the battalion ammuni- 
tion wagons are grouped together not more than iioo yards to the 
rear. In case of necessity they may be ordered right up to the 
fighting line. Cartridge-bearers must be furnished by the companies 
in reserve, and are provided with double haversacks, kept in the 
wagons, and capable of containing 360 rounds. After carrying the 
ammunition to the fighting line and distributing it, the bearers must 
return for more." 

Of these two typical systems it may be remarked that, if the line 
to be supplied was up within 800 yards of the enemy, the attempt to 
take animal-drawn wagons up to it in the face of the fire of fairly 
good modern-armed infantry — no matter how great the need might 
be that " they must be taken to the fighting line regardless of loss ' 
— would prove very expensive in men, animals and material, and 
would result in little, if any, ammunition supply to the line. 

In regard to the ammunition-bearers, it is to be noted that their 
chance of arrival is better than that of the wagons, in the proportion 
that the target exposed by a man is harder to strike than the one 
presented by a team ; and that it requires a bearer for each 360 or 
400 rounds carried from the wagons to the line. 

Assuming, then, that men, not animals, must be employed within 
effective ranges, the question for consideration becomes one of 
advancing a given amount of ammunition from 800 to 1400 yards 
across a fire-swept zone and distributing it to the line in the shortest 
practicable time and with the greatest economy in the use of the 
ammunition detail. 

The accompanying illustrations show that the device employed in 
the experimental vehicle is the using of specially constructed wheel- 
barrows, capable of being coupled together to form a cart for animal- 
draft on the march, and readily uncoupled for man-propulsion across 
the fire-swept zone. As the barrow has but one point of contact 
with the ground, it is readily passed around and between obstruc- 
tions, and can be taken nearly anywhere that a loaded ammunition- 
bearer can go, while it is to be borne in mind that if the barrow be 
stopped by an obstacle impassable for it, but practicable for bearers, 
the bearers may be used from the obstacle to the front, instead of all 
the way from the train to the fighting line. 



NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART. 53 

In regard to economy of time and ammunition detail, it has 
been found by experiment that, under ordinary service conditions of 
ground, two men with a barrow can move 4000 rounds a half mile 
in less time than they can carry 800 rounds the same distance. 

When deep mud or very steep up-grades are encountered, the 
advantage of the barrow is decreased ; on fairly firm turf, on hard 
ground, and on easy down-grades, it is increased. Averaging con- 
ditions of ground, the barrow has, in economy of time and men, 
about 5 to I in its favor over the borne-ammunition method. 

These barrows are provided with a mechanical distributing device, 
by which the ammunition can be dropped at will in lots of two hun- 
dred rounds for each pull on the handles, and an automatic attach- 
ment by which the same distribution unit is dropped at each revolu- 
tion of the wheel, so that the distribution can be made with the 
barrow-men on a dead run, and their time of entire exposure to fire 
decreased to a minimum. 

The distributing device is a simple ratchet lever and draw-bar 
arrangement which releases in succession the traps which form the 
bottoms of the cells, each of which contains a unit of distribution of 
200 rounds. The succession of the several releases is such that the 
center of gravity of the whole barrow-load is never altered, except 
by an amount due to the dropping of one unit of distribution, an 
amount which is entirely corrected as the next unit falls. 

The device is simple and not liable to get out of order by exposure 
to v/eather, dust and mud ; still it is not wholly positive in its action, 
since a return-spring is used to save the man from having to think 
of a necessary movement. On the whole, the mechanical distribu- 
tion, although it does save time under fire, is of doubtful utility, 
because it might unexpectedly fail in its functions, and because the 
use of it, no matter what may be the distribution unit employed, 
demands the cellular arrangement of the barrow-caissons. 

It would seem preferable to employ a light angle-steel frame 
instead of the caissons, the frames arranged to receive 500 round 
wooden factory boxes of the proper dimensions for use on the 
barrow. In such boxes the cartridges would be collected in good 
packing units for factory and depot accounting and stowage pur- 
poses, in packages not too heavy for a man to pick up and carry 
some distance, in convenient bulks for rail or other transport ; and 
they would be always ready for quick transfer to the carts, formed 
of barrows, would keep dry when so transferred for any length of 



54 NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART. 

time in any weather, and would never leave their factory packing 
until they were delivered to the troops on the fighting line or 
anywhere else. 

When the boxes were placed on the carts the cover-screws would 
be removed and the covers held in place by the angle-steels and 
retaining bolts only ; so that, when a box was thrown off on the 
line, the men could get at the cartridges without having recourse to 
the always lost and much inquired-for screw-driver. 

It is doubtful whether the fore-and-aft barrow-shafts are preferable 
to the cross-bar arrangement shown in Plate V. The shafts allow 
the barrow to pass through long, narrow spaces and separate the 
barrow-men more while distributing along the line, although they 
place one man directly in rear of the other in the advance to the 
line; the cross-bar is simpler of construction, gives better side 
support, and allows shorter turns to be made. On trial through 
ordinary New England woodland there was no very noticeable 
difference in the ease with which the way among the trunks and 
stumps could be threaded, whether using the shafts or the bar. 

As the barrows are emptied of ammunition they may be thrown 
down upon the field as the detail joins the fighting line, and collected 
to couple up into carts after the action. The use of the empty bar- 
rows in clearing up the field reduces the stretcher detail one-half, 
since with a barrow with stretchers rigged (Plate VI) a detail of two 
can take two wounded to the hospital, or two dead to the trench, in 
less time than it can take one on a borne stretcher. As was satis- 
factorily shown on trial at Governor's Island, there is no difficulty 
whatever in using the barrow with only one stretcher loaded when 
collecting the wounded or dead. 

The empty barrows with stretchers in place could upon occasion 
be used for moving sand-bags, or fire-wood, or for any small trans- 
port work about the field. 

The shaft frame for animal-draft of this cart was made to take two 
barrows with the folding shafts shown in the illustrations, and for 
such barrows the travois-like arrangement answers the purpose 
fairly well. 

In a design for a trial of the barrow device abroad, a pole replaces 
the shafts, the travois extension from the cross-piece is not used, 
and four barrows, the two outer ones tracking with the field artillery, 
are coupled to the cross-piece by eyes and bolts, and held normally 
at right angles to the pole in the vertical plane by spring struts, 



NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART. 55 

which allow a certain amount of independent vertical motion to the 
barrows, for the purpose of decreasing lateral strains when any one 
of them passes over an obstruction such as a stone or a stump. 

With such a battalion cart, two good horses, with the driver 
mounted on the near one, can take 16,000 rounds — a 20-round 
supply for a battalion 800 strong — over country impassable for a 
wagon, and have the ammunition always ready for rapid distribution 
by an eight-men detail. 

The general design of the barrow with the large wheel, centrally 
borne load and consequently small axle, was originally worked out 
to provide a means for allowing a reduction in the large draft-crews 
now necessary for the machine guns and one-pounders in our naval 
landing parties, and for decreasing the targets presented by the 
pieces in action. 

Take the service one-pounder as an example. The piece, the trail 
mount consisting of low support socket, pivot and recoil brace, and 
100 rounds of ammunition, loaded upon a barrow, could be taken 
over rougher country than is practicable for the present field carriage, 
and on the march the crew of six men would be obliged to exert less 
effort per man than does the present crew of double the number. 

In going into action, the barrow could be rushed forward to an 
ordinary shelter trench made by the advanced infantry, the piece 
tripod and ammunition boxes thrown off, the barrow thrown down 
on its side, the piece mounted on its low mount and served by its 
crew lying down, and thus as much invisibility and cover secured 
from a 22-inch shelter trench parapet as it gives to infantry. 

Or the piece and mount could be placed on one very light barrow, 
and the ammunition — 150 rounds — on another. On the march the 
two could be coupled together, or handled separately, according to 
conditions of route. In the rush forward into action, the barrows 
would be manned separately with a crew of three men each, which 
would allow them to arrive if each crew lost a man in the advance. 

Of course, the use of barrows is applicable to any pieces which 
must be gotten well forward to have them effective, and which must 
expose as little target as possible in order to be able to remain well 
forward. Such rifle caliber machine guns as the Maxim, the Pratt 
Whitney, the Gardner, and the Nordenfelt can be handled in like 
manner to that above described for the one-pounder. The Catling 
and its ammunition can well be transported on the barrows, but that 
gun cannot be served by a prone crew, because the mount must be 



56 NOTES ON AN EXPERIMENTAL AMMUNITION CART. 

waist high, and the crank-man must stand in order to be able to put 
his full effort on the crank and so bring out the full power of the 
piece. Although the barrow-wheel has a large diameter, the barrow 
frame is so narrow that the whole device would stow better and 
occupy much less available space aboard ship than does the trail- 
carriage ; and the arrangement of the load is such as to allow its 
separation into convenient weights for stowing in boats, or for passing 
across or over streams, marshes, ditches and walls. 

The system will be tried abroad, and if approved by foreign 
navies, may then, possibly, be domesticated in our own service. 

TITLES OF PLATES — KIMBALL AMMUNITION VEHICLE. 

No. I. — "Ammunition detail to the train !" Men at the cart. 

No. 2. — " Unlimber and advance to the line !" a. Unlimbering ; 
d. Advancing. 

No. 3. — " Obstacle ! Double the detail to pass !" a. Passing 
obstacle; d. Barrow awaiting return of double detail after a has 
passed obstacle. 

No. 4. — " On the line and distribute !" a. Automatic distribution, 
dropping 200 rounds at each revolution of the wheel ; d. Distribu- 
tion at will. 

No. 5. — Shafts and distributing gear carried away. " Distribute 
by hand ! Forward !" a. Distributing by hand ; d. Forward. 

No. 6. — After the action. " Clear up the field !" a. Barrow as 
thrown down after being emptied when the detail joined the fighting 
line ; d. Wounded to hospital, or dead to the trench. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



NAVAL INSTITUTE PRIZE ESSAY, 1892. 



A prize of one hundred dollars, with a gold medal, is offered by the Naval 
Institute for the best essay presented on any subject pertaining to the naval 
profession, subject to the following rules : 

1. The award for the Prize shall be made by the Board of Control, voting by 
ballot and without knowledge of the names of the competitors. 

2. Each competitor to send his essay in a sealed envelope to the Secretary 
and Treasurer on or before January i, 1892. The name of the writer shall 
not be given in this envelope, but instead thereof a motto. Accompanying the 
essay a separate sealed envelope will be sent to the Secretary and Treasurer, 
with the motto on the outside and writer's name and motto inside. This 
envelope is not to be opened until after the decision of the Board. 

3. The successful essay to be published in the Proceedings of the Institute; 
and the essays of other competitors, receiving honorable mention, to be pub- 
lished also, at the discretion of the Board of Control ; and no change shall be 
made in the text of any competitive essay, published in the Proceedings of 
the Institute, after it leaves the hands of the Board. 

4. Any essay not having received honorable mention, may be published 
also, at the discretion of the Board of Control, but only with the consent of 
the author. 

5. The essay is limited to fifty (50) printed pages of the Proceedings 
of the Institute. 

6. All essays submitted must be either type-written or copied in a clear and 
legible hand. 

7. The successful competitor will be made a Life Member of the Institute. 

8. In the event of the Prize being awarded to the winner of a previous year, 
a gold clasp, suitably engraved, will be given in lieu of a gold medal. 

By direction of Board of Control. 

H. G. Dresel, 

Ensign, U. S. N., Secretary and Treasurer. 
Annapolis, Md., February 13, 1891. 




^ F 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



SIACCrS BALLISTIC EQUATIONS. 
By Prof. Wm. Woolsey Johnson, U. S. Naval Academy. 



The following is an account of the mode in which Major Siacci 
derives his ballistic formulae in the second edition of " Balistica," 
published at Turin in 1888. A few changes have been made in the 
notation. 

It is assumed as usual that, <5 denoting the density of the air and 
fl^the diameter of the projectile, the resistance of the air for similar 
projectiles is proportional to Sd"^. The retardation, found by dividing 

the resistance by the mass, is therefore proportional to or -^ , 

where C is the ballistic coefficient. Again, for projectiles having the 
same velocity, the same diameter and weight, but different forms, 
the retardations are proportional to the values of a coefficient i de- 
pending upon the form of the projectile. Representing, then, the 
retardation byy(z/), a function of the velocity, we may write 

/Cv) = ^ F{v\ 

so that Fiv) is a function of v, independent of the form, weight and 
dimensions of the projectile, and of the density of the air. 

Now, <p denoting the inclination to the axis of x of the trajectory 
at the point ix,y), the equations of motion are 

d (v cos y) 
di 

d (v sin sp) 
di 
Eliminating/(z/), 



-/(v) cos <p, 


(I) 


-f{v) sin ip - 


-£■. (2) 


I (v cos ?>) = 


— gv cos <p di, 



58 SIACCl'S BALLISTIC EQUATIONS. 

and, dividing by v^ cos^ ^, 

,v %m. (p _ gdt 



V cos ip V cos (p 
or 

sec'' (p d(p ^^ — ^ sec ^ dt, 

whence 

gdt = — V sec f d(p. (3) 

Substituting in (i), we have 

gd{y cos f) =if(v')vdf, . (4) 

the differential equation connecting v and ?>. 

If this equation could be integrated, v would become a known 
function of <p, and then / could be found from (3) by quadrature, and 
in like manner x could be found from the equation 

gdx = gv cos <p dt =^ — v^df, (5) 

and y from 

dy =. tan f dx. (6) 

But, since (4) cannot be integrated, it is necessary to have recourse 
to approximate integration. 

First substituting in (4) the value oif{y)^ and introducing a new 
variable z, such that 

V cos (p = 2 COS 0, (7) 

where 6 is the initial value oi <p, or "angle of projection," we have 

gdz — -^ F(v)z — '- — , (8) 

* C ^ ^ cos <p 

and, by the change of variable from v to z, (3) and (5) become 

gdt=- z cos -^ , (9) 

* cos^ <P 

gdx = - z" cos' -^ . (10) 

* cos (p 

The new variable ^ is a fixed multiple of the horizontal velocity, 
and may be described as the component of the velocity in the direc- 
tion of the initial tangent or line of projection when the other co7npo- 
nent is vertical. It is known as the pseudo-velocity: its value 
coincides with that of the velocity at the origin and at the point in 
the descending branch where w = — 0; between these points its 
value exceeds that of the velocity. 



SIACCIS BALLISTIC EQUATIONS. 59 

In order to reduce (8) to an integrable relation between the two 
variables z and (f, Siacci puts 

F(v) = ^F{^z)''-^^, (II) 

^ ' ' "^ ' cos <p 

in which /5, which in general has a very restricted range of variation, 
is assumed to be constant. The equation thus becomes 

, 5//3 cos'' T-, ^ '^'" 
gdz = y^ zF(2) 



C ^ -^ cos'' <p 

d<p _ C gdz 

cos^ (p ~ dij3 cos'' 6 zF(^z) ' 



(12) 



and, substituting in (9) and (10), we have 

and 

Now putting 



^^- dzi3 cos OF{zy ^^^^ 

dx=--f._^#.. (14) 



in which C is assumed constant and is called the reduced ballistic 
coefficient, and denoting the integrals 

_ r zdz _ r 2gdz _ dz 
~ ]T(z)' ~~ ]JF(^' W)' 

by 

respectively, the integrals (reckoned from the origin where z =^ V) 
of equations (12), (13) and (14) are 

tan ^ - tan 6^ = - ^-^^ [/. - /r], (15) 

i= -^AT,- Ty], (16) 

cos 6 ^ •' ^ 

X= C'lS^-Sy-]. (17) 

Moreover, multiplying (15) by the differential of (17), equation (6) 
gives 

^ - ^;i: tan ^ = ^^ [/, - ly] dS/, 

■^ 2 cos' ^ ■- -^ 

and writing A, for 

l^^^"., or -i^^> 



6o SIACCl'S BALLISTIC EQUATIONS. 

the integral of this is 
or, dividing by (17), 



V C 



Equations (15), (16), (17J and (18), together with (7), or 

cos 6 , 

v = z , (19) 

COS (f -^ 

are the ballistic formulae expressing x,y, cc, t and v in terms of the 
auxiliary variable z. They are to be used in connection with Bal- 
listic Tables containing the numerical values of S, A, /and T for 
all values of z. 

Of these equations, which were first published in 1880 (Giornale 
d'Artiglieria e Genio, P. II), the author says: "The arithmetical 
operations which they require are of the most simple kind; they are 
besides independent of the expressions for the resistance of the air, 
and therefore will not change, however much, with the progress of 
studies upon the resistance of the air, it may be necessary to change 
these expressions, which in fact will influence only the numerical 
values in the ballistic table. This table, indeed, may be constructed 
whatever be the resistance adopted, be it expressed by a single 
formula of any kind for all velocities, or by several formulae according 
to the limits of the velocity itself, or even be it not expressed by any 
formula, but only given numerically in correspondence with the 
numerical value of the velocity." 

Supposing the ballistic tables to be correct, the approximative 
character of the method is due entirely to the quantity /5, whose 
value, defined by equation (11), is 

Fjy) cosy> 
^~ F{z) cos'' 5* 

It is known that the retardation varies with a power of the velocity 
higher than the second, except for very high and very low velocities, 
in which cases it varies simply as the square of the velocity. Hence, 

K(y) is generally an increasing function of z^. Substituting, we have 
since v cos <p =^ z cos d. 



v^^ cos^ _ K{v) 
z'Kiz) cos^ - Kiz) ^^^ ^' 



SIACCIS BALLISTIC EQUATIONS. 6l 

At the origin ip = 6 and z = v; whence /3 = sec B, which exceeds 
unity. At the vertex ^ = o and z'> v; whence /S = ^ ^ and is less 

J\.\Z) 

than unity. To obtain exact results we ought in each formula to 
employ some mean value of /5 between the greatest and least value 
which occur within the limits of the arc of the trajectory under con- 
sideration. This mean value, which depends also upon the formula 
used, can of course in no case be exactly obtained. Confining his 
attention, however, to that which should be employed when, of the 
three quantities, the range, the initial velocity and the angle of pro- 
jection, two are given and one is sought, the author shows that we 
may take /? = i for angles of projection less than 20° in connection 
with usual initial velocities. 



ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION IN ORDER THAT THE 

TRAJECTORY IN AIR SHALL PASS THROUGH 

A GIVEN POINT. 

By Professor Wm. Woolsey Johnson. 

I. Siacci's formulae for x and y, equations (17) and (18) of the 
preceding resumg, are 

x^ ClS,-Sy'\, 






Suppose the values of x and y for a point of the trajectory, that is, 
the coordinates of a point to be hit (as well as the initial velocity, 
V, and the reduced ballistic coefficient, C), to be known, and let it 
be required to find the value of 0. Putting s for the inclination to 
the horizon of the " line of sight," or line joining {x^y') to the origin, 
we have 

tan s -^^ —', 

X ' 



and the equations may be written 

* n . ^' sec' FA, — Ay r~\ 

tan ^ ~ tan . = — ^— [-;^zr3v - ^'J ' ^^^ 



S,:==Sy^^, (I) 



62 ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 

Denoting by a "the angle of elevation," or angle between the line 
of sight and the axis of the bore at the moment the projectile leaves 
the muzzle, we have 

^ = -y + «; (3) 

whence 

tan d — tan s 

tan a = — — — . 

I + tan tan ^ 

Therefore, dividing by i + tan tan s, equation (2) may be written 

i+tan'^ C FA, — Ay ^1 /^ 

^^" " = I + tan ^ tan . T [^^^^ ~ d " ^^^ 

Put 

I + tan' 



I + e. 



I + tan tan a 

Subtracting unity from each member, 

tan (tan — tan s') ^ _ ^ 

e = 1^^- 77- = tan 6* tan a . 

I + tan tan ^ 

If then we put 

equation (4) may be written 

tan a = (i + e') tan Qj, (6) 

where 

e = tan a tan (a + s). (7) 

These formulae give the following method of computing a: By 
means of the ballistic tables we find z from equation (i), and then 
tan ai from equation (5). Now beginning with an approximate value 
of a (say «i, since £ is small), we compute £ by (7) and then a by (6). 
If the value of a so found differs considerably from the approximate 
value used in computing e, this quantity may be recomputed and so 
on until the value of log (i + e) is no longer changed, and (6) then 
gives the true value of a. [If a table of" addition logarithms" is at 
hand, the value of log (i + e) is found directly corresponding to the 
argument colog e, and will be seen to vary very slowly.] 

2. The angle a is always positive, hence e in (7) is positive when s 
is positive, and also when ^ is negative and numerically less than a ; 
in these cases therefore a is greater than a^. When s = — a, e 
vanishes and a = a^; this occurs when = 0, the origin then being 
the vertex of the trajectory. For greater negative values of s, e is 
negative and a less than Oj. 



ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 63 

When s = 0, equation (2) gives the usual formula for a given hori- 
zontal range: namely, denoting the corresponding value of 6* by y, 
this is 

(8) 



^^^^^=^'[3^r^'-^^]- 



3. It has been usual to employ in the general case when s is not 
zero, the hypothesis of the " rigidity of the trajectory." This hypo- 
thesis consists in the assumption that if we find a for any horizontal 
range, that is, when s = 0, and then keeping a constant let s increase 
from o, the trajectory will be rotated about the origin without change 
of form, so that the range upon the line inclined at the angle ^ will 
remain unchanged. The value of a upon this hypothesis is there- 
fore the same as that of ^ above, except that for x we should put the 
actual distance 

X= */(x' +y} = xsecs. 

Denoting by Z the corresponding value of z as given by equation 
(i), this angle, which we shall denote by a', is determined by 



''=^'[t^'-^']- 



(9) 



This is a convenient approximation to a when a Range Table, 
computed for the given values of C and V, is at hand. But it is to 
be noticed that such a table may be used instead of the ballistic table 
in connection with the exact method given above; for, comparing 
equations (5) and (8), we see that 

tan a^ = isin2r; (10) 

hence, taking from the range table y instead of a' (that is, using the 
horizontal instead of the actual distance^, we readily obtain tan a^, 
and we can then proceed as before to find a from equations (6) and 
(7). When this is done, y will be a better approximation than a^, 
with which to commence the computation of e, when s has a positive 
or a small negative value ; for (lo) shows that y is always greater 
than ai, and, as will be shown below, y is less than a when s is positive, 
being equal to a when s = o. 

4. In order to discuss the degree of approximation of a' the result 
of the rigidity hypothesis, we shall first compare a with y. Writing 
equation (10) in the form 

tan y = tan a^ sec^ y, 



64 ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 

and dividing (6) by this equation, we have 

tan a __ I + tan a tan (a + s) 
tan y ~ i + tan^ y ' 

whence 

tan a — tan y = tan a tan y [tan (a + s') — tan y"] . (i i) 

Since « and ?' are positive, tan (a + s) — tan /' and tan a — tan 7' 
have the same sign, therefore y is not intermediate in value to a and 
a + ^; and since in all practical cases tana tany <i, /' is nearer to 
a than to a + s; that is to say, y is less than a whe?i s is positive, and 
greater than a when s is negative. 

Thus, if we put 

a = r + ^, 
5 has the same sign as s. The value of 5 when s is small is readily 
obtained from equation (11). The first member becomes 

tan y 4- tan '5 tan 0(1+ tan'' y) 

tan a — tan /- = ; — tan r = r tt • 

I — tan y tan o i — tan y tan 8 

Making a similar reduction in the second member, we have 

tan d ^ , , s.^ . I — tan r tan d 

tan(o+.) = '^^ ^^ + '^ '^" ^-tanrtan (.- + .) ' 

which, putting s = o, and therefore d = o, gives the vanishing ratio 







3 + 


s-'-- 


U f . 




Therefore, 


when 


s is small. 












3(1- 


tan' r) 


= ^ tan' 


r, 






d = 


^,sin' 
cos 


2r* 




We may therefore write 












a = 


y + s- 


sinV 





(12) 

cos 2;' 

which is a very good approximation to a, being in fact the first two 
terms of the development of a in powers of J. 

5. Now since a' corresponds to the actual distance X, of which x 
(to which y corresponds) is the minimum value when s varies, a' is 
always greater than y except when j = o ; and if a' were developed 
in powers of s, it would be of the form 

a' = y + As- + etc., (13) 



ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 65 

containing no term of the first degree. Comparing this with equa- 
tion (12), we see that for negative values of ^, «' is further from a than 
Y is, and that when s is positive and small, a' is less than a, although 
for larger values of ^ it may exceed a. 

Moreover, the employment of equation (12), which in all cases gives 
a close approximation, involves scarcely more labor, when a range 
table is used, than the finding of a', supposing x and s to be given. 

The locus for which y is constant is a vertical straight line. Equa- 
tion (12) shows that a must increase and decrease with x in order 
to hit points on this vertical line. Hence if a remains constant, the 
abscissa of the point hit will decrease as s increases and increase as s 
decreases ; that is to say, the locus of the point in which the trajec- 
tory cuts the line of sight is a curve cutting the axis of x at an 
obtuse angle. This is in conformity with the case of the unresisted 
trajectory, for which this locus is known to be a parabola with its 
axis vertical and cutting the axis of .;*: again at the origin. See Ext. 
Ballistics, Meigs-Ingersoll, p. 15. 

The hypothesis of the rigidity of the trajectory of course assumes 
this locus for a constant value of a to be a circle whose centre is at 
the origin, and it is possible that this circle may cut the true locus in 
a point above the axis oi x. 

6. As an illustration, I have computed the values of the angles 
considered above by means of Ingersoll's Ballistic Tables for the 
100-pound 6-inch shell of standard form, fired with an initial velocity 
of 2000 f. s. to hit the point for which x = 3500 yards, jj/ = 500 yards, 
the value of s being therefore tan~^ 1 or 8° 7' 48". The results are 
as follows: Computing a by the method of §1, we find 

«i = 3° 27' 42", 

and using this to compute e, we find at first « = 3° 30' 16", and 
recomputing s, finally 

a = 3° 30' 18". 

The computed value of y (which we should find directly in a 
Range Table) is 

r = 3° 28' 27"; 

the value of (5 is found to be i' 48", so that equation (12) gives 

« = 3° 30' 15". 
The value of a' is 

a' =3° 31' 24". 



66 ON THE ANGLE OF ELEVATION. 

which is greater than a, a result which, as indicated above, is ren- 
dered possible by the very considerable value of ^. 

As a second illustration, if the sign ofy be changed, the other data 
remaining the same, so that ^ = — 8° 7' 48", we have of course the 
same value of «i, and computing s, we find at once 

a = 3° 26' 40", 

which is unchanged by a recomputation of s. The value of y is the 
same as before, and d has its sign changed so that equation (12) gives '■ 

a = 3° 26' 39". 

The value of «' is the same as before, namely, 

'^' = 3° 31' 24", 
which is now far out of the way. 

The value of /5 in the computation was taken as unity, although 
this mean value is recommended by Siacci only for the horizontal 
range. We are as yet, so far as I know, without a method of cor- 
recting /? when the range is not horizontal. It seems, from an inves- 
tigation of these special cases, that in the first example ft should be 
increased possibly to 1.008, and in the second example possibly to 
1.015. The result would be to increase a at the most 40" in the first 
case and i' 15" in the second case. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD, 



TARGET PRACTICE. 
By Lieutenant J. F. Meigs, U. S. N. 



The object of target practice is to accustom men to their weapons, 
and make them skilful in their use. It may be said that the ends in 
view are (i) to train marksmen, and (2) to train tactical bodies of 
men. The butt-firing, of which we hear so much, has for its object 
the training of marksmen ; it is sought to find out to what degree of 
nicety the eye and nerves of men, who have special natural skill, 
can be trained by firing under conditions of great simplicity. No 
one believes that the members of the rifle-teams could show anything 
like the skill they exhibit if they were, with two or three other men, 
crowded around a gun-port, and firing at a moving object in the 
water. For such work, butt-training alone is not sufficient. 

The firing of tactical bodies, such as guns' crews, ships' whole bat- 
teries, ships' riflemen or boarders, companies, etc., if conducted 
under circumstances which are like those which may occur in ser- 
vice, will fall in accuracy far below butt-firing. But though the 
firing at the butts will not alone make men good shots in the more 
difficult circumstances, yet it is not useless. Indeed, in any numerous 
body of men, the simpler form of firing must constitute a large part 
of the training given. 

Here is the right place to say that it is impossible to train men in 
pure marksmanship with anything but small arms. To use guns of 
the larger classes is too expensive. A round from an 8-inch B. L. R. 
costs about $66, from a 6-inch about $34, from a Hotchkiss 3-pounder 
$3, and from a shoulder rifle about two cents. The object then of 
the great-gun quarterly allowance is not to produce marksmen, or, 
to put it in a way which will be more readily accepted, this is a small 
part only of its object. The men who pull the lock-string may 



68 TARGET PRACTICE. 

become more expert marksmen in the course of a cruise, but the 
improvement will not be great. No one would be satisfied, in an 
attempt to become a good shot, with some ten or eleven shots per 
annum for three years. The object of the great-gun allowance is, 
after drill has perfected the training of the men as much as possible, 
to perfect the work of (i) the gun's crews and (2) the ship's battery. 
The gun-captain should have shown some fitness for his place before 
he is put there, and he and the other members of the crew should 
thoroughly learn their duties in loading, pointing, and firing a gun 
before they are allowed to handle it loaded. 

Since skill in throwing their weights in the proper direction no 
longer tells as much as formerly in gun's crews, the old drill has 
lost some of its importance, or rather, it need not be so often repeated. 
It is as important as ever that guns should be rapidly and surely 
handled, but this end will now be attained in other ways than it was. 
It is dreary work to run guns in and out every few days through a 
whole commission; and as soon as a crew has learned to handle the 
gun surely at top speed, the running in and out and fictitious loading 
should be repeated only often enough to keep up the skill attained. 
To sum this matter up, it may be said that it is a pity that all drill of 
gun's crews cannot be target practice. By using sub-caliber bores 
in the gun, a large part of it can be made very nearly like target 
practice, and by excluding at drill everything not found necessary 
when actually firing the gun, we may invest the drill with an interest 
it does not always possess. 

The consequences of the fact that the gun target allowance cannot 
make the gun-captains marksmen are numerous. Target practice 
with great guns should not be conducted without attention to the 
gun's crew as a whole. If a gun is allowed to be loaded in a leis- 
urely manner, and some person ordered to aim and fire it, the 
mistake has been made of not attending to the gun's crew. The 
drill should be enforced during target practice. For, leaving out the 
matter of providing for safety, the object of the drill is to produce 
rapid and effective use of the gun, and if it will not do this it should 
be changed. 

Here the point may be made that all tactical firing should be on 
time. There can be no doubt that such firing when executed in 
battle will be on time, and, therefore, it should be on time from the 
beginning when preparation is going on. If a single gun's crew is 
firing continuously at a target, or a body of riflemen are doing the 



TARGET PRACTICE. 69 

same, it is not advisable to push them into firing wildly in an attempt 
to fire a great deal ; but they should be pushed to fire as fast as they 
can without loss of the accuracy they can attain to in very deliberate 
practice. Under ordinary circumstances, and when well mounted, 
a gun of medium weight can be as well pointed, probably, in 30 
seconds or less, as it can be in any greater time. One of the points 
that officers should note in target practice is the degree of excitement 
of the men. If they are too much excited, some steps should be 
taken to restore quiet. 

All tactical firing should, then, be on time, and men should be 
pressed to fire as fast as they can while having a proper regard to 
safety precautions in loading, and to the balance and steadiness of 
the man pulling the lock-string. 

Although the argument that all firing in battle will be on time, and 
that our practice with tactical bodies is a direct preparation for this, 
may be held to be sufficient to establish the rule that we should note 
the time elapsed in all firing of tactical bodies, yet a word may be 
added as to the importance of rapid fire. Sea-fights of former days 
were won within point-blank range — that range for which, with the 
guns and targets present, there was no need to know the range — and 
it is the belief of many that sea-battles will always be fought within 
point-blank. At such ranges, speed in serving the gun is of very 
great importance. The gun may be kept pointed all the time, and 
the lock-string pulled as often as a load can be put in. Then, too, the 
volume of fire must be made as great as possible; all guns must be 
fully supplied with ammunition, and the riflemen open, if the target 
is at about half the point-blank range of the great guns. Guns must at 
such times be worked at full speed with comparatively few men, and 
those spared from the crew must aid in passing ammunition, and open 
fire with rifles. 

It is doubtful whether in all men-of-war of recent times as much 
ammunition can be passed to the battery as can be effectively fired 
at a target close aboard. It would be an interesting point to note 
regarding the stationing of ships' companies at general quarters, 
how great a weight of shot (from calibers of all classes) could be 
kept up per man per minute for a short time. The duration of such 
a trial must be made sufficient to test the supply of ammunition. 
If, under such circumstances, the ammunition cannot be supplied 
fast enough, measures must be taken to overcome this. There can 
be no doubt that, at the very short ranges which occurred in former 



70 TARGET PRACTICE. 

times, the successful ship usually drove her enemies to cover — or to 
a fancied cover — causing a slackening of fire, and at the short ranges 
which will again occur the same thing will happen. If, as is by many 
believed, the principal part of sea-conflicts will occur at short range 
—ranges which, when referred to the point-blank of guns, our true 
tactical unit, will not be longer than in the days of Benbow — if such 
be the case, the number of bullets we fire, together with some regard 
to their direction and penetrating power, will be all-important. We 
might try to put a shot from a 50-ton gun through our opponent's 
bottom at close range, but unless the 50-ton gun were protected much 
better than is usual, it could not be reloaded under the fire of 100 
J-ton guns, and its crew had better be put at some more useful work 
while the range is short. 

If it be true that much firing at sea will be at distances extending 
not far beyond point-blank range, it follows that most of our target 
practice should be similarly conducted. Under such circumstances, 
the gun must be very rapidly served, everything being sacrificed to 
hitting the target a large number of times. 

It is essential to the success of any scheme of target practice 
intended to be applied in a military organization, that, among other 
things, the environment of the individuals of the organization be 
carefully studied. Armies, having usually better facilities for im- 
proving the skill of individual marksmen at the butts than have sea 
forces, will probably always excel the latter in butt-firing with hand 
rifles. We cannot in the navy, from the circumstances of our ordi- 
nary peace service, pass a great deal of time in training individuals 
in this way. But, as has been mentioned, this seems to be the only 
way in which the marksmanship of a numerous body of men can be 
materially improved, and we must, therefore, resort to it as much as 
possible. An attempt is now being made to establish at each 
receiving-ship a school of marksmanship depending principally upon 
the use of the rifle and revolver. In order to make these thoroughly 
efficient, much must be done in the way of building ranges and pro- 
curing other facilities, elaborating suitable and progressive forms of 
training, etc. 

The great difficulty experienced on board these ships is the want 
of ranges. In the case of the receiving-ship at New York, where, 
from the large number of men passing through, a range is most 
needed, the circumstances are most unfavorable. But this difficulty 
will probably be overcome, either by the erection, at considerable 



TARGET PRACTICE. 7 1 

expense, of a covered range within the limits of the yard, or by- 
arranging to send the men in drafts to some point where a range can 
be built more cheaply. At the navy-yards in Boston, San Francisco 
and Washington, at which latter place the seaman-gunners are held, 
very fair ranges have been secured ; and at Norfolk, which in impor- 
tance is probably second to New York, a range over which reduced 
charges may be fired is in use. 

Another difficulty under which the receiving-ships labor is the 
very uncertain time that men are held on board them, some being 
retained for a few days only. It thus becomes necessary to give men 
their practice as soon as may be after coming on board, and the 
embarrassment in arranging and putting into effect a good scheme 
is much increased. 

The details of the plans to be adopted in each receiving-ship are, 
by order of the Navy Department, at present left to their com- 
manding officers, it being required that they shall classify into four 
classes, and being provided that men, upon transfer to cruising ves- 
sels, shall receive an award diminishing from $2, according to the 
class in which the man stands. It is also provided that, by an entry 
in the transfer papers, the skill of each man shall be shown. The 
firing is with rifles and revolvers, and the score depends upon the 
results of firing with the two. This plan is now in operation. The 
facilities for its convenient and efficient execution are some of them 
wanting; but in its main outline it is now carried out, with the 
exception of New York, where the expense which must be incurred 
cannot at present be met. 

Whenever proper facilities can be had at each receiving-ship, the 
methods of firing can be made the same at all ; but meanwhile each 
commanding officer uses the best method he can arrange with the 
facilities to be had. The men then come to cruising-ships classified 
in marksmanship with the rifle and revolver, having had an award 
paid to them depending on the degree of their skill, and with the 
same marked on their transfer papers. These marks are carried 
along in each man's record for every quarter during his enlistment. 
The marks and the award for each quarter are the same as already 
referred to for the time of transfer from the receiving to the training 
ship. The only record made or report sent forward regarding this 
firing, is the entry in the man's papers. The scheme here outlined 
is described at length in Order 14 of the Bureau of Navigation, of 
July 20 last. 



72 TARGET PRACTICE. 

There is thus provided and in actual operation a plan by which 
enlisted men are classified in both receiving and cruising ships, and 
by which their records in shooting rifles and revolvers are carried 
with them. The plan is also carried out in the training service. The ' 
receiving-ships, though all dividing their men into four classes — not 
counting those who fail to classify at all — arrange the details of the 
firing by which men reach the several classes, in the best manner 
possible with what they have at command ; but cruising ships, while 
having the same four classes and the same awards, to be paid quar- 
terly when firing occurs, have all the same requirements for reaching 
the several classes. The firing in the cruising ships is with rifles 
and revolvers, and is from either a ship or a boat. 

This scheme, so devised that it may be generally applied and at 
the same time sufficiently elastic to allow ships whose opportunities 
are very different to compete, cannot fail, if elaborated in accord 
with the dictates of experience, to improve the shooting of most men 
in the navy. It is true that some of our men do not remain long in 
the service, but others do for considerable lengths ; and any plan, 
if it serves no better purpose than to teach us that it is bad, must 
result in good. The theory of naval training should contemplate 
the conclusion of certain parts of men's education when they go 
on board cruising ships. Our men should have some use of fire- 
arms before going afloat. 

One trouble is the great multiplicity of fire-arms and weapons 
generally which our men must learn to handle. And when, to the 
skill in caring for and using these, is added the complexity of drills 
intended to provide for all cases which may arise, it appears that a 
good deal is necessary. Still, there must always remain some simi- 
larity in the care and use of fire-arms ; and, if the drill-manuals be 
reduced to the smallest compass possible, not more, perhaps, than 
most men can master will remain. 

By the means now in use, the records of all enlisted men in firing 
with rifles and revolvers are obtained, and are always carried with 
them. At two or three of the receiving-ships, some firing with boat 
guns has been undertaken; but this, because of its cost when 
extended to a large number of men, must be limited in its applica- 
tion. On board the Dale, where men are training for the rate of 
seaman-gunner, an excellent and well-equipped range looo yards 
long has been built, and here the men are required to shoot at fre- 
quent intervals. When the Alarm is prepared to add to this, and to 



TARGET PRACTICE. 73 

the varied experience the men get in the shops in handling ordnance 
material, some firing with 6-inch and 3-pounder rifles, we shall have 
the ideal gunnery school. It will remain only to use the facilities to 
good purpose to produce results which will commend themselves to 
everybody. 

In this statement of the conditions of necessities for target firing 
on board the receiving-ships, the advisability of including for the men 
on board them some drill should not be overlooked. All knowledge 
of service drills which may be possible should be acquired by men 
in receiving-ships. The men at New York, where facilities for target 
practice are so unfortunately wanting, pass through very complete 
schools of drill— sighting exercises, and firing with parlor rifles — and 
at the Washington yard, the men training for the rate of seaman- 
gunner are taught all service drills. These last, from the fact that 
they have all, or nearly all, previously to their stay on board the Dale, 
been petty oflicers, and because they go back to the same rates, are 
very carefully taught the service drills. We need in the navy a 
numerous body of men well trained in gunnery duties, and the out- 
look is promising that the school at the Washington yard may be 
able to furnish these in sufficient number, and with the degree of 
skill and permanency of stay which we need. 

The scheme of practice in marksmanship which has been described 
extends to every officer and man on board ships of the navy. Four 
classes of marksmen are provided, and commanding officers may 
pay stated awards to persons in the several classes. Incidentally, 
the history of the marksmanship of each enlisted man is obtained 
and goes with him. By such a plan, if it stands the test of time, the 
general skill of the navy in shooting will be improved, and the means 
adopted of training men in firing their pieces immediately upon 
enlistment will ensure us that all men in cruising vessels know some- 
thing of the use of the weapons put in their hands. The matter of 
the practice of ship and boat guns is not touched upon here. This 
comes afterwards, and will be improved by the better skill of the 
masses, so to speak. 

Before leaving the matter of the instruction of individuals in marks- 
manship, attention may be called to the fact that recruits should be 
taught to handle and fire their rifles and revolvers before they spend 
much time on other parts of the military drills — the stations in gun's 
crews, facings, marchings, etc. The seaman side of a man-of-wars- 
man is left to grow with his surroundings, and as his natural bent 



74 TARGET PRACTICE. 

may incline. His military training is undertaken by his divisional 
officer. And certainly among the first steps in the work should be 
to put a rifle into his hands, and let him learn how to use and fire it. 
A man who is afraid to fire his gun is as useless as one who does not 
know how to face to the right, or what to do at the order " Cast loose 
and provide." It is true that, for one opportunity to let a man fire 
his gun we have in the navy a thousand to tell him to face to the 
right, but the plea is here made that we must get the opportunities 
which do not exist. 

The matter of the practice of gun's crews, riflemen, boarders — that 
is, tactical firing in general — is now provided for in an order of the 
Navy Department of date July 31 last. The firing of guns is marked 
by cross-bearings in the horizontal plane, and of boarders and rifle- 
men by counting the shot-holes in targets of stated size. Prizes are 
given as commanders-in-chief of squadrons direct, and authority to 
rent rifle-ranges is granted. The only limitations as to the kind of 
great-gun firing selected by any ship are those necessary to secure 
the possibility of recording the practice in the book of Record of 
Great Gun Target Practice. It is thus possible to select in each ship 
the kind of firing which will be most useful to the crew, and prizes 
may be paid to gun's crews as soon after the firing as the record can 
be made up. For some quarters in the years 1889 and 1890, all the 
gun's crews in the navy competed for prizes under the same rules ; 
the records were sent to the Navy Department, there to be made 
out, and the resulting standing, together with orders awarding the 
prizes, finally published. The objection to this way of doing is that 
all ships, however long in commission and whatever their needs, fire 
under the same circumstances, and that awards can be paid only 
after the lapse of months in some cases. The plan now in use, and 
the former one, have their advantages and disadvantages. Other 
plans have been proposed, as laying down what a ship shall do in 
each of the twelve quarters of her commission, establishing an annual 
competition on the same rules, while leaving all other quarters open 
to be decided by each ship, etc. 

Attention may here be drawn to the danger that any scheme of 
target practice may do more harm than good. They always run 
the danger of becoming too refined and elaborate ; but this feature, 
though causing unnecessary labor and trouble, does not prove that 
a plan is a bad one. The plan is bad only when it is less good than 
what would be adopted by the persons in charge if left to themselves. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 75 

But in order to ensure some degree of fairness and efificiency in the 
use of the appropriation for gunnery exercises, now voted by Con- 
gress, all ships of the navy must have certain points of resemblance 
in their target practice. The great point is that they must have a 
record, and that this record and the manner of getting it must be 
sufficiently accurate for the purpose in view. 

This brings us naturally to the matter of recording the firing of 
guns. All other than that of boat and ship-guns is recorded by 
observing the shot-holes in targets of stated make ; these being 
either regulation targets of the army or specially designed ones. 
The fall of shot from ship and boat-guns, in the case of both station- 
ary and moving practice, is recorded by observing the points of fall 
in the water to the nearest degree or half-degree, by observers placed 
on lines which intersect at right angles at the target. The instru- 
ment used by the observers is called a T-square ; and consists of an 
apparatus resembling a T-square, carrying a number of vertical wires 
at about 36 inches from the eye. The aperture between each 
vertical wire subtends, at the observer's eye, an angle of one degree. 

The most natural and in many respects the best way to record 
gun-practice is to have targets sufficiently large to catch all shots we 
are interested in knowing about. Thus a canvas screen representing 
the broadside of a ship might be used. The T-squares fail to give 
us the side-errors of guns, as will be mentioned again further on, 
and this a large target would do. They would cost a good deal, 
as they would frequently be broken ; but this is a matter which 
probably can be provided for. The principal difficulties in the way 
of the use of great-gun targets are two in number: (i) they must 
be stored at certain places, and ships must go there to use them, 
and (2) if made large enough to catch a large fraction of the shots 
fired by a moving ship when in a seaway, they must be very high 
and unwieldy. The English use a gun-target 20 feet high, but the 
circumstances of the run by it while firing render the distance- 
finding very simple, and the practice is consequently accurate. If a 
target 20 feet high only is used, and the circumstances of the firing 
are made difficult, the record of many shots will be lost. 

There is no reason why the two methods should not be used : the 
large canvas screen, and the observation of the points of fall in the 
water. If a more accurate instrument than the T-square could be 
found, a great step would be made. But the circumstances of its use 
must be kept in mind. It must be held to the eye in a boat in a 



^6 TARGET PRACTICE. 

considerable seaway, and must give the points struck by shots as 
fast as the observer can talk. The instrument must be read while 
at the eye. It is necessary in some gun-practice to have a number 
of guns firing, in order to cause familiarity with the noise and smoke. 
The use of photography has been proposed, and some attempt to 
use it been made. The T-square gives us with accuracy what we 
most want — the range-error. The ammunition for the main and 
secondary batteries of the Newark at her first target practice will 
cost about $3000, and so large an expenditure should be made with 
care. 

The accuracy of the T-square is such that, admitting an error of 
one degree in the observation of the point of fall, the shot is placed, 
in the horizontal plane, when the observers are 1000 yards from the 
target, to within 17 yards. This limit is sufficiently close so far as 
the range-errors of guns go, but is wholly insufficient with regard to 
side-errors, because the side-errors of guns are much less than this. 
In other words, if we have observers, provided with T-squares, over 
a gun which is firing at a target 1000 yards distant, and abreast of 
the target and 1000 yards from it, we shall be able to place the shot 
to within 17 yards of its position in range and sideways. And, 
because the ordinary errors of guns afloat are in range much greater 
than this and sideways much less, the accuracy of the determination 
is sufficient in range, and insufficient sideways. In other words, if 
the horizontal diagram is plotted by appropriate means into the 
vertical plane through the target, the position of the shot-points 
vertically is practically correct, while their side position has no 
value. In truth it depends largely upon the liberal or illiberal 
nature of the observer stationed in the plane of fire. To offset this 
deficiency, the determination of the side position of the shots is not 
very important, because the side-errors of guns are usually well 
within the side dimensions of targets, while the reverse is true of 
range-errors and the heights of targets. 

Some important consequences flow from this. The desirability of 
plotting gun-practice into the vertical plane becomes questionable, 
because the side position on the target in this plane has no value ; 
and the plan now adopted in service diagrams, of giving equal 
merit to shots falling, anywhere in horizontal belts extending indefi- 
nitely both ways, is justified. The complications arising in plotting 
the practice of stationary guns into the vertical plane are not great ; 
but if a ship moves freely about in front of a target, while firing at 



TARGET PRACTICE. 77 

it, the difficulty of getting the record so that the firing may be plotted 
into the vertical becomes very great. And there is an objection, too, 
to plotting stationary practice into the vertical plane and leaving the 
moving practice in the horizontal ; this being that the diagrams made 
at the two kinds of firing are not then readily comparable. The 
difference between the two is that in the moving practice the range 
is known and communicated only by methods which would ordinarily 
be available in batUe, while in the stationary firing the range is always 
known. The moving practice is always less accurate, and for this 
the distance-finding arrangements are responsible. 

The record of gun-fire, besides being kept in the book of Record 
of Great Gun Firing, is sent to the Navy Department, where it is 
plotted. The records of all ships are sent to every vessel in com- 
mission ; there having been issued in this way within the last year 
two pamphlets, containing 52 sheets showing the practice of main 
battery guns alone, and containing, together with the names of the 
gun-captains firing each shot and their average time of serving the 
guns, a record of nearly 2000 shots. 

The book of Record of Great Gun Target Practice is intended to 
enable a ship to keep throughout her commission a record of all her 
target-firing with ship and boat guns. The book is turned in to the 
Navy Department when the ship goes out of commission. It was 
first issued October i, 1889, and is accompanied by explanations of 
its use. It consists of a series of sheets conveniently ruled, and 
arranged for plotting in the horizontal and vertical plane. The scale 
in the horizontal sheets is one inch to 80 yards, and in the vertical 
ones one inch to 20 feet, and, to plot from the horizontal to the 
vertical plane, trajectories of all the guns on board are furnished. 
These are drawn on transparent paper, so that they may be super- 
posed on any diagram ; and their horizontal and vertical scales are the 
same respectively as those of the horizontal and vertical sheets in 
the Record Book. Their coefficient of distortion is thus 12, and 
this, while giving a convenient form to the trajectory, enables us in 
using them, by an entirely graphical process, to plot from the hori- 
zontal into the vertical plane. 

There will shortly be printed a series of tables, computed by 
Ensign Haeseler, which will make plotting into the vertical plane 
less laborious than it now is by the use of the transparent trajectories 
just described. These will enable us, by entering a table with the 
reading of a T-square abreast a target, to state immediately how 
much above or below the water-line of the target the shot passed. 



78 TARGET PRACTICE. 

Thus, by two orders of July 20 and 31 last, certain schemes 
of target-firing are set in motion. The first deals with individual 
rifle and revolver firing of all officers and men in the navy, both in 
cruising and other vessels. This firing is recorded only in the men's 
papers, and excellence in it is stimulated by the immediate payment 
of an award. The second deals with gun practice, and that of rifle- 
men and boarders. The reports of this are sent to the Department 
on blanks issued for the purpose, and the firing of ship and boat 
guns is recorded in a book retained on board the ship until the end 
of the cruise. Prizes for this class of firing are paid upon the order 
of commanders-in-chief of stations. 

A question which arises here is whether all this firing can be com- 
bined ; whether a reasonable scheme for combining firing of diflferent 
kinds may be devised, so that men who exhibit skill always may be 
specially rewarded. The following, for example, is a case of a man 
who showed skill in several particulars : 

1. In the third and fourth quarters of a certain year he qualified 
first-class under the rules for individual firing with rifle and revolver. 
On the first occasion only 2 men in the ship's company reached 
first-class, and on the second 12. 

2. In the third quarter of this year he reached a merit of 100 — the 
highest possible — while firing a 37 H. R. C. at 1000 yards range. 
No other gun-captain of the ship reached as high a merit on the day 
in question. 

3. In the competitive firing of all the first gun-captains in the navy, 
in the third quarter of the same year, when firing the 60-pounder 
B. L. Parrott, he reached ninth place among the 61 gun-captains 
competing. On this occasion he was again the first among the gun- 
captains of his own ship. 

Numerous cases similar to the above might be quoted, and have 
suggested that, if a plan by which each man in the navy should keep 
his score, or by which the scores of men in different divisions should 
be kept, a body of men skilful in the use of all kinds of fire-arms 
might be developed. The difficulties in the way of getting a satis- 
factory plan are many, as the weights to be assigned to accuracy in 
the use of different weapons must be arbitrary at present, and must 
be so even in the use of the same weapon under differing circum- 
stances. 

The development of good captains for the guns of ships would, of 
course, be a principal object in such a scheme, but that success in 



TARGET PRACTICE. 79 

this respect would be reached is by no means sure; for it does not 
follow that a good shot will make a good gun-captain. It appears 
reasonable that, from among the men who are recognized as the 
leaders in a ship's company, those who have a good record with rifles 
and revolvers should first be tried as gun-captains. 

The machinery which now exists provides for getting, and does 
get, the record of all classes of firing in our ships, and from it may 
be obtained the record of any man we please; but if this record lay 
more on the surface than it does now, officers of ships would prob- 
ably be aided in stationing men to the best advantage, and we 
might recognize more clearly than we can now, a class of men who 
are more valuable to the service than is generally believed. 

On July 1, 1889, money for the payment of prizes or awards for 
excellence in target practice and gunnery in the navy, first became 
available by congressional appropriation; and, from the steady 
pressure which the continuance of this fund will cause, it may be 
expected that our plans of conducting and recording target practice 
of all kinds will improve. The system now existing in the army, for 
small-arm practice, has been some ten years in growing to its present 
condition. In these ten years, plans of organization at posts, such as 
building and equipping of ranges, appointment of officers necessary 
to do the work, etc., have all been put on foot. And, in Washington, 
suitable and steady appropriations of the money necessary have been 
secured. Some of these details have yet to be arranged with us, 
but if the officers of the navy as a body want things not now exist- 
ing for the prosecution of target practice, they can get them. They 
may at first be refused money which is considered necessary, or may 
be unable to see how the organization of time and labor, which is 
necessary, is to be reached; but all these things will come in a few 
years if the matter is adhered to. 

The fund for prizes and awards is more important than is at first 
realized. Not only does it apply a direct stimulus to skill in marks- 
manship, but, requiring as it does for its proper expenditure a record 
of firing and an examination of results attained, the indirect interest 
aroused is very great. The naval service expended in the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1890, about $1000 in awards for good marksman- 
ship, which was at about the rate per capita of the army expenditure 
during the same time. The amount of money thus put afloat, or the 
money value of the badges, if these are used, is small ; but the interest 
indirectly aroused in marksmanship, very great. In the navy, the 



8o TARGET PRACTICE. 

practice of giving awards in money has been adhered to. The usage 
in military and naval services differs in this respect, some giving 
money and higher rates, while others give honorary badges. The 
question has hardly come up with us as yet, because, until our schemes 
have further crystallized, it is better to give money, which establishes 
no classes or other precedents, and thus admits of changes as deemed 
expedient. In our army, badges made at the U. S. Mint are sent 
to successful competitors upon a proper certificate ; while in the 
English navy, money prizes are used. It may here be added that 
there is much less complication caused by the use of money prizes, 
particularly when the prizes are to be awarded on board ships widely 
scattered. 

The above has been written largely with the view of eliciting the 
views of officers of the navy. Besides the various points which may 
be suggested by what has been said, an expression of opinion as to 
the plotting of great-gun target practice is hoped for. Should it all 
be plotted into the vertical plane, should the stationary practice go 
into the vertical plane and the moving remain in the horizontal 
plane, or should all remain in the horizontal plane? 

It is better, since the targets which we are to fire at are vertical, 
to put it all in the vertical plane. But the complications which this 
will require are very great, unless an approximation, presently to be 
described, is adopted. If it is all left in the horizontal plane, a less 
clear image than is attainable is given ; and if part is in the hori- 
zontal and part in the vertical plane, the stationary and moving prac- 
tices are not readily compared. When firing at looo yards range, 
the two observers locate the shots in the horizontal plane to within 
about 17 yards as a maximum error ; and, in the stationary firing, 
the shot-points are strung out in a long line, while, in moving practice, 
unless the run is directly towards or away from the target, the shot- 
points are sprinkled all around the target. The position of the ship 
with respect to the target must be known for every shot, both in 
distance and azimuth, if we are to plot into the vertical. These 
data can be obtained, but the complication will be great. There 
is one way out of it. This consists in assuming that all shots in the 
moving practice are line shots ; or, what is the same thing, assume 
that the distance from the centre of the water-line of the target to 
the point they strike is a range-error — measure the hypothenuse 
erected on the range and side errors and call this the range error. 

The difficulty of knowing the azimuth of the firing ship for every 



TARGET PRACTICE. 8l 

shot is thus got rid of; but the range, which also is necessary to 
plot into the vertical, is still known imperfectly. For this the range 
given the gun may be used ; but if this has been determined by esti- 
mation, the diagram resulting has not much value. There can be 
no doubt that the errors in distance-finding by other than good 
instrumental means are considerably greater than the range errors 
of guns at ordinary ranges. Thus the method of plotting just 
described presents grave errors in certain cases — errors which must 
be considered inadmissible. In cases where ships fire at a target 
under circumstances in which they cannot themselves determine the 
range by instrumental means, a boat suitably placed might deter- 
mine their range at each shot. 

Another point of great interest and importance, incidentally raised 
by the examination of great-gun target diagrams, is the marking and 
use of sight-bars. Since in some cases of firing at a moving ship 
from a ship which is herself moving, the continuous motion of the 
sight-bar in its sleeve, if it is kept rightly adjusted, will be visible to 
the eye, it is very important to bring this matter down to its simplest 
form and systematize it. The usual method is to set the bar at the 
distance communicated, aim at the water-line of the target, and fire. 
This, unless we presuppose some excitement or rapidity of work to 
cause coarseness in the sighting, will drop one-half of the shots into 
the water short of the target. The Bureau of Ordnance is now con- 
sidering the fitting of a central sight on new guns, to be called a 
" battle-sight." As this sight cannot be very long, the greatest 
range attainable when using it will be in the neighborhood of 2000 
yards ; its first mark will be at' about 800 yards — this will be its mark 
when down ; and the steps by which its marks proceed will be 
longer than those on the side sights. 

The whole matter of the marks put on sight-bars, the steps by 
which they proceed, the degree of coarseness of the sight to be 
taken, and the use of the bars generally, should be as simple and 
as widely understood as possible. It should also be as nearly the 
same in weapons of all classes as may be. The subject is very com- 
plicated, but it is suggested that, in ordinary firing at sea, the 
following rules should apply : 

1. The gun should always be aimed at the water-line of a target. 

2. The bar shall be marked for each range, so that, when aiming 
as directed in Rule i, the shot will pass five feet above the water-line 
of the target. 



82 TARGET PRACTICE. 

3. Sight-bars shall not be capable of being lowered below (?) yards. 

4. The marks on sight-bars shall proceed by large counts, as 
indicated by the degree of flatness of the gun and by a target (?)feet 
high. 

5: All great-gun sights shall be put on coarse ; they shall be as 
nearly as possible of the same pattern, and the distance between 
them shall be as great as it can be made. 

6. Divisional officers shall carefully watch men when firing, and 
shall, at times of excitement or when the ship's motion is sharp, 
lower the bars by suitable amounts. 



DISCUSSION. 

Lieutenant J. C. Wilson, U. S. Navy. — The paper on "Target Practice," 
by Lieutenant J. F. Meigs, offered for discussion, deals with one of the most 
important matters affecting the final efficiency of war vessels. 

Other things being equal between two combating vessels, success falls to 
the one whose battery is served and fired with best effect. So vital a point is 
target firing in the drilling of crews that too much attention cannot be paid to 
it, providing, of course, that other necessary points be not neglected. 

The question of rapidity and accuracy of firing the arms with which a man- 
of-war is armed is the consummation of the whole ordnance question as applied 
to guns. It matters not how good these may be in themselves, if they are not 
served and fired with good results in time of action ; so that in bringing up 
for discussion the question of how best to obtain these results, Lieutenant 
Meigs has placed the service under an obligation to him. 

It is a melancholy fact, known to every officer of the service, that until 
recently but very little attention was given ^o target practice, which was con- 
ducted on no system at all ; and it is fully time that this be changed. 

There is no question but that the "recruit" should go on board a cruiser a 
fairly good marksman, and to become this, opportunity for practice must be 
given him. For this and other reasons I advocate a year's preliminary instruc- 
tions for every "recruit " in ^a;-rac^j, where ample facilities and opportunity 
could be found; such instructions to comprehend all gunnery as well as other 
drills. This year should be an extra one, that is, if the regular enlistment (or 
rather re-enlistment) is made four years, as it should be, the first (or recruit- 
enlistment) should be made five. 

Sufficient facilities for the training of men should be supplied every naval 
(barrack) station. A more advanced school of instruction might be established 
at Washington, for the special instruction of those considered worthy to qualify 
as gun-captains, seaman-gunners, torpedo-men, etc. 

Assuming that this has been provided, and systematic instruction in the use 
of all arms has been given each recruit during his year of preliminary training, 
he should step on board a cruising ship with a record which would show how 
mcuh he was worth as a gunnery man. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 83 

In connection with any plan or system which may be adopted to perfect our 
crews in gunnery, systematic records and incentives are of prime necessity. 
Without these, no scheme would give the best results. 

The method of recording must be left to those whose study and experience 
in this direction have better qualified them than I feel myself or the average 
naval officer to be ; but it would seem that, for purposes of comparison, 
stationary and movable firing should be plotted in the same manner, and of 
the two planes, the vertical would be the more graphic, or at least show the 
more important errors. Accuracy in firing of course includes horizontal accu- 
racy, but such errors are not nearly of as much importance as are vertical ones, 
and if a practical working system to plot both cannot be devised, let us make 
sure of the vertical ones at all events. It is comparatively easy to learn to 
fire "in line," but not so as to elevation. 

As the writer remarks, it is neither practicable nor necessary for any man to 
fire enough service-charges to acquire skill as a marksman. 

Sub-caliber bores are very useful in this connection, and should be used 
more constantly. The greater part of the time spent by the crews at the guns 
should be devoted to theoretical and practical instructions in pointing and 
firing, the sub-caliber bores being used for the practical part. 

Vessels on stations should rendezvous at least once a year at some con- 
venient port, where suitable targets should be kept, and competitive firing 
take place under the same conditions. 

1 see no reason why the system of medals and money prizes should not be 
combined, each medal carrying with it a certain money prize. 

There might be as many medals as there are classes of arms, and in addition, 
one for general excellence in firing with all classes. 

There would then be : 

1. Medal for excellence in revolver firing. 

2. " " " small-arm rifle firing. 

3. " " " secondary battery firing. 

4. " " " main bjittery firing. 

5. Medal for general excellence in firing with all classes of arms. 

Values to be given for firing with the different classes of arms would have 
to be determined, as they should not all have equal "weight" in determining 
"general excellence." This last medal should carry with it a much larger 
money prize than any of the others. 

A more general and systematic scheme of perfecting our crews in target 
firing should be adopted, and one which would not only enlist the interest both 
of officers and men, but also make it a matter of honor and profit to excel in 
" target firing." 

Any system is better than none, as experience will suggest improvements, 
and it is to be hoped that the interest Lieutenant Meigs has taken in this 
important matter will lead to good results to the service. 

Lieutenant W. F. Fullam, U. S. N. — The most important and practical sub- 
ject within the range of naval science is that of target practice, because the 
proper system of training and discipline for men-of-wars-men must be based 



84 • TARGET PRACTICE. 

upon the same principles that govern the development of good gun-captains 
and good marksmen — the principles that win naval battles. 

In demonstrating so clearly that marksmen cannot be developed by great- 
gun target practice alone, owing to its necessary limitations, Lieut. Meigs calls 
attention to the great importance of small-arm practice, a subject that has 
been sadly neglected and underrated. Every navy-yard should have a range 
— some kind of a range — where men could practice with revolvers and with 
rifles, using reduced charges for the latter, if necessary. This is perfectly 
possible. Even at New York a detail from the crew of the Boston fired at a 
target every day for several months, and the results were excellent. Reduced 
charges, a short range, and targets proportionally reduced in size, were used ; 
but the principles of aiming could be taught quite as well. The cost of pro- 
viding such ranges would be trifling. Thousands upon thousands of dollars 
are annually expended upon objects which, in comparison with target practice, 
have an insignificant bearing upon the efficiency of the navy. Ships have been 
known to remain for months in port, or at a dock, and not a man has fired a 
revolver or a rifle ! The most important feature of naval routine was thus 
ignored. 

To insure uniformity in small-arm practice, whether in the case of a single 
ship or a squadron, one or more officers, with petty officers to assist, should be 
appointed to superintend the practice, provide and keep the targets in order, 
and do the scoring. Divisional officers should have nothing whatever to do 
with such details, but should see that their men aim and pull the trigger prop- 
erly, and that a spirit of rivalry is encouraged. If men never see their target 
records, if no comparison of results in different divisions or in different ships 
is ever made, if one bulls-eye is eight inches in diameter and another gradu- 
ally grows to a diameter of sixteen inches, if when a shot strikes the paper 
target four or five pasters fall off and the divisional officer selects a hole at 
hap-hazard or takes the one nearest the bulls-eye in scoring, the men will lose 
interest, there will be no enthusiasm, little improvement in marksmanship, 
valuable opportunities will have been lost, and the only result is an expendi- 
ture of time and ammunition — that is all. But if, as Lieut. Meigs advocates, 
a uniform system is followed throughout the service, and records carefully 
kept, compared, and published, great interest can be aroused among the men, 
and they will soon be made to feel that the skillful use of weapons is the most 
important requirement. 

It does not always follow, by any means, that the best shot under dress 
parade or peace conditions should be a gun-captain. Of two men, the one who 
is the poorer marksman at target practice may be the better in action. Per- 
sonal characteristics — coolness and pluck — may decide which of the two will 
be most likely to hit a target that is hitting back. For this reason the man 
himself, as well as his target record, must be studied before making him a gun- 
captain. The qualities that enable a man to control other men will, as a rule, 
be the qualities that will enable him, with proper instructions, to become a 
fair if not a first-class marksman, provided he has good eyesight. A man who 
is by nature a leader of men will probably be a good gun-captain and a good 
marksman in action. This quality of force in handling men is very necessary 



TARGET PRACTICE. 85 

in great-gun practice. With small arms the man has the weapon entirely under 
his own control. In the case of a great gun, however, two or three other men 
assist in pointing ; the men at the elevating and training gear must be con- 
trolled by the gun-captain. If the latter is a man of force who is respected by 
the crew, he will inspire obedience and attention, and his chances of hitting 
the target will, for this reason, be better than with one who cannot command 
the respect, attention and confidence of others. 

The proposition to have one man to aim the gun and another to control the 
crew, is not a good one. It is perfectly possible to develop a class of men who 
can do both, and thus avoid the danger of " too many cooks." A gun-captain 
in the navy must be a man of force and intelligence, and a fair marksman as 
well. No system should be accepted by naval officers that will not meet this 
requirement. 

The point made by Lieutenant Meigs, that target practice with great guns 
alone must not be depended upon to develop marksmen, emphasizes the 
necessity of resorting to every means of instruction that will tend to this end. 
Pointing-drill is an excellent way to train marksmen. Nearly all great guns 
have two sets of sights. Let the ofificer keep his eye on one set and the gun- 
captain on the other. If a primer is used, the officer will know if the gun- 
captain fires at the right instant. By constant practice, whenever the crew has 
great-gun drill, the men will improve wonderfully in aiming. Every man in a 
gun's crew should, in turn, be permitted to aim at a moving target. In this 
way every man will see how necessary it is that the men stationed at the elevat- 
ing and training gear should obey the gun-captain implicitly and watch him 
constantly. Otherwise the gun-captain can never get his sights on the target. 
If each man has personally noted this fact, he will be more careful' himself at 
the training or elevating gear. This pointing-drill, using primers, will also 
enable the officer to note if the gun-captain pulls the lockstring steadily, and 
if he keeps his eye on the sights when he pulls. Not only will men be greatly 
improved by this exercise, but it may serve to demonstrate that a man is totally 
unfit to be a gun-captain. If he is nervous, excitable, and nags the crew with- 
out controlling them, he is not the proper man for the place. This exercise, 
better than any other, will reveal a man's strong or weak peints. 

And Lieutenant Meigs is right in saying that, at target practice, men should 
be taught to fire rapidly — not wildly, but rapidly. This is a rapid-firing age. 
All but two or three of the heaviest guns of modern battle-ships and cruisers 
are of the rapid-firing type. What is the use of a rapid-firing gun if it is not 
fired rapidly? What is the use of firing rapidly unless the piece is aimed 
rapidly ? And it is impossible to aim and fire rapidly if the loading is not rapid, 
and this cannot be done unless the men have been taught to do it rapidly at 
target practice — the only time when charges are used. Evidently the whole crew, 
not the gun-captains alone, must be trained with great care. And if this result 
cannot be attained at target practice alone, it must be sought in the pointing- 
drill. This pointing-drill can be practiced alongside a dock or at anchor, as 
well as at sea; better, in fact, because, as a rule, there are always moving 
objects in sight at which to aim. In this, again, the time \w. port or at a navy- 



86 TARGET PRACTICE. 

yard should not be wasted. Instruction with great guns and small arms can 
be kept up to great advantage. 

The argument that at the first target practice after a ship is commissioned 
the firing should be slow, is not sound. It displays its own weakness and the 
weakness of our system of naval training — or lack of system. As Lieutenant 
Meigs says, "the gun-captain should have shown some fitness for his place 
before he is put there, and he and the other men in the crew should learn their 
duties in loading, pointing, and firing a gun before they are allowed to handle 
it loaded." "All knowledge of service-drills which may be possible should be 
acquired by men in receiving-ships." " Recruits should be taught to handle 
and fire their rifles and revolvers before they spend much time on other parts 
of military drills." These conditions and requirements are all possible, even 
now. If every man has not been taught to aim a rifle before he comes on board 
a cruising ship, there has been neglect somewhere. The day after he enlists 
he should be taught to aim a rifle, resting it on a sand-bag so that a petty officer 
can verify his aim. After being taught, the first day to aim, the recruit should 
fire at a target the second day. It has been shown that a range, for reduced 
charges at least, is possible at every naval station. Thus a recruit should not 
have been three days on board a receiving-ship without firing a rifle. 

And before a ship has been three months in commission, before the first 
target practice, every crew and gun-captain should have been thoroughly 
instructed in pointing, first at fixed and then at moving targets, first deliber- 
ately and then rapidly. As the day for target practice approaches, the crew 
should be exercised in all the motions of firing six rounds as rapidly as possi- 
ble, bringing ammunition to the gun, using primers, and the gun-captain 
sighting properly. Then it would not be necessary to fire slowly at the first 
target practice. The reasons for doing so are necessarily based upon the 
assumption that previous instruction has been neglected, and that proper care 
has not been observed in selecting gun-captains. Such objections can be 
removed, and the few shots fired from great guns should be fired rapidly to 
secure the best results. 

The pointing-drill and rapid firing will make one thing plain to a careful 
observer, that the men to handle rapid-firin'g ordnance efficiently must have 
the military habits of attention, exactness and obedience, and this requirement 
should govern modern naval training. 

In discussing the necessity for some uniform system of target practice. 
Lieutenant Meigs is right in saying that "a plan is bad only when it is less 
good than would be adopted by the persons in charge if left to themselves." 
It is not possible that any plan could be " less good " than no plan at all. 
The idea is to establish uniformity in the navy, and arouse among officers, 
petty officers, and men a spirit of rivalry by comparing the skill of different 
divisions and different ships and rewarding those who win. 

It is evident, however, that to reap any substantial benefit from target 
practice and instruction in marksmanship, the men who have become good 
gun-captains must be induced to remain in the navy for some time at least. If 
instruction is to be without system or thoroughness ; if gun-captains are to be 
appointed with little care ; if there is no permanency in their rates, and if they 



TARGET PRACTICE. 87 

leave the service soon after they become eflScient, we have, in our naval 
routine, simply a wear-and-tear upon ships, a wear-and-tear upon guns, a wear- 
and-tear upon the patience and zeal of ofificers and men, and no result that 
tends to prepare a navy for war. 

Lieutenant Kossuth Niles, U. S. Navy.— The interesting paper of Lieut. 
Meigs gives assurance that the important question of target practice is 
receiving a careful and systematic consideration. If much of the practice here- 
tofore during a cruise has been of a perfunctory nature, it has been due, per- 
haps, as much to the want of a definite system of rewards for good shots, as to 
the lack of interest resulting from no uniform method of marking and keeping 
permanent individual records. As the allowance for great-gun practice is 
necessarily small, the few shots permitted should be made with the utmost care, 
to determine not only the skill of the marksman but the efficiency of the gun 
under the favorable conditions of deliberate service. To perfect the working 
of the gun-crews, and at the same time afford an excellent opportunity for 
improving the marksmanship, I think Mr. Meigs' suggestion as to sub-calibers 
is excellent. All division gun-drill, or most of it, can be made of the nature 
of target practice by using sub-caliber bores. Each gun could have its own 
target; and, there being a certain number of shots allowed, the rapid service 
of the piece at point-blank range would afford a practice approaching partially 
the conditions of using service charges and projectiles ; the pointing would be 
practically of the same nature if either the vessel or the target was moving, and 
this condition should be obtained in using sub-caliber bores. The drill com- 
plete should be enforced just as if service-charges were in use. It is not 
likely that there will be any undue excitement during target practice, especially 
with sub-calibers, and therefore a certain amount of excitement should be 
encouraged, for without it there can be no vim and no definite amount of 
quickness. Rapidity of fire will certainly be all-important. 

The plans set forth for classifying, rewarding, and keeping the individual 
records of the enlisted men, appear to be well devised under the present 
facilities. As soon as the methods of firing can be made uniform at the several 
stations, the value of the classification on the receiving-ships will be increased. 
On cruising ships the plan ought to produce a gratifying improvement in the 
marksmanship in small-arm practice. 

An annual competition in tactical firing, the records to be sent to the Depart- 
ment, appears to me to meet the desirability of a general competition of all 
cruising ships. With regard to the plotting of great-gun practice, I think it 
would be desirable to plot all shots in the vertical plane, as we obtain one 
point of great value in knowing the position of the shot with reference to the 
water-line although the position sideways is in error. The complications 
arising from the additional labor and data required may be reduced by the use 
of tables; and as the interest in the practice is increased, some better instru- 
ment than the T-square may suggest itself, thus reducing the range error. 

Commander C. M. Chester, U. S. Navy. — While agreeing with the lecturer 
in the main on the great importance of the subject under discussion, I differ 



88 TARGET PRACTICE. 

with him on one or two points. Particularly would I advise against the 
" time " element in a target-firing exercise. Of course, of two vessels equally 
well-drilled in precision, the one firing the most shots at an enemy will do the 
most injury, but it is very questionable to my mind if perfection in one of these 
branches does not detract from the other. In no class of work that I know of 
is the old saying of " hurry makes flurry " so applicable ; and officers will in 
battle spend more energy in trying to keep the petty officers from throwing 
away shot in rapid firing, than in urging the crew to quick action. The whole 
tendency at such a time is for rapidity of motion, and the crew that has been 
best drilled in the details of loading and firing will in the end gain the best 
results. 

In target practice the captain of the gun is alone to be marked. If time 
enters as a part of the record, his standing depends, not upon his ability as a 
marksman, but first upon the handling of the gun by the crew ; second, the 
handling of the ship by the commanding officer; and, above all, upon the 
handling of the vessel by the natural elements. The gun-captain has no 
chance to improve his time, for, at best, he has but three or four shots during 
a practice, and his mark must rest on other qualifications than his own. The 
question of aiming a gun in a seaway with the ship underway is not one of 
pointing in 30 seconds or less, but of laying the gun so that when the proper 
moment arrives it may be fired to hit the object. 

The lecturer states that " if they (the men) are too much excited, some steps 
should be taken to restore quiet." What else can be done but to slow down ? 
and another deduction from the score results. Furthermore, rapid firing is 
too expensive. In practice it is almost impossible, where men are working on 
time, to prevent shots following in quick succession, with the loss of record of 
one or more shots — thus $34 or $66 and upwards is thrown away, and sometimes 
the practice is at the expense of a man's life. 

It has been my invariable custom, when directing practice of this kind, to 
urge and insist that the captains of guns should pay no attention whatever to 
the passage of time, but to fire with the greatest possible deliberation. I, of 
course, knew full well that the score would be reduced by this order, but felt 
that more than enough would be gained in precision to make up for it. 

I also beg leave to suggest that, in my opinion, the record of target practice 
should only be taken from the vertical scale. It is necessarily plotted first on 
the horizontal scale, for none of the service targets are large enough to catch 
but a very limited number of the shots fired. It is not a difficult matter to 
transfer from the latter to the former, and the record as thus projected is 
easily understood by the men who work the guns. In reading the score from 
the horizontal projection, they must understand the nature of the shot's tra- 
jectory for the particular gun fired, before being able to comprehend the value 
of the practice. 

I recall an instance in my own experience, to particularize. A shot fired 
from an Vlll-inch rifle, by one of the best marksmen I ever saw, struck just 
outside the 50-yard circle, giving him but 50 per cent of the maximum mark. 
Another shot struck about 90 yards to the right and over the target, scoring 
the same. Plotted on the vertical scale, the first shot showed close to the 



TARGET PRACTICE. 89 

bull's eye of the target, while the second would have entirely missed a vessel 
of the size of the Galena. This latter shot was from a IX-inch S. B., and the 
discrepancy is due to the difference of the trajectories of the two guns. A 
third shot from a IX-inch gun struck about 50 feet from the center of the 
target, and short, gaining a perfect score (100) for the captain of gun. 

I would here remark that while the T-square is not inappropriate for record- 
ing target practice, there are so many young officers who have had experience 
in observing horizontal angles in surveying as to make a finer register of this 
work practicable in most ships. 

The side error should, in my opinion, always be observed, and with the 
sextant. It can be done either from the ship itself, or from the observation 
boats, by reading the angle from the target to the ship. If the horizontal pro- 
jection is used for marking the value of the practice, it becomes necessary to 
have varying areas of equal weight for each class of gun, or the rifle gun will 
always be handicapped as against the old smoothbores. 

Captain L. A. Eeardslee, U. S. N. — The importance of the subject so ad- 
mirably treated by Lieut. Meigs will undoubtedly so commend it to the thinking 
men of the navy, that there will ensue full and free expressions of views upon 
several of the points presented : and of the younger men of the service, many 
who have been favored with opportunity to gain personal knowledge from 
practical experience with modern guns on modern ships, will contribute valu- 
able opinions founded upon their facts. There remains very little for one of 
the old school, whose knowledge of ordnance and cruisers is confined to a 
life-long experience with old-fashioned muzzle-loaders and wooden ships, 
plus the results of his study of the work of others, to justify him in entering 
into the discussion ; but the references in the essay to methods and systems 
on board of recruiting-ships, by which some little knowledge of gunnery is 
sought to be imparted to recruits, prompts me to give a little in detail of the 
method in vogue on the Vermont. 

During the year ending in September last, about three thousand men had 
passed into and out of my command, and our average number on board has 
been about three to four hundred. Some of these men have been with us but 
a few days, others for months. It seemed highly necessary that we should do 
something toward carrying out the Department's views, and we did our best, 
starting with obtaining a full outfit of the service-rifles and a wooden model 
of an 8-inch gun, and some revolvers, with all of which we thoroughly in- 
structed the men in everything but firing. Situated, as is this ship, in the 
midst of a thickly populated town, it was simply impossible to fire a shotted 
gun of any kind, so we had to make believe a good deal. 

Then we obtained some Quackenbush air-rifles, with which, on our spar- 
deck, we practiced considerably ; but such practice did not have value enough 
to arouse a great deal of enthusiasm, especially as it was not considered that 
records made with this little gun were fairly comparable with those made with 
service-rifles of any kind. At this juncture, Lieut. Mulligan was seized with an 
inspiration and invented an apparatus which, starting with his own guard, be- 



9© TARGET PRACTICE, 

came excessively popular and useful. As this apparatus is very simple, and 
can be made and used in any ship with little trouble and expense and much 
profit, I will describe " Mulligan's gun." 

It consists of a cylindrical log about four inches in diameter, about 12 feet 
long. At the exact corresponding position of the sights of a 6-inch and 8-inch 
gun are slots, into which, when in use, sheet-brass sights, fac-similes in pro- 
file to those of our service-rifles, are set when in use. A lock-string is fitted 
to the rear end : the gun is mounted upon adjustable legs. 

With this apparatus the men were taught to sight at a movable disk (moved 
by another man and governed by signal from the firer). Each man was allowed 
three shots, and the result, as shown upon a white duck-covered target, soon 
developed considerable accuracy in sighting. It was noticeable that with 
nearly all of the sighting the three shots formed a triangle, the length of sides 
differing greatly, in accordance with the skill of the firer. To each triangle 
the name of the maker was affixed, and the system grew so popular that the 
men would ask for the gun when off duty, and eventually it was left standing 
for them to use when they pleased, and there was hardly an hour in the day 
that a group would not be found target-shooting for amusement, and the more 
skilled ones instructing the others. Cards, dominos and checkers were not so 
popular as Mulligan's gun. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS. MD, 



ELECTRICAL COUNTER, AND SHAFT REVOLUTION 
AND DIRECTION INDICATOR. 

By W. D. Weaver, Assistant Engineer, U. S. Navy. 



During the frequent trials of steam launches and other fast-moving 
machinery at the New York Navy Yard, continual trouble was 
experienced with mechanical counters, and the electrical counter, an 
illustration of which accompanies this, was devised to replace the 
former. 




It consists essentially of an electrical escapement in combination 
with a stop-timepiece. By turning the lever on the left, the time 
movement is started and stopped at exactly the same instant as the 
escapement, and thus we have simultaneously the time and number 
of revolutions. The other two projections shown are to bring the 
hands of the watch and counter respectively to zero. 

The counter has proved very useful in many ways, particularly in 
getting the slip of launch screws over a measured course. It could 



92 ELECTRICAL COUNTER. 

be arranged aboard ship to take in succession the revolutions of the 
main and auxiHary engines by leading a wire from each to a switch 
at the instrument, which could be placed in the most convenient 
place. At the highest speed tried on a lathe, 1500 revolutions per 
minute, the counter proved to be accurate, not losing a revolution in 
over 10,000, as measured by a mechanical hand-counter attached 
before the lathe started and read after it had b^en stopped. It is 
probable that one can be made to work to several thousands of 
revolutions per minute ; the present one was made from parts taken 
from a scrap-heap, and its success is largely due to the mechanical 
skill of Mr. J. S. Gordon of the New York Navy Yard. 

The success of the counter demonstrated the feasibility of a revo- 
lution indicator which the writer has long had in view, and which 
has since been designed in all of its details but not yet constructed. 
The accompanying diagram shows the arrangement and general 
appearance of the revolution and direction indicator, and the essen- 
tial principles are given in the following description : — 

On each shaft of the main engines, and on as many auxiliary 
engines as desired, one or more contacts are made at each revolu- 
tion, each of which sends a current to any register that is open to the 
circuit. On the shafts of the main engines is a simple form of com- 
mutator, F, by means of which the direction' of motion of the shaft is 
also shown on the register. All of the shaft circuits are led to a 
clock, in connection with which is a device for changing from one 
series of circuits to a second one, and vice versa, at regular intervals 
of time. From the clock, circuits are led to as many registers as are 
desired, the number that can be put up being practically unlimited ; 
four are here shown, one of which, that in the engine-room, having 
also circuits from the auxiliary machinery. 

The method of working is as follows: — When a reading is desired, 
it is first observed if the direction-hand, marked G, is indicating ; if 
it is, it will be necessary to wait an interval of time, the maximum of 
which is ten seconds, until it returns to the zero mark. When it is 
at the zero mark the button A is pushed in, and after another interval, 
the maximum of which is ten seconds, the revolution-hand begins to 
move and stops at the figure corresponding to the number of revo- 
lutions being made per minute, and remains there until B is pushed 
in, when it returns to zero ready for another indication. It is thus 
seen that before a reading can be taken, an interval of time between 
thirty and ten seconds is required ; it is not necessary, however, to 




30 
PI 

< 

o 

r 

m 
O 

H 

O 

z 






? 






>c 
























o V 





94 ELECTRICAL COUNTER. 

Stand by the register, as, after the button A is pushed in, the hand will 
remain at the point at which it stops until returned to zero by B. 

On the register for the bridge the direction-hand is made large 
and a lever C added, by means of which it may alone be kept in the 
circuit and indicate continuously as long as desired. To the engine- 
room register are connected in addition, by means of a switch, 
circuits from the various auxiliary engines, so that their revolutions 
may be taken singly or in succession when desired. 

The ideal revolution indicator is, of course, one that will show at 
a glance at any time the number of revolutions the engine is making, 
but of all of these that the writer knows of or has imagined, none 
seems to be practicable or sufficiently accurate. On the other hand, 
the apparatus here described is positive in action and accurate, and, 
from the simplicity of its parts, litde liable to get out of order. 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 



THE ORGANIZATION AND DUTIES OF TRIAL BOARDS 
FOR OUR NEW CRUISERS. 

By Lieutenant J. C. Wilson, U. S. Navy. 

The writer was recently ordered as a member of a trial board on one of our 
new cruisers, and remembering his hazy ideas concerning what his duties 
might embrace, believes that a discussion based on knowledge gained by him 
in the performance of this duty might prove interesting as well as instructive 
to officers who have not as yet had any such experience. 

This discussion is not a description of any actual proceedings, but merely 
how, in light of my experience, I think that trial boards for our new cruisers 
should be organized, and how the trial should be conducted. 

As thousands of dollars depend upon the result of these trials, and much 
rivalry and competition exist betwe'en contractors, it becomes very important 
that the results should be not only accurately determined, but that the methods 
of obtaining them should be as nearly identical in all cases as circumstances 
will permit. For this reason it would seem that, were a general order issued 
concerning the organization and methods governing the procedure of such 
boards, it would tend to uniformity of reports, and be of great assistance to the 
board in conducting the trials. 

The precept accompanying the orders calls attention to the most important 
points to be determined, leaving the method of determining them to the discre- 
tion of the board. This may seem at first thought a very simple thing to 
do, but my experience convinced me that the method of conducting the trial 
of a cruiser should be well considered and planned beforehand. 

It is important that the board meet and organize at the earliest practicable 
date, and organization and proceedings should be based on the rules governing 
" Courts of Inquiry."* 

The orders and precept should be read and carefully discussed, so that no 
matters of detail will be left in doubt. All officers that have been connected 
with the construction or fitting out of the vessel to be tried, as well as the 
officers ordered to duty in anticipation of going in commission with her, should 
be invited to appear before the board and give the members the benefit of their 
knowledge and views concerning the vessel. The contractors, also, should be 
invited to appear, or send a representative for the same purpose. 

Committees should then be appointed, and the senior members instructed 
that the report of their committees would be expected before the vessel-was ready 
for her trial trip, in order that any serious defect or departure from contract, 
etc., could be known before her trial trip. It is possible, but not probable, that 
something might exist which would render it impossible to accept the vessel, 
even though she proved successf.ul as to speed. It would probably be con- 
venient to appoint four committees : 

* Five members and a recorder (who need not be a member) would seem to be as large a board as 
convenient for working purposes. As many assistants as necessary could be ordered; but not 
counting work in engine-room, not more than eight officers will be required on deck; if no angles 
are to be taken, six will be enough. 



96 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

1. To determine whether the vessel is sufficiently strong to carr)' armament, 
ammunition and all necessary stores. This committee should take charge of, 
and carry on tests for strength and manoeuvring qualities, as hereinafter 
described. 

2. To determine whether the hull and fittings are strong and well built and 
in accordance with contract, plans, drawings and specifications, and to duly 
authorize changes in the same. 

3. To determine whether the machinery and appurtenances are strong, etc. 
(At least one member of this committee should be in the engine-rooms during 
the trial.) 

4. To keep a record of all expenses connected with the trial trip. 
Committees Nos. 2 and 3 will find their duties very comprehensive and 

requiring much attention. It involves, first, a close examination of contract, 
plans, drawings and specifications, and an overhauling of all correspondence 
relative to changes. The superintending naval constructor should furnish 
these committees with copies of the specifications, with all authorized changes 
entered, and with these for guides, the committees must find out, as far as 
practicable by investigation and inspection, whether or not the vessel is strong 
and well built and in accordance with contract, etc, and duly authorized 
changes. 

Committee No. 4 should, as soon as possible, commence enquiries concern- 
ing the expenses connected with the trial trip, and to do this should require 
the contractors to furnish them with a pay-roll of vessel as ready for trial. 
They should ascertain how many persons are to go on the trial trip, and agree 
with contractors on a rate per diem for such persons ; and no others should be 
permitted on the vessel during the trip. With the pay-roll, quantity and price 
of coal, list and prices of all necessary stores, rates per diem for subsistence, 
allowance for bedding, linen, crockery, etc., there would be no subsequent 
trouble about the expenses to be allowed. The reports of the sub-committees 
having been reviewed and discussed, the board is ready to proceed with the 
trial trip.* 

If practicable, the vessels to take current observations should be in or near 
their stations at least one day before the trial is to commence. A day's practice 
in observing the currents would be beneficial. One should be anchored exactly 
on the range at one end of the course, and at a previously determined distance 
from the shore signal (about 100 yards inside of the line of the course), and 
the other similarly on the range at the other end of the course. Two vessels 
will be enough, as the steam launches of these vessels could be anchored on 
the line joining the two vessels, each ten miles distant from its own vessel. I 
see no reason why these launches could not be anchored in any water likely to 
be found on any trial course, and in any weather favorable for a trial trip. If 
the water was very deep, a wire and light grapnel could be used. The vessels 
and launches should make as much black smoke as possible, so as to serve as 
a guide for the vessel on trial to steer by during the run. If practicable, signals 
should be erected on shore at convenient distances sufficiently close and dis- 
tinct for triangulating from the vessel during the trial run. The " range 
signals " should be particularly high and well defined. An accurate projection 
of the course, shore line and signals, on a good working scale, should be at 
hand. Three independent sets of observers should be detailed (each set con- 
sisting of two members), and stationed forward, amidships and aft. One 
observer of each set should observe when the vessel crosses the range lines, 
and the other to observe and record the times. There should also be one 
observer to keep an accurate record of the courses steered by standard com- 

*It may happen that the contractors report the vessel ready before the preliminary work of the 
board is completed ; but enough would have been determined to know whether the vessel could be 
accepted if successful on her trial, and the details left until after this trip. As a rule, however, the 
work of examination could be completed before the vessel would be ready for" trial," and as it is im- 
portant that this should be so, the board should be ordered long enough in advance to make this 
practically certain. 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 97 

pass, direction, force of wind, sea, etc. If the course is staked out along 
the shore by signals, as suggested, there should be two observers with sextants 
to angle on the signals, and so keep the course the vessel was making graphi- 
cally plotted. The commander of the vessel should be cautioned to make a 
long enough sweep after crossing the second range to enable him to come on 
the line as near as possible where he crossed it. This is important, particu- 
larly on account of current effects. Accurate observations of wind and sea 
should be recorded. Each set of observers' record times of crossing ranges 
from their stations and the mean of the three time-intervals (corrected for 
chronometer rates) should be taken as the correct time-interval. Chronometers 
should be compared before and after trial. 

As soon as the trial is over the board should meet to consider data. The 
length of the course has presumably been determined and officially reported 
to the board. The average strength and direction of current should have been 
signaled as the vessel on trial passed the current observers, so that a close 
approximation for current allowance could be made immediately after the run. 
It is a question whether or not allowance should be made for poor steering. 
Where the increase in the length of the course, due to poor steering, can be 
accurately determined, I am of the opinion that it should be allowed, as it does 
not seem just that the vessel should be credited with a less speed than she is 
known to have made. With care, and the course marked by the current- 
observing vessels, there should be no allowance necessary on account of 
broken course ; but as a broken course may be made, the question of allow- 
ance should be decided by the Department and embraced in the "General 
Instructions." 

Correction for Current.* 

a, b, c, </, zz strength of current per hour (reduced to direction of course), 
observed at stations during run of vessel with current. 
a\ b', c', d', ■=. same during run of vessel against current. 

Then —^ — "*" '^ "'" ■=. C-=z average strength of current per hour during run 
4 
with current. 

■=. C z=. average strength of current per hour during run 

against current. 

i in time running with current. 

/^i^time running against current. 

Zzr length of course. 

t -\- l^zz. T, total elapsed time running over course. 

Then t y, C r= effect of current on vessel during run with current. 

^''X C''rz effect of current on vessel during run against current. 

Then L — (/" X C) z=.d ■=. distance run over with current. 

-^ 4" (^'' X C') r= (f^ rz distance run over against current. 
d -^ d^ z=.D-=. total distance run over by vessel. 

As soon as the speed has been approximately determined, the representa- 
tive of the contractors should be called in and informed of the speed made, 
and asked whether or not he was satisfied with the trial. If so, he should then 
be informed of the nature of the tests required, and requested to be ready for 
them at as early a date as possible. 

In the meantime the fire and steam pumps should be tested, as well as th 
water-tight doors, valves, battle-hatches, etc In fact, everything on the vessel 
which can be put to a practical test. 

Being ready for steering gear and engine tests, the vessel should be put to 

* Having corrected the length of course for current and steering, and ascertained the correct 
elapsed time, the speed equals ^ . (Corrected length of course\ 
'^ ^ T \ Corrected lapsed time. / 



98 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

sea, aad the strength of hull, fittings, etc., be determined by inspection while 
under way, the following tests being considered desirable, not only to deter- 
■ ' 'he strength of hull and fittings, but to demonstrate the manoeuvring 
ies of vessel. 



mine the 
qualiti 

First Set of Tests — (Steering Wheels, Helm, etc.). 

A. With steam wheel in pilot-house. Both engines going ahead full speed 

( knots). Order " Hard-a-starboard." Time to put helm hard over (number 

of degrees). Time to complete half-circle. Time to complete full circle. 

B. Ship still turning with starboard helm (full speed). Order " Steady," 
" Hard-a-port." Time to put helm hard over (number of degrees), during 

which the vessel fell off ° to port, and started to go to starboard in 

seconds. 

C. Steam wheel in conning tower. Going ahead with both engines full speed 

( knots). Order " Hard-a-port " and " Back starboard engine." Time to 

put helm hard over (number of degrees). Time for engine to commence 
backing. Time to complete half-circle. Time to complete full circle. 

D. Steam wheel on quarterdeck. Going ahead full speed with both engines 

( knots). Order " Hard-a-starboard," " Back port engine." Time to put 

helm hard over (number of degrees). Time for engine to commence backing. 
Time to complete half-circle. Time to complete full circle. 

E. Hand wheel on quarterdeck (number of men on wheel). Same as //, with 
time to change from steam to hand gear. 

F. Steam wheel in steering-room. Same as A, with time to change from 
hand to steam gear. 

G. Hand wheel in steering-room same as E. 

Second Set of Tests. 

A. Going ahead full speed with both engines ( knots). Signal " Back." 

Engines commence to back. Vessel stopped ( time), in a distance 

(number of yards), (distance to be ascertained by a chip-log with a very light 
line, which cannot possibly interfere with working of screws if caught). 
Engines backing full speed (time), (revolutions). 

B. Ship backing full speed. Signal "Ahead full speed." Engines com- 
mence going ahead. Ship stopped (time). Ship going ahead (time). Engine 
going ahead full speed (time), (revolutions). 

The trial of the vessel being over, the board should meet to discuss the 
report, the proceedings being governed by the rules for " Courts of Inquiry." 
The written report should give a full record of proceedings, and all data 
obtained, with conclusion of board. A list of work still remaining incom- 
pleted by contractors should be appended, and also the probable time neces- 
sary to complete the vessel ready to be accepted by the Government. 

When the latter fact has been reported to the Department by the contractors, 
the board should be ordered to convene again to report whether or not the 
vessel was in every particular ready for acceptance. 

The work of the board being completed, they adjourn sine die to await action 
of convening authority. 



REVIEWS. 



Almanack der Kriegs-flotten, 1891. With 134 cuts of armored vessels. 
Published by Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens. 

Part I. is devoted to tables of measures and weights, and reduction tables 
for the English and metric systems. 

Part II. Artillery of the different fleets. This comprises tables of the details 
of all classes of great guns, projectiles, charges, initial velocities, striking 
energy, and penetration, including all kinds of ordnance in use in the navies 
of Europe and of the United States ; Krupp guns, their construction and bal- 
listic data ; Armstrong guns of late construction ; Canet guns ; machine-guns ; 
rapid-fire guns. These tables are revised and based upon the latest data. 

Part III. List of vessels of the navies of the world, giving the dimensions, 
horse-power, armor, armament, speed, material, dates of launching ; followed 
by 134 cuts of armored vessels. H. G. D. 

Domestic Steels for Naval Purposes. By Lt.-Comr. J. G. Eaton, U. S. N. 
Printed in the Proceedings of the Society of Arts, 1889-1890, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 

The author begins with a short history of the steel manufacture in the 
United States, showing the marvellous development in the manufacture of 
domestic steels which has taken place within the last eight years, owing to 
the impetus received when Congress authorized the construction of our four 
first ships of mild steel of domestic manufacture. 

A thorough account is given of the rigid inspection and various tests required 
prior to acceptance of material by the Government, the author dwelling at 
length upon this important feature. The use of steel in manufacture of boiler 
plates and stays, engines, anchors and chains, steel rigging, and especially in 
the construction of guns, is described, and the establishment of a high stand- 
ard is shown to be the result of the Government inspection and requirements. 

H. G. D. 

Role and Organization of Sea-coast Batteries. By V. Fabre, Captain, 
French Artillery. Translated by First Lieut. E. M. Weaver, 2d U. S. 
Artillery. Published by Artillery School Press. 

The translation appears in a 62-page pamphlet. The subject is divided into 
three parts : Part I. Role and organization of sea-coast batteries, showing the 
influence of altitude on batteries from defensive and offensive points of view, 
and the distinction between battering and bombarding batteries. Part 11. A 
general review of the development of marine armor. Part III. Defense of the 
sea-coast. H. G. D. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 



MITTHEILUNGEN AUS DEM GEBIETE DES SEEWESENS. 

Volume XVIII, Nos. VIII and IX. Late researches in ocean- 
ography (continued), by Captain C. v. Berman. Steamship com- 
panies and the auxihary service. 

An interesting article on the organization of an auxiliary service. The 
writer, in view of the fact that in time of war fast merchant steamers will be 
called into service as transports, supply-ships, and armed cruisers, dwells 
upon the necessity of a thorough organization, on the importance of contracts 
between the steamship companies and the Government, of the payment of 
subsidies. He advocates that in the construction of merchant steamers atten- 
tion be paid to details in view of the ulterior purpose for which they will be 
used in time of war — armament, equipment, and supplies to be ready at all 
times; officers and crews, how to be selected; steamship companies to form 
auxiliary bureaus under the Government ; gstablishment of depots. 

Lessons from the English fleet-manoeuvres, by Vice-Admiral C. 
Mayne, R. N. Electricity on war-ships, by S. Dana Green. The 
spontaneous ignition of coal cargoes, by Prof Vivian B. Lewes. On 
the under-water launching of automobile torpedoes in the line of the 
keel, and on some pending questions regarding torpedoes, by Julius 
Heinz. The Chinese navy. Budget of the royal and imperial navy 
lor 1891. Floating of the Lloyds steamship Arciduchessa Carlotta. 
English protected cruiser Blenheim. Japanese cruiser Tschiyoda. 
Coast defenses of the United States. The English armored sliip 
Sultan. Alterations in the new cruiser-type Centaur. The Victoria 
torpedo. Trials with a torpedo-cruiser of the "Turnabout " system. 
Official trials of the submarine boat Peral. Libbrecht's smokeless 
powder. Late trials of the Brennan torpedo. Test of the armor- 
plates of the Chilian man-of-war Capitan Prat. A Swedish hydro- 
graphic expedition. Steamer Oriel of the Russian volunteer fleet. 
Unsuccessful attempts to fire dynamite from ordinary guns. 

Volume XVIII, No. X. Late researches in oceanography (con- 
clusion). Incidents and phenomena attending the release of com- 
pressed air, by Dr. P. Salcher. Launching of the Austro-Hungarian 
torpedo-ram Kaiserin Elisabeth. Contracts for the new armored 
and protected cruisers of the United States. Trial trip of the U. S. S. 
Philadelphia. Institution of torpedo companies in Russia. Tests of 
Schneider plates. Introduction of semaphores on English vessels. 
A new steam life-boat. On submarine vessels. Holmer's collision- 
cloth for stopping leaks. Duinker's boat-hoisting device. List & 
Dick's compound propeller-blade. E. Berg's engine-room signalling 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. lOI 

apparatus. Alarm belt-cable for the protection of men-of-war at 
anchor. The submarine boat Peral. The English torpedo-depot 
vessels Vulcan and Hecla. Association technique maritime. Stipu- 
lations for the delivery of steel tubes. Trials of the Sims-Edison 
torpedo. Deep-sea dredge. Use of oil in smoothing the sea. 
Prizes for best method of using oil in smoothing the sea. Employ- 
ment of balloons in the French navy. Signal communications 
between men-of-war and merchant vessels. 

Volume XVIII, No. XI. On lighting of coasts, by A. Frh. v. 
Koudelka. Smokeless powder. 

An interesting view of the probable effect of smokeless powder on naval 
warfare. Fleet engagements in which non-smokeless powder is used are 
compared with those in which the smokeless powder is the agent, and the 
comparative advantages and disadvantages are brought out. The importance 
of concerted action, fleet tactics, and skilful manoeuvring is enhanced, mere 
chance playing a minor part. The " bataille range" will be the result. The 
effects on the action of torpedo-boats, combats between cruisers, and attacks 
upon coast or harbor defenses are also discussed, and the whole question is 
treated in such a lucid and interesting manner as to suggest vital changes in 
naval battles of the future. 

Tests at the steel works of F. Krupp with the 29-cm. howitzer. 
Budget of the French navy for 1891. Budget of the Swedish navy 
for 1 89 1. Budget of the Danish navy, 1890 to 1891. Experiences 
of naval warfare, i860 to 1889. The French cruiser Le C^cile. 
Firing tests against a captive balloon in Russia. Boat-davits, Rees. 
Improvements in the dynamite gun. Manipulation of water-tight 
doors in the United States navy. Budget of the Norwegian navy, 
1890 to 1891. Boiler tests of torpedo-boats. The Giffard rifle. 
Experiments with cordite. Launch of the Spanish cruiser Infanta 
Maria Teresa. Experiments with a captive balloon in the German 
navy. Classification and naming of the men-of-war of the United 
States. Launch of the English tug Asp. Triple-screw cruiser for 
the United States. Rules for ships' boilers. 

Volume XVIII, No. XII. The English and French fleet man- 
oeuvres, 1890, by Ferd. Attlmayr. On the requirements of ocean 
steamers, especially as regards their machinery, by J. Fassl. Com- 
petitive armor tests in America. Reorganization of the artillery and 
torpedo bureaus in France. The defense of Paris by floating bat- 
teries. The Victoria torpedo. Electric motors for rapid-firing 
guns. Japanese coast-defense vessels, type Itsu Rusima. The 
Chilian torpedo-gunboat Almirante Condell. About the Turkish 
navy. Literary notices : The coast and courts of Asia, by Lieu- 
tenant L. V. Jedina. European armies of the present times, by Her- 
mann Vogt. H. G. D. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, 
1889-1890, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 

Biological water analysis, by Prof. W. T. Sedgwick. The history 
and theory of cohesive construction as applied especially to the 



I02 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

Timbrel vault, by Mr. Raphael Guastavino. The kriegsspiel as 
practiced in America ; its object and place in military science, and 
its relations to military and naval manoeuvres, by Major W. R. 
Livermore. The history and theory of cohesive construction as 
applied especially to the Timbrel vault, by Mr. Raphael Guastavino. 
The development of magazine-guns for army use, by Capt. A. H. 
Russell, U. S. A. 

A short history of magazine-guns, and enumeration of the magazine-guns in 
use, with 22 cuts. 

The physical properties of iron and steel at higher temperatures, 
by Mr. James E. Howard. Combination voltmeter and ammeter for 
electrical measurements, by Mr. Anthony White. Domestic steels 
for naval purposes, by Lieut.-Comdr. J. G. Eaton, U. S. N. (400th 
meeting, 1890, February 27). The application of storage batteries 
to street-car propulsion, bv Col. E. Hewins. Experiments with alter- 
nating currents, by Prof. Elihu Thomson. 

ANNALEN DER HYDROGRAPHIE UND MARITIMEN METEOR- 
OLOGIE. 

i8th Annual Series, Volume I. Influence of the velocity of 
the wind on dimensions of ocean waves, by Dr. C. Borgen. Deter- 
mination of deviation of the compass by observations of the sun, 
moon, or other heavenly bodies, without knowledge of time, latitude, 
declination, variation, or even of the heavenly body observed, by F. 
Sohnke. Report of Captain C. Green of the German bark Eliza- 
beth, voyage from Alias Straits to Isabela, Isabela to Manila, Ma- 
nila to Sunda Straits. Taudjong Priok. Exceptionally heavy squall 
on southeast coast of Africa. Report of Capt. G. Schumacher of 
the German bark Augustina, voyage from Newcastle, N. S.W., 
through Torres Straits to Saigon. Currents, temperatures, and spe- 
cific gravity of surface water in Gulf of Aden. On currents in Chinese 
waters, by Captain P. A. Polack. Wind velocities on German coast. 
Minor notices: Description of a waterspout ; Current observations 
in North Atlantic ocean; Remarks on the Bay of Ambrizette, west 
coast of Africa ; Landmarks for Angra Pequena ; Remarks on Mon- 
goli, Roumania, Black Sea; Trip of a twin-screw steamship across 
the Atlantic with one screw; Bottle-post from Sophie and Nixe. 

Volume II. On classification of chronometers. Sailing direc- 
tions for entering Cameroon river. Extracts from the log of Captain 
Deeken, schooner Sagterland ; the Roccas ; the bar of the Rio 
Grande ; the harbor of Macau ; voyage from Macau to Rio Grande 
do Sul ; Porto Alegre. Report of Captain Albrand of German bark 
Emma Romer ; voyage from Indian ocean to Macassar. Soundings 
off the west coast of Africa. Soundings in Atlantic ocean, about the 
West Indies. The winds at Keitum, Island of Silt. Contributions 
to the history of meteorology. Minor notices : Use of oil for quiet- 
ing the sea, tried on board H. M. S. litis ; Floating buoys on west 
coast of North America ; Ice on northwest coast of Alaska ; Piloting 
at Sulina, Roumania. Tables. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES, IO3 

Volume III. Contributions to navigation in the neighborhood of 
the Marshall and Gilbert Islands, by Commander Credner. On the 
approaches to the mouth of the Congo River. Extracts from the 
log of Captain Hansi of the bark Levuka. Daily changes in the 
deviation of the compass caused by solar heat. On the forms of 
cyclones (with plate), by E. Knipping, of Tokio. Quarterly weather 
review. Measurements of velocity of winds at different heights. 
Minor notices : Use of oil in quieting the seas ; Sailing directions for 
Port of Spain, Trinidad ; Obstructions in the Northeast Passage, 
Canary Islands ; Passage of Sombok Straits ; Bottle-posts from differ- 
ent vessels. 

Volume IV. Remarks on the sailing directions for the China 
seas, by Captain Ascher of H. M. S. litis. Remarks on navigation 
in the Bismark Archipelago ; Lord Howe and Solomon Islands. 
Extracts from log of Captain Reinicke of the bark Triton, on harbors 
in Australia and New Zealand. The volcanic island Falcon of the 
Tonga group. Sailing directions for the Bissagos Islands. Ocean- 
ography, observations in the North Sea. Soundings in the Indian 
Ocean, Bay of Bengal, and in the Pacific Ocean (Coral Sea). Quart- 
erly weather review (continuation). Minor notices : Meteorological 
reports from the log of Captain Leopold of the bark Wega ; Cur- 
rents off the coast of Dalmatia and Montenegro ; Harbor improve- 
ments in the island of Corfu; Depths of water in the harbor of Port 
Mula, Virginia Islands; Remarks on the harbor of Santos, Brazil, 
and on Ceiba, Honduras; Currents off the island of Upolu, Samoa; 
Banks of Manpango, South China Sea ; Bottle-posts from different 
vessels. 

Volume V. Report on the new American charts, gnomonic pro- 
jections, for great-circle sailing, by Dr. G. D. E. Weyer. Remarks 
on the inland sea of Japan, and on Hakata-Fukuoka, Kiusiu, by Cap- 
tain Ascher of H. M. S. litis. Extracts from the log of Captain 
Henne of the bark Papa ; meteorologic conditions in Punta Arenas ; 
the Baker Island in the Pacific Ocean. Sailing directions for north- 
east coast of Emperor William's Land, for the Los Islands, and the 
Dubreka River (west coast of Africa). The north coast of Alaska, 
between Point Barrow and Mackenzie Bay. Rain-fall on theSamoan 
Islands. Minor notices: The anchorage of Conakry, Los Islands, 
Senegambia; Harbor improvements in Buenos Ayres and La Plata ; 
Sailing directions for the harbor of El Portillo, Cuba; Remarks on 
Makalleh, Gulf of Aden ; Anchorage at Cochin; The Paracel Islands ; 
Anchorage in the harbor of Amoy. 

Volume VI. Hydrographic observations on the west coast of 
Africa, on a voyage of H. M. S. Hyane from Capetown to Cameroon. 
Remarks on the east coast of Africa between Mafia channel and 
Kipumbwe reef, from the log of H. M. S. Schwalbe, Captain Hirsh- 
berg. On some ports on the coast of Costa Rica, by Captain Gille. 
Sailing directions for the north coast of Emperor William's Land 
(conclusion), and for the harbor of Memel. Ice in the North Atlantic 



I04 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

in the spring of 1890. Quarterly weather review (10 charts). Minor 
notices : On the use of oil for quieting the seas ; Currents off the 
coast of Dalmatia ; On the anchorage in Valle Malaluka, Dalmatia ; 
On the anchorages of the island Merak, Java ; Straits of Sunda ; 
Reefs and anchorages at Sumenep, southeast coast of Madura 
Island ; Sickness after eating fish. Tables and charts. 

Volume VII. Studies on the effect of the moon on the weather, 
by Dr. G. Meyer. On various bays and harbors of the Samoan 
Islands, by Captain Herbing of H. M. S. Sophie. Report of Cap- 
tain Bruhn of the ship J. Steffen, on the voyage from Guayaquil to 
the Gulf of Tehuantepec, with remarks on Rosario and Guelagichi. 
Description of the Kermadec Islands. Soundings in the North 
Pacific Ocean, off the west coast of America. Meteorologic observa- 
tions in the roadstead and harbor of Cameroon, 1888 and 1889. The 
West Indian hurricane of September, 1888. Minor notices: On the 
effect of oil on the seas ; Prizes for experiments with oil in smooth- 
ing the seas; On currents in the Bay of Biscay; Remarks on the 
Bay of Independencia and Port Permejo, Peru ; Remarks on the 
islands of St. Matthew and St. Lawrence, west coast of Alaska ; On 
a tedious voyage from Singapore to Anjer ; Bottle-post from different 
vessels. 

Volume VIII. The winds at Keitum, Island of Silt, by Dr. H. 
Meyer. Remarks on the harbors of Apia, Saluafata, and Pago Pago. 
The west coast of Africa between Wadi Draa and Cape Juby. Sound- 
ings in the North Pacific. Report of the thirteenth series of com- 
petitive tests of chronometers at the German observatory, 1889-1890. 
A new method of proving storm predictions, and results of the storm 
predictions on the German coast in 1889, by Dr. W. J. Van Bebber. 
Quarterly weather review, spring of 1886 (conclusion). Minor notices : 
On the use of oil for quieting the seas; Changes in the currents of 
the Indian Ocean; Current off the southeast coast of Nipon, between 
Yokohama and Oosima; Remarks on the Gulf of Patras, Ionian 
Sea ; Remarks on La Guayra, Venezuela ; Harbor improvements of 
Puerto de la Plata ; The harbor of Quellon, Chili ; The establish- 
ment of the correct geographic positions of several places in Chili ; 
The non-existence of the Wolverine bank and Vibilia rocks, between 
the Tonga and Kermadec islands; Bottle-post from H. M. S. Sophie. 

Volume IX. Observations of H. M. S. Sophie in the Bismarck 
Archipelago. Report of Captain Fesenfeldt of the iron bark 
Auguste, on his voyage from Shields to Sta. Rosalia (Lower Cali- 
fornia), and to Astoria and Portland (Oregon). Remarks on the 
settlement of St. Michaels, and the Stuart and Port Clarence islands, 
Alaska. The Comora Islands. Navigation of the lower Seine. The 
storm of April 25-26, 1890, by Dr. W. J. Van Bebber. Determina- 
tion of magnetic elements at forty stations in northwestern Germany 
(extract). Minor notices : Use of oil at sea ; On the locust swarms 
of the Red Sea ; On the relative levels of waters bounding Europe ; 
Sailing directions for Port au Prince, Cuba ; Determination of longi- 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES, IO5 

tudes of Puerto Plata, Santa Ana, La Guayra ; Remarks on various 
places on the west coast of Africa ; Decrease of depths in Whale 
Bay, Africa ; Position of islands off west coast of Zealous Island, 
Baker group, Patagonia; Remarks on islands in the Straits of 
Magellan ; Haberton harbor and Beagle channel, South America ; 
The roadstead of Panama ; Salaverry, Tumbez river, Buena and 
Mejillones coves, in Peru ; Darwin Channel and several harbors in 
the Chonos Archipelago, Chili ; The breakwater at Colombo, 
Ceylon ; Cyclones on the west coast of India and in the Arabian 
Sea; Swatow ; Matautu and Savai, Samoan Islands; Newly-dis- 
covered islands northeast of Sunday Island, South Pacific, north- 
east of New Zealand. H. G. D. 

DEUTSCHE HEERES ZEITUNG. 

November 15, 1890. Ammunition supply in the French army. 

November ig. Ammunition supply in the French army (con- 
tinued). The ballistics of the Lebel gun. Electric signalling appa- 
ratus for ships. 

November 22. Proposed changes in tactics. Ammunition supply 
in the French army (concluded). Direction indicator for ships. 
Launch of the Russian men-of-war Gangut and Hong-Hudd, 

November 29. The French territorial army. 

December 3. The French territorial army (continued). Budget 
of the fleet, 1891 to '92. 

December 6. The French territorial army (concluded). River 
and air torpedoes. 

December 10. Firing drill for field artillery. 

The launch of the ' 25. de Mayo' at Elswick : 

A speed of 21.237 knots with 9000 H. P. was attained, and 22.43 knots with 
forced draft, and 13,800 H. P. developed. Coal capacity, 600 tons. 

December 13-17. Krupp's firing tests. What shall we do with 
Heligoland ? 

December 27. The cruiser Le C6cile. The cruiser Infanta 
Maria Teresa. 

January i, 1891. Open letter on the fortifying of Heligoland, by 
R. Wagner. 

January 3. The German auxiliary cruisers. 

The estimated number of auxiliary cruisers of the Triple Alliance is 32, of 
which 19 belong to Germany, being vessels of the Hamburg-American Packet 
Co., and of the North German Lloyd, with tonnages ranging from 4000 to 
10,000, speed from 18 to 20 knots. The intended armament for each auxiliary 
cruiser is eight 15 cm. guns, four 12.5 cm. guns, two 8.8 cm. guns, two 56 mm. 
R. F. guns, six revolving cannon, eight Catlings. The vessels are to carry 115 
rounds for the 15 cm. guns, 210 rounds for the lighter calibers, 1200 rounds for 
R. F. and machine-guns, besides two torpedo-launches and eight torpedoes. 

The auxiliary fleet of Italy at present consists of eight steamers, of tonnage 
from 1046 to 4826, and 16 to 18 knots speed. Armament of each, two 12 cm. 
and four 3.7 cm. R. F. guns. 



I06 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

The torpedo-boat question. 

A short review of the torpedo question, with an enumeration of the torpedo- 
boats of Germany and France. German}' possesses 6 division boats (250-350 
tons), 48 Schichau boats (about 37 tons), to be increased to 60 ; 8 Vulcan, 6 
Weser, 2 Thornycroft boats, besides 7 others. France possesses 9 torpilleurs 
de haute-mer (over 100 tons), 14 first-class torpedo-boats (60-ico tons), 83 
second-class boats (40-60 tons), 41 third-class boats (20-40 tons), 6 torpedo- 
launches of less than 20 tons ; total, 23 cruising or sea-boats and 130 coast- 
defenders. Attention is forcibly called to the manifold advantages of torpedo 
transport vessels of the English Vulcan type, of about 7000 tons, 21 knots 
speed, well armed and carrying 8 second-class torpedo-boats, fully equipped 
for service, which can be launched by means of steam cranes in a few minutes. 
Owing to the seaworthiness and high speed of such vessels they can keep up 
with the fleet at all times, in any weather, which cannot be said of the torpedo- 
boats. Heretofore, when long sea-voyages have been undertaken by torpedo- 
boats, there has always been more or less anxiety evinced, and their safe 
arrival looked upon as an event. When carried on a large transport vessel 
they are safe, and will reach their destination in greatly less time without 
exhausting the crew. The Tyne accompanied four Yarrow boats on a trip 
from Plymouth to Bermuda recently ; the trip took 25 days. The Vulcan, car- 
rying twice the number of boats, can make the same trip in eight or nine days, 
and with crews fresh and ready for action. 

The tactics in action for the torpedo-depot and transport vessel will proba- 
bly be to remain outside of the melee, having the boats ready, the commander 
deciding when and where to attack the enemy. Rather than take part at once 
in the engagement, it will be safe to await a favorable moment to make a 
decisive attack, the point of attack being communicated to each boat and 
everything directed from the depot-vessel ; two boats to be kept in reserve. 
The objective point of attack being settled upon, the boats are sent out, with 
instructions to return, if possible, after carrying out the attack. Of course, 
each boat-commander has authority to take advantage of opportunities offered 
for other operations, but it must be borne in mind that the operations can be 
much better determined upon and directed from the torpedo-depot vessel than 
from the closed boats, especially as she takes up her position outside of the 
melee. The vessel is the refuge and depot of the boats. They return to her 
after the action, or when their ammunition is exhausted. The two boats in 
reserve are close at hand to lend aid to any hard-pressed vessel, and to pro- 
tect their own vessel against an attack by one of the enemy's protected cruisers. 
England is building three vessels similar to the Vulcan, liut other nations have 
not yet made the experiments. 

January 7. Establishment of military telephone stations. Sta- 
tions of the English fleet in i8go. The present fleet of Portugal. 

H. G. D. 

FRANKLIN INSTITUTE JOURNAL. 

December, 1890. The product of the Eureka Tempered Copper 
Company. The manufacture of tin plate. A new theory of the 
propagation of waves in liquids. 

January, 1891. Electricity: its past, present and future. The 
continuous girder. 

JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES. 
September, i8go. The electrical transmission of power. 
October, 1890. Photography applied to surveying. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES, lOy 

THE STEVENS INDICATOR. 

October, 1890. The fabrication of 12-inch mortars. Water 
analysis to determine scale-forming ingredients. Notes on the action 
of lubricants. A comparison of cut-off gear and link motion. Trac- 
tive force in the locomotive. J. K. B. 

THE ENGINEER. 

Volume XX, No. 9. Progress in aluminium. The process of 
steam in its development of power. Overheated furnace-crowns. 
Safety valves. 

No. 10. The trial of the hydraulic-jet boat Evolution. Steel cast- 
ings. Cylinder condensation. Reports of engine performance. 

No. II. Yarrow's water-tube boiler. Aluminium. Lubricating 
oils. Safety valves. 

No. 12. Coal endurance of cruisers. Resistance of ships. Hy- 
draulic tests for boilers. Triple-screw propulsion. 

Volume XXI, No. i. Lubrication of steam cylinders. Errors in 
boiler testing. Cylinder condensation. 

No. 2. Heat transmission in boilers. Tests for olive oil. Forced 
draught. J. K. B. 

THE ENGINEERING AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 

October, 1890. Electrical transmission of power. The new fast 
cruiser. 

An illustrated description of the new swift cruiser of 7300 tons, otificially 
known as No. 12. 

Steam lines across the Atlantic. The development of armor. A 
new variable blast nozzle. 

November. The launch of the Maine. Electricity in daily life. 
Friction and lubrication of journals. United States naval progress. 
The Army Ordnance Notes. The submarine mine and torpedo in 
harbor defense. Description, and drawings of the engines of the 
triple-screw cruiser No. 12. 

January, 1891. The new geodetic survey of France. The new 
cruiser Tschiyoda for the Japanese navy. Our navy in time of peace. 

J. K. B. 
INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

The Research Committee on marine engine trials. The report upon 
trials of three steamers, Fusi Yama, Colchester, Tartar. J. K. B. 

MECHANICS. 

November, 1890. Electrotechnics, a compilation of rules, tables 
and data. Pumps and pumping machinery. The theory of cen- 
trifugal governors. 



I08 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

December. The Serve boiler tube. 

A compilation of the results in a comparative trial of two boilers of same 
general dimensions, one fitted with the Serve tubes and the other with the 
ordinary tubes. The results show a gain in evaporative capacity of from 11.2 
per cent to 16 per cent in favor of the Serve tubes. The tubes fitted were of 
steel in both cases. The experiments made in France on boilers provided 
with Serve tubes made of brass showed an advantage of about 20 per cent in 
their favor. The apparent advantages of these tubes will probably be offset 
to some extent by their increased cost as compared with the ordinary tubes, 
and by the greater difficulty of cleaning dust and soot from them. 

A special report of the 22d annual convention of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

An account of the business meeting and an abstract of papers read. 

January, 1891. Graphic statics and its application to construc- 
tion pumps and pumping machinery. J. K. B. 

THE STEAMSHIP. 

October, 1890. Adiabatic expansion. 

A deduction of the principal formulae used in working out questions in 
adiabatic expansion. 

The proposed Canadian ship railway. 

A method of connecting Lake Huron and Lake Ontario at Toronto by a ship 
railway, thus shortening about 400 miles of lake navigation between the head 
of the lakes and Montreal. 

The dynamics involved in the lines and speeds of ships. Im- 
proved automatic boat-detaching apparatus. The application of 
electricity to welding. The dangers of coal cargoes. 

A paper read before the Royal United Service Institution on the sponta- 
neous combustion and explosions in coal-bunkers, with suggestions which 
would tend to minimise the risk of spontaneous ignition. 

November. The development of the marine engine. 

A paper by Prof. Seaton before the Iron and Steel Institute of America, in 
which was made a complete survey of the progress in marine engineering dur- 
ing the past fifteen years. 

The Serve patent ribbed boiler-tube. 

January i, 1891. The theory of propulsion and centrifugal-force 
propellers. 

All abstract of paper read before the Institute of Marine Engineers by Mr. 
Thos. Drewry. 

Increased boiler pressures and increased piston speeds. 

J. K. B. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING 
ENGINEERS. 

Volume XVIII, 1890. Notes on the manufacture of open-hearth 
bridge steel. Concentration of low-grade ores. Notes on coals of 
Western Canada. Electrical accumulators or storage batteries. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. IO9 

The peculiar working of a blast furnace. Notes on American cannel 
coal. Aluminium in the drawing press. Aluminium bronze as a 
suitable material for propellers. On the use of aluminium in the 
construction of instruments of precision. Some tests of the relative 
strength of nitro-glycerine and other explosives. The properties of 
aluminium. Notes on fuel gas. The Herault process of smelting 
aluminium alloys. Phosphorus in pig-iron. Steel and iron ores. 

J. K. B. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERS. 

Volume XI. The use of tables of the properties of steam in 
engine experiments. Cost of steam and water power. Cost of 
lubricating car-journals. The philosophy of the multi-cylinder or 
compound engine. Flow of steam through orifices. An experi- 
mental study of the errors of different types of calorimeters. 
Rolling steel rails. A new recording pressure-gauge. How to use 
steam expansively. Graphic analysis of reciprocating motion. 
Comparison of indicators. On the influence of steam-jackets. On 
the performance of a double screw ferry-boat. The theory and 
design of chimneys. Report of the committee on standard tests. 
Report of the committee on standard method of conducting daily 
trials of pumping engines. Tests of several types of engines as 
found in practice. The mechanical theory of chimney-draught. 
Notes on kerosene in steam boilers. The length of an indicator 
card. The effective area of screws. Steam-engine governor. 

J. K. B. 

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NAVAL ENGINEERS. 

November, 1890. Graphic method for determining and counter- 
balancing the centrifugal action of the connecting rod. Ericsson 
compound engine and Belleville boiler. 

Experiments made at the Delamater Iron Works in New York by Chief 
Engineer Isherwood, on a non-condensing, single-acting, compound steam 
engine designed by John Ericsson, and on the Belleville boiler supplying it 
with steam. 

New forms of evaporators. Notes on analysis of engine trials. 
The contract trial of the Philadelphia. The contract trial of the San 
Francisco. A continuation of the discussion on tubular boilers. 

J. K. B. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE NORTH-EAST COAST INSTITUTION OF 
ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS. 

Volume VI, 1890. Notes on the surveying and classification of 
shipping. The construction of marine boilers with a view to the 
use of higher pressure. High-speed engines for cargo boats. Boiler 
furnaces. Marine engines and boilers. Report of the council on 
the horse-power of marine engines. The weight of machinery in 
the mercantile marine. J. K. B. 



no BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Volume CII, 1890. The application of electricity to welding, 
stamping, and other cognate purposes, by Sir F. Bramwell. The 
screw propeller, by S. W. Barnaby. Some applications of electricity 
in engineering workshops, by C. F. Jenkin. Experiments made 
with boiler-plate materials at the Royal College, Berlin. A new 
modification of the open-hearth steel process. J. K. B. 

REVUE DU CERCLE MILITAIRE. 

September 21, 1890. The Annamite language and French influ- 
ence in Indo-China. Fortifications of the St. Gothard, with maps 
and photographic views (continued). The latest improvements in 
the European navies. 

September 28. Notes upon the English army: I. The question 
of armament. Fortifications of the St. Gothard (ended). 

October 5. French influence in Indo-China. The latest improve- 
ments in the European navies (continued). Manoeuvres of the 
IX German Army Corps. 

October 12. The grand manoeuvres in Switzerland. The latest 
improvements in the European navies (continued). 

October 19. Military short-hand writing. The German man- 
oeuvres in Silesia. The latest improvements in the European navies 
(continued). 

October 26. Notes upon the English army: II. England's offen- 
sive power. Success of the Creusot plates in the United States. 

November 9. A critic study of the great German manoeuvres. 
The latest improvements in the European navies (continued). 

November 16. The Austrian manoeuvres in Hungary. The 
latest improvements in the European navies (continued). 

November 23. A visit to the military exhibit in London. 

November 30. The latest improvements in the European navies 
(continued). 

December 7. A visit to the London military exhibition : notes 
and impressions (continued). The latest improvements in the Euro- 
pean navies (continued). 

December 14. A visit to the London military exhibition : notes 
and impressions (ended). 

December 21. French influence in Indo-China (continued). The 
latest improvements in the European navies (continued). 

December 28. French influence in Indo-China (ended). 

January 4, 1891. Training of the foot-soldier in firing on the 
battlefield (continued in the next numbers). 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. Ill 

January i8. The latest improvements in the European navies 
(continued). 

In view of the interest it presents to naval people, this study is deserving of 
more than a passing notice. J. L- 

REVUE MARITIME ET COLONIALE. 

September, 1890. The Italian navy appropriations 1890-91. 
Historical studies of the military marine of France (continued). The 
last operations and ruin of the fleet of Louis XIV. Approximate 
solution of the problem of ballistics for marine guns. The war 
navies of antiquity and mediaeval age (2d part). Studies of com- 
parative naval architecture (continued). Definitive trials of the Peral, 
Spanish navy. 

November. The sea-fisheries in Algeria and Tunis. Notes on 
the formation of incrustation in marine boilers. The war navies of 
antiquity and mediaeval age (see previous number). Naval discus- 
sions in regard to the English manoeuvres of 1889. 

December. Elementary explanation of the influence of the 
earth's rotation upon the Fleuriai's gyroscope. The sea-fisheries in 
Algeria and Tunisia (ended). The war navies of antiquity and 
mediaeval age. Experiments made at Meppen with a plunging fire 
against ships. J. L. 

TRANSACTIONS OF CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

Volume IV, Part I, January-June, 1890. Discussion on Van- 
couver water-works columns, by C. F. Findlay. Generation, dis- 
tribution and measurement of electricity for light and power, by A. 
J. Lawson, with discussion. 

Introduction : Brief history of the development of dynamo electric machines 
for domestic lighting purposes. Showing growth in arc and incandescent 
lighting in America. Electric lighting in Canada, engines, boilers, arc light- 
ing systems, wiring, dynamos, with illustrations. Brush, Thomson-Houston, 
Westinghouse, Edison, Royal Electric Co.'s A. C. Dynamo. Converters, 
meters : Edison's, Avon, Shallenberger. Storage batteries. Private installa- 
tion. Measuring instruments. Electric railways. Street wiring. 

THE UNITED SERVICE GAZETTE. 

October 4, 1890. 

" During the trial of smokeless powder with various types of ordnance, 
which took place during the German manoeuvres, it was found that steel guns 
were injured to a much greater extent by erosion of the bore than bronze guns. 
A proposal has been made to use aluminum bronze for small guns and also for 
liners of heavy guns. This is very likely to be soon tried practically, as Dr. 
Anderson, the Director-General of Ordnance, thinks that aluminum bronze 
might prove valuable for lining guns." 

Naval training. Australasian defense. 

October II. Controlof artillery fire inaction. Naval training, II. 



112 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

October i8. Automobile torpedoes. Important artillery experi- 
ments. 

" Some important experiments were made at Silloth, the artillery range of 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co. The trial was that of a 6-inch quick- 
firing gun of 40 calibers length, on a mounting of new design. Another feature 
of this trial was the use of cordite, the new smokeless gunpowder. A velocity 
of 2669 f. s. was attained with a charge of cordite, with a chamber pressure 
under 20 tons. Comparative tests for rapidity of firing were made with cordite 
and with non-smokeless powders, at targets distant respectively 900, 1400 and 
1800 yards, the results showing the advantage of the smokeless powder. A 
new quick-firing gun of 2.65 inches caliber (throwing a lo-pound projectile) was 
also submitted to a successful trial." 

Chief petty officers. Recruiting. 

October 25. Our first line of defense. 

November i. 

"During the recent manoeuvres of the Italian fleet in the Mediterranean, 
some very successful experiments were made in the employment of carrier 
pigeons for communicating with the mainland. Although the pigeons came 
from the station at Piacenza, and had to fly a considerable distance inland 
after reaching the coast, very few of the birds failed to return to their lofts. 
On arrival at Piacenza the despatches were deciphered and their contents 
telegraphed to the various signalling stations along the coast. Some carrier 
pigeons from the station at Ancona were also sent to the headquarters of the 
army at Montechiaro for employment during the army manoeuvres. These 
birds, after returning to Ancona (190 miles), were sent on over the Apennines 
to Rome, a further distance of 125 miles, and were found on the average to 
cover the whole distance in ten hours, notwithstanding occasional spells of 
bad weather." 

Steam reserve officers. 

November 8. Notes on the Aldershot auxiliary musketry school. 
Captive balloons. Three new French first-class ironclads. The 
protection of ships' crews. 

November 15. Loss of the Serpent. Mounted infantry. Naval 
notes. 

"An important trial of armor-plates has just been concluded at the Govern- 
ment ranges near St. Petersburg. Five shots at each range were fired from a 
35-caliber 6-inch 6-ton gun with Russian Holtzer shell, weighing 91 pounds, at 
350 feet ; first, two rounds with 53 pounds of powder, giving an initial velocity 
of 2000 feet, and then three with 53 pounds and a velocity of 2100 feet. There 
were three plates of 10 inches each, submitted by Messrs. Brown & Co., 
Messrs. Schneider, and Messrs. Vickers. The first of these, a compound 
plate, resisted the first two rounds, the shell remaining embedded in the 
armor, but the last three went clean through it. The Schneider hard-steel 
plate broke up three shells, and only the third penetrated as far as the backing, 
but the plate suffered severely, showing cracks in all corners. The Vickers 
plate, of softer steel, was more deeply penetrated by the shells ;-none of which, 
however, got right through, while the cracks were comparatively insignificant." 

Notes on Aldershot musketry school, II. 

November 22. Entry and training of naval off.cers. Loss of the 
Serpent. The magazine rifle. Protection of ships' crews, 11. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. II3 

November 29. Practice at balloons, I. Launch of the Edgar. 

The Edgar is one of the first-class protected cruisers which are being built 
under the Naval Defense Act. There are eight similar vessels under construc- 
tion. They are of 7350 tons displacement, 360 feet long, 60 feet beam, and 
draw 23 feet 9 inches of water. Their engines to indicate 12,000 H. P. with 
forced draft, 7500 H, P. with natural draft, giving speeds of 20 and 18 knots 
respectively. Coal capacity, 850 tons. Armament, two g-inch 22 ton B. L. 
rifles, ten 6-inch quick-firing rifles, sixteen 6-pounder R. F. guns, three 3- 
pounder and eight machine-guns. Two above-water and two submerged 
torpedo-tubes. Protective deck, greatest thickness five inches. A 6-inch 
steel armor protects the machinery above the water-line. The Edgar has 
vertical engines and twin screws. 

Yarrow torpedo-boat Bathurst. 

December 6. Launch of the Naiad. Protection of our com- 
merce. Trial trips of the Bellona and the Spezzia. Trials with 
armor-piercing projectiles. 

December 13. Fiske's range-finder. The phonograph and its 
adaptation to military uses. Education and training of naval officers. 
Practice at balloons, IL Aerial locomotion. Protection of com- 
merce. Engine-room lieutenants. The Russian Imperial yacht 
Polar Star. 

December 20. Launch of the Pique and the Thetis. The 
Serpent court-martial. Army and navy convalescent and training 
home. Naval notes. Steel cruisers. The magazine rifle, IL Navi- 
gation in the navy. Defense expenditure of the chief powers. 

December 27. Army organization in India. The naval man- 
oeuvres of 1890. The Serpent court-martial. The magazine rifle, 
III. Naval notes. New armament and engines for the Thunderer. 
The official trials of the Spanish ironclad Pelayo, with respect to the 
behavior of Vavasseur-Canet carriages. Experiments on gun-steel at 
low temperatures. 

January 3, 1891. Naval notes: Launch of the Capitan Prat 
(Chilian armor-clad) ; Launch of the Sybille ; Estimates for the 
French navy for 1891 ; Forced draft; The army in 1890; Naval 
retrospect, 1890. 

January 10. The development of modern cavalry action. The 
" Tortoise " wagon-tent. The Vitu expedition. Foreign naval 
progress and construction during 1890, I. Training naval stokers 
(with discussion). 

January 17. Steel as applied to armor plates. Yarrow's tubulous 
boilers. Coaling ships at sea. Foreign naval progress and construc- 
tion during 1890, II. 

January 24. Promotion from the ranks in the navy. Boat- 
hoisting machinery trials. 

January 31. The recruiting difficulty. Liquid fuel. 

H. G. D. 



114 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

LE YACHT. 

September 20, 1890. The mercantile American school-ship 
Saratoga. Naval technical association : reciprocal actions of rudder 
and screw (A. Normand). 

September 27. Trial of the Creusot plates in the United States. 
Trial of the Japanese cruiser Itsuku-Shima. 

October 4. Three new French armored ships. Something 
about the cruiser Le C^cile, of the French navy. 

October ii. A comment on the German naval manoeuvres. 
Italian naval estimates for 1891. Mercantile naval schools. 

October 18. The Creusot and Cammell plates' trials at An- 
napolis. 

October 25. Mercantile naval schools (continued). Trials of 
the third-class cruiser Surcouf, of the French navy. 

November i. The yacht-club of France and the America's cup. 
Launching of the armored cruiser Dupuy-de-L6me. The new Ja- 
panese guard-ships (Itsuku-Shima type). 

November 8. More about the mercantile naval schools. The 
European boards of admiralty. 

November 22. Discussion of the navy budget. 

November 29. The navy. The squadron of evolution and the 
torpedo-boats. The committee of thirty -three. 

December 6. Armored battle-ships of great displacement. 
English cruisers and their armament; the weight and position of 
the guns criticised. Chemical preparation of sea-water for feeding 
marine boilers. 

December 13. Rules governing promotion in the European 
navies. A comparison between the national (French) and foreign 
torpedo-boats. 

December 20. Qualities indispensable to a life-boat. A com- 
parison between the French and foreign torpedo-boats (continued). 

December 27. Government and private dock-yards. A pro- 
peller with plane and removable blades, system Margue. 

January 3, 1891. A review of the navies of the world, by E. 
Weyl. Engines for multiple screws. 

January 10. The second-class cruisers, by E. Weyl, Board of 
the French Yacht; institution of the " Cup of France"; opening 
of a public subscription. Qualities required in a life-boat. 

January 17. National navy: the committee of thirty-three. The 
Newfoundland fisheries. The iio-ton gun of the Sans-Pareil (E. 
W.). Lieut. Fiske new telemeter. J. L. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. II5 

REVISTA MARITIMA BRAZILEIRA. 

August, 1890. Co-operative military. Great ranges of modern 
artillery. The defenses of Bahia. The Peral. A new gun- mount- 
ing (with plate). Notes on naval architecture. Floating dock. 
Pyrodynamics. Naval notes. 

September and October. The schistofone. Pyrodynamics. 
The infancy of nautical science. Notes on naval architecture. 
Various notes. 

REVISTA MILITAR DE CHILE. 

No. 48, September, 1890. Don Federico Errazuriz Ech^urren. 
The Chilian commission to Peru. Establishment of permanent staff. 
Visit to the Krupp gun foundry (concluded). Instructions for 
target-firing (continued). Canet guns and Chilian republic. Gar- 
rison and interior service (continued). The Giffard rifle. Subsist- 
ence for the soldier (continued). 

No. 49, October. The artillery of our new cruisers. The Chilian 
army. Garrison and interior service (continued). A new rifle. 
Desertion in the field or in time of peace. Subsistence for the soldier. 

No. 50, November. What constitutes the reserve of our army ? 
Lieut. -Colonel Don Severo Amengual. Marksman's manual. Mili- 
tary legislation of Spain. Ballistics of the Giflard rifle. Instructions 
for target-firing. Subsistence for the soldier (continued). 

No. 51, December. General Baquedano. Laws for promotion. 
Desertions in time of peace. Records of a commission on the Chilian 
campaigns. On the enlistments in the army corps. Military legis- 
lation of Germany. Competitive firing-tests between Krupp and 
De Bange, at Batuco. Instructions for target-firing. 

REVISTA DE LA UNION MILITAR. 

No. 8, August, 1890. The army. The National Guard. Armies 
of the Independence. Experiments with artillery fire. Tactics of 
firing with magazine rifles. 

No. 9, September and October. The army : military discipline 
and subordination. Tactics of firing with magazine rifles (continued). 
Infantry engagements and open order. Argentine valor. Resist- 
ance of air. Information on the manufacture of powder. 

H. G. D. 
RIVISTA UI ARTIGLIERIA E GENIO. 

October, 1890. Upon the rigorous solution of the problem of 
ballistics, by F. Siacci. Description of the barracks of Passalacqua 
in Novara. The fortifications on the northeast frontier of France. 
The Monier system of building in iron and cement. 

November. The fortifications on the northeast frontier of France 
(concluded). The importance of rapidity in artillery fire in action. 
On lightning conductors. Supplement to the manual of the labora- 
tory of precision. 



Il6 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

December. Ammunition supply to field artillery. Firing with 
time-fuzes. Some notes on military stables. An electric cell with 
circulating fluids. 

RIVISTA MARITTIMA. 

October, 1890. Study on modern naval tactics, by Lieut. G. 
Ronca (continued). Fire-ships and infernal machines in naval warfare 
(historical), by Lieut. Ettore Bravetta (continued). River steam navi- 
gation for transporting the wounded in time of war, by F. Santini and 
F. Home-Rosemberg. A month in the island of Ceylon (continued). 

November, 1890. The launch of the Sardegna, by I. Sigismondi. 
Study on modern naval tactics, by Lieut. G. Ronca (continued). 
Fire-ships and infernal machines in naval warfare (historical), by 
Lieut. Ettore Bravetta (continued). On the use of fresh water on 
board the royal vessels, by N. Soliani. 

Gives full description of the distillers of Normandy and Kirkaldy types, with 
cuts of same. 

Ships and guns. 

December, 1890. Fragments of naval architecture, by Guiseppa 
Rota. 

The author gives experiments on the resistance of ship's under-water body, 
with system adopted to graphically represent the results. Elements of resist- 
ance and propulsion of a vessel when the displacement and draft forward and 
aft are changed, within fixed limits. 

The German merchant marine, by Salvatore Raineri. Electric 
search-light projectors, by L. Pasqualini. The interior of Africa, by 
Ettore Bravetta. Study on modern naval tactics, by Lieut. G. Ronca 
(continued). 

January, 1891. Study on modern naval tactics, by Lieut. G. 
Ronca (continued). The German merchant marine, by Salvatore 
Raineri (continued). Electrical units, by Lieut. A. Pouchain. The 
interior of Africa, by Lieut. Ettore Bravetta (continued). Upon the 
origin of meteorological observations and instruments, by G. Hell- 
man, translated by A. Cancani. New engines for the Sirio, Orione, 
and Perseo. H. G. D. 

REVISTA TECNOLOGICO INDUSTRIAL. 

September, 1890. Transportation and refining of petroleum 
(continued). Theory of the steam engine (continued). 

October. Theory of the steam engine (concluded). History of 
mills. Agricultural plantations. 

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES CAVALRY ASSOCIATION. 

Volume HI, September, 1890, No. 10. With the reserve 
brigade (second paper), by Captain Moses Harris. Troop and 
company pack-trains, by Lieutenant A. A. Cabaniss. A reconnais- 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 1,17 

sance with the first Maine cavalry (with map), by Brevet Maj.-Genl. 
C. H. Smith, Kilpatrick's raid around Atlanta, August i8th to 22d, 
1864 (with map), by Lieutenant W. S. Scott. A new lecture on the 
horse's foot (with illustrations), by Lieutenant H. J. Goldman. An 
unexampled ride, from the Pacific to the Baltic on a single horse, by 
A. N. Kovrigin. New drill regulations for cavalry, United States 
army; evolutions of the regiment ; ceremonies. Professional notes. 
Book notices and exchanges. 

MILITAR-WOCHENBLATT. 

December 24, 1890. The French cruiser Cecile. Launch of the 
Dupuy-de-L6me. 

December 31. Trial trips of the French cruiser Surcouf Gun 
for throwing lines. 

January 3, 1891. Flight of carrier pigeons in France. Italy's 
squadrons. Trial with unforged cast-steel gun-tubes in Sweden. 

January 7. A new magazine rifle for the Danish troops. The 
Giffard rifle. Captive balloon on board the Formidable. 

January id. New armored vessels for Japan. New American 
magazine rifle. 

January 14. Bayonet exercises. Firing tests from armored 
turrets at Creusot. 

January 17. The magazine rifle in England. Launch of the 
Edgar. Inquiry into the loss of the Italian torpedo-boat 105 S. 

January 21. Armor tests in Russia. 

" Three plates were tested at these trials, held at Ochta, Nov. 1 1, 1890 ; viz. 
a Brown compound, a Schneider steel, and a Vickers mild steel plate. More 
recent tests were held at Kolpino with compound plates of Wilson's patent, 
which stood the tests successfully 

" Tests like those of Ochta and Annapolis are scarcely decisive, because it 
is improbable that deliberate firing at armor, with guns of medium caliber, at 
short range and with perpendicular impact, will ever occur in action. The 
deciding point in the struggle of guns against armor during action will be the 
penetration of the target by a few heavy-caliber projectiles, hitting at greater 
or less angle with the normal. 

"The value of the above tests lies more in giving a comparison of plates 
and guns than in any tactical importance. And in this regard the important 
results stand forth that the compound plates of the English firm of Camniel & 
Co. have been beaten by those of Schneider et Cie. of Creusot, as well as by 
thos.e of the Government works in Russia; another example, particularly in 
questions pertaining to war, that inactivity is equivalent to retrogression, more 
apparent to-day than ever. And it must be acknowledged that Russia's efforts, 
though owing to the use of foreign improvements, deserve the highest appre- 
ciation, in regard to their armor-plates as well as their projectiles, the latter 
behaving as well as the real Holtzers. Russia will prove a formidable oppo- 
nent, and require every effort in order to cope with her on an equal footing." 

January 28. New men-of-war for the Argentine Republic. 
January 31. Firing tests on the island of Fano, Denmark. 
February 4. Wolfram's projectiles. Use of electric power in 
French fleets. 



Il8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

SUPPLEMENT TO MILITAR WOCHENBLATT. 

Nos. I and 2, 1891. The battle of Mount Val6rien, January 19, 
1871, by Major Kunz. Strategic views of the question of fortifications, 
by Major Scheibert. 

No. 3. Plans of attack and defense of Frederick the Great in the 
first two Silesian wars, by A. v. Roesgler. H. G. D. 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL UNITED SERVICE INSTITUTION. 

Volume XXXIV, No. 154. The transport of the sick and 
wounded in time of war. The employment of large masses of 
cavalry, of movable fortifications, and of smokeless powder, as illus- 
trated by German autumn manoeuvres of 1889. Spontaneous 
ignition and explosion in coal-bunkers. Notes : Gruson experiments 
with smokeless powder C/89. Armed strength of Russia. 

Volume XXXV, No. 155. The entry and training of naval 
officers, by Rear-Admiral N. Bowden-Smith. 

The consensus of opinion in England seems from this discussion to be in 
favor of gaining a working knowledge of the naval profession at sea in actual 
service before a professional education, properly speaking, is undertaken. 
That to come afterwards, though just how, is not exactly pointed out. The 
idea seems to be that being an ofHcer and a gentleman he will see the value of 
an education, and in some way acquire it. The question of additional mental 
training would seem to be subordinated to the necessity of becoming at an 
early age accustomed to the " unnatural life " of a seafaring man. Our system 
of giving a professional education, combined with enough practice to illustrate, 
before the actual service at sea begins, seems to be more in consonance with 
the course pursued in acquiring other professions. 

Translations : Belleville boilers and their applicability to ocean- 
going vessels. Cruiser-war and coast-defense. Considerations on the 
employment of torpedo-boats. Tactics and vertical fire. 

SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

November, 1890. Theory of stress in a granular mass. Out- 
burstsofgas in metalliferous mines. Examinationof mines. Graphical 
method of showing the relative annual efficiency of a steam plant. 
Wind-problem in gunnery. Part II. 

JOURNAL OF THE MILITARY SERVICE INSTITUTION. 

January, 1891. A practical scheme for training the regular army 
in field duties for war (prize essay). A proposed change in artillery 
school methods. Modern Bobadilism in the marksman's method of 
defeating an army. Strategy, tactics and policy. The gyroscope 
and drift education of the soldier. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL ARTILLERY INSTITUTION, 
WOOLWICH. 

October, 1890. Ranging and range-finding. Horse artillery 
progress abroad. Battle of Dettingen. Practice at a moving target 
from a low site. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. II9 

November. Ranging a battery. 

December. Instructions for practice over sea-ranges. 
January, 1891. Changes in the Royal Artillery. The origin of 
our present drill-book. 

UNITED SERVICE. 

January, 1891. Wellington. The Harriet Lane. Modern armor. 

February. The influences of small-caliber magazine rifles and 
smokeless powder on tactics. Moltke, Part I. The history of the 
U. S. Marine Corps. C. M. K. 

AMERICAN CHEMICAL JOURNAL. 

Volume XII, No. 8, November, 1890. The acquisition of 
atmospheric nitrogen by plants, by W. O. Atwater and C. D. Woods. 
Reviews and reports: A short account of hydrazoic acid, recently 
discovered by Curtuis, who will be remembered as the discoverer of 
hydrazine. 

Hydrazoic acid is a gas of the formula HN3, of a fearfully penetrating odor; 
soluble in water, the solution resembling hydrochloric acid; the salts are 
well defined ; the silver salt AgNs having very violent explosive properties. 

Volume XIII, No. i, January, 1891. Atwater and Woods con- 
clude their work on the acquisition of atmospheric nitrogen by 
plants. C. R. S. 

REVIEWERS AND TRANSLATORS, 

Lieut. -Commander C. S. Sperry, Ensign C. M. Knepper, 

P. A. Engineer J. K. Barton, Prof. C. R. Sanger, 

Ensign H. G. Dresel, Prof. J. Leroux. 



THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

United States Naval Ii^stitute. 

Vol. XVn., No. 2. 1891. Whole No. 58. 

[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



Honorably Mentioned. 

Motto : Occasionem cognosce. 

DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET 
SHIP AND SQUADRON DRILL. 

By Lieutenant R. C. Smith, U. S. Navy. 



INTRODUCTION. 



There are many considerations which influence the settlement of 
a definite policy which shall comprehend the subjects in the above 
title. It will not be well to limit the horizon of our view and assert 
dogmatically that one thing or another is the best. Differences of 
opinion are accounted for as much in the view taken of the objects 
sought as in the habit of mind which decides the method. Now 
there are many points of view. The politician looks at the question 
in one way, the merchant in another, the seaman in a third, and the 
true statesman will try to balance all these views, selecting what is 
best from each, and totally rejecting what is worthless. In this 
reconcilement, it is assumed that the fleet will be manned, officered, 
and employed in such wise as to give the best account of itself when 
called on to fight. In other words, the first object is war-efficiency. 



122 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

Now, as to methods, there is more difference of opinion here than in 
the objects sought. An institution long established is steeped in 
conservatism — a fact which is, perhaps, not to be regretted. Con- 
servatism is a balance-wheel ; it checks violent changes, but under 
steady and continuous pressure it must move with the system of 
which it is a part. Past experience is not to be neglected, nor is 
every new idea to be hurriedly adopted. Neither are things to be 
done in a certain way because they were always done that way, nor 
are new ideas to be rejected simply because they are new. Merit is 
to be the test, adaptability to the end. Temporary expediency must 
not be overlooked in deciding these questions. Sometimes good 
policy cannot be carried out for lack of means, or because other 
things seem momentarily of graver necessity. The limited number 
of ships and men may for some time exert an influence of this sort. 

Before looking into matters of detail, perhaps it will be well to 
indicate the chief duties of the fleet in peace and war, and to inquire 
if service methods best enable it to perform them. If they do not, it 
will then be necessary to devise a scheme which will better meet the 
requirements of the case and will soonest bring the fleet to the highest 
efficiency. War, we have assumed, is the ultimate object of any 
armed force, whether military or naval. It is true, long intervals 
may elapse when its powers are never called into play ; but when 
war breaks out, that force which has the most definite notion of the 
proper conduct of operations will possess an incalculable advantage 
at the start. War is now a question of days and hours, and when it 
arrives, it is necessary to act, and act promptly. The fleet which 
waits for hostilities to begin to develop a line of action, invites grave 
disaster in the very initial stages. 

There is evidently, then, a state of readiness for war which it is most 
important to bring about. Is there any other preparation which is 
more useful for any object? Besides the war duties of the fleet, 
which include the defense of the coast, the blockade and destruction 
of the enemy's squadrons, attacks on his seaports, the convoy and 
transportation of troops, and the destruction of hostile commerce 
and protection of our own, is its purely peace employment. This 
consists mainly in policing the high seas, lending aid and encour- 
agement to American citizens traveling or trading abroad, protecting 
our commerce and neutral rights in time of foreign war, performing 
special duty, such as exploration or surveying, extending acts of 
international courtesy, maintaining the national dignity in remote 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 123 

parts of the world, and in inculcating respect for the country's flag. 
In all of these duties, save perhaps the special scientific work, can it 
be doubted that the acme of preparation is readiness for war? 

Given, then, a fleet, including ships and men, it may be assumed 
that the chief duty of those responsible for its care and conduct is to 
prepare it to fight. With the slightest consideration this fact is 
obvious, and yet it is not in many of our ships that one is impressed 
with the prominence given to it. If the commanding ofiicer has a 
smart-looking ship and crew, and feels that the inspection board will 
be satisfied, he is apt to consider his duty finished. There is really 
not much more that he can do unaided, but there is a great deal 
more which ought to be done. The ship may be clean and the men 
fairly efficient in all the routine drills, and at inspection they may 
work like beavers, — as in fact they usually do, be it said to their 
credit; still there may be something radically wrong in the efficiency 
of that ship. Are the officers and men contented ; are they fond of 
the service ; are the drills really such as will best prepare for fighting ; 
is sufficient time given to useful drills; and is too much time given 
to the mere care of the ship ? Each one of us knows the answer to 
these questions. 

Pass on to the executive officer. His reputation nowadays 
depends almost entirely on the trimness and cleanliness of the ship. 
In the days of sails and spars, organization and the skill of the crew 
aloft told largely in his favor. He has still, under the captain, 
mainly to do with the interior discipline of the ship ; but the state of 
discipline, be it good or bad, is often not visible to outsiders. 

The drills are now almost entirely in the hands of the divisional 
officers, who may or may not be efficient. As a rule, they are per- 
fectly capable, but if there is not a good system at the back of their 
exertions, much of the effect is lost. Their reputation depends 
mostly on the way they keep their watch. As our ships are not 
long at sea continuously, it is their efficiency as watch-officers in port 
that comes under the observation of their superiors. Be they never 
so desirous to give their best efforts to what is irresistibly the first 
duty of every person on board — war exercises — the opportunities 
are often spasmodic, the time devoted to each drill too short, and 
they themselves more or less used up with their watch. This, when 
they have the desire to improve themselves and the service. As a 
matter of fact, they usually feel that when their watch is finished 
their day's pay is pretty well earned. 



124 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

The navigator's position is an anomalous one under present con- 
ditions. The third officer in command, he has next to nothing to 
do with the fighting of the ship. In the old days, the first lieutenant 
worked the battery, and the master handled the ship, both under the 
direction of the captain. There is no place now for the executive 
officer in the battery; he will probably be found in one of the fighting 
positions, at a distance from but in communication with the captain. 
The navigator's division is reduced to the chief boatswain's-mate, 
the quartermasters, helmsmen, leadsmen, signalmen, search-light 
operators, and the like ; and there is little for the navigator to do, 
for the captain himself directs it all. Moreover, there seems no 
reason for having the third officer on deck, where he may be killed 
along with either the captain or the executive officer, but every 
reason for having him below, where there is a chance of finding him 
when he is wanted to take command. Even in peace times, in the 
absence of the executive officer, the navigating, ordnance, and 
torpedo officer, who has principally to do with scientific and war 
material and scarcely comes in contact with the drill and interior 
organization of the ship, seems an unsuitable person to relieve the 
former officer. 

Next, as to petty officers. Every person who has thought or 
written on the subject in ten years acknowledges that we have none. 
The rates we have, to be sure, but the men are not even leading 
seamen. They have little responsibility and exercise none ; the 
officers do all. When we go beyond, to the seamen and ordinary 
seamen, we find they usually do after a fashion what they are made 
to do, but that there is little individuality developed in the perform- 
ance. The apprentices must be excepted in this statement. Here 
is fine material which may be made anything of by correct methods. 
It is too often wasted and returned to civil hfe, discontented in spirit, 
where the example acts as a deterrent on others, who might other- 
wise be attracted to the service. 

It seems, then, that our way of doing duty, which is the survival 
of another condition of affairs, has the effect of making every indi- 
vidual, from the captain down, occupy himself largely with matters 
which are not the most conducive to modern fighting efficiency. 
During the years in which we had no proper materiel in which 
officers and men could take a just pride, the service got into a dull 
routine way of doing things, which now hangs about us like a mill- 
stone. Drills were considered a hardship by three-fourths of the 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I25 

service at larg;e, but mainly because it was out of the usual order to 
pay much attention to them. How often was it the custom in 
detached cruisers to devote not more than a half hour daily at morn- 
ing quarters to a routine drill, and then dismiss the subject for 
twenty-four hours ! 

The present system reacts painfully on the spirit and morale of the 
crew. They do not feel that they are in the service for any other 
object than to earn a living, and the fighting training, naturally the 
most interesting, and appealing most to the average mind, does not 
occupy a large enough share of their thoughts and working hours. 
As long as they can drift through the day, get ashore frequently, and 
draw their pay, they feel that they are doing all that is required. 
How many of them love their profession ? It is somebody's fault if 
many of them do not, for Americans are not lacking in patriotism 
and the necessary sentiment and pride of occupation. 

There can be no doubt, then, of the true object and aim of all 
endt^avor. The first step must be to interest all grades of the per- 
sonnel. Good work is done only by those who take pleasure and 
pride in their occupation. Officers and crews must be impressed, 
first, with the importance and usefulness of their work. Men will 
willingly endure any amount of labor in a good cause. It is what 
seems to them useless labor that irritates and becomes irksome. 
Human nature must be reckoned with in every attempt. People 
must be taken as they are, not as they ought to be, and their willing 
work must be guided in the proper channel. It will be useless to 
place them in the midst of an artificial system and say to them : " Your 
duty is so and so, you are paid to do it ; if you are the right sort of 
a man you will take an interest in it, and the consciousness of duty 
performed is sufficient encouragement." Alas ! none of us is the 
right sort of a man. With every effort to be conscientious, we per- 
form best those duties which are made interesting to us, and the 
utility of which we perceive. 

Any plan for remedying the above state of affairs must formulate 
the essential work in ship and squadron, must suggest means of 
promoting the spirit and morale of the crews, and must provide for 
their health, comfort, and happiness. In fact, it would not be far 
wrong to place the latter considerations first ; for though fighting is 
the ulterior object, no results can be accomplished until a contented 
and healthful frame of mind is secured. Health can be maintained 
only by systematic physical exercise. Every one knows that the 



126 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

question nowadays is to supply a substitute for sails and spars. A 
feasible and practical scheme is a prime requisite. With regard to 
comfort, every possible consideration not inimical to fighting effi- 
ciency should be strenuously insisted on. Life aboard ship is un- 
natural at the best. The intelligence required for handling war 
material is higher now than ever. Necessary work must be insisted 
on. When that is accomplished, grant every privilege, every com- 
fort, and provide every recreation that can be consistently devised. 
And now, having gained a general view of the requirements, we 
may take up the subject more in detail. It will be well to say at the 
start that radical changes in conditions necessitate radical changes 
in methods. Many officers have not as yet served in the new ships. 
If they feel hurt, or of a different mind, it will be well for them to 
delay judgment until they are familiar with the new conditions. 
Objectors will be found to much that will be advocated ; some 
because after reflection they cannot honestly endorse the views ; 
others from extreme conservatism, — what was good in the past should 
not be done away with recklessly ; and others again because it is 
their nature to object to anything. 

DISPOSITION. 

Under this heading it is proposed to discuss the proper method 
of distributing the available force in order to obtain from it the 
maximum of efficiency at the minimum of cost. It has been for 
many years our policy to maintain squadrons in the North and 
South Atlantic, in the Mediterranean, in the Pacific, and on the 
China Station. Their duties have been already sufficiently outlined. 
In the days of sailing ships, and subsequently of steamers of limited 
coal endurance, it was a matter of necessity to maintain in all parts 
of the world naval forces of sufficient strength to meet any con- 
tingency that might arise. The diplomatic character of the com- 
mander-in-chief was also an object in the keeping up of foreign 
stations. Cables and mail facilities were few ; and by having on the 
spot an officer who could present his country's views, and enforce 
them if necessary, much benefit might result. The ships comprising 
the squadrons possessed as a rule little homogeneity, though it is 
true there were fewer differences of type in the old wooden ships 
than are now to be found in modern ones. They were employed 
generally in cruising from port to port in furtherance of their station 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 127 

duties, and were rarely combined for extensive squadron drills. 
Indeed, it was not feasible to combine under ordinary circumstances, 
and at the same time to perform the duties intrusted to them. An 
attempt will be made later to show that squadron drills and organi- 
zation are indispensable to a healthy state of efficiency. Drills 
became desultory ; there was not an hour a day assigned to them 
on the average, and officers and men felt hurt if more was required. 

The system, therefore, does not seem to have a rational existence 
under present conditions. The disadvantages are lack of homo- 
geneity, isolation, loss of touch with the progressive spirit of the 
day, and the absence of that valuable training which only squadron 
routine supplies. With the greater part of the forces on our own 
coast, fast ships could be sent where wanted in the minimum of time; 
and with diplomatic representatives in all parts of the world in con- 
stant communication with the home government, the necessity for 
the continued presence of a naval representative seems slight. We 
have no foreign possessions except the harbor of Pago Pago in the 
Samoan Islands, which, in case of war, would have to be protected; 
but with that exception, the proper station for the main part of the 
forces is our own coast. Here the ships would be immediately 
available for the defense of the sea-coast cities, or, in case an offen- 
sive policy were inaugurated, for launching suddenly against the 
enemy's commerce and war squadrons, or blockading and attacking 
his ports. For distant cruising, flying squadrons are growing in 
favor with foreign powers, all of whom have dependencies ; to a 
much greater extent, then, would they seem to meet our require- 
ments, who have practically none. 

In the course of the current year (1891) there will be available of 
the new ships, the Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Dolphin, Yorktown, 
Charleston, Petrel, Baltimore, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Newark, 
Concord, Bennington, Miantonomoh, Vesuvius, Cushing. Of the 
wooden ships there are still serviceable the Lancaster, Pensacola, 
Omaha, Swatara, Marion, Mohican, Iroquois, Kearsarge, Alliance, 
Essex, Enterprise, Tallapoosa, Thetis, Yantic, Jamestown, Ports- 
mouth ; and of the iron ships, the Monocacy, Alert, Ranger, Alarm, 
Michigan, Pinta, Palos. Taking out those on special service — the 
Lancaster and Alarm, gunnery training ships; the Thetis and 
Ranger, surveying and other duty in the Pacific; the Yantic, James- 
town, and Portsmouth, apprentice training ships; and the Michigan, 
on the Lakes — there remain thirty-one others, distributed at the 



128 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

close of 1890 as follows : North Atlantic Station, Squadron of Evolu- 
tion, and awaiting commission or assignment in eastern ports, the 
Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Dolphin, Yorktown, Petrel, Philadelphia, 
Newark, Concord, Bennington, Miantonomoh, Vesuvius, Cushing, 
Kearsarge, Enterprise; South Atlantic Station, the Pensacola, Essex, 
Tallapoosa; in the Mediterranean, the Baltimore; Pacific Station 
and fitting out at Mare Island, the Charleston, San Francisco, 
Swatara, Marion, Mohican, Iroquois, Alert, Pinta ; and Asiatic 
Station, the Omaha, Alliance, Monocacy, Palos. 

It is assumed that for reasons of temporary expediency these 
stations will be kept up for at least some time to come, though 
eventually, on account of changed conditions already discussed, 
foreign cruising will be done principally in small flying squadrons. 
The problem is now to get the old ships home as their serviceability 
expires, to keep up the stations to a certain extent, and to organize 
an effective drill squadron on the Atlantic coast, and eventually a 
similar one on the Pacific coast. The solution seems to be to unite all 
the ships on the eastern coast in a single squadron, detaching a small 
number in their first year of commission to make a short cruise in 
European waters, and then proceed to the South Atlantic and relieve 
the ships ready to come home; later, to send out another such 
squadron in the same track, the first to proceed by way of the Cape to 
the China Station, sending home in turn the unserviceable ships, and 
all eventually to collect in the Pacific: when the number on that coast, 
comprising the above ships and those already on the station or 
fitting out, became sufficient, to organize a second squadron of exer- 
cise, and thenceforth to detach at intervals small flying squadrons, 
proceeding in either direction, to make the tour of the world and 
stop wherever their presence was needed. The above scheme is 
presented only in illustration of the working of a policy that seems 
desirable. The arrangement of the details is not essential, since 
there is any number of ways of arriving at the same end. 

Any coast-defense ships we may eventually possess, and all the 
harbor torpedo-boats should, when mobilized, be assigned to the 
two squadrons of exercise for such duties as they might properly 
perform. As a rule, they should keep near their own ports, but they 
would always form an important fighting factor in the make-up of 
the squadrons. Ships in reserve should be in a similar category. 
Our development of material has not yet reached a stage to make 
the reserve question a pressing one. When ships become numerous 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I29 

it may be necessary to keep some of them in a kind of half-com- 
mission, to reduce expenses. Two classes of reserve suggest them- 
selves. In the first, the ships would be in perfect condition, with coal 
and all imperishable stores aboard, and with half the full complement 
of officers and men attached. The crew would live aboard, and it 
would only be a question of increasing the complement and pro- 
visioning to get to sea in short order — say any time within a week. 
In the second class the ships would be under repair or incomplete in 
some particular, would have very little aboard in the way of stores 
beyond enough for current use, and would have one-fourth of a full 
complement attached. The crews would live aboard the receiving- 
ship or at the naval barracks, and come aboard each day to clean 
and care for the public property. An appropriate watch would stay 
aboard at night. This class would thus take a longer time to pre- 
pare for active service. It is doubtful if it will ever be policy to put 
the new ships entirely out of commission. There will always be 
machinery and all sorts of delicate fittings to be looked afier, and 
the saving to the property will more than offset the outlay for 
attendance. Moreover, it will be absolutely essential to keep up a 
nucleus of men familiar with the machinery and battery, in order to 
get the full complement in working trim in the shortest time after 
mobilizing. Special storehouses for ships in the second class offer 
many advantages. Here will be found everything not perishable 
that will be needed in fitting out. Their use evidently facilitates 
mobilization as well as prevents waste. It is not generally known 
that they were a feature of the organization of the French marine 
under Richelieu in 1634. A disposition as above would permit of 
the employment of the Nival Reserve in conformity with Secretary 
Tracy's recommendation in his recent annual report. 

When the system begins to work smoothly, care will have to be 
exercised in selecting ships fur the flying squadrons. They should 
have served long enough in one or other of the squadrons of exer- 
cise to be thoroughly imbued with its methods and discipline, for in 
no other way will it be possible to secure uniformity. About a year 
is considered a suitable time for this purpose. The intervals at which 
they were sent out, and the localities visited, would depend on 
circumstances. As a rule, the squadrons should make the tour of 
the world, occupying about two years on the cruise. The flagships 
might with propriety be armored cruisers, and the other ships 
protected or partially protected cruisers. It would conduce to 



130 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

efficiency if the flag-officer of these squadrons had served for a time 
in the squadron of exercise as second in command. This would be 
excellent duty for commodores, who now have no sea duty except 
as acting rear-admirals in command of squadrons. They could still 
receive such commissions when assigned to the flying squadrons, 
were it deemed important. 

A disposition similar to this would require a longer time of enlist- 
ment than three years ; but there is reason to hope that this draw- 
back will not long exist. Should a four years' period be adopted, 
crews for ships about commissioning would be made up at the 
receiving-ships or barracks, of men in their first year, and they would 
then remain together in the ship for a full cruise. An advantage in 
the method not to be lost sight of is that the discontent now preva- 
lent on undesirable stations would soon come to an end. Every 
officer and man would serve his time in one or other of the squad- 
rons of exercise, or partly in a squadron of exercise and partly 
in a flying squadron, and all would have equal opportunities. The 
saving in expense would be considerable, the gain in uniformity and 
efficiency incalculable. 

EMPLOYMENT. 

Having made what seems a suitable disposition of the available 
material, what is the best method of keeping it employed ? With a 
modern navy the question of coal becomes a serious one. Extensive 
cruising will scarcely be undertaken except in small squadrons, as 
above, or for special objects. The coal taken on board by the 
Squadron of Evolution from November, 1889, to August, i8go, 
amounted to 11,000 tons. The objects of the cruise were of course 
various. Had the purpose been for exercise alone, it is obvious that 
the coal expenditure would have been unnecessarily great, and the 
time consumed in long passages from port to port would have left 
too little opportunity for evolutions and gunnery practice. It is not 
proposed to criticise in any way the conduct of that cruise. The 
results attained in drill efficiency were, in spite of disadvantages, in 
excess of anything that had been done in previous years. 

On the other hand, there is nothing so detrimental to discipline 
and efficiency as long stops at navy-yards. Officers and men be- 
come imbued with shore-going, and the time aboard ship is reluc- 
tantly spent in tiding over intervals between trips. But few drills 
can be carried on at all, especially if the season is inclement, and 
many things occur to render even those few unsatisfactory. 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I3I 

A safe middle-ground would seem to be to assemble the squad- 
rons of exercise twice a year, selecting for them localities for both 
summer and winter cruising that would permit of exercises as 
uninterrupted as the nature of the work required. These localities 
must evidently be near at hand to avoid excessive coal expenditure. 
In the intervals between the two periods of exercise, ships in full 
commission could lie at anchor in the different rivers and harbors of 
the coast, according to the season, and perfect themselves in all 
drills that did not involve presence with the squadron. Navy-yards 
should be left as far away as possible, and the ships should anchor in 
the stream where boats would have to be used in going to and fro, 
and where boat exercise could be carried on uninterruptedly. Rifle 
ranges should be accessible, and much preliminary work at the butts 
should here be accomplished. 

These requirements point to a summer cruise along the New 
England coast, a winter cruise in the Gulf and West Indies, and the 
intervening time at anchor in such places as Newport, New London, 
the Delaware River, certain parts of the Chesapeake, Beaufort, 
Charleston, Port Royal. Any necessary repairing would have to be 
done at the navy-yards ; and during such stay, military efficiency 
might as well be left out of consideration, though an attempt should 
be made to accomplish such work as seemed possible. Convenient 
rifle-ranges at every yard would be a long step towards affording 
useful occupation. 

On the Pacific Coast, climatic changes are not so severe. Puget 
Sound and the neighborhood of Monterey, Santa Barbara and San 
Diego afford summer and winter cruising grounds; though the 
former locality would suffice at any season of the year. The 
entrances to the Sound through the Straits of Juan de Fuca and 
Washington Sound are broad expanses, where squadron manoeuvres 
might be carried out without limit, and the inner waters lend them- 
selves to all the operations of naval war. Anchorages could be found 
at, or near, all of the above localities and in San Francisco Bay and 
the Columbia River. 

The flying squadrons should occupy themselves in a similar way 
as much as possible, carrying on all duty that does not interfere 
with the objects of their cruise. The fighting drills are in nowise 
to be neglected, and squadron evolutions may be practised when 
possible. The ships should remain together, unless there were 
imperative reasons to the contrary, both because they are more 



132 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

effective in squadron in accomplishing the objects for which the 
cruise is undertaken, and because drill-routine and efficiency are 
thereby much more readily maintained. 



We now come to the most interesting and, at the same time, the 
most important part of the whole subject. Exercises are intimately 
connected with interior organization ; but this latter is beyond the 
scope of the present essay. It may be said, however, that organiza- 
tion by parts of the ship is becoming more and more unsatisfactory, 
and that many reasons suggest the battery as the basis. After the 
chief boalswain's-mate, there might be division-mates and gun- 
captains as the principal petty officers. However the question is 
settled — and it is most important that it should be settled — there are 
duties and drills applicable to any organization ; and it is now pro- 
posed to present an outline of those which are considered of most 
value. 

The single ship is the unit of every naval force. No scheme of 
squadron exercise which does not begin with ship efficiency can have 
any permanently beneficial result. This, therefore, is our starting 
point. While it is possible that good material may be injudiciously 
arranged, it is entirely beyond reason to effect a substantial structure 
of poor material, however clever the architect. And as the ship is 
the unit of the squadrons, the individual is the unit in the ships. 
The first object, then, is to get our units into shape. 

A ship is commissioned for sea and is assigned to the squadron of 
exercise. Certain preliminary drills are absolutely essential before 
she can receive the full benefit of squadron routine. Battery drill is 
assumed to be the first requisite. The crew must be stationed at the 
guns and torpedo-tubes and exercised incessantly until a satisfactory 
efficiency has been reached. Every other exercise may be tempo- 
rarily put aside, and the ship may even go dirty and unpainted 
preferably to neglecting this essential in any particular. It is not 
supposed, however, that such an alternative will be presented. The 
morning watch will afford ample time to keep the ship clean; and 
two periods a day of an hour each, systematically consecrated to the 
drill, will in a very brief time effect all that can be desired. It goes 
without saying that a uniform system must be followed. The divi- 
sional officers, presided over by the executive officer, must compare 
notes frequently and suggest to each other neglected points. Uni- 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 1 33 

formity must be as much sought in all drills as it has been heretofore 
in the company drill. If there is a prescribed manual, it must be 
followed absolutely without deviation, and the executive officer must 
assure himself that this is done. If changes seem desirable, they 
must be discussed by the officers as a board, sitting as above, and 
a report submitted to the captain, who forwards it to the Depart- 
ment with such comments as he may wish to make. What can be 
more detrimental to efficiency than the diversified methods and 
spasmodic attempts at drill so frequently observed in our ships? 
And yet how perfectly easy it is to inaugurate a proper system ! 

Instruction at the battery is at present reasonably thorough. It 
might be well to formulate exactly what information is to be imparted 
to the gun's crew, as a whole, in such matters as weights of projec- 
tiles and charges; range, penetration, and initial velocity; character 
of fuses, nomenclature of guns and carriages, principles of pointing, 
sights and sliding leaves, concentration of fire. The officers in each 
ship, or better, the Ordnance Bureau, might prepare a pamphlet 
with an outline system of this sort as an aid to the divisional officer. 
The scheme should contain in a simple form only. such information 
as every man at the battery should be possessed of. With the 
brighter and more intelligent of them, the instructor could enlarge 
to any extent thought desirable. 

The crew being proficient at the battery as regards handling the 
guns and understanding all the requirements, target practice is in 
order. For this purpose the allowance of ammunition is ample, but 
in many cases, on account of alleged more imperative service, it is 
not expended. Does it not seem that in ninety or ninety-two days 
two or three might be found somewhere in which to carry on this 
important work ? The Bureau of Navigation lays down each quarter 
rules for the practice thought most desirable. They are carefully 
formulated by officers who have spent great labor in devising the 
most suitable plan. They should be as consistendy followed as pos- 
sible, both because competent authorities have determined the con- 
ditions, and because uniformity is necessary to give weight to the 
tabulation of relative merit. Has it come within the knowledge of 
any of us that divisional officers have thought they knew a better 
way of doing good shooting and have instructed their crews accord- 
ingly ? How inconsistent and harmful 1 And yet the fault is one of 
thoughtlessness and defective methods rather than of willfulness or 
lack of intelligence. It will disappear when the board system for 



134 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

discussing methods of drill, as above suggested, has inculcated uni- 
formity. 

Before leaving the subject of the battery, it will be well to call 
attention to the importance of securing rapidity in the supply of 
ammunition. This is primarily a question of design ; but even with 
a good design it requires study and training to perfect the system. 
In a modern ship, with the vast number of guns of all calibers, 
requiring different kinds of ammunition, the powder division is prob- 
ably the most important of all. A hitch in the supply at a critical 
moment will be fatal. At the exercises tests should be made of the 
rapidity. For this purpose a number of full-weight dummies should 
be supplied ; for it is clearly inadvisable to make a practice of send- 
ing up and down the regular charges and projectiles, both because 
it uses up the passing-boxes and cases, rendering them unsafe, and 
because it is dangerous to allow ammunition to collect on the upper 
decks. The English use a stout brown sole-leather case to protect 
the copper tanks containing heavy charges in sending them up ; and 
it might be well also to furnish for the projectiles a number of 
specially made iron-strapped boxes, with beckets in the end, to be 
used in exercise or action as long as the supply held out. As these 
boxes were emptied they would be filled again and kept on top in 
the shell-rooms. To perform well all the duties of the powder divi- 
sion requires a great many men : they should be commanded by an 
experienced and capable officer, with one or two assistants. 

A fair battery efficiency having been attained, the next most im- 
portant step is to secure a complete knowledge of the manoeuvring 
powers of the ship, which includes speed and turning capacity under 
varying conditions. This work can be carried on conjointly with 
the established ship routine of divisional drill, of which more anon. 
The speed and training trials which have been conducted at New- 
port in recent years are in the right direction, but do not go nearly 
far enough. It is imperative to know the maximum speed in all 
weathers, and the speed at different revolutions of one or both 
engines. These results must be tabulated in such wise that the 
speed may be estimated from the revolutions, direction and force of 
the wind, state of the sea, draught, and condition of the bottom. 
Next, the tactical diameters and turning circles with different helm 
angles and at varying revolutions must be determined and tabu- 
lated, the data to include advance, transfer, and time ; likewise the 
circles with either engine stopped or backing. It is also important 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I35 

to know the effect on the turning-circle of increasing or decreasing^ 
the speed, the helm remaining unchanged ; the effect of backing 
with or without thejielm ; the time and distance to rest by stopping 
and backing at different speeds, and the time and distance to gather 
way from rest. There is an old movement that was called the " touch- 
and-go shave," depending on a double shift of helm and pivoting on 
the bow. It may be at times very useful and should be practised. 

After the full speed trials have been completed by the board 
appointed for the purpose, the rest of the work will be best accom- 
plished by the officers of the ship. Involving as it does trials in all 
conditions of weather, advantage will have to be taken of oppor- 
tunities as they occur. Having obtained all the data required for 
tabulation, every deck-officer should be given full opportunities of 
testing for himself the ship's capabilities. Series of buoys should be 
laid down and the ship required to manoeuvre amongst them at 
different speeds, and semblance of ramming should be made by 
passing between fixed points representing the extremities of a sup- 
posed hostile ship. If any satisfactory method can be devised for 
giving motion to the target at the same time, the experience will be 
all the more valuable. Rafts of light construction towed by fast 
launches might answer the purpose. 

While these exercises have been in progress as occasion offered, 
the ship routine of drill will have been established and fully entered 
upon. Drills must be recognized as of three different sorts, inter- 
dependent, and all absolutely necessary. The first sort are for 
developing the fighting power of the ship ; they include drill of the 
battery, main and secondary ; exercise with the torpedo-tubes and 
search-lights ; torpedo defense and defense nets ; clearing ship for 
action ; infantry and artillery drills ; duties of sentries, patrols, and 
pickets ; organization of armed boats, guard and picket-boats ; 
target practice with small-arms and revolvers ; exercise with the 
cutlass ; instruction at signals and at the dynamo and in electrical 
wiring. The second sort pertain to ship's duties, such as making 
and taking in sail ; the wheel, compass, lead and log ; knotting and 
splicing ; purchasing weights ; hoisting in and out boats ; boat exer- 
cise under sail and oars ; carrying out anchors ; rigging jury-rudders 
and sea-anchors; construction of life-rafts; collision drill ; fire drill; 
abandoning ship. The third sort are purely for physical exercise 
and discipline. 

In the limited nature of this essay it is hardly possible more than 



136 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

to enumerate the necessary drills. Additional suggestions in regard 
to some of them will be found under the head of Competition. It 
will be noticed that the cutlass drill has been retained. Many 
officers advocate the abolition of this arm. Instances may be 
imagined in which it would stand in good stead, as in boat attacks at 
night, especially as in a surprise effected in cutting out a ship; 
defense of artillery pieces under certain circumstances, in a hand-to- 
hand attack, after emptying the revolver chambers, and in boarding 
after receiving the enemy's ram, possibly the only salvation. If the 
men do not carry cutlasses they will use the butts of their revolvers 
after expending all the cartridges in the chambers; they will not 
stop to load. Commander Prat, of the Esmeralda, would have stood 
a good chance of carrying the Huascar had he been well supported 
with men armed as are our boarders. They would have used the 
revolvers first and then the cutlasses, and the latter arm, well handled, 
would have done ample execution. The Huascar's crew was demor- 
alized, according to the admission of her own commander ; and the 
sight of a lot of wild fellows with pistol in one hand and cutlass in 
the other would have settled the business. The moral effect of the 
arme blanche, including of course the lance under similar circum- 
stances, is one of its strong points, and it is the factor to which the 
cavalry owes much of its importance. More mention will be made 
of the cutlass when we come to speak of physical exercise. 

In all of the drills of the first two sorts above mentioned, the men 
should receive regular marks from their instructors. This would 
involve some extra labor, but it is believed it would be labor well 
expended. Merit rolls should be made out at stated intervals and 
posted on the ship's bulletin. In addition to the incentive of rivalry 
thus established, there should be substantial rewards for excellence, 
in the way of promotion and increased pay, of which more later. 

DRILL OFFICERS. 

The brunt of all this work in drill and instruction will fall on the 
divisional officers. Something must be done to give them more 
time for it, and to make them more interested. Leaving aside for a 
moment other considerations, a man of thirty-odd years will not do 
as efficient work in the daytime, if he has had a four hours' watch 
three nights in four, or three nights in five, even if he has spent them 
in the deck-house, as if he had had a full night's rest. Drilling and 
watch-keeping are therefore inimical. Which is of most importance ? 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I37 

The principal duties in the latter are carrying on routine, superin- 
tending cleaning, and watching over the safety of the ship ; in the 
former, preparing the crew to use effectively the weapons with which 
they are provided, and the ship herself to be an efficient fighting 
machine. If the latter duties are not accomplished, the former are 
manifestly useless. What is needed is a system that will secure 
proper attention to routine and the safety of the ship, but which will 
at the same time impress on every one that drilling is the first 
consideration. Day's duty seems to be the solution ; all commis- 
sioned line officers, except the executive officer and navigator, to 
take their turn. They would have to be about in the day when 
important work was going on, and also at night in bad weather. 
Ordinarily they would sleep in the deck-house with their clothes on, 
ready for a call. It is reported that in the Bennington the captain is 
to have an " emergency " state-room near the pilot-house. In port 
this would be the place for the officer-of-the-day. There should be 
something of the sort in every ship. In first- and second-rates and 
in flagships it might be necessary to have at times two officers on 
duty together, a lieutenant and an ensign, the former to be in charge, 
the latter to look out for important deck routine and official courtesies. 

There is but one opinion of this method of carrying on duty in 
ships in which it has been tried, and that is, that it adds to their 
efficiency. It certainly trains up the quartermasters and boatswain's 
mates to be petty officers in fact as well as in name. It is possible 
that commanding officers will feel safer in their ships if there is 
always a commissioned officer awake on deck ready for every 
emergency ; but there are some who are perfectly willing to adopt 
the method, in view of its advantages, provided the Department will 
make the proper regulation and not put all the responsibility on 
them. With such a plan, the designation " watch and division 
officer " could be with advantage changed to " duty and drill officer." 
The gain in efficiency by impressing on officers that their chief 
duties were drill and not watch would be decided, and it would also 
be an advantage in getting officers out of the idea that they were 
" off" for two or three days when their tour of duty in port watches 
was finished. 

This seems a proper place for remedying the anomalous position 
of the navigator, as stated some pages back. Instead of assigning 
his duties to the third officer in line of command, assign them to the 
fifth or sixth. Make him navigation, ordnance, and torpedo officer. 



138 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

and give him charge of the dynamos and of the sentry details in 
ships without marines. Of course there would have to be in addition 
officers of the torpedo division as there are now of the gun divisions. 
The above duties, including the clerical part, would be ample for 
one man ; but he could perform them with the aid of a writer as now 
allowed. He should be old enough to have had reasonable experi- 
ence, but not too old to have retained the activity indispensable to 
the proper performance of these particular duties. This arrange- 
ment leaves the senior divisional officer as the relief for the executive 
officer. Give him charge of the powder division, which we have 
seen is the largest and most important in modern ships, and the 
solution is reached. The captain and executive officer are in their 
separate fighting positions ; a vigorous young officer is about the 
upper deck wherever he finds a place of safety, looking out for the 
lead, signals, search-lights ; and the third officer is down in the 
powder division, ready to relieve the executive officer and captain 
should it be unfortunately necessary. In peace times the executive 
officer alternates with the officer who next to himself is most familiar 
with all the drill and interior organization of the ship. 

PHYSICAL EXERCISES. 

In the third sort of exercises mentioned above, those for physical 
training, there is scope for a wide display of ingenuity. A well- 
considered plan, taking into account the difficulties, is becoming 
more and more a matter of necessity. If men cooped up aboard 
ship do not have something to stir their blood and harden their 
muscles, they rapidly deteriorate, become discontented, and their 
usefulness is at an end. Sails and spars formerly supplied this 
want. Their management in the teeth of the elements gave all the 
hardiness, agility, and self-reliance necessary for efficient fighting. 
Granted that they are retained in the training-ships and in some of 
the cruisers, they have been already much reduced ; and in ships on 
which the brunt of the work must fall they will be entirely absent. 
Does the steady execution of all the drills of the first two sorts, 
combined with routine ship-cleaning, give the necessary physical 
development? From observation it clearly does not. The men to 
be found to-day in ships without or with little canvas, and markedly 
the apprentice boys, are lacking in that skill, strength, and supple- 
ness which characterize the ideal sailor, and which are absolutely 
essential in a well-conducted and efficient service. Of the exercises 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET, 1 39 

devised for physical development, the greater part will have to be 
compulsory; but the men should be encouraged in every way to 
practice athletics for recreation. It is only by awaking their interest 
that the best results are to be obtained. In order to insure con- 
tinuous effort and uniformity of practice, it is evident that the 
physical training of the crew should be in the hands of some one 
individual. It is doubtful if a suitable person could be found in most 
of our ships as the complements are at present made up. The best 
policy would be to create a rate of athletic instructor in all ships 
having a complement of a hundred men or more, and to allow an 
assistant if the number exceeded two hundred. The instructor 
should be an appointed petty officer of the first class, and his assistant 
a petty officer of the second class. 

These instructors are common in other services, the French for 
instance, who have a school of gymnastics near Paris, in which men 
are trained in all physical exercises and then sent out as instructors. 
Such a school under an able head would be of the greatest benefit. 
It might be inaugurated at Newport in connection with the training 
establishment. In action, the instructor should have a fighting 
station, which would probably be in the powder division. A man 
of his training would be of inestimable value in handling the element 
usually found below decks. 

And now as to the exercises. Boxing and fencing are put at the 
head, the latter to include broadsword, the bayonet exercise, and 
cane drill. The present single-stick drill, so-called, should be 
abolished. As now carried on, it has more resemblance to broad- 
swords than single-sticks. The leather guard on the weapon sup- 
plied has a way of slipping around the hilt ; the men always smile 
when the instructor orders " edge to the right "; and well they may, 
for no one can tell the edge from the back. For sword exercise 
there should be regular cutlasses, with buttons on the tips, and 
masks and gloves should be supplied. A plain hickory stick is all 
that is required for cane drill, with perhaps the addition of gloves 
and a thick suit of clothes. 

It is not claimed that actual use will be made of these accomplish- 
ments for war purposes, except perhaps in the case of the cutlasg, as 
previously mentioned, and of the bayonet ; but for physical training 
they are unsurpassed. For developing courage, nerve, strength, 
suppleness, self-reliance, a quick eye, and in fact all the qualities 
necessary in fighters, they have no superior. Every soul on board 



I40 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

should take part in them, officers not excepted. Squads for instruc- 
tion should be formed to receive in rotation the attention of the 
instructor. Four to six hours should constitute a day's work for 
the latter, but an hour at a time would be long enough for the sepa- 
rate squads. During a portion of this time the different individuals 
in succession should receive personal instruction. Rough weather 
at sea would of course put a stop to these exercises, but during the 
greater part of the time there need be no hindrance. Every facility 
should be suppUed in the way of gloves, masks, foils and other 
appurtenances; and a suitable wash-room, with shower-bath and 
tiled floor, should be set aside for the use of the crew. The larger 
the ship the more feasible all this becomes ; but even in a small ship 
much can be accomplished. In these exercises the officers are not 
intended to be left out of consideration. They must take their share 
as faithfully as the men. They are all provided with swords ; they 
must know how to use them. How mortifying it should be to an 
officer to admit, if only to himself, that he would appear a perfect 
guy if called on to take part in an assault-at-arms ! It is undoubtedly 
true that among the officers some expert swordsmen are to be found, 
but their number is small. If the sword is worn merely as a symbol 
of rank, it had better be abolished. Even then, sword exercise and 
fencing would be most useful in physical training. 

Other practicable appliances are to be found in clubs and dumb- 
bells, in pulley-weights, in the horizontal and parallel bars, and in 
the vaulting-horse. Men aboard ship with the writer have been 
asked if they would make use of such an outfit if provided, and they 
have seemed delighted at the idea. Indeed, parts of the apparatus 
suggested have been procured or contrived by the men themselves 
of their own volition. The necessary instruction in these appliances 
would be given by the trainer, but it is to the men themselves we 
must look for the main success. 

To the above exercises might be added swimming, running, and 
tumbling. The former exercise should be much more encouraged 
than at present, weather permitting, and everybody on board should 
be taught to swim. The instructor would provide slings and bands 
to be used by beginners, of whom, curiously enough, there are 
always some to be found in every ship. Running could be prac- 
tised only in such ships as have wide, continuous decks. A track 
should be laid off, so many laps to the mile, and the men encouraged 
to compete. The instructor would give lessons in the proper manner 



i 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 14I 

of breathing, carrying the body, and using the feet and toes. It is 
curious what gawks most men are in running; usually because they 
forget they were once boys and try to impart dignity to the gait. 

A rubber- or felt-soled shoe with spring heel would be necessary 
for this purpose ; in fact, it is a growing opinion that a shoe of this 
sort is the proper habitual wear for aboard ship, a heavier shoe to 
be supplied for landing. Running over the masthead is splendid 
exercise and requires no special outfit. All ships will have at least 
a military mast. Tumbling is said to be, by its advocates, the best 
of all exercises. There is evidently room for it aboard ship. In fact, 
athletics is a very simple thing if we will only recognize its necessity 
and go about it with a little system. 

There is a certain class in the service who will undoubtedly oppose 
all this. Puerile, they will call it ; impracticable ! " Men are aboard 
ship to work, not to play. We cannot be bothered with such per- 
formances, and there is no time for them. The ship has to be kept 
clean and the drills carried on, and when that is done the men want 
to rest." Let us look at these objections. It will be necessary to go 
back to the beginning. What is the object of all training? Why, to 
make men fighters, of course. Do we want men who are repressed 
most of the time, men who are occupied in work that is of no interest 
to them, who are tired out when the cleaning is done, men who 
spend their leisure moments smoking and playing cards ? Evidently 
not. We want men with a light, buoyant spirit, unrepressed, boyish 
if you please, with a fondness for sport, who spend their spare time 
in athletic occupations, and though they turn in at night tired 
physically, we do not want them tired mentally. 

The Concord is about to go into commission. Imagine her crew 
made up from the college football-players of the country, and her 
officers from those who have taken an interest in athletics. Train 
them hard for six months in all man-of-war duties, and then send 
them out to meet a similar ship of no matter what nation. On which 
side would lie the probability of victory ? There seems but one 
answer. The present encouragement of athletics at Annapolis is 
grand. What naval officer did not feel his heart thrill at the news of 
the Annapolis-West Point foot-ball game in November last ? It is 
not claimed that there will be time and opportunity aboard ship for 
a college athletic training, but all that can be accomplished will be 
in the right direction. With a good system it will be worth quite 
half as much for fighting as all the other drills. What we want is 



142 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

manly feeling, esprit de corps; let us incite the men to generous 
competition, take an interest in their sports, go in ourselves and help 
them, offer prizes, have boxing matches, assaults-at-arms, feats of 
strength, boat races, rewards for the best marksmen. This is a 
progressive age; we must adopt the methods in vogue about us or 
we shall find ourselves behind the times. The traditions of a 
generation back cannot be followed exclusively. Our predecessors 
undoubtedly made the best of what they could find at the time, and 
if we neglected that particular, even in copying them, they would 
certainly be the last to applaud us. 

COMPETITION AS APPLIED TO DRILLS. 

Competition and emulation are powerful means of inciting to 
excellence. The old spar and sail drills were grand in their way. 
The man who had to lay aloft to the topgallant or royal yard, in 
sight of the ship's company, and perform his duty as quickly as the 
man on the next mast, and beat him if possible, was under the influ- 
ence of a mental stimulus infrequently met with in other pursuits. 
The application of the principle is not so easy in our modern occu- 
pations, but it may be often used to much advantage. The time 
element should not enter if it appears at the expense of thorough- 
ness. Where certain definite results are sought, and it is a merit to 
accomplish all that is possible in a given time, then time may be 
counted ; as, for instance, in trying to hit a target as often as possible 
in a given interval. ' Some possible applications will now be 
mentioned. 

The Bureau of Navigation, in its excellent rules for target prac- 
tice, ofTers prizes for all manner of proficiency in gunnery practice, 
including that of small-arms and revolvers. The compilation of 
relative merit rolls is a step in the same direction. Another incen- 
tive might be found in keeping a record of all the targets made with 
the air-gun or small-caliber rifle now usually supplied our ships. 
The powder-gun seems to be the better weapon of the two. It is 
easier to keep in order and is more accurate. The cartridges could 
be made with spherical bullets and the charge so reduced as to sup- 
press the report, ordinarily the objectionable feature. Each man 
should be required to make one target a week, which on Saturdays 
should be pasted in the record-book in order of merit and exhibited 
on the ship's bulletin. Of course the book would soon be filled with 
these targets, but it is not essential that they should be kept longer 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. I43 

than a few weeks. The scores, however, should be kept perma- 
nently for comparison from week to week. Some officers are 
opposed to the air-gup and small-caliber rifle on the ground that 
lack of recoil renders practice with them unlike service conditions. 
The points to teach, however, are the principles of sighting and 
steadiness of aim. A new man who has learned to make a good 
target with the small gun may be surprised the first time he fires the 
service rifle; but, understanding the principles, he will soon adapt 
himself to the new conditions. Moreover, it is probable we shall 
eventually be using a high-power rifle of a caliber very much smaller 
than at present, even though we do not go as far as some conti- 
nental powers, and in which reduction of recoil is one of the leading 
features. 

In the case of boat attack, and defense by the search-lights and 
secondary battery, the principle can be applied by organizing 
different parties on successive nights, sending them sometimes in 
the boats, and at other times retaining them at the guns and search- 
lights. The record of successes would then exhibit the relative 
excellence. In the battalion the colors should go with the best 
company, and the best artillery crew should occupy the right of the 
battery. Distinctive marks and badges should be worn for indi- 
vidual excellence in any arm ; namely, by the best great-gun, rapid- 
fire, small-arm, and pistol shots, and by the best fencer and broad- 
swordsman. 

For proficiency in ship's duties, constituting the second variety of 
drills above named, the marks given might be used in determining 
the duty to be assigned to each person. Where there is a choice 
among several, the more desirable duty in the same rates should be 
given the man with the best marks. The marks would have to be 
given regularly by the persons conducting the drills. In the matter 
of ratings, a similar rule should hold, as in fact it usually does. The 
most proficient men should be selected. 

To promote skill in handling boats, races under sail and oars 
should be encouraged on every opportunity. A board of officers, 
assisted by the coxswains, should decide on the handicap allowances 
to put the boats themselves on a par. Success in the races would 
then depend on the skill of the crew. The winning boat should be 
entitled to wear a distinctive pennant painted on the bow. For the 
further encouragement of rowing, both among the officers and crew, 
a light practice barge with four or six oars and outriggers, such as 



144 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

may be found in any rowing club's boat-house, might find a place in 
any but the smallest ships. Large ships might even carry one of 
each size. In the other physical exercises, both drill and recreation, 
abundant stimulus will be found in personal contests and in trials of 
skill and strength. At stated periods contests should take place 
under the direction of the athletic instructor, to be witnessed by the 
ship's company and invited guests. 

The same objections on the part of certain officers are bound to 
meet these suggestions — " We have no time for such doings, and 
there is no place in the ship for the contrivances advocated, espe- 
cially the barges. Besides, who is going to look out for them ? 
Boat races always upset discipline, and so would tournaments and 
other performances." It' will be hard to impress on this class that 
the spirit to be inculcated is of more importance than all the spodess 
decks and shining brightwork, even if it breaks out at times in the 
unruliness of exuberant spirits ; and that any little care and attention 
given the necessary appliances, and sacrifice of time to the exercises, 
will be repaid a hundredfold in manliness and fighting efficiency. 
As a matter of fact, it is to be feared there are many people to whom 
the idea of fighting efficiency is seldom present, and who are mostly 
occupied in the care of the little government property they find in 
their keeping, forgetful that the whole outfit is little better than 
useless if not applied to its legitimate purpose. 

The above class, fortunately, is not in the majority, and there is 
getting to be less and less room for them each year. Even among 
officers who have been zealous in the performance of all duty that 
has fallen to their lot, there has not always been a clear perception of 
the true calling of the officer. Our profession is arms ; not mechanics 
nor engineering, not books nor philosophy, not politics nor society. 
An officer, it is true, should not be ignorant of those other matters, 
but he should not put them ahead of his profession. Officers should 
be students, — yes ; but students of professional subjects, keeping 
always at the fore the one idea that their training is to make them 
fighters. They must have the physique to endure the hardships of 
war, and to lead men in war. Their duties and occupations must 
be such as to raise their physique, not to lower it. Their amuse- 
ments should be sports and athletics, their spirit that of the men who 
fought with Preble, Rodgers, and Decatur, and they should receive 
substantial recognition for excellence ; if they do not, they should 
keep cheerful and wait for better times. Their whole life is now far 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 145 

too sedentary. Watch-standing, with attendant broken rest, fatigues 
without exercising. This is beyond their control, but there are signs 
of changed conditions. With a growing pride in their profession, 
and a materiel in sight which will call forth all their energies, their 
attention will be given more and more to those pursuits which are 
par excelle7ice typical of their calling, 

RECREATION. 

In the matter of recreation, which is of course not properly a part 
of drill routine, but which may exert a marked influence on it, the 
men should be encouraged to amuse themselves aboard ship as 
much as possible. It is not believed that card-playing with a lot of 
dirty pasteboards is conducive to healthful amusement, even if it is 
not made the cloak for gambling. The evening is the proper time 
for recreation. When lying in port, the hammocks need not be 
served out until just before " pipe down." The old reason for going 
to hammocks just after sundown was to enable the numbers to be 
read while there was yet daylight. Nowadays, by turning on the 
spar-deck circuit, the numbers can be read at any time. The 
men having night watches might have a separate compartment 
assigned them and get their hammocks shortly after supper. The 
decks could then be kept clear, tables spread, books, papers and 
games got out, amateur music organized, and the men allowed 
access to the gloves, foils, clubs and dumb-bells. The electric light 
supplied in all our new ships would shed its rays over the scene; 
and if the proper material were not attracted to the service, then 
progress and self-improvement are not motives of human action. 

DISCIPLINE. 

Discipline also has a bearing on drills, which will be the excuse 
for giving it a word in this paper. With so many people in a small 
space it has to be rigid. The great points to inculcate are firmness 
and consistency. Punishments do not have to be severe, but they 
must be equitable and sure. Mildness in handling men when asso- 
ciated with firmness loses nothing. Vituperation as a method of 
discipline is a thing of the past. When an infraction is noticed, all 
that is necessary is to call it to the attention of the offender and then 
set in motion the train that will evolve the prescribed punishment ; 
be it, in case of a first offense, only a warning. Mr. Herbert 
Spencer's idea of likening punishment to the operation of the 



146 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

physical law is worthy of application. A child, on putting his 
finger in the flame, receives a burn, and each repetition of the 
physical offense incurs a repetition of the punishment. Mind, there 
is no such policy, or lack of policy, as may be illustrated by the 
remark "if you do that again I will do so and so." The punish- 
ment should be made as much as possible a counterpart of the 
offense, as, for instance, a late hammock, to be called earlier ; slow 
or inattentive on drill, extra drill. It is not necessary to go farther 
in illustration; the principle may be readily carried out. Discipline 
will depend, as a rule, upon the treatment of these minor offenses. 
If they are effectually checked, more serious ones will not be apt to 
occur. When they do occur, vigorous measures must not be 
omitted. As a matter of fact, grave offenses are more readily dealt 
with than light ones, as the punishment is easier of selection. It will 
be in the correction of the minor infractions that all the commanding 
and executive officers' tact will be required. 

Aside from punishments, many other things promote discipline. 
Among the most important is the holding of petty officers account- 
able, and adding to their responsibilities. There is too much watching 
nowadays ; everybody has to be watched. It is not only necessary 
to give an order, but to send later to see if it has been executed. 
In the old days, when a man was reported for not doing something 
he had been told to do, the reply of the first lieutenant was, "Why 
did you not see that he did it ? " This method is no longer appli- 
cable. The ships are larger and more intricate in every way. 
No person can occupy his time in giving numberless orders and 
then going about and seeing that they are executed. There must 
be a system of accountability from the captain down, be there never 
so many links in the chain. In this way good petty ofiicers will be 
formed, and that we should have them is a matter of the gravest 
necessity. 

Another point is not to try and do too many things at the same 
time. Work should be portioned out and finished before other 
work is taken up. Especially is this true in the case of drills. 
If any absolutely necessary work is going on, omit the drill alto- 
gether. Perfunctory drills should cease ; that is, drills that are 
held to fill out a routine. As war efficiency is the first consideration, 
very few things should be allowed to hinder the drills, and no person 
should be excused from attendance. They should be sharp and 
thorough, and should be progressive in their character. A division 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 147 

might have the same drill for a week at a time to assure this pro- 
gressive tendency, and then turn to something else. Nor should 
bad weather, as a rule, interfere with quarters. The men can always 
be mustered under cover and given some sort of useful instruction. 
In the scheme proposed, time is too valuable to be sacrificed to such 
considerations. Moreover, the men are more contented when they 
have not acquired the habit of wondering if something will not 
happen to interfere with the drill. The simplest policy in the end is 
to make drills as regular as meals, and if only the same time is 
allowed, any results may be accomplished. To get over all the 
necessary ground, it is not thought that in the single ship a fixed 
drill routine is advisable. There are always certain duties of more 
importance than others, and there is always some one thing more 
appropriate at the time than another. The executive officer should 
keep a list of all the exercises it is ever intended to hold, and he 
should select each day those that seem of most importance or most 
fitting the occasion. He would be assisted in this work by a record 
book, to be kept by the divisional officer, in which would be entered 
both the sequence of drills as held in his division, and, under the dif- 
ferent drill headings, the number of hours given to each, and the date. 

It cannot be too much insisted on that every available person 
should do something to add to the fighting power of the ship. Every 
enlisted and appointed man now has some fighting station. The 
firemen not on watch are usually found in the powder division. 
They should be instructed, as well, in small-arm and secondary 
battery work, and they should learn to pull an oar and handle a 
boat. The marines cannot now be drawn up on the quarter-deck in 
action. They will probably be distributed about among the main 
and secondary battery crews, if retained aboard ship, and take their 
rifles only when riflemen are called away. With regard to the 
officers, all, except the surgeons and chaplains, who are protected 
by the Geneva Cross, should understand the rifle, revolver, rapid- 
fire and machine guns. The question of non-combatants is seriously 
occupying foreign services, who are finding their ships too small to 
sacrifice space to people who do not fight. Without discussing the 
abolition of any particular corps, it is apparent that all who now find 
themselves aboard ship must take their full share in the fighting 
drills. 

One more point intimately connected with discipline and drill 
efficiency. Ships' companies should be as nearly as possible per- 



148 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

manent for the cruise. Vacancies will necessarily occur, and they 
will have to be filled ; but none except the gravest reasons should 
authorize extensive changes. Much difficulty is met with at present 
in finding suitable men for manning the new ships ; but it is hoped 
that this trouble will eventually disappear. In the case of the 
officers, there are as many available now in proportion to the ships 
as we are ever likely to have ; and yet a ship could be mentioned in 
which none of the original watch-officers was to be found fourteen 
months after commissioning, and in which there had been ten watch- 
officers in all in sixteen months. To mention another case, in which 
the exact figures are not at hand, a ship lying, it is true, most of the 
time at navy-yards, had had within three years enough officers and 
men on the pay-rolls to have formed from three to four complete 
crews. 

In the matter of making the men comfortable, a great deal can be 
done. When they know they are being looked out for in little 
things, they are far more willing in all their work. The degree to 
which personal comfort can be carried will depend on the ship ; and 
it is left to the captain and executive officer to make the most of 
what is provided. Frequent inspections of clothing and bedding, and 
airing bedding as often as possible, will instill cleanliness. Mention 
has already been made of a wash-room and shower-bath for the 
crew. Clean water and soap are even nearer to godliness aboard 
ship than they are ashore. The navy ration is excellent, and the 
men appear to be satisfied with it. Better messing arrangements 
seem possible, and several plans have been tried. The best one 
should be determined and adopted. Meal hours are almost too 
close together. It would be hard to disturb the 12 o'clock dinner; 
but with the electric lights, supper could be had at 6 o'clock all the 
year round ; 7.30 seems the most appropriate breakfast hour. 

SQUADRON DRILLS. 

We will now suppose the ship to be thoroughly drilled and dis- 
ciplined. She is ready to take part in any squadron duty that may 
be required. It must not be supposed, however, that this degree of 
efficiency has been brought about entirely while absent from the 
squadron. When the men are sufficiently instructed at the battery, 
and the results of the speed and turning trials have been tabulated, 
squadron duty may begin. The presence of other ships stimulates 
effort to a remarkable extent; the crews sooner shake down into 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET, 149 

uniform methods, and the faculties are kept more continually on a 
stretch. Competition among the different ships exerts its influence 
in the same beneficial way that has been already remarked in the 
case of individuals. Especially is this true in such duties as sig- 
naling. In fact, suitable practice in signaling is not possible except 
in squadron. 

But to begin: if the squadron is just formed, the sea and port 
routine is the first thing to claim the admiral's attention. It is diffi- 
cult at the start to co-ordinate all the different duties. The routine, 
to be really serviceable, must be a growth, a development. It is the 
squadron that has kept together for many months that will have 
settled into the most thoroughly practical methods. For that reason, 
squadrons should not be disbanded. Their experience should go 
on uninterruptedly. Ships may come and go as necessary, provided 
their stay is not too brief; but the squadron organization should 
continue. 

To illustrate this point, imagine two cases. In the first, ships 
have been commissioned as they were finished and sent off to differ- 
ent stations, leaving on our own coast a varying force which followed 
some sort of a routine, to be sure, but which had seldom drilled as a 
squadron, and in which most of the exercises were left to the 
commanding officers. For some reason it becomes necessary to 
organize at brief notice a strong force to operate on the coast. All 
the ships at the navy-yards, fitting out and repairing, and the ships 
which have been in reserve are hurried along to join the squadron. 
The flag-officer and his staff have now a difficult and responsible 
task. Squadron orders are issued one after the other; drills are 
devised and executed ; and if time permits, the force will soon be 
efficient. There is no lack of intelligence or energy in our personnel, 
and they will do wonders in an emergency. With a fighting chance, 
they will acquit themselves with credit. 

Now for the second case. There has been for several years a 
permanent squadron of exercise to which the reserve ships are 
always assigned when mobilized. With gradual experience, a 
scheme of drill, exercise and routine has been developed which has 
been shown to produce gratifying results. All the necessary orders 
and instructions are kept in pamphlet form ready to issue at once to 
every new-comer, of which there may be several each year. It is 
suddenly necessary to mobilize all the available force. Ships are 
hurrying to join the flag. The commander-in-chief may give his 



I50 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

directions almost in the language of Moltke when informed that war 
existed with France: "Third portfolio on the left." That is all. 
The work has been done when circumstances were favorable. There 
is nothing to do now but fight. Can any one doubt which of these 
two squadrons will stand the best chance with the enemy ? 

The main object of routine is to regulate the kind and duration of 
drills. Meal hours, times for scrubbing hammocks and clothes, 
and routine signals are important, but must be subservient to neces- 
sary work. The drill routine should be regulated in conformity 
with the relative importance of the different exercises, as laid down 
for the individual ships ; and the idea should be to bring the crews 
together as much as possible, as in boats, and in landing drills. On 
the occasions when combined drills are not provided for it would 
be well to leave a certain freedom to the different ships, that they 
may carry on individually whatever drills seem most expedient to 
them at the time, as has been already explained. Port exercises 
should alternate with squadron manoeuvres as opportunities offer. 
In the location selected there should be facilities for great-gun and 
small-arm target firing, for extended boat exercise, for landing and 
encamping the naval brigade, for torpedo attack and defense, and 
for the construction of booms and the laying out of mine fields. It 
is not necessary to go more into the details of these exercises. They 
are tolerably well understood and are often well executed. The 
great thing is to have more of them. The drills of the Squadron of 
Evolution at Corfu last spring are worthy of study. The situation 
was almost ideal for the purposes enumerated. It was there that 
the longest stop of the cruise, about three weeks, was made ; and 
more was learned than in any other period of twice the length. 

Competition should be brought into play in every way possible, as 
in boat races, rifle matches, comparison by plotted targets of the 
main and secondary battery practice of the different ships, with a 
gunnery pennant, as has been the custom in the North Atlantic 
squadron, for the most proficient; competitive battalion drills for the 
brigade standard, which might be with propriety the admiral's flag, 
and in numberless other ways that will suggest themselves whenever 
the drills are carried out. 

In the matter of signaling there is room for a great deal of im- 
provement. The Morse code signals seem to give the most trouble 
and require a great deal of practice. It is doubtful if a code that 
necessitates from one to seven flag motions, or electric light flashes 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 151 

for each letter or conventional sign will give sufficient rapidity for 
effective work. The characters are difficult to read, for the reason 
that the whole combination is not displayed to the eye at a glance, 
and it requires considerable attention and memory to follow the 
successive motions from beginning to end. The Morse code is cer- 
tainly valuable for telegraphic use, and it is well to have people 
familiar with it. Besides, it facilitates communication with the army 
and coast-guard. A system can be devised that will depend on the 
Morse code, but will display by day or night the whole combination 
for each letter at a glance, and in which each combination will be 
made by a single movement of the signalman. Experiments in this 
direction would be desirable, TWe night signal system now in use 
in certain foreign services, of a number of red or white lanterns in a 
vertical hoist, is about to be adopted for trial in some of our ships. 
It has the advantage of exhibiting the whole combination for each 
"letter or sign at the same instant, but is open to the objection that it 
introduces still another code. 

In exercising the signal corps of the squadron, a ship could be 
detailed to make a reasonably long signal through from beginning 
to end without pause. It would be taken down as received by the 
other ships, and the results sent aboard the flagship for comparison. 
In the smoke and confusion of battle signals will be with difficulty 
discerned. Those made should be as few and as simple as possible. 
Lieutenant Wainwright's idea of employing small mortars to project 
into the air Japanese bombs for day signals, which on explosion throw 
out various shapes and combinations, might prove a very satisfactory 
method. 

In the execution of all squadron routine many valuable suggestions 
would become available by constituting a quarterly board of three to 
five officers, whose province it would be to supervise all drills and 
exercises of whatever sort. They would possess no authority 
except in the way of recommendations, and of reports to the com- 
mander-in-chief of the efficiency observed. Their influence in pro- 
moting uniformity would in itself pay for any additional labor 
involved. 

At sea the greater part of the time should be spent in manoeuvres. 
Formations are of two sorts, for battle and for cruising. It is not 
proposed here to discuss the different ones advocated. The service 
is at present provided with a tentative drill-book, and it is presumed 
an authoritative one will be eventually issued. What is necessary 
for the squadron is to perform thoroughly all the evolutions laid 



152 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

down and to accustom the officers to handle their ships. The drill 
of the section of two ships will probably be the best beginning. 
They should learn to act in concert, and to support each other under 
varying conditions. Then they might separate and manoeuvre as if 
to engage, each trying to pass within the other's turning-circle and 
keep out of the danger-field. This would be delicate work, and 
would have to be executed at first at low speeds and with wide 
turning-circles. The Russian plan of ramming tactics with tugs 
well protected with fenders and buffers is worthy of trial. 

In executing squadron manoeuvres, engine revolutions and helm 
angles should be made use of as indicated by the tabulated results 
of the speed and turning trials. '" Too much thoroughness in this 
particular cannot be insisted on. After once putting over the helm 
in obeying a signal, and it is observed that the circle is too large or 
too small, the error cannot be corrected. The ship is out of her 
place, and it takes time to get back. What is required is to order 
the proper helm angle at the start, and the ship will then keep her 
station. Many people are disposed to laugh at the observation of 
these exact rules and to describe them as impracticable. But they 
are not impracticable ; they can be and are followed by foreign squad- 
rons, notably the French, and they familiarize officers with the quali- 
ties of the ships. After long experience the tables may be done away 
with, but it is only because the contents have been mastered. The 
officer-of-the-deck will still order the proper helm angle when a 
change of course is made, and the suitable number of revolutions at 
all times. If a squadron trained in this manner goes into action, it 
will be prepared for any dispositions that may be ordered ; and the 
tables, which have served as props in learning to walk, as it were, may 
be unhesitatingly thrown aside when their assistance is no longer 
needed. 

Granted that free use is made of the revolution and helm angle 
tables, there must still be means of correcting small variations of 
speed and course when preserving a cruising or battle order for any 
length of time. For this purpose, use is made ordinarily of the 
sextant and dumb compass. The former only is needed in keeping 
in wake of other ships, while the latter is used in maintaining 
bearings. To handle these instruments, pay attention to the 
steering, order the suitable revolutions, be on the lookout for 
signals, regulate the speed-ball and pennant, and carry on the ship 
routine, is a great deal for one officer; yet these duties must be 
under a single control. The sextant is usually turned over to a 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 1 53 

junior officer, and there are quartermasters and signalmen to assist 
in other ways. Now there are many objections to the sextant. 
Granted that it is properly handled, it is far from easy to order the 
revolutions judiciously in conformity with its indications. Moreover, 
the officer of the deck is never quite satisfied when he has to delegate 
to another a duty which has so much to do with the proper observ- 
ance of position. Nor is the sextant a very satisfactory instrument 
for such use. Its indications are unnecessarily exact, and the scale, 
due to the fine graduation, hard to read. The telescopes cannot be 
used with any satisfaction day or night, as their field is too small. 
A simpler and cheaper instrument, having a long index-arm, a 
plainly marked scale, and provision for shipping a night-glass, would 
be a long step in the way of simplification. 

For purposes of verification and for instruction in squadron sailing, 
an automatic attachment may be very easily devised in these days 
of electrical appliances. To go much into detail would not be 
admissible in an essay of this character. An outline of the idea is as 
follows : Having set the index of the sextant, as modified above, for 
the proper distance, let us connect a portable electrical card in such 
wise that a variation in position of the index-arm will show on a dial 
in the engine-room, by the position of a pointer, that distance is 
being lost or gained. A slight change of the throttle corrects 
matters, and no other signal is necessary. All the officer-of-the-deck 
has to do is to assure himself that the index is properly set at the 
start, and any reliable man will be able with very little practice to 
follow the changes as they occur. So much for position in column. 
In keeping station on a bearing, two adjustments are continually 
necessary, speed and course. Two methods suggest themselves for 
an automatic regulation. One is to keep the sextant connections as 
above, to register in the engine-room, and thus regulate distance by 
the speed, and to make a similar connection on the dumb compass 
with a dial in front of the wheel for the guidance of the helmsman, 
and thus regulate bearing by the helm. The other method is to 
interchange these connections, regulating distance by the helm and 
bearing by the speed. On a bearing of four points, either method is 
applicable. At less than four points from ahead the first method 
will be used ; at more than four points the second. The reason is 
apparent. Thus, suppose the bearing were eight points, it is evident 
that the necessity of keeping on the line regulates the speed, whereas 
distance is regulated by the helm ; at zero points, or in column, the 
reverse is true, and at four points, being the intermediate position, 



154 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

it is a matter of indifference. This may not be the mathematical 
neutral point, which will depend on the ratio between advance and 
transfer at different speeds, but it is near enough for all practical 
purposes. 

This method of regulation was suggested by learning of a mechan- 
ical device at one time in use aboard the Galena. The dumb com- 
pass was mounted on the engine-room hatch, and a vertical shaft 
connected the alidade with a dial in the engine-room. Electricity 
is preferable, as the compass may be mounted in any desirable 
position; and by combining with this attachment another for the 
sextant, the whole matter is under the most simple control. It will 
not be necessary or desirable to employ these devices at all times. 
In each watch a great part of the time should be spent in regulating 
position by the eye, giving verbal orders to the helm and engine- 
room. Then at intervals the attachments could be used to check 
the bearing and distance, thus giving continuous practice and instruc- 
tion. Long observation of correct distances and bearings ought to 
be the best possible training for the eye ; and in time of action such 
experience would be invaluable. The appliances are in the same 
category as the speed and helm tables. Discard them by all means 
when their purpose has been subserved. As to the additional care 
and attention required in keeping them in order, it is thought that 
the objects to be attained are ample justification. It is true that 
ships are being filled with every sort of intricate apparatus; but if 
the result is better to prepare for battle, there will be no doubt of the 
advisability ; and somebody will be found to assume the additional 
care. 

A satisfactory electrical or mechanical counter to show in the 
pilot-house the engine speed at any instant without the necessity of 
counting and timing, is very much needed. The ofificer-of-the-deck 
not only wishes to know how many revolutions are being made at 
any time, but it is very important for him to be cognizant of small 
changes as they occur. Step-by-step telegraphs, or other similar 
devices, should be supplied for signaling from the pilot-house or 
conning-tower the desired revolutions and helm angle, the latter in 
case a fighting wheel below decks is used. The dials should be 
marked for number of revolutions and degrees of helm at such small 
intervals as might be found necessary, and also with such legends 
as a Utile faster, a little slower, meet her, steady, starboard hand- 
somely, port handsomely. 

One more point ; in these days of swift-moving craft, the officer- 



DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 155 

of-the-deck should have at his own hand means of instantly changing 
the helm ; and of controlling the engines, stopping and reversing, 
and increasing to full speed at will. When orders have to be given 
to some one else and then passed by mechanical or electrical devices, 
time is lost; and that time may make just the difference between 
collision and escape, ramming or being rammed. 

In addition to manoeuvres in order of battle and order of cruising, 
the squadron should be exercised at ramming tactics and at towing. 
Buoys could be laid down representing a hostile squadron in order 
of battle, and a charge through ordered. The ships could then turn 
and charge back, or form in different order to illustrate tactical 
points. Commander Hoff's book on the subject is full of useful 
hints. In towing exercises, the commander-in-chief would designate 
a ship by signal as disabled and it would become the duty of a 
neighbor, according to the formation, to take her in tow. The light 
craft, scouts and torpedo-catchers would assist in carrying out the 
lines. There can be no doubt that a little judicious practice in this 
particular might result in great benefit at some critical moment. 
Manoeuvring at night should come in for a share of attention. Close 
order is said to be more easily maintained at night and in a fog than 
open order. The English ships during foggy weather in some of 
the recent manoeuvres towed buoys astern at the proper interval as 
guides for their next astern. Plans of this sort suggest themselves 
in practice and sometimes prove of much value. 

After ample experience in all the above duties and drills, the 
squadron could be separated into two parts and exercised at block- 
ading and masking tactics. Extended annual manoeuvres will prove 
the crucial test, short of war itself. Their importance cannot be 
overstated ; any expense incurred will be amply repaid in added 
efficiency. The plan must be well prepared in advance, and the 
participators fully instructed. It does not matter greatly what theme 
is selected ; the chief point is to do something, and keep at it con- 
tinually. In no other way is the best experience to be had. 

SUMMARY. 

The outline of a policy has now been presented. The subject is a 
wide one, and it has not been possible to go very far into detail. If 
the skeleton is thought worthy of the addition of sufficient flesh and 
blood to give it vitality, and the resulting system does not prove satis- 
factory in all its parts, perhaps a full discussion of its faults may 



156 DISPOSITION AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE FLEET. 

suggest a working semblance that will more fully subserve the end 
proposed. After all, the great need to-day is to realize that our 
methods are obsolete. Improvements must follow this realization; 
for with a free expression of opinion, new ideas are bound to appear, 
and it becomes then only a question of the selection of the best. 

To recapitulate: the whole object of naval training is war efficiency. 
Anything that promotes it is good ; that which does not is bad. To 
derive the greatest benefit, a settled policy must be adopted and con- 
sistently followed. The advantage of method is so great, that a poor 
plan steadily adhered to conduces more to efficiency than the most 
brilliant efforts if desultory and fitful. Given a naval force in which 
all necessary types find their representatives, the problem is to make 
that disposition which most satisfactorily and economically fulfils the 
object of its creation, and makes possible a continuous and systematic 
training in all war exercises. The solution arrived at is to make of 
the ships available for active duty, two permanent squadrons of 
exercise, one on each coast, from which at intervals small flying 
squadrons of cruisers are detached to make the tour of the world. The 
permanent coast-defense ships will be assigned to the squadrons of 
exercise when mobilized, and will engage in whatever manoeuvres 
seem appropriate. Ships not in full commission will form two orders 
of reserve, and will be maintained at the navy-yards, with such of 
their officers and crew attached as may be necessary to keep them in 
proper condition. It will not be policy ever to put them entirely 
out of commission during their period of usefulness. The squadrons 
of exercise will be mobilized twice a year, in appropriate localities 
near our own coast, for extended squadron drills. In the intervals, 
the available ships will lie at anchor in appropriate rivers and harbors, 
away from the navy-yards, and will carry on prescribed exercises. 
It is to be impressed on every one that drilling is the first duty, that 
unnecessary work must cease, that officers and crews are to be kept 
in efficient health and spirits, that the profession of arms is their call- 
ing, and that ships are to be made as comfortable and happy as 
other conditions will permit. 

This concludes the subject. The people are now taking a just 
pride in the creation of a modern navy commensurate with the 
national dignity. The reforms advocated depend for their accom- 
plishment on Congress, on na\ al administration, and on naval officers. 
In the words of the motto, occasionem cognosce, it is only necessary 
to know and realize the occasion; and as the objects are clear, 
attainment will be possible. 



[COPVRIGHTKD.] 

U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



ON A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY 
OF SHIPS. 

By Assistant Naval Constructor D. W. Taylor, U. S. Navy. 



The word stability is commonly, though somewhat loosely, used by 
naval architects to express not only the existence of a righting 
tendency in a ship inclined in still water, but also the amount of such 
tendency, i. e. the righting moment of the ship. The displacement 
of ships being always expressed in tons, their righting moments are 
naturally expressed in ton-feet.* 

I propose to describe and explain a method for calculating sta- 
bility ; but before taking up the method itself, shall state briefly a few 
elementary facts connected with the subject. 

A ship floating at rest in still water, and acted upon only by her 
own weight and the buoyancy of the water, must — 

1. Displace a weight of water equal to her own weight. 

2. Have her center of gravity vertically above the center of 
gravity of the displaced water, usually called the center of buoyancy. 

When the above conditions hold, the weight of the ship, which 
may be regarded as acting downward through her center of gravity, 
is exactly counterbalanced by the buoyancy of the water, which may 
be regarded as acting upward through the center of buoyancy. 

This state of affairs is illustrated by Fig. i, which may be taken 
to represent the transverse section of a ship through her center of 
gravity, G, and center of buoyancy, B. 

*A foot-ton is the work done in raising the weight of a ton through the 
vertical height of a foot. A ton-foot is the moment exerted by the weight of 
a ton acting with the horizontal leverage of a foot. 



158 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

Consider now Fig. 2, where the ship is shown inclined in smooth 
water, at the water-line IVL, the displacement remaining- unchanged. 
In this condition the weight of the ship and the equal buoyancy of 
the water, while still acting in vertical lines, do not act in the same 
line. There is then a couple set up, which will tend to right the 
ship if the vertical through B falls outside of the vertical through G 
(as in Fig. 2), and will tend to still further incline the ship if the 
vertical through B falls inside of the vertical through G. 

This couple is, of course, measured by the displacement multiplied 
by GZ, the horizontal distance between the verticals through G and 
B respectively, 6^Z is called the righting lever. 

If, adopting some constant displacement, we determine values of 
GZ for a number of inclinations, and plot them as ordinates of a 
curve of which the inclinations are the corresponding abscissae, we 
can determine from the curve the value of the righting lever corres- 
ponding to any inclination at the constant displacement. Such a 
curve is commonly called a curve of stability. One is shown by 

Fig- 5- 

The displacement being constant, a curve of righting levers is, on 
a suitable scale, a curve of righting moments also, for righting 
moment = displacement X righting lever. 

Suppose now we give the ship a constant inclination and then 
gradually immerse her, determining for each of a number of parallel 
water-lines the displacement and its moment about an axis fixed in 
the ship. Plotting these moments as ordinates of a curve of which 
the displacements are abscissae, we have what is called the " cross 
curve " of stability corresponding to the constant inclination. Fig. 4 
shows a number of cross curves for a ship at intervals of 15°. 

If we have cross curves for a sufficient number of inclinations, we 
can take from the curve for each inclination the moment correspond- 
ing to a fixed displacement, and plot a new curve for the fixed 
displacement having moments for ordinates upon inclinations as 
abscissae. If the center of gravity of the ship at the fixed displace- 
ment falls on the axis about which the moments for the cross curves 
were found, this new curve is the same as the ordinary curve of 
stability explained above. 

If the center of gravity of the ship does not fall on the axis, a 
simple correction will be necessary in order to obtain the ordinary 
curve of stability. 

The center of gravity of a ship is always calculated approximately 



proceedings u. s. naval institute, vol. xvii., no. 2. 
Fig. 1. 



OB 



Fig. 2. 



cb B 



c 

V 

B 
o 

-• a 
g w) 
a-S 



ri 


'd, ^ 






&H 


^ 5!^ 




m •" 




c a 




o o 








o o 




o S 








II II 



q.u8mom 



^ — y 



(M 1—4 




A9[ Suim.^[y ^1 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I59 

when she is designed, and is usually determined with considerable 
accuracy after the ship is completed, by an " inclining experiment." 

I propose to discuss a method for determining stability, on the 
supposition that the position of the center of the gravity of the ship 
is always known. 

The explanation of the method as applied to a ship is simplified 
by considering first a single section as shown in Fig. 3, 

Let —go'^Pgo° denote the position of a water-line when the 
section is upright. Call the point P the pole. Let A denote the 
position of the axis about which the righting moment is desired. 

Let r denote a radius from the pole, a subscript being used to 
indicate the angle which its radius makes with the vertical. Thus 
rjft denotes the radius from Px.o 90°. In the figure, radii are drawn 
at intervals of 15° on each side of the vertical, as shown. 

Consider now the small triangle Pa^a^, a^ and a^ denoting, in cir- 
cular measure,* the angular distances of the ends of the base of the 
little triangle from the vertical, as indicated. 
Let 

Pa^ — r-^, Pa^ = ri. 

Then we have approximately, 

Area oi Pa,a, = ^^±±^ X ^^^ = A, say. 

Vertical moment of Pa,a, about P= A X ^ (Jl±l^ sin fL±^\ 

22 

Suppose now a^ and a^ are very nearly equal. 
Let a, — «! be denoted by da. 



«1 


+ 


0-2 




2 




r, 


+ 


r^ 



2 
Then the smaller the triangle the more nearly do we have 

Area = \r"' da. 
Moment = hr"^ da x \r sin a — ir* sin a da. 

Evidently, then, ir' would be the element of a radial curve of 
areas corresponding to the angle a, and ^r' sin a would be the cor- 
responding element of a curve of moments. 

♦The relation between circular measure and degrees for an angle is: — 
(Circular measure) = -^-n (degrees) = .0174533 degrees. 



l6o A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

By treating these elements in the ordinary manner for radial inte- 
gration, we can find the area and the moment of the portion of the 
section bounded by any radii. Thus, for the area and moment of 
the portion between Po and P6o, we have, using the trapezoidal rule, 

Area = \{^rl + r\^ + rl^ + rl^ + i^eo) 
X (circular measure of interval = 15°)- 
Moment = 

i- i\rl sin o" + r\^ sin 15° + r|o sin 30° + rl^ sin 45° + -i- r\a sin 60") 
X (circular measure of 15°). 

Suppose we know the area below the water-line — Qo/'go (the 
initial area, it may be called) and B^, the position of its center of 
gravity. If the section is inclined 45° about /"as a fixed point, the 
new water-line will be — 45/*i35, and the new vertical P^^. The 
new area below the water-line is obtained by deducting from the 
initial area the " emerged wedge," —90/'— 45, and adding the 
" immerged wedge," goPi2,S- 

i. e. Deduct 

KIrigo ■\- rLti + ^ieo + i^-45) X (circular measure of 15'*). 
Add i(ir^o -1- r?05 + ^m + i^L) X (circular measure of 15°). 

The net result is the addition of 

i {K^9o - r'_,,) + (r?„, - rL„) + (r\,, - rl.^) -f i(r?35 - rL«)| 
X (circular measure of 15°). 

The resulting area below the water-hne at 45° is denoted by A^^,. 

Consider now the question of moments about P, with Pa^^ as the 
vertical. 

The moment of the area beneath the inclined water-line —45/*: 35, 
is evidently to be obtained by taking the net result of the moments of — 

1. The initial area beneath — 90/^90, denoted by A^. 

2. The wedge of emersion, — 90P— 45. 

3. The wedge of immersion, goPizS- 
These moments in detail are: 

1. Initial area— negative moment = —A^ X PM^ 

= -AoX PB, sm 45°. 

2. Wedge of emersion— positive moment = 

^(^risosin 135°-!- r 176 sin 120° + rieosin 105° + iri^ sin 90**) 
X (circ. meas. 15"). 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. l6l 

3. Wedge of immersion — positive moment = 

1 (I r|o sin 45° + r?05 sin 60° + r\,^ sin 75° + ^r^, sin 90°) 
X (circ. meas. 15°). 
Now sin 135° = sin (180° — 45**) = sin 45°. 
Similarly sin 120° = sin 60°, and so on. 

So the two positive moments above can be combined into a single 
expression. 

Positive moment = 

i li (^90 + rl.o) sin 45° + (rlo, + rL,,) sin 60° +(rf,„ + rLeo) sin 75** 
+ i(^i35 + ''-«) sin 90° [ X (circ. meas. 15°). 
And the negative moment has been expressed as = 
—A^X PB, sin 45°. 

Whence the moment of the area below the 45° water-line is readily 
determined about the pole P. But it is the moment about the axis 
A which it is the object of our work to obtain, and for this another 
step is necessary, introducing what I may call the pole correction. 

Referring to Fig. 3, if B^^ is the center of gravity of the area ^«, 
beneath the 45° water-line, 

Moment of ^« about pole P= A^^X PN. 

" axis A = A,,X AR = A,, (PN- PQ) 

= ^« X PN- A,, X PA sin 45° . 

Now ^45 X PN has just been found (it is the moment about the 
pole), and A^^ X PA sin 45° is easily determined, since Ai^ has been 
found and PA is supposed to be known. 

There is one more point to be considered in connection with the 
single section. 

Suppose from the inclined water-line the section is sunk bodily a 
short distance in the water without change of inclination. The small 
increase of area acts through the center of gravity ^(see Fig. 3) of 
the line —45/^135, and has the arm AS for moments about A. 

Now AS= PT- PQ = PT- PA sin 45^ 

r^ — r"^ 
PA is supposed known, and PT— \ "° — =^; whence AS is 

''135 + ^—46 

readily determined. 

The application of the methods just explained to the case of a ship 
by means of a suitable number of sections is obvious. 

Given the pole, the initial displacement corresponding, and the 
distance below the pole of the corresponding center of buoyancy, 



l62 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

we have al! the necessary data concerning the initial displacement, 
which should be treated just as the initial area above. 

This data may be taken directly from the displacement scale 
unless the pole is at a height to which the displacement scale calcu- 
lations have not extended. In such a case the calculations of the 
displacement scale should be extended, at least as regards displace- 
ment and the position of the center of buoyancy. We shall see that 
it is desirable to extend these calculations up to complete submer- 
gence of all parts of the ship that are taken into consideration when 
dealing with stability. 

In dealing with the moments of the wedges of immersion and 
emersion of an actual ship represented by a number of sections, we 
must of course take into account all the sections and the fact that we 
are dealing with a solid instead of a plane area. 

It will be necessary to use instead of r, r^ and r^, quantities which 
I shall denote by 2>, 2V' and 2V. Zr means \ each end radius -I- 
each of the intermediate radii. 2V = h the square of each end 
radius + the square of each intermediate radius. A similar expres- 
sion holds lor 2V\ 

The fact of solidity must be taken account of by the introduction 
of a factor depending upon the spacing of the sections used. 

It will be observed that JlV, 2'^ and Ir^ are determined by the 
trapezoidal rule, which may be stated briefly to be that the area of a 
curve of which a number of equidistant ordinates are known is 
= {h the end ordinates -f the sum of the intermediate ordinates) X 
(the interval between ordinates). I shnll discuss later the reasons 
for the adoption here of the trapezoidal rule in preference to 
Simpson's. 

I wish now to describe and explain the forms of calculation for the 
work shown in Tables I-IV inclusive. 

The upper part of Table I calls for little explanation. The radial 
ordinates from one pole for the various inclinations and sections are 
taken from the body-plan of the ship and entered in the column 
headed r. The columns headed r^ and r' are filled in from a table 
of squares and cubes, and 2V, 2V^ and Ir^ obtained by addition. 
Care must be taken when entering for the end ordinates at each 
inclination that \ the square and \ the cube of the whole radius is 
entered, and not the square and the cube of \ the radius, which is 
entered under r. 

When the radii are measured to the nearest tenth of a foot, the 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 163 

squares and cubes should be entered to the nearest unit, as in the 
example. When the radii are measured to the nearest hundredth of 
a foot, the squares should be entered to the nearest tenth, and the 
cubes to the nearest unit. 

Taking up now the lower part of Table I, consider first the quan- 
tities under the heading "legend." 

The displacement factor is the quantity by which the displacement 
functions, involving radii alone, should be multiplied for reduction to 
tons of 35 cubic feet.* 

If h denote the spacing of the sections used in feet, and a the 
spacing of the radii in degrees — 

Displacement factor = ^ X — X ^^-7^^ — X — = .000249333 ha. 

If a = 15°, displacement factor = .00374 ^• 

The polar moment factor is the quantity by which moment func- 
tions must be multiplied for reduction to moments about the pole. 
We have 

polar moment factor = ^ X — X ^—k — X 3S = .000166222 ha. 
^ 3 180 *^^ 

If a = 15", polar moment factor = .00249333 h. 

The initial displacement corresponding to the pole and the posi- 
tion of the initial C. of B. are taken from the displacement scale, as 
previously explained ; the constant for initial displacement correc- 
tion is their product. 

In the form headed " for displacement correction," the first two 
lines are filled from Table I and the third obtained by subtraction. 

The "first 2 difference" is obtained by dividing by 2, The line 
of "second h difference" repeats the one above, but with each entry 
shifted one column to the right. 

To show the object of this, let us consider the correction for an 
inclination of 45°. This correction, by the way, is to be applied 7iot 
to the initial displacement, but to the displacement at the preceding 
angle. Then for 45** the correction desired is the difference between 
the displacements at 45° and at 30*'. 

For an inclination from 0° to 30° — 

Immersed wedge function = \lrla + lr\^^ -f- \lr\.Q. 
Emerged " " = \IrU. + i>i,5 + \Irl.^. 

* As nearly as may be, 35 cubic feet of thoroughly salt sea-water weigh one 
ton of 2240 pounds. 



l64 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

The difference between the immersed and emerged wedges is the 
addition which must be made to the initial displacement (corres- 
ponding to o°) to obtain the displacement corresponding to 30°. 

Subtracting, the difference of the functions = (I'r^os — I'rLu) 

Similarly, for 45° the difference of the immersed and emerged 
functions = (Jr^ - Jrl,,) + ( Jr?,, - Jri^o) + iCi'^L - iVi«). 

Evidently the function for the correction, in proceeding from 30" 
to 45**, is the difference between the functions to be added for 45" 
and 30° respectively. 

This difference = i(iV?,o - IrL^) + i {Irl, - JriJ. 

Now in Table II, corresponding to 45*^, 

First i difference = ^ CiVL - i'^i^)- 

Second ^ difference = ^ (I'^uo — Ir^-e,^. 

The object of the arrangement adopted is evident. Having the 
displacement correction function, the displacement correction is 
obtained (in tons) through multiplication by the displacement factor 
found in the legend. 

Considering the form for " centers of gravity of water planes," it is 
evident that the radial planes in each column corresponding to the 
first two lines (as at 120" and —60°, for example) form a complete 
water plane, to the area of which the "sum " of the third line is pro- 
portional. Also the " first h difference " in the " displacement correc- 
tion " form is proportional to the moment of the water plane about the 
pole. Thus, taking the planes at 120° and —60" : 

First ^ difference = J {Irl^o — IrL^^. 

Of course the " C. of G. from pole " (analogous to PT in Fig. 3) 
is obtained from the two lines preceding it by dividing " first 2 differ- 
ence" by the " sum." 

The " pole correction " (analogous to PQ in Fig. 3) is the distance 
of the pole below the axis into the sine of the inclination. By sub- 
traction is obtained the arm of C. of G. of water plane about axis 
(analogous to AS'm Fig. 3.) 

In the form headed "displacement," the initial displacement is 
entered opposite the inclination of o" ; and the "displacement correc- 
tions" being suitably entered, as shown, and each added to the dis- 
placement above, we obtain the displacements for the successive 
inclinations. The " pole correction factor" is simply the distance of 
the pole from the axis multiplied by the sineof the angle of inclination. 
Multiplying this factor by the corresponding displacement abreast it, 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 165 

we have the " pole correction for moments " which must be used to 
reduce moments about the pole to moments about the axis. 

In the form headed "righting moments" the I'r^ quantities are 
entered and added as indicated, and the sums re-entered vertically 
on the left, abreast their proper inclinations. The triangular table is 
then filled by entering abreast each angle the product of its sine into 
the " sum " on the same line to the left. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that abreast each 90° is entered only i " sum " X sin 90°, for 
this is the end ordinate, and we are using the trapezoidal rule. 

The moment function sum (obtained by addition) must be multi- 
plied by the polar moment factor (from the legend) to give the 
moment of the wedges of immersion and emersion about the pole. 

The initial displacement correction, which must now be applied, is 
the " constant for initial displacement correction " X sine of inclina- 
tion. 

Thus is obtained the righting moment about pole. Applying the 
pole correction (from the displacement form), we finally obtain the 
righting moment about axis. 

The righting moments obtained so far are for inclinations up to 
go°. The remainder of the form is for the purpose of obtaining 
displacements and corresponding righting moments for inclinations 
up to 180°. 

Of course the " righting moment for total displacement " (corres- 
ponding to total submergence) is total displacement X distance from 
axis to C. B. of total displacement X sine of inclination. 

I use next the well known property of floating bodies, that if we 
take for a given pole the displacement and righting moment corres- 
ponding to a plane at an inclination a, and deduct them from the 
total displacement and the righting moment for the total displace- 
ment respectively, the remainders will be the displacement and the 
righting moment corresponding to an inclination of i8o° — a. 

The steps of the process are clearly indicated on the form, and 
show how from displacements and righting moments up to 90° those 
from 90° to 180° are obtained. 

Having completed Table I for three or more poles. Table II is 
filled in for the purpose of drawing the cross curves of righting 
moment. 

In Table II the first three lines (Z>, M, C) for each inclination at 
which a curve is to be drawn are filled in at once from Table I. 
The object of the next two lines is to get the inclination of each 



l66 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

curve at each " spot " corresponding to an ascertained displacement 
and righting moment. 

Suppose the vertical through the C, of G. of a given water plane 
has a leverage of / feet about the axis. 

If we immerse the ship slightly without changing the inclination, 
the layer of increase also has the leverage /, and one ton increase of 
displacement means / tons increase of righting moment. Then the 
inclination of the corresponding cross curve of righting moment at 
the corresponding spot will be the angle whose tangent is /, provided 
the scales for displacement and righting moment are the same. 

But if, as in the case shown, the scale for righting moment is i that 
for displacement, the " lever of C. of G. of water plane " ( C) must be 
divided by 2 to obtain the tangent of the inclination. 

Having the tangent, the corresponding inclination is taken from a 
table of natural tangents and entered in its place opposite / 

It should be said that for 90° inclination the displacement and 
righting moment are necessarily the same for every pole. What- 
ever the position of the pole, we have at 90" the same immersed 
volume acting — namely, the volume on one side of the central ver- 
tical longitudinal plane, called the diametral. The corresponding 
displacement is of course J of the total displacement. 

It is the object of the work shown in Table III to obtain two addi- 
tional "spots" for the cross curve at 90". Two sections are taken 
at intervals of 5' on one side of the diametral, and the area and the 
position of the center of gravity of each are determined. Then the 
tons per foot and ton-feet (about the axis) per foot are determined 
for the two side sections, and also for the diametral. The total dis- 
placement and moment of the slice between the diametral and the 
outer section are readily deduced, and by addition and subtraction 
to the known displacement and moment the two additional spots 
desired on the 90° cross curve are obtained. 

Having the data in Table II, the cross curves at 15° intervals can 
be drawn. There are five known spots on each curve, corresponding 
to no displacement, to the total displacement, and to the three poles 
used. 

For the three last spots, not only the point on the curve is known, 
but also the direction of the curve at the point. The inclinations at 
zero displacement and total displacement are also readily obtained 
by determining from the midship section the corresponding righting 
levers. 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS, 167 

Fig, 4 shows the cross curves corresponding to Table II, being very 
approximately those of the U.S. S. Philadelphia, 

The process by which an ordinary stability curve, corresponding 
to a known displacement and position of the center of gravity, is 
derived, is shown in Table IV. 

The displacement and position of the center of gravity used are 
very nearly those of the Philadelphia when she was inclined for the 
determination of her metacentric height. The righting moments 
at each inclination corresponding to 5000 tons displacement are 
taken directly from the cross curves. The remaining steps are 
shown clearly in the table. The correction of the lever about the 
axis, on account of the position of the C. of G., is, of course : Distance 
from axis to C of G. X sine of inclination. 

It may have been observed that much of the work in the method 
of calculation which I have been explaining consists in the multiplica- 
tion of numbers by sines of angles. To facilitate this work and 
reduce the chances of error, I have calculated the appended tables of 
products of numbers by the sines of angles. The main table extends 
only to 2500, but for most purposes sufficient accuracy will be ob- 
tained (when dealing with numbers above 2500) by entering the table 
with the first four digits of the number being handled. For more 
refined work Tables A and B have been calculated. These are six- 
place multiplication tables of numbers by sines of angles extending to 
one hundred. Table A is for 15° intervals. Table B for 10° intervals. 
Since the sine of 30° = i, no calculations have been made for this 
angle. When intending to use Table A or B, the I'r^ and I'r' 
functions should be multiplied at once by the displacement and 
righting moment factors respectively. 

Any one familiar with stability work will have observed that the 
method I have been describing is essentially a modification of 
Barnes' method, the trapezoidal rule being used instead of Simpson's, 
and such other changes made as are necessary in determining cross 
curves. These changes have been chiefly suggested by the work of 
Daymard, Elgar, and Jenkins. 

The trapezoidal rule was adopted because for hollow curves, such 
as are involved in determining Ir, 2V and Ir^, it is quite as reliable 
as Simpson's. For the somewhat lumpy curves used in obtaining dis- 
placement and righting moment, the trapezoidal rule is preferable to 
Simpson's. 

These curves differ radically from the parabolic curves for which 



l68 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 

Simpson's rules give exact results. Consequently it might reason- 
ably be concluded that Simpson's rules, when applied to them, give 
unsatisfactory results. Comparative tests which I have made by 
applying Simpson's and the trapezoidal rule to somewhat irregular 
curves fully justify this conclusion, I may mention, in this connec- 
tion, that it is the practice of French naval architects to employ the 
trapezoidal rule in all calculations, and I am informed that this is also 
the practice among our own civil engineers. 

There is no doubt, however, that Simpson's rules, when applied 
to curves to which they are suited, give appreciably more accurate 
results than the trapezoidal, a fact quite sufficient to justify their use 
in such cases when extreme accuracy is desired. 

In the example of work given for the purpose of illustrating the 
method I have taken no account of appendages, considering only 
the main body of the ship to the upper deck. The only appendages 
which would appreciably affect the result are the forecastle and the 
poop. With the high freeboard of the Philadelphia, the forecastle 
and poop afford buoyancy and righting moment only at large angles 
of roll. When such angles are reached, the loose water which would 
come on board would largely, if not entirely, neutralize any buoy- 
ancy or stability afforded by poop or forecastle. 

In low freeboard ships, deck erections and poops and forecastles 
are of more relative importance and should be considered. The 
necessary changes in the forms are simple and obvious. 

In considering the accuracy to which we wish to work, it should 
be remembered that a " curve of statical stability " is an entirely 
imaginary thing. We cannot, by any practical appliances, exert a 
twisting moment great enough to heel a large ship in still water 
beyond a very small angle. When ships roll it is always in disturbed 
water, and the actual righting moment at a given inclination depends 
largely upon the position of the ship at the instant with respect to the 
waves. 

While the statical righting moment at a given inclination is a kind 
of mean of all possi'ole righting moments at that inclination in dis- 
turbed water, the very fact that the actual moment is liable to 
material oscillations — impossible to calculate exactly — on either side 
of the mean, renders it unnecessary, for any practical purpose, to aim 
at minute accuracy in the determination of the mean. The method 
I have been describing is most accurate for the smaller inclinations, 
for which the results are practically exact. At the large inclinations, 




gnijqSi^ 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 169 

60° and over, the results may be so much out that the righting levers 
determined will differ by as much as an inch, in extreme cases, from 
the exact righting levers. In the case of the Newark it was found 
by careful check calculations by other methods that the righting 
levers by the method just described were never in excess of the 
exact levers, and that the greatest defect was about h inch. 

Such an amount of inaccuracy at large angles of heel (which are 
never reached in practice) is entirely negligible as regards any prac- 
tical use to which curves of stability are put. I have not considered 
it of sufficient importance to justify the additional work involved in 
closer spacing of the radial planes, by which it could be reduced to 
almost any desired extent. 

The principal source of inaccuracy is the fact that the righting 
moment is determined as the difference between the moment of the 
wedges and the moment of the initial displacement — both much 
larger quantities than their difference at large inclinations. 

It would somewhat shorten the work and give smoother cross 
curves for the large inclinations if a method were adopted treating 
the parallel planes through equidistant poles, as the vertical sections 
were treated in determining additional spots for the 90° cross curves. 
I have, however, considered it preferable to obtain independent 
results for each pole, leaving the method above referred to available 
for fairing the cross curves if necessary. While the forms of calcu- 
lation given extend beyond 90° of inclination, I have found it prefer- 
able in practice to use a graphic method to obtain the cross curves 
beyond this point. 

Thus in Fig. 6 let 0PM he a cross curve for 60° inclination. Let 
OD represent the displacement when fully submerged, and DM the 
corresponding righting moment. Lay off 01/ = iOD, HC^= \DM. 
Draw PCQ and lay off CQ^ equal and opposite to CP. Then Q is 
a point on the cross curve for 120°, the angle supplementary to 60°. 
Any number of points on the supplementary cross curve may be 
thus determined and the curve for 120° drawn as shown. 

Evidently the curve for 120° is simply the curve for 60° rotated 
180° about an axis through C perpendicular to the plane of the paper. 

It is desirable, when intending to make use of this method, to 
choose the axis at the center of buoyancy of the total displacement. 

If this be done, the point C in Fig. 6 is the same for every curve — 
always coinciding with H. 



170 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



TABLE II. 
Legend, — U. S. S. Philadelphia. 
Axis ig'-S above base line. 
Scales for Cross Curves: I'-'mooo tons displacement, 
ton-feet o£ righting moment. 

Explanation of Symbols. 
D denotes displacement in tons of 35 cubic feet. 
M denotes righting moment in ton-feet. 

C denotes lever about axis of center of gravity of water planes. 
T denotes the tangent of the inclination of the cross curve. 
I denotes the inclination of the cross curve. 









Pole from Axis. 






Inclination. 


1 








Ship submerged. 




B 
>> 

CO 


8'.82 below. 


On. 


5'.68 above. 






D 


1968 


4439 


6220 


9140 




M 


i.>57 


2089 


4159 


— 51 


15° 


C 


0.02 


0.71 


1. 41 






T 


O.OI 


0-355 


0.705 






I 


0° 40'' 


19° 30' 


35° 10' 






D 


2223 


4549 


6143 


9140 




M 


2601 


5360 


7586 


— 100 


30° 


C 


0.71 


1.87 


0.88 






T 


0-3S5 


0.935 


0.440 






I 


19° 30' 


43° 10' 


23O50' 






U 


2732 


4670 


5895 


9140 




M 


5014 


7716 


8310 


— 141 


45° 


C 


2.25 


1. 01 


— 0.43 






T 


1.125 


0.505 


— 0.215 






I 


48° 40' 


26° so' 


—12° 10' 






D 


3395 


4712 


5528 


9140 




M 


6493 


6910 


6603 


-173 


60° 


c 


0.83 


O.OI 


— 0.64 






T 


0.415 


0.005 


— 0.320 






I 


22° 30' 


o°ro' 


-17° 50^ 






D 


4010 


4687 


5107 


9140 




M 


4094 


3400 


3014 


— 193 


75° 


C 


-0.88 


— 0.68 


— 0.68 






T 


—0.440 


— 0.340 


— 0.340 






I 


-23° 50' 


-18° 50/ 


- 18° 50' 






D 


1994 


4570 


7146 


9140 




M 


1898 


— 100 


— 2098 


— 200 


90° 


C 


0.21 


— 2.14 


0.21 






T 


0.105 


— 1.070 


0.105 






I 


6° 


-47° 


6° 






D 


5130 


4453 


4033 


9140 




M 


— 4287 


-3593 


— 3207 


— 193 


105° 


C 
T 












I 


— 23° 50' 


— 18° 50' 


- 18° 50' 





170 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



TABLE II. 
Legend, — U, S. S. Philadelphia. 
Axis 19^.5 above base line. 
Scales for Cross Curves: I'-'mooo tons displacement, 
ton-feet of righting moment. 

Explanation of Symbols. 
D denotes displacement in tons of 35 cubic feet. 
M denotes righting moment in ton-feet. 

C denotes lever about axis of center of gravity of water planes. 
T denotes the tangent of the inclination of the cross curve. 
I denotes the inclination of the cross curve. 









Pole from Axis. 






Inclination. 


1 








Ship submerged. 




8'.82 below. 


On. 


5'. 68 above. 






D 


1968 


4439 


6220 


9140 




M 


1.^.57 


2089 


4159 


— SI 


15° 


C 


0.02 


0.71 


I.41 






T 


O.OI 


0-355 


0.705 






I 


o°4o' 


190 30' 


35° 10/ 






D 


2223 


4549 


1 6143 


9140 




M 


2601 


5360 


7586 


— 100 


30° 


c 


0.71 


1.87 


0.88 






T 


0.355 


0-935 


0.440 






I 


19° 30' 


43° 10' 


23050/ 






D 


2732 


4670 


5895 


9140 




M 


5014 


7716 


8310 


— 141 


45° 


C 


2.25 


1. 01 


-0.43 






T 


1. 125 


0.505 


— 0.215 






I 


48° 40' 


26° 50' 


-12° 10^ 






D 


3395 


4712 


5528 


9140 




M 


6493 


6910 


6603 


-173 


60° 


C 


0.83 


o.oi 


— 0.64 






T 


0.415 


0.005 


— 0.320 






I 


22° 30' 


0° 10'' 


— 17° 50^ 






D 


4010 


4687 


5107 


9140 




M 


4094 


3400 


3014 


— 193 


75° 


C 


— 0.88 


— 0.68 


— 0.68 






T 


— 0.440 


— 0.340 


—0.340 






I 


—23° 50^ 


-18° 50' 


— 18° 50' 






D 


1994 


4570 


7146 


9140 




M 


1898 


— 100 


— 2098 


— 200 


90° 


C 


0.21 


— 2.14 


0.21 






T 


0.105 


— 1.070 


0.105 






I 


6° 


-47° 


6° 






D 


5130 


4453 


4033 


9140 




M 


— 4287 


— 3593 


— 3207 


— 193 


105° 


C 
T 












I 


- 23° 50' 


— 18° 50' 


— 18° 50' 





I-I- -l-l- -l-l 



'If \]:l 






1 1 !i 



3 1:^ 



dm:; 



t ::: 



I . I . i H-l 



;i; i S 



Mssll =3-5 



8 l:i 
ill; li:] 

si 



-"S 



,,5 


i' 


6.< 


1 


1 












fas 


;>£j 


:^:; 




:?n 












51: 


;iiSi 


•t" 




;5is 


^f 


:S^ 


•t.5 


^ 


;3;"3 



111 ' u&l 

I 'If 



S19.8 1 14854 358235 



32646 376.3 3694 53807 , 



7480 507640 645.S 



SPLACEMENT CORRECTION. 






vzn 



CENTRE OF GRAVITY ( 






00' 3( 






i»=7 "SO" ;58'39 

!„0 0» 3,163 



'3^5 



%85i! 



i 



198634 7S» 3S373: 
3S!|91 *>=i^ 

9, 



I 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 17] 
Table II— Continued. 



Inclination, 


i 

E 


Pole from Axis. 


Ship submerged. 




8'.82 below. 


On. 


S'.68 above. 




120° 


D 

M 
C 
T 

I 


5745 

— 6666 
22° 30^ 


4428 
— 7083 

0° 10' 


3612 
-6776 

- 17° SO' 


9140 
— 173 


135° 


D 

M 
C 
T 

I 


6408 
-5155 

48° 40^ 


4470 
— 7857 

26° 50' 


3245 

-8451 

— 12° 10' 


9140 
— 141 


150° 


D 

M 
C 
T 

I 


6917 

— 2701 

19° 30' 


4591 
— 5460 

43° 10' 


2997 
— 7686 

23° 50' 


9140 
— 100 


165° 


D 

M 
C 
T 

I 


7172 

— 1408 

o°40^ 


4701 
— 2140 

19° 30' 


2920 
4210 

35° 10' 


9140 

-SI 



172 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



TABLE III. 



For additional points on 90° cross curve. Sections spaced 12'. Ordinates 
from 19'. 5 below axis. 





Plane 5' from center. 


1 

Plane 10' from center. 


g 


Bottom. 


T 


op. 


Bottom. 


Top. 


tri 


Ord. 


Ord.2 


Ord. 


Ord.2 



Ord. 


Ord.2 


Ord. 


Ord.2 


I 


0,0 




















2 


18.5 


68s 


18.5 


685 














3 


17.4 


303 


36-4 


1325 


18.0 


648 


18.0 


648 


4 


9-3 


86 


36.0 


1296 


24-5 


600 


35-9 


1289 


5 


5-4 


29 


35-6 


1267 


14-5 


210 


35-5 


1260 


6 


3-3 


II 


35-4 


1253 


8.7 


76 


35-3 


1246 


7 


2.1 




35-' 


1232 


5-4 


29 


35-0 


1225 


8 


1-5 




34-8 


1211 


3-5 


12 


34-8 


I2I1 


9 


I.I 




34-6 


1 197 


2.4 


6 


34.6 


I 197 


10 


0.9 




34-4 


I183 


1.8 


3 


34-4 


II83 


II 


0.6 





34-3 


II76 


1-4 


2 


34-2 


II70 


12 


0-5 





34-2 


II70 


I.O 


I 


34.1 


I 163 


13 


0.4 





34-1 


1163 


I.O 


I 


34-1 


1 163 


14 


0-3 





34-1 


1 163 


i.o 


I 


34-0 


1156 


15 


0-3 


I 


34.0 


1 1 56 


1.0 


I 


33-9 


I 149 


16 


0-3 





34-0 


II56 


1. 1 


I 


33.9 


I 149 


17 


0.4 





33-9 


II49 


1.4 


2 


33.8 


II42 


18 


0.5 





33-9 


1 149 


2.0 


4 


33.8 


1143 


19 


0.9 


I 


34-0 


II56 


2-9 


8 


33-9 


II49 


20 


1-4 


2 


34-0 


II56 


4.2 


18 


33.9 


I 149 


21 


2-4 


6 


34-1 


1 163 


5-9 


P 


34-0 


I I 56 


22 


3-7 


14 


34-2 


1170 


8.0 


64 


34.1 


I 163 


23 


5-5 


30 


34-3 


1176 


10.5 


no 


34-2 


II70 


24 


8.0 


64 


34-5 


II90 


13-5 


182 


34.4 


I 183 


25 


II. 


121 


34-7 


1204 


17.2 


296 


34.6 


II97 


26 


14.9 


222 


34.9 


1218 


22.3 


497 


34-8 


I2II 


27 


lO.O 


200 


17-5 


612 


17.5 


612 


17-5 


612 


2 


120.6 


1783 


865.5 
120.6 


29976 

1783 

) 28193 

37-84 


190.8 


3419 


826.7 
190.8 


28484 

3419 

) 25065 

39-42 


Tons pe 


r foot, 




255-5 


-7- 2 






218.0 


-f- 2 


C. of G. 


from 19' 


5 line. 




18.92 
19-50 








19.71 
19.50 


C, of G 


above a 


xis, 




— 0.58 

- 255-5 








0.21 
218.0 


Ton-fee 


t per foot 


, 




-148 








46 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 173 

Table III. — Continued. 



Plane. 


Tons per foot. 


S. M. 


Pro. 


Central. 
5' out. 
10' out. 


305-5 

255-5 


4 


305-5 

1022.0 

218.0 






1545-5 

xt 




Displacement of slice 


2576 



Plane. 


Ton-feet per foot. 


S.M. 




Pro. 


Central. 

5' out. 
10' out. 


46 
Righting m 


I 
4 

oment of si 


ce 


-653 




~x1 




-1998 



Displacement. 



Righting Moment. 



To center. 

Slice. 

10' beyond center. 

10' short of " 



4570 
2576 
7146 
1994 



1998 
2098 



TABLE IV. 



Displacement 

C. of G. above axis 



5000 tons. 
0.75 feet. 





0° 


15° 


30° 


45° 


60° 


75° 


90° 






Righting moment about axis 

« lever " " 
C. of G. correction 








2600 
0.52 
0.19 
0.33 


6180 
1.24 
0.36 
0.88 


8000 
1.60 
0.53 
1.07 


6830 
1-37 
0.65 
C.72 


3120 

0.62 

0.72 

— 0.10 


_ 790 

— 0.16 

0.75 

— 0.91 


Righting lever about C. of G. 



174 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



TABLE OF NUMBERS MULTIPLIED BY SINES OF ANGLES. 



umber. 


H Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15« 


250 


125.0 


241.5 


216.5 


176.8 


125.0 


64-7 


251 


125-5 


242.4 


217.3 


177.5 


125.5 


64-9 


252 


126.0 


243-4 


218.2 


178.2 


126.0 


65.2 


253 


126.5 


244.4 


219.I 


178.9 


126.5 


65.5 


254 


127.0 


245-3 


219.9 


179.6 


127.0 


65.7 


255 


127.5 


246.3 


220.8 


180.3 


127.5 


66.0 


256 


128.0 


247.3 


221.7 


181. 


128.0 


66.2 


257 


128.5 


248.2 


222.5 


181.7 


128.5 


66.5 


258 


129.0 


249.2 


223.4 


182.4 


129.0 


66.8 


259 


129-5 


250.2 


224.3 


1 83. 1 


129.5 


67.0 


260 


130.0 


251.1 


225.2 


183.8 


130.0 


67.3 


261 


130-5 


252.1 


226.0 


184.6 


130-5 


67.6 


262 


131.O 


253.1 


226.9 


185-3 


131.0 


67.8 


263 


131-5 


254.0 


227.8 


186.0 


131.S 


68.1 


264 


132.0 


255-0 


228.7 


186.7 


132.0 


68.3 


26s 


132-5 


256.0 


229.5 


187.4 


132.5 


68.6 


266 


133-0 


256.9 


230.4 


188.1 


133-0 


68.9 


267 


133-5 


257.9 


231.3 


188.8 


133-5 


69.1 


268 


134.0 


258.9 


232.1 


189.5 


134.0 


69.4 


269 


134.5 


259.8 


233-0 


190.2 


134-5 


69.6 


270 


^35-0 


260.8 


233-8 


190.9 


135-0 


69-9 


271 


135-5 


261.8 


234.7 


191.6 


I3S-S 


70.1 


272 


136.0 


262.7 


2355 


192.3 


136.0 


70.4 


273 


136-5 


263.7 


236.4 


193.0 


136.5 


70.7 


274 


137.0 


264.7 


237.3 


193.8 


137.0 


70.9 


275 


137-5 


265.6 


238.1 


194.5 


137.5 


71.2 


276 


138.0 


266.6 


239.0 


195.2 


138.0 


71.4 


277 


138.5 


267.6 


239-9 


195.9 


138-5 


71.7 


278 


139.0 


268.5 


240.7 


196.6 


139.0 


71.9 


279 


139-5 


269.5 


241.6 


197.3 


139-5 


72.2 


280 


140.0 


270.5 


242.5 


198.0 


140.0 


72.5 


281 


140.5 


271.4 


243.4 


198.7 


140.5 


72.7 


282 


141. 


272.4 


244.2 


199.4 


141.0 


73.0 


283 


14I-5 


273-4 


245.1 


200.1 


141.5 


73-2 


284 


142.0 


274-3 


246.0 


200.8 


142.0 


73-5 


28s 


142.5 


275-3 


246.8 


201.5 


142.5 


73-8 


286 


143.0 


276.3 


247.7 


202.2 


143.0 


74.0 


287 


143-5 


277.2 


248.6 


202.9 


143-5 


74.3 


288 


144.0 


278.2 


249.4 


203.6 


144.0 


74.5 


289 


144-5 


279.2 


250.3 


204.3 


144-5 


74.8 


290 


145.0 


280.1 


251.2 


205.1 


145.0 


75-1 


291 


HS-5 


281. 1 


252.0 


205.8 


145-5 


75.3 


292 


146.0 


282.2 


252.9 


206.5 


146.0 


75.6 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 1 75 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


293 


146.5 


283.0 


253-8 


207.2 


146.5 


75-8 


294 


147.0 


284.0 


254.6 


207.9 


147.0 


76.1 


29s 


147.S 


284.9 


255-5 


208.6 


147.5 


76.3 


296 


148.0 


285.9 


256.3 


209.3 


148.0 


76.6 


297 


148.S 


286.9 


257.2 


210.0 


148.5 


76.9 


298 


149.0 


287.8 


258.1 


215.7 


149.0 


77.1 


299 


149.5 


288.8 


258.9 


211.4 


149-5 


77.4 


300 


150.0 


289.9 


259.8 


212.1 


150.0 


77.6 


301 


150.5 


290.7 


260.6 


212.8 


150.5 


77-9 


302 


151.0 


291.7 


261.5 


213-5 


151.0 


78.2 


303 


151.5 


292.7 


262.4 


214.2 


151. 5 


78.4 


304 


152,0 


293.6 


263.3 


215.0 


152.0 


78.7 


305 


152.5 


294.6 


264.1 


215.7 


152.5 


78.9 


306 


153-0 


295.6 


265.0 


216.4 


153-0 


79-2 


307 


153-5 


296.5 


265.9 


217.I 


153-5 


79-4 


308 


154.0 


297.5 


266.7 


217.8 


154.0 


79-7 


309 


154.5 


298.5 


267.6 


218.5 


154-5 


80.0 


310 


155.0 


299.4 


268.5 


219.2 


155-0 


80.2 


3" 


155.5 


300.4 


269.3 


219.9 


155-5 


80.5 


312 


156.0 


301.4 


270.2 


220.6 


156.0 


80.7 


313 


156.5 


302.3 


271.1 


221.3 


156.5 


81.0 


3U 


157.0 


303-3 


271.9 


222.0 


157.0 


81.3 


315 


157.5 


304.3 


272.8 


222.7 


157.5 


81.5 


316 


158.0 


305.2 


273.7 


223.4 


158.0 


81.8 


317 


158.5 


306.2 


274.5 


224.1 


158.5 


82.0 


318 


159.0 


307.2 


275-4 


224.8 


159.0 


82.3 


3>9 


159.5 


308.1 


276.3 


225.6 


1 59- 5 


82.6 


320 


160.0 


309.1 


277.1 


226.3 


160.0 


82.8 


321 


160.5 


310.1 


278.0 


227.0 


160.5 


83.1 


322 


161.0 


311.0 


278.9 


227.7 


161.0 


833 


323 


161.5 


312.0 


279.7 


228.4 


161.5 


83.6 


324 


162.0 


313-0 


280.6 


229.1 


162.0 


839 


325 


162.5 


313-9 


281.5 


229.8 


162.5 


84.1 


326 


163.0 


3M-9 


282.3 


230.5 


163.0 


84.4 


327 


163.5 


315-9 


283.2 


231.2 


163.5 


84.6 


328 


164.0 


316.8 


284.1 


231.9 


164.0 


84.9 


329 


164.5 


317.8 


284.9 


232.6 


164.5 


85.2 


330 


165.0 


318.8 


285.8 


233-3 


165.0 


85-4 


331 


165.5 


319-7 


286.7 


234.0 


165-5 


85-7 


332 


166.0 


320.7 


287.5 


234.7 


166.0 


85.9 


333 


166.5 


321.7 


288.4 


235.5 


166.5 


86.2 


334 


167.0 


322.6 


289.3 


236.2 


167.0 


86.4 


335 


167.5 


323.6 


290.1 


236.9 


167.5 


86.7 


336 


168.0 


324.6 


291.0 


237.6 


168.0 


87.0 


337 


168.5 


325.5 


291.9 


238.3 


.68.5 


87.2 



176 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


338 


169.0 


326.5 


292.7 


239-0 


169.0 


87.5 


339 


169.5 


327-4 


293-6 


239-7 


169.5 


87.7 


340 


170.0 


328.4 


294.5 


240.4 


170.0 


88.0 


341 


170.5 


329-4 


295-3 


241. 1 


170.5 


88.3 


342 


171.O 


330-4 


296.2 


241.8 


171.0 


88.5 


343 


171-5 


331-3 


297.1 


242.5 


171. 5 


88.8 


344 


172.0 


332.3 


297.9 


243.2 


172.0 


89.0 


345 


172.5 


333-2 


298.8 


243-9 


172.S 


89-3 


346 


173-0 


334-2 


299-7 


244.7 


173-0 


89.6 


347 


173-5 


335-2 


300.5 


245.4 


173-5 


89.8 


348 


174.0 


336.1 


301.4 


246.1 


174.0 


90.1 


349 


174-5 


337.1 


302,2 


246.8 


174-S 


90.3 


350 


175.0 


338.1 


303-1 


247-5 


175-0 


90.6 


351 


175-5 


339-0 


304.0 


248.2 


175-5 


90.8 


352 


176.0 


340-0 


304.8 


248.9 


176.0 


91. 1 


353 


176.5 


341.0 


305-7 


249.6 


176.5 


91.4 


354 


177.0 


341-9 


3066 


250.3 


177.0 


91.6 


355 


177-5 


342-9 


307.4 


251.0 


177 5 


91.9 


356 


178.0 


343-9 


308.3 


251.7 


178.0 


92.1 


357 


178.5 


344-8 


309-2 


252.4 


178.5 


92.4 


358 


179.0 


345-8 


310.0 


253.1 


179.0 


92-7 


359 


179-5 


346.8 


310.9 


253-8 


179-S 


92-9 


360 


180.0 


347.7 


31I-8 


254.6 


180.0 


93-2 


361 


180.5 


348.7 


312.6 


255-3 


180.S 


93-4 


362 


181.0 


349-7 


313-5 


256.0 


181. 


93-7 


363 


181. 5 


350-6 


314-4 


256.7 


181.5 


94-0 


364 


182.0 


351-6 


315.2 


257.4 


182.0 


94.2 


365 


182.5 


352.6 


316.I 


258.1 


182.5 


94.5 


366 


183.0 


353-5 


317.0 


258.8 


183.0 


94.7 


367 


183-5 


354-5 


317.8 


259-5 


183.5 


95.0 


368 


184.0 


355-5 


318.7 


260.2 


184.0 


95-3 


369 


184.5 


356-4 


319.6 


260.9 


184.5 


95-5 


370 


185.0 


357-4 


320.4 


261.6 


185.0 


95-8 


371 


185.5 


358.4 


321.3 


262.3 


185.5 


96.0 


372 


186,0 


359-3 


322.2 


263.0 


186.0 


96.3 


373 


186.5 


360.3 


323-0 


263.7 


186.5 


96.5 


374 


187.0 


361-3 


323.9 


264.5 


187.0 


96.8 


375 


187.5 


362.2 


324-8 


265.2 


187.5 


97-1 


376 


188.0 


363-2 


325-6 


265.9 


188.0 


97-3 


377 


188.5 


364.2 


326.5 


266.6 


188.5 


97-6 


378 


189.0 


365-1 


327-4 


267.3 


189.0 


97.8 


379 


189.5 


366.1, 


328.2 


268.0 


189.5 


98.1 


380 


190.0 


367.1 


329.1 


268.7 


190.0 


98.4 


381 


190.5 


368.0 


330-0 


269.4 


190.5 


98.6 


382 


191.0 


369.0 


330-8 


270.1 


191. 


98.9 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I77 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


S.n .5° 


383 


191. 5 


370.0 


331-7 


270.8 


191-5 


99.1 


384 


192.0 


370.9 


332.6 


271.5 


192.0 


99.4 


385 


192.5 


371.9 


333-4 


272.2 


192.5 


99.6 


386 


193.0 


372.9 


334.3 


272.9 


193.0 


99.9 


387 


193.S 


373.8 


335.2 


273.6 


193.5 • 


100.2 


388 


194.0 


374.8 


336.0 


274.4 


194.0 


100.4 


389 


194.5 


375.8 


336.9 


275.1 


194.5 


100.7 


390 


195.0 


376.7 


337.8 


275.8 


195.0 


100.9 


391 


195-5 


377.7 


338.6 


276.5 


195-5 


101.2 


392 


196.0 


378.6 


339.5 


277.2 


196.0 


101.5 


393 


196.5 


379-6 


340.4 


277.9 


196.5 


IOI.7 


394 


197.0 


380.6 


341.2 


278.6 


197.0 


102.0 


395 


197.5 


381.5 


342.1 


279.3 


197.5 


102.2 


396 


198.0 


382.5 


343.0 


280.0 


198.0 


102.5 


397 


198.5 


383.5 


343.8 


280.7 


198.5 


102.8 


398 


199.0 


384-4 


344.7 


281.4 


199.0 


103.0 


399 


199.5 


385-4 


345.6 


282.1 


199.5 


103.3 


400 


200.0 


386.4 


346.4 


282.8 


200.0 


103.5 


401 


200.5 


387-3 


347.3 


283.5 


200.5 


103.8 


402 


201.0 


388.3 


348.1 


284.3 


201.0 


104.0 


403 


201.S 


389.3 


349.0 


285.0 


201.5 


104.3 


404 


202.0 


390.2 


349.9 


285.7 


202.0 


104.6 


405 


202.5 


391.2 


350.7 


286.4 


202.5 


104.8 


406 


203.0 


392.2 


3SI.6 


287.1 


203.0 


105.1 


407 


203.5 


393.1 


352-5 


287.8 


203.5 


105.3 


408 


204.0 


394-1 


353-3 


288.5 


204.0 


105.6 


409 


204.5 


395.1 


354-2 


289.2 


204.5 


105.9 


410 


205.0 


396.0 


355-1 


289.9 


205.0 


106.1 


411 


205.5 


397.0 


355-9 


290.6 


205.5 


106.4 


412 


206.0 


398-0 


356.8 


291.3 


206.0 


106.6 


413 


206.5 


398.9 


357.7 


292.0 


206.5 


106.9 


414 


207.0 


399-9 


358.5 


292.7 


207.0 


107.2 


415 


207.5 


400.9 


359-4 


293-4 


207.5 


107.4 


416 


208.0 


401.8 


360.3 


294.2 


208.0 


107.7 


417 


208.5 


402.8 


361.1 


294.9 


208.5 


107.9 


418 


209.0 


403.8 


362.0 


295.6 


209.0 


108.2 


419 


209.5 


404-7 


362.9 


296.3 


209.5 


108.5 


420 


210.0 


405-7 


363.7 


297.0 


210.0 


108.7 


421 


210.5 


406.7 


364.6 


297.7 


210.5 


109.0 


422 


211. 


407.6 


365.5 


298.4 


211.0 


109.2 


423 


211. 5 


408.6 


366.3 


299.1 


211. 5 


109.5 


424 


212.0 


409.6 


367.2 


299.8 


212.0 


109.8 


425 


212.5 


410.6 


368.1 


300.5 


212.5 


I 10.0 


426 


213.0 


4". 5 


368.9 


301.2 


213.0 


110.3 


427 


213.5 


412.5 


369.8 


301.9 


213.5 


IIO.5 



178 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


^iSingoO. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60O. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


428 


214.0 


413.4 


370.7 


302.6 


214.0 


1 10.8 


429 


214,5 


414.4 


371.5 


303.3 


214.5 


III.O 


430 


215.0 


415.4 


372.4 


304.1 


215.0 


III.3 


431 


215-5 


416.3 


373-3 


304.8 


215.5 


1X1.6 


432 


216.0 


417-3 


374.1 


305.5 


216.0 


111.8 


433 


216.5 


418.2 


375.0 


306.2 


216.5 


1 1 2. 1 


434 


217.0 


419.2 


375.9 


306.9 


217.0 


112.3 


435 


217.S 


420.2 


376.8 


307.6 


217.5 


112.6 


436 


218.0 


421.I 


377.6 


308.3 


218.0 


112.9 


437 


218.5 


422. 1 


378.5 


309.0 


218.5 


113.1 


438 


219.0 


423.1 


379-4 


3097 


219.0 


113.4 


439 


219.5 


424.0 


380.2 


.310.4 


219.5 


113.6 


440 


220.0 


425.0 


38 1. 1 


311. 1 


220.0 


1 1 3-9 


441 


220.5 


426.0 


382.0 


31I.8 


220.5 


1 14. 1 


442 


221.0 


426.9 


382.8 


312.5 


221.0 


114.4 


443 


221.5 


427.9 


383.7 


313.2 


221.5 


114.7 


444 


222.0 


428.9 


384.6 


313.9 


222.0 


114.9 


445 


222.5 


429.8 


385.4 


314.7 


222.5 


115.2 


446 


223.0 


430-8 


386.3 


315.4 


223.0 


115.4 


447 


223.5 


431.8 


387.1 


316.I 


223.5 


115.7 


448 


224.0 


432-7 


388.0 


316.8 


224.0 


116.0 


449 


224.5 


433-7 


388.9 


317.5 


224.5 


116.2 


450 


225.0 


434.7 


389.7 


318.2 


225.0 


116.5 


45» 


225.5 


435-6 


390.6 


318.9 


225.5 


116.7 


452 


226.0 


436.6 


391.5 


319.6 


226.0 


117.0 


453 


226.5 


437-6 


392.4 


320.3 


226.5 


"7.3 


454 


227.0 


438.5 


393.2 


321.0 


227.0 


117.5 


455 


227.5 


439-5 


394.1 


321.7 


227.5 


117.8 


456 


228.0 


440.5 


395.0 


322.4 


228.0 


118.0 


457 


228.5 


441.4 


395.8 


323.1 


228.5 


118.3 


458 


229.0 


442.4 


396.7 


323.9 


229.0 


118.6 


459 


229.5 


443-4 


397.5 


324.6 


229.5 


118.8 


460 


230.0 


444.3 


398.4 


325.3 


230.0 


119. 1 


461 


230.5 


445-3 


399.3 


326.0 


230.5 


1 19-3 


462 


231.0 


446.3 


400.1 


326.7 


231.0 


119.6 


463 


231-5 


447-2 


401.0 


327.4 


231.5 


119.8 


464 


232.0 


448.2 


401.9 


328.1 


232.0 


1 20. 1 


46s 


232.5 


449.2 


402.7 


328.8 


232.5 


120.4 


466 


233-0 


450.1 


403.6 


329-5 


233.0 


120.6 


467 


233.5 


451-1 


404.5 


330-2 


233-5 


120.9 


468 


234.0 


452.1 


405.3 


330.9 


234.0 


121.1 


469 


234.5 


453-0 


406.2 


331.6 


234.5 


121.4 


470 


235.0 


454.0 


407.1 


332.3 


235.0 


121.7 


471 


235-5 


4S5-0 


407.9 


333.0 


235-5 


121.9 


472 


236.0 


455.9 


408.8 


333.7 


236.0 


122.2 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 1 79 



umber. 


XSin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 51°. 


473 


236.5 


456.9 


409.6 


334.5 


236.5 


122.4 


474 


237.0 


457-8 


410.5 


335-2 


237*0 


122.7 


475 


237-5 


458.8 


411. 4 


335-9 


237.5 


122.9 


476 


238.0 


459.8 


412.2 


336.6 


238.0 


123.2 


477 


238.5 


460.7 


413-1 


337.3 


238.5 


123-5 


478 


239.0 


461.7 


414-0 


338-0 


239.0 


123.7 


479 


239-5 


462.7 


414-8 


338-7 


239.5 


124.0 


480 


240.0 


463.6 


415-7 


339-4 


240.0 


124.2 


481 


240.5 


464.6 


416.6 


340-1 


240.5 


124.5 


482 


241.0 


465.6 


417.4 


340.8 


241.0 


124.8 


483 


241.5 


466.5 


418.3 


341-5 


241.5 


125.0 


484 


242.0 


467.5 


419.2 


342-2 


242.0 


125.3 


485 


242.5 


468.5 


420.0 


342.9 


242.5 


125-5 


486 


243.0 


469.4 


420.9 


343-7 


243.0 


125.8 


487 


243-5 


470.4 


421.8 


344-4 


243-5 


126.0 


488 


244.0 


471.4 


422.6 


34 5-1 


244.0 


126.3 


489 


244.5 


472.3 


423-5 


345-8 


244-5 


126.6 


490 


245.0 


473-3 


424.4 


346. 5 


245.0 


126.8 


491 


245-5 


474.3 


425.2 


347.2 


245.5 


127.1 


492 


246.0 


475.2 


426.1 


347.9 


246.0 


127.3 


493 


246.5 


476.2 


427.0 


348.6 


246.5 


127.6 


494 


247.0 


477.2 


427.8 


349-3 


247.0 


127.9 


495 


247-5 


478.1 


428.7 


350.0 


247.5 


1 28. 1 


496 


248.0 


479.1 


429.6 


350.7 


248.0 


128.4 


497 


248.5 


480.1 


430.4 


35'.4 


248.5 


128.6 


498 


249.0 


481.0 


431.3 


352.1 


249.0 


128.9 


499 


249.5 


482.0 


432.1 


352.8 


249.5 


129.2 


500 


250.0 


483.0 


433-0 


353-5 


250.0 


129.4 


SOI 


250.5 


483.9 


433-9 


354.3 


250.5 


129.7 


502 


251.0 


484.9 


434.7 


355-0 


251.0 


129.9 


503 


251-5 


485.9 


435-6 


355-7 


251.5 


130.2 


504 


252.0 


486.8 


436-5 


356.4 


252.0 


130.5 


505 


252.5 


487.8 


437-3 


357.1 


252.5 


130.7 


506 


253-0 


488.8 


438.2 


357-8 


253.0 


131.0 


507 


253-5 


489.7 


439-1 


358-5 


253.5 


131. 2 


508 


254.0 


490.7 


439.9 


359-2 


254.0 


13^-5 


509 


254.5 


491.7 


440.8 


359-9 


254.5 


131-7 


510 


255-0 


492.6 


441.7 


360.6 


255.0 


132.0 


5" 


255.5 


493-6 


442.5 


361-3 


255-5 


132-3 


512 


256.0 


494-6 


443.4 


362.0 


256.0 


132-5 


513 


256.5 


495-5 


444-3 


362.7 


256-5 


132.8 


514 


257.0 


496-5 


445-1 


363-4 


257.0 


133-0 


515 


257.5 


497-5 


446.0 


364.2 


257-5 


133-3 


516 


258.0 


498.4 


446.9 


364.9 


258.0 


1336 


517 


258.5 


499.4 


447.7 


365.6 


258.5 


1338 



l8o A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


M Sin 90". 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


Si8 


259.0 


500.4 


448.6 


366.3 


259.0 


1 34. 1 


519 


25'9-5 


501.3 


449-5 


367.0 


259.5 


134.3 


520 


260.0 


502.3 


450.3 


367.7 


260.0 


134.6 


521 


260.5 


503-2 


451.2 


368.4 


260.5 


134.8 


522 


261.0 


504.2 


452.1 


369.1 


261.0 


I35.I 


523 


261.5 


505.2 


452.9 


369.8 


261.5 


135-4 


524 


262.0 


506.1 


453-8 


370.5 


262.0 


135-6 


525 


262.5 


507.1 


454.7 


371.2 


262.5 


135-9 


526 


263.0 


508.1 


455-5 


371.9 


263.0 


1 36- 1 


527 


263.5 


509-0 


456.4 


372.6 


263-S 


136.4 


528 


264.0 


510.0 


457.3 


373-4 


264.0 


136.7 


529 


264.5 


511.O 


458.1 


374.1 


264.5 


136.9 


530 


265.0 


511.9 


459.0 


374.8 


265.0 


137.2 


S31 


265.5 


512.9 


459.9 


.375-5 


265.5 


137-4 


S32 


266.0 


513-9 


460.7 


376.2 


266.0 


137-7 


533 


266.5 


S14.8 


461.6 


376.9 


266.5 


138.0 


534 


267.0 


515-8 


462.5 


377-6 


267.0 


138.2 


535 


267.5 


516.8 


463.3 


378.3 


267.5 


138.5 


536 


268.0 


517.7 


464.2 


379- 


268.0 


138.7 


537 


268.5 


518.7 


465.1 


379-7 


268. 5 


139.0 


538 


269.0 


519-7 


465.9 


380.4 


269.0 


139-3 


539 


269.5 


520.6 


466.8 


381. 1 


269.5 


139.5 


540 


270.0 


521.6 


467.7 


381.8 


270.0 


139.8 


541 . 


270.5 


522.6 


468.5 


382-5 


270.5 


140.0 


542 


271.0 


523-5 


469.4 


383-2 


271.0 


140.3 


543 


271.5 


524-5 


470.3 


384.0 


271.5 


140.5 


544 


272.0 


525.5 


471. 1 


384.7 


272.0 


140.8 


545 


272.5 


526.4 


472.0 


385-4 


272.5 


141. 1 


546 


273.0 


527.4 


472.9 


386.1 


273.0 


141. 3 


547 


273.5 


528.4 


473.7 


386.8 


273-5 


141. 6 


548 


274.0 


529.3 


474-6 


387.5 


274.0 


141.8 


549 


274.5 


530.3 


475-4 


388.2 


274. 5 


142.1 


55° 


275.0 


531-3 


476.3 


388.9 


275.0 


142.4 


551 


275-5 


532-2 


477.2 


389.6 


275.5 


142.6 


552 


276.0 


533-2 


478.0 


390.3 


276.0 


142.9 


553 


276.5 


534.2 


478.9 


391.0 


276.5 


143-1 


554 


277.0 


535-1 


479-8 


391-7 


277.0 


143-4 


555 


277.5 


536.1 


480.6 


392.4 


277.5 


143-7 


556 


278.0 


. 537.1 


481.5 


393-1 


278.0 


143.9 


557 


278.S 


538.0 


482.4 


393-9 


278.5 


144.2 


558 


279.0 


S39-0 


483.2 


394.6 


279.0 


144.4 


559 


279-5 


540.0 


484.1 


395-3 


279.5 


144.7 


560 


280.0 


540.9 


485.0 


396.0 


280.0 


144.9 


561 


280.5 


541-9 


485.8 


396.7 


280.5 


145.2 


562 


281.0 


542.9 


486.7 


397-4 


281.0 


M5-S 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. l8l 



umber. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°- 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


563 


281.5 


543-8 


487.6 


398.1 


281.5 


I4S-7 


564 


282,0 


544-8 


488.4 


398-8 


282.0 


146.0 


565 


282.5 


545-7 


489-3 


399-5 


282.5 


146.2 


566 


283.0 


546.7 


490.2 


400.2 


283.0 


146.5 


567 


283.5 


547-7 


491.0 


400.9 


283.5 


146.8 


568 


284.0 


548.6 


491.9 


401.6 


284.0 


147.0 


569 


284.5 


549.6 


492.8 


402.3 


284.5 


147.3 


570 


285.0 


550.6 


493-6 


403.1 


285.0 


147.5 


571 


285.5 


551.5 


494-5 


403.8 


285.5 


147.8 


572 


286.0 


552.5 


495-4 


404-5 


286.0 


148. 1 


573 


286.5 


553-5 


496.2 


405.2 


286.5 


148.3 


574 


287.0 


554-4 


497.1 


405.9 


287.0 


148.6 


575 


287.5 


555-4 


498.0 


406.6 


287.5 


148.8 


576 


288.0 


556-4 


498.8 


407.3 


288.0 


149-1 


577 


288.5 


557.3 


499-7 


408.0 


288.5 


M9-3 


578 


289.0 


558.3 


500.6 


408.7 


289.0 


149.6 


579 


289.5 


559.3 


501.4 


409.4 


289.5 


149-9 


580 


290.0 


560.2 


502.3 


410.1 


290.0 


150.1 


581 


290.5 


561.2 


503.2 


410.8 


290.5 


150.4 


582 


291.0 


562.2 


504.0 


411. 5 


291.0 


150.6 


583 


291.5 


563.1 


504.9 


412.2 


291.5 


150.9 


584 


292.0 


564.1 


505-8 


412.9 


292.0 


151.2 


585 


292.5 


565-1 


506.6 


4137 


292.5 


151-4 


586 


293.0 


566.0 


507.5 


414.4 


293.0 


151-7 


587 


293-5 


567.0 


508.4 


415.1 


293-5 


151.9 


588 


294.0 


568.0 


509.2 


415.8 


294.0 


152.2 


589 


294.5 


568.9 


510.1 


416.5 


294-5 


152.5 


590 


295.0 


569-9 


511-0 


417.2 


295.0 


152-7 


591 


295-5 


570.9 


511. 8 


417.9 


295-5 


153-0 


592 


296.0 


571.8 


512.7 


418.6 


296.0 


153-2 


593 


296.5 


572.8 


513-6 


419-3 


296.5 


1535 


594 


297.0 


573.8 


514.4 


420.0 


297.0 


153-8 


595 


297.5 


574-7 


515-3 


420.7 


297.5 


154.0 


596 


298.0 


575-7 


516.1 


421.4 


298.0 


154.3 


597 


298.5 


576.7 


517.0 


422.1 


298.5 


154.5 


598 


299.0 


577.6 


517-9 


422.8 


299.0 


154.8 


599 


299.5 


578.6 


518.7 


423-6 


299.5 


155.0 


600 


300.0 


579-6 


519.6 


424.3 


300.0 


155-3 


601 


300.5 


580.5 


520.5 


425.0 


300.5 


155-6 


602 


301.0 


581.5 


521.3 


425-7 


301.0 


155.8 


603 


301-5 


582.5 


522.2 


426.4 


301.5 


156.1 


604 


302.0 


583-4 


523.1 


427.1 


302.0 


156.3 


605 


302.5 


584.4 


523.9 


427.8 


302.5 


156.6 


606 


3030 


585-3 


524.8 


428.5 


303.0 


156.9 


607 


303-5 


586.3 


525.7 


429.2 


303-5 


157.1 



l82 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


608 


304.0 


587.3 


526.6 


429.9 


304.0 


157.4 


609 


304.S 


588.3 


527-4 


430.6 


304.5 


157.6 


610 


305.0 


589.2 


528.3 


431-3 


305.0 


157.9 


611 


305-5 


590.2 


529-2 


432.0 


305.5 


158.1 


612 


306.0 


591.2 


530.0 


432.7 


306.0 


158.4 


613 


306.5 


592.1 


530.9 


433-5 


306.5 


158.7 


614 


307.0 


593-1 


531-7 


434.2 


307.0 


158.9 


61S 


307-5 


594.1 


532.6 


4349 


307-5 


159.2 


616 


308.0 


595.0 


533-5 


435-6 


308.0 


159.4 


617 


308.5 


596.0 


534.3 


436.3 


308.5 


159.7 


618 


309.0 


597.0 


535-2 


437.0 


309.0 


160.0 


619 


309-5 


597.9 


536-1 


437.7 


309.5 


160.2 


620 


310.0 


598.9 


536.9 


438.4 


310.0 


160.5 


6zi 


310.5 


599-8 


537.8 


439.1 


310.5 


160.7 


622 


31I.O 


600.8 


538.7 


439-8 


3".o 


161.0 


623 


3"-5 


601.8 


539-5 


440.5 


3"-5 


161.2 


624 


312.0 


602.7 


540.4 


441.2 


312.0 


161.5 


62s 


312.5 


603.7 


541.3 


441.9 


312.5 


161.8 


626 


313-0 


604.7 


542.1 


442.6 


313-0 


162.0 


627 


313-5 


605.6 


543.0 


443.4 


313-5 


162.3 


628 


314.0 


606.6 


543-9 


444.1 


314.0 


162.5 


629 


3145 


607.6 


544-7 


444.8 


314-5 


162.8 


630 


31S-0 


608.5 


545.6 


445-5 


315-0 


163.1 


631 


315-5 


609.5 


546.5 


446.2 


315-5 


163.3 


632 


316.0 


610.5 


547.3 


446.9 


316.0 


163.6 


633 


316.5 


611.4 


548.2 


447.6 


316.5 


163.8 


634 


317.0 


612.4 


549.1 


448.3 


317.0 


1 64. 1 


635 


3'7-5 


613.4 


549-9 


449.0 


317-5 


164.3 


636 


318.0 


614.3 


550.8 


449-7 


318.0 


164.6 


637 


318-S 


615.3 


551.7 


450.4 


318.5 


164.9 


638 


319.0 


616.3 


552.5 


4SI.I 


319.0 


165. 1 


639 


319-5 


617.2 


553-4 


451-8 


319.5 


165.4 


640 


320.0 


618.2 


554.3 


452-5 


320.0 


165.6 


641 


320.5 


619.2 


555-1 


453-3 


320.5 


165.9 


642 


321.0 


620.1 


556.0 


454.0 


321.0 


166.2 


643 


321.5 


621.1 


556.9 


454-7 


321.5 


166.4 


644 


322.0 


622.1 


557.7 


455-4 


322.0 


166.7 


64s 


322.5 


623.0 


558.6 


456.1 


322.5 


166.9 


646 


323-0 


624.0 


559-5 


456.8 


323.0 


167.2 


647 


323-5 


625.0 


560.3 


457.5 


323.5 


167.5 


648 


324.0 


625.9 


561.2 


458.2 


324.0 


167.7 


649 


324.5 


626.9 


562.1 


458.9 


324.5 


168.0 


650 


325-0 


627.9 


562.9 


459.6 


325.0 


168.2 


651 


325-5 


628.8 


563.8 


460.3 


325.5 


168.5 


652 


326.0 


629.8 


564.7 


461.0 


326.0 


168.8 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 1 83 



Number. 


>iSin90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


653 


326.5 


630.8 


565-5 


461.7 


326.5 


169.0 


654 


327.0 


631.7 


566.4 


462.4 


327.0 


169.3 


65s 


327-5 


632.7 


567.3 


463.2 


327-5 


169-5 


656 


328.0 


633-6 


568.1 


463-9 


328.0 


169.8 


657 


328.S 


634-6 


569-0 


464.6 


328.5 


170.0 


658 


329.0 


635.6 


569.9 


465-3 


329-0 


170.3 


659 


329-5 


636.5 


570.7 


466.0 


329-5 


170.6 


660 


330-0 


637-5 


.571-6 


466.7 


3300 


170.8 


661 


330.5 


638-5 


572.4 


467-4 


330-5 


171.1 


662 


331-0 


639-4 


573.3 


468.1 


331.0 


171-3 


663 


331-5 


640.4 


574.2 


468.8 


331-5 


171. 6 


664 


332.0 


64T.4 


57S-0 


469.5 


332-0 


171.9 


66s 


332-5 


642.3 


575-9 


470.2 


332-5 


172.1 


666 


333-0 


643-3 


576.8 


470.9 


333.0 


172.4 


667 


333-5 


644-3 


577-6 


471.6 


333.5 


172.6 


668 


334-0 


645.2 


578.5 


472.3 


334.0 


172.9 


669 


334-5 


646.2 


579-4 


473-1 


334.5 


173.2 


670 


335-0 


647.2 


580.2 


473-8 


335.0 


173-4 


671 


335-5 


648.1 


581.1 


474.5 


335-5 


173-7 


672 


336.0 


649.1 


582.0 


475-2 


336.0 


173-9 


673 


336-5 


650.1 


582.8 


4759 


336-5 


174.2 


674 


337.0 


651.0 


583-7 


476.6 


337-0 


174-5 


675 


337.5 


652.0 


584.6 


477-3 


337.5 


174.7 


676 


338-0 


653.0 


585-4 


478.0 


338.0 


175-0 


677 


338-5 


653-9 


586.3 


478.7 


338.5 


175.2 


678 


339-0 


654.9 


587-2 


479.4 


339.0 


175-5 


679 


339-5 


655-9 


588.0 


480.1 


339-5 


175-7 


680 


340.0 


656.8 


588.9 


480.8 


340.0 


176.0 


681 


340.5 


657-8 


589.8 


481.5 


340.5 


176.3 


682 


341.0 


658.8 


590-6 


482.2 


341.0 


176.5 


683 


341-S 


659.7 


591-5 


483.0 


341.5 


176.8 


684 


342-0 


660.7 


592.4 


483-7 


342.0 


177.0 


685 


342-5 


661.7 


593-2 


484.4 


342.5 


177.3 


686 


343-0 


662.6 


594.1 


485.1 


343.0 


177.6 


687 


343-5 


663.6 


595-0 


485.8 


343-5 


177-8 


688 


344-0 


664.6 


595.8 


486.5 


344.0 


178.1 


689 


344-5 


665.5 


596-7 


487.2 


344.5 


178.3 


690 


345-0 


666.5 


597.6 


487.9 


345-0 


178.6 


691 


345-5 


667.5 


598-4 


488.6 


345-5 


178.9 


692 


346.0 


668.4 


599-3 


489-3 


346.0 


179.1 


693 


346.5 


669.4 


600.2 


490.0 


346.5 


179.4 


694 


347-0 


67C.4 


601.0 


490.7 


347-0 


179.6 


695 


347-5 


671-3 


601.9 


491.4 


347-5 


179.9 


696 


348.0 


672.3 


602.8 


492.1 


348.0 


180.1 


697 


348.5 


673-3 


603.6 


492.8 


348.S 


180.4 



184 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



umber. 


>^ Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


698 


349- 


674.2 


604.5 


493-6 


349-0 


180.7 


699 


349-5 


675.2 


605.4 


494-3 


349.5 


180.9 


700 


350.0 


676.2 


606.2 


495.0 


350.0 


181. 2 


701 


350-5 


677.1 


607,1 


495-7 


350.5 


181.4 


702 


351-0 


678.1 


608.0 


496.4 


351.0 


i8i.7 


703 


351.5 


679.1 


608.8 


497.1 


351.5 


181 9 


704 


352-0 


680.0 


609.7 


497.8 


352.0 


182.2 


70s 


352.5 


681.0 


610.6 


498- 5 


352.5 


182.5 


706 


353-0 


681.9 


611. 4 


499.2 


353-0 


182.7 


707 


353.5 


682.9 


612.3 


499.9 


353.5 


183.0 


708 


354.0 


683.9 


613.2 


500.6 


354.0 


183.2 


709 


354-5 


684.8 


614.0 


501-3 


354-5 


183.S 


710 


355-0 


685.8 


614.9 


502.0 


355-0 


183.8 


711 


355-5 


686.8 


615-7 


502.8 


355-5 


184.0 


712 


356.0 


687.7 


616.6 


503.5 


356.0 


184.3 


713 


356.5 


688.7 


617.5 


504.2 


356-5 


184.5 


714 


357.0 


689.7 


618.3 


504.9 


357.0 


184.8 


715 


357-5 


690.6 


619.2 


505.6 


357.5 


185.1 


716 


358.0 


691.6 


620.1 


506.3 


358.0 


185.3 


717 


358-5 


692.6 


620.9 


507.0 


358-5 


185.6 


718 


359-0 


693-5 


621.8 


507.7 


359-0 


185.8 


719 


359-5 


694.5 


622.7 


508.4 


3595 


186.1 


720 


360.0 


695-5 


623-S 


509.1 


360.0 


186.3 


721 


360.5 


696.4 


624.4 


509.8 


360.5 


186.6 


722 


361.0 


697.4 


625-3 


510.5 


361.0 


186.9 


723 


361.5 


698.4 


626.1 


511.2 


361.5 


187.1 


724 


362.0 


699-3 


627.0 


5"-9 


362.0 


187.4 


725 


362.5 


700.3 


627.9 


512.7 


362.5 


187.6 


726 


363.0 


701.3 


628.7 


513-4 


363.0 


187.9 


727 


3635 


702.2 


629.6 


514-1 


363-5 


188.2 


728 


364.0 


703.2 


630.5 


514.8 


364-0 


188.4 


729 


364.5 


704.2 


631.3 


515.S 


364-5 


188.7 


730 


365.0 


705.1 


632.2 


516.2 


365.0 


188.9 


731 


365.5 


706.1 


633.1 


516.9 


365.5 


189.2 


732 


366.0 


707.1 


6339 


517.6 


366.0 


189.5 


733 


366.5 


708.0 


634.8 


518.3 


366.5 


189.7 


734 


367.0 


709.0 


635.7 


519.0 


367.0 


190.0 


735 


367.5 


710.0 


636.5 


519.7 


367.5 


190.2 


736 


368.0 


710.9 


637.4 


520.4 


368.0 


190.5 


737 


368.5 


7 1 1.9 


638-3 


521. 1 


368.5 


190.8 


738 


369.0 


712.9 


639.1 


521.8 


369-0 


191. 


739 


369-5 


713-8 


640.0 


522.5 


369- 5 


191.3 


740 


370.0 


714.8 


640.9 


523.3 


370.0 


191.5 


741 


370.5 


715.8 


641.7 


524.0 


370.5 


191.8 


742 


371.0 


716.7 


642.6 


524.7 


371.0 


192.0 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS, 



185 



umber. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 150. 


743 


371.5 


717-7 


643-5 


525-4 


371-5 


192.3 


744 


372.0 


718.6 


644-3 


526.1 


372.0 


192.6 


745 


372-5 


719.6 


645.2 


526.8 


372-5 


192.8 


746 


373.0 


720.6 


646.1 


527-5 


373.0 


193- 1 


747 


373-5 


721.5 


646.9 


528.2 


373-5 


193-3 


748 


374.0 


722.5 


647-8 


528.9 


374-0 


193.6 


749 


374-5 


723.5 


648.7 


529.6 


374.5 


193-9 


750 


375-0 


724.4 


649.5 


530-3 


375-0 


194. 1 


7SI 


375.5 


725-4 


650.4 


531-0 


375-5 


194.4 


752 


376.0 


726.4 


651.3 


531-7 


376.0 


194.6 


753 


376. 5 


727-3 


652.1 


532-5 


376.5 


194.9 


754 


377.0 


728.3 


653.0 


533-2 


377.0 


195.2 


755 


377-5 


729-3 


653.8 


533-9 


377-5 


195.4 


756 


378.0 


730.2 


654-7 


534-6 


378.0 


I9S-7 


757 


378.5 


731-2 


655-6 


535-3 


378.5 


195.9 


758 


379-0 


732.2 


656.4 


536.0 


379-0 


196.2 


759 


379-5 


733-1 


657.3 


536.7 


379-5 


196.4 


760 


380.0 


734-1 


658.2 


537-4 


380.0 


196.7 


761 


380.S 


735-1 


659.0 


538.1 


380.5 


197.0 


762 


381.0. 


736.0 


659.9 


538.8 


38T.0 


197.2 


•763 


381-S 


737-0 


660.8 


539-5 


381-S 


197-5 


764 


382.0 


738.0 


661.6 


540.2 


382.0 


197.7 


76s 


382.S 


738.9 


662.5 


540.9 


382.5 


198.0 


766 


383.0 


739-9 


663.4 


S4I.6 


383-0 


198.3 


767 


383.5 


740.9 


664.2 


542.4 


3S3-5 


198.5 


768 


384-0 


741.8 


665.1 


543-1 


384-0 


198.8 


769 


384.5 


742.8 


666.0 


543-8 


384-5 


199.0 


770 


385-0 


743-8 


666.8 


544-5 


385-0 


199-3 


771 


385-5 


744-7 


667.7 


545-2 


385-5 


199.6 


772 


386.0 


745-7 


668.6 


545-9 


386.0 


199.8 


773 


386.5 


746.7 


669.4 


546.6 


386.5 


200.1 


774 


387-0 


747.6 


670.3 


547-3 


387.0 


200.3 


775 


387.5 


748.6 


671.2 


548.0 


387-5 


200.6 


776 


388.0 


749-6 


672.0 


548.7 


388.0 


200.8 


777 


388.5 


750-5 


672.9 


549.4 


388.5 


201. 1 


778 


389-0 


751-5 


673.8 


550.1 


389-0 


201.4 


779 


389-5 


752-5 


674.6 


550.8 


389-5 


201.6 


780 


390.0 


753-4 


675-5 


551-5 


390.0 


201.9 


781 


390.5 


754.4 


676.4 


552.3 


390.5 


202.1 


782 


391.0 


755-4 


677.2 


553-0 


391.0 


202.4 


783 


391.5 


756.3 


678.1 


553-7 


391-5 


202.7 


784 


392.0 


757-3 


679.0 


554-4 


392.0 


202.9 


785 


392.5 


758.3 


679.8 


555.1 


392-5 


203.2 


786 


393-0 


759-2 


680.7 


555-8 


393-0 


203.4 


787 


3935 


760.2 


681.6 


556-5 


393-5 


2037 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


788 


394.0 


761.2 


682.4 


557-2 


394.0 


204.0 


789 


394-5 


762.1 


683-3 


557.9 


394-5 


204.2 


790 


395-0 


763.1 


684.2 


558.6 


395-0 


204.5 


791 


395-5 


764.0 


685.0 


559-3 


395-5 


204.7 


792 


396.0 


765.0 


685.9 


560.0 


396-0 


205.0 


793 


396-5 


766.0 


686.8 


560.7 


396-5 


205.2 


794 


397.0 


766.9 


687.6 


561.4 


397-0 


205.5 


795 


397.5 


767.9 


688.5 


562.1 


397-5 


205.8 


796 


398.0 


768.9 


689.4 


562.9 


398-0 


206.0 


797 


398.5 


769.8 


690.2 


563-6 


398.5 


206.3 


798 


399-0 


770.8 


69.. I 


564-3 


399-0 


206.5 


799 


399-5 


771.8 


692.0 


565-0 


399-5 


206.8 


800 


400.0 


772.7 


692.8 


565-7 


400.0 


207.1 


801 


400.5 


773.7 


693-7 


566.4 


4C0.5 


207.3 


802 


401.0 


774-7 


694.6 


567-1 


401.0 


207.6 


803 


401.5 


775-6 


695.4 


567-8 


401.5 


207.8 


804 


402.0 


776.6 


696.3 


568.5 


402.0 


208.1 


805 


402.5 


777-6 


697.2 


569.2 


402.5 


208.4 


806 


403.0 


778.5 


698.0 


569-9 


403.0 


208.6 


807 


403-5 


779-5 


698.9 


570-6 


403-5 


208.9 


808 


404.0 


780.5 


699.7 


571-3 


404.0 


209.1 


809 


404.5 


781.4 


700.6 


572.0 


404-5 


209.4 


810 


405.0 


782.4 


701.5 


572.8 


405-0 


209.6 


811 


405-5 


783.4 


702.3 


573-5 


405.5 


209.9 


812 


406.0 


784.3 


703.2 


574-2 


406.0 


210.2 


813 


406.5 


785-3 


704.1 


574-9 


406.5 


210.4 


814 


407.0 


786.3 


704.9 


575-6 


407.0 


210.7 


81S 


407.5 


787.2 


705.8 


576.3 


407-5 


210.9 


816 


408.0 


788.2 


706.7 


577.0 


408.0 


211. 2 


817 


408.5 


789.2 


707-5 


577.7 


408.5 


211.5 


818 


409.0 


790.1 


708.4 


578.4 


409.0 


211. 7 


819 


409.5 


791-1 


709.3 


579.1 


409.5 


212.0 


820 


410.0 


792.1 


7 10. 1 


579.8 


410.0 


212.2 


821 


410.5 


793.0 


711.0 


580.5 


410.5 


212.5 


822 


411.0 


794.0 


711.9 


581.2 


411.0 


212.8 


823 


411-5 


795-0 


712.7 


581.9 


411. 5 


213.0 


824 


412.0 


795-9 


713.6 


582.7 


412.0 


213.3 


825 


412.5 


796.9 


714.5 


583-4 


412.5 


213-5 


826 


413.0 


797.9 


715-3 


584.1 


413.0 


213.8 


827 


413.S 


798.8 


716.2 


584.8 


413-5 


214.0 


828 


414.0 


799-8 


717.1 


585. 5 


414.0 


214.3 


829 


414-5 


800.8 


717.9 


586.2 


414.5 


214.6 


830 


415.0 


801.7 


718.8 


586.9 


415.0 


214.8 


831 


415-5 


802.7 


719.7 


587.6 


415-5 


215.1 


832 


416.0 


803.7 


720.5 


588.3 


416.0 


2IS-3 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 1 87 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


833 


416.5 


804.6 


721.4 


589.0 


416.5 


215.6 


834 


417.0 


805.6 


722.3 


589.7 


417.0 


215.9 


835 


417.5 


806.6 


723.1 


590.4 


417.5 


216.I 


836 


418.0 


807.S 


724.0 


591. 1 


418.0 


216.4 


837 


418.5 


808.5 


724.9 


591.8 


418.5 


216.6 


838 


419.0 


809.5 


725.7 


592.6 


419.0 


216.9 


839 


419.5 


810.4 


726.6 


593.3 


419.S 


217.I 


840 


420.0 


81I.4 


727.5 


594.0 


420.0 


217.4 


841 


420.5 


812.3 


728.3 


594.7 


420.5 


217.7 


842 


421.0 


813.3 


729.2 


595-4 


421.0 


218.0 


843 


421.5 


814.3 


730.1 


596.1 


421.5 


218.2 


844 


422.0 


815.2 


730.9 


596.8 


422.0 


218.4 


845 


422.5 


816.2 


731.8 


597.5 


422.5 


218.7 


846 


423.0 


817.2 


732.7 


598.2 


423.0 


219.0 


847 


423.5 


8 18. 1 


733-5 


598.9 


423.5 


219.2 


848 


424.0 


819.1 


734.4 


599-6 


424.0 


219.5 


849 


424.5 


820.1 


735-3 


600.3 


424.5 


219.7 


850 


425.0 


821.0 


736.1 


601.0 


425.0 


220.0 


851 


425.5 


822.0 


737.0 


601.7 


425.5 


220.3 


852 


426.0 


823.0 


737.9 


602.5 


426.0 


220.5 


8S3 


426.5 


823.9 


738.7 


603.2 


426.5 


220.8 


854 


427.0 


824.9 


739-6 


603.9 


427.0 


221.0 


8SS 


427.5 


825.9 


740.5 


604.6 


427-5 


221.3 


856 


428.0 


826.8 


741-3 


605-3 


428.0 


221.6 


857 


428.5 


827.8 


742.2 


606.0 


428.5 


221.8 


858 


429.0 


828.8 


743.1 


606.7 


429.0 


222.1 


859 


429.5 


829.7 


743-9 


607.4 


429.5 


222.3 


860 


430.0 


830.7 


744.8 


608.1 


430.0 


222.6 


861 


430.5 


831.7 


745.6 


608.8 


430.5 


222.8 


862 


431.0 


832.6 


746.5 


609.5 


431.0 


223.1 


863 


431.5 


833.6 


747.4 


610.2 


431-5 


223.4 


864 


432.0 


834.6 


748.2 


610.9 


432.0 


223.6 


86s 


432.5 


835.5 


749.1 


611.6 


432.5 


223.9 


866 


433.0 


836.5 


750.0 


612.4 


433-0 


224.1 


867 


433.5 


837.5 


750.8 


613.1 


433-5 


224.4 


868 


434.0 


838.4 


751.7 


613-8 


434.0 


224.7 


869 


434.5 


839-4 


752.6 


614.5 


434.5 


224.9 


870 


435.0 


840.4 


753.4 


615.2 


435-0 


225.2 


871 


435-5 


841.3 


754.3 


615.9 


435-5 


225.4 


872 


436.0 


842.3 


755-2 


616.6 


436.0 


225.7 


873 


436.5 


843-3 


756.0 


617.3 


436.5 


226.0 


874 


437.0 


844.2 


756.9 


618.0 


437.0 


226.2 


875 


437.5 


845.2 


757.8 


618.7 


437.5 


226.5 


876 


438.0 


846.1 


758.6 


619.4 


438.0 


226.7 


877 


438.5 


847.1 


759-5 


620.1 


438.5 


227.0 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



jmber. 


X Sin qo°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


878 


439-0 


848.1 


760.4 


620.8 


439.0 


227.3 


879 


439-5 


849.0 


761.2 


621.5 


439.5 


227.5 


880 


440.0 


850.0 


762.1 


622.3 


440.0 


227.8 


881 


440.5 


851.0 


763.0 


623.0 


440.5 


228.0 


882 


441.0 


851.9 


763.8 


623.7 


441.0 


228.3 


883 


441.5 


852.9 


764.7 


624.4 


441.5 


228.5 


884 


442.0 


853-9 


765.6 


625.1 


442.0 


228.8 


885 


442.5 


854.8 


766.4 


625.8 


442.5 


229.0 


886 


443-0 


855-8 


767.3 


626.5 


443.0 


229.3 


887 


443-5 


856.8 


768.2 


627.2 


443-5 


229.6 


888 


444.0 


857.7 


769.0 


627.9 


444.0 


229.8 


889 


444-5 


858.7 


769.9 


628.6 


444.5 


230.1 


890 


445-0 


859.7 


770.8 


629.3 


445.0 


230.3 


891 


445-5 


860.6 


771.6 


630.0 


445-5 


230.6 


892 


446.0 


861.6 


772.5 


630.7 


446.0 


230.9 


893 


446.5 


862.6 


773.4 


631.4 


446.5 


231. 1 


894 


447.0 


863.5 


774.2 


632.2 


447.0 


231.4 


895 


447-5 


864.S 


775.1 


632.9 


447.5 


231.6 


896 


448.0 


865.5 


776.0 


633.6 


448.0 


231.9 


897 


448.5 


866.4 


776.8 


634.3 


448.5 


232.2 


898 


449-0 


867.4 


777.7 


635.0 


449.0 


232.4 


899 


449-5 


868.4 


778.6 


635.7 


449-5 


232.7 


900 


450.0 


869.3 


779-4 


636.4 


450.0 


232.9 


901 


450.5 


870.3 


780.3 


637.1 


450-5 


233.2 


902 


451.0 


871.3 


781.2 


637.8 


451.0 


233.5 


903 


451-5 


872.2 


782.0 


638.5 


451-5 


233-7 


904 


452.0 


873-2 


782.9 


639.2 


452.0 


234.0 


905 


452-5 


874.2 


783.8 


639-9 


452.5 


234.2 


906 


453-0 


875.1 


784.6 


640.6 


453-0 


234.5 


907 


453-5 


876.1 


785.5 


641.3 


453-5 


234-8 


908 


454-0 


877.1 


786.4 


642.1 


454.0 


235.0 


909 


454-5 


878.0 


787.2 


642.8 


454-5 


235-3 


910 


455-0 


879.0 


788.1 


643.5 


455-0 


235-5 


911 


455-5 


880.0 


788.9 


644.2 


455-5 


235-8 


912 


456.0 


880.9 


789.8 


644.9 


456.0 


236.0 


913 


456.5 


881.9 


790.7 


645.6 


456.5 


236.3 


914 


457-0 


882.9 


791.5 


646.3 


457.0 


236.6 


915 


457-5 


883.8 


792.4 


647.b 


457-5 


236.8 


916 


458.0 


884.8 


793-3 


647.7 


458.0 


237.1 


917 


458.5 


885.8 


794.1 


648.4 


458.5 


237-3 


918 


459.0 


886.7 


795.0 


649.1 


459-0 


237.6 


919 


459-5 


887.7 


795-9 


649.8 


459-5 


237-9 


920 


460.0 


888.7 


796-7 


650.5 


460.0 


238.1 


921 


460.5 


889.6 


797-6 


651.2 


460.5 


238.4 


922 


461.0 


890.6 


798-5 


652.0 


461.0 


238.6 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 189 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°- 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


923 


461.5 


891.6 


799-3 


652.7 


461.5 


238-9 


924 


462.0 


892.5 


800.2 


653-4 


462.0 


239.2 


925 


462.5 


893- 5 


801.1 


654-1 


462.5 


239-4 


926 


463.0 


894.5 


801.9 


654.8 


463.0 


239-7 


927 


463. 5 


895.4 


802.8 


655-5 


463-5 


2399 


928 


464.0 


896.4 


803.7 


656.2 


464.0 


240.2 


929 


464-5 


■ 897.4 


804.5 


656.9 


464-5 


240.4 


930 


465.0 


898-3 


805.4 


657.6 


465.0 


240.7 


931 


465.5 


899-3 


806.3 


658.3 


465-5 


241.0 


932 


466.0 


900.2 


807.1 


659.0 


466.0 


241.2 


933 


466.5 


901.2 


808.0 


659.7 


466.5 


241-5 


934 


467.0 


902.2 


808.9 


660.4 


467.0 


241.7 


935 


467.5 


903.1 


809.7 


661.I 


467-5 


242.0 


936 


468.0 


904.1 


810.6 


661.9 


468.0 


242.3 


937 


468.5 


905.1 


811.5 


662.6 


468.5 


242.5 


938 


469.0 


906.0 


812.3 


663-3 


469.0 


242.8 


939 


469.5 


907.0 


813.2 


664.0 


469.5 


243.0 


940 


470.0 


908.0 


814.1 


664.7 


470.0 


243-3 


941 


470.5 


908.9 


814.9 


665.4 


470.5 


243.5 


942 


471.0 


909.9 


815.8 


666.1 


471.0 


243-8 


943 


471.5 


910.9 


816.7 


666.8 


47I-S 


244.1 


944 


472.0 


911.8 


817-5 


667-5 


472.0 


244.3 


945 


472.5 


912.8 


818.4 


668.2 


472.S 


244.6 


946 


473-0 


913.8 


819.3 


668.9 


473-0 


244.8 


947 


473-5 


914.7 


820.1 


669.6 


473.5 


245.1 


948 


474.0 


915-7 


821.0 


670.3 


474-0 


245.4 


949 


474.5 


916.7 


821.9 


671.0 


474-5 


245.6 


950 


475-0 


917.6 


822.7 


671.8 


47S-0 


245-9 


951 


475-5 


918.6 


823.6 


672.5 


475-5 


246.1 


952 


476.0 


919.6 


824.5 


673.2 


476.0 


246.4 


953 


476.5 


920.5 


825.3 


6739 


476.5 


246.7 


954 


477.0 


921-5 


826.2 


674-6 


477-0 


246.9 


955 


477-5 


922.5 


827.1 


675-3 


477.5 


247.2 


956 


478.0 


923-4 


827.9 


676.0 


478.0 


247.4 


957 


478.5 


924.4 


828.8 


676.7 


478-5 


247.7 


958 


479-0 


925-4 


829.6 


677.4 


479.0 


248.0 


959 


479-5 


926.3 


830.5 


678.1 


479-5 


248.2 


960 


480.0 


927-3 


831.4 


678.8 


480,0 


248-5 


96t 


480.5 


928-3 


832.2 


679.5 


480.5 


248.7 


962 


481.0 


929.2 


833-1 


680.2 


481.0 


249.0 


963 


481.5 


930.2 


834.0 


680.9 


481.5 


249.2 


964 


482.0 


931.2 


834-8 


681.6 


482.0 


249.5 


965 


482.5 


932.1 


835-7 


682.4 


482.5 


249.8 


966 


483-0 


933-1 


836.6 


683.1 


483.0 


250.0 


967 


483-5 


934-1 


837-4 


683.8 


483-5 


250-3 



igO A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Fumber. 


}i Sin 90". 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


968 


484.0 


935-0 


838.3 


684.5 


484.0 


250.5 


969 


484.5 


936.0 


839-2 


685.2 


484.5 


250.8 


970 


485.0 


936.9 


840.0 


685.9 


485.0 


251. 1 


971 


485.5 


937-9 


840.9 


686.6 


485. 5 


251.3 


972 


486.0 


938.9 


841.8 


687.3 


486.0 


251.6 


973 


486.5 


939-8 


842.6 


688.0 


486.5 


251.8 


974 


487.0 


940.8 


84.3-5 


688.7 


487.0 


252.1 


975 


487.5 


941.8 


844.4 


689.4 


487.5 


252.3 


976 


488.0 


942.7 


845.2 


690.1 


488.0 


252.6 


977 


488.5 


943-7 


846.1 


690.8 


488.S 


252.9 


978 


489.0 


944-7 


847.0 


691.5 


489.0 


253-1 


979 


489.5 


945-6 


847.8 


692.3 


489-5 


253-4 


980 


490.0 


946.6 


848.7 


693.0 


490.0 


253-6 


981 


490.5 


947-6 


849.6 


693-7 


490-5 


253-9 


982 


491.0 


948.5 


850.4 


694.4 


491.0 


254.2 


983 


491-5 


949-5 


851-3 


695.1 


491-5 


254-4 


984 


492.0 


950. s 


852.2 


695.8 


492.0 


254.7 


985 


492.5 


951-4 


853-0 


696.5 


492 5 


254.9 


986 


493-0 


952-4 


853-9 


697.2 


493-0 


255.2 


987 


493-5 


953-4 


854.8 


697.9 


493-5 


255-5 


988 


494.0 


954-3 


855.6 


698.6 


494.0 


255-7 


989 


494-5 


955-3 


856.5 


699-3 


494-5 


256.0 


990 


495.0 


956.3 


857.4 


700.0 


495-0 


256.2 


991 


495-5 


957-2 


858.2 


700.7 


495-5 


256.5 


992 


496.0 


958.2 


859.1 


701. s 


496.0 


256.7 


993 


496.5 


959-2 


860,0 


702.2 


496.5 


257.0 


994 


497-0 


960.1 


860.8 


702.9 


497.0 


257.3 


995 


497.5 


961. 1 


861.7 


703.6 


497-5 


257-5 


996 


498.0 


962.1 


862.6 


704.3 


498.0 


257.8 


997 


498-5 


963.0 


863.4 


705.0 


498.5 


258.0 


998 


499-0 


964.0 


864.3 


705.7 


499.0 


258.3 


999 


499-5 


965.0 


865.2 


706.4 


499-5 


258.6 


1000 


500.0 


965-9 


866.0 


707.1 


500.0 


258.8 


lOOI 


500.5 


966.9 


866.9 


707.8 


500.5 


259.1 


1002 


501.0 


967-9 


867.8 


708.5 


501.0 


259-3 


1003 


501.5 


968.8 


868.6 


709.2 


501.5 


259.6 


1004 


502.0 


969.8 


869.5 


709-9 


502.0 


259-9 


1005 


502.5 


970.8 


870.4 


710.6 


502.5 


260.1 


1006 


503-0 


971.7 


871.2 


711.4 


503-0 


260.4 


1007 


503-5 


972.7 


872.1 


712.1 


503-5 


260.6 


1008 


504.0 


973-7 


873.0 


712.8 


504.0 


260.9 


1009 


504.5 


974-6 


873-8 


713-5 


504-5 


261.2 


1010 


505.0 


975-6 


874-7 


714.2 


505.0 


261.4 


lOII 


505-5 


976.6 


875.6 


714.9 


505.5 


261.7 


I0I2 


506.0 


977.5 


876.4 


715.6 


506.0 


261.9 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I9I 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1013 


506.5 


978.5 


877-3 


716.3 


S06.5 


262.2 


IOI4 


507.0 


979-5 


878.2 


717.0 


507.0 


262.4 


IOI5 


507-5 


980.4 


879.0 


717.7 


507-5 


262.7 


IO16 


508.0 


981.4 


879-9 


718.4 


508.0 


263.0 


IOI7 


508.5 


982.3 


880.8 


719.1 


508.5 


263.2 


IOI8 


509.0 


983-3 


881.6 


719.8 


509.0 


263.5 


IOI9 


509.5 


984-3 


882.5 


720.5 


509.5 


263.8 


1020 


510.0 


985.2 


883.4 


721.3 


510.0 


264.0 


1021 


510.5 


986.2 


884.2 


722.0 


510.5 


264.3 


1022 


511. 


987.2 


885.1 


722.7 


511.0 


264.5 


1023 


5"-5 


988.2 


885.9 


723-4 


5"-5 


264.8 


1024 


512.0 


989.1 


886.8 


724.1 


512.0 


265.0 


1025 


512.5 


990.1 


887.7 


724.8 


512.5 


265.3 


1026 


513-0 


991.0 


888.5 


725-5 


513-0 


265.6 


1027 


513-S 


992.0 


889.4 


726.2 


513-5 


265.8 


1028 


514.0 


993-0 


890.3 


726.9 


514.0 


266.1 


1029 


5M.5 


993-9 


891. 1 


727.6 


514.5 


266.3 


1030 


51S-0 


994.9 


892.0 


728.3 


515.0 


266.6 


IO3I 


515-5 


995-9 


892.9 


729.0 


515.5 


266.8 


1032 


516.0 


996.8 


893-7 


729.7 


516.0 


267.1 


1033 


516.5 


997-8 


894.6 


730-4 


516.5 


267.4 


1034 


517-0 


998.8 


895.5 


731-1 


517.0 


267.6 


1035 


517.5 


999-7 


896-3 


731-9 


517.5 


267.9 


1036 


518.0 


1000.7 


897.2 


732.6 


518.0 


268.1 


1037 


518.5 


1001.7 


898.1 


733-3 


518-5 


268.4 


1038 


519.0 


1002.6 


898.9 


734.0 


519.0 


268.7 


1039 


519-5 


1003.6 


899.8 . 


734-7 


519-5 


268.9 


1040 


520.0 


1004.6 


900.7 


735.4 


520.0 


269.2 


I04I 


520.5 


1005.5 


901-5 


736.1 


520. 5 


269.4 


1042 


521.0 


1006.5 


902.4 


736.8 


521.0 


269.7 


1043 


521.5 


1007.5 


903-3 


737.5 


521-5 


269.9 


1044 


522.0 


1008.4 


904.1 


738.2 


522.0 


270.2 


I04S 


522.S 


1009.4 


905.0 


738.9 


522.5 


270.5 


1046 


523-0 


1010.4 


905-9 


739-6 


523.0 


270.7 


1047 


523.5 


1011.3 


906.7 


740.3 


523-5 


271.0 


1048 


524-0 


1012.3 


907.6 


741.0 


524-0 


271.2 


1049 


524.5 


1013-3 


908.5 


741-8 


524.5 


271. 5 


1050 


525.0 


1014.2 


909-3 


742.5 


525-0 


271.8 


1051 


525-5 


1015.2 


910.2 


743-2 


525-5 


272.0 


1052 


526.0 


1016.2 


911. 


743-9 


526.0 


272.3 


1053 


526.5 


1017.1 


911.9 


744.6 


526.5 


272.5 


1 054 


527.0 


1018.1 


912.8 


745-3 


527.0 


272.8 


105s 


527-5 


1019.1 


913.7 


746.0 


527-5 


273.1 


1056 


528.0 


1020.0 


914.5 


746.7 


528.0 


273.3 


1057 


528.5 


1021.0 


915-4 


747.4 


528.5 


273.6 



192 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°, 


Sin 75°- 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


1058 


529.0 


1022.0 


916.3 


748.1 


529.0 


273.8 


1059 


529-5 


1022.9 


917.1 


748.8 


529-5 


274.1 


1060 


530-0 


1023.9 


918.0 


749-5 


530.0 


274.4 


1061 


530.5 


1024.8 


918.9 


750.2 


530.5 


274.6 


1062 


531-0 


1025.8 


919.7 


750.9 


531-0 


274-9 


1063 


531-5 


1026.8 


920.6 


751-7 


531-5 


275.1 


1064 


532-0 


1027.7 


921.5 


752.4 


532.0 


275.4 


1065 


532.5 


1028.7 


922.3 


753-1 


532.5 


275.6 


1066 


533.0 


1029.7 


923.2 


753-8 


533.0 


275-9 


1067 


533-5 


1030.6 


924.1 


754.5 


533.5 


276.2 


1068 


534.0 


1031.6 


924.9 


755-2 


534.0 


276.4 


1069 


534-5 


1032.6 


925.8 


755-9 


534-5 


276.7 


1070 


535-0 


1033-5 


926.7 


756.6 


535-0 


276.9 


1071 


535-5 


1034.5 


927.5 


757-3 


535-5 


277.2 


1072 


536.0 


1035.5 


928.4 


758.0 


536.0 


277.5 


1073 


536.5 


1036.4 


929.2 


758.7 


536.5 


277.7 


1074 


537.0 


1037.4 


930.1 


759-4 


537-0 


278.0 


I07S 


537-5 


1038.4 


931.0 


760.1 


537.5 


278.2 


1076 


538.0 


1039-3 


931.8 


760.8 


538.0 


278. 5 


1077 


538-5 


1040.3 


932.7 


761.5 


538.5 


278.8 


1078 


539-0 


1041.3 


933-6 


762.3 


539-0 


279.0 


1079 


539-5 


1042.2 


934.4 


763.0 


539-5 


279-3 


1080 


540.0 


1043.2 


935-3 


763.7 


540.0 


279.5 


108 1 


540.5 


1044.2 


936.2 


764.4 


540.5 


279.8 


1082 


541.0 


1045.1 


937.0 


765-1 


541.0 


280.0 


1083 


541.5 


1046. 1 


937-9 


765.8 


541-5 


280.3 


1084 


542.0 


1047.1 


938.8 


766.5 


542.0 


280.6 


1085 


542.S 


1048.0 


939-6 


767.2 


542.5 


280.8 


1086 


543.0 


1049.0 


940.5 


767.9 


543.0 


281. 1 


1087 


543.5 


1050.0 


941.4 


768.6 


543-5 


281.3 


1088 


544.0 


1050.9 


942.2 


769-3 


544-0 


281.6 


1089 


544.5 


1051.9 


943-1 


770.0 


544-5 


281.9 


1090 


545-0 


1052.9 


944-0 


770.8 


545-0 


282.1 


1091 


545-5 


1053-8 


944.8 


771.5 


545-5 


282,4 


1092 


546.0 


1054.8 


945-7 


772.2 


546.0 


282.6 


1093 


546.5 


1055.8 


946.6 


772.9 


546.5 


282.9 


1094 


547.0 


1056.7 


947-4 


773-6 


547.0 


283.1 


1095 


547-5 


1057.7 


948.3 


774.3 


547-5 


283.4 


1096 


548.0 


1058.7 


949-2 


775-0 


548.0 


283.7 


1097 


548.5 


1059.6 


950.0 


775.7 


548.5 


283.9 


1098 


549-0 


1060.6 


950.9 


776.4 


549-0 


284.2 


1099 


549-5 


1061.6 


951.8 


777.1 


549-5 


284.4 


1 100 


550.0 


1062.5 


952.6 


777.8 


550.0 


284.7 


IIOI 


550.5 


1063.5 


953-5 


778.5 


550.5 


285.0 


1102 


551-0 


1064.5 


954-4 


779.2 


551-0 


285.2 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I93 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin is°. 


1 103 


551-5 


1065.4 


955-2 


779-9 


551-5 


285.5 


1 104 


552.0 


1066.4 


956.1 


780.6 


552.0 


285.7 


iios 


552.5 


1067.3 


957.0 


781.4 


552.5 


286.0 


1 106 


Si3-o 


1068.3 


957.8 


782.1 


553-0 


286.3 


II07 


553-5 


1069.3 


958.7 


782.8 


553-5 


286.5 


1 108 


554-0 


1070.2 


959.6 


783-5 


554.0 


286.8 


1 109 


554-5 


1071.2 


960.4 


784.2 


554.5 


287.0 


IIIO 


555-0 


1072,2 


961.3 


784.9 


555-0 


287.3 


nil 


555-5 


1073.1 


962.2 


785.6 


555-5 


287.5 


III2 


556.0 


1074. I 


963.0 


786.3 


556,0 


287.8 


III3 


556-5 


1075.1 


963-9 


787,0 


556.5 


288.1 


III4 


557-0 


1076.0 


964.8 


787.7 


557.0 


288.3 


HIS 


557-5 


1077.0 


965.6 


788.4 


557.5 


288.6 


1116 


558.0 


1078.0 


966.5 


789.1 


558,0 


288.8 


1117 


558.5 


1078.9 


967.4 


789.8 


558.5 


289.1 


1118 


559-c 


1079.9 


968.2 


790.5 


559-0 


289.4 


1119 


559-5 


1080.9 


969.1 


791-3 


559-5 


289.6 


1 120 


560.0 


1081.8 


970.0 


792.0 


560.0 


289.9 


1121 


560.5 


1082.8 


970.8 


792.7 


560.5 


290,1 


1122 


561.0 


1083.8 


971.7 


793-4 


561.0 


290.4 


1123 


561.5 


1084.7 


972,5 


794.1 


561-5 


290.7 


1124 


562.0 


1085.7 


973-4 


794.8 


562.0 


290.9 


1125 


562.5 


1086.7 


974-3 


795-5 


562.5 


291.2 


1126 


563.0 


1087.6 


975-1 


796.2 


563.0 


291.4 


1127 


563.5 


1088.6 


976.0 


796.9 


563-5 


291,7 


1128 


564.0 


1089.6 


976.9 


797.6 


564.0 


292.0 


1 129 


564.5 


1090.5 


977.7 


798.3 


564-5 


292,2 


1 130 


565.0 


1091.5 


978,6 


799.0 


565.0 


292.5 


1131 


565-5 


1092.5 


979-5 


799-7 


565-5 


292,7 


1132 


566.0 


1093.4 


980.3 


800.4 


566.0 


293.0 


"33 


566.5 


1094.4 


981.2 


801.2 


566,5 


293-2 


"34 


567.0 


1095.4 


982.1 


801.9 


567.0 


293-5 


"35 


567-5 


1096.3 


982.9 


802.6 


567.5 


293-8 


"36 


568.0 


1097.3 


983-8 


803.3 


568.0 


294.0 


"37 


568.5 


1098.3 


984.7 


804,0 


568,5 


294.3 


"38 


569.0 


1099.2 


985-5 


804.7 


569,0 


294.5 


"39 


569.5 


1 100.2 


986.4 


805.4 


569-5 


294.8 


1 140 


570.0 


IIOI.2 


987-3 


806.1 


570,0 


295.1 


1141 


570.5 


II02.I 


988.1 


806.8 


570.5 


295-3 


1142 


571.0 


I 103. 1 


989.0 


807,5 


571-0 


295,6 


"43 


571.5 


I 104. 1 


989-9 


808,2 


571.5 


295.8 


"44 


572.0 


IIO5.O 


990.7 


808.9 


572.0 


296.1 


"45 


572.5 


1 106.0 


991,6 


809.6 


572.5 


296.3 


1 146 


573-0 


IIO7.O 


992,5 


810.3 


573-0 


296.7 


"47 


573-5 


1107,9 


993-3 


811. 


573-5 


296.9 



194 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



dumber. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1148 


574.0 


108.9 


994.2 


811.8 


574.0 


297.1 


1 149 


574-5 1 


109.9 


995.1 


812.5 


574.5 


297.4 


1 150 


575-0 1 


110.8 


995-9 


813-2 


575-0 


297.6 


I151 


575-5 1 


III.8 


996.8 


813.9 


575-5 


297.9 


1152 


576.0 


112.7 


997-7 


814.6 


576.0 


298,2 


I153 


576.5 I 


"3-7 


998.5 


815-3 


576.5 


298.4 


"54 


577.0 


1 14.7 


999.4 


816.0 


577.0 


298.7 


"55 


577-5 1 


115.6 


1000.3 


816.7 


577.5 


298.9 


"56 


578.0 1 


116.6 


1001.1 


817.4 


578.0 


299.2 


"57 


578.5 1 


117-6 


1002.0 


818.1 


578.5 


299.S 


1158 


579-0 ' 


118.5 


1002.9 


818.8 


579.0 


299.7 


"59 


579-5 


119.5 


1003.7 


819.5 


579-5 


300.0 


1 160 


580.0 1 


120.5 


1004.6 


820.2 


580.0 


300.2 


1161 


580.5 1 


121.4 


1005.5 


820.9 


580.5 


300.5 


1 162 


581.0 


122.4 


1006.3 


821.7 


581.0 


300.7 


1 163 


581.5 


123.4 


1007.2 


822.4 


581.5 


301.0 


1 164 


582.0 


124.3 


1008.1 


823.1 


582.0 


301.3 


1165 


582.5 1 


125-3 


1008.9 


823.8 


582.5 


301.5 


1 166 


583.0 ] 


126.3 


1009.8 


824.5 


583-0 


301.8 


1 167 


583.5 


127.2 


1010.7 


825.2 


583-5 


302.0 


1 168 


584.0 


128.2 


1011.5 


825.9 


584-0 


302.3 


1169 


584.5 


129.2 


1012.4 


826.6 


584.5 


302.6 


1170 


585.0 ] 


130.1 


1013.3 


827.3 


585-0 


302.8 


1171 


585.5 1 


131.1 


1014.1 


828.0 


585.5 


303.1 


1172 


586.0 


132.1 


1015.0 


828.7 


586.0 


303-3 


"73 


586.5 


133.0 


1015.8 


829.4 


586.5 


303-6 


"74 


587.0 


134.0 


1016.7 


830.1 


587.0 


303-9 


"75 


587.5 1 


135.0 


1017.6 


830.8 


587.5 


304.1 


1176 


588.0 ) 


135-9 


1018.4 


831-6 


588.0 


304.4 


"77 


588.5 


[136.9 


1019.3 


832.3 


588.5 


304.6 


1178 


589.0 ] 


137-9 


1020.2 


833.0 


589.0 


304.9 


"79 


589-5 


1 138.8 


1021.0 


833-7 


5895 


305-2 


1 180 


590.0 


1139.8 


1021.9 


834.4 


590.0 


305-4 


1181 


590.5 


1 140.8 


1022.8 


835.1 


590.5 


305-7 


1182 


591.0 


"41-7 


1023.6 


835.8 


591.0 


305.9 


"83 


591.5 


[142.7 


1024.5 


836.5 


591.5 


306.2 


1 184 


592.0 


"43.7 


1025.4 


837.2 


592-0 


306.4 


1185 


592.5 


144-6 


1026.2 


837-9 


592-5 


306.7 


1 186 


593.0 


"45-6 


1027.1 


838.6 


593-0 


307.0 


1 187 


593-5 


1146.6 


1028.0 


839.3 


593-5 


307.2 


1 188 


594-0 


1 147.5 


1028.8 


■ 840.1 


594-0 


307-5 


1 189 


594-5 


1 148.5 


1029.7 


840.8 


594-5 


307.7 


1 190 


595-0 


1149.5 


1030.6 


841-5 


595.0 


308.0 


1191 


595-5 


1150.4 


1031.4 


842.2 


595.5 


308.2 


1 192 


596.0 


1151.4 


1032.3 


842.9 


596.0 


308.5 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I95 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60.° 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


"93 


596.5 


"52.3 


1033.2 


843-6 


- 596.5 


308.8 


1 194 


597.0 


"53.3 


1034.0 


844.3 


597-0 


309.0 


II95 


597.5 


1 1 54.3 


1034.9 


845-0 


597.5 


309-3 


1 196 


598.0 


1155-2 


1035.8 


845.7 


598.0 


309-5 


II97 


598.5 


1156.2 


1036.6 


846.4 


598. 5 


309.8 


1 198 


599.0 


1157.2 


1037.5 


847.1 


599-0 


310.1 


1 199 


599-5 


1158.1 


1038.4 


847.8 


599-5 


310.3 


1200 


600.0 


1159.1 


1039.2 


848.5 


600.0 


310.6 


I20I 


600.5 


1160.1 


1040.1 


849.2 


600.5 


310.8 


1202 


601.0 


161.0 


1041.0 


849.9 


601.0 


3II.I 


1203 


601.5 


1 162.0 


1041.8 


850.7 


601.5 


3".4 


1204 


602.0 


163.0 


1042.7 


851.4 


602.0 


311. 6 


1205 


602.5 


1163.9 


1043.7 


852.1 


602.5 


3".9 


1206 


603.0 


[164.9 


1044.4 


852.8 


603.0 


312.1 


1207 


603.5 


1165.9 


1045-3 


853.5 


603-5 


312.4 


1208 


604.0 


[1 66.8 


1046.3 


854.2 


604.0 


312.7 


1209 


604.5 


167.8 


1047.0 


854.9 


604.5 


312.9 


I2I0 


605 


168.8 


1047.9 


855.6 


605.0 


313.2 


I2II 


605.5 


1169.7 


1048.8 


856.3 


605.5 


313.4 


1212 


606.0 


[170.7 


1049.6 


857.0 


606.0 


313.7 


I2I3 


606.5 


171. 7 


1050.5 


857-7 


606.5 


313-9 


I214 


607.0 


172.6 


1051.4 


S58.4 


607.0 


314.2 


I215 


607.5 


[173.6 


1052.2 


859.1 


607.5 


3M.5 


I216 


608.0 


[ 174.6 


1053.1 


859-8 


608.0 


314.7 


I217 


608.5 


ti7S.5 


1054.0 


860.5 


608.5 


315.0 


I218 


609.0 


176.5 


1054.8 


861.3 


609.0 


315.2 


I2I9 


609.5 ' 


177.5 


1055.7 


862.0 


609.5 


315.5 


1220 


610.0 


178.4 


1056.6 


862.7 


610.0 


315-8 


I22I 


610.5 


179.4 


1057.4 


863.3 


610.5 


316 


1222 


611. 


180,4 


1058.3 


864.1 


611.0 


316.3 


1223 


611.5 


181.3 


1059.1 


864.8 


61 1.5 


316.5 


1224 


612.0 


182.3 


1060.0 


865.5 


612.0 


316.8 


1225 


612.5 


183.3 


1060.9 


866.2 


612.5 


317.1 


1226 


613.0 ] 


184.2 


1061.7 


866.9 


613-0 


317.3 


1227 


613.5 


185.2 


1062.6 


867.6 


613.5 


317.6 


1228 


614.0 ] 


186.2 


1063.5 


868.3 


614.0 


317-8 


1229 


614.5 


187.1 


1064.3 


869.0 


614.S 


318.1 


1230 


615.0 I 


188.1 


1065.2 


869.7 


615,0 


318.4 


I23I 


615.5 1 


189.1 


1066.1 


870.4 


615-5 


318.6 


1232 


616.0 I 


190.0 


1066.9 


871.2 


616.0 


318.9 


"33 


616.5 1 


191.0 


1067.8 


871.9 


616.5 


319.1 


1234 


617.0 ] 


192.0 


1068.7 


872.6 


617.0 


319.4 


1235 


617.5 


192.9 


1069.5 


873.3 


617.5 


319.6 


1236 


618.0 I 


193.9 


1070.4 


874.0 


618.0 


319-9 


1237 


6x8.5 


194.9 


1071.3 


874.7 


618.5 


320.2 



196 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 
1238 
1239 
1240 
1 241 
1242 

1243 
1244 

I24S 
1246 
1247 
1248 
1249 
1250 
1251 
1252 
1253 
1 254 

I2SS 

1256 
1257 
1258 

I2S9 

1260 

1261 

1262 

1263 

1264 

1265 

1266 

1267 

1268 

1269 

1270 

1271 

1272 • 

1273 

1274 

I27S 

1276 

1277 

1278 

1279 

1280 

1281 

1282 



H Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 450. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


619.0 


II95-8 


IO72.I 


875-4 


619.0 


320.4 


619.5 


1 196.8 


1073.0 


876.1 


619.5 


320.7 


620.0 


1 197.7 


1073-9 


876.S 


620.0 


320.9 


620.5 


1 198.7 


1074.7 


877.5 


620.5 


321.2 


621.0 


1 199.7 


1075.6 


878.2 


621.0 


321.4 


621.5 


1200.6 


1076.5 


878.9 


621.5 


321.7 


622.0 


I20I.6 


1677.3 


8796 


622.0 


322.0 


622.5 


1202.6 


1078.2 


880.3 


622.5 


322.2 


623.0 


1203.5 


1079. 1 


881.I 


623.0 


322.5 


623.5 


1204.5 


1079.9 


881.8 


623-5 


322.7 


624.0 


1205.5 


1080.8 


882.5 


624.0 


323-0 


624.5 


1206.4 


1081.7 


883.2 


624.5 


323.3 


625.0 


1207.4 


1082.5 


883.9 


625.0 


323.5 


625.5 


1208.4 


1083.4 


884.6 


625.5 


323.8 


626.0 


1209.3 


1084.3 


885.3 


626.0 


324.0 


626.5 


1210.3 


1085. 1 


886.0 


626.5 


324-3 


627.0 


1211.3 


1086.0 


886.7 


627.0 


324-6 


627.5 


1212.2 


1086.9 


887.4 


627.5 


324.8 


628.0 


1213.2 


1087.7 


888.1 


628.0 


325.1 


628.5 


1214.2 


1088.6 


888.8 


628.5 


325-3 


629.0 


1215,1 


1089.5 


889.5 


629 


325-6 


629.5 


1216.1 


1090.3 


890.2 


629.5 


325-9 


630.0 


1217.1 


1091.2 


891.0 


630.0 


326.1 


630.5 


1218.0 


1092. 1 


891.7 


630.5 


326.4 


631.0 


1219.0 


1092.9 


892.4 


631.0 


326.6 


631.5 


1220.0 


1093.8 


893.1 


63'.5 


326.9 


632.0 


1220.9 


1094.7 


893.8 


632.0 


327.1 


632.5 


1221.9 


1095-5 


894.5 


632.5 


327-4 


633-0 


1222.9 


1096.4 


895.2 


633-0 


327-7 


633-5 


1223.8 


1097.3 


895-9 


633-5 


3279 


634.0 


1224.8 


1098.1 


896.6 


634-0 


328.2 


634-5 


1225.8 


1099.0 


897-3 


634-5 


328.4 


635.0 


1226.7 


1099.9 


898.0 


635-0 


328.7 


635-5 


1227.7 


1 100.7 


898.7 


635-5 


329.0 


636.0 


1228.7 


1101.6 


899.4 


636.0 


329.2 


636.5 


1229.6 


1 102.4 


900.2 


636.5 


329-5 


637.0 


1230.6 


1103.3 


900.9 


637.0 


329-7 


637-5 


1231.6 


1 104.2 


901.6 


637-5 


330-0 


638.0 


1232.5 


1 105.0 


902.3 


638.0 


330-3 


638.5 


1233-5 


1105.9 


903.0 


638.5 


330-5 


639.0 


1234.5 


1 106.8 


903-7 


639-0 


330-8 


639-5 


1235-4 


1107.6 


904-4 


639-5 


331-0 


640.0 


1236.4 


1 108.5 


905.1 


640.0 


331-3 


640.5 


1237.4 


1 109.4 


905.8 


640.5 


331-5 


641.0 


1238.3- 


1110.2 


906.5 


641.0 


33t.8 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. I97 



lumber. 


>^ Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1283 


641.5 


1^39-3 


IIII.I 


907.2 


641.5 


332.1 


1284 


642.0 


1240.2 


1112.0 


907.9 


642.0 


332.3 


1285 


6425 


I24I.2 


III2.8 


908.6 


642.5 


332.6 


1286 


643.0 


1242.2 


III3.7 


909-3 


643.0 


332.8 


1287 


643-5 


1 243. 1 


1 114.6 


910.0 


643.5 


333.1 


1288 


644.0 


1 244. 1 


11.5.4 


910.8 


644-0 


333.4 


1289 


644.5 


I245.I 


1116.3 


9II.5 


644.5 


333-6 


1290 


645.0 


1246.0 


1117.2 


912.2 


645-0 


333-9 


1291 


645-5 


1247.0 


II18.0 


912.9 


645-5 


334.1 


1292 


646.0 


1248.0 


11 18.9 


913.6 


646.0 


334.4 


1293 


646.5 


1248.9 


1119.8 


914-3 


646.5 


334.7 


T294 


647.0 


1249.9 


1120.6 


915.0 


647.0 


334.9 


1295 


647.5 


1250.9 


1121.5 


915-7 


647.5 


335.2 


1296 


648.0 


1251.8 


H22.4 


916.4 


648.0 


335.4 


1297 


648.5 


1252.8 


1123.2 


917.I 


648.5 


335.7 


1298 


649.0 


1253-s 


1124.1 


917.8 


649.0 


336.0 


1299 


649-5 


1254.7 


1125.0 


918.5 


649-5 


3.36.2 


1300 


650.0 


1255.7 


1125.8 


919.2 


650.0 


336.S 


1301 


650.5 


1256.7 


1126.7 


919.9 


650.5 


336.7 


1302 


651.0 


1257.6 


1127.7 


920.7 


651.0 


337.0 


1303 


651.5 


1258.6 


1128.4 


921.4 


651.5 


337.2 


1304 


652.0 


12596 


1129.3 


922.1 


652.0 


337.5 


1305 


652.5 


1260.5 


1130.2 


922.8 


652.5 


337.8 


1306 


653-0 


I26I.5 


113T.0 


923.5 


653.0 


338.0 


1307 


653-5 


1262.5 


1131.9 


924.2 


653.S 


338.3 


1308 


654.0 


1263.4 


IT32.8 


924.9 


654.0 


338.S 


13C9 


654-5 


1264.4 


1 1 33.6 


925.6 


654.5 


338.8 


1310 


655.0 


1265.4 


"34.5 


926.3 


655.0 


339.1 


1311 


655-5 


1266.3 


"35.4 


927.0 


655.5 


339.3 


1312 


656.0 


1267.3 


.136.2 


927.7 


656.0 


339.6 


1313 


656.5 


1268.3 


1137.1 


928.4 


656.5 


339.8 


1314 


657.0 


1269.2 


1138.0 


929.1 


657.0 


340.1 


1315 


657-5 


1270.2 


1138.8 


929.8 


657.5 


340.3 


1316 


658.0 


I27I.2 


1 139.7 


930.6 


658.0 


340.6 


1317 


658.5 


I272.I 


II 40.6 


931.3 


658.S 


340.9 


1318 


659.0 


1 273. 1 


1141.4 


932.0 


659.0 


341. 1 


1319 


659.5 


1 274. 1 


1142.3 


932.7 


659.5 


341.4 


1320 


66c.o 


1275.0 


1143.2 


933-4 


660.0 


341.6 


132I 


660.5 


1276.0 


1144.0 


934-1 


660.5 


341.9 


1322 


661.0 


1277.0 


1144.9 


934-8 


661.0 


342.2 


1323 


661.5 


1277.9 


1145.7 


935-5 


661.5 


342.4 


1324 


662.0 


1278.9 


1146.6 


936.2 


662.0 


342.7 


1325 


662.5 


1279.9 


1147.5 


936.9 


662.5 


342.9 


1326 


663.0 


1280.8 


1148.3 


937.6 


663.0 


343.2 


1327 


663.5 


1281.8 


1149.2 


938.3 


663.5 


343. 5 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 
1328 
1329 
1330 
1331 
1332 
1333 
1334 
1335 
1336 
1337 
1338 
1339 
1340 
1 341 
1342 
1343 
1344 
1345 
1346 
1347 
1348 
1349 
1350 
1351 
1352 
1353 
1354 
I3SS 
1356 
1357 
1358 
1359 
1360 
1361 
1362 
1363 
1364 
1365 
1366 
1367 
1368 
1369 
1370 

1371 
1372 



X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. £ 


sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


664.0 


1282.8 1 


150.1 


939.0 


664.0 


343.7 


664.5 


1283.7 I 


150.9 


939.7 


664.5 


344.0 


665.0 


1284.7 1 


1 51.8 


940.5 


665.0 


344.2 


665.5 


1285.6 ] 


152.7 


941.2 


665.5 


344.5 


666.0 


1286.6 1 


153-5 


941.9 


666.0 


344.7 


666.5 


1287.6 ] 


154.4 


942.6 


666.5 


345-0 


667.0 


1288.5 1 


155-3 


943.3 


667.0 


345-3 


667.S 


1289.5 I 


156.1 


944.0 


667.5 


345.5 


668.0 


i2go.5 ] 


157.0 


944.7 


668.0 


345-8 


668.5 


1291.4 1 


157-9 


945.4 


668.5 


346.0 


669.0 


1292.4 ] 


158.7 


946.1 


669.0 


346.3 


669.5 


1293.4 


159.6 


946.8 


669.5 


346.6 


670.0 


1294.3 ) 


160.5 


947.5 


670.0 


346.8 


670.5 


1295-3 


ti6i.3 


948.2 


670.5 


347.1 


671.0 


1296.3 1 


162.2 


948.9 


671.0 


347.3 


671.5 


1297.2 ] 


163.1 


949-6 


671.5 


347.6 


672.0 


1298.2 1 


163.9 


950-3 


672,0 


347.9 


672.5 


1299.2 


164,8 


951. 1 


672.5 


348.1 


673.0 


1 300. 1 ] 


165.7 


951.8 


673.0 


348.4 


673-5 


1301.1 I 


166.5 


952.5 


673.5 


348.6 


674.0 


1302.1 1 


167.4 


953-2 


674.0 


348.9 


674.5 


1303.0 


168.3 


953-9 


674.5 


349.2 


675.0 


1304.0 


169.1 


954.6 


675.0 


349-4 


675-5 


1305.0 1 


170.0 


955.3 


675.5 


349.7 


676.0 


1305-9 


170.9 


956.0 


676.0 


349.9 


676.5 


1306.9 


171.7 


956.7 


676.5 


350.2 


677.0 


I307-9' 


172.6 


957.4 


677.0 


350.4 


677.5 


1308.8 


"73-5 


958.1 


677.5 


350.7 


678.0 


1309.8 


i 174-3 


958.8 


678.0 


351-0 


678.5 


1310.8 


1175-2 


959.5 


678.5 


351-2 


679.0 


1311.7 


[176.1 


960.2 


679.0 


351.5 


679-5 


1312.7 


1176.9 


961.0 


679.5 


3SI.7 


680.0 


1313-7 


1 1 77.8 


961.7 


680.0 


352.0 


680.5 


1314-6 


[178.7 


962.4 


680.5 


352.2 


681.0 


1315.6 


1179.5 


963.1 


681.0 


352.5 


681.5 


1316.6 


1180.4 


963.8 


681.5 


352.8 


682.0 


1317.5 


1181.3 


964.5 


682.0 


353-0 


682.5 


1318.5 


1182.1 


965.2 


682.5 


353.3 


683.0 


1319-5 


1183.0 


965.9 


683.0 


353. 5 


683.5 


1320.4 


1183.9 


966.6 


683.5 


353.8 


684.0 


1321.4 


184.7 


967.3 


684.0 


354.1 


684.5 


1322.4 


[185.6 


968.0 


684.5 


354.3 


685.0 


1323-3 


[ 186.5 


968.7 


685.0 


354.6 


685.5 


1324-3 


1187.3 


969.4 


685.5 


354.8 


686.0 


1325-3 


[ 188.2 


970.2 


686.0 


355.1 



A, METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 1 99 



Number. 

1373 
1374 
137s 
1376 
1377 
1378 
1379 
1380 
1381 
1382 
1383 
1384 
1385 
1386 

1387 
1388 
1389 
1390 
I391 
1392 
1393 
1394 
1395 
1396 

1397 
1398 
1399 
1400 
1401 
1402 
1403 
1404 
1405 
1406 
1407 
1408 
1409 
1410 
1411 
I412 

1413 
1414 
14IS 
1416 
1417 



M Sin 90°. 
686.5 
6S7.O 
687.5 

688.0 
688.5 
689.0 
689.5 
690.0 
690.5 
691.0 
691.5 
692.0 
692.5 
693.0 

693-5 
694.0 

694.5 
695.0 

695-5 
696.0 
696.5 
697.0 
697.5 
698.0 
698.5 
699.0 
699.5 
700.0 
700.5 
701.0 
701.5 
702.0 
702.5 
703.0 

703-5 
704.0 

704.5 
705.0 

705.5 
706.0 
706.5 
707.0 

707.5 
708.0 
708.5 



Sin 75°. 
1326.2 
1327.2 
I328.I 
I329.I 
I 330. I 
I331.O 
1332.0 
1333.0 
1333.9 
1334.9 
1335.9 
1336.8 
1337.8 
1338.8 
1339.7 
1340.7 
I34I.7 
1342.6 
1343.6 
1344.6 
1345.5 

I 346. 5 
1347.5 
1348.4 
1349.4 
1350.4 
1351.3 
1352-3 
1353.3 
1354.2 
1355.2 
1356.2 
1357-1 
1358.1 
1359.1 
1360.0 
1361.0 
1362.0 
1362.9 
1363.9 
1364.9 
1365.8 
1366.8 
1367.8 
1368.7 



Sin 60°. 
1 189. 1 
1189.9 

1 190.8 
1191.7 
1192.5 
1193.4 
1194.3 
1195.1 
I 196.0 

1 196.9 
1197.7 
II98.6 

1199.5 
1200.3 
I 20 1. 2 
1202.0 
1202.9 
1203.8 
1204.6 
1205.5 
1206.4 
1207.2 
1208.1 
1209.0 
1209.8 
1210.7 
1211.6 

1212.4 

1213.3 

1214.2 
1215.0 

1215.9 
I2I6.8 

1217.6 
1218.5 
I2I9.4 

1220.2 
1221. I 
1222.0 
1222.8 
1223.7 
1224.6 
1225.4 
1226.3 
1227.2 



Sin 45°. 
970.9 
971.6 
972.3 
973.0 
973-7 
974.4 
975.1 
975.8 
976.5 
977-2 
977.9 
978.6 

979.3 
980.1 
980.8 
981.5 
982.2 
982.9 
983.6 
984.3 
985.0 

985.7 
986.4 
987.1 
987.8 
988.5 
989.2 
990.0 
990.7 
991.4 
992.1 
992.8 

993.5 
994.2 
994.9 
995.6 
996.3 
997.0 
997-7 
998.4 
999.1 
999-8 
1000.6 
1001.3 
1002.0 



Sin 30°. 
686.5 
687.0 
687.5 

688.0 
688.5 
689.0 
689.5 
690.0 
690.5 
691.0 
691.5 
692.0 
692-5 
693.0 
693-5 
694.0 
694.5 
695.0 

695.5 
696.0 

696.5 
697.0 

697.5 
698.0 
698.5 
699.0 

699.5 
700.0 
700.5 
701.0 
701.5 
702.0 
702.5 
703.0 

703.5 
704.0 

704.5 
705.0 

705.5 
706.0 
706.5 
707.0 

707.5 
708.0 
708.5 



Sin 15°. 
355.4 

355-6 
355-9 
356-1 
356.4 
356.7 
356.9 
357.2 
357.4 
357.7 
357-9 
358.2 
358-5 
358.7 
359.0 
359.2 
359.5 
359.8 
360.0 
360.3 
360.5 
360.8 
361.1 
361.3 
361.6 
361.8 
362.1 
362.4 
362.6 
362.9 
363-1 
363.4 
363.6 
363.9 
364.2 
364.4 
364.7 
364-9 
365.2 

365-5 
365.7 
366.0 
366.2 
366.5 
366.8 



200 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS, 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75^ 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1418 


709.0 


1369.7 


1228.0 


1002.7 


709.0 


367.0 


1419 


709. s 


1370.6 


1228.9 


1003.4 


709.5 


367.3 


1420 


710.0 


1371.6 


1229.8 


1004.1 


710.0 


367.5 


142I 


710.S 


1372.6 


1230.6 


1004.8 


710.5 


367.8 


1422 


711.O 


1373.5 


I231.5 


1005.5 


711.0 


368.0 


1423 


711. 5 


1374.5 


1232.4 


1006.2 


711.5 


368.3 


1424 


712.0 


1375.5 


1233.2 


1006.9 


712.0 


368.6 


1425 


712.5 


1376.4 


1234.I 


1007.6 


712.5 


368.8 


1426 


713.0 


1377.4 


1235.0 


1008.3 


713.0 


369.1 


1427 


713.S 


1378.4 


1235.8 


1009.0 


713.5 


369.3 


1428 


714.0 


1379.3 


1236.7 


1009.7 


714.0 


369.6 


1429 


714.S 


1380.3 


1237.6 


1010.5 


714.5 


.369.9 


1430 


715.0 


1381.3 


1238.4 


IOI1.2 


715.0 


370.1 


I43I 


' 715.S 


1382.2 


1239.3 


IOII.9 


715.5 


370.4 


1432 


716.0 


1383.2 


1240.2 


1012.6 


716.0 


370.6 


1433 


716.S 


1384.2 


1241.O 


1013.3 


716.S 


370.9 


1434 


717.0 


1385.1 


1241.9 


1014.0 


717.0 


371. 1 


1435 


717.S 


1386. I 


1242.8 


1014.7 


717.5 


371.4 


1436 


718.0 


1387.I 


1243.6 


IOI5.4 


718.0 


371.7 


1437 


718.5 


1388.0 


1244.5 


1016.1 


718.5 


371.9 


1438 


719.0 


1389.0 


1245.3 


1016.8 


719.0 


372.2 


1439 


719.5 


1390.0 


1246.2 


1017.5 


719.5 


372.4 


1440 


720.0 


1390.9 


1247. I 


1018.2 


720.0 


372.7 


144I 


720.5 


1391.9 


1247.9 


1018.9 


720.5 


373.0 


1442 


721.0 


1392.9 


1248.8 


IOI9.6 


721.0 


373.2 


1443 


721.5 


1393-8 


1249.7 


1020.4 


721.5 


373.5 


1444 


722.0 


1394.8 


1250.5 


1021.1 


722.0 


373-7 


1445 


722.5 


1395.8 


1251.4 


1021.8 


722.5 


374.0 


1446 


723.0 


1396.7 


1252.3 


1022.5 


723.0 


374.3 


1447 


723.5 


1397.7 


1253.I 


1023.2 


723.5 


374.5 


1448 


724.0 


1398.7 


1254.0 


1023.9 


724.0 


374.8 


1449 


• 724.5 


1399.6 


1254.9 


1024.6 


724.5 


375.0 


1450 


725.0 


1400.6 


1255.7 


1025.3 


725.0 


375.3 


1451 


725.5 


1401.6 


1256.6 


1026.0 


725.5 


375.5 


1452 


726.0 


1402.5 


1257.5 


1026.7 


726.0 


375.8 


U53 


726.5 


1403.5 


1258.3 


1027.4 


726.5 


376.1 


1454 


727.0 


1404.5 


1259.2 


1028. 1 


727.0 


376.3 


U5S 


727.5 


1405.4 


I 260. I 


1028.8 


727.S 


376.6 


1456 


728.0 


1406.4 


1260.9 


1029.5 


728.0 • 


376.8 


1457 


728.5 


1407.4 


1261.8 


1030.3 


728.5 


377.1 


1458 


729.0 


1408.3 


1262.7 


1031.0 


729.0 


377.4 


1459 


729.5 


1409.3 


1263.5 


1031.7 


729.5 


377.6 


1460 


730.0 


1410.3 


1264.4 


1032.4 


730.0 


377.9 


1461 


730.5 


1411.2 


1265.3 


1033.1 


730.5 


378.1 


1462 


731.0 


1412.2 


1266.1 


1033.8 


731.0 


378.4 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 20I 



Number. 
1463 
1464 
1465 
1466 
1467 
1468 
1469 
1470 
I471 
1472 
1473 
1474 
1475 
1476 

1477 
1478 

1479 
1480 
1481 
1482 
1483 
1484 
1485 
i486 
1487 
1488 
1489 
1490 
1491 
1492 

M93 
1494 

1495 
1496 

1497 
1498 
1499 
1500 
1 501 
1502 
1503 
1504 
1505 
1506 

1507 



>^ Sin 90° 

731-5 
732.0 

7325 
733-0 
733-5 
734-0 
734-5 
735-0 
735-5 
736.0 

736.5 
737-0 
737.5 
738.0 

738.5 
739-0 
739-5 
740.0 

740.5 
741.0 

741.5 
742.0 
742.5 
743.0 
743.5 
744.0 

744.5 
745-0 
745.5 
746.0 

746.5 
747.0 

747.5 
748.0 

748.5 
749-0 
749-5 
750.0 

750.5 
751.0 
751.5 
752.0 

752.5 
7S3.0 
753.5 



Sin 7S°- 
1413-2 
I414.I 
I415.I 
I416.O 
I417.O 
I418.O 
I418.9 
I419.9 
1420.9 
I42I.8 
1422.8 
1423.8 
1424.7 

1425.7 
1426.7 
1427.6 
1428.6 
1429.6 
1430.5 
1431.5 
1432.5 

1433-4 
1434-4 
1435-4 
1436-3 
1437-3 
1438-3 
1439.2 
1440.2 
1441.2 
1442. 1 
1443- 1 
1 444- 1 
1445.0 
1446.0 
1447.0 
1447.9 
1448.9 
1449.9 
1450.8 
1451.8 
1452.8 
1453-7 
1454.7 
1455-7 



Sin 60°. 
1267.0 
1267.9 
1268.7 
1269.6 
1270.5 

1271.3 
1272.2 

1273.1 
1273.9 
1274.8 

1275.7 
1276.5 
1277.4 
1278.3 
1 279. 1 
1280.0 
1280.9 
1281.7 
1282.6 
1283.5 
1284.3 
1285.2 
1 286. 1 
1286.9 
1287.8 
1288.6 
1289.5 
1290.4 
1291.2 
1292.1 
1293-0 
1293.8 
1294.7 
1295.6 
1296.4 

1297.3 
1298.2 
1299.0 
1299.9 
1300.8 
1301.6 
1302.5 
1303-4 
1304.2 
1305.1 



Sin 45°. 
1034.5 
1035.2 

1035-9 
1036.6 

1037.3 
1038.0 
1038.7 
1039.4 
1040.2 
1040.9 
1041.6 
1042.3 
1043.0 
1043-7 
1044.4 
1045.1 
1045.8 
1046.5 
1047.2 

1047.9 
1048.6 

1049.3 
1050.1 
1050.8 
1051.5 
1052.2 
1052.9 
1053.6 
1054.3 
1055.0 
1055.7 
1056.4 
1057.1 
1057.8 
1058.5 
1059.2 
1060,0 
1060.7 
1061.4 
1062.1 
1062.8 
1063.5 
1064.2 
1064.9 
1065.6 



Sin 30°. 

731.5 
732.0 

732.5 
733-0 

733-5 
734.0 
734-5 
735-0 
735-5 
736.0 

736.5 
737.0 
737-5 
738.0 

738.5 
739-0 
739-5 
740.0 

740.5 
741.0 

741.5 
742.0 
742.5 
743-0 
743.5 
744.0 

744-5 
745-0 
745-5 
746.0 
746.5 
747.0 
747.5 
748.0 

748.S 
749.0 

749.5 
750.0 

750.5 
751.0 
751.5 
752.0 

752.5 
753.0 
753.5 



Sin 15O. 
378.7 
378.9 
379.2 
379.4 
379.7 
380.0 
380.2 
380.5 
380.7 
381.0 
381.2 

381.5 
381.8 
382.0 
382.3 
382.5 
382.8 
383.1 
383.3 
383.6 
383.8 
384.1 
384.3 
384.6 

384.9 
385.1 
385.4 
385.6 
385.9 
386.2 
386.4 
386.7 
386.9 
387.2 
387.5 
387.7 
388.0 
388.2 
388.5 
388.7 
389.0 
389.3 
389.5 
389.8 
390.0 



202 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75^ 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1508 


754.0 


1456.6 


1306.0 


1066.3 


754.0 


390.3 


1509 


754.5 


1457.6 


1306.8 


1067.0 


754.5 


390.6 


1510 


755-0 


1458.5 


1307.7 


1067.7 


755-0 


390.8 


1511 


755.5 


1459.S 


1308.6 


1068.4 


755.5 


391.1 


1512 


756.0 


1460.5 


1309.4 


1069. 1 


756.0 


391.3 


1513 


756.5 


I461.4 


I3IO.3 


1069.9 


756.5 


391.6 


1514 


757.0 


1462.4 


I31I.2 


1070.6 


757.0 


391.9 


1515 


757.5 


1463.4 


I312.O 


IO71.3 


757.5 


392.1 


1516 


758.0 


1464.3 


I312.9 


1072.0 


758.0 


392.4 


I517 


758.5 


1465.3 


I3I3.8 


1072.7 


758.5 


392.6 


1518 


759.0 


1466.3 


1314.6 


1073.4 


759.0 


392.9 


1519 


759-5 


1467.2 


13^5.5 


1074.1 


759.5 


.393.2 


1520 


760.0 


1468.2 


I316.4 


1074.8 


760.0 


393.4 


1521 


760.5 


1469.2 


I317.2 


1075.5 


760.5 


393-7 


1522 


761.0 


1470. I 


I318.I 


1076.2 


761.0 


393.9 


1523 


761.5 


I47I.I 


I319.O 


1076,9 


761.5 


394.2 


1524 


762.0 


1472. 1 


1 3 19.8 


1077.6 


762,0 


394.4 


1525 


762.5 


1473.0 


1320.7 


1078.3 


762,5 


394.7 


1526 


763.0 


1474.0 


1321.6 


1079.1 


763.0 


395.0 


1527 


763.5 


1475.0 


1322.4 


1079.8 


763.5 


395.2 


1528 


764.0 


1475.9 


1323.3 


1080.5 


764.0 


395.S 


1529 


764.5 


1476.9 


1324,2 


1081.2 


764.5 


395.7 


1530 


765.0 


1477.9 


1325.0 


1081.9 


765.0 


396.0 


1531 


765.5 


1478.8 


1325.9 


1082.6 


765.5 


396.2 


1532 


766.0 


1479.8 


1326.8 


1083.3 


766,0 


396.5 


1533 


766.5 


1480.8 


1327.6 


1084.0 


766.5 


396.8 


1534 


767.0 


I481.7 


1328.5 


1084.7 


767.0 


397.0 


1535 


767.5 


1482.7 


1329.4 


1085.4 


767.5 


397.3 


1536 


768.0 


1483.7 


1330.2 


1086.1 


768.0 


397-5 


1537 


768.5 


1484.6 


I33I.I 


1086,8 


768.5 


397.8 


1538 


769.0 


1485.6 


1331.9 


1087.5 


769.0 


398.1 


1539 


769.5 


1486.6 


1332.8 


1088.2 


769.5 


398.3 


1540 


770.0 


1487.5 


1333.7 


1088.9 


770.0 


398.6 


1541 


770.S 


1488.5 


1334.5 


1089.6 


770.5 


398.8 


1542 


771.0 


1489.5 


1335.4 


1090.3 


771.0 


399.1 


1543 


771.5 


1490.4 


1336.3 


1091.0 


771.5 


399.4 


1544 


772.0 


I49I.4 


1337. 1 


IC9I.7 


772.0 


399.6 


1 545 


772.5 


1492.4 


1338.0 


1092.4 


772.5 


399.9 


1546 


773.0 


1493.3 


1338.9 


1093.1 


773.0 


400.1 


1547 


773.5 


1494.3 


1339.7 


1093.8 


773-5 


400.4 


1548 


774.0 


1495.3 


1340.6 


1094.5 


774.0 


400,7 


1549 


774.5 


1496.2 


I34I.5 


1095.3 


774-5 


400,9 


1550 


775.0 


1497.2 


1342.3 


1096.0 


775-0 


401.2 


1551 


775.5 


1498.2 


I343.I 


1096.7 


775-5 


401.4 


1552 


776.0 


1499-1 


1344-0 


1097.4 


776.0 


401.7 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 203 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1553 


776.5 


1500,1 


1344.8 


098.1 


776.5 


401.9 


1554 


777.0 


1501.I 


1345-7 


098.8 


777.0 


402.2 


1555 


777.5 


1502.0 


1346.7 


099.6 


777.5 


402.5 


1556 


778.0 


1503.0 


1347.5 1 


100.3 


778.0 


402.7 


1557 


778.S 


1503-9 


1348.4 


lOl.O 


778.5 


403,0 


1558 


779-0 


1504.9 


1349.3 


101.7 


779.0 


403.2 


1559 


779-5 


1505.9 


1350. 1 


102.4 


779-5 


403.5 


1560 


780.0 


1506.8 


1351.0 1 


103.1 


780.0 


403.8 


1561 


780.5 


1507.8 


1351-9 1 


103.8 


780.5 


404.0 


1562 


781.0 


1508.8 


1352.7 


104.5 


781.0 


404.3 


1563 


781.5 


1509.7 


»353.6 1 


105.2 


781.5 


404.5 


1564 


782.0 


1510.7 


1354.5 1 


105.9 


782.0 


404.8 


1565 


782.5 


15". 7 


1355.3 1 


106.6 


782.5 


405.1 


1566 


783.0 


1512.6 


1356.2 


107.3 


783.0 


405.3 


T567 


783-5 


1513-6 


1357.1 I 


108.0 


783-5 


405-6 


1568 


784.0 


1514.6 


1357.9 1 


108.7 


784.0 


405.8 


1569 


784.5 


1515-5 


1358.8 


109.5 


784.5 


406.1 


1570 


785.0 


1516.5 


1359.7 1 


110.2 


785.0 


406.3 


1571 


785-5 


1517-5 


1360.5 


110.9 


785.5 


406.6 


1572 


786.0 


1518.4 


1361.4 


II1.6 


786.0 


406.9 


1573 


786.5 


1519.4 


1362.3 


112.3 


786.5 


407.1 


1574 


787.0 


1520.4 


1363-1 


113.0 


787.0 


407.4 


1575 


787.5 


1521.3 


1364.0 


113.7 


787.5 


407.6 


1576 


788.0 


1522.3 


1364.9 


114.4 


788.0 


407.9 


1577 


788.5 


1523-3 


1365.7 1 


115.1 


788.S 


408.2 


1578 


789.0 


1524.2 


1366.6 


115.8 


789.0 


408.4 


1579 


789.5 


1525.2 


1367.5 


116.5 


789-5 


408.7 


1580 


790.0 


1526.2 


1368.3 


117.2 


790.0 


408.9 


1 581 


790.5 


1527.1 


1369.2 


117.9 


790-5 


409.2 


1582 


791.0 


1528.1 


1 370. 1 


118.6 


791.0 


409,4 


1583 


791.5 


1 529. 1 


1370,9 I 


119.4 


791.5 


409-7 


1584 


792.0 


1530.0 


1371.8 


120.1 


792.0 


410.0 


1585 


792-5 


1531.0 


1372.7 


120.8 


792.5 


410,2 


1586 


793.0 


1532.0 


1373-5 


121. 5 


793.0 


410,5 


1587 


793.5 


1532-9 


1374.4 


[122.2 


793.5 


410.7 


1588 


794-0 


1533-9 


1375-2 


122.9 


794.0 


411.0 


1589 


794-5 


1534-9 


1376. 1 


[I23.6 


794.5 


411-3 


1590 


795.0 


I53S-8 


1377-0 


[I24.3 


795-0 


411.5 


1591 


795-5 


1536-8 


1377-8 


1125.0 


795-5 


411.8 


1592 


796.0 


1537.8 


1378.7 


[125.7 


796.0 


412.0 


1593 


796.5 


1538-7 


1379-6 


126,4 


796.5 


412.3 


1594 


797.0 


1539-7 


1380.4 


[I27.I 


797-0 


412.6 


1595 


797.5 


1540.6 


1381-3 


II27.8 


797-5 


412.8 


1596 


798.0 


IS4I.6 


1382.2 


II28.S 


798.0 


413.1 


1597 


798.5 


1542.6 


1383-0 


[I29.2 


798-5 


413-3 



204 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



^lumber. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


1598 


799.0 


1543-5 


1383-9 


130.0 


799.0 


413-6 


1599 


799-5 


1 544. 5 


1384-8 


130.7 


799-5 


4139 


1600 


800.0 


1545-5 


1385.6 


131-4 


800.0 


414.1 


1601 


800.5 


1546.4 


1386.5 


[132.I 


800.5 


414-4 


1602 


801.0 


1547-4 


1387-4 


II32.8 


801.0 


414.6 


1603 


801.5 


1548.4 


1388.2 


1 1.33-5 


801.5 


414-9 


1604 


802.0 


1549-3 


1 389. 1 


1134.2 


802.0 


415-1 


1605 


802.5 


1550-3 


1390.0 


134-9 


802.5 


415-4 


1606 


803.0 


1551-3 


1390.8 


[ 135-6 


803.0 


415-7 


1607 


803.5 


1552.2 


I39I-7 


1 136.3 


803.5 


415.9 


1 608 


804.0 


1553-2 


1392.6 


[ 137.0 


804.0 


416.2 


1609 


804.5 


1554.2 


1393-4 


"37-7 


804.5 


416.4 


1610 


805.0 


1555-1 


1394-3 


1138.4 


805.0 


416.7 


1611 


805.5 


1 556. 1 


1395-2 


1 39- 1 


805.5 


417.0 


1612 


806.0 


1557-1 


1396.0 


1 139.8 


806.0 


417.2 


1613 


806.5 


1558.0 


1396.9 


140.6 


806.5 


417-5 


1614 


807.0 


1559-0 


1397-8 


141-3 


807.0 


417-7 


161S 


807.5 


1560.0 


1398.6 


142.0 


807.5 


418.0 


1616 


808.0 


1560.9 


1399-5 


[142.7 


808.0 


418.3 


1617 


808.5 


1561.9 


1400.4 


H43-4 


808.5 


418.5 


1618 


809.0 


1562.9 


I4OI.2 


1 44. 1 


809.0 


418.8 


1619 


809.5 


1563.8 


1402. 1 


144.8 


809.5 


419.0 


1620 


810.0 


1564.8 


1403.0 


145-5 


810.0 


419.3 


1621 


810.5 


1565.8 


1403.8 


1146.2 


810.5 


419.5 


1622 


811. 


1566.7 


1404.7 ] 


146.9 


811.0 


419.8 


1623 


811.S 


1567.7 


1405.6 I 


147.6 


811.5 


420.1 


1624 


812.0 


1568.7 


1406.4 


[ 148.3 


812.0 


420.3 


1625 


812.5 


1569.6 


1407.3 1 


149.0 


812.5 


420.6 


1626 


813.0 


1570.6 


1408.2 ] 


149-8 


813.0 


420.8 


1627 


813-5 


1571.6 


1409.0 1 


150.5 


813-5 


421. 1 


1628 


814.0 


1572.5 


1409.9 


151. 2 


814.0 


421.4 


1629 


814.5 


1573-5 


I4IO.8 


151-9 


814-5 


421.6 


1630 


815.0 


1574.5 


1411.6 1 


152-6 


815.0 


421.9 


1631 


815.5 


1575.4 


1412.5 ] 


153-3 


815.5 


422.1 


1632 


816.0 


1576.4 


1413.4 I 


154.0 


816.0 


422.4 


1633 


816.5 


1577.4 


1414.2 


1 154-7 


816.5 


422.6 


1634 


817.0 


1578.3 


1415.1 


155-4 


817.0 


422.9 


1635 


817.5 


1579-3 


I416.O 1 


156.1 


817.5 


423.2 


T636 


818.0 


1580.3 


14 1 6.8 ] 


156.8 


818.0 


423-4 


1637 


818.5 


1581.2 


1417.7 


157-5 


818.5 


423-7 


1638 


819.0 


1582.2 


1418.5 1 


158.2 


819.0 


423-9 


1639 


819.5 


1583-2 


1419.4 1 


158-9 


819-5 


424.2 


1640 


820.0 


1 584. 1 


1420.3 1 


159-7 


820.0 


424-5 


1641 


820.5 


1 585. 1 


1421.1 I 


160.4 


820.5 


424.7 


1642 


821.0 


1 586. 1 


1422.0 


161. 1 


821.0 


425.0 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



205 



lumber. 


H Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15O 


1643 


821.5 


1587.0 


1422.9 


161.8 


821.5 


425.2 


1644 


822.0 


1588.0 


1423.7 1 


162.5 


822.0 


425-5 


1645 


822.5 


1588.9 


1424.6 


163.2 


822.5 


425.8 


1646 


823.0 


I5S9.9 


1425.5 1 


163.9 


823.0 


426.0 


1647 


823-5 


1590.9 


1426.3 ] 


164.6 


823.5 


426.3 


1648 


824.0 


159I.8 


1427.2 1 


165.3 


824.0 


426.5 


1649 


824.5 


1592.8 


1428.1 


166.0 


824.5 


426.8 


1650 


825.0 


1593-8 


1428.9 


166.7 


825.0 


427.1 


1651 


825.5 


1594-7 


1429.8 ] 


167.4 


825.5 


427-3 


1652 


826.0 


1595-7 


1430-7 


[ 168.1 


826.0 


427.6 


1653 


826.5 


1596.7 


M3I-5 


168.9 


826.5 


427.8 


1654 


827.0 


1597.6 


1432.4 


169.6 


827.0 


428.1 


1655 


827.5 


1598.6 


1433-3 


1 170.3 


827.5 


428.3 


1656 


828.0 


1599.6 


I434-I 


171. 


828.0 


428.6 


1657 


828.5 


1600.5 


1435.0 


171.7 


828.5 


428.9 


1658 


829.0 


1601.5 


1435-9 


[172.4 


829.0 


429.1 


1659 


829.5 


1602.5 


1436.7 


173-1 


829.S 


429.4 


1660 


830.0 


1603.4 


1437.6 1 


173-8 


830.0 


429.6 


1661 


830.5 


1604.4 


1438-5 


174.5 


830.5 


429.9 


1662 


831.0 


1605.4 


M39-3 


175-2 


831.0 


430.2 


1663 


831.5 


1606.3 


1440.2 


175.9 


831.5 


430-4 


1664 


832.0 


1607.3 


1441. 1 


176.6 


832.0 


430.7 


1665 


832.5 


1608.3 


1441.9 


177-3 


832.5 


430.9 


1666 


833-0 


1609.2 


1442.8 


178.0 


833-0 


431.2 


1667 


833-5 


1610.2 


1443-7 1 


178.7 


833-5 


431.5 


1668 


834.0 


i6ir.2 


1444.6 1 


179-5 


834.0 


431.7 


1669 


834.5 


1612.1 


1445.4 ] 


180.2 


834-5 


432.0 


1670 


835.0 


1613.1 


1446.3 1 


180.9 


835.0 


432.2 


1671 


835-5 


1614.1 


1447.1 


1181.6 


835-5 


432.5 


1672 


836.0 


1615.0 


1448.0 


182.3 


836.0 


432.7 


1673 


836.5 


1616.0 


1448.9 


[183.0 


836.5 


433.0 


1674 


837.0 


1617.0 


1449.7 


183.7 


837.0 


433.3 


1675 


837-5 


1617.9 


1450.6 


184.4 


837.5 


433-5 


1676 


838.0 


1618.9 


1451.5 


185.1 


838.0 


433-8 


1677 


838.5 


1619.9 


1452.3 


185.8 


838.5 


434.0 


1678 


839.0 


1620.8 


1453-2 


1186.5 


839.0 


434-3 


1679 


839.5 


1621.8 


1454.1 


187.2 


839.5 


434-6 


1680 


840.0 


1622.8 


1454.9 


[187.9 


840.0 


434.8 


168 1 


840.5 


1623.7 


1455-8 


1 188.6 


840.5 


435-1 


1682 


841.0 


1624.7 


1456.7 


1189.4 


841.0 


435-3 


1683 


841.5 


1625.7 


1457.5 1 


190.1 


841.5 


435-6 


1684 


842.0 


1626.6 


1458.4 ] 


190.8 


842.0 


435-9 


1685 


842.5 


1627.6 


1459-3 


191. 5 


842.5 


436.1 


1686 


843.0 


1628.6 


1460.1 


1192.2 


843.0 


436.4 


1687 


843-5 


1629.5 


1461.0 


1192.9 


843.5 


436-7 



206 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


)6 Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15O. 


1688 


844.0 


163O.S 


1461.8 


1193.6 


844.0 


436.9 


1689 


844.5 


1631.4 


1462.7 


1194.3 


844.5 


437.2 


1690 


845.0 


1632.4 


1463-6 


1195.0 


845.0 


437-4 


1691 


845.5 


1633-4 


1464.4 


1195.7 


845-5 


437.7 


1692 


846.0 


1634-3 


1465-3 


1196.4 


846.0 


437-9 


1693 


846.5 


1635-3 


1466.2 


II97.I 


846.5 


438.2 


1694 


847.0 


1636.3 


1467.0 


II97.8 


847.0 


438.4 


1695 


847.5 


1637.2 


1467.9 


I198.5 


847.5 


438.7 


1696 


848.0 


1638.2 


1468.8 


1199.3 


848.0 


439.0 


1697 


848.5 


1639.2 


1469.6 


1200.0 


848.5 


439-2 


1698 


849.0 


1 640. 1 


1470.5 


1200.7 


849.0 


439.5 


1699 


849-5 


164I.I 


1471-4 


1201.4 


849.5 


439.7 


1700 


850.0 


1642.I 


1472.2 


1202.1 


850.0 


440.0 


1701 


850.5 


1643.0 


1473-1 


1202.8 


850.5 


440.2 


1702 


851.0 


1644.0 


1474.0 


1203.5 


851.0 


440.5 


1703 


851-5 


1645.0 


1474-8 


1204.2 


851.5 


440.8 


1704 


852.0 


1645.9 


1475.7 


1204.9 


852.0 


441.0 


1705 


852-5 


1646.9 


1476.6 


1205.6 


852.5 


441.3 


1706 


853.0 


1647.9 


1477-4 


1206.3 


853-0 


44 1. 5 


1707 


853-5 


1648.8 


1478.3 


1207.0 


853.5 


441.8 


1708 


854.0 


1649.8 


1479.2 


1207.7 


854.0 


442.1 


1709 


854.5 


1650.8 


1480.0 


1208.4 


854-5 


442.3 


1710 


855.0 


1651.7 


1480.9 


1209.2 


855.0 


442.6 


1711 


855-5 


1652.7 


1481.8 


1209.9 


855-5 


442.8 


1712 


856.0 


1653.7 


1482.6 


1210.6 


856.0 


443-1 


1713 


856.5 


1654.6 


1483.5 


1211.3 


856.5 


443-4 


1714 


857.0 


1655.6 


1484.4 


1212.0 


857.0 


443-6 


1715 


857.5 


1656.6 


1485.2 


1212.7 


857.5 


443-9 


1716 


858.0 


1657.5 


1486.1 


1213.4 


858.0 


444.1 


1717 


858.5 


1658.5 


1487.0 


1214.1 


858.5 


444.4 


1718 


859.0 


1659-5 


1487.8 


I214.8 


859.0 


444-7 


1719 


859-5 


1660.4 


1488.7 


1215.5 


859.5 


444.9 


1720 


860.0 


1661.4 


1489.6 


1216.2 


860.0 


445.2 


1721 


860.5 


1662.4 


1490.4 


I216.9 


860.5 


445-4 


1722 


861.0 


1663.3 


1491.3 


1217.6 


861.0 


445.7 


1723 


861.5 


1664.3 


1492.2 


1218.3 


861.5 


445.9 


1724 


862.0 


1665.3 


1493.0 


1219.0 


862.0 


446.2 


1725 


862.5 


1666.2 


1493-9 


I219.8 


862.5 


446.5 


1726 


863.0 


1667.2 


1494.8 


1220.5 


863.0 


446.7 


1727 


863.5 


1668.2 


1495-6 


1221.2 


863.5 


447.0 


1728 


864.0 


1 669. 1 


1496.5 


1221.9 


864.0 


447.2 


1729 


864.5 


1670.I 


1497.4 


1222.6 


864.5 


447.5 


1730 


865.0 


1671.I 


1498.2 


1223.3 


865.0 


447.8 


1731 


865.5 


1672.0 


1499.1 


1224.0 


865.5 


448.0 


1732 


866.0 


1673.0 


1 500.0 


1224.7 


866.0 


448.3 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 207 



Number. 


H Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1733 


866.5 


1674.0 


1500.8 


1225.4 


866.5 


448.5 


1734 


867.0 


1674.9 


15OI.7 


1226. 1 


867.0 


448.8 


1735 


867.5 


1675.9 


1502.6 


1226.8 


867.5 


449.1 


1736 


868.0 


1676.8 


1503-4 


1227.5 


868.0 


449-3 


1737 


868.5 


1677.8 


1504.3 


1228.2 


868.5 


449.6 


1738 


869.0 


1678.8 


1505.1 


1229.0 


869.0 


449.8 


1739 


869.5 


1679.7 


1506.0 


1229.7 


869.5 


450.1 


1740 


870.0 


1680.7 


1506.9 


1230.4 


870.0 


450.3 


1741 


870.5 


1681.7 


1507.7 


1231.1 


870.5 


450.6 


1742 


871.0 


1682.6 


1508.6 


1231.8 


871.0 


450.9 


1743 


871.5 


1683.6 


1509-5 


1232.5 


871-5 


45I.I 


1744 


872.0 


1684.6 


151O.3 


1233.2 


872.0 


451.4 


1745 


872.5 


1685.5 


1511.2 


1233-9 


872.5 


451.6 


1746 


873.0 


1686.5 


1512.1 


1234.6 


873-0 


451-9 


1747 


873.5 


1687.5 


1512.9 


1235.3 


873.5 


452.2 


1748 


874-C 


1688.4 


1513.8 


1236.0 


874.0 


452.4 


1749 


874.5 


1689.4 


1514.7 


1236.7 


874.5 


452-7 


1750 


875.0 


1690.4 


1515-5 


1237.4 


875-0 


452.9 


1751 


875.5 


169I.3 


1516.4 


1238.1 


875-5 


453.2 


1752 


876.0 


1692.3 


I517.3 


1238.9 


876.0 


453-4 


1753 


876.5 


1693.3 


1518.1 


1239.6 


876.5 


453.7 


1754 


877.0 


1694.2 


1519.0 


1240.3 


877.0 


454.0 


1755 


877.5 


1695.2 


I519.9 


I241.O 


877-5 


454.2 


1756 


878.0 


1696.2 


1520.7 


1241.7 


878.0 


454.5 


1757 


878.5 


1697. 1 


1521.6 


1242.4 


878.5 


454-7 


1758 


879.0 


I 698. I 


1522.5 


1243.1 


879.0 


455-0 


1759 


879.5 


1699.1 


1523.3 


1243-8 


879.5 


455-3 


1760 


880.0 


1700.0 


1524.2 


1244.5 


880.0 


455-5 


1761 


880.5 


1701.0 


1525.1 


1245.2 


880.5 


455-8 


1762 


881.0 


1702.0 


1525.9 


1245.9 


881.0 


456.0 


1763 


881.5 


1702.9 


1526.8 


1246.6 


881.5 


456.3 


1764 


882.0 


1703.9 


1527.7 


1247-3 


882.0 


456.6 


1765 


882. 5 


1704.9 


1528.5 


1248.0 


882.5 


456.8 


1766 


883.0 


1705.8 


1529.4 


1248.8 


883.0 


457.1 


1767 


883.5 


1706.8 


1530.3 


1249.5 


883.5 


457-3 


1768 


884.0 


1707.8 


1531.1 


1250.2 


884.0 


457.6 


1769 


884.5 


1708.7 


1532.0 


1250.9 


884.5 


457-9 


1770 


885.0 


1709.7 


1532.9 


1251.6 


885.0 


458.1 


1771 


885.5 


1710.7 


1533.7 


1252.3 


885.5 


458.4 


1772 


886.0 


1711.6 


1534-6 


1253.0 


886.0 


458.6 


1773 


886.5 


1712.6 


1535.5 


1253.7 


886.5 


458.9 


1774 


887.0 


1713.6 


1536.3 


1254.4 


887.0 


459-1 


1775 


887.5 


1714.5 


1537.2 


1255.1 


887.5 


459-4 


1776 


888.0 


1715.5 


1538.1 


1255.8 


888.0 


459-7 


1777 


888.5 


1716.S 


1538-9 


1256.5 


888.5 


459-9 



208 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


M Sin 90°. 


Sin 7S°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15O 


1778 


889.0 


I717.4 


1539-8 


1257.2 


889.0 


460.2 


1779 


889.5 


1718.4 


1540.7 


1257.9 


889.5 


460.4 


1780 


890.0 


1719-3 


I54I-5 


1258.7 


890.0 


460.7 


1781 


890.5 


1720.3 


1542.4 


1259-4 


890.5 


461.0 


1782 


891.0 


1721.3 


1543-3 


1 260. 1 


891.0 


461.2 


1783 


891-5 


1722.2 


1544-1 


1260.8 


891-5 


461.5 


1784 


892.0 


1723.2 


1545.0 


I261.5 


892.0 


461.7 


1785 


892.5 


1724.2 


1545-9 


1262.2 


892.5 


462.0 


1786 


893.0 


1725.I 


1546.7 


1262.9 


893.0 


462.3 


1787 


893-5 


1726.I 


1547-6 


1263.6 


893-5 


462.5 


1788 


894.0 


1727. 1 


1548.5 


1264.3 


894.0 


462.8 


1789 


894.5 


1728.0 


1549-3 


1265.0 


894-5 


463.0 


1790 


895.0 


1729.0 


1550.2 


1265.7 


895-0 


463-3 


1791 


895-5 


1730.0 


1551-1 


1266.4 


895-5 


463-5 


1792 


896.0 


1730.9 


1551-9 


1267. 1 


896.0 


463-8 


1793. 


896.5 


1731-9 


1552.8 


1267.8 


896.5 


464.1 


1794 


897.0 


1732.9 


1553-7 


1268.5 


897.0 


464-3 


1795 


897.5 


1733-8 


15S4-S 


1269.3 


897.5 


464.6 


1796 


898.0 


1734-8 


1555-4 


1270.0 


898.0 


464.8 


1797 


898.5 


1735-8 


1556.3 


1270.7 


898. 5 


465.1 


1798 


899.0 


1736.7 


1557-1 


1271.3 


899.0 


465.4 


1799 


899.5 


1737-7 


1558.0 


1272.1 


899.5 


465.6 


1800 


900.0 


1738.7 


1558-9 


1272.8 


900.0 


4659 


1801 


900.5 


1739-6 


1559-7 


1273-5 


900.5 


466.1 


1802 


901.0 


1740.6 


1 560.6 


1274.2 


901.0 


466.4 


1803 


901.5 


1741.6 


1561.4 


1274.9 


901.5 


466.6 


1804 


902.0 


1742.5 


1562.3 


1275.6 


902.0 


466.9 


1805 


902.5 


1743-5 


1563-2 


1276.3 


902.5 


467.2 


1806 


903.0 


1744-5 


1564.0 


1277.0 


903.0 


467.4 


1807 


903-5 


1745-4 


1564.9 


1277.7 


903-5 


467.7 


1808 


904.0 


1746.4 


1565-8 


1278.4 


904.0 


467.9 


1809 


904.5 


1747-4 


1566.6 


1279.2 


904.5 


468.2 


1810 


905.0 


1748.3 


1567.5 


1279.9 


905.0 


468.5 


i8ii 


905.5 


1749-3 


1568.4 


1280.6 


905-5 


468.7 


1812 


906.0 


1750.3 


1569.2 


1281.3 


906.0 


469.0 


1813 


906.5 


1751.2 


1570.1 


1282.0 


906. 5 


469.2 


1814 


907.0 


1752.2 


1571.0 


1282.7 


907.0 


469-5 


1815 


907.5 


1753-2 


1571.8 


1283.4 


907.5 


469.8 


1816 


908.0 


1754-1 


1572.7 


1284.1 


908.0 


470.0 


1817 


908.5 


1755-1 


15736 


1284.8 


908.5 


470.3 


1818 


909.0 


1756.1 


1574-4 


1285.5 


909.0 


470.5 


1819 


909.5 


1757.0 


1575-3 


1286.2 


909-5 


470.8 


1820 


910.0 


1758.0 


1576.2 


1286.9 


910.0 


471-1 


1821 


910.5 


1759.0 


1577.0 


1287.6 


910.5 


471-3 


1822 


91 1. 


1759-9 


1577.9 


1288.3 


911. 


471.6 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 209 



Number. 


}i Sin 90O. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°, 


Sin 30°. 


Sin is° 


1823 


911.S 


1760.9 


1578.8 


1 289. 1 


911,5 


471.8 


1824 


912.0 


1761.8 


1579.6 


1289,8 


912,0 


472.1 


1825 


912.S 


1762.8 


1580.5 


1290,5 


912.5 


472.3 


1826 


913.0 


1763.8 


1581,4 


I29I.2 


913.0 


472,6 


1827 


913-5 


1764.7 


1582,2 


I29I.9 


913-5 


472.9 


1828 


914.0 


1765-7 


1583-1 


1292,6 


914.0 


473-1 


1829 


914.5 


1766.7 


1584,0 


1293-3 


914.5 


4734 


1830 


915.0 


1767.6 


1584.8 


1294.0 


915.0 


473-6 


1831 


9155 


1768.6 


1585-7 


1294,7 


915-5 


473-9 


1832 


916.0 


1769.6 


1586.6 


1295,4 


916.0 


474.2 


1833 


916.5 


1770.5 


1587.4 


1 296, 1 


916.5 


474-4 


1834 


917.0 


1771.5 


1588.3 


1296,8 


917,0 


474-7 


1835 


917-5 


1772.5 


1589.2 


1297.5 


917.5 


474-9 


1836 


918.0 


1773-4 


1590,0 


1298,3 


918.0 


475.2 


1837 


918.5 


1774.4 


1590.9 


1299,0 


918,5 


475-5 


1838 


919.0 


1775-4 


1591-8 


1299.7 


919,0 


475-7 


1839 


919.5 


1776.3 


1592.6 


1300,4 


919.5 


476.0 


1840 


920.0 


1777.3 


1593-5 


I30I.I 


920,0 


476.2 


1841 


920.5 


1778.3 


1594.4 


I3OI.8 


920.5 


476.5 


1842 


921.0 


1779.2 


1595.2 


1302.5 


921.0 


476,7 


1843 


921.5 


1780.2 


1 596. 1 


1303,2 


921,5 


477,0 


1844 


922.0 


1781.2 


1597.0 


1303-9 


922,0 


477-3 


1845 


922,5 


1782,1 


1597.8 


1304.6 


922,5 


477-5 


1846 


923.0 


1783.1 


1598-7 


1305-3 


923.0 


477-8 


1S47 


923-5 


1 784. 1 


1599.6 


1306.0 


923.5 


478.0 


1848 


924.0 


1785.0 


1600.4 


1306.7 


924.0 


478.3 


1849 


924.5 


1786,0 


1601.3 


1307-5 


924.5 


478.6 


1850 


925.0 


1787,0 


1602.2 


1308,1 


925.0 


478.8 


1851 


925-5 


1787.9 


1603.0 


1308,8 


925-5 


479.1 


1852 


926.0 


1788.9 


1603.9 


1309,6 


926.0 


479-3 


1853 


926.5 


1789,9 


1604.7 


I3IO.3 


926,5 


479.6 


1854 


927.0 


1790.8 


1605,6 


I3II.0 


927,0 


479.9 


185s 


927.5 


1791,8 


1606.5 


1311,7 


927.5 


480.1 


1856 


928.0 


1792,8 


1607,3 


1312,4 


928.0 


480,4 


1857 


928.5 


1793-7 


1608.2 


1313-I 


928.5 


480,6 


1858 


929.0 


1794-7 


1 609. 1 


I313-8 


929.0 


480,9 


1859 


929-5 


1795-7 


1609.9 


1314-5 


929-5 


481.2 


i860 


930.0 


1796,6 


1610.8 


1315,2 


930,0 


481.4 


1861 


930.5 


1797,6 


1611.7 


1315-9 


930-5 


481.7 


1862 


931.0 


1798.6 


1612.5 


I316.6 


931.0 


481,9 


1863 


931-5 


1799-5 


1613.4 


I317-3 


931-5 


482.2 


1864 


932.0 


1800,5 


1614.3 


1318.0 


932,0 


482,4 


1865 


932.5 


1801,5 


1615.I 


1318,8 


932.5 


482.7 


1866 


933.0 


1802,4 


1616,0 


1319-5 


933-0 


483-0 


1867 


933-5 


1803.4 


1616,9 


1320,2 


933-5 


483,2 



2IO A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



STumber. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°- 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1868 


934.0 


1804.3 


1617.7 


1320.9 


934-0 


483.5 


1869 


934-5 


1805.3 


1618.6 


1321.6 


934-5 


483.7 


1870 


935-0 


1806.3 


1619.5 


1322.3 


' 935-0 


484.0 


1871 


935-5 


1807.2 


1620.3 


1323.0 


935-5 


484.2 


1872 


936.0 


1808.2 


1621.2 


1323-7 


936.0 


484-5 


1873 


936. 5 


1809.2 


1622,1 


1324-4 


936.5 


484-8 


1874 


937-0 


1810.I 


1622.9 


1325.1 


937.0 


485-0 


1875 


937-5 


1811.I 


1623.8 


1325.8 


937.5 


485-3 


1876 


938.0 


1812.I 


1624.7 


1326.5 


938.0 


485.5 


1877 


938.5 


1813.0 


1625.5 


1327.2 


938.5 


485.8 


1878 


939-0 


1814.O 


1626.4 


1327.9 


939.0 


486.1 


1879 


939-5 


1815.0 


1627.3 


1328.7 


939. 5 


486.3 


1880 


940.0 


1815.9 


1628. I 


1329-4 


940.0 


486.6 


1881 


940.5 


1816.9 


1629.0 


1330.1 


940.5 


486,8 


1882 


941.0 


1817.9 


1629.9 


1330-8 


941.0 


487.1 


1883 


941. 5 


1818.8 


1630,7 


133I-5 


941.5 


487.4 


1884 


942.0 


1819.8 


1631.6 


1332.2 


942.0 


487.6 


1885 


942.5 


1820.8 


1632.5 


1332-9 


942.5 


487.9 


1886 


943.0 


182I.7 


1633.3 


1333.6 


943.0 


488.1 


1887 


943-5 


1822.7 


1634.2 


1334.3 


943-5 


488.4 


1888 


944.0 


1823.7 


1635.1 


1335.0 


944.0 


488.7 


1889 


944-5 


1824.6 


1635.9 


1335-7 


944.5 


488.9 


1890 


94S-0 


1825.6 


1636.8 


1336-4 


945-0 


489.2 


1891 


945-5 


1826.6 


1637.7 


1337-1 


945-5 


489.4 


1892 


946.0 


1827.5 


1638.5 


1337-8 


946.0 


489-7 


1893 


946.5 


1828.5 


1639.4 


1338.6 


946.5 


489.9 


1894 


947.0 


1829.5 


1640.3 


1339-3 


947.0 


490.2 


189s 


947-5 


1830.4 


1641.I 


1340.0 


947.5 


490.5 


1896 


948.0 


1831.4 


1642,0 


1340.7 


948.0 


490.7 


1897 


948.5 


1832.4 


1642.9 


1341.4 


948.5 


491.0 


1898 


949-0 


1833-3 


1643.7 


1342.1 


949.0 


491.2 


1899 


949-5 


1834.3 


1644-6 


1342.8 


949.5 


491.5 


1900 


950-0 


1835.3 


1645-4 


1343-5 


950.0 


491.8 


I901 


950.5 


1836.2 


1646.3 


1344-2 


950.S 


492.0 


1902 


9SI-0 


1837.2 


1647.2 


1344.9 


951.0 


492.3 


1903 


951-5 


1838.2 


1648.0 


1345.6 


951.5 


492.5 


1904 


952.0 


1839. I 


1648.9 


1346.3 


952.0 


492.8 


1905 


952.5 


1840.1 


1649.8 


1347.0 


952.5 


493.1 


1906 


953-0 


1841.1 


1650.6 


1347.7 


953.0 


493-3 


1907 


953-5 


1842.0 


165I.5 


1348.4 


953.5 


493-6 


1908 


9S4-0 


1843.0 


1652.4 


1349.2 


954.0 


493-8 


1909 


954.5 


1844.0 


1653-2 


1349-9 


954.5 


494.1 


1910 


955-0 


1844.9 


1654.1 


1350.6 


955.0 


494-3 


1911 


955-5 


1845.9 


1655.0 


I35I-3 


955.5 


494.6 


1912 


956.0 


1846.8 


1655-9 


1352-0 


956-0 


494-9 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 211 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sm 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


I913 


956.5 


1847.8 


1656.7 


1352.7 


956.5 


495.1 


I914 


957.0 


1848.8 


1657.6 


1353-4 


957.0 


4^5.4 


1915 


957.5 


1849.7 


1658.5 


I3S4.I 


957.5 


495.6 


I916 


958.0 


1850.7 


1659.3 


1354.8 


958.0 


495.9 


1917 


958-5 


1851-7 


1660.2 


1355.5 


958-5 


496.2 


1918 


959.0 


1852.6 


1661.I 


1356.2 


959-0 


496.4 


1919 


959-5 


1853.6 


1661.9 


1356.9 


959-5 


496.7 


1920 


960.0 


1854.6 


1662.8 


1357-6 


960.0 


496-9 


1921 


960.5 


1855-5 


1663.6 


1358.3 


960.5 


497.2 


1922 


961.0 


1856.5 


1664.5 


1359.1 


961.0 


497.4 


1923 


961.5 


1857-5 


1665.4 


1359.8 


961.5 


497.7 


1924 


962.0 


1858.4 


1666.2 


1360.5 


962.0 


498.0 


1925 


962.5 


1859-4 


1667.1 


1361.2 


962.5 


498,2 


1926 


963.0 


1860,4 


1668.0 


1361.9 


963.0 


498.5 


1927 


963-5 


1861.3 


1668.8 


1362.6 


963.5 


498.7 


1928 


964.0 


1862.3 


1669.7 


1363-3 


964.0 


499-0 


1929 


964. S 


1863.3 


1670.6 


1364.0 


964.5 


499-3 


1930 


965.0 


1864.2 


1671.4 


1364.7 


965.0 


499-5 


I931 


965.5 


1865.2 


1672,3 


1365.4 


965.5 


499.8 


1932 


966.0 


1866.2 


1673.2 


1366.1 


966.0 


500,0 


1933 


966.5 


1867.1 


1674.0 


1366.8 


966.5 


500.3 


1934 


967.0 


1868.1 


1674.9 


1367.5 


967.0 


500.6 


1935 


967.5 


1869.1 


1675.8 


1368.3 


967-5 


500.8 


1936 


968.0 


1870.0 


1676.6 


1369.0 


968.0 


501.1 


1937 


968.5 


1871.0 


1677.5 


1369.7 


968.5 


501.3 


1938 


969.0 


1872.0 


1678.4 


1370.4 


969.0 


501.6 


1939 


969.5 


1872.9 


1679.2 


1371.1 


969.5 


501.9 


1940 


970.0 


18739 


1680.1 


1371.8 


970.0 


502,1 


I941 


970.5 


1874.9 


1680,9 


1372.5 


970.5 


502,4 


1942 


971.0 


1875.8 


1681.8 


1373.2 


971.0 


502.6 


1943 


971.5 


1876.8 


1682.7 


1373.9 


971.5 


502.9 


1944 


972.0 


1877.8 


1683,6 


1374-6 


972.0 


503. 1 


1945 


972.5 


1878.7 


1684.4 


1375-3 


972-5 


503-4 


1946 


973.0 


1879.7 


1685.3 


1376.0 


973-0 


503-7 


1947 


973.5 


1880.7 


1686.2 


1376.7 


973-5 


503.9 


1948 


974.0 


1881.6 


1687,0 


1377.4 


974.0 


504.2 


1949 


974-5 


1882.6 


1687.9 


1378.2 


974.5 


504,4 


1950 


975.0 


1883.6 


1688.8 


1378.9 


975.0 


504.7 


1951 


975.5 


1884.5 


1689.6 


1379.6 


975-5 


505.0 


1952 


976.0 


1885.S 


1690,5 


1380.3 


976.0 


505.2 


1953 


976.5 


1886.5 


169I.3 


1381.0 


976,5 


505-5 


1954 


977.0 


1887.4 


1692,2 


1381.7 


977.0 


505.7 


1955 


977.5 


1888.4 


1693.1 


1382.4 


977-5 


506.0 


1956 


978.0 


1889.4 


1693.9 


1383-1 


978,0 


506.3 


1957 


978.5 


1890.3 


1694.8 


1383.8 


978.5 


506.5 



212 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


;^ Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


1958 


979.0 


189I.3 


1695.7 


1384-5 


979.0 


506.8 


1959 


979-5 


1892.2 


1696.5 


1385.2 


979-5 


507.0 


i960 


980.0 


1893.2 


1697.4 


1385-9 


980.0 


507-3 


1961 


980.5 


1894.2 


1698.3 


1386.6 


980.5 


507.5 


1962 


981.0 


1895. 1 


1699. 1 


1387-3 


981.0 


507.8 


1963 


981.5 


1896. I 


1700.0 


I388.I 


981.5 


508.1 


1964 


982.0 


1897-I 


1700.9 


1388.8 


982.0 


508.3 


1965 


982.5 


1898.0 


170I.7 


1389-5 


982.5 


508.6 


1966 


9S3.0 


1899.0 


1702.6 


1390.2 


983.0 


508.8 


1967 


983-5 


1900.0 


1703.5 


1390.9 


983-5 


509.1 


1968 


984.0 


1900.9 


1704-3 


1391.6 


984.0 


509.4 


1969 


984-5 


I9OI.9 


1705.2 


1392.3 


984-5 


509.6 


1970 


985-0 


1902.9 


1 706. 1 


1393-0 


985.0 


509.9 


1971 


985-5 


1903.8 


1707.0 


1393-7 


985-S 


510. 1 


1972 


986.0 


1904.8 


1707.8 


1394-4 


986.0 


510.4 


1973 


986.5 


1905.8 


1708.7 


1395-I 


986.5 


510.6 


1974 


987.0 


1906.7 


1709.6 


1395-8 


987.0 


510.9 


1975 


987-5 


1907.7 


1710.4 


1 396. 5 


987.5 


511.2 


1976 


988.0 


1908.7 


171I-3 


1397.2 


988.0 


5II.4 


1977 


988.S 


1909.6 


1712.I 


1397-9 


988.5 


51I.7 


1978 


989.0 


I9IO.6 


1713.O 


1398.7 


989.0 


511.9 


1979 


989. 5 


I9II.6 


I713-9 


1399-4 


989-5 


512.2 


1980 


990.0 


I912.5 


1714.7 


1400.1 


990.0 


512.5 


1981 


990.5 


1913-5 


1715.6 


1400.8 


990.5 


512.7 


1982 


991.0 


1914-5 


1716.5 


1401.5 


991.0 


513.0 


1983 


991-5 


I915.4 


1717-3 


1402.2 


991-5 


513.2 


1984 


992.0 


I916.4 


1718.2 


1402.9 


992.0 


513-5 


1985 


992.5 


I917.4 


1719.I 


1403.6 


992-5 


513-8 


1986 


993-0 


I918.3 


1719.9 


1404.3 


993-0 


514.0 


1987 


993.5 


I919-3 


1720.8 


1405.0 


993-5 


514-3 


1988 


994.0 


1920.3 


1721.7 


1405.7 


994-0 


514-5 


1989 


994-5 


I92I.2 


1722.5 


1406.4 


994-5 


514.8 


1990 


995.0 


1922.2 


1723-4 


1407.1 


995.0 


515-I 


1991 


995-5 


1923.2 


1724-3 


1407.8 


995-5 


515-3 


1992 


996.0 


1924. 1 


1725.1 


1408.6 


996.0 


515.6 


1993 


996.5 


I925.I 


1726.0 


1409.3 


996.5 


515.8 


1994 


997-0 


1926. 1 


1726.9 


1410.0 


997.0 


516.1 


1995 


997-5 


1927.0 


1727.7 


1410.7 


997-5 


516.3 


1996 


998.0 


1928.0 


1728.6 


1411.4 


998.0 


516.6 


1997 


998-5 


1929.0 


1729.5 


1412.1 


998.5 


516.9 


1998 


999.0 


1929.9 


1730.3 


1412.8 


999-0 


517.1 


1999 


999-5 


1930.9 


1731.2 


1413-5 


999-5 


517.4 


2000 


1000. 


193I-9 


1732.1 


1414.2 


I 000.0 


517.6 


2001 


1000.5 


1932.9 


1732-9 


1414.9 


1000.5 


518.0 


2002 


1001. 


1933-8 


17.33-8 


1415.6 


lOOI.O 


5,8.2 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 21 3 



Number. 
2003 
2004 
2005 
2006 
2007 
2008 
2009 
2010 
201 1 
2012 
2013 
2014 
2015 
2016 
2017 
2018 
2019 
2020 
2021 
2022 
2C23 
2024 
2025 
2026 
2027 
2028 
2029 
2030 
2031 
2032 
2033 
. 2034 
2035 
2036 
2037 
2038 
2039 
2040 
2041 
2042 
2043 
2044 
204 s 
2046 
2047 



}i Sin 90°. 
IOOI.5 
1002.0 
1002.5 
1003.0 
1003.5 
1004.0 
1004.5 
1005.0 
1005.5 
1006.0 
1006.5 
1007.0 
1007.5 
1008.0 
1008.5 
1009.0 
1009.5 
lOIO.O 

1010.5 
1011. o 

IOII.5 

1012.0 
1012,5 
1013.0 

IOI3-5 
1014.0 
1014.5 
1015.0 
1015.5 
1016,0 
1016.5 
1017.0 
1017.5 
1018.0 
1018.5 
1019.0 
1019.5 
1020.0 
1020.5 
1021.0 
1021.5 
1022.0 
1022.5 
1023.0 
1023.5 



Sin 75°- 
1934.8 

1935-8 
1936.7 
1937.7 
1938-7 
1939.6 
1940,6 

1941-5 
1942.5 
1943-4 
1944,4 
1945.4 
1946.3 

1947.3 
1948.3 
1949.2 
1950.2 
1951-2 
1952-1 
1953-1 
1954. 1 
I9S5-0 
1956.0 
1957,0 

1957.9 
1958,9 
1959.9 
1960,8 
1961,8 
1962,8 
1963.7 
1964,7 
1965.7 
1966.6 
1967.6 
1968,5 
1969.5 
1970.5 
1971-4 
1972.4 

1973.4 
1974.3 
1975-3 
1976.3 
1977.2 



Sin 60°. 

1734-6 
1735-5 
1736-4 
1737.2 
1738.1 
1739-0 
1739-8 
1740.7 
1741.6 
1742.4 

1743-3 
1744.2 

1745-0 
1745.9 
1746.8 
1747.6 
1748.5 
1749.4 
1750.2 
1751.1 
1752.0 
1752.8 
1753-7 
1754.6 
1755-4 
1756.3 
1757.2 
1758.0 
1758.9 
1759-8 
1760.6 
1761.5 
1762.4 
1763.2 
1764.1 
1765.0 
1765,8 
1766.7 
1767.6 
1768.4 
1769.3 
1770,2 
1771,0 
1771.9 
1772.8 



Sin 45°. 
1416.3 
1417.0 
1417.7 
1418.5 
1419.2 
1419.9 
1420.6 
1421,3 
1422.0 
1422.7 
1423.4 
I424.I 
1424.8 
1425.5 
1426.2 
1426.9 
1427.7 
1428.4 
1429. I 
1429.8 

1430.5 
1431.2 

1431-9 
1432.6 

1433-3 
1434.0 

1434-7 

1435-4 
1436.1 
1436.8 
1437.6 
1438.3 
1439.0 
1439-7 
1440.4 
1441.1 
1441.8 
1442.5 
1443.2 

1443.9 
1444.6 

1445-3 
1446.0 
1446,7 
1447.4 



Sin 30°. 
1001.5 
1002.0 
1002.5 
1003.0 
1003.5 
1004.0 
1004.5 
1005.0 
1005.5 
1006.0 
1006.5 
1007.0 
1007,5 
1008,0 
1008.5 
1009,0 
1009.5 
lOIO.O 

1010.5 
1011. o 

1011.5 

1012.0 
1012.5 

1013.0 
1013-5 

1014.0 

1014-5 
1015.0 

1015-5 

1016.0 
1016.5 
1017.0 

1017.5 
1018.0 
1018,5 

1019,0 

1019.5 

1020,0 
1020.5 
1021.0 

1021.5 

1022.0 
1022.5 
1023.0 

1023.5 



Sin 15O. 
518.4 

518.7 
518.9 
519,2 
519-S 
519-7 
520,0 
520,2 
520.5 
520.7 
521.0 
521-3 

521. 5 
521.8 
522.0 
522.3 
522.6 
522.8 
523-1 
523-3 
523-6 
523-8 
524.1 
524.4 
524.6 
524.9 
525-1 
525-4 
525.7 
525.9 
526.2 
526.4 
526.7 
527.0 
527.2 
527-5 
527-7 
528.0 
528.2 
528.5 
528.8 
529.0 
529-3 
529-5 
529.8 



214 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


>i Sin 90". 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin is°. 


2048 


1024.0 


1978.2 


1773-6 


1448.2 


1024.0 


530.1 


2049 ' 


1024.5 


1979.2 


1774.5 


1448.9 


1024.5 


530.3 


2050 


1025.0 


1980. 1 


1775-4 


1449.6 


1025.0 


530.6 


2051 


1025.5 


1981.1 


1776.2 


1450.3 


1025.5 


530.8 


2052 


1026.0 


1982.1 


1777.1 


1451.0 


1026.0 


531.1 


2053 


1026.5 


1983.0 


1777.9 


1451.7 


1026.5 


531.4 


2054 


1027.0 


1984.0 


1778.8 


1452.4 


1027 


531.6 


2055 


1027.5 


1985.0 


1779.7 


1453.1 


1027.5 


531-9 


2056 


1028.0 


1985.9 


1780.5 


1453-8 


1028.0 


532.1 


2057 


1028.5 


1986.9 


1781.4 


1454.5 


1028.5 


532.4 


2058 


1029.0 


1987.9 


1782.3 


1455.2 


1029.0 


532.7 


2059 


1029.5 


1988.8 


1783.1 


1455-9 


1029.5 


532.9 


2060 


1030.0 


1989.8 


1784.0 


1456.6 


1030.0 


533-2 


2061 


1030.5 


1990.8 


1784.9 


1457-3 


1030.5 


533-4 


2062 


IO31.O 


1991.7 


1785.7 


1458.1 


1031.0 


533-7 


2063 


IO31.5 


1992.7 


1786.6 


1458.8 


1031.5 


533.9 


2064 


1032.0 


1993.7 


1787.5 


1459.5 


1032.0 


534-2 


2065 


1032.5 


1994.6 


1788.3 


1460.2 


1032.5 


534.5 


2066 


1033.0 


1995.6 


1789.2 


1460.9 


1033.0 


534.7 


2067 


1033-5 


1996.6 


1790.1 


1461.6 


1033.5 


535-0 


2068 


1034.0 


1997.5 


1790.9 


1462.3 


1034.0 


535-2 


2069 


1034.5 


1998.5 


1791.8 


1463.0 


1034.5 


535-5 


2070 


1035.0 


1999-5 


1792.7 


1463.7 


1035.0 


535-8 


2071 


1035-5 


2000.4 


1793-5 


1464.4 


1035.5 


536.0 


2072 


1036.0 


2001.4 


1794.4 


1465.1 


1036.0 


536.3 


2073 


1036.5 


2002.4 


1795.3 


1465.8 


1036.5 


536.5 


2074 


1037.0 


2003.3 


1796.1 


1466.5 


1037.0 


536.8 


2075 


1037.5 


2004.3 


1797.0 


1467.2 


1037-5 


537-1 


2076 


1038.0 


2005.3 


1797.9 


1468.0 


1038.0 


537.3 


2077 


1038.5 


2006.2 


1798.7 


1468.7 


1038.5 


537.6 


2078 


1039.0 


2007.2 


1799.6 


1469.4 


1039.0 


537.8 


2079 


I 039- 5 


2008.2 


1800.5 


1470. I 


1039-5 


538.1 


2080 


1040.0 


2009.1 


1801.3 


1470.8 


1040.0 


538.3 


2081 


1040.5 


2010.1 


1802.2 


1471.5 


1040.5 


538.6 


2082 


1041.0 


2011. I 


1803.1 


1472.2 


1041.0 


538.9 


2083 


1041.5 


2012.0 


1803.9 


1472.9 


1041.5 


539-1 


2084 


1042.0 


2013.0 


1804.8 


1473.6 


1042.0 


539-4 


2085 


1042.5 


2013.9 


1805.7 


1474.3 


1042.5 


539-6 


2086 


1043.0 


2014.9 


1806.5 


1475.0 


1043.0 


539-9 


2087 


I043-S 


2015.9 


1807.4 


1475-7 


1043.5 


540.2 


2088 


1044.0 


2016.8 


1808.3 


1476.4 


1044-0 


540.4 


2089 


1044,5 


2017.8 


1809.1 


1477.1 


1044.5 


540.7 


2090 


1045.0 


2018.8 


1810.0 


1477.9 


1045.0 


540.9 


2091 


1045.5 


2019.7 


1810.9 


1478.6 


1045.5 


541.2 


2092 


1046.0 


2020.7 


1811.7 


1479-3 


1046.0 


541.4 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 215 



dumber. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2093 


1046.5 


2021.7 


1812.6 


1480.0 


1046.5 


541.7 


2094 


1047.0 


2022,6 


1813.S 


1480.7 


1047.0 


542.0 


2095 


IO47.S 


2023.6 


1814.3 


1481.4 


1047.5 


542.2 


2096 


1048.0 


2024.6 


1815.2 


1482.1 


1048.0 


542.5 


2097 


1048.5 


2025.5 


1816.I 


1482.8 


1048.5 


542.7 


2098 


1049.0 


2026.5 


1816.9 


1483.5 


1049.0 


S43-0 


2099 


1049.5 


2027.5 


1817.8 


1484.2 


1049.5 


543-3 


2100 


1050.0 


2028.4 


1818.7 


1484.9 


1050.0 


543-5 


2IOI 


1050.5 


2029.4 


1819.5 


1485.6 


1050.5 


543-8 


2102 


I051.O 


2030.4 


1820.4 


1486.3 


1051.0 


544.0 


2103 


1051.5 


2031.3 


1821.2 


1487.0 


1051.5 


544.3 


2104 


1052.0 


2032.3 


1822. I 


1487.7 


1052.0 


544.6 


2105 


1052.5 


2033.3 


1823.0 


1488.5 


1052.5 


544-8 


2106 


1053.0 


2034.2 


1823.8 


1489.2 


1053.0 


545-1 


2107 


1053-5 


2035.2 


1824.7 


1489.9 


1053.5 


545-3 


2108 


1054.0 


2036.2 


1825.6 


1490.6 


1054.0 


545-6 


2109 


1054.5 


2037.1 


1826.4 


1491.3 


1054.5 


545-8 


2IIO 


1055.0 


2038.1 


1827.3 


1492.0 


1055.0 


546.1 


2III 


1055.5 


2039.1 


1828.2 


1492.7 


1055-5 


546.4 


2II2 


1056.0 


2040.0 


1829.0 


1493-4 


1056.0 


546.6 


2II3 


1056.5 


2041.0 


1829.9 


1494. I 


1056.5 


546.9 


2114 


1057.0 


2042.0 


1830.8 


1494.8 


1057.0 


547.1 


2II5 


1057.5 


» 2042.9 


1831.6 


1495-5 


1057-5 


547.4 


2I16 


1058.0 


2043.9 


1832.5 


1496.2 


1058.0 


547.7 


2II7 


1058.5 


2044.9 


1833.4 


1497.0 


1058.5 


547.9 


2I18 


1059.0 


2045.8 


1834.2 


1497.7 


1059.0 


548.2 


2II9 


1059-5 


2046.8 


1835.1 


1498.4 


1059.5 


548.4 


2120 


1060.0 


2047.8 


1836.0 


1499.1 


1060.0 


548.7 


2I2I 


1060.5 


2048.7 


1836.8 


1499-8 


1060,5 


549.0 


2122 


1061.0 


2049.7 


1837.7 


1500.5 


1061.0 


549-2 


2123 


1061.5 


2050.7 


1838.6 


1501.2 


1061.5 


549-5 


2124 


1062.0 


2051.6 


1839.4 


1501.9 


1062.0 


549-7 


2125 


1062.5 


2052.6 


1840.3 


1502.6 


1062.5 


550.0 


2126 


1063.0 


2053.6 


1841.2 


1503-3 


1063.0 


550.3 


2127 


1063.5 


2054.5 


1842.0 


1504.0 


1063.5 


550.5 


2128 


1064.0 


2055-5 


1842.9 


1504.7 


1064.0 


550.8 


2129 


1064.5 


2056.5 


1843.8 


1505.4 


1064.5 


551.0 


2130 


1065.0 


2057.4 


1844.6 


1506.1 


1065.0 


551-3 


213I 


1065.5 


2058.4 


1845.5 


1506.8 


1065.5 


551-5 


2132 


1066.0 


2059.4 


1846.4 


1507.6 


1066.0 


551.8 


2133 


1066.5 


2060.3 


1847.2 


1508.3 


1066.5 


552.1 


2134 


1067.0 


2061.3 


1848.1 


1509.0 


1067,0 


552.3 


2135 


1067.5 


2062.3 


1849.0 


1509.7 


1067.5 


552.6 


2136 


1068.0 


2063.2 


1849.8 


1510.4 


1068.0 


552.8 


2137 


1068.5 


2064.2 


1850.7 


15". I 


1068,5 


553-1 



2l6 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


}i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2138 


1069.0 


2065. 1 


1851.6 


1511.8 


1069.0 


553.4 


2139 


1069.5 


2066.1 


1852.4 


1512.5 


1069.5 


553.6 


2140 


1070.0 


2067.1 


1853.3 


1513.2 


1070.0 


553-9 


2141 


1070.5 


2068.0 


1854.2 


1513-9 


1070.5 


554.1 


2142 


107 I. 


2069.0 


1855.0 


I5M.6 


IO71.O 


554.4 


2143 


IO71.5 


2070.0 


1855-9 


1515.3 


1071.5 


554.6 


2144 


1072.0 


2070.9 


1856.8 


1516.0 


1072.0 


554.9 


2145 


1072.5 


2071.9 


1857.6 


1516.7 


1072.5 


555-2 


2146 


1073.0 


2072.9 


1858.5 


1517.S 


1073.0 


555.4 


2147 


I073-S 


2073.8 


1859.4 


1518.2 


IO73.S 


555.7 


2148 


1074.0 


2074.8 


1860.2 


1518.9 • 


1074.0 


555-9 


2149 


1074.5 


2075.8 


1861.I 


1519.6 


1074.5 


556.2 


2150 


1075.0 


2076.7 


1862.0 


1520.3 


1075.0 


556.5 


2151 


1075.5 


2077.7 


1862.8 


1521.0 


1075.5 


556.7 


2152 


1076.0 


2078.7 


1863.7 


1521.7 


1076.0 


557.0 


2153 


1076.5 


2079.6 


1864. 5 


1522.4 


1076.5 


557.2 


2154 


1077.0 


2080.6 


1865.4 


1523.1 


1077.0 


557.5 


2IS5 


1077.5 


2081.6 


1866.3 


1523.8 


1077.5 


557.8 


2156 


1078.0 


2082.5 


1867.1 


1524.5 


1078.0 


558.0 


21 57 


1078.5 


2083.S 


1868.0 


1525.2 


1078.5 


558.3 


2158 


1079.0 


2084.5 


1868.9 


1525.9 


1079.0 


558.5 


2159 


1079.S 


2085.4 


1869.7 


1526.6 


1079.5 


558.8 


2160 


1080.0 


2086.4 


1870.6 


1527.4 ' 


1080.0 


559-1 


2161 


1080.5 


2087.4 


1871.5 


1528.1 


1080.5 


559.3 


2162 


1081.0 


2088.3 


1872.3 


1528.8 


1081.0 


559.6 


2163 


1081.5 


2089.3 


1873.2 


1529.5 


1081.5 


559.8 


2164 


1082.0 


2090.3 


1874.1 


1530.2 


1082.0 


560.1 


216s 


1082.5 


2091.2 


1874.9 


1530.9 


1082.5 


560.3 


2166 


1083.0 


2092.2 


1875.8 


1531.6 


1083.0 


560.6 


2167 


1083. 5 


2093.2 


1876.7 


1532.3 


1083.5 


560.9 


2168 


1084.0 


2094.1 


1877.5 


1533.0 


1084.0 


561. 1 


2169 


1084.S 


2095.1 


1878.4 


1533.7 


1084.5 


561.4 


2170 


1085.0 


2096. I 


1879.3 


1534.4 


1085.0 


561.6 


2171 


1085.S 


2097.0 


1880.1 


1535.1 


1085.5 


561.9 


2172 


1086.0 


2098.0 


1881.0 


1535.8 


1086.0 


562.2 


2173 


1086.5 


2099.0 


1881.9 


1536.5 


1086.5 


562.4 


2174 


1087.0 


2099.9 


1882.7 


1537.2 


1087.0 


562.7 


2I7S 


1087.5 


2100.9 


1883.6 


1538.0 


1087.S 


562.9 


2176 


1088.0 


2101.9 


1884.5 


1538-7 


1088.0 


563.2 


2177 


1088.5 


2102.8 


1885.3 


1539.4 


1088.5 


563.5 


2178 


1089.0 


2103.8 


1886.2 


1540.1 


1089.0 


563.7 


2179 


1089.5 


2104.8 


1887.1 


1540.8 


1089.5 


564.0 


2180 


1090.0 


2105.7 


1887.9 


1541.5 


1090.0 


564.2 


2181 


1090.5 


2106.7 


1888.8 


1542.2 


1090.5 


564.5 


2182 


1091.0 


2107.7 


1889.7 


1542.9 


1091.0 


564.7 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 217 



STiimber. 


}i Sin 90°. 


.Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2183 


IC91.5 


2108.6 


1890.5 


1543-6 


IO91.5 


565-0 


2184 


1092.0 


2109.6 


1891.4 


1544-3 


1092.0 


565-3 


2185 


1092. 5 


2IIO.5 


1892.3 


1545-0 


1092.5 


565-5 


2186 


1093.0 


2III.5 


1893. 1 


1545-7 


1093.0 


565-8 


2187 


1093- S 


2112.5 


1894.0 


1546.4 


1093-5 


566.0 


2188 


1094.0 


2II3.4 


1894.9 


1547.1 


1094.0 


566.3 


21S9 


1094.5 


2II4.4 


1895.7 


1547-9 


1094.5 


566.6 


2190 


1095.0 


2II5.4 


1896.6 


1548.6 


1095.0 


566.8 


2191 


1095-5 


2I16.3 


1897-5 


1549-3 


1095-5 


567.1 


2192 


1096,0 


.2117.3 


1898.3 


1550.0 


1096.0 


567-3 


2193 


1096.5 


2I18.3 


1899.2 


1550.7 


1096.5 


567.6 


2194 


1097.0 


2II9.2 


1900.1 


1551-4 


1097.0 


567.8 


-2195 


1097.5 


2120.2 


1900.9 


1552.1 


1097-5 


568.1 


2196 


1098.0 


2I2I.2 


1901.8 


1552-8 


1098.0 


568.4 


2197 


1098.5 


2122. 1 


1902.7 


1553-5 


1098.5 


568.6 


2198 


1099.0 


2I23.I 


1903-5 


1554-2 


1099.0 


568.9 


2199 


1099.5 


2124. I 


1904.4 


1554.9 


1099-5 


569.1 


2200 


IIOO.O 


2125.0 


1905-3 


1555-6 


IIOO.O 


569.4 


2201 


II00.5 


2126.0 


1906.1 


1556-3 


1100.5 


569.7 


2202 


IIOI.O 


2127.0 


1907.0 


1557-1 


IIOI.O 


570.0 


2203 


IIOI.5 


2127.9 


1907.9 


1557-8 


II01.5 


570.2 


2204 


II02.0 


2128.9 


I90S.7 


1558-5 


1102.0 


570.4 


2205 


IIO2.5 


2129.9 


1909.6 


1559.2 


1102.5 


570.7 


2206 


1103.0 


2130.8 


1910.5 


1559.9 


1103.0 


571.0 


2207 


"O3.5 


2I3I.8 


1911.3 


1560.6 


1103-5 


571.2 


2208 


1 104.0 


2132.8 


1912.2 


1561.3 


1104.0 


571.5 


2209 


II04.5 


2133-7 


1913.1 


1562.0 


1104.5 


571.7 


2210 


1 105.0 


2134-7 


1913-9 


1562.7 


1105.0 


572.0 


22II 


iioS-5 


2135-7 


1914.8 


1563-4 


1105.5 


572.2 


2212 


1 106.0 


2136.6 . 


1915.7 


1564.1 


1 106.0 


572.S 


2213 


1106.5 


2137.6 


1916.5 


1564.8 


1106.5 


572.8 


2214 


1 107.0 


2138.6 


1917.4 


1565-5 


1107.0 


573-0 


22IS 


1107.5 


2139-5 


1918.3 


1566.2 


1107.5 


573-3 


2216 


1 108.0 


2140.5 


I919.I 


1567.0 


1 108.0 


573-5 


2217 


1,08.5 


2141.5 


1920.0 


1567.7 


1108.5 


573.8 


:22l8 


1109.0 


2142.4 


1920.8 


1568.4 


1109.0 


574.1 


2219 


1109.5 


2143-4 


1921.7 


1 569. 1 


IIO9.5 


574.3 


2220 


IIIO.O 


2144.4 


1922.6 


1569.8 


IIIO.O 


574.6 


2221 


III0.5 


2145-3 


1923.4 


1570.5 


II10.5 


574.8 


2222 


IIII.O 


2146.3 


1924.3 


1571.2 


llIl.O 


575.1 


2223 


nil. 5 


2147-3 


1925.2 


1571-9 


nil. 5 


575-4 


2224 


1112.0 


2148.2 


1926.0 


1572.6 


1112.0 


575-6 


2225 


1112.5 


2149.2 


1926.9 


1573-3 


1112.5 


575-9 


2226 


1113.0 


2150.2 


1927.8 


1574-0 


1113.0 


576.1 


2227 


1113.S 


2151.1 


1928.6 


1574-7 


1113-5 


576.4 



2l8 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. >i Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. Sin 30°. 


2228 


1 1 14.0 


2152.I 


1929.5 


1575-4 


1 114.0 


2229 


1 1 14.5 


2153-1 


1930.4 


1576.1 


[114.5 


2230 


[II5.0 


2154.0 


1931-2 


1576.9 


[I15-0 


2231 


"iS-5 


2155.0 


1932. 1 


1577-6 


1115-5 


2232 


II 16.0 


2155-9 


1933-0 


1578.3 


1116.0 


2233 


116,5 


2156.9 


1933-8 


1579-0 


ni6.s 


2234 


117.0 


2157-9 


1934-7 


1579-7 


[117.0 


2235 


[117.5 


2158.8 


1935-6 


1580.4 


117.5 


2236 


tiiS.o 


* 2159.8 


1936.4 


1581.1 


[1 18.0 


2237 


1 18. 5 


2160.8 


1937-3 


1581.8 


118.5 


2238 


119.0 


2161.7 


1938.2 


1582.5 


119.0 


2239 


[119.5 


2162.7 


1939.0 


1583.2 


119.5 


2240 


120.0 


2163.7 


1939-9 


1583.9 ] 


120.0 


2241 


120.5 


2164.6 


1940.8 


1584.6 


[ 120.5 


2242 


[121.0 


2165.6 


1941.6 


1585-3 


121. 


2243 


121.5 


2166.6 


1942.5 


1586.0 


121.5 


2244 


U22,0 


2167.5 


1943-4 


1586.7 ] 


122.0 


2245 


122.5 


2168.5 


1944.2 


1587.5 


122.5 


2246 


[1 23.0 


2169.5 


I945-I 


1588.2 


123.0 


2247 


123-5 


2170.4 


1946.0 


158S.9 


123-5 


2248 


124.0 


2171.4 


1946.8 


1589.6 


124.0 


2249 1 


124.5 


2172.4 


1947-7 


1590.3 


124.5 


2250 


125.0 


2173-3 


1948.6 


1591.0 ] 


125.0 


2251 


125.5 


2174-3 


1949.4 


1591.7 ] 


125-5 


2252 


126.0 


2175-3 


1950.3 


1592.4 


126.0 


2253 


126.5 


2176.2 


1951.2 


1593.1 


126.5 


2254 ] 


127.0 


2177.2 


1952.0 


1593.8 


1127.0 


2255 


127.5 


2178.2 


1952.9 


1594.5 


1127-5 


2256 


128.0 


2179.1 


1953-8 


1595.2 ] 


128.0 


2257 


[128.5 


2180. 1 


1954.6 


1595.9 


[128.5 


2258 


129.0 


2181. 1 


^955-5 


1596.6 


129.0 


2259 


129.5 


2182.0 


1956.4 


1597.4 


129.5 


2260 


[1 30.0 


2183.0 


1957.2 


1598.1 


130.0 


2261 


130-5 


2184.0 


1958.1 


1598.8 


130.5 


2262 


131. 


2184.9 


1959.0 


1599-5 


131.0 


2263 


131-5 


2185.9 


1959.8 


1600.2 


131-5 


2264 


[132.0 


2186.9 


1960.7 


1600.9 


132.0 


2265 


[132.5 


2187.8 


1961.6 


1601.6 ] 


132.S 


2266 


1133-0 


2188.8 


1962.4 


1602.3 


[1 33-0 


2267 


"33-5 


2189.8 


1963-3 


1603.0 


133-5 


2268 


[ 134.0 


2190.7 


1 964. 1 


1603.7 


1 134.0 


2269 


134.5 


2191.7 


1965.0 


1604.4 1 


134.5 


2270 


135-0 


2192.7 


1965.9 


1605.1 ] 


135-0 


2271 


[135-5 


2193.6 


1966.7 


1605.8 


135.5 


2272 


136.0 


2194.6 


1967.6 


1606.5 ] 


136.0 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 219 



X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15° 


"36-5 


2195.6 


I968.S 


1607.3 


1136.5 


588.3 


II37.O 


2196.5 


1969.3 


1608.0 


1137.0 


588.6 


"37-5 


2197.5 


1970.2 


1608.7 


II37.5 


588.8 


1138.0 


2198.4 


1971.1 


1609.4 


1 1 38.0 


589.1 


1138.5 


2199.4 


1971.9 


1610.1 


1138.5 


589-3 


1139.0 


2200.4 


1972.8 


1610.8 


1139.0 


589.6 


"39-5 


2201.3 


1973.7 


1611.5 


"39-5 


589.9 


1140.0 


2202.3 


1974.5 


1612.2 


I 140.0 


590.1 


1140.S 


2203.3 


1975-4 


1612.9 


1140.5 


590.4 


1141.0 


2204.2 


1976.3 


1613.6 


1141.0 


590. 6 


1141.S 


2205.2 


1977.1 


1614.3 


1141.5 


590-9 


1142.0 


2206.2 


1978.0 


1615.0 


1142.0 


591.1 


1142.5 


2207.1 


1978.9 


1615.7 


1142.5 


591.4 


1 143.0 


2208.1 


1979-7 


1616.4 


1143.0 


591-7 


"43-5 


2209.1 


1980.6 


1617.I 


1 143-5 


591.9 


1 144.0 


2210.0 


1981.5 


1617.9 


1144.0 


592.2 


1144.S 


2211.0 


1982.3 


1618.6 


1144.5 


592.4 


1145.0 


2212.0 


1983.2 


1619.3 


1145.0 


592.7 


"45-5 


2212.9 


1984.1 


1620.0 


"45.5 


5930 


I 146.0 


2213.9 


1984.9 


1620.7 


1146.0 


593-2 


1146.S 


2214.9 


1985.8 


1621.4 


1146.5 


593.5 


1 147.0 


2215.8 


1986.7 


1622.1 


1147.0 


593-7 


1147-5 


2216.8 


1987.5 


1622.8 


1147.5 


594.0 


1148.0 


2217.8 


1988.4 


1623.5 


1148.0 


594.3 


1148.5 


2218.7 


1989.3 


1624.2 


1148.5 


594. 5 


1 149.0 


2219.7 


1 990. 1 


1624.9 


1149.0 


594-8 


II49-5 


2220.7 


1991.0 


1625.6 


1149-5 


595-0 


1150.0 


2221.6 


1991.9 


1626.3 


1150.0 


595-3 


1150.S 


2222.6 


1992.7 


1627.0 


1150.5 


595-5 


1151.0 


2223.6 


1993.6 


1627.8 


1151.0 


595-8 


1151.5 


2224.5 


1994.5 


1628.5 


1151. 5 


596.1 


1152.0 


2225.5 


1995.3 


1629.2 


1152.0 


596.3 


1152.5 


2226.5 


1996.2 


1629.9 


1152.5 


596-6 


1153.0 


2227.4 


1997.1 


1630.6 


1153.0 


596.8 


1153-5 


2228.4 


1997.9 


1631.3 


1153.5 


597-1 


1 1 54.0 


2229.4 


1998.8 


1632.0 


1154.0 


597.4 


1154.5 


2230.3 


1999.7 


1632.7 


1154.5 


597.6 


1155.0 


2231.3 


2000.5 


1633.4 


1155.0 


597.9 


1155.5 


2232.3 


2001.4 


1634-1 


"55-5 


598.1 


1156.0 


2233.2 


2002.3 


1634.8 


1156.0 


598.4 


1156.5 


2234.2 


2003.1 


1635-S 


1156.5 


598-6 


1157.0 


2235.2 


2004.0 


1636.2 


1157.0 


598-9 


1157-5 


2236.1 


2004.9 


1637-0 


1157.5 


599.2 


1158.0 


2237.1 


2005.7 


1637.7 


1158.0 


599.4 


1158.5 


2238.1 


2006.6 


1638.4 


1158-5 


599-7 


1159.0 


2239.0 


2007.4 


1639.1 


1159.0 


599-9 



220 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. S 


n30°. 


2319 1 


159-5 


2240.0 


2008.3 


1639.8 1 


159-5 


2320 ] 


160.0 


2241.0 


2009.2 


1640.5 ] 


160.0 


2321 ] 


160.5 


2241.9 


2010.0 


1641.2 I 


160.5 


2322 


161. 


2242.9 


2010.9 


1641.9 ] 


161.0 


2323 ] 


161.5 


2243.9 


20II.8 


1642.6 ] 


161. 5 


2324 


162.0 


2244.8 


2012.6 


1643-3 


162.0 


2325 


162.5 


2245.8 


2013.5 


1644.0 1 


162.5 


2326 


163.0 


2246.7 


2014.4 


1644,7 


163.0 


2327 


163.5 


2247-7 


2015.2 


1645.4 


163.5 


2328 


164.0 


2248.7 


2016.1 


1646. 1 


164.0 


2329 


164.5 


2249.6 


2017.0 


1646.9 ] 


164.5 


2330 


165.0 


2250.6 


2017.8 


1647.6 ] 


165.0 


2331 


165-5 


2251.6 


2018.7 


1648.3 


165.5 


2332 


166.0 


2252.5 


2019.6 


1649.0 ] 


166.0 


2333 


166.S 


2253-5 


2020.4 


1649.7 ] 


166.5 


2334 


167.0 


2254.5 


2021.3 


1650.4 


167.0 


2335 


167.5 


2255-4 


2022.2 


1651.1 


167.5 


2336 


168.0 


2256.4 


2023.0 


1651.8 


168.0 


2337 


168.5 


2257.4 


2023.9 


1652.5 


168.5 


2338 


169.0 


2258.3 


2024.8 


1653.2 


169.0 


2339 


169.5 


2259.3 


2025.6 


1653-9 


169.5 


2340 


170.0 


2260.3 


2026.5 


1654.6 


170.0 


2341 


170.5 


2261.2 


2027.4 


1655-3 


170.5 


2342 


171.0 


2262.2 


2028.2 


1656.0 


[171.O 


2343 


1171.5 


2263.2 


2029.1 


1656.8 


171.5 


2344 


[172.0 


2264.1 


2030.0 


1657-5 


[I72.O 


2345 


[172.5 


2265.1 


2030.8 


1658.2 


172.5 


2346 


[I73-0 


2266.1 


2031.7 


1658.9 


173.0 


2347 


[173-5 


2267.0 


2032.6 


1659.6 


173-5 


2348 


[174.0 


2268.0 


2033-4 


1660.3 


C174.0 


2349 


[174-5 


2269.0 


2034-3 


1661.O 


[174.5 


2350 


[175.0 


2269.9 


2035.2 


1661.7 


175.0 


2351 


[175-5 


2270.9 


2036.0 


1662.4 


[175-5 


2352 


[176.0 


2271.9 


2036.9 


1663.1 


176.0 


2353 


1176.5 


2272.8 


2037.8 


1663.8 


176.5 


2354 


1177.0 


2273-8 


2038.6 


1664.5 


177.0 


2355 


II77-5 


2274.8 


2039.5 


1665.2 


[177-5 


2356 


1178.0 


2275.7 


2040.4 


1665.9 


178.0 


2357 


1178.5 


2276.7 


2041.2 


1666.6 


178.5 


2358 


1 179.0 


2277.7 


2042.1 


1667.4 


179.0 


2359 


1179.5 


2278.6 


2043.0 


1668.1 


1 79. 5 


2360 


I 180.0 


2279.6 


2043.8 


1668.8 ] 


180.0 


2361 


ti8o.5 


2280.6 


2044.7 


1669.5 ] 


180.5 


2362 


1181.0 


2281.5 


2045.6 


1670.2 1 


181.0 


2363 


[181.5 


2282.5 


2046.4 


1670.9 1 


181.5 


2364 


[182.0 


2283.5 


* 2047.3 


1671.6 


182.0 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 221 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2365 


I182.S 


2284.4 


2048.2 


1672,3 


I182.5 


612.1 


2366 


1 183.0 


2285.4 


2049.0 


1673.0 


1183,0 


612,4 


2367 


"83.5 


2286.4 


2049.9 


1673-7 


1183.5 


612,6 


2368 


I184.O 


2287,3 


2050.7 


1674.4 


1184.0 


612.9 


2369 


I184.S 


2288.3 


2051.6 


1675.1 


1184.5 


613,1 


2370 


II85.O 


2289.3 


2052.5 


1675.8 


1185.0 


613,4 


2371 


I185.S 


2290.2 


2053-3 


1676.5 


1185,5 


613.7 


2372 


1 186.0 


2291.2 


2054.2 


1677.3 


1186,0 


613,9 


2373 


I186.S 


2292.2 


2055.1 


1678.0 


1186,5 


614.2 


2374 


I187.O 


2293.1 


2055.9 


1678.7 


1187.0 


614.4 


2375 


I187.S 


2294.1 


2056,8 


1679.4 


1187.5 


614.7 


2376 


I188.O 


2295.0 


2057.7 


1680,1 


1188,0 


615.0 


2377 


I188.S 


2296.0 


2058.5 


1680.8 


1188.5 


615.2 


2378 


I189.O 


2297.0 


2059,4 


1681.5 


1189.0 


615.5 


2379 


1189.5 


2297.9 


2060.3 


1682.2 


I189.5 


615-7 


2380 


1190,0 


2298.9 


2061.1 


1682.9 


1190,0 


616.0 


2381 


1 190. 5 


2299.9 


2062.0 


1683.6 


1190,5 


616.3 


2382 


1191.0 


2300.8 


2062.9 


1684.3 


1191.0 


616.5 


2383 


1191.5 


2301.8 


2063.7 


1685.0 


II9I.5 


616.8 


2384 


1192.0 


2302.8 


2064.6 


1685.7 


1192.0 


617,0 


2385 


1192.S 


2303.7 


2065.5 


1686,4 


II92.S 


617.3 


2386 


1193.0 


2304.7 


2066.3 


1687,2 


1193.0 


617.6 


2387 


"93-5 


2305.7 


2067.2 


1687,9 


1193.5 


617.8 


2388 


1194.0 


2306.6 


2068,1 


1688.6 


1194.0 


618,1 


2389 


1194.5 


2307.6 


2068.9 


1689.3 


1194.5 


618,3 


2390 


1 195-0 


2308,6 


2069,8 


1690,0 


1195.0 


618.6 


2391 


II95-5 


2309.5 


2070,7 


1690.7 


1195.5 


618.8 


2392 


1196.0 


2310.5 


2071.5 


1691,4 


1196.0 


619.1 


2393 


1196.5 


231I.5 


2072.4 


1692,1 


1196.5 


619.4 


2394 


1197.0 


2312.4 


2073-3 


1692,8 


1197.0 


619,6 


239s 


1197.5 


2313.4 


2074.1 


1693.5 


"97.5 


619.9 


2396 


1198.0 


2314.4 


2075.0 


1694,2 


1198,0 


620.1 


2397 


1198.5 


2315.3 


2075.9 


1694,9 


1198,5 


620,4 


2398 


1199.0 


2316.3 


2076.7 


1695.6 


1199,0 


620.7 


2399 


1199.5 


2317.3 


2077-6 


1696.4 


"99-5 


620.9 


2400 


1200.0 


2318.2 


2078.5 


1697,1 


1200,0 


621,2 


2401 


1200.5 


2319.2 


2079.3 


1697.8 


1200,5 


621.4 


2402 


1201.0 


2320.2 


2080.2 


1698.5 


1201,0 


621.7 


2403 


1201.5 


2321. I 


2081,1 


1699.2 


1201,5 


621,9 


2404 


1202.0 


2322.1 


2081.9 


1699.9 


1202,0 


622.2 


2405 


1202.5 


2323.1 


2082,8 


1700.6 


1202.5 


622,5 


2406 


1203.0 


2324.0 


2083,7 


1701.3 


1203.0 


622,7 


2407 


1203.5 


2325.0 


2084.5 


1702.0 


1203.5 


623.0 


2408 


1204,0 


2326.0 


2085.4 


1702,7 


1204.0 


623,2 


2409 


1204.5 


2326.9 


2086.3 


1703.4 


1204.5 


623.5 



222 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



Number. 


}^ Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°- 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2410 


1205.0 


2327.9 


2087.1 


1704.1 


1205.0 


623.8 


241 1 


1205.5 


2328.9 


2088.0 


1704.8 


1205.5 


624.0 


2412 


1206.0 


2329.8 


2088.9 


17OS-5 


1206.0 


624.3 


2413 


1206.5 


.2330.8 


2089.7 


1706.3 


1206.5 


624.5 


2414 


1207.0 


2331-8 


2090.6 


1707.0 


1207.0 


624.8 


2415 


1207.S 


2332.7 


2091.5 


1707.7 


1207.5 


625.0 


2416 


1208.0 


2333-7 


2092.3 


1708.4 


1208.0 


625.3 


2417 


1208.5 


2334.7 


2093.2 


1709.1 


1208.5 


625.6 


2418 


1209.0 


2335-6 


2094.0 


1709.8 


1209.0 


625.8 


2419 


1209.5 


2336.6 


2094.9 


171O.5 


1209.5 


626.1 


2420 


1210.0 


2337-6 


2095.8 


1711.2 


1210.0 


626.3 


2421 


121O.5 


2338-5 


2096.6 


1711.9 


1210.5 


626.6 


2422 


I2II.0 


2339-5 


2097.5 


1712.6 


I2II.0 


626.9 


2423 


I2II.5 


2340.4 


2098.4 


I713-3 


I2II.5 


627.1 


2424 


I2I2.0 


2341.4 


2099.2 


1714.0 


1212.0 


627.4 


2425 


I212.5 


2342.4 


2100.1 


1714.7 


1212.5 


627.6 


2426 


I213.O 


2343-3 


2IOI.O 


1715-4 


1213.0 


627.9 


2427 


1213-5 


2344-3 


2101.8 


1716.I 


1213.5 


628.2 


2428 


1214.0 


2345-3 


2102.7 


1716.9 


1214.0 


628.4 


2429 


1214.5 


2346.2 


2103.6 


1717.6 


I214.5 


628.7 


2430 


I215.O 


2347.2 


2104.4 


1718.3 


I215.O 


628.9 


2431 


I215.5 


2348.2 


2105.3 


1719.0 


1215.5 


629.2 


2432 


1216.0 


2349.1 


2106.2 


1719.7 


1216.0 


629.4 


2433 


1216.5 


2350.1 


2107.0 


1720.4 


I216.5 


629.7 


2434 


1217.0 


2351.1 


2107.9 


1721.I 


1217.0 


630.0 


2435 


1217.5 


2352.0 


2108.8 


1721.8 


1217.5 


630.2 


2436 


1218.0 


2353-0 


2109.6 


1722.5 


I218.O 


630.5 


2437 


1218.5 


2354.0 


2110.5 


1723.2 


1218.5 


630.7 


2438 


1219.0 


2354-9 


2III.4 


1723.9 


I219.O 


631.0 


2439 


I219.5 


2355-9 


2112.2 


1724.6 


1219.5 


631-3 


2440 


122C.O 


2356.9 


2113.1 


1725-3 


1220.0 


631.5 


2441 


1220.5 


2357-8 


2114.0 


1726.0 


1220.5 


631-8 


2442 


1221.0 


2358.8 


2114.8 


1726.8 


1221.0 


632.0 


2443 


1221.5 


2359.8 


2115.7 


1727.5 


1221.5 


632.3 


2444 


1222.0 


2360.7 


2116.6 


1728.2 


1222.0 


632.6 


2445 


1222.5 


2361.7 


2117.4 


1728.9 


1222.5 


632.8 


2446 


1223.0 


2362.7 


2118.3 


1729.6 


1223.0 


633-1 


2447 


1223.5 


2363.6 


2II9.2 


1730-3 


1223.5 


633-3 


2448 


1224.0 


2364.6 


2120.0 


1731.0 


1224.0 


633-6 


2449 


1224.5 


2365-6 


2120.9 


1731-7 


1224.5 


633-9 


2450 


1225.0 


2366.5 


2121.8 


1732-4 


1225.0 


634.1 


2451 


1225.5 


2367.5 


2122.6 


1 733- 1 


1225.5 


634-4 


2452 


1226.0 


2368.5 


2123.5 


1733-8 


1226,0 


634.6 


2453 


1226.5 


2369.4 


2124.4 


1734-5 


1226.5 


634.9 


2454 


1227.0 


2370.4 


2125.2 


1735.2 


1227.0 


635-1 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 223 



Number. 


X Sin 90°. 


Sin 75°. 


Sin 60°. 


Sin 45°. 


Sin 30°. 


Sin 15°. 


2455 


1227.5 


2371.4 


21 26. I 


1735.9 


1227.5 


635-4 


2456 


1228.0 


2372.3 


2127.0 


1736.7 


1228.0 


635-7 


2457 


1228.S 


2373.3 


2127.8 


1737.4 


1228.5 


635.9 


2458 


1229.0 


2374.2 


2128.7 


1738.I 


1229.0 


636.2 


2459 


1229.S 


2375.2 


2129.6 


1738.8 


1229.5 


636.4 


2460 


1230.0 


2376.2 


2130.4 


1739.5 


1230.0 


636.7 


2461 


123O.S 


2377.1 


2131-3 


1740.2 


1230.5 


637.0 


2462 


1231.O 


2378.1 


2132.2 


1740.9 


1231.0 


637.2 


2463 


1231.S 


2379.1 


2133.0 


1741.6 


1231.5 


637-5 


2464 


1232.0 


2380.0 


2133.9 


1742.3 


1232.0 


637.7 


2465 


1232.5 


2381.0 


2134.8 


1743.0 


I232.S 


638.0 


2466 


1233-0 


2382.0 


2135.6 


1743.7 


1233.0 


638.3 


2467 


1233.S 


2382.9 


2136.5 


1744.4 


1233.5 


638.5 


2468 


1234.0 


2383.9 


2137.3 


1745.1 


1234.0 


638.8 


2469 


1234.S 


2384.9 


2138.2 


1745.8 


1234.S 


639.0 


2470 


1235.0 


2385.8 


2139.I 


1746.6 


1235,0 


639.3 


2471 


1235.5 


2386.8 


2139.9 


1747.3 


1235.5 


639. 5 


2472 


1236.0 


2387.8 


2140.8 


1748.0 


1236.0 


639.8 


2473 


1236.S 


2388.7 


214I.7 


1748.7 


1236. 5 


640.1 


2474 


1237.0 


2389.7 


2142.5 


1749.4 


1237.0 


640.3 


2475 


1237.5 


2390.7 


2143.4 


175O.I 


1237.5 


640.6 


2476 


1238.0 


2391.6 


2144.3 


1750.8 


1238.0 


640.8 


2477 


1238.5 


2392.6 


2145. I 


1751.S 


1238.5 


641,1 


2478 


1239.0 


2393.6 • 


2146.0 


1752,2 


1239.0 


641.4 


2479 


1239.5 


2394.5 


2146.9 


1752.9 


1239.5 


641.6 


2480 


1240.0 


2395.5 


2147.7 


1753.6 


1240.0 


641.9 


2481 


1240.5 


2396.5 


2148.6 


1754.3 


1240.5 


642.1 


2482 


I241.O 


2397.4 


2149.5 


1755.0 


1241,0 


642.4 


2483 


124I.5 


2398.4 


2150.3 


1755.7 


1241. 5 


642.6 


2484 


1242,0 


2399.4 


2151.2 


1756.4 


1242,0 


642.9 


2485 


1242.5 


2400.3 


2152,1 


1757.2 


1242,5 


643.2 


2486 


1243.0 


2401.3 


2152.9 


1757.9 


1243,0 


643.4 


2487 


1243.5 


2402.3 


2153.8 


1758.6 


1243.S 


643.7 


2488 


1244.0 


2403.2 


2154.7 


1759.3 


1244.0 


643.9 


2489 


1244.5 


2404.2 


2155.5 


1760,0 


1244.5 


644,2 


2490 


1245.0 


2405.2 


2156,4 


1760.7 


1245.0 


644.5 


2491 


1245.5 


2406.1 


2157.3 


1761.4 


1245.S 


644.7 


2492 


1246.0 


2407.1 


2158,1 


1762.1 


1246.0 


645,0 


2493 


1246.5 


2408.1 


2I59-0 


1762.8 


1246.5 


645,2 


2494 


1247.0 


2409.0 


2159.9 


1763.5 


1247.0 


645.5 


2495 


1247.5 


2410.0 


2160.7 


1764..2 


1247.5 


645.8 


2496 


1248.0 


24II.O 


2161.6 


1764.9 


1248.0 , 


646.0 


2497 


1248.5 


2411.9 


2162.5 


1765.6 


1248.5 


646.3 


2498 


1249.0 


2412.9 


2163.3 


1766.4 


1249.0 


646.5 


2499 


1249.5 


2413.9 


2164,2 


1767.1 


1249.5 


646.8 


2500 


1250.0 


2414.8 


2165. I 


1767.8 


1250,0 


647.0 



224 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



ro Tt "1 iO\0 I^ rvoo G\ O O 



0\ O - M 

\0 r^ r~- t-N 



lo N 0\^ ro O 00 



TT -* "^vo r^ I 



^- N ro •* lAivo i-^c 



0\ O ►- N ro rr vovo r>00 0\ O 



r^OO 000000 0\0\0\0\0 o o o 



OnOnONO\0 O O O 



N N N N rOcor^rOTi-'<^Tj-ioiovo m\o vo vO vo r^ r^ i^ 



N N rocOrorOTfTfTTTj- 



1 m lAivo \0 O vO t^ t^ r^oo I 



ro ■* Lovo t^oo ON O 



"^vO r^oo On O 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 225 



O O O^0O t^ t^vD 



1-00 ■* " t^ 



ro -^ iri\o t^oo CT\ O 



O l-^roo t^rOOVO 



lO r^oo Ct O >- 



CTs O^0O 00 00 r^ t^ I 



"^\0 r^CO ON O i-H N fO T^ "^\0 t^OO ON O i-i M f^ •* "^NO 1^00 00 ON O ►! 



M ro ro to 



ro Tj- u-)\o t^oo On O "H 



ro -rf u^vo r^oo On O 



voNO r^co On O 1- 



I unvo vo vo r^ i^ r^ J 



O w (-1 M M N N N N nrorDrOTt--<i-TfTi-"^i^io "^nO \0 vo vo r^ t>. t-. t^oo oo oo oo Ov 
NO Noo ■^ONO MOO rCONO NOO TfOvO MOO tTOVO NoO -^ONO NOO ■^QvO noO -" 

NO CO On NO ro 0\nO n Onno m On^OM ON"1noo "^N00 »o>-oo "^i-oo Tfi-oo •^►-i r; 
00 ^^u^TJ■^Ol-c o On i^no lo co n — Onoo r^ lO tJ- ro w o on r^vD "i m m w onoo r>. vr 

M N c<^ -ti- lONO NO t-»0O 0\ O " M M ro -^ "^NO r-»0O OnONO " M ro-i-io "^no r^OO On 

1-1 M ro Ti- "INO 1^00 On O ii M ro t}- vO'O i-~00 On O i-i w m -rf -Ln^O r^oo On O i- N fO Tt- 
f-.hHi-Hh-<hHhHH-.i-HhHi-.r-iMWNNNMMMMrOfOcoroco 



226 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



0\w nii^t-^ON" rO"^r-~a\" roi'it^Os" roi'ir-^ONi-" fO'^r^ON'-' r^ "^00 O <s 

0\ ^00 NVO O LOOsf^r^'-'^ O -^00 ci r^ h. vo on fOoO N^ O ■^ONrOt^xMVCXO 
"1 On M VO On cnvo on rO\o O COr^O nt^O TTt^G •5)-i--.>-h rt-oO i-i -^OO i-; "^00 N 

fl fO Tl" Tj- rf I'l "^ unvo NO t^ r^ t^CO 0000 O^O^OnO O O 



N M ro CO Tf Tf 



ly^vo vo vo r^ r^ t^CO oOOOOnOnOnOOO"'-' 



to ro (O -^ 



I un u^vo NO \0 t-» r^ r^oo ooooOnonGnooqi-iw 



!-■ N ro -^ lAvo r^oo ON O 



ro ro ro ro ro 



rOfOfOrOcoro-^-^Tj- 



lo vovo vo vo vo NO r^ r^ t^ 



vOvONOvONOvo r~.r^t^t~«r^ t^oo OOOOOOOO OnOnOnOnONOnG O O O O O 



<s fOrorororOCOTf 



Tf Tj- Tf 1/1 lO m 1 



M M (O ■* "^vo r^OO Ov O 1- N ro -^ "InO r^oo On O >-i ^^ <0 Tf yj^\0 t^oo On O 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 227 



t^ tn CO o 00 ' 



«- N ro ro Tj- lO^o \0 t^OO ON 0\ O w 



ro ■'t lOvO t^oo ON O t-i 



ro •* "TO t^OO ON O 



CONO -*N ONr->tncoM ONt^u^w Ooovo ttn ooo mrow ONrx»otOi- onvo •>*• n o oo 
w moo 1-1 rn\0 on N lO t^ o covO On >-i ■* r-. O m "loo w ■^\C on n "^OO O rONO On N 

•^00 N r^ 'I Ul ON -^Ca M r^ M "^ ON rCoO N t^ m i'N on -"J-OO N no i- "l on -rfCO M VO t-1 
vo fi ON"lf)oO Tfi- r~,Ti-0 r^ro ON NO N ONi'iMOO ■^w t^-^O t^fO ONno m On "^ ^^ 

i- 11 N CO ro -"I- i^ >^vO r^ r^oo 00OsOO"ClcirnTj--^ »rivO \o r^ r^oo On ON O w m 

„I_WMI_I_I„„|_I_M)-I1-I1-II-H1-IMP)N 

■I C< CO •* iO\0 r^OO ON O w N CO •* "INO r^OO on O w n cO -nl- vovO t>.00 ON O i-i M CO Tt 

„Mi-lh-i-.ni-iwi-.wNf)C)f)MMC)C)NNCOCOCOCOCO 



228 A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 



ON 0\ O\00 00 00 r^ r^ r^^ 'OvOvO"i"^"lrr->^-<rtOcorON N N N « h. >- o O O 0\Cv 

rOt^M "iONmr~^w "^ONrot^w iOC\rot>.i-i "-iCT>roi^«- "^0\fOi-~— "lO\ror^O 
OnoO 00 t~^^ vOxO"1rfrOf*1NNi-<0 0\ OnoO t^ l^vO \0"lrt-rt-cOfnN m ►" O O Cn 

i-H N ro -rf "1VO r^oo ON O >- N CO Ti- lO lovo i^oo ON O m n r<i Tt "Ivo r^oo On O m t. 

MWMi-iMi-iwi-ii-idWMNMNMr^MNMNCOrOrO 

w N m -^ "1\0 1^00 ON O i-i N rO Ti- "IVO t^OO ON O M N rO rj- "IVO r^OO ON O 11 N m •>i- 
wMM«w„rt„i-iwNNNNNNMNNMr<^fOtOr<'- 

t^OO 00000000 ONOnCTxO O O O O " i-i w N N M M N rOrOfOTf-5j--*-<*-"l"l"l 
lOii r^cOON"^" r^coovo noo -^OVO noO -^ONO noo -^OvO moo tj-o^ n 

"NNoo "iMOO "^l-"oo "N>-c0 -* -^l-oo ■*" r-.-^i-i r^-^O t^-<l-0 r^roo r^roo 
t>.vo -^ n M O osoo NO 1^ Tf N M o 00 i^'O -^ ro N O ONOq vo lo tJ- n m o oC r^M3 

On O " M fO ■* •* "1>0 r^oo ON O >-i ►I N <~0 -^ "1VO r^ r^oo On O <-< N m •* -^ "^nO 
lovo vovovOvONOvONOvOvovO r>%r^t>.r^t^t^r^i^r^t^t^ r^oo 00 00 oo oo oo oo oo 

ON O " N ro Tf "^VO 1^00 On O M N fO -"d- "IVO t^oO 0\ O ►- N rO tJ- "IVO r^OO 0\ O 
vo r~«r-»r^r^t^t^r>«t^t>. t^oo oooooooooooooooooo OnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnOnonO 

OnOnOnO O O O m i-i 11 " 1 N M W mrnT^rrim-i-'rt--^\r)xr)irt \j~i\0 no \0 no \0 t^ r-~ 
ONO N On"1>-i r^roON"ii t~»roON"lii r^nON"i«i f^roONUli t^coON"!" r^rOON 

M f^TTO r^ri-O t^fOO t-NtOOVO fOONO ro 0\^ ro Onno n OnvO n on "^ n On "n m 
ro w o q\ r-.vo "1 CO N II O\00 i^ lO rj- co « O 00 l>.vo ^r ro N O OnoO no "I tj- n « q oo 

O n N N CO Tt "1NO t^OO 00 CN O n C^ CO Tf "N lONO t^ 00 ON O n " N CO ^e" "^NO t^OO 00 

cocococococorococococofOTr■^^-<t■'rTfT^T)--^-<t■^"^"^"^"^"^"^"^"^"^"^'~ 



O w w ►- w M fl C) C^ COCOCOcOTj--d--*Tj-"1"l"l "1NO NO NO VO I^ t^ t^ I^OO 00 00 00 00 
NO C^OO -^OnO noo -^QNO noo ■^QVO noo -TOnO noO -^ONO noO ^QnO NoO -^ 

NO CO ONNO CO CnnO n Onno n On"1n ON"nN00 "^N0O lOnOO "InOO -^noo -rt <-> ^ 
00 r^io-*co>i O On r-~NO "i co n n OnoO t^ "^ n- co m O on r^vO "i co N " ONOO t^ "^ tt 

M N CO Tf "1NO NO r-»00 ON O " N N CO ■<*• "INO r^oO On On O " N CO ■* "1 "^NO 1^00 On 
►,MiwMi-ii-(w«HHWi-.«NNNNNNNNNC^" 

w N CO •<i- "1NO r^OO ON O "- N CO Tf "InO t-^00 ON O i- N CO -^ "INO t^OO ON O >-i N C< 

wwMwi-iwiMp-ii-iwNC^NNMNNNNNCOCOCOCOCO 



A METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE STABILITY OF SHIPS. 229 



3 

1 




000000000000 o\o\a^o\o\o\c^ONO\ 


d 


00000000 O^O^O^O^C^O^O^O^O^C^O 


1 


000 ^M OOOVO ^ri O00M3 ^rO" o\r~s 
«vO wvo « 100 LOO "^0^'^0^r^0^ cooo 

u-i fO M CTv i--^ ^ rn - CnoO \0 "1 ro m 
Cs 0\ ON i^co oooooooooo r^r^r-^t-^t^t^r^ 


1^00 0\ " <~i ro tT w^^O r^oo On - N ro 
NO^vo r^t^r^r-r^r^r-r-.t-. t^oo 00 00 00 


;! 


ON " M m Tf u-l\0 t-.00 ON - M rO rf- "1 

NO r^t^t^i^r^t^i-^r^c-, r^co cO 00 00 00 tX3 


1 
1 


Ooovo Tfts 1-1 ONr^>^ro>-i Osi^^'-'irO" On 
Tf 0\ ■<*• ON TOO mco fOOO M t^ N t-^ N VO 

« ON r^\0 -S-rOi-i oco r^iOTM " O\00 VO 
M « ■-; « "^ >-, -; 1- q q a\ On ON 

:;. ;:^ S^ ;?; i;^^ D^^s, s^vS vS <S vo vS"vS"o S 


6 

:z; 


N fO rf irnO r-^OO a\ 1-1 M m Tj- lOVO t^OO 
lo LO 10 vn in iri Lo lovo vonOVOnDnOVOnOvO 


1 

1 


rOM 0\r-."lfOi-i ON i^vo Tf N O 00 \0 tJ- n 
ooror^(sr^Nr^MVOw\OM\oO"^0"i 

"S. tQ 2 SI 2. S^ i::;^ S:, ^ ::i^ 2^°? t^ '^ '^ n 


Tf m\0 t-voo ON O -1 <N ro Tt- invo r^oo 0\ O 
rorocorororOTTTfrrTi-TrrTi-TfTrTj-un 


1 


"lO t-.00 On O 1-1 N f^ -^ mvo t~>cO On O ►- 


•0 


j:i. ;:Ng^§ S N^vS^vS vg ^ J^ iS ^ Si, ^ ^=^ 


r^OO ON O - N ro rf mvo r^oO Os O - « ro 

wi-lr-MNNNNMMNCSMrOfOfOrO 


1 


OO ON O -1 N ro -"d- "^»0 i>.00 ON O " N ro Tf 

i-iH-CtMNMNMCJCSNtsmcOrriMtO 


p^ 


oovo ■'J-N coo r^mco" ONr^iorOii Oni^ 
tC ON 'il- ON tTOO fOOO COOO M 00 N t^ N VO ►- 

00 \0 "^ ro (M O ON (^vo rj-ro" GoO I^iOtJ- 
On ON ON OS ON ONOO oooooooooooo r-^r^i^t^ 


H. M fO Tf "ivo r-oo ON O M <M ro 1^ m\o 


;! 


M N CO T <J^\D t^oo ON o 1-1 M fO -e- «J^vCl r^ 



U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 
By Commander F. M. Barber, U. S. N. 

[Reprinted from the Jotirnal of the Franklin Iftstitute, February, 1891.] 



Members of the Institute and Ladies and Gentlemen : 

In commencing my paper this evening I desire to call your atten- 
tion to the fact that I am dealing with a subject which, though not 
theoretical, is still hardly practical, for, as a matter of fact, high 
explosives cannot be said to have yet been regularly used in warfare ; 
and I hope you will pardon me if, in consequence, my statements 
appear in some respects unsatisfactory and my theories unsound. 
My subject, however, is no more obscure than future naval warfare 
generally. All civilized nations are spending millions of money for 
fighting purposes, directly in opposition to the higher feelings of the 
better class of their inhabitants. The political atmosphere of Europe 
is the cause of this, but its consequence is the development of theo- 
retical plans of ships which are no sooner commenced than the rapid 
march of mechanical, chemical and electrical science shows them to 
be faulty in some particular feature, and others are laid down only 
to be superseded in their turn. 

None of these crafts are obsolete (to use the popular expression of 
the day). All are theoretically better than any which have stood 
the test of battle ; but each excels its predecessor in some particular 
feature. The use of high explosives is the direct cause of the very 
latest transformations in marine architecture, and is destined to work 
still greater changes ; but it will require a war between the most 
civilized nations of the world, and a l.ong war, to either confirm or 
condemn the many theoretical machines and methods of destruction 
that modern science has produced. I say a war between the most 
civilized nations, since it is only they that can supply the educated 



232 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

intellect that is necessary to both attack and defense. Under other 
circumstances, false conclusions as to weapons and results are certain 
to be drawn. At the bombardment of Alexandria, the English armor- 
clads, with their rifled guns, were not nearly as efficient against the 
feeble chalk fortifications as our wooden ships would have been with 
smooth-bore guns ; on the other hand, I saw on shore, after the 
bombardment, hundreds of torpedoes and miles of cable that the 
Egyptians did not understand how to use. The French war with 
China was equally unsatisfactory from a military point of view. The 
Chinese at Foochow were annihilated because the French opened 
fire first, and the only shell that penetrated a French ironclad was 
filled with lampblack instead of powder. The national riots that we 
are accustomed to hear of in South America are likewise of little 
instructive value ; they buy their weapons of more civilized people, 
but there is always something fatally defective about the tactics pursued 
in using them. It may be said in general terms that in these days of 
extreme power in fighting machines, the greater the efficiency the 
less the simplicity and the more knowledge required in the care of 
the weapons. When powder was merely powder, the advice of the 
old adage to " trust in God and keep your powder dry " was ample 
to maintain the efficiency of the powder for all purposes ; but now- 
adays if you keep your powder dry you will burst your gun, and if 
you keep your gun-cotton dry you are liable to blow up your ship. 

It is rather difficult to-day to define what high explosives are, in 
contradistinction to gunpowder. Thirty years ago we could say that 
powder was a mechanical mixture and the others were chemical 
compounds ; but of late years this difference has disappeared. 

The dynamical difference, however, still remains : gunpowder in 
its most efficient form is a slow-burning composition, which exerts a 
relatively low pressure and continues it for a long time and to a great 
distance; high explosives, on the contrary, in their most efficient form, 
are extremely quick-burning substances, which exert an enormous 
pressure within a limited radius. Ordinary black gunpowder con- 
sists of a mechanical mixture of seventy-five per cent of saltpetre, 
fifteen per cent of charcoal and ten per cent of sulphur. The most 
important of the high explosives are formed by the action of nitric 
acid upon organic substances or other hydrocarbons, the compound 
radical NO 2 being substituted for a portion of the hydrogen in the 
substance. The bodies thus formed are in a condition of unstable 
equilibrium ; but if well made from good material, they become 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 233 

Stable in their instability, very much like Prince Rupert's drops, those 
little glass pellets which endure almost any amount of rough usage, 
but, once cracked, fly into infinitesimal fragments. 

The power exerted by these nitro-substitution products is due to 
the fact that they detonate, i. e., they are instantaneously converted 
into colorless gas at a very high temperature, and in addition they 
have almost no solid residue. Nitro-glycerine actually leaves none 
at all, while gunpowder leaves sixty-eight per cent. The first depar- 
ture in gunpowder from the old-time constituents of black powder 
just mentioned was for the purpose of obtaining less pressure and 
slower combustion than could be produced by mere granulating or 
caking; this was accomplished by using underburned charcoal, 
together with sugar and about one and one-half per cent of water. 
This is the brown powder most generally used at present, and with 
satisfactory results ; but the abstraction of its moisture increases its 
rapidity of combustion to a dangerous degree, besides which the 
underburned charcoal is itself unstable. 

The next change demanded is smokelessness, and to accomplish it, 
recourse is had to the high-explosive field, mechanically mixing vari- 
ous substances with them to reduce and regulate their rapidity of 
action. Just now some form of gun-cotton is most in use, mixed with 
nitrate of ammonia, camphor and other articles. The tendency of 
these mixtures is to absorb moisture, and the gun-cotton in them to 
decompose, and there is no smokeless powder which can to-day be 
considered successful. Such a powder, however, will undoubtedly 
be an accomplished fact in the near future. Military men seem to be 
a great deal at variance as to its value in the field, but there can be 
no doubt of its value for naval purposes ; it is a necessity forced upon 
us by the development of torpedo warfare. First came the simple 
torpedo at the end of an ordinary boat's spar ; then came the special 
torpedo-boat with its great speed ; then the revolving cannon and 
rapid-fire gun to meet the torpedo-boat. At present the possible 
rapidity of fire is much greater than can be utilized on account of the 
smoke; hence the necessity of smokeless powder. Smokelessness is, 
however, principally a martial demand that has been made upon the 
science of explosives, and has attracted public attention on that 
account. The commercial demands for various other properties has 
been much greater than the military, and between gunpowder near 
one end of the line in point' of power, and nitro-glycerine near the 
other, there are now over 350 different explosives manufactured, and 
most of these have been invented within the last twenty years. 



234 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

The simplest application of high explosives in warfare is in con- 
nection with torpedoes, since within the same bulk a much more 
efficient substance can be obtained than gunpowder, and with reason- 
able care there is very little danger of premature explosions by 
reason of accidental shocks. 

Torpedoes were made by the Chinese many years ago ; they were 
tried in our war of independence, and also by the Russians during 
the Crimean war ; but the first practical and successful use of them 
as a recognized weapon was during our war of secession, when thirty- 
seven vessels were either sunk or seriously injured by them. Gun- 
powder was used in these torpedoes, though it is stated that attempts 
were made to use other substances without success. Since that time 
all maritime nations have made a close study of the subject, and 
have adopted various high explosives, according to the results of their 
experiments. In general terms itmay bestatedthatexplosivechemical 
compounds have been found more suitable than explosive mixtures, 
because of the uniformity of direction in which they exert their pres- 
sure, and from the fact that water does not injure them. Mixtures 
may be very powerful, but they are erratic, and require tight cases. 
In the United States we use dynamite for harbor mines. It is com- 
posed of seventy-five per cent nitro-glycerine and twenty-five per 
cent silica ; but blasting gelatine and forcite-gelatine will probably 
be adopted, when they can be satisfactorily manufactured here, as 
they are more powerful. The former is composed of ninety-two per 
cent of nitro-glycerine and eight per cent of gun-cotton, and the 
latter of ninety-five per cent of nitro-gelatine and 5 per cent un-: 
nitrated cellulose. 

For naval use we have adopted gun-cotton as being the most 
convenient. In Europe gun-cotton is generally used for both fixed 
mines and movable torpedoes ; Russia, Austria and Italy use blast- 
ing gelatine also. 

In actual warfare but little experience has been had; two Peruvian 
vessels were sunk by dynamite in the Chile- Peruvian war; one Turk 
by means of gun-cotton during the Turco-Russian war of 1877, and 
two Chinese by gun-cotton in the Franco-Chinese war of 1884, 

In making experiments to determine the relative strength of the 
different explosives under water, very curious and puzzling results 
have been obtained. Nitro-glycerine being the simplest and most 
complete in its chemical decomposition, and apparently the most 
powerful in air, it was natural to suppose that it would be the same 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE, 235 

in submarine work; but it was found by Gen. Abbot at Willet's 
Point, after repeated experiments, as shown in his report of 1881, 
that it was not so powerful in its effect by twenty per cent as dyna- 
mite No. I, although the dynamite contained twenty-five per cent of 
an absolutely inert substance. His idea was that it was too quick in 
its action, and since water is slighdy compressible, a minute frac- 
tion of time is required in the development of the full force of the 
explosive. Gen. Abbot's results for intensity of action per unit of 
weight of the most important substances, are as follows: 

Blasting gelatine 142 

Forcite gelatine • 133 

Dynamite No. i 100 

Gun-cotton, wet 87 

Nitro-glycerine 81 

Gunpowder , 20 to 50 

Col. Bucknill, of the Royal Engineers, in his publication of 1888, 
gives the following : 

Blasting gelatine 142 

Forcite gelatine. 133 

Dynamite No. i 100 

Gun-cotton, dry 100 

Gun-cotton, wet 80 

Gunpowder 25 

In both tables, dynamite No. i is assumed as the standard of com- 
parison. Col. Bucknill states that his gun-cotton results differ from 
Gen. Abbot's because he experimented with much larger quantities, 
viz: 500-pound charges. Gen. Abbot's experiments led him to 
believe that an instantaneous mean pressure of 6500 pounds per 
square inch would give a fatal blow to the double bottom of a modern 
armor-clad, and he developed a formula which gives this blow with 
blasting gelatine at the following distances under water, viz : 

Pounds. 
At 5 feet 4 

10 " 17 

20 " 67 

30 " 160 

40 " 3" 

Col. Bucknill's experiments caused him to believe that a pressure 
of 12,000 pounds per square inch is required, and his formula, which 
is somewhat different from Abbot's, gives widely different results at 
close quarters, but they approach each other as the distance increases. 



236 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

His results are as follows: 

Pounds. 
At sfeet 22% 

10 " 75 

20 " 177 

30 " 274 

40 " 369 

Regarding the comparative effects of gunpowder and the high 
explosives, I think Gen. Abbot's estimate of a varying value for 
powder is more admissible than the fixed value assigned by Col. 
Bucknill. Gunpowder gives a push, and detonating compounds a 
shock ; as the quantities increase, the push reaches farther than the 
shock. According to Gen. Abbot, 100 pounds of dynamite No. i 
will have a destructive horizontal range of 16.3 feet, while the same 
amount of gunpowder will only have a range of 3.3 feet. Five hun- 
dred pounds of dynamite, however, will have a horizontal range of 
thirty-five feet, and 500 pounds of gunpowder will have 19.5 feet; 
the ratio has diminished from five to two. Whether 6500 pounds 
or 12,000 pounds per square inch is necessary to crush the bottom 
of an armor-clad will depend largely upon how far apart the frames 
of the ship are spaced and what other bracing is supplied, as well as 
many local circumstances. It is difficult to judge exactly of these 
matters. Some four years ago the Italian government adopted 
treble bottoms for their heaviest ships as a result of experiments with 
seventy-five pounds of gun-cotton (the charge of an ordinary White- 
head locomotive torpedo) against a caisson which was a fac-simile of 
a portion of the proposed ships. Onl}' two of the bottoms were 
broken through, and when the space between the two inner bottoms 
was filled with coal, only the outer bottom was broken. According 
to the formulae of either Abbot or Bucknill, there should have been 
a local pressure of at least 300,000 pounds per square inch on the 
outer skin, and yet judicious interior arrangements rendered it harm- 
less to the target. It would not, however, be safe to conclude that 
the torpedo was thus vanquished — the immediate result was simply 
to create a demand for larger locomotive torpedoes for local appli- 
cation, and but little light was thrown upon the results which might 
be anticipated from a large mine at a greater distance, whose radius 
of explosive effect would embrace a larger portion of the ship, and 
especially if the ship were nearly over the torpedo. The local effect 
of a detonation is different from the transmitted shock. Experiments 
in England have shown that 500 pounds of gun-cotton at forty feet 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 237 

below any ship will sink her, and at a horizontal distance of 100 feet, 
damage to the interior pipes and machinery is to be expected. 

The fact that the high explosives are so much heavier than gun- 
powder has an important bearing on the size of the containing case. 
Their sp. gr. is as follows : 

Nitro-glycerine 1.6 

Blasting gelatine 1.45 

Forcite gelatine 1.42 

Dynamite No. i i .34 

Wet gun-cotton 1.32 

Dry gun-cotton 1.06 

Gunpowder 0.9 

Their relative efficiency under water per cubic foot, according to 
Bucknill, is as follows : 

Blasting gelatine i .38 

Forcite gelatine i .27 

Dynamite No. i i.oo 

Dry gun-cotton 66 

Wet gun-cotton 66 

Gunpowder 14 

The wet gun-cotton has twenty-five per cent of added water. 

Mines for harbor defense are of two kinds — buoyant and ground. 
The buoyant are usually spherical, and contain from 400 to 500 
pounds of explosives. They bring the charge near to the ship's 
bottom, but are difficult to manage in a tide-way, and can be easily 
found by dragging. The ground mines can be made of any size, and 
are not easily found by dragging, but are of little value in very deep 
water. They are either cylindrical or hemispherical in shape, and 
contain from 500 to 1500 pounds of explosive in from thirty to eighty 
feet of water. Mines of any kind are exceedingly difficult to render 
efficient when the water is over 100 feet deep. On account of the 
tendency of all high explosives to detonate by influence or sympathy, 
and the liability of the cases to collapse by great exterior pressure, 
harbor mines are separated at a certain distance, according as they 
are buoyant or ground, and according to the nature of the explosive. 

Five hundred pounds buoyant gun-cotton mines require 320 feet 
spacing. 

Five hundred pounds buoyant blasting gelatine mines require 450 
feet spacing. 

Six hundred pounds ground gun-cotton mines require 180 feet 
spacing. 



238 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

Six hundred pounds ground blasting gelatine mines require 230 
feet spacing. 

Of torpedoes, other than those described, we have several modern 
varieties : submarine projectiles, submarine rockets, automobile and 
controllable locomotive torpedoes. The first two varieties, though 
feasible, are not developed, and have not yet advanced beyond the 
experimental stage. Of the automobile, we have the Whitehead, 
Swartzkopf, and Howell. The first two are propelled by means of com- 
pressed air and an engine ; the last, by the stored-up energy of a heavy 
fly-wheel. Generally speaking, they are cigar-shaped crafts, from 
10 to 18 feet long, and 15 to 17 inches in diameter, capable of carry- 
ing from 75 to 250 pounds of explosive at the rate of 25 to 30 knots 
for 400 yards, at any depth at which they may be set. Of the con- 
trollable locomotive torpedoes, the three representative types are the 
Patrick, Sims, and Brennan. They are, in general terms, cigar-boats, 
about 40 feet long and 2 feet in diameter, carrying charges of 400 
pounds of explosive. The Patrick and Sims are maintained at a con- 
stant depth under water by means of a float. The Brennan has 
diving rudders, like a Whitehead or a Howell. The Patrick is 
driven by means of carbonic-acid gas through an engine, and is con- 
trolled by an electric wire from shore. The Sims is driven by elec- 
tricity from a dynamo on shore, through a cable to an electric engine 
in the torpedo. The Brennan is driven and controlled by means of 
two fine steel wires wound on reels in the torpedo, the reels being 
geared to the propeller-shafts. The wires are led to corresponding 
reels on shore, and these are rapidly revolved by means of an engine. 
A brake on each shore-reel controls the torpedo. The speed of 
all these torpedoes is about 19 knots, and their eflective range one 
mile. 

A Whitehead was successfully used in the Turco-Russian war of 
1877. The Turkish vessel previously mentioned was sunk by one. 

Blasting gelatine, dynamite, and gun-cotton are capable of many 
applications to engineering purposes on shore in time of war, and in 
most cases they are better than powder. They received the serious 
attention of French engineers during the siege of Paris, and were 
employed in the various sorties which were made from the city, in 
throwing down walls, bursting guns, etc. An explosive for such pur- 
poses, and indeed for most military uses, should satisfy the following- 
conditions : 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 239 

(i) Very shattering in its effects. 

(2) Insensible to shocks of projectiles. 

(3) Plastic. 

(4) Easy and safe to manipulate. 

(5) Easy to insert a fuze. 

(6) Great stability at all natural temperatures and when used in 
wet localities. 

Neither blasting gelatine, dynamite nor gun-cotton fulfill all these 
conditions; but they satisfy many of them, and are more powerful 
than other substances. For the destruction of walls, trees, rails, 
bridges, etc., it is simply necessary to attach to them small bags of 
explosive, which are ignited by means of blasters' fuze and a cap of 
fulminate of mercury, or by an electric fuze. 

We now come to the application of high explosives to warfare in 
the shape of bursting charges for shells. This is the latest phase of 
the problem, and it is undoubtedly fraught with the most important 
consequences to both attack and defense. Difficult as it has been to 
obtain an exact estimate of the force of different explosives under 
water, the problem is far greater out of the water and under the 
ordinary conditions of shell-fire ; the principal obstacle being in the 
fact that it is physically impossible to control the force of large quan- 
tities in order to measure it, and small quantities give irregular 
results. Theoretically, the matter has been accomplished by Berthe- 
lot, the head of the French Government " Commission of Explo- 
sives," by calculating the volume of gas produced, heat developed, 
etc. ; and this method is excellent for obtaining a fair idea of the specific 
pressure of any new explosive that may be brought forward, and 
determining whether it is worth while to investigate it further; but 
the explosives differ so much from each other in point of sensitive- 
ness, weight, physical condition, velocity of explosive wave, influence 
of temperature and humidity, that we cannot determine from mere 
theoretical considerations all that we would like to know. Various 
methods of arriving at comparative values have been tried, but the 
figures are very variable, as will be seen by the following tables. 
Berthelot's commission, some ten years ago, exploded ten to thirty 
grams each in 300-pound blocks of lead, and measured the increased 
size of the hole thus made. The relative result was : 

No. I dynamite i. 

Dry gun-cotton 1.17 

Nitro-glycerine 1.20 

Powder blew out and could not be measured. 



240 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

Mr. R. C. Williams, at the Boston Institute of Technology, in the 
winter of 1888 and 1889, tried the same method, but used six grams 
in forty-five-pound blocks of lead. He obtained a relative result 
of— 

No. I dynamite i . 

Dry gun-cotton i .37 

Nitro-glycerine 2.51 

Explosive gelatine 2.57 

Forcite gelatine 2.7 

Warm nitro-glycerine 2.7 

Gunpowder i 

The powder gave great trouble in this case, also, by blowing out. 

M. Chalon, a FrencH" engineer, obtained some years ago, with a 
small mortar, firing a projectile of thirty kilos and using a charge of 
ten grams of each explosive, the following ranges : 

Metres. 

Blasting powder 2.6 

No. I dynamite 31.4 

Forcite of 75 per cent N. G 43.6 

Blasting gelatine 45. 

Roux and Sarrau obtained, by experiments in bursting small bomb- 
shells, the following comparative strengths of ranges: 

Powder i . 

Gun-cotton 6.5 

Nitro-glycerine lo.o 

In actual blasting work the results vary altogether with the nature 
of the material encountered, and with the result that is desired to be 
accompHshed, viz: throwing out, shattering, or mere displacement. 

Chalon gives for quarrying ; 

Powder i 

Dynamite No. 2, containing 50 per cent nitro-glycerine 3 

For open blasting : 

Dynamite No. 3, containing 30 per cent N. G i.o 

Dynamite No. i, containing 75 per cent N. G 2.5 

Blasting gelatine 3.5 

For tunneling : 

Dynamite No. 3, containing 30 per cent N. G i 

Dynamite No. i, containing 75 per cent N. G 3 

Explosive gelatine 19 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 24I 

Finally, Berthelot's theoretical calculations give a specific pres- 
sure of— 

Powder i 

Dynamite 13 

Gun-cotton 14 

Nitro-glycerine 16 

Blasting gelatine 17 

It will be observed that the practical results vary largely from the 
theoretical values, but they seem to indicate that gun-cotton and 
No. I dynamite are very nearly equal to each other, and that in the 
nitro-glycerine compounds, except where gun-cotton is added, the 
force appears to be nearly in proportion to the nitro-glycerine con- 
tained. From the foregoing it seems fair to estimate roughly the 
values of bursting charges of shells as follows : 

Powder i 

Gun-cotton and dynamite 6 to 10 

Nitro-glycerine 13 to 15 

Blasting gelatine IS to 17 

Attention has been turned in Europe for more than thirty years 
towards firing high explosives in shells ; but it is only within very 
late years that results have been reached which are claimed as satis- 
factory, and it is exceedingly difficult to obtain reliable accounts even 
of these. Dynamite was fired in Sweden in 1867 in small quantities, 
and a few years later it was fired in France. But two difficulties soon 
presented themselves. If the quantity of nitro-glycerine in the 
dynamite was small it could be fired in ordinary shells, but the eifect 
was no better than with gunpowder. If the dynamite was stronger 
in nitro-glycerine, it took but a small quantity to burst the gun. As 
early as 1864, dry gun-cotton was safely fired in shells in small 
quantities, but when a sufficient quantity to fill the shell-cavity was 
used, the gun burst. Some few years ago it was found that if the 
gun-cotton was either wet or soaked in paraffin, it could be fired with 
safety from powder-guns in ordinary shells, provided the quantity was 
small in proportion to the total weight of the shell, (say) five to six 
per cent ; but a new difficulty arises from the fact that it breaks the 
shell up into very small pieces, and it is an unsettled question among 
artillerists whether more damage is done to an enemy by breaking a 
shell into comparatively large pieces and dispersing them a long 
distance with a bursting charge of powder, which has a propulsive 
force, or by breaking it with a detonating compound into fine pieces 



242 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

which are not driven nearly so far. Wheh used against troops there 
is also the objection to the high-explosive shell that it makes scarcely 
any smoke in bursting, and smoke at this point is useful to the artil- 
lerist in rectifying his aim. In the matter of shells for piercing 
armor, however, there are no two opinions regarding the nature of 
the bursting charge. To pierce modern armor at all a shell must be 
made of forged steel, so thick that the capacity of the cavity for the 
bursting charge is reduced to one-fourth or one-fifth of what it is in 
the common shell ; the result is that a charge of powder is frequently 
not powerful enough to burst the shell at all ; it simply blows the 
plug out of the filling-hole in the rear. In addition it is found that 
in passing through armor, the heat generated is so great that the 
powder is prematurely ignited. If then we can fill the small cavity 
in the shell with an explosive which will not ignite prematurely, and 
yec will burst the shell properly after it has passed through the 
armor, the problem will be solved. Wet or paraffined gun-cotton 
can be made sluggish enough to satisfy the first condition ; but at 
present the difficulty is to make it explode at all. The more sluggish 
the gun-cotton, the more powerful must be the fuze -exploders to 
detonate it, and such exploders are themselves liable to premature 
ignition in passing through the armor. The Italians and Germans 
claim to have accomplished the desired result up to a thickness of 
five inches of armor; gun-cotton and fuze both working well. But 
the English authorities say that no one has yet accomplished it. The 
Austrians claim to have succeeded in this direction within the last 
year with a new explosive called ecrastite (supposed to be blasting 
gelatine combined with sulphate or hydrochlorate of ammonia, and 
claimed to be one and one-half times as powerful as dynamite). 
With a gun of 8.24-inch caliber and an armor-piercing shell weigh- 
ing 206.6 pounds, containing a bursting charge of 15.88 pounds of 
ecrastite, they are said to have perforated two plates four inches 
thick, and entered a third four-inch plate where the shell exploded. 
There is a weak point in this account in the fact that the powder 
capacity of the shell is said to be 4.4 pounds. This amount is 
approximately correct, judging from our own eight-inch armor- 
piercing shell ; but if this is true, there could not have been more 
than nine pounds of ecrastite in the shell, instead of sixteen, or else 
there is an exceedingly small proportion of blasting gelatine in 
ecrastite, and if that is the case it is not one and one-half times as 
powerful as dynamite. If it is weak stuff it is probably insensitive ; 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 243 

and even if it were strong, one swallow does not make a summer. 
The English fired quantities of blasting gelatine from a two-inch 
Nordenfeldt gun in 1884, but when they tried it in a 7-inch gun in 
1885, they burst the gun at once. I have only analyzed this Austrian 
case because the statement is taken from this year's annual report of 
the Office of Naval Intelligence, which is an excellent authority, and 
to illustrate the fact that of the thousands of accounts which we see 
in foreign and domestic newspapers concerning the successful use 
of high explosives in shells, fully ninety per cent are totally unre- 
liable. In many cases they are in the nature of a prospectus from 
the inventors of explosives or methods of firing, who are aware of the 
fact that it is almost impossible to dispute any statements that they 
may choose to make regarding the power of their new compounds, 
and thinking, as most of them do, that power alone is required. 

Referring to the qualities that I have previously cited as being 
required in a high explosive for military purposes, it is sooner or 
later found that nearly all the novelties proposed lack some of the 
essentials, and soon disappear from the advertising world only to be 
succeeded by others. The most common defect is lack of keeping 
qualities. They will either absorb moisture or will evaporate; or 
further chemical action will go on among the constituents, making 
them dangerously sensitive or completely inert, or they will sepa- 
rate mechanically according to their specific gravities. 

For further clearness on the subject of the shell-charges which have 
so far been discussed, the following table is added of weight and 
sizes of shells for U. S. naval guns, with their bursting charges of 
powder : 

6-inch com. cast-steel shell 2l4. to 4 cal. long, wt. 100 lbs., charge 6 lbs. 

8 « «' " " " 250 " i^yi " 

10 " " " «« " 500 " 27 " 

12 " " " '« " 850 " 45 

ARMOR-PIERCING FORGED STEEL SHELL. 

6-inch, 3 calibers long, weight 100 lbs., charge i^ lbs. 
8 «' « " 250 " 3 

10 " " " 500 " sVi " 

12 " " " 850 " II " 

The chief efficiency of small quantities of high explosives having 
reduced itself to the case of armor-piercing projectiles, it next 
became evident that there was an entirely new field for high explo- 



244 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

sives into which powder had entered but little, and this was the intro- 
duction of huge torpedo-shells which did not rely for their efficiency 
upon the dispersion of the pieces of shell, but upon the devastating 
force of the bursting charge itself upon everything within the radius 
of its explosive effect. It is in this field that we may look for the 
most remarkable results, and it is here that the absolute power of the 
explosive thrown is of the utmost importance, provided that it can 
be safely used. Attention was at once turned in Europe to the manu- 
facture of large projectiles with great capacity for bursting charges, 
and it has resulted in the production of a class of shells 4^ to 6 
calibers long, with walls only .4 of an inch thick. (If they are made 
thinner, they will swell and jam in the gun when fired.) 

These shells are used in long guns up to 6 and 8i inches caliber, 
and in mortars up to 11. 2 inch. They are made from disks of steel, 
3 to 4 feet in diameter and i inch thick, and are forced into shape by 
hydraulic presses. The base is usually screwed in, but some 'of the 
German shell are made in two halves which screw together. The 
Italians were the first in this new field of investigation, but the Ger- 
mans soon followed, and after trying various materials, were at length 
reasonably successful with gun-cotton soaked in paraffin. Their 
8.4-inch mortar shells of 5 calibers contain 42 pounds ; those of 6 
calibers contain 57 pounds; and the 11.2-inch mortar shells of 5 
calibers contain no pounds. 

The projectile velocity used with the mortars is about 800 f. s. 
The effect of these shells against ordinary masonry and earth forti- 
fications is very great. The charge of forty-two pounds has broken 
through a masonry vault of three feet, four inches thick, covered with 
two feet, eight inches of cement, and with three to five feet of earth 
over all. The shell containing fifty-seven pounds, at a range of two 
and one-half miles, broke through a similar vault covered with ten 
feet of earth ; but with seventeen feet of earth the vault resisted. In 
1883, experiments at Kummersdorf showed that a shell containing 
the fifty-seven-pound charge would excavate in sand a crater sixteen 
feet in diameter and eight feet deep, with a capacity of twenty-two 
cubic yards. The Italians have had similar experiences; but it is 
notable that in both Germany and Italy several guns and mortars 
have burst. The velocity in the guns is not believed to exceed 1200 
to 1300 f. s., and it is not thought that the quantity of gun-cotton is 
as great in the gun-shells as in the mortars. I have lately been 
informed on good authority that the use of gun-cotton shells has 
been abandoned in the German navy as too dangerous. 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 245 

The French, in their investigations in this field, found gun-cotton 
too inconvenient, and decided upon melenite. This substance has 
probably attracted more attention in the military world than all 
others combined, on account of the fabulous qualities that have been 
ascribed to it. Its composition was for a long time entirely a secret ; 
but it is now thought to consist principally of picric acid, which is 
formed by the action of nitric acid upon phenol or phenyllic 
alcohol, a constituent of coal-tar. The actual nature of melenite is 
not positively known, as the French government, after buying it 
from the inventor, Turpin, are said to have added other articles and 
improved it. This is probable, since French experiments in firing 
against a partially armored vessel, the Bellequesne, developed an 
enormous destructive effect, while the English, who afterwards 
bought it, conducted similar experiments against the Resistance and 
obtained no better results than with powder. The proof that the 
Bellequesne experiments were deemed of great value by the French 
lies in the fact that they immediately laid down a frigate — Dupuy de 
Lome — in which four-inch armor is used, not only on the side, but 
about the gun-stations, to protect the men; this thickness having 
been found sufficient to keep out melenite shell. In most armor- 
clads the armor is very heavy about the vitals, but the guns are 
frequently much exposed. 

The best authenticated composition for melenite consi3ts of picric 
acid, gun-cotton and gum-arabic, and lately it is stated that the 
French have added cresilite to it. Cresilite is another product of 
coal-tar. Melenite is normally only three times as strong as gun- 
powder, but it is said to owe its destructive qualities in shells to the 
powerful character of the exploder which ignites it. It has been 
known for some years that all explosives (including gunpowder) are 
capable of two orders of explosion, according as they are merely 
ignited or excited by a weak fuze, or as they are powerfully shocked 
by a more vigorous excitant. Fulminate of mercury has been found 
most serviceable for the latter purpose. With melenite the French 
have reproduced all the results that the Germans have eflfected with 
gun-cotton, and have found that a shell containing 119 pounds of it 
will penetrate nearly ten feet of solid cement, but will not penetrate 
armored turrets six to eight inches thick. The French claim that 
melenite has an advantage over gun-cotton in not being so dangerous 
to handle and being insensible to shock or friction, and they have 
obtained a velocity of 1300 f. s. with the 8.8-inch mortar, and claim 



246 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

to have obtained 2000 f. s. in long guns up to 6.2-inch caliber. 
However this may be, they are known to have had severe accidents 
at the manufactory at Belfort, and at least one 5.6-inch gun was burst 
at the Bellequesne experiments in firing a sixty-six-pound shell con- 
taining twenty-eight pounds of melenite. The French are said to 
have large quantities of melenite shells in store, but they are not 
issued to service. 

Probably one reason why we have so many conflicting yet positive 
accounts of great successes in Europe with torpedo-shells is because 
each nation wishes its neighbors to think that it is prepared for all 
eventuaHties, and they are obliged to keep on hand large quantities 
of some explosive, whether they have confidence in it or not. For- 
tunately we are not so situated, but, singularly enough, what we 
have done in the field of high-explosive projection has been accom- 
plished by private enterprise, and we have attacked the problem at 
exactly the opposite point from which European nations have under- 
taken it. While they have assumed that the powder-gun with its 
powerful and relatively irregular pressures was a necessity, and have 
endeavored to modify the explosive to suit it, we have taken the 
explosive as we have found it, and have adapted the gun to the 
explosive. At present the prominent weapon in this new field is 
the pneumatic gun, but it is obvious that steam, carbonic acid 
gas, ammonia, or any other moderate and regulatable pressure 
can be used as well as compressed air ; it is merely a question of 
mechanical convenience. In throwing small quantities of certain 
high explosives, powder-guns can be used satisfactorily, but when 
large quantities are required, the mechanical system of guns possesses 
numerous advantages. All the high explosives are subject to pre- 
mature detonation by shock ; each of them is supposed to have its 
own peculiar shock to which it is sensitive, but what this shock may 
be is at present unknown. We do know, however, that premature 
explosions in guns are more liable to occur when the charge in the 
shell is large than when it is small ; this is due to the fact that when 
the gun is fired, the inertia of the charge in the shell is overcome by 
a pressure proportional to the mass and acceleration, which pressure 
is communicated to the shell-charge by the rear surface of the cavity, 
and the pressure per unit of mass will vary inversely as this surface. 
If then the quantity of explosive in the shell forms a large proportion 
of the total weight of the shell, we approach in powder-guns a con- 
dition of shock to it which is always dangerous and frequently fatal. 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 247 

The pressure behind the projectile varies from twelve to fifteen tons 
per square inch, but it is liable to rise to seventeen and eighteen tons, 
and in the present state of the manufacture of gunpowder we cannot 
in ordinary guns regulate it nearer than that. It is not a matter of 
so much importance so far as the guns are concerned, when using 
ordinary projectiles, as the gun will endure a pressure of from 
twenty-five to thirty tons per square inch ; but with high explosives 
in the shell it is a vitally serious matter. From all I can learn 
regarding European practice, it appears that not only are the explo- 
sives made sluggish, but the quantity seldom exceeds thirty per 
cent of the weight of the shell, and the velocities, notwithstanding, 
are kept very low. In the pneumatic gun the velocity is low also, 
but so is the pressure in the gun. The pressure in the firing reser- 
voir is kept at the relatively low figure of 1000 pounds per square 
inch or less, and the air is admitted to the chamber of the gun by a 
balance-valve which cuts off just the quantity of air (within a very 
few pounds) that is required to make the shot. The gun is long, 
and advantage is taken of the expansion of the air. In no case can 
the pressure rise in the gun beyond that in the reservoir. 

Up to the present time there have been no accidents in using the 
most powerful explosives in their natural state, and in quantities 
over fifty per cent of the weight of the projectile. I have seen pro- 
jectiles weighing 950 pounds, and containing 500 pounds of explo- 
sives (300 pounds of the blasting gelatine and 200 pounds of No. i 
dynamite) thrown nearly a mile and exploded after disappearing 
under water. According to Gen. Abbot's formula, such a projectile 
would have sunk any armor-clad floating within forty-seven feet of 
where it struck. Apparently there is no limit to the percentage of 
explosive that can be placed in the shell, except the mechanical one 
of having the walls thick enough to prevent being crushed by the 
shock of discharge. In the large projectiles a transverse diaphragm 
is introduced to strengthen the walls and to subdivide the charge. 

The development of the pneumatic gun has been attended with 
some other important discoveries which may be of interest. It is 
well known that mortar fire is very inaccurate, except at fixed long 
distances, in consequence of the high angle, the slowness of flight of 
the projectile, the variability of the powder pressure, and the inability 
to change the elevation and the charge of powder rapidly. In the 
pneumatic gun, the complete control of the pressure remedies the 
most important of the mortar's defects, and makes the fire accurate 



248 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

from long ranges down to within a few yards of the gun. It is 
obvious that the pressure can be usefully controlled in two ways : 
(i) by keeping the elevation of the gun fixed, and using a valve that 
can be set to cut off any quantity of air according to the range 
desired; (2) by keeping the pressure in the reservoir constant, 
and using a valve which will cut off the same quantity of air every 
time, changing the elevation of the gun according to the distance. 
Another important discovery consists in the application of sub- 
calibered projectiles for obtaining increased range. The gun is 
smoothbored, and a full-sized projectile is a cylinder with hemi- 
spherical ends, to the rear of which is attached a shaft having metal 
vanes placed at an angle, which cause the projectile to revolve round 
its longer axis during flight. A sub-calibered projectile, however, 
being of less diameter than the bore of the gun, has the vanes on 
its exterior, and is held in the axis of the gun by means of gas- 
checks which drop off as the projectile leaves the muzzle. The 
shock to the explosive is, of course, greater than in the full-sized 
projectile, but the increase can be calculated, and so far a dan- 
gerous limit has not been reached. From the fifteen-inch gun, with 
a pressure of 1000 pounds per square inch, and a velocity of about 
800 f. s., a range of 4000 yards has been obtained at an elevation of 
30° 20, with a ten-inch sub-calibered projectile, about eight calibers 
long and weighing 500 pounds. This projectile will contain 220 
pounds of blasting gelatine. With improved full-sized projectiles 
weighing 1000 pounds, a range of 2500 j'^ards will doubtless be 
obtained. At elevations below 15° these long projectiles are liable 
to ricochet, and what is now wanted is a projectile which will stay 
under water at all angles of fall, and will run parallel to the surface 
like a locomotive torpedo. Such a projectile has yet to be invented ; 
but I have seen a linked shell which has been experimented with 
from a nine-inch powder-gun that partially meets this condition. 
It is made of several sections, united by means of rope or electric 
wire in lengths of 100 or 150 feet. When fired, all sections remain 
together for some distance ; the rear section then first begins to 
separate; then the next, and so on. It is primarily intended to 
envelop an enemy's vessel, and to remedy the present uncertainty 
of elevation in a gun mounted in a pitching boat ; but it is found 
that when it strikes the water in its lengthened-out condition, it will 
neither dive nor ricochet, but will continue for some distance just 
under the surface until all momentum is lost, when it will sink. This 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 249 

projectile is at present crude, and has never been tried loaded, but 
it will probably be developed into something useful in time. 

I have confined my remarks in the foregoing discussion principally 
to such methods of using high explosives in shells as have proved 
themselves successful beyond an experimental degree, and prac- 
tically they reduce themselves to two, viz : using a sluggish explo- 
sive in small quantities from an ordinary powder-gun, and using any 
explosive from a pneumatic or other mechanical gun. Naturally, 
the success of the latter method will soon induce the manufacture of 
powders having an abnormally low maximum pressure. There is 
undoubtedly a field for the use of such powders in connection with 
an air-space in the gun to still further regulate the pressure; but 
nothing of this sort has yet been attempted. Many methods of 
padding the shell have been devised for reducing the shock in 
powder-guns, but the variability of the powder-pressure is too great 
to have yet rendered any such method successful. A method was 
' patented by Gruson, in Germany, of filling a shell with the two 
harmless constituents of an explosive, and having them unite and 
explode by means of a fulminate fuze on striking an object. He 
used for the constituents nitric acid and dinitro-benzine, and was 
quite successful ; but the system has not met with favor on account of 
the inconvenience. The explosive was about four times as powerful 
as gunpowder. 

That the advantage of using the most powerful explosives is a real 
one can be easily shown. The eight-inch pneumatic gun in New 
York harbor, with a projectile containing fifty pounds of blasting 
gelatine and five pounds of dynamite, easily sunk a schooner at 
1864 yards range, from the torpedo effect of the shell falling along- 
side of it. This same shell, if filled with gunpowder, would have 
contained but twenty-five pounds, and have had but one-ninth the 
power. 

The principal European nations are now building armored turrets 
sunk in enormous masses of cement, as a result of their experiences 
with gun-cotton and melenite. The fifteen-inch pneumatic projectile, 
which I described as being capable of sinking an armor-clad at forty- 
seven feet from where it struck, would have been capable of pene- 
trating fifty feet of cement had it struck upon a fortification. It was 
not only a much larger quantity of high explosive than Europeans 
have experimented with, but the explosive itself is probably more 
than twice as strong as their gun-cotton, and five or six times as 



250 HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 

Strong as their melenite. In the plans of Gen. Brialmont, one of the 
most eminent of European engineers, he allows in his fortifications 
about ten feet of cement over casements, magazines, etc. It is evident 
that this is insufficient for dynamite shells such as I have described. 

At Fort Wagner, a sand work built during our war, Gen. Gilmore 
estimated that he threw one pound of metal for every 3.27 pounds 
of sand removed. He fired over 122,230 pounds of metal, and one 
night's work would have repaired the damage. The new fifteen-inch 
pneumatic shell will contain 600 pounds of blasting gelatine, and 
judging from the German experiments at Kummersdorf, which I have 
cited, one of these fifteen-inch shells would throw out a prodigious 
quantity of sand; either 500 pounds to one of shell, or 2000 pounds 
to one of shell, according as the estimate of Gen. Abbot or of Capt. 
Zalinski is used. The former considers that the radius of destructive 
effect increases as the square root of the charge ; the latter, that the 
area of destructive effect for this kind of work is directly proportional 
to the charge. 

The effect of the high explosives upon horizontal armor is very 
great, but we have yet to learn how to make it shatter vertical 
armor. No fact about high explosives is more curious than this, and 
there is no theory to account for it satisfactorily. As previously 
stated, the French have found that four inches of vertical armor is 
ample to keep out the largest melenite shells, and experiments at 
Annapolis, in 1884, showed that masses of dynamite No. i, weighing 
from 75 to 100 pounds, could be detonated with impunity when hung 
against a vertical target composed of a dozen one-inch iron plates 
bolted together. 

In conclusion, I may say that in this country we are prone to think 
that the perfection of the methods of throwing high explosives in 
shell is vastly in favor of an unprotected nation like ourselves, because 
we could easily make it very uncomfortable for any vessels that 
might attempt to bombard our sea-coast cities. 

This is true as far as it goes, but unfortunately the use of high 
explosives will not stop there. I lately had explained to me the 
details of a system which is certainly not impossible for damaging 
New York from the sea by means of dynamite balloons. The 
inventor simply proposed to take advantage of the sea-breeze which 
blows toward New York every summer's afternoon and evening. 
Without ever coming in sight of land, he could locate his vessel in 
such a position that his balloons would float directly over the city 



HIGH EXPLOSIVES IN WARFARE. 25! 

and let fall a ton or two of dynamite by means of clock-work attach- 
ment. The inventor had all the minor details very plausibly worked 
out, such as locating by means of pilot balloons the air-currents at 
the proper height for the large balloons, automatic arrangements for 
keeping the balloon at the proper height after it was let go from the 
vessel, and so on. His scheme is nothing but the idea of the drifting 
or cufrent torpedo, which was so popular during our war, transferred 
to the upper air. An automatic flying-machine would be one step 
farther than this inventor's idea, and would be an exact parallel in 
the air to the much dreaded locomotive water-torpedo of to-day. 
There seems to be no limit to the possibilities of high explosives 
when intelligently applied to the warfare of the future, and the 
advantage will always be on the side of the nation that is best pre- 
pared to use them. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, M D. 



PROPOSED DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE 

NAVY, WITH BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE 

ARDOIS NIGHT SYSTEM. 

By Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. N. 



There seems to be some probability of a large fleet being assem- 
bled this summer to carry out a programme of manoeuvres on our 
coast, and this may be an opportune moment to call attention to 
certain deficiencies in our means of communicating between different 
vessels and between the different divisions of a fleet. 

Very little advance has been made in recent years in the navy in 
the matter of signalling, except in the development of various 
systems utilizing the electric light. Certainly, in the wig-wag code, 
we have taken a step backwards in the adoption of the American 
Morse alphabet. The writer is unaware of the reasons which led 
originally to changing the superb Meyer one, two, wig-wag code for 
the English Morse, but it is commonly credited in the service that 
the English Morse was superseded by the even less desirable Amer- 
ican Morse, now in use, because the signal corps of our army use 
the last-named, and it seemed desirable for both services to have the 
same code. If that is the case, we have crippled ourselves in con- 
sideration of a very remote advantage. The American code is used 
by all operators in the United States, excepting for most exceptional 
purposes, and there is an evident advantage in the army signal cqrps 
adopting it. With us, the space in the letters c, r, o,y and z, and in 
the conjunctive "and," is undesirable in the wig-wag, awkward in 
night flashing, and very difficult in fog-whistle signals. However, 
we must make the most of it. We have the American Morse code, 
and we must try to overcome the difficulties it presents in actual 
service, although a return to the Meyer code would not be unwel- 
come to the navy at large. 



254 DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 

The qualities to be sought in any method or device for trans- 
mitting signals of any kind between ships are simplicity, rapidity, 
reliability and distinctness. As we increase the distance between 
the sender and the observer, we find it necessary to exaggerate the 
quaHty of distinctness, at the expense not only of rapidity, but usually 
of simplicity. Indeed, as between short-distance and distant sig- 
nalling, different methods of transmission are found to be necessary. 
For instance, our largest signal-flags are eleven feet, and, even with 
them, in from three and one-half to four miles we have the limits of 
distinctness, as the colors blend ; hence we must resort to some other 
method of long-distance day-signalling. Similarly, where hoists ol 
lights are used at night, the lights blend at not very great distances, 
and we must resort to some other means. It will, indeed, be found 
necessary to have for all day, night, and even fog signals, a different 
device for long-distance signalling than that used at more or less 
short distances. 

Any system which is proposed must take into consideration the 
immense differences in the rig and type of the various ships likely to 
compose a squadron. For instance, as between the Miantonomoh, 
Enterprise, Philadelphia, Vesuvius, and Gushing, the differences in 
the rigs and sizes of the vessels must necessarily limit the usefulness 
of any system apparently of great merit, judged in its applicability 
to one type of vessel alone. 

DAY SIGNALS. 

There are four conditions of service under which a hoist system of 
flags fails. One is where the flags fly edge-on to the observer; 
another is in a dead calm ; a third is where the sender is in the glare 
of the sun between the receiver and the sun ; and a fourth is at long 
distances where the colors blend. Now, with the eleven-foot flags 
it is possible at great distances to make out the shapes of the flags 
in a hoist (as between square flags and pennants) without being at 
all ^ble to distinguish the colors. It therefore appears possible, by 
the use of various shapes in a hoist, to increase the range of visibility 
very materially over the present limit of flags, which limit is from 
three and one-half to four miles. This is a much-talked-of and fre- 
quently suggested method of overcoming these difficulties. The 
objections to using shapes are: i. They take up too much room for 
stowage ; 2. they are rather unwieldy and heavy ; and 3. to be light 
enough they are seldom strong enough to retain their shape in ser- 



DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 255 

vice. They possess, however, the supreme advantage of visibihty 
at very long distances, and there are conditions in time of war which 
seem to demand a system of long-range day-signals such as in one 
or more vessels as scouts or pickets for a fleet, or in blockading 
a port or an enemy with long distances between vessels of the block- 
ading squadron, etC|^ In Plate I is given an arrangement of shapes 
from which a code may be selected. Figs, i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are sug- 
gested as alternates, or for code indicators, although to prevent the 
multiplication of shapes it might be well to indicate a telegraphic or 
geographical signal by the ist, 2d or 3d repeater hoisted over a 
signal, or displayed at a yard-arm or mast-head accordingly as the 
hoist is at the mast-head or yard-arm respectively. Just as satisfac- 
tory a way to indicate code signals would be to have numbers added 
to the general signal-book to indicate " the code to be used in reading 
the signals which follow." The necessity for the use of shapes for 
distant signalling might be rare, but it is an open question whether 
or not they should (in smaller sizes) replace for all purposes flags as 
hoist signals. In a calm, or head to a fresh breeze where the flags 
appear edge-on, or in the glare of the sun, they would be visible 
where the flags fail. As regards the materials of which shapes could 
be made, that is a matter for experiment. Were aluminum cheaper 
the solution would be easy. Paper squeezes might be made hard 
enough to offer sufficient resistance to abrasion or destruction in 
ordinary service. As a matter of fact, steel wire frames and canvas 
coverings are most probably the best materials. The shapes should 
be painted black or green, and each should be a figure formed by 
the revolution of a symmetrical body about that axis which is to be 
vertical in the hoist. In this way the shape presents the same appear- 
ance to observers at all points of the horizon. 

A revised set of hoist signal-flags is being experimented with in 
the Squadron of Evolution. A yellow flag with a black ball in the 
center is substituted for the old No. 2 (white), in the interests of 
visibility ; the repeaters are changed slightly ; the geographical 
pennant (blue) becomes an assent flag ; a negative is added ; the 
despatch flag is used to replace the geographical pennant, and a new 
danger flag is substituted. These changes are, however, not so 
important in themselves as is the definite adoption of almost any set 
of flags for all ships in the navy. Once adopted, there is little need 
for change, unless to discard the whole system in favor of the use of 
shapes. There is much to be said on both sides, but the balance 
seems to be in favor of the shapes. 



256 DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 

FOG SIGNALS. 

To illustrate the disadvantages of the space in some of the letters 
of the American Morse code as applied to the fog-whistle, if the 
syllables ele, Hi, eli, ile, sle or els occur, there is no way to distinguish 
them from the simple letters o,y, r, c, z or arn^. Furthermore, as 
far as there is any official order in the matter, the general call is a 
sixty-second blast ; a dot lasts less than five seconds ; a dash, from 
five to ten seconds ; and a long dash, front, or space, fifteen seconds. 
At this rate, with expert signalmen, five minutes would be good time 
in transmitting a change of compass course. It is drawing too fine 
a distinction, and above all consumes too much time to grade the 
lengths of the blasts as above in order to distinguish between a dot, 
a dash, a long dash, a space, and a call. The following changes are 
needed : Reduce the general call from sixty to thirty seconds ; 
reduce the dot to one full second ; make the dash with two toots, 
each a full second, but with only a half-second between them ; use 
a four-second blast for a space, and a ten-second blast for the letter 
/ or the numeral o. Care must be taken to distinguish between the 
letter /, which is two dots (toots), and /, which is two dots or toots 
with a half-second interval. To facilitate using the whistle, make fast 
the whistle-cord about one foot from the end of a squeeze handle, 
and work the handle as a lever, securing one end as the fulcrum, and 
applying the hand as the power at the other. In this way one can 
manipulate the whistle systematically. It has been suggested in the 
service that squadrons should practice as in a fog at sea, by enclosing 
the captain, officer of deck, and man at the wheel in a canvas screen, 
so that they cannot see around at all, and exercise with whistle, 
etc., as in actually steaming in a fog. It would be excellent 
practice, and is needed to familiarize people with the new code and 
its difficulties. The North Atlantic squadron has been about the 
only one, up to recently, where much squadron cruising has been 
carried on, and some years ago. with the Meyer code, no difficulties 
were experienced in the least in certain forms of tactical drill in 
foggy weather. 

Distant signalling in a fog beyond the limits of audibihty of the 
steam whistle can only be carried on by gun-fire. In this case it is 
impossible to make a dash by a prolonged sound, and it should be 
represented by two blasts with a full f -second interval, and a space 
by three successive fires with a full |-second interval between each. 



DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 257 

The revolving cannon seems to offer the best solution. As the con- 
tinued firing of a single gun is a generally recognized international 
signal of distress, the general call should be a dot, dash arrangement, 
say five dots and five dashes, alternating, first one dot then a dash, etc. 

NIGHT SIGNALS. 

In the matter of visibility the Very's system of night signals leaves 
nothing to be desired. It can be used with accuracy up to ten miles 
or more under favorable conditions, and is unexcelled. There are 
certain modifications that experience calls for. In the first place, 
the pistols are miserably poor affairs. It has been suggested that 
short double-barreled breech -loading shot-guns be issued as pro- 
jectors. They have been used in the service and been found to work 
admirably. In the next place, the original code, involving the 
bracket in certain numerals, should be changed for a four-element 
code. The bracket leads to too much embarrassment, in that, if one 
of the cartridges fails to go off, it involves repeating from the begin- 
ning. With a four-element code, if a cartridge fails to go off, one can 
keep on trying at least for two minutes to get another one off, as the 
ammunition would have to be almost worthless to cause a repetition 
of the message on account of over two minutes' delay between fires. 

The four-element code now used in the Squadron of Evolution 
and the North Atlantic squadron should be issued for general 
service. It is as follows : 

General Call, G followed by rocket. 

Message Call, G. (The message call is to be habitually used as a 
general call when the ships are within ordinary signal distance.) 

iRRRR 2GGGG 

3RRRG 4GGGR 

5RRGG 6GGRR 

7RGGG 8GRRR 

9RGGR oGRRG 

Answering, G Repeat, R 

Divisional point, date pennant and designating 

flag G G R G 

Interrogatory pennant RGRR 

Affirmative or " yes " pennant R G R G 

Negative or " no" pennant G R G R 

Numeral pennant GRGG 



258 DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 

Annulling pennant R R G R 

Danger or distress..., R repeated. 

Telegraph flag (R G) bracketed. 

Geographical pennant (R G) bracketed. 

followed by rocket. 

Use Navy List ...(R G) (R G) 

bracketed in pairs. 

While this code involves longer time to work than the original 
three-element one, in the end it saves time through the non-liability 
of having to repeat. The telegraphic, geographical, and navy list 
designations contain brackets, but as these precede a numeral signal, 
the correction of the failure of one color in a bracket is quickly 
accomplished by beginning over. With a better projector than the 
present pistol, and, using the four-element code, the Very's system 
possesses for distant signalling the ideal qualities of visibility and 
certainty. It is, however, too slow for tactical and routine squadron 
signalling at moderate distances. The Squadron of Evolution is 
using at present the Ardois system of night signals, and a brief 
description of it may not here be out of place. The method of sling- 
ing the cable containing the wires leading to the lamps, and of sus- 
pending the lamps aloft, is shown in Plate II. The cable is seized at 
intervals to a backstay, or a special wire-stay, to take the strain, and 
the lanterns themselves are suspended on Scotchmen, which are 
seized to the cable, and further supported by a distance-line from 
the lantern next above. There are five lanterns, each double, as 
shown in section in Plate III, and each containing two 32-candle 
incandescent lamps. The outer globe, or lens, of the lantern is in 
two colors, the upper half being white and the lower red, separated 
on the inside by a brass diaphragm. In any display of lights only 
one light in a lantern is shown, that is, the light is either red or 
white, but never both red and white in the same lantern. Practi- 
cally, the Ardois code admits of a display at any one time of from 
one to five lights, any one of which may be red or white. The wires 
of the cable lead to a box, circular in shape, and divided on its upper 
face into sixty-four segments. A top view of the box is shown in 
Plate III. Each segment corresponds to a certain display of lights 
which is indicated on the face of the box in that segment by dots, 
colored red or white to correspond. In the center of the box, and 
in the same plane as the whole top disc, is the circular turn-table, 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 2. 



Plate I. 




PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 2. 



PJale II. 




PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII.. No. 



Plate III. 




Diaphragm rj^JJ^ ARDOIS KEY-BOARD. 

(Brass). 

(Rough Sketch.) 



noo 


Ota 








1 R 


1 R 


R 


» R 


J R 


W 


• W 


c W 


« W 


• W 


»C 


«C 


« C 


i C 


C 




[PROPOSED LAMP 
(Sectional View.) 



Proposed Key-Board tliat will accomplish all that the 
Ardois will and which is adaptable to almost any other 
code, such as Very's Night and English and American 
Morse Code.s, etc. Scale one-half of above. 



DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 259 

a, carrying with it the pointer, c, and the vertical cylinder, d. When 
it is desired to display a letter, say A, the pointer, c, is brought 
opposite the segment marked A. When the catch, b, slips into a 
space abreast d, the only thing that remains to be done to make the 
display (in this case red, white, red) is to turn the handle, e, through 
90°. The act of turning the handle, <?, is to revolve the central ver- 
tical axis in the cylinder, d, which thrusts out ten little pistons, which 
make contact with such terminals as will light up the proper lamps, 
so that, in this case, the lamps would show red, white, red. Dis- 
plays are read from the bottom upwards. The general call is the so- 
called cornet, a red and two whites. There are five code-calls which 
indicate which code to use. " Gen " means the general signal-book ; 
"Letters," the Ardois alphabet; "Compass," a compass signal; 
" Cypher," a special code, etc. Every display of lights is answered 
by the ship receiving turning on the same display, each keeping it 
on until the sender turns off, which is not done by the sender until 
all repeat. In case a ship is so situated as not to be able to see the 
display or one or more of the lights of the sending ship, this observer 
takes the signal from some other ship and repeats it. In this way 
absolute certainty that a message has been accurately received is 
attained. It is quite a rapid system of signalling when the fact is 
taken into consideration that, through repeating back the signal, 
certainty is assured, and the method can be adapted to other codes 
and systems. The signals are visible, under favorable circumstances, 
up to about three miles. As a summary, it may Be said that the 
Ardois theoretically possesses the advantages of certainty, mobility, 
rapidity, and visibility for night signalling in squadron. Practically, 
there are certain mechanical defects, which, however, admit of cor- 
rection. Owing to sparking and the consequent fusing or burning 
of the pistons or contact-studs which are thrust out from the 
cylinder, d, when the handle, e, is turned, a good deal of overhaul- 
ing of the signal-box is necessary. The use of platinum contacts 
would obviate this. There is a serious defect, also, in the lanterns, 
in the inability to shift a lamp readily in case a filament is destroyed 
by burning out or otherwise. Some change could be made in the 
lantern to meet this objection, and the quality of certainty be practi- 
cally as well as theoretically secured. 

There are, however, some serious objections to the use of the 
Ardois system in our service, i. It is ever so much too complicated 
mechanically, and the same advantages which it offers can be ob- 



26o DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 

tained much more simply. 2. Each outfit costs about $1800, where 
a much less expensive device will accomplish all that it will, and 
admit of being readily overhauled in case of faulty circuits, whereas 
the Ardois cable is difficult to test out or repair. 3. It introduces a 
new alphabet, numerals, and signal code generally, whereas a similar 
but much simpler device will admit of the use of the American 
Morse alphabet and the Very's code. 

The device here proposed is shown in Plates II and III, and may 
be described in general terms as follows : It consists of five groups 
of three lights each, the groups being spaced about five yards apart, 
and each group consisting of a red, a white, and a green light. The 
wires running to the lights lead through a long tube, put together 
in sections, which will admit of shortening the distances between 
groups for special ships, and also admit of readily overhauling the 
leading wire circuits in case of the development of faults. There 
are, in all, fifteen lights, which, with a common return, would give 
sixteen wires in the tube. The insulation of the leading wires should 
be colored red, white, or green, according to the color of the light it 
operates, and marked with the proper number on a brass tag. The 
inside of the tube should be coated with shellac to prevent the 
grounding of any wire that might by accident be bared of its insu- 
lation. 

The wires should lead to a key-board, conveniently located. A 
rough sketch of the plan for this is shown in Plate III. The keys 
should be thos^of the ordinary kind used in turning on and off an 
incandescent light or a branch circuit, and should be arranged in five 
sets of three each to correspond with the lights aloft, so that the 
keys for the top lights should be on the left of the key-board and in 
the same order as they are aloft, viz. red, white, and green. A 
switch controls the current, and it is not thrown on until the proper 
keys have been turned on the board to make the desired display 
aloft. Then the switch is turned and all the desired lights appear 
simultaneously, and should be kept on until answered by the same 
display from all ships receiving. The display should be read from 
the top downwards, just as a hoist of flags would be read, and not 
from the bottom up, as in the Ardois. It must be remembered that 
in the last-named system the central turn-table must be revolved 
each time until the pointer comes opposite the desired letter or char- 
acter, then the catch, b, must be sprung, and finally the handle, e, 
turned through 90°. Certainly, in the time which is taken by this 



DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 261 

operation, a display could be made by the proposed system, for it 
only requires rapidly turning certain keys and then throwing on a 
switch. Above the key-board, over each set of keys, should be a 
group of very small low-resistance lamps, colored the same as the 
lights to which they correspond aloft, and so arranged that, as a key 
is turned, its tell-tale miniature light would instantly show with its 
proper color. The display above the key-board would be the index 
of the correctness of the signal which is about to be displayed aloft 
when the switch is thrown on. This will obviate mistakes due to 
accidentally turning a wrong key, and admit of placing the key-board 
well under cover where the real display is not visible to the sender 
or operator. 

The proposed lamp is shown in Plate III. The longer the arm, 
a, the less the tube, <?, however large it may have to be, will cut off 
the light from an observer who has the tube in line with the light. 
The arm, a, also admits of having the lamp vertical, which helps it 
to shed water. The globe, c, is red, white, or green, accordingly as 
we wish, and it is open below to admit of readily shifting the lamp 
in case of a broken filament. The globe is held in place by a hinged 
collar, d, which tightly clamps it in place. It is a simple matter to 
hoist a man in a boatswain's chair. to shift a light or replace a broken 
globe, and the proposed arrangement of lamp and globe admits of 
both being cleaned readily. 

To make a signal according to the Very four-element code : Say 
the signal is 1239. Make the message-call by showing the upper 
green light until answered. Display four reds, and when all answer 
with four reds, turn off; then four greens, etc.; then three reds and 
a green, etc. The advantages of this system are that a signal can 
thus be sent in one-fourth the time that it can be by firing the colored 
lights ; and, by each ship repeating, no mistake in receiving is pos- 
sible. Hence for squadron purposes at ordinary distances the gain 
is an immense one. To make a bracket, display the upper red and 
the second green; to make two brackets, display the upper red, 
second green, fourth red, and lowest green. This will leave a space 
between the brackets. To make a bracket and a rocket, use the 
upper bracket, followed by white, green, and red ; in other words, 
make a rocket by a display of white, green, red. It will be observed 
that in this device for signalling with the Very's four-element numeral 
code, we have to use only four lights at one time, and if for any 
reason a light fails, and it happens to be either a red or green of 



262 DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 

either the uppermost or the lowest group of lights, we still have four 
reds or greens to work with. In other words, there are two chances 
in five of not being blocked temporarily by a failure of a light. In 
the cases cited of uppermost or lowest red or green failing, it does 
not block us in the double bracket or the bracket and rocket, for we 
can always make the alphabetical signal, G. L. U. (geographical list 
use), or N. L. U. (navy list use). 

To use the American Morse alphabet : This grouping of lights 
proposed answers admirably for the service wig-wag code and over- 
comes all difficulties. No letter has more than five elements. Call 
a white light a dot, a green a space, and a red a dash. It will be 
observed that in the alphabet there are spaces only between dots, 
hence the green light will only be displayed with whites. For 
instance, jj/ would be two whites, green, and two whites; k would be 
red, white, and red. Now the numeral codeof the American Morse 
contains one numeral, 6, with six dots. We have provided already 
for the numeral code in the Very's signals. To use it for wig-wag 
numerals, display the uppermost white light over the Very four- 
element numeral, and this will signify that the Very numeral, which 
appears under it, is to be read as a simple numeral. An " error" is 
seven dots, and this should be changed to five reds. There yet 
remains one additional feature of this proposed device which must 
commend itself. If any light fails so as to apparently block a signal, 
we have always recourse to the other two lights of the set in which 
the break occurs. For instance, if the red hght fails, display both 
the green and white; if the white fails, the green and red; if the 
green fails, the red and white. This is the only case in which 
two lights of the same set are displayed simultaneously. At long 
distances the two lights will blend, as they are only a foot apart, but 
an adjacent ship seeing the break will interpret correctly. In tactical 
signals speed of signalling is everything, next to certainty, and in any 
case we always have the pistols or firing code to fail back on, but in 
a squadron at tactical distance there would be no difficulty up to 
half a mile in seeing the two lights distinctly. It must be borne in 
mind that the failures of lights, here provided against, do not on the 
average occur oftener than once in two or three months, but so much 
importance is given to that consideration here, because the failure is 
bound to occur at a critical juncture, and the remedy must be 
immediate. It will be observed that the Ardois code can be as 
readily transmitted by this device as by the $1800 machine furnished 



DAY, NIGHT, AND FOG SIGNALS FOR THE NAVY. 263 

with it, with the additional provision, as above, in case of a failure of 
a light. Furthermore, by cypher codes, by changing the color of 
globes, by almost any combination, we can adapt this device to 
almost any desired system. It will also be observed that the time 
gained in displaying all the elements of a letter in one display as 
against flashing the elements successively is further increased by 
non-liability to having to repeat, and certainty that the message is 
received as sent. 

There are many details which are omitted on account of lack of 
time and space. If, in the coming season, it is desired to fit all the 
ships of any squadron with this device, it can be done in a very short 
time. All the materials can be purchased in the open market. Any 
seaman-gunner ought to be able to run the wires and arrange the 
lamps and key-board, as the lamps proposed are very simple, and 
the wire is No. 16 (Birmingham gauge), .05 inch in diameter, carrying 
seventeen amperes to each lamp. As only two amperes are required, 
it leaves a sufficient margin of safety for weathering. 

This paper has been somewhat too hastily prepared, and the 
illustrations are only rough sketches. Working drawings can be 
furnished, but it has been the hope that the requirements of the 
device are so simple that no detailed explanation would be needed. 

It seems not out of place to here again call attention to the need 
for increased pay, and the rating of signalmen on board ship for 
those called upon to stand signal watch. 

It would be a good thing just now to undertake a thorough over- 
hauling of orders relating to signals and a correction of defects in the 
systems in use. Anything that can be proposed has objections that 
can be cited against it, but anything is better than confusion and 
lack of uniformity. Doubtless the reports from the various squad- 
rons throw much light on the experiments now being conducted. 
It can at least do no harm to propose the following scheme : 

For I. Day, ordinary: Small shapes in a hoist. 

2. Day, distant : Large shapes in a hoist. 

3. Fog, ordinary : Steam whistle. 

4. Fog, distant: Gun-fire with revolving cannon. 

5. Night, ordinary : Five groups of lights of three colors each. 

6. Night, distant : Very's night code of four elements. 

We have already the international code, and the above, or any- 
thing else to take its place, contains enough work to make it worth 
while for us to rate our signalmen and pay them better. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVaL institute, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 
By Joseph W. Richards/A. C, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Metallurgy, Mineralogy and Blow-piping, at Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Pa. : Member U. S. Naval Institute. 



Metallurgy is the art of extracting metals from their ores and 
bringing them into that state of purity which is necessary for their 
industrial application. Electro-metallurgy is that branch of the 
metallurgic art in which the agency of electricity is employed. We 
would then define electro-metallurgy as the art of extracting metals 
from their ores or of refining them, on a commercial scale, by the 
agency of the electric current. 

Before going into the further classification of this subject, let us in- 
quire into its history. We can hardly realize, in this age of electrical 
wonders, that it is less than a century since Volta discovered current 
electricity. Messrs. Nicholson and Carlisle first made known, in 
1800, the chemical powers of an electric current, that it would 
decompose water and certain saline solutions. Kissinger and 
Berzelius, in 1S03, and Davy, in 1807, enlarged upon this subject, 
the latter especially achieving renown by decomposing the fixed 
alkalies by the electric current and first isolating the alkaline metals. 
Faraday was the first to determine accurately the laws governing the 
electric deposition of metals from solution, a phenomenon to which 
he gave the term of Electrolysis. It was thus known, early in this 
century, that the electric current would, if properly applied, deposit 
metals from solutions of their salts in water. 

In 1836, De la Rue, working with Daniell's recently-devised con- 
stant-current battery, discovered that when a copper plate was elec- 



266 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

trically coated with a sheet of metallic copper, and the sheet stripped 
from the plate, every scratch in the plate had its counterpart in the 
sheet which was deposited on it. This discovery gave rise to the 
very useful art of galvano-plasty, by which fac-simile impressions are 
so easily obtained, and which has its widest application in the modern 
methods of electrotyping. 

In 1838, Messrs. Elkington and Barratt obtained patents for pro- 
cesses of electrically depositing gold, silver, platinum and zinc upon 
articles, to serve as a protective plating. These were the first prac- 
tical electric-plating processes, which have expanded to such a 
wonderful degree at the present day. 

However, there are many metals which cannot be electrically 
deposited from aqueous solution, and Professor Bunsen, in 1853, 
devised an extremely ingenious method of treating such cases. He 
was experimenting on the electrolytic production of magnesium, and 
instead of a solution in water he simply fused anhydrous magnesium 
chloride by heat, in a crucible, and used the molten salt as the liquid 
bath or electrolyte. This device was successful, and opened a new 
field for investigation of electric action. By using a similar method, 
in 1855, H. Saint-Claire Deville succeeded in first producing a bar 
or stick of aluminium. 

As far back as 1847, Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg, proved 
that when impure copper containing precious metals is used as an 
anode in a copper sulphate solution, the copper deposited on the 
cathode is of exceptional purity, while the precious metals are left 
undissolved in a concentrated form ready for further treatment. He 
foresaw that a day might come when this discovery would be of great 
importance. 

And now, we may well ask, what obstacle prevented the inaugura- 
tion of electro-metallurgic processes? The electric current deposits 
many metals from aqueous solution in a very pure state ; metals not 
yielding to this method can be obtained by electrolysis of a molten 
bath of their salts, and an excellent process for refining copper and 
extracting its gold and silver is worked out ; yet the real art of 
electro-metallurgy, as I have defined its meaning, was non-existent. 
The cause is not hard to find. Until the introduction of Wilde's 
magneto-electric machine, in 1865, all electrolytic operations were 
conducted with the current from batteries, and it needs no explana- 
tion to see that the application of this electric process to the extrac- 
tion of metals from their ores, or refining them, was a commercial 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 267 

impossibility. The introduction of Wilde's machine may be taken 
as the starting-point of all our commercial electro-metallurgic success, 
for it furnished large electric currents at a cost many times less than 
the battery, and rendered financially possible several methods of 
electrolysis. Electro-metallurgy, as a practised art, dates from 1865. 

It will be readily seen that 1 exclude from the meaning or scope of 
the term electro-metallurgy the processes of electrotyping, electro- 
plating, and all electric processes which are not metallurgic, in the 
true sense of that word. I confine the term simply to the extraction 
of metals from their ores and their refining on a commercial scale. 
Many of the so-called treatises on electro-metallurgy are really 
treatises on electro-plating, etc., dismissing the metallurgic side of 
the question in probably one or two short chapters. The distinction 
which I have made is a real one, and has been fully appreciated by 
•Dr. Gore, who, in the preface to his recently published "Electric 
Separation of Metals," really a work on electro-metallurgy, says : 
" This volume is written to supply a want. No book entirely devoted 
to the electrolytic separation and refining of metals exists at present 
(1890) in any language; those hitherto written on the subject of 
electro-metallurgy are more or less devoted to eleciro -plating, the 
molding or copying of works of art, etc., by electro-deposition." 

A division of the subject of electro-metallurgy might be made into 
the science and the art ; that is, the theoretic principles of electro- 
deposition on which the art is based, and the art itself, of practically 
applying those principles. The theoretical principles underlying 
the art are simply those of electrolysis, common to the whole subject 
of electro-deposition; their practical application to metallurgic 
operations constitutes the art of electro-metallurgy. The principles 
were mostly well known prior to 1865, but their commercial applica- 
tion dates from that time. 

Electro-metallurgy falls naturally into two divisions : 
I. Extraction of metals from their ores by electricity. 

II. Refining of metals by electricity. 

The latter division was the first to be put into practical operation. 
By its nature it must be an adjunct to some other metallurgic opera- 
tion for reducing the ore to metal, and constitutes only a subsidiary 
part of some ordinary metallurgic process. We will, therefore, con- 
sider this latter division first, in order to clear the ground for a 
discussion of processes of the first division, the true, independent 
electro-metallurgic processes. 



268 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

REFINING OF METALS BY ELECTRICITY. 

In 1865, immediately on the introduction of Wilde's electro- 
magnetic machines, Mr. Elkington of Birmingham, England, started 
a plant for refining copper which has been in practical operation 
ever since. It has been already explained that the possibility of this 
method had been proven many years before, so that Mr. Elkington's 
enterprise consisted essentially in starting on a large commercial 
scale what had been done on a small scale, with the battery, almost 
twenty years before. The plant was commercially successful, and 
was the father of the many large copper-refining plants now scattered 
through Europe and America. 

The rationale of the electric copper-refining is as follows : The 
metallurgy of copper has always been a rather complicated afiair. 
By one or two smeltings the ore can readily be reduced to an 
impure copper, but the heaviest part of the work has still to be done 
in refining this to pure copper. Especially is the question made 
difficult when the impure copper contains silver, which is frequently 
the case. In this event, the only practical way to get out the 
precious metal was to dissolve up the entire mass of copper in acid 
and separate the silver chemically, by precipitation. It was at this 
point that the electric method of refining stepped in. It took the 
impure copper, produced by ordinary dry smelting from the ores, 
and converted this at one operation into the very purest copper ; 
meanwhile, at the same time, extracting all the precious metals. It 
is thus seen that a very wide field was open to this art of refining, 
and that the financial side of the question was materially assisted by 
the high price commanded by the superior quality of copper pro- 
duced. The operation of refining may be briefly described as 
follows: The impure copper is cast into plates about 18 inches 
square and ^ inch thick, with lugs projecting from the corners at 
one end. These are connected with the positive pole of the electric 
generator, and hung at intervals of four to six inches in a trough 
filled with solution of sulphate of copper. Between these are hung 
thin sheets of pure copper of similar shape, connected with the other 
pole of the dynamo, on which the pure copper is deposited. To, 
ensure success, close attention has to be given to the concentration 
of the bath, its temperature, and that it has free circulation. When 
working properly, only pure copper will be transferred from the 
anodes to the thin sheet cathodes. The impurities in the copper 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 269 

behave as follows : The iron is dissolved, goes into solution as 
sulphate and accumulates in the bath, not being deposited with the 
copper. When the bath contains a certain amount of iron, it can be 
purified by being run out, concentrated and crystallized, the iron 
sulphate crystallizing out first. Bisjtitiih, Hn and arsenic also pass 
into solution, but need not be deposited with the copper if the 
manager attends carefully to the various details. Gold, silver, 
platimim, cuprous oxide and cvpric sulphide, with most of the 
bismuth and some tiyi and arsenic, remain undissolved and fall as 
mud to the bottom of the bath. This residue, therefore, contains all 
the precious metals present, in a very concentrated form suitable for 
further treatment by ordinary cupellation methods. The deposited 
copper ought to be very nearly chemically pure. 

The electric refining of copper has developed into an immense 
business. There are in operation twelve works in Germany, one in 
Italy, five in France, six in England, and six in the United States. 
Their annual production is many thousand tons, being a consider- 
able proportion of the entire production of pure copper. 

The only other metal to which electric refining has been applied 
on a commercial scale is lead. Metallic lead can be refined with 
much more ease, by ordinary furnace methods, than impure copper, 
yet it is a difficult matter to extract from it the precious metals. 
These are usually removed by the ancient method of cupellation, or 
by de-silverizing by zinc (Parke's process). Dr. Keith of New 
York devised, in 1878, an electric method of refining argentiferous 
lead, whereby the silver was extracted and a very pure lead obtained. 
The process was similar in most respects to the refining of copper, 
the lead anodes being, however, enclosed in thin muslin bags, which 
allowed the solution to pass through them but retained all insoluble 
residue. The solution consisted of acetate of soda in which sulphate 
of lead was dissolved. During the operation the iron and zinc 
present go into solution, but are not deposited with the lead. Anti- 
mony, arsenic, copper, silver and gold remain in the residue, which 
is treated in a similar manner to the residue from copper-refining. 
The baths were kept at about 100° F. This process was operated 
for some time on a large scale at Rome, N. Y,, but it was not suffi- 
ciently economical to compete with later improvements in other 
methods of de-silverizing bullion, and has been abandoned. 

It is thus seen that the copper-refining is the only kind of electric 
refining in practical operation, and it is rendered possible by the 



270 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

difficulties of the methods of refining by the ordinary furnace pro- 
cesses. The chief items of expense in a refining plant are the large 
number of depositing vats needed for even a small-sized works, and 
interest on the large stock of metal locked up in the anodes and 
being in course of deposition. In one of the largest plants in the 
United States as much as 350 tons of copper are in course of treat- 
ment at one time, while the plant covers several acres. The relative 
slowness of deposition by electrolytic action is the chief difficulty 
with which all electric processes have to contend. 

EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM THEIR ORES BY ELECTRICITY. 

Metallurgically, there may be distinguished three distinct methods 
of applying the electric current to the extraction of metals from their 
compounds or ores : 

I. Electro-deposition from aqueous solution. 
II. Electro-deposition from a fused electrolyte. 
III. Electro-thermal reduction. 

I. 

This heading includes a great number of electro-metallurgic 
processes. The method has been principally applied to the metal- 
lurgy of copper, silver, gold and zinc, and has developed on two 
distinct lines. 

ist. Preparation of a solution of the metal and electrolysis of this 
by means of insoluble anodes, or anodes of a metal other than that 
being deposited. 

2d. The use of anodes made of the metallic compound or ore, the 
solution being regenerated by the acid set free attacking these anodes 
and dissolving out the metal. 

Operations of the first class are particularly applicable to the iso- 
lation of copper or zinc, which are easily brought into solution. 
Copper exists as sulphate in many mine-waters, which need only to 
be concentrated by evaporation to be ready for treatment. Many of 
the ores of copper and zinc can be treated so as to convert the metal 
into soluble sulphate. Thus, if copper pyrites is carefully burnt, 
most of the copper will form sulphate and can be washed out of the 
residue. Oxide or carbonate ores can easily be brought into solu- 
tion by treatment with sulphuric acid. When a solution of copper 
sulphate thus formed is electrolysed, using sheet-iron anodes and 
sheet-copper cathodes, copper is deposited on the latter, while the 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 27 1 

anodes are dissolved and ferrous sulphate goes into solution. When 
all the copper has been deposited the solution can be evaporated to 
dryness, and the sulphate of iron regained and used over in the 
roasting operation, converting copper oxides into soluble sulphate. 
This method of electrolysis is often performed without the aid of an 
outside current, the copper and iron electrodes being simply con- 
nected by wires outside of the bath, the electricity generated by this 
galvanic couple being sufficient to electrolyse the solution and 
deposit the copper. 

Zinc ores can be treated in a very similar manner. Letrange's 
process consists in taking zinc sulphide (blende), roasting it so as to 
convert as much as possible into sulphate, and leaching the product. 
Some zinc oxide will be formed, which, with unchanged zinc sulphide, 
will remain undissolved in the residue. The sulphate solution is 
electrolysed, using thin plates of zinc for cathodes and lead plates 
for anodes. The lead being insoluble in sulphuric acid is unattacked 
by the solution, which therefore gradually becomes more acid as the 
zinc is removed and the free sulphuric acid accumulates. When the 
zinc has been removed to a certain extent, the acid solution is run 
out and passed over the residues left from the leaching operation. 
The acid extracts the rest of the zinc from these, the solution being 
at the same time replenished with zinc and its acidity taken away. 
The extraction of zinc from the ore is thus practically complete, a 
result far from being reached by the ordinary zinc processes. 
Letrange's process has been worked in France, and the whole ques- 
tion of its applicability seems to be that of cost of metal, the process 
being industrially quite a success. 

The use of metallic compounds for anodes affords a direct method 
of extracting metal from its ore in a minimum number of operations. 
These kind of electric processes were evolved from the copper- 
refining processes by a natural transition. In the latter, the impure 
copper used as anodes is dissolved by the acid set free by electro- 
lysis, and thus the solution is regenerated. Marchesi, of Genoa, had 
the idea that since cuprous sulphide is attacked by free acid, that 
the impure copper might be replaced by copper matte from an 
earlier stage of the ordinary smelting processes, and thus one or 
more of the smelting operations be rendered unnecessary. He found 
the operation somewhat more difficult than with impure copper, yet 
he succeeded in making it practicable and it is now used on a large 
scale. The copper matte, sometimes obtained by only a single 



272 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 



smelting operation direct from the ore, is cast into slabs, which are 
used in a copper sulphate solution exactly as if they were impure 
copper. The reactions are similar to those in refining impure 
copper; the precious metals particularly being thus very easily 
separated in the residues or mud. 

In Luckow's zinc process, a bath is made of solution of zinc sul- 
phate ; the cathode is a thin sheet of pure zinc, and the anode is a 
mixture of zinc ore and coke, finely ground and well mixed together 
and held in an open-work case of wood. As zinc is removed from 
solution by the electrolytic action, the free acid attacks the anode, 
dissolving out the zinc ore. The carbon is placed in the anode 
to conduct the electricity ; for, while impure copper and even copper 
matte conduct electricity, the zinc ore is practically a non-conductor 
of the current. 

II. 

About 1854, Bunsen made a new departure in electrolytic methods 
by subjecting a fused salt to the action of the current. He placed 
anhydrous magnesium chloride in a crucible, melted it at a gentle 
heat, and then dipped into it two electrodes of dense carbon, such as 
comes from gas-retorts. Magnesium was obtained at one electrode 
and chlorine gas at the other. Soon after, Deville electrolysed in a 
similar manner the anhydrous double chloride of aluminium and 
sodium. In such a bath, the current decomposes only the aluminium 
chloride, producing aluminium and chlorine; the sodium chloride 
being a more fixed compound is not decomposd if the current is 
properly regulated. In this way Deville made the first masses of 
aluminium which had ever been produced. He tried hard to perfect 
the process. He operated on a large scale, and tried to effect the 
regeneration of the bath and stop the evolution of chlorine at the 
anode by making the latter of a mixture of carbon and alumina, 
made by mixing the latter with pitch, moulding into shape and 
coking at a high heat. The electrolysis went on easily at 500° to 
600° C, but the greatest difficulty met with was the disintegration of 
the electrodes, particularly the anode. A fundamental difficulty in 
the way of commercial success lay in the use of the battery to gen- 
erate the current, an obstacle only overcome by the introduction of 
dynamo-machines many years later. 

As early as 1879 it was proposed to produce aluminium by a 
method similar to Deville's, yet using dynamo-currents. In 1883, 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 27.3 

Dr. Richard Gratzel of Bremen obtained patents for a similar 
process, which was operated for about four years by the "Aluminium 
und Magnesium Fabrik" at Hemelingen, and many thousand kilos 
of aluminium made. Dr. Kleiner's process for producing aluminium 
consists in fusing the mineral cryolite (a double fluoride of alumin- 
ium and sodium) between two carbon electrodes which touch each 
other, producing a large electric arc. When the bath is well fused 
the electrodes are drawn apart, and the fused mineral is electrolysed 
by the current into aluminium and fluorine (the sodium fluoride 
remaining unattacked if the current is properly regulated), while the 
bath is maintained in fusion by the heat generated by the passage 
of the current. Mr. Hall, whose process is being operated by the 
Pittsburgh Reduction Company, takes a bath of fused cryolite and 
stirs into it alumina until it is saturated. On passing an electric 
current through this bath, by carbon electrodes, the alumina, which 
is as it were dissolved in the cryolite, is the only compound attacked 
by the current, because it is the weakest of the three present, and 
thus the cryolite solvent remains untouched. When the alumina is 
all decomposed, the bath is regenerated by simply stirring in some 
more, and thus the operation is continuous. In practice only one 
electrode dips into the bath, the positive one, while the carbon 
lining of the iron pot holding the bath is made the negative. The 
bath is kept fluid by the heat generated by the current, which can 
be regulated by the distance between the positive carbons and the 
bottom of the pot. A plant of 500 horse-power is now manufac- 
turing about six tons of aluminium a month by this process. 

We cannot take the space even to name all the different devices 
used in electrolysing fused aluminium salts ; one hundred pages 
would no more than suffice to describe them all. 

This method of electrolysis has also been applied to the isolation 
of sodium. Jablochoff devised apparatus for decomposing sodium 
chloride (common salt), which consisted of a large pot in which the 
salt was fused, with arrangements to feed the bath as it was used up. 
Dipping into the salt were two electrodes of carbon, encased in tubes 
which also dipped under the surface of the bath. The products of 
electrolysis in this case were both vapors, the sodium vapor being 
led into a condenser, while the chlorine gas from the positive carbon 
was led into chambers where it was utilized for making bleaching 
powder. 



274 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 



III. 



The electro-thermal processes are primarily dependent on the 
utilization of the enormous temperature of the electric arc, by inter- 
rupting a powerful current, by this agency bringing about chemical 
reactions which would not take place at temperatures attainable by 
any other means. 

As far back as 1853, John Henry Johnson applied for a patent in 
England for "smelting iron and other ores" by electricity. He 
states that the metallic ores are to be ground, mixed with charcoal, 
and dropped between the poles of large electrodes, across which a 
voltaic arc is established. The ore thus treated separates into molten 
metal and slag, which are run out of the reduction chamber into an 
exterior vessel, where they may separate. In 1873 Werderman 
claimed the process of crushing the metallic ore, mixing with car- 
bonaceous matter, heating to redness, and then raising the temper- 
ature to the point necessary for reduction by passing an electric 
current, led into the mass by terminal electrodes of carbon or other 
refractory conductor of electricity. Many advantages are thus 
gained by reduction in an enclosed space, where the atmosphere is 
perfectly reducing and the temperature almost unlimited. Such 
apparatus have been very appropriately called " electric furnaces." 
It will readily be recognized that such operations are expensive, and 
could not apply profitably to the production of the common metals. 
They have been used almost exclusively for reducing the most 
refractory ores. 

Messrs. A. & E. H. Cowles, of Cleveland, Ohio, were the first to 
apply the electric furnace to the reduction of aluminium compounds 
on a commercial scale. Their type of furnace consists of a horizontal 
fire-brick-lined cavity, in which the mixture for reduction is placed, 
and through the ends of which pass two large carbon electrodes. 
The charge is carbon, alumina and a metal, usually granulated copper 
or iron ; and the furnace is covered with a fire-clay slab. On passing 
the current from a 300 horse-power dynamo machine, and gradually 
drawing the electrodes apart, an interrupted arc of several feet in 
length is produced, and, at the temperature obtained, alumina melts, 
copper vaporizes, carbon crystallizes, and alumina is reduced by 
carbon. The product is an aluminium alloy. If the alloying metal 
is left out, no quantity of pure aluminium can be obtained, since it 
partly vaporizes and obstinately sticks in thin sheets to the lumps of 
carbon, refusing to run together. 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 275 

H^roult's furnace for reducing alumina works on the same principle, 
but is arranged differently. A large iron case is filled with carbon, 
a cavity hollowed out on top, and a large carbon electrode hung so 
as to dip into this cavity. On placing copper in the hole and lower- 
ing the carbon, the iron case being connected with the negative pole 
of the dynamo, the arc formed between the carbon rod and the 
copper soon melts the latter. Then alumina is thrown in, which is 
also liquefied by the arc. The operation then proceeds as if it were 
the simple electrolysis of a fused bath, the copper being the negative 
electrode and the alumina the electrolyte. Aluminium being set 
free, the copper absorbs it and forms aluminium bronze. 

Several other forms of electric furnaces for reduction have been 
devised. In one, the two electrodes are made of a mixture of the 
ore and carbon, and when the arc is passed between their points the 
reduced material falls into a crucible beneath. In another, the 
carbon electrodes are made hollow, and the material to be reduced 
fed through the rods into the arc, where it is reduced. Some of 
these forms may yet be made serviceable, but the Cowles and 
Heroult furnaces are the only ones which have so far been success- 
fully operated on a commercial scale. 

CALCULATIONS. 

Having briefly reviewed the various kinds of electro-metallurgical 
processes, we will note, by means of a few illustrations, the method 
of calculating the amount of power required to decompose com- 
pounds by electrolysis, and thus obtain means of estimating the 
percentage of useful effect in any process for which we have the 
necessary details. 

An electric current has two factors — quantity and tension ; the 
former measures its absolute amount, the latter its power of over- 
coming resistance. The unit of quantity is an ampere (measured on 
an ampere meter), the unit of tension is a volt (measured by a volt 
meter). Whether the affinities of a chemical compound will be 
overcome by a given current will depend on whether the current is 
of sufficient tension; when a current is of the required tension, the 
amount of chemical action performed will be proportional solely to 
the quantity of the current. The dynamic energy of an electric 
current is proportional to the product of its quantity by its tension ; 
z. e. a current of one ampere at a tension of one volt has a definite 



276 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

mechanical value, and if this force is exerted in one second, the unit is 
called a Watt. This unit is at the foundation of all our subsequent 
calculations, and its absolute value is of first importance. The mean 
of the best experimental determinations make one Watt equal to 
0.00024 calories of heat or to o.i kilogrammeter of work, and there- 
fore nearly i-750th of a horse-power. (French measures.) 

As before stated, assuming that a current is of sufficient tension, 
the chemical work which it will do depends solely on its quantity. 
Some unit of chemical work per unit of electrical quantity would 
seem to be needed here, and this is given in the determination that 
when an electric current is decomposing water, each ampere passing 
sets free 0.000010352 gramme of hydrogen. The amount of oxygen 
liberated at the same time is necessarily eight times as great, and we 
can therefore pass directly to the law that the amounts of different 
elements liberated by a current of given quantity are proportional 
to their chemical equivalents. The amount of any element set free 
by one ampere is its electro-chemical equivalent, and is obtained by 
multiplying the electro-chemical equivalent of hydrogen by the 
chemical equivalent weight of the element. 

The question of the tension necessary to decompose a compound 
follows immediately the statements of the two preceding paragraphs. 
We know from thermal data that to liberate 0.00001035 gramme of 
hydrogen from water requires an expenditure of energy represented 
by 0.00001035 X 34- 162 = 0.000358 calories. But a current of one 
ampere at a tension of one volt is mechanically equivalent to only 
0.00024 calories, and therefore the work being done in decomposing 
the water absolutely requires that the strength of the current shall 

be at least -^ ^ = 1.49 volts. This is the absolute minhnum of 

0.00024 

electro-motive force which will operate the decomposition of water. 

The force of this reasoning may appear clearer if we were to assume, 

for argument's sake, that a current with a tension of i volt could 

decompose water. If so, every ampere passing represents one Watt 

of energy, or 0.00024 calories ; but it sets free 0.00001035 gramme 

of hydrogen, which if burnt back to water would set free 0.000358 

calories. We have therefore created energy, being able to get one 

and a half times as much energy from the product as were expended. 

Of course we consider this an impossibility, and see at once that the 

one ampere must be propelled by a tension of at least i^ volts in 

order that its mechanical energy may be equal to the work which 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 277 

we know that it does. The tension practically required will always 
be greater than this calculated minimum, for the reason that the 
transfer resistance (the resistance which the current meets in passing 
from the electrodes into the electrolyte) and the conduction re- 
sistance (that met by the current in passing through the electrolyte) 
have to be overcome. These resistances do not result in the 
accomplishment of any chemical work, but cause a proportional part 
of the energy of the current to be converted into heat, which warms 
up the electrolyte. These latter resistances will vary principally 
with the temperature of the bath (as far as it affects the conductivity 
of the electrolyte) and the distance of the electrodes apart ; the 
transfer resistance is apt to be abnormally increased by the elec- 
trodes becoming coated over with a layer of non-conducting gas or 
liquid, a phenomenon called polarisation, and which we have time 
only to mention. Among all these variable resistances, that required 
for decomposition is the only one which is constant, and even it is 
not absolutely so, if critically examined, but decreases slightly with 
an increase in temperature of the bath. 

A careful application of the principles just reviewed will enable us 
to discuss any of the problems presented in electro-metallurgy. In 
order for electrolysis to take place at all, it is necessary that the 
electrolyte be in the fluid state and that it be, when fluid, a con- 
ductor of electricity. These conditions being filled, and proper 
electrodes put in place, then the current passing between the elec- 
trodes must be of a certain minimum tension to accomplish decom- 
position. When the anode is soluble, and is gradually dissolved by 
the bath, the chemical heat of its solution may be set against the 
chemical work which the current does in decomposition, thus lessen- 
ing the decomposition resistance. For instance, when, as in refining 
copper, metal is dissolved from the anode, the action at the anode is 
just the reverse of the decomposition taking place in the electrolyte, 
one oft'sets the other, and the only resistances to be overcome by the 
current are those of transference, conduction and polarisation. 
When, as in producing aluminium from cryolite, a metallic compound 
is broken up at the anode, such as alumina, its heat of formation will 
be the measure of the decomposition resistance, lessened, if the 
alumina is mixed with carbon, by the heat of union of the oxygen 
with carbon. We will conclude these calculations by analysing an 
example of each of the four kinds of electro-metallurgic processes, 
viz. refining, and the three divisions of electro-metallurgic processes 
proper. 



278 ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

Refining. — As before remarked, in refining, the decomposition 
resistance becomes nil, and the current has only to overcome the 
transfer resistances, etc. Since these latter are small, a very small 
electric current will refine a large weight of copper, if the baths are 
placed in series, the quantity deposited in each bath being propor- 
tional to the number of amperes of current. The amount of anode 
surface in each bath must be regulated according to the quantity of 
the current. It is found that the purest copper deposits, and in 
best condition for further handling, when about 5 ounces are depos- 
ited per square foot per 24 hours (ij kilos per square meter). So, 
while the conduction resistance in each bath would be lessened, and 
the number of baths which could be used in a series increased by 
enlarging the anode surface, yet the total anode surface per bath 
will be regulated by the above principle. 

At Elkington's works at Pembrey, near Swansea, an engine of 65 
indicated horse-power ran a dynamo giving a current of 350 amperes 

at no volts, equal to ^^^ ^ ^'^ = 5 1 i electrical horse-power. (Effi- 
ciency of dynamo, 80 per cent.) This current was sent through a 
series of 200 vats, each with an anode surface of 44 square feet, with 
electrodes about two inches apart. The output was 4000 pounds in 
24 hours. Looking into these figures, we see that a current of 350 
amperes should deposit in 200 vats the following quantity of copper 
per second : 

Electro-chemical equivalent Chemical equivalent ^ No. of amperes No. of vats 
of hydrogen ^ of copper ^ ■^ 

0.00001035 gramme X S^-^ X 35° X 200 

equal to 22.887 grammes per second, or 1980 kilos, equal to 4355 
pounds per day. There was therefore an efficiency in this regard of 
92 per cent. The number of volts absorbed by each bath was 

Ii^ = o.55, and the density of the current was 5^ =8 amperes per 
200 44 

square foot of anode surface. If a greater density had been used, in 

order to produce more copper with a given anode surface, the quality 

of the deposited copper would have suffered. The amount of copper 

deposited by this current was about 7 ounces per square foot of 

anode per day, an amount rather above the average. 

Electric deposition from aqueous solution. — The case of deposition 

with insoluble anodes may be illustrated by an experiment made 

with Letrange's zinc process. With five vats in series, a current of 75 

amperes at 13.05 volts, continued 4! hours, deposited 1.475 kilo- 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 279 

grammes of zinc. Let us first investigate the efficiency of the deposi - 
tion. The chemical equivalent of zinc is 32.5, so that 0.00001035 X 
32.5 X 75 = o.025263gramme should have been deposited in each vat 
per second, or 32.2 kilos in the 5 vats in 44 hours. The efficiency is 
therefore but 4.6 per cent. The reason for this very small return is 
to be found in considering the voltage required and used. The 
separation of the electro-chemical equivalent of zinc from zinc sul- 
phate represents a thermal value of 0.000566 calories, and the voltage 
required to decompose zinc sulphate will therefore be this quantity 
divided by 0.00024 calories, or 2.359 volts. But it requires only 
1.49 volts to decompose water, therefore we see why only 46 
per cent of the current isolated zinc, — the rest was used up in 
decomposing the water of the bath into its elements. We see that 
^' ^ = 2.61 volts were actually used to each vat. If 6 vats had 

been used, the voltage for each would have been 2.17, and no zinc 
would have been deposited at all, but all the current wasted in 
decomposing water. If less than 5 vats had been used with this 
current, a larger proportion of deposited zinc would have been 
secured in each bath than 4.6 per cent of what the current might 
deposit, that is, more zinc and less hydrogen would have been pro- 
duced in each bath, but the gain in this respect would not have 
made up in the sum-total for the dropping off in the number of 
baths. It is thus seen that the decomposition of a salt in solution, 
with insoluble anodes, is a very uneconomical proceeding if the de- 
composition resistance is large enough to involve the decomposition 
of the water. 

If, on the other hand, a soluble anode is used, the decomposition 
resistance may be greatly decreased, as has been before explained. 
For instance, copper sulphate requires 1.25 volts for its decomposi- 
tion ; but if an iron anode is used, the solution of the iron sets up an 
auxiliary current of 2.01 volts. Therefore the iron helps the decom- 
position to such an extent that outside help is unnecessary, for about 
0.76 volt more than is required for decomposition is furnished, 
enough to overcome all the other resistances of conduction, etc. 
We therefore see why, if the iron and copper cathode are simply 
connected by a wire outside the bath, the use of external currents is 
unnecessary. If an outside current were used in such a case it 
would, after supplying losses by conduction resistances, simply 
increase the voltage above 2.01, and thus begin to deposit iron with 
the copper. 



28o ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 

Electro- depodtioii from a fused electrolyte. — Let us take for illus- 
tration the electrolysis of a bath of fused common salt, producing 
sodium. In some experiments described by Mr. Rogers, of Mil- 
waukee, the voltage absorbed by the bath was 12 volts, varying 
with the temperature of the bath and the distance of the electrodes 
apart, and with a current of 70 amperes the amount of sodium 
obtained averaged 39 grammes per hour. This shows a yield of 
0.000155 gramme of sodium per ampere per second. But the electro- 
chemical equivalent of sodium, the amount which one ampere should 
liberate, is 0.000238 gramme (0.00001035 X 23), therefore we see here 
that about 65 percent of the sodium liberated by the current is prac- 
tically obtained ; the other 35 per cent is really set free, but is lost 
by recombination with chlorine in the bath, or oxidation or imper- 
fect condensation. This cannot, however, be the only source of 
loss in the process, for a current of 70 amperes at 12 volts represents 
840 Watts or 0.205 calories per second, while the liberation of 39 
grammes of sodium from sodium chloride (heat of formation 4.2474 
calories per gramme of sodium) represents only 165.65 calories per 
hour or 0.046 calories per second. The net proportion of useful 
effect over all is therefore only 22.5 per cent. The cause of this 
low return is to be found in the high voltage used. Calculating the 
minimum electro-motive force necessary to decompose sodium 

chloride, we have 0000238 X 4-2474 ^ ^^xxs. 
0.00024 

Since, then, only 4.2 volts out of the 12 volts absorbed by the bath 
are used for actual decomposition, the percentage of the power of 
the current used in this way is 35 per cent. But since only 65 per 
cent of the work which this does is represented by the sodium 
actually obtained, we should have a net utilisation over all of 65 per 
cent of 35 per cent, or 22.75 P^r cent, which agrees with the result 
before obtained. 

Electro-thermal reduction. — Let us take for discussion some official 
figures of the Heroult process for producing aluminium alloys. 
Current, 8000 amperes at 28 volts tension. In 271 hours of actual 
operation, during which time the crucible cooled several times, the 
average production of aluminium was 6.8 kilos of aluminium per 
hour. The electro-chemical equivalent of aluminium is 9, so that a 
current of 8000 amperes can deposit, electrolytically, 0,000010352 X 
9 X 8000 X 60 X 60 = 2,68 kilos of aluminium per hour. If, then, 
there was actually produced 6.8 kilos per hour, and as much as 10 
to 12 kilos are claimed when the furnace is working steadily and up 



ELECTRO-METALLURGY. 28l 

to full efficiency, it is impossible that more than a fraction of the 
aluminium is produced by electrolytic decomposition. As far as the 
total energy of the current is concerned it is large enough to account 
for all the thermal effects produced. A current of 8000 amperes at 
28 volts is equal to 224,000 Watts, or 53.79 calories per second, or 
193,644 per hour. This, if it could be applied to nothing but the 

decomposition of alumina, would isolate ^^ ^^ =: 26.7 kilos of 

aluminium per hour. But as 6.8 kilos were obtained, we see that about 
25 per cent of the energy of the current is absorbed in setting free 
aluminium, the other 75 per cent being converted into heat. This 
source of heat, together with that added by the burning of the carbon 
anodes, keeps the interior of the crucible at a temperature far above 
any temperature ever reached by any other means, and at that tem- 
perature the writer has not the least doubt that the alumina has its 
oxygen abstracted from it by the chemical action of the carbon. 
Similar calculations could be made with data from Cowles' furnace, 
with similar results and conclusions. 

In conclusion I would remark that copper, silver, gold, magnesium 
and aluminium are the principal metals which are at present being 
commercially treated by electro-metallurgy. But if ever the problem 
of converting the energy contained in coal directly into electric 
energy be solved, there are very few of the metals which might not 
be cheapened by electrolytic methods. If the conversion could be 
effected with an efficiency of only 50 per cent, it would still be 10 to 
15 times as efficient as our present indirect methods of boilers, 
engines and dynamos; and the possibiHties opened out for the art of 
electro-metallurgy by such a cheapening of cost of the electric cur- 
rent are so extensive that if we stated them they might appear 
visionary. A comparison might be made with the revolution in the 
mechanic arts which would be produced by such a discovery. We 
have electric motors which turn nearly 90 per cent of the mechanical 
energy of a current into rotatory motion, and if the current supplied 
to them represented say only 50 per cent of the total energy of the 
coal, we would get rotary motion with an expenditure of J of a pound 
of coal per hour per efficient horse-power. 

However, taking matters as they stand and being as moderate as 
we may in our expectations as to cheap electricity, I think it reason- 
able to conclude that this new art of Electro-Metallurgy, which had 
its commencement within our lifetime, will become, perhaps, the 
leading feature of Metallurgy in the Twentieth Century. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE OF MARCH, li 
By Everett Hayden, U. S. N., 

Marine Meteorologist, U. S. Hydrographic Office. 



An interval of more than two years has now elapsed since the news 
of the g^reat hurricane at Samoa startled the whole civilized world 
with its sad tidings of disaster to the American and German fleets in 
the harbor of Apia. The story of that terrific struggle against the 
fury of the northerly gale and heavy seas that swept into the unpro- 
tected anchorage ; the desperate efforts of officers and men to save 
their vessels from collision with each other and from destruction on 
the sharp coral reefs ; the instant annihilation of the little Eber ; the 
grounding of the Adler and Nipsic; the breathless pause of expecta- 
tion when the gallant Calliope slipped her chains, and, urging on her 
powerful engines with every ounce of steam that her boilers could 
supply, crept inch by inch "out of the jaws of death," leaving the 
Trenton (whose men gave her a ringing volley of cheers as she 
passed), Olga and Vandalia to continue their life-or-death fight 
against fearful odds ; the wreck of these vessels and the terrible loss 
of life on their wave-swept decks and in the whirlpool between 
them and the shore; the gallantry and self-sacrifice of natives and 
sailors in the tremendous surf on the beach and reef — all of these 
have been told and retold in the vivid words of eye-witnesses, and 
have already become part of the history of mankind. 

It is a very different task to attempt, quietly and as time and data 
permit, to consider the general meteorologic conditions that preceded 
and accompanied the storm, and, by collecting and comparing reports 
from vessels and land-stations in various parts of the South Pacific, 
to reach at least a few definite conclusions regarding the origin and 
track of the hurricane, as well to derive some useful information 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD, 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE OF MARCH, i{ 
By Everett Hayden, U. S. N., 

Marine Meteorologist, U. S. Hydrographic Office. 



An interval of more than two years has now elapsed since the news 
of the g^reat hurricane at Samoa startled the whole civilized world 
with its sad tidings of disaster to the American and German fleets in 
the harbor of Apia. The story of that terrific struggle against the 
fury of the northerly gale and heavy seas that swept into the unpro- 
tected anchorage ; the desperate efforts of officers and men to save 
their vessels from collision with each other and from destruction on 
the sharp coral reefs ; the instant annihilation of the little Eber ; the 
grounding of the Adler and Nipsic; the breathless pause of expecta- 
tion when the gallant Calliope slipped her chains, and, urging on her 
powerful engines with every ounce of steam that her boilers could 
supply, crept inch by inch "out of the jaws of death," leaving the 
Trenton (whose men gave her a ringing volley of cheers as she 
passed), Olga and Vandalia to continue their life-or-death fight 
against fearful odds ; the wreck of these vessels and the terrible loss 
of life on their wave-swept decks and in the whirlpool between 
them and the shore; the gallantry and self-sacrifice of natives and 
sailors in the tremendous surf on the beach and reef — all of these 
have been told and retold in the vivid words of eye-witnesses, and 
have already become part of the history of mankind. 

It is a very different task to attempt, quietly and as time and data 
permit, to consider the general meteorologic conditions that preceded 
and accompanied the storm, and, by collecting and comparing reports 
from vessels and land-stations in various parts of the South Pacific, 
to reach at least a few definite conclusions regarding the origin and 
track of the hurricane, as well to derive some useful information 



284 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE, 

from it regarding the weather and storms of this great ocean. It is 
the object of this paper to present briefly, but as clearly as the in- 
formation at hand will allow, this general phase of the subject, and to 
publish, in advance of an official publication by the Hydrographic 
Office, such an outline of the facts as may serve to elicit discussion 
and possibly result in the collection of still more complete data, for 
use in the preparation of a final report. It may well be stated here, 
for the information of those who are not familiar with the difficulties 
incident to the collection of data on such a subject, that in spite of 
our efforts to obtain information from every possible source there are 
doubtless some vessels whose reports have not yet been received — 
reports, too, that may contain important positive or negative evidence 
regarding the history of the storm. Not only data from vessels, but 
from land-stations, also, are still wanting: for instance, the Queensland 
Weather Maps of Australasia and the Sydney Observatory Weather 
Charts of Australia and New Zealand for March, 1889, should of 
course be consulted, but although copies are nominally in the posses- 
sion of the Signal Office, yet as a matter of fact they have been at the 
government bindery for six months, and at date of writing (May 9, 
1 891) they are still inaccessible. This should therefore be taken 
into consideration by any one who honors this paper by more than a 
mere superficial examination, and it will be interesting to note whether 
conclusions drawn at the present time will be appreciably modified 
by the missing data. 

In the following discussion all dates used are east longitude dates, 
following the custom of the Samoan islands. Although these islands 
are between Ion. 168° and 173° W, and might therefore be expected 
to use the same dates as ourselves, yet business and other relations 
are so much more intimate with Australia and New Zealand that the 
same dates are used, as a matter of convenience. Thus, for example, 
at noon of Saturday, March 16, at Samoa, when the hurricane was at 
its height and the Calliope had just steamed out of Apia harbor, it 
was about 9 A. M. at Melbourne and 11 A. M. at Auckland, of the 
same day of the week and month, but farther east (in what we know 
as the Western Hemisphere) it was Friday, March 15 : at San Fran- 
cisco, about 3.30 P. M.; Washington, 6.30 P. M. ; London, 11.30 
P. M. Similarly, the first news of the hurricane, cabled from Auck- 
land under date of Saturday, March 30, was published in Washing- 
ton the morning of the same day, apparently, though really the 
morning of the day following. 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 285 

The excitement attending the receipt of news of the disaster will 
long be remembered, and it is unnecessary to refer to it here further 
than to quote a few lines from a long statement furnished to the 
press, in reply to the demands of numerous reporters, by Lieut. G. L. 
Dyer, U. S. N., Hydrographer. The lines referred to are as follows, 
and they are of especial interest in this connection because, although 
based upon general considerations only and without any detailed 
information regarding this particular storm, they appear to agree 
very well with what actually took place : 

"The hurricane that struck Samoa with such furious intensity on 
the 15th instant probably originated some 300 miles to the north- 
eastward of the islands, about lat. 10° S, Ion. 165° W, and 
moved rapidly southwestward, directly toward them. If the signs 
characteristic of the approach of a hurricane were observed (long 
feathery cirrus clouds, thickening cirrus veil, halos, and fiery tints 
at dawn and sunset), no doubt all possible precautions were taken to 
ride out the storm at anchor. The center of the hurricane, however, 
must have passed directly over or very near the harbor, and in the 
case of a very severe tropical cyclone, as this must have been, abso- 
lutely nothing can resist its fury. In the great hurricane that crossed 
the island of Cuba in 1844, for example, seventy-two vessels foundered 
at their anchors in a few hours in the landlocked harbor of Havana, 
a port almost unrivaled for the security of its anchorage." 

The following letter from Rear-Admiral Kimberly, written only a 
month and a half after the storm, may well be quoted here, giving as 
it does a brief and concise statement of the facts as indicated by 
observations during the hurricane, together with such slight addi- 
tional information as had been received subsequently: 

Apia, Samoa, April 29, 1889. 
Commodore J. G. Walker, U. S. Navy, Chief of Bureau of Navigation. 

Sir : — The hurricane of the i sth and i6th of March at Apia was peculiar, in the 
fact of there being twolow barometers of about equal depression, with an interval 
of 24 hours between. The indications preceding and accompanying the first 
depression gave no cause for apprehending a gale of unusual violence, and 
the local seamen of Apia gave it as their opinion that the weather indicated 
rain rather than wind, and they anticipated no destructive storm. 

Friday forenoon (15th), the barometer falling, we had squalls of moderate 
force, and recognized the approach of the gale. The force of wind was logged 
2 to 6. Steam had already been raised, and at i P. M., as a further precaution, 
lower yards were sent down and topmasts housed. At 3 P. M. the barometer 
commenced to rise, and it was thought the center of the storm had passed and 



286 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 

was receding. The wind had changed from the southward to the northward and 
eastward in the meantime, and this fact confirmed the belief that the gale was 
half over. No apprehension was felt for the ships, as it was thought the latter 
part of the storm would be of no longer duration, and of but little, if any, 
greater force than the first part had developed. The barometer continued 
rising until nearly midnight, and it was believed that by morning the gale would 
be broken. There had been no very heavy sea preceding or during the gale up 
to this point. 

At midnight, however, the barometer commenced falling again, the wind had 
increased, and the sea was rising high. This was the beginning of that part 
of the gale which accompanied the second barometric depression, and which 
proved so violent and destructive. The barometer continued to fall, and the 
gale developed its full strength rapidly. The seas also rose rapidly, and the 
ships felt their violence. From early morning of the i6th, for nearly 24 hours, 
the gale was a hurricane; and the catastrophes commenced at that time by 
theloss of the Eber. The story of the fate of the several ships and their crews 
during that day and night has been fully told, and is unnecessary to repeat 
here. 

It will be seen that the destructive effects were due to the second depression, 
which followed and overlapped the first and which developed its strength so 
rapidly in the night. It is difficult to ascertain the exact character and move- 
ments of this remarkable storm, with the unsatisfactory data afforded by the 
ships in the harbor, and by the meagre reports of the few vessels that were 
outside, which I have been able to gather. 

In the future, when more data can be collected, the storm maybe accurately 
plotted, and its peculiar features explained. 

In the meantime, several theories have been advanced. It has been thought 
that two distinct storms passed by, following each other very closely, the 
second storm being the violent hurricane. Another theory is that there was 
but one storm, and that after passing Apia it recurved sharply to the south- 
ward and eastward, and again brought Apia within its influence. 

A third hypothesis is that the hurricane was generated directly over this 
place, and acquired but little or no progressive movement for a long while, the 
rotary force as the meteor developed increasing rapidly, and causing the 
tremendous sea during the last half of the blow. 

The unstable conditions of the storm during its formation may account for 
the peculiar movements of the barometer, and for its marked irregularity during 
the forenoon of the i6th. 

I am disposed to accept this third theory; and the report that at the island 
of Suwaroff, 500 miles to the eastward, no gale was felt, gives it further support. 

I forward a copy of the Trenton's log-book covering the period of the storm. 
Very respectfully, 

L. A. KiMBERLY, Rear- Admiral, U.S.N., 
Commanding U. S. Naval Forces on the Pacific Station. 

In accordance with the plan of co-operation agreed upon between 
the Hydrographic Office and the Signal Office, all marine data are 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 287 

collected by the former office and referred to the latter, for tempo- 
rary use. With the original data relating to the Samoan hurricane, 
referred to the ChiefSignal Officer ofthe army, March 10, iSgi.foruse 
in preparing the Summary of International Meteorological Observa- 
tions for March, 1889, a copy of a statement that I had prepared 
was inclosed, and the conclusions drawn therein may be quoted at 
some length here : 

Division of Marine Meteorology, 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department, 

Washington, D. C, March 10, 1891. 

Lieutenant Richardson Clover, U. S. Navy, Hydrographer. 

Sir : — I have the honor to report as follows upon a preliminary although 
somewhat complete study of all the data at hand upon the Samoan hurricane 
of March, 1889. 

Unfortunately, certain data that ought to be available and that prove to be 
very essential to any correct understanding of the situation have not yet 
reached this office ; I refer especially to detailed observations from New Cale- 
donia and New Zealand for the month of March, as well as reports from 
vessels other than those from which we now have data. 

To refer briefly to the leading features of the situation, I may say that the 
hurricane that created the destruction at Apia seems to have originated east- 
northeastward from the Samoan Islands, some 300 miles, on the 13th of March, 
probably without very great severity until the 15th, when its center passed 
directly over or a little to the north of Apia harbor, with a reduced barometric 
pressure of 29.07, wind light and variable, from 2 to 3 P. M.; at 3 P. M. the 
wind came out fresh from NE, shifting to north. On this date the storm com- 
menced to recurve to the southward and southeastward, and it doubtless 
increased considerably in intensity during this period ; to the fact that it 
recurved at just this position, and that during its recurve it increased in 
energy, must, I think, be attributed the destruction it caused in the harbor 
of Apia. 

The only data we have regarding the earlier history of the storm are, first, 
the negative evidence from the statement that it was not felt at all at the little 
island of Suwaroff, abouf 550 miles E by N from Apia, and, secondly, the very 
brief report from the American schooner Equator, which vessel at noon of the 
14th was in lat. 12° S, Ion. 170° 50'' W, and experienced thick, squally weather, 
with winds shifting from S to SW, W and NW. The approach of the hurricane 
to the harbor, and in fact its general character and severity, were doubtless less 
clearly evident than they might have been, on account of the force of the south- 
erly winds in its SW quadrant being lessened by the mountains on the island 
of Upolu. In fact, there are even now no data at hand by which to judge the 
actual strength of the winds in the advancing quadrants of the storm until 
after the 15th, nor are there any details showing the velocity of cloud move- 
ment, state of the sea off-shore, or other indications that are recognized in 
every ocean as characteristic of the approach of a hurricane of great severity. 



288 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 

After the center of the storm passed the island on the 15th and the northerly 
winds of its rear quadrants began to be felt, it naturally followed both that the 
wind itself was felt with much greater violence than the previous southerly 
winds (masked as they were by the hills on the island), and that very heavy north- 
erly seas commenced to roll into the harbor. There can be no doubt but that 
heavier winds and seas were normally to be expected in the rear quadrant of 
the storm, under the particular conditions of the exposure of the harbor, but it 
might with equal probability have been expected that they would not be so 
much more severe than was indicated by the weather previously, nor of such 
long duration as actually turned out to be the case, owing to the storm's 
recurve. 

The track of the storm to the southward of the island is readily traced by 
means of a very good report from the American ship Hagarstown, and it seems 
evident that the storm was central about lat. 17° S, Ion. 171° 30^ W, at local 
noon of the 17th, the Hagarstown being not far from the center of the storm, 
to the eastward. The barometric curve and the lowest reading indicated by 
the Hagarstown's mercurial barometer are not very unlike the curve indicated 
by observations at Apia during the passage of the center, although the lowest 
reading is not quite so low by about two-tenths of an inch ; but she was doubt- 
less at some distance from the center of the storm, which, as stated above, 
seems to have increased in severity during the 15th and i6th. The following 
day, the i8th, the hurricane passed over Nuie, or Savage Island, where great 
damage is reported, caused by the high winds and storm-wave, which inun- 
dated the island. 

After the 19th we have as yet no very complete data by which to trace the 
track of the storm. The American bark Fred. P. Litchfield encountered a 
hurricane on the 23d, in lat. 34° 30'' S, Ion. 156° W, the wind shifting from ENE 
to S and NW, and this may have been the same storm or it may not. Data 
from New Zealand, and possibly from some vessel between the Eurasia and 
Litchfield, might settle this question. 

Farther to the SE we have no data of interest in this connection, and it is 
therefore impossible to prolong the track of the storm. 

It is of interest to note that at the time the hurricane was raging at 
Apia there was another hurricane of equal or greater severity in about the 
same latitude but 25° of longitude to the westward. The data relating to this 
storm are contained in the report of the British bark Altcar, which vessel on 
the i6th was in lat. 16° S, Ion. 161° 20' E ; at noon, G. M. T., of that day the 
wind was E, force 12, bar. 28.98 (mercurial, corrected), and 24 hours later wind 
S, force 10, bar. 29.58. The Signal Office reports from Rockhampton and 
Moreton, Australia, seem to show that this hurricane did not go that way, and 
the only data we have from New Caledonia (French transport Yarra) are too 
vague to draw any inference from other than that it evidently was not experi- 
enced there with any great severity. A letter from Staff-Commander R. A. 
Edwin, R, N. (dated Lyttelton, N. Z., July 11, 1890) states that " the weather 
experienced by the Altcar can be readily traced toward the East Cape"; in' the 
absence of any complete data from New Zealand, however, I am not so sure but 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 289 

that the storm off the East Cape may have been the Samoan hurricane itself, 
which would have been felt there had it moved SSW, or even S by W, from its 
position on the 19th. In this case the hurricane experienced by the Litchfield 
on the 23d must have been a different storm. This is a question that it seems 
impossible to settle without data not now available. 

It will be noted from the report of H. M. S. Calliope that that vessel, when 
she steamed out of Apia harbor on the i6th into the northerly gale, experienced 
a gradual but steady rise of the barometer, as was naturally to be expected, but 
that on the forenoon of the 17th there was a decided fall (about .30), followed 
by a still more rapid rise (about .50). No such fall of the barometer is recorded 
in the reports from the vessels at Apia, nor do the shifts of wind help us much 
in accounting for it. The only hypothesis by which it can be even partially 
explained is that a secondary, or storm of small size but considerable severity, 
passed close to the Calliope and between her and the islands to the southward, 
affecting her barometer but not the others. There is, of course, nothing very im- 
probable about this (although one would expect the shifts of wind to have been 
more marked), and the formation of this secondary, moving along a track about 
SE by E, may be assumed to explain the recurve to the southward and south- 
westward on the i8th and 19th of the Samoan hurricane itself, and its movement 
towards the East Cape of New Zealand (if it did move that way). Moreover, the 
weather experienced by the British steamship Richmond on the 20th, in lat. 18° 
34^ S,lon. 1 53° 05'' W (wind backed to NW during the evening, blowing fresh ; 
heavy SW sea, NW and W gale, with high sea the following day), may possibly 
be explained by the approach and passage of this secondary, now a storm of 
considerable size and severity. It can hardly be assumed to have been the 
hurricane encountered by the Litchfield on the 23d, however, without assigning 
to it a larger diameter than one would expect, or an unexpected southerly 
curve to its track from its position on the 20th to its position on the 23d. 

An earlier hurricane that occurred during March, and whose eastern quad- 
rants passed over the Samoan Islands, can be traced with considerable accu- 
racy from a position at noon of the 6th, about 200 miles north of the island of 
Upolu, recurving W of the islands, to a position on the 8th about 150 miles 
E of Tonga, near which position it was encountered by the Hagarstown, which 
vessel experienced winds of hurricane force, and very low barometer, as indi- 
cated by her report. It is interesting to note that the heavy swell sent out on 
every side from this hurricane was noted on the 12th, to the southward of New 
Caledonia, by both the Yarra and Altcar. The log of the Trenton can be con- 
sulted for data regarding this storm, but it is of only incidental interest in 
connection with the Samoan hurricane. 

The general and permanent interest attaching to the history of this very 
destructive storm renders it, in my opinion, very desirable to publish all the 
data that have been collected relative thereto, with as complete a discussion 
as possible and suitable illustration by means of maps, diagrams, and possibly 
pictures illustrating the character of the harbor where this memorable catas- 
trophe occurred. Such a publication seems called for by the efforts that we 
have made to collect data on the subject and the cordial co-operation that 



290 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 

we have received from various offices and individuals. Moreover, the oppor- 
tunity is an admirable one for the publication of other data of interest in this 
connection, that is, regarding the general subject of storms in the South 
Pacific. The log-books at hand in this office contain many very interesting 
reports, and this whole subject is one of very great interest, more especially to 
the commerce of our Pacific Coast. I find in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Meteorological Society of London a very complete account by Mr. R. L. 
Holmes of a severe hurricane that passed over the Fiji Islands in March, 1886, 
and one of the unpublished reports in this office adds very materially to the 
interest and value of this paper; a brief description of such a storm in the 
South Pacific, considered in connection with the Samoan hurricane, would be 
of great interest to masters of vessels. 

I have the honor to request, therefore, that upon the return of these docu- 
ments from the Signal Office you authorize me to complete the discussion of 
this storm, adding thereto such data as are available regarding the storms of 
the South Pacific. I beg to suggest, also, that you request the Chief Signal 
Officer, U. S. Army, to make an effort to obtain from the government bindery 
the copies of the Queensland Weather Maps of Australasia for March, 1889, and 
the Weather Charts of Australia and New Zealand published by the Sydney 
Observatory, both of which belong to the library of the Signal Office and are 
very essential in this connection. Very respectfully, 

Everett Hayden, 

Maritte Meteorologist. 

The accompanying chart illustrates graphically the tracks of three 
hurricanes that occurred during the month, together with the tracks 
of all the vessels from which reports have been received (except the 
French transport Caledonien, from March 13, in lat. 44° 47' S, Ion. 
158° 28' W, to March 19, lat. 50° 42' S, Ion. 130° 15' W) and a 
diagram giving the barometric curves of various vessels and land- 
stations. Broken lines on the chart indicate absence of detailed 
information. The dots on the barometric curves are the data upon 
which they are based. 

Of the three hurricanes whose tracks are charted, the first was the 
one that was felt with considerable severity at Apia on the 6th and 
7th. It seems to have originated some 500 miles NNE from Apia 
on the 5th, whence it moved in a southwesterly direction, recurving 
in about the latitude of the Samoan islands but 150 to 200 miles to 
the westward, and moving thence southeastward, between Tonga 
and Nuie. The barometric curve of the Hagarstown, over which 
vessel the center passed on the 8th, indicates that it was a hurricane 
of great severity — probably quite as severe as the one that succeeded 
it nine days later. The other tracks are those of the Samoan hurri- 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. ' 29I 

cane itself, and the very severe storm encountered by the Altcar 
in the Coral Sea, NW from New Caledonia, 

Relative to the track of the Samoan hurricane itself, only a few 
words need be added to what has been said above. Probably two 
questions will at once occur to the reader, namely, how do you ex- 
plain the two barometic depressions experienced at Apia the after- 
noon of the 15th and i6th, respectively (shown on the curve of the 
Trenton's barometer), and what caused the decided fall of the 
Calliope's barometer the forenoon of the 17th (this vessel, it should 
be remembered, steamed out of the harbor at about 10 A. M. Satur- 
day, the 16th, and at noon of the 17th was in lat. 12° 52' S, long. 
171° 00' W, or 60 miles NE from Apia). 

Before attempting to reply to the first of these two questions, I 
must confess that I think there is still room for a wide difference of 
opinion, but I have drawn the track as seems to me most reasonable, 
considering the fact that we have no data from positions near Apia 
to the northward, southward and westward, while the conditions 
indicated by the data from Apia itself can certainly be explained in 
this way, at least quite as well as by any other hypothesis. My idea 
is, briefly, that the first depression occurred as the storm passed on 
its westward track, followed by the usual shift of wind to the north- 
ward. Along this branch of its trajectory its severity was probably 
not quite so great as it was later, and the force of its southerly winds 
was masked by the mountains on the island of Upolu; possibly 
careful observations of the rapidity of motion and the character of 
the clouds, or of the state of the sea off the harbor, might have indi- 
cated a severe storm, but this does not appear from the evidence at 
hand, though well worth considering. During its recurve the hurri- 
cane probably increased in intensity, the barometric depression at 
the center deepening and thus causing the second depression ob- 
served at Apia, which was slightly deeper than the first although 
the center itself was really at a greater distance than on the previous 
day. 

A point of interest in this connection is the fact that storms may 
be divided into the two following classes: First, where the barome- 
tric gradients are steepest very near the center and the wind whirls 
about a small central space where it is quite calm; this is the typical 
hurricane of the tropics, with its central " bull's eye," or calm, clear 
space. Second, where the central clear and comparatively calm area 
is very much larger, and the steepest gradients and strongest winds 



292 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 

are found in an annular space around it, but at some distance. This 
distinction holds good in the case of many storms in the West Indies 
and the North Atlantic, and in the present instance the curve of the 
Hagarstown's barometer on the 8th is typical of the former class, 
although there is no equally good example of the latter. The second 
plate, however, entitled " Barometer Diagrams from Two Typical 
Hurricanes," illustrates the distinction very clearly by means of two 
examples, namely, the Fiji hurricane of March 3 and 4, 1886, and 
the Sable Island hurricane of December i, 1890. The Trenton's 
curve is added, for comparison, and it will be seen that the indica- 
tions are that theSamoan hurricane (on the 15th and i6th, at least) 
was of the second type, although during the 17th and i8th it doubt- 
less became more like the first. It is interesting to note on this 
plate the difference between the Trenton's curve, as plotted on the 
two diagrams. 

From amongst the various opinions that I have heard expressed 
by those who have studied this subject, I may be allowed to quote 
the following: Lieut. H. M.Witzel,U. S. N., who is thoroughly familiar 
with all the data, is inclined to the opinion that the second depres- 
sion was caused by a storm that originated in the immediate vicinity 
(possibly over the island of Savaii) after the passage of the first, and 
remained almost stationary for some time. Mr. Arthur H. Dutton, 
formerly an assistant in this office, who also has studied the data 
relating to this storm, thinks that from its position at noon on the 
15th it recurved to the W and NW, and during the following 
night again recurved sharply, describing a loop north of Savaii 
and then returning toward Upolu, whence it moved southward and 
southeastward. It is thus evident that from the data at hand several 
hypotheses can be made that will satisfy the conditions. 

As regards the decided fall of the Calliope's barometer on the 17th, 
we have to call to our aid, as stated above, what has been aptly 
termed a " convenient secondary," or local storm — a whirl within a 
whirl. In the absence of other information, however, I have refrained 
from the attempt to indicate either its origin or track. 

The Altcar hurricane, as it may he called, was one of great severity, 
although its track, as plotted on the chart, is almost entirely hypo- 
thetic, the data at hand not indicating with any certainty whence it 
came or whither it went. It is of especial interest because of its 
relation to, or reaction upon, the Samoan hurricane, as it seems 
probable that its effect was to repel the latter and make it recurve 



PROCEEDINGS U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVI!, NO.Z. 



30.00 



29.50 



2aoo 



2aoo -. 




,^^ 



S. S. "Suva " (In BucaBay) was on the track of the center of the hurricane. 
Delanasau (Vanua Levu), 80 miles from center. 
S. S. "Zealandia" (at sea), ISO miles. 




k 



Barometer Diagrams from Two Typical Hurricanes, 

With the record of the "Trenton's" barometer at Samoa, March 15-16, 1889. 

, To face p . 232 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 293 

earlier and at a sharper angle than it might otherwise have done. I 
am inclined to think that its true section, as it would have been given 
by a barometer at a land-station over which the center passed, was very- 
different from the curve shown by the Altcar's barometer. It seems 
evident from her report, although it is not expressly so stated, that she 
ran before the wind and was compelled to remain in the storm so 
long that her barometric curve is deceptive, unless her action be 
taken into consideration and its real meaning thus explained. This 
hurricane may prove to have been one of those stationary cyclones 
that disappear near the region where they originate. 

Although I have already exceeded the limits assigned, I must say 
a few words about the general meteorologic conditions preceding and 
during these three great hurricanes, likely, as they are, to be forever 
memorable amongst South Pacific storms. The data, if carefully 
studied, allow this to be done with considerable confidence, the 
Signal Office reports from four Australian stations supplying, to some 
extent, the place of the missing Australian and New Zealand weather 
maps. 

The normal conditions during the month of March in the South 
Pacific, as indicated by one of the charts accompanying Buchan's 
exhaustive Report on Atmospheric Circulation (published with the 
Results of the Challenger Expedition), are as follows. The two 
isobars (29.90) that inclose the equatorial belt of low pressure run 
nearly due east from Manila to Colon and from Central Australia to 
Peru, respectively. The western and wider part of the region thus 
inclosed has its central low area (29.75) close to the northern coast 
of Australia, and the isobar of 29.85 extends eastward from northern 
Borneo to mid-ocean (about lat. 5° S, Ion. 137° W), and thence 
about W by S to and across Australia, passing a little to the southward 
of Samoa, where the normal reduced (corrected) pressure is about 
29.83 during the month. Farther south, between Australia and Chile, 
stretches the high-pressure belt of the temperate zone, with one very 
decided anticyclonic system to the eastward, the isobar of 30.00 
including a large oval area from the west coast of South America to 
Ion. 140° W (pressure at center 30.25), and another similar but less 
decided system to the westward, where the isobar of 30 00 extends 
from Newcastle eastward to beyond New Zealand, and thence back 
over Middle Island to northern Tasmania. The southeast trades 
blow from this high-pressure belt toward the equatorial or low-pres- 
sure region, where, during the summer months of the Southern 



294 THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 

Hemisphere, tropical hurricanes originate, enormous whirlwinds 
rotating clockwise (or " with the sun," as the expression is ordinarily- 
used) and moving gradually away from the equator along a great 
parabolic orbit, concave to the east, that half encircles the per- 
manent anticyclone already referred to, west of South America. 
We thus see that here, as in the North Pacific and North Atlantic — 
in fact, as in every ocean — it is the western portion that is most sub- 
ject to hurricanes, and they rarely occur farther east. To the south- 
ward of this high-pressure belt of the temperate zone, toward and 
perhaps to the South Pole itself, pressures decrease very rapidly and 
uniformly, the isobar of 29,30 coinciding almost exactly with the 6oth 
parallel. This is the region of almost continuous westerly gales, 
varied by an occasional storm or hurricane. The normal or average 
conditions are, of course, greatly modified occasionally by disturb- 
ances which, although not of frequent occurrence in the tropics even 
in summer, are sometimes very severe. 

The conditions during the early part of March, 1889, seem to have 
been about normal up to the 4th, when British Meteorological Office 
reports from Suva, Fiji, and Nukalofa, Tonga, indicate that an anti- 
cyclone extended southward toward New Zealand. As this system 
moved slowly eastward and a cyclonic storm passed southeastward 
along the south coast of Australia and Tasmania, the first of the 
three hurricanes described above formed north of the Samoan 
islands and an apparently feeble depression developed over the 
Coral Sea. This last depression disappeared as the hurricane 
moved south of Samoa on the 7th and 8th,- and a strong anticyclone 
appeared over South Australia and moved slowly to the southward 
and eastward with apparently increasing intensity, becoming cen- 
tral on the 13th in the vicinity of Tasmania, with corrected baro- 
metric pressure as high as 30.47 at Melbourne. 

It was on the 12th that the very earliest signs of the hurricane's 
approach were observed at Samoa. To quote from notes made by 
Lieutenant R. G. Davenport, U. S. Navy, the navigator of the Nipsic, 
"there was a peculiar, coppery-red sunset the evening of the 12th 
and the weather was clear the first part of the 13th, but overcast 
toward evening, when the barometer stood .21 below its reading the 
preceding day. Calm and light southerly breezes prevailed, force o 
to 2." 

On the 14th the weather grew still more threatening and the 
barometer continued its steady fall, now slowly, as the time of the 



THE SAMOAN HURRICANE. 295 

daily maximum approached, and now more rapidly, as the fall due 
to the influence of the approaching storm combined with the daily 
ebb of the barometric tide (always such a marked phenomenon in 
the tropics). Toward evening the ships got up steam in their 
boilers, that their engines might aid their anchors in keeping them 
off the reefs and preventing colHsions with other vessels in the crowded 
harbor. It was doubtless an anxious moment for the commanders 
of the naval forces of the three great nations, responsible, as they 
were, not only for lives and ships but for the prompt execution of 
their instructions and the faithful guardianship of public interests 
committed to their care. To most of the others on board, 'both 
officers and men, free from at least some of the cares and responsi- 
bilities of their superiors, the actual danger of the situation was 
probably not fully evident till after the shift of wind to the north- 
ward Friday evening, when the long battle with the elements com- 
menced in earnest. 

But to resume and to conclude : Whilst the hurricane was ap- 
proaching Samoa on the 15th theTasmanian anticyclone had moved 
toward New Zealand and the Altcar hurricane had probably already 
formed in the Coral Sea. On the i6th both hurricanes were raging 
with terrific intensity, and the Samoan, recurving and almost 
doubling on its tracks, was playing havoc in the harbor of Apia. It 
was on this day, Saturday, that the greatest destruction occurred, 
and it was this and the following day that saw those scenes of 
heroism, self-sacrifice and devotion that for months made the 
wreck-strewn ledges and -beaches of Apia harbor the focus of public 
attention and that must for centuries elicit the praise and admiration 
of mankind. 



[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, M D. 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 1891. 

The Enlistment, Training, and Organization of Crews for 

OUR New Ships. 

By Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. N. 



Commander G. H. Wadleigh, U. S. Navy. — While concurring in the main 
with most of the views advanced in the essay, which, though perhaps not new, 
are presented in a form which should attract the attention and receive the 
thanks of the entire navy, there are some points on which I differ from the 
essayist, also some to which I think attention has not been drawn. 

That the more complicated the fighting machine called a ship, the more 
intelligent and skillful should be the men to handle and fight it, is an evident 
fact, and in order to obtain such men the inducements must be equal to those 
offered in other occupations. 

It time of war patriotism and prize-money will bring us all the men we need; 
at other times the pay and opportunities for advancement will be the 
motives of most of the men who enter the service, as they are of those who 
enter the employ of corporations and individuals. That the pay of the seaman 
class is too small is shown by the fact that many of the best seamen, those who 
have been trained in the service, leave it and obtain better pay in civil life. 
The pay in the navy should be more than is given in the merchant service, and 
I would suggest $30 a month for seamen, and $22 for ordinary seamen ; at 
present many desirable landsmen work for the rate of coal-heaver instead of 
ordinary seaman, because of the greater pay of ^$3 a month which the former 
receives. 

The point that I consider of the highest importance, however, is that the 
young American who enters the navy should feel like Napoleon's soldier, 
" who carried a marshal's baton in his knapsack," that the highest rank in the 
navy is within his reach if he has the ability to obtain it. It is believed that 
the navy is the only service in the United States, public or private, where the 
boy who commences at the foot of the ladder cannot climb to the top if he has 
it in him so to do. It is admitted that he may do so in case of war, but with 
wars growing less and less frequent as weapons and explosives are made more 



298 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

deadl}', the chance for an admiral's commission looks very slight to the recruit 
of 1891. Give every American boy or man of good character who has quali- 
fied as seaman-gunner, has five years' service and is under the age of 28, the 
right to apply for examination for the grade of ensign, with the knowledge 
that it is the same examination given the Naval Academy graduate, and that 
if he passes a commission as ensign will be the reward, and a great step will 
have been taken to improve the character and skill of the men in the service. 
Should all those that apply and fail to pass leave the service they will not 
leave the country, and will be available in war-time. In the opinion of the 
writer, every man or boy who has served creditably for three years is worth to 
the country ten times what he may have cost it. 

The apprentice system is good as far as it goes, but it should be extended, 
and enlistments be made up to the age of 20, all to serve to the age of 24, with 
the privilege of discharge at 21, if so desired, and upon refunding a certain 
part of the pay, which should be reserved for that purpose. Under present 
conditions few boys would care to enlist to serve until the age of 24, but with 
the knowledge that they could obtain a discharge at 21 it is thought they 
would enlist, and that not many would take advantage of the privilege. 

There are a large number of boys or young men in the country, over 18 
years of age, who have been at work for a few years, and who would make 
good seamen, but who do not enlist because their chances of promotion are 
even less than those of the apprentices. They are not like many of the boys, 
seeking an opportunity to get out of school and away from home, but having 
done so, and been obliged to work, can appreciate steady employment and a 
good home. It is not to be expected that all who enter the service will remain, 
nor is it desirable that they should, as in that case the service would soon be 
clogged with old men, and we want a constant reinforcement of young 
blood. As a matter of fact, very few boys stick to the occupation first selected ; 
most of them, from choice or necessity, drift from one to another, and we 
cannot expect the contrary from our recruits. Although believing in all the 
comforts possible for the men, it is thought that the essayist places too much 
stress upon them. The old saying might be slightly changed to read, " He 

who goes to sea for comfort ought to go to for pastime "; given good pay 

and prospects for advancement, and young men will cheerfully give up comfort. 

Recruiting should be continuous and consistent ; desirable boys and men 
always enlisted when possible to obtain them, others never, no matter what 
the emergency, except in case of war, when everything must give way to " food 
for powder," and an increase to 12,000 men and boys should be allowed, not 
that so many are needed at all times, but in order that good men may not be 
rejected because the quota is full. 

The recommendation to send all recruits to one or two central stations for 
examination should be adopted, and they might be retained at such station 
three months, not longer, since new men will shake down much faster on 
board ship among old hands than by themselves. If the navy had a large 
training squadron and enough men, I should advocate passing all recruits 
through such a squadron ; as we have not, and probably never shall have such 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE FSSAY, 189I. 299 

advantages, all cruisers should be bark-rigged, with light spars, for training 
purposes, as well as to be able to make long passages under sail and for use 
in emergencies ; recruits should be put on board such cruisers and sent to 
foreign stations in order to obtain a "sea-stomach," and no recruit should 
make his first cruise on the home station. 

Stewards and cooks should receive more pay, and they and the attendants 
should be given the benefits of continuous service and honorable discharge 
under proper restrictions ; desirable men for such positions are hard to find 
and harder to keep, and the necessity for good men in the powder division is 
evident. 

The board to recommend ratings should be abolished. The commanding 
officer is the responsible person, and the executive is all the board that is 
desirable or necessary. 

I regret that the essayist, while recognising the master-at-arms as the chief 
petty officer, continues in the proposed pay-table to give him less pay than 
some others, a practice that obtains nowhere else that I am aware of; the 
f/«y/" petty officer should receive more pay than any other petty officer. The 
name petty officer should be abolished and some such name as subordinate 
officer or rated officer substituted. The v^ox^ petty is generally understood as 
meaning small or trivial, and it is submitted that petty officers of a vessel 
should be neither. 

The remarks in regard to punishments, brig and irons, are most appropriate, 
and if the whole power of the Government could be exerted "to arrest and 
bring to punishment all offenders," the percentage of desertions would be 
very small. At present, it may be said that a premium is almost offered for 
desertion. A man is dissatisfied with his ship, or belongs to one ordered to 
the tropics in hot weather ; he has two years or more to serve, and being out of 
debt is allowed liberty ; he thinks the matter over somewhat in this way : If I 
stay in this vessel I shall have an uncomfortable time, or perhaps get the 
yellow fever ; I will go on liberty and keep out of the way for three months, after 
that time I shall not be arrested on account of Circular No. 9 of March 28, 1878, 
and if I should be caught within three months I shall only get one year at the 
Boston Navy Yard prison, where I shall live better than on board ship, have 
nothing to do but lie on my back and read, and at the end of a year, if not 
sooner, get my discharge with $25 to start with. I'll take the chances. If the 
man knew he would be caught sooner or later and would then spend the 
remainder of his enlistment and a year or two. more in prison, at hard labor, he 
would not be so likely to run. 

That the executive of the large modern vessels needs an assistant is con- 
ceded, but it is thought that the proper officer to fill the billet is the next in 
rank, the present navigator. The latter often falls heir to the position of 
executive with less knowledge of the men and routine of the ship than the 
youngest watch-officer possesses. The navigator is no longer needed on deck 
to look after the steering and sails; he is the ordnance officer, and is supposed 
to be on board when the executive goes out of the ship. It seems apparent 
that, as assistant to the executive, he would be more in the line of succession 



300 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

and much better qualified to take charge in case of necessity ; he should have 
the charge of the powder division, and should have a junior officer to do the 
greater part of the clerical and mathematical work which now takes up so 
much of his time. 

In this connection it is suggested that if many of the reports and returns 
now required were abolished, officers would have more time for study and 
practical work. When the general storekeeper system was revived it was 
supposed that returns would be condensed and reduced in number ; the prac- 
tical working has been that, on board ship, most heads of departments who 
formerly made one return now make two, one exception being the general 
storekeeper himself. If the unnecessary returns were abolished and all money 
values on board ship, outside the pay office, done away with, several of the 
yeomen and writers who are now " in everybody's mess and nobody's watch " 
could be dispensed with and room gained for working men. 

A similar system of messing to the one proposed in the essay has been tried 
for two years on board the Michigan with excellent results, more and better 
food and better cooking ; how it would work away from markets is at least 
doubtful, and still more doubtful the working of a canteen bumboat except for 
receiving-ships. Cooking by steam was in use on board the Boston receiving- 
ship in 1874 and may be now ; it worked exceedingly well at that time. 

In regard to the much-discussed marine question, I am compelled to the 
conclusion that the marine must be available for all work on board ship or else 
remain on shore, if only to gain the space required to stow his helmet and full- 
dress hat. Next to drilling, the principal work is now coaling, from which the 
marine is by regulation exempt ; therefore, as excepting the non-commissioned 
officers, the guard is mainly composed of recruits and men that for some reason 
are not wanted in barracks, it would seem that the same number of desirable 
landsmen would be more useful, always supposing that the number of men to 
be allowed the navy is enough without the marines; until that time comes a 
guard must be retained to help fill up the complement. It is, however, sug- 
gestive that very recently, at a meeting of the Royal United Service Institution 
of Great Britain, a paper was read and well supported advocating a large 
increase in the number of marines on board ship. It is believed, however, 
that the British marine is available for all kinds of work. The non-commis- 
sioned officers of the guard are now promoted from headquarters and can only 
be reduced by sentence of court-martial. This authority should rest with 
commanding officers until after two terms of service as non-commissioned 
officer. A man may make a fairly good non-commissioned officer in barracks 
and be of little use on board ship, and still not come within reach of a court- 
martial. 

A modified form of the old system of ordinary men at navy-yards should be 
adopted, by which the continuous-service man, after two cruises, could be en- 
titled to a year or more at a yard, and after a certain number of years' service 
could be permanently attached to such yard as he might elect, to live on board 
the receiving-ship, and to be available for such work in the yard as he was 
able to perform; he would also be a first reserve in case of war. This system, 



DISCUSSION lOF PRIZE ESSAY, 1 89 1. 3OI 

in part, has been often tried and as often has failed ; but, with the proposed 
reform in the yards, by which politics are to give place to efificiency, may we 
not hope that the day is near when the old " blue-jacket" will not be the first 
to be dropped from the pay-roll of a yard in order that the emigrant of yester- 
day, who will vote to-morrow, may be taken on ; for which good time coming all 
who have served at a navy yard, and have the good of the service at heart, will 
ever pray. 

Lieutenant C, B. T. Moore, U. S. Navy. — I have read Mr. Niblack's essay 
with much pleasure, and feel, as all must, greatly obliged to him for the addi- 
tion he has made to the data for the solution of the problem he seeks to solve. 
One point he makes seems to me to be particularly well taken ; it is worthy 
of the very thoughtful consideration of all ofiScers who seek to promote the 
good of the service. I refer to his classing "lack of uniformity in training" 
among the evils of the service. While I believe that the full discussion of 
every system of training should be not only encouraged, but invited, in view 
of the changes to be made, I am convinced, by my meagre experience as a 
divisional officer, that so far as individuals are concerned, the liberty of officers 
should end there. How frequently an officer runs against unauthorized sys- 
tems of training we all know. Our present Ordnance Instructions may not be 
up to the times; Upton's Infantry Tactics may not be up to the most modern 
ideas ; the new drill-book from the Bureau of Ordnance may have faults ; but 
they are the authorized standards, they have been adopted "by authority." 
Any other system of training, however good, rests only on the ideas of an 
individual. 

I think the first step towards securing the uniformity of training, which must 
come before the new navy reaches its highest efficiency, is for all officers to 
conform strictly to the authorized standards, confining their activity in reform 
to respectful suggestions to those in authority, or to discussion such as that in 
Mr. Niblack's very able essay. When this reform at the top shall have been 
effected, one of the troubles of the service, and that one a source of consider- 
able inconvenience to both officers and men, will be entirely removed. 

Lieutenant R. C. Smith, U. S. Navy. — Having competed this year for the 
Institute prize, I feel a hesitancy in offering comments on the excellent paper 
of the winner. The fact that our subjects were different will be my justifica- 
tion. Following the order of the essay, I should like first to make one other 
recommendation looking to the surrender of more living space to the crews in 
small ships. It is usually the custom to consider that ship-duty requires just 
so many officers — a captain, an executive officer, a navigator, four or five watch 
officers, and a quota of staff officers. Some concession has been made to lack 
of space in small ships by omitting junior and warrant officers, and by reducing 
to a certain extent the number of staff officers. In making assignments to the 
different ships, would it not be policy to fix at once in each corps a certain 
ratio of officers to number of crew ? This would reduce materially the com- 
plement of officers in small ships, but it ought to leave enough for the duty. 



302 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

Then, by following the essayist's suggestion of one officers' mess — other than 
that of the captain — it would be possible, in single-deck ships, to quarter all 
the officers under the poop and surrender the whole of the lower deck to the men. 

Every one must be in sympathy with Ensign Niblack's remarks on rain- 
clothes and sea-boots. It is with the greatest difficulty that the men can be 
kept provided with them ; they are of all sorts and patterns, and half the oil- 
skins are found "burned" when broken out after a long dry spell. This 
means to the owner a loss of $2.20, according to the price-list printed. Rubber 
boots are an abomination, are altogether uncomfortable and harmful, and are 
unnecessary if a suitable substitute is made a part of the paymaster's issue. 
Every man who has been shipped any length of time has at present about 
three pairs of shoes, of various sorts, and a pair of rubber boots. I think it 
would be a good plan to replace this assortment as follows : For wet weather 
aboard ship and for landing drills supply a high calf-shoe coming well over 
the ankle, with thick sole and low, broad heel, of natural-colored leather, 
unblacked, lacing in front, the quarters overlapping the vamp, which is con- 
tinued up in the form of a loose, wide tongue, stitched at each side, rendering 
the shoe water-tight to the top ; a suitable water-proof dressing to be supplied 
for preserving the leather. For ordinary wear aboard ship, supply a light 
natural-colored leather shoe, with rubber or felt sole and spring heel. For 
the tropics, white canvas would replace the leather. In either case there 
should be a leather insole, thick enough to prevent sweating. Brogans should 
be supplied for use in the fire-room, to be shifted for the ordinary wear before 
coming on deck. On liberty, the men might be permitted to wear an ordinary 
black shoe. This outfit would be less extensive than the one usually found, 
would be cheaper, more serviceable, more comfortable, and would look better. 
The nuisance of trying to black and shine wet shoes would be done away with, 
and it would be possible to tell at a glance whether men coming from the fire- 
room had changed their foot-wear. The rubber or felt sole has many charms 
for ship use. It is noiseless, does not injure paint-work, keeps out ordinary 
moisture, and affords an excellent foothold. The heavy shoe worn under oil- 
skin trousers should keep the feet dry in any weather. 

For stowing oil-skins and shoes it might be possible to assign each man a 
pigeon-hole in the lower part of the hammock-nettings. It would be necessary 
to arrange the nettings differently, but that would not be difficult. Many 
foreign ships have already thin iron doors on each compartment in lieu of the 
hammock cloth, and on the inside are found painted the numbers of the eight 
or ten hammocks that stow in that compartment. In the lower part could be 
fitted a separately ventilated pigeon-hole for each man, large enough for his 
oil-skins and shoes. The advantages are numerous ; the articles would be 
at hand when wanted, could be easily got at to sun and air, and the clothing- 
lockers and lower decks would be relieved of much unpleasant odor. 

There is absolutely no criticism to make on the essayist's treatment of the 
questions of discipline and messing. Give the men wholesome, well-served 
meals, and do it economically, and the question of discipline is already half 
solved. Good meals, plenty of exercise, all the privileges admissible, and 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 303 

certain punishment for offenses, make a happy ship. They are all possible. 
The failure of the present messing system has been periodically pointed out 
for years. Several better plans have been proposed; one of them should be 
adopted. 

I do not think Mr. Niblack makes enough revision of the pay-table. There 
is no one thing that causes more heartburnings than the present scheme of 
pay. There are no plums for the bone and sinew of the fighting force, the 
seaman class of petty ofiflcers. The present rates are a survival, with slight 
improvements, of a condition of affairs now absolutely passed. Seamen were 
numerous. Any merchant sailor who enlisted in a man-of-war was in three 
months entirely familiar with the new surroundings. The gunnery drills were 
simple and easily learned. The qualifications which made him valuable were 
those of the seaman pure and simple, a knowledge of ships and the sea, of 
sails, masts and spars. He was not a man of education ; he was fortunate to 
be able to write. The supply of such men was large; the wages offered 
were sufficient to attract them. With steam came the machinist and the fire- 
room force. The old rates could not secure the class of men required. Simi- 
larly with the writers and yeomen found necessary to keep the system of 
accounts, continually growing in complication. Education was at a premium, 
and all these men demanded and received higher wages. The change still 
going on has not yet forced a complete recognition. It is the change from 
the wooden to the steel ship, from the smooth-bore to the high-power rifle, 
from the howitzer to the Hotchkiss, from the musket to the magazine rifle, 
from the spar-torpedo and the Harvey to the Whitehead and the Howell. 
Will the same intelligence suffice for the attendant duties, and are the neces- 
sary men to be picked up in every seaport, as easily as the stage-driver 
becomes the engine-driver? No; the requirements and intelligence of the 
seaman class aboard ship are higher now than ever before. It is all right to 
keep the accounts straight and to see that the engines are equal to the task of 
bringing the ship into action; but once in, there is something else to be done, 
and the men who are to do it need a little encouragement. They need a good 
deal more than they now get, if we are to have the men we want. Where do 
the apprentices go, who are the best element we have in the service ? Most of 
them into civil life after their training is finished. This can easily be cor- 
rected at small total expense. It is the question of a few more dollars added 
to the many already spent which is to make the difference between failure 
and brilliant success. 

I should give the chief boatswain's-mate, the chief quartermaster, and the 
chief gunner's-mate the same pay as first-class petty officers of the artificer 
class. They are men of fully as much value aboard ship, and require long 
training added to rare natural gifts. I should give them $70. Boatswain's 
mates, quartermaster's and gunner's mates are also valuable men, and should 
get as much pay as, for instance, a ship's writer — $45. Quarter-gunners have 
to-day much more difficult duties than formerly, and should be expert, capable 
men. Their pay is at present only $27, and might be raised to that of fireman, 
for instance, $35. It is needless to say that all these men should be subject to 



304 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, I89I. 

a very strict qualifying examination. The material is at hand, and only needs 
encouragement to come to the front. 

The suggestion for a special rate of signalman is well-timed. The practice 
now in vogue is to detail apprentice-boys for the purpose. However intelli- 
gent and capable, they are only boys after all, and are often trifling and inat- 
tentive. Signaling has become with the present fast ships a matter of the 
utmost importance and should be in the hands of responsible men. A special 
rate seems a necessity. 

In the special class, the bugler's pay of $33, which is higher than that of any 
second or third-class petty ofl5cer of the seaman class except the coxswain to 
the commander-in-chief, presents one of the anomalies of the service. The 
marine buglers seem equally well trained, and get only $13 and a small cloth- 
ing allowance. Whatever is the reason for discriminating to such an extent, 
the bugler's high pay causes discouragement to the seaman class. In the 
Boston, the chief boatswain's-mate and the chief quartermaster are the only 
two petty oflScers of the seaman class who get higher pay, and it is only $2 
higher. How different are the requirements in the two cases ! In addition to 
possessing marked special aptitude, the seaman petty ofBcers must undergo 
years of training, whereas any person who can whistle a tune and has lungs 
can be taught to play a bugle in three months. 

Coming to the artificer class, I should call the electrical machinist, who is a 
first-class petty officer, chief electrician, and establish a rate of electrician, 
second class, at $50, to replace the present dynamo-oiler. These men would 
come from the same source, but the chief electrician would be a man of longer 
experience and would be in charge, having as many of the others as assistants 
as the size of the plant demanded. Next I would increase the pay of armorer. 
To care for modern ordnance he should have the highest possible mechanical 
training. He now gets less than either a blacksmith or a boiler-maker. I 
would make him a first-class petty officer, and raise his pay from J45 to $70. 
These petty officers of the artificer class are most important men at present. 
Having given them adequate pay, they must be subject to rigid qualification. 
They will probably have to be specially trained in government schools. There 
are already courses for the seaman class, and there is talk of special training 
for the fire-room force. The machinists should have regular courses in the 
government shops. 

If the increase of pay I have proposed seems too extensive, it is only neces- 
sary to reflect that it does not concern many persons in the total complement, 
but that those few set the tone of the whole system. The increase is mainly 
in the seaman class, but it is only just that men of the intelligence now 
demanded, and from whom we shalT expect so much in the next war, should 
have some encouragement. To take a single ship, the Boston, the total 
increase of pay would amount to $298 a month, a sum which dwindles into 
insignificance in comparison with the gain in efficiency to be expected. 

This brings us to the training and status of seaman-gunners. Mr. Niblack 
strikes the keynote of a great deal of their present discontent in his analysis 
of their troubles. Their highest prize is the rating of. machinist at $70, but in 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 305 

each ship there is only one who gets it. There is so great a difference between 
this pay and the average of the other available rates, that it is only natural 
for the rest to be discouraged and seek higher wages in civil life. It seems 
to me a mistake to make these men machinists at all. They have not had the 
necessary training, nor anything like it. It is spoiling a very good seaman- 
gunner to make an indifferent machinist. The present course comprises all 
that is necessary in electricity and the handling of tools to secure good ord- 
nance and torpedo work, but it does not make the men expert electricians or 
expert mechanics. The increased pay that I have recommended for petty 
officers of the seaman class, leaving out of consideration the ratings in the 
special and artificer classes, would offer inducements to retain all of these men 
in the service, and in rates for which they are specially fitted by their previous 
training. 

To secure good electrical machinists, or electricians as we propose to call 
them, and armorers who are to be expert mechanics, will require other means. 
The following plan seems feasible. In each class of seaman-gunners, as it 
qualifies, select some few who have shown marked aptitude for electricity or 
mechanics, and take them through a further extended course in these branches 
until they shall have attained an excellence that will admit of no doubt when 
they begin their duties on board ship. This will be no injustice to the remain- 
der of the class, who, it has been seen, will have equally desirable positions 
opened to them in the seaman class. The ordnance factory at Washington 
will naturally be the place to perfect the armorers. I do not think two years 
would be too long to keep them there. They would be rendering useful service 
all the time, and the delay and expense would be fully justified by their 
increased value aboard ship. 

Next as to electricians. The government has at present no school where 
they can be trained in practical electrical machinery and dynamo construction. 
I think, however, the navy might eventually find it advantageous to manu- 
facture its own electrical machinery of standard pattern for all ships. This 
would avoid a great deal of inconvenience from diversity of types, would 
facilitate repairs, and would in the end be cheaper. Such a plan could not 
have been adopted in the earlier days of the science; but now that types are 
becoming standardized, and the needs of the service are more apparent, it 
would be entirely practicable. Indeed, I will venture to say that the officers 
of the navy at present employed on electrical duty are far more competent to 
design machinery adapted to ship's use and superintend its construction than 
persons who are familiar with shore installations only. Instance the Wash- 
ington gun factory, if a precedent is needed. The plan proposed, in addition 
to vastly simplifying the present tedious method of equipping ships, would 
provide a school in which officers and men could receive all the practical 
training needed in handling any sort of electrical machinery. 

As it would be desirable to have the armorers and electricians finish their 
training at as early an age as convenient, it would be policy to begin the training 
of seaman-gunners at the age of 19, selecting for the purpose such of the 
apprentices as showed marked aptitude for the higher duties of the different 



306 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

classes. They could then be graduated at 21 as seaman-gunners, and those 
selected for the artificer class begin their special training at once. 

Mr. Niblack's organization on the basis of the battery seems well thought 
out. Something of the kind will, without doubt, soon be the rule. The general 
idea is already followed in several of the new ships. I approve thoroughly 
his suggestion of substituting the division number for the watch-mark on the 
sleeve. If some way could be devised to keep officers and divisions longer 
together than is now the rule, and let them feel their responsibility one to the 
other, I think a great improvement in drill and esprit would result. 

Lieutenant-Commander E. H. C. Leutze. — As the writer of the prize essay 
advocates a new organization of a ship's company, and as many of the features 
he proposes have been in force on the U. S. S. Baltimore for more than one 
year, and on this vessel (U. S. S. Philadelphia) for nine months, it may not be 
out of place to give an abstract of the organization of this vessel. 

The basis of the entire organization is the quarter-bill. It has been found, 
however, that in practice we cannot at the present time do away entirely with 
the " parts of the ship," as men from the navigator's division who have special 
duties in port have to be "watched" at sea. The same applies to the berth- 
deck cooks. We have, therefore, forecastlemen and topmen, two parts of 
each, and each part practically one gun division, one artillery section, one 
company, two running boat's-crews, two armed boat's-crews, and two messes. 
I am not quite decided, however, if it is best to retain the running boat's-crews 
from the divisions, as it is often inconvenient, as for instance in the morning 
watch, to have 13 men away from one division, the cleaning of the vessel 
being so arranged that the gun's crews clean around their own guns, and 
division officers are responsible for the good condition of the parts of the ship 
in which their divisions are situated. Men from the divisions are also sta- 
tioned to clean the compartments below their part of the vessel, and others 
clean any engine situated in the neighborhood of their guns. As there are 
only two captains of the forecastle and two captains of the top allowed, one of 
them is assigned to each division and is generally called the "captain of the 
division." He has charge of all the men of both watches in his division, and 
is made to superintend the cleaning, painting, etc., on both sides. At sea, at 
night, a coxswain has charge of one watch. It may be mentioned here that 
the men see the tendency of this organization, for amongst themselves they 
jocularly speak of the "sergeant" instead of captain of the top, he being first 
sergeant of the company, and they speak of the coxswains as the "north" or 
" south corporal." This plan of having one man in charge of a division is 
found to work excellently, and I think it will be always necessary to have such 
a man. The board of organization, the originators of the organization with 
the quarter-bill as basis, recognized this fact, by proposing the rate of "divi- 
sion mate." There being more than one gun-captain in any division, it would 
lead to a conflict of authority if one was singled out to perform the duty of 
captain of division. And here I would ask to be allowed to digress again, as 
I would like to say a word in regard to the rate of " gun-captain." I think it 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 307 

will be almost impossible to find men possessing all the attributes for a gun- 
captain required by the author of the prize essay. My experience is and has 
been that the best marksmen are generally found amongst men who have very 
little or no qualification for the position of petty officer, I would establish the 
rate of "marksman," and the men holding such rate would not necessarily be 
tlie captain of the gun ; the latter might handle the elevating gear and see that 
the orders of the marksman are instantly obeyed. I would free the marksmen 
from all duties at the gun excepting aiming and firing it. The navigator's 
division on board of this vessel consists of i chief boatswain's-mate, i chief 
quartermaster, i coxswain of barge, 4 quartermasters, 4 signalmen, i coxswain 
steam launch, 3 crew of steam launch, 4 bargemen, 4 side-cleaners, 4 dynamo 
men, i armorer, 2 ship's writers, i blacksmith, i carpenter and caulker, i cap- 
tain of head, i bugler, i messenger; total, 36 men. And this is not too many 
to fill the stations at different steering wheels, at search lights, etc. I think 
the number 19, proposed by the author, inadequate, although no guns are 
manned by the navigator's division. I will add here that the steam launch's 
crew stands watch in steering engine-room at sea in four watches, and one of 
them has the entire care of that engine as far as cleaning is concerned. The 
men stationed in the conning tower at general quarters belong to the helms- 
men, of which there are eight, and go to the wheel when all hands are called 
on going in or out of port. 

The powder division, from which the artillery company of the battalion is 
formed, is composed as follows: 12 berth-deck cooks, 4 gunner's gang, 3 
carpenter's gang, i master-at-arms, i ship's corporal, i equipment yeoman, 
I painter, i barber, i jack-of-dust, i captain hold, i sailmaker's mate, i printer, 
5 stewards, 5 cooks, 13 servants, 24 coal-heavers; total, 75 men. The senior 
watch-officer is in charge and the bandsmen are added as supernumeraries. 
If the marines are to continue on duty on shipboard, I would station them in 
the powder division, so as to avoid calling on any of the engineer's division. 
At present it is necessary to have two-thirds of the coal-heavers in the powder 
division, or in other words, two fire-room divisions. The third fire-room 
division is a shifting one and takes the place of either of the others that may 
be on watch at the time of quarters or drill. 

In order to bring the battalion companies of this vessel to their proper 
strength, we have to add some second-class firemen and coal-heavers to each 
company. The fourth division generally remains on board when the battalion 
is landed, though the organization is such that any other division could do so. 

Although somewhat out of place, I would mention here that the engineer's 
division is not required to do any cleaning outside of their own bulkheads. 

I thoroughly agree with the writer that the executive officer of a large vessel 
should have an officer of experience as assistant, as it is impossible for one 
person to properly attend to all the duties required of the executive officer. 

In conclusion I would say that to my mind the proper organization of a 
modern man-of-war is that of the ancient galley; we have the sailors in the 
navigator's division, the sea-soldiers in the gun divisions, and the engineer's 
division takes the place of the oarsmen. 



308 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

Commander J. B. Coghlan, U. S.Navy. — I must congratulate Ensign Niblack 
upon his very able essay, published in the Proceedings of the Institute ; it shows 
study and a knowledge of the needs of a good service. He, however, has one 
very grave fault, which, in my opinion, is altogether too common even among 
line officers, and that fault is, he exalts the non-combatant to the detriment of 
the combatant class. I cannot understand why it is that the primary object of 
a man-of-war's existence is so lost sight of, at the present time, and by the 
people whom one would naturally suppose would be the very ones to uphold it. 
We all know that the whole aim and object of a man-of-war is to carry guns 
and to use them well. 

Of late years the navy and its friends have seemed to run away with the idea 
that the object of a man-of-war was to steam away from a fight ; and every 
energy and every inducement has been directed towards that end. Since the 
very object of a man-of-war is to carry guns and to use them effectively, and 
the greatest aid to that effect is perfect discipline, why should not the principal 
petty officers charged with that very necessary discipline, and those charged 
with the use of the guns, be as well or even better paid than those petty officers 
whose duties are merely secondary in comparison ? Suppose a vessel could 
be gotten to a certain place in extraordinary time, what purpose would it sub- 
serve unless her gunnery and discipline were good? 

I have always maintained that the master-at-arms, the chief petty officer of 
the ship, should be paid more than any other petty officer. No matter how 
small the amount in excess might be, still it should be more. And, as his assist- 
ants rank in authority every one but himself, and sometimes act in his stead, 
they should be paid at least as much as the other appointed petty officers. The 
duty of a gun-captain being much more important than that of a water-tender, 
he should be paid a much higher rate of pay. We must come back to the proper 
idea, that the battery is the important part of a man-of-war, to which all others 
are subservient, and that the important men at the battery deserve the greatest 
care in their selection, and a rate of pay which will keep good men in those 
places. Until we do so, the best men will continue to gravitate to the engine 
department, where they get better pay and easier times. In times of peace 
our men do not have the incentive of patriotism, nor the esprit of command 
which actuates the officers, to keep them in a particular branch of the service ; 
and consequently, to keep the best men in the responsible deck positions, we 
must make up in pay for the extra hazard and extra hard work. For the deck 
work is the hardest of all on board a man-of-war. 

I would, therefore, change Mr. Niblack's proposed rates of pay about as 
follows, viz : 

Master-at-arms, first class, $75; second class, $70. 

Machinists, first class, I70 ; second class, $65. 

Ship's corporals, first class, $65; second class, $60. 

Yeomen, apothecaries, ship's writers, schoolmasters, first class, $60; second 
class, $55. 

All the above to be enlisted or appointed in the second class ; first-class 
rates to serve in the first and second-rate ships, and second-class rales to serve 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 1 89 1. 309 

in the third and fourth-rate ships, and all of them should be enlisted or 
appointed in the same way. At present we see the yeomen and apothecaries 
holding their positions by a much better tenure than do the masters-at-arms. 
This, of course, tends to the latter's degradation, more or less. So I say all 
sack-coat petty officers should be enlisted or appointed in the same way, and 
should hold office by the same tenure. If they were enlisted in the second 
class, they could then, under the present law, be disrated below that grade only 
by a sentence of a court-martial. 

Give the ship's corporals a uniform corresponding to that of the masters-at- 
arms, and the ship's writer and schoolmaster one similar to those of yeomen. 
Every executive officer knows how important it is to have a good writer, and 
how very difficult it is to get such a one under the present conditions. With 
proper pay and a proper uniform there would no longer be any such trouble to 
contend with. Why should not the masters-at-arms have the same privilege of 
becoming qualified as Mr. Niblack would hold out to the machinists? Their 
duties and responsibilities are by far more important than that of machinists, 
who are at all times under the eye and control of an engineer officer. Gun- 
captains should be paid at least $50 per month ; those of the second class to 
get $45 per month ; half the number allowed a vessel to be of the first class, 
the others of the second class. But ship's corporals are the most neglected of 
the deck force, and should be brought to a higher plane, by means of better 
pay and a proper uniform. And since it seems to be settled that the days for 
marines afloat have about gone by, and their retention on shore merely a 
matter of time, ships should be allowed more ship's corporals, so there could 
be one on duty, actively so I mean, at all times. At present these officers are 
simply an aggravation to the men, as their poor pay and lack of uniform seem 
to imply a poor-caste employe, and every one knows how the men resent their 
control. Call them as now, or "assistant master-at-arms," or any other proper 
title, only give them proper support by pay and uniform commensurate with 
their duties. 

I was struck with the force with which the idea of the utter uselessness of 
sail-power was advanced, and then by the idea that the third vessel attached 
to a recruiting station should be a sailing vessel upon which the recruits could 
be taught "seamanship, alacrity, signals, etc." Why should they be taught 
seamanship when it is so utterly useless? Why take up such valuable 
time from boats, guns, etc., to give it to obsolete training? Oh, no! Do away 
with that expense, as signals, lead, knotting, splicing and every other thing 
except useless seamanship can as readily be taught on board a monitor. 
If the days of seamanship have gone by, drop it and at once take up some 
useful exercise, for we have no time to spare. As the essay says, alacrity can 
as easily be taught in the boats. 

In my opinion, Mr. Niblack has advanced the only really sensible ideas and 
arguments in favor of keeping the marines ashore that I have ever seen in 
print or heard uttered. We no longer have room for extra men, and if we 
cannot trust the sailor-men now, the sooner we train them so they can be so 
trusted the sooner we will be better off. Of course I only refer to such trust 



3IO DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

as implies that they can do all the duties required on board ship, for when it 
comes to trusting them not to desert or not to get drunk, the records show that 
it is a case of " pull Dick, pull devil " between the two classes of men. 

The argument of degraded feelings, etc., I look upon as very puerile, and I 
cannot believe there are a half-dozen good men in the service who have ever 
felt that way. Of course we all know 

" No thief e'er felt the halter draw 
With good opinion of the law." 

Every time we take a walk ashore in a large city we meet policemen, city 
marshals, constables or other oflScers of the law who are placed there for the 
purpose of arresting offenders, and yet I am very positive none of us ever felt 
the least degradation from having to see these men ready to arrest us should we 
commit a breach of the peace. Of course this only tends to show that it is 
those who fear them who feel any degradation from the presence of marines on 
board ship. 

But the matter of quarters is becoming a very serious question indeed. 
With our extra large engine force — and it seems as though we are always to 
have more than any other nation or service to do the same amount of work — we 
must, with the reduced space, do away with some one, and of course the regular 
man-of-warsman must stay. For here again comes in the object of a war- 
vessel's existence. It is guns, guns ! guns ! ! Let us continually beat this 
fact into every one's head. Let every one understand that in these days of 
reduced crews every other department can stand a reduction, but that the guns 
must be manned. As Mr. Niblack says, what is there of Coast Survey now to 
be done which can for a moment compare in importance with training men for 
the new navy ? What honor or gain is there for the new navy in the Fish 
Commission business ? And yet the legitimate duty of the navy is suffering 
for men while both these useless services have many vessels fully manned 
from naval allowances. 

Lack of comforts is also much to be deplored. The new ships do not com- 
pare at all with old ones in that respect. An electric light is better than a 
candle, and a constant stream of water is better than the old hand-pump and 
draw-bucket style of flushing the heads ; but surely life on board ship is not 
by any means made up of those two objects alone. The old black bag had 
about twice the capacity and fifty times the cleanliness and convenience of the 
present square bag and wire-locker. As far back as 1876 the Congress had far 
better bag racks, more roomy, more secure, cleaner, and in every way better 
than any now supplied to the new ships. These racks, as I remember, were 
put up under the direction of the executive officer with the ship's force, and of 
course were torn down as soon as the ship went out of commission at a navy- 
yard. That seems to be the fate of all improvements put on board a ship when 
in commission. And right here it is proper to say that in all the discussions on 
the needs of a new navy, I have never seen what I consider the very greatest 
need properly referred to. It is this : " Naval constructors should be forced 
to go to sea to master the necessities of the service." It is there alone that a 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 3II 

full education on matters pertaining to ships can be obtained. One hour's 
experience on a trial trip has been known to do more towards putting up 
weather-cloths breast-high for the protection of the officer-of-the-deck, than 
three months' argument by officers of thirty years' experience. Every squadron 
should have one or more constructors attached to it, who should serve at least 
six months on board of each class of ships of which the squadron is composed. 
They should be given the worst living rooms provided for officers, so they may 
the better appreciate what life on board ship means. No one can fully com- 
prehend this until he has spent three years in a room next the pantry in a hot 
climate. Never a ship fits out but what the officers and the constructor are at 
loggerheads, and the reason is that lack of experience at sea keeps the latter 
from seeing the importance of the thousand and one seemingly little things 
which experience at sea has taught the officers are all-important for future 
comfort and efficiency. Can it be supposed that a constructor with experience 
at sea would ever have condemned any one to live in such a place as the York- 
town's wardroom ? 

Too much cannot be said in praise of the idea advanced of having but one 
mess for the men. As stated, that system was adopted on board the Inde- 
pendence under Captain Rodgers, and the details worked out by Lieutenant 
Delehanty in such a way as to leave nothing to desire. Successive captains 
have but kept it up, and the system is so well grafted there that I doubt if 
their people would ever be contented with any other plan. A sea-going ship 
would require an officer to supervise it, and the pay department might have a 
few more figures to make in regard to the ration money, but even with that 
serious drawback, I think it should be adopted everywhere. In self-defense I 
will say that I had fully intended putting the plan in force on board the Mohican 
when ordered to command that vessel, but that about that time Lieutenant Dele- 
hanty received a letter from the then Chief of the Bureau of E. and R., which 
stated that that Bureau had under advisement or consideration a plan of messing 
something similar to that of the Independence, which was expected to be soon 
put in force. I awaited this bureau plan, and the crew lived the old way all 
the cruise. 

As Mr. Niblack says, it is the little things which add to or take from com- 
fort, and therefore, among other little things, I would never agree to put num- 
bers instead of watch-marks on the sleeves of the men's shirts. It savors too 
much of the generally accepted idea of the man with the striped clothes. 
" Surely the sentimental man of this day would feel degraded by it." And 
what good would such a change do ? It would only be for the convenience of 
the officers, who, by the exercise of the slightest bit of memory, could as 
readily place the men by their faces. 

But above all I wish to take issue with the general tone of the essay, which 
carries with it the idea that the navy of the present and the immediate past 
had in view none of the laudable objects advanced by the essayist. The essay 
says : " The handling and fighting of a ship's armament is the true modern 
basis of the education and training of our men." What is there modern about 
this? Has not this very same thing always been the basis of the education 



312 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

and training of our men ? Most assuredly it has. Any one who thinks other- 
wise can certainly never have read either the Navy Regulations or the Ord- 
nance Manual. Any seeming deficiency has not arisen from the absence of a 
proper object ; it has not been that that the navy has had to contend against, 
but the unwillingness of those in charge to carry out the excellent system of 
drills laid down, for the reason that "energy should not be wasted on obsolete 
things," 

It is the spirit of " laisser aller'''' (which being liberally interpreted means 
"let her rip"), or anything you may choose to call it, which has of late years 
crept into the service, which is accountable for any lack of efiSciency. It is the 
10 A. M. boat, with morning quarters at 9.30 A. M., which has killed all military 
ideas. It is the constant clamor that the drills of the ship should suit the con- 
venience of some extraneous object, which even goes to hurt the new navy, by 
distracting attention from military duties. 

The military spirit should be fostered, for we need it; but, at the same 
time, teach that it is no part of a military spirit to expect the petty officers to 
do all the drudgery and drilling. Teach that the old adage, •' If you wish a 
thing done, go do it, if not, send," applies to military matters also; and that 
it is only that officer who takes an interest in his division and drills it properly, 
who is imbued with the military spirit which will be an honor to his ship, his 
service and his country. By all means teach the fundamental doctrine that 
" any duty which is given, or falls, to any person, is of sufficient importance to 
be well done "; and that so soon as any one looks upon his plain duty as 
beneath him, so soon will that duty be neglected, and so soon will the general 
body suffer. Teach, above all things, that every person on board a man-of-war 
is put there for the convenience of the ship. That the ship is in no way for the 
convenience of the individual, and that by constant endeavor alone can any 
and every one do the duty required of him by his country. 

Lieutenant Wm, F. Fullam, U, S. Navy, — The ideas underlying Mr. 
Niblack's essay have been formed after close personal observation and study 
of the men, of the conditions under which they serve in the new ships, and 
with a keen appreciation of the demands of modern naval organization and 
training. The service should be governed by ideas formed in this manner — 
and formed so recently as not to be out of date. 

Mr. Niblack presents an array of cold facts, gives exact dimensions and 
data, neglects no detail, uncovers a hundred absurdities, and exposes the 
pitiful weakness of our systems of recruiting, training, and organization, in a 
manner that defies contradiction. The statements of the essayist, resting upon 
a solid foundation of fact and common-sense, are not to be shaken, and the 
proposed changes are so carefully and thoroughly considered as to make com- 
ment, in most cases, quite unnecessary. 

The complication, extravagance, and general failure of the present messing 
arrangements are made laughably apparent. Imagine a hotel dining-room 
with a different caterer and a different bill of fare for each table — the naval 
plan ! In this, as in other instances, the essayist, after a telling criticism, 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 313 

offers a sure and simple remedy. In the proposed galley plant and messing 
system no detail is forgotten. That a messing system so inherently bad 
should have survived so long is reason enough why officers should leave their 
cabins, wardrooms and staterooms more frequently and look about the decks 
for new ideas. There are important details of modern ship organization, ship 
discipline, and naval training as yet unconsidered and neglected by those 
whose duty it is to attend to such matters. 

"The navy offers at present a respectable and inviting career to only a few 
enlisted men, and to those only in such special ratings as ship's writer, yeoman, 
printer, master-at-arms, and machinist." This is a simple fact. That so 
many desirable men — a large percentage of the apprentices and most of the 
seaman-gunners — refuse to remain long in the service, is evidence enough that 
the navy is not "inviting." We hear glowing accounts of what has been 
done for the blue-jacket in recent years — clothing allowance for apprentices, 
seamen's savings banks, a "home" on receiving-ships, etc., — but, neverthe- 
less, the best men, as a rule, do not stay. Our men, we are told, get better pay, 
better food, and more comfort than foreign sailors — but, nevertheless, the 
best men, as a rule, do not stay. And if they do not stay, may it not be well to 
find out why it is ; and may it not be well to increase the inducements, if 
possible ? 

The essayist has referred to many of the harassing conditions of life on 
board the modern cruiser. The American is not usually willing to submit to 
these conditions for three years, in order to secure a " home " for three months 
on board a receiving-ship, nor for the inestimable privilege of placing his 
tremendous earnings in a naval savings bank. And so an apprentice school is 
maintained and nine out of ten of the boys leave the navy before, or soon 
after, they are trained. A school for seaman-gunners exists — but " the seaman- 
gunners of to-day are the poorest paid, most seriously discouraged, and yet 
the most important class of men in the navy." In other words, the men who 
satisfy the requirements of modern seamen, citizens of the United States, 
refuse to remain in the navy — simply because the systems of rating, promo- 
tion, rewards, and discipline ignore national institutions and defy human nature. 
These systems, judged by results — the true test — are miserable failures. 

It appears to be a matter of indifference to many whether the service shall 
contain citizens of the United States or not. The fact that about a dozen 
nationalities may be represented in the powder division gives them no concern. 
The essayist has referred to the increased importance and the manifold duties 
of the powder division. Guns will be powerless without ammunition. A 
rapid supply should be assured, and a heterogeneous crowd of foreigners, speak- 
ing many languages, should not be trusted with such important duty. 

The question of men is not considered as carefully as are matters relating 
to material and armament. And yet it is the most important of all questions 
affecting the efficiency of the navy. The mati is the most important part of 
the mechanism of every weapon. If the man is lost as soon as he becomes 
efficient, if he does not remain a reasonable time in the service, the result of 
naval routine and drill is nil. Weapons and ships are worn out in drills, 



314 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

show and sham, if men remain undeveloped, or if they are lost to the service 
as soon as they become proficient. There must be a career for men, as well 
as for officers, if the navy is to be eflScient in time of war. 

The only promotion open to a blue-jacket is to the grades of petty ofificer. 
One in a hundred may secure a warrant, but this is a slim chance. The fact 
that petty officers have few honors and little authority in the navy is the secret 
of the trouble. If the only position to which a blue-jacket may aspire amounts 
to nothing, why should he remain in the navy ? The Navy Regulations fix the 
status of petty officers as follows : 

(i) " Petty Officers are not to exercise authority except in the department to 
which they belong, and over those placed immediately under their control. . . ." 
This provision limits a petty officer's authority within narrow lines. 

(2) " Orderly Sergeants of Marines shall rank next after Master-at-Arms ; 
all other Sergeants with Gunners' Mates, and all Corporals with Captain of 
Afterguard." 

A boatswain's-mate outranks a sergeant, but the latter, not the former, is 
trusted in ship discipline. The gun-captains usually outrank marine corporals, 
but the former are not considered worthy of responsibility in ship discipline. 
Of what use is their rank ? 

(3) " Non-commissioned officers of marines are not to exercise military 
authority or command over those not of their corps, unless on guard or police 
duty. . . ." But they are always on guard or police duty, and therefore they 
do exercise military authority over blue-jackets and petty officers, while the 
latter can never exercise authority over the marines, even on board ship — at 
least they are never permitted to do so. Here again rank is of no use to the 
petty ofiicer. It is a sham. 

{4) " When serving afloat. Petty Ofiicers of the Navy shall take precedence 
of non-commissioned officers of marines holding the same relative rank. . . ." 
But of what earthly use is this "precedence " to the petty officer ? It is another 
sham. The petty officer "takes precedence," to be sure, but the non-commis- 
sioned officer takes everything else — all the honors, the responsibility in ship 
discipline, the position next to the officers. 

It is plain, therefore, that petty officers — petty officers of the line — have little 
or no military authority. Why ? Because the marine guard is present. There 
is no other reason. Petty officers cannot and never will be permitted to be 
efficient in a military sense until marines are withdrawn from ships. It is 
simply a question of choice — shall we have marines, or shall we have good 
petty officers "i It is impossible to have both. Which is most valuable ? This 
question has not been considered calmly nor logically by those who oppose the 
withdrawal of marines. They regard it as a corps question, a matter of small 
importance, and as an attack upon the marines. It is nothing of the sort. It 
is essentially a broad service question — the most practical of all service ques- 
tions — a foundation upon which to build the proper system of naval training 
and discipline. No reason has ever been given to prove that petty officers 
should not have the same position afloat that the non-commissioned officers 
have in an army. No reason has ever been given to prove that the men who 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 315 

must be trusted in battle cannot be trusted in time of peace. Every attempt 
to establish such an absurdity, every argument as yet published against giving 
the petty officer his proper place afloat, has been pitifully, pathetically and 
poeticall}' weak. And it is remarkable that line-officers can advocate the 
perpetuation of this condition of things — the condition of all others that pre- 
vents the most desirable class of men from remaining in the service. 

"A modern ship, being a complicated machine, requires the most intelligent 
kind of men to handle and fight her effectively. On account of the cramped 
living space, the number of men on each new ship must be reduced to the 
lowest margin." The type of man must be intelligent and skilled with 
weapons, but the number being reduced "to the lowest margin," he must be 
available for general ship work. There is a vast amount of drudgery in the 
new ships; it must not fall upon a few. 

Compare the complements of the Philadelphia and the steam frigate 
Wabash: 

Deck Engineer's 
Tonnage. Complement, force. force. Marines. 

Wabash 4Soo 540 385 44 49 

Philadelphia 4100 368 161 90 36 

172 224 

The deck force of the Wabash exceeded the total complement of the Phila- 
delphia. The latter has no sails, to be sure, but there is much more hard work 
of a disagreeable nature in her case. In work aloft there was more or less 
pleasurable excitement. The Philadelphia carries 850 tons of coal — two or 
three times as much as the Wabash — and she must coal ship more frequently. 
And in painting, cleaning, docking and routine work there is increased 
drudgery. And yet the deck force of the Philadelphia is less than that of the 
Wabash by 224 men ! A considerable reduction is to be expected, but it is 
evident that the number of men who are excused from general work on board 
modern ships must be reduced to a minimum. 

In the Philadelphia's complement of 368, the work of coaling, painting, 
cleaning ship, etc., falls upon the deck force of 161 men. Of this number, 
however, the following are usually excused from coaling: 

Barge, gig and dinghy's crews, signal boys, sick, etc. (probably) 30 

Berth-deck cooks (about) 12 

Total 42 

This leaves 119 men to do the coaling; and of these, 13 are gun-captains 
and coxswains, who work with the coal-passers, while privates in the marine 
guard sleep on the berth-deck. Here, again, the "rank" and "precedence" 
of the petty officer availeth him nothing. This is a small force to handle 850 
tons of coal. The difficulty experienced in coaling the Baltimore at New York 
will be remembered. A few tired men were overworked, while a considerable 
portion of the ship's company did nothing. Foreign nations have recognized 
that the problem of quick coaling is of vital importance and very difficult of 
solution. To reduce the number of idlers is a step in the right direction. 



3l6 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

Of the Philadelphia's crew, the following must be excused from passing coal 
(see Mr. Niblack's essay, pp. 39-40) : 

Band 16 

Engineer's force 90 

Officers' cooks, stewards and servants 21 

Dynamo machinists and oilers 4 

Baymen 

Engineer's yeoman 

Pay yeoman 

Jack-of-the-dust 

Apothecary 

Ship's cook 

Berth-deck cooks 12 

Barge, gig, dinghy, sick, signal boys, etc 30 

Total excused 180 

Under some circumstances, perhaps, the barge, dinghy and gig's crews 
could assist, but it will be seen that the excused list is necessarily large. 
Remaining we find the following who are also excused : 

Watch petty officers 17 

Petty officers : Master-at-arms, equipment yeoman, captain of 

hold, ship's writer, barber, bugler 6 

Mechanics 9 

Total 32 

Marines 36 

Grand total 68 

It is from these 68 men that additional working men must be recruited. 
Consider what these 68 men are doing while coaling ship. The 32 petty officers 
are not only excused from work by virtue of their "rank," but with the excep- 
tion of the master-at-arms and two ship's corporals, they are not expected to 
assist materially in maintaining discipline. To preserve order, therefore, 36 more 
able-bodied marines are excused from all work. Because 32 petty officers are 
not utilized for discipline, -^^d enlisted men must be detailed to protect the ship from 
danger within and from ruin without ! Here is the rotten point in the present 
system, and the remedy is plain. If petty officers are excused from work (and 
if anybody is excused they should be), they should not be excused from duty in 
maintaining discipline. This principle (and it is a sound one) once established, 
36 enlisted men are left without a job, and may be marched into the coal 
lighters and provided with shovels and baskets with which to make themselves 
useful. 

While coaling ship, scraping ship in dry-dock, and often in cleaning ship, the 
following rules should obtain : 

(i). At such times, all sentries, orderlies, corporals of the guard, quarter- 
masters, etc., should stand watch and watch. This is only right. When some 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 1891. 317 

men are working from 6 A. M. until midnight, with no rest except for meals, 
others should not stand watch four hours and then sleep twelve. This is not an 
equal division of labor. The officer-of-the-deck stands watch and watch while 
coaling ship. Cannot men on guard duty do the same? 

(2). All such petty officers as yeoman, ship's writer, captain of the hold, 
chief quartermaster, armorers, chief gunner's-mate, etc., should drop their 
pens, lockup storerooms, and report to the executive officer for duty as extra 
corporals of the guard to maintain discipline. 

The following should be the stations of the 32 petty officers : 

WATCH PETTY OFFICERS. 

No. Rate. Station. 

I Chief boatswain's mate. . .Spar-deck all day. 
I Boatswain's mate Attend coaling starboard all day. 

1 " " " " port " 

2 Gunner's mates On post where needed, standing watch and watch 

as extra corporals of the guard. 

1 Chief quartermaster Acting as sergeant of the guard all day. 

2 Quartermasters On bridge, watch and watch. 

2 Quartermasters At the gangway, corporals of the guard, watch 

and watch. 
6 Quarter gunners At three posts, watch and watch; the three off 

duty look out for the battery. 
I Ship's corporal Berth-deck all day. 

1 7.. total. 

PETTY OFFICERS. 

I Master-at-arms Where needed all day, in charge of the guard 

detail. 
I Equipment yeoman "> Assist the master-at-arms all day wherever 

I Ship's writer J needed. 

I Captain of the hold Acting corporal of the guard below the gun-deck, 

assisting ship's corporal. 

I Barber Pass empty coal-baskets. 

I Bugler Act as officer-of-the-deck's messenger all day. 

6.. total. 

MECHANICS. 

I Armorer Corporal of the guard, gun-deck, all day. 

I Blacksmith Pass empty coal-baskets. 

I Carpenter's mate -> , . , 

c ., , , ^ > At a post, watch and watch, extra corporals. 

I Sailmaker s mate J 

I Painter Pass empty coal-baskets. 

3 Carpenters and caulkers. .Repair stages and coal-baskets. 

I Printer Pass empty coal-baskets. 

9.. total. 32. .grand total. 



3l8 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

This completes the station-bill for the 32 petty officers. Ten have been 
assigned duty all day in certain parts of the ship, or wherever the executive 
officer may need them. Fourteen have been detailed to stand watch and watch 
at seven posts, making practically seventeen posts for the maintenance of 
discipline. Under no circumstances would any more posts be necessary. 
Only three posts of enlisted men would ever be needed at such times — 
admiral's orderly, captain's orderly, and sentry over the prisoners — two men 
at each post standing watch and watch, making only six enlisted men assigned 
to guard duty. Every other enlisted man in the ship should be in the coal 
lighters. 

The duty ordinarily performed by the marines being now in the hands of 
petty officers and six enlisted men, replace the 36 marines by 36 blue-jackets, 
and 30 of the latter may assist with the work. Mr. Niblack's messing system 
would save five more working men, and assigning tailors, printers, barbers, 
painters and buglers to duty passing empty baskets saves five more, making 
forty vten who cati be added to the working force of the Philadelphia — a gain of 
over 30 per cent. Is this a corps question? Practical {}) officers would do 
well to think about it. 

When there are fewer passengers on board ship, the service will be more 
" inviting " to those who do the work. When every man does his proper share 
of the work there will be contentment. When petty officers and blue-jackets 
are not deprived of the best swinging billets, the choice duty and the posts of 
honor and responsibility, when they are permitted to stand next to their officers 
at all times and are rewarded for efficiency, the proper men will remain in the 
service. 

A type of petty officer is needed who can control and drill the men to the 
same extent as non-commissioned officers of an army, and who can look out 
entirely for discipline when all enlisted men are needed for work. 

A type of man is needed who can be a sentry when sentries are wanted, 
and who can work when sentries are not wanted. But a blue-jacket cannot be 
a seiitry ! This is funny — " funny " is the only term to apply to such a state- 
ment. It requires less intelligence to be a sentry than to do any of the hun- 
dred duties required of a sailor. No technical training whatever is needed. 
A raw recruit who doesn't know the muzzle from the breech of a gun may be 
a good sentry. Obedience and attention are needed to be a sentry ; that is all. 
If the sailor lacks these qualities, he should lack them no longer. 

Petty officers and blue-jackets in the navy are the victims of tradition, senti- 
ment, and conservatism — these three ; and the greatest of these is conservatism. 
Conservatism denies to the man-of-warsman the chance to develop, and drives 
from the service the men who should be retained at all costs. 

Ensign A. P. Niblack, U. S. Navy.— The comparison of the complements 
of the Philadelphia and Chicago (p. 39, No. 57) needs several corrections. In 
the engineer's force, it should read : for the Chicago, boilermakers 2, black- 
smiths o. The use of the title " junior officers' steward," etc., instead of the 



DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 319 

official designation "steerage" steward, etc., has proven offensive to several 
who have forgotten their early experiences in junior grades in the navy. The 
only pity is that there exists, at this late day, a necessity for such a correction. 
The use of the word alien in the expression "No alien should be accepted for 
either special or general service," etc., seems to have been rather unfortunate, 
as I supposed that a man who had declared his intentions of becoming a 
citizen could hardly, in the strict sense, be regarded as an alien. With regard 
to Plate II, giving diagram of the steam-cooking plant in a space 12 feet by 12 
feet, it was not intended to propose the arrangement given as a particularly 
desirable one, but only to illustrate the space occupied by the different parts 
of a steam plant for 560 men in the corresponding space of an ordinary ship's 
galley for 400 men. It was naturally contemplated that the officers of the ship, 
having their own messes, would necessarily be provided with a separate range 
or galley. 

With regard to the pay-table proposed, the present one was taken as a basis 
and very few changes made. As it seemed so desirable to encourage seaman- 
gunners, the increase of 30 per cent in the pay of those filling petty officer's 
billets of the seaman class, and only 10 per cent in those of the special and 
artificer classes, was calculated to operate towards both raising the status of 
petty officers of the seaman class, and encouraging men to become seaman- 
gunners. The pay of master-at-arms is $65.00. A seaman-gunner, filling 
that position, would get $71.50. A ship's corporal should get $35.00 or $40.00. 
A gun-captain, qualified, should get $45.00, A seaman-gunner, filling the 
billet, would get $58.50, etc. The proposed pay-table is weak and objection- 
able in many particulars, but it was hoped that more suggestions would be forth- 
coming. 

It may not be out of place here to summarize some of the leading points in 
order to make clear the position of the writer in a specific way. 

The sea-going corps of officers of the navy owe it to themselves to protest 
forcibly and vigorously against the proposed quarters and accommodations for 
the men they are to have under their charge, to do the work expected of them 
in some of the ships now building, particularly in the cruisers of moderate 
displacement and excessive horse-power. Such officers must have more to say 
and do with questions affecting the health, comfort, and efficiency of the men. 
Now that we are so short of men, the issue should be forced with the Coast 
Siyvey and Fish Commission. The seaman-gunner is the type of man we are 
after; yet no class of people in the service have one-half the grounds for 
complaint that they have had until recently, and have now to a great extent. 
If a circular-letter were addressed to each man who has, up to recently, 
qualified as a seaman-gunner, whether now in the service or in civil life, asking 
him what the grievances of this class are or were, I believe the invariable 
answer would be : Inequalities and injustices in pay and ratings, and vagueness 
and lack of system in training, particularly at Newport. More of the prelimi- 
nary training of men must be done on shore and in training-ships, where the 
process of weeding out should be facilitated, and only good men sent to sea- 
going ships. These should be well paid and well looked out for. As regards 



320 DISCUSSION OF PRIZE ESSAY, 189I. 

the question of marines, the marine corps will, no doubt, be able to work out 
its own salvation as well as it has in past emergencies. We must secure 
for our ships homogeneous crews, and uniformity in drill, routine, training and 
organization. We must secure for our men improved comforts and rewards 
for faithful service, and provide a career that will attract the best possible 
class of men into the service. Are we doing all we can ? 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 



TARGET PRACTICE AT THE NAVAL ACADEMY. 

By Lieutenant-Commander C. S. Sperry, U. S. Navy. 

The firing of the Cadets of the First Class in April, 1891, competing for the 
marksman's medal was conducted in accordance with the following general 
directions : 

U. S. Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, Md., April 21, 1891. 



The great-gun practice of the cadets of the first class, competing for the 
medal, will be plotted upon a vertical plane 64 yards long and 40 feet high, the 
target being at the center of this rectangle. 

The scoring will be as follows, the target being the center of each rectangle 
designated. Shots striking within a rectangle : 

A, 10 feet high and 16 yards long, score 12 

Outside of A and within a rectangle B, 20 feet high and 32 yards long, score, 6 
Outside of B and within a rectangle C, 30 feet high and 48 yards long, score, 4 
Outside of C and within a rectangle D, 40 feet high and 64 yards long, score, 3 
All other shots score zero. 

The medal will be awarded to the cadet making the greatest percentage of 
his possible maximum. 

In case of a tie it will be decided by having each contestant fire one or more 
groups, of 5 shots each, as may be necessary. The contestants in this case 
will fire with the same gun, upon the same day, and, as near as practicable, at 
the same range, which will i^ot be less than 1000 yards nor more than 1400 
yards. R. L. Phythian, 

Captain, U. S. N., Superintendent. 

The gun, a Hotchkiss 3-pounder rapid-firing gun, was mounted in the bows 
of the tug Standish. The target was the usual service triangular target of 
black muslin, about six feet on the base and five feet high. The boats for the 
recorders were placed 1000 yards from the target, the lines joining them to the 
target making a right angle. To keep the vessel from drifting a 250-pound 
kedge and light line were used. The tidal current being weak, this was quite 
sufficient, and still permitted slight changes of position to be made without 
the necessity of weighing. The service T was used. 

The competitive firing was done only on smooth days, mainly because of the 
difficulty the recorder would have in observing the fall of the shot with motion 
on the boat. 

Each cadet was allowed three trial shots to determine the range and adjust 
the leaf, and then fired ten consecutive rounds. 



322 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

The following is the score of the class, the maximum being 120 for ten shots: 
First Class, 1891. 

Name. Score. Name. Score. 

Lane 120 Moale 102 

Watt 120 Stearns 102 

Macfarland 114 Richards 102 

Hough 114 Ninde 100 

Theall 114 Zahm 96 

McLemore 114 Smith, L. G 96 

Sypher 114 Preston 96 

Leigh 114 Kochersperger 96 

Carter 114 Evans 94 

Althouse 108 Kuenzli 90 

Bierer 108 Nire 90 

Blount 108 Belknap 88 

Brotherton 108 Caldwell 88 

McKelvy 108 Smith, H. E 88 

Irwin ... 102 Flowers 84 

Christy 102 Pollock 84 

Hartung 102 Smith, H. G 84 

Senn 102 Willard 76 

Williams 102 Gross 74 

Gillmor 102 Blamer 70 

Average score 99.7, or 83 per cent of the maximum. 

To decide the tie between Cadets Watt and Lane, the boats and target being 
in position, they drew lots for the order of firing. Each cadet estimated the 
range for himself, was given three trial shots and then fired a string of five. 
Neither was allowed to see the firing of the other, or to know the sight-bar 
height used and adjustment of the leaf. 

Cadet Watt won, scoring the maximum of 60 for his five shots. Cadet Lane 
scored 42. t 

The inner rectangle of the target is 48 feet in length, horizontally, which is 
about the beam of a heavy vessel, and it was adopted for the bull's eye as 
being the target presented by a vessel end on. Men must obviously be trained 
to hit the least target presented by the enemy. 

The experience gained in firing more than a thousand rounds with the 
Hotchkiss guns leads to belief that the observation of the fall of the shot with 
the service T is much more accurate than is generally supposed if smooth 
weather is chosen for the practice. An error of one of the least divisions, 
one-half of a degree, would mean a lateral error of 8}^ yards at a range of 1000 
yards, but it is not believed that the mean error was more than half of this. 

Granting that the means of scoring are not as perfect as can be desired or 
as we may hope to make them, it is believed that they identify the best marks- 
men with reasonable certainty and fairness. 

The practice was plotted in the vertical plane with great facility by the aid 
of tables of ordinates computed by Ensign Haeseler, U. S. N., and it is to be 
hoped they may soon be printed for general use. 

When the firing for the medal was completed, or when the water was rough, 
practice was given the cadets in firing at a target while steaming rapidly, with 
caliber 45 ammunition from the 3-pounder drill cartridge, and with shell from 
a pair of 20-pounder M. L. Parrot rifles mounted aft. 





i:: 




:3 


■< 


<j 


« 


C-i 


z 


^ 






w 


a 




!i 


=> 


< 




=^ 


CO 






•^ 




o 


c: 


r. 


5 


> 




(14 


c; 


1— 


<5 


X 


•I' 


CO 








z 


S 


Q 


s 


_j 


^ 


§ 


o 


1 


ft 


g 


> 


CO 


o 


1 


^ 

s 

u 


W) 






o 




s 


z 
Q 






'^ 










UJ 






g 


O 






•i 


O 






^ 


Q. 






'■0 



^- 3= 




PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 323 

NAVAL MESSENGER PIGEON SERVICE. 

By H. Marion, Assistant Professor U. S. Naval Academy. 
The Use of "Homing Pigeons" in the French Navy. 

The recent manoeuvres of the French squadron of evolution at Toulon have 
again demonstrated the great usefulness of homing pigeons as messengers for 
naval purposes. 

During the sham attack of the port of Toulon all the trained pigeons of the 
central station were distributed among the " semaphores " and the " torpilleurs 
de haute mer" which were to watch the approach of the enemy's fleet. These 
pigeons, liberated at short intervals, enabled the " Prefet Maritime" of Toulon 
to be rapidly informed of the approach and the movements of the attacking 
squadron, and to be kept in constant communication with the vessels defending 
the port. 

The Naval Messenger Pigeon Service was established in France several 
years ago by the late Admiral Bergasse Dupetit-Thouars, and has its head- 
quarters at Toulon. 

Every out-going man-of-war is now provided with a number of " pigeons- 
voyageurs," which are liberated at various distances according to the stage of 
their respective training. They return, with few exceptions, to their home 
lofts, bearers of cipher despatches attached to their wings or tails. 

A cote has been established on board the artillery practice vessel St. Louis, 
and the pigeons have become thoroughly accustomed to the report and smoke 
of the guns, and follow the vessel on her cruise, never mistaking her for 
another. Their usefulness has been especially appreciated whenever the 
vessels of the squadron were beyond the range of the heliograph, as they 
enabled the commander of the fleet to communicate with the shore at long 
distances when no other means of communication were available. 

Messenger Pigeon Service in Italy. 

The February number of the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution 
contains a very interesting account of experiments which took place lately in 
Italy with "homing pigeons" on a " there-and-back flight" between Rome 
and Civitavecchia, a distance of about 40 miles. 

Let us first make a statement as to what this "there-and-back flight" con- 
sists of. 

As everybody knows, the ordinary service which the pigeon unconsciously 
performs by carrying letters, orders, reports, and the like, is based on its natural 
instinct, which constantly induces it to return to its own home, to which old 
recollections, its mate, nest, food, etc., attract it. In the "there-and-back 
flight," on the other hand, the task is to induce the same pigeon — which, 
unless one carries it away, as a rule never forsakes its native loft — to fly to 
another loft with which it has been previously made acquainted, in order to 
provide itself there with its accustomed food and water, and then subsequently 
to return to its proper home. In such a manner the pigeon carries a despatch 
to a certain spot, with a view of obtaining food there ; the first message is then 
removed, and an answer is substituted, which the winged messenger, on the 
completion of its feeding, brings back to its own nest. 

It is in this way possible, with a single loft containing about ten birds trained 
for this special work, to keep in constant communication by messages, five or 
six times a day, two places, although either, or even both, are besieged or 
blockaded by the enemy. After several successful experiments, a continuous 
service was established between Rome and Civitavecchia, and is now in con- 
stant use.* 

* The town of Civitavecchia was selected for these experiments, being the nearest port to the 
capital and an important strategical point. 



324 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

The following is the first official despatch sent by Captain Malagoli, of Rome, 
to the Mayor of Civitavecchia, and the latter's reply : 

" To his Worship the Mayor of Civitavecchia: — The marvelous instinct which 
guides the homing pigeon through the air, and permits it to return to its nest 
from thousands (?) of kilometers distance, and also the fidelity with which it 
returns to its family, have during the last few years been the object of most 
lively interest ; nor do we disdain in our day to make use of them as despatch- 
bearers. Particularly in war-time is this of great and indisputable value, since 
then all the ordiyiary means of communication will be defective, if not altogether 
denied, and one will be forced to substitute exceptional ones in their place. For a 
long time it was considered that all that could be expected from a ' homer,' 
was that it should return to its home after it had been carried away some- 
where by hand. However, trusting to the intelligence of this winged messenger, 
we now desired to go farther, and to make it a carrier of despatches to a given 
place.'^rom which it should afterwards bring back the answer. It is now pos- 
sible to say 'eureka!' For several days these birds have performed their 
regular service between Rome and your town, carrying despatches to and fro, 
which is apparent to you ' de visu.' The journey there or back is executed 
in about an hour, as the pigeons have to fly about 40 miles in a direct line 
from one point to the other. Your town forms with Rome the two points in 
connection. I shall esteem it as a great honor if your Worship will send me 
a brief report of its arrival by the same means by which you receive this. 

With kind regards, Malagoli, Captain.''' 

" Captain Malagoli, Rome : — I thank you very much for the despatch sent 
to me by means of a homing pigeon, which I received to-day. I shall preserve 
it among the archives as a testimony of your kind thought for me, and of the 
splendid results which have been obtained by your most intelligent labors 
towards establishing so important a service. 

I have the honor to be, sir, A. Simeoni. Mayor." 

These remarkable results were obtained only by long and careful training 
through different stages of experiments by which the pigeons were made to 
understand what was desired of them. 

The governments of France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and 
of late the Dominion of Canada, maintain numerous pigeon service establish- 
ments which form an important department of their military and naval organi- 
zation. Several of them employ the birds in connection with the defense of 
their coasts as well as on board of war and despatch vessels. 

A service similar to the one described above might be established between 
Washington and some other convenient place (Annapolis, for instance), and 
extended to other naval stations, as suggested in our article " Proposed Naval 
Messenger Pigeon Service" (Proceedings U. S. Naval Institute, 1890, No. 54), 
in which we said, in substance, the following : 

" So far, no oi-ganized service of messenger pigeons has been established in 
the United States Navy. It is to be hoped that such a service will soon be 
established, as numerous experiments have proved that homing pigeons can 
fly several hundred miles at sea, that birds can be bred and trained on board 
ships, that they can recognize their own ship among others, that they can be 
relied upon to carry news from the fleet to the shore (and under favorable 
circumstances from the shore to the fleet and from one vessel to another) when 
beyond the range of heliograph and electrograph. 

"A service of carrier pigeons for naval purposes could not be improvised at 
short notice, as the birds would require long and careful training before they 
could be of any use as bearers of despatches. 

" War vessels employed in defending a coast are frequently without the 
means of transmitting information of the utmost importance to the mainland. 
By means of trained messenger pigeons they could send communications 



NATURE OF GUN. 



Ft. 



l.- 










EC 


E 




r- 


•£ 


P-A 


M 




H 














rt _ 


a 










oo 


H 



4-in. B. L. R. Mark I 

4-in. R. F. Gun 

5-in. B. L. R. Mark I 

5-in. R. F. Gun 

6-in. B. L. R. Mark I 

6-in. B. L. R. Mark II 

6-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 30 cals. 



3380 
3400 
6190 

7000 

6 ! 10775 



J-5 
1-5 



6-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 35 cals. 
6-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 40 cals. 



*8-in. B. L. R. Mark I 

8-in. B. L. R. Mark II 

8-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 35 cals. 
8-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 40 cals. 
lo-in. B. L. R, Mark I of 30 cals. . 



fio-in. B. L. R. Mark I of 35 cals. 

lo-in. B. L. R. Mark II of 30 cals. 

lo-in. B. L. R. Mark II of 35 cals. 

i2-in. B. L. R. Mark I 

13-in. B. L. R. Mark I 



10900 

10800 

1 1554 
13370 

27600 
28800 

29100 

29400 

34000 

57500 

6c66o 
63100 

56400 
61900 
101300 
135500 



4.9 
4.8 

5.2 
6.0 

'2.3 

12.9 
13.0 

13.1 
15.2 
25.7 



27.1 
28.2 



25-1 
27.6 

45-2 
60.5 



13-7 
13-7 
13-5 
i7.4 
15.8 
16.1 

16.3 

18.8 
21.3 

21.5 

21.5 

25.4 

28.7 

27.4 

30.5 
27.4 
31.2 

36.8 
40.0 



25.0 

255 
24.0 

24.0 
24.0 

33.8 
33-8 
33-8 
33.8 



13.0 


157.29 

! 


13.0 


157.50 


18.0 


150 27 


16.5 


191.50 


21.5 


176.0 


21.5 


180.08 


20.5 


>83.75 


20.5 


2'3.75 


21.0 


243.75 


30.0 


239.9. 


30.0 


239.91 


28.75 


290.52 


28.75 


3 0.52 


40.0 


306.26 


40.0 


343.76 


39.0 


307.26 


39.0 


354.91 


45.0 


419.20 


49-0 


454.46 



*8-in. B. L. R.'s Nos. i and 3 are not hooped to the muzzle, whi 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 



325 



ashore over a distance of several hundred miles, signal the approach of the 
enemy's fleet, and report rapidly all his movements. Besides these, many 
other circumstances afford numerous occasions for employing homing pigeons 
as messengers in times of peace or war. 

" We, therefore, advocate the speedy establishment of a permanently organ- 
ized system of naval messenger pigeon-lofts at the principal navy-yards and 
stations along the Atlantic Coast." 



NAVAL B. L. GUNS. 
Dangerous Space for 20 Feet Freeboard. 



Gun. 


Muzzle 
Velocity. 


Ranges for which Gun is Elevated. 


1000 Yds. 


1500 Yds. 


2000 Yds. 


2500 Yds. 




f.s. 


yds. 


yds. 


yds. 


yds. 


4-inch. 


2000 
2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 
1 000 


290 

III 


177 

195 
217 


119 
131 
145 


S-inch. 


2000 
2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 
1000 


287 
322 

357 


173 
193 
213 


117 
129 
142 


6-inch. 


2000 
2100 


1000 
1000 


327 
368 


205 


143 

159 




2200 


1000 


405 


253 


174 


8-inch. 


2000 
2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 
1000 


357 
405 
452 


232 
260 
287 


^5 
184 
204 


lo-inch. 


2000 
2100 


1000 

1000 


380 
428 


247 
277 


180 
200 




2200 


1000 


479 


306 


221 


12-inch. 


;>ooo 
2100 
2200 


1000 

1000 

1000 


392 


If. 

318 


189 
209 
232 


13-inch. 


2000 

2100 
2200 


1000 

1000 

1000 


399 
443 
449 


261 
291 
32J 


192 
213 
237 



























u. 


S. NAVAL B. L. 


GUNS. 


































i 
3 

In. 


1 


1 


! 


j 


if 


1 ' 
■0 

i! 




1 
1 

1 


is 


GROOVES. 


c 


HAMBER 




1 

■0 

I 

1 


1 


Si 

si 

a 


1 
ft 


1 


ii 


1 


J 
1 




REMAINING VELOCITY AT 


: 1 




— - 




i 


1 


5 


5 
1 


J 


i 


i 
I 


1 


i 


1 
1 


li 1 

1 


r 

i 




„,. 


Tons. 


n. 


Inchts. i 








30 


i„=h„. 




Cubic Inches. 


,„. 


Pounds. 




Tuns. 


Foo.-Secunds. 


Tom. 


In. 


In. 






33S0 
3400 
6,90 










157.29 

157.50 
.5027 




30.29 


Zero 10 


-279 

-279 

-485 
-435 


-025 
.025 
-05 


24.74 
25. .38 
27.07 


4-30 

6-5 


367 
329 
899 


2037 
1994 
3326 


'32-55 


,2 to .4 




33 
60 


58 


,/>02 
■/■O3 
1/103 






.65. 


150. 


.364 


.246 


9.5 




4.77 








13.7 
'3.5 




'3-0 
.8.0 














5iii. B. L. K. MarkI 


2.8 


21.0 




20.75 


1 in 180 to 
lin30 


123.20 


26 to 29 








2000 


.697 


.563 


■439 


'323 


1 
.660 8.67 


6.09 


Sin. K. F. Gun 


5 




3-1 


.7.4 




'6.5 


191.SP 




64.40 


Zero 10 
I in 25 


30 


•349 


.025 


32.00 


\l:'^l 


655 


3965 


168.00 


28.030 




50 


95 


I/14O 


■• 


2250 


■847 


1673 


15.6 


1374 


■754 9-00 


S-9« 


6in. li.L.K.Matkl 


6 


I077S 


4.8 


'5.8 


25.0 


21.5 


176.0' 




36.65 


'Tin 30° 


24 


.485 
•435 


■OS 


36.85 


7.0 


.408 


5360 


■39.. 5 


50 


38 


■ 00 




,/,08 




2000 


'735 


.6.6 


.505 


1402 


2773| 10.27 


7.S7 




6 


,0900 


4.9 


16.1 


25s 


21.5 


180.0S 




44.85 




24 




■■ 


32.73 


7-5 


■ 4.0 


5595 


■47-35 


45.048 


34 .0 36 






./.09 




2000 




.. 


" 


" 
















6-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 30 cals 


6 


roSoo 


4.8 


16.3 


24.0 


20.5 


'83-75 




47-26 


Zero to 
1 in 25 


24 


-4S5 
.415 


" 


33.99 


7.0 


1299 


5552 


■ 49.76 


44 to 47 


33 '0 35 


looL... 


./.08 




2000 


•• 




" 


•• 






» 


6-in, B. L. R. Mark III of 35 cals 


' 


'■554 


5-2 


18.8 


24.0 


20.5 


213-75 




77-26 


■• 


24 






33.99 


7.0 


1299 


6404 


.79.76 






■CO.... 


./..6 


" 


2080 .807 


.680 


'565 


.458 


2990 


10.86 


iM 


6-in. U. L, R. Mark III of 40 cals 


6 


13370 


6.0 


21-3 




21.0 


243-75 


1 


07.26 




24 


" 




33.99 


7.0 


1299 


7256 


Z09.76 


" 




.00 1 


■/.34 


■• 


2.50 


.865 


.737 


.6.8 


1507 


3204J.1.38 


8.39 


•8-in. B. L.R.Mark I 


8 




''■3 


21.5 


33.8 


30.0 


239.9' 




95-16 


1 in 180 to 
I in 30 


32 


.4S5 
•435 


" 


42.05 


10.5 


3569 


'354. 


197.86 


.05.01.5 


So to 86 


250'.... 


I/I.O 

1/1. 5 


" 


2000 


.S08 


.719 


1634 1554 


6932j ■4.5^ 


...«, 


8-in. B.L. K.Mark II 


8 


.9.00 


.3.0 


-.5 


33.8 


30.0 


239.91 




95.16 




32 




" 


42.05 


10.5 


3569 


■3541 


.97.86 






250,.... 


1/116 


" 


2000 




•• 


.. .. 




.. 


•• 


S-in. B. L. R. Mark III of 35 cals 


» 


=9400 


'3-1 


25-4 


33.8 


28.75 


290.52 




42.77 


Zero to 
1 in 25 




-485 

• 4'5 


" 


45-05 


9-5 


3176 


■5548 


245-47 




751080 


250 




,/..8 




2080 


iSSo 


■7S7 


.70c ,6.5 


7498 


.5.6. 


...JS 


8-in. B. L.K.Mark III of 40 cals. ... 


8 


34000 


15.2 


28.7 


33.8 


28.75 


30.^2 




S2.77 




32 




'• 


45.05 


9-5 


3^76 


17564 


2S5-47 


.. 




250 




./.36 


.. 


2.50 


■943 


.84S 


1757 1670 


Son 


16.10 


12.9; 


loin.B.L.K.MarkIof30cals.:.... 


■ 


57500 


25-7 


27.4 




40.0 


306.26 




47-26 


1 in 180 to 
' 1135 


40 


.485 
•435 




57-'7 


12.5 


6880 


26639 


25043 




.7010.90 


500 




'/"5 


" 


2000 


.84S 


1777 


1708 


1642 


.3S64 


.8.75 'S-St 


+ .o-in.B. L.R.Mark I of 35 cals.... 


.0 


60660 
63100 


2^:^ 


30.5 




40.0 


343.76 




83.76 


Zero to 
lin25 


40 


-485 
■ 415 




57- '7 


12.5 


68S0 


29480 


2S6.93 


•■ 


.60 to .So 


500 




I/. 2. 

./.26 


■■ 


2080 


1922 


184S 


■777 


.707 


14996 '9-83 


.6.JS 


lo-in. Ji. L. K. Mark 11 of 30 cals 


■ c 


56400 


25-1 


27.4 




39.0 


307.26 




47-26 


Zero to 
1 in 26.8 


40 


" 




57- '7 


'2-5 


6831 


26590 


250.43 


• 


.7010190 


500 




■/■.3 


•■ 


2000 


.848 


■777 


.70S 


.642 


.38d, 


,.„ 


.s* 


.o-in.B.L.R.Markn„,35cals 


10 


61900 


27.6 


31.2 




39-0 


354-9' 




94-91 


. in°2S 


40 


•■ 




57.17 


12.5 


683' 


30350 


298.08 




160 to 180 


500 




./.24 


•• 


2,00 


.940 


.865 


■793 


1724 


15=85 


10.10 


•<« 


l2-in.B.L. R MarkI 


- 


101300 


45-2 


36.8 




45-0 


4,9.20 




43- '2 


Zero to 
iin25 


48 


■■ 




74.14 


MS 


12043 


5'355 


346.06 


425 


.... 1850 




./..9 




2.00 


.964 


1900 


•837 


1777 


25,85 


..J... 


I3in. B. L. R. Mark I 


'3 


.35500 


60.5 


40.0 




49.0 


454.46 




70.46 


" 


52 


■• 




80.88 


■5.5 


15059 


64857 


373.58 


550 


.... 1,00 




./.23 


" 


2,00 


'977 


.9.8 


i860 


.Soj 


M6.7 


j6.o> 




•8-in. B. L. 


R.'s Nos. I and 3 a 


re not 


hooped 


lo.he 


muzzle, i»h 


le Nos. 2 and 4 are. 


t 


o-in. B. L. R. No. 3 diflers in ex 


lerior from .o-in. li. L. R. No. 


4, and is somewhat lighter in consctinence. 







































































PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 



325 



ashore over a distance of several hundred miles, signal the approach of the 
enemy's fleet, and report rapidly all his movements. Besides these, many 
other circumstances afford numerous occasions for employing homing pigeons 
as messengers in times of peace or war. 

" We, therefore, advocate the speedy establishment of a permanently organ- 
ized system of naval messenger pigeon-lofts at the principal navy-yards and 
stations along the Atlantic Coast." 



NAVAL B. L. GUNS. 
Dangerous Space for 20 Feet Freeboard. 



Gun. 


Muzzle 
Velocity. 


Ranges for which Gun is Elevated. 




1000 Yds. 


1500 Yds. 


2000 Yds. 


2500 Yds. 




f. s. 


yds. 


yds. 


yds. 


yds. 


4-inch. 


2000 
2100 
2200 


1000 

1000 
1 000 


290 
322 
362 


177 

195 
217 


119 
131 
145 


5-inch. 


2000 
2100 

2 200 


1000 
1000 
1000 


287 
322 

357 


^73 
193 
213 


117 
129 

142 




2000 


1000 


327 


205 


M3 


6-inch. 


2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 


368 
405 


22S 
253 


159 
174 


8-inch. 


2000 
2100 
2200 


1000 

1000 
1000 


357 
405 
452 


232 
260 

287 


165 
184 

204 


lo-inch. 


2000 
2100 


1000 

1000 


380 
428 


247 

277 


180 
200 




2200 


1000 


479 


306 


221 


12-inch. 


P.OOO 
2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 
1000 


392 
436 
489 


258 
318 


189 
209 
232 




2000 


:ooo 


399 


261 


192 


13-inch. 


2100 
2200 


1000 
1000 


443 
449 


291 
323: 


213 
237 



326 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

THE HARVEY ARMOR PLATE— RESULTS OF THE 
RECENT TRIAL AT ANNAPOLIS. 

[Reprinted by permission from the Iron Age of March 19, 1891.] 

We are indebted to B. G. Clarke, the well-known iron and steel manufac- 
turer, for the following data on the trials of the Harvey armor plate, in the 
development of which both he and Theodore Sturges, of the Oxford Iron and 
Nail Company, have taken a deep and active interest, the inventor being H. A. 
Harvey, of the Harvey Steel Company, Newark, N. J. Mr. Harvey has applied 
his method of treating steel to armor plate, the plate officially tested at 
Annapolis on March 14 being of Schneider make, 10 inches thick and 6x8 
feet. 

We print facsimiles of the appearance of the Harvey plate after the second 
and fifth rounds, and outline drawings showing the effect of the other rounds. 

DATA FOR ALL ROUNDS. 

Guns 6-inch B. L. R., No. 88 (35 calibers). 

Distance from muzzle to plate 263 feet. 

Charge 441^ pounds, index 90. 

Muzzle velocity 2091 f. s. (measured for first round only). 

Striking velocity 2065 f. s. 

Weight of projectile 100 pounds. 

Temperature 40° F. 

Angle of plate with normal to line of fire 13° 22^ 

In the treatment the Harvey plate had become warped in two directions — 
the face being approximately spherical with slight curvature — distance from 
rear face of plate at center to chord drawn between corners of plate, 3 inches. 
The plate was secured to 36 inches of oak backing in the usual manner 
adopted with Schneider plates, and the backing secured to the structure used 
for the compound plate in the September trials. The space left at the back of 
the plate, owing to its warping, was filled in with oak fitted to its curvature. 
No side plates were used. 

THE FIRST ROUND. 

Projectile, Holtzer A. P. No. 12. Point of impact, 2 feet from right edge, 
23 inches from top. Projectile broke up into very small fragments, which 
were scattered over the grounds. Very few pieces could be recovered. A 
portion of the head was left in the indent so welded to the plate that when it 
was knocked out by subsequent impacts it carried portions of the plate with 
it, and it is impossible to give the depth of the indent with any accuracy. 
The point was judged to have been between 3}^ and 4 inches below surface of 
plate. The depth, including portions of plate carried away, was \yi inches ; 
diameter at surface of plate, g to 9)4 inches. No fringe was raised. A 
through crack 30 inches long was started downward and to right to edge of 
plate. A second through crack 19 inches long upward and to the left to top 
of the plate. No surface or hair cracks could be detected, and no radial 
cracks. The face of the plate in the neighborhood of indent did not peel off, 
but the diameter at surface of plate was greater than usual. 

SECOND ROUND. 

Projectile, Holtzer A. P. No. 35. Point of impact, 2 feet from top, 23 inches 
from left edge. Projectile broke up badly. Portions of base recovered near 
target. Portion of head left in indent, in the same manner as in round i. 
Character of indent very much the same, but judged to be about y^ inch 





First Round* 



Third Round. 





Fourth Round. 



Sixth Round. 



328 PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

deeper. Depth, including portion of plate carried away with projectile, 5 
inches. Diameter at surface, 9 to 9^ inches. No fringe. Through crack 
i8)4 inches long to top of plate. Through crack 18 inches long to left edge of 
plate. Partially through cracks 16 inches long joining indent with No. i, sub- 
sequently opened up to wide through crack. Partially through crack 33 
inches long downward and to left, subsequently opened up to wide through 
crack to left edge of plate. 

THIRD ROUND. 

Projectile, Carpenter 208 C. Point of impact, 2 feet from bottom, 23 inches 
from left edge. Shell broke up badly. About the same amount of the base 
recovered as in second round. Character of indent very much the same, 
except that it was possible to separate the shell from plate. Depth of indent, 
4 inches. Diameter, 9 to g}{ inches. Very slight fringe about small portions 
of indent. Through crack down and to right, subsequently continued to 
bottom of plate, 27 inches long. Through crack up and to left to crack from 
first indent, 23 inches. Surface crack 18 inches long to left edge of plate. 

FOURTH ROUND. 

Projectile, Carpenter 207 C. Point of impact, 2 feet from bottom, 2 feet 
from right edge. Projectile broke up badly. About the same amount of base 
recovered as in rounds 2 and 3. Head remained in indent, showing end of 
powder chamber. Before firing this point was 7.02 inches from point of pro- 
jectile. On attempting to remove the head, however, it appeared much 
flattened, and was so welded to plate that it was impossible to tell how far 
into the plate the point had reached. It was judged to be something less than 
4 inches. Character of indent the same as in previous rounds. Diameter 9 
to gl4 inches. No fringe. Four fine but apparently through cracks, one 
down, one up, one to right and one to left, at about equal distances 
apart. These were subsequently opened to wide through cracks; the one 
down, 20 inches long to bottom of plate ; that to right, 17 inches long to edge 
of plate ; the one up, 35 inches long to crack from No. i indent ; the one to 
left, 15 inches long to No. 3 indent. There appears to be little difference in 
the effects of the above four rounds. 

FIFTH ROUND. 

Projectile, Holtzer No. 38. Point of impact, ij4 inches above to left of 
center of plate. Shell broke up, but head penetrated plate. Head apparently 
entire. End of powder chamber 7^ inches beyond face of plate. This would 
bring point 14.8 inches beyond face of plate (4.8 inches beyond rear face) and 
base 2)( inches in front of face of place. The greater part of base picked up 
near target. Diameter of indent at surface of plate, 7^ inches decreasing to 
6j4 inches at 3 inches from face. No fringe. More of the plate scaled off in 
the neighborhood of the indent than in previous rounds. Small portion of the 
plate scaled off (thickness of scale ^^ inch) about 8 inches from indent. 
Through crack 16 inches long to No. 2 impact. Through crack 19 inches 
long to No. 4 impact. Surface crack 7 inches long to left. Surface crack 16 
inches long upward and to right. Surface crack 3 inches long down. All old 
cracks widened. 

SIXTH ROUND. 

Projectile, Carpenter 205 C. Point of impact, i^ inches above, 13 inches 
to right of center of plate. Shell broke up badly. Character of the indent 
much the same as in the first four rounds, but I judge the point to have 
reached a less depth. Through crack 9 inches long to No. 5 indent. Partially 
through crack 17 inches long, to crack from No. 1 indent. Six short radial 



PROCEEDINGS U, S, NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 2. 



# 




The Harvey Armor Plate. Second Shot. 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 2. 




The Harvey Plate. Fifth Shot. 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 329 

cracks. Saw cracks 20 inches long below the indent. Old cracks much 
opened. 

A glance at the Harvey plate after the fifth or sixth round, and at the 
Schneider steel plate, the same make without treatment, clearly shows the 
effect of the latter. Its face has been thoroughly hardened, the only projectile 
which actually entered the plate being that used in the fifth round. The same 
impact developed peculiar flaking. This is attributed by those interested to a 
blister at that particular point, which prevented the effects of the treatment 
from entering as deep as usual. That it is entirely local is fully shown by the 
absence of the same effect at other impacts. The trial has demonstrated that the 
extremely hard face produced develops no tendency to separate from the softer 
back. It is to be noted, also, that although the cracks produced were 
through cracks, not one part of the plate fell to the ground. 

We understand that the Secretary of the Navy has signed a contract for the 
treatment by the Harvey process of the armor plate to be used for our men-of- 
war, providing a further test proves satisfactory. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 



UNITED SERVICE GAZETTE. 
February 7, 1891. Naval notes. 

"The fractured strengthening hoop on the muzzle of the iio-ton gun of the 
Sans Pareil has been replaced. ... It has been ascertained that the gun 
droops more and more after each firing, and also inclines to one side, this 
latter defect not having been noticed in the previous guns. . . ." 

"The Argentine cruiser 25 de Mayo, which was built and armed by Sir Wm, 
Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., has just completed her gunnery trials off the Tyne. 
Her armament consists of two 21-centimeter B. L. guns on center-pivot mount- 
ings and capable of firing over an arc of training of 300 degrees, eight 4.7-inch 
quick-firing guns, twelve Hotchkiss 3-pounders, and twelve Hotchkiss i- 
pounder guns. Four rounds were fired from each of the 21-centimeter guns, 
thirty-four rounds from the 4.7-inch, and ninety-six rounds from the smaller 
guns, without the slightest hitch." 

The use of electric motors in warships. The magazine rifle. 

February 14. The tactical value of the electric light. Naval 
notes. 

" A proposal is under consideration to set apart one of the modern cruisers 
for the purpose of training stokers for the navy, the necessity of such a step 
having been advocated for years by naval engineers. The vessel named for 
this purpose is the Iris." 

Smokeless powder. 

"Mr. Heideman, a German powder-maker, has produced an ammonium- 
nitrate powder, possessing remarkable ballistic properties, and producing little 
smoke, which speedily disperses. It yields a very much larger volume of gas 
and water-vapor than either black or brown powder, and it is slower in action 
than the latter. The charge required to produce equal ballistic results is less, 
the chamber pressure developed is lower, but the pressures along the chase of 
the gun are higher. In an ordinary dry and even in a somewhat moist atmos- 
phere it has no great tendency to absorb moisture, but when the air approaches 
saturation it rapidly absorbs water, and this will greatly restrict its use." 

Torpedo-gunboats for the Argentine Republic. 

The Resales and Espora, two torpedo-gunboats built for the Argentine 
Republic by Messrs. Laird, are soon to be sent to their destination. They are 
each 200 feet long, by 25 feet beam, by 13 feet 6 inches moulded depth. At a 
draft of 8 feet the displacement is 520 tons, and the freeboard amidships about 
5 feet. Steel is used in the construction of the hull. Two bilge-keels take the 
place of a keel proper. There are 42 water-tight compartments. Considerable 
protection against gun-fire is afforded by the coal-bunkers, which can carry 130 
tons. The normal amount of 100 tons at 11 knots gives a radius of action of 
3000 knots. The armament consists of two 14-pounder Nordenfeldt guns on 
the forecastle mounted en echelon, one 8-pounder, two 3-pounders, and two 



332 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

Nordenfeldt revolving cannon. In the waist are four tubes for i8-inch torpe- 
does ; in the stern is one fixed Whitehead torpedo-tube, also i8 inches, A mean 
speed of 19.823 knots with moderate air-pressure has been obtained. At a 
speed of 10.86 knots the coal burnt was 66 pounds per knot. 

February 21. Attack formation. Anti-fouling experiments on 
the Orontes. Liquid fuel. 

February 28. Launch of the warships Royal Arthur, Royal 
Sovereign, Tribune, and Spartan. Navy estimates, L 

March 7. The navy estimates, IL Naval Defense Act. 

The number of ships to be built under the Naval Defense Act was 70, of an 
estimated displacement of 316,000 tons, and carrying 540 guns, exclusive of 
machine-guns and guns of small caliber. These vessels with their armament 
and equipment were to be completed and ready for commission before April 
I, 1894. There is every reason to believe that, with the exception of one con- 
tract-built ship, the remaining 69 will be completed before the date named. 

Naval ordnance. 

The total number of new breech-loading guns completed during the year 
ending December 31, 1890, is 240, viz : 

Nature of Gun. Number completed. 

16.25-inch of 1 10 tons 2 

13-5 " " 67 " II 

10 " " 29 " 2 

9.2 " " 22 " 12 

6 .< '< 5 '. 12 

6 " quick-firing 2 

5 " of 40 cwt 41 

4.7 " quick-firing 134 

4 " of 26 cwt 24 

Total 240 

Tests for the rapidity with which heavy guns can be fired were made with 
one of the 67-ton guns in the Trafalgar's turret at her gunnery trials. Four 
rounds were fired in 9J minutes. 

The most important advance made in naval ordnance during the year was 
the completion of the new 6-inch lOO-pounder quick-firing gun and mounting. 
As many as six rounds a minute have been fired. 

March 14. Launch of the Indefatigable and the Hawke. The 
navy estimates, IIL Mobilization and manning requirements of the 
fleet. Battalion command. 

March 21. Institution of Naval Architects. Musketry in India. 

March 28. Naval notes. Official trial of the Pelayo's machinery. 

With natural draft a speed of 16.2 knots was attained. The coal consump- 
tion at i2-knot speed is 45 tons per 24 hours. At normal draft the Pelayo 
carries 800 tons of coal, a supply sufficient with a speed of 12 knots to cover a 
distance of 4500 to 5000 miles, and at lo-knot speed a distance of 7500 miles. 

Naval Reserves. 

April 4. Naval notes. Trials of 6-inch quick-firing gun. 

Further trials of the Elswick 6-inch quick-firing gun and mounting were 
made on board the Kite at Portsmouth. This time the mounting and gun 
represented the conditions when used for upper-deck armament. One hundred 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 333 

rounds were again fired in series each of 10 rounds, and on this occasion a 
considerable number of rounds were fired with the percussion arrangement. 
The change from electric to percussion, and vice versa, was effected without 
any pause being necessary in the firing, and not a single missfire occurred. 
Everything was found to be most successful. Two hundred and sixty rounds 
have now been fired from the gun on the same mounting, and there does not 
appear to be the slightest sign of wear in any of the working parts, and very 
little mark of firing in the gun itself. The rapidity and ease with which one 
man can elevate and train the gun and mountings, the weight of which com- 
plete is seventeen tons, is surprising. Of the last series of 100 rounds, 80 
cartridges were fired for the second time. With a similar 6-inch gun at Shoe- 
buryness, cartridges have been fired as many as 16 times. 

Successful trials of the Fiske range-finder in France and Italy. 
April ii. Infantry militia officers. Naval notes. 
The horse-power of torpedo-gunboats of the Sharpshooter class has been 
reduced to 3500, and the steaming capabilities of the boilers increased. 

April i8. Naval notes: Launch of the Wattigneis; launch of 
the Falke; naval manoeuvres of the Austro-Hungarian fleet; experi- 
ments with laying out submarine mines in Toulon. The Reserve 
question. 

April 25. Heavy guns. Coast defense. H. G. D. 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL UNITED SERVICE INSTITUTION. 

February, 1891. A proposed method of training naval stokers 
and otherwise increasing the efficiency of the steam branch personnel, 
by Chief Engineer J. Langmaid, R. N. 

After calling attention to the present defective system of training, and that 
about 600 men are recruited annually and sent to sea without any preliminary 
instruction in engine-room duties, the author proposes that all newly-entered 
men be sent to a central training-ship, to be trained there for three months. 
This course is to be followed by three months' experience in a modern cruiser 
at sea. Assuming 600 recruits annually, this would place 150 men in the 
harbor ship and 150 in the cruiser. The proposed course of instruction in the 
training-ship is then laid down : — i. Names and uses of principal parts of 
boilers and engines, of tools used in stokeholds ; how to read pressure-gauges, 
trim and fill lamps, close stop-valves, etc. 2-. Duties of a stoker in managing 
fires; how to use a shovel. 3. Knotting and splicing; how to sling and lift 
weights ; use and reeve off tackles, etc. 4. Boat exercise, swimming drills, 
gymnastics, and miscellaneous duties of stokers. 

On joining the cruiser, after the first three months' instruction, the men 
might be divided into four watches. The first fortnight spent in harbor with 
instructions in the uses of the various parts of the boilers and machinery, 
working the pumps and auxiliary engines. The ship then to go to sea for 
short trips of about four days each week, beginning at slow speed and gradu- 
ally working up faster as the men become used to their work. Stations should 
be changed each week, so that each man takes his turn at trimming coals, 
firing, looking after the engines, main and auxiliary, sweeping tubes, repairing 
defects, etc. If qualified at the end of the 6-months' cruise, the rating of 
stoker to be given ; if not qualified, to be given a three months' further trial ; 
to be discharged, if hopeless, at the expiration of this time. 

The same cruiser might be employed as a useful school for instruction of 
junior engineer officers before joining sea-going ships. Besides learning 
engine-room duties, they might be taught to keep an engine-room log, engineer's 
store accounts, to arrange watch and station bills, and various other duties. 



334 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

The measures proposed in this able paper cannot fail to attract attention, 
and the discussions evince the interest taken in a subject of such vital im- 
portance. In ships of the present day, where steam has supplanted sail, and 
speed is the desideratum, the necessity of an efficient force in the engine- 
room is indisputable. The benefits to be derived from a course of sys- 
tematic preliminary training of recruits for the fire-room are invaluable. 

Steel as applied to armor-plates, by Charles W. Smith. Red 
Indian warfare. 

March. On the present system of enlistment and pay of our 
soldiers, and its bearing on recruiting. On army cooking and mess- 
ing. On the advantage of forming collections at Greenwich. 

H. G. D. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL ARTILLERY INSTITUTION, 
WOOLWICH. 

Volume XVIII., No. 7, February. Homing pigeons, by Captain 
Malagoli. Ranging a battery. 

March. The R. A. mess at Woolwich. Fire discipHne. Notes 
on the equipment and services of our mountain artillery, from the 
Pyrennean campaign, 18 13-14, to the Abyssinian expedition, 1867-68. 
Translations: The employment of artillery in siege warfare (accord- 
ing to the theories of General Wiebe) ; Etudes de tactique, par le 
g6neral Luzeux. 

April. Imperial federation and the defense of the empire. Some 
of the more recent developments and applications of explosives. 
The R. A. mess at Woolwich. Translations : Transport of parks 
of artillery, ammunition supply of armies ; The last days of the 
Malakhoff. H. G. D. 

JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED SERVICE IN- 
STITUTION OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Volume II., 1890. The defense of a protected harbor, by Lieut.- 
Col. Boddam (with 12 plates). Harbor defense by guard-boats, and 
their duties, by Commander .Bosanquet. 

Contains description of nevs^ form of protective boom-, and method of mooring. 

Round about Apia, Samoa, by Captain Castle, R. N. The Austra- 
lian soldier, by Captain M'Cutcheon, ist Regt. Vol. Infantry. Re- 
prints: The sighting of small arms; Acclimatisation of Australian 
horses in India; Smokeless powder (extract from Sir F. Abel's 
address). H. G. D. 

FRANKLIN INSTITUTE. 
February, 1891. The Olsen testing machine. 

Description of the machine, accompanied by plates, with an extract from the 
report of the Committee on Science and the Arts, as follows: "The com- 
mittee recognizes that the increased complexity of this machine over others 
requires a more careful handling. They have not sutficient experience to say 
whether a greater number of tests can be made in a given time than with other 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES, 335 

machines, but their opinion is that this testing method is a long step forward 
toward making such machines thorough instruments of precision, and it intro- 
duces instead of the numerical the graphic record, the advantages of which 
are universally admitted. 

" In view of the great ingenuity displayed by the inventor in arranging the 
several parts of the machine, notably in the mechanism, which produces a 
graphic record of the test, similar to the indicator of a steam engine, and thus 
brings to perception at a single glance the variation in the strain of a number 
of specimens, as well as the work required to break such specimens, the award 
of the Elliott Cresson medal is recommended." 

Electricity ; its past, present and future, by Ralph W. Pope, Secre- 
tary American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Some properties 
of confocal ellipses and their application to mechanism, by Horace 
B. Gale. High explosives in warfare, by Commander F. M. Barber, 
U. S. N. 

March. The system of house and underground wiring of the 
Interior Conduit and Insulation Company. The continuous girder ; 
variable moment of inertia; fixed points ; graphic method, by C. H. 
Lindenberger. The aluminium problem, by Jos. W. Richards. 

The lecturer, after reviewing the etymology of the word " aluminium," states 
that of all the many problems connected with this metal, he has " singled out 
the one which is, par excellence, tJie aluminium problem, and that is the extrac- 
tion of aliiminitim frotn the materials in which it is found iti nature." 

The lecture is divided into two parts: i. The isolation of aluminium; 
2. the production of aluminium cheaply. 

The first part gives an interesting history of all recorded experiments and 
efforts made to bring the metal to view, covering a period of 94 years, from 
the time of M. Baron in 1760, who first proved aluminium a metal, down to the 
time when Deville, in 1854, succeeded in making the first button or pencil of 
this metal. 

The second part considers all subsequent methods of reduction, thie cheapest 
raw materials to use, and the cheapest way to extract aluminium from these 
materials. 

Electricity as the rival of steam, by Dr. Louis Bell. 

April. The progress of chemical theory ; its helps and hin- 
drances, by Dr. Persifer Frazer. Riveted joints in boiler-shells, by 
W. B. Le Van. Analytical discussion of the tidal volume, by L. 
d'Auria. On a maximum steam-jacket efficiency, by R. H. Thurston. 
Chemical section: The electrolytic method applied to rhodium ; the 
electrolytic determination of mercury and gold, by E. F. Smith. 
Electrical section : A note on some dangers in electric lighting ; a 
new accumulator plate; a new form of megohm resistance. 

May. The progress of chemical theory, by Dr. Persifer Frazer. 
Riveted joints in boiler-shells, by W. B. Le Van. The law of varia- 
tion, by L. d'Auria. The limits of scientific inquiry, by H. Hensoldt. 
Phenomenal friction, by J. H. Cooper. Chemical section. Electrical 
section: A new form of standard cell, by C. Hering. H. G. D. 

THE MILITARY SERVICE INSTITUTION. 

March, 1S91. Our experience in artillery administration. The 
power of the Senate. Musketry. Military gymnastics. On the 



336 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

increase of the number of cadets. The oath of enlistment in Ger- 
many. The funeral ceremonies of Washington. 

April (Extra Number). Gun-making in the United States, by 
Captain R. Birnie, U. S. A. 

A history, in eight chapters, of gun construction and gun trials in the United 
States. It begins with the early inventions, the Rodman method of casting, 
and follows the progress in gun-making in this country up to the present time, 
giving descriptions of the various forms of guns and their official trials, breech 
mechanisms, etc., ending up with a review of the past three years, including 
short accounts of steel-producing plants and gun manufactories in the United 
States. 

May. Cavalry in Virginia during the war of the rebellion. 
Theory of drift of rifled projectiles. Artillery difficulties during the 
next war. The recent Indian craze. The new German rifle and fire 
regulations. The Red river dam. H. G. D. 

THE UNITED SERVICE. 

March, 1891. Pulaski and Charleston. Moltke. History of 
the Mormon rebellion of 1856-57, Chapter XL. Knots and miles. 

April. The Indian problem. General Sherman. History of the 
Mormon rebellion of 1856-57 (conclusion). The Persian army. 
Old regiments of the British army. Admiral David Dixon Porter. 
The difference between military and martial law. Ship-steering. 

May. The measure of the strength of steel armor, by E. M. 
Weaver, First Lieutenant Second Artillery, U. S. A. 

From observations, it is "assumed that the resistance of a steel plate of the 
quality made by Schneider Company, when attacked by projectiles whose 
diameters are less than the thickness of the plate, is, for all practicable purposes, 
confined to a cylindrical disk of the plate about the projectile in its passage 
through the plate, the radius of this disk being about 2.5 calibers, and its 
thickness the thickness of the plate itself." 

The weight of such a disk of about 28 inches diameter in the nickel-steel 
plate as tried at Annapolis is 3.2 tons. If now the total energy required for 
perforation of the plate alone be divided by 3.2, we find the inherent resisting 
capacity of the metal. A comparison of trials in which Creuzot steel plates 
were attacked leads to the conclusion that the inherent resisting capacity 
approximates to 1828 foot-tons per ton of the disk. Taking this as a standard, 
formulas are derived for the strength of any plate, viz. E = JVC, in which 
E = the energy in foot-tons required to perforate the plate, W = the weight of 
the resisting disk in tons, C = 1828 ; or in another form, E = .7312 n'^eft. 

n = ratio of the radius of the resisting disk to the diameter of the projectile. 

d = diameter of projectile in inches. 

t — thickness of plate in inches. 

Formulas for the striking velocity to give perforation of the plate, or plate 
and backing, are also derived. 

A comparison, based upon the above formulas, is then made between plates 
at various armor trials. 

Coal endurance of Her Majesty's ships. For what it is worth. 
Attack upon a railroad train. Du Guay-Trouin, of St. Malo. 
Under the southern cross (conclusion). National legislation re- 
quired on weights and measures. Recent army legislation. The 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 337 

last victim of the gauntlet. Among our contemporaries. Service 
salad. Military order of the Loyal Legion. Rear-Admiral T. H. 
Stevens, U. S. Navy. H. G. D. 

THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 

No, 7. April ii, 1891. Tell-tale compass. Westinghouse auto- 
matic circuit-breaker. Induction. Queen ammeters and voltmeters. 

No. 8. April 18. A new form of megohm resistance. New 
electric-light switch. 

No. 9. April 25. Electric light on the Suez Canal. 

No. 10. May 2. Aerial navigation. Electrolytic deposition of 
nickel. 

No. II, May 9. The Packard vacuum pump. Telephones on 
shipboard. 

No. 12. May 16. Air navigation. Improved electric-light signal. 
New form of standard cell. H. G. D. 

THE IRON age, 

April 2, 1891. Air-compressor for U. S. monitor Terror. Alum- 
inum in railroad work. Modern navies. Matchless repeating air- 
rifle. 

April 9. The great forge at Cleveland. Construction of boilers 
for ibrced draught. 

April 16. Forgings for big guns. Circulation of water in steam 
boilers, II. 

April 23. Quadruple expansion-engine for a tug. Armament 
for the new ships. A Boston-built steel bark. 

April 30. Electrical forging. Electricity as a motive-power. 

May 7. An assistant cylinder for marine engines. Our battle- 
ships. 

Description of the ships, with illustrations of engines and deck plans, and 
elevation of the Indiana, Oregon, and Massachusetts. 

BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Volume XXIII., No. i. The Great Amazon, by Courtenay De 
Kalb. Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, by Rev. H. C. Hovey. 
Geographical notes, by Geo. C. Hurlbut. 

MILITAR WOCHENBLATT. 

February ii, 1891. A new cavalry bridle. Changes in the 
organizations of the Austro-Hungarian army. 

February 14. Extracts from the correspondence of Frederick 
the Great. Minor notices : Cordite. 

" England. The manufacture of the smokeless powder, which on account of 
its stringy appearance has been called Cordite, has been commenced in the 
royal arsenal, but hereafter is to be continued by the powder works of Waltham 



338 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

Abbey. The charges for rapid-fire guns up to 6-inch calibers, as well as for the 
i2-poun(ier field-pieces, have already been fixed. The general introduction of 
this powder will, however, not take place for some time, awaiting tests which 
will be especially directed towards discovering the effect of exposure to dif- 
ferent temperatures. According to Dr. Anderson, the general director of gun 
works, it has stood the chemical tests very well, but is yet to be subjected to 
prolonged influence of the heat in India and the cold in Alpine regions. 
According to the same authority the powder is characterized by its exceedingly 
brilliant flame, and the report of explosion is stronger than that of black 
powder." 

Fortifications of Bucharest. 

February i8. Artillery-fire Spiel. The attacks of General 
Margueritte's cavalry division at the battle of Sedan. 

February 21. The French reserve squadron. 

In connection with the fleet manoeuvres of the French navy which take place 
every summer. Admiral Krantz, Minister of Marine, has required, since 1888, 
the mobilization of the ships of the reserve at Toulon. This rule has proved 
successful as far as the material was concerned, as the vessels, armaments and 
equipments have always been found ready for service. The fault lay with the 
personnel. Small details were destined for the respective ships ; these were, 
however, not kept intact, owing to constant changes being made by the chief 
of the station, in consequence of which it was found that these details were 
not sufficiently familiar with their vessels ; and it was even worse with the 
naval reserves ordered from at large, who knew little or nothing about the 
ships. 

It has now been decided to fit out, early in the spring, a reserve division, 
consisting of three armored vessels and two cruisers, at Toulon, under Kear- 
Admiral Puech, with the Trident as flagship. A second division is to be fitted 
out soon after, the two to constitute a reserve squadron under the command 
of a vice-admiral. So that France will have two vice-admiral's commands 
at sea. The chief of the shore station at Toulon is no longer to have authority 
over the reserve vessels, as his projects and requirements would always con- 
flict with the importance of having the reserves ready for service at all times. 
The squadron is therefore withdrawn from his control and will form part of the 
Mediterranean fleet. It is probable that the vessels will be entirely removed 
from Toulon and rendezvous at the Hyeres islands, with half complements, 
except in summer, when they will be fully manned to take part in the general 
fleet manoeuvres. 

This is an important advance in the war establishment of the French fleet. 
The admiral commanding the Mediterranean fleet will have five divisions under 
him, comprising 15 armored vessels, with their accompanying cruisers, avisos, 
etc., thus being superior in strength to the English Mediterranean fleet of 10 
battle-ships. 

This step will not pass unheeded in Italy, whose exposed coast-line invites 
a sudden fleet-attack in time of war; besides it has this additional importance, 
that it makes the regular French Mediterranean squadron of 3 divisions avail- 
able for service in other waters without leaving the southern coast of France 
unprotected. 

The Mediterranean squadron is constantly strengthened by the newer battle- 
ships, the older ones being withdrawn and consigned to the reserve. Thus at 
the end of January the armor-clad Hoche, of 10,650 tons, joined the squadron 
after having completed her trial trips. Under forced draught, with 11,000 
H. P. and 82 revolutions, a speed of 16 knots was attained, and under natural 
draught, with 70 revolutions, she made 14 knots. The third-class cruiser 
Fronde will also soon be assigned to the squadron. Of only 1880 tons, this 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 339 

vessel, during a two hours' run under forced draught, reached a speed of 20.9 
knots, and during a twelve hours' run under natural draught, a speed of 17.6 
knots. 

February 25. The yearly report on the Turkish navy, 1889 to 
1890. 

Contains a list of vessels of the Turkish navy, with table of dimensions, 
speed, coal-capacity, armament, dates of launching, etc. 

February 28. Minor notices : Prismatic powder. 

The Art'iUcTy Commission {commissione permane^ite) of Italy has determined, 
after prolonged experiments, that only two kinds of prismatic powder are 
necessary for navy guns, that of less density to be used in the smaller calibers 
up to 6-inch guns, and that of greater density for all heavier calibers (lo, 13)^ 
and 17-inch guns). 

March 4 and 7. Infantry target-practice under warlike condi- 
tions ; a contribution towards the solution of a vital question. 

The writer calls attention to the necessity of a change in the present method 
of target-firing, which affords no knowledge of troop-firing as would be de- 
manded in battle. The importance of the present system, or precision prac- 
tice, for schooling of marksmen is, however, not disparaged. It is only by this 
system that the marksman is taught the handling of his weapon so as to obtain 
the best results in view of the purpose for which it is designed. This famil- 
iarity and education can only be obtained by firing over such distances and 
against such targets as will permit the control and observation of each shot 
fired ; that is, at distances up to 300 yards and at ringed targets. 

The regulations governing this sc/wol-dring are the result of years of expe- 
rience, and are admirable, so that it is to be questioned whether the scope of 
this system can be reduced to permit the education for firing under warlike 
conditions. It must be admitted that those troops which have received the 
best instruction in s,:/ioo/-{iTing will do the best in the warlike-firing. It is 
necessary, therefore, to adhere to a thorough course in the present system, but 
it should be limited so as to allow some time and ammunition for the more 
important field-firing. 

It is proposed as a means towards this end to abolish in connection v/ith the 
sc/iool-firing all practice at distances greater than 300 yards and employ only 
the ringed targets, which, by the way, should have elliptic bull's-eyes and rings 
instead of the circular ones. The number of rounds per man is to be fixed, 
and an extra allowance is made for field-firing. The latter is reduced to three 
forms of practice: i. skirmish-firing; 2. firing in connection with sieges; 3. 
firing under conditions of operations in the field. 

Under i and 2 the rules to be followed are laid down. Kanges will be from 
300 to 700 yards at low targets. Instruction in estimating distances will form 
part of the education. Under 2, firing at night should be practised. Some of 
these rules also apply to 3, firing in the field proper, under various conditions, 
and at ranges from 300 to 1200 yards. The subject has evidently received the 
writer's careful attention and is exhaustively treated. 

Wolfram projectiles. 

March ii. Examinations for admission to the Staff College. 
Minor notices: New Japanese fleet. 

March 14. Observations on engagements of infantry. The 
study of war histories. Minor notices : France — A submarine boat. 
Austria — Wounds from bullets of the Mannlicher rifle. 



340 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES, 

March i8. The English fleet manoeuvres of 1890. 

March 21, Proposed changes in the periods of instruction of 
the infantry and thejagers. 

March 25. Programme of the manoeuvres for this year of the 
Austro- Hungarian armies. The Victoria torpedo. 

March 28. Discussion on the article, " Infantry target-practice 
under warlike conditions." Minor notices : Heavy guns for Japan. 

April i. Minor notices : Visit to the powder works at Ochta. 

April 4 and 8. A word on the carrying out of attacks by larger 
bodies of infantry. Heligoland and the German fleet. 

April ii. A word on the carrying out of attacks by larger 
bodies of infantry (concluded). Minor notices. 

The experiments with a newly invented smokeless powder by a French 
chemist, St. Marc, have proved its superiority to the powder of Vieille used in 
the Lebel cartridges. The experiments were made with a Lebel gun at dis- 
tances of only 20 meters. The targets were increased in thickness during the 
trials. One bullet penetrated 1.27 meters of poplar wood and was recovered 
intact. The powder was exposed for 5 minutes to a water-bath, dried between 
two linen cloths, and then fired, sending a bullet through 7 millimeters of 
sheet-iron. Firing for accuracy at 200 meters also gave splendid results. There 
is scarcely any smoke developed. The pressure is said to be very low. The 
initial velocity was 700 meters. The dangers of spontaneous ignition are very 
slight. The grains are cubes, sides about i millimeter long, of greenish color. 

April 15. A final word on the fortification question. 
April 18. The English fleet manoeuvres of 1890. Minor notices : 
Filtering of drinking water ; Army manoeuvres in Russia. 
April 22. New naval guns. Entrance into St. Cyr. 
April 25. Officer's patrols. Increase of French cavalry. 
April 29. Needs of two years' enlistment. H. G. D. 

MITTHEILUNGEN AUS UEM GEBIETE DES SEEWESENS. 

Volume XIX., No. i. On the law of storms in the Eastern seas, 
by VV. Doberck, director of the Hong Kong observatory. The 
North Baltic sea canal. Budget of the Italian navy for the year from 
July I, 1890, to June 30, 1891. Budget of the Imperial German 
navy, 1891 to 1892. Royal decree on the Spanish fleet material. 
The Argentine cruiser 25 de Mayo. Torpedo-boats for the Argen- 
tine Republic. Launch of the Maine. Triple-screw cruiser for the 
United States. Harbor-defense ram for the United States. Armor 
tests at low temperature. The Manchester ship canal. Lights for 
lighthouses. Life-preserver with automatic inflation. The engines 
of the American cruiser No. 12. The Imperial Turkish yacht. 

No. 2. Practical geometric innovations (lecture b)'- Fr. Schiffer, 
professor at the Naval School at Pola). 

Practical method of measuring angles without a protractor. Description of 
Edler's measuring sheet, and its application in obtaining trigonometric func- 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 34I 

tions. Bing's sector and its application in measuring the area and circumfer- 
ence of a given circle. Description of Le Bon's telestereometer. 

Method of determining the center of displacement, by W. Abel, 
naval constructor. The French torpedo-launching gun, system 
Canet. Estimates for the United States navy, 1891 to 1892. The 
protection of iron and steel ships against danger of sinking from 
injury to the hull. Experiments on the application of cellulose for 
stopping leaks. Hydraulic boat-hoisting apparatus. Yarrow's water 
tubular boiler. The use of the aerometer on board ship for finding 
the specific gravity of sea- water. 

No. 3. On sea-marks. Howell torpedo. The deep-sea explora- 
tions of H. M. S. Pola in 1890. Resuscitation in cases of drowning, 
strangulation, freezing, or unconsciousness arising from alcoholism 
or exposure to excessive heat. The French torpedo-boat No. 128. 
The latest oceanographic expeditions. The Argentine gunboats 
Rosales and Espora. French armored ship Jaur6guiberry. A re- 
serve squadron in France. Armor of the U. S. monitor Puritan. 
Use of oil at sea. Liquid fuel on board the Italian ships Castelfi- 
daro and Ancona. Electric signalling apparatus of G. Conz in 
Hamburg. New school for naval architects in the United States. 

No. 4. Results of some tests for stability of Austrian torpedo- 
boats. The automobile Buonaccorsi torpedo. On manning of 
English ships of war. New electric log, invented by Granville. Eng- 
lish mail steamers in the Pacific Ocean, Trials of the guns and their 
installation on board the Argentine protected cruiser 25 de Mayo. 
Tests of the 6-inch Armstrong R. F. gun. Graydon's dynamite gun. 
Petroleum as a fuel in ships' boilers. Organization of French naval 
officers for the reserve. The schiseophone. Vessel-building in 
England. Tests of anti-fouling paints in England. Education and 
training of stokers. Budget of the Russian navy. Fortification of 
New York. American armor plates. H. G. D. 

ANNALEN DER HYDROGRAPHIE UND MARITIMEN METEORO- 
LOGIE. 

19TH Annual Series, 1891, No. I. From Australia to the west 
coast of North America and return, by L. E. Dinklage. Notices on 
the Azores, especially on Ponta Delgada. Notices on Port Natal. 
Soundings in the North Atlantic Ocean. Soundings in the South 
Atlantic Ocean along the Brazilian coast. Corrections of chrono- 
meters for temperature and temperature-coefficients. Damages by 
lightning to vessels while at sea. 

Enumerates fourteen cases, from 1879 to 1889, in which vessels were struck 
by lightning. 

Contribution towards knowledge of the Corean climate. Compila- 
tion of storm-signals. 

An enumeration of the storm-signals of various countries. 

Minor notices: Daily weather reports; Winds in the Indian Ocean; 



342 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

Fresh-water supply in the Straits of Sunda; Notices on some islands 
and shoals in the Bismarck Archipelago; Notice on Apalang (Gilbert 
islands); Notices on some of the Marshall islands, the Island of 
Jabur, and Prince William Sound. 

No, II. On a new method of determining magnetic declination, 
by Professor Dr. C. Borgen. From Australia to the west coast of 
North America and return, by L. E. Dinklage (concluded). 
Report of Captain Pliiddemann, of H. M. S. Leipzig, on the voyage 
from Amboyna to Finsch Harbor. Current observations on the 
Nord Hinder banks. Deep-sea soundings in the Pacific Ocean. 
Mean barometric pressures between the Channel and the Cape Verde 
Islands in November, .by Dr. W. Koppen (with plate). Two re- 
markable night thunderstorms in the summer of 1890, by Dr. W. 
Koppen (with plate). Minor notices: A remarkable light seen in 
the heavens ; The east coast of Upola, Samoan islands ; The town 
and island of Zanzibar. 

No. III. On a new method of determining the declination of a 
magnet, by Dr. C. Borgen (concluded). Report of Captain Niejahr, 
of the German bark J. F. Pust, on harbors on the Brazilian coast. 
Soundings in the North Pacific. Soundings in the South Pacific 
Ocean about the Samoan islands. The storms along the German 
coast from 1878 to 1887. Quarterly weather review, fall of 1886. 
Minor notices : Storm signals along the German coasts ; Currents in 
the inland sea of Japan ; Currents in Macassar Straits and saiHng 
directions during SW monsoons ; Cabaret Bay, St. Domingo (with 
chart). H. G. D. 

DEUTSCHE HEERES ZEITUNG. 

January 17, 1891. On the active military writers of the army. 
The Russian strategy in the firsthalf of the Seven Years War. New 
tactics in the French army. Firing tests with the Marga cartridge. 

" Lieutenant Marga is the inventor of a rifle of 8-mm. caliber, wJiich possesses 
some remarkable properties as to simplicity, durability, accuracy, and rapid 
loading. This weapon was subjected to experimental tests at Brussels, 
December 2d, 1890. Lieutenant Marga obtains an initial velocity far surpass- 
ing anything heretofore reached, not by any especial construction of the 
weapon, or by the employment of stronger powder, but by a better utilization 
of the powder-gases in their action on the bullet. ' He obtains by this means,' 
says la Belgiqtie Miliiaire, 'instead of an initial velocity of 600 to 620 meters, 
one of 720 meters.' 

"Lieutenant Marga directed his experiments toward obtaining an increase 
in velocity without increase of pressure in the bore. This he succeeded in 
doing by inventing his cartridge, which, with a pressure not exceeding 1800 
atmospheres, imparts to the bullet of 14^^ grams weight an initial velocity of 
750 meters (2460 feet). 

"The firing tests were made against one-inch pine planks, separated from 
each other by about one inch, against sheet-iron and wrought-iron plates. At 
a distance of 30 meters the bullet penetrated the ninth and tenth planks, or 
about 11^ inches of wood, without being in the least deformed. Against iron 
the results were remarkable : 7 sheet-iron plates, each of 2 mm. thickness, 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 343 

were penetrated, the bullet being reduced to powder against the backing, a 
cast-iron plate of 15 to 16 mm. thickness. However, when this cast-iron plate 
was placed in front of the sheet-iron plate the bullet passed clear through and 
penetrated two of the sheet-iron plates behind, striking with force against the 
third plate. Repeated trials always brought the same results. The firing was 
also directed at a smooth rolled-iron plate, of same resistance as steel, thick- 
ness 16 mm. This plate was very much indented, while through a plate of the 
same material of 12 to 13 mm. thickness the bullet passed clear, making a 
smooth hole." 

January 21. The normal attack. On the active mihtary writers 
in the army (continued). The Russian strategy in the first half of 
the Seven Years War (continued). 

January 24. On the development of our infantry. On the active 
military writers in the army (concluded). The Russian strategy in 
the first half of the Seven Years War (continued). Naval notes. 

January 28. The Russian strategy in the first half of the Seven 
Years War (concluded). 

January 31. Mounted infantry patrols. The firing trials of the 
Gruson works. 

The official reports, in detail, of the trials of the 22d to 27th of September, 
1890, at Tangerhiitte. The report gives the tabulated results of the various 
trials, with remarks. 

February 4. Our navy in the eleventh hour. The firing trials 
of the Gruson works (continued). Military notes: Signalling with 
Very's signals. 

February 7. The firing trials of the Gruson works (continued). 
Military notes: The fortification system of France. 

February II. The strangers in France, French battery-guards. 
The- firing trials of the Gruson works (continued), 

February 14. The war of 1806 and 1S07. The firing trials of 
the Gruson works (continued). Military notes : Electric signal- 
lamps. 

A new electric signal-lamp has been constructed by John Price Rees, in 
London,. which may be useful in the army and navy. For the purpose of 
signalling by flashes, an incandescent lamp of great candle-power is placed in 
the axial line of a system of lenses. There is a contrivance, by means of 
which the current of the battery, which is placed in a box below the lamp, can 
be turned on or shut off, and a screen conceals or exposes the light. The 
lamp and lens system can be trained in any direction, aided by a sighting 
tube, and regulated according to the distance to which it is desired to signal. 
By means of long or short flashes the Morse code can be used. 

Fittings to magazine rifle, 

A contrivance has been invented in Holland, which may be fitted to any 
repeating rifle, and by means of which the loading from the magazine is accom- 
plished without bringing the rifle down from the position of aiming until the 
magazine is empty. 

February 17 and 21. The firing trials of the Gruson works 
(continued). 



344 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

February 25. Regulations of I'Ecole d'instruction a6rostatique. 
The firing trials of the Gruson works (concluded). 

February 28. The fortification question. Trials with the Lebel 
gun. Budget of Russian navy and army. The port of Rochefort. 

March 4. The value of the captive balloon in naval warfare, its 
use in coast defense and on board ship. The fortification question 
(continued). 

March 7. The value of the captive balloon in naval warfare 
(concluded). The fortification question (continued). 

March ii. The fortification question (continued). Naval notes: 
Electric training and firing gear for heavy guns. 

March 14. The fortification question (concluded). 

March 18. Naval notes: Launch of English men-of-war. A 
new patent log. 

March 21. Remarks on the fighting tactics of infantry, in accord- 
ance with the spirit of the times. 

March 25 and 28. Our navy. Naval notes: Summer man- 
oeuvres of German war vessels. Regulations concerning ceremonies 
and salutes in connection with flag of governor of German East 
Africa. Jurisdiction of the head of the Navy Department in Germany. 

April i and 8. Heligoland and the German fleet. Garrison 
drills. More firing in the attack. 

April it and 15. Field mortars and field howitzers. More 
firing in the attack (continued). 

April 18. More firing in the attack (continued). 

April 25. Military preparations of the Russian army. Krupp's 
firing trials. More firing in the attack (concluded). Military notice : 
Captive balloon ; present state of aerial navigation. Launch of the 
Electric. 

April 29. Obituary notice, General v. Moltke. Increase of 
Russia's reserves. H. G. D. 

NORSK TIDSSKRIFT FOR SOVAESEN. 

9TH Annual Series, No. 3. How to examine a telescope. The 
storms of November, 1890 (meteorological report). On spontaneous 
ignition and explosion in coal-bunkers. The 12-cm. 35-caliber 
length naval gun, with breech mechanism. Carriage of the 12-cm. 
gun (with plates). Messes in the English navy. The first steam 
life-boat. Determination of compass deviations. New cruisers for 
the United States. 

No. 4. The latest forms of marine compass. The first engage- 
ment of the gunboat Viking. 

An account of a suppositious engagement between the Norwegian gunboat 
of the first-class, Viking, supported by two torpedo-boats, and an enemy's 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 345 

cruiser off Lyngor, July 5, 1892. The account is followed by a discussion on 
naval engagements of the future, and methods of attack and artillery fire to be 
used under circumstances similar to those in the engagement above described. 

New English battle-ships. Tests of armor plates in America and 
Russia. The latest cruisers. 

Gives data concerning the cruisers of the year 1890, of England, France, 
Spain, Italy, Austria, Russia, Germany, Greece, Chili, Argentine Republic, 
Japan, and the United States (with plates). H. G. D. 

TEKNISK TIDSKRIFT. 

Nos. I AND 2, i8gi. On harbor improvements in Buenos Ayres. 

RIVISTA MARITTIMA. 

February, 1891. Electric lighting on board Italian war-ships, by 
Lieutenant A. Pouchain. 

Part I. Rules to be followed in the selection of materials and in the estab- 
lishment of plants. Tables are appended showing the proposed installation 
for each vessel, with the electrical energy of each proposed plant. 

The German merchant marine, by Salvatore Raineri (continued). 
Study on modern naval tactics, by G. Ronca (continued). The 
giroscope, by Lieutenant C. Corsi. A month in the Island of Ceylon 
(continued). 

March. Electric lighting on board Italian war-ships, by A. 
Pouchain (continued), (18 plates). Part II. Regulation materials. 

An enumeration and description of motors and dynamos, search lights and 
projectors. 

The German merchant marine, by Salvatore Raineri (continued). 
Study on modern naval tactics, by G. Ronca (continued). The 
interior of Africa, by Ettore Bravetta (continued). 

May. Leads and weights used in deep-sea soundings, tried on 
board the Washington. Electric lighting on board Italian war-ships, 
by Lieutenant A. Pouchain (continued). 

Description of the incandescent lamp, switches, resistance coils, with 12 
plates showing different forms of lamps, insulation, electroliers, switches, etc. 

Study on modern naval tactics, by G. Ronca (conclusion). The 
non-combatant personnel on board ships of war, by Dante Parenti. 
The Fiske range-finder, translated from the Engineer by F. Vergara. 
Notes on the machinery of the French torpedo-boats, Normand 
system. H. G. D. 

RIVISTA DI ARTIGLIERIA E GENIO. 

January, 1891. The relationship between war operations ashore 
and afloat, by Lieutenant Felice Porta, 26th Artillery. Actual forti- 
fications (general considerations, and principal requisites for a 
defensive establishment, with 4 plates), by Enrico Rocchi, captain of 
engineers. The Mannesmann process of constructing metallic tubes. 
The hospital Mauriziano Umberto I., at Turin. H. G. D. 



346 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

MEMOIRES DE LA SOCIETE DES INGENIEURS CIVILS. 

January, 1891. Governors for steam engines, and contrivances 
for quickly throwing shafting out of gear. 

February. A new system for electric railroads. H. G. D. 

LE YACHT. 

January 31, 1891. 

The French marine corps (Infanterie de marine) will be designated here- 
after as " the colonial troops," and either will have a separate administration 
or become a part of the ministry of war. 

The armored battle-ship Hoche. The commercial school question. 

February 7. Earlier retirement of officers in the French navy. 
Plans of the first-class battle-ship Jaur6guiberry. 

February 14. The law of the French mercantile navy. Private 
dockyards and government contracts. The English transpacific 
steam-packets; auxiliary cruisers. The London Times on armor 
plates. 

February 21. The iio-ton gun of the Sans-Pareil (a comparison 
between gun-trials in England and in France). 

February 28. The law governing the merchant marine and the 
national navy ; premiums and subsidies. 

March 7. British naval budget. 

March 14. French yachts and French measurements. Trials of 
the Marceau. 

March 21. A bill to promote the better efficiency of the per- 
sonnel of the French navy. State of the naval constructions on 
January i, 1891. French yachts and measurements (concluded). 
The English navy, from the Devastation to the Royal Sovereign. 

April 4. Our new naval constructions in 1892. 

April ii. English race measurements and French yachts. 

April 18. The navy ; rapid-fire guns. 

At the polygene of the Hoc during the trials with the quick-firing cannons, 
system Canet, 9 shots were fired with the 12-cm. in 45 seconds, and 8 in i 
minute with the 15-cm., whose loaded cartridge weighs 130 pounds. With the 
exception of some slight imperfections, easily remedied, in the minor details, 
these pieces of ordnance are very satisfactory. 

A ministerial decree establishing the horse-power standard of 
marine engines (75 kilogrammeters). 

REVUE DU CERCLE MILITAIRE. 

February i, 1891. No halts in the advance of the line of attack. 
Drinkable water and hygiene in the barracks. War and navy 
budgets of Germany. German military literature. Infantry fire- 
discipline on the battlefield. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 347 

February 8. A study of the Russian infantry. Union of the 
German societies of carrier-pigeon fanciers. Tactics regulations in 
the French and German armies. The Behring question. 

February 22. The Graydon torpedo-launching tube. Halts in 
the advance of the line of attack (an answer to the article of Feb. i), 

March i. The Graydon torpedo-launching tube (ended). 

March 8. The infantry attack (a sequel to kindred articles in the 
preceding numbers). 

March 15. The speed of vessels, and the sheathing of their 
bottoms. Firing while advancing to the attack, dpropros to previous 
kindred articles. 

March 29. The Newfoundland question (with map). Veloci- 
pedes in the army. Mixed patrols in tactical reconnoissances. The 
speed of vessels, and bottom sheathing. 

April 5. Military industry at the Moscow exposition. The 
revolution in Chili. 

In view of the actual events in Chili, the following extracts may be of some 
interest. The Chilian naval budget aggregates 4,256,000 pesos (one peso being 
about 92 cents). The personnel is composed of 4 rear-admirals, 8 captains, 19 
commanders, 25 senior lieutenants, 14 junior lieutenants, 38 midshipmen, 16 
engineers, 13 medical surgeons, 40 paymasters, 33 mechanicians, and 1888 
sailors. 

On the list of vessels in commission appear : 3 armored ships,* 3 cruisers, 
3 corvettes, 2 gunboats, 20 torpedo-boats of the first class, 3 of the second class, 
5 steamers, and 3 sailing vessels, most of which are of an antiquated type. 
The Chilian government, however, has been very active of late in strengthening 
the fleet by the addition of modern vessels of the most approved designs, con- 
tracted for in England and France. It is in regard to the latter, the only ones 
in fact that present any interest, that we will say a few words. 

Towards the end of 1887 Chili sent to Europe a mission headed by Admiral 
Latorre, who commanded the Cochrane at the time of the surrender of the 
Huascar. Plans and specifications were furnished by several engineers, some 
French, some English. Of these constructions the lion's share fell to France. 
Two small gunboats (Almirante Lynch and Almirante Condell) were built by 
Laird on the plans of the English Sharpshooter. The Condell finished her 
trials last October, making 20 knots under 20 pounds pressure, and developing 
4350 I. H. P. The Lynch has already done some good work in Chilian 
waters. Capitan Prat, 100 m. long and 6905 tons displacement, has an all- 
round armor belt of 30 cm. in the upper part and 20 in the lower, with a total 
height of 2. TO m. A casemate with a 10 cm. armor occupies the central part 
from the belt to the hurricane-deck ; it contains no battery, being only intended 
to protect the bases of the funnels and the passages below. The deck armor 
is from 20 to 50 mm. thick, and the supply-tubes 20 cm. All the plates are of 
Creusot steel. The lower deck is partitioned out by numerous water-tight 
bulkheads, insuring buoyancy in case of the upper works being shot away. 

Her armament is powerful and distributed as follows : 

1. In each of the four turrets, which are arranged as on the Spanish Pelago, 
and have an armor of 275 mm., one 24 cm. 36-caliber gun. 

2. In four cupolas symmetrically disposed two by two to the rear of the 
heavy pieces, and on a level with them, 8 12-cm. 

* The Almirante Cochrane, Blanco Encalada (reported sunk), and Huascar. 



348 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

3. Four rapid-fire guns of 47 mm., two on the bridge and two abreast the 
mainmast. 

4. Four 57-mm. encircling and almost touching the 24-cm. of the center. 

5. Six 37-mm., two on the gallery, two on the poop-deck, and two on the 
forecastle. 

6. Five Gatlings, four of which are in the tops, the other being intended for 
the launch. There are, besides, four torpedo-launching tubes, one in each side 
amidships, one forward and the other aft. 

The Capitan Prat has two military masts with double tops. The engines, 
owing to the difficulties of repairs at home (Chili), are simple in construction 
and very strong, developing 12,000 indicated horse-power, with a speed of 17 
and 19 knots with natural and forced draughts respectively. Three search- 
lights have been placed on the gallery and on platforms halfway up each mast. 

The Presidente Errazuris and Presidente Pinto have the same speed with 
3500 and 5400 I. H. P., according to draught. As in the case of the Capitan 
Prat, they have only military masts. They are provided each with four boilers 
and sufficient coal-endurance to steam 4500 miles at 12 knots, and 2550 at 15 
knots. The electric lights are placed on the bridge. They are elegantly- 
built steel cruisers, 81 m. long, with a displacement of 2080 tons ; the decks 
are protected with steel plates 35 to 60 mm. thick extending the whole length 
of the vessel and descending 0.70 m. below the water-line. Sufficient protection 
is afforded by the multicellular system of construction and cofferdams. A block- 
house, 70 mm., incloses the servo-motor. 

Their armaments consist, i, of four 15-cm. guns on sponsons abaft the fore- 
mast ; 2, two i2-cm. on the line of the keel, one on the forecastle, the other on 
the poop-deck. These pieces, like the preceding ones, are mounted on central 
pivot carriages ; 3, four 47-mm., two on the lower bridge, two on the quarter- 
deck above the 15-cm. aft; 4, four revolving cannons of 37 mm. in the lower 
tops ; 5, one Nordenfelt in each of the upper tops ; 6, three torpedo-launching 
tubes, one forward, the two others in the sides amidships. 

The two cruisers were built inside of 18 months. The Capitan Prat, Presi- 
dente Errazuris and Presidente Pinto have up to the present been detained by 
the French government, i, as a guarantee for final payment ; 2, to prevent their 
falling into the possession of a hostile third party not recognized as a 
belligerent. 

REVUE MARITIME ET COLONIALE. 

January, 1 89 1. Eclipse of the sun — a theoretic statement. The 
expediency of a general staff for the British navy in imitation of the 
German army. 

"Admiral Sir Geoffrey Philipp Hornby, an authority in naval matters, is of 
opinion that the Bureau of Intelligence is entirely inadequate for the task set 
before it, and advises the formation of a general staff, which, absorbing the 
intelligence department, would be far more competent to discharge the duty of 
gathering and condensing within practical limits the enormous quantity of 
information at hand, which, contrary to a custom now established, should be 
at all times of easy access to every officer in the service as well as to the 
administrative authorities. It will not be very long before the necessity of a 
similar establishment will be felt in our own navy." 

The military marines of antiquity, and mediseval age (2d part). A 
study of comparative naval architecture (continued). 

February. Economical influence of lightness in naval construc- 
tion. Regularizing the movements of engines; a regulator with an 
auxiHary dynamo. Historical studies of the military marine of 
France (continued). 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 349 

March. Operation of raising the French colHer ship Federation. 
Historical studies of the military marine of France (continued). 
Notes on the bar of Kotonon (describing the surf-boats in use on the 
West Coast of Africa, and the method of landing and putting off 
shore). Notes on the lubrication of machinery. Foreign naval 
ministries, how organized and operated. J. L. 

REVISTA MARITIMA BRAZILEIRA. 

Hydraulics for propelling life-saving boats. 

The appliance of hydraulic power to vessels is not a new thing, for it dates 
as far back as 1843. Two systems, if we may use such word, are in presence : 
one, Dr. Fleischer's of Kiel, tried on board the Hydromotor in 1881, and the 
other the turbine system of Admiral Sir G. Elliot, tried on board the Water- 
witch. Sweden, Germany and France have also made experiments, but with 
indifferent success. By far the most interesting experiments, took place on 
board the life-saving boat Duke of Northumberland, of which the engineer 
gave at the time a full description. The writer sees a great many advantages 
in this propelling power, and recommends its adoption for the bar of the Rio 
Grande and other dangerous bars on the coast of Brazil. 

REVISTA MILITAR DE CHILE. 

January, 1891. New trials of armor-clad cupolas. 

In October, 1S90, experiments were made at Le Creusot, France, with an 
armored cupola or turret, at which were present representatives from nearly 
every country in Europe and from the United States. The turret, a revolving 
one, has a diameter of 5.40 m. and is 0.70 m. high. In the interior are two 
13-centimeter guns mounted on special carriages, fitted with hydraulic checks 
acting automatically. The plates of nickel-steel are 20 cm. thick, and weigh 
2580 kg. Five shots were fired from a 15-cm. caliber gun at a distance of 
30 m. The projectile was a 15-cm. one, and the velocity at the impact 329 m. 
The trial was very satisfactory ; still it would have been more interesting if a 
gun of greater penetrating power, the Canet gun of the same caliber for 
instance, had been used. 

Opinion of the Attorney-General in regard to claims arising from 
the Chile-Peruvian war, submitted to the President of the Republic. 
A memorandum card, or handbook containing the most elementary 
notions of hygiene recommended for the use of the Chilean soldier. 
A regiment of artillery on the march (instruction and discipline). 
Instructions in target practice. The aliment of the soldier (trans- 
lated from the ¥rench Journal des sciences miliiaires) . 

BOLETIM DO CLUB NAVAL. 

May-July, 1890. Extraordinary meeting of the Naval Club on 
the nth of June, on the occasion of the anniversary of the naval 
battle of the Riachuelo. Establishment of a Sailors' Protective 
Society. 

"The object of the society, whose formation is due to the initiative of some 
members of the Naval Club and under whose patronage it is placed, is to 
obtain the necessary capital to compose a relief fund in favor of widows and 
orphans of sailors who lost their lives at sea in the performance of their duty. 



350 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

The ' Caixa Pia ' (benevolent fund) is derived from the following sources: 
I. Original subscriptions; 2. contributions deposited in boxes set up in con- 
venient places for that purpose ; 3. legacies and donations ; 4. interest on 
invested capital, and contributions of all kinds to the society. Article fourth 
of the b3'-laws provides that the institution shall distribute help to shipwrecked 
sailors cast on the coast of Brazil. The above disposition is to be communi- 
cated to foreign consuls, and reciprocity solicited on the part of their respec- 
tive governments. The privilege of membership is extended to ladies. As- 
sistance at sea made obligatory in cases of distress or collision. According 
to the author, no punishment can be too severe for the crime of wilfully and 
cruelly disregarding the duty of giving assistance to fellow-sailors in distress, 
and calls for international legislation. 

Casting oil on the sea to subdue the waves. 

Several Chambers of Commerce, among others those of Dunkerque and Bor- 
deaux, have instituted prize funds to reward the best essays written on the 
subject, a special committee at the latter city having been selected to work 
out a programme. 

Denominations for masts of four-masted crafts. Notes on naval 
construction. Formulas ot the ordinary laws of resistance of hulls. 
Influence of the shape of stems and sterns (to be continued). 

August and September. 

"The matdrieloi our navy (Brazilian)" is the title of an article giving an out- 
line of the composition of the iieet of the new republic. At the head of the 
list appear the Riachuelo and Aquidaban, two armored battle-ships of recent 
types, possessing all the latest improvements and quite efficient for the duty 
they are expected to perform. But the writer thinks that although the pur- 
chase of these vessels was justified, and they are able to meet in contest crafts 
of the same type and armament, yet armored battle-ships are not the kind 
wanted by Brazil in time of war. Then follow the names of nondescript ves- 
sels, possessing neither speed nor defensive or offensive power ; a list of 
cruisers in course of construction, or launched and finishing, afloat, among 
others the Almirante Tamandare, with a speed not exceeding 17 knots and a 
modern equipment. Then come the monitors Pernambuco and Maranhao, a 
very desirable class of vessels. Three sea-going torpedo-boats, type Le 
Coureur, are building in Europe. 

Notes on naval construction (continued). Discussion on the ele- 
ments of resistance ; direct resistance. A few notes to serve for an 
elementary study of naval tactics. A plan for the distribution and 
equipment of meteorological stations in connection with the weather 
service. Naval chronicles. 

BOLETIN DEL CENTRO NAVAL. 

November, 1890. 

"A challenge to mortal combat in mid-ocean, 1813," is the title of a very 
interesting article. It does not pretend to adduce any new fact in the history 
of our early struggle with the mother country. Yet the author lays a certain 
stress upon the fact that in the fight between the Chesapeake and the Shan- 
non, the crew of the American frigate was composed of the riffraff and foreign 
elements that thronged at the time our Atlantic seaports, thus lending a new 
force to the argument recently brought forth that American men-of-war should 
be manned exclusively by American crews. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 351 

Use of the natural sines in calculating the latitude by circumstan- 
cial altitudes (see previous number). 

December. Of the necessity of educating the personnel of the 
navy. Promotion in the service. Submarine torpedo-boats. Our 
naval armaments. 

It is hardly necessary to say that this article presents more than an ordinary 
interest in view of the actual events in Chile. 

Speed of ocean steamers. 

December. Recruiting of the personnel of the navy. 

The writer expatiates upon the deplorable condition of the materiel, a con- 
dition which he attributes to the absence of trained petty officers and skilled 
mechanics. 

Promotion in the navy. Submarine torpedo-boats. 

This is a memoir upon the projected construction of a submarine boat. 

Our naval armaments (Argentine). 

January, 1891. Recruiting of the personnel of the navy (con- 
tinued). 

The voluntary service system which prevails in the Argentine Republic, the 
same as in the United States, although the most onerous for the treasury, is 
the most appropriate to the country and individuals, and the most conformable to 
hygiene. Apropos to the latter, the writer cites a case of 415 men drafted by 
lots into the Spanish navy, 230 of whom entered the hospital in two years 
with affections of the heart brought on through a dislike to seafaring life and 
the absence of the home from which they were ruthlessly separated. 

El Capitan Prat. Submarine boats. A naval consulting board. 
The Chilian artillery (the new mat6riel is almost exclusively com- 
posed of Krupp guns). The navies of the Triple Alliance. The 
French fleet, etc. J- L- 

THE ENGINEER. 

February 14, 1891. The U. S. S. Yorktown. Yarrow's new 
water-tube boiler. Slide-valve gear. 

March 14. Repairing a broken crank-shaft. Range of temper- 
ature in steam cylinders. The trial trip of the U. S. S. Bennington. 

March 28. See's extractor for purifying feed-water for marine 
boilers. 

April ii. The Spanish cruiser Pelayo. Results of experiments 
on the strength of boilers. 

THE RAILROAD AND ENGINEERING JOURNAL. 

February, 1891. The Panama Canal. Our navy in time of 
peace. Electricity from wind-power. The submarine mine and 
torpedo in harbor-defense. The progress in construction of new 
naval ships. 



352 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

March. High explosives for military use. Boilers for high 
pressures. United States naval progress. The preservation of iron 
and steel structural work. The mechanical treatment of molding 
sand. The United States Navy. 

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NAVAL ENGINEERS. 

Steel crank-shaft forgings. 

A description of the method of manufacture of the steel crank-shafts for 
the new vessels of the navy, and the tests to which the material is subjected. 

Fitting up the crank-shafts of the U. S. S. Newark. 
The method employed by Cramp & Co. in constructing the built-up type of 
crank-shaft. 

The causes of the vibration of screw steamers. An investigation of 
Assistant Engineer Alderdice's " Notes on Analysis of Engine Trials," 
by Chief Engineer Isherwood. Reply to Chief Engineer Isherwood's 
investigation. Register for speed trials. 

A description of an apparatus designed to carry into effect Engineer-in-Chief 
Melville's method of making speed trials. 

The contract trial of the Concord. The contract trial of the 
Newark. Experiments with the Belleville boiler for marine 
machinery. J. K. B. 

SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

January, 1891. Examination of mines. Notes on the coal-fields 
of Montana. The operations of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

J. K. B. 
THE STEVENS INDICATOR. 

Volume VIII., No. i. The measurement of high temperature. 
Latest developments in compressed-air motors. Marine governors. 
Notes on the performance of the ferry-boat Bergen. Huge lathes 
and cranes operated by electricity. J. K. B. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE TECHNICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC 
COAST. 

January, 1891. Accumulators and their applications. Notes on 
the behavior of steel rods at the elastic limit. J. K. B. 

THE STEAMSHIP. 

February, 1891. The theory of propulsion and centrifugal force. 
Auxiliary engines in connection with the modern marine engine. 

March, 1891. The steam trial of H. M. S. Latona. Machine 
stoking. Screw propellers. 

April, 1891. Willis's electrical ship's telegraph. Cylindrical 
boilers. J. K. B. 

REVIEWERS AND TRANSLATORS. 
Lieut.-Commander C. S. Sperry, Ensign C. M. Knepper, 

P. A. Engineer J, K, Barton, Prof. C. R. Sanger, 

Ensign H. G. Dresel, Prof. J. Leroux. 



NAMES OF MEMBERS WHO JOINED SINCE 
JANUARY, 1891. 

LIFE MEMBERS. 

Andrews, Philip, Ensign, U. S. Navy, March 19, 1891. 

Carpenter, J. H,, Manager, Carpenter Steel Co., Reading, Pa., April 17, 1891. 

REGULAR MEMBERS. 

Althouse, Adelbert, Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 27, 1891. 

Belknap, Reginald R., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 22, 1891. 

Bierer, Bion B., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 19, 1891. 

Blamer, De Witt, Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Caldwell, H. H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 19, 1891. 

Carter, James F., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 

Christy, Harley H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 

Button, Arthur H., Govt, draughtsman, Bath IronWorks, Bath, Me., June i, 1891. 

Emrich, Charles R., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 23, 1891. 

Evans, Waldo, Naval Cadet, U.S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 

Gillmor, Horatio G., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Hartung, R, J., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy. 

Hough, Henry H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Irwin, Noble E., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 20, 1891. 

Johnson, W. W., Professor, 32 Preston St., Baltimore, Md., February 17, 1891. 

Kochersperger, F. H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 23, 1891. 

Lane, Rufus H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Laws, George W., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 23, 1891. 

Leigh, Richard H., Naval Cadet, U. S, Navy, May 22, 1891. 

Macfarland, Horace G., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

McGrann, Wm. H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

McKelvy, Wm. N., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 

Moale, John G. F., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Pollock, Edwin T., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Preston, Chas. F., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May I5,.i89i. 

Reed, Milton E., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 20, 1891. 

Richards, George, Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 25, 1891. 

Senn, Thomas J., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

Shepard, George H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 26, 1891. 

Smith, Henry Gerrish, Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 23, 1891. 

Stearns, Clark D., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 18, 1891. 

Sypher, Jay H., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 



354 NAMES OF MEMBERS WHO JOINED SINCE JANUARY, 189I. 

Watt, Richard M., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 
Willard, Arthur L., Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 15, 1891. 
Williams, Dion, Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy, May 16, 1S91. 
Zahm, Frank B., Naval Cadet, U, S. Navy, May 16, 1891. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 

Biddle, John, ist Lieutenant, Engineer Corps, U. S. Army, April 17, 1891. 
Cronquist, A. Werner, M. D., Chemist, Royal Swedish Navy, Stockholm, 

Sweden, April 17, 1891. 
Dennison, H. B., President, Dennison Manufacturing Co., Townsend Street, 

Roxbury, Mass., April 17, 1891. 
de Rivas, F. R., Lieutenant, Royal Spanish Artillery, Spanish Legation, Wash- 
ington, D. C, April 17, 1891. 
Dewey, Frederick P., Ph. B., Metallurgist, No. 621 F St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C, April 17, 1891. 
Elwell, Howard P., Consulting Engineer, Gloucester, Mass., April 17, 1891. 
Hemje, Charles, Draughtsman, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., April 17, 1891. 
Langley, Gerald, Captain, Royal Navy, British Legation, Washington, D. C, 

April 17, 1891. 
Macpherson, Victor, Engineer, Horse Creek Coal and Coke Co., Horse Creek, 

Alabama, April 17, 1891. 
McMurray, R. K., Chief Inspector, Hartford Steam Boiler I. and In. Co., No. 

285 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Wadsworth, J. W., Hon., M. C, Geneseo, N. Y., April 17, 1891. 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 3 



^^0^' 




'J^ 



^^4^'ij 



PLATE I. -METHOD OF CARRYING OUT THE MUSHROOM TEST. 



THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

Ukited States Naval Ii^^stitute. 

Vol. XVII., No. 3. 1891. Whole No. 59. 

[copyrighted.] 

U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL, 

CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS 

with emmensite, gelbite and aluminum bronze. 
By Stephen H. Emmens, 

Member of the U. S. N'aval Institute, Member of the Society of Chemical Industry, 

Member of the American Chemical Society, Membre Fondateur of 

the Societe Internationale des Electriciens, etc. 



§1. 

The Ballistic Theory of Explosives. 

In the classical " Report upon Experiments and Investigations to 
'Develop a System of Submarine Mines for Defending the Harbors 
of the United States," submitted to the War Department by General 
Henry L. Abbot, Engineer Corps, U. S. A., attention is drawn to the 
apparent anomaly of dynamite No. i, containing 75 per cent of nitro- 
glycerine, being found more effective than pure nitroglycerine itself. 
This observation was commented upon by Professor C. E. Munroe, 
chemist to the U. S. Naval Torpedo Corps, in the following terms 
("Notes on the Literature of Explosives," Proceedings of the U. S. 
Naval Institute) : 



356 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

" In comparing the results obtained for pure nitroglycerine with those 
for dynamite No. i, there was revealed what at first sight appears to be 
a paradox. 

One pound of pure nitroglycerine was found to exert only 8i per cent 
of the intensity of action of three-fourths of a pound absorbed by an 
inert substance which could add nothing to the heat or gases developed. 

This fact, which was discovered early in the trials, was considered so 
extraordinary as to require careful verification and study. 

The first explanation suggested was that it was due to a possible 
variation in the strength of the nitroglycerine itself, depending upon a 
difference in the chemical composition of different samples. 

This was tested practically with different nitroglycerines, and with 
nitroglycerine and dynamite made from it ; and it was shown, beyond 
question, that variations in the quality of the nitroglycerine had nothing 
to do with it, and that the explanation must be sought in the physical 
conditions of the problems. 

General Abbot, therefore, suggests that in granulating nitroglycerine, 
by absorbing it in kieselguhr, the particles of silica slightly retard 
chemical action — since, in detonations, the reactions occur within the 
molecules — and as the resistance opposed by water is of a slightly 
yielding character, more time may be required to reach this condition 
than is afforded by nitroglycerine pure and simple. 

This view is confirmed by the action of certain dynamites which are 
made so as to explode with exceeding rapidity, and which fall very low 
in the scale," 

The foregoing quotation is cited in Lieutenant Willoughby 
Walke's (2d U. S. Artillery) recent paper " On the Determination 
of the Strength of Various High Explosives," appearing in the 
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. XII., No, 7 ; and 
with reference to its subject-matter Lieutenant Walke observes, " In 
by far the majority of such cases the additional strength is derived 
from the physical condition of the explosive rather than from any 
inherent property of the active principle." 

It will be noticed that neither General Abbot, Professor Munroe, 
nor Lieutenant Walke attempts any positive solution of the curious 
problem in question ; and I know of no authority upon explosives 
who has hitherto done so. The suggestion that in dynamite No. i 
the nitroglycerine is granulated, i. e. that it is divided into minute 
masses separated from each other more or less by intervening parti- 
tions of silica, is, rigorously, untenable ; for careful inspection shows 
no interruption of liquid continuity in the nitroglycerine constituent 
of dynamite. Moreover, the reference made by Professor Munroe 
to " certain dynamites which are made so as to explode with exceed- 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 357 

ing rapidity, and which fall very low in the scale," is not borne out by 
the best known of such quick-action dynamites, viz., Mowbray's 
" Mica Powder." No. i grade of this powder, containing only 52 per 
cent of nitroglycerine, gave a force of 102 as compared with 100 for 
pure nitroglycerine. 

A suggestion has indeed been made which, as I understand it, is 
diametrically opposed to that offered by General Abbot. It occurs 
in a work entitled " Service Chemistry " (London : Whittingham, 
1889), by Vivian B. Lewes, Professor of Chemistry at the Royal 
Naval College, Greenwich. At page 283 of this book is the follow- 
ing passage : 

" The increase in explosive force gained by the rigidity of form in 
these mixtures is shown by the following table, in which the work 
done by equal weights of these explosives is compared with nitro- 
glycerin : 

Work done in a 

horizontal direction Percentage 

compared with of 
Name of Explosive. nitro-glycerin= 100. nitro-glycerin. 

Blasting gelatine 144 89 

Hercules powder No. i 130 42 

Dynamite No. 1 123 75 

Rendrock 117 60 

Hercules powder No. 2 102 42 

Dynamite No. 2 102 36 

Mica powder No. i 102 52 

Vulcan powder No. 2 loi 35 

Nitro-glycerin 100 100 

Vulcan powder No. i 96 30 

Electric powder No. 1 85 33 

Electric powder No. 2 76 28 

Mica powder No. 2 76 40 

Here Professor Lewes suggests that the function of the silica in 
dynamite No. i is to accelerate rather than to retard the develop- 
ment of explosive force. This, at least, is what I read his words to 
mean, for I suppose the expression "increase in explosive force" is 
merely a lapsus calami. 

Yet, after all, the problem is not really so insoluble as it has 
hitherto appeared to be. If a Ballistic Theory of Explosives be 
adopted, the difficulty vanishes. 

Let us first consider what takes place in the explosion of nitro- 
glycerine. This substance is a liquid having a specific gravity of 

1.6; and 1000 grams, therefore, occupy a space of — ^ litre. The 1000 



358 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

grams are made up of 158.6 grams of carbon, 22 grams of hydrogen, 
185. 1 grams nitrogen, and 634.3 grams of oxygen. The explosion 
of nitroglycerine simply means that its oxygen unites with its car- 
bon, hydrogen, and part of the nitrogen to form carbonic anhydride, 
water vapor and nitric oxide, while the remainder of the nitrogen 
assumes a free state. These products being gaseous, occupy a very 
much larger space than the original liquid, and are still further ex- 
panded by the heat evolved by their formation. The total volume 
of the gases calculated as at 0° centigrade and at atmospheric pressure 
(760 mm. of mercury) is 712.5 litres. The total amount of heat 
evolved (after deducting the heat absorbed by the breaking-up of the 
nitroglycerine) is 1,451,877 units; and this is sufficient to raise the 
temperature of the gases by 6908° C. If the gases were free to 
expand, this increment of temperature would cause them to occupy 

a space of f i -I- -^ — j X 712.5 = 18738.7 litres. But if the nitro- 
glycerine be confined in a shell, for example, then 18738.7 litres 
would be compressed within the space of — ^ litres, and therefore 
would press upon the walls of the shell with a force equal to 18738.7 X 
— ^ = 29981.9 atmospheres, or 196.76 tons per square inch. 

Let us next consider what is meant by the pressure of a gas upon 
the walls of its containing vessel. It is a mechanical force tending 
to thrust the walls outwards ; and, if the kinetic theory of gases be 
true, it represents the aggregate of the impacts of the gaseous mole- 
cules against the walls. Hence gaseous pressure is directly propor- 
tional to the vis vivd of the mean molecular movements. 

But the vis vivd or " energy " of moving bodies is composed of 
two factors, mass and velocity ; and, therefore, the determination of 
gaseous pressure alone will still leave us in the dark as to the 
character of the blows by which it is produced. It tells us nothing 
as to whether the walls of the containing vessel have to withstand 
the shock of heavy molecules moving with comparative slowness, or 
light molecules moving at relatively high velocities. Yet this is a 
matter of importance. Every artillerist is familiar with the different 
effects produced by "racking" and "penetrating" blows of equal 
kinetic energy. The proverbial schoolboy knows that a tallow 
candle fired from a gun will dart through a deal board, whereas, if 
placed on the cow-catcher of a locomotive and so moved forward 
slowly, it will simply be crushed up against the board. Essentially 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 359 

the same order of effects must occur whether we deal with cannon- 
balls or molecules. From the physical, non-chemical point of view, 
all matter is the same — it is a something that gravitates. Even a 
chemist may hold that the only absolute distinction between one 
elementary molecule and another is that of allotropy ; that matter 
probably consists of ultimate gravity- atoms, alike in substance and 
energy ; and that the greater or less number of these atoms grouped 
in a molecule effects a corresponding variation of the velocity-factor 
of the molecular energy, and so produces difTerences of behavior as 
regards light, heat, electricity and other forces. But, be this as it 
may, we know that the ballistic behavior of a cannon-ball is depend- 
ent upon the mass of the projectile, and not upon whether it is made 
of gold or lead ; and it is reasonable to infer the same thing of the 
ballistic behavior of molecular masses. The character of the blow, 
as regards the effect produced upon the body struck, must be different 
in the cases of two projectiles, one of which (say a molecule of car- 
bonic anhydride) weighs 22 times as much as the other (say a 
molecule of hydrogen), even though the energies of the two blows 
be equal. Or, to put another case, the effect of a blow struck by 
four projectiles must differ from that of a blow struck by three pro- 
jectiles, notwithstanding that the latter group may be moving at so 
greatly increased a velocity as to make its total energy equal to that 
of the former. 

Hence, from the ballistic point of view, we must consider the 
29981.9 atmospheres of pressure produced by the nitroglycerine 
gases as consisting of two factors, viz., the mass-factor, which may be 
taken as 1000, and the velocity-factor, which is 29.9819. 

Turning now to the case of dynamite No. i, we find that 1000 
grams contain 118.9 grams of carbon, 16.5 grams of hydrogen, 
138.7 grams of nitrogen, 475.9 grams of oxygen, and 250 grams of 
silica. When explosion takes place, the resulting products consist of 
534.5 litres of gas (computed at o" C. and 760 mm.) and 250 grams 
of silica ; and the heat evolved (after deducting what is required for 
breaking up the 750 grams of nitroglycerine) amounts to 1,088,284 
calories. This is sufficient to raise the temperature of the gases and 
silica by 5274° C. ; and if free to expand under atmospheric pres- 
sure, the heated gases would occupy 1086 1 litres, and the silica would 
be expanded 20.05 cubic centimetres in excess of its original volume. 
But if the explosion took place in a close vessel, the space available 

for the gases would be ~ X - — .02005 = .4487 litre, and the pres- 
i.b 4 



360 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

sure would, therefore, be ^^-— ^= 24205.5, or 158.8 tons per square 
,44«7 

inch. The mass-factor of this pressure is 750 (as the dynamite gases 

have but .75 of the weight of the gases produced by 1000 grams 

of nitroglycerine), and the velocity-factor is "^ = 32.27. 

Furthermore, as the molecules in the gases from 1000 grams of 
nitroglycerine outnumber those in the gases from an equal weight of 
dynamite No. i in the proportion of 4 : 3, it follows that the intensity 
of the blow struck by a molecule of the former may be represented 

by the expression ^^^ ^'^ = 7495.4, while the intensity of the blow 
struck by a molecule of the latter is — — ^ = 8068.5. The ratio of 
these intensities ^^ = .929, which is the same as that given by the 

oOOo 

ratio of the velocity-factors, viz., . And the product of the 

32.27 ^ 

two ratios is .929 X .929 = .863. This value agrees fairly well with 
that observed in the course of General Abbot's experiments, if allow- 
ance be made for the approximate character of the constants employed 
in the calculations and for the want of instantaneity in the explosives. 
If, as is probably the case, the detonation of a primer imbedded in 
dynamite No. i produces a more intense initial shock than when im- 
bedded in nitroglycerine, the ballistic ratio of nitroglycerine to 
dynamite will be lowered. On the other hand, a departure of the 
containing envelop from absolute rigidity, or any appreciable solu- 
tion of continuity in such envelop, will have a tendency to increase 
the ballistic ratio. 

The theory here advanced not only offers a solution of what I will, 
by way of due consideration for the distinguished officer who first 
observed it, call the Abbot effect, but it is, I believe, applicable to all 
cases of explosion and explosion-stress. For example, in Lieutenant 
Walke's recent experiments, dynamite No. i was found to develop 
an order of strength of 81.31 as compared with 100 for nitroglycer- 
ine. This sample of dynamite contained - — parts of nitroglycer- 
ine made according to the U. S. Naval Torpedo Station process, and 
tested immediately on completion ; and the nitroglycerine in question 
was found to develop an order of strength of 92.37 as compared with 
the standard article, which, while made according to the same process. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 36 1 

had been kept for more than six weeks under distilled water in a 
loosely-corked glass jar. The real strength of the dynamite was, 

therefore, ^ — X 92.37 = 68.09 pei" cent, of the standard nitro- 
glycerine. Yet the "order of strength" it developed was 81.31. 

The Abbot effect was thus — '~^ — = 19.42 per cent. ; whereas 

68.09 ^ t i- 

the original Abbot effect was ^ = 64.61 per cent. In 

^ .75 X 81 ^ K 

both cases the ballistic ratio of nitroglycerine to dynamite No. i is 

100 

considerably less than the normal value of = 1.33, being, 

respectively, .81 observed by Abbot and 1.23 observed by Walke ; 
but these ratios are in themselves widely divergent. The explanation 
of their divergency is to be found in the conditions of the experi- 
ments. In the Abbot tests the explosives were encased in water, 
extending to a vast thickness in a horizontal direction and for many 
feet upward and downward. In the Walke tests the explosives 
rested in a hollow on the upper surface of a steel piston supported 
by a small lead cylinder, and were covered by a steel plug free to 
fly upward in the air. Thus, in the Abbot apparatus, the containing 
vessel was an almost incompressible and completely continuous wall, 
while in the Quinan apparatus, used by Walke, it was composed of 
two disconnected moieties of steel, held in place by a highly elastic 
atmosphere, gravity, inertia, and, on one side, the resistance of a 
piece of lead. This diflerence of envelop is fully sufficient to 
account for the difference observed in the Abbot effect. 



§2. 
The Ballistic Theory of Explosion-Stress. 

If we proceed from the consideration of the explosives and the 
ballistic behavior of the gases they produce, to a study of the 
effects of the molecular impacts upon the crusher-gauges, gun-walls, 
or other targets, we shall find the ballistic theory still holding good, 
and of service in the solution of many practical problems. 

In a paper read by Mr. Fairbairn before the Institute of Naval 
Architects, in London, on March 26, 1863, an account was given of 
various experiments to determine the best shape of projectiles for 
armor-penetration. Among those experiments was a series showing 



362 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

the respective effects produced by flat and round-ended punches 
when employed in the perforation of iron plates. The conclusion 
arrived at was thus stated by Mr. Fairbairn : 

" These figures show that the statical resistance to punching is 
about the same whether the punch be flat-ended or round-ended, the 
mean being in the ratio of 1000 : 1085, or Z\ per cent, greater in the 
round-ended punch. It is, however, widely different when we con- 
sider the depth of indentation of the flat-ended punch and compare 
it with that produced by the round-ended one, which is 3^ times 
greater. Hence we derive this remarkable conclusion, that while 
the statical resistance of plates to punching is nearly the same what- 
ever may be the form of the punch, yet the dynamic resistance or 
work done in punching is twice as great with a round-ended punch 
as with a flat-ended one." 

In 1880 General H. L. Abbot, in his report, before referred to, 
published some remarkable observations showing the influence of 
time as a factor in the action of mechanical pressures or impacts upon 
crusher-gauges. In some instances he found that the amount of 
pressure indicated by the shortening of a lead cylinder under a 
piston urged forward by a sudden blow was more than twice as great 
as that indicated by the same shortening effected under slow pressure 
in a testing machine. 

In 1882 the Comptes Rendus des Seances de I'Academie des 
Sciences contained a memoir, by MM. Sarrau and Vieille, on the 
theory of crusher-gauges, in which the same view as that already 
propounded by General Abbot was adopted and still further devel- 
oped. In this memoir it is demonstrated that when a very rapid 
pressure takes place, the shortening of the gauge becomes twice as 
great in proportion to the actual force exerted as in the case of a 
comparatively slow pressure ; and the governing feature of the action 
is shown to be the ratio that exists in any particular case between 
the total duration of the pressure from zero to a maximum ( 7"), and 
its duration while at a maximum ( T^. 

Now, in the case of a flat-ended punch, it is obvious that the resist- 
ance experienced is constant and a maximum as compared with that 
experienced by a round-ended one. And General Abbot's system 
of crushing by impact was equivalent to the limiting case formulated 
by Sarrau and Vieille, in which the displacement of the piston during 
the development of the pressure to its maximum value may be 
neglected, and in which, accordingly, the indication of the gauge is 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 363 

in excess. Hence the three series of observations I have quoted 
are intimately connected together and are concerned with one and 
the same physical phenomenon, namely, that the opposition offered 
by solid bodies to change of molecular structure is analogous to the 
energy of gaseous bodies, and may be divided into a resistance-factor 
and a time-factor which correspond respectively to the mass-factor 
and velocity-factor discussed in the previous section of this paper. 

The generalization here suggested seems to me to be of great 
practical importance in the present state of the military art as regards 
explosives. It shows that there is no essential difference between 
the various classes of explosives, and that the regulation of the 
mechanical effect to be produced by an explosion may be attained 
by a modification in the conditions of application equally as well as 
by a change in the explosive employed. It shows that there is no 
real distinction between "explosion" and "detonation," or between 
kinetic " pressure " and "shock"; and that the relations that exist 
between the walls of a gun and the powder-gases within are the same 
in character as those between the shot and the armor-plate. 

As a practical illustration of my meaning I may refer to the expe- 
riments of MM. Sarrau and Vieille with dynamite. These gentlemen 
found that by simply varying the weight of the crusher-piston they 
could at will produce either of the two limiting cases of pressure ; 

T 
that is to say, they could give an appreciable value to the ratio t^^ , 

or they could render it negligible. The dynamite was employed 
under conditions of uniform gravimetric density (.30) and was ex- 
ploded by uniform means. Hence there was no question of any 
difference in the " explosive wave," or, to use the more generally 
adopted expression, in the "order of explosion"; and yet a slight 
change in the object on which the explosive force was exerted 
sufficed to shift the effect produced from a " detonating " to an 
"exploding" class. 

Again, in the British Association's Report, in 1863, on gun-cotton, 
it is stated as follows : " There is yet another peculiar feature of 
gun-cotton ; it can be exploded in any quantity instantaneously. 
This was once considered its great fault ; but it was only a fault 
when we were ignorant of the means to make that velocity anything 
we pleased. General Von Lenk has discovered the means of giving 
gun-cotton any velocity of explosion that is required, by merely 
varying the mechanical arrangements under which it is used. Gun- 



364 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

cotton, in his hands, has any speed of explosion, from i foot per 
second to i foot in ywou of a second, or to instantaneity. The 
instantaneous explosion of a large quantity of gun-cotton is made 
use of when it is required to produce destructive effects on the sur- 
rounding material. The slow combustion is made use of when it is 
required to produce manageable power, as in the case of gunnery." 

These statements were quite correct ; and although the use of 
Lenk's gun-cotton for artillery was subsequently abandoned, this 
arose from points connected with preservation and not from any 
want of manageability. Moreover, the practical use of the Schultze, 
E. C, and American wood powders and of Gelbite is an example of 
the gun-cotton class of " high explosives " being also available for 
" low explosive " work ; and the recent introduction of the Nobel, 
Abel and Maxim smokeless powders shows that even nitroglycerine 
may be brought under sufficient control for use as a propellant. 

As a converse illustration I may mention the case of gunpowder 
being detonated. The discovery of this is usually attributed to MM. 
Roux and Sarrau ; but General Piobert, in his Cours d'Artillerie, 
mentions the matter as having been demonstrated by General Pel- 
letier in 1826. He says that Pelletier placed four pounds of gun- 
powder on a light wooden table, which was placed upon soft earth, 
and ignited it ; the result being a mild explosion and a slight depres- 
sion of the table. But when the experiment was varied by placing a 
sheet of paper over the powder, the table was shattered to atoms. 
Here is a distinct statement of a detonation-effect being produced ; 
and though Pelletier's account is so worded as to imply that the 
ignition was the same in both cases, it may have been that in the 
second experiment the powder was fired in a manner differing from 
simple ignition. At any rate, I myself failed to obtain the same 
results as Pelletier when simply igniting a heap of loose gunpowder 
placed on a shingle and covered with a sheet of paper ; but when I 
fired a similar heap of loose gunpowder with a detonator the shingle 
was broken to pieces, both with and without a paper covering to the 
powder. And as a similar detonator by itself merely dashed a small 
hole through the shingle, my experiment certainly proved that even 
loose powder may be caused to explode with greater rapidity than 
when simply ignited. 

I have also measured the difference of the explosive effects here 
alluded to by employing an apparatus which I term a " vimmette." 
This instrument consists, first, of a thick wrought-iron bed-plate, 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 365 

bolted down to a timber foundation inclined at any desired angle to 
the horizon ; secondly, of a cylindrical steel stud screwed at one end 
into the center of the bed-plate, and projecting therefrom at a right 
angle ; and, thirdly, of a massive steel thimble which fits closely on 
the stud. The bore of the thimble terminates in a hemispherical cavity 
ofshghtly reduced diameter, so that an internal shoulder is formed, 
which rests on the flat top of the stud when the thimble is in place for 
firing. The stud is grooved on one side to admit a fuse for firing the 
charge in the hemispherical cavity of the thimble. The thimble of the 
vimmette I use in my test weighs 66J pounds, and when the stud is 
inclined at 80° to the horizon, a charge of 6 grams of gunpowder, if 
simply ignited, throws the thimble to a horizontal distance of 5 feet 7 
inches from the stud; whereas, when the same amount of gunpowder is 
fired by means of a detonator containing 9 grains of mercuric fulmi- 
nate, a range of 1 1 feet 7 inches is obtained. The detonator by itself 
just lifts the thimble about 2 inches without throwing it off^ the stud. 
Here, then, we again perceive the Abbot effect. We have equal 
quantities of the same explosive fired under equal conditions of 
gravimetric density. Equal volumes of gas and equal quantities of 
heat must therefore be produced ; and as the resistance-factor of the 
gauge remains unaltered, it would seem that the work done upon the 
gauge should be the same. Yet in one case the thimble is moved 
with much greater energy than in the other. The explanation, of 
course, is that when a detonator is employed the powder explodes 
very quickly, and generates its entire volume of gas before the pro- ' 
jectile begins to move. Hence the thimble is urged forward by the 
expansion of the whole of the gases during its whole travel on the stud. 
When, however, the powder is simply ignited, the thimble is already 
in motion before the whole of the powder-gases are at work : and 
thus the aggregate pressure during the entire travel is much less 
than in the former case, seeing that the velocity with which the gas- 
molecules strike the forward end of the thimble cavity is the differ- 
ence between their proper velocity and the rate of movement of the 
thimble. 

I have thought it worth while to dwell somewhat upon this matter, 
because in no less an authority than the Treatise on the Manufacture 
of Guns and Text-book of Service Ordnance, published by the 
British Government in 1886, the following statement occurs (page 26) : 
''Gun Construction. — In the first place, it is necessary to under- 
stand the nature and intensity of the forces which act upon a gun 



366 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

when fired with a heavy charge. The origin of stress is the rapid 
generation of gas in a chamber of very limited size, compared with 
the volume which the gas would occupy if unconfined. The evolu- 
tion of gas is the work of a period of time, and its action upon the 
inner surface of a gun has been proved to possess the nature of a 
pressure and not that of an impulse. Instruments have been devised 
for measuring this pressure in the bore, so we are able to investigate 
the force according to the laws which govern the behavior of a gas." 

The words pressure and imptdse are italicised in the original, and 
it is evidently intended that some grave distinction shall be drawn 
between them. Yet, if by "pressure " something other than stati- 
cal pressure be meant — and such must certainly be the case — it is 
impossible rightly to draw any such distinction. The pressure of a 
gas is the general effect of the myriad individual impacts of its mole- 
cules upon the walls of the containing vessel. If the gas be gene- 
rated inside the vessel, it is inevitable that 2l first blow shall be struck 
upon the inner surface ; and the severity of this blow will depend 
upon the number, weight and velocity of the particles inflicting it. 
And as the word " impulse " can only mean the effect produced by 
impact, it follows that the action of a gas generated inside a vessel is, 
correctly speakmg, always of an impiclsive character. If the major 
portion of the exploding body take part (in the form of gaseous 
products) in the first blow, a much greater shock is inflicted than in 
the case of a smaller portion contributing to the salvo ; but, no 
matter whether all or only some of the guns in the battery be fired 
in the first instant, the action remains the same in character. 

The same considerations must guide us as regards the body 
receiving the blow ; that is to say, as regards the gun itself; and I 
venture to think that the practice hitherto pursued, of estimating 
firing strains from the point of view of statical pressures, must lead 
to incomplete if not erroneous conclusions. A method more in 
accordance with the facts of the case is the following : 

Let the molecules composing the walls of a gun be represented as 
arranged in concentric circles, shown in Fig. i. 

When the gun is fired, the molecules of the explosion-gases 
impinge against the inner circle of gun-molecules, and thus set up a 
radial stress tending to force each gun-molecule outward. If move- 
ment take place under this stress, the molecules A, B, C will assume 
the positions A' , B' , C ; that is to say, they will be on the circum- 
ference of a larger circle than before ; and although their angular 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



367 



distance may remain the same, they will be separated from each 
other by a g'reater circumferential distance. In addition, they will 
be nearer io D, E, F than before. 

G ff / 



Now it is a law of molecular structure that the particles of any 
body at rest are in a condition of equilibrium as regards their mean 
distance from each other, and therefore the alteration of this distance, 
whether by decrease or augmentation, requires the performance of 
work. Accordingly, in the case of any single gun-molecule, B, 
motion under the impact of the explosion-molecules is opposed by 
two resisting forces, namely the repulsion that forbids approach to 
D, E, F, and the attraction that forbids separation from A and C. 
The mechanism of these forces is not as yet understood ; but it is 
clear that they are modes of energy, and as such resolvable into 
terms of mass and velocity. Thus the energy that resists compres- 
sion may, with some degree of reason, be conceived of as analogous 
to gaseous elasticity, and as dependent upon the mass and velocity 
of the body's colliding molecules ; while the energy that resists 
tension may be regarded as the expression of the mean impact of the 
particles of the ether upon the body-molecules in one direction, 
attended by an absence or diminution of such impact (owing to 
inter-molecular eddies) in the opposite direction. That these views 
are at least consistent with observed phenomena will appear as I 
proceed with my argument. 

In the case of the gun-molecules, any motion of B must obviously 
be much greater in a radial than in a tangential direction. It follows, 



368 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

therefore, that the work done in compression is greater than that in 
tension, and that in a system composed of two rings of molecules, a 
hard and comparatively brittle material is better than a tough and 
comparatively soft one for withstanding the shock of internal explo- 
sions. 

When, however, we introduce the conception of a third ring, the 
problem assumes a different aspect. The repulsion existing between 
B and E may be regarded as a rod whereby if B be pushed out- 
ward E moves with it. But a similar rod exists between E and H, 
so that ^also has to move in accordance with B and E. If the rods 
were absolutely rigid, the degree of motion produced in the system 
B E Hhy the impact of an explosion-molecule would be a mere 
question of the respective impelling and impelled masses and veloci- 
ties. The rods, though, are not rigid ; they are elastic ; they cannot 
transmit any force without first shortening and then lengthening. 
This involves action in time as well as in space, and thus B and E 
have for an instant to bear the full shock of the explosion-molecule 
before the mass of //^can be effectively added to their own. 

The limit to the movement of two molecules toward each other is 
contact ; but there is no limit to a movement of separation. If, then, 
B be forced outward into contact with E, the united rings would 
thenceforward (in a system of two rings) offer but one kind of resist- 
ance to the further movement of their particles, i. e. cohesion, or the 
force that opposes tension. But this force is operative only at minute 
distances (we may conceive inter-molecular eddies to disappear and 
ether-pressure to become equal on every side when the molecular 
interstices increase) and ceases to have any practical effect when 
molecules move appreciably apart. Hence the united rings are 
liable to complete and sudden disruption from the shock within. 

In a compound system of rings the same results may be brought 
about without any limitation of compression by contact. The radial 
movement of B is shared by E and H, and therefore a shortening of 
the distance between E and II\s attended by a double shortening of 
the distance between B and H. Accordingly, the movement of B 
in relation to H, and consequently also to A and C, is not neces- 
sarily dependent upon its distance from E, and may assume any 
magnitude if the number of rings in the system be sufficient; so that 
a disruption of the inside ring may take place without any corre- 
sponding injury to the outer circles. It follows from this that when 
an elastic material is employed, no mere addition to the thickness of 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 369 

the walls of a gun can possibly suffice to prevent the gun from 
bursting. 

Moreover, if the distance between B and E be such as in itself to 
admit of a movement sufficiently great to remove B from the cohesion- 
range of A and C, the inner ring may be ruptured without receiving 
any succor from the third ring; for this latter can only lend its mass 
and tenacity in opposition to some stress, and this stress can only be 
transmitted by the second ring. If, then, the explosion-impact be so 
sudden and powerful as to drive back B upon E in too short a time 
to allow of the compression of the repulsion-rod between E and H^ 
the union of B with A and C will cease before the movement of B is 
arrested by the resistance of H. And yet the actual energy of the 
impact may be quite insufficient to overcome the united resistance of 
the ABC cohesions and the B E and E 77 repulsions. 

Analogous conclusions may be deduced in the case of plane sur- 
faces exposed to pressure. A sufficiently quick pressure, such as a 
blow, will force back the outer layer of molecules upon the next 
layer to a greater extent than would be the case if further layers had 
time to be brought into the resisting combination. And this com- 
pression may exceed the elastic limit, and may produce permanent 
deformation. Here, then, after pursuing an entirely independent 
course of reasoning, we find ourselves once more in face of the physi- 
cal fact remarked upon by Fairbairn, Abbot, and Sarrau and Vieille, 
namely, that change of molecular arrangement is not, of itself, a 
measure of the working force. A crusher-gauge may occasionally 
be compressed to a certain extent by one-half the force required at 
other times to produce the same degree of shortening, and in like 
manner a gun may be burst by a pressure well within that which it is 
capable of withstanding under diffisrent conditions of application. 
Conversely, we may be very far from the truth in deciding that such 
and such a pressure has been exerted merely because a gauge indi- 
cated so and so, or because a gun of certain dimensions and material 
was burst. 

I may further remark that, as regards the usual method of investi- 
gating explosion-stress in hollow cylinders, the fundamental formula 
Strain = P^^^sure X radius 
thickness 
is rigorously true only in cases where the thickness is infinitesimal ; 
while Barlow and Hart's derived formulae for the ratio between inner 
and outer strains are based upon a comparison of the respective 



370 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANXE MATERIAL. 

annuli of expansion, and are therefore only applicable to cases in 
which such expansion has taken place. In both the fundamental and 
derived stages of the calculation a condition of equilibrium is 
assumed; that is to say, an equation is established between the strain 
and the resistance. But, as I have already shown, the action of an 
explosive does not commence with an equilibrium. The strain is, in 
most cases, a progressive one, and the resistance is always a variable 
quantity. Equilibrium, therefore, can be attained only when the strain 
has reached its maximum, and when the resistance has become equal 
to this maximum. This is not only true of the dynamic strain repre- 
sented by the radial impact of each explosion-molecule, but it also 
applies to the resultant tangential strain on the whole inner surface 
of the ring, represented at any point by pressure X radius. Hence, 
explosive stress should, properly, be regarded as divided into the 
following three stages, viz. : 

I St stage. — Each internal gun-molecule is pushed back in opposi- 
tion to the repulsion of the adjacent molecules in the next ring and 
to the attraction exerted by the adjacent molecules in its own ring. 

2d stage. — The stress is transmitted to the molecules lying imme- 
diately beyond those next adjacent, and so on to others in succession, 
until the whole mass represented by the thickness of the gun is 
affected. 

3d stage. — The total resistance called into action by the trans- 
mission of the stress becomes equal to the pressure from the explo- 
sive, and static equilibrium results. 

The mathematical expressions now employed in solving problems 
connected with gun-construction apply only to the third of the above- 
mentioned stages ; and it is to be desired that analogous formulae 
should be deduced for the first and second stages. But experimental 
data are lacking. We know what amount of statical compression 
and tension can be borne by various materials ; and in some measure 
the molecular range of movement has been determined. What is 
still required is to ascertain, if possible, the law of resistance to 
dynamic stress and of the velocity of transmission of such stress. 

Meantime it is possible, by geometrical and physical analysis, to 
make some approximation to the desired formulae. As an illustra- 
tion the following will perhaps suffice : 

In any isosceles triangle, ABC, (Fig. 2.) extend the equal sides 
to D and E and join DE. Draw BE and CG at right angles to 
BC, and bisect the triangle ^^Cby the line AH. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

The triangles AHC and CGE are similar : 

.'.AC: CH:.CE:EG 
and AC'.2CH:.CE:2EG. 

But 2CH=BC 

and . 2EG = EG + DP. 

■ ' .■.AC:BC..CE:EG+ BE. 



371 




Now, as CE is the increase of the radius ACa.nd as EG + I?E 
is the increment of the chord of the angle BA C, it follows that the 
distance between two molecules, B and C, on the circumference of a 
circle will, when they occupy the same angular position on a larger 
circle, increase in the same proportion to the increase of radius that 
their original distance bore to the original radius. And as the 
original distance ^C is immeasurably small, it follows that, for any 
measurable radius and any measurable increase thereof, the force 
■employed to enlarge the circle must be mainly absorbed in com- 
pression and makes but a slight demand upon the tension-resisting 
power of the metal. 

AC 
If we represent the constant ratio ^^ by A', the value of EG + DF 

CE 
will be -jjr, and for any increment dR (=/) of the original radius 

R, the resolution of the pressure, />, into tension (0 and compres- 
sion {c) will be 

/-A 



K 






But the value of K is immeasurably large. Hence c is approxi- 
mately equal to p ; and if molecular cohesion (J. e., the power of 
resistance to /) were uniform at all distances, it would follow that a 
ring of any sensible tenacity could never be suddenly burst by any 
internal gaseous pressure, however great. As a matter of observa- 
tion we know that rings can be thus broken ; and therefore we have 



372 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

a proof that cohesive force not only decreases in some proportion to 
the inter-molecular distance, but practically becomes nil within some 
finite space, and so yields to the immeasurably small strain /.* 

I have spoken of a ring that is suddenly burst, because it is neces- 
sary to draw a distinction between the case of a ring that gives way 
at some point or points of least resistance, and that of a yielding at 
points of high and low resistance simultaneously ; the distinction, in 
fact, between a gun " bursting " and a gun " bursting explosively " 
upon which Sir William Armstrong laid such stress in his evidence 
before the Select Committee on Ordnance in 1863. 

The theoretical view I am here advocating is quite in harmony 
with the modern system of ordnance-construction by hooping, or in 
other ways (as, for example, by wire-winding) providing for a con- 
dition of permanent initial strain in the walls of a gun. 

Let us suppose that in the inner circle of the diagram before given 
the molecules ABC are at less than their normal distance from each 
other. Let us also suppose that the first and second rings are in like 
manner closer together, and that DBF are further apart than when 
in normal positions. The whole system is now in a state of unstable 
equilibrium, and thus is weaker than before. The inner ring no longer 
opposes any resistance to circumferential enlargement; the second ring 
can be torn asunder by less force than before; and the repulsion-rods 
between the first and second rings are already shortened. And yet 
this weaker system is better adapted than before to sustain internal 
impact. The range of B's movement toward B is less, and thus the 
time required for transmitting pressure through E \.o His shortened ; 
while, on the other hand, the range of movement within cohesion- 
limits between B and A and C is increased, and thus the time for 
developing danger-tension is lengthened. The enemy is further 
away and the ally is nearer. 

The protection thus given ceases to exist if the unstable equilibrium 
of the gun-molecules should become changed into a condition of 
stable equilibrium. And as the tendency of all molecular structures 
is toward stable equilibrium, any sudden changes of internal strain, 
or, in other words, any opportunities of movement are availed of to 
alter the positions of the molecules from an abnormal arrangement. 

*The argument here set forth finds an interesting illustration in the Brown 
Segmental Gun now being made £or the Board of Ordnance and Fortification — 
the internal compression-transmitting tube being built up of staves, and thus 
having no tension-resisting power whatever. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 373 

This probably is the explanation of the comparatively short lives of 
the larger built-up guns. At the outset the walls are in a more or 
less perfect condition of internal strain. Each shot that is fired vio- 
lently disarranges the molecular arrangement of each ring of molecules 
in succession, and the ring never reassumes its exact antecedent 
condition. After a certain number of these shocks stable equilibrium 
supervenes, and the gun no longer has the power of giving the calcu- 
lated support to the innermost ring. The drooping of the muzzles 
of long guns is another instance of the same phenomenon. 

It may, at first sight, appear that I am but restating, though in dif- 
ferent words, the generally accepted explanation of the hoop system, 
and that the ballistic theory is practically the same as the statical 
views set forth in all the text-books. In reality there is no such 
correspondence. And the practice of modern gunnery bears strong 
testimony to the value of the dynamic element on which I am insist- 
ing. The artillerist who calculates the thickness and shrinkage of 
his hoop upon data derived solely from the consideration of statical 
pressures takes good care not to use a "quick powder," even in 
quantities only theoretically sufficient to produce the very pressure 
for which his gun is designed. And the ordinary statical-equilibrium 
view entirely fails to elucidate three most important questions in the 
consideration of explosive effects, namely, the occurrence of varying 
local pressures, the diversion of pressure, and the disintegrating or 
shattering action of explosion-gases. 

The conception of gaseous pressure, adopted in ordinary gunnery 
calculations, is that of a force exerted equally in all directions. It 
corresponds, therefore, with a condition of dynamic equilibrium 
within the gas, in addition to a condition of static equilibrium as 
between the gas and its containing envelop. But the dynamic 
equilibrium of a gas implies an equal diffusion of temperature 
throughout its whole volume, a uniform diffusion of its molecules, 
and an equal mean molecular velocity at all points. It is, however, 
obvious that these conditions do not, nay, they cannot, obtain at the 
first instant of an explosive substance flashing into gas, or until the 
various stages of resolution, compounding, dissociation and reunion 
shall have been gone through. Here, too, three stages of action may 
be recognized ; and the equilibrium theory is concerned with the third 
alone. This would be all very well if the first two stages were, for 
practical purposes, negligible ; but they are not so. Every artil- 
lerist is familiar with the occurrence of what, for want of a complete 



374 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

theory, are shelved under the convenient name of "abnormal pres- 
sures," and one of the highest authorities in such matters, viz. 
Berthelot, has drawn attention to the point in words that are well 
worth quotation. They occur at the conclusion of his description of 
the measurement of explosive force by means of crusher-gauges 
{Sur la Force des Matieres Explosives, 3d ed., pp. 52-53), and are 
as follows : 

" It is proper to remark here that the measurements thus obtained 
correspond solely to certain tnean pressures which are susceptible of 
being notably exceeded at various points. In fact, the gases sud- 
denly developed by the chemical reactions represent actual whirl- 
winds in which there exist strata of matter in greatly differing states 
of compression and an interior fluctuation. This is shown by the 
mechanical effects produced by these gases upon solid matter, and 
especially upon metals, which are found indented and grooved in 
many places as though they had been impressed by the contact of 
an extremely hard solid body. 

" The measurement of initial pressures in firearms in like manner 
shows local irregularities and differences, which are frequently enor- 
mous, between pressures observed simultaneously at various points 
of the chamber in which the combustion of the powder takes place. 

" The pressure, therefore, is not uniform, and may vary in an 
almost discontinuous manner as well as the first movement of impulse 
communicated to the projectile." 

The phenomenon here adverted to may be observed in a striking 
manner by means of what I term the mushroom test. Some lead is 
cast in the form of a mushroom or the segment of a sphere, and is 
suspended in the air with its flat surface downward. The explosive 
to be tested is packed in a small cylindrical cartridge-case of paraf- 
fined paper, and is primed with an ordinary dynamite " cap " or 
detonator and fuse. The cartridge is tied to the mushroom in such 
a manner that its flat end rests firmly against the flat base of the 
mushroom. The apparatus when ready for firing is shown by the 
accompanying plate (I), which has been prepared from a photo- 
graph taken by my son, Mr. Newton W. Emmens, on the occasion 
of some recent tests of emmensite at the works of the Emmensite 
Explosives, Guns and Ammunition Company, near New Stanton, 
Westmoreland Co., Pa. The cloth shown in the photograph was 
employed merely for the purpose of catching the mushroom when 
projected upward by the explosion. 



PROCEEDINGS U. S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 3. 




PLATE IL— LEAD MUSHROOM— EASE. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 375 

Plate II is a reproduction of a photograph of the base of a lead 
mushroom under which a charge of 25 grams of emmensite No. 3 
was exploded. The mushroom measured 2I inches in diameter, was 
I inch thick in the centre, and weighed 20 ounces. The cartridge 
was cylindrical and was li inches in diameter. When exploded it 
produced an indentation of approximately circular area, having a 
diameter of if inches and a depth of -|| inch. The character of the 
indentation is well shown by the photograph. The metal is seamed 
and scarred and pitted and scored in such a manner as to utterly 
confute any assertion of uniformity of pressure ; and its appearance 
graphically illustrates Berthelot's description above quoted. Nor 
could a better exemplification of ballistic effect be desired. The 
gaseous molecules are shown to have struck the lead as a veritable 
charge of small shot. 

A significant feature of the experiment is the fact of its having 
taken place in the open air. The whirlwinds and varying strata of 
pressure spoken of by Berthelot, and the abnormal pressures of artil- 
lerists, may conceivably be referred to the influence of the walls of 
the explosion-chamber ; but this explanation does not apply to the 
case of an explosion in the open air. Ballistic action then becomes 
the only efficient cause of the effects observed. Nor is it the case 
that the peculiar effects in question are noticed only when the 
explosive is in close proximity to the body struck. The following 
instances will show that ballistic action may be manifested at con- 
siderable distances : 

In the fall of last year Mr. N. W. Emmens was engaged with some 
men in removing tree-stumps by blasting with emmensite. One 
of the stumps to be removed was nearly a complete tree, and on 
a charge of emmensite being exploded in the ground beneath it 
the trunk was simply split for several feet upward instead of being 
blown out. To complete the split an auger was used for the purpose 
of boring a hole for the insertion of a cartridge in the split about a 
foot from the ground. The stem of this auger gave way and the 
handle was twisted off, leaving the tool jammed fast in the split. To 
extricate it a cartridge of emmensite was placed in the wide part of 
the split, at about the ground level, and was exploded. After the 
explosion the auger was found still sticking in the split, but about 
18 inches higher up and with the stem end imbedded instead of the 
bit end! It must therefore have been struck a severe blow on the 
projecting portion just as the split widened to allow freedom of 
movement to the bit end. 



3/6 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

Again, in April, 1889, the factory of the Emmensite Company, 
then at Harrison, N. Y., was destroyed by fire and explosion. The 
substances that exploded consisted of about 900 pounds of picric 
paste in one building, and about 70 pounds of dynamite No. i and 
90 pounds of nitroglycerine absorbed by magnesium carbonate in 
another. The building that held the picric paste was built upon 
solid gneiss rock, and after the explosion was represented by a crater 
some 30 feet across and 10 feet deep — a fact that will give some idea 
of the severity of the explosion. In the building, upon a shelf about 
9 feet away from the cask of picric paste, was an electro-magnet con- 
sisting of a stoppered iron tube 2 inches in diameter and 24 inches 
long and wrapped with wire ; its weight being some 20 pounds. 
After the explosion this magnet was found nearly half a mile away 
on the other side of a hill. For such a fact as this, no " pressure " 
theory can possibly account. 

The same explosion contributed many other facts of similar sig- 
nificance. For example, when the conflagration was in progress I 
was sitting in my wheel-chair in the open air, having the building 
containing the picric paste in my front at a distance of about 40 feet, 
and, on my left, at about 10 feet, the house where the dynamite and 
nitroglycerine were stored. When the explosion took place I was, 
of course, thrown to the ground, but instead of being, equally " of 
course," killed outright, I was comparatively uninjured. I found, 
however, that half of my watch-chain had been blown away ! 

My papers and books were all burnt and have not yet been com- 
pletely duplicated. I must, therefore, trust to my memory when I 
say that in the enquiry instituted by the British Government into the 
circumstances attending the great gun-cotton explosion at Stow- 
market, it was found that a man standing in a field half a mile away 
from the magazine that exploded was stripped stark naked by the 
explosion but was personally uninjured. 

I could go on multiplying instances from my own experience and 
that of other " explosive-fiends "; but I am perhaps beating the air 
in a double sense. The Chinese must go. The equilibrists must 
restrict themselves to the tight-rope of the case of very slow-burning 
gunpowder in long-chased ordnance. Pressures and crusher-gauges 
and nicely adjusted hoop-tensions may there find place and utility ; 
but if combinations of gun-cotton and nitroglycerine are to be the 
" smokeless powders " of the future, it is high time that the theory of 
explosion-stress should be studied from other points of view. 



PROCEEDINGS U, S. NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No. 3. 




PLATE lll.-LEAD MUSHROOM-SIDE VIEW. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 3// 

Turning, now, to the question of the diversion of pressure or shock, 
we find another and perhaps still more important case of the inade- 
quacy of the equilibrium doctrines. General Abbot demonstrated 
long ago, in his torpedo experiments, that an explosive could be made 
to exert a greater effect in one direction than in another, by providing 
an artificial line of least resistance. Captain Penrice, the inventor of 
the " Stone-devil," as the workmen at Hawks, Crawshay & Co., 
Gateshead-on-Tyne, where I learned engineering, used to call the 
tunnelling machine which the Emperor Napoleon III. wished to use 
in undermining the fortifications of Sebastopol, and which afterwards 
perforated the Spezia tunnel, — Captain Penrice, I say, has devised a 
blasting-cartridge holder, consisting of a hollow steel cylinder closed 
at both ends, and cut away on one side for the purpose of transmitting 
the main shock of the explosion in any desired direction. And the 
familiar spectacle of a ball being upheld in the air by a jet of water is a 
striking illustration of the same principle ; for, as a similar effect may 
be obtained by using a jet of steam or air, it becomes obvious that any 
reasoning based upon the transmission of pressure by a liquid or gas 
at rest does not necessarily apply to the same body when in motion. 
Yet, in the case of a cannon-ball driven along the bore of a gun by 
the impact of a column of gas, it is usually supposed that the pressure 
exerted on the base of the shot is the same as that sustained by 
the walls of the gun. The fallacy of this view becomes obvious if 
we consider that the column of gas is, to some extent, a stream of 
minute projectiles darting onward with a common movement of 
translation, instead of darting hither and thither in every direction, 
as in an ordinary vessel filled with gas. 

Very simple and oftentimes apparently insignificant means suffice 
for guiding the path of the explosion-gases. Plate IV reproduces 
a photograph of the top of the lead mushroom already referred to. It 
shows the line of the shock to which the lead was subjected. The 
divergence from a central direction in this particular case was slight ; 
but it often happens that the exfoliation is produced much to one side 
of the central line. This phenomenon was for some time perplexing ; 
but at length my son discovered that he could produce it at pleasure 
and in any desired direction. The paraffined paper shell of the charge 
is folded down at the end in the ordinary way ; that is to say, there 
is a triangular space covered with only one thickness of paper, while 
the rest of the end is covered with three thicknesses — the final flap, 
which would increase the covering of part of the end to seven thick- 



378 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

nesses, being cut away to allow of the cartridge resting flat and close 
against the mushroom. This cutting away leaves an unprotected 
space on one side of the centre of the cartridge, and the exfoliation 
of the external surface of the mushroom will always be found on the 
same side. The slight extra ctishioning provided by the one and two 
layers of paraffined paper suffices to protect the lead and to divert 
the main shock into another direction. 

I have applied this principle in the construction of cartridges 
for utilizing high explosives as propelling agents in firearms and 
ordnance. The device consists essentially in lining the cartridge 
with some elastic material — preferably soft wood. This lining protects 
the metal of the gun against a disintegrating shock ; and by its superior 
resilience enables the gaseous molecules to retain their energy in the 
form of mechanical motion, and to more or less gradually join the 
onflowing current along the bore of the gun. After firing, the wood 
is usually found compressed to about one-half of its original thick- 
ness, and rendered proportionately harder. In cartridges of this kind 
emmensite and other high explosives may be fired with security and 
efficiency, and make excellent "smokeless powders." The risk 
arising from abnormal pressures is reduced to a minimum ; the space 
occupied by the lining is more than compensated for by the diminished 
volume of the charge; the heating of the gun is lessened, and the 
scoring of the bore may be said to no longer take place. And, what 
is perhaps still more important, the life of the gun will assuredly be 
lengthened by the suppression of molecular shock, and the decreased 
disturbance of the normally strained hoop structure. 

I have already discussed this question of molecular shock, and 
have pointed out how it may cause the inner portion of a gun to give 
way without allowing the remainder to contribute any resistance. 
But the question has another aspect of equal moment ; and as from 
this point of view light is cast upon much fallacious equilibrium 
doctrine, and especially upon the highly important and much miscon- 
ceived subject of the exceptionally energetic action of mercuric fulmi- 
nate, it is desirable to briefly deal with it before I conclude this theo- 
retical section of my paper. 

The usual explanation given of the shattering action of high 
explosives is conveniently and effectively worded by Professor 
Vivian B. Lewes (Service Chemistry, p. 281), as follows: 

"The rapidity of detonation of nitroglycerin is very great, and 
it is this which gives rise to the downward effects noticeable in all 
nitroglycerin or dynamite explosions. 



PROCEEDINGS U, S NAVAL INSTITUTE, VOL. XVII., No 3. 




PLATE iV.— LEAD MUSHROOM -TOP. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 379 

"Six cubic inches of nitroglycerin, when exploded, would yield 
about a cubic yard of gas, and would require, approximately, 4^^-5^th 
of a second for conversion into the gaseous form. A square yard of 
surface carries an atmospheric pressure of, roughly, nine tons, so 
that the gaseous products would have to lift nine tons to the height 
of one yard in ^Q^Qp th of a second, and the earth being rigid, is 
broken up by the recoil from this enormous strain." 

Will the Professor allow me to echo an equally distinguished 
Dominie and to exclaim " Prodigious !"? 

Before, however, I proceed to justify my admiration, I will quote 
the reference to mercuric fulminate by two " eminent hands." 

M. Berthelot, in his standard work before referred to, twice alludes 
specifically to the explosive force of mercuric fulminate. At page 62 
of Vol. I. he says: " For example, the density of fulminate of mer- 
cury being equal to 4.42, this substance would develop a pressure of 
about 27,000 kg. per square centimetre when detonating in a space 
equal to its own volume ; a colossal figure and superior to that of all 
the known explosives." At page 258 of Vol. II. he says: "At the 
density of 4.43, that is to say, the fulminate detonating in a space 
equal to its own volume, there would be [a pressure of] 28,750 kg. 
according to the theoretical formula; or 27,470 according to the 
crusher measurement ; values superior to those of all known explo- 
sives It is the enormity of this pressure joined to its sudden 

development which explains the action of fulminate of mercury as a 
primer." 

Professor Threlfall, in the article on Explosion in the new edition 
of Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry (Vol. II., p. 535), writes: 

" It will be evident that there is much difficulty in answering such 
a question as ' what is the strongest explosive ?' — in fact, no answer 
can be given unless the conditions of explosion are specified. We 
may arrange explosives in the order of maximum pressures devel- 
oped per unit mass in unit volume in a crusher-gauge, or we may 
construct a table showing the pressures produced by unit masses in 
their own volumes, or by equal volumes in their own volumes. 
[Does the Professor really mean " equal volumes in their own 
volumes"? Does he not rather mean "equal volumes in unit 
volumes "?] For instance, in the case of fulminate of mercury with 
an actual density of charge at the rate of 3 g. per cc, the crusher 
indicates a pressure intensity of about 6000 kg. per sq. centim. for 
unit density (the standard condition). For cotton-powder the figure 



380 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

mounts to 10,000 kg. per sq. centim. If, however, we consider 
equal masses of these substances exploding in a space just capable 
of containing them, the mercuric fulminate (thanks to its specific 
gravit}'' of 4.42) will produce the enormous pressure of 27,000 kg. 
per sq. centim., while the number for the cotton-powder will be only 
slightly increased. Now, detonators in practice consist of confined 
charges in copper or tin tubes, and therefore it is clear at once why 
fulminate of mercury is the detonator par excellence, even though 
the energy expended per unit-mass is surpassed by other explosives. 
The period of the attainment of the maximum pressure of detonating 
substances, excepting nitroglycerin compounds, may be taken as 
less than yirwoth of a second." At the end of the article Professor 
Threlfall says : " The most powerful — i. <?. energy-liberating — explo- 
sive per unit-volume is fulminate of mercury ; the most powerful per 
unit-mass is blasting gelatine (92 per cent nitroglycerin and 8 per 
cent nitrocellulose, the exact composition of this particular nitro- 
cellulose not being stated)." 

The statements here quoted represent the universal teachings of 
the equilibrist school with regard to explosive shock, and may be 
thus summarized : 

1. High explosives shatter the surfaces on which they rest because 
the weight of the atmosphere acts as a tamping. 

2. Fulminate of mercury is the shatterer and shaker par excel- 
lence, because {a) its pressure is so suddenly developed, and (Ji) the 
amount of such pressure is greater, volume for volume, than any 
other explosive. 

The first of these statements may be at once disposed of by the 
simple fact that the shattering effect of high explosives is noticeable 
in a vacuum ! 

The second statement is also seen to be untenable if we consider 
that, according to Threlfall, the speed of detonation of mercury ful- 
minate is only one-fourth that of nitroglycerine, according to Lewes, 
and that, consequently, sixty-four times the volume of nitroglycerine 
(sp. gr. = 1.6) would explode in the same time compared with mer- 
curic fulminate (sp. gr. = 4.2), thus developing a pressure of 64 X 1.6 
= 102.4 against 4.2, even if the energies per unit-mass were equal; 
but as the nitroglycerine mass-energy is greater, the superiority of the 
blow struck in the same time will be greater than the ratio 102.4 • 4-2« 

Moreover, if pressure per unit of surface be the efficient cause of 
shock, it cannot matter whether this be produced by a volume of a 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 38 1 

light explosive having high mass-energy and speed of detonation, or 
by the same volume of a heavy explosive having low mass-energy 
and detonation-speed. Area for area of surface attacked, the effects 
produced will, according to the equilibrium theories, vary solely in 
the ratio of the pressures. 

And as regards the atmospheric-tamping hypothesis, it must be 
remembered that so far from gases ta7nping each other they freely 
diffzise into each other. The explosion gas does not find it neces- 
sary to displace the atmosphere in order to have room for itself. 
What really occurs is that the vast outrush of explosion molecules 
entangle, as it were, and sweep away with them the atmospheric 
molecules, but this sweeping away does not take place in opposition 
to atmospheric pressure. It represents but a trifling amount of 
work. 

What, then, is the true explanation of the shattering action of high 
explosives? — an action which has no tendency "downward," as sug- 
gested by Professor Lewes and devoutly believed in by many an 
engineer and contractor. At the Washington Navy Yard, in March, 
1890, I showed an experiment in refutation of this popular error. I 
suspended three iron plates in the air, two horizontally and one ver- 
tically. I placed a cartridge of emmensite on the top of one of the 
horizontal plates and tied a similar cartridge underneath the other. 
A third cartridge was tied against the side of the vertical plate. On 
explosion the three cartridges were found to have acted equally — 
a hole being dashed through each plate; thus proving that the 
explosive force acts with equal vigor in all directions. 

The only hint at the real cause of the shattering action that I have 
been able to find in the text-books occurs in Professor Threlfall's 
article before quoted. At page 536 he says : 

" It is a well-known fact that a small charge of fulminate of silver 
fired on a card or thin sheet of glass will in general blow a hole 
through the card or glass without doing other damage. The cause 
of this phenomenon has been sought by several observers, the most 
reasonable of whom appear to be Mach and Wentzel (Wiedemann's 
Annalen [1885], 26, 628), who begin by showing that the same effect 
can be observed in a vacuum. This leads them to measure the 
velocity of escape of the gases formed during explosion, by ob- 
serving their effect on hollow cups forming convenient portions of 
a ballistic pendulum. The resulting velocity turns out to be between 
3500 and 17,500 metres per second, with a probability that the lower 



382 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

limit is the one most nearly approached. The authors argue that 
the density of the gases evolved with this velocity must be very con- 
siderable, and hence that the effect on an obstacle must be compara- 
ble with the effect produced by the impact of a projectile. This 
leads to the interesting question of what occurs when a soft body is 
caused to penetrate a hard one in virtue of its high velocity, as when 
a tallow candle or bit of soft wood is shot through a door." 

Comparable with the effect produced by the impact of a projectile! 
Have we not here the germ, at least, of the Ballistic Theory? 

If the ballistics of mercuric fulminate be studied, a great difference 
will be found as compared with the similar characteristics of other 
explosives — a difference amply sufficient to explain its superior shat- 
tering power. 

Equal volumes of gases at equal temperatures and pressures have 
equal numbers of molecules. The number of molecules in the gases 
evolved by any explosive is therefore proportional to the volumes of 
the gases. In the case of nitroglycerine the reduced volume of 
gases from 1000 grams amounts to 712.5 litres; in the case of 1000 
grams mercuric fulminate the volume is 314.8 litres. Accordingly, 
there are 712.5 molecules of nitroglycerine products for every 314.8 
molecules of fulminate products. 

The total energies of explosion-gases are represented by the total 
pressures they are capable of producing in the spaces occupied by 
the explosives. In the case of nitroglycerine the total pressure is 
29981.92 atmospheres, and in the case of mercuric fulminate it is 
29366 atmospheres. 

The energy of each nitroglycerine product-molecule is therefore 

represented by -^ — '-^ = 42.08. The energy of each fulminate 

product-molecule is, in like manner, ^ = 93-29. 

The proportionate weights of the molecules are represented by the 
total weight of the gases divided by the proportionate numbers of 

the molecules. This value in the case of nitroglycerine is = 

^^ 712.5 

1.4035 ; in the case of mercuric fulminate it is -x =■ 3.177. 

The energy of a molecule is composed of two factors, mass and 
velocity. If the energy be 42.08 and the mass 1.4035, as in the case 

of nitroglycerine, the velocity factor will be -^-^ — = 29.98. In the 

fulminate case it is = 29.37. 

3.177 ^^' 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 383 

Accordingly, we have the following comparison : 





Total Energy 
of Molecule. 


Mass 
Factor. 


Velocity 


Nitroglycerine, 


42.08 


1-4035 


29.98 


Mercuric fulminate, 


93-29 


3.177 


29.37 



From this it is at once evident that the fulminate molecule will 
strike a blow more than twice as severe as that inflicted by a nitro- 
glycerine molecule, and therefore its penetrative power must be 
vastly greater. It is true that, weight for weight, exploding nitro- 
glycerine is more powerful than mercuric fulminate in the propor- 
tion of 29981.92:29366; but this is because it projects a greater 
number of molecules in the aggregate. For penetration and shat- 
tering, energy must be concentrated ; an armor plate may success- 
fully resist the simultaneous impact of two shot, each of which has a 
striking energy of 5000 foot-tons, whereas it may readily be pierced 
by a single shot having a striking energy of 10,000 foot-tons. And 
where molecular disintegration is concerned we must obviously 
reckon with each striking molecule individually. 

I cannot myself detect any flaw in this argument, which seems to 
me to conclusively account for the disintegrating and shattering 
action of mercuric fulminate as compared with that of other explo- 
sives, none of which project molecules having a ballistic energy at all 
approaching that of the fulminate projectile. 

The importance of studying explosives from this point of view may 
be seen from Plates II to IV, which show three views of the lead 
mushroom to which reference has already been made. It will be 
observed that although the crater shows no apparent perforation of 
the lead, yet the outer surface of the mushroom has been blown 
away by some force proceeding from the interior. The structure of 
the lead in the line of this force has become granular and disinteg- 
rated — riddled through and through, as it were, by a volley of 
microscopic projectiles. Whether such penetration has actually 
taken place, or whether the breaking away of the outer surface has 
been caused by the propagation of a shock from molecule to mole- 
cule through the mushroom, thus causing the outer unsupported 
molecules to fly oif like the last of a row of billiard balls, it is impos- 
sible to say with certainty. Inasmuch, however, as the outer layer 
of molecules on the flat side must have opened out in becoming curved 
(to be subsequently fused together), interstices were undoubtedly 
produced, through which the molecules of the explosion-gases may 



384 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

have rushed ; so in all probability the effect observed was caused 
partly by penetration and partly by the transmission of shock. 
Artillerists will remember that guns have been known to burst on the 
outside while the interior remained intact ; and it may well be that 
the cause of this was molecular penetration and shock, instead of 
being solely owing to undue hoop-tension, though this latter would 
undoubtedly facilitate a rupture both by weakening the material and 
by increasing its susceptibility to the propagation of shock and the 
entrance of gas-molecules for crowding and wedging its own mole- 
cules apart. 

In concluding this rapid survey of the Ballistic Theory, I think it 
right to state that I offer it tentatively as a working hypothesis that 
may prove of practical service in the present state of knowledge. 
My great-grandson, if such a being shall ever exist and shall take to 
scientific studies, will probably smile in a superior way upon the 
crudeness and imperfection of my ideas. Molecules may then be no 
longer in fashion ; and some wider generalisation connecting gravity 
and thought, matter and morality, may have superseded the doctrines 
of Newton, Avogadro, Clausius, Mendeleeff and Hertz. The science 
of to-day has the defect attributed by Lord Palmerston to Lord 
Melbourne: it is "so damnably cock-sure ! " And let this be my 
apology if I have ventured or may hereinafter venture to criticise or — 
horror and sacrilege ! — " chaff" any scientific pope : I here and now 
admit my own frailty. In an article which I wrote (in 1883, 1 think) 
for the Pall Mall Gazette, on "Aerial Torpedoes," I paraded as 
scientific truth the very doctrine of atmospheric tamping which, 
when advocated by Professor Lewes, caused me, a few pages ago, 
to exclaim "Prodigious!" Accordingly, if General Abbot, or Major 
McKee, or Professor Ira Remsen, or Mr. Edison, or Professor 
Munroe, or Ensign Dresel, or any other champion, shall arise in his 
might and smite my Ballistic Theory hip and thigh, I will — if whole- 
somely and handsomely pulverized — submissively lay me down to 
sleep, and will not even dream of muttering " E pur si muovef" 



§3- 
The Comparison of Explosives. 

Matter differs from humanity — civilized humanity at least : it does 
its level best. Such is the vernacular rendering of Berthelot's thermo- 
chemical law of maximum work, which, in finer language, he thus 
expresses: 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 385 

" Every chemical change effected without the intervention of ex- 
terior energy tends toward the production of that body or that system 
of bodies which disengages the most heat." 

Heat is one of the protean forms of energy ; hence the name " Law of 
Maximum Work." 

Here, then, apart from all question of equilibrium or ballistics, we 
have the keynote of the comparative study of explosives. If we de- 
termine how much heat is set free by the rearrangement of the explo- 
sive-molecules after deduction of the heat absorbed in breaking up the 
explosive to start with, we shall obviously have an absolute measure of 
the total mechanical force thus rendered available. This will enable 
us to say which explosive is the strongest, and to indicate the ratio 
borne by the strength of one explosive to that of another. 

After this comes the question of the mode in which an explosive 
develops its strength — whether by a large volume of gas at compara- 
tively low temperature, or by a small volume highly heated ; or, to 
adopt ballistic terms, whether the energy developed inheres in heavy 
or light molecules, and whether the molecules have high or low velo- 
cities. We can then form some judgment as to the particular use for 
which any explosive is adapted, and can classify all explosives accord- 
ingly. 

To calculate the available heat-energy of an explosive we require 
to know : 

a. The chemical composition of the substance or mixture. 

b. The amount of heat required to break it up into its elements. 

c. The permanent compounds formed by its elements when re- 
arranged after explosion. 

d. The amount of heat disengaged by this recombination. 
Requirement (a) is a matter of ordinary chemical analysis. 
Requirement (3) is simplified by the fact that the amount of heat 

necessary to break up a compound is the same as that set free by the 
original formation of the compound. This heat of formation may be 
observed by means of calorimetrical apparatus, and many physicists 
have worked in this direction, so that a large amount of data is now 
to be found in the text-books. 

Requirement {c) is a matter of ordinary chemical analysis. 

Requirement (af) is arrived at by our knowledge of {c) combined 
with the experimental data accessible as to the formation-heats of 
compounds. 

And when we have arrived at our theoretical conclusion by 



386 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

deducting (b) from (</), we may check the result by actually explod- 
ing the substance in a calorimeter and thus measuring the heat disen- 
gaged. 

The heat-energy theoretically available cannot, in practice, be 
wholly utilized. A considerable proportion must inevitably be 
absorbed in heating surrounding substances instead of in expanding 
the explosion-gases, or (under conditions of constant volume) in 
augmenting the velocity of their molecules. But even if the avail- 
able heat-energy were wholly utilized in explosive work, its effects 
would vary according to the composition of the substance exploded. 
In nitroglycerine, for example, the heat would all go in augmenting 
gaseous energy ; whereas in dynamite No. i part would be absorbed 
in expanding silica — not altogether uselessly, though, for this expan- 
sion would, by diminishing the space occupied by the gases, increase 
their energy. 

Again, it does not follow that because equal increments oi sensible 
heat produce equal degrees of expansion in all gases, equal quantities 
of heat-energy will produce equal increments of sensible heat. It is, 
on the contrary, found that each chemical compound requires a 
different quantity of heat-energy to raise its observable temperature 
by an equal number of thermometer degrees. Now, if heat be 
regarded as the velocity-factor of molecular energy, it follows that 
molecules of different masses will require different velocity-incre- 
ments for equal augmentations of vis vivd. Hence, each kind of 
molecule must have its own specific heat, or requirement of heat- 
energy for a given rise in temperature ; and this specific heat (velocity- 
factor) multiplied by the molecular weight (mass-factor) must give 
a constant quantity (energy) for all molecules. If, then, some mole- 
cule, as, for example, water, be adopted as a standard, all that is 
necessary is to experimentally determine what quantity of heat-units 
is necessary to raise say i gram by 1° Cent., and the specific heat of 
every other substance becomes a matter of simple calculation. 

But thermometers concern themselves only with a part of the heat- 
energy. They tell us nothing, in a direct manner, as to latent heat, 
i. e., as to heat-energy occupied in effecting changes of molecular 
arrangement as between molecule and molecule, or changes of the 
internal structure of individual molecules. It is found that the same 
body at different temperatures requires different quantities of heat to 
produce a given rise of temperature, or, in other words, that the 
specific heat varies. Hence we need not be surprised to find that 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 38/ 

specific heats determined by experiment vary in some cases con- 
siderably fi-om those theoretically deduced. And as the means of 
experimenting- do not allow of tests at very high temperatures, we 
are quite ignorant of the true specific heats of explosion-products at 
the time of explosion, and must satisfy ourselves with such approxi- 
mate values as are accessible. 

So, too, with regard to the explosion-products themselves. We 
know that hydrogen and oxygen do not remain combined in the 
form of water molecules at high temperatures. We have reason to 
suppose that carbon and oxygen behave similarly. We know that 
gases lose their gaseous form and become liquefied when subjected 
to very high pressures. These and similar facts render it impossible 
for us to say exactly in what forms and combinations explosion- 
products exist at the instant of explosion. 

Fortunately, however, we can dispense with an exact knowledge 
of the specific heats and forms and combinations of explosion-pro- 
ducts. Berthelot's Law of Initial and Final States assures us that, 
whatever may be the intermediate stages, the difference between the 
initial and final states of the substances investigated is a true 
measure of the energy developed. It is, in fact, the algebraic sum 
of all the quantities involved — the plus quantities representing the 
energies of the successive combinations and the minus quantities 
those of the successive dissociations ; exception being of course 
made of any endothermic combinations which absorb heat on forma- 
tion and evolve it on decomposition. The wording adopted by 
Berthelot in formulating the law is as follows : 

" If a system of simple or compound bodies, under determinate 
conditions, experience physical or chemical changes capable of 
giving rise to a new state of existence, without the performance of 
external work, the quantity of heat evolved or absorbed by reason 
of the changes depends solely upon the initial and final states of the 
system ; it remains the same whatever may be the nature and order 
of the intermediate states." 

This is why, in article {c) of the data required for calculating the 
available heat-energy of an explosive, I specified " the permanent 
compounds formed by its elements when rearranged after explosion." 
We may for all practical purposes consider these as the explosion- 
products at the time of explosion, even though we may believe that 
they do not and cannot exist at that very instant. 

And this also is why, in discussing the Ballistic Theory, I laid such 
little stress upon the speed of detonation, which previous writers on 



388 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

explosives have been accustomed to regard as so extremely import- 
ant. Where many and complicated stages of varying specific heats, 
compoundings and dissociations have to be traversed, in order to 
arrive at the maximum development of force, it is idle to predicate 
instanianeity of the effect thus produced; and as the most sluggish 
of the high explosives develops this maximum in a period that may 
be described as infinitesimal, the distinction between one high explo- 
sive and another may be neglected. 

When the total heat-energy, the various products and their mean 
specific heat are determined, we can calculate the respective volumes 
and weights of the solid and gaseous substances produced, and the 
extent to which their temperature will be raised by the heat. Solid 
(and liquid) substances have specific rates of expansion by heat ; but 
gases are assumed to increase 2^ in volume for every 1° C. by which 
their sensible temperature is raised. Hence the volume of the 
produced gases (calculated at the standard of 0° C. temperature and 
a pressure of 760 mm. of mercury — i. e. an atmosphere, or about 

, • 1 ^ 1 • 1- J T. rise in temperature 
14.7 pounds per square mch) multiplied by i A 

will give either the expanded volume or the pressure in atmospheres, 
according as the gases are free to expand or are confined in a space 
of unit-volume. If the space in which they are confined be of less 
than unit-volume, the pressure is of course increased in inverse 
proportion. 

We thus arrive at the total pressure capable of being generated by 
the explosive; and here it is usual to stop the calculation. But 
from a ballistic point of view it is necessary to determine the 
molecular energy ; and this is done by dividing the total pressure 
by the standard reduced volume ( V) of the gases. The quotient 

thus found represents the vis vivd of -^7 molecules ; x representing 
the total number of molecules. Similarly, the total weight of the 
gases divided by F represents the mass of -pr molecules ; and there- 
fore the molecular energy divided by this factor is the velocity 
factor of -77 molecules. And as -y is constant for all explosives 

(being the number of molecules in a standard volume), we have 
here an absolute statement of the respective ballistic energies. 

Such is the general method of calculation I have employed in 
preparing the following tables : 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



389 






?s 



CO ro O O "^ O -TOO ro-^O OcO rot^ONOOO >00 
O 00 t~> ON ro r^ rf CT\0O ^00 ^ " ■" 



\0 ro ^vo ro Tt N 



ON O n n ro 



" 10 t^vo i^ r>.vO 00>O c^r^iOi-i r^ONO\ONO O -^N 



Tj- M w ro . 



Tf ON N ro Tt vo t^oo 0" -^OO i^ 
10 ON -^ fO fO ONO C^VOP)^00i-<O-^ 



iooi-iqro-^Tt-jq\ 



ro -^ « 00 H. 

li^ -^ ro O t^ O 
■ -^ ro O 00 ro < 
• rovo -^co t^oo 



VOll-i-lOOOOO»Orl- 



+++ I +++++++++++ 



W M CO \0 W 

1 +++++ 



O 00 VO rOOO On On O O 

_ _ N w NO r^OO ■* ^ O O 

cO>-iNOOcOrOrONOOON OVOt^i-i >^NO NO O O 

■^Tj-O OnO O r^" -^ON io\0 un « -"^ t-^ • ' On O -^no OnoO 00 O O 

O 00 ON O ON r^OO 00 i- NO NO t-^vo NO t^ "1 ■ • NO CO O fO r-.00 00 o o 



I- l^l^l'il-lTri-^l' 



ON moo 10 " vo 00 

-i- Tl- 10 Tj- Tj- to fO 

0000000 



ON Tf ro N r^ t^ 
tj-NO VD f) M3 r^ r^ 
O O 1- O O O O 






CIS >- 



•CO 









:: -a o 



4^T3c-e'Ofl-e — ! 



U :? ffi § 3h 72 • 



p rt u 5 .t; y .5 



ou 



390 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



H 2 





.•o 






















m 




Jo « , 




a\ 


o >,.£ c 




vO 


ui o rt u 


o iriMovooo a\ -tf 


m Ov HH fo VO f^\0 


«g = |S 


N CO ^ rC cI N vd >-■ 


-^ ro ^ ON rC. N f5 


^"G S ^ 


I <n rj, TT ON c) N 


On Tf m 00 m m~ 


-0-5 




M TJ- 'i- in - ON « 


1 + i + T T T + + 


1 1 1 1 III 


•oc-Siig 


t^rOi-fONN o O 


00 ■<*• N \0 Tj- CO fO 


iPtl 


r^r^d\M»od d\ ^ 


d inrn in m rn in 


N roONt^rOoo TT ro 


oo - TT ^ m m M 




vovo>^oooooo ■* "^ 


CO O C3N - m m N 


oo|8| 








w 


t« 




. 




mcOj: 


bo 




ll 


;-= :^ 


... . ^^< a 
■ N oo fo • <i 




i 


O N 


ONo N ;* 




lO -<j- 


=« 2 S. 








" — , — ' 






r^ 




c 




^ 


d 


Sd 


r^oOtOrovOTj- en r^ 


roin -- ro r^ q t>. 


>, 


d\o6'i-i>iNri»>) VC) 


vd 1- On vd ri i-J N 






N NroONO\cO t^ w^ 


00 r^oo m t^ oo — 


.2 


O 


\0 VOVOIJ-IVOIO Tl- lO 


minrt- m co m- 


'0, 








i> 


c 


r^-^i-Nrroo r>. ■* 


->*• w -Ti- CO •<d- VO NO 


CU 


W) 


ON 00 in r^ "■ rn 00 o6 


N «■ fO CN ro vdoo 




i3 


r^ r^COr^^f^ ro \0 


to - oo CO O VO ON 


E 










g 






O 








c 








1 


^ «ooq\ovq "^ - 


o r^ " VO m 00 . 




N rONCsenxovd ■-; 


vd J rn r^, ^ rh • 




■o 


N NNCINN « ro 


!N en- ro N 




a 






1 


N r-.vqr^^N 0\ 00 


cnr^ TT 00 N VO m 




oo d\oo'r^Nroo6 1-^ 


»n in Tj- vo" ~ 00 -^ 




u 


^0\0"^^^'*•"^" o 


moo - « M N 00 




„ «i-iNNN N. w 


N N m en - -* 




^-,<-^ 


i'-^ 


: €o 


N 






3 D 




c 


c 


• CJ 


: S-o 

: .S. g^ 








o _o H. o a 




3 




•- c 

>^ o 
"bJo V 




d 
5__ 


►r 






o o o o 


OO-^OOOOoS^ 


•c^ "'— ' 3 3 «r E <o 






Isll-^ 

"o'o'o'o ^ 




; bi) 


'^■^'^■^^■^■^O'^'^'^'^'s i^ 


sqe^^vS-J:! °2-o 




O O f*^ r^>r O o 'r "-) "1 in ><T" 


^KE o,°,^r§'s£ 




_U U U '-V-"- » -'UU 






























2 S 


































: SJ 














2 
























E 


r 1 

5 ^^ , 


_c 


s 


? 1 


2 <= • 

Ml 


c 
c 

c 


1 11 

& c: 3 




1 = lf If i i 






1 


w :zi 


u 


Ph 


o 


a w 


u 


u 


Ph 


;? 


Ph 


s 


SI 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



391 



^ • 




10 r^ M 

- rovo 



t^ vo r-^ 



vOMi-.Lr)00"lC)<0<~OMCO CO 
- M CO \0 ^CO ro ro t-^ M CnmD O 
\0 vo lO t^ t^vO Tf rO\0 m — CO N 



2 (u o •= 



(U -o ^ u T ^ 



-s, i^-p ? 



as 



392 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



Table IV. 

Thermal Effects and Gaseous Volumes. 



Name of Explosive. 



Explosive gelatine (a) 21125 



Nitroglycerine., 

Cordite 

Pyroxylin. 

Gun-cotton 

Dynamite No. i. . . . 
Emmensite No. 259 

Collodion-cotton 

Cellulo-dinitrin 

Picric acid 

Nitro-cotton 

Pebble powder 

Dinitro-benzene . . . . 
Mercuric fulminate. 



{6). 



Mean 
Specific 
Heat of 
Products. 

(Water =1). 



.21508 
.21016 
.23806 
.22429 
.22888 
.20634 
.23874 
.22980 
.24294 
.20224 
.25652 
.18004 
.23244 
.06760 



Results per Kilogram. 



Heat-units 
Evolved. 
(Calories). 



,559.310 
,570,434 
,451,877 
,188,096 
,180,460 
,103,871 
,088,284 
,013,016 

996,535 
949,112 

798,134 
629,058 
628,144 
609,367 
370,000 



Increase of 
tempera- 
ture (in 
degrees C.) 



7381 
7302 
6908 
4877 
5263 
4879 
5274 
4243 
4338 
3907 

3947 
2452 
3489 
2621 

5473 



Volume of 
Gases at 

0° C. and 
760 mm. 
(litres). 



703.8 
715.6 
712.5 
883.0 
826.0 
862.6 

534-5 
744-9 
869.9 
973-8 
878.4 
1080.7 
278.0 

931-5 
314.8 



Volume of 
gases at the 
explosion 
temperature 
(if) and 760 

(litres). 



19734-5 
19857-7 
18738.7 
16653.5 
16751.O 
16277.0 
10861.0 
12320.8 
14692.7 
14908.9 
13580.0 
10785.5 
3830.8 
9874.0 
6628.0 



Table V. 

Pressures Developed. 



Name of Explosive. 



Space («) 
occupied by 
gaseous pro- 
ducts 
(litres). 



Pressure =: Heated Volumi 



Atmospheres. 



Tons per 
sq. in. 



Kgs. per 
sq. cm. 



Explosive gelatine {a) 

Nitroglycerine 

Cordite 

Pyroxylin 

Gun-cotton 

Dynamite No. i 

Emmensite No. 259 . . 
Collodion-cotton ..... 

Cellulo-dinitrin 

Picric acid 

Nitro-cotton 

Pebble powder 

Dinitro-benzene 

Mercuric fulminate. . . 



.6452 
.6452 
.6250 
.6666 

1. 0000 
1. 0000 
.4487 
•7734 
1. 0000 
1. 0000 
.7692 
1. 0000 
.7100 
.6782 
.2257 



30588.5 
30779-4 
29981.9 
24980.2 
16751.0 
16277.0 
24205.5 
15930.7 
14692.7 
14908.9 
17654.0 
10785.5 

5395-5 
14560.0 
29366.4 



200.73 

201.986 

196.76 

163-93 
109.93 
106.82 
158.85 

104-55 
96.42 

97-84 
115.85 
70.78 
35-41 
95-54 
192.72 



31615 
31811 
30988 
25818 

17313 
16823 
25018 
16465 
15186 
15409 
18246 
I "47 
5576 
15047 
30351 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 



393 



Table VI. 

Ballistic Energy. 



Name of Explosive. 



l^'zs viva of 
— molecules 






Mass-factor of 
energy of ^ 

molecules 

wt. of gases \ 

reduced vol ; 



Velocity-factor of 
energy of -^ 

molecules 
/ energy \ 



Explosive gelatine (a) 

Nitroglycerine , 

Cordite 

Pyroxylin 

Gun-cotton 

Dynamite No. i 

Emmensite No. 259.. 

Collodion-cotton 

Cellulo-dinitrin 

Picric acid 

Nitro-cotton 

Pebble powder 

Dinitro-benzene 

Mercuric fulminate . . . 



43-46 
43.01 
42.08 
28.29 
20.28 
18.87 
45.29 
21.39 
16.89 

15-31 
20.10 
9.98 
19.41 
1563 
93-29 



f-397 
[•4035 
[.1325 
r.2i68 

[•159 
[.403 
[.329 

[-1495 
[.027 

M38 
•9253 
1.586 
[.058 
3-177 



30-59 
30.78 
29.98 
24.98 
16.7s 
16.28 
32.27 
16.09 
14.69 
14.91 
17.65 
10.78 
12.24 
14-77 
29-37 



Table VII. 



Comparative Values. 


(NlTROGLYCERINE= lOO 


) 


Name of Explosive. 


Heat units 
evolved. 


Pressures 
developed. 


Ballistic 
energy of 
molecules. 


Order of strength 

as determined by 

Lieut. Walke 

writh Quinan's 

Pressure Gauge, 


Explosive gelatine («). 

« {b). 

Cordite 


107.4 
108.2 

81.83 

81.31 

74.96 

69.78 

54-97 
43-33 
43-27 
41.97 

25.48 ■ 


101.6 
102.7 
83.32 

55-87 
80.73 
53-14 
58.88 
35 97 
18.00 
48.56 
97.95 


103.3 
102.2 
67.23 
48.19 
107.6 
50.83 
47.98 
23.72 
46.13 

37-14 
221.7 


106.17* 

92.38! 
83.12! 

8f.3i 
77.86§ 


Pyroxylin 


Dynamite No. i 

Emmensite No. 259. . . 






Pebble powder 

Dinitro-benzene 

Mercuric fulminate. . . . 


28. 1 311 
49.91 



* The sample of explosive gelatine giving this result was composed of 92 
parts of nitroglycerine, 2 parts of camphor, and 6 parts of " soluble gun-cotton." 

tThe "Nobel's Smokeless Powder" giving this result was composed of 50 
parts of nitroglycerine, 5 parts of camphor, 100 parts of benzole, and 25 parts 
of "soluble gun-cotton," stirred together until the whole became gelatinized ; 
and then the benzole was evaporated on a water-bath, the mass rolled out into 
a sheet and finally cut up into small cubes. 

\ Stowmarket gun-cotton. 

§The emmensite giving this result was composed of 5 parts of emmens 
acid, 5 parts of ammonium nitrate and 6 parts of picric acid. 

II "Mortar Powder" of Dupont's manufacture. 



394 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

§4. 

Some Remarks upon the Foregoing Tables, and upon the 

Humanity of Text-books. 

Table I. shows the physical constants I have adopted in my calcu- 
lations. They lay no claim to exactitude (for even the best experi- 
mental observations are but approximations to the truth), and simply 
represent a careful selection from among the various values to be 
found in the text-books. For example, I take the molecular weights 
of hydrogen and oxygen as i and i6 respectively; whereas, accord- 
ing to Regnault, the ratio is i : 15.962, while Rayleigh says it is 
I : 15.884. The space occupied by i gram of hydrogen at 0° C. and 
760 mm. I take as 11. 16 litres, which is the most generally adopted 
value, although, as it depends upon gravity, it can only be exactly 
true for a single locality, the whereabouts of which is unknown. 
And yet I adopt .6995 litre as the space occupied by i gram of 

oxygen although — '-p — = -6975. In like manner, though I take 

the molecular weight of nitrogen as 14, 1 adopt .7964 litre as the space 

occupied by i gram, in spite of the fact that — '- — = .79714. Little 

inconsistencies like these are cheerful and pleasant to contemplate, 
as reminding us that we are human after all, and that no scientist 
is infallibly in the right, however much of a pope he may be in the 
estimation of that philosophical church of mutual admiration which 
from the serene heights of learned societies and academies looks 
down with much cold scorn upon the outer barbarians of the lay 
world. 

Yes, yes, my worthy Professor, I remember quite well the proverb 
that says the bird is an ill one that fouls its own nest. I own myself 
a nestUng, but I do neither you nor the nest an ill turn by endeavor- 
ing to cleanse our common abode. Our fame now and our scientific 
immortality hereafter will not be injured by our being less "damnably 
cock-sure." 

As a noticeable illustration of my meaning I may refer to a work 
entitled Chemical Arithmetic, by W. Dittmar, LL. D., F. R. S. S., 
London and Edinburgh, Professor of Chemistry in the Glasgow and 
West of Scotland Technical College. This book has only just 
appeared, and is an admirable specimen of sound, wholesom.e, scien- 
tific work. I have nothing but praise for it. Yet it is nicely human. 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 395 

Confronted with the difficulty of conflicting molecular weights, the 
Professor adopts the value of 16 for oxygen and i for '^Hydroge- 
nium, an imaginary gas whose specific gravity and whose molecular 
weight is exactly equal to one-sixteenth of that of oxygen.'' He then 
gives a table of "Atomic Weights," in which O = 16, in which H = 
1.0024, in which C= 12.00, and from which hydrogenium is altogether 
absent. In another table, of the " Physical Constants of a Number of 
Gases," he gives a column of specific gravities at "0° and near 760 
mm." in which O = 16. In this table carbonic acid (COO figures as 
22.128; whereas, by his own value of C, it should, of course, be 
exactly 22. Here, then, we have quite a collection of amiable weak- 
nesses: first, a grave assumption of an "imaginary gas"; secondly, 
a noble disregard of grammar; thirdly, a use of the words molecular 
and atomic as though identical in meaning; fourthly, a dismissal of 
the "imaginary gas" to limbo; and fifthly, an assignment of two 
values to carbon, i. e. 12 and (22.128 — i6)X2= 12.256. 

Let then my Table of Physical Constants be regarded as being 
simply correct enough for practical use in calculations respecting 
explosives, without havirig any pretensions to absolute precision or 
finality. 

Table II. — ^In preparing this I made such a selection of explosive 
substances as I thought would represent the most important types. 
In the case of the nitro-cellulose compounds it seemed desirable to 
indicate the characteristics of several, as considerable uncertainty 
exists respecting the actual constitution of the materials used in "gun- 
cotton," "explosive gelatine," and "smokeless powders." 

The specification of the patent for cordite (U. S. No. 409,549, dated 
August 20, 1889), g-ranted to Sir F. A. Abel and Professor Jas. 
Dewar, covers a single claim, worded as follows: ''An explosive for 
ammunition manufactured by pressing blasting-gelatine or com- 
pounds thereof through holes to form wires, cutting these wires into 
suitable lengths, and packing them in cartridge-cases substantially as 
described"; and in the body of the specification the inventors say: 
" Blasting-gelatine manufactured in the ordinaryway, but with a greater 
percentage of soluble nitro-cellulose and with volatile solvent — such 
as acetone or acetic ether — sufficient to give it the consistence of a 
moderately thick jelly, or ordinary blasting -gelatine with the addi- 
tion of soluble nitro-cellulose and solvent to bring it to a like condi- 
tion, is pressed through holes," etc. No attempt is made to define 
"blasting-gelatine" or "soluble nitro-cellulose." 



39^ EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 

In Maxim's specifications there is somewhat more distinctness. No. 
411,127 (September 17, 1889) says " the invention consists in dissolv- 
ing gun-cotton or nitro-ceUulose in a proper solvent which is capable 
of being evaporated, adding to the dissolved nitro-cellulose nitro- 
glycerine, and then evaporating the volatile solvent fi'om the mixture." 
No. 430,212 (June 17, i8go) says: "Attempts have heretofore been 
made to manufacture explosives from collodion obtained by the 
treatment of the low grades of gun-cotton with ether and alcohol. By 
the low grades of gun-cotton I mean those which are readily soluble 
in ether or alcohol, or in a mixture of these substances, and which 
contain but a small percentage of oxygen. These low grades of gun- 
cotton are unstable, do not withstand the action of sunlight, and as 
they do not contain sufficient oxygen to consume all of the vegetable 
matter of which they are composed, they produce in burning a large 
quantity of smoke. Now my invention comprises improved methods 
or processes whereby I am enabled to manufacture pellets, grains or 
other forms of powder or explosive material from the higher grades of 
gun-cotton — that is to say, the highly-explosive grades thereof, which 
are not soluble in ether or alcohol." No. 434,049 (August 12, 1890) 
says: " In the manufacture of explosive compounds according to my 
present invention, I mix dissolved gun-cotton or pyroxyline with 
nitro-glycerine, nitro-gelatine or similar material, and with oil, prefer- 
ably castor- oil. ... My improved explosive compound is advan- 
tageously manufactured as follows, that is to say, I first dissolve gun- 
cotton or trinitro-cellulose in acetone," etc. 

In Prof. Threlfall's article on "Explosion" in the new edition of 
Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry there occurs the passage : " The 
most powerful explosive per unit mass is blasting-gelatine (92 per 
cent nitroglycerine and 8 per cent nitro-cellulose [the exact com- 
position of the particular nitro-cellulose is not stated])." The double 
brackets are in the original. 

Bloxam (my Professor when I was a student at King's College, 
London — a worthy man, of unusual knowledge and ability and with 
nothing of the Pope about him. Requiescat i7ipace /), in his Chem- 
istry, 6th ed., p. 564, says : " Blasting-gelatine is made by dissolving 
collodion-cotton in about nine times its weight of nitro-glycerine." 

Prof. V. B. Lewes, in his Service Cheviistry, pp. 266, 271 and 282, 
says: "Accepting the formula C6H':02(N03)3 as representing gun- 
cotton The percentage of collodion-cotton present is next 

determined by treating a carefully weighed sample of the gun-cotton 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 397 

for some hours with a mixture of ether and alcohol, which dissolves 
the collodion-cotton, but not the fully nitrated product. When fifty- 
grains of the gun-cotton are treated in this way for three hours, with 
frequent shaking, with four ounces of a mixture of two parts by 
volume of ether to one volume of alcohol, the loss of weight due to 

collodion-cotton dissolved out from it should be very small 

Blasting-gelatine No. 1 consists of equal parts of gun-cotton and 
collodion-cotton, saturated with nitro-glycerine, which gelatinizes 
them." 

Major J. P. Cundill, R, A., one of H. M. Inspectors of Explosives, 
in his excellent Dictionary of Explosives, writes : 

" Blasting Gelatine. — This essentially consists of a combina- 
tion of nitro-glycerine and nitro-cotton Two varieties are 

licensed in this country [i. e. Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel 
Islands and the Isle of Man], viz., No. i, which is defined as 'nitro- 
cotton ' (consisting of nitro-cellulose carefully washed and purified), 
.... combined with thoroughly purified nitro-glycerine in such pro- 
portions that the whole shall be of such character and consistency as 
not to be liable to liquefaction or exudation. No. 2 is simply No. i 
with the addition of a nitrate, with or without charcoal." And he 
says, further, " the equation for the formation of gun-cotton is thus 
given .... 

CeH.O^sHO + sHNOa = C6H7O.23NO3. 

. . . The soluble nitro-cottons used in this explosive \i. e. blasting 
gelatine] contain less oxygen in proportion than gun-cotton." 

In passing I may remark that in the second member of the 
Major's equation there is an omission of 3H2O. Humanity again ! 

In an article on " Smokeless Powder " published in the Scientific 
American of January 10, 1891, a " report of Krupp " is given, from 
which I extract the following : 

" Much as has been written so far about the effects of the new 
powder, no side has touched upon the composition of its chemical 
component parts. A much-wished-for light is thrown on this com- 
position for the first time by the trial shooting report of Krupp. 
We have taken from it, says Kuhlow, the following, which is of 
general interest. For all new kinds of powder nitrited {sic') cotton 
forms the basis. If cotton is treated with nitric acid and sulphuric 
acid, then, according to the strength of the acid and the methods 
employed three kinds of nitrated cotton arise : 



398 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 





Trinitro-cellulose. 


Binitro-cellulose. 


Mononitro-cellulose. 


Carbon 


24.24 


28.57 


34.80 


Hydrogen 


2.36 


3.18 


4-34 


Oxygen 


59.26 


57.14 


54.10 


Nitrogen 


14.14 


II. II 


6.76 




100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



So far it has not always been possible for one to prepare with 
certainty the one or the other combination of nitrogen mentioned 
above. On the contrary, the different combinations are always 
found to be mixed. If trinitro-cellulose preponderates, the product 
is called gun-cotton ; if binitro-cellulose preponderates, we get collo- 
dion wool. . . . The gunpowder proposed by Nobel is made of equal 
parts of collodion wool and nitro-glycerine. ... To secure the sta- 
bility of this powder one may add to the glycerine at the beginning 
half per cent diphenylamine The new chemical formula would be: 

ioC3H5(ON02) + gCeH^OsOHCONOa)^, {sic) 

with a molecular weight of 4538 (sic). The decomposed products 
would therefore be : 

58CO + 26C02-h6iH20 + 48N, (^zV) 

and all gaseous. The powder can be styled, therefore, smokeless, 
because the small amount of ash which the wool contains remains 
unnoticed. The products of combustion become visible by the 
steam getting condensed, when leaving the inside of the gun, and 
the nitrogen entering into a chemical combination with the oxygen 
of the air. . . . All the statements made here have been laid down 
by Krupp after a number of the minutest trials, and they are all 
indubitably true." 

I doubt much if Krupp ever fathered any such nonsense. 

Perhaps the most authoritative statement upon the subject of 
blasting gelatine and " smokeless powder " is to be found in a paper 
by George McRoberts, F. R. S. E., F. C. S., F. I. C, the Manager of 
the Nobel Explosives Company in Scotland. This paper, entitled 
" Blasting-Gelatine, and some other Explosive Mixtures," was printed 
in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry of May 31, i8go. 
The following are quotations from it : 

" Blasting-gelatine, properly so called, consists of from 92 per cent 
to 93 per cent of nitro-glycerine and 7 per cent or 8 per cent of nitro- 
cotton. The kind of nitro-cotton used is not the ordinary gun-cotton 



EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL. 399 

or trinitro-cellulose, but is a mixture of mono- and binitro-cellulose. 
. . . Blasting-gelatine consisting of 93 per cent of nitro-glycerine and 
7 per cent of nitro-cotton is the strongest form of it. . . . It has a 
specific gravity of 1.55. ... A great many inventors are in the field 
with smokeless powder. Up till now there are several hundred 
patents in connection with the matter, but hitherto the success of the 
inventors has not been great. No powder that has yet been tried is 
absolutely smokeless; but what is meant, generally, by a smokeless 
powder is one in which the oxygen of the explosive combines per- 
fectly with the carbon, to form carbonic acid, and with the hydrogen, 
to form water. If the ingredients are mixed in chemically rational 
proportions, then the amount of oxygen present will just be such 
that the whole of the carbon and the hydrogen, when the explosion 
takes place, will combine with it and form carbonic anhydride (CO2) 
and water (H2O). There will then be no smoke, for what we usually 
understand by smoke is the presence of small particles of uncom- 
bined carbon in the air. [Good Mr. McRoberts must surely have 
been thinking of Auld Reekie instead of a battlefield when he 
penned this human passage]. . . . One of the best smokeless powders 
consists of a modification of blasting-gelatine, made by mixing it 
either with the ordinary gun-cotton or with collodion-cotton to such 
an extent that the finished substance is dry and elastic. Nobel's 
patent smokeless powder, which he calls Balistite, is formed in that 
way. It usually consists of about 50 per cent of nitroglycerine and 
50 percent of nitro-cotton. . . . Another variety of smokeless powder, 
patented by Sir Frederick Abel and Professor Dewar, consists of 
nitro-glycerine and ordinary gun-cotton or nitro-cotton, with or 
without other ingredients." 

This brief review will suffice to explain the general grounds upon 
which I proceeded in assigning certain formulae and compositions to 
the blasting-gelatines, nitro-cellulose explosives and cordite included 
in Table II. 

The particular grade of emmensite included was selected because 
it was with this grade that the recent experiments by the Navy 
Department, the Board of Ordnance and Fortification, and Major 
G. W. McKee have been conducted — details of some of which will 
be given in the next section of this paper. 

The " pebble powder " is that employed by Nobel and Abel in 
their famous experiments on " fired gunpowder." 



400 EXPLOSIVES AND ORDNANCE MATERIAL, 

Table III. — It will be noticed that in the cases of the four explo- 
sives containing an excess of oxygen, viz., explosive gelatine (a), 
nitro-glycerine, dynamite No. i, and emmensite No. 259, I have not 
shown any free oxygen in the products. This view conflicts with 
that set forth in some notable text-books. For example, Major 
Cundill, in his Dictionary of Explosives, says of nitro-glycerine : 
" When perfectly exploded, the resulting products are carbonic acid, 
nitrogen, water and free oxygen, and may be represented thus : 

2C3H5(N03)3 = 6CO2 + 5H2O + Ne + O " 

— an equation which is also adopted by Berthelot. 

Prof. V. B. Lewes, on the other hand, says {Service Chemistry, 
p. 280) : 

" When nitro-glycerin is exploded, it is instantaneously decom- 
posed into gaseous products, the probable decomposition being 

2C3H5CN03)3 = 6CO2 -f 5H2O -f NO + N5." 

I prefer the latter equation to the former, for two reasons. First, 
the " fumes " of nitro-glycerin explosives used in mining, etc., appear 
to always contain nitric oxide; and, secondly, I regard the endo-