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An lllu/trd.ted A^gscTjoc 

of fine & Applied Art 

15, 1907 

44Leice/ter Square 




VOL 4- 
No. 175 

1 Hk St'hi.iAL 
\' K M MbEH 

•IHfc KNS 

<> f ( N . . I A N D • 

_^ i 

Contents, October 15, 1907. 

SUPPLEMENTS: — Coi^ootED Reproductioks op two Watbr-colour 
D»Awijfcs BV ANTON MAUVE, emtitled respectively "Interior or 


Oil Portrait or Sedainr by J B. CHARDIN ; a Tinted REPRODUcnov 
or AW Oil Paintiwc by JEAN HONORE FRAGONARD, entitled "Lb 
Billet Doux " ; a Couwkeo RerRooocrion or an Oil Paistiko ar 
WILLIAM KEITH, estitlpd " Near the Mouth or the Russian River, 
Sonoma County, CALiron.wiA" ; a RRrRooucrioN or a Lead Pbncii. Draw- 
ing BV A. ROMILLY FEDDEN, entiti.rd "Faustisb"; a Coloured 
RBrRooucnoN or a VIosaic Panel bv OEORQE BRIDGE rBOn a Sketch 
■T FRANK 8RANQWYN, A.R.A. ; a CoLousho KErRODUCnoN or a Minia- 
ture Portrait or Couvtess Crescencr SiECHtoon-SEiLERN by M. M. 
DAFFINGER, and or tmi- Emprxs* Marianne or Austria bv EMANUEL 


P.'jT-r««. Twrnly IlluUratiottt 3 


iJy M. H. Bailmr Scott. Nina IlluttiAiionj >9 


Kranti. T«fl IIlu««r»ti jnt 5 


f{cNRV Atxin*. Su Illuuralioo* 3^ 

FEDOEN. Screti l!lu«lr»sioivi 4' 


SrUDIO-TALK (hrvm gur aun C»rrtt^ndinli):— 

London, TarcNa Illiu., 55; Batm, 60; Edinburgh, Three Illus., 63 ; 
Dublin, Two Illoa., <) ; Vienna, Eight Illm., M; Christiania, Two 
in««., 73; Bbblin, Foar Il!u«., 73 ; Munich, Six Illos., 75; Utrecht, 
Nl»«t««n Illiu., 76 ; Mo«cow, Two Illiu., It. 

REVIEWS ANO NOTICCS. Two Illiulratioas gj 

THE LAY FIGURE: On Lcartng Thinfi Undone 83 


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Constable had been dead a twelvemonth, Jacob 
Maris had been Hving a year, Corot was a man of 
forty-two, Diaz nearing thirty, Troyon was twenty- 
eight, Rousseau twenty-six. Millet twenty-four, and 
Daubigny just of age, when in 1838 Anton Mauve 
was born at Zaandam. Ten years later Barbizon 
was discovered, and by the time Mauve had attained 
to man's estate the forest-painters were already 
famed among art-students, the avant-courriers of 
cultured taste. That France cleared the ground 
for Holland, that Mauve and the Marises reaped 
where Millet and Rousseau had sown, that the 
modern Dutch school of painting was very largely 
the outcome of the Romanticist movement in 
France, are facts not to be denied. At the same 
time it is not difficult to exaggerate their impor- 
tance, to attribute to the French masters a greater 
influence than they actually exercised at that time. 

and to deny to the Dutchmen the full originality 
and invention they possessed. 

Mauve is a case in point. It must be admitted 
that he was not in a large sense a pioneer, that the 
thorny path was not his to tread, and for this very 
reason his life does not afford the same material 
for romance as that of the more militant French- 
men. Mauve arrived late on the scene of action, 
when the heat of the battle was over. It was his 
privilege to join in the pursuit, to share the spoil of 
the victors. But it is as well to understand exactly 
what that spoil was ; it was not the recipe or 
formula of a successful painter, it was the growing 
public appreciation of honest outdoor painting, of 
personal impressions of unconventionalised nature. 
Jf Mauve was not a pioneer, he was no imitator, 
not even the disciple of another painter. His art 
was distincdy national, its development logical and 
personal. To say that he was "Paris-trained," as 
has been written, is at once inaccurate and mis- 
leading. He never lived in Paris, he never worked 
there, he paid it comparatively few visits, and these 

"watering horses" (oil painting) 

(From the collection of J. C. J. Dntcker, Esq.) 

XLII. No. 175. —October, 1907. 


Anton Mauve 

not longer in duration than those of any other 
tourist for pleasure. He was no great traveller, for 
his heart was in the lowlands. He loved the 
country in which he was born and received his 
training, and in that country he lived and worked. 

His initial experiences were those of a hundred 
other art-students. His father, a Baptist minister 
at Haarlem, after the usual paternal misgivings, 
permitted his son to enter the studio of Van Os 
at Amsterdam. But Anton probably owed still 
more to the unofficial guidance of his father's 
neighbour at Haarlem, Wouterus Verschuur (1812- 
74), whose formal paintings of horses, akin in 
style to Verboeckhoven's sheep, are occasionally 
to be met with in the collections of Holland. It 
is difficult to say what Mauve gained from his 
master save a good grounding in draughtsmanship, 
and his nervous, impulsive temperament must often 
have rebelled against the arid formalism of the 
academic canons then in vogue. But Verschuur 
undoubtedly awakened in him that deep affection 
for and profound knowledge of the horse which 
was subsequently to become one of the salient 
features of his art. 

From the first Mauve's colour was entirely his 
own. A bad habit, which he had in common 
with too many other painters, of never dating his 
pictures, renders it a little difficult to trace the 
chronological sequence of his works. But in the 
wonderful collection of the late Mr. Alexander 
Young there is an oil painting which must belong 
to a very early period in Mauve's career, a view 
Near Zaandam, taken it would appear from a care- 
fully selected standpoint to avoid as much as 
possible that forest of windmills in which the 
painter was born, about which, probably on 
account of its fami iarity, he was never enthusiastic. 
The picture is rather tightly painted, but the 
colour, though very dark, is decidedly personal, 
with greens as rich and sombre as those of a very 
early Monet. The sky is especially interesting, 
not quite so luminous as Mauve's skies afterwards 
became, but fresh and clear in its prim, old- 
fashioned style, with precise litde clouds scudding 
across the azure. It does not instantly take us 
back to Nature, as Mauve's later paintings do, but 
it tells us very pleasantly that he has been looking at 
Ruysdael, and helps to establish his family descent. 

"I'LOUGHING'' (WAl ER-COl our) ^ c \ 

(By permission of JA-isrs. Thos. Agneiu c^ Sons and Mesus. Walhs cr' ion) 


^jj|K^ < 


(By permission of Messrs. Thos. Aguetv 
&^ Sons and Messrs. IVallis ^ Son) 


Anton Mauve 

S^f-'^fr^-*' *" 

"women washing clothes" (oil painting) by ANTON MAUVE 

(By permission of Messrs. Tkos. Agnew &' Sons and Messrs. IVal/is c^= Son) 

Mauve's art, if afterwards guided into broader he ever saw a Millet. 

ment of the art of the 
older painters of Holland, 
of the work not only of 
Ruysdael and of Hobbema, 
but also of Wouverman 
and of lesser painters like 
Verschuur. Mauve is not 
altogether guiltless of 
Wouverman's affection for 
a white horse, and it is 
not difficult to find a trace 
of the older Dutchman's 
influence in such a picture 
as Loading Wood (repro- 
duced below). Certainly it 
is easier to link this 
painting with Wouverman 
than with Millet or any 
other French artist. But 
there has always been a 
tendency to exaggerate 
Millet's influence on 
Mauve, who must have 
advanced some way before 
It is too much forgotten, 

channels by hints gained from France, was, at the nowadays, that in the latter fifties, when Mauve 
beginning, and always continued to be, au fond, was at the most impressionable age, the influence 
essentially national. It was the logical develop- of Diaz, Troyon and Rousseau, propagated by the 


loading wood" (oil painting) 

{ By permission of Messrs. Boussod, Valadon ^ Co., The Hague f 


(By permission of Messrs. Boiissod, 
Valadon c7= Co., The Hagtie) 


Anion Mauve 


(By permission of Mesivs. Thos. Agnetv &^ Sons and Messrs. IVallis df Son) 

the colour of Daubigny 
than that of any other 

Enough \ has been said 
to show that Mauve was 
under no overwhelming 
obHgation to any one 
painter, though, like every 
artist, he was indebted to 
many. He took his good 
where he found it, but he 
went on his own way with- 
out turning off to follow 
slavishly the path of an- 
other. Nature was his first 
and most constant guide, 
and at her he looked studi- 
ously a hundred times for 
every glance he gave to her 

missionary Roelofs from his headquarters at presentation in art. The progress of his life was as 

Brussels, preceded that which Millet was afterwards steady and unsensational as the development of his 

to exercise in the Low Countries. painting. He had some struggles at first like athou- 

One of the first hints from a foreign source which sand others, but he was fortunately spared the bitter 

Mauve accepted was given him, it would appear by privations and sufferings which might have delighted 

Diaz, whose influence is unmistakable in the toler- his biographer. The taste to appreciate his work had 

ably early oil painting The Old Barn (reproduced been formed by the men of the preceding genera- 

on page 7). I do not say that in this rich, deco- tion. At early middle age Mauve was a successful 

rative landscape Mauve deliberately imitates Diaz, man, and during his last decade he was over- 

but that the sight of a Diaz has here encouraged whelmed with commiss'ons, and could sell any 

him to follow his natural 

bent and lay on pigment 

fatly with a generous brush 

and secure a fine quality 

of paint by the very rough- 
ness of the surface. There 

are few Mauves so finely 

rugged as this, for without 

losing quality his charac- 
teristic handling grew 

smoother, though it never 

became thin or mean. In 

this he may have learned 

something from Daubigny, 

from wliose work he may 

have been encouraged to 

lighten his colour scheme 

and pitch his landscapes in 

a key rather higher and 

truer to nature. Mauve's 

colour, as has been said, 

was his own, but that in the 

works of his best period — 

1865-75 — "i^y perhaps 

claim a closer kinship with 

WASHING day" (water-colour) BY ANTON MAUVE 

(By Ur mission of Messrs. Boiissod, Vaiadon &■ Co., 7 'he Hague) 





i— H 











- . 











1— 1 


■ , 




— H 






Anton Mauve 

"winter" (water-colour) by 

(By pi) mission of Messrs. Boussod, Valadon dr' Co., 

work before the paint was dry. He became 
perhaps too prolific, and the strain of his extra- 
ordinary production was too great for a frame that 
had never been robust. The end came suddenly, 
from heart failure, while on a visit to his brother 
at Arnheim in 1888, the year of his medal at Paris 
— he had previously been medalled at Vienna, 
Philadelph'a, and Antwerp. He was only fifty, 
but his reputation was then world-wide, for his 
paintings had travelled in many lands, though the 
painter stayed in his own country. After leaving 

The Hague, his home had been 
at Laren, a picturesque old 
country town fifteen miles south- 
east of Amsterdam, where at the 
moment of writing, a Mauve 
Memorial is about to be unveiled 
and an important retrospective 
collection of his works is in course 
of exhibition, and whither 
Americans still come to paint 
" Mauves," though they can no 
longer scrape up an acquain- 
tance with the painter. 

Before attempting any analysis 
of the various excellences which 
render his paintings and draw- 
ings so admirable, I should 
like to clear up one or two 
misconceptions, as I consider them, very prevalent 
about the art of Anton Mauve. Following Muther 
— who, excellent critic as he is on the whole, is 
nevertheless apt at times to let his romantic imagi- 
nation run away with him — it has become a com- 
monplace of criticism to speak of the " melancholy 
poetry," the "undertone of sadness," the "sense 
of suffering " in Mauve's paintings. To label 
Mauve's work at large with the epithets " sad " 
and "melancholy," seems to me an overstatement. 
Our emotions are treacherous things, and it is easy 





















s, ■■;?■ 



A Jit on Mauve 

to read into a pinting ideas which the painter 
never conceived or recorded. Who cannot picture 
the bewildered astonishment of Leonardo when 
Pater in Elysium reads him his too eloquent 
appreciation of La Gioconda ? Mauve's art is 
serious, pensive if you Hke, but pensiveness is 
not necessarily melancholy or sadness. It may 
be a deep, though quiet, abiding joy. Sadness or 
melancholy implies discontent, if resigned ; but the 
Titanic element is almost wholly absent in Mauve, 
and the greater number of his reveries seem to me 
inspired by peaceful, contented contemplation. 
We can be sympathetic without being pessimists, 
and it does not lessen the beauty, nor should it 
our appreciation, of Mauve's work if we find no 
" sense of suffering " in the two cows the boy is 
driving Homrward (page 14), no "undertone of 
sadness " in the woman who comes with her pail to 
the cows at Milking Time (page 10), poetry but no 
melancholy in the Interior of a Barn (frontispiece). 
To have nothing better to think about this last 
than the melancholy fact that sheep are fed and 
kept warm only that they may afford raiment 
and food for man, is to read a false literary 
motive into a work that has a true pictorial 
appeal. We must not confuse what may happen 
to interest us with what primarily interests the 
painter, light giving colour to form. 

I imagine this melancholy misconception about 
Mauve originally arose from some critic observing 

that his tendency was epic rather than l>Tic. And 
since epic to many ^ sorrow and suffering, 

just as lyric does jus an.i gladness, the rest was 
easy. Then by another association of ideas, that 
of sorrow with shadow, a second misconception 
was brought to birth, and the "sorrow-laden " work 
of Mauve was spoken of uniformly as low-toned. 
Now all tones are relative, and a middle period 
Mauve may be low in tone c 1 to a late 

Turner or a Monet ; but it is lu^u - ..mijared to a 
Rembrandt or a Jacob Maris. With a Boudi'i i' 
is about on a level, and Boudin is not \m,\. 
considered a low-toned jiainter. The truth is that 
Mauve, beginning in the bass, played for the best 
part of his life on the middle notes of the colour 
scale. There are low-toned [jaintings by him just 
as there are in some of them figures, like •'' 

tired, worn pea.sant of the Shephtrd and I 

(supplement), which do convey a sense of sad 
endurance. Still the characteristics of a jjainter's 
art are not to be deduced from isolated examples, 
but from the bulk of his work ; and to look 
without preconceived notions at a number of 
Mauves is to recognise that his painting was 
no more low-toned, in the strict sense of the 
word, than it as "strongly marked" by the 
influence of Millet. 

The two chief excellences of Mauve, derived 
wholly from the keenness of his own jjerceptions 
and his power to record them aright, arc the 



._ _Jfi^ 

p*^ ^^ 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^p.-i ^-^ 

"THE hillside" (OIL PAINTING) 


Anton Mauve 

luminosity of his skies and the justness of his 
values ; and the diffused brilliance of the first and 
the subtle nicety of the second are qualities so 
incommunicable that they can be but imperfectly 
suggested by the best of reproductions. To appre- 
ciate them to the full we must go to the National 
Gallery, where, through the generosity of Mr. 
J. C. J. Drucker, Mauve's Watering Horses is 
hanging in Room XII., and compare its sky with 
those in the surrounding landscapes. It is won- 
derful how it shines even on a dull day, and it 
makes the skies even of a Ruysdael or a Hobbema 
a little dead and painty. 

Though far from being an animal-painter in the 
limited sense of the term, it is undeniable that 
Mauve found in beast rather than man his happiest 
inspiration. In a representative collection thirty- 
eight out of fifty works have animals for their part 
or whole subject. Between sheep, cattle and 
horses his affection was pretty equally divided. 
We find a dozen of the first and thirteen each of 
the second and third. Personally, I am always 
inclined to associate Mauve with horses, just as one 
associated Troyon with cattle and Jacques with 
sheep, not because they painted nothing else, but 

because here they excelled all rivals and set a new 
thing before the succeeding generation. What 
Gericault had done for the charger, what Degas was 
afterwards to do for the racehorse and carriage-horse, 
Mauve did for the horse of the fields. He stamped 
its type, so that we cannot look at his pictures 
widiout thinking of the horses we have seen at 
work, or look at a horse ploughing without thinking 
of his pictures. Many of his best paintings are 
horse subjects, and 1 have it on the authority of 
Mr. E. J. Van Wisselingh — to whom I am much 
indebted for information concerning this friend of 
his youth — that " they certainly played a dominant 
part in his work until he went to live at Laren, 
which was a sheep country." 

Admirable as his paintings of cattle are, I think 
we must agree with Henley that in this particu- 
lar "he is not to be ranked with Troyon." On 
the other hand, I would maintain that Mauve's 
skies are better than those of most Troyons in 
which Boudin is not suspected of having taken 
part, and I do not see that his work as a whole is 
so " much less vigorous " or inferior in " decora- 
tive effect." Otherwise Henley's appreciation of 
Mauve (Edinburgh Exhibition Catalogue, 1886), 



■*' <U. 


K • -» V 




<■ homeward" (oil painting) 


(By permission of Messrs. M. Knocdler ^ Co. ) 
























^ -^ 

Anton Mauve 

is impeccable and impossible to improve upon :— right. It is more likely to add to their number. We 

" His draughtsmanship is sound, his brushwork may be sure that Mauve's best water-colours were 

full of gusto and expression, his colour quite his done with consummate swiftness ; his worst those on 

own : to a right sense of nature and a mastery of which he spent most time, endeavouring to retrieve 

certain atmospheric effects he unites a genuine with Chinese white the virgin paper he had soiled 

strain of poetry. . . . His treatment of animals 

is at once judicious and affectionate. He is 

careful to render them in relation to their aerial 

surroundings ; but he has recognised that they too 

are creatures of character and sentiment, and he 

loves to paint them in their relations to each other 

and to man. The sentiment is never forced, the 

characterisation is never strained, the drama is 

never exorbitant; the proportions in which they 

are introduced are so nicely adjusted that the 

pictorial, the purely artistic quality of the work is 

undiminished. ToTroyon animals were objects in 

a landscape ; to Mauve they were that 

and something more. His old horses 

are their old masters' friends ; his - 

cows are used to the girls who tend 

them ; his sheep feed as though they 

liked it. In a word, his use of the 

dramatic element is primarily artistic ; 

and it is with something of a blush 

that one compares his savoir /aire 

with the bad manners of some 

animal painters nearer home." 

I wish Henley had ended here ; 
but since he goes on occultly to remark 
that Mauve "painted water-colours 
with so ready a brush that, as often 
as not, he has no time to do himself 
justice," I have no option but to 
sling a pebble at the Scottish giant. 
Does he mean that Mauve's water- 
colours are inferior to his oil paint- 
ings ? The position is wholly unten- 
able. Is it that some water-colours 
are better than others ? Why, so 
are some oils ; the remark is irrele- 
vant. No, the insinuation is of care- 
less speed — " no time to do himself 
justice." lUit surely if there is one 
thing which "if 't were done, 't were 
well done quickly," it is a water- 
colour. It is essentially a sketching 
medium, and its highest charm 
is inevitably troubled by much 
labour. A water-colour cannot but 
gain by speed if it be done aright ; 
and if the first touches are wrong it 
is better to make a fresh start, for no 
overlaying will make the old faults 

by error. But his use of white is sparing, and the 
reproductions of the lovely works given in these 
pages amply testify to the purity of his practice. 
The unerring touches show, not careless haste, but 
esay, well-ordered spaed. And it is this very speed 
which makes them, as Muther says, " so vivid and 
spontaneous ;" and it is because he had more 
" time to do himself justice " in his oils, thit even the 
best of them cannot escape looking a little more 
laboured and so leading many excellent judges to 
see in his water-colours Mauve's highest achieve- 
ments. Fr\nk Rutter. 


(By periii'ssion of Mesirs. 


Af. K needier (S~= Co.) 






= «=; 





2 r 


> — t-j 

c a 









1— H 









Mr. C. F. A. Voyseys ArchUectuve 


Ii one were asked to sum up in a few words the 
scope and purposes of Mr. Voysey's work, one 
might say that it consists mainly in the application 
of serenely sane, practical and rational ideas to 
home making. 

The modern house, as represented by the average 
villa, is, from the rational and practical point of 
view, a tissue of absurdities. Its plan represents 
an attempt to realise, on a contracted scale, the 
ideal mansion. It is adorned with all kinds of so- 
called artistic furnishings ; and, as a whole, it is 
insanitary and comfortless. 

To those who have become inured to such houses 
it is not strange that a rationally designed dwelling 
should appear bizarre, affected and eccentric ; and 
though in other arts — in that of literature for 
example— the merits of direct and simple statement 
are understood, in architecture we do not recog- 

nise the existence of art at all, unless all the 
obsolete and meaningless features of the past are 
added, as an outward screen, to a building in which 
they bear no structural significance. 

Carlyle, in writing of the forms in which religious 
belief has expressed itself, states once for all the 
fundamental truth in this matter : " All substances 
clothe themselves in forms; but there are suitable 
true forms, and there are untrue, unsuitable. As 
the briefest definition one might say : Forms which 
grow round a substance, if we rightly understand 
that, will correspond to the real nature and i)urport 
of it, will be true, good ; forms which are con- 
sciously put round a substance, bad. I invite you 
to reflect on this. It distinguishes true from false 
in ceremonial form ; earnest solemnity from empty 
pageant in all human things." 

The architects of the Renaissance initiated this 
bad method of consciously putting forms round 
the substance of their buildings : and this "shirt- 
front architecture" — as Mr. Voysey has called it — 
being originally practised by men of great genius, 
has proved a fatal precedent for our times. And 
so our Palaces of Peace and other public buildings 



Mr. C. F. A. Voyseys ArcJiitecture 

are duly encased with all the superficial features 
which are held to constitute the Fine Art of 
Architecture, as opposed to mere vulgar building. 
To the rational mind all these fine buildings are 
mere confectionery, for every architectural form 
owes whatever grace or beauty it may possess to 
practical functions performed. In this respect the 
building is a creation, which may be justly com- 
pared to those of hature. The forms of the eye or 
the hand, the flower or the leaf, all are the outcome 
of certain definite function. Ahd so it must be 
with true architecture; and the inevitable and 
logical course for the modern architect is to get 
back to essential facts of structure, and leave the 
forms to develop naturally from that. 

It is this which Mr. Voysey has done. His 
work is true. One may imagine that he has 
resolved that it shall at least be that, leaving the 
rest on the knees of the gods. To such resolves 
the gods are gracious, for the best qualities of a 
building are those w^hich are unconsciously 
obtained. When we build better, it is generally 
better than we know, and whatever beauty may be 
achieved is the unhoped-for reward of our labours. 

The essential characteristic of Mr. Voysey's 
work is its absolute sincerity. The outward aspect 
of his buildmgs is comely because all is well with 
them within. So they seem to smile pleasantly 
upon us, instead of grinning through conventional 
masks replete with all the usual superficial features. 
And this beauty which is "an outward and visible 
sign of an inward and spiritual grace," is a beauty 
of which we never tire, and which is above all the 
changing whims of fashion. Our modern public 
buildings, which are designed merely to impress 
the vulgar with histrionic and meaningless archi- 
tectural features, fail even to achieve this unworthy 
aim ; for nothing interests the modern man-in-the- 
street so little as our modern buildings. 

It is unfortunate that the best of photographs do 
not convey the subtle essence of a good building — 
the soul of the work which seems to breathe from 
the walls, and make the structure almost a living 
thing. To feel the charm of one of Mr. Voysey's 
houses you must visit the actual building, and you 
will always find it better than you had hoped. 
Every detail bears the mark of careful thought; 
everywhere there is the evidence of that self- 


"garden corner," CHELSEA: THE DRAWING-ROOM 

































































o a 














Mr. C. F. A. Voyseys Architecture 



sacrificing labour which is plainly expended — not 
for money, or even for fame, but merely for the 
love of the work for its own sake. Little is known 
by the general public probably of the methods by 
which an architect achieves his ends. To many it 
is a simple matter involving little personal care. 
The scheme originally hatched in the hotel smoking- 
room, or the club, is further developed by the 
office staff, while much is left to the builder. From 
such methods Mr. Voysey's work is far removed 
indeed ! To look through a set of drawings for a 
house prepared by him, is to recognise, in every 
sheet, how all possibilities of error are eliminated 
by the most careful and conscientious forethought. 
The scheme is worked out on paper so fully and 
completely that it explains itself. 

Only a real devotion to the work will inspire 
such indefatigable labour : and this is largely the 
cause of Mr. Voysey's success. 

M. H. Baillie Scott. 

By the courtesy of Mr. E. J. Horniman, M.P., 
we are enabled to give in the accompanying series 
of illustrations some examples of Mr. Voysey's 

designs as quite recently carried out at his town 
residence, " Garden Corner," Chelsea Embank- 
ment. The house is semi-detached, and was 
built about twenty years ago. It was arranged 
with one principal staircase to the first floor only, 
the subsidiary stairs from top to bottom of the 
seven floors being in a narrow dark slit by the side 
of the grand stairs. The walls were lined with 
oak veneer, stained a nut brown ; the rooms 
were so high that no reflected light was secured 
from the ceilings, and the windows had two scales, 
the upper halves being in panes of smallish size, the 
lower glazed with huge sheets of plate-glass. Dark- 
ness and gloom prevailed when Mr. Horniman 
came into possession of the house. 

In the process of transformation, the grand stair- 
case was taken out, the veneer torn off the walls, 
and most of the doors and windows were removed. 
The basement has been rearranged and lined 
throughout with van Straaten's white Dutch tiles, 
and light captured wherever possible. An electric 
lift by Messrs. Waygood and Co. serves all floors, 
and is fitted with a specially designed plain oak 
cage to match the new joinery, which on the ground 

The Chardin-Fra^onard Exhibition 

and first floors is entirely in oak, left cjuite clean 
from the plane, without stain, varnish, or polish. 

The library (which was the billiard room) has 
a new stone window, overlooking the Chelsea 
" Physick " Garden, fitted with gunmetal casements, 
and its ceiling has been lowered to increase the 
restful proportions of the room. The massive oak 
beams are blac kleaded, and the plaster is all dis- 
tempered white down to the oak bookcases. 

The principal staircase is oak from top to bottom, 
and on the last newel post at the top is placed a 
figure of a young nymph, by J. W. Rawlins. On 
one wall, to light the subsidiary stairs, is a large 
circular window fitted with Messrs. Chance & Co.'s 
Norman glass, with which all the screens in the hall 
are glazed. Each floor is provided with bathroom 
and housemaid's closet, and all the painted wood is 
white enamel, and deep white friezes contribute to 
the light by their reflection. 

The drawing - room is 
L-shaped, one arm being 
treated with oak 6 ft. 6 ins. 
high, with plaster barrel 
ceiling above, and the 
other section is lined with 
Westmoreland green slate 
unpolished, and twelve 
water-colour drawings, re- 
presenting the months, by 
Lilian Blatherwick(Mrs. A. S. 
Hartrick), are let into the 
slate and held in position by 
small silver moulded strips. 
Above the slate all is white. 
In the oak portion all the 
furniture is oak, and the 
mosaic round the fireplace 
is gold. 

Mrs. Horniman's bed- 
room on the second floor 
is fitted and lined with oak. 
The bedstead, jewel -safe, 
writing - table, wardrobe, 
and all the usual bedroom 
equipment are fixed and 
fitted in to utilise every inch 
of space, and at the side of 
the bed the cabinets are 
fitted with sliding shelves, 
to bring the morning tea- 
trav over the bed. Mr. 

The dining-room has a heavy oak-beamed ceiling, 
which was required to strengthen the drawing-room 
floor. The tiles round the grate are white, 
with 2-in. vertical bands of primrose yellow, with 
thin black edges. All the furniture is oak, the 
chairs having orange leather seats. The sideboard 
in the hall is constructed to contain the spare 
leaves of the dining-room table. The electric 
pendants in the dining -room and a few others 
were designed by Mr. C. R. Ashbee. The general 
contractors were Messrs. F. Miintzer and Son. 



So far as Paris, at least, is concerned, the year 
1907 would seem to have been rich in spurious 

Horniman's dressing-room 
is fitted in the same manner 
with oak furniture. 


r The 

property cf H. I. M. The German Emperor) 


The Chardin-Fragonard Exhibition 

works of art. Never, thanks to the activity of the 
fabricators— and their name is legion — have we 
seen such an invasion of pictures notoriously 
forged, some of them being fought for at the big 
sales, with banknotes for weapons, and eventually 
carried off in triumph to take their place in this or 
that great collection. Thus it was with a real feeling 
of relief that one visited the Exposition Chardin- 
Fragonard, which was held at the beginning of the 
summer in the Georges Petit Galleries. Here, at 
any rate, with the exception of three or four 
doubtful canvases, such as are to be found in all 
collections and all galleries, one could admire a 
considerable number of authentic works by two 
masters who, in J their entirely different ways, are 
perhaps the greatest our country has produced. 
This is an artistic event of such high importance as 
to deserve a page or so of comment in The Studio. 

The scheme lowed its 
origin to M. A. Dayot, 
Inspector of Fine Arts, 
who followed the exam- 
ples set of recent years 
in England, Belgium, 
and Holland, where the 
great masters of these 
lands have been honour- 
ed by big ensemble ex- 
hibitions. In turn we 
saw in the Guildhall, 
London, an admirable 
selection of pictures by 
Turner ; then, in Ams- 
terdam, the works of 
Rembrandt; in Antwerp 
those of Van Dyck and 
Jordaenswhen displayed 
revealed to us certain of 
the less-known canvases 
by the two great Flemish 
painters ; while Bruges, 
some years later, glori- 
fied the most illustrious 
of its artist sons. 

These big displays 
were almost all held 
under the patronage of 
government, and in 
public galleries, which 
added somewhat to their 
prestige, inspired confi- 
dence in collectors, and 
in every case assured a 
worthy setting to the 

works displayed. In this respect the Chardin-Frago- 
nard Exhibition (it is perhaps necessary to mention) 
differs from the great manifestations to which I have 
just alluded. The Administration des Beaux-Arts 
— slow-moving and retrograde — might most effica- 
ciously have fathered an enterprise such as this, or 
at least have provided a hall more suitable to the 
purpose than are the Georges Petit Galleries, 
which, well-arranged though they be, are much too 
small for an exhibition of such importance as this. 

One cannot help thinking what a colossal suc- 
cess it might have been had the display been made 
a national affair, and had it been held, say, in the 
Louvre, when the works from private collections 
would thus have found themselves side by side 
with those of our great Museum. 

These restrictions notwithstanding, the exhibi- 
tion was highly and deservedly successful, and we 


{ The property of H. /. M. The German Emperor J 




PORTRAIT OF SEDAINE. from the oil-painting by J. B. CHARDIN. 

(Jn !it€ possession »/ M. Ll::ra>ny.) 

The Chardin-Fragonard Exhibition 

can applaud without reserve this apotheosis of 
the two eighteenth-century masters, J.-B. Simeon 
Chardin and Jean Honore Fragonard. 

Naturally these splendid artists, long neglected 
and despised, are now among the best known and 
the most widely appreciated of the painters of 
their century ; their chief canvases have been 
popularised by engravings, and quite an extensive 
library has been devoted to them ; but the chief 
interest of an exhibition such as this lies in the 
fact that it serves to familiarise one with works 
less famous, with sketches and studies which en- 
able one to penetrate deep into the artist's 
nature, and to become familiar with his methods 
of composition, of work, and of execution. 

Here the diversity between Chardin and 
Fragonard becomes more than ever accentuated. 
Fragonard was the maddest, most pleasure-loving 
artist of his day; under 
the magic of his brush, 
within the joyous set- 
ting of garden and i)ark, 
with plashing fountains 
and frolicsome couples 
making love in the di- 
vinest of lights, we take 
part in the fairest fes- 
tivals of the eighteenth 
century, and live the 
most delicious and the 
most unreal of dreams. 
Chardin, on the other 
hand, saw life in its 
truest aspect ; while 
Fragonard seems to 
know nought beyond 
the society of the great, 
Chardin, dwelling amid 
the humble surround- 
ings of the poor, had 
an entirely different 
vision of life ; his brush 
had none of the rapture 
of Fragonard's ; he 
treated more serious 
subjects more sagely. 

But in the first place 
Chardin is incontest- 
ably the master of still- 
life ; he was the equal, 
and pwobably the su- 
perior, of the most 
famous of all those 
who essayed this most '-still life' 

delicate art. The very important series of woiks 
from the Henri de Rothschild collection must be 
studied one by one in order fully to appreciate its 
extraordinary variety. No matter how insignificant 
be the objects placed upon a table the painter can 
make them attractive ; the slightest tints he made 
to sing by the amazing cleverness of his brush, and 
above all by his admirable sincerity. 

Chardin was prodigious, too, as a portraitist. In 
his company how far removed we are from the 
ceremonial portraits of the painters of his period ! 
How serious, how simple he is, how astonishing 
the note of truth he strikes in such paintings as 
the two little portraits of boys (Le Toton) or the 
hnne homme an violon from the Trepard Collection, 
which have been bought by the Louvre for, it is 
said, a colossal sum. Among the best genre pieces 
must be mentioned Le Soi/ffletir, which, besides 

(The property of M. Alexis Vollon) 



The Chardin-Fragonard Exhibition 

being an excellent study of physiognomy, further 
contains some remarkable bits of still-life. 

Chardin, as everyone knows, is excellent in little 
scenes of popular life ; his Fourvoyeuse, of which 
several replicas were seen in the exhibition, is one 
of the most famous pictures of the French School. 
Some of these copies are of doubtful origin ; in any 
case they are greatly inferior to the original in 
artistic worth. In the same series Le Dejeiiner 
prepare (Prince de Lichtenstein), the Menagere, 
the Femme au Serin, the Fillefte aux Cerises, from 
the Rothschild Collection, arrest one in turn by 
that note of truth which is the chief characteristic of 
Chardin's talent, and by the velvety brush-work in 
which he is still unapproachable. 

The eiisemble of Fragonard's productions is 
equally absorbing ; but why have admitted a 
certain Retour du Trotpeau and a certain Faravent, 
works manifestly spurious, in which the eye of even 
the least skilled observer can at the. first glance 
perceive the imitator's hand ? For the artist was 
already abundantly represented by a very large 
selection of works of quite the first rank. I will 
pause first before the big panel, the Fete de Siint- 
Cloud belonging to the Banque de France, over 
which certain critics have expressed doubts. 
Without being quite so distinctly in the style of 
most of the master's large decorative works, this 
panel must nevertheless be attributed to Fragonard. 
Indeed, one may find scattered among the collec- 
tions a series of sanguine studies for this picture, 
which should be proof enough that the work in the 
Banque de France, with its jets of water and its 
diverting groups of people, is perfectly authentic. 

Of all Fragonard's various manners, of all his 
most widely differing subjects, we have here some 
absolutely remarkable specimens, thanks to which 
we can follow the brilliant painter through his 
bustling career. We know that Fragonard, after 
competing for the I'rix de Rome, and while 
awaiting the moment to start for the Eternal City, 
visited Boucher's studio, and there executed some 
little canvases, which, while they • were clearly 
imitatiorls of that master, nevertheless revealed 
much power, as do these deftly touched sepias 
and the Cache-Cache from the Marne collection. 

In Italy Fragonard employed himself better than 
by copying Baroccio or Pietro de Cortone. Accom- 
panied by Hubert Robert and de Saint-Non, 
he travelled all over the country, and there found 
for later use many delicious decorative motifs ; 
also he did those extraordinary sanguines, so 
modern in their tone, which are so keenly sought 
after to-day. Several quite remarkable examples 


were to be seen in this exhibition — the Villa d'Este 
(M. Deligand), the Jar dins de la Ville a'Este, 
and the Cascatelles de Tivoli. The Besan^on Gallery, 
which possesses an important series of drawings 
done at this period, lent several fine examples. 

Back in Paris once more, and having painted 
his Crcsus, Fragonard, in demand everywhere by 
collectors, devoted himself again to the lighter 
mood which became him so well. Here, for 
instance, we have his famous Verrou (Baron E. 
de Rothschild), which has been so widely 
popularised in engraving form ; his Heureuse Mhe, 
the Fontaine d Amour (Comte de la Riboisiere) ; 
La Gimblette ; the charming sketch of the 
Baigneuses in the Louvre, wherein Fragonard is 
the peer of Rubens ; then Le Lever, Le Duo 
d Amour, La Resistance inutile, Le Serment d A77iour, 
and many more of the remarkable morceaux which 
Goncourt appreciated so fully when he wTOte : 
" In Fragonard the painter was just a sketcher 
of genius. He bursts forth in his earliest attempt, 
and is a master from the first stroke of his pre- 
paration, when he improvises his Graces, his 
nymphs, and makes his undulating nudities leap 
from the canvas, as he touches it in his flight. " 

Needless to say, Fragonard, apart from being a 
subject painter and portraitist (many remarkable 
examples of these branches of his work being 
seen in the Georges Petit Exhibition), was the 
most amazing decorative artist of the eighteenth 
century. His most famous decorations, the 
Grasse paintings — which belong to Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan — were not seen at this exhibition, more's 
the pity, for they leave M. Groult's panels far 
behind. Four large decorative panels, belonging 
to M. Kraemer, who is also, with M. Wildenstein, 
the owner of the celebrated Billet Doux in the 
Cronier Collection, kept one's attention for a 
long time; they are very charming specimens of 
Fragonard's decorative manner. 

The Chardin - Fragonard Exhibition, which 
afforded artists and public alike most splendid 
instruction, was, as I have said, a pronounced 
success, and the visitors at the Petit Gallery were 
for some weeks unprecedently numerous. And it 
is to be hoped that a display such as this may not 
be without its effect on the future. There are in 
the French school other great artists whose works 
it would be a delight to see brought together in the 
same way. Already there is talk of a Boucher 
exhibition for next year. But let us not forget 
certain less "fashionable " artists, such, for instance, 
as our admirable Claude Lorrain, who can never be 
sufficiently honoured. Henri Frantz. 


f/n t/ie fcssenioii ./MM. i^i.^fu KraciKcraKd IfiUleKSUitt.) 


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PVilliam Keith of California 



It sometimes happens that the wanderer in the 
foothills of California will find at his feet some 
jewel-like fragment, carried by stream or long- 
vanished glacier from its matrix in the towering 
Sierra and cast upon the verges of the pastoral 
country. The geologist will speculate upon the 
logic of its presence, may trace it home to its 
mountains, or may fail of the clue — but knows, 
nevertheless, that though the trail be lost, there is 
an integral connection between the iridescent 
thing in his hand and the hidden mountain forma- 
tion from which it came, though they be separated 
by vaguely comprehended intervals of time and 
space. And if the wayfarer be merely a lover of 
beauty he will at least see in his trouvaille its 
delight of blended colour and fire, and, refreshed 
by pleasure, take up his road anew. 

So the occurrence of an art like that of William 

Keith, in a newly-awakened country and a land of 
recent art tradition, stirs the analytic sense, and 
what notes are here set down may interest even 
those of us who, like the traveller of incurious 
mind, enjoy the gem alone for its obvious and 
enduring charm of form and colour. 

Like another modern master workman in romance, 
Keith's memories revive the " hills of home." Sixty- 
eight years ago he was born in Old Meldrum, 
Aberdeenshire, and at twelve years of age his 
childhood was transplanted to America. On both 
sides of the family are strong old names. His 
mother was a Bruce, and in the background of the 
paternal line, the ruins of Dunnottar Castle loom 
historic, and that Earl Marischal Keith, whose 
statue as Field - Marshal of Frederick the Great 
stands to-day in Berlin, and in bronze replica, 
presented by William the First, at Peterhead. 

Mr. Keith's art apprenticeship was to the careful 
toil of the wood-engraver, at that fine modern period 
and climax of the art just before the introduction of 
the more popular and rapid reproductive processes 





JVilliaiu Keith of California 


by photography. The mechanical exactness of this 
work must have had upon his drawing its influence 
for firmness and power, just as the anatomical 
drawing incident to his surgical lectureship, trained 
the hand of Sir Seymour Haden to that delicacy 
and decision which have brought him an inter- 
national fame. 

It is again the story of "all precious things 
discovered late." Mr. Keith's powers, "like the 
good seed which shows no 
too ready springing before 
the sun be up, but fails not 
afterwards," were even by 
himself unsuspected in ex- 
tent through long years of 
effort, experiment, and that 
struggle for clear expression 
which every painter knows. 
Little outside influence fell 
upon him during the period 
of development; the darkly 
mellow portraits seen occa- 
sionally in some shadowy 
corner of his studio, recall 
a residence in Diisseldorf 
during the time of the 
Franco- Prussian War, and 
in 1883 — a year spent 
mainly in Munich — a swift 
passage through the South 
of Europe is coloured by 
rich and vivid memories of 
Velasquez. Other sojourn- 
ings among European "a grey day 

galleries and painters have 
been of the briefest ; his 
studiesof theelder men have 
been the least part of his 
inspiration, and, separated 
by a continent and an ocean 
from their achievement, the 
voice that he has heard has 
been from within. 

Had Mr. Keith's work 
progressed along the lines 
of his early, frankly out-of- 
door painting, with its cool 
colour and literal rendering 
of the aspects of landscape, 
we should perhaps to-day 
have had in him an Ameri- 
can parallel of Daubigny; 
but another element early 
entered the field : tem- 
perament asserting itself— the temperament of the 
poet and mystic. The direction of growlh is 
changed — the mood rather than the material 
presentment of nature becomes his preoccupation, 
and the poet holds the brush with the painter. 
Here is the key which others have found to the 
chamber of mysteries, but with what a Western 
thrill of young romance does the door swing open 
to the new touch ! This is his power — to render 



William KeitJi of California 

with its clear, original, unmuted vibration some 
fleeting "impression," some "moment without 
date," magical and transitory, deeply felt, in the 
shadow of the woods — in the fretted mirror of the 
meadow stream, or in dewy morning pastures — and 
the motive rather than the rest seems the clue to 
his place in modern art. 

The first glance at any group of Mr. Keith's 
paintings clearly indicates his attitude toward nature 
and art. They deal with emotions aroused or 
suggested by landscape under certain conditions 
of light and atmosphere. 

He himself says : " Broadly speaking, there are 
but two schools of landscape painting : one that 
has to do mainly with facts, workmanship and 
technique ; the other with emotions so subtle, so 
elusive and evanescent, that they are almost 
beyond mortal reach." His own point of view is 
purely the latter, but his work illustrates his further 
statement, that to express the higher beauty one 
must deeply know the elementary and fundamental 
"facts." This is apparently what some of our 
younger painters forget, and in the effort to pass 
at once to what they rightly feel is the higher 
plane, they skip or neglect the intermediary 
evolutionary stage. That this cannot be, the 
Japanese artist well knows, and the delicate 
and emotional suggestion of his work is the 
fruit of the most gradual and thorough study of 
nature — so many years' drawing of leaves, so 
many of insects, birds, and animals, until finally, 
with no suggestion of effort, the hand achieves 
what the spirit dares. This necessary preliminary 
labour and training Mr. Keith has gone through, 
and now in his latest and 
ripest work, more and 
more we find that final 
touch of spirit upon matter, 
that apparently almost 
accidental inspiration and 
unpremeditated art which 
are really the harmonic 
and overtone of long in- 
sight and labour. 

The visit of George 
Inness to California in 
1890 brought together two 
men who had much in 
common through their art, 
although their methods 
were radically different. 
Mr. Inness came West 
for health, and spent his 
entire two months daily 

in Mr. Keith's studio, painting and discussing 
painting. In his theory, that a canvas before it can 
be considered complete must necessarily go through 
a definite and prolonged number of stages and treat- 
ments, he differed from Mr. Keith, who usually paints 
under a high pressure of feeling which brings all his 
faculties to a focus, and obliges them to work with 
the greatest rapidity and concentration. Illustra- 
ting his method, Mr. Inness painted a picture, 
watched day after day throughout its gradual 
evolution by Mr. Keith with the keenest interest, 
and when the last touches had been given and the 
painter turned and laid down his brush, Mr. Keith 
pronounced his verdict : "Nevertheless, the picture 
is absolutely the work of to-day." It was true, and 
admitted by Inness ; the soul and essentials of the 
work had been the contribution of the last day. 
And the effect was not more solid, nor its unity 
more complete than in Mr. Keith's swift and sure 
progress to his goal. This vivid purpose and defi- 
nite aim are characteristic, and account for the 
speed and certainty with which his conception is 
embodied. Mr. Inness said later, " Not one of us 
(including the great Frenchmen of his own date) 
can carry a picture so far by the first intention, 
except perhaps Rousseau." 

^Vith this same concentration and energy, and 
the labour of omission, must some of the older 
men have worked, whose incredible aggregate is 
spread through the galleries of the world ; not 
uncertainly, but with every faculty bent upon the 
realisation of the inner vision — "one thing, done 
at one time — in a moment! " as Mr. Keith, with 
permissible exaggeration, has expressed it. 



JVilliam Keith of California 


(In the possession of Miss Lena Blanding) 


Among the examples of his work that have 
crossed the Atlantic are those belonging to 
Mr. Stopford Brooke, and the large Sunset aniotig 
the Oaks, now in the Frankfort Gallery, presented 
by Mr. Jacob Schiff, who in his private collection 
in N^w York owns several other canvases. Here 
also Mr. Keith's paintings may be seen in the 
galleries of Mr. E. H. Harriman, Senator Clarke, 
Mr. Francis Burton Harrison, the late Collis P. 
Huntington, Mr. McKim and Mr. D. H. Burnham, 
in the Art Museum of Chicago and Brooklyn, and 
in the Corcoran Gallery at Washington. Occa- 
sionally he produces a canvas treated al primo in a 
high, clear key, such as the mountain composition 
The Crown of the Sierras, a reproduction of which 
is given here, but his favourite palette is a low rich 
chord of greens and browns, with rose and amber 
notes and glazes. A generic title for the most 
typical of his compositions might be A Wooded 
Landscape. Richly modelled masses of foliage, 
oak, madrona or eucalyptus, serve to throw into 
distance some clear sky stained with the hues of 
dawn or sunset, and reflected in the foreground 

from pool or flowing stream. The suggestion of 
" the human interest " by skilfully placed landscape, 
painters' figures of lonely shepherds, or groups of 
children playing in the woodland shadows, is 
hardly needed, for on his canvas the most lonely 
and withdrawn places seem to hint at some hidden 
presence, some occupation of personaUty, felt 
rather than seen. 

It is evident that his adopted country has had 
its share of influence upon the far-brought germ of 
art in William Keith. The echoes of tradition were 
sweet but dim in his ears, and around him were 
calling the voices of a new age — around him lay an 
untrodden region of beauty, to which vibrated all 
the chords of romance, and whicli stirred the deep 
and still waters of the Scottish heritage of imagina- 
tion. Even as the deciduous avenues of Fontaine- 
bleau imparted a melancholy sweetness to the 
canvases of 1S30, and the grey coasts and filtered 
sunlight of Scotland temper the low harmonies of 
the Glasgow palette, so in Keith's work we recog- 
nise the influence of that very close and familiar 
spirit of nature in the West — young, romantic, and 


A. Roinilly Feddeiis Drawings 

fecund ; of waving harvests, bounded by low purple 
ranges veiled in vibrant haze, the weird majesty of 
sibyllic hemlocks and junipers in their Sierra fast- 
nesses, and the perennial vigour of those mighty 
evergreen oaks that were old in the years when art 
was young. 

The joy and rewards inherent in successful effort 
are peculiarly Mr. Keith's. The happiest hours of 
life are those spent before his easel, and the waking 
hours that do not find him there are few indeed. 
His home studio in the quiet university town of 
Berkeley adjoins the campus, with its famous 
"live oaks," which, because they are the very type 
of perennial strength and beauty, are oftenest on 
Mr. Keith's canvases. And as he walks beneath 
the low boughs in the evening, he can say, " If the 
joy of this day's work were all that life had to offer, 
I should be satisfied." Henry Atkins. 

the manner of this tradition as successfully as 
any of its exponents, using the pencil less as 
a fine point than with the breadth of handling 
which is characteristic of brush - work. The 
artist's application of his method to shadowy 
moonlight effects has always been happy. In 
more than one of his sketches, too, he has 
caught the idyllic note of figures bathed in the 
cold light. The fishing village of Cornwall — -which, 
with its white walls, is, perhaps above other English 
villages, the one for providing beautiful moonlight 
effects — has afforded him inspiration for many of his 
drawings. There is often in an artist's drawings 
the suggestion for his larger pictures, and this gives 
them another interest ; but it is Mr. Fedden's 
habit to carry his sketches to a degree of finish 
which warrants us in regarding them as in them- 
selves complete pictures. 


We had occasion some two years 
ago to notice and illustrate in our 
columns the pencil work of Mr. 
Romilly Fedden. By adding to the 
work he had then achieved, not only 
fresh drawings of interest, but evi- 
dence of improved skill in dealing 
with his chosen effects, a further 
note is merited. The drawings which 
we now reproduce are culled from a 
collection which he recently exhibited 
at the galleries of Messrs. Frost & 
Reed in Bristol, and the improved 
skill just alluded to will be manifest 
if they are compared with the 
examples we reproduced on the 
occasion named. There is a quality 
inthemoonlight subjects at Polperro, 
which is becoming notably a feature 
of the artist's work, calling for appre- 
ciation. Mr. Fedden keeps his hand 
in practice with studies of heads, 
and in the one entitled Fausiine 
the drawing speaks of more than 
successful craftsmanship. This form 
of pencil-work has always been the 
achievement of a school of artists 
who arose under Sir H. von Her- 
komer's training at Bushey. Mr. 
Fedden has practised drawing in 

A Polperro Type" 

From a lead pencil drawing 
By A. Romilly Fedden 



'Jo/iii.'^ From a lead pencil 
drawing by A, Ro?nilly Fedden 

'■'•Moonlight, Lansallos Street, Polperro." 
From a lead peticil drawing by A. 
Romilty Fedden 

smmamwmmmBBamiimm 1. 1 n^iii imjjjmuu jii 

V< .i»-JL J-vv. 

'^^ Fishing Boats, Polperro" From a lead 
pencil drawing by A. Romilly Fedden 

' Moonset, Polperro.^' From a lead 
pencil drawing by A. Rotnilly Fedden 


a p^Av-^^A^i-^ *n^x 

> Ooov.S-^Vi^A\Jt-. 





" Moonlight and Shadows'' From a lead 
pencil drawing- by A. Romilly Fedden 

Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 




The proposed house at Willeisey, in 
Gloucestershire, of which an illustration is given 
above, was designed by the architect, Mr. A. N. 
Prentice, F.R.I. B. A., for a site on the Cotswold 
Hills, and follows in style and character the 
traditional long, low stone buildings so typical 
of this locality. The drawing from which our 
illustration is taken was exhibited in this year's 
Royal Academy Exhibition, and illustrates the 
entrance front. The designs have, however, not 
been carried out, the clients, owing to some un- 
foreseen circumstances, having decided to abandon 
the work after the whole of the drawings for the 
house and stables had been prepared and tenders 
obtained. The walls were to have been built of 
stone to be obtained from a quarry adjoining the 
site ; and the muUion windows, chimney stacks, 
etc., of Campden stone ; while the roof, following 
another charming and distinctive feature of the 
neighbourhood was to have been covered with 
stone slates. The hilly nature of the site con- 
siderably influenced the planning ; the kitchen 
wing, for instance, being on lower ground than 
the rest of the house, was to have cleaning and 
store-rooms, cellars, etc., on a lower floor. The 
principal rooms were planned to face the garden 
and give a most extensive view of the surround- 
ing hills. A stable block, with accommodation 
for four horses and four hunters, together with a 
coachman's cottage and groom's rooms, was 
planned in a lower corner of the site. 

Conkwell Grange, Wiltshire, the drawing of 
which, here reproduced, was, like the last, 
exhibited at this year's Royal Academy, is a 



house now nearing completion from the designs 
of Mr. E. Guy Dawber. The site is a unique one, 
standing high up, at the edge of and partly in a 
wood, overlooking a broad sweep of country down 
to Savernake and Marlborough. The entrance 
and forecourt are arranged on the northern side, 
so sheltering the gardens, which lie towards the 
south, from observation ; and as the ground falls 
towards the west, the higher ground lying on the 
eastern side again gives additional shelter from 
cold winds and weather. The stables, coachman's 
lodge, etc., are all arranged on the northern side 
of the house, in near contiguity wath the approach, 
yet well away from the forecourt, etc. The house 
is planned on simple geometrical lines, with the 
main front lying due south. In the centre is the 
hall, opening on to a wide paved terrace, raised 
again above a lawn and series of formal and other 
gardens. Opening from the hall, at the south- 
western end, is the drawing-room, with dining- 
room, business - room, etc., to balance the 
eastern wing. The house is built of grey stone 
in thin courses, from old walls on the estate, and 
only the dressings to the windows and angles, etc., 
are new, so that with the old stone slate roof, the 
house already bears an impression of age and 
mellowness, and the raw harsh feeling so often 
associated with a new building does not appear. 
Inside a quiet treatment of panelled rooms, with- 
out floors, and hand-modelled plaster ceilings, etc., 
is in harmony with the simple yet dignified note 
adopted by Mr. Dawber in the exterior. 

The twin lodges and gateway (p. 52) designed by 
Mr. T H. Mawson and the late Mr. Dan. Gibson, 
acting as joint architects, form the entrance for a 
new drive to an existing house near Baltimore, 
U.S.A., owned by Mr. H. Carroll Brown. The 






























o . 

Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



design has, in the course of being carried out, been 
slightly modified. According to custom on Mr. 
Brown's estate, small bricks, 8 inches by 2 inches, 
have been employed, and the entire exterior after- 
wards painted white. Leading from the gateway 
there is a wide straight avenue of old hickory and 
scarlet oak-trees, two species indigenous to the 

district. Failing good grass, a wide border of 
English box has been planted on both sides, 
and this will eventually be trimmed square and 
level to a height of 3 feet. This is only a 
small part of the scheme of gardens designed 
for Mr. Brown. The drawing reproduced was 
exhibited in this year's Royal Academy. 



Recent Designs in Domestic Architectuye 



Mr. Inigo Triggs' design for a house at Newport 
was likewise in this year's Academy. The house 
is approached by a forecourt, upon one side of 
which stands a half-timbered dovecot 
and open garden house. A pergola, 
built in the Italian manner, connects 
this garden building and the house. 
This is carried out in a treatment of 
half- timber work upon traditional Eng- 
lish lines, with garden entrance on the 
west side, leading to the lawn. The 
first floor contains seven bedrooms, the 
servants' rooms being above. 

For the house at Mundesley, on the 
Norfolk coast, of which we here give a 
perspective view and plans, the materials 
employed are red brick with split flint 
diaper and glazed pantiles for the roof. 
The bays are carried out in wood, with 
lights and cast-lead panels between the 
windows. Wood tracery like that in- 
dicated in the windows is found in many 
old houses in the district. The archi- 
tects of this house are Messrs. Oliver, 
Leeson & Wood, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The house at Wokingham, Berks, of 
which a view is given on the next page, has 
been built for Mr. E. D. Mansfield, from 
the design of Mr. Ernest Newton, on a 

wcll-\v(Kjded site about a mile south of Wokingham. 
The bricks used for facings are " clamp " bricks 
from Chichester ; they are very varied in colour — 



Recent Desig7is in Domestic Architecture 



house where ordinary red 
bricks and tiles are used. 
In the above view the 
southern aspect of the 
house is shown. On this 
side are the drawing-room 
and dining-room (both 
measuring 2 2 feet by 1 6 feet 
in greatest length and in 
width) and principal bed- 
room. The hall shown in 
the plan is 2 6 feet by 18 feet, 
and the billiard - room 
24 feet by 18 feet. 

deep ruby red, russet 
brown, grey, and almost 
plum colour. The angles 
of the walls and the 
margins round the win- 
dows are made with deep 
red kiln bricks. The roof 
is covered with rich red 
hand-made Kentish tiles. 
The whole effect of colour 
is quiet and pleasant, and 
quite different from the 
crude raw look of a new 



studio- Talk 


(From our Own Correspondents ) 

LONDON. — Mr. T. C. Gotch'.s 
triptych Stephen and two atten- 
dant Figures, here reproduced, 
is an adaptation to a decorative 
scheme of a child's portrait, exhibited by 
the artist in the Royal Academy last year. 
The attendant figures have received a 
treatment which makes them fittingly 
combine with the reality of the portrait. 
The difficulties of such a combination are 
not to be disputed, and the always sym- 
pathetic nature of Mr. Gotch's art triumphs 
here. The frame of the triptych, by the 
Guild of Handicraft, is a very successful 
piece of decoration. 


The water-colour by Mr. T. L. Shoo- 
smith, reproduced on page 56, is one which 
was shown a little while back at Mr. Baillie's 
gallery. The pleasant simplicity of the artist's style 
commends itself to us not less in this class of 
subject than in his landscape. 

FRAME FOR MR. gotch's triptvch (See helow ) 


tory screened on each side continuing round 
the east end behind the altar. The chancel 
is lighted by two lancet windows in each of the 

six bays north and south. On the north are the 

On page 5 7 we reproduce a drawing (exhibited in vestries, with the organ projecting into the chancel 
the recent Royal Academy Exhibition) by Mr. overhead, and a chapel. The reredos, 29 feet high 
John T. Lee, F.R.LB.A., of his design for the by 13 feet 6 inches wide, is recessed for an altar 
interior of St. Margaret's Church, Eastney. The 9 feet long, curved at the back over the rotable, 
portion shown consists of three bays with an ambula- and domed at the top over the subject of "The 


( By permission of Mrs. Penton) BY T. c. GOTCH 



Majesty." The surround of the reredos, with its 
flanking piers for standing lights, is plated with 
sheets of brass riveted on : the border and 
blocks of same having acanthus and scroll orna- 
ment in low relief. The retable is of white marble 
with narrow vertical panels of pale-green marble 
carrying a plain brass cross, the two altar lights 
being placed on the altar itself, and the seven 
sanctuary lamps suspended from the roof in two 
horizontal tiers. The altar is to be of the same 
material as the reredos, but lacquered in silver- 
grey. The altar rails have the emblems of the 
evangelists repoussed in metal. The nave is sub- 
divided into five bays by stone arches springing 
from the floor across the nave. The roof following 
the curve of these cross arches is divided into 
eighteen panels in each bay, the lower three panels 
throughout being filled with winged and vested 
figures of the hierarchy of Heaven, the first bay 
of the roof being shown in the view of the interior 
with an important cross in metal suspended beneath. 

month. Mr. Bone's acknowledged rank as a 
draughtsman and etcher of street architecture is a 
very high one. His art has been mentioned with 
Meryon's. Meryon was a dreamer ; the streets of 
his Paris are haunted, the windows eloquent of 
tragedy. Mr. Bone creates the ordinariness of the 
London suburb with as rare an art, in his way, as 
Dickens. He has his romantic moments, chiefly 
before the spectacle of labour. When in this mood 
he is akin to Mr. Brangwyn and Mr. Kipling, in 
certain aspects of their art ; but his concern is less 
than theirs with the splendour of modern invention, 
his theme being the significance of building — of 
great places dismantled, stripped of glory, and the 
fairy bridges of scaffolding by which we pass to 
newer things. 

On page 58 we reproduce Mr. Muirhead Bone's 
pencil drawing of the demolition of St. James's 
Hall, to which we briefly referred in our notes last 

It was gratifying to note that the work of the 
Junior Art Workers' Guild, as seen at its recent 
annual exhibition at Clifford's Inn, still maintains 
its excellence in design and workmanship. The 
work of the jewellers and metal-workers of the 
Guild more especially bore evidence of fresh 
thought, expressed in lively and exuberant fancies, 
with great variety of colour and wealth of detail. 





■ ....■■"•=v- 















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1— 1 








H— ( 

t— H 









w ^ z 

W ^ < 

tC < P^ 

H K Q 


studio- Talk 

This was parti- 
cularly notice- 
able ill the 
jewellery by 
Messrs. Hugh 
B. Cunning- 
ham, W. S. 

I ladaway, J. A. 

I I odd, I'^dward 
Spencer and J. 
II. M. Bonner. 
Mr. Richard 
Garbe's silver 
scent bottle 
(p. 60) is an ex- 
cellent piece of 
work, charming 
in colour, re- 
fi n e d and 
restrained in 
design. Among 
the larger exhi- 
bits a stove in 
steel and brass, 
designed by Mr. 
G. LI. Morris, 
was worthy of 
notice. The 
sculpture this 

year was more interesting than usual. The design 
for a monument by Charles Petworth showed a deeper 
than usual knowledge of architecture in its relation 
to figure sculpture. E. S. Gillick sent a fountain of 
considerable merit. A statuette, a beautiful nude 
figure, by Mervyn Lawrence, was one of the best 
things in the exhibition. Mr. Garbe's sculpture 

studies of Progress^ Man and the Ideal, T/ie 
Outcast, and Sport, were arresting and suggestive. 







Only two members sent furniture, Mr. 
Ambrose Heal, junr., being represented 
by an oak toilet-table and a homely 
washstand, both first-rate examples of 
modern furniture, and Mr. G. LI. Morris 
by a painted toilet-table, pleasant in 
colour and well-proportioned. Some 
well-designed fabrics were sent by Mr. 
Alfred Dennis, and delightful speci- 
mens of bookbindings by A. de Sauty 
and Messrs. Sangorski and Sutcliffe. 
Among the drawings and photographs 
of architecture, the houses and cottages 
by Oswald P. Milne should be specially 
mentioned ; also those by Michael 



Bunney, showing a praiseworthy knowledge of local 
traditional forms. Theodore Fyfe's Shaftesbury 
Institute was a good example of severe design ; 
and the cottages and houses by Mr. Heywood 
Haslam and Mr. Antony R. Barker were also 
interesting. On the walls were fine etchings by Mr. 
Luke Taylor and Mr. Laurence Davis, photographs 
after Ostade by Mr. F. T. Hollyer, beautiful minia- 
tures by Mr. 
Lionel Heath, a 
portrait by Mr. 
Dudley Heath, 
and paintings 
by Messrs. F. 
W.Carter, Stacy 
Aumonier and 
F. Tayler. 



In the mosaic 
panel made by 
Mr. George 
Bridge from a 
sketch by Mr. 
Frank Brang- 
wyn, shown in 
the accompany- 
ing coloured 
supplement, the 
refined colour 
scheme and 
decorative mas- 
sing of form 
have received 
the ablest in- 
terpretation at 
Mr. Bridge's 

BATH.- — The Corporation are doing their 
best to encourage a serious interest in 
art by inviting some of the leading 
societies down. With this object they 
offered hospitality to the Royal Society of British 
Artists who are holding an exhibition in the 
Victoria Art Gallery. On the occasion of the 
opening Mr. Alfred East, A.R.A., the president, 
gave a short address on the society, touching on 
its history and its aims. People here are some- 
what slow to take advantage of or to realise their 
opportunities, but there are decided evidences of a 
re-awakened interest in the Fine Arts. The visit 
of the New English Art Club gave rise to con- 
siderable discussion and is still referred to. It 
delighted those who regard painting seriously 

and has 
been of 
al value ; 
but certain 
works, es- 
those of 
met with 
in some 

R.B.A. ex- 
h o w e V e r, 
has proved 
more to the 
taste of the 
public of 
the West. 
Of course, 

most of the pictures have already been seen 
and criticised in London, but there are a few 






studio- Talk 

that have been substituted for works sold during 
the summer show which are noteworthy. Murray 
Smith's Httle panel, Dutchmen — boats lying in a 
flat-shored estuary — is painted with well-chosen 
variety of impasto. Mr. Elphinstone's Morning — 
boats sailing swiftly under a light breeze across a 
silvery sea, is among the most striking works 
shown, and Mr. L. C. Powles has an excellent 
landscape in oils, painted with his accustomed 
good taste and feeling for ([uality. Miss Kemp- 
W'elrh has a study of three cobs, which is up 
to her reputation. Many of the landscapes seem 
needlessly large for their artistic tnotifs, no doubt a 
result of the fierce competition in galleries, where 
small work, however good, is liable to be over- 
looked. In this respect Mr. A. Talmage's Under 
Grey Skies must be said to err ; otherwise it is a 
capable study of the silvery clouds of France float- 
ing over a typical landscape. 
Mr. Frank Swinstead has some 
good pastels of farmyard 
subjects well carried through, 
and Harding Smith's Lyme 
Jvegts from the Chartnouth 
Road is an attractive water- 
colour. A. H. R. T. 

all in the interest of 
art in Scotland that 
there should exist in 
Edinburgh a society composed 
mainly of the younger men 
in the profession whose main 
object is to run an Exhibition 
of their own, which, while not 
antagonistic to the Academy, 
yet naturally gives greater 
scope to those who are outside 
Academic rank. The Scottish 
Artists' Society has justified its 
existence in that it was largely 
instrumental in leading to re- 
form in the management of 
Academy exhibitions, and it 
may thus be said to have 
accomplished one main pur- 
pose of its founders. But its 
continued prosperity shows the 
need for and the public ap- 
preciation of the Society. 

held in three of the galleries of the Royal 
Scottish Academy, well maintains the standard 
of any which has preceded, especially as regards 
landscape, while the excellence of some of 
the figure work redeems the paucity of quantity, 
and there are one or two portraits of average 
merit. Mason Hunter, who was this year 
elected Chairman of the Council, has made 
a distinct step forward with a large sea-piece. For 
a number of years most of his work has lain in 
this direction associated more or less with inci- 
dent. In his picture of 'Tivixt Morven and Mull 
where the Tide Eddies Roar, he has not only 
reached a finer harmony of greys, but the wave 
modelling conveys a fitting sense of the vastness 
and power of the sea. Another of the young men, 
W. M. Frazer, has an important Highland land- 
scape, the largest he has yet exhibited, with an 

The thirteenth Exhibition 
of the Society, now being 




::itiidio- 1 aifz 

attractive foreground of water and reeds. It was 
in the rendering of this type of scenery that 
Mr. P>azer first drew attention to his work, and its 
combination with a massive mountain range, which 
occupies most of the mid-distance, has been well 
worked out. J. Campbell Mitchell breaks new 
ground with a very delicate evening effect on a 
quiet sea and low-toned stretch of sand, and in a 
spring idyll VV. S. MacGeorge gives a joyous group 
of two children set against a background of white 
blossom. His colour scheme is in a much lighter 
key than usual. Charles H. Mackie who, with a 
passion for daring colour effect, combines skill in 
composition, evidences his ability in both direc- 
tions by a picture of fishermen drawing boats up 
the steep roadway that leads from a little creek 
to a hamlet. A much painted subject is the 
Dochart in "spate" 
above the bridge at 
Killin, and Marshall 
Brown in his rendering 
of it has made little 
of the topographical, 
but given a very im- 
pressive picture of 
wildly rushing water. 

background, but the flesh tones have a pure 
and refined quality that lifts the work above the 
realm of the merely decorative. In some respects 
his Gloire de Dijon is even finer, the colour 
scheme there being a pale blue against a soft 
grey background. Decoration with a strong 
leaning to Celtic motifs has been the principal 
work of John Duncan, who this year has come 
forward with a picture that suggests study on the 
lines with which we are familiar in the works of 
J. W. Waterhouse. The Song of the Rose is an 
ambitious work, but so little is done in this 
direction in Scotland that the public may look 
with favour on an attempt to strike out in a line 
that is not stereotyped at least north of the 
Tweed. The figures of maidens grouped round a 
bush laden with crimson roses have individuality, 

Another of the 
younger men who have 
made a decided hit 
this year is Dudding- 
stone Herdman. In- 
spired by Longfellow's 
verse, Mr. Herdman 
has realised the poet's 
fancy by a very beauti- 
ful presentment of 
budding womanhood, 
the fine modelling of 
the figure being em- 
phasised by the very 
free brushwork of the 
landscape. In The 
Peacock Feather Robert 
Hope has painted a 
figure subject that will 
greatly enhance his re- 
putation. It is not 
only that the painting 
of the rich blue and 
brown draperies of the 
lady's dress are made 
to harmonise success- 
fully with a soft grey 



studio- Talk 



and the colour has been subdued without being 

There are a few loan pictures which add to the 
attractiveness of the exhibition, notably works by 
Isabey, Corot, Neuhuys, Van Marcke, E. A. Hornel, 
and W. McTaggart. The last-named is a pretty 
regular contributor to the Society's exhibition, and 
a large sea-piece, representing a fishing-boat scud- 
ding to the harbour with the light of dawn chasing 
away the leaden greys of night, evidences his 
mastery in the rendering of atmosphere and motion. 
The collection of water-colours bulks quite as 
largely as usual, but there is nothing very distinctive 
and the sculptures are of little importance. 

A. E. 

DUBLIN. — It is only three years since 
Mr. George Russell, better known by 
his pseudonym A. E., held his first 
exhibition of pictures in Dublin. To 
those who already knew him as a poet, these can- 

vases were the inevitable counterpart of his literary 
work ; to those who did not, they had the attraction 
of a new treatment of a theme that is as old as the 
world — a treatment at once wholly unconventional, 
personal to the man, and containing within itself 
the emotional expression of the painter's idea. For 
Mr. Russell's personality shows clearly through his 
work. Even did we not know that he was a 
poet, we should gather as much from a glance 
at the walls of his studio. 

If we study those of his pictures in which human 
figures occur, we shall find that Mr. Russell has 
used the figures to illustrate and complete his 
design rather than to stand out as from a setting. 
Like Leonardo, Mr. Russell seems to think that 
" Man and the intention of his soul are the supreme 
themes of the artist," and in these dim blue can- 
vases, so free from inexpressive detail, he seeks to 
convey some sense of the harmony between man 
and nature, of the existence of which he himself 
is so profoundly conscious. This is the keynote 



hardly at all with a realistic 
presentation of it, he has 
yet achieved something 
which realist and impres- 
sionist alike often miss — he 
has succeeded in transfer- 
ring to his canvases some- 
thing of the evanescent 
and mysterious beauty, so 
elusive and yet so distinc- 
tive, which clothes the hill- 
sides of his native land. 
E. D. 





lENNA. — A kvf 
months ago the 
art-world suffered 
a heavy blow by 
death of Wilhelm 

ot his work — work which is lyrical rather than 
dramatic, and which is characterised by simplicity and 
spontaneity, and by a deep and abiding sympathy. 

Mr. Russell has a vivid sense of the mystery and 
charm of Irish landscape, and his delicate percep- 
tion is expressed in fluent colour phrases, in designs 
that tremble with a frail beauty. His pictures are 
haunting melodies in colour that embody the fleet- 
ing expressions of blue mountains as they rise above 
dim lakes, the inner radiance that glows beneath 
the earth and sea, that hidden beauty, which, to 
the [^poet, shines through 
the} garment of the actual 
and seems to emerge from 
the Dare brown ridges with 
their walls of loose stones, 
from the dark pools set in 
the midst of wide heather 
fields, from the stretches 
of lonely sea-shore over 
which an eternal silence 
seems to brood. Much 
of the charm of Mr. Rus- 
sell's work comes from the 
element of design in it. 
In all his landscapes, 
however slight in treat- 
ment, one is conscious of 
this quality of design as 
a positive force. And 
while, like many modern 
artists, Mr. Russell is 
chiefly concerned with his 
interpretation of nature and 

Bernatzik, one of Austria's most prominent artists 
of the modern school. The deceased painter was 
one of the original founders of the Vienna Seces- 
sion, and he was also among those who joined the 
seceders from this body when the split was brought 
about. After that event the artist lived a quiet 
secluded life in the midst of his work, so much 
so that often his friends neither saw nor heard 
anything of him for months together. The recent 
exhibition of his works at the Miethke Gallery 
was arranged by his fellow seceders (that is the 
Klimt Group, as they are now called), out of 



studio- Talk 

pious respect for the memory of 
their deceased friend. 

It is now some twenty years 
since Wilhelm Bernatzik first ap- 
peared before the public at the 
Genossenschaft Exhibition. He 
had then newly arrived from 
Paris, where he had studied 
under Leon Bonnat, and interest 
at once arose in the young artist 
who showed so much talent. 
But, spite of his Paris sojourn, 
Bernatzik remained an Austrian, 
full of the strength and also the 
robustness of his race, combined 
with a fineness of feeling, poetic 
judgment and true love for 
colour which he everywhere shows 
in his work. As a member of 
the Secession he also showed 
this same robust energy by the 
manner in which, at short notice, 
he collected in Paris the materials 
for the exhibition of works by the 
Impressionists and their followers 
in 1903, an event which marked 
so great an era in the histor}- of 
the Vienna Secession. 

"the fairy lake' 


In his early days Bernatzik 
painted religious pictures, for 
which he found his motives in 
the old cloisters of Heiligenkreuz, 
near Vienna. His picture, The 
Vision of St. Bernard, is now 
in the Imperial Gallery. The 
Emperor also acquired others of 
the artist's religious works, the 
Mo/iihe am Kalvarienberg in 
Heiligenkreuz among them. 
Everything he painted was done 
from nature, which offered him a 
rich store of her abundance. 
His early landscapes were suffi- 
cient proof of this, and the young 
artist quickly earned recognition. 
He also painted interiors of the 
old Biedermaier period, full ot 
poetic form for those who seek, 
and Bernatzik was one of the 
first of the many who sought to 
read in this book. His water- 
colour, Am Schreibtisch (At the 



Writing-Bureau), is a fine example of a Viennese 
interior of the early part of last century. Many 
modern artists seek these motives now. One 
sees them on the walls in Munich, in Cracow, 
in fact everywhere, for the Biedermaier style is 
now having its day. 

But a sudden change came over the artist him- 
self and his manner of painting. He was unsettled, 
his roaming nature was dissatisfied and longed for 
change. He was one only of a number of young 
men who were experiencing the same feelings, and 
together they felt themselves strong enough to 
throw off the shackles which had bound them. 
They seceded from the Genossenschaft, and formed 
the group known as the Secession. There is no 
need to go over the history of this movement 
again — it has been already told in The Studio. 
Interiors and sacred subjects were relegated to the 
background. Bernatzik now sought quiet bits of 
landscape with running or 
still waters, limpid streams 
with banks clothed in ver- 
dure of exquisite and varied 
greens, softly swayed by 
gentle breezes and reflected 
in the waters below. To 
this new phase in his art 
belongs the Mdrchensee 
(Fairy Lake), where delicate 
waterlilies float over the 
glassy, cool, translucent 
surface, from which the 
mind's eye seems to picture 
a Naiad arising in her 
turquoise-blue and emerald- 
green draperies. The rich- 
ness and beauty of the 
painter's poetic fancy is 

thrown a veil. The gentle wind sets in motion the 
sparse shrubs lining the stream like the loving tender 
smile which lights up and changes a hard expression 
on a rugged countenance to one of joy and delight. 
The Flame is one of those mystic, fairy-like, dreamy 
expressions inspired by the artist's poetic fancy. 
Delicate in tone and atmosphere the flames rise 
from the mother earth to gradually attenuate into 
curling wreaths disappearing in the expanse above. 
The female figures are painted with delicacy and 
grace. This work proves the artist to have been a 
man of intense feeling, far more so than one would 
have surmised from his outward appearance. 

At one of the Secession exhibitions, each artist 
had a small room to himself where he arranged his 
exhibits according to his own fancy. Bernatzik's 
contribution was the " Yellow Room." This again 
showed him in a new light. The landscapes sur- 
prised everybody by the beauty of tone and the 

But though Bernatzik 
was chiefly attracted by 
Nature's calmer moods, he 
occasionally essayed to in- 
terpret her under a less 
friendly guise. In the mo- 
tive from Steinfeld we have 
a bare landscape, strong in 
tone, with cold grey clouds 
overhead. And yet here, 
too, the artist shows his 
sense of beauty ; over the 
hardness of nature he has 



"THE fla:^ie." by 



studio- Talk 

delicacy of the brush, for here Bernatzik in a way 
seemed to emulate Klimt. On the walls were 
hung landscapes, long and narrow in form, bits of 
meadows filled with grass, amid which the wild 
flowers played hide and seek, or woods where tall 
poplars showed their silvery stems in varying lights, 
or bits of mother earth covered with verdure, all of 
them full of that fine atmospheric feeling which the 
artist shared with Nature herself. At one end was 
a triptych, in the centre of which was a stream 
meandering through banks gay with flowers, with 
tall poplars in the foreground, and on either side a 
female figure. The arrangement and decorations 
of Bernatzik's " Yellow Room " are not easily to be 

The memorial exhibition offered an opportunity 
of judging of Bernatzik's powers as an artist. 
Both the Miethke Galleries 
were taken up with his pictures 
and drawings. The idea was 
a very happy one, and even 
those best acquainted with him 
were surprised at the display, 
particularly with his latest work, 
of which even his intimate 
friends were ignorant till death 
snatched him away from them. 
This exhibition showed how great 
a place he occupied among Aus- 
tria's artists, and how much he 
is appreciated is proved by the 
fact that many were found eager 
to acquire his works. 

probably not one of the competitors ever even 
caught a glimpse of her, and as no photographic 
or other portraits were available, ihey were 
left without any definite guidance. This may 
account for the indistinctness of the features in 
Professor Hans Bitterlich's statue, for which he 
was awarded second prize (the first was with- 
held). The dress, too, is open to criticism, but 
here again the conditions laid down by the 
Committee made it impossible to secure a 
perfectly satisfactory result. The pose of the 
figure, however, is easy and graceful, and its 
dignity is enhanced by the architectural back- 
ground, the work of Oberbaurat Ohmann. The 
monument is erected in a corner of the Volks- 
garten, and, spite of its faults, avoidable and 
unavoidable, will form an additional attraction 
to the city. A. S. L. 

The monument to the Empress 
Elizabeth, recently unveiled here 
by the Emperor, and which was 
subscribed for by the people of 
Vienna, has been the subject of 
a great deal of criticism. When 
the models sent in for the open 
competition started by the com- 
mittee were exhibited at the 
Austrian Museum some two years 
ago, it was seen that the condi- 
tions laid down by the committee 
militated against any entirely 
satisfactory result. One of these 
I ondiiions was that the statue 
should represent the Empress as 
she was in her later years, but 
living as she did very much in 
retirement during this period, 

"at THE writing-bureau' (WATER-COLOUR) 



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studio- Talk 



CHRISTIANIA.— The people of Norway 
could not very well have found a more 
befitting coronation gift to their King 
and Queen than the typical Norwegian 
house shown in our illustration on the following page. 
It was a happy idea, likely to be carried out in the 
happiest manner, for there is every reason to congra- 
tulate the architect, M. Kr. Biong, upon his clever 
and ingenious solution of a difficult though very in- 
teresting problem. M. Biong's design was selected, 
both by the committee and by the King and 
Queen, from upwards of seventy competing plans. 
The motif throughout is the old Norwegian 
timbered house, at the same time picturesque and 
singularly cosy, although it has of course been 
necessary to materially enlarge and modify the 
interior arrangements. The house is to be built 
of heavy timber, and the roofing is to be sward, 
which, with its long grass, flowering herbs, and an 
occasional shrub, produces a quaintly pretty effect 
against the sombre background of the surrounding 
forest. A special feature of the interior will be the 
large "Peisestue,'' a hall with one of those huge old- 
time fireplaces upon which large logs of birch are the 
accepted fuel, and round which the inmates of the 
house and their friends are wont to gather, often 
for the purpose of relating hunting adventures and 
other strange tales. There is to be no ceiling, and in 

some respects the room as planned reminds one of 
an Elizabethan hall. The walls of the "Peisestue" 
will be covered with weavings and decorated with 
a carved frieze in wood, representing scenes from 
the sagas of Norway's ancient kings. The Queen's 
drawing-room adjoins the "Peisestue," and the 
King's study, with the adjutants' room, is in the 
centre of the building, whilst the dining-room lies 
somewhat by itself, and the different apartments 
will be decorated with carvings, panels, etc., 
according to their different uses. The bedrooms 
and the visitors' rooms are on the first floor. A 
delightful site has been secured for King Haakon's 
and Queen Maud's forest home close to beautiful 
Voksenkollen, amidst glorious Norwegian scenery, 
and conveniently near the capital, and there are 
exceptional opportunities for ski-running, tobog- 
ganing, and other northern sports. G. B. 

BERLIN. — Lovers of those fine miniatures 
in metal, medals and plaquettes, had a 
good opportunity of seeing some of the 
best modern German works in this 
year's Great Berlin Art Exhibition. Germany is 
just now witnessing a revival of an art which 
belonged to the glories of the Diirer time. We 
have not seen such continuity of development as 
Austria and France have experienced, but artistic 


studio- Talk 




medallists. Starck is very 
fine in his modelling, deep 
in expression, and gives 
his best in classical types. 
Bosselt profits by French 
technique yet is essentially 
German in character. His 
sharp-lined portraits, 
figures, and ornaments 
betray the decorative 

The recent exhibition 
of Ferdinand von Rayski's 
works at Schulte's gallery 
will do much to establish 
the reputation of the Saxon 
master, who died forgotten 
in Dresden in 1890. The 
Berlin Centenary Exhibi- 
tion has already strongly 
revived his memory. If 
we omit some less significant works there 
remains enough to convince us of the racy tem- 
perament of a painter of real distinction. The 

German cavaliers and ladies of the middle of last 

Constantin Starck, a pupil ot Reinhold Begas, century have hardly found a more convincing 
and Rudolf Bosselt, pupil of Josef Kowarzyk, interpreter. A passionate huntsman, he was 
belong to the younger generation of German also a close student of nature and a particular 


instincts have been strongly roused by Parisian 
example, though, after all assimilations, the racial 
nature has quickly asserted itself. 



(See page 73) 


studio- Talk 






friend of animal-life. lie had imbued himself 
with the finest Parisian and Munich culture of 
his time ; but he is also the very artist to com- 
mand attention by the sovereignty ot personal 
endowments. Aristocracy with the charm of 
naturalness — this is his peculiar attraction. J. J. 

climax, for during the past few years various in- 
dividual artists have been devoting their talents to 
this sadly neglected sphere of work, and en- 
deavoured to check the vulgarity now rampant. 


UNICH. — The cemeteries of our great 
cities of to-day when compared with 
many a hallowed churchyard in our 
old towns, or the peaceful gardens of 

the dead, studded with simple crosses of iron or 

wood, in villages remote from the world, reveal 

unmistakably a deplorable poverty of artistic 

culture. Here where a true and thoughtful art 

should have yielded flowers at once simple and 

comely, blatant pride of wealth and deliberate 

ostentation clamorously seek to gain the upper 

hand. It is only seldom, very seldom, in fact, 

that one finds here and 

there, amid the throng of 

ungainly and meaningless 

tombstones, with which 

uncultured stone - masons 

and other interested parties 

contrive to carry on a brisk 

trade, a memorial which by 

the unpretentiousness of its 

structural features and its 

disfnified ornamentation 

embodies that feeling of 

sanctity which obviously 

pertains to such a place. 

Such becoming decoration 

of graves, however, is 

merely an oasis in a 

barren wilderness of bad 

taste, but ihere are signs 

that this deplorable state 

of things has reached its 

Here in Munich among the younger generation 
of artists Max Pfeiffer in particular has taken upon 
himself the praiseworthy task of opening the eyes 
of masons to the natural beauty of our indigenous 
stones, and discouraging the huge trade now 
carried on in polished granite and angels cut in 
marble of alabaster whiteness. By careful execu- 
tion of his own models and designs he has showed 
them how this natural beauty could be utilised and 
enhanced by appropriate methods of treatment. 
The task has not proved an easy one, but energy 
and firm resolution have enabled him to overcome 
all difficulties, and the results have been such as to 
justify his endeavours. 




^ii^U'tu-J. i*i'rv 

harmony of detail. So too 
in all his other metal-work, 
his furniture, and even in 
his designs for ladies' 
dresses, he has always re- 
garded the fundamental 
form as essential, and has 
been sparing in the appli- 
cation of ornament to the 
surfaces of things. - 



Max Pfeiffer came only in mature years to his shape. They fit in 
present calling as an artist. Previously occupied with their natural 
in forestry, a profession which he had 
originally chosen for himself, and which 
accorded with his love of a free and 
open life in the woods and fields, the 
constant and intimate converse with 
nature which his work afforded him 
enabled him to see — and always with 
the vision of an artist— the myriad 
forms of organic growth and decay, 
and the beauties which were thus 
revealed to him impelled him to exer- 
cise his creative faculty in their repro- 
duction. In doing so he avoided the 
mistake of being satisfied with the 
external forms of leaves and flowers ; 
he sought rather to get at that living 
force which calls into existence this or 
that formation or ramification ; and in 
this search for knowledge he found ex- 
cellent instructors in Hermann Obrist 
and Wilhelm von Debschitz. Art, ot 
course, can neither be taught nor learnt, 
and it was for Pfeiffer himself to give 
forth the very best of that which lay 
within his power. How thoroughly he 
set to work is attested by countless 
studies in which he disciplined his 
sense of form. The works executed 
by him as a novice — silver ornaments 
set with semi-rare stones — were marked 
by a rare perception of proportion and 

The same principles are 
to be clearly discerned in 
Pfeiffer's grave-monuments. 
They are all characterised 
by quiet earnestness, and 
that repose which becomes 
a last resting-place. There 
is no ostentation here, 
nor any attempt to attract 
notice by extravagance of 
harmoniously and unobtrusively 
environment, and breathe that 




















^ttiUlU- 1 U'tf^ 

at modelling on a small scale. He was placed 
first, and the result encouraged him to pursue this 
line of work. A vacancy occurring at the Mint 
here, Mr. Wienecke applied and was successful, 
but before commencing his duties underwent a 
course of training at the Mint in Paris, under 
Mons. Patey, " Maitre-medailleur" of the estab"- 
lishment, who took a warm interest in him. 



A brief explanation of the various medals and 
plaquettes by Mr. Wienecke, here illustrated, may 
be of interest. The first, on page 79, is a' medal 
offered annually in gold by the Syndicate of Sugar 
Refiners in Java to the winner in a scientific or 
technical competition. The small medal on the 
same page is one given by the Dutch Minister 
of Marine to the winner of a race organised 
by the Royal Marine Yacht Club. Below is 
a large medal commissioned by admirers of 
the eminent painter Joseph Israels, to com- 
memorate his 80th birthday. The plaquette in the 
centre of the page bears a portrait of the artist's 
mother. The first plaquette shown on page 80 
records the retirement of M. Van Eelde after 
forty years' service at the Utrecht Mint. On the 

other-world peacefulness which, at the graves of 
those who in life were dear to us, softly recalls 
them to our memories. In his cinerary urns 
likewise, the shapes he has given them are so 
characteristic and definite that they could hardly 
serve for any other purpose. Their graceful 
curves, unbroken by angles, symbolise, as it were, 
that eternity without beginning or end which 
presides over all mundane things. L. D. 

UTRECHT.— Mr. J. C. Wienecke, whose 
interesting and diversified work as a 
medallist we have pleasure in intro- 
ducing to readers of The Studio, 
occupies a position on the staff of the Mint in this 
city. Born in Prussia in the early seventies, of 
Dutch parents, he studied first at the School of 
Applied Art in Amsterdam, later at the Academies 
des Beaux Arts in Antwerp and Brussels, and then 
five years in Paris, under Professors Cola Rossi, 
Julian, and Denis Puech. In 1898, on the occa- 
sion of the coronation of Queen Wilhelmina, a 
small competition was instituted by the city autho- 
rities at Amsterdam for a plaquette to be presented 
to the Queen as a memorial of the event, and this 
gave Mr. Wienecke an opportunity to try his hand 







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studio- Talk 

an artistic point of view, 
was the posthumous exhi- 
bition of Victor Borisoff- 
Mousatoff, who died at the 
early age of 35. With a 
few gaps, this exhibition 
comprised almost the entire 
cetivre of the artist. 


same page are three other plaquettes — one done 
for the Societe Neerlandaise- Beige des Amis de 
la Medaille d'Art, a portrait of the Queen-Mother 
forming the obverse; secondly, one in honour of 
the 70th birthday of J. H. L. de Haas, the Dutch 
animal-painter ; and, thirdly, a family medal, com- 
memorating a wedding. Of the two medals on 
the same page, one is for a colonial exhibition 
at Curagoa, and the other 
commemorates the services 
to architecture of Mr. J. 
van Lokhorst, of the De- 
partment of the Interior at 
the Hague. With two or 
three exceptions all these 
medals and plaquettes w^ere 
executed by the firm of 
C. J. Begeer, of Utrecht. 

Mousatoff was endowed 
with a lyric temperament, 
and the strength of his 
talent lay perhaps in his 
unusually fine colour sense 
more than anything e'se. 
The quite singular charm 
of colour which marks 
many of his pictures cer- 
tainly ranks, with that of 
Vroubel, amongst the finest 
achievements of modern 
Russian art in this direc- 
tion. His favourite themes were peaceful, dreamy 
scenes laid amid the country homes of the Russian 
gentry of the first half of the past century and with 
the costumes appropriate to that period — themes 
which he treated decoratively in a manner entirely 
his own, and in which a poetic note found gentle 
utterance. The works he executed during his 
last years — misty landscape motives in pastel and 



OSCOW. — The 
number of art 
exhibitions held 
here during the 
past season was unusually 
large, but unfortunately the 
quantity bore, on the whole, 
no relation to the quality 
of the works shown. That 
which appealed most to 
one's sympathies, and at 
the same time perhaps was 
the most meritorious from 




Studio- Talk 



water-colour, with traces of Japanese influence in 
their composition perhaps, revealed Mousatoff in a 
new role^ and doubly emphasised the loss which 
Russian art suffered by his death. 

best achievements. 

Almost simultaneously there was held a collec- 
tive exhibition of the works of N. Nesteroff, who 
has not been showing anything for some years ; 
but it was disappointing. The numerous studies 
and sketches for the artist's mural paintings in 
the Church of Abbas-Tuman in the Caucacus left 
a distinctly cold impression, nor in his portraits 
and his somewhat laboured genre pictures did he 
succeed in riveting one's attention. What seemed 
to be lacking in all of them was genuine artistic 
sincerity; the colour treatment appeared crude, 
and in the backgrounds of his landscapes one 
missed that fine sense of colour with which he used 
to depict the elegiac nature of Northern Russia 
and the mystic tonality of Russian monastic life. 

Disappointing too was the colossal canvas which 
W. Sourikoff, the historic genre painter, exhibited 
with the " Peredvizhniki," or "Itinerants." His 
Stenka Razin (the leader of a revolt among the 
Russian peasants in days long gone by) showed in its 
composition some of that monumental swing which 
used to characterise this master's work, but a certain 
theatricality in the handling of his material and choice 
of types, joined with the rather slipshod quality of 
the painting, militated against any deep impression. 

society, and on the whole 
the best results were 
yielded in the domain of 
portraiture. Here 
Vroubel's portrait of the 
poet V. Briousoff — a 
powerful piece of charac- 
terisation, but, unfortu- 
nately, left unfinished — 
calls for particular mention, 
as also does C. Somoff's 
portrait of another poet, 
V. Ivanoff, treated in 
miniature fashion but with 
ample breadth. On the 
other hand, the life-size por- 
trait of Mme. Yermoloff, 
the tragedienne, by V. 
Seroff can scarcely be 
placed among that artist's 
L. Bakst showed a capital 
portrait of a lady and a pleasing decorative 
design. In spite of his masterly technique, B. 
Kustodieff failed to engender any warm interest. 
L. Pasternak, in the coloured drawings which 
are his forte, showed greater strength and 
individuality than in his large and representative 
oil portrait. Alexandre Benois was very well 
represented by a series of pictures from Versailles, 
notable for their technical finish and refined 
composition. Landscapes of more or less merit 
were contributed by Petrovitcheff, Tarkhoff, Tour- 
zhanski, Mechtcherine, Vinogradoff, Krymoff, and 
others, though without yielding anything of super- 
lative interest ; A. Vasnetzoff, Grabar, and Yuon, 
on the other hand, fell short of their former high 
standard. The decorative designs of N. Rerich, 
drawings by Dobuzhinski, some highly imaginative 
illustrations by Bilibin, and the works of the 
talented artist Larionoff completed the " Soyouz " 
group, from which on this occasion Malyavin, 
Lanceray, Braz and some others were missing. 

This year's exhibition of the " Soyouz " cannot 
certainly rank among the most successful of this 

The fourteenth annual exhibition of the Society 
of Muscovite Artists was made especially attrac- 
tive by a display of sculpture which, for Russia, 
was quite unusual in its magnitude. Here we 
made the acquaintance of S. Konenkoff, an artist 
of great vigour, whose talent promises much for 
the future. Rodin's pupil. Mile. Golubkina, 
seemed this time less distinguished than usual. 
K. Kracht, who was a newcomer, proved to be a 
follower of the Parisian school of modelling. 
Another new man was S. Beklemicheff, whose 

Reviews and Notices 

series of water-colours, pleasant in colour and 
poetic in feeling, treat of Biblical subjects, in 
which points in common with Alexander Ivanoff 
and Vroubel were disclosed. V. Denisoff, that 
always original artist, who hitherto has revelled 
solely in delicate colour harmonies, is now experi- 
menting in linear compositions as well, and at the 
present moment is in (|uest of a monumental mode 
of expression, to which, however, he has not yet 
attained. Among landscapists who contributed 
successful works I should mention Morgunoff, 
Yakovleff, Yasinski, Lipkine, N. Nekrassoff (who 
also showed some interesting ethnographic studies), 
Khrustatcheff, Rezberg and others. A group of 
In/imistes was composed of Pyrine, Sredine, and 
Mile. E. Goldinger, who was much happier in her 
pastels than in her broadly-treated composition of a 
lady standing in front of a mirror, which reminded 
one of the old Venetian masters. Very effective was 
her Sonnefistrahl, an effect of sunlight playing on 
a grey-green wall. Last, but not least, must be 
mentioned S. Noakowski's architectural sketches, 
and \hQ gouaches of Kandinski, who lives in Munich. 

The season was brought to a close by an ex- 
tremely tasteful show, arranged on Viennese lines, 
by a group of artists belonging to the rising gene- 
ration who have banded themselves together under 
the somewhat eccentric title of "The Blue Rose," 
the most talented among them being Nicholas 
Miliotti, Paul Kusnetzoff, Sapunoff, and Sudei- 
kine. In greater or less degree their common 
traits are a strong feeling for colour, a decorative 
sense, and a preference for quasi-symbolical com- 
positions, in which an erotic note is frequently 
discernible. Unfortunately, another characteristic 
common to most of them is a distinct lack of 
feeling for form, in consequence of which their 
pictures are without that constructive framework 
which a sense of form ensures. Among them 
Miliotti has the most artistic culture, but his con- 
tributions this year were not equal to those of last 
year. Kusnetzoff, the colour symphonist, seems to 
exercise great influence on his junior colleagues. 
In addition to these artists, there were interesting 
works by Arapofif, the graphic artist Theofilaktoff, 
and Bromiski, the sculptor. P. E. 


Old English Gold Plate. By E. Alfred Jones. 
(London : Bemrose & Sons). 42X. net. — In his 
new volume the indefatigable and learned author 
of many previous publications of a similar kind 
gives excellent reproductions and detailed descrip- 

tions of a number of typical examples of old 
English gold plate, arranged in chronological 
order, beginning with the beautiful gold Chalice 
and Paten, the earliest specimen in existence of 
pre-Reformation plate, that was given by Bishop 
Foxe of Winchester to Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and ending with an early nineteenth- 
century mug in the possession of Earl Spencer. 
Ill his Introduction, which is very melancholy 
reading with its constant references to the melting 
down of priceless works of art, Mr. Jones gives 
an interesting historical summary of his subject, 
quoting largely from the inventories of Westminster 
Abbey, St. Paul's, and other cathedrals, dwelling 
with regretful eloquence on the confiscation by 
Henry VIII. of Lincoln's treasures, that included 
"a chalice of gold, with pearls and divers stones 
in the foot and the knop, with a paten graven 
Coena Domini and the figure of Our Lord with the 
twelve apostles " ; on the melting down, for the 
relief of those suffering from famine, of the cross 
and altar of gold given to Winchester in the ninth 
century by King Edred ; the robbing of York 
Minster of a chalice and paten garnished with 
rubies and emeralds, that had been given to the 
Earl of Shrewsbury by Lady Jane Grey ; passing 
on to tell of the conversion into money in 1556 of 
the greater part of the Royal collection of plate of 
Scotland to defray the expense of the war with 
England ; and the destruction of the Ancient 
Regalia of England, begun by Charles I. but not 
completed until after his death. The book is, in 
fact, a storehouse of information that will no 
doubt be found useful not only by the artist and 
antiquarian, but also by the student of ecclesiastical 
and secular history. 

Brabant and East Flanders. Painted by Ame- 
DEE FoRESTiER, text by George W. T. Omond. 
(London : A. and C. Black.) los. net. — To those 
who know and love Bruges, as does the present 
writer, the opening sentence of Mr. Omond's book 
will come with a shock of surprise, for it is cer- 
tainly not the "city of the dead, of still life, stag- 
nant waters, smouldering walls and melancholy 
streets " that he describes, but a-town unique in its 
attractions, retaining unspoiled the best characteris- 
tics of the long ago, and likely, now that the new 
canal is opened, to be restored to something of its 
earlier prosperity as a port. It contrasts indeed 
favourably, from the aesthetic point of view, both 
with Ghent and Antwerp, which evidently appeal 
much more strongly than old-world Bruges to the 
practical mind of their critic, who dwells more on 
their being thoroughly up-to-date than on the 


Reviews and Notices 

continuity of their present with their past. In spite But even before Isabey's appearance on the scene 
of this, however, the book is well written and full at the Vienna Congress Fiiger had painted his 
of interest, whilst the water-colour drawings of Mr. masterpieces, and his mantel had fallen on his 
Forestier favourably supplement the text. Some of pupil, Daffinger, and, as already mentioned, minia- 
them, notably the Place de Brouckhe, Brussels, the ture painting was patronised by Maria Theresia 
Chapel of St. Joseph, the Old Houses in the Rue de herself. Every page of this work tells the reader 
L'Empereur, and the Archivay under the Old something new and interesting in the hitherto unex- 
Boucherie, all at Antwerp, interpret their subjects plored field of miniature painting in Austria. It is 
with conside-able felicity, but the remainder are illustrated by a large number of beautiful collotype 
somewhat matter of fact and wanting in atmosphere, reproductions in colour (those in our accompanying 
Das Blldnis-Miniatur in Osterreich von 1750 — supplement belonging to the series), and in all 
1850. By Eduard Leisching, Vice-Director of respects the volume is one which ought to find 
the Austrian Museum in Vienna. — This beautiful a place in the collector's library. The subscription 
work is one of the most valuable contributions to price of the work was 120 kronen, but since its 
the art of miniature painting which have ever been publication this price has been more than trebled, 
published, and, as far at all events as the Austrian Charles E. Dawson : his Book of Book -Plates. 
school is concerned, will rank as a standard one for (Edinburgh: Otto Schulze.) ^s. net. — Although 
all time. Some two or three years ago an exhibi- in turning over the pages of this delightful collec- 
tion of miniatures was held in Vienna, when no tion of book-plates it is impossible to help being 
less than 3,000 were shown, many of them being reminded of the work of several other artists, 
of exceeding beauty and rare value. Since then especially William Nicholson, Anning Bell, and 
further discoveries have been made which have led Jessie King, Mr. Dawson has managed with no 
to the publication of this work. Thanks to Dr. little skill to suggest in each case some character- 
Leisching's investigations, pursued in the true spirit istic of the owner of the design. Very charming 
of scientific discovery, much new light has been and clever are the frontispiece, a beautiful study 
thrown on the rise and development of miniature of a girl-mother and her child, the Ex-Libris of 
painting in Austria, of which very little appears to the Duchess of Sutherland with a winged Cupid 
be known in other countries, save perhaps Ger bearing a cross soaring heavenwards, an appropriate 
many. Dr. Leisching is too fully inspired with device for the President of the Potteries' Crippled 
the true spirit of the investigator to rely entirely on Guild, that of OUvia Holmes, in which the orange 
his own efforts, and as at the time of the exhibition trees in pots on either side of the dainty little maiden 
which he arranged he had the help of his able seated amongst her toys and books, hint at her 
colleague. Dr. August Schestag, so also he has con- father's poUtical opinions, and the humorous Malt 
suited others whose possession of historical docu- book-plate, a most successful aesthetic pun, with its 
ments or personal knowledge has enabled him to malt-houses and mushrooms, the nam de plume of 
clear up difficulties. In this way he has been able the lady to whom it belongs being Malt Mushroom. 
to publish much that was hitherto unknown and Sudseekunst : Beitrage zur Kunst des Bismarck- 
correct many errors that have arisen. He shows, Archipels und zur Urgeschichte der Kunst ilberhaupt. 
for instance, how Eusebius Johann Alphen, who was By Dr. Emil Stephan, (Berlin : Dietrich Reimer.) 
a Viennese, born in Vienna in 1741 and dying there Cloth, 6 mks. — In this volume Dr. Stephan, who 
in 1772, was employed by Maria Theresia, a great went out to the South Sea Islands in 1904 as 
patron of miniature paindng, to paint a miniature of surgeon on the German survey ship " Mowe," has 
her daughter, the Archduchess Christine — a fact given the results of his studies of the art of the 
revealed on its being photographed, when it was seen natives inhabiting the islands in the Bismarck 
that a small book this princess was holding in Archipelago. To students of ethnography, and 
her hands bore the signature Alphen, 1769. This especially to those in search of material bearing on 
led to the discovery of more miniatures by Alphen, the origin and evolution of the aesthetic sense in 
who, as Alfen or Alf, is generally given to be a mankind, these studies of a careful and intelligent 
native of Holland or Denmark. In his introduc- observer should prove of absorbing interest. It is 
tory chapters the author first traces the history of only during recent years that any attempt has been 
painting in Austria, and then goes on to give an made to explore the vast field of primitive art, and, 
account of miniature painting in other countries, as the author points out, many years of patient 
in which he is particularly careful to acknowledge investigation must elapse before any definite con- 
the influence of the French School on native art. elusions respecting it can be arrived at. How 

Reviews and Notices 

difficult the path of investigation is may be seen 
from the fact that even in contiguous islands in 
this South Sea group there is considerable diversity 
of decorative style. The value of Dr. Stephan's 
work is greatly enhanced by an extensive series of 
illustrations (including many in colour) of objects 
collected during his visit, and now housed in the 
Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin, and there are 
also some cai)ital reproductions of photographs 
showing amongst other things the tattoo marks 
borne by the natives. 

Among Messrs. T. C. &: E. C. Jack's new publica- 
tions this autumn are a series of capital reprints of 
the Waverley Novels, each volume containing a 
complete novel printed in the clear, bold type 
of the Edinburgh Waverley, and twelve repro- 
ductions in colour of original drawings by selected 
artists of repute. Mr. Maurice Greiffenhagen is 
illustrating " Ivanhoe," Mr. H. J. Ford " Kenil- 
worth," and Mr. S. H. Vedder " The Talisman," 
the three most popular of the novels. The 
volumes are attractively bound, and are issued 
at the price of 6^. each net. — Another new and 
interesting series with coloured pictures issued by 
Messrs. Jack is entitled " Masterpieces in Colour " 
(ly. dd. net per volume). The publishers have 
secured the services of a number of able writers 
for the series; and among the Masters whose lives 
and work are to be dealt with are Velasquez, 
Reynolds, Turner, Romney, Greuze, Rossetti, 
Botticelli, Raphael, Rembrandt, Lord Leighton, 
Watts, Holman Hunt. — Messrs. Jack have also 
published a collection of Nursery Songs which is 
in many respects unique. Each page is specially 
designed by Mr. Paul Woodroffe and printed in 
colour ; and another pleasant feature of the book is 
the bold and legible character of the text and 
music (arranged by Joseph Moorat). 

Messrs. Bell have decided to re-issue in a 
cheaper form their admirable series of " Hand- 
books of the Great Masters " — a series which has 
enjoyed a wide popularity owing to the full and 
reliable information given in the volumes forming 
it. In this re-issue, though the price is much re- 
duced, the letterpress and illustrations will be 
identical with those in the dearer edition, but the 
binding will be somewhat simpler. 

Jung IFien, which comes from the firm of 
Alexander Koch at Darmstadt, and forms the 
twelfth volume of " Koch's Monographien," con- 
tains illustrations of a large variety of designs by 
students of the School of Applied Art at Vienna. 
The designs illustrated, comprising country houses, 
gardens, interiors, furniture, plastic figures, placards, 

decorative paintings and wood-engravings, ceramic 
objects, ornamental writings, end-papers, textiles, 
embroideries, are interesting as showing how 
vigorously the rising generation of Viennese artists 
are devoting themselves to decorative art. At the 
same time, they disclose a tendency here and there 
to go to extremes ; some of the examples of orna- 
mental writing, for instance, have the defect that 
they are extremely difficult to read, a serious defect 
indeed where there is a whole page of such writing. 
On the whole, however, the designs are excellent 
and point to a large endowment of decorative 
feeling and skilful draughtsmanship. 

Recent additions to the series of illustrated 
monographs edited by Dr. Muther, and issued 
by Messrs. Bard, Marquardt & Co., of Berlin, 
under the general title of "Die Kunst," include 
interesting accounts of Munich and Rome as art 
centres — Afiinchen ah Kiinststadt, by E. W. 
Bredt {Mk. 3), and Rom ah Kunststdtte {Mk. 1.50), 
by Albert Zacher. 

The Fine Arts Publishing Company, of Charing 
Cross Road, are issuing a dainty little catalogue ot 
their "Burlington Proofs," — a series of mezzo- 
gravure reproductions of pictures by eminent 
painters, living and deceased. A glance at this 
catalogue, which contains miniature reproductions 
by the same process of over fifty of these proofs, 
suffices to show how admirably adapted the pro- 
cess is for the rendering of tone and subtle atmos- 
pheric effects. Included in the series are some of 
the most popular landscapes shown at the Royal 
Academy during the past twenty years, besides an 
interesting selection of figure subjects, including 
the famous Vetius and The Mirror of ^^elasquez. 
The moderate price at which these beautiful repro- 
ductions are published places them within the 
reach of people of quite slender means. 

Heatherley's School of Fine Art, which for many 
years past has been carried on at 79 Newman 
Street, Oxford Street, under Mr. John Crompton 
as principal, has recently been removed to No. 75 
Newman Street, a few doors off, where it is now being 
directed by Mr. Henry G. Massey. The school 
is said to be the oldest art school in London, 
having been founded in 1848 by Mr. James M. Lee, 
from whom it passed to Mr. Heatherley, who had 
it for nearly thirty years. In the roll of its students 
are to be found the names of many who have 
attained to eminence as painters in after-life, 
more than a score of R.A.'s and A.R.A.'s being 
among them. 


The Lay Figure 



" I WONDER how much longer our legis- 
lating wiseacres intend to go on discussing the 
question whether or not the British Houses of Par- 
liament are to be decorated," said the Art Critic. 
" I notice that a Select Committee has just issued 
another report on the subject with a whole 
batch of recommendations. Will it lead to 
anything being done, do you think?" 

"I should say that it is extremely doubtful," 
replied the Man with the Red Tie. " On artistic 
questions we talk indefinitely — it is a national 
habit — but we always shirk action in such matters." 

"But why?" asked the Critic. "What do you 
imagine is the reason for our inactivity in artistic 
matters ? We are supposed to be a practical race, 
and to pride ourselves on not putting off till to- 
morrow what may be done to-day. Why should 
we allow ourselves to treat art in such a totally 
different way?" 

"You know the reason quite as well as I do," 
answered the Man with the Red Tie ; " because it 
is the national conviction that art does not count 
anyhow, and that it is a mere triviality which is 
unworthy of serious consideration. This question 
of the decoration of the Houses of Parliament at 
Westminster will, I am sure, never get beyond the 
stage of discussion. Every attempt to carry it a 
stage further is doomed to failure." 

"Of course it is," broke in the Practical Man. 
" Do you imagine for an instant that any Parlia- 
ment which is pledged to administer the national 
affairs with care and economy will sanction the 
expenditure of large sums of money for such 
useless work ? We have no right to encourage 
waste, and I hold that it would be a scandal if any 
of the public revenues were laid out upon anything 
so futile and so absolutely unnecessary." 

"That is your view," laughed the Man with the 
Red Tie ; " the view I should have expected of you, 
because you cannot see anything beyond the tip of 
\ our nose. But I look at the matter in an entirely 
. lifferent way, I am glad to say, and I suggest that 
ihe real scandal is in the fact that for nearly half 
a century we have neglected an obvious and 
important duty." 

" What duty have we to art that we fail to fulfil ? " 
asked the Practical Man. " Do we not spend an 
enormous and unnecessary amount of money 
annually on art education? What need is there 
to spend more upon decorating a building that is 
intended for use ^nd not fgr show ? What earthly 

return, what possible benefit, should we get from 
such expenditure ? " 

"More than you think," cried the Critic. "I 
will omit from the discussion one point in which 
I firmly believe, that the dignity of the nation 
demands that its Parliament House should not 
be left in a condition of evident incompleteness 
and should be something more than an empty 
barn. I will confine myself only to your query 
as to the return we may expect from expenditure 
on decorations. Has it never occurred to you 
that money spent on art education is wasted if the 
men educated are given no chance of showing 
how they can apply the knowledge they have 
acquired ; and do you not realise that men 
without opportunities are as much wasted as the 
money spent in training them ? " 

"But they must make their own opportunities," 
returned the Practical Man ; " they cannot expect 
the State to support them in after life simply 
because they have been trained at the expense of 
the State. You are arguing that all art students 
ought to be kept in luxury out of the public funds, 
and that they ought to be looked upon as a 
privileged class for which well-paid work must 
always be found." 

" Nothing of the sort," replied the Critic. " I 
am only arguing that it is the duty of the State to 
set a good example in the matter of art patronage, 
and that it could not possibly set this example in 
a better way than by spending the small annual 
amount necessary for the efficient decoration of 
our national buildings. In this way one of the 
best assets which any commercial nation could 
desire — a great school of designers and decorative 
artists of the highest type — could be called into 
existence, and the services of the men composing 
it would be available for carrying out other work 
which would come in their way. Even now there 
is a demand for our art products abroad, and this 
demand would be enormously increased if we as a 
nation did our duty to art. There is the way, if 
you would only see it, in which the return would 
come for the money spent in decorating our public 
buildings. I would like to see every place in which 
national business is transacted beautified by fine 
decorations commissioned and paid for by the State. 
Other nations do not grudge this kind of expendi- 
ture. In Paris, Berlin, Washington, and other 
capitals money for this purpose is given without 
stint. Are we less civiHsed or less intelligent?" 

" Great Heavens ! What extravagance ; what 
wicked waste ! " cried the Practical Man. 

The Lay Figure, 


Victor JVesterhobn, Finnish Landscape Painter 


The long, dark and dreary winter months of 
northern countries would be unbearable were it 
not for the snow. The white mantle of Old 
Boreas retains and diffuses the scanty light 
given by the low-rising sun, intercepted as it is by 
the thick roof of heavy clouds, that as a rule during 
a large part of the winter keeps the star of the day 
out of sight. The snow is the poetry of our winters 
and has its poets. Among these, one of the best 
interpreters of the beauties of winter landscape is 
without doubt Victor Westerholm. Before his advent 
few, if any, had penetrated the soul of winter and 
unveiled the secret beauties, but little known and 
appreciated, of his native country, Finland. But he 
is a modest man, far too modest. At present he 
is scarcely known outside a narrow circle of admire' s 
among his fellow-artists and countrymen. He 
plainly deserves, however, 
to be better known, and 
it would be of the greatest 
benefit to art lovers, and 
especially to those who find 
their greatest enjoyment in 
landscape painting, should 
he only send his pictures 
abroad to be admired and 
valued according to their 

Westerholm is conscien- 
tious and skilful, as well as 
an earnest worker. His 
hand is directed by true 
artistic feeling and a poet's 
vision, and he is thus en- 
abled to appreciate and 
express as well the beauty 
of a dark dull snowy land- 
scape with rushing black 
waters as the gay and in- 
vigorating aspects of a cold, 
clear winter day with its 
glistening snow fields, its 
delicate blue sky and warm 
glowing colours reflected 
from red or yellow cottages 
scattered here and there 
among the firs. But Wester- 
holm is not only an inter- 
preter of winter's beauties, 
he likes also to realise the portrait of victor 

XLII. No. 176. — November, 1907. 

dreams of northern summer nights, of glowing sun- 
sets among the thousand islands of his native coast. 


Victor Westerholm was born at Abo, in i860. 
He commenced his studies at that period when 
supremacy in art was remo\ed from Germany to 
France, when the traditions and style of the 
Dusseldorf school had to give way to the young 
and sound school of hrench landscape painters. 
The stream of foreign students changed its course 
at this time, and Paris became the centre of art 
teaching. Westerholm's first steps in the thorny 
path of art were lead by Eugen Diicker in Diissel- 
dorf. Later on he became a pupil of Jules Leffevre 
at the Academie Julian in Paris. It is permissible to 
suppose that this double training has been of great 
advantage to him. The German thoroughness gave 
him a steady foundation for good craftsm.anship, 
while on the other hand there can be no doubt 
that the broadened views on art of the French 
realistic school developed his fine (qualities as a 
colourist and honest observer of nature. 



Victor VVesterhobn, Finnish Landscape Painter 

Unfoitunately, good reproductions of Wester- 
holm's principal works are scarce, and we are only 
able to give here a few examples of his art. The 
winter scenes here reproduced are without doubt 
among his best winter landscapes. In The Valley 
he portrays in a masterly fashion the dull and 
melancholy impression produced by a cloudy 
December day, which in these northern climes 
amounts to nothing more than a few hours of 
twilight. The clouds lie thick and heavy over 
the snow- covered landscape, shrouding with their 
misty veils the branches of firs and pines. The 
water is dark, almost black. Even the red walls 
of the little houses scarcely suffice to relieve the 
all -pervading melancholy; they merely give the 
suggestion that a warm and cosy corner might be 
found inside them. 

In the Voikka Rapids Westerholm interprets wild 
northern nature in midwinter. The blank, cold 
water rushes over stone and rock between the 
snow-covered banks where pines and firs stand 
erect in grey melancholy, awaiting patiently the 
happy moment when spring with its rejuvenating 
light and warmth will deliver them from the might 
of winter and enable them to discard their soft 
winter dress of fleecy snow and icy jewels. Heavy 
clouds spread their grey veil over the landscape, and 
the snow looks ghostly white. 

Westerholm has also painted some good pictures 
of forest subjects, where little is to be seen but 
snow. The trees can only be divined under 
their heavy burden of snow, and the undulating 
ground is thickly covered with midwinter's soft 
but heavy garments. 

It is, as I have indicated above, pre-eminently 
as a painter of winter scenery that Westerholm 
merits attention, but the more genial aspects which 
nature presents when she has thrown off her snowy 
mantle have also inspired him to capital perfor- 
mances. In summer time his favourite subjects 


are sunsets in the archipelago of Aland, where he 
has his summer residence. These islands, situated 
between Finland and Sweden, yield some of the 
most picturesque and beautiful scenery to be 
found in and around Finland. Here he paints 
the sun sinking into the sea or hiding for a moment 
behind the sharply outlined and rugged edge of 
a fir-covered island, setting the whole atmosphere 
ablaze before going to his few hours rest after 
the long summer day. He likes also to stand on 
the very top of a rocky islet and, looking over 
the tree tops far away out to sea, watch the 
sun sinking below the horizon, setting the dark 
spots of land in a sea of gold. Another of his 
favourite summer subjects is the early morning in 
the pastures, where cattle are slowly walking among 
























H > 


Victor JVesterholm, Finnish Landscape Painter 


the birches, through whose branches the summer 
sun sends his warm rays, painting spots of bright 
green on the fresh grass between the white trunks. 

For the past twelve years Westerholm has oc- 
cupied the post of teacher at the school of the 
Society of Art and is director of the magnificent 
art museum given to the town of Helsingfors by 


that generous patron of art, Mr. Ernst Dahlstrom. 
Now and then, when his duties permit, he makes 
an excursion into the country, putting up his 
movable studio either on the edge of a foaming 
rapid or in the snowy solitudes of the wood. As soon 
as the school closes in spring he migrates with his 
family to his be'oved islands, and immediately 


"a summer landscape' 






























CO > 


Ambrose McEvoys Pictures 





sets to work interpreting the beauties which nature 
has allowed him to see and enjoy. L. S. 




Two or three contemporary artists are in our 
mind separated from others for their Mid-Victorian 
culte. The spirit which informs their work is the 
same, and this, though the quality of thought pro- 
voked is with each artist different, ^\'ith this culte 
they have reproached their age with forgetfulness 
of the graces. I'or in those Mid- Victorian days 

everything had tapered away to grace, the legs of the 
chairs, the ladies' oval chins, and their useless fingers. 
Mr. McEvoy touches the subject of these 
days with feeling — though at the moment of their 
decadence. The shy and sentimental spirit of 
them beckons to him from dingy London parlours. 
^Ve have no right to ask an artist why, in the case 
of anything he does with feeling, or we might ask 
Mr. McEvoy why he chooses this period above all 
others. This art of the New English Art Club 
may ba called the art of the bottom drawer. It 
has just that sense of our grandmother's times, 
which comes with a faint scent when we examine 
the contents of a drawer which has been closed for 


Ambrose McEvoys Pictures 

a generation, with its fragments of engravings, old 
knitting-pins, and pieces from played-out parlour 
games— all belonging to a period that though so 
lately with us, seems further away than any other, 
and upon which the dust of the past lies thicker 
than any other, for there has not yet been time to 
brush it away. The beauty of such art as this is 
largely compounded of old associations. More than 
ninety-nine hundredths of the beauty of the world 
lies with associations of one sort or another ; 
perhaps there is no beauty without this, and the 
cold art without it has no place in the life of the 
world except for its brief meaningless display of 
dexterity in a modern exhibition. Mr. McEvoy 
has the rare, the dramatic instinct, that goes to make 
a gejire painter ; but his is a gentle drama, and the 
highest, full of presentiment of the import which 
is sometimes given by fate to the slightest action. 

He does not arrest action at unexpected moments 
— as with a camera. His figures are posed, but 
there is about them none 
of the posing of the model. 
Their actions are indicative 
of thought. The gesture is 
not depicted because in 
itself it is graceful, but as 
the emblem of a thought 
from which it springs. We 
find in his art a feeling for 
the gentle side of life, as in 
The Convalescent, The Gold 
Shawl, The Engraving ; 
and this feeling is always to 
be found with that art which 
turns indoors to the peace- 
fulness of the room. For 
in the life of those who live 
for long within one room, 
the flowers on the table or 
the window-sill, the ticking 
• lock, the pattern of the 
carpet, are all important 
friends. The moving of 
furniture seems to alter the 
appearance of the face of 
the earth. It is a life where 
small events are watched 
as they loom up large, out 
of all proportion to other 
things of the world ; where 
the mind is capable of be- 
coming very small — or very 
large as when it voyages 
unembarrassed upon seas «'inez' 


of thought that grow wider with the stillness. It is 
grace and gentleness of thought then, rather than 
of pose and action, that Mr. McEvoy is trying to 
interpret, and the interpreter of this deals with 
something intangible, elusive, which he puts into 
his figures from himself A figure can be elegantly 
copied from life and miss this altogether. It 
demands in the artist a definite feeling for some 
particular side of life. It makes his work perhaps 
not for everybody, but for those who hold the 
threads of the events of which it speaks. So this 
art is wedded to literature — comes from a page of 
a book as well as from life, and the artist's imagina- 
tion passes from art to life and back again, finding 
no barrier to its dreams, embracing outer objects 
as part of them, meeting everyday people as if 
they, too, lived the interesting vivid life that is in 
books, seeing the eternal significance of all their 
gestures. And this interest of the artist both in 
the thing as seen and the thing as felt is not a 




(By Permission ^'' Messrs. Car/ax £r* Co., L:d. 

Ambrose McEvoys Pictures 

division of his mind disastrous to craftsmanship, as 
some — Max Nordau, for one, I beUeve — would 
have us think. It is in vain even for so clever a 
writer to ask for this inhuman divorce between an 
artist's imagination and his sense of sight, the 
sense which throws most light into the soul. It is 
to ask him not to equip or to express his spirit to 
the full as other men, lest he lose a machine-like 
power. He cannot sacrifice himself thus for others, 
even were it possible for his art to help their 
development thus at the cost of his own. 

Though Mr. McEvoy seems to me eminently a 
painter of interiors, his spirit has not been shut in 
by doors and windows. All his landscapes have 
that freshness, that sense of the sun and wind, 
which perhaps no one enjoys so acutely as one 
who is accustomed to the artificial weather of a 
London room. In the painting of Bessborough 
Street we are shown the outside of houses, such 
as were once inhabited by the ladies whose spirits 
in his art he invokes, and whose bodies are long 
since dead of one of those graceful illnesses 
which, if there is any truth 
in fiction, belonged to that 
age, and, we think, to that 
age alone. There is little 
indication of weather in this 
painting. ^Mly should there 
be? It is the portraiture of 
some two or three houses. 
No doubt somewhere a 
house is commemorated, as 
that in which Thackeray 
lived. With greater genius 
Mr. McEvoy has com- 
memorated in this painting 
the kind of house in which 
a Thackeray character 
would live. 

It is perhaps worthy of 
comment that Mr. McEvoy 
has not, as far as I can re- 
member, taken a character 
or situation from an author. 
Recognising that his own 
art meets the fiction writers 
on their own ground, he 
has created his own charac- 
ters and situations. And 
at this point we come, I 
think, upon the limitation 
of his art — if it is a limita- 
tion. From the situations 
which arise every moment 

in the life to-day around him he never selects. One 
wonders why. The art of which we have been 
speaking is, after all, a very subtly-arranged 
intellectual mood, sustained elaborately by a clos- 
ing of the eyelids when anything vividly modern 
goes by, when anything passes which belies what 
I think Mr. McEvoy likes to believe, viz., that he 
has never let King Edward ascend the throne, 
that he has kept the late Queen for ever at middle 
age, kept only the earliest form of horse-'bus, and 
arrested fashion. It is true that a powerful artist is 
as powerful as that — that whilst the rest of the 
world is carried swiftly to a noisy destiny, he just 
drops behind and refuses to go on ; and then find- 
ing that he is left alone, that all the people he 
wished to remain with are dead, he raises their 
spirits in his art. We have just spoken of the 
houses he has painted and called Bessborough Street. 
For once he was not an artist, or he would not in 
this picture have given a name to that street. Go 
softly by such windows — behind them some one 
with a temperament may be raising ghosts ! 



Victor Rousseau, Sculptor 




in which it should be 
approached, and whether 
we can let our own thoughts 
dwell in that atmosphere 
with pleasure or not, 
whether we respond or 
recoil, by our feeling that 
a spell has been thrown we 
acknowledge in this art that 
which pertains to the 
highest art — the power to 
prompt and suggest our 
mood, or provide the en- 
vironment, if we will, when 
in certain moods we delib- 
erately turn to art for 
protection from reality. 

In concluding this brief 
characterisation of Mr. 
McEvoy's art, mention 
should be made of the 
fact that the pictures from 
which the accompanying 
illustrations have been re- 
produced, including The 
Convakscenf, which is given 
as a coloured supplement, 
formed part of an exhibi- 
tion of the artist's works 
held at the Bury Street 
Galleries of Messrs. Carfax 
(S: Co., Ltd., some three 
or four months ago. 

T. M. W. 

It is, I think, the poet in Mr. McEvoy, which with 
all the rest of his nature must find expression in his 
art, that has up to the present made him reject 
to-day in favour of yesterday, and in his pictures we 
may see the drama of uneventful daily life as we 
cannot see it when it is quite near. With so delicate 
an indication of sentiment to be made, prettiness 
must at any cost be avoided, and the realism of 
the treatment must .show that a mirror has thus been 
held up to life at its stillest moments. To where 
in art such moments are reflected many of us would 
for preference turn, but the by-gone environment 
to which the artist has elected to return, and which 
he has realised with unmistakable genius, is not, 
as he has reconstructed it, congenial to the thoughts 
of the writer of this article. That, however, is 
merely an affair of temperament, and it must be 
recognised that art such as this has an 
atmosphere all its own, itself prompts the mood 



In the introduction to his study on the " Renais- 
sance of Sculpture in Belgium" ("The Portfolio," 
November, 1895), M. G. O. Destree brought out 
the fact, little known by the public, that Belgian 
sculpture during the Middle Ages and the Renais- 
sance was not exclusively Flemish ; that, on the 
contrary, its appearance and its early development 
occurred in the Walloon provinces, and, further, 
that this Walloon school, which remained very 
brilliant till the end of the sixteenth century, 
created an individual style. The writer added 
that the school in question seemed likely to be 
revived in the persons of three young sculptors 
whose work he proposed to examine — MM. Achille 
Chainaye, Jean-Marie Gaspar, and Victor Rousseau. 


Victor Rousseau, Sculptor 


( See previous article) 

Again, in 1904, in an article on Rousseau con- 
tributed to the magazine " L'Art Flamand et 
Hollandais," M. Paul Lambotte writes: "In 
Belgium a wrong comprehension of Flemish tradi- 
tions, an absurd misapprehension of the tempera- 
ment of the race, have led 
many artists astray. IVIar- 
vellous but uncultivated 
technicians, incapable of 
deep thought, they know- 
not what to do with their 
talent ; and relieve the 
necessity to produce by 
which they are tormented 
in the realisation of pleas- 
ing, aimless works, such as 
fine animal forms (should 
they be sculptors), or, in 
the case of painters, in 
pictures of sumptuous 
colouring like a rich ])icce 
of still life. All tliis is 
nought but a sterile side of 
art, and our artists have 
proved it abundantly in the 

The precise characteristic 
of the art of Victor Rous- 
seau is that he has never 
been content witli easy "the gold shawl' 

production of this sort, but 
has always striven to pre- 
sent the plastic expression 
of some lofty idea. He 
declines to give but the 
empty form, the i-im])le 
morceau bien venii ; each of 
his w(jrks must grip the 
attention, and charm not 
alone by its beauty of 
execution, but also by its 
well-thought-out composi- 
tion provoking meditation. 
Nevertheless, as it has been 
well said, each morceau 
from the hands of Victor 
Rousseau displays an at- 
tempt to achieve an invari- 
able perfection ; the artist 
is no less a producer of 
line work (what we term 
bel onvrier), than a sculptor 
of inventiveness and pro- 
found thought. The fear 
of spoiling the ensemble effect, the mystery, the 
savour of a work by carrying his details to its 
extreme limits is a thing unknown to him. He 
possesses the capacity to remain broad and great 
wxihont Jignolage, while modelling with impeccable 


(See previous article) 


Victor Rousseau, Sculptor 

touch the most delicate extremities of a statuette 
no higher than one's fist, 

Victor Rousseau was born at Feluy-Arquennes, 
a village in the province of Hainaut (Belgium), on 
December i6, 1865. His father was a stonemason. 

" From my earliest years " (he writes to M. Du 
Jardin, author of " L'Art Flamand ") " I was set 
to study my father's calling. It was not till I 
was nearly fifteen that I began to attend the night 
classes at the Brussels Academy, then going to the 
drawing school at St. Josse-ten-Noode (one of the 
suburbs of the capital) in order to learn orna- 
mental sculpture, for during the daytime I used to 
carve stone and marble until I had nearly reached 
the age of nineteen. At that time, having 
attracted the notice of Houtstont, the sculptor- 
decorator, I entered his modelling rooms, and did 
not leave them till 1890. 

"In my odd moments, from the year 1887, I 
had devoted myself to the 
study of statuary ; and thus 
it was I became the pupil 
of Vanderstappen at the 
Brussels Academy in 1888 
-9, and laureate of his class 
in my first year. This, I 
may say, was the first figure 
class I had attended. But 
for three consecutive years 
I followed the dissecting 
course at the University, 
and I drew a good deal. I 
won the ' Godecharles ' 
prize (a travelling scholar- 
ship) with my Tourmente de 
la Pens'ee at the Brussels 
triennial Salon in 1890, and 
in that same year I married 
Frangoise Deloeul. Then» 
during the years 1891, 1892 
and 1893, I travelled in 
England, France and Italy, 
and exhibited successively 
in the Salons of the ' Pour 
I'Art ' club the following 
works : Puberte (torso of 
a young girl) ; L Amour 
Virginal (a low relief, 
which appeared also at the 
Brussels triennial Salon of 
1893; this was the first 
of my works to attract 
the notice of artists and 
connoisseurs) ; Cantique 

{TAmoi/r, Orphee, the Liseiir, Demeter, and ^ (in 
bronze) the Coupe des Voluptes, Danse Antique ; 
some candelabras intended for the Botanical 
Gardens in Brussels, and two statues, Le Jeu and 
Le Vent. I devoted myself to the restoration of 
the ' Maison des Boulangers,' one of the gems 
of the Grande Place, Brussels, and I am re- 
sponsible for the commemorative plaque in con- 
nection with the restoration of the ancient 
house in the Grande Place. This plaque^ which 
the artists dedicated to M. Charles Buls, the 
burgomaster, is incrusted in the wall of one of 
the houses in the Rue Charles Buls, facing the 
Hotel de Ville." 

In 1902 appeared Les Sivurs de l' Illusion, the 
fruit of several years of labour, and, so far, the 
young artist's most important work. This group 
of three young women, of rather more than 
life size, symbolises the Past, the Present, and the 





Victor Rousseau, Sculptor 

Future. The figures are seated, and are united 
in a most harmonious movement. 

" The eldest of the three " (writes M. Lam- 
botte), " suffering already from the realities of life, 
takes refuge in the sadness of her deception. Full 
of bitterness, and living again in an irrecoverable 
past, she bends forward, motionless, with all the 
scorn of her useless strength, and, nobly resigned, 
is the incarnation of the contemplative life. The 
second woman is represented in an instantaneous 
gesture : leaning towards her younger companion, 
she counsels an active life ; but the maiden with 
eyes closed to the external world remains wrapped 
in her inviolate dreaming. The whole future, in 
all its force, lies beneath her smooth brow, her fair 
illusions are not yet vanished, the brutalite oi the 
present, no less than the rancour of the past, has 
no effect upon her hopes. This work combines 
with beauty of imagination a perfection which is 
quite astonishing. The accuracy of proportions, 
the nobility of gesture, the aristocracy of the types, 
the harmony and the amplitude of the grouping, 
together with the technical knowledge shown in 
the realisation, combine to make up an ensemble 
the charm of which is undeniable." 

No less remarkable than his imaginative works, 
the portraits — and they are many — already pro- 
duced by Victor Rousseau, 
proclaim the deep and virile 
nature of his marvellous 
talent. Without exception 
these portraits reveal some- 
thing more than a mere 
superficial and passing 
aspect ; they form — it has 
been well said — " plastic 
interpretation of brains and 
temperaments, and they 
have a generalised but 
definite resemblance which 
counts for much more than 
mechanical observation." 

One of his first successes 
was the truly masterly bust 
he did of Madame Fran- 
^oise Rousseau — "the com- 
panion with the great heart 
and the lofty mind, who 
sustains and aids the artist's 
efforts with admirable con- 

In ills busts of children 
the subtle sculptor has 
taken a pleasure, one may 

say, in following the complex modelling of these 
faces, with their outlines at once so precise and so 
indefinite. In his busts of women he has gladly 
emphasised the delicacy of the features and the 
suppleness of their movements, always displaying 
proof of a most personal method of interpretation. 
If, for instance, the small bust of Madame de 
Gerlache in terra cotta and onyx, in its mode of pre- 
sentation, recalls the French art of the eighteenth 
century, it is nevertheless impossible to assert that 
it brings back the memory of any particular work 
of that period. 

The same with a little bust of a young girl, in- 
tended to form part of a decorative ensemble in the 
style of the Italian Renaissance. It is so in- 
geniously composed in all its parts that it never 
brings to the mind any suggestion of copying or of 

In the reproduction of the bust of Mile. S. now 
given (p. 1 08), one sees with what pleasure the 
artist has displayed in definite fashion the curious 
beauty of this young girl, the strange charm of her 
ingenuous features, the suppleness of the graceful 
curve of her neck. 

But it is m the very fine bust of Constantin 
Meunier, also reproduced here, that the young 
sculptor has risen to the greatest height. Meunier 

' l'ete • 


Victor Rousseau, Sculptor 



is indeed here, andj for ever, the good and great 
artist who was beloved by all who knew him. 
Here is his face, infinitely "respectable," with his 
brow all wrinkled by the effort of thought and the 
weight of care, with the pale eyes so kind and so 
firm in their gaze, the strong lips, whence came 
the slow, soft speech, the broad shoulders sunken 
with the burden of toil and of existence. Indeed, 
artist and model were worthy the one of the other. 
At the same time — as M. Lambotte has most 
judiciously remarked— the works most character- 
istic of Victor Rousseau's talent — one might even 
say of his manner — are those of small dimensions, 
and generally executed in bronze ; they are ren- 
dered infinitely precious by the refinement and the 
precision of their execution. These works, which 
form a numerous and very varied series, seem all 
akin, by reason of the artist's constant care to 
achieve a definite composition, a consecutive form, 
a suppleness of line and a facture at once minute 
and broad of faces and extremities. One may 
discover therein also a certain predilection for two 
very special types — a young man of supreme grace 

of proportions and movements, and young girl, 
of ingenuous grace and charm. 

The Coupe des Voluptks is perhaps the marvel 
among this series of little marvels, which includes — 
to name but a few — Vers la Vie (Brussels Gallery), 
Les Curieuses, Sous les Etoiles, La Femme au 
Chapeaii, and L^ Etc. 

By way of concluding this short notice one can- 
not do better than again borrow from M. Lambotte, 
and employ the terms in which he himself sums 
up his subject : " Victor Rousseau constitutes an 
individuality clearly characterised. Like Rodin, 
and like Lambeaux, but in another way and with 
his own means, a form restrained and everywhere 
definite, with no concession to the unexpected, 
the incomplete, he realises masterpieces of pal- 
pitating life, of dreamy intellectuality. He in his 
turn ranks among the masters of our marvellous 
present school of sculpture : he is himself, and 
indeed one of us, despite his clear conciseness and 
his conception of a sober beauty." F. K. 

( Two further illustrations to this article aie given on the 
next page. ) 



















Martin Pottery 



We have on several occasions drawn the attention 
of readers of The Studio to certain features in 
the pottery of Japan which are usually ignored by 
students of ceramic art, although, as a matter of fact, 
they display evidences of the most skilled crafts- 
manship. The idea that art is only exhibited in 
pottery when it is covered with painted ornament 
is still very firmly impressed in the minds of many 
people, who would deny all aesthetic qualities of 
the potter's craft which do not show the painter's 
craftsmanship and skill. In saying this, it must not 

FIG. I. 


be thought that we underrate the painter's beautiful 
art when applied to the decoration of porcelain or 
earthenware ; our preferences are, however, for 
those features which are essentially characteristic 
of the potter's craft — the manipulation of clays of 
varied texture and of coloured glazes, and of such 
decorative treatment as essentially belongs to the 
potter's art, and bears no resemblance to that of 
other crafts. The work of the old Japanese potters 
is particularly rich in these qualities. Kenzan, 
Ninsei, Rokubei, and many others produced wares 
which were full of individuality, and displayed 
the intimate and extensive knowledge which they 
possessed of their craft, and an aesthetic per- 


ception which is too often lacking in modern 
European and American productions. 

Indeed, it is rarely that the separate achievements 
of any Western potter contain evidence of such 
comprehension and skill as may be found in those 
of the Far East. Yet, it may gratefully be admitted 
that there have been a few workers in France, 
Germany, and England, who, in recent years, have 
taken some delight in developing the true qualities 
of their craft, and have given to each object which 



Martin Pottery 

has come from their hands a distinction not to examined with advantage from two pomts of 
be found in the general mass of contemporary view-one in relation to the technical qualities 
ceramic work. Among the honoured names of of their production, the other to the characteristics 
such craftsmen those of the Martin Brothers, of of their ornament. Of their technical qualities it 
London, are especially worthy of distinction. For 
many years past these artists have produced from 
year to year a few objects, which have been for 
the most part eagerly sought for by collectors and 
others. Much of their early work depended for 
its main interest on the incised decoration of birds, 


ilsli or flowers with which it was enriched. But 
during the last few years they have materially 
broadened their point of view, and have sought after 
and obtained many original modes of expression 
which lend to their productions a charm which, 
without being in any way imitative, recalls the 
work of the old potters of Japan. We shall pur- 
I )()sely confine our remarks to these later features 
of their work, as we consider them to be of especial 
interest at this time. 

The few examples we nrnv illustrate may be 


may be remarked that the earths employed, 
while varied in character, are uniformly 
dense in consistency and of excellent 
quality. The decoration is usually obtained 
by the use of "slip," either incised in the 
Mishima style of Japan, or applied to the 



Martin Pottery 

surface with a brush. Salt gla/e 
in connection with coloured 
enamels is judiciously employed, 
and the makers have been es- 
pecially successful in the pro- 
duction of a very fine dullish 
black, which has all the excellent 
(jualities of the best Chinese 
jjrototypes. The (juaint and 
irregular shapes given to the 
various objects are uncommon 
without being bizarre. The 
decoration is, for the most part, 
intimately connected with the 
manufacture of the object, and 
not, as it were, an afterthought. 
In this respect their later work 
differs materially from some of 
their earlier, and is proportion- 
ately the more commendable. 

AV^hen Nature decorates her 

own productions, such as an egg, 

a shell, a flower or a fruit, she 

does not reproduce the forms of other natural objects. She 

does not paint a lily on an egg, a bird on a shell, a fish 

on a flower, or the portrait of a man on a fruit. Each 


FIG. 7. 


and in doing so have borrowed many ideas 
from eggs and shells and other natural 
forms, not in strict imitation, but as 
suggestions for suitable ornament. For 
example, the "slip" decoration on Fig. i, 






one of these objects has a simple type of decoration of probably 
more or less use to its existence, or it may be the outcome of form 
and growth. 

It would seem to us that the Martin Brothers, consciously or 
unconsciously, have endeavoured to follow these precepts of Nature, 


I I I 

% # 


Martin Pottery 

without being a copy of the markings upon a melon, 
seems to us to have been suggested by them ; that of 
Fig. 2 — an excellent one to bring out the " broken " 
colour of running glazes — might have resulted from 
the appearance of a corn-cob, from which the grain 
has been extracted. Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 have 
characteristics of surface, form or decoration, which 
remind one of certain sea-shells or sea-weed ; 
Fig. 7 displays the net-like structure of certain 
organisms ; P'ig. 8 has a texture not unlike that 
of a cabbage ; Fig. 9, the skin of a wild animal ; 
while Fig. 10 simulates in its colour and texture 
To have imitated exactly such objects 

device apparently selected with the same object in 
view. Figs. 3 and 4, with their shell-like qualities 

an egg. 





would have been inappropriate and inartistic ; but 
to have allowed them to suggest a scheme of orna- 
mentation adapted to the technical requirements 
and qualities of the material is entirely permissible. 
The striations on Fig. i follow and accentuate 
the form of the vase, breaking up the surface into 
pleasant irregularity, and display the coloured 
enamel to great advantage. Fig. 2 is simply another 


of surface, are admirable examples of the clever 
manipulation of glazes — Fig. 4 being, indeed, a 
chef d'oeuvre of the potter's art — alike perfect in 
potting and glazing. The striations in the panels 
are incised and not painted. 



Incised pattern filled in with paste of a different 
colour to the body of the ware, which we have 
referred to as Mishima, was a favourite method 
of decoration of the old Corean and Japanese 
potters. It is a class of ornamentation which can 
only be produced by the potter himself, as it must 
be completed while the clay is in a damp state, 
before it is fired. It is one which has been some- 
what neglected in Europe. In recent years the 



Isobclle Dods- IJ/itliers 

Dutch potters have practised it to a limited extent, 
but no work has been produced in the West of this 
character to compare in excellence with that of the 
Yatsushiro potters. Figs, ii to i6 are types of 
this class made by the Martin Brothers, and they 
have the merit of being cjuite original in conception. 
The other examples here illustrated are .selected to 
show a few more of the many varieties of form and 
treatment, and help to display the makers' power of 
invention and diversity of treatment. 

One is apt, without careful examination, to fail 
to give full credit to the potter for the laborious 
and skilful manipulation necessary to the successful 
production of Mishima decoration. The Martin 
Brothers have been singularly happy in their 
efforts in this direction, and their departure in 
style from all previous examples is most com- 
mendable. This inlaid work is open to numerous 
variations and developments, and there will be no 
necessity for them in future years to repeat their 
earlier successes. And of this there need be no 
fear, if they continue to work upon the admirable 
lines they have hitherto followed. 

The Martins have an excellent plan of incising 
in the foot or back of each piece their name and 
the date of its ])roduction. One may thus trace 
the special successes of each year, and all spurious 
imitations may be readily detected. By the avoid- 
ance of imitation and repetition, and by the faculty 
of invention and knowledge of the possibilities of 
his craft, there is no reason why the potter should 
not in the future, as he has done upon rare 
occasions in the past, rise to the greatest distinction 
as an artist, and we cannot but feel that the 
Martin Brothers are on the right road to such 
an eminence. 

Our thanks arc due to the Artificers' Ouild, 
Maddox Street, London, for their permission to 
illustrate the examples reproduced in Figs, i, 2, 16, 
24 and 26 from their varied collection. 



Artists in this decade have lived in fear 
of the word picturesque — but there is a new 



I I : 

Isobelle Dods-lVithers 

picturesque of which the art of Mrs. Dods-Withers 
may be taken as a specimen, ^^^e cannot think of 
another artist who has dwelt with so much affection 
upon the subject of lonely and impressive build- 
ings, unless w'e recall those terribly lonely-looking 
chateaux which Victor Hugo used to draw with his 
pen in the moments w-hen that vivid pen was not 

parade forlornly and reproachfully their ancient 

If thus lightly we have sketched her motives, it 
is because they are so completely revealed in her 
craft, and the craftsmanship of a true artist is 
always so personal a matter that it is not to be 
analysed. Craftsmanship which is not subordinated 

writing. It is so easy to be theatrical and so very to subject, but which goes through its tricks prettily 
difficult to lift the few sweeping main lines which without losing itself in some personal aim, is not 
give the grandeur of these scenes into the border- to be very highly considered. The technique of 
lines of a canvas in a manner that is beautiful and Mrs. Dods-Withers is unaggressive, it loses itself in 
impressive; this Mrs, Dods-Withers succeeds in the subject — but though her art is often very 
doing, for one of her gifts is the selection of the dreamy, it is never unreal. Truth of shape in the 
point of view which can 
give her the most impres- 
sive aspect of her subject. 
Art of the pompous kind is 
always marching through 
our exhibitions, but the 
lightof "the true romance" 
is only glinting here and 

The charm of Mrs. 
Dods-Withers' work is that 
it seems inspired by the 
historic associations of 
those places she depicts. 
Nearly all her canvases 
are left empty of figures, 
that we may people them 
from our own thoughts. 
She prompts our imagina- 
tion with her manner of 
presenting her subject : 
heavy white clouds em- 
battling the sky above the 
hauteur of a castle wall 
which has remained to an 
age that has forgotten 
how to fashion such archi- 
tecture. It was when the 
armed knights came out 
of the gates of these places 
for the last time that 
Romance entered in and 
made her dwelling. Of 
stirring mediaeval times 
there is a whisper in the 
trees which stand as sen- 
tinels, whilst the many 
houses for the tourist 
advance to the foot of 
tin; hills, where these 
ancient houses still 




I sob el I e Dods- With ers 

masses which the lines of her composition define, 
and truth of tone, help her art in its persuasive 
statement of how fair this world is in certain places. 
The simplification of masses of form which is an 
instinct with her, gives significance to those few 
things which she elects to emphasise in the repre- 
sentation of a complicated scene on canvas. She 
is drawn to trees of a certain formation, represent- 
ing them as many times as possible, as if to .say 
over again to every friend her art makes for her 
how much the beauty of their shape has given her 
pleasure. Such affection for some particular shapes 
in nature, a preference for them over other shapes, 
belongs to everyone. They are fortunate who 
identify their preferences with those of this artist, 
for whatever she feels she expresses with that cer- 
tainty which conveys to her art the rare quality 
which is known as charm. Some day all her 
canvases will be separated from each other, if they 
are not so already ; various purchasers of her works 
will have carried them off in different directions, 

so it is comforting to reflect that certain notes 
which she can strike with a magic that gives them 
so much meaning have been struck by her many 
times, her real feeling for a few things insuring 
with every repetition of them spontaneity and 
grace. The quality of Mrs. Dods-Withers' tech- 
nique is of that refinement that adds to the poetry 
of her subject. 

As happens with only the few, Mrs. Dods- 
Withers seemed Minerva-like to come equipped 
as an artist to our exhibitions, without undergoing 
training, with the exception of some short study 
under Mr. Alexander Roche, R.S.A., and the late 
Miss Christina Ross, R.S.W., of Edinburgh. 
Recognising her individuality, both these teachers 
([uickly let her take her own way. But not at first 
apparently did the artist realise the measure of her 
gifts. It remained for others to appreciate them ; 
and onl}- during the last five years has she taken 
her art seriously. During that time success has 
not lagged. Lately the Museum of 1 )iJsseldorf has 

"on the tarn at albt 



Isobclle Dods-JVithers 

bought her picture The White House by the River, 
after its exhibition with the International Society 
of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, in London. 
The artist is at present holding a small exhibition 
of her pictures and sketches at the Lyceum Club, 
while at the exhibition of the Society of Twenty- 
Five Painters, which is at present being held in 
London (and to which an article is devoted in 
this number), her picture Gerona is an important 
feature. She is a member of the Pastel Society, 
and it is at the exhibitions of this society that 
one meets with a most delightful phase of her 
art, such as our coloured reproduction represents, 
in which her delicate low-toned colour and appre- 
ciation of pastel quality give us a result eminently 

Hitherto Mrs. Dods-Withers has out of love for 
one kind of landscape, rendered it so well ; but 
the world is wide, and though the brief period 
during which she has painted for exhibition could 

not possibly have enabled her to cover a wider 
field with such important results, these results 
teach us to anticipate many things for the future, 
when, roaming further, her romantic vision makes 
conquests in other fields. Only it is to be hoped 
that subjects such as those illustrated with this 
article will still receive interpretation through her 
brush, otherwise regret would follow the ending of 
such a fascinating chapter. 

The old-fashioned painters, who were deliberately 
picturesque, spoke of putting "life" into their 
pictures by the introduction of a human figure. 
It remains for so truly modern an artist as Mrs. 
Dods-Withers, painting for the responsive imagina- 
tion of the sensitive modern public to content her- 
self with the life which belongs to any place in 
which human history has once been made. Her 
colour and form, as we have indicated, are con- 
trolled by the spirit in which she works. With an 
almost topographical regard for reality in choosing 

I 20 



Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

her subjects, she yet ahvays escapes that realism of 
mud and mortar which is almost the only renderung 
that we see of these historic walls. Perhaps in 
this all too short article we have been able to cite 
more than one reason why this art has immediately 
called attention to itself, and to a certain type of 
mind makes special appeal. T. Oldford. 



Last month we reproduced various 
architectural designs which had been on view at 
this year's Royal Academy Exhibition, and we now 
have pleasure in reproducing some interesting 
designs by Mr. C. E. Mallows, F.R.I. B.A., which 

TTndpr the ausnices of the Royal British Colonial also figured on the walls of the Architectural Room 
Lnder the auspices ottnei^o> ,^,„.,..^, .. .k« A^.Hpmv The first four illustrations are 

Society of Artists and an influential body of Colonial 
guarantors, an important exhibition of works by 
British artists is to be held in Melbourne during 
the months of March, April and May of next year. 
The society was inaugurated by a few well-known 
painters in i8S6, under the title of "The Anglo- 
Australian Society of 
Artists," for the purpose 
of organising exhibitions 
of pictures, both for sale 
and for educational pur- 
poses, in the Australian 
colonies, and successful 
exhibitions were held in 
1889, 1890-1 and 1891-2, 
but that held in 1893, 
the disastrous year of 
panic and bank failures, 
proved a heavy loss to 
the guarantors. The 
exhibition about to take 
place is the first promoted 
by the society (which 
received its present title 
in 1904) since that time, 
and will comprise three 
sections, viz. : — a cor- 
porate exhibit of works 
by members of the 
society ; a specially in- 
vited section of notable 
pictures ; and a small 
British loan section, in- 
cluding already pro- 
mised works by Watts, 
Sargent, Millais, Burne- 
Jones and other painters 
of eminence. Mr. Joshua 
Lake, M.A., who acted as 
managing director for the 
colonial guarantors in 
connection with the 
earlier exhibitions, is 
again acting in the same 

at the Academy. The first four illustrations are 
from drawings of Tirley Court, a house now being 
built at Tirley, near Tarporley in Cheshire. It is 
fortunate in possessing what is probably one of the 
finest sites in that county, being on the southern 
side of one of the highest hills in Cheshire, affording 













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Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 





= '3owu«r !' 




made many successful 
efforts in that direction 
elsewhere, and from the 
architect. The cottages, 
lodges, and stables form- 
ing part of the general 
scheme, follow the general 
character of the house and 
are built of the same 

The other design by 
Mr. Mallows here repro- 
duced, namely, that for 
a water - garden, tennis 
court, pergola, etc., is 
a detail from a general 
scheme for a large house and garden for her Grace 
the Duchess-Dowager of Sutherland, proposed to be 



magnificent views from the principal fronts and 
gardens over a beautiful valley which has the 
Welsh hills as a distant background. The drawings constructed on the Warren Estate at Crowborough. 
reproduced illustrate only a portion of the general Our next illustrations are those of a house at 

scheme of house, garden, stables, double cottages, Knutsford, of which Mr. Percy Worthington, M.A., 
and lodges all of which 
are now being carried out 
rom Mr. Mallows' designs 
and under his supervision. 
The materials which are 
being used are Hollington 
stone and rough-cast for 
the walls, and Yorkshire 
graded stone slabs for the 
roofs as indicated on the 
drawings. All the win- 
dows with their mullions 
are of Hollington stone, 
except those under the 
cloister walks, which are 
of English oak. English 
oak will also be used for 
the internal joinery and 
for floors to the principal 
rooms. Elsewhere the 
floors will be of American 
maple, and the joinery of 
Canary white w'ood, which 
in time tones to varying 
shades of brown with very 
delightful effects. The 
design of the gardens, a 
portion of which only is 
indicated on the outline 
plan, has received parti- 
cular care and attention 
both from the owner, Mr. 
Leesmith, who has already 


BY C. E. 


Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

is the architect. Apropos of this house our Man- 
chester correspondent writes :—" In 'Woodgarth' 
the architect, aided by the practical artistic appre- 
ciation of his client, Mr. Wragge, has produced 
what will rank as one of the beautiful homes of 
England. Lying off the beaten tract in the heart 
of a silver birch and pine copse, and approached 
through a circular-topped oak gateway, the house, 
being L-shaped, seems like two out-held arms, the 
main door and vestibule filling the centre angle ; 
on the left the loft, stabling, kitchen and servants' 
rooms; on the right the hall, dining, study, billiard 
and overhead bedrooms. The roof, of many- 
coloured stone slabs, makes a delightful scheme, 
from which the rain-water heads and down pipes 
form, practically and artistically, a strap-like part 
of the exterior decoration in oak, alternately 
checked in black and white. At the back one 
empties into a green 
barrel, forming a unique 
contrast with the side of 
the yard arch, the plain 
upper portion of the wall 
relieved by the careful 
arrangement of a sun- 
dial above the keystone. 
From the top of the 
steps on the left, leading 
up to the back entrance, 
a view is obtained of the 
wild woodland, in har- 
mony with which is the 
pergola at the lawn end, 
where, as in the adjacent 
copse, the feathered 
songsters can build and 
rest in peace. The wood- 
work of the hall (see page 
1 28) is dull oak panelled, 
finished by slight mould- 
ing, in line with the door 
tops, and above a frieze 
of white plaster ; the 
ceiling of the same 
material, relieved by an 
elliptical mould, inter- 
sected in four by excel- 
lently modelled cherub 
heads. The chimney- 
piece is in harmonious 
stone, forming a frame- 
work for the delicately 
coloured side - tiles in 
green, pale rose and 

orange, and a plain, self-coloured background for 
the quaintly squared grate. The rugs and carpet- 
ing are in keeping with the tile colouring, and 
the dark oak furniture of old English design 
selected with much thoughtfulness. A lighter 
note is struck in the dining and breakfast-room 
(page 129), with its beamed ceiling, white plaster 
walls, green casement curtains, and the richly 
designed beaten brass canopy, the silver grey strip 
marble border and cream tiles. The furniture, 
which is made of deep-toned mahogany, and con- 
sists only of such pieces as are of use and in 
unity with the entire surroundings, completes a 
room of new life and peaceful association. In 
the study the same quiet restraint is carried out. 
In the billiard room (see illustration on page 129) 
comfort and freedom constitute the pervading 
melody. The walls are oak panelled to the 




Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



ceiling, and the constructional beams are left noticeable. It is a home, too, where the servants 
bare. A log fire blazes under a wrought-iron are considered human, and as much interest 
canopy, and the flames flicker round the large brought to bear upon the decoration and comfort 
square green tiles which line the recess and reflect of their sitting and bedrooms as is bestowed upon 
both light and warmth; the hearth itself is of those of its owners." 
unglazed red brick, set 
under an archway of grey 
stone, surmounted by a 
projecting overmantel 
decoration of alcoved 
figures. The uncarpeted 
oak stairway leads hence 
along a corridor of white 
plaster, strapped alter- 
nately by the natural 
finished woodwork, where 
each unpolished white 
door and black homely 
latch admits to the bed- 
rooms, in which the same 
prevailing dignity, thought- 
ful furniture and un- 
affected decoration are in 
evidence. Throughout 
the house, in fact, this 
thoughtfulness of design 
and excellence of work- 


manship are everywhere i^^j^^v worthington, architect 



























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The Society of Twenty-Five Painters 


The exhibition of the "Twenty-five" at Messrs. 
Marchant's Goupil Gallery starts the important 
exhibitions of the season, and it marks the return 
of some well-known artists to town. The clock- 
work of the exhibition season in London to some 

the elegancies of picture-making which the first 
impressionists so roughly set aside ; yet on this 
occasion they show themselves distinctly "on 
the side of the angels" — of light, let us add. 
They are all impressionists, meeting Nature out- 
side the ancient landscape garden from which 
impressionism was the gate. Our illustrations will 
emphasise our meaning. It is not difficult to see 
in all the work a high regard for the great tradition 

extent regulates the coming and going of artists, of composition, which the extreme impressionists 

and in the case of an exhibition held close upon 
their return to London there must be something 
different in its nature from exhibitions towards 
which painters work through the long dark days of 
winter in their London studios, separated some- 

ignored, or, at all events, defined in such a way 
that anything on the face of the earth which could 
be pictured within the limits of a canvas was 
considered composition. 

\\'hether this idea of how to make a picture was 

times by many months from direct intimacy with brought to birth with the advent of the camera, or 
nature, whose promptings come in a very thin whether the camera has since come fully into play 
voice by the exhibitions of the spring. and partly killed it, no one can say — but of this 

A society such as the 
"Twenty-five" is not with- 
out significance in the 
politics of current art. In 
its formation one may 
look for something more 
than the mere agreement 
of twenty-five individual 
painters to exhibit together 
— one looks for some- 
thing they have in com- 
mon, though the group 
comprises painters with 
quite dissimilar motives 
and styles. An examina- 
tion individually of the 
aims of some of the mem- 
bers, as apparent from 
their work, was attempted 
last year in these pages 
when noticing their 
second exhibition. In 
dealing with the subject 
then our consideration 
was very largely given to 
the figure-subject painters, 
and it were well perhaps 
on this occasion to devote 
most of our space to the 
landscape side of their 

Last year we noted that 
the landscape painters 
who exhibited had, for 
the most part, this trait 
in common, a regard for 





The Society of Twenty-Five Painters 

"llanbedrog bay" 




The Society of Tiveiity-Five Painters 

" FOWLS ' 

snapshotting from the colour-box there is hardly a 
trace in the exhibition of which we write. On the 
other hand we have such work as Mr. Hughes 
Stanton's and Mr. Russell's, with that quality of 
emotion which has always belonged to English 
landscape — the emotion which has quickly tired of 
those intellectualities of impressionism which suited 
the colder genius of France. Uncertain clouds 
drifting over open country in conflict with the 
sunlight — such moods 
in nature have always 
seemed subtly responsive 
to human feeling 5 and 
in the rendering of such 
an effect upon his canvas 
Mr. Hughes Stanton has, 
by "lyrical facility," anti- 
cipated in his result the 
coldest arithmetic oi tones. 
But then, as a landscape 
artist Mr. Hughes Stanton 
has not many rivals. 

Somehow when modern 
work departs from the con- 
sciously scientific attitude 
towards nature, or from its 
opposite, that pretty, super- 
ficial imitation of nature 
which bulks all too largely 
in every exhibition, we are 
left with an art which takes 
romantic shape, as the will 
of its composer builds it 

to suit his mood. Where 
his mood is not sincere 
and cannot sustain itself, 
we get perhaps the most 
objectionable shape of 
landscape art, that empty 
formalism, in the escape 
from which the past excit- 
ing history of modern 
landscape painting has 
been written. The best 
landscapes in this exhibi- 
tion are romantically com- 
posed ; soon a circle will 
be completed, and land- 
scape art will unreservedly 
acknowledge the tradi- 
tions of pre-Turner days. 
But in again taking up 
the creative ideal in place 
of the interpretative one, 
they will not be able to rid themselves of the 
responsibilities which have since been laid upon 
them by the analysis of science through which 
their art since then has gone. 

Because of the interesting problems which modern 
landscape art presents as to its intentions in the 
future, we have welcomed the opportunity of read- 
ing from this exhibition some sign of the times. 
In regard to the figure painting, here also do we 




The Society of Twenty-Five Painters 

" spring" 

find only artists with that dignified conception of 
their business which has come to seem a rare 
thing. The public whom we address are very 
familiar with the stand which such painters as 
Mr. R. Anning Bell and Prof. Gerald Moira have 
made for art which has troubled to learn certain 
old recondite rules for which the vulgarity of much 
modern brushwork makes a declaration of distaste. 
The splitting up of the art world into communi- 
ties is a much discussed 
question. Modern art in 
the various recognised 
forms of its heresy has 
assumed almost as many 
diverse shapes as religion 
has in the United States, 
and a narrow view of 
truth has accounted for 
such segregation in nearly 
every case ; hence there 
is something attractive in 
a society which allows to 
each of its twenty-five 
members a point of view 
entirely his own. In this 
exhibition we have the 
prototype of that unity 
of aim with difference of 
inspiration which it may 
be hoped will some day 
reconcile the factions in 
London who at present 


turn each other's work out 
of doors. All the pain- 
ters have in their turn in- 
terested different sections 
of the public in the 
chief London exhibitions. 
Each one enjoys a unique 
place, somewhat away 
from the beaten track that 
is trodden, say, to the 
Royal Academy Exhibi- 
tion ; though there, as 
elsewhere, their work is 
always largely represented. 
The public will know how 
to find their own favourites 
in the exhibition without 
any leading from us, and 
they have this guarantee 
from the nature of the 
society's formation, that no 
work which has not already 
established its reputation can find its entry therein. 
At the Barcelona Exhibition eight of the awards 
for painting which have just been made fell to 
members of the society, and seven of the works 
bought by the Barcelona Art Museum were also 
painted by its members. In indicating how tho- 
roughly this group of artists is representative of 
important work of the day, our task has perhaps 
been unnecessary in the case of the majority of 




The Society of Twenty-Five Painters 



the society is the excel- 
lence of its organisation 
and the unanimity of 
intention on the part of 
its members. To the per- 
fection of the society's 
arrangements some of the 
pleasure which the pic- 
tures here excite is un- 
doubtedly due, for a 
well-hung exhibition, with 
an orderly arrangement of 
the various members' con- 
tributions, does help the 
visitor to concentrate en- 
tirely upon the pictures 
and to address himself 
simply to the task of 
studying the same. 

readers of this magazine, but 
there must still be people for 
whom the combination of 
forces made by a particular 
group of artists has at first 
little significance. To those 
who are well-informed on 
the subject of current art it 
is hardly necessary to do 
more than mention the names 
of the members who consti- 
tute the society to show what 
tendencies are uppermost. 
In addition to those whose 
work is here reproduced and 
Mrs. Dods -Withers, to whom 
we devote an article in this 
number, the society is com- 
posed of Messrs. Melton 
Fisher, Bertram Priestman, 
Grosvenor Thomas, Terrick 
Williams, R. Anning Bell, 
Oliver Hall, Dudley Hardy, 
J. L. Henry, E. A. Hornel, 
Gerald Moira, Cecil Rea, 
W. W. Russell, Montagu 
Smyth, and Miss Constance 
Halford, several of whom 
have already been the sub- 
ject of separate and recent 
notice in these pages. 

The exhibition has been 
admirably hung at the Goupil 
Gallery ; indeed, a feature of 



studio- Talk 


(From our Own Correspotidents) 

LONDON.— The subject of our frontispiece 
this month is the picture by J. McN. 
Whistler which was bought by the 
National Art Collections Fund from the 
memorial exhibition of his works at the New 
Gallery, and presented to the nation. In the 
Tate Gallery, where it hangs, it is entitled Old 
Battersea Bridge, but to anyone who has closely 
studied Whistler's art this title will at once appear 
incorrect, as the bridge in the foreground is but an 
accessory, an inner frame as it were, through which 
we look at the exquisite harmony of colour pro- 
duced by the golden sparks of the expiring rocket 
as they fall slowly through the sky into the mystery 
of the distant horizon with its tender lights reflected 
in the still river. It is a perfect realisation of an 
effect which is rarely seen elsewhere than on 
London's river, and which passes almost as quickly 
as the sparks of the fireworks die away. It is 
interesting to recall the fact that this was one of 
the pictures produced at the Whistler v. Ruskin 
trial, and was the subject of much cross-examina- 
tion by the counsel engaged. 


The case of the United 
was made in our September 
number, was to have come 
before the Court of Appeal 
last month, but from a com- 
munication which reached 
us just before going to press 
with the present number we 
were glad to learn that there 
was a possibility of the case 
being settled out of court, 
and that in view of this the 
hearing of the appeal had 
been postponed. 



The silver dish by Miss 
Christine Connell, given on 
this page, is representative 
of her bolder designs in 
metal ; it has some faults 
as a design, but these are 
balanced by the thorough 


studio- Talk 

knowledge of her material shown in the treatment 
of intricate relief-work. 

The brass cross by Mr. J. Paul Cooper here 
illustrated is a recent example of that artist's eccle- 
siastical work in metal. The cross is a little over 
4 ft. high, including tlie base. The central j)anel 
is a chased medallion of the Virgin and Child, 

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with seven sapphires set in the background. The 
four panels on the arms of the cross represent 
the instruments of the Passion. At the foot of the 
cross proper is the tree of life growing out of a 
setting of roses. The knop below is formed by a 
serpent turned round crystals in high settings. 
The stones on the arms of the cross are cabochon 
cut amethysts. 


studio- Talk 



to readers of The Studio. 
Miss Adam has undoubtedly 
received some influence from 
Miss Moller's designs, but 
her work nevertheless is dis- 
tinctive, and the plant forms 
carved on the chest are very 
happy in their character. 



Illusion, which is the beginning and end of the 
art of the theatre, is not insured by the imitation of 
real objects, but by the study 
of how to produce under ar- 
ranged conditions the effect of 
real objects. Obvious as this 
seems those responsible for the 
stage art of London theatres 
appear to have awaited en- 
lightenment from the designs 
of Mr. Charles Ricketts for 
"Attila," lately played at His 
Majesty's Theatre. The stage 
jewellery which we reproduce 
from his designs has been 
executed by hand with inge- 
nuity, and a regard to beauty, 
by Mrs. Gwendolen Bishop, out 
of such inexpensive materials 
as brass, copper, gilded leather, 
coloured beads, etc. This was 
probably the first play of 
modern times where even the 
smallest jewels were made by 
hand, Mrs. Bishop making 
some 130 after Mr. Ricketts' 
designs. Apart from the scho- 
larship and art in these designs, 
perfect adaptability to their 
purpose is their supreme merit. 

duce, the study 
that is seldom 

In Mrs. Borough Johnson's 
work there is displayed an in- 
terest in some of the more 
ordinary aspects of life. Mrs. 
Johnson has acquired a tech- 
nique with the pencil scarcely 
less interesting than that of 
her husband, whose drawings 
are so well known. In the 
drawing which we repro- 
has been made of a phase of life 
treated by such a reverent pencil, 

We reproduce a wood carved 

chest by Miss F. B. Adam, a 

pupil of Miss M. Moller, whose 

wood-carvings are well known 







studio- Talk 



for it is the humorous artist who generally turns for 
subjects to the little-known Hfe of the working* 
classes, to reveal it in another spirit to that which 
animates the work here under consideration. 

In view of the somewhat meagre facilities hitherto 
existing in Londonfor obtaining first-class instruction 
in enamelling and kindred crafts, it is interesting to 
note that Mr. Alexander Fisher, of whose recent 
work we give an example on p. 138, has just opened 
another studio in Kensington, where, assisted by ex- 
perts, he will hold day classes for the purpose of 
giving instruction in these crafts. Hitherto Mr. 
Fisher has been able to receive only a limited 
number of pupils for private tuition at his studio ; 
but by taking this extra studio, where practical 
demonstrations of every process in these crafts will 
be given to each student individually, many whose 
means will not permit of the more exclusive method 
of private tuition will be enabled to profit by 
association with a master whose exf>erience and 
knowledge in this class of work are unique. 

The more scientific aspect of impressionism has 
no follower in England with more enthusiasm than 

Mr. \\'ynford Dewhurst. He has allowed the 
analysis of light to preoccupy him throughout a 
long series of canvases, in the dates of their execu- 
tion now extending over some years. He has not 
sho\\Ti at any time indecision as to the direction 
which he believes the modern artist must follow. 
This fixedness of purpose has enabled him to 
pursue his path without that loss of time and energy 
which many artists suffer in exploring theories and 
methods with which their own temperament cannot 
in the end find affinity. The fact that Mr. Dew- 
hurst commenced his studies under Gerome is 
known to us only because it is included with bio- 
graphical information at hand. It has left no 
impression which is traceable in his work. The 
sunny banks of the Seine invited him away from 
the atmosphere of the studios, and there he was 
fortunate in making the friendship of some of the 
French impressionists. It was watching such men 
as Saintin, Raffaelli, and others at work that 
Mr. Dewhurst was finally emancipated from 
academic influence and received "impressionism" 
as a revelation. He has constantly advocated it 
since in his art and in writing. His work on the 
French impressionists and his essays in The 


studio- Talk 


Studio have helped to educate pubHc feeling, pre- 
paring a favourable reception for impressionists' 
works in this country. 

Mr. Dewhurst's own reward has perhaps come 
indirectly in the interest which his exhibits have 
always aroused. The luniinistes in this country 
can almost be counted upon one hand. Theirs 
was the last form of impressionist painting to 
find acceptance in this country. The changed 
attitude towards this art is notable, but Mr. 
Dewhurst was in the field before such change 
was apparent. He can now rely upon the appre- 
ciation of the same public which was erstwhile 

l^layed to the evident satis- 
faction of his numerous 
friends and admirers. For 
just seventy years he has 
been a member of the 
Old Water-colour Society, 
during which time he has 
sent to its exhibitions over 
fourteen hundred drawings, 
some of which were to be 
seen again at the Leicester 
Galleries. His early train- 
ing was carried on under 
the direction of Theodore 
and Thales Fielding, bro- 
thers of Copley Fielding. 
For many years he resided 
in Paris, while some of his 
most successful work was 
done during his various 
tours abroad. Mr. Callow 
has faithfully upheld the 
best traditions of the old 
British school of water- 
colour painting, and as one 
of its last exponents his work 
is always interesting to the 
student. In 1839 Thac- 
keray wrote in the "Critical 
Review " : "A new painter, 
somewhat in the style ot 
Harding, is Mr. Callow, 
and better, I think, than his master or original, 
whose colours are too gaudy, to my taste, and 
effects too glaringly theatrical " — a verdict which 
will be fully endorsed by those who have visited 
the recent exhibition. 


For the first time during an artistic career extend- 
ing over a period of about seventy years, the 
veteran painter, Mr. ^^'illiam Callow, has been 
induced to hold a "one-man" exhibition. At 
the Leicester Galleries last month between sixty 
and seventy of his water-colour drawings were dis- 

Few more interesting exhibitions have been held 
at the Whitechapel Art Gallery than that now 
being held there. It is exclusively devoted to 
"Animals in Art," and emphasises the fact that the 
delineation of animal forms has been a favourite 
exercise of artists from the earliest times. A series 
of surimonos and kakemonos with animals and 
birds drawn and painted by some of the greatest 
artists of Japan demonstrates beyond question 
their superlative mastery in this special field. 
The paintings and drawings by European masters 
include works by Reynolds, Turner, Gainsborough, 
Landseer, James Ward, and, among living artists, 
by Mr. Swan, Mr. Briton Riviere, Mr. Joseph 
Crawhall, the brothers Detmold, Mr. Clausen, 
Mr. Stott, and Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch. 

Stttdio- Talk 

GLASGOW. — It was highly appropriate 
that an exhibition of the art of Arthur 
Melville should be held at Glasgow, 
for, while to Edinburgh might belong 
his birth qualification, and that introduction to a 
life career so full of meaning to an artist, it was at 
Glasgow he found companionship and encourage- 
ment in pursuit of an idea destined to raise the 
city by the Clyde to a position of pre-eminence in 
the world of art. It is an open question with 
some of Melville's early contemporaries whether 
Audrey and her Goats was the initial effort of the 
modern Glasgow school, as has been claimed ; it 
certainly, on early exhibition in London, arrested 
public attention, and directed it to the impressionist 
method soon to become most active. It is interest- 
ing, then, to find this remarkable picture to-day in 
its almost barbaric strength of colour, fresh as when 
it left the palette, the conspicuous centre, around 
which is grouped a charm- 
ing representation of the 
artist's work, in its rich 
variety of colour, bewitch- 
ing delicacy of treatment, 
and amazing intricacy of 

seems at first sight contradictory that the eye 
could find satisfaction in a combination such as 
that in The White Piano, or delight in such tonal 
effects as the Capture of a Spy reveals. In the one 
a strong purple gown is placed against a background 
of violent red, green, and blue, with an all-over 
simple pattern, but the effect is decoratively pleas- 
ing, and entirely appropriate to Aliss Margerison; 
in the other a complete colour antithesis is reached — 
delicate contrasts of white and blue; clear, sparkling 
touches of green and red in horseman's doublet 
and steed's trappings ; purest blue in atmosphere 
beyond, visible through the arched doorway ; 
interest carried into shadowy places by skilful 
lighting effects, all rendered with unerring draughts- 
manship and exquisite tenderness. 

Much has been written regarding Melville's work 
in oil: if here the measure of success has been less 

Looking at the three 
rooms at the Royal Glasgow 
Institute, where a hundred 
and thirty- eight pictures 
bearing the Arthur Melville 
signature were recently 
gathered together, one was 
tempted to marvel at the 
industry of the man who 
died at forty-five, but more 
at the genius that could at 
such an age achieve so 
great a distinction. In the 
collected work of an artist, 
representative of an ex- 
tended period, one can 
perceive the process that 
leads to success, the scaf- 
folding used and then dis- 
carded, to borrow a simile 
of the artists ; with Mel- 
ville this process is more 
apparent in his work in 

In the case of afdaring 
colourist like Melville, it 


(The property of W. Graham Robertson, Esq.) 


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Stitdio- Talk 


conspicuously complete it jmustj ;be remembered 
that time was denied in which to reach to that high 
standard the artist had set. In the case of any 
other painter it would have counted much to have 
been early associated with a school of painting 
that within a generation has earned world-wide 
fame; in Melville's case his inimitable work in 
water-colour is the standard of comparison. In 
the series of panels designated Christmas Carols 
there is the pregnant pathos of interrupted labour, 
and the promise of things great, lb set up a 
model in the open by moonlight to obtain a new 
delicacy and refinement in shades of purple, grey, 
and pale blue, and the tempera-Uke quality in the 
remarkable panel And there was no room for them 
at the Inn, was much more original and practical 
than Leonardi da Vinci's elaborate suggestion for 
obtaining a night effect. In some of the later por- 
traits, notably Opal and Grey, that of Mrs. Arthur 
Melville, and The Portrait of a Lady, there is rare 
decorative quality and force of expression. The 
whole treatment of the first might suggest the 
influence of Whistler, but while Melville had 
the highest admiration for the Chelsea master's 
work, he had penetrated all the secrets and mastered 
all the charms of delicate colour harmonies before 
becoming acquainted with his style and method. 
The Portrait of a Lady, first exhibited at the 

Champs de Mars, is cleverly impressionist and 
full of subtle colour harmonies. 

Where every picture is a study, claiming minute 
attention, it is invidious to particularise, but it is 
difficult to get away from Audrey and her Goats, 
turbulent and forceful, precursor of a school ; 
Tori-e Pachecos, eloquent of atmospheric and archi- 
tectural Spain ; Tobbit's Mill, expressive of the 
rare beauties of a Surrey landscape ; The Snake 
Charmer, convincing epitome of Arabian life, 
character, custom and architecture ; Lnterior of a 
Barge ; The Music Boat ; and Hetiky Regatta by 
Night : to name these is like counting but a few 
pearls at random on a string where all are of 
rare quality and charm. If regret at the irrepar- 
able loss to art of such an artist can be mitigated, 
it will surely be in the knowledge that he has left 
so numy unequalled achievements behind. 

" The Grosvenor " Restaurant, which boasts 
some fine sculptured work by Hodge, is now more 
notable by reason of a remarkable scheme of 
decoration just completed by Andrew Law and 
W. W. Anderson. The opportunity was a great 
one — a dome of ample proportions, divided by pro- 
minent ribs into eight panels, offering an aggregate 
surface of seventy square yards, well lighted by 




























studio- Talk 

the cupola immediately overhead ; a convenient 
circular gallery underneath ; a city with a history 
rich in incident and a record for progress at which 
the world marvels. This was the position as it 
presented itself to the artists, when they deter- 
mined to take a series of outstanding incidents in 
the city's history, and make each panel interesting 
with an event as remote as a fifth century miracle, 
by which Saint Ninian restored lost health and 
sight to King Totael (an act that led to the conse- 
cration of the ground on which the cathedral now 
stands, and incidentally to the genesis of Glasgow) ; 
or as modern as an eighteenth century episode in 
the stirring and romantic period of '45. 

Fair." Landscape, architecture, and figure enter 
largely into the composition, and the utmost care 
was taken to ensure accuracy in conception and 
detail. J. T. 

The work demanded research, for the age is 
critical ; patient concentration, occupying as it did 
the greater part of a year, and decorative ability of 
a high order, all which it received at the hands of 
the collaborators. The Law-Anderson treatment 
is well suited to the occasion ; in flat low tones it 
harmonises with the environment, and brings into 
prominent relief the bright spots like a fifteenth 
century citizen's doublet, or a Jacobite partisan's 
tunic. To deal with subjects embracing a period 
of eleven centuries, to 
carry out the work away 
from the position to be 
finally occupied, to fix 
the large canvases on the 
coved, tapering panels, 
and find accurate propor- 
tion, pleasing harmony, 
and complete unity of 
effect, is surely a tribute 
to the care and skill with 
which the work has been 
carried out. 

Readers of The Studio are already familiar with 
the work of Miss Annie French. The drawing 
reproduced on the opposite page was one of many 
attractive features in a recent exhibition at the 
Baillie Gallery in London. 

BIRMINGHAM.— We give here an illus- 
tration of an exhibition pavilion, design- 
ed by Mr. James A. Swan for Messrs. 
Cadbury Bros. The pavilion is con- 
structed chiefly of oak and American white wood, 
the roof being covered with oak shingles. The 
scheme of colour is yellow, green and red bands 
on a white ground. The furniture was specially 
designed in oak, inlaid with sycamore, stained 
green and white ; the seats are upholstered in 
pig-skin. The sign is fitted with electric lamps 
for displaying a transparent advertisement inserted 
therein. The length of the pavilion is about 
20 feet. 


In addition to the one 
reproduced on p. 145, the 
subjects illustrated are 
" The Healing of King 
Totael," "The Birth of 
Kentigern," " Kentigern 
Preaching to King Red- 
rath," " Building Glasgow 
Cathedral," "A Fair at 
Glasgow," " Proclama- 
tion of Papal Bull, Con- 
stituting Glasgow Uni- 
versity," " Presentation 
of Leets to the Arch- 
bishop,"and "A Glasgow 



studio- Talk 

LIVERPOOL.-— The captious critic attempt- 
ing to disparage the Thirty-seventh 
Autumn Exhibition at the Walker Art 
Ckallery is less likely to find himself in 
agreement with general opinion the more the 
exhibition is studied. If no remarkable or am- 
bitious picture can be found eclipsing its neighbours 
in a marked degree, it is satisfactory to note that the 
average capability of the work presented is not 
behind that of its thirty-six predecessors. Many of 
the chief attractions of the London exhibitions 
are to be seen, and there is a room devoted to 
Continental art ; but only a brief notice can be 
accorded here to a few of the two hundred local 
exhibitors, who may be seen to advantage in 
well-allotted positions. 

landscapes in oil, reference must be made \.ct Arenig 
Faivr, by Thos. Huson, R.I.; Margin of t lie Mere, 
by J. Follen Bishop ; After the Hailstorm, by 
Richard Hartley ; Market Place, Honfleur, by Miss 
M. C. Palethorp, Enid Rutherford's Qtiai du 
Miroir, Bruges, David Woodlock's A Venetian 
F/i'/fl', Joseph Kitchingm an 's Amidst the Dolomites^ 
J. Hamilton Hay's Seapiece, also A Lancashire 
Epic, by Robert Fowler, R.I. ; Alilking Time, by 
J. T. Watts, R.C.A. ; and Commy Castle, by 
Harold Rathbone. 

In forem.ost rank are the portraits of The Rt. 
Hon. John Japp, Lord Mayor of Liverpool, Sir 
Thos. Hughes, J. P., and Robt. Gladstone, Esq., 
all by R. E. Morrison ; Sir Wm. B. Fonvood, D.L., 
Alfred Rutherford, Esq., Mayor of Bootle, and 
Taliesin Rees, Esq., F.R.L.B.A., by Geo. Hall 
Neale. Clerical sitters are 
admirably presented by 
W. B. Boadle and J. V. R. 
Parsons. A Souvenir of the 
Liverpool Pageant has af- 
forded Frank T. Copnall 
an effective portrait study 
of a knight in chain armour ; 
and notable success has 
been attained by Mrs. 
Maud Hall Neale in her 
fine representations oi Mrs. 
fohn Rankin and Mrs. 
Osivald Murphy and Little 
Girl. Jas. Hamilton Hay, 
A. L. Brockbank, and 
Helen McLay each deserve 
mention fi)r the excellence 
of their portrait work. 

Together with some of those just named, the 
following Liverpool artists contribute interesting 
water-colours : Joseph Kirkpatrick, Harold Swan- 
wick, R.I., Creswick Boydell, W. Egginton, Miss 
B. A. Pughe, Isaac Cooke, R.B.A., Geo. Cockram, 
R.C.A., John McDougal, R.C.A., F. W. Dawbarn, 
M.A., and Miss Mary McCrossan. 

Our reproduction of Agriculture on this page is 
one of the groups of sculpture on the Liverpool 
Victoria Memorial by Charles J. Allen ; other 

The more noticeable of 
the oil paintings are The 
Golden Legend, by R. G. 
Hinchliffe ; Resting, by 
\Vardlaw Laing ; The An- 
nunciatiofi, by Miss May 
Cooksey; Good Samaritans 
by J. Y. Dawbarn, M.A. ; 
and .(4 Young Fisher?nan,hy 
the late John Finnie, R.E. 
Out of the wealth of fine 




and hoping for something 
to turn up. Their existence 
cannot be the haj)piest ; 
certainly it is not the most 
useful. Distress often 
comes to them when they 
are least pre[)ared to meet 
it, and it comes to a class 
who, as a whole, will not 
beg for help, that is to say, 
charity, or accept it if 
offered. There are many 
such. How, then, can they 
be helped ? 

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portions of the memorial 
have previously been illus- 
trated in The Studio. The 
whole work is now nearing 
completion. H. B. B. 

— Many visitors 
to the seaside in 
holiday season 
must wonder what becomes 
in the winter of the various 
people whose summer 
occupation seems itself 
nothing but pleasure. What 
does become of them ? 
Many emigrate to the large 
cities and seek or engage in 
winter employment there; 
others — too many others 
it is feared— remain behind 
living carefully upon the 
earnings oj the summer 

This was a question 
which was put to a meeting 
of ladies and of gentlemen 
who met at the PViends' 
meeting house last 
winter. Many schemes 
were discussed, but the 
toy-making industry was 
selected. The promoters 
of the Scarborough Winter 
Industry, as it is called, 
decided to start in a small 
way, and, indeed, so quietly 
did they work that the funds 
upon wliich last winter's 
work was carried out were 


(See Berlin Studio- Talk) 



studio- Talk 

hand-made. The promo- 
ters of the industry do not 
seek to compete with the 
foreign toy. They want in 
the first place to teach the 
helpless how to help them- 
selves, and to make the 
teaching pay for itself. 
There is, of course, no 
question of profit-making ; 
all that is sought is to find 
work which the workless 
may take up if he will, 
either at his own home or at 
the workshop. S. J. 


ERLIN.— In the 
September ex- 
hibition at 
Schulte's we 

'the valley of desolation, cape colony 

subscribed by about 
twenty-five persons, and no 
donation was greater than 
^^. They obtained the 
services of an instructor — 
a retired joiner — whose 
hobby was model- boat- 
building. They took a 
room in an unoccupied part 
of a warehouse in the town, 
and about six workmen who 
were out of employment 
were allowed to attend at 
the workshop and make 
toys. Members of the 
industry committee (or 
council, as it is called) sent 
designs to the instructor, 
and toys were made in 
accordance with those de- 
signs, of which two groups 
are shown in our illustra- 
tions on the previous page. 


Of course, the toys, as 
toys, are far more expensive 
than the usual class of toy 
one is able to buy in any 
shop in the street, but then 
they are better articles 
altogether. Everything is 



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studio- Talk 

felt thankful for the opportunity of enjoying the 
well-known qualities of Prince Troubetzkoy and 
F. Thaulow, each in a collective show of half-a- 
hundred numbers. Troubetzkoy impresses us 
again as the master in rendering human and 
animal form, and his monumental sculpture is 
as convincing as his miniature work. It is 
quite a delight to see this impressionist sculptor 
express to perfection aristocratic nonchalance as 
well as deepest emotion and robust energy. We 
do not agree with his method of immortalising 
a sketchy style in bronze or marble, but we 
cannot help admiring the perspicacity of the 
psychologist and the unfailing grasp of the 
realist in the portraiture of the types of our 
time. Thaulow's firmness, pictorial power, and 
delicacy of value are alike remarkable in his 
usual northern landscapes and in some Spanish 
and French pictures. 

Uncommon interest is roused before the African 
landscapes of Hans Volcker, a Brandenburger by 
birth, who is now living in Wiesbaden. This 

painter, a master-pupil of Hans Gude, has gone 
to Africa with the intention of awakening the 
interest of his countrymen in our days of 
colonial endeavour for these unknown climes. 
He renders very faithfully, and we are surprised 
on looking at some of his pictures to feel a 
sensation of something homelike, whilst many 
others fascinate in their exotic strangeness. 
The waterfalls, valleys and rivers look like dear 
old haunting-places, but the queer table moun- 
tains, the aloes, ostrich flocks, and the mighty 
terraces of the Kimberley mines impress one 
by their unlikeness to anything we are ac- 
customed to. The tempera -medium of the 
pa'nter lends itself well to the depiction of Karroo 
and water, and it attains considerable effects in 
certain weird moods of that Southern nature. 
The vaporous ghostliness of rising mist, moon- 
light in the stony solitude round the grave of 
Cecil Rhodes, the phosphorescence enveloping 
some boats in the Indian Ocean at night, com- 
municate poetical pathos, and even, in some cases, 
metaphysical strangeness. Almost idyllic in its 





studio- Talk 



peculiar charm is the colonist's farmhouse, round 
which horses are peacefully pasturing, half hidden 
by pines and backed by the colossal Table Moun- 
tain. A study of such art is the best plea for 
African attractions. 

At the Kiinstlerhaus a comprehensive collection 
of Charles Cottet convinces us of this artist's 
greatness as a painter of Brittany and its heavy 
types of fishermen and peasants. Yet something 
of this character of heaviness sometimes weighs 
down also the colouring of the artist, and makes 
us feel the touch of a rather homely hand. 
However, the excellence of French technique 
is generally visible, and the element of soul makes 
him particularly dear to German taste. 

Another numerous collection at the Kiinstler- 
haus was that of the late Otto F"aber du Faur, the 
Munich soldier-painter. It was very interesting 
as a demonstration of a most striking impression- 
ism; a powerful hand here showed its facility in 
dominating living masses. Scenes from the Franco- 
German War and Oriental horsemanship are 
grasped in all the furore of their tempo, and yet 

rendered in the fascination of almost visionary 
colours. J. T- 

BREMEN. — The interior which forms the 
subject of the two illustrations on page 
154 was designed by Prof. Heinrich 
Lassen to serve the twofold purpose of 
a hall and dining-room in a country house. The 
design has been carried out on simple lines, and 
at comparatively moderate cost. The whole of the 
woodwork is of dark-brown fumed oak ; for the 
walls a deep ochre tone has been employed, and 
they are kept quite plain, while the ceiling above 
has had aconsiderableamountof ornamentation be- 
stowed upon it. The hanging shown in one of the 
illustrations represents the Finding of Moses, and is 
the work of Otto Ewel of Dresden. In the apart- 
ment illustrated on this page, also designed to 
serve the same twofold purpose of hall and dining- 
room as the other, the yellow wood panelling 
extends to the lower ceiling, and has been brown 
polished in order to emphasise the natural grain of 
the wood. The plaster surfaces are here plain 
white, and the floor surface is tiled. The upj)er 
part has been so arranged as to serve the purpose 


O ^ 



O G 
O W 


Q . 

K-l CO 























studio- Talk 

of a breakfast room. Prof. Lassen only came to 
Bremen a short time ago, where he has taken up 
an appointment; previously he was at Konigsbcrg, 
in the north-east corner of Prussia. 

VIENNA. — Richard Lux and Ferdinand 
Gold are two young Viennese artists who 
are devoting themselves to etching. Both 
studied at the Imperial Academy of 
Fine Arts, Vienna, under Professor Wilhelm Unger, 
whose etchings have earned for him an international 
reputation. Prof. Unger is not only a great artist, 
albeit with more leaning to the old than to the 
modern school, but he is also a great teacher. 
Gifted with a (juick perception of a student's capa- 
bilities, he makes it his aim to encourage each one 
to develop according to his particular bent, instead 
of blindly following the methods of the instructor; 

and so it happens that a number of young men 
trained by him, counting among them some who 
have already attained to fame, are breaking new 
ground in their art. The two artists who form the 
subject of these notes are only just entering on the 
path they have marked out for themselves, yet 
both have already achieved really good work, 
though on different lines ; they are both prizemen, 
and etchings by both of them have found their 
way into many of the Continental galleries. 

Richard Lux is at his best in landscapes, of 
which he has etched a considerable number, and 
none of them are so attractive as those which 
depict broad streams and running waters. Especi- 
ally noteworthy are those he has done in colours, 
and of these an example is furnished by the reduced 
facsimile reproduction which accompanies these 

I f. 




/..-Mi- aa«r'<>-';Srt»r.iJ-.~-t.- 



studio- Talk 

favourite motifs. In this plate, 
Persetiburg on the Danube, we 
have a panoramic view, excel- 
lently rendered both as regards 
atmosphere and light, of a part 
of the noble river between 
Vienna and Linz which offers 
the artist an abundance of pic- 
turesque material. 

Besides landscapes Lux has 
done some excellent figure sub- 
jects in dry point. Of these 
latter two are here reproduced 
— Mother and Child and a Self- 
Porirait. These serve to show 
the artist's power and prove that 
he is worthy of encouragement. 
In the former he strikes a 
homely note : it is just an 
ordinary mother, one of the 
people, as her garb implies, and 
an ordinary infant, but both are 
clearly and truthfully depicted. 
It is a simple and faithful de- 
lineation of human nature, and 
it is exactly in the simplicity of 
his means that the artist con- 
vinces. His Self -For trait is, 
perhaps, a more characteristic 
performance, showing concen- 
tration of thought and energy. 

Ferdinand Gold's strength lies 
in depicting animals, preferably 
beasts of burden and particu- 
larly horses. He works entirely 
with the dry point, and he in- 
tends devoting himself mainly 
to this branch of graphic art. 
He has spent much time in 
studying the movements and 
habits of animals at the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens, but has, he 
confesses, learned more from 
observing them in the streets, 
on the roads, and in the fields. 
He has watched horses dragging 
heavy loads over hill and over 
dale, watched them, too, when 
they returned home wearily 
dragging their tired limbs to 
it is the Danube itself with the places on enjoy a well-earned rest. In all his etchings of 
which has furnished the artist with his horses, such as those here reproduced, this intimate 


notes, for 
its banks 




studio- Talk 

knowledge is manifest, as 
is also the artist's sym- 
pathy for the creatures he 
depicts. And manifest 
too is the note of fresh- 
ness which belongs to 
them ; and it is for the 
reason that this effect is 
best achieved with the dry 
point that the artist has 
chosen this means of ex- 
pressing his art, although 
but very few good proofs 
can be produced from a 
single plate. 

- ■-*- 



'-■■ \K-r: 



The toy-shops are full 
of modern toys, but these 
are all made in Germany, 
for so far no manufac- 
turer has been found who 
is willing to take the risk 

of making the beautiful Viennese and other Aus- in this branch of art is not diminishing, but, on 
trian toys of which examples have been reproduced the contrary, is certainly growing in the .Austrian 
in past numbers of The Studio. Still, the interest dominions. This fact is due in large measure to 

"the tandem team" (dry point) 



THE relay" (dry POINT) 


studio- Talk 

"coal team homeward bound" (dry point) 


Dr. Julius Leisching, Director of the Museum of 
Art and Industry at Briinn, Moravia, who, by 
arranging a series of exhibitions of modern toys in 
the various chief cities of the monarchy, has suc- 
ceeded in enUsting the sympathies of designers and 
the pubUc generally. Another factor is the move- 




ment designated by the phrase "Kunst im Leben 
des Kindes," a movement which seeks to promote 
the application of art to matters affecting the lives 
of children. As far back as 1902 the Hagenbund 
here in Vienna devoted their autumn exhibition 
entirely to this subject. 




Among those whose sympathies and talents have 
in this way been enlisted on behalf of children is 

studio- Talk 

Professor Wahn, of Troppau, in Silesia. He commenced by 
producing types of the homes and people around, his aim 
being to teach children t(j appreciate and understand their 
immediate surroundings before going farther afield — a well- 
recognised pedagogic prin- 
ciple, approached in this 
case from an artistic stand- 
point. After this he pro- 
ceeded to design ^'iennese 
types, and is now gradually 
extending his horizon. His 
method of making toys will 
be understood from the 
accompanying illustrations. 
First drawings are made, 
and these are then trans- 
ferred to thin pieces of 
f^iirly hard wood, cut with 
the grain lengthwise, to 
prevent breaking. The 
next step is to neatly saw 
them with a fine fret-saw, 
the edges being smoothed 
afterwards with sand or 
emery-paper. To make 
the , figures stand upright 
they must be stuck on to 
thicker pieces of wood at 


( By permission of " Wiener Mode" ) 

the base. The painting is 
the last step, the colours, of 
course, depending on the 
character of the figure. These 
toys are comparatively easy to 


(By permission of " Wiener Mode'' ) 

Differing considerably from 
Professor Wahn's toys are 
others here reproduced, the 
figures of which are turned 
by the turner on his lathe, 
and afterwards painted by the 
artist. Architect Emil Pirchan 
is a pupil of Prof. Otto 
Wagner, and a man who has 
won some acknowledgment 
in his own particular profes- 
sion. The figures illustrated 
represent a procession such as 
may often be seen in Catholic 
countries. There are priests 
and acolytes, trumpeters and 
drummers, as well as peasants 
of various ages and sizes. 

The figures are all made in one piece. 


(By permission of 

' Jl'iener Mode" J 

Friiulein Marianne Roller's toys also represent everyday scenes ; 
in this case a market-woman and her stall. Her playthings won 


studio- Talk 



and is a pupil of Professor 
Novak, a distinguished 
member of the Vienna 
Secession. She is herself 
a teacher of arts and crafts 
to the Frauenerwerbverein 
in Briinn. 

much admiration at the Edinburgh Exhibition last 
year. She is a sister of the well-known Professor 
Roller, and studied at the Erzherzog Rainer 
Museum in Briinn, where Dr. Leisching is director, 

Frau Johanna Peller- 
HoUmann studied under 
Professor Moser at the 
Vienna Kunstgewerbe- 
schule. She is the daugh- 
ter of a cabinet-maker, and 
from her earliest childhood 
was interested in various 
kinds of wood, the know- 
ledge of which, combined 
with her artistic training, 
has helped her to achieve 
much success in applied art generally and also in 
her toys. Frau Zakucka-Harlfinger's toys have 
already been noticed in The Studio. They were 
much appreciated at the Edinburgh Exhibition, 






studio- Talk 



and many of them have found their way to remote 
parts. A. S. L. 

VENICE. — The works sold at the recent In- 
ternational Art Exhibition here represent 
a sum amounting to more than ^15,000. 
The principal sales were noted in The 
Studio for August ; among the more recent ones is 
another oil painting by Anna Boberg, the Swedish 
artist, purchased by the Queen-Mother. 


OSTON, Mass. — The national art exhibit 
in Washington gives a deservedly high 
place to the work of a Boston artist, 
Walter L. Dean. Born and brought up 

by the sea, his paintings show the strong fascination 
which it has held for him. Cruising off the banks 
with Gloucester fishermen, sailing up and down 
the coast in his private yacht, he has studied every 
changing mood and colour of the restless waters, 
their loveliness on quiet, moonlit nights, their awful 
grandeur when lashed to fury by wind and storm, 
as well as the life of the man who wrests his living 
from their depths. These are the subjects that 
appeal to him, that he endeavours to reproduce on 
his canvases. Even his landscapes talk to us of 
the sea ; they are always of the marshlands close 
to the water, where only fisher people dwell. It is 
to such conscientious workers as Mr. Dean that 
America looks for the upbuilding of her future art — 


studio- Talk 

men who study nature patiently, sincerely, who are 
uninfluenced by popular "fads," who paint for the 
joy that they find in the work, and who give the 
world, for its refreshment, the sane, vigorous fruit 
of their labours. A S. S. 

story-telling picture. The Layton Art Gallery (a 
private donation), filled with genre pictures of every 
nationality, typifies the taste of the town. 


ILWAUKEE.— Seventy-five per cent, of 
the entire population of Milwaukee are 
of German descent, and the remainder 
either of Irish or Hungarian origin. 
This has produced a rather peculiar community— 
at least, from an aesthetic point of view — as neither 
the German- Americans nor the Irish-Americans are 
noted for a keen appreciation of art. The city is 
clean and truly beautiful in parts, its women are 
known far and wide as the "fair daughters of 
Milwaukee," but the interest in art matters seems 
to be at a total standstill on the shores of Lake 
Michigan. Not that its citizens have no taste what- 
ever for that kind of luxury ; on the contrary, round 
sums of money have been paid quite frequently for 
foreign, and even for home, productions. But the 
interest in painting concentrates entirely on pictures 
of the anecdotal order ; it is the ideal place for the 

Among the resident artists Richard Lorenz, the 
horse painter, has the biggest reputation. He is 
rather photographic at times, but his best pictures 
are rendered with a good deal of poetic sentiment. 
Other painters of note are Geo. Raab, a portrait 
painter of considerable technical skill, and, for Mil- 
waukee, exceedingly modern in feeling ; Alexander 
Mueller, a landscape painter with a decided grasp 
on poetic and strikingly picturesque subjects ; and 
Robert Schade, a versatile talent who is at his 
best in unpretentious still-life. Also the landscapist 
Franz Bieberstein, and the water-colourist F. W. 
Heine, must not be forgotten in this enumeration. 
The Layton Art Gallery contains a few valuable 
specimens of our earlier American art, notably a 
Venice scene, by Daniel Huntington ; N'eiv York 
Harbour, by Arthur Quartley ; Washed by the Sea, 
by Edward Gay ; and a veritable chef d'a'uvre of 
genre painting. The Old Stage Coach, by Eastman 
Johnson. S. H. 

'the fishing FL/EET 

(See Boston Studio-Talk) 




I ?A 





ELBOURNE. — The Victorian Artists shows prior to the opening. To this fact may also 

Society, who have been holding their be credited the absence of representative work from 

annual winter exhibition in Melbourne, various prominent members. The principal works 

showed a creditable display of work in the North Gallery were Mr. Bernard Hall's por- 

in spite of the prevalence of the "one-man" traits, 6)'/r'/(2 and Z^ Cy;o'/m«iV«?/r, showing sterling 




studio- Talk 


(Victorian Artists' Exhibition) 

technical qualities ; Mr. Tom Carter's portrait ot a 
lady— refined, dainty and charming in colour ; and 
Miss V. Teague's small portrait of Miss Elles call 
for especial mention. Among the landscapists, 
Mr. A. McClintock showed exceptional ability, his 
work being one of the features of the exhibition. 
Mr. Ene's Middle Harbour and Mr. Reynold's Laiv 
Courts, with Mr. Mather's fine studies in Fitzroy 
Gardens, were also noticeable contributions. In 
the vestibule, devoted to black-and-white and 
water-colours, could be seen some fine work by 
Mr. W. N. Anderson and some etchings by Mr. 
Victor Cobb and others. In the South Gallery Mr. 
Ford Patterson's White Road served as a reminder 
of the Croydoti Coterie. 
Mr. Hal Waugh, Mr. Wilkie 
and others were also pro- 
minent exhibitors in this 
gallery. Mr. Waugh's horses 
and Mr. Delafield Cook's 
landscape work showed an 
advance on previous years. 

landscape painter and co- 
lorist of the highest order ; 
and during this brief visit 
to his native land he clearly 
demonstrated by this ex- 
hibition the fact that his 
hand had lost nothing of 
its cunning. The large 
Windsor Castle and the 
various street scenes, in- 
cluding a fine Trafalgar 
Square, all showed the in- 
fluence of English environ- 
ment and ideals ; while his 
Mount Macedon and Coogee 
recalled his earlier Austra- 
lian period. The other show 
was that held by the drawing 
instructor at the National 
Gallery, Mr. McCubbin, 
prior to his departure on a visit to Europe. Mr. 
McCubbin's work has always been noted for its 
sterling qualities, good construction and fine tech- 
nique. The principal work. Lost, showing a boy 
who has become hopelessly "bushed," was splen- 
didly painted ; and the portraits included those 
of Senhor Loureiro and Mr. Panton, P.M., two 
canvases of exceptional merit. 


The decision of the trustees ot the Felton 
Bequest Fund to purchase the famous Be?it 
Tree, by Corot (from the Alexander Young 
Collection, and lately illustrated in The Studio), 
is a matter for congratulation among those who 

Two noteworthy "one- 
man " exhibitions were held 
before that of the Victorian 
artists. The first was that 
by Mr. Arthur Streeton, 
with a collection of works 
in oil and water-colour. 
Prior to his departure for 
Europe fifteen years ago, 
he had established a repu- 
tation for fine work as a 
1 66 

"OVER THE hills" ( Victorian Artists' Exhibition) BY A. MCCLINTOCK 

Reviews and Notices 

take a keen interest in the National Gallery Collec- 
tion. The acquisition of pictures of this character 
is to be thoroughly commended as a means of 
raising the whole tone of the collection, which in 
the past has shown a tendency to run towards 
the "popular picture" of doubtful merit. 

J. S. 
(In the Melbourne Age of July 15 reference is made to 
the existence of two similar paintings by Corot bearing this 
title, a fact disclosed by comparing the picture purchased by 
the trustees with one reproduced in the Special Number of 
The Stuhio on "Corot and Millet." Apparently the 
discovery occasioned some surprise, but we may point out 
tlial Mr. Ilalton, in his article on the Corots in the Alexander 
Young Collection (The Studio, October 1906, p. 9), stated 
that there was another Bent Tree in the Collection, and 
that it was an evening effect. It is generally acknowledged 
that the one purchased by the trustees is far superior to the 
other, and is, perhaps, the finest Corot in the Collection. 
The two paintings are of different sizes ; the scene, however, 
is the same, and the difference in details is so slight as to 
be overlooked in a black-and-white reproduction. — The 


An Artisfs Reminiscences. By Walter Crane. 
(London: Methuen & Co.) \Zs. net. — Mr. 
Walter Crane has for many years moved as a 
prominent figure in the circles of artistic society. 
Of the circumstances under which he has met 
many of the celebrated men of the latter half of 
the Victorian era, and in his records of some 
Continental travel, the author has abundance of 
recollections. The story of his own success is 
modestly revealed. The book shows that among 
the many crafts in which Mr. Crane has been 
interested that of the writer is not excepted. It is 
from his close association with the revival of 
the arts and handicrafts that some of the best 
reading in the book derives its interest. In any 
history of the art of the last century in England 
the beginnings of this renaissance will always pro- 
vide an important chapter, and Mr. Crane's con- 
nection with it is one that cannot be forgotten. In 
recording his contribution of an article on gesso- 
work to the second number of The Studio, and 
in a reference to Aubrey Beardsley which follows, 
Mr. Crane is in error in attributing the acceptance 
of that artist's early work by this magazine to Mr. 
Gleeson White, who, as a matter of fact, joined 
the staff shortly afterwards, not as its first editor, 
as stated by Mr. Crane, but to assist in its produc- 
tion jointly with its present editor. The inclusion 
in his book of post-cards and certain notes of 
extreme brevity from well-known persons we should 
scarcely have thought necessary either on account 
of the matter in them or as supplementing the 

esteem in which Mr. Crane and his art as a 
designer have for so long been held. The book 
is illustrated in a very interesting manner with 
plates of various places and incidents connected 
with the artist's life and with some illustrations 
and pictures of his own. 

Goldsmith's and Silverstnith's Work. By Nelson 
D.wvsoN. (London: Methuen.) 25^. net. — The 
author of this latest addition to the useful Con- 
noisseurs' Library, who is himself a practical 
craftsman, has approached his subject from the 
point of view, not so much of the collector and 
professional connoisseur, who have been liberally 
catered for by others, but from that of the culti- 
vated public, who, though rarely able to purchase 
the treasures that from time to time come into the 
market, can yet instinctively fathom the secret of 
their charm. " The joy and pleasure of a collector 
who has become possessed of a good piece," says 
Mr. Dawson, " must indeed be great, but it is 
questionable whether it equals the joy of an artist 
who, looking at the same thing . . . sees that the 
craftsman who produced it infused so much of his 
character into it that it became imbued with a 
certain quality of life, that every fresh curve and 
form that catches his eye is like the turning over 
of a new page of some interesting book, yet," he 
adds, "no desire to possess enters his mind, indeed, 
possession would almost spoil appreciation." His 
aim thus clearly set forth, the eloquent author 
invites his readers to come and share his enjoy- 
ment of the beautiful examples described and repro- 
duced, prefacing his actual examination of them by 
excellent definitions of the essential qualities of 
gold and silver ore and their alloys, passing thence 
to review the work of the past in those materials 
in chronological order, beginning with the so-called 
peasant jewellery of the Mycenaean period and 
bringing his narrative down to modern times, 
tracing, wherever possible, the evolution of later 
from earlier forms. Specially interesting are the 
chapters on Anglo-Saxon and Irish metal-work, the 
illustrations including reproductions of the famous 
Jewel of Alfred, the Ring of Ethelwulf, the Ardagh 
Chalice, and the fine bas-reliefs of the Domnach 
Shrine, the special interest of which, Mr. Dawson 
points out, is " that they show the transition of 
Irish Celtic work from the Celtic into the Gothic 
period." But there is really not one dull page in 
a publication that will no doubt appeal alike to 
the antiquarian, the student of ecclesiastical 
history, the artist and the craftsman. 

The Matterhorn. By GuiDO Rev, with an In- 
troduction by Edmondo de Amicis. Translated 


Reviews and Notices 

from the Italian by J. E. C. Eaton. (London: 
T. Fisher Unwin.) 21^. net.— Probably nine out 
of ten people who take up this book will utter the 
exclamation with which Sgr. de Amicis begins his 
introduction — " A whole book about a mountain!" 
-and a bulky book too with its three hundred odd 
pages of letterpress and about three dozen plates, 
some printed on cardboard and mounted. But it 
is a well-printed book, and once having begun to 
read, it is difficult to know when to leave off, and 
by the time the end is reached one feels with 
Sgr. de Amicis that the work is all too short. 
From the very first page, where the author sum- 
mons up a vision of the process by which this 
mountain received from the Creator its wondrous 
form, down to the last, where he concludes a 
thrilling narrative of a perilous ascent which he 
undertook by way of the terrible Furggen ridge 
some eight years ago, every page has its fascina- 
ti(jn. The author has the gift of fluent and vivid lan- 
guage, whether he is describing the majestic scenery 
of the Alps or whether he is recording the sensa- 
tions experienced in his daring exploits — especially, 
for instance, where he gives an account of his first 
ascent of the Matterhorn, and again where he 
narrates his ascent by the Furggen ridge just 
mentioned. No better characterisation of the 
book can be given than that which we find in the 
Introduction — it is "a treasure of knowledge, of 
observations, and of ideas, only to be found in 
those books that are the spontaneous product of a 
great passion and of long experience, the intellec- 
tual offspring of a man's whole life." The illustra- 
tions are both numerous and excellent : some of 
them are reproduced from drawings by Edoardo 
Rubino, in black-and-white on a greenish -grey 
ground, others are pen-sketches by the same artist, 
and there are about a dozen capital photographs, 
which we presume were taken by the author him- 
self — he is of course well known as an accom- 
plished photographer. 

The Keramic Gallery. By William Chaffers. 
Second edition, revised and edited by H. M. 
CuNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A. (London : Gibbings & 
Co.) 35^-. net. — The first edition of this work, 
published over thirty years ago in two volumes as 
a pictorial supplement to the well-known "Marks and 
Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain," by the same 
author, has long been out of print, and copies have 
fetched prices far beyond that at which it was pub- 
lished (four guineas). In this edition the illustra- 
tions were printed by the Woodbury process, and had 
in consequence to be separated from the text. In 
the present edition they have been reproduced by 

the half-tone process, and are inserted with the 
letterpress referring to them — a much more con- 
venient arrangement. It has been found possible 
also, notwithstanding the inclusion of a hundred 
additional illustrations from important collections, 
to make one volume serve in place of the two 
bulky ones which were required for the first edition, 
and as this one volume is not inconveniently large, 
the usefulness of the work is increased. The 
letterpress remains practically the same as it was 
left by Mr. Chaffers. 

The Satituario of the Madonna di Vico. By 
L. Melano Rossi. (London: Macmillan). £,\ \s. 
net. — Amongst the examples of Italian Renaissance 
architecture that still remain much what they were 
when first completed, none is more truly charac- 
teristic than the so-called Pantheon of Charles 
Emanuel of Savoy that, with its noble dome, the 
fourth largest and most beautiful in the world, and 
its towers with tapering spires grouped around its 
central feature, gives at first sight an extraordinary 
impression of vastness, dignity, and originality. 
Yet, in spite of its unique beauty, this grand sur- 
vival of the golden age is scarcely known outside 
its immediate environment, being scarcely ever 
alluded to in works of reference, and even in local 
literature being very inadequately described. It is 
due to the energy of the accomplished scholar Signor 
Rossi that the unjust oblivion into which the beauti- 
ful Temple of Peace, as its founder called the sanc- 
tuary, is now a thing of the past, and all who are 
interested in architecture and the decorative arts, 
or in the political and religious history of Italy, 
owe to him a deep debt of gratitude for the 
unwearying patience with which he has collected in- 
formation on his important subject, the number 
and beauty of the illustrations supplementing his 
text, and the clearness with which he has told 
the whole story of the evolution of the building. 
'J he corner-stone of the present Santuario, which 
replaces an ancient shrine sacred to a wonder- 
working image of the Virgin, was laid with much 
pomp on July 7th, 1596, in the presence of the 
duke and a vast concourse of ecclesiastical digni- 
taries and enthusiastic spectators, and in telling the 
later story of the building Signor Rossi dwells on the 
fact that Charles Emanuel, with the astuteness that 
characterised him, managed to skilfully reconcile his 
own advanced religious opinions with the superstii ious 
hallucinations of his subjects, adding, "he longed 
to see the worship of the Madonna leading up to that 
of the Italy which did not then exist but which was to 
be created." It is significant of this attitude on the 
part of the duke that he chose the Renaissance 

Reviews and Notices 

rather than the Gothic style, finding in the mihtary 
architect Ascanio Vitozzi a kindred spirit, fired 
with ambitions similar to his own. The Temple 
of Peace was intended, in fact, to usher in a new 
era, and although its founder did not live to see 
the fulfilment of its prophecy, it remains to this 
day a monument of his prescience. 

Geo)-ge Morland. By G. C. Williamson, Litt.D. 
(London: George Bell & Sons.)— The larger and 
more expensive edition on which the new volume on 
Morland is founded having been reviewed at length 
in The Studio, it is only necessary to say that the 
latter contains all that is essential in its prede- 
cessor, the text of which has been revised and 
condensed ; that the renderings in colour of The 
Reckoning, Horses in a Stable, The Door of a 
Village Inn, and the Girl Fondling a Dove, are 
excellent ; and that the black-and-white illustra- 
tions include four interesting sketches not before 
reproduced, namely, A Snooze by the Way and 
A Tea Party, both in sepia, and A Scene on the 
Ice and Alorland's Servant, delicate pencil drawings, 
all owned by Mr. Hubert Garle. 

D Arte Mondiale alia V II. Esposizione di Venezia. 
By ViTTORio Pica. (Bergamo: Istituto Italiano 
d'Arte Grafiche.) 9 lire. — Sgr. Pica may be called 
the historian of the international art exhibitions at 
Venice, for the present publication is the fifth of 
the series of volumes he has written on them. 
Seeing that the exhibition of the present year had 
only just closed its doors when this volume made 
its appearance, the work cannot be said to be 
wanting in actualite. Dealing first with the Bel- 
gian section, he proceeds to pass in review succes- 
sively those of Holland and Scandinavia, then the 
Russian and Austrian sections, followed by other 
foreign groups, including Great Britain, France, 
and Germany, the last two chapters being devoted 
to the Italians. The illustrations consist of over 
four hundred capital reproductions of works 
exhibited in the various sections. 

An Introdtution to Old English Furniture. By 
\V. G. Mallktt. (London : George Newnes.) 
51. net. — In spite of its unpretending title and low 
price this copiously illustrated book will be of great 
use to the collector, for it defines very accurately 
and succinctly the characteristics of each style of 
English furniture, from the Early Tudor to the last 
phase of the Classic Revival. The drawings of 
Mr. H. M. Brock, all taken from examples that 
have passed through the hands of Mr. Mallett, are 
also excellent, for whilst catching the general 
character of each specimen they clearly reproduce 
every detail of decoration. 

Messrs. Seeley & Co.'s " Library of Romance " 
has received two interesting additions in The 
Fomaftce of Savage Life and The Romance of 
Modern Sieges (each 5^.). — The former, written by 
Mr. G. F. Scott Elliot, describes the life of primitive 
man, his customs, occupations, language, religious 
beliefs, arts, crafts, adventures, games, and sports ; 
while the latter, written by the Rev. Edward 
Gilliatt, gives an account of some of the great 
sieges which have taken place in our own days, 
the most recent being that of Port Arthur. Both 
books are copiously illustrated and attractively 
bound, and botli are written in a way which 
will ensure for them a warm welcome from boys. 
Messrs. Seeley have also just issued a new edition 
of Cambridge {ds. net), by Mr. John Willis 
Clark, the Registrary of the University, whose 
pleasantly-written story of the colleges and other 
institutions of this great centre of learning is 
supplemented by a number of excellent illustra- 
tions after drawings, etchings, etc., by Messrs. 
A. Brunet Debaines, H. Toussaint, E. Hull, and 
A. E. Pearce, while Mr. George Morrow con- 
tributes a coloured frontispiece showing the gate- 
way of Trinity College. We are glad to see also 
from the same publishers a new edition of Mr. 
F. G. Stephens's capital little monograph on Dante 
Gabriel Rossetti {2s. net), and of Mr. W. C. 
Lefroy's Ruined Abbeys of Yorkshire (also 2s. net). 

The fourth and fifth instalments of the publica- 
tion issued by Messrs. T. C. & E. C. Jack, in 
which the designs for The Palace of Peace at the 
Hague are reproduced, contain those submitted in 
the international competition by Gliel Saarinen 
(Helsingfors) ; J. F. Groll (London) ; H. Van 
Buren Magonigle (New York) ; Prof. W. Scholter 
(Stuttgart) ; Ringuet and Alaux (Paris) ; F. Debat 
(Paris) ; E. Cuijpers (Amsterdam) ; Emil Tory 
(Buda Pesth) ; J. Coates Carter (Cardiff), and 
T. Eklund (Helsingfors). The work is to be com- 
pleted in eight parts at 10s. 6d. net per part. 

Mr. C. F. A. Voysey, whose designs for the 
interior of " Garden Corner, Chelsea," were illus- 
trated in our last issue, desires us to state that the 
wrought-iron work for the house was provided by 
Mr. W. B. Reynolds, and the metal hinges, case- 
ments, and grates by Messrs. J. Elsley &: Co. The 
electric lighting was done by Messrs. Ashby & Sons. 

In reproducing Mauve's water-colour Winter last 
month (p. 10), we should have acknowledged, as 
we now do, our indebtedness to Messrs. Marchant 
& Co., as well as to Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & 
Co., Paris. 


The Lay Figure 



"There seems to me to be a growing 
inclination among the buyers of works of art to 
regard costliness as a sort of guarantee of quality," 
said the Art Critic; "unless a thing fetches a 
large price it is despised and is treated as if it were 
of little importance. Why should this be ? I do 
not see that there is any connection between money 
value and artistic worth — the first is a matter of 
fashion, the second a matter of principle." 

" Quite so," returned the Man with the Red Tie; 
"but as fashion has always more power to sway 
human conviction than principle is ever likely to 
have, you must accept anomalies such as this." 

"You admit then that money value ought not 
to be taken as the one and only test of merit?" 
enquired the Critic. " Is there no hope of estab- 
lishing a more reasonable test?" 

"Where is the need for it?" broke in the Plain 
Man. "The money test is a sensible one enough ; 
it works well and it is easy to understand. I 
cannot see that there is any objection to it." 

"No, I suppose it would satisfy you," replied 
the Man with the Red Tie, " because you are 
incapable of forming any opinion about subtleties 
of taste. You cannot see anything that is not 
absolutely obvious." 

" Is not that enough ? " asked the Plain Man. 
" What need is there to worry about subtleties 
when you are dealing with facts that cannot be 
disputed ? I am content to take things as they 
are ; to discuss what they might be if the world 
were something it is not is sheer waste of time." 

" Then you think that a work of art which can 
be acquired for a small price must necessarily be 
bad?" said the Critic. "And you believe that 
things for which there is no market are too con- 
temptible to have any right to exist ? " 

"Yes, that would fairly define my point of view,' 
replied the Plain Man. " If a work of art is good 
a large number of people want it, and its price 
naturally is enhanced by competition. Conversely, 
the bad work which no one wishes to possess has 
to be sold for what it will fetch, and the worse it is 
the less chance it has of being sold at all. Cheap 
things must always be bad things." 

" In other words," commented the Man with the 
Red Tie, " fashion, not taste, is the governing 
principle in art patronage. You are endorsing 
fully what I have just said. People do not think 
for themselves; they run after one another like 
boys playing follow-my-leader, and what one does 

everyone else imitates. We are all descended from 
monkeys and we keep up the monkey habit." 

" I did not know that monkeys had any convic- 
tions about art," laughed the Plain Man. "We 
know more about the matter than our simian 
ancestors and we have acquired sanity by long 
experience. Part of our sanity is the very reason- 
able belief that what people do not want is not 
worth having. You would not induce even a mon- 
key to accept what he did not like." 

" But the really intelligent monkey might be 
educated into exercising some sort of discrimina- 
tion," replied the Critic; "and the monkey con- 
noisseur might discover that by exercising his 
intelligence he would satisfy his tastes without 
having to fight for what he wanted with all the 
other members of his tribe. The collector who 
insists upon having what everyone else is striving 
for and then chatters with rage because someone 
richer or stronger takes it away is only adopting 
the manners of the jungle." 

" Primitive instincts naturally produce primitive 
manners," commented the Man with the Red Tie; 
"we have not advanced much during the lapse of 
ages ; we are still terribly undeveloped." 

"Then there is all the more reason that we 
should try to find out ways of improving ourselves," 
returned the Critic. " Suppose we begin by realis- 
ing that good art need not necessarily be expensive. 
I quite admit that what is popular, what is in the 
fashion, must be costly because it is in wide request, 
but I deny that this costliness is in any way a test 
or a proof of merit. The man who knows how 
to choose can surround himself with admirable 
examples of art work with a very small outlay. All 
that he has to do is to avoid what is generally 
sought after, and to choose things which are cut of 
fashion and which do not attempt to satisfy the 
popular demand. Let him patronise discreetly and 
intelligently the unknown men, the artists who have 
ideas of their own and who are not working in 
accordance with a recognised formula. If he can- 
not afford to buy pictures let him collect drawings 
or etchings; if drawings or etchings are beyond his 
means let him buy good photographs. He has 
almost endless opportunities open to him if he can 
once get rid of the delusion that there is only one 
groove in which art patronage ought to travel. 
But, above all, he must disabuse himself of that 
pernicious idea that art objects should be bought 
for speculative purposes. This notion is responsible 
f(jr many of the present-day abuses ; men buy costly 
things chiefly because they hope to sell them again 
at a profit." The Lay Figure. 







wS. Melton Fisher 



There is undoubtedly in the work which 
Mr. Melton Fisher has done during the last few 
years very plain proof of the value of delicate and 
unforced sentiment as the foundation of serious 
artistic achievement. His pictures offer a direct 
denial to the popular belief that the illustration of 
some incident or the relating of some story must 
be regarded as essential in all pictorial effort, and 
they assert in a manner which cannot be mistaken 
the right of an artist who looks at life from an 
individual standpoint to choose his own way of 
interpreting the facts that are presented to him. 
In what may be called illustraiive painting the 
subject is always more or less ready-made ; it is 
incapable of anything but minor modifications, and 
the way in which it should be treated is chiefly 
determined by other than aesthetic considerations. 
It has a kind of literary purpose, an intention to 
realise something already pictured in words and 
fully described in all its main details ; there is 
little scope left to the painter for the exercise of 

personal preferences or for the development ot 
original methods of expression. 

But the man who bases his art not upon what 
he can derive from the ideas of others, but upon 
what is suggested to him by his own temperament, 
is not only more genuinely inspired but has an in- 
finitely better chance of arriving at results which are 
of permanent importance. He offers artistic opinions 
which claim respect as those of an independent 
thinker who wishes to convey to others impressions 
that have affected him vividly and have stimulated 
definitely his imaginative faculties. These impres- 
sions, presented as they are through the medium of 
a personality, acquire the stamp of the artist's 
conviction, and take on the particular sentiment 
which by instinct he prefers. They become, when 
they are tianslated into a pictorial form, revelations 
of his beliefs and expressions of his view of his 
responsibilities as an art worker. 

The belief that is revealed in Mr. Melton Fisher's 
paintings is an absolute faith in the power which 
abstract beauty has to appeal to the imagination 
and to satisfy the taste of the real lover of art. 
He aims at an ideal and seeks to create an atmo- 


(By \rmission of Mrs. Eleanot Rawh Reader) 

XLII. No. 177. — December, 1907. 



5. Melton Fisher 

sphere that will be consistent with the faith he 
holds, an atmosphere that is permeated with the 
sentiment to which he responds. That he succeeds 
in realising this aim can scarcely be disputed ; the 
character and quality of his pictures, the suavity 
and elegance of his technical method, the dainty 
charm of the subjects he prefers, can all be adduced 
as evidence of his consistency. He uses perfectly 
legitimate means to make himself understood, and 
his art has in consequence a full measure of that 
frank directness which is the mark of the sincere 
student of nature who has satisfied himself as to 
the way in which he can best explain what is in 
his mind. 

It can well be imagined that he has not arrived 
at his present clearness of conviction without some 
years of preparation. He had the advantage of a 
thorough training in the practical details of his 
craft, and what he learned in his student days he 
has since subjected quite thoroughly to the test of 
experience ; and, as well, he has availed himself of 
special opportunities that have come to him of 
widening unusually his artistic outlook. Born in 
i860, he received his general education at Dulwich 
College, where he had the benefit of practically 
daily contact with a collection of notable pictures 
by the greater masters, and was able to satisfy by 

study of these masterpieces inclinations which even 
in his early boyhood were definitely developed. 
His actual training in art began when he left Dul- 
wich, and started as a student in the Lambeth 
School. After making some successes there — 
among them the gaining of a gold medal in the 
National Competition — he went to France and 
became a pupil of M. Bonnafe, a teacher well able 
to guide him in his seeking after completer know- 
ledge, and an artist with a sound understanding of 
many branches of executive practice. 

Reversing the usual proceeding of the English 
art student, Mr. Melton Fisher came back from 
Paris to work in the Royal Academy schools. 
During his period of study there he proved in 
many ways that he had to be seriously reckoned 
with as an artist of more than common ability, and 
he ended by carrying off the gold medal and 
travelling studentship, the most eagerly competed 
for of all the Academy prizes, and the one which 
tests most fully the imaginative power and the 
technical skill of the student. As he had to spend 
the two years' term of this studentship abroad he 
betook himself to Italy, and after travelling for a 
while in that country he decided to settle down in 
Venice, where he would have the advantage of 
living in surroundings artistically inspiring and of 




S. Melton Fisher 



of an artist, for at Venice he had exactly 
what was needed to develop the best 
side of his nature and to bring into full 
activity all the cxsthetic instincts which 
he had been training so assiduously year 
by year. 

During this ten years' term he made 
a strong bid for a definite position among 
the best of the younger English artists 
by the originality and sound quality of 
the pictures which he sent home for 
exhibition at the Academy. The sub- 
jects he chose were characteristic of 
modern Venetian life ; his canvases were 
records of his observation of the people 
among whom he found himself, and by 
their brilliant reality and clever state- 
ment of picturesque facts gained the 
immediate approval of everyone who 
was qualified to judge his work. When 
at last he left Venice and came back 
to London he had a thoroughly estab- 
lished reputation as an artist who was 
not only a master of his craft, but 
gifted, as well, with more than ordinary 
perception of those refinements of ex- 
pression which are necessary for the 
highest order of achievement. By such 
performances as his Venetian Costume 

association with a number 
of distinguished artists who 
had taken up their abode 
in that city. 

He did not return to 
England when his student- 
ship expired ; he had fallen 
under the charm of Venice, 
and there he remained for 
ten years painting subjects 
drawn from the life around 
him, and revelling in the 
wealth of picturesque ma- 
terial which he found ready 
to his hand. It may be 
counted fortunate that he 
should have decided ' to 
spend in a place so satisfy- 
xwd to his innate love of 
beauty those first years of 
independent production 
which make up the most 
critical period in the career 



































5. Melton Fisher 

Makers (1888)/ Festa (1889), La 
Sposa (1890), Una Cresina : The 
Confirmation of a Child, Veriice 
(1 891), VAsta: A Sale by Auction 
( 1894), to quote the chief of the pic- 
tures he exhibited during this period, 
he had defined his place in the art 
world — and this place, it could be 
seen, was one of undeniable dis- 

At first he seemed inclined to con- 
tinue in London the same kind of 
search after beauty in everyday life 
with which he occupied himself in 
Venice, for soon after his return from 
abroad he exhibited an important 
picture, Clerkenwell Flower Makers 
(1896), in wliich all the characteristics 
of his earlier style are fully displayed. 
But his maturing convictions soon 
led him to see that his love of colour 
and feeling for graceful line could be 
more completely asserted in subjects 
of a more abstract type ; and accord- 
ingly he has for the past ten years 
occupied himself more and more 




with those dainty fancies by which he 
is best known to-day — with such de- 
lightful compositions as In Realms oj 
Fancy, which was bought by the Chantrey 
Fund Trustees in 1898 ; Sleep, and the 
Tambour Frame, the • first of which is 
in the National Gallery at Wellington, 
New Zealand, and the other in the 
National Gallery at Perth, Western 
Australia; Poppies; June; La Belle au 
Bois dormant, an exquisite example of 
his treatment of the nude figure : the 
graceful Ballerina, which was one of the 
features of the 1907 Academy ; Dreams, 
which was acquired for the Corporation 
Gallery at Oldham : and The Chess 
Players, which was added not long ago 
to the collection in the Walker Art 
Gallery at Liverpool. Throughout the 
whole of this series there runs an obvious 
intention to deal with nature in a spirit 
of pure eclecticism, and to record only 
those among her many aspects which 
would lend themselves best to the illus- 
tration of the particular aesthetic truths 
which he wished to advocate. 


S. Melton Fisher 



(In the National Gallery, Perth, Western Australia) 

It is because of his success in making this 
intention felt that Mr. Melton Fisher has attained 
the wide popularity which he now enjoys. There 
is no taint of sentimentality in his art ; indeed, 
delicate and daintily fanciful as it is, it lacks 
neither virility nor decision of manner, and with 
all its emphatic assertion of a belief in subtleties 
of suggestion it is yet free from conventionality. 
That he is a shrewd student of character, that he 
can look closely into the litde details which mark 
the points of difference between individuals, is 
])roved by the strength and vitality of his portraits. 
He paints such a piece of abstract loveliness as 
the head of his Cfytie with the same sort of con- 
viction that he shows in a portrait like that of 
Miss Rodd, and to both pictures he gives just 
that degree of naturalism which is needed to make 
them live. As a portrait painter he has done much 
that deserves frank commendation, and it may be 
noted that his happiest efforts in this branch of 
practice include at least as many paintings of 
men as of women: he has by no means limited 
himself only to the representation of graceful 

Concerning his skill as a craftsman there can be 
no question ; his easy, fluent draughtsmanship and 

broadly simple brushwork, his sensitive manage- 
ment of gradations of tone and modulations of 
colour, his judicious treatment of subtleties of 
modelling, show that he has made himself com- 
pletely a master of the mechanism of his art. Nor 
does he confine himself to only one medium ; as 
a pastellist he has made successes quite as great 
as those which he has gained as an oil painter. 
Indeed, whatever the medium he employs, he 
arrives always surely at the end which he has in 
view. A. L. B. 

In connection with the recent International Art 
Exhibition at Venice, the following awards have 
been made by the Jury des Recompenses. In the 
departments of painting, sculpture, drawing and 
engraving, Grandes Medailles d'Or are awarded to 
MM. A. Baertsoen, F. Brangwyn, A.R.A., C. 
Cottet, Dampt, Josef Israels, Heinrich Knirr, 
Boris Kustodieff, Jules Lagae, Philip Laszlo, Cesare 
Laurenti, E. R. Menard, Gerhard Munthe, and 
J. S. Sargent, R.A. In the section of applied art, 
Herr Barwig, of Vienna, and M. Lalique, of Paris, 
receive gold medals, and special diplomas or gold 
medals are awarded for the decoration of certain 
of the salons. 


Augiiste Rodin 


Amon(; the latest work of Auguste Rodin are a 
number of portrait busts — marvellous examples of 
technical skill which prove this artist's ability to 
handle his medium as perhaps no one has done since 
the great days of the Renaissance. Few painters, 
and no modern sculptor to my knowledge, have so 
revealed the inner character of his sitter. One loses 
sight even of Rodin's technique in this revelation 
of psychological power. Beginning with the strong 
young head of Bastien-Lepage, what a magnificent 
array of men and women he has bequeathed to the 
world ! Noble, austere, pure, lovely — according to 
the gifts of his model, for Rodin transcribes only 
that which he finds in the face, the character of his 

Here, then, is a field where even Rodin's 
enemies must yield reluctant praise. Their 
favourite accusation, that he takes casts from life, 
can no longer apply, as he does much of his work 
in the marble. "Does it not tire you?" I asked, 
when I first .saw him working in the stone. "Ah, 
no ; it is a great pleasure, a real joy." In his recent 
busts one feels this joy in his work, a joy which, 
during his long years of struggle, was sometimes 
overclouded, so that many of his statues seem to 
possess an indwelling sadness, a knowledge of life 
too profound to admit of gaiety. But no such 
thought is possible when looking at the radiant 
head of a young English girl that I recently saw in 
his studio. One knows that happiness alone has 
been her portion, that as naturally as the opening 
flower turns toward the sun this young creature 
turns toward the joys of life. It is the consummate 
expression of eager expectation, of dawning woman- 
hood in the pure soul of a young girl. There is 
not a flaw in the delicate marble, nor a flaw in the 
perfect technique of the master. 

When Rodin deems it wise to carry his modelling 
to the extreme of finished detail, he can do so 
without loss of power. Almost all his busts of 
women possess this attraction of exquisite finish. 
Many of his men, on the contrary, are blocked in 
with broad, powerful strokes, depending for their 
expression on the force, rather than the detail, of 
their modelling, yet always enveloped in a sort of 
luminous atmosphere. It is this luminous quality 
in the sculpture of Rodin that separates it from 
that of all modern masters. " This has been my 
life-work," said M Rodin. "During forty years I 
have searched for this quality ot light. I have 

found it in the modelling. It is the modelling 
that produces the effect of atmosphere — that gives 
life to the statue." 

In M. Rodin's hands marble becomes soft, pliant, 
alive— he is "a master of live stone," as the old 
Italians loved to call their sculptors. After that 
great period sculpture, like painting, became aca- 
demic, and though France has led the modern world 
in plastic art, her sculptors have studied from the 
Cireek rather than from life. What the men of 
1830 — -Corot, Rousseau, and Daubigny — did for 
painting, Rodin has done for sculpture — carried it 
back to nature, thrown open the windows and 
flooded the atelier with light. 

As the Court painters, accustomed to the dim- 
ness of their studios, were blinded by the dazzling 
brilliancy of the Barbizon School, so the Academy 
men of our day have been blinded by the natural- 
ness of Rodin's art — have accused him of taking 
casts from the living model, of departing from the 




Augusie Rodin 

noble ideas of French sculp- 
ture. They cannot see that 
he has opened a new path, 
the path that leads to the 
heart of nature, the ever- 
lasting source of truth, of 
inspiration. By their bitter 
criticism they have added 
much to the difficulties of 
this artist's life. But those 
who mark out new paths 
are always men of great 
moral strength, willing to 
accept the suffering which 
must be their portion be- 
cause of those who are to 
come after, who shall reap 
what they have sown. 

Fortunately, Rodin is a 
philosopher as well as an 
artist ; he realises that he 
is in advance of his time, 
that the world is not 
yet ready for psychological 
sculpture, the majority pre- 
ferring the theatrical pose 
and graceful drapery of 





Studio arrangements, whereas he gives 
us human figures that personate no special 
characters, that simply convey some dis- 
tinct psychic emotion. " I name my 
statues when they are finished," he says, 
"because the public demands it, but 
the names convey little of their real 
meaning. Take, for example, the group 
in the Luxembourg called Le Baiser. 
The meaning is far more profound, more 
elemental than these words imply. Love, 
the union of man and woman — I have 
simply striven to translate this eternal 
truth. People tell me that I create ; that 
is not true. God alone creates, man but 
reveals. The greatest poet, the greatest 
musician, has found his poetry, his music, 
in Nature. Our Gothic cathedrals, what 
are they but the faithful transcription of 
natural forms— the arching trees of the 
primeval forest, the birds and beasts and 
sea-shells? The men who gave us the 
churches which are to-day the^ greatest 
glory of France were passionate lovers 
of Nature. I am convinced that this is 
true of all great art periods. My one 





Auguste Rodin 

effort is to r^-present what I find in God's creation — 
above all, in the form of man, which is the highest, 
most perfect, of architectural constructions." 

Rodin's frank joy in the nude is Greek, but his 
psychological interpretation of man's spirit is essen- 
tially modern, and his statues reveal the nervous 
life of our twentieth century, with all its perplexi- 
ties, doubts, aspirations. He does not always 
choose the soul in its highest moments, preferring to 
translate life as it exists. He pierces beyond the veil 
to the truths which lie at the heart of humanity, and 
his figures palpitate with life, sensations, dreams. 

Because we have been taught to find our ideal 
sculpture in the calm statues of the Greeks, we are 
shocked by his portrayal in marble of such tumul- 
tuous emotion. Unconsciously inherited traditions 
prejudice us against the innovator. We forget 
that the calmness of Hellenic art could not trans- 
cribe our restless modern life ; and that Rodin, 
lover and devotee of ancient art though he be, is 
essentially the child of his age, the prophet, the 
seer of modernity. If we believe art to be " the 

expression of the souls of great men," should we 
not hold an open mind for the receiving of their 
message, no matter in what form it be given ? 
We must also remember that many of Rodin"s 
groups were created for his Porte d'Etifer, whereon 
he has depicted Dante's vision of " those who go 
down into hell"; and that in (jur revolt at his too 
realistic rendering of these subjects we should not 
lose sight of the greatness of the art which portrays 
the passions that sway our age. But these two 
hundred figures can be put entirely aside : there 
will still remain sufficient of his imaginative sculpture 
to place Rodin's name on the roll-call of the great. 
Nor can the value of this artist's work be judged 
from the aesthetic standpoint only: he is the master 
craftsman of this age, and perhaps his greatest con- 
tribution to the coming generation of sculptors is 
the lesson of his patient endeavour to learn well his 
craft. With stubborn will he set himself the task 
of reproducing the human form. No labour was 
too great to achieve this end. From early morn- 
ing until late at night he worked at his modelling ; 
thousands of hands and feet, of detached 
bits of anatomy in his atelier, prove the 
carefulness of his research. 

As he modelled the outward form his 
imagination was busy with the story of 
the ages — the eternal story of love and 
birth and death — so that almost un- 
consciously he wove into his work the 
pattern of life. Thus it is that his por 
trait busts are representative not only of 
individual?, but of this age. L'ulure 
generations will regard them as a page 
in the book of our life, and place them 
in their treasure-houses of art, for, as 
Rodin said of his painter-friend Carriere, 
" Better than his contemporaries those 
who are still to come, those who shall 
understand, will work out his glory." 
A. Se.^ton Schmidt. 



The Third International Congress for 
the Development of Drawing and Ait 
Teaching will be held in London next 
August. As ihe Committee are desirous 
of knowing as long beforehand as possible 
the approximate number of members for 
whom arrargements will have to be made, 
they appeal to all art teachers to enrol at 
once. The subset iption for ordinary 
members is \os. 6d., and may be sent to 
the Organising Secretary, 151 Cannon 
Street, London, E.C. 


41gernon M. Talmage 



Carlyle has told us that the actual well seen is 

the ideal. Keats expressed much the same thought 

when he sang : 

Beauly is truth, truth beauty — that is all 
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. 

Mr. Algernon Talmage, some of whose pictures 
are reproduced in the following pages, has founded 
his hfe's work on this teaching. His love for 
Nature is deep and reverent, and he spares no 
pains to interpret her truly. At the same time he 
is careful to choose of her best and to see it under 
the most beautiful and often most transient aspects. 

Here we have the true idealist — the man who, 
while sparing no pains to obtain correctness, both 
in detail and general effect, exercises his preroga- 
tive of choice, and only gives us what he considers 
to be the most salient features of his subject at the 
moment of their strongest appeal. 

But this ability to make full use of the personal 
equation in the transcribing of nature is only 
arrived at after a long period of unremitting toil. 
For many years Mr. Talmage has painted his 
landscapes and cattle on the spot, not in the studio 

from small studies. He has thus obtained that 
highness of key and subtle diffusion of light and 
atmosphere which the indoor worker finds so 
difficult to master. 

In these days of impressionism, which in many 
cases would be better described as inarticulate 
occultism, it is refreshing to come across work 
which, while in the best sense impressionistic, is 
also true in form, tone and colour. Only sound 
draughtsmanship and a thorough knowledge of his 
subject will enable a man to be thus successful. 
Though Mr. Talmage has given us some of nature's 
most fleeting phases, his drawing is never scamped, 
and his detail, though often nearly lost in twilight 
half-tones, is always convincing. His cottages 
never look like haystacks, nor his cows as if they 
had been carved out of wood. He has, too, as I 
believe all true lovers of nature have, a horror of 
forcing an effect for the sake of making an effect — 
a fault which those who are familiar with our 
leading exhibitions know to be a very common one. 

Unfortunately, owing to the garrulity of the in- 
competent, both in the studios and in the press, 
it is difficult for the public to know what is best in 
painting. The disciples, who caricature the masters, 
loudly insist that their methods only are the way 
to salvation in art. Hence we have an everlasting 
strife between the perfervid facsimile-monger and 













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Algernon M. Talmage 

the egotistical impressionist, whose impressionism 
is not the result of temperament, but of sheer 
incapacity to produce truth in any shape or form. 
But these noisy polemics are but the babblings of 
the incompetent, who do not really represent the 
causes they espouse. The masters, both realists 
and impressionists, know that the beauties of 
nature are infinite, and can be seen and rendered 
from many different temperamental standpoints ; 
and they also know that they must be truthfully 
rendered. To this end they have acquired, through 
years of labour, the necessary skill. 

To the acquisition of this skill Mr. Talmage has 
devoted his whole life, since leaving Professor 
Herkomer's school at Bushey. He has taken up 
his abode at St. Ives in Cornwall, where he has a 
class of pupils, on whom he impresses the import- 
ance of open-air study and the love of truth that it 

His own work, at the Royal Academy and else- 

where, has attracted a good deal of attention, by 
reason of its reserve and fidtlity of tone and colour. 
The accompanying reproductions give, as far as 
black and white can, a fair indication of his 

On the Banks of the Avon shows us the very 
soul, as it were, of an autumn day on the marshes. 
The trees are stripped of nearly all their leaves, 
and the pattern of their many branches is truth- 
fully rendered. The lush meadows are sodden 
with moisture, and the force of the swollen river's 
stream is apparent at once. Overhead there is no 
theatrical arrangement of clouds, but just one of 
those soft, dappled grey canopies of which our 
English autumns are so prolific. The whole picture 
is a triumph of accurate and loving observation. 

Many of the painter's finest qualities are seen in 
The End of the Shower. Nothing has been forced, 
and yet so true are both tone and drawing that the 
spaciousness and somewhat sombre beauty of a 



{III the ftjsscsiion of Archibald Ramsdett, Esq.) 


Algernon M. Talmage 




{In the collection of R. Morton Nance, Esq.) 



M. Talma ^e 

Cornish moorland are admirably portrayed. It is 
one of those " soft " days, so common in a western 
winter. The great seaborne clouds are charged 
with rain, and the gorse and benty grasses of the 
foreground are dripping with moisture from a 
shower, which is seen passing away over St. Ives 
Bay and the country beyond. These great uplands 
are difficult to treat, but the gaunt trees and the 
well-balanced lines give the necessary pictorial effect. 
Decorative in arrangement and entirely uncon- 
ventional is the Moonrise in Picardy. Carrying 
the trees so far across the picture was a bold thing 
to do, but they have been cleverly made to 
compose. That tender half time between day and 
night, when the moon, not yet regnant, is but a 
pale disc in the eastern sky, is a very favourite one 
with the painter. In this instance the gracious, 
almost tender, dignity of the time is wonderfully 
caught. It is one of those rare moments when 
nature seems to be hushed in silent adoration. 

The White Cow is a difficult subject to treat 
successfully, but here again nothing has been 
forced. The somewhat intricate background has 
been cleverly subordinated, yet the cows in the 
sun dappled foreground do not obtrude. The 
impression left on the mind is of one of those 
drowsy, windless summer noons when nature's 
teeming millions are taking a well earned siesta. 

A Afoonlight Night shows us a village street 
steeped in moonlight. The whole picture is 
instinct with that rapture of repose which the soft 
beams of the queen of night make visible. A 
simple subject enough, but rendered with loving 
fidelity. A. G. F. S. 

(The picture reproduced on the next page is one 
of a series now being done by Mr. Talmage in 
London. The original is on view at the current 
exhibition of the Royal Society of British Artists 
in Suffolk Street.) 

'a moonlight night 





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Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



Our first illustrations of domestic archi- 
tecture this month represent a type of building 
unfamiliar to the majority of our readers. 

which he believes can be met without sacrifice of 
the features peculiar to the native architectural 
type. An example of such a building is furnished 
by this villa near Resek, a little spa in Bohemia, 
close to the Prussian frontier. The house is 
situated on the summit of a hill some 2,000 feet 

Mr. Dusan Jurkovic, the architect of the log- high, and owing mainly to the difficulty of trans- 
built villa at Resek, in Bohemia, belongs to the porting building material thither it was built of 
region called Slovackei, the country of the wood, which is plentiful in the neighbourhood. It 
Slovacks, lying between Hungary, by which it is was intended for use chiefly as a summer residence, 
ruled, and Bohemia, nearer akin from a racial but so well has it been constructed that it makes a 
point of view, for the Czechs who form the chief comfortable dwelling for the autumn and winter, 
element in the population of the latter country are The design throughout follows the traditional style 
closely related to the Slovacks in the Slav group of of the locality, but the architect has introduced 
races. Mr. Jurkovic is a zealous respecter of local elements of his own here and there, more especially 
traditions in architecture and decoration, of which in regard to the roof and the windows, which 
he has made an exhaustive study, culminating in admit more light than the old buildings usually do. 
a work recently published in Vienna by SchroU The accompanying coloured supplement gives a 
under the title of " Prace Lidu Naseho " (The view of the living-room, which is bright and 

Crafts of our People). It is these local traditions 
that Mr. Jurkovic incorporates in the houses 
designed by him in the course of his practice 
as an architect, wiih due regard, however, to a 
legitimate exercise of individual feeling on the 
part of the architect, and also, of course, with 
due regard to the requirements of the present day, 

cheerful, whereas the living-room in most of the 
old houses is a somewhat gloomy apartment with 
dark walls. The furniture shown is also of tradi- 
tional design, slightly modified. The villa contains 
six rooms in addition to the kitchen, bath-room, 
and other offices, and it cost about ^1,250 to 
build. Mr. Jurkovic now practises in the town of 




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Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



Brtinn, the capital of the province of Moravia. 
It was at the Gewerbeschule in this town that 
he studied for his profession, and it is interesting 
to note that before commencing practice he 
familiarised himself with the practical side of 
building by working in turn as a carpenter and 
joiner, mason, etc. 

"Surrey Holme," Byfleet, Surrey, of which 
illustrations are given on this and the following 
page, is a small house designed by Mr. G. L. 

Sutcliffe, A.R.I.B.A., for a level and well-wooded 
site adjoining the river Wey. The house contains 
a square hall, three sitting-rooms and six bed- 
rooms. The principal rooms are placed at the 
south end of the building, and the kitchen, stables, 
etc., at the north end. The walls are faced with 
Enfield bricks, selected for their varied colour, 
which ranges from rich red to deep purple, and the 
roofs are covered with tiles irregularly stained, 
producing a charming colour effect. Externally 


O f D 15 S 





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Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

there is little or no archi- 
tectural ornament about 
the house, but it is an 
interesting example of 
modern cottage architec- 
ture : the design is simple 
and unaffected, and shows 
a feeling for old Surrey 
work, although it is not a 
mere copy of it. Internally 
the fireplace is the prin- 
cipal feature in each room. 
The ingle in the den is 
entirely faced with Enfield 
bricks, and has a quaint 
and cosy effect. 

"Oddynes Holt," at Hor- 
sted Keynes, in Sussex, 
also designed by Mr. Lister 
Sutcliffe, is a simple and 

inexpensive country cottage, containing a fairly The inner hall, shown in our illustration, has for 
large inner hall (used also as a dining-room), two its principal feature a large ingle nook faced with 
sitting-rooms, five bedrooms and the usual offices, local bricks and paved with unglazed red tiles. 

The fireplace itself is built of bricks, 
and has a simple dog grate and a bright 
iron canopy. One peculiarity of the 
house is that no mouldings have been 
used, the angles of the woodwork being 
either chamfered off or slightly rounded. 
We give also two views of a Dutch 
garden designed by the same architect 
for "West Hall," Byfleet, a house to 
which various additions have been made 
by him. The garden is sunk about 
two feet below the level of the adjacent 
ground, and its design presented some 
difficulty, as the angles formed by the 
surrounding buildmgs and yew hedges 
are all irregular. The principal features 
are the three flights of steps, the old 
sun-dial, the fountain basin, and the 
alcoves for seats. Ham Hill stone was 
used for the dressings, but all the 
paving is of rough Purbeck marble laid 
in irregular pieces. The cut trees and 
shrubs of yew and box were imported 
from Holland. 

Mr. Arnold Mitchell is the architect 
of the house at Harrow Weald, shown 
in our coloured reproduction of Mr. 
J. A. Swan's drawing. The house stands 
high, on a fine open site, the rooms 
being planned so that in each case the 
fullest advantage is taken of the aspect 





Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

offered and the special view 
obtainable. The hall and 
staircase are panelled in 
white. All the ground-floor 
rooms have rich ceilings in 
modelled plaster, and the 
floors are of oak in narrow 
widths, the doors in maho- 
gany. The exterior is in 
white plaster, with a trow- 
elled and floated face, the 
wall tiles in bright red, the 
roofs covered with a dark 
hand-made tile. The cost 
has worked out at tenpence 
per foot cube, including all 
finishings and decorations. 
Though of a more or less 
public character as regards 
its use, we illustrate here (see 
pp. 200 and 203) a cottage 
hospital at Harrow-on-the- 

Hili, Middlesex, also designed by Mr. Arnold 
Mitchell, because, from an architectural point of 
view, the building in its general features is of the 




domestic type. It is, indeed, almost a matter of 
necessity that a building such as this should partake 
of this character. There should always be associated 





Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 


f.a.l-B.A. AfiCMT 
rr.HAMB/ER 5Q W 




rooms for lumber and storage. The domestic 
offices (kitchen, etc.) are in the basement, which, 
owing to the slope of the ground, is level with it on 
the southern side. Each of the three floors is 
equipped with adequate sanitary appliances. The 
materials used in the construction are multi- 
coloured bricks and rich yellow-brown Ham stone, 
with dark weather tiles on the roof. 



The Editor desires to thank the numerous 

architects and designers who have responded to 

his invitation to send in material for illustrating the 

third volume of this publication. A large number 

of new and interesting designs have reached him, 

and as the preparation of the volume is now well 

in hand, it is hoped to have it ready for publication 

early in the new year. As in the case of the second 

volume issued at the beginning of the present year, 

the 1908 volume will contain an important section 

devoted to exterior architecture in addition to a 

great variety of other subjects of interest to those 

who are decorating or furnishing their homes, and 

it will also contain a special article on Garden 

Design by Mr. T. H. Mawson. 

with a house intended for 
the reception of sufferers 
that feeling of cheerful 
homeliness which is such a 
potent factor in the treat- 
ment of patients. This 
cottage hospital at Harrow 
occupies a charming site> 
measuring an acre and a 
half. It contains two large 
wards, facing due south, so 
that patients may have the 
benefit of all the sunshine 
possible; each is about 
35 feet long, and has accom- 
modation for eight beds, 
but the cubic space is suf- 
ficient for two more. On 
the same floor, as shown 
by the ground-floor plan 
here reproduced, are placed 
the rooms for the staff, 
operating-room, etc. ; on 
the first-floor are the nurses' 
bedrooms, and two large 



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The Aiitmnn Salon, Paris 

time we cannot escape from tlie impression of 
inward force, of undisciplined strength, of deep- 
seated instinct emanating from these works. 

Passing now to the Belgian group, to my mind 
the most remarkable display among the painters was 
that of M. Van Rysselberghe, who exhibited two 
portraits and a nude. The finest of these was a 
portrait of a lady in white, half reclining on a 

Three thousand items, of which more 
than two thousand were concerned with 
painting and sculpture ; certain important retro- 
spective exhibits, such as those of Carpeaux, 
Cezanne, Berthe Morisot, Eva Gonzales, and 
Ponscarmes ; some remarkable ensemble displays 
by the great English aquafortist, Sir F. Seymour white sofa, with a wolf-hound beside her, very true 
Haden, and Jose-Maria Sert ; three beautiful in drawing and in attitude — a symphony in bluish- 
rooms devoted to Belgian art — such was the sum- white, brightened by the green transparencies of 
total of the Salon d'Automne this year. As is always the gown and the green edging of the cushions, 
the case, the noisiest works struck the keynote, M. Willie Finch, who seems to me to be a re- 
with the result that the melody was lost in the din. markable colourist, exhibited only one picture, and 

Compelled to be brief, and therefore to make that very badly placed — Jeune Fenitne au Bain. 
my choice, I will ask that I may be allowed to M. Van den Eckhoudt, who has perhaps less vigour 
devote attention to the works of the living artists, than M. Van Rysselberghe, exhibited a very fine 
with the solitary exception of Cezanne. portrait. Of the three pictures by M. Emile Claus, 

Whether we like his art or not, Cezanne marks a whom everyone admires for his unceasing eftbrt and 
date in the history of French painting, just as his magnificent gifts, one perhaps preferred the 
Mallarme marks a date in the history of poetry. Soird'Ele, by reason of its beautiful powdery sky, 
As yet we do not know what his influence will the most delicate grey of the gilded sheaves, and 
produce, but that influence is certain. Can it be the charming rustic atmosphere. Everyone knows 
denied that Cezanne and his admirers have largely how scrupulous and how full of observation is 
contributed to restore to French art a passionate M. L^on Frederic. His Ages de FOuvrier in the 
taste for colour ? His defects are striking enough : Luxembourg are very well known, and in his other 
a perhaps morbid deformation of 
linear vision, an exaggeration of line, 
carried at times to the verge of carica- 
ture, a deliberate realism like that of a 
man whose visual angle is defective, a 
frequent lack of cohesion between the 
divers parts — and goodness knows what 
else ! Anyone can add to the list. His 
qualities, on the other hand, are of a 
kind less easily discernible. Neverthe- 
less they exist. Perhaps his general point 
of view may be summarised thus : in the 
presence of nature Cezanne's feelings 
were instinctive ; that is to say, he felt 
blindly, but in a manner both profound 
and original. When he desired to express 
his emotions he became meticulous — a 
contradiction impossible to explain ! In 
labouring obstinately over each part he 
would lose sight of the ensemble. Note 
how minute was his method of painting : 
coatings of extremely fine colour, placed 
one above the other with untiring patience 
and infinite scrupulousness. Evidently 
we are here quite remote from the happy 
facility of genius 1 In this style of paint- 
ing there is an indication of trouble and 
something of impotence. At the same 



The AufituDi SaloN, Paris 

The drawings of Britlany 
\)\ M. Lemordant, simple 
and full of energy, very 
true in their movement, 
showed a quite remarkable 
understanding of light and 
shade. M. Jules Ch^ret 
sent some of his soaring 
female figures, charming 
as ever, M. Synave some 
I)retty children, and M. 
Joncicres some pictures of 
Versailles, which made one 
think of the delightful 
things by M. La Touche. 
M. Sureda displayed several 
pleasing bits of Orientalism, 
and M me. Angela Delasalle, 
who had shown such high 
promise, a rather feeble 
decorative composition. 
From M. Borchardtwe had 
a fme portrait of a lady, 
marred unfortunately by 
sundry errors of taste. The 
scholarly and ever-interest- 
canvases his work is still careful and vigorous. ing investigator M. Desvallieres deserves a place 
I admired greatly the slightly cold but digni- to himself, as does M. Truchet, whose flowers are 
fied art of M. Fernand Khnopff, the Brugelian full of spontaneity. 

tradition so beautifully expressed by M. Laermans, There were some very fine drawings. Those of 

the grace of M. Smits, the rather ponderous M. Dethomas are full of vigour and quite remark- 
strength of M. Baertsoen, and the charming able in accent. Others were contributed by M. Beau- 
qualities of AL Ensor. M. Evenepoel is a realist bois, Mme. Gardiner, M. Hermann-Paul and Mile. 



who may be excused a little vulgarity : M. Courtens, 
a very unequal painter, did not seem to me to be 
very well represented here. 

In the department of sculpture I found, making a 
very good show beside the great Constantin 
Meunier, M. \'ingotte, M. Mignon, and M. Paul 
Dubois, whose nudes are of fine stuff and real 

Brucre. But to my thinking the most striking of 
all the drawings in the Salon were those of M. 
Bernard-Naudin, done to illustrate the "Gold Bug" 
of Edward Allen Poe. They are instinct with 
movement and truth and simplicity, while the fore- 
shortening is simply astonishing. 

M. Boutet de Monvel and M.Tarquoy displayed 
vigour; but I still preferred the nude work of this year pictures that possess the (|ualities of style, 
M. Victor Rousseau, which palpitates with life and draughtsmanship, and composition rather than of 
is full of grace and simplicity. colour and passion. And let me not forget to 

Among the French painters two currents were mention M. Gropeano and M.Leon Daudet, both 
plainly visible, and these the hanging committee quite discreet. As for M. Jose-Maria Sert, he has 

had "canalised" as much as possible into different 

Traditional, as distinct from impress'onistic, paint- 
ing was represented by Mr. Lavery with three 
forceful and sober portraits. Next I must name 
M. L^vy-Dhurmer. Beside works of louder tone his 
camaieiis entklt^d/uu/ie-Brun and F(?/-/-C/<7/>chanted 
in an undertone a sweet and delicate melody which, 
its softness notwithstanding, was perfectly audible. 

undertaken a Titanic work — the entire decoration 
of a Spanish Cathedral, with subjects taken from 
the Old and New Testaments. He has been 
inspired by the Michael-Angelos of the Sistine 
Chapel, and the result is not unworthy of so 
formidable a model. 

Let us now turn to the impressionists. The 
display by M. Charles Gu^rin was the best we 
have had from him. A species of confusion, a 



M &-0- w -ff - 



T/ic Autiunn Salon, Paris 

d'Espagnat has not suc- 
ceeded in ridding himself 
of a heaviness, a non-spiritu- 
ality, which detracts from 
the merits of his big can- 
vases, remarkable though 
they are for breadth and 
concentration, careful 
colouring, and a certain 
joyous air which he has 
evidently striven tO; impart 
to them. 

The landscapes of the 
South, by M. Guillaumin, 
treated like decorative 
paintings, are handled bril- 
liantly, and with much 
breadth of brush. Hard 
by were hung the land- 
scapes of M. Alluaud, true 
in expression and brilliant 
in faciure ; an excellent 
Lavarani by M. Maufra, 
the Douarnenez of M. 
Madeline, and the Bretagne 
of M. Moret, whose colour 
combines warmth with deli- 
cacy. I greatly liked M. 

certain heaviness and an occasional flabbiness, Cariot's Jardin, which has both style and power. 

in the guise of apparent violence, which often The Conies des Mille et une Nuits, by M. 

enough had jarred upon us in his former work, Mandraza-Pissarro, occupied a place entirely to 

gave place this year to a 

simplicity, a sense of logic, 

a stability and a strength 

of colouring — relatively 

light — which proclaim 

henceforth a master. By 

other methods Vallotton, 

the painter-graver, gave one 

equal pleasure. His por- 
trait of Mile. S- , almost 

Persian in appearance, is 

so clean, so compact in 

design, so cunningly ob- 
served, and marked by such 

sobriety of line and of 

colour that it is impossible 

to forget it. Paul Earth, a 

Pasle artist, as yet unrecog- 
nised, attracted me keenly 

by the fulness and the 

power of the nude figure 

against a magnificent blue 

cloth. M. Georges 

























The Autiuiin Salon, Paris 

themselves. They are in " black and gold," very 
rich, sumptuous, and curious exceedingly. 

M. Manguin's pictures may be described as 
sketches magnificently dashed off. Even in the 
best of them, La Femme a la Grappe, the foliage 
forming the background is quite sacrificed ; at the 
same time its colouring is energetic and fresh. 
M. Valtat, an admirer of 
Cezanne, knows how to 
compose, to arrange, and 
to design ; but evidently 
likes the antipathy his 
extravagance produces. 

M. Albert Andre sent 
some works in blue, d, la 
Cezanne. His centre pic- 
ture was full of felicitous 
discoveries, and his still- 
life i)ictures showed great 
power. M, Camoin sees 
in great masses, and is a 
rapid executant; still, I 
liked his colour very much. 
M. Lanquetin exhibited 
seven Bords de la Seine, 
which were inspiriting 
enough ; and M. Bonnard 
an Ete by which even his 
friends have been de- 

In the Sculpture sec- 
tion one noticed at once 
fhe powerful, spirztuel 
work of Daumier, the 
bronze of M. Albert 
Marcjue, a fine effigy of 
M. le Sidaner, by M. 
Desruelles, a graceful 
-Dansei/se in bronze, by 
M. Berthoud, a beautiful 
female nude, by M. 
Marius Cladel, an apos- Ua^iiCi. 

tie's head — full of cha- 
racter—by Mme. O'Donel, 
a remarkable nude study 

by Mile. Yvonne Serruys, and, particularly, a low- 
relief by M. Maillol, which was clearly the master- 
piece of the Salon, so far as Sculpture was con- 
cerned. AcHii.i.K Skc.ard. 

" LA p£cHEUSE" 

The Autumn Salon, while encouraging the very 
latest art movement, yet contrived— much to its 
credit— to do honour to sundry great artists of 
other days. There never was a happier idea than 

that of the Carpeaux Exhibition, admirably ordered 
and organised by M. Edouard Sarradin, one of our 
ablest critics, who, by reason of his relations with 
the Carpeaux family as by his personal merit, was 
eminently (jualified for the task. Indeed, if there 
is one artist more than another who deserves to be 
brought into the light more and more every day, it 

is Carpeaux— decried and 
maltreated in his lifetime, 
and but little known even 
now that he is dead. 

Passing thnjugh this 
very fine ensemble of 
drawings, finished sculp- 
tures, sketches and pictures 
—all revealing such har- 
mony, such limpidity of 
thought, such grace of 
form — one was forced to 
admit, with Courajod, that 
Carpeaux, Rude, and 
Barye form the trilogy of 
great dead sculptors of 
the nineteenth century. 
We know — and M. Sar- 
radin has not omitted to 
emphasise it once more 
in the deep-felt preface 
he has written for the 
catalogue of the exhibi- 
tion—that the life of this 
great artist was a daily- 
Calvary. From his earliest 
years, and during his 
period of apprenticeship 
at Valenciennes, his 
cousin, Henri Lemaire, a 
sculptor of the "academic ' 
and traditional order, did 
his best, but in vain, to 
check his flight towards 
the beautiful. After having 
won the Prix de Rome — 
a difticult matter, seeing 
that he came from the 
atelier of Rude, who was in bad odour with the 
Institut on account of his anti-conventional tend- 
encies — Carpeaux, even in Rome, met with nothing 
but opposition and hostility ; and it is no credit to 
the memory of Schnetz, director of the Academy of 
France in the Holy City, that he should have tried 
to prevent the young artist from completing his 
Ugolin et ses Fils. Back in Paris once more 
Carpeaux did his admirable high-relief Flore, which, 



The AtitMjnn Salon, Paris 

but for the intervention of Napoleon III., the equally persecuted, equally unhappy — is, it is true, 

architect Lefuel would have had removed, on the 
pretext that the work projected too far from the 
surface of the monument ; and one remembers the 
stupid hate with which sacrilegious hands attacked 
his admirable group of the Dance, which gives a 
note of great art to the fagade of the Opera. Right 
to his death Carpeaux was opposed by the hatred 
of the Institut. In 
1874, the year before 
his death, he wrote : — 
" What can I do in a 
country which for twelve 
years has persecuted all 
my conceptions and en- 
deavoured to destroy 
that which I have been 
at such pains to erect ?" 

Time has now pro- 
nounced judgment on 
the jealous cruelty per- 
petuated by the In- 
stitut on Carpeaux 
during his life, and his 
work shines forth once 
more in purest glory. 
This retrospective exhi- 
bition consisted of 147 
numbers, which means 
that the ensemble got 
together by M. Sarra- 
din was one of very con- 
siderable importance, 
though not of course 
complete. Among the 
big pieces was the terra- 
cotta work, Ugolin et 
ses Fils, considered to 
be one of Carpeaux's 

The figure of Ugolino suggests a strength and the same time a painter who attracts one by his 
a tragic power akin to those of Michael fougue and his very special endowment. The two 
Angelo's heroes, whose muscularity it has in portraits of himsTf and that of his wife were highly 
addition. The youth embracing Ugolino's knees interesting. His many drawings revealed an artist of 
is one of those admirable bits of perfection which prodigious energy, fond of life, and qualified to 
one remembers in the history of art. Here, extract the eternal beauty, and at the same time 


nothing more than a rudimentary sketch, but still 
full of vigour, while the statues of the Prince 
Imperial and La Fecheuse are dazzling in their 

In his numerous busts of women Carpeaux 
shows himself an admirable creator of beauty. 
He perpetuated the splendour of the ladies of the 

Second Empire with 
infinitely more genius 
than any other painter 
of the time — not even 
excepting Ricard, whose 
Venetian fancy re- 
moved him from the 
real life around him. 
Carpeaux, on the other 
hand, expressed this 
loveliness as it was, by 
giving to the women 
he depicted those attri- 
butes of domination, of 
majesty, and that air of 
triumph which to my 
mind form their chief 
characteristics. Com- 
bined with extreme 
fidelity to nature there 
is an elegance of atti- 
tude and a finish of exe- 
cution which proclaim 
so clear a relationship 
with Houdon that, to 
delight our eyes, the 
two masters should 
henceforth figure to- 
gether side by side in 
our art treasuries. 

Carpeaux, while a 
great sculptor, was at 


the transitory vision, of every spectacle that struck 
his eye. Henri Frantz. 

indeed, is the true conception of classical beauty, 
unspoilt by "Academicism." There was an excellent 

moulding of the famous Flore of the Louvre, 

together with a very fine pendentive in plaster, the The course of weekly lectures on the History of 

richness of the ornamentation equalling that of the Architecture which Mr. Banister Fletcher is giving at 
Toulon Caryatides of Puget. Here, as in the Flore, the University of London, South Kensington, will be 
is revealed an exquisite sense of decoration. The resumtd on Monday, January 13. The first seven 
IVatteau — like Carpeaux, of Valenciennes, and 

lectures will treat of English Mediaeval Architecture. 

The Home of Anatole France 

ANATOLE France's home: "la salle vitree" 


ancient Chinese ware — all 
eloquent with history and 

Though Pierre Calmettes 
is thirty four years of age, 
no picture of his was ever 
seen inside the annual 
Salons until this spring, 
when one of the present 
collectif)n was hung at the 
Artistes Fran^ais. The 
reason is simple. Up to 
the year before last, he had 
not made painting his pro- 
fession. He had a repu- 
tation in Paris, in France, 
and even beyond, but as 
an author who on occa- 
sion illustrated his own 
books. One had, however, 
only to open such illustrated 

THE HO M E OF ANATOLE pages to be convinced that, at least in drawing, he 
FRANCE AS DEPICTED was a master. His skill with the pencil may be 
BY PIERRE CALMETTES. partly inherited. His father, Fernand Calmettes 

has also written books and illustrated them. 

Many of the reading public were already aware Under him, the young Pierre studied, and after- 
that Anatole France, the most delightful of French wards under Bouguereau, who, with all his short- 
novelists, lived in a house furnished and 
adorned with treasures of the past. It has 
been reserved for an old friend of his, 
albeit a young man, to make known, in a 
striking series of some sixty oil paintings 
and pastels, the interior of this abode — an 
ordinary double - fronted stone building, 
situated at the bottom of the Avenue du 
Bois de Boulogne — with all its precious lares 
installed and forming a home as unique as 
its possessor. 

For the value and charm of this interior 
to be appreciated the artist's. paintings them- 
selves ought of course to be seen. The 
walls are either delicately painted or covered 
with embroidered silk and hung with costly 
tapestry. Nearly all the carpets are of real 
Turkey or Smyrna manufacture, to-day scarce 
obtainable in any market. The mantelpieces 
are of mediaeval sculptured stone or wood. 
Here a chest and there a dresser speak of 
an art that is no more. The chairs and 
tables carry us back to the best traditions 
of the 15th, 1 6th and 17th centuries. The 
cupboards, shelves and walls gleam and shine 
and glitter with frescoes, pictures, mirrors, 

, . r 1 1 , ANATOLE FRANCE'S HOME : 

porcelam vases — some of these last, real a corner of the grand salon 



The Home of Anatole France 



over, his material and his form have an 
intimacy of reality that cannot be too 
much praised. He brings out with 
equal verity the metallic lustre of old 
wood and the creamy or velvety soft- 
ness of stuff and carpet. His style is 
not microscopic, but bold, sure, and 
true. From the first broad outlines to 
the finish he proceeds by strokes that 
demand only little retouching. 

The artist has drawn and painted 
several portraits of Anatole France. A 
full-length oil painting shows the novelist 
sitting pensively over a large folio of 
prints. The crayon drawing, reproduced 
opposite, has been preferred, on ac- 
count of the more animated expression 
— that assumed in conversation. France, 
himself a connoisseur of the highest 
competence, esteems this the best like- 
ness he has ever had executed. 

A number of canvases have been de- 
voted to the drawing-room and its furni- 
ture. The one given in the first illustra- 
tion shows an annexe, called the Salle 

comings, was still a consummate handler 
of the pencil, and initiated his pupil into 
the secrets of his own excellence. But 
Pierre Calmettes' real apprenticeship was 
served during the years he spent among 
the trades and arts of France, working at 
them with a view to their picturesque 
reproduction. This long practice in 
sketching workshop, lathe, and tools, with 
the human figures in their midst, was the 
best preparation for his maturer task of 
painting the interior of a house and reveal- 
ing it as a living abode. If anything were 
needed to complete the training, he ob- 
tained it while exercising the functions of 
an art critic ; so that neither skill nor 
judgment was wanting when, at last, he 
was impelled to begin mixing his colours, 
and to carry through, with feverish ardour, 
the remarkable achievement which has 
just been exhibited in the gallery of 
Messrs. Chaine & Simonson. 

AI. Calmettes' colouring is superb yet 
sober ; it is rich yet sincere ; it is organic 
and interpretative, yet is mingled on his 
palette with that imagination of the eye 
characteristic of the true craftsman. More- 



2 12 

Ji^tP^ C<\fr)^VU 



The Home of Anatole France 

Vitree. A prominent object in it is a fifteenth- 
■entury Virgin, with the infant Christ, clad in a 
')lue dress and wearing a golden crown. The 
Ave Maria, below, is on an enamelled plate of 
Italian fayence. Flanking this wooden statue are 
fresco figures in faded tints of yellow, red, purple, 
and brown. The tall green cabinet contains a 
heterogeneous medley of antiquities, yielding a 
kaleidoscope of vague colours. Among them are 
a Buddha, a baby's dress, and an opera-glass. 
Above the cabinet is a Virgin's house, and, at the 
near end of it, an old black cupboard with its open 
door, on the inside, framing a landscape. Beyond 
the cabinet is a Dutch chest, whose yellowish-green 
polish of time the artist has displayed with stronger 
light on it in a separate picture. The chasubled 
ecclesiastic under the window is a Spanish saint ; 
the statue is of wood, painted and gilded. Near it 
is an alabaster statuette. 

The second illustration (p. 211) is from a picture 
representing the front part of the drawmg-room, and 
its large Louis XIV. inlaid table covered with a sub- 
stantial cloth of blue ground and flowery design 
of figured silk in yellow, red, purple, white, and 
green. The Louis XIV. armchair has a red 
tapestry dossier with gold embroidery ; 
and the green cabinet, more orna- 
mented than the one in the Salle 
Vitree, encloses ancient garments, some 
clerical, some lay. A Venetian mirror, 
in carved and gilded wood, hangs 
above the cupboard ; in the shadow 
to the right is a Louis XIV. clock ; 
below, a lacquered table. Between the 
table and the clock dimly appears a 
Witches' Orgie ; and, on the left of the 
cupboard, another canvas, with some- 
what clearer outlines, offers to the view 
a battle-field of Louis XIII. The 
whole painting flames with colour — 
tints of green in the tapestry hangings, 
red in the silk on the walls, garnet, 
lake, and scadet in the cabinet, darker 
red in the screen by the table, brighter 
red on the footstool, pale silver in the 
statuettes, and in the pattern of the 
carpet mingled white, green, orange, 
and rose. 

Among the pictures of the great 
novelist's library and study, yclept by 
M. Calmettes "The City of Books," 
none surpass in intimate charm the 
coup d'ceil of the work-table with its 
background of well-filled shelves, and 

"Hamilcar," the Angora cat(OTV/f Sylvestre Bonnard), 
as an interim guardian, perched on the arm of a 
chair. Books in bindings of dead yellow, brown, 
drab, and orange display their smouldering glow of 
tints, while the tapestry dossier of the author's chair 
stands out in sharp relief with its red, yellow, and 
creen. The tomes of Larousse and Littre, in red, are 
said to be the only modern books admitted to the 
den. The bookcase by the table holds M. France's 
most cherished literary acquisitions. Above it is 
suspended a fresco, and on it rests a Greek vase. 
A few familiar objects, such as the tobacco-pot, 
hobnob on the table with others that are rarer— a 
bronze Silenus, for example ; and at each vantage- 
point one sees some relic of art. 

The picture reproduced in the fourth illustration 
(p. 212) takes in the other end of the library, its 
cynosure being the antique torso of white marble 
on a dark purplish veined pedestal. The verdure 
tapestry curtains, with their red lining, almost con- 
ceal the "case of Latin books to the left, and throw 
their warm reflection on to the old illuminated charts 
attached to the wall. From the pale blue panes 
of the window comes a mild radiance caressing 
the torso and the horizontal case of costly-bound 



Binuinghmn Painters and Craftsmen 

books, topped by a red cushion in 
which nestles a gold frame. In the 
darker portion of the room are 
some J)aintinJ,^s of the Italian 
school and an Italian bust, and 
from the ceiling hangs a wooden 
mermaid with tapering tail of horn. 
The walls of the library, painted in 
Pompeian red, like those of the 
dining-room, afford the artist an 
opportunity, which he uses to ad- 
vantage here and in the dining- 
room series, of bringing out a whole 
gamut of tones affected by this 

There are six pictures dealing 
with the novelist's bed-chamber, 
which is the only room in the 
house, besides the salon, whose 
walls are not painted. Here they 
are covered with a golden-yellow 
embroidered silk, forming an ad- 
mirable setting to the beautifully 
carved wood chimney-piece, and 
the mahogany inlaid writing-desk 
with red and white marble top, 
which are visible in the last of our 
illustrations. On the artist's canvas, 
the brighter yellow of the central 
portion shades off towards the left 
into greenish hues of chatoyant 
aspect that are a foil to the 
vivid colouring of the desk and 
Louis XVI. chair, whilst the right 
side descends through purples and 
russets, which are met and gilded 
or blazed by the fire below. The bureau, on 
which Anatole France opens his correspond- 
ence, was painted one afternoon just as it had 
been left, with the famous red skull-cap and the 
spectacles of the writer almost touching the edge of 
the desk, and all the papers in disorder. The 
carpet, of authentic old Smyrna manufacture, is sea- 
green in the centre, and has a border with delicate 
hues of red and green. A bove, where the shadow 
strikes athwart masterpieces of the school of 
Greuze or Fragonard, its progressive deadening 
of the natural tints is finely expressed. 

Pierre Calmettes is to be congratulated. What 
he has done here promises a great future for him 
— great by the quality of his work, and great, it is to 



Exhibition, the proposal to purchase one of his 
pictures for the State, and the general enthusiasm 
aroused, are something more than mere comph- 
ment. They are recognitions of sterling merit. 

Fredk. Lawton. 



The leading characteristic of this collection as a 
whole is its architectural basis, its sense of the 
unity of all the arts in due subordination to the 
master craft. Notwithstanding individual differ- 
ences of outlook and the variety of methods and 
be hoped, by his renown. Indeed he has already of materials employed, this principle everywhere 
begun to bear his blushing honours. The presence underlies painting and craft-work alike, shown here 
of the Minister for Fine Arts at the opening of the in the choice of subject, there by a certain decorative 

Bir]ninghani Painters and Craftsmen 

quality of vision, and again by a fine sense of surface 
or joy in the beauty and specific quality of materials. 
These are works which one feels would be in 
place in ordered schemes of decoration ; they are 
modest, and conspicuously free from the arrogance 
and lack of restraint with which so much of modern 
work is tainted — that kind of modern work whose 
aim appears to be the praise of the artist rather 
than the service of Art. 

And it is at this very modest and sincere work, 
in spite of its remarkable accomplishment, that so 
many of our critics must needs sneer ; this it is 
which to their somewhat limited sympathy appears 
as affectation. Men who work thus are commonly 
iharged with blind imitation of the early Italians ; 
and it is assumed that they differ from the rest of 
the moderns not only in their choice of a school 
for imitation, but in that they imitate at all. Yet, 
when all is said, the amount of new thought, new 
principle, or new method which even great men 
can add to the vast accumulated heritage of Art is 
infinitesimal ; and the whole difi'erence on this 
head between the last exponent of modernness 
and the men of whom we are speaking, lies in the 
simple fact that the one chances to be in sympathy 

with the last exponent but one, and follows him, 
while the others are more in sympathy with Botti- 
celli, and follow him. They are imitators all, each 
building upon his chosen foundation. 

Nor is this practice of imitation less supported 
by weighty authority than it is universal in fact. 
Many of the greatest masters imitated consciously, 
and were unashamed ; and the example of Rubens 
and Velasquez may serve as defence enough for 
the painters of our day. And our own Reynolds 
declared, as his settled conviction, that the imita- 
tion of masters as well as the study of Nature is 
necessary, not only to the student, but also to the 
artist throughout his life. Indeed, the pursuit of 
originality for its own sake leads him to the most 
dangerous of pitfalls, and is responsible for more un- 
wholesomeness and absurdity than any other error. 

But then, we are told, to choose the way of 
the early Italians is to abandon Nature ! Do those 
critics who glibly put forward this amazing view 
seriously suppose that these men did not study 
Nature ? Have they never conceived the possi- 
bility that they knew her with an intimacy which 
allowed them, out of the fulness of their know- 
ledge, to choose those of her aspects which were 



BiriJiiiighani Painters and Craftsmen 

best fitted for their purpose, deliberately foregoing 
those effects which would hinder and using such 
delights of form and colour as would serve the 
architectural intention of their work ? And as we 
may well hesitate to attribute to ignorance the 
well-weighed and deliberate omissions of these 
early painters, so, in the right restraint and careful 
choice of presentment shown in the work of their 
followers, we may recognise the fruit of a know- 






(Photo by Miss Blaiklock) 

malignity"; and the truth and purity of its 
colour, its mastery of drawing and its decorative 
fitness, being, forsooth, unfashionable, are alike 

ledge so sure that it has 
no need to cry aloud in 
the market-place and to 
exhibit all its wares. 

Yet such is the temper 
of the professed critics of 
the time, while every 
ultra-modern phase is 
assured of its prophet, 
this kind of faithful and 
sincere art remains un- 
noticed, or obtains only 
what Mr. Swinburne calls 
" the purblind scrutiny of 
prepossession or the 
squint-eyed inspection of 

Sj^ 4Ji 

•iio M 

ocaoRship we L()RDi^a>el3eTa6^ of rx)Li\Gss 



Birininghain Painters and Craftsmen 

truth, and we acclaim with joy and 
reverence all signs of these qualities 
in the most modern of the moderns; 
but some protest is required against 
those who perplex the world and 
prostitute their critical sense by un- 
measured praise of fashionable 
mediocrity, or the work of those 

who — 

" Yet do prize 

This soul and the transcendent universe 

No more than as a mirror that reflects 

To proud self-love her own intelligence." 

In spite, however, of neglect and 
misrepresentation, these men have 
their compensations. They are not 
greedy of notoriety; they quietly 
pursue their way with a conscience 
void of offence, happy in the beauty 
which they perceive and create. 
And the whirligig of time is bring- 
ing a strange revenge, for they are 
free from the dread which must keep 
some of their most distinguished 
contemporaries awake at nights — 
unhonoured. It is not intended to imply that the dread of finding themselves superseded and 
work of this school has a monopoly of sincerity and surpassed by the perfecting of some process of 



"THE OX cart" (tempera) 


Birmingham Painters and Craftsmen 

photography in colour, and the consequent 
solution of the problems which so many 
painters bungle over in these days, to the 
infinite admiration of the critics. 

Of the contributors to this exhibition Mr. 
Southall shows, perhaps, the widest range and 




< ■ 




\ yVkrl 







1 m 


^K. ' ' -'-^im'l 



w %^ 


f . Wi 






His portraits differ from those of our most fashion- 
able painters in the using of his admirable technique 
as a means of expressing the persons portrayed, 
rather than the making his sitters a slight excuse 
for the display of technique. 

the completest mastery of method. 
His fresco ^dSi^X Jacob and Rachel is 
a fine example of the charm which 
may be drawn by skilful hands from 
the very limitations of a difficult 
craft. The frescoes of the Victorian 
period suffer from an unwise attempt 
to make them look like oil paintings, 
and, while failing in their aim, have 
lost the pleasant quality of surface 
peculiar to the method. Mr. Southall 
has avoided this error, and, from a 
range of pigments necessarily limited, 
has obtained a scheme of colour of 
wonderful subtlety and rightness. 
His pictures in tempera show the 
same power of conception and sense 
of decorative arrangement applied 
equally to the type of subject gener- 
ally termed romantic and to the 
things and people of our own day. 



Birmingham Painters and Craftsmen 



Mr. Gaskin shows in one man an 
example of the harmony of principle 
which should underlie the several arts. 
Many illustrations of his work in metal 
have appeared in The Studio, and this 
work always conveys a sense, rare in 
these days of commercial inspiration, 
of pleasure having gone with the making 
of it. The Birdcage (p. 221) is a 
charming picture of a child, and Kilh- 
wych the King's Son, reproduced on this 
page, a work of great decorative charm. 
Miss Mary J. Newill is represented 
by some embroideries, well designed 
and skilfully executed. Mr. C. M. 
Gere's water-colour portraits on vellum 
are so well known that it is un 
necessary to praise here their fine 
drawing and delicate beauty. His Ox 
Cart (p. 218), an Italian landscape in 

tempera, is a fine piece of decorative realism which shows 
that his work is as wide in scope as it is technically accom- 
plished ; and he sends also an earlier work, The Book of 
Love, and some pencil drawings of great merit. Excellent, 
too, is the church banner reproduced on page 217. Miss 
Margaret Gere sends an excellent miniature and some 
small subject pictures of profound imaginative power and 
most delicate workmanship. 

Mr. Sleigh commands notice by his remarkable power 
of romantic invention, and his woodcuts are of real value, 
especially at a time when this beautiful art seems threat- 
ened with extinction. The black - and - white work of 
Mr. Edmund New has obtained for him a leading 
position among the book illustrators of the day. It is 
characterised by an intense love of nature and a fine 
appreciation of architectural effect; and shows a true 
feeling for decorative arrangement, together with great 




Birniiughaiii Pamteys and Craftsmen 


Study of some of the Arundel Society's 
prints that he was led to visit Italy, and 
to learn there all that the early Italians 
could teach him of spirit and of method. 
Apart from their silent teaching and 
some valuable help in technical matters 
from Sir William Richmond, he is no 
man's pupil. Mr. Gere was certainly 
familiar with the work of Burne-Jones 
before he went to study in Italy ; and 
he, and indeed almost all the other 
members of the group, obtained their 
first training at the Birmingham School 
of Art, where the influence of that great 
painter was naturally very strong; but 
all of them, though influenced in varying 
degrees by him, by ^Villiam Morris, by 
the pre-Raphaelites, and by Mr. Southall 
himself, have alike gone to early Italian 
work itself, either in Italy or in the 
National Gallery, for inspiration and 

Is it not a strange and unhappy waste 
of opportunity that, having ready to our 
hand a group of painters and craftsmen 
so harmonious in general aim, of such 

skill in the rendering of textures and of 
effects of light. 

Mr. Payne's work in stained glass is 
obtaining a wide reputation ; and he has 
done fine things in wall decoration, a 
small portion of that carried out by 
him and his pupils in the chapel at 
Madresfield Court being reproduced on 
this page. 

With regard to the origin and training 
of these painters and craftsmen, it is 
generally supposed that their principles 
and method are entirely due to the in- 
fluence of Burne-Jones and the English 
prc-Raphaelites ; but though it is true 
that this influence has had much to do 
with the moulding of many of them, 
Mr. Southall had gone direct to the 
springs from which the pre-Raphaelite 
brethren drew their inspiration, before 
he came into contact with their work. 
Trained originally in an architect's office, 
he adopted from the first the principle 
of considering all art in its relation to 
the craft of building : and it was by the 

'THE birdcage" 


studio- Talk 

diversity of gifts, and of so high a level of ability, they 
are not employed collectively to conceive and carry 
out schemes of decoration for our buildings ? We 
might thus remove from our time the stigma of 
being the most prolific in artists, and at the same 
time the most barren of Art that the world has 
ever seen. C. Napier-C layering. 

(From Our Ozvn Correspotidents.) 

LONDON. — The recent election at the 
Royal Academy to fill the place of Mr. 
David Farquharson, who died in July 
last, resulted in Mr. F. Cadogan Cowper 
being made Associate. Mr. Cowper, though very 
young, is possessed of great talent, but his election 
has nevertheless caused a good deal of surprise, 
especially as there were several candidates who 
were generally held to have stronger claims. 

The report of Sir Isidore Spielmann on the 
British Art section at the New Zealand Inter- 
national Exhibition held at Christchurch from 
November, 1906, to April this year, is of great 
interest and significance in more ways than one. 
The number of works shown was larger than 
at any of the earlier International Exhibitions 
with which comparison is made in the Report 
(Brussels, Paris, St. Louis), and it was essen- 
tially an artists' exhibition, for on this occasion 
only thirty-six private owners lent works to repre- 
sent artists, as against 531 artists who contributed 
direct, whereas prior to the St. Louis Exhibition 
in 1904 the private lenders either largely pre- 
dominated or were equal in number to the artist 
contributors. Thus no less than 567 British 
artists were represented, of whom 198 were 
painters in oils, 124 painters in water-colours, 59 
miniaturists, 91 black-and-white artists (including 
etchers), 39 sculptors and 56 architects, and 
the number of works sent over was 1,136. 
Most gratifying is that part of the Report 
which refers to the sales, a detailed list of 
which is appended to the Report. These 
amounted to no less than ^17,107, exceed- 
^"g by ;^io,ooo the amount realized at St. 
Louis in 1904, where the exhibits were only 
about a hundred fewer in number. Private 
purchasers bought to the extent of ;^7,42o, the 
remainder being divided among seven public insti- 
tutions in New Zealand and Australia, the chief of 
these being the National Art Gallery of New South 
Wales, whose purchases amount to ^3,339. The 

number of exhibitors who sold works in the Fine 
Art section was 183. These works comprised 52 oil 
paintings, sold at an average price of ;^i86 odd; 
90 water-colours, averaging ;^55 odd; 15 minia- 
tures, at nearly ^13 each ; 1 1 pieces of sculpture, 
at nearly ;^5o each (only comparatively small 
works were sent) ; and 116 drawings, etchings, etc., 
at rather more than j[^^ each. Sir Isidore Spiel- 
mann records his opinion that the exceptionally 
large number of works sold may be accounted for 
by the fact that they were both moderate in size 
and moderate in price. As a rule, he remarks, 
British artists fix the prices of their works at 
these international exhibitions too high, while 
foreign artists, by naming a more moderate price, 
command a readier sale. In the Arts and Crafts 
section 690 works w^ere contributed by 170 exhibi- 
tors, and 321 of the exhibits were sold at an 
average price of £,2, 55. \d. In this section 
pottery and glass, lace and needlework, jewellery 
and enamels, furniture and metal work, sold easily ; 
but wood-carving, stained glass, bookbinding, print- 
ing, and caligraphy were less understood and appre- 
ciated. Coming to the results achieved by this exhi- 
bition of British Art, Sir Isidore points out that they 
are not to be measured merely by the sales effected. 
The Art section was appreciated to the full by 
artists, the people, and the Press of the Colony, 
and nothing but praise was bestowed upon it. 
Popular appreciation may be estimated from the 
fact that the aggregate attendances were over a 
million and a half, although an extra charge was 
made on four days a week. British artists and crafts- 
men at large will, we are sure, not be slow to 
recognise that much of the success of this exhibition 
was due to the zeal and good judgment of Sir 
Isidore Spielmann, who undertook the arduous 
task of organising the British Art section single- 

The work shown by the Royal Society of Painters 
in Water Colours is perhaps a little less interesting 
than it has been in their exhibitions lately. But 
individually, certain members triumph. Mr. Anning 
Bell has never attained to more distinction than in 
his picture Go, lovely rose, and in another slighter 
water colour illustrating the lines '''■Music when soft 
voices die vibrates in the memory," the very spirit 
of the words receives translation. Notable pictures 
are Mr. H. S. Hopwood's A Dealer in Afitiquities, 
and the same painter's Approach to a Picardy Farm. 
Mr. Walter Bayes' work stands out with an indi- 
viduality which we have before noted in recording 
the Society's exhibitions. Mr. Alfred Parsons is 

studio- Talk 

very successful this year in his Meadows, which has 
an intimate sentiment of I'^nglish landscape ; other 
successes are Mr. J. W. North's Stul>bh\ Mr. James 
Paterson's Moret, Mr. Henry Henshall's Waifs and 
Strays, Mr. R. ^\'. Allan's Yameimon Gate, JVikko, 
Japan, Mr. Colin B. Phillip's Winter Day, Neiv- 
quay, Mr. Tom Lloyd's The Bank of the Stream, 
Mr. Robert Little's Morning Haze on the Seine, 
Miss Rose Barton's Alotherhood ; and we cannot 
remember anything for a while from Mrs. Stanhope 
Forbes equal to the Molly Trefusis here. 

Jamieson's Vue de Moret, Mr. D. Lees' The 
Farm, Mrs. Evelyn Cheston's Swanage, and the 
paintings contributed by Mr. W. G. von Clehn. 

The exhibitions of the Royal Society of British 
Artists have received an impetus in the right direc- 
tion since the election to the Presidency of Mr. 
Alfred East, whose achievements dominate the 
present Exhibition, where there is much of interest 
to be seen. Mr. A. Talmage's pictures of London 
(one of which is reproduced in this number), 
Mr. John Muirhead's A Breezy Day on the Ouse, 
Mr. Giffard Lenfesty's The Lone Barn, Mr. T. F. 
M. Sheard's Madge the Gleaner, call for particular 
notice ; and Mr. ^Vallace Rimington's The Peace of 
the Mountains, Mr. Louis Grier's The Silent River, 
Mr. Walter Fowler's Approaching Raifi, Mr. A. C. 
Gould's Packhorse Bridge, Horner Woods, Mr. D. 
Murray Smith's The End of the Hill, are other 
pictures to which reference should be made. 

At the Exhibition of the New English Art Club, 
The Fountain and The Morain are two of those 
wonderful specimens of Mr. Sargent's art which 
he seems to reserve for exhibition at the Club. 
The landscape Brandsby, by Mr. W. W. Russell, 
also claims particular attention. The qualities of 
Mr. H. Tonk's The Birdcage cannot be appreciated 
in the Club's small gallery. Mr. Wilson Steer con- 
tributes A Profile, and the little canvas contains 
some of his finest painting. He also exhibits a 
notable landscape, The Grand Place, Montreuil, 
and a beautiful water-colour, St. Cloud. The wall 
of drawings and water-colours is somewhat of a 
disappointment. The drawings of Mr. Muirhead 
Bone have not the interest of his usual exhibits, 
and Mr. John's drawings are on the whole inferior 
in their order to those he generally shows, though 
in some places the line-work is as miraculous and 
resourceful as ever. Mr. D. S. MacCoU's River- 
side, Twickenham, is a fine example of his power 
to suggest by a sketch the spirit and beauty of a 
scene. Mr. Walter Sickert's work is particularly 
interesting, and space should at all cost be found 
for the mention of Mr. A. W. Rich's Rochester, 
Mr. David Muirhead's The Farmyard, Mr. A. 

At the Portrait Painters' Exhibition there is 
an early work by Sargent, perhaps one of that 
artist's greatest paintings — the portrait of W. 
Graham Robertson. The Gallery is exhibiting 
more than one remarkable portrait, for there are 
two very fine Frank Holls and an early Orchardson 
lent to the Exhibition. Without Mr. Sargent's 
picture and without the loan exhibits, perhaps the 
Society is not as successful in its show as usual. 
Mr. Lavery is not the only one of the best 
known members who is disappointing. Mr. 
Charles Shannon is successful in Mrs. T M. 
Legge and Child. In liis Marble Torso, Portrait 
of the Artist, the still-life painting is full of the 
finest qualities of his art, but the face, which is 
of some importance in a portrait, seems painted 
without the vitality and inspiration which sustained 
his brush in interpreting surfaces of the accessories. 
Mr. W. G. von Glehn's Evening, Mrs. Jamieson's 
Pegg^', Mr. Arthur Garratt's The Old Whip, Mr. 
Walter W. Russell's Lady ivith a Muff, are all 
highly successful canvases ; and important works 
are Mr. S. E. Blanche's Walter Sickert, Mr. E. 
A. Walton's Lady Smiley, Mr. H. de T. Glaze- 
brook's Viscount Goschen. A Sketch by Lamplight 
of Mr. Borough Johnson's calls attention to itself, 
as does the portrait of Mrs. Harry Hertslet, by 
Mr. Glyn Philpot, in the same room. M. Seroff's 
H.M, The Emperor of Russia is a feature of the 
exhibition. Mr. Ellis Roberts is at his best in The 
Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew. A picture of consider- 
able distinction is Mr, Gerald Kelly's portrait of 
Mrs. Harrison. We refer to Mr. Orpen's painting 
in a note further on. 

The Institute of Oil Painters included with its 
more notable exhibits this year Mr. John da Costa's 
Laughing Girl, Sir E. A. ^^'aterlow's A Little 
Stream, Mr. J. S. Sargent's The Mountains of 
Moab, The Camp of Refuge by Frank Walton 
(President), Cherry Blossom by Mr. George 
Clausen, A.R.A, the portrait by Sir George Reid 
of Sir Henry Littlejohn, M.D., and sculpture by 
Mr. F. W. Pomeroy, A.R.A., Mr. H. Poole and 
Mr. F. M. Taubman. 

Gifts at this season of the year so often take the 
shape of books that the occasion is opportune for 
bringing to the notice of our readers a group of 
examples of bookbindings which, during the last 


studio- Talk 

twelve months or so have figured at one or other 
of our minor exhibitions. The craft is a fascinating 
one, and continues year by year to attract a fresh 
supply of students. That which attracts them— 
the pleasure of conceiving something and making 
it themselves, lies also at the root of the attraction 
w^hich the finished work offers to the collector. 
The individual handling of the tools imparts to the 
work just those particular 
qualities which are absent 
if the same design is carried 
out by a machine. Another 
fact to be appreciated is 
that the book - designer's 
tools exercise a restraint 
which prevents his design 
from straying so far into- 
the realms of ugliness as 
is possible in some other 
crafts. In the work of the 
leading modern book- 
binders there is to be noted 
a true perception of what 
is required, and under their 
guidance a school has arisen 
with the purest aims before 
them. The bookbindings 
of Miss K. Adams, two 
diverse examples of which 
are here reproduced, pro- 
claim her to be a designer 

of fancy and refinement, a precise and skilful 
worker. By choosing a simple motif and by 
setting a right value upon the spaces of leather 
which fall into the design behind the gold 

pattern, she shows herself an appreciator of the 
best secrets of her craft. This careful valuing 
of the leather space is well shown in the binding 
of Tennyson's Poems. Restraint and simplicity 
characterise the work of Mrs. Pearson-Gee, whose 
bindings here reproduced we were pleased to see 
at a recent exhibition at Messrs. Carfax's, and 
it is these qualities which give to her work the 




charm it undoubtedly possesses. She does not 
allow her design to compete with the pleasant 
qualities inherent in the material upon which she 
works ; on the contrary the design is made to 

emphasise these qualities. 
Mr. J. S. Bates's work, 
though scarcely so original, 
is none the less highly 
skilful, and is at the same 
time happy in design. He 
has regard for the value 
of a design, dividing the 
leather into panels relieving 
the details of the pattern. 
The same remarks apply 
largely to the work of Mr. 
F. D. Rye. Messrs. San- 
gorski and Sutcliffe lay great 
stress on the constructive 
side of their work, basing 
their technique upon that 
of early binding in prefer- 
BY F. D. RYE ^ncc to that of the present 


studio- Talk 

work. With the work of the English designers 
we have named we include an example of a 
binding with an effective relief design by Miss 
Muriel Moller, a Swedish lady who has spent a 
considerable time in this country. 


(Lately exhibited at the Carfax Gallery) 

day. With them the quality and texture of the 
leather receive great attention. Their decora- 
tion is generally of a formal character, either in 
well - arranged geometrical patterns or partly 
geometrical and partly conventionalised leaf- 


(Lately exhibited at the Carfax Gallery ) 


(Lately exhibited at the Carfax Gallery) 

The Goupil Gallery Ex- 
hibition is the second of 
the series inaugurated last 
year by Messrs. Marchant 
& Co., and is very repre- 
sentative of the activity of 
the modern school in Eng- 
land, whilst including 
other European work. An 
exhibition of this nature 
has not failed to meet 
with appreciation in all 
quarters. The names of 
G. Clausen, Frank Brang- 
wyn, John Lavery, Alfred 
East, George Henry, and 
J. E. Blanche, to mention 
only a few of those repre- 
sented, indicate the cha- 
racter of the exhibits. Mr. 
William Nicholson and 


studio- Talk 

others introduce their own 
note. Mr. Lavery's Vera 
Christie has all the charm 
of his portraits of women, 
with delightful reticence of 
colour, and if the bright- 
ness of the red of the lips 
is forced for sake of effec- 
tive contrast with the blue 
in the near ring, we must 
allow that it completes the 
intention of the artist's 
scheme. The watercolour 
room contains many attrac- 
tive things, such as Mr. 
Ludovici's On the Maas, 
Mr. Moffat Lindner's pic- 
ture of the same name, and 
Mr. W. Graham Robert- 
son's animated and charm- 
ing rendering of childhood 











M D 












Other interesting exhibitions to be recorded 
of last month were Sir F. Seymour Haden's 
etchings at Messrs. Obach's Gallery, and at the 
Fine Art Society the water-colours of the Riviera, 
by Mr. Alberto Pisa. Messrs. Dowdeswell exhi- 
bited some attractive drawings of Biskra and 



/■ i 

> --; '^-, 




t /> 





e^: r 

for the cover of his book " Songs of the Dusk." 
Mr. A. S. Hartrick's C/iris/mas on the Cotstvolds, 
Mr. Priestman's On the BIyth, and Mr. Alfred 
Hayward's Summer Afternoon also call for 




Studio- Talk 





:n- m»:Mi; ^^r w< > i ««an^h(^ 





studio- Talk 

Sicily, by Miss Winifred Russell Roberts, a little 
lacking in construction 'perhaps, but showing the 
vision of an artist. Some interesting pictures were 
those of Miss Maude Simms at the Walker Gallery. 
At the Exhibition of the Woman's International 
Art Club at the Grafton Gallery the work of Mrs. 
Austen- Brown, Mrs. E. Borough Johnson, Miss 
Constance Halford, Miss Amy B. Atkinson, Miss 
B. Clarke, and Miss Atwood provided the most 
successful exhibits. At the Old Dudley Society's 
Exhibition, Mr. Burleigh Bruhl, the President, Sir 
William Eden, W. S. Stacey, with a few members, 
continue to exhibit a class of work which is not 
supported by the other exhibitors ; but the Society's 
exhibitions every time show an improvement in 
the prevailing standard, so that there is every reason 
to believe that this inequality will as time goes on 
gradually become less noticeable. 

LIVERPOOL.— Much has been done in 
quite recent years at the Walker Ait 
Gallery to inform the general public that 
Art is not only pictorial ; there is, 
however, much still to be desired, in increased 
space and other facilities, for a more representative 
collection of local and other craftsmanship, which 
it is hoped subsequent exhibitions will provide. 
This year's autumn exhibition has comparatively 
{Q'vi pieces, yet enumeration of some of those 
which display merit or good promise may be made. 

In the Galleries this season Mr. William Orpen's 
work comes into prominence so often that to avoid 
undue repetition of his name it were well, perhaps, 
briefly to mark his achievements in a 
separate note. At the New English Art 
Club we have a fascinating presentment 
of wit and charm in Grace Orpen ; better 
still, as painting, perhaps, is Young Ire- 
hud, though the treatment of the face is 
not quite of a piece with ihe lighter key in 
other parts of the picture, and lacks the 
reality which is characteristic of the former 
portrait. Mr. Orpen is at his best in the 
portraiture of men, and his portrait of Sir 
lames SiirHnga.i the Portrait Painters' So- 
ciety takes rank at once as a great achieve- 
ment. At the Goupil Gallery his highly- 
evolved art shows in the picture Night 
some of that responsiveness to colour 
which is needed to complete his genius. 

N" EWBURY.— At the local Art 
Society's annual show, just 
. concluded, Corot's fine low- 
^ toned Woodcutters proved a 
great attraction, as did his FrinteJtips, 
lent by Sir John Day, and Daubigny's 
small but very fine Crepuscide. Pro- 
minent among the exhibitors were Mark 
Fisher with a very fine pastoral, J. L. 
Pickering, Roger Fry, Muirhead Bone, 
A. W. Rich, J. M. Macintosh, Claude 
Hayes, and W. H. Margetson, who, with 
other well-known men, contributed to a 
deservedly successful show. J.;M. M. 

Amongst the hand-wrought jewellery a case of 
five excellent specimens by Harold Stabler attracts 
notice, especially a " Madonna " necklace in gold, 
silver and niello with precious stones, and a 
belt-clasp in steel damascened with gold and 
silver. Bernard Cuzner sends a case of twelve 
ornaments, all good in design and execution. 
There are several pieces of fine and interesting 
work in translucent enamel on gold by Henri 
Dubret. Miss Beatrice Krell, Miss Lily Day, 

"consolation": marble group 



THE ANGEL OF NIGHT." from the panel in g 

studio- Talk 


Miss Elinor Halle, Miss Annie Steen, Miss C. M. 
Kirkman, Mrs. Englebach, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Rawlins all exhibit characteristic designs. 


simple and graceful form 
in pose and costume ; 
Herbert Morcom's Consola- 
tioji is a refined little ;_T0up 
in marble ; Grief, a statu- 
ette in bronze by Miss Alice 
Gates, and a plaster group 
by Miss Florence Gill, The 
spirit seeks to tend upzvards, 
the flesh downwards, are 
both gracefully modelled. 
The Shipbuilder, a silver 
panel in delicate relief, is 
skilfully treated by Ernest 
Sichel. Works by Miss E. 
M. Rope, Miss Esther 
Moore, Miss Helen Langley, 
David Brown, and Caldwell 
Spruce all afford interesting 


H. B. B. 

A number of good specimens of Delia Robbia 
pottery are exhibited by Harold Rathbone. A 
large circular plaque " Rose design " is especially 
noticeable for its agreeable colour. There is also 
an excellent colour scheme in the fine little panel, 
executed' in gesso and mother-o'-pearl, entitled 
Angel of Night, by Frederick Marriott, here 
reproduced in colour. 

PARIS. — The fourth salon of Etchings 
in Colour, under the presidency of M. 
Raffaelli, an ardent apostle of this branch 
of art, showed what a brilliant stage has 
been reached in the evolution of graphic art. 
There were here gathered together a collection of 
works of which many were most remarkable. First 
of all we found Raffaelli there with three plates — La 
Neige au Soleil, Le R'emouieur, and La Neige an 
Soleil Couchant, each of them a masterpiece of 
observation and full of interest from the point of 
view of craftsmanship. Side by side with him 

Comparatively few speci- 
mens of beaten metal work 
are shown. A copper casket 
for jewellery, by Miss Mabel 
Sefton, has a good shape, 
enriched by delicately re- 
poussed ornament of good 
design. Miss Kate Thom- 
son's dainty little teacaddy 
is oxydised and enamelled. 
Miss Alicia Kay's " Pot- 
pourri bowl " is a good 
design rather too roughly 

Amongst the smaller 
groups and statuettes is 
found some interesting 
work. The Gossips, by 
Miss Frances Burlison, has 





Studio- Talk 

Baertsoen was represented by a plate already familiar 
to readers of The Studio, viz., Degel a Gattd. 
Balestrieri finds his delight in Wagnerian visions — 
Parsifal, Tnstran, and B Adieu. Mons. Boutet 
de Monvel is deserving of special praise. His 
etchings are excellent in facture, at the same 
time they recall to our eyes with rare savour 
the vanished elegances of the Directoire and the 
Restoration. They make one feel that the artist is 
intimately acquainted with that period. M. Pierre 
Brissaud likewise revived the past with a touch of 
delicacy in his Berline, a very fine plate. 

M. Chabanian is becoming more and more sure 
in his workmanship as days go by. To him 
belongs the rare merit of proving his own plates, 
a thing now done by very few artists, most of them 
placing themselves for this purpose in the hands 
of a printer. M. Eugene Delatre is another 
exception to the rule ; this sincere artist has done 
a great deal for the revival of etching in colours. 
Side by side with M. Detouche and M. Morin, 
who may be said to belong by sentiment to the 
eighteenth century, we met here with men whose 

art is altogether modern, such as Henri Jourdain, 
Laffitte, de Latenay, the charming painter of the 
seasons at Versailles, Lawrenson (whose Fabricant 
de Bouteiiles I was very pleased with), Luigini, who 
sounded a truly personal note in his Canal Flamand, 
Ranft, a master without doubt, Frangois Simon, 
whose work is so entirely personal; further, Taquoy, 
Roux - Champion, Roche, Truchet, Waidmann. 
Here indeed was a charming salon, full of fine 
things, and a soothing change from the preten- 
tiousness of the larger exhibitions. H. F. 

BERLIN. — The lithographs of the Munich 
painter, Willy Schwarz, recall to our 
memory some of the best names asso- 
ciated with this art. We are compelled to 
think of Manet, Renoir and d'Espagnat. He is not 
so notable for his subjects, as only a certain class 
of female models seem to attract his eye ; but the 
firmness, almost mercilessness, of his drawing and 
his technical cleverness deserve particular attention. 
Often only the well-trained eye will recognise a 
lithograph, where the non-connoisseur will see a 
drawing in charcoal or Indian ink. Herr Schwarz. 



Studio- Talk 

us forgetful of the noise 
and dust of town life. It 
carries us into the purer 
atmosphere of the sea, or 
among the quiet greens 
and greys of firs and 
downs. The master-hand 
of the painter grasps the 
very life of this world and 
makes us feel ccjmrades 
of his quadrupeds and 
feathered bipeds. 

promenade" (coloured lithograph) 


The crematorium at 
Zurich, by the architect 
Albert Froelich of Berlin, 
ot which an illustration 
is given on the next page, 
is a building of particular 
monumentality. Simpli- 
city and grandeur are 

has opened, together with the well- 
known etcher and wood-cutter 
Robert L. Leonard, a graphic 
school in Berlin, which is to intro- 
duce pure French style, and great 
artistic benefit is to be expected 
from their teaching. 

The English exhibition of the 
International Society of Sculptors, 
Painters and Gravers at Schulte's 
has been welcomed with much 
gratitude. People were glad of an 
opportunity of seeing modern Eng- 
lish art, and of companng English 
and German secessionists. There 
was great astonishment at the pro- 
gressive spirit in the country of 
conservativism, but the prevailing 
tendency of refinement was appre- 
ciated and pronounced beneficial 
for German painters. 

The October show in the Kiinst- 
lerhaus proved a perfect delight, 
owing to a collection of Bruno 
Liljefors, who appeared as fresh 
and strong as ever in his latest offer- 
ings. The magic circle of his 
solitude among the animals of 
northern swamps and cliffs makes 

IN THE carriage" (LITHOGRAPH) 


studio- Talk 



here) combined, and the architect seems to have reproduce one, On the Banks of the Schlei, as 
solved the difficult problem of making his a coloured supplement. The Schlei is a narrow 
design suitable to any epoch. gulf of the Baltic Sea, so narrow and so long, 

Professor Otto Lessing of Berlin has been 
exhibiting his new sculpture, Unter dem Baum 
des Lebens, in the Munich Glaspalast this 
year.. This excellent piece of anatomy, with 
its peculiar angularity and attractive psycho- 
logy, shows the talent of the master at its 
best. He here presents a new Eve type — 
the resisting, not the seducing mother of 
mankind. We are at once fascinated by a 
modern interpretation of one of the oldest 
subjects. J. J. 

HAMBURG.— Coloured etching has 
of late found intelligent inter- 
preters of nature in the ranks 
of the younger German land- 
scapists. Whereas with French 
etchers open-air figure subjects or clair-obsciir 
interiors find favour mostly, the landscape in 
its changing moods of sombre or clear 
atmosphere has taken the fancy of Teutonic, 
particularly North German, etchers. 

Herr Arthur lilies, of whose work examples 
have appeared previously in these pages, 
has of late executed a series of j)lates of 
large dimensions, from among which we 






Stttdio- Talk 

in fact, that it assumes the shape of a river, 
although the water is sea-water. This fjord pro- 
trudes into the land as far as, and even beyond, 
the town of Schleswig. Some very picturesque 
views may be found on the partly wooded banks 
of this fjord, and the above-named motif is one 
of them. W. S. 

BREMEN. — It is characteristic of the enter- 
prise shown by the management of the 
North German Lloyd Steamship Line, 
that for the decoration and furnishing 
of the saloons and cabins in the Krojtprinzessin 
Ced/ie, the latest addition to their magnificent fleet 
of At'antic liners, they should have engaged the 
services of various architects, who, with their expe- 
rience in the designing of interiors on land, might 
be trusted to discharge the task allotted to them 
in a way which should redound to the credit of 
German art. The accompanying illustrations are 
only a few examples of the designs as carried out, 

but they suffice to show how happily the two 
important factors, comfort and convenience, have 
been blended by the architects responsible for 

In the case of a ship of even huge dimensions, 
like the Kronprinzessin C&fih'e, constructed for 
carrying a human freight equal to the population of 
a small town, the conditions are materially different 
to those encountered in a house on land. In the first 
place, the designer has no control over the general 
structure of the vessel, which of course is determined 
by considerations other than those with which he 
has to deal. He has therefore to adapt his apart- 
ments to the structural framework of the vessel, and 
as they are nece.ssarily restricted in area, the problem 
of utilising every cubic inch to the best advantage 
is one he has always to grapple with. And then, 
again, the furniture must be of such a character as 
to entail a minimum of attention on the part of the 
a:tendants, that is to say, it must be useful and 



Sttidio- Talk 

simple, for there is no room 
for useless articles, and 
superfluous accessories 
mean extra work. These 
coniiderations have been 
l)resent to the two firms 
of architects whose designs 
are reproduced in the 
accompanying illustrations. 



In the suite of cabins de- 
luxe designed by Messrs. 
Abbehusen and Blender- 
mann of Bremen, the sides 
and ceilings are formed of 
wood smooth polished, and 
as few projections as pos- 
sible have been allowed. 
For the sides of the cabins 
cherrywood with a natural 
polish is used to form the 
ground, and intersecting it 




studio- Talk 



vertically at intervals are 
strips of black framing. 
This scheme relieves in an 
admirable way the unplea- 
sant effect produced by the 
absence of parallelism be- 
tween floor and ceiling 
consequent on the struc- 
tural formation of the vessel. 
J he upper panels contain 
inlays of pear-wood stained 
red and mother-o'-pearl, a 
combination which imparts 
a pleasant decorative effect 
to the surface. Inlays are 
also used for decorating the 
doors and door-furniture, 
and also for the mirror 
panels of the wardrobe. 
The colour - harmony of 
yellow, red. and black is 
emphasised by the bright 




studio- Talk 

an ensemble at once har- 
monious and agreeable. 


Turning to the cabins 
designed by Messrs. Runge 
& Scotland, the first 
three illustrations belong to 
one group, uniform in 
decoration, and the last is 
an example of another 
group. In the former white 
is used for the broad sur- 
faces ; the doors and furni- 
ture are of violet amaranth 
wood, polished and inlaid 
with citron wood, ivory and 
agate. The carpets are 
light grey and the furniture 
upholstered in yellow with 
embroidery superposed. In 
the latter group white again 
forms the prevailing note, 
but here it is used in 
conjunction with inlays 
The carpets are of straw- 
berry colour, the upholstery yellow, with em- 
broidery as in the other case. The chairs are 


of gilded 


blue upholstery of the sofa-beds and chairs and 
the somewhat duller-blue Smyrna carpet. The 
ceiling is made up of tablets of maple-wood with 
a dull polish, divided by bold black framing and of polished maple, as most conducive to cleanli- 
decorated by inlays of pear-wood. The furniture ness. All the metal work in both groups has 
for the most part follows the box arrangement, that been stove-gilded. 
is, it is built up of boards 
to form a receptacle, 
the boards being ebo- 
nized and polished. The 
designing of the furniture 
to meet the peculiar re- 
quirements called for the 
display of the architects' 
inventiveness. The sofa is 
so contrived as to be easily 
convertible into a bed, and 
the washstand is made to 
serve as a table. The ward- 
robe built into the corner 
from floor to ceiling was a 
happy idea. Similarly with 
each of the other pieces of 
furniture, its use for quite 
different purposes was kept 
in mind by the designers. 
The lighting apparatus of 
silver with fine chasing, 
and the Oriental and old 
Bulgarian textiles complete 







lENN A. — Fraulein Lona 
von Zamboni, who is 
the daughter of a 


distinguished general, 
entered as a student at the Vienna 
Imperial Schools of Arts and 
Crafts. As her first ambition 
was to become a painter, she 
entered Professor Czeschka's class 
for drawing. Bat, spite of the 
undoubted excellence of his teach- 
ing and her satisfactory progress, 
she was uncertain as to ever 
attaining the wished-for success, 
for she was not sure where her 
own particular talents lay. She developed a taste 
for plastics, and when the eminent sculptor, Franz 
Metzner, was appointed teacher she joined his 
classes and quickly became assured that her voca- 
tion was in this branch of art. She soon proved 
her talents, and is now an independent worker. 
The plaquettes here reproduced denote the posses- 
sion of a refined taste, facility of manipulation and 
power of expression. 

A small but interesting exhibition of the works 
of two ladies was held recently at Miethke's new 
Art Gallery. Frau Hermine Heller-Ostersetzer is 
not wholly unknown to readers of The Studio, 
for there was a reproduction of a painting of hers 
in the July number last year. Her contribution to 
the exhibition at Miethke's consisted of works in 
oil and in coloured chalks. The subjects were 
varied, but figures in most cases. The artist 
possesses a fine feeling for colour, combined with 
a freshness of tone which is particularly appealing 
to the onlookers. Her portrait of her own little 
baby, " /« der Wiege" (the cradle), is full of life 
and vibration. A chalk drawing of the same mite 
(see p. 245) is equally convincing. The Game oj 
Ball (a drawing in coloured chalks) is also an excel- 
lent piece of portraiture (p. 245 ). Among other work 

exhibited by Frau 
Heller - Ostersetzer 
were some designs 
for book covers and 
some ex libris, which 
showed good judg- 
ment and pleasing 
treatment. Frau 
Franciska Esser- 
Reynier's contribu- 
tions to the exhibi- 
tion were chiefly 
works in tempera — 
landscape motives 
of Autumn and early 
Spring. Her work 



Anton Grath is one of a number of young 
sculptors, natives of Carinthia, who were initiated 
in their art at the Imperial Fachschule in Villach. 
From there he came to Vienna, where he continued 
his studies at the Imperial Academy. Though 
yet at the beginning of his career, he shows un- 
doubted talent, espacially in the modelling of 
plaquettes, medallions and other small works. 






shows a true love of Nature and a 
knowledge of her ways. (See illus- 
tration on p. 246.) 

Hans Schaefer's work having only 
recently been noticed in these pages, 
I must content myself with saying 
that the plaquette reproduced 
above is among his very latest 

Fcjur years ago an account was 
published in The Studio of an 
exhibition at Klagenfurt which had 
been arranged by local students 
who were pursuing their studies in 
Vienna. This exhibition gave a 
decided stimulus to art, and es- 
pecially decorative art, at Klagenfurt, 
and since then hotel-keepers and 
many private persons have entrusted 
the decoration and furnishing of 
their houses to architects with 
modern ideas. A Kunstverein has 
also been formed, which can already 
boast of eighty members and 

receives annual grants both from the State and from various 
public bodies in Carinthia. By holding periodical exhi- 
bitions such as that recently held, it is undoubtedly doing 

good work. 

One of the many difficulties which confronted this 
Kunstverein was the absence of a building suitable for 
holding exhibitions. The only room large enough was 
that used by the children of the elementary schools for 
the purpose of gymnastic lessons. In the short space 
of a few days, thanks to the resourcefulness of the archi- 
tect, Herr Oeorg Winkler (a pupil of Professor Hoff- 
mann), this was transformed into a delightful exhibition 
gallery, which, though somewhat cramped, gave much 
satisfaction to those interested in the problem of how 
much may be achieved with little means. This gallery 
was divided into a vestibule, a circular hall containing a 




studio- Talk 


( Klagenfurt Kttns(z'trein) 


fountain, surmounted by the figure of A Girl 
Balking, by Michael Mortl, and a number of 
smaller rooms, each tastefully arranged and 
decorated in white and gold by Herr Winkler. 

The recent exhibition was not confined to 
local artists, a certain number of guests having 
been invited, among whom were Ludwig Dill 
(Karlsruhe) and other artists of the Neo- Dachau 
School, Leo Diet and Alfred von Schrotter 
(Graz), ^^'alterThor, Josef and Ludwig Willroider 
(Munich). Anton Gregoritsch belongs to Carin- 
thia, though he lives now in Munich, being a 
member of the Leopold group. He began com- 
paratively late, having served seven years as 
officer in the Imperial Army, but resigned his 
commission to study art under Walter Thor. 
His portrait of a man with a black beard (p. 244) 
is eminently characteristic, showing at once 
comprehension and power. He also exhibited a 
thoughtful portrait of himself and "some attractive 
portraits of girls in native costume. Franz 
Grundner is a pupil of Ludwig Dill and belongs 
to the Neo-Dachau school. He was represented 


(Klagenfurt Kunitverein) 

































► "^ 












studio- Talk 

by some excellent land- 
scapes, showing fine feeling 
and delicate manipulation 
of the brush. 

Two pupils of Ziigel, 
the animal painter, were 
among the exhibitors. 
August Ludecke's Co7vs in 
a Wood certainly revealed 
this master's influence with- 
out obscuring the artist's 
own strength and character. 
The other, Alfons Purtscher, 
who has just been awarded 
a First Prize at the AFunich 
Exhibition, only exhibited 
drawings of horses, but 





. \ 

t^- ■ -■• 


these were excellent. 
Among others who contri- 
buted to the exhibition, it 
must suffice to mention the 
names of Ferdinand Pam- 
berger, Erwin Pendl, Theo- 
dor Freiherr von Ehrmann 
(who showed some good 
water-colour drawings), 
Switbert Lobisser, a young 
Benedictine monk who for 
the nonce has laid aside 
his cowl to stud}' art in 
Vienna and is doing good 
work: Liesl Laske, a 
talented young artist, whose 
drawing of a pig -market 
deserves appreciation ; Otto 
Ferdinand Probst ; and 
Leopold Resch (a pupil of 
Professor Karger), whose 
On the Way to Church, a 
study of a young girl 
dressed in the old Carin- 
thian costume, is full of 
calm repose and shows 
delicacy of treatment. 

'the game of ball" (Seep. 241 J by hermink heller-ostersetzer 

The plastic section was 
well represented in ^lichael 
MortJ, Friedrich Gornik, 
Anton Grath, Hans Ru- 
blander,EmilThurner. The 

studio- Talk 


(Seep. 241 J 



exhibition may be counted as a success ; it was 
honoured by a visit from the Emperor, who expressed 
his approval of the Society's aims. A. S. L. 


— Mr. N. V. 
Dorph every 
year more 
firmly establishes his posi- 
tion as a highly - gifted 
painter possessing a marked 
artistic personality. He 
takes his calling seriously ; 
he always follows his own 
paths and works out his 
own ends, and it is a matter 
of great satisfaction to his 
many friends to watch and 
place on record the on- 
ward yet consistent evolu- 
tion which so unmistakably 
demonstrates itself in his 
work. Dorph has always 
possessed a highly-cultured 
sense of the decorative, 
and this has happily mani- 
fested itself in many of his 
landscape efforts, in which 
he has abandoned that 
purely naturalistic concep- 
tion which for so many of 
his contemporaries still re- 
mains the first article of 
their artistic faith. I think Dorph, as a decorative 
landscapist, may claim for himself having in a wa\- 
discovered " new land," for in spite of the decorative 






studio- Talk 



purpose and aspect of much of his work, it has but 
little in common with earlier painters' efforts in the 
same direction. His large canvas, From the Terrace 
of St. Germain-en-Laye, shown at the last exhibition 
of the Royal Academy in Copenhagen, proves how 
Dorph, through the grouping of the figures and 
the lines and the tone of the landscape, has 
succeeded in producing just the decorative effect 
and the poetic, harmonious mood he intended. 

G. B. 

VIAREGGIO.— Domingo Motta was born 
in Genoa, and studied in several academies 
of fine arts in Italy. He began his 
practical work by scene painting in the 
leading theatres of Italy. For several years Motta 
lived in Paris, where he made a serious study of 
modern etching. His method of obtaining the print 
is very simple and entirely different from any other 
existing, and it deeply interests all who cultivate 

that line of work. Pierrefort, of Paris, publishes 
his etchings. Motta is very well knoN\-n in Paris, 
where he has spent his time in endeavouring to 
perfect his art. He has exhibited in the Salon, 
Paris, at the International Exhibition of Venice, 
and many others, and at Lie'ge two years ago he 
was awarded a silver medal. C. 

PHILADELPHIA. — A development by 
Mr. Henry C. Mercer of the ancient 
process of making pottery, brought to 
America by German colonists from the 
Black Forest in the eighteenth century, has resulted 
in the production of Moravian tiles, which in- 
clude very interesting patterns and mosaics in 
coloured clays. At the same time care has been 
taken in the choice of adapted designs believed to 
be worthy of reproduction from ancient wall tiles 
in Spain, mural patterns from Colonial America, 
Italy, and the East, and floor tiles of the fifteenth 


century from England, Ger- 
many, and France. The 
patterns, frequently in relief, 
stand out in cream colour, 
or at times in other tints, 
against backgrounds of 
green, blue, red, yellow, or 
black, or are themselves 
inscribed in intaglio in these 
hues ; while characteristic 
of the ware is a flush of 
red, staining, where desired, 
the outlines and back- 
ground. This, with the 
stippled or mezzotint 
grounding of the colours, 
gives an original and un- 
usually rich effect to the 

Mr. Mercer, in the pur- 





suit of his studies in 
the ethnology of the 
locality of his pottery 
at Doylestown, near 
Philadelphia, had ac- 
quired, among other 
objects, a collection 
of specimens of the 
rather crude earthen- 
ware made by the 
German settlers in 
Pennsylvania. Ex- 
periments in treat- 
ment of clays, colours 
and glazes, visits to 


the ancient potteries in 
the Black Forest and to 
Spain, Italy, and England 
followed. The fruit of these 
researches may be said to 
be incorporated in the tile 
mosaics of the Moravian 
Potteries now much appre- 
ciated by those who require 
artistic subdued tints com- 
bined with simple and 
strong outlines of form. 


The mosaics here illus- 
trated, made and set 

Reviews and Notices 

together by a novel process invented in 189 1-2, early and late examples of the valuable ware, and 

are adapted for the embellishment of pavements to appreciate the extreme beauty of the former, 

or walls on a much larger scale than the tiles. of which grace of form and simplicity of decoration 

Patterns, ranging from i foot to 20 feet in dia- were the chief characteristics. The struggles of the 

meter, or even where they are figures of men or factory to maintain its position and to be true to its 

animals equalling life-size, consist of pieces of clay old traditions throughout the troubled period of 

burned in many colours superficially or throughout the Revolution and under the hated domination of 

the body, and either glazed or unglazed. The Napoleon are narrated with sympathetic eloquence. 

tesser?e, not rectangular as in Roman or liyzantine Thedecline in theartwhenitwascompelled to pander 

mosaics, but cut in multiform shapes to suit the to the vainglory of the Emperor, all the vases and 

potter's process, and whose contours themselves services being made to commemorate some achieve- 

help to delineate the design, are set in cement at ment of his, is noticed, and the later revival is dwelt 

the pottery. After the manner of the leaded glass upon, the interesting record closing with a descrip- 

designs of the earlier stained windows, these novel tion of the work now being produced under the 

weather and time-proof clay pictures, burned in management of M. Sapillon. The way thus pre- 

brown, grey, white, red, black, green, yellow, and pared for the full appreciation of the fine repro- 

blue clay, ai.'d strongly outlined in their j)ointing ductions in colour of the best pieces in the posses- 

of cement, serve to decorate a floor or wall in the sion of the King, Mr. Laking proceeds to give an 

richest and most lasting manner. E. C. exhaustive account of the most noteworthy examples 

in the collection, taking them in chronological 

RLVIEW S AND NOTICES. order, the first section of his work being devoted 

Sh'res Porcelain of Buckingham Palace and to the Vincennes period, which dated from 1748 

Windsor Castle. By Guv Francis Laking, to 1755, the earliest specimen being a very beautiful 

M.V.O., F.S. A. (London : Bradbury, Agnew & Co.) vase in soft paste of the form long known as Medicis. 

jQ\o \os. net. — The third of a series of publica- Next come the first vases produced after the 

tions issued by command of His Majesty — the other removal of the factory to Sevres in 1756, of which 

two, already reviewed in The Studio, having dealt the King owns several remarkable pieces, including 

respectively with the Royal Armoury and the a Pot-Pourri Vase and Cover bearing the date 1758, 

Furniture of Windsor Castle — the present volume whilst amongst the treasures produced in the 

describes and gives the history of what is to a golden age of the famous institution, that is to say 

certain extent a unique collection in the history of between 1760 and 1 786, are several charming dinner 

ceramic art, for it is not merely the natural services, notably the one of which various pieces 

accumulation of time, but was acquired by judicious are reproduced in Plate 59, and some fine vases, 

purchase, the specimens having been chosen with the latter of comparatively simple form, and all 

the aid of practical experts. Begun by Geor£^e IIL alike noticeable for the delicacy of their colouring, 

the collection was added to largely by his son and Full completeness is given to a work which reflects 

successor, both whilst he was Prince Regent and great credit on all concerned in its production, by 

after he ascended the throne. " France," says Mr. descriptions of the pieces of porcelain in the collec- 

Laking, whose official position has given him tion which have been subjected to re- decoration, 

exceptional opportunities for studying his subject, and by a list of the painters who were at different 

"at this period did not truly value the superb times employed at Sevres, with the works executed 

treasures then in her possession, and many of the by them, even the forgeries (some of which were 

now priceless gems of decorative applied art were wonderfully clever) being noted— a detail that will 

in consequence brought into the market, and no doubt be greatly appreciated by collectors. 

George IV., acting by the advice of men of refined Venice. By Po.mpeo Molmenti, translated by 

taste and judgment, and guided by the knowledge Horatio F. Brown. Part IL (London : John 

of M. Benoit, a confidential French servant, Murray.) Two vols., 2 i.y. net. — Deeply interesting 

formerly patissier to His Majesty, was thus and valuable as were the two first volumes of 

enabled to accumulate valuable and authentic Signor Molmenti's important work on Venice, 

specimens of almost contemporary art." Mr. reviewed in The Studio some little time ago, 

Laking prefaces his account of the Royal collec- they are if possible surpassed by their successors, 

lion with a brief history of the fiimous factory, with which deal with the most eventful era of the long 

the aid of which it will be possible even for an life-story of the Republic, the Golden Age, when, 

inexperienced amateur to distinguish between the to quote the author's eloquent words : " On the 


Reviews and Notices 

early life of vigorous expansion follows the prime rare skill in rendering the varied hues of flowers 

in all the splendour of its riches, and that glorious and foliage in masses, combined with sound judg- 

new birth of the human intellect in philosophy, in ment in the selection of appropriate points of view, 

letters and in the arts, which was in part begun in has ensured for him a luiique position among 

the previous age, reaches its culmination." "The contemporary garden painters. In the series of 

cult of the Renaissance," he adds, " touching its beautiful drawings of Italian gardens reproduced in 

apogee, intensifies the cult of beauty, harmony and the volume before us we meet with a style of garden 

pleasure, but at the same time diverts the Italians different from that which has found greatest favour 

from the serious aspects of life." The concluding in this country, where the so-called landscape type 

words of this pregnant sentence strike a note of nas predominated. Italy, on the other hand, has 

warning of the imminent approach of the decline for centuries been the home of the formal style of 

that, in the history of nations as of individuals, garden. There the tradition goes back to the days 

inevitably succeeds the full realisation of ambitions ; of Ancient Rome, the Villa Hadriana being a 

and it is a noticeable peculiarity of the whole of famous example of it, and in spite of the era of 

the Italian historian's record that he never loses decadence which followed the incursions of the 

sight of the future in his enthusiasm over the barbarians of the North, who plundered and 

present that he is able to realise so vividly. Even destroyed the estates and dwellings of the nobles, 

in her brilliant middle-age Venice was surrounded leaving scarcely a trace of their former grandeur, 

by sister states in which decay was already in- it seems never to have been utterly extinguished, 

augurated, and although she long continued to With the renaissance in the fine arts there would 

maintain her proud position of independence the appear to have come a revival in the art of laying 

seeds of corruption were really already coming to out gardens, for by the fifteenth century many of 

life beneath the surface. With the practised skill the villas of the nobility in Florence, Rome, and 

of an expert who has mastered every detail of his elsewhere became famous for their gardens, and 

subject, Signor Molmenti sums up in his intro- that fame has with not a few of them descended 

ductory chapter the political situation of Europe at to the present day. It is of such time-honoured 

the time under review, with special reference to the gardens that Mr. Elgood gives us delightful glimpses 

effect of that situation on the lagoon city, passing in the pictures included in his new volume. He 

thence to give a masterly description of the politi- tells us that he commenced the series as long ago 

cal, ecclesiastical, judicial, military and economic as 1881 and has continued them practically without 

constitution of the great Republic, dwelling on the break every year since. There is so much to be 

significant fact that the various offices were so praised in all these drawings that it is difficult to 

linked together and interdependent that they acted single out any one as being better than the rest, 

simultaneously like the wheels of a watch, so that The Florence series, however, impress us most on 

the striking energy of the whole community could the whole, the drawings of Florence from the Villa 

at any moment be concentrated on a single focus. Palmieri, Villa Reale di Casfello, Villa Amari : 

The gradual transformation of Venice in the hands the Fountain and Villa Amari : the Belvedere being 

of the great architect, and the work of the skilled especially noteworthy. The artist's notes, partly 

craftsmen and painters as well as of the leaders in historical and partly descriptive, disclosing as they do 

art and literature, are considered in detail, the an intimate knowledge of the places depicted, lend 

second volume closing with a somewhat melan- additional interest to the pictures, which, of course, 

choly chapter on the corruption of manners that are the//(^^(?.rfl?i?m/5/a«^^ of this most attractive book, 

at the beginning of the end cast a sinister shadow Napoleon and the Invasion of England. By 

over the peace, prosperity, security, freedom, bril- H. F. B. Wheeler and A. M. Broadley. 2 vols, 

liant art and joyous life of the city. Both volumes (London : John Lane.) 32^. net. — At the present 

contain a number of interesting illustrations, re- time, when the idea of a possible invasion of Eng- 

productions of pictures, photographs of buildings, land is openly scoffed at, it is somewhat difficult to 

etc. realise the state of things a century ago, when the 

Italian Gardens. After Drawings by George whole country was roused as one man to defend 

S. Elgood, R.I. With notes by the Artist. (London: its shores from an enemy whose appearance was 

Longmans & Co.) a,2s. net. — The present sump- hourly expected. The Great Terror converted 

tuous volume forms a fitting companion to the England, Scotland and Ireland into a vast camp, 

delightful book on English gardens which Mr. where all differences were forgotten for a whole 

Elgood brought out some four years ago. His decade in an eager desire to maintain the integrity 

Reviews and Notices 

of the British Isles ; but, strange to say, the re- 
markable episode is as a general rule passed over 
very lightly by historians. Messrs. ^Vhecler and 
Broadley's book will, however, do much t(j throw 
light on the exciting crisis, and is just now 
peculiarly opportune as serving to bring into 
startling prominence the spirit that in the early 
nineteenth century animated the British Navy. 
Founded on a very careful examination of a great 
variety of contemporary literature, it includes deeply 
interesting quotations from letters never before pub- 
lished of George III., the Duke of Buckingham, 
Fox, Lord Brougham, Marshal Soult, Ford Hood, 
Richard Cumberland, Thomas Southey, Mrs. Pioz/.i, 
andother celebrities. State recordsand Parliamentary 
debates, with reproductions of a vast number of 
caricatures after J. C. Cooke, Sayer, Gillray, Isaac 
Cruikshank, Rowlandson, Dalrymple, and their 
French rivals. These caricatures, strange to say, 
though they are of course valuable for the sidelight 
they throw on public feeling at the time of their pro- 
duction, are singularly deficient in real humour, and 
fail altogether to appeal to modern taste— an inci- 
dental proof of the increase in refinement that has 
taken place in that taste of late years. The 
sympathies of the reader in this stressful period are 
far more likely to be aroused by the reproductions 
of prints not intended to be humorous, such as the 
"Fishguard," of February, 1797, the Frontispiece of 
a volume of colour plates etched by Rowlandson, 
and published by the Angelos in 1799, the 
"George III. reviewing the Armed Associations of 
London in Hyde Park," and the " Boulogne" at the 
beginning of the second period of the Terror, the 
facsimiles of Broadsides, such as the Address to the 
People of the United Kingdom, the representa- 
tion of the Semaphore Telegraph, erected in the 
Admiralty office in 1796, the Invasion Promissory 
Note of 1802, and the reprints of the Popular 
Songs that voiced the hopes and fears of the 
multitude. These are all of stirring interest, and 
bring out more forcibly than could any description 
by a later pen the actual feelings aroused by the 
gloomy situation. 

Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kiinstler von 
der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Herausgegeben 
von Dr. Ulrich Thieme and Dr. Felix Becker. 
(Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.) To be com- 
pleted in 20 vols. \'ol. I., 2>-^- net. — In one 
department of literature certainly, Germany can 
safely be said to be without a rival, namely, in 
the making of dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and 
similar works of reference. The national genius 
for painstaking investigation and the collection and 

co-ordination of facts is attested by a huge number 
of such works dealing with every conceivable sub- 
ject. In art Nagler's "Kiinstler-Lexicon," published 
half-a-century ago in 22 volumes, is still a useful 
work in spite of errors here and there, but of course 
is very much out of date. Twenty years later a 
revised edition was begun by Dr. Julius Meyer, 
but only three volumes appeared, and now Drs. 
Thieme and Becker seek to make amends for that 
failure with their Universal Dictionary of Artists, 
in the preparation of which they are assisted by 
some 300 collaborators. We heartily wish them 
success. If the remaining nineteen volumes are 
produced with the care and comprehensiveness 
which mark the first volume, the results of their 
labour will be highly valued by all who have occasion 
to use such a work. A wide scope has been given 
to the term " bildende Kiinstler" by the inclusion 
of the names of architects and craftsmen whose 
achievements deserve to be called " creative." 
With such a host of names it must of course 
happen that the information concerning a large 
number of them is not sufficient to constitute a 
biography. This is especially the case with many 
who lived in days gone by, before newspapers and 
magazines came into existence, but it sometimes 
happens also in the case of living artist=, the 
inforniation concerning whom may occupy not 
more than half-a-dozen lines — perhaps simply a 
reference to a work reproduced in The Studio 
or some other journal. On the other hand, there 
are cases where the details cover many pages — 
Rudolf von Alt, for instance, occupies six. With 
a work of this magnitude, too, errors are almost 
certain to creep in. The first volume, however, 
seems remarkably free from them, the only one 
that is worth noticing occurring under the name 
of Allingham, where it is assumed that "Mrs. 
A. Allingham, R.W.S.," and " Helen Allingham " 
are different persons and form the subject of 
separate references. One feature of this valuable 
work will prove especially helpful to future inves- 
tigators, namely, the bibliographical reftrences 
given at the end of most of the notices, showing 
where further information about the artist is to be 

Cathedral Cities of France. By Herbert 
Marshall, R.W.S., and Hester Marshall. 
(London : Heinemann ; New York : Dodd, Mead & 
Co.) 165. net. — Gleanings of five years' wanderings 
in France, the beautiful water-colour drawings re- 
produced in this most delightful vo'.ume, certainly 
one of the best colour-books yet issued, have all 
the poetic charm characteristic of the work of their 


Reviews and Notices 

author, who stands in the front rank of modern 
interpreters of architecture from the aesthetic point 
of view. Mr. Marshall knows how to catch the very 
spiritof the scenes he depicts : his draughtsmanship, 
colouring, and atmospheric effects are alike admir- 
able, and the only direction in which he sometimes 
fails is in the grouping of his figures. Nothing 
could be more entirely satisfying than the St. Ld, 
with its spires and towers standing out against the 
evening sky, and its quaint old houses reflected in 
the Vire ; Poitiers, with the distant view of the 
winding river spanned by a noble bridge ; Bordeaux, 
with the fishing boats in the foreground, and the 
twin towers of the cathedral dominating the mist- 
shrouded town ; and Tours, with its grey tower 
and sunlit street. No less satisfactory is the 
letterpress, which skilfully hits the happy medium, 
giving just enough of the history of the various 
places visited to render intelligible the descriptions 
of their present appearance. Mrs. Marshall dis- 
tinguishes between three classes of towns : those 
whose local importance has remained unchanged 
for centuries, those whose ancient glory has de- 
parted, though they still retain its semblance, 
and those which are entirely the outcome of the 
modern spirit of enterprise. It is, of course, to the 
first group that the largest space is given, and the 
chapters devoted to them will be found especially 
interesting, so well does the writer know how to 
tell their eventful stories. The one serious flaw 
in a book reflecting great credit on all concerned in 
its production is Mrs. Marshall's hasty conclusions 
in matters architectural, for with a light heart she 
adopts the fallacious theory that the Flamboyant 
style originated not in France but in England 
remarking that "as soon as the former country had 
freed itself from the domination of the English and 
realised its national unity, its architects applied 
themselves heart and soul to the development of 
that style which was borrowed from the enemy," 
whereas it is well known to every student of archi- 
tecture that the Flamboyant and Perpendicular 
phases of the Gothic were essentially different. 

The Ingoldsby Legends : Mirth and Marvels. By 
Thomas Ingoldsby, Esq. Illustrated by Arthur 
Rackham, A.R.W.S. (London : J. M. Dent & 
Co.) \^s. net. — It would hardly be correct to call 
this book a reprint of Mr. Rackham's illustrated 
edition of the Legends published some nine years 
ago. In the first place, the letterpress has been 
entirely reset in a type which gives the book an 
air of distinction ; and, secondly, as regards the 
illustrations, numerous additions have been made, 
and, as explained by Mr. Rackham in his introduc- 

tory note, all the old coloured illustrations have 
been worked on and specially coloured for this 
new "edition definitive de luxe," as the publishers 
are justified in calling it. Mr. Rackham enters 
so thoroughly into the spirit of these now classic 
tales, and his drawings reveal such rare talents, that 
the success of this new edition is assured. As a 
gift-book nothing could be better. 

Utamaro. By Dr. Julius Kurth. (Leipzig : 
F. A. Brockhaus.) 30 Mks. — The author may be 
congratulated upon the thorough manner in which 
the work of the great Japanese designer of colour 
prints and book illustrator has been classified and 
summarised by him in this volume. Since the 
excellent monograph on the same subject by De 
Goncourt, published in 1891, many prints and 
books have come to light from old Japanese collec- 
tions, and our knowledge of the numerous produc- 
tions . of this artist has been so greatly extended 
that we are now able to more justly estimate his 
relative position among his Japanese contempo- 
raries. While opinions may be divided upon the 
question of the greatness of his art, there is no 
doubt in the mind of any student of his book that 
Utamaro was a man of exceptional ability, whose 
name will always be associated with distinction 
among the leaders of the Ukiyoye or popular school 
of Japanese illustrators. The illustrations to Dr. 
Kurth 's volume are numerous, including several in 
facsimile colours, and they exhibit the various stages 
in the evolution of the master's art. Plate 24 is of 
remarkable excellence, reproducing with wonderful 
verisimilitude the colours and characteristics of 
the original print. We cordially commend this 
book to the notice of all collectors of Japanese 

Vasari on Technique. Translated into English 
by Louisa S. Maclehose. Edited with Intro- 
duction and Notes by Prof. G. Baldwin Brown. 
(London: J. M. Dent & Co.) \z^s. net. — It is a 
curious circumstance that while numerous trans- 
lations have been made of Vasari's Lives of the 
Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects — 
a work which, notwithstanding its great value as a 
historical document, has been shown to be not 
wholly trustworthy — the technical Introduction 
which he prefixed to that work has never during 
the three and a half centuries since it first 
appeared been rendered in its entirety into any 
foreign language. And yet, so far as the art-worker 
is concerned, this preliminary exposition of the 
various processes and materials employed by the 
artists and craftsmen of his day is of far greater 
interest than the biographical details constituting 

Reviews and Notices 

the bulk of the work, and in view of the great 
variety of topics treated of, the complete trans- 
lation of it, now made for the first time into English 
by Miss Maclehose, under the supervision of Prof. 
Brown, is especially welcome. The translation is 
made from the text belonging to the edition of 
1568, and is supplemented l)y a series of footnotes 
elucidating obscure expressions found in the 
original, or serving to identify buildings and objects 
referred to, while each of the three sections in 
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting is followed 
by longer notes dealing with questions of more 
general interest. The translation and editing of 
the work have been carried out with conscientious 
thoroughness, and additional interest is given to 
the volume by the numerous illustrations contained 
in it, which have been selected for the purpose of 
exemplifying passages in the text or the particular 
species of work described by the author. 

Of the books for juveniles which have reached 
us this season a few call for notice here, however 
brief. Prominent among them is a reprint in good 
bold type of Alice s Adventures in Wonderland 
(Heinemann, ds. net), with thirteen illustrations in 
colour and a few in black-and-white after drawings 
by Mr. Arthur Rackham, A.R.W.S. These draw- 
ings, and especially the coloured ones, are so full 
of subtle charm that the book is certain to be in 
large demand this season. Conspicuous also, by 
reason of its two dozen or more delightful illustra- 
tions in colour by Miss Alice Woodward, is The 
Peter Pan Picture Book (Bell &: Sons, $s. net). 
The text, printed in large clear type, is an amended 
version of that which appeared last year in "The 
Peter Pan Keepsake," and the book is so nicely 
got up generally that it is bound to be welcomed in 
the nursery. Though the pictures in Mr. Oliver 
Herford's Peter Pan Alphabet {\\.oMqx & Stough- 
ton, 35. 6<f.) are not in colour they are distinctly 
clever, and the humorous vein in which the rhymes 
are pitched will ensure for this book also a large 
measure of success. As not many children are 
acquainted with the original story of Beauty and 
the Beast, the complete version of the tale, as 
translated by Mr. Ernest Dowson and published 
by Mr. John Lane in a limited edition of 300 
copies at 10^. dd. net, will prove an interesting 
addition to the nursery library ; but the four 
coloured plates by Mr. Charles Conder, character- 
istic as they are of his art, require for their due 
appreciation a more mature artistic sense than that 
possessed by the generality of children. Miss 
Amy Steedm.\n, whose book /// God's Garden 
was so popular last season, endeavours this year, in 

her Knights of Art (T. C. & E. C. Jack, 65. net), 
to interest children in the lives and achievements 
of famous Italian painters. Miss Steedman's 
command of simple yet telling language, combined 
with the numerous pictures, reproductions of 
masterpieces after drawings by Mary Steedman — 
sixteen of them being in colour — will certainly 
ensure for this book a favourable reception among 
children old enough to take an interest in great 
works of art. Another book which has a kindred 
aim to the last-mentioned is Lady Tennant's 
The Children and the Pictures (Heinemann, 65.), 
in which the gifted authoress takes a number of 
notable pictures by masters of the English School, 
reproduced either in colour or black-and-white, 
and weaves out of them a series of entertaining 
stories. The humours of animal life always furnish 
amusement to little ones, and Mr. Leslie Brook, 
whose name must be familiar to many of them, 
has furnished a fresh source of fun in Johnny 
Cro'cv's Party (F. Warne & Co., 2s. 6d. net). 
Messrs. Warne & Co. also publish this season two 
more of their dainty little shilling reprints of 
Randolph Caldecott's picture books, which ought 
to be as popular now as they have hitherto been. 
In The Unlucky Family (Smith, Elder &: Co , 
6^.) Mrs. Henry de la Pasture makes capital fun 
out of the adventures of a suburban family who 
had the misfortune to inherit a country estate and 
much money — adventures which the well-known 
"Punch" artist, Mr. E. T. Reed, has turned to 
good account in a series of characteristic illustra- 
tions. Mention should also be made of Mabel 
Trustram's Verses to a. Child (Elkin Mathews, 
2S. net), penned in simple, unaffected language, 
and telling of such incidents as occur in the lives 
of quite little ones, who will no doubt appreciate 
Edith Calvert's drawings. 

Messrs. Headley Bros., of Bishopsgate, who have 
already published photogravure engravings after 
pictures by Mr. Walter West, R.W.S., have recently 
added to the series The Silent Meeting, the original 
of which was lately on view at the Royal Water 
Colour Society's Galleries. The picture represents 
a Quakers' meeting in early Victorian days. The 
size of the print, exclusive of margin, is about 
13 inches by 19 inches, and the price one guinea, 
proofs signed by the artist being two guineas. 

The publishers of Dr. Leisching's work on Das 
Bildnis-Miniatur in Oesterreich, dr-\:, noticed in 
our October number, are Messrs. Artaria & Co., of 


The Lay Figure 



" It is remarkable how the popularity of 
etching has fluctuated in this country," said the 
Art Critic. " A few years ago it was all the rage, 
and then, for a while, it seemed to be almost dead; 
now there are signs that it is coming into favour 

" You ought to know by now the way in which 
an art is checked or encouraged by the vagaries of 
the popular taste," replied the Man with the Red 
Tie. " Etching, like all other forms of artistic pro- 
duction, flourishes or languishes according to the 
amount of support it receives. When people were 
interested in it it did very well indeed, but when 
it went out of fashion it, naturally enough, fell 
into a state of what you might call suspended 

"I am not sure that these fluctuations were 
entirely the result of changes in fashion," returned 
the Critic. " I think that the etchers themselves 
were partly to blame and spoiled their own vogue 
by want of sincerity. They got into bad ways and 
discredited the art they practised." 

" May I ask," broke in the Plain Man, "whether 
you consider etching to be an art of any import- 
ance ? It always seems to me to be a very trivial 
and feeble thing and hardly worthy of the fuss 
that is made about it. A man scratches a few 
lines on a piece of copper — is it not ? — and prints 
them off on paper, and calls the result a picture. 
Surely that is not an art that matters." 

" I am glad you know how an etching is done," 
laughed the Man with the Red Tie, "for most 
people do not realise that there is any difference 
between an etching and a pen-and-ink drawing. 
But in answer to your question, I would certainly 
call etching an important art ; it offers great oppor- 
tunities for delicate expression and is capable of 
exquisite treatment, and it needs a man of great 
skill to do it well." 

"Oh ! surely not," cried the Plain Man ; "any- 
one can scratch lines on copper, and all the rest 
comes from a simply mechanical process of putting 
the plate through a press." 

" i )o you know," said the Critic, " that our 
friend is, quite by accident, illustrating my argu- 
ment. I said that the etchers spoiled their own 
vogue by want of sincerity ; and it was just in this 
way that this want of sincerity showed itself. The 
etchers gave up taking pains and took merely to 
scratching lines on copper in the hope that the 
press would perform miracles, Prosperity made 

them conceited ; they thought anything would pass 
as an etching, and that collectors did not know the 
difference between good work and bad ; but they 
have suffered for their conceit." 

" Perhaps they have," replied the Man with the 
Red Tie, "but still I think that they have been 
to some extent the victims of fashion. I believe 
that the taste for etching died out chiefly because 
the public got tired of it and wanted something 

"That maybe so," agreed the Critic; "but in 
that case how do you account for the present-day 
revival, of which I think you will admit there are 
quite visible evidences ? " 

" Why that is plain enough," cried the Man with 
the Red Tie ; " the public point of view is always 
changing, and fresh subjects of interest have to be 
constantly provided to stimulate a jaded taste. 
When new sensations fail an old one is revived 
and made to do duty again for a while. But 
nothing lasts ; nothing is ever permanently estab- 
lished. If there does come again a run on 
etchings, it will only be for a short time, and 
the usual reaction will follow as a matter ot 

"That may be so," said the Critic ; "but I am 
a little more hopeful than you are as to the future. 
I contend that the decline in the popularity of 
etching was largely due to the failure of the artists 
to understand the nature of the public demand. 
They thought that quantity only was wanted, and 
that quality did not matter, so they set to work to 
turn out etchings as quickly as possible and in the 
easiest way. They made them slight, thin, and 
meaningless ; they handled them carelessly, and 
were content with the merest suggestions ; and as 
a consequence they disgusted the very people to 
whom they looked for support. But now the more 
serious artists recognise that a real effort is needed 
to recover lost ground ; they have learned much 
from the example of the German etchers, who are 
treating the art to-day with a strong sense of 
responsibility and with a commendable firmness 
of conviction. Thanks partly to this example, and 
partly to the proper application of the lessons of 
the past, we are getting out of OJr bad ways, and 
we are well on the road to the reinstatement of an 
art which ought never to have been allowed to fall 
into disrepute, and we are once more using it as 
a means of individual expression and as a mode 
of conveying to others our sincere aesthetic beliefs. 
If we continue along these lines, we need have no 
fears for the future of etching in this country." 

The Lay Figure. 


CBy Permission of Messrs. Thos. .-li^new 
&■ Sons and Messrs. Vyallis &• Son.) 


Johannes Bosboom 



At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
art in Holland, as in most countries of Europe, had 
fallen into conventionalism and mannerism. The 
works of the glorious old masters were no longer 
understood ; P>ans Hals and Rembrandt were no 
longer valued ; Vermeer of Delft was unknown. 
How great was this decadence of taste at the time 
I speak of, is shown by what an old gentleman 
told me long ago. In his boyhood, I remember 
him saying, he and his sister were wont to play at 
ball in the attic of their parents' house, using as 
their target some old, dusty portraits, which after- 
wards proved to be by Frans Hals ! Again, the 
father of a friend of mine discovered somewhere 
that a small ironing board had been made out of 
part of a panel painted by Cuyp ! Many other 
similar incidents could be 

During the occupation 
of the Netherlands by the 
French, the Napoleonic 
wars left little time for the 
pursuit of art, and, when 
peace was once more estab- 
lished, such painters as there 
were worked in an empty, 
academical style, under the 
influence of the school of 
David. Instead of being 
inspired by the merits of 
their famous ancestors, they 
merely studied their tech- 
nique ; they looked only 
at the surface of their pic- 
tures, and failed to pene- 
trate the spirit, the concep- 
tion of those masters ; nor 
at the same time did they 
value the most individual 
among them, but were 
attracted only to those 
whose qualities of execution 
give them a place, though 
not a foremost place, 
among the great painters 
of their country. Thus it 
happened in those days 
that Gerard Dou, Mieris, 
Metsu, etc., came in for 
more attention than the 


XLII. No. 178.— January, 1908. 

When the clever, but quasi-classic David settled 
in Brussels, he succeeded in imposing his own 
conceptions so strongly, that the healthy, vigorous 
Flemish art was nearly put aside, because, accord- 
ing to his ideas, beauty of colour, one of the chief 
features of painting, was considered barbarous, 
rough, sensual. Himself little of a colourist, he 
had a disdain for colour ; and at the same time he 
failed to understand that nearly all great artists 
have expressed themselves most perfectly through 
their own nationality and the age in which they 
lived, and he believed that a new expression, a 
new ideal, might be created by didactic subjects. 
This theory of his was not even based on a right 
conception of really great Greek art. Notwith- 
standing these convictions of his, however, David 
exerted a good influence in the reaction against the 
decadent eighteenth century school, by devoting 
himself to a close study of nature. This is 


JoJiannes Bosboom 

manifest chiefly in his drawings, but some 
of his portraits are also excellent proofs of this 

While Holland remained united to Belgium— 
that is until the year 1830— the influence of the 
Belgian art of the time was perceptible in 
the Low Countries ; Navez, Wappers, and later 
on Galiait, had in the Northern Netherlands 
colleagues like Kruseman, Pieneman and van 
Schendel : all these painters were of about the 
same style. 

The revival of art in France, as is well known, 
was largely due to a group of English artists — 
Fielding, Crome, Bonington, and principally Con- 
stable—whose works opened the eyes of young 
Delacroix, Corot, and Rousseau. In these there was 
awakened a new interest in the old Dutch masters, 
thanks to the English painters, who, individual 
and national as they were, had helped to make 
the works of those masters comprehensible to 
them. These young French painters found in- 
spiration in the delightful- environs of Paris, the 
beauties of which were revealed to them by 

the old masters, who loved their subjects in- 
tensely ; and in that love is the essential element 
of art. 

Thus it happened that the merits of the old 
painters, so brilliantly represented in the collections 
of England, influenced the English masters of that 
time, who, in their turn, developed the artistic 
impulses of the French artists, whose influence has 
been of importance on most of the best representa- 
tives of the modern Dutch school. 

How important this revival has been can easily 
be seen when one remembers that in those days 
the "classic" school in Holland forbade all freedom 
and individuality of expression, both in landscape 
and in figure-painting, and considered the freshness 
and spirit of nature to be "bad style." Natural 
colours were found too bright ; they had to be 
replaced by " warm " tints, which were produced 
by some brownish, tar-coloured medium. Certain 
sorts of trees were also disdained, and considered 
to be wanting in stateliness or grandeur ; the lovely 
apple tree and the graceful willow had to be 
avoided at the time when Kruseman gave to Josef 




Johaimcs Bosbooiu 

Israels the advice not to paint " ugly people " '. 
Such were the conditions under which Bosboom 
spent his youth, but he himself remained unaffected 
by the conventionality of his contemporaries. 

Born in 1817, Johannes Bosboom belonged to an 
older generation than the brothers Maris and Anton 
Mauve, but in many respects his evolution was 
parallel to that of Israels, although the latter was 
born a few years later. But Bosboom lived at 
The Hague, while the home of Israels was in 
Amsterdam, whence he removed to the royal 
residence only in 1869. 

In both of these towns art was taught according 
to the principles then dominant : in the capital, by 
old-fashioned painters like Pieneman and Kruse- 
man, who had the honour of contributing to the 
development of Israels ; at The Hague, in the 
studio of B. J. van Hove, whose most striking 
pupils were Bosboom and the clever landscape 
painter Weissenbruch, and his son Huib, who in 
turn was the teacher of men differing as widely 
in personality and point of view as Jacob Maris, 
Bisschop, and Bakkerkorff. 

The landscape-painters were far more numerous 
ihan the figure painters, a fact which has, without 

doubt, been of influence upon the perfecting of 
the so-called " Masters of The Hague." For it must 
be observed that the qualities of aerial perspective 
and atmosphere in their figure-paintings, were to a 
great extent due to their continuous and close 
study of the ever-changing atmosphere of the sea, 
the wood, and the " polders " which surround The 
Hague, and where long ago Paulus Potter had 
already elaborated his cattle scenes. This in- 
fluence must have been the greater because in the 
studios the lessons were purely technical. 

Under these circumstances Bosboom began to 
work, and about 1833 he exhibited his first View 
of a Toii'ii, still somewhat under the influence of 
his master, van Hove. And yet, even in these early 
efforts, Bosboom showed his individuality. Those 
genuine and very personal qualities which were 
steadily developed during his long career may be 
discovered in his first works, detailed as they are, 
as in his last, in which his free, direct, broad touch 
gives more life, richness, and completeness to the 

While the old Dutch masters who painted views 
of towns and church interiors elaborated in a perfect 
manner every detail of their subject, while giving 



Johannes Bosbooni 



with wonderful attention and care the most com- 
plete " portrait " of what they saw, they fell short 
of expressing in these works, technically admirable 
though they may be, the feeling of life which 
characterises Bosboom's pictures, a quality in which 
he is purely modern. 

His first pictures, generally in oil, are carefully 
elaborated and in some respects dry, but by 
degrees his line and brushwork grow free, supple, 
and broad ; he suppresses unnecessary details, and 
in his latest works he attains a splendid mastery ; 
and then he suggests what he intends rendering by 
means of a synthetic manner, alike in oil-painting 
and in water-colour, which expresses more grandeur 
and atmospheric life than does his earlier work. 

Up to Bosboom's time no painter of churches 
had ever been able to put into his work a high 
poetic feeling, a deep and serene emotion, by 
means of qualities purely of drawing, colour, and 
tone. This is the reason why his interpretation of 
such subjects is remarkably personal, modern, and 
of a high rank — very near the art of Rembrandt, 
who, in his deep, vibrating, and passionate feeling, 
was himself thoroughly modern. 

As a pupil in the studio of van Hove, Bosboom 
made careful studies of perspective, architecture, and 

of the different styles, because the teacher and his 
pupils had sometimes to execute decorations for the 
Theatre Royal at The Hague. These special 
studies were most useful to him, and probably had 
a great influence on his artistic development, 
which (juickly brought witli it brilliant success. 
Even in 1835, while still working in the studio of 
his master, he had the satisfaction of selling an 
exhibited picture to a painter of much renown at 
The Hague— Mr. Schelfhout. 

Bosboom has himself written short autobio- 
graphical notes in which he describes the origin of 
Romanticism in Holland, how the revolution not 
only brought with it a search after truth, after 
reality of colour, but at the same time an interest 
in works of art of all kinds produced by former 
centuries, even in the long-forgotten and disdained 
Middle Ages. Under the influence of this move- 
ment, Bosboom saw his line clearly marked out. 
In 1836 he exhibited two church interiors, lit up 
with a flood of sunlight, and, as we know, it was 
this particular ^d-z/r^ which he made his own during 
the rest of his life. Very soon he began to win 
medals, at Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Brussels ; and 
scjme years later he was created Knight of the 
Belgian Order of Leopold. 


fohanues Bosboom 

In 1835 he made a short journey along the 
Rhine with two of his friends, and soon after paid 
a visit to Rouen, travelling through Holland, 
where he discovered splendidly picturesque churches, 
cloisters, town halls, cloister-kitchens, and farm- 
interiors, which furnished him with the subjects 
of some of his masterpieces. 

In 1846 Bosboom made the acquaintance of a 
Dutch authoress. Miss A. L. G. Toussaint, whom 
he married some years afterwards. They began 
together a quiet life of regular labour, she writing 
numerous, highly valued novels, in the style of 
Walter Scott, he constantly producing works, 
nearly all of which show his great natural gifts. 

Notwithstanding these exceptional gifts, life was 
often difficult to him, and attacks of deep melan- 
choly sometimes disturbed its regular course ; but 
he had a friend and protector in Jhr. van Rappard, 
one of those cultured men who live for art. This 
gentleman collected all the water-colour drawings 
done by Bosboom, and sometimes invited the artist 
and his wife to stay at his country estate near Utrecht. 
Here the artist found rest and renewed strength 
after these periods of gloom. Walks in the de- 
lightful surroundings of his friend's house revealed 
to him more than ever the beauties of landscape, 
and from that moment a new order of subjects 

became his own. I allude to those big barns 
{Iweren-deekn), full of Rembrandt-like light and 
shade with rich golden-brown depths, which he 
handled with such skill. In conception rather 
different from that of Israels, Bosboom made of 
these splendid subjects works of wonderful 
grandeur and of most powerful colour. These 
"deelen," now fast disappearing, were vast thatched 
constructions, roughly built on heavy, lichly- 
coloured wooden piles. As is usual in Holland, 
the cows stood in rows along the walls, while hens, 
chickens, and dogs walked freely about among the 
peasants themselves. The light-effects in these 
lofty farm buildings are of a quite special char- 
acter, and these interiors, almost as much as 
watermills, add to our understanding of the so- 
called " Rembrandtic light." 

Some years ago I explained in " L'Art Moderne " 
the origins of Rembrandt's " fantastic " light, 
showing that this was not at all a mere product of 
his imagination, but simply the natural, diffuse 
light in a v/atermill. Rembrandt, whose uncle was 
a miller, must in his boyhood have often seen in 
such a mill the splendid gamut of golden values 
produced by a sunbeam penetrating through a small 
window, the hazy, smoky space, with its quite pecu- 
liar transparency of purplish and bluish tint. It 





Johannes Bosbooni 

is a very natural supposition that an exceptionally 
sensitive young man like Rembrandt should have 
been so strongly impressed by these light-effects 
that he remembered them during his whole Ufe, 
and applied them to the subjects which he 
elaborated later on — not only his portraits but his 
figure-paintings and etchings as well. 

Bosboom always had a passionate admiration 
for the great Dutch master, and without a doubt 
his studies of old churches and picturesque town- 
halls dating back to the time of Rembrandt, and 
in no less degree his studies of these fine old 
barns, must have helped to develop his admiration 
and right comprehension of Rembrandt's works, 
which most certainly were of influence on his art ; 
hut it may be accepted as conclusive that the 
milieu in which he painted brought him nearer to 
the conception of the master, and added to his 
faculty of understanding him. 

I venture to insist upon this fact, because of the 
mistaken idea which has been so prevalent that 
the secret of Rembrandt's art is to be found in 
brownish pigments and the so-called " Rembrandt 
light." Bosboom having studied similar effects 
in nature, had observed the delicate degrees of 
values, the influence of the atmosphere, the 

radiant light which often forms the centre of the 
composition, and indeed he sometimes equalled 
the great artist's expression of these effects. 

As I have already mentioned, besides his oil 
paintings, Bosboom made many, very many water- 
colours. At first he did not employ this medium 
so frequently, but after a time the rapidity of the 
process pleased him more and more, and he found 
it to be exactly what he wanted for his studies, as 
well as for the more complete expression of his 
ideas. Sometimes he made simple sepia-sketches, 
rapidly worked out in a few lines and slightly 
washed with flat tints, which are marvellously right 
in value and express perfectly the ensemble. Mr. 
Mesdag possesses nearly a hundred of these re- 
markable works (see p. 269). 

As he grew older, Bosboom's finished water- 
colours acquired a freedom and directness of 
execution attained by very few. The architectural 
studies of his youth gave him a firmness of drawing 
and touch which allowed him to work rapidly and 
broadly, without hesitation ; and these water-colours 
of his are never superficial, but always complete, his 
delicate and deep feeling giving them a very rare 
charm. Many good examples of his mastership in 
this medium are reproduced here. An inborn 






Johannes Bosbooni 

taste showed him in the presence of nature what better than any words of mine how vastly 
to select and what to pass over. Never had important he considers this feature to be. In 
Bosboom, like many painters, the passivity of a it he refers to the celebrated Semeur by Millet, 
Kodak, but his individual spirit always guided his from which he made his beautiful etching, a 
hand, while at the same time his clever and firm print almost unique of its sort, because it is not 
touch contributed to the perfection of the whole. a copy, a translation of the picture, but an 

Another feature of his water-colours is that they admirable and extremely interesting "paraphrase" 
are never systematically transparent or heavy, as or interpretation of one great painter by another 
the result of employing too much body-colour ; equally great. Maris knew the picture as thor- 
they are just what he wants them to be— admirably oughly as it was possible for any one to, and 
suggestive. He shows an unerring taste, seldom compared it with another by Millet representing the 
found nowadays, in the art of balancing his subject, same subject. Before analysing these two works, 
o{ (ormmg ih& mise-en-page ; thus it happens that he writes some lines about the French artist him- 
in all his works there are neither empty spaces, self, which are of so much interest that I may be 
nor disproportions of light and shade. On the excused for quoting them : — 

contrary, every dark spot corresponds to propor- " Millet always gave me the impression of being 

tionate masses of light, so that if an inch or two of of a very despondent nature ; he began as what 
the composition were taken 
away, the effect of the en- 
semble would be destroyed. 
But it was not without 
much earnest striving that 
the painter attained to these 
results. He was often ex- 
ceedingly depressed, as I 
have said above, by the 
difficulties of his art, and 
if he had a right notion of 
his worth, he knew also 
how very hard it is to 
struggle towards compara- 
tive perfection. 

This question of compo- 
sition, of mise-en-page, is 
considered by the " masters 
of The Hague " to be the 
starting-point of their pic- 
tures. Nowadays many 
artists are satisfied with 
" impressions," which how- 
ever cleverly and tastefully 
done, remind one of in- 
stantaneous photography. 
Having made many etch- 
ings after works by Jacob 
Maris, Israels, Mauve, and 
others, I have had occa- 
sion to notice how the lineal 
equilibrium in those works 
is as perfect as their gamut 
of values, however hidden 
it is behind the colour. A 
letter which Matthew Maris 
once wrote to me shows 

A street" • BY J. liOSBOOM 

( By permission of Messrs. Thos. Agnew &= Sons and Messrs. IVallis 6^ Son) 

Johan7ies Bosbooni 



they call a good painter, a colourist. But then 
began the struggle between matter and spirit, and 
he very rarely succeeded in what he wanted ; 
the heaviness of his men and women were his 
own burden that he put into them, and not the 
burden of those he painted, because his paintings 
would have been neither more nor less than 
still-life copies or imitations of what he saw before 

" There are two Semeurs by him in the world ; the 
same man, the same action, the same ground, 
oxen, etc. ; and I had always heard that the two 
pictures were exactly the same ; but when I saw a 
reproduction of the second, I saw that it was 
nothing more than a little print, a man sowing 
seed. Perhaps the canvas is bigger, but Millet has 
only made a little picture of this subject. Why 
now is the other one a masterpiece ? Is it because 
the man is sowing seed ? and is quite naturally 
represented ? Nature has nothing to do with it ! 
It is Millet himself, the individual, the blind 
follower of his own nature. It is the line, and not 
the peasant ! Vou begin with his hat, his face 
turned towards the other side, and you come to the 
shoulder and outstretched arm ; then you get his 
body and his outstretched leg. Now you come to 
the line of the ground, sloping from left to right, 

counterbalanced by the animals and the line of the 
clouds from right to left, and there is the whole 
thing ! ^Slost people, when looking at it, think of 
nature, but they cannot understand his nature, 
hidden like a strange language." 

These words of a most refined and poetic artist, 
who is at the same time an instinctive philosopher 
in art, show clearly the extreme importance that 
he attaches to the idea of composition, a feeling 
and a principle common to his brothers and to 
Mauve, Bosboom, and others, as well as to him. 
The careful balancing of the line and of masses of 
light and shade, does not at all prevent freshness 
and liveliness of expression, as the works of those 
artists show ; it has to be simply a starting-point, 
coming from feeling, taste; and reflection. 

I have had the advantage of knowing Bosboom 
well, and though he has been dead several years 
now, I shall always remember his remarkably dis- 
tinguished personality. He had much the look of 
one of those ancient noblemen painted by Van 
1 )yck or Moro ; his inborn courtesy and elegance, 
his perfect manners, made him resemble some 
proud knight of bygone centuries. Being fully 
conscious of his qualities as a painter, he had the 
pride and the frankness to say, and sometimes to 
write, what he thought of his own work. Very 


Johannes Bosbooni 

characteristic in this respect is the anecdote told 
by Mr. Gram, a Dutch publicist, who wrote a little 
book on Dutch painters. Being a friend of the 
artist, he paid him a visit when he had been struck 
down by an attack of paralysis, a little while before 
his death. He found him lying on a chaise-lotigue 
in a corner of his room, his left hand motionless 
on the rug which partly covered him, his right hand 
moving nervously. The sun penetrated the room 
through the carefully shut blinds, casting glittering 
lights here and there. Bosboom had just received 
some photographic reproductions of water-colours 
of his, belonging to a well-known collector, which 
attained high prices some years later, at a sale at 
Pulchri Studio at The Hague. Bosboom asked 
that the photos should be held so that he could see 
them well, but complained of too little light, ex- 
claiming like the dying Goethe : " Meer licht ! " 
Then, when the blind was opened, he cried out : 
" Look ! look ! what a water-colour ! " 

It was a view of the Scheveningen beach, broadly 
done, like all his best works. His eyes began to 

sparkle, and he continued to praise the drawing, 
asking for the other photograph. This represented 
one of those Burgomaster's rooms of the seven- 
teenth century, into which he had introduced some 
figures, giving life to the picture and making of it 
a perfect reconstruction of the epoch. " What do 
you say of this ? " he said, in a voice thrilling with 
emotion, to Mr. Gram, who had asked him : " Did 
you see something like that?" "See, see!" said 
Bosboom, with contempt, "That's like the question 
of an art-critic, who said to me, ' Have you made 
new sketches again ? ' Sketches ! — no, such things 
are visions, that's creation, that's art ! " And the 
artist, notwithstanding his crippled state, was happy 
for a while, living again in his work. 

Although Bosboom has already taken an impor- 
tant place in the Dutch school of the nineteenth 
century, by the side of Israels, Mauve, and the 
brothers Maris, he is not fully appreciated beyond 
the boundaries of his fatherland, and even here 
his works are too little known. May these few 
words serve to fix attention upon him as on one of 


( By permission of Messrs. Thos. Agnew Ssr' Sons and Messrs. IVallis iS^ Son) 


H . riiik^Jies-Stauton 




if*j' ^ 

(J: "-• 

A BRUGES STUDY ( Mcsdag Collection) 



If the French axiom be true that 
Le pay sage est nn etat de rdme it seems 
pretty certain that the training of the 
modern realist leaves him but poorly 
equipped on the more poetic or imagi- 
native side of his art. Not that the 
impressionists admit the fact. We 
know their doctrines. Since Monet 
painted the same hayrick seven (or 
was it seventeen?) times, declaring 
that light is the subject of all pictures, 
landscape painters may be said to have 
been e.xclusively occupied with the 
problems oi plein air. But much water 
has flowed under the bridge since 
Monet's day. We no longer make a 
fetish of the "god of things as they 
are." The new language has been 
acquired. We speak it freely. Habit 
has accustomed us to a certain scien- 
tific realism in the least pretentious 
canvas. What we begin to look for is 
not so much a glib expression of 
manual dexterity, of which at the 

the most complete, power- 
ful, and distinguished 
artists of his country, 
whose name will certainly, 
as long as true art is under- 
stood and appreciated, 
stand among the very best 
of his time. 

Ph. Zilcken. 

[We desire to express our 
indebtedness to Messrs. 
Boussod, Valadon tS: Co., 
of The Hague, for their 
courtesy in permitting us 
to reproduce numerous 
interesting examples of 
Bosboom's work to serve as 
illustrations to the foregoing 
article. — The Editor.] 

V {^<^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| 




wr. •d'J=V-^S _.-< 



H. Hughes-Stanton 

present moment we are a trifle tired, but for 
qualities which lie beneath the surface. Nor do 
I think I am using too forcible an expression when 
I say that it is personality, and personality alone, 
which makes a work of art, for it is certain that no 

if the classic bent of his mind, the academic trend 
of his art formula, is one of its chief charms, it 
is so because he has learnt only what a modern 
should learn at the feet of his great forbears. 
Tricks of manner are empty things, and can be 

picture was ever great that is simply great in acquired, as we know, by third-rate painters. What 

mechanical excellence. is more difficult to absorb is the restraint, the reti- 

When we come to consider the precise qualities cence, the something large and immutable which 

which go to make a great landscape we tread on belongs to the practice, and is seen in the output 

more difficult ground. Imagination, an eye for of our English masters of landscape, 
line, style, the grand manner — all these things are The personal history of Mr. Hughes-Stanton 

necessary, but still more necessary is that some- ■ can be given in a dozen lines. The second son 

thing fluid in the soul of the painter which makes of William Hughes, the still-life painter, Mr. H. 

it possible for him to communicate his mood and Hughes-Stanton was born in Chelsea in 1870, and 

his emotion to the spectator. Now I do not think grew up, as small boys will, a jealous observer of 

f"V ^whPiO^' 

I am exaggerating when I say that it is this precise 
gift which makes the work of Mr. Hughes-Stanton 
somewhat different from that of his contemporaries. 
An habitual exhibitor at the Salon, and well versed 
in the creeds of the more audacious //?/'/? air schools, 
he would seem to leave these experimenters to their 
feats while he proceeds on 
the even tenour of his way. 
A strange serenity would 
seem to be his by birth- 
right. He appears to be 
absolutely undisturbed by 
the fret and fume and un- 
rest of an empirical age. 
The great solemnity, the 
hush, a something of the 
impassive dignity of nature 
is seen in the least of his pic- 
tures. He forces nothing, 
he insists on nothing. He 
bothers the onlooker with 
no theories of the manner 
of laying on pigment. He 
has no new harassing tech- 
nique to exploit, wo trick of 
lighting to ventilate. Stand- 
ing a little apart, yet quite 
unconscious of the attitude, 
he would seem rather to 
be absorbed in studying 
and assimilating the Great 
Problem than in showily 
demonstrating his clever- 
ness in delineating nature. 
A student steeped in the 
traditions of the past, there 
is, if I may make use of a 
paradox, a curious moder- 
nity in his classicism. For 

his father's methods. Not that the coming land- 
scape painter was educated with a view to his 
adopting the fine arts as a profession. Business, 
journalism, music, and I know not what other 
metiers were in turn suggested and considered. And 
all might have gone well in the eyes of the more 




^ o 

^ < 

H O 

D D 

O X 



H. FliigJies-Staiiton 

prudent of his advisers had not tlie youngster taken 
the matter of his future career into his own hands. 
I think it was on Wimbledon Common, with a 
canvas and paint-box borrowed from his father's 
studio, that the lad made his first direct attack on 
Nature. Study after study followed, and when the 
first initial difficulties had been overcome the 
impulse to express himself on canvas proved irre- 
sistible. Nor was the lad amenable to any influence, 
direct or indirect, saving that of the great masters. 
At the present day he recalls with amusement 
a painful little scene of his boyhood. It appears 
he had carried one of his landscapes to his 
father, who, always conscientious and exacting, 
undertook to explain the woik's defects as he 
painted over a part of the canvas. " But that 
was not what I meant to express ! " exclaimed the 
still more exacting pupil, as, bursting into a flood 
of tears, he erased his father's corrections. 

Tears were not the weapons with which Mr. 
Hughes-Stanton fought the world a little later in 
life, though many were the hardships and difficulties 
he had to encounter. Not that he was unappre- 
ciated. If there was danger in the outset of the 
landscape-painter's start in life, it was that he 
seemed to win his honours too easily. His first 
important picture, called A Peep at the Aran, 
loohini^ towards Amberlev, was probably one of 

the most distinctive works seen at the Institute of 
Painters in Oil Colours in 1890. It is true that 
some of the critics preached the painter a little 
sermon on taking " a darkened Constable for a 
model." Others, however, saw a likeness to De Wint 
in the canvas, and still others a reminiscence 
of Creswick and Ruysdael. Made conspicuous 
by these somewhat incongruous strictures, the 
picture was the subject of a veritable furore. 
Especially noticed by leading journals, it is safe 
to say that few painters under twenty years 
of age have been so brought into prominence by 
an initial work. Clinging to the same noble Sussex 
scenery, the artist next year painted an upright 
canvas called The Valley of the Arun^ while an 
even more important work was seen in Arundel 
Castle. Another romantic theme, which occupied 
a prominent place at the Institute in 1891, was 
Struggling Light. It represents a lonely upland 
with a shepherdess tending her flock as an empty 
hay wain winds slowly over the hill. To the right 
a vast plain stretches towards the horizon, over 
which the light breaks dramatically through a bank 
of gathering clouds. 

In another vein was the essay in topaz and opal 
called In Winter's Grasp, which Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton exhibited in the summer of 1893. The 
subject is a frosty landscape, in which an ice-bound 










H. Hughes-Stautoii 



(In the Luxefnbotirg) 


'sand dunes, DANNES camiers" 

{In the Luxembourg) 


































H. Hiighes-Stanton 



(By permission oi' IV. Cleaver, Esq. ) 

brook, cradled by the frozen fields, 
stretches a cold finger to the distant 
woods. The moment is late afternoon, 
and the grey skies are touched by the 
rays of the dying sun. Weeding after 
Rain and The Mill in tlic Valley both 
preceded the important picture called 
The Garden of England, in which, 
laking a typical English theme, Mr. 
Hughes-Stanlc^n depicted a hop-garden 
overlooking the famous weald of Kent. 
I should mention that the essay called 
The Mill in the Valley was first seen in 
the Grafton Gallery in 1894, and subse- 
<iuently in the Salon of 1895. Tn the 
Champs Elyse'es also was shown the 

s[M'rited work entitled Un Bourrasque, a sudden rushing 
st(jrm which the artist had seen in Sussex and en- 
deavoured to render in the somewhat difficult medium 
of oils. It was highly praised by the French critics, 
who, while finding certain faults with the painting, did 
nut hesitate to hail the young Englishman as a true 
follower of the great school of Constable. Seen the 
same year, a Lever die Soleil excited less comment, 
though its serener graces were not without admirers. 

The work called The Mill was, like Un Bourrast/ue, 
exhibited on its completion in Paris, where its lowering 
( louds and rain-swept stretch of .sodden earth appealed 
to the lovers of realism in landscape. Even more attrac- 
tive, because at once more decorative and more modern 
in sj)irit, was A Spring Pastoral, a poetic effort exhibited 
in the Royal Academy in 1903, and kindly lent for 



(By ferniisiion of W. Clearer, Esq.) 


H. Hughes-Stanton 

reproduction in these pages. The Mouth of the Exe, 
from above Exmouth, Devon, was another landscape 
conceived on large decorative lines, and showed the 
artist, perhaps for the first lime, expressing himself 
in those distinctive terms to which he has now 
accustomed us. A picture of the same year, 
bought by the Bradford Corporation and seen at 
the Institute, was Evening Twilight: Stiidland, 
Dorset, a subtle study of aerial effects treated with 
a masculine breadth of statement. Turning his 
hand to pastels in the year 1904 we find the artist 
exhibiting four works at the Pastel Society : Through 
the Rain; Black Hill, Exmouth, Devon; and 
Sunrise and Sunset. A signal honour was con- 
ferred on the painter the same summer, for the 
French Government bought his rendering of 
Poole Harbour, which was exhibited at the old 
Salon. Entitled Port de Dorset, Angleterre, the 
picture is now to be seen at the Musee du 
Luxembourg, where another of the artist's land- 
scapes has recently found a home. The latter 
canvas, called Sand Dunes, Dannes Camiers, shows 
the artist in one of his rare decorative moods— a 
subtle blending of strength and quietude, qualities 
which make Mr. Hughes-Stanton's work seem more 
serene and more monumental than we are accustomed 

to on this side of the Channel. Hung in the New 
Gallery in the spring of 1906, and in the Salon the 
following year, the picture attracted so much 
attention in the Champs Elysees that it was con- 
sidered imperative to acquire it for the French 
nation. I should not forget to say that Hampstead 
Heath : a view looking to7vards Highgate, and The 
Lighthouse, Etaples, were efforts of the preceding 
year and were exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
the latter picture finding its way to the International 
Exhibition at Venice. 

Of other important pictures by Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton there is little space to speak. Through the 
Rain was recently seen at the New Gallery, Corfe 
Castle at Burlington House, and The Pas de Calais 
(depicting a sandy common, a long line of shadowed 
trees, and the silvery stretch of La Canche) at the 
Institute. The Sand Dunes, Pas-de-Calais, another 
conspicuous work exhibited in Regent Street, is 
conceived with subtle individuality and insight. 
Setting aside the question of scale, and the abiUty 
with which the lighting of the middle distance is 
managed, the delicacy and restraint of the colour 
scheme is remarkable. Of equally rare beauty 
is The Gorge, Fofitainebleau, a canvas exhibited 
in the New Gallery last year, and purchased 


(By permission of G. McCulloch, Esq.) 


F. V. Bur ridge, R.E. 



by Mr. George McCuUoch for his collection in 
Queen's Gate. 

I have spoken of the originality of Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton's treatment of middle distances, and no 
better example of his peculiar dexterity in the 
matter of line can be given than in his recent 
show of water-colours at the Leicester Galleries. 
The adventure — for he had hitherto done little 
water-colour — arose chiefly, I imagine, from a 
tour the painter took with a small party of brother 
artists in Spain. No formal sojourn could have 
been happier in its results, for this sketching raid 
gave him just the opportunity he wanted. The 
halts in the journey were brief, so only the most 
direct impressions could be recorded. They were 
given with a freshness and spontaneity truly 
astonishing. For in these drawings Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton, with his innate feeling for style, his some- 
what formalised trees and classic skies, manages to 
convey the charm wliich lies in austeritw It is 
the charm which belongs above all others to the 
Peninsula, and in the artist's poetic generalisations 
in water-colour we seem to breathe the ver\- atmos- 
phere of northern Spain. M. H. D. 

Herr Richard Lux, whose &\.z\\\v\g, Persenburg on 
ihe Danube, we reproduced as a coloured supple- 
ment in November, desires us to state that the 
Gesellschaft fiir Vtrvielfaltigende Kunst, \'ienna, 
are the owners of the {)lale. 




Mr. Burridge is the Principal of the Liver- 
pool City School of Art, a position of great 
responsibility, which he has held for some time, 
and for the past twelve years he has been a member 
of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. During 
that period he has been a regular but not very 
prolific exhibitor in the Gallery in Pall Mall, and 
though he has obtained recognition, and is known 
to those who study the progress of this fascinating 
art in England, he has not, I think, obtained that 
position in popular favour as an etcher to which his 
great merits fairly entitle him. Of all Mr. Frank 
Short's numerous pupils he is probably the most 
distinguished, and .several of his plates rank very 
high in contemporary etching. 

In order to be really successful an etcher must 
possess a combination of three qualities : he must 
be a master of the process and an original artist, 
with a personal note of his own, and he must also 
be proficient in adai)ting the process to his own 
methods of selection and expression. To do this 
he must be always experimenting, and in these 
conditions, as experiments are not always success- 
ful, it is only fair to judge him by his best. 

The easiest kind of etching is the least distracting, 
namely, the almost mechanical reproduction of a 


F. V. Burrid^e, R.E. 





1 ■;. ,^y-^ because we ought not to 

/ .liA'l . !^' J care whether the etcher is a 

man or a woman, young or 
old, busy or idle, a pupil of 
the Slade school or a police- 
man ; but it is impossible to 
deny that it makes a great 
difference to most people to 
know whether an artist whose 
work they have not previously 
seen has good credentials. 
An ordinary man inclined 
to buy The Dockyard Smithy 
would be biassed by being 
told that it was honoured by 
a medal at the Paris Exhi- 
bition, and a collector would 
hasten to secure the last 
proof of A Spring Afternoon, 
not because it is one of the 
most charming little etchings 

painting or drawing; the most difficult is the direct executed in this country during the present genera- 
interpretation of nature, when the composition, the tion, but because the plate has been lost and no 

design, and the relative values of the bitten lines more impressions of it can be obtained. 

have to be determined upon 

in face of the multitudinous 

details and shifting effects 

of natural landscape, lit by 

sunlight and harmonised 

by a thousand blended 


It is to solve the pro- 
blems presented in this 

branch of art that Mr. 

Burridge has, in his scanty 

leisure, more particularly 

applied himself, and as we 

study the proofs of his 

plates we pay him our first 

tribute by wondering if they 

can really have been done 

in the open air. Accepting 

this as the fact, we pass on 

to find in them something 

of the mysterious charm of 

nature, most of which must 

always be lost in fixing an 

impression, especially with- 
out colour : and then, being 

])leased by his pictures, we 

feel interested in finding 

DUt why we are pleased, 
md what their intrinsic 

merits are. I say intrinsic, 




F. y. Buryid^e, R.E. 

. L ' '^^^^V-^vA 


Wi.^. , . 



Mr. Burridge, then, is a safe man to admire : he 
has received an excellent training under the best 
master, he knows the various processes as only a 
teacher can know them, and he has long passed the 
probationary period of his career, although the 
total number of his plates does not exceed about 
fifty. He has done some delicate dry-points and 
etchings of figure subjects, but the nine proofs of 
landscape subjects which we are able to reproduce 
are more characteristic and amongst his best, and 
show by what paths, at present at any rate, his 
genius is leading him. It is, perhaps, useless to 
refer to other plates which are not shown, but his 
Lancaster^ a fine landscape of the same type as 
Harlech, is already known to readers of The 
Studio ; and Traelh Bach ought not to be omitted 
in any mention of this artist's work. Amongst the 
illustrations the proof of A Spring Afternoon, to 
which allusion has already been made, was printed 
by the etcher. The plate is very small, only five 
inches by three and a half, but in my opinion it 
exhibits great qualities often found wanting in 

large plates of better known men. The treatment 
is original, the means used are economical, and 
the atmospheric effect, which is given by lines and 
not ink-tones, is successful beyond the ordinary. 
The lines on the windmill are of very great 
delicacy, and where there is foul-biting it seems 
intentional. Very different are The Pride oj 
North Devon and Wisht Weather, which are large, 
elaborate, and carefully thought out. Bideford is 
the origin of both. The most striking thing about 
them is their atmospheric effect and the treatment 
of the sky. I do not know any other etcher who 
has devoted such serious attention to this difficult 
problem of the sky. Harlech has a thunderstorm 
and a rainbow in it : a study near Appledore is 
well described as Thunder Weather, and a similar 
one near Morecambe Bay may also be recalled by 
those who make an annual pilgrimage to Pall Mall. 
Harlech is technically a very good plate, as 
indeed they all are, but apart from that it forms a 
romantic and beautiful picture which is not open 
to tlie criticism so often heard that it does not 


F. V. Burridf^e, R.E. 

explain itself, or is "unfinished." There is nothing 
hasty or ill-considered about it, although it is full 
of boldness and vigour and must have been actually 
etched in a fine frenzy of enthusiasm. Wisht 
Weather K a less beautiful subject, but The Pride of 
North Devon, which was in the Paris Exhibition, 
is equal to Harlech in this particular quality. 

Sand-grain is used on this plate very judiciously. 
After the plate is grounded or re-grounded, a piece 
of sand-paper is rubbed over the surface where a 
tone is required, and the marks made are bitten in 
the usual way. The same effect may sometimes 
be given by aquatint, by the roulette, or by 
foul-biting, but whichever is used the risk of 
making the plate appear muddy, confused or lazy 
is considerable. There is little or no grain or tint 
in the engraving of the plate exhibited last year — 
The Marsh Farm, which Mr. Burridge always 
prints himself. It is instructive to note that he is 
one of the very few who are really capable of 
printing their own plates as well as or better than 
professional printers, and that he prefers to print 

himself those which seem to require sj)ecial 
attention. Amongst these are The Old Shipyard, 
At Loivest Ebb, Willows in the Marsh, A Spring 
Afternoon, Bidcford Bridge, Wisht Weather, 
Morfa, Harlech, and Evening on the Yore. 

In printing this proof of The Marsh Farm he 
has left a slight trace of ink on the plate to suggest 
the dreary wind and coming rain, but it is almost 
a pity, as the etched work needs no assistance of 
this kind, however useful it may be in some cas2s, 
perhaps in most. 

The plate is a very fine one from every point of 
view, and it should increase Mr. Burridge's reputa- 
tion. It has no local interest such as must ever 
be inseparable from such a subject as Bideford 
Bridge ; it has no horseman, no girl with a pail, 
and no geese, but this only leaves us at liberty to 
admire the delicacy of the distance and the glory 
of the sky behind the shivering trees. 

The Dockyard Smithy, which won the bronze 
medal, and The Little Smithy are of a different 
sort. The former is difficult, dashing, and original : 












F. V. Bitrridge, R.E. 



interesting without being beautiful, and characteristic- 
of Mr. Burridge's impetuosity and daring without 
resembhng his other plates. The latter has only one 
fault, and that is that it looks as if it might have been 
etched almost, if not quite, as well by at least two- 
other contemporary artists. Otherwise it is as nice 
as can be. The subject has attracted many to attempt 
it, and no one has done it better. In fact it is a 
model study, and will doubtless send many beginners 
to the workshop : but beautiful as it is it does not 
declare itself to be the work of the maker of The 
Alarsh Farm. It was done as an experiment in 
getting all the values by crosshatching, so that the 
etching could be carried through in one biting. With 
the exception of a few lines in the foreground this 
plan was carried out, and it is a brilliant example of 
technical accuracy. 

Another study, Patriarchs, is less interesting as a 
picture, as it is merely a finished etching of trees 
in full foliage, but it is solid and well thought out.. 
Tlie Alill ill the Wirral, a small plate, attracts us 
much more : it has more originality and life, and 
certain elements of sketchiness, and hints of accidents 
and bits of overbiting, and daring shadows which 
capture the fancy, as tired of the perfect as of the- 
uncouth. It is one of the moot points, whether an- 
etching ought ever to be perfect, in the sense that 
Palmer's and David Law's were perfect, or whether it 
ought to be content to be suggestive ; it is certain,, 
however, that an etching ought not to be uncouth, or- 




Lester G. Hornby s Sketches 

tininteresting, or hesitating. Judged by his best 
half-dozen plates Mr. Burridge stands high. He 
is a facile draughtsman with an unusual power of 
representing sympathetically the dignity and rich- 
ness of nature in stormy and in quiet moods. He 
strikes a personal note, and without belonging to 
any particular school he seems, to my mind, to 
reconcile two opposing ideas, the suggestive and 
the pictorial. His plates are certainly not too 
suggestive, and if they were too pictorial they 
would, I imagine, be more eagerly bought. They 
are known to and admired by all etchers, and will 
become better known and more appreciated as 

tmie goes on. 




Most readers of The Studio will doubtless 
remember the pen and pencil work of this young 

American draughtsman, for numerous examples of 
it have already appeared in our pages. Since he 
came over from Boston a year or two ago his 
pencil has been busily employed in noting places 
of interest in England and elsewhere. 

Mr. Hornby's drawings show appreciation of the 
properties of lead pencil. He selects his point of 
view and emphasises certain portions of his draw- 
ings with the skill of one accustomed to look at 
things to impressionistic ends. He understands 
the character of the things he draws ; for instance, 
in the sketch of Blackwall Reach, a knowledge is 
shown of shipping craft, which gives meaning to the 
necessary simplification in a scene of much detail. 
In their character generally these drawings are 
matter of fact and precise, whilst still suggestive 
of the movement of London street and wharf 
scenes. The artist is apparently not limited in his 
range of subject, and by varying his method of 
using the pencil he avoids a monotony which is 
often common in this class of work. 


■• ' A Chester Street " 

Fiom the pencil drawing by Lester G. Hornby 

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'« (?W Builditigs at Chester 
From the pencil drawing by- 
Lester G. Hornby 

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London.'''' Frofn the pencil dra-Ming 
iy Lester G. Hornby 


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'■ -S'^. Martin i le Grana in the City of 
London.''' From the pencil drawing 
by Lester G. Hornby 




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An American Country House 

it interesting as a whole, 
handling of 






As in his designs for mosaic or for 
enamel or for glass, or indeed for any decorative 
problem, Mr. Louis C. 
Tiffany, of New York, 
thinks for himself in mat- 
ters architectural. As a 
painter he has gone to 
nature in studying how to 
build and to enrich his 
house and grounds out on 
Long Island, at Cold Spring 
Harbour. The skilful 
subtlety of his expression 
reveals a sensitive and a 
sympathetic personality. It 
is to be seen here in the 
selection of his materials, 
which are generally of the 
commonest description and 
at the service of any of us. 
It is seen, too, in the direct 
and remarkable use he 
makes of them, and the 
manner in which he rele- 

gates a plant or a flower to a place usually 
held by ornament of architectural signifi- 
cance, and again in the frequent refusal 
to be controlled by the harsh rule and 
iron despotism of classic precedent. He 
often sweeps away academic adornment 
as mere swaddling-clothes, and lets the 
building stand free of added trimmings, 
trusting to proportion and to line to make 

In the adroit 
his materials he has so- 
adjusted the accent as to retain a proper 
relation between the ornamental parts, 
and in this way preserves the sanctifying 
influence of plain surfaces so essential to 
the independence, and sometimes to the 
very life, of each element. This he has 
succeeded in doing without caprice or 
affectation and often unconsciously. 

There is an Oriental note in the house ; 
it is to be found in the tower in the 
entrance, and perhaps most of all in the 
court. The court is the centre of every- 
thing here ; from it the main rooms, the 
terrace, and the hanging garden radiate. 
Yes, the court is very beautiful I And 
yet with all its grandeur, its large white- 
pillars backed with quaint arabesques of pine-trees, 
its marble pavements, its costly rugs and velvets, 
its balconies, and its purple awning hanging high- 
suspended from the roof, it is to the fountain, 
half-hidden by plants and flowers of charming^ 



An American Couutrv House 



= 95 

An American Country House 

the walls. Some of the 
cedars are seventy feet high. 
The general tone of the 
living-room is grey-green ; 
and the ingle-nook reaches 
half-way across the room. 
The fire is literally on the 
hearth, without recess or 
jambs to bewilder the smoke 
from the logs burning upon 
it. The dining-room is a 
study of blue and rose, its 
walls being covered with 
plain coloured canvas, re- 
lieved only by a frieze m 
white and silver-grey. 

The house is interesting 
as one of the first to be 
erected since the newly 
awakened sense of decency 
in country house building. 
It illustrates the value of 
local possibilities, and shows 
colour, that we naturally turn as we enter. The that progress is not always to be made by the 
fountain is a vase of clear glass standing free in adaptation of the good things from across the sea. 


an octagonal tank of marble. By some 
hidden means the water enters at the 
bottom of the vase and overflows at 
the top, passing thence by a shallow 
channel of marble out on to the terrace. 

The house stands on a foundation 
wall of concrete, which comes up to the 
height of the sill of the main windows, 
:uid is very wide and massive. The 
superstructure — of stucco on a frame of 
wood — sets back, leaving a wide ledge 
on the top of the concrete. This forms 
a continuous base to the upper part of 
the house, and is so adjusted that as it 
runs round it intersects with the terrace- 
walls and the hanging garden, tying all 
together. A copper trough counter- 
sunk into the ledge contains soil for 
plants. The roof of the house is of 
copper, which, by means of acid, is turned 
a beautiful bluish-green. The general 
tone of the walls is cool grey. 

The native woods of chestnut, tulip 
oak, sassafras, and cedar are thick in 
[places with the wild azalea, the mountain 
laurel, the honeysuckle, the trailing 
arl)utu?, and the yellow violet. They 
flourish. And their superb lace -like 
shadows tone the rough sand finish of 

S. H. 



Prof. L'augers Gardens at Mannheiui 





A STRANGE fact in connection with the 
modern movement in German arts and crafts is that 
it has been brought about by rank outsiders, who 
so far from receiving the support of those engaged 
in the various trades, have encountered, and still en- 
counter, the strongest opposition from those quarters. 
If we are able now to speak of German " Kunst- 
gewerbe," we owe it entirely to a small group of 
sculptors and painters who perceived what the need 
of our age was, and with the impetuous enthusiasm 
of youthful world-reformers took the field against 
deceptions and senseless imitations of all kinds. 

And now after the lapse of a few years the same 
thing is taking place in regard to garden design, 
and here, too, it is the painters and architects who 
demand an abandonment of the usages hitherto in 
vogue and call for an arrangement of the garden at 
once more rational and in accordance with the 
spirit of the times. Again, too, are the reformers 
vigorously assailed by the professional specialists 
as presumptuous, officious disturbers of the peace. 
The average gardener of the present day does, 
indeed, claim to be " modern " and to go with the 
times when he plans his much-loved carpet flower- 


beds in " Jugend-Stil,"' and, instead of repeating 
once more the eternal star pattern, allows the noto- 
rious " Belgian line '' to disturb the wonted order- 
liness of his beds. But it never enters his head 
that this sort of thing only proves how irrational and 
incapable of understanding the deeper meaning of 
the movement he is when he sets himself against 
these endeavours to put an end to unnatural, 
ridiculous imitation. He swears by the naturalistic 
garden. How ludicrous is the idea of trying to 
imitate an endless stretch of landscape in a small 
confined space does not occur to him, and the con- 
tention that house and garden should be treated 
as parts of a coherent whole seems to him absurd. 
Often indeed it looks very much as though the 
gardener, witli his tortuous paths running this way 
and that way, had taken pains to avoid contact with 
the house wherever possible, as if wishing to 
proclaim that house and garden are separate and 
distinct. That the peculiarities of the site may 
call for study, and that the form of the garden may 
depend on the position of the house to which it is 
an adjunct — such obvious considerations as these he 
fails to grasp, and that is why he rises up in arms 
against those who wish to bring about a change. 

In years gone by the early pioneers in the arts 
and crafts, after overcoming untold difficulties, had 












■■ > 











H— 1 









Prof. Lauger s Gardens at Mannheiiu 

perforce to demonstrate iheiraims and powers at exhi- 
bitions, to which they were onlygrudgingly admitted, 
for no opportunities for practical work were open 
to them. It is the same with the garden architect 
who pursues the new aims. In order to demon- 
strate his ideas he has to rely on exhibitions. But 
all exhibition gardens, such as those we have 
seen at Dresden, Diisseldorf, Oldenburg, Darm- 
stadt, and quite recently on a large scale at 
Mannheim, have iheir weak side. What they lack 
is the house, and with it the possibility of proving 
in the most convincing way that house and garden 
together form an organic unity, which is the point 
of chief significance. The artists who undertake 
the laying-out of exhibition gardens must therefore 
at the outset confine themselves to showing what 
the possibilities are of so blending the architectural 
features with the botanical and plastic decorations 
as to make a properly co-ordinated, harmonious 
whole, and to giving suggestions and hints. 

Thus it was with Prof. Max Lauger at the recent 
Horticultural Exhibition at Mjnnheim. In a series 
of fifteen gardens, each independent of the others, he 
proved anew that the fantasy of the creative artist 
may disclose numberless possibilities undreamt of 

by the professional gardener with all his wisdom. 
These fifteen separate gardens enabled him to 
create a series of pictures capable of multitudinous 
variations and to effectively carr)- out a diversity of 
ideas. Thus, in one case (page 302), certain kinds 
of trees, such as birches, silver poplars and maple- 
trees, were disposed in groups on grassy plots in 
such a way as to emphasize their characteristic 
growth and coloration ; in another he selected a 
single colour for the entire garden, achieving a 
harmonious gradation of tone by a shrewd selec- 
tion of flowers ; in yet another, animation was 
imparted to broad stretches of grass by beds of 
gaily-coloured flowers ; but in all cases he studi- 
ously avoided everything trivial and fantastic, and 
aimed to produce the quiet, restful effects incidental 
to broad expanses. Thus he divided the garden 
where the huge bronze figure of an elk forms the 
crowning feature, into two equal-sized grass plots 
embracing a flower-carpet of varied hues. Rows 
of maples were planted leading to the figure, while 
encircling it was a line of shrubs or flowering under- 
shrubs, the whole being surrounded by a massive 
wall, interrupted only by the trellis intended for 
climbing plants. What could be simpler ? 





I— ( 





CO tn 

O W 

Prof. Laiigers Gardens at Mannheim 



The bath-house (see above and p. 299) formed 
the central point of the entire scheme. The idea 
of the architect was to provide the possessor 
with the amenities of open-air bathing combined 
with the aesthetic gratification afforded by the 
garden environment. In addition to a domed 
apartment which serves as a bath-room, the house 
CDntains a comfortably equipped dressing-room 
and a pleasant sitting-room. Communication 
with the outside bath, which is a rectangular 
basin without covering, is through a forecourt, 
the columns of which, like the entrance - lobby, 
are decorated with brightly - coloured Lauger 

The two rose-gardens which Professor Lauger 
designed for the exhibition (see pp. 298, 300 ) were 
additional to the fifteen above mentioned, and were 
intended less as adjuncts to a dwelling-house than 
as independent ornamental gardens. In that to 
the left of the main entrance (p. 300) the 
effect, as carried out, in spite of the almost 
perplexing display of architectural accessories, 
is much more subdued than would appear from 
the drawing. This result was reached by varying 

the level of the ground in difterent parts of the 
garden, in consequence of which they appeared 
to be more sharply divided than if they had been 
of uniform level. Thus the innermost portion 
with the fountain was on the same level as the 
peripheral sections, while surrounding the inner- 
most portion the ground was raised so as to form 
a terrace from which the whole of the garden could 
be surveyed. 

Professor Lauger has without doubt provided a 
fruitful source of suggestion in these Mannheim 
gardens. But the problem of artistic garden- 
planning, as it presents itself at the present day, 
cannot be entirely solved by exhibition gardens. The 
garden which is to conform to the conditions of life 
nowadays cannot be moulded on the formal French 
garden of the 17th and i8th centuries, nor must it 
follow the garden of the so-called Biedermeyer period, 
with its flavour of sentimentalism, however much 
may be learned from them both. The condition 
which the modern garden has before all to fulfil is 
that of a pleasant out-of-door habitation, and the 
needs of everyday life must determine its develop- 
ment. L. Deubner. 














































































1— 1 















Mr. Norinmi Garstin on Stencil Cntting 


Dear Mr. Editor : — When I accepted your 

the stencil entails is even more valuable — it is the 
most severe and exacting master of simplicity. It 
teaches one how to sweep away all that is trivial and 
unnecessary ; it shows one the value of broad, flat 
tones combined with accurate drawing, and proves 

invitation to write something on the subject of my conclusively the vital importance of composition, 
stencils I had hardly realised how difficult it is to Then its power in helping us to a good selection 
speak of one's own work without falling into the bad of colour is a distinct point because, having the 
taste of a seeming egotism, or the absurdity of an drawing fixed, one can experiment until one arrives 
affected modesty, more particularly when the matter at a harmonious combination. That it is extremely 
was one of such small importance as these few delicate and difficult, and requires patience and 
essays of mine represent. Still, as you persist that neatness of handicraft, is also in its favour, for it is 
you would like me to say my say in the matter, I certainly not an artistic short cut, and is not likely 
will try and steer as simple a course as I can, but to be vulgarised by a host of cheap performers, 
first I wish to explain that these examples of mine To anyone who is so uninformed as to the pro- 
are only Christmas cards designed with the double cedure of stencilling that my advice might be of 
motive of pleasing myself with an excursion into service, I offer these few remarks, 
(to me) a new technique, and my friends with a Having chosen some simple decorative design 

little memento of good fellowship with which to you must, if you wish to work it in several colours, 
mark the calendar of our years. In this way you think out the various plates, the greatest care being 
came to have them, and if your friendship has necessary to avoid the ever-present difficulty of 
warped your judgment it is not the first time such stencil-making, which is of the same nature as that 
a thing has chanced in the history of art. which meets one when trying to cut out the letter 

You ask me to say how I do them. This O. The centre drops out and ingenuity must be 
reminds me of the Irishman who on being asked exercised so as to retain essentials without the 
how a cannon was made said, " Oh, ye jist take clumsy device of unmeaning straps. Care must 
a hole and pour iron round it." Substitute 
colour for iron and you have the stencil, but 
in both cases it is the hole wherein lies the 
difficulty. The cutting of stencils is an art 
that can be carried to almost any degree of 
delicacy, from the lettering on a packing- 
case to the delightful pictures which you 
published this summer by Herr Jungnickl, 
which seemed to possess all the qualities of 
admirable draughtsmanship with a depth 
and mystery that raised emotions untouched 
by the most intricate and beautiful pattern- 
work of the Japanese — those past masters 
in the art. 

It is this possibility of producing some- 
thing pictorial and not merely designs, admir- 
able though they be, that seems to me a 
delightful and somewhat unexplored region 
in the very closely populated art world. 
The stencil as a means of producing and 
multiplying your work has much to be said 
for it. The apparatus is so simple, — a knife 
and a few brushes (flat topped) is about all 
one wants for the old-fashioned methods — 
but with the air-brush or the syringe of 
Herr Jungnickl's method, a little more com- 
plication results. 

But the mental and artistic discipline which 




StiLdio- Talk 



air-brush, which must give very deli- 
cate results ; but the end will justify 
the means, and in art all means are 
good, because they help us to variety. 
Stencil - making requires a great 
deal of forethought, particularly with 
several plates, and a very nice pre- 
cision in fitting these together. In a 
word, to make a good stencil, one 
wants, besides a pen-knife and a 
brush, prevision and precision, some 
invention, and a lot of patience. 
If you succeed, you have produced 
;i work of art wliich you can multi- 
ply at will, but which, nevertheless, 
need never become common : for 
each example is a separate creation 
of chosen colour and tone, and will 
contain variations in proportion to 
your personality ; and this variation 
due to temperament is of the essence 
of art, and should make the collect- 
ing of stencils also an art requiring 
more than usual ronnoisseurship. 
I am. 

Yours sincerely, 

T3 Norman Garstix. 


also be taken to avoid loose and disconnected 
parts, which will rip up and break off when the 
brushwork begins. A good design is tied together 
by the very parts that render it beautiful in com- 
position. In using several plates of course the 
greatest care must be taken to make them coincide, 
but experience will show that, even when they are 
exact in edge, the brushwork either leaves an 
interval or else overlaps : therefore for this some 
allowance must be made. 

In stencil-cutting I use tough drawing-paper, lay 
it on glass, and cut with a sharp-pointed knife, 
reinforce weak, delicate parts, and paint it with 
knotting or some such varnish to further strengthen 
it. This necessity for strength of course vanishes if 
you use the air-brush or the syringe recommended 
by Herr Jungnickl : but for brushwork — and the 
brush has its charm as well as its faults — it is 
necessary to have plates of some power of resistance. 
I generally use oil colour as being more manage- 
able than water colour : but it must be used very 
sparingly, rubbing steadily until the colour gently 
stains the paper ; this leaves a very delicate edge, 
and it is possible to graduate your tones to any 
extent. I confess I have no experience of the 


(From our Own Correspondents.) 

LONDON.— The Annual Exhibition of Arts 
and Crafts at the Baillie Gallery, held 
just before Christmas, has never been 
of a higher standard. The Voysey 
room, devoted entirely to work carried out from 
designs by Mr. C. F. Voysey, and the beautiful 
display of Martin-ware made the exhibition par- 
ticularly rich in decorative work of distinction. A 
room of drawings by Miss Pamela Colman Smith 
re-introduced that artist in a new phase, or rather 
the further development of a recent phase. Her 
music pictures, which are drawn under the influence 
of music, in concert rooms and at' other times, have 
the qualities of mystery and rhythm which are derived 
from this rare source. A set of twelve etchings by 
Mr. Gordon Craig, on view in these galleries, were 
confined to plates suggesting highly imaginative 
scenes which he hopes to re-create with the illusion 
of stage-craft in the modern theatre. Meanwhile 
we are glad to see these plans preserved thus by 
plates which in themselves are of great artistic 

studio- Talk 

Foreign water-colourists are not slow to admit 
that their art originated and has found its greatest 
exponents in English hands, but there are few who 
so fervently and continuously worship the memory 
and the work of De Wint and David Cox as Signor 
Onorato Carlandi. Signor Carlandi combines the 
practice of teaching with that of painting, and 
to meet the wishes of pupils who could not 
undertake a journey to Rome, he held a class in 
Wales last summer, selecting as his headquarters 
Bettws-y-Coed, so closely associated with Cox. 
No region in the whole of the British Isles pro- 
duces such a wealth of subject, with such an 
infinity and variety of detail, whether of earth, air, 
or water : the skies a profusion of clouds, the 
heights everywhere presenting range beyond range 
of hills, the valleys a mass of luxuriant foliage, 
and the streams a rockstrewn patchwork. Great 
were the difficulties presented to the students, but 
they gave the master just the opportunity required 
to enforce the teachings of his English forerunners 
in water-colour art, and the text he again and again 
preached from was : La plus i:;rande vertu de r artiste 
dest le sacrifice. Signor Carlandi is an impres- 
sionist, but only in the sense that De ^Vint and 

Cox were in including in a picture only sufficient 
form, composition and colour as are necessary for 
a satisfying mise-en-scene. Carlandi demands that 
all these must be completed before Nature — by 
the tyro because of his ignorance away from it, 
by the professional because with his knowledge 
there is ample time in which to do so. But 
everyone is not such a rapid or audacious drafts- 
man as he, and few there are who could produce 
such a tour de force in a short day's work as the 
Moel Siabod, which we illustrate, and which is a 
water-colour with a base line of over thirty inches. 
This, with other pictures resulting from the sojourn 
in Wales, was recently on view at the Fine Art 
Society's Galleries. 

The last exhibition of the United Arts Club at 
the Grafton (jallery was a particularly successful 
one, calling attention to the amount of talent that 
is comprised in the club's membership, besides 
that displayed in the work of such well-known 
members as Messrs. John Lavery, S. J. Solomon, 
R.A., Alfred East, R.A., Walter Crane, T. Austen 
Brown, T. F. M. Sheard, F. Spenlove-Spenlove, 
Arthur Rackham, E. Borough Johnson, all of 



Studio- Talk 

which were made by Mr. Richard Garbe in some statuettes, 
also by Miss Gwendolen Williams, Mrs. Jackson Clarke and 
Miss E. A. C. Bower in a set of medallions. 

The water-colour drawing of St. Martin's Bridge, Toledo, 
by Mr. H. C. Brewer, was one of a most interesting collection 
which he exhibited a few months ago at the Fine Art Society's 
Galleries under the title of "The Cities of Spain." A long 
training in architectural drawing, combined with a mature 
feeling for colour and atmospheric effect?, gives to Mr. Brewer's 
work an interest which is more than topographical. 

The water-colours of Mr. and Mrs. Young Hunter at the 
Fine Art Society were notable on account of the novelty of 
the composition in many of the pictures and the distinctive 
features of the colouring, though just here and there perhaps 
a note of colour seemed falsely struck or artificial. These 
painters have cultivated a habit of treating their subjects in 
a style in which both seem equally at home, and they share 
an original and partly decorative way of sketching which, whilst 
making their results much alike, is not to be identified with 


1^^ Hm ^ ii 




whom were represented, and Mr. J. Craw 
hall's art by some colour prints. Lady 
members who contributed pictures particu- 
larly deserving of note were Mrs. Borough 
Johnson, Mrs. Arnesby Brown, Mrs. 
Dorothy Osborn, Mrs. M. Young Hunter, 
Mrs. Julia Creamer, Mme. Canziani, and 
the Misses A. L. Rankin, L. Defries, May 
Furness, and Flora Lion. There was an 
interesting display of jewellery by Mr. 
Paul J. Cooper, many attractive minia- 
tures by various members, and some 
sculpture, noticeable contributions to 





* '4 



studio- Talk 

any one else's work of to-day. The exhibition 
was unique and attractive in character. 

At the Bedford College for ^Vomen Mr. George 
Thomson brought together in December a loan 
collection of some sixty water-colours, including 
two remarkable examples of Cotman's art, work 
by David Cox, Harpignies, ^^'histler, Brabazon, 
Conder, Bauer, Sickert and other modern water- 
colourists of distinction. We were glad to see his 
own fine work in the medium not unrepresented. 

Mr. W. Alison Martin, whose first "one-man 
show " was recently held at the Baillie Gallery in 
Baker Street, is one of the youngest members of 
the Liverpool Academy. In 1900 he won the 
gold medal for drawing at the Liverpool School of 
Art and a travelling scholarship with which he 
went to Paris and studied under Bouguereau, 
Ferrier, and Rene Prinet. After visiting Italy 
Mr. Martin returned to England, where in 1902 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy a large 
bacchanal entitled Evoc .', and continued his 
studies under Mr. A. E. John at Liverpool. From 
his exhibition at the Baillie Gallery we reproduce 

The Pearl Gatherers, an excellent example of this 
young painter's powerful rendering of form and 
poetic treatment of the nude. 

Appreciators of the higher forms of decorative 
art always turn with confidence and pleasure to the 
productions of Mr. R. Anning Bell. We give as a 
supplement this month a reproduction of a panel 
in coloured plaster by him which was recently on 
view at the Fine Art Society's. Mr. Anning Bell 
has at times expressed himself through this medium 
with much beauty of result and with great advant- 
age in interior architecture. 

More than one gallery has of late been showing the 
coloured etchings of the modern French School. 
A large collection of these were exhibited last 
month at the Dore Gallery by Messrs. Georges 
Petit, who have placed some very successful prints 
on the market. These prints bring within the 
reach of people with the slenderest purse a form of 
art which is the closest approach to original work. 
One may perhaps say that there has never been 
placed before the public so cheap a form of good 
art. One has but to remember the vogue of the 

"the pearl gatherers' 

(In the Collection of Alfred Earl, Esq.) 






studio- Talk 


oleograph to congratulate 
the general public of to-day 
on their opportunities of 
commanding something of 
the first order for a very small 
sum. The prints of Fritz 
Thaulow have increased in 
value. It was his work that 
first familiarised the people 
of this country with the 

A painter of considerable 
gifts is Mr. Frederick Yates, 
who has been showing at 
Mr. Van Wisselingh's Gallery 
a series of canvases marked 
with a real appreciation of 
nature and developed colour 

the unusual dignity of his 
design, have placed their 
own stamp upon his work 
among that of contemporary 
artist craftsmen. The two 
works reproduced on this 
page, the overmantel and 
the design for a shrine in 
silver, gold and ivory, are 
recent products of his studio. 


The December exhibitions 
at the Leicester Gallery in- 
cluded the original drawings 
by F.dmund Dulac for the 
illustrations to Mr. Laurence 
Housman's version of "The 
Arabian Nights," and one or 
two other pictures. The 
artist's wide range of colour 
effects created a pleasing 
impression. He attains 

Mr. Alexander Fisher's 
work is prodigal of inven- 
tion : very little time passes 
between the production of 
one important work and 
another. Apparently the 
resources of his imagination 
are inexhaustible ; and the 
sincerity of his intentions, 





beauty in no small measure in the delicate 
matching and contrast of one softly-coloured 
piece of drapery with another, and in the dis- 
position of lines. In all these illustrations to 
the famous stories his women are drawn with 
careful regard for beauty, and it is only in the 
faces of the men that his treatment approaches 
the grotesque ; but on the whole he keeps this 
element within the bounds appropriate to the 

We have had occasion more than once to refer 
our readers to Miss A. M. Bauerle s work as an etcher 
for pleasantly imaginative qualities and appreciation 
of childhood. The recent plate of hers called 
A Casual Meethig, which we reproduce, is an 
attractive specimen of her art. 

Considerable progress has been made during the 
last year or two in colour photography. Many 
experimenters have been at work on different lines, 
and already some remarkable results have been 
attained. As an example of what can be done 
with a single plate, the accompanying reproduction 
of Mr. Alvin Langdon Coburn's " autochrome " 
photograph of Miss Lillah McCarthy, the actress, 
will, we are sure, interest our readers, whether they 
have followed recent developments or not. Our 
reproduction is, of course, 
made from the trans- 
parency itself, no means 
having yet been found of 
taking a print from one of 
these plates. 

Mr. Nelson Dawson has lately made somewhat 
of a departure in the technique of jewellery work 
in his treatment of enamel and gold. For his 
purpose he has invented an especial ground of 
precious metal which has given him rare results in 
brilliancy of colour, whilst forming a safe base for 
the enamel. Mr. Dawson has thus surmounted 
two of the greatest difficulties in the art of the 
goldsmith, and visitors to a recent private exh bition 
of his work were rewarded by .^eeing achievements 
greatly in advance of anything hitherto attempted 
in a similar direction. 

LIVERPOOL.— Since the removal of his 
studio to London the periodical visits 
of Robert Fowler to Liverpool are 
welcomed as keeping him in to ich with 
his many friends and admirers here. A choice 
little collection of his landscapes in oil, lately on 
view in the tasteful galleries of Messrs. (jiind'ey & 
Palmer, were all remarkable for extreme brilliancy 
of illumination without loss of delicacy and re- 
finement. It would be difficult to imagine that 
paint could be carried further in this one particular 
direction, as evidenced especially in the 22-in. by 
i6-in. pictures entitled FJful Gkams, Ortne^ s Head ; 
Snowdon, from Beddgelert Road — Noonday ; and 
Mountain Stream — Sunny Afternoon. Of course. 

Mr. Augustus John ex- 
hibited his drawings at the 
Carfax Galleries at the be- 
ginning of last month. 
There was considerable 
variety in the work brought 
together, but there was also 
evident an inequality and 
indecision of purpose not 
easily explained. But let 
Mr. John be as obscure 
as he will, and though 
his work is misun- 
derstood to the full, a 
vitality underlying and 
quite independent of any 
shape his art may take, 
betrays itself in his draw- 
ings for our admiration. 

A CASUAL meeting" (ETCHING) 


•'' i 



studio- Talk 

the effect is produced by extreme loading of the 
pigment ; still one is bound to confess that the 
artist has lost nothing of subtlety and beauty of 
gradation, but has achieved a great success. 

Several attractive Studio Exhibitions are to the 
fore at the moment of writing. Mr. Hamilton 
Hay's water-colour drawings, recently reproduced 
in Mr. Dixon Scott's book on " Liverpool," serve 
to inform and maintain civic interest in a manner 
onTy too rarely attempted. The drawings, vellums 
and embroideries of J. Herbert and Frances Mac- 
nair, exhibited at the Sandon Studios, form a 
unique collection of very imaginative work com- 
prehended perhaps by comparatively few people 
through the subtlety of its poetic feeling and 
very characteristic repre- 

butions I should mention A Fresh Water Carrier 
of Toledo, by Sir Hubert von Herkomer, a 
water-colour with all ihe robust vigour of oil ; 
three sti iking contributions by Mr. James Pater- 
son ; portraits that compelled attention, by 
P. A. Hay ; Eastern studies by R. W. Allan, 
R.W.S., that invited comparison wiih the Melville 
water-colours in an adjoining room ; outdoor 
sketches by Geo. Houston, distinct in treatment 
from all the other pictures in the room ; a gem-like 
representation of life at Tangier, by Hans Hansen , 
one of those mellowy, dreamy masterpieces by Mr. 
D. Y. Cameron, in which the colours merge and 
blend into a soothing harmony that entrances ; 
and others which helped to make the exhibition 
eminently successful. 

A most interesting col- 
lection of pictures pro- 
duced for illustration of 
books has been arranged 
in the large hall of the old 
Blue-coat school by the 
" Liverpool Courier," who 
are entitled to much praise 
for the first local venture 
of the kind. The leading 
designers and illustrators 
of the day of the most 
original type have con- 
tributed work of extreme 
interest, and the books they 
have embellished with their 
skill and fancy may be 
viewed alongside in the 
same exhibition. 

H. B. B. 



At the twenty- 
eighth annual 
exhibition of 
work by members of the 
Royal Scottish Society of 
Pa nters in Water-Colours, 
recently held at the Fine 
Art Institute, in all one 
hundred-and-sixty examples 
of the best water-colour 
work of the year were 
shown. Amongst some of 
the more notable contri- 

ARGYLL's lodging, STIRLING " 



studio- Talk 

The art of Susan F. Crawford is familiar to 
lovers of black-and-white, her work being found at 
many of the important exhibitions, including those 
held at Burlington House. But although most 
favourably known as etcher, the artist by no means 
limits her activities to the use of the needle, her 
work in the oil medium, particularly when quaint 
architecture forms the subject, being distinguished 
by charming feeling and sympathy. Antiquity 
makes a strong appeal to Miss Crawford, and 
amongst the old-world relics at Edinburgh and 
Stirling, and the early feudal castles scattered over 
the greater part of Scotland, she finds a rich field for 
the exercise of her genius. Old Drummond Castle, 
the Perthshire seat of the Earl of Ancaster, is 
one of the best preserved of the ancient Scottish 
strongholds : the artist has faithfully depicted 
the quaint architectural features that have so 
long been one of the chief attractions of the 
district of Crieff. Argyll's Lodging is in- 
teresting in many ways, but chiefly because 
it is perhaps the finest example of "Town 
House " architecture in the old Scottish 
style extant. Like many of the seventeenth- 
century houses still in use, it had periods of 
vicissitude, yet it stands to-day, a worthy 
monument to the architect. Sir Anthony 
Alexander, second son of the Earl of Stirling, 
who enjoyed more than local renown as 
Master of Works to King James VI. of 
Scotland (James I. of England). Built in 
1632 for the architect's brother, it became 
the property of Stirling Corporation in 1664, 
but two years afterwards it was acquired by 
the Earl of Argyll, who, completing the quad- 
rangle, connected it with his own house, a 
building of much earlier date. It was acquired 
by the Crown about 1800, and is now used 
as a military hospital to the Castle garrison. 
The etching faithfully conveys the character- 
istics of the old Scottish style that is being 
largely revived in the domestic architecture 
of to-day. 

motto and that peculiar quadruple sign at the 
top, the other with the roses. " Non sine pulvere " 
(Not without dust) indicates the Crusader's idea 
of campaign, while the sword and the cross and the 
heart are all significant. In the middle ages, when 
pilgrims returned from the Holy Land, they wore a 
simple shell emblem, and all men knew that they 
had undertaken a sacred mission, hence the two 
shells introduced in this design. " Swastika," the 
highest, the fourfold sign, is to be met with in 
nearly all the mysticisms over the world : its use by 
the artist here is most appropriate. The rose is 
emblematic of earthly love; the sweet p flower 
proceeds from the heart, intertwines the golden 
circlet, and reaches by the star of hope to the very 
highest, to divinity. J. T. 

Miss Dewar's work, seen at the recent 
exhibition of the Glasgow Society of Lady 
Artists, is interesting for other reasons than 
because of an esthetic value ; there is an 
inner meaning, a reflection of the earnest 
student, diligent in pursuit of the secrets of 
history and life, and quick to convey them 
by a charming symbolism that is easy of 
interpretation. Take the two book-plates 
illustrated, the one with the Crusader's 



studio- Talk 





IitC l_Dc-»<.n 






o.( it. 


DINBURGH.— The Third Triennial 

Exhibition of Edinburgh Arts and Crafts 


I Club, held in their spacious studio at Bel- 

* ^ ford Road in the end of November, shows 
that the club is no mere band of dilettanti, but a 
group of earnest workers. The club in its present 
form consists of about sixty members, chiefly West- 
end ladies, though the rules make no distinction as 
to sex or social position. The main sections are 
wood-carving, enamel work, bookbinding, em- 
broidery, including applique, and the making of 
lace. The bulk of the exhibits consisted of em- 
broidery and laces, and in the first-named there 
were several very fine specimens, showing not only 
taste in design, but suitability of colour in carrying 
out the idea. A large panel illustrative of the 
quest of the Red Cross Knight, by Mrs. Traquair, 
was probably the most outstanding piece of 
needlework. In the wood-carving section the 

competitive work was mostly small, but judging 
by the manner in which some of it was done, 
the club might well be a little more ambitious. 
To judge by the number of enamels shown, this 
seems to be a favourite art with the club, and 
the examples of bookbinding were many of them 
such as would bear comparison with some of the 
best craftsmanship. A. E. 

DUBLIN.— Miss Daphne Whitty, who is 
now Manager of the Royal Irish School 
of Art Needlework, has recently com- 
pleted a frontal for the High Altar of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, of which we give 
an illustration overleaf. The framework of the 
design was suggested by the old brasses in the 
Lady Chapel of the Cathedral, while the figures, 
which stand out effectively against a green back- 
ground, symbolise AVorship, Praise, and Prayer. 


studio- Talk 



PARIS. — Berthe Morisot was one of those 
forgotten or insufficiently appreciated 
artists to whom the Committee of the 
Salon d'Automne did homage at their 
recent exhibition. With Mary Gassatt she was, by 
reason of her subtle and charming gifts, one of the 
most talented of the Impressionist phalanx. No 
palette surpassed hers in vitality and freshness when 
recording such subjects as flowers and sunny 
gardens, groups of gaily dressed children, or 
children at their play in the park or on the sea- 
shore in a flood of dazzling light. As the sister-in- 
law of Manet she evidently fell under the influence 
of that highly gifted man, but at the same time her 
individuality was attested by an ample endowment 
of sentiment, by an original style of composition, 
and by a truly feminine sympathy for children. 
Like the other Impressionists, she was at first 
absolutely ignored, but a few years ago MM. 
Durand-Ruel organised an exhibition of her works, 
and now the Salon d'Automne has definitely 
established her fame. Most of the works shown 
in the room set apart for her were lent by amateurs. 
MM. Durand-Ruel also contributed some of them, 
and three are here reproduced. 

It was a happy idea of MM. Chaine and 
Simonson to organise, as they did recently at their 
Galerie des Artistes Modernes, an exhibition of a 
choice selection from the works of Cazin. It would 
indeed be hardly possible to do too much honour 
to this great artist, who form a connecting link 
between the art of the greatest Dutch landscape 
painters and that of the Barbizon masters. At 
this exhibition, where Cazin's painting once more 

deeply impressed us with its noble simplicity and 
broad, open jacture, the series of works brought 
together were of various degrees of importance, but 
all alike were interesting ; even in the least of his 
little "notes" — be it a corner of the dunes 
he loved so much, or an effect of light on the 
marshes of the Somme — Cazin always speaks with 

'•enfant en chemise" by BERTHE MORISOT 

Studio- Talk 



typical of Cazin — a Somme 
landscape with thatch- 
covered cottages in a corner 
of the dunes where vegeta- 
tion is scanty. 

eloquence and succeeds in generating in us a 
mysterious kind of emotion. The Village dans les 
IDufies, reproduced on the next page, fascinates us 
by its excellent composition. This work is indeed 

An excellent exhibition 
was that held at the close 
of the past year by the 
Societe Internationale 
d'Acjuarellibtes, whose pre- 
sident is M. Guillemot. 
Side by side with water- 
colours {aquarelles ) properly 
so-called were to be seen 
gouaches and wash-drawings 
(lavls), and there was also 
an interesting experiment 
in fresco painting by 
M. Jeanes. It is to him 
that attention is chiefly 
due ; he is an artist of 
extraordinary originality 
and power, and a colourist 
of great breadth. His visions of the Dolomites 
are incomparable alike by the vigour of their 
execution and by the boldness with which these 
works are composed. From the point of view 







"SUR LA plage" (pastel) 


studio- Talk 

in that light which is pecu- 
Har to the Highlands ; 
magnificent cedars whose 
uncommon shapes he excels 
in delineating after the 
Japanese manner ; old 
castles reminding one of 
the novels of Sir Walter 
Scott, peaceful villages 
beneath clear, smiling skies 
— all rendered in pure 
water-colour with much 
sincerity of vision and 
freshness of sentiment. 


of colour his Vague, an example of his extreme 
accuracy of observation, is a tour de force. Very 
charming, too, are his glimpses of autumn, with 
big trees in their russet tints beneath a pale 
sky. M. Eugene Bejot has executed in wash 
fifty-two little views of the Paris he knows so well, 
and they were at once attractive in point of 
technique and admirable as documents. The 
water-colours of M. Lebasque seemed to me a 
little wanting in definiteness, while at the same 
time giving evidence of a true feeling for colour. 
Amongst the foreign contributors, M. Hagemans was 
represented by some capital landscapes 
with animals : von Bartels, by a domestic 
scene, lit up by the flames from the fire ; 
M. Cadenhead, by a night effect ; and 
M. Ertz, by a Spanish woman carrying 
water. Nor must we forget to mention 
the contributions of M. Thornley, a 
charming colourist ; and those of M. 
Delestre and M. Paul Frachet. 


M. Hessele has done 
much to develop in France 
a taste for modern etching, 
and we owe to him our 
knowledge of some of the 
best among contemporary 
workers in this field. In 
continuation of his good 
work he has recently been showing in the Rue 
Laffitte some etchings by foilr artists who, though 
little known at present, are assuredly possessed of 
undoubted talent. M. Heyman, who has a remark- 
able eye for composition, concerns himself with 
reproducing the features of certain monuments in 
the environs of Paris. His Abside de PhgUse de 
r Isle-Adam is an excellent performance, and no 
less so is his Vieille Porte a Menneville. Mr. 
Andrew F. Affleck, a Scottish artist, is enamoured 
of Tuscany. His Poiite - Vecchio, his Tour de 
Giotto, and his San Gimignano are plates which 

Two years ago M. Augustm Rey, the 
distinguished architect of the Fondation 
Rothschild, showed at Petit's a series 
of water-colours executed in the Upper 
Engadine, and now quite recently he has 
been showing at the same gallery another 
series. This time transporting us to 
Scotland, he here shows us lochs bathed 




Studio- Talk 



have all the veracity of documents, and at the 
same time are handled with much freedom. The 
poetic gifts of M. Fabre, the delightful painter 
of the Rouerque, call for special appreciation, as 
does M. Zeising, who reveals himself as a first-rate 
painter of Paris. M. Hessele also showed three 
works by M. R. Ranft : Le Bain, an etching in 
colours. Mile. Raymonde, a 
dry-point portrait, and Le 
Pont du Miroir, an etching 
in which we once more see 
him to be the excellent 
artist we have known him 
to be. 

One cannot help again 
admiring the energy of 
M. J. F Raffaelli, who has 
been showing at the gallery 
of M. Devambez, in the 
Boulevard Malesherbes, a 
series of his new etchings 
in colour ; in these he main- 
tains the great reputation he 
has made for himself. 

H. F. 

Galliera a free exhibition consecrated to modern 
art. The works sent in by artists are selected by 
the jury with a most praiseworthy eclecticism, and 
while they make a point of doing honour to those 
who have already given proof of their talent, they 
do not discourage those whose powers have not 
yet come to full maturity. The Museum itself 
always purchases one or two works of special 

At the last of these exhibitions held in November 
the Ceramic section contained the most brilliant 
representation. In addition to the splendid vases 
of MM. Chaplet and Dalpayrat, which the Museum 
did well to acquire, there were many exhibits of 
particular note. First of all let us name the case 
containing those of M. Delaherche. His vases 
struck me as at once reasonable, simple, and 
effective, rich in coloration and restful in form. 
Of M. Decoeur's exhibits I preferred his large 
vase — a kind of vert-de-gris urn, ample in its 
proportions and (juite rare in its colouring. The 
little case of M. Bourgeot, containing hard-paste 
porcelain, made an agreeable impression with its 
air of gaiety, and some clever things were con- 
tributed by MM. Ernest Carriere, Laurent Des- 
rousseaux, Lamarre, and Massoul. With the 
Peche migfion of M. Taxile Doat should be men- 
tioned some porcelain vases of his, with some- 
what insignificant motifs, but I preferred his 
dish designed in the Hispano - Moorish style 
and very rich in colour, and above all the 






f^-r\ .j^ 


Twice a year there is 

organised at the 





charming little round vase of a delicate apple- 
green tint. 

It was, however, when one came to M. Moreau- 
Ndlaton's case that one felt the inadequacy of 
words to express the delightful charm of colour 
and shape. Of exquisite elegance and purity of 
form, his vases follow a more or less traditional 
style ; but the modelling is quite personal, and 
by deft manipulation, here of a line and there 
of a curve, the entire accent of the work is 
changed, and it becomes a perfect embodiment of 
grace and refinement. His colour is warm and 
rich, yet always discreet. 

high degree. There was a series of curious heads 
of young girls in grey enamel, designed by M. 
Pierre Roche to symbolise the months. The 
wood carvings of M. Raymond Bigot were, as 
always, excellent. Two very fine combs were 
shown by Mme. Miault ; some pleasing textile 
fabrics by Mile. Rault, M. Bohl, and especially 
M. Magne, all executed by Messrs. Cornille 
Freres ; excellent lace by Mile. Trocme and MM. 
Courteix and Prouve ; and M. Mazzara deservedly 
attracted much attention with a table centre. 

M. Dammouse showed some little glass cups, 
marvels of dainty delicacy, their colours — turquoise 
blue, sky blue, green, grey, and russet— making 
a perfect harmony. M. Decorchement's exhibits 
were equally attractive — 
some vases in ruby glass 
in which the shadows of 
the decorative leaves, in 
conjunction with the trans- 
parency of the glass, 
produce a variety of charm- 
ing nuances. Mention 
must be made, too, of the 
glass by M. Despret, on 
account of certain beautiful 
blues he has succeeded in 

The iron-work section was one of the most 
interesting in the exhibition. Here MM. Brandt, 
Szabo, Brindeau and Nics were exhibitors. M. 
Robert, in particular, gives to his forgings a 
pliancy which is never in contradiction to the 
robust nature of his material. M. Bonvallet's 
copper vases call for special notice, as does the 

Among the book-bind- 
ings, those of Mile. Ger- 
main, Mme. Leroy-Desri- 
vieres and M. Marius 
Michel appeared to me the 
finest. M. Victor Prouve 
sent a binding for " La 
Bastille" — a trifle heavy, 
perhaps, but expressive and 
appropriate to the subject. 
The stained-glass designers 
have done better things than 
those shown, among which 
I single out for notice M. 
Rudnicki's " L'Automne," 
on account of its fine bar 
mony of colours and orderly 
disposition of lines. The 
jewellery of M. Rivaud is 
always rather Soudanese in 
style, though artistic in a 


• LA I'OLI.E ■ 

(In the Cher amy CoUe(tio)i) 



'■'"\ '^ 





(In Ike Chcrainy Collection) 


delicate soft-paste porcelain of M. Naudet, pleasant 
in substance, and made more attractive by their 
fine translucent decorations. A. S. 

BERLIN. — Fritz Gurlitt opened his autumn 
season with a really delightful exhibi- 
tion. Every friend of art felt thankful 
for the reappearance of the works of 
a master painter like Gericault, who is nowhere to 
be studied in Germany. The glow and modelling 
of his colour, his dramatic pathos and psychological 
power, his trembling nerve and iron muscle stamp 
him at the very first glance as the artist in whom his 
teacher Guerin discovered the talent for three or 
four painters. We see an unflinching realism at 
work which always imbues its subjects with the 
uncommon and the passionate, but whose utter- 
ances recall only the greatest names. There is no 
healthier lesson for our modern brushmen than the 
study of such work as that of Ge'ricault. The art 
of the day was represented by a collection of 
pictures by Professor Albert Haueisen, from Karls- 
ruhe, who has learned much from Liebl's energetic 
brush strokes and juicy colouring, but is still 
somewhat feeling his way. Hugo von Habermann 
applies the refinement of his colour-sense and pose 

in some instances again to his disagreeable female 
model, whilst Peter Burnitz and Sperl attract us 
ever by their simplicity and warmheartedness. 
Liebermann, Uhde and Thoma were well repre- 
sented, and a new-comer was Carl Hagemeister. 
His quiet studies of wintry and autumnal nature 
are written down with broad strokes, but made 
delicious by the tenderest accents of brown, white 
and greyish blue. He is summary and yet con- 
scientious, rough and yet delicate. 

Great satisfaction prevails in Berlin arts and 
crafts circles at Professor Peter Bthrens' removal 
to the capital. After having organised the Dussel- 
dorf School of Applied Arts, he is following a call 
of the Allgemeine Electricitats-Gesellschaft to act 
as artistic designer for electric pendants and fittings. 
Modern art is placing itself more and more in the 
service of modern science, and it is sure of enrich- 
ment by means of this contact. The fact that 
Berlin is attracting, one after the other, authorities 
on arts and crafts, and that the Munich and 
Dresden workshops are opening branch businesses 
here, proves the liveliness of our development and 
the growing importance of Berlin as a place for 




Two teachers of the KonigUche Kunstgewerbe 
Museum, Professor Max Koch and Professor Emil 
Orlik, have just been honoured by comprehensive 
exhibitions. The talent of Max Koch, who is the 
teacher of the class for figure drawing, is happiest 
on vast surfaces. The art of Emil Orlik produces 
exquisite things within narrow space. The car- 
toons, paintings and studies of Koch fill the big 

hall of the Kunstgewerbe 
Museum. His felicitous 
talent seems to play with 
difficulties in great mural 
compositions, whether his- 
torical, fantastic or natura- 
listic in character, and be 
they landscape, hunting 
scenes, or any other genre. 
We admire his decorative 
skill and the intensity of his 
study in excellent sketches 
and drawings from the nude. 
He stands firmly on the 
ground of the real, and the 
unreal admits him only to 
the haunting places of gentler spirits. 


Emil Orlik could be studied as lithographer 








woodcutter, etcher and draughtsman 
at Amsler and Ruthardt's. His tech- 
nical skill is so sure that he can allow 
himself any combination or innovation 
of methods. His small cuts from 
reality always show cleverness of se- 
lection and conscientiousness and taste 
in rendering. Street scenes, studio 
nooks, single figures, heads, bits of 
architecture, animals and trees are his 
subjects. He has seen various 
countries, and has always caught 
their atmosphere ; but his stay in 
Japan has taught him much in sim- 

plified composition and decorative finesse. Orlik 
has nothing in store for seekers after the 
powerful or the elevating, but he entertains and 
amuses, and offers psychological and a2sthetic 
dainties. J. J. 

BRESLAU. — It is not often that news 
concerning art movements in this city, 
the capital of the province of Silesia, 
finds its way outside Germany. But 
though art does not make a great stir here, it is 
gratifying to see now and then signs that progress 







started a school of their 
own, and he after a time 
being obliged to give up 
teaching to pursue other 
woik, the entire manage- 
ment of the school fell to 
his wife. Her success as a 
teacher is shown by the 
fact that at least half a 
dozen of her pupils have 
themselves become teachers 
in one or other technical 


(See Lit heck Studio- Talk) 


The illustrations on 
pages 324 and 325 re- 
present work done by Frau 
Langer-Schlaffke, her hus- 
band, and pupils. Of 
these the chief, of course, 
is the large wall hanging 

is steady and in the right 
direction. In the course 
of the past year a little 
exhibit ion that attracted 
considerable attention in 
the town was that in which 
Frau Lingtr-Schlaffke, wife 
of the painter, Josef Langer, 
showed examples of em- 
broideries executed by her 
and her pupils. 

Trained at the Royal Art 
School at Breslau, where 
she was a pupil of her future 
husband, Frau Langer- 
Schlaffke began to devote 
herself to embroidery after 
finishing her course at the 
school, and her produc- 
tions found their way into 
exhibitions in various art 
centres, including Berlin 
and London. Before her 
marriage she was teacher 
of needlework, first to the 
Frauenbildungs-Verein at 
Breslau, and afterwards at 
the Lidustrial School, 
Posen. On her marriage 
she and her husband 


(See Dihseldorf Siudio-Talk) 


(Se.- Dusseldorf Studio- Talk) 





(about lo feet across), the motif of which is 
suppUed by the words from Walther von der 
Vogelweide which run across it :— " Thou art 
locked in my heart, the key whereof is lost, and 
there thou must remain for ever." In this piece 
of work various kinds of needle technique are 
employed; for instance, the so-called needle- 
work painting in the face and hands, and old 
brocade applique for the garments of the young 
couple. The colour is rich but restrained. The 
two decorative studies as well as one of the 
cushions are by Frau Langer-Schlaffke's pupils. 

LUBECK. — The lamps shown in the illus- 
tration on page 326 were made by Herr 
Bosse, a craftsman of this town. They 
are made of tin, and the designs are 
derived from models of old Viking ships, which 
no doubt he has seen in the local museum. The 
application of designs such as these to purposes of 
illumination is decidedly novel, but in conjunction 
with the coloured glass used for the windows the 
effect is certainly quaint and pleasing. Herr Bosse 
has been active in reviving the manufacture of 
pewter ware, for which the place was noted in 
days of old. 

DUSSELDORF. — Frederic Coubillier, 
the sculptor, of whose work examples 
are reproduced on these pages, comes 
of a family of artists. Trained first 
under his father, and then at the Academy here 
under Prof. Karl Hansen, he completed his art 
studies by a stay at Rome extending through 
several winters. Coubillier's talent has found 
appreciation in high quarters, and after the un- 
veiling of the monument to Graf Adolf von Berg, 
which is the subject of one of our illustrations, he 
received more than one summons from Kaiser 



Studio- Talk 



Wilhelm II., who is descended from the Count. 
This monument is of gigantic proportions, and is 
put up on the Schloss 
Burg, near Elberfeld, to 
commemorate the found- 
ing of the stronghold by 
the Count. A reduced 
replica of this monument 
is in the possession of 
the Kaiser, and there is 
also one in the Hall of 
Fame of Barmen, and 
another in the Hall of Art 
in this city. The bust of 
the Kaiser is of bronze, 
double life-size, and stands 
in the Town Hall at 
Elberfeld. The model was 
submitted to His Majesty 
and received his approval. 
The monument for a family 
grave, reproduced on p 326, 
was originally projected 
during the artist's sojourn 
in Rome, and is now in 
the cemetery of this town. 
E. B. 

already in a previous issue drawn the 
attention of our readers to the work of 
Herr Joseph Kowarzyk, and we now 
have the pleasure of giving a reproduction of a 
half- length Sphinx which belongs to his quite 
recent achievements (see opposite). 

VIENNA. — Hans Ofner is a young architect 
who has already gained some fame, 
various examples of his decorative work 
having already been reproduced in " The 
Art Revival in Austria." Though his interiors show 
the unmistakable influence of his master, Professor 
Joseph Hoffmann, under whom he studied at the 
Kunstgewerbeschule, still he has characteristics 
which are quite his own. Of late he has been 
devoting much thought to the problem of designing 
modern jewellery, and has been very successful in 
this branch of his art. There is everywhere a right 
feeling for proportion, and nowhere does Herr 
Ofner strive for mere effect ; his artistic judgment 
is rightly balanced, and his de-igns show how care- 
fully he has performed his task. In common 
with most students of the modern school, he has 
also studied the qualities of the materials he mani- 
pulates and the adaptation of them to the design. 
Herr Ofner has also learnt the art of enamelling, 
Fraulein Adele von Starch, the only lady professor 




studio- Talk 



silver enamelled in shades of yellow 
and brown, the other of silver with 
ornaments of coral and silver balls. 
The neck ornament illustrated in our 
second illustration is made of silver 
enamelled, and is particularly inter- 
esting, having been designed to wear 
with a fancy costume. That shown 
in the illustration given below is 
also silver, and though the design is 
simple, the effect is increased by the 
turquoise stones used at intervals 
for connecting the chains. 

at the 

Kunstgewerbeschule, having been his 

Of the two necklets shown in the first illustration 
on p. 329, the upper one is formed of pyramids of 

In the first illustration on 
this page we have a number of 
brooches varied in composition, and 
each with an intrinsic beauty of its 
own. They are all of silver, some 
being set with mother-of-pearl, others 
with mother - of - pearl and rubies, 
ch rysolite s, granites, and other stones. 
All the skill of the craftsman has 
been brought to bear on this work, 
and the designer's intentions have 
been admirably carried out. 
The brooches shown in the illustra- 
tion below are also admirable in 
design, mother-of-pearl and coral being very effec- 
tively employed. The earrings are of silver relieved 
by a border of gold. The pendant has a large 
cornelian for its centre, with a pleasing design 
surrounding it, the material again being silver. 




Shidio- Talk 


schools, and the belts 
here reproduced are 
entirely his own making. 
The clasps are of silver 
cloisonn^, while the belts 
themselves are formed of 
plaited French silk braids, 
these being of a shade to 
tone with the decoration 
of the clasps. 



The illus- 
bottom of 
this page 
shows a 
variety of or- 
nament s 
very felicit- 
ous in de- 
sign. The 
are of silver, 
in shades of 
blue and 
violet ; the 
broader one 
is set with 

The enamelling is beauti- 
fully done, and is the work 
of the artist himself, who 
shows a real knowledge of 
this art, and at the same 
time a love for it born of 
intimacy. The bracelet is 
set with amethysts, the 
scarf pins with pearls and 
rubies, while the tortoise- 
shell side combs are 
mounted in silver set with 
chrysolites. These make 
a very pleasing harmony 
of colours, and the effect of 
the whole is very graceful. 



The coffee service, also 
illustrated on this page, is 
in silver and delicate china, 
a combina- 
tion much 
in vogue, 
and here 
Herr Ofner 
again proves 
that he is a 
true artist 
with no lack 
of origina- 
1 i t y. His 
J) r e s e n t 
ments bear 
that the 
path he has 
chosen is the 
right one. 
A. S. L. 

Herr Ofner has studied 
weaving at the Imperial 




Reviews and Notices 


INNEAPOLIS.— The two chromo- 
xylographs of which reproductions are 
here given — one in facsimile and the 
other in halftone — -are interesting 
examples of the process as employed by an 
American lady belonging to this city, who has 
acquired her knowledge and skill mainly in 
Japanese studios under native artists. Mrs. Lum 
had already made experiments in this direction 
before visiting Japan, but accomplished vtry little 
until she had an opportunity of closely studying 
the methods practised by native wood engravers, 
first of all in a small atelier in Kyoto, and later in 
the Kokka atelier in Tokyo, well known through 
the publication bearing that name. 

Briefly stated, Mrs. Lum's method of making 
and printing these wood-cuts is as follows. First 
the drawing is made on a special kind of transparent 
Japanese paper rather difficult to obtain even in 
Japan ; then the drawing is pasted face downwards 
on the block — usually of cherry wood on account 
of its hardness and even grain — and ihen, if, as is 
commonly the case, there are to be other blocks, 
the wood is all cut away except the outline. The 
first prints from the outline block are pasted on 
to these other blocks, and from these the colour 
blocks are cut. Usually one block is cut for each 
colour, but in the hands of one familiar with the 
work, one block may sometimes be made to serve 
for printing two colours, that is when the colours 
do not come directly together. Moreover, one 
colour can often be printed over another, as in the 
more mechanical processes. 

1 he print reproduced in half-tone was printed 
from three blocks. P'or the strtet scene repro- 
duced in colours six blocks were used, but there 
wtre ten printings in this case, as part of the effect 
was obtained by printing certain portions from flat 
tint blocks. The printing is all done by hand, and 
the colours, after being mixed with gelatine, are 
applied by brushes of various sizes, the blocks 
having first been treated with rice paste. The 
actual printing is done with a flat disc, covered 
with a bamboo leaf. It is, of course, of the utmost 
importance when printing from several blocks that 
proper "register" should be obtained. In Japan, 
as in Europe for the most part, the work of cutting 
and printing the blocks is not undertaken by the 
draughtsman, who coi. fines himself to creating the 
design, but Mrs. Lum has produced all her prints 
from beginning to end without aid. 



Hubert and Jan Van Eyck. By W. V. James 
Weale. (London : John Lane.) Limited edition. 
^5 55. net. — This monumental work, with its wealth 
of fine photogravure plates and other illustrations, 
the value of which to the student of Flemish paint- 
ing it is impossible to over-estimate, is eminently 
characteristic of the veteran critic who is re- 
sponsible for its publication. Mr. Weale, who is 
a member of the chief academies of Belgium, has 
devoted a lifetime to the study of the art of the 
Low Countries, and in the preparation of his many 



(Copyright reserved) 




i Cofyri^ht Rcserve-i 

Reviews and Notices 

scholarly works has in every case gone straight to 
the original documents. He makes scarcely any 
attempt to work up the masses of material he has 
laboriously collected into a popular narrative such 
as would appeal to the general public, for he has 
the greatest possible contempt fur the superficial 
dilettantism of the present day, and addresses his 
appeal mainly to the true connoisseur and the 
genuine lover of art for its own sake. On the 
other hand, there does not exist a more generous 
caterer for the privileged few than this most earnest 
worker. Mr. Weale prefaces his work with a 
chronological summary of the chief events that 
affected the careers of the Van Eycks, and devotes 
a considerable portion of his text to the actual 
transcription, in order of date, of the more im- 
portant of the documents from which he has culled 
his information, supplementing his quotations by a 
very complete bibliography of all the publications 
that bear even remotely upon the fortunes of the 
two famous brothers. Moreover, he points the 
way for other discoveries, suggesting to his suc- 
cessors in the same field of research " that further 
items may yet be gleaned from the municipal 
accounts of towns in the Duke of Burgundy's 
dominions, and perhaps also from documents in 
the archives of Spain and Portugal." In the 
erudite history given by Mr. Weale of the authen- 
ticated works of the brothers each one is carefully 
described and explained, as are also the more 
important copies and engravings after it. 

A Book of Caricatures. By Max Beerbohm. 
(London: Methuen.) 21^. net. — The originals of 
this collection of caricatures were recently shown 
at the Carfax Gallery, and we expressed ourselves 
about them at the time. We confess that in one way 
Mr. Max Beerbohm is a disappointment to us, for, 
despite the cover of this book, a very charming red, 
and the elaboration with which the plates are 
reproduced, we miss in this art the exquisiteness 
that is associated with Mr. Beerbohm's name. In 
such caricatures as Mr. Arthur Balfour wishing he 
had been born in a simpler age we do get this quality 
in the style of finish, and in those of Lord Althorp 
and Mr. Haddon Chambers the caricaturist lives 
up to the charming binding. The Lord Lytton 
and Lord Ribblesdale are also caricatures made 
with a grace that becomes their author. But it is 
in Lord Tweidmouth^ and especially in the picture 
of " Setn" that Mr. Max Beerbohm's genius is 
revealed with a vivacity of touch which responds 
at once to witty and satirical observation. After 
this brilliance we wonder why he should tire us 
with such vapid conventions as those, for instance, 

with which he symbolizes the feet of Mr. Wilson 
Steer and the head of Lord Northcliffe. 

The American Pilgrims' Way in E?igland. By 
Marcus Huish, LL.B. Illustrated by Elizabeth 
M. Chettle. (London : Fine Art Society.) 
— It was a happy thought on the part of the director 
of the Fine Art Society to trace back to their original 
English homes the pioneers of the exodus that 
resulted in the foundation of the great American 
Republic. The work, which has evidently been a 
labour of love to both author and artist, includes 
histories of the families of William Penn, George 
Washington, General Wolfe, Benjamin Franklin, 
AVashington Irving, the Pilgrim Fathers (the 
founders of Yale and Harvard Universities), the 
Quaker settlers, and many others, no pains having 
been spared to identify the sites connected with 
them. The charming water-colour drawings give 
sympathetic renderings of many of the surviving 
homesteads that are so dear to the hearts of the 
descendants of these heroes of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and, with the reproductions of details of 
architecture, facsimiles of letters, inscriptions, etc., 
form a vivid and pictorial epitome of the text. 

Life and Works of Vittorio Carpaccio. By 
GusTAV LuDWiG and Pompeo Molmenti. Trans- 
lated by Robert H. H. Cust. (London : John 
Murray.) £^2 1 25-. bd. net. — The recent increase 
in the cult of Vittorio Carpaccio, the most gifted 
exponent of an important phase of Venetian 
pictorial art, is, Signor Molmenti thinks, largely 
the outcome of the aesthetic renaissance in the 
lagoon city that was inaugurated a quarter of a 
century ago, and was, as he fully recognises, in a 
certain sense heralded by Ruskin. A pathetic 
interest attaches to the work before us — an appre- 
ciative study of the painter by two warm admirers — 
on account of the circumstances surrounding its 
inception and execution. After studying closely 
the achievements of the early Venetian masters 
as a whole, Signor Molmenti gradually found 
himself concentrating his attention on that of 
Carpaccio, and the results of his researches were 
published in various periodicals. Presently, his 
devotion to Carpaccio attracted the attention of 
another eager worker in the same field, the German 
physician whose name appears on the title-page 
with his own. Herr Ludwig found himself in 
middle life the victim of a painful and incurable 
disease, which necessitated his migration to a 
temperate climate. Imbued with an intense love of 
art for its own sake, he determined to devote to its 
study the few years he could hope to live, and finally 
settled in Venice. Here the two collaborators 


Reviews and Notices 

became acquainted, and resolved to join forces in 
the composition of a monograph on their favourite 
painter. Unfortunately, Herr Ludwig's malady 
made such rapid strides that he died before the 
seventh chapter was finished. Very touching is 
the account given by the survivor of his colleague's 
fortitude under suffering. " From his death- 
bed," he says, " Herr Ludwig discussed artistic 
problems, in which he always displayed an acute 
and profound judgment. I was a frequent visitor," 
he adds, " to the dark little room, where, seated at 
his bedside, our discussions on Carpaccio made the 
hours fly in cheerful converse." The volume that 
has resulted from their association embodies a vast 
mass of notes left behind by Herr Ludwig, and 
having been admirably translated into English by Mr. 
Cust, it is sure to take rank as the standard work 
on the long-neglected master of whom it treats. 
The illustrations include, with reproductions of 
pretty well all Carpaccio's paintings and drawings, 
examples of the work of many of his contem- 
poraries, which will be found most useful for com- 
parison by students unable to obtain access to the 

TheSlade^Mdcccxciii — Mdccccvii. (London: Slade 
School University College and E. Grant Richards.) 
6.V. net. — This book, which is edited by Mr. John 
Fothergill, of the Slade School, is composed of a 
collection of drawings and some pictures done by 
past and present students of the school. A 
paper is devoted by Mr. D. S. MacCoU to Mr. 
John's drawings, of which there are a variety of 
examples. There are many examples also of 
work by his fellow-student Mr. Orpen, who, with 
a more prosaic talent, has, by a succession of 
achievements, aroused curiosity as to his future not 
less than Mr. John. The genius of Mrs. Edna 
Clarke Hall comes in for discussion, for her illustra- 
tions of " Wuthering Heights " are indeed touched 
with genius, and we wonder why, among the mass 
of illustrated reprints of the English classics which 
come into the market, no one has availed them- 
selves of her art. Other pages of The Slade 
are made up of reproductions from paintings by 
various members of the school, life studies and 
other drawings, many of them interesting. Mr. 
Fothergill's paper on "The Teaching of Drawing" 
is a very valuable contribution. The concern of 
these pages is the record of work from the Slade 
School in recent years, but it is also a pleasant 
magazine in itself for those interested in the last 
phase of English art training. 

Sheffield Plate. By Bertie Wyllie. (London : 
George Newnes.) 7.^. dd. net. — ^The introduction 

to this finely illustrated monograph on old Sheffield 
plate dispels once for all the delusion that the 
making of the genuine article is a lost art. Many 
of the original dies and drawings of fine specimens 
are still in existence, and some few of the skilled 
workmen survive, who, if encouraged to do so, would 
teach younger men the intricacies of their now 
languishing trade. Mr. Wyllie, who is evidently an 
expert, declares it to be possible even now to have 
new examples made of such masterpieces of design 
and execution as those figured in his book, which, 
with a complete history of the origin and mode of 
manufacture of old Sheffield plate, contains repro- 
ductions of all the marks by which the makers not 
only of Sheffield, but of London, Birmingham, 
Paris, and elsewhere, may be recognised. 

Old Spanish Masters. Engraved by Timothy 
Cole. With notes by Ch.a.rles H. Caffin and 
Comments by the Engraver. (London : Macmillan 
& Co.) 3 1 J'. 6d. net. — The praise which was given 
in these pages five years ago to Mr. Cole's en- 
gravings after the Old English Masters, a specimen 
of which was then reproduced by us, must be 
given in equal or, indeed, increased measure to 
the present series. Mr. Cole has earned a de- 
servedly high reputation as an engraver on wood, 
and at the present day the craft has no abler repre- 
sentative than he. In these interpretations of care- 
fully selected examples of works by great masters 
of the Spanish school — El Greco, Velasquez, 
Murillo, Ribera, Goya — we are much impressed by 
his refined craftsmanship and the skill with which 
gradations of tone are rendered. The interest of 
the volume is enhanced by the series of comments 
contributed by the engraver himself, which show 
that he has devoted much study and thought to 
the works of these famous painters, and so acquired 
an intimate knowledge of their characteristics. Mr. 
Caffin's essays also make interesting reading, but, as 
may be expected, are more general in their scope 
than the engraver's notes. 

The Baby's Day Book. Songs of the Day, 
and the Dusk, and the Dark. By W. Graham 
Robertson. Illustrated by the Author. (London : 
John Lane.) 35'. dd, — It is Mr. Graham Robert- 
son's gift to write and to draw for children, not as one 
who has anything fresh to tell them, but as the illus- 
trator of their own fancies. The charm of his art 
arises from the fact that it is literally inspired, and 
we have indicated the source of the inspiration. 
Consciously he enters the dreamy world where the 
child unconsciously reigns, and his art, both in 
verse and in illustration, is such that children will 
never resent the interpolation of this gifted out- 

Reviews and Notices 

sider. The Baby's Day Book, which is the last 
he has added to the several illustrated books he 
has made of plays and verse, is as charming as its 

The Masterpieces in Colour. Edited by T. 
Leman Hare. (Edinburgh : T. C. & E. C. Jack.) 
\s. 6d. net each. — Eight volumes have come to hand 
of this series, which makes a new departure. These 
publications are the first serious step, outside 
magazine form, that has been taken in the direction 
of a complete and satisfying analysis of the colour 
of notable pictures for the purposes of reproduc- 
tion as supplementary to pages of serious criticism. 
The books should be highly popular with the 
general public for the beauty of the plates ; they 
should be popular, too, because the publishers 
have thrown over the pretentious and dull narrative 
of facts and opinions, which usually accompanies the 
cheaper art volumes, in favour of such picturesque 
and original thought as we get in the Turner 
volume from Mr. Lewis Hind's gifted pen or such 
valuable criticism as we find in Mr. Bensusan's 

Among Mr. Batsford's recent new publications 
are three which by their eminently practical 
character will at once commend themselves to 
those who are interested in the particular topics 
dealt with. English Shop Fronts (155-. net) deals 
with a branch of architectural practice which, 
so far as we are aware, has not been independently 
treated before. Messrs. Dan & Wilmott's treatise, 
which is accompanied by numerous collotype and 
other illustrations of shop fronts, old and new, 
therefore fills a gap in the architect's library. Mr. 
G. W. Eve's Heraldry in Art (\2S. 6d. net) will 
prove extremely useful to designers who have occa- 
sion to introduce heraldic symbols into their work. 
Mr. Eve is thoroughly at home in the subject, and 
his exposition of the rules governing the use of 
heraldic figures is both lucid and exhaustive. 
Some 300 illustrations are given to show variations 
of style, the effect of material on heraldic design, 
etc. The third is a volume on Enamelling {"js. 6d. 
net), by Mr. Lewis F. Day, who devotes the bulk of 
his book to an account of the various processes 
and methods employed in this craft. Among the 
hundred odd illustrations, all of them in black-and- 
white, we see no examples of modern work. 

Mr. Batsford also issues a second edition of The 
Architecture of Greece and Rome ^ by J- W. Anderson 
and R. Phen^ Spiers (i8.r. net). Mr. Spiers has 
subjected the entire text to careful and thorough 
revision, and has made several important additions 
embodying the results of recent researches ; other 

new and useful features being a chronological list 
of the best known Greek temples, with dates, 
dimensions, and other details, and two specially 
prepared maps, indicating the position of the chief 
cities referred to in the text. The third edition, 
just issued by Mr. Batsford, of Art in Needlework 
(55. net), by Mr. Lewis F. Day and Miss Mary 
Buckle, contains a chapter on " White Work," now 
added for the first time. 

Who's Who for 1908, notwithstanding its 22,000 
biographies, covering more than 2,000 pages, is 
still quite convenient to handle. Indisputably 
the most comprehensive work of the kind now 
published, its usefulness is so generally recognised 
that insistence on this point is superfluous. Messrs. 
A. & C. Black are the publishers, and the net price 
is IOJ-. in cloth and 12^. 6^. in leather. 

T. C. & E. C. Jack have issued the eighth and 
last instalment of the publication containing the 
designs for The Palace of Peace at the Hague as 
submitted by the six prize-winners and others. 
The seventy six plates comprising the work include 
perspective views (in some cases in colour), and 
various elevations and plans as elaborated by the 
competing architects. The price of the complete 
work is four guineas. 

In The Photograms of the Year, 1907 (Dawbarn 
& W^ard, 2S. net), are reproduced some 200 pic- 
tures, of which about one-fourth are selected from 
the greater exhibitions recently held in London, the 
remainder representing pictorial work by leading 
photographers in many foreign countries and 
colonies, as well as at home. The principal 
critique is written by Mr. H. Snowdon Ward, and 
criticisms have also been contributed by M. Robert 
Demachy, Herr F. Mathies Masuren, Snr. Mendez 
Leon, and others. 

We learn that the publications of the Librairie 
de I'Artancien et moderne, Paris, have been trans- 
ferred to Messrs. Plon-Nourrit et Cie, of the Rue 
Garanciere. Amongst these are the volumes forming 
" Les Maitres de I'Art," a series of works, written 
by French authorities of high repute, dealing with 
the great masters of painting and sculpture from 
the days of antiquity down to comparatively modern 
times. In one of the latest volumes of the series M. 
Bayet, Directeur de I'Enseignement Superieur, con- 
tributes an able review of the art of Giotto, who was, 
as he tells us, pre-eminently a psychologist, in that he 
sought to analyse and express the emotions of the 
human soul. Appended are an excellent biblio- 
graphy and list of works by Giotto in various 
galleries. The price of each volume in this series 
is 3.50 /r. 


The Lay Figure 



"You painters are going to have the 
conceit taken out of you directly," said the Prac- 
tical Man : " I see that the recent discoveries in 
colour photography have made possible the exact 
reproduction of nature. No one will want to have 
pictures now." 

" Really ! Is that your idea ? " inquired the Man 
with the Red Tie. " You actually imagine that 
a mechanical process like photography can drive 
painting off the field entirely ! Are you serious ? " 

"Of course I am," replied the Practical Man. 
" Why should anyone continue to take the smallest 
interest in painted things which may or may not be 
like nature, when there is available a process which 
will give the facts of a subject, colour and all, with 
absolute accuracy ? Now that colour can be photo- 
graphed the last reason for the existence of the 
painter has disappeared. We have no longer any 
use for him, because this mechanical process that 
you sneer at can do his work cheaper and better 
than he can." 

" But painting is an art," objected the Man with 
the Red Tie, "and, therefore, it must always hold 
a higher position than any process like photo- 
graphy, no matter how skilfully this process may be 

"Not at all," laughed the Practical Man ; "you 
are so blinded by your prejudices that you cannot 
understand what the public wants. We common- 
sense people have only put up with paintings 
because we have hitherto had nothing better, 
because nothing else would give us the colour of 
the things we see. We recognised long ago how 
much better photography is for black-and-white 
illustrations than an artist's drawings, as you can 
see for yourself if you look at any of the illustrated 
papers ; and now we have the chance we shall soon 
come to the same conclusion with regard to colour 
work. In a few years' time there will be no 
painters left — they will have discovered that it is 
no use trying to compete with photography and 
will have abandoned their palettes if they have any 
sense at all." 

" Your prophecy might come true if all people 
thought as you do," broke in the Art Critic. " But 
you assume too much when you suggest that you, 
and you alone, know what the public wants. Your 
range of knowledge, my friend, is a little limited, 
and if you would take the trouble to learn a little 
more about this subject you would not talk such 
arrant nonsense." 


" Oh, indeed ! " sneered the Practical Man. " I 
know that all people with any business capacities 
and practical intelligence, all who are not dreamers 
and fanatics, would agree with me. You are 
behind the times, and are quite out of touch with 
modern ideas." 

" Then I thank Heaven that there still remains 
quite a large number of dreamers and fanatics," 
replied the Critic, " if the development of a prac- 
tical intelligence leads to such stupid convictions 
as you possess. Your friends, no doubt, want the 
same sort of stuff that pleases you because, like 
you, they are so satisfied to be ignorant that they 
refuse to learn even the rudiments of artistic know- 
ledge. Outside the narrow bounds of your business 
capacities you are an illiterate lot, and, as illiterate 
people always do, you substitute blatant assertion 
for argument." 

" What on earth has this got to do with colour 
photography, I should like to know ? " interrupted 
the Practical Man. 

" Keep quiet," laughed the Man with the Red 
Tie ; "you are hearing some useful truths." 

" It has everything to do with colour photo- 
graphy, as that is the subject you have chosen to 
talk nonsense about," continued the Critic. " You 
said that the process of photographing in colour is 
going to kill painting and extinguish artists. Now 
this is not even an original stupidity, for it is merely 
a repetition of what your predecessors in igno- 
rance said when photography was first invented. 
The photograph was certain to oust the por- 
trait painter — has it done anything of the sort ? 
Colour photography is going to destroy painting 
— it will not. What will happen to it is this. 
A few men, very few, of real artistic power will use 
it properly and will attain fine results with it, but 
the majority of the men into whose hands it will 
fall will produce the cheap art, literal art, common- 
place art, stupid art, that satisfies you and your 
dull-witted friends who find pleasure in silly snap- 
shots. It will be the joy of the raw amateur, 
and it will record coarsely the features of the 
seaside tripper. But, meanwhile, the painter's 
art will continue on its way unharmed by any 
mechanical competition and encouraged by every- 
one who has the intelligence to distinguish 
between true and false art and to appreciate noble, 
personal, human craftsmanship. That you will 
not be in this company of art lovers I can 
well believe ; your practical, illiterate mind 
cannot rise to such heights. But you need 
not advertise your folly now." 

The Lav Figure. 


t. NDING LIST JAN 1 5 1934 




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